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An liad l3ckeDc« boroe by Com-mexoe orer tb« World; vrhxlo Oiime, Error, and Vloloiic« 

tme bftfora them. 








Bt JOHN CRAIG, Esq., F.G.S., 


VOL. I. 











I FEEL it a high honour to be permitted to dedicate this 
Woi^ to joa, who, by your distinguished talenta as AuthoiS} and your unparalleled 
exertions as Publisheis, stand pre-eminent in promoting the intellectual and moral 
improvement of all classes of society, particularly of the Working Class, on whoso 
mental culture so much of our natioiud prosperity depends. In the arduous under- 
taking which I hare now completed, however imperfectly the task may be per- 
formed, I have had the same object in view as that to which your labours in the 
field of Literature and Science have been so long, so nobly, and so successfully 
directed. It is, therefore, with no small gratification that I am thus enabled to 
eobsciibe myself 


Your very obliged and humble Servant, 










I fBEL it a high honour to be pennitted to dedicate this 
W<A to jaa, who, by jouf diidinguiahed talents as Authors, and your unparalleled 
it ezertiona as Publishers, stand pre-eminent in promoting the intellectual and moral 
improrement of all classes of sodety, particularly of the Working Class, on whoso 
mental culture so much of our national prosperity depends. In the arduous under- 
taking which I hare now completed, however imperfectly the task may be per- 
formed, I have had the same object in view as that to which your labours in the 
field of literature and Science have been so long, so nobly, and so successfully 
directed. It is, therefore, with no small gratification that I am thus enabled to 
subscribe myself 


Your Tery obliged and humble Servant, 







the present wutury, a Dictionaiy, giving the pronunciation and etymology of words, 
with coaase definitions, was imperatively required. In the attempt to supply thia 
long acknowledged desideratum in our lexicographical literature, it ia to me a 
•ovoe of no small gratification that my labours have received the high commenda- 
tians of a most respectable portion of the British press, the patronage of her Itffr- 
jerty, and that of a most extensive and respectable circle of subscribers. 

It appears not a little surprising, that no Dictionary of the English Language, at 
ODce et)-inological, technical, and prououncing, had appeared previous to the pub- 
ficBtion of this work, with the exception of that of Dr. Webster; and much though 
that dtstingiushcd lexicographer has aclueved in respect to the terms connected 
vilh the nattLTol sciences, he has left much undone, and what he has performed is 
often hx from being satisfactory ; besides, his mode of indicating the pronunciation 
<if words wanta that ampUcity which is essential to usefulness, and the pronuncifr- 
tidn itself is frequenUy at variance with that current in the politer circles of British 
Mciei^. As a alight specimen of the want of simplicity in his method, the follow- 
ing words may soffice: — Salaried, precocious, propitiatory; pronounced thus — 
■ra-ri-«d, pre-co'cious, pro-pi'tia-to-re ; — words whicli, according to the plan I 
hare adopted, are thus expressed — sal'a-rid, pre-ko'shus, pro-pish'a-tur-e. Nor ar« 
the ftalta of the American Dictionary limited to the mode of noting the pronuncia- 
tion of words, or to its many innovations in spelling them. The Author contends, 
hr isstance, that the long sound of u, as heard in duke, muse, uniofij is not dififerent 
from that of u in ru^e^ hruie^ truth ; in which case, we must citlicr pronounce the 
farmer ^ook, mooze, oonipm^ or the latter, ryool^ bn/ootj t/yooth. But, faulty though 
Dr. Wehcter's Dictionary in thia respect may be, that work is much superior to any 
cf tiie kind in point of etymology ; and if, in as far as tlie derivation of ordinary 
lems is concerned, my Dictionary is considered as worthy of approbation, much of 
the merit is due to the elaborate researches of that distinguished philologist 


added to our scientifio vocabiilaries, in consequence of new discoveries or improved 
systems of classiiication ; the work will, therefore, be carefully revised, and new 
authorities consulted, and such terms, as soon as time will permit, be given in the 
form of an Appendix. 

Hie following passage from Dr. Johnson's Preface to his Dictionary is so descrip- 
tire of what I have experienced during the progress of my labours, and so eloquent 
in its diction, that I hope no courteous reader can object to its insertion in this 
place :— 

" Many terms appropriated to particular occupations, though necessary and sig- 
nificantf are undoubtedly omitted, and of the words most studiously considered and 
exempliBed, many senses have escaped observation. 

" Yet these foilures, however frequent, may admit of extenuation and apology. 
To have attempted much is always laudable, even where the enterprise is above the 
strength that undertakes it. To rest below his own aim is incident to every one 
whose fancy is active, and whose views arc comprehensive ; nor is any man satisfied 
with himself, because he has done much, but because he conceives but little. When 
first I engaged in this work, I resolved to leave neither words nor things unex- 
amined, and pleased myself with a prospect of the hours which I should revel away 
in feasts of Uterature — with the obscure recesses of northern leanung which I should 
enter and ransack — the treasures with which I expected every Eeurch into those 
neglected mines to reward my laboiu* — and the triumph with which I should dis- 
play my acquisitions to mardtind. When I had thus inquired into the origin of 
words, I resolved to show, likewise, my attention to things — to pierce deep into 
every science— to inquire into the nature of every substance of which I inserted the 
name — to limit every idea by a definition strictly logical — and to exhibit every pro- 
duction of art and nature in an accurate description — that my book might be in 
phice of all other dictionaries, whether appellative or technical. But these were 
the dreams of a poet, doomed at last to wake a lexicographer. I soon found that 
it was too late to look for instruments when the work called for execution ; and 
whatever abilities I had brought to the task, with these I must finally perform it 
To deliberate where I was ignorant, would have protracted the xmdertaking with- 
out end, and, perhaps, without much improvement ; for I did not find, by my first 
experiment, that what I had not of my own was easily obtained. I saw that one 
inquiry only gave occasion to another ; that both referred to books ; that to search 
was not always to find, and to find was not always to be informed ; and that to pur- 
me perfection was, like the first inhabitants of Arcadia, to chase the stm, which, 
when they had reached the hill where he seemed to rest, was still at the same dia- 
tanoe from them.** 

Dr. Johnson's work must ever be regarded as an astonishing effort of learning, 
industry, and talent ; but from the great accession of words to our hiDguage diuing 



Pew who Imre not considered the philosopliical construction of langtiage are 
aware of the vnrious and complex nature of the machinery necessary to elnddate our 
thoughts and convey our ideas to each other. By the educated, the constituticm 
of words and sentences is conmdered as aprelinunary inatter, requisite on]y for the 
mndiig of the ignorant, and abuost altogether unworthy of the fur-searcliiug and 
cmito Mhohtr. By the uneducated, the study of words is also looked upon simply 
■i tfce cBrAwork on which a line is to be laid for the transmission of intcUigenoe, 
•cmeiiBM perhaps with lightning luminenoe it is true, but generally in the slow 
MdoiflTf mode of colloquial intercourse, or of scholastic or academic instruction. 
If a thought pass across the mind, on the convenience or indispensability of 
thtt earthwork, it ia too oflen obliterated by the pushing onsluught of the next 
auwjf<HKng set of impressions, and the mean position of words as the hase. of know- 
ledge mpphes a ready reason for omitting the consideration of them aJtogellier. And 
yet, in their isolated and unconnected poaidon, what a host of thoughts will not 
words eoDJure np— what boundless pictiu^s of nature— what imlimited fields of 
cnnoep Cw n — ^what vast imaginings of the past, the present, and the future, in all the 
aig^lj imagery of their experience and consequences, will not words force upon the 
( and theDt when once connected, what endless trains of tliought and argu- 
do ih<7 not carry on— what piinciples will they not elucidate — what pruden- 
tial oonsidt'rations will tliey not evolve — wliat energy will they not express and 
indtscc; and, finutly, wliat results will they not achieve in the great world of mental 
t^ahamUon, and in that of practical exertion, for the benefit of mankind 1 Who 
doci soc ieel tlmt by the felicitous selection of words a master-mind is exhibited 7 
^rtw decs not know that, by this fordble application of his ideas to the hearts of an 
tii BtP CO , the efforts of an orator become powerlul to enlighten the understandings 
■id to constrain the wills of his fellow-men ? 


Words, tJicrcfore, ns the foundation of Innjriuigc, are tlie instniinf^nts of nil 
mental and moral power, and, n{inrt from their [i(»>ition in nn organi^d treatise, 
are fraught lioth with iuterest and instruction of the highest order, possess a power, 
eminent as it is peculiar and importaut, in the operations of the world ; ami the dty 
details, iis ihcy wore doeined hj nmnj', vf such men as Person, South, GanganelB, 
Ranibouillpt, Ilonk, Johnson, Webster, Hcyne, and a host of others, have been 
powerful Imyund expression in settling the notions of mankind, and facilitating that 
cominiintcAtion of ideas which, in this day of earnest pressure and railroad speed, 
Is nfcessary to enable any man engaged in a higli position, and m the discharge of 
grc*at duties — be they literary, political, commercial, or sociiJ — to obtain the 
intelligent assistance and co-operatioD through whidi alono weighty and lofty 
respon-iibiliiies cam be ^sdiarged. He is always considered the best man of busi- 
ness ^bu can dearly convey the must mcianing in the fewest words. Words dis- 
joined, then, hnve their power, and liappily onr own language affords one of the 
most evident instances that could be adduced nC it ; for no one eon turn over the 
pogos of our most classical works whhcnit being struck with the power of their words, 
without any refurence to the arguments or propusitiuua in which they are otm- 
taincd, and wliich they are ui^ed to enforcu. Were it further uecessar)' to show 
this property, wc need only put forward the words nnpresscd on any well-executed 
map, or, perhaps more significantly, the list of terms contained m the subsequent 
pages of this Dictionary, to establish the principle here propounded. 

Yet, whilst tlius fully a^stfrting that each word has its particular power, and that 
no word, except the piulicles, can be heard or seen without conjuring Dp the thing 
or the idea wliich it represents, we do not forget lliat it b onJy by the relation in 
which we find them placed — it is only by the inteimixture of the particles among 
words which represent ideris cr things, so as to show the action or iniluonce of one 
of them upon the otlicr— that we can get the representation of any course of mental 
operation, howevcar biief; that representation, whether accomplished by written 
or spoken wonLs, constitutes what we i-all latujutuji\ Words, ^oparntely, do biing 
up ideas and things for the observation of the nivnlal faculty — and sweet, and 
powerfid, and terrible, and wonderful, are the assiiciatiims which ofttimes a single 
word will raise — but still that word u not what we term hn\/uage^ until it shall liave 
boen put in juxtaposition with ulhew ; mid it is according tu tl>e, power or the 
elegance of the priui-ipal words selectwl to express the things sjioken of, and the 
perspicuity with which tltc particles are arranged, to show the connection in which 
they stand niwards each other, tliat we estimate the beauty, the power, and the 
value of llie lanj?uage used by any writer to devdop his roiisonings, exhibit his 
demonstrations, or depict his facts. If wc examine those compositions which the 



woritl ItM agnvd to value as above all price, aiid which seam likc-ly to as long 
as tW Uagu&ge ia which thej* are written muy be knowiif we sliall fiiid thut they 
mfc Bol le« £5tinguL«hed for tlie rigid seventy of applicAUon through which the 
tarnu employed have been cTtusen, and fur tlie consummate skilt with which t}ie 
panicle* Jiat* been arnuiged to effect a full and powerful impression on the reader, 
tlua f* ihe nubility, the lolUtifss, the vigour or beauty of the ideas — property 
•oMy of lK« geuitu tluU cooceived thum — which the language read was mteuded 
to oourey. 

To conceive clearly, is undoubtedly the first thing necessary to the proper use of 
itordu, and therefore to the proper construction of language, for without cleorucss 
«if eoneeptioa, there can be no perspicuity or force of expressuon, But even with 
tlus£icnlty iu strong and healthy exercise, every one largely engage<l in the busl- 
5Cni of the wurld, or frequently occupied in litcraiy pursuits, and especially those 
iatimaf^ with •eTeral languages, will constantly entertain ideas which he will 6nd 
k difllrnk if not impossible to express in his own particular dialeot, and he wiM 
Late to apply to some other tongue to get the precise word necessary to express 
Uiat mrsuiing perfectly which he wishes to convey. Such a word becomes om- 
iMiiGed in his sentence. His plan is followed by one, by a hundred^ by a thousand 
Qthn& These words are disused through the length and breadth of the land. 
ability of the term is admitted and appreciated by the learned, the well- 
.... ., and h«tly, by the grcAt body of the people ; it is slightly assimilated to the 
ttjoi'jii*^- of tlie language into wliich it is adopted, and, in the course of a genoni- 
tioa or so, becomes as completely nationalized as any other term which that lan- 
■ 1. The process is repeated with a rapidity in proportion to the 

i. ^ -i. .....y of the pcopUi by whom it is used, and it is remarkable how 

^p«atly the constitution of national mind often affects the mode in which the 
principle a evolved. In some languages you may observe the iufluenee of com- 
b«Bnl na.lif»nal and political prejudice; in othera, the iulluence of a combined 
luiimwl and intellectual prejudice ; and in others, agun, only the restriction of 
natj/inal prrjudice alone, and the hindcrance of an inartificial mode of adapting the 
tttm of other cotmtrics to tlie characteristics of the language in which, and the 
gtsuiu of the people by wliom, ibey are to be employed. 

A9 ail example of the effect of tlie tij'st of tliese poMtioos it may be cited, that 
fim Trmch language, though diuing the lust century it has received many additions, 
has been modified leas in its peculiar characteristic tliau has the tongue of any m^igfa* 
aadon. During nwirly the whole of that period, Franco has l>cen placet! in 
Ifiiatie position to the rest of Kurupei and her institutions have perhaps been 



less modified, with reference to their intrinsic peculiarities, than those of any other 
couulry. Kepuhlicou, imperial, monarchical, or republican again, her men and 
her inscitutioos have been intrinsically tike Hune. l*here ia nothing so abhorrent tu 
the pride or the vanity of Frenchmen as the interference of neighbouring countries 
with their political or municipal establishments; and tlicy hikro consequently 
adopted no systems of social usage which hare not been forced upon them, and 
have incorporated few, if any, words in their language which are not traceable to 
the classical model of eleguuce wlilch they have set up fur themselves. Even the 
Tery terms wliich have been employed to deeignato the most modem iaveutiona 
arc founded upon this base. Tlie number of German traveUers in France is 
compoi'otively gieat, but an idiom on a German derivation of late acquirement 
is rare even in the provinces which border on the Bhine ; and such as have been 
■dopted have been so mystified as to render a discovery of their ori^, a few yean 
hence, a matter of extreme diificulty, Tlie travellers &om England there during 
the lust thirty years have been numerous in the extreme, wliile the Anglican 
dwellers in the coimtiy have been numbered by hundreds of thousands, so that 
the whole land has been permeated by Individuals of position, and occupying sta- 
tions which were calcxilated to diffuse the appropriate epithets of the Anglo-Saxon 
language ; and yet few traces, if any whatever, of the residence and occupancy of 
these parties can be discovered in tlie social usage or the vernacular or Uterary 
exprBssions of the people. The increase, in wliat oic termed the polite circles, has 
been all ii'om the classical tyj^e. 

The vast body of the Gonnan people occupy so extensive an area, and are bound 
together by such a coounuuity of custom, and have inherited traditions mibroken 
through such a series of ages, that we might well expect such a oonsolidutiou of 
national character as would render it impervious, to any very great extent, to the 
irruption either of manner or expression from out^vard sources. Debarred, so 
miUeriully by their inland position, from an intercourse with the other parts of 
the world, the inhabitants of Central Europe have exhibited for centuries a phase 
of manner so unchangeable, as to render them almost worthy of the praise ascribed 
to the wandering denizen of the desert, who witnesses iu his tent and the encamp- 
ment around him almost tlic some customs, and the some appeiirances, as those 
which were evident among tlie followers of Ishmacl and Esao. But iff since the emer- 
gence of the Free Cities from their state of feudal dependence on the holf-barluirous 
baruns who ruled with a rod of iron the vast districts which stretch from the 
Dneiper to the Ulune, and from tlie Baltic to the Alps, the inhabitants of Germany 
have retained the picturesque externals which mark their dwellings, their cathe- 
drals, and their castles, as well as their idiom and their habits, they have made a 




VQOiderfal advance in Uieir inteUectuol stittis ; and, during the lust hulT century at 
there lus been no language in the world except our own which has rectnved 
lo nch an addition to ita nomenclatui^ But the additions have been ahnost 
Ij characterUtic; and hi the extc-usion of their expressions might be read »o 
ly « Genuaa operation as to give the means, without reference to any other 
iioaroe whatever, of ^vritiug the social as well as the intellectual history of Father- 
throughout its numerous tribes. The peculiar predilection for abstract specu- 
ilfetioa which was nurtured, as in the cose of ancient Greece, by tlie wild mountain 
aeracfy and the extensive tracts of waste forest land, led naturally, as it always 
do where the perceptive faculties ore active, to the peopling uf all the shades, 
iSbe (iell% and far secluded retreats, with beings of an imogiitary order : and thence, 
by a natnrul transition, soon an the mind becomes disabused of its ignorance, to a 
ngfat disbelief of tlie existence of such beings; yet., at the some time, also, to an 
cxerdse of those portions of the mental organization by wliich they had 
cngcculeied. Tlience the taste for metaphysical speculation which has JiUed 
wilh abstractions;, and ahnost doubled lier language through the addition 
^■f oarapoonded words and the invention of terms, the business of whicli is to express 
'the twofold nature of those ideas wliidi have reference butli to body and mind, but 
chiefly lo the Utter. Yet, in all these additions, and in all tlie modifications of the 
terms upon which these changes have been effected, there has almost in- 
ly been a rccoguition of the original root, a constant adoption of the Tcutotnc 
; or if theje has Xn^n any deviation at all, it has only bi,'en by the infusion of 
zuc aiCceQi or verbal transformation, with a view to give greater force to the 
cxpnanoo, and greater simplicity to the meaning of a word, Othcrvrise, the new 
irord a as German as tlie old one wliieh it duplicates, and the additions to 
language, with a few insignilicant exceptions, are derived from the 
Of the additions which have been incorporated into the English language it may 
be ODOeceasary to ^peak, as in the lutler port of this introduction it will be 
to invefltigate fully tlie necessity by wltich they wero prompted, and the 
le whioli has been employed in adapting them to our general usage. It may 
«kly mffioe here to observe, that, from the possession of freer political institutions, 
A more frecitient intercourse wilh other parts of the world, as the national preju- 
b€CD Icsa and the opportunities gieater, so the language has been enriched 
frcini a greater variety of sources; but still a similar radical boids lias been observed 
in the adoption of the terms, and the distinctive features of the lunguugc ])re!9erved| 
that there is some peculiar prindple involved in every limguuge, which it 
r<ftay he well worth while to trnce^ in order to render the pagoj of this Dictionary 


more interesting, if not more useful, for it will: ^ve the key to very much that will 
be found in their contents. 

Whatever may have been the original language of mankind, it is but reasonable 
to suppose that it was based on something generally analogous and adapted to the 
constitution of ^uman nature. Now the only supposition that squares with such 
analogy is, that the names of all the several substances in the world should be 
formed upon the way in which they strike or aifect the bodily senses. Helvetius, 
the assumed name of one of those acute writers, who combined, before what we are 
now accustomed to term the first French Revolution, to direct the minds of a large 
portion of the best informed and most refined people among the several nations of 
Europe, assxuned the theoiy that all men are bom with an equal share of intellectual 
endowments, and that their difference of development is owing entirely to the variety 
of positions in which they are providentially placed, and to the coiu-se of education 
which they consequently tmdergo. In this he certainly Imd open a great principle, 
although he iailed in establishing that for which he contended, for he committed 
the oversight of taking into account the various corporeal energies with which 
human beings come into the world; and as the mind as well as the body is a con- 
stituted portion of human nature, It is natural to believe that the innate strength to 
appreciate, to reason, and to judge, must also be various in different individuals. 

Locke, by a coiirse of argument which has been rarely assailed, and which has 
never been overturned, has proved that there can be nothing like innate ideas ; for 
though he allows that the somnolent infant may possess the instincts neces- 
sary for it to act in accordance with its natural protectors for the preservation 0£ 
life, it displays no knowledge which is not derived from the impression made upon 
the mind through the inlet of the outward senses. If man, therefore, in the infan- 
tile state of the w^orld, possessed any actpiirement, it must, unless divinely bestowed, 
have been attained from his obser\'ation of the objects around him. That which 
was dazzling to the eyes he would naturally term bright : that which was dark, 
obscure, and difficult to perceive, he would find slow in its effect upon the optic 
nerves, and he would term it dismal or dull : that which was impenetrable and 
resisted the touch, he would find difficult to penetrate, and he would therefore 
term it hard : that which was on the contrary yielding to his touch, he would term 
soft. The blue sky above his head, and the green clothing of the earth beneath his 
feet, would give the nuckus of all the colourings of the objects of nature : the har- 
monious wai-bliiigs of the birds, as they stmg their matin songs of praise to the 
Great Creator of all things who brought them into existence, woidd awaken his 
sense of melody, and lay that foundation for the knowledge of sweet sounds, which 



ful Advance in tbelr intellectual status ; aitd, diu'ing the lust half century at 

K*"^ tben has been no language in the world except our own which has received 
beh an additioa to it* nomenclatiu«. But the additions have been almost 
[oLair dumcteiisUc; and iu the exteusigu of tlielr expres!<iuiifi might be read so 
ety a Gexman opemlion as to givo the meaiui, without rufcrence to any other 
Kioree vrhatcirer, of writing the social as well as the intcUectujil history of Father- 
tud throughout it« numerous tribes. The peculiar predilection for abstract spccu- 

!i luioo which was nurtured, as in the cose of ancient Greece^ by the wild mountain 


, toejerf and the extensive tracts of waste forest land, led naturally, as it always 

viUdo wluTC the perceptive faculties arc active, to tlie peopling uf all tlic shades, 
delU, and (ax secluded retreats, with beings of an imnginary order : and thence, 
iral trunsition, soon as the mind becomes disabused of its ignorance, to a 
'ftbebef of the existence uf such beings; yet, at the same time, also, to an 
ivi exercise of those portions of the mental orgunizution by wliich they had 
oigendered. Hienoe the taste for metaphysical speculation which has filled 
ij with abstractions, and almost doubled her language through the addition 
rcGsnpoiuided words and the invention of terms, the busiiiosa of which is to express 
tmtibld nature of those ideas which have reference both to body and mind, but 
(0 the latter. Yet, in all these additions, and in all the modiiicutions of the 
turms upon which thcfio clianges have l^ocn effected, there has almost in- 
ly been a recognition of the original root, a constant adoption of the Teutonic 
.; oiT if there has been any deviation at all, it has only been by tlie infusion of 
Uargoic accent or Terbol tninsfurmatlon, with a view to give greater force to the 
and greater simplicity to the meaning of a word. Otlierwice, the new 
word is as German as the old one which it duplicates, and tl^ic additions to 
^Wh*^ Uu^^ge^ with a few insigniiicant exceptions, are derived from the 

Of the addiuons which hare been incorporated into the English language it may 

b« asui«c«8»aiy to speak, aa in the latter part of this iutroduciion it will be 

h> inrestigate fully the necessity by which they were prompted, and the 

which has been employed in adapting them to our general usage. It may 

«iy sqfiice ha-e to obse^^'e, that, from the ptissession of freer political institutions, 

nd a more froqucnt intercourse with other pans of the world, as the national preju- 

&clMbeen k«a and the opportunities grtuiter, so the language has been enriched 

a grmter vaii^ty of sources ; but still a sunilar radical ba^is has been observed 

I^M adioptioa of the terms, and the distinctive features of the language preserved, 

that there is some peculiar principle involved in eveiy huijniagp, which it 

be w«ll worth while to trace, in order to render the pages of tias Dictionary 


more interesting, if not more useful, for it will' give the key to very much that wi] 
be foimd ia their contents. 

"Whatever may have been the original language of mankind, it is hut reasonabl< 
to suppose that it was based on something generally analogous and adapted to thi 
constitution of human nature. Now the only supposition that squares with sud 
analogy is, that the names of all the several substances in the world should ht 
formed upon the way in which they strike or affect the bodUy senses. Helvetina 
the assumed name of one of those acute writers, who combined, before what we an 
now accustomed to term the first French Revolution, to direct the minds of a laigi 
portion of the best informed and most refined people among the several nations o 
Europe, assumed the theory that all men are bom with an equal share of inteilectua 
endowments, and that their difference of development is owing entirely to the variet 
of podtions in which they are providentially placed, and to the course of educada 
which they consequently undergo. In tliis he certiunly laid open a great prindplc 
although he failed in establishing that for which he contended, for he committe 
the oversight of taking into accoimt the various corporeal energies with whid 
human beings come into the world ; and as the mind as well as the body is a con 
stituted portion of human nature, it is natural to beUeve that the innate strength! 
appreciate, to reason, and to judge, must also be various in different individuals. 

Locke, by a course of argiunent wliich has been rarely assailed, and which hi 
never been overturned, has proved that there can be nothing hke innate ideas ; k 
though he allows that the somnolent infant may possess the instincts neces 
sary for it to act in accordance with its natural protectors for the prwervation * 
life, it displays no knowledge which is not derived from the impression made upc 
the mind through the inlet of the outward senses. If man, therefore, in the in&i 
tile state of the world, possessed any acquirement, it must, unless divinely bestowe 
have been attained from his obser^-ation of the objects around him. That whit 
was dazzling to the eyes he would naturally term bright : that which was cbd 
obscure, and difficult to perceive, he would find slow in its effect upon the opt 
nerves, and he would term it dismal or dull : that which was impenetrable ai 
resisted the touch, he would find difficult to penetrate, and he would therefei 
term it hard : that which was on the contrary yii'Uling to his touch, he woidd ten 
soft. Tlie blue sky above his head, and the green clothing of the earth beneath!) 
feet, would give the nu(!l('us of all the colourings of the objects of nature : the ha 
monious wai-blings of the birds, as they sung their matin songs of praise to d 
Great Creator of all things who brought them into existence, would awakoo 
sense of melody, and lay that foundation for the knowledge of sweet sounds, 



'it<5— And Hebrew, moreover, possesses all the qiuilificjitioiis necessui^ to con- 
it in an eminent degree as the primal lungvuipe. It is full, forcdble, and com- 
rc, vet simple in its structure — contains all the words especially necessary 
to oanvyy spiritual and imxnuttoitd ideas — wlule every object of the visible cTPAtion 
ha 1 tenn to express it, peculiarly significant of the object to which it is applied ; 
md h mflv safely bo said that, even at the present day, with all the artificial appli- 
of elaborate construction, there is no language on the face of the earth supe- 
10 it, if there be any equal in the uic^ty, delicacy, yet force and fervour, with 
Hebrtiw words can express those ideas which, from tlieir tenuous nature, it 
moBt diilicolt to impart with clearness and effect to the conception of a hearer. 
adduoe no other example, we may cite the word which has been so admirably 
tnmlflted in our authorized version of the Scriptures, in the interview \rith which 
honoured by Jehovah, na the "5hV/ small rorW" in which the Deity made 
tf evident to the senses of the Prophet. 
Tartlier, it would be natural to expect that, although the language of the vast 
ity, engaged in the building of thf great tower which was to reach unto 
confotmded, so that there could be no readiness of communicatiun 
Waaag them, yet, in accordanwj with those behests by which mercy has hfcii im- 
on all the judgments of Providunce, there was some basis on which the 
dialects would be grounded ; and so we may perceive how the roots which 
the substructure of the Hebrew longtiage are perceptible throughout all the 
"itau^ f^ngues. The rules of natural analogy woidd continue to be held in all : 
tiie ut of man, so fiir as it could compass, would still make the soimds which were 
ntoiM to «:&press the several objects of observation or feeling as they affect the 
men, aa fiur as they coidd be ^lill used. Though imperfect in tliemselves, in pro- 
(QtioQ to the intellectual aculeuesB of the several tribe* by whom they were em- 
p^vd, diose sounds would still bear a strong resemblance to the cxamplar set in the 
yp0 from which they were formed; and hence we see .a reason for that stamp 
ifwgaiitZBtion which is discovered in all the Asiatic and Arabian languages. 
Ry the flouthem shores of tlic Mediterranean, on its western boundary, even at 
JKrvnt day^-on the districts whidi stretch up to the Caspian Sea — and in liie 
poplf which have uverflowed and spread over from the north-eastern boundary of 
" Lebanon range of mountsins — the same featurei* are plainly discernible ; and it 
• OfK until the inquirer extends his investigations into the remoter districts of 
(flural JlKJa, that he finds anything like a new principle to pi>rvade the language of 
people. Throughout Greece, Tlirace, Ulyria, and Dacia, the evidences of a com- 
of the words of the people become more and more strong as the ver- 
la approached. Tlicre, as in our own country, the common people are, as 


thifl first language was has long been matter of dispute, and manj a laboured work 
of the philologists has been written to show the claims of the several tribes of the 
earth to the possession of this treasure. Of one thing, however, there can be no 
doubt, that to the east we must look for » true solution of the difficulty. In the 
east mankind were first planted ; from the east they wandered to people the earth ; 
in the east mankind first attained to all the relations of social life ; and from the 
east the arts and sdences have all unquestionably emanate^. If we refer to that 
best of all authenticated documents, the Sacred Records, we find that previous to 
the Flood there was but one language on the face of the whole earth. Clustered 
about the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Jordan, and the Red Sea, the fiunily of man 
grew and prospered. The life there was no simple state of patriarchal existence, in 
which pastoral pursuits were alone followed. There the arts were cultivated be- 
yond general supposition, and the basis of all those which now minister to the com- 
fort of mankind was so fully earned out, that none necessary to the well-being cC 
our state were, in their primary condition at least, wanting. To the east, therefore^ 
we must look for the first development of language. 

After the Flood, we read that " the whole earth was of one language and of one 
speech," and that, as the family and dependents of Noah began to multiply, they gra- 
dually spread from the acclivities of Ararat uijtU tJxey covered the plains of Shinar; 
and at length, holden with pride, through the plenty which for a series of years 
they had enjoyed, they consummated their presumption by attempting to scale 
heaven itsel£ Then came the signal judgment of the Great Being, whose power 
they had contemned and whose munificence they had insolently disregarded ; and 
the miracle was wroTight which, as long as the world shall last, will stand as a con- 
tinual evidence of the power and tlie presence of the Almighty. Their language 
was confounded so that they could not understand one another. They all spake 
with diverse tongues. They were mingled in one great throng, amazed and con- 
founded ; but as the mighty confusion began to subside — as, after much searching, 
harass, and perplexity, those drew towards each other, who found that they could 
apprehend each other^s meaning — tribes and communities would collect, tmtil all 
those who used the same terms for the same things were assembled together, and 
departed to some place where they might live together, without the interruption 
of those who spoke a language difierent from their own. 

The immediate descendants of Shem continued to dwell in the land of Shinar, 
and therefore it is reasonable to conclude that they retained the language which 
was originally spoken in that district ; and the more so, as Abraham, the founder of 
the Jewish nation, was the direct descendant firom Adam — Abraham, like Adam, 
conversed with Divinity — the words of inspiration were written in the language of the 




•n* tJiftinguishedL But it would require the existence of written records to render 
ihwe always permanent, ond to prevent tiiftt lapsing into a common mode of ex- 
pnMSOO, which, from & oommnnity of intercourse, would otherwise ensue. Tlicoe 
minca records have, however, consolidated the change which a proWdential di«- 
had so' remarkably begxuu 

As in the case of uttered language, so with re.spect to tliat which was wrilten, 
fDudi diTcrsity of opinion has existed respecting its origin. Tlie general impression 
k, iliac Oua kind of communication arose out of the expression of things hy symbols 
<fflokeD0 which most represented the objects for which they were intended to 
rtasd; and numy very plausible reasons have been alleged for.thu correctness of 
shiar M-pothests by the advocates of this theory. It was a natural uio<1c of bcgia- 
mng. It was calculated mo8t readily to strike the iniaginutions and recollections 
of tboM for whose instruction or information it wiu intended. It wns most easy for 
the uiiiuitiat4!d. There wasa comparative plainness and intelligibility' about it. Hie 
lymbols through which it acted were patent to the senses of alL But tliere was one 
gnnd diificulty about it ; for, though it might represent mitural objects, it could 
ooK conrey anything of intellectual ideas. Concerning the former there could be 
' DO doubt, lor all would understand that the 6gure of a bird was intended to repr^ 
•ml a bird; but very few, evco if any two, would agree wW the intellectual idea 
warn which a bird was intended to denote. Hie written language of s^iubols, there- 
Ion', alihuiigh plain enough lo those wlio u]\der<tood it, would, in each individusi 
cuK, require an interpreter to those w*ho were imactpuintcd with the mental or 
iMtapby^cal qualities of objects drawn n^'kon the tablets ; and the conclusion at 
which we ere ihereRtre onipi-lled tu arri-.e is, that tliis symbolical hmguage wasa 
BiTStery concocted for the benefit of a privileged class, in which none could jwutici- 
petft without in awne way belonging lo the order from which it emanaUrd; espi'ci;illy 
as tbc plan is not at all in accordance with the principle which we iind to hold 
irmly in the natural world. The behests of Providence here have always beeti 
ftu- Uie advantage of a ommon community. Th« light fcprings and the sun 
daily for the benefit of nil mankind, "llie rain full!i aUkc on the just and 
che imjtut ;•* and it is not iheri*fore to be mpposcd, tliat tlte great means of mini»- 
f-ltfing to the knowledge and the? happiness of the world at large, was to bo confined 
ly to e small class of tlie '^I'eat human family. Sonic means must, therefupc, 
been devised for comuumicating tlieir ideas from one Co another, other than 
thttS which would conduce to the welfare or superiority of only a small portion of the 
jslMbilants of the world. We are therefore constrained to come to the aiisumption, 
tbst there wu a means which, while it was si/nple in itself, would be easily avail- 

they always will be, the grand deposititrj* of oldyn superstitioQ and of olden thought. 
If a student won; seriou-sly to set liimseir to work to look into th« idioms and the 
consiniclion of the simple terms iu*etl by tlie uneducated pensantry of the secluded 
districts ofhis native land, he woxdd find that he both comprehended and was com- 
prehended just in accordance with the nde that he observed, of only ming the terra* 
which he ftmnd most frequent in his Anj^dn-Saxon dielionary. To the polite car* 
of a mctrojjolitun resident, or to the apprelicuMon of the denizen of the two great 
oonfi?rvatoTiti3 of English learning, the nide, and too often uncouth, expressions 
the unlettered peasant of Somersetshire, Cumberland, Yorkshire, or Devonsln 
would, without tliia key, be perfectly unintelligible ; with it, lliere is discoverud a 
stngulor njititude iu the phraseology to the necessities and eircunutances of rural 
life ; and nowhere will there be fuuitd a more ibrcible delineation of the ieelinj 
■which they have to exhibit, or the objects with which they have to deal, than that 
which wo find commonly current in the language of the almost barbarous inhabi- 
tants of the isolated districts of Britain. Their dialects nevertheless are all various. 

Just so was it among the dLtperscd aiM wandering people of Asia ^Unor. Tliey 
retained the same force of expression, the same conformation of the tciins whidi 
they used ; but still they were separated, broken up into massosj each retaining the 
particular mode in which lliey suited their sountU to the peculiar positions in which, 
they were placed; and each, as time advanced, becoming more and more ada| 
to those |>oflitions, and disagreeing more and more from each other, until at last the 
eeverally became settled iu their peculiar huiguages — all, however, still retaining tbt 
original groundwork on which their utterance was based. 

There was, it is true, an alteration, a change wrought in the dialects of those till 
-which made their progress, and ultimately obtained their settlements, both in 
extreme north and south of the early bounds of habitancy and civilization. Iu th^ 
former, the tinge of the scenery by which they were surrounded communicated 
inflections to the words wliich they pronounced. So with the latter, tl^ougb in 
milder form, the same cause prevailed. In the former, the rigour of the seasoi 
the presence of snow, the impetuosity of the torrents, the ruggedness of the rool 
the violence of the storms, would infuse a hardness and roughness into the woi 
which were necessary to describe their sevend positions, tnrcumstances, .sufferingf^ 
and the in-door enjoyments wliich solaced them for tlieir fatigue, and rendered them 
fit to encrnintor new dangers and h.ordshiiw on the morrow. Among the latter, the 
lUiuiy skies, the deep blue of tlie ethereal azure, the wide outspread of the illimit- 
able suuds, the occasiomd rucks which threw Uie re freshing -shade under which they 
rested, the heat of the climate, the oases noyr and then met with, the quietude of their 
rests, wotdd communicate that soltened inlicction by wltich all soutlicm ton| 



diirtingnifthcd. Bm it ^^ould require the existence of \\Titten records to render 
always permanent, and to prevent tlmt lapsing into a common mode of ex- 
pttaon, which, from a commonity of intercourse, -would otherwise ensue. These 
reoorcU h&re, Uowever, consolidated the change which a pro\'idential dis- 
had so remarkably begun. 

Ja m the case of uttered longua^, so with respect to that which was written, 

dircrnty of opinion has estisted respecting its origin. The genend impresaon 

kind of communication arose out of the expression of things by symbols 

cU mwt represented the objecta for which they wore intended to 

; ttod; and many very pluui^ible reasons have been alleged for. tlie correctness of 

likdr hrpotbesb by the advocates of this tlieory. It was a nattual mode of begin- 

KD^ It vnA calculated most readily to strike tlie imaginations and recollections 

«f i)ks« for whose instruction or information it was intended. It was most easy for 

I ik luuBitiated. Tlicre was a comparative plainness and intelligibility about it. Tho 

' irmbols through which it acted wore patent to the senses of aJL But there was one 

Igmd difficulty about it ; for, though it might represent natural objects, it could 
iot ooarey anything of intellectual ideas. Concerning the former tliere coidd be 
to doubt, for all would understand that the figure of a bird was intended to rcpre- 
•n i bird ; but very lew, even if any two, would agree what the intellectual idea 
^1 which a bird was intended to donoic- Tlie written lingungi' of «y»^hols, there- 
for dthongh phiin enough to those who understood it, would, in ejich individual 
tte^ iei|mt« au interpreter to tliose who were tmacqiuuntcd with the mental or 
ttrtjjiltysical qualities of objects drawn u;ion the tablets ; and the conclusion at 
vimh we are ihfrofiire cumpclled to arrive is, that this symbolical lungunge wnau 
m«cfy concocted for llie U-nifit of a privileged chiss, in which none coukl partici- 
ftit wlthmxt to some wny belonging to the order fix)m which it emanated ; especially 
tint phm is not at all in accordnnce wiOi the principle which Vfe. find to hold 
ly in the natural world. Tlie behests of Providence lierc have always been 
for llie advantage of a cimmon cnmmunity. The liglit springs and the sim 
daily for the benefit of all mankind. "Tl^e rain fulls alike on the just and 
to tbc unjust ;* and it is not therefore to be nippusod, that the gi-eat means of minis- 
iBBg^ to the knowledge »ud tin- happiness of the wurUl at large, was to be confined 
■ndy to ft small class of tlie ';reiit hiunan fiimily. Some means must, therefore, 
hBtvbcen deirised for communicating tlielr ideas from ooe to another, other than J 
(ha which wrmld conduce to the welfare or supexionty of only a small portion of tho t| 
of the world- AVe arc therefore constrained to con»e to the a&siimption, jj 
ikne VM a means which, wliile it was simple in itself, would be easily avails- < 






able by oU mankind. Such a means waj eridently presented in the system of afpha- 
befic writlug, whidi, thougli in appearance not immediately adapted to further 
diriMJtly the o1>ject for which it was designed, possesses a comprehensiveneM of 
nature which rendered it fitted for alt occiLsions^ circumxtanceH, and languages. If 
properly considered, it does in truth appear perhaps more difficult of apprehension 
at first, but more easy to imdcrstand at last — n»ore difficult for tlie first learners, 
but more &esh to the larger class wliich was to follow them, llio art uf s^inboUcal 
writing showed at once to those who understood it what was intended, but it5 mean- 
ing remained a secret to those who were unaci^uainted with the intentions of the 
original writers ; while, on tlie contrary, alpha1>etic characters having been onoe 
settled on a decided basis, their ralue and import could easily be conve)'ed to a district 
or a nation. The mutter written would then be easy of interpretutiou by all, and the 
difficulty would not rest in the apprehension of the simple ideas imparted by the 
symbols, which might moan a plain intimation of a fact, or impart a figurative mean- 
ing quite unattainable by those who were ignorant of the facts and circumstances 
out of which tlic figurative meaning arose, but would depend merely upon the 
abstruseness of the ideas which the written words were intended to convey. 

Such a plan is in perfect accordance ^vith the general course of ProWdoncc ; and 
the presumption tlmt it was the one adopted, is justified by the few but manifest 
declarations of Holy Writ. It might well be supposed tlmt from the long lives of 
the heads of the first families of mankind, and from the traditions that would, by 
tlieir agency, be vaaily handed down tlirough the successive generatiuniif that Mnylhing 
like a written language was unnecesiaiy ; but to that it may easily be answered, thsif 
however much such traditions might be carried for^vard in the immediate liouse* 
holds of the patriarchs, the necessity would still exist for cummunicatiiig informa- 
tion to tliose cttUateral connections who branclied off to original settlement?, nud 
who tlicmselves become the founders of new families, irom whom and to whom com* 
munications would have to be continually sent ; and to support such a suppositiodi, 
we fiud, in the earlier chapters of Genesis, that the antediluvians were acquainted 
with music, and with sevend other of the arts and sciences. Now, tlujugh music 
may be oonvejed to a rery great extent by tradition, as it has been through the 
scalds in Germany and the minstrels of andent Britain, and afterwards by the pn^ 
fesaed trouTmdours and other wandering songsters of the middle ages, yet it could 
never be so well done as by the words which most resembled the sounds of the noioi^ 
and by the signs or notes which afterwards became the symbols of those wordk 
Nor is it irratiomd to suppose tlmt the arts of life had attained to considerable per- 
fection before ll»e Flood, for the world at tlie time of its occurrence had existed for 
tqpwards of 1500 years; and it shoiUd be recollected tlmt the dcscendauts uC AdaoB 



ipnmg from one who came into exisioncc, not wiiL the wciglit of ihc curse which 
ha* be«n entiiiled npon all that futluwed Iiim, but from one who, if he lost lus origi- 
ml fiicnlti«i in any degree, would at least retain the recollection of the glorious 
lUribotcs with witich he waa uuce endowed. Neither is there any reason to be* 
Bete that the inluibitante of tlic fuicient world were deficient in any of the tuiuhlies 
vhkh disitnguish and are calculated to ele^'ate the position uf human n^iture; and 
it » hairllr to he supposed that the wickedness which brought upon them to signal 
a dcstructioo, was altogether of ao debased and sensual a chaiucter ns would be 
indaced lolely by an unlimited gnUiBcution of the anintol appetites. If it were not 
ibtB, XMJ we liglitly conceive that all the vit-cs of luxury were included in the 
ottkigoe of their offences, and combined to insure their punishment. If so, tlien 
ilill we beat no loss to believe that, among the mischiefs, some of the benefiU, and 
thfi first and diief — the written cutnmunication i>f ideas — was inchided in a 
ly adranoed and artificial state of exb^ifnce. Of one thing there is no doubt, 
Xockh stood in a very eminent position among his fellow-creatures at the time 
sent hts greAt judgment upon the earth ; and though he, from all that we caa 
all that we cab reasonably surmise, possessed no means of ret;un- 
pructinng the aits of those who were overwhelmed, he yet would 
his own aocofflplishments, and among them, in all prohahility, the art of 
That it was no new art in uAertimes, when from tlie progress of mankind 
ai^un became peopled, is evident frura what we read in tlie book of Exo- 
whcre the Almighty conmiunded Moses to write the contents of the divinely 
ooamiaQdmenl^ on the two tables of stone. From tlie engagements of Abro- 
too, and otiicnt, even before that period, we know that, during the whole of 
lip to the time of Abiidiam's death, so<Mely existed as much in a pas- 
it possibly could hare done previous to the Floo<h There is little 
but that it was much more so, and yet the sciences had vastly progressed; 
eaoDot bat couclude, {ram what we read of Joseplfs position at the court of 
that a refined organization of the kingdom of Egypt existed during his 
r, and that the rescripts of the governor of the land were transmitted not 
•TSiboliiad but by written letters; for, though the former was exceedingly use- 
ifir ftjRiia] inscriptions on pubUc monuments, they would be a very unwieldy 
«f personal converse and ofDcial communication, tliough they might perhaps 
K CMci be adopted for that pur^tose. 


iVi ftnt poettire intimation we find of writing in the Bible, is in the 1 7th chapter 
[■KudiM^ where God commanded AIusi.'s to write in a book an account of the 
ri of Aaulek, and said tluit he would utterly put out the remembrance of 




Amalek from the foce of the eartli. Tliis directiuu w not mentioned in any way aa 
9, new tiling, and it may therefore be supposed that, as we liave just supposed, the 
art of writing was no novelty at the time^ We next read, in the 2Uh chapter, that 
"Moses wrote all the words of the Lord;" and fui'ther, in the 31st diapter, that 
when the Ixjrd had made an end of communing with Moses on Mount Sinui, he 
gave unto hun " two tables of testimony, written witli the finger of God," of which 
a transcript was subsequently made. These hist two tables remiuncd in exislence 
until Jerusalem was taken by the Babylonians, nearly a thousand years, so that 
there was a constant testimony of the fact during that period. The production of 
these two tables was nearly coeval with the isoteric and esoteric inscriptions upon 
the Eg^'ptian monuments; so that, if the claim of antiquity be put in for the priority 
of s)-mbolical writing, it is equally pertinent for that which was alphabetia 

Perhaps the most ancient spcdmens of alphabetic wriung are to be foiuid on 
certain relics of the first city of Babylon, which, according to the chronology of Arch- 
bishop Usher, whose calculations are generally taken as the standard of the Bible^ was 
founded, about the year 2333 before our Saviour's first advent, by Beliis, whom tlie 
beet accredited authorities hare identified with the Nirorod, the mighty hunter, of 
Moses; and the great lower which led to the dispersion of hb subjects, and the con- 
fiision of their tongues, was begun, it is believed, about sixteen years after he attained 
to anytliing like the consolidation of a kingdom. Authors, in various ages, havtt 
ascribed the origin of letters to the Phtcnicians ; and if we may trust, as there 
seems to be no reason why we should not, the authority of Herodotus, PUny, 
Plutarch, and others, Cadmus was a member of that nation who settled in Bccotia, 
where he built tlie city of Thebes, about fifteen hundred years before the Christian 
era. From the phuns of Sliiuar, the trtnsit to the sea-coast of the ^Tediterraneon 
was a natural and easy progi'ess. AtoucnI the spot of the capital of their district, 
the people clustered; and, as in all congrejated communities the arts most flourish, 
and enterprise is most encouraged, the r\habitant3 soon became distinguished 
throughout tlie worU for their diffusion of thf arts which they themselves possessed, 
and for the carrying on of which they subsriuently visited even so remote a spot 
as the ultima thuU of the ancient world, t^c British liles. Tljc time ascrilx^ 
to the existence of Cadmus is about contcmp«niry with that of Moses, so that we 
have her« a certain datum from which to tra>^ the diffusion of written Innguago 
throughout the world. 

Tlie menmriiiLtortlM* time whon writton n*corda " ^ra fust formed are comparatively 
few, and confined only to what chronologers have termed the " second age of the 
worU,* that which immediately followed the occprrence of the Dehige ; but of this 
period the remains are sufficiently numerous m I«*Te us in no doubt respecting 




for which ihcy were mude. 'ITiore appears to have been some instinctive 
gn implanted by Providence for the perpetuating the acts and the discovcriea of 
the cba and nice by wliom they were left; nor is it diihcult to ascertain the 
pUpoM for which thia instinct was created. Tlie benefit of posterity could produce 
DO adraota^ for an existing race; but just as the records of the Jews were preserved 
by fitpcmiitunil care, so were the annals of the nations of the p^-ople not included 
in the peculiar privilege of the Isrnetitish race, chronicled fur ihe future benefit of 
fuakind. The mode which was then taken was just the one whicli we now 
obterrc on all our public Monuments — the impression of certain Ifttcrs or signs on 
Ae permanent erections of the people, for the information of future ages, Brick- 
i^m»king and building were arts which seem soon to have been understood, and it is 
^HEctUl to appreciate tlie art of writing or printing on the most ancient structures 
^ «f the world, without believing tluit tliose arts were, if not divinely inspired, at least 
drrivn) frum those who esnsted previous to the grand manifestation of the Godhead 
which the world was drowned. The earliest of these records are found on the 
used for the erection of the ancient city of Babylon. On sererol of them we 
a series of sentences which, when interpreted, denote an evident desire of 
g ilie i-ising cl.^s5es, nnd the accumulation of inscriptions has ever been a 
it* object of manlund. The Great City, wliose temples and whose towtrs 
w» dotioed to become the great repositories of knowledge, was erected of clay 
tocksjOQ a vast niunber of which impressions were mtide by blocks precisely similar 
liuae which ¥rere firet used in the early progress of Eiux>pean printing; and the 
of which they were formed, was a composition of clay held tog<:ther by a 
of straw or reeds, which, after having been well manipulated, was fitted to 
the Impressions of the blocks, which, according to " Maurice on the Uuins 
Babylon," were jiieces of wood with cluuTicters on the surface left in high relief, 
ialervenhig suV»stBnco bdlng cut away. The clay having been formed into the 
of bricks., much larger however than our own, and more resembling in form 
■ppeanuice the fire-stones so well known among our modem builders, the stamp 
these blocks was c*:<nimnniciited to each, and the bricks were then thoroughly 
by exposure to the sun or fire— -commonly the former, but sometimes 
Istter; and in cases where tiie inscriptions, and the bricks on which they wer« 
were intended for important erections, no doubt to bcih : and to such an 
was this process carried, that tlie substance remaining to the present day will, 
being struck, ring like a piece of metal, and has all the appearance of vitrified 

Of this snbctance, termed by the Greeks ig omjc vXlvdu, the walls of Babylon 
(xRat were chiefly formed. Travellers who have visited their ruins have given 


us mprcsentiitious of w'venil of these imprvssious, itnd so many are extant that not 
only can no doubt be cnlcitainod of thtir genumencyis, hut undeniable proof has been 
afforded that they were the production of the races of mankind who existwl almost 
immediately posterior to the Flood. No relics of tiinea anterior to their date have 
remained to uh, for so completely in truth do tlie fouritain.s of the great d<^p appear 
to have been broken up, that not a vcatigo of the dwellings or the arts of the ante- 
diluvian world has ever yet been discovered ; and as there is no question as to the 
aniiqiiity of these intert^ting monuments, it seems unreasonable to $iipj)ose that a 
generation new in the arts of life could ever have attained to so complete a system 
of writing ns would enable tlteni to convey, with a perfect intelligibiUtyf the records 
of their own day to the future inhabitants of the earth, unless tliey had some tnidi* 
tiunal instruction in llic art derived from thetr predt^cessors, before they were swept 
into eternity by the omnipotent fiat of the Almighty. Tliat a system prevailed, 
indeed, is evident, for the charactei^ are so numerous, that without it the generality 
of the inscriptions would have been totally unintelligible to those who would have 
aflenvards to peruse them. The symbolical characters were interspersed in many 
cases with tlie UUi*ai inscriptions, and commonly appeared upon the same erections; 
bnt, genenilly speaking, they were separate, and seem intended rather to elucidate 
either a single trmisaction, or to have been placed simply for ornament, according 
to the whim or Jancy of the owner or architect ; and they are rather {minted or 
enamelled than impre6wd or printed upon tlie bricks, and appear to hold a plaue 
6ulK>rdinatc in importance, in the csttnuttion of tlie builders, to tlie indented char- 
acters of which mention has just been made. 

Hagar, Chnrdin, Maurice, Le Brun, and other oriental writers, desci'ibe these 
inscriptions as made in vertical wilumns, divided by lines, the cliaracters between 
the lines being c\'idently words composed of letters joined togetlier, whicli, in their 
formation, bear a \'QTy close resemblance to the ancient Hebrew alphabet, and 
appear indeed, to an unprejudiced observer, to have been constructed on predsel/ 
the same principle as those lettvrs. Tiie characters are by the French termed 
*' caractcres a cfoux,** or nail-headed ; by others they are tenncd *' aiTow-hcaded j" 
and by others agun, ** javelin-headed;*" and, in their united appearance, are not 
very dissimilar to the inscriptiims on a modem Chincac tea-chest. Sir William 
Jones describes them "as regular variations and compositions of a right line, each 
lino towards the top becoming of an angular figure." Tlie foundation of these 
duiracters is of this shape ; and all the letters, words, or syllables, whichever they « 
may represent, are composed of this character joined in diflerent ways, and placed ^H 
in an almost indefinite variety of positions, sometimes with a plain stroke attached, "■'■ 
but generally witliout. In 1801, Dr. Hugar was employed by the French govern- 




^ the Chinese deputies forward for their master's inspection a representation of 
the ** deril-ship," as they termetl it, the first steamer that was seen in the -writers 
of Cliina^ Nor was it only in the simpler parts of language that lliis resemblance 
was ofaserred. In the secondary ideas, which at the sight of natural objects tlie 
recollection of their qnahties is apt to induce, as well as in the more recondite 
GonoepdoDs, the same rescmhlance, though varying in degree of force, is also 

Of all the expressions of symbolical origin, tliose of the Chinese largunge appear 
to be the most simple^ and such as might naturally arise out uf the most total and 
entire ignorance of written Inngungc. Their mode of writing Is evidently, according 
to the best authorities, to describe a thing by its appearance, so that the drawing 
of a horse Ijcing presented to a reader, he immediately understood what the writer 
nwant. But as their plan was to de|nct these figures without any relief in the 
liae% so tliat tliere would be the greater fucUity in modir^Tng their foi-ms as they 
became familiar to the people at large, they were evidently incapable of com- 
loumcattng secondary ideas without tnucli combinniion of characters. There wtw, 
tlierefbre, the advantage of taldng a portion of each individual type, and combining 
it with some other, to express a secondary idea, wliidi was represented partly by 
the most evident quaUtie^ of the aniiual or tiling which the simple character lui- 
plied. Thc«e signs have of course gradually increased as the people progressed, 
until from a symbolical, the Chinese has become altogether a %mtten langiingc, 
coDtaining, according to Utmiboldt and other authorities, not less than eighty 
thonsaod words, all of primary signification, exclusive of tliose which are minor 
«nd only derivatives from them. To become acquainted witli such a mass of 
' character, mudi less to retain them in the memory, appears a manift^t impost- 
hility. It is said that their most learned men know hardly one-third of the 
words in their own language, and to assist in the interj^retation of lliem, a large 
class of elementary terms, called language "keys,** 214 in nimiber, have been 
•elected Without a knowledge of these, the language is in a great measure xmin- 
trtligihie to the best informed of the natives who spealc it^ and of course almost 
cstirely to those whose life is condemned to poverty and labour. 

Yet although having to such an extent put off the symbolical character to be- 
eooe a trritten language, the Chinese still retains the evidence of the source from 
which it emanated, and all the principles by which it lias been modified ; and it is 
Mnarkable^ that identicLL ideas in China and in Egypt have been expressed by 
Hmtiwil symbols. Kater, the Jesuit Missionnry, who was for many years located 
In ibe Celestial Empire, states, in some letters to 8ir W. Roughton, that the sun 
sal moon joined together, in the Eg^-ptian hicroglj'phics, represented among that 

a probate spheroitl, ahoiit seven inches liigli, and three inches in diameter at each 
end, increasing in size towards the middle; in fact, yery much iu the form of a 
modem wine tun. The characters upon it are highly finished, but in other respect* 
it is qidle similar as to the impression upon it to the bricks, and is in oil proba- 
bility at least 4000 years old, and it may be considered a fair and beautiful specimen 
of the writing of those days, and, with the other gpecuneus which have been dis- 
covered, affords authentic proofs of the existence of alphabetic language before that 
of symbols was ever carried into effect. Tlie evidence is the more important, 
as the characters have the formation which afterwards prevailed in the Arabic 
and Hindoo languages ; and scorns indeed, tlie foundation of the written agns of 
all tliat great class of tongues wliich is spoken by those numerous nations 
of mankind who appear to have been destined, though the precursors, yet to be 
the inferiors of the races professing that fiutli which is only derived from Divine 

Wlu'ther the use of symbolical clumicters arose out of the decline of langimge and 
letters, or whether, during the existence of general ignorance among the people^ 
it was adopted by tlieir priests for the sake not only of securing to themselves a 
pt^culiiu: me<uis of personal correspondence, ^vith whldi Ihc mass of mankind would 
be altogether unacquainted, but also of perpetuating their power llirough the con- 
tinuance of superstition, has long been, and very possibly may long remain, a sub- 
ject fur disquisition. It is very probable that it arose out of both causes, being first 
adopted by the ignorant to express their ideas, and, being aflcrwords refined upon 
by the learned to serve their particular objecis, was afterwards constituted into an 
esoteric system, to the full mcuuing of which the uninformed could never attain. 
Wherever, however, it came into a general use, it was eWdently foimded entirely 
upon phyyical perceptions, fur we discover that in Mexico, Cliiua, and £g)'pt, iu 
remote ages, the same priuciplc prevailed. 

According to Humboldt, whose genius was so peculiarly calculated to trace out 
the records of olden times, the monuments in llie neighboiu-hood of Mexico iitG 
rich in the remains of the information conveyed to Montezuma by his oflicors, of 
tjie arrival on the coast and appearance of Cortez and his companions. The notices 
uorc given in a sort of ideographic wTiiing, such as that wliich funued the 
bods of the Chinese language, and were made precisely in the same way as in- 
formation was given the other day to the Emperor of Cluna, of llic appearaucc and 
progress of the Biitish expedition in his dominions. The agents of Montezuma 
drew, as well as they were able, the figxurcs of the ships, weapons, and warriors, 
through whose iiuit rumeutality his power was so shortly to be ovcrthro\s'n, just u 




did Ui« Chinese deputies fonmrd for their master's inspection a representation of 
the ** deril-ship," as they tormdl it, the first steamer that was seen in Iho waters 
of ChnuL Nor was it only in the simpler parts of langungc that tliis rescmblunce 
was observed. In the secondary ideas;, which at the sight of natural objects the 
TvcoUectxon of their qnalities is apt to intluce, as weU as in the more recondite 
conceptions, the same resemblance, though varying iu degree of force, i^ also 

Of an th« ejcpressions of nytnholical origin, tho^e of the Ctiinese langungc appear 
to he the most flimple, and such as might naturally arise out of the most total and 
COtin? ignorance of written language. Their mode of writing is evidently, according 
Ib the best authorities, to describe a thing by its appearance, so that the drawing 
of » horse being presented to a reader, he immediately underatood what the -wi-iter 
iBcint But as their plan was to depict these figures without any relief in tlie 
Cnt*^ so that there would be the gre^iter faoility in modifying their funns as they 
became ikmiliar to the people at large, they were evidently incapable of com- 
ttanicating secondary ideas without much combination of characters. There was, 
fore, the advantage of taking a poi-tion of each individual type, and combining 

with some other, to express a secondary idea, which was represented partly by 
the most evident qualities of the animal or thing which the simple character ini- 
ptied. These signa have of course gradually increased as the people progressed, 
until from a symboUcal, the Chinese has become altogether a written language, 
cuotaiiuDg, according to Humboldt and other autliorities, not less than eighty 
thouaand words, all of primary signiiication, exclusive of those which are minor 
aox] only derivatives from them. To become acquainted with such a mass of 
dbaxiKters, much less to retain them in the memory, appears a manircst impossi- 
failtiy. It is said that their most learned men know hardly one-third of the 
vords in their own language, and to assist in the intcrpret:ilion of them, a large 
dass of elementary terms, called language "keys," 214 in nimibcr, have been 
■plertrd. Without a knowledge of these, the langoagc Is in a great measure unin- 
telligible to tlie best informed of the natives who speak it, and of course almost 
cndrciy to those whose life is condemned to poverty and labour. 

Vet although having to such an extent put off the s^nubolicid character to be- 
eecDS a written language^ the Chinese still retains the evidence of the source from 
vbiob it emanated, and all the principles by which it has been modified ; and it ia 
Mffcablc, that identical ideas in China and in Egjpt have been expressed by 
■tical symbols. Kitter, the Jesuit Missionary, who was for many years located 
lb« Ctdestial Empire, states, in some letters to Sir W. Koughton, that the sun 
iDooo joined together, in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, represented among that 





people tlie first principle of all things ; and that a sunilar image bears n sinulur 
meamng in China, being Liken also to indicate the succession of tinic and tho 
revolutions of principles in nature, both physical and spiritual. The figure of ^cn b 
represented bj the same fl}'mbols among both people, as also is the feeling of am' 
tenbneni. But the most remarkable instance of this similarity, with which we have 
yet become ac<iuainted, is tliat which implies education and ancient origin, Tliose, 
in Egypt, when conjoined, are represented singularly enough by a bundle of reeds, 
bo curious and apparently far-fetched a symbol as tltis, -Would seeni to intimate a 
lingular and strange connection of ideas, to stich an extent, indeed, that it would 
almost seem an impossibility for any two individuals, even in the same coimtrj', to 
have agreed upon it ; and yet we find tliat the same idea is represented in China 
by the same symbol, and the reasons assigned for its adoption are sufficiently 
general to come within that class of notions on wluch the superstructure of a 
language would most likely be founded. 

Tliese circumstances, then, be-sides others wbich miglit be ea-^ily adduced, are 
quite sufficient to assure us that the sj-mbolical languages constitute one of the 
great classes into wliich the several tongues of the races of mankind may be 
di^'idGd; for allowing tlie supposition, tliat language was originally attained tlirough 
a direct inspiration of Divinity, or, to speak more properly, was one of the divine 
endowments with wliich man was invested at his creation — a supposition which w© 
believe no one can successfully controvert — we have, in the history of the world, 
abundant proofs that its inhabitants, whether from geogmphical distiibution, social 
usage, or political condition — the two latter inlluences of course depending, under 
Providence, to a very great extent npon the former — have betsome separated into 
great families, each having a mode of expression peculiar to itself, various in tho 
dialects used by its several sections ; all those dialects being still, however, evidently 
based ou one common set of terms, sounds, or piiuciples of expression. 

It is easily demonstrable that, at the confusion of tongues at Babel, a great portion 
of the benefit of llie divine endowment was losL The immetliate appreciation of a 
new object, a new thought, or a new feeling was restrained. Men, instead of being 
at onco able to adjust the expression to the idea, differed in their estimates, and 
formed different notions of tlie means by which a knowledge of it ought to be con- 
veyed. If such had not been the ca^e, notwithstanding their disagreement and 
unintelltgibility to each other, tli(;y would soon have fuUcn into a common language. 
But not only did not this occur, but the several families diverged more and more 
from a common apprehension of terms, until the difference became as decided as it 
is at the present day. 



Mr. Maurice, in liu disquisition on the Kuins of Babylon, before spoken of, after 
alluding to the iQicrii>lions on the bricks, those of which we have already spoken as 
hcing the earliest impressions of conveyed ideas in the world, sums up liis renwning 
upon the probability of the art of alphabetic writing iu the following terms : — " In 
of uncertainty, the mode of conduct for us to pursue, at once tlie most 
t with reason, the most conformable to true science, and tlie most agreeable 
to sound rcligiun, is to conclude, that tliough some sort of characters formed by tlie 
ingenuity of man, or founded on the basis of the ancient liicroglyphic system, was 
gcGMtooally med iu the earlier ages of the world, that 90 (bcine an art — an art 
q^WRDtiy so ior surpassing human pttwer to invent — as Au'iiabetic Writing, in 
the perfection in which it has descended down to us from on Asiatic source, through 
the medium of the Greeks and Romami, could have its origin in inspiration mily^ and 
vu at first revealed to man amid tlic awftd promulgations at IIoREU, amid the 
thanders that shook the basis of Motmt Sin^** 

jdering that be had himself transcribed the characters from the Chaldciin 

bricks^ it was a somewhat curious conclusion to arrive at, that writing was first ])ro- 

■tlTgatf^ on the deliver}' of the moral law to Mc^os. But it is at least a testimony 

poverfulf both directly and inferential, of the antifpiity of alphabetic writing from 

one who is allowed to have been a most able student of the subject. But whilst 

faring hid testimony on this point, he also speaks of tlie antiq^uity of hieroglyphic 

vntiiig; and it is singular tliat uhile tluN kind of comniunic:itiun originated with 

the most ornate, best inforuied, mast highly cultiviitt,^d p<^;ople on tlie Oicn of the 

Bnh as tliat time — was carried to its highest pitch uf excellence by a people cele- 

bcit«d for their wisdom and acconiplisliments — it produced no £ruits of progicss, 

birt ranained a scaled book to the wodd at large for more tlmn two thousand yeai-s, 

prrMitiug the secrets entblded witliin its mj'stic characters. It is associated with 

Uflanc grandeur and the existence of the grossest paganism, and only exhibited 

in its principles where the darkness of ignorance and the most miserable super- 

prerails; wliile, on the contrary, with alphabetic writing there has been 

ual oASociation of light, a genial difTusion of invigorating inlurmatian, a 

pidiial and outspreading dispersion uf the rays of celestial inlluence, a descent and 

nsnue, as noble rivers from their source, of the founts of knowledge which have 

ivdiSed tiie whole moral creation, giWng it every day new accessions of strength 

to aoeomplish the divine mission of obtaining dominion over the whole world, and 

'"wgihening the belief that ere long tlie prediction shall be accomplished, that tlie 

k^icwledge of God shall cover the earth as the waters cover the sea. 

Setting Bade tlie evidence of tlie Chaldean bricks, there can be no question that 
ti»e hieroglyphic writing on the p3*raniids and other monuments of Egypt are the 





most ancient of all the reconl'i of language wlncli we possess^ and, aa tlie resen'oiw 
of ancient knowledge, may well be considered the foundation of symbolic language, 
and the more valuable, as, now when the key has been obtained, they are daily 
giving out some new proofs of the correctness of our sacred and other histories. 

Tliat these hieroglyphica were the construction of a highly enlightened class 
of men, is evident from the fact, that no records of anterior ages have given the 
learned so much trouble to decipher their true meaning as those have done, and 
none have returned such valuable rttsults for the labours bestowed upon them-— 
none have exhibited such an intricacy of art, and none luve been so fiiU of meim- 
ing when labour has elaborated their true signification. Another evidence of their 
value is found in the fact, that they constitute just the turning point between the 
earliest ages of the world, and that series of historical remains which depict the 
experience of men when the intellect slept for a period of nearly five hundred years 
—when men lived only on experience, aud depended for all iheir guidance upon 
their knowledge of the past, aud a few peculiar spirits existed for the directioa of 
the futiire 

It has long remmned, and does indeed to a certain extent still remain, a mystery, 
whether the records on the obelisks and other architectural and monumental 
remains of Egj-pt, were intended to spread moral aud intellectual truths, or were 
merely statements of tlte dealings aud doings of mankind during that remote era. 
From what we have ascertained, tlie probability seems to converge to the deciMon 
that tliey were to a great extent written for the latter purpose, and to a more 
confined extent for the former. It is qtiite compatible with the genius of the ages 
when these records vrere made, to suppose that, as among the chosen people of th6 
Most High in after-times, before that people existed, there was both an open and a 
secret meaning displayed by the written characters of the ancient seers of the world. 
We know, from the statements of Sacred Writ, that when the miracles of Moses 
were wrought in the presence of Pharaoh, the wizards of Egj-pt had, by some 
peculiar insj-iiration, tlie power to perfonn wonders from an intercourse with tlie 
powers of darkness, just as he had authority to interfere with the regular order of 
nature from the Source of all light ; and therefore it is not unreasonable to imagine 
that thofe eminent among the people of Egypt would be desirous of exteuduig their 
influence beyond tlieir natural lives, through the inscriptions on the national monu- 
ments, including those meant for public instruction, as well as those written In 
honour of their monarchs and the public men who acted under them. 

During the period that elapsed from tlie time of Abraham to the Persian COS— | 
quest, we know that Egi(*j)t stood supereminent among the nations for its knowledge i 
of the arts and sciences, and that both had attained to a degree of perfection whida 





li:is neTcr, even np to tlie present time, been surpassed among the people who 

<xx'upy the centre and extreme east of Asia, and tlie medial provinces of northern 

Africa. They were therefore in the possession of a multitudinous set of ideas, both 

piinuiry and secondary, and they needed some means of expressing those ideas 

iLbM only fur the benefit of the people at large and their successors, but also of that 

^BcclusiTe class among whom were treasured all the treasures of knowledge possessed 

^■r the initiated few. Herodotus, the most ancient of all the profane historians, 

" vho had himself travelled in Egypt, tells us tliat, among that strange and wonderful 

people^ there were two classes of language — one termed is^a, sacred, and the other 

or for the i>eople. Thales, Pythagonis, and Plato, all speak of this dis- 

; and from two of these philosophers we gather the title of these mystic 

gs, which it has given the modems so much trouble to decipher. They tell 

epithet which we ourselves ascribe to these writings was generally con- 

gst their own countrpuen irom the two words ^i^og, sacredj or a priest^ 

y>j/^f to WJ-iUf thus simply stating that the hicrogl^'phics were sacred writings. 

Sicultifl, who had also travelled in £g)'pfc, and held converse with the 

in that country, conliniis this view, and states that !herc were two kinds of 

the *' sacred' and the " demotic," and leaves us to suppose that the former 

ambuned some secondary meaning wliich was not patent to the common reader, if 

ilae term '* common reader" can be used ia reference . to such times as tliese. 

Ocment of Alc^xandria, who entered very largely into this subject in the first cen- 

tnit after the Christian epoch, terms the sacrud writing 'Miieratic," or a hmgunge 

6fTol«d peculiarly to the uses of the priests — and the inquiries of later days have 

iiHj coofinncd the affirmations of these authorities ; while, as if further to carry out 

^ truth of this a&sertion, Quatrini^re gives from authority a list of two hundred 

lama and words of the older Memphitic and Thchuic dialects expressed in lluse 

VwoglTpIiics, which were not in ordinary use among the Egyptian people. Accord- 

iaj to Clfrmcnt there were three kinds of writing — the Enchorial, the Epistolo- 

fUid the Hieratic ; ai^d states thai the last was always used for a registry of 

things, tliat all its characters were tropical or Hgiiratire, and these being 

with ideographic or picture writing, became symbolical of that real meaning 

*^ the ohoraciCTB were intended to convey. 


It cinoot be supposed that so important a language as that inscribed on the 
***i-*ud monuments and the sacred edifices of the moat accomplished people of the 
[iges of civilization, remained without its influence upon the letters and the 
of those neighboiuing nations who drew their refinement and the arts 
Egifpt We see its resemblance in their architectural erections, we observe 



it in ihcir ciLstoms, and, lastly, we trace it in tlie written characters not only of 
their language, but in those of the more subtile and informed groups of mankind, 
through whose instrumentality the tide of enlightenment was whelmed onward, 
tmtil it settled in those countries where the arts and learning are conserved for the 
Vnefit of the world. C(.>uld we hrealc throiigh the barrier, as we doubtless fthall 
some day do, though opposed by the barbarism of Centnil Asia, the connection between 
the hieruglypbics of Egypt and the picture writing of China w^ould, without any 
great difficulty, be demonstrated, just as it may partially be traced in the written foniiB 
of the characters of the S}Tiac, Arabic, and Hindoo languages. Yet, important as 
the Egj'ptian people were, and influential as their records proved upon the charac- 
ters of the communities around them, so mystic were their writings, that until nearly 
the present time their meaning was altogether lost, and the writing useless. Again, 
it may be observed, that such remarkaltle documents as the Egj-ptian hierogly- 
phics could not but excite much interest among men of observation. Soon after 
the darkness of the middle ages began to be dispersed, Piereus, a man much 
distinguished for the acumea of his remarks, brought them ^nth much skill 
prominently mider piiblic notice, hut did little further towards elucidating their 
mcauing, thau suggest that tliey were indicative of some sacred mystery, lu the 
course of the seventeenth century, Kirchcr, a German Jesuit, deveted much of his 
attention to this subject, and displayed great ingenuity in accounting for the object 
of the writers of hierdglyphics, laying do^vn a whole array of mythological detail aa 
the meaning which they were intended to convey, but ^vithout any sufficient ground 
whatever to justify his apparently very unwarrantable assertions. About 1750, 
Zoega, a Danish philosopher, turned his attention very largely to the subject of the 
Eg)rptian hierogl^'phica, and was tolerably successful in a.'icertaining the nature of the 
characters they contained. Palin, and the Abbe Pluche. carried this investigation 
still iarther, till at last a faint glimmering of the true nature of the hierogl^'pliios 
was obtained. 

lu 1798, the National Institute of France — which may be tndy considered as the 
ncsidemic embodiment of the principles promulgated by the eminent but most erro- 
neous thinkers, the accomplished jshilosophers but most mistaken guides, whose 
writings led to the first marvellous French Revolution — designed an expedition of 
scieutiiic men, who nccorapanied the military operations of Napoleon in Egyjit, with 
a view of bringing into requisition for general use the historical treasures which 
E^^^ypt was known to contain. The lalxiura of these men, though of comparatively 
intrinsic insignificance, were of great inferential importance. Napoleon, who, wth A 
spirit which all must ailmire — directed by an impulse and by monil principles which 
all must condemn — lent the whole benefit of his countenance and co-operation to. 




gOMQit. ComSesicdij wc Imrc lost the Coptic, and though its remains may still be 
tncvd 'm the vernacular of Upper Egypt, as a kngmige it is not now to be found; 
bat ivliether it wis so At the Lime tliesc inscriptions were made is another mattei^ 
Ui] that Dr. Young was light in liis principal conjecture seems credible from the 
fiict that* from tlie foundudon which be hud, a clear interpretation of thdx mean- 
ing has at length been derived. 

The izmtter was, however, much controverted, and a dccijioa slept lu abcyanOe 
until the time of C J. F. Champollion le jeune, so styled to di&tiuguiah liim from 
hii elder brother, C Fejeac, who was aJso a man of eminent attainments. The 
yonngor ChjunpoUioa, who was a naiivc of Grenoble in France, like Young, evinced 
at «a early age a peculiar predilection for orienttil literature. Ailer some experi- 
eoec under Sayels de Sacy, in the French capital, he returned to his native placc^ 
vboelie was mode keeper of the public library there; nnd, in 1814, published n 
work in two volumes, octavo, entitled ** Egypt \mder the Pharaohs," which speedily 
bnmght him into extensive notice. The principle which he adopted was, that the 
lymboU on the Egyptian monumenu were intended to represent material objects 
ynly. It showed timt he had read largely and thought much of his subject \ nnd, in 
l$il, he published, at Grenoble, another work, entitled, *' L'Ecriture Hieratiijuu 
^ Ancjptis Kgyptiena.^ In this, he stated his opinion that the hieroglyphic and 
Jikrotic writing was ditlcrcnt, and that the latter was merely a tocliygrajtliy or 
•Imrt-kand writing of the former. In 1824 he published on enlargement of these 
Tv:w, and entered into on examination of the whole system, under the title of 
■* Precis du Systeme Hieroglyph itjue des Anciens Egyptiens, ou Kecherches sur Ics 
EUmeBS premiers de cette Ecritme Sucrec, — sur lea divei-scs combimiison^ et sur Uts 
flipporta de ce syft^me, avoc ies autres methodes Gntphiques Egyptiens;** in whicli he 
held thai the phonetic signs were m Hcoordance with the records of the most ancient 
books; that the real names of the parties spoken of in the inscriptions were best 
■•ocrtazned by sucli an interpretation, and that all hieroglyphic utscriptions are in 
a great mcarare composed of signs whicli can in no other way be iiUeq}i*elod. 
Kiaprock criticiaed this book immercifully, and endcavomed to show that Clium- 
folfioo had not succeeded in any single instance in making out tlie meaning of any 
Mtg^ vkofe aentence, and that he could hardly constnu; uny four words oonsecn- 
ibviy. But however deficient Champollion might have been in this respect, his 
MfKilatiao remained uuiiupeached; aud thi\>ugh the interest of the Duke de Blacas, 
ihcB in higb &vour at the court of Fi*ance, he was sent to Leghorn to value some 
Egypliaa anttiinitica which Imd bei*n rcoi'ived there for the private aooount ol 
Cbwke X4 who was then nn tliu Frenoli llirone, of which he publiphe<1 a particuhir 
Ia a ic(ter juldresft*;d to his patron. Tliur<} he was joined by the di&tin- 



up in despair. Akcrblad, a young and able philologist, was emincnfly distinguiKh^cl 
for his zeal, und nltiinntely was able to carry tliis step a little farther; bul ^eaUh^ 
or the intervenlii^n of other pursaJts, prevented his going beyond that point This, 
howcTCT, was somediing ^orth having, and tended to lay a foundation for. future 
exertion. Dr; Toung soon took up tlie subject witli his characteristic energy, and 
employed the whole of hia eminent oriental learning, to decipher the real nature of 
thcsymboUcal representatiotls in wliich the Egyptian language was concealed. Thh 
gentleman was, perhaps, of all men at that time in existence, best calculated to dis- 
cover the occult meaning of thesa remarkable inscriptions. Bom of Quaker parents 
of but indifferent condition, ho, during the early yc^irs of his existence, was main- 
tained at the rc^dcnoti of his mnteniul uncfc, Air. R. Davics, at Slinchcnd, in 
Devonshire ; and, it is said, evinced a wondeHnI precocity of philological talent, aiu^| 
speedily acquired a knowledge of the clasMcal languages'. From apparently aca-^ 
dental circmnst4»uces he was induced to study Ilebi-ew, and afterwards Syriac, 
Arabic, and tlie neighbouring tongues ; and at length atCained to suclt an ac<]uire- 
mcnt of oriental htemture as to become the must distingiu±>hcd man of his time in 
that department of literature. He was afterwards appointed, by tlie Government of 
the day, Sccretaiy to the liaird of Longitude ; and, when that agency was laid aside, 
w*is constituted compiler of the '* Nautical Almanack," which he conducted for 
several years, and laid the foundation fur the reputation which it now enjoys, 
oertalnly was the muin source of that utility (or which it has been so pardcularl 
cfistinguishedL Having discovered ll>c name of Ptolemaios, or Ptolemy, in the Gre 
text, on theRosetta stone, in three places, he compai*ed the position of the words 
tiutt text witlt those in the other two inscriptions, and found tliem to be envi 
by a cartauck or oval, with a certain marie which indicated the name to belong 
a male pereon. The other oharacters lie was unable to decide upon; but recollect 
ing that Plato had stated that Thoth, an Egyptian, liad invented an alphabet which 
had nowhere been preserved, he was led to conclude that the other symbols w< 
siniply phonetic signs, or mgns by which the sounds of words were expressed ; 
conceived a meiming fur the remuining chamclers, and sent a suppotwd tramda 
of the inscriptions on the stone to the Asiatic Society. This excited a gresit sei 
lion tliroughout Europe, and powerfuUy brought the attention of all the learned 
bear upon tlie subject. Dn YoungV conception that the signs which he could 
odicrwise interpret were phonetic, was combated, iu No. IH. of the "Dublin V 
wrsity Revifw," by the assertion that the symbols of the hieroglyi>hic inscrip 
on the momunenta of Egypt were the emblems of a language altogether peci 
and different from the ancient Coptic, &om whidi he professed to derive them, 
tliat they could not thrrefore lie phonetic signs of the then fiving Egyptian 



Qohf exoepdng the Hebrew, tlie most aucieut language in tlie world, but the Tari- 
oa fitnns from which have ramified oU those mode^ of wiiting now used, and wliicli 
fasrv been used, dnxing an immense portion of the ^vorld's exiatence, by the great 
iBMi of pagan idolaters on the lace of the earth : and — ^the thought cannot but 
^azo force itself on the mind — it ia singular to remark, that wherever they 
have been adopted, the people, though arrived at a certain stage of refinement 
nd iulomuilioa, have never progressed into the higher regions of intellectual 
enltare, or attained to any very sdcntific knowledge of mechanical art What 
fhej fc«vc been still they are, and so will rcraiun imtil their systems be altered, and 
ibt KOOrds of their thoughts be composed of materials which have only a mtnUU 
riMlfh'i reqninte to render them OBcfiil. The £g)'ptian language and customs 
^pMT lo haere spread little towards the north, for we find in the Greek only a few 
of the pwttclea which can be traced to an Egyptian origin; but towards the south and 
cMl die former apj^ears to liave spread until the whole of the Coptic has been merged 
k the languagvs of the various tribes of Negroes in the interior of Afirica. Nor is 
nf resembioaoe to them disooverable, except, as previously noticed, in the kindred 
viiaeD haguage of China, and among the harharous and almost savage inhabitonii 
nbo flkirt the south-eastern extremity of the Red Sea. 

While the descendants of Ham were working their way into the very heart of 
the Afiiom oootinent, the po«terity of Shem were gnuliuJly spreading through the 
fatis districts of Asa, each receding from the original typa of the language which 
lk/^ fiMhevs had spoken and written, tmtil at last the variety of dialects became 
•lawtt tcnnmerable. Mencs, the supposed founder of the Kgyj^tian monarchy; 
Asbar, ih* founder of the Assyrian, and Nimrod of the Babylonian empire, were, as 
itr m we can learn &om the inmfSdent records wliich wc possess, about contem- 
porxfy with each other, and were probably the first who assumed an autliority, 
olWr than patriordial. among their fcUow-mcn; and, from their time, about 2100 
jean before the Christian em, tlicre is every probability that the language of 
Abraham was the dialect commonly used, with sliglit variations, lliroughoiit all the 
tvgkm of AsU Minor ; and while Scsostris, Cheops, and Sisac, were consolidating a 
power, which for centuries appears to have been more isolated and secure than any 
Qihcr, the descendants of Israel were rccei%'ing those di>'ine institutions which were 
to trpmUe them from crery other people, and canning into efibct an intricate 
natinnal code, ia which the precise rights of every member of the community, in 
0ttrj rcUsioa of life, were carefully spcdfied. 

Bete then was a standard of language from which to date all the various 
; and as tiic several tribes receded from the original country whence 




g^iiislied Italian, KoasclUni, with whom he aflerwiirds proceeded to Egypt, to make 
a pertomvl inspection of tlie renutins in that countiy. Rossellim returned in th« 
course of a few months, but Chanipollion remained there until towards tlic close of the 
follo^ving year, and gave an account of Ids discoveries in a scries of " Lettres ccrites 
d'Egj-pt el Nubie en 1 829," which was published in Paris in 1 832. He had prenously, 
in 1828, published Iiis "Precis du Syst<?iue UJeroglyphique," in which he Imd fiiUy 
adopted the belief that a great portion of these mystical characters were plionetic, 
and that they were intended to designate the words in the Egyptian language, bnl 
not to resemble the sounds ; while^ in other places, the pictorial reprcscDtatson of 
the object indicated the object itself. Tliis had partly been ascertained from the 
investigation of the inscriptions on the Rosetta stone, and the supposition was con- 
verted into certainty by the discovery of a writing in the interior of one of the 
temples whicli bore the name of Cleopatra, which contains several of the hiero- 
glyphic characters met Avith in the name of Ptolemy. Still further invetttigation 
has ooDtinued to explore these treasures of historical knowledge, and to confirm 
the results which had been previously attained* According to ChampolIi(m, the 
plan adopted in the phonetic portion of the hieroglyphic writing, was to make the 
figure of tliat thing or creature the first letter of the word for which, in the Egyp- 
tian language, was the one they required. Thus, in the inscription on the obelisk 
En the island of PhihiCE, to the memory of King Aliom, an eagle is placed for the 
Bgn of a, the Egj-ptian name for that bird being achom ; for b, there is a ocnser, 
herbe being the Egyptian term for thut instrument ; there is a hand scnlptured for 
t, tlie Egyj-jtian word being tot ; and so on. By earnest and laborious exnniinatioQt 
in the pyramids, and on the various temples and other edifices at Dendemh, Thebes, 
Esneh, Edfou, Ombos, Philaoe, and elsewhere, as well as in the writings which 
have been unrolled from mummies, the whole system was traced out, and the dark- 
ness which for nearly three thousand years had shrouded the records of a people, 
whose language had disappeared frum among mankind, has been raised like % 
light mist from the objects of nature, and all the important historical data at* 
daily being made apparent The distinction between male and female names ha* 
been ascertained, the mode of writing, the means of forming the plural number of 
nouns, and very nearly the whole system of grammatical construction haa been 

It would appear that in ancient Egypt there existed three different dialects — tho 
Memp/utiCf answering to the phonetic style of writing; the Sa/iidiCf to th« «»-' 
blematic; and the Baflimotfic^ to the figurative or pictorial. Sometimes the writing* 
are made from left to riylil, sometimes from right to left, and sometimes again, art 
is generally the case on columns, from top to bottom ; so that we have here, not 



Plirj-giun. Grcc-k. 

Gerrium. Celtia 

Etruscan. Latin. 

Conubrian. Sclavic 

Out of whidi Lave arisen directly all the languages of Europe. 

in. The Tabtaeic ; or the dialects of all those tribes who, verging from the place 
of their original abode, bavc yet retained much, if not entirely, the character of 
ihor original mode of living :— 

I3L Sporadic, Abassan. 

Islandish. Circassian. 

Hungarian. Ossitish. 

Albanian. Kiastic 

2ct Cm/cosKm. Lasgian. 

AxmeniiUL Sd. Tartarian^ 

Georgian. Ath. Siberian. 

lUl. Insular; or those which, from the iaolatcd position of the inhabitants of the 

1^^ felaiids of the sea, have been greatly deflected from the original root, but 
^V which have yet retained the main characteristics of their parent tongues. 

ArsiCJLir ; or those which, declining fr^m the mystic aspect of the symbolic 
tttfe, have at lengtli lost the principal features of the original tongue of those >vho 
wtA it, aod have degenerated into the unformed jargon of barbaric life. 



I V. The AmektcAJI ; or those which are used by a class of people of evidently 
Boxed origin, exhibiting the peculiarities indicative of the sources from whence tliey 
are derired, and at last became so blended as to constitute an original chiss — original 
now, from the consrUtucnts which have been impounded for the purpose of their for- 
nation, bat which show their foundation from the fact, tliat an immense number of 
tmns in the dialects of the Red Indians of North America, and in those of the resi- 
I dmts in the southern portion of that continent, have been discovered, which are 
I poiectly identical with the same expressions in the ancient Hebrew ; and to such 
a ftxtent, indeed, that hypotheses have been built upon them, that the people by 
whom they arc now used ore ndthcr more nor less than the lost ten tribes of Israel, 
6r whom March has been made throughout the whole worid. Tlicse h^'pothescs 
ve 4imbUes erroneous ; for later discoveries, to which we are about to allude, 
\aert txea made, by which the descendants of these people — the descendants as a 
body — have actually been found ; but yet so prevalent are Hebrew terms 


ihej emanated, their languages would, in the natural course of things, gradually 
become more and more remote in character, until they attained the distinctive types 
which they now possess. Whilst Hebrew, in its Tarious gradations, was thus being 
carried eastward and north-eastward, and the symbolic writing of the Egyptians 
was tending to the southward, south-west, and south-east, Greek — ^which appears, 
from its resemblance in the power to represent by sounds the numerous objects and 
influences of nature, to have been the earliest ofispring of Hebrew, and, from the 
peculiarity of its inflections, the dialect assumed by the most refined and intellectual 
of the departeiB from the plains of Shinar — ^was gradually working its way toward 
the direct westward, into those regions where the temperature and salubrity of 
the climate were caloulated to gire the inhabitants leisure &oni the cultlvadou of 
the soil, and that vigour of intellect which results from the mental culture for 
which such leisure a£K)rds the opportunity, and was fast merging into what the 
language afterwards became — an instrument fitted to express the innumerable 
impressions of outward objects, and the most abstruse results of mental processes. 
The oflshots of the Babylonish empire were meantime pushing into the northern 
^tricts, and thence, both eastward and westward, into the fiur-off plains where the 
rigours of the atmospheric effects would occasion an activity of life, and a hardiness 
of character, which would be best expressed by the rude phraseology that denoted 
tlfe wants and marked the inf;ercoiirse of those Scythian hordes, who, in their 
adventurous progress, at length penetrated to the wilds of Scandinavia and the 
prairies of Gaul ; destined afterwards to cast the impress of their character on the 
denizens of the British isles ; ultimately to infuse their force into all the languages 
of northern Europe, and work an immense effect on the modulation of those which 
came from tlie south. The great migralionB of nations then ceased, and the 
foimdation of all the languages of the world was permanently laid. 

Adelung, who was perhaps one of the most accomplished philolo^ts that ever 
existed, has divided these several languxiges into five grand classes, with sundiy sub- 
divisions, as follows : — 

L The MoNOSTiXABZC ; or those which are the result of sjnnlwlic writing : — 
Chinese. Avani'se. 

Siamese. Tibet, n. 

n. Indo-European; or those which derived their origin from the Habruvv 

Sanscrit. Arabian. 

Median. Lycian. 



ibyi» md caotBhung references to, and instriirlions (or, uU the complex intriciKacs 
uf a fav^ and cnU^tcnfid oumrounity ; tiio Grock tilk-d with, at tho. best, absurd 
&hfei ud qoestioiiable aooounta of iacbif real or mpposed^-we KnTe the knowledge 
tfud the former were doily rewA in the ears of all the people, were scmpulouslj* 
r^prded, and 90 carefuUy handed dowa, that crv-cn among the most thorough g«>ing 
iafldck who have possessed any iiifommtion of things gone by, ihcir authenticity has 
oerer been mbject to a doubt To the Hebrew, then, we hove to look ibr the root 
1 of bU langoaga 

INcctto it, apart from the symbolical language of the Egyptiarx, is tlie Greek. 
FopolaHy qteakxag, Cadmus is regarded as the inventor of letters. He was abotit 
OMTil with Moses, and is pretty well ascertained to have emigrated into Ttinice 

(tea Fhenioe. Now, Phenioe ¥r8s notonoiisly the port of the land of the Jcwi, 
tfe mart Iracn whioh all enterprise to countries beyond the sea emanated, and to 
^ «Udi all fiwcfgners resorted. At that time the Greek alphabet is well known to 
hare been imperfect, tad then there was a considerable intercourse across the 
Lerant with Egypt. Indeed, qneations have been seriously mijied and long argued, 
lo wbelher the Ulcruture of the Greeks was or was not derived from tlie Egyp- 
mL Hiese questions are however fully set at rest by the fact, that all the earliest 
Greek tnanoscripts whidi have reached us bear the characteristics of the Hebrew 
le same fulness of expression — the same strict, or almost strict, 
to nfltoral sound*— the same simple, but yet rather inflected, construction 
moreorer, and to add to all, precisely the same mode of writing ; for the 
inscriptioDa we possess »bowa not only many of the forms of the Hebrew 
but, OS if to chjvaiolc the progress of learning; give not only the ancient 
oC writing &iam the right hand towards the Icii, but also that now used, from 
Uft bsed sde towards the right The mo^ ancient Utera] Groi-k inscription 
hm come down to us exhibits both these methods, and is contained on a 
which was disinterred upon the promontory of Sigeuro, a headland of the 
sitoate near the site of ancient IVoy, and must have been engraved as 
is the tim^ at leasts of Solomon, and perhaps of David. Cadmus, it should be 
ohwTTod, was followed by Minos, the first of tlte Grecian lawgivers ; and it is re- 
MikiTih, that no language has ever become permanent until it has been employed 
t» npilv tb« moral and religious precepts by which men ore to be guided in ob- 
■r?i^ tfhfiir duty towards God and tlicir fellow-creatures. Tlic Sigcon legend was 
Mgi asu d upon a pillar of beautiiuliy white marble, nine fcot high, two feet broad, 
aad ci^ inches thids. ; and, as appears by a cavity on the top, was intended to bear 
,» bnrt or ftatne of Hcmiocnitcs, whoee name it bears. It is at least three thousand 
old, cr ftboni the flun« dote «■ that Mcribed to the works of Homer, and in 




in the Ungua^ of the interior resideotft of the Xew Worlil, that, coosidering 
geographical poaitioQ of America with Aju — the one being oolj nxt^ aaia of 
•ea paatage in one spot firom the others-there is ample eYidence to beUere that 
the^ are Om remote subjects of him who should hare filled the pboe of Uoott to 
that branch of the chosen people. 


Of the first age of the worl<l, from the beginning of nature to the oonfasoD 
tODgaes, whence the origin of nations may be dated, we have no records but the 
open notices which are contained in Holy Writ. Nor do we nt^ed any, for the 
speak for themselves: Mankind were then in a state of traositioa from the patri- 
archal to clannish and nomadic life; and from that period to the eonsoUdauun 
an empire under Cyrus, which may be called the second age, we are almost equnlly 
destitute of recorda. Yet wc are not only not without witness, but haTc abxini 
testimony to tlie progress of society, and tlie advance of the means by which rat 
might convey a knowledge of th^ ideas to their fellows. This second age embj 
a period of some 1800 yean, during which men became acoistomed to the 
state, and needed the various Appliances of speech to dilhise the knowledge of di 
and the obligations which resulted from the several relations of life. As has 
etAted above, the best and roost authentic records are contained in the Mc 
chronicles. That these are genuine, and the main origin of all written language, 
proved from a variety of eridenoe. Tacitus, who lived within the first century 
our Saviour*8 death, and when the Romans, wbo were at that time the conscn'otoi 
though not the originators of learning, were mainly pagans, states thjd the Jei 
Scriptures were looked upon as exceedingly ancient even in his day. Tlie Books^ 
of Mooes^ comprising Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Nuuibers, and Deuteronomy^ 
were written fully loOO years before our Saviour's birtb, or more than three 
sand three hundred and fifty years ago, while the most audent chronicles to w] 
the Greeks lay any claim are those of Hesiod and Homer. As to the exisient 
of llesiod at all, like that of O&sian, very grave doubts are entertained by the 
informed aiuung learned men. Homer's writings are better accredited, and 
of circomstanoes so consonant with the fiicts of Grecian lustozy, that there is hardlj 
any doubt of their genuineness — but still there is a cloud over their origin. Y 
granting them all the authenticity to which they are entitled, they bear no com] 
son with the antiquity justly ascribed to the production of the Jewish lender, 
only coeval with the date of Solomon, in whose days the Israelites had attmned 
tho extremcst magnitude of their dominion. To say nothing of the intrinsic ol 
actcr of the respective works — the Hebrew treating of all the great mysteries 
natural and supernatural things, giving the history of mankind from Uicir eorUt 



Inigntor^r Arabs. The new Bub^tomnn and the Afisynaa empires were closed bj 
the prowess of Cyrus, who constituted the dynasty of Persia, and pusucd on the 
Isiigiui^ thus sirengthonod froju so many soiu'ces to the westward, luitil the Arab^ 
vho inherited his enterprise with his authority, carried it, partly through religiouj 
cQthosiasm, and partly from the effoixs f^yr cumjucst, to tlic extreme verge of 
DOTthem Afiaca, where the waves of the Atlantic hived the leases of the pillars of 
Hercules ; and at length, h&ruig made tlieix way into S^KUI^ luged on their con- 
qtucsts until, under Abdoul fiahman Ben Abdoullah, they rvceived tliat clieck by the 
Fnmksy under Charles Murtel, on the plains of Picardy, in a.d. 733, which iiguin 
drvfw them beyond the Pyrenees, where they remained in nearly predominant 
mihariky for four ccnturie.<^ diifusing their influence over the expresfdon and the 
ffliziners of the pei>]>1e where the Uoinans hod so long rdgncd supreme, until it may 
abtwnt be a question whether the Spanish language is more Moorish or Latin. 
Due Portuguese, being on the outskirts of ttic Ilispanum peninsula, were leas subject 
lo th* duminion of the African conquerors ; and, as in all other instances tlw dunii- 
d&ttUid tongue was preserved among tlie native iidiidjilauts, we cuuse(|uently (ind 
dttt th«rc were more of the genuine Latin terms retained in their langmigc than in 
thttk of any other people, save those of Italy, on the continent of Europe. In I1>eriA| 
iWefore, and in the provinces of middle Italy, we find the true germs of the 
I^roscaa dialect. 

h might seem strange to one but httle conversant with the intromission of words, 
tiial Eimria should have been the cradle of that set of phrases which was oAer- 
wdt to form so large a portion of the huiguage through which the knowledge of 
InitK, both physical and inteUectuulf should be disseudnated. Tlic wonder will 
bowiever disappear, wlien it is recollected that the narrowness of tlic Adri;Uic tiea 
, dowed of a proportionally free intercourse between the north of Italy and the 
AUtaman provinces — that the tendency of civilization was continually trending 
rocward, while the pressure of population was coming from the noHli. From the 
Bortb and Cnoou the east, the tide was pouring down which was to alt^^r the kmgnngo 
vf tike whole kmdieds of the earth. Etruria was iu)questiona1)ly peopled in the 
ctfUevt agr^: all ir^ antique vases and other monuments attest this; and it would 
mrm thai the Latin langufige il^'lf was fi:)rmtd out of tlie dialects of those fii-st 
iiiiksUtsnr^ who brought .their Greek from the ncighlx>iuiug peniiisiJa, with ita 
tkortbeni lafusiou, and lho«e who cante direct from tliC Phr^'gian regions, where the 
Ucfatrrw roota were »till in active exercise ; so that we see oomhincd in the T^tia 
Im^pugc the (brce of tlie expression from the north, the strength of expression from 
the Mrdtt<:nnncun, and the subtle inflections, though in an inferior di'groe, fix>m 
iht rc&ned and intdlectual residents of the domains of Greece. 



all probobillty was in cxwtCTtcr iinterior lo tlirm. The inscription beginB on the 
left haiiH ^itle of the Uiblet, and proceed to the right ; but the next Knc begin* at 
tfic right hand, and proceeds lo the left ; and thus it u carried on, ench succeeding 
line beginning where the preceding one finished, n mode which was shortly after- 
wards superaedcd by the presexvt one of writing irom the luft band toward* the 
right, 05 is sliown by the olmoct contemporary inscriptions cm the pedestal of the 
GolownB at DeloSj, and thfit of Amphitrion on one of the tripods of Thebc5. The 
Sigcan inscription^ in clasac Greek, runs thus : — " 4>ai«&xAi» t/fti roD ^pfLtx^dnuf 
r>u '!r^tXQ¥iiei(Ht^ Tuti tyoj xjar^ea xdr/tfrarw xa/ iftf/t» f j rroxn-auiav i^ojxa fLfrjui 'SiyiZa 
•(it 6i r/ coflj^w jjutXshaJvur eu ^tyiiui xa! fi (To/jjffif 6 A7<iit»; xcw w dfisX^o/," " I am 
liermocrates^ the son of rhanodictts, of this pn>montory ; and I have presented in 
the Prytoreum [a common ball in which the Grecians feasted together, and enter- 
tained such as had dcscr\'cd well of their country] a cnp, with a stand and 
rtraincr, as a monument to the Sigeans. If, thm, T endnre care on any accoi 
I go to the Sigeans, and iCsopapus and my bretliren bare erected a mom 
for mc.** The v^ole inicription bears evidence of its antique date, and of 
primitive manners which prevailed at the time it was made; and is pnrtii 
interesting as showing the progress of language from its root to its most 01 
chomcter in ancient times. 

Wliibtt the Attic phraseology wns progressing — tmtil, under the hands of H< 
dotus, Sappho, Pisistrakus, Pindar, Xenophon, ^scliylus, Sophochrs, Aristt 
Demosthenes, and Plato, it attained to that rich finisli and aflluent expi 
which liaa made it, in all its bearings, the model of language — the Egj-ptian 
gradxially degenerating, until the vernacular of the country became almost 
ligible, and was ultimately drhen into the regions of medial Africa, whiUt its 
was replaced by the more refined Greek and the corrupted I febrcw, which 
assumed the form of the Chaldaic or Syriac, afterwards to take the modiiicatioDi! 
the Arabic, which at length became the third great groundwork of the jxn 
languages of civilized society in that part of the world. 

The ancient Babylonian empire, fonndcd by Nimrod, was partly lost throogh 
enugration of the inhabitants towards the north, and partly absorbed in the 
empire under Niuus and Semiramia. Tlie monorchs of that sovereignty, Pul 
Pigleth-TUcser, carried off the two tribes and a half of the IsratrUies, who di 
beyond Jordan, about the early port of the eighth century before the Christaon 
and tlieir successor, Shahnanczcr, deported the remidnder of the people some 
teen years afterwards, and conveyed them to the district termed by the Gr« 
Abdiene, which spot became «he nueleus of the power afterwards wielded by, 



igntocj AmbAk Tlie new Babylonian aitd tha AMsytinn empires were clgsed by 
t proves* <kf Cyrtu, who constituted the dyiuuty of Per^iiia, and |)u«(icd <>a the 
■gii^gc thus streDgthoDed from so jmmy sources to tlifi westward, uuUl the Aniba, 
k» inherited hid enterprise with his authority, carried it, portly through rcligiuuj 
ithnriKCTn, and partly &om the eflforU fur cuoqucst, to the ejctrcnio verge of 

HTthem A/Hca, where the waves of the Atlantic laved the bases of the piUars rf 
nvoles ; and at length, having made their way intu Spain, urged on their con- 
until, under Abdoul Bahman Den AbdouUab, they received that check by the 
under Charles Mortel, on the pUins of Picardy, in a.d. 733, whicli a|;;uLn 
thcto beyond the P^Tcnees, where tliey remained in neiirly predoiniiiant 
for lour centuries, diifusang tlielr intluenoe over the expression and the 
of the pcx)ple where the Romans had so long reigned supreme, until it inoy 
be a question whether the Spanish language is more Jloorish or Latin, 
uguese, being on the outskirts of the Iluipamim peniiisub, werelt»s subject 
douujuoa of the African conquerors ; and, as in all other instances the dowi- 
tongue was preserved among tlie native inhabitants, we consequently find 
more of the genuine I^in terms reiiiined in their longimgc tlian in 
any other people, save those of Italy, on tlio continent of Europe. In IlK/rin, 
and in the provinces of middle Italy, we find the true germs of the 
aeem strange to one but little conversant with the intromission of words, 
should have bet:n the cradle of that set of phrases which was aflcr- 
fi>rm so large a portion of the language through whidi Uic knowledge of 
Ikoth physical and intellcctnal, should be disseminated. Tlie wonder will 
disLppcar, when it is recollected that the narro>\'ucss of tlie Adriatic Sea 
of a proportionally free intercourse between the north of Italy and die 
jirovinces — that the tendent^ of dvi}i2ation was continually trending 
while tl)e pressure of popidation was coming from the north. From the 
and from the east, the tide was pouring down whicli was to alter the language 
whole kindreds of the earth. Etruria was unquestkmably peopled ia Ums 
iBtsf a^: all iu antique vases and other montuncnts attest this; and it would 
likBt the Latin language itself was formed out of the dialects of tJiose first 
U who brought .thrir Greek from the neighl«uring peniiisuhi, with iu 
inhim infufiii^ and those who came direct from the Phrygian regions, where the 
rouCa were still in active exercise; so that we see combined in the Latin 
the force of the expression from the north, the strength of expression from 
u-iiAuukn, and the subtle inflections, though in an inferior di-guie, from 
lc&M«i aad intellectual residents of the domains of Gn*ece. 




Here then we have two of the cluaf elcmCDts of the English tongue Tho third '| 
ia derived from the other source provided by the great migration of nations. 
Part of the Bubylouiiuit 'H'itli the great A^s^-rian empire, had been merged^ a few 
oenturtca before the Christian era, under the Parthian dominion. When under the 
force of the Roman conquests this was broken, during tlie time of MithridateSf the 
great impuhe which had been given to the nortlicm tribes of Germany to cmigratB 
westward, some agea before, was increased manifold, and the outgoers who hod set- 
tled were pushed willi more intensity, and in greater numbers, towards the remote 
comers of the M world. The north uf Geriuuny, the southern districts of Norway 
and Sweden, and the whole of Dvuniurk, wu'u peopled. Britain hod received its por- 
tion of those who were wandering in search of a settlement. The new comen gavs 
additiouul unimfttion to their movements;, and tlic Alcmanni, who had become can* 
spicuouj for their number, tlicir hordiliood, and tlicir bravery, soon tistablislicd their 
position, and threw out communities who were destined to become notions. Among 
these communities, the Celts were remarkable for the earnestness with which they 
pressed forwurda ; and they, in a short time, became the residents of the British Isles, i 
bringing with them the superstitions, the dialect, and the idioms of the race from 
whicli Uicy derived their ori^n. With them were mingled a few of the inhabitant* 
of Scandinavia, whose language, drawn from their wooded heights and mountaiik' 
fastnesses, was termed GmUCj just aa that of their compeers, who came &om ih» 
sandy plains and meagre prospects of the districts which lie between the confluent' 
streams of the lower lUiine and the Scheldt, was called Celtic In these tn'o dialecti 
we find the foimdation of the English language, so far and no farther as it expresses! 
the actions of motion and relation, the primary sensations derived (rem the influenoe*i 
of the elements, and the words which indicate the simplest necessities of mankind.' 
Hie Celts appear to have had no written language, but possessed ample tradition, 
and a certain ability to construct highly figurative expressions. The people werOj 
therefoi*e well ]>repared to reotuve and use a nobler and more mode of 
prcssion, but centuries elapsed without any great advance being made. 

Jose(>hus has given us sufHciont intelligence to enable us to decide that the two J 
tribes and a half of the Israelitish people, first transported to the district of tlie nortltf 
of Asia Minor, found their locality between the Dead and Mediterranean Seas; 
he and Jerome, and other authorities, have shown us, that around them there w< 
settled several active and fierce tribes, whoso population rapidly increasing, 
ultimately forced upon the unoccupied plains of eastern Exirope. Tliesc tribes 
tlteir way along the south-east of Germany, gradually taking up in their pi 
the 9puit of the Grecian language, until they were precipitated upon Rome, and sul 
Tert«d the empire. The contest was, however, of long continuance, and wliile 



ooontTT, and substituted the Norman-French in its place. The vemncular Iiad, 
bufnerer, been too deeply established, too much integrated with tiic habile, Hie 
tboB^ts, and the necessities of tlic people, to be destroyed even under the com- 
prami of ■ tyrannic feudalism ; and it still, therefore, ccmticued the language 
of fi» ooontry — modified and greatly altered, it is true, and intermixed with 
maay of the terms which constituted portions of the phrases of the Norman no- 
t l f G . The Latin language too, o\\ing to the ritual of tlie Roman Catholic 
CXiurch, and the studies of some of the best works in it, hod tended much to 
aher the Anglo-Saxon dialect ; so that, when its use was revived in the reign 
of Hczny III. about the year 1316, it might very properly be termed Englxsil 

So TUious and $o numerous were the elements which were brought into rcquim- 
tioD to tJTjA the Etiglisli language, that it may be said to be compoimded of one 
yettioB or other of every language in Europe, From the Celtic it derived ita 
«f1giiial force for the expressious of the feelings of barbaric life ; from the Saxon, 
like fiilm-^ and the copiousness of cxpresdon for natural objects; irom tlie pathos 
ihe FnizdcL^h dialect, that tenuitlve character which enabled it to express the 
conversational phrases ; while, directly from the Liitin, it had drawn 
itical inflection, wliich, though entirely diflercnt from its original type 
ia appearance, is yet sensibly evident in its essential (qualities ; while the permeative 
of the Greek had supplied the peculiar energy by whicli it is distinguished. 
FnuB this point the language of the English people never deviated &om its 
femtokm, but still continuing to draw new powers from its former sources, con- 
tfaaed to improve in flexibihty, comprehensiveness, and strength, until it attained 
pnvtit parity and perfection. The process was, however, one requiring cen- 
oompletioii, but one which is equally interesting and peculiar, and it 
necessary and pleasing to show the states by which it progressed. 
Among the e&rHest of the mtmimcnts of Englisli literature is the chronicle of 
Bolieit of Gloucerter, supposed to have been written before the year 1278, and 
wUeh beurt all the marks of the period at wliich it wns written. Ilis production, 
vd llttt of Peter LangtofV, were both admirably edited by Ueame, and are invalu- 
lUe at reiioB of the old English language, liobert of Gloucester's chronicle, which 
to give a description of Ireland, opens thus ; — 

** TrloDdi 7» aler yt ben withe oato Engelonde, 
The sea goth al aboutenhTxacke a> lob ondentonde." 

The whole of the poctn is singularly quaint in its character, and delightfully intcr- 
a subject for study, but want of space prevents a longer extract 



Peter Langtoft was an Augustine canon of tlie establishment at Bridlington in 
Torlcshire, and wrote early in the reign of Edward II. who ascended the throne in 
1307. His poem professed to give an account of the expedition of the Earl of 
Warren into Scotland against Sir William Wallace ; and it is, as will be observed, 
singularly free from the foreign phrases, though with the halting accent of course^ 
of the period* The poem opens as follows : — 

** WhAD 6lr Jon Wareno the Soth onderfltoode* 

That thu Wallis gan breuno anil oste ^adred god?, 
And went to Stroleyoe ogayao Wallii WUliam ; 
Bot tho crlc withe mykcU pafnc disconfll awojr raanct 
And that was Uis foliei au long in his bed gun lygc 
Untillo ibc Wallis paKie had ambolaid the brig, 
With gavolockca and dartes luillio ere was none leue 
llTgbte no man departe, ne gaide* uo go betwene." 

It is cuTiouB to compare these specimens with Lcgamon's translation of the ^ Bruit 
d'Angleterre,** which is supposed to have been produced about the close of ths 
twelllh ooutui^, and from which the following is an extract:—^ 

** Tha the masM was Uoogen 
Of chiracken Ics thningeni 
The kingo mad ht» fvlke 
To bi« meto Terde 
And muche fait diuethe 
Drom was on birede 
Tho qneno an other hatr« 
Eire herebenre isolte 
Hes hafde of wif ronne 
Wtmder are luooi on.* 

It was shortly ailer the time of Robert of Gloucester that tLe language began to 
settle into its purely English form : there was greater freedom of expression, more 
facility for rhythm in the poetry, and a greatci approximation to its perfect construc- 
tion, aa is exhibited in the following extract from " Ellis's Early English Poets," 
which, howenrer, it should be obserrcd, boa been greatly divested of its Bntiqoo 

** Farre in the sea, by we«t 8paiD| 

Is a londo chot« Oockajrgne ; 

There n's-luid andor b«aroa rieh. 

Of wcl of goodness it 7-like ; 

Though Paradise be merry and bright, 

Cocbaygi>e Is of a fairer sight* 



What Ib tliore in ParaJiM* 

Bui GrMR, and Flower, and green riecf 

Though Ihero bo joy and Krcat dute, 

There n'is meat but fruit ; 

There D*ii hall, burc, nor bench. 

Bat waber maDDla thirst U> queneh.** 

Here U win be soon tliat there is hardly a word which ia not of & purely English 
duncter, aad that the acceut of the rhythm is reraorVably well preserved. 

Tbe risioo of " Piera Plowman," which was written about 1362 by Robert Long- 
bod, a secular priest, is the next best deserving of c^pocial notice ; and it is observ- 
able, that although, through the continental vmis of Edward m., in whose reign he 
fired, there was at the time great intercourse with France, the progress of the 
Uoguage would aeem ratfler to intimate that the accessions it luul received were 
tDore of ft Gaelic than of a Gallic character, although there is a slight intermixture 
of corTa|>LioDs from the latter source, as the following extract will show :-^ 

** Ad t« iho church gan ioh God to honoarie, 
Bjr for tbo crois on my knees knocked ich my brcst, 
Lykinge for my ncnnos* aeg ginge my patemo«tert 
Weeping And wailini; tyl ich w&a a sleepc ; — 
Then mott mo moche more than kh by for tolde* 
Of the mater that mete tynt on MalTeme HiUa.** 

Coo^cmporaiy with Langland, were Chauoer and Wyckliffe, the leaders of theii 
<lay in poetry and prose. What Dante and Tasso did for the Italian language, and 
FMaurt for the French, Chaucer did to a great extent for the English — for it is 
<\y too much to say, that there is not a word in the old Anglican dialect which 
:*.«; oot be found in Chauora writings, in beautiful as well as most appropriate 
«K. He dkfiused with his poema a tmto for poctjy, tended greatly by his example 
ml inSnenee to promote the peaceful arta, and induced that energising spirit among 
l«etter informed men of the day, which ultimately resulted in opening the foun- 
t of kzM>wled^ to the whole body of the people, and led the way to that re- 
us aod poUticoI freedom, which is the best and most valutible birtliright to every 
cDtitled to the name of Briton. The writings of Chaucer were engcrly and 
ut«Dafdij raid Among tliose who possessed the accomplisluncnt of reading ; and 
they wdl deserred sucli an honour, as will appear from a perusal of the following 
^miifbl oddreas to Spring, which is not only a fair evidence of hih style, but shows 
^ bsguagc as he used it It should be observed that, as a general rule, the lines 
of tiur urfy Britiiab poets should be read as they ore written, each syllable being 


zUt bssat on languaqe. 

Peter Langtoft was an Augustine canon of the establishment at BridHngton in 
Yorkshire, and wrote early in the reign of Edward IL who ascended the throne in 
1307. His poem professed to give an account of the expedition of the £ad of 
Warren into Scotland against Sir William Wallace ; and it is, as will be obsenred| 
mngularly &ee from the foreign phrases, though with the halting accent of comsch 
of the period* The poem opens as follows :—> 

" Whan Sir Jon Warene the Both onderstoode, 
That the WftULs gan breone and oste gadred godc^ 
And went to Straleyne agajme WalUa William ; 
Bot the erie witha mykeU payne dbconflt away raane. 
And that was hU folie* lo long in his bed gan Ijge 
UntUIe the Wallis partie had nmbelaid the brig. 
With garelockes and dartes soUke ere was none sene 
MTghte no num departe, ne gnide, no go betwene/* 

It 18 corioua to compare these spedmena with Legamon^s translation of the " Bnilt 
d'Angleterre," which it snpposed to have been produced about the close of iha 
tweliUi centorjr, and from which the following ia an extract :-f-« 

* Tha the masse was isqngen 
Of ohlracken les thmngeni 
The kinge mad his folke 
To his mete verde 
And moohe his duethe 
Drem was on hirede 
The qnene an other hiUro 
Bin bereberre isolte 
Hot hafde of wif ronne 
Wander an mool on.** 

It was shortly after the time of Bobert of Gloucester that the language began to 
settle into its purely Kngliah form : there was greater fireedom of expression, movt 
fiuality for rhythm in the poetry, and a greater approximation to its perfect conitmO" 
^n, aa is exhibited in the following extract from " EUis^s Early English Poe(%T 
which, however, it should be observed, has been greatly divested of iti nii|ijn> 

* Fane in the sea, ^ west epai% 

Is a londe ehote Cookargne ; 

There aVlaad mider heaven fieh^ 

Of wel of goodness it j-Uke ; 

Thoagfa Paradise bt m&nj and bright* 

Coohajgae to of a flUrer si^it* 



tam of A courtier's favour, the sweet strains of Henry Iluwartl, Earl of Surrey, cAnie 
R^cii^gly to aooUie the spirit; and thougli hU young blood spilt when lie ha<l 
m yet hardly attained the prime of life, the lines wliich he penned will never perish, 
aod did tbeir tisefid service in bringiDg more to a state of perfection the language 
in which he wrote. He \vas beheaded for one of those many political oHenues 
which w«re ascribed, equally with and without apparent foundation, to every public 
who had the mislurtunc to incur the ennxity of tlic nunions of Henry VIIL or 
tynniucal maJter, and died under the axe, in 1547, when in the thirtieth year 
las agCL The following sonnet wa^ ^vrittcn as a melancholy memorial of the 
of his fnend, Sir Thomas "VVyatt, whose fate he once Uttle expected to expe- 
^esoe^ Sot f«w men were more popular in his day ; — 

* DiTene thy death do direnvly bemoui, 

8oiD« that In presence of th; livetibcd 
Lvriwdf whoM breMta enry with hato bad ewoli^ 

Tield CflBiar't tean upon Pompeius' head. 
Bvme that watched with the murderoui knife. 

With ea^er thirst to drink thy guiltipss blood, 
Whoae pmctice brake by happy end of life» 

Weep earioiu tears to hear thy fame so good.* 

A woff^ wia at length publLshed whicli was eminently calculated to be the pre* ' 
amnc of (hat which was to be the standard of the English language throughout uU 
ifM. This was the translation of the Bible by Miles CoverdiUc, which first apjteared ' 
ia 1£SS. Thaa edition being rapidly bought up by the Roman Catholic autliorities, ' 
aolhcr was ipeedily produced, and ahnost immediately disseminated, so that uiie 
great tneana of difiiuing the language in itjt then comparatively perfect statu had 
OKn hi^ipily attained ; while the discovery and improvement of die art of jiriniing i 
4ttktg the preceding liulf century, provided the means of preserving what it Imd 
tiam 90 many centuriei to construct ; and tlie English language thence becauue a t 
Wiuble record of truth in all its branches, both mundane and divine. 

About this time also the study of the learned languages bcgnn to be very prcva- 
Ifol; iyid,ixi the year 1501, Dr. Collet appointed William Lily, then the fii-stGreik 
ciiolar in England, to the head mastership of his new school by St. Paid*s Cuthe- 
ilnl, where the study of the language in which he most excelled was particularly 
Mtoded to ; whale the same eaniestncsa in cultivating it was evinced ut Ciimbridgi*, 
^7 Smiib, Cheke, md Aschumi through whose labours chielly the higher chisses 
timtaghout the country became aci^uaintcd with the stores of Grecbu and I^utin 
fitcnture. And richly has the boon then bestowed been returned ; fur from Uiat 
poipd wv nutj date an improved mode in the inflection of llie langiuigo, and an 



ptonounced, as is the case io the Latin and Greek classics. The cUte of this poem 
is about the year 1370: — 

" Wh&nno that April with shourcs sotfr, 
The droughtc of March hntb pierced to the rote» 
And h&thcd every reine in swicbo licour. 
or which rertao cngcndrcd Is tb« floor ; 
yfheu Zephinii eke with hii sotc breth. 
Knspircd hath ororj holte and hethCi 
The tendre croppcs. and the jongo bosdo 
Bath in the race his halfe coors jronne ; 
And BTnall foules makcn melodie. 
That slecpcn alio nlf^ht with open eye : 
80 prlketh bene nature In bis corra^ea. 
Than loogen folkea to gon 00 pilgrimaeei." 

Contemporary with Chaucer, was one cqizally remarkable for his sttmnments 
abilities, and far more distlnguiiihed for the qualities of a mighty spirit which 
displayed, and for the effects which he was made the instrument of working. J( 
Wyckliffe, who was born in Yorkshire about the year 1304, soon evinced 
characteristics of his nature, and his capacity for influencing the minds of 
fblluwnien. Tlie uufUnching boldncibs with which lie preaclied, and the astonishii 
intrepidity which lie at all limes sliowed in withstanding, when be tlionght 
wrong, those to whom position lent power, caused his words to sink deeply into 
hearts and recollections of his countrjTnen, and therefore largely affected thi 
modes of speech. Among other means to influence them, and expose the ecclesu 
cal abuses of tlie day, he translated a great portion of the Scriptures, from whil 
as a curious example of the dialect of the time, a short extract is inserted irom 
seventh chapter of the Book of Acts : — 

'^This Moiscs ledde hem out, and dide wondrcs and signes in Cgypt, and in 
Red See, and in the deserte, fouiti gheercs. This is Moises that seide to the sooetj 
Israel, God scbal reise to ghou a prophitte like unto mee." 

Much was done during the century succeeding Wycklifle*8 death towards 
improvement of the language, particularly in the early part of it, through 
munificent endo\rments of William of Wykeham, at Oxford and Winchester, 
through the effect of his example, in the foundation of colleges and schools, bothi 
the former of these two places and at Cambridge ; while the writings of Sir J< 
Fortescue, Archbuhop Cranmer, Sir T. Elyot, Sir Thomas More, and Roger 
contributed to secure and diffuse the improvement which had already been al 
Yet amid the din of theologioal discussion, and the terrible excitement of poh 
oontrovers)', when life and death too often sat upon the result of an argument, or 




of m oourtjcr s favour, the swcel strains of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, canie 
n^cs^^gl^y ^ soothe the spirit; and though his young blood wm spilt wlien he had 
If y«t hardly attained the prime of life, the tkies wliich he penned will never perish, 
and did their useful service in hriugiog more to a state of perfection the huiguoge 
ia which he wrote. He was beheaded for one of those many political offen«-vs 
vhich were ascribed, ccjually with and ^athout apparent fuiin J;iiion, to every public 
rho had the misfortune to incur the enmity of tlie minions of Henry VHL or 
:ir tyrannical noaster, and died under the axe, in 1547, when in tJic thirtietli year 
Ins age. The following sonnet was written as a melancholy memorial of the 
of his friend, Sir Thomas Wyatt, whose fate he once little expected to expe- 
desoe, (br few men were more popular in his day :— 

* DiTCTM iby death do dlvcncl; iMMnoan* 

Book that io preoence of tfay Uvetihcd 
Itorked. whon breaita envy with bato had Bwolm 

TieM Cxaai's teuB apoD Pompciua* head. 
0MM that watched with the murderous knife* 

Willi Mfer thirflt to drink thy guiltlcu blood. 
WhMe pffBOilM brake hj happy eod of life. 

Weep earioos tears to Itcar tliy func fto good.* 

A work was at length published which was eminently calculated to be the pre- 

of that which was to be the standard of the £ugli.<ili language throughout all 

e& Tlua was the translation of the Bible by ^liles Covordale, which first appeared 

1533. This edirion being rapidly l>:>ught up by tlie Uuinau C'aihuUc uutJuiniies, 

M ^Kcdily produced, and uhno6t immediately dissenunated, so that one 

of difiuang the Lmguage in its then comparatively perft.'Ct state had 

£lj attained ; wliile the dL^covery and improvement of tlie art of printing 

tlie preoediug hull' century, provided tlie means of preserving what it liad 

•0 many centuries to construct ; and the Engllsli language thence became a 

lie rvcord of truth in all its branches, both mundane and diWne. 

liua time also the study of the learned langufiges l>egan to be very preva- 
■od, in the year 1501, Dr. Collet appointed William Lily, then the fii-»t Grerk 
in England, to the head mastership of his new scliool by St. Paulas Cathe- 
ial, where the study of the language in which he most excelled was particularly 
to; white tlic same camestncjis in culdvaiing it wascvincetl :it Cmnbntlgf*, 
Sadth, Cheke, and A.«cham, through whose labours chieHy the higher cla>^us 
[Qt the country became ac(|uainted with the stores of Grecian and I^tin 
And richly has the boon tlien bestowed been returned ; fur fruni that 
we may date an improved mode in the inflection of the language, and an 


affluent addition to its stores of expression, combined with a large increase of force 
iu their spii-it and meaning. Tlius, when the genius of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
and Junson, and, above all, Shakspeare, required a medium through which to 
convey those innumerable impulsive ideas, and those delicate tinges of meaning and 
feeling which geniug only can conceive, an instrumentality was amply provided most 
aptly fitted for their use ; and, truly, rich and noble and splendid are the monu- 
ments of intellect which endowments such as few since the creation have been 
gifted with, have ^labled tUo^e wiio used the language to leave behind them for 
the honour of their country, and for the delight and benefit of mankind. 

But another work, nobler even than theirs, was yet to follow — a work which waa 
to constitute the gUtndard of that language in which are enshrined, as in a temple 
worthy of the Divinity from whom it emanated, a countless host of <he noblest 
thoughts and the brightest scintillations of man's celestial natiure, that ever gleamed ' 
through the human intellect — a language destined to be spoken by the most power- i 
fill of the nations of the earth — a language to be spoken over a more varied and f 
extensive surfiice than any other that has ever been used by mankind— a language \ 
appointed to the high honour of disseminating to the &x-oS islands of the boundless | 
ocean, and to the remotest comers of the habitable world, the glad tidings of great 
joy contained in that Gospel which has made known to man tlie glories of their j 
origin and their destiny, which has opened to us a knowledge of spheres beyond 
the sky, and which has brought in every clime the knowledge of life and immor- \ 
tality to light. This work was the authorized translation of the Bible. 

If pne time for the great undertaking could possibly be more propitious' for this j 
great work than another, it was that in which it was actually executed. The i 
Keformation had been long enough completed to give to men of learning experience 
sufficient to enable them to use their emancipated powers wisely and -with effect 
Ciuiosity, interest, and duty combined to urge to the diligent study of language^. The 
importance of the trust was fully appreciated. Like Hilkiali, they had found the 
law ; and it required the very highest use of all the powers of their native speech 
to transcribe it for the hearing of the people. Men most noted for their attain- 
ments, their judgment, and their piety, were selected for the task. They were 
divided into sections. Each section took its appointed portion for translation ; and 
then, when each individual had performed liis task, the whole of the work was com- 
pared and revised: and it was not until a manifuld judgment had been most i 
deliberately passed, that even a single sentence was suifered to remain as a portioa ( 

' of the true version of the Holy Writ. And so they went on, until the whole was 

! completed : and a monument of genius and carefulness was erected which will last 

60 long as tlie English language shall endure ; and a fountain of knowledge wM 



opened, out of Trhich ooimtlcss myriiuis have drank the wateni of life, to their 
pTCsent c3omfort and ticir everlasting happiness. It is allowed that no work was 
trrtx more admirnhXy peHbrmed than that of the Cominissioncrs of James I. ; and 
vheoerer the standard of the English kmgua^ is required, the learned of all sects, 
opiniotM, and degrees, uniformly turn for the resolution of a doubt to the trana- 
btioD of iho Bible. 

The fuundatioD of the nnmerous schools instituted by royal and private tnurn- 
Coence, during tlie first half of the sixteenth century, and especially those instituted 
oiuleT Edward VL during the progress and completion of the Reformation, bore 
ample fruit of the highest cltoracter. Tlie emanations of genius which shone out 
with sucl* peculiar lustre during the reign of Elizabeth, were admirably seconded 
hj kfac tsSsrtM of the educated men who h)id gone through a regular scries of 
•ebotastic training ; and who, towards the latter end of tJie reign of that sovereign, 
bfMight ftO the appliances of their acquired knowledge, to the dissemination of 
gmg»I ideas aud principles and the settlement of a regular ly-constitu ted language. 
Tlmag^Kmt Europe there was a imiversal revival of learning. "Hie ancient classics 
hid been, lo a great extent, recovered. The experience of those wlm wrote them, 
i&dallthe detziils of the refined ages of antiquity, had been brought into play for 
tfaeoooxmon benefit The English colleges were advnncing in industry and intclli- 
pme^ ss veD as repute ; and the hardy spirit of inquiry, induced by the results of 
tbt ciril contest, literary as well as political, had been towards the middle of the 
■Bjcnuh ocntury largely invigorative of the old English tongue Terms appro- 
pate to the expression of ideas, whether referential to physical or intellectual 
iAjjotilMf h»d been abundantly incorporated both from the Latin and the Greek — 
ibe phraseology chiefly from the foniier, the spirit from tlie latter, of these two 
VBraial tongues : and when the galaxy of talent arose at the commencement of 
iki MnfBDtcenth century, to shed lustre uu tlie Augustan age of literoture, the com- 
pw d w i Tcnqag, tlie softness, and the variety of the national means of expression, 
W bopu so wonderfully increased, tliat little but technical improvement was either 
Wfamrj or desirable. Intercourse with the continent, both during war and in peace, 
M penneated it &fre«h, with the subtile energy which distinguished the denizens 
of Atuca and their neight)ouring nations. The labours of tlie polemical divines, 
iai 1650 to 1700, had filled the language with full and powerful terms, for which 
it M bees wcU prepared by the works of Shakspeare, Jonson, and their contem- 
petviea. Drj'dcn, Addison, Steele, Pope, and tlieir follows, added the light 
vaOery of the Belles Lettres, for wliich the comparatively refined manners of the 
period trroux^t o convenient facility, and with which they combined that beautiful 
»bly typified in the ad unrjuam polish of the olden sculptors — which 




"vma ftli thftt was necessary to complete and fit a language for the purposes of tJie 
most )jighly complex and ornate state of society. Then was but one tlung wanting. 
*n»at was a repository wheiv all these treasures of intellect could be safely deposited, 
lor the advantage of the existent and the wealth of future generations. That 
poatoiy was supplied by, whatever may be thought of his st^'le of UTiting, that 
ooIosBus of literature, Saiiuel Jqiinson, who, poor^ unaided, and olonc, built up 
that monument of an imperishable fame, iu his Dictionary of the English Language, 
in two volumes folio, wherein are exhibited all the vastnesa of a capacious intellect 
and all the resources of a most surprising attainment. With a labour that must have 
been immense, and witli a knowledge and judgment that hardly any otlier roan 
poaaesaed, he drew from all their open and secret sources the meaning of the words 
of which the Knglish language was composed, and which, for all the purposes of 
merely literary commimication and moral instruction, might well then be thought 
to be complete. 

There was, however, another step ^rther yet to go. When the polemical am 
political disputes which had agitated the country were brought to a oomparativ 
cloee by the Act of Settlement of 1689, men hod leisure to turn their attention 
the more peaceful occupations of scientific pursuit The discoveries of Galileo 
hod paved the way for a deeper inquiry into the laws and movements of the 
physical world than had ever before been attempted, either by the Ptolemies, 
Pythagoras, or any of the ancient philosophers ; and whtm Newton came upon the 
stage of life there was a large space opened for the exercise of his geniiis. lliQ 
wonderful fields explored by his profound researches into natupR prompted to ne 
inquiries, until Linmeus in the vegetable kingdom, and Bufibn in animated lift 
laid such facts before the pubUc, as required a new nomenclature to render the 
intelligible to the community ; and as the iacXs which had to be stated were qui 
beyond the range of knowledge, and, consequently, without the means of com] 
benidon, possessed by the Anglo-Saxon projectors, there were no roots in the la 
guagc out of which to evolve a series of terms fitted to state the circumstances which' 
those authors hud to communicate; and the Greek and Latin langunges were searched, 
and searched successfully, to supply the deficiency. The result was, that a set 
compotmd words were formed, well calculated to express precise ideas of the sevi 
oVijeots of scientific consideration, imd singularly indicative of their several nat 
Thus Astronomy, Geography, Botany, and Physiology, obtained their distincU 
terms ; and when, through the celebrated philosojihera Scheele, Priestley, Dal 
Vtkvy, Babington, Watt, Saussure, Lyell, De la Bechc, ond a host of olliers, the 
patent and occult properties and actions of natural bodies hud lobe designated, the 
lame course was pursued ; and compound terms from both tlie ancient UnguAj 




It espetatSij firom the Greek — though by whom they were invented can never be 
oron^y asoeltained — ^have been incorporated, and now form an integral portion 
tlieEngliaih language. 

That haa the language of Britain been constituted — a language most beautiiidly 
d admirably conatmcted — a language replete with every epithet necessary to 
pre« the utmost variety of ample ideas and objects, as well as the most abstruse 
vtings of the mind and the most subtle promptings of the heart ; the tongue of 
iedom and of truth— a language fitted to amplify as the necessities of mankind 
tj arise — a language, compriang within its scope the elements of all the other 
^nages of the world, the worthy medium of the noblest sentiments and of the 
•t magnificent intellects — a language which has met, and is competent to meet, 
the exigendics which the requirements of humanity may occaaon for tlie pur- 
KS of intellectual advancement or the benefit of our common existence. 










AiiUttfit Iffttcr of th« En^luh nlphibtt, u it is 
tflllMlMr alphabets, rxc*pl the Ethii^pic, of which 
iiltto tUrlMiUi, and the Runic, uf which it is the 
tBtk. TlM msMi of thU ia probably on account 
d li mi r tu t io g tha firat vocal »)und niUurally 
Iml kf the or|E>uu of apttch, altered by meiYl/ 
; tW mouth. The name of the letter i& the 
> tf fljr Id dtij/ i but it ha* at least four dia- 
■1. 'llie name or long aoiiod, ai in 
, iolc, aueMW. 2. The Italian coand, as in 
^/(iiktr, 3. The Gi'nnan or broad 
K m o//. haldy haiL i. The abut or clo^e 
■ b •Mm, amai^am. The firat thnw 
Moil) vhcD. ottattenled* are inertlj shortened In 
f^BtitT. The fourth soond, wfaea unaoceuted, 
~^fnBaatM in tufue inslaiioe* to the eonnd of v 
^ataWOtrf aa m morfttr, dollar, Sec In Gram- 
ff ^ II tamtWj dttfloiuiuatcd the indetinite ar- 
wben pUc«d before a uuari, it does 
pK^lirize. A before a rowel, or silcDt A, 
[ifcuignl into an, as, on agreement, an heir; 
t% ^ BiA Ko altrnd before u \ong^ as that letter 
Ibc power of the eonwnaut y in jfou. It is 
1 wiife a participle or a participiiJ Doun, », 
a baodng. When prcGxed to mnnj or 
riMQWttmee implies a wbole nQcober, or an 
■leaf few or msn^ talccn coUectireljr. As a 
ta vnrdi from \hr Greek, it is f:ei)crally 
'(»», M, oclii -ut colour; in wlncb 

wiU sj V icle, it takcd « be- 

lt aad lb« ^ v>>l. Jn Pbamiacj, 

'JiAmMrr' '■•' Grctk ann, b\p)\fy 

itfftrolaljf, ' ■ ■■ '-^i itwutinncd should 

hi qnaiiittifett of the lamo meastire. 
*' •^ ^., in Ch^mi->tr7, stnod for annlgain, or 
iM. In Comroerce, A. stands for ac- 
At in Huaic, is the nointnal of the Mxth 
lb ^ futtaral dUtoolo wsale, called by tioido 
Jb Borhvqut Poetry, A U Mmietiinra tisisl to 
I oat « riiUHe without tiUUng to lie i»mu«. 

^, among ths nncieiits, stood u a noownU for 
600, and with a dash o\-er it, a, for 5000. la the 
Hebrew, Syrisc, Cbaldcc, aiid SnmDritau, it denotes 
one. or utiitr. lit Uie Julian Calendar^ A in the flnt 
of the Bcwn dominical letten. Ainoni; Lngicimi, 
A; as ati abbrrviatioa, stands fur a uaivoruil alSir- 
rautive proposition. A. asserts, and E. denies; 
thus, in bai-tara, A, tbrioe rrpeuted, denotee to 
many of the propositions to be nniverasL Among 
the Botnana, .4. was tued to nigtiifjr s ne);ative or 
dijaeiil. A. stuidi for <niteqvo, I oppow or object 
to tbe proposed law. In criminal trials, A. stood 
for o&w/ro, I acquit. A. D. tamo domini^ tbt 
year of oar Lord. A. U. C, oniio urbc eomHti^ 
from the building of tbe city of Rome. A. M, 
anft wieriJitin^ before noon ; or artiurn ma^itter, 
master of arta. A hm nuiny lii^iHcAtioiis in oar 
old writers and in our provincial diidects, of whleh 
the following are some — ah, he, they, all, ou, lun, 
ocM, alirays, yea, even, && 
Aam, ^ awin, «. A Dutch liqaid measare, equal to 
Atni, ^ 41 wine gailoui nt Anuterdsm, 3(>1 it 
Ahm, J Antwerp, 3)^4 at Hamburgh, and 3v at 

Frankfort. — MuccuUvch. 
Aahokic, ay ron'ik. > a. Pertaining to the 

Aaromcal, ay-ron'e-kal|/ pnevthood of Aartm. 
Aahomite. a'ru-nite, #. A debcendont of Aaron, 
the brother of MoseSf who aorvod as a priest at the 
sanctuary. — KUio. 
Ab, ab, s. At the beginning of the namei of places 
^I'nrrally deuotes its ronnectioti with so abber, ss I 
Abbington ; as s prefix of Latin on^n, it aignitiea i 
Jrnm. Ab ia tbe Hebrew name of fatbpr, sod that 
of the elerenth month of the Jewish ciril year, and 
the liAb of the ecclvsiastical year, including part 
of our July and August. It is the name of the 
Inat suiiuner month iu the Syriiic calendar. 
Ab.vhilo, a-bah'e-lo, j. A fnbuliius aiiiiiml man- 
tioDt^ in the Konui, sdid to have had the foet of 
a dog and the beak of a bird. 
AsACisCiis, a-ba-ds'kus, o. In Architecture, the 
nqu-iro oomparttneot of a moiaic paTcment, endos- 




inj; a part^ or the entire pattern or deniEn. The term 
19 wiiiietiincs uceil as sviionjnkotui with abiicu*. 

Adaciat, ab'a-iut, «. (from o&am, IM.) One 
who cast* up ■c»ountii ; a calculator. 

Aback, a-bak', aJ. {on bar. Sax.) Backwards. 

Bflt whoi tfa^r came where tboa thy iklM didit thoir, 
Tll«7 dnw abaclet u half with shame canfoon<l.— 


la Arohitocture, urn* u aboimtf m square inr- 
fac*— {not in use in dther of these senses.) 

to lh« oentn or roldil at tlie [wgin, there was aii aback, 

or squarv, In which thU ele|^ waa writtan. — Be* Jmuon. 

la Marins langns^ it denotes the situation of 
the iails when praised back to or against the mast. 
TaJxm abaeh^ is when the sails are carried back 
iodiienlv bj the wind. I^d aback, it when the 
sails are purposri/ placed in that aitaation to give 
ths ship stcmwaj. 

AbaCOT, sh'a-kol, s. A cap of state, wnmght np 
into tb« figure of two cnwns, sod worn andsntly 
hj the kings of Englntid.— CoimL 

Abactor, a-bak'tur, i. ( Latin ; from ahi^, to drtrs 
awH/.) One who feloniouAJy steals or drires away 
a b<n?d of entile, or cattle in oouudenble numbers. 
— An old law term. 

Abactsd, a-bok'ted, part. Driven away by liolence. 
— ObMleta. 

Abacc», ab'a-kns, s. (Latin ; fhna dWrx, « slsb or 
board. Or.) A counting tablo, anciently used in 
calculations. In ArobitcotuK, the upper mem- 
ber of the capital of a oaluron, serving as a 
omwuiog both to tb« oapltal and to the wbole 
eolumn. It is usually square, bnt sometimes 
Its sides are arched inwards. Tbe name Is 
also given to a concave moulding on (he capi- 
tal of tha Tuscan pedestal, and to the plinth 
above ths booltb to tba Tnasan or Doric ordere. 
AhiKma h/trmffnicta, Uw fltmotun and didpontion 
of the keys of a nioMcal instrument, Abaau 
majar^ a trough used in mine* to wash ores in. 
Ahacn* PytkofforicMs, th« multipUcation table, in- 
vented by Pylhagorus. 

AbaDa, ab'a^a, «. An African animal of the deer 
or antclo)i« kind. 

Abadexmi, a-bad'don, s. (Oreek ; from pSM. de- 
struotioB.) Tba dastroycr, the nain« given in the 
Apocalypse lo tba angel of death. Wherever the 
iauia Usbruw word ooours in tbe Old Teatairwnt 
il Hgnifioo destruction, or the place of dcstmctioD, 
C ai tba snbtarraDran world. Hades, the rt^ion of 

lUM. a-be'sum, s. Tbs oxida which forma on 
tha iron of wheels, fbnDtrly used aa roedictna. 

Abaft, abaft', ad, orprtp, {Im^hm^ behind, Sax.) 
K«ar, or at tha atam or hinder part of a ship; 
towards tba atcm, aa, abqfi ifae mainmast. Ahq/l 
A§ Aaoai, is that arch of the horison which is be- 
t wssB a lino drawn it rij^ht angles with tho kaal 
aai Ihs poiot to which the item is directed. 

Amaocb, ab'a-gun, s. The oanie of a fowl in Ethi- 
opia, remarkaUs for its beauty, and for a sort of 
MB pwiuf M ^ ^•"■'L T^ **^rd signifies 

AaaiBaBOBi a^'aiBi, §, Ot«iaane^— which ascw 
A»AlMHIs\^»-ha'ad,«. Ashanied; abashed— (ob- 

Odd and alia md BMK 
Bo grwt was mltM bcrtt.— AoV Ifmi^lmm. 

In Heraldry, an epithet applied to the wings of 

eagles, &.C., when tho tips droop to the poiot of 

the Mhield. 
Abajour, ab'a-shoor, «. (French, a skylight,) A 

sloping aperture for light or air in a pruoa or 

AnALiENATE, a-bnie 'yen-ate, r. a. In I^w, to 

alienate ; to transfer property frtim one to another ; 

to sstraoge ; to withdraw the afiectionik — Xot 


Tbe derfl and hia deceitful an^ela do so bewitch tbaa, 
BO M^limmtt tbetr minds, and troable iholr meaorias.^ 
Ahp, Samd^B, 
Abalieitation, a-bale-yen-a'shan, *. Tha act of 

traosferring title to property ; alieaatioa of pro- 
Abamcbui, a-ba-fnn'n», a. (oS. snd mstf^Mi, a will, 

Gr.) A buttress or second wall built to strsagthsa 

another. — Not in u^e. 
ADA.KD, a-band', p. a. (contracted Erain Ahandoi.) 

To fonakc — Obsolete. 

Tbsy stnmcrr an 

Than Ibev which sought ai Arst their helping fcaa^ 

And Vortlger enfore'd the kingdom to nllinaif j^nusr. 

Abakdon, s-ban'dau, r. a. (a&afufonfMr, Fr. aft — 
doruxre^ ItaL tAandonar, Span.) To fonako en- 
tirely ; to renouQce ; to leava with a view never Co 
Tctuni ; to resign or yield up, aa, to obanAn tiM 
cares of empiro — G^6on; to give np or nti^ 
without control, as, to ahaadon oneself to tonvw. 
In Murine Insurance, lo rclioquuih all claim to a 
ship or ffocda insorad, aa a prtdiminary lowiids 
rccuYcrliig fur a tutal loss; — «. one who totefly 
deserts or fonakas — (obsolete) ; 

A (Har, an abandon of tbe world.— 5ir X gaa%i. 
a rcUnqoishmfliit. — Kot used. 
Those heavy axaetlooB hara oeeaatonfld aa vAcadtoa «r 

all mlnea bol what an of tha richer moru—Lerd Kmmm. 

AbaKDOKSD, a<han'dnnd, a. Give^ op, aa to a 

rice; catranely wicked ; sinning without mtrnt. 
ABAKttovBB, a^ban-don-e', s. In Law, otw te 

whom anything is abandoned. 
Abavdoneb, a-hao'dna-ur, s. One who ab«BdaB% 

deserts, or fonskes. 
ABAKi»oinNG, a-ban'don-ing, a. Abandonment. 
And annatnral aioM^Miv of life.— £'/. AaJL 
ABANi>OKMEifT,a-ban'dnD>ment,s. (abaitdimnammi, 

Kr.) Tbe act of abandoning ; state of being 

Abanpum, a-ban'dam, s. la Law, aoythtog in a 

stale of seqorstration or forfeitorb 
Abahoo, a-ban'gD, t. The Ady, a speciea of 

tree, a native of tbe West Indies It yii 

juice which, when fennaotad, is used as a 

ABAKirmoy, B-han-nisb'nn, a. (abatmoHo, Lai.) X 

banishment for one or two years fur maaslaogfator. 

— Not in use. 
ABATTiiliTOif, a-hap-tis'tnn, s. Tba pcslbnliBg 

part of tbe trophios, a sorgieal iostnoBaaC oaad in 

Abare, a-bare', o. a. (afitnlaMf Sax.) To insfa 

bare ; to uncover.— Obsolete 
Ababbe, a-bdr^, r. a. To pravent ; to hindec. — 


Ther wan thao aftar r aJ from approaeUac to aaaadla 
tha diW-JbawWL 

ABABTiciTxunaK, ah-lr-tik-a-U'sfa«n, a. (oh^ mat 
artkulm, a joint^ Lai) In Anatomy, that UaA 
of stnctunaf thajoiati-vUeh adntlta of mai^fiift 




b i> lilwwiM called dius 

itift, a fcw', B. A Ponv) wdght, less on«-«sghth 

ti ih» Enropeaa ount 
itAtx, ft-brnx*', *. «u Co&aiuer, from 6<u, low, or 

the bonoDi, Fr. froM, Gr. and Lat.) To lowir ; 

tB depn»— (not used lo this miaa) ; 

^atyli^ Ke«*«Mrf hU 1*noe a^iut him tlut had 
■■■■■< fctlmi, T^nt. (•/ rm ^iso<«. 

feB CMl down : to bring low ; to hamble. 
BiWI •W7 eoa tbst 1» proud, and a&OM blai^~/e(xl. 
i»A»C».— Sn Ahalsard. 

s-buc'mcnt, *. The act of bum bling 
low; tb* lUte of being fanugbt km ; 

■fail 111 iMcaiwa of glory ; and there b 
■ftUfarfk ^ Ua head Ikna a low esulc— 
K&flo; k-lasb', V. a. (etymolof^ nncprtaia, prob- 
aiJtj fnm mhaismr, to drprm, Fr. : Webster gire* 
(n^ to be eonfoimded or ashamed, Heb. and 
To pot faito oonfrinon throuf^h ahame, hj 
m waam of inivrioritT, vrror, or 



\$. A nWer coin of rersta, 

I^HflW. th'$s-mtf worth two mammoudiSf or 

IbwtliajiB being Miniralent to ICd. sterling. It 

h CO caDcd firom baring been Ntniek tit the reign 

rfSctek AbbM XL. king of Penia.— £ftC3«. Af&r. 

ftfttlflfl f** . A-baah'roeot, s. Confu«on through 

Aibm; mam of eonfodon. 
iMtmrnut, o-ita'ta-bl, a. That maj bo abated, aa 

MtfhMaUe writ or noiaance. 
Aftarm, »-bote', r. a. (abatirty to beat down, Fr. o&o- 
fep,a|Mi.kilBrB,aMlar«, lul.) To beAt down ; 
to|dl4own; todMrojr in anj manner; toleasen; 
|i dtaniih ; to moderate, aa, to abate pride ; to 
■Itipto^aa, loafo/fl painoraormw; to overthrow ■ 
to «■■• t»£ul| as, to abaU • writ ; to fnutrato hy 
ImI Muliinro ; to deduct ; 
^■■lltiig to add, and nnChlos tv oi^te.— ibpt. 

to nmit, H, to abaU a tai ; — p. m. to 

r pvv leM in BtreDgth or violence, as, 

ii6a*a ; to fail ; to be defeateil, as, a 

tM. In Iaw, to enter into a ftvvhold 

4eB>li of tbo laat occupant, and before 

poaseaaion. In Uurse- 

to p et fe nn w«U a downward motion : a 

rid to abnte^ or tjike down fata cnrvet.<s 

wnrtog upon corveta, be put* both hU bind 

froond at ooee, and obaeires tbe sanw 

la aO the CinMa. 

■-baCe'mcnt, «. The act or state of 

tbe aoffl or qoantit}' lakon awaj hy tbe 

lii^; dimiuutiun ; miltfration, aa of pain 

In Law, orerthrow; failure or defeat, 

of a writ ; tbe entry of a stranger 

after tbe death of the tenant, be- 

hair ar deriaee. In Heraldry, a mtrk of 

ir ia a coat of arma, by which ita dignity 

ad $at some stain on the character of the 

Ia Coianieroe, tbe name aometiinea given 

■M fir prompt payment; it la also oaed 

■ Kbe deducuoo that is sometitnes made at 

Um-lM»ae from tbe dotj chargeable on 

ids as are damajied. 

»-W'tiir, s. Tbe pcraon or thing that 

b'a-tSa, or a-ba^te'i t, CFrench.) In For- 

I, ptlm of trees, or branches of treesi, 
id, and Ud with their points outwards, 


tb Mr «- d ail m tdwa 


•A IT 

m fotC 


and placed in front of ramparts, to prerent aiaail- 
antR from mounting the walls. 

Adatoii^ ab'a-twawr, *. (French.) A general 
tlaoghter-hoQse for cattle. 

Abatoh, a-ba'tor, s. A person who enten into a 
freehold on the death of the last pouessor, before 
tho bcir or devisee. — Biackstone. 

ABArriTTA, a-bat-td'ta, «. (Italian.) A word osed 
in manc-books after a break, to denote that the 
time of any piece is to be beaten as before, 

Abatudb, ab'a-tude, t, (from Abate.) Anylbing 

Abaturea, ab'a-tnrze, «. (FreDcb.) TIte graaa 
trodden down by a deer in pussliig. 

Abawbi, arbawm , «. A speciea of red clay. 

Abax. ab'aks, #. (Greek, a slab.) A gentu of Cole* 
optercos ioKCts : Family, Carabidic 

Abo, ab, i. An old name for tbe warp of a weaver^i 
web. Abb-wool, among Clothiers, the warp or 
longitndinAl fibres of a woven fabric. 

Abba, ah'ba,*. SyiiJic and Cbaldee.) Father. In 
the JSyrian, Coptic, and Ethiopic ehnrch, a title 
pven to tbe btshopa; the bisbopi bestow tbe 
tilh>. hy WftT of distinction, on the bishop of Alex- 

Adbact, ab'ba-se, t. Tbe righta, dignityi and office 
of an abbot 

ABBATiAt^ a-ba'shal, a. (French.) Belonging to aa 

Abbe, ohTjay, «. (French.) An abbot; more oora- 
monljr an eodesisstic having no assigned duty or 

Abbess, sb'bei, #. (oAfrMse, Fr. abbati$4a, L«t) Tbe 
superior or governess of a nnnnery or convent. 

Abbet, ablw, a. A monastery of religious persons, 
whether met! or women; the chorcb attsched, or 
that was attached to an abbey. Abbey-lt^iber, a 
name gi^en to monks in contempt for then- idle 
habits, or to persons who subsisted on the donations 
of monasteries. Instead of supporting themsrlvea by 

Abbot, ablmt, s. The superior of a monastery or 
oonvenL There arc various kinds of abtoU — aor 
bishop abbutt, whose abbeys have been erected 
into bishoprics ; cardinal abbot*, tho6« who are 
also csrdinala ; commendatory abbots, or blBhopa 
in commendam, who are sccniirs, performing no 
spiritual office; crotiereJ abbots^ each as bear tbe 
crozier or staff ; mitrtd abboU, sovereign or general 
abbots: Uiey are called mitred from tbe mitre 
which they wore; secondary abbots, tho lurne as 
priors; and rcptiv abbots^ real monks who faava 
taken the tow and wear tbe habits. Ahhot of 
murwfe, or, in Scotlnnd, «66oi of unreason^ a per- 
son who soperintendfd the dtrmions of Christmas, 
othfrwise called tbe lard of misrule, 

Anm^T^nir, ab'bot-Aliip, s. The state of an abbot. 

Abbrkviate, ab-breVe-ate, r. a. (abbrtriarf^ Ita!. 
ttf/hm-iar^ Span, abbrerio, from brevts. short, Lat.) 
To aharten by contracting the parts; to cut short; 
to abridge ; — a. an abridgment. lu Matbematica, 
to reduce fractions to the lowest t«nns. 

Abbreviated, ab-breVe-ay-ted, a. Shorteced. In 
Butfiny, an abbreviated perianth is shorter than 
the tabe of ths oorolla. 

Abrkkviatioit, ab-bre-ve-a'sban, s. The act of 
shnrtening; a contrnctinn, as gent for gentlenum; 
tbe redaction of fractions to their lowest terms. 

Abbbktiatob, ab-bre've-ay-tnr, s. (abbreciateur, 





Fr.) 0:ie nbo nbbrerutes or abriilgcs. ^A^- 
viators is the name given to aevontj-two persons In 
tha chancery of Rome, whose duty is to draw np the 
Pop«*s bulU, and reduce p«tiiioiu, when granted, 
to ■ due form for bulU. 

AraMicTUTOHT,abbiQ've-iL-tar-«.a. ThatihortMs 
or abbreviatefl ; contracting. 

AnanETiATunEf ab-bre've ature, «. A mark or 
letter luod fur shortening ; on abridgment. 

A-B-C, ay be se. Tbo first ihrce letters of the 
alphabet, used for tbo wliolo alphabet. 
To wallt alone like one that hni the pestlleaoe, to alffh 

tlk« a bov itui: Imii lokt lili A~B-C, to weep hice a young 

wench thVt has burled bur ^nutAjun.—SkaKa. 

At By C-hooky a catei:hisin, hom-book, or primer, 
used fur teaching cliUdrvn the firat rudiments of 
raading; aometiines the alphabet in general. 
Tlien f»m<» qtmtlon tike kn J-B-C-book. — Sfftka. 

Abdalati, ab-da-U'ri, m. The Egrptjan melon. 

ABUALS, ab'dala, a. The name of ctrtain funatics 
in Penia, who* in excess of teal, Aomstimes ran 
into the streets, and attempted to kill aU they met 
who were of a ditfcrt-nt rrligion ; when killed in 
mcli siilties, tliey were by iha vulgar cousldeied as 

Abosrite, ab'dcr-ite, f. An inhabitant of Abdera, 
a RMnttme town in Thrace. Democrilns ia so 
called Snin being a nalira of tliis place. As ho was 
disposed to laugh mach, foolish or incessant is 
called abderinn laughter. 

Aboest, ab'daat, 4. Parification; a Mohammedan 

ABDCTEtnt, ab-dfi'vC'nm. a. In Astrology, the 
twcinh house in a scheme of the heavens. 

A&I*1CAKT, ab'de-kaiit, a. AlHlirutiug; mionncing. 

Abpicatii, ab'dc-kate, v. a. (abdt'co, Lat.) lu a 
genervl senao, to relinquish, rrnouncr, or abandon ; 
to abandon an oQicti or trust, without a formal 
resignation to those whu amfcrrfd it, without 
tlieir consent ; also, to abandon a throne without 
a legal surrender of the cn^wn ; to relinquisli an 
ofBce before the expiration of the time of aemce; 
to reject ; to renonnco ; to alundun, as a right ; 
to cast away. In the Cidl Law, to disclaim a son, 
and expel him ^m the family ; to disinherit 
during the life of the ftther ; — r. n. to renounce ; 
to abjindon ; to cast off; to relinquish power or 
trufit, as a right. 
Tbouj;h m king tuny abdUatc tor bis own person, be 

cannot abdicatt for the mouarcfay. — Sludt^tont. 

Abdication, ab-de-ka'shon, s. Tbo act of nhdi- 
cnting; te^^nation of ufSce; a casting ulF; a 

Utter, final, Irrerentbto ah4i09tiom.r—fftmmmi. 

Abdicatits, ab'de-kay-tice, a. CaasiDg or unply- 
iiil{ abdiention. 

Ast^iTiVK, ttb'de-tiv, a. (ahdoy I hide, Lat.) Hav- 
ing the quality of hiding. 

Abditobt, ab'do-tur-e, «. A plaoa to bid* gooda 
or money in. 

Abimmss, ab-do'metu a. (Latin, from a&t/o, I hide, 
and omenftun?) The lower renter or belly, or 
that part of tha body rituntrd between the thonii 
and Uit pelm. tn Insecto, the tower pnrt uf the 
animal united to the corslet by a 6lnment. 

Abdominal, flb-^lomln-al, a. ReUting to the 
•bdomen. Abdombiat ring^ or inguinal ring, an 
oblong tendioona ring in both groins, tbrongh 
wbich the epermatio cord in men.ond the round 
ligame&ta of the uterua in women pass. 

Aa DOM i:r ALES, ab*dnm-in-a'les,\ s. In Ichthy- 

Abi>o»ii(aL9, ab-dom'in-ala, / ology, • dum 
given by Linno^ns to a cls-wt of fiahes who Itart 
the ventral 6n» placed behind the p^-doral, as in 
the saIidoii, pike, mullet, herring, and carp. 

Abdominodb, ab-domla-us, a. PartAioiog to t)M 
abdomen ; having a large belly. 

Abol'OB, ab-dusc', v, a. (abduco, ab and ducOf I 
lead, Ijit.) To draw one pott front another; la 
draw to a different port. 

AiiiMrcENT, ab-du't»ent, a. Rnving the property of 
drawing back or away, as the abducent mtuclca 
wliid) operate in drawtii}; bnck, aepxruLing, or open- 
ing those pnrts of the body in which they an 
intcrt^l : they sre called abdudorx, and act ift 
opposition to oLdtKent muscles or ubduclorM, 

AiiuuCTluK, alMluk'shun, a. {abductlo, Lat.) A 
leading away. lu Logic, a conclusion from pr»- 
misea of which the minor is doublfuL In Law, 
the folonioaa canning off of a child, a ward, tf 
wife, &c^ eitlier by baud, peraonativo, or open 

ABDtrOTon, ab-duk'tor, t. In Amitomy, a intitcb 
which aeiToa to draw back tho [>arts to whi<^ it la 
attadied ; one who leada away ; oite g;uilty td 

Abeak, H-bare', r. a. (oftettrrm. Sax.) To bear; to 
behave; to conduci one's self.— Obaobta. 
Thus (lid (lie ReiUle knight himself a&wn, 
ArDL)n}s-»t that riittlckoruut lu all hU deeds.— 5iw<u«r. 

ABBAiUNOii,a-ba'raaB, «. Behavioor.— Obaolela. 

The otbor speelea ef moognitaaoe with anratlaa la Uxt 
good o&MroMe ar gtiod WhKrUmr.—'liiaekMloHt. 

AuEARmo, arba'riag, «. Same aa abearaiK».< 

Vttt to be raleaaed MM they formed anroUaa fta tbalir 
good abwrinff. — £onI Uvrhert. 

ABECEOAniAK, fty-bo-se-da'rt-iui, a. Cfrorn tbo %rA 
four letters of the alphabet.) One who teaches or 
is learning tho alphabet. 

Ahee*^rian, one that teaeheth or leameth the fniiaw 
row. — JVfauAn. 

ADCTDAtir, ny-be-se'da-re, a. AIphabeticaL 
Abbp, a-bed', ad. In bed, or on bed. 

1 1 was a ihaiDB for them lo mar ibelr eoaplasiaB 
yea, oiid eunditlons too, with long lying iiriiif TTWWy 

AnCLB-TREE, alieel-tre, t. like white pc 
Popalus albua. 

Abluans, ay-be lemons, \ a. In Eocle&iutical 

Abelitks, a'bel-ttse, / lory, an African 
who after, marriage, Ured in continence, alter 
manner, as they pretended, uf .\bel, and atlem^ 
to maintain tlie sect by adopting the cliildcvo (4, 

Aui:i.Mnaic, a'bel-mosk, a. The plant H 
al'elmoechua, or Syrian Mallow, a native of 
F.a»t Iniliea, now oonatitutod into tha 

ABii^R. A Celtic prefix to tlie oamea of many 
plitcea, which impurts that tlieyare sitosted ai tha 
mouth of a rircr, as .Aberdeen. 

Abekuevi>b, ab'cr do-vinc, a. The Inrd CarduUa 
s]nnua uf Cuvier, and Fringtilii ligiirina of fUo 
znni, sometimes called the Siskeu, a well-known 
Rongbiid, which has a great resouiblaooo lu lb* 
green variety of the Canary bird, 

Adkrra»ce, a-ber'rana, \_ s. (ni 

AuEHKAMcr, a-ber'an-se, > wander from, Lat«] 
A deviation from the right way ; HgnraCiroly, 





tmm truth ; ah wmr ; ft misUkft ; a 

a-bef'rmttt, a. Wandering; Straying 

th* right wmj. 

imaMXVion^ ftU-er'«'slivnf M. (FrvDch ; nUmitio, 

\M.) Tb* act of tirvimling from the riglt or 

peBunoD tract. In Aittnoomy, a cfaongs in the 

postjoo of the fixfU »tMr\ ariung fmm the pro- 

fTMSTV motion of li;k:hf, eontbiiicd vriti] t)ic anr.uiO 

of Che wirth, by tncniis of whii-h thcjf 

tweatY ftWH^idi lii^t«llt from their true 

In Opiics, A rrrinin d<ni«tion from tlie 

Mt fa»tn«cncal foi'tu of refrution in curved 

tpfct^ or Inkaea. CVmcti a/* nhfri-rrtton, t lumi- 

im cbda auxoanding th« dific of tbe sun, d^- 

podili^ m the ftUTntHon of itii ra^s, bj which lis 

faoMUr ii tnlvged. 

iBCXmiki*, a-bcr 'ring, pre*. parL Hoing a&trjj. 

(H the larb ^err, I bare foaad no example. — Todd. 

D)TCfa«ar* ont la tlieir uxouDt, abrrruw svveral wijb 

frai t^ tm« iiid Just kccuiint. — Srmcn't \ uty. Erron, 

AaumCTCATE, ab-er-rungk'atc, r. a. (arerrvnco. 
Lit) Te poU up I}- tlie roots; to cxtitpate 

Am. abet'. « (I (A^ioa, Co mak« better; (o 
fiMSii, to ktadk. Sax.) To eaooango bjr aid or 

Thqr«*«Mr hotb parties la tbe cItU w*x.—AAtiMm. 
U Lw-, to iocitA, enooanj^, or aid t(i the com- 
aiMB of Ml unUwfiiJ action; — <■ the wl of 

WI MlMT. thoe ihjBeada onto tbea taka 

Vm BMde 9S thy nAMhftlease and e^i .— Hpnaer. 

|AmaOT. ft-bei'uient, '. Tbe act of sbrttlng. 

[iurrSK, ^ a-bet tur, «. One wbo abet^ iiKite.'S 
aids, or eaoourages ooothsr to ooin- 

icnr, ab-*-Tak*tt-a'ihaa, r. (06 and 
/itnik} A partul amciurian of the homoara 
•^Om Mr. 

t-ha'aDs, c (7. (aMoiiMce, in expccto- 
In expectation or eontempUtJOD — 
. *•• .r .,1, Tbe right of fee on^plo Heth in nf/fy- 
«e^ i>Sai is is oiiJj in the rcmeinbranw, inic-nd- 
MeU, aal oooauieration of the law. Thr franit 
W esHW B t of tha glebe of the parwDtge it in ik> 
Ma dftnn^ the lia»e that the parsonage is void, 
hA is ia abeyance. — Coicel. 

^UOATS, ab'gre-gite, r. a. (fihgnQo, LeXJ) To 
•i^anls fran a herd or 6oc)c — Not used. 

^■ nn o*T»o«, ab-gr^-gn'fchiut, t. Soparatiun from a 
Md or flnok. — Kot vacd. 

Unn, aU-hawr't r.a. (oMorreo; oh and A arreo, 
I tmabic ailh fear or horror, Lat- It expresses 
1^ dsfrec U honor as to ^use tiie hair to stand 
Wd) To iiaie extreinelj; to loathe; to de- 
M} laahMtttaato; to diadaiui to Degloct. 

.^l^feMt BOS rtwursail Bor ehimr^i tbe aflUction of 
l*eia iil-/kaxtl.«A. 

ab-hawr'rena, \ «. Tbe act of 

ah-hawr'ren-se,) ahhoning; ex- 
r, ah-hawr'rcntf ti. ^tmck with uhhor- 
emmi jnaljiiiif ; odioua ; cutjtnirj to, Incoruist* 
^1 rth ; tl it lollowrd by fo, U'tm is iiii|iropcr* 
Vk|f ttmt%iW>f<)f^ini'H"«JKM' •>( ^ivtrtTTiploymtHila, 
M f •« faaeUua »ii*l yuur brevdlog V — t>r)^tx. 

aWhawrVnt-Io, ad. In an ah- 
ah'lwvT'nir. jl One who nUiors. 

Adiiouring, ab-hawr'riug, j. Ot^cct of abhor- 

Tli»)r worm tliidl not dio, neither ihall Ibeir Ire b|^ 
qiitrnctied : noil iUvy aliaU Im an uMorrinir unto all flasb. 
— /..imA Ixvl. 21. 

Aula, a-bi'o, 1. A gpnus of HjmenopteroDs inaectsi 
inhabitant*) of the furxi: aid aMer. 

AfiiB, ftblb, *. (!!i*brtw, a full eiir of euro.) Tbn 
first ijioiitb of the .Icwinb nx;l«»taHtical year, called 
also Kisan, nnsncriug to the latter part of March 
and beginning of April, so called frnm whrat at- 
taining its full growth ia the oar at thai lime of 
tbe year. 

Adidb, a-bide", r. n, iahldam^ Sax.) To stay la a 
pUce ; to dwell ; to remain without decay ; to 
remuifl inunovablo ; to oontinae in tbe anna 


Ttitre Can bo no tX\i.ty without timo; and tbe ntntl 
mu«i «3iidJ! and d«cU upon thlEgs, or t»e a stranger to the 
Itutde of thi;ni.— &>mxA. 

—V. a. to wait fur; to snpport or emlure ; 
Ah tne ! tJiey little know 
How doarly I eMfa Uiat bsaat so valn^^JmiM. 
to bciir nithoot avenuon ; 
Tlion i-anit not oUdc Tlrldatea; thla If but love of thy- 

to endure withotiC offence, an^^er, or c<iDtrM]iction, 
a-i, I cannot ahiSt his impertinence. Wlien neuter, 
ahide is followed by \n uf at before tbe place, and 
by with beforo tbe person, as, ahidt nt JenualeiD} 
while in this land, oAj'tfe vUh ma. Abide for^ 
wait fur. To alide by, to adhere to ; to defend, or 
to suO'cr the couscfjuenceo, as, to aftiife by the 
AsiQCHf a-bi'dnr, 1. One who dwcUs or reouina in 
a place. — Little uaod. 

He a^d they (auldlorii) wrro maitevs of war, and orna- 
ments of peace; spcedf fpoers, and itreor ahidcrM^ tti- 
umpbant bocb in cunpa and eourta.— £hiiM^, D^f. of 

ABincfO, a-bi'£ng, #. Continnanee ; fixed stay ; 

0<tr A*j% on the earth are as a ihadow, and tben la- 
none oAMfM^.— 1 (7*roM. ixtx. 1&. 

—A. continutn^ pennnnent^ as an nbidinff plaofr 
Ai/idinff &y, in Scotch Uw, is io an action of reduc- 
tiun. where tbe main reason of reduction is forgery or 
'aJvhooil ; or in any other action, where either 
party funnds on a deed or writing to which the 
olijeL-tion of fjil»ehood or forgery is pre^ioned either 
by way of act Joa or of ezooption, the party found- 
ing on the il(-ed may be required by hia adversnT 
to ahide by it : that fa, to ilecl4re officially that be 
abides by the deed or writing challenged or ob- 
jected to as true nnd genuine. — Sell. 

Abipikglt, a-bidclng-le, ad. In. a manner to oon-^ 
tinoe permanently. 

Abi£.9. ab'fr^is, s. (Latin, a fir-tree.) A genu of 
CooifcrtHis trees: type uf tbe subordsr Abieter. 
It einln-aurs the silver, spruce, and larch fire and 
other spcciesr formerly ciaaaed in the genua rinue : 
Order, Pinaceo). 

AfiiKTK.*, a-be-et'e-Q, s. Tbe name giren by Lind* 
ley to a sobordar td the HinaoeiB, or Coniferv. It 
includes tbosa genera which bare the ovules in- 
verted, aod the pollen nval and curved — the sub- 
order Cuprtissea baring the c^ulea erect, and the 
pollen spheroidal. 

Abietic, a-be-etlk, n. rertaininj; to tho fir. 
Abietic acidj a resin obtained from the l^inus abjoa 
of Linneus. 

Artetin.c, ab-e-e-ti'ne, », A name girtn by Rieh- 




■nl to tbfl coniferous tiveA inchided m the Abieten 
of Lindlej,— which tw. 

Abietine, ft-biV-tin«, f. (aAlm, thfl 6r-tiTe, Lot) 
A rrsinooa substance obtained finm Strajbarg 

Abiloaardu, R-ba-gfJrd'e-*, *. (in borwrar of Pro- 
ftaaar AVilgaard of Copenhagen.) A genus «f 
plaata: Ordrr, C;^peracea>. 

Abilctt, a-bil'e-te, *. (Ao*i/iW, Fr. ahilita^ lUl. 
kabiHttu, Lat.) The power to do anytfatnK, whe- 
ther depending npon &kiU, riches^ rtrcnglb, or any 
other quality; forM of understanding; mental 
power. j4&iA'/y denoten power to perform ; oo/MiA/y, 
power to receive. In iho plaral, abitUia deootes 
mentAl facultieti, natontl or acquired. 

Abiittestate, alh-ln-tert'ate, a. (oft and inUiitttuM, 
dying without a wilt, IJit.) In Civil Law, io- 
beriting from a person who died without having 
made a wilL 

Abject, ab'jekt, a. (ofr/ee^w, cast away, I^t^ 
8ank to a degraded poaition ; literally, cast out 
of »ocia^— beooa, ma«u; wonhleu; biue; gro- 
velling ; 
1 waa at firat «a other lieatti that i^raze, 

The tnxideiu berb o( abject liiuiighU and low.— 3/UImi. 

— *. a man without hope ; ■ pcraon of the lowest 
oooditioQ, and despicable. 

Yea. tho abf'^eU gathered tbemielrea together ag^nat 
me.— A. 

Abject, ab-jeke', r. a. 
out ; to throw down. 

To throw away; to cut 

Tha danuell itralght went, aa tim was dlieeladr 
Unto the rocks; ud there, apoo the aoylo 
BaTtnc beniU In wretched wise ahj^ted, 
Oan wsepe Mid wayh<— 5,p8itMr. 

ABJECTKDircsSf sh-jek'tcd -nes, «. The stat« of an 


Onr Saviour lunk hlmMsl/ to the bottoin of al^setBdnen, 
la axalt oar ooodilloi) \o the contrary oxtremc. — BogU. 

A&TBCTIOS, ab-jek'shuu, a. State of being cost 
away or lost ; tneanoesB ; waat of spirit ; ser- 
TiBty; baaeneiu. 

Abjectlt, abjfkt-le, nd. In a knr, mean, vt ser- 
Tile manner. 

Asjudicatk, ab-joo'de-kate, r. a. (aA/Wtco^ Lat.) 
To deprive any one of anything by a judidal sen- 

Abjodicatiok, ab-joo-de-ka'ahnn, «. The act of 
abjudicating. — Kot naed. 

AbjDOATK, ab^oo-pite, v.n. (ttlyvgo; abtndjitffo, 
to yoke, Lat.) To unyoke; to uncouple. — Not 

AbjdRATIOK, ab-joo<rm'sfaoD, $. (afip*mHot Lat.^ 
The act of abjnring ; the oath taken for that end ; 
a rejection or solemn denial, or total abandonment, 
aa an abJvralioH of heresy, .^n abjuration of the. 
rsoAn, U a renunciation npon oath which a person 
makes to Icare the realm for ever. By the ancient 
common law of England, if a person guilty nf nay 
felony, excepting sacrilege, fled to a pariMh church 
or churchyard for wiictuary, he might, within forty 
days after, go cl'tbcd in tuickcloth before tbe 
ooroner, confess the full paniculara of his gnllt, 
and take an oath to abjure t)ic kingdom for ever^ 
or not to return without the king's license. Oath 
iff tJ^wratUmy an oath asserting the title of the 
present njal family to the crown of Engtand, 
and expreniy diKlaiming &iiy right to it by the 
dcKcendonts of the Pretender. 

Abjitbatort, ab-joo'ra-tur-Cf a. Containing abja- 

AIUURB, ab-joor', v. o. (abJ%tro ; nb and i*>o*o, t 
swear, Lat.) To renounce upou oath ; to abaiidoo, 
aa, to o^iire ollegionoe to a prince, or alijor* Ito 
realm ; to renoaocs with solemnhy, aa, to 
errors ; to recant or retract ; 
I put my tetf to thy dlreeHon, 
Utuipeok mine own detractlan, hen vhjun, 
The taints and blames 1 laid npon myself.— • 

to baaiab. — Obsolete in thi^oense. 
'Whereby he hoped the <iacea to bare ahjuMd. — 

Abjctrekc^t, ab-joor'ment, «. Benanaatioo. 

Such alni aa tlieae ore venial In youth, emclaUy If 
exptftifld with timely o^^itrmwiii^—J'oAJt ttali, h^f.%9 kU 

Abjurkr, ab<joo'mr, s. One who abjures. 

Ablactatb, ab-Uk'tate, r.n. (nbloetn, to wean, Lat) 
To fi-om tho breast, — a word giTcn by Dr. 
Johnson without quoting any anthority. 

Ablactatiov, ah-Iok-ta'ahon, f. (ab and lacta^ to 
suckle.) Cwsation from sockling as regards tha 
mother, and thus rlisttnpiished from wcaniiig on 
the port of the cliilil. — I'almer. Among 
Oardeners, a method of gmfling, in which the 
was nut separated from the parent stock till it 
firmly nnitctl to that in which it was in 
The proceos is now tenned prttj\iny bf ( y yreod^ 
or inarch mg. 

ABi>AiriA, ab-la'ne-a, i. (from Gonlongon-abloni, tbs 
name given to A. nuimenids by the Indians of 
Guiana.) A genus of planta, oonslatiog of trees, 
natives of Guiana : Order, TiliacoiB. 

AaukQCKAnoK, sb-Uk-we-a'shun* $. (AUooweB- 
lio ; ttb and taqncar^ a roof or covering, Lat.} A 
laying hare the roots of trees, io order to expoi* 
tliem to the action of air and water. 

Ablatiob, ab-la'ehon, a. {ablatio, a taking avay, 
Lat.) A carrying away. In Surjreiy, se|iaratioD 
or remoral of a part, limb, or tumour, by aocadeat 
or surreal opvmtion, from the animal body,— 
Pij/ffl«r. In Cbembtry, the removal of whatever 
ii fiiiislied or no lon^'cr nrccHSory. 

Ahlative, sb1s-tiVf a. (ablatif, Fr. abLitivMSy Lat.) 
Taking away ; ap^ilied in Grammar to the sixth 
case of Latin nouns, which implies earryinff away 
or tnkmy from. Abtatire abgt/fut* is when a word 
in that case is independent, in oonslruction of tiba 
rest of the sentence. 

Ablaze, a-blaze', uJ. On fire; in a blaae. — Ob- 

Able, a'bl, a. (aba!, strength, Sox. knbilU, LaL) 
Having oompetent power or strength, bodfly or 
mental ; poneased of strong mental fscolciea «r 
tntellectua] qaali first tioos, notuTHl or acqtnrvl ; 
possessed of sufficient wealth or means ; banng 
cmnpetent streagth ; fit ; proper ; having stiS- 
ciait knowledge or skill, sa, he is nbU to road 
Hebrew ; or, is sho able to play on the harp ? bor- 
ing the natural or requisite quNliScatioTHi, as, not 
to be abk to succeed to an inheritance, tbroosh 
insanity or bastardy ; —r. a. to make able. — Ob- 
solete as a vrrb. 
(lod tokcneth and aatlgnrth the times, obHmff them ts 

her pmiK-r otnces.— <7Aa««pr. 

Able-boftieii, having a body fit for service. Ahtf' 
Monwm, one qusHBed to discharge the duties at ■ 

Ablboatb, able-gate, v. a. (ablego, Lat.) To mttA 
abroad on some legation. — Seldom used. 



liauoAnov, ■b4»^'Hlian, «. (from AblegBtc.) 
IW act ■d Mndu^ ifanMid ; » tegitioD firom faome. 

ftb-lcgi'me-nA, $. (I^tln.) In A»ti- 

M^, tfaan choioe pttrts of the entnUs of tb« ric- 

Hai vtaicfa were let ajjArt Bod offered to iho gods. 

AMiW, mblcn,') c A oaaia ^ven in WHoe placet 

JflLir. ablM. / of England to tlie Bleak, a amaU 

MA-waliv fiabi uociacoa moiuiibi. 
AHJasaSi aH-naa, a. Aba&t^ of body or mind ; 

AkVIT, ablep-ai^ a. (atUpma^ Or.) BUndnea; 

aaiiliiiuliHi — OKliaraai. 
A»MaTm, ab1»-gBlc, V. a. {ohKyo, Lat.) To ti« np 

AtLMCamoai, ab-la-gur-Uh'iui,! j. (ffy^nVio, 
Akjscbt, ablKgur-a, / Lar.) Pro- 

on m««t and drink. — Xot med. 

1 1 Aiun, ifVba» odL Fendrenture : perhaps; poa- 

{I dUf. — Uaid in tbe oorth, and in Scotland. 

li imaCATSs Ab1o kale, p. a. (ad^a>, Lat) To iH 

oatoQ hv«.~Not DanL 
; Aaueanov, ab-l»-fca'itaB, a. A Wttinj; out on fain. 
l&HMl, ak-hada', v. «. {ahhJo, ab and &tfo, I 
I ft^, Ltf.) LitcfaltY, to play from, or to be ont of 

IBM; ham t» dlftTf or to be unlike. — \ot ased. 
ISLiJVST, abloo-fiTt, *. (oUwa, 06 and bo; I woah 

away, LaL) Oaiaiim;; — *. an abatCff)$eot, — 

AKraOK, ijb-laoi'afaiiiif a: The act of cteaiwng or 
vafeto^ vich mttr or oUuv fluid, part or whole of 

li a mtaiaa walocr between tha ablmtUm of tlie 
I *i paiMfallaa oT Iha mtd^Sf. I^Jor. 

■iia viahlflg. 
'4 bjr tl« briny vavw, the ptouii trala 
■Bsedp aad caat lb' «M«liM< In the nulo.— 
J^r^M Iliad. 

k CWnSatry, tba porification of bodies by tbe 

I lAadaa af walar or other fluid. In Medicine, the 

9f tbe body extemally, as la baths ; or 

, aa by diluting finida. 

AlurvscMf, ab-Ioo'Ti-on, a. (abhta^ I wash away, 

LiL) llfll vhirb b washtd oA 
Aa.T, aV^ ad. lo an able manner; with mat 


lasaaatvt. ^'oa^fsta, v. a. (ateajpo, 1 dray, Lat) 
T« tef ] to t aoo ao c ft . 

Atsoat, ab-Da-ga'ahnn, a. A daaial ; lanun- 

^M ^ plaaii to of «tol nllsfon lht>jr pleae^ that le 
il ^ IB Cto OMSt yaat of aen : eo that wUli aa«wMt)M 
tf Oi^ef felB koaivr and million, ibof mar reuln torn 

AMSftaToa, aVoa-gaj-tw; a. Ooa who deoies, 

■HBMt, «r •ppaaa* ABythJng. 
AaoaaTlly ab'wMUta, r a. (oAdOciv, oA and ikmIw, 

a kMl, t«L) T« cot kaeU from tnes.— Sckkm 

■l^-o»-d«'dwii, Sk Tba act of catting 

I ab-vawi^na-iai a. (aftnonMi, uregnlar, 

k a»4 «0rsM, a rale, L^t) Imgnlarily ; 

ifly to r«to ; daCarmity. 

U, ab'ttawr'uial, 1 a. (aftnomtu, Lai.) 

ct, ab-nawr'mua,/ Inagnlar; without 

ogatnry to STatem or rale; de- 

Aaoakd, a-borde', ad. On boani^ iu a ship, rea- 
»el, or bosL To yo on boards to eirbark; to go 
io a sbip. To Jail t^toard, to strike tlie aide of 
another rcaael. Aboard maim tacit an order to 
druw ■ corner of the maiusail down to the cfaaaa- 
tr«e. ^6oard^ to approach noar the ahoro.— Ob> 

Etui io the -nrgc of tiotd, oAeartfiM SaatDU— 

&>limm mid Artlu (U89). 

Abodakob, a-bo'dans, $. An omen. — Obtoleto. 

An IU tf&odanee.— XV. JadHmt. 

Adodb, a-bode'. FrL of the verb to dbidtf — a. habi- 
tation; dwdJing; residenoe; atay; oontmoanca in 
a place. 

8vo«t fHemU, f^ur patleoee ferny looic aindt: 
Not I, bat TDf sAitin hare matle 70a trait— Stote. 

To make ahode^ to dwell; to reaide; — v. a. to 


Krery m»n, 
Afier tbe bldaooa atarm that fbllow'd, w^a 
A thing loaplrcd ; and, aat oousulUnfr, bruke — 
Bmke Intn a geaeial proptoejr, that this tempest, 
Dublnf tba gpnaieat of ihla peace, mhodtA 
Tbe soddaa biMeb of It— Aois. 

ABODEMBirr, a-bode'meat, a. An onxhiona aotf- 

ci]»Uun ; an otncn. 
Tush, BLsal a&diitfnMU must not now aflHcht ns. — 

Aboddto, a-bo'ding, a. rresentUnaot; progiUMli- 

Aqolbtk, ab'o-tete, a. {aboHtut^ Lat) ObtolaU ; 

oat of oae ; not tised. 
Abolish, a-bullah, r. a. {ahcUo, ab and o2w, o£aaeo^ 

1 grow, Lat abolir, Fr.) To abrogate, annul, or 

make void, as applied to law or inatitutioas ; to 

dratroy m put bti end ti). 

Mora destmv'd thmn they, 
Wa ■boald be quite aboUtk'd uid crplre.— JtTf/toi. 

Abomshablb, a-boluh-s<bl, a. That may ba 

abolisbod, deatro^ed, or annulled. 
Aboubhbr, a-bollsh-ur, a. One who abotiahes or 

ABOLisfiMKVT, a^boriah-ment, s. The act of abol- 

iuhing ; state of btiog abolished ; abrogatiua ; da- 

Abolition, ab-o-lifvb'on. «. The act of abolishing; 

stste of being sbollMbed ; abrogation ; sn snnulKng 

of lawa, decrees, ordinances, rites, customs, iic, ; 

patting an eud to slavery ; negro emanci patio n. 
Abolitiokish, ab-o-Ush''uD-ia[n, a. Tbe principles 

of BD abolitionist 
Abolitiokist, ab-o-lish'nn-ist, a. 0ns who advo- 

rates the Immediate emancipation of slaves. 
AoottA, s-botla, a. In Antiquity, a kind of mlli- 

taiy gsTment worn by the Greeks and Romans. 
AuuxA, a-bo'ma, a. A large serpent, a nativt of 

the monusea and f^na of South America. 
Adouasch, a-bo ma'sum.) a. (abomagmty from o^ 
AuoMASrs, a-bo-ms'sus, / and anxuwn, Lat) 

Tbe fourth stomsch of ruminating anlmala, and of 

the berbiroroas CeLsceK. 
ABOHiXABLE.a bom'e-na-b], a. (abommabUut Lat) 

Hateful; det'wtahjo; loathsome; unclean. 
The snnl that >hsll toivh anv nnclRsa beurt, or anj 
andean tlilni;, ewa that soul shall be cut off Irom bu 
[wople.— 1«*. rli. SI. 

la low sod hidicrous language, abominable Implies 
loose and indetenobate censure. 

Tbey saj yon are a melancbolT rellow.— I am so. X do 
loTc It better than laueblnc.— Tdm« that are in eslram* 
Ity of attbvr are ahomifuM* fellowi, and battny tbes»- 
•ciree to ererj oiiMiir*, worM than dmnkordo. — Shaka. 



ABOKDfABLBKBS?, ■•boni'e-iiabl-nM,«. Tb« state 
orquatitj of being CHliotin. liHttffut, or lout (uuitne. 

Abominably, a-bom-in'a-ble, ad* V'erj odiotuly; 
dcUtfUbly; dnfiiUf ; 
Abftb did T«rv ahaa^mMg III t<Mtm\n% lAoU.— 1 Kmff* 


In vnlg&r I&ngiuige, extnmelj; exoeauveljr; 

Yoor nrrmaU are nuitlnani and qnarrtlaoine, and 
cbaal jroa tAamlneUji.—Arh^Uknoi. 

Abokd, a-borde', $, (French.) Addnev; salata- 

Toar ahord vma too ootd aod oniftMin. — Lord OheMttrjUJd. 

—V. a. to accost.— Kot used. 
Abokba, a-bc'rea, «. A apectes of duck. Anas 

aborca, or Black- bellied whittling Dtick. Coloar 

nddifth-brown; cresttMl; bi;lly spotted witli blaclc 

and nhlte. 
Aboriginal^ ab-o-rij'e-nnl, a. (ab, and ori^, 

orif;in, Lat.) Priniilive; finil; original ;—<. one 

of lbs fint inbabiunta of a coimtrj. 
ABOBiotiiJES, ab-o-rijVDCS, s. pt^ The 6nt or 

priinitiTB inbalitantft of any country. 
ABORBEMi;yT, a-bawn'mcnt, «. Aq alxirUon. — 

Obaolele and oselees. 

The andaanar ol thiiae artl«u Is od to force an aiorm- 
mm, but to farlDf forth a Umelj birtli.— iTp. BatL 

AMWT, a-lawrt', i. An almrtion. — Not OMd;— > 
V. A. to briitg forth before the time ; to mlMarrT'. 

Tl (Iho parllamenO It ahoHtd befion t1 vai bota, and 
anltillad whar It had a t»eliic^^<r B. WoWm. 

Abortient, a-bawr'ehent, a. (a&ortio, a mifcar- 
riagp, Lat.) In Botany, miKiarrying; sterile. 

ABOBTloHf a-bawr'sbtin, i. {ai/ortio^ Lat.) The 
act of bringing forth before the osturul period, or 
befure the Jatuii U perfectly funned ; arty froit or 
prodoce that does not come to maturity ; nny- 
thlog that foils in ita progress, as a pL-in or de- 
sign; the fotos brought forth before it has been 
pofeetly fanned. Wliea ttio fcttus is brought 
forth bttfore the end of the nxth month, ibe aoi.i- 
dent is called nn abortioti or miMarriage ; if be- 
tween that and the usual time, premature labour. 

AboBTITB^ abiiwr'liv, a. {aboitivus^ Lab.) Bom 
or produced bcfure the due time ; failing from 
want of time, or whatever cause; mlacarfying. 
In Botany, abortive or neutral flowers, are those in 
which ttoth ilamenft and pUtUs arc defective ; — 
a. that which h bruugbt furth prenuitunily. 

Koemamon wind, meustomeO vvmt, 
Bat lh«r will ptodt a* ay Its natural caoses. 
And «aO them metaoia, pradlclas, and stgivs, 
Jbertimr, and piwnges, ton^ea ot benvRn, 
Ptaialjr dtiioaiHliif veBfeanee opon Juba. — SkaU. 

Flguratmly, that whkh fnlU for want of time ; 

that which brings forth nothing. 
ABdHTlTELT, a-bawr'tii'-le, at/. Immaturely; in 

ftn untimely manner; bom before the proper tkne. 
ABOKTiTirNEftS, a-biwr'tiv-nes, a. The st;:te of 

■bortion ; a faihng in the prof^r^esa to mntiiiity ; a 

lUhira to pToduaiig the intended effect. 
Abobtubxt, a-bawrt'ment, s. An unliiuely btith ; 

tha thing braoglit forth prematurdy. 
ABOirwn, a-bovnd\ r. n. (o&iaHft), Lat. abondtr, 

Fr. from wk/o, a wa\e, luit. Ittemlly, to overflow 

In great qnnnlity or nnmbcr, as wavca of the aea.) 

To possesa in great quantity ; to be copiously aup- 

pbed; to be Tety prcrakut. 

When tin aboaadad, graoa did wiaab mora al»tmtL— 
Bim. T. 

AaoiTSDiNO, ft-bomid'iDg, o. lucraabgt* 

dant ; — ► 

Be bis aimmrftey merry pralaed, f 

nia mi^sty adored.— Hymw. i 

— *. increase. J 

Yal amidst thoea titeiatdimfftor ctu and wlekadaM 

Ml not Umsalf wilboul a witucM ia the bewiM 

About, abowt, pr^* (abntan. 

Around ; encircling ; i 

Anil u I wake, sweat moalo braafba | 
Above, aloHt, or ondemotth.— JMlwh 

near to in time, place, or mafiner; naav.^ 
person ; appended to tha psnon ; ooDoenMd| 
gaged in. . 

1 mnst br o&twi mj father's bnslmia — Lattj 
In circumference, two yards ofiouf tba 
in number or quantity; nearly, 
day about Ibne tbooaand i—ad. dronlri 
arottnd; t 

Tba weird sUtcni, hand fn hand, 
rorten of the sea and land. 
There do go aA0Hi| otani.— Jfcata 

iu Dompau ; 

I am two yards aAmil.— Aale 

hwe and there ; ercTYwhere, as to go akNIt I 

charity; the longest way In oppontioQ'^ 

straight, as 


To wheel three ot fonr mllea a£oML— JAaiq 
To bring about, to brin;; to the point or 
sired ; to eflect or occomplisti. To coiM 
change or turn ; to come to the deaired pc44 
ffo o&otii, to euter upon; to propoMi to wi 
means. i 

Why so ya mUmt to kill mey Jaha rit < 
III Marine, to go ahont is used when a ship i 
her course to go on the other tack. Rtadg 
about »hip, are ordcra for tacking Look 
jfOH^ take caro of yourself. — Vulgar. 
Adote, a-buv', I. Hi};her in pliice, a% a 
door; higher in station, as, « nurqiua U 
earl ; superior in de^;iee ; 

I saw alltfbta&iM (he t^gbtoess of the saa> 
beyond, as, this is a&ore my comprehension ;, 
tlian, aa, he staid a&ore three months in U 
moFQ than, an, it wrigtn o^-e six pound 
proud or dignified fur, tis, abov< asking a { 
to be ahon a mean action , on hi^h, in h 

L«t not Ood regard It trom aboM.— Jbfr 111. 

befuTQ ; In a former place, u in the phnuBa* t 
dted, a/>Of<e-mentionfd, a&ore>aaid. Abov$4 
open ; not tmderband. Above-yrovndt not k 
Abracadabra, ab-rii-lra-dab'ra. a. The 
an Assyrian deity, used as s oabalistlo 
written on paper as many limea as It ronti 
ten, the last letter being omitted each doal 
only one letter remnina, and ao forming a trf 
It WAS rouAidered aa a efaami against ttgQ 
other iliaeaaes. 

Mr. BiuwHliT aays, 'that ha hnalod fiOO In 
an ague itj haniilnf; Abmeodalra abwul UmtiimA 

wold stauch blood, »r beat tha tooth alca, altboa) 
paKtyea wer 10 my le oC—MS. oJUiL 1008. 

AnRfcCULAM, a-brak'u-lam, i. The 

Syrian deity ; n cabalistic word, tued as ■ i 
amongst the Jaws. 

ABBAnE, a-brado', e. a. (^mbrado, ab aDl f% 
•crapa or sbBTo, Lat.) To iuA> off; to wesor 
Cram the other parts ; to waste by dsgrvct Ih 

he naJt 



to th« Actioa ci water, the atmocplicre, 

kM-VAS, I'bn-ham-nun, $. A bcdlvn beg- 
gar Tom of BfdlatiL. 

t0 tb« ' FnterattTo of VMAtondM,' lfi76. 
U tta thai ««lkcth bar«-*nD^ and 
■hi hjDrth bririMlfe lanA, and earrcth • 
or b *ty\t vlib bkklo on it. or lucli Uk.e 
lib lilnwair Poor Turn.'— iioi^fmU- 

AaiHUUO, ab-n-tumlk, a. PcTtaiDtng to Abra- 

bm tbe Mtnarch, u^ the ^AruAmiMc ooreiual. 
Anu^^ »nHlc', p. a. To arouM ; to awxks. — Ob- 

Aad If he oot or IiU ilMp aftroj*^ 

Be fttlglite don us borne a rlUnle. — Chamur. 

Aiawa. |('faram-U, «. Tho Bnam, b genu of 

fiihM: Psmil/, C^rpriniilK. 
AttAXciUAKB, ft-brBii|;k'»-aiis,> «. (a, without, 
iuUJtCHiA, ft-bnn^e-«, ( uid frmnirAfa. Gr. 

gQli, L«t.) Caviera tliinl order of 
th* AoncKdca, coropriung the Lumbnci (earth 
*anii«X xad KoUes (aqiuLia worms), of linnaius. 
Thrr have do utenullr AjipjuTnt orpuu of res- 
^BUioQ whatom, Bnd ■[■paar to rehire— some, 
aki Un Mtth worms, hj th« entire surfncc of the 
dkfat aad ocben bj internal cavilie*. I'bey hare 
t Astd dniuUling ijstcrn, luuiiil^r filled Kith nnl 
Uao4, ftod Itave » knotted uerruiu cord. Tbej 
iatm two &milka — the A. sotigene, those which 
aod th« A. aactigene, which want 


Aim kSKm, ••Vw'diun, f. (abraihf I wear off, Lat.) 
Tim wtt «t abrading m wearing off; the matter 
voni aff by rubbing. In Medicine, the necbaaical 
itOMTv^ ur wearing awaj of the epidermis, &c. ; 
•ben applied to the intestines, it ngniGei supcrfi- 
eial blce^Lioa with kiaa of substance, in shreds, of 
\km irtartinal maeooa membrane. 
AUAllja, tt-hcaka'tu, «. A name given bj Leach 
tBAodl^paai of Leptdoptcnms ioiecta, including 
iha Mi q rw-tmtteifltea, the Urtm of which feed 
M Iha cofTiol and gooKben7. 
lAaKAXTTC, ab'n-ilte, i. (a, withont, and &raso, 1 
Gr.) A mineral which eSVr^escea when 
the bluwplpe. 
a-bra-ullk, a. In Mlnsralogf, not 
wbrn melted beftm the blowpipe, 
a-breft', od. Side by aide. In Naral 
the attuatiun as rtganla the lino of battle 
Mb Abrva»t tin*, the line abreatt is lurmed by 
■ikjpa faciiig equally distaut, and pornlkl to 
tmh •cKv, au that tlie length of ench funiis a 
d^ angle -mXh th« extent uf the aquadn>n, or 
ia» ahftJaiiL Abrtatt of a piaee, ts directly op- 
psdU to iL A&riMUt, within Uw ihip, impliea on 
GiM with tilt beam. 

tTioK, a-br^-nun-ahe-a'ehun, «. (ofrne- 
^i. ) The act of rcoouuoing ; abeolutt 

ahrvp'shon, «. {abripio, Lat) The 
of Wing Lamed away ; oarrytog away. 

A brea-vwar', f. (pRoeh.) A wator- 

la«» toe honea. la Manonry, the joint be- 

tww Attta; or the inleretioe to bo filled up 

■oitatf of eaomitf when utber are to he 

a, ft ' Caln-Uftrr, Fr.) To make 

rii '» >; si ill the meaning ID iub- 

r; to dcjftta cf ; to cut off from ; to eon- 

to dsmuiab; to cut aliort. In Algebrm, to 

reduce a compound quantity or eqaation to its more 

simplfl expression. 
Abridger^ a-bridj'or, a. One who abiidgea or 

sliorteni; a writer of an abridgment or compea- 

AsRmOMEirr, a-brij'ment, ». The opHorne of a 

largo work contrvrted into ■ smaller compaas ; a 

compendium ; a summary ; a diminution in geueral ; 

contraction ; rodoclion ; restraint from anything 

Abroach, a-bro'tah, ad. (^tthr^xcany to break, Saxnn.) 

In a poatm% to run out or yield the liquor con- 

tai^^d; ready to be tapped; in a state of bdog 

diffused or propagated. 

What mlubleb might be ael draadLL-fUka. 

AnROAD, a-brawd', ad. (ahrwdan^ to extend, or to 

be dispcr^, Sax.) Widely; at Urge; out of the 

house; without; in another country. 
AnnoOATE, ab'ro-gnte, r. u. {abrogo^ ab and rogo^ 

I ask, XaXS) To annul by IcgtiilatiTe authority ; 

to repeal ; to take away from a law its force. 

Lawb of that kind do abtv^att tLemaelves. — I/ooktr, 
Abrooatiom, ab-ro-ga'shun, x. (rtbrogatin, ImI.) 

The act of abrogating; the repcnl of a Uw. 
Abroxj, B-bro'ma, «. (a, priratlTc, aud ftromo, food, 

Gr.) A genna of exotjc eTergrecn trees: Order, j 

Abronia, ab-ni'ne-a, t. (abrow, delicate, Gr. from 1 

the delicate nature of the involucrum.) A geuoa ; 

of exotic plants : Order, Kyctaginaceas. 
Abrood, a-brood', ad. (Aruten, to brood, Sax.) !□ ' 

Ibe net of brooding. 
Abuook, a-brook', r. a. To brook; to bear; to 


Swc»t Nell, [II can thy noble mfnd fihrook 
The abJcci people saslnir cm thy faeo, 
>Vtth eurioua looks, ntlU lauitbtng at thy 

ABROTAlTDlf, ab-rot'a-nom, «. (oArotoi, immortal, 
Ge.) Southernwoodf a spedrs of Artemisia, — 
which see. 

Abrupt, ab-rapt', a. (obrvptut^ Lat.) Broken; 
craggy ; audden ; onoonnectfid ; 

Or iipread Ma olrr flight, 
Upborne with iodatatlnble whifs, 
Over the vast abnnt, UU b« arrlre 
Tba happy iale.— J/i^Ica. 

hjts^ ; rough ;^r. a. to disturb.— Not used in thlc 
Their enjuyroenta abruptetX our tranaulllltiea.— 

Brown w Cfiris. Mvr. 

ABRtrmoN. ab-mp'shon, «. (abrvjiti**. Lat.) Break* 
ing oiT; violent and sudden ncpamttorL 

Abrl'PTLT, ab-ruptlo, aj. Suddenly; baisUly; 
steeply; roughly; n^ggedlj. 

ABRt'i*Ti«K9B, ab-rupt'nea, #. An abrupt manner; 
haste; suddennesa; untimely rehemenc« ; the ntate 
of an abrupt or broken thiuj^; roughness ; CTAg- 

ABUra, a'bms, t. (afrrxw, graceful, drllcate, Gr. from 
ita cjLtnnnely deUcate leaves.) A genus of Legu- 
minous pUnts, the roots of which hare the pro* 
nrty of the oommon liquorice, bpnce called Wild 
quorice. . Tlie seeds, which are red with a Uaidc 
apot, are strong and worn aa beads, and also ttaed 
as ruaories ; hence tlto apedfio name preoatoriiu i 
Suborder, PapiUonacoB. 

Abacksh, ab'sea, «. (a£#c«SffiM, I^t) A colleotion 
of puA, fonoed or dcpouted in some tissw or orgun 
of the body. 




Abscind, ab-sirid', v. a. (nhtdntio^ Lnt) Tu cat 

ofl*. — little osed. 
ABSOlsa, ab'sis, \ «. (abaciua^ Lax,) That put 
AdkIIBA, ab-fu'a,f of the dtajnctiT uf n couii; c^i-c- 

tioD which is interoepted between iIh: vertex tnd 

ft Ufni-onltnat«. 
Auscissioy, ■b-Hzb'an, «. (aUcafio^ Lat.> The 

net <if otitting nff; tbe Ktuts of being cut off; tx~ 
oiK&ioii ; remoTal of an or^ii with a kiufe ; nUo, a 
fracture with low of substance. 

AB9GOKD, ab-skonJ', i*. n. (ofciconrfo, T^t.) To 
hide cnw*i self ; to retire fmni the public ricw ; — 
r. a. t* coooe*] or biJe. — Used prncrsUjr of per- 
Mos who «ecrete theiofiolvet to avoid a legal pro- 
Do not oftMomf and conceal joor alna. — Uatyt. Senm. 

AnirriTnTrn. ab-skon'dar, s. One who absconds. 
^JQMCONDlitO, ab-Kkoii'duig, a, Wttbdrawiug pri- 
TiUel/ from public viow, ai, t^tKonding creditor; 
oiie who cuniines himself to hta aparlminits, or ab- 
Bents hiniself to avoid apprvliension for debt or 

Absbnce, ab'acus, a. (ahtmt, LaU) Tbe atate of 
being absent; not present; itiattontion; hoeiI1r)<K- 
neas; neglect of tbe pre»'nt object ; want; dcati- 
tutiui) ; ill the a^nce of convciitioniil bi«r. 

Absbxt, ab'aentf a. (absent, Lat.) Kot being pre- 
lect; aheent in mind; inaltenti^'e; heedlc» ; not 
attentive to persons present, or to subjcctt of con- 
venation in aociety; iii fi*niilar langiiigc, not at 
homn; a term omployrd in rrf;iineutal returns to 
accnunt for a deficienry in a irgiireiit or coinpnny, 
aflf * absent with leave,' or * ttfuifitt witbont leave.' 

Absent, ab-eent', r. 0. To withdraw ; to forbear 
to come into prewnce. 

Abskktaxeous, ab-seii-ta'ne-ns, n. Relating to 
afaaooos; being ftequoutljr absent ; in familiar lan- 
psage, not at bome^ 

ABasKTKE, «b'«en-t«', s. One who iji absent from 
hk oountor. estate, station, or rmplonnenl. In 
Law, noii-Bppetminre in conrt. 

ABSBKTEBtsu, eb-Ben-te'Uni, », The act of leav- 
ing one's country or cxtali*, and \i\\nft el^entien. 

AsBEimB, ftb-sen'lur. «. One who abt^i.ts himself. 

ABSBimiBKT, ab-sent'cient, «. The state of being 
A peregrination or ctMwMMNf rram the bc4j <—Sarr«tfi. 

ABsnmnA!!, ab-ab'cAe-an, o. Of the nature of 

ABanmnATeit, ab-sin'fAo-ale-ed, a. Impn^ated 
with bittf^rs or womiwiMMl. 

Adsiktiiixb. ftl^«n'rtinc, t. The Wttcr principle 
of Abfiinthiuin or wtinnwoiid. 

ABSIXTHrTKS, flb-ain'Me-tia, a. (Latin.) Wloes 
impregnated with wnnnwood, 

ABsiRTiiiCV, ab-Bin'fA4vum, a. ''LaIui.) Common 
wonnwoodf so called frnm its powers u a vemi- 
fbge ; a spedes of Artciniahi. 

Absis, ab'iw, a. — See Apsis. 

Absoldts, ab'ao-hite. o. (frdaA^afwa, Lat.) Com- 
(dete ; nnoonditional ; nnKmited ; not nduttrc ; 

I'b ahttlMtt 'twas Tory Clottua.— ^Aolu. 
bi Orammar, the case obsohtte is when n word or 
member of a Hrntviice is not immediately dependent 
on Ibc othw part* o^ the swit«9ic« in poverninent j 
a chmse Independent. In A»tronomy, afntoluta 
eqfatiun is the aggregate of the optic and ecceiitric 
eqtiiitinna. The apparent inequality of a pUnet'H 
iiiotitm in its orbit, ■ri/.in;; fr-mi its n'loqval dis- 

tanees frutn the earib at different Umes, Is called 
its optic equation, llio eccentric ioeqnali^ b 
caused by tlic uniformitr of the planet's motion, tn 
an elliptical urbit, nhich, fur that reason, appears 
nut to bo uuifiinn. In Algebra, abtolute iwjii&era 
ano aoch as hove no letters annexed, ai 2a -f- 8G 
£= 18 ; the two latt«r are ahaoivta or pure. In 
Vhyacty abtotut* ^}ac«y is space conaiderud with- 
out relation to any other ubjcct Absolute ^ravitf, 
that pmperly in bodies by which Lbey are said to 
weigh BO much, without regard to clmimst«ne«s of 
modiflcation ; this is slwiiys in the qnanlity of 
matter tbey eontnin. Tn Ijiw, without condition 
or bond, as, an * absolute bond,' an * absotnta 

Absolutely, ah'so-lute-Ie, oA CnmpJetely; with- 
ont restrirtion ; deApoticallj ; withoot relatkra, 
limits, dependence, or condition; peremploiily; 
ptwitively ; so poaitiirely as not to b« poe^Uy re- 

Ciimmaad me obnb/rfjr not to go. — MUtait, 
In Logic, applied to the terms of a pn^pM^oi 
aipiities without retntion to anytbin;; eljje. 

AbsolUTBKCSs, ab'so-lnte^ncs, s. l>f^j»oii$ni ; Ift-' 
dependence; cumpletcnesa, or p4*rfec(ion. 

Ab»olotion, ab-so-lu'shnn, a. (absoUitio^ Lat.^ 
Acquittal ; delivery or pronuDrintion. 

The eom^oaltion fuU, tbe ahtotution ptcnteons.— 

Jtm J<mjmm. 

In Keeled A sttcAl affiiira, a judicial set of the Roman 
Cutholic Church, by which a priest, oo confcMon 
buing mode, and the pcnitonoo bang real, takes 
iipuii him to remit »iai ao confessed and repented 
of: tbia he does by power supposed to be delegated 
to tbe church by Christ ; al.*o, an set in the Pr»- 
trntoiit as well as the Romiin Cathotic Church, by 
which a person, who hua bcui excommnnicatedi ts 
restored to church ccmmunion. In Law, a defiui- 
tivo ficntence, whereby a man accused of any crime 
is nCi^uittcd. 

AnsoLUTisil, ab'sO'lu-tism, m. State of being ab- 
fcduie ; principles of abwlute govenunent ; doc- 
trine of predestination. 

Absomtokt, ab'so-Iu-tur e, a, {ahsoluUfruu^ Let.) 
Ttiat absulveA. 

Absoltatoby, ab sol'vu-tnr-e, a. Forgiving; par- 
doning ain ; containing absolution ; having the 
powiT to absolve. 

Absolve, ab-solv', r.o. (aAjiofco; nh, and mtm, I 
IftOiO or relense, Lat) To clear or Hcquit oS m 
crime; to act free from an eng»(renient or premise; 
to pronoonco the remission of sin ; to finish } to 

TLq work bcffmi, bov soon «&«elMi/— JRUm. 

AnsoLTEtt, ab-fuil'mr, a. One wbo abeulrea or pro- 
nounces the rcmisvion of sins; 

A aia-ahtoiim-.—Shmk*. 
a divine ; a ghostly confessor. 

ABSuXAJrr, abso-utint, a. (oAxcmt, ill- 
icit.) Absurd; contrary to reason. 

AbsokoL'8, ati'ao-nua, a. (abtamu, Lat) Cunln 
tonuaim; absurd; uumnsical. — Not much 

Abborh, ab-»awrb', r. o. {absorbeo, Lat) To aw 
up ; to swallow up; — past part abaorbad or ab- 
ftorpt ; to drink in ; to waste wholly, or sink in ea- 
pensea; to exhaust ; to engross or engage wholly. 
Abtofikny ooaocarfe, au iiiatromobt invented by 
Mr. Clomenl, fur the murv perfott ataorptiaft 



Akih)«BABiLrrr, ftl>-«a«rr-bft-bU'e-to, •• The capa- 
iHO«BAM.E, ab-wwrlMi-bl, a. Ca[>ablo of betog 

kb-nwr'bcn^ a. That ■tistirba; im- 
ttizy ; •wraUawmc ; — •. a sucker ap of Amis, 

ab-MiwrlienU, a. jtlu. The nurni* 

■ to two dutiDOt MU of TMttIs whitib absorb 

ooarrj fiutila to tbs thuracio duct llwj arr 

battf Uie LaeteitUi which take op the chjme 

iiia U» «tiiJMatat7 uuial ; nnij the l.ifmphutiaif 

vUA porads almobt v""'- "-•-• "f tbe UcMiy, in 

tVjr Afanrb the I . A also to tlif 

cbaUc, carb»i< < ningDceiii, &u. 

Amortt, ab-aawrpt'. i'«»t ytuL u( the Tcrb to 


AMOOTMVt ^Kniwrp'&lniii, f. Tho prucru hf 

■licking ap; the atatc uf being 

op ; a chviiiical tt'rm, ili'tioliug the coii' 

of a g»fi«oii» fluid iiito a liqnid or BoUd, on 

Iwkg wiitrd with si>ine other KubktaiicfL. 

AaM«rTTrK, ab-nwrv*tiv, a. ilaviiig the power 

if imbibing 
I1VT.UX, ab-i(aoe', s. n. (a£«rin<o,- ottt aod ren/^. 
I biri^ l^^J To farbaar or nr/nitn ; to drnr one's 
grstifiestioo, as, to absiiin ft^nn wtiie. 
ab-<t«'nie-us, a. (nthitemius, IM.) 
; tempermta: sober: rcfriuniD^ ftntn ux- 
m-, aperitif; in diH or drink. 
iCSLT, »b-»tc'me-u9-le, oA Temperately ; 
ithoot indolscoce. 
'fl«KSS« ab-ite'm«-aft-Dest «. The qaa- 
bong abiteniious. 

Iioiv, ab-sten'shun, r. ''dAcfneo, Lat.) Tlic 
'Wdic^ off ornstrMHtng ; n»tniint — Obso- 

(Inwi and nutunan of abwUn- 
oaaof aonow.— iitp. Tli^lor. 

[iMTVtOB, ah-ater}', v. a. ^alatcr^ Tjit.) To 

t^ v!pu>g ; to wipe. 

IT, al»-«terjint, a. Cleansing; h&vitig 

i« qtulity. 

Iwmuassrn, mb>aterj'-ntj% «, pft(. Tuitions and 

applieationa for deiuudng aorp«, aa sosp and 

lAwiBUiC, at-ttm', v. a. (jthrtgrgo^ Lat.) To 
aaat; to ptirifir- — Not mnch in Wbp.. 
rcKaiOK, ab-«t«r'shon, a. {abAUano^ Lat.) Tlie 
act of deanamg ; the operatioa of abtbtergeni roc- 

jAWMam^ ab-ater'aiy, a. Cleanmng; 

Thm many a Sowvr ahtiertiv* ^rcw, 
Thaftv'nw flowciaof ywDow hnt.~Sir'\ft, 
•b 9i« nent, t. (o^rufen/io, Lat.) For- 
Ivnaea vt any kind ; fa&ltog ; forbearance from 
hti cr Afiak ; the refnuiiing from an indalgericc 
rft|y«Cil«, or from the customary gniti6cjitions of 
■■Ml Malgoue. In a more modoni »i|^ilication, 
I Md tAtbaas fram the uaa of aptnCuoua liqaora 


of ibnn which have aaed aBMfaunu 
eft«v* the •tar*. wh«rea« our fiteea diall be 

iartii^i-a i:urw* vti. u. 

r, tb'ste-i^eii-ae, f. Samv as nVotinenee. 
i.r, ab'al»'aeot-le, m<JL In an abntiiient 

r, ab'ate-neiiCy a. Tenipente in a hl^h 
fllatcnkKu; refraining from Bptrituoua 

— « tm dbattrvont 

ABtrrp&TED, ab-BUiwrt.'rd, n. (alulortus, Lat.) 
Fomd away; wrung from another by ni>l«nce. 

ABfiTKACT, ah-stmkt', p.o. (u^jiraAo; oAi, nud (nuha, 
1 draw, Lat.) To take one thing from anoiher; 
to aepitratfl by distillation; to iteparAle ideas; to 
rvduL'e to an upitouie ; — a. {atitrttcfw, Lat.) aepa- 
mti'd Imni MxnrLliiiig cIm, generally uaod with 
nfvrenoetothemoDtalperctfptiona; pure; refined. 
Lave** not bo pure kdiI abstrarj as ttiejr say. — DtmmA. 

An abgtmct iVm, in Mrtapbysica, is an idea se- 
paratrd firom a complex obju^ct, or frwn other ideas 
which nectaaarily accompany it. Abxfrati fcrmM are 
those which expreaa abstract ideas, a» whiieneoa, 
roiuidneaa, beauty, withont regard to the object 
in wbicb they exij^t. Abstract numbers an focfa 
a& are nsod withoat application to tiling aa 6, 8, 
10; but when applied to any, as 6 feet to men, 
they become concrete. Abttract or pure naike- 
maticst is that which treats of magnitude or quAn- 
tity withoat reatrictinn to any aprt-iw of partirular 
magoitttde. as arithmetic and geometry opposed to 
mirMi maiAenkntiet, which treats of simple pro- 
pertwa and the rel^ons of quantity, as applied to 
Bontible ohjrcts, aa hydrostatics, optics, &c 

Abstract, ab'&trokt, r. An abridgment or epitome 
coQljiining the general anbatance; a ^cucriil view 
or principal heads of a treatlte or writing. In tkt 
absiractf in a rtate of sepnmtion cnnfidcrcd with- 
out reference to particular persons or things; the 
state of being abetractcd; a smaller quantity cnn* 
taining the virtue or power of s greater. Abstract 
oftUU, a short aommary of all tbe most materia) 
partt of such dcedi, arranged in cbronohgicid or- 
der, according to certain preaenbed forms. 

.^UfTnAOTBD, nb-4trak'ted. part a. Separated; 
disjoined; abstruse; difficult; rpfinf*d; purified; 

AhuntcuJ, MpIritnAl Iot<«; they lit:* 
Their Boui<i exhaled.— AmM, 

absent in mind; inattention to present objects. 

And nor no more the ab»irtict«d ear attends 
TtMi water's mortntiritiif lapse — WarUm. 

Ai}aTB.t,CTEDi.T, ab-strok'tcd-le, ad. With ah 
stractioo; simply; separately fVom all conLiogeiit 

AiiftTRACTEDXESB, ab-strak'ted-neS( «. The state 
uf being abstractwL 

AdstbaCTKK, ah-strak'tur, s. One who makes an 
abntmcl, epitocne, or note. 

Abstbacti, ab-stmk'ti, *. In Church Bi.itory, an 
obscure sect of Lutherans, who asserted that Christ 
is nut only t<i be adured in tbe cjncrete, u the 
Son of GckI, but in the abstract be is to b« 
regarded art an obj<i.'t uf sdomtiim and worship. 

AcsTEAcnov, Ab'Strak'sbnn, t. {ttb^tntctiu, Lat.) 
The state of bring occupied by abstract idii^ns ; 

Tb« povf^r «hlch the undentaading has orseparallna 
re praaroied to lt,d(Bttii^iiiab>«(l 
bj Io^clan« by Ibe OAine 01 ^bttractian. — Stewart. 

thiiroinhliiAtlxnfi whirh am praaroied to lt,d(Bttii^iiiab>«(: 

abaenco of mind; inatteutiun ; disregard of worldly 
ciicuinstanoes t tbe process of distilling a hqaid 
from any substance by the separation of the volatile 
ports, which rise, come over, and are oondensed tn 
a receiver, from those that are Bxed. The feerro la 
principally used when a fluid is repeatedly poared 
upon any substance in a retort, and distilled off, 
to change its itate, or tbe nature of its oomposi- 
AiiBTitACTrnors, ■b-strak-tisb'na, n. Abstracted 
or drawn from other su^lsUiocm, osixl to dl^tiu- 






gmsli spirit drawn from T(>getable«, or other sub- 
Btaitces in which it ONturitlly Abounds. 

AbatkactITK, ab-strok'tir, a. Uaring the power 
Or quiiKt J of abstracting. 

AxwTRAcnvELT, db-strok'tiT-Irt, ad. In an ah- 
stractKo maaner. 

Al»TRACTLT, ab-Btraktle, ad. In in abstract 
miOiKT; abMlately; witboat reference to any- 
thing else. 

AB8TIUCTSE88, ab-slrakt'nes, ». Snbtilty; separo- 
tion from all matter or oommon notion. 
Tb« MbatracUiji of the Idou Uictmalros. — LocIca. 

AMTBlCTEn, al><«trik'ted, a. {abttrietiu, Lat) Va- 

Absthikgb, ab-^trinj', v. a. (ab and ttriitgo, Lat.) 
To nnbind. 

AaaTRCDK. ab'Strood', v. a. {aUtrudo^ Lat) To 
thnut off; t« pull awaj. 

Abstrcsk, ab-atruM', a. (abttnav*, Lat.) Hidden ; 
removed from tIow; difficult; reaioto from con- 

Th' rt«mal eye, whm« sldUt dbcem* 
A^trvMst Ihouahts, from forth hit holy mabnt, 
And fn>m within tha Kolden latiipii tlmt bum 
NlKhtly hpUm Um, uir, vitboat their Ught, 
Brbrlllun rtilng.— JVMlM. 
AnBTRtJSSt.T, ab-«traBe1e, ad. In an ahatm-te 

muincr; obscoretj ; not platnlr or ubriously. 
Amtrl'BKNES!!. ati-alniMi'neft, jr.* Diffitoltj or nb- 

■curity of meaning. 
AssTRtJRrTY, Nb-atm'afr-te, m. Afastnueneaa. — Sel- 
dom used. 
The oeeolt ahairu$ftU$ of thtnga.— Awa** Tutff. Err. 

ABflrRD, ab-snrd', a. lucouNistcot with, or contrarv 
to, common ecnae or sonad reason ; opposed to 
manifest truth. Abtmsfum^ or reductia ad abtur- 
dumy a Lfltin pbmm tuied in fceomelrj to denote a 
mode of drmonttnition, in which the tmth of n 
pn>po5itian is deinonatratod, nr^t by a direct proof, 
but by proving that the contrary is absurd or im- 

ABSfRDixr, ab-«ir'de-te, 9. The qnaKty of being 
absurd J wont of jndgment; wont of propriety. 

Absurdly, ab-RQrd'l«, ad. In an absiud manner; 
urreaiionibly ; foolishly. 

ABStTRDKESS, ab-surd'nos, «. Unreaaonableneas ; 
foolishness ; impropriety. 

A8SU8, ab'siiB, t. In Uotany, the plant Cnssius 
absus of LiunscQS, or Four-eared Ciu»i>i, a nutivc 
of Egypt and Ceybm. The powdered Mwds are 
employed, mixed with sugv, m a topical remedy 
In Eg^'ptian oplitbalniy. 

AditkdaNCE, a-bon'dans, 1. ((ffrtrndtincd, Fr. ahtm- 
dbuft'o, from uncA), a wave, Lat.) Literally, an 
orerflowiiig; exulvrance; great plenty; ample 
Bofficifinoy ; more than ennuf;b. 

Abundant, a-bon'dant, a. ("bumhuu, Ijit.) Plen- 
tiful ; 1!) greAt qnantity ; fully snffidenL 

AsiTitDAicnA, a-b'm-dnn'ahe-a, «. In Numismsttcs, 
tba goddess of plenty on medals, called Copia by 
tbfl poeUi. She ia usnnlly represented aa seated 
on a chair, tb« two aides of which were wrought 
Into cornucopias. 

Abi'KDAKTLT, a-bun'dant-K "'f* In great pimily ; 
amply; liberally; in a sufficieDt degree or quan- 

Abl'raoe, a-bn'x0Je, i. — Obsolete. 

ABrsB, a-buze', r. a. (oitftor, ahuufy Lat. oftnaer, 
Fr. tthujor, Span.) To niake no ill nae of; to 
use with bad motivm ; to riolato by improper sex- 

ual interoourse; to de6le; to deceive; to impoM 

npon ; to treat with mdencas; to reproach; to 

pen-ert the meaning of; to misapply, as, to abmtt 

Abpse, ti-buso', », The improper as* of an3rtlung; 

ill urage; improper treatment or empk^rtnent ; 

application to a wroo^ purpose; 

lAhcTtj tohf tie endan;pi<rRl by thi; akuca af Kber^, mm 
well M t>y the o^vjm of power.— Madiaam. 

a corrupt practice; a bad custom; seduction; mi* 

just ci'nsure ; rudt- rcpruadi ; contomely ; perrer* 

sion of meaning, an, abtut of words. 
AnusER, H-bu'sur, j. Cue who abuses in npeech or 

behaviour; adeccirer; amrUber; a sodomife«t. 
ABUS105, s-bu'shon, s. Cormpt and improper 

usage; reproach. — Obsolete. , 

Shame ni;lit on him, lliat through ao falne ilUtiilon. 
E)otb turn tha name of totdlert to abitftom. — Sjfnaer, 

ABU&irn, a-bn'iiiv,/?. Practising abnae ; cnntuiiing 
harsh langnage, cr ill treatment; dcoeitfuL — Sel- 
doni used in the last seuso. 
1 i H vvrWM by a nitmber of ctxampleii, that wImIotm' 

U Rftlurd hr SD abugiv treaty, ou^ht 10 be reslond fa f*> 

tfjfrttni. — Rjctvt. 

AacsnrcLT, a-bu'nr-la, adL Reproachfully; nddy; 


TbR oil, ahttMiMljf ralM spirit of nsn, swims >i tha 
top of ihtt water, In tho forui of a whlbs bulttn.— /byit. 

AouHivbifKss, a-bu'siv-nes, f. Ill tieatmeut; rudo 
reproach ; tiotenco to the pcrBou. 

Ajidt, a-bnt', r. o. (n&ou/er, firom bofA^ an end, Fr.) 
To border on ; to be oontigvoua to ; to naeel CT 
approach ; to aiyoin at the oud. 

Abuta, a-bu'ta, $. {ohvtda, \ls name in Guiana.) A 
genus of climbing plants, natives of Guiana: Or- 
der, Sangtiisorbiiccae. 

AuuTiu>K, a-bu'ul-im, s. In Butany, the Braid* 
leaved Sido, ihu Sida ubutilou of UnmroB, ab 
annual pbuit, growing in the East and W«it 
Indies; Order, Malvnccjt. 

AuLTUEKT, a-butWnt, ir. The head or end ; tliat 
which iiuitea one end of a thing to another : tiM 
word M used chiefly to denote the solid piv or 
mound of enrtb, stone, or timber, which is erected 
on tlie bank uf a river to support tlw end of B 
bridge, and connect it with the land ; that whkili 
abuts or bordpn on another. 

Ahuttal, a-but'tal, «. Hie bntting or boundary of 
land at the end; ahi'adUiid; riUo, a wilting de- 
claring on what bitidi, highways, or other pUcd^ 
the boundaries of Uud iibut. 

AsT, a-bi', r. a. To pay deur for ; to endurv ; 
VTIio dytw, ttM utmost dolor doth atjf,^-3ptn*tr, 
— ff. n. to pay; to remain. 
Bot nought that wanteth n»l can loogaty. 9^mnir 

Advlrs, a-biTw, «. A geuusof Aealepliana: Order* 

Abtbmal, a-fads'ma!, a. Ferlatniuf* to an abyn, 

Abtbs, a-Lis', f. {nbyno*, bottomless; u, jiriv. nod 
Aswsof, bottom, Gr.) A bottomloss ffulf; an tm- 
m^nse cavern in the centre of tho earth, in which 
r;<>d is supposed to have collected tha watara ea 
the third day of creation ; hell ; 
From that Insatiable ahyiti^ 
Whers flatnes dwour, aud sarpont* tilaa^ 
Promote mc to tlij- seat uf bliM. — /i!«tcn»nwi». 
that which is immeastirable; that lu which ai^ 
tbiug \s lost. 

Thy Uiroua fa darhnass In tha olyat of Itcht.— 


The o&yw of time.— /Vydim. 





h ItoaUr}', the orattv of nn cscuU-l'.rtm, as, he 
haBaai<^ t floDr-de-Ks in at>ifu. In Aniiquitv, 
dvlfll^le of PraarrpiiiA was h> caUetl TrODi the 
fa— 1> I f r ^rorae which it wa5 supposed tocotitaiD. 
AlTtflFltF. ftb-i»^n Vui, a. l*«rUiniiig to Aby»- 
■di:— «. a natire of AbyuiuU. JbyumiaMf a 
Met of Chrv4iaiu in Atiyuuiiii, who admit bat <hi<i 
ia Christt vid reject the cooncU of Chalor- 
TYttj an gorcmed by • bUhop, or nirtru- 
mUed Abulia, who ii appoiuted by ihe 
Cmtia patmrch of Ciiro. 
^«C« ■> In Saxon, the name of the ouk, which it 
ia the initial of oaniea, as AciOH^ i. e. Oak- 

ft-kA'ahft-a, «. (Latin ; olxtkia, tho Fi;vp* 
tiAB thoni, Gr. a plant mentiuncd by DioMrcriJrfi, ii» 
ft anfal aatringeut thorn yieltUng a white trutis- 
famt poK. flocrespoDding Hith gum-amblc planta 
af iDodan) Eg)'pt.) Iii Mwlem Botany, a genua 
«f Lacomioou plasta, comdating of troca uid 
aucn* of the vpeciea of which yield catechu 
ulbeni tAnnin. Tbe titea poaaess 
of (bliage ami colouring. Three hon- 
bdong to tlus genera : SobordeTf Pa- 
Anooa Antiqtianes, a name giveji to 
a nUl «r b«; H<n on Roman meduU in the hands 
wt thm a up c K na aad oonaola. Some contider it aa 
■ handkiTcbi«f rolled np, with which 
prsi at tbe game* ; othifrv, a roll of 
i; anil aoma a hag of earth lo romini) them 
«f iMrnortality. Jeruia^iMi,—see Gum-arabic. 
it^ •k-a-^o'ine-al, a. Pertaining to an 

icannitAV, afc-a-de'me-an, a. A member of a 
it; ; a ftD<i«nt attending a ooUvgc or Qiii- 

Xc*4t%MiC, aJc-a-drtnlk, «. One who belonged to 
ifta iclioal, or wUiirrrd to the philoMipIiy of 80- 
oalaa and PIaIo. the lending doctrines of which 
«m.that matter b etrmal and infinite, bat with- 
NX fbnn, nfractofT, and tending to disorder; and 
that tbeve ia MD ibtpl)i;;ent canae, tbe author of apiri- 
tHJ bdBg« aod of the natnral world. 

AcaOClVtCALLT, ak-a-demVkol-le^ ad, lo an 
Hidaideal maimer. 

ACAOainciair, ak-a-de-niiAh'iin, j. (ficatiriffrVun, 
Fr.) A BcmUx of an academy orBoricty (or pro- 
iT'lit i r arta mod aaenoea, farticularly • member of 

«-kad'«n4un, m. Tlic doctrine of Ihe 
andank philMopby. 
llaflwsrval principle of aoMfrMtm and acrptlelam, 
mnmiT he pereetreiL'— Aixl«r. 

IT. n-lEad'e-mist. «. A member of an 
tf , in « hich the wta and adenoes are t aught ; 

AcoACalT, a-kadVmr, t. (aJtndemia, Or. acadrmia^ 
IjC Irom Afsdenitcoa, whose preinispn at Alhenn 
wna CMtvnted into an acadHny.) OHpinnlty, a 
nic, gardaiL, or villa, at AtheuN where PUto and 
kb fsOonirtn held their pbiloaophiiiil eonffrencf-ft; 
a aibaol ti tcaraing, faoktlng a r«nlt between a 
Cabjp «r anivtrsity, and a common arho<jl ; the 
baaa ia which the numbrn of an aoudciny 
a«l ; • pdac* of edaMtion ; a wk irty of men 
■alid (or the promotion of the arts and ftc[enc«5, 
ar *i aoaie jMrtimlar fcinin or art. Acadftny 
lEparv, ia Ihe Flue Arta, a drawing In li;;ht and 
after a tinng model, regulated by the 
of an academy. 

Academic, nk-a-demltc, \ a Belonging to an 

AcADKSiiCAL, ak-a-dem ik-ol,/ academy, college, 
or university ; belonging to the school of philoso- 
phy of Plalo, oa, the utWcmic sect. 

Ac^NA, a-se'na« *. (iilainn^ a ihom. Gr.) A genua 
of cxotlo herbaceous perennial plants : Order, San- 

AcAitiTtTB, B-ec'no-tus, t. A geniu of imtccta of 
the trilKi Ichneumon idea. 

AcAi.EniA, a-kal'e-fnf a, (a, priv. kalos, pleasaot, 
and apbf, a touirliing, fir.) A genus of pridilj 
planta : Order, nupliorbiuccm. 

ACALKFH^, a-kal'e-fe, > «. {akalrphe^ a nettle, 

AcALErilAN!>t fi-kare-ffina, / Gr.) A clau of gela- 
tinous, niariiif, radiated animnU, which, when 
tonched, produce a disagreeable Mooatioa, like 
that arising froni the stiug of n nettle. 

AcALBTliE, a-kal'e-fe, a. An aoalephan, — see Ac&- 

ACAMACA, a-kam'a-ka, j». The BractliAn Fly- 
catcher, a bird of the gunus Todus. 

Acamahcii tJS, o-kit-nxhk'us, 5. A genus uf corals : 
Fauiily, CvllulMriii. 

ACAMPSV, a-knmp'v., a. iacatnpna, Ijtt. from a, 
priv. and kampto^ I bend, Gr.) Same aa Andiy- 
\<mK, — which see. 

AcAXtJB, a-kn'mus, f. A chambered fossil shell, of 
H conical shape, and tcruiinatcd at the apex by a 
stellular figorSf encircled by eight tubcrcolsited 

AcA.SACKOVB, a-kan-a'ahoi, a. {akanoi^ Gr. 
Annrd with spines. 

AcANTUACEiS, abu-fAa'so-e, s. (okanOmtj cat of 
the genera.) A natnral order of munoptalous 
Exngens, compoeed of shrubs or herbst flowers «n- 
cbised in large leafy bracts: c^lyx composed of 
funr or five parts orerlapping each other ; corolla 
irrpculsr and monojietnluus ; need Tcaaolfl two- 
relied, which burst open when rii>e, and axpoa« a 
frw ruiindii>h seeds hanging to the cells by cimonsly 
hooked proccMKS. llie pUnts of the order ars 
cliiptly tropicol. 

AOAVrn^, a-kan'Mc, *. phu TLntin.) Tlic prickles 
of thorny plants or spines of (i>he». 

ACANTIIACEOUS, a-kaii-fAa'iibuA, a. (oX-dnMAt", 
thorny.) Priokly. 

AcANTnABtx.K, B k«n-rt«-ri'ne, s. A fnbfjiinlly of 
Curypharnidw fi^«s djVLiiiguisbod by the body be- 
ing orate or nblonKi And the mouth very small. 

AcASTiiiA, B-kan'cftp-a, *. {nkanUtin.; a prickly 
thing, Gr.) A genus of Hymenuptcrous ioseclA: 
Tribe, Geocorisfp. 

ACANriilcoHC — See Epidoto. 

ACAXTiiicus, a-knnVAe-kus, «. (ahantJiiko§^ thorny, 
Gr.) A ^enu^ of fishes which have the plates of 
the body armod with short spines : Family, Siluri'ln. 

AcATtTtiiXK, a-kan'Mine, a. Prickly; spiny; be- 
loiipn^ to the ordi.'r Acanthncen. 

ACANTHiON, a-hanVAe-nn, .«. (Greek.) A genus of 
Hodents allied to the porcupine. 

ACAWTiiiCM, a-knn'Mc-um, «. (okantMon^ Gr.) 
The cotton thinlc : Onopordiura Acanthium. 

ACANTHIZA, B-kan-Mi'xs, #. A genus of birds be- 
longing to the Sylvianie, or Warblers: Family, 
Sylvia lieat. 

AcAKTHOCEFllALA, ft-k(in-/Ao-sef 's-ls, f. (ahtmthat 
a spine, and h-plutU^ a head, Gr.) A family of 
the Entozoa, or intestitial worms, which attach 
themselcT^ to the tritentineo, by a prominence 
armed with recurved spines. 




ACAXTHOCEBUS, «-knii-/Ao»'«r-li», jr. fnimtfha, ud 
tteraty » born, Gr.) A gentu of Coleoptcrotw io- 
McU : Family, SauttbitiJs. 

ACA5TIIOC1NLA a-kjin-<Ao-si'ini9, «. (^alitnihn^ 
luitl Jb'n«o, I move, Or.) A g«niu of Coleopterous 
tQsrrta .* Family, Lonpoomra. 

ACAKTnoooLE, a-knu'cAo-bole, f. (French, froin 
akanlAa^ a tliom, arid ballo, I strilci', Gr.) An 
instrument us«d fur the extraction of npUnters of 
bone, or otlwr foreign bodica from a voond. 

AcAXTliODRiiHA, a-knn-ofA-dvr'ma, >, {»kimOta, 
and derma, the «kia, Gr.) A gcntu of fossil 
fiifacR from Glaris. 

AcAMTHO^EH, «-!^:lt^rAo-(l^ *. {akcHtho, and 
odom^ ft touts, L]r.) A genus of Ganoid fonil 
fiahci frtim the carboatferoiu strata of ScoUaad. 

AcAKTHOMEKA, a-kan-lAo-me'ra, $. (nknntha, and 
merof, the thigh, Gr.) A genus of Diptwotts in- 
ttvtB of the fouiity Notacaiitlia ; al&o, a genus of 
Colt^opterous insects : Family, MeloMniA. 

AcANriiONoTiK, a-kan-Mo-no'tiw, t. (aLnnthn, and 
tiittotj the hark, Gr.) A gpimm of ii:ihu, furniAbed 
with a roiv of ten detached spines in front of the 
doTiAl and the anal 6na. 

AcAirritoviim. a-kan'Mo-fis, i. (aknnt^n, and ophi*^ 
A serpent, Gr.) A eenos of serfcntt, ftirDisbcd 
with a single series of platee beneath tbe tail 

AcAtrTnomutA, ft-kAD-<Aop'ier-a, s . (oitanMa, and 
p tm v n^ ft wing, Gr.) A genus oif ColeDpterDoa 
inaectft: Family, Ctrambycida'. 

AcAKTBOPODi B, a-knn-fAup'o-du«, «. A genua of 
Ashes, mouth sniiill, teeth short and thick set : 
body greatly c«imprc«sc<I, as daep as long ; rentral 
6aa rvpresentad by two short fipineii : Fsmily, 

ACAirmonSttroiAlfS, ji-knn-rtop.ler.yV-ana,) 

ACAKTuoPTCBTOii, a-kan-c4op-ter-ijVi, ) * 
(tthanihay a spine, ptfiyx, a wing, Gr.) An ex- 
IttttiTe order of fisbea, distioguisltcd from others 
y^bf baring the fintt rays of the doraat, ventral, and 
uaI fins fiiipported by a ^mple spinous process, 
as in the perch. 

AcAKTUOPTEuraiocs, A-kan-fAop'tcr-rij-ft-tu, s. 
Armed with hard spiny doraal fins, beLotiging to 
tbe order Acanthopterypi. 

AcA>mio9Ct:LK9, a-kan-Mnft'e-Iis, s. fakantia. and 
ikeiog, the leg and foot, Gr.) A genus of Cole- 
opterous insects : Family, Carabidr. 

AcAKTaua, a-kan'CAua, i. The pl:int Bear's breccTi, 
a geotts of plants, type of tbe natural order 
Acsnlhacea^ In Architecture, an ornament which 
mernhk* the leaven of the pUint no railed. It is 
used la tbe capitaU of tbe Corinthian and Com- 
peaita ordero, and is said to have bern introdnred 
faiCo the former by Callimnchus, an architect who 
was •tmck with tbe beanty of the leaves surround- 
[ng a basket, which, covered with a tile, had been 
Ml so near tbe plant, that the leaves had grown 

ACA.?frft, a-fca'nuA, «. A gonos of fouil fishes from 

AcAXZi, a'kaii'xt, ». The name of the Turkish 
Hght horse, which form the van of tbe Grand 
S^piiot's army when oo the march. 

ACAKDA, a-kdr'da. #. Cuvief*s name for the 8n- 
dista of Lamarck. — Sae Car^a. 

AOAXDTA, a-kdr'de a, a. (o, priv. Gr. canio, a bitige, 
Lilt) A geout of foAsil bivalve Rhellx of tbi> 

onitcr kind, with a Att lid-like vako applied to 
tlie QODvejL one, and oonnectcd, without a hin^e. 

by tbe abductor mosde only. Tbe coo^Uon of a 
fcctus bom without a heart. 

ACABJio, a-kilr'do, a. A genus of Aat nearly eqoal- 
Tolved, bivalve sheila, with hiu^re or lignnient, 
having ono muitcuUr impression ia the ccntn cf 
lite valves. 

ACAlu, a*ka'n,«./f£ (Greek ; akrni, a mlta.) Tboaa 
small unchiioid, or Hpider-Uke aDimala, which 
have a siiigle-jul tiled cballcv or piuccr, reseinbHug 
an antonoa, or u sni-torious mouth. — See Acaridca. 

ACAitiiiES, a-ka're-dis, s. (lubari, a mitis Gr.) A 
subdivision of the Arachuidea, com pra binding tits 
■mnll spidiT-LIke animals oalled aoon or mitn, as 
well OS watcr-mitei and ticks. — See Acari. 

AcARNA, a-kdr'no, a, (Greek.) A genus uf ptania 
allird to the Thbtlle tribe. 

Acaiu>;ar, s-kflni'ur, f. A bright star of the fint 
magnitndo in tbe coustclUtioD Kridanos. 

Agabus, sing, of Acari. — Which see. 

ACJISTA, a-kas'ta, s. A genua of ciiripeda, having 
OBssle, ovata, subconie, compreraed abells, oandit- 
ing of six paxta, two of the valves amsll and fba^j 
la%e, slightly unitod, with an orbicular plate 
tematly concava at the hose. 

AcATALECTio, a-kat-a-lok'tfk, *. (aknlaltktUB»$t 
not defective at the end, Gr.) A Tcnn having kfaa 
entire number of syllables peculiar to tbe mcMuct 

ACATALRPflY, a-kat'a-lep-se, a. (a, priv. and iba^H 
leptis^ com prehension, Gr.) IncompfehennbiUiyt 
impossibility of oomplnte discovery. 

AcATALXPTic, s-kat-a-lfcp'tik, n, Incomprehenrible. 

AcATAPOftis, a^kat-a-pa'AJs, <. (a, priv. and jbais- 
jHMW, deglutition, Gr.) Inability to iwallow. 

AcATER, a-ka'tnr, t. (^accntfare, to beg or horrow, 
IlaL) A provider or purchsaitr of pnivisioba. — 

A gental maadpla was tbar of s (emplsv 
or wliieh adUiMir« inlebt take enBample. 
For to bco wls« Id buying of rltsllB.F— CTAawwp. 

AcATKB. B-kayta', s. (achtUtr, to purcboM, m- 
nounced ocater in Picardy and Lsnguedoc, old Fr.) 
rmviaions ; viands. In more modem bnguago— 

The kitchen clerk that liiffat digettinn, 

DiJ order all the oeate* in aeemlj vise. — Spmmr. 

Acatharsia, a-ka-tbdr'sho-a, r. ( aJrathar »ui^ uo- 
cltsnneaa, Gr.) In Surgery, the filth or impnre 
Auid or eordfs issuing from eom ; impurity. 

AcATiuM, a-ka'shum, *. In Antiquity, a land rf 
nJlitary boat or pinnace wrought by osre. 

ACATRY, a-ka'tre, s. The roont or place allotted to 
the keeping of ale and such provisions as tbe pur- 
vnynnt |mn:bnsed for the king. — tiaUiwM, 

AcAri.iNE, a-kaw1lne,\ a. (a, priv. and kmio9, 

ACAULOLS, a-kRwI'ufl, i Rtem, Gr.) In 
without a CAulitf ; applied to plants wboec W 
spring directly from tbo root, oa those of U>e pno^ 
rose, hyacintli, and crocus, 

AcAWEitiA, tt-ka-we're-a, s. The name givm ia 
Ceylon to the bitta- root cf the plant OpUoxyWia 
surpcntinum, a supposed antidote to the jmUoooos 
bite of a serpent. 

AOCEDE, ak-sede', v.a. {accedo; od and cwfo, to 
yield or givo place, LaU) To agree or assent (e; 
to become a purty to, by agreeing to tbe terms of 
a treaty or convention. Aecedtts ad curintm^ b 
Law, n writ wWch rbmoves a pUinl from an to- 
fcrior to a higher court. 

AccEI^KATK, ok-seler-atr, r. n. {nccelrro; ati and 
cvicro, I hosbcn, Ut.) To cause to mora {aster: 



t6 ttU la Vfloeitj ; to «dd to natur&l 
•rdinmtj pRi|7r«An. 

p. ., -. , , ,__ ,^ f.,^ ^ FI«»tened ; 

T, a rapitliu of ino- 

■• vpltKityof » falling 

raaa cxrti vcood in the irithnMCical 

1, 8, 6> 7, U, and the whole wpac« pMsed 

«w in Cb» eeom^ncal ratio of M]DAK^ 1, 4,9, 16, 

ftc 4 fiMkwmtvt 1/'-*^cf, thv incTFiiK wbicli a bodj 

ctat* in 0otiar<jDenc« of ilA incruwd motion. 

ATlonty ak'Sel-er-a'fehTin, i. The act of 
ta more faster ; the stntr of morin!:; faster. 
la VachaideB, ater l eraiStm of motion u the cod- 
of TdoritT which a falling bodj 
In Moaio, qnickening ibe time in the 
aeddlc «/ a piece. In MUitjir/ tat-tica, to canr a 
fctadh sadv iba world of a place, in 
crfoto take It hj pranpt anaulL Aceekration 
•f lt« waaM, the iitcrrafo of the nioori'a tncan 
frotD the ann, eoroparrd with the diomal 
af the earth ; the tikkk) moving with 
ftlMitj than it did fai ancient limea — a 
made by Dr. lUiJej. IHumal acrctera- 
ftMft ^ ila Jixed atara, ia tbe time br which they 
Ifce mean diuma] remlulion uf the nun, 
it oeaiijr 63 miuatea 56 Mconik. AceeU- 
nf^P^tmtt i> wlum its real iliauietcr oxceeda 
diamal motjoii. 

Tin, afc-«el'er-a-ti», \ a. Incmaji- 

TO«T, ak-iel'ler-a-ttir-e, / 

^ g j c tgoiag pruKrea^ioQ. 

«TOK, afc-aat'er-aj-tnr, a. A mufwle which, 

•oDtra^kra, aooeleratea the dimrharge of 

•ne gf tha pain of miudefl called 

ing Tclo- 

■k-aend', v. a. {acemtio ; ad and enmdf, 
^ I am white, from oanw, white, Lit.) To 
art as Sf» ; ta kindle. 

0«r ritonttm. If enfllelesUr oamJcd. woald. as tlielrv. 
tan 9 laamiaw iWii beuka of u>ti taiu—thtay a/ Artjr. 

AceswrnUTT, ak-aend-rWlVte, #. The capa- 
^tf «f bat^ icmted. kiti(ll«), or inflamed. 

ak-amdVbl, a. Capable of bong 

ak-aeo'do-fiis, > «. In Roman Ab- 

AoccoooiiJ^ aik-ae'do-nla, \ tifjiiity, u kind of 

labCaM ^adiatorp, whoae office wua to excite sod 

a*MMia lb* oombalanta. 

Aonnti, ak-aen'*!, «. In Anttqiutj, nipemtifnenirY 

Midhn taken frmn the fifth tjaaa of Ritnao cilt- 

*■• m A kind of rrMHcd force : also, an inferior 

ttim <# •fioera, attendaat on tha Bomon magia- 

mm, m «abcn, aerficanta. &c 

ioaST. Alr'aantf a. (aocen/w, from cat*n, Cfin/nin, 

te ting. Lad.) The raodnlstion of the voice, or 
wan* IT of ffpcakiiig or [vaooiiQciog with rrgard to 
fNW«r rlwjaeoee ; 

I kaav, »(r, 1 an tio fUtt«rer ; be that bepilletli jcn. 
te a ffala aMMf vai a [4a(u man ; whtch, for iny part, I 

tta fartacnbir atnaa or force laid npoo a srOaMe ; 
■uul ia Uw flenar ii primary or Meoiularj— it is 
BMllr or l>«a, aa in the w»rd ac'Ui-mn'thtm^ tm% 
Mf ibe primary, t»e the awundary. Wban an 
aavC ti |ila«ad on a vnitpl, it baa iti long mane 
wmAt u ta r^etmt x when plaeed on a ooosoaant 
by a vowrl, the ruwe! baa ita ahut it 
wuiTice; the mark of arcetituatioti. 
Tla Qnvki, wbora w« bava copied in thia mapect, 
«ad Aiw aaoMti — Um acute, wbkh r^act tiw 

intonuti'in of the ruiro ; the grave, which depi 
it ; and the drcuniflri, which givea it a modala- 
tion; modalalioDof tharoioo, axpnaaivaofpaMoa 
or sentiment ; 
Tlie t«tw]er ncemta of s woiiiaa*a cr* 
Will paaa unheard mod anroKardaa 4la» 
When the roagh aaaman's londar aboata pMvall/— 


poetically, laugnage or expresiioo in gsosral ; 

How ciany asaa hcaoe 
Shall thli onr laft^ write b*; lUtrd o'er 
in lUtRs uottora, and oooaM yet unknown.—SUti. 

a particoUr tone or inflection of voice in pronoun- 
dog acnttooeA or words, aa, aa Irish, Scotch, or 
Engliah accent ; to write or tnarlt the acceataa- 
tioo of worda. In Moae, a awelling of muimU for 
the ptirposc of variety or expreswon, or an en- 
forcement it particular aunnda by Che vuioa or 
instruments where the cinpb&wa falla^ lo common 
time* the tint and third ootaa of a word an ae- 
centMl, and, in treble time, the first and laat note. 
In Matbematiot, aooeuti are naed to danolo dif- 
ference of quantities or magnitudes. 

AccRNT, ak-aent', r. a. To pronounce with the 
proper accent ; to alter a syllahle with the proper 

AocexTKD, ak-aent'ed, jKtrt a. Uttered with ac- 
oenta ; marked with accents. 

Acc£STiOM, ak-ien'shun, «. (accenMo, Lat.) Tha 
act of kindling ; state of being kimUed ; i;:nJtion. 

AccswTOK, ak-sen'tur, i. In Magic, one who takea 
tha loading )<art In Omttbology, th« bcilge- 
spomow, a genua of birdA belau^ing to the I'arioc, 
or Titmice : Family, Sylviadie. 

Accentual, ak-sent'a-al, a. f ertunirg to aoDnt, 

AccKMTUATB, flk-aen'ta-atc, r. a. To maik wotds 
with the proper acepiiLi. 

AccEXTUATiMN, ak-Mn-tii-aVInio, «. Th« act of 
placing thfi nrc«iita in writing, ur of pronnonring 
them iu spealtlng, 

AccsPT, ak-aept', e. a. {aocff^, from orfi/tio; ad 
and enpf'o, I take, LaL uccepttr, Fr. acffnt'tr^ 
Spaa.) To take or roceire what ia offered n-ith an 
agreeaU* fueling; to receive with approbation or 
favoor, aa, he accepted the oiBoe made to him ; to 
regard with partiality ; to valu or eatcom \ 
It ia not gocd to ocmt^c Iba penon of the wtekerf^— 

iV». ivUL 

to oonsent or s^^rec to, aa, to ace^i a treaty ; often 
followed hr q/1 as, to acctpt of the terma pro- 
poMfd ; to nndervtand or receive in a particular 

Tba same epithet in several plaeea ooetptM aundry tn- 
(ofprelatkiiia. — FuiUr't Wortiuea. 

In Comnierco, to agree or promise by aigniitnni, to 
pay tt-hen dne, aa in a hill of exchange. AecepU- 
ing verruNi of proceiM, tba agreement by the 
attorney or BoUcitAr of a defendant^ lo accept or 
reoelTe, on bis client^a behalf, soch writ or prooeaa 
froQi tha oppoatte party, as slioutd ha\e bcwo 
served ptraonaliy upon the defendant at the eom- 
mencemenc of legal proceedings. 
AccEPTABLB, ak-atp'ta-bl, a. That m^ be ra- 
eaiTed with agreeable feelings ; gratefnl ; plasa- 
ing ; aensonable. This word is sometimes accented 
on the finit aylhilile, as in the following paaeaga : 

Tills voman whom tbon mad'st to be mr bdp» 

Aad save me aa thy perfect clA, so food, 

8o Jutl, 9o acuptabU, so divine. 

That Horn her hand I ooiild axpeot no 111. — Wlltm, 



AcCBf^ABlUTY, flk-»ppt ii-bil>-l«, ) «. TliB qua- 
AcCKrTABLEMCM, nkVpt-s-bl-nes, ) lit/ of betii}; 

Kgrrcable to ft receiver. — AooeptabiUty ia Mldom 


U« h«tb etTon ui bU natunl blnod tu be sbvd for the 
nmlMtoa ofour olna, ood for ahtAlnlns Uw gnce knd the 
MOvMWttr of repentuiM.— 2ljp. 2'aifhr. 

AcCBPTABtr, ikk-Mp'ts-ble, ad. In an aecepUble 
nMoiier ; la a waj which cun b« rcceiTed. 
Let us hare grmco wbcmbj we may aerre God aattph 
Mt^Btb. xlL 

ACOKPTAWCA, ak-sep'Uns, #. Reception with aatia- 
' ftctiou or approbation ; 
^ Thtia I ombolden'd ipalu; and ttt^am used 

Fennlidr^ aad meetptaiie$ found.— Afiflon. 

Boma men eaniwt ba Ibala with 00 good aeeaploMM u 

Olbcrc— iSmiIA. 

Mceptalion or recaption of the meaning in which a 
word IS understood— (not oaed in tbii) seodr.) 
Acceptancf. in taw, the acceptance or tjiking nity- 
tbinfT which ^ prroon ia not boDod to accept or 
take, but which, when occepted or taken, beooine^ 
binding in ita opcrntian and efliscta. Aceeptatux 
/or h<moWf in ScotLish law, the occeptartce of a 
bill ader it \in» been protested ag:tinitt the drawee 
for non-acceptance. Aaxjttitnce 0/ a bitl^ an 
vngagement to |uiy a bill accordinj; tu llie tenor 
of the acceptiinee, which mny bn eithvr ubsohite or 
qudUtiod. An nbtoluie. acvrptattct in nn engage- 
meiit to pay a bill according to ita raqncet, which 
b done \jj the drawee writing Acerpted on the 
bill, and subscribing bia name, or willing Ac- 
cepted only i or merelr snhscribing at the bottom 
or across the bill. A qvaJ^fiaU accfptunct ia wh^n 
a hUl ia aoeepted conditionally ; aa, when gooJa 
oaOToyad to the drawee aro sold, or when a navy 
btU b paid or other future bill, which does not 
bind the acceptor till the contingency has hap- 
pened. — MaccvUuck. Acctpianc* abo signifies 
an ai^reeing to tmns or proposals in commcroo, by 
which a bjrfmin is concludud, and the parties 
bound ; Ukewiao, an agnx'inj^ X*\ the art or contract 
of another, by some aut whicti biudii the person in 
law, aa a bishop taking rent reserved on a lease 
by hb predeoeseor b an acceptance in trnus ul tlic 
lease. In Commun Law, it denotes the accepting 
or taking of one thing as a conipenaatioo for the 
payment or perfonnance of another. In Mer- 
chandise, a bill of rxcb.itigp accepted. 

Accr.rrATioK, ak-aep-ta'sdiun, «. Karourable re- 
ception ; sttte of being acceptable ; f«vuurable 
ivgard fM* aoceptablencsu — (the word more gene- 
rally used in thb seiiiie < ; the intfiiiiini; ur sense 
in whacb a word or rspreshion b uodrntood or 
generally received ; reorptlun in K*iiontl, whether 
good or bad.— Not tued in tins Bcnao. 

AocKPTBR,! ak-sep'tur, «. One who oooepta. An 

AoCKFtOB,/ accepter of a hill, tlie drawee or pcr- 
aon who, by bb signing it, becomes bound to pay 
it when due. 

AcCKPTiLATioN. nk-Mp-te-lu'shun, *. {accej}tiintio^ 
Lat.) The remiaaioa uf a debt without payment 
of any ronsidemtioa. 

ACCKPTIOV, ak-«cp')diun, a. The received aenae of 
a word ; aoceptanoa ; atate of being accepted. — 

AocKPriTK, ak-aep'tir, a. Ready to accept 

TIm people are very aatptn'f, aud apt to appUud koy 
narllabls wurk^-Am Jimstm. 

AoCKfti. ak-aea', *. (acectjiw, Lat.) Approach or 

way by which cny thing may be approached; th« 
mmns or lilM>rty of npproaching cither to men or 
thin^; admtasiou : addition; increase; ac cea ai oc 
III Medicine, the aaaemhbgo of phennmaaa wbicll 
ttignalite the rccurrenoe of periodical disMuw, aa 
intermittent fi^rer, comprehending their cold, hot, 
and Bii-enling stages. 
AcostflAAitY. — See Acoeesorily. 


AccxaiAitr. — See Acceaaory. 

AocKSSiDLi!;, ak-acs'se-hl, a. That may be ap- 
proached or reached ; approachable. 
Acci»&lliLY,ak-iet'e-bb,a</. So aa to b« aooesMble. 
AccKftSloK, ak-aeah'un, a. (French; occaasw; ck/, 
and cedo, I go to, Lat.) A coming to; an aooad- 
ing to or joining; a goiii^ to; 

Besides, wbst vise objcetioos be prepares. 
Against my Ute accutiomt to the wars. — Vrjfden, 

increase by something added ; augmentation, aa, 
on accession of wealth. In Law, a mode of ac- 
quiring pmperty, either natural or ortifidaL 
Natural aecetiioH b the yoong of cattla bolMip^g 
to till) mother, and the pnidaoe of tba aaxtk to tba 
owner of the soil. ArtiJicicA. aeemdon b that 
addition which is the reauH of human indortiy, 
called likewise industrial aectuiom^ aa traea planted, 
or a honw boilt on the propiTt y of another, which ba- 
lun>^ to the proprietor of the ground, and not to tba 
pbnter or builder. 2)etd itfacceuiamy in SoottiA 
Law, a deed by the oraditors of a bankrapt or ia- 
aolvent debtor, by which they approra of ft tntat 
executed by their debtor for the genaral boboo^ 
and bind tbeniaelvee to concur in tha 0duciaij 
arrangement proposed for extricating bb aBhin. — 
B^rll. The act of arriring at a throna, ofllci^ or 
dignity; the invanoo of a fit of praiodical dJieaaa 
nr fever. 

AcCK8BioKAi>, ak-Msb'tm-al, a. AddiiiooaL 

ACCKS40KIAL, ak-sea-ao'rC'i^ a. J'ertajning to aa 

ACCRABORILY, alt'ies-sor-e-le, ad. In the maniiar 
of an acceseory ; by sutordioate means, ur in a 
aeoondaiy character ; not as a principal, bat a 
aubordinata agent. 

AccBasoKiiTKfls, ak'aeaaor^-nea, a. The atate of 
boing acoeasory ; or of being or acting in & aiootH 
dary charaotar. 

AccEftsonr, \ ak'aca-aor-c, a, (ooceaaomia, fnin 

ACCEMAET,/ 0CC«iVo, acreuM, Lat.) Acca^ng; 

contribating; aiding in producing aoms efliwt or 
acting in subordination to the principal agent; 
usually in a bad sense, aa, occejaory to felooy ; 
aiding In certain ilcts, or in a secondary manner, 
as, ncc€4sor^ to music, tu Law, a pcraon guilty of 
a felony, not by connnittlng the crime in petaon or 
as a principal, but by adviaing, oommendiog, or 
othenvise inciting uiioLber to ita commiaiiioa. In 
Treaaon, there are no Dooessorie^ An acce«ory 
fr(/bre fJb fact, ia one who cuuiiscb or comraanda 
aunt her to commit a felony; a^ler the factt the 
one who receives and conceab the oiTender. In 
common tanguMrre, (hat which aooedes to «mh- 
thing else, as ita piiiiripsl. In Scottish Law, aa 
acc*«»oty action b cue in some degree aaboerriont 
to othent, aa ttioso of wikemng or tran'Jmtmm 
Aaxisory oUir/ationi, In tlw same law, obUgaftbOi 
adjected to uiitcoedi'iit or primary obligationa, at 
caiiUonary obligations and bonds of mnMboratlon, 
ntid the nguUr payment of interesL Among 
raintera, Qee€$aori$M an tba onumeaUl parti 




d a pictuni, u rues, annoor, &c la ilir 
Fbw Art*, an/tLing intruOucnl into • work tlifll 
il not cttcittui lo the mum dtui^n. AcceMory 
aenvx, in Afutom;-, a pair oi iwrves, which, ris- 
■e tnm U» medulla ia Uia rertebre, BHcnd and 
mt^T tbfl ekull ; than paMitig out with the pnr 
■ap ^w, an distribated inCo th« muitcles of the 
Btcfc and abouldcn. 

AcciHCS, Ak-«M'nu, f. (I^do.) In Anti^oitr. a 
c&nbing machipe fur aaccndiiig Ibe walln uf b«- 

AcLLkCCa-Tuxx, ak-se-a-ka-til'n, a. (lUIiau.) In 
Mmk, s tenn denoting the patting down, along 
with any intcrral, (he hull' Date betuw it, and in- 
lUatly taking off the finger which has atrack the 
l0«frt of the two nfitea, amtinniog the suanj of 
tlw oUmt Mto 101 iIm haimonr is chan^Ml. 

AonDCJlcav *k^*eHle»a, i. (See Acdilpnt.) A 
muQ book eontatriing the mdimenta of gruuimar, 
and capfauntog tbt propertica of the purts of 

AociDnrr, ■k'M'-dvnt, a. (aeeideat, fnlHrt;:, from ad 
and enJo^ I Ul\, Lat.) IJtcrallr, a foiling or 
eouang ; an «Tent whiL-lt tuVm pladr without being 
& WM I or erpccted ; aoiMtall/; a contiiigency ; 
cfaanoL In O'ranmiRr, autnetliing belmi>;tn;j; to a 
nord. tiui nnt es»nciiil Co it, as f^eiLdor, number, 
ikSaett'iiL Id Hermldry, a ptAiit or niark, not 
MMttiat to A eoat of anna. In Logic, a prop* iij 
ari^atily of s tbing which ■» uot ps^rntial to it, 
m whrfiww, swvetne«s, aoftncaa, clutbt-a. lo 
IbCaptijne^ acrhitnU are dlstirij^'i'ohed jutu [iri- 
mtrj and acoondary. Primaiy accUtmtg are fruch 
M an abaolnte, na qtuntity and [{luhty. 

AcciDRrrAL, aUse den'tal, a. (Frvnch.) Cuiiifl! ; 
fttrtallooi ; b«pf»ciiiiig bj chance ; having the 
fuBtj of an accident; nou-f:;sont!:d. In Mor1>id 
Altatom^, the tprtn ia B[ijjhLd to nil •tructun** 
dtT«iofcil, M the oonftcqucnccii uf a morbid prucrss ; 
— ^ a pruprrtjr which is rtun-c?«^iittal. Accidfntnl 
ttlmrt^ colouns depending oo the light of the vje, 
and DoC brlonKitii* to light itself, or to an;f- qiiiititr 
of iho luntinxuii object. AedtUntitl pointy in Pcr- 
■BKtivc, that point in which a ri^ht bnc, dnivu 
mm tbo ejc [•anillel to auoOicr right line, cat^ 
the pattiin or [ Linr. 
-AcciOEXIALSt ak-w-dcn'lola, a. pL In Painting, 
Iwtritax or cbaotf efTe^-tfl priMluced from raya of 
li^ ttlhg on eertain ohjecta, b; which th^y arc 
%W^(Jll ittU) itrOQfpT Utcht thna thrjr otlirrwisi.- 
vwU bcw Acddniali, m Music, aro those ^au 
wlitirh are prefixed to the notes in a 
ti, and which wuutd sot he considered w 
bf tha atuirps and flats in the signature. 

ak-se-den'tal-le, ad Caaa»njr; 

kLXXSS. ak-ie-den'tal ncs, <. The qua 
1^ «f being accidental. 
AoeummAST, ak-se-dcn'aha-re, a. Fertalning lo 

Ifaa aae i J rtice or the atvidcota of f^raoimnr. 
A«Cia«o<t% ak-iid'yas, a. (oAV'/ia, Or.) Slothful. 
A«en«n, ftk-a»>re-te, ». Mr»tbrukeaa. 
Aoenroc, •lc-«iakt', & (accMcfw, Lat.) Gmlcd ; 

|P9u*d; fwdy. 
lAfiCinKii&K.— ^ee AcirtE5SEii. 

r» Bk'«ip'e-«iiC, 9, {aecipientt I<atO ^ 

lAonrrnta, ak-dpVtur, «. (latiu. a hawk.) The 
' ~««-hB«k, » gruu of rapodou birds : Sub- 

Acoii'iTK \KV, ak-«p'ti-tra-re, a. One who catches 

birds of pnjY. 
AcciFlTRlNA, ak~Bip-e-Lri'ne, s. A sohfaniil;' of 

lb« rapscious birds, enibniciQE^^be huwks. 
AcciAMCfl, ak-6i8'maR, ». (Latin.) A fvigued denial. 

In BhetnriCf ironical disstmululion. 
AcciTK, ttk-sito', r. a. (occi/cu, Lot.) To eitej to 

call; toaummuns. — Obsolcto. 

We wtU aociu all oar aUto. — SJtakd 

Acclaim, ak-kUme', v, n. {acdoMno, Lat) To ap- 
plaud; — $. a shout of priiiM. 

AccLAMATiOK, ak-kla-ina'sliun, «. (aeclamatin, SltoiitM of Applause by a miiUitiulo; Dimni- 
mous and immediate election. In Archsiolo^. a 
rDpresenljtinn in sculpture or on medals, of people 
expreasing joy. 

ArcLAMAToar, ak-Uam'a-tor^ a. With ap- 

ArcLiMATB, ak-kli'mate, r. a. To hahitnate the 
body to a foreign climate, so aa not to be peculiarly 
liable to ils enileinic diseaaea. — IVebiter. 

ACCI.IMATKD, ak-kli'ma-ted, a. laured to a change 
of climate. 

AccLiKATioir, ak-kU-ma'slion, t. (a<f, to, clvno, 
climate, Lat) Naturaliution to climate. 

ACOUMATISK, ak-kli'ma-tise, r. tu To acciutoiD 
plants aiul aniinalt to a climatn new to titem. 

ACCUMATCRC, ak-kli'mn-tiirc, t. Act of accLimflt- 
ing; stnte of being sccJinialed. 

AcoLivR, sk-klive', a. (occ/ini, Lat) Bldng with 
& rapid slope. 

Kenrly as matiim as a desk.— J »&rv|r. 

Acci.iviB, Hk-kli'viH, i. A mtmcla of the belly, u 
nnnied from the obtirjue asix-iit of its fil<res. 

AccLlviTV, ak-klir'e-te,!. (accUtit*, Lat) A Bteep 
rising Krouiid ; the ascent of a hill. 

AccLiYOUd, ak-kli'nu, a. Ris>0|; mth a slope. 

AcCLOT, ak-klrjy', r. a. (from cnctourr, Fr. or, ac- 
conJing to Junius, from the verb to chfj.') To fill 
up; tusniLite; to dog. — Nearly ohatilcte. 

At the well-head Iho piirx'rtt streams arise, 

Bnt mnrky filth lilii bratK'Ii'np arms anu'iys, 

And with untimely weodj the gentle wave aeclag^.— 

Accoito ak-koyl', «. n. (see Coil.) To crowd about 
— Obsolete. 

AccoLEST, ak-kolent, 9. (qccoUm^ Lat) He tbat 
iiilijibilM ue&r a place ; a bi)r<J>Ter. 
Ahotrt ibo cDttlilrDn many conkx aeeeifd.—Sftnmr, 

Accoi.AnE, ak-ko-lxde', a. (a^, to, and eoUam, the 
neck, [.jit) A rerpmony formerly used in the 
conferring of kni^ihtbood, by the king embracing 
the knight, or layiu); \ih twurU upon his shoulder. 

AccoMMODABLK) ak-korn'mo-du-bt, a. That may 
be (UtwJ. 

AccoMHor>AnT.Kin:98, ak-kom'mo-da-M-nea, t 
The capuliitity of Acotmtnudiiting, 

AccoHMODATB, nk•kom'^1o-dst<^, r.o. (accommoJo^ 
art, find cofnmottd, I help or pm5t, Lat) To sup- 
ply wiib vuuveiitencea of oiiy kind; to adapt; to 
fit; to iniike coiuiiittent with; to reconcile; tu 
Adju«>t. Id Cuminercc, to lend ; — r. n. to be ooii- 
funnnble to;— u. suituble. 

AccoHMnoATKLT, ak-hom'mo-date-le, ad. Suit 
ably : filly. 

AccoMMODATENEBS, ak-kom'mo-date-iM«, •. Fit 

AccoMMODATiHO. ak-kom'mo-dftte-ifig. a. Dia- 
piisetl to agree with ; oblij^ng; scitahla. 



AocOMMODAnox, ak-kotii'ipo-ik-iihun, #. Pro- 
Tidon of coiivcnicQces ; things roqiiUite to ease 
ind nfrMbment ; convenleaous ; rvconcilmtioii of 
dlfferoncce belvrcen partice; adaptation; Htncju. 
In Commerce, a lending uf munoj. AcannmodUlan 
noU, in Americft, a note drawn and offered fur dia- 
oouDtt in opposition to one wUich the owner has 
nccived for goods. In England^ an aoeommutdu- 
dntiom bill is a bill giren ioateid of • kwo of 
monej. Accommodation \& also osod aa a note 
l«nt merelj to aocommodnt^ tbe borrower. In 
Theology, tbe Terb means the application of one 
thin;; to another by analogy, aa the wordi of a 
prophecy to a future evenL Accommndation lad- 
der^ a light Udder hang orer the side of a ship ot 
the gangway. 

ACOOKMODATOB, nk-kom'mo-dny-tur, m. Ho who 
maaa^ or at^iuts a thing. 

AcroMPAKAULE, Bk-kum'[ia-Dft-blf a. Social.— 
Kot tufd. 

AcCoMPAKiER, nk-knm'pn-no-ar, a. One who 
makes part of the company ; a compunioo. 

AccoMrAKuiCMT, «k-kum'["ii-ne-meQt, #. That 
which attcndj a person or thing by wny of orna- 
ment, or for the eake of cyrainel^ ; tbe instm- 
rocntal or the sabordinate port of a concert. 
Accompaniments, in Painting, ara ohject-i us»>J for 
ornament to the chief fignrea. In Heratdnr, 
thingi added by way of omflmenl to tlit' shield. 
It la alao used for seTeml bearingfl about a principal 
one. OS a ultier, bead, See. 

ACCOUPAHBBT, ak-kuiii'pii'nist, t. One who takes 
the aooouipanying or iubtrumeotal pari in perform- 
ing a piece of mu^. 

ACCOMTAXY, ak-kum'pa-ne, r. a. (aecompagner^ 
Ft.) To go with or attend an^lhrr pervon m 
a companion ;— r. n, to atsocinte with : to oo- 
habiL In Mu^ to perfonn the accompanying 

Acco&tPLIOR, ak-kflm'plit, «. (compHce^ Fr.) An 
associjite; a partner in crime, fir the law cf 
Scotland, accomplices cannot be prooccnted till the 
principal offenders ore convicted. 

AccoHPLisn, ak-kom'pliah, e. a. (aoconi/>/ir, Fr. 
from compJeo, I-at) To complete; to execute 
fully ; to falBI as a prophecy ; to. gnin ; to obtain ; 
to adorn or furnish either mind or body. 

AccOJCPLlSH-knLE, ok-kom'pluh-a-bl, a. Capable 
of aoanDplifrhmcnt. 

AOOOUFLI!)1IET>, Ak-kom'pliKh-f'd. a. Complete in 
•ome qualification ; elegant { fiiilahed in respect of 
embolluthmentA : used commonly with n^|iect tn 
acqnind qnalificationt, without including uior^ 

AccoMPUSBeBf ak-kom'pliab-ar, c One who ac- 

Accoxru&tuaurT, Bk-kom'pti"h-ment,i. Comple- 
tion; full perfonnonce ; perfection; embelU&hment; 
elaganoe; ornament of tnindorbody; the act of 
obtaining or perfecting anything: attaiamont 

AccoMPT, ak-kownt', i. {compter, Fr.) An account; 
a reckoning. —See Account. 

AccoHPTAKT, ak-kuwu'tmit, 9. (French.) A 00m- 
putw; a reckoner. — See Accountant. 

Accord, ak-knwrd', 0, (French.) Agreement; har- 
mony of mitids; ctiiictirrrnce of opinion; agree- 
ment in pilch and tone ; harmony of sounds ; con- 
cord, the wonl more generally csed ; just oomj- 
nKmdtoce or hiurmony of tilings, as of tight and 
ahada in painting ; will ; spontnneoos or volantary 


motion, applied to the motion of either penona or 

That whtrJi groireth of its oim aceorj ffacm shalt not 
rcap.—.Lef, xxv. 

at^iiBtmeot of a difference; reeoncniotioo. 
If both aro oatiafted with this aooord. 
Swear by the laws 0/ knIghUiood on my twont. — 

In Lsw, an agreement between paitiea in contro- 
veny, by which satisfaction for an injury is stipu- 
Idted ; — p. a. to make to agree or oorre^nd ; to 
adjost ODB thing to another ; 

H«r taandi aeetmltd tbe Inta'a tnnaiek to bcr voks; hv 
panling heart danced to the muile.— jUnr/. 

to settle i to Adjust or compose ; 

Which may batlar aoami aU dirHffultlec— AmicA. 
to give, grant, or concede, as, he accorded hia re- 
quest; to agree; to be in oorrupoodeuoe; to har- 
monize ui pilcb and tone. 
The Iiuty Lbroalle, early ulgtidngale^ 
Accord \n tuco, chuo^h Tory in ihelr tale. — Rot 
AccoKDADLR, ak-kawr'dtt-bl, o. Agreouldai 
sonant. — Obfiolifte. 

It la not iliacordable 

Vuto my word, but oceardabU.—Oci9€r. 

AccoiiDANCa, ak-kawr'dsns, \ 

AccoRDAXcr, ak*kawr'dan-se,/ * 

Accordant, ak-kawr'dout, o, Consonant; 00m- 

spoil dttig. 
AcconoATCTtT, ak-kawr'dant-lat od In an aooor- 

dant niimner. 
AcroHDATUBA^ nk-kawr-da-t J'ra, ». (Italian.) tn 

Mu.tic, a particular mode of tuning a stringed iu- 

Accuf<DKt>, ak-kawrd'ed, port. a. Hannouona in 

pitch and tone; a^j^^'^ 
The UphtB and shodtiii, wliotm welt aeecrdM sirlft 
Olres all tbe ■trrojitb atid culour of otir llAt.— Ape. 

AccoRCElL, ak-kawr'dar, ». One who accords; an 
a«mtant ; a helper ; a fnvoarer. — Xot tlsctL 

AccoHDiMG, ok-kawrdlng, /Mirt a. Agreeing; har- 
monising ; 

The aeeoniiitt mnsto of a mlxt state/— it)f«. 
enltable ; agreeable ; hi icoordanoe with. 
Our seal tliould b« ooe^ntin^ to our luiowledfa^— J^w^fc 

AccortDiMOLT, ak-kawr'ding-le, «. Agreeably ; 
oppoi^ito; suitably; coofimnnbly. 

AcconDloif, ak-fcawr'de-un, «. A muiiical iiistm- 
ment with keys, inflated on the principle of a pair 
of 1>cllow9, and the tones of whtoh nrc gfncr*ted 
by the play uf wind on small metallic rccda. 

AccORPORATK, sk-kswr'po-rale, r. a. (ad, and eor^ 
pus, a body, Lat.) To unite.— Obsolete. 

Accost, »k-kost', v. a. (accoiier, Fr.) To spaak 
firftt to ; to addms; — r. n. to adjoin. — Obsolctit. 

All the sbnm which to the oea odOMfa, 

The day and night doUi ward both Car and wfile.— 



AccoBTADLE, ak-koi'tJi-bl, a. Easy of 

Accosted, ak-koa'ted, 7>arf. Addroiaed fint; — a. 
In HltsIiU^j, side by side:. 

AcooLXUEUo, ak-koo-sheur, s. (French.) A ina»- 

Accoi'cUEUBB, ak-koo-shrus, a. (Frendi.) A mid- 

'SoT*j—9m In Ihass words hsa the sonnd of the Fmich. 
H, aj hcoid In the Scotch prennnclatioo of tbe word tmt. 

AcCurciiMKNT, ak-koothli'ment, or, in French, a- 
kooeh-mong, t. (French.) Lying in; in chiUbod;, 
the delirciy of a woman in childbed. 



Aocovirr, ak'kcnmi', c (^occompty old Fr.) A coin- 
pt >!>■>*' of dcbti or expense* ; » reorister of facts 
rria^g to monef ; the stuLe or n»ull; of a com- 
laliliaa; VKloa, importanoe, or »liniALion ; profit ; 
aAr«ntag«; ^RtindliTn ; rank; iliKnitj: n unrnt- 
lin; tttlitioa, an uaminatioD sf an affur tulcn 
\j loUwritj ; tba rslalioiu aod rruon& of » trans* 
flctioa i^Mt to a person in authoritr; usaiguiDent 
if anna ; — v «■ (oceoitlcr, old Fr. acctmtare, 
UL) feft Mtetn ; to hold in optnlon ; to reckon ; 
Id M^P* to •• a del>t ; to nukt account^ tbat u, to 
hm ■ pwfi wa opiiuon. — Ohuk'te. la Law, a 
vil wfmeeowat i» ooa wliiob the ptjuntiiF l)nii>;% 
that tha defendant ilionld nmdcr hU 
t, or ih'iw cause to tbo contrary. In 
accoHftiM^ arithmetical computtttiona in 
X wbetbv of time, wca^fat, mwutare, monej, 
Ifciah of aectmmUy or mtrtAant^ aceoyitts, 
boohs n which tha transictioDS of •■ mer- 
dmt am ontend in pcoper order To accotaU of 

fB«H «*■ Dot ntermmlaA of bi the dajr* of Solom'ia.— 

To mm am moeo/mt, ie to enter it for the firat timo 
is % ledger. To koq> open oennm/, is whvn m-r- 
Amtaafpealohonoaraachotfaer'abilU of exchange 
ndprncally ;— r. «. to reckon; to ooniput«; to 
0rB an accnoot; to assign the canaei to tnnke 
^ Che irckoninj^; to aatwer; to apprar, «a the 
rnadinm by which snTtbin;; maj be explained. 

jUx^ooyTAKLB, ak'kowD'ta-bl, a. Of wbom an 
locpnot maj be required; aiisfri'rablc. 

Accof:iiTABi.K2<XAS, ak-kowiilVbl-bBS, i. Ttio 
Mate of bno^ accountable. 

AOOOCaiTABiLrrY, ak-kowD>ta-Ul'e-te, «. Liabililj* 
an acconot ; respontibilitj'. 
'JLBI.T, ak-kowut'a-ble, ad. In an aoconnl- 

AXT, afc-kown'tant, «. A compulw ; a 
ahillcd or emplo/ed in kecjiing accountH. 
«raJ^ an ofTloer in the court of Cbati- 
ttiy who racrives all motitcs lud^ed in court, and 
l^fB the aania to the bank ; alao, the principal or 
mafmmAtm aoeounlant in the oiBcpfe of Kxcim) and 
Cheioao, in the India Uouee, Bank of England, &c. 
AooaratTAVTSUir, ak-kovn'tant-ahip, j; Tha office 

•r dutia of an aceouuuut. 
AooODHKUia, ak-kowo'ting, t, Tha act of reckoning 
ttp acctHinU. 

ak-kup'p't f- ''• (aeeottjJer^ Fr.) To 
eanpla; tojwn; to link togetlirr. 
Accioort.KMiatT, ak-knp'pl-ment, j. (old French.^ 

The ad of eoD{>liag or joining together. 
JkooooxAAC, ak-knr^aje, m, a. To encoorage. 

•mrard twain wonld aoamraff9. — Spauer. 
AoctMMTt ak-kotte', v. a. To nit«rtiuii courtcoujily. 
Who ad the vkile wn at raaton ntst 
wiaHvcimr «ub bla Mead wiih laviati fcut.— 

AocorrmSt ak-koo'tur, r. a. (aeooefrri Fr.) To 

draae ; to e<]uip. 
AcooimUBMKm, ak-koo'tur-ments, «. (French.) 

Omm; equipage; fnmiture; trapptiigi; oriuunente; 

ofiifMnt of a aoldi^r. 
AOCOT, ak-kaf^ v. a (*5«w'-«r, old Fr.) To render 

friat er dilBdaot t to wolhe ; to eitri*M. — Obaolele. 

TiMn la fvat cwleM loogue mov^tJ. — Spenter. 

AoeUEDIT, ak'kred'it, r. a. {aecrtdo, I.aL uceretli- 
i0't Fr.) To eoontiinMKe ; to procon bouour or 
to arf pcnon or thiog. 

AcxaEuiTATiox, ak-krod-e-ta'ahun, k That whtdi 
gives a titto to credit* 

AccncDiTEit, ak-kredlt-ed, o. Of nllowod repa- 
Uttion ; conddfiitiAL 

Accai;scF.2rr, Rk-krvVaout, a, (occrcKO, Lat) In- 
creanni; ; growing np. 

AccftESCUiKNTO, ak-krea-ae-men'to, f, (Italian, 
from oocrucerr. to increase.) In Music, the in- 
creaie by one half of ita ori^ual duration wtuck-a 
note gains by having a dot appended to the right I 
of it. 

AccKETiOM, ak-kw'ahun, «. ^aeertti/t, Lat) An 
increase or pxiwth by tbe addition of new ports, 
not by alimrntarf supply; an udditiun of matter 
to any body exteraally ; the growing togcllier 
of parts nfttnrolly ecparatf, as the fingrrs and 
toc«. In Ci\il Law, the adhering of propurty to 
something else, by which the owtier of onu thing 
becomes poneased of a right to another, aa w]icn 
a legacy is left to two penuHiA, and one of tbem 
dies before the testator, the legacy di'vplvea by 
right of aecrttum. 

Accretive, ak-kro'tiT, a. Increasing in sin by 
("Xtoriiol angmientatini). 

AccuoACii, ak-kro't»h, v. a. (occrtwAfr, Fr.) To 
dmw to one as with a hook ; to draw away that 
which is another's by degrees ; to encroach. — Ob- 

Fire, when to tove It apDrocbeth. 

To blm aooa tbo atrvagui ooBrocActA.— <?oimp. 

AccBOACiisiHNT, ak-kiti'tah-mont, t. The act of 


AcoRUE, ftk-krot>', r. n. (aca-oitrt., occru, Fr.) To 
be addifj to ; t o app^tid to, or arise fruin ; to be 
producett or ari:te, a^ profits in badness. 

AcCKt'URKT, ak-kruu'uieot, t. AdJitinn ; increase. 

AccUDAtiON, ak-ku-ba'abun, «. Uiccubo^ to lie down, 
Lat.) The ancient poature of Ivanhig at meals. 

Acci'MB, ak-kiiinb', r. ». (accwnAo, Lat.) To lie at 
tbti table ucci>rJ!ti^' tu tlia aocieut muaner. 

A Cc CUBENC Y, ok-kum Ikd -sr, s. The act of lean! Dg 

AcccHBtuNT, ak-kum'bent, a. (uccwn&(^, Lat.) 
Leaning or reclining as tbe andenta at table. In 
Botany, wltt^u uuo part of an organ la applied to 
another by its edge, it is said to be occwnfienl in 
cootradistinction lo incumbent; — «, one who U 
placed at a flintier table, but without reference to 
the ancient mode of ivcliaing at meals.— Kot used 
a.1 a noun. 


Wliat a pfnunoe mait tw dona by 
sitting one tKu naAu^ thnmgh all 

tbesa dlabes.- 

AocDMCLATi:, flk-ku'mu-late, r. a. (aecumulo^ Lat) 
To heap op one thing upon another; to pile up : 
to heap together; to aiuass; to collect or bring 
together, as, to acc\tmuitiU wealth; — v. n. to la- 
creoae in size, Dumber, or (quantity ; to increase 
greatly ; — a, collected into a mau or heap. 

AccrutTT.AnoN, ak-ka-mn-la'sbun, a. The act of 
nccumulnliii;;; the state of being accumulated. 

AccCMUt-ATlvlt, ak*ku'mu-lMy-tir, a. That aoou- 
mnlates; that is accumulated ; heaping up. 

AccctfL'i.ATTTRLT, ak-ku'mu-lay*tiv-le, ad, la an 
accumul:ittng msnner ; in heaps. 

AcccMi.r.AWR, ak-ku'mn-lay-tur, t. One who ao- 
cnmnbtps ; a f^ntherer or heapor together. 

AccCRAOr, akltu-ra-M, *. (accuratio, ad and 
curare, t» Lakt! care, Lut.) Exactuess; nioet;; 
exact conformity to truth or lo rule; cornwtDess; 
doeenesa; tightnesa. 





AccvRATE, •k'ku-rnte, a. Exact; uot Gueleu; 

witbuut fiilurc or dd'ect; (lot«nnInat9 ; precuely 

Bxcd; clo60; pcrfooUjr tight. 
AccimATELT, akltn-rnte-le, ad ExaoUy; witboat 

error ; niwlj ; closeljr. 
AccuiUTicKESS, skliu- rate-net, m. Exutneu ; 

nicetjr; aoeuracj; precisjon. 
AccumsB, tk-ktin', r. a. (rm Cureo.) To doom to 

misery or de&tractton ; to evoke misn-jr upon an/ 

AcoL'BSBD, ok-kur'aed, part a. Cnrscd or doomed 

to inuery — (seldom u*ed)j 

Wh«n llildobraiid atcur$td nnd cut down trcaa htw 
ttirnno lIciifT tV.. t1»ero irara uouo no hardy u d«fi-Qi 
tlMir lord.— ^ir ty.Salwiffh. 

that dceerves the ciirse; eiecnble; hateful; de- 
testable; wicked; malicions. With di%iiies, Ijin;; 

under the sentence of excommunication. 
AccnsARLE, ek-ku'u-bl, a. Tlut muy bo censured ; 

bljim«ble; cul^tnblc. 
AccrsAKT, ak-ku'zant, «. One who oocusm. 
Accusation*, ak-ka-za'ihun, s, (^accw/tfio, Ijit.) 

llie «rt of «ccuftinK; the charj;c bniu^lit s^.iinsl 

my one bj the nccuwr ; tbe declaration conuinuig 

tlie charge. 

Thof Mt or«r bU bead hb aeauatiim,r—Mett. xxvtL 

In Law, a decliiratinn of enme crime prefnred he- 

fure B competent judge, in order Co have punlsb- 

meut iiitt'cted on the guilty person. 
AccusATivBf ak-kn'aa-tlv, a, (aeetuatieutt Lut.) 

Ceonmng; accusing. «. In Grammar, the case •-<( 

llio noon, on nhirh the action implied in the verb 

tcrminMU't. In Kn^Hsh Griunmar it 13 colled tbo 

objective case. 
ACCL'SATITKLY, >k<ku'za- tiv-le, ad. Id mn nctioea- 

tivd manner. In Gruiimar, relating to the tccu- 

aative case. 
AcccsAToar, ak-kn'&a-tor-e, a. (oeeuaaforuur, Lat.) 

AccoMng; contnining or producing an accusiitiau. 
AcccflB, ak-knxe', r. a. {occuao, Lat.) To charge 

with 3 crime; to impeach; to lljmie or couaru; 

followed by of. 
AcctSKK, {Uc-ku'zur, «. Ooe who bringi a charge 

a^^aiuat nnotlier. 
ACCCSTOM, ak-kus'tnin, V. a. (oecon/Hmer, Fr) To 

hubitoate ; to form a habit by pmctice ; to innro ; 

— V. w. to be wout to do anything; to cohabit. — 


We w lib the beat men taiilwii openly ^—Jfllton. 

— i. custom. — Obsolete. 

Jnntinlao or Trehonlan dvAnn matHmony. ' a eonjimo- 
tloti of mun and woman oontalolng IndtvldaiU aecnaUmt 
of Uh.'-MiUnn. 

AcccsTOMABLE, flk-koa'tum-ma-bl, a. Of ioag 

cobtom or baUt ; habitUiil ; customary. 
AOCLHTDXABLT, ak-kna'tum<ma-ble, ad. Accord* 

tnff to CQBtom : babiiaally. 
AccrSTOMAMCB, ok-kiut-tum'siii, «. Cn»Inm ; uae ; 

h II bit. — Obfcolct*'. 
AclUstomariky, ak-kiis'tnm-ma-re-le, ad- In a 

citttomary manner. — Seldom nsed. 
ACOTJSTOMART, ak-kns'tnrn-ma-re, a. Usiud ; pmo- 

tised ; accordinc to cuslom. 
AcocsTOMED, ak-kos'tumd, a. According to cus- 
tom; frequent; imurtL 
AcB, aae', ». (ri % Gr. o«, Fr.) A nntt ; a langle 

point of cnrds or dice; a email quantity; apartti-le; 

an atom. Aet-poinl, a card ur the side of a die 

vhloh baa but one point. 
AcKca>AMA, A-ael'da-ma, r. CHebrew.) A field of 

blood ; a fidd near Jeniftalem purchnsod with the 

bribe which Jadai took for botmring Uis master, 
and therefore called the Retd of blood. 

No myatery but that of Iot« divine, 

>Vhlch llflu OR on tho aerapb'a damlns wlnft 

Fnim t^arth's acld/tmn, thin fltrld of Idood, 

Of Inward an^lsh, and of outward woe.— TMaf. 

ACEPIIALA, a-ttefs-ln, i. (a, privatire, and kfphaitt 
the head, Gr.) Heudleu unimnla. An order of 
Mollusco, comprehending all the inbabitAnta of 
birolvo kbellii, and aome of the molti-ralvegs, aa wtU 
la others which hava ao ahella. They fana two 
scrdnnB— the A. Textacea, tho» which bare aMb, 
and the A. Kodii, or nnkcd, wbicb bare no ahella. 
Also an order of uisecta. 

ACEPiiAUSM, B-sefa-lizm, a. Tlie eondition of a 
foplns without a faend. 

AcEPHALi, a^M-fa-li, §. In English Histwy, a 
name given in the ndgn of Uenry I. to a aect of 
lovellerv, becnnnc thfy weiT not believed to poaaeaa 
even a tenement to entitle ihem to have the right 
of acknowledging a anperinr lord. In our ancient 
I21W books, the term is used for persons who held 
nothing iu fee. In EcclMia^ticat UiAtory, the 
name appears to ha^'e been first applied to tha 
persons who refused to follow either John of An- 
tioch or St. Cyril, in 9 di^-pute which happened in 
tbecotmcil of Ephe.*<u:!i. in 4'M. The name was oUo 
given to thn«« bishops who were exempted from 
the joriadiction and discipline of their patriarfh. 
They were generally Kutyohlanff, or peiwms who 
believed that Christ luul only one nature. 

AcEPHALOBRACH, a-acfs-lo-bmk, 9. {a^ tepkaht 
and hrachitn^ on arm, Gr.) A Itttoa withoai 
head and arma. 

Act^TnALOCiiincs, aHwf-a-lo-ki'rua, a. {a^lrpKai^ 
and cAmt, tha band, Gr.) A fixtos without head 
and handa. 

AcKPHALOCTBTis,^ a-sera-lo-Bistt^. f. (o, pHraltw, < 

AcEPHA[.OCr8TS, f tephnlf, a lu-ad, and tyAtu, 
a bladder, Gr.) A genoa of Ento^on, or ititestinnl 
animal, cooAtstitig of a simple hlndiler, without I 
heads, or other visible organs; fonnerly indndMl, 
with certain others, under the aarae Uyattdea, in 
the genus 1'a-niu of Linmeoa. Tha eondltioa of 
anicnal lifo in the Acephalocysta are so ohacon 
that many natunilistB have regarded tt only aa * 
pntttciilur moila of organic alterutiim, and, oons^ 
f«i]uenily, dvatttata of animal vitality. 

ACKPiiALOCB, a-aeTa'loa, a. Without a bead. 

Acer, a'aor, #. (Latin, aluirp, from the wood having 
been fiumf'-rly mannroctured into heada of pikn 
and other weaponaj The Maple, a genua of 
plant.**. The A. i'Modo- platan us, the PUne-tne 
vt Scotland, and called Sycamore in England, ia 
the only Britinh apeclpa. A. aaccharlnnin, a native 
of Kortb America, vicldf) sugar from ita aap, of 
which an ordinary tree, in a good aeaaon, gire» 
from 20 to 30 gallooR, affonfing 5 or 6 Um. uf 
gmnnlated sugar: Typo uf tl^ order Aoerap. 

Aoeracbx, aa-er-a'se-e, I a. (soer, one of the 

AcBRlNE.v, a-se-rin'-e-e, r genera.) A natural 
order of monopetalooa Exogrrrsi allied to the Tili- 
aoeiB or l.indi-iis ; the Howm uri- unKym!f>otricjl, 
stamens liypogTnou.s, and in»eTtetl upon a didc ; 
frnit winged; pitttils two-lobcd and winged be- 
hind; etjleone; stiginas two ; the Kpedea an aU 
treea or almihs, with opposite stalked ezalipulato 
leaves. The sap of mo»t of the speclei ymde A 
saccharine ffobstaucc, of which augar is inaau£ao- 
inred in North America. 





AaxiMU a'ler kiu,\ §, (0, pnvuLivt, itnd i-ettu^ a 
AcnA, »W-a, I horn, Gr.) A fimU; of iii- 

isti vkicli Imtv oeltlier wbgft nor Botentiae. 
itfn*>> •'•fr-rw, «. (", privklirr, and iera«, m hom 

<r iinr.) A gpnus of pUaU : Order, Orcliidocea.'. 
ACUATK, M'cr-ato, 4. A ult, with thfl Iuais of 

EoH, (nnii in the eap of tba Acer cauipestre, nr 

cncnnKW fnaplit. 

AcKRA, ft*«crb', iL (dorriw, wmr, Ltt) Hanng a 
n^m^ aoA UU« U]» tluit of Uio sloo or unripe 

JlCSRAAtS, B-serliati!, v. a. To mntca sour. 

AcsuuTT, ft-serlt-tr, *. (ncerbilat, IjU.) A roogh 
•oortasle; kliarpnfM tif tmiper; MTvritj^. 

AcwilC, »-Mrlk, a. Pvrtiuc:ng to Uie maple. 
Atmhe anef, ao acid wbich exists in the juice of 
lfc« tmfHa ^n% Aetr eampeatra, id Ui« abape of an 

icSBXJM, s-M-ri'na, f. (acer, aharp, Lat.) A genua 

ef Unit Family, Pcrcidie. 
AncMMBr aaVrose, > a. (ae«rona, Lat.) Mixftd 
AocBOCt, ftkVnu, / with ch:iff ; chmffy ; mem- 
cluC la BoUnj, applied to learca which 
4 pemiiknviit in the funn of a needle, 

M iA th« fiiw «nd juniper, or yaw }— from ocer, 

AcsmVAL, m-mr'r*>^ «. Ooenrin;; in heapa. 
AcxKTATV, ■-•er'taU, r. a. (aeervc, L41I.) To heap 

AcmiTAfKUi, a aw taVhim, 4. The act of beap- 

•-•fr'mM, «. FiiH of beapa. 
ca, fr*«cs'atra, )^ ^ (a««Aw, Sour- 
nese ; acidity. 
aant, a. Barini: a leiidcnc^ to 
) tnnuojg aour or tart; — 4. an artic^ of 
Mfida* vfakfa readil; becomes add. 
•4e^^ a. (aJ^u/ov. a healer, Gr.) A 
Off cbrjaacullo made of C^rprion rrr 
mid nitre. 
iCLim, a-4e-tah'a-lDm, •. (Latb word for a 
cfiiM.) A oteasarc coiitntiiini; two ouncea 
A balf ; » bcmiapbcricnl boUutr body or cup. 
AnaLocay. tbc cup-like cavtiy which reoeirea 
tbt baad of the femur ur iht^'h-lione. Id Botany, 
• apodea of ToboJariai a powerful 

icHABtaiFOXM, a-aet-tab'D-lfr-favrrm, a. Cup- 

iMnuooiiA, ft-«»-t*'r*>Qa. a. Pertaining to an 
nC M. ff«e<Mr»Mi pUaua^ those oaod in making 
MMfk iBch as kctoea, moaiard, cnas^ <Scc. 

Acxziiir, uVtA-re, a. An add pulpy snbstADce ir. 
•RtAio frvita* aa the pear, bdoaed in a oongertcs 
•I maH caimloiia bodiea towarda the hue of the 

fcftlTi^ »-WiDH, «. In Hurmacr, an acetate, a 
■dl hmmk by tb« unkm of aeetic add with in 
afaiat «r ntteUk baae. The following are used 
kl aiAAli ^— A. Ammonic, acetate of ammouia ; 
Am Q^ri. aaeaea c/ oopper; A. Mori>hii, acetate 
rf — i j W i; A. Btuytje, acoiata of barytes; A. 
tjAii» Mtlato etf aoda; A. Fori, acetate of 
Irwt A. HTdwsrri, acetate of mttcasjx A. 
of kadi A. Potaaue^ Hetato of 

Accffan, ■a'tC'tata, «. — 5c« Acetas. 

A£*74ru)^ aa'a-tay-trd, it. Combined with aootic 

CoooeatFated vine- 

gar^ obtained from wood by di'^tiUiitiun, or from tho 
acetfltcH, by decompoeitioti nilU »ulphuno add. 
AcETiFicATioit, a-aet-e-fo-ta'»hut), a. The act of 
making add or aoar; tbo ojieratlon uf making 

AcKTiFV, ft-aet'e-fi, it. a. To oonvcrt into aoid or 

AcKTiTE, aa'e-tttH, «. A salt snppoaed to 1>e fbrmod 

with an acid, containing iho same prcportiona of 

ciirbon and hydrogen as the acetic add, bnt with 

leati oxygen. Aa, however, there b no soch acid, 

the term acdiU Is Dot iiow Uiwd.' 
AcBTUXKTER, B-se-tom'u cur, t, (acctmn, rin^gnr, 

Lat. and metron, a mcumre, Gr.) An instruirtcut 

fur aacertaiiiliig the atrtogtb of adda. 
ACBTOSB, ase-tose'f a. ^occfeur, Fr.) Having 11 

sharp fronr taKte. 
AcKTosELLA, aHM-to-acfla, $. The Wood-nomil, a 

species of Oxnits: Order, Oaslida?. 
AcKToaiTY, a-fw-tosVle, «. Soortie&a; addity. 
Acetous, a-sc'tua, a. (ace/um, Lat.) Uarinjt tha 

quality of Tinegar; tuor. 
AcETUM, ft-se'tum, «. (Latin.) Vinegnr. 
AcilJCAlt, a-ke'an, a Pertaiolng to Achuia, a pen- 
Tinea ta Gi««oe. 
Aciiinnmi. or Achenitiji, a-ke'ne-nm, a. (a, pHv. 

and cAotifO, I gape, Gr. ) A small bony fruit, con- 

nixttng of a ftiii^Ie BoeO, which neitlier adheres to 

tho pericarp, nor opcna when rip*. 
AcH.KUS, a-ke'u% ». A k""'*"* i^f D*capod ontata- 

ccans: Family, Brochyurn. 
ACBAMIA, a-kn'iie-a, s. (from oi^rm-j, dosed, Gr. 

because the conjUa doea not open out as in most 

malraceous planla, but remniiiN always rolled Dp.) 

A genna of pUnts : Order, MaWaceic. 
AciiATiHA, a-ka-tl'nn, *. (nchatf*, the agAt«>, Gr. 

and LjiL) A panus of terrcKtrinl inHils, the 1n- 

ha^'itnnts of ov:d, ohloni:, veiitricose »helU, atrintcd 

luntntuJinallj ; ootcr lip always thin ; base of tbo 

pilliir truTiPutcJ or tiinuated hcfbre it joiua the outer 

lip: Fnmiiy, Hclicidc 
AciiATiM^ a-ka-ti'iie, f. A subfamily of the neli- 

ddtt, in which the fli.cll ia Bpirul; aprrtare oblong 

or oval, always f^ual, aud genemlly shorter than 

the spire. 
AciiATiNSLUk, a-ka-te-nella, t. A small subgenus 

of the Agate ahdls; aub-trocbiform; spire obtuse; 

outer lip with a thickened iatersal margin t Fa> 

niily, Hcliddf. 
AcnATMA, a-kut'itifl, a. ('ic/m/m, the agnte, Gr.) 

A name applied by anniti naturnli^ts to the Agute 

anaila, iiihflbitaiits of the ahcUa ao called. — Sra 

Achat! na. 
Ache, ake, a. (aee. Sax. ocAst, Gr.) A continoed 

pnin ; — e. n. to ba in pain^ to suffer grief; to ba 

AciiKJtsicn, a-kcr'nnr, j. A star of the first^nag- 

nito'lf, in the southern extfemity of the constells- 

tiou Eridian:]fl. 
Aciii.iLUN, nk'tr-un, a. (acJioi, grief. Gr) A river 

in Greece, fubled by the poett an that of hdl. 
AciiEitUNTU, sk-rr-on'tthe-a, *. (from Achentiu) 

A geutis of Lepidoptcrous insects : Family^ Cre* 

AcBEBAKT, akW-aet, a. An andeiit measaro of 

com, su]tp<«sed to hive been nbont 8 bushels. 
AcilERCBiA, a-kcr-oa'zhc-a, s. A rircr, fulled as 

the entrance to the infernal regions. 
AcHESrauN, a-kcr-oo'alwn, a. Pertaining to 

Acberoaia, a lake in Campanin in Itiily. 





ActtTAS, ftlte-as, f. A geuiu of Dijiteroofl ic&ects : 
Ffunilj, Mnscido!. 

Achievable, atsheve'a-bt, a. PossiblQ to be dooe. 

AcuISTAOLENE^if, u-lsht-ve's U-nes, «. Tbo tUte 
of being able lo be pt-rformed. 

AcuiEVANCE, A-Ultc'xniis, *, I'crfotmAnoe. 

AciiiEVK, a-lshove*, t. a, (acA«rer, Fr.) To per- 
form; to finish; t(i accot]i|iluih. 

AcniCTEMRHT, a-talicveWnt, e. (adievemmt, Fr.) 
The p^rfQirnnnce of an Hctioii ; a gtval or heroic 
■ctioo. In Heraldry, the etctttchMO, or euSgiu 
armorixl, granted lo a person for the pcrfomumoe 
of great actions : tbe tenn is now guneraII,T uppBed 
to tbe armorial eti>it;iis uf dcivuited pc^^0TU.— 
Sometimes proiiounced haUh'ment, 

AoniEVEn, a-labe'vur, «. Oct who performa what 
be endearouni or purposes. 

AcniLi.BA, a-kil'l<''», «. A genua of Conipn^ite 
plants, BO iinuicd from one of iU cpcdes, millfoil, 
bariog been a»ed by Achillas in curing Telephos ; 
also, a genns of flat cartilo^otu fiahcs. 

ACDILLEA Tkkdos, a-ltilles t^'n'dnn, J. The strong 
tendon of tbe jrnAtro eoemius and soleus muscles, 
inserted into the beet 

AciiiNO, ikc'ing, <. Pain; aneasinoss; dlotrrss, 

ACHIOTE.— S*e Arotta. 

AouiRiTK, akVrite, j. Orecn Malachite, a spedee 
of ooppor ore. 

ACHIRL'R, a-ki'ruA, $. A genus of flat fishes: Fa- 
mily, IMpuntncctidas. 

AcnLAXTDE.E, ak-l»-nud'o-e, j. (a, without, and 
M'imj/t, a tunic, Gr.) A tenn applied to tboao 
plants which have neither calrx nor oorolla. 

ACBLA1CTDEO09, ak-la-niidVus, a. Prttiiiiiing to 
tbe Achtamydeft, or pUnts having naked tiowerSf 
that ia, inffoTBScence wilbout caljrz or corolla. 

ACEILTS, ak'Uo, 9. (Greek; gloom, mbt.) In Uj- 
thulc^, pereonified as tbe ({oddesa of obecunty. 
la Botany, agenus of pbuite: Order, Podopbyllaceie. 

ACHMITE, ak'mite, «. A mineral of a browitiab- 
black, or reddifih- brown colour, sopposed to be a 
biftilicate of 9od« oombint^ with a biailioiito of ixon. 

AoHVAirraftA. ak-nan'tAia, a. (ocAim, froth, and 
dMlAoc, a fiovar. Or. fnim tbe flne down on the 
I^BDts.) A genua of tbe Alga*, or Sea-weeda. 

AOBlvobOiriON, ak -no-don 'too, a. (ocAnf^ cliufT, and 
odout, odonto$^ tooth, Gr.) A genus of pbinls : 
Order, GraroLnooeiD. 

AcHOR, alcor, t. (</cAyrm, chaff, Gr.) A small 
aeouninated pustule, which oontaiua « atraw- 
oolonred matter, and ia mooeedad by ft thia 
brownish or yellowish acab ; oonirs moat fre- 
quently oil the heads of children. In Mythology, 
the gnd of fliea, said to ha\-o been wonlupped by 
the Gyreuani, to arud being rcxcd by thotw 

Ao^^s, alcna, $. (Greek oamo of the wild pear.) 
A f;euiu of plants : T)rder, Sapotaoeje. 

Achromatic, ak-m-matlk, a. (a, priv. and cAnonui, 
oolnor, Gr.) Applird to gUaae*, which nre con- 
trivod 80 as to currtct tha aberratiotia of light and 
eoloor in telescopes. 

ACUBOHATISM, a-krom'a-titm, \ ». Tbe de- 
AcHBuMATiciTT, a-kro-ma-tis'e-to, / sCructiou of 
tha primary coknire which invest aa object when 
viewed througb a prism. 

ACHTLA, a-ki'la, «. A gimna of Algn : Order, 

AOBTRAirrnKS, ak-o-ran'/Aia, «. (oMyron, chaiT, 
and aniAo/, a flower, Gr.) A genus of evergreen 

undersliruba, with chaff-Uke cnvelopea: Order, 

A marmot scee. 
AcuYRoxiA, ak-e-ro'i^-a, a. (ec^rofi, efaafl^ Or) 

An Aoatnilisn genus of LegumiDoaa plants: SoIk 

order, PapJionwccie. 
ACRTnoriiORCS, a-ke-rof'o-rua, $. (adigrtm^ cks^ 

and j^torto, I bear, Gr.) A genna of C amp oritr 

lierhnaMius plants, with cliaffy rvoeptaoloa: Sub- 
order, Tubuliflane. 
AoiANTHUS, as-se-an'<Aus, i. (nJtu, a point, ftftd 

ttn/Jtc§, a flower, Gr.) A genua of tuberou-foMad 

plants, with bristly-pointed flowers: Order, Okly- 

AcicARPBA, as-se-kdi^fa, a. (oHs, » point, and 

karpho$t a pales, Gr. because that sppeadaeB is 
- spiny.) A genus of plants: Order, CalyoeniMK. 
AoioijXmB, a-aik'n-le, a. (An'ciJa, Lat.) The tf^kat 

or prioklea on certmo plants and animals, as tn tilt 

Cactc and Echini. 
Aoict'LAR, a-«ik'n-lar, a. (acwuLMrU, from 

a little needle, Lat.) Keedle-chaped. 
Aoicin.AKi.T, a-sik'u-lar-le, ad. In am 

Aciot;LATB, a-sik'n-hite, a. (ticKwfifcia, flrau 

oeicuht Lat.) In the form of* needle. 
AciCULIFORM, a-.-(ik'u le-fawrm, a. {acicMiiftwrnnt^ 

from nekuht and Jbrma, a ^lape, Lat) Having 

the appearance or form of ncMllei. 
AcicoLiNE, a-sik'u-Une, a. (adcuUnvs, from iw'r « h | 

Lat.) Shaped like a needle. 
Acid, as'&id, a. (tictJut, Lat.) Sour;— a. i ton- 
pound substance, possessing, in general, a aoor 

taste, and baring the property of eonveiting ^ngb- 

table blues to red. Au acid is generslly a eoa>- 

poond of oxygen and another substanea, aimpLs or 

AcinifEiiorft, a-se-dif'er-ua, a. (aetdum^ an aeid, 

and ,/ero, I bear or cuntaJn, Lat.) CoBtainiQg 

ncid or adds. 
AciDiFiADLE, a-sidVfo-a-bl, «. Capabtt of 

converted into an aeid. 
AciDiFiOATioK, a-eid o-fe-ka'ahuD, a. The ateto 

or act of bong converted Into as acid. 
AoiniriBB, a-sid'e-fi-ur, a. That which p ou wr rt* 

into an add. 
AciDirr, ft-sid'e-fl, r. a. To convrrt into an arid. 
AciDiMETEit, aa-e*^m'e-tur, 5. {acidmm^ aa add» 

Lat. metrony a measnre, Gr.) An instrument ftr 

lucertaiolng the strength of adds. 
AciDIMBTRT, aa-se-diin'e-tre, «. The 

of tbe itreogtb of adds, 
AciDiTT, ss-ud'e-te, s. The qoaltty of being 

AciDHEas, aa'sid-nea, a. Soomeas; acidity. 
AciDOTON, as-e-do'ton, jr. (akitlatett pointed, 

A gcuus of stinging plouls : Order, Euphoria 
AoiDCL;e, a-sid'u-lo, a. pL Medioiiial 

charged with adda. 
AciDULB, a-ud'u-le, ^ a. In ChRnistry, a salt 
AcioOLt^M, a*«id'u-luin,^ tn which the acid ia io 

cxceikS, as Tartaric ttMsidnlum, Oxalic aciditinm, 
Acmi!i.ATE, a-xid'u-late, v. a. (aeidmler, Fr.) To 

csonvert lulu an acid ; to make aofir to a moderalt 

AcU)nu>CB, a-nd'u-Ins, a. Slightly soar ; subadd. 
AciroRM, a'se-fuwnii, a. (ffci/urruu, frorn aemt, a 

needle, aDdyomui, a shape, Lat) Keadle-sUaped. 
ACOTACBOCB, ay-ao-ua'sliua, n. (ocmookmu, Lat) 

Full of kernels. 
AciTSACUrORM, as-o-nas'e-fawrm, a. Sid>re-abaped. 



tA, ttfr-e-n^'tlia, «. (a, pnr. and kmeo^ I 
Gr.) Lobs of motion. 

iiui, a-Mirtf-fawrm, a. (acwia, ibo seed of 
(rBjM* aadyWina, abjipe, L«L) Full of mull 

trrs, a-sioVpns, $, (atinot, a grape, tnd 
r. a fixil, Ur.) A graus of Coleopterous 

JUnoSB, M Vooie, > & C 

iCZSKNTt, M'^^Uf, 

, Lat.) Coniistlng 
of minnto gruDular con- 

Acnic*^ aaVmia, $. (Latin.) In Botanr, one of 
tim null p^ifts which oompooe the fruit of the 
mj^ knuttbte, See. . 

AdOba, Ma o'a, <. (ociiivi, the GnUna name.) A 
fmm «f tvMi, Banng of GnUnj : Ortlsr, ChrjBo- 

Acxofsa, a»>e-o'tea, «. (oKf, a point, ind mu ofa, 
aa car, Qc la ivfemice to the prtHltt whioli un 
d lM^M i i Rvned.) A gmu of West Todian 
fliMas <Mv, MalaatomaoeCL 

■ w p en'anr, a. (LaUn.) Hie Stur- 
a gmma of Mabcoptprjt:i<i'na fi»hps: in 
wtm^iemmt^ oonaciuitiDg the Family 
A isAxmrttA, a-BB»-an-(A«'ra, «. (oKi, ap<^at, and 
an anther, Gr. the antbere being pobted.) 
■f plants: Order, LjthnoeiiL 
iWiMDOMj ak-nolledj, p. a. (oMtfain, to 
r» attl ifcyan, to lay to, Sav.) To own the 
iMwle^a of; to own anytblii^ or penon in a 
pvtfMhr efaanctcr ; to oonftu oa a fault ; to own 
a Waefll. 

rare. ak-oot1edj-ia^, a. Grateful, 
IDGMurr, ak-nolledj-uient, «. Con- 
el lh« truth of any poHiion ; an owning u( 
iVa&filT of anr act or legal instruoiMiC; cvn- 
tf « fimlC ; coolaaBOQ of a benefit ; Mme- 
p*«n or done in ooofeason of a benefit 
Aiikmotrlti fy mtmi mtmeff, a lum of monoj 
' W oDpfhold truants in loaia paiti of ErigUnd, 
« ^ death of thrir laodlofdi, aa an acknowledge 
ttMl of tWir new lorda. 

cuaa, a-UStW, a. (Litio.) In Antiquity, a mia- 
^m-wmfua vmA I7 ihe R>iniin aoldifry, condtt- 
l^g of a tlukrp javelin with a thon^ fixed to iL 
|Jaui>DiA, akHna-deoe-a^ «. {akme, a poirft, and 
I ■^^ a gUod, Gr. from ila glandular anthara.) 
A pma of i4«ita : Order, Rutaccr. 

tk'mm^ a. (Grrck.) Tbe height or oridb of 
aa of a diaeaaa. 

akHaella, a, (Latin nama of a plant 

by A'bkiI') Th« Virginian hemp, a 

•f CcaaposHa pbmta: Suborder, TubuH- 

icTX. ak'ne, a. A hard infinmed tubercle, occnrring 
ConSr e>n the fcoa, MnnetiiDea on the brwst, 

Acvuna, ak-iwetis, a. (a, prir. aod imio, I rob or 
fBV, Or.) That part of tb« vptne in qoadrapeds 
lan^ from th« mcUphrpnnn, between the 
liadeaii to the Wine, which tbe animal 
raa ch * 

A^nna, ak-ai'da, a. (a, prir. kmide^ a nettle, Gr. 
frK) k» Boi alining, but otherwiic nsemblinc tl^e 
•ittk.) Hm Vvpnian betnp, a genus of North 
AaHriae amtsal jUanta : Order, Cbenopodiaeee. 
ACQiak'^SL Tbeaame of a fiah.Midto b« a natira 
if II* Lite Cooo, ia Italy, and of tha Uaditer- 

AcoLTTUiST, a-kore-rAi«t,"> r (a, prir. t 
AcoLTTK, ak'ol-ite, V Mon, i*iiy, 

AcoLTTilK, ak'o-lir4e, ) Ecdc«taki< 

AcocASmiERA, a-kokao-rAe'ro, «. (jukokr, a mu* 
crone, and onMera, on anther, Gr. tbe ambers 
being mucronute.) A f^nus of plants, natives of 
the Cape of Good Hope : Order, Solanaoen 

ACOLD, a-kold, a. Very cold. — Obcoleto. 
Poor Tocn'a aa>td.—SKdkM, 

AcoLnr. ak'o-lm, i. Tbe name given in Cuba to a 
bird of the partridge kind. 

AcoLoQT, a-kol'o-Je, a. iako$^ a remedy, and logo*, 
a diftcoorse, Gr.) Ilie doctrine of therapeotia 
B^Dts in general, or of tha method of cttriog 

AcoLTTUiST, a-kol'e-rAist,) r (a, prir. tnd kokn 

Gr.) In 
Ecdcsta»tii*dl AtJti- 
qaity,* church officer, supwior to the subdeiteon. 
The terui Is derived from the .Acolythi, or Acoly- 
thiats, a name applied to tbe stoice and othen 
among the aticicnts, frdtti tbe Btemocsa of their 
moral principles — the name meaning, not to turn 
out of the way. 

AcoMTA, a-ko-ni'ta, \ «. A poisonous alkaline 

AcoNiTiSB, akou'c-tine, / sabatsnce fimt ex- 
tracted by Brandt firom tha plant Aconitum 

AC051TA8, a-ko-ni'laa, t. (Greek.) The Jacnlum 
or Dart-snake, the name given by Cuvicr to a 
goiias of serpents remarkablu for the roloeity with 
which thry daft upon tbtir auuilanta. Tticy aro 
hannl?n and gentle in their habits, and are geoe- 
rally small. 

AcojtiTE, ak'o-nite. — See Aconitam. 

AcoxrruM, a-ko-ni'tuni, m. (Latin, from Acona, a 
place is the Crimea fariions for its pr>l&onous 
plants.) Wolfibane or aomtte, a f^niis of plants, 
the species of which ore generally pui&ouoaai 
Order, KanaucuUciMe. 

Acop, » kop', a. At the top. — Obaolcte. 

Marry, she la nut in faiihion vet ; Hlie wears 
A hood, but tt atandi aeep.-—hti» J^ttton. 

AcoB, altor, a. (Xatin.) Addity, particularly of 
the Btoinach. 

AcoKiA, a-ko're-a, «. (a, priv. korto, I aatlate, Gr.) 
Canine appetite ; inordiuato desire fur food and 

AcoR2f, aTiawm, s. (ooem, Sax.) The seed of the 
oak. In Kaotical language, a oonical piece of wood 
fixed on the uppermost pcint of the spiudje, above 
the vjute, to keep It from being blown off firom tbo 
mast' head. 

AcoiUI£i>, a'kawmd, a. Fed with acoma. 
Like a fuU^wm'rf "bota,— Shahs. 
In Ilemldiy, a tree bearing aooms. 

AcoRUft, ak'o-rus, s. (a, priv. and kort^ the pnpO of 
the eye, Gr.) The Sweet Fbi^, a gt-niis of planta j 
Order, Aracec. A. calamna, is said by linajBus 
to bo the only aromatic plant of nortbem climates. 
Tbe root, which is used by druggists, has a strong 

* aromatic smell, and a wann bitter pungent liute. 
Thongh common in some plieea in Britain, tbut 
used is imported from the Levant. 

AcosMiA, a-kos'me-a, $. (a, priv. nod iotmof, 
beauty. Or.) A genua of I.irguniinous planta, 
natives of Brazil : Suborder, Cawalpiniesi. 

AcoTTLA, a-ko-til'a, $. {aeot^Us^ Fr. from a, priv. 
«&d kotjfky a cavity, Gr.) A name given \ry La- 
trrille to a family of Aculephie, coroprdteDdlng 
tboM ffpecka whidi have neither a ctnCral nooutb 
nor lateral cavities. 




AooTiLRDOKfU, •-ko-t(?ltf-<io'ne-g,'^ «. (a, wHh- 

AcoTyLHDuMUX,a-ko-te-le-du'De-u,^ ouC iiiid ko- 

AeoryLkiDoifs, A-ko-te-le'duiu, ) t^fthon^ ■ 
•eed-Iobe, Gr.) Tbo aeooud t^riind diWnion of the 
vegrUble kin;;doin, eomprehending pintibi wliteli 
bttve no Mcd-lubvsL Tliti (UviMoo \» alwi cl.:trnc- 
Icrufd by tli« Linuttan nniire Cr^'ptuf^iiiijii, }jlaDts 
wliich Ikito bidden orgzus uf fniolilictlion ; niid 
bjr the more modrni appctliilion rdloUm, plants 
oaaipose<.l of n-llulnr t>>»i:<^ u'liy. TUcy b«vo uo 
Triiis in 'tbcir lenvci; thi-y d-t nut fonn wood, mid 
are deitituto of (ivrfect fluww?*. The 1o«b»I iril*, 
th« Fui)^ and AlgK, ha\'e do leaves. Tfae bigbfit 
thbc, the Fcm% approscb in chancier to tbe 
YaACulares, buldin^ an iutcrniediata potilion be- 
tween tlieH and tlio C«11utun*8. Tbcy kave veins 
in the learoa, but thes« arc not as In tbe rasculor 
plants, cumpctx-d of apiiivl vc»»cU. The Acoty- 
tedona or Cellulurea are divided into— 1. FoUaMif. 
Ctimpreheiidiiig tba FiUoen or femfi, Equ'ii>vtace», 
Lyoopodinea, Maraileaccse, Mui>ci, and tbo Hvpa- 
tioea. 3. Apbylla, oompnlioudiiig tbe M^m^ 
Licbetvea, aud FungL 

AcoTTLfcDOKOUS, a-ko-t«-le'do-nuB, o. Having do 
Hcd-lobesi prrttiiiiing to tbe Acotylcdoneaa. 

ACOUCUY, a-koo'ibe, c. The Suiioani rmbUt, Daay- 
proctA aooocbi. 

AcuCMBTSaf a-kow'oie-tar, i. (ai-ouo, I hr^ar, and 
mt^rtm, a measure, Ur) An instntmpnt inTcntrd 
by Itnrd for moaBuring the extout of bearing in the 
human ear. 

Acot'RUH, a-kow'nis,#. (al««rM,iuuhaTed,Gr.) A 
grnua of bearded MaUcopt«iygioiu fiahea : Family, 

ActiUBTlO, »-ko«''>tik, a. (akotutikaa, Gr.) Ri'lative 
to the propagnlion or prodaction of lound; per- 
taining to the sense of hearing. 

AcoCBTics, a-kow'iftika, a. (akouo, I hoar, Gr.) 
That branch of pbyuca wliich examinea the laws 
\)j which MKud b prodooed and propagated ; ma- 
dicinfs gtren to aKsiirt the hearing. 

Acquaint, ok-kwajnt*. p. a. (acointer^ old Fr.) To 
make familiar with ; to inform. 

AcQUAiKTADLE, ak-kwaynt'&-bl, a. Eoijr to be 
acqoainted ftith; nccpstiblc. — Obaolete. 

'n'bur«rnre bo wIm and aojmaiKtaUe. — 


AcQtTAiKTAKCB, aV-kwnyu'tanii, «. The atalo of 
Winp acquainted wit b; familiarity; knowledge of ; 
f>tuiiliar knowledge ; a aligbt or initial knowled^ 
of a penon, nbort of friendship; Uio person with 
whom we are acquainted, without the iiiliiuucj of 

AcQt*AiXTANCESHir, ak-kwajm'taiu-ahip, a. State 
of bt-'iug acf|uaiuted. "^ 

ACQUAltiilU}, ak-kwayu'tod, a. Fdtniliar; well- 

Acquest, ak'kweat', a. (French.) Attachment ; 
acqniiutton ; tbe thing gained. In Law, oc/uett^ 
or acqntit, dcnotea goods not deseended by in-' 
heritanoe, but acquired by |iurf)nfi« or donation. 

ACQCIESCB, ak-kwe-es', r. m. (ooTirMwco. Lat. oc- 
figigacert Fr.) To reat in or remain satiaBed with ; 
to aasent to. 

A0QUJE»CB9CCK, ak-kwe-ei'ena, > a. A ailrat ap- 

AOQUIRdCBMCT, ak-kwe-eaVn-ae. I pcanuicn of 
content or submission, diKtingtiii>lipd from avowed 
consent on one hatitt, and from o|>poiuLion or upeii 
diaoonleot on iba other; utufsction; rest; cun- 
leiit; BubmijiMcmi con6tlenre. 

ACQltlBftCKXT, ok-kwe-ei'ent, a, Eaiiy; aubmtt' 
till)! E^i resting tatt«Bed; disposed to submit. 

ACQUICBCCNTLV, ak-kwe-ca'efit-le, ad. lu an 
au]uic>ccnt ninmtcr. 

AcQiilKT, ak-kwiVt, o. n. (nrtpneio^ 1"W L«t.) To 
Tender quiet; to coinpose.— Obsolete. 

A&jvitt \\\A mind frvtm «tirriog yon apUnat yoor «*n 

peace.— 6'ff T. HhirU/t TrattU, 

ACQniHvDLR, ak'kwbe'm-hl, a. That auj be w- 
qviitpd or obtained; attainable. 

AcguiKABiLiTT, ttk-^wi-m-bil'ste, i. State of Iw- 
ing acqnlmbla 

AcQL'iftE, ok-kwire', r, a. (^acquiro; <rc, and quefro, 
I fteek, Lut.) To giiin by ooc't own labour; to 
giiin by uiy meaufi something which is in a degrc* 
)itTmanont, or which beoomes vested or inherent 
in tbe posseaaor, aa an estate, learning, haUta, 
«kill, &C. : pliints act^urre a green colour from tbo 
Bular mys: temporary poaaession is Dot exprtMed 
by acquire — wD obtain^ but do not nc^ire, a kkon ; 
to come to; to procure; to ubinin; to purchoaflb 

Acguiiti:i>, ak-kwi'rd, a. Gained by one's self. In 
o^puiiiiun to those things which an bestowed by^ 

AcguiRCMnKT, ak-kwire'mcnt, s. That wUch ia 
acquired ; g.nin ; attaioaicnt. 

AcQUinen, Ak-kwi'ror, a. Tbe pcnon who An^oim i 
a gainer. 

AcQUiiuKO, ak-kwi'ritig, i. Acquirement. ! 

ACQi isiTC, ak'kwe-i.ite.a. (ac^uist/ds, Lat.) Gaiaed ' 
or acquired. — Obaokte. ! 

Three tieing innate and fire ecfwiMis.— 

AtmrUfn, AtM. ^ MU, 

ACQFiaiTiriX, ak-kwe-Twb'nn, #. {nr*]'iisitio, L«t.} 
The act of acquiring or gaining; tbe thing gmimd 

AcQulSlTirs, ak-kwia*ze-tiv, a. (itnjuiMitia$$^ ImJ) 
Acquired; gained; anxious to arquire. 

ACQOiniTtTENEfifl, ak-kwii'te-liv-nes, h. The dasi 
to obtwin poBBTsrion of; a name givrn hy pHreni 
lo^ists to one of the retdons of tbe bruin, situal 
below ideality, and before Mcrelivi-ncss. It pi 
the ilctiire to acquire i>n>pertT, or poesesrion 
tbingii in gnnpml r cxivetousneaa, avarice, and 
honesty, ore its abuses. 

Ac<jttisiTiVELT, Hk-kwlz'se-tiv-le, ad. In an «»• 
qui<iitivc manner. 

Ac«jUisT, ak-kwi»t\ «. (acqumto^ Itol.) Aequire> 
ment; attainment. 

AcguiT, ak-kwit', r. a. (anqtiUttrr, Fr.) To ael ft*e; 
to clear from the rbiuvo of guilt; to absolv*; 
to clear from any oblii;«tion — followed by of. 

ACQL'ITHENT, ak-kwit'mcnt, m, (acqttitemmt^^A^Tr.) 
'rhe Btstn of being acquitted, or act of aoqiutting. 
— Kot in tiae. 

ActjuiTTAL, ak-kwit'tal, a. PeGvemnca from the 
cbarge of ac ofiboce, as, when found not gnihy bj 
a jury. 

AcQDiTTANOE, sk-lcwit ttns, $, ((ipyuirtow*?, luL) 
lliK iicl of discbnrging from a debt ; a writing tes- 
tifying the receipt of a debt. 

Acr!v, ak're, <. In )tytholof;y, a fahuloiu dnoj^hter 
of the rirer Asterian, who gives her name to ft 
mountain of Argolbi in the IVloponnwwas ; it 
n1.w tucd as a somarae of Diana, from a 
erected to her honour by Melanipus, on a moi 
nsar Arp». 

AcraxtBUB, a-kmn'/Aua, «. {otranthot^ irriUteJ, 
Gr.) A genus of long toogued liaards, haviDg ^ 



the hlader feet : 

totil^ a^lursM*. r. a. (t« Crazy.) To impair the 
U> inf«tiiAts : 

m ddat> M mak* ow murfa thftl morntng to mlsUke, 
1 «nMl wa^ uiA lboii|^t *1 hom« to su^.— 

Mir./er Moj/, 

to cnuh or sqoash, Fr.) to impair; 
hnpalrvcl, my credit acrowd^ niy tiLlent 

icaxST, A'rm «», s. (^txJknma ; Oy prir. krsistM, can- 

^■ttoii, Gr.) Excess; imgiilarity: predominance 

rf CM qnalitT ahare aimther in mixture, ur in Ibe 

knn e»n*titutioa 

ioUTU, a-kra'ahe-A, «; (Of prir. and Mitof, 

Itmicth, Gt.) WMkness; intemperance. 
ACUL, alter, a. (arer, Sax. njtJter, Grerm. and 
[)iftlL) A quntity of land, heing the mca-'^urc 
Inr «tia^ it is nftudlr bouglit and 6«tld. An Kn^'- 
bbstatntc acta ootunstsof 4 roods ^ IGOperclics 
=i 4^0 square jnrds : 46 Scotch acres art i*qnAt 
to 61 Eofliftb : 121 Irish acres an equal to 186 
Ei^^iab aiTcs. The Frerid] arp, or aero, is a sqoare, 
I iids is 10 metres, or 1000 Enf^Iwh sens, 
to 40.466 FreDob ares. Tbe English sta- 
oe is nMd tn ihs Unit«d StstM of America. 
•lunl, a. rpsteasmg acres ; banog landed 

cVio, ak'rid, a. (ootr, tat) Of a hot biting taste; 

iXfiAXS, s-kridV-snSf «. A fainiljr of Orthop- 
iuectfl, having for its tj^ the gcnns Acri- 
Trib*, Locustann. 

r, s-kridVte, \§. A hot difls^jorAhlc 
;, allLrid-ncPs f biUoK taits ; sonluJe. 
\ a-krid e-um, #. (ol-rif, a locnst.) A 
ICM,/ gaous of inwcts of Hu Locust fairtilr, 
the «ing^ and eljrtrs aloping tike a niof; 
for lesping; antennie filiform; 
thna jobts ; s spooQr ball between the 
kauwiwu oi, ft-kn-dof'*-jt, s. (aSriA, s locust, 

ftk md fAdyo. I est.) Locust-eaters. 
icsunonous, «ic-t«-mo'ne-as, a. Abounding with 

SBMsAf : tfasip ; aertre ; comuivei 
teKbaontfCUUTf ak-rv-mo'ne-us-le, o^ In an 
; icrerely. 

ak-re-mo'ne-ns-nea, t. The 
Sift m Mtfe of b«iug acrimonious. 
Aouusr, ak re-mfr-ne, «. (acrtntwi a, Lai ) 
i eoBtwrenesi ; sharpness of temper t 
faittsriMes of thought or langusga. 
AooaXf dk'rB-s^ a (^ahvin^ want of judgment^ 
Gc) ThaX on which no judgment is passed, or of 
viKk n» cbaloo is mode ; a matter in dispute ; 
*iai ti judgment, but more particularly, if n(jt 
w iJMh Jy, applied to s diMsai<c, tho symptoms of 
^oA tn BDoertain, from its not coming to a 

ACBlTa« fti-Wta, s. (aJtriint^ dotihtfbl or confuRcd, 
Qr.) A AMtte ^cno by MacLoay to a divbion of the 
rg^^i MCDprebendin^ the Infusoria, tbo 
md BODM at tbs Intestina. 
•k'm-tQS^ a. {oJtritoSy Gr.) Doubtful ; 
M Id the oveot. 
tk'n-VoAbf SL {aerittuh, Lat) A hot 

tilinua, tk-nKsfiks, t. plu. In Antiquity, the 
Mas ^Ta to AmtotJe'a leetorss on tha abstruser 

points of phnosoj)hy delivered, in the Lycrum, in 
the mominga. Those who were admitted to ths 
secTfts of this pbiloBophy were called ^crm- 

AcROAUATic. sk-ro-a-mafik, ^ a. (akroaO' 

ACRnxHATICAL, ak-rD-ft-mnt', t mai, I hear, 
Gr.) Of or pertaining to dw-p IpnmiEg. 

AcROfiATlCA, ak-ro-bat'c-ka, «. (al-roSy on the sn^n- 
mit, And bttmo, I go, Gr.) An ancient macbin* 
for the purpose of hoisting workmen to tha lop 
of lipildinga nr tiff*. 

AcnocARPE, ak-ro-fcJr'pe, s. {alTog, extreme, and 
karjwMj a seed, Gr.) A siilM)rdor of the mot>scs, 
which lure the fructi6cjitiun termiiia.!. 

ACKocBriiALt's, itk-P>-sef'a-lcs, «. (vkrof, on tlm 
snmmit, and krpJtfile, the head, Or. in alluaion to 
tha flowers being (Uspoi>ed in small den^, terminut 
imbrioite hcadx.) A genus of pianta, ntilivi-a of 
Chins, beimnf; the dowers on the topmost branches : 
Order, l^minreae. 

AoRi>OKRA, ak-ros'e-ro, *. A gcuus of Insects, 
typo of the family Acroeeridie. 

AcnuuEBiD^ ak-ro-scrVde, s. CoItos, extreme, 
and html, a hom or antenna, Gr.) A fiitnily of 
Dipterous insectx, having for its type tho genus 
A r rorcra.— /r « r A. 

AcRociioRDCS, ok-rO'knwr'dnA, s, {akrochordoHy ft 
wart, Gr.) A genus of warty-scalod serpents 
found iu Jars. 

AcuocoMiA, ak-ro-ko'me-o, s. (aitros, on ths top, 
and kcme^ s tuft, Gr.) A gcntw of trees, cbieflj 
brlougin^ to tlie We*t Indies : Order, Palmaooie. 

ACBOOACTTLrM, ak-ro-dak'te-luni, *. (ai-TQr, and 
(/'iX/yoi, a digit, Gr.) Tbe uj>per surface of each 

A0Roi>U8| s-kro'dns, s. {akrot^ extreme, and ot/ofM, 
s tooth, Gr.) A grrins of fossil sharks, with Urgt 
polygonal enairellod teeth. 

AoRtMiEVS, a-kro'jena, t. inkroa^ extreme, and gen- 
floo, I prodnre, Gr.) A nsmc given to di^tinguiKb 
cellnlsr plants l.y thrir manner of growth, which 
increases principally in length, not in thickness. 
Exogens iiicre&so externally in thickne^; Endo- 
gens, internally. For the other characteristics of 
this divinon of the vegetable kingdom, see Ai^ty- 

AcBOi-iTii, ak'm-tirt, t. (fi-tron, eitremei, and Utho9^ 
a stoni*. Or.) In Architecture and Sculpture, a 
st.ituc, tho extremities of which were of stone, and 
the body of wood. 

AcROMANEA, ak-ro-ms'nft-a, «. {nkromanety raving 
mod, Gr.) Tlie height uf insanity. 

Acromial, a-kro'me-al, a. i'ertaitiingto the acn>> 

AcnoMioi*, a-kro'me-on, b. {nhro», pxtn'me, and 
omojt, the shoulder. Gr.) The humeral extrcnuty 
of the scapula or shoiilder-bbide. 

AcHoNiUAL, o-kron'c-kal, a, {akron^ the summit, 
fir.) In Astronomy, a star Is saiil to bo Bcronir«L, 
or to rise acronically, when it ri^ea and sots about 
tbe same time as the mm. 

Ai^HOMiUALLT, o-kron'o-kol-c, ad. In an scron^cal 

AcROPUDU'M, sk-ro-pod'e-ura, #. {akroty on the 
summit, and /)ou«, a foot, Gr. in alluuon to the 
legumes being stalked vrithln tbecalyx.) A getius 
of Leguminous »hrubs, natives of the Capo of G^mkI 
Hope : Suborder, rapilionocejc In Zoology, tho 
upper surface of tho foot, applied particularly to 
the feet of birds. 



AcRoroLis, a-krop'n-lut, «. (Gmk.) A dUdei, 
pnrlirulorly thiit nf Athena. 

AoitoitPiREf ok'ro-spiif, a. (oXroii, hiph, «nd ajjfim^ 
a epire. Or.) Tbe spront «t tlip end of t*«ds 
dnring gvrmiiiAlionf tenncd also the jdumo or 

AcRoariRKD, aklono -spirde, a. Han^g tproata or 

AoROBreHHTTM, ak>rci*8pcr'mtnn, ». (akrot^ extreme, 
And Mperma^ a sord, Gr.) A small peniu of Funf^, 
of a roddiitli nr blackish colour, foiind on thu 
stfllla of dootl lierbs xnd putrid inu&hmoms. 

ActioRTOitirM, ftk-ro-flpii're-um, $. (iiJlro.% fstremp, 
and pporia^ a ftp«nde, Gr.) A genua of Fungi 
occurring in nrd-coUiurud patches on th« leaves of 
grMBM and rotten oranf^es. 

Across, ik-kros', mJ, Alliwart; laid ov^ Aometbuig 
so aa to cross it ; ftdrersel}' ; contntril/. 

AcnoSTlC, a-kros'tik, j. {akro*^ citrcmf, and stichos, 
a voTBf, Gr.) A poora in which the firet letter of 
each line funna one uf a duoip, title, or motto. 

AcaosTic, a-kroa'te-kal-lc, ad In tbe man- 
D«r of an acrotitic. 

Acsosncnnn, a-krofe'tc-kum, a. (otros, extreme, 
and tticftoM^ order, Gr, ) A genua of Fema : Order, 

AcBOTXRSiuM, ak'kro-t^/fle-atn, «. (nirim, an end, 
coracw, toratu, Gr.) Id Zoologj, tbe upper sur- 
face of the tareua. 

AOBOTBIUA, a-kro-te'ro-K, r (Givek.) In Architec- 
ture, small basea aurring to sapport atatnes; alno 
ibfl sharp pinnaelea placed in ranges about flat 
buililingB n illi raila and baluatera. 

ACROTIIYMION, ak-kro-fAirn'o-on, i. (ai-ron, an end, 
and thyuifm^ a wiut, Or.) A conical, rugatud, bl<^d- 
iof; wart. 

ActiuTaiCHB, a-krot're-kp, a. (ahrm, end, and 
thrix, hair, Gr. from the natora of tbe coroUa.) 
A geuos uf AusiraUan »hrulw: Order, Epscri- 

Act, akt, v. n. (fnnn agn, to uipi or drrre, lead, 
bring t(i, or, in general, to nwvc; to exert force ; 
ayir, Vt.) To exert power, a«, the stomach acts 
on tlie food; to be in motion ; to move ; to work, 
ss, thiA engine acts well ; to behave, aa, to act 
pnidontl^: to operate, na, to ac< aa a dirck ; to 
tblfil. as, to ae< up to ; lo be equal to in action, as 
to act np to a promise-, or obligntion, or <\iilj ; — 
r. a. to perfnnn oa the stage, afi, he act^H hid part 
wrll ; to perf'irm, an, he arlrfi the part <>f a friend ; 
to actuate or put in Diutiuti — {^ obsolete tu thia 

3f utt |t«u]ite are atitd by levlt/^— £«cl«, 
to feign; to cimnterfeit. 

With acUd fiMir (lia vtllaln ihm roi^onl.— />ry<2n«. 
In Law. so instrument gircn in writing lo declare 
or jiutify the truth of anrthing. In the Uniwjr- 
sities, s tbcsss publioljr maint:itned by a candid»tc 
ibr a degree, or to show a atudnit's pmficipiic}'. 
At Oxford, the tine when masters or doctors eum- 

Eli-te their detprea is also called the ttcf, which it 
rid with great folemnitr. In Cambridge, it bt 
calliHl tlip * ootrimencpTiiriit.* Act of faitk, the 
Auto da Pe of tbe ImjUfKittun, when coudetnned per- 
sona ware brought from thtir dungeons to be burnt 
or otherwise put to death, Actt of pnrlMmtnU 
aw poiiUvu biw», to wtiioh tli* three catatea of (ho 
realm, king, lords, and commons, have itgret'l. 
AcU afOu npnttltt, n (took of the New Testament, 
written bj thf Evangelist Luke; — t. the exertioti 

of power ; the effect of power exerted, i 
of the jiulgment; action; perfftnnunce ; 
an Off of kindncai ; exploit or actiicremel 
The miTBcles and am wbleh ha did ia tlw 

C^TpL— i>e«t xt 

vhca pTSceded by trt, it drnotra tocoinp 
she waa caught in the verj act. fn act 
also to Kignifr incijiteut action, or in r 
prcpamtiun, as, in ad to strike ; one of 1 
diviniona of a dromn, after which the actio 
ponded to give ret(]iitD to tbe pr^ormexV{ 
sioo, decree, edict, btw,judgT»enti re5ol^*e, 
priooe, legislative bodjr, council, or court q 
aa, an act of ooandl, an ocf of parliatu 
Law, act of Cody any inevitable nccident 
which takes place wiUiout the iuterveutloa 
or which cannot be referred to any specH 
III Scottiftb Law, acf imc/ oommiWon, tbs 
the judicial proenidings of thi; Court of 
by wbicb a ci>mtnmioa ia given by the o| 
penon for taking proof in a dn^ndini 
Among tbe ItomnnH, ac/a diwna, a wnt ol 
containing nn nnthorised account of trai 
in Rome, nearly siuitlnr to our newi^papcil 
yptiH^ or acta rtptdtlica^ the lt"man fsi 
■memblics, trials, births, marriages, snd ij 
UluatriouB pefsons, &e. Acta mmAi, ml 
what passed in tbe Roman setiate^ cslled d 

AcTMA, ak-te'a, r. (akie, the Greek nam 
Killer, which the pUnLa of this genus nat 
foliapD and fniit.) Bane-berry, a genua Ol 
niul horbacfOQs pUnta, with racemes 4 
Howcrs : Ordor, Ranunoulsoes; 

ACTCOETON, ak-te-ge'ton, a. {altim, ■ I 
peiton, near to, Gr.) A geans of plants 
of Java : Order, Ctdastracoie. 

AcTiAN, ak'shan, a. Pert-iinlng to Actium 
and promontory of Epimn, in Gmvc, ha th 
gamea^ which were in:((itutcd by Augustoi 
brate his naval victory over Antony, a 
town, 2d September, B.C. 3L They wi 
brated every five yoanu 

AcTiNAKTUvs, ak-tin-aiiVAus, ». (oibSf), a 
autfios, a flower, Gr) A genus of plants 
of Syria : Order, Vmbelhice*. 

ACTiNO, ak'ting, a. Action ; perfonning an 
or dramatic parL 

Actinia, ak-tin'e-o, $. (aktiti, a ray of the i 
Sen Auemoniea, or animal floweni, s geni 
mdiHted marine nnimuls: Cloa*. Acalcpfaa 

ACTixiARiA, ak-tin-e-o're-a, «. (from Actil 
niiiite given by Ijimouronx to on order o 
which have much the appearance of tlie J 

AcTisiFonx, ak-tinV-ftiwrm, a. (akfiity % 
and Jhrmot a ahapc, Lat.) Having s 

Actinism, ak'tin-izm, t, (alctin^ s niy, £ 
fhilutfuphy, the nulintion of heat or fig 
branch of nutoral pb!losop)iy which tres 
raJistioD of best or light. 

AcTiNocA^AX, sktin-ok's-maks, s. (oM 
and hnrwT. a peg, Gr.) A name given I 
to t)ie fossil shells of an extinct genus of 
P^kN, forming apparently the connecting 
twceiL the extinct Delenimtos and tb« 
Sepia: found in the Chnik fonniition. 

AcTiKOCARri?. flk-tin-o-kilr'pus «• (ok 
karpot, fniit, Gr.) A genua of Compoatti 
Suborder, Tubiiliilon& 



AcraoOBLOA, ak-tin^lo-ai «, (ailin, a ray, ind 
(Mm^ gnaSt Gr.) A gen'JA of fxutic gnutses. 

icnsocBiHm, oJc-tin-ok'n-niUi, «. (aitiit^ Attd 
I O/, Gr.) A KhobI CiinoiJuui I'rum tliti 
limes Lone. 

Aaonunt, Ak-tin'o-Utc, «. (a^^/rn^ ■ ray, »ad 
Mm, s atODef Gr.) A Tuirty of HorTiMrndc, of 
i pwB eoloor, oocnrring unull/ In fuclculated 
ajMi^ b oonaisu of ulicA, 46.36; magnesia^ 
lldB; Cme, 13.90; alumina, 14.4S; proUoide 
rf BM, S.43; piutuxiJe of manpiaoew, 0.3ti; 
Atne Kid, l.CU; water. &c 1.04. Aci'molitt 
idkii^ a ndE of & Uatj and foUited structure, of 
«Ueh actiDofiU » one uf the pnndpiU const! tuvnU. 

Acrarounc, ak-Un-o-BLlk, a. CooUining ncti- 
HUt; af Uia natora of acciaoUta, 

JkruroKETmR, ak-tin-om'e-tarf a. (ol-ftn, a raj, 
mA mrittm^ a measure, Gr.) An mstnunent in- 
mSaA by Sir John Hcrach^l, for meaaoring the 
iiharf^ «f th« nys of the sun. 

AcnxovnsmiA, ak-tin-»-niairr'fe-a, a. (otrin, a 
u;, anil ak9r]»Aa, focn, Gr.) Sanu) as Actinoza- 
— vlikh m. 

nxiic, ak-ttn-tf-fillom, t. (aitm^ a ray, 
leaf, Gr.) A gt'nns ofpUntSj now 
m SctodAphjrllam, — ^wliie'i bco. 

ianCtfSOJiA, ak-tii)-a«'to-ma, j, (dZ/in, a rnjr, and 
*■«( a moolhf Gr) A nume given by Latrcille 
baa ladcr (rf HrlUnthoiilt-a, cum prelieii ding those 
o^M aooths arc eodrclcd with mdiatod tcn- 

IcnsonoMOCB, ak-tin-<»s'tt>-miUt a. (aitin, and 

HMH, a onaitb. Or.) Having a radiated mouth. 

AnwimiTBirsi, aLk-tin-o-lhirVtun, t. (uktin, and 

igrim, • little door, Gr.) A ainall bUck fungua 

ftod OB tbf calnu of graueft. 

icTQKnxa, ak-tin-o'tna, «. (oit/m, a ray, Gr.) 

flndavtr. a corioua gentu of Aa&tnilian pbnta, 

•UandUled inroluov: Order, Umbidlncea.-. 

tKrmoaOAMXA, ak-tin-o-no-a'r^-a, a. (aJdin, and 

a>a«, a aBimal, Gr) Radiated animals; Bhua- 

tfl/a uflM for the Rudiata,— which aeo. 

Acnos, •Ic'tluui, «. (acfio, luiL) Literally, a driv- 

j|(; hmbt lb* lUte of uctiiig or moving ; exi-nion 

ti pow or Amov, aa when one body acta on nn- 

of power by one body on another. 

AetlBO U P>fi— lary or m^kumcal. Vvlwttaiy or 

^■iiaumia, when ]»iMlaced by the will of a living 

i|pB^; mee/umiealf when produced by the action 

MM fa»Jy or aubatanoe on another; an act or 

w ; battle ; fight ; engngement by aen 

III McchanioB, agency ; operation ; drir- 

yg, %mpdm', Hm tftct of om body actwg on 

aBMkar. Actiom amd Ttadkm^ the force exerted 

Vf ^n haiSy on another, and the repelling of that 

WBOB I7 Hm body acted upon, which are equal and 

to Ethics, conduct; behaTioor; de- 

ln pQctrj, the aenes of crtnta cnlled 

or Cablet which is of two kmda — Iho 

aukd the inddeotal. In Oratory, 

daportmnit of the speaker; gosticu- 

la F'hyaiuloQ^, the motions or functions 

if iJka bodr^ viuj, animal, and natural In Law, 

• nrtt er poprM by which a demand is made of a 

riglit ; a dam maiu before a legal tntrtinaL Rtol 

10 ooe in which the denuindant 

• ti^s to real estate. Pertonat action^ 

• fmmo dmnands a debt ; personal duty, or 

bi Hn of it, or aatUi^Bctiou fur an injnry 

or ptoperty. Civil oc/kw, au actiou iu- 

Btitutvd by a private individual, or indivldiialai 
for the recovery of debt or dninngva. Pmai or 
criminai ocdon, when inMitutcd to rocovcr a penalty 
by way of puniahniciit A ckute in action, a riglit 
to a tbtng in opposition to the poaecfiaioa of it, 
(from choae, a tiling, Kr.) In Piunting or SculjK 
turv, the attitude or position of the scTcnd p&rta 
of the body, by wliirb passiou or action ia oxpreaacd. 
Action 0/ accouttty an action which Ilea agaluat a 
party to eorupcl bim tu render an account to an- 
other, with whom be haa had tninsactions, aa 
against a boiUlfuf a nmuor, or a retxircr of rents, 

ACTiifNABLK, ak'fthnn-a-bl, a. Admitting uf an oo- 
tton in law ; punishable. 

Actionably, ait 'shun -a-ble, ad. la a manner sub- 
ject to a prooeaa in Iiiw. 

AcrioNARY, ak'shan-B-re, k One who haa a sbara 
in actiona or stocks. 

Action -TAKixa, ak'shnn- talcing, a. Liti^^ouft; 
fund of entering into lawsuita. 
A knsv(> a nueal, a filthy woratod-stocklng knave^ a 

tll^-Uver^ actiom-bMmff knave. — SJtaJu. 

ACTION-TUREATKTCER, ak-shun-Mrtt'en-ur, a. A 
poma of a litigious or rcvsngeftil dispoehion ; 000 
accostooiad to threatea a lawaoit In eaoa of dis- 
Yae&Tloua and deadly uallcioas, re Imploadera and 

aeticn-thrtatmtn, bow lung ihal) thu Lurd suffer yon In 

tils IioumI — TTortnor'fl TVaiu. 1^ Axm. 

AcTiTATioN, ak-to-ta'shon, «. (aUitOf Lit.) Tx^ 

queut ond rapid Action. 

AcTiVATB, ak'to-vatc, r. a. (ncd'tva, Lat.) To make 

Active, ak'tlr, a. (irc^'nu, Lat.) Ilnving the power 
or quality of acting; busy; cngiigod in action; 
nimble; agtle; quick; requiring ac<iw or exer- 
tion ; practical ; opcratiro ; oppoaed to specalv 
tivc Adico tcrb, in Grammar, a verb which 
expresses what one thing does to another; cnltud 
alao trnnaitive, bi^cause the action expressed do- 
notea action passing from the »gent or uominiitive, 
the object acted upon, as, Wllliiiin ftmck John ; I 
h*0w him. Active capital or tixaJih^ is money or 
property that may be readily converted into munoy, 
and us^<d in commerce or other emjiloTmcnt for 
pru6t. Active comnurce, the commerce in which 
a notion carries its own productions, and fonslgn 
commodities, in its own ithips, or wbioh ia proM- 
cuted by its own citizens. Actic* moiecttlc*, m 
plants, are extremely roinnte, and npparrntly 
spherical moving partidea, found in ve^etnble 
matter when rubbed in pieces, and examined untjur 
very powerful Ivnsea. 

AcTiVKLT, ak'tiv-It, ad. In an active mJinnrr; 
busily; nimbly; in scL lu Gnumnar, in an active 

AcTivENESs, ak'tiv-ooa, t. The quality of Iwiiig 
active; qnicknrfta; nimblonLrss. 

Activity, ak-tiv'e-tc, a. The quality of being 
active; nimblcness; ([uieknosa of motion. Sfthere 
ef actiriti/, the whole space in which the virtue, 
power, or inflac«nce of any object is exerted. To 
put iiUo actitiftf^ to put in action or employment. 

AcTi.eAS, akties, a. Without action or spirit. 

AcTttR, ak'tur, a. (Latin.) He whoncta orpaifoniu 
auTtbing; he who personates « character; a stapp- 
playcr. In Law, a counsel or advocafo. This 
term is still used by the tb-rks of the Court of 
SessioD In Scotland, who, in prefixing the partibw 
or mandate of appoarauoo to interlocutors, deugnnte 



fcr ^ pvtM .J<«or Mi AccBA, ■fc'»-«m, «^ TW 

i,or Ik* 

0^ Afil puntiL Attmai 

1^ iy ■ nV'bdt no nfipABra to > 
itK sfiyficttiM tlttt my pivdoBc 
At una MBct Bpos tw tovj bf tt oBBeffntt pnH 

AetCAUTT, ak-te-«r<-ta, a Hw mma tt Wing 

AeniiirMM, alc'l»^-oa, il Tte qoafitj of Mug 

Aerrurr, iAfti»-w-«. «. (TftwrMM. Lat) The 
or dcxk t/ a eotut of l«v. The ium« ia 
MflMd by the dote of Mne of tbe 
bi Um BMliopofit or otibff lago dtiM. 
AOTVATK, idc^D-ola, V. a. To pot into actioa ; to 
fa figuu i o or inn —I tbo powcti of motion ; to 
anoto or foato to acCkn ; — o. pot ia oetkm ; ud- 
DUU ; bnagfat into efteU 
AcTVATKi), ■k'to-ay-tod, jMvl Put into motaoo. 
AcTCATios, •k-to-o'ihnn, l Opcntion ; >t^o of 
bnng pal in actiao ; tbo qtulitj of brin^^ng iato 

•qtul to 
Agricahnrc, Hut 

AcTuo, ak'toa, f. In Aatiqaltj, ■ 

120 Rotn^n fcH. Is Buman 

Ini^h of tbe famw. 
AcDATB, ak'u-stc, r. a. (ffewo, Lit.) To iharpai; 

to mako pDfijrnit or o wioai r o ; 
AOL'BKXX, aklni-bo-iit, $. A stsr of the Itmxlii 

nu^itoda in tbo aaatKacn daw of Cancer. 
Aotm, a-ku'e-te. i. (ocuiCie, Fr.) Sharpoe«. 
Acrt-KATK, a-knl»-ate, \ a. (aculentuf, Lat) 

Acn.SAT£D, a-knle-ar-ted, / rHcklr ; harini^ a 

■harp point. In Botanr, UaTiiig aculei. In Zoo- 

to|7, haring a ating. 
AcuLRATKS, a-ka1»-ajt8v a; {aaiUuAt a prickle, 

Lat) A tfihe of Bvmninpt«roiu inverts, in whirh 

tlie rnnaleo and iieuten are proridcd iritb a sting 

eofioMil«d in thn liimlT s^^nKnt of the abtlomen. 
ACULSJ« fr-knle-i, «. {pi. of acrilma.) Prickln nr 

Bpinca mnting from the burk and not from the 

AcrLtiH. ■k'u-lon,) i. (aJ»th$, Or.) The fruit or 
AcuLoa, ak'a-loc, / moto of the ilex or Scarlet 

Aci'Mii!', a-ka'men, >. (T^lfai.) A abarp point; 

AfCurntivelj, quicknewi of tbe intellectoal facalUoa. 
AotMiHATK, a-ku'mciiate, o. a. (acumtn, Lnt.) To 

whet or iharpen ;— r. n. to nsL< like a cune ; — a. 

AOUMIKATRD, a-ko'mo-nate-ed, a. (actttHinatut, 

LaC) Sharp-pointed. 
AcrMlVATIOV. a-ku-me-na'abun, t. Sharp-point- 

AcuMiMous, a-ku'mo-nua, a. Sbarp-poinl 
AcLrtTNCTUHK, ak-kii-puiigk'ture, 
AcvixxCTi HATioM, ik-ko-punKk'ta 

(offM, I aliarpen, ai>d /wMrfwi, n ftrictiing, [jit.) 

The act of priekiitg tlie iikia with Doedloa, aa in 

hi:iidacbe4 and Iclhnr^cs. 



la Maiie^ aa mattt tma m «m «1 

h^mfmmth- AK^meu 
flrAvpfwCkeTCica,Biffk«d('X Aeatt 
any Jmmm tkat ia ^ai Jiiil with aa 
dly «r kloaa, tti 

AccTiAToit, »4n'riw-a7*4ar, a. A 
fan the Hrreotioa of firo-anna, to 
attcodod asBiita lor tlw pofpoat 


Acnroft, aaVn, $, (tba Qtoak naao of 
probddy rdatod to Thjmiu.) A genu ot 
Order, LMnnatxm. 
Ax», (lAtuL) A prefix, aigniQriag lo 
In CocDpoaitMa, Ibe kit lettw b 
iuto tbe fint letter ot the word lo 
prefixed, aa ocdama, oj yr adS o r, 
(^ffMiu^ arnjpto, aMmea ; iiw ad cJ i n B^ 
ad^lfrvM^ aifll^, •#(wo* w^VVw^ 
otptowftm, to captivate. Ad 
to please and attract tbe popolaoe^ Ad 
to anj indefinite extent. Ad H^^mhoa, W 

mandiog inquiry to be made of a&ytlniY 
to a CAiue depi^'cdiug in couxta. AdpamJiu i 
tbe wdg^t of tbe whola. Ad Iko mimmm 
man ; in Logic, an argament adapted to I 
prejadtces of the persun addressed. Ad 
at pleasure. A d va/oreai, aocordicg to t\ 
AoAOT, o-dakt', p. a. (adago, Lat) To di 
God hlmseir oooe eooipanod the wt^od 

Ad mterim^ in tbe mean tlma^ 
Ad imgmremdnmt m jaSaal nt 
inqninr to be made of aUTtlniv 

flinft, and IroipK Bod snuMboppara, and oiber 
temptlbia worms, lo cno fcw tbe porcr of his 


irvtjr; not voaehsafing to adaet tbem hy any ' 
lU creunrea more wonhy.— / brt «r> y . 

Adacttlr, a-dak'tile, a. (a, priv. and cfd 

finger. Or.) Having no digits or finger* 9 

animal w!tb di^lo. 
Al>AOE, ad'aje, k. (adaipum^ Lat) A m< 

proTcrb or wiae aaying handed down frua 

Fine (hitta of learning; old ambltloua faol, 
Dost thou api>lr tliat adag* of tbe school, 
A« ir thoro's nixblDff worth that Uca ooneeal 
And soieoce la Dot selaooe tUI rereaMdf— IK 

Smith on Old Age nsos odagy for adage. 

ArtAQiAi., a-dii'je-al, a. tFrench.) Prcrrfrhl 

AOAOIO, a-duje-o, Of a-d^'e^ r. (iLalii 

tenti tuwl b; music-iaiw to mark slovr time 

Adam, ad'am, 4. According to Scripture, i 

of the human race. It ia oomadervd by 1 

as connected with tlio Hobrow and Cbaldee 

tu be like or equal — whence the seime of I 

imago of God, in which be b wid to bi 


Adom'i apple, a sprdei of dtron ; iilso, 
It part of the throat, m rallett from a 
notion that * pieoo of Um forfaiJden 
6h1 iMck in Adatn*» throiU, and occuaionM this 
JdumU nttiU*^ a plant of the g?DUft 

x-nwnt, ». ((uianul^ Lot. from o, priv. 
1 subdup^ Gr.) A stone, imagmfd by 
- y.'f impnifrtrable tiardtieu ; Uie dU- 
' loafUtone^ 

1 1 i>fl lied «tJtMmaKL—SfuA». 
liti-mjifcAX, iul-:i-ni^iile'au, a. (ationafitetu, 

) Han] a> a^UnuDL 

Aft OUmUft^ aJ-a- uuiii tini', 0. Cor^rnwinfJUtt', I-iit ) 

Qflli Utore of udunant ; eiLtrcincIv hitrd. Ada- 

the CTTBtaJs uj' ttin niirtentl Cuiini- 

fan an ao oamed from tbetr being of excttaib*o 

r U.) Han] 

I fan an ao i 

Aftum, »-4n'nie-a, «. fin tmnonr of Juliii Adarr, 
•««ttovgi7Tvniarof Indiu, a pn)iii<itvr of Kutunil 
flal«f7.) A genua of ^tlauta, Lativea of Nepaul : 
f^ikr, HfdraDgvacese. 

AtJUUm, ■d'a-miLie, r p£. (from Adain.) An 
ndmt Met of berrtios bat renewed bjr the Ger- 
sau ■Btbaptitta, wbo prayed naked. 
1 hii rather bs an odamua, and bring fig-tree loaves 

h*i (habno agaio.— £«•. mii FittcJ^r, 

tDAUnc, ad-a-mitlk, a. Luo an adainite. 

Xdamitic Itninnleooe'— £uAap Ta^or. 

AbamtHfiA, ad-an-ao'ite-a, «. (aJler Micliad Adan- 
Mk) Ewpean Soar-gmml, Monkry'i-bntad, or 
BfeM-lTMb The A. digitaU, or Baobab, furms 
• pMB af tke omter Botnhacef . It ia conf>t>re(l 
Is b Ik* Iv^art or rather broadast tree in the 
•■& fivTOTal tmnka meaaumd by M. Adnnnon 
•m Aom 65 to 78 feet in drcatnrBreiioe. Some 
•«*<i<iwfia OQ the coast of Africa are said to iiidi- 

<£i aiitiqoitT of 5000 vean. 
> >'■■., aJ'd-ida, ». (the Hyrsx of Geaner.) The 
VKM^tnk by Curier to a genus of fosftil Mani- 
■^1^ ^«ml in the Kocen* fbnnation at Fans. 
n ii asModovd to hare bwu inteiiii«i)it« bi^wecti 
1^ radiTdsraa, or thick-skinned aniinuls, and 
Us Halc^hof^ 

lft4n, •-Jnpt', V- a. {nd, and npto, to fit, Lat,) To 
b <«« [hing to «n9l>)7 : to 9uit ; to proportion, 

Vbinam^ a-daptVbl, u. That which nuy be 

iLrrr, ft-^ap-tfr4>ire*te, 
1% ^-dnptVU-Doa, 


Tlia capa- 
bility or qua- 

r^ ft-daf-ta'shon, s. Th« act of fltlinp 
to ■nother ; tho fitnesa of ooe thing to 

I t*4fnznrKsa» a-dap'ted-oet, «. Tho state of be- 

^ta^; sakablensai^ 
tosRSCMi, ft-dap'ahna, s. The act of Rtting. 

Fiaiiait ^i^CMM^CJU/M. 
|Uininnai,a-dapViMai,a. Tlie sUtc of briDg fitted. 

I of iho aoond.— J^. >'ev(on. 

l^tttKia'iir. n (Omb odkr. to bo glurionn, Ueb- fnim 

A* vahttHoet of vsKHMtion in Kgvpt and Syiia 

bifal BMash.) Hw twrlOli month of tho Jew- 

tt aodlriiMtical, and sixth uf thi- civil, yrar, in- 

F ria^ a part of February and of Alarch. 

|jUhtt(«, a-ddMX a. {adurktty Gr.) A name given 

Is 1 atfltth MDOvtion on rwds and grnsces, in 

lanb; grnnttda m Galalia. 1 1 is lai and porous, like 

a«d is used in leproay, latMra, &c 

AiMRCOS, a-ddrltoa, a. In Jewish Antiquity, a 
gitld coin, value about 258. storlinj*. The princi- 
pal itDprvasioii on it was a crowned archer. 

AiiAiiuc, s-dfir'me, m. A Spanijib wright equal to 
the sixl««nth of an ounco. The Spanlth ounce 
is seven per conL lighter than that of Puria. 

Apatis, ad' a-tia, s. A muslin, or spedoa of eoUon 
cloth from ludio. It is line and clear: the piece 
it tun French eUs long, and three quartun wide, 

ADAn7«T, a-dawnt\ r. a. (u and dntmt.) To subdue. 
— Obeolata. 

lie adntinUd the rago 

Of a tjToo savatfit.— /TirJCofi's Ibem*. 

Al>AW, a-daw', c. a. (ad, to, and anxf) To daiuit; 
to keep under; to subdue. — Obsoleteu 
TIm ■IkUi Iheraif diJ KnsutI/ him aiaw.—fymutr. 

Adats, a-dnze', iKt In thase tlmea. This word li 

generally connected with now, forming nowadiyt^ 

which I>r. Johnson pronounces barburoos ; tbe 

words Were vrntten separately by our old authors. 

That duly a Aiy> eouuta uluo.— A><-pw«r. 

AnmRpOBATB, ad kawr'ito-rate, v. a. (ad^ and 
corpui, a body.) To uiittu one body to another; 
to act'orpurate. — Not udt-d, 

Aur>, ad, v. o. (addo; ad and tfo, t give or put to, 
Lat) To join or nnlta to ; tu join one sum to an- 
other; to incroaM the ndinlwr: to increase the 
quantity ; to augment ; to subjoin. 

Aduax, ad'daks, *. A species of antelope. 

Ai>i>BCtMATR, ail-des'sc-male, c. a. {atl^ and dsdi- 
mitf, ten, Lat) To tjike, or lo aocvrtJiiii titbea. 

AddP.RU, ad-Ueem', r. a. (front deem.) To esteem ; 
to acooutit ; to award ; to sentence.— Obsolete. 
So unto him they tlU aibt^m tlin pritx.^Spfnjtrr. 

Adduni>uh, ad-dcu'dam, s, (Lntia.) Ao addiLiun 
or appi'iidix to a l>rx»k ; atiy aiUiitionf gentrully 
spc:ikiug. In the plural, nddendn, 

Al>I>ER, ad'dur, s. (^teUer^ nr aiUir^ Sax.*) A poimn- 
OQS serpent of the W^vv fiMiiily. Adder^fUmr/ue, 
a fern of tho genna Ophio^'lASwurn. Adder' t-trurt, 
same as snakeweed. Adtkf-f^^ a luial nsine of 
the dmj;on-fly. 

APDiiiii.iTr, ad-de-bilc-te, i. The possibility of 
being added. 

AcDiBLE, nd'de-U, a. That may bo added. 

Apt)JCB. — Sec Ads«. 

Addict, ad-dikt', c. a. (addico, Lat.) To devote 
to; to accnstoui; to dedicate: t^ken commonly 
ID a bad sense, aa, addicted tu ncc. 

AiiDiCTEPNEBS, sd-dik'ted-uvs, J. The stole of 
being addicted. 

Addiction, od-dik'shun, $. {addietio, Lat.) The 
act of devoting or givlni; up ; the stuto of being 
devoted. Among the RomnnSf addiction whs a 
making over goods to another by sale or legal sen- 
tence ; also, an UB:iiguinent of debtura in acrvioe to 
their creditors. 

ADDiTAJitWT, ail-dit'n-incnt, s. ( itdditomentunt-, 
Lat.) Addition; the thiu^ added, ju the funii- 
ture of a huuse; any ncitcrial mixed with the 
priiicipAl ingrcdieiit in a compound. 

Additiox, ad-diah'hhuii, *. {additin, Lai.) The 
act of adding one thing to another; the thing 
added. In Arithmetic and Algebra, the suuima' 
tion of numbers or quantitips; the uniting two or 
more numbers into one Hutn ; the branch of oritk- 
metic which trcatt of adding numbers. Shnjjic 
addition Is tbs adding of nnmbun or qunntitie* of 
the aamc denomiaation, as pounds to pouoda. sliil- 



lin^ to Bblllings, nc pfrcu to pence. Compouwl 
adiUHou \s thti a<1tIiti<T of sums of difTervnt dcun- 
minatiors, as pt^undis BliUlhigs, and pPDcc lo 
Law, a title annexfil to a peraoti*B n»me to shiiw 
Iii« nink, occiipntion, ar place of rcMJencc, as, 
Williiiii Smiirt, Esq., Thomas ftray^ bilker, Mr. 
Bolton of U'cdn, Sec. In Scottish Ijiw, dcsiKiia- 
tioD of tb« sama mrniiin]^. In Mii.sic, a clot nl 
tbo sido of a note, to lengthcD it one half. In 
Hpraldnr, somctliiitg addful to a coat of anus, as n 
mark of honour. In popular language, au advan- 
tngti, omaiitent, eir niijiniveincnt, 

AnuiTinNAL, ad-diHli'iin-iil, a. T^iat u arlJrd. 

ArH»lTIOMAT.rr, nd dish'uu-al-lo, nil. In adilition. 

Ar>piT!oNAnr, nd-dijih'un-a-re, o. Tliot may be 

A tiuiriTiora, Rd-de-tish'o», a. Added l»y amhorltr. 

A»nrronY, ud'do-tur-c, a. Ilaviiig the power or 
qiialitj of adding. 

AddlBi ad'dl, a. (4i//yi^ comipt, Welsh, aJlitm, 
ti> be empty, sick, or weak. Sax.) In a morbid 
atiite; putrid, as a rutten v^; 
Uyou luvi! ail aJJU ese< •» ireU aJ 700 lovo ao Idle 

Yfin woDid eat clilcken I* fhe shHl.— .^oti. 
— r. a. to nmki' camipt or morbid. Adtilr-hfoJerl, 
OK fiihUe-pnteiJ^ b^rrou-bralued ; void of intellectual 

Ai>iK)OM, nd-doom', r. a. (from ad ind doom.) To 
adjudgi*. — ObSoK'tr. 

AiitmivSEU, ad-dnwr^t', n. (lu/, and dorsum^ the 
buck, Lat.) In IIiTnliiry, bnck t(p lincU. 

AnDRBSft, ad-dres'. r. a. {>itldreJffr, Fr.) To speak 
or writ* to a penmn <ir jierMns; b* direct a li-tler, 
petition,' &c. ; to prepare one*8 self for cikterilig 
apon any action or eniiTprisfl ; 
Th(B ended parl^ and both adirudi for fight— iTiUon. 
to dim:t ; 

80 spoke Ihfl enfMnv of monkEitd, pnrlo^ed 
In acqioni, inmate bad I bnd tovard Ero 
Aiidrtts'4 bU m%j.—Mitlan. 

to cotiit. fn Commerce, to consign or intrust to 
tho care of another, as agent or f:ictor-,— «. a ver- 
bal application to a person, made by way of per- 
saasion or petition; a speiiking to; coortahip, 
generally used in the plural, as, he paid his ad- 

drr$$es to Mia ; manner of addressing 

people; manners; the name and phice, or title, 
by which a person in diitiugulshcd, iuscribed ou a 
letter or other document. 

AniiRKBSER, ad-dres'stu-, «. The penon who ad- 
dresses or petitiona. 

Admiick, ad-duae', r. o. (adduco; ad, and ditco, I 
lend, Lat.) To bring for^'ard ; to urge ; tOiillcge. 

AbitHiKNT, ad-du'sent, a. {addifCfna, brmsiii): fur- 
witrd, Lat.) A word npplicil to thobo iiuiscli>:< 
which bring funvnrd, c'^.*. »r draw tog--lIifr the 
parts uf the budy tu wbich they are attached. 

AmtruKK, ad-du'fiur, ». Oiio who adducm. 

ADt>L'Cllll.B, od-du'se-bl, a. That may be brought 

AitDUCTlON, ad'diik'ahun, «. The net uf addnclng 
or bringing forwanl. 

ADTircTiVK, ad-duk'tiv, a. That brings forward. 

A-DUiCTOK, ad-dtik'lur,j^ (Litrn.) A iniwcle whose 
uflicB w to bring one part tu another. Its antago- 
nist is calje^i an aliductor^ — which see. 

Addplce, ad-duU', 0. a. (itdtmcir^ Fr. nd, and 
(/ii'cu, sweet, Lot.) To sweeleu. — Obsolete. 
With many Migarpd worda Ihej seek lo edUata all 

mattt'rk — Uicoi%. 

Avuu^ ad'vb, 4. An K^M-pliitn weight of 210 oke^j 
earJi nf three rutolfa, equal to about two dranif' 
less than the Kiigliab pound. At Rosctta, an adtk 
is only IfiO okca. 

AiiELANTADo, nd-el-an-taMo, t. The govemor of 
a Spanlth pmvince; a Heuteniint-govemor. 

AuELiNQ, ad'e-ling, 1. (adcl, illustrious, and Jm;, 
repmwntative, or proguny, Sax.) A title among 
tho Anglo-Sasoiis, properly appertaining to tbo 
kind's chihiren. 

Adelite, ad'cl-ito, «. A name formerly given ia 
Spain to o<JMJupT«. who prudicled the fDrtiiiies of 
persona by the tliglit and singing of birds, and 
other nrcidiMifal circumstances. Tlie AdeKtes 
were ntso called Ahnogarana. 

Adel-obotuvs,' a-delo-but-ris, t, (ntfWo*, obscura, 
and botrya^ a raceme, Gr. in rcfcrcnco to tbt 
flowers not being nfficicntly known.) A gcnoi 
of plants, Datives of Guiana: Order, Melaito-! 

ADELnuKAVCiiiATA, a-delo-brangk-ke-ft'ta, & 
(^adehs, hidden or conc:eided ; 0, priv. and drtnt^ 1 
parent, and brnnchia, Gr.) A name given by Da- 
merit to a family of the Gasteropods ; by 6. Hcbti^ ' 
to a section of the same order; sod 1^ G. Hatv 
m:in, to n sertinn, comprehending all thiwe niolluKa 
which have their res^Jiratory organs ejiterioriy 

Ai>t:LO[iF.RHA, a-de-lo'der'mn, «.(ad!r^oi,and(fe 
dkin, Gr.} A n:une given by Ferrussac and M 
to a suborder of the Guteropods> which buve 
respiratory organs concealed by tbo »kin. 

AnELooENOtTg, a-de-loj'c-nus, a. (ndeioa^ and 
wio, I produce, Gr) A tenn proposed by Br 
tiiart and C. Prevost, for rocks which appear to 
composed of only one substanrv, resultmg fjvm 
mixture of extremely mini\t4 parts, and offering ^ 
Tiima of the poutive chai-acturs of any IcDomH 

ADELorKEtmoiTA, a-de-lo-nu'mo-na, «. (addaui^ 
and pneumoHy a lung, Gr.) .\ name given 
Gray to Kn order of Uasierop'-ds, tho respiraturjr] 
organa of which arc concealed in the interior of t\ 

Al>ELOPOPE, a-dcl'o-pode, «. (addot^ and potts, 
foot, Gr.) An aitinial wlioac feet are not api>arvt)l., 

Adeli'IIIa, a-delTe-a, f. {adeiphoi^ a brother, Gr.} 
A name given in tbe LinDB»n system of botaa/i 
to plants, the etamcna of whose fiowora art oggrv-' 
gntcd into a bundle. 

AiiELi-tiic, a-dullik, a. In Botany, having tbft4 
stamens into a pan:el or panxda. 

ADEStmoN, a-dcm'shnn, s. {odano; ad, and twta^i 
I take, Gr.) Taking away { privation. In Law, 
the revocation of a Krtnt, donallon, or tho like. 

AiiKMALOiA, a-de-nalje-a, a. (odm, a gland, and 
u/yojr, pain, Gr.) I'ain seated in a gland ; a piua> 
fill swelling in a gland, 

Adbnandrla, a-de-nan'dre-a, «. (adm, a gUnd, 
and oner, a male. Or.) A genus of plonta, oon- 
Rijtting of evergrern herbs: Order, Rutacen. 

Adekaiu.g, U'de-na'rea, «. (ot/m, ■ gland, Gr. in 
ref'Tenre to the petals, c^lyxeA, and ovarium being 
hwet with glandular dots.) A genua of pKinU, 
consisting of trre*, natives of South America ; 
Order, Lythraceir, 

Ai>ENiLKMA, a-de-ne-Wma, f. (adett, a gland, and 
ftme, gnm, Gr. from glands bting on the wilyx.) 
A ^cnas of plants, natives uf Java : Order, Spirac* 



CXiVTBBiiji, a-<tcn-An-fAi>'ra, $, {odcH, a glontl, 

ui antLo-, (jir.) A gmiu» of Lugu- 

{lUnta: Subordvrf I'ajiilifmNccjc. 

Aitri:ft,a'ile-ao-kiir'pti&,5. Ageutuof pljtiitAf 

craameiit&l LtgumuiouAfrttnilM: Utib- 

tbtSQ9ttArBr, a-d^-Dog'gra-fe, >. {adea, and ffra- 
fisi I vrite, Gr. ) A Ucscriptiim of* or treaUee 
k^H, Ike glaoi*. 

JUwolls •-Uv'oDfd, \a Id the form of ■ 
JHtfOlliil^ a-dc-BOjr'dalf f gliuid ; glnndifMrm : 

iffM e» dw proctAte gUnds. 
AtaCftOMluiCAU »-de-DO'toj'e-lul, a. Relating to, 

m fampuw oC the t;hiii<ii. — Sec Adeoology. 
lUaut^i>OY, ■-d«-^ul'o-j•^, ». (a^/m, a ^and, aad 
kfBt, I diMuurv.', Gr. ) The doctrine of the gUnds, 
Ihn ailare, uid thrir uaes. 
AMniKBEVTVUTSS, a-de-no-mu-«n-t«r-i'te8, 4. 
{■A», I l^kod, uid MefC^/erton, mescoterj, Gr.) 
'■'■Ti i ttn i «f the mcMQterio glands. 
MSOMonoiUk, •-^e-DofO'rm, «. (aden, and joAoreo, 
1 tnr, Gr.) A genus of pt-rermia] herbs, oatires 
Sibfii i Order, CampaDulaccc 

ITE5, a-Jc-no-franji'tes, f. (oJen, a 
piaiyn^ Or.) InfUnunation of the 
AMVaftTlxrc, ft-(Ie-w>-fiyi*>e, a. (aden, a ^tunfl, 
MdpMlsik a leaf, Gr.) The oaine given by De 
OadoBc to a grovp of plaata of the order OxjdI- 
^mm, rtdeh have ciiuU gUndoloos tubercles ou 
tte WMifirit of iW kavea. 
iAcrn^ SrHlc'atta, A, A spedee of ootton from 
Ailff<^ oJM alao mariue cotton. 
, ^BtWMfi^ a-dfr-^osis, t. (actot, a glind. Gr.) A 
' ta^^ af dMosaaSf oootaming all xhv chronic com- 
' pUtta of which tlie gUndiiJar sTSlein is the wnt. 
AMVOTBauujl, s-de-uu-^Aal'uui-a, a, luilaniiua- 

(ia of Mri>wwrriin glandj^ 
AMnciaMr, a-4a-tiot'u-nie, «. (ai&M, and tone, a 
Gr.) la Aoatom/ and Surgery, & cutting 
m e4^a^anJ. 

ar^'tunn, a. (nrfcn, the Arabic name.) A 
of (lUiiU, cwnaUtiiig of a trw, a uatavQ uf 

AjMOaf-a, aF.da-o'aa, a. In Roman Mvtbulugr, a 
to wh<nn |w!nK>ii» adilnaaed Ba[»iiliciitii)na 
■aiiug oat on a joumej. lu Zoology, a 

JlpKfVaoiA, •HU-fa3^'^ '^ ^" MjrtholujQrf the 

»AJiM of ^tttlunjr, who 1ia<J an ohiir and a Btatue 

m ihm twppli of Com in Sidlj. 

k^B^MlKOA, a-drfo-gB, I «. {^iidepJuiffo, Tonci- 

^HkVkAAV&i a-drTe-gwu, /^ otu! : u</en, much, and 

^MTiUH*!, a-drrr-Ji« ) plia<fu, 1 devonr, Or.) 

A Cbb37 of auiiiTorov aitd rxtmuielj voraciuun 

Apbti, adVpa, fc ylathii) Is Anatomy, tbu fat of 

AOKFi; 1 ilefC't* (aJrptm. obtained, fmin arh'pucoi\ 

Lat&.) Ow Ulj skilled or wciU reoed in any art : 

-;.^,, ,!'.,. t , (I. j^ alcheiuiats who 

I tlje pbilosophur'a 

ilaW|— tf. »• L'DMKt 

Aocmo*, S-dcfr »Uan, #. {niiff'tto, Lat.) An oli- 

CaRC»f 1 a* aMfninfmcnt. — N<jI in um*. 
AlWm^T . >. An adept.— Not oaeil. 

Fa' ■ ^, », Ad<*<|utttcne«B. 

...rtU, V. 0. {wleqwi, LaL) To 
f l|i iial ami fnpo rH atmA —fiuKN^g, 

— a. {aiUqwitits, Lat.) Eqnal to; oorTeapondcnt 
to, 80 a;i to bear an exact memblaitce or pr»- 
portioo : grDrr.-illjr used in a figarattn) tfenee. 
AuE^UATLLY, adVkwBt«-lo, ad. In uu adequate 
nuuinar; witb justness of npr» ; with 
axaotnoas of proportion. 

AltBQUATEItSEiS, ad'e-kwato-ncKf «. Tbe stato of 
being adequatoi justness of representatiou ; ex- 
actneaa of proportion ; in a dvgreo n^oal to th« 

AfiKQUATloir, ad-e-kwa'sfaun^ «. AdrqaHtenoas. 

.^UBiMiJiiNf s-dcr'ay-tnio, \ «. A btorof the third 

Ai.t>R»:AiMi.<f, nl-der'ay-tnin.l ma^iittidu, iu tbs 
left sbouldtp of the conttt<?Uutiou Ceplu'ua. 

AnKBNO-TREE, a-det'iio-trc, «. The tren Anlittin^ 
a native of Madeira : the KiberJeiua excoLia of 

Ai^BSMAOHJB, wl-«t-ma'ae-e, $, (wlea, foot, and 
maJtoSf long, Gr.) A family of boring SklollusGa, 
indudhig the Pholidn, Terodinrnj, &c. 

Ai>Es&ilA, a-des'me-a, «. (a, priv. and desmoa, a 
bond, Gr. iii reference to tlie stamens being free) 
A gfiins of South American bttrbiioeous Legnmin- 
oua plttuts : Suborder, PapUionacfiie. 

AnKSPOTic, o-des-pot'ik, o. (a, piir. and tlespotiko*^ 
<le>potic, Gr.) Not absolute; nut de^tio. 

At>K»8ENARU.N>- od-cs-sc-im'rc-sns, ». (adlMW, to 
to prcacDt, LaL) In Kcolnnantical History, a 
sect who hold the doctriite of tbe body of Cbrlst 
io the EucUariit, but not in transnbstaniialinn. 
Some of them hold that the hudy of Oliriftt is 
in the brcttd, and others that it is about tho 

AsFECTED, ad-fck'ted, a. In Al^bra. compounded; 
consisting of the difft-rent jtowera of unknown 
quantity. An adficUd or affhcttd equation is one 
in which the uidcnown quantity 15 found In two or 
more difTereut dt-grves or powers: thus, fir* — 
pj:^ -\- qx := a in kr adjected equation, bccau.<ie 
it conl.titis Utree diffvrciit powers of the lutknown 
quiuitity X, 

.\jiPiLiATKri, ad'fU'e-atc-cd, a. Adopted for a son. 
— See Affiliated. 

Adfiliation, Hd-61-e-a'shiin, s. (od^, and^/tti«,a 
son, Lat.) An old Gotliic custom, by which the 
cbil'kcn of a former marriage arc put ou tbe mutu- 
footing with those cf a succeeding one; still re- 
tained in somo parts of Germany. 

AoiiA, tid'ha, «. A festtlval oburred by Mobammc?- 
danA on tho I2th day of tho month, which is the 
12th and hist of tbeir year. 

AniiERG, ad-b«re', r. n. {adhereOy IM.) To stitk 
tu; to be consistent; to hold together; to rcuiain 
finnly utl-iched to a party, pcrsoii, or opinion. 

AtHiKKESOK, ad-lje'ntna, /. The quality nf adhi'riii^ 
or Bticliing together; lenarity; hxedntssyf mimt , 
Bteadlness; fidelity. In Scuttinh Ijiw, an iu-/^a 
nf itd/ifrettcA is an action in ivbicli it i* cuinpctr;,! 
either for a wife or hutband to eoinp*-! the oiSi r 
p:irfy to a'Uterr, in case of diawrtion w Ithutit sutli- 
cient catifie, and who remains in hi;! or her ' iiuili- 
cioufl ol.-itinscy' for fonr years. Iu Pi-thulog)', ihc 
union of parts natonilly scpnrato, whether cosi- 
gcnital or accidmtaL In the Ltlt^r ciisc, it 15 the 
rrsult of an orgimic process c.illed udhaitru ijitlain- 
m. it ion. 

ADiibRCVOr, od-h«'ren-se, t. S<imo as sdhcrcnco. 

AuiieRSMT, tid-be'rcttt, a. Sticliin^ to; united 
with; — *. a person who tidhfres ; one who sup- 
ports a Ciinas ; a Iwliever in a particular creed or 





cbun'h ; one who foUows Uie fortunes of Another ; 
■nythiiig outwAnlty belinigiiig to a iiltboq. la 
Zoologj and fiotanr, a port of anv oninial or plant 
uuitetl uiuru or le» iuLiuiaUlv with the surround- 
ing parts. 

ADMf.R&.Ml.T, ad-he'rent-lc, aJL In ud adlurent 

Al>iiEH£R, ad-he'nir, t. One who ulliem. 

AddK'Iuk, ud-he'«buu, «. {adha^io, IM.) The act 
of sticking to. Adhisivn is Rvrjemllv twd in a 
marul «ense, ai, the adhtaton of imn to the m^i^et, 
the oJAerMKe of a partixoo. lu I'liTnicft, thitC 
t«tiil»Kijr bj which twu liodiea are attachi.-ij to one 
anotbisr, in rutue of the power of attmctiim, wh'^i 
they are pl&ccd in conttct. In Pulhulogj-, the 
word ts umn] ill the luune spnoc ns Adht^rvnce. 

AuilESIVKi ad-be'aiv, a. Sticking; tcunciouji- 

Aduksitklt, ad-hv'biT-k, ud la oa ailbeuro 
ID tinner. 

AjuiKbivcNESB, ad-he'sir-oes, v. Tenacity; vis- 

AniiiB, adliib, a. A star of the sixth raagoltude, 
upon the garment of the const I'llution Andromeda, 
under tlie b.Ht star in her foot. 

AiHiiuiT, nd-hib'itf v. a. (mMi&eo, Lat.) To applj; 
to iimke OM of: to pnt to. 

Al>iii))rnoif, ad-he- hi.ih'nn, a. Appticatlon; tue. 

Al>iloKTATtON, ad'hawr-ta'shnn, *. (uOhorUitio, 
l^il.) Advice cnrTi«4tl_if iifireii.— Ohsolt-'te. 

AmioKTATonr, ud-hawrtVtor-e, a. Ad^-iAonr. — 

Ai>i ANTL-H, a-de-an'tnm, a. (adinntm, dry, Gr.) 
Altiidi-ii's-hair; a gvuiiHuf Ferns. The name a<fi- 
s»tum b ^ven on acooout of the leaws hcing 
nAiiulljr free of inoiature, while others are wet. 

AdiaI'IIoSact, ii-du -nfo-ra-se, ( a. (adlaphoria^ 

AiiiAi-iioRr, a-de-uf'o-re, f Gr.) Indifler- 

ctiee; nentralitj; a matter of indifierence- — Not 

AotAriiOR&sis, a-de-a-fb-re'sis, ». {adit^oro*^ in- 
diffbrvntf Gr.j Suppressed cutaneous perspiration ; 
nearij synonyinou!! with Adiapnouatia. 

AtMArnoRiSTS, a-de-afo-risl*,! >. piu. (adlopho- 

AotArtiORITES, a-dc-afo-ritfte,) ro», indifTrn-nt, 
Or.) Id Ecdeaiaatical HiittorT', moderate Ltither- 
ani, a name p^veu in the iiixtM'titlt c<>rittir7 to 
oortaio peiaoua who f<jllowcd &K-luni:lhonf who 
was more pacific than Lnther. TIh't regarded 
•ome opinions and ceremonies us indijlcratl, which 
Lather condemned an iiinful and hurdii^l. 

Adiaphorous, a-do-afo-nus a. InditU-rent ; neu- 
tral ; applied by Boyle to a ipirit distilled from 
tartar, and some other vegetable Mibstaiicon, which, 
bdoK neither acid nor lUkaliiip, does not postteKs 
the obtiuct ohanotcr of anr ohemical compound 
body. ^ 

AotApXKCSTiA, B-du-ap-nu'&te-a, «. (a. prir, diVi, 
throuf'h, and pnot, I perspire, Gr.) Defective or 
inipedL<d perspiration. 

Adiki-, a-da', ttd. (from a /)i«*, to God, used dlip- 
tieally for a Dieu je vov* commendCf I commend 
you to God.) Farrwoll ; — a. a partuig compliment ; 

Now while I lake my last oMnt.— Prior. 
a fareweU, implying commendation to the care of 

AniXA, a-di'na, /. (adinot, crowded, Gr. the floBcrs 
beiii^ dwpiwci! ill hc3(d».) A goiiUK uf pljiit.-), wn- 
fisting lif gljihrous sturuhs, natives of Chma : Ordur, 

AiiiMoLK.— See Petiwiler. 

Adipocsratb, ad-ft-pos'ft-rate, p. a. To 
into adipoi.<rT«. 

AdipoceratiuKi od-e-po-so ra'shon, «. 1 
cess of ehan^nnK >i^*> udip<x-ere. 1 

AiJtPOcCRE, ad'e-po-sere, s, (wfQMi, fat, n 
wax, Lat.) A fnlty spennaovti-lilra sa 
into which muscle is converted by long im 
in water or spirit, or by buri'il in moist pli 

ADii^SBf ad'e-poeo, r a. (adipeta, Fr. u^ 

Adipous, adVpua, f LaL) Fatty. Adip 
are tho« vcdddes which contain the fat, 
membrtMms, the tissue which cncloe«s tlM 
aiihuol bodies. Adipote tumoWf t Uri 
swelling. Adipotv ma, a vein atialng fi 
descending trutik of the cara, which sprei 
on the co.-it and fat that covers tlie kidney] 

Acipsia, a-dip'ae-a, «. (a, without, and tiyiM 
Gr.) The total absence of thirsL 

AoiT, adit, $. {adituM^ an entrance, I*at.) T 
zontal or inclined entrance to a mine. 

ADiTtoN, a-dUh'nn, jr. {adfo^ LaL) I'he a^ 
ing to another. — Not used. 

Adjacekcb, ad-jfiVna, \ a. (atfjactfu, Ui 

AujACivNCY, ad-ja'iea-se,/ state of lying 
another thing; that wliich ts adjacent. — ^Xl 
in tliis sense. 

.Adjacent, ad-jVwnt, a. Lying near, oIom^ 
ti^ous to ; bordering upon. In Geometr|| 
cent angU, is an angle immi-dbtely cuntifl 
another, so that one side is common i 
anglM ;— f. that which Ues next or ountjji 

Thit whirh hath no bounds nnr bordoni nus^i 
nllt>: hut A)mi(,-}ity 0<n1 ksth Ofilioonds, beosits*' 
bordcnich upon htrn, and tliere Is nolhtntf aboTI 
confttiA him : be batb no at^faeeiu, do aqnal, no so 

SlwJ/or>L \ 

AdjaceHTLT, ad-ja'sent-le, nH. In suoh %* 
OS to be next or heir to ; enntiguoosly. 

Adjkot, a<l-jckt', p. a. (adjido; ad and J 
throw, LuU) To add to; to put to (inothflj 

AD.JE<moN, ad-jiik'sbnn, *. The set of a| 
orad^ng; the thing added. 

Adjeotitious, ad-jek-tish'us, a. Added; 
in upon the r«t. ) 

An,iFCTivE, ad'j^-k-tiv, *. {adjecfirum^ lA 
Grammar, a word ptiL before a noun or all 
espre*s some quality, manner, or circuf 
reflpecting it, aa, a $oter man, a defiffkffii 
scap, a soul serene; — a. colours are aaici 
ttrtjfctiFe which require to be fixed by tat 
or mnrdittit in order to rwnder them permafl 

AujECTivELT, ad'jek-tiv-l^ ad In the ml 
an adject ire. 

Ai7JOiN, ad-joyn', r. a, (adjoindrf^ Fr. from 
JO, LaL) To join; to unite; to put toj 
to be contlgnouH to; to lie next to. 

AnjoiNAST, ad-joyn'ant, a. Contiguous to 
jjcnson who lives oontiguou to; a neidtl 
Obsolete. •( 

By nuve allUtmee, hi!i(JaraosK.orSoDttaB) 

Snctised wfttctt and mraues bow In Joro b] 
•rwlM piineea^tJ irrvvo nnd hurt hi* neitnra 
annua of Uiu realuift ot Kngiaxid. — J/aU, 

Al).Fi»i;iW, nil-jiim', p. n. (adjtmmfr, Kr.) | 
of to linotlier time, naming the day; to $ 
tn poMpone ; to defer till another tune, \ 
qootes the following piiMiigo as an iotl| 
mctinlng of the verb. — Thi* is an errxir. 
It was morul thnl tliti parlUmi^nt ahoold aifA 

stx wMks: ittwUiingM Is tmdcntood. 




AlUotvdcr, td-jamd', a. ExistiitK or belt] by 

AMocsncsirT, ad-jaro'nunt, «. (ot^nHnwuwi', sn 
MtftiACBt </ s (Ut. from JourfNTtf, ii day, or tUj'^ 
no, «r jtrtinwy, Fr.) I'utting olT till aitoCl)«r 
tune; tba tioM orintcrrtil dunng whicli a pnhllo 
W)i Mm tmsincM, as, during xu affj^jWHtttrii ; 
Mf^; yrocrutioacion ; o^oununeiU d\xnng lioli- 
iaji ]> tensed » rmst. 
I Anii'tWBt •d-jadj', r. a, {aSjugcr, Fr. frotn od/«- 
&«, Lit.) To giTc tb« UiiuK cutitniverttfd ta imo 
rf tilt prtics; td decree judicially; 5int|)ly t-t 
ja4^( to daove; to deternuuo; to sentoam to ■ 
to eondema. 

Bat tkaairb ibua an ^ijtdo^ to t)i« death, 
Ycl 1 vlll (kruur lhc« ill MU«t [ can.— d'AuJLr. 

iAnrocMCrr. «d jttdj'uiMtt, J. The act of judgiag ; 
.— Nvt usvd. 

Idf prcWDUUott wua4){Bl|ted ft>rthe "hire 

'mmtatm rsfffaB," and aodi ad^M^HUKt wm ahcn- 

4 bjr tb« tordiw— X« i^A^f Liam of AkK- 

JMf ad-ju'do-kAlc, v. a. {aJJitJkv, Lat.) 

'^'■^ ... 

nov, ad-ja-Oe-kd'tbun, «. (oi/judicatio, 

>) Tha Kl of odjudginj; or pasniig iteiitonco. 

h Swliiiki Law, a [•rocesi bj wbicb laud ur otbcr 

I WibMe aitate u aMached in aaltfefnrtion (jf ilrtt. 

I ^^MiOi'ki"* con/ro k^rttlllvm jacenttm^ is when 

I tb dtUoc^a apparent hrir, whu haa been charged 

I to ailcr, Roosnoca the aucccauuti, and tbe credl- 
lon akain « decree, cogmtioiu$ eatun. Atijmli- 
n>w fli dlaKfton JSatdi, U when thera it a real 

j hirlM^ bit DO peraonal obligaliou; or where the 

I foiMl vbUgation is ineffevttul, aa in the eoae of 
<a hmlaUe bend hj a mani^ woman, or whrns 
lb ol-jict ii to make th« intercu eqaally prefer- 
■Uivilbtbe pnncj{>al stun, and the decree, lu the 
frit phM, it in a process of poinding the ground. 
Ji'ifi^mMam «n meuriijf^ ia the form to be ful- 

I ^Mit vbcn lh« claim of debt u contingent, 
AtHS « wontjiin in amount. A/fJv'Jication in 

I ^Ihwi; where a partj haa gnuited a conroy- 
nm to bciiuble pro{teftT without a prucurator}- 
rf iWj^lioiif or preMpt of M«ine, fur enabling 

I tta piutac to cumplcto bis feudal title ; or where 
ll*|raDtet*ft right atandi on a iniasve of eale, or 

I Nb« «Uipliuii, to eoavey without proatru(»ry cr 
f^i « wtitn tha grantvr, or his hfir^f, re- 
(^ «v ia noable Tolunlarity tu lupply the dek'cts, 
*> MtkA «{ fv^wiication m iin/ftement is oompe- 
l*L A dMrf« tu thLi action in a warrant to the 
^nor to graot a cborter of aJjiidicntion in ;m- 
^MbI, aa uifii!^tincnt oo which ooniplet-a tliv 
Md Ti|^ of tb* paraoer. Jhchratoty aJ/itdi- 
*>ii% a teret dacUring a truat to be at an end, 
XwUalag the npehor to gnat cfautera with 
^vpK tor infvfting the fMUiy lo whom tlia pro- 
ptj k ItiMt haa b«aD aitjudtjcd. 
*Wuur«, ad ja-f^ta, p. a, {Mf/itfCf Lat) To 
Mi to «r floupk w. 
^UikVTf ad jo-cneut, a. (adjumattian, Lat) 

WOCf, ad'jttogkt. a. {lulJiMt^it*, joined, Lot,) 

Ivrilng aAuinttt or oiiilad to oiiuihur. though 

M — wliiHy a part of it ; — a. oiiitml with ; juinrd 

. ^ la JCataphyHea. a quality of a body, or of the 

[ tmt, wbatbcr Mtuial ut acquired, aa, oWour m 

4* kaJy^ ■»! ptrcepdotk in tbo mind. lu Grana^ 

mar, words added to illastrate or Amplify, (ui, the 
Life of yapoUvn BontifMtrtf, the adjunuts of Lij'o 
an) the wordi Napoleon Bvnapttrte. In ^Itisic, a 
word employed to danominate tho relation bctireen 
the pnncipul mode, luid tbo inodca of its two 
fi'tiia. In )Iythf}L*sy, au ucfjunct deJig \» oue of 
an tnfi*rior rink, wJin act5 a* an asiUaiant to * 
ftuperiur, aa Uvlluuii to Mors, the CaUri to VuU 
cm, Sec 

Avjvyv.TinTf, ad-jungk'»h\jn, », The act of joining 
or lidding to. In Scottish Lair, a mode of indus- 
trial aocoft»iun, where the property uf one man ia 
added to that uf another, oa when a man biiilda a 
bousa on the properly of another, believing it to 
be hia own, in which cxse the hoiuo ber\kmea the 
property of the rp;d uwuer of the ground, nntU 
the builder ii entitIM in equity to be iudt-uiniHixl 
to tlie ejitcnt cf tliv benefit he boa nmrerred, 

Adjukctivb, ad-jungk'tir, a. Joining; having tba 
quality of joining; — t. the thing joined. 

AliJUTtOTtvuLr, a4-jaiigk'tiT>le, tuL In an adjunc- 
tive maimer. 

AiMU»CTLT, ad-jnngktle, ad. In connection with. ; 

AtMDiLATiUN, ad jn-ra'Uon, a, ((v(;urn/i'o, Lat,) 
The act of prupobing an oath to another; a wlcmn 
charging ou oath, or under the penalty of a eune ; 
the fvnii of the oath proposed. 

Adjitrb, ad-jure', o. a. (^adjunt, Lat.^ To impou 
an oath up'jn another; pToacribing the fonn of an 
oath ; to charge cnmrstly or aoleninly by word a: 
outb ; to cunjuro ; to charge or auuioion with ao- 

ADjuKtK, ad-ju'rar, «. (French.) One who eiacti 
an oath. 

Adjust, ad-just', v. o. (adjitstar. Span. a4fjuter^ to 
tit, Fr. ; ad, and jW/M, just, Lat. } To make ex- 
act ; to6t; to regulate t to put in order; to rfr* 
gulnta or reduce to ayHtem i to bring to a iiiitit* 
factory state, aa, to adjust accounts, to adjust dif> 

Adjustjlble, ad-justVbl, a. That may or oan b« 

A Dj usTAOB. — See Ajutage. 

Adjuster, nd-jua'tor, a. One who a<^Dsfa or places 
in proper order, 

At>JUSTiNO, ad-jurt'inp, a. A setting in proper 
order, aa, the aJjtuting of accounts. 

ArtJi!8TMKXT, od-jiistmenl, s [<tjmtem*nt, Fr.) 
The act of regnUiing; the atitto of being regu- 
liited ; B reducing to junt foim or order \ a making 
fit or coiiformnble; a aettleinent, as, an adjutt- 
mtnt of Hccttuiitfl. In Merino Inturouce, the 
Bettlement of a loss sastaiued by tbe party ia- 

AdjutaNCT, nd'ju-tan se, s. (adJnUtnM, helping 
Lat.) The office of sdjutunt ; skilful arruiigi^tnout 

AujCTAin', ad'JQ-taut, Ji. ((uljwl/mt, Fr. frum ad* 
juiatu^ wdiiig ; udf and Juro^jutum, I help, Lat) 
A military ofBccr, whoso duty is to assist the 
major : an adjiUnni-generul is one who auists the 
general of an army. Each battalion of foot, and 
each rrginient of horau, bis an adjutant, who re- 
ceives orders from the briiiadc-niajur tu comni'ini- 
cate to tbe colonel and tu subalLvrus, Adjututtt- 
ffmerah, amont.' the Jesuits, were a aetect number 
of the f.ithcrs who rntidvd with the general of the 
ordiT, each of whom b^d a prurioce or country 
oonunitLed to his care. Tlifcir busiiicss wastorur- 
rmpood with th<it province by ihcir diU-L'ntea, 



euussaries, or vUilors, and pve inftirmntkm of nc- 
ctimitccs therein to the fatliiT-geiK-ral. In Xii- 
tunil HUtonr, the Ardea f^(;Aiitc4, or gi;!antiu 
crni(«, oi)e of the mo«t voraciniui camivoruas biuU 
knuwTu It 16 so fond uf sffatlowing bones, ck»t it 
bos beta riilled the Bone-4>ater, or Bon«-tiikrr. 
AUJUTK, td-julr'f r. a. (aHjulo, I^t.) 'i'o hulp ; — 
K A. to L'UItClir. — Ot>sulft<<. 

For llii'rp be 
Six tMcliclnn, lU b(>M AK he, 

JkU«l each otM ImU) liln iivurj*.— P«n Junarm. 

ADJtrroB, Ril-ju'tur, il (ut^w/tir, Lat.) A bclii«*r; 

■n assifilHnt. 
Adjutohilu, bJ Ja-to'ro-um, «. (Ijitin; he1[s 

luccoor.) In Auntomr, a nnme given to thr 

humenu fruiu its u»«ruli)e»<t ia lifting up thv nrai. 
AnjirroitTt nd'Jn-tnr-ri a, (adjatoriusy Lul) 

Hclpiiig ; oisi-tiaf;, 
Adjutrix, ad-jti'trix, «. A fcmnle a.4ai.Htant. 
AujUTAST, ad-jii'vant, a. (fifZ/uwin*, Lat.) An 

assistant ; — a. hrljifiil ; tucfiit. 

I liiive been onir a cAnrftil aifjHtnnt, and wnn worry I 
could not ba the ciilclont— /><r tJ. T*lverkM, (lOOS). 

ADJtTTATEf ad^u-Tate, V. a. (adjuvo^ Lnt. To 
be]p; to further; to pot furwitrd — Not uwd. 

AnLEOATiuM, ad-le-girahun, t. (aJ and legatio, nn 
ambosiuidor, Lai.) A jmnt cmbassir. A right 
vbioh tfao Mates of the Grnnaii empire fomi<*rlY 
rlnimcd to adjoin plonipoteiitiarits to those of the 
Emperor, in aU the pablio treaties or negotiations 
of the empire at larj;e. 

Adlocatiom, nd-lo-kAVhtin, f. (atHocatio, Lat.*^ In 
Itoman Antiquitr, the name fi^irsu to the »peechcs 
addr«86ed by generals to their armies. 

AsKBASORK, ad-mczh'ur, r.o. (ctJ and meofure.) To 
measitrc or ascertain diineiisiotis, size, or capncity ; 
to apportion; to a(isi;;n to ench elmmant bla n;;ht. 
Tbe ancient nnd most otroctunl method is bj writ of 
admeasttreincnt of fikiiun, lliis lic» either where a 
eommon (ippartment or in gross, 'u ccrtiun aa to 
number, or wlierc a mnn has common aiif>endsi.t 
or appurtenant to his laud ; the qnantity of which 
common lia« never yet Iwcn a*certflincd • * ♦ • 
and upon Ibu smt all the comnioaers aboU be ad- 
measured.— Btadtstoiie. 

Al>]liul}UBUt, ad-mcKh'ur-nr, c One who ad- 

ADUEABt:aBMK5T, ad-mozli'urinrnt, ji. The act 
of measuring ; tbe adjuatuient «f pn>pnrtt(ini. In 
Law. au aHcrtainmfnt of aharoA, as of duwrr, 
■1, wherr a widow huhU more land Grom the bc>ir 
than &hc is eiititkrd to (admeiuttratio datu) ; or 
of paature held in common, admeiwitratio pat- 
turtB. — See under Admeasure. 

AuMEMftURATioN, ad-men-sliti-ra'ibun, r. (ad and 
Menwra, Lnt.) The uct of measuring out tu 
«ad) bis part. 

Adhbtiatk, ad-fno'ahate, p. a. (adm^HoTj I mea- 
rare, Lat.) To measure. 

AnxiNiCLB, ad-minVkl, e. (ndtniniculum^ JaL) 
Help; &upi>ort. In Scotti&b Law, a tenn used in 
tho actioQ of prorinf the tenor of a lost deed, and 
lagnUies anj writing, draft, or scroll, tending to 
oalabUsh tb* existence of the tvnns in question. 

Adminioclak, ad-rae-iiikVhu-, a, Sligbtljr as- 
Biting; helping. 

Ra iboold fwvtr lidp, aid, nrpT^T* raeritor, or (trant 
tbwa U7 MtbrvntitJoua Airtueruicci, miixilUrj- HulTrago, 
or «4HMiilmfar asa[atanfle.^TV«aa. 0/JtaMau, 

Adminioulator, nd mc-nik-D-Li'tar, a. Q|^ 

helps or ns«»ls the wc^ik ; an Bdrocate in 
of tlie needy. 

AnMiNICLLUU, nd-mo-nik a-Inm, s. A muni 
by Kirby to tbe ubdoininal Bemicircolar 
stn»II teeth, which, in c-crtuin subterranean 
enables ihem to make their way to the 
Sccpuli ipTM this name to nil those ve\ 
OT';:a\\s to which limucos applied that 
cruni. ' 

AttMlNlSTEn, ad-min K-lnr, r. «. (^admimsit•o^ 
Tu give : to afford ; to 8Up[ ]y ; to act as afll 
in any employment or ofiice ; to dispenso jii 
to dispense, as, to aihtitiuier the Kicrama 
propose or require un oath authoritatively-, I 
physio; In Lsw, to act as adminUlralor. j 

AmtiNiSTKRiAL, ad-minir^-to're-al, n. Va^ 
to the adiniiiiitratiun or ^ovemtiient. jj 

AnMiMSTRAQLCf ad-miu'u-lra-bl, a. TbaJj 
be admiiiistervd. | 

AnMiN'lSTBATE, ad-mtuls-lrnlfi, v. a. To adi 
ter.— Obsolete; J 

AnuiNiSTRATioir, ad-min-islm'shun, «. (a4^ 
fni/i'o, Lat.) The net of administering <■ 
ducting any smphiyment, as the miiductingl 
ptillic aRiiirs, or diApeiminj; the laws; the' 
or cxMutiTO part of govcninicnt ; eollcctivcljr; 
to whom the care of public affaim is comnj 
tlic government; distribution; exhibiliLtn: d 
satitin; the rights and duties of nn admiuii 
to a ^eamt doceaeed. In Law, ktto't ofaA 
tmtum an granted, by the ordinary, to ths | 
or heirs of a person dying intestate, to diri 
property ncccrding to the statute of ilntril 
vis. : otke-third to the wife, aod the rcmaia 
equal pniportion to tbe other members of I 
mily, subjcict to lib debts. If he dies v 
children, the wife gets one-half, ond tbe n 
kin in degrees. 

Ai>MiKiSTnATiVE, nd-ndn^is-tniy-tiv, a. Tk 
miitiRtera, or by which one adinrni&ters. 

AuMiMSTUATOii, ad-min-is-tni'lnr, «, (Latin.] 
who hns the goods of a man dying without' 
ccmniitted tu his char);^, and is accountal 
the sumo; one who offiriates in divine il 
nii'iiiber of the goTemmcnt ; the minister otf 
til any emfiloymcnt. In Scotdi I-Jiw, a 
ounit'ir, or pinnlinn, having the eorc of oaej 
iiicaiiable of acting for biuiself. Tbe U 
usually apjdied to a father, who has the | 
over his children and their estate darin( 

AUMiNisTnATnRSiiiP, ad-roiu-is-tra'tui^d 
The office of an admiidfttrator. ' 

AnMiNTSTRATRix, sd-nun-ii«-tra'trika,*. Ai 
wlio has the goods of a person dying la 
Citinmtttfd to h'T charge; also, a female Hi 
the supreme direciiun of the aflturs of a ttal 

Ai>MiHATiu.iTY. nd-me-m-bii'a-te, s. («AfiA 
Lat.) The •'tate or quality of being admni 

AuBCiRAiii.B, ad'nie-ra-bl, a. Worthy of 
admired; havlDg tbe power to excite af 

Apsiirarlrwebs, ad'mo-ra-bl-nc«, s. The 1 
or f^tjite of btrtn^j odiniruhle. 

APMtRABLT, od'me-ra-bk), ad, lo an adl 

AoMiRAT., ad'me-ral, *. (amir, or emir, lord « 
tnander. Arabic, and alius, belonging to i 
Gr. mnintl, Fr.) Tho chief comtnandor of I 



•4«T«kat to • ^oenl in the iriDy ; kIao, koj 
pmt or cipiUl afaip. 

TIh nuut of •niDs great tuimtral. — Xitttm. 
Tki aimni In vblch 1 came. — Sir B. Hawker t Topagc. 

Aranu-unir, ad'mo-ral'sliip, <. The office or 

pnwiT of ui ailnitral. — Little tisvd. 
Adxsjost, ad'ine-ral-t«, tAamirauUi, Fr.) The 
po»v, or olOcere, appointeil for tfaa inuiBgemout 
«l Bsral tflitirs. Covrt o^ AdmimUy^ the flupreine 
cavt fis- the trial of nuuititiw nffaini, hel<i bcforo 
I the lord hi^ ailmiral, or lord of tlio adiniralty» 

IW 10 gtaM |ir(irv«s«e, as be Iben bad pifored, 
XaBk gff<Mter Uuui vu erer In her veetJne, 

M Un with aU that liar bebovoiL— 

ismSATIOX, ad-mo-n'fihan, t. (aiimirnth, LnL) 
WfldAer mingled wilb ptuiiHiug eiDotJi>LS, ma o^i- 
pnbfttion, imention, love, &c. ; a compound 
exciird hj sotnethiiig new, rare, grvat, or 
tLe act uf K-otulcriDg at what ia groat 

ADaOKATtTS, ad^me-n-tiT, a. The ptnnt exprca- 
Bf« of sdiinralton, sur^ime, OAtoiiiiitimeut, ur in- 
dfoalioa, aiarkcd llnu ( Oi i^ sometimes termed 
^ nloiintiTir point. 

Awnm, ad'tnirr', v. a. {admiroTf Lat. a<£, and 
■ a w, I wooder ; admirtr^ Fr.) To regard wiLb 
)i^ a^irmrtinp ; to r«gnrd with lore or wonderiog 
naKittoB ; — r. ■. to woodcr; to be affected with 
i^t a&rprifle, aometimea followed bjr ofL 
Ab lye U aircadr to p«cfcct, Oiat 1 bnltore the reaJioti 

tf aaivtMM bar* rwM bens ^»^ odaitred si bla own 

iMRIBD, ad-ori'rd, part a. Hegnrded with won- 
te; msu^xA with fdauorea or eawtioiui : aome- 
&■» iBMi ia • bad Hnn. 

T«tka«e4tiCila«d the mirth, hrtikutbe good mceUng 
WMl mmn •imu^d difeurdur.— ^'/..jiU. 

Ameibb, sd-mTmr, 4. One who regards with 
abaration ; a Iutpt. 

^UUXQLT, ad-tru'riog-lOf ad. With adnuraUon. 

ABauiuui.rTT, ad-mia-ae-bil'e-te, a. The quality 
rfhan; admissihle. 

Amouble, ad-mis'»e-hl, a. (admitto^ adinistvm, 
Ut) That may be admitted. 

iMBBIBLr, •d-ail»'a»-blo^ od. In a inanii» that 
■rW admitted. 

iHKanor, ad-iui»VfthDnf a. (admUtio, Lat.) Tlio 
<il«r pnetioa uf odsiittlog; the state of being 
ItaittM; adinittaDce; the power of entering or 
hat admitted; aaeeDt toaoargumeot: thcgniat 
tfi yovtmi oot fully proved. lo the Church 
' E«|bodL the act of a buhop admitting or 
■ deric to be able or quulliied for a core, 
in the Kirk of Scotland, u an act of 
IkpnAjtcrj of the botmds, admitting a niiiiistor 
t> W dMrcli, or, u the taw expresses it, collating 
ti«t»liit benefice: AdmiMion-monry^ the ptlce 
tf liaiiidM to any nUee or society. 

AiBT» ■d-mit'f V. a (oifmitto, L-.t.) To snfTer to 
MV ato m place, office, or into the mind; to 
«|U <r pwkt the tntli o£ 

tenrrutLB, ad-nnt'la-td, a. That may be ad- 

itVflAVeai ad-idt'tani, «. TTteact of aditiitling; 
or pennt»>m to eiiier; the j»ower or 
«r «tain(; eaoccadton of an opinion; cua- 

torn or prerogacive of being admitted. — Not i« 

Now (Sir John), h«re In llin heart of tnf porpooo. To* 
aru a geuUeman of uoellviit breeding^ admirable dla- 
ooitrse, of great admit !aiug.^^hakM, 

Ai>MrrTER, ad-mit'tur, a. Tho penHm who admlta. 

Ai>Aiix, ad-nuks', v. a. (adtnisc<o^ Lut.) To mitigla 
with Romethiug eUa. 

ApMiXTiuK, ad-niiks'tahun, $, The union of one 
body with another, withoDt ander;going any che- 
mical change. 

Admixture, ad-roikB'tore, t. Different suhstonces 
mechanically, not chcinic4tlly, mixed ; a roixture. 

Aduomsii, ad-mi>n'i»h, r. a. (odmoneo^ ad, and 
monw, to tench, Lat.) To warn of a bait; to 
reprcrto gently ; to wum gently. 

Me tVnitftil aeetica and prMpccts waste. 

Alike nAncviuA nut to n>atr ; 
ThcH t«U me uf «ujojrm«nt jiaat, 

And tbuM of ftorruwn yot to come. — Com^, 

to coan!tel against evil practices ; to pnt In nund 
of a fitult or dot}*. In its Latin sign ificat ion, Xn 
tnfuna ; to acqtiaint with ; to give notice, as^ 
Tilltiy the \\cv\ lUlJ hnn.i ajMonuAA^.— i?tini4. 

AnMOKiSilim, ad-monlAli-nr, t. The person whn 
adinoiiihhcs, or pot* another La oilud of lua faults 
or doty. 

Admonishment, ad-monlah-ment, s. Admomtion 
coursL'l ; gi-ntlii rfpn-wif. 

ABMONtTiox, ad-mo-nish'un, i. {admonition Lat) 
The hint of a fault or duty; gentle reproof; 
friendly counscL 

AitMOKiTioNER, ad-mo-ottih'nn-nr, a. A liberal 
dispenser of BdujoniLion; a gauenU advlber. A 
ludicrous term, 

AI^MOK^^TE, ad-mon'oe-tlv, a. Of the nature of 
Nil admonition. 

Ai>MONrroBT, ad-mon'ne tnr-e, a. That admoo- 
isbes ; oontaiiuing admonitiun. 

AuMORTiZATioN, ad-isawr-te-za'shun, s. (ad, and 
mors, mmHij, de.itli, Ijit.) The act of alienjiting 
lands or tenements by jwrnuseion of tho sovoreign, 
or of the lord of Ibe manor, by any guild, corpora- 
tion, or fraternity. 

AiiMore, ad-raoo/, v.tu To bring one thing to 
another. — Obsol'^t e. 

AnMPRMDRATlou, a J- mtiT-mof-a'sbira, $. («(/m«r- 
tntii'Of Lat.) The act of murniDring or wbihpcring 
to one another. — Obeolete. 

AiiNA, ad'nii, f. (adnatusy growing or sticking to, 
L;it.) A genus of tho Bnlani or Gamiclea; cup 
or ksengc-fihapcd multivalvo shells foimd attached 
to etuucu on the sea-coast, 

AnNA8CENT,ad-na'sent,a.(a<&Mucen«,Lat.) Grow* 
iii;^ to or upon someibing ehte;. 

Adnata Tcmca, ad-na'ta tu'no-kn, t, {adnOtut^ 
growing to, and Itiniea^ a tuiuc, LaL) In Anatomy, 
one of the conls of the e^-o, callod also albuz/inen^ 
situated between the sclerotica and ODOJtuotiva; it 
is sometimes confonnded with the Intter. 

Adxatb, ad'nato, a. (aJ/iofu/, Lat.) Growing to; 
adherent. In Botany, a leiif is sold to be odnate 
when it adberes to the steois by its surface; like- 
wise stipules when they arc attnched to the prtioloa 
or flower-stalks; also, an anther when adherent 
to the fitumeiit in its whole length. Stercodon 
adnatus is so called on account of its adherin;^ 
firmly to the, bark of the tree upon which it 

Ai>NoCH, ad'nown, a. An a^cctiife.— Which aesL 



Adxttiiii.atkd, afl-na-hc-la'ted, n. (ad and mtl/ita, 
a cloud, Lat.) Clnudrd; darlccocd. 

AlH)« B^oo\ t. (aiioa, Ui do, Sax.) TrouLiIe ; ilUli* 
cultr: bufftle; inmuU; bubiueu; mon abow than 
the iiflair U wortli. 

Well fccvp no great ado I—SSaUt, 

AooLESCKNCE, nd-o-lre'cns, \ *. {adotuccMy 

Anoi.F.scENCT, ad-o-Itw'Mn-**, / L«L) Tbe age 
siiccofding childhood, and miccceded bj puberty ; 
the prime and flower of youth. 

Ai>oLKsceNT, ad-o-lcft'scnt, a» Advandng into 

ADomAf »-do'i)fr-a,> r. A rem consistinjE of a 

AlKMiic, a-^on1k, / diictvie and a 5iit>ndcc, «o 
pained from the poem whk'h bcwiiUfd the death 
of AdoiiU being written in ihnt nieaaure. 

AtwNiAH, a-do'nc-an, a. rtrtaiiiitijr to Adonis. 

Adovi^ a-do'nI», f. In Mytholrtgr, the faronrite 
of Venos, who is said to havo been chan^ by 
hor into tn anemone after bts death, which wqa 
ocwiioiicd from a morlfll wound from the luaU of n 
nild boar while hniitinK. In Botany, the I'heasant'a 
eye. A genua of plants r Order, Ranuncnlacetc 

AlKiXiSTS, a-do'nista, *. {Adon^ Lord, Heb. aiid 
ChaL) A BOLt or party who maintain that the 
Hebrew pomta ordinarily annexed to the word Je- 
hovah arc not the natural poiiita belonging to that 
word, and that they do not express the true pro- 
nnncifltion of it, but thnt thoy are vowel puinta 
belonging to the wurdu Adonni and Ehhim, which 
the Jews were forbid to titter, and the true pn>- 
nuncintioQ of which was lost ; they were therefore 
taught Alw.iys to prunounco the word Adtmai, in* 
stead of Jehomh. 

Adoor.1, a-do'ra, ad. At the door. — Obsolete, 
in jp't aiteort, not the power o' the eonntrr, 
Nur all lujr auul'a curse*, Bhall illwiDbngiin me- — 

AiX)PT. a-dopt', 9. tk (adofitky ad and opfo, I desire 
or choose. Lat) To tjUce a eon or dan^htcr of 
other parents m one*s own ; to pince any person 
at thing in a nearer relation to somothiDg eNe than 
they hare by nature; to embrace any particnlar 
method or manner of opinion, conduct, habit, or 
dress ; to select and take, as, which mode will you 

Adoitedlt, a-dop'ted-)e, nd. In the manner of 

Adoptbr, a-dop'tiir, t, Hp who gives one by choice 
the rights of a son. Ad"ptcr or udaptn-^ ts a large 
globular rcssel, placed, in chemical manipulation, 
between the retort and the receiver. 

Adoption, a-dop'dhun, i. {adoptio, Lat.) The art 
of adopting or taking to one's self what in not via- 
live; the taking the child of another a<> one's own. 
InThcolog)', God's taking sinners into htsfavour and 
protection ; the state of being adopted. Adoptiim 
Ay Ornw, an ancient ceremony of presenting arms 
lo one for bis merit or valour, which laid the j»er- 
son nn<ler an obligation to 'defeod the giver. 
Adoptiom by bapiiim, is tbe spirilnat ufGnity which 
Is oontnctad by godfathers and godcliildrrn in the 
csrenKKdes. It was introdnoed into the Grerk 
Cborcb, and afterwards among the ancient Franks. 
Tliis affinity was supposed to entitle the godchild 
to a abaro of the godfather's ealute. Adf'ptton by 
Aosr, was performed by catting off the hair of a 
peiaoi] and ginng it to the adoptive father, as in 
tbe oaas of Pope Jolm V'lII^ wlio hi this manner 
•dnpled Boson king ui Aries. AdopHtm bj/ twiri' 

m*tmy^ is tbe taking the childrea of a wife < 
bjuid by a former marriage into the condl 
nuforal children. This is a practice ]>eculLil 
Gcminns, but it is nut so properly called i/d 
as mijiUaiivn. Adoption by trftumrnf, ia \ 
pohiting of a prraoo to be heir by will, on C4| 
of his taking tlte name, arns, «Ci of the 4 

ADoiTiONt:sT, a-dop'ahun-istf «. One who 
t^tltis that Christ waa the son of God by wi 
only. * 

ADOPTIVE, a-dop'tir, a. (adoptieus^ Lai) 4 
by another ; adopting another ; — a. OM \ 
nut a nntive, but adopted. ^ 

Adoh, a'dor, «. (Lntiu.) The wheat used 1 
ancientfl In sacrifice. 

Ai>oUAni,E, a-do'ra-M, a, (French,) That; 
onght lo be adored, or is worthy of adt>r«t»0| 

Al><.>RAST, a-do'mnt, o. Adorable. — Obsolel 

Uo adorvd and worithlpped 0(»d, tteaeobyinf ] 
oelse, high, and a-lnmnt mj^estle. ttiat tie votJd T« 
to i^raut him thta or that. — Qroflan. ^ 

AiioRABLERESS, a-do'ra-bl-nesi, «. The qu 
being adorable; worthiness of divine hoDOta 

AnoKABLT, a-doWble, odl In a muuier 1 
cf adoration. ] 

Ado&atiok, a-do-ra'slmn, §. {adomiio, LaLj 
external homage paid to the Divinity, 4 
from mental reverence; homage paid to psnl 
high station or esteem. 

O c^nannnv, »how me Vil thy worUi. i 

What li thy aoul. O uJivwitrnf j 

Art LhoQ T)<^>ii(;ltt <*l-tf but place, deforce, and fl 
Creatiiii; awe ami fear tn oilier men ? — KAflitA; 

Aoonc, »-dore\ r. a. To worsht 

homnge ; to pay divine honoora ; 

hontiur very hij;hly ; to Ioit. 
AuuRB3i£i<iT, a-duro'ment,«. AdoraUon, — Ob| 

Tlie literal and dotvnrfKht adiyrmtut of flala,| 
anil b«otlcs. — Brovn't fiilffnr Errvrt. j 

AnoRRR, a-do'mr, s. A worshipper ; a lof^ 

ndmiror. \ 

Adorx, a-dawm', r.n. (ndoro, IjiL) To di^ 
deck the pei:H>n with ornaments; to deooc4 
eniheltiah ; — s. ornament ; 

fltrr hmt all naked an oett Tvory, I 

Without adorm of gold or sflTer brl^t— A^ 

ship with el 
I i lo nverell 

— a. adorned. — Obsolete oa a noun and a^M 

Made to offara (br tby delight the mom, 
8c> awful that with honour tliou mayBt lor* 
Tby matCL—Jroioa. 

Adormno, a-dawmlng, t. Ornament. 
AjtoRNMENT, a-dawm'incnt, a. Onuunentl 

bcUiahment ; elegance. 
ADORCirLATlos, a-dos-lcn-la'ahun, a. (ntC 
o*c%Uatioy a kiaiing, Lat.) Tbe impregnafl 
plants by means of the pollen (alliug 
Anowx, a-down', ad. (adune^ Rax.) 

the groond ; from a hif^her V) a low^ p<)( 
prep, down, towards the ground ; frota 
a lower utuation; throoghoQt. 
Her hair 
Unty*d« and Ignorant of artful aldj 
A.iomn hflT ahoulders loose!* lay displa; 
And In tbe Jetty earls ttia thonsaod Ca: 

Fun well 'tin knAwn odnwn tTie dale, 
TUi'OK^i paMlng strangf) Indeed the tale.^— . 
/Vrcy'f Bi 

AtK>XA, a-doks'a, f. (acloxoa, inglorious, Gr.}i 





ft pmem of planUi Onler, Saxi- 

AoriKsaczk, ml-preftf, a. In BoUnr, ippDeil to 

kHMwbrii ibv; ri%« iu a liiirctiua uwly parallel 

to & Mmd, and ve cIum to ir. 
ImtMASft t-^vd', ad (oJrwdt S«x.) In a lUte of 

ftv;ftigbtod; terrified. —Obsnlrt^ 
iuiUTIc, Ml-re-attk, a. PerUiiiiiig to tlw gtilf 

rf Vtaim— 4. the gulf of Venice. 
Afturr, »-drifl', ad. (athi/un^ to drive. Sax.*) 

IWiog li ruidoai ; Lm]iuUed or moring \fUhout 


Aicrr, a-droTt*, a. (Freorfi, from rfryi(, light, 

<~<.;ht.) Oextrroua; active; akilfnl ^ iiif^enious. 
All:' TLT, a-dnjytle, nii. Deatemnslj. 
ViX' .i»rtaa, a-iIro|t'ncs, $. Dexttrrity; reftdlnns 

li lk« QM of lb* UidIm or meutttl powers ; ac- 

Arar, i-dri', mi (atfr-^^oa, Sax.) Atlilrat; thinty. 

Drth a man Uia U ftfrf dealra to drfoX In goM 7— 
Dtriont JivtU ilrttM, 

AMcmnot'fl, ad-Se-Hsb'ua, n. {tvftcititiua, UtO 
Itidtd; taLcu to oum|ilfto «otnflliitig cl«c, tliuujijh 
«i|ioill7 axtrinsio ; loppternvQUl ; addiliinAl. 
iMtttcnoir, ad>ctnk'»nufi, a. {adatrictio, Lat.) 
7b« let of bindiiii; togvtbcr; oostiveoeaa; lued 
f"wtiH)f IT a mriiical MSiise. 

' -n, ». (Moont AdulainSwItier- 

l"t«d tn have been first fmind.) 

■r.r-p ireut or traimlucent va- 

-hitc^ gtTi»i. is h- while, or 

... ^j1 -i; ; opalescent. Uconsistsof 

I bacit&t; alonuaa,20; lime,3; potaah, 14: ap. 

■ A&CUnoir. ■d-u-Ia'iJiTm, a. (arfu/aiw, 1-at) Flut- 
[ ^; bifb complimcTit. 

' ^m:it«ir, ad«-LiT-tur, «. (Latin.) A fl ittercr. 
■ 'S'tRT, ad'u-U» tur-c, a, Flutttriug. 
'i L 1 »TKt«B, ad'u-Uy-tres, •- A fenulc tlalteryr. 
; Afrcr-T, a-da)t', a. {odtJtus, Lat) Gmwn up : fMt 
tl» S? of iafancv and weakness ; — «. a full-grown 
pwa«; one arri^wi at the age of puberty. 
iKLTCDj^A-dul'ted, part. a. Completely? grown. — 

Vr« an Mt adhiTlrf, bat nrimk eraetarea.— 

' '"^B, a-durinr, r. a. ('j/fci/f*ro,Ijit.) To cim- 
.Itcrj; to poUote ; toctnirL — Not nsed. 

AptmaAXTf a-dnrt«'r-an(, j. {nuinlteran*, Lat) 
l^pMsoD or thtn<£ rbnt nilultrmtea. 

iilVLnSATK, a-dol'tc^r-Me, r. n. (ntlultrro, Lat.) 
T« nmant adattrrj ; — r. a, to cornipt by seme 
Cnt|^ admixture ; to contaminnU' ; tucliHUjjo t)ie 
nrfirf of a tbini: by admixture ; — a. tainted with 
OK onme of adulltiiy; «irrupt4^1 by furfi^n ad- 

In an adnl- 
Tbe state 

AMUkaAm.r, anlidW-atft-le, ud. 

Um« imnnrr. 

(■-»*, a-diirt«r-at(>-nM, a, 

rratr or couulerTtriC 
■ •'»■, a-dul-(rr-a Kliim, «, The act of 
: r comipLiiig by fumgn adiuijtturo; 

iul'ter-or, *. (fw/wZ/rr, Lat.) A iiinn 
L^ aditltiry. In Scripture, an idolater. 
raa«», B-dttl ter-es, «. A woman guilty of 
■ -•.■7. 

<uivi, a-dnlWiiM^ a. {aduUfrinti^ XaX.) 
- .iLi iif «D ailultareia ; a temi of cauua law*, 

— a, proceeding from adulteroua iutercoariH) ; ips* 

Auui.THUOP^ a-dul'ter-ns, a. Onilty of adultery; 
frpuiinns; corrupL lu Sen ptarv, idubt reus; very 

AnuLTF.Roc»i.T, a-dal'tcr-ua le, ad. In an adnl- 
terou^t manner, 

AnULiiERr, fl-dul'ter-o, a. (aduUer'wm, Ijit.) Th« 
sin of Incontmeiicy in b married person; criminiil 
aexiial ronnectinti with a trmrrird person ; aduU 
term ion ; comi|)lino. In Smjiturc, rtpo«tjiry from 
tbe true Gu«l ; idoUtry. In C'liunh atr^int, tlie 
ifitniAiou of a person into a bUhopric during the 
life of tbe biAbop., 

Ai'i'LTMisft, a-dult'nes, a. The state of beuig an 

Ai;ir>inRANT, sdumliniiitf n. Hanng a shadowy 

cir flint rewmblanrt*. 

At>[:Mi)iuTE, nd-nnt'ljDite, r. rr. (jtrhimhro; nt/, and 
umhni^ n afaiidPf Lat) To Ahjiilow ntit ; tn give 
D faint likenca<9 ; to oxbitiit n faint reseinMnitce, 
tike thut which shadow* aflbrd to the bodies which 
they represent, 

Ai>i:unK*TinM, ad-nm-braVliun, *. The act of 
adumbrating, or giiin-: u fniiit and shadowy rt'pre- 
sentutiou. In Uer;iliiry, the fiboilnw only of atiy 
figure outlined, and painted of a darker colour tbui 
the field. 

Ai>rNATipN, ad-u-na'Ahun, a. (ai/, and umu, one, 
Lat) Union. — Ob^jlete. 

AwL'NClTV, a-dun'oo-te, a. (ttduticitna, lat) Crook- 
cincM; ticxnre inwardi ; hiKjkfdiiejw. 

AuuNC'OUH, a-dnnxk'ui', ». (admcuSf Lut} Crooked; 
booked ; bent inw.irda. 

Aduhqve, a-dunk', a. Crooked; bookod, 

AuuRB, a-dure', p. a. (Latin.) To bum bp; to 
scorch. — OImi)' ,>to. 

Doth mellow ind not orfhre.— Aiem. 

.\dii8t. B-du$t', a. (udutttUy Lat) Bumvd up; 

Aiiiuit complexion. — /1>/M. 

AnusTcn, a-dus'led, a. Xturnt ; acorched ; dried 
by fire. 

Aut?sTiBi.n, a-dus'to-bl, a. Thnt may be scorched 
or bnnird up. 

Adcbtion, a-du!i't«huTi, 1. Tile act of burning op, 
or dryiiiE, as by Hre. 

Ad UTKTirjj, ad o'ler-nm, a. The annlojine of the. 
Fallopian tubes in birds, or of tbe Coruua Uteri la 
the Mumnialia. 

.^DVA^Ofl, ad-vans', v. a. (ainmeer, Fr. ansiw. Arm.) 
To bring forward ; to raiae to preferment ; to im- 
prorc; to heighten; toenhunco; to mise in price; 
to grace; to f^ive lustre to ; tu forward; to acc«I* 
erato ; to oBer to t1u> public ; to bring into view 
or notice; to pay befurcbjtnd ; to mipply before 
hand; to supply or pay for others in expectation 
of rclinbursipcnt ; — v. r». to come forward ; to make 
improvement, as, to advance in kiiowlcdgo »nd 

virtue; — *. the act of coming forward ; pdrfincc- 
mcnl ; promotion ; prefcmiciit, as, an odrtmce in 
rank ; first time, by vray of invitation ; first atep 
tuwardfl an agrceDieiit; tb« act of cooiing forward 
ae a lover ; 

Who, though he cannot apell It, wtia 

Euotiijh |(j read a lariy'ii cyea, 

Anil well Cftcb ne<Hil*-ritjU (tliuioe 

Inturpntl for m kind wlt'anct. — Sw^ 

■d<HtioniDprice,as,ann'ftviMreon ihcco^tofgoodst 
an act of tuvilation; gradual prugreaaiou^ pnigrBU 




towaris porfwrlion ; money pvcn befurehand. Ad- 
Viinct ditch, or /out, in Furliflcilioti, a dilch m.idfl 
along tlic gUcii bojonil the coQntvrflcvp. Ad- 
vance gaard^ tb« ftrac d'tvUion or line of an amij. 
Adpanvc money, moutiy paid in BdvAnc**, io jiart or 
in vrlioln. In adeanct, in part ; before ; oUo, b«- 
forulunil ; Wfuni an tKiuiruleiit is reccircd, or when 
one partner has furnlbliL-d more than his proportifjii. 

Advanced, nd-vanat', a. Having; reached the de- 
cline of life, as, an advanccil age. 

ArvAKCEMEKT, ad-vansWnt, *. The act of mov- 
ing fum-ard ; the act of advancing another ; iin- 
proTemcnt ; promotion in ranlc or exo^llcnce ; 
Mttlemcnt on a nifo or jointure; provision made 
by a parent for s child by a gift of property, dur- 
ing the pirent'a life, to irblcli the child would be 
entitled afttr the parent's death. 

Autanceh, ad-vaii'iur, *. One who advances or 
comcfl forward; a promotion of nnytliing; a for- 
warder. Among Sportsiiioii, a utart or branch of 
a buck's attire, between the buck antler and the 

Advakcivb, ad-vau'siv, a. Having a tendency to 
advance or promote. 

AnvANTAOE, ad-ran'tiu«, «. (^neontage, Fr.) Fa- 
vourable circumstances ; superiority gained by stra- 
tagem or nnlawfkil means; opportunity; conviiiii- 
ance; aopertor excellence ; guin ; profit; overplus; 
preponderance on the side of the compKrison. Ad- 
vanttiffe-ffnund^ ground or position that affords 
superiority of antioyance or resistance ; — v. a. to 
benefit ; to promote ; to liing forward ; to advance 
the intcrcRta of. 

AtiVANTAGCAJiLE, ad-von'tajo-s-bl, a. ProfiUbk ; 
convenient ; gainful. 

Advantaged, ad-vau'tayjd, a. Possessed of ad- 
rautagca ; commodioutdy aitn^ed or dt.'tposed. 

Advantagkous, ad-van-ta'jns, a. Of ndvuntage; 
protitahlc ; niiefiil ; opporttme; convenient. 

Advantageously, ad-van- tujos-le, ad. Conve- 
niently; opportunely; profitably. 

ADTANTAGbOL'SNEHtt, ad-van-ta'JQj-ncs, #. The 
quality of beting adrantageoos ; profitableness; 
usefulness ; convenience. 

AuvECTlTioufi, ad-vck-tiah'ns, a. {aditxtitivg, Lat.) 
Bruiighc from another piscc. In Botany, applied 
to anything not in the ordinary course of naturr, 
as when leaves appear where they are not wmit to 
grow, or, as in the roots of the Banana-tree, which 
are sent down from the branches. 

Adveke, ad-venc', r. n. (ademiof ad, and tvJ*fo, 1 
ootne, Lot.) To secede to something ; to become 
Mit of something cIm, without bong easeoUal ; to 
DO superadded. 

Tlie Ncddmtal of 007 act ts lald to b« whatarar adoaus 
to act It-^lt.—At/t^e. 

Advknient, ad-veneVent, a, (adtxnun*, IjlL) 
Adt'cning; coming from oDtword caoses; super- 

AuVBKT, od'vent, f, (adeenhu ; od, and rento, I 
come, l.aL) The time appointed by the diurch 
M a pn'pnration for the celebration of the advent 
of the Saviour, commmcing foor weeks pTevtoas to, 
and lasting till, Christmas. 

AnvENTiVK, ad-ven'tiv, s. Adventitions ; the per- 
son or thin^that comes from without. — Noliwcd. 

AovKNTiTinrs, nd-vcn-tUh'us, 0. (adicntitiiu^ Lat.) 
That nliich advpne.o, is iiitrinsically added, and 
not essentially inherent. Applied, in Anatomy, 
to fiilas mouibraues. 

ADVENTmouSLT, ad-veo-tish'us-le, ad. Acci- 

Advkntbt, sd'ven-tre, j. An enterprise ; an undefw 
taking. — Old word. 

Act a bravo work, call tt Uiy last aJtt^ntri/. — 

Adtextual, ad-ven'tu-al, a, R biting to tfaa ad- 

Advevtl'BE, ad-veo'ture, *. (Frendi.) An eoter- 
priiie : an accident ; a hasord ; a chance ; an event 
of which we have no direction. A bill af ttdrrm>- 
(ure, a writing signed by a person who takes goodi 
on board his ship wIioDy at the risk of the owner; 
— r. n. to try the chance; to dare; — r. a. to put 
into the power of clmoce ; to risk ; to haxard. 

ADVESitrHKii, ad-vcn'lu-mr, s, {adwrtfttncr, Fr.) 
One who seeks occaaions of hazard, or puts Urn* 
self at the mercy of chance. 

ADVENTCREFf L, ad-vcn'tore-fdl, a. Given to ad- 
ventures; full of enterprise, 

Advenxuhehome, ad-veu'turo-sum, «- Adveuiu* 
TOVA, — A vulgar word. 

ADTENTcnKSOXRKKSB, ad-ven'tnre-sum-ncs, a^ 
The quality of being enterprisiiig. 

Ai>VENTUROL'S, ad-veii'tu-rus, a. Disposed for ad* 
ventures ; bold ; during ; coungeous ; diin;*?r»us. 

ADVENTUROt'Si.T, Hd-vrn'tu-rua-Ie, ad, Uauri- 
ously ; counigcously ; daringly. 

ADVENTtmouBNESB, ad-ven'tn-rus-nes, a. The ack 
or quality of being adveisturous. 

Advbrb, ad'verh, «. {adverbium, Lat) In Gram*, 
mar, a word joined to a verb, an adjective, or oth«r'| 
adverb, to exprew some quality, manner, or eir»-1 
cametance connixted with it, ns, he runsswi/^l 
be is teriomiy ill, he lives honestly. 

Adveruial, ad-ver'be-al, a. Having the nature of ] 
an adverb. 

ADrERBiALLT, ad- verV-ol-le, ad* In the moxiticr 
of an adverb. 

Advebsadle, ad-ver'sa-bl, a. (from adrene^ Cuo- 
trary to ; opposite to. 

Ai>TRRgAiUA, ad-ver-sa're-0, f. (Latin.) In An- 
tiquity, a commonpLice-boolc ; a note-book. 

Advebsabious, ad-ver-sa're-us, a. Adverse) op- 
posed; opposite to. — li'cAster. 

ADrER8ABY, adVer-BA'te, $, {adravanu*, Lat.) 
An opponent; an antagonist; an enemy; — 4iu 
opposed; opposite to; adverse, as nn adrtrsarf 
suit, that is, one in which there ia on opporiing 
party. In distinction from an application in law or 
e^juity, to which uo oppoiiition is mode. 

A0VERSATITE, ad-vcr'sa-tiv, a, {adrtrrtatipu*^ Lat.. 
adcenatif^ Kr.) In Grammar, «pplied to a word 
which DiidEes some opposition or variety. The 
drug is bitter but u^cfid. But is an advcrsativa 
coTijnnction, when denoting opposition. 

AiiVKitftB, ad'vers, a. (acbrrrawi, from adf^rto^ to 
inm to or from, Lnt,) Calamitous; afflictive; 
ppi-niciouA ; counteracting; opposite; opposing; 
The kinc'a iiamo Is a lower of strength, 
Which timy npon the adver^t party want — Skila. 
acting contrary to, or in nnother direction, ns ad- 
verse winds. In Botany, pUccd in opposition to; 
tumed fn»n, as an of/i«m le^f, which has ita 
ninri^in turned towards the stem ; — r. a. to thwart ( 
to BiTect. — ObsoJPte as a verb. 
Willi that lie pulleth np hla bead, 
A»d made rifiht a fflad vluRe, 
Aud ulil Low that was aj»n<4y«, 
Touchcndn to that other Perse, 
Of that (ornine him abuldo adiMne. - g siNSV 



AuTxa^ti-T. »<1-Ter5le, ad. In an advenw maa- 
Ler; opfwcocl;: nnfortiiMiteij; irt « Runner coa- 
tnrj to wiab. 

AarnaKnss, td-rcn'ovi, r. Opposition. 

ImasiTT, ad-nr'ie-te, s, (^adnraitdj Fr.) Afllic- 
tea ; eiiunitj ; miefartiine ; aimtj, 

AVflV, «d-ifTt', r. It (adrtrto^ from oti!, and wrVo, 
Itmt, L-rt) To attend to; to n*^rd; txi ob- 
n^w^— «. a. to regmrd; to advis«; to oonHider 

as HuHirb Che Mol, tba Cim« ihe a^tv^rl 
Ttebotfj'tpiHloaftUku tierMirtodk.— 

JVm'f Stmg ijfO* Soul. 
IsHaftBon; bvt En mj ouds adwrt. 
•lit MrUly p»w«r bnrani tlw tjmst'H licftrt.— 

Mir. /or Hag. 

iimamoB, ad-nr't«fu, \«. {adaa-tatic^ Fr.) 
AuruilACT, •d-ver*ten-if,/ Attimtioii; ngard; 

lucd&bciB: coDsideralioTt 
ABmrnjTT, »d-Ter'teiit, a. AttanllTe; Tiolant; 

Ae»txiti$c« Bd-veT-liie', p. a. (arerltr, Fr avertisn, 
Ain. C(j^ tiul ncrto, [ torn, LnL^ To inform 
to give iiitelHgnice of; to (^tq public 
i of, bj ftdTertuenicat in the puldio printx 
ittfttavBiXXT, ad'Ter'tix-meDt, ». {adverUue- 
wmif Fr.) £«pedal notice f^*ea in a newspaper 
pout ; kgal nocificatioD ; iiitdligenc« ; 

*ni an ara*a ofHee to «Mak pattmco 

Tt ikem titM wrtoc andar tlia lowl of gorrov ; 

fct kft biab'i Tirtna or aoflklciicy 

T« te 19 Boml Tlini Ik Rball enduro 

TW ilu kiGuelf. Tbenlbre^ gtv« mm no sdviimI, 

Mr cm& an loader thao odwrfiMNMl.— fifaO*. 

AvfUTun, id-Tcr-ti'nir, t. (advtrliseur, Fr.) 
(hM »h» advaitian a matter; a paper in wliich 
rffrtiiiwau appear. 
uvmitDto, ad-ver-ti'ainp, part. a. Giving iii- 

M|pBa>; eootainin^ adrertuenicnts. 
iWUnouTK, ad-ve»'pe-rate, p. n. (nff, and ref- 
.^^ lat) To draw tonrardb Iho evening. — Not 
A&Tiat ad-tiae't «. (arit, Fr.) CoiuihI^ or opinion 
drd aa worthy of bring fQlIow«l ; friendly 
fr6rction; prudent consideration, 
delibentioa. In Commerce, infor- 
Mdn prm b/ one meicLaot or banker to tu\- 
tttv, bf kttir, an (o billi or draAs made Qpon 
Ka, «i^ pMtkoIan as to dat« or sight, the sum 
te whoai p^able. &c. Adviethboait a tcimI em- 
yt^ad la bring intelligence. 
Afir&nunt, sd-rijVIate, r. n. (adr^^ I-^) Tv 

■Hck diEgratiT'.— Not u.wd. 
AflTii&iLft, ad-ri'ca-bl, a. rradmt; fit to ba ad- 

*W ; czpcdieot ; open to advice. 
A»r|iuu3iKM, att-Ti'xa-bl-nex, $. Tbo quality 

tfWB|*d*i»Ue; fitness; prnprictj. 
Ammb, ad.>rii«', r. a. (oFwer, Fr.) To counae! ; 
t* kfara; to Make acquainted with anything ;— 
b^Mk ta aoaaaU ; tocooaider; to delibrnte. 
^|RMb\ al-^ftd, part, a. Acting with dolibera- 
^Vhftaid 4migm pntdtnt; wik; [wrformcd with 
I Attmtiooj done on purpose ; acted with dosif>n. 
I AvflMOLr, ad-Ti'icd-le, ad. PnulcDtly; d«U- 

AvtUKMCM, U-Ti'ied-nex, s. Deliberation; eool 
■f|nHnt pnouara. 

■d-visv'iDc&ty i. (French.) Comuel j 
.— Ofaaoktih 

Adtiseb, ad-ri'sur, s. One who adrises or gives 

counsel; a counseUer. 
Advisimu, od-^-i'zing, s. Counsel ; advtoe. 
FiuittfD yoor oar oa my admtuiffa.—Otait, 

Adtisory, ad-^-i'iur-ej a, Haring the jiowcr or 
tetiduucy to advise. 

AiivoOACV, ad'fo-ka-se, a. Tba act of pleading ; 
TiudJcatiou; defence; npulogy; jmlicial pleading: 

Advocate, ad'vo-knte, r. a. (ajpocy, Lat. «cc>ca, 
Fr.) To pluad for; to support; tu vindicate; to 
defend ; — #. {ndrocttttu, Lat.) a lawyer wbu pli'ftd* 
at Lbe bar of it court of judicature; he who plptida 
any cau-se in whatever manner, aa a controviTAijliit 
or vindicator. Facuity of advoatta, in ScdLind, 
a society of eniiacnt Uwycn who practise in thfl 
supremo courts. The Uird advocate, in Scotland, 
tlio priucipnl crown lawyer or prosecutor in crimi- 
nal cosca. Judge ndvocate, in courts martial, tbo 
person who manoj^ the prosecution. 

AurooATCsiUT, ad'vo-kate-ship, i. The office of 
ait advocate. 

Lfiara y-oar oAmeaUshipj 
Except that wo shall call you Orator Flr^Ben Johmiu 

AcvoCATEM, ad'vo kay-te«, s. A female advocate. 

God hath pntTidfd ua with an oAmeaUaa^ who la gentla 
and sweet, &e^ and many meb othsr dofpnai, proposl- 
tlons.— ^. Taylor. 

Tbo older synonym, adeocatnce^ is used bj Sir 
Thomas Elyot. 

Advocation, nd-ro-ka'sbun, a The c^ce or aol 
of pleading ; pica ; apolog}*. 

Uy adtfoaUion i» not now in tune. — ShaiM. 
Bill of adroc'ithn, in-Scottbth Law, a written ap- 
pliration to a superior court, to call an action 
before them from an inferior crnirt. The order 
from the superior court is called a IctUr ofaduo- 

A DVOI.ATIOX, ad-To-Ia'shun, «. {advoleOt Ijit ) The 
ad of flying to aomctliinir. 

At»vonmo7«, nd-\ij-hi'»hiin, s. (French ; udr^uiao^ 
Lat.) A rolling towards something. 

Adto[ TBER, ad-Tow'lnir, s. An adulterer.— '-OI>» 

ADVotTREsa, ad-vow'tres, a. An adull«re»».— 

Advoitrous, ad-TOw'trus, n. Adulterous.— Ob* 

Advol-trt, ad-Tow'lre, #. Adultery. — Obsolete. 

Advow, ad-vow'i r. a. To aflkm; to vow t«. — 

Advowee, ad-vow-e', s. One who has the right of 
advowson ; the advocate of a church or religious 

Advowsok, nJ-row'sun, $. In Common Law, the 
ri^t to prevent to a bcne6cr. termed, in Csiidti 
Law, Jms Patrvmdi*^ the right of pstron. Ad- 
votD$<m$ are of three kinds— prcsentafiVe, when the 
patron presents lils clerk lo the liisliop of the dio- 
cese to be inslitittcil; collntivf, when the hishnp 
w tliepnlnm, nud institutes or coUntcs bis clerk by 
a single act. 

AiiTXAMiA, n-(le-na'me-a,l s. (a. priv. andc/ynnmu, 

Adykamv, a-dirt'a-me, / power, Gr.) Diminu- 
tion of the vitiil power* ; debility; ini]H>ti^cc; 
prostration of the action of the souses, and ot the 
muscular system. 

Adynauic, Jt-dc-nomlit, a. Weak; dr«titate ot 

Ax>Y8KTON, ad-e-sc'ton, t. (meaning unknowu.) A 




genua of plants, constFitmi! of small evergrrcp hcrtts 
w subitbrubs, with yuUuw Uuwcn : Ord<.Tf Cruci- 

Adytvu, ad'e-tmn, », (atfytoa^ Gr.) The inner or 
Bttcml pUw? of a hewthcti teinplc, into which rune 
hat the tnitintod dur»t enter the place of the 
oracJc : a vwtry. 

Adzb, udz, s. {ade^tf Sax. fomicrly written addict 
in English.) A catting instrument, oscd for chop- 
piuK a horiiontul &iirfuce of timber. 

JE, a dipljthoDg u^M in wonU derived from the Latlii 
and Grock. It lia« the found of «, with which it 
L) oft«n Tvplaced in the commencement of word*. 
It anBWfi* to the Groek au 

£oiDiUH, e-nd'e-am, s. (uiX-um, a wheel, and eiWo«, 
like, Gr. from the furin of the pusttilra.) A genu5 
of Fungi, found as amciU nwmbmnous bnga on the 
bark and leaves of trees. 

£delk, e'd<,'-le, ». (Latin.) A Roman civic niagis- 
trat«, wtuMM office was to see that the houHos, 
Btreeta, and tetnples were kept iti proper npair, 

JEUKS, e'dea, «. (Latin.) An inforior kind of an- 
cient tomple, conisccnited to acme deity. 

JEdilitb, e'de-Uta, s. (jitdmoi^ modesty, and Uthoit^ 
a atone, Gr.) A mineral of a H^ht-grey sLrlntcd 
oppeAHiace; a silicate of aluuiiua: found ia 

£i>uioouAi'nT, e-doH>-o£'(;raf e, A. (niWoio^ orgjins 
of generation, and ffropho, I write, Ur.) A ilo- 
ecription of Cho organs of general Ion. 

^iMloTosrT, e-do-e-ol'o-me, *. {aithui^ and Craino, 
I cat, Gr.) Diaficctiof of the organs of generation. 

Oddites, e-do'i'Ua, $. Intlammation of the organa 
of generatiDii. 

JEOAOKAPiLcra, e-ga-):Tnp'e-lu.% 4. (<*i^i a g^at, 
pUos, a ball of hair, Gr.) A concreiionary hiiiry 
boll, fuund occabioually in iba etuuiacbtf of nuiii- 
natiiif; animaU. 

MoKitUiEM^ e-jer-id'e-«, «. (aixt, a goat, and ndct, 
nsemblance, Gr.) The Hornets a family of 
I.epidopteruiu iiis-ect^^ lh« grubs of which f'.'ed ou 
the Otirrant and otlier iM'ny-lwaring bnrihf& 

JEoiAlJTKS, e'jl^-a-1i't««, jf. {aiginJoK, % beach, Gr.) 
A name given by Vieilint to a funitly of wading- 
birda, oomprebenditig thoce which live on the banks 
of atreanuL 

foiCBRASf e-jis'er-ait, «. {n\x, a goat, and kera$^ 
a hom, Gr. from the fonii of the fruit) A genus 
of plants: Order, Myriiucacev. 

JE0ILOP8, e'je lops, f. (ait/iliij*€, goat-eyed. Gr.) A 
sure immediately under tlie iimer angle of the eye^ 
■o named from gouts being nupiMiiied suhjVct to 
tbe disease ; a genus of (bo Gnuninacc.T, called 

£<3iKKTiA, e-je-ne'she-a, ». (named in mcmorr of 
Paul ^ginttte, a pbyifician who fltinritthod in the 
7tbeet>tuni.) A genus of plants, natives of India: 
Order, Oruhanchaceat. 

jEgipuila, e-gif'e-la, a. («tr, a goat, and philos, 
dear, Gr.) GoatV Friend, a geuus of West In- 
dian plHiits : Order, Verbcnncftr. 

£gI9, e'jiH, «. (Ijtin.) A Bhicld ; properly the 
shield of Jupiter, so named from its having Weu 
covervd with the nkin of the goat Amulthea. 

£cirUALi^e, e-jiM'a-lo«, *. A name given by C, 
Booaparte to a family of Piissarine birds which 
feed on hecs. 

£01V, e'ele, «. (iEgV, one of the neMporidca.) Tho 
Bengal Quince : Onier, Aumnttaccio. 

XOOCMLOA, a-goklo-a, «. (oix, a goat, and cAJloa, 

grass, Gr. from some of tbe species being fetid.) 
A genu5 of plants: Order, rolcnioniacrx. 
jLtioi^nirM, e-go-po'de-um, #. (aix^ a goat, tad 
po<H<fk, a little foot, Gr.) Goat-wocd, a genu oC 
plants : Order, UmhclUceic. 
JEticiiHKiON, c-gopo'gon, «. (air^ a goal, and;N)9im^ 
a beard, Gr.) A genus of plants : Order, Gramia- 
^OTf^LACUX, e-jip'ti'a-kum, s. An cintmcot, 
consirjting of verdigris, powdered aJum, viucgyr, 
treacle, and sulphuric acid. 
^ii'ATiiY, e-in'a-Me, #. (oW, always, and j>a(Aof,« 

passion, Gr.) Continued pa^ion. t 

i£L, Eal, or Al, in compound namea, signify all « 
altogether, as in JCIwiii, a oomplcto con4)tMrv; | 
Alhul, all-illa5triousi i£lf, implies uiistanei; 
£lfwin, is rictorions; and iElfwold, an auxiliai; • 
j^oLiAN, e-o1c*an, a. (jEahu, the god of tbe wind^ 
lAt.) Pertuining to the winds. ^7oHam harp^ t 
stringed infitnimeiit, which yiekU agreeable soosdi 
when acted on by u current of air. In Prosody, 
jHotinn fvrse, a kind of totso cousimting of sa 
iambus or spondee ; then of two auapebts scparsltd 
by n long syllable. 
^uLlPlLE, e-ole pile, t. (.Eotiu, and piVo, a b»!l, 
Gr.) An inatnimciit UiM'd in shnwing bow walct 
may bo converted into steam, cona:iting of a tui- 
low ball and a slender tube. 
^OLIST, e'o-list, *, {jEoiud.) A pretender to In- 
£oL,LANTilC8, e-ol-Iaii'tAus, s. (aioltOf 1 ray, and 
anffiofi, a flower, Gr.) A genus uf pUiita, o. 
of Umril : Order, Vcrbenaccm. 
Aeraxtuis, ay-er- an' th'a^ j. (oct*, air, and anti 
flower, Gr.) A gonus of plants, natives of 
gnscar: Order, Orvhidaccic 
Aeuatk, a'er-ate, r. a, (aer, sir, Gr.) Tu in: 

nate a liquid with cubuntc acid. 
Ai^RlAi., ay-o're-ut,a. (amw/, Pertaiuoc; 
tlie uir; con^iiiting of air; livini; lu the air; bigk^ 
elevated. In Painting, the sL-cundary ubjecti, as 
aeon through tlie medium uf the atmuspberr. an 
BO termed. Aeriai pertpectlet, that brunch oT 
perspective which trcnts of the ivlutivo dimioutiuQ 
of the colours of bodi£*s, '\ix proportion to their dis- 
tance from the eye. 
AuiniAN, ay-e're-ana, «. In Church Histoij, a brauch 
of Arisns, named fVom Aeiius, who maintsioedlbsl 
there is no difTerence between biahopa and priartL 
AEiciuifK, a'er-e-dis, 1. (ner, sir, Gr.) Air-phafc. 

A genus of plants : Order, Orchidaccc 
AEKir, o'ro, $. {airie, Fr.) A nest of ea^as^ bv 

or oth^er bird* of prey. 
AEUiricKuuB, ayr-ifer-uB, a, (aer, mr, and ft 
hear, Ijit.) ClonLiiniug ohr, applied to tlicue 
clea whidi characterize cvrtain Kuci, and c 
them to swim on the surface uf the water, 
pliod in Zoology to tho bronchial vesM'U. 
AEitiriCATtttN, syr-e-fc-ka'shun, «. T)itf act of 
coming sir; tho stntti of being Hlled with air; 
act of becoming air, or changing from a Uqn 
solid into an aeriform state. 
AKRirnitM, n}T'e-fawnn, a. Bcsembling or partik- 

ing of the nature of uir. 
Ai:itiFr, ayr'o-fi, v. a. To combine with air; t 

infuse air into ; to fill with air. 
AEm>DT?fAiiiU'fi, arr-o-di-uam'ika, a. {aer, air, 
dynamis, power, Ur.) The science which 
(^ the properties of air in moiion* 



Agiuovoat, myr-^na-m, «. {aerogtmM'e, Tr. from 
aer, and ^mumc, knowledge, (ir.) That luut nf 
HtVBl llHCor; which tnits of the properties of 
di; tod flf the part it performs in the operatioDs 

Anaoaxpnr.AjT-og'gni-fe,*. (aer, air, nnil<;rvi/)&}, 
I writer Gr.) A desariptioo of the air or aunu- 

AnMnrDBors, aj/o-hi-dnu, a. (aeroltydrt, Pr. 
fnm Mr, lir, ftud A|rii(n*, water. Or.) Applied to 
naak which oontahi watfr in tbt-ir cnvitk-a. 

AnaUXtf afT'o-JitCf t. {ner^ air, atitl fHfiot, » htnnr, 
Gr.) A meteoric ttoiie; a stone whiL>h fiilb from 
mder certam eircum ■stances, which 
D ori^n to a number of nnsatisfadorf cun- 
u to tbcir csDse nr orijrin, 

iWiOaiOja^ ajT-o-m'e-kjil, o. PertalDing to 

i^-oro-jUt, a. Oiw nho u rereod 

AmobooT, ajr-fd'o-je, «. (oo-, air, and b^t, a 
Ammtwt, Gr.) A treatine apon the air io general, 
mA It! prapntiea. 
Attcauscr, ajir'o-man-a^, «. (afTonmncif., Fr. 
6Mi4P, air. Mod muutti'i, din'<Hlion, Or.) The 
Hlef dfrinifl^ b/ the Ftnte of the ntmo^pli^re. 

a7r-<Kn'»-(iir, t. (uerome/re, Fr. from 

id neAron, Gr.) An instniment for 

the dnuitj of the ulr. 

, •yr-om'ft-tre, «. (aernmeA-Jr, ft.) That 

|Bi«^ p^nln which tmtB of the demity and cx- 

fOBoa of the air, and the means of meiuoring it. 

iSMvaVT, ajrVoawt. a (oer, ur, oad nautai^ a 

Gr.) One who saiis throngh the air in a 

, iaooiAimca. avr-o-naw'tiks, «. The art of aerial 

or of makin<; and gtudiii^ balloons. 
ABMarAvrmc, ajr'o-nawt-izin, #. The practice of 

I— fflng and iloatinK in the ur in biUIoons. 
AlnmOBU, •jr-o-fo'be-a, *. (oe**, «ir, and pA/>- 
Mt^ I ftar, Gr.) The dread of air ; a BTmptom of 
; AUornTrB, ■yr'o-fite, t. («r, air, and phytnn, 
I IflHli Gr.) An nir-plnnt ; a pUnt which ilraw« 
I li MWtahinent excliuirelj fVotiLthe atmosphere. 
AlioKX>PT, ajr-odco-pc, «. (oer, air, and tkopos, 
litaifMtor, Gr.) The oberrvalioD of the state 
«i4 nhationa of the atmocpbere. 
AtioeuT, ajT'o-aUt, «. (oer. air, and Mtatiko*, 
«HiMg l» Mandf Gr.) A machiM or reaael for 
miMig iret^te Id air. 
AaoiTATIc, aji^^fr-itatlk, a. Pertaining to aero«- 

AuoetiTiot, ajr-6-etatlka, j. That part of phj- 
■» whidi CBuninea the laws of the equilibriam of 
At dr aad other gsMona bodies. 
^>iiieuTUMr,flfr-«aHa'ebim,*. Aerial navigation ; 
Ai fMDet of niiQiiA aoqiMaufing, or guiding bal- 
hMB b tbt atmoipben. 
^a* «'e<-«f a. (from croud, ita Arable name.) A 

pmc^plantai Order, Amsrantoeoie. 
IWUBUli^ •-rQ^Doa, a, Of the oatare or 
dj^r of ffrdigrla. 
I laMCk, •-fo'fe'S *■ C^'Sthi.) Verdi|!;rU, suh-nretAte 
'tmmta. Exij^iab verdigm la a sptirioua Icind^ in 
nipbate of copper and the acetat-e of 

tcs, ea-fce-aan'Moa, § (fiMcAynmnat, 
uid anthot^ I flower, Gr.) A genua 
pUnta: Order, UMOoracetB. 

/EscfliNouEKB, ea-ke*no'tne-ne, #. {niachyHmnai, 
I am niudvst, Gr. froui qoo uf tbo dpciies being 
sensitive.) A genus of Logiuninous plants: Sul>* 
order, Papilionncea;. 

XscLXUS, eatta-lua, a. (a name giren by Pllnr to % 
kind of oak wbicli bad an eatalilo nut, derived fnun 
escn^ nouriAbmcnl, GrO U>jrce-clio%nut. A gcuja 
of plants, ooiisUtiiig of tree* : Order, SniJindac* m. 

jGstiieticb, ea-Metlka, i. (.atMlittikos^ perceptible, 
Gr.) Tbo faculty of pcrvelviiig by means of tho 
sense ; the faculty of jud^ng and reasoning ex- 
cIiui\Tly from ascertained phenomena. The term 
haa been applied by oertaiit Gcnnan writera to a 
branch of philosophy, the objeL^t uf wbiuh is a 
philosophical tbcory of the beautiful, as applied to 
poetry and tbc (ino arts. 

^fiTiniA, es/A'na, «. A genus of Dragon-fliea, remark- 
able for their wings continuing outspread wUlu in 
a state of rest. 

£s-nvAL.— See Estival. 

il:ltJTiVR, es'tiv, a. Pertaining to the anmrner. 
I mufvt a1«> tYinw how they' aro likewise engeoderod 

nritofthc dimt nniie oartbiir warmo, (Wtivr, and Buramnr 

Klionent, whi-Mu life \» short, aiul tliera lanouae lor ibem. 

— F\rp«<itt HxMtoTf of SerynttU. 

j£sTU8 VoLATicus, c'stoB vol-at'o-kus, a, (oafiwi 

beat, and rah, I fly, I^t.) A term applied to tran- 

lient hoiUs or er}'UiCina of the face. 
/Ethkr. — See Ether. 
^iHioMESCA, c-fAe-o-no'-ma, s. (aUJio, I scorch, and 

tiema, a fiUmcnt, Gr. in allusion to the t>wney 

or sunbomt tin^ of the stamens.) A genui ^ 

plants: Order, Cnicifem. 
.Etiiokia, e-(Ao'iia-a, s. (icCAon, one of Phcobna^s 

honte^.) A geous uf Composite plants : Suborder, 

jEthops. — See Etbnpa, 
^riiRio^corE, e/A're-o-skopo, s. (aidtrioiy dear, and 

tlx^}eOy 1 view, Gr.) An inurnment for measuring 

the ri'lntive de^vnt of cold, produced by the pulsii- 

tionb from n cicur sky. 
^TitraA, c-t/m'za, $. (aith:u$o, I warm or kindle, 

Gr.) A genus of umbelUforuus pLuits, one of which, 

E. cynapium or Foora-parsley, is highly poisonous. 
Etiology, el-e-ol'o-jn, #. (ni/wr, a cause, and loff*>», 

a discourse, Gr.) Tlutt brunch of Putholof^ wbieh 

has for its object the doctrine or knowledge of the 

causes of diseaaca. 
iEriTKS. o-ti'tis, ». (fiwtojr, an eagle, Gr.) Eafjlestoue, 

a variety of ironstone, farmed of concentric or sub- 

couoentric Inyeni, round a nucleos, which is often 

loose, and makes a noise when shaken. 
£tobati8, t^■to-bn'tjB, t. (uetas^ an eagle, and botis^ 

the bramble, Gr.) The Eagle Rays, a gonus of 

skate fixbes with lonf* thorny taUs. 
ArFA. affa. s. A weight used on the Guinea ooaat| 

eijual to nu ounce. 
Afar, a^fdr', odL (a and fnr. Sax.) At a great 

distance ; to or from a gront distance ; afar itff\ 

remotely distant In Scripture, figuratively, 

eetranKcd in afTiicliou : alienated; 

My kinsmen stand nfar off. — ft. xxxtUS. 

not belonging to the ri?iiblu rliorch. 

Yo who smnetlirra wcro a/ar off, are made nigh by the 
blQ'kl ofCluinl.— A>A. II. 

Afj AUD. a-feerd', pm-u a. (o/ankj Sax.) Frighted, 

territied, afraid. — Obsolet*;. 
But lell me. Hall, art thoa not horrfbly ttfa/rrJ f- 
Afkr, a'fer, «. (Latin.) The south-wost wind. 
HiAua and A/a- bleak with thunderous clmida. — .VJt 






AFFAniLiTT^ af-fa-bil'e-te, s. (affabilif^, Fr.) Ensi- 
ncaa uf laanitErs ; civility ; oondescenaon. Uaed 
cQnirnonly with respect to sapcriorB. 

Affable, afTji-bl, o. (French, from rtj^a^iVw, Lat.) 
Ensy of manners ; sccostable ; coartcons ; oompLii- 
fuint ; beni^i ; mild ; favourable. 

Afpablcnkss, aTfa-bl-nes, «. Courtesy; affAbilHy. 

ArFAni.T, arfs-blp, ad. In «n nffjblo manner; 
coorteoQsly; civilly. 

AFFAimoii.% arfa-bni.% a. (tifahrt., Fr.) Sltilfnlly 
rn»do : ooiDpli*te; finubed iu ■ woricmon-UJce 

Affabdi.atios, af-ftb-u-la'ahua, «. (a^abulatio, 
Lat.) The moral oFn fable. 

ArFAiR, af-fore', «. {affaitr, Fr.) Bniniiess ; some- 
thing to be manaf;ed or transacted. In Military 
laDguage^ a partial engagement; s renoonntcr; 
also a duel ; an nffuir of bonoar, absunUy so called. 
la the plunl, it denotes tninuctions in general, a!i 
hnmao affiin; church nffiara; the affairs of the 

ArrxMlsn, of-famlsfa, v. a. (nffamer, Fr.) To atanre. 
My loT»-i^,fbMM«d heart.~.^><«]w«r. 
The affamiMhinjf of ntiien. — Bp. HaJl. 

Atfamiaument, af-famltli-roent, «. Siarrotion. 

AFFEARf af-feer' r. a. {afirran^ Sox.) To irighten. 

Each tTembllne leaf, and vbliitUns wind tkcy tkcare, 
A« gh&sUj Imik duoB gnwUy Ibem nfftare. — Sptnstr. 

ArFECT, af-fekt', p. o. {offteter^ Fr. from officio, 
a£fxtum, Lat.) To act upun ; to proiiuoe ^ecls 
in the sumo thing ; to move tbo pnssionB ; to ^tn 
at ; to endesTODr; to bnd to ; to endeavour aA«^r ; 
to be fond of ; to be pleated with ; to lore ; lo makr 
a show of something ; to stndy the appearance of 
anything with some degree of hypocrisy ; to imi- 
tate in an nnnatuntl and oonstnuned manner; 
to tend to, by natural afHuity or dlsposiUoti, as the 
drop« of a fluid afrct a spherical form ; judicially, 
to convict of some crime. 

Affbctatios, af-fek-U'shun, «. (ajectatio^ Lit) 
An attempt to usame or exhibit what is not na- 
tural or real ; an ■itifidnl show ; an riuboratr 
Bppcanace; afidM pret«noa; ■ffectation , fond- 
ness. — Obmlete in the lost sense. 

Affeotko, af-fek'tod, pari, a. Moved; touched in 
the feelings ; excited ; ijitemally disposed or in- 
clined ; studied with overmuch core, or witli hypo- 
critical appearance ; full of atTcctatiim ; given to 
fulee show. 

Afkectkdlt, af-fek'led-le, ad. In an sffected 
manner; hypocriticaUy ; with more appcnrunce 
than re&Uty ; studiously ; wtlh laboured intention. 

AFFECTUDNE9&, of-fck'tod-ncs, 8. TUo quality of 
bein;; afTectMl, or of nukii^ fahe appearances. 

Affeciuhlitt, af-fek-te-bii'e-te, «. The state of 
being nScctible. 

Affectiblb, af-fek'tc-bt. a. That mar bo aiTccted. 

Affection, of-fek'ahnn, *. (Frencli.) Tlie sUte 
of bnog aiSbotftd— (uot nsed in this sense) ; pauion 
of any kind ; a bent of mind toward a poi^cuUr 
object; goodwill; love; sealoos attachment; de- 
•ire ; inclination ; state of the tmud In geitcrdL 
There growi 
Id my nioit lU-oompoMd ^feetvm, suoh 
A KUnrhleiu avarice, that, were I ktn?, 
I Abould cat off Iba Doblaa fbr fheir lands. — iSAab. 

attribute. In Pathology, a disease, or any morbid 
state tif the body, as a hysteric afectkm. 
Arrp-rTiOKATE, of-fek'ahun^ate, a. Full of affection ; 

fond ; wann-heartcd ; zcilous, prneeedi-'j 
ofTL-ction, mdicating love: benertflent; t 
inclined to ; vronnlj attached. 

As for the porltoment itmaeatlr took fin 
afftcliowUe nfold to the war of Franee. — Daeom. 

AFFECTioifATELT, af-fek'shnn-ate-le, odL 

affection ; fondly ; tenderly ; kindly. 
Affectionatexess, af-fck Bliun*aleBes. f. 

nesa ; goodwill ; affection. 
ArFECnoycD, af-fek'ahund, a. Disposed; 

an affection of heart. 

Be ye klndty affi<tiom»d one to anotber.— Am 

•fleeted ; ooneeited. — Obsolete in thcae seuaca 

An affeatcrtbd ass, that com staU without be 
uttura it by ttreat iwaiha,— gWfca 

Affectitb, af-ftk'tir, a. That aflccts or 

emotion ; suited to affect. 
Affkctitelt, of-ffk'tiv-le, ad. In an afie 

impressive manner. 
Affectur^^ af-fck'tur, s. 0;ie who imS 
Affccter,/ fashion ; one who assoroea. 

The Jesuits, agtctort <A aaperiorlky.— A* JL 41 
A just affttitr of thy faith.— AtaH. 4 i^lsli 

AFFECTUoftrrr, af-fek-tn-ott'e-te, a. {affacd 
LaL) Paasionotenns. 

Afpectuods, af-rck'to-Ds, a. (qfectueia^ ^ 
Full of paaaion. — A word >«Mom used. 

Affeeb, af-feer', v. a. (ql?ier, K^ set, Fl 
confirm; (s^^erer, to assit>t, Fr.)tn Law, ( 
or reduce an arbitrary penalty or ameroenM sum, or to reduce a guueral ameroai 
a sum certain, according to tbe carcumati 
the case. 

Affef.kkr,\ af-fe'rur, t. A person appol 

Aff kbbor, / court leets, &c., upon oath, I 
such ati have committed f&tilts, arbitrarily 
able, and having no eipn.«« penalty set d 
statu te. — CotoeL 

Affekrmknt, af-feer^meut, a. The act of i 
or usessing on amerceinetit, according to 
cnmBtAnces of the coite. 

Affetto, af-fet'to, \a- (Italian.) 

Appettvoso, af-fet-tB-o's»f» in Music,) 
that the strain to be snistg or pWiyed ia to bs 
a slow, teuder manner. 

Affiance, af-fiana, «. (Frenck.) A « 
contract; trust; confldtmce ; aincvre r«Kano 
in the Divine promises and protection ; — 
betroth or bind any one by promiiM to m 
to give contideooe. 

Jffiameed In my fUth^— Apt. 

Affiaitoeb, af-fl'an-stir, «. HewbomakM 

tract of marriage between two partiea. 
Affighe, af-fecsh', s. (French.) A pUeap 
Afkidatiom, Hf-ff-da'i»huD,| $. {n^o, Lat. 
Affidature, af-fe-da'turt,) toal •ontract ; 

oath of fidelity. 
Affiuavit, af-fc-da'Wt, a (prtL of o^ 

Lat.) A declaratiim oti oath ; an.oatb in 

or a declaration to the truth : an oath ti 

before a person leguUy (fualtfted io admii^ 

Affied, af-fide', pnrL a. Joined by o( 

Affile, affile^ v. a. (offiler, Fr. and Dai 

polish. — Obsolete^ 

Be moat precho and well afflU fall tangat—tA 
ArriLiATB. af-fil'e-ate, r. a. (offiiier, Fr. fl 

and iUius, a aon, Lat.) To adopt : lo rco 




finily * no ; to rreeire ia a sodeljr a member, and 
wMm» bim into iu mntcriM, pluts, or intrigues. 

JkvmLin(Mr» af-61-«-4 ahan, «. Adoption ^ asso- 
cittjati ia llw mid* CudUj or society. 

AVTUAoa. aTfin-aja, j. (French.) The act of 
vMag BMUk ; tlw proocM by which mctALs are 
■kMBfd ia a lUte of parity. 

Am>KD, a-6U, a. (o^mji, Lat.) Joined ia 
dtony; ralaCed to another. 
UfartlaOr 4^«*4or laapwd la oaee.~AaAi 

ArruiTT, af-fin'e-tet c {afixiti^ Fr. fr»m n/^u*, 
IjA.) Rdatiaciahip by tnamage; oppo8«d lo con- 
muffuuilj or relatian bj birth ; rrlatioQ to ; cnn- 
•icCioa vith : nwmbUnoe ta In Zoology aad 
BiAjaj, tha ralatioD of ona animal to another. In 
OhoaMtiy, kbe pmrer by wtddi tiie atoms of dif- 
KTotf ibrtaiM3ea are attracted to tmck other in 
Iha pndaeticMi of chemical oompoonda ; electric 
■I ha c taa L In Botany, the nlation which naturai 
mkn bev t» each otiKr^ as regards stnictore, cx- 
iBBil or iatcmal, of the plants tbey embrorr. 

AmRM, af-fenn', v. a. (q^Snuo, Lat) To declare 
M fcain ly ; to aver; to luaiutoin as true; to tell 
oonfldaotly ; — p. a, to declan poaitivcly ; to ratify 

AmaiUBUt, af-fenn'a-bl, a. That may bo af- 

ArriEMABLT, af-ScnnVblc, ad, In a way capable 

of ifinBatian. 
imaiuycB, af-fenn'man*, a. Confirmatioii ; de- 

eW^iuo ; a|*pused to ivpeaL 
imuujrr, af-fcnu'maDt, a, The persoa who 

tfinna; a decUrar. 
imaxATlO!!, af-fier-ma'dran, «. (^ojirmaiw, lat) 
Tbe act of affinniDg or declaring; coatirraatiun ; 
; the positioa affirmed. In Law, the 
dsdAntJoii maJe try Quakevi and Mora* 
la caiaa where an oath is required from 
; bfaa afficmationi made by such [wraons 
art iwriAabla in the same way as perjUTy. 
AmaxATrra, Bf-frnn'a-lir, a. That affirms; dc- 
daratoiy of what cxiAta ; that am or may be 
afimad ; coafirmation ; ratlfjiug; positive; d»g- 
BMiat; — & that which oontjiins an affinnation. 
AtmnaTlT BLT, af-fena'a-liv-le, a<L In an affir- 
Butln manoer \ on the positive side \ not uc^a- 
Amuoa, af-fer'nnr, s. The person who affirms 

•r dedans anything poeitivcly. 
Amx, af-6ks', p. a. (aji^o^ aJLnm, Ut) To 
tnita to the ^kd ; tosubjuin; touitiiex; to attach, 
iBit«,«r conaect wilh -, — «. a aylLible or letter added 
t« the sod cf a word. 
ArnuoH, af-fik'ahmi, a. The act of affixing; the 

*^9 of being affixed.— Seldom oaed. 
Aiytanoau af-fla'^on, a. {a^, ajiatum^ LaL) 

Ha ist cf fanathing apon anytliiDg. 
Arruna, af-da'toa, i. (I^tio') A blast or brcittli 
sfabd; eoaunBDJcstioc of thepowerof prophucy ; 

AVfUci, af-aikt', r. a, {a/Jliao^ ajlk-tum^ Lut.) 
T^fAfopaifli togriere; totarmeot; to harass ; 
I Avfucmki sf-fiik^edf a. Sofloing grief or pain ; 
I «nrthrown, 

i«B^ If say rest esn hsrboor then ; 
w*Biblli>a our ngtieud Powon, 
how «• nsT henoelorth nteet aflbod 

AffUCTCBXSSt, af-flik'tad-Des, s. The state of 

affliction, or of being afflicted; somwfulneas 

Appltctcr, af-flik'tur, 4, One who a£Bkts; a 

ArFMCTiNO, af-ilik'ting, a. Grierons; distressing, 

as sn aJUcting dlspcmtjition. 
Apflictinolt, af-t^ik'ting-le, ad In an afflicting 

or opprcssiTO manner. 
AFKl.lcTtox, af-flik'»hun, «. The rtato of pain or 

sorrow; calamity; the state of Iwing Borrot^ful; 

misery; distm-<s; torment. 
AFFi.iuTirE:,af-tlik'tiv,a. Causing affliction ; pain- 

ftil ; tormenting. 
Afflictively, sf-flik'tir-le, a<L Psinfally ; ia a 

state oF torment. 
Afflcesce, af'flu-eos, \ t. (^ajflwntia, Ijit) Ths 
AFFLtKKcr, sf'lla-en-ae,/ act of tioMing to »ny 

pUce; coucourecf 

I shall not ir«U(« the i\fflii*ttem of Toiing nob)«i hito 
Spain, alter the voice of the prioee tMlug there bad booa 

DulftCU.— HV^lMt. 

exuberance of riches ; stream of wealth ; plenty. 
Affiairnt, affluent, a. (French, fn>in njJtueHr^ 

Lat.) Flowing to any piirt, as, tho ajiuent blood.{ 

abundant ; exuberant ; wealthy. 
Afflvrntlt, af'tln-eDt-Ie, ad. In an affloent 

manner; tn abuiidunocL 
Affia'entness, sf'fla eDt-Dcs, «. The quality of 

being affluent. 

Afflux, sf'iluks, a, (nj^axusj Lat) The act o5 

flowing to, or that which flows to, as an afflvjc at 

blood to the bead; afflutnce; that which tlaws la 

another plnoe. 
Affluxion, af-fluk'ahun, s. (a^urio, Lat.) Tl« 

act of ilonin^ to ; tlist which llowti to, 
Affob.voe, af'fo-raje, s. (French, from qffbrer, to 

value.) A duty paid in France to the prvjmeltir 

of a district, for pennisjiion to sell wine, £tc., within 

his superiority. 
Apporcemkkt, a-forse'ment, s. fnrf sod /ores.) Ia 

old charters, a fortress ; a fort! fi ml ion. 
Affobp, af-forde', r. a. To yield ; to produce ; to 

be able to sell at a certain price ; tu be able to 

bear expense. 
Apfoksst, sf-for'est, v. a. (afforetior^ LaU) To 

turn ground into a forest, 
Affo&estatiok, af-for-rvs-ta'shan, a. The sot of 

converting ground into n forest 
Affkavciiisk, af-fraa'shiz, r. 0. {affrattchtr^ Fr.) 

To make free. 
Affbahcuibeuext, nf-fran'shii-ment, s. {nfra»- 

cAistemaU^ Fr.) The act of making free. 
Affiu p, af-frnp', v. vl (ajrappan, Ital.) To strike; 

to make a blow, 

I bare beea trained op In warlike stowre. 
To losscn ipaar and Hniuld, rdiI tu o^ruf 
The warlike ridor.-^i'/)<.«ei". 
Affrat, af-frm', 0. a. {a£'ruytr^ Fr.) To fright; 

to terrify — (obsoLcto; \ 

Or when the flying Iteavcai he wuxJd fljTniji. — 

— a. a tumaltoous sassult; a battle; tumult) 
The general affreur and htoodsheds of tbo world . — 

Hf. JIag. 

AFTitriniTT, sf frate', r. a. To hire a ship for tb« 

transportation of goods. 
Afpukightbii, af-fra'tur, a. The pcnoa who hires 

or diurters a ship or otlier Teasel to convey goodsL 
AppxtEioOTHENT, af-fraic'mcut, s. The aat sf 

Slaving a ship for the trtuispoTtation of goodh 



AlTnET, af-fivt', #. (a^retliirtj ItaL) Farioaa op- 

st't; imiiicdiiilu ntliiLik. — Ob&ok-tc. 

OarelfiM of prrill Id th«Ir ficn« nffrtt. — Spemwtr, 
Affriction, af-fiik'slmn^ J. {ajiictio^ LaU) Tbc 

act uf nibbing one thing on aiiothur. — ObK)let«. 

Evvry plUFul vloa iM«ki tlia enlftrRORient oMlM-tf b; ■ 
fiOQIagioiu offfietian nf %\\ rulpaMe BitbJifctA.^^uf/yu^'J. 

AmUBNDED, af-frvoilV-d, a. Rccondltd ; niuUt! 
IKetidi. — Obsolete. 

MTVo bIio mw ttuU crui'll wnr so ended, 

And deadly Tiiea bo faUhruIIy n/WninJ, 

Id loaeljr wl»a b)io gan Uie ]ady ^rot\.SpatMr, 

Affrioht, af-frile', v. a. To affoct with fear; to 
terrify auddenly ; to frighten ; 
Thoa ihalt not be affrighted at tbora.— AjmI. tIL 81. 

Ai uno affright vltii hellish totmd^.— S^Muar. 
— #. fear ; terror ; tbo caaae of fear ; a tfarihlo 
object ; dreaded appearance. 

I BM tlie gods 
UpbraM oar Bufferings, and would homblu them, 
By wndlun th<>]tc nffriyhia wbll(< wf are btiv. 
That fro might laugh at U»o(r ridiculofu fvar.— 

Jint Jimgtm. 

AFFaiGHTEDLT, ftf-fri*tcd-lc, od Under tlie itn- 

pn>«»ion of fear. 
AypiiKiHTEB, iif-fri'tar, a Ho who frightens.— 


Tbo famoni Dim Quixota of the Mancha, the rlf^hlor 
ef wroiig% the redrcaavr oMtiJtir!u«,flic prutuctor ofdiuii- 
•etfl, the q^n^Uar of glanta.— j'AaUim, Tnuu. ^f Vun 

AKPKiomrui^Rf-lHto'ful, o. Full of affright ; ter- 
rible ; dreadful 

A/FKianTMENT, af-frite'nioiit. $. Affright ; terror ; 
tho state of being frip:litcued. — Ohtiglcte. 
Bito waked with the affrishtvunt of a dntam.~> Wottm. 

Affiiokt, af-fnint', r. o. (affronter, Fr.) To meet 
face to face; to encounter; to meet in a huHtilc 
manner, front to front; to ofTcr an open insult; 
to offend avowedly \—a. iusuk offered to a [irr- 
w»n'B fa«; contemptuous or niJ« trtatment ; con- 
tumely; outrage; act of contempt; opon opposi- 
tion; disgrace; ahamo. 

Afpsontbe, flf-fnin-te', *. Applied in Heraldry, 
when two aniinala aro placed fooi to fuue ou an 

Affbohtkk, af-frun'tur, t. One who affrontx. 

ArrxontlNU, af-fmnt'ing, part. a. Contumclions ; 

ArPUONnNOLY, af-fmnt1ng-le, ad. In an affront- 
ing manner. 

Apfroktivb, af-frun'tiv, a. Caiuing afiiont ; 

AFFnoNTiVETntRS, af-fmn'tiv-niw, *. The quality 
that gives affront. 

Affcaoe^ affn-ajc, t. (Frtnflh.) The right of cut- 
ting wood for fuuL 

AffuhE, af-fazo', v. a. (q^itfufo, affusum^ ad aiid 
/undo, I poor oat, LaU) To sprinkle; to pour 

Affusiok, af-fii'xhao, *. The act of pouring or 
sprinkling with a liquid. 

Affv, af-fi', r. a, (tiffier, FrO To betroth in ordtfr 
to tnaxriage ; — e. «. to pot ooolidenca in,— Obeo- 
leC« in the Utter sense. 

We ^ffU hi your lorea and andertaklngv.— 

AfirlT), a-feeld', ad. To the 6r1d; in the field. 
Uow Jocund did tbry drive their tcami aJUdf—Oray. 

Afire, a-fire', ml On fire; in a state of iuflank* 

mation or passionate desire. 

So WHS be Mt t^/lrr with li«r beauty. — /,j 
Aflat, a-flat', ad. Lord with the ground. 
Ai'UOtiT, u-flite', a. Having fortitude; 

presence of oiind upon tbo appeanmeo of daagcTi 

•i— Obsulela 

Uixm this wordn hir brrto ajthfit. 


Thynktiide wbat waa b«*flt lu d^Hinc, — Oomtn 
A FLOAT, a-fiote', ad, and prtp. Bonie on tho water % 

On Budh a foil bu are ve now ojlomt, 
TtiKt we rniut takn the current when U aervei^ 
Or hwe our rcntures. — Shakt. 
figuratively, moving or going fnm place to place j 

Othera yoo'U acc, when all tbit Iuwd'b '^y •"(. 
Wrapt In the embraces of a kcnwy ouau— 6'ty. 

unfixed, as, diu* affairs are all qfiooL As au ajyi 

live, q/hat follows the noun. 
Af OUT, ft-foot', ad. On foot ; in action ; 

I pr'ythe«, wlian thou BeiMt tlial airl a/oof, 
Eren witb the very ootninent of tliy avul, 
Obserro mUM unele.— dUUb. 

In motion, 
or Albany's and Cornwall's powers you heard not; 
Tis said Ifai^y are t^ool.— SlkakM, 

Aporc, a-fore', prej). In front of; before, as, b« 
stood afore him; sooner in time, as, 1 shall bv 
there ojorc you ; prior, or snperior to ; 

Iq this Trinity, there Is none t^ort or after the othrr. 
—AtManmriaH CVaedL 

tmder the notice of; 

J/on Qod I spMk Btmpty^Jfoa Jotmn. 
— ad. in time past ; 

lie never dmnk wino q/itw.— Jtol-s, | 

first in the way; 

Win yon go OD ^forc f— fiboka. 
in tho forepart; 

Approaohlflg nigh, he muvd high q/W^— 

Hu boil/ nioastruus, Uorriblu, muX viiaL—^janutf. 

rather than. 

^Mt>. Afor* V\\ 

Endure the tynnny of such a tongue, 

Aiid»ucb a pride 

ibtt What will yimdof 
Xm]b. Tell tnitb.— ^n /nimm. 

In Nautical language, towards the head of the 
ship ; further forward, or nearer tbu stem, as, nf&rt 
Wvi winflluHS. Afort the matt is a piirwie wtnch 
is applies] to a commtin saJlDr, as one whu doc^ lits 
duty on the main dnik, or has no ofBce on bcsni 
tho ship. A/bre-ffoinff, going before. Afore- 
h'tndy by a previous provision ; provided ; pn;- 
parrd ; previously Bttcd. Afort-mmiicmedy mrn- 
tioned bt'fure. Aforc-nanied^ named before. Afore- 
thouffht, premeditated ; prepense Afor&-timtf in 
tiiiiu piuL 

Afodl, a-fowT, a. Entangled; not free. 

Afraid, a-frayd', a. Past part, of the obsoleto 
verb affmy ; struck with fear or apprchensian ; 
fearful. It expresses a leu dvgm of fear tbaa 
terror or frighl, 

Afhcsii, a-frcflh', ml Anew; again; recently; aflor 

Afric, afTrik, o. Belonging to Africa. 

Or when DIscrta sent from A/riek shore.— JflZfo*!. 

African, offre-kan, «. A native of Africa; — a. 
pirtrHFiing to Afrira. African almond, the tre« 
BraWjuni st«U&tum, a native of tho Cape of Good 
IlLkjie: Order, I'roteaoeje. Africtui jUAan^ tho 
shrub Tarchoooothus ciunpbonUus, a aatin of 



I tim Oft of Goad Unpc AJi-icttn marijfotri, the 

I aamd OonpoNte plant Taf:Gtw erecLo. African 

%,lfei En^b muiie of pLuiU of the ccnua Aga- 

lOtkn, natirta of tlia CA{>r of (joml Hojte. 

Araon, ft'fruot', «<i lu front; iu au op)Msite 

irr. ifttjunqp. (o/btn, Sax.) A sea tenn; abaft; 

irin; Ian »d all. 
Irm, ifso; i"^' C^^ Sitx.) Following in 

fkoi; IB pttnnit of ; behind; posterior in limn; 

aasffiag to; in aiiiuiiou of; — ad, iii sDcceodlng 

fan ; Mmmmg antrfhtr. AJter ia uaod by Young 

ai % mum itt tbe ibllowiag line : — 

BdlCfon, PnTidnacfl I aa ^^^c tale. 

■TW-ajes, «. Saoceeding time ; poe- 

ImuiX, sTtar-avl, a£ At Ust; io fine; in 
when aU has been t^kui. inlu view. 
aTtcr-baDd, c A future link or coq- 

lumi, Brter-bert&, <. The pUoenU or u- 

ifi which the fcHtus is involved, and which 

• baBgbt awaj after dcUvcrr. 

imBCLXr^ aftCT-Jdap, a. An unexpect■^d event 

;. ^lfaul^[ after an lAiir u BOppastid to be at an 

I irmoiMT, «rm--lo«t, $, Tho expeniw incarrcd 

I dW tbr Qcipnal (dan boa beco ucu-cuted. 

irmcKor, sftcr-knip, #. SiTund htu-rrst. 

ArmiTS, aTier-i, o. o. To fuUow ia ^Haw. — Ob- 
I aki. 
I Er« lafl to ^/irrt$* lyro. — Shaki. 

imiOAVB, aTtfT-Ksme, «. Alethod« taken after 
'> ttr fint torn uf iffnin. 
I inuccA&u, afoT-^Jrd, «. In the V.a\-y, Lbe 

inaoi vbo an Ktationed on the [Mxip and quxilKr- 
Waf vhkU to attend And work the nrtrr-siiUd. 
AlBtUTX, aTter-hfe, a. llic rminiudcr t>f life. 
AREUbiTii, aTtjcr-moxA, j. I'he aeoond crup uf 

I ^^ 
Armoov, tfW-oooo, «. The time Ctdid noon 


Arrurjuss, jAer^ia^nZf «. Paiiu after cbild- 


Ammao^ ifter-pm, a. A fiirce or other per- 

I tawca after tha pUy. 

Inaaaiu, aftor-MTla, t. The sails on the 

I ro^'tfteil and <t«ja, belmn-n the uioin and 

AmsmoiIOirr, aTter-Mawt, «. Rcflrrttons funoed 
lAv tba ad ; aapedienta fonned when too Intc. 
k li lot le be emifawiArA with aecoaif ihirngfU, 
I vUifa iam wai fanplj that tiw aotioa haa been 
I yfaaiaJ wbicfa i» the enbject of refloctioo. 
Annruut, aTter-tiiiM), 8. Succeeding time. 
AninAiui, aTlrr-wawrd, ud. (a mcoopding time. 
•^fTuiwir, aTtar-wil, <l ContTiranco of cipcdieuta 
dim the ocratiuo of uatng them ia poat. 

K'n«— I hava wA thflBfbt U neeewuuy to pivu tliA 

AifctttHH etf tba ioJlovlar wordi. aa tbe wonU tlicm- 

I a^i^ la fka^ ynpar plaoM; with the trlmlilvu 

■■alac of V^* awfllcleotly do:— Afteracc«^'IiiRU'jn, 
"^ alleraa^ aftenippltcatioo, aflrrattack, 

attereoncr. aAerooofbit, •fterconduci, 

■ft a F ao u tletloa, aftcnlayK, afterdlnner, 

alia fipilheH rig, aAcrhelp, anurlMKin, 

aftartakloKi^ afterllTer, anerlWIag, 

aftmaedoff, aftanKMirishBicnt, 

aftenvekonlng; aftrrrriieBtaooe, 

laea^ aflental^ afkentlae, after- 

■AsWRwr, aAertasic« aftertnuloi;, anerumlmv 

•tanriM^ aftvwtiaaB, a/tuwratb, oflenrritttrft. 

Apzclia, af-Mle-a, «. (in honour of Dr. Adum Af- 
uliua, a Swedish botanist.) A genus of Lcguiiitn- 
oiu plants: Suborder, I'apihouaceA.*. 

AOA, a'ga, «. A Turkibli nutilai^ officer in chief. 

Again, a-gvn', ad. (ayen, Sax.) A aecond tiiuei 
ouoe iwiiPA ; back, in realitutiun ; 

Wlien your head did but acba, 
I knit taj batntkc^rrbinr about your brovg, 
Tlio best I bad~« tirtnce^ri liroui;tit It me— 
Aud I did never aak 11 foa agam. — fAob. 

on the other hand ; on another part ; in rotnm ; 

noting reaction*, be^dcs, in anj other place or 


But, on thn i>tlM>r tide, Ibrre h nnt In th« wnrM a^aim 
Boch • Mprlni; and cciniiuiry of brave mlUtary people ti 
In Kngtand, SmtUnd, am] Ireland. — Bdtam. 

twice as much, marking the same qnantity re- 

Tfacre are whom hoavvn has bleat wttb store of wit, 
Yet want aa mucli ajwin to manage tL— -ibp«. 

Afftiim and ojuin, with frcfjoent repetition. The 
leading idea conveyed in all the uses of agaw a 
that uf return or repetition. 
Ao JiiN»T, B-geuat', ad. {togontt, Sax.) In opposition, 
uuting cnmitj ; 
iJ is liADd shall bo agahtMt ovary man.— (7«ii. xvL 

in oppDsiticm, noting contrariety, eontndlction, or 
rrpiipnance ; in oppoMCion, noting competition ; 
in an oppo^te direction, an, to ndo affttuut the 
wind; oppoiiite in place; ibreast; 
Aaron llvhted the bunp onragamMt the candlnrtlck.— 


m opposition, noting advenily, iujory, or injuatice. 
And wben thf-o think'nl of bcr eterottjr, 
Tlitnk not tlmi di-jitti aff<ti$t3t hor nahiro la: 
Tbink It a Mrtli ; and wbcn tboa feo'itt to die, 
6Ut£ like a swau, as If thoa went'st to bllsx.— 
Sir J. iMivitg. 

Agauictods, a-gid-ak'tuB, a. DcRtitnto of milk. 

AoALAXT, ■g'a-lak-Be, s. (a. without, and gala^ 
milk, Gr.) Want of milk iu the mother after 

AGALL(X;ilt ag'al-lok, \ $. Ah>M-wood, of 

^GALLOcnnH, a-gallo-kDm, \ whieh there are 
thrue varieties — the Calainba, the wmimon Li^^num 
aloes, and the Calambaz. The firet is light and 
porous, and so filltd with a IVagrant n^ui, thai it 
may be moulded with the fingm; the i>ec(ind is 
denser and less rphiiioua; the third ia the akws- 
wood, osed bj cabinet-makere and iolayers. 

AoAUdATOLiTE, agal-mat'o-Ute, «. {tujnlmn^ an 
image, and lithot^ a stone, Gr.) A variety of 
soapstone, the talc graphiquo of Haiij, a mineral 
of a groenibh or greenish -yellow colour, used by 
the Chinese in the umiuifncture of their imaiEits. 
It cdtuiists, according to Viui(]ttGlin, of ttilicHi 66 ; 
alumina, 29 ; lime, *1 ; potash, 7 ; oxide uT iranf 
1 ; water, 5. A specimen analysed by Klaprotb 
contained do potash. 

Agama, Bg^a-mo^ a. (arjantai^ I wonder at, Gr.^ A 
Itenus of reptilis bctunging to the l^nna family, 
resembling the common lizards, but allied to tlio 
Saurians on account of their taila being cuviri'd 
with imbricated scales, and the body covered with 
snail rhomboidal or bexagoral plates. 

Ag«x^ a-ga'me, ». (n, without, and pamns, mar- 
riiigo, Gr.) One of the oaoies applied to the cel- 
liibir, crrptnjramoiu, or acotylodjnous diviaioo of 
the vegetable kingdom. 

AcAHi, ag'a-mi, a. The Egretta or Tnunpcter 




AIomiDUtn in « ^t:ite of purity rcsrnililes pUtiiin 
in appeal mncf^f when buni'ubrd it lioslbe tiutrenf 
tin, antl i* a uun-conductor &f elcctricitj. 

AlL'M-blate or ScHi»T, arium-clutc, «. A r.irletjr 
of ft1ial« or slate cUy, of a bliicUbgri^y colour, 
whicb, vrbcD rxpo<«d to the nction of th« nttno- 
spherci cffl.'rcBcm into soft deUcuto fibres of ibe 
forro- sulphate of iron, contnining, mccordin;; to 
FhilipSi, sulphurio aciJ, 30.9; protoxide of iron, 
20.7; tJumiiia, 5.2 ; water, 43.2. It is soluble 
in irster, and then yields crvNtals of sulphat« of 
iron (copperu;, and whon au addition of aalts 
of potuftb is made to the remaining sulphate of 
alumina, cryiitahi of iilum aro fonncd. Tho liqai<l 
is oollectod into lar|^ barrels, which, in a short 
time, presents massea of beautifully crystalllxed 
■lam. Aliun-»liite occurs n^ar Whitby in Eng- 
land, and at Huilct and Ciimp^ip, ncnr CilaA^i'W, 
at whicli large manufactories have bi>cn lung in 
cxtstpoce. At the lutt«r pUceo, it occun nitb 
iroD pyrites between the Iow<^^t coitl of ibo coal 
formation and a bed of llmestoDo. 

Aliix-stone, allnm-ston^, t. A mineral which 
occurs at Li Tolfu, in Italy ; massive or cryatajl- 
Ucod ; gnyi^h-white or red; crj-^tal, an obtuse 
riioinboid, variously modifitHl. It consists of lul- 
pburio acid, 39.495; alumina, iJd.HM ; potash, 
I0.U21 ; water, a trace of iron and lo&s, 14 ^30. 

ALlJM-WATtK, iil'lum-waw-tur, «. Water iiiiprp';- 
UBted with ;i'iaTn. 

Axuu-'WOKKft, urium-warlcB, «. A manofactory 
at which alum is ma'le. 

Alitb, allnr, » j. (a/Zer, to pS Ff-) In Arcbi- 

Alure, ul'lure.f lecture, ad alley; a balcony. 

AUTTACEOL'i*, aI-u-t«'»huB, a. (altUticet ^'f- f>"'i» 
ci/uto,VM(hcr, Lat.) Having a soft leathery-like 
■pprai-flnL-e, as in Ibo Agiricn^t lon^icaudiis. 

Alliiation, nl-u-tfl'»hun, ». {aluta, leather. Lit.) 
The dressing or tjuinin^ of leather. 

AtTEART, aI've-8-re, s. iahtariumt a bee-hive.) 
The hollow of the ear; a boe-hive. 

Ai.TKOLAR, al-vo'o-lar, \ a. (u/*W*, tho 80ok<*ts 

ArvKOLARV, al-ve'o-la-rc,/' of tho tcclh, Lat) 
Containinj; Kjckets or cvlls. 

Alveolati^, al-vt'o-lale, «. Pitted in tbo manner 
of a honeycomb. 

Alveoli, al-ru'o-li, «. In Rotony, tbe smsll cells 
or honey CO! nb-liUe civiiies arranged symmetri- 
cslly on ccrtsin plnulti und cor^ile. In Anatomy, 
tbe soclccts uf the teeth, termed the alveolar pro- 

Al-VKOLIFORU, al-ve-o'Ie-fawnn, ji. (n/cvofi//, a 
socket, and forma, sbapc.) Celled like a honey- 
conih, as in tho cnae uf certain eoral». — Ex. V'agin'i- 
pora fnigilis. 

Alvkolina, al-ve-o-Iiua, t. A geiins of tninuto 
furamlnifcruiu shells. 

Alvkomtes, al-vr-o-Ii'tes, f. (alvfoliihu, boncy- 
eomboi), LsL »nd lUJi"*, ■ ktone, Gr.) A gopiun 
of fuuil toophytes, lirgo Ht the one end, and la- 
pcring at the other, a'<d cuuij>osed throughout uf 
•miill hL'nii»|ilii'ricd cells. 

ALVirLUXL's, al-ve-thik'sus, «. (nffiNs, ths intes- 
tines, and^ud, I fluw, LsL) Dnrr'iariu 

Alvinii Coscrctions, al'vino kon-kra'shuns, x. 
Concrvtiuns fonnvd in tho large iutestinea, AnJ 
particularly in tbe rectum, by accumulaUou and 
prutracled lud;;ment uf fa'Cal matter. 

Altcs, at'vQi, n. (Latin.) The intestines; tbo in- 
totting] exi:.<iv.itiun. 

Alwat, aivl'way, \ n. {ttU and »r«y. r^i^' 
Alwats, awl'wnYX,/ Sax.) Perpetually^ : 

all time; ooastKtilly; without varitUJun. 
A,li. S«e abbreviations in npitendix- 
Ah, ud, a. (wm, Lat. am or iin, Goth, enm or am, 

Sox.) The first p( rcun nf the verb * to bt/— * 

/fltn, tbe self existent tlcinol Jehovah. 

Tbsa shalt thou say uuto tlw children of Israel, I AK 
batli setii me uqu:> you.— £f<iJ. tU- 14. 

Ahahii.itt, am's-hil-e-to. s. (amnhUiti, Fr. amt- 
bilihu, l.aL) LoreUncss; the poner of pleMtng; 

No mica can make atnMlitjf.—Iip. T*flar, 

Amahtk or Amravik, am'a-bir, $, An andnt 
ciutom of paving money to tlio Inrd of the msner, 
on the ninrriMge of a tnaid. lliia custom Is cdd 
to have original ed in Walfc«. 

Ahai>ina, am-H-di'na, r. A name KtveD by Swa{»- 
•on to a genua of fliiehes, belonging to ibe Mtb- 
fsmily CaccotlimuiitinA. 

AllAlx^)TT, am-a-dit, ». (Kr.) German tinder, an la- 
flammable suhstance, nsed sometintiw mi tindvr. 
It is prepared frum the dried fnttgits, Bolcton 
igninrius, steeped in a Htron>; soltiUon of asltpetnu 

AltAiy, a-mane', ml. ■ mainti ur m-tipne^ old Fr. fnxa 
matpuu^ Lat. or fr4>m tbe Sox. nxeyfi.) Willi 
Telicinencf, with vi;;<ior ; fierrely, violently; am 
term used when a sbip-of-wnr itimniHttdf another 
to yield. * Strike nmain/ lower yuiir tojMsits. 

Ajualekite, a-mal'e-kitp, ». A descendant cf 

Amalirk. The Amniekites inhnbiliMl a part of 

Iduravs, sitoatcd between Egypt and tbe Red Si«, 

and alMt p^rt^ of Palestine, among the Canasnitn. 

yln»L'> wu the firetofthe oarlon^ — .Vitni&. xilr. S). 

Amaix;am, «-innri;iira, \ s. {amn^ together, swi 

Amalgama, n-mntga-ma, f ijnaiio^ I wed, Gr.) The 
mixture of metalA by snialguiimtton. — Which *ee. 
Kativo amalgam occun in Hungary, Sweden, &Cm 
semi-fluid, mauive, or crystal lizr<l, in ihomliti 
dodecahedrons, compoaed of mercury, 61. ; nJ- 
ver, 3(1. 

AsiALtiAM\TK, a-marga-mste, r. a. To unite 
metiiU with nuicksilvtr or nurcnry, which may H 
done with all tnruhi, exoi-pl inm and cnpprr, 
Applied, by medalists, to soft alloys in gcucroL 
Used figuratively also,—* 
InRmlilude Ifl, indeed, their four rardlnalTirtnea, oat* 

pactcd nml ataalgnmateti tnlu one. — JJurKe. 

AilALUAHATluN, B-Tnal-gn-muVhun, t, Tbesdof 
mixing invrciiry with unotlier metal. 

AaiALTii.CA, a-m.i]'fAe*a, «. Tlie name of one of 
the nymplLs who attended Jupiter, and nursnl 
bim on goats' milk and honey. To reward hv 
kindness, Jnpitcr placed the gout in heaven U* 
cocstcUiLlion, and gave one of her tioms to tk* 
nymphH wbu nun«^d him; hence tbe coma imal' 
lha;a— the mogiL' cornucopia, or bora of pJenly. 

AMALTlirs, a-n]urf/iu% f. A genua of Ibo AiQ- 
iiionito fmiiily. a fus^il Cephulopod. 

AuUANi), a-mand', r. <[. (nmuiK/o, Lat.) To sead 
ono away; — s, in Scottish Law, a 6nt impospJ 
on one party in favour of his opponent, in oid^ 
to obtain delay. 

AuiXiiATiox, a'man-rT.iVmD, t. Tbo ut of seail- 
ing 00 a message or i ntptoyinenL 

AuAMTA, o-ms-ni't', t. (jimanUft a fungus, Of.) 
A genus of Mushrooms, with orange, ml, or 
brown pileus; sjiid to bo poisonous. 

AyA5ni»E, a-mun'e-tinc, s, A name pven by 



rineipla obuUineU in 

(Liitin.) A per 
writes what EUMlher dicUtca, or copies 
I bean written bj snorber. 
b Mi'ft-ninfA, B. (<if priT. and maraino, I 
■^ The luuno of a [ibnl, tjpo uf th« 
Id Poetry, it sonR'tinjes 
onfjding flower — 

/ a (lower vhich odm 
tiv the Trc* of Life, 
,am-iniir-in-lft«'se-«,«. Anatural 
■taloiu dtootjlcdonDiu pUnts: calyx dry, 
p an J Hr nt; without petals ; ^tAmcn.s fire 
g friin n, «inpl«, superior ; frott, a single 
I »n cmbrTO curvod round » centnl fari- 
IbasueD ; IcareswiUiout Ft()iiilic; chiefly 
iTh* prindpil species cuUirated in thia 
hrtbc ODck'a-«Dinb, the globe amnmnlh, 
% ft04 loTe-lie»-ble«ding. 

-nuHnui'cAin, a, (amararU/tinrutf 
to Aounuithi ; cooaJHtiog of mria- 

'rt-lade, \ ».(<ym<irituJo,'Lat') 

'o-leulf a. (amanUtitiit., Lot.) 

,ft-aia<ri1-l*-da'M-«,> t. (nrna- 

(•Ttl-liil'e-e, j lyiiit, orn.- 

A ii«tuni1 order of eodogenons 

>noiu pUtilfl, coDtftirini; the daffb- 

hnu^ tJie tw-Jladona, the btiNxf-tlowen, 

priMitJiiu, &C. The plants of tho order 

fiowen highly cijioutcil ; b(a- 

inferior. Many of the rootii 


-ma-rifb, <. The name of a njinph 

by Vlr^ Tho oarctssus^ a genus of 

of ihe orjei AnuryllidoF. 

o. (imuxner, Fr.) To collect 

beup or inua. In a figurutive 

to auotber \-~§. ao Hssem- 

of aU tbo preca- 

, Fr.) A heaper ; 

'tDent, ». (omflMemcn/, Fr.) 

gioUtioa; treaanre; horde. 
K fr'Dia»-to-xo>a're-3, a. (omaWoio- 
■o, ptiv. MtfitojT, M pftp, ni d 20on, 
^ A name giveu in tho xoolofticiil 
of Blain«illc to r Bub-typH of tfao 
_ oni« oomprtsiii^ ihuM vertvhrmtcd 
bare no mammv. 
*L a, (from n, aod mate.') Toaccom- 
u a oocnpanioa. — -Obaolet& 

f r ladlaa aate, 
f% )eMf panmour. 

la nodoat wUe anaU. — Sptmter. 

F| ^ o. (from omatir^ to fatigue, Fr.) 
k; Wfiaeoormge; to piixile; to tcmfy; 
Mih boiror.— Obsolete. 

||[h< haf4 amiili^ ffTBtknu lord.— Spenstr. 

]*.nia^Uni', (Frer-ch.) A rirtuoBO; an 
j a loTtf of aoy [ jri icnlar pnmiiL 

imVliv, a. (jiveii to loi-e. 

jlBia, laiVtir-iMa, 9, (onuKw, knre, Lat) 

In hlirciiology, tho n»mo of the orgim »ituiited 
in the occiput, which is supp^ved to iiiflucnco 
sexuAl desire. 
AiiAT»)Kct;i.iST, ft-mn-tnrTcu-IJKt, a, (amntvre^vi^ 
Lot.) A little pitiful iofligDificiuit lover; a pre- 
tender to ftflection. 
AjfiATuniAL, a-iiui-to're-nl, \ a. (amatorUu^ Lat.) 
AjtfATURiots, a-nm-loVc-us,i Rclntiii^: to lave. 
Ttlla it no mere ttm^itarvmt oovel. — 

JAIfon'd JJoc. nnd Dis. of Dh. 

Amatosti, ttm-a-to'rc-i, *. (anw, I love, Lnt.) Pa- 
llwtiet, or the superior obliqnd moscle of the eye. 

AuATUBV, am'a-to-re, u. Kehittiig to love; eaiu- 
Ing lore. 

AiiAtJRnfli!), a-maw-ro'aui, «, (amaroo, T Dbxetin*, 
Gr.) A diseaM of the ere, attended with a ilimi- 
nuiioD or tolal loas of aiglit, arising from a para- 
lytic affection of tho retina and optic nerve; 
frequently Cflllcd Gutta Serena. 

Amazc, a-maze\ r. a. (according to Haillte, from a, 
and tmise, a giilf. Sax.) To confuse with terror; 
to put into confusion with womlcr ; to put into 
perplexity; — *. aiitoiiiahinent; confuiion, elthsr 
from fear or wonder. 

AntI R\U all mniitha with enry or with pratee, 
Ami all hiir JK&luuA monarehs witli ataaef. — JiilUm. 

Amazkdlt, a-nia'xed-le, ad. With coufusion ; 
with Ainaxenicnt. 
Stands MiicI)«Oi thiia amatfitji t 
Cunic, aUier*, etioer wo up lUa a]irtt»fc~JAafta. 

Amazednebs, a-ma'«ed-ne«, #. Coofiued apprs- 
heusion; extreme feiir; horror or dejiciion; height 
of admiration i aatoniahment ; wonder at an uiiex* 
pec ted event. 

Amasino, a-nia'sing, part. a. Wonderful ; aaton- 

AxAZiNGi.r, a-mn'xing-te, ad. To a degrco that 
niny excite aatonitihineot ; wonJf>rfullj. 

AlfAZOsiAN, am-a-xo' a. Warlike; usually 
applied to a virago ; relating to tho Auiazona. la 
Geo^apliy, pertaining to tho river Amazou, in 
Ceiitrid Anierica. 

Ahazuks, ain'a-£uns, ». (a. priv. and nuutoM, a 
mamma or pap, Or.) A fiitiuluos nation of fcni.tlfl 
warriora, represented by ancient liialuriuni lu of 
Scythian ori^a, and scttliii:; ne.*r the river Thcr- 
modon, in Oaj^tadocin. In a wur which enbued, 
the males became almost txtemiin&tcil; tho 
women then took np arniH, aixl resolving to live 
in future without men, put tho remaining malca 
to dciith. The name is ^vcn from their having 
been Sttid to cut oS or sear the right breast, that it 
might not interfere with tlie frv« use of the ann t 
or, according to othtT:!, from amasoitui, * females 
Uviiig to^eth^r.* Alvcrex, who vinited Abyssinia 
in 1520, mentions a rare of AiTiA2on$ who were 
worliiie, hod tbeir left hrvaat deairuycd when 
young, were governed by a qaeen, and fought 
with bows and arrows, mounted on bullocks. 

Amazoh-htovb, am'a-itu-stone, a. Theaxc-stona 
of Jamie«on, or bcilstciu of Werner; a variety of 
jade, found on the banks of the river Amaxon. 
It u also found in Cortfca, SwttzerUud, and 
Saxony, in New island and other South Sea 
Iitlanils. It is maoufiicturvd into hatcbels and 
otiicr iustruineiits. Also, a benutilul apple-green 
variety of common fcl^pur, from tlie Uralian 
mount itina. 

AmuaokoL'S, am-hn^nH, n. {amftat/ieux, Fr.) Cir- 
cumlocutory ; perplexed ; tedivoa. 



Amovstion, am-tiUft'Uhan, t. ^tttnhuttio^ Lat-) A 

boni, ■ scaliL 
AuELf Am'mnl, a. (eiaail, Fr.) Tho matter lued in 

the procesa of cDAmtlling. 
ALliZLAJrCIDBit, s-me'IiD'shrcr, f. (Saroj name for 

Medlar.) A ^eoas of alirubs allied to tb« pear : 

Onl«r, nosacnc. 
Ahelcork, Bin'mel'kawnif t. (French, nm^ivm, 

lUirch, LaL) An old name for a kind of grain 

of which atar^i was made. 
Ahri.kt. Sm Om«1pt. 
AnKiJunATE, a-Tn<1e-o rate, v. a. (awuliorer, Fr. 

from a, and mtlior, bettor, Lot.) To imniwp. 
Ameliouation, a-mfr-le-o-ra'sban, s. (Froncb.) 

AuELLUtt, a-mellaa, t. (aft» the narav of a plant 

mentioned br Virgi).) The Aster, a goniu of 

pbnts : Order, Compoiitie : Suborder or tribe, 

Ahkv, a'men, ad. {rnmn^ so lot it be. Hob.) A tonn 

UKd in derutinna, bj which, at the end of a prayer, 

we iiiefln, be it so, and, at the etid of a cived, so 

it ia. 
Auenahle, a-me'na-bl, a. {amtmahky Fr.) Be- 

aponsible ; subject, so as to be liable to account. 
Ajicvamci^ a-me'nans, r, cu (amcneu*, old Fr.) To 

direct or man»ge L-y force. 
AxENAKCE, a-uie'nauB, f. (rjintnittf, LaL) Condact ; 

bttharioor; ineiD. — Obsolete. 
For he U flfc to it«e t» all aasayii, 
Wbethor for arm and warlike tuutwmttj. 
Or ebe Tor wiiu* and elvtl ^Tcntaacfl. — ^j 

Ajikud, a-mend't p. a. (djawnder, Pr. amendo, Lat.) 
To correct ; to change anylhiii^ that is wrong to 
Bomething belter ; to cha&tue ; to rcfarm tho life : 
tu Wave off wicbeduau. In tliiii stnac we use 
•Mnd To restore paasages which the copiois are 
mippoMd to have omitted. 

AxEirOABLE, a inea'da-bl, a. (amtnabU, Fr.) Bo- 
parable; that which may be inendnl. 

AjtfbVDE, a-mend', «. (Fr.) Fine; penalty; mulct; 
fnri'eit. The ameitdc honomlle, a public lutknow- 
Icdi^neiit nf irijurr done to another : rcpanition of 
honour. Ill French Ijiw, the amende kanwahU 
was furmerly a irpecies of infamous jmnlttUtiiont 
infliated upon traitor», parncidea, or sacrilrgkma 
peraona, either by the adcituwledgment of bid 
criminal offenoeii in open court, od bis knees, and 
nneovercd ; or by being made to kneel, in his 
shirt, with a torch in hia hand, and a mpe round 
hia neck. h*ld by the public executioner. Thii 
dogmiLitkin was oauatly oonji^ined with toina other 

AuuNDKU, jL-men'dnr, a. The pcrwn who corrects 
nr nmcuda anything. 

AjimDFtiL, a-mendi'dt, a. Full of improvement. 

Ahkmdimg, a-meudlng, $. The act of amending, 
Of of coneclion of ^rmr or nuiduoL 

AuKUDMKKT, M-mcnd'meDt, i. A cbnnge firom the 
woive to tbfl lietler ; rpfnnnation of life ; recovery 
of health. In Law, the correction of an error 
c>>nimitted In a pruQPs, and espied before or afUr 
judgtneot ; and Mmotiinea after tbe porty'a M«k- 
ing a/ivantage hy tbe error. 

Amends, a-uiendx', «. Coonruptcd from amendiy Pr.) 
Rerooipeoae ; cotnpeaaatiou ; atonement. 
If our aottla be Iramortal, thla makei abuudant muwI* 

for the frallOes of life, aod the euiferlnga of tlila suto.— 


AMi:xiTr. a-mea'fr-te, ». {amemHy Fr. 


Lat.) rienatntness ; a^reeahleneaa of vtaalioo 
or behaviour. 

AUENOURHiKA, a-me-nawr'FtN'fl,«.(a, withual,HMi, 
a month, Gr.) Au irrrgoUr or defective nmtid 
menstrual discbarge. 

AuEKTACe^, a-tnen-lafie-e, *. (amraAan, a caikil, 
Lat) A name somrtimes applied to a nnnbcref 
trees, the flowers of which are 8mn|;e<) in duM 
oylinfiricul deoidnous ipikes or catkins, aa in tha 
willow, birch, haxel, oak, &c. Tbe terra is eho- 
tifthed, the different planta being now arraagad 
under their respective onlen, Cupolifera, Safi> 
riner, Betulinca?, and Pbotacev, 

AuE>TACEOVS, a-moD-ta'shua, a. Behmgins; to 
tbe Amentaeee ; having an amentum or catJdfl 
for its inflorescence. 

AHENTHEB, a-meu'itieii, t. (Greek.) Tbektngdsa 
of the dead ; the Tartanta of tho ancjent Egyp^ua. 

AUEKTIA or Ahektv, a-incii'iibe>«, a-maa't^ a;, 
(a, without, WKW, mind, Lat.) Idiocy. 

AMENTim, a-meu'tnm, «. (Lutiu word for a tltoog 
or loop.) A catkin, tbe nixte mfloreacanoe of the 
hazel, birch, willow, &c. When the brsctea ea 
tho (mndpal ittalk are close and overlap oo« as* 
other,or are imbricated with the flowers, aud aoob 
in their axillie, tbe iptke i« lenurd au 
or catkin ; tbe q»ikc» an gtnrrally erect cat 
or nmtnt* are pandant, 

Amekcb, a-men, p. «. (imem'er, Fr.) To 
with a pccQuiary penalty ; to exact k Coe ; loi 
fiict a forfeiture^ 

Millions of spiriu forhia faults i 

Of heBven, and from etonial splendonn flnas 

For lUs revolL— JTOlM. 

Au RSCRABLB, a-men'a-bl, a. liable la 

Ameucement, a-mersment, ». The pectioiary 

punishmeut of an ufiendur ; puitisluneuL vr lose \ 

AuKRCKit, a>nier'sar, r. One who anerm or 

for any misdemeanour, or inflicts a forfeiture. 
AuKHCJAULyT, a-mer'so-a-ineut, s. A f<xm of tbe 

word nmerHinent used in old law booka. 
Americam, a-mer'e-kat], a. An aboriginal 

of America; an infaabitant of Aonciica: — & 

hitlug to America. 
Ameiucam Alos, «. Tbe Agave aneikaaaL — J 

Ameoicak CowHLtr, «. — See Dodeestheon. 
Amkhicax Gambooi:, ^ Tbe juice of tbe Uj 

cum baccittuin. 
AUERJOAKISH, a-mer'e-kaD-izm, «, An 

peculiar to America. 
Americamue, a-mcrVkan-lsc, r. a. To reA<kr 

American KcnrBOt ThoUonrtdora orAuooaUy- 

ristica : Order, Anonaoea. — See Munodora. 
AMERiWftrM, ain*e'rim'nam, a. (n, priv. mit 

care, Gr.) A geous of LegumiuiMia pkuts 

order, PapUiunacec 
AuES-ACE.— See Ambs-ace. 
Amkss, am'ea, f. (oorrupletl Cromctmtce.) A| 

Ahetabolia, a-met-a-bolc-a, i. (without, 

neiabole^ change, Gr.) A subclass of 

which do not nnde^o the melamorphous 

to the other iosccts. 
AuETiiODiOAL, a-me-lAod'e-kal, «. With ordner 

method ; regular. 
AMBTuraT, am'e-Miat, a. (iiif^aftii^ CMiirflfJ 


paaMi^ Gr.} A beautiful Tiolct<«oloDred ra- 
f0 trus{tanEnt quwtz. It una ftuthioned by 
iuto driuking vcMw>I% ftnd tii^lilj^ pfiwd 
I of hs luppoMd Tiitue of preventing 
faenoa the name. It consixtA, bc- 
t» Bom, of sUo, 07.50 ; Blainiui, 22 ; 
Inn aBd Dunguese, 50. 

WB-«-(Ai«'tiae, a. Fo«M»ixig the 

Mn«thT»t ; furmetl of ametb/sts. 

ha'n-an, a. Pertaining to Amboru, 

dimioDS of the Ab^-uinian empin:. 

M'*. <■ (Greek D&me of a fiab.) A firsh- 

foond in the atreama aud nvcra of 

m North Amtrica. 

m, a|*BM-«-bU'e-te, «. Same ai amiable- 

•'ske-ft-Li, a. LoTelj ; pleasing; olo- 
|»thc«ye; friendly; ahnwing lore, 

h •!««• lo the roodeai; of Itila Punfa wife ; 
St at iroolnK.— AoAa. 

BM. o'me-a-bl-nM, «. The quolitj of 
Bnishk; lufeliocA; the power of cxdting 


fid. In an amiable manner. 
am-e-an'£Ae-f«wmi, a. Baving 
or appearance of aaiiaulhoa, m tlie 
df copper. 
wn%t a-me-an'eAe-mte, «. A variety uf 

»K, am-«-anVAoyd, t. (amiantkuM, and 

&.) A mineral, oceaning, like ami- 

kfig capiUarj filament.^, uf un olive- 

aud bnUIanC d\ky loatro; rcrr flt^xi- 

ita elaatkity dUtini;uiAlifK it 

amiantbu, whieb, thuugb Hrxible, 

itic. AooorvIiDg to Vauqnelin, U ifi cum- 

Mljeft,47: Umc. 11; magnesa,?; uxldo 

BkADguiMe, 10. 

n-c-ftD'xAoi, «. (ffmJAHfo*, unilefiled, 
of the mineral lubeatus; it (>i curs 
Lextremelj alender flexible fil>rcs. 
'tiDCtooos to the toacb ; luatre, &)iliiiiig 
iltgbtJy tranalucent, whitlsb, irdJld)!, or 
It ij oornpoMcd, nccording lo Cbovenix, 
SD; alandnaid; lime, 9; magnesia, 29. 
Imt* been oocajjunallj woven Into duth^ 
' rmtmiag the action of fire. 
amV4A-bl, a. {amiatbUu, Ut.) Friend - 

i3«, ara'»-ka-bl-De«, «. The quality 
lVkj|<h)«, md. In an amicable man- 
Jjmionfr; friendlj; with good 

(mneiHM, Lit nmict, Ft.) The 

irt of a pdcfit'j habit, over 

alb. The amiettis was an 

hj the Rumana ovpr the 

ariMW ages it formed the apper- 

B nnnent^ worn hj priestfl ; the 

tse alb, manipulM, planeCa, aln- 


'tnika-lmn, i. A abort coat worn 

•ting of twr> pieces of cloth 

r lk« aboolder by a button. 

\ prtp. (anciently itmitldes, o«- 
dat', j mtddfii^ S«x ) In tbe niidtt ; 
lot from either extremity ; min>:Ied 
lioiM by; in the mid*t of another 
igltl fioi^uined witli. 

AsuDVi am'ide, «. A componnd mbstnncc, ron- 
usting of ono atom of nitrogen, oud two of 

AHiniKM, BTD'c-dine, a. (amylofy starch, Gr.) Sub- 
stnnre obtained from whcnt or potato starch ; it U 
opiiqne or »eiut-tnmsparent, white or yellowish- 
white, iuodorous, insini'J, friable; solutile in wHter 
but not ill iloobol ; diiFers from sturch in peliiti- 
nizin^; with boiling water, bnt, like it, yields a blue 
ay]imT with iodine. One part of stflrch boiled ia 
twelve hundred parta of water, after furty-two 
davs' exposnre to the atmosphere, yielded 17 of 
amidine, 30.4 of Ktigar, and 17. 'J of guin^ and 
some unalti^red ftHrcb.— Sw P. C<jc, 

Amilictti, am-ti-Uk'ti, «. Tim name of the three 
inlellectoal powon among the Chaldoiuu, or per- 
sons in the divine hierarchy, 

Ami»9, a-mis', ad. Faulty; criminal; fmltily; 
criminttUy; wronij, improper, nnfil ; reproachful, 
irreverent; impaired in health; — $, culpability; 

Amikaiok, a-mUh'un, #. (amiMio, I-at.) Loss. — 
Seldom u:«ed. 

Amit, a-mil', r. a. (amittn^ Lat.) To loaa ; to drop; 
to diamiaa. — Seldom uied. 

A-MITT, am'mo-te, m. {nmitley "Fr, nmiWfia, Lai.) 
Love; friendship; harmony. 

Amma, am 'ma, «. A nauia giveu to aa abltrsa; a 

Ajuu, am'ral, m. (aranHU, sand, Gr,) A genus of 
phuta, so named from their growing in sandy 
places: Order, Umbe]Iifer%. 

Amuite, am'mite, s. (ummcu, sand, Gr.) A variety 
of saodstone ; ocrite, 

Amuoc^tbs, am-mo-se'tift, t. ^ammoSt aani\ ioituff 
% bed, Gr.) A gunus of pyclnKionioua wr cirrular- 
moatlicd fishes; A. bruocbialcs, or Stfine-j^'g, 
borios iliuUf iu sand, and has the habita of u. 
worm. Its membmnous ikelut^m prcsenta the 
lowtwl grnde uf vertebnil nlrncturv 

AuuoDKAML'S, am-mo'dr»'mua, f. (»mmos, sand, 
and dnimtin, to run, Gr.) A genua of the gruund 
finchca: Subforoily, Frinnillinie. 

Amhodytes, (ua-mu-di'tifl, (irmmof, sand, and 
d^tc$, a dacker, Gr.) I'he sand and lanco ccls„ 
tt genua of apodal fishes. 

Amuon, Auux, or Amn iia, «. The nnmc of nn 
K^*ptian god, wor^hil"l*J under the ti^aire of a 
man with the rnrn'ts head, and adopted by the 
Greckfl under the title <pf Jupiter Ammon. nia 
worship b conjiidercd of Elhtoplon origin. Vori- 
ou» conjectures have been funned respecting the 
rrigin and meaning of the name. Some attribute 
it to ammos, sand, from tbc .-uindy desert in whidi 
his prindpal temple stood ; othcn, with more pro- 
batfjlity, from amun, Coptic, * word that aigniHti* 
lo feed sheep, which would represent Amman as 
tltd god of a nomadic tribe of sbepbvrds. 

Ammoniacal, sm-mo-ni'a kal, n. I'ertaming to 
or hftring the properties of ammonia. 

Amuo5I.\, am-mo'ne-a, f. A volatile alkali, oh- 
liined from the decomposiKAn of animal matter, 
or artificially, by suhjectiiii; hiines, burns, hoofs, 
SiC, to heat, iu iron rylindei^. It can niao be 
obtained from the gluten of wbeai, or uther por- 
ti'*n8 of vegetable matter whicli contain nitrogen. 
The name Ammonia is deiived from sfti-amvtuitic^ 
tlie mtiriiite nf ainmaitio, a mibjitance originally 
obtained in Lybia, by burning the dung of the 
caiucb, wbicb, with their masters, visited the tcni- 





Alior, ft-hoy', inttrj, A tea tenn ns«d to bull or 
Ciill to persitiia Mt a dutaaco. 

AjmiUAKKS, d-r&-ina'niti, $. The devil of the Per- 
d*n mytiiology t the personation of tbo otil prin- 

Aliut.1^ a-hal', ad The atoatdon of a ship when 
aJl her wilfl aro furltn) on acconnt uf the viuluncc 
of iho storm, and she lies iicarl/ with hnr ftido to 
wind ikntl seji, hor head being aoraewhat laLliitud 
in the direaioD of tha wind. 

AnuMORr, a-hnng'gre, a. Hungry. — Obsolete. 
I am oot Qtora a/umgry tbaa you.— AAoiau 

Ai, al, f. Tlie sloth.— Sea Brad/pas. 

AiA, a'yOf a. A BniztUon bird of the Spoonbni 

All), adc, p. a. (Armoric ; aider, Fr.) To help ; 1« 
lupport; tofiucoour; — v. (qm/c, Siuc) help ; sitf- 
port; one who f^\'Qt hi^Ip or siippurt ; »n assis- 
tant; an aaxiliiirv. In Law, a kind of tribute ar 
■ubt^iJy formerly ^>rajited to ibo king ; aUo b relief 
dae from the tt-naiita to their lords, of which then; 
were three kinds — 1st. To ransom their lord's 
person when taken pria&ner. 2iL To give a por- 
tion to hia eldest daughter. 3d. To cnuko his 
eldest floa a knight. Aid prayer, n petition in 
oonrt to call in the aid of another person who haa 
an interest in the thing contested, as, where the 
inheritance ia in qnention. — CotPet^ Blount^ 300. 

AlDAAcB, a'dans, t. (French.) Help; support. — 
Seldom used. 

Aidant, a'dout, a. Helping; araistlng; aiding. 

AlD-DB-CAUP, ay-day-kaog, a. (French.) A mili- 
tary officer attending i genoiul to convey ordors, 

AiUEO, a'doT, «. (aidettr^ old Fr.) Uo who brings 
aid or help; a helper; tin ally. 

Aii>L.B80, adolea, a. Friendless; bdpleu; ansnp' 

Aids, aydz, a. In Honcmansliip, chcrisldngs to 
avoid unnco^itsary correction ; the inner aids ore 
inner heel, leg, and rdii, and tlie outer aids the 
outer heel, leg, and rein, &o. 

AiKt^ a'yel, «. Jii Law, a writ which lies where a 
person'a grandfutbor or great-grandfather was 
Mixed of lands, &c., in foe-fimplo, the day that 
lie died, and a Htrangar abates and en^ra thQ 
same day and diapotuesaes the bcir of his inbcrit- 

AiGUK, aVr> '• Tlic impotaoni flowing of the sea. 

AlOREMORB, a'gre-morc, «. A name given to char- 
coal when iu a state lU to be mixed with the other 
nuteri&b in tlie making of gunpowder. 

AiORBT, a'gret, «. (tfiyrctfa, Fr.) The Egret or 

AioutacB, a'gwis, f. In Heraldry, a cross with 
four ends sharpened into obtiue unglca. 

AiooLBT, a'gu-let, s. (aiffuUUte,) A point or tag 
at the end of a fringe. 

AiKEijfiji^ay-ken'e-^a. (inhonotirof Arthur Aiken, 
F US.) A genus of Asiatic plunto, with sinall 
blueBuwvrs: Order, Gesneriacese. 

AlKRAW, ake'mw, 5. A popular name of a species 
of moss or lichvn. 

All., ale, n. a. {rJnn, eglan^ Sax.) To pnln ; to 
trouble I to givo pain; to affnct In any manner; 
— r. K. to fe*:l pain ; to be inoommoded ; — «. a 

AlLAMTUa, sy-lan'ttu, *. (ailtuUo^ treo of henren, 
SituK.) A genus of trws, of lofty growth, from 
China and the Kiust Indies : Order, Tt:rabinthacea>. 

AiLiNQ, ak)lng,;Airt a. Sickly; full of conipklntS. 

AlLM£NT, ale'ment, s. Pain ; disease, 

AJLCuns, ay-lu'ms, s. (aiL>uto$, n cat, Gr.) Th» 
INrndu, a camiroraus uniinal, allied to the raoooa, 
ubmt the eae of a largo cat, with a soft and 
thlckly-set brilliant nxl iiir. 

Aim, auie, p. n. (tnner^ to p<4iit at, old FV.) To 
endcaTuur to strike with n mi^Mive weapon; to 
piiiat the view, ur direct tlie steps towards any- 
thing; to tend towards; to cndciTour to reach or 
obtain ; — tf. n, to direct tbo njwiro weapon ; — *, 
the direction of a mi^sUc weapon; the )>oint bo 
which anything thniwu is dirwctwj; figomlivaly, 
a piuposp; a scheme; a dirrcUoii^ a doKign ; tbo 
object of a design ; the point iut«nded ; a goess; 
a conjecture. 

Art[£R, a'mur, «. One who aims at anything, 

A1MI.E.SS, amelea, a. Without aim. 

AiMLLSSLr, ameles-le, ad, \VithoDt aim, 

AiMoniiLA, ay-mofe-la, s. (nirw/i, a thicket, and 
jjfiihi, a lover, Gr.) A genus of Ameriaui ground- 
linchi!3 allied to the sparrow : Family, Fringillidjc. 

Air, ajT, s. (q<r, Gr.) An invisible, tranxparsot, 
colourless, inodoroos, and tantelcas fluid, sornmud- 
iiig the earth, and essenttjl to the support of am* 
maJ and vegetable life. It is 816 times loiter 
thitn its bulk of water; 1000 cubic indies at the 
ordinary tempeniture and pressuro weighing 305 
gniins. It coHNiitB of about 80 porta, in bulk, of 
nitrogen, and 20 pnrts of oxygen, and about one- 
thooHandth part of carbonic ncjd. Air, when lo- 
balad into the lungs, unites with the caihon of the 
blood, and forms carbonic acid, a prooeai which 
produces the beat nooosaaiy to susIaIu tbo proper 
temperature of the animal system ; —a gentle wind ; 
scent; Tapour; anything light and onceitain; 
the open, unconflnod atmosphere ; vent ; ut~. 
t«rance ; emission into the nir ; publication ; tn- 
telliguuce; infurmation; music, whether light or 
serious; sound; poetry; a son;;; an ulTiBcted or 
laboured manner of gesture ; appearance ; mail : 
IkXik. In Harvemanxtitp, airs denote the artifidn 
or practUed motion of a trained horse. Id MosSb 
the trebli' part of a Dompu&ition, which in vocal 
niatic consists of the treble, oonnter, tenor, and 
baas. In Pointing, the medium in nature through 
which e^'ery object is riowed, and hence to tw 
transferred to the picture or canvas. Air-bal- 
tnotif a balloon iunated with gas, in distinction 
from a flre-balloon, wliich ascends through tho 
rsrefucUun of the air contained in it ''j the applir 
cation i>f heat. Air-bed, a bag of the sise of • 
bnl, dinded into several oompartmenta, and ran-; 
di-ml air-tight ; acr-cusAion and air-pUlow is D3c4 
in titu Buuie senao. Air-li/tJiltr, tho air-ba^ 
sound, or swim, in fishes, which they havfl tb« 
power of compressing aud dilating at plesKura, ny 
they require to sink or ascend ; any cuticle or vesi- 
cle flilod with air In plauts — more pruporly tomted 
air-celia. Air-bom^ bora of the air. 
Si'><» tho air-bom racers scait, 
Inipatient of tlio rcixi.'—Oonffrtvi. 

Air-bone, borne by the air. Air-irarinff, brav- 
ing the winds. Air^ilt, built in air; without 
any solid foundation. Air-cdU, in Botany, cavi- 
ties in the iit«tm and leaves of certain nigse, &c., 
which render them buoyant In water. In Zoology, 
membranous receptacles in birds, com niunicn ting 
with tho lungs, and reaching through tho various 
parts of Iho body, by which their specific gravitjr 



iiminulMd, mud th*f bv svndensd filter for 
Affct : aat-ttiia uuwning tbfl nine parpuB oecor 
ift Itfiag inaMtt. ^ir>ai«dmMr, irn apiiBmtu fbr 
OBAnMBf air. It coonabi of a cJuk vMael with 
• ^liaf* aitaefavd to U. Br aieus of tbv syringv, 
■k tt niaelcd into tba tcmuI till Uie rrquiute dc- 
^•t «f «B oJi ii rt tioD 11 atlauted. Air-timm, a 
iMJty fcnnnl loond tfat extmitil walls of n bnild- 
U(to pevoit the caitb from Ijtng a^u^t litem, 
i^ CMHUg dainpofl*^ DxvTrn or paintcil in Uie 

-fUl It Dm gi V WV M ww dafffffir, vhtcb, 70a uld, 

Jfr tmtamadt tnveliqted in air. j4Jr-««A7p0, a 
«Htiii«w» fbr lAtiag off tb« nr from WAter-pipM. 
WW* tb«r ar« laid upon rising ground, th« kit 
illB«aDM3 in the higher pAil, and obstructi> the 
pny w * of ih« water. To rvroedy this, a boUuw 
uA i» MUdwd to the oppcr put of the pipe, in 
wtith u bafl-oock ia placml, and adjusted in inch 
ft «if , that wfaeo air eidleeis in the pipes, H as- 
ms^ io tbe vcflsel* opens the cock, and allows 
tb» or t« flKipB. A vjluty a tub« ui which heated 
db'iiOndeto piw rapidly from a stovo to heat 
■partaimU. Air-fcHntuvi, a cootriranco fvr pro- 
laH«g • jit of water b; tha elastic force of air 
ttiwumiatid « « oka* veael, and made to act on 
tla wmtttm of th« watir to be nised. Air-gwt, 
initnunent, so ooostnicted ss to pro- 

witb immeaae force b; moans of con- 
«r. Ait-koit, a hole to admit air. Air- 
AoUr. SD instnunent for holding air for the pur- 
pav ftf oo«iateractttt£ the prcssnro of a decrciuing 
atliau «f in«rau7. A ir-Jadbet, a leather jacket 
lavUah an fastened bogs or bladden filled wiib 
^ to NDdv tba body boojont io water. A tr* 
Inp^ a fOMmatie machine, fomud bj the com- 
lMta«f taAunnuble air and electricity, whidi, 
if tMtiB^ a itopeock, prodoces a flame that may 
Wnrtniiisd orcootintMd at pleasure. Air-motict 
afiM, a laaaokotira-en^ne propellod by air, rcn- 
dnd ttpaadm hy the furcs of hciit. A ir-pipt^ 
a J^ ttosd in extracting or communicating air. 
A^fiS0l0% or tieetnc eamton, an ioatrunient cim- 
dng ti a bnua tube, in the end or aide of which 
a^MiOr ivo«7 lobe ■ insoledt with a len.1 wire 
throngh the tube, so that when a spark is 
a tba wira from an electric inacbiur, the 
And ma^ posa in a ipark from the point of the 
*«• which is wiUiin the tube ; if, thorefore, it be 
fiDed with hydrogen and corked np, a Kpnrb will 
Uhowtlke iiydrvgeo and nplonou eoiue. Air- 
pimtt, orchidiGooa plaota which live for many 

ipcoded b the air. Atr-yresvure 
an engina on which the preflsiire of air of 

nskies is employed aa a moving force. 

a machine for «stnu-Ung the sir and 
a racmnn. Air-»ac$^ in JUmlagy, same 
■ sfr-caUs — (aee above.) ^rr-«ft>rr, a store which 
h Mifluyaifto biat a cmrrat of air dinoted against 
iCt OMfrea bj means of pipes in which heated air 
h totradored. Air-thtij% a psasnge for admit- 
liag tbe air into minee and Bubterranean pluroa. 
^■r-sorrw^, putting tbe sir in motioii. Air- 

% one which indicates changes of («'m- 
bf nr contained in a bulb acd tut>o. 
r, thnatening the air. 
•0rtt»miag topf of oodan lall.^ 

4^4^it, impeTTioUB to ih« sir. Jar-lrtip, on 

opening for the ewajte of air from drains, sewers, 
or pipe*. Air-irvrU; a contrivunco to pre\'ent the 
stagnation of putrid e^avia in jnils or apartnienta 
where many people are collected. It is an open 
tube passing froio tbe ceiling to the open air, 
above the rwf, br which the heated or foni air 
csoapea. Air-w!v% a valve belonging to a stenm- 
boiler, tho intention of which is to supply air to 
tlio boiler, if, by a sudden cooling of tbe water, 
bitting off the ateam, or other ciuse, the huilnr 
should h»vc a vaccoam formed within it> in which 
CUM) tho atmospborio pressure from without, might, 
and occosiooolly does, press together both sides of 
the boiler. Aiv'veuel^ in Botany, a spiral vessel 
or duct in plants, containing air, and auppoied to 
answer tlte rame porpose io Tegctablo, as luogs dn 
111 tho animal system. Ill Uydrauiics, a Teasel 
forming pirt of a forcing pamp, or other similar 
hyilruulic aiachlnc, intt'iidcnJ, by the elasticity of 
tho compreMcd air withiJi, to keep up the stream 
of water, whllo the action of tho pnmp is making 
the return service ; — r. a. to expose to the air \ to 
ci^*e access to the opou air; to sbovr in an open 
monocr \ 

You do ua, rrincr, lio MtiiT, 

Airmtf a anowy hanti and ni^ut seni, 

Mi XiMOxyax.—Alfr^S IVnuyacM. 

to ventilate, as, to air a room ; to cxp«^so to heat. 

Ajra, a'm, i. (the Gii?ek namo of the plant I^Hum 
tcmulentum, or Bearded Dumel, 8Uppo»:d to bo 
from airto^ 1 destroy, Or.) lioir-grass, a genus 
of plnnts : Order, Graminaccffi. 

AiKKK, ayr'ur, s. One who exposes to the ur. 

AiniNr.9S, ayr'e-neSfff. Openness; exposure to tho 
air; lightness; gaiety: levity. 

AiuiNo, ayring, », A shurt oicorsioii to ciijcy the 
air ; expoanre to the air. 

AiRLESa, ayrlca, a. Destitute of fresh atr, or com- 
munication with the air. 

AiRLiKO, ayrliDg, «. A yooiig, thoughLlcas, gay 

Some more there be, altKht airlinfft, will be won with 

do^ and borMS'— £e« Jotutm. 

A1ROP8IB, ayr-op'n5, $. (iitra, hair, and o/mu, like, 
Gr.) A gcDos of plnnts: Order, Graminaccr. 

AiRPOlflE, ayr'i>oys, §, Any instrument used in 
weighing tho air. 

Airs, nyrz, «. Id Horsemanship, the artiBcitJ mo- 
tions of taught horses, as the demivult, currct, &a 

Airy, oyr'e, n. Composed of air ; reluting Io the 
air; helonging to the air ; high in air ; open to the 
free air; light as air; thin; unsultstuntinl ; with- 
OTit solidity; wanting reality; mn; trilling: flnt- 
tcring; loose; full of levity; gay; sprightly; full 
of mirth ; vivacioas ; lively ; spuitcd ; light of 
heart. Airy-ftjing^ flying like air. 
Frtitn whkli with airjf-itj/mg Rngvn W^hL—Thomaam, 
Airy-lii/iU, hght as air. Milton writes it oery- 
Hia sleep was aerjriiffht firom puro dejoction bred. 

AiPLE, ile, *. (afa, wings, Lnt.) Tho wings, inward 
gidf, or jjortico of a church ; the inward lateral cor- 
ridors wlnrh eiicloso tho choir, the presbytery, and 
the body of the church alnng its sidcfL 

Ai&LKD, ilde, a. Fumisbcd with abtea, oi a three 
or fivF-au/et/ chnrcli. 

Arr or Etght, ate, $. (supposed to be a corruption 
of ialet.) A small island in a river. 

AlTOM lA, ay-to'ne-a, #. (after W. Ayton.) An evw- 





and latithot, a •■[iliif, Gr.) A f^enuB of Bj^hij- 
fianed fishes of the familjr Centron<jtiDir, or&|<itic- 
bacfcs.— See Sigano*. 

AiiriucABPA, taa-f^kdr'pa, 9 (ani/>At, nnd £nr/>o5, 
fniit. Or.} A g«itus of North American cKuiljiiij^ 
papiHonoceotu pliintu : Order, LegnminocMe, 

AurfilciiTnTs, niii-fik'fA s, «. (nm/iAt, doubtful, ani] 
ichtAyt, a fish, Gr.) A (^us of tliu l3l«itii^-bulU 
bead fishes QBatrac/iiilea)^ huitng no viHible 

AurniCTTON, Council of^ sm-fik'tynn, *. A cele- 
brated conncil. consbttiDK o' * gCDeml asscoiblv of 
the ilcpLiHcfl of Ihe Grrdon Statt^ which met 
twiof) u/ear At Athens, efltabliflhcd by Ainphictyoii, 
third kinj; of Alhi-ns, A.H. 2418. 

AMruiUKSUA, amfe-des'ina, a. {ampHi, and detmoi, 
a figainent, (ir.) A cenus uf marine Ijirnlto iihcIlR 
belongtDg to Iho Tellinn family, resMfrnblinp l,«pin{i 
m aliape. having a cartilago between the cardinvil 
teeth, with au external lif^ment. 

AllPniDROHiA, am-fe-dm'uie-tt, i. (am/^Ai, miind, 
aiid (irvmofl, mnnintTi Gr.) Fentivals kept by the 
Athotiiani on the fifth div after thi* birth i>f a 
child. One of the ceremotiie« consbtod of run- 
ning roiird Iho fra with (he chttd, and presenting 
it to their bouKhoId £od« — hence the name. 

Ampiiigauodk, atn-fe-ga'inu8, a. (^ampki, diiiibtftil, 
mtiAgartioM^ marriage, Gr.) Applied to the A;[^niu>, 
or such pl&nta as have no visible organs of fnicti- 

AsiruiOENB, am'fe-jVne, x. (ampki^ and ffmot, 
geaos, Gr.) VeBovian, idiocrose, or pyrjimidal 
l^amat, a mineral found in the lavas of Vesuvius 
luid other volcanic rocks, cnmpoied of silica, 35.5 \ 
lune, 33; alumina, 22.2; oxide of iron, 7.AU ; 
oxide of mBiijianeM, 0.20. The primitive form of 
itie crystal is uearly that of a cube, mthor harder 
than qunrti. and of different sludcs of grocn, 
brown, and red. 

AMPiiiLoor, am-Ql'o-je, «. (omphi, and hffO$, a dls- 
lounie, Gr.) Doubtful expressioii. 

AifpniMERiNA, am-fe-meo-'e-nn, s. (nmpki^ and 
eiaerot a day, Gr.) A quotidian or daily a^rue. 

Amphihecsts, amYe-oewsts, «, {amphi., nnd pneo, 
I tntathe, Gr.) A nsmo g;vcn by ftlcnem to a 
tribe of reptiles whiuli an? fumiBbed with both 
lunf[8 and gilla. — See Amphihin. 

Ahi'HIOXOB, am'fe-ukH-uH, s. (amyjAi, and oxtifj 
kcute or swift, Gr.) A f;ennii uf Uinprey ei>Ks, 
hiivinj; neither [lectorat, dorsal, nor v<?tiltal fins. 

A!kli'IllPOI>8, sm'fe-[KHl.H, s. (^am^thi, and/x^fM, a fuut, 
Gr.) Fin-fuoU-d animaU ; an order of Cmstnceup, 
with the feet »ituated under the toil, and La\'iiig 
•eiisil* ejies. 

AsiPniroooN, am-fu-)>o'goi:, «. (um/^Ai, alont, nnd 
poffon^ a beard, Gr.) A genus of Austratiitu 

AjrPUIPSloif, am-fo-pri'oD, «. (am/thi^ dunble, and 
prum, a saw, Gr.) A genus of npiny-finii'il H^hrs, 
bekmcingtottiflChiirtodon family, having both the 
operenlum and preoporcitlnm (cheek pliiles) vcrjr 
strongly and rrmurfcably serrated st their pdges. 

A&iPMirKOfiTTt.K,am-fe-pnM'tile, <. (om/^At.doublo, 
pro, befi-rc. and ftphn, acolmnD, Gr.) Applied to 
a t«n)ple which lias a portico both in the front and 
bebind, bat is without vlumus at the sidn. 

AMPui<imf:NA, im-fifi-be'iia, s. (amphU^ on both 
a'tdce, and franiem, U> walk, Gr.) A p;utu of tti- 
•ccUvcroua, ovipuroua, iiinoxioiu serpents, in which 
tb*> body is nearly of the saiuv thickness through- 


out, nod famished with nmnernus ring* tif 
sqnure scales; supposed to have lb* pi>wi 
walking either badtwards or forwards, and, byi 
anricnts, to have two beads. 

Amphjsciakb, am-fiiih'ans, «. (as^pU. bath, 
»ki(h shadow, Gr.) A term i^tplied IbniNriyJ 
thovo inhabitants u! the tropics, whose shsdova I 
in opposite directions at the opptuUe 
the year. 

and sjfora, a Hred. ) A genos of fungi, with 
sporules of two kinds. 

Ahphitheatkal, am-fc-cAe'»-tra], a. Uka 

AuPiiITMBATttE, am-fe-Mc'a-tur, «. (cmfpAtOUcbMa, 
Gr.) A building of a circnlsr or oval funn, li«v» 
ing ita arena encompassed with rows of aeala, 
riitmg grodaally oos above the other, and portMna. 
The exhibition* generally consiafrd of 
gladiatura, wild beasts, mock sva-Bgbts, && 
cx)losAiMiin of Vespasian and TitUa wai 
contain 85,000 spoctaton. The name i 
times given to a drrus in modrrn timea, 
gardeDiDg, to an elevated terrace, having 
descending to a mntm of terraoca, fonned oi 
side of a rising ground. 

AiiPHiTtieATRiCAi., am-fe-<Ac-at're-k«l, a, 
taiiiing to an auiphithefltrc. 

AupiilTHKiiii'M,iun-fe-Mc're-um,«. (im^iAi^i 
ful, nnd tktrioH. a wild beast, Gr.) A naoH 
by Ltldiiiviilo to thfl foiwil mammal of the £<«■»■' 
field sliite, fonnerly iiHmcd tbu didelpbys, now tbi 
thylocotherium, by Owen.— WbicJi set 

AurniTBiTic, nm'fe-trite, *. In Mytfaolofij, tbe 
wife uf Neptune ; a person ificntion of (he m; 
also, a genus of lubicular auniiedes f worms 
biting tube shells), of great beauty, furnished 
acrown of short gulden -coloured briules; tbet 
is funticd uf annd, citrglnminated togeChar hf 
mucus exudod from lbs okla. 

AuriltTROPAL, aiTrfe-tropul. a. {ampM, about, aial 
Ovpo, I turn, Gr.) Ap^died, iti Botany, to sfe 
embryo, when it is carved round llw body of 
seed IX albumen. 

AupiilT^VA, am-fe-u'ms, s. (mnphl, und mm 
menibrane, Gr.) A genus of e«l-slui[ivd unl 
belonging to the Batntchia, or lro|; family, 
uUhed with four ihort legs. In their iiiJkoli 
they have gills, which, in maturer life, are i 
by hiiigs. 

AuritoRA, amTo-ra, $, (Lutln.) A two-l 
measure osed by iho BomAiis for holding 
dried grapes, or olives. It continued fott) 
textariea, or seven gallons one pint of 
measure. In Sculpture and Omanu'ntul 
ture, a two-band vase, pittecd on »ditcupt 

Ampiioual, amTo-rsl, «. A name piten, 
lion, to a vase shaped like an amph'ca. 

AupHoRic Rk;so5AKCB, amfor'ilc rcs'o- 
A sound of the cheat Uko that wliich is 
by blowing into a decanter. 

AuriioTtUES, ain-fo<ti'deA, «, A kind of sr 
worn to defend the cart by the Roman alhtelltt 

Aui'LK, aro'pt, fl, (amjtlt'9, ]M.) I^irgci wide; 
extended; unlimited; without retstrictii«; libenli 
magnifioent', splendid; diOtLtive. 

Amplickbss, am'pl-ncs, i. Tbe quality of 
umple; larg«ucss ; splendour. 

Asii'LBXlCAUL, atn-plcks'e kawl, a, (^om/tkdo, 
embraoe, and cauHi, a stem, Lat,) Ap|Jiod,' 



Au>BSafAS, ftwrdur-ii;iui, 4. (Sax.) An incorpo- 

rated civU magistrate, equiTalent to biilie io S<»c- 

tniid. Alderman, or Eaidorman, appeari to ba?e 

brrn « title of Tarioui officet of Suon and BrilUb 

polity. It formed the second of rank of Saxon 

iioljilit/, {atkting being tbo tint, and thane tb« 

lowcat,) mid irns SYnotiTtnoDs with out earl or 

count, thoogh not alwaTS bcrcdituy. 

Tbo aiiirmanot tlmcniintr, whom onsriiipdljr Iher call 

tin earl, wan la panillel oquiu wilK tlie b{8ho;>. snd iberv 

'uto twtb tlioir f)sUirtatK>ti4 valued alike in ttie lawa of 

LItbelalane, at elgbt liuudnd ihjnises.— >'p<{<aaa. 

Tile coin here alladed to tros, according to the same 

autboritv, in value nboat 3s. sterling. 
AL[t£KHANiTT, avrl-duT-man'e-te, $, Th« beha- 

riour of an aldennan. 
Thoa (LnndoD) eaoit draw forth \hy forces, and fight dry 
Tb« battleaof tliy ntdtrmimUg, 
Without tbo hazard of a dru)] of blood, 
Aov than tba siufeita In thea that daj itood. — 

VLDERXA9 UKK, awl'dur-maD- Ilka, a. In the num- 

ner of an alderman. 
Alderxaitlt, nwl'dur-mnn-lc, ad, IJha an alder- 

inan ; brlnnging to an alderman. 
ALX>i:iiMAM»iiii', anrdcrniuii-kLip, a, Tbo o0ice 

and dignity of an nld^rman. 

He vaa dyubargcd of hia aldrrmanibtp. and d^a- 
eharced tram all rule and eciune«ylU)rtbo ciii^—Fabuin. 

AiJ>ERie, anl'dum, a, MaiId of alder. 
Tbe aldaii boaia first plowed the ocean. — Jfoy"! FTitnf. 
Aluine, al'dino, t. An e^jiibet applied tu editions 
of tbe cUaaics from the fiimily of Aldua Mounliu?, 
tbe fint of whom csU-kllibbed Lia [ircss at VDuice 
about 1500. 
Xtx, ale, a. {mit. Sax. from ehd, third person bIq- 
gular iodicatire of tr/ow, to kindle, to inflame ; 
applied to strong beer from its healing qaniitjO 
A fennented liquor, made bj iiifLuinj; mall and 
bops in water. Tlie name oh» was given formerly 
to ccrtuin featirala; as bridal-files, WbUAun-alifti, 
lamb-alea, &c.; but the cliurch-ales and rterk- 
alea. sometimes called the lesser church-alt'n, were 
among those authorized sports which, at the period 
of the Reformation, produced great conteiitiun be- 
tween Arcbblsbop Laud snd the puritans. 
From old reconU 
Of anHfin* pmrerb-i, drawn fr\>m Whitson lordly 
And tlivtr antliorillf*, ot vaktn and alt-t, 
With rwtintry piTcurdciitji, und old wlvci" \w\«% 
Vie brlni; y*>n nu«r, to tlmw what diflf4-rr'nt thinp 
The eotea of elcwua are from tbe courts of Idngs.— 

AU'henchj a bench in or before an ale-buuse. 
The Tulgar sort 
Bit DpOD tbolr oJe-^ncA wltli their cope and cniM.— 
Sir J, OltfeetfU. 

Ale-herry, a beTemge inade by boiling ale with 
npr and sop* of bread. 

Tholr •Mtrrtm, eaidlaa, poults.— :Smumml 
Ak-hrewtr^ one wboM profe«don ia to brew sle 
Ak-fed^ fe»l with ale. AU-hoof, the Glrcboma or 
ground ivr, a plant somettmeii tiKcd in making 
beer. Ale-AtmBr^ a puli lie -house in which ale is 
sold. AUhtight^ a pf>t rompanioo.— Obsolete. 
AU-yilff a kind of medical liquor prepared from an 
infunon of groond Ivj. Alt-pole^ same u Aie- 

For the nU-TpcU doth but algnlfjrc that them la nnod 
ala In the honse where the alt-pole standcth, and wyll tell 
htm that he mu»te ro near the house, sad there be shall 
dnd the drink, and not lUiid sockJog the td»-pol4 In 

vain.— ^ Bole mtuie hy Juha i'-'ji\. 


Ah-thoti a reckoning to be paid for ale. Alt* 
tilver, a duty paid to the Lord Marc^r of LoodM 
bj the sellers of ale within the dty. AU'MiaU^ 
a stake set upoii^ or before, an ale-house t>j way 
of sign. -—Old word. 
Like a tma ofe-rtahg be tells jva where tbe best sis 

U.-CNmi«mM m Okewdrr'j mUt^t Thic 

Afe-tasttr, an ofBcer who in fTmrr tJmea was sp- 
pointed in every court-lect, and sworn to look ts 
the aasiEC and the gnodness of the bread and ale ar 
beer, wiibin the prccinctj* of the lordship. — CmmL 
Aie-mf, tbe vat in whioh ule is fermented. AU' 
washed, steeped or soaked io ale. — Obsolete. 
Anoug foaming bottles and aU-vMuked wita. — 5Kate. 
Ale-vijk, a woman who keeps an Ble-bonaa. In 
IcbytlioIu|7, A fUh of the herring kind, a DatJTe of 
America— tbo Clupea Serrata of x(«logisU. 

Alra, ale-a, «. (Latin.) A game of cbanoa amoog 
the Romans ; particularly, a game pbycd Uke back- 
gammon with dice. 

ALB'CONWEtt, alel£on-nar. i. An oEIIcer in formet 
times whose duty it was to inspect the meaaana 
of publtc-hooses in the city of London. 
Head-boronghi, Uthlng-men. and fl/#<<vNticra, and aldas> 

men, are Bp)K>ttited, hi the tuithH Incident to Uieir offing 

to be ilkcwlae ehari^l to present tbe oSenoea of dmak- 

ennesft.— .^cf <(/ BtrL £1 Jac. 1. chap. 7. 

Alecto, a-tek'to, ». (a, priv. and lepo, I reat, Gr.) 
In Wythulogy, one of the fnries, described l^" Vir- 
gil as having her bnir and her dork wings coverad 
M-itb wreathing snukes, whose poison ahe infiuea 
into her victims, till she inAtsts them with ango- 
vemable rage. From Cocytos, a river of beU, aha 
ia called Cocytia Virgo, 

ALhCTOfiiA, a-Iek-to're-a, t. (nkhtor, a OMk, Gr.) 
Cochstone, a stone to which great virtaea wen 
aacribed by the ancients, said to be found in the 
gall-bladder of the cock. In Ikitany, a gvnos of 
Lichens, occurring in long tufts. 

ALCCroBiDX, a-lek'to-rc-de, ». (ahhor, a cock, 
and ei'c/ot, tike, Gr.) The Alectors. a family <A 
large Amcricon gatlinaceuus birds, without fpora, 
and d<!«titute of the rich colouring of the Asiatic 
and Europenu races: Order, Cmcidic. 

Ai.ECTOKOMACHY, a-lek-to-rom'a-ke, i. {alektor, • 
cock, and macity a fight, Gr.) Cockfigbtirig. 

ALicCTonoLoriiL'8, fil-lck-to-rorrt-foisi. ioIeXtar, a 
cock, nnd tophof^ a crest or cockscomb, Or.) The 
plant Cockscomb, or Yellow-nittle, a species of the 
Linnsran genus Rhiuauthus: Order, Scrophula- 

AluctoRomamct, R-lek-to-rom'an-se, #. {altt^or^m 
cock, and manttia, divination, Gr.) An ancifiot 
mode of divination by means r^ a oock. 

Aleb, alee', ad. (af and &« — aee Lee.) In Kaa- 
ticul Itngnage, opposite to the wind, that la, op- 
posite to the side on which it strikes. Tbe helm 
of a ship is said to bo o/ee when presaed doae to 
the lee side. Uelm aleCy or Ivff a/ae, an order to 
put the helm to the lee pide. Z/e/mV a/«e, that 
ia, tbe helm is o/re; a notice given aa an order to 
cause tbe hejd sails to shake in the wind, with a 
Tiew to bring tbe ship abouL 

Alcoar, ale'gdr, r (n/e, and oiyrt, aoor, FO 
Vinegar made From sour ale. 

Aleooe, a-ledj', r. n. To allay ; to leaaen ; to 
assuage. — Obsolrte. 

Alembic, a-lem'bik, t. (al^ and amAiTon, a ebeml- 
cal vessel, Gr.) A still nsed in chemical operationa. 

ALKUORirru, a-lem'bro<A, a. The phtlotopharV 



uh, «r nit of «i«doin of tbe old ulcbemist*; a 
nrnipvutmi of tba bicblaride of mercury and m1 
■iMuw«c» fmn vliicli tlie white precipilal* of mer- 
oif^ ia HMdc 

iuMTH. a-kngtA', ad. At foU leugth along; 
tnitkad aiectf tba pxnind. 

Aicra. aJ'^ a. The nauw ot cbe 6r»t letter of the 
Biteev aljihahat, eencqiotuiing with Alpha of the 

AlxrtDiA, al-e-pid'e-*, a. (a, iwir. and UpU^ a acale, 

Gr.) A ganna of plants: Order, UmbelUcec 
AULiiitOTIi, a-lrp'e-dote, t. (<i. {inr. and /f/)U, a 
milk Gr.) Adj fiah wbo»e tkia U not covered 
AX.UU, alVpia, a. (a, prir. and r<y>Lf, a scale, Gr.'i 
A gntua of &aheB| with hnud IhhUm and nmnll 
} acjkhM, eicept on the tinder pact of the 
Kae Mljomittg tbo catidal tia. 
iLKPUArsCft, a-lrp-a-sawrus, f. (a, priv. teph, a 
aoKToa, a Ratiriun, Gr.) A ^i^iiu.s of 
hofy tkin -bodied, ahdoiiiiiuil Molacoplervgious 
: Family, Scitmbetidjc. 
aPiULLts, a-lep-o-aefa-lns, a. (a^ priv. 2ept>, 
ft mk, Attd fapiu^ the head, Gr.) A geiiiu of 
MaLicoptefypoiu 6nh», luTin^; the body 
awA with iMTf^ acalea, Imt hariug noae qd the 
d: Fanuly, ILtaocn ot Flying-fiisb. 
rmm, al-#-pi ram, a. (o/eaoXf poor, and pyroM, 
m, Gr.) A c«ou of plaota, naiivu of tU« South 
Wanda aod Vew Unllaiid ; the/ are of no 
mu oaa : Order, Deavauxiaoeie. 
; a- Urt', a. (aJerte^ Fr.) In a Military seiiM, 
N fBBid ; watchful ; vigUant ; ready at a call. 
la Cka oaraoKm aenae, briak, pert| petulant, smart. 
rrutis, a-Ie-£Aop'ter-u, t. A genus of 
plact% of which Ihore have l>een Inand 13 
■ — 11 from the Palaeozoic, and 2 from the 
koie afcrata of Britain. 
«-le'Cria« «. (Greek, a mOler's wife, in alluMon 
powdery dust with which the wbule jiUnt 
*j^mn to be eorfred.) A genus uf North Ame- 
riiaft ptsnta : Order, tfemarocalliditone. 
Auxmuia, ir-lu-ria'ma, a. (aituron, floor, Or.) 

A ffttma of Funpi : Tribe, A«on»yc«lp*. 

ALCTOZn«« al-a-ri'tes, r. (aJeuron^ flour, Gr.) A 

of plaota, which hare the a[>pr.iraiici' of Wvij^ 

over with floor. A. triloUu furntnbes the 

MaAp awta at the South Sea UUudi-rs, vrhkh 

yyilfccai food, and, when strung together, t kind 

ti lardi : Order, Euphnrbiacmc 

AunbODKSDKryv, al-o-ro-den'droo, J. (alevwi^ 

iig, tmd Awilrow, ■ trew, Gr.) Agennsof ptanU: 

(Mr, ByttofriMW. 

AucTUy, «-la'ahaa, a, (al^U^ a bold projrctinj£ 

wmk.) An epithet applied to a chain of islands, 

■**^'ifiirj from the promontory of Ala^chka in 

Kent Awcrica, to Kamatchatka in Asiatic Ruastii. 

4USA9DSA, al-lrfja-aii'dra, «. A genua of plants : 

al-tegs-an dura, a. (auppoaed to be a 
of afcua*wik a black pot-berb.) Smyr- 
ft fMiaa of unbellJferooa planta, two specirs 
«f vfeaiki S. ohuatnuB aad perfoliam, are <>r may 
l<«dti*itf»d aa aapmntfaoia and salal plants. — 

itMMAm^njatt al-lq^B-an'''- ^- - Pertaining to 
Hb ^ flC AhnndrU r . the Alemn- 

AifliMaaltM acMt.'ii., i by l'l/fl«iiy, 

tht ••■ ti LajgBfti ftftd enppiirtvd by h'w succcasnn : 
aa alao the famuua Aigamidrim Library, de«tniyeU 

by the OUomaoa. It ia uid to Imvo contained 
700,UOO vtiluine«. Alexandrian mantMcripty a 
very andent Greek copy of the Old and K«w '!'«• 
tiimt'ntJi, with the A|>ncrT{ibn, in i voU. 4to, 
preserved in the British Museum. 

Alexanurina, sl-f^-an-dn'ni, t. A genot of 
Leguminous plants : Suboriler, PapiUooaceee. 

Alkxindhisp., nl-li!^-aii'(irin, a. A species of 
poelicul measure, coinjioBed of twelve syllaUes; 
so named, from ita having been 6nit uaed in a 
French poem, called the AJejuindriad ; — a. nflatia^ 
to the ven>e so called. 

A neftdlaiui AUxaudrina sods the »ang, 

Ttiat, like a woumled aaako, drags lia slow leufth atonff. 

ALCXEritABSf ic, a-lek-se-fJr'mik, \ a. (o/exo* 

Al.£XtriiAUjiiCAL, a-lck&a-fdr'me-kal,/ I repel, 
and phamuiLon^ ]Kiison, Gr.) That which pon- 
Kiast» aa oDtidoto, or has the qaoUty of expelling 

ALcxbPiiAJUiioSi a-lck-se-filr'mika, J. Antidotes 
to poisons. 

AlisIXKTkiuc, a-lck'ne-trrlk, \ a.(aIexOy Gr.) 

/Vlexktcrioal, ttlck-»e-te['e-kal,i Uavioj^atcn- 
deocy to drive away puiaon or fever. Atexeteiic, 
are mcdiiinea which tend to resist the efl'ecta of 
polsQn, or the bito of venomous animals. 

ALKXlPvnKTlc, a-!ck-»e-pi-rvt'ik, t. (nfeao, I 
repel, pyr, a fever, Gr.) A fever medidua ; — a 
op^-ralingas a remedy ngmnsl fever. 

Alicyiioui.s, a-la'ro-deA, s. {aUuron, floar, Gr.) A 
genua of Hcmiptcrous insects: Family, Ai'IiiJlie. 

Alfkt, al'fet', a. The Saxon name fat a cauldron 
full of boiUug water, wherein an accused person 
planged his arm up to the elbow, by wny of trial 
or paq;.itton. Tlii:! custom was a s{wcies of ordeal 
to show his guilt or innocence. — liucange. 

ALOAy al'ga, I. (Latio.) A sea^wced. 

Oc«anus was garlamlrd with ssa alffd or sea graas, and 
In his Uand a trideuL— .^«a Sanson, 

With a!ga vbo the sacred altar strews.— i>ryc{M. 
Alcje, al'je, f. (alga, a sea-weed, from a.'gor, cold, 
or more probably from aiUgOy I bind, Lat.) An 
order of plants beloufpnfc to the second class Aphy- 
leiB, of the seoc>nd grand division of the vef^ctatile 
kingdom, tlie CtrlhiUrea. The plants are whullr 
composed of cellular tissue, a&cending from the 
eimpleat furm known in vogutiition to a very com- 
pound sbtte. Tbo lowest are filiform and lenflets. 
with tbeti' fruetiflcntioQ immersed ; tbo highest arv 
leafy, with a fruotitication included in on indehis- 
cent, wsrt-like )ieric3rpium. Some copulate like 
animab; othere have a «pontaneoua emotion, like 
wonna. Their oulour ia lively; in tbc luweat 
grades, green : in the highest, red or purple. They 
grow at the bottom of the eeu, or in fresh water; 
some are articulated, and othera are fibroos. In 
the ftrraiigemont of Undlay, in his Vegetable King- 
dom, the Alga are thus olaased by tharorden: 
— 1. OiatomsfMS, which are crystal'me fragmen- 
lary bodies, briltia, and mnltipUed by Bpootaneoua 
peponitiofi. 2. Confervaoete, tllamenl;ury, or mem- 
bnuMOUS bodies, multipliod by aooporcs, generated 
in the interior at tbo eipoose of thetr green matter. 
8. FacacoB. oelluhu- or tubular unsymmetrioal 
pliinta, mahipli(<d by simple apores fanned exter> 
nally. 4. Geraminic, cdlubir or tubular unsym- 
metrical plants, muUi[>l)ed by tetraapOTM. & 
Characea*, symmetrically branched plants, multi- 
plied by spiral nuoules tilled with sturcb. 



pie of AtDtnoOfc Aiiitnouia cutisists of 3 utonts of 
nydrogcn, atul 1 slom of nitrogen ; or bydrogen, 
17.64 ; iiitrogf'T), 82.36. ITio following sro 5onie 
of its compounds: — 
AunnsiA^ Aettate of: — 1 alomof»c«iicac4d^51 ; 
1 Btom of amtnooU = 17 ; 7 atoms of water ;= CSt; 
atonue weightf ISI. 
Ajimo51A, Bicarbonate t}f:—2 ntotni of carbiMtic 
arid = £4 ; 1 atom of ammonia ^ 17 ; 2 atoms 
of water := 18; nlomic weiglit, 89- 
Akmokia, Carbofiate of i — \ atom of oarbotiic ncid 
=£23; I BtoiiiofiiiDmoiiiat= 17; atomic wei-!it,3y. 
Ahmoma, Muriate of: — 1 atom wf tnDriiilic ncid 
^ 37 ; X atom of auiuionia ^ 17 ; atomic weij^lit, 
AbmomIa, NitraUof:— 1 atom oftiitnoadd^^54; 
1 atom of Dmmonia = 17 ; 1 »Com of water z= 9 ; 
atomic wcigtit, 80. 
AmuoNIA, Oxakcof: — 1 atom of oxaTic ncid =r 36; 
1 atom of ammoaii =: 17*, 2 atoms of waC«r = 
18; atomic wdgtit, 71. 
Ammonia, SestjuicarhonaU (>/*.— 3 atom* of carljo- 
nic acid r= CG ; 2 atoms of nmmoniii = 34 ; 2 
atoiua of water r:= 18; atomic wciulit, 1 18. 
AmoNM, Suljihutt of: — 1 atom of sulphuric acid 
ss40; 1 atom of ammoirui^]?; S atoms of 
water = 18; atomic wngbt, 75. 
Tbe Baits of ammonia are generally soluble in 
water. Tlicy arc decomposed by the (isod allcMlica 
and alkalina earths, wtth the erolution of ammo- 
nia. When a salt of ma^eaiftt and a soluble 
phus[)1rate, arc added to them, precipitation tulcc-s 
place, and crjatals arc the result, which urc cum- 
pounds of the pbospbmto of ammoDia and the 
phosphate of magrtcais. 
AjiHOlilACL'lit am-mo-ni'n-kum, f. A gam rrun 
obtained as a natural cjiudation from tho ooapnk 
plant (Dorema ommouijcum). It has estcrnaDy 
a yellow colour, and is obtained in drops and cakes 
from the East Indira and Africa; as a mt-dicinc, 
it is used as au expectorant, aud sumctimcA it 
applied OS a pl.uter. l(a vurieties are ffutttx nm- 
moritVici, in tears, and liijiis ammontaci, in lump». 
AjtuoMTA, am-mo-ni'ta, orcomu ammonis, §. The 

^.1 hippocampi of the brain. 
AMJin.NiTK, orn'mo-nite, ». (so named on account 
of llicir reMDiblance to tho ramV hcmi on ttie hivid 
of the Lybifii deity Ammmi, hence likewi-K; c^IM 
comu ammnnis.) A gcnni of extinct ctphiilopods, 
the tl'isl-cbelU of which occur in pmat vsiicly and 
abutidanea in sccondury strata. Tho phetU art: 
cfaainboreJ and dlscoidat ; tho chamben divided 
by thin septa, perforated by a syphancle or pipr, 
forming; « hydrAulic instrument, by whioli the 
tnimal OQuId rise or sink st pIcAxurc, as \b efft.'Ctoii 
by the similar apparatus of the shtOl of the oxist- 
tog naotnos and apinila ammonites. Ammouites 
bare latterly been divided into many cenem, accord- 
ing tA the form of tbe tvhoU, the situition of tbe 
typhou, and nniulationit uf t^e M^pta, vii., arietint, 
falcifert, aioalthci, cupiicYirni, phmulati, dotrtati, 
coronarii, macrt>c(<phali, aniui'.i, vrnitt, dentaii, 
flexuoai,— Which nw. 
Ammonites, arn'mo-nitcs, : (hen yimirnon, the K>n 
uf my kindred. Mob.) la niUical History, the 
name of a nntion, desceuiied from the incestuous 
connection of Uot with bts youngest danghlvr. 
Tho Ammonites or Ammonila! inhabited the country 
situated betwfi-n the rivurs AiTion and Jabbok, 
NN.K. of thu Sfbabitea. 

-biH H 

oldiers. ^H 
mnai: l1i(> 

Ammomlw, am-moae-mn, «. A name pto] 

by Sir 11. Dnvy, fnf a 5»ppo»ed metal wbtcb 

gamates with mercury when electnfied in 
with nmmonii. 
A^iUOI^iLA, am mop'ti1-a, s. (antmoi, and, attd 
ptiifH^ a wing, Gr.) A genos of birds bdoq|^ 
to (he plover family, Chandriada!. 
AxMO'iriON, arn-mu-nish'an, t. {mmnitio^ i 
cation, Lat.) Powder and shot; mUitOf^ 
in penrrsL 
Ahui MTios-miRAD, sm>mu-nish'un-breJ, 

Itruud provided for ami distributed to aoldiers. 
AuKEdTiA, am-nea'te-A, w. (ft, prir. and mnain, (1i^ 

memory, Gr.) Forgctfulness ; tosa uf memory. 
Au.'iESTr, sni'iies-tc, «. (iMwen/t, oblirion, Qt^ 
An act of obliriui) ; sn act by whirh crimes agiinK 
the government, to a certAJu liinr, are to oMl- 
terated, that they uinnot bo brtju^Ut into a rjisi^ 
agiiiiist tho^e who bad offended I'y their 
or 'ithrt" misdomcnnoiirs. 
Am^iiculist, iun-nik'o-li»t, s. {amtacol^ from 
a river, and aMt^ 1 tuhahit, Lat.) One who Um 
on the b:tnks of a river. — Not Dsed. 
AmxigknocS, utM-iiij'e-nus, a. {^an»niQ*m»y 
amais, n river, LnL and gennoOf I gcMrat^ 
Boru of a riror. — Not used. 
AuNioir, am'ne-on, i. (nrnfiion, from airmof. a 
Or.) In Anatomy, the internal membrane 
enrolopcs tho foetus In the womb. In &oi 
tho thill semitranapareut membrane in wVtch 
embryo of a plant \i enveloped in the firtt 
of girmination. Amnii Uipior, the fluid contj 
in the amnion; omrwrfu; acid, an acid ob! 
frum the liquor amnii of the cow<— See Aixav- 
TO to acid. 
AikebjCa, a-mDl>e-a, v. (anujtbos^ clianging, 
A name given by Chreuberg to a tribe of tbe 
gastric infusoria. 
AsiouuM, a-mo'mum. #. (a, prrr. and mmai, 
purity. Or. from Its being a rountcr-pOBoa.) 
aromatio herb, formerly nsed in the preanmiAt 
of dc;ul bodies. A fjcniis of plunts, eeveral of die 
9pt.t'ies of which produce cardamoms or graiu rf 
paradise, aud A. xinxiher, the nieJIagetta pcppv 
of commerce: Order, Scitaminec 
Ahovo, Amokost, a-mung', a-nmngst', 
(artumgy Sax.) Mingled with; placed 
persons or things on every aide ; conjoined 
othere so aa to make p.vt of the numi^r. 
AuoRKAys, am-o'r«>atui, «. The name uf an 
of Jewbb doctors, who were preceded by 
Mishnic doctors, and succeeded by the S«b' 
Amorest, am'o-ri:it, $. Aa inamonlai m 
a man profe&suig lore. 

The ptn of some vulgnr niuor*tt. — J/TQm^ 
Amokict, ainVrel, $, (omoref/ii, Ital.) A 

A pers-jn enumoured. 
AMQltinTlc, 1 am-o-rel', ». (aimmretfe, ft.) 
Amousktte,/ amorous woman ; lorc-kr.ota; 
amours; love-tricks; dallisnoeSb Ctuiucec 
tbe second senar in these lines: — 
For not trlsd (n silk was b^ 
tint All III flitiirUh snd flourattci^ 
I palmed kU with amertttu, 

AHnRiTGS, amVrites. 9. An ancient and 
fnl tribe of the CanAanitlsb nation, deec«nd4 
Seth, the aon of Ham. The name i^ <Tippoaed< 
be derived fmin a Hebrew word, signiOiNg n\i 
(aineer; by others, from amir, and .'li^nifrin^l 
Kuiir, cUti*)t:dn, or head, of a trib&. 



r, to a bfBct or Imff the bww of which dasps 
tbi mm wtlli Us kitiM. 

^B^ iCite andrtphvIBa ; oonJa of s cylindricil 

dnridcJ info chsmbors br nnmomnis 

■>pca, which cmbraoo uch other with 

AsruATm* amplv^tc, r. a. (amplio^ Lit.) To m- 

ka^; C« nuke gretUr ; to extont). 
AflrUACUm, wn-pte-n'thun. r. Enlargeineot ; ex- 

40Biti^; CEteiHioo; dUTuMfiea!!. 
AmTUTMUXB, Mil plir»toit«. F. a. (amptljieo, Lat.) 
Tbatiiff ; la •priad out. 

■m-pb-fr-kii'sbun, i. Enlarge- 

ftxafc^rrated dsseiiplion, or dlf- 

an hnage htfiehtcnnl be^ronil 

wnHtf ; ft Baffnlire eolarged with many clrcum- 

un'}>le-fi-iir, «. On« that enlvrf^, 
lU anything with a lariie 
«f tbc beat drcmnBtaaoes ; an enUu-ger in 
fMl i/ iiHf^itade or graodear. 
IsruFT, am'ple-fi, r. a. (ampiijier, Fr.) To en- 
bni;*; to toawama mbj material iuLtlnnre or objoit 
«l aM»: to coUrga or extend aujrthing incDr- 
to o a g g er j ite anrthin^, or enliirf<;e tt bv 
•/ wpf—gatatloii : to impnive by new 
;— «. m. to speak Uri^lj in mnny words ; 
te bjraoA mit oat in tiiAii»i<m ; to form Urge aitd 
wpr—nUt ions. 

'pto-tadoi «. (tmptiiufiu, Lat.) 
as; greatocaa; oapaciCjr; extant of 
\ i^Jeodoar; grandeur; dij:- 
tty; gaplapMaaa ; aboodanoe. In Ajtronomy, 
Tkt ai^nbr tiibuict of a »tar, or otb«r eeleiUat 
Mfr •! tb* tifDfl tl ruea or aetSf from tl»e eaat or 
MM pamis of tha boriaua. Amplitmig of tht 
0fm fffOftetiU^ ia the horizontat tine nib- 
|j>e |usb in which it mortN) ; it xa, URiallj 
tb* f-ftf/t of the fftrn. Afognetlcftl ampli- 
ttril, ia an arch of the borixoDf ooatairird botweon 
IteflHtal hia ruiiift', and the eaator west point of 
tkt mmftm ; or it ia the dtflbrenoe of the nsmfr 
m Hfliw tit the nin from the eaat or west points 
Xwrvt, aoi'liie, atl (aaipftf, I^.) Largely; liber- 
d^ ; at imrgy withoat wiaar re ; oopio\a]j ; with a 

na-pana, f. (Latin.) A globulv-shaped 

m nMTBw neck, naed by the RomnnF at 

Jbc. for cxrnrmg wine, [M-rfuTiu'ii, 

vvIbi^v; wmpailm wan ued aa omAtnetits of 

h*«i ad tablea. 

Alvau.aHA, am-imMa're-a, $* (iiayiilfa. Lat) A 

faBi«ffiW>- water ■pimlunivnlvcinoUusca, which 

rinn and ponds ol Inlia, Africa, und 

the tbeil glubuM, turbinate; ftpiru 

3A«ft| apMaratMcajt Hpeomplote all round, 
gft« ^iMr tkidmtod or rotlected. 
AvrwaTK, •ta'poWe, ». a (o«^«r, Fr. ampnto, 
Lai.) Toent off ahmb orothcr partof the bodr. 
AamAiIov, wn-pa-u'tliOQ. i. fampvtolio, Lat.) 
TW itintfT of oottiiig off a limb or other pnrt 

Amklm^ •iB''tt-U, 9k (f^n.) In aneieat architec- 
iHil iamn^oUt • rum of ooinn>oo occuTmio* in 
Ihm aatpliBW oa altais and trmplHk, made of 
haaaaan^a art h; tha former w^re round or oma- 
>Uw l^tef werafreqnmllv 

Amclet, am'u-let, t. {umtUntie^ Vr. omuktHm, Lnt.) 
Au appended imaginary remedy or pm«r\'ativo of 
diwatie, hnng miinil the iii>ck, or att«ched to any 
other part of the body. The fnnn of amalets 
were used in thn deoiiration of K^rptian, Greek, 
and Roman buildings. 

AMiir.KTic, am-n-k?t'ik, a. Of the nature of an 
amulet ; pertaining to an amolot. 

Amcrcositv, Bm-nr-lco!('c-te,ir.(«wiiiroa, lees, Lat.) 
Tbc natarv nr quality of le*^ or MOim. 

AMiriicoUA, am-urlius, a. Full of dreps. 

Aml'.«k, a'ntuzc, p. a. (amii#fr, Kr.) To entertain 
with tranquillity ; to till witli thougbta tbatefigage 
Ifie mind wiibout distmctlng it. To t/irerf, im- 
plies aometbinjr more lively, and to pl^att^ hQXat- 
tliing mon? important. To draw on from lime to 
time ; to keep in expectation, as * be amnsed his 
fnllowCTv with id1(> promises ;* — v. n. to miuo ; to 
meditate. — Ubsojotc in thiei Benae. 
Or In tome patblrxs wlMemeM amut^^ 
I'luckin^' tbo mo&cy bark off aume old trw». — 

Lta' JiMM\iiM BmtmM. 

AMCf>BMB?n', a'mt»«e-mpnt, «. (Frcnrh.) That 
whicb aniuaea; entertninment; profound medita- 
tion. — Seldom used in tbtv last sense. 

AliosCR, a-mu'zur, a. One who entertains or 

Axvsivo, B-nra'aog, a. Enlertaintng; pleasing 

Ahusikolt, a-mu'dng-lOf ad!. In an amoung 

Amubivb, fl-rau'siv, a. That which haa the power 
of amusing;. 

vVhubively, a-mn'ttT-Ief ad. In an amoaing 

Abiygdala Auara, amig'da-la a-ma'ra, $. BiC< 
tcT almonda. Tbc kernels of a variety of amyg- 
dalus communu, lued in tnflamin^tur^ rompluints, 
in pulmonic and dyspnptic affections, hooping- 
oougb, uthma, &c. ; vehicle for more one^io 

AxTODALA DrLCie, a-mi;;'da-Ia dnl'aUi, «. Streat 
almonda ; keniela of a variuty of the amy^dalua 
communis, compoeod of fixed oil, 64 ; mucua, 3; 
futediariao matter. (I ; albumen, *J-t. 

AuYUDAi-v Oleuu, a-mij;Ma-]e olo-nm, j. Al- 
mondoit; the oil extracted from tbc kernels of 
both TsHetiai of olniunds ; nsed in catarrh, vnited 
with water, by means of sn^or and mnciluge, or a 
few drops of liquor potaasa.' or ammoniw. 

Ahyodalate, a-mig'da-hilei a. ftlado of Hlmonda, 

Amyooalb^, a-mig-dale'e, «. A nnturmi order 
of pnlypetnlona exogena, dutinguiahed by it£ pro- 
ducing tilt) kind of fruit cdlod a drupe, aa in tba 
peach, nectarine, plum, cherry, almond, apricot, 
pnine, damibm, nil of which bvloog to tbia order. 
Another of its cbaractcrislica is, that the laavrai of 
llie species yield pnusic arid, tti> stamens arfnnme- 
rotts, imd rise from the orifice of a tubular cidyx. 

AMYODALiiie, a-mig'da-line, a. Relating to ul- 
monds ; resembling almonds, 

AUVOOALOID. u-raig'da-loyd, a. (am^gdtita^ an 
almond, and ridoi, lilie, lir.) A varii'ty of tmp 
rock, ^ciu-rally vesicular, with embedded, roundt 
or alumnd-siiaped miuurab, such b« tignte, calcA- 
rtous spar, cakmlonj, Jasper or seolites, reaembHng 
alinoiid<f ill a cake— henoe the name. 

AurcDALOiDAL, a-mig'da-loy-dal. a. Containing 
rounded ur kentel-ahaped cavities, tilled with min- 
eral matter of a different kind from th« subaiance 



AjLTUUALUtt, n-mit^'dn-loK, «. A gtiiiui of pUuts, 
Ijpe of tha nnlural order or tribe Ainviitlulajt*. 

Amxudalitr, »-mig'tl«-lite, *. Aliiiouil'ttuDi!. 

Ajf TLACKOUii, ft-me-WttUuft, a. Putaking of tbo 
nntiirc uf starch. 

AiiTLUu* &-nii1ura, s. (Lalin.) Starch : Btsrch U 
obuinod by diffusing flour thruui^li .1 Inrt;o ({uaii- 
tily of water, by wliich iho tuvchaiiiie and uiuci- 
lagiuoui lOHttcn aro dUMtlvcil— thu fibruu* paits 
floaling un the surface, while the fcctila ia alluwi*d 
Co aub»Ue. It cuiisUta of oxygen, 40.0B; byJi'o- 
gen, 0.77 ; carbon, 43,55.— CWi/wik/. Pharm. 

Amtridf^Iu, am-c-riJ'e-e, t. {ttmyrlt, one of tho 
genera.) A natural order ur tribe of jioh'pctukiUB 
ejugaiia, coiuuting chiefly of trupicul trees, tho 
Imtos, bark, Aud fruit of tthicti, abound in odori- 
feroas rcsina, among which are f^itn cteini, h\lr>l- 
lium, and the retin of Coumut: stameoti hypo- 
genuus, and twice as nntiioruiu as the petnU; 
ovarium iniwrted In a larf^ di^k; fruit titiihy, 
ono-aeeded, and covered with tT^i[)oul( }j;lanilft, 

Axvuis, a-iD)'na,4. (a, and mtprha^ myrrh, Lut.^ A 
geoosof pluntSftypcof iheottturalurderAiTiyridE^it.'. 

Am, an, (an^ tjoth. onit. Sax.) The funa of Che 
indefinite article when uaed beftnn a wonl com- 
Ricnciiig with a rowel or A mute. Ic stjjiiitieii 
o«<% hue with IcM cmphaatA, aa any tir sa<i>e — aa 
'there ktundsan natt ;' 'un elejdiiint might &wim in 
this water.* In old anthers, it \s KomiMtmca iiacMl 
for ■/, aa, * an thou wart my i'stbor.' Some- 
timej it ia mdunduutf m» — 

He will, an If ho lire to tw a mao.— AkaAa. 
Sometimes as a contraction of nj {/^ aa — 
I will roar yon aji 't were any nlKhtiDKnle.— 5ikajk«. 

Aka, fln'n, ad. (Oreck.*) A word mml in the 
pn^scriptioDS of phvMciand, importing the lika 
quantity, as wine and hoiioy, a or iSji^f, tii; thnt 
ii, wine and honey, each two ounces. And t> 
oocaxionally used aa a tenntnation, to denote col- 
lections cither of remarks made by celebrated 
irdividuaU, of extracts made fmm their note- 
books, lettrra, or from newly-publUhed worki. 

AxABATTisis, an-a-bap'tisc, r. a. Tu rebaptiae. 

Akabaftssu, an-a-hap'tizm. $, (ana, B(:ain, and 
btiplizo, I dip or baptise, Gr.) The word in applied 
to a perfeon who' has been rcbaptised: but surh 
name ia rrjected by Anttpiedo-huptiiiUt, or as Ihey 
an moia generally culled, Baplutfe, who bold that 
none should be baptiitfd till they are capable of 
ar.dvnttfiudiug and professing the Ghristinn faith, 
, BTul that tho ocremonr i^hould bu performed by 
immvrsioD or dipping of the n'hole wxly in water. 

ASABAmsT, an-a-bap tiitt, t. One who holds the 
doctrine of Anabtiptism ; the term is more parti- 
cularly applied tu a sect of German fannttcs, who 
COaioutted great ^xoesaes in the year 1^26, and 
fnr t«a yeari aftrrwardi*. Iti addition Co their 
notkms of the un la tr fulness of infant haptifim, they 
are said to have held the tmUwfulnr*s of ull civil 
authority, and maintained that, auiuug the saints, 
all thiogs shuukl be held in oommon. 

AKAfi^faisTic, ati-a-bap-tis'tik, \ a. Rcbitiug 

Akauaitistical an-ii-bap-tia'to-kjil,/ Co the do- 
tiotu of AnatiBptistA. 

AXAUAiTidTRY, au-ft-bap'tls-tre, #. Tlio sect or 
doctrine held by Aiuhaptintit. 

AsAiiAS, an'a-bos, «. (analntino, I ascend, Gr.) A 
);t!nQa of acantboptf^giims ti»ihcA, Iwlonging to 
the perch family ; remarkable fur the power they 


posM-is of quitting tho waior fur sntiip timr. uvl 
making thar way on laml — a power arising jrwn 
the complicated limina? of their gilU retaining the 
water after Utcy hare got wti land. The »oul of 
this Bpvcies is shurt and ohtuac, and both jsws 
proriiicd with ra£p-like te<tb, but wbieb wvsCran; 
and ncutc on the pharynx. 

Anaoasis, unA-ba'$t&, s. (an<tk<tMM, an eqawtavi, 
Gr.) A genus of susall erergreen exotic shrubs; 
Onlcr, CheDopodetc 

AKAHK.H.Ai:, an-a-bo'uc, «. (cmoAomo, I asemd, Gc) 
A name given by J. A. Ritgen to a fsmily of 
Saurians, which, like the choineleon, are in the 
habit of BACcnding trees. To the saioe £unily, 
the same author applies the terms anahaaodactj^ 
and Bnabenosauriana. 

AnawjTHera, an-a-lra/A'e-ra, «. (wiwifio/Arew, ■ 
ladder, Gr.) Tho name given by Wilham to * 
f.ifi«il pUnt from Albmbaiik, Ber»-ick.sliinu 

Ay ADLEPS. an'a-bleps, f. (ttrntbieptv, I look up, GrJ 
A gt-[iUH of fi<thpa belonging to the tribi* Cy^i 
da^, remarkablo fur a curious htructnre af tim 
which pmlrndM, and has the Iria dLvtded iulu 
portions by a tnmsvenw biiud; the snout b ti 
CAtc'd ; body of a cylindrical shape, and coi 
with strong scales. Inlialtits the rivers of ' 

AyAtiBOMfl, ■n-a-hrD'ais <• (Greek.) .\u 
or corroding; a consuming or rnating anaj 
any part of the body. 

Amaca, a-nalca, «, A smnll kind of p.iroqu0L 

ANACAMrsRBoiTS, an-A-kump'^-rus, §. (oh- 
iamptOt and crow, lore, Gr.) A grooa of plaala, 
supposed by tho anctcnts to hare the power of 
ivstoring the paMion of love: Order, Partalac^ 

ANACAMrric,-a»-a-kamp'lik. a. (aitiutompto, I r»^ 
fleet or bend back, Gr.) K«-t]ecting or refli 
nn anacvw^tie aound^ an echo; on 
hUi, a bill tliat prwluces an echow 

Anacabiptics, an-a-kamp'lika, a. Caloptxks, 
doctrine uf reflected light. 

AnaCAUPTIS, an-a-kimip'tis, $. (anahimplo^ 
The orcliis pyramidalis of Linturus; Or4a^ 
chid cm. 

Anacasthts, an-a-kan'CAus, $. (ana. and 
a spine, Gr.) A genus of skate fl»hes vhi 
ucitlier spine nor fiii upon the tail. 

.\NACAnuiACBJi, nn-a-kdr-de-H'iic-a, s. (om^Mrf 
tnrdin^ the heart, Gr.) A natural order of mI^ 
petaloos cxogens, consutiog of woody punt* 
abounding in an acrid n^n; AoMcts nitb (i*riff- 
nous stamens; fruit, aiiperiur, simple, one-«Dcdeli 
leavea alternate, without &tipul«. It coOidot 
among its genera the tumaoh, the pifttariai^ tJ» 
matigo, and the caahew, the nuts of tHe 
well known as yieUlng a black aiOitio 
wholesome kfmel, used in makioff 
eatwn raw, ui the West ladles, 

AKACAriTiiKTiCft, an-a-kar-fAetlka, a. («iso, 
katMarvf, pure, Gr.) A name given hy theGi 
to cough, attended with rxpecl<*ration; any 
cine that operates upwards. — U.Hincy, 

AKACKTllAt^KOfilB, an-a-ccf-a-le-ahis '• 
phahiofig, Gr.) Recapitulation or 
thc principal heuds. 

Akaclpiializc, an-a-!(cra-liii\ tt-o, (aim, ac«n. 
and IrpJiai*^ a bead, Gr.) To recapitulate ; logo 
over the lirads of a discourse aguiu. 

ANACiioubT, un-ak'o ret, 1 f . A hermit; a monk 

Akacuokite, an-ak'u-rite,/ wbo leaves the cob* 
vent to lead a mure sedndod Gfe. 



an-A-kfr-ret'e-lol, a. RclAting: 
or anachnrvL 

■D-«ll^kr»*ninn, $. (ana and diro- 
% Or.} Aa crmr in compating tinier by 
■ ■ mla a* auipIiioMl in rrsvil to each 
It aumi ptopn-ly to sij*iiir>i an nmir bjr 
ii plaoed too eorlr ; but is gm»- 
«|fy lH<d tbr ai^ «nnr bi dirooology. 

nanc, ao-a-kro-nis'tik, a. ContniniDg 


lO-a-kloA ttka, $. {ana and hho^ I 
Dioptric*, or that branch of optics 
of the rpfiractim of li^ht. 
Jbi-ACOCVOCU, ■n>ak-«>«-Do'ftts, a. (awnhwMMU, 
ijK.) A ficnre mBbctorie, b;^ which the speukor 
i|ffin tn bia hoama or opjionenU for their opinion 
9fm Iba pttSU in dispnt«. 
teuooKttx^ aa-tt^aa'da, a. The praU ac^pcnt of 
of OtIdd, a ffpfrifa of boa. 
C, aD-ak-nMMi'tilCf «. A fittle popm 
la the atrle of Anocrron, <l?vot«d to lov-c 
■hi viae; — & raUtiag to, or in tbe manner of 

Av-unOLCa, «-»HBldui, $, (abridgvil from tmon- 
ifaafBAM, a vord eow p oaed of a, without, wtikoM^ 
a flMir, «^ I7MM, a cipr>, Gr.) The Ruiff- 
iMW, a pnna of comp(>sit« planta, which have 
!«■» af vnaiea, witboot flowtrVf placed iu a dide 
Aduojiirra, an-a-de'iniif, «. A namv i;iroa br 
a f^rnus of birdi bck>ngine to the 
or loDg-bi!li>d corkooa— ludta. 
aA'*-<lMne, jl (duadbmo, Gr. aitademr^ 
Fk.) A ptfiohl of flowcri worn round tbe head. 

iaaaadi^MvCn' wfaoin the curlmu* iliapxie 

Tla m^ Aa ^*intj whiw, tlir goudl; iJiutinak m««. 

JUaoaana, aa-^-da'ae-a, /. (a, wjthont, and acAvi, 
a tlanil. Gr,) A gcaw of AnatnUlaa plants: 
Ondw, Pn>t«ac«ic. 
Aaai»ruma. an a-de-plo'ria, «. (Greek.) R«dn- 
flk^iaa ; a fif^un in rfaotorie, in which thr lost 
«ai4«f iW ferff|p>in{; tiwmber of i period benomea 
Ik* ft«l of tbe fDllowiof, aa— 'Aa rrftuMrf Aw 
MMMbf al/ Au mhtfortfin««, miafortnnea 
mJji Mit rirtut bron|rtit ujM>a tiiin.' 
AvjmmanA, a-iwa-<A«'th«-a, 1, {<t, with'int, and 
AKlini^ Qr.) Deprivation of tbe aenne 

MULm, JB-A-g^'Ui, «■ (Greek name.) Hm- 
«r tkt foer man'i wcatbtf-glaH. a gootiB 
tf iAmU Willi vluol-ahapeid eomllaa and a cap- 
into two biilvw, tb* upper of whii:h 
UkC other. Tbe pimpernel o{>«iih in the 
■■al^ aad ohMea in the aAonoon ; its petals 
a^Hili i^atf io wet wrKther. 
Ana wnfl l, aa'a-glif, «. (oao^rAe, Fr. from ana 
mA ^igf^ 1 aap a ya, Gr ) An oraamental en- 
pattagaa ptat*; anjching in rv-lief in Krulptnre. 
an-a-j^ip'tik, n. I'lTtAiiiing tu tbe 
, ^UMng. or i*ni hotting on plate. 
Aaa— <TA, an-afF-Aoa'ta, #. A literary MTvant, 
akaa My it waa to raul, during meals, in givat 
or to hi* inaatar in private. 
siMhfD-itt'e-kal. 4. {nmufognt, 
Gr.) Ikal vhick eontributw or rojatea to apiritual 
or nBjgiau ivftumt m y s m hi u at de- 
A dhan InoMnily. 

'Cnj'».kA[, o. ^^amnsttgkpfy Fr.) 
} kkvaU^ ; nli^iooBtj eiallodi 

^H' ofttnck. 

Ak Aooo tc ALLY, an-a-f;nj V kol-lCf att Sljiterioaily; 

with religious elevation, 
.Vnaoooics, on-a-grij'ika,*. Myitsriooa eonanlera- 

Anaoogt, nn'a-^o-je, *. A mr^ttea] meaning ap- 

plksd to the laflgtufrQ ^f Scripture. 
AyAQBAM, un'a-gnitn, <. {oim, bade, and ^ramuM, 

a letter, Or.) A traospa^ition of letton ao as to 

form other words. 

Live, tIU*. unil i>^\\, ha\» tti^ t.pir>ai'ii>' tott^n. 
Ho live* t>ul Tilo vrlmiu ttii buMd ui luitcrii. 

A]CAGRAUHATfrAi.,an-a-gruiu-mut'e-kul,a. Furm- 
ing nn luiap^un. 

AiTAOituiiMATiCAXLT, on-a-gnun-mat'e-kal-fo, ad. 
In tho manner of an anagmm. 

AxAcnAHMATiSHf nn-a-gnim'iiiat-izm, s. Tho art 
or [waetioe ot' making anap*iiniit. 

AifAOItAMUATlftr, an-a-f^nun'iiia-tiitt, m. A m.ikcr 
of anagrama. 

A:f.\onAMMATiZBf an-a-gram'raa-tiae, r. n. Tu 
make snniframaL 

Anai., An'jil, n. I'ertflining to the annit; ploceJ 
below the tail. Aftai-aiJfif^ in Entomologr, tho 
internal oikglo at tho hiLie uf nn ifisect'ti wiug; 
anof-orea, that part of tlio wing of a dipterooa 
inwet which is sitnnted within the midillo nervare, 
or in orthoptenniB insectR, that pnrt whiuh is ntu- 
■t(id brtwoen thu anal and t)i« postvriur margin; 
artai-nervnre^ the |>rincipal nerve in the wing of 
an insect uifjninint; the intvmol or potderiar mar- 
giD; anai~nfyw<ttu the hiiuler iu*gnicni of an an- 
neliHo; nnal-rjlnnHs, glaniln situated near the aitns 
of certain nniinaU by which secretions are funned, 
sometimea attract ive, but usuollv repulsive in their 
pn>])crtiee; mtai-nUr^Sy certain valves situatnd at 
the terminal orilire of the intentineo of some of tho 
cepbalnp<HLi, ftir thi< ptir^tuse of preserving it from 
the eotraooe of lurcign Mibatancea. 

ANALOUnt, aa-al'nnit tu (anaikis, weak, Gr.) Dibi- 
idte, a ndnernl, n variety of zinlitc, orcumng osii- 
ally in trap rocks, in enWc csrraUils, cither perfect 
or having each oftlie oiilid un;;li'a replaced br th^(H^ 
pbmes. It also ooetini in di^irgitig lihreK. funniiii; 
aggregated crystaU ; fracture, Hat. conchoidKl ; 
oolonr, white, grer, pllowish, reddish, or deep 
red; scratches ghL-M; tmnslnscent or transparent ; 
occasionalW opaqoe; it becomes weakly electric 
when nibbeti — hcneo the name annldnie. Sp. gr. 
3, nporlv. It comtists of sitica, 57.t^7 ; alumiitiL, 
20.*j»* ; *«otI.% U.71; water, 8.28. 

AxAl^oiriTB, An-al'se-pas, «. {tmnU-i*^ weak, 
and /Miiw, a foi>t, Gr.) A pmua of hinhi. A. 
hirundinaoeus, an Inilian specit^ is utiont nix 
inches in lei^h, Mack above, glinw4<tl with Mneish 
grean, with n bond on the nimp, and all the uihUt 
phinuige white; feet wnk and short — hence the 
name: FmiiIv, Dicmrins! or Drungw Shrikes. 

Akalkcta, on-a-lek'ta, #. A cnllection of ex- 
tracts from diffarent works ; u servant employnl 
in the honses of tho wealthy Romans to collect the 
scraps oAer meals. 

AVALErrA, an'a-lektx, «. (nnafadiss, Fr. frocn mu*- 
Ufffi, I pick np, Gr.) Kragmanta sehxted fnnn 
anthnn; ; select pircpii ; in our cAd dtt-tionarics, 
cmmbs wliich fail fmm tbo table. 

Akalkuha, an-Mt-enl'nu^ 1. (Greek.) A proJMV 
ti«a of tb« spht-re, used by the old sstronumers 
previotis to thti invention of ostmnomy. 

AVALKPSIS, on-o-lep'sis,*. (nna,agnin,aiid AiovAfino, 
I take, Gr.) Recovcrv «f health after rickoesa. 




Crown. This modo of toiiug the clei^, bowerer, 
is craded by mttaa of a valontion made in 1535, 
and conUmod in what u d«iianuiul«d ^UW 
B^;* * nuuaca iaid in tbeBomishObardiforlho 
«MKe of a year, or for on; other tune, either fur 
the sool of a penoa d«;»a6cd, or for the benefit of 
a pentoD living.' — Aylifft^ Portrgim, 
AinrsAL, an-Docl\ v. a. (jmeBhity to heat, to inflame, 
Sax.) To fubjcct glau or metal, niW btiiti^ 
hij!:fa]7 hpAted, to a process of ooolijig ttlovlji La 
onier to reader it leas brittle. 

Which bin- own inwnnl fTrnmntry rwealed. 
And, like a picture, tbooo in gliua dajwufAl 

AKiTBAXtyo, aD-neallng, s. The art of temporinf; 
gloas or metals. 

JUXH%X, ao-neka', r. a. (onMCto, tmnexum, Lat.) 
To unite to the end; to onito a smaller thing to a 
greater, as a pronoce to a kingdom ; to unite d 
poUeriort Aonesing alwuTs presupposes aome- 
thing \ thna we say, ' pnniabm^ nt is annexed to 
guilt,' and not 'guilt to ptuushmont ; '— ^. the 
thing annexed; additameut. 

AxMiXJLBT, ■n-neks'a-ret i. Addltioa. 

Ahnbxation, an • nek -sa' shun, «. Conjunction ; 
addition; union; act of anucxinj;. 

Amivbxmkst, an-oeks'ment, «. TIk act of aoDex- 
iog; the thing aontttpd. 

Ah»|hilablk, an-Di'h*-b'H a. (od^ and nihllum^ 
nothing, Lat) That which xomj be rcducod to 
DOtlung ; that which may be pat out of existeuoe. 

AinnniLATE, an-ni'hc-Ulc, r. a. To reduce to 
uutUiuK ; to put out ot exUteoce ; to destroy, so 
as to mako the thing otherwise than It was ; to 
annul ; to destroy th« agency of anything ; — a. 
An; of which, by the fmiaUc«t transpoaal or mlsappli- 

^tjon, Js otterly afatiHQaU.—Sv.'i^, 

Akkhulatio^, aii-ui-be-Ia'sliun, a. The act of 
reducing to nothing ; the state of being reduced 
to nothing. 

Akittesaaixt, on-ne-Tsr^BEpIei, ad. Annually. 

AmciTEBBAKy, an-ne-rer'aa-re, «. (awMeerscmui, 
IjU.) a day, an it returns, in the course of a 
yoar ; thv act of celebration* or perfonoaooe, in 
honour of the annitttrsaty day. ^ Anmvertarg is 
■n office in the Bomisb Church, celebrated not 
only ctioe a-year, hot which ooght to be said duly, 
throQghauC the ycoj-, far the soq] of the deceaaed.' 
— Atflije- — a. returning with tlie reToIaticnof the 
year ; aiiQual, yearly. 

A^ntiTERJiE, an'ne-vem, s. Anniveisary. 
And on tlicir uicred jmif wi m deoretNl 
To stamp tb«ir Unafa oq the promtcod seed,— 

Drydenet Brit. Jttd. 

AvifO Doxna, an 'no dom'e-ne, s. (I^otin.) In 

the year of our Lord, i.e., Eincc the l^rth of Christ, 

as, Anno Domioi or A. D. 1 8-(tt. 
AKKO}A»CEf an-Doy'uis, «. (froio aMno|r.) Public 

or pr}\'atA nuisance. — Obsolete 
An^toMiHATiON, sn-nom-fi-DA'shon, j. (mmomiaa- 

dot Ijit,') AUuaon to anything by playing upon 

the word. 
AinfOTATB, an'oo-tate, v. n. (amtciOt Lai. oiMotor, 

Fr.) To make annotations. 
ANNOTA.TI09, an -uo-ta'shun, s. (omnotuiio, Lat.) 

Explicatious on books ; notes. 
ASKOTATIONIST, au-oo-ta'sbon-ist, f. A writor of 

notes ; a commentator. 
^KTCOTATOB, an'no-ta-tuT, s. A writsr of notes or 

annotatioDs ; a scholiast ; a commentator. 

AmfOTTO, an-not'ta, j. A nd colouring matt<r, 

obtained from the seeds of the Bixa. It is u«d 

in colouring rectified spirits, and in tiottog chwm, 

butter, &C.— See BUa. 
A^TKOCKGE, an-nowns', v. a. (ow w aicw, Lat.) To 

publish ; to proclaim ; to pronounce ; to dechn 

by a judicial sentvnco. 
Aknounceucnt, an-nowns'tnent, s. {mmotteemtal^ 

Fr.) A dedar.itiou; an advertisement; a noti- 
AwotircBR, on-nown'sor, f. A dvclarer; a pv^ 

chuiner; on adrertaser; a bringer of sews; 

carrier of tidings. 
Amior, an- noy , v. a. (ahnoyer, old yr.) 

incommodo; to vex; to tease; to perplax;* 

iryuTy ; molestation ; trouble. 
AsxoTAXCE, An-noy'ans, $, That which 

or hurts ; the state of being annoyed ; the 

Akkotbr, an-noynr, s. The person who ani 
A2VNOYFCL, au-noy'ful, a. KuU of aonoj 


For al be It lo, that al tarying be amJ/U. a^ 
cot ropnve in jreriOK of jud^emsnt. — Cwwepr. 

Axxorous, an-noy'us, a, Tmibleaome. — 0' 

Yo ban clcpcd to your ronseO a sret mnlUtiulr of 
pl«, (\iU chor^uit and full oncyoui for to here.— CJbOMdir 

AxNUAL, an'u-al, a. {tmrmel, Fr. from cmmw, • jrtor, 
Lat) That which comes yesrly; tbnt wbtch ' 
reckoned by the year; that which U&u only 
year; — <. a pUot which lives only one 
plants whose stems wither away yearly, but 
roots sm-fire, are termed herbaceous plants 
which last two years only, are tennod 
a publication designed for the year. 

AssuALLT, an'nu-al-le, ad. Yearly 

Anxuart, an'nu-a-re. a. (annuus, LaL) 

ANNUITANT, au-nu'e-tant, «. Mo that 
receives an annuity. 

Ahkcity, an-nu'e-le, s. (oiwua^, Fr.) A 
sum of money raceired yeariy for life, or any p^ 
number of years ; in Law, a sum of money 
yearly, and charged on the personal estate, or on 
the pcnoD of the iodiridua] frwn whom it is duA 

Akvoi,, an-nul', r. a. (admdiier, adnallcr, old Fr.) 
To make void ; to nullify ; to abolish ; to redoes 
to nothing; to obliterate. 

Ahntlar, an'aa-Iar,u. {atmulain, Fr. from a is fan 
A riiig, Lat.) In the fonn of a ring. 

AVRULAB Castuaoe, «. The cricoid cartilage.— 
See Larynx. 

Arnulas Cbtbtai., an'ou-lar krwt'tJil, *. A Iwx- | 
agonal prism with six, or an octohedral prism with \ 
flight maripin] faces, dispoasd in a ring about each 
b»c, or, iHun these prijuns are tmncatcd, on tb«r 
tcnuioal cdgss. 

Ain(ni.AREcLir8S,aD'nu-lare-1[Iips',A AnecBpM 
of the snn, during which tlie moon obscuies moi 
the inhabitants of this plnnet tlie whole of tb* 
sun's fiuifaoe, except a luminous riug rouod it* 

Anxulaou, an-nu-h're-a, «. A gcnns of foanl 
pknts, with lesrea ammged in ring-Uke whoH* 
round tlic etom. 

Amki^ar Ligamekt, an'nu-kr lig^n-ment, ». (fiJT'S-- 
maUttm cUiarc, Lat.) Tlie circular band thst 
unites tlio iris ^d the sclerotic inembraoe to lh0 
choroid coot of the eye; ahw, a strong ligomcafr 
encompassing the wri^t. 

AaaciJLft MouLOiNO, an'nu-Ur roole'ding, s. A . 



hsfiag. gBBcnllj, ■ eircuLir horizontal 

Pkocbu. — See Pons VarialL 
Vacxt, &n'nu-Ur rawit,*. In Architw- 
■ ffvalC ruing from two clrcnlBr walla ; ibe 
«f K cnmltf^ onrndu*. 

.TJL, sa-nn-U'u, a. CorWa fint duss of 
divuduu of Uw uimAl kin^nm, 
T1k« Aimuljktt itra lb» 00I7 inver- 
mhkh hare red blood. It drru- 
1m • wj^um of conpUcatcd TCMeli. llieir 
«&■ of A double- kni>tt4^ oonl, 
■f inwro The body U »ft, more or lass 
■ad divided into s coasidvraMi* number 
or ftt least, of tnuksmao foldfl or pliits. 
tfacnxptiiKi of the Lombria, or etrth wormSf 
%gfm9 iimIj in Aqtutic. Sono eonitnct tnb««f 
■mktteopav or oUmt matters, into which the; bur- 
fiv, V cxadtt caiareoiu tobuUr thelUf hi vhich 

ivn-ATS, aaVn-Iate, a. Fonni>d ioto, or oonsliFt- 
km i£ imgt or aaaolar ae^^ments. In Botanj, 
l||M to tlw ci^saki, item, or root of a pUitt, if 
■mvmIhI «itb •{^Huent riogi. 

JoTLCr. M'nn-kt, a. (owwAu, Lat) tit Heraldiy, 
a tftvtaoF or niark of disdnction, which ibe fifth 
ImW <f «Bj family ought to bear in hia coat of 
cna. itaffaifffff arr abo a part of the coat-amionr 
W amnl fawJIwa. and were aodantty repotod a 
Mik 4t toUStf and JnrixpnideDca. Id Archttec- 
taa, ftflid iii|«ir« mooldixig, crowning or accotn- 
applird, alto, to the fillet which 
of a column, tamed Ukewiae, 
• M, lifl^ or ISstelU. 
tnciB^ir, aa-noI'mcQt, «. {oHTtuUaneiUt Fr.) 

Daa^ mVB-taa, «. (oMNifcy; a ifaig, Lot) In 
Bitai^, Ifaa uaBbraitt wbidi endrdes the stem of 
• ftpipa. lo AnMitaafy a ring-like part or open- 
fa^ m, mm^m» omeus, the tenipanl bune in the 
taHj tad mmmbu ttbdomuuiit^ or the abdomiaal 
m^ Ifca mwinft thmngh which tbo sperniatic 
■idiiMa^ aad tbadio^ar ligament of the oteras 
h wsnaa. pmmb, lorsned by the separation of the 
of the abdomen. It te 
that the intestines protrude 

• rfcic has Ow IbtlowhiK eoraMnatf ona 

j—AmnlicamdmM, riii(f-Uil«d ; armm- 

ffiigedJiorm or antenna: anmi^ena, 

mmidlfMi^ ring-foottd. in AoaunDjr, 

hrii^ Am wwisraiT mar^n c4 Uw/orwnnt 

mk «r If Mil I ■ ettnated in the pamtioD MporaaoK 
^•n^aBdknasiides Is thvRFtiu. Anmdmotn. 
H to dac ibaft saf Twa n ds ttw /mm vmHU or oral de- 
iri^a.|e— sifffl lif'tlwsaiitomofUM right auricle. 

■n-nn'm^-ratc, r.a. (tmmwnero, Lat.) 
TkiAl to • ficiDer number; to unite to som^- 

sn-nn-ffi^ra'shon, a. (< 
ft^ I«L) Adi£tina to a fonner thlnf^. 
AnCKlATV, «i»-i)iitt'»be-Bte, r.o. {awnmcio, LaL) 
To Wng tijm|;s ; to rflite something that has 
%tm «ift; • vvd not in oonuDOU use. 
I4^ AavpKv, wiiich tliat was ammmdat 
t9 too «a^ loof or his aatiTlttea.— CtaMMr. 

iamctaTUai, an-mm'^e-arshim, t. (onnoncui- 
6^ f^) TW name ^nn to the day celebrated 
If aartain Ct nr cfcea, k memo iy of the angel's 
«f tbe Viripn Mary — solenuuxed on 
-Utk df March; procUinadon; pn>- 

AxoAf an'o-a, a. An animal, belonging to the 
island of OpIebeH, moHidered to be interaediate in 
strocture between the buffalo sod the antekipe. 

AMuDTXSf aii'o-diiie, a. (a, without, odgnty pain, 
Gr. anodui^ Vt.) That which has the power ol 
mitigating pain ; — f. a medicbe which aamiagaB 
pun, eith(!r by direct application, as paregorics, or 
by producing sleep, sa auporifics; or by stupifyiu^ 
as narcotics. 

A*OiJiT, an-noynt', v. a. {amdn, cHcnnf, Fr.) To 
mb with oil ur ointment ; to conaecrata by poor- 
ing oil on the head ; 2 Kings ix. S. 

AxoiNTED, a-noyn'tcd, a. part. Rudbed with 
oil or other unctuous matter; nmiwcntcd by an 
ointment; applied, oa a noun, to kings and tha 
Messiah. * The Lord's auuiuted.' 

AnoiNTBR, a-noyn'tnr, s. One who anotnta. 

AsovsTTSO, a-ouyn'ting, a. Anwntmeut; tbe act 
of anointing. 

Akodcthext, a-noynt'ment^ $. The state of being 
anointed ; Uie act of anointing. 

Ajtous, saVlis, «. The veniacular name in the 
West Indies of a genns of hsaris, belonging to the 
Ignana bmiily, remarkable for having the power 
of inflatlBg the ikin of the throat. 

AhomazjA, an-o-ma'Ie-a, s. (Greek.) Irregularity 
of the piUse. 

AxoVALUfA, a-Qom-a-li'nn, «. (onomo^if, irregular, 
Gr.) A gaaiu of forsminiferous shells, fonnd in 
the foasil state in tertiary strata. 

Akohaiofkd, a-no-male-ped, a. (anomalui^ ano- 
maly, and pffta, a foot, Or.) A tcnn appUiyl to a 
bird, the middle toe of which is uniled to tbe 
exterior by dirM pbabnges, and, to the interior, 
by one only; — a, anomalaiialy footed. 

Anomausu, a-nom'a-lixm, «. Anomaly; irregu- 
larity; deviation from the oomtnon role. 

Ahomaustic, a-nosn'a-lis-tik, ) a. Imgu- 

AsroHALianCAL, a-Doro-a-lifl'to-kal,| kr; an ano- 
maliatio year, in Astronomy, is the interral ia 
time in which the earth completes a revolution in 
its orbit. The length of tbe tropical year is 365 
days, 5 bonn, 48 miantoa, 45 seoaada ; that of 
tbe anomalisCto year, 306 days, 6 hoot*, IS mi* 
ntites, 46 seoaada. 

Akohaloub, a-nom'a-lna, a. (anomalas, nregnlar, 
Gr.) Irregular; out of tbeoommonrule; deviat- 
ing from the ordinary method or analogy of things. 

Anomalodblt, o-nom's-Ius-Ir, ad, Invgutarly, 

AKOMATOUBlCKSft, a-nom'a-loa-nes, s. Irreguliirity. 

Anomalt, A-nom'a-lc, «. (mcmaUa, Gr.) Irrp|:u- 
lority; contrary to common rule; osed, in Astro- 
nomy, to denote the angular distance of a planet 
fhnii its pmhelton, as seen from the sun. In 
Grammar, denotes an irregularity hi the acddants 
of a word, in which it dcristn from the common 
rolca, whercbr words of a like kind are goremed. 

Anomia, a-no ine-a, «. (a, without, and ntrrtua, a 
hw, Gr.) A genus of accphaloos tcstAceo, l>o- 
longing to the Ostraoea or oyster family. The 
shell ooosista of two ttua valves, the under one of 
which b flattened, and has a deep nian:inal nutch 
or hole near the umbo; tbe greater portion uf tlie 
central mowle pauses through this oikenin^, and U 
inserted into a third piece, of a homy or cslcanwus 
lutiire, by whicb the sli4>ll adheres to extraneous 
bodies; tbe npper valve is long, concave, and en- 
tire — found in every sea. 

Akomite, an'o-mite, s. A foAslI species of anoinia^ 

AsonoFTEJaBf a-no-mop'tot-U, s. (itnonos, irrvgU' 



br, ud Jitiy*, > fern, Qr.) A grnias of fonil 
firai, (mad Sn tbs new red lODdstoni fomution. 

AKOHOUU>HBon>, A-Dom-Q-nwnV^d, «.(aiKmKWM, 
irreignlAr, Mud romioeUu, of ■ rbomboidAl flgurer 
Ur.) A Danw pvcai to oerUin rnnctMa of 07910- 
Une ipm, of no deMradntta ngoliir »tcniiL] fbnii, 
bnt alwn;* fnotaring into irn^or rhomboidA. 

AjioxoRiiosioomAU a-nom-o-rom'boyd-ol, a. 
CoDtifttiiiK <'>f irrpgulAriy fonnM) rticmboidft. 

Amovt, an'o-me, «. (a, without, sod iiooio#, Uw, 
Or.) BiHch of Iaw. 

Axon, »-non', od (denTation uifieitidnf sopposod 
to be binn, a< Aae.) Qnicklf, soon; in n short 
time; a contraction for anonfmoos. 

Amoka, a-no'na, «. Cmommu, tbo MaUyan nam* of 
the Costard apph.) A genu of trees with large 
roundl*h pnlp}rfrnit,ooespedes of which, ^. «7Ha- 
moso, jields the Custard apple, 

AnoMACtJKy »-non-a'se-e, s. (onono, one of the 

Sra.) A natunU order of exogenous plants, be- 
ngtothcftDb'clui!i,TbaIamiilo«D: sub-division, 
huHTde*. Hm plants of this order condst 
chiefly of vnrg;nen tropical trees or shmba, alHed 
to the Magnolua, firom which they are principally 
distingwsbed by the absencs of stipdje, and l^ 
the stnutore of the anthcts and seeds: tluflow«n 
axe temBry, with a nuninated albatnen. 

AaoKTMocB, B-non'o-mus, a. (a, frithotit, and 
onoma, a name, Qr.) Wanting a name. 

Amonyuocsly, a-Don'e-musIc, ad, Without a 

AvoPLOTHBRnni, an-o-pIo-Me're-am, *. (moplot, 
onnrmed, and tUrriom^ a wild beast, Gr.) A gvuuji 
of pochydennatous, or thick-ikinned, animoLi, the 
nmmna of whii'b, found in tertiaiy strata nenr 
Paris, indicate sewral extbct spcdes of animals 
iuti«nnedlato in structure between the rhinooeros 
and the horse, in one respect, and the hippopota- 
mns, the bog, and camel, hi anothv. 

AiroBSXT, an'uo-rcks-cv », (oi without, and orozu, 
lonf!;hig, appetite^ Gr.) Want of appetite^ 

AsvobmaIh a-nawr'mal, a. (inovinw, LaL) Im^- 
lar; deformed. 

AvoBTUurrie, a-nawTtk'rit«, a. (a, without, and 
ori^ot^ nght, Or.) A variety of felspar, ^stin- 
goished by the abaenee of ri|^t anf^es in its 
crystals. Zttscomposodofnlica, 44.49; alumina, 
84.40; finw, 15.68; magnoma, 6.80; oxide of 
iron, 1. 

Aivosmi, a-nos'me-o, s. (a, without, dsim, smdl, 
Or. ) Want of the s«nM of smelling 

AMOflTOKA, a-nos'to-nia, «. (ono, upward, and 
jtoma, a month, Gr.) A ;7anus of unlralre ter- 
restrial Testacpo, allied to the Helix^ or ahell-snait ; 
diftingnisbed by cbe sboll harmg the mouth turned 
upw ar ds towanle the spire. 

AKom&K, an-uth'ur, a. (an/Am*, Goth.) Not the 
same; any other; any one else; widely dii!erent; 
much altered. 

AKnniKROAnrEft, as-nth'ur-gayn&, & Of another 
Idnd. — Obsolete. 

AjiOTnKRQATKa, an-nth'nr-gaytz, a. (^oflE, a road, 
or way, Sax.) Of another sort or torn. — Obioleta. 
Hodlbras abont to enter 
Upon duattrrjnirs adveticure.— ^uOv. 

AKOTHSROriLSS, an-uth'ur-ges, a. Uf a dlBimint 

Idnd.— Obeoleta. 
AHocon, Akoit. — See Enough, Enow. 
Akoi'ra, a-noo'ra, a. A name gjven by DumMl 

aiiil IjitfviUe lu a fiuiuly of reptiles, which loae 

the tail when they arrive at the age of maXniity, 
as the frogs and toads do. 

AxsJE^ an'se, ». pL (ansa, a handle, Lat.) Tboas 
parta of Sotum'a ring which project beyond the 

Ambated, an'sa-ted, a. (mtfofiu^ LU.) Hnai| 
handles, or something in the form of handla^ 

AitasB, BnW,«. (oMttr, a goose, Lat.) The ~ 
■ f^nns of wob-footed, flat-billed, aqna& 
belonging to the Anatidfl! or dude fiunily; a 
of the fifth magnitnde, situated in the Milky Way, 
between Lyra and Aqnila. 

Arkkuka, an-se-ri'na, s. (oMKr, a gooae, I^) 
The OoMo Tansy, PotentillB anserina. 

Ahblaight, an'slate, a. {dagoMf (la sAyw, to Ul^ 
Sax.) An aflay; an attaek. 
I do ramenber that awiaMI; thoa wail taatlsa, I 
An.1 Hod'iil beforp tXw liuUer^-Atn Jcmam. 

AK8WS&, au'tfur, V. a. {trndmoara, Goth, annnvtr, 
Dan. to answer.) To speak in opposition j to ba 
aoooimtable for; to vin^cate; to gjva a juattA- 
catory aooount of ; to rave an account ; to oona- 
spond to; to suit with; to act redprocalty; ll 
stand opimeite or correlative to aomelliiog d^ 
to anooeed , — v. «. to speak in rctoru to a qtia&so; 
to be eqoivslifnt to ; to satisfy any dahn or p(d- 
tion of right or of justice ; to bear pnipoftioa ts; 
to perform what ts endeavoorcal or inteodad \if dv 
agent ; to comply irith ; to appear whan, alkd m 
or summoned authoritatively. 

AxawKR, an'ffur, «. (anii!sioor, Goth, ondliirw^ Sax.) 
That which is said, whether in speech or iB will- 
ing, in retuni to a question or poauion ; an 
to be given to the demand of juatiock la 
oonfuution of a charge oxbibltnl against • 
retaltatioo ; corresponding practice; 

Graat thr »taagbltf li 
Ilrv* tnade by the Romati ; great the mmmst b 
Britons must taku.— ^Aois. 

AKSWEBABts, an'f>ur-a-bl, a. That to wUek ft 
reply may be madfl ; tlut which may be 
obliged to give an nccuuut ; ubUged to 
denmnd of jttHtiro, or stand the trial of an 
tion ; correspondent t proportionate { 
equal ; eriniralcnt ; njative ; oon«latiT& 

Amb n BR ABLENE8S, an'suT-a-bt-oea, $. Tin 
of being nnswerablo. 

AKBWKRAiiLr, an'sor-a-ble, ad. In duo 
with proper ooTTcepoodenca ; suitably. 

AKsnxrtER, on'sur-nr, 5. He who 
or writes, in retnm to what another 
written ; he that manages the ooutrovany 
one who has writtm firsL 

Amsweb-jodbcb, an'sor-Job'bcr, <; Om 
makes a trade in writing answers. 

Axt, ant, s. (cnniu, Sax. supposed to ba 
to trmty sod afterward aoftened into am 
The English name of the gaoua Fonnica. Ttat 
are small byuenoptenms insorrts, rpn>srkaU« ftf 
tlicir ikvoled attention to the pupa or 
which is the third trannformMtion ; tbas^ 
hling gnuns of rice, are hu.ipMl up In llksir 
apurtnwats, and bome oat (>n»i>tt(inaUy Id 
the BUD. This circumstance has j^vea risa to 
poptUar, but nroiieuus notion, that theae 
store up gnun as a provison for winter. 
an not gnuurorous, bnt camivonxts «n! 
preying; on the soft parts of other inaM^ 
dally tlio viscera, or upon worma, Boalt " ' 
other animals. 

A5T-BKAJ2, ant'bore, s. The 




ntw^ jt^ntOi > 1m]B0 South Amnkan 

snt'lcsCsb-ora, «. The Mjntben 
; « gtoni <tf binU, allied to tiio tfanuhu, 
cluefir on anU. 
■nt'e-tor, f. An animal which livefl 

t'ttU, M. The iinaU protnberaneefl of 
wliitii anU makr th«ir neata, 
— See Myolherim. 
A aootnctiiHi far and jit, or nLkcr ttir 
f m, * «nt please pu^ ' lKaI ia, * and if it 

hy a. fL ante In Architectnre, jamb* 

m •fiiare {nata, aypporttn;: the lintcU, 

r Rasters, alteehM to a will, and form- 

of edifivea in gmml Tb« 

first row of rirtrs, bordning a 

3 h it probablo the word pancd 

I «M mto ardiiteetan. 

anf-a^-sda, »,pl (mCi, aj^nat, Gr. 
k) Carbonic or alkaliDe mbstances, used 
bMkSng adftj of the stomach. The snb- 
bilcen, aiv carbooate of soda, or 
Brf»apinntn. dittotvad la watur. 

, at-al'ka-liSf $. pi Mcdidaes oscd 
the jfrrscnoe of alkalies. 
Wt, Wi ta^n nJTt. «. (antagtmigKSy Gr. cm- 
1^) ChM who oooteiuhi with another ; 
■li impljing gencralljr a penontU and 
i|yadkiiHU lu Anatomr, thf ontafff>- 
AbOTI tboaa which amntcmrt otliers; na 
■i ■ilwiwai abdooton and adductora. 

Itnc, ao-tag-o-nia'tik, a. Contundbg aa 

ar« tiot yet an eombatant, 

a« to flfhL— ficM ^mtam. 

■i ift-tt^o-oixe, V. n. {anti, apiinst, and 
cwitwi^ Gr.) To contmd agntiut. 
■B-ta|['»-iM^ $. {rrnti, and o^^ia, Gr.) 
[ oppmiim. 

-•I'jik. A. ((▼*»/«, i(;ainct. and fli^raa, 
l) T^at which n^lievm piiin -, anodvue. 
asu, ■nt-«na-kla'ina, a. (onlnnajUoM, 
^Ofv in Rbetorie, when tbc same word 
id ia a dlffefont, if not in a contrary 
Im; !•» * In thy ytnith, Icam soma cniil, 
Illy old tffi, tbon maj'it f^ tbv Uring 
inh.* Cfiil, in the finn, rignif^ng science 
— in ibe Mcond, dec«it or aabtilty. 
vieai6ca, abo, a returning to the 
t thm Old of a bmg parentbcaia. 

«B'tan'a-|>Cif^ a. {amti, againftt^ and 
utamadoua. Or.) A fignrv in Rfae- 
ml being able to answer the aocuaa- 
tkt mhwuy^ w« rctun th« charge, br 
irfUi tba aame or other Crimea; wfaiui 
M rwrtnunatioa. 

«at--a-6»-diaValcB, <.pf. Anti- 
Nat oaed. 
Bit-«-fn>-dit'ik, a. (antapkrodi- 
mai^ ngiinft and Apkrit^i^ Venus, 

Lacne, mt-ap-fifr-pklc'tik, a. (on/t. and 
k w apofinx, Or.) XSnttiX In oaring or 


& (and 

»'. oppoaitf, and ark- 
to Uw r^cm within 

AirTAftcmc CVRCLK, an-tark'tilt ht'IcI, j. In Geo- 
graphj, a drde drawn on the trrrvstriul giobo, 
at a difltauoe of 23^ degrees from the wmth 

AxTAKcnc rOLS, on-tari'tik pok^ a. Tba aoutb 

Aktaxus, an'ta^ns, a. CW 4tr<or^Y; a aiar of 
tlie fint magiutude, auudced a, in the Gonrtatla- 
tioD Scorpio. 

ASTARTHKiTic, an-tar-ttrctTlc. a. (nnti and ar(A- 
nViii, the gout, Gr.) Good in curing or pruventing 
titr ^rtwt. 

AHTASTniiATlc, an-toB-mat'ik, a. {ohH and atth- 
tnn. Or.) Appll*^ to nnr medicrne which has tho 
effect of curing t>r prewnting asthma. 

Ajtit. an'te. A Ijitin particle, ngnifying h^Jhre, 
which is fVe<piently lued in oompoaition, at in tbe 
following tcniiii :— 

AlTTRACT, an'te -okt, «. A former act 

A.vTKCKDJL]nEOD8, an -t **-«''- da 'a«.iiB, a, (onle and 
crdo, I go. Lot.) Going before ; pncedlng. 

AimRCEDENCE, an-t«-8e'diinaf "^ ». The act or 

AsTECEDENcy, an-le-oe'den-se, j rtato of going 
befutv ; prvcedeoce. In Astronoinv, on ^parent 
motion of a pUnet towards the wnt, 

A:vTKCfci)E)iT, ac-tc^-ap'dent, a (tmteeeiknt^ Lat) 
Gtiing before ; preceding, used with regard to 
time ; — «. that which gues before. In GrniiimAr, 
the noun to which a relativa pronoun U eiubjuiii^ 
oa, 'the man who' — man ia the antecedent. In 
Logic, tbc lirat propoaidon of an orgumriit, which 
oonastaof oolj two pnjpu<*itiuua. In ilHtltvinalioi, 
the first two terms of a ratio. In Sfiilicine, ap- 
plied to signs of dJBaase, befon^ the diatcuiper t« mo 
forriKd aa to be pro|Mirly cloMoficd. 

Aaria'EPEiirru, an-te-so-dan'&he-H, #. (Ijttin.) A 
crlestial bodjr i« aaid to be m atiiei'edatiia when it 
moves contiirf to tb« Hgn.s of the zodiac. 

A*CTCCEt>KirTT.T, OD-te-sp'dfoit-lf', n/l. In the state 
of anteeedence, or going before ; pirnously. 

AVTEOEAAOK, an-le-sea'sur, «. fUtin.) One who 
goes before or leads another ; tho principal. 

Ajn^-cnAWBER, an't^tuhHrne-biir, «. The cham- 
ber that leads to the chief apartment. 

Aktecuapel, Bii'tc-t»hBp-*'l, *. The part of a 
chapel through whicli the passage is to the bodj 
or cboir uf lU 

ASTKCLTRSoit, an-te-kur'sBr, r. (Latin.) One wbo 
man !>efure. 

Akteoatb, an'te-date, r. a. To djite earlier than 

tho n»l time, ao as to confer a fictitimu anli'juity ; 

to do something before the proper time; anticipatioB. 

Oarjtm below It eao hnpron^ 

And vHtefale Uui hhm 

In Law, a npnrioaa or false dnt«, prior to the truo 
date of a bond, bill, or the like. 

AKTEDlLtrTLAM, an- te-de-lu've-on, o, (ante, ond 
dAtrram, a delnge, Lat) Exltting before tho 
deluge; relating to thinga exlftting before Lhe 
flood ; — *, one who livwi before tho Hood. 

AjrreruRCA, an-te-fiir'ka, jr. (ant*;, and furoa^ %. 
fork, Lat.) llie last division of tlu misthorax 
of inserts. 

Antelope, an ' te - lope, «. (etntiologr nncert«n.) 
A genus of Rnmiuantii, rennnblii);^ the slogs in 
the lightncas of their figure and swiftness. The 
boms of tbc antdopw are round and soKd, wHh 
annuUtiuns, and sometimea eumpresaed ; the cjea 
are hu^ and bright; the ears gunetmllj tinged 
and pointed; the legs long uud slundor. 




A2^TS^^CAN, iD-te-1n'kan, a. (cutithicamtia, L«t) 

Ejuiy; before du^U^hu — Not in use. 

All manner of onlduecm Ubouren.— Oi<yCagi*« AMw on 
Don Qviiottr. 

AvTB-MKSiDiAM, ■u'te-me-rid'jre-an, a. (anie^ and 
iMriffirm.) Bt^oi« ntwn : abrevutcd A.M. 

AlTTEMBTiCf iDt-«-inet 'Ik, a. (tmri, and eswo, I Tomit, 
Gr.) Tlut which hw the power of preventing or 
stoppiDg Tomitiiig. 

AzfTBUCVDANE, oD-te-niiin'dime, a. {anff, and 
mmdutf Oh world, hat,) Before the creatbn of 
the world. 

AxTK-mmAL, ni'te-mo'ral, t. (ante, uid mrtu, a 
wall, Lat.) In Architecture, an outer wall; a 
boundary wall ; a pallisade. 

Antsnm£, an'ten-tw, i. pL ( aw fci w a, Lat^ antmuet^ 
Ft.) Feelen; tboee delicate aitictUated filamenu 
or homa, which oocnr on the hoada of insecta and 
cnistacMna. Antemm are exceedingly varied in 
tljcir slnicture and form. Thoae wtuch conaist of 
one juint only, are tenned «!aartieHlaU ; of two. 
hiarliaiiaU; of tlira^ tnartiaUatm ; and, when 
the jfunta an aumerona, thejr an tenned tMiIti- 
artiailaie. They are generalljr naked, but some 
are eorercd with Longer or shorter hairs. The 
ftUowm^ Laliniufd coiabinatioiu of this word oo- 
ear in Xattiral History: — 

KoTK.— JiilnuKrfui, haTlnff aBteiuta), or. in lehttiyolocf. 
appendiim like antenna, ai Id Otodem awteww al l if . 
In Iiurru which hAVe the aDleniUB rrntarkabty d«- 
Tcloped. u £htoen> onlniMila : and hi CnutttMa wUcta 
luir* th« «xterior antomug tviy lant*< Amltmi^flmiM, 
at in the plant EcAium aw fcw u ytfn u. which haa two 
flileu between iJie pei^ and nectary, which have the 
appearance of the antennv at a boetle : or in ffettn- 
jiU oHtMa^cra. becatuu) two or three of the dirUiona 
of lu calyx are Unaar, and very itraight to the apex 
and ant«fiaifonn ; or tn TrlehoeerM ammml ft r, beca o aa 
the column* of the aaxual organa are prolooged on 
each aide Into two BntMUiiform flUtU. 

AinvfitAKiA, an-ten-na'n-a, f. (antoHU, I«t front 
the antenniform nhape of the awna of the pnppua.) 
A genua of plants: Onler, Com posits: Sub-order, 
Cardnicea% Vemonaeem. 

AHTBKiiirOBSi, ao'ten-ne-fawnn, a. (antenna^ and 
Jbrmoj shape, Lat) Shaped In the maaner of 

AirnDTHVULEU, ao-tan-oo-la're-a, «. A genos of 
tobtUar oorala, io which itia oelb fonn hoiiiontal 
lings roond the stem : Famil/, Tubolaril 

AirnEKuicBHB, an-te-nam'bur, s. The nomber 
which goes bofonk 

Amstusruu an'te-ncp'shal, a. (ante, and oipfKB, 
maniage, Lat.) Before nuuriagh 

AXTXTAOMEifTA, an'te-pog-men'ta, t. (Latin.) In 
andeat Architoctoro, Uie jambs or ijionlded archi- 
traves round a door. 

AiTTXPAflCBXL, an'te-pas'kal, a. (ante, and poacha, 
the passover, LaL) BeUting to the time before 

Ahtrpast, an'te-past, «. (rmte, and poMtrnt, to ieed, 
Lat) A foretaste; something taken before the 
pn^wr time. 

AHTBnCTOKALf on-te-pck'to-ral, & (ante, before, 
and ptctiu^ the breast^ Lat.) A lemi applied bjr 
Kirby to the feet of insects fixed in thu forepart 
of the proBtemauif or prothorax of insects. 

ANTEPECTua, an-te-pek'tna, s. In Entomology, 
the nnder-ude of the moln tnmk of insects. 

AVTSPaMStm, on-tc-pen'de-nm, a. (anXe, and p^i^- 
deo, I hang op, Lat) An awning or veil, which, 
in the middle ages, was hung up before the altar 
in cburehea. 


AKTSp£;rtn.T, on-to-pe-nult', «. (tmOe, and ji| 
nwu, the last but one, Lat) Tbc last 4 
bat two of a word. 

Airr£r£iftn.TiHATB, an-tc-m-niilt'e-BiaUi, 
latin^ to the last syllable but two. 

AXTEPtLEPTIC, antHrp-e-Iep'tak, a. (ante, 
Uptia, Gr.) Applied to a medicine oeed 
ring, or preventing cjulep^, or onnTnlsiini^ 

AwTEPOKE, an'te-pone, v. a. (ante, and/wfw^ 
\j\l.) To prefer one thing to another. 

AjfTEPOSiTiON, an-te-po-siui'nn, s. (tutted 
I pat, Lat) An invendon ; a ttwispositMi 

AiCTKPRXDlGAJlsin-, ao-tv-pm-dik'a-iDent, s; 
jwee ft' etts w a uw , Uit) In Logic, soniethhi| 
known prevniis to the doctrine oS the predki 
or arrangement of beings, or sobstaaota^ ae 
to thor Batons. 

Aktsbidbs, an-to'e-^Ies, c In a&oimt A] 
ture, buttraeses or counterforts snpportiaf 
termnd speronl (spurs) by the ItaUans.. 

AfirsRiOK, ao-teWur, a. (Latin.) Going 
nitJier in regard to place or time ; prior, pi 
In CoDcbology, the ode opponte to this 
bivalve &belU. In a spiral unlTalve, the a 
that port of the apertait, or opening, nuM 
from tlw apex; of a symmetrical conicsl 
shi-n, it is that part where tbo head of tba 
is situuted. In Botany, growing hi fimt 

AlfTSBiOBtTT on-te-re-or'e-te, s. Priori 
state of bong before, either in regard t» 

ANTe-ROOii,an'te-room,s. The room throsig 
is the passage to the principal oparonenL 

Aktsa, an'tes, s. (Ijitin.) Lugo piUan siq 
the &oDt of a building. 

AxTCHmMA, an-te-Aig'nia, s. (Latin.) In 
faniLture, a semidrcuUr tsblo-bedf irfaid^ 
jnined to anothfT, consUtated a roasd ti" 

Antkb(G-"caki, an-tc-scg-na'ni,*. (Latin.) 
given Xn the band of soldiers who were 1 
defend the Roman standards. 

AxTESTATCBS, an'tc-btay-tore, t. (ante, 
ito, I Btand, Lat) In Fortification, s ■ 
trenchment, cocuu«tiDg of palisadoes or \ 
earth thrown ap hastily sa a defence, and 
purpose of duputiog the rest of the gTvu 
the enemy has gained pe as BSsSon of part ol 

Ajvtb-tbjiplb, an'te-tam'pl, s. A name 
ancieat churches to what is now termed tli 

Ante^^esio Uteiu, an-te-ver'so-o n'te-ri,4 
before, and ttrto, \ tnm, Lat) A morbid 
inclination of the fundus uteri. 

Antgvert, an'te-vert, o. a. (ontewrte^ IM 

AxmstA, ao-fA^'a, 9. (mtJui^ I fknxu 
The infioreseenoe oo nudus. 

AMTBSX.BX, aa-i&ci'iks, s. (mti, agaiaae, fl| 
the external envelope of tha annclc or 
Lat) The prutabvanoe or inward brinlt 
outer ear. 

AKTUBurnnA, an-Mel-min'e-a, «. ( 
and fJminthoM, a worm, Gr.) A speciea o^ 
lia : 3, anMsfmlMa, or wonD^gnus^ iO 
iu supposed vtrtoea in destroying 

AKTfiEticnffTHio, aa-lAel-min'lA^ a^ 
to worms. 

AKTRBLMixnoB, an-tM-iiun'tika, s. lA 
useful tn destroying wosma. 

Akth^mis, an'tAe-n^ s. (antbenMM, a fiowV 




^AfiBiMef <Dnipo«te Lcriis, m named 
t Wt abttiklfiaee «r flowen wbtcli the 
■r. Tli» floir«n of Antlmaw MlnJu, vr 
fimofnilf, SR well knoim, aad obtun a 
|.«ir ptunaacopcGu, from thcsr use in 
■ll fn«m» iy^epm, hystmo, OatuleDt 
l« A& ; tliey an touc uid <mrDunnU\'e ; 
b idlidaa cmetie; externally emoltient, 
t: vAtmt atning Hod fragrant. Uc^tdM 
r ythn^te Ibr which camomile ia m dk- 
L il vtttt^M camphor anil tannin, and 
lliito dl «f a 0ch bitw colour. Aathcnils 
jpMdaoM a brilliojit ypUuTv. In Uotanj, 
■• ty^ «f the aab-urder, ADlhemideic. 
in'fileiD., M. A dhriae wng, perfarmed as 

gIvM oMtlMtnor, Grfi«k. a hymn, 
■nata parv. as dw derivation of Uiis word : 
IJBliaa «aA(l^. 8aa«o, written by CUaocer 
«arfni^ M corre^iaading witb aaf^ptimta, 
tM««< Prroch. 

-wue, md. Aoogrduig to 
or an^g anthuau, name- 

givet great 

r»<, a. (om/Amhu, (me 
JMn.) A aah-order of coinpustCe plauts, 
M amfaa ■umindisg ita flower-heada 
^«l tbt bonkr. Kb thoM of the Chi7»> 
p^ MM m tba geDcxa. 
Ru, flB-Uof o-^^ a: (oafAoa, a 6ower, nnJ 
ftaar« Gr.) A genus of West Indian 

h'llai^ «• (awtfam, Lat. from oMthfra*, 
I ta a Btnrnr, Gr.) A small raembranous 
KBBBg Iba top part nf the stamen of a 
kU OBBtaini and discbarges the poUcii 
khif dMi Vr wUch the ovnte or aoed- 

|IV»-nl, 4L Belonging to an antber; 

r«f tiia utara erf an aotbcr. 

Iw, Bo-licr'a-knin, a. (on^Aos, a flower, 

h$^ m badge, Gr.) A genua of plsiita 

m kmnm, and tpikm of bdgbt jcllotr 

M>i^ A^bodelae. 

BHMJS, an-CAe-iifer-as, a. (iM/Acro, aad 

||ir, LaU) Cany'ing or beaniijE; anthen. 

MDit an Mw Vfawtta, a. (atU/tera, and 

m«,ljit.) Having tbe jbnn of an antbo'. 

Vcotis, an-<Ac-n^*o-nua, a. (onfAcroc, 

Enrar, aad gmiaOy I pnMlnoe, Gr.) 
loUa l« dmble-floWetB, tbfl antben 
eocvertad into bom-tikB peUla. 
an-tfic'sis^ a. (onMenf, tbft gencntion of 
Iff.) A icnn applieil to expnas tfaa coo- 
when ab ila otgua are in full 

k^ na rte a-ri'na, a. 


A pccobar suV 
ii ooasidtnd as constituting the 
of the poiavii of the apa»-tT<ec, 
«) thangbt hj PeUeticr and Ca- 
>b»>w^Ufcle alkali. 
|»^ltsMi Jk A geoiB o( fishes with 
l4 Ivg* «r«r nd wide noath : Family, 

1^ ■B-tUs'a-dis, 0, A name pvan by 
^ a frmilj of cotcaptenoi iuBeti, hav- 
I typo Iha genos Antlucaa. 

^T]iiKA, aa-Mi'na, n. (onOtiunn^ florid, Lat) A 
gro^arioiiii gKnos of ttcarlut-oolourod fbngi, wLioh 
grow oti dead leaves. 

AHTUon&Ah'CiriA, an-t/io-bnmk'a-a, a. (onlAoa, a 
flower, and hragrhia, [lUU, Gr.) A name ^ren 
by Goldfua to a family of Mitllijam, wliidj have 
tUeir bnuichinj disposed in tbc funn uf paakdos. 

AxTIIOCEriiALOL'5, an-fAo-fwf .i-las, a, (anthot, and 
kepkaic, a head, Gr.) lla\-iii^ n bead lu the form 
of a tlowor. Ex. Fanria anthoeeplialu, whicJi has 
a very lar;zc }iou<l, witli four obtuse loUea, that an 
lon^t-r itsetf 

AKriio<.xi{cii^ an 'tAo-ser'ida, a. (anUtoK, ondjteriu, 
a radinted texture, Gr.) A genua of Australian 
phmCs, with radiatod tknrcni : Family, Solaneai. 

Anthocbros, an-rtoe'e-roa, s. (anCAoa, and iterosis, 
honied, Gr. from the form of the Iheca, Gr.) A 
f^nns of phtiti: Order, Cryiitogaruia: Uepoticia. 

AKTHocu.KRa, au-<Aok'ke-ra, «. A genus uf large 
siacd tcuoirootral birds: Family, MclipliagidiD, or 
Ilanvy Suckers. 

A^TiiotiLEiSTA, an-fAo-kle-i'bto, n. (oaAhw, a 
llow«r, and lieirta, I shut d{i, Gr.) A gonoa of 
plants: Order, Apocynea:. 

Atmiofticnf, an-ete'de-um, a. (uirfAos, or mUAo- 
dsr, fuU of flowers, Gr.) A term, at first applied 
to H composite Uow<t )>)■ Jilirhartubut aftorwanls 
restrained in Its aignitication by WiLldenow, to a 
aynonyme of a conuDoa calyx. It is now nsod to 
denote a capUaluni or flowar-hcod, whichi lOce tha 
daisy «r tlte thistle, eonsisU of an aggmgation of 
ioveta, sorrounded by a oommoa bTDluamm. 

AnTnoDOir, an'tAo-doL, a. (on/Aw, and odbiia, a 
tood), Gr.) A genus of South Ajnctican shrohii 
Order, liyppocrataoe*. 

Antuolitil, an'fAo-lite, a, (mttkos, and /iVior. a 
btoni\ Gr.) A name givi-n by Rroii^iiart to cor- 
tdin fosol plonta, foimd in the coal fbnndkni, 
wliich have the appeanuioe of inHoreseflOODb 

AvTUOLOOiOAL., an-Mo-loj'e-kal, a. (onAof, and 
loffa$, a diBCoanw, Gr.) Belating to anthology. 

AxTtioLOor, an-cAolVje, <. (antMoto^ Fr. from 
oaiAos, and loffogf Gr.) A discvtirse or treatise 
on dowcnt; a work whi^b treats upon choke 
Howeis. The Gnsck word aaUtoioffia^ from atUkoi^ 
a flower, tiud Ugo, I collect, Bignifias a ptrland 
of tiowora ; and, in KngUah, is used metaphori- 
cally for a collection of choice poetical or other 
pieces, connected with polite literature. A col- 
lection of devudouid piaoea uaed in Iho Groek 
church were atw ao named. 

.tVimioLOUA, an-^u-lu'ma, a. (aaMnr, and ^nwr, a 
fringcvGr.) A genua of Aastratian plants : Order, 

Antiioltbis, an-Mol'p-siii, «. (onfAoii, and l^sit, a 
breaking up, Gr.) The con^rsion of a flower 
fnm the atato of its natural dL-vdopmcnt to that 
of leaves, branches, Ac 

AiTTHOLVrA, an-fAo-li'za, i. (atUJtoi, and ^j/MOr 
rage, Gr.) The mud-flower; • geona of plaotM, 
so named from the Howur Iwring acmetbing like 
the resemblance of an animal about to bite. 

Ahtuoxania, an-tho-ma'ne-B. «. (o»Ma«, and ma- 
nia, madness, Gr.) An extravagant fondness for 
curious flowers. 

Aktiiohiza, nn-fAo-mi'u, «. (tmthoi, and myso, a 
Hj, Gr.) A p-nus of hirda: Tribe, Tennlroatnai 
Family, Meliphagidai, or Honey Suckers. 

Akthoaiy'b Firk, an'lo-nix fire', «. A spedes of 
Krrsipelas. Eryid^iclBa gut Lliis nppcUation, as 



tboM forracrlT^ odlicted with it nuulo application 
to St, Aotliod^, of PoduAf in particalar, for a can. 
Aktuophila, nn-Moro-lo, m, (anUiot^ m nower, aw] 
phiio^ I hive, Gr.) The Bee faiuilj; a namo gircn 
by Lmniirck, Latrpill(<, niid othcni, to thoso inaecU 
wlik'h livp I._v extrJKiting Imnejr from flovrcra. The 
Anthophila form Cuvier's fouitb fainilj of the 

I bur, Or.) A name pven hj CradoUe to a 
• pralimgation of the nwe^itoolc of a flowor, in the 
fonn of a culmnnor expnodon, bc&ring at its Kfex 
tbf petiils, pistibt, and stamens. 

Am-norHYLLiTC, an-fAo-firiite, ». (aHthos, pftjfl- 
km, a leaf, and UtJiof, a stoiw, Gr.) The pris- 

I matio achitttT-4par of Motia; a msuive mineral 
of a broimisb or jcllowub-girjr ootour, soriictunes 
CTTatalixed in thin Bix-sided prisnu; loatro gUa- 
tening and pearly ; does not scratch f^Uiw ; rnelt^ 
before the blow-pipe with borux^ hito green tran- 
•parent glaw ; *p. gr. UO t*) H'i; consists uf silica, 
G2-GG; aluminA, 13'«}3; uiA^uciua, 4-O0; Unie, 
8*33; oxide of iron, 12*00: oxide of maiipuicse, 
3-25; wnttT, 1-13., an-Mo-fil'lnm, », (aniXo*, and 
phyHoity a leaf, Gr.) A ;:ctius of Utncllifcraus 
«onls, of a nrrifonn or nmiml mIiaik*, im]>rrfrctlj 
dbUoguMied from the TurbinoUa, fooad in polojo- 
vnc atmta, RH-mit and fosstL 

Amtuosasia, on-Mo-u'xhe-n, a. (cmd^, and eoo, 
I lire or flmirish, Gr.) A njime giren to a t«^- 
rare iDetamorphoDis in pkiitA, in which Lbe lenvee 
aimme the character of pctaki. 

ARTnoBFBRMA^ an-(Ao-s]>er'am-e, ». Tlie name 
given hy Coudollc to A tribe of phinta, of wliich 
the Anthocpermum or unber-lrie ia the type: 
Onler, itubiuceir. 

AxTUi/sPEiiuUM, an-tlAo-spn'mutn, r. (unthos, a 
flower, azid JfxnrM, a M«d, Gr.) The Aiuber-trcf, 
a heath -looking shrub from the Cupe q£ Good 
Hope. The female flower u entirely Baki>d, and 
coDbtata of a iinglo o^aritun — hence the niune. 

Al(Tno8TX)UA. anHl!Aoii'to-mA, a. (anth/u, and ttama, 
» mouth, Gr.) A n.ime given by LainfUle to a 
family of tlie Entozoaria, which have four imckeni 
of an aurirulifonn or potaloid form, to afl to gh-c 
tin head of the animnl the appearance of a fluwer. 

AirnioxAKnnTii, an-rftoka-an'iAtnn, «. (an</iv, and 
aettittiios, yellow. Or.) Spring Grass, a genua of 
plaati ; a common gross with sweetly Kxntc-d 
leave», and oval, dull, yellow flowen : Onlcr, 

AlRiuuocDB^ an-lAra-Bid'e-e, t. (anthrax, cmo of 
the genera.) A tribe of dipteroos inaacta, whli 
^rt bodies ; wingii «-idcly spread out. 

AwTBluciTE, Aii'C/ira>f>ite, g, (mtOtrax, charooal. 
Or.) Mineral choreoal ; a variety of coal, oon- 
nstiog dtiefly of carbon. It haa the aluniug 
Sppcaranco of black load. There ara aermil 
^•n^eti<<s of coal whioh einit little or ito flavie 
or smoke, and which go by thia iiamo, paitimlarly 
in Indnnd, Wales, and North America. 

A>TintACiTic, an lAra tdt-ik, a. Fartakiiig of the 
AatoTo of coal. 

ANTiiaACoLtTi:, an fArak VUtc, «. Same aa An- 
Ihnidte. — Which aee. 

AMTHRACONkTER, aD-cAra-kum'u'tur, n. (nnMmr. 
and mc/fw, I mcamrc, Gr.) An LnstrLimeiil fnr 
dat«rminiDg the quantity of cirbonic aoid whioh 
esiata in any gaseous admixtuiv. 


AxnuucoNiTK, an-Mrak'o-nilc,c Adark 
Tariety of calcareijua fiptu; with a oampaet 
ture aoA glimmeriug kufere; when mbU'd, it 
a disagreuabla mlphoreona amelL 

AMTBaAOOTiiiuRitJM, anWAm-kti-fiie're-iimr a. («» 
tkraXf tmtktaMot, ehaitoal, and Asrion, a wSii 
beast. Or.) Tbo nanw of an e^ict geno* of 
manunifenina aimnals, mppoeed to have bdon^ 
to the pridiydermataf or tbiek aldiii. Tba boii^ 
when fina iVacorercd, wsro (bond tn Hgnjta «r 
wood-eoal of the tertiary strata, at CadibopB^li 
Lignrio. Many speeies h«r« dnoe been 
in the lignite of the gypseoaa alnta of 
Ttueimy ; some of tlie sise and i4>peannce 
hog, and oltun appioadung to the siu af 

AKniBJLX, an'Uinka, a. (fmMrcu-, Gr.) A enH)«»- 
de; a hard inflammatory tamonr, occnning xaatt 
freqaeutly on tbo neck, buck, or loinsw In Zoiy 
logy, A gcnos of diptcroos insccta, type of the 
Irilw Anthraridea'. Tho Anthmoet are generally 
hulry ; they tiy with great velocity, and fmiuently 
lyit oo walls exposed tn the heat of the sun. Tin 
mouth U proridod with lon^ straight sctieem 
siickem ; antenme aetaeeoos ood distant. 

ANTUBOTif, aitih rep'tia, a. A name pren hf 
Swainsonto a geiiDS of birds: Family, dnsynhiv 
or Suu- birds. 

ANTBKiscrs, an-fAris'kns, ». (oHthritot^ Or. Aa 
niune.of a plant described hy Pliny,) Beogk 
Clieroril; a genus of uTnb(*llift»rons plants: Tribe, 
Seaa^doeie, The following are Hcitiah : — A. mt- 
garia, oerefolivni, and silvrstria. 

Aj^tubopooeht, an-tArO'pojVno, s. (anekrapm, 
a man, and ffeMM, gentratlou, Gr.) Tlia s&ady 
at htmum generation. 

AMTHKOFDOLOTTifi, an-/Aro-pof;'kiC-tia, a. (os- 
fAropoa, and yhUa^ a tongue, Or,) In ZoolafQr, 
an flpfteHatkn ^ea to animals which, aa in liM 
piirrots, hare longnea reeemblinf that nf 

A;<Tiwio POO KAPUT, an-cAro-poc'ra-fe, «. ( 
jioj^ and f/raphOf I describe, Or.) A deacriplIoB 
the vmictivt of the human race. 

AMTiiBun>LAT]UA, an-CArv-po-la'tiT-a, «. (onttrs* 
pM, and Intiia, wontliip, Gr.) The pi^inf cf 
di\ iiie hotiDurs to a roan, snppasod to bo tht oimI 
ancient kind of idolatry. 

AKTflBoiKiUTK, an-lArop'o-tite, a. (anclngtaa^ aid 
/tiAot, a atono, Gr.) Any atone which oofltlCM 
the remains of man, like those found in the lilMd 
of Gnadakmpa. 

A^THBoroLoor, an-<Aro-pol'o-j^ a. (aai fci ^Wi 
and itNfOf, a diseonnie, Or.) The Mienoe wM 
tnata of the physical and mtcllectnal propcrtia 
of nuui. 

AkthboI'omakct, aa-tAro-poa'an-se, at (a wl tw 
poit, and mamiiOy Avfaiatioo, Or.) A ipecka 4 
divination which used to be performed by mMiabh 
ing the entrnib of a human being. 

A^TRitoroMiTftT, an-lAro-pom'e-trv, a; (t u ^ifVfOt, 
and mrtroH, a men^nre, (.ir.) The measomniBt 
of the dimensiona of bttriimi beinga, 

AsTimoroMOni'iirTK. an'Mro-po-mawr'fiM^ * 
Oif. til n»j»v, ami »ffw/i*e, form, Gr.) On* who 6»- 
ue%M that the Deity has a btimnn form ; onaef ri 
»fct, ao calhKl, wb» altributed a bnmaii ibapt H 
the Deity. 

AirrnnoroMORrnrnew, an-fAro-pn-mawr'nt-l 
a. The belief that God haa u form like msA 

ANTiiBoiHisiOBPBOt'e, an - rAra- po- wawr 'Au^ 


a in Aa 
nan. Aj 





Gr.) Hsring » fono rasem* 

t tf man. 

rSAGt, ■n-<l4it>-jnjr»-ji, i. pT ^oi»/Aro- 
>» I e*l, fir.J Man-««ter9; c«iuti- 
irlw fire npon humui AmIi. 

ptecAfmfbAli ihiii «acb uthvp mt, 
maA oNb wbow bMuU 

MAOU, •D^Am-fo-ln^e-ft, «. The wl 
f fatifif: liunan fltL*>b. 
m40T» aii-£fcr«-pnr»-j«-, 0. dnniliAl- 
pnetioB 01 fittHg famiuui umIl 
•OOtT, ao-An^-pM'ko-pe, «. {oMtiropo*, 
g», t Icflpnt, or vieir, Gr.) Tlw art of 
IB flr j^MpQK ^ ■ ibhi'b oharmctvr imd 
a from tlie tmcamvots of faia boAy. 
MoiATOLOOT, «»-4Ar(>-po»-o-n»-tol*o-Je, 
{pop, «o«Hs, a body, uA loffot^ a 4hoourse, 
• 1/baiy vf tbe thiKhire of tbo faumui 

lomiA, Bn-4Aro-po-Bore-ft,) «. (onMro- 
MmiT, •a-rtn>-i»oi'o-f«, f jpa«,Bnd«»- 
ittledge, or wwdom, Or. ) Tbe kotxr ledge 

■a'Afca-ms, «. (tmthm, » flow«r, and 
I, Gr.) la BuUii)'. • ffpOta of tmall 
tfiif a iMigul Oft » Jeag nUlk, as on tlio 

#. (I^tn.^ A ^nwt of inMcfh-o- 
ilUed to the Waguilfl, in th« more- 
ti^ tmd in tbe mode nf blc, hut 
Uke tbe lariu: Sob-fvnily, 

K ■i^lfiU'lia, A (mtkon, a Hom^, and 
Ma« Or. firaco 4bo dswny Ratsm of the 
Kiibi^-r«tch ; n gvniu nf icpuninous 
Wiflg • fire-tootbfd tfiflatetl uiU'X ; petals 
ifBiikagtfa; i<f:am«ondaiid i-SKododf 
;■ • pannftOBiii cnljx. A. nilnrraru, 
Ulaty^retdi, or Lad/«4tngBn, ta a Bii- 
In: TtiH Lot»: Bttb-tnbf, Geoiiitea!. 
mCi art-bip-not'Sc, a. (anti, against, 
MKr limpy <ir.) Thnt wlnoh has tbe 
yrwwr Uu B ilevp or Vthaiigr. 
MKOHUAjC, ant-liip-o-kon'diT-jik, «. 
I i ^ yi c WiwI'i ai n*, byporliijiiilriinal, Gr.) 
I* aMfidnee need in tbe pretention or 
ypaAoitdrbcal compUinla. 
UC, ant-bis-ter*ik, a. {amti, and hjftiera, 
%, Gr.) Applied to mediones UMd ag»ituit 

1,,/pw. A Onek putklr^ mocb used la 
hwwrtiWBiiUdCTivMi from that batgneige; 
M aciun»t, oppooit*, or cniitrmry to. 

T acidft. 

•, t. (Creek.) A naow wnie- 
vn V3 TUe t4iutli or olinoBdA of the ears. 
b, w -ta a dlHiB, •■ 1nU«nmrtloa of ibo 

te-a'don'e-ktu, $. (oMtiadet, 
a iwclUog, Gr.) A swelling 

BWHTAM*-— See Vpjo. 
ItAtf, aB-to-V'tninVaci, «. One who 
fea teMMS of Ambrianinn. 
Kmr. — Rfm Antortbritic. 
~ -« Afitaetbnatia 
•baklLe-ais *. (Utio.) Aa 
itMlical utcasare,«oiubtbis of three sfUo- 
I two 6fei kaac, nd tbo ImI ibort. 

R/i, and &!'/('«, 
nd in biUutu 

FurtAiniiig to 

t. (otttf, aod 

AirriBjlsIUCJUl, on-to-ba-AUu-kaa, n, (niUi, and 
&aji7tZ-tfri, rajalf Gr.) Htwlilo to royal autburitf 
or tho kiugly state. 

ANTimuoiia, an-t<-bil'«-na, a. (< 
bile, Gr.) Applied to incdidnos i 

AxTiiutACMiAi*, aa-te-braicVal, a, 
tbe furcorm. 

AyTiBRACiiiUH, an-te-bnik'c-am, 

turacAiouy tbe upper port of tbe ann, Gr.) Tlio 
fure-Rnntnrticulnting with Ibc upper*(uin iind tbe 
bnn*! al the elbow and the wrist. 

AsTJVtiHGiiBitf aa'to-borg-or, s. A wot of Soot- 
ti»h Piu»bjturiaa diBBentcn, wbo diAr fnua tbe 
Burglien with wbovt tliey wore lurmcrly united^ 
respecting tbo bwfulncm of tbe bargctu oath. 
Tbe greater put of this body is now udiIlmI with 
the Bnrgbcrc, and both form what 'u denominated 
the Unked Seoeanoo Ckorob. 

A:tT]o, an'tOc, a. (oi*ffi7Wi«, aDcieaft, Lot) Odd; 
riJictUuasly wild ; wbimucal ;— a. a bufibon; oao 
who playa anties, or naea add gesHculatioiu;— kii. 
to make antiaL 

AxTiOAOHEcnc, an-to-ka-JEck'tik, a. Applied to 
a mediuinal nmndy for esohexy or a bad atute of 
the body. — See Cuebexy. 

AKTiCALTunsT, an-to-kal'rin-ist, a. One who u 
opposed lo Calrinlam. 

AKT1CALT1KI8TIC, an-te-kal-vin-ii'tik, «. Oppo-^d 
to the teneta lield by Cal^'iobti nwpecting tlie 
doctriam of pr^destinatirin, reprobation, final par-> 
seroraiice of rainta, &c 

Akticauditm, an-to-krl/ds-um, #. (tinti, andi^Er-' 
rfwt the heart, Gr.) The hollow part below the 
breast, oommonly called tbe pit of tbe Fitcmiacli. 

Aitticatarkiul, aD-te-ka-tA-'ral, o. {vttt^ and ka- 
forrAof, n catarrh, Gr.) Appliud to a meilidne 
uaed aa a rocnedy for catarrh. 

AimOAraoTic, aa-ttj-kaw-Mt'ik, a. (and^ and ivni- 
aof, a burning tever, Gr.) Applied to a mettidne 
tuod en a remedy in an inflammataiy fever. 

Avn^cuAHUBK, Bn'to-tBbani»-4}Qrt a. Improperly 
Kpi^lt ante- ch amber. A nxun at^oiniog a bed-room, 
lobby, or principal room. 

AxTicimi^rr, on'tc-kristc, a. (aa/i, and CSftriifoi, 
Christ, Or.) An Mversary to ohriatianify. 

AxncHRinn AN, on-t^-feeis'^an, a. (iih',and ob-ia- 
tiVintM, diriiitian, Or.) Th^t wliicji ja oppoaed in 
Ha prfkfuBsion, nature, or tendency to the ubriatian 
n'ligiou, as (iiuju;fat in tbe Haw Tartamenl j—^. aa 
m(^my of tlw christian faith ; aa ui6del. 

A>'TicUHiiSTlAM«M. an-tP-kris'tT»n-iini, a. Op- 
position or contmrivty to the doctrinal and atafie- 
tnents of Christ ai)d biji aposties. 

AvnciuasnAMXTY, an-tc-krw-tc-ane-te, a. Cnn- 
trariet; to Christianity an tangbt ia the Scripturfla. 

AirrtcnutiflTlAKiZE, an-le-kria'tyan-iao, v. a. To 
turn others from tbtf fuitli of Clirist. 

AnTU'iinoNiCAi., nn-te-krun'c-kal, a. (oalt, and 
t.-A;t>rw», time, Gr.) Deviating &ora IJie proper 
order of time; erroooously dated. 

AniTJOHttOXiCAZXT, an-to-knm'o-kaMc, acf. In an 
anttf^ironical jsaimer. 

AsTiCHitOxiBsr, an-tik'ro-niam, ». A devialion 
from tbe right order or account of timi', 

AimciFAKa, ai:-tis'e-paii8, $. (LtiiiL) Anticipat- 
ing ; a term which has been somotimoa appUwI to 
ccilaiu pboDomcna oonaccted with the bunian 

Srtem, occurring before tlte usual pccioda, aa in 
e too early occumnce of tbe mcnatmal diackargo, 




or pnrox Tsin of an ague oocorring before ita wonted 
periodical rotnrn. 
Akticipatr, an - lisVpate, v. a. (anfiripn. Lot.) 
To Uke Bomcthing sooucr tbn/i uioikcr, 50 as b] 
prevaot him that CMnnes uiivr\ to take the 6rst 
pooseaaioa of ; to bo beforehand ; to t«ko op before 
the time at which anything m^t be R|;uhiri5 had ; 
to foretaste; to take an impresBioa of wmetfaiDg 
which la not ]r«t, aa if it ttmUty win; to {tredode. 

Titnf. thnn antioifaf^ m^ drtiad nnlolta. 
Tlie tlijclity punxMc never la u'ertouk 
Vnltta a\a deed go wiUi iU—SlMti, 

AimcirATtolc, An-tis-R-pft'shan, s. The act of 
taking up something U^ore ita time; furctnste; 
opinion iinplantod, beforo the veasooa of that 
opInioQ can bo fcnowD. 

AKTtorvATOR, an-tis'ao-pa-tiur, #. A prerenter: n 

AlfTioiPATORT, an-tii'ie-p(v*tar-f«, a. Tliat which 
t>kw np sometluDg bofbre the time. 

AirnoK. — See Antic 

JkKTicuMXX, an-tc-kli'moka, *. (tmti^ and kliwuar, 
gradation, t>rO A iM'nt*'nco, in which the laat 
port cxprcaaea utnelhifig lower thnn the 6r?t. 

AltnOLneAL Ijhs, aD-to<kli'nal linr, r. {antt, nnl 
indmo^ I inclinOf Lat.) In Geology, the iinf of 
a ndge or limd in Htrati, from which the lajrera or 
beds dip in opposite diroctiona, like tbe slates or 
tiles on the roof of a honse. The ttummit of aach 
a ridge is denominntnl tbo anticlinal axis. 

AimoLT, an-tik-lo, a^ Drollj; with ndd gestures. 

AvncNEMiON, an - to-ne'mc-on, g. (nn/c and kntme, 
tbo calf of the l*g, Gr.) The shin-bon?, as oppo- 
site iito ctdC. 

AnncoN, an-telcon, «. A terra, Applied in Rotanj, 
to aa anther, the lobes of whidi face the stylo. 

AUTlcONSTlTDTlOKAf^ an-tfr-kon-sto-tn'shnn-nl, a. 
That which is contrary to the conatitndoniil or fun- 
damental hLWS npon which tbo govcmnicni of a 
oonntry is oondacicd. 

AxncoMBTtTunoNAMST, stt - to-kon -ste- to'flhtin- 
al-iit, s. One who is opposed to the estabbahcd 
order of goremiDent* 

Auticohtagioos, an-te-kon-ta'jos, a. Destroying 
or prcrenting cootagion. 

Ahtioonvulsive, an-te-koa-Tul'slT, n. Applied 
to a medicine which prevents conrnlsire nttada ; 

AvncoR, an'le-kawr, f . (nttti^ Or. and «>r, the heart, 
haL) An unniitoral swelling hi a horse's chest, 
opposite the heart, oocaalonod by a augtuneoai and 
tuhoos bomotir. 

AimcoBUBTiCt an-te-hos-met'ik« ) a. (ntUi, 

AimcosucETiCAL, fui-te-kos-foct'e-kal, ) and lo»- 
metikoi^ omamaitsl, Gr.) DestrootiTe to beauty. 

AimcoCTBT, an'te-korte, 9. (Franoh.) The ap- 
pnadi to the principal oonrtMtheboiiso: aFnmch 
term, someftimea osed in England. 

AirnooCBTIBB, an-to-kortc'yur, k One who op- 
poses the sdministrAtkm nr court. 

Aktioltu, an'Cc-kttni, t. (Latin.) The porch to a 
front door, sititated on tho sontb nde of a house ; 
lued in opposition to poeticom, that of a bnck 
door, 00 tho north. 

Antidacttl, an-to-dak'til, s. (amU, and daltykttj 
a digit, Or.) A roptriciil verse, coDsutiog of three 
syllsbles, two short, and one long. 

AKTiDicoMAitiAXiTEH, ftn-tOHle-ca-mn ' ro-a-nites, 
s. (mtidikotf adTenaiT, Gr. and Afona, Lai.) An 
%, ectonuM bsretka, who said that iho 


Virgin Mary did not preserre a perpctnal 1 
but that she bod several childnn fay Joi 
onr Savionr'a birth. ', 

Antidotal, an'te-do-tal, a. (mfidoSes, Gt 
ing the qoality of an antidoCe; posse tsinj 
toe of coonteractiog the eflbeta of ptdmi! 

A?rrn>OTAitT, an-te-dot'a-re, «. Sflnjj 

Aktidotb, an'te-dute, «. (duli, aad dida^ 
Gr.) A mediduo which prerente or ni 
Hfpcta of poison;— r. a. (aiitidoter, Pr,] 
nisb with preservaiivcs; U) present by 1 

AxTlDrBKimBlC, an-tc-di»-cn-ter'ik, a, ^ 
^fnaitanot a flnx, Gr.) AppKed to 
in caring dysentery. 

.\>TiEKGTic. — Sco Antometic. 

AKnBKTirvsiASTic, an-te-«a*<ftu 
Oppoaed to entkosiafln. 

Amtiepiscopal, an-to-e-pislm-pal, &. J 
Epteoopacy, or govcmnKDt of tlw ■ 
biahopa. r] 

Aktievaxoelioai^ M-to-eT-an-Jd'e-ka]i|i 
and efJomfftUonj the Oospd, Gr.) ContM 
Gospel, or tho genemUy accrodited iai 

AxTiFACE, an'le-fase, a. Tho 




A1(U, aUIC-IA-llill UL, t«. ^^p^HIVI^ 

moderate in opinion on reUgwu i 
t;— «. an enemy of fsnaties oad ■ 
lULB, an-te-fe'brile, a. (omtM 
Uiy Gt. aod^Wrir, a fever, LaL) 4 


Ttiv amti/iiee v( tills it yoor Uwrer's tees, ail 
subdf, and intrlraU) fact,— Bern Jommm. j 

AXTUAAAtlC, an-te-fn-nst'ik, r>. Oppoof 
tiosm; moderate in opinion on reUgwu I 


from arUij 

to a fcbrifiige or medicinu useful in 
A;iTiFi.ATT£Biyo, an-lu-flat'tur-ing, a, ^ 

to flattering. 

Satire is a kind of aaCf^tHiy jriaM, ' 
notUnr but deformities In the oqeels 1 
in \t.-^Pdanjf. 

A5TI0 A LACTIC, an-te-gal-ok'tik, o» 
medidne or application whioh hn 
diminish tho ftccrc<tion of milk. 

Aktiocoolkb, sn'tft-^-glnr, •. A 
syphon placed somstutMS In the roondia 
&c ior the purpose of admitUng Uw «ij 
to jmrent tho guggling noiso that 
the tims of the cask beang enipded. 

AimHBCTIC, an-te-httk'tik, n. Applied I 
dno which has a tendency to rcmoro bs^ 

AjiTJirrFNOTic. — See Anlhypnotic ,j 

AxTrarrociioHORiAO. — See Anthypooha 

Amtiictkkic, BC-le-ik'tcr-ik, s. (oa^ aajl 
joundioe, Gr.) Applied to any modiciiMl 
need in curing jauntlioe. . 

Antiliuiojikxa, an-te-lo-gom'e-na, s. i 
word, sit^ufying contradicted or difpf^ 
terra applied hy tlie early fathsn of tks 
certain hooka wluck, thmgh read in tha 
were not generally admitted as gsa ' 
were the second Kpistlc of St. 
•f St. Judo — tlio second and third £| 
John — the Epistle to the Uebrewa, and 
of Revelation. These books, bowcra^ 
tjunsd in the Alexandrian MS. written 
end of tho foorth, ar the beginning of ^ 
century, bat do cot eccur in tho ValicaaJ 
ecan oopies, written in tho yeaf 59is m 
manuscript of Lbo Podiito, j a es e i v sd in tl 
Masenm, the writing of which was fli| 
the Monastery of llcthkuki ui A.D. 7G8. 



A nmedj osed in cases of fntirt'I or 
ijizi« of ljtitunln]ilir. 
, u-t^lob'c-uui, K (onA', aiiil /o6o,i, 
Uh car, Gr.) The tragiui or tb« pmt 
ppOfUe tb« lobe, 

mu^ ui-te-lu{r'A-rithm, «. (onfi, Gr 
lin.) The onmitlemcDt of inv bine, 
aeevit, or tlie diJcmtfw of that lug 
I ninety J«f[ms. 

i-til'o-J«-, <. ((!)•/«, wid ioff(t», A (Uscuurw, 
otndktioo between wonLs ar pusogos 
r apaech. 

■B-te-lo-im'ik, a. (tmlit and jounof, 
, Gr.) AntipMtilifntial, useful u n 
> ^ainkt Ihe plague. 
•See Antelopes 

% an-til'a-kwial, «. (ofl/i, Gr. nntl h- 
^ X^t.) A cnntnultctor. 
X9Sf an-te'ln'Mer-iiiiA, «. A sect 
mcimt Rrfinnera of tlie Churck« who 

Of- V in mbiLion to the eu- 

icr of Luther. 

aa-t«-iui siix o. (oiWi, and /jwa. cn- 
v^ Or.) Ap^iad io tDmltcines giren 
Bbn, xwoe of whkh have bees Uthtrto 

BnAL.«o-te-mA-ji*-8te'reHil,> a.Gon- 

kXCAl.,xn-t^ina-jia'tr»-kal, > tnuyto 

f ft mi^itraUw 

Al^ sa-te-ma-ni'a-luLl, a. {ttnii, and 

Isms, Or.) Applied to thai which ia 

rwfWiUag or cainii(; niiulnesa. 

tf anlk-niaskf «. (onli, Gt. and mtv/w, 

■eqoa oaed in conUaiUktiuction to Uiu 

ao-te-meWa, j;. (anii, and mcTXM, a 
A fisnn in Rhetoric, in wliich ono 
■eh is pat Cor aaullicr. 
iCK, ft&-ta-ino-tAb'bo-to,«. (anXi\aml 
Aa^^abla, Gr.) In Rhetoric, a •en- 

f iBfBl'tttL 

laMUt ai>-to-inet-a-£Ae'HW, f . {anti, and 
tmupotttiont Gr.) In lUietoric, an 
jf tlia puts or nembcrs of an anti- 

aD-drn'me-tDTf a. (jiaiii, and nwfron, a 
Ift.) An eptual inammcDt for mea- 
|» villi pncuion. 

Al^an-te-tftfet'tn-lcol, a. (anfi, and 
EM, 4r mtaaim!, Gr.) Cuutriuy to the 

BBt&L, aa>Ce-n)in-nifr-tc'rc-aI, a. Op- 
ainirtij i or admiaiatration of a country. 
nuuT, an-te-miD-nis-te'ro-a-Ust, §, 
» oppMftl Ut iht ministiT of a coantrr. 
CB3CAL, an-te-moD-n^r1cc-kal, n. O^t- 
MMfSiMfil by a king, or to tbe sovcr t^l^ 
f TMtad b 311 uidividtiah 
cntnrt, an-tc-mou'Ddr-kist, «. Ono 

MOttATchf ; a democnit. 

fk M'te-n>o'ne-al, a. Miulc of anti- 

liqgtiM qaa&tia oC antimony; rchiting 

ra, »-te aio'ne-atc, a. A salt rimml 
ipdntkA af aotimooiae acid with a baae. 
mx>, aft-t*~nio'noHito*ed, a. EVrparcd 

■D-tofKn'nc, > n. PortaJning to 
tBt Mi'te-iDo'Re-Qs,! antimony. 

AXTtlcoTnr, an'te-mo-ne, * (Tbe ancient name of this 
mfltol was stibiam, and it is said t/i bnve acquired 
itfi modern appellation frrim ono Haotl Valouttno, 
a German monk, who, cb-.>L'rviiig ihat the pigs of 
hifl convtnt fattened well alter being piu^cd with 
a dose of the metal, d(?cmad thiit what fnttenod 
piKH might dn for monk*; ha tried tlie expcrimeut, 
and I hoy nil died— heacclhi!nnmefliifrmo(iM,fnifro 
puftil. I'lrdd treats this story, given by I>r. 
Johnson, as more roniiiitic tbnn tnic, and refuu 
Ibe name to anti, and motu>t, one, Gr, in nllu- 
£ion to ita oecuning not in one, hot in many 
mines. One of the oU Diotionoriea gires the 
Arabian word antimad, aa the etymology.) Anti- 
mony ia a metal of a sUvery white colonr, with % 
oousaderable Itutre; finely lamiDated when pure. 
In tbe act of slowly coding, after bein;; fn;Kd, it 
cryatalijiea into an ootabcdron, or ita «-ori:ticn; si>. 
gr. flcrunliiig to Dr. Thomson, f!'<l3(>. When 
boated in tbo air, it unites with oxygen in diflerent 
proportions. It ocrors in the mineral state as a 
sulphoret, aaaodoted with quartz, salpbate of 
bar/tea, oarbonate <if Hmr, &c. It ia generally* 
met with in macics formed of closely nf;;;Tegat«d 
ncicahir crystals which arc extremely britUe, and 
molt wboi exposed to tho flame of a candle, yidd- 
ing a snlf^reona smell ; colour kad-grey, inclin- 
ing to itoel-grCT. The ore oonauts, aoconllng tn 
Dr. Ure, of 72'8fi ports of tlie metal, nml 27-M 
of sulphur; spedflc (gravity, 4"13 to 4"U. The 
foUonnng are the principal of its chemical com- 
binations : — 

Aktimonv, liromide <ifi — Conaistaof bromine, W.3; 
antimony, 35.7. 

Aktimont, Crvdf, or SttquiMlphurtlof: — 3 atoms 
of sulphur = IG ; 2 nloms ot' antimony =» 128 { 
Btomio wcifiht, CA., Ucvforide of: — 2 ntnms of ozyem ^ 
16; 1 atom<>fiintimony=3 61; atomic w(ii^lit,80. 

Ahtimony, Iodide i^t — CoQ^tista of iodine, 74.7; 
antimony, 2&.U. 

Ajrmiomr, Perehtorido o/: — 5 atoms of chlorino 
= 180; 2 Atoms of antimony « 128; atomic 
weight, 308. 

AiSTiMOSr, /Vfwwif, or Gl(U» of: — 5 atoms of 
oaygen = 40 ; 2 atoms of antimony =» G4 ; 
atomic wdgbt, 108. 

AWTlMosr, SlMfiHdUop&fe, or Bu/tn- f/:— 3 atoms 
dfchlorineB 108; 2Btanuof anliuiuny ^ 128; 
atomic wulght, 234>. 

AMTlHO!<r, lStaipu(uciiie of: — Consi^ing of 3 atoms 
of oxygen b= 24 ; 2 atoms of autiinony ^ 128; 
atomic wci>;ht, 1Ij3. 

The only salt of onttmeny which has been found of 
mnch iin;iortance, ik tho donhW tartiirate of potash 
and anilmony, known penarally by the name of 
tartar emetic ur tartarixod antimony. Antimony 
combines with all metnis, oreD gohC which, ivlicii 
combiiu>d with it to tbe extent of only one Hion- 
saodth part, ik rendered unfit for the purposes to 
which it is ofionlly applied. It is nno of tlic in- 
greJicnla In type inclal, stereotype metal, tmiflio 
pUtcs, and Dntttnnia m*Ut. Tho ppparati^-ns of 
antiuiwiy oaed in medicine were very num ^rona. 
Those retUDod in our I'liarmacopirixi, are Sulphiir- 
etam iMtlmMiJ, the sulphuret of antimony. ^ Sidr 
jjJturttmm amiimmii pracipitaUimj the prodpitiito 
of antimony. AnUfmnxium tartaritaitm^ tartar- 
iced antimony. Antimonii (orterwoiiss ffMVM, 
wine of tart4in7.ed antiraonr. futcU OHlMMMafis, 




AKTIPER1STA6IS— Aimrsoaic. 

powder of aatimonj. A ntinumii vitritmiy gluB of 

AtiTiMORALiST, ui-lQ-mor'al-ut, *. An eocmy of 

Aktihcbical, ftn-te-ma'w-lul, a. Kot having a 
tujiU} for music 

AmiNCiomiTic. an-te-nrf-rifikf a. (aitiU and ne- 
pfu-iiu, a diiwusu of the kidnoj's, Gr.) Appllrd 
to a mcdicutc used for caring discajscs of tlic 

AwmroMiAK, wi-to-no'me'&n, a. (oitfj^ asd wmot, 
Iftw, Gr.) rcrtainiiig to anLinomiauuai ; — «. ona 
of the soct so ctdled. 

AXTiMoaiiAXiSH, an-le-no'me-an-mi), c The 
lelicf that fnilii nlono U neccsMuj to iiisara sal- 
TacioD ; justification tluoa;;h tbe atoneioent of 
Christ, reaching to nil oOciiccs of tbe believer 
bdorc and uftcr it;p«Dljince untu UTc. 

AirriNOMiST, lui'io-no-mist, «. On« who pays no 
regard to Uw. 

AviiNOH r, an'te-no-ni?, ». A coutradiotion be- 
tween two laws, or botwoen two clauses of Ihc 

AVTlPJ^DOBAmST, an'te>pc-do-bnp'tist, s. (nnti\ 
paidion^ an infant, tad baiito, I buptize, Or.) One 
who deniu that isfjinta oof^bt to be biiptiz«d. 
Tbe name KeBermlly giiven to a person of this per- 
|oaaion, is Bsptiat. They constitute a tctt unnHv 
roua and respectable body of dissenturs in England 
and Amuricx 

Amipafal, an-tc-p:fc'pa1. a. (unfi, Gr. and pefxiA 
ItaL) Opposit(> or li«»lUa to the doctriiMa and 
pneiioea of the KomytChundi; opposed tu popery. 

AiCTiPAPiSTrc AL, nn-t(vpa-pis'tc-UaI, a, {anti, and. 
ptpOt the popCf Ital.) HostUo to poper^'. 

Akti PARALLEL, an'to<par'a!-Iel. a. («m/^ and pa- 
ralid.) Kunuing in a contrary directioD. 

AlffTtrAlULVnc, an-t«-pdr-a-lit'ik, a. (tmU^ and 
jtarahftig^ Or.) Efficaoioai apUmt palsy. 

Abtipathss, an-tip'arMU, i. A gonus of corttci- 
feroua corals^ allied to the OorgoniA, having n 
oeatra) nxi* and harlc-Iike cnut, which hecomw 
6«itroyad after de:Ufa, w)>en the coral baa the np- 
pearanoa of dried woot), commonlj ciJlod black 

AsTirATilBTii?, an-tjvpa-rtftllc, > a. (fVom 

A^TirATHKTiCAL, an-to-pa-Met'»-kal« ( amtipa- 
<Ay.) Having a natural oontrariety to anything. 

AxTii'ATUETiCALLV, an-to-pa-tbet'o-kal-lo, iid. In 
ui antipathetical or adverse maonar. 

AK'TifATUKTiuALKisBS, an-te-pa-Met'e-kal-nofS '• 
Tho quality or state of having a natural conlra- 
rif t}' to onythhig. 

AKTTPATHOca, an-Up'a-Moa, a. Adiene; luning 
a Dutural contraiiety. 

Her lamp* arc out. still ibe extends ber hand. 
As If «lt« saw ftOiniKhiD^ awliy g Cftoys 
ITnUi bar vlrtuoua lUow— B«*k. and Fki. 

AKTiPATnT, an>tip'A-<A«, a. (cffrfil^and po/Aof, f«el- 
iDj(, Gr. tmtipatkiet Fr.) A natoral cootnrlie^ to 
a thing, so as to shun it invulmitarily; avendon; 
dislike. It is oppo&ed to sympathy. 

No eontrnrfciicF hold nm'v antif'^tltjf 
Than such a knave auil l.—HtMkv. 

AimrAxnioTic, an-le-imt-ro-ot'ik, a, Opposcsd or 
uidiiflbrciit to the wclfuro of one's country. 

AsTirtunsTALTlc, an-te-pe-ris'tul'tik,a, (tuifi, and 
perisklUiy I nmCract aroand, Gr.) A term i4>jiliinl 
to un inverted Atato of the bowels, by which Uicir 

contents are orged upwards, and vomiting is ocds* 

AxTiPEitlBTABls, an-te-pc^'u-aa,<. CGreckwml 
from trntiy and periMonHn, I stand iDond. ) Tbl 
oppontioo of a contrary quality, by which Um 
quality it opposes becomes heightened or extendn^ 
or the action by which a bo<ly attnt^ed by a** 
other collects it»cl/ and becomes stronger by sodi 
oppodtion ; or an intention of the activity of em 
quality caused by the oppocdtion of anotlwr^ 

Ahtipekistatic, aa-te-po-fia-tal^tk, a. Bdoi^m 
to antiperistaais. 

AxTiPESTiLEHTLAL, an-to-pca-tc-Wfihal. ' 
and peatHmtiaL) Efficaoova against it 
the pbgue. 

AxTiPiiLOOiSTiC, an^te-flo-jls'ttk, a. ( 

tiijuey Vt. from arJi, and phlego, 1 barn, Gr.) 
term applied to xiiy lueana or medicine by w' 
inflainQiFiiion la reduced, soeb aa bleedhig, 
tng, and low diet. 

AmipnoN, an'te-fon, \ a. mit, and 

Ahtiphont, an-titVne, > sound, Gr.) The 
or oltemato ain^ng in the choir of calhednibt 
distinguished lA tbe [tonun Cntholic worship btm 
tho vtrticU and the refporue; an ecbo nr rc«poe«c 

AirnPBOVAL, an-tifv-aid, a. Uelating to Itic •»- 
tipfion ; — «. a book of anthems. 

AntipiiokarY, an-tiro-na-re, i. A bo«k ossdh 
Csthulic churclies, oosdniniRg tbe rw p owsss, Ac 

Antipiiosf.iu aa-tiTcMmr, a. (aw<^>»iim'ai , amti- 
phomurr, Fr. wrty^oimiaaw, Lat) A book 
antlkoms or antiphona. 

Uir, Alma Rodeniptoris, licrde tlnr. 
As chUdrun i»rv4 Uicir 

AKTTPtfRAMS, an-tiffni-ht^ s. (tmti, and j^rv^ 
form of speech, Gr.) The use of wonU, in a i 
oppnaile to thrir tme mwinin!*. 

AwTtPtUlAflTiCALLT. an -te-fnu'te-kAl-le, wd 
the manner of on luitiphriKaN. 

AirriPOPAi., an-tip o-dal, o. Relating to tbaeoon* 
tries inbfthittni tiy tbe aii(i)X>dBs. 

Antipodes, nn-tip'o-deze, ». pL (oMti^ and poAt^ 
ft-nt, Gr.) Those people who lire on opposHendes 
of the globe, so thnt their feet arc on the ane 
straight lines pojiitng throogh tbe centre of tiM 
earth. Mew ZeaUnd is the nearest antipvdn) 
cnnnby to Gmt Britain ; tho word {» nsed ^ 
way of opposition. 

Uy sou] is a it anHixtde^ and treads opporfta k> Afi !•• 
sent world.— A'ai|fUptI*F JWote, 

ANTTPOiftON, an-to-poy'zn, «. An antidote i a can 

in case of poleon. 
AjmPOPB, aii'te-pope, «. {antiptqte. Fr.) One wla 

usurps tbe popedom, in opposition to the a^ 

Ahtipobt, an'to-porte, s. An ontwanl gnle or 

do" r. 
ANTiPBELATic,aa-to-prc-lal'iIc \ o. Adtw* 
Amtjprelaticai^ an-te-pre-lat'e-kiil,) to prdacj- 
A^tTii'RiEST, an'te-preeat, t. An cnrmy ofpricrf^ 

— Not iiwi!. 

While they are afraid of being ^t^ided bjr priests* ttuf 
arc Gruvcmou "bj antipri«Ii.— IKilerCiout, 

AatTiPRiSfiTCRATT, an-te-prccst'Jtraft, #. Opp«^ 

tioo (o priestcraft. 
A>TipnopU£T, an-tc-proTet, #. An opposite aria 

enemy to iffophcta. 
AviiPaoBic, an-ti|>-4or'ik, a. (onti, and fiaoKo^ii^ 

itcli, Gr.) EfBcadoua in curing itch. 



n-tip-to'sft, *. (Greek.) A fipm-, in 
If wbidi one owe ta ptit for anntti^. 
t •n-te'pa're-tan, m. An opposor of 

•tfo'»-4k, a. (mii, nd /yn, pits, Or.) 


, Cft-to-pc-rofclk. a. (im^ and jfjfr, 

QocmI fbr niritie bums. 

r, Mi>te-kwa'ra-an, a. (mt^amim^ 

tiag to antiqui^i jartial to antiqtu- 

ifl aatii{aarr. — Sddum tised in this 

riSM, m-te-kwm'fs-an-txni, t. Tba 


n'te-lnn-rv, «. One who Jerotcs hia 

felikdjof ■&ti(]mties ; — a. oltL — Objo- 


J to <a » ■■HBMiTy Ihnta, 

-te it be c*&not trat be 'tiiae.r-'Shikt* 

■'to-kmta, r. a. (tm^nyHo, Ut«) To 
■t; to Buke obtoWd. 
aa'to-Limy-led, a. part Old ; ob9<)- 
bitiliiinil bi Coodiology, longltndi- 
«d; bat interoepted b^ tnnsverse Air- 
Ite flhdl had ■cqnbvd now growth nt 

an> in'te-kwiy-tcd-nes, a. Tb« 
kg ob>oletr, old-ftihioDcd, or wom ont. 
MB, iB'te-kw«te-DCs, r The stntc of 

[, aft-te-kwn'flhtin, «. The iM* of 

Rcsttoa fai ■ law, 
Bvtoi^ CBgm'd lu «f«ry breut, 
M m» ckMCe, nor anMvuatbM kiiaw.— 

•tmkf, & (cuTftyue, Fr. uh^i'v»<h, L«t) 
tl| aakBwdenii olgeDttUie uiliiiaity; 
Ml ocUi wid; antic. 
)mfd bato or rofl», iMxtTUu-, 

^mtiipic ymih will wear.^ZAmiw, 
bni^( • nmain of anciant taauss ra 

■^ i» IwA'iWH, * The quality of being 
H affHaafiB of ntiquitj. 
B-tik'kira-te. «. ((prfi?HA«, ImL) 
Ham pHt long ago ; the poopio of old 
; the nniaina of old times ; 
aga, in a luiLtcroua flense, as — 

broimi t TOUT wind ibon T your 

wit ainrttf and ereiy part of you 

f maa wUl joa jct call jruundf 

Tlo>AnT, an-te-rCT-o-la'ahon-a-re, a. 
iTvolntioiu iu guvcnuQcnts ; lorul. 
TtoviiT, an - tc -rev - • b'shan - isl> <. 
pLiiii I chaflgie Of icTolutiou in govcm- 

tno, aa-to-ra-mat'ik, a, EillcAdous 

M, n-ter-rin'om, t. (ont*, and rA»n, 
rvBi ite anoot-tikA flowers, Gr.) Snnp- 
0aam of (Janu: Onlcr, Scnipliular- 
^jtii, and U. orootium, are British 

, «. In Architeclurts a portico is Bald 
dlKl^ wbcB pilian arc placed In a lioe in 
lb* antie or prujecting ends of the tide 
B boaUbtc. 
AaiAir, ■D'te-Mb-bft-ta'nyati, «■ One 

who holds thnt every day, as far m piety is con- 
rcmed, fthoiiKI br nlikn; and that, with Ihe aboli- 
tion of thn Jewish Sabluth, the olwervanco of days 
OS devoted entirely to th#» purposes of religion wus 
at an end. Tbcy found their tirgiimcnt on's 
warning the Gulntiins against the (jWrT.-ini-.' nf 
StibtHitA-da^i^ and there being no especial injunc- 
tion in the New Testament fnr the relij^ons nhwr- 
vanoo of tha first day of the week, beyond the 
example of the diftdptos meeting on day to 
observe the Eochartat or LoFd*ii Stipper, in coin- 
memoration of the d«itb and rvmirrection nf Chriitt, 
a oeTcraony which tin* early christians are B>ud, hj 
Pliny, to hn\-p obnrml before dfiyhrmk, 
AxnaACKUDOTAL, an-to-sas-er-do'tal, r (anii, 
agaiivt, Cr. and Mctrdotj a pri<*flt, I^t.) Hostile 
to pricffts. 
AsTiscir. an-tiftV-i, *. (oi»/*, and #Wa, a shadow, 
Gr.) The people who Uvo on dillh><nt ddoa of the 
equator, and wboae ahodoira at noon project dif- 
foireDt ways. 
A?!TiS00aiicTI0, an-lc-flknwr-bu'tik, >^ n.{/tntiy 
ANTl8COHBirnCAL,nn-te-«kawr-b»'te-kalC Grand 
aeorbutuMy the acurrjr, Lat.) EfficaduoB in curing 
thn scnrry; — «. a medicine which ia good a;;iiinst 
wy^rbutic diaeaKg. 
AicTlBCOSBrrtCit, an-te-akawr-bu' tiks, a. ReiDedica 

for the Hcarvy. 
AjcnsCRlPTirRAl^ an-te-skrip'tn-ral, a. Not In 
accordance with the Scriptnrea of tie Old and 
Now TestainoDts. 
AKTISCBiPnmiSM, »n-t«-Bkrip'tu-rinn, jr. (anii, 
andair^jA?, [ write, Gr.) Oi'posiHon to the Holy 
AirriBORiPTtmiST, an-te^skrip'tn'TJat, ». One who 
denies the dirine origin of the Old and New Tea- 
tamfntn; one who opposes tLe doctrine of divine 
AKTWamc, an-te-sep'tik, n. (un/i, and fqtK», 1 
pntrify, Gr.) Counteracting putrifaetion : — #. a 
rvuiedy agxitiitt putrifuctiou ; ui atitisepttc mrdi- 
cino. Anliaeptie nwdicim's — cJurhnna, cosporiai, 
anthemis, wine, alkohol, camphor, nnd asafcEtlda. 
Antisocial, an-te-so'sbij, #. Mtfi&nthropie; averse 

to sodoty ; not aoci^l. 
AimsrASW, an-tia'pa-iiai, a. (ofUi, and 17KW, I 
draw, Gr.) A rernlaioQ of tho humoiuD into 
other parta. 
A>'Ti6PAaM(»i>ic, an-te-nias-mod'ik, a. (onHt and 
gpnmtos, a tfpaam. Or.) Having the power of 
relieving cnuiip or tpasni of tho mnscles ; — s. a 
niedidnc that baa the quntiry of relkring spas- 
modic pains. 
ANTISPASMODICS, an-te-spas-mod'ika, $. Modtdnca 

to relieve spasms. 
AimarARTics, an-tiB-pna'tika, s. (antij and spaMkmiy 
spasmodic, Gr.) Mcditines wlucb cause a revnl- 
sion of the humoors. 
AktI8|»astij8, an-ttf-pto'tos, (fintispattos^ Cr.) A 
metrical foot, coDfii>tling of four syUablos, the first 
and lost, short ; and the secmiJ and third, long. 
A NT I SPLENETIC, an-te-ttplc-uct'ik, fc. Efflcadoue 

in diseases of the spleen. 
Anttstes. aa-tis'tc9, o. (Latin.) The chief prle-l 
or prplntc 

Till.*!* iliey had as waoy a<iCUte« as olJttrs,— JWtton. 
AjmsTOiciioN, nn-tc-sto'e-fcon, a. («ii'i', and tto- 
c^<iv% a rudiment, Gr.) A figure in GrsmmM 
when one letter is put fiar another, aa, p rot m t e iM 
for prvbvtU. 


AKnsTRoriiE, cui-tU'tro-fe, {trnttiMlrophe from anti, 
tied strojihe, turning, Gr.) Id an ode SD[)[Kisal 
to be iiuog in pArts^ the seeond stansa ot every 
three, or SDcnellinescveQ'fleconil «t:inu; so tcnned 
becauu the dunce tunu aIkhu. 

ANTtSTROFliON, an-tifi'tro-fon, *. (antiAtroj-ke, LaL) 
A llgurc whicli rei>cats a word nvqucutl;. 

AMTlATauuATlo, an-te-tJ^m-mat'ik, ». (anil, and 
sti-uma^ K Bcrofuloiu swulUng.) Ap^iUcd t>j a 
medicine nscd in ocrofulo. — Not lued, 

I |<rc«riboil him « di»tiUod mOk wWi tmlittnmntict, 
ami purged bim.— iVaeman. 

A?(TlBi:rKRj< ATURAJ.IBTS, an-te-su - per - uat Vm- 
Ufita, a. (anti^ opposite, Gr. mjier, bo^-oitd, aiid 
natyrUf oatun-^ Lat.) A t«tni \iilv\y oppliod to 
those who, while they admit the nuthonty u{ rorcl- 
atioD, deny that there is auvthtu^ nuiMinuitura] m 
thu churaiMr or wurka of Chritit. 

A^fTurriiiLiTic, au-to-sif-e-Ut'ik, a. {antt^ and 
^yphilUf the veucreal dioensc, a word of uncertain 
oiigin. It is said to hu from one Sy]ihiU&, a 
afaepkcnl of kiug Alcithous, who was m; proud uf 
the bcautj ninj uiiinbur ot' hi.<i Horkn, oa tn iaault 
the son, for which iuipicly the diM-a.-ie woa spirit 
to olllict hiuiat-If and mnnlcind thfi-i-nllor. Dr. 
Mnfion GoimI attrihntcH itK iaventiuQ to Fracaa- 
torio, from the Uni^ik, ryn, and phiUo^ impljing 
mutual love, the title undur which he detu^iati-d 
Ilia celebrated and elegant poem, on tliin mo»t 
iselqruit of all satiJMta t otlicn Mj, from MfjphU>»^ 
filthy.) AntJTcnereal ; applied to medicines uaed 
in the onre of i^philit. 

AMTITASift, an-tii'*-«i5, «. (oiKi, and teju, fxtenMon, 
Gr.) In Anatomy, a term tuitNi to oxpnwt the 
position of one organ oppoiitc to onotliur, or to the 
redaction of dleUwatiotit and fnK:ture&. 

AnnniiCNAa, an-tiiAVnar, s. {anti^ and thetutr^ 
the palm of thu hand, or sole of the Tout, Gr.) 
The name of two muscles, that of the thumh, 
uamod likuwiiic abdudor ad indurem, and that of 
the abductor of the groat toe. 

AMTTTiiKSis, an-titA'o-ata, t. {fmtithfti$^ E>1aiiiig in 
oppoeition, Gr.) OpiHiKition of words or Ecnti- 
DMOtBi contnut, lu in thcsv lines: — 

Thouj^li fretitlo, jrct not dull, 
Strang wiibool xaigo, WiUwut o'ertluwing fulL— 

AKTiTnETiGAL, an-tc- fAit'o-kiil, a. Tlaocd in 

AnitTUAGicus, an-to-tny'e-kua, j. A muficlo of 
the ex.tonial ear. 

Aktitilacub, un-tit'm-ffiu, «. (onCi, and traffot, tlie 
tragus, Gr.) llie cmmcnce of the outer car, op- 
posite the tragus. 

AMTiTaixiTAitiAV, an-te-trin-c-ta're-jn, *, Oup 
who docfl not boUe\'e that tlio GudluMd in com- 
pooed of three persons, eqoal in power and iihry. 
An opposer of the doctrine of tlie Trinity ; a Uni- 

AKriTRrniTAiUAKiBU, an-tetrin-eU're-iui-ujm, n. 
Tlie dcnud of the doctriuu of the Trinity j llnlta- 

AsTlTHOPOUfl, nn-tit'ro-pua, a. (twit, and ^•ty«*, I 
turn, Gr.) Applud hy Itichnrd to an citibo'o 
which licit in a direction contrary to that of tho 
seed — i.0 , lLB%-ing the ootyledouous extremity cor- 
responding with tlie liilum. 

Aktitvit, an'le-lipe, «. {nntUypoB, Gr.) Thai 
w^iich 'u rcjR-mbled or shadowed out by tlie type; 
that which b Hk type of the rupreaeclatiou. The 

term ia a theolo^ral one, Ale^hiwdec i* 
have been n type or rcpranntation of 
Christ lilmself iii the tiling representod, or 

He bmufiht furth btijad and wUic, nnd waa the . 
of the DHMit hiirh Qwl , imitating the onUigfMt ur the 
■tancu, Christ tiimsclL.— 2'a/or. 

Anttttpical, an-te-tip e-kal, a. That which i»- 

bitC8 to the uuLitype ; that which exphuua the 

Aktivun&re.\l, on-tc-rc-nc rc-ol, a. Applied to 

medicines u^-d in the curing of the venereal db> 

Antikticc, an-te-sim'ik, a, (auti^ and qmoo, t 

ferment, Gr.) That whjub bos a teodenry to 

prvreiit fermentation. 
Antlkk, ODl^liir, *. (andouiller, Fr.) rrop^xly, tit 

tint branches of a atag'a horns, but, popularly 

and generally, any of hla brucbes. 
Antlerbu, ant'Iunl, a. Furnished wjtb antlen. 

A fowl «ritli f;pao|tlv4 plumet, a brtDded staer, 
i^uuictinics B created luare or (Mtfer'd deer.— 

riniOK*s Omd» suu 

A^TLi A, ant'le-a, «. (nu//io«i, a sucker or pump, Or.) 
A name applied by Kirhy to the looker or tnuik 
of a lepidoptrrons insect. 

ANTi.ioiiaAciiiornoRA, nnt'le-o-bra-ke-ofor^ s. 
(antliofi, a pump, brackion^ an arm, and jiAsn^ 
I bear, Gr.) A Tiame giTen bj Gra; to iboti 
rephnlopods which, hkc the cuttle- luhcA, havr tlKir 
arms fumislied with suclcen*. 

AxTOBCl, an>ttf'e-tu, or an-te'si, a. yL (no singi^ 
anfi, and otZ-eo, I inhabit, Gr.) In Geognpbyi 
those inhabitants of the earth who lire under th« 
some meridian, and at the same distance fivni 
but on opposite side^ of, the equator. Uanos ther 
havr the same hjn^^itudu and latitude, hot diral 
in diflvrent hemlsphca's. 

Alfl'OKUHAalA, au-ttt-no-ma'zhe-a, «. {pnti, ind 
oRonto, a name, Gr.) A form of speech, in whkli 
the name of some dignity, nifice, profesnon, srieo(% 
or trade, is put for a proper name -, or tn whitft 
a proper name is put m place of an appdUlm 
Thus, we say her Majesty, a nohloman, the Eng- 
lishman, the groour, a Cato, a Solomon. 

ANTOMOMAfiTiCALLY, an<to-no-mas'tc kid-le, odl 
By the Beun.' antonomaaia. 

AytoE, ao tur. s. (anive, Fr. imfnon, LaL) A 
cavern, a cavi*, u den. ^-Obsolete. 

Wluvrcin t<5 m\ttf rait and tleaeria idle,— 
It was my hint to spaak. 

AirrniTtS, an-tri'tis, «. (rtftfnnw, a care, Lat,) Al 
iiiUammiition b miy cavity of the btxiy. 

AjtTUUSt, an'trum, s. (Latin.) In Aij.itomy, tlte 
b\:giniiing of the pylorus, or lower mouth of thi 
stomach ; the maxillary sinns occurring above the 
m'^tlar teetli of the upper jaw, 

AKt'iUB, an-u'bis, *. An E^ptian Deity, TCpfifr- 
setited by a hutr»n figure witu the head of a dog 
or fox. lie is considered ns the conductor of ii^ 
piutcd spirits, and is representetl iu some of the 
ligyptinn pictures as stnndtng at the (dde of a bier, 
on which n mummy is lying. He wan the wm of 
Okirii and Kophthys, the wife of Typhoti, aod 
&i^tcr of Osiria. 

Anus, an'us, *. (Latin.) The lower orifice cf tbe 
iutestines; the fundament or termination of tb* 

Antiu nn'vil, t. (an/Ue, anJUf, Su.) Th« favQ 



PR wUeh llie laifcb tars hia meUl to be 
S anytlng to whju Uowa ara IndL 
Uere t dip 


• Aa — ii T i to be in • vtate of ptvpor- 
\ m'vfla^ jMTC & f^flhiooed oa the 

vdc-jTe-te, «. (iiiftftii, L«L) Trouble 

■bo^ WMW {store cTOit ; tuBpcfiM with 

■Ml Mpkritj; wBdtode. Is MedSml lui- 

^ifanl ratkHlMM and tewnem of spirito, 

~ %7'«HMa«f vcigfat in tbe pnxonliol 


raaa, ai&'fthtis-neA, t. Anxietr; tb# 
if Wbe ^cdoos; BuaccptibOitT' of iiaxuty, 
1^ «. (oMM^ ovmAim, Goth, oaw^, <ni^, 
I>nf7; w lio g m bo bo; ivhaterer it be. 
■■% CM'ne-wUtfa-iir, caA Anywbwc; 

^ <o'Bd <Hw, <idL In msj manner. 

, ft. (.4oma, tbe moient imno of 
fc Owj ec t- ) INiituiung to Aooia; appliol, 
r% t» Pannwm, tbt AoiUm Moont, the 
K PMi<tofif of tlba Hum, who were likc- 

«. (oMfat, LiL) Oivtnrbod 

itnre evrnt ; aoticitoas ; 

p«!afc! nupenae; pttinfiilty vnoertadni 

fUl «f iDfuietiule ; nnqniet. 

T« ■rifc'iAw-lB, odL In an annotu man- 

{ iMftdctiy; carefHlly; with {uun- 

r«-ciil, «. ( aofii lfii , vagoraeas, Gr.) Tlie 

; • ««n ia Gnak Grammv. 

■opad av#k, In tba potMitM aad airidwuv 
k ^vUelk « g ntu wa tao^ are nfton. In taived 

' ndont kg tbo iutarc «Cttt« in- 

; •-•-ds*tik. a lodefinite^ 
^«wr^ta, a. (dp/^ ^m oaro, { nuse or«n!i- 
hr; teMBB it ia auajWKlad fhim the heart.) 
af tbe arterinl ^^trto i it liaaa 
aotary, frant tba oppar aod 
«f IJh Wk veotride of die heart, oppo- 
* tbM donal vertchra. The atcetuimg 
i% that porUan cf Lbo f^nmt. vtcry vfairh 
BM (ha baod or »ch batwoaa tbo aaocndiiu; 
postsMia ; tba dlnncwrfcy mmia is 
«f tha p»at artciy vrfakb vxtatids 
l» Iwiiilnaljim «f tba arch to Ita bifbicalion 
B Sao stariaa ; the tkoratic aorta la that 
«if tha •arts BitoflCcd between tha heAit 

» a w i 'tik, a. I\3rtaining to the aorta. 
k a-«nf*ti'tia. «. Inflammalwp of lUe 

Ha/^4LCfl^i«iUuNil,>naoCa,eaca,Gr.) A 
AiatfCi&AD hrgqiairwna plants^ ao named 
want «f appondagm to tho caljrx, 
ftF^a'U, «. Ao OUhritcsa tne, from tbo 
tubMli the oathw make their ctoth. 

', adl {fraoi «, and poaa, that ia with 
,) Qukklj; ipaodflft hastily. 
, a-p^g'Toa, $. (<yW| from, autl a^ittfjni^ 
U Gr.) Tbefrictoie of a boi)«, or a thniat- 
I of ia- aft Its proper plaec, caiuing a wide 

tf the parts. 
PQJA% Sp afq j Vkal. a. Proving a thing 
■!■{ thiftllM«satnr]r is absurd. 

APAOT»or«, a-pag'nud, a, (a/jor, once, and gme, 
a fcraale, Gr.) In Butauy, applied to a pLnt 
which flowora on);r once, asd dies immediately 

Apaooot, ap-a-gnjV, i. (npoffOfft from t^to^ from, 
■nd offo, I bring or draw, Gr.) In Logic, a kind 
of urgumcnt wliorein the fjreater ejctreme is evi- 
dently rontainM in tho m(^<linm, bat tbo mediam 
not so^'vidpntljcontninrd in the lesser extreme as 
notto reqiiim pn>o£ la Mathematics^ it tigniftp^ 
the progress firnn one pnjpoaitioD to aQother,when 
tho flrrt luving boss Mooiistrftted is en^yod ia 
proving others. 

ArALACiiiAH, a-pa-lfllcc-sn, a. Pcrlaioing to tbe 
ApabcbcA, a tiQte of {ndiAas, or to the mowtbiins 
near tbalr tCTritory. 

Apalds, a'pa^us, s. (opa/oa, sofl, Gr.) A geuos 
of insects : Order, C^Ieopta«. 

Apaitaoe or Appanage, ap*pan-i«j^ «. (French.) 
Tlw proriium iu hinda or fettdsl supcriontJee, for- 
mn-Iy assigned by tbo kings of Franco for the 
maintxnmacG of their younger bods. 

Apanthbopt, a-pan'rtro-pc, a. (o/», from, and 
antAropss. a man, Gr.) Tbe love of solitEide; 
ATcrsion to society. 

APAauiA, a-pir'jo-o, e. (Greek name of a plant now 
unknown.) A gfnns of compe^to planta allied 
to, and baviog tbe sppcanmce of, DandeUoa and 
Ilawkweed : faab-onJer, Cichonicfn?. 

APAiUTnv£8l8, ■-ptir-ith-nifl'als #, {apariihmesity 
a reckoning or snmraary, Gr.) In Kbotoric, tho 
onswLT given to tho proportion; enumcratioa. 

Apabt, a-p(>rt', nd. (Frrnch.) Separatt-Iy from the 
restinplaooj ip a stats of dtstjnctaoa ; dit^tlnctly; 
at a distasoe refined Awm tha other company, 

ArJUmtCNT, a-p^'meot, «. (poPOamenhRii, L«L) 
A space endosed by walls anofa ceiling; a room. 

Apartisvekus, a-ptir-tiB-me'ntts, a. {apari{tmo»t 
pcrft.'ct, Gr.) In ancient Poetry, a nsm^ givt'o to 
a Term having ao entire aenao and aeutenco within 


Apatella, a-pa-tel'e-n, s. {apiOdo^n false, Gr.) A 
gomifi of plants, differing fiom Eauratya only in 
tfao di^oatiQa ^ the stamens : Order, Tomstror- 

Ap ATUETlc\ ap-u-f^ctlk,* a. (n, without, and pfdhot^ 
fr'^Si *Jf-) ^^ilhoot ftiotlng. 

Apatiiist, ap'a-(, i. A man without fpeling. 

APATmsTlcXL, ap-a E/iis'tO'lul, «. Indifferent; 
without ibeGng. 

Apatht, ap'a-lAe, a. Want of feeling; ezemptisn 
from jiassion. In ttodlcal langosge, a morlnd stu- 
pension of tho nataral pasaons and feelings. 

Apatiit, ap'a-tita, s. (apatoo, X denuTc, Gr. ia 
slltuiLm to ita bdng readily miatakea for other 
ininfralfi.) A rariety of Oie pboapbato c^ lime, 
ctyataliud in sx-stded prisma, terminated by one 
or more planea ; sp. gr. 325 W) 3'5. It cooasts, 
according to Rose, of phosphoric and fluoric acid, 
44-32; luDO, 55CC; murintic acid, 0*02. 

APAtms, a-pomo', a. (a, and paume^ tbe pabn of 
tlie hand, Fr.) In Heraldry, n hand, showing 
tho palm, and haring tbe thumb and lingors 
Ape, ap**, $, (ape^ Tcelimd, apa^ Sax. e/ipa, Welsh.) 
In Zoalof^, PUhkm^ a gcooa of quadramanoua 
Mammalia, tho highest organised of the iafurior 
aniraaK of which it funos the cxmnccting Uok 
with nifln. It comprehends those moukeya which 
I hare no tails, vii. :— Uic gibbons, clumpanssM, 



ani] oiirting-ontangs. llie won] npo in iiacJ for 
tn imiUtor gencrallj ill a bad Miiw; the word 
wax alio a5«d formerly for ft ft»l ; — v. a. to imi' 
tato like an ape 

CursB *m Ihv §trii»Unff ! huw be a;ie) hii tir«! 
AmUtioasIj scntvnUoui! — AdJu<nu 

Atb-dsaber, Apo'-bArc'ar, #. 
• ^>e, «8 fooU uatd to do. 

One who cvma an 

I knowthii nuui well ; bo bBih l>e«n ilnro an aps- 
tb«o m pruceu-Mirvar, a tudlUI^ Ac— .vAa<U. 

APB-CAsatBB, ape'-kttr're-ur, #. 

SadLC aa 


Jugvlera and gtpiilei, nit the KOrta of canlen, 

colonioi of begftarv, tomblcra. ap«-aiiTwr5. 

AfbaK, t-peck', ad, (prohab!r from a pi>jM, Fr.) 
In a poetnns to pEerce ; fonneU with n point. 
Ai»ckor-a-jteaJ^ a term nttti to express tlie &itnft> 
tion of a ship wlicn it is inuiiedjaU'Ij over the 

Apeiua, np-e-i'ba, f. (a iinmc given to AptUta 
tilfouriniu hy the nntives of BnaU.) A f^nas of 
exotic plants, condsting of tma or shrubo, nitli 
laxgb golden-jcUow or greonuh coloured flowcra : 
Order, TiUacese. 

APKLUTESt a-pelli-lca, > *. (from their lender 

ApkllxattB, ft-perio-ane, | ApcUcs.) A at-tt frliicl] 
orgiiinltd in the second century, Thejr main- 
talninl that the body of Clirist has not real flrsh 
and blood, hut only apparent and shuduwj, nnd 
wu cast off nu^ diwolved into lur on liia aucvn- 
don into hca\*cn. 

APBLLoca, a-pel'hut, a. (a, without, Or. ud pvliU, 

skin, LaL) Destitute of skin. 
!Al*EKvn[£, ap'cn-niuc, a. Pertaining to tbe Aprn- 
' nines, on cxlco&ive roup; of motuitaius in Italv. 
'Ancrsr, ap'c]»-se, $, {aptjisia^ from a, priv. and 
pcpfff, 1 digeat, Gr.) Indigestion, — Sec Dys- 

Aprr> n'pnr, '. (from ajx.) One who apes or imi- 
tates In a riJicutous mauucr, a numic; the Lntin 
namo for a wild boar. 

AfERDCKT, a-po're-ent, a. (nperio, I op«?n, Lnt.) 
HaTiug the (quality of opening ; applied to a. medi- 
dne wmch is gently purgative. 

Apbutin'B, a-^c-tiv, a. Having a pargatire or 
opening qnallty. 

Atedt, a-|<ert', a, (operfuf, Lot.) Open; without 
dJsgoisc; evident. 

AnEBTTOir, ft-per'shon, «. An opening ; % passage 
throDgb anything; a gap. 

Apebtlt, a-pertle, ad. Openly ; withont eovert. 

APZRtyKSB, a-pcrt'nwi, #. Opcnnes*. 

Afebtos, B-pcrt'ur, t. A mubclc that raiau Ute 
upper eyelid. 

ArEMTDUB, a'per-ture, s. Ad opening; a gap; 
the act of opening. 

Atetal^, a-pct'a-lc, i. (fi. itithout, nnd p^uJbn, a 
flower-leaf, (5r,) A name given by Juseieu to hi-t 
third grand dfTlsion of tlio l>icotyIedonp«, coinpre- 
liendtng tboflo whose flowers ure witlioat petoLi or 

AfSTau>us, a-pct'a-lus «■ Without petals or 

rau>U8XES8, a-pet'a-lus-nca, «. The state of 
being without flowcr-tcaves. 

Apex, a'peks, «., At'icis, />'. (Latin.) The (!() or 
point of aoytUng. 

Aprabesu, a-fvr'e-aia, t. (t^Moarem, Gr.) A 

figure, in Gmnimnr, which tnkrs awny a letter «r 
ityllnble from the beginning of a word. 

AnUNAiuxis, a'fun-na-niikii'ftis, t. (tf, tritfatmt, 
j>haHai, I nppear, and mLri», mixed, Gr.) A 
genus of pIdiilA, cuobisting o( tbe Gr»al-laiv«d 
Aphnnamixis, a Javanese tree : Order, Ifetiaeca^ 

Aphahaxthb, a-fau-an'<Ae, ». (ajt/tameB^ olncio^ 
and ani/iM, a flower, Gr.) A genus of plants: 
Order, ATnarsntluieeie. 

Ai'iLUiUTLtt.!, a - fa -nip' tor- n, a. (apktoiei, kU 
jitemn, n wing, Gr. ) An order of ioaactS 
which have the elytra nuUmeulal in the ptrfrct 
stain. The common booae % is tbe lypo of tUl 
ordo*. The female deposits twelve eggs, froM 
which amnll mAggoli nro produced, that, sftfr | 
twelro davfi, spin tbemselres into small cuwou, | 
fi-um whiiii the flics emefge in a full grown stair. 

Ai-HANiTK, uf'a-nito, a. {apfum^t, Gr.) A cun>- 
pact Torivly of the mineral homUeiide. 

ApHANociuLue, iif-n-nu-ki'lvs, «. {jajtkoHa^ and 
cheilos, a lip, Gr.) A geuns of pUnta: Or^, 
Labia to.'. 

Ai'iiASlA, a-fa'abe-Ot «. (a, without, aud pkettl, 1 
say, Gr.) A term wbicb was used by tbe smlla 
philosophers of Greece, exprcsaive of the prt^Nirtj 
of ailcueo being obfiorvod by a party engn}^ in 
reasoning, when doubt txi»ted in his mind aa to 
what 1m was called nn to dctcmune. 

AruELANDRIA, a-fc-lan'dre-a, «. (apkdu^ ^i'^ f '> 
and tt*\er^ a lunn or stamen.) A genua of { . 
Order, Aconthacea!. 

AruELioN, H-fe'le un, #. ArtiELtA, /V. (i/to, &i>in 
and AJi'ojr, the sun, (Jr.) That point ol tlieorftil 
of n plunt or cumut which Is ffirdx-Kt from tlie sun. 

ApiiELLAN, Hf-fel'Ian, $, In Aslri'Druny, the nann 
given to a bright otar in tlie connTcItntJon GeiniDi> 

Apiielxia, a-felk'zbe-n, «. (n/>/^((Xo, I ahstradr 
Gr.) nererie; alisence of mind. 

API ten ESE.— Sec Phosphate ofct'iiiH'r. 

Apiteta, aTc-ln, *. Name of the planet which « 
the giviT of life in a nativity. 

Aphi-TICAI-, af-pt'e-kal, a. Relating to t?» nphrtt 

Arnii>ES, ftf I dis, y «. (rr/jJiflf, a puceron, "r 

AniTMi, a-fid'dr-i,)t' fretter, Gr.) A nam' 
by Covier to a family of hymcnopteron:; u. - 
which are furnished w!thtwoehtra imd two wine*. 
Tliey ore small ; the body soft; elytra ondwin? 
ne.vly similar, the former l"Ctng rntlicr Inrger nti 
tliieker; antennie with ten or eleven joints. tl» 
last of which is tenninalrtl by two aets. T 
are generally known by the name of wood-Hoa. 

ApinorpnAoi, Rf-e-dirii-ji% ». {apfih, and 

I devour, Gr.) A family of culeopterons iniKti 
which live on (hr AphiiltH. This frimily comuti 
chiefly of insects with hemtsphericfll bodies, mJ 
antennsD terminating in a compressed sub-conkal 
club. I 

Al'IMLAXTiiROPT, a-fe-hm'/Arrt-pft, jl (rt. without, 
and j)hifirnOtrr/iNt, lore of mankind, Gr.) Wiint 1 
of love lo mankind. 

Aiflis, afis, 9. I1ic wood-loose. — Sf« Apfaidea. 

Apiii.onisTir, n-flo-p's'tik, n. {npMnffistAs, Gr.) 
Uninflommabte; without firr nr Hnme. Appri«| 
to a lamp, invented by Sir TtMrnpitry Davy, used 
in mines containing inflnmtnitble sir. 

Aphosy, aro-ne, s. (a, without, and pkorUy voict, 
Gr.) The loss of spcccli ; dumbntrss. 

Apiiorish, nf'o-rizm, jr. (oyiAorumoa, Gr.) A 
maxim; a pn.<rept contracted into a sliort am- 
tenoo; an unconnected iMsilioti. 



ti the mffhaXJoa or lattsr put of a simili 

pinai, •-fR)d-c<-t«'f»^imi, M. (Bfwa^<en'iw, 
|^(«D«, Gr.) A Jtiipping-Rnm mt the 
$ of tbe sodeot Bamnn b«thi ; or m the 
It, m nAidh pvopls 4nmeA and nndnnBd 
In^ *Tb« ravB bafbre tbo cntnii.cs into 
IliiB^iiiii BiMae at Oxford, » ao caUed to 
^ Til* ehaaoBllor, ]irocton, &c^ robe and 
fejft.*— TttU. 

'tip'o'-gt^ «. (<7fo, &DUI, and 701, or i/f, tlie 
|r.) Tin point of the orbit of a planet 
) aft the fjaatiMt distance fhnn the emrtb. 
I|^ of Um son is Ibat part of tbe earth's 
bch u 81 tb« graalest distauce from tLu 
wma^omttfpHm^on^ Mf^jK an4 the earth's 

loa'a-gan, «. (a« v'rtkont, aod poffon, a 
Ik. J A genu of ■cuitfaoptarrgioaa Balim ; 
1 ar— il, and rtd eoloored, wi^ larj^ eyes, 
|i thu curi or beaid of tbe troa Molk-l^i 
Mt Falsify, PenidA. 
■f 'i> yfi c ((f>d>, fraiii, laid frapb, I 
^) A. <a^ sf Mj wrfeiai^ 
!■, ft-p»4ek'ln>, s. {apo, ham, aod ^ncitw, 
fiL) A gnn* of fiibcA, with HiomljoiJal 
kiK obtan soonta, and brg« eyes, under 
^ viBUm] fins an abnost immediately 


.A-pol-'l»-n»'n-aiu,) a. A 
IsmSv ••fol-kHDa'nBtft, f giTenloasDct 
^W (joxtb ontnry, adc^ted the opiaiaTU 
kMlaa the jwxn^K^ bishop of Laodicea, a 
ftr piety and talnit; bnt irho 
Cbnit bad Dot tt rationait but only a 
I aevl, tbe ]^a« of tbe former being sup- 
jAc WYioa Satnrr. 

b-pri1«, tf. ( JjK)U'>a, Gr.) A dcitT, wor- 
'^ tba QredU nod BouiAnti, uud<T tbo 

of Pean, Nomioii, Delias, PytWus, 
ftc As Flicebti«, the son, he 
aa tbe foimioin of light and heat. 
ftba pnadfaig deit; of anibtfy, prophecy, 
jliai, and presideiit and pntuetor of the 
\ Be waa ^trind in the prime of life and 
^eantr, with lonj! hair, hiii brows bound 
fe Mgei \mj^ and bearing cither the lyre 
iir in lua buil. Than won four different 
; Tba Oceeaan Mtf was mpntod aa the 
Mjfcw aid LaUma, and oonaldared by 
!• am th« lazne with tbo Egyptiaa Boms. 
PILVIIWU:, ft-pofla bel'T»^doer, ■. A 
•d marble ttaHw of ApoMo^ m the Belvi- 
ft«7 •< tba Vitkaa palaoe at Rome, found 
Ih* nana «f Aotiainf esteenKd as 000 of 
■Mft AAmtkAa of tbe fauman fignm. 
|cx», K-^pot-loaVben. 1. {Apoth, tbe god 
lb) Tbe name giren to a stvMiidi-na 
btMutad bf Mcean. Flight & Rohson, 

k, *ipanB-«n, a. (Apolfytm^ from apotfy<i^ 
S^a^. O.) Tbe Dostnyw; tbe Ho- 

) a. (upoioqttiquc 
J Fr- ' 

lie, a-pol-o-jeC^. 

tnaikX.^ a-pol<o^et e-kal, ( Fr. from iyM>&>- 
^ Hart wfaioh n m^ in Trndlottion, in 
(«r in euoao of any pcraaa or tfaiog. 
ncJXLT, a-pa}-o-jet e-kal-le, nd. Id tho 

kaOti a-pQl-«-}«i'ilus r. A braiwb of 

Dirini^ connected with logic, jnotaphrsios, and 

general Instory, in which tbe eirtemal and inlamal 

eridnifles of th« Cbriatian £utb are let forth. 
AroLOOXBT, a-pol'lo-jist, $. (apohgtttt^ Fr.) One 

who rnakn an apology; ODe who pleaii in fimnir 

of any pmwn or thing. 
AroLooiZK, a-pollo-Jlze, a, %. (npoJogia^ Or.) To 

make an apolo^. 
Afulocizhr, a-pol'o-ji - xnr, ». A defender; aa 


nil Ajulo^Uffv labour to free Mm. — 

Apologue, ap'o-lo», c {t^xtlrigos^ Or.) A Cubic f 
a Btory oontriveil so as to oonn*y eome moral 

AroLooiTBR, ap'o-log-nr, «. Onowhowritaafablea) 
a stoTT-tellor. — An uncommon word. 

A iTtouK, Kaiil on 1 , 
and then< fod with breac 

ArouiMST, a-pol^o-je, t. (opohgkL, Gr. and Lit.) 

Defence; vindication; eacaaa. 

NoTK,— JpofOjTy generallj etinaflca eacuH, not Tlndloa- 
tJtm. Aiiil l«ii(ls mtlier lo eKteouate Us* flBolt alleged, 
tliou to prove that no fault baa been vommitUML 
flifehon Watsou, how?Tor, in bis " Apclosn ^*^ ^<* 
Oiblu,'* u»M it in tho mtiu of vlndfeatujli, not of 

Apoltsis, a-pol'e sia, <. (qpo/jK), I ideaae, Or.) 
Debility of the limbs or looseneaa of bandaffoa^— 
Erotiam. KxpuLdon of tho foetns or BBoandlpm 
resolution or terminatimi of a dloease.— -jGfffM- 
ero&M,' Gaiem. 

Apoubcomctby, ft-^-me-kom'me'tre, s. (qpOi 
from, mobof, distnnw, and meAiw, I raaajran, Gr.) 
The art of measuring from a distance. 

AxH)?rviTR08r8, ft-pou-nu-ro'aia, ». (n/w, from, and 
aeurrm, a nervi*, Gr.) In Aniitomy, a tendinon^ 
or fibrrrus expansion, crroocoosly snppofied by tbe 
andcTits to be tbab of a nerve. Whon it Lakes 
pUu:e in the thigh, it is termed the Fngciti iota, 

APorHA8I8, a-pnfa-sis J. (Qreek.) In Rhfitnric, 
a figon hj which the orator, speAking inmically, 
•fctns to ware what be woold plainly insdnDstc. 
Ejt. — * Nt-itlier will I mention those thin^is which, 
if I would, yon, notwithst.nnding, could neither con- 
fute nor spenk ngninst them,' 

Aropni.EoMATic, np-o-flep'ma-tik, a. (opo, and 
phltffwta, phi^m. Or.) Expeetorant, ippUed by 
the aadnta to mediciMa uriiidi have a teodeocy 
to canae wpeeMntion or disobirga of mfocni. — 

ApopiiLECMATmAjrr, a-po-flpg-mat't-uin(,». Any 
medicine which produces a discharge of phlei^ or 
mucnifl, OB aquills, &c. 

Apopiilegmatii*m, ft-po-fif g'ma-tizm, «. Au apo- 
pldegmatic medicine — Obeolet^, 

Mni »9 it itt in lll>QpA^r^•crM«nu and gBrgariainay tliat 
by Um palatci" 

draiv rboum down 
ApoPirTHBOM, ap'o-<*ein, $. 


A rrmarkahlo say- 
ing. — Soe AfKithegm. 

AroPiiTAS, a-piife-ft*, «. {npophfo^ I seod forth, 
Or.) An apfiendix or continoatioB of any part. 
The mmificfltious of tbo veins are tanned qpo- 
pittfodes by Uippoonitos. 

AropKTOB or APOPHrar, a-poTe-jc, s. (apf^il^^gt, 
flight or osoape, Or.) In AJchitcctura, tbit part 
of a eolamn which is mtnated between tbo tippor 
fillet, on the cyliwdricftl part of r column, where 
it begins to riso out of tlio baac It is usually 
moulded into a hollow or ourretto, out of which 



and jiMont « leaf, Or.) A gmus of plimts : 
Orfer, Botaewr. 

ArT.Cl)0, B-p1o'rfo, A (ftplmitt, chaffi Gr.) A ppnos 
of plants, wHh chiff-likc mvolnttM: Order, Gra- 

Aplcstrk,) ap-Iiui'tnr, ». fLotin.) The fnaiga 

ATLUSTKiif) OT ornianeQtal ni^, carried W ondent 

Ar^TliA, a-ple'she-n, ». (flpAfjwi, from c, priv. 
ja^fso, 1 wBab, Gr.) A name girm to the woral 
«dit of SpoDgea, ^ the BomimB; the Sea Him, 
ft genos lit mttflm ahiga, with short neck and four 
tentacnia, the upper nod hrgsr pair nre f'Mvd 
•o as to rpw-mblis the cars of a hare. Thp nninc 
Aplji^ fai gmm to ft on ■ocvunt of Us cxudnig, 
whni TU danf^ frrnn its envrntes, a dark pnrpio' 
ool<>urDil fliitO. whidi tinges tli« water to a coo- 
ridorahle art«ut. 

ArtXBtJiStXt a-p1o-»hr-a'ne-», r. 5«i Hare*, a 
snb-faniily of the tribe Tectibranchui or sni Blags. 
The sea hares haT« the moalli dilat*<1 »nd undu- 
lat«l at its mlcvs; ihe bratichin, situated on the 
back, pectinatwl, and jyeacrallj covered with an 
Irrvgulur conrex liottij, or coleareouB plate; the 
tentaenla are two or four m number, and are tar- 

AroCALVPSE, a-pofc'ft-lip8, ». (apohxiffptn, I reveal, 
Gr.) RereUtion ; the name erf tht? last book of 
tlie Now Teatunvnt, aacribed to St. John the 
Aportlff; bat much disputed as gniuinc hi the 
Inriy agaa ctf tho CThnroh. It was 6oaHy ciiii- 
6nnod to be so, irith the other disputed books, 
callod thfl Antitennmoitt, \t\ the Roman Sraod, 
pnisidod over by Pope GHosins, h) the ]rear 494. 

Apocalyptic, a-pok-a-Up'tflc, ) a. Concem- 

AroCALYpncAL, a-pok-H-lip'ie-kal,r ing retula- 

tion, or the book porticulAii^ so ciuiod; contiiiV 

ing nn'cl&liim. 

vAroCALYPncALLT. a-pok-a-lip'te-kal-V, (kT In 

' »uch ft maoniT as to n«*'eal socnething accrct or 

hidden in nijstcry. 

Apocopat*:, a-pok'o-pate. r. «. («/w), from, and 
bypto, I CTrt, Gr.) To cut off the lidt B^^llable or 
letter from a word. 

AptK'oPB, n-pok'o-pp, n. {ttpoh>pe^ Gr.) A fipiro 
in Grammar, when the 1-wt letter nr syTbihle is 
tiiken BwaT, bs indent for ingtnii. In Anotoiny, 
i^Mcindon, or the mno\'a1 (rf a part by cntting 

APOCBIStA, a-po-kre'zhe-a,) $. (apokrit't*, srpara- 

ApocRiAlB, a-pok 're-sis, ) t.i»m,Gr.) A discharge 
of soperabandant humours from the body. 

Apocnusnc, a-po-ltnw'tik, a. {npvkrmui^ I rrpcl, 
Gr.) RqicTIant, applied to medicines whidi bare 
an astringent power. 

AroCBTniA, a-pok'n-fo, ». (npoftrj7»A<, from npo- 
kryptOf I conceal or hide, Gr.) Books not pub- 
licly coramonicsted ; books whose authors are 
unlcnowTi ; the name is jiarticuUriy given to cer- 
tnn books which were inlro«lnccd into the S<rp- 
tnagint, and from thence transfenTd to the Vul- 
gate, ftDd many imb^equcnt translations. When 
tbs Jevre pabitshed their sacrwl Iwoks tln^ g-.ivo 
tho appcUations of cflnonioal and divine only to 
TOcli nn thnr then made public; such la were still 
retained in their arcliirei, were called Apocryphal^ 
for no other rewKm, than they were nnpnbUihed, 
md eoDoenled or hidden from nil cicept t)ie priest- 
hood. Sernral of the bfwkx, tennod Apociyphnl, 
are conndored as having been written by Chris- 

thina of tho second ccnturr — sudi as the tlirrd 
and (burth of Ksdns — the bixk of Knocli— the 
book of Elm) — the third, fourth, and fifth books 
of Maccabees, winch hm'e been receirud by tli* 
Greek Cliurch — the Ascension of fsniah — the As- 
nmiption of Ifosea, Ac Besida these hooka, n 
vast numbw of other A|ntryphal writings \rvn 
produced in the form of gospels, acts, •-']■ 
and covdations, in ttte early ages of the C: 
' Apocryphal, a-pok'n^fbl, n. Not caDonio]; of 
I uncertain nuthority ; eontahied h fhe Apocrrpln. 
Apocetphallt, a-pok'ro-fid-k, net UntcTtainlTj 

not cmnonieally. 
ApocSYntaLsntn, a-pofc'rc-fal-nes, ». "Uoefi* 

tuinty ; donbtfuhicss of credit. 
APDCUVpniCAi., a-pok-i^'e-ki1, n. Daoblfi 

not an then tic 

AlFocwba, a-pok-stn'o-e, ». (^Aodtyman^ one rX 

genera.) An pxtcnsire uotnral order of fsft- 

gwr-ms plants, consisting chietly of tropiral \rm 

and ^rubd, with highly powerful mcdiciDd ((Kib- 

tics. Its botanical chwncters are calyx; panf»- 

ncnt and firc-cUfl; corolki, monopctxIoQs, flr« 

lobed, hnbrinted in ssCrratkm, and Areidtunti 

Btanieiu five, cplpeUtbos; milhers, tw»-filkdl 

omriA, solitary or twin ; firmt, fblticdlar, (Imps' 

eeous, one or many sredcil ; weds usually sltw- 

mennus; embryo fbiiacmus, with im biecnWiCDMn 

plumule ; IfflTes oppofiic, sometimw Tvtjcflri^ 

rare)y scattered, qtute entiiT; In floy ga eew aalh 

oorymboBo ; juice of the tn*oa or stinAs, nrifty saA 

aisrid, stimnhmt and astringent. 

APW:TKim, a-pok'Bo-nuro, a. (fr/Wjfrom, raid lya, 

l-tfitoit, a dog, Gr. because ik w^ soppoaed to lull 

I dogs.) Do^-bnoe ; a gDnoa of plants tyj* of 

I the natend order ApotyiNv. It con>iAt3 of ])mn- 

niiil erect herbs, with oppoaHe mpinbnnous Innrs 

and oompimnlnte flowers, chiefly natrvcs of Kofftt 

America, and the sooth of Kiirope. 

ApoPALf ftp'o^al. n. (a, without, and jKmM,ped», 

ft fofH, Gr.) Without ft-et or ventral finsi 

' AroDA, ap'o-dn, t. In Zoolof^, Ut, an onkr of 

I thedoaa Echinoilcrmata; ?tl, n iiection of Lisnrtki 

I 3d, II Sunny of Serpents; 4th, a family of Bw 

tracMnns; oth, Linnctis' fint onler of n^iici; 

Gth. a fiub-ordcr of the Malaeoptcrygiit, aB ef ubich 

an characteric/sl hy tlw wknt of feet or of Tcntnl 


AroDE, apVdc, ». An nnhnal wftidi wwita MM 

vent nil fins. 

I Apoi>e», np'o-des, ». Tlw nnme gtren by Swjitan 

I to hts ^h order of fiiiheH. It oouHists of tlw* 

flshoi whieh liave angullltform botBcs, are irilli- 

out mttrvl (hut, ami have the braacbtiil apertsn 

spinel ed. 

AlMOrcnc, ap-o*dik'tik, > a. (t^fC^^s^ ««* 

APODicncALf ap-o-dik'te-knlj dent tnith, donon- 

etntion, Gr.) Demoostrntire ; evident bvjvPil 


APODlCtlCALLY, ap-o-dik'te-kal-)ef ad. In ■ «df- 

evident demonstrative manner. 
Apodioxis, a-pod-«-ok'si9, «. (a/wfiocis, eiirpnlsMM, ' 
Gr.) In L«)gic, tlie n-jcclion of any thing not 
n«essfirily connected with the auliject n»der coa- 
iricleraltnn. In Rhetoric, the pflsahig otcr ft tktnf; 
slightly, or rejecting it as nbsonl. 
Arooixis, np-o-d'*kVu, $. {tipotkizk^ Gr.) D»- 

Apodosib, tt-podVtns, s. (Gre^.) A flg«fe k) 



wtMio Jestu Christ had M-locfc'l 
to pRach (ho j<»5|>ol nnJ orgnnlio 
The apuBtln are nsunik r^'prf!wnt«^» 
P«iatin£«, with the following «niibols 

! — St. f ■'• rhoJpfv?; S\. Ponl, 

; St. < n crofs or MiUWr; 

liooT, - r s pole; St, John, 

uid winjpNl serpciit flying from it ; 
w. witt) a knife; St. Philip, with a 
. Iff wliirh is forripcl uito 
Ij a lance; St. Mntthew, 
liiifl*, witti n bytllL'-axt?; 

i;h II pilpim's '•luT. 
- ;j», ». The oliioc of an 

ft-pm'to-Ute, c (apostufiUwt^ Lat) 

ft-paa-tol'ik, ^ a. DrlirurvJ or 

•-po^*"' ''■>*' i taught bjllieupofl- 
iig I.. ■ 
T, B le, »f. With thu 

«C in th« tnai(ii«:r ut' an a^KMtie. 

CAUrs89, ft-pa»-tol>-tul-n«a, «. Apos- 
VhK9f «r ninction. 

a y <onk», f. A lunie ^liieh has 
t» Afferent »rct.n wlii> Imvc profejised 
tr the tonplietly nod xm\ of Etie ApoaMn. 
S bk (xi^mtoe in ttm srcund crn* 
|!Kiy MSoWMffJ Kit worldly i>nri»uonft, 
I idl tko^ ia cocntiKKu Anuther sprang 
Ibeetoso of t' . In 

ife»tlMir pi^j£nM < imple 

( •# tbe BpostlL--, .: , .,..: luitml 

each wn<* alluwod *a Bnirituol 
li • cwpmion. 'fhcy worn whiio ptr- 
I long bMttdx, ohjeetitl ti> outlis nud 
InrfbiOMKof aocuinalatiuL' pri^ATv pro- 
Ihdrkmdrr r-^' '^- .-■ - ^Ilmwl 
Jb^ Inqii' : nod 

•, Du! „ 1 two 

the trmy oi ihe ciiiirch, wn* tiUcen 
to death with his Fpiritiul tutor iu 

■p-pov'tn^fe, /. (aposttvpKe^ from 
m, mJ ttrepho, I tora. Or.) In Rhetoric 
Iho i>orsott or person* present to 
, U» l^iuL or the dead. Iu Gnimnuu*, n 
( ' ) ebnw{n>c tbiit ■ word i» c«n- 
, M^ mWi for oaUtd, t/to' for though. 

«P*po«'tro-fik, fi. l>cuulin)( aii 
ibm\ Moo^tag to an apo«trophe. 

•p-pM'tro- fiz(% t*. o. To address 
■tovpiie ; to make on apostrophe. 
.— Sm ApMttouir. 
m, a-}wt'ft-li»n, t. (a{x>t^o, 1 hrinc; to 
X aocomptiAh, Gr.) Iu .\strulogy, tho ad- 
t of a Dtliritj. 

>,*, •-pi.i'/A»-k«, ». (ajwtMft^ ■ ropobitorr, 
la Grvdaa archiLccMru« a storcfaouM in 
vSi, wine, 4Lc. wm deposited. A nani<! 
tv Mm* oU Englfah wnl«n to an opothe- 

I trsr tkow and thtn rUit iho ofofViett, tu nut 
tf an ^HMed dni|cs and cornporiljoui.— £ir 

lABT, a-pad'e-ka-rc «. (npo^U, Gr.) 
• vlian boainoB ia to prepsro tncdiciocs 
; QO« wba keeps % shop for the sale of 

ttOBt a-po-da'sbe-ain, <. (apuihehe^ Or.) 

In Botany, the «hield or flat dish^ consisting of a 
niideus tKirroandrxl by a border, in wluch tlw and 
of Kohena are inclosed. 

Apotubom, *) Bp'o-/!Aoii), t. (i^, SroiOy and 

AronminoM, ■- phthem*t^ voice, Gr.) A rctnnrk- 

AroTiiEM, ) able saying; a voJonble maxiin. 

AroTUBOMATiCAi^ B-po-Meg-ni*t'o-kal, a. la 
tlwmmtnrr of an npotnepm; cuntainiiig apothegms. 

AroTiiEoMATiaT, B-po-Meg'ma-tist, <* A collector 
of npothe;;iiis. 

Ai'trriiKmuTizE, a-po-rAeg'mo Uzc, r. a. To atter 
apolhcf^ms or remarkable sayings. 

AroTiicosis, a-pocA-e'o-Bds, «. (a/w(Ae«u, from apo^ 
and Thcosy God, Gr.) Detficttlion; a ceremonj 
by which tlie ancicnL Homona xlxX to compliiiinit 
tbi'ir emperors and ^cut niou, after thuir dcsith, 
with a phice nmoug ibo gw\s, 

AvonnsstS, n-pnfii't-siii, /. (itpa^ and tithcmi^ I put, 
Cr.) A pljux' OQ the south bide of tbo chancel, in 
tlir rarly churches, fumisbed with tiers of shelves, 
oil which the UhjIcs, sacrod vesscht, and vaetments, 
were pat. In Surj;i-ry, the placing of n fractured 
limb in tlie position iu whtcli il ought to remain. 

A^oTOM^^ a-pot'o-me,) «. ('!/>'*, nnd temno, I cut, 

Ai'QTOMV, a-pf)t'o-me,)' Gr.) In MatlieiUAtics tlio 
rciniiiudcT ur diiTerence lictwDeii two lines or <]n:in1i> 
ties, ooinmensarablo only in power. In Music, portion of a whole tone which renuiiu afb.r 
deducting fh)in It un lutvrvul, less by u limmp^ 
than a ootnitonc mnjnr. The Greeks divided llio 
tone niigor into a le^iscr and greater, tho greater 
they tallied the aputomr^ and the Jcvs the liiituii. 
Tlie proportion of the furinor to the li\ttcr w:u 
£1-87 to 20-48. 

Afotropuj;, a-pot'tro-fe, ». (cy». and tr^po, I tiun» 
Gr.) A liynin sung to avert the anger of ttio 

AroZEM, ap'o-zem, «. {(^^ and reo, I boil, Gr.) A 
deooctioii. — Obaoletc 

AI^>ZEXICAL, a-po'&cm'o-kal, a. Similar to % 
decoction. — Obaolcte. 

Arp,vi«, op-pare', p. a. (apoBrtm^ or Jor-pttran^ to 
overthrow or spoil, Sax.) To impuir; to bring 
into decay ; to lesson ; to moke worse ; — v. n. to 
degcnerato ; to booomo wotsc. — Obsoleto. 

Gentk'women, which fur neither name, sunne, nor 
winde, for appoMnff tlidr bvautjr.— Sir T. lUyjti Oo. 

An that Hvctb aj*jMif<(k flut— OM fta$. 

ArrAt^ ap'pawl', v, a. (oJ, and;pa//eo, I look pub 
with fear, Lat.) To firigkt ; to strike with sud- 
den fenr ; to depieas ; to disooumge ; — o, n^ to 
grow faint ; to bo duroayed. 

To make his power oppoflfli. and to fiiyl^ 
Th'*rp, wriUt her wmltifuU ruiimf»e, 'gao appaB^ 
And hau^htio apiriU uic^kl; to «k1bw. — Sfmuer, 

Apfalment, ap- pawl 'men t, s. Depression from 
feor ; iinpnjs^on of fc-iir, 

Appanaok. — See Apanage. 

AppAiUTU8,ap-pn-m'tas, g. (jtpparatvt^ from ap- 
paro, I prepare, Lat) Things pro^-ided aa a means 
to an end, as instruments necessary for any art or 
trade ; the furniture uf a house ; ammunition for 
war ; equipage ; jihow. In Siiri^ry, the lemi is 
appliod to certain methods of pcrfonning oper- 
ations, OS appanittu maj'/r^ apparatus faf'aor, 
particolor methods of oprrating in Litbotomr. 
Pneumatic i^parahUt the name giren to certioa 
oontrivancefl for collecliug the gnacs from chemical 
prooesscs and suljocting them to oxporimont. 



tu9. Fr. fiMiu apparo, I prepare, ImL) iJrcu; 
clplhioK I vesture ; external liaLUiments. 
His raaignol earriags made i«llpi(m appear in tha 
natural af^pord ofiiinpUcltj.— Ttilir. 

— V. a. to dreu ; to adom with dress } to cover 
or dock as vtith drew. 
ArrABfiitCB, Bp-pa'rens, \ s, (Frcnob.) Appear- 
Appabesicy, ip-pa'rvn-sp, ) aucet — Obaolele. 
To makr •lltufam 
iiy such aj>funwae or jo^eric-OwMTf . 
And thuM this doubl* bjjioeriile^ 
With Ilia doTout ofpartueie^ 
A rjtvr Ml upon uu flue.— iTtMNf. 

AppaR£KT, ap-pa'rent, a. (opporeo, I appear, Lat.) 
Plain ; indubitable ; not doubtful ; Memlng iJi 
appearance, not real ; visible, in oppositioD to 
secret, opcu; evident; knowu ; not merelj nia- 
peoted ; ccTtaiii, not presumptive. In Eittomo- 
logT, an apparent aJitrttnl- of an inseot, when 
that membnr ia more dcrolopod tlua tlie pro- 
tboTAx, OS in tbo Neuroptero. .ipparmi phino- 
merui uro thoee appearances which are not rwil, 
and require comKtion or reduction. Ii' Aj^rctr*- 
my, aa <giparmt eonjanction is that in whloU a 
•tralgbt linct, cro«aiag the centre of two ^tara^ 
passcft not to the centre of the eortfat but tbrongli 
that of the eye of tbe spectator. Appavrnt tlut- 
uteter of a star, the namW of degrees ander which 
it is Men frma the earth, ur an angle made hj 
two lines, drawn to the eje from the opposite 
points of its disk, tbe tmn diameter of which, is 
the line that jcfins the points. ApparaU 0c^j/m«, 
an ecltpfle, in which a celestial bodj becomes in- 
visible to us from the interpodtioo of an opaque 
bodj, as in the edipies of the sun, and those of 
tfao sateHites of Jupiter b; Jupiter itself; the 
oocollationa of »tars hy planetii, or of a planrt bv 
n pliuiet, or of a utar or phinet by the moon. 
Apparent or srtmh/e ftorizon is the plane descrit>ed 
bj tbe cirde actuallr bounding tLe view; the real 
or rational hoiixon la a plane panllel to the nppA- 
rcnt horizon, drawn throD(;h the contro of tht 
earth. Apparent ituiffmtiuie la tlie angle undur 
which any line nppcara at the eye, or tbe angle 
mode by lines drawn from its extremities to the 
fljai. Apparent motion^ the velocity and diroctiou 
in which a IxHly app«>ars to movi^, whpn the sp<«- 
tator ia himself in motion without being cnnscious 
of it. Appartnt Kme, time intlicated by tbe mrn's 
paange of a meridian, while, fnran (me, is that 
which would bo indicated by the sun, if its angu- 
hn- velodty in its orbit were unifopn. — Apparent, 
in Law, one whoso right of inheriiAnct^ is indubi- 
table, OB the bdr <^/pamU in disdnction to the 

He t« the next of blood. 
And bdr aj^tareni to the EngUsb cruwti,~4]laJt& 

Afi'ARKKTLT, ap-pa'ront-Ie, od^ Evidently; openly. 
ApPAasNTNKSfl, ap-pa'raut-uco, *. The ijuaU^ of 

being apparent 
Apparitioit, ap'pa-rish'nn, j. (apparition^ from 

u/TNirflo, I upjieor, Lat) Aflofihy riiuou; spectre; 

the thing apjieoring ; a short viut or stay; somo- 

thing only apparent; not real; a form; a visible 


I hava marked 

A Iboosand bloihioc apiMriMMt 

To fltart into bin* hce ; a thottsand tnooDetrt ihaznea 

In angel whltoDOM bear awaj those lilnihca^— jtfafci. 

In Astronomy, the visibility of some lanuoaryr 

af\er l>eing Lid as ia ■ tranat, oppooed. to ocsvt- 
AppARrroR, ap-parVtor, *. {apparitmr. Ft fim 
apparo, X am ready, LaL) One who it at hmA 
to cxecnte tbe ordera uf the magibtjmlo or jodgS 
of any coort of judicature; a beadle; ■ imiiiimi— 

Wat It to ro aboat drcled with a bond ufTOohtag tf> 
ciaU.with ckiak-liB^ ftiU of dutions, andpropB—ito 
t>e McrvMl bj* a curparalitjr at snffuuJike qaparllara^ 

Aj'Pat, ap-pay', v. a, inppoger^ to oatUfy. old Fh) 
To content. — Obsolete. 

So only can hi^h jottice rest iijijmH iMBiwi 
A;, Will;, when th« heart U Ql asaojed, 
IluWoan tiai^ipeorJofntabeweUt^^Kililf^ 

ApPSAon, ■p-peetah\ v. a (ew^tdti, Fr. fptmi^ 

old Fr.) To impeocb; to aocuse; to inftrn 
against any pcreon ; to oenanre ; to reproach ; It 
taint with accusation.— <HMnb^te. 
Nor cati'f t, nor dunt thou, trs'itor, on the pain, 
Appmeh roy honoor, or ihtoe own maintain,.— 

ArpBAcnza, ^pcetah'ori «. An ae w ntr . — Ob' 

solete. ^ 

AppaACClfKMT, ap-peetsb'ment, a. IrpiitiUM 

Apfkai., op-peol', 9. n, (oppe/^ I ooll. Lit) T> 
transfur to a bigbor tribunal : to trantfer to oooClKr 
as judge or witness ; — v, a. to chorga with a aaaa| 
to accuse. 

One bal flatten u^ 
Km well onpeareth \ty tbe caussvou conte, 
Namvljf, r oppeal son oUmt ofnlgh treaion.— 

— •. in Law, the lemovsl of a eaiso from M b- 
ferior to ■ mperior court; an toauBStian #i 
criminal oOrnce by one subject against aDotW 
The dakfl 's anjos^ 
Thus to retort joor monJbH owaat 
Aji<1 put jrour trisJ iu tbe vUlain a mouth 
Which here jrou come f accuse.— fihU^b 

— a. a summons to autwoi a charge ; a coll npoB 
any on* as a witnoes. 
Appkalablb, ap-ped'a-hl, a. That which n^ U 

Appbauant, ap-peeVont, «. An appellant; one ik 
appeals. — beolete. 

Lorda, oppMlMt^ 
four diflerencBS shall aB re«t unuer gaRti, 
Till we auign ;oa to tout dajs of trtot — Aafea 

Ari'BALEa, ap-pccrnr, «. One who 


APi'BAB, ap-peor', p. fk (appmrm^ I appear, lit) 
To be in bight; to be viidhle - to ftand Ih the ffv> 
scnco of an another; groormQy oaed of 
bofurc scitne superior; to offer one's self to the Joft' 
ment of a tribunal; to exhibit one's self beraiv • 
cuurt vf justice; tu bo mads clear by e^-Mcoco; tt 
soimi inoppoeition to reali^; to be plun hefoad 
dispute. The word Is ooed ae a noon. In the ftt- 
lowing passage, from Flstcber'a Faithful Sttep- 

Here will 1 warii It la Ihb mnralnf^ dew, 
Which she on erery little grass ooui Mvew 
Tn flllTer drops, sgainst the soD^ dgipaar. 

AppRAkAXCic, ap-pcT^ane, a. (i ^y e u i om a, Fr.) Thi 

act of coming into sght; phenomeoa; that qoolS^ 
of anything which it visible; imttblaooe; not nal- 
ity; external show; entry into aplooe or oompon;; 
apparition; supernatural vi^tuUty; exhibition of 
the |«rtoa in acunrt; open circumstance of a case; 
presenoe; mien; probatafity; weBiuig; Ukelihoe^ 



or phutft. In Iav, 
a mnmon or sp«dal biiil on 
vol df ft ceint'of jaditittBre. 
nr, ■. Om who afipMra. 

•. The mA of ■ppeutng. 
ly-pe'n-bl, a. Capthk «f being 

( ti 'p m % \ fli A (appabet, Fr.) To^met; 
Maftit«te«f peftce; t6panTr; toneoncile; 

Elbt UfftilL 
Mr d«rp prvt^ra c»iin<it mppiam ilux, 
l» diy wmiit Ml me alaag.— WUtt. 

■i, ■p-fwc'nir, IL One wbn psciS^; ou« 

W, ftp-pes'vT, «. Tlimt wUdi odtigates 

I0CT, ap-pillini'*', V. (<9fprfS», I^l, tat.) 

,; tUfahXtj of nppraL 

|(WT, sp-pd'lant, #. A tballeagw; ooa 

MMMBflMdMr te sfuwarcstfaer in the ILita 

Invi of Jwtiei ; one «1ui afipeadi from n 

|» « Wf^ ©•ait or jnd^e ; — a. appeaiUnfi ; 

I to an ■t>P'*l« Of to the sppealcr. 

RS, M-fririnte, «. (T^jpuNtfiif, Lat.) The 

l^ipHMd ipfaMt; cmtod OB appeal. 

to sot dio foonuin of Joftloc ; Uio 

tnim, ap-pet-U'dmn, «, (appMitin^ Lat) 
.hm^ is called. Ap- 
for tha law t4imi op- 

k «0ff4 hf wfak^ anjthhig is «alM. Ap- 
po wiA oaoaHtff' bhmI 

amd c««ntMv4|bea1dnfr, ivEth thHr 
•f otatiouh «vydIaci«iiA att«faltna, «erU- 

p4* baa Phivbos' Mvibe ber ajy^DoiKM aeol. 
~ Spatter. 

UllTK, ■^^la-tir, «. ((^jpeffo^'rHm, Lat.) 
Ik V •abnettaa. Is Grammar, a caramon 
fvAta a proper name; — 0.«fliul; commoa; 
wA to proper; pecnHar. 

Latttelv^ ap-polV-tir-le, ad, Aa an ap> 
lin. Ea. — 'Tins man U a Hireulf^* ilrr- 
lb ha* wed, appcnatitrelgr, to aignify a strong 

tiflOIT, ^pd la-to-fp, AiZ OentMning an 

^UE^ ip-pd-te', «. Tbeperwn appealed 

IMi^-^Ibe, 9. A pTMOCBtor; an appul- 
■if Q^ anotlMr ; Is add loawtbing aa an 

..Ma principal, part ; to attach to; to 

^^M^ 9-pBf d^ i. Soawthing ad<lcd to 

^ Aii^TClbatit being oeceaMtfy to ita caaeooe, 

**■/•*» rf» hooflo. 

**r''*iiw iilijji iif I ilTJriT an Hiin rhnitlTj. 

^7**"*>uiiti»bwufliij. aa uic CrlngH are to a 


|y» ,^-yifAa>», ». (fljtJyjffl'JMirtu, Span.) 

"■■iviRBd tOy or hani^iiig upon, jnulher. 

^ ■toownra, lisoi, aod iqiffiirfaiMM of civil 
K-IAfp AND. 

^^tfCT, Up- pen 'Aon -oa, «, That wfaSdi *u bj 
"■AtueU tu MiotliiT iliiog. 

ArPElCT>A?rr, ap-pen'dant,) *». Hanging to; be- 
Ari'KNDE.NT, ap-ptinknifi longing to; annexed; 

Rkhea rauHljiUcd bfTooil Uie proportion of our char- 
acter, and the wants aMwudoiii to it, naturaltjr dispOM 
tseii to forxvt Qod^— rmtor. 

In Law, anytfatng boritoble belongiRg to a more 
important uiheritanop, (u, nn kofl[iitid may be 
ojipmAmt to a manor, or a common to a frci:- 
iHilil; — «. a part annexed; an accidental or wl- 
vcatitioiu pare 
A worri, u kmk, a ftVad «1t1 Arile, ttn thpj are tbo 

Op^idtMU to eataroal tyuunvtor. or hKUootwt of the 

tioaaij- of Um mlud.^— ^row. 

AjpreyDiCATB, ap-p«n'do-kntc, p. o. To onoex. 
ArpsxiMCATio}!, ap-pea -do-ka'shon, *. AfipeA- 

da{^ ; anii«xion.— Obsolete. 

Tfaera are coasld«ntbla paHi^ lofcrgral*. and inTivTrfi* 
CdfimJitib} tlie WMwdt h^MmWk tmpoMlblu to be «u<r- 

AfPKNiHCULA, a^pea-dik'a-Uf a. A small appen- 

Ai'PHMQicuuiTS, ap-pen-dik'a-lato, o. (oppoufteu- 
fiUm^ Lat.) Kuniuh«l viith one or more appen- 
dages. Applied, in Botany, to leans, stoHcak, &e^ 
Imrinf; one nr more additional oirgant attached. 
la Anjitomy, AppauJicttite Kpifthicft> ; nttmerotu 
tnnaU appondagu of the ciilon itnd rocttim, fin«d 
with adipoae raatteff and prodDOod by the peri- 
toncnl tnnic ; enpposod to have t3M aanw uM aa 
tho oioeatom. 

AvYKumx, np-i»m*diks, *., AmiKMCEi, ap-pcn'- 
de-sos, pi. (Latin.) Something nppetided ; somc^ 
thing mldpd by VMJ of sapplement ; on udjiOict 
or concomitant; Appendices cetebeUi vtTmijhrmes^ 
thf> wonn-Iilte appendkea of ih«-0(nTbt>IIii[ii ; two 
cmim^nces on the eercbellam, ono of whic!t is 
situated on the anterior and superior part, and 
tho other on the posttfiM' and inferior. 

Atn*KXBt^, ap-[ien'aius u. Xnirp^ndo^ I haug up, 
Lat.) Applied, in Botany, vrlien an m-ulc ia not 
»caetly pemUioua, but \* ottAcbed to tbc phtct-nta 
ly Bome point inMnnediute between tbc apex and 
the middle. 

Aptekciuvr, an-per-KCv', v.n, (apper^rre, t^ar~ 
cevmr, old FV.) To comprehend ; to understand. 

Fur now, gi>cb he, ful bat imagining, 
If L<v hui wirea cbere he niiglite aim. 

ArrKncMT-'iNG, ap-per-aoev'ing, «. Percepticin; 
the act of percdring. — Obeoleto. 
F(r tircail of Jeolotu menaea ^yon ' pti v * — CXtworr. 

Al'rERCKPTloN, Bp-per-oep'ahiin, *. In Moml 
Philosupby, the degree of peroeption, which n-- 
tiecta, aa it irere, upon itself; by wbidi we 
an cunscioDs of our exutenoe, and conauoaa uf 
our own perceptiona. 

.^iTEim., ap-por*ril, #, (from perii) Diingcr. — 

Let mo stay at ihim apperiL—Skatf. 

Ap»»krtain, op-piT-tnoe', r. », (of^m^rmr^ FV. 
frma tad, and perimro, 1 jirrtain, 1*0.) To bdoug 
too, aa of right; to belong to, aa by nature nr aii- 

ArrERTAiNMENT, ap-per-tane'meot, «. That which 
U^ongs to any rank nr lUgnity. 

Appekikkakck, up - per't^-iiana, »- (apparimance^ 
]•>.) An a4janct; thai vUcb belonga to am-tber 
thing or jienwu; dvjiendonq-; appenda^. 



Ari'KimxENT, sp'per-te'ncnt, «. Anatyunct; mn^r 
thing iH:rt4UiuDg to &aother. 

YoQ know bow apt our lore was to MM084, 
To ftmish him with ali apperHmtnU 
Belong^tnB to bis hoauur,— 6AaJt>. 

Appetk?(ce, Ap-pct'teaoe, \ «. (qfipenlMU&i, Lat.) 
Ai'rKTKKcr, ap-pel'too-ee,) CanuUdeslro; ftaiisual 
deiiro; de^re. 

Bnd oalw and oompleftod ta the taito of liutfUl ifjir- 
ttmt i to Ad^, to doaee^ to dreai, to troul tbo ton^r. 
Uld tvill tbo eyes.— JtfBAM. 

Api'ETENT, ap'p«-t«at, a, (tq/pvlmA, Lat.) Very 

AFi'ETiBiLmr, Bp-pe-to-bU-o'to, t. The (juality of 

being dcnmble., ap'p»-t«-lilf a. {apptHbitia^ LaU) Do- 

Affetitk, ap'pe-tite, #. {ojtpihUy Lat,) The natund 

desire of f;ood ; tbo irutinct bjr which we are led 

to seek pieasara ; tb« desin nf sntMinl plansuro; 

riolvnt longing; Mgcmew after rniTthing; thn 

thing early deairod; liunger; — r. a. to desire. — 


A man in liU oatoral mribctlcni la fietre, harrll*, strong 
Ift oplakm, covetous of glon ; d««ifoiu of ktumtcdve, 
MpoCMvby Kmaraiioa to bring fUrUi bis aombLuMO.— 

Appbtitiok, ap-pe-t«'aliuD, <. (ttfipttitio, Lat.) 

Dcalre.— Obaolete. 
Appetitive, ap'pe-te-Uve, a. (upjftittf, Fr.) Deair- 

abld; ooncDpiaciblv; unprcsHtiig dcaire. 
ArPLAUl), ap-plawd', c. a, {ftpjAaudo, Lit.) To 

praise, by clapping the hands; to ooiiimf nd higtily. 

I would ap|4atNi tlioo to tbc xtrj echo, tlint ahould 
apiilnud ngHin_— 5AaJtf. 

AppLAHueUf Dp-pldwd'or, «. Ono who applauds. 

AlTLAUSB, np plnwB', *. (o/ifiArafiM, clipping of Llio 
hands, Lat.) Approbation loudly expressed, pro- 
perly by dapping tbc hondn. 

Appulusivb, ap-phw'siv, o. Applaodiog; con- 
taining applause. 

Apple, ap pi, «. {vUmil f^nel. a/'/wA Sax. ajifd^ 
Gcr. apfa, Swod. aj'al, \\<df*\ oral, Iriah.) Tbo 
oultivnted fruit of I*ynu Malus or Apple-troe, the 
enb-apjiJc of onr hedges. Daa^ in ]m Gt-ucral 
8yitem of Gardvmnja; and BoUmy, girot acatologuo 
of fonrteen liundnyl ritrltitlcs of this highly estcdinod 
JVuit ; tho piipil of the eye. 

Uo iiMlrurted bini ; ho kepi him a» ihc npplc of hU 
•ye.— i>cui. xsxii. 10. 

Applb-biirrt.— Sc<« nilliirdiera. 

Aftlv-oratt, ap'pl-graft, «. A twig of an appte- 

treo grafted tipnn the- hUwlc of anotlier tree. ' 
AlTLE-llABVEHT, Bp'pl bdr-vcit, #. The tunc of 

Evaping the frait of tliu applo-trae. 
The aiipUJkaneH ilnth an luii;*iT luvl.— JJni Jantcyn. 

Apple-john, ap'pl-jon. *. Jubn-appU>, Northern 
Greening or Cowam Qu<Tninj; ; a variety of apple 
which keeps without ahriviling. 
What ibp ile*11 hnut thon hnmjtht tlnfre ! Apple- 

JMtiiL4! Tliuukiiow'itt Hir Juliui'muuiteiiilurnnn nftic- 

/}kn.— Sk4»ts. 

Ai'PLB or SoDou, np'pl ov eod'om, t. Solonnn) 
SikluiQoum ; tlui Soduiu e^-plant ; tho name of 
A plant mentiuued in Sonptore: Ordta*, SolanaoeiD. 

Atplc-sacck, ap'pl-iaws, ». A aauco oiado of 
■tewed applca. 

Apple-Taut, or Apple-pie, np'pl-tart, ap'pl-pt, #. 
A ttut made of apples, sugiir, and cruat. 
What, up and down, carred like an offU-iatt. 

Apple-tree. — So© Mains. 

Applg-tard, Ap'pl-ydnt, «. An endoann in which 

applu-tn-vs arc grown ; an orchard. 
Atplubuis, ap-pU'a-M, a, {{nma/mitf.') Fit to to 

applied. Applicable u. now Bwd (or thm w 

Atpliakcc, ap-pli'aiia,* The Mt of 

tbc things applied. 

An joa chaTd T 
A«k Ond fnr tompcranoe ; *tii Thv ap%Umm 09lf 
Wliii-L your dcsir* requires.— ^AaJb. 

ApPLiCABiLiTr, ap-ple-ka-bire-te, i. Hiaqt 

of being applicable, or fit to b« upplird. 
Applioajile, np'ple-ka-bl, a. Fit to be applied, j 

properly rcUtrd to somethinf. 
Api'LtCAui.EK£a&, ap'pk-ka-bl-acs, m. Fltocss 

be oppliod. 
ArruLAULT, ap'plo-ka-blo, ad. In amaitiMr 

bo applied. 
ArpLii-ANT, np'plc-luuit, *. (o/t^/jco, I applf, 

One who applies for auytlring. 
Applicatk, Bp'ple-kat«, «. (appUm, Lai.) A i 

line drown across a curve, so u to biiM<:t Uit 

anietcr thereof; — p. a. to Jqtply. — Not used. 

T)i« act of f«ith U mifUMttd to the objocW 
to Uiu nature ofit.— iVinoa on lAc CneJ. 

Application, ap-plc-ka'»hnn, a. {t^tJiaiiio^ 
The act ofapplying one thing toanothcr; the 
applied; the act of applying to any peraoa 
BoUdtor or petitioner ; the employ mout of 
for obtaining a certain end ; intenscness of tl 
close Rtndy; attcnti<m to aomo parttoolar 
reference to some rase or poaitiun. 

Afplicativb, ap'ple-ka-tiv, a. Kit to be appm 

Applicatorilt, ap'ple-ka-to-re-lr, ad. InrlodiN 
tlfe net of applicjtiDU , — i. that which applies 

Appi.iF.Di.r, Qp-pliV-d-le, (vf. Knauuumerwl 
may be appHt^ 

Afplieb, ap-pli ur, a. That which iidipti or i;^ 
plies ono thing to another ; one wbn npplir<. 

AiTLUiENT, ap-pU'ment,*. Applifation. — ( »' 

Ai'PLT, op-pU', p. a, (n^yj/tro, LaU opjifUr, ■ 
To p\it onu Ihiiig to another; to lay medii^iQiniw 
npon A wunnd; to make use of as relative or fttll> 
jxUv\ to put to a certain use; to nse as imw 
an end ; to fix the mind upon ; to stady; to 
nxxmno to as a pc-Utlunt^r ; to address to ; Co 
at work ; — tho last sense is antiquated, we 

U9D^ ; — *^ "^ "p**" '- *** p'y ' — ••• *■- '^ •™* ; 

agree; to have rvsoureo to u a petitioner; 
attach by w^r of influence. 

ArPOOGLATA. sp-po4) Jo-a'ta, s. (prop, a «ip| 
ItaL) In .^luAic, a blonded, and not abnmC n 
ana* of thu loni'ii, so that thoy impcrwpUD^gfill^ 
into i»u'h otbiT. 

ArPocGiATLRA, ap-podj-jo-a-td'ni, *. (a prop « 
ptjiOi< to tpon upon, ItaL) In Music, a snuiU auU. 
ust'd by way of einbcllishment: Murv one of k»a 
diinitiun, fiom which it bocTuv» hull its vahH^ < 
Hii]tvtinii>ii only one qunrtrr. 

Api'oikt, ap-]Ki}iil', P.O. (n/tjxtinter^ Tr.") 
onytliing; to wttb? tho exnirt thno of aooie 
action ; to srttlc anything by conijMCt ; to 
Uah anything by decree; to funmb iu all poiit 
to etjuip : to supply with all Lhiags DKWtttyi 
P. n. to deoee. 

Tbe Ixinl Had ti py iiktU d to defeat the good cttaatd rf 
Ablibi.pbfO.-^ Am. zviL 14. 

Appuintablr, np-poynl'u bl, a. Fit lu Ic 



k>v Kp-poTnt'sd, «. pari. Chosen ; set- 

PE, K^^jn~i»', 9. TliQ pnvoR mppoIntciL 
B. tf-foya'tm, t. Oa« who aettlea or 
k^thiag or i4a». 

WBKT, ■^poTat'nient, «. (dypomtemai, Fr. ) 
b« ; toi mot of fixing soiaethin^ ui which 
[■■■■twiiiwij; deow; uttUUiment; 
h 4i4h ; oqnipiDont; Ainiitaro; dresa; 
kiJBce paid to nny one', Mremooly oaed of 
j|> Ca paUte officvn. In Ijiir, ' « derist* 
lor ■ diariUMe nw, u vaU<I, u 
;ia the lutun of ou trppointinmt, rntbcr 

■p-pon'khun, r. a. (nc?. nnj port\o„ a 
J To uaign and dKi-lt- lu just pro 

ap pofv'abaQ-tte-nflS, «. Just 

>p-porc'iihun-nr, t. On** wlio «rt4 
vbo acti boaDiis or apportiom. — XoC 

np-pon'thtiTi'inaat, «. In Law, 

imt, &c wonti'ij; to the nitmber 

tk Uw pf fwDi to wbom it u to 

r. a. {fjppoier^ Fr.) To put 
Mw — Obaotelo. 

po'rnr, «. One who <]ti«stion8 or px- 
rhe oSio: of * Foirign Apposor' 
ia d>f Gmrt of ExdiKjaer. 
afii'po-ait, a. (o/^pofilfu, Lat.) Proper; 
to time, pUfx, or drcnmatanoo. 
ap'pO'xit-le, ad, Froptrlj; BtJ/; 

ms« ap'tio-iit'DeSi a. Fitaesa; appro- 
; mitalwnMa. 

t£ DTW mailer. Id Grainmar, the putttr^r 
ia tha aaine caae, as William the 

Tt, a^pod'e-th-f «. Applicablo. 

Tpnx*', r. a. (appreaure, Ital. np- 
To art a TiJ Q* or [uioo upon aajrthing. 
ap-pcmx«'meiit,«. TheutofTala- 

R, aip-frVzor, a. A peraoa appointed to 
M 6r pnof npoD thinj^ 

p, ap-pra-ka'sbon, a. {apj^ecatm, 
Ltt.) Eameat pn^ffr. 
RNtrf ap'pR^Ju-Lo-rCf a. Praying or 

ttLK,^pneab'a-«-b1,a. Cap&bk of being 

Illi i^-prfcah'e-ate, p. a. (apjifecier^ tn 
kftast A^ anlprcA'fua, a price, Uit.) To 

M^ af'ptMah'a-a-sfaon, a. (French.) 

■O, ip-pre-hcn-l\ r. a. (apprrrAentJa, I 
U it LaL) To Inv hoKl on ; to fici^.^ in 
*U or paniahinent ; to ninccive bjr I hu 
tilUak on wUli twror; to fear; to octtic. 
H, ap-pra-htnd'ur. a. One wlm 
^i^n^Mnda aoullwr; he wfan npprrhcn<hi 
M is thBdcbt. — Nut often 

tiaed m the 

_..)•*» may not tblnk It mote atranN 
' MM jltankl lie maroA by Ifae nirlticd air. 

Api'RKHBNsiOLii, np-pro-ben'w-bl, a. Fit to bd 
apprchrnilml or conceived. 

APi'RBiip;N8ioN, ap-pfD^hen'shiin, a, (ttpprehenautf 
Lflt,) The mere onntomplatlon of tlunga, withont 
affinning or denying anything concenimg thorn ; 
opinion ; sentiment ; concession ; the facnlty hf 
which WQ conceive new ideas, or tJic power of con- 
oeSring thorn; fear; euspition of wiint-thing to 
happen or to be done ; ncizarv ; the power o( sctXr 
ing; seizing or Itolding. 

Ari'RcnKSSiVE, ap-pre-bcn'av, a, (appreAennf^ 
Fr.) Quick to un<Ierstand ; fearful ; perceptive; 

AppREiiESSirELT, ap pre-hen'siT-lt, tuL In aa 
apprehensive manner. 

Ai'i'np.iiESsivEKiiSS, flp-pre-hen'ar-Dfti, *. Tho 
quality of being approhoDcive. 

ArpttE?rncB, ap-pren'ti% a. (ajtreniiy Fr.) One ' 
who ia bound, by ooniont, to a master, to team a 
trade ; — p. o. to bind oreor to a master to luam a 

AprREjmcEnoOD, ap-pren'tia-hood,) *, Tho 

ApFBENTiccsjui*, 3p-pren'ti&-Bhip, ) tcrmdur. 
ing which on apprcntic! ia bonad to Mrre hia mas- 
ter. A]*prmiicthood ift seldom uaod. 

1 ■ 

I! . 


1 1 ■; A*C, 

Ari'iiKNTisAOE, ftp-pren'te-aajc, «. (French.) Ap- 
prenticeship; figuratively, trial or cxpcriooce.— 

It Is a better comUtion of tnwaLfd peacv, to be accom- 
panied with aume axerdae of ni» daoKoruui war, in fa* 
rW)m parU.tliautubouKerl* wlthouti^TprsNllaa^of tror, 
wlituvbj peoule groir etfemuiate and unprnctiaeil, when 
oueaaiuD ■boil b«.— Atoon. 

ArpRESSED, ap-pnat', ) 9. (tijfiretsw^ Lat.) In 
Adprebsep, ad-pre«t*, ) Botany, applied whfii 

hnirs lie flat upon the mirface of a loaf or stem. 
.Utbizb, ap-pri«c', v.a. (mpru^paii. of t^frtnulre, 
Fr.) To inform; to give the knowlodce of any- 
thing;—*, infonnation. — Obsolete in tmssenae. 
Then I pralod for «tI(3 
niH will, anil I woMr nbcle. 
After the h>rm ofan oi-jfriM. — Ooieer. 

ArpROACti, ap-proUho', p. n. {uppmcher^ Fr.) To 
draw near locally ; to draw neiir as to time ; to 
make a pfx>gnaB towarda, mentally; to come new 
by natnnl affinity or rewmhlanco ; to draw near 
personally, that ia, figuratively, to oontract mar- 
ringr with ; — r. «. to come near to ;— a. the act of 
dntwin;; near; access; means of advancing; hoo- 
tilo advanro. 

For KnpTand tiU npffoaafcei mnkM us ficrcA 
Ai water* lo Uiu auikiii^ uf a gull'tL. — i>kakt. 

AprROACii, CWve of. A name proposed by Leib- 
nitz for a cnrre, possessing this property, that a 
hi'a>7 body descending along it hy tlie force of 
gnivUy, makes oqnal approaches to the horizon in 
cqirnl ptirttona of time. 

Appboaobablb, op - protsho'a-bl, o» Aeoesaibffl; 
nimbte of btang approached. 

At'PKOACiiRR, ep-protaho'ur, ». The person who 
approiielica or drnwa near. 

ArrROACUKA, ap-protahu'ra, «. In Fortification, 
tlitt tnatcbea flxeavated during a siege, hy whnh 
the bottlers may advance, dnritig the attack, to 
the foot tff the walla, without being exposed to tho 
iir« of the Itc&ieged. 

Appuoachmbkt, np- protslie'ment, a. (npprvcho- 
tncnt, old Fr.) The act of coming near. 



AjprnorRiATOR— Appri. 

Atpbobatb, 4p'pro-lMle, a. part, (apprvbo^ LaU) 
Approrod.— Obsolete. 

All thins* cnittnlnt>il in Sniptim la apprclkitM hj tbo 
•pmMot of all Uk tMrgy of L'UrutoiukKU.— AV T. Jityoti 

Affbobatxoh, ap-pro-Wahnn, n. {aptfrohatio, Lot) 
The act of npprormg or cxpreuing tbnt one ii* 
Bfttigfied or pIoaBed with anything} tbo Liking of 
ujthiDg; KttestAtion; support. 

Apphodative, ap'pro-ba-tiv, a. {approbatift I^O 

AppBOBAToar, ap'pro-bA-to-ra, a. Approvisg. 

AppnOMPT, np-prompt', r. a. (m/, tindpromptw, 
ready, Lot.) To exdUt U> qukkw. — ObwIoU, 

Approop, np-proor, «. Approbation; cotnincndA- 
tion. — Obsolete. 

O, mnflt pcrrllonc mouttii I 
Tliat bear in thrm on« anci tUo kulf.uima tuugiuv 
Either of oondomaaiioB or ajip<-a>/,— £Adbi. 

APPItOPEUATn, ap-prop'e-rate, «. n. {apprcpcrOf I 

Itaste, Lot) To hwteu) to act fonvanL — Not 

ArraoriNQrATK, ap-pro-pin'kwate, v. n. {appro^ 

pmqwy, I eome near, LaU) To draw ooto ; to 

Appbopisqdatiov, ap-pro-pin-kvtt'&bun, «. («)»- 

propinqtiaHo, an approach, Lat>} "^bc act or 

potrcr of approocbing.— Not used. 

Tho tbtril fippr y tmnwlfaw to Oo<t ia nerer olher Uiau 
corOiial and bcacfii-Uu.— £Uop iluU. 

Appropdique, ap-pro-piok', p.n. To approadi; 
to draw near to. — A ludicrous word. 

Th<> rloCted blood within tnj how*, 
TItai fh>m my wuuitdcd iKxiy ilowa, 
WHh mortal erWit, doth jMirtrnd, 
To OfyfupiMfM an and.— ffadt^mu, 

ArraopSlABLG, i4>-pro'prO'a-bI, a. Capable of 
being appTDprbted. 

Apphopriatk, ap-pro'pre-nte, a, (cq}propner^ Fr. 
from mf, and prvprius, LaU) To consign to some 
particular nsr or poison ; to claim or exorcise ; tn 
take to one's self Hj on exclusive right ; to make 
pocaliar to something; to annex by combiiution. 
In JLsw, to nltoniate ■ benefice; — a. pccnliar; 
eoaaignod to aomo poftioalar nao or person ; bc- 
bogiiig pntNolariy. 

ApPOOPRlATnLY, ap-p^o'pr^-ate•Ia, ad. IKstin- 
gnUbu^y ; fitly ; in an appropiiait miDner. 

ApPBOPXiATKNUftft, ap-pro prMto-nes, a, Just- 
Mas or fitness of application. 

Appoopriation, ap'pro-pra-a'flhun, a. (FiYncb.) 
Tho application of aDytbinp to a purpose; the 
daim of anything as peculiar; tbo fixing of a 
particular rignificntkm to a word. In Lavr, a 
•ercrii^ of s bonefico ecclesiastical to the propo 
and perpetnn) us*j of tionie n-li^oos Imwe^ or dean 
and rha]>trT. htabojmc, or colle[^; beeaniB, as per- 
tous ori|<ln.-iIly hwe no ri){ht of fee simplo, tfaeee, 
hf nuon of ttieir perpetoity, are nceonnted own- 
er* of tbe feo simple, and, tberetoro, ore called 
proprietocB. *To on i^Ly> ii <y > « ^Kwi after the Ucenaa, 
obtained of the king in chancery, the consent of 
iho diocesan, patron, and incnmbL'Tit, ore ncccs- 
oary, if tbo church bo fall ; but if the obamh be 
void, tbo diocesan and the pntron, upon the king's 
licooae, may conclude'' — Coivd In undscnpe Gar- 
dening, t^^proprinb'on is tbu art of blending tbo 
coiaary of a ponicnlnr estate with tlwt of the otliei^ 
wliioh surround it, bo as to produce a harmonic 
•ftvet and benefit the estate in questiont as far as 
ibe landscape is concerned. 

Afprofriatob, ap-pro'pte-ay-tnr, «. One < 
appnipnAtm; one who is in posscanoa of an 
proprialeil benefice. 
ArFROPBiCTORT, ap-ppo-pn'o-to-re, s. Alaf ] 

prietor of the profits of a benefice. 
AiTKOTABLB, ap^proo'T»-bl, o. Mccftk^ 

Appbotal, sp-proo'val, a. AppmttaHoo. 
Appbotancb, sp-pmo'Tans, *. Appcobatsoo.^ 

Should abci 
8oft'nln^, the least OfiprinuMa to t)«stqWa 
Tlifj bnftV adTHoce.— 7%o«uDii. 

Appkote, ap-pruov', r. a, (opprmurrt Fr. 
Lat.) To be pleased with; toexpms likiog; 
aulfaoriie; tocoufiroi; to»bow, t^ijimtily. 
In rcHirlon. 
What danmed crmr, bat booh; soIm r bTnw_ 
Will bless It, and t^iprow U with a 

■^-v. n. to make or show worthy of m\ 
Till* flnt care anil conc«m mtmtltataafpnm] 
to GtH). I)/ rlcbteonsocas, boUneas, and |Kin^«-J 

In Law, to improre. 

This cnclusurc. when JustifiSbli^ Is called, fal Low.i 
■rofffN^, an anrient eiprearioa s^pilQiag ~ 
^proAyy— JBiHifciOww. 

Approtbd, sp-prooTd*, a,part LQted; 

My Tary noble and anmrncfgODd niastm. 

Approtehent, flp-proov'ment, k Approhatic 
likini;. In our ancient Law, a ppiw e m vfU ia, wf 
a pt-rsnn indicted of treason or felony, «ld 
mtgned for the earoe^ dotb oonfeoa the ImiI ' 
plea plsidad, and ftppsftls or inmw otbera ef 
Meomplieet ta «rd«r Co obtain pardon; aim, 
Law, the lord may (^pprow, that is, eneloca 
eonvcrt to tho nse of hortandry (wbioh tbay' 
melioration or apprortment) any waat* 
woods, or pastttreo, In which tb« tciHatn hmt i 
common appendant to tlieir eatalass provid 
kaves aofliacDt eommoo to his tenants. — J 

Appuoteb, op-proo'Tnr, f. Ono who 
one who naakas triaL In our ancient 
Law, ^one that confesses fotony of hlmseU^i 
or accuses another one or more to be gnil^ oft 
tame: and ho Is cdJed so* beoaoM bo nnulj 
what he allegrs in his appeal.*— CVmmJL If 
approver failed to make ifood liis appeal, Ji ' 
nr death was given sgainst htm ; if be 
in convicting tbe app<Ulee, lie wss oftarvardi 
raittrd to a daily allowance, and a 
the king. 

AppnoxtMAiTT, ap-proks'e-mani, a. Af 
coming near to. 

AprnoxTHATB, ap-proks'e-mate, * (a<^ tO| 
proximuMj near, Lat.) Near to; — w. «. to ~ 
er draw near to ; — o. «. to eome nov. In 
ft leaf is said to be approximit* when it b > 
to the stem. 

Ai'PROXiXATioK, sp-proks-e-ina'shim, sl Aaap*l 
proaoh or (hnwin^ near to, In Matbaroilias | 
results aro aoiJ to bo found by 
when they give nesrlyf but not cxaotly, tiM : 

Ai'PBOXiHATiVE, i^pcoks'e-ma-tiTt tk Ooniofl 
near to. 

Appui, ap-poo-e', s. (French, sopport) In Hone- 
msnahip, tho sense of d» action of the bndsl is 
the hands of tbe rider. In Military Science, any 



or b«df upon wblcb troops 
«r hf vhkb tiiqr art marched In line 

-fMt *. (^p*bM, Lat) Tbo ace oT 
' ia Aitnrfwmj, ai appuUe is 
k of kWD btanafy bodM, that 
m thMMi^ th* «UM tefcaoopo, >t tlio 
lift Inrm U appSod to bo edipae, 
iov «S tbtt Mith toMcly fiUla to tbfl 
IDOB ; oc t* ■ fobr ccUpsr, when tho 
I Iha aligh^irt ptnlioa of the mm'a 

■^pQl'ahii% A Th» oot of atrildrg 

y foKiCTi & SirikiDg ■^mst. 

ly-fni'tB-Raooa^ «. (Frattch.) 

of walconwIfrilHhiDD aqdMrtiiiotiy. 

T, ap^iMrt'to-iuDt, a In Law, of the 
nrtOMBce; n^aling or bolongiog 
_ « an a4Sntn:t. 
;f n-kila^ n a. (apricor^ I sit in the 
T<a karii in tha aun.— Not nsed. 
•priaVM^ IL (^fWhtWf Lat.) Stm- 

v-koca. (airnoot, Fr. Jlbicoeeo, ItaL) 
Vutjarift or Pruniu Anniniaea of 
of waU-fmit, alliL-d to tbi* plomi 

I* to tiav» bvcn known Id 

• tt««M M i^«KM; is Uit time of IHo*- 
nM lo bare l>e«n brrmflit ohsioalJii to 
ftaj^ liy oa« Wot( A French pncst, g«r- 

a. {^prifir. ftms t^peno, T open, I^.) 
of the jcnc- In Astronomj, 
aa tbe aeoond month of the 
brtbe aign, Tannu, ( g ) 
dair ffca son trarcb daring this month. 
, a'pvfl-fool, 1. On« who is impowd 
ndaml the object u( ridicule by otiiera, 

• of April, br hcing itat an absurd 
I Smdao, auch la c^cd April-trfnde^ 
>«Twd« «ad, tha peraon so sent, Ajn-it- 
LariHboL In FhAce, tbo AprU-/»oi 
vJ-fiafa— /^/wofi frJvril In Scot- 

A« <7a«A; ie., Ruot the Cnckoo. 
i pri-o'rt, riatin.) A term nwd in 
OQ Honl I'hilooophj, on applying to 
Bot In which ■ aub«oqnrat: fact \a drawn 
•aaadnt ftct. The ai^mtut a priori, 
I ovtwi mrUphnical axioms, hai been 
. CEarke and othov, to prove the esist- 
leitT. The ar(;nment derived froni the 
OB of dan^a io tbo works of nature, in 

af)||Daiicit o poaUriori. 
ta, a. foporea, GacL) A doth bnnj; 
caoa to lAep Ute other drvss cJcfui. In 

I piaea of laad to oorer the tonchholo 
of ordnance. In Cirprntiy, t^trom xtc 
U a hatiaontal piece or timt>cr, in wooilcn 
Hp^ uaal fur tlie rapport of the carriaga 
lOg^ atringv. and juistings in tho land- 
rapaoBO; a j^atfiim or flooring of plank 
km oolrattoa of a dxk, a little tit^^her 
Mlaa, aAtnst which tho dock grttvn aro 
Hani ArdnCectafo, a piece of curvad 
ai naawitatelj above tbo foremoat end 
l» bffbiod tba lower part of the stern, 

II it aoidtonna exacttr in ahapo. In 

Coach Workf a plaoe of leathac or other nnterial 
nscd in n gig or other earriaga to delfaad from rain 
or dirt Apron ^f a ^ooae^ the fiB ukin whkb 
ooren tbe bdl^ 

ApBONXD, a'ponid, nd, Wming an apien. 
The cobtvlw aprvtCd, and ttie paraop gown*)!— Aipa. 

Aj'RON-iJ?riZTQ, a'ptun-Uraii^ a. In Joiaerjj the 
fvHng of the opron^pioce. 

AFBon-HAK» a'pnra-man, $. A man who wears 
an apron ; a wodunan ; a manaal artificer. 

Ton ban OMdo good worl^ 
You Mid TOOT ofNViMMrM, UuU atuud W lundl 
rpon ihe rotcB of oociip«tloa. and 
Tfio broMh oTgoHlo eaten Mofca. 

Atbofos, ap-KHpo', ad. (d jiropoa, Fr.) Opporta- 
uitj ', to the pnrpose. 

Apsis, ap'eia, t.^ Apaidca, ap'ae-ilea, pi (i^mu, arch, 
Gr.) In Aatronomr, tha two oztraine and oppoalto 
pointa of tho orhit of a pIuioL Tbiit nearest tbo 
aun, in rvrvrenoa to the orbit of the aarth, is c:il1tHl 
thft perihi^tioD, And the farth(!»t point, the sphcUun. 
Ill the orbit of the moon, tha uevnt point, Jcno' 
minntod the pcnKeo, and the opposite point, tho 
apogee. Imu of the Ap$ide*, la a lino, paaaing 
frmo tho pointa apogee or aphelian, through tho 
oeatce of the ran, to the oppouto pointa, tbe padr 
gee or [(crih&lion. In Arcliitcoture, the bowed or 
arched rouf of a house, room, or oren ; tho canopy 
of a throne; tho inner put of anoii'nt chnrchea, 
where the clergy were aented, and in which tbo 
altar waa placed, oppoaito to tho now, whno tho 
coogregation aat It ta qmonymotu with tbo tormi 
oovkAo, oomano, pre^^terium, or what Is now 
called the choir or eauctuary. Tlie throne of tho 
bishop wu anciitntly colled apshs ; and it la sup- 
poacd, that it has oven ita name to that part of 
the church in which it woa ntuaicd ; a reliiiuaiy 
or ciue in which the rvlks of Bfiints, real or pre- 
tended, were Aiidcntir kept 

Apt, ^t', a. (aptua^ Lat.) Fit; having a tendency 
to; indlnedto; led to; diapoaod to; r^y; quick} 
cinallfied for. , 

Arr, apt', r. a.(iTpfa, Lat.) To suit; to adapt; to 
fit; to qualify; toduspoae; to preiKuv. — Obeolvta^ 

We nood a man that tcnows the Hcreral fcacca 
Of biatMTj, aud how to ay( tlieir placw.— 

The; ar« thin^ iffnonint, aud, tbercAMw, 
thai Bupvr»Ullcn of dotmg fuadooM^— AmancMl 

ArTABi.B, ap'ta-bl, a Aooomnod^lai nlbabla. 
— Obsolete. 

Aptatb, ap'tate^ v. a. (apMam, Lat.) To make 

Aptbb, ap'ttir, t. (a, without, and pttr<m, a wm^ 
Gr.) Ad insect witliout wings. 

ArTERA, ap'tc-ra, a. An ordur of inaectzs inrlnding 
all tboae whtcb, like tbo bog, Ioiinp, and Hua, are 
wilhont wingB, forming tlie twclAh io the arnm(T6- 
ment of Kirliy, and the aercnth in that of lJn> 
niEUs, bnt acknowledged by tbe former not tu be 
natural The term is rgected in the laat Ryatera 
publiiibed br Latreille. 

ArrxuAT., ap tcr-al,a. lb Awhilectnre, applied to 
a tem{Je which luu prostyles or porticoa of oolumna 
projecting from ita points or enda, but withoat Cho 
oolumnii nmning along tbo flanks from ooo end 
to the other. 

AlTEHOUiCKlu, ap-tefM>-di»VrB, *. (ttjiUrodeeeres^ 
Fr. from a, wtthont, pteron^ a wing, Jw, two. and 




tenu, a hom, Ur) A name givto bj LatreiUo to 
aptonms insects, with t*ro anttimn!. 

AptbrolOOT, ap-ter-ol'o-je, #. (OtfAron, and itujat, 
a disooorso, Or.) Tbat bnwch of Entomology which 
treaU of the Aptera. 

ArTKiioL'S, apVr-os, a. Without win^; or, in 
Itotan^r, witbotft the oppondages callod wing:^ In 
Entornolo;iy pertiiiniiig to the class Aptom, 

Attkrvciaks, ap-tiT-y'c-ans, «. (f*, without, and 
fiayXy a wing, Gr.) A name givtai bj LalmUe 
to a Bcctlon of Mallofca, comprehending thoSD 
■ whkb are not adjipteil for an^tuiiiiiiifr. 

Attektx, ap'tcr-Dta, s. A bird belon^g to New 
Zeolajid, in which the wtngii arc reduced to sioglo 
defensive spnn. 

Aptitude, ap'te-tmle, *. (Frcocli.) Fitnosa^ ten- 
di-ncy; di»po«itioii. 

Am.r, apt'lp, tid. Properly; with jnst connrctlon 
or corr«pond«noe i fitly; jastlyj pcrtincnily; 
readily ; acut«ly, as, ' ha teamed his buaineu 
very v^ty' 

AmcESS, apt'ne^ $. Fitneas; Bnitab1'>nf'n; dia- 
porition to many things ; qnickness of apprvhen- 
mon ; rcAdincss to learn ; tendency. 

Aptote, ap'tote, f. (aptotoa, indKlinable, Gr.) A 
noun which is not declined by cases. 

Apur, a'pca, f. {apua, a email Bsh, Lat) A name 
given by Scopuli, and now gpiifrally applied to 
lihyilopodoai Entomostraca, iohiibiling fresh water 
riiti-hcff, pools, and stignant waters. Binoculaa ii 
the name pircn by Lench. 

Apra lMT>irA, a'pua in'dc-ka, «. The name of a 
conitcllatlon in the southern heiniaphen', sUuntt-d 
between Triongnl an] Aostralo and tJtc ChamE>li[>n, 
and r^weeeiited by the figura of a Bird of PiiriLdiae. 

Apybbxxa, ap-c-reka'c-a, «. (a, without, and pyreioSy 
fm-er, Gr.) The intromlstton of fevaiab duorders, 
or of an agoe. 

ApTBOVAt a-pi'rua, a. (a, without, and /lyr, fire, 
Gr.) Capable of roasting the action of grc ; ap- 
plit-J formerly to aabeflttu, mica, and ollmr mincraU 
wbirh f'liJurc a strong beat without chfingc. 

Aqua^ ak'kwa, t. The Latin word for water; a 
term much nscd in rocdicAl prescriptlona and 
pirparntionft. Ttio following aro tboK which 
have been chiefly employed : — Aynn aerU firi^ 
wuttr iiitpregnated wiiJi tixetl air — c-irbonic add. 
Jfpta aikaiina muriatica, a bleaching HqniJ, pro- 
pved tbua — mariate of aoda, dried, tbij ; pow- 
derod numgancae, tbj ; mix tlK'3e to{*cther, put 
them into a matraaa, and add water and sulphuric 
acid, gradually, and at Intervals ; tmnsmit the 
disengaged gaa through a solution, consisting of 
^jr of carbonate of kali, and ^xx, by mea- 
ftirc, of water. Towards the cud of the ope- 
ration, apply a moderate heat to the matrass. 
Aqua Btit*<iicti IioIa»di^ a solution of rrocaa of 
antimony in win<% an active emetic. Aqua/er- 
ne/ii, a mixture of corrosJTC aublininto and lime- 
water, with the od-lition of a littU' spirit of wine, 
Aqitajhrmn aumatium, or AqiM tutphlhfr, omnge- 
flowcr water, water distilled fn)m orange-flowers, 
much esteemed on th<! Contioent aa an nnliiipaA- 
modioi dose, Ixotn "%'} to ^ir, or more. Aqwi- 
J'ortu, nitric add — which see. Atjtia ffrttca, a 
weak solution of the nitrate of aHver. Aqua 
fftyjiea^ an aqueous solution of nitnite of mercur}', 
mixed with a de<»ction of Tarion* plaiitjL A'pta 
rfffioy nttru- muriatic acid, so named from its 
power of di&aolviiig gold ; it abw dissolves mm, 

cioppcr, tin, mercury, reguloa of antimony, bai' 
muth, and zinc. Agtmro^Ot nao^Mter. Aym 

fappfttrinti^ nqtta cfrrnln, or aqwt aipri amtmommdli^ 
binc-eyo- water, made by mixing ^j of aal^acm^ 
niac with tl>) of lime-water, ana patting a pisas 
of dean copper into the mixture, where it ibovU 
remain till thr fluid acquires a fine blue oolov. 
Aqva vtffeto-misiertUe, GotUand water, made af 
vinegar and lead. The Natitbai. WATBKsaray 
aquaJUviatit^ riTcr-water; aquajlmtana, sprfof- 
water { aqua ex ntrc, snow-water ; aqua or pwlaa, 
well-water; aipta phcwfa^ nun-watcr; aqnam 
lacu^ lake-wato-; aquapafudA, marsh-water; aqm 
manna, aea-water. The Artificial Watew 
are, aqua dutUhfa, diatilkd - water ; aqua lotd 
pnoit, toast'Water; o^iki calcis, Ume-water; aqm 
picity or picu liquiSty tar-water; aqua 
piperUat, peppermint-water; 07110 amlAi 
spearmint -water ; 07110 pimmtOf allapioa-wiiter? 
atjua puletfii, pennyroyal-water. 
Aqujiductus, ak-kway-dok'tns, «. (Latin.) An 
aqncduct, a name apjilied by anateiniata to certsia 
canals in the human body, rii. ;— ^g w iiKeftii e»* 
chkoL, the aqueduct of the cocAJpo ; a fimmcs of 
the temporal bone, for the entrance and exit of thi 
blood-rcsacls connected with the ear. AqrurAtctu 
Ftdiopiiy tlie aqnednct of Fallopins; tbs enal 
by which the poilio dura wimUtlirouf;b the petnms 
part of tlie teinporal bono. AquaJuctm Sflm, 
the aqncduct of Sylvius; the pMBi^ or CMal 
which extends from the under and bai& parts of 
the brain, called the tabercoh qnadn^cmma inte 
the fourth veutrictc Aquarhuiiu vatSbttiif aqtw- 
duct of the reetibnlam ; a canal which comntaaoi 
in the vcstiblo of the internal ear, near tlie opes- 
ing of the semicirciilar canala, and tenniaatas bs- 
twecn the layers of the 4ura mater, on the pas* 
tcrior soifaco of the temporal bone. 
Aqua.-UAAU*A, ak-kwa-ma-ri'na.«. (a^a,andfli»- 
rinus, marine. Lot) A name aumetimea pim 
to the beryl, from its being of a sea-grevn coloor. 
AQUA1UA.NS, a-kwa're-an«, s. A aect of ChriBtim 
which, in the third century, used water Iiuteadof 
wine, in their celebration of the EuLhariat. 
Aquartds, ak-kwa're-us, 9. (Latin.) The Watn^ 
bearer. .\ constellation forming the eleventh sfas 
of the Zodiac It Is s<ip{>osod to have received lit 
name from the drcnmatancc of it^ bringing witk 
it nn abundance of rain. It rises in Jannaiy, soi 
acta in February. According to Flamstead, H 
contains one hundred and eight stars. Its ap 
Aquatic, a-kwat'ik, \ a. Inhabiting, orgraa- 
AquaticaL, a-kwat'u-kal, i ing in the water. 
Aquatics, a-kwat'ika,) «. >^ ancient sect, wUA 
Aquei, ak^we-i, jT tnnlutjuned tbatwataiwat 

eternal and nncre.itpd ; probably adopting the plub* 
sophical notion of lliales, that water was the fint 
priuriptc of all things. 
Aquatilk, ak'kwa-lile, 9. Hclating to, or iohaVl* 
inz the water. In Natural Hiiitory, applied to 
didtingaish things which inhabit the wxlera, ai, 
aquatic birds, reptilea, insect*, planta, it *IW 
t«i-m aquatic b applied in BoUmy to such pUnki 
afl grow at the bottom of lakea, aeaa, or riieit, 
and ore entirely submerged like the CouAnra, or 
wliich float on the aurfac« like Lemna; or wUdl 
have their roots lixvd in the soil, while their leavn 
and stems Boat on the surface, as Semphaa, 
Trapa ; or which rise above it, aa Aliona ploottgo; 




I» AoM w!uc^ e">^ OB ^ borden of 
Uw^ or itapuDt poob, u Kgnonia 
mkon •foatioif Ccraitiain •qaa^cojn. 
I ik'ltink^tii'e-i, <. A name pna by 
«al •tftcn to ■ secUm of birds; hj 
t a Ana/ of Molliiseft; hj LitreUIo, to 
i ol Oafitaott, and hj Lamvckf to a 
■B^ACToaift inMcU, «U of which lire in 
^wm ifeiHrflMe^ or 00 iu brink. 
t, ak-kwa-tfai^ft, «. (ofoa, Lat. and fm^, 
^ A mod* (tf etdiing in hmtotion of 
n Ittdbu isk. 

r^MMA^ ■k'Vwalof-fa'ne^ «. TennnI 
0)^ Aqiwdclla Tuflkna, Aqaetta di Naiwli. 
I«d pnaon tnpared iy a womun of the 
who nnded first at Pnlermo, 
Xaplea, She confcasedr when 
t BHk trf a i i hm axaculion, ttiat thu hivl 
mNVWdft of ifai hnndrad pcrwrna with it. 
ift dUil^ te VDiiMn who wuhod to {:vt 
t \wAanJg, It 11 geiurallj inppnArd to 
I ■ pnpmtioa of anoiuc ; firom fvar to 

V ak-kvB-TJ'ta, #. (o^ih, and mea^ vitae, 
A MMIM very absordly jZfiron to bramly 

rikahoGo iotaadcatiiig ti']Qon. It Ute- 
m tiha water of Life, It ahotild hare 
■A flfwa moHir, the water of Death : 
f^^to nyriada. 

^vkwv- dnkt, «. (aqua, and difoo, I 
^^ A coodoctor or oondoit of water, 
r ailrktod hi ita appUcatloa to comtmo- 
99 %}>» mntta of the gronod, for earning 
■ fMtft* ownnt acrots rallfys aad OTcr 
a en* pUo* to another. 
■ktwe-oa, cl (o^chx, Fr. iroro a7ua, 

m« ok^we-os-iMa, 4. Watflrishness. 
CMM^ ak-kw»>f»-l»>a'i*^ a. A catarftl 
illtg^ biloppng to the iwlycar;.«cu di- 
fi|p|iatriiiiia Kzogeni. In Umllcj'A nn- 
■gmcBt, W eniiin«rntes nine genera, as 

to it. Its only Knropt'an one !■ the Wm 
m <f coalmen bolly, which forms the typn 
titfrt'a natural onler lUcinae. 
V, afc-kwvfft'Ie-um, $. (acw, a iwedle, 
m, ft Uaf \M.) Th« Latin naoie of the 
nip a^/oKmm^') ao called from the 
of it» Le»vi!«: Unlcr, Utdncflo. — 

• kirilX a. Tha LaHd name of the 
f cmMU}\at\m irr--'---^- -'--- '"ipri- 

idAfMDME * i. ><iin^ 

BM wHsb bare ' 'lOtl ; 

ifiSl ■bort, the f>mrtb and tUth, tNc 
Ac head not onBledt and the torsiu 
JiBMt to the toei. 

• WrilX I. Id Aaatomy, the name given 
faa wUeb paas thfoDgh the temples iijto 

t, •■Oail-a^rf-a, a. (a^viia, an oaplc, L«t., 
>«oad, ia Malaooa.) A genu of plant^i, 
Iba order Aqullariaec; peri^rre, five- 
aoehiai tmxUH ; stanieus, ten ; anthers, 
, itylK. Dooe. 

iCE*, ak-kw»-Ta-ri-a'ee-c> ». A natani 
rBA, ak'fcwe-U-rin'e-e, jorderof Und- 
(■rvaa iiuaiD})let« ExoyvtM^ oooabting of 
Ml, irUh nnooth brancma, and a lough 

hark; leaves, alteniatc^ ntire^ seated on abort 

stalks, withoat sepala, with fine Teim nuuiing 
into a marginal one. jiut within the margin ; ralyx, 
tTirUnAte or tubular ; limb, fire-elelt ; stamens, 
fire or too; the anthers, n:uTOw, c^long, aft 
tached by their back, below (ho midtUo, two-cnD- 
ed; placenta, Bparioualy two-cdlcd; ovnles, two, 
one of wliich tapers downwards ; style, absent, or 
when present, conical; fruit, pcar-shnped; radkle, 
straight and suporiur; cotykdoas, thick, fleshy, 
and hcmisphcricaL It ditfeni fiY>m Samydec in 
ibe aeeda not betog fixed to the panetc«, and from 
ChstlletiaoeB, in thrir being erect, not inverted, 
and fn>m Thymelese, in the fruit being two-\'alTcd, 
two-celled, and two-seeded. 

AQcrLEGio, ak-kw«-le'je-3, #. (aiuila^ an eagle, from 
the inverted epnra of the flowers, resembling the 
talons of an eagle. Its English naznc, Columbine, 
from ColtmUnu^ a dove, Ijit., is from the name 
cause.) Colnmbine, n gentta of plants, consisting 
of perenmal herhs, with fibrous roota ; flowere, 
wliite, blue, rose, or povplo ; calyx, oon^sting of 
fine coloand petal-like decidaotu sepab ; petals, 
five each, drawn out into a hollow spnr. 

AqnuK^., ttk-kwe-lin'e^ ». The name given by 
Swainson to a sub-family of the Folconidni, In- 
eluding the EogU-s, properiy m ealled. It con- 
tains the genera Pandion, Aqoila, Ilarpyii, Gypo- 
geranna, and Oinaetna, all of which eonnst of 
tngv bfrds, with the bill rather straight at the 
bsM, bat curved towards the end — feet strong 
and moBonlar, tarsos more or less feathered, and 
the claws lATge and mueb ccrvod. 

AguiUNE, aklme-line, a. (aqutUnuM, Lat.) Beflsm- 
bling an cf^le ; when applied to the n<Me, hooked. 
Tlioie tntU wcrr annweroil once, when mortals Urod, 
Of •tronifcr winjc. ofd'piUine ascent. 
In tbvory sublltnu.— YiMttff. 
IIU noK was afuiUfv, lus ejea were bine.— /Tryden 

Aq0IU>k, ak'kwil-on, «. (French, from aqttilo Lat.) 
The North wind. 

Blow, vlUalo, blow, till tk; uphered bias check 
Out-4WoU the colk-k uf [lutrd otptiton.—SJtaH. 

Aquivxiua, ak-kwe-pa're-a, r. {aqua and fvsro, I 
engender, Lat.) A nnme friven by Dlaiiivillo to a 
division of the Datrachia, which deposit th«^ir pro- 
geny in water. 

Aquosb, a-kwo«e'. o. Watery. 

AQUOsmr, a-hw&su'tc, s. Waterings. 

Aba, a'ra, t. (Latin.) Thp Altnr, a renstcllation 
sitnated near tlie Wulf and the Pea^ock, near the 
South Pole ; also, the Macrocercus, a sjwcxes of 

Araji, ar'ab, f. A native of Ambia. 

AiiAnESQtT^ or'a-hesk, n. (French.) Relating to 
ihu architecture of the Arabians: — ». a building 
after the manner of the Arabiiiis. The term is 
more commonly applied to the stpracs of ornament 
it»rd in adorning the walls, pnvcmeute, and roots 
of Moorish and .Arabian buikUngs, consisting of in- 
tricate and heterogeneous adintxtorcs of fruits, 
flowers, scrolls, and other objects, to theexclumon 
of animals, the representation of which is forbid- 
den hy the Maliomedan reli^on. Tliis kind of 
ora:iinent ia now frequently nsed in the ndoming 
of books, pbite, Ac Foliage wry similnr to thiit 
used hy the Araliians, intermixed with grifflna, &c 
were frequently wnployed on the wnlls and friesea 
of temples, and on many of the ancient Greek 
on the wolLi of the laths of Titus, at Pom- 





pcii nnd nuny other pbiwa ; the AnUnan ]ioORi]a;;e 
is lUao aotncthnea ckUf d the Arabeaqrfte. 

ASAiaiJr, a-n'bc'ani ». A native of Ar»hui;i re- 
Uting to AntuA. 

Arabic, ar'&-bik, a. Arabian ; — ». tira LanguAji^ of 

A&LDic or GuH Arabic, «. A tranqiueiit gum 
obtvsed from the E^yptUn Ancia. 

Arabicallt, ar-ab'be-kol-le, ad. la the Arabic 
mjmn«r, or intrr|w«tation. 

Akabioi, a-rab'i!-8P, *. An Arabiui loct which 
sprang up in the auoad oenfituy. Their obief 
boni^ ooDrifitad in nuntammic that the xnil coiild 
not enat without the b«h-, asd tint, coascqnently, 
it died with it, and would rise witli it at tho rc- 
stUToction. Or^en is aaiil to h&To oonvinoed thun 
of thdr error. 

AIL4BID&S, a-rm-btdVe, a. (arofttf, and iden, can ■ 
eeption of a thing.) Othomias namod Plcoro- 
Tlnxen, a tribe of the onlor Cmcifciw, conairtipg 
of manr penora, all of frbich have t^e siligui de- 
hncmt, tt'ilh a linear diuepinwitt, which has more 
or less hrcadtb than the seeds ; Um eeoiis are oval, 
oompTeased, and omally mai^gined ; the ootjrledons 
Bat and pntW with tha dhMpfannt : Sob-ordar, 

AsABia, a-ra'biSf «. (Arabia.) The WaB-eresar a 
f^muB of plonta, witbout eom|ires8ed aiHqties, or 
flat ralvcs : Order. Cnicifmp. 

Arabifm, ar'ab^Um, #. An Arahian idiom or -f^rane. 

AsABiST. ar'a-bist, a. One skiUvd in Arabian 

Ajiablb, ar'a-bl, «. (orv, I pltmgb^ I-it) Land 
fit fw lUla^ 

AxuBO-TKi>Eaco, a-ra'bo-tod-es'ko, «. (^mio, and 
T^dMfffk, Oerman, Ital.) A stjln of architcctmv, 
eoiuktinp of Moorish or Low Grecian, with Ger- 
man- Golbic 

Arack,) or'iik, ». (an Indian word.) A spirituous 

An«c, i' liquor prorured by the distillation of juice 
extracted from the cocoa-oat tree. 

AnACRTfl, ar-alda, a. (a, withont, and rAola, abniDch, 
Gr.) Earth-nut, a pmiRs of papilionaceous plants, 
the podx of irbicb, aa they inrrraM in site, force 
tbainselvea into tha earth, whore the seeds faeoome 
ripetied t thi7 ara vary nraoh oultivatfld in AfHarica 
and other ooontries ; the soods abound In otL — 
Ord*r, Legiiminruun. 

AsAcnNii>A, ar<akW*da, > «. (nrndUs, a spider* 

ABACinnDKfl, ar-sk'ne-dcs,) and eiJtu, like, Gr.) 
The name civen by Cavicr to his second class of 
tbe Artkulata, eain(u«hendiug the .ipidcn*, ratti-\<t, 
and scorpions. 

Ahaobnodrrka, ar-ak-no-der'mn, «. (nrnc^mr, and 
dsraso, akia. Gr.) A mime pvea by Blahtvillti to 
klodaaCi, which lum tbe &kin so oxtremely fine, 
as to rofttMnble a spider^ web, 

A]tArin«i>m, ar-ak'oayd, a. (oracAiie, a spidn-, and 
mloMt U1e% Gr.) AppKed l« Batural bntory to 
thinga which an Bk* a spder'a wah. It ia naed 
is Irai fiotmy and Zoohigy, aa Strnper winm 
AraiMaidmmf SfpomUliu ArnrhuiMet^ Atitta 
Art uk m a idn. 

AftACnifoiD M£iniitiunt,«r<-ak'noTdmem'brAn^x. 
In Anatomy, a cobweft-like membrane, wbirh 
fbmu one of the tonka or coata of the brain, sitit- 
atad Ixitwte n the don and pta mattir. 

AKACtnnru, ar-ak-no'tia, ) j Inflammn- 

AjiACintoiuiTis, ar*Bk>ii07d'«*4«a,> fcioo uf the 
araclmoid meabcana. 


ARACmtOLOGT, Br-Mk>ao1'n-je,«. (t 
loffMj i duooone, Gr. ) That part of nacond 
bury which h-e-ats of spiders. 

ARAcnxopHnxfs ar-ak-noTo-tais, & ^ 
p/tihf 1 lore, Gr.) Tha ^f^m Isaria Araokao- 
pbtUa, is BO called, beeaoae ft gnwi od tbe bodls 
of dead sfdders. 

AuMonrrtM, a-ro-oa'tiK s. (oraltM^ wida, nd ttf- 
lo$y a oolomn, Gr.) In Architertnrei, oaa of tha 
five proportknn for refi^nbitbg the latereolamd^ 
tions or iotArralsi which ouctit to ba obaonvd 
between porticos and coloiuadsa. Tbe fatvnl 
now used is equal to four disuMtera. It i^ «r 
mther ought to bO| imly oied with tho Taacn 

AajiosTBTiLS, a-reH}-sis'tn^ •. (araio*^ wids^ qn^ 
with* and ^k*9^ a coloma, Or.) In ArohitoolDfi^ 
a terra asod by French ardiltocta to daftola tbt 
proportioning ^ the 8pac«a between uafaaaia «)m 
arranged in pidn. It la osed in tba west ftoal 
of St Paul's. 

Aaaiozteb, a-ray-in yay, «. (French.) In FsiUil- 
cation, a branch, return, or RAllery of a miusi 

AOAISB, a-raze', v. a. To raise.— Obaolfta. 

t bara «i«n a amiialne 
That's able to breath Wte tnto a stone, 
Quicken a rrx^k. and mnlce jrm dKn(^c canary 
With uprttrljr fire an4 mfitlnn, wfaow flirnT>le 

Is i>owt:iful ta draws Xnifr I'epfn.— f^aJM. 
Ajlalia, A-ra'lo-a, $. (etytnul'v^ nnlmowB.) 
genua of North Aifiencnn tierbs and shnriiSk 
oompoond Ipbvm and nmhftllato white 
usually disposed in puuiclee : Type of the 
Arauacb.v, a-r&-1ft-a'«a-«, t. A naloral ordi 
Exogcoii, class CfdyciBoiie. The AmllaoeiB 
ptwdmatcft to the L'mbeHifiMW, bat dJifrra ftw 
in the iuHorcsccnco bdog often fanpcrftctty 
bellote ; in tbo stylos bring imtunaJly nn 
the fruit being bacoate ; ta tbe parts of I 
not being separable ; tho aHmnioa flesby, and 
embryo nearly the length of Ibe albomen. 
flowen are without bnnty, but tbe fbttafa 
extremely fine. The baric of wnne of die 
exndea n gam resin; and the Ginung, ao 
as a drug, is the piodDoe of FanaK, aM 
AliAif«A5, ar-a-me'an,> «. (anMi, higMand, 
Arajtatc, a-re-ma'ilc, S Applied to the 
formerly cpoken in the bft;hcr regions of 9; 
trfict of couuLt}' bounded by tht* muunTani-' 
of Tuorus oil the north, nmiioia on the 
Piihvaine on the east, and Arabia Dtisetta a 
muth. Ammnic now only mrrivfa aa • 
tonpie nmnnc tha Syrian Christians In tha 
I onrhond of Mosul 
ARANRirtES, ar-<a-Qf'e-ilea| *> a. («reiMa,a 
Araneui.e, ar-ft-ne'o-de, > \jA, and ndM, 
ARATfKlDAlfS, ar-a-noV-dani, ) Gr.) A 
tbe cUaa Arachnides, embratin:; tbo 
uf spiders. S|/^] i-s have the mouUi 
with abort hitmy jawa ; lip roanAed at Aa 
ftwlcrs two, incarrtHl and jointed ; a] 
rarely six; ft^et cijrht; the obdovMli 
atid \\w arms funnshed with foor or abt sinimaRU. 
They fix tbe ends of thrir threads by applyiag 
thrir spinning papilLe to any fubstaaea, Mfed fba 
thrcuid lengthens aa the animal raeedas (ran IL 
They ofQ eaabled to stop tlM issoa of Ae dMad 
by ooflCracting the papillie, and oan m aa uteJ H by 
means of their daws. 

unnroiM— ABBnuAL. 

, t^trnj-Df^t-tttmna^ a. (aranea, a BpidtT, 
a ahape, Lat.) Aji epilbuC gireo hy 
mt haau^iod canuTOfWS brrac, which 
and ftitad for mctna, Mwl 
i; in which n^ieotothqr 


UL» a^4mf-<i«-«-&wi'iiw-a, i. A osnifi 
to * fiuaOy of the HoteropodE, 
r widcr-lilw fbnn d tho ^lin^^U 

'w-e, c (In honour of M. 
FcvDch titronoiDer.) A 
r of «xjOgenoiu plants, class CoroUi- 
anaitts S the nngla f^nos Ango; 
i Iwanftfiil ihrabs, lutives of the 
r Saaia Ft de Bogota, in New Ora- 
Mra are unall, oniaototu. aad imbri- 
kt aowft ; the flowws an mull, tubu- 
«r-«liaped, axiUaf7, aoKtuj, nearly 

uva^ a-ny-ne-o'sa'QWna, «. (Letui. ) 
iBdlovrxae,vfaenitcoDtaiaft filainonts 
fccwe of a vptder'ft web. 
t^aj-oa-o'sDA, A Applied to « body 
k hiBia, aomng each other like the 

-flB*MB-ai^ a. (araMn, t spider, Lat.) 

tHi'goaei s. Lar^ beads furmcd fmm 
iaii famerij modb used in the Afiicflii 

iUoa, «. (arntiot LuL) The act or 
pfav^lDg ; tOUge. Lvids are said to 
■t when ntider tillage. 
k'tar, f. CL*^) A ploughmsa; an 

eAb-vb^ a; Omtribatiiig to tillagB. 
^nv-^Wa, s, {Araucaros, a tribe of 
te aoathrm parts of ChilL) A geniu 
ftt, with very rigid brtDchea, an<) 
E, finttiil, or alifi; spreading or lan- 
• Moaa contain laige feeds. ArmKonas 
Md SB the coo] fcirmatioiL At present 
to a tew ■p«dcs, inhabiting the 

ravja-a, s. (after Antonia de Arta^o.) 
twiniog herbaoDOQS plants, with white 
ivaa of Braiil : Order. Asclepiadev. 
r^hft-bt, a (ortMif, a bow, and haK^ 
br Arrtirfl darts with, Lat.) A onws- 

i tor WUUam Breto. Ihat tbo arcwbtlirta. 
\mtiL Showed to th« Trench bjr onr KId^ 
PlnLwte waa shortly after tlain b; a 

|^ ir-ba-tis'tiin, t.pL A name giTcn 
hm who, in ancient times, were ftrmed 

nr, s. (Latin.) An nmpire ; a 
to whcHM dedsion opponng par- 
lbs Mitlcmont of a dispute ; a judge. 
> «A only judge aocording to usages of 
kile aa mhitnior is pennlttad to nae his 
Haa la aMomiaodaih^ diObmces. 

baaagvrcnia alL^flUnk 

jndlgc — We now nse arintraU. 
I, 4r'be-tn-b1, & (Freiicb.) Arbi- 
■afiiiK B|nQ the will ; dsterrntnable. 
iKba-tral, a. Belonging to arbitration. 

ABmruAMKNT, dr-bit'tra-ment, #. Will ; dstanni- 

nation ; choice. 

Hon.— Dr. Johnson sajv this word shnold be writ. 
ton of ^te— wt llUton spoils It so la thoaa Unes >- 

Stand fhst ! Co stand or fall, 
Free tn thLno own arMSmnnrf tt Uoa. 

A&BrnuRii.T, dr1)e-ki\-rQ-le, ad. With no other 
rule than the will ; deqntically ; nbsolataly, 

AaiiiTXAEiNESs, dr'be-tzar-e-nes, s. Despotiail- 
ness; tyranny. 

AuBrnLUUOITa, A-be-tra're-nB, a. {arbitrarku, 
Lat) Arlntrazy; dspendiog on the will; des- 

A&BITKAUOCSLY, dr-be-tra're-iis-te, ad. Azbi- 
tnurily ; according to mere will and pleasnrsL 

Abhithast, drte-tra-re, a. (orfriAwiw, Lat.) 
Deepotio ; afasotnte : bonnd by no law ; foUow- 
ing the will without nstnuot ; depending on no 
mle ; cflpridous ; hrld at will or j^euure ; toIbd- 
tary, or left to our choiott. 

Arbitiiatc> dr'be-trate, e. a. (iw*i*top, Lat) To 
dedde; to detenniaei tojudge off —^V9 

It did arWmsic D[»on Uie several rqjiorls of sense.— 


Arbxtratios, dr-be-tra'shun, s. The detennina* 
tion of a cause by a jodge mntually agrued on 
by the parties contending ; deoaion. In Law, a 
contract by which two or more parties eo^igcd in 
a dispute agree, by an instxoment called a sub- 
mission, to leave the dectsiun to a third pairfy, 
colled an nrbUer or orMntfior. Tha proper ob- 
jects of orbitnitioD an those as to qnestioiu of 
fsct. A debt defined by a deed is not a proper 
subject. When there ore more than one arbiter, 
there is gmcrally authority given to choose an 
nmpire when they mnnot matoiilly oomc to a 
dectsioiu If the Bubmisjaon contain a clsuse of 
r^stntion, the decree -arbitral can be enforced is 
if it ware a decree of court. To award to a thing 
that is illegal, or that cannot be done by the par- 
ties, is void, otherwise the courti will not reliera 
a person who has voluntarily submitted hia casa 
to oriiltration, from the (»tisequenoes of the dact- 
sion, e:tcept where corruption or mistaka is prored. 
Arbitration *>/ Ejxhangty in Cotnmeroe, u the 
dMluction of a proportion or arbitrated rate of 
esdiauge, between two places throngh an inter- 
mediate phuu, in order to ascortiun the beat me- 
thod of drawing or rainitLiug. 

ArbiTRATOII, (ir-be-tra'tur, s. An extraordinary 
judge betvrcen par^ and party, chosen by matnal 
consent ; a governor i a present ; one who has 
tlic power of preacribing to others In a despotkt 
mnnner, or of acting entirely by his own <dioioa; 
tho determiner. 

The end erowaa all, 
An'l that old commoi) o/ftifroajr Time, 
WUl one day end lt.-.MdU 

AOBITHESA, urlw^tres, 

AnDiTRAiaix, A--be-tra'trika, 

Arbitrxbcsnt, dr-bit'r»-ment, i. 

oiioatioa ; compromise. 
Aedob, ^'bor, s. (Latin.) A tna. In Meohaniea, 

tbo axle or spindle on which a wheel revolves. 
AaaoBART, dr'bo-nHra, a. (arftoranus, Lat.) Of 

or beloD^ng to a tree. 
AanoRATOR, drltor-ay-tur, #. (orftorotoir, Fr.) A 

planter or dresaer of tiws. — Not used. 

\ s. («a^"/m*ir, 
y Lat) A female 

DeoUon ; deter- 



AsaoB-CBVCK, drlMr-Ubakf t. la Medunict, k 

chock, ooi^sting merely of * tpindlef genenllj 
nuda of metal, prqjectiDg (roni tu mndnl of the 
Utbe, used in tunung and polishiog rings, hollow 
cyUDilerH, &c 

Ardor Diak^ d/bor di'an-e, a. (L«tin.) Tbo tree 
of Dimna. A luino giron to a beftutlfal arboreaoeot 
wrangement which tak« placA in a msel con- 
tning a wluliun of the nitrst* of iQver when 
roerctiry is thrown tntn it A very good propor- 
tiou for the exporinumt u twenty graim « lonar 
caustic to aix dranu or one ounce of water. It 
bis alM boen tsrm«d Arbor pkOmopkorvM aad 
Arbor mmwi^t pkUoMphtca. 

AbBORSOCTLTCIBK, ^-boxM^-knl'torai ff. (arbtir, md 
eohf I eolttrata^ Lat) The art of oaltivating 
tnei and throba fn* wood or ornamental porposca. 

ASBOBXOVSj Ar-bo're-os, a. (arboreut, Lat.) Be- 
longing to tma; oonstitutuig a tree, as distiii- 
gniabed from fhuteeoniL 

AuK>UE»CKifT, dr-bo-rea'aeDt, a (ariorennH, Ut) 
Growing like a tree ; baling a kandencT' to beoome 
a tree 

Arborjst, dr'bo-ret, «. (orftor, « troe^ IaU) A 
■nail tree or shrub. 

Now hid. now Men, 
Among Udek art/ortU and flowen, 
Embrotderad la.~JlaU(M. 

Akbouetith, dr<bor'et-Dm,«. In Gardaninf;, a 
plaoe in a park, plamurtt-grDand, or nurany, in 
which a collection of treaa, fptWr^'mg of one of 
ea^ kbd, in cultivated. 

Abbobiform, dr'bo>re-(awnn, a. Haviqg the 
furm of A tree. 

Akookised, dr'bo-riacdf a. Applied to agates 
which hare the ramified appearance of pUnta, doe 
to the infiltration of water charged with metallic 

AllBOUlST, flr'bo-rist, i. A naturalist who mokes 
trees a particuliur object of bid tAadj. 

Akbobizatiom, dr-bo-re-ia'shan, c In Miner- 
alogr, a term applied to an ArfoorMoent nggtvf^a- 
tioQ of erystaU; also, to the dontritic fonn, pre- 
noted in certain schiiitoae ltine?itanr3t or other 
rocka, due to ibe inftltration ol the oxtdc of iron 
or manganoae into the Uininn of the iitone. The 
same qtpearancc is oflen obaerrable in o^atea. 

AXBOSOUB, dr'bo-nu, a. Ikloof^ing tu a tree. 

Akouk SxTURKi, dr'bor sa'tur-ni, a. (Latin.) The 
tne of Satom. A pecalior orbortncent Arrange 
BMot, obtidned by dwsolTing one part of tho pro- 
loxUa of lead in twenty-ruor of wator, and soar- 
pendbg a piece of lioc m the solution by means 
of a thread. 

Akbob Souentls, Or^MT si'en-she-e, s. (Ijttin.) 
Tho tna of Scienoo; a general distribution or 
Mhemo of aeieiice, or knowledge. 

Abbocs, Ar^fanr, t. A bower ; a seat shaded with 

AniHiR-TrrJB, ur'bor-vi'te, «. (m-Aor, and mfa, lifu, 
l^l.) In Anatomy, a name giTcn to tho medul- 
lary ramifications of the brain, as seen when the 
eanbelliun is cut vintically. in Botany, the 
Thnya ooudcntalis. — See Thuya. 

Abbusolb, dr^bnt-kl, t. (arbtacaia^ Lat.) Any 
Utile tm. 

AABUlortAR, Ar-buftlcD-lar, n. Composed of smaU 
trees or shrubs. 

ABBDtnTB, dr-bus'livc, n. Covncd with, or con- 
fadniag ilunhs. 

Arbutb, tfi'bate, ) ». (ariiihu, Lat) Tbi 
Arbutus, dr^n-tna,) beny tre«, a gams of 
having fniJt nsnnbUng that of uie airai 
The arbotns is a natin of the Levant 
south of Eurvpc In ow ganlena, it is a 
eire r grwn tree, with greenish yrUow b]( 
and red or bright yellow berries. The i 
fbnna groves of great beanty at the lakes 
loraey m Ireland ; Order, Erictnc!. 
ARDUTEAlf, dr-bn't«-An, a. hlade or 

Arbuitm harrowa, and lbs mjstie 

Arc, iSrk, «. (araa, lAL.) Is Geonutry, » I 
or part of a circle. Every arch is great 
its cliord, but when ooncare to the dwri tl 
out, is ifsa than the sum of the sidM uC 
tilinear figure which contains it. If x 
the oo-or£natett of az^ point in a curve, tl 
mon method of finding the arch i s by the 
tion of the formula v <£r" -f- A,-*, ""» "* 1 
goago of the Roxional calcalos^^entof v^ 

VhmA some oM church with old theatric 
Tttiu ant of iritunph to a pudra gate^-i^ 

Equal arcM are thoM which cootaia tt 
number of dogrees, and whooe radB n 
Dimwil are, m Astronomy, is that 
circle described by n celestial body, bett 
rising and setthng, as the noatnmal orel 
descend botween its setting aid omam 
o/ prcffreaium or Jrrwt&ns, an aro of w 
which a pliLiiet appears to pass OW t 
motion is according to the signs 

AbcA, dr'ka, s. {aroo, an ark or oheit, IM 
Arkt, a gunoa of bivah-eJ Molhuca, the 
which are transveise, and nearly equal 
vnhres; the hinge Is straight, and foci 
numerous teeth set in a row, the twth of 
valre being inserted between UwM «f 
the ligament ia extunial. _ 

Arca-cordis, dr'ka-kawr'dis,*. (Latxm 

AucksiM, (3r'ka-de, «. In Blalscobgy, 
of marine MoIIuk-o, placed by S 
the onioa and the muscles. The 
shells is funiislied with mimertmi 
doRnod tMitli, without any dSstinctioB if 
and lateral; umbonea geoeraUy remota^ 
covered with an epadormia. It inda 
poncra Area, Nucula, Ptntrajcnlus, Bysoa 

Arcade, (>r-kade'.». (FVcnch.) A aeries o 

supported on jucrs or columns, dther ' 
duscd with masonry; a range of abops 
under an arched covering. 
AnCAitiAN, dr-ka'de-am, a. BelonipBg to < 
a moontaiooas district in Greece; — & a 
tant of Arcadia. The Arcadians appear 
betm a branch of the great Vtbi^^ie 
vihich, St one time, seems to ha\-« exund 
the Italian pcuviuula to Asia Minor. Tl 
a pastoral people, and an said to have been 
from th^ origmal savage condition by i 
vation of music 

Which led the rural Ufc In all it* Joy 
And uUtii"**^ "*■'* •• >*""'*»<"• •>»"» ,. 1 
TransmiU from ancient nneomplw tm 



JL Tbfl oovotiy of Arcadk. 
||* oar atmr ci ^rwJg, Mtom'$ Comm. 
a. (oreoMUi Lot) Secret; 

ta Xbj worda T 
TVoffi^ of LoariM. 

§, Abcaxa, dr-ka'Uf ^. 

I«t) In UsitbenuticsT 
now «Titt«n are. — Wliich set!. 
•117 toUd wock, wbetber nusonir 
of which tfae lower pvt is formed 
MS W a anra^ aapported mi the two 
ii& Tte pBifateh Qpon which an arch 
i mIM its .pMn,* the portioa of the 
Amd wlndi (he arch ta mid to spring, 
id thejt— hg the lower tier of the arch- 
caDed the aaAvuiM or «i^; tbe upper, 
iriMdrteet; ths vchatoDei ve termed 
, md tfae higbeet steoe the bedtime, 
r wBica fa Mnocd tbe omm; " perpcn- 
iae foon. the crown to a hoiuontal line 
ban Uw t^ of the one pior to thai of 
1; m Ike A09A4 Aod the horizontal line 
tta 4pfla of the icch ; — the sky or raalt 
I ; — «L & to build arahee; to form into 
l»flemr with an wch er ■ichc&. 
I wmn% or erak b«o«alh the uod.— 

\9, (orriw, Gr.) A chief.— Obioleto ; 
The ofAjii duke, my miuter, 
> *cul ttatrob, cornea to-tilj^t.^^ftisia. 

'AaAntcUas; wag^ah; miithfol; 

aad bloodgr act la doiM^ 
deed of jilicoua maaaAcra.— -fikaix 

U Qied MM dfoiMnc the 
IM Tbe AiOofviag are tte worda hi mlch 
M ■ •enpooDd ^Ar^auel, wcbaiweUc, 
!• a* Mggrl, jAMi-t^L IntfaefcOow. 
la jwiQguaiind 4KiA .* — Arcbapcwtlc. arch- 
■febtriahof^ anJibitbopric, 

r. arehcbanier. archchemlc, 

epthtiilK, wcbdeaovn. arrbdcscon- 
raidKBrtoe, archdrnid. arcbducoJ, 
anhdakedocnj ardiooomj, 
MidrfUnMO, (chief priMt,^ arch- 
aicfagavcmor, mrdutermj^ 
Ibl wiUiTpDCvit^ ainJinuuidati, iirvbpa*. 
ikBDaMilMr. arch|rillar, arcnitoet, archpallu 
rtT'^tair, a r ch preibytw, urehpnMbytery, 
;, ■idqpriuwta. ■fchnnipliet.arcbpratcstant, 
lam anlirfebel, arcLtraltor, arcbtreaaanir, 
jj^SRiiraiaia, archvOUaj. 

drtafa, tri-umTAl, «. A stately 

(bnn, adorned with aculp- 

a boaour of tlioae who hjtl 


wife, J. A woman in the higher 

dr-k^-ot'o- je, $. (araUo&^pu^ Fr. 

mvJnitm, ancimit, ladltyo*, a tUa- 

That braocb of kiwwM^ which 

A dJMOMne en iDtiqtuty. 

OGZn, dr-luy'ol'v'jistf 4. An aoti^uarr. 

OfitcjUL, dr-lca-o-kyVkal,> a. Relnilag 

to anhi 

■ttc, dr-hayO'lojlh, 

^t^^mfhtOf JL An antif oated word or 
l^a «aa of Mdiawma, though generully 
adds to tbe baiuty aud 

AacuAKOxi^ In Botany. — See Lamiom. 

Arcbjlnoslica, drk-aa-gel'e- ka, «. (otvAs, oii^iwl, 
Gr.,aadafl9e^iba,apUDt,Lat.) Ageousofmnbel- 
liferoQB planta. A. otBdnalis, or gardoo-angeiicat ia 
the angelica archaDgeUea of LionaniB. Il ia to bo 
found about the tower of London, and in manhes 
among reeds, between Woolwich and Plnmhatead, 
vrry abundantly, and in many other plaoei in Eng- 
land. Its botanical characten are — stem polished, 
■thated, a little ghuMona, branched in the upper 
part; leaTest«mate, thn pCBUUlo; laafleaovate- 
lAncmtate, or enl>-oordat«, ottt, and ifaarply aer- 
rated, partly decnircnt ; the odd one deepfy threc- 
lobed; petioles dilated, and tumid at tbo baae; 
iflTolocra of a few linear leaves, or wonting alto- 
gether, Uooeolate ; margin of calyx^ Ore short teeth ; 
petals cUiptic, entire, accuminate; fruit oompresaed 
on the back with two wings ; allied to, and latdy 
aeparmted from Angelica. — Which see. 

A BC tt Kpi, drtah'cd, or artabt, a. part. Bent in ths 
nnn of ao aroh* 

Abohzxo&a, dr-ks-mo'rat «. (Arehemoras, the son 
of L^coigas, who was IdUed by an adder, Or. in 
alhuaoo to its potsonooi qnslitiea.) A genus of ex- 
tremely jpoisooous North American plants : Order, 

AnCHEB, drtsh'or, t. One who uses the bow and 

AnciiERBM, drtsh'nr-ea, t, A female who shoots 
with a bow and srrow. 

AucnRRS, drtsh'nrx^ «. Those who, in former times, 
made oj*" of the bow in battle or in the ohsse; a 
name fetiil k^t up by a body, denominated the 
Boyal Arobers, in £diubiugh, uad by certain bodies 
in Engtsnd, who eontlniis to practise snherf. 

ABciuuir, dr'tahnr-a, «. Ths oas of the bow sod 
arrow; tbe set of shooting with ths bow snd 

Flower of this Mrple dye, 

Hit wldi CopidS oreAcry, 

Sink in fhe appta of hla t>jt.—8haia. 

Arcubs-court, drtsh'cz-cortc, s. The snpreme 
court of appeal in the archbishopric of Canterbury. 
The name is derived from its being formerly held 
in tbe church of St. ilary-le-Bow, (de Anubns^) 
from which place it was removed to the common 
ball in Doctors' Commons, where it is now held. 

ABCiii.-TrF.u^ d rice- ti -pal, a. Original ; the pat- 
tern from which a copy is made. 

Arcuctype, rfrTce-tipe, #. (archcfypwn, Lst) The 
original of wlucli any retwmbkncc ia mode. In the 
Mintf the standsnl weight by which the others ore 
sc^'osted. The archetjip(Jvforid^ among Platonists, 
means the world as it existed in the ides of God, 
before the visiUe oreaCioiL 

Ahciikiis, driw-ns, a. (orcAoi, Gr.) A word used 
by Paraoelsas, by whkh be seemB to have meant 
a power presiding over tbe animal body distinct 
from the soul. 

Ahchiator, dr-ki's-tur, «. (anAoi^ and uft-oj. a 
physidan, Gr. archiatrCy Fr.) A cliief pbysidan. 
— OW word. 

AooBiCAL, drfcVkal, a. Chief; piimary. 

AncniDiACOMJO., dr-ke-di-sk'on>«l, a. Belon^g 
to an archdeacon. 

AncHLEPiscopACT, dr-ld'e-pis'ko-ps-ee, s. Tl» 
aUte and dignity of an archbishop. 

Abchiemscopax, dr-ki-e-pis'ko-pal, a. (orc^iijpis- 
copfti, Lat.) Beton^ng to sn srchbifihop. 

Abciiii^ drldl, s. A violet-red paste used ss & dye 



stuff; the best kind of wbidi is obtuned from 
thii lichf^n RocopIU Hnrtorio, fonnd in the Ca- 
nny IsUnds, the Aioiw, Surdinui, Sweden, &c 
When a mixture of Mtboiu^A of potAsli nnd un- 
iDonia la ased in the prapsntion, and chnllc, &c. 
is addftd, the oolonr beonnn more bine, and is then 
called Lltmos. Cadbear is another rnodificntion 
of archil, prepand from Ixcanora tartarFft, and 
PameUa omphalodn, two species foand on roclu 
on the weflleni coast of England, and nther plaoea. 
An iddhlon of tin rvnders the dve danibje, and 
gives a scarlet colour. It in nommonly nwd to f^re 
a bloom to phikfi and othor ooloon. — See Orcdne. 
AncHiixKfOAN, ifr-kf!-lukVan, 9. {ArehUockm, the 
invvntor) A rerse in metrical oomporition, con- 
aiBtiog of aerm ftet; the four fint are dactjU or 
spoDdees, and the three last trocheca. £x.— 

— Horaau 

AaoanAJTEt driie-lute, s. A large lute, baring 
its bua string lengthened like those of the 
Theorbo, and hamg oacb row doubled. 

ASCHIXAOU, dr-ke-maJl^■a, «. The name ^rcn 
by the old alchemiirtc to the subtlest part of tholr 
art — vie, the making of gt^d and aihrer. 

Abchimanpbitk, dr-ko- maii'dritc, j (arcAo«, and 
ffundia, Or. a word, aigoifjing ma^ttry^ in the 
laogoage of the Lower Empire.) A title in tha 
Oreek Chnrob of the same import as abbot in the 
Boman Catholic 

AscBncEDiAM ScRKW, dr-kc-mede'jan ekro^, «. 
(AKhiffledes, the inventor.) A machine for raid- 
ing water, oonmsling of a tobe rolled in a ftptrnl 
form round a oyUnder, a modification of wnich 
bai lately been introdured, in sereral in<-tAnces, 
ts t snocevfUI nbstitate for paddlea in propelling 

AfiCHUiUf dr-kirn'me-i, «. That bnuwh of 
alchemy whidi related to the transmntatioa of the 
other metftla into gold and eilrcr. 

AscaTTKULOO, itr-ke-pel'a-go, *. (nrchos, and 
pelaffo$j the sea, Gr.) A eea abotindiiig in small 
iaUnda; the most celebrated of whji-h ia situiUcd 
between Ada, BlAoedon, Greece, and the Indian 

AaOBlTBCT, drlce-tekt, $. (orrAoc, and teMton, arti- 
fieer or contriver, Gr.) A prrmm who is cnpabU 
of designing and soporintending the execution of 
anj building ; a bidlder ; the contriver or funncr 
of any cocnponnd body. Applied, in tbia eeiue, 
to the Author of Katnrc, ' The Dinn* Airhitect-' 
Tbe word is tued for a perwn who contrives, and 
ia the ctiief imitminent iti tnakiug the fortune of 
another, or in his own, as, * tbe architect of his 
own fortune ;' the framar of any thing. 

An IrreUgious Moor, 
Chief oroUlMl and ploUor of tbeao wnm,~Shak$, 

Abchitectite, dr-kc-tek'tiv, n. Performing the 

work of architecture. 
AaoHlT«CTOKic,<ir-ke-tek-tou'nUc, ) g. Kav- 

AKCHlTBCTOVlCAl^Ar-ke-teb-ton'no-kal,) iugskUl 

to build. 
AKCHrrBCTOKlCB,i!r-ke-tek-tnQ'niks, «.;!?. Tlic 

sdenoe of arehltecture. 
Abchitector, df-ke-tck'tnr, j; An architect. — 

Abcuitectrsss, (lr-ke-t«k'tn», *. Feminine of 


Katnrv hemlt the Ant anMCMCret*. to oae nn expraa. 
«iea of TUrwhia, wfaMlowedfoturbivait,— ir«MML 

AHOHJTSCTimAL, dr-ko-tck'tu-rmt, a. Bd 

AncHiTECTxntK, dr-ke*tek'tnre, t. (ardk 
Lot.) Tlie art or ficienec of bnilding; til 
or performance of aichitcctoral Kience. A 
ton is dindAd into Civil Ankileetmnf e^ 
way of cninepce, Amhitectnrs; MttkaryA 
tm% or FoTtidoation ; and iV<anl Ardk 
which, besides the holding of ahips and 
Teasc^ inclndea that of porta, molei, da 
Tho ordera in anhitertnre are tho ToicH 
Ionic, Corinthian, Compoaite. — Which ael 

Abciutkatb, ar'ke-trare, «. (arcAen, to 
Gr. and fcvba, a hesm^ Lot. somslimes $M 
Epii^imi, Cnonii {ffi, apon, and t^o$^% 
Gr.) Tbe lowest of the throe principal I 
of tbe entaUatore of a column. Thin | 
chitrara in Gothic arclittectnre, which 
furras the nnet dirt'uiguiuhing ohanotcd 
twetn the archit«ctOfe of tbe aDcients smI 
tbe midBval times. AreMnvM Otmb^ 
tablatnre fonned of an orchitraTv and tt 
withont the imarenlng ambv, the fiiei 
introdnood, when it is bconrenieot to f^H 
tablatnre its proper height. Architrave | 
or wmdbw, a collection of memben and a 
wrTDmiding other the i^mturo of k d| 
wiodowj m upper part or fintal li «| 
traruvfne^ and the ms, tfaejm&o. 

Archital, dr'ko-Tal, a. Pertatnhtg to act 

Archives, dr-ki'n, ». pL (urcAiro, Lad.] 
posltory or doeet used for tbe fitma H 
records or other writings ; a secret closet, 

XoTL— Th« ttnpilar of this word fa rmraly tf| 
Joknwin tajTB nerer. bat Id Utis b« errs. Oi 
his 'Poetbuma,' Wartoortan.lnhU' AlUaneee 
and Stato,' and Worton, In his ' QUtory of 
Poetr;,* use Uin theatngular. 

ARCniYUT, (hrlce-vist, «. The keeper of | 

Arcitivolt, (ir'ke-ToIt, jr. An omsmeri) 
of mouldings, placiMl ronnd the arducaof 
arch, terminating horizontally on the imp^ 
the Tuscan order, the architrare has i 
face ; in the Doric and Ionic, it has two (j 
and, in the Corinthian and Composite, tiM 
ings ore the name as those of the arddtal 

AHciiivoLTrM, (b--ke-rol'tnm, 9, In th 
tectme of tho middle ages, an ordied n 
for filth ; a common sewer or ceaa-pool. 

ASOUUKE, drtiihliko, a. In the fonn of 
An oreWba sirunf foandatUm. — Totm0 

Archlt, drtshle, ad. Jocosely ; wittily. [ 

Abi^hicess, drtih'nes, s. Shrewdness; aljf 
without malice. 

Akchoorafh, dr'ko'^raf, s. (orvut, an ^ 
and ffrapho, 1 deecribe, Gr.) An 
adspttrd for drawing a circular arch 
nut o( a central pomt. 

Arcbon, dr'ktm, a. (Givek.) The ehkrti 
of the Atbimiana. 
Wn nitRht Mtabliah a doge, a lord, ««lka% 4! 

—BoUngtvote on J*afHe*. 

Arciiokbhip, dr'kon-ihtpf #. Tbe eOl 

AscBOKTiCft, ar-kon'tikis «. In Eed 
Hist^iy, a branch of Valeottana whioh*^ 
towards the dose of the eeoond oentoil 
supposed the world to hare been matsii 
orcAon) by the drfAonte, (arehangela,) M 
nngnlar want of gallantry, they SMfibsd j 
tion of womea to the agency of defOik 




^KltD^to'm*, M. (orrAoi, tbfi bods 
IB, Hid/»flfe>, I fftil dovm, 6r.) Proiitpni.i 
i» UEog down of the rectunit 
Dt, drtfth'iriu; a. Tu the fonn of an 

K3rT, A^aei-«- neat, o. (opctlMim, Lat.) 

; Mc-tft'afattn, f. (orcCo, I rtraighUn, 
tri^lilllWrHH; CODfiDCOWDt to • Dimw 

Mlik, a. (w'iftw, tlia Dortbera oonateDa- 
w B«w, Oi.) Korthem « bejonging to tlit> 

ItBCLB, dilc'Uk nrld, «. A Icuer drrtp 
^lM^4i«b«dKt2S° S«r from Uw North 

lit^^ poruUkm. — See Liitrii. 
Apm ortiM.— fi«t SCuroa. 
Ki *k-4aE'ti% A (onbiMf A bear, and ikli», 
', Or.) A nime given by Tem- 
d Mamipial uinulB, oonsuting 
with long pRhflOfiUe tails : 
WA |fr— i) i» about tike aUe of « larxe cat ; 
daIuc' (J. afar) U entirely btack, ami aboo; 
|«radlpg; tbe bead is Toy amaU, whuLere 
d tW au* temiiuite in tufta of hair. 
, Ark'to-UBo, J. (oTifeftw:, Gr. fhnn the rough 
at A« invotaam.) The Burdock, a geoni 

■ite planta, [jelonp n g to tbe Cynaroce- 
TlMCfa tribe. U ii the Lappa of Tour- 

and Lindley. 
II. Mto-mu, «. (oriiiM, and inyf, a rat, 
|W HxxDot or Bear-rat, a genus of Rodeota. 
iBoli an hmry in make, with short kp ; 
•M, abort boafay uU, and a large flat 
71>f paM the winter in a state of torpor, 
) ■ deep holti. they live in aodetin, and 
!y tmad. 

X, dik'tv-mks, s. (arklog, ud or^x, a daw, 
rW Pfg-bear. A genus of ouiiiivurous 

I haring tbe appearuoe of a bear 

4 of a pig. 
irmvcm, drk-to-staffe-Ioa. s. ^m-Uot, 

p4yK • K"jP^ '^^O A 8*^""^ ^'^ pUnts 
If of two Bnitkh spcoes; the Arbottu 
^ and Azbutas aljmia of limwae; calyx 
ftvv-pmed; eanUaoTatc, with a smku 
nr*«lat« Gmb; etamoiB ten; antherv 
ban7 amooth ; seeds nolitaTj, 
bCJL. Ak-4o-lbek'R, s, (oriUor, and tMeie, 
la, Gr. from tu sha^i^ seeds.) A gjawia 
■le plaate : Sub-order, HeluiatlMnk 
Ak'ta-fs, 4. In Soigery, tnflamuutioo 
r ar t>ee, frocn the oorrature of the nail 
■i, iMr'tn-ms, s. (arkio*^ and oura, tail, 
K fix«<d ibir of the drat nugnitade, in the 

of Amtopbylax or Bootes. 
)f Arl»-«»«. a. (oncwiAtf, Let.) Bent in 
ft «r as arcb ; — v. a. to bond like an arch. 
4r-k«'a-fiile, a. (arciMlilu, l^L) 

1^ dr-kft^'ahim, «^ Tbe aet of boidin;; 
I Inoomtian ; the state of beini; boot ; 
In Gudnung, tbe mc- 
faf layers such treea as cannot bo 
U «r which do ooC bear seed. In 
bXMKtiaa or incumtioa of the bones. 
d^B-A-tnie, t. The carralure of an 

asf« ilk'ka-ba-fiit, s. (arcuAo&to, from 

OTDM, a bow, Lat. ud batlo, I throw, Ch-.) A 
crossbow ; an instrument to throw stoniw. 

Abcubausta, dr-ku-ba-lis'ta,s. A otMubow. A 
tenn which has been oontiacted both into Baligta 
and ArbdUst. 

AncCTBALisTEB, ^--ko-bo-Iu'tar, t, A crossbow- 

Arccs Ssmus, ». (arevt, a bow, and umiliii, old 
age, Lat) An opacity surroanding the cornea 
of the eye, incident to aged persons. 

AaCTHlA, dr-air'e-a, «. (ariy«, a net, Gr.) A 
genus of Fungi, so oauiud fr^m the sporulee being 
fastened together by a network of fibres. 

Ard, drd, (Saxon.) An affix to many names, rig- 
nlfying diapoeHion — as, Goddard!, a good or pious 
disposition ; Giflard, a benevolent dispositton ; 
Bernard; a 61ia] dispoution. 

Aadasnkbs, dr-daa'ss-nca, §, A very fine onrt of 
Persian mlk ; the fimit uasd in the looms of France. 

Aadka, dr'de-a, s. (Latin.) Tbe Heron. A genna 
of large wading birds, hilt very strong — long, 
straight, conic, margins serrated ; the gonys long 
and descending; scapnlar feathers long and Unemr; 
legs long; thighs naked to a considerable diMance 
from the knee, lliey live on small fish ; bnt 
eat any aiUinal matter, soeh as naked or even 
shelled mollnsca, the ijiawn of QaU, worros, &a 
They build on treea 

AnT>EAD^ ^-de-a'dc, s. A name ^ven by Swun- 
son to a family of tbe Grallatores or Waders, 
including tbe UeroDS and Cranes. Tbe birds of 
this bzoily an lirget ^i^h long, oomc, straight, 
hard, compraased bills; tlie bind toe phuxi on 
the lame level m olhen. 

AanmrcT, dr'den-se, \ r. (ardmv, bnmiii;^, 

AadbhtNEBS, dr'dent-nes, y Ldit.) Ardour; fagcr- 
ness ; warmth of aSectioD ; beat. 

Akdeht, dr'dent, a. (anfeur, Lat) Hot ; bamtng ; 
fiery ; fivrce ; vehement ; having the appearance 
or quality of fin ; passionate ; aflectionate — oiad 
generally of desire. 

Ardently, dr'dent-Ie, ad. In an ardent manner ; 
eagerly; aSectionatdy. 

Aruisia, dtT-dish'e-a, a. (ordu, a point, Gr. in rofier- 
eitoe to its acnta spearlike anthen.) A genus 
of exotic trees or abnibs : Order, MyrKineacaas. 

Akuisie^ /ir-de-si-c'c, #. A tribe of plants, hjvr- 
ing Ardrsia for its type ; calyx, four or fire-lobed ; 
cotvUa gamopetalons t stameus usually free ; cells 
of anthers bursting kngthwajs at the apex ; ova* 
rimn fnm and many -seeded; dnipo or benj, 
ooe-«eded ; albumen homy ; embryo transverw : 
Order, Mynineaoen (Myrrh plants). 

Abdoqr, dr^dor, «. (dnibr, Lat) Heat; heat of 
afiaotioD, as love, desire, rage, oonrage — nsed by 
Hilton for a penon bright and ardent 

Nor long dejaf ed the winded coint 
After bis charipe racelved ; bat from among 
Thoiuand rnl(*i>tial ankmrt, where he itood 
Vellfd with bis g or y e o os wnigs, ups |ic l u) j ; fa' g Ibrhl, 
Flew throoj^ the nUdetof heavm. — Ftuudm iJDiL 

Ardctka, dr-dii-in'a. «. (in honour of P. Arduioa.) 
A gefius of plants; Ordnr, Apocyneic 

Arduous, eir'clu-ua, a. (orJnw, Lat) Lofty; bard 
ioelimb; difficult; Liborious. 

AnncotJBJrBSS, dr'du-us^nea,) «. Height; difRcnlty, 

Aar>unT, dr-du'e-te, j labnriousnesa. 

Arb, dr. Tbe third person phiral of the present 
tense of the verb to be; — i. a French meajrare of 
sorfsoe, equal to neariy 2^ aoraa English, or 117^ 
l'4ih square feet 




A R£. or ALAiiiHE, ». (luliao.) Tbo lownt note m 
Goido's Scale of Miuio. 

Otmmtf fun Uk ^nrand of an mccord; 
^ r« to pleftd Uorteuiti't paaalon ; 
£ ml to ItiMiick taka fbr tnjr lord ; 
C/bHt, that lovM with all aflfactioo.— ^Ikifa. 

Area, ft'i*-!, $, (Latin.) Any open »piic«, ai the 
floor oT a room ; tl)« open part of a diurcb ; the 
racant put or itage of on ampluUieatrB; an en- 
dosed place, aa Usta, or a bowling-grwn. In G«o- 
metiy, Kke saperfidal oontrnU of ai^ figure, bs a 
Uianglc, qoadrangle, &C. In Architectore, a sttaSl 
coort or pJacc, nanatl/ sunk below the genoal «b^ 
boa of the grotmd, before the windows of the 
banmcst or sunk story. The name is also g^veu 
to a unaU ooort eveo level with the pvund. In 
Mineralogy, the mass dug from the minea, or Uie 
jdaoo where It is dog. In Entomolojry, the largrr 
. of the longitodiaal divisiana of an insect's wing. 
Area ^'Jlwma, applied to the acalp or beard when 
the hair bos fallea of, and left bald patches here 
■od there; the alopecia of the Greeks. Arta 
aerpau^ applied when baldness eommenocs at the 
oocipat, azM winda in a iubtuw lioe to each enr, 
aamMtiiDea to the forehead. 

Aaead or AliKEl>, a-ieod', r. a. (aredan, Sax.) To 
direct ; to declare ; to show ; to adria& 

Me, all too mean, the sacred Hdjo orMdi, 

To bLaioD broad— JUp tfUM r. 

Mark what I anad thee now.— IfllCtm. 
Abkju., a'rc-al, a. Pertaining to an area. 
AjUUTB2>, a'ro-aj-ted, a. Oocorring in detadud 

A&BGA, a-relca, $. (oreec, Malabar.) The Cahboge 
tnc, a remarkable gentis of lofty pafan-tms, une 
of which (Areea oIovom) prodnoea a kind of 
cabbage, which is eooAdered aa a graat delicacy, 
whetW raw or b<uled; and another^ {Areca cai^ 
oAs;,) the bstel or Pcsung not 

AftKEK, a-reek', odL (a low word from a, and reek.') 
In a reeking condition. 

A iiiMwiinsi oemes all vuK 
MordanlUk at Madrid, to seek.— Avf/t 

AsKTAcnoa, ar-e-fiik'shnn, «. («re;5ico, Lat I 
dry, Lai.) The state of growing dry i tlie act ol 

AssTT, ■r'e-fi, r. a. To dry. 

Abxxa, a-re'na, ». (orewa, sand, Let) The spaoe 
or growuS-floor of an aropbitbeatre or areas, on 
which oomhati or borsemansliip are enacted ; no 
oamed from tlu floora of the Roman amphitheatre 
Imng strewed with sand. 

Abexaoboetb, a-rc-na'&hos, > a. Sandy ; having 

Arshoab, a-re^Boze', \ the qualities of sand. 

A&SBJtRXA, a-ns-na're-a, <. (nrefui, Let.) Saod- 
wtirt. A geDUs of plants, consisting chiefly of 
diminutive weeds with grsasy leaves: Order, Cnryo- 
phyllcie. The name Is also given to a genos of 
wading Inrds, consisting of one British species — 
th« Smderfiog. 

Abbvariods, a-n-na're-na, a. Sandy. 

AJtUTATlolf, a-re-na'ahim, $. (areiui/ao, Lat.) A 
method fbnnerly used in treating easM of dropsy, 
by immerBing tho whole body, or the feet, in hot 


Areho, a-c«ng', s. A genus of palm-trees, firom 
one of whkh, (A. soodWiri/era,) sago and palm- 
wme an obtained. 

AasKloOLO, a-re-nikVlo, s. (ctroao, and cWIn, 1 
inhabit, Lat.) A genu of the DoreUmmehiata 

Annnlata, or Snod-wonns. Tbey inhabit 
of the sea-shore, and an often nacd as bait, 
aniinal is aboot a foot in length, and has 
pair of branebie sitoated on the annnia: 
middle part of the body. 
AKEiriLKnc, a-n>-De-lcl'ik, a. (amto, 
/tiAus, a ttone, Gr.) Partaking of the 
AnGKULouB, a-rvn'ou-lns, a. (onontib, 

Full of small sand ; gravelly. 
AKeoiJt, ay-re'o-la, a. (dimistttiTe of aneii( 
A term applied in Anatomy — 1st, the 
itaoes of Uie celloLv snbatanoe of tlM body ; 
leddiah-cokmred circle wlucii snmnaula thi 
in women [anxjta papiUttrii) ; dd, 
ring round pustules. 
Abboljc, ay-ru'o-lc, *.pL In Botany, Um 
spaces or areas on the foriaoe of cntun 
in the fmH gonera Leptdodandia and 
or in certain cnutaoeoos Udms wUd an i 
in every direction ; the spaces betwean th« 
are termed oreoAs. In Entomolof^, the i 
spaces into which the wing ia dividad 
A&kolatb, ay-re'o-late, a. IHvidod inU 
spuea or areolationa, aa the wings of inanl 
comporite plants, when the florets are so 
on the receptacle, that Uttle pentagonal' 
am left when the ovaries fall off. 
A&BOLaTiON, ay-re-o-la'sliozi, «. Theitika 
nuuked with little spaces or areolie. 
rebs or nmtftfatwns of a difi'ereat colour 
ture fruni the apacea so euclused. 
Areometer, ay-n-om'e-tur, <. (, 

from dmicw, thin, and nHfrtw, meason, C 
gradoated glass instmment, for 
density or gravity of floidsL 
AttCOMETRlCAi., ay-rfr-o-met're-kal, a. 

to areomctry. 
ARBOMETftY, ay-re-om'o-tn, «; TtM 

Buring fluids. 
ASBOPAOITB, ay-re-op'a-gite, r. A 

ootirt of Areopagus at Athens. 
Areopaous, ay-re-op'a-gns,«.(arBiaa,bl 
to Ares, one of the names of Uara, and | 
bill, Gt.) The Supreme Court of JuSa 
ancient Athens, so named £nim its being i 
on tho hill so called. 
Ahkoticb, ay-re-oi'iks, a. (jarauttU^ 

Medicines which hare a tendency to open i 

of the body. — Not osed. 

Ares, a'res, s. The Gre^ name of tb* 

War, corresponding with the Hara of the ] 

A rume n*ed by the Aldteniista to cxp 

Great Fust Canae. 

Arxthvsa, a-re-Ma'xa, a. In Mytb^ 

name of a nymph who was changed 

tainby Diana; agentisuf plants: Ord«r,Q 

Arktia, a-ra'ahe-a, a. (in honour of R. i 

A genus of phmt« : Order PiimulaeMS. 

Arctolooy, a-rs-lol'o-je, *. (arete, rii 

l.^yot^ a (UscoQive, Gr.) That part of M 

losnphy which treata of the theory aoA p 


Aroal., dr'gal,) «; {tayalk, old Fr.) CnW 

Arool, d^gol, j^ or tartar in the state In w1 

obtuned from the inside of wine 

word is often spelt arymU by Ban Joom 

I know 70U bare arvikk. 
Vitriol* saUartre»afyiA«, alkaly. 



Ml, «. (mjan^ iU aame in Ifo* 
(ino b^^ Bamer md Shaltea to 
tm of Monoco, (A. Siderttx^im^') 
loma of liuucu, ud EIm' 
4r^«-^> JL A oenmony obaorred uiniuUy 
4r jfr-l, ^ hy tiu Bomuu, id irhkii the tm- 
kfaM fannao figona^ nude of nuhe«, into 
Ite; « th* Um of Mfty. Tha custom is 
~ to bcve oripnttod in the hstrad of the 
tmif SeoMos ia tha Qreeka, who mn oommonly 

Ar^ma, *. (argot, white, Gr.) An nicer 
dllba eyv w Ihe nari^ of tbc eimiea. 

4r-je-nie-iio'na, «. A fimtu of 
t^ M B>med from their sappowd 
l^ e ^ t j of earing tha ^aaaie of Argeau. 
driest, a (wymtupk, dher, LaL) In 
Bi Mi y, Cba whha aioar osad In atmorial bear* 
t{ M M H Bpfiei iimnrmo*^ teoponnoe, tnd 
["Itfri wmt; baring a alray sppemoee. 
raA«f joadhrafynt Adds Hbon, 
9 iovWte wt<IHai an leea than </oTfl>— Pope. 

, J r -jt'tol,) A. Haring the appearance 
Ar-jflD'tac.jr of BilTer. 

Ar^ient'hawra'ed or hawmd', a. 

m Iha mftwAho tm m i moona.— l<wi taM . 

dr-jen-ta'ahon, $. An orcrlajing 

dr-jen-tif'e-nia, a. (drycftfeim, 
l^nw I hMr, Lat.) ConUuning sUror. 
BmnMoct CoprsB G^iUfcfi. — See Sul- 

Oot7>. — See KleetmnL 
II&4A. — See Ntinfie of Silnr. 
trjeo-ti'na, t. A name farm, in the 
iBHia anangaawot to a genua of Banee, belon;;- 
fag to Ifaa ttliDoo &nuljr, {Sabnomik*^) so Djunod 
tha tihrgj appearanoe of the aoaloe. 

^''jei-tiDC, cL Sounding like silver ; 
Iha appeanan of iilTer ; 

1 ■ yaiiiii. 1 ma obey thef .— 


-^. ift Mhenlegy, tha nacreona oari»Dat« of 

Bkpitblio, dr]«n-tine re<pab'Kk, «. 
Oto i/ iha nanei of the Sutes of Baenoa Ayrea, 
ertf Iht Sio da la Plata, a South American Ooa- 

Immi^i, ^j«i-tre. «. Silvvr plate.— Obaolete. 

JFo *^r*^^*' rich of Tjrian djri% 
S4 coMly bowla of mronttiy.— 

Xbva** Plwm to ClarlM Z 

iiWUIta Al-BCUC, dr'joB-timi al'biuo,*, Tlio 
Mia 0^^ hi sD^BOt ttnua, to the idlviir coin or 
«f bdSea which paaeed for money. By 
tcmoiB, aome of the roott to the 
pi^ifab hi ordeal t^o, or eommon nl- 
• other roita, in lUiris urtii et pauatei^ 
of fun weight and parity. In tho 
worn paid in btamk ftarnL, afltn-- 
rmt^ aod that wldoh waa p^ in 
p\ ■!■, na okUed Uaek haU. Arsmimi Dm, 
Osd'j fmmj, wia the tume ^nn to eairwat 
•Mif . «r, aa H ia now tenned ia Scotland, marie*. 
Arya^AByUiBAMi, iQTfr 1b>£ Ary mlu mmtrum^ 
itnii «i dbor or famar canitic. ArgtHtrnm tn 
■Im8 iOfftr, made by grisdhig the cat- 
«f d*tr larf with atraig gum water, aoil 

Bprcfldinj; it in fireah water mniclfr-diolk. It ia 

tu«d in writing ^Tcr-ooloared letters. Arymfum 

ntntifHiii, rnuMic silver : it is made by melting 

tin and bisraath together, with an addition of 

qiiidurilrpr. It a oaod as a silver ooloor, and is 

moch superior to shell silver. Arj/mtum nmm^ 

qoicknlver or mercury. — ^Which see. 
Akobntux FuonnvDM.*J 
AROSMTtm ftloBiLE. > — See QnicksilTO*. 
Aaosktw VlVfX. ) 
Aroil, ffr'jil, s. {atyilla^ Lat) Potter's oUy. — Seo 

ARotLt^CEovs, fIr-jU-la'«hu8, a, Alnminoos; of 

the natnn: of clay ; containing day as an ingredient. 

ArgSlot:tou8 »eki$t ur $iaief iodaratod laminated 

d^.—fiao Shale. 
AsoiLLsno, dr-jQ-lei'ik, a. Haring the quality 

of day slate. 
Aboillifkbous, A'-jn-liTfr'nis, a. (ar^lla, Khf, 

aadJerOt 1 bear, LaL) Prodndng or oontaimng 

Argillite, dr'jtl-KU*, s. (argelo*, pure clay, and 

lUJtiJt, a stone, Or.) Clay uute. 
Aroillocs, Ar-jiflos, a. Contmingday; of the 

nature of clay. 
Nora.— ArgU hma the foHowhia comMnatJcnui tn Nntoral 

History >~ArytUealo, that wUeh Uves In cUy, aa Opc- 
gra^iaargtUeiiQ: aiyMAifii. liswBbUngclajr, aa I'nu 

arymifiirmis ; luyOo-ferugtmomt. cootaimng amy and 

iron ; araHo-ggpaeom, eontatmnr olav and gypsum ; 

oryCo jOfetpaig oontataing day mod lUex. 

Aroo, dr'go, f. (Greek.) llie name of the xbip in 
whid) Jaaon and his companions aoQcd on their 
expedition in quest of the golden fle e ce hence 
called the Art/ommitaif the Argonants. Ar^o navit, 
in AatroDotuy, a oonstidlation, called after the ship 
of Jason and his oompaoions. 

AuooL. — See ArgaJ. 

Aboolasia, dr-go-Ia'she-a, s. (orycv, white, and 
lasios^ woolly, Gr.) A pmus of plants, so tenned 
on aoooimt of the woolly nature of its calyx : Or- 
der, Heratfrdomoee. 

Aboohauta, dr'go-naw-ta, s. (aryoy the ship ATgo^ 
and mtula, a saUor, Lat.) The paper XaatHaa, 
a genua of Oephalopoda, aUied to the Cattle fisbea. 
The Nautili inbamta a very thin symmetrica^y 
fluted and spirally oonrolated ehell, the laist or 
outward whorl of which is hurge, and bears soino 
rcscmMunce to a galley, of which the spine is tha 
poop. The animal makes frequent use of it ; ana 
in calm weather whole fleets of these ceoturea 
may be seen in oertaui soaa aaifing along the iur- 
face of the water, employing ajc of thdr tentacida 
or arms aa oara, and expanding the other mein- 
branons ones by way of a sail. 

Ahooxauts. — See Argo. 

Abqost, €h-'go-»e, t. (argo, Gr.) A name formerly 
gi^'en to a large trading TesaeL 

Tuur mlnfl U towing on the ocean, 
Tlwm" wlieru ymir araoiitM, writli iKirtljr isil, 
Like Riffniors and rlcn liunrhcr* uf the flood, 
Do oTig^w'r the pettjr tr*Bl c ke«. — Hhakt, 

Argue, dr^gn, r. n, (argtio, Lat. tmyuer, Fr.) To 
reason ; to offisr reasons; to dlspate with, as argu- 
ing hAA a man, or offamtt a praporition ; — v. a. 
to prore by argument; to be pennaded by aiga- 
mecit; todebato any queation, aatoargoeacaaae; 
to prove as an argument; to charge with aa a 
crime; to prove by appearance. 

Akouer, (2r'ga-ur, «. One who aigneo; a dia> 
pulcr : a debater; a oontroversialist. 





Aboddio« iifga-mg, «. RaaMoiog; argoiiMntatioii. 

Aboctmknt, dr'gn-msDt, «. (aryiaoaUumj Lat.) 
In Bbatorio ind Lope, an inforetMW dnwn from 
pmaiiias, the truth of which is cofuidered, hy the 
pcnoB who argiuMi as concloblTe, or bighlj pn>- 
mUa. A reason alleged for or against anjthing ; 
th« mbject of any disooorw or ii^tbg ; tba coa- 
t«ats of aojr work sommed op in the way of artpt' 
ment; a ooatroTenj. In Astronomy, an arch, 
by which we seek another unknown arr.h*s {iro- 
portionid. The or^imfil qf the moowV tatibtde 
ia her cUsUnce from the nodu, and the aryimunt 
^mctimation b the arofa of a planet's orbit, Inter- 
cepted between the aBeeoding node and tbo pUce 
of the pUaet from the san, numbered accordinf; 
to the fUOoesMJon of the signs of the Zodiac ; — the 
an^ or quantity on wluch. a tabular series of 
nnmben depend. 

Akodsckktal, dr-fni-mfla'talr a. Belonging to 
argnment ; reasoaiDg. 

ABGirMRNTATiON, flr-gu-men-ta'fthun, «. (or^stm- 
taA}j hai.') Beawiung or proving by argument ; 
the act of raasoning. 

ABOITMKNTJkTlvi&, dr-gu-men'ta-tir, a. Conaistlng 
of argnment ; cuntrorendal, applied to penona 
^en to dispute. 

AKOnwEKTATiyKLT, Jr-^-men'ta-tiT-le, ad. In 
a debating, reasoning, or cnntroreiBisJ manner. 

Aeodmbntizs, Or'gn-mea-die, p. n. To debate ; 
to reason. 

AttCVfl, dr'gus, «. (a>7u, Gr.) In Mythology, the 
•on ot Anstor : be is «aid to have had a hundred 
eyes, and to have been slain by Mercury; — tbu 
name of the person who built the ship Aryo. 

Akouis, dr-gate', a. {aryutua^ Lai.) Subtile; 
witty; sharp; shtilL 

ABOcrrsnss, dr-gnte'nes, a. Aouteaew} witti- 

ThU tickles jrou by it&rU at hi« oiyttteneM •— 

ABOTCTniUB, dr-jik'the-us, s. (ar^os, white, and 
ietJtj/A, a fish, Gr.) A genus of acoiitboptcrygioas 
fiidies, vritii large caudal and ventral Hwl, bclong- 
iag to the tribe Gymnotres, or Ribband -fikb. 

Abotlefbb, dr-jc-lc'pefl, s. (argot^ white, and UpU, 
a acaie, Gr.) The Mitta Panh, an Indian aoan- 
toopteiygioos ftsh, with un oval nakod body ; a 
au^ dorial fin, high before, and narrow behind ; 
the eyea large, and mouth amoJl : 8ub-family, 

Arotlia, ttr-giVo-a, 9. (in honour of Archibald, 
Duke of Argyll) A genus of buutlftil flowering 
South American plants : Ordor, BigonlacesL 

Aaonnvis, dr'jio-nis, «. In Entomologjr, a genus 
of diuruid Leptdoptera, insoota which, in their per- 
ftct or bottw^y state, have naked spots onder 
the wings. In Mythology, one of the names of 
Venus which she received from Argynnus, a fa- 
rourite yvuth uf Agamcmooo, who tviu drowned 
in the CVphUun. 

ARGritA, (Ir'je-rK, jr. In Mythology, the niune of a 
youth, who was greatly bcluvod by a shepherd 
called Selimnus. She is said to have been changed 
into • foont^n, and the shepherd into a river of 
the nmo name, the waters of which, when tasted, 
made lovera forget the object of their afleotiona. 

AsorRBiA, dr-jo-ro'j-a, «. (arsryrtios, olvery, Gr.) 

Silver-w««d. An Eaiit Indian genua uf phuitd, 

M naiDed from the tulvery appenoa of thoir 

leavoa : Order, Gonvolvul 


ARQTmBtKs, dr-je-re'i-e-e, s. A tribe of oi 

SUnto, belonging to the natural order Oa 
UMB, dirtinguiahed by having tlie embtyo 
donoufl ; the carpels combined in a ringle 4 
and the pericarp baccate and indehescenL 
Anontora, dr'je-ropa, a. (arjjyreww, and< 
eye, Gr.) A gnus of annthopteiTpoai 
(Ustinguiahed by having the anterior da 
terminating in longfiUmeata: Sob-baul 

Abqtbvosub, dr-Jfl-re-o'sttft, #. 
A genus of acanthopterygioos fiaboa^ bl 
to the Zcino) or Dory finnily. 

Ahgthte*. dr'jer-tca, sl (oryfrttee, pertii 
silver,Gr.) AgesuKrfooleopccronsinsacta, 
ing to the Mycetophogi or niioe-Mtm of FM 

^nQFr(M,StlTer,orcun tn the fbttowin|r ailjrctivcit 
Nutiiml IlUtiiry :— ^iy|rtMdkrDiPU, iiBTitu tloi 
while silvL'rv appearance; luyanKtphain, k 
white silver like liend; erp|rapMha/mi't. hRwilj 
like o>ea; ary|(»o | db )tf w*, bariitir "<' 
fpsyvi, havUif Uw lower part of < ' 1 

armfrct^igmA, having the tlowcr. 'J 

sUrer-UCe spoto; lyfraila i na, hu\...e, .».. ^ 
apHtors of a silrcry whltsneoa. 

AUA, a're>«, «. (Italian.) In Music, on ol 
or tune. 

A&lADif K, a-re-ad'ne, «. In Mythology, th« 
ter of Minos, who bdped Tbewui out of 1 
tan labyrinth ; bsng afiarwarde dsmted ' 
she was married to Boochna, and bia 

AlUAM, a're-an, a. One who believea in A| 
— a. pertaining to the doctrines of Ariul 

Ariavisu, a're-an-ixm, *. The doctrine* 
by Arias, a pre&byter of the Church f:^ AI4 
in tlhfl fourth century. Anus taught tha 
was not God, but hai that tills giva 
Scripture, as implying the divine dignity 
on him by the F.ither as the fiivt-bom \ 
creature, and tlie office which he hold* oa ti 
gerent of God, and the Bedeemer and J 
mankind. As such, Arius considend Cbll 
thy of receiving divine honoun, but doj 
ho woa of the same essence, or co-eConoI < 
Father, or equal in power and glory, oi i 
tained by the Catholic and the orthodox IV 

Aricia, a-rishVa, «. A name giran by{ 
and Cnvier to a genus of docsibranchiatfl 
lata, the animals of which WAnt both ti 
tcntocula ; they arc furnished with two n 
laminated cirri ou the bick of the ctoo0it4 
the antirior feet are uroiahcd with noccbM 
not n>imd on the others. 

AiiiciNE, ar'e-siuo, «. In Chemistry, a nafl 
by Pellctier to on alkali discovered by hill 
Cusco or AricA bark. It wntalns, aeoa 
its diwovercr, one atom more of oxygen t] 
nine, the formula of which is Ojo Ul2 NO 

Aaui, dr'rid, a, (oWdier, dry, Lat.) lirj ; ] 
up; metaphorically dry : cold; pedanttti 

Akidjtt, dr-rid'e-ic, ». Dryncao. 

Ajbiduxa, ar-e-du'm, i. {jareo, lo be dritd fl 
Wnsting of any particabr lluib or Otbar 
opposed to Atrophiiu 

Ariu, a're-es, a. (Latin.) In Astronomy, tl 
a conoteUaEion figured on the celoetial g^ 
ram. It is the flnt oign of the onoent- 
The Greek Mythology Bttkn Ariea to be ll 
memoratioa of the golden fiaoee, in quost i 
the Argonaotic expodition was uadcrt 



«boretbeconatclUtioi) PUcfs, 
by Cetnt, Taonis, Perwus, Atnl 
It cMwto of iix^f-kx sUis, uiJ ia 
L Ua* ( V ). Ami ia bLiq tht aiune ginm 
; liilUary Sdccwe te the baiteiia^ rum. 
ir-iVlolc V. n. (qrMto, Lat.) To bate 

pom flr4*«4«'«hiiii, $. HiQ ict of butting 

»-«e^«t'U» «. (Itafian.) In Uaaic, the 
ttf ftiu ; ft short air or tane. 
, 9fL itiglillj; vicboat niistnke. 
\ «. (arillMt IM.) In BoUtit, 
k B^lmL,) aldad of wrapper nicIojUDg tho 
mfuHf IB MOke pUn^ and whAtlr in othon; 
Rw«4 l(f « floifej upUMDUi, oi'ther vf tho 
kil «rd bf wlDdi «ba eeedtf ue attached 
or of the pknata itaidC 
■''lil-lajr'tcd,> a. Id Botany, appUod 
^ v'lW, f to a H«d h«7iog an 

«liol]f or pAittolljr ctMioaing it 
H. Sw Ahramancs. 

^-iB-a-U'fthan, a. (A(irw>fitc, a aootb- 
Lai.) SooUwaying ; dirtnation. 
Mfoa, a, Tbe sane «f * faniona poet and 
p«, wlm, dimog his Toyage to Italr, is said, 
Cable, to bare been carrinl to ahorv by a 
tiimni overboard bj the aailon — 
htnimf Htm ttUmtni hj the charms 

•-»«'«•,«. (•rwaos liryt U«L) In Mauc, 

Jn liutnMMBtal Mmio, ii duntc* ' 

Toeal atvhsL 

lA, m-n-^^mmMy «. («*«, the anoiit, and 
l<ody, Gr.) A xonos of fifihfs, t/c- 
totW Mnnnidar or Krl fiimilv, aotl di<- 
m4 fi«ai Atigailh, tbe traa eU, by tlio 
^ not tabular. 

rum, a. Tb« Van ariMmm 
Tbe Ffliar^ Cowl, a deodooiu her- 
, «itb Bght yeUow tUnMrs : Onlur, 

, «.«., fMir Ajkmb, put fart. Abiken, 
Sax.) To nmuit npwvds; to get np; 
■tonrwMfromobaearity; tomrjvefrura 
tfvacMd&oto; toooter ou a new etatiuii; 

■ri to jwwii to-coBUMiNa fawtiliey. 

n k» Mit 4«iinat «a^ 1 -OMgbt Utn te tiw 

pmIi^ a. ^onit, elendoB, G r. f naoi Ibe fhii t 

iiMrt«d oa a Iobk pedical within the calyx.) 

■ <f planta, coiwiRting tif small branclu-d 

Mima af Cocfaia-Clana: Order, Cap- 


»-ci^C«. a. (Lat) In Botany, tbe awn or 
whieb U attached to tlie 
ml tgnumM. It ia nakedf pliunoi«, 
tortile, terminal, dorbal, or 

DBi, »«<Win, a. In Mytliolo^, tbe ao« 
Cymia. He ia aatd to hem been 
■ Ifc* diaots of Lybia, broiij^lit up by the 
1^ md M Ml Moiar sod ambrosia. He 
mter, and waa won^iiiipeU, 
■B a dena-ged. 

4a'tiu,«. Applied to kaTeSflear- 
^e^ nUd) an uniiinaled by a \vng ri^ad 
in a feaf, baa not tbe appearaooe of 

AfilftTARCH, ar'ris-tdrk, *. A alem critic. 

AKisTAJtcuiAX, 8r-n-fit<1rkVaDf a. (Ariatirohua, a 
distinpiiftheJ GrBciao critic.) Severely uritical; 
cnUojtl, nflcr tbo manner of Anatarcfaas. 

AnisTAKCiiT, ar-ns't<!r-kei «. (urwfoa, greatcat, and 
archey ptvemneut, Gr, ) A govcmmont ooiDpoaod 
of good men ; a system of sterji critioam. 

AitUTlA, ar-ris'te-B. a. (aruta, a poiDt or beanl of 
com^ Lat) A genua of phurte from U» C*pe of 
Good Hope : Oixler, Iridiae. 

AJLisnOA, Ar-ris-ti'dfl, s. (aruta^ Lot.) A genua 
uf pliuttft : OidtiT, GnunlooiB. 

AttlSTOCRACY, nr-rw-tok'ra-ae, a. (oriiftw, Uie 
noble»t or best, and kraieo, I gorem, Gr.) That 
form of govejminent in whkh the supreme power 
16 placed ia tho nobility; the nobility; tho ex- 
tremely rich and elevated jtofiiou of society. 

A&isTooftAT, ar-ris'to-krat, t. One oonneotod with 
the aristooratic cla«8 of society; one who taToor* 
tbe inteiestfl or daims ef the ariatoorBcy ; a term 
introduced into this eonntfy during tlie fvrvuur uf 
the French RovolulioD, and appUcd to any odd 
who o]fpaecd the democratic uotiuna uf revolu- 

ARiSTOcrtATic, ar-ris-to-krat'ik, ) a. Rtdat> 

AKi3Tt»cuATiCAL, ornft-to-lcratVliiU, f iag to, or 
partaking of, tlie natare of an unAt'ioracy. 

Ajuatocoaticallt, ar-ris-to-krat'e-kal-le, atf. In 
an anstocnU^a-il maoner. 

AiUSTociLATicALNUfti, flr-riB-to^at'e-kal>ne6» /. 
An ansCocnitical ooodition or disposition. 

AittSTooAATTf v-rift-tok'kra-te, «. AriaUxmoy, — 
Not used. 

AiusTOLOoau, ar-ris-to-lo'ke-a, a. (^trutos, best, 
and iockeia, parturition, Gr.) A genus of plants, 
iududlng lerenl epccies wliich obtain n place in 
our phamacopcciaa for their medicinal nrtuert, 
ainon^ which are A . aitguieidaj analu-kllling hlrth- 
wort ; A. ckmatUis^ a British spocics, eliglitfy 
diaphareljc; and Jl- ser^wnlariHi, tbwght to m- 
ereaae tbe efficacy of otochona in oaaca of pro- 
tracted ague. 

AnisTOLOCHLA^ af -ria-to-lok'l-e, «. A nntnnil 
order of phurtu, witli hermaphrodite llowerv; a 
bupenor tubular calyx, with three spgineiits; trn 
or tweli^ epigyBOOB staiiieiu, dintiiict, or adhering 
(4 the style atid stigma; an inftmur three or aix- 
cell^d ovariiUD, vith numerous ovqIos nttaohed 
huriEontaUv to. the axis; the style nimph^; tht 
f^ljinu^ nidmUng, and of the same number aa 
t i ! - iif tilt* *iv:iriuiii. Fnut dry or succulent, 
rliicc uf six-ctllcd, und many seeded. The order 
coomts of htrrboceou-t phints or shniba, the hitter 
often clirahiag; tbe leaves arc altemnW, MUiple, 
and atAlked ; the tlfiwers lucilhuT, aolitaiy, and 
usually brown, or of nme dnU oolonr. Tbe only 
British species is Ariak)ioclaa ctematitu, or birth- 
wort; the leaves of whieb are boart-obaped j the 
stem erect; the titiwera aggregate and i^iright., 
with a unilateral Chlyx. The wood «t ilie phtuls 
of this order diticrs from other diootylodonous 
plants in not bcin;; omuiged in vuMivutrio circles, 
but ooutinties to increaM- in uniforuuty, and uuin- 
tiTrupt4>d1v, as lung iis tho pliiuttf grow. 

AiU3TOTt:i.iAS. ar-ris-to-te'le-aflj a. Pertaining 
to, or foundwi on, the pluloimphy laujitht by Aris- 
totle; — J. a follower of the philitsophy of Arititotle. 
The AriatoteUaw were alao designated IVriintetica, 
and tltuir pbiloBophy long proToiled in Uiv suhoo^ 
till it gave plaoo to the Newtuuiao. 



&BIST0TEL1C, ar-ris-to-tel'ik, a. Rd«tiDg to the 
pUlcMwpbT of Art$toilL>. 

AuiTHMA>'cr, ar-ril!A'm.iii-M,#. (arithmoii^ number, 
nnd maniiii, diviimlian, Gr.) A foretelling of 
Aitiir« cveuts by nuoibpra. 

AKiTHMiirric, iu--ieA-mrt'i!r, *. (ariikniM, number, 
ami RK/reo, I mtvsurc, Gr.) The svieiice of num- 
bers; the art of oomjmtatiun br fipirra. Inl^grul 
Arithmetic is the fidcfiiv of whole iiunit'ers, Fruc- 
Hanoi AritMtneiic U divideil into Vulgar and Deci- 
mal Fraetioiis.— Wliidi bkc. Tlio tiijures and 
methrjd of notation now in uim are siuJ to tw of 
AraL>lc origin. 

AlUTUMmaALf ar-i/A-met'e-kal, a. According to 
tbo rules (rf arhhuietio. ArilhtMticiii compienient, 
u tliat which d nnmbcr wants of tl)t< next hi;^i>>&t 
dooimal dcnotmnBtioD> u, 7 wants S of 10, S 'a 
Uie anthineHcn] complement. ArithmeiioiU com- 
plemeotiffa £(>yart£A>n, is the samornaniberwliicli 
alogarithm wanld of lO.OOt^.OOO; thlli^ the nrtth- 
metical mmplemeiit of thti logantlim 8, 154,03'i is 
],8'l'>t*^H. Arithintiind tiiea*%, u thitt noinber 
m fnictiun wliich lien betw(«n two othtnt, nnd ia 
equally dihlaut from botli : it xa fauiiJ by divid- 
ing the luui of tbc two nuinWm by two. Arith- 
metioai proffreanorij is a sericj uf number:) which 
increnH or decrtsnae by eqmd steps, tli« lUfTeretici: 
betwwn any two snooesHvo temu bcin^ ooramon 
to all l]ic liTtns, Aritkmetiad propurinm^ h the 
rcUtion wliich esriiita between four uiiml»cra, of 
which the finti and hwl have tli« stunv diil'erence 
w the thhd and fourth, aa— 1. 2, 81, 8J. 

AUTUXJKTICALLY, ar-t/A-inel'c-kal-h-, ud. In nn 
arithmetical monDer; aocortling to the principlca 
of arithmetic. 

AnmiMETiciAN. ar-ilA-mo-tiah'nn, i. One Kkillcd 
in nrilhinctic 

Ajiic, ilrk, n. (area, Lat. artcty GoCh. orr, Sax. oirc, 
(jju-l ) A ciient or coffer: — Tba oofTer, termed by 
&[oMn> lAe ark of the oovaumt^ was d«p06ated in the 
mnennottt nnd hoIit-Kt part of the tabernacle, called 
• Uuj holy of hDlius,' and nrtcnTariU in the cor- 
reaponding npartment of tha toinple. It cuiitiiiticd 
the tables of the law, thu nxl of AaroD, and a copy 
of tho book uf tlie law. The lid of tlu' ink wn<( 
called the iuen7-8rut, befora which the ht>;h-pnc!it 
appt'aml one*- i»V(tt vcJir on tlie K'-cnt Jjiy of ex- 
piation ; and the Jtws, wherever they worshipped, 
tomiMl their fncm t^wnrda tho pluce where the 
ark stood. 'Siroilur arks appear to Imvo been 
med by the E^ptiun inv^timtHl, t>im\o of nhicli,* 
nys Sir J. G. WiJkinfon, in \\w wuik nn llm Ilc- 
^ Mgion and Agrtculturo of the Anrirtit KjQ-ptianK, 

^'e^ntaiiivd the etnUteiiut of IJt'o and Stability, 
whicht whoa the vail was <Irawn ii-^tdc, were pur- 
tially K«n ; and others pre«<iucd the wicred beetle 
to the fun, orenhitdowud by tin? wings of two 
fignrwi of the e<tiUtirss Thiuioi or Truth, which Cidl 
to mind the ch.>rubim of tlm J«ws,' ' The di*- 
ooverv's of this sort,' add.-* the Rev, Dr. Morren, 
(Kitto'sC^cIopa-diaof Bihlirnl !.it<«nitun.',) 'which 
bars been latvly tnnde in Kgypt, have :iddu>il an 
cmrwhelmiiii!; weight of pPtK»f lo the nidence 
which ppcvi'>usly cxittf^l, lliM the luUn%nck lande 
toitft fht/t/la bon* ii ilfHiifTiftl oxtuinnl rp«'uibl.iiicf 
to tho Kj.7|>tijn mo'lel'f, but pui^^Kl of tlie dutaiU 
aiul peculiaritifA wliich were niodt open to abu5i* 
and iniftconceptiotL* — Sttdti ari\ a vvs»A built in 
the form of a parallelo<:nun, thn-c ImiHlred cnliita 
Uin;;, fifty cubitj broad, and tliirty cubits high. 

oovering about half an acre, in whieli Noah > 
wife, with hia three sons and their wivm, 
of orory nndean animal, and smren piur a 
daan anhnal, were preserrixl at the delude. 
Shillinpfleet, Roascnmnller, Mathew I'oole, 
Pyo Smith, &c., have contended tliat the 
was not universal, and ihat the ark only co 
a imaH portion of tiie aohnals then alire, 
cording to these authon, it i:, inipoaibic to I 
that tlie hundmb of thousands of tpccitia j| 
on the earth, could bo iiooominodatad vit 
and ^-irtuslling in ao small a recepluio^ 
the condition requisite for their iiuiutta 
of life, 

Aakites, irr'kites, «. A Si«lontfin branch 
great family of Cunaon, which inhabited A 
tbo adjacent coontfr, sicoated between 
and Antaiadaroa, at tin western base of I, 

Alui, dnn, *. (arm, Sax. omNui, LaL) Th 
of the upper extremity which reaches ff 
shoulder to the wrist ; the tcntacuU uf a 
fish ; tin inlet of the aea ; the bough of 
a braueh uf a troe ; power, as tluj aecoll 
might ; 

O GcnI : thj am wss here; 
Ami nut U> u«, tut to thy arm alune, 
Ascribti «u all. — SliaJla. 

—rv. a. (oDHO, I<ttt. armakkt Gfiel.) fo 
with w»i]nns, offensve nr defrnKit-e; 1 
anything, so as to add stren^h to it; ta 
or Ht up ; to provide Against ; — p. h, to ' 
arms; to fumish one's self with the m 
defence. In the Menage, a Ucrsf b Kiid 
himself when he presses down his )ie;id nni 
his neck, so as to rest tlie brHuchL's of Id 
upon his counter, in order to dteoWy I 
mouth ; he is said, hIso, to nnu with tl 
when he covers his bora with hia litn, nad 
the prcsstuT of the bit too stilT, ua !■ ij 
thick-lipped horses. i 

Armai>a, 4>r-ma'da,«. (Spanish, fntiiifimwl 
An iirmament for sett t n fleet of war bhipi 

AlUtADlLLO, ilr-tnn-dil'k*, #. The Spniil 
of n family of 3Ummulli, inclutlini; tbd 
banded Aniuidillo, the six-bundcsl Anmulj 
Toujiy, tlie Giant Annadillo, and the C 
phorus. All these annnaU are furnished 
suily and hunl ahell, composed of compcu 
rewmbling little paving-titDnesi, which cov( 
head and body, nnd frequently their taSL 
difz burrows, and live partly on vfjeXttbl 
pnrrly on hisecls and dmd bodies ; — nh», , 
of sptPrwiH iiutecta. , 

AUMALiA OssA. r}r-malc-a Oa'sa, », (taidm 
teiiipond tM>iu-.<i. 

Aruasiam, (tr'ms-mak-si, a. pL (I^lin.) t 
fpiity, n hort of two-wheeled Scvthiciii fi 
adumed with crowns, sliidds, and utiier i 
war, CJirried in procMuion :ilter the uvmgfn 
gods nnd great men. 

Aruamcnt, (f r ' mn - ment. a. (mnammtKM 
A force fitted out for wmv, uoval or toill 

AnMAUicKTARY, rlr-mn-men'ta-re, $. (whm 
rum, I.iit.) An unnoury; n mupinne or 
of warlike implements. — Obsolete. 

AitMA?(, irrinan, s. An old tenn, in Forrin 
confection nscil in restoring tlie nppetiteot 

AuMATOi.i, (h'-miU'o-ti, s. A nntionol mili^ 
po&cd uf the mouitt'iiuocrs of Northern Or 



Wt. Af'm^-^MK, 9. Armoor ta dofeiKi Um 
n iqf 107 ; offouire veftponut — but seldom 

pi, fc A cbiiir with rosls for the aniu. 
h^aad or And', a. port Fumbbcd with 
Mtmd fbr wufsre. In Nautical Inn- 
iMuaA to ft oroBbar when tome rope- 
roOed «boai Che end of the irun hu wlticb 
loogh iu la Qenldo*, when the bonis, 
in^ and Ulmu of birds of prtT-, an of a 

tO^OOr frotD the OtlliT pul&. 

pA, 4r^iQ»-tu'a-kB, «. (Annoua, the cood- 
vlich it u ooaaJend s luuipe.) The 

1^. Jr-BM'nv-an, «. A nati^-e of Armcnin ; 
w relating to Anuecia, an c]u- 
taad «£ Warten Asa, ooaaisting putty 
of Um CaacBsoa. A vendon 
tha Annenutn laDgnago^ bo- 

IT Ation, 4r-ine'iw-Mi stono, j. A hloo- 
tvlbjr oaixwnl, reaetnhling Ujns Uzuli ; a 
Vf Uoa c»baii«ta of copper. It id oecd as 

a. (onMRlo/u, IjO.) 
Beion^ug to a herd 

IB» Ar'ncn-tioe^ 

IS, iir-iDen*t«xe', a. Abounding with 

4r-<iii *<*-«, a: ( u migia, Un plaut Swcei- 
1j^) Thrift A geaoa of ptaata : Or- 
The only British spedeit U 
Ocmmaa Thrift or Sea GUliflower, 
rwmria of lianstia. Gencrio char- 
<^yx CDtira and plaited; cotoUa mono- 
•r peBtapetalons ; five Btament inserted 
loba of the ooroUa ; flowers captate^ in 
faHda, aod •ommnded by a common id- 
I, ndkal and taftod. In the Common 
tha faam an linear, flat, aad obtiue ; 
■ii7 ai the base, inth lira Bharp tfetb 

Uia corolla. 
•Am'iA, a. Afl moch as the arma can 

V, iffm'gftirnt, a. 61<mder as Ibe arm. — 

9o ha nodded, 
DC an anvtwaf atMd^aWite. 

^ tfnk'hoit, «. The eanty under tlit; 
; tbeannptt. 

, A^Bfrjnr, a. (amo, amu, and ^«ro, I 

It) Aa ■nnour-bean*r to a kiiglit ; an 

a^ MM who lean a coat of arms.— 

Jr-tnij e-ms, a. Bearing arms. 
Ar-Difl'ta,* (Latio.) A bmcelct or onm- 
dM mid, taamtly givea to soUion as a 
flrilspMvd Krvioe. 
ItalBBOejif dr-mil'b mcm-bra'fla, f. 
Id Anatomy, the drrulnr n;:.iincnt uf 
vhkh Unda ^1 the tendoiu of tho bmut. 
11, Jr-raillft-R!, a. (anMtiXit, a braooiot.) 

_ a braoelrt. 
FfSrBtBS, dr-mU'la-re aCMr, s. A 
apbenii oompoaed of various hrs&< 
iff* of the hnagmary Uoea by wbicb 
in Geagrapfaj, is suppoacd to bo sur- 

IT TxJG'^KOKErEft, Ar-mil1a-re tng 0- 
Hr, fc An AstroDomical ioftrumrnt, con- 

stating of livo ceniicirclos dlviilml and graduated, 
8i> OS to solve mnny problems conoectod with the 

AnHiLLATKD, dr'njil-hv-tcd, a. (armUlatttt^ Lat) 
Hn^Tng bracelets. 

Armillet, fl'r'iniliet, ». A little bracelet. 

AlUUNOB, drm'ings, «. A name girrn dometimea 
to waste clothos hung abont the out^Idu ol asbip'a 
ooterwotks, fore and aft. and Ufare the cabbridge 
heads. Some are alao hang round the tops, callad 
the top-ixrminjs, — Ckatabert.. 

Abuineax, lir-Kun'e-an, », One wlio belicrtis ia 
the doctrines tAUght \>j Anniaiu^, rc^piK-Iiiig free- 
will and the univenalily of tlie atoueiiieiit of 
Christ ; — o. relating to tho doctrines of Amu- 

ABiri^riAXiSM, dr-mlnVan izm, «. The doctrines 
taught by Axminiu*, a natire of Hollaqd, bom in 
loCO, died in 1609. Ut, \\c •! -uit-d the Calvin- 
islio doctrine of predesUnatlnu, und tanght that 
Christ liad, by his death and raA''riQga, mode on 
atuncment for every man, but that only »ticli aa 
irpcnt and bcUuve can be aarotL :Jd, That true 
fuitb caunot proceed inmi the e>;(.>rc'kM) uf our na- 
tund fjicultii-3, und tlicr.'furt.' 111'.' rc^LncruLiug and 
iVDUwin^; iulIiK-u(x-> of \\iv Il^ily Spirit ore iK-cas- 
sary, it being tbt* gill of U ad through Jcsns Cbii&t. 
3d, That this dtvine grac» or energy^ wliicli bads 
the diaordera of a c-.>rnipt natoro, faogios, advances, 
and briii^ to {icriection everything that can be 
called good in man; and, conscqaently, all ffiiod in 
man is Lo liti cuusidered as the work uf God. .*>lb. 
That tlif.y who nru ouitcd to Christ by faith me 
funii^liud with iibuudaul strength to enable Uktu 
to ovenume ibe deductions tif sto and Sat.ui ; bat 
vltether such may fall away, has nut been rcsolvcMl 
npon, Tlieae taneta are held by ttie large body of 
CluiiUan Dissenters,, called Weslvjiin Methodists. 

Abuipotknce, dr-mip'o-tcns, j. (orma, arma, and 
jtotentifiy power, LaU) ^u^vvr in war. 

AnuiroriiXT, dr-mip'o-tent, a. (jormijHfU-M, Lat.) 
Powerful in anns ; mighty in war. 
The manilukl Uuxutst, and mrmipalaU aotdicr — 

ArsusONODS, drm-is'o-ntu, a. (urma, nml sonru, 

a Boand, LiU.) Kuatlmg with nnnour. 
AlUftanoiB, dr'mis-tis, «. (armislitun^ Lat) A 

short suspemiiim of hostilities. 
AkiiLBAS, (mn'ieA, a. Without .in arm; without 

weap(;iu of d«fuuce. 
Akmlkt, dnn'let.s. A small arm, aa an armlet of 

the sua ; a piece of armour for the onn ; a bracelet 

fur tbo arm. 

rii-ry njrtuph of tho flond. her tr«Me« rendiuff, 
Thrvwa off ber orwUcf mC pearl in Uw main, — 

AjiMOS, dr'mon, a. The Ilehrew mmR of the 

rUnc-treo (PhtUtmis Orinitaiu)^ tho speckled 

rods of which Jacob placed in the water-trougha 

bt'foro the shnqp, — Gen. xix. S3. 
ABUoni.vL, (Ir-mo're-al, a. (Krrnrh.) Bclongingto 

tliB** iif a family, us eosigua annoriai; per- 

luniog to annoiu*. 
Arhoric, rtr-mor'ik, \ a. rertaiulng or re- 

vVnMORicAr., (h--morV-kal, ) Uting to Arraoriiai, 

now Bretagnc or Bnttnny. 

The Armorit iiMgau;;x ipoken In IlritUny la a dialect 
•if Uus Welslt.— H'arfoirj HU. t^ Enff. I*OCt. 

Ahmorist, Vnio-rist. s. One skilled in beraUlrio 




AiUIOItslt or ARMornicK, tVi'mor-ur, *. (armnrier, 
Pr.) Ono who makoe omioar; oou who drrasra 
■noth«- in unnour. 

Tha annoMtrrc' aepnmplbhlnfE the knlfi;tiU. 
With busy hamnien cWin; rivcu up, 
Oiip drmdAU nrile of prvpiWAtiou.-— .SJWiJb*. 

ArhORT or ARKorRT, rfr'mo-rft, *. Thft pluce 
in wbich aniM ani deposited ; wmmir ; enafgns 

Abxoub, 'h^mor, t. (armurct Pr. ormoA/rff, LaL) 
Anns of dcfcna' ; cnnt of maaL 

Aiuious- BEARER, <ir'ii>ar-baj--rur, i». One who 
rarrics the onnoor of miother. 

AsJiriT, drm'pit, 5. The hollow ander the shoulder. 

ASMff, drmit, *. pt iPiUkoHt Me nngmlar Hmtnber. 
Weapons of ilefence, or nrmonr of defence; a irtatc 
of hostility; war in geaernl ; the act of taJdng up 
arms ; the ensigns umoriol of n fiimily. 

Asmr, dr'me, 9. A collection of armrd men nndcr 
esp«aal oommnnd ; the aoldicn' of a country. 

Aun, dr'ni^ a The Indian name of Ihe wiH bnf- 
fnlo ; abn, the name of an .indent people of Italy, 
who are taid to ha^•o been destroyed by HcfctUes. 

AsKlCA, dr'ne-ka, ». (etymolojjy iiiicertain.) A 
genua of oomposite ptanbi : Sab-urder, CftrdmicoAi 
Vemonnceie. A. pwntano (I.«opfird*a bann) poa- 
BetmiB many Tahublc pnpurtiea as a medinne. 

AUMOLDiAt A^nol'de-a, #. (in memory of Dr. Jowph 
Arnold.) A genua of JavaDCse phints : Order* 
Canon iiicea?. 

Abnou>I8TS, Ar'nold-i'«t«, *. A wet which Bprnng 
np in the twi'lfrli wiitiiry, fmni tlie preaching of 
one Arnold of Brrwui, who imi^^lit that the ro- 
Tennes of popw, bisliopa, mid inoniisteriea ought 
to be tnuisferred to tho secnlar power, and that 
the ecclesiastical oAke might to be wholly jrpt- 
ritwd, with a sabBiBience derivHi from titbe«; for 
which oft'enaivo iloctrines he was exrommanteated, 
erodfied, and burned. Tbo name was also ^ven 
to the followrrs of tino Arnuld of VillerwuTe, a 
pbyiician, in the fourteenth century, who, distin- 
guiahing himself for his knowledge in chemwtry 
and natural pbiloeophy, was regarded by ihe monla 
as a magician. Flaving exptiM,vd his ublmrronw 
of ilicir iproriince, and pronooneed them worthy 
of ilniiinntinn, be wits proseciiteii as a heretic 
by tbo Holy Inqolsitton, and his body bomed after 

Ahnopoook, dr-no-po'gnn, ». (anw$^ a lamb', and 
poffon, a bcardr Gr. from the beard of the seeds.) 
A genua of faerbaoraos compoaite plants, which 
keking otdeAy to the south of Europe : Snb-ordor, 

AXXOTTO. — See Btxia. 

AboidEA, a-r^id'e-o, ». The Arum fatnily, a 
natml order of plants, agreeing with tho nruin 
m its nseotial properties. The pLmts are indi- 
genouB herbs, stendcas or can1e:«cnt ; tbo Icavra 
approaching the cliaract«r of those of dicolyledoii- 
008 plant*. The flowers kn endosod in a sort of 
hoUow sleuth, and are embedded on a simple 
cylindrical axis; the roots an thick and fleshy, 
and cuntttin, when fresh, an acrid principle; the 
fruit is generally a duster of Mttlc bcnro, each of 
which contahis a nainber of, seeds; tlir flowers 
are cstrcmcly rariahle; mnry of tbe 5pecii» ding 
to trees like i\'y ; a few *ped« are £aropeaOt tlie 
rest are tropical. 

Aroma, a-ro ma, g. (Greek snd Latin.) The odour 
of tiowcn and regrtablo subatfi:ice.i, ns spices. 

AttoUATiE!rDROir, a-To-ma-dcn'dronf a; (> 
and rienrirtm, a troe, Gr. from the aromatie 
of the rinwers.) A gmns of pianfaii, nr>n«stiB(r gf 
the Elegant Aromn-tne, • nuthre of Japan : Ot*' 
der, MsgnoH.ncp-jp. 

Abomatic, ar-f^-mat'ik, ) au Spicy; fiagnal} 

ASOMATTCAL, ar-o fflsf e-kal,) strongly acaotiai 

AROHATizATXaNf ar-o-mat*ti-ss'dianf A Tfas kI 
of sttBiting wkh odorifenius matter, 

AjusmaucA} ar'o-ma-tive, K m To scent ; to par- 

AbomatixKB, ar-o-ma-U'»ur, ». That which per- 

Akosadk, a-ro-nade', «. (trw, I protect, Gr.?) f» 
Architecture, a jnnctioD of aerrral linn, fnrmii^ 
indentations Bkc the upward boundary of an fin- 
battled wnll, precept that thf midrllft of each nStrd 
part is terminated by the convex arch of a drrii, 
which ar^ does not extend the length of tm 
raised pj«t. 

Arose, a-roie'. Fast of the Terb ftrine. 

Anouifv, a-rownd', ad. (it, and rwnd.) I 
rlc; on CTcry side; — yfp. about; eiidrc.i _ 
Rs to encompass. 

Aroi'SR, a-n>wz', r. a. (a, and rrHne.) Tft 
from sicvp ; to nose up ; to excite. 

Arow, a-n>', ad. In a row, with th* 
the same line ; mocesrireff in order ; otm 
the other. 

Xj master and his man art boOi broke loose; 
B«MMl CtM maids •pcv, and bound the doeCar.- 

Aroyvt or Anorrr, ft-nyBi', {»tery. (etjtButogf 
uoc«tata.) Begone; depart; go away. 

Sidnt Wlthold ftioted tlirico the wold : 
Itr meC the nichtmnre, aad her nine fold; 
Bftdtf hifr nliufil, and her troUiplkglifr-- 
Ami arvyttt uiee, witub, oroynt Inee.— Sfcafa'. 

AsrsOGIO, ar-peg'je-o. «. (nrpfi/gio, \uram^ ItiL) 
In Moaic, the imitatiDn of tlie harp, by MriloBg 
the diords in ijiidc and rapid suoceaaioo. 

Arpekt, ar'pent or ar-pung. i. A French am, 
containu^ one huntked perchoa of o^hCaoa fiat 

AHQDKBDftADX, dr-lM e-buft-ade', s. (a French varik 
from (iryHedttM, tau tf arquniiuaM,) The shot 
of an arquebuse ; aho, a distiUed water, applied ta 
wounds or bruisea. 

Yoa will flDtl a Irttcr firom mj siitar to thank tm te 
the artruebummJbi water which lou aeoLr— Lonf C%0ir- 


ABQCKDrsH, dr'kwe-bD^*. (Prtnch.) A baii- 
gun, similar to the modem carabine or fusee 

Augi'KUCBicu, dr -kwe- bus- gecr', «. A aoUiff 
lu-iucd with an arquel'Uie. 

Ann, QWT, s. (or, Uan. arra. Sax.) A word nel 
in Cumberland and other northern couutks of 
England, and in Scotland, for a mark vr icaf 
made by a fleali wound ; a cicatrice. 
The healen plalsbr eat'd the palnlbl salr, 
The arr Indeed remains, bot aacttilBg mair.— 

Arra, ar'nif r. {nmt or arrha, Vnt. rrrra^ OaeL 
pledge or enmest- penny.) A plei^ — Oheohte. 

(tartet, from Ihe OseUe word ariat, b still a>e>I in Scot- 
land fur tho small sum irircn nt .1 r-onftrmalioa of d)« 
bargain when a serranft ia eii(ta|[vtl.] 

Abraoacka, ar-ra-kak'a, «. A gentu of plnnts with 
fleshy root«, like thoac of the carrot ani parsnip: 
Onl.r, Umbeinfcrr, 

AniiACACiA, ar-ni-ka'Abe-a,r. (flrrocndbi, name 4 

ARiUCK— AliliAS. 


tai boath AnMriea-) A genu of Amc- 
pluU, hATing niQch tbe Sftme 
■• tiw •aoHwa bemkick, but smalltT ; 
bat of ■ dingy colour; 
ik« MOl v( the wme luture as tho tuber of tbi 
MM^ tet diridad into lobes, each of wbicli U 
itaal dM MS of ft 0urot ; when boilcJ, it is firm 
■i mAt, iriUi • flsvonr bRweea thAtof neht^i- 
ant aid m vtnaif. In South Amenca, it supplici 
tlaj^teBot tliejam and potato of other oouutiies. 
ft— M-K — Sot Andc 

ir-ngVnitp, «. (.Vita^:od In Spain. 

iSM bnnog been fir^t fuonil iu tbat pri^riticc.) 

of the earbooatfl of lime, gcncmUj com- 

m aoMU ^DBDtitf vf the carbonate of 

■d wjOw; i^ gr. 2.6 to 3.a It 

: texton* fibivtui, witb a silk/ liutre. 

I Ia • taricty «f il, callM Fk\s-fcrri^ the aystala 

I 4W ia the inna uf amall brunchsA dlver^nii; fruni 

mmmm. The fundnnenUl form of its crvAUii i" 

[■ ii pfaaa pvmlU to tha faoea of a right rbombic 

^L fMA af 116^ 5' aiKl 63^ 55'; colour wbite. 

^p mmt^mm f^Iow, gncn, or blue. With borax, 

^ i JMnrffsirfaw ihii bkifrpipe iuto u transpiuvnt 

hat is uiaolBbie in aocU. Uoccun iu Kug- 

k D«TCoaUii» and Bockinghamshira, and in 

■ft Ttiarihilli. and in l>irk Uattrick'* caic, 


a^fim', V. «. (arravTwr, old Fr. qt- 
km Lat. or, according to Sir Uatthcw 
m mrrvimmer^ to call to accotmt or nri- 
' oav:) To indict; to bring a priauter forth t'j> 

Iliari; ftaaaeBsr; to charge with a 6mlt in geneml ; 
la asia thing ta aider or in its place ; <mo is u\ii 
l» amqpa a writ in a county, lliat lU* it for tiiul 
I brfin Ite jaatioia of tho drcuiL 
i Ammuqmmmww^ ar-iaoc'nwnl, «. In Law, the ad 
^^9tmaipmg. AmmffiumeiU ^ftmafiu^ iacaus- 
Hlhf tha |4aHtf*» lo be called to niake tbo pJoiDt, 
V»tod U ail the eaiua fai anch order tbiU the dts 
A_i — > ^^y ^ obCgod lo answer tbrrtto. Ar- 
if a prU<mer. anuists in reading the 
■ad aaking tho prisoner wbothcr he is 

or AKAATJiSiVT, or-ni'incnt, a. (from 
.> CfaHhii^j dreas. — Obaolot^ 

I wovaa fban ahtcipanhiUMd tat lUiiKb- 

' ' oIoUhhI In •«« orrtiB. 

or paint-. 

AuA«os, ar-ranje', ». m, {ammgtr^ Yx.") To pat 

k tia proper vnlor fur any purpose. 
A— ><*"»■* *■** J ar-rmnje':iiciit, 4. Tha di^Kwition 

if tttiy ia a eertain ordtrr; tha state of bnug 
^ fift h P">9cr f"^- '^[^■'U^ ^"^ properly ar- 
^■■■Md, hanxwiuM 10 form, oolour, sounJ, or idea, 
T sate aa not to oflead by obruptoaas of traodtion, 

■d on oakxlated to gratify the lora of order, rrj^i- 

laolx. ODd beauty. 
Aoasasx, ir-ranje'ar, f. One who arranj;*^ or 

fito things hi order. 
Asairr, ar'not, a. (sopposed to bo derived A»ni 

^"tm^ waadoring; an ammt knavu, ngnifving 

anadM^C i^V orTagabmH.) Bad in a higli 

AJpaai nniiai ge«cnny to prnoos. . 
AaanLT, v^rwr-le^ ad. Comipdy; shomafhlly. 
*^aJrrAfrii. ar-tan-aa'dji, t. A Spanish land- 

WBr; aalimakd to contain S imperial roodh, 

4aaij^ v'r«v «. (frnm Arraa, a town in FnuKw, iii 

wliich baogiags wen mode.) TapcatJ7; *«ii gi«gp 
(klomcii vrith pictorial rcpreaeoitatkHM. 
AUBATKt^ ar'ra-tel, *. The Portuguese poond — 
equal to 7083 gniinit Troy; — 985 u «qual lo 100 
lbs. AToirdupois. 
AULLiTOiiT, ar-rawt*, v. «., pait ft?ase, (stipposed Co 
be derived from arracher^ Fr.) Sdzed by rio- 
Imce. — Out o/ nse. 
Ills amhltluuft hoa*, ontA them twain, 
jin«>9^ Um ntle. and firom their bther drvw.-' 


Aeeat, ar-ni', #. {amn^ Fr. comdle, RigDifies, b 
Saxon* a cohort or le^on.) Order of battle; 
train, rvtiimo, equipage, attendance; dreas. In 
law, the ranking or setting forth of a jmy, or 
inquest of men, otapnnnelled upon 

That women adorn tlietn«clres In modrAt appnrol, 
witJt shttineftkoednesa and RolnSet^, nni witli ^^ tilrrod 
hair, or (fold, vr pmrte, or cuaUjr tfrnny— 1 nm, li. I*. 

— V, a. to pat in order; to deck; to dress the 

beck tbyiiclf with m^eaty and vxc^ttluacy, and orrvy 
IhjBcIf with Klut7 iind bvkuiy. — Job xi. 10. 

A-RBATER, or-ra'ar, «. (arraiw, un anjcnt dc com- 
pagni<«, old Fr. ) An uflSccr who, in funuer timts, 
had the can of sewng the aoJdien duly and pro- 
pfirly aooootred. 

AuaEAKAQB, ar-rocr'iy^ a. (t u t nigmn it low Lat.) 
Tho remainder of on acooont or amn of money 
rcmaminginihehandsof anacoonnUnt; or, moru 
generally, any mtmey unpaid at the tiniu when it 
becomes duo—arrean is the word now u; od. 
Hell grant the tribata and — — f— xir *^ftr 

Arkrarahck, ar-ren'ans, s. Same a» orrearB.— 

Ahbcaks, «r-reen', t,pl, (orrwr, behind, Fr.) 
Thot part of an aoootiat wUcb remidiu unpaid, 
tliDugbdne; the rear.^-Obaolete hi the latter aense. 
The word if naed in tha ^g^gnM adverbiaJIy, aa 
in Fnnoh, bj Spenser, in these lines : — 

To leave wtth speed Atbtota •wiftarrear. 
Tbrooith ft^retu wild, and anfrequenrod land. 
To choM the Uoo, boar, or roggM bear. 

Abbbct, ar-rckt', v. a. (ttrrtgo, part, arreciut, LsU) 

To roiae or lift np. — Obsolete. 

AmOfnff* my sight towards the Zodtake, 

Tha algnes xg A>r to behold oTar.— .^'icAjti'i Aiena 

— o. Qjvctad ; flgaratiircly, attonti^-c. 

Uod itpeaks not to the idla and tutceaeemed lioorcr, 
but the viiplant attd arrtcL—BiJiap SandriJffe. 

llavlns large ears perpetually exposed and nrrett 


Aroond the beldame all omct they han^ .^ 

Arrbhon, ar'tv-mon, «. A gemis of finchoa, be- 
loiijL-iug to the sub-family Tani^i-inx or Taoigeni. 

Akbbntatiun, ar-reut-ta'ithnii, x. (nmem/or, lo 
farm, Span.) A. term used in the forest bws, 
expressiro of the liberty granted to the owners of 
land to encloso it with a hedge or ditcJi, in con- 
sideration of their panng a yeiiriy rent. 

Akrcot, or're-oT. a. The name of a remarkahlo 
institolinn wbk-h i'>nn'Tly existed in Otaheite wnd 
other South Srn I.tlunds, the fundamental b»# of 
wliich was, that no children bom to any of the 
niumbers Ahould b<? nllowcd to live. 

AnnEPTiO!*, ar-rep'shnn, «. {adrrplum, \jt) Tbo 
net of Miatditng awiiy. 



Iriba Cviltticeie, with Urj^ tcalj heads shaped 
Eb tbc ooot of tlw pine tne ; tba bottofc of each 
Miku M hlM th*t of Ihe floreto, U s thick fleahj 
piWliin ■ Artichokes ranUin a rich dq- 
Mfafiobtteg jnice. Artichok* of Jem- 
DT /n—i?!"! ^rCw&obi, the HcUantbtu 
• fptoiv of Sonflover, m nati^-e of Ura- 
aL It jiiliSa faolboai cacalflat rootA, baring a 
Inv jdmilar to thtf of swoet potatoes. 
AmcLK, 4r'tc-kl, JL (artieuhu^ Lat.) A nngle 
ikB «r sa ■ccoant ; a particnlar part of a oont' 
■taK ting i team of a bargain ; a itipnUtion. 
h Giammai^ a partkle placed bcfvro nouns to 
ftaH Umt ajpi i fir i tinn — u, d nun ; the nun. 
aitidas azi o or on, and tht; — v. n. 
to mako tenns ; — r. a. to draw up 
Tbo word is seldom used as a 

' tf aa Ms ewea and toUim mn artfaim agninai him. 
- • - Isr. 

wttSk tlM people, and tbrj made blm Jadpa 

^■^rtUis f^y&Bll, the partkolar points of doctrine 

^^Mkh taan tba erwd of certain cfaiirches> embo- 

|^^k4 by tfat Epucop«i Cfanrch of England in what 

mm tsnaed Uw ' Thirty-nine Artidiai,' ooinpoeed 

m^ffaaBf br Craamer, with the ainstance of Rid- 

AanccXAK, Jr-tik'a-lor, a. (ertictdaru, Lat.) Be- 
fit tba joints ; applied in Sor^rj to Any 
wVkh more immeduiLely afiefta tho joints 
dr-tik'o-Ur-le, ad. In Rhetoric, 
pliable, and stopping at erciy 

Aknoxiuai^ dr-txk'a-lsr-ta, js. fLatin.) One of 
Ifae p»Mi diviiaoDs of the amnm kngdosu— See 

lmm.ajs, dr-t5k'n*Ut«, o. (articiiius, L&t.) 
Iilsail^g t» th« Joint* ; dtitioct ; divided, as the 
pvti af a &3ib are divided by joints. In lUietoric, 
in A monotonous manner, bat pro- 
and distinctly ntterod, obeerving 

Hb Iba. aa k«rt» of these I thouffbl denied 
lotasalB; wboB Ood, on their creation day, 
Oiiliil miMM all mrHaiaU MNad.— ifiUon. 

— « & to film words ; to utter distinct sylUbles ; 
Mlpaik m m wmm} to joints to draw up articles; 

tBdeed, yon bavo artlsnlatMl, 

; marlcrt eroMea, read ta churrbee.— 

■km; to treat. 

Snd Q* lo Rome, 
wtth whofn we may orHpdaU, 
r own (Ood and oura. — Shalu. 

ttw* latter agnificatioos ore QnoAnal \ — r. n. to 
kTCls dr-tak'n-Iay-ted, a. part. In an arti- 
mm\ juinted. 

.T, itr-tik'u-iatc-le, nd. DisUnetlr; 

dr-tlk'a-Utc-nes, a. The qna- 
^Wag artkolale; distinctness of ipeceh. 

dr*txk-n'la'&ban, s. (ttrCim/oAo, 
fcmAtioa of distinct syllables by the 
r JMidL In Analdmy, lb* connection of 
I Wkk aMtbcr in the akalatoa of an ani- 
ls Alidad int« three kinds: 
the Mocvofi^ oonnecdoa of bones; 
, that which doea not adroit of motion 
Ba^fkmmt tiiat kind of coa> 

neotion by which bonca aro united to each other 
by Ml intervening body. In Botany, the jolots or 
knots in such pluits as the cane, grasses, &o. 

ARTrpiCB, (f/le-fii, #. {artifcim^ LaU) Trick; 
fraud; stratagem; art; Crade. 

Artificer, dr-tilV«nr, «. {arti/ei^ Lst") A skilftil 
pcTBOD ; ono employed in the construction of works 
of &rt; A mechanic; aooothver; a dexterous or 
artful fellow; a forger. 

AJITIFICIJLI., dr-te-fish'al, a. Made by art, not 
natunU; Petitions, not giennino; artful; conirived 
with skill; skilled in stratagem; canning. — Sel- 
dom nscd in this last sense. Ariijicial aryitmtniij 
Id Rhetoric, are proofs on corutdtrations which 
arise from the goniua, industry, or invention of the 
orator, so called to ^tlnguibh them irom laws, 
fiuthoritiea, dtations, Stc., which am colled mar- 
tifieitU aryummet, Artj/icial Imes^ on a scale <tf 
section, are Unea so contrived as to represent the 
logarithmic sines and tangonta, wliich, by the help 
of the line of nomben, solve, with tolerable exact- 
ness, qoestions in trigooometry, navigation, &o. 
Artijiciui number*^ is the name sometimes praa 
to logarithms. 

Artificlai-itt, *ir-te-fe-she-al'e-to, «. Appear- 
ance of art. 

Artificially, ar-le-fish'al-lo, nd ArtftJly; with 
skill ; with good contrirsnce ; by art ; not noto^ 
mily ; craftily ; with stratagem. 

ART1F1C1ALNES8, iSr-te-flsh'^-ncs, «. Artftilness. 

Aktificiouh, (hr-t«-fiah'us, a. Artificial. 

AiiTU.iBB, <1r'tU-ize, «. To give the appearance of 
art to anything. 

'tf I wai a philoiopher,' narii Montalinie, *t would 
naturalUo art, iiutead of arlilutiv Ditttirc* The espnts- 
sion is odd, but tbe sooie U good.— ZtoUjifAn^be. 

AsTiLLERUT, dr-tU'lur-Ist, s. One skilled in 

Artillbrt, (Ir-tillur-re, M.^wUAoui a plural^ (artil- 
Urie^ Fr. from the old verb, artiBer, to fortify.) 
Cannon, mortars, bowitiera, and other lar^ pieces 
of ordnance, for discharging shot and sbKlhi. It 
denotes Rh»o engines of war of all kiiidA. It 
means, likewise, the soence which relates to the 
materiaU, ingredients, and composition of what- 
ever belongs to the cotistructiuu of tbo various 
engines of war, the composition of shot, the ar- 
rangcmeut, movement, und management of can- 
non ill the field or in sieges. Flying ArtiUery^ is 
a term used fur those pieces of ordnance wUcb, 
by means of horses, cao be carried, when the 
groaod will admit of it, with great rapidity from 
one place to another. Rutfid ArtiUery^ that divi- 
sion of the BritUb army which have tbo charge of 
itbe great gnas. Park of Artiilery^ a pUoe in x 
camp, or in the rejur of an onny, in which the 
artillery ara placed — usually enclosed and guarded. 
jTWwi of ArtUloTft a set or number of picoiis, 
mounted on carriages, and roAdy for action. 

Abtii^lkrymam, dr-tillur-iv-mxn, *. A Boldier 
belonging to the nrtUlcry. 

ART18A5, dr'te-un, f. (French.) A mechanic ; a 

Artist, dr'tist, «. (artUU^ Fr.) A skilful person ; 
one who practises any of the fine arts— us sculp- 
ture, drawing, painting, danctng^ "cting, &c. 

A&TLKB8, drtles, a* Unskilful ; void of fraud ; 
simple; ooutrived without skill — as an 'onfcss 

Artx,e&slt, Art'ies-le, ad. In an artless man- 




ser; vrithcot skill ; cstunillj-; nnnrelv ; without 

Aktlesshzss, At1es>D«s, «. Want of art; ab««nce 
of i^ile or friiDd. 

Artocabpe«, rfr-to-lcdr'p*-*!, ». (Artocarpiu, om 
of the gPD€TU.) A natural ordw of plants, wtj 
nearly n-bitj>>l hi itn botanical characters to the 
Urticcia or Nettle tribe; the floiren ha« i very 
unperfMt cal}*x; no comlla; Icavrs vrith conapi- 
caons stipulM, n rou{;li foliage, and on acrid milky 
juice, which often contains caontchooc in abun- 
dance; the flowers are collected into roond heada, 
and (he ovules are suspended singly from the upper 
part of the solitary cavity of the ovarium. The 
juice IB sometime* highly poSsononfl, u in the 
Upu-treo of Jrve, and certain species of Indian 

A&TOCAKPi'S, Jr-to-kJr'puB, s. (nrUv, bread, and 
karpat^ frolt, Gr.) A penns of trees, indudiiig 
Kveral »pecie8 which yield the fabstanoe called 
hroad-fruit. It 1& k native of the South Sea Is- 
land*, from which it haa teen convejed to the 
West Indies, South America, and other places. 
The fruit is >;rRin, and of the size of a lar^ me- 
lon, but, when ronstrd, it becomes aoft, tender, 
and white, Hk** the crumb of a loaf. It forms nn 
important article of food to the natives of the 
Bon.&» Sea Islands. The Jack {Art»cnrpia tmtrff- 
r^otio) is a native of the Indian ArrbificlAgo, and 
yields a fruit, weifching from 60 to 70 ttis. 

Ann, drta, s, pL TboM brancheB of manual per- 
formance which re<|Lire the exercise of skill and 
ingenuity, divided into tho liberal and mechanical 
artA: the fanner comprehending poetry, painting, 
wulptarc, architecture, &c, ; the latter, engineer- 
ing, caqM'ntry. masonry, smith-work, &c Poetrj', 
painting, muuc, actUptare, engraving, Ac, u* 
called tJteJSne artt. 

AxTSMAX, Arts'man, 9. A mm akiUed in the arts. 

Aktvatk, dr'tQ-ate, r. a. (artuo^ LaU) To tear 
limb from limb. 

Artoosb, 4r'tu-ose. a. (orAHVUf, Lat.) Strong and 
well- formed in body. 

AbcebbS, a-m'er-is, a. An Egyptian deity. 

Arcm, a' rum, «. (suppoaed to h« an Egyptian word.) 
A genus of plants, belonging to the natnnd order 
Arvideir ; spadtx naked at the apex, and cncloeofl 
In a Bpathe ; flowers nuked ; the males crowded 
about the upadiK, iind the females «««ted at the 
base; berry one-celled and maDy-««edfd. A. mo- 
cuiufttfN, Wake-iobin or Cnckoo-ptnk, is the only 
Britiah species ; it is without a stem ; leaves hal- 
hert-shsped, with a club-abupcd obtuse (lower- 
staUced pcmiiual — found in groves and hedge- 
banks; flowers m May. 

AmnrDEL Marhixs, ar-nm'del mar'blz, t. pL 
Tables, oontaininf; the chronology of ancient his- 
tory, particularly of Athens, from tho year 1582 
to 853, B.C. They wrro porchased by Thomas, 
Lord Arundel, and given to tho University of Ox- 
ford by his grandson, in 1627. 

Aritxdikacbous, n-nm-do-na'shua, a. (urmMU- 
nacau, IjiL) Of or like roeda. 

AacmDiicARiA, a-mn-de-na're-a, t. (tfnmd'o, a 
read, IjiI.) A genus of exotic reeds: Order, 

ARUTtDiirBons, a-nm-din'e-os, a. (fimiirfiiitfsii, l^t.) 
Abounding with roeds. 

AictTKDO, a-nm'do, t. {ttnuniOy a reed, IMS) The 
Watai^nidt a gtant of plant* bdoogiDg to the 

Oramrneie or Grass family; panicle loal 
lets many - flowered ; the lower Roirt, 
naked ; the npper hermxphntdite, and « 
with hairs. Glumes two ; the under ei 
than the npper, which is about as lo 
Bowers. The commou or marsh -rrcd, . 
mitfs \* the only Hritish t^pecie*. In 
Anmdo braehii mnjor, the greats 
arm — the ulna; Arunrln hmcbsi 
reed of the arm — the radius. 

Ahuapioe, a-nLs'pis, t. (^anuprx, Lnt.) 
snrer ; one who (tinned by an exanuiiat 
entrails of beasts oiTerwi in sncrifice. 

Auraricr, a-rus'pe-ae, a. Tint art of 1 
events from inspection of the cntrMit m 
mals which were oQinwl in saoiflos; 

Arvaleb, ar'val-es, s. (LiUin.) The nan 
the twelve prioftts who presided at th 
Cerca, ooUed AxabunraJia. 

AarKitsis, dr-wa'sis, n. (Latin.) Tl 
grows in th« 6elda — Ex. Aoagallis arve 

Abttoola, dr-nk'o-la, a. (arwian, u field, 
I inhabit, Lat) The common field iml 
of Kodonta. 

Ab^icoue, trr-v3c'o-le, a. Cuvier's ni 
fjUiiily of Roduots, of which th« fidd 
type; Uke the common mi, they hart th 
rm, but without roots, cacli ouo bctOf 
two altemato Uocs. 

ARVii>Si7i>PStit, ^'vi^nup'pur, Jl a foAl 
tainment pv«n, in former times, in tb« 
England, on funeral oocaaions; the U 
to the poor at sudi times was termed m 

AsiYTJRXon>, a-re-to'noydf n. (oryfruao,, 
and tido0, shape, Gr.) Funnel -sbap« 
to the cartilages of tlte larynx, &c— Si 

AjtTTiiMua, n-riM'mns, a. (a, without, aoH 
the pulse, Gr.) An irregular pnlee. 

As, as, «. A Roman coin, of different ft 
material, according to the dlfierent a{| 
Commonwealth ; also, the Roman pouoi 
weighing 12 ounces. The word was sh 
signify an intcgir, and a whole inhcrital 

Afl, ai, coij. (oM, Sox.) In tlio same ml 
sometldiig else ; iu the manner that ; I 
coutc^ucntial sense; inlhcetiteof aoolh 
m pnrticuliLT consideration ; with a part 
sped; like; of the some kind with; i| 
cording to what it would bo if; a«c<ai<dioj 
as it were; in some sort; while; at 
time th&t; because; because it is; W< 
are; equally; how, In what manoer; 
swering to tike or tnme. In a rmpn 
iDsu'ering to as: * As sure as it U gon 
before o«, in a coiitpnmtiv* araae, * A 
man at he.' Answering to swcA; ^ 
answer it, in a condilional manner; a>, 
retipect to; a$ if, in the some manilil 
would b« if; ns to, with rr5pect to; A 
equally with ; tu thtmgh^ &d if. 

Asa Ot'tcia, aa'sa dol'da, a. 

A«af<ktida, > as-a-fr'tc-da, a. (^t 

AsSAFOETIDAff^ /(Ctithu^ ii\i\\\a\ 

gnm obtained frum tliu renian 
asafoitidu. It '\t cliirtly crnployad in M 
an antiitpnamoHic, nnd, when used •• tm 
he taken in ■ fluid funn, as that of a tiiK 
half a drum to two drama. It i* a {^ 
boract i » naod in tbo firnn sf on u 

I [o; m 


Ian fl 



Mk'fin, «. The low fire used in cerUia 

■ih'balii, \ «. The hclu or pit into wliicb 
b^Ab, > i^cs full or are deposited. 
Iih'br, M. Vnntonn u tlitnr com* oat 
Tbft term, however, jj mon eom- 
fbr vtooes hewn for tba fucinf* of 
tei KDOOth, it is t«nned ;>/ane-tuAJfrr; 
Mj *N>M-«sA/cir f when irregukrl/ cut, 
■ilitr,' when wrongbt with a doitow 
ii Mid to be potnledi when the tool is 
it M called duMdUd or boaited- 
wtNO Um ptWi««i «n> sunk by catting Ibe 
V tba itcoett, the work is cdle J ru(ua(0d ; 
i pitted i&to dmp boles, it is tenned pri' 

MV ashlur-hif^ a. Sctlbji: on ashler-fac- 
Ckrpmtfy, the fixlog of upright qtuu- 
tli« rsft«ni sud floors of gvrvU. 
'tnr-tiin'bnnif f.;)^ Wooduu 
lo tq>pDtt the roof of a bnilding. 
nra*, «£ Od shore, on the Und; to 
I, Co tW land. 

OK, Bth'to-reth, t. (Hebrew.) A goddess 
U)d Philistines, whose wonhip 
smoDg the Urselttea dnring the 
f lb* JodgUi end celebrated fay tiulomon 

T,ab>wenda*dar,«. The first day 
Did from the aiident practice of 
■ m the bMd on that day. 

k, aah'wved, s, Tbo small wild sngoUcs. 

r«, & A^-cnlonrcd : pale ; inclined to a 

psy; tamed into ashes. 

IV I saeB a tkncl} parted phfwtt 

"^^ wa g re. Ml*, and Woody. — 

.Vptle* o. Pale as aabes. 

b haauBao . «till be lon'n and frsts 
ttsiteaoB aluunc sod aoi^or, oMy-fuI*. — 

lh»-aa, B. Ftotaining to Asia. 

K''al»a-drk, »• {atiare/ko$^ Gr.) A chief nr 
Aaa. The Asiardiai were, in Proooa- 
iiai Iha duef presidiints of the roligiooa 
baaa offioa it was to exhibit every year 
BBMa in the theatre, in honour of tbe 
■ rf^ tha Roman emperor. 
ip'iha-at'ik, a. Belonging to Ama ; — «. 

•T-ahe^af e-iiziD, a. An iniitation of 
■BOUMa or cnatoms. 

ad. To one ride; ont of the per- 
dbectiffli; to another part; ont of tho 
apart. In tbe Drama, soinetliiiig 
er which the other penona on 
not to hear, 
a-^'e-na, ». (nnVnu, the pulfly, I^st.) 
fly, a genoe of diplerons insects, hav- 
I ttO«th fomished mth a homy projecting 

I M-a-mx^fo, a. (Canadian name, meaning 
Ilk} A fMHH of North Amerkan shrubs : 

, •'•T^oa!'*} * Belonging ^ "» »»• 
K araiD-e'go, «. A fiultsh feHow ; a sim- 

ha^ a, (Lalin.) Tbe Homed owl, a genoa 
or owl family, hariog the liead 

fiimiibed wltb a double cn»t or egrote— the Bubo 

AeiPHOKOBiU5ciiLA.TA, A-si'fb-no-brank-i-a'ts, s, 
(a, wiihont, siphon, a pipe, Gr. and bramehia^ gUls, 
Lat.) A name given by Blaiaville to his second 
order of moUosca; cbus, Paraccpbalopbora. It 
einbmocs those inhabitants of bividve abells which 
are without tube-shnped redpimtory organs. The 
apertnn» of the shclU ore not notched and cansU- 
mil&ted ; the nnimals Hve on pisnts. 

Ask, ask, r. a. (/wn'on, Snx.) To beg; to claim; 
to seek ; to petition ; to rn^ulre ; to quoatiou ; to 

AaKANCE, as-kJaa', 7 . «. i- , • , 

ASKAXT, M-kdnt', I *^ Obhqnely; on one side. 

AsKEK, Bsk'ur, f. One who asks; a petitioner; nn 
inquirer; a smsll lizard, (^Lacerta vulfforU et pa- 
Instris,) prononnccd and spelt ask m Scotland, 
and in our northern counties 

Askew, a-aku', otL Sidownyt; con temp tnonsly. 

AsLACB, a-slako', r. a. To remit; to slacken. — 

But this ctrntlnool, omel, clrll war, 

No skUl can iUnt. nor reason can ujbBtc.— 


Aslant, a-sl&t', ad. Obliquely; on one aide. 

Asleep, a-slcop', act. Sleeping; into sleep; at rest. 

Aslope, a-slope', ad. Obliquely; with a declivity. 

Asomatods, a-som'a-tns, a. (from a, without., and 
soma, a body, Or.) Incorporeal ; purely spiritiuU. 

Aar, asp, jr. (cutpu, Lat.) A renomons serpent 
mentioned by ancient writers, the species unknown. 

AsPAl^THrs, as-pal'a-^ns, «. The African broom, 
a genua of papilioiiaoeous plants : Order, l^egu- 

A^PAOAUiyE, as-par'a-jlne, s. A substunco ob- 
tained in white rhomboidal prisms, from aspara- 
gus, liquorice, tlie root of the marshmallow, the 
potato, and other plants. It oonusta of B atomi 
of carbon ; 8 of hydrogen ; 2 of nitrogen ; and 
6 of oxygen. Its synonymea are— uparomido, 
alUieine, and agedoile. 

AsPARAcmouS, as-par-ra'jo-nus, a. In Horticul- 
ture, applied to those culinary vegetables, the 
points of the tender Bhoots of wliieb are eaten Ilka 
thoiu of the asparagus, as in tbe esse of the com- 
mon hop. 

AsPARAOCa, aa-pitr'a-gna, s. (fjxtrauo, I tear, Gr.) 
SpaiTQw-graea, a genus of low shrubby planta, 
with scale-like leaTes. A. officiitalU is one of tbe 
oldest and most delicate of ooUnaiy Tcgetables. 

AftPARTic Acid, as-psr'tik as'sd, $. An add ob- 
tained by boiling asparagine with magnesia. 
Aspect, as'pckt, «. (oipectej, Lat.) Look; air; 
appearance ; conntenance ; glance ; riew ; act of 
beholding; direction towanis any point ; poHition ; 
disposition of anything to 8omulbing«life; reliiL>itu< 
In Architecture, the direction towards the point 
of the cdoipasH in which a building is placed. In 
Gardening, expoaore to the sno. In Astronomy, 
the fituatiou of tbe planets with respect Lo each 
other;— r. n. to behold.— Not used in this sense. 
AsrECT.i-BLE, os-pek'ta-bl, a. V'isilio; being the 

object of bigbt. 
AsPECTSD, as-pdc'ted, a. Having on aspect 

A contracted. nibtll& and Intricate face, roll of qulrkb 
antl turnings ; a Isbjrnntldan be*, now sngulorly, now 
circularly, every way appealed.— Ami tATiuon. 

I AsPBCTiON, as-pek'fthnn, *. Beholding; view. 
I AsFEX, ss'pcn, 1. The tawbling popbr, {Firjn^ut 
\ fremalri.) 



AsFER, u'pnr, «. A small Turkish coin, eqtul to 
•bout three fartbinf^s; a Gre«k accent denoting 
tliat the letter ahoulil bo pranauaccd u if an A 
wrra attached to it;— a. ruQf:h; nigged. 

AarBRA-ARTBRiA, afl'po-ni-ar-te're-a, <. (lAtin.) 
The windpipe. 

Aaperatb, as'pe-rate, r. a. To nuke rough or 


AsrEKATiON, a0-p«-ra'sfaun, t. A making nm^K 
AspEUOiLLiroBM, aa-per-jille-fnwrm, a, (jupv- 
giiitu, aiid fvrma^ Lat) Shaped 1 ke th« aiiper< 
pllua, as some of the stif^ns uf Krassca are. 
AsrisnGILLiiS, as-per-Jil'lus, «. (luperffUium^ n 
watering-pot^ Lat.) The Itmsh used in the Komnn 
CotlioUo Cburch for sprinkling holj water on tho 
people ; — a genus of fongi found on rotten and 
putrid mitxitances. 
ASPBRGILMDV, as-pffr-jil'lf-um, \ 9. {asptrgiUiix, 
AsrERGiLiiCN, as-per-jil'luni, J Lot) A mol- 
lofec, lit-iog in sand, and inhabiting a tubular shell, 
one of the cittrpinitieit of which is closed by a pUta 
pnfurat^d with small tubuUr holes, forming a kind 
of corolla. 
Abfebitoliocb, As-por-e-folC'iu, a, {oMpcr^ and 

Jolmmt a leaf, Lat.) Having rough leaves. 
AapBKiTT, aft-per'e-t^, a. (tuperitag, Lat.) Rongb- 

nois; faanhnen of speech or tcmp«-. 
AftPEALr, aB'[}cr-le, ofllL Roughly; sharply. 
AflPSRJtACIA, as-per-ms'she-a, «. (a, without, and 

qMrmo, seed, Gr.) Defidenoy of eemen. 
AsrBBKATioir, a»-per-na'sbun, a. (aspematio, Lat.) 

Megleot t disregard. 
AftPSROUA, as'pe-nu, a. Rongh ; Bneren. 
AfFSUE, aa-peno', v. a. (atptr*^ Lat.) To slan- 
der; to calumniat4^ 
Abfbbsgr, na-pcr'sur, «. One who asperses or 

calntnniatea another. 
Abfeksiuk, as-per'sbnn, <. A ^ritUcUng; ca- 

Inmny ; cenauro. 

Abperl'OO, as-pe-rn'go, «. (taper, LaL) Tlic small 

wild bo^loM or German madwort, a genua of 

plants with a five-cl«fl calyx ; corolla frith a short 

tttbe. and a five-lobcd limb. Tlie only Britibh 

Bpedcs is A. procumbcru : Order, Boniginoic. 

Asphalt. at-fa1t', ) «. (from the Asphaliio 

ABPHALTtm, as-fal'tam, f Lake, or Dead Sea.) 

Compact bitamon : it vanes from brcwniah black 

to black, and has a conohoidal fracture, with a 

resinons lustre. It consUt.i of bltuminooB oil, 

hydrogen giu, and charcoal. It is found floating 

on the snrfaoe of the Dead Sea in a llcjuid state, 

but hardens when exposed to the air. It was 

much oaod by the ancients as a building ccmnit, 

and is now extensively nsed in paving and in 

ooToring roofs, 

AsPflALTir, aa-fal'tik, a. Partaking of the nature 

of a.<fphalt. 
AsPiiARcrB, ts-fa're-na, t. A gmtis of acanthop- 

terygioua fishes : Family, Cliartodon. 
AsPHooBLBJB, ai-fo-dd'e-e, «. (Asphodclus, one 
of the genera.) A natural order of endogenous 
plaota, known from the rushes by their larger 
and more highly coloured flowers, and by tho 
hardness of the coat of their seeds ; and, from 
the lily, by the smallness of their flowen. Tho 
firet division oontnins the tdliaceons plants— the 
onion, garlic, hyacinth, £c. ; tho second division, 
which oonlains the aKi)aragus, the gum-drugon 
tree,ftc, want tb« botbs of the other, but have ol u»- 

AsniTXiA, aa-fiksVa,) «. (a, without, and. 

Abphxt, os-filtA>, \ the pulse, Gr.) Tbei 
of body in which th« ptilse is so low as not to i 
felt ; hot more nraally applied in ratdical 
to that state in which the vital phcaomeu 
suspended fi-om some cause inlemipting 
tiou, but in which life is not extinct. 

AspiiTXiCATiNO, as-hks'e-kate-ing, a 
tendency to stop the pulse [ applved to sildl 
as do not contuin oxygen in tluit state in «i 
it can unite with the blood in tlie lungs. 

Abpic, na'pik, $. A specica of lavender, the oil 
which is nromatic and inflammable. The bibm 
alw sometimes given to the asp. 

Why did 1 'scape the venom'd <y|rfdk'« ntgcl— 

AfiPiCARPA, as-pe-kdr'pa, a. («?»«, a little 
shit'M, and carpot^ fruit, Gr.) A little 
ing flinging plant, with iki^-Uk* 
Abpuiiajiea, as-pe-di-i'ro-A, a. {tup^ <«r.) 
genus of fossil cithsl plants, of the Lrpi 
family, with sliield-hke markingK on tat 
Aspidistra, aa-po-dis'tra, », (aspes, Gr.) A 
of itlants, with small aliicld-Uke ndieol 
half buried in the ground : Order, AroideOL 
Asi'iDlCM, as-pid'e-tun, t, ioipts^ Gr.) Th« 

fern : Tribe, Polypodiacco). 
Aspii>ornoHrs, as-pe-doTo-nu, *. (tnpm, 
pheroy 1 boar, Gr.) A genua of acnnth 
fuhes, which \\»\v their whole body covand 
thick strong scales, or bony plat«a, and tbs 
armed with two spines. 
AsPiDORiiTKCitcs, as-pe-do-rink'in, c (o^ 
Tkmko$, A beak, Gr.) A genus of fuisil gaottd 
bright-scaled fishes, found in the Lias and 
fonnations of England, chnractrriscd by the 
and bony covering of the upper jaw. 
AsrinincA, as-pc-du'm, a. {a»pes, and o«r«, n 
Gr.) A species of fossil Echinodcrmnta, witb sff- 
pent-like tnila, fhnn the Lias of Yorkshire. 
AspiRAST, as-pi'mnt, #. One who ispins; tew 

didate for on oiEoe of distinction. 
Aspirate, aji'pc-rate, v. a. {ofpiro, I breath Vfna, 
Lat.) To pronouacc with tttrong full brfflth;— 
IF. n. to b« pronouoced with full brrath; — x. tU 
mark which denotes an aspirated pronuncutioo ; 
— a. pronounced with full breath. 
Aspiration, aa-pe-ra'shun, s. (mpiratio, Ijil) A 
breathing aflcr; an anient wi}.h or desire; the act 
of pronoundng with full hrrath. 
Aspire, as-pire', r. n. (ojptro, Lat.) To dcwt 
with eagerness; to pant after sometlung Ugher; 
to rise high. 
AspiREMEaT, as-pire'ment, a. The net of asplr 

Aspirer, os-pi'nir, «. One who mpitcs, or ii uif 

bit ions. 
A8P1R150, as-pi'ring, a. Ambitious;— s. tb« 4e- 

aire of somfthing great. 
A»pi8i'KU9, os-pe-su'nis, j. {ntpU, a little shield, 
and oara, a tail, Gr.) A gi-iins of spiny-finncd 
fisliK, bekin^ng to tlie suh-fumily Acrnithurinoe, 
having tlie snout lengtticned. and somewhat tabu- 
lar ; dorsal spines, strong nod remote ; cauddl- 
fm truncate, or sligiitly hmnte. 
AsPLEMUM, as-ple'ne-um, «. (a, witlumt, imd tplm, 
spleen, Lat.) Spleenwort and MaidviiVhuir, a 
genus of ferns having the soli linear, and placed 
on lateral Teiaa ; the iodnsiam flat, mwDbraoovii 



The plant hu baen 
in diMnlen of ths tfien — 

w-pere-u'ohoj), f. (<Mpor<arw, Lat.) 
Ig off, or csiTTing away. 
i ■ipre'de-nCf jl {aspredo^ one of the 
A nilMlivikioa of tbc ^iluriJic or Cftt- 
ksn t)i« bojf nuiilird w naked; llio 
IrII, aad placed YertkaUjr; tho optrculam 

pn'd(s t. (ojpcr, roQgbi Lat.) A 
' nalsooptatjpoas fiabes, t>pe of llie Kub- 
Laprttdio*, duliiigQuhed frtfin tiio oLher 
tar the abortacn «l the anal-fin. 
ffnt g. (oiper, Lat.) A genus of fiiJiea, 
iMilir boiUca abd depmaed muzzles, with 
JMi andemeath : Family, Percidtc, 
«4inDt'. ad. (sAvm. DuL) Obliquely ; 
b« stnifi^ liv of riaioo ; figurattTsly, not 
id V dec notice. 

{mmimm, laL.) In Zoobgy, the Equiu 
Uunvni^ A aub-gcnus or species of the 
laUr, cnmfirebcDdiag those E^oldc which 
itnjvd lika Ch« aebnu, and ore distln- 
tea Hm ma bones by their long ean, 
■Mi^ toAcd tail, and a streak along the 
acroca the thoulilcref and by 
temy; a stapid, heaTy, doll fellow; 

lAA. — See Aaafivtida. 
Tssm, MM- gay tree, s. The CartcBla 
* tail tree, of the wood of which the 
Ahiok make jarelius or sptran : 

Itan.) In MuatCf a tenn to 

time must be oooeleraled or rc- 

li^^rot quick; nllegro oMcn, itHl 

■lill slower. 
', R OL {cuaiUer, Fr.) To attack 
lllb nuaaer ; to aseonlt ; to (all upon ; to 
la attack with ar;gQmeat ; ceaiuret or 
afipttAi to the pawinm, 

A-bl, a. Capabia of beicg 

rx H-aale'ant, s. {tutaillant, Pr.) One 
I — «L attacking ; iuvading. 

or. j;. One who attacks another. 
e'iiitnl>>. Tbc act of Attacking. 
It» n-M pM'ik, «. Old nnmo of the fly- 
la«l,4b«nM eoJonff. 

, a. (Fnrnrh.) In Law, an oflenci! 
ia the fi^PRSt, by pluckirtg op tren by 
|i|— 'V. a, to commit an tusart, one of the 
< eflbioes eo^Uable by the laws of the 
iiarplly, to grub up trees ; 

■t BOAted hla Cr«e cb&«e and fire? trarr»n In 
l» tande. Ae., and also power to OMurt his 

e foTMt lands which were 
or dea>t4 of wood, and for which rvuta 
, QDdar the name oi oMMari renta. 
M-Ma'bin, «. (French.) A mnrdervr ; 
k Ulb by ticecluiy or suddea nolostiB ; — 

tjCT, aa-eM'»-n»HW, a. The act of tnM- 

flik dsqMst dje ofhluod.— 

UTS, a-MaWnate, r. a. {<ma$$mer, Fr.) 
bjnolaDoe; to destroy; lowayUyi— 

V. M. to iDorder; — «. Uio crime of an aaaaaaint 


Were not all aiiairtaeffi and popular tnaarriMitlou 
wrunglollj cfaaaUsed. — Poft. 

The wurd in also used for a marderer, but obsolete 

m that (Kn5C. 
AajtAMiNATlOTr, na-sas-se-na'shnn, «. The act of 

assassinating; murJer by riolence. 
ASAAMlMATOitf as-saa'e-nay-tur, ». A mtirderer. 
AssASSiNOCS, as-sBs'se- nos, a. Murderous. 
ASSATIOX, aa-ea'shnn, a. (oamfttm, l-'r. from tuacK 

Ins, LaU) Roastii^; stewing i» ita own juice. 

AHodon t« a concoction of the Uiwsrd roolstar* by 
bfl*C— Burfcm'* AnaLcf UA. 

Assault, as*sawlt', f. (ojMirf, Fr.) Attack; hoe- 
tile onaet ; opposed to dtjwitcc; storm; opposed 
to mp or ai>^; hostile violenee; invamon. In 
Law, an attempt or ofler, with force and violenee, 
to do bodily iniary to another. AuauH and bat- 
tery is a loaiicious act, by which not only violence 
has been ofitaed, but actnal injury done to another; 
— V. o. to attack; to inTode; to fall upon with 

AssACLTABLS, M-sawl'ta-bl, a. Capable of being 

Abbadltsr, as-sawrtur, t. Oue who attacks with 

AsBAT, as'sa, r (oMtie, oM Fr.) Examinatioa; 

This cannot be, 
ily no araap nf roasun. Tis a pageant* 
To keep us Ui false gase.— fAocv. 

the flnt entrance upon anything ; a taste for 
trial; iriiil by danger or distress; dilfioalty; 
hardship; value. — Obsolete in the hut sense. 
Rite saw bestowed all with rich airaj 
or pearls and predotu stones ufi^-ut njjoy.— 

In Metallor^, a process of determining the quan- 
tity of gold or silver contained in any ore or 
metallic admixture; or, in its extended significa- 
tion, of ascertaining tbc quantity of any one metaJ 
contained in any mineral or metallic compound. 
jirMi/y/u determines the dilTerent ingmlicnls; as- 
say, only the quantity of uny iiai-ticuliir ingredient. 

AsAAV^R, as-sa'ur, a. One who assays; an officer 
of Lie Mintj appointed to awJiy the metals used 
in coinage. 

AssECTATioK, as-8*k-ta'shnu, $. {aisectatiOf Lat.) i 
Attendunce, or wniting upon. 

AssECURAKCE, as-*e-ku'nuu,«. (auecttrantio, Lat.) 
Awurnnee. — Obiolete. 

AsiECCRATiON, as-ae-lcQ-ni'sbun, c. Assonincc; 
frw from doubt. — Obsolete. 

As»ECuat£, os-w-kure', v. a. (oMeruro, ad»ecurOf 
Let.) To make one sure or ccruin; to give 
assurance. — Obsolete. 

AsfiKCCTlON, aa-»o-kn'ahun, t. (auf^uor^ asttetum, 
to obtain, 1 Jit.) Acquirement ; the act of ob- 
tainiog. — Obsolete. 

Absekblagk, as-sem'blfljc, s. (French.) A ool- 
leolion ; a unmbcr of inUiii-iduals brought together; 
the stJite of being assembled. AucmiAot^t dlffen 
irom ruMtmbly, by being applied chietiy to things, 
assembly being used only or generally of pervons. 

Absbmdlamck, os-flcm'blaas, «. (old French.) Be 
pnaeotalion; appearaooe. 
Vtm f OQ toll me, Maftter Shallow, how to choose a 

man 1 tan I tar Uie limb.thtf tluw».«, Uie ■uiura, bulk. 

and t>lg osvmKaiiCi of a man t Ulvo mo the fvMl ttt a, 


Amsmblb, M-nm'bl, r.o. Qitt mnhl er, Fr.) To 
bring tonCher into one plaee— (osed both of per- 
wm and UoDgi) ; — r. «. to meefc tOf^Bthcc 

AWMffTlF*, w-Km'blnr, t. One who 
or awti other*. 

VMM «f tli« Bst-msken. Um ajMwHf of tto moftt 
Mm dinelon «ii4 wraiigiff*. ha** btn eoaTk«ed.~ 

Amembliso, u-Koi'blii^^. A mntiiigtogitber. 

Amoolt, 11 ■imtte,*. (i m it ffe , Fr.) Aan>- 
paoy BMl togith«r. Gm^^ At$mb^ a jMilj 
anvooadon of Uw MpiiwUtwM of IIm CUniRh 
of Sn^huid. held in E^borg^ hi U*J, ia prcMOCt 
of Um Lord High Coininuuooer. yatiomal At- 
Itfift^, a FkVDch pMifiuMnt, WftkitM in Jtmc 
Hw oobld ud ck>K7 aftcnravli adhered : it was 
•bo tBnwd the CamUtneDt AtumMj, from its 
hanng fruned ■ ooortitutiao, oo the acccptaaa; uf 
which, bj th« kingf it wo* diflaolvcdf September 
30, 1791. It was «icc«e(ied hy % Legislative 
Aieembly, in Ociober of the sazos jter. It wai 
^anhedoa September 21, 1792, b«ng foeoceded 
b^ the Kational CaonntiMi on the same day. 
WtstmmMio' Autmbtf^ ai aaKonbly of dimes 
which mtt JaW 1, lG4d,ftirtheparpoaB of drawing 
up a fonnola of the Calrinistio preabyteiriAn fjuth, 
formtfig, rinee then, the etnndflrd of the Soottiab 
Cborcfa, in mtttcn of iaith and discipline. 

AiftBMT, u-ient\ e. (onenMU, Lat.) The act of 
agreang to anTtiiin^; oooaent; aj;rMnient; — v.n, 
(oMentirt Fr.) to concede ; to jield to, or agree 


AsSKKTATioi*, aft-Ben-ta'iiliiin. /. (njuentatio, Lat) 

Compliance with the opinion of another, unt of 

flattery or disrimoUtion. 
AsftCSTATOR, ae-een-ta'tor, t. (Latin.) A flatterer; 

a follower, — Obeolete. 
AfiSEKTSR, as'ien'tor, ». One who uiente; an 

autatant ; a ^v-ounr. 
AflBE5TUtOLT, u-aoktfing-le, ai. Accordingly; by 

AeaE W T ME ffTi ae-sent'ment, a. ConaenL 
Aabkks, as'san, «. pL la Carpentry, lathe which 

anpport the roof of a home. 
AbikBT, at-acrt', i. (AMcn>, Let.) To maititun; 

to defend, either by word or action ; to effirni ; to 

claim ; to vindicate u title to ; to declare poeatively. 

That, to lh» bpight nf thiii ereat afgnmcnt, 

I niMT nmeri Eternal Pnjvidc-nce, 

Auil ]tutlf> Ui« *■■;• of Ood to num.— MK<m. 

AlBCRTUt, aa-Bcr'tur, e. (oMrrteur, Fr.) A mala- 
laiuer; vindicator; affinner; defender. 

AaSEKnoM, oa-aer'idian, «. Tositive affinnatlon; 
the pootSon affinned. 

AsBEBTl'vi:, M-eer'tiv, a, Pontire ; dogmatic ; 

AMKBTinxT^ as-wr'dT-le, ad. AiTirtnatively. 

AasEKTOBr, as-uer'to-re, a. Affirming; support- 

ThU other heap of an^nnuflita are oi^y awartfliy, not 
protMiterr.— £Mofi Toytor. 

AtBEBTB, u-serr', e. a. (asioviot Let.) To help; 
toaerr^ oreeoood. 

AaBBsa, a^-ses', v. a, (oMecfeire, to make an equali- 
bmtion, Ital. according to I>r. Johnson ; from the 
old French word aueuer, to cstatflifh ; to regu- 
late ; BO naed In the 10th oentnry, according to 
Dr, ToUd.) To obaige with any ccrtaia eum ue a 





WU,a. Oi(*bkflfl 
fiaUc lo be tuad. 
Ambssuot, ■■ ewhW, *. (mmmm, l^L) i 
in ocov to 

AasBSSoaarr, ao>tcs'nimt, f. The nm ad 
leried ae a tax ; tbe act of asseesuig, 

AmesoOK, Bt-ee»'ar, «. (Uftin.) The p«| 
dte by another i geoaniny naed of one wh 
tbe jodge in a eoort of law ; the pcnoa 
hj another as next in dignity ; oee who 
or lajsoo taxes. 

Assets, at-seCs', a pL wMoirt • 
Fr.) Goods oaOdmi to 
wh^ is cist upon tbe 
^rmg the taetator'e or smmmt^i debts or 
.^oeCr are pcioonal and naL in a 
■oue, the word is used to de^goate pMB 
nmed to be set apart to moat anf 01 
abo, in trade, to iWigneN the finds or 
of n merchaBt) ia ^***— ^^i^lHf1^ffft 8o Ids] 
or obligatioos. 

AssBrEB, ae-aer'nr, ) r. a. Cetaea 

Asbbveilate, as-aev'nr-ate^( To offinn 
solemnity, as open oath. 

AsBBTEBATiov, as-eer-nr-a'shon, f. Si 
fijmation, as npon oath. 

Absbbad, as'hed, «. A blockhead; oM 
apprebcnson. — Obsolete. 

Will yoQ keep an flMftMd, a coxcomU aad a 
thin-foced koatre, a fnUt— iSfciJa, 

ABBlDiEATiS, ane'dH ont, a. ( nsiWsW , U 
Gr.) A none given in the fint book of 
to A body of men who armed thmillbi 
Mattathifts in dt'fi'nce of the gieal 
Unity of God, and in lOBstaiMO to the 
of the Grecian manners and idolatna isl 
They do not leem to have funned a ss 
cominonlj rrpnesentcd. 

Absidcate, as-Bd'n-ate, a. (ajntAais, Lot.] 

Mv lone and auldmk course of sulTdiaf h 
me mmi an opinion of ■uffiiring.^-JnM^ 

Aflswuirr, as-oe-du'e-te, ». (aggidttw, lA 
genoe; doocneae of application 

AMXx>DOtTS, a»-«id'a-tu, a. {auUbmtt Let,^ 
■tint in application. 

AssuiuousLV, as-nd'u- tis>le. Off. DtHgNll 

Amiouodsxebb, as-aid'u*u»-ncfl, e. T4 
being aiaiduons ; diligence. 

AB8t£GE, n-ao<^', p. a. (oMi'q^, Fr.) Tl 

Absiento, as-se-cn'to, j, In Spanish, a 
or bargain. A contnot at one time eol 
between the kings of Spain and other p« 
ftuniflhing the Spanish donduions m Ann 
iisgro slaves. 

Abbioit, OS-sine', r. a. (nmTOcr, Fr. 
To marie ont ; to appi'int ; to approu 
fix 08 to quantity or vnlue. In Law, in 
to apptnnt a deputy or mnke over a ri|) 
other ; in particolai, to appoint or aeC fa 
OMujn error, is to sliow in what port of 
cesa emc hoB been cooumttcd { — to aai 



; n to d«ciu« how aod wbcre tbe jadj;- 
Qsjuct ; — lu attigH the amoTy b to sbQw 

p^^nfiif hftj oeMcd or given over ; — to 
mttt ii to show wberein cipeciaU/ tbo 
Mmnit{<4 ; — «. the penoa to whom od; 
ji or Buj b« utdgaocl. 
i^ M-aZooVbl, a. Fit to bo nuurked ont 

loir. aB-aig>Da'*hiin, «. (French.) An 
mt to meet; (ued, geoerolly, of love ap - 
to wawtimw of otben \) « oiokiDg mar 
Oflwduri dMlgnitlon ; marking out. 
1^ M'ding-jas, «. (French.) A Frenrlt 
Mf.Sssoei in 1789, and recalled in 171)(>. 
^dand « l^al tender, and prodnued niont 
f^fijtadea, and muery throughout France, 
' elher manure of tbe RernlatioTi. 
f m^m ng, r (wiffntr^ to auign, Fr.) 
m who ie appointed ar depnbid by nn- 
I 4o aojr aet, or ptrform any business, ur 
J aamgindity. XanyiMcf are either in 
a lav. .^an^rnae ia dbed^ la one appointed 
PM. Jaeyiftf m bu, is one whom the 
iMa wiUuvl raftrenoe to tbe will of the 

Amigmn m l\e lav of bamkn^tcyj are 
rtan the naSsatioii, roanagemenC, and 
ki «f tba eitaie of a bankrupt are oom- 
nkpMt to tha control of the conrt of 
kj, TWjr an either oSdal, proriauma], 

M. Otw who anigna or ap- 

s'ment, t. Appointment of one 
to another thing or peraon. In 

t daed by which auytliing is tranaferred 


ItJ^ aa-aim'e-la-bl, a. Thut which miiy 

(fad to tbe aame nature with mmoUiing 

rx. »-«nn'e-late, c. a. (aanattfo, laL) 
art to tha aame nature with another 
a biflf to a Ukeaev or tcwmblanoe; — 
fsiam the act of converting food into 


'me-lata-nea, «. Ukeneas. 
I'abun, *. The act by 
bodiaa ooBTert the partjfilfa of 
into their own aubiftAnce ; ooaTer- 
Bfftkiag into tho nature or rcsemblanoe of 

tm, ■■ ■iai'ma-la-tiv, a. Having the 
«i Uiag aeoTartiUe into tbe nature uf 

I'n-Ute, n a. (qgnmmlo^ I conn- 
«a&.} To tngp ; to diaemble. 

nQ0» aa-HDi-u-la'ahon, a. Coantcr- 

k a»^a-Do'^, i (onaejw, Portugueac) 

m aaaia. 

f fa« eo ambMooa iMve your peero. 

\ a* aa awdii p o bj joor year* f—BmJomKH. 

i^ a. A Boman coin. — Sec As. 

V It a. ((uvwrer, Fr.) To help ; to 

IB, aa-iia'laiu, t, (Frendi.) Help ; aid ; 
mgftat; Atfthcrance. 
t, ae-aa'tant, a. One who beipe or olds 
; ^ audEuy ; — a. helping ; lending oiil. 
i,a» A 'tar, a. Ho wlui mauta ; a helper. 
^B«al1«a, a Wanting help. 

F * — 

Amxzb, aa-aiae', s. (atsUn, Fr.) In Lsw, th« 
periodical aeairfon held by the jodgea of the supe- 
rior ooorta in tlie coutiiitfa of Znghind, fur tbe 
porpoae of tr^g criminals, and the determining 
of ctrii suite. Anciently an <ume was on assem- 
bly of knights and other landed gentlemen, with 
tbe justices of the peace or district, at a certain 
appointed time. The term was also applied to 
ordin-incea regulating the price of bread, as also 
to the pccoHor jury by which a writ of right was 
tried ; — r. a. to &c tlie rate of anything. 

AssizEB, a9-ei'iur, a. Ooo who baa the charge of 
weights and measures. 

AssuKB, aalikc, a. Beaenhling aa ass. 
' They are ateepy.' saitb SarmnaroU. * dnU, cold, tlowi 

Ulvcklih. (u*iUK,'—DitrlM'a Anat, of MA, 

AasocxAOiUTT, ae-so-she-a-bU'e-te. a. The qua- 
lity of being TApahle <if ossorinting with. 

A»soc!iABLB, oA-so'ebc-a-bl, a. (tutoeitfiHst LAt.) 
l*faat may bo associated or joined to. 

.IsaociABLEXESS, asso'sbe-a bl-Dos, a. Social* 
cess ; fit for society. 

Akmxiiatb, aa-so'she-atet v.a> (ossocjer, Fr.) To 
nnite with another aa a eonfedarate ; 1o aHopt na 
a friend apon equal t4arms ; to accompany ; — e. a. 
to tmita with ; to join with ; 

AuocMti ii4A tbe midnight ihodowi.— Tiomtm. 
— a. oonjedenite; joined in interest or purpose; 
— 0. a partner; n cnnfederate ; a companbn. 

AsAOCXATjOK, aa-so-alie-a'shun, «. {ttS90ciatiwi, Fr.) 
A confederacy or union of persuns to perform 
fionw act, or attain some object. Auociation of 
iffras, is that connection between two or moro 
ideas which causes the one to spring from the 
other, oflen involuntary, and without any ap*m- 
rtnt similitude. 

A^^sociATioKAL, as-so-tihe-a'shun-al, a. Pertain- 
ing to an association. 

Assoc tATlTX, as-Bo-she-a''ti7, a. Capable of asso- 

AsAOCIATOR, as-so-ahe-a'tur, a. A comfedmil«». 

AssoiL, u'aoylf v.a, {astoiter, old Fr.) To solve; 
to remove; to answer; to rvleoM or set free; to 
nrqnit; to purdon; to absolve by confesdion. 
To iiTme Uiibop w<<! will wen<1. 
Of Kill the bIivs thnt wo have done. 
To be cuHtled at hla hand.— /'creji'f Bdiquei, 

AssoNAKCB, as'ao-nans^ s. (French.) Bcsemblanoe 
of sound. In Spaniidi romantic, dran^iatic^ and, 
in several kinds of lyric poetry, there is a peculiar 
correspondouce in sonnd in the tenninatton of 
versea leea complete than rhyme, termed tuoiuitcia 

AsfiONAAT, os'fio-nant, a, (French.) BesambUng 
auother sound. 

AssoiTATE, as'ao-natc, r. n. To sound like a hclL 

AssoxiA, os-w'ue-e, ». (in honour of Igiintius do 
Assa.) A genus of plant?, conal&ting of tr<>e8 
from ten to twenty fi'et in height, natives uf tbo 
island of Bombon : OrdtT, Byttncriiiocar. 

AssoHT, aa-aawrt', r. a. (astortir, Fr.) To range in 
order ; to daanfy ; to fumish or store with all sorts. 

AsBOBTHCNT, as-sawrt'ment, a. llio nvt of dosaing 
or arranging; a mass or quantity properly sdected 
and ommgHL 

AbaoT, aa-aot', v. a. (asioter, Fr.) To inutoate; 
to besot. — Obaoleto. 
Hut whence the; cpmnfr. or how they were bego^ 
(''neath la to assure, omraUi to wcL-ne 
That OKUiatroua errour which dotlt aome ojaof.— 




AlsrAGB, u-ffingc', r. a. To mitigate; to loftei) ; 
to alUj ; to appensc ; to pMJ^ ; tA MW. 

Befreahlof niads th« tanmei^ heftt* lumiafg. 
And km<uy wanuUi dUamu IIm winter's rAffr.— 


Abscaqkmknt, lut-svaje'fnent, «. (oMMM^eni^fi/, 

old Fr.) Mitigation of pain or grWf. 
ABftDAOBlfc, n-tiwm'jaTy a. One who padBcs or 

AiflnASiTB^ u-sira'nT, a. Softening; mitigating; 

AMDBJuaATit, u-nibjti<gatis v. a. ('uV'^i Lat.) 

To biiog into subjoction. — Obsolete. 

Thk« valiant Lor4 
Mtut not »o >tAle liU palm, onbly «criutr*<1, 
h'uT li^ Mill astul^ttffaia liu moril 
Bjr gutng to AchillM.— SAat». 

ABSrBrAcnox, as-swo^fak'shan, #. (a$«te/hdot 
L«t.) The atato of being accoetomcd to anjtbing. 
— Obsolete. 

Amvbtctdk, ai'nro-tnde, t. (awaterfo, aubm^ LaL) 
Custom ; um ; habit. 

Aamtltmlc of thlngk hurtful, doth inalw tbem loir the 
font to hurt.— AiiVH. 

AsttiMBt ua-snine', v. a. (ammp, I aatainc, LaL) 
To taka ; to take upon one's self ; to arro^to ; 
to claim or eeiie ni\)Qitl]r ; to arpW to one's own 
use; tn appvc^rinta ; — e. n. to bo amgiut; to 
claim more tbu it diio. 

AflaniiBlt, as-su'mar, a. Anairocant; an ascoming 

AMtmiHO, aa-sn'ming, a. part. Haaghty; arro- 
gant;—-*: prcanmption. 

AsBrMparr, na-Bniu'int, n. (ammo, Lat.) In Law, 
a TDluutary promt^ie, hy wtikh a |>enon aalanle^ 
or takci upon liimf>eLt to perform or pa; anything 
to another. An action of oMtumpnt can only be 
ralid wliore then ia a conaideratiOD inrolred in 
tbe pnxntsc girrn, and where there la a breach of 

AsfluuPT, aa-aumpt', p. <i, (tutmnfMtr, Fr.) To 
take np from below onto a high place ; to tfikc 
aj» into hmven. — Obaolete. 

Tba aouli of tuch Ihefr w^rnhlei at wer* d<*parteil 
from humao converaatiuu, and were atmmpl^ Utto thu 
numtwr of their goda-^-fheUon. 

ABsntmox, aff-sum'iliun, t. (oi^umptioy LaL) 
The taking anvthing to ooc'a aelf; the supposition 
of anything without proof; the tlung supposed ; 
m poatuUtc ; a fMtival of the Roman Catholic 
Church, kept on the 1 5th of Aupist, iu celebra- 
tion of the alleged miraculous aaccnt of the Virgin 
Uaiy into heaven. 

ABStTVPTXVB, as-som'tiVf a. (nstHmptirut, LaL) 
That which ia assumed. Id Ueroldrr, applied to 
aoch anna or armorial bearinga aa may bo runmed 
with tlio consent of the sorerrign, or by grant of 
the horaldio offioon. Aumnptiv6 arsM, ia a term 
aim uaed for ttxdl aa are profamptnoaaly aanimed 
by the bearer. 

Amukauce, a&l}-fthu'rans, t. (French.) Certain 
ezpedatioa ; conSdence ; freodom from doubt \ 
want of modeaty; spirit; intrepidity; songnine- 
ncfls; readinoadto hope; testimony of credit; ron- 
nctioR; m contract or insorance by which tlie 
payment of a certain mm ia secured to the person 
aasnredf at eomo particnlnr time or period of hii 
HiCf or to his heini at his death, /wrvrtnce ia now 
more eencrally applied to aecoritini a^aiitat loea 
hf ir*, or by Ma-ibipwreck, and Aananmce to 

goMra.) Th 

those on the contingencies of life. In 1 
seouity with respect to a future stats; 
of aooaptanoo with God. 

ASSURB, ash-shnn', p. a. (aMtavr, Fr.) 
oonfidenco by a 6rm pmnise; to aecnrs to 
to make finn ; to make confidant; toexe 
doubt or fear ; to confer aooority ; to mail 
to affiance or betroth. 

AaauRSD, ash-shu'red or ash-ahord', a. |MI 
tainj indubitable; immodest; ridotialy 4 

AMtTRKDr.T, a^-ahu'red-K (m'< Ccvti 

AHintKDKESfl, aah-sha't«d-no«, «. Tba 
being assured ; certainty. 

AflBUBKK, ash abn'mr, «. One who avi 
who gires security in caso of loaa. 

Abbl'RGENT, aa-sorjentf a. (osswysM^ 14 
iog up in a curve or arch. 

Absywan, as-nrVan, a. A native of Ai 
ancient and cxtcDBivo empire in Aaia^- 
taining to Assyria. 

Abtacid.c, uB-U'ae-de, > a. (tuCaoys^ JHI 

ABTACni^ sa-ta'se-ne, f 
family, embraang 
long tails, Macurtu 

ABTACOLire, as-tak'ko-litc, il (< 
lithot, a stone, Gr.) A name gii 
geologists to the fossl remains of tbo ^ 

Abtxcvb, aa'ta-kna, r. (Lntin.) The 1 
genus of long-taDed crustaceans, cootsd 
common lobstar, A. m€tri»iu, and tfao 41 
A. Jhvialif. Tlieso cnutacca have fool 
antenna?, two of whidi an largw than I 
which is oblong and. anb - cylindrical ; 
fhraisbed with bu legs; fint pair long tt 
tall fan-Rliaped, the lateral pieces of % 
divided into two. 

AsTAUJtOB, aa'tal-la^, a. A Br«nSaB 1 

Abtartb, as-Ulr'te, #. Tim A»btorvth of 1 
nian^ the aaraa as the Wntu of the 
The name Aatarali is also given to Ashl<l 
denotes more especially tho relatioo tt I 
i&si to the phuiet Veutis, as the tsssOl 
good fortune, Baal being the grcatrr ondl 
Jopiter; both were originally coondeittd,, 
8hi[iped, in relation to tho mm and raMI 
greaioT and lest-cr of the productive powl 
tmr ; — the name given to a genut of birali 
moUiisca, belonging to tOe sttb-fomify V 
the iutrrior of Use valves ia marked t^ i 
mlar inipnsaions, anil a simple mantle I 
hinge baa two dJvnricnttng teeth io the d^ 
valve ; in the other, one distinct and ona 
and the rudiment of a lateral tootk. 

Abtautea, as-tdr'te-n, #. (frvm tb« »d 
tarte.) A genus of plants, oatireB of ] 
land : Genus, Myrtaoex. 

AamiftH, As'te-iam, a. {tuteitmoa^ flifOStj« 
Rhetoric, a figure in which some agVMl 
capreased ; a kind of irony. 

AsTEl'iiAHUS, u-stefa-uus, *. (a, withovfi 
phanog, a corona, Gr.) A genus of pemil 
ing exotic pianta, ao named from tM Olrt 
wanting : Order, Asdepiadeie. 

Aster, oa'tur, *. (otter, a star, Gr.) BU 
genus of ]>liuits with beautiful radbted 
among which are the China-asters and d 
daisy of our gardens ; — the Goshawks, a 
hawks, distingutsbod by their large aiza 4 



ri Jmrntknt, a vpiiWf Gr.) A genoi of fonil 
|wiillni1 I7 AgUBA, &OXQ the Lias and 

1^ u-U'n-«i Ju (/uA^M, Gr.) A iwction 
j^arito rbute. inaading tb« dnuiy, utor, 

M-lcVe-t, t. Zn Mjrtholo^, the mother 

1% who, ftfter nijoTiug the favours of 

W dunged into an eagle, and ader- 

A •teUalar Tariety of the 

t«nncd likewise astwite, as- 


It w-tv'iWi «• (offer, a star, Gr.) Tlie 
hi a BoiM of radiated anitnali belonging 
[awtiua SteUerids, sabdivided into the 
■e4 vr thieldltice, and th« radiated star- 
71k fint bars tba bodj angvUr, with abort 
|l Dot exceeding the eatremity of tho disk ; 
pa haT« the ra^ donated below the di- 
IjSf dM diak; tha sab-g»nera nn conrolnta, 
'u, oqiboria. A goncu of 
ona of the apeclci A. httea ,- 
of linuBUi ta a atnmg, bitter, 
toftk : Order, Gcntianec 
a»-taWay-ted, a. Radiated like u 

e-um, r. ((uto*, a «Uf, Gr. 
to tba iCarUktf uxnbcli.) A genua of 
of Chili: Order, UmbeUifenr. 
ti ■■'IT irfr, a. A mark liln a star mado 
»il SiAHDkeo to a note, thos (*> 
^ wW-iBn, «. In AfitroDomy, a closter 

', md. Towards tlie steni; behind. 

, aa-ter-o-KTa-lua, a. (tuttr, 
the bead, Gr.) A gBtma of plants 

: OnW, Dijiiaccfls. 
aa-ie-n^d'al, a. rcrtaining to tlio 

M^ ttfttf^jAa, ». (asttr, and ei^, like, 
■■» aometimes girm by a4tmnoinr--rft 
r OBaU planetf, Jono, Vesta, Cctts, and 

; aa-tar-o-Iin'ofi, «. {ntter, and A'nof*, 
ilax aSar, (^Lgmimckia a«tero/i>iofi,) a 
; Priaialaoab 

aa-teiH>*lo'nia, a. (astrr, and /onwt, 

Gr.) A genua of plants with atarlike 

(Mer» Ep'imder. 

Uf a»-to-ro'nu, r. (mrer, Gr.) A gsnna 

a foi)^ found on the leares of 

aa-Car-0-pe'e-a, a. (attar, a star, Gr. 
itartika fonn of the calfx.) A gentts 
m, aatiTaa of lladagaacai. 
nUNLi, aa*ler'Ofe-n, «. (agter^ and phero^ 
k Gr.) A gBKH flf mall itartike, woolly, 
l^aff baU-Uka Fuagi : Class, Trichoder- 

nm44TCfl, aa-ter-o-fille-tea, $. (wier, and 
U, a kaf^ Gr.) A genna of foasil pLmta 
arranged in wborla-^foond in the 

PRCiai'a, as-ter-op<tik*c-as, *. (at^^ and 
Gr.) A name g^ven br Aguaia 
otkmai fidm, foaod in the Ixiah car- 

Aatbut, aa'tert, tr. a. To terrify; to startle; lo 
affright. — Obsolote. 

Wo tScam ofdeAth as doom nf ill dctort : 
But knew, we fiMils, Mh:ti it m hringt until. 
Die would ¥K dall V, ouco it tu expert ; 
No danj^ there uxo ibc|)licrd can attert.— 

Asthenia, aa-Ale'ne-B, $. (a, withont, and sCAeiiM, 
strengtb, Gr.) Bodily debility. 

AsTHEXio as-Mon'ik, a. Applied to diseases at- 
tended with great bodily debility. 

AsTHmnnnis, as-den'n-ma, $. (tuthentM, weak, and 
t/utWf a tan, Gr.) A genas of birds belonging to 
the family Picidio or woodpeckers, natives of tro- 
picnl America. 

AsrnMA, ast'ma, $. (Greek. } A disease chamctar- 
tzed by difficulty of bnatliiDg, recorting in par- 
oxTsms, accomponieil with a wheezing snund, 
cougb, and a sense of constriction in tho chc«t. 

AflTFiMATtc, wit-mat'ik, > a. Troubled with 

ASTHUATICAL, Ut-QUltVkal,) asthma. 

AsTl^NTnrg, AH-to-anVAos, $. (asUios^ beautiful, 
and anthos, a flower, Gr. in reference to its bril- 
liant flowers.) A genus of plants, ooasixting of a 
brunchod shrub — a native of Mexico: Order, Big- 

ASTILBE, a-stU'be, x. (n, without, and ttShe^ bright- 
nes^ Gr.) A gcnna of plants: Order, SaxafirageiD. 

AsTtprukTE, aa-tip'u-lato, r. a. (a, and ttiptilate.} 
To agree to ; to contract. 

AflTlPCLATioK, a-stlp-a-la'shun, a. Agreement; 

ASTOMA, a-Kto'mn, 1. (rt,without, and »to»w, mouth, 
Gr.) A name proposed by Ctn-ier for those float- 
ing Acephalse whiclt hare no central mouth, and 
want the numcroua ramifications in the Mdicle 
and open cjivities of tho ovaries, which cnaTao- 
terize the EUiizoatoma* — ^VLich see, 

AsTOHOua, fts'to-mus, a. In Botany, applied to 
thoAc mosses, the thecD or seed- covers of which 
hiiva no nperture. 

.\8TOSE, as-tono', ) p. a. (etonner, Fr. afUMum, 

.\8TOKY, js-ton'ne,) Sax.) To terrify; to con- 
found witli fear or amazement. — Obsolete. 
MMiy Hvre ojtoniid at ttic«.— /m. Ui. 1*. 

Adam, iu>on a« h« heanl 
The fntal trupais done by Eve, amat'd, 
Aitonied ftood, atul blmnk — JnUcm. 

A&TOK16H, as-ton'ttiab, p. a, (ittmioH^ Sox. e&mtier, 
1-r.) To confound with some snddra piwion, or 
with fear, or wonder; to amazo; to confound. 

AsTUNISHiKO as-ton'niah-ing, a. Very wonderful ; 

Aatonishinolv, as-trtn'niflh-mg-!p, ad. In a man- 
ner so as to excite? sfitonishmcnt. 

AsTONisniKGNTSB, tts-ton'nlsh'ing-nes, j. The 
quality of exciting astonishment. 

AarosifiUMi^T, u-ton'iah-ment, a. Amazement; 
conf\iBion of mind. 

AsTorKP, as-townd', r. fi. To aatomsb ; to coa^ 
found with fear or wonder. 

Tlicxc thotiFttiU m-ij itorUo wcU, but not 
Tho virtuotu mind, that over waika attended 
By n strong aiding champion 

Astraddle, a-strad'dl, ad ^Ith oih*i Isgi 

AaxU'CA, as'tre-a,a. (attron^ a star, Gr.) A genua 

of fixed stoncy oornls, bckmgiog to the tribe Po- 

lyjn VaginL The Aatrca form hpmwphcrical or 

globtilar maasesi, whieh are rarely lobed, and have 

tlte npper surface shaded with orbicular or an- 

goiatod, laminar, or soasile stars. Tbe animals, 
bit ^^ 



when iKre, prvsent a very beautiful appcAmncc, 
making the rockB on wliich they fix their calcare- 
oua babitatiocB, accm one living mass of brilliant 

AsTBJEX^ as'tre-a, x. In Mythology, according to 
Bome, tlic diinght«r of Jupiter and Theraia. She 
was tennnl tlic goddess of justice. Sbo Uved on 
tnrtb doling the goUen age, but was forced b}' 
Uie wickedaeBS and impiety of the soooeeding iron 
and bmien ages to leave this world for heaven, 
wbure she obtiuoed a plaoe among tbe oonsteUations 
OS Virgo, tlie virgin. She is represented as a vir- 
gin having a stem bat mAJwtic oooutenauoe, with 
M aword in one hand, and a pair of scales in the 
other. The name given hj M. Encke, of Dresden, 
lo n planet disoovettd bj him, 13th Dea, 1845. 
k has the appearance of a star of the ai^ih or 
tixith magnitude. 

AsTRACS, aa'tre-us, t. In Mythology, one of the 
Utana who made war on Jupiter, tho hushand of 
Aoroni, and father of Zcphyrua, Boreas, Notus, 
Aod Argeates. 

Astragal, aa'hra<gal, s. (ajrtraffoloi, a die or huckle- 
bone, Gr.) la Ardiitficturc, a small round GXivt 
or inouliliiig endroUog a column. In the more 
omoininital orders, it forms what is t«rmcd tho 
hvpertracheKum, that is, the upper part nf all 
between the capital and the column. The same 
name is given to a semicirculur moulding some- 
tiines out into bMds and l}errieB, which seponvK* 
the diflhrent ftoei of an architrsve;. In Guimery, 
the oonmal ring of a jncoo of ordnance. 

ASTRAOALUll, as-tzag'ft-lus, «. (^Lnlin.) Tlie auklc- 
boae; the sUng-bune, or first bone of the foot, a 
bone of tho tarsos, upon which the tibia u]uvt>s; 
also, the MUk-vetch, a genus of phints ; two of the 
iipedee, A. bjUMtghttU and A. glycephylio*, hr«^ 
British. Generic character — calyx five-toothotil ; 
corolla with an obtnse keel { stamens diadelphoua \ 
pod two-celled, or balf-two-ccUed, the lower snture 
being turned inwards. A. rrnu, and several other 
apeaes yield the gum-tragaatb or gum-dragon of 

Astral, as'tnl, a. (French.) Pertaining to the 
Btari; starry. 

AsTRAimiTrs, as-tnn'Mua, f. (aHron^ and anihon, 
a flower, Gr. from the lobee radiating in a ntju-like 
manner.) A genus of plants, natives of Cocliin- 
China: Order, Ilomaljoeie. 

AsTKAMTiA, o-stran'she-a, $. (attnm, a sUir, Gr.) 
Mssterwort ; a genus of ambelliferoas plants^ hav- 
ing a beaut^ starlike arrmigement of the tnvolu- 
cmm; the umbel fasiculated, and the fruit ai<:loHcd 
ill Kttle wrinklud bladdvrtf. 

ABTRATiiiA, as-trtt-po'a, t, {oMttap^^ lightning, Gr. 
from the brQUaot otdoniing of the (luwers^ A 
geoos of flvergreen-troes with splendid uinboUate 
Bowers : Order, BvttDcriaccur. 

AstKAfiA, B-atra'pe-o, a, A genua of birds belong- 
iDg to the family StunudiB or Surlings, with exoea- 
bivcly long boat-shaped taiU, and brilliant plumsgc. 

ASTBAT, as-tra', ad. (ciservif/iii*, Sax.) Out of the 
ripht way. 

ASTMii'UL.i, as-tre'fe-a, «. (a, without, and tttrphn^ 
I mm, Gr, from the calyx not bang tumod buck 
at the time of flowering.) A genus of plaiit» : 
Order, ViUerianes. 

ASTAICT, aH-trikt', r. a. {attrinffo^ tutrictus, LaL) 
To ountroct by aslringent appUoHti<Hi; to bind ; — a. 

Abtricta Ai.ruB, a-strik'ta al'rns, «. (LatiiL) 
Medicine, oostiveneaB d the bowda. 

AijTBiCTiON, as-tzik'sbon* «. (asHotio, lot.) 
act of contracting ports of the body by 
gent applications; astringency; the opentian 
astringent medicines. 

AsTBiCTivK, as-trik'tiv, o. Styptk; of R 
or coiitractiirB nature. 

AsTRiCTORT, as-trik'to-re, a. Astringent ; oft 

AitTRUtE, a-stridfl', ad. With the legs widely 

ASTRUTERODS, s-strif 'e-ms, a. {tutri/atit 
Having or bearing aUra. — Not used. 

AsTRiORRous, a, {aatrigfert ImL) Carrying 
— Not used. 

ASTR15CK, ft-strizy', r. a. To drsw tho porta 
body together; to tund. 

AsTRiSGENcr, os-trin^en-se, s. Tbepofwof 
tracting parts of a body. 

AnTRJNGEXT, os-trin'jcDt, a. (oMtrmgait, 
Binding : contracting ; opposed to Uxatiri! 
applied ahfo to substanceo, such as alnm, 
have a tendency to coutrnct llie month; 
medidne wliicfa, when applied to the bod)-, 
the solids more dense by ooatnicting their 

AsTRODLCPAS, as-trob'ble-pss, ». (luZ/vn, a 
and btepo, I sec, Gr.) A genus of the Cat-i 
saitirithr-^ with naked heads and truncated 
Sub-family, Asprsdintt. 

AsTROCANTHtTB, as-tro-koii'tAttS) «. (mfnM^ 
kantMoMf a S]uno, Gr.) A genus of fiahet VI 
have the head and bmty ncariy otiiiculor, 
cm-wed with spines. 

AsTROCRlxiTES, as-tro-ktft-ni'tcft, m. (astnm, 
trinon^ a lily, Gr.) A gnus of fuaril 
deans, found iu the carboniferous limestooe 

AsTHODERJUllCfE, as-tro-dcr'me-np, x. (oMtron, 
derma, dcin, Gr.) A Bubdi^Hj«ion of the im 
GaiypbienideB; fishes with lengthened oral 
the crown pbbous or obtuse; the mouth 
ventral fins nearly awantiog and the body i 
with scattered scolca: Type of the genoi AiCr^ 

AsTROGXOsr, os-trog'no-H, *. (af/rois, and 
laowledge, Gr.) Same as a.stronomy. 

AsTROORAPHT, as-trog'ra-fu.f. (oMtrottyMad ffrqAit, 
I describe, Gr.) The sdenoo which deacnbes tho 
nature, poutiou, and properties of the stars. , 

AsTROLAOB, aa'tro-lobe, s. {astron, and ("fLrm*, 1 
tAke, Gr.) An astrDnomical instrument, compesol 
of two or more drolcs, having a ooiranaa oentif ; 
a planisphere or stereograpluo projection of the 
sphere on the plane of its great drdea, formoly 
used duefiy in taking the altitude of the baimijy 
bodies at HO. 

AsTROLOiiiux, as-tro-lo'be-om, s. (osO'^oii, aad 
Mar, a pod, Gr.) A genua of annual legumiaots 
plauts, named Cram the storiike arrangemeat of 
the pods. 

AsTBOLOOER, as-tToIVjur, s. (osfron, and iog9$t s 
discourBO, Gr.) One who pretends to forrtiBfi 
events by the upeota of tho ataia. It was an- 
dcutly used of one who imdcratood or explaioed 
the motions of the planets, irittont including pi*- 

AsTROLOGiAN, as-tro-lojc-an, m. An astrologer. 

Tho stars, they aay, oaniMt dispose 

Mo more than oou tha wtrotcyf****.— AwWiv*. 


IXT, ift-bro-lrg'e-kiil-le, ad. 


L ProfeHing 
astnitog7; re- 

in an 

y ai*tnl'o-jiie, r. m. To pncUu 

a-trarH*! *- («*^>)>'e>9M| Ij^) The 
to ksow emte by s loww- 
«■ Art now feoenUf exploded 
pfakal and fUse. 

, a»*lfooVmiiri«. (tutroi^ ind noMO*, 
Odo who ttudies the Dscure, roagni- 
OM, sod niotiani of celestial bodie*, 
I kj which tfa0j in EOTemed. 
^ktro-Dom'ik, ^ a. Belonging 
Af u-tzv-nomVkal.^ to tstroDooiy. 
IU.T, itt-tro-Dom'e-kal-le, od !□ on 

I, M-troa'o-iniu, v. n. To ittndy 

rilo CkHmtuu ftmnd » paradlM to a 
^MflfeMwramoa earth beid a rcoTtf. 
ft t Am Vmj MtfpmamUed In earM. aod 
MM MM Ilka ff ar*. had UM gtofj of baaveo 

r« cvtit itof . 

M-tEun'o-mo, s. (im aatr o Boma.) 
«Udk aacertjani hj obKmtioo and 
ll AJftloB the oature of the bodica 
ha otetial ipaeea; delanninea their 
aaubtiafaea the prooft of the 
»A the mobUitj of olhen ; ex* 
moTonenbi of the latter, and 
rUcb thoy dcacribo roond thcif ventres 

as-lvo-no'tQi, a. (atirtm^ and mmDw, 
kJ) a gtoos of fiahea, belooging to 
TiBrtirfmi. with broad otjU bodies, 
^ mA krp nioatiu ; the under jew 
M vppcr« and the fina nrj scaly. 
,l^ltt»Hikope, «. (oifnM, ud aibqpeo, I 
An ascronamkal EnstnuneDtf oompoaKl 
1^ «■ iIh ffirfaee of which tho stars sod 
m an ttLfatbttod, by which meaiu; tltey 
■sd ia the heaTtms. 
k| aa-ttivako'pe-a,) s. In Astronomy, 
li^W-ako-pe, { the art of oxjud- 
Ml I7 neana of ti»eaoopes. 
IB, aa-tro-^o'ro-am, c (astron^ and 
iprnkv Gr.) A nunatc lUck fungus, 
•dhwdi braachea. 

nxMT, aa-tro-cAe-ol'o-je, r. {astrtm^ 
and ieyoa, a disoouree, Or.) Proof of 
w and coctrirano! of a Deity, founded 
mcioB of tbc huaTonly bodies. 
k, aa-trat'ra-^a, a. (after, a star, tMrix, 
r, On ia i rfw m ua to the atany down 
of th« petals.) A ganna of 

ahnihi: Order, Unibelliftiie. 

«. la Aatrononiy, a cluster of 
r, the power imparted by che- 

nt^y fldL la a stnitUog or swelling 
as', «. ik (thmaoH^ Sax.) To stun.— 

boaMMir J braathkas and aAetn'd 

1; a. A g^BBi of hawks with a ahort 
from tha hue, and oonvax 

owswan froi 


abore, irith nomowbat oval Dostrils ; tha Goeluwl^ 

A* pahmMbaritu^ ia the only Kuropean ^lemas. 
AflTDTBf as-tute', o. C'^bJW, Lat) Cannijiig; 

penatratittg; sly. 
AfiTDTEiCBSS, as^tote'aea, t, (tututio, Lat) Crafki- 

neas; cnnning. 
AsTrDAMXA, as-tc-da'me-a, «. In M; tliologyf tha 

daoghter of Ooeanos ; aljo, the name ^na to a 

geons of plants foand on the seA'Shore io the 

Canary Iilimda: Order, UmbeUi fc r ai n attly allied 

to the Panuiip, Ptutmaa. 
AarvDEB, a-sun'dnr, ad. (oMMM^ran, Sax.) Apart; 

separately; not together. 
Aswooit, a-awooo', ad. (fmranan, to faint, Sax.) 

In a swoon. — Obsoleto. 

The nalfEhboiin, Iwtb imall and (;rele, 
Inraiuien, fin- to ^ur on this man, 
That jrct aMooon lay buth palo and wad.— 


A^TLtm, a-si'lam, s: (atyhtm^ Lat. from the Greek 
(uylott, from a, not, and tylto, I ptllagr.) Ancient- 
ly a sanctuary or place of nfloge for criiiiintU. In 
its raodem signification — a bouse for the snpport 
of the blind, the dumb, the Innatlc, or the destitute. 

ASTUUETaAL, a-sim'me-tralf \ a. Dispropor- 

AsYMUKTuiCAL. a-sini-mct're-cal,| tioaate. 

AsTVKCTBY, a-Biin'me-tre, J, ((uymmefna, Gr.} 
Disproportion ; cootnuiety to symmetry. Used 
sometimes in Mathematics for what is more osnally 
called inoommeniur&biliCy.whaibetwaRi twoqoau- 
tities thero is no common measnre. 

AaTKTOTE, aa'sim-tote, 5. (o, prir, jyn, with, ^rfrfo, 
I full, dr.; which never meet; bcaincident.) 
lu AliUbemalicK, awpnivta are right lines which 
approach nearer and nearer to some curve, out 
which, though the^' and their curve were iutlnitely 
oootinaed, would never meet, and may be con- 
crived as tuugents to their currvs at an infioite 

AbtmtotiCai^ a-aim-tot'e-kal, u. Corveo are aaiJ 
to be attfttUotical when tbry oontinnally approach, 
without a puMubilily of meeting. 

Abvndkton, a-sinMe-ton, ». (a, not, tyndto^ I l»nd 
together, Gr.) A Sgore in Grammar when a con- 
jtmction copaULti%"e ia omitted in a sentence, as, 
* I came, I saw, I conquered ;' wbere the copohi- 
tivc and is omitted. 

At, at, prtp. At, before a place, notea the near- 
nesa of the place — as, a man is at the hooae before 
he b in it; At, before a word signilyingtiinc, notes 
the oo-exiBtenoo of tho time with the oreat ; At, 
befojv a snperiative adjective, implies in the state, 
aa at most, in the state of moat perfection, &c. 
At, signifies the porticulv condition of tho person 
•— aa, at peace ; At, sometimes marks employment 
or attenUon — sa, * he U at work' ; At, sometimes 
the same as funushcd with — as, ' a man at arms;* 
At, aomotimes notea the plaoe where anything is — 
as, ' he ia at home ;' At, aooMtiniM is nearly the 
same as In, noting ntoatlon ; At, sometimes seems 
to signify in tho power of, or obedient to — as, ' a< 
your sen'ico;' At, all; in any manner; At some- 
times signii^cfl in immrdiatc consequence of. 
tni|>cnchmeut« at tho proBccuUuii of the Hqum of 

Commotw, hive rerHvea thutr delcmilnatiuiii in llie 

Ilotise uf Lords.— ZJiok. 

At, marks sometimes tlio effect proceeding from 

an ftcU 

Those may be of u*e to conflrm tiy Buthuritjt, what 
Ihey win nut be at the trouble to deduco b> reasoning. 
— ^r&HlAMoC. 





Atabai^ atVbftl, t, A kind of Ubor naed by the 

Chlltlren chall beat our <UabaU and flnuiu. 
And bU the Dotiy tnule* of nnr ao mum 
Shall «rmk« lli« paaovfbl mom.— />ryuEcn. 

Atacamite, a-UlcVmite, s. iKativc maiuta of 
oopp«r, or prunutoidjtl gp^n mnlachite, oooniU 
ing a( oxide of ooppc**, 7ti.(j ; muriatic odd, 13.4 { 
water, 11; sp. gr. 4.0 — 4.3. It is of vkriotu 
•httdcfl of gnen, and ocatin io minuto crrsula, q^ 
which the primary form u a ri^tit rhunibio prum. 
It is truuiuoent, or ocarij trunsparcnt, Mit, aiid 
brittle; rtnak, upple-greeo ; lustrv, vitroous. It 
i« found in the Mods of Lbo river Lipos, in the 
desert of AtAiuAca, (lieoce its oame,) and in the 
\u\a3 of VesunusL 

Ataohan, ftt'a-gan, j. A small sword or dojigcr 
worn by the Turks. 

ATALAiTTUtlft, a-ta-hrn'Mus, «. {ataloM, lof^ fttid 
oMCAoc, a flower, Gr.) A genus of composite 
plant*, the preanthrs of UnnoHifl. 

Atauasco, a-ta-mas'co, «. A lily of the Amaryl- 
lis family : Genos, Z«phyranthns. 

AtARjucr, at'a'nik-M.j. (a/aracAw, Gr.) Exezn[»- 
tion from veution ; tranquil I Uy. 

ATAROATKe, a-ttir'ga-tis, ». A Phcpniciiui goddess, 
Tvpresontpd aa a nrm, with the head and breasts 
of a woman, and the tail of a fish. 

Ataxt, at'ok-se, j. {ataxia^ Gr.) Want of order ; 
eoofiiBon ; with phyndans, irregalsritios in the 
criaas and piLroxysms o£ fdveis. 

Atk, ate. Tlw part, of the Tczb Io eat 

Atb, a'te. In Mythology, the goddeaa of all evil 
and mischieff and dauKhter of Jupiter, who, in 
oonsequenoe of her seditions^ and malevolent con- 
duct b beat-ea, banished her far from it, and sent 
ber to earth, when she became the exciting cause 
of war and wickedness of all kiod^. 

ATEOJia, at'le-gar, «. (aton^ tu fling, and gar, a 
dart, Sax.) The name of a kind of hund-dart 
QMd by the Angto-Soxona. 

Atsllan, a-tel'lut, a. Relating to the dramas at 
Tb«lr r«acennin, anil AtdLm wajr of wit, wsi in early 

days pruUltntnl,— ^A^/tribury. 

Atkllahje, a-tel'lao-e,) «. (from Atrlla, an ancient 
ATBIXAKft, a-ttl'lnnx, j town of Tuecany in Italy, 
when farcea, dilTering from low comedy, only by a 
gnatar Uoaatiouiuss, originated.) Dramatic n- 
pmentatlona, satirical or licentioos. They vere 
finally so pprts sa j by the Roniaa Senate. 

Uany old poeu did write faawmnliies MeBaiu, and las. 
ctvlao* ooog*.— Avftm. 

ATCUCIf at'el-es,#. (nfeAu, imperfect. Gr.) A genus 
of South American monkics, which wont thumbs 
on the antnior hands, but are funiished with long 
pnhensUc tails. 

.^TCCCnCA, al'u-kus, f. A genus of rolcopterons 
jnasots, two spedfS of which were held sacred by 
the aneteat Egyptians, and are found scnlptured 
on Ibdr moUDinents, Kals, amulets, &c., and got 
somotiinos in their momnty coffins : Family, La- 

ATUALAUot's, »-(Aalla-mus, *. {a, without, Otala- 
mot, a little chamber, Gr.) AppUod to those 
lichens, the tballos of which is wiiiiout shields. 

Athamaitta, a-cAa-man'tu, j. (monnt Athomaf.) 
The Spignal, a genus of herbaceous plants, with 
nTHPtlbfapos flowen. 

AtllAXAtu, A-tta-Da'sbe-a, i. (a, witboot, 

dcathf Gr.) Goldilocks, • gaciu of «a 
plants with yellow enduing flowen. 

Atuasasiak, a-(Aa*ua'fthan, ». Ona wlw m 
in the early agea of Christianity, the docli 
opinions of Athanasins ;— a. relating to d 
of St. Athonasius, the principal doctrines fl 
are given in these extracts — 'the Cathol 
is this: that we worship ono God ia 
and Trinity in Unity. Ndtber c on fi wl 
persons, nor dividing the sabstooce. For 
one poaon of the Father, another of the I 
anotimr of the Holy Ghost But lln- Go^ 
the Father, of the Sob, and of the Hd^ 
is all one ; the glory equal, the majesty ev 
Such as (bo Fiithcr is, such is the Soo, 4 
ia tlie Holy Ghciitti' — namely, ' onon^ 
comprehensible — eternal, Ac* AnotU 
uf tliis creed, is, ^ whoaoevarwill be avnA, I 
tluiigs It is neoessary that be hold tht' 
faith ; which faith, except erery one do kn 
and ondefilcd, without doubt ho shall /cri 

AnLAKon, a^'a-nor, «. A kind of djcari 
naoo used by the old chemists. 

Atmu, nt^e, s. (atA, Sax.) Aa oath. — Obi 
Set we may not be assoUed offbU aAe, 
Sot ofour liyikhop— Jf'S. /btii.. lOT!,/. I 

The word was used among the Anglo-S« 
Normans for the privilege of administeri^i 
in particular caaes of right and proper^. 

Atubish, a'i&c-iam, a. (from aUieiML) Uk 
the oxistecco of a creative intelligent Finl 

AniEiBT, a'cAo-ist, $. (a, without, TAmm, 
One who denies tJie existence of God 
Ucal ; denying God. 

Nor ittHMl ouniindful A1>dld to 
The aUkift crew.— Jtf Mm. 

Atheistio, ay-cAelft-tik, > <l 

Atukiatical, ay<fAe-ta'tft-kal,) iam. 
ATUEiftTiCAixT, ay-cAe-Vu-kal-Ie, 

atheistical manner. 
Atheistioaijcksb, ay-cAe-is'tc-kal-iwft, | 

quality of being albeisticaL 
ATnmzB, ay'fAc-ize, r. n. To talk 

an atbetftt ; — r. ri, to convert othcia t* I 
Atoel, a'fAel, a. (Saxon.) Noble. — Ofaid 
Atuelwg, aVAel-ing, s. (.Saxon.) A 

[The followlnif Saxon names bare the 
canons: — 

^theiredif ncUf/orocMniel; .EOidsrd.a 
jEtheIbcrt> embwaUy aoUe ; iEtbdwarO, « | 

Atiip.lologian, ay-fAe-O'lo'je-an, «, Ooi 
the opposite to a theologian. 

The; of your •oei«t.v. <Je«uiU.) u llicy book I 
fpaaJ Irom a toldler. so thcjr ore the vaiy fli 
wtuwv beads aatertaui im other ob|)ect bM 4l 
nfrcalmi; wlioae doctrine is nothina butoi 
bloodshed.— iAvjnMnTj Jinntxr to Caumm^ 

A-ratvxJi, a-rJico-e'a, «. (aAaiMt ooe «f 4 
of Minen-B.) Greek festnrals faeU ukk 
Minerva -, nbo, tlie name given to public ; 
the furom and amphithratres, where ptf 
tors, and other prufesson of the Hbenl 
hearsed their productions. 

ATiiEN£L'}il, a (Aen-e'um, i. sM^/or^j 
A word now used in this oountr^ to 
or place of Uteranr resort. 

Atiiexati, a-/A«'na-ti, *. In Antiquity, 
given to a body of PersiAa cn^-alry, wi 
ditod of 10|000 men, a nvmbar which m 

tixuH— ATUurria 


I tint Aeeoont they wen termed 
imBOitalb; the Gnnks. 
m'n^-ma, *, A lutiTe of Atheu ; — 

«% iL (ocAeoi^ Gr.) AUnutie; god- 

m I* iKriy, mho, wid para, nxflbn Uie 
am ytiael lo tnftd hu Mcred euorU— 

»-<W-nK'e-TOs, J. (aJ!A<r, a point or 
■m, • bonif Gr.) In KutotnolujQr, 
llw iSpttn or two-wingied uueota, 
by hmiing two joiol«d antaiiue, and 
liemfinlml by a bristle. 

'a*, *. A genus of oouitbnp. 
wm, iBt«nMdUt« between the cods 
goted^ e< jr^aoAfce. 

-ro'ma, *. (GredL) A ioft unin- 
floauDonly on khe linflH- pointa. 
B, fr-tU-nmi'a-titf, u. OftoeaMore 

, ft-ciU-ro-po'aMlt e. (aXAcr, an awn, 
Gr.) A eniift of gra&ies with 

lA, »-<A&-r»-«per'me, «. (atAtr, and 
M^ Or.) A genos of Aastndian 
e< which ap» fttmuhod with 
of the Inxel, and placed id a 
It i$ allied to the U rtice* 

IkWcr'n-riu, «■ (atktr^ a point, and 
Qr.) The name frfven by Curisr to 
(del* or pencil-taUed Porci>piti«T tlio 
3e tail of which u terminated by a 
fctaDod homy aljpe. 
tat\0dL Thinty ; in want of drink. 
mimmfL {Mdatj Cram aCJUw, 
^^^Btoi cmn to penoDs of great 
iPB^iraa diitingnidied IhemMlvm 
l^lar Ute prises at tha Olympic, Py- 

■of Gnwce and Rome. Thn 
[^ hooonr, and no foreign^ 
r of iharing in the conteeid. 
i ooatender for nctoiy. 
tak a Ttgorooa oXikfw .— 

t4si'^ a. Pertaining to wroatUng ; 
Irs vigoruu ; luity ; robust. 
Bpft-iam, f. The act of combating 
Jp ea; moscolar strength. 
BKt\ pf^ (ai, and tktearL) Acrocs ; 
ft «D7thnig \-—ad. in a mannur viixa* 
l^cziBg; wrang. 

Iha mine, and <|uitc aOurarl 

■dL Ift the manner of a tilter; with 
t R ma wMpg a tbnut at an anta- 
i0 posture of a baml raised or tilted 
t to maJce it nm out. 

If not, IhU iftand 
se atvearh. atfU. and run 



•fao-te'siif a. BesembliniE Atln.^. 
ks ftev the world on bi« kboalderv 

M«a Aaoldan at to bear 

tt of Bi^Hi''*** moaarclikeb^ JVBloH. 

bo'dfc,*. (oUamScttM, LaU) Relating 
ivldch lies between Enrope and Africa 
and, and Amarics oa the other. 


ATI.AMTIBR8, at-Iao 'te-dea, $. (ftom Atlaa.) In 
Architecture, the fifinrea of men supporting an 
entablature instead of colamni, called oIm Cary- 
tidei.— Which see. In Astronomy, the Pleiadei 
or seven Mam, so named from tho seven daughters 
of Atlas, who, on account of their connection wHh 
the gods and the most iUustrions hrrors, and their 
groat intelligence, are said to have been changixl 
oAer their death into a ooosteUation. 

Atlas, at'laa, «. A large eollection of mapa, so 

^ termed, probably, from such a collection having ttio 
pictnre of Atlaa snpporting the world un his 
shoalden on the totlo-page; a large eqaare faliu 
paper, sodi^os maps arv nsoaUy detinoated upon ; 
a kind of rich aatin cloth for ladiea* apparel^ {altas^ 
satin, Ger.) 
I have the conveni^nejr of bnylnir Diiteli oAtMtm with 

gold and tilrer or wiUioaL— fp^dotor. 

In Mytliology, one of the Titans, the son of Jupo- 
tns and Clymene, and father <if ttic Heaperideit ur 
Atlantidcs. Ho was the king of ftlauritanta, whcro 
he haH a L^eautiful garden. Perseuii, od hin ret iini 
from the conqnwt of the Oocgona, is fnhled to 
have passed the palaca of Athu, and to hure re- 
ceived violent treannent, and the rcfnsal of hoapi- 
tablo entertainment, whereupon he sSiowcd him the 
bead of Mcdosn, which bad the r.Tect of instantly 
converting bim into a inonntaia. In Aiutomy, the 
nppcrmofit joint of the neck, so called from its 
supporting the cmiuum, as Atlas is represented 
supporting the world. 

AmospuERB, at'mos-fere, i. {atmot^ raponr, and 
its eihnlatioDs, which surrouods the globe i In 
sphftira, a sphere, Ur.) The spbore of air, with 
height firom 40 to 50 miles, and having a preasore 
of about 16 lbs. AvoirdopMS on the s(|tinre inch ; 
and as all other gaseons sabatancos are oapabis of 
being much condenicd, a oondeasattan so as to 
produce a pressure of 15.30 or 45 pounds, as 
said to be thst of one, two, or three atmoepherKs. 
—See Air. 

A'raosriUBic, at-mo»-fcr'ik, \ a. Relating 

Atmospherical, at-mos-ferVkal,> iv the atmos- 

AxiiospBKUO TiSM, at-mos-ferlk t^dez, m. A 
certain change which takes place in the presiure 
of the atniospberQ, owing to Uie inflaonce of the 
solar or lufmr attraction, or these oorabined, — of 
this description ore the eqainootial winds. 

ATI.1H, at'tum, s. (a, not, tenma, I cnt, Gr.) The 
smallest particle of which we can conceive any 
material substance composed ; anything extremely 

ATJloMETUn, at-mom'e-tur, s. {atmnt, rapoor, and 
(iKfrofi, a measure, Gr.) An instrument for mea- 
suring the quantity of vapour evaporated from a 
humid surface or bixly, 

Atomical, a-lom'e-kal, a. Consisting of; or re- 
lating to atoms. 

Atovibv, at'tum-ixm, ) tt. The doctrine vf 

Atouuloot, a-tom-olVje, ) atoms. 

Atomist, at'to-mist, *. One who beHerea in the 
nncicnt doctrine that the univerBO ia an aggrega- 
tion of atoms fortuitously hronght together during 
the past et«mitT. 

Atowio TiiBonr, a-tom'tk Mc'o-re, «. Tho doc- 
trine that all bodies are composed of ultimntc' 
atoms, differing in weight in different bodies. 

AToaao WEionra, atom'ik wntes', ». Numbers 
intended to show the reUtire weights of the atoms 




of dJAereat •ul»Unces : hydroK«Q being generallj 
ftffiuued «s 1 : lh« otomio weight of oxygen is 6 : 
water b a oompounU of 1 atoca of hydrogen, and 1 jf 
oiygen ; iU otomic weight ia thcrefora 1 x 8 = 'J. 
At<MCUXE, at'tom-like, a, Ilaaanbtiog atoms. 
Thoj all mmli] TAnlih, and not dare appaarc, 
Who okMiUkc wh«o tboir mn ibbwil dior*, 
Daac'd in ttU bsamv— £>v«m'j BriL 

Atoxt, at'o-ioQ, f. As atom. — Obeolet«. 

Toa lUrved blood-hoond !— Thou atomff, thou ! 


ATOKBf a-tone', r. n. Co/, and qm.) To agrao; to 
■coord; — v. a. to cxpiat«; to make an atonement 
for, by oSicring an oquivalcijt, and thus eHiectiog a 
rvooDcQiation of tho party injured or oSeoded. 

aSS^bT'i^^W, } "'^ '*''"»^' ^^^^ *^"'"- 

So boeoe they both atone, and do«ii upr«4re 
Thdr bcavcn bright each other fur u* ^rcrf. — 

All hia Moata Mtni'd benrft a/tow. 
Alid bomt tbej tniflffeii ia a royall thron«, 
OrowDad aa huy; and hi> qtiMu aUoM 
Waa lady Flora.— ^fmurr. 

Atosmmkkt, a-tone'mcnt, ». The act of nuking 
peace by offering an equivsleiit, or imcfa an obla- 
tion to tho offvadcd piuty, aa to aecure forgive- 
ne». Mlieti one is said to atono for hia past 
faulta by good behaviour, it does not ngnify that 
he hat giren an equivalent to society fur hJx past 
offences, bat that ho has ao acted as to scctire to 
himself the forgit'encu and rcapcct of socivty. 
Tlie nifferinga of Christ are conaidcreU by Trini- 
tarians as an cquiTnJeot offered to the offended 
JnstUw of the Deity for the &ns of a portion, or 
the whole of mankind ; tho Unitanana, on the 
other bind, deny that tbe atonement offend fdg- 
mfiea anr mora than au acceptable oblation offered 
to God by tho exhibition of godlike ^•irtuo on the 
part of the Redecnier. 

Atoxer, a-to'nur, t. One who makes rcoonciliatton. 

Atonic, a-ton'ik, j. (a, mthont, and tonic.) That 
which baa a tendency to relax the system. 

AtoKT, Bt'ton-e, ». (o/omo, Gr.) Debility of body ; 
relaxatioD of the system. 

Atop, a-top', ad. On th« top ; at the top. 

ATRABiXJtaiA.*f, at-tra-be-ht'ro-an, > a.(am>,ddrk, 

ATRAUluutlolFji, at-tra-be-la're-uA,) and fti/if,biK 
Lat.) Melancholy dispoution. 

AtraBILAAIOOSNESB, at-tra-be-la're-ns-neH, a. 
The stito of mulonclioly indaced by a disordered 
Btato of tbe bile. 

AnLUfXKTJLl^ at-tra-mon'ta], \ a. {atramfntttm, 

ATSUOorroCB, at-tra-men'tus, ) Lat.) Inky; 

AlBJUffKHTABioua, at-tra-men-ta'ro-os, a. Suit- 
able for making ink. 

ATaAPOAJUs, at-tra-faka'ts, a. (a, withont, and 
(ropAeHi, to nourish, Gr.) A genus of plaiita of 
the nntural ord«r Polyc^mes, so named from tlic 
want of a nutritive qiiality. 

Atrso, at'red, a. (ata-j Lat.) Tinged with a black 

It cannot expr«*« any otlicr humour tlian yellow- 
eboler, or atrtd, or a mixture of both.— H'hiiaktrs Btot/d 

AxBir, a-trip', a. A sea term. The andior is said 
to be anchcr atrip when it is drawn out of the 
gronnd in a perpeudicutu' direction ; the topsails 
are atrip when they ore hoisted np to the masl* 

Atriitx, at're-um, a. (Lat.) In anciet 
ardutcctun*, a court ninounded by porti 
interior [lart of Bmnsn housea. Tbe 
genus of shrubby or heibftoeoos plinli 

Atbociocs, a-tro'fihns, a. (fitrnx^ en 
Ueinonaly- wicked ; horribly criminal. 

ATMOClofTBLT, a-tro'shus-lc, ocL In on 

ATROciousirsas, a-tn'shns-nes, t. Th« 
being enormuusJy crtmiual. 

Atbocity, at-tros'w-M, a. Exoenof«j 

Atkopa, at'tro-pa,*. (ofropo*, one of I 
Gr.) A genus of poisonous plants, omti 
deadly nightahadc, and otbtr poisooool 
Order, Solanec 

Atrophy, at'tro-fe, r. Want of aoii 
wasting away of tbe flesh. 

Atxopia, a-tro'p<»-j\, s. (from o/ropo,.) 
oua alkaline substance obtained frna t) 
belladonna or dmdly nightshade. 

Atta, at'ta, *. (oflo, a father, Gr.) A 
antH, distingniahcd from the fonQtca or 
by their very minute palpi, and b_y the 
of the heads of the neuters. The Atta « 
or risiting ant of South America, a tl 
the genns. These ants find thdr wi^ 
into houses, and dfsstroy cocknodic^ ^1 
eren mice and rats. j 

Attach, at-talah', r. a, (atUtcher, Fr.) ' 
to take or apprehend by commoiMlmed 
to •«» in a judlciAl manner: to win 
over ; to enamour ; to fix to one's inteit 

Attachable, at-tatshVbl, a. That w 
be attached or taken. 

Attacuhe^ at-tatsh'ment, $. (Fnoch ] 
cnce; fidelity; attention; regnrd. In L 
cess awarded by a court, for the taking ol 
or his goods into ccitodr. Forrii^ ol 
ia the attachment of a foreigner's goods 
his creditoni; tbe jurisdiction of the fod 

k forest hath \ioT court of «ltatkmgiH$, I 
court, where mattcn are as pleadable and def 
as at Wastminstw UalL— AMriTs UOtn. 

Attack, at-tack', v. a. (atiaquer. Ft.') 1 
aa eoflmy ; op|)OBed to dtfenct ; to impg 
maoner, as with ntire; confutation t 
as, ' tbe dodaimer attacked the repotafi 
adi'crsarics;' — s. an assault upcru uo eni 

Attackbr, at-tak'ur, «. Tbe person wj 
an attack. 

Attacus, at'tak-u.<^ «. (Lntin.) A genu 
and beautiful uoctumal moths, some 
form oocooos, from which ailk is manoGi 

.Attacks, at'ta-jen,^. A namogivcn to 
of pheasant found in Sicilj. 

Attaobkus, at-ta-jo'nus, s. {attt^em^ , 
genus of coleopterous insccta. 

ATTAiy, at - tain', r. a. {ttUeimdr^ FV.) I 
to procure ; to obtain ; to overtakt ; tv 
to eutor upon; to reach; to eqpal; — 9»% 
to a certain state ; to arrire at ;— a. ' 
attained ; attainment. — Obaoleto in tUa 

Crowns and diadems, the OMMt splendid \ 
tahtM, are akin tu tliat which to-day is Id the lis 
morrvw is cut dotra.— HTnBmOe'j A'^mjmul 

ArrAiKADLH, at-tane'a-bl, a. Thai vti4 
attainod; pnwoxablsL 



'ft-bl-Dcs, «. The qtuiity 

, ■t*Un«'ihu-, «. (old Frpnch.) In Law, 
or «uREiqi(i«a of the blood of « oimuiB], 
been ooDTicted of felony or treuon, and 
CO death; Utnt; stain; ^eraoe. 
•t-tsBc'ment, «• An aoiniBilion or 
obtttoed hj itadj or experieocc; n 

it-UiTnt', r. a. {ad^ to» and ttngo, ttnctvg, 
Fr.) To auin ; to at^'^'^S^ ''^^ 
p penoa daljr caaricled of a crime, and 
m tnmn or felooy ; ooutamtnatctl, and 
defikd; to du^oe ; to cloud with 
to taaot ; to oocrupL 
w yomth mu nerar yet aUabU 
f pawitrn of Inflatnlng lovo. — ShaJa. 

^ a man ia atfataftW two wajs—by appcar- 
r \j prooaaa. AUumder Ay apptaruttct, is 
b^llf^ or v«nlicth Ckinfesaon is 
at tbo bar befona the jadgoa, when 
r, man hia indictment bemg read, in 
bir W ii gmity or not faulty, and an- 
b tW jfimutive. The other li before the 
where be, upon his oonfes- 
■^ it Avmer times, constrained tn ahjnrp 
\ vUifc waa termed attainder by abju- 
JUtt^uhr kjf battle, was when the party 
1^ «■! «hMM>ng to try the truth by com- 
I bTJurfjWaavanquishftl Artain- 
h when the prisoner, after under- 
proaonnoed pulty. Attainder by 
\m wbao • party flees, and ia not found, 
called pubBoly in the country, and 
■poo hia defikoH ; — part, a, con- 
tpot ; taint ; anythinf; injari- 
— OLaolete in the liiU#r 



and all-waieltcd n%t]|, 

and overbears < - * ' 

eemblaoce.— .siAaJtf. 

I a writ to inaoire whether a jary of twelve 
M a iabe TBralct, tluit the judgment tbero- 
W lemaed ; and thia must be bronght 
of Inin fur whom the vanlict was 
of two, at least, of the jarwa who pvxe 
laiuuuiihip, a blow or wound upoo the 
of ahofse. 
■t-ta7iit'iiKQt| f. The state of be- 

tane'tnre, i. Legil imputation 
ipa; tcpRMch. 

ftn^ at-tJUnVaate, r. a. (ottamino, Lat.) 
t; to^mL 

feosBS, at'tar or ro'sea, «. A highly 
oil, made from the petaU of tlic 

t% af-tere-bas, /. (Latin.) A gmoo of 
IB itttPCtA, with straight onteniifc, con 
li alei m 'Jointa, the thiw laat fi>nain^ :\ 
dub. A. coryli lives on the hatol^ i> 
nth n4 rrticolated dylra: Family, JUiyn- 

I, at-lom'pv, V. a, (atttmpfro, Lat.) T<> 
to •often; to ngolate; to mix in ^Ual 

jLUtCX, at-tcm'per-ans, t. (tOtempranct^ 
B The old word for leinp*rann>. 
■llua, mriiw^wiawn thp i*r«Dturo n*iuitinut>lr 
BfrentoOBkUclidriak.— /lutityoGkriAJAin. 

Attkuperaix, at-trm'pe-ratA, r. o. (atfemprrQ, 
Lftt.) To proportion to somcthinE-^OhwIctc 

IIofMt muit be nrrtpo rtioned and atumper«a tnthe pro- 
mtMt ; if it rxcn^d lliat temper and (>mfHn-ll'iii, it tMivuutMl 
a tumour and tyroiMuiy orhope.—iAiniMor^ 

Attkmperlt, at-t«n'pur-le, tuL 
maimer. — Obaolete. 

In a temperate 

Oewneth you alio cf tout diet* 
AUemfei^ and namely in thU lute.— CAouew. 

AracMPT, at-temt', u. a. (atteater, Fr.) To tryj 
to tgtiAy ; — r. n. to make an attack ; — «. an attack ; 
an effort; an endeavour; an esaaj. 

ATTGkn-TABLE. at-temt'ta-bl, a. Liable to at- 
tempts or attaoka. 

AiTKMPm, at-temt'tnr, t. One who attempts or 
attodnt in endearonrer. 

AiTEifD, at-tend', r. a. {(dtendoy Lat.) To accom- 
pitny as on attendant ; to be prewnt when aum- 
moned ; to regard ; to fix the mind upon ; to wait 
on; — r. a. to yield attention; to stuy; to delay; 
to wait ; to be within reach or call 

ATTEHDJiliOK, at-ten'dtuis, t. (French.) The act 
of waiting on another, or of wr^ing ; the persona 
waiting; a train ; regard; attention. 

ArTKNiiaxT, at-ten'dant, a. (French.) Accom- 
panying as Bobordinate or consequential ; — a. o/am 
that attends ; ooa that waits the pleasure of an- 
other, M a suitor or agent ; tliat which is onitMl 
with another, as a concomitant or oooaeqncut; 
one who is presout at anything. In Xjnv, one that 
owes a duty or service to another, or depends oa 

Attender, ut-teu'dur, «. Compnmon; associata. 

Attckt. at-tent', o. (u//enfw, Lat.) luteut ; at- 
tentive ; hcctlful. 

AlTKNTATE*, at-ten'tsTts, ». {aitcntnta, Lat.) 
Proceedings in a i^urt of law after au iaHhitiun 
lias been decreed. 

Attektioh, at-tim'shnn, s. (French.) The act of 
nttending or heeding. 

Atticmtivx, At-tt^i'lir, n. Heedfiil ; n^ardfhl; 
fmll of attention. 

ATTErcTiVEj.Y, at-tcn'tiT-le, odL HeedftUly; eare- 

AiTCKTiTEKESfl. at-ten'tiv-nes, s. Heedfnlneaa; 

Attkwcant, at-ten'a-ant, a. {attrnwrni^ Lat) 
Endued with the power of making thin or slender; 
appHed to mcdicinee which are siipposed to mske 
the bloed thmner. 

Attekuatb, at-ten'u-atc, r. a. To make thin or 
Blender ; to lessen ; to diminish ; — a. made thia 
or slender; tapering gradually to a point. 

Attenuated, at-ten'u-at-ed, o. part. In Botanyf 
dirainiahiog in bulk from one extn'mity to another. 
Applied more particularly to leaves which become » 
very tiiin, (liuttnishang from llieir base to the apes, 
or from their apex to the base. 

ArrcKUATiOft, aC-ten-u-a'ehun, s, (Freodi.) Tht 
act of making anything thin or slender; kesasn 
ing; the stale of being made thin or less. 

Atter, at'tnr, *. («to*, venom, tiax.) Corrupt 

Atterate, at'ter-ate, v. a. To wear away ; to form 
by wearing. 

AlTKRATioy, at-ter-a'ahiin, s. Tlie wesuTng away 
of the earth by the i>ea in one place, iind \\% dcpo- 
Bttiun in auother. 

Attiist, at tent', o. a. (alttatirr, Lat) To bear 
witnesaof; to witness; to call to witiieaa ; to in- 



tokiB » cnnadoiu; — jl vitncM; tMtunooyt fet^ 

AtTBSTATioy, Kt-tM'ta'ahtin, «. {atUMtaUc^ L&t) 
TestimonT^; witDosa; eridence. 

Attestek,) Bt-tes'tDr, $. One who atttsU or 

AITE6T0R, |i' bean tostimooT. 

Attio, ■t'lik, p. (riffOmf, Greek.) Belonging to 
Athens \ — #. a native of Attics. In Literature, 
pan; classical; eli^^t. In Ajchitectore, a story 
erected over a prindpal order, to finish the upper 
part of the building; Dcrer with cohimna, but 
freqnentlj irith aattt or small {Mlasten. The 
term, attie order^ is med bjr Bome antbora to denote 
these pUasten— impTopeiij, bowerert as they wont 
the {wrta eeaoiiiallj oeoeasarj to oonstitate an 
order — i uch as the capital, bow, eatablatore, &c. 
Attic hast, the base of a ooluniD, ooasisting of an 
Dpper and lower tonu, a sootia aod fillets between 
thmi. The trnn, attic ttorg^ is fraqoeiitlj applied 
to Lho upper story of a bouse when the oeiliDg is 
squart! wirh the sides, to distiogoish it from fpu-- 
reU ; — in oomnMO languge, tiie word, atxict is also 
used for a garret. 

ArriCAi., at'tr-kal, a. (attilx>», Athenian Or.) Bc- 
latiog to the atjle of Athens; pure; dasacal. 

AmciSK, at'tc-size, e. n. To make use of aii 

AiTiciaH, st'te-aizm, «. An example or an imita- 
tion of the Attic style; an elrgaot or oonttso 
roauuer of espresuon. 

ThejniBilesmirt,Bnd Ilauifhcd: thp; miflpronomiOMl, 
and I Riitlikeil: und in nuko up the aMeum, thejr were 
ont, and 1 blMod— Jfilluii. 

Amouous, at-tig'a-tis, a. (o^twu, Lat.) Hard 

Attikge, at-tiry', r. a. {attin^^ Lai.) To tonch 

lightly or softly. — OlaoWte. 
ArriRE, at-tiro', v. a. {nUirtr, Ft.) To dress ; to 
habit; Eo array; — i. clothes), dress, habit; tbo 
head-dresa. Id Bunting, the horns of a «tag. 
Attikbd, at-ti'rd, a. In Heraldry, applied when 

the boms of a buck or stag are spokeu vf. 
ArriRBB, at-U'rur, r. Ooe who attirea. 
AfTiKUfO, at'ti'ring, «. A huly's bead-dress; dnas 
in gensroL 

Tbls nnall wind, which bo sweet li, 
See bow U the leaves doth kin, 
Eiu^ tree. In hU btMt tittirtuff ; 
6«ise of luve to love iiupirlog I— .^irfney. 

ArrrrLB, at-ti'tl, r. a. {attUulttrt^ low Lat.) To 
entitle; to name. — Obsolete. 

Thii Ari«, out of the twelve, 

natb M&n h atl»(l*i liir kj:maclfe-— 0(M««r. 

Attttudk, at'te-tude, «. (French.) Postors; gea- 
tun; action. In the Fine Aits, the posture or 
gesture given to a figure by the sculptor or painter. 

ArriTUDiMAX, at*t«-ta'd«-aal, a. Fcrtaiobg to 

AnoLLKifs. at-tollens, t. {atuAlmu, lifting op. Let) 
In AtijLtomy, a name given to those muacles of this 
eye, ear, &&, which sen-e to draw up theao organs 
^-aUoilau oMrvm, attolletu tmricuiai and aOoiktu 
ourKu/um, a rauede of tbo external ear — the ose 
of which is (0 draw the ear upwanla, and to make 
the parts into which it is inserted, tense. AUoiims 
ocnfiy the miiscle of the eye. 

AlTOLL£»T, ab-tol'lcDt, a. That whioh raises or 
litis lip. 

ATTtjaH,( at-^urn'. r. a. (affomer, old Fr.) To 

ATTrRMif transfer the property or serrioo of a 



or ttnant ; — r. n. to acknen 
r ci property, and accept t 

If une bought nn estate with any laajj 
•timdin; uut thereon, nrnl the lia*e« CpV 
loaUumto tbepurchaser, and tobecouM' 
grant or {iiirchaee waa io moat 1 

ArroRjvET, at-tur'ne, #. {ad^ to, and 
LaL) A person who takes the c 
business of others in their absence, 
is either private or public ; a priviUb 
for another otit of ootirt, for which {: 
bal authority is in general auAdeat 
lecting debta, trans^ning stock, sell 
ties, inrestiiig money, or similar pari 
be authorised by a fonnal power or * 
ney, A pubiic Attorneyt or Attorm 
an officer of a court of record, legvll 
prosecute and defend actions. An j 
tises in courts of common low — 1 
courts of eqmty." The word AUot 
cieiuly Ufied for those who did ar) 
another : it is now used only in Uw, 
1, 1*7 aOomey, Mesa tbee firoin tt^ mot 
J (ton$eif- General^ u the public pnM 
half of the crown : his office ta t« 
mations in political criminal matte 
hills in the Exchequer fur anything t 
king's inheritance and profits ; — v. 
by proxy ; to employ as a proxy. 
I am atiU dttomtol to your sarvica.^ 

AiTOBMEYSHir, at-ttur'ne-ahipi, g. Tl 
attorney ; proxy ; vkartons agoncy . 

AITOBMHENT, at-tum'ment, 9. In L 
of the tenant to a new lord, or 
to be his lord. 

Attkaot, at-trakt', ». a. (« 

To draw to; to allure; to entios^ 
attraction} the power of dnwin^ 
tlie last sense. 

pp«l ilarts and chnrma, attnujta and II 
And wou and contract in their 1 

AmiACTABLE, at-trsk'u-hl, a. Tlu 

Attractabiutt, at-tmk-ta-btl'e- 
which has tho power of attmctioD. 

Atthactic:, at-trak'tik, ) a. Hi 

ATTnACTtc'AL, al-tmk'te-kat,) to al 

Attractim:, at-trak'tile, a. 
to attract 

ArrRACTiKOLT, at-trak'ting-le, 
ing manner. 

Attraction, al-tnk'shtm, x. (al 
powfr of drawing to. In Phj 
which certain bodies have to a[ 
— 1st, The attractitm of grai 
which commtuiicntes wengfat Ut bbll 
to draw ail bodies to the oentn of I 
the earllt itself towards the aim ;^ 
that power which binds tbo pnrtii 
toother into a mass ; — 3d, Chrmin 
affinity, the tendency of certain bod! 
intimately as to lose their indivU 
and to form compound substanoes;' 
tary attractian, that power whioh a 
rise above their level in very unall b 
— 6th, KUctricai attmctiont the tl 
two bodii-K, when in diffetent •!• 
have q{ coalescing, until, by onloa 
they pass into the same electrical OM 



UtAt power wbioD A soAgnet 
tnelxai^ may p'trce of iron D««r it. 
It At-trrnk'tir, a {(Utractif, Fr.) H«T- 
Eivw of drawing snTtfaing to oim*i iwlf ; 
innlixig; oitidng; — t. thAtrhic^i dnwa 
AUorentent, axotpt Uiat lUiraetu^ u of 
r cMbfinni MDAk, And ^lurement gcn- 
"■Lr, ■t-tnk'tiT-le, «£ With the power 

At-tnk'tir-nM, 4. The qoAlttj 

k» li-tnk'tQT. <. Tbe i^fnt that altnrta.^ 
T. flftiA-heBt, «. (atlroAoH, Ut) That 

Mnp't CO. To cKithe ; to dmA. 

Q bU AiTOovr waj like aalvace vMd. 
wv9^ ny*w twdiithl, and all hla st«ed 
' aa Uatm ttftr^— ^nOfr. 

mHa At-tn-k-u'abun, t. Qattraetaiio^ 
^Hirnt hAodUnc. 

JC« Al-tnb'u-U-bl, o. (a/lri&iio, I^t.) 
liA ai; be ucribcd or Attributed; wcrib- 

1^ iMiSb'nte, p. a. To ascribe ; to g}re ; 
M dw • to impute, as to a cause. 
^ aftW-bftto, «. The thing attributed to 
Q to the Sapmoe Bcidj; ; — 
diBpostion ; a thing be> 
an appcodant ; adherent ; 
kooanc Id the Fine Am, attri&utca 
fm mnbols used to charncterixe certain 
>« the trident of Neptnoo, tbo caduceua 
■», tfw ciab of llercolea, the bow nd 
fXonn^ &c In Logic, attribtttei an the 
B tf ft labject, tft what may be affirmed 
IcMMMmtng it. 
lOoi, st-tzv-bn'shun, «. ConunendAtian; 

nrK»ai-trib'a-tiT,«. The thing aUribatod. 
■t-triW, a. {aitritiUy Lat.) Groaud; 

BM, ■itrite'nee, a. Tbo bdsg intidi 

1; at-teUt'on, «. (attritio, Lat) The aot 
mtfciTigT bj robbing one against another. 
prj, ooariAtion of the aarfAee, ariaing 
llMKveMluiooaf the paita; conow fbr 
Uf ^olklj ft^xn lellWi motivea, or dnad 
ImmhI ; the lowest degree of rtpentaooe. 
K-Uumt', «. d. (o<2. to, tomut a aound, Lat) 
kv inuaiCAl; to adjust one aound to an* 

g^ Tsmiaation of wordi in attu and 
Ike eriitgttoe of aometbing gone* 
to AoTM^, or /iirmtked mC&, aa, 
te, pravided with anUuiuc. 
i^tmMD0't od, tn twain ; asunder. 

Ifenrh loiiUiw rogvaa aa Uiw% 
lal^ «Q ttt* the bol]r corda alaiati. 
B AM ••• btHiH* to OBluiaa.— AMte, 

AFtvectf.tfdor/nqp. Betwixt; between; 
lodB of two tliingL A Soutticisin. 
A-lvfta't .^np. In the middle of two 

)mf, mL Into twa— Obaolde. 

■ ■■ ■>• to amlta the cord olao.— Ckouoer. 

1h^ B. A gwina of deo^od Cnutaocajis. 

ArrriCiL, a-tip'o-kal, a. (oJ^pKTiie, Fr. from c^ 
and typoi, Gr.) Appli«>d to periodical diaeaac^ 
aa intermittent feven when im^ulac in thdr n- 

ATTrtJS, at'te-pna, a. (a, without, and ij/poty typ^ 
Or.) A (i^enua of spiders. 

ArniN, aw bill, 1. (Kremh.) In HoTWtnanship, a 
brokun kind of i^iiL, between on amble and a gal- 
lop, mlgarly called the Canterbury f^llop. 

AcncKK, aw hum, a. (probaUjr from bnm^ bn]W1^ 
Sax.) Brown ; inclining; to a taD>«olonr. 

ArcBEi(iA,aw-ke'ae-a,«.(aiiaAeii|tbeiKdcQr.) A 
genus of South American quadnipeda, alticd to the 
Camel ; also, ■ gams of ooleopt«r«us insects. — 
See Alpaca. 

At'CTioif. Awk'shnOf <. (auctio, Lat) A pobUa 
sale, in which the article aold becomes the pro- 
ptoly of the person who bids the highest for it ; — 
p. a. to sell by auction. 

ArcTIOKAHTf Awk'shun-fl-re, a. Belonging to aa 

AiJCTiONKCRf Awk-ahtm-eer', s. The person whs 
manages aa anction. 

AucTiTX, awk'tiT, a. (ouetui, Lit.) Of an iiuaeas- 
iog quality. 

AccirRA, awHra-ba, $. (The Japanese name of tbi 
sbnib.) A genus of pluta, natiTes of Japan : Or- 
der, Loranthaoec 

AcpufArioir, aw-kv-pa'sfau, «k (jmeupatiot LmL) 
Fuwiiog; bird catching. 

Audacious, aw-da'ahus, a. (oudbcteue, Fr.) Bold; 
impudent; daring; arrogantly; confident, — Obeo- 
lebe in the foUoving aeosos — that which nnden 

TfacT harp got methflgUo, and ^mdkniom$ ak^ 
And talk Uko tjraaat— Bwv. ^ FIA 

Spirited, without impudence ; not tLmormu. 
She thai ihaU be my wife must tw acoompllahed, 
" -Am 

a'te-los, A A 

of CmstMSAns: 

With oouitl; uul omtackMu umamcoU.— j 

AUDACIOUALT, aw-da'ahus-le, ad Boldly; impu- 

AuDAOiotTBNESS, Aw-dA'shos-aeB, «. ImpudonoQ. 

ArDACirr, aw-das'e-te, a. (audaxy LtX,) Spirit ^ 
boldness; impudcnoo. 

ACPIBLB, aw'de-ll, d. (antHbUU, ImJ) That whtrb 
may be perceired by hearing : loud enough to bs 
beard ; — «. the objpct of hearing. 

AtmmLBKBBS, aw'de-bl-iMs, «, The capability «C 
bnng heard. 

AuDiDLT, aw'de-bls, at In such a mAOiMr u to 
be heard. 

Audience, aw'dye-«ns, s. (French.) The Act of 
hearing or attending to anTthi.ig ; the Liberty of 
speakiag granted ; a heAring; ao assemhiy of per- 
sons collected for the porpoee of bsaring ; iwep- 
tion i^Tcn to AmbsssAdon by the soveieign. 

AuiHENCE CoLBT, Aw'dye-er.s kurte, s. An ecole- 
aiaatiral court held by the Archbialiop of C-anter- 
bnry, for the pnrposs of hearing oases of dispute 
respecting choreb matten. 

AuiiiENT, aw'dye-cot, a; (amKm$f Lat) A hsAvec 
— Seldom used. 

Tbr iiiidi^iiii of her «ad atory felt great motiona both 
of pit; ami oilmiratKHi ftvlMT mlaliartmaea.— iiAdloik 

AtrpiT, mr'dit, a. (audit, he hears, Lat) A flxtnl 
AcotMmt. In Commerce, the cxamiiiation of ac- 
connts by perMns duly appointed ; — v. o. to take 
an aooonnt finally ; — r. n. to sum up ; to examine 
an aooonnt. 

AUDIT-Uouas, Aw'dit-bows, A An upendanos 




to tncwt cathcdrnlSf for Uw tntnuctiiMU of affain 
b«1ongm<; to tiwm. 

AUDlTioK, aw-dJBb'un, t. (nwWfi'j, Lat.) Ilpsrinf;. 

AuDiTirB, Bw'do-tiT, «. (muiiti/l Ft.) Hiving tlir 
power of bearinf;. 

AcTDlToa, aw'de-tur, *. (Latin.) A hMTW; a prr- 
son emploTcd to take an acccaat nltimBldj. Onv 
wbo examines acotmnta and miLlces np a genera] 

AtTDiTORBUiF, aVde-toT-ahipj s. The office of an 

Additout. Bw'de-tnr-re, a. (anditarim^ Lat.) That 
which hifl the power of hearing; — #. (awlitorium,') 
an audienoe; a coUccliou of yvnona asseiuUod to 
hear; a plaoa whcro leciTtnis or diaooarsM are 
delivered. AwStoriiu artrrioy th« internal irtrry 
«f the Mr. AuiUtoriiU meatm, the canal or pu5- 
w^gt whJch coaTe]pi the air to the auditory DQn-es. 
Aadiiorait nemu, the nerve which commanicatu 
tha Btnutiflei of soand to the brain. 

AtTDTTftEftfl, Bw'fle-trea, i. A frtnuir hearer. 

AOF, a*rf, *. (a/< Dul.) A fool, or silW fellow. 
A mttT* chimgeUng, & very moiuter, an aaf Imperfect. 

AcosAir, aw^e-an, a. Pertaining to the stable of 
Augeaa; flUhj. 

AOOEAA, Avr'jisaa, m. In Mythology, a king of Klis 
who had a stable, that lield tbr^e thousand oxen, 
which during thirty jreara had not been oleaneed : 
be hired Hvrt-tUe» to clvaii it out, who did so by 
drawing the rtvo- Alpheiu throuj^h it. 

Avocft, aw'gur, a. (e^yir. Dut.) A carpeuter'e tool 
to bore holea with ; ad instruments uaod in bonng 
boles in earth or clav bv mineral borers, conauting 
of a tube with a screw or lip. 

AuoSTTB, aw-jet'. «. The tube nsed in mflitary 
imgineerinf; for if^niting a mine. 

AOOHT, awt, M, Anv thing. 

Aoorrv, aw'jite, a. («yye, aplendonr, Gr.) A mine* 
ral of a dark green, brown, or blarJc ooloor, a con- 
stituent of bsaalt and othr*r rokamc rocks. Its 
eoOTtDon efyatsl is that of a six or eight-sided 
prisco, tanoinated by dihedral (two-sid«d ) sum- 
inita. It consitts of silica, 63 t lime, 13 ; pro- 
toxide of iron and nuuiguuese, 16; iHBgneaia, 10} 
alumina, 9. 

AuQino, aw-jitlk, a. Portainiag to, or like angite. 

Ai^oHKNT, awg-mont', r. a. (auffmentam^ Lnt.) To 
increase ; to enlarge the Hze of \ — r. n. to iDoraaH 
by growth. 

AuoMEKT, awg'ment, r. An increase, or atata of 
In Grammar, an accident of certain 
of Greek vnri)*, being either the prefixing of 
ft syllaUa^ or an increase of the quantities of the 

AcoHBKTABLiB, awg'nMD-ts-bl, o. That may be 

AiiovBKTATXoir, awg-meo-ta'ahnn, «. The aet of 
Incressbig or making bigger ; the atata of being 
made bigger; the thing wldod by which another 
k made tpigger. In Heraldry, additional charges 
to a coat of anna given as a psrticiilsr mark of 

AcOMKKTATIOit CoCRT, awg-mra-ta'abon knrtp, *. 
A oomt erected by King Uonry VUI. for the in- 
crease of the iwruara of his crown, by the snp- 
prcHsion of monasteries. 
la tbe yt-ar UK, be was eoiiFtltuted, by the khiK, 

treocorar of tbe oomt aj'aiywMwfcilfow uf the wirtK'* rwo. 

nua, on its first ettaMSshmant In act of PsrliamiUL— 


AuGMKKTATiVK, awg-nient'a-liT, a. I 
qiiiUity of Hiigmenttiig. 

AuoMENTKR, awg-mtutt'or, «. One wbo 

AuciiR, aw'gnr, $. (Latin.) A snothst 
nflSoe it was to predict future ^vent* bj 
by the feeding, chflttt<ring, and Aight t 
V. o, to forvtrjj. 

AuouRAL, aw'gu-ral,& Pertdniag tft i 

ArocRATB, sw'gn-rate, r. «. {m^mvr, 
judge by anguiy. 

AcGURATioN, aw-gu-ra'obun, a, Tbe 
augury, or of foretelling by events and 

AtJGUKEB, aw'gur- ur, a. The same as 

AuorniAL, uw-gu'rval, a. Beliiting tc 

AuGtJSlBK, aw'gu-riur, r. m. To praci 
tion by BOgury. 

AuGURors, aw'gn-ros, a. Frodictiag; 

AuocRY, nw'go-re, a. (mi^irMnn, Lat] 
of pnignosticatiDg by omcnB or prodijpa 
or predictioo. 

AtroKBT, aw'gnatf i. (Aufptatia^ IaL) 
of the eighth month of our year, amtaii 
one days. August was dedicated to 
of Aopistas Cssar, because in tha • 
he was created ainsal^ thrice triompbe 
Bubilaed EfTpt to the Roman sway, and 
tlie civil wars} it was prrrioosly callod 
the sixth from March. The claascal i 
presented this month by a young man, i 
countenance, wearing a fl«me-coWaxe 
his head crowned with a garland of whc 
uf 8ammur fruit on hia arm, a acklo 
and hearing a victim. 

AuorsT, aw-gu5t', a. (AuffUittOt I^ 
grand; royal; magniiicuut. 
Tlicrc iii nothing to mnt^tnpciMe, hot a 

rencler it a«|7iut and ojum Ueat — -tilurciBs. 

AnorsTALES, aw-(ius-ta*le&, i. The 
pric'jsts who luicrificcd to the Empepo 
after his doificatioa ; the name obo ( 
gomes odebrated in honour of lum on 
of October. 

AcGC8TA?r, aw-gos'tan, a. Fertaiainf , 
of An^^ustus Csraor. . 

AtJorsTnviAiiB, aw-gas-tin'e-ans, a. j| 
mcrly givcu to those dirinea who ba 
trine of St. Augustiao — that gnos 
from its nature, absolutely and inon! 
TclAtively and gradualty. They also 
thnt the gates of heaven would not be 
the general rpsurroction. 

Autiui^TixB, aw-gus'tina, «. Anordtro 
monks, so termixl from their oonvcraC 
remed by laws laid down by 8t At^ 
monly CAllfd the Austin Fiiare. 

AcocsTNEBS, awgost'nee, a. Dignit 
grandeur ; magnificence. 

Auk, awk, «. (a^Jka^ loelaodio, mJJn, Dan 
of web-footeil Agnatic birds with tin-at 
which are unfit for the pnrpoas of fllj 
tremoly short Irgn; fp«t with thru a 
only oonnrcfed to their points by aoali 
Type of the family Alcsilie. 

AcUACORTNCifrs, nvr-hi-ko-riok'na, 4 
furrow, and rhyndion^ a snout or ben 
grnnn nf Bcansorial birds, bejonnng fia 
ph.istidm or Tucan family, wlui eoo 
which are considerably attcnuatad, ad 



«M ko p t udin al groon» aa the sides. Tbe dos- 
lAi sv latcnU, «h pliKed in ■ lurroir, uul uu a 
fa» wtib ibr CJB&. 

^^aaiAir «f a haUt aad no caned at Oxford hy wajr 
^■ff fciiiHliiHi fiom colkpam. 
rSiiux; f»1ala» a. (<nii>c» a fartmr, Gr.) A gniiu 
rf Hrt ifanifaa, with imall kani which, iu toroe 
tf tta ^flCMai are ftvTDwed, nattvea of the Ca[w 
rffiHi Bffpa: Onler, Protaccc 
AOJSOTiifl^ Old.— OlHolete. 

aad la Ika Vorlb nf Eosland, the 
_ canni ai« «tfll in «■ uDoimt tbr low^r 
<—■ :— Ji^rf jhnnirt. grarc, and old-Aahioned in 
■MM**. jiMliw|>qfif.ui Cirnwr timi ; a loaa: titno 
Mk iliiJ Mia^ one of the tutmt ouomduo ana Indi- 
ma la UM OarU. jHU-HW^t w««lUi 
i fe^dM ■ u o ow hwftngmUtj of ■ lung rave 

cocMhra ftngmUlT 
t, a fDHhib^ old 
aa Md MoKtah a 

Bvon m Sbakspears :— 

wDcnao. Tli« 
nog, mm % U- 

TM ividc iluU paUi the oonnti7 ilown, 
Tlhn talu ChlBC «mU cloak alHmt (Jim. 

Acumc. av-kt'ik» o. (oaJbf, a pipe, Gr.) Per- 

MUC avOiE, at (natcw, Lat) Fertaining to a 

JkOMVU, •w-tora-pUr «. A Renm of foMol 
^Aii irfa^ fanzid in the Chalk dirmatioo. 

AndR^ m^i^fm, *~ (oh/m. ■ pipe, aoJ pov», m 
tmUm fikt Gl) A gcutu of BAhn^ belutij^ng to 
lk» AalnaaUB or Salmon fuuiljr, in which tbv 
tMlh at ^hB aad eqaal, and the vmtral liu placed 
hMtfh tha fat donal fin. 

JUtJareAA, rw l o p'o-ra, «. (ou^, and /mroj, a por^, 
tir.) A gtni of foasU G^shu, foand in tho Situ- 

inanmu, a« kaWraa, a. {atdot^ and fCono, a 
Or.) A grau of fiabca, type of the 

or Stkfclebacka, a fab-family of 
ih«d by having the back ann«l 
prickles, aad ttw nont prolonged 

imo, w(m-mmj\\ & m, (emaU, mamel, Fr.) To 
{Id figort. 

la fUad boaktna of cwtlj cordwiilBe, 
AA W4 whfa KoU«n bend««, which were entailad 
aotkki, and ftdl fctr nwartdirf.— 

c. A meaHin nsod oo tho Continenti 

ta dnrtf-fin Engfiah pdlooa. 

WSMHT, awa'ael-wate, t. A kind of 

t OBfd in foniter tuiic» id Kiif;- 

H a Mrt of banging-ftcalca with 

to each end of m brain or ahaft, 

rabed on the forefin^r or honU, 

tlM diAreooa beCwven tbi! w«i;;ht and tbe 

it was probibiltid hy statute in 

sf Edward III. 'for tUt dammage and 

dane to the ooraiooo poopla ' by ita 

& A meacun of Itag^ oaed on the 

Theaaw iiw«/^^47j Imp- tncbes; 

^ atf «■« ^ Paris =: iG\ Imp. inciiat. 

ACVT, at« IL <«a>li» f r. or ntbn- on/e, old Fr.) The 

Uku m »athar*a aiatar. The word waa ancient tjr 

^ GkniMi Car a wgnaa of a light character, or 

iQ^a^fBf A (Grack.) A raponr or ezhaUtinn, 

If the old aheiaiata aa a pare, rvfined 

tfitfii^ in pkata and animala, percQp- 

fey Ito odoor* Amm aiecftvo, a term 

applied to tho Bifn&atiun felt a» if a culd wind 
were blowinj; oo the part expoeed to chH:trici{y 
when receiTod from a t>UuT]i ]>uint. Anm tyUep- 
/iCR, a aeosation felt iinmediutely before n tit of 
epilepsy. A similAr phenomeniiD i» uud to eifi^ct 
patienta in hfaterica, in which case it is called 
Atera kytteria, 

AujujmxoKMy aw-mn-ti-a'm-«, s (oHnMhum. an 
orange, Lat.) A natural onkrr of Tbttlaniifloroua 
Exogciu, coDsiatinf; of ain(>*>Cb trees and shrubs of 
great bMUt/ and utility; the leaves bidouiun of 
fmit, itamona, filamunts, petals, and calyx, abound 
Id transpartnt raerroin of iHlnrif).'niuj oil, pos* 
spssing powerful tonio and stimulating properties. 
The flowem am fragmnl, the fruit fiesliy, and 
genemUy eatable. The order ooroprises the orange, 
citron, leinuo, lime, and shaddock, divided by Don 
into 14 genera. 

Achate, aw'rate, «. A salt formed by the combi- 
nation of the auric add with an alkali. AunUe 
of amnumia : when recently precipitated peroxide 
of gdld is kept in strcmg ammonia for abont a day, 
a detonating compuuud of a deep olive colour is 
generated, an&lc^us to fulminating silver. It 
ooiiusts of 1 equivalent of gold, 2 of nitmgeti, 
ti of hydrogen, and 3 of oxygen. It ia likewise 
taTmod/uimmatinff gold. 

AcRATCD, aw'rmy-ted, a. In Conchology, hariag 
ears as in the pecten or Kallop sbdl. 

AunSAT, aw'ro-at, a. Golden; tigurotircly, ex- 

Mt words unpolUhl be naked and ptajne, 

in attrwiU poems tbey want elliuDjrn)uge.*-AiieIlaB. 

AuRKLtA, aw-re'ln-a, a. {atin/m^ Latin name of a 
plant.) Tbe first metaroorpboeiB of tho maggot 
of any insect, or that state In which it b trans- 
fbmnl from the caterpillar to the winged and 
perfect fly — termed also a ohrysalia or pupa. 

AuRELiAir, aw-re'le-an, a, IJka or portaiaing to 
(l>e cnndition of a chrysalia. 

Aureola, aw-reVU, a. Tbe glory or rays of light 
with which painten aurroaod tbe heads of Chnat, 
tbe Vir|;nn, sainta, Sea. The word originally aig- 
niiied a jewel, which w«s given as a reward ^ Tt>- 
Cory in some public disputation. 

NoTX.— F. f^tmond eajn that tbia custom was borrowod 
from thv chudcBl anduotit, who used to encompass 
the beads of their ddticst with rnjrs. 

AtREUl, aw're-oa, s. A Roman gold coin, equal to 
25 denarii, and webbing about 2| oonccs Avoir- 


Auric, aw'rtk, o. Pntainlag to gold. 

Auitic Acid. — See Gold. 

AuiucLE, aw're-kl, s. (auricuia, an ear, Lat) That 
port of tlie ear which projects from the btad ; 
also, a muscutar bsg or cavity of the heart. There 
are tour cuvitiL-s in the beart — two otiricfef and 
two %-rQtnclcai, termed tbe right and the lett. 
llie auricles are very uneveu on the inside, but 
■n^oother on the outside, and terniinate in a nar- 
row, fiat, indented edge, representing a cockV 
coiiib, or, iu sume measure, the tan of a dog — 
liLMicv tbe name. 

ArKiCLED, aw'ro-kid, a. Having ears. In Bo- 
tany, applied to leaves when tbey an funiislied 
with a pair of leafk-ta, penrrally distinct, but 
sometimes j<micd with them; having e»r-like 

ArKirL'l.A, aw-rik'n-la, a. (the wir, LaL) A bi-au- 
tiful sub-grnua ot the rrimroae family, with tlcsby 



l^res, mnbelUrerons flowers., uid n powdery caljx. 
Iq Malaootogy, s geDQ.4 of pliTtopliEij^as (plunt- 
cating) testacxoos fresh wnter moUuftCOf haTiog 
tbdr arf^iu of resplntion funned for breathing 
air. The iheU is somewhat oval, or <nrat«-oblDag; 
aperture luirow above, and vith the base entire ; 
pilUr with one or mora plaita; oater Up either re- 
flected or nmplo acute. 
Auriculas, aw-rik'u-lar,a. (<mricufa,tbeemr,LttU) 
Within the Mnie or reach of hearing; wcret; told 
ID the ear, aa in ouricuZnr con/atum, a practice of 
eaafeasion to tbe priest or cunfessor, enjoined by 
the lioman CatlioUc Chorcfa; traditional; known 
by report. 
Au&iCL'LABLT, aw-nlfa-tar-le, ad. In a secret 
numner. In Botany, auriaiiariy tagitiati^ eared 
at the bast, to as to give tbe appeanaice of nn 
arrow. Auneu^fy M^m-clasprng^ having aariclee 
at the base chuping the stem ; applied to leaves. 
ArRlctTt.ABit, aw-rik'u-lars, t. In Omithology, the 
tafl of featbera wUch encircles the orifioe of the 
ears oflurda. 
NoTa.—Thc fbUowing Latin adjective* are used In Coo. 
ehology aad Anaiomj :— ^iinmtfferoHf, bearnia ear- 
Ufce sppvndapn, as In tbe fttaell OantOmi (MHmiU/bni. 
Amiadt/brmU, bavins ttio form of a small car. Auri- 
ttia eoniU, tbe aurlrlM of tlie heart. Awiado-vetUri- 
A^or oriAw, tbe apcTturea of the auridei and vvotriclM 

AtntlctTUkTB, aw-rilt'o-bite, \ a. Ear-iihaped; 

AvxicULaTKO, aw-rik'a-lay'tod,) baring ear-like 

AvKiFEROOS, aw<rire>n», a. (annnn, gold, and 
/erOf I bear, Lat.) Containing or producing gold. 

AoRiroRM, aw're-fawnn, a. Ear-shaped. 

AtnUGA, aw-ri'ga, t. (Ijitin.) The w.tggoner. In 
Astronomy, a oonstelUtion of tho northern hemi- 
apbere. It containa inxty-Kix ittant, six <if which 
an of the first magnitude. It is situated above 
Tattraa, and hetwixt Gemini and Perseos. Tbe 
constellation is trpresnited by the figure of an 
old man in a somewhat sitting poetiire, with a gout 
and her kids on bis left band, and a bridle in his 

AuRiOASTER, aw -re-gas 'tur, «. (oirwn, and gatlery 
the belly, Lat.) l<i Zoology, having the bdly 
goUeO'ColouredL — Ex. Tardus aurigaster. 

ATmiGXTiON, aw-r^ga'shiui, «. {am^ffotio^ JjJL.) 
The art or art of driving carriages or carta. 

Attkiokkous, Bw-rij'e^iis, a. (avniMt, and pero, I 
etrry, Lat) Uaviog a eoldia oolonr, aa in the 
liuben, Leddoa aurigara. 

ATTRiGRArnT, aw-rig'ta-fe, s. (aurwn, gold, and 
gftqtho^ I write, Gr.) The art of writing, in which 
£]uted gold Is used instead of ink. 

AtTRinoHENTuif. — See Orpiment. 

AUBIS, aw'ria, «. (Latin.) In Anatomyf the ear. 

AtnusCALP, aw'ria-kalp, a. (ouruoa^pHMi, Lat.) 
An insLrument osed in cleaiiing the ear. 

AciuST, aw'rist, «. One wlio cures diseases of tbe 

AuBOCSPRALOUft, aw-ro-acTa-lttSt a, (ourum, and 
tqpkale, the bead, Gr.) In Zoology, ha%'iiig the 
bud 9f a golden colour.— Ex. Coocytus uuroco- 

AcHOCB. — See Boe. 

AimooitLOIUDES, awHMHklo'ridz, m. In ChemtAtry, 
cryataliae salts, the sleutro- negative in^^<dient of 
which is tlie terchlorate of gulil. They nre pre- 
pared by mixing the chloriJee in atomii? propor- 
tiona, and setting the suIuUua aude tu cxyalaliie. 

Most of them crystatize in priares, sad 
water of solution, ore of orange or ydlM 
and consist of sbgle equivalents of tbeii 
toent ohloridea. 

ACBOFKKRiFERrs, aw-fo-fer- riTe-Toa, OL \ 
and jismim, iron, Lat.) Contsiuing g 
inm, as the Tellure natif auroferriTere uf ] 

AtmoFLOHBirEKUft, aw-iD-plom- btf' e- 

{avrwn, and plumbum, lead, Lai.) O) 
lead and gold, as Uio Tcllura natif aurapM 
of Hauy 

AUKoruuBSCBHT, aw-ro-pD -bes'sent, a. (F 
from uurum, andpa&ei, Let.) In Zoology, 
with golden -coloured downy hairs.. — Ex> 

Aurora, aw-ro'ra, t. In Mytboloj^, the 
of the Morning, and dau^ter of Hype) 
Thea. She married Aatnens. by wbisin 
came the mother of tbe winds and start. 
genernny represented by the poets as dn 
rosy-coloured chariot, and opening with I 
fingers the gates of the east. Nox and 
nigjht and sleep, fly before her, and tho t 
appear at her approach. She sits befoc* 
and heralds bb rifting ; she was tcnnci 
the Greeks. 

Aurora Borsaub, a«-ro'ra bo-ientlia, r. 
era or northern lights. An elrctriral phel 
seen Arequeatlyln the northern skie^ in ck 
evenings. In some parU of Sibrri.i, «t 
constantly seen from October to Chriptin^ 
brilliancy, where the tight thvj rinil prortl 
solace to the inhaUttnta in tlw long 
solar raya. 

Auroral, aw-ro'rol, a. Early bctima 
mom lag. 

Wh^wc doiikr Impiirpiir'd vestmcnl 
With hi* LiDlTowdreb mantle mutxtliMi, 
)Ii> Ifll tinttt his rt^Um nurond, 
Whicli on him tvaittfd, whrn hr ttld tloclfl 
Tu*anl bu Occident imlRce rpiMTttiMi. — 
Sir f>af)U Limdaa^ | 

AvRUOO, aw-ra'go, t. (Latin.) The ji 

AuKULBKT, aw'm-lent, a. Of a goldm « 

AuRtm. — See Gold. 

AuRUM FuLMiKAKS. — See Aorata. 

AuTRUM MuuTUM, sw'mm ma-ri'vm, \ 
saicum, a oombiitatton of tin and sulphoci 
a pigment for g*ving a goldi-n colour to a 
tues or plaster figures. It mny be made 
iog twelve oonces of tin with three 
oiuy, and amalgamating it with thne 
mercury; this amalgam is iterated w 
ounces of solpbur, and three ounces of i 
ammonia. The powder is put into a 
bedded rather deep in sand, and kept R 
hotuB at a gentle beat, whkh is to be n 
continued for several boora. 

AuRUM PoTABiLK, aw'mm po-taVe-l^a. 
gold. An alchemical pivpanition made h] 
aomo volatile oil on the nitro-muriate of 
meriy esteemed as a cordinl. 

AuttCULTAJU^ aws-kul'ta-re, t. {tnuemM 
tcner, Lat.) A name given lo the I 
elocution which were Appointed to W 
moDA^teries, by the mooka, to pen)onS| h 
were permitted to read publicly in Ibe <^ 

AUSCULTATIOX, OWA-klU-ta'shun, JL (< 
listening to, Lst.) A tenn npplted lo tfa 
methods of detectiiiB the natun< and 
eune by the sense of favaring ; that U* Uit 



prodooed in tlu langs bj respintian, 
mb, MCioa of tba htvt, Ac— So« Sm- 

aws-kul-U'to-fc, a. PertainUig 

^ «w»'pc-kkl, a. RtiUting to progDOfCica- 

B, aan^pe-ktt«, 0. a. (oKipteu, Lat) To 
bo bi^n • buinesa. 

««r7 flnt acu bj whidi It (tb« fforcrD- 
'M ■ntnDO»intoftiDctioa.--ZIurl!ii. 

wn^pii, •. (ou^pieiMi. Ltt.) An vmoii 
uodartAkiDg dnwn from blnli ; 

It^^taV cif may of their niuytoM. or the chtrp- 

dua^icTML, WKA estaooMMl Ik pi«cular CritlKf. 

I«n»l man cxpiatkia toan murder. — BUkop 

m ; favw showa ; influiracc ; ppod de- 
•tkaa froB the pielj of tbttr jialruiu. 
I, awa'pi aaa, a. ji^ PatTQUiigE ; proiec- 

ib'al, a. Belatiug to progntistics. 
iK% aB-apuh'tu, a. Haviug omens of 
■ ) fai^VNa; fortuiiat«; favourable; kiad; 

%aaKZ latV^t bappjr. 

I •■jmiias'hyad. Happily; proa- 

)i' -Apcrooa nxwDa. 

bcrjaKaa, sw-fpiafa'aa-Dca, a. Proiperity; 

9» (L^m.) The aouth wind. 
r^, a. (jauMlgnu, Lat. oiu/o-c, Fr.) 
ripd; aoar of taste. 
1 fuod'rcnu Juic*< thty cublime, 
lh« cttnm, iLod uia Uaie.— 

LT, «v-«Cacr^ ad, S«v«reljr; rigid}^. 

I, nv-atnr'Dea, a. Suverity; atrict- 

r; nraghoaa m tait«. 

■•-atrr'e-te, 1. S^r^ty; mortified 
xocUy ; honh dbcipUn?^ 
^ mm^tnl^ a. (mutruiU, LaL) Belonging 

lAUAX, awa-tr»>Wzl)e-an. ri. {austral, and 
Paruiaiftf to tb« ooantriv aJtiuited to 
th of Aaia, Bamcfly, New Holland, Van 
'a Ltnd, Ktw Guinea, &&, oow termed 

US» ««»-tra1e-aiif a. Pertalniop; to the 
M 4if Awrtrmlia, or Kew Uolhiitd ; — «. a 
irX«« HoUAid; a New Holliuder. 
US /jUTTAlu. — S«v Rhipidan. 
US Kouvft.— See Prtroka. 
US ftAZiv-BntDi.— Seo PtUoaoiynebua. 
PMCSi, am'tra-lia piiKv, «. (Latin.) 
VUms, a ODOateUalkm in ilia auath- 
eontaiiung Iwraty-four atara. 
IXB, Mn^^tEBl-ia«i r. m. To lend towarda 

, Slav*, awa'tnl ahiie, a. The laat aU 
t tfca Zodiac^ aituated to the aoulb of the 


1^ aan^tn^an, &. Pertiuning to Austria; 

mtiim «f Aoatria, one of the ooantrifle of 

Ktat Earapat 

%, wra'tinia, a. (flMter, the aouth, Lat.) 

rec w-ifca'ttk, a. CwtAMfOof, Gr.) That 
bflB avwytbing raqoiaite lo ^e it authority, 
ib is used b oppostion 

to anything by which authority ia destroyed; 
psDmoe, not fletltloua; having authority. Dr. 
Johnson says thb word is never used of persons; 
but it is firAqoently ao, as in the foUowhig paa- 

Tbete aro th« most aitAtiitiek rvbds, next Tyrone. I 
erer beard o£— Benai. A Fkt. 

Tou mn a gentlenum of moat oxcpJIent brtf^llnff. ad- 
mirable dlsroarse, of great admlttjuice, mMenUek in 
jvor place aod i>erson.— ^Aoibr. 

Don Face I Wbj, he U the roost mMiiMak daatof fai 
tbeae commodities.— Am JiJuayiL. 

ArTRKimcAL, aw-fAen'te-kal, a. Not fictitious; 

being what it seems. 
AOTiiKSTiCALLY, aw-fliim'te-kal-li-. fuL In an 

anthendc monuer ; with all the circumstanoea re- 

qnijdto to procure antbority. 
AuTHEiiTiCALNBBg, aw-lAen'te-kal-nes, f. Genu- 
ineness; authority. 
Authentic ATE, aw-<Acn'to-kat(% p. o. To prore 

by authority ; to render oathentic. 
AiTTUBirnoATiON, aw-(Acn-te-ka'Bhnn, 9. Tlie act 

of authenticating ; the giviug of authority by the 

nocesaary fonniditica. 
AtTTHENTiciTr, awMen-tis'se-te, a. Authority; 

AuTHKXTiCLT, aw-Men'tlk-le, ad. In a g«nuina 

or aiithontic manner. 
AuTHENTicNKSS, aw-^Acn'tik-ooai a. The being 

authentic ; genuineness. 
AiTiioa, aw'Mor, s. (aiUwr, Fr. ouctor, Ijtt.) Tha 

creator, maker, or inventor of anything ; a tt»in- 

poser of lii«rary or musical productions. Vtei 

for atUhurwd in the fallowing paasage: 

Oh, ezctrrable slaujchter 1 
What hand liath oidAor'd it T— AaH. ir FUt. 

AtTTnoBKSS, Aw'Mo-rcH, a. The fenunine of author; 
a female writer of a bw^ ; a female effldent 

Albi^it hU (Adam'a) lost, witbuut Ood's mercy, was 
abfck.>|iitcl:v urvdneraNe ; jet we never Aod ha twitt«d 
hBrm oufAtrr** nrbU fmlL— AUAoHi. 

AuTnoRt.vL, aw.^o're-al, a. Pertaining to an 
author.— Not used. 

Authoritative, aw-fAoi'e-ta-UT, a. Having liu- 
tliority; positive; having an air of authority. 

AL'TtiouiTAiiVKLY, aw-tAor'e-ta-ttT-le, tid. In an 
aathontative manner; with due authority. 

AuTiloRtTATlVENSM, aw-(Aor'e>ta-Uv-nea,a. Poa- 
scasiun or appearance of authority. 

AcTiluiiiTT, aw-CAor'c-te, *. (ntn.-toritm, Lat.) La- 
gat puwer ; influence ; credit ; power ; rule ; nip- 
ptiTt ; countenance ; teatimouy ; credibility ; 00- 
gency of eridenoe. 

ADTiiouiZAnoK, aw-tAo-re-ia'shtm, a. (oittoma- 
Cion, Fr.) KstabUshment by authority. 

AuTiiOKizK, aw'fAo-riu, v. a. (otiforiier, Fr.) To 
give authoritr to any perwn ; to make anything 
legal ; to establish anything by authority; to jus- 
tify; to prove a thing to be right; to ^ve credit 
to any person or thing. 

AirmoRLEsa, aViAor-lea, a. Without an autbor 
or antbority. 

A1TTHOR8I1IP, aw'jiior-slup, a. The ofljce of on 
author; the production of an atithor. 

AirroBiooRAruT, aWto-be-og'ra-fu, m. (nuto, nnt't 
aclf, bioa, life, and grapho, I write, Gr.) Tlie 
history of a person written by himself. 

AuTOCARPOL'8, Aw'to-kdrpos, a. (ouJof, itself, and 
carpo9^ fruit, Gr.) Applied to such fruits as con- 
aat of the pericarp only. 



crat'e-knl,) itK,Gr.) Pc»- 

AcTOCUTUONS, «w-tok'iAons,«. (auto, one'* self, 
mnd tfum^ the earth, Gr.) Tlw aboriginal inhabi- 
tJinU of a coiintrr. 

AmiCBACT, aw-lok.'ra-Kf $. {atito^ one's »elf, and 
irai, the head, Or.) Indepcodvnt sovereignt;. 

AlTTOCRAT, aw'to-crat, $. (oHfu, one's »df, and tm- 
fim, I role or govern, Gr.) A sovenign posBesacd 
of absolute poner. 

AtJTocsATic, aw-to-krnt 

AOTOCaATiCAL, aw-lo-knil 
setnnp nncontrolled dominion. 

ArroCHATKix, aw'to-kra-triks, t. A female soro- 
niga pDasMung afatolute power. 

AvTK-DA-rK, Aw-to-da-fa', «. (wAvt faitK, Span.) 
An act of tlie Court of I&qnirition, bj which here- 
tics, and other offeudmt apunst the Church of 
Rome, wpfp delivered orer to the civil authoritiea 
U> hp punifibed. 

AtrrOGRAi'il, awr'to-graf, «. (off A), one's self, and 
grtipMo, I write, Gr.) The piirticuUr hand-writ- 
ing of a person ; the oripfinni writing, and not a 
oopv, in oppoflitiuD to apoffrapA ; th« Ngnatuni of 
a perMin. 

AirrooRApnAL, aw-tog'ra-fiJ, *) o. Pcrtsinlng 

AlTTOORAPiiic, sw-to-grafik, ^ to one's own 

AirrooEAPHiCAL, aw-to-grsfe-kal,) writfog. 

AUTOORAJ-HT, aw-iog'graf-o, «. An original 

AirrOMAUTB, aw-tom'a-Ute, s. {mOomatoa, extra- 
neooa, sod HlAot, a stone. Gr.) Octiih(>dnLl corun- 
du3i — the Sptnelle xiucifere trf Hstir. A varietur 
of conuiiluiD of A (lurk green wlutir, containing 
zinc. It is foQud assodated with lead-sluice iu 
tslc Itii crystals are ragularij octahedral, or 
tetraherlraU with truncated ingles. It omaiittH of 
alumina, GO.OO; silica, 4.7ti; oxide of sine, 24.25; 
oude of iron, 9.25 ; sp. gr. 4.1. 

ArroHATil, aw ' to - matli, «. (««lo, odo's self, and 
viatAaics, a, scholar, Gr.) One who is sclf-cda- 

Automatic, aw-to^matlk, > o. (automaion^ 

AVTUMATICAL, aw-to-ftut'e-kal, { Gr.) Having 
kfae power of moving within itself; belonging to 
an BUtomatoa. In PhTsiologir, applied to thoM 
Ainctiona which are performed mvoluntorily in the 
animsl system. 

AuTOHATOH, aw-totflVtoiu *• (Greek.) A machino 
■0 ooostructcd as to aj^iear to be self-acting, and 
to move for a oonBidcrable time as if endowed with 
animal life; applioi) porticuUriy to tbiAC whit-h 
an shaped like animals, and can imitate th'-tr 
motions. Applied to the niiirerse in ths following 

AuTOSCiiBDUBTiCAL, aw-lo-Bki*da-ai^ 
{autM^ and siwUos, soddsp, Gr.) Rait] 

far It U irn'Atfr to uDLlrnitanil the art irberebj the 
Aladxh^ yoveras tho idoUodi of the rrcat <nitt)maf/m, 
than to bave Isartied the aitriguea of pubrjr.— U{iiHi4De'« 

AtrroHATouB, aw*tom'»-tai, a. Having the power 

of motion within itself. 
AtrroicoHoca, aw-totro-znna, a, (atUnm>mia, Or.) 

Self-named; self-governing. 
Autonomy, aw- too'o-me, «. (attnnnmia, Gr.) The 

living scoording to one's own will; self-govera- 

nwnt, — Not ased. 
Aftopst, aw'iop-sr>, s. (ou/a, one's self, and op«, 

the eye, Gr.) OcuLsr demonstration; proof from 

actnal obsrrv-atioTi. 
AuTiimcAi^ aw-top'to-kal, a. Perceiving by ono's 

own rT«. 
AcTOKncAiXT, sw-top'te-kal-lr, ud. By meaiu 

of unf's own observation. 


Toa so much orerralae my < 

K««c«(l f*ensurc of $L Pefer'a prfoisirr <irer Um 
BpoktIvB, am if 1 had M-nt jnu iM>nic rare etodf 
had not (uid much belter) uf >vtir uwn.—iim 

ArTDTRBiBV, aw-to-rAcIzm, s. («Ak i 
God, Gr.) A belief in the eelf-uiitaa 

AtrrvMy, aVtnm, «. (au tumnu g, JaL) T 
of the year in wtdeb Uw fmiu of thia eai 
harveatk ittf hsm, In the nertheni hmia 
gins when the nun enters the sign libra, 
22d of Auput, and ends the 22d of 1 
Jutumn is represented, in psintinj^ by 
mnture tge, clothed, and girt with a mm 
holding in one hand a pair of scska, equ 
with a globe in each ; and, in lt)t othei 
of Rrapes and other fruits. His sg* d4 
perfection of this season ; and the bdi 
sign of the Zodiac which tha nm <BtM» 
aotnmn begins. 

AUTOMHAL., nw-tum'nal, a. Pertaintag t 
The Atituttuial Eipitmxr is when this ■ 
the equinox on the 2*id of September. 
imTimti Siffug are: Libra, (:&}; Soor| 
and Sagittarius, ( ^ ). 

Atm:MSiTY, aw-tuni'ne-te, a. 

Thy ftinuK* nadta 
Hot iteaiTM of wine, uul can aloof dM< 
Tlie drunkuo draught* of swooImiInmM 

ATmssifl, awg*t«'sis, «. (LaC from oH 

large, Gr.) Hyperbolical or exaggenU 

AuxiUAB, awg-zil'Tor, > $, (aumUorti 
AuxiLl4Rr, awg-zir_ra-re,> belptfr; aa 

a. helping; anisting. AvsdHarjwm^i 

helps to ooqjagate other verba. | 

AuxicoABiKS, swg-sU'ya-ris, Tm 

ing onotlicr uatiou. 
AnzxUATiOM, awg-nl-e-a'sfaun, 

AtTXiLiATOBT, awg-xil'e-a-Co-r«, 
AuxiKDRDft, awg-iin'u-nu, s. (i 

and ouro*, a tuil, Gr.) A genua 

oval ; tail coriacooos, and anaed witli at 

fixed piste : Family, A&tnidcnnini!. 
Al'xjb, awg'tis, f. (Lst. from mtff*, tpla 

A genua of fishes belonging to tlie Uadn 

AtaiLh a-vale', ». n. (valoir. Fr.) To 

promote ; to assist -, — p. m. to be of oati 

fit ; advantage ; beneHt. 
AvAiLABLK, a-Ti'la-bl, o. pToAtaUe ] 

f;nraa; powerfal; a£Rcaeioiis; valid; ha 

AVAILABLE.WKS8, a-Vs'la-bl-DCS, «. PM 

moting the end for which it is uaad ; M 

AvAiLABLT, a-vala-Ua, ad. Pow«rful] 
ably; advantagooasly; l^aUy; vafidlyi 

AvAiLMEiffT. a-vaJe'iD«Bt, s: Uscfidnv 
tagc ; profit 

AvXLANOHK, av'a-lansh,j(. (Piwicfa.) A 
accumulation of snow, which, on beoomin 
from any mouiitnininia height, is pncU 
prodiipooa vrltwity, and often with tM 
•truotivs aud ovTwhchning vActo to ij 




hnlfl', r. & (ataler. FrO To let fftTI : to 
i; to m«k« abjKt; lo itnk; U> &iiik; 
md or come down. — ObeolKe. 
hat til* cmlicd nunbus 'pn (mtl« 

iirhcv U» Utter ehb 'rim to m«U. 
igr iHBpR of mod he leav«i/->i$jptucr. 

bvmiKS, a-vMig-ooo-rver, «. (French.) 
bcfon ibe rut to notify their ap- 

IVjLftD, i^mnp'fjSrA^ i. (Freneh.) The 

front of aa aru^ y. 

KlXE, *-van'tu-rm, «. A glittering Tuietjr 

moos qiurtx. 

\ ar'a-ru, «. (French.) Covetoasaew; 

|Boc9B ; gnwdioni ; iosjitUble desire. 

pcft, »• Tt-rijJi'ua, a. Coretous ; gnediv. 

OlJSLT, Kv-A-mli'us-Ie, ad. In « covetous 

l>nvK*&, aT-a-ruh'tU'Des, c. Amrice; 
L aw'a-nu, a. Atbtkious ; corotous ; 

* tt-^-v- nitkeiyb«debstweneh7Tn which 

:>vni that li Jeloos(rf tovc— Cotftn-. 
I- -■•- -" , ■y. A sen torn. Hold; ttop ; 

^^plAr', «. (oroftira, Soni.) A dionf^ -, 
^^kd to expRSi eaeb metainorpboau of 
Ni deity. 

I a-'wwiit't htffy. Cmant^ before, Fr.) Be- 
it vord of abborrcnoe, bj which any ono !• 
•Ksy; — hd. to boast; to vaunt;— p. n. to 
fefon aiDobbef ia ■ raimtiog m«iiiiDr.— Ob- 


— Ifc»| in frmt Unxtn, 
m tal* |«airit«i| plamw dolli prank. 
ia the trvmbUng aanck.— 


|Mtio|;. — Obflolet*. 
jpia* aaghc, b* dnrit 
Imm «Bd fiwiMwfrta are used by Gower in 

W IMWr bach taken liis acc)uaintane«. 


L', «. (UC all hail !) The 6rat part of the 
loo tued by the Ruiniuiisls to the Virgiu 
Aa ahbnmtioa of Ave Maria. 



was wont to my.— 

^wl', 9. o. (arefllo, tat) To pull or drax 
■-Ofeaolcte.— s, a name given in the coua- 
' Kortolk And SuJTolk to ths awn or beard 


AU, a're tna-ri'a, t. (nve, all linti! and 
. tim Virpii Maty, Lat.) Ave Mar)-; tbe 
in words of a pnyer aildrrsaed to the Vir- 
Bemau CstboiicB. In Ilalv, '.lie Ave Ma- 
iMbaot half an hour aflrr sunset, when the 
Mia riiip, aud the dn-out suspend thitr 
|toa or pMAltinei to repeat thfjr Are Marian 
ft,-v«'&a, a. {avcTta, oats, LaL) The Oat 
I Cnrni of the Gramineai or Grass faniity, 
wldtfb is the well- known and l.i^^bly r. lu- 
kiMf A. aatiw or common oat, thu i^ccd of 
notxitira of all T^etnbla pn>- 

Atc\'aceol*9, a-Tfrna'shua, a. Farlaking of ths 

nuliirc of oatB. 
AvKSAGK, av'en-njo, *. (rrrenn, outs, LaL) A cex^ 

tain qanntily of oat^i paid an rcnC< 
ArKNKft,) arVniir, s. (nvemL, earn ) A name aa- 
AvENOX.i' clendy (riven to an olflccrof tha Idog, 

ivbo had cliarce of the horses' provender. 
AvENGC, ft-vcnj', r. a. (urcnycr, Lat.) Torevcnge; 

to punijth. Used as a noun by $[)enscr in thew 

lines :— 
And if to Uiat mmge hj jcm ik-crml, 
TUU hand inay he(|i, Qr »ucoi>ur uui{bt lupply. 

Atbnoeanck, a-ven ji'ns, *. Panishmcut. 
ATKNGraiBNX, a-veiij'iii«iit, «. Vengeance { re- 
Atenukk, a-ven^ur, «. One who punishes, or taSok 

AvKKGKiCBifS, a-veti'jur-es, «. A fooiale aveogec 
— Ohaolcle. 
Th«r« that cruel qunen oMnfffrem,' 
llcap on her new waves ot weary wrQtchcdiic»<i.— 

Atxkb, a'Trna, s. The common name of the Geum, 
a genus of plmlsi Order, JCosaccK. 

AVENTINE, av'eii-line, a. Pifrtsining lo the Aven- 
thic Mount, one of the eeytm hilU of Home. 

AvESTniE:, a-ven'ture, *. (Frpiich.) The causing 
of n penon*s death without felony; a mtiKhancc. 

AvENDK, nv'e-na, *. (French.) An entrance to A 
plnoe ; an alley, or walk of ti'ees before a hon*>e. 

AvKii, a-vt-r', v. u. (nreTw, Kr.) To declare in a 
positive manner; to nfflnn ; to assert. 

.\VKK, a'vur, a. Feeviah. A word used m North- 
am I erlnnd. 

5oTi.<~Jwri«anold Srottieh word for a workioR liona. 
Artm is lifted in the OoumiMJa^ Butik fi-ir n daj'«work 
of a pluughniun, valueil at tkL Aver eom. ix-nt re- 
K't-VGil in cum, untl yaltl by Tanners nnd teniinU to 
rclitcinuB liLjUftet. ^p^ UuMi was turh grt<uiid ii« the 
tt'imnts ploufjbotl an'l manured forUie pr.iper use of 
a iiitinaktory, urlbo Lunluf the QiaDor.'— tfccOoMvlttad 

AvEiuGB, Av'ur-nje, i. (orer^iNm, LaL) A 
iiHilluiii quantity, or quolieot, obtained by di- 
nding the sntn totjil nf the quantities given 
by thvir numlter; thutt, 7 is the averaf^e of 
2 X8 X4 XC X13 X 14 = 42; which, divided 
by G, the number of quantities gives 7 ss tho 
average quantity. J veratfe m Ua lot qfahipfnng, 
is usually applied to the Iuks occasioned by any 
sacrifice made to injure the safety of a ship and 
cargu; and being n loss which underwriters have 
to sustain, it fonns a part of the low of insurance. 
Tbe simplest ca»o is lliat of throwing gooiis over- 
board to ligliion A iihlp. Here the cargo is sacn- 
ficed; and the piopiii-turs uf it, with the ahip- 
owners, l)CAr a sltnre of the loss according to ttio 
extent of their ruhons interMts. It dMiuti>.<i also 
tbe qnota or proportioo which each meixlvant or 
proprirtor in the ship or lading ia a^ndged, upon 
a reasonable estimate, to contribnte towards the 
expcnsM of the vuvage, &£. In I^w, that duty 
or service which the tenant is to pay to the king 
or otlwr bird, by tlio u«j of his U-asIs or corriagi'sj 
— V, a. to find the medium qnsntily ur priL*e ; to 
estimate according to a given period of time ; to 

Atermekt, 8-ver'meni, *. A pomtivo declarutioo \ 
estJibliahinent by evidence. 

AvKkSAT, ii-vrr'nat, t. A sort of grape, 

AvKBituoA, av-er-ho'a, t. (^Avrrrhots, in Spun.) 
A genua of East Indian shrubs : Order, Ozalldev. 



AvEnnLSCATE, nv-cr-niQK'kfll*?. v. a, (optn-unw, 
l<iit. ) To unit up ; to tear up I'T the root/*. 

AvcfiitLTfCAiiurt, ar-«r-ruDg-ka'tiiun, s. Tho net 
of iTkoting up anrthin);;. 

AiriuiHvyCATUii, nv-er-ning'k&'Car, t. An instni- 
mcnt for cntting off the branch^ of trws, cimsUt- 
tiif; of twu bladc3 fisctl on tho end of a rod, ctio 
of which h** a. moveable joint, whk*h, hy ineiinA 
of a line fixed to it, operates like a pair of scimioik. 

AvERSATloN, nv-er-KR'Khnu, *. (((fr*-jrtr, I abhor, 
Lit.) Abhorreaoe; hatred; tuming awaj with 

AvKRiiK, u-verae'f a (avenut^ Lat) Contrary to: 
not favourable to; mnlij^ant. In Omitbolo^v, 
applied wiien the po&terior cxtreinEtics uf & bird 
are attached to the tnink nonr thi> anus, tui thnL 
the body is trapp'^rtixl erect, as in the jwngiun, 

ATKRnEi.r. ;i-veni'le, aii. Uawilltngly; backwudly; 
on favourably. 

AvLUbtiNtss, a-Ters'nes, «. Unwillingness; buck- 

AvER&tOK^ a-Tcr'shun, $. (trpnvin^ Lat.) IlaLrcd ; 
dislike; antipathy; deteAlatiott. 

Avert, a«vrrl', v. a. (tH-Tr/u, Lat.) To turn aside; 
to keep off; to tuni off; to put by; — v. n. to 
turn anay. A 
Cold and apcrtittg fr«ui our nei^^hbour'i pfKMl. — 

ArEtiTEn, a-vert'ur, s. One that turns aaidc; & 

AvKS, a'vcH, s. (arur, a bird, Lat.) Birds. In 
Zoology, tlio second class of tbo Vertebrata, com- 
prehending the feathered animals, all of which 
tinve D double circulation, with rrKpimtLoo, worm 
bluod, and are oviparoua.— -Sec AnitnoL 

AvLiUr, B'vc-a-rc, «. (octamfn, Lat.) A place in 
which birds are kept. 

AricKNKlA, a-ve-f>cn'ue-«, t. {Avicennes^ the nanie 
of a Persian phy»ctan.) A gentis of plains : Or- 
der, Mvupuririexr; one of the spedcs is called tlie 
"MiilB Alanpv>ve. 

Aticida, a-vts'e-dn, «. (acu, a Uird, and cirth, I 
kill, A i^nus of falcnnfl, bdungiiig lo 
SwoinM>n's sub-fuinily, FalconiniP, 

AviCL'ui, a-vik'u-la, s. (nrteuJa, a little bird.) A 
genus of marine birulvu niotlusca, tho shells uf 
which are winced; fuliareon.t; extcnully and inter- 
nally of abrilliant pearly lu.iio; one of the upeclea, 
A. mnrtjtiriti/fra, is tho wetl-kuoirn oyster, from 
which the iiio^t precious pearls are obtiiii)**'!. 

Avict!Li0.c, a-vik'u-li-de, a. Muscles uiid ]>earl 
oysters; a family of molluscs belunpng to tie 
trihi! Atrachia; tliat is, those idhabiUintit of uni- 
valve shellE which have no syphons. Tlie<i 
are attached to the aliells, and linve a bysfiua ; tho 
ehclls are foUaceoos, and of a («arly lustro inter- 
nally; tbo ralri'B generally gaping. 

AtidioijSi a-tid'e-ns, a. (uriiAu, Lat.) Greedy; 

Atiuioublt, n-vid'c-us-le, «»/. Eagerly; greedily. 
AvitilTr, a-vjd'e-lfl, #. (nvidiluj, Lat.) Greediness; 

CAgemett; Riixiousnexs. 
AviLB, li-Tile', P.O. (orifcr, old Fr.) To depredate; 

to h<^d cheap. 

Beinn rtcprcKt awhile. 
Want makes us know tbc price uf wliat we aeCe.— 

Btn Jotuofi. 

A VISE. 1 a-visc', r. n. (nruer, Fr.) To consider ; 
AvizR,f to counsel; to oxainiuej— *. advice.— 

AviBRsiEKT, a Yiau'maiti s. Ad^nsement ; 

— Obsolrt*. 

AviToie, aT'e-tns, o. (arihts^ Lat.) Left \j 

anoestor; andenL — I^'ot u-ed. 
AvocATS, av'o-kate, p. o. (avoco, LaL} To c^ 

away; to call from. 
AvocATios, a-vo-ka'shno, v. lu Tho net of caOiof I 

off or aside ; — a. bne*s businnu or calling. 
AvoCATiVEf R-vok'a-tir, a. That wUch call 

from or a^iile. 
AvooATO, »-Ti>-g»'to, > «. The alligator pea 
/.toCat>0, H-vo-kaMo,^ West (lulinn tree; 

Launu Peraea of Liiinteus: Order. Lauriira. 
Avoid, a-voyd', r. a. (ruirfcr, oUl Fr.) To slum ; 

to escape ; ta evacuate ; to quit ; — i^ n, to nttirt; 

to bcoome void ur TacauL 
And DarldflWHdalouCoruUpreseacc iwleft— 1 

Atoipablb, B-voyd'a-bl, a. Tliat may be ahoai 
or avoided ; liable to be shunned or annti 

Avoidance, u-voyd'on.% #. The oct of 
the course by whic^ anything is carried! 
act or state of becoming vacant; the act 
DuUiog ; the otate of an ecclesiastical 
without an incuuibent. 

Atoider, B-voyd'ur, m. One who avoids, 
escapes, or carries anything nwny. The 
nroiW is fn^^uenlly nsetl by old writers, to sij 
the removal of dishes from table ; as- 

Hli itfTlce tn nvntil the talile*. in fair and 
at!T.-.<iut€n JUit. I\og. at lAe Ttmits, 1. 30. 

hence the word avoulrr. 
AvoiULE8S,a-\'oyd'lcs,a. Unavoidable; iMvttaMh 
AVOIRDCPOI8, Bv-er-dn-poys', «. C""'*'*. *• kir^ : 

rfw, of, and j»w, weijiht. Fr.) A jraund wdflt, | 

of which the pr>nnd is 16 ounces, 25(i drama, 

7000 grains: 28 lbs. ntake 1 qr., and 4 

make 1 cwt. 
AvuK E, a-vuke', i*. a, (a, from, and voca, 1 

Lat) To call back, or to Cidl fmin. 
AvoiJkTtoy, a-vo-U'sliun, *. (a. from, and 

Hy, IjiU) llio act of fly uig from ; liight ; 
Av«>SET, av'o-iet, *. TJio coinuion name of 

l(auniro*lni, a genua of long tco?c«l, web-fa 

wading birds, willi Iouj; tiinif.l-np btlU. 
Avouch, a-vowlsh', p. n. (weo^ta\ Kr.) To 

to affirm; to produce b fjvonr of another; 

vindicate; to justify;—*. ■ declaration i itt 

deuce ; testhuutiy. 

I inlffht not this boHera 
Wlihout the swiiiiWo nnil tij'd 
Of niiiii! own eyes.— £LiA-J. 

AvntTcnADLBf a-Towtoh'ft-W, a. Tliat iw|i 

AvoociiKii, o-Towt*h'ur, «. That which 

or afiirms. 
AvoL'ciiJiEST, a-voutsh'meat, «. An 

Av4iw, tt-vow', p. a. (oroo^r, Fr.) To dedai«| 

profess; to osaert ; to justify. 
AvoWABi^ a-vow'a-bl, tu Tliat may bt vt 

tliat may be declared upenly wilhoiU shatnt. 
AvowABLV, a-vow'a-ble, ad. lo on Vi" 

AvowAt., a-vow'al, a. A positive and open 

AvowKin.v, a-vow'ed-l^ ad. In an open s« 

Avowee, a-vow-ee', «. (aroM, • patron, Fr.) Ut 



to vtMWtt tb« right of adrowson of anr choreh 
Ui'ji'^ ; the «dvowe«. 

iTQwcK, ••Tnw'nr, «. One wbo arowi. 

At ■■»'«:, g. In Ljw, % term i»-^\tjintt 

\ <q or atitcmcnt uf itie d-iua.' trlien 

«n Lii.r» o«t a dbtrcM for rent i^itiist auotlivr, 
mA tiN dtttraapnl perwo pleads leplcviii or re- 

hro^^iU. »-rvm'»*\, j. A confession. 
I Atowt«t, i-Tow'tre, J. AJullcrv. — ObMlct«. 
in3.*BDw ft-vvl'sedf/iart (avsfiw, Lat.) Plucked 

Anuio^r. ••T«r»lnm, c (arWrib, Lat) Tbe act 

if poling OTM tlriog from uKthcr. 
AvifT. •-w»u', r. a. To eEpect; to wait for; to 
Mlad; tobciaftonfiir; — i. ambosh. — Obeotcte 

?v thoosand jifrib llf In rlu«« mbuiI 
Ibottf lu dailj, to work oar decaj.— £|pmer. 

A«AKa» a-iraka\ •. s. (oireociaA, Sax.) To rOD5fl 

«lofalcrp; to roOMfnin a statfof leLliaro'; to 

■to a«w actaoa ;— «. «. to waken out of sleep; 

ooC akepiiij ; vi^Unt ; actire. 

a-wa'ku. — Sea Awake. 

'AftXVKa, a-wake'nor, «. That which awakens. 

KVJXC, a-waka'uiag, «. Tbe act of awakuig 

Avau^ •-vbw7i1\ r. a. {mmnla; old Fr.) To giro 
jajiftng by a joJicial wntence; to a^jadgc; to 
fm hf mhj «t pomahmeut or roward; — «. n, to 
^J7 ; to iktcrmiiie ; 

n* midaa miamrd to Mre It In the towers, 
•aerad.— ^bpv'j lAi^mry. 

_ _ tc amtenoe; determinniion. 
Av&nmt, a-wawr'dor, s. One wbu awards or 

(jremrrMfi, Sax.) Viplant; 
— P.M. to beware; to ba cau- 
in thU Mnsb 
AvAKK« a-wawm', r. a. (a, and tBoni.) To caotjon. 

l«*«rrMrd and bf>a«t ■icnrnrrf mnde 

ktwJ tfMmaalvMt wliUo Blevii their eenaei did 

a-v»', mt. C«iP^^ Sax.) Absent firom any 

I to** a pain upon mj forehead her*. 

W|g,cbat'a wtth watcfhiDg ; tnill oiMf acain. 


h> « g»; bfone; oHoy anifA, take awaj, throw 
av^j flaanM mcay icitk, eannat 
A*«rirosi», a-wa'wiinl, {<ttcci/, and iccojt/. Sax.) 
Tha aU adnrb for awa^, in ibe sense of turuiiig 
tmdt 6fc a p«r90O or place. — Obsolete. 

Khm, thm* kpng, with ejon wrotha, 
cftirc (hh lace) awnudnic (ru nic caste.— 

Aai^ •■, A (ayt, Sax. and o^an, Golh.) Hcver- 
Mbl far; mcToacc;— «. a. to strike with rerer- 
mm «r fktf ; to keep in aubjeclion. 

AWaKT, a-we'«v o- Weary ; tjnrd. 

I a^ «w«Bry ; firs cDe Icare a while.— 5AaJb, 

Avsantta, s-wetb'ur. nd. A sea tcnn; on tlie 

WUtktr aide: towardn the wind. 
An-BaxD, aw'band, «. A check. 

Aa[>iNG, aw'kutn-inaii'dingtii. Striking 

inraoM, *-wa', adL Aau term, denoting* tliat (lie 
kai jnat Wea pulled from ita buld, und 

AwB-8TRiit.'l£, aw'etruclc, a, Impi-e&sed with awe. 
Awvri., awful, <f. Tliat f.trikes with i»we or deep 

reverence; rvoriiliipriU ; iuvceted with l.igh aulbo* 

rt(;r; tinioniua. 
Awj- XL-EYKi>, aw'ful-i'd, a. Having eyea exciting 


Pure and nndHiled temperance, manljr and mcfvl^jftd 
furtitu du.— i/a»'« Hang t^ tiu J^ohI. 

AwFULLT, flw'fuMe^ ad. In a reverential manner; 
in a nitinner striking with awe. 

Tbe Uon tnt/vHy forMda the prej.— />ryiie«. 
AwrrLNESS, nw'fui-nm, «. Tho quality of awe; 
the tttate ot being struck wltb awe ; solemnity ; 
exciting awe. 
AiVHArE, a-hwHpe*, v. a. (^rtfrrojypon, to ea^ down, 
Sax.) To strike ; to confound ; to Ii*n-i(v. — Ob- 

•Ahl my dcar!»o*!ilp,' opRwercl then the npe, 
' Dwfjjlj do juur fail wvr^ my wita aichape.' — 

AwnrF.i.», a-hwe«la', ad. On wheels. 

And wUl they not or> then, the world run* mArtit t— 

Ji*n JansatL. 

AwniLB, a-1iw:Ie'| ad. Same time ; some .^iico of 
lime ; oii inten'aL 

AwjKT, a hwit', M. This word La sometimes ascd 
atlverbially, but it is ouly a whit; tbjit li, a jot, a 

AwK, awk, tu An old adjective, signifying odd, 
out of order, sinister. 

KoTV,— Tbe wurd awl; \» probabl.T derived from the 
fttmn;f<] Kwk«vard-l«KihinK bird, mo auk, or. at it Is 
tomctinim ap<*It. awk. A stupid or cluni&y (icrsun la 
sntnetimi-fl mllod an awJb. '1 he word a«k It Uf rd in 
h'ttrrulk \n the *cnw nf inrerted, e» the bvtU arc rung 
avk, Uiat it. backward. The nor.l in met with in ilia 
' Prumptunrlnm I'amilnruni," (l.Mu.) dffin'-d at rig- 
mtMftir wniiL'. i>ini«i«r. aiiRrr. or ilUnaturcd— as al*o 
aui< ' - lil-iuiturvdJy. In Ooldon's iraiiala- 

I It'll ' ' nrir{'h'«i«,tho wQrddNfc-ciidocvaiv 

for tit iiiDionl)' ustd : — 

• • • • And ittrake 

The oirt-md of hlr eharm'd rod upon our hcadea, and 

AwKWARn, awk'vnrd, a. (ffwwrf, Sni. sccontinf( 

U) Br. Johnson, but m<tre probably from ntrh 

and «recnf/f toward.% Sax.) Iiiele^iit; mipolite; 

ungentccl ; unready : unhandy ; not dexterous ; 

dunifty; perverse; untow.-ird; untaught. 
AwKWARDL^ Bwk'wui^'lL', a^. Clumsily; iiiele- 

g;intly; nngiiinly. 
Awicn'AiiDKBSA, awk 'wurd -nrft, «. Inelegance} 

chuiiadne&s ; vruiit nf gt-ntility ; unsultableubss. 
Awr., Awl, «. (a/, Snx. aal, Gctb. and aM, Germ.) 

A sharp instrument for making holes with — ttscd 

by sliovmakens and other workers in Ivat^ter. 
Awi.K88, Hw'lcs, a. Without rovfruice; wanting 

the power to excite reverence. 
AtVMK or AiiM, awm, a. A l>utch mensnre, oqunl 

to 3i.l6 Imperial gallons at Amsterdam, and 

83.32 at Rotterdam. 
Awic, awn, t. lu Uotany. the rigid or hiiiy-pointed 

beard of com or tilhcr graters. 
Awning, awn'ing, *. Any cuvering spread over a 

sliip or boat to keep off the raya of the nm, or 

Aw.tLESS, nwnlcs, n. Without awns. 
Awoke, a-woke'. Tlie past of tho verb To aienle. 
AwoRK, a-wurk', oJ. At work. 
AwoitKlNO, a-wurk uij:, ad. In a state of labour, 

— Not u,»ed. 
AWKT, a-ri', «. Oblinncly; asquint; nnerenly; not 
. according to right reason ; perverMly. 

AXAL, ax'ol, a, HehXlog to tbe axis. Axal sccilon^ 
m sMtiim through the luis of ■ bodj. 

Axe, aka, ». {cfx^ Sax. nvm^ Goth, auxinty Gr.) 
An instrument, cotiitiMirig of s 8hnrp-«lg«l head 
fixed to « limtdle, to cut or chop witli, tbo edgv 
being on the wiine tine with X\\c haiulie. 

AxESTONE, alu'stone, a. A sub-»peci<» of jade, n 
Runeral foatiU in New Zcalnnd mid tbe other inlandh 
of tlie Pac'itic Ooean, uf which tlio mhubiuuits 
makn hiitjlieU nnd other nttting instrnnientA. 

Axiroau, ukA'e-fuwnn, n. In thesLji'eufan axix. 

Axil^ "g'xilt \ '• {njiUa^ l^U) In Anatamr, 

AxiIXA, a:>'zil']a,( t)io antipit. In BotHor, the 
anj^lc formed hj the stalk of a luif with tlie itEc!m. 

AxiLLAlt, iK-xil Jar, ^ a. (axiUit^ and axUtarlt, 

AXItT.ABY, tig-jul'la-re.) IjiL) In Anatomy, bc- 
lonfiiiif; to tlie axtUa or armpit ; and appliiid tu 
the arTent*.s, reins, glands, lymphatics, and plexus 
connected thertwith. In Botany, applied totlowcr* 
ftaUu when proccfdin<! from the axiiU, or angle 
made by a leaf and stem, or branch and stem ; 
■Iao to flovren, and the s.pikps uf llowcrs proceeding 
from either of the>e. In Enlorjoloiry, applied to 
partii that spring from the poirt of union of two 
otiier jnrts. 

AxiMTE, ak«'c-nile, «. The Thnmnslone of W(!r- 
nrr, n mineral of a brown, gny, black, or bhie 
colcur, with axe-shjp«d oyatxils; texture foliated ; 
fiucture oonchoidal; mclta into a hard bhick ena- 
mel before the blowi.>ipe. li conKiKtii of tilioi, 44 ; 
alumina, 18; Hmc, 19; oxide of iron, 14: oxide 
of mongoiieac, 4. 

AxtyOHASCY, af;-xe*nom'an<8e,«. (tmne, a hatcJiet, 
and manteia, divination, Gr.) An ancient method 
of diriiialiun by m'eiin!! uf a hutchet, in much re- 
piilH among the Greclu and UomimB ; said to have 
been done by laying an agAle on n red- hot hfttclict. 

Axiom, ak'shum, «. {nxioo, I am worthy, Gr.) A 
self-eridrnt propoitition ; a thiii^ evident to every 
one whoD Btited : such a^ ' Tbe whole is greater 
than a pnr(,' * NuUiitig can prmhw* nothing.* 

AxioMATicAt, tka-e-o-mat'e-kal, a, Kvluting to 
an axiom. 

Axia, ok sis, *, (Latin.) The line, real or imii^i- 
nary, that paiwifs ihroogh nnyltiin;; on whii-h it 
may revolve. Ist, lu Gemnt'tiy, tbe straight line 
in u plane (ignre, about whioli it r^olvea to pro- 
duce or f^nerstc a solid. 2<l, In Conio SoetSona, 
a right Une dividing thn iWi'tinn into two parta, 
and cuttiag ail its ordiniites at right angles, dd, 
In AKtroncmiy, an imaginary line ii>np]K)5cd to pan 
through the centre of the earth and thu heavenly 
bodies, about which tliey prrfonn their dinni:d 
rvvohiti «nB. 4th, In Mrcliiinic*, ths axi* of a 
buianre is tli*^ line ahniit wliii It it min'cx, or rathtr 
tunia abunt ; da axis ofMcUlation is a right lina, 
pnraltel to the horizcin, paa^itlg thmu^h the crntre, 
about which a pendulum vihratos; Vte ttherl and 
axis is one of the mechaniral ihiwctk, cnn'ti»ting 
of a wlml miici.'ntric with the base of a cylin- 
der, and moveable together with it aboat its axis. 
6lh, In Optica, an oxu is tlist particular my of 
light, coming fi^m any object, wliich fidls pirr- 
pendirularly on tho rye. (ilh, In Archttci-ttiri', 
gpind axu is the Axis of a twisted culuma drawn 
spirally, in order to traco the cirrnniVMliitiuiis 
withont ; the axlt of the /oale caplUd is a lino 
passing perpenditrulsriy lliruogh the mi^ldle of the 
eye of the volute. 7th, In Anatomy, tlto axU is 
tho serand vertebrs of the neck j it has a process, 

or tooth, which goes into the 6rst vertebra, 
this by some ia called Ihe axi». 6th, In Botany, 
the nxU is a taper cohimn, placed Jn the centre ef 
8om« flowers or catkins, round which the otlier 
parts ate disposed ; or it sigriifica the stem nnin4 
whirh the leaves, or modified leaves, art prodocpd. 
AxU nfa sruti is an imnginnry line, passing the 
middle nf it prrpcn^lvcular to itA biue, and et^uslly 
distant from lis sides. Axi* is aUo the Daow 
given by Smifit to a genns of Indian stags, is- 
cluding the Csmis oxU of Uniueasi Kanlly, 

Axle, ak'sl, \ a, (ozw, Lnt.) The ptece 

AXLE-THKE, ak'sl-tre, J" of timber or iron which 
passes through the contro of a wheel. 

Axolotps, aks-n-Io'lu\ s, A llrxican term for s 
genna of perenibran dilate amphibeans, found in 
the lakes of Mexico. 

AxoTouou9,aks-ot'a-mas./7. (anm,axi^,and fnnM, ' 
1 ait, Gr.) A minrmlof;ical (trm, signifying ckav< ! 
able in one particular direction. 

AxUNOiA, aks-nn'je-a, j. (oj-i's, an axlelree, snd 
MH^o, I anoint, Lat.) The grease or fat of aoi- 
main, used in greasing the axles of whevla. At* 
wtffia curattL, purified hog's-Urd. Axim^ ik 
mumia, tho marrow of hones. Axttnipa poram^ 
hog's- Is rd. 

Ay, i, ad. (ai. Sax.) Yes; certninly. 

At£, ay, nd. (aei, always, Gr. air, Goth.) Alwsrs; 
to eternity; for ever. 

Atb Ate. — See Cheiromrs. 

At Mb, ay mA, mUrj. (oAima, Ital. onsoii, Gr.) 
Equivulciit to ah mef 

Ay me! I rundl/ dr«am !— JVZIoh's /.jtftfs*. 

Afmet9. and brarty )iei):hi»«, 

Aro salUu fit fur *o1«litirs — Omm. 4t FbL 

Ayuestuy I.tUKATONE, ay tne-stre Itme'iitime, A 
In Geology, one of the calcareous beds of tbe Hpper 
Silurian itrnc:^ which, from its unmemns oipUM 
remains, seems to hnvc been chiefly depontsd bf 
sccnmnlitiona of coraU and lUiells. It occurs near 
Ludlow, Molrum, and olber places in \\»\m> 

Atrt. — See Kyry. 

AzAi-EA, B-z3*le-fl, #. (ranUoa, dry, Gr.) A - 
of beautiful dec)dnoii<t shrubby plsnts, Willi 
coloured trumpct-shtiped or bell-abaiwd fiom-n: 
Order, Rhodorarrx:. 

AxAROLV, az'a-role, s. A species of tbonu 

a. A species of ptum. 

Akerit, az er-it, ) 

AzcittTA, az-er-it'o, f 

AziviTTU, ai'e-mu(A, «. (ArahJc.) Tlio or iff- * / 

Mr «Mi, or of a gtitr^ is nn arch between i) 

ridian of the phtce and any givim vi^iivil ' 
Mnffofiictd az'mufhy is iinarrhoftlir Itiinr- ■ 
taiiH-d bctwcfTn the sun's azimuth ciivle nn i ; 
mo^^netical meridian. The izsimuth cum/mus, '» an 
in5tmmcnt used at sea for fiuding the son's msj* 
netieal azimuth. Asirn^rh diol^ is n dial wbo^ 
slilo or gnomon Lt at ri;;ht angles to tbe plaoa* 
the horizon. A^iuth ctrdes, an great cin:lc*sf 
llie hc.iv!-n.i interwctinj: one another in the HfUtk 
and nadir, and conijcqucntly are at right angla t0 
the horizon, 

AzoNi, a-Eo'ni, a. (a, without, and zmui, a cin^ , 
Gr ) A term applied by the ancients to soA 
gods as wen ncknowlodged In every conntiT", sni 
were not tho divinities of any particular people of 
rntion. The local deities wore called Zoniei. 

Azote, ai-ote', s. (a, without, and roe, lit^ Gr'; 
Kitrn^en ; an elementary enbstatioe, so n""» 




H does not snpport lifr. It is one of tho 
of the nXmoftpticrv, of blood, miiM:iil3r 
id many muicnU. The tumf, nitro;;on, 
to it frvra its twin^ ihc b^iM of oitrr. — 
arr aome of itA oomponndK : — Axn- 
rons-utin^ of 12 fquivalcnta of cnrboii, B 
jprn. ami 1 of mtn>grn. Azol/rnztitJp^ 42 
1C4 of hydrogen, aod 2^ of nUro;^n. 
42 «f cartwn, IS «f hrdfogen, and 2 

I, «. The liqoid of sablim&ted quick- 

■ ut'ik, 4B. Of or pertaining to AZOte 
L as'o-titet t. A &nlt formi-d of nitrous 

b Acid, t-zul'mik w'aid, $. An ndd fotmd 
U-fcJc mattrr dvpaiited doling tho dooam* 
Off hTdroeyanic acid. 

'tfinre, m. A binf coloor lilnt tliat of the 
Ucnldrr, th« Mqc colour In Ibo armorial 
of anr penon below the nnk of a Inmn. 
tcheon of a nohlmiBn, it is cilled tap- 
in that of a soiTrrign princt, Jitfttttr. 
ihia coloBT is expmsrd hj tintss or 
rdrawa faonzootally^ — r, a. to ooloar anj- 

a'cKurd, a. Sky-rolotind. 
i.TK, a'thare-stone,^ «. Tlie lapis lazuli 
k'ahnrr-ite^ ) of lapidaries, and 

Insnlito of Haay; a mineral of a 6ne acnre bino 
culour; crjsljilixed in riiombuhetlrul dodecahedrons, 
moAsire and diiucniiiinf^d ; structure finely gi'onu* 
tnr, almost oumpacl; fracture conchoidHl or uneven; 
lufltrr frrble; ncra^chca class. Its in;;r«lipnl:f are 
— riiosphoric acid, 43.32; alumina, 3-1.50; mag- 
nwia, 13.5fi; hmt*, 0.40; oxidn of iron, 0.80; 
iilicn, C.60; water, 0.50; 3.0— 3.1; h;ird- 
ncss, 5 — 6. 

AzuKN, a'zhnm, a, («ari«, Fr.) Of a brigtit bluo 
colnnr ; sky -colon rwl. 

AzvtiocER.\, az-«-|?M'e-ra, $. (a, nithoat, z^/thr, a 
p-iir or yoke, at.d Jtwru, a linni. Or) A name 
given by UlainvUle to a socllua of tl)« K{trcidf&, 
comprising those which have their IcntacuW sys- 
tem roach shortened. 

Azvoos, ax'e-gos, s. (a, withnnt, and t}/ffon^ a yoke, 
Gr.) A namo given to srrerjl muBclea, veins, 
and bones, which occur singly, and not in pairs : 
MS a. proccj;] of thu 5phciiuid bone, asygo$ proca- 
auM; a mosclti (if ttir urnla, nzngot Wfttta; and 
the airg03 vein, a vein of tlic thuntx, mygo* vena. 

AzYMA, ar.'fr-ma, m, (o, withoat, and zyme, leaven, 
Or.) In Thcolo^', the feast of unleavened bread 
among the Jew*. 

AzTHiTES, aa'e-mites, s. A name given Vy the 
Greeks, in the clcTonth century, to tha JjiCin 
Chiu^h, because they oied iLnleavened broad in 
the eucharist. 




iem4 ktler, and 6nrt consonant of the 
L^lplubeC, ia pvQOunced, as in moat other 
■ ■ ■H E M M I, by praaing tha «bol« lengt]] 
^fM tiMilni'i. and forcing them open with 
\ bncta. It has a near aHinity with th? 
leCtcra, and la confounded by the Ger- 
ruJi P. KTul by the Oucoiu with V. B, 
' among the Bomans, stood for 300, 
iMboTfrit,fer300a B, in Chruno- 
Ibr Ofu ef the dominical letters, an<i, 
for tb« Kxentb note lu the gamut. For 
acan abbreriation — aee Appendix. 
TKa ciy of a sheep ;— v. fk to ciy like 

'iL «. CHcbreir, lord or maeter.) A gcne- 
lor G*i^ in many of tiM Sym- Arabiim 
It is prohabie, tJial under the nnine 
««• vonbipped one of the astral sp'uit*, 
tb« power of nature was considered to 
iii4 llut Baal wu the rcpresentntivo, 
I of that «/ the Sun, and bitterly OS t1 t 
oeasidcred as the greater star of ff<oM 
vUk AtlKoreth represented, ori^dnally, 
9d t^M Ueon, and, at a later period, 
Vnua ; both Mem to hare been wor- 
I coojurictly. 

AJU>, UiH-billJid, M. Tbe cumica gnr- 
Iwd; known like-wise by th? names of the 
■laiitnid or babbling favoette, lesser white- 
I and o«tt)e-cteeper. 

t Wb^l, V. a. {wrfian, Sax. hahilkr, Fr.) 
ttW lifc* a child ; to prate impeflcctly ; to 
By «r fantionally ; to tell iecrets ; to talk 

miic}] ; — r. n. to pnito;— *. I'Hp talk; senseless 

BAiiitLLMEifT, bab'bl-mejit, «. Senselesa pratot 
e[npty word.H. 

BAntiLEK, biib'blur. «. An Idle talker; an irra- 
tional prattler; a teller of srcveta. 

BAnnuEK^. — See CratcropodinK. 

BAUiiLino, bab'bling, #. Foolish or improfitabic 

nxnc, babe, t. 'An infant ; a child of rithnr <icx. 

Bauki., ba'bel, «. Confusion; tumult; disorder. 
Ttiat biiM of sCmoge beattien langun^^Lf .— 

Badkrt, baW-t, *, Finery, to please a babe or 

n.\itiAXA, ba-be-a'na, », {huhtmcr, Dut so callL*d 
from tltc riHils U-iiig tho food of baboons,) A 
genus of bulbuujt- routed Cape pluuts, with Wiiu- 
tiful ;-cllovr purple or scarlet flowers i Order, 

BAOiRursaA, ba-bc-rows'so, s. The horned bog, 
a spcciea of wild hog «hiuh inhabits the wood^t of 
Java, Celt'bca, and other uf the Sunda isles. The 
Icgt and lu&ks are U>iigi-r tban in any other sprcit'S 
of hog; the luttn: are curved backward, oa a 
dcTenou to the eycA, while the animal makes its 
pas&ngc thruugh the onlangh-d jungles. 

BADlIill, bii'UMi, u. Clu]di^lu 

Uai><h)K, bi-Uiou', «. {bahuino^ ItaL txtbovin, Fn) 
The corainon name given to tliow; monkeyd wliitli 
have heads resembling those of the dog; they fonn 
the genoa Cynoccphnhis of Cum'r. — Which ace. 

Baby, ba'be,<. Acliild; an infant; a small imjigc, 




<. Infancr; cliiltlhood- 

in imltitinn nf a cbiM, which piU plav with \ — i 
likaabab3>; dimintitivi*; small; 

In iiurh indexcA. althotjffh tmnll pHcka 
Tu UiL'ir aiib^tMiuent voluinet, there is Mm 
The N(t/>y %urc nf tlie (;iant tun** 
Of tliiDipi Ut come bl liiri[o.—Shak>. 

^— V. a. to treat one Uko a babjr; to impose npoD 

At belt U [wfaltli) habiAt ui with eitdk'ss toys, 
AutI keojw us ctiUilreu uU we drv>p u> diut.— 


IlABrnooD, ba'b^-hood, \ 

BABVsniP. baV-ship, f 

B^Brisn, ha'be-isb, a. Childbth; in tbo dtate ol 
an infant. 

BamfLONUH, bab- b(-lo'ne-«n, «. A native of Ba- 
bylon ; — ii. pertaining to Babvlon. 

Bauvlokic, biib-br-lon'ik, f a. Prrtalauig ' to 

Babylonish, I'nb-bp-lon'iAh. > Bnbjioa. 

BanvLONiCAt., hnb-he-lonVkul, n. (Babd or Baby- 
lon.) Tiimultunnalr; disordcrlT. 

ITe so>r plainly ilicir nntltiuity, novelty ; their nnirer- 
•alitv, B /lufryf'Mitr.iI t^rniiujF ; Mu<i tb>.*ir cuiUMUt, a cuu- 
•[) irncjr. — JJ%irriitfftim~ 

Bad or Back, bak, t. A largo flnt tub, in which 
wort is coulcd in the pioccss of brewing, 

Bacaz[A, btt-ka'ihf-Q^ t. (in honour of Fruf. Bacaz.) 
A Peruvian «vcrj;T««n spiny sbrobf with crimen 
labeatA flowers ; Urder, Ooinposito:. 

Baccalauheatk, bak-kft-Uw re-ate, *. {baeealau- 
riuM, a batcholor, Ijit.) The dcgrve of Otichelur 
of Artfff the lowest Aagne cooferrnl in the Enghah 
and Krench umvenfiliea. 

Baccatk, bak'katc, \ a, (Acuxa, a Iktit.) In 

Baccateb, bakncaj-ted.) Iloiaiiy. Uriifd; tlrahj, 
ie^ luving seed cotilaincd in a flt»by fruit, 

BACCAL'LAKia, bak - kd • la ' ns, a. A frnit huvtng 
Kveral distinct carpels, with a sacculcot coating, 
and seatt^d on a short rec(>ptnrle. 

Bauciia, btk'ka, a. A i^niis of dipl«nma imects, 
of a bronze colour, marked with yrllow. 

Bacchanal, bak'ka-nal, \ tJhaeckanniia, 

Bacchanalian, bak-k«-na1e-an,J Lnt.) A re- 
Teller ; a drunkard ; a devotee to Bacchus, thn 
god of wine ;— a. revelling; drunki'ii. 

But uniwcriag to Ihr i;rn<>lj1p rnll, 
How answ«ra aadi buM bna^kanal f—Tiyron. 
Vi'eat country lads, who drank ale, nmukftl toliaeco, 

puuntd. and lUQjt baccfiatuUian catches the whole even- 

lag. —Ora9i'$ JiteoO. of SkeiutoM. 

Bacchanals, bak'ka-nala, a. The drunken feasta 
and revels of Baechns, the god uf wine 

Ha I my Ivave entperur. 

Shall we dance nuw Uiv E'^ptian bttaekamaU, 

And celebrnteour drink t — >'AuA;*. 

Bacchant, bakTsant, > a. (bacchant, Lat) A 

Bacchante, bak'kant, j" nTvclkr, 

Baccuakis, faak'k»-rLa, s. (liacchn^ from Its wine 
oolonr.) PloDghmui'a Spikenard ; a gcnns uf 
compoute plants, several bprciea of which possess 
fttimulaot and t'Hiic properties : Suh-oMnr, Ciir- 
duaoooi Vemoniscen;. Ploughman's Spikenard is 
given as tha venuicniar narae to this gi-nuii hy 
Loudim. The British spedes Conyu Squarro^a, is 
the plsQt pmiMtly dcsignnt^d hy ntitnr. 

Bacchia, hiik'kij-n, a. (from Bicchut.) A name 
given by Linnieus to the red pimples which appear 
vn the face throu^li hard drinking. 

Baccbical. bnk'ke-kal,) a, (iaccAt'cw, I^t.) R<v 

Bacchic. bak'kik, ) biting to the riotous fcaata 
of Bacchus. 

They (the Orccian •ophLsb) raised up a kind nf hu- 
' enthttsiasui, and innsporCed tfadr 1 

beartrs with 

some honey wnrdi. soft and cflTemtnate | 
accent*, and « kind of siuipoff tuuem.— £^ 
nf Vviff. J'rafkfcirM. 

BACCHU&, hak'kns, a. In Sfrtholosy, 
Wine and Ucvclry, the son uf Jujiiter » 
tbo daughter of Cadmus; genemUy 
emwniHl with vine and ivy leaves, i 
thymus in bis hiind. He is •omettme* 
as an infant holding a thynna and 
gmpes, nitb a horn; at other timet, 
nilDate young moo, to indicate tbe bil 
prevails nt feasts ; nnd sometimes as a 
oM man, to show that intemperance ci 
votaries. He was also called Diooysiu 

IlACOlPEttocS, bak-sife-ms, a. (baeca^t 
fero, I bear, Lnt.) Berf3*-bcarinz. 

BacciTOBOt'S, bak-Mv'o-ms, a. (iacvw, , 
rorrt, I devour, IjiL) licvonrlng berr 

BacttELOR. bntshVlor, J. {ht\ccahmrcw» 

luimarried man. In our UDtvcrHttie*, o 

rereivrd the fir^t degree in the arts «i 

or other studiea, in which he may b«' 

At Oxford and Caubridgt% before tliu 

confiTred, it is necoaar)* tlut tlw stui 

study there for no leas a period than 

in other three, be may become Mastt 

and, in seven years more, coinraenee 

Divinicy. The term was anciently 

knights of the lowest order, who hud n 

ditary deaoent, attained tbe title. Bes 

the following psssage, applies it to an 

woman : — 

We do not trort yoar onrle; he wyraM I 

A b^tMof ttjil. hy kcci'iiifr ofyourportl 

And k«>«p ,^ou oot alonv without a nnsfc 

Iltit in a flirkuesa. — JlAij/N^infc Lad</, 

BACHKLORsnir, luitsb'(*-lur-s>iip,s. Tl 
of a bschelor ; the state of him who hi 
first degree at the nniveraity. 

Bacillare.^ ba-»il-la're-e, a. A gi 
tnriTi'-ly minute and simple algnrroua ] 
pnvej to have the power of spontaae>4 
They seem to form tbe link whi^ e 
two liinifs of the inimid and vefntnhli 

Bacillaria, ba-«il-la'rr-B, a. (bacittn 
stick, Lat.) A \»rf:ji fnmilv of infum 
cula?, cnnlaining upwiirds of llurty |rei 
silicioaa shields of which ninoy rocks 
eatireJy oompf>t*pd. 

Bacillus, ba-sU'luK, a. A pmnt of « 
insects, with slwrt gnmoeo aubtitaU 
Family, Cunwna. 

Back, bak, «. {bac w hoe, Sax. fcwA, 0( 
hinder part of the body, frmn this T 
tlu^lw; theoater part of the hand whr 
(ln'renr; the place Miind ; the dorml 
animnl i the port of anything out of 
(liirk part of any tool iippo**r<l to the e^ 
Me back on one, to fonsuke 1dm tir la 
to ftirn th« bfict^ to go aivay, to be 
the reach of taking cojnitance. In A 
when any pipco nf limber w placed i 
in an inclined pwition. tbe upper side i 
bnrk, and thi* low^r side th« bTvast, ■ 
of s rafter, back of a hand-nil, the «a 
ceilings, and the rHOem of a ronf. An 
or oCVr ro/^rr, tbo npp«r sule or sidei 
slnping pliuie uf thr aide of the nxrfl 
ft/n sn/h fmmf^ that pwiiHcl to tbe | 
and next to (lie Jamh on either s)i9«v 
fenr, Iboae folds of a shutter wliit^ do 



tor brioj! foUfcl within thi* tvoxin;*. Back 
tf, Un »im vppoaie 1o iho (ito«. In Quat- 
p hatk ol ft »tutM is thi< joint wliioh runii 
p tte Cite of the wurkin;^. ami f^encnill/ 
I milj^ to Ul* otlwf pitting uf ditiaioii, 

Mb. Badko/A watl, the inntr f»w of iu 

■ ■iiWfcii^ tint piorv i>f joinrry or wiiiti' 
ridch M lu t!: i.iic apii^c between 

|m of the •>-: ! tlio tlitor uf an 

11, SJtil buua..v^ ^ ;vu;:tli bjr the twi> 

' Bmtk in Orewini; : Sec B«e. — odl to the 
In whlcb ooe came; backward, u retreal- 
I Ike frwtit xLitibn; behifid, not coming 
'tfrVtnU filing pa<t; ignin; inrvtoni; 
k mount on th« \>:ivk of a honw; to break 
to tnin hini lu liciir U[>uit liit bock; to 
)B tbe baek; to miuntnin; to strengthen; 
It; tedtftoil; toju»tiry; to lecouiL In 
in, ftaeft •■ oacAor. it to carry out a imnll 
i support the latter one BncJc ike taiUt 
m iltt Ktil* $0 timt tbti ship ma/ retreat 
nark, fincfc fAe wrn, t4> keep the oon 
I paaidoA u tu ttujr the motion of the 
mtt ^tftnt^ to ttte the oara au a« to mare 
|«lini fiimtMst. Batle or bak, U tlie old 
kiOK ef the twt, aiU it u ftill f&tniU:iHjr 
iSeatbod bv ttw oaiuo bactU or backit- 


m liter 

1; but 

ttM brtCBfv, ttit awnnne.— 

tm»a; i/tib Ai£^ (I&3E), /Viit. xIt. 

tk. Wk'be-nnd, t. An annent Inw 
literal im;-ort of wlticli is, benring OD 
it Ilm osuitlt/ been applied to de- 
ti, it. endent, manlftrtt, indit^potable 
llwof the foor drrutiutnncea nnder which, 
i to UaswDoJ, ■ forester mnj arreat an 
pipdMt rert or venison in the forent: — 
IfMnd bearinf rciitMn on hia badt. Bjr 
m of lb« forml of IjincaMtn-f adds be, 
lilh tlie manner ' i& when one is found in 
klaerat in »nj of theae degrvot : 2. BtaaJtf 
la iltHjir tpcing taken witb bis bands or 
|la bloodr, he ia jad^ to haTa kilhxl a 
lagh not found hunting or ohaaing. 3. 
ir, when a man L* found drawing; nfler a 
tba flCtnt «f a bound which he lends in 
L A- StnLU-atamd, when found standing 
< beut ready to shont, or close 
.uunds ready to let slip. 
, , f. a. To oeofture or reproach 


1^ bak'bite-vr, a. A privy calomnlator ; 

■puikj evil of the abtenL 

lO, tiiL'biie-in^ j; Slaoder; secret de- 

lOLT, bak-Ute'ing le, aiL Slnnderonsly. 

10, bak'borde, a. A board pluoed acroiu 

)uit of a boat 

l« bak'buira, a. The bene of the back; 


ts, bak'boks-ia, a. The boicc9 on the 
lll^pcr ca« n»ed for priaten' types, 
^Hbruitcil to imntl I ipitnU. 
Pl^Ukkar-e. /. HAving on the bade 
bak'dure. s. The door behind the 

HrtTing a bnck. 
ltd, #. An cDPmy in secret, 

, bakptm'mnn, a. (a little battlsi 

WVIsh.) A pirnip pbived by two persons witli 
dice on ab>ianl divi<Jcd into two part«, upon which 
there are twelve pnints of rmr colour, and twelve 
of another, on which is pincrd filtevn pleoea, or 
men, of a black aUuitr, nnd tifteen while. 

BacivGROCND, bak'grownd, «. Grouod in the rear; 

Baciciianded, bak'hand-cd, a. With tbo hand 
t-.imed back ; unfair. 

Backiiousb, bak'hows. a. Tlie bnildings behind the 
chief part of the bouMi. 

Baukino, bak'in^. a. In Horsemanship, the ope- 
ration of breaking a colt to the snddlp, or briii^nt; 
him to endure a rider, In Law, backing wonruniA, 
denotes tha kigDin^ of Kiich warrant m haa been 
isaacd by a justice of the peaca belonging to one 
county, by a justice of the ppsce belonging to an- 
other county, SQcb ai;;^iiture being nccoaatiry bofure 
the wamint can be executed in the difttticC nndi^r 
the jurisdiction of the Utter. In Bookbinding, 
preparing !ha back of the book by glueing, &c., 
before covering ik Backing-up^ a term um^I in 
Cricket and other gtuoca, for stopping the ball or 
driving it bock. 

Backpaimtinq, bnk'paynt'ing, a. Tha method of 
piiinting mexiotinlu prints on plate or crown glass 
with oil colours. 

Backfi£CE, bak'peca, a. The piece of ansour 
wliich covers the hack. 

Back-bstubn, bok're turn, a. Repeated retom. 
All the occurrences, whaterer clianc'd. 
Till Harry I boA-ntam acaLn tu France. — 


BaCKSOOH, bak'room, *. A room Whind. 

Backset, bak'set. a. part, Siit upon in the rear; 
puraued ; attacked. 
llo sufl<Br«<l the Itraclites to b« drlvrn tA the t^rtnk of 

til* MS*. itfdtKi wiUi riiaraoU's whule puw«r.— ^iMirr- 

KMt'j Esfot, ytpom Sciwdletiu. 

Backsids, bsk'aide, s. The hinder part of any- 

tiling; the hind part of an animal ; the yaid ur 

gruund beliliid a buuftc. 
Backslidic, buk'iJidp, p. fi. To fall off; to aponta- 

Bal-krlider, bak'slide-nr, a. An apoetato; one 

becoming more aad more alienated frotn truth ur 

BACKSLiDtxo, bnk'iUde-ingi f. Tramgreasiun ; 

desertion of duly. 
BAL'KbTAFF, bak'staf, *. An instrument formiM-ly 

used for taking the sun's altitudo at etca, so catlctl 

from the back uf the obsen'er being tunied to ibe 

son when Uhing it; It has been supcrbeded by Lbe 

Backstaibs, bak'»tayrz, a. The private fitairs of 

a house. 

I condvinn tJie practice which hath lately crept Into 
the couit at Um 6oafcrtfliri. — HaoanL. 

BACK8TAYB, bttk'stays, a. In Navigation, ropes 
reflcbing from tho topmast head to both sides of 
the ahip, where they are exteitiletl to thecbanncls. 
Their tue is to second tho efTurts of tha alirouils 
ID supporting tlio most when Btraiiied by a weight 
of sail. 

BACUSWonD, bak'sorde, a. A sword with one sharp 
edce; bIm, tho nibtic sword, cu^^i»tillg of a stick 
with a baidtet -handle, fre<|uenlly tt««d by oomba- 
tanla at country fairs. 

Backwari>, bak'wuM, 1 ad. (bac, and iwan( 

BACKWAiius, bak'wurdx, J Saa.) Withlhetatk 



fonrardf; townrdd the back; on Che baric; from 
thf^ present ntntion to the pl»c« twjand the back{ 
rc;;resMTel5 ; towurdi someUiiuf; post; rpflexivcly; 
from a bettor to a wor:« stAte; pnat; iatiiQeptuc; 
pen'oriKlj; from the wrong end ; 

I ncrcryetsnwmon 
Dut the wiMild fpfll him tkiekuMrd : it fnlr-flic'd 
Kbc'il Kt%'eBr tbc ffeiiUvinaii KhtmM be Iter tUter; 
If black, whv. na:urr, ilrawiiiK uf an anticlc, 
Uu itt a fwul blot ; If tuil, a Uuce tli-bMdacL— 

—a. unwiliing ; arcrw ; hesltatlnf; ; sloggub ; 
dilatory; dull; not quick or appivijcnstvs; latet 
cuminf; after ai^incthiiig cLto; — «. poeticalljr, the 
tluogs or state beUiiid or p%st. 

Whnt teeat thoa ehe 
Tn kh« (lurk ba^Jamrl vr nlijiin of lixnu l—Skatt. 

BACKWAnDLT, bik'wurd-lc, ad. Unwillingly; 
aversely; with the back fjrvard; pcnrorsely, or 
with culd hope. 

And Jf>e« lie think to biieJnAtrxIIyof me, 
Tliot III requllo at laicT— 6JMUt-<. 

Backwardkkss, bvk'ward-nefl, «. Dullnets; on- 
willingnesa; alugguhoeas ; alowneaa of progrea- 
sion ; tardiness. 

Backwoods u A 17, bah -wood z^m an, t. An inhabi- 
tant of the back woods of America. 

Back-WOKM or PiLAJfDEn, b;ikwarTn, fil-an'dur, 
0. A diseasa incidrtot to hawks. Thwe wurma 
are about half a yard long; they lie wrapped up 
in B thin akin about ilie mna, and pnioeed from 
gran hoTnoon in the bovrirlit, occauooed by ill 
dlgeatlon and want of naLtiral heat. 

Baoxwol'hd, bak'wouud, v. a. To wound aecrctly 
behind the back. 

BaeheoimtHitg calnnrui; 
The whiicftt virtue »tTikvM.— Shakt, 

Bacon, ba'kn, j. (ftticon, dried Arab or pork, old Fr.) 
The flevh of a bog silted and dried ; the animal 

A ymmg ftcvm. 
Or a fine Uulo ■mvoUi liarcr-rolU — 

Kyfi ^|«ntA Tragedy. 

To #aw Mo baeoti^ is a phmw for preserring one's 
self from being hurt ; derived, no doubt, from the 
fmgallty and eare of houvewives lu ihe onuntry, 
Yrho bad to use nuny precauti<^rtis in aaving their 
principal provision, their bacoti, from soldicn on 
the march. 

* What friflitcna jonthtuil my good soni'ia^sthe 

liriwt ; 

• You inunler'il, are wirrj', snd harn been confest/ 
•Ofrtlhtfl my Borrow mil trmre t«M niybawm; 
Pvr 'tnai nut Lhnt I uiurdcr'd. but tluat I was cakvn.' 


PtACOMlAN, bny-ko'no-an, n. Applii-d to the induc- 
tive philoaophy of whicli Bacon was the founder. 

BACTKitEA, bak-te're-a, c. A genua of orthopterona 
Insects: Family, Cnraoria, 

Bactrim, bak'iriit, j. (^btJOron^ acane, Gr.) A genos 
of palms, with spiny tiender stems and pEiinnted 
leuvca. Walking canes are oblaiood frum their 

Baculb, hak'nle, a. In Forliftcatinn, a kind of 
porlouUls or gate, made like n pitiull with a ootm- 
terjKiiu*, and HuppiTted by two f;Tvat stakes. 

Bacvlitks, bak'u-lites, s. (UtcuJia, a stick, Lat) 
A frenus of straight chiimlKirrd AbelU, baling aiiiu- 
ated or onduUled partiiitms picrcod by a nmr^imU 
»)[ hiiti like the Ammonites wbicli distinguiali them 
fr^m the Orlboceraiitea. T^ej occur lu the Chalk 

Past oF Bid. 

BACULONXTttT,bak-ii-lnm'a trc, s. (toevJIi 
Ijit. meiron, a mro&urc, Gr.) The art g( 
ing diatances by ittuvcs. 

Bad, bad, a. Ill; not good; a general 1 
iititttig pliy>trjU or moral fauUn, eilbfT ^ 
thinpt; vicious; corrupt; nnlortunate; % 
hurtful; unwholesome; mi&cliiaTousj 
side ; bad of a ferer. 

Bad, > . , 

Bai>b,{' *'■»'*; 

Badok, badj, «. A mwk or 

show the relation of the wearer tOi 
thing ; a token by which one )» known^ 
or token of anything. In Naval Anhi| 
sort of ornament placod on tiie outaide 
ghipa, near the attm, grnerally an oil 
wiudow, admitting light into tlia cabia^; 
mark with a bddge. , 

A roan maj walk trout one end of the ta| 
olhvr, wiUi'Uut soeiDg one begirar reifuhirlj 
Sw^CHgiitimff BmdfftM to Om I'loor. 

BAiMELEsa, badj'les, a. HAving no badg 
Ba'dgur, bad'jor, ». The name of the go^ 
of Cuvier and Tcadb of Geoffrey, a geoil 
nivoruus animals ; body tbick ; Icga all 
with five toe* and strung uails ; toll a( 
a pouch under it, containing a fetid i 
The common hatli/rr ia about two and a 
in length, tail six mchcs. An old naq 
who huya corn and vlctuola in one placa, 
ries them to acU in another ; — *. a. lo j 
BAboBK-LsnoBD, bod'jur-lcg'ged, a. Ill 
of an unequal length. 

His body rrook<<d all ov^r, biff4>ellied, feoJ 
and tiii cumplcxluD swarUiy. —/,'>"-• 

Batiiane, bnd'e-one, w. A fnigrant Chii 
llie fruit of tlie anise seed Ine. — Sea lllf 

Badiokok, bad'e Jun, a. A prcpantaoo || 
iii^ houses, prepared with sawduat, sll 
lime, and the powder of the aaoM kiftd m 
whirh the house is built, with a pooBfl 
dissolved in water ; — a preparatioa of d 
^ frecfrtona, uaed by statuaries to fill up || 
hole« and defects in tba stone* tbey lui 
composition of sawdust and (:lua, used I 
to fill up chuuiB in wood>work. I 

Badikagb, bad'o-niuh, > a. (Frmoh.) * 

Badikkeik, ba-din'e-re, \ playful ditfl 

Wlicn you And your anta^ontat t>egl]imla| 
warm, put an cod lo the diipute by soma Ml 

The Amd or«enslt4e dlacourse U limited; d 
aod baJiwrU Is infinite.— £A«iuft}««. , ] 

Badister, had'is-tur, «. A gentia of Ci 
beetles: Faniilr, Ilarpaltdai. 1 

Badly, bad'le, ad. In a bad mannert ■ 

CALiNEBii, bad'nes, a. Want of good quaBq 
natonil or moral ; desert ; depravity. 

B.4:c'HlA, U;k'e-a, «. (in honour of A. Bsdc 
ish pliykiciiui.) A genua of exotic eretpmf 
Family, Myrtucras. j 

BAKUrtltE, ha'pl litv', a. A term appBed 4 
Anglo-Saxons to tho fire with nWh ' 
were burnt, and likewise to the capit^ 
ment of putting to death by bnming thi 
Among the anuient Scaudhuviana and 
niuiiH, thu wor\ls bael, bnai^ bail, anl bajffi 
a fuuerol pile, or the blaae thenfroni, 

BjtoMrCKB, bfr-om Vscs, a. (JkUo^ anuU, ij 



Ox.) A gvniu of licbfiui: Trib«, 

k»-t'tta| « (Uim, a sUd jacket, Or.) A 
f MWDptrnm* iiiarctA, forming onv t^ the 
■ni«f tbe BHUsh M«r-tties. distuigiiktivd 
b/ hariflg fuur wings and two 
famBft EpheoNiide. 

h, W-tir«-«, «. {baifsto*, Gr.) Sactrd 
R^xnied u objects of wunUiip hy the 
MIA, and othrr mrij idolatrous tutioiis. 
rtb«i itDDcs wen utd to Imta fallen frotn 
\ I3it^ wvpe profa&blr metr^iric, and conbo- 
mywded aa coming from JupitiU*. 
taf'll, r.a. CM"", f'r-) T** f'"'!*; to 
kM0eBt\ul; to confuuntl; to tl«fvjit with 
todbp^oe; to insalt; to iiiock; 
l« pTAdia* deovtt; — #. a defeat. 
■f Im'IIiic, a. (?im who boillefl or eludes, 
a. A skIc. or pouch, to pat anvthiog in; 
•nirautn, in which jnicfa aro 
m«t oat, or in whicit they are 
axtnctad froro fonetgn snbstaocaa ; 
of tbe beet 

like ttko iag o' the bee.~J7jfft». 

to dcaefce a certain qtumtitjr of aomo 

■a ' a beg of bojM,' ' a hag of pota- 

. to pot into a bag; to load with a 

etii to make tumid; — r. n. tc iwell 

to awdl with arrogaDoe. 

a^elsb^ aadTetabehalte 
' ' ■ d tollUi {alr^Chau 


• feaa ta aaid to boff, when one bair, 
b f ii ta d, nun np mora than aaj of tho 

U^ blf^a-td, «k (Fraacfa.) A matter of 
liiBe; a gaine pUifed oa a 
■ Ihooui of which art nine liolMi, each of 
a ball ia atnick into it hy means of 
In the hand of Uio player, counts a 
ibar toward* ganic The omnber of 
tA &• equal to that of the holcn. 
• WWvel, A ibjffgm, to buy, and ffofol^ 
Saa.) A tiihate |^nt<d to the dtiuma 
IT hf efaart«r (torn Edward I., etnpuwering 
t kirry dutiea on wana hraaght into their 
til* prodooe oi whaoh was to be 
M in paring thttr atneta, repairing the 

jTWeV* *> (.^*V**9'^ ^r. and Span.) The 
I «f a body of soldier* ; the giHKla or lug- 
ftway; refuse; lomber; Iruinpery; 
iraouii« fuch aa twoally foUuwa the 
ii diapeaad of aloi^; with the ba^^gage; 
Jfnmk U^^oaee, Italian fro^oaeia, and 

r. blmh.— JnaJbaL 
: baKtas to MimK— JMJker Bombit. 
«, a Dinuliar temi for the whole of 

frV 70« fafUnrfih 10 peek 
ftw aarf 6MnM, back.— 

Uomer a-LtJJda*. 

Waging. «. The coarne hempen fabric 
larp bac* are generally made ; a mode 
by atriking it wit'i the book, 
af ibe eaainmi nieilHMj of drawing tbe 
llmaigh it. In OxforiUliiru, tho tenn 
tba act of calling down the haum or 
tba porpoee of thatching or burning. 



A baffyinff hook ia a sirkle used for renptng eorh 
when blown down, and Iving flat on the ground; 
the namo is given in SbrDpslure to a hook with a 
■tick at the end of it, lued in cutting doWu pease 
and beans. 
Baooixolt, bflg'ging-Ie^ ad. Arrogantly. — Obso- 

I aaw envy hi that pBfnting. 

Yhml a wnnrtertul Inktng. 

Fur iiLe nau l<K>kit but uwris 

Or oiiirthwarte, alt bagffingl^—ChaMer 

BaGXIO, ban'yo, $. {ba^nc, a bath, Ital.) A bnth- 
Ing-boose; a brothel. The terra is applied, by 
Kum[>ean» trading writh the Levant, to the prbonii 
in which the slnvee or oonvicla, who are made to 
work in the ducks and other workfi in Constanti- 
nople, Algiers, &c., are Khut up during the night. 

BagnoliaNs, bag-no'le-nnii, e. A sect of heretics in 
the ett'hlh century, who rejected the whole of the 
OM Te»t*iitent and part of (he New. Tlie name 
b dcrivcil from Bagiioles in Lazigucdoc, where the 
sect spning up. 

Bauous, ba'gns, 4. A genus of little tnud-co!oured 
beetles, which feed on aquntic plants : Family, 

DAorirE, bag'plDP, t. A mnMcal instmment, con- 
sisting of a leathern bag, inflated by the moutli or 
bcllowa, and of seTcrnt pi[>es, one of whirii hoa 
eight finger-holes. Tho Imgpipe has the compius 
of three octaves. The beIIows-bafr[ii(w is that 
peculiar to Ireland ; that blown by the mouth is 
the Scottish form of tlie instrument. It forma 
the naCtonal mnsie of the ScotCbh Highlands. 

BAomrER, bag-pipc'ur, «. One who pti^s on tbe 

Baohiiut fiA»n, bftg'ihnt sand, «. In Gecdopy, 
one of tlie newest of the Knglieth tcrtiar}' fcirma- 
tions, connating of extensire beds of sand, con- 
taining a ft>w rnarine iihells. They occur at 
Highgate and Hampstead, Purhright and Krimley 
HeatHf, in Surrey, and on Bug^hot Heath. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Mnntpll, the bouldnrs and massrs 
of vindatoDC, which are abundant in some of the 
chalk Talle}-s, and on t]i(^ tlaitkn of the Downs, iire 
called Sardenstone or Druid Sandftone.from boiug 
the principal material emplriyed in the construc- 
tion of Stonehen^, and other Druldlcal nionu- 
meata. They arc supposml to have been derived 
from tho sandbods wbish overlie the London clay, 
in the |Uacea above-mentioned: Ibey may, however, 
have belonged to the sands which lie beneath the 
clay and chalk. Tbe wastes and unproductive 
heaths round London lire tbe sites of those arrna- 
ceous deposits, which form the nobivoil of Hamp- 
stcad Healli. The gravel and shingle mixrd up 
with the pand, arrording to the sane anthontyf 
have been deri^Td dnm tho ruins of the cbalk 
forroaliun. — WottJtrs nfGeofr>ffy. 

Bagcettr, ba-gvt', 8. (French.) A small mould- 
ing of the BstmgHl kind. It is occasionally cot 
with pearls, ribanda, laurels, &c. According to 
!ll. I.e Clcrc, the bogurite ia called a chnplet wbcA 
ornaments are cnt on it. 

Baegkk, bane, v. a. To dmch; to soak. — ObRO- 


Batkai<KAII, bay-ka'le-an, a. In Geography, ap- 
plied (0 the range of mountain* which encKisea the 
Iftke of Baikal in Rn«''in, but more properly to tho 
range wliich sepamtes tbe great lake from the 
Inwlanda of Siberia. 

Baiilautk. — See Sahlite. 



Bail, bale, *. (bailkr, lo deliver, Fr. ) The frwing or 
i«tttn(; at liberty one arrested or unprisoDed Dpon 
either a civil or crimiaal mUoo, nnder Mcnrity 
pven tbat be shatl miike bis appearanre wben rv- 
ijnircd. In common bnil, anj Accurily may be 
token ; but in tMpecial bail, the MTurity of two or 
more pcrsoas moat be preu, according to the ralue 
or importance of the cnse. To admit to bail, is to 
releaae the pnaaDer on aertirity given. Tojustifi/ 
haily b Ut prove, by the oath of the pnrtJea, tliHt 
tbcy are worth the sum Ibble to he furfeitcd 
by the default of the jhttwii Iwilol, thruuKh mm- 
■ppeamncc when called on. Persons owing £20 
or more to another, on oath tenilered by the 
creditor to n jodgv of one of the supreme conrl% 
that be baa reason to brlicvA the debtor Is about to 
leave the realm, may mic out a writ of cnptaa, and 
wrest tb« penMin of the debtur till he find Mcurity 
for a imm not exceeding that due by him, togetlicr 
with jCIO fur coMti; a surety; a bondsman; one 
who gives Mcority to another; a certain limit or 
bound within a forest; — v. a, to gi>'e bail for 
another; to admit to bniL 

Bailable, ba'la-bl, a. That may be ict at liberty 
by bail or Knrelies. 

HuLaoND, bulelmnd, a. Tfae written docoment bj 
-which ball is tendered. 

BajlkKi bay-le', g. The person to whom goods 
an committed in truat for a npecific purpose. 

Bailer or Bailor, balur, t. One who commits 
goods to another in trust. 

Bailik, bftle, #. (bailii, Fr.) A ci\"ic mngistmto in 
Sootlandf Iho office of whom is equivalent to that 
of alderman in Eoslarid. 

BAiLtrp, ba1if, «. (baitU, nn iuforiof judge, Fr.) A 
sabordinate officer ; one whose buftiii(»» i& to exe- 
cute armts, summon jurirs, &c.; an under-stcward 
of a manor. Ba'iHj)* of tlirrifs were anciently 
appointed to every huDdred, to ooflect the king's 
finnt, fee farm reitta, and to attend the jnstirra of 
assiu and jail deliver)-. Batiiff of a lihertify is 
one who has the satne liberty granted him by its 
lord, as the bailiffs of frherifl^ had. Bailifft nf 
mO'Kif'f, are agents appointed by the lords of 
manors to act as factors or stewiu-tls. The title 
of haiiiff is sometimes given Lo the keeper of a 
castle^ Stc 

Bailiwick, ba'Ie-wik, #. (ftai7/i, Fr. and irtc, Sax.) 
The pbice of the jurisdiction uf a b^iniir. 

Baillom, bayl-Iong', «. (Krench.) In Surgrry, nn 
instrument, made of cork or wood, used in keeping 
the mouth open during the optrrations of the den- 
tist. Bmlluu dentaire., the French name for a plats 
of goM, silver, or pUttno, fixed upon the hinder 
teelb, in order to prevent the Lncuuon and caniues 
from coming into contact 

Bailiiem, bale'mcnt, <. In Law, the delivery c^ 
goods ill trust upon a contnict, exprcAsnl or im- 
plied, that the trust ihall be faithfully executed on 
the part of the bailee. 

BAILribCK, bale'pcca, ». A slip of parchment or 
paper, containing a recognition of buiL 

Baila, bayls, #. pL The hoops which suppurt a 
tilt hammer. 

Baih, bayn, *. (French.) A baith. — Olxsolete. 

Our 6dw« at Hath with Viriril may conii»nre. 
For their efTcclJi I dnre aliiiO«t l«i bold. — 

Baisav, ba'mro, *. The name given to two Mo- 
hammedan festivals, the greater of whicli lasts for 

dome days, and is hcM in t<»mmemorntion 4| 

ham's oWdience in ofTrring his Mm Imiac a^ 

riftce. The little buiram ii lield at Uio^ 

the fiut Ramadan. j 

Bairx, > baym, a. {ham, Goth, htant^ Sq 

BcAiuc.f child. I 

I think I *haU never hsTc Ui« blf^ting of 0^ 

bave isMio of nijr body', S(^, they ■sjr, iNunw arc llM 

-?*aJt«. j 

Bairn is of very common use in Scotland.. 

Bajt, bate, r. a, {batim, Sax. baitztat, GenB 

put meat on a hook to tempt fish or oC^ 

mals; to sllan; 

Ilow are the sex improved In amoroos arts! 
WliAt oew-fuond sosms they bait fur buaan 

to attack with violence ; to hnnin by t 
dogs ; to take refreshment on a journey 
horses on a journey. — Obsolete in the 
Bcnsea. , 

Wlint •« stroiiar, 1 

Bat, wsntinp rest, will uKu wnnt orinijrnf 

Tlic nun thnt mcnaurcB lu-uvcn nil A»y UiM 

At iilKht rtotti bait Ms ttevU* liie ucvuti vim 

AiiMiiig. — Spnixr. J 

— p. H. to Stop at any place for refrcsfaiM| 

As one who, on hU Journey, Aai£s at noon.-^fl 

In Falconry, the act'ion of a hnwk when ■ 
her wings and then pounces on her pre}- ; j 

All jilum'd like cetridra, that with the wM 
Baitttt like emf}t» having laid; twihrU ; ^ 
Olitterii^ In golden coais like Uiiairef..— A 

— «. a temptation ; a Iun> ; food, or the I 
ance of food, phiced on a hook to mlifldj 
other animnls. JW/J, in Fisfatng, atr 
worms, shell -fish, frogs, beca, fliM, beel 
fUhes, &c.y or hooks, so dmaed a to 
or small fUhes. WkiU bail, the Clu 
small Hih canght in grrat abundance in i 

Baiti>ig, lui'ling, ». The net of eauaag 
attack bulls or otlier antmaK 

Baike, base, s. A coarw kind of woollen I 

BAJADEaK»,b«-jadeers',s.7>/. (!*ortii;cue«( 
Indian dnikcing girls; partly employed u 
girlh, partly as priestCBses, and piirtly by 
dian chiefs, to cheer their fettivilics, aod ; 
to their pleasures. 

Bajrlls, bBJ'u-lus, a. (Latin.) A p6rt*rj' 
given fonncrly, in Ccnstantinople, to the < 
whom the education of the cmperor'a child] 

Bake, bake-, r. a. (bacon. Sax. tbis word is I 
to come from 6ec, which was the t*nn II 
in the I'hrrgian language.) Tu liitnJca I 
sure to the tire in an oven ; to harden w| 

Tho sun, with flaminp nrrtrws, pierce*! the i 
Aud, dai ting to the ttuttooi. hak it tlte mud^- 

— V. a. to do the work of baking; to bt h 
baked. ' 

Fillet of a fenny snnke. 

In tho cauldron tx>U and bakt, — Stimki 

Bakehol'SE, bake "bows,*. (A*rcAwt, Sax.) J 
in which bakers follow tlieir calling : tcn| 

Bakeheata, I <• i^ Meats 

Uakku Meats, f oven. 

In the umiermo«eb«iKVettluire were all masf 
for rnaraob.— -Ool. xt 17. 

Baken, IrtiTcn. Part, of the verb To bttM 



i^ar, c A pentoQ wboM trads is to bake 
ooe iv)io bakes bread. 

r, ba'kor-foot, «. hAii iII-8h«|Md or du- 

waxpln^ of bowJcfs mud boktr- 

aao«D, ha'knr-l^gBd, a. Having the 
bnt inwirdlr. 

I Wk'na, i. (LAtin, from phalainoj a irhale, 

feoos «f CeUcaani, including Balicna 

hV Of «omilwa GrwoUod whale, inJ 

11m goicne diaract^r: — without teeth; 

r knl-«b^cd, and pnrriiled oa each side 

•VOM bornj taminVf called whaleboDo; 

MRatad, ftnd •Itcnoated at the edges; 

vt tlw spinotes f^smted, moA pUeed near 

itr* of tba apper poiiioa of th« head: same 

I wiKb a doml nn, acd Dodoatties od the 

■ otWni In the comraoa whale, the body 

P^ Uil obortf wilhout bo« oa the back; 

TOO Kna«x'cne biininz. Size from ^0 

lon^. It U an itthabltant uf cUu Pub&r 

ri t^ AUanlic Oocjuu 

plKRA, ha-k-nop'te-ra, w. (pfiaJavM, a 

« fin, Gr.) Balana btntps, the 

\, m FkiDtr, a ipecirs of whale wbtcfa at- 

of about &4 feet. Et is furnished 

fin, cunrod bacLwarda. It iiihubitj 


>T(urE, bala Iime''«toiM, a. In Geology, 

f lUty ealcareoiui st^lltJ^ 

in th« Silurian arstem, near DiUa, in 


\ Wliaa, «. (Ai&mr, Ut hahnc^ Fr.) 
of oalo, antpcDded on a lever or beam, 
pibif artielM of Tarioai idnds ; ihe weight 
is deficient to make two quantities 
il; eqaipobK; the act of oompnring 
the circular hoop which hh mtiule to 
yj tbt hair-sprinjE of a wjitch. In A^tTO- 
etf th« twelve agni of tbe Zodiac, com- 
bIM Libra (^). la CommGrce, Utlance 
m the cqaali<7 between importation and 
«; ar, ratber, tbe nim of moncr paid 
to soother, ia which the imports 
ba ecportx to nine. In PoUtica, brdanca 
T b that oqaolicj of power in ditfervnt 
a mamiy for the KcneraJ safety. 
4ofnwftt, a babnce oied fnr detcrmin- 
■edSc Brmritj of botHeB, whether fluid or 
no lakieT lorface of one of the scales ii 
il -with a book, upoa which the stibUance 
■Bpended ; the body is placed in 
acil its weight ascertained and 
with tho w«ight it had when wei;:hcd 
t hioo sostainrd being taken as a divisor 
rnol wvigfat la a dividend, tbe qnotient is 
Ea6e (Tsvitr. Juoy balanoe^ a baUnoe 
maajin^ mctaliL — *. a. (frriianrer. Fr.) to 
B a Muwo; to compare br the boUnoe; 
; tA weigh cqnAl to; to be eqnt- 
to make np an aocounc, 
gaio «■ loafl, or what is <Ii]e hf 
il coseorni ; to examine accoanta and 
l» aa la aseertain tbe omoant of gain or 
entin trsnstictidlks for a given pe- 
cacb iodiridiuU acooont; ta pay 
la 4>ficitDt to make an account oqusl ; 
Iha *<iKht in a balance; — r. n. to 
I koCwaca oonmeting raoiivea or o^uiooa. 

' apaa 

Balaxceb, baran-sor, «. One who weighs ia a 
balance ; one akiHod in haliincing. 

Balaxck-fisii. — See Zygoma. 

Balancing, bal'an-aing, a. Eqailibriaro; equi- 

l}<Mt ibou know the baZondn^ of tho clouds f— Jto& 
In Navi^itiiin, contrscting a sail into a narrow 
compass by folding up one of its comers. 

Balance-reep, barisns-rcof, *. A reef-band 
which crosses a sail in a diagonal direction, for tho 
purpose of onntracting it when required. 

Bauanite, bal'aa-ite, t. />/. A fossil buLutoa. 

Balanidb, ba-Ia'ne-us, J. (AoJonoa, acorn, Gr.) A 
gena!i of small Wecvila, possesaed of a loog 5noDt, 
furnlthctl at the tip with a miunte pair of sharp 
honiontal jaws, by means of wliich it bores a hole 
into tbe common haEcI-nat or Albert, for the {;ur- 
pose of depositing iU e*^;, which i* soon hatched 
intti a liir>'a or nui;rgot. 11ia larva afterwarda 
gnnwK a bole in the shell, burrows in the ground^ 
and passes into a chrjsalift, fmrn which the perffct 
insect isaiici in the ensuing spring. 

BALANonio&ACE.S, boI-a-no-fo-ra'M-e, a. (&ai!rtr>- 
fi'tfN, a purse, and phoreo, I bear, Gr.) A HAtund 
order of paranitical fungus -Uke pknts, havitig 
small raoDttcoous flowers arranged round fleshy 

Bala.ntia, ba-Inn'she-a, a. (balantion, Gr.) A name 
given by lUigi-r to the Thalnngista of Cavier, a 
genus of marsupial quadrupeds. 

Balaxtiith, ba-liin'&he-om, ». (balantton^ Gr.) A 
genus of fema belonging to tlie tribe Polypodiaoeie, 
BO nnmed from the pin^te-likc form of itscndusinm. 

D ALAK US, ba-ls 'nus, *. {bnianos, an acom, Gr. ) The 
acom nhelt, a genus of Cirrhiipods, the shells of 
wliteh consist of a testaceoa'S tube attached to racks 
and other substances; the apertnre of the tube is 
more or less closed by two or fonr valves. The 
tube is formed of varions pieces, which appear to 
be detached and feparatcd in propurtion art tho 
growth of tbe animal requires il. In t*aiama^ 
properly so called, tho tubolir portion is a tjna- 
Gjted cnnc, formed of six prtijocliiig pieces, separ- 
ated by tho same number of depn-Mcd ones, tlirce 
of which are narrower thsii tho others; the base 
of tlie ^hvll is ^nerally a thin calcateous plate 
flttncbcd to ntcks, weeds, or other substances. 

Bai.a881a?i Swift, bal-los'so-an Kwift,a. Aspedea 
of swallow, described as appearing at simact, and 
going to rest at sunrise. 

Balasa Bcby, bal'ns rulie, s. (bahix. Span, hnlaty 
Kr. supposed to be of Indian origin.) A piile or 
rose-coloured variety of spinel, not nearly so valu* 
able as the sapphire or oriental ruby. 

BALArSTA, ba-law'Hto, ff. (6tt/cfiurtiVftt, the flower of 
the wild pomegranate, Gr.) In Bctauy, a naino 
given to a fruit which has a leathery rhind and 
superior calyx, with several irregularly dinpofted 
cells cfintAining pnlpy seeds. 

Balacbt]>'E, ba-lawa'tiue, t. Tho wild poino- 
gmnate tree. 

Balbi'uiate, bal-ba'flhe-ate, ) v. n. {balbuiio^ I 

BALliDciNATe, bal-bu'sc-unte, ) stammer, Lat.) 
To stammer in speaking. 

BaijCONT, bal-ko'nc or bal'ko-ne, $. {hnlcone^ Fr. 
&a/care, ItaL) A lunJ of op*^n ^.illeiy i»r frame- 
work projecting from the walls oT buildings, or 
bef-jre the window of a room, constructed for tho 
convenience of persons wisbiog a view of the a^a- 
cent country, or witnessing processions, &c. In 



Kftvul Architect urp, n biilcony in n i^nllery uitber 
oovertd or op^n, mido abuft for couveniwiti?, or 
omament of the captain's rjitiin. 

EiLD, biwld, 0. (6a/, Welsh.) Without hair ; in- 
pIe>>rMnt ; QTuuIornvd ; slriitpoii ; without natural 
covenn;Z; mcnn; nnked; witboaC dignity; ivith- 
ant rnlue ; tiart*. 

Baldacujm, bttwIdVtcin, «. (htjdacdtino, ItJiL) A 
oinopT auppnrted with cotanina, and nerving as a 
oivwn or covering to an nltar. 

DAf.DERnAfiii, bftwl'der-dh^h, x. (batdardAtM^ bab- 
bUn;;, Welsh.) Aii} thitifj jmnblod togethor ivith- 
out juclgn^ent ; » nitle mixtore ; a CDfifiuwd, hght, 
or frotbj ditooune ; — r. a. to mix with or mIuI- 
temte uij liqDor. — Xot used. 

When tntitiorchf beran lo bleed, 
Auil ireribun tiail a nna Dotr name; 
^Vl)«ii ThnniM Hit« UtlitnioA'd with Twffrid, 
And pulpiu did, bka bcocinis. tlame. — 

TA« <7r>n« BaJLhi, 1674. 

Baidlt, bowMIe, ad. Nukodlj; mcaoly; inule- 

Baldmu.nt. — Sw Grotian. 
Baldmkss. bawld'neii, *. The wont of hair ; tho 

loss of hair ; nioiDneiu of ftjle ; inrlcgsnce. 
Baldpate, bawld'patef «. A head Ahem of ltd 


Cotne hither, Boodman toUpotr ; do jrou know mt* f — 


Baldpate, bawld'patp, > a. Shomof h:nr; with- 
Bau>pateo, bawld'puied,) out nnturul covering. 

Kor Kith Dubartas bridlu ui) tlio tloodf, 
Kar peni«ig with adow Uie baliinUe wuud*. — 

TOQ boI<fpetr>/, l>nng nucol, you muit he booded, tiiutC 

Baij>iiic, bawl'drik, f. (beit^ belt, and rtc, rich, 
&aj£.) A Kinllc, belt, or Muh, but most ^eniTnlljr 
■ sword*bclL lu fcuda! times it wu oftea rictiiy 
orojuncntcd, and uiurkud »ilh tlie rank of thfi 
voaixT. Appli<.-d tu the Zodiac in these liiiea ; 

That Itko the iwins of Jove they leeiird In irtirlit, 
Which dtck the CuUnLJr of tlio Iicuvl-iu bri^'ht.— 

The word was also used fur a belt, Htmp, tlionf;, 
or cord, fjutcned by a buckle, wUh which tho 
cinppcr of a bell ii suspeuded, and coituiioaly xpL'tt 
in thif nnd ila other B^nificatioas, baudrikt^ 
battdiyh, baiedrick^ &c 

QXLDWiM'ft Phospuorus, bawld'wiiui fus'fu-nu, «. 
The ipiitL-d anhTdrotis nitrate of lime. 

Balk, bale, $, (balh, Fr.) A butidlo of gooda 
packed up for CAnioge; « pair of dice. — Obaoleta 
in the Utter aente, 

ForestrcUe orartnea&obof dire.— iVn Jowon. 
•^e, n. lo make up into a bale ; — p. n. a aea term, 
fur bri])£ out wHt<-r instead of jiumplng — probably 
from Utility Vr. a isea tub or bucket-, or, aocunling 
lo Todd, from baiiler^ Fr. to dcUver from hood to 

Bale, bale, ». (&rai; S«x. bale, Dan. bai^ 60/, Ice- 
landic, bautf Cimb.) Mijeij; calaoutjr-, mJachief; 

BalkabIO, bft-le-^'tk, «. Port»imng to tlie Balearic 
Ulet, Tumel/, Minorca and Migorca, iu the Medi- 

Balepol, balo'fut, a. (btalofaJl, Sax.) Full of 
misery; full uf ^ef; Korrunful: lud; woeful; 
full of mischief : dci*iruetive; p4i^ouolls. — See Bale. 

BALcrrLLr, baleTul-le, od. Sorrowfully; calami^ 
tously; penudoa&lj. 


BALronuA, hal-foo're-n, b. (in 
Andrew Balfour, founder of the Botanic fi 
and Maflcum of Kdinbargh.) A gcnni of U 
Atutralian pLinta, conai^ting of the WBlow] 
fouria, a tree almui twelve teot in bei;*hi. 

Baliosticiiis, bal-c-oA'te-kus. «. (6(i/«u, 
and ttiekM, a row, Gr.) A fbaul pfaml 
tho lithogr,iphic alnto of Pflpi>mhe9» 

BalirtBS, bftj'is-ter, «. {ba/iMta, Lat.) A 

Balistes, ba-)b'tc», f. A ^mui of fill 
compreased bodice, corered with hard 
Kalts, divided into dtamond'alutpcd j^nul 
siona. The extremities of the pelvis proje^l 
i» covered with pnckica : Family, Sclemdcfl 

BALWTin.t, bal-li;.'to-de, s. (6a/<w, specklei 
A family of tho Pkctonatlies or Cbelifunn 
hftvlit^ oval bodies, either mailed with pU 
covmd by » herd ooriaceous akin ; ihff m 
extremely small, and Ibe jaws immormble. 

Balistika, ba-Us-tin>, s. A sab-family 4 
aion of the family Baliattdae, of whidl tbi 
Bollates is the type. The bodies ert flonif 
oTal-fu.<afunn, and covered with a rpticuloi 
two doruL fini, armed in fiont with strong t 

Baliatraria, bal-iit^tra're-a, a. (fiaiuttK, Lat 
aperttuT in the form of a cnwi [n ttie Wl 
forirMS, throttpb wbit-h the batistcrs orcN 
men dUchiLrgvd their arrows. 

BALtltjEtA, ba-le-to'ra, «. A ^enm of 
tdlied to Cobitidie, of which it forms the 
rostral or cartilaginous t/pe: the si'alcs ad 
and teuscvou<t ; the dorsal fin sm.iU and o| 
The hcml and b(Kiy Jvpresaed: mouth smatl, 
venie, und pluocd beueath ; the pcctont 
and rounded. 

Dalixe, ba-Uc«,'s. A sea mark; %pehH 

Dalk, bowk, t. (baih, Dut) A pmt 
OS is used in building ; a laAer over ao m 
or burn. 

Dalk, hawk, s. (bale, WcUh and Snx. ball, 
A ridge of land left uiiplnuKhe<l betwevn 1 
rows, or at the end of the field : laud wU 
plough pa&sea over without turning it np. 

Tn 173l>, ererjr fleld contaioeil a number of I 
nnste spaces between the ridfn*. fuU u( 
liiikhr*. lu IT90. no balti wens tuba teen 
fli-ld belnc cultivated.— £.aCb.^dc 0/ S 

In the Scottish dialect this word U 
nounced : — 

Last niglil I met bim on a bncA, 

Where jellow com was frowiD^ ; 
Tbere moil} a kindly W4ff>u liesiwk, 
That set u\f heart osiowing. 

£alk is used figuratively {mw anything 
or untouched; it tiiguifics abo 
V. a, to disappoint; to firustcat*; io ^ 
miss BQjthiag ; to omit. 

Ualkers, bawkorx, a. The name given to 
who stand on the shore for the purpOM ol 
ing out to flsbennen the direcUon of 41 

Ball, bawl, a. (hoi, Dan. and DatS) Any 
spherical body ; a round thing to piny wii 
tvilh the hand or fuut ; a gl<>be, iis tlie bnl] 
earth ; a globe, hnnc as an unsi^ of sovsv 
any p^irt of the buly that appnmcJiea to 
nua, u the apple of the eye. 1 u Priuun| 
arD two drcuUr picocs of prJt leather, or 
oovered nitb composition, and stuOed wi| 



tiakhis tlH> tTpct from which u impression 
taktfi : thc»t are oow almcut ontversallj 

' bj (be wc of oompositioa rollers, 
rt, jL (iul^ Fr,} Eotntalnmeiit of dancing; 

rp SoCKrr, bawl and Mk'et, t. A p«rti- 
iadof joliit, uf which tbe one part is shaped 

I' "Wn ; tbe «l1i«r, or ibat in which tbe former 
I ii a hollow socket of the same diameter. 
^ ballad, a. (Aoibde, Fr. £..//.i»a, Ital) A 
^^dap(<rd to tba ctiimnoQ tastu or nalionnl 
K In Most, a abort air of simpip oonstnic- 
fF-r. a. to make or ang baliadi*; — p. n. lo 


MtB, bal'U-dur, «. A tnaker or alngor of 

Sm qiripa. oatwon. 1^ aer^nir m«n. tap»t».. 
fc^rH* ; awn l*bl biMc bjr bj^lajox — Oocrbury. 

p-KAKsa, bol'lad-nia'kar, t. Ono who 

v-xoxuKR, ballad- mnng'gur, x. A trader 
; a singer of ballads. 
b«l'lad-re, a. Tbe aubject or it^le of 

-StSOSK, ballad- sinE'or, a. One whose 
it ia to BitifC baliddd to the atrrcts. 

bal'lad-aljle, a. Tbe air or iniui- 

•TC»B, ballad-tune,*. Tbe tunc of a ballad. 
^WUtKK, ballad-ri'tnr, a. A coiopoeer oi 

V-i'i .--*.- - tu Tn bnllr; lo tUieaten. 

nicck MouDMcral 

rsMr tea aqoaOrua ott Cajw La^oa.— 

kr, baTlMt, a. {baJIatU, Dnt) Any ben^7 

lill pUerd in the bold of a ship to prevent 

Shipa are aatd t^ bo in baOast, 

vitboot a carf^ Ballast is applied 

» tha BUtarial uaed in filling up the spncra 

nib 01 ■ nilwaT; — p. a. to keep oiiy- 

AM^f ^ nainj^ ballaat, 

, bftllaat-inf, $, Tbe articles oaed fur 

batla-tvd, a. part. Sang in a bollad. 

• bal'U'toon, a. A hearv lug;giigo-boaL 

hat'Li'tre, a. A jig; a iwng. 

DCX, b««rkok, a. A watcr-eocJc, tfae plog 

^ bm A Irrcr attached to it, bearing a buoy- 

Hiir VVf' b^ '^ ^^ lower BXtnHDit/f the 

f ^hM fa^ when tbe water in tbe tank ia 

pflfeiiDk tbe bail and open tbe cock wliich 

kWltt, fc (Pnocb.) A theatricfll repre- 
ia wbldi tba »lor7 a told bjr geatore 
aeoompoBied b; dancine, with Aceoeiy 
M yoinriei. 

Tbe namfl giren in the 
1^ ft* tte opeD apaoe or court of a fortl- 
Mb; hinoo builey^ in Old Bailey, London, 
m BiSktf at Oiibtd. 

bawl'flow-Dr, a. A Gotliic arcbi- 
t, cofuuting of m ball aorrunudcd 

Wl'7ttrd&. — See Billiards. 
W-fia'tA* «. (Lat. from bath, I throw. 
▲ nttlarjr en^oe, used by tbe aodenta for 
iftaaea, daita, anowa, Ac 
laMU'tik, «. FrqcctU^ 


Ballistio Pem>, bal-lis'tik pcn'du-lam, #. 
An instruinpiit fur mpnstiring the force or velocity 
of cannun and rou&ket bolla, counting of a heavy 
wooden pfiululiirn, in wvtion like a gardener'a 
spade ; Lho lower pnrt ia a heavy cubical block of 
wood, plated with iron. 

Balli»tic», biiL'liHtiiu, a. The art of projecting 
miixive ireapons by an engine. 

Balloon, bal-loon', #. Cbailon, a little ball, Pr.) 
A splwrical hollow body, wbich^ when iuflated 
with hydrogen gaa, will osocnd iritu the atmo- 
sphere, in coowqaence of its being sj.ecilicaUy 
lighter than oommoo air. In Cbenu&try, a round 
veaeel with n short neck, or a glasa reoeiver of a 
epberical form. In Architectare, a ball or globe 
placed on tbe tr>p of u |MUar. In Firuwoika, a 
ball of pAsteWard tilled with combustible matter, 
vlticb, vihea igiiitod, abonta into the nlinoHpbere, 
and then baratu, scattering around brilliant Bi'i)rl:3 
of Are, rMembling stani. The nAiim of lui uld 
ganio, pby^ with a bull filled with air. 

Pont-lAll. baticon, quintance, A-e.. which are Itia eoau 
muti ri>rrcatiuiu uf tlie cuuntrj fulka.— i?Mrton. 

Bali/vt, ballut, t. (ItaUoler, Fr.) A method of 
Tcling, by means uf n litllc ball or ticket being 
put into u box ; a tittle bait uaed in voting seently; 
— r. n. to cboow or elect by ballot. 

Ballota, bal-lu'ta,a. (baiio^'l njcct, Gr.) Stinking 
littnehound, a genua uf plants: Order, Ijibiatas. 

BaixotaDB, hoilo-tade, s. (French.) The leap of 
a horse on a straight line, made in such a manner 
that, when bitt fore feet are in the air, be showa 
nothing but the shoes of his hinder fvct, without 
jerking out. 

Ballot-box, ballot-boka, a. Tho box used in Tot- 
ing by ballot. 

Ballotkmkkt, ballot-ment, a. (French.) In Mid- 
wifery, tbe motion imported to ihe/atM m uterOf 
by pmudng or striking the alidunien of tbe mnther. 

Ballotiko, bal lot-ing, a. The act of electing t^ 

Balls or Ballets, bawls or barit-ta. «. pi. Tn 
Heraldry, a frvqufnt bcnriiig in cunts of arms, 
usually named according to their colour, bezants, 

]>lutL'8, &C 

Ball-valvb, bawi'valv, a. A simple orntrlvnnee, 
by which a ball is pliiced in a ciitulnr cup with a 
faol? in its Ijottom : the ball ii surrounded by lour 
arma. Tht; ioatnunent being placed in a tube, 
may be made to act tm a piston in pumjilng water. 

Balsi, bdn), a. {baume, Fr.) The KngUsh name of 
tho genua of the Labiate plant Melissa, tbe juice 
of wliich, when extracivd, is ul' a highly odoriferous 
or art>matic cbHracter; any vuluuhle or fra^rAnt 
ointment; anything that siwlhesor initigatca |t)iin 
or sorrow ; — v. a. to soottie ; to anoint witb bulm. 
Satm of GiUad^ the oduviferous linlni olitHincd 
from the plant Balsamodendnm GUeadenie; the 
name is also given to the North American fir Abies 
bsliumea. Ctmaty balm o/Gikad is gi«n to the 
Dracoce(dlialum Caiiarien»e, an nwrgrecn shrub, a 
native of the Cannry IsUiiida. Balm ofGikaH is 
mentioTM-d ui £3cri}4ara as an article of eoAtem 

Bauhilt, bdm'e-Ie-, mt In a balmy manner. 

Baluy, bti'rae, a. Having tho qualititw of balm; 
feott; mild; soothing; fragrant; odoriferooaj nd- 
tigating; a»aasrei — produciug balm : 

Lot India Ixtast her grove*, nor envy wb 

The weetitog amlwr, and \h.m Uilmjf tree.— ^y»«. 


Balneal bil'ne-al, a. (bedntuoL, Ijit.) Ueloiigiag 
to % Iwtb. 

Balnbarv, bsl'ne-ft-n, «. (6<tiW«arurm, Lat.) A 
butliing room. 

R^r.NF.ATioN, b.-il-ne-a'shtin, r Tlie .ict of bathinj;. 

IlAi.SEATott\% bnl-ne-»'to-rc, o. {bttlnearhuj Lai.) 
IWlongiiig to a l>Ath or stove. 

BALNblM, hal'iic-iiin, ». (balanrion, a batb, Gr.) 
A couvfnimit irceptacle of water for the purpoM 
of wjKliinj; th« body, fiihcr u a means of eltMiiH- 
nftsB, or for the cure of dtftcnse. The t«rni is used 
to desigiuit« the applicution of water, vapour, air, 
or Any other fluid, tlchcr simple or meJicatod, to 
the iorfnce of the body. By ctieint»ts, it nigDifien 
A vcsmI filled with somo matter, as ftant]^ nrattr, 
Ac, in wliicb nnother is placed requiring a inoTe 
gtrotlo hcnt thnn the tialted Are. The varidtii:» 
are — B. J'nyio tm, the cold bath. It. /j/vcMi/f, tho 
shower bath. D. tepitium^ the tepid or luktwnrm 
bath. Jt. calUium^ the hot luith. fmm 117 to (Ul> 
dcg. Fahr. B. voporig^ the vapour bath, from 
1(X) to 130 deg. Fahr. B. i-r.;«7//rir<wA, tlie 
head both. B. frnmu/Mrfwi, the lund bath. B. 
petlituvmm, the foot tmth. D&Hii-ltain, tim hip 
bath. Anion£ chemistf, B, nt^uoivm^ the water 
bath. li. nreua, the aand buth. 

Dalsam, bo] 'sain, t. (baltanutrik, Lnt.) A gum 
or trsinoui liquid exuded from trreai, containing 
iKHZoio acid and a reaiu, or a voliitile oil and a 
reun. The former are true bolnams ; the latter, 
tnTpootuie&. The name is also given to certain 
drug preparations, aa balMam nj'tuiphur, an admix- 
tare of aalpbor and olive oil. The tme habaau 
are — Ut, The SEMi-VLtiu, B. /VrHVMSum. tbo 
brown balsam oi' Peru, the produce of MyroxyUm 
I'cruifiTUm ; B. Tuluianium, the pole babain of 
Toln, the prodncu of Toliitfera balsamum. 2d, 
The Solid, Storax, exuded spontaneously from 
the buric of Slyrax bcnsoin. The fuUowinf; are 
turpentines: — Amyrtdes GiiendeiuU Jiaina^ Bul- 
sam, or Balm of Ciilvad or Mecca — B«lsain of 
CapiW, the produoe of the leguminous plant, Ca- 
patfcra offieinnlis, 

DALaAMACB^ bdl-sAffl-a'M-e, ) «. {haltam, fcnd 

BAl^AKlFLtT^ biil-sa-mifla-e, ( Jluo, n tltiid, 
LaL) A natural order of exogenous plants, in- 
termediate In its properties between the Willow 
and the Flane. The order contisU of lofly tnws 
flowing with balsamic juices, bearing th« jlowen 
ID small scaly heads wiLliout either calyx or oaroUii, 
and bavin;; the stitmsns in one kind of bead, antl 
the pistils in another, Itoootains butooe gcnua^ 
the LiquidamUir. 

Balsauation. bal-sa-ma'shuo, «. The act of rcn- 
dering balsiiiDic 

Balsamic, bal-um'ik, ) t. IT.tvinj; tlie 

DalsaMICAL, buNsam'e-kal, \ qualities of bal- 
sam; Boflt soothing t mitigating; hraling. 

BALSAMireRODS, bal-sa-mife-ruK, a. {bal$am^ and 
/&•(}, I produce, Lat.) I'roducing balsam. 

BaLSaKLSa, bid-sa-min'a, «. A genu5 of pl.ints^ 
some of which \\\ivi very handsome flowers; lhi*y 
are chiefly natives of the Last Indies, and grow \n 
low dump ptnces. Tlie common baUam, Buliuiminn 
bortetiMA, is n well-known odoriferoos garden flower 
in this oonntry : Order, Baisaminaone. 

Balsaminacex, bal-aam-e-Da'ae-*,) «. A natm- 

BalsahinR£, bal-M-min'e-€, ) ral order of 

exogenous plants, cunnsting of succulent annual 
herbii, priDcipally distioguishcd from the geraoiums 


by their tnany- seeded fruit and uMBymme 
flowers; tfao seeds, when ripe, arc ejected wiU 
great force, a circumstance which gives the nam 
of Impations to one of the genera, the only Brit- 
iah genua mid species, Geoei-ie characters:— t*t 
decidaous sepjds, with an imbricated Kstlvation; 
four unequal rmciite hypo^ynoos petals, the lomr 
elongated into n spur; fiva Btamens. the thm 
lower oppofiite the petibi, and &irr^ing antben 
with two perfect cells, the two upper placed Is 
front of the other petnl, bearing one or two-ceUaj 
anthers; filnnients thickened at the apex; antbm 
pnrtly connate, and bur&ting lengthwiw; u rari m 
single; no style; Ave distinct or oonnate stiftBtt; 
fruit capsular; seeds numerous. 

Balsam I >"E, bal'sa-iniue, *. One of the names rf 
the phint Balsam. Imputiens, Koli-mc-taii^re, «r 
Touch-me-not : Order, BaLsamiuaocir. 

Balsahxta, bal-sa-mi'ts, s. Cottmary; a gmus 
of compMite plants, having a Btn>nj( arouuiio 
smell. It is neurly nJIied to the Tansy. 

Balsahohkndbok, bat'sam-o-den'dron, t. (M* 
Kitnon, balsam, and finu/rm, a trve, Gr.) A gran 
of orii^ntal pUnls, remarkable far their yiel£«g 
powerful balsamic juices and mvTrh. 

Dalsam-TREK. — See Amyris. 

Baltedb, bsl'to-us, «. A tcnn used by VetnTins 
to denote the strap which binds up tbo ooDSsnci 
or cushion of the Ionic capital. 

Baltic, bal'tik, a. Pertaining to the sea of thit 
nnme, which M-paratea Norway and Sweden ftan 
Jntbind, Holstein, and Germimy. 

Baltimora, bnl-te-mo'rn, g. (in honour of I^ 
B&lLimore.) A genus of Sooth Araericu oan- 
postte annual plants, allied to the Ilaliaatbut m 
Sunflower: Sub-order, UeliantliAceflc. 

Balu^tbr, baKus-lur, w. In Architecture, ■ 
culuinn or pikster belonging to a balu^tnide: 
term i« also used to denote the latwat 
the volute of an Ionic CApital. 

Balu8Tgrei>, bal'us-turd, a. Having baloitMt 

Balitstrade, barua-tmdc, $. A row of bahtstcr^ 
formiui* a parapet or pratoctiug fence, used Alw 
for ornament or utility. 

Bau or Brau, when u^ as tbo initial leftvt of 
the name of a place, implies that it has btvn 
woody, from tho Saxon wonl 6«aiit, wood ; — a ham 
Is a cant word for a dicaU 

Bamboo, biun'boo, «. — See Bambooa. 

Baudoozlb, b:iin-boo'El, v. a, (A cnnt word, frnn 
the low word ham^ a cheat.) To deceive ; to iA- 
pose upon ; to confound. 

Bamuoozleb, bsm-boos'lnr, s. A tricking ftUsir; 
a cheat. 

Bamuusa, bom-ba'xa, «. (imnAo*, Indian name.) 
The bamboo mne, a geuui of Indian plants, tbs 
stems of which yield the well-known and bi^ily 
owfol reCHU, called hanAoot^: Order, Graminw. 

Ban, ban, >. Public notioo given of anythingwhovbf 
it i:t openly eomraanded or forbidden ; n proda- 
mstion or edict. The word is used more poitin* 
larty of tlie publication of marriAgo oontmola in 
the church prvvluiu to tlie nuptial ceremony, in 
tlie purpose of allowing sny perwn, who oiaf 
have lawful cause to object to the marnags ift 
respect of kindred or otherwise, an opportuoiiy 
of so doing ; — a flne pxaeted from a dcUnqoMl Jiir 
offending against a ban, or by the bishop from 
one guilty of sacrilege. In Militaiy scdeoce, a 
prochunation by beat of drum, requiring a atoct 

e, ■snMl 

loftM ^1 

bahtftcr^ | 1 



af discT|£u : — interdictioD ; » cotm ; 
jotiuB ; ADAtlMma ; 
tw rmak ormidalrlit vr«d» collected, 
Ike's bra Utrtce bUstcd, Uirioe infecLed. 

to <Titw, Dut., nbannan^ to do- 

.K-) to ^^)tp^^ll^; to curse. 
aU mad and furioua be grtw, 

tU BUMtlfTe tlirouirh cnraglair bc«l, 
mnAbmm'd, wml bla<('lieniia»fcN^drew 
litegoili^Bud &TK lo tbum did UmaL— 

-IUi'iu> «. Tbe fruit of .Vtua para- 
vslnable plaul in tropicnl coDfitries, 
h Uio pluitNiOf U in theie what com 
tpcana, and rice to the natives of Indtn 
Su TAlaaUe is tl>i« (jIadI, thut it is 
LIm Mmo •piintitjr of groand that vonltl 
m «bMI fur only two |«enMMi» in Mexii-o, 
V «BOiigb of pUints with bananas for 
I finut^ when Tulljr ripe, i» expoied to 
d4 yMurid as ftg» are, ftmninj; in Ibis 
penUr and whole«o(ne food. Meal or 
itaiiwd front U bj cutttntr it in alieca, 

4 thm pounding it. When stripped of 
mcntit it bw tlie appearance of a large 

ha tmft« resembles that of a rich and 
mr i Ord«r, Uasacew. 
•nk'oi^ A. A ^ntu of hrmmopterDUit 
Minictrnaed belong tbnad-tiko antm* 
Uv. Idineomofiidx. 

t^1t.(t, », An Italiaq wonl, signtiying 
d £ur dncribing tha bank - moiicjr of 
I aod utlifT pliio-tt. 

. a, {htnJe^ Dot. banri. Sax. fxauii^ Goth. 
] A tie; a b«mUgD j tlmt by wliicL 
M Maa«d to antilhrr; a cluin by whirb 
ri ii lupt ni re>tmint ; any meanft of 
MumttDon between ^MTSfiai ; aometlting 
ft tW Deck; a neckvhiib, now nstrict«d 
HTM worn by clcrQ-mcn, Uwyers and 
R caAf^ea. In An:bit4-cture, n Hat mem- 
n]dbl( ffmaller than a fann, and Kimr- 
|er thut filleta; — the cincture ruund the 
column is called the 6aA</; a 
MMt oocirded with ^tmds or 
arin; — a company of aoldien^ as *n 
rf;* • eompanj uf jwraotu, joined tt>- 
i^ dnign or profemiun, as ' a band of 
iKp of cau^-mss attJifbed to a sail ; the 

• mdJie., are two pieces of iron natl»t 
bovs to keep them in their right pcm- 

Uintng, a tUo stratum of limt^tone, 
or any other mineral; — e. a. to unite 
into one body vr troop ; to bind over 
nd. Id Heraldry, axivthing tied round 
■i, of ■ diflcrent oolonr from th« cbargv. 
b* b n mj ni , as a f>heaf of arrows argent, 
■re J— to drive away ; to bantdh ; 
Mndi lewdofu landM from bU fair com- 

aMoriate ; to onitew 

haa'dajn, t. (French.) A fillet or roller, 
eC Ooc or mon pirort of cloth or oth^r 
Ifl dnMiog wounds, binding up frac- 
oc diaemseU parts of the body, 

5 h auw Mi lu igea, 4c In Arehitoclure, 
•tc the ringk or cliains of iron ir.serted 
Minus «f a stijne wait, or ronnd the cir- 

• of n tower, or at the springing of a 
eii Mt AS a tic to keep the walU together. 

Baxdaka, ban-dan'a, ». (Tndinn name.) A sine m 
cotton hnndkerclirf, with a uniformly dyed ground, 
usually blue or red, witli tigurcs of a circular, 
loacnge, or other ftimpin form, produced by div 
charging the colour. The bandana is of Indtan 
ori;:>n. Ihe tenn bandarut ia also applied to the 
Style of csllco-prnting, by which patterns are pro- 
dno^ by dtschnrging the oolours. 

Baxdbox, band'boks, k. A slight thin box made 
fur holding capa, mnfik, bonnets, and other li^bt 

RAXbEDf band'«d, a. Applied to any body striat«d 
BcroBS with coloured hands. 

Bandelet, banU'c-let, i. In Architwrlure, band or 
bandlet; any little bund or flat moulding that en- 
com pisses a colomn like a ring. 

Bakder, baitd'or, «. One who bands or osaodates 
with other*. 

BANtiKRET, ban'dar-efc, s. A Swiss geDeral-in-chicf. 

Banuicoot, hun'de-koot, s. A genus of Australian 
mnnupial iiinininalis, occiipyirg the ptnitiun whidi 
the sbrcwfL, tenrtca, and other insectivora fill In 
the old world. 

Bandit, ban'dit, <. (Aondfifo, Ital.) Anootlaw; n 

Banditto, ban-dit'to, s.| g^^^ „ ^^^ 

Bahditti, hmD-dk'teypL 

aainta difturbbig diatant l»ml«.— 

TkomMon't LO-trtjf. 

Bandlb, ban'dl, i. An Irith meA^ure of two feet 

in longlh. 
Ban-dog. ban'dog, s. A huge specion of dog of n 
ficroe nnture. 

The fryrr »et his flst to bts mouUi, 

AiiJ whutMl whu«»lhm), 
Ualf a hundred 9oo<l bait-<loif§ 
Came running u'er tha lee.— J?oNn Sooi. 

Sir Thomas More uses the term b^nd (bound) df*g 
ra synonymous with that of matiiff, from whidi 
it would appear that the word meant a dog in 

BaMjoleers, ban-do-lecn', $. (bnttdrtirm, asbrml- 
bcr- belt, Span.) Woodeu cartridge-boxes; s name 
alfto gitcn to llie leithern I»elt ««m over the rijiht 
s)ioulder by ancient musketeens to whirh were 
attached small wootlmi cases, covered with leather, 
for containing cartridges. 

Ban DON, bmi'dun, s. Diiipossl; license. — Obtotste. 
For Ixtth th« wUe folk and unwise. 
Were wholly to berftditdon braughc — SpcMcr. 

Dandoue, ban'dorv, s. (frnmiiirrtn, Span, or bim- 
dfHim, CiT.) A mde kind of lute, which 
introduced into Etipland in the rctgn of Queen 
sabeth. Irisdetw-riWd aitharing had three :«trin^^, 
which the Gredan Inittrument bandotim likewiw 
had. It ia mentioned in the catalogno of the 
collertions made by Charles I. Banjtcr is a wurd 
UMcil by the negroes in ^lanland and Vii^tnia for 
n largo hollow gourd, with a long iLindle attached. 
In il, strung with catgut, and played with, the 

MaftfUi Aambo pla; floe fiwjnr, 
Miike his fliigerv ^o like bandaaw. — 

A"<vro Soiy. 

Bandrol, ban'drol, t. {banderolt^ Gr.) A little 

lUig or strwimer ; the little frbged flag sospendwl 

from a trumpet. 
BANDSTniKG, band'string, *. A string or tfissel 

appendant to tha band or neckcloth, ohserruble In 

old portraits. 




B.iNTJT, bun'dL'. ir. {hiinder, to bend, Fr. from pando^ 
Lat.) A cluLi turned loiind at tfao bottom fc^r 
atrikinj; u bull, caUoU a thintie in Scotland ; — p. o. 
to b«at to And fro, or from odd to Another; to 
excbuige; to giveortAkoreciprocuII^; to agitate; 
to toss Mbout; — c. n to conteat, ss at some gnine, 
in which crtch strivw to drive the b;iH tlio way 
h« deaire* it to inovo; — a, flexible. — Obaolctr. 
The lame clothfi Itriiis pnt in wAter arc found to 
•hiincke, iwrcy, imrBvy. iiiiMJUr,rock:iDjce,6aMrjr, Ugljt, 
and aotiil>Uo faultie.— ^bU. *i £IU. cup. 10. 

BandT'LEG, banMo-Ief!, t. A cxookcd leu;. 
Bandt-leogeu, bAD'de-]cg'j{«d,a. Hanng crooked 

Ba:«e, bnno, t. (dowr, a mardrrer, Sax. frow!, dc- 
struclioa, death, Gotlu) PoLKm; that which 
dcstrurs; rain; miacbicf; — p. a. to pobon. 
What ifm; ItouM be tniublfil with a rat, 
Antt 1 bt! iilensed Ui tcivc t«it thouiuml tlucati 
To faaTe it Um'tl f—i^haks. 

Bakefdi^ baiic'ml, o. Foisonom; destmctiw. 

Baxefi'Lnehs, bane' All -DCS, s. Poiootiouiams ; 

Ba-NKWort, bunc'wart, «. Tho nradlr-nijiilitahflds 
or Common l)w§.\cyAtmpa'kfi/iyfonnas ■ pnisnn- 
ods plant, with aa b^rboccrniB stem ; undivided 
ovate leaves, and solitarr floKren hanng a five- 
cleft corapannlata calyx, and compannUle corol- 
la, fivo'lohrd and equal : tho berry globoite and 
neatrd in tho calyx — faond gn>wing in heJgcsand 
vosto grounds. 

Bako* bang, p. a. (/Wtn^, GoUi. bengeler, Dat.) To 
beat; to thnnip; to cudgul ; to handle roughly; 
to treat with violence in general ; — t. a blow ; a 
ihnmp ; a stroke. — A low word. 

With (nan; a •lltT Ihwurk, and numy a ban; , 
Ilnrd vrab-tr«e auU old tron rang. — Bmdibnu. 

BAVD-BKOGAa, buag-bcg'gur, «. A name given in 
Sstallonldhirc and Dcr^nhirv, and alao in Scot- 
land, to Wadles, frvtn its being A pftrt of their 
dnly to drive owuy bp£'^ar.t — A vulgur word. 

Bakoixg, bang'ing, n. L:irgc ; gr^nt. — A vulpar 
word Xised in the Aonlh of England, likewise in the 
north, and in Scotland. 

Banolk, bang'gl, v.a. To waste by little and lit- 
tle; to sqaander carelessly. — A word now tucd 
only in eoavenation. 

BanolB'EABS, bang*gl-e«rt, «. pL Loom hanpng 
ears like thou of a dog, an imperfeccion in a 

BAHut% bftng'gn, s. An opiate ronch used in the 

Bamian, ban'yan, t. (bamj or hanii, a merchant, a 
trader, San^.) A name nsnally given to IIind<Kw 
riftiting foreign c-juntries r>r mercantile poi-poscs; 
the name amo of a moniiitg-gown, such aa ia won; 

Bani AV, ) bnn'yui, <• The nena Indieo, or Indian 
BAffTAKtf fig-tree; Hspeelefloffig-tm.tfai^branchrs 
of which spread to a graat extent, and, dropjnn^ 
here and there, tAke root, and rapidly increase in 
■ize till tbey beooine as large aa the parent stem. 
by means of which} the space of groond covered 
by • aingle tree is almost iueredible — so great, it Is 
said, at to be capable of affording shelter to a 
ncgtni'-nt of cnvnlrr. It frequently cover* three 
or four acres of ground. 
Baviak-davs, bun'yan-dayx, «. A name at »ca 
for those dnys when the eailon are not aerred with 


BAKtBH, ban'ish, r. a. (banir, Fr.) To i 
one to leave the country or place in wU 
resident; to eead into exile; to drira I 
compel to depart. 

Bamshko, bnlsh-ttTi i. One who oami 
other to quit the couutry in which he real 

BAitisniiEHT, ban ish-menc, t. The set ol 
ing another, aa, * He BtH^urrl himiielf br tfaj 
nmt of Ilia enemies i' the state erf being b 

Basi8T£B. a Tolgar term for Baluster^ 

Daxk, bnnfc. <, (banc^ bench, hillock, Soa 
iLaL fjaiiQtUy Fr.) Literally, a tieiich'; the earth eloping upwards fiwo ■ 
of A river, lake, or aea; any hcAprd-n{| 
ridge of earth ; a sfaool of &uid ; a aeal i 
of rowera in a vt-SLiiei. In CumnifTce, a d) 
for money, or in which money is cuken o 
at intcre^ bills dt.<(connted, &c. : the teqj 
ubed f<)r the company or managcn of a 
fitolili^hmmt; — v.a. to raise; to 
or defend with banks; to depo^t^ 
NoTF^— Tlir^ word Aunt ieeras to owe its orM 
ani-irnt rusloDl ufjuatte* t>«liiK ndiiiinrKtrrT^il 
vlnvnt^fd abo*'e tbc penpli* nn a idhikmI *(f c«| 
wtitrh It was trai)«(erre<l lu Ui« hemh, as iM 
UiQ King's Bvncli ; ur Bank ih CammpK Ft^t 
of Gomiuou riwu; and to a iKnch or d«l 

Bankablb, bankVbt, a. Duooootable ; n 

at a hank, fts bills. 

BanK'Dit.i., b^tiikbil, s. A pron^Usorf nol 
by a banking establish mcnt. 

Banker, bonk'or, §. One who traffics ia 
tho- proprietor or partner of a bsnkinj; tH 
mi.'nt; a name giren to a tcbmI employe 
c(K\-fiaher^' on the banks of NewfoundlaiMl] 
bench on which masons ctit and sqttaretiij 

BAMKjyc, bank'ing, *. Tlie earth or moot 
to prevent the orerBow of water ; the tri 
of buMness in a bank, eilhv sn giring or i 
money. i 

Bank-note, bank'nol^ ». The promiisef) 
a hanking e»tabU.ihment, 

Battk.ri'TT, Imnk'rupt, «. (bancM, a bank i 
and T^pttts, broken, Lat.) A person wIn 
from want of sufficient money to meet the i 
of his crodiion, or fVom being unable to 
his goods into cAsh to do so, commits sal 
Bct by which his tnability is made kno" 
his alTairs passes into thi- hands of his i] 
or Is submitted to the tribunids nppointe4 
for tho cnn<idrration of caoM of baolcn^^ 
Court of BnnkruptcT. i 

BANKRiirTCT, bank'^rap-ee, a. Insolna 
t>tate of a person who cannot pay his da 
nrt of a person declaring himself baokn^ 

Bankrcptct Court, bank'ntp-ee koiti) 
cojrt consisting of judge, commiaaionenL ^ 
officers, established in London and oill 
cith>s skH a tribnnAl for deciding npoii i 
bankruptcy. A bankrupt who coDOsab gj\ 
ti> the Talne of £10, is giitltr of felony, at 
to transport At ion for life, or iinpruonmeot; 
without hard laKour, for any term not eC 
M'ven years. The period allowed for displ 
BaI is' abridged by fttli and Gth Vio. i1 
i:)i>nths to twenty-one dayv fhm the tip 
of the notice of bankrupt^ in the Gaaei 

dk clerk* and MrrBnt< of ■ bnnknipt 
feryaiid wiiges ia full^ m reduced from 

ik'se-o, $. (after Sir J. Banks..) A 
uitX oan«bting of Inishrv "^ '*^*' ^'^ 
imU tress with their bmncheA Rowing 
Dated manner, found in snitdv farvst- 
LS mrer tite whole known coniitifiii of 
TIk/ are cnlltni the hot)e)'5i»Glde- trees 
lists: Order, I'robtcegr. 

baiik'ituk, t. The capital or pro- 
iiinti to u hank. 

mr, «. (UnHtKrrt Fr.) A flng; any 
pef/ attached to a pole, cid diftplayed 
ird; « military eiiiii;;ii; « pi^ndant -, 
pennon, &e. In Untivny, ttw upper 
ttm papiliionnceuus (lu«-er. 
Biuinl, cu pnrC Disphiyiiij; bnnncrs. 
Hrnui'-«t, «. A titfe ^'ivMi ill lite 
EpWrb kitifhts as had etimcd, hy vnlour 
till* t'.ivoi)r r>l ll»^ir lutvrreif^i, u/id vrho 
I to march their viia»aU to IwUtle under 
U^; tliey vrvre next to bnrons lu di;{- 
9R KDotwtiy BiuninoMcd to porliaint-ot. 
iu%'iwr-<A^M,(baitacruiiet Fr.) A little 
Iwd ft iMowrvt of gold and purple Mt or«r 

UD, j; TIh act of eiqml* 

A round cake made of oat,, 
gooenllj bokad beCoro 

t, n (Fnnch.) A snmptaoiti 
L 10 treat any one with f.>a*.ts; — v. n. 
■tttiKHulj. ill Archirecture, the tliol- 
M^ when rnbtftl above the c^rrin^e- 
HMwnuHudiip, the small part of tlM 
r the eye. Baatqmi-hne^ an imaginary 
by bii-mak«» along the bniiqiiet in 
t, and pnJonged iipwurda or donnwards 
■ furoe or wcakaotts of the branch, by 
t<hkff itiiror easy. 

' "iwtt-nr, «. (iaiifwffeitr, old Fr.) 
auinptooiuly ; one who makat 

binkltwet-howa, > «. A 

Wht^ bonk'kwet- iug-bowi,) Uooso 


ik'kwet-inf:,f. TbeactoficMtiD^. 

:'ket', a. In Fortification, a bank 

ibo foot of the parapet, on which 

stand to fire with greater cfl'ect 


||^||be,l 0. An Irish fairy, for.Tierly 
^k I believed to oppenr In the 
Hkinutii'* old wom;iD, and to chant, 
^B dttty, under the windows of the 
H^nMcbing dentb of some one in the 
^n j^at. In ScoiUind, tbe benthi 
the ttiiry** wife, and was alike seaious 
NisBMt'MH of approficliinj; death. 
baa'stik-kl, a. A small prickly fiah ; 

■■ The Galloa Rankira, a dwarf 
<ixa Java, whicli, with GuUua 
oii-rs'l by M. Teinmiiick to bavo 
uf our coinmou poultry. The 
to a kind of painted or carved 
that of Japan, only more gaody. 

Banter, bon'tor, r. «. (AoWwier, Fr.) To play 
npon; to rally t tn torn to ridicule; to ridicule; 
— a- ridicule ; raillery. 

Batterer, ban'tur-ur, *. One who banter*. 

LtAnTLtNC, baotlinf;, t. A little child. 

&Airxiu>a, banks'rin», a. The name pi^n In Su- 
mntro to a small arboreal rodent, intermediate in 
its babitfl and naltire between the ithrewB aiid tbo 

Baktan. — See Banian. 

Baobab, ba'o-ltab, a. Tbe Adanmnla digitato. — 
See Aduneonlo. 

Baphia, ba-fea, $. (haphtL, a dyr, Gr.) A genna of 
plants, consisting of one specteii, B. nittda, the 
wood of whiuh is impnrtnt mto tht^t country ns a 
dye-stuff, and'-r tbe name of Cam -wood, from 
Sierra l«ono : fJnli'r, l^uminosw:. 

Bafta, bap'ta, i. A genua of lepidoptenma insects: 
Fumily, Ueometnda!. 

Baptibia, bnp-tiaVa, *, (hnpio^ I dye, Gr.) A 
gnin* of Ni>rlh Anierican i<*j;uminuus hcrbacoom 
plants, the tincture of one of which Is luod u t 
dye ntufT. 

Baftirm, hnp'tizm, f. (btiplo, I dip, Gr.) The act 
of bsptixing; iinmiT»ion or sprinkling, pni!"tt.-»ej 
as R rite ao admission into the Christinn church. 
Baptism appfJirs to have been insLititted with the 
deai^.) 10 ejtcita in ninn a conviction thut he ought 
to be pnrified or cleansed from stn before he can 
enter into an amicable rrhition with his Maker. 
Ay an/ baptiim seems to have been early Introduced 
into the Christinn church, thotigh thfrs ia no dirrct 
injuiu'tion for It in the Kew Testnnunt. Bttp- 
tijfn is somctimcB used in Scriptum to etgaify 
IriiU or suffL-rint;, as in theso words of Christ :— 
I Imve a JajAistn to be liAntbics) with ; and hnw am I 

strailoDed Lill It b« accomflislieil I— tit. Lm1:4 all. AO. 

Baptisms appear to have been preralent as a p.trt 
of the rrligious ccn-monif^, not only amnng the 
Indians, £;.'yptians, Greeks, arid nomans, bnt nl»a 
among the JewA, pitrticnlarly among the sect 
Essentia. — Joarjihus' AiUtij. 

B.imsuAL, ba|Htl£'maI, a. Relating to baptism. 
Btiptimai-Jlmt, tUfi veasel wliicb coDtuus the water 
Used in baptism, 

Baihibt, bap't)«t. s. One who ndmlntstcrs baptism, 
as John the Bnpii-tt; the n.'imc t.ikeii by thosa 
Christians who dony that cliildrcn ought to ba 
baptized, ond maintain that baptism should bd 
perlbrmcd by immenion. 

Baitisthky, bap'titt-ter-re, a. The place whcra 
baptism is administered. 

DAPTiftTlCAL, bap>tis'te-knl, o. Pertaining to 

Baitize, bop-tiie', v. a. (hopttio, Gr.) To dip, 
wnsh. or sprinkle with water, on admissioa into 
the Christinn church. 

BamiZLB, bop-tiz'ur. t. One who baptizes. 

Bar, bar, a (barrty Fr.) A piece of wood, iron, or 
ether matter, laid across a passage to hinder en* 
trance ; a bolt ; a piece of wood or iron fastened 
to a door, and eutoring into the post or wall to 
hold the door close; auy obstacle wliicb obHtntctn; 
obstructii>n ; a gnte, as, * without the inrs or 
gnto« of the city;' a rock, or bunk of snnd, at the 
entrance of a harbour or river, which ships ijnnot 
s.iil over nt low wnter; anything tised for preven- 
tion or uclusion ; the pi n*» where causes of law 
ore tri(^l, orwhfre miiiiiiaU srp jndgcd, so called 
from the Aar placed to hinder persons from incom- 





inotlirif; tbe court— It tiao means the benches octq- 
pi«l by coantwl, heoco the phrsu * boDg called 
to the bar ,-' a room in a taTem or cofieehonse whnv 
the boiuckcepcr sirs ; anything by which ihif 
ttructure u held together. !u Law, a percmptorj' 
Moeption a^inst n demand or pkn brimght by a 
dofcuuHiit in an action. Is flcraldry, anytliing 
which it laid aoroas another. Bar t*f gold or 
tilctr, is a hitnp or wetipp from the mines mcittd 
down into a moukl. ai;d not wrought, A bar 
iff iron is a long piece wrongbt in the forgo. 
Ban <if a Aorw^ the upper parts of the gnniis 
between the tuAks and grinders, that brar no 
teeth, and to which the bit is applied, and by 
whioh the boree ia goremed. Bart m music art; 
strokM drawn perpendicularlj across the lines of 
a pircB of moftic, UAcd to regulate the beating tn- 
measare of raoucsl time. Bar-ihitt^ two half 
buUeta joined togethrr br an iron bnr, used in sra 
engngenicnts for catting down tbe masts and rig- 
ging. Bar has aUu a tignrative meaning, as *the 
bar of public opinioi) ;' — r. a. to fasten or shut 
anything with a bolt or bar; to hinder; to ob- 
Btroct ; to prevent ; to exclude ; to make imprac- 
ticable ; to dt^Uin, by exdading the cliitnanLii ; 
to ftbut out ; to excliido firom use, rigbt, or claim ; 
to prohibit ; to except ; to mako an exoeptiun. 
In Law, to hinder the process of a suit. 

Baraldeia, bar-sl-de'e-a, $. (meaning atiknmm.) 
A genus of phmts, nativoiof Madigasoar: Ordar, 

Bakamoi, ba-mn ji, i. Cortiiia oSicers among the 
Greeks of the Lower Emjiire, who kqit the keys of 
the gates of the city in which the emperor resided ; 
the name was aUo applicil to tbe guards stationed 
at the emperor's bedchamber. 

DAnATHMUU, ba-ra'fArum, «. A dnngeon, dark and 
disrnal, with bliarp spikes at tbe top, and others 
at tlM bottom, into which condemned criminal 

, were thruwu by the Aibenians to prevent their 

Barb, bthb, a. (harha^ a beard, I^t.) A Durbary 
horse, remarkable for its swirtncsA ; anytliing thai 

, grows in tho place of a beard ; the points which 
■tand backward in an arrow or fitthing-book^ to 
prevent It from being easily extmcted; a sort 
of pubescence iu plants, the annuur for honci ; 
— ^. cr, to shave ; to dress out the beard ; Co ptre 
dose to the surface; to furtudh horses with ar- 

Daroa, b4r'ba, «. {beards Sax. from larba^ IJtt.) 
Iu Z<x»]i><;y, tbe lii-ard or long tull of hair dfpen- 
duut froiu the chin or undta* jaw of a mammif«-rous 
animal. In Ornithology, the f*-at!icni which hang 
firom the skin oovoring the gullet or crop of crrtain 
birds. In tchihyology, a smiill kind of spine pro- 
jecting from the mouth, with tbu teeth pointing 
backward:!. In Dotany, any cuUedion of loii;* 
loose hairs into a tuft or creat, as on tho petals of 
the IPS. 

OAimACA.s, hOr'ba-kfln, a. (harbactmt, Tr.) A 
forlificatioo, or WAtch tower, placed on the wait 
of a town ; an opening in tbe wall throa^ which 
guns ore levirlled; ■ small round tower placed 
hvforo tho outward gale of a castle-yard or bal- 
lium ; it sometimes denotes a (urt at the entrance 
of a bridge, or the ootlet of a city. 
BjUUiACENIA, bir-bS'se'no-a, s. (In honoor of M. 
Biu'booena, Governor of Minaa Geracs.) A genus 
of Braiitiaa plants : Order, UaimudacMeft. 

Babbaiioes Cedab, bar>ha'das ae'dnr, *. A wood 
imported from tbs Weet Indies, the prodoee ei 
JuuiprriuB Barbadensis, a speaea of the jaitt|ier« 


Barbadoks Chehry. — S« MalpighwL 

Barbaikies FLowEB-FENCB,bar-b»'doiefl*»-BP- 
fenx, t. I'oinriimn jiutrberrima. a plant Oted as 
a fence in the West Indies. Ttie Bowers wn bea9> 
tifuUy Toriegated with a de«p orange ooloor, ytt* 
low, and some spots of green, or are of a deep 
orange : Order, Legnminosc It ia also called 
the Uarbodoea Pride. 

RARBAtH^Bft OooftRnRRRT. — See Perealaa. 

Baboaduks Leo, bar-ba'dos let;, t. A fwolli^a, 
hard, defonnrd leg, a disease iodigeoous to Ibt 
iatsnd of Barhndocs. 

Barhadoea L11.V, bor-Wdns lillef a. Tbe Am- 
r}'llis eqoestris. — See Amaryllis. 

BAKnAREA, Ixir-ba-rc'a, *. (anciently the berh ol 
St. Barbara.) Winter cress, a genos of cnMafitfou 
plants, two speaes of which are British. IM, 
B. vfiiffariM, or Belluile cress, in which tbe luni 
are lyrate, tho tenninul lobe roanded, upper obriat* 
and toothed. It is the Erysioinm Barbarea ol 
Lixinsfua. B. ptfcox,Ja which tbe lover Imim 
are lyrate, and tbe Upper deeply pinttatifled. 

BAiituaiAK, bar-ba're-nn, t. (barbarat^ onctriEaid, 
Gr.) A rude uncivilised person; a sarsgt; a 
brutal monster; a man withoot pity; atmnof 
nproach. Applied by the ancient Giwks and 
Romans to nil foreigners ;—«. nndviliied; rode; 

DAnuAKlc, hor-bilrlk, t. (barhariau, LaL) ITu.* 
civilixed; oarage; fiireign; far-fei^ed. 

The gvo^eoos Eaat, with rlcheat liand. 
Showers 00 her Idngi barturie {wort and goM. 

Barbarism, bAr'bar-izm, f. (barim'Umot, Gt.) A 
form of speodi contrary to tbe purity and eivt* 
ncss of any language; igooranoe of arts; waatof 
learning; hratalily; sarigeness of manneis; m- 
civility; cruelty; barbarity. 

Barbaritt, tjor-bdr'e-tc,*. Sarogencss; ioohriE^f 
cruelty ; inhumanity ; barbarum ; impuiHy of 

Barbarize, b^^Ir'bar-ize, r. a. To bring bsdi tt 
harli.-iriAin ; to render savage \—^. n. to coimnit t 
barbarism; an Imptmty ofspeedu 

Barbarous, bdrlM-ma, a. (6ar&arot, Gr.) 5tm* 
gar to nvility; sange; tindvilizcJ; ignonakt 
unacqnaintod with arts; cmel; inhuman; iorapt, 

Babbarovslt, bdr'ba-ras-le, ad. lieaoraotty| 
without knowledge or arts; enielly ; inhnmanly. 

Baudahol'S.n'K^s, bdr'ba-ms-nes, s. Incivility d 
mannem; impurity of bngange ; cruelty. 

BARBAur Ape, bdrlM-re ape, a. The JShnia hmt 
of Linnitus, and Cerroctbin tt/lruHtu. Ao sfM 
which, from time immemorial, has beea an tsbo' 
bitnnt of the mountain fastnesses of GthrsUsr, 
the only place in KuTMpe assigned to the Qakl- 
mmano. The BArbary npe is about aa large is ■ 
middle-sised dog, and from two to two and % hslf 
fetft in li^ngth ; the tall is nidimental, and theboily 
of H li(;ht yeIlow)s.h- brown colour. 

BARnA>^TBL Bat, bJr.hiis't) bat, «. (barhoy abeiri 
and rieUa, a »tar, Lat.) VespertHio barbaitclli, a 
smult !lp(^cieB of bat, with tang broad esii and ihort 
flattunod nose. 

Barbated, bdrluHtad, a. part, {har^ataM, lA) 
Jagsed with poiatsf bewded. 

n, hA'^^lni, «. A hog dressed whole, fs 
Indian nunuer ;— 1^ a. a term for Arats- 

I, bir^wd, a. part. FnmUhnt with armour; 
d; jaggeil inth hoolu or points. BnrUd 
with miliiarj trRppings 



'bal, a. (6ar«a, a bnrtl, Ut,) lo 
, a (tmu of malacoptfrrgioiis &ih?s, 
ttetarp, havlag four cirrbi on the htad, 
IIIm pMDft» tad two at the angles of the 
Jaw ; ^tnal and Atial fiiu ihoii ; scnund (ir 
■V«f tl» AbimI An nprcsented tiy n strong 
r ^W OMBfDon barfaal inhabits the mprs of 
Kuvp* wdA E«gUod. In Farriety, bar- 
hirWar, knola of sup^aona fla^ that 
ti the chattwj of a bone*s mcratlL 
K^-rs, bilrVI-late^ a. (ftm-6a, Lmt) Tn Bo- 
■pplM wbra the puppus of compoTtitfl plants 
bf »faoct »tiff ttnigfat bristles, at io 

LVUkVa, har-bdln-lAtp, a. A pupptu is 
I b* w wbeo tia roof^ofss it occasiuneJ bj 
biy tbort point*, as in the Aster. 
|i^ birVlg, «. ThoK inull worm-hka pro- 

to Iha mouthf of wm* tishrs. 
\, bAr^bor, «. (iar^ a b^an], Ut.) One 

and drmw or cnU the hair. 
Kl\ bdf^bord, ^wK Dnsned bj the barbur. 

Out cnoricoiu Anthony, 
Itai^Ow w«rtl of no— wfimiinh#ant vp^ak. 
Ma tiiBoa o'er, bom to the feast.— 

b^'bor-^ ik A female who sfaitves 

the hair, 
huoxcui, bdr'bnr-nraniffcnr, «. A word 

in Shtktpatrt^ which seems to aiguifj 
a man drdied mc hj hi* barber. 
^m rvfoM ; fur thaitg:h U be nigbt, tha mocm 

■ Mip of the moonshine of yuo , 

B09I, bdr'bor-BurJnn, «. One who 
raCenion of a mrgran to tlint of a 
^ • pcactka Tory ooounoo io former tiroes. 

with thoM Atm mnA puMlc bmnd*, 
nif Ml -• 

I conl'l fltamp 
I *kal««oiB|>«n9 fjfbat^tr-mirytfjnt 
M lalw «C wtXb bU Ihtfar art umI plnUUn.— 

, bdr'bar'SnT'jar-«, 4. The prac- 

%, bdr'bcta, «. (&ar6a, a Ward, Ltt) The 
a family of seanMreal or dimb- 
larp! conical bills; beard with 
cf stiff bri«tlc3 ; containing the sub 
Bucoo, l*icumQus, &c.— Which 


^m RarhiKiin. 

btfr-hi'C're-a, «. (in hononr of I>r. Bar- 
A ipam ^ planta: Order, LegtiminDiiie. 
DV, bir^b»-toa, §. {Ivbilot, Gr.) The name 
It ^m aaiaitB to a atringed itutnuneot of 

9. T^ gsaa» Barbel— VTbich 

bArO»<ole I (Franch.) A VcMtJan 

1^ bA-nBBM, a. (Italian.) A abort broad 
" af a middte flae, oaed in the UcditerraDcan 

Sea for the ooDTerance of proTiatoas from ona plue 
tu anotlier. 

BaHD, bc^nl, «. Cbardd, Welih, iardtu^ Lat.) A 
poet. Among tlie anciont GauU aad Britons, bardt 
were both poeta and musiclanfi, and were held in 
great reverence. Amoii^ the An^lo-Saxona, thej 
were divided into hfirporii and glcemen; thwe 
who atl«"ndiHl the Nomum kiiiffs were deKendanta 
of the Scandinavian Sraldd. The gathering of 
banU, iniuicinns, and puetA, at which a nilvcr liarp 
VM intended Ibr an a prize, waa termed the 
KUtcdhfe. The laat avsembly of this kind callod 
by royal aathority, woa in the ninth year of the 
n-ipn of Qtienj Eliubeth. Sard, (barda, Ital.) the 
trapping of a horse ; caparison. 

Barbed, Ulnl'nl, a. jutri. (bnrder^ Fr.) Dnseed 
in a warlike manner ; caparisoned. 

The htwdtd horses ran &i;rc«lv upon them.— 


BAnt)E9AXisT8, bdr-dp-sn'iilffts, /. A soct of the 
second ceiittirr, which held the doctrine, that not 
only the actions of men, but of (Jud, were sobjeut 
to neccasity. They also denied the incamution of 
Christ. This sect dcrii-f*d their name fnim their 
leader, B.nnlesjinc8, a Syrian of K>li-Aa. 
Haroic, Ixjrd'ik, ) u. Relatinf; to the bardl or 
liAHi>iMi, bai-diih.f poets; what Is written or as- 

iM-rtrU l.y the barda. 

Baim>iam, b.lnl'i2m, «. Tlie Ifaming and maxima 
of burda- 

BAitE, bare, a, (few, Saic.) Naked ; wUhont oorer^ 
ing; raw; uiicoTered in respect ; unodonied; plain; 
simple; without ornament; delected; no longer 
concealed; poor; itidi^^eot; wanting plenty; incro; 
nnacconipHuicd with usual recommendation; thread- 
bare; much worn ; not nnited with nnything else) 
wanting cUithea; slenderly 6\ipplied with elothca. 
Bare poie$^ masts without sails wlwn the flhi]» la 
at sea. Vnder hart poU* implies that the wiiid 
it; so high that no sail can be expoaed to It ; — 0. a. 
to strip: to make bare or naked; poA of tlie 
verb To bear, 

BAJumoNe, bare'bone, a. Lean, so that the boon 

TTerP mmes lean Jack, here comes MryftoM ; 
Ilow l'»n)c is it n^. Jack, liuce thou aawest thy own 
kiiei' }—ShtiJu, 

Bargboned, bare 'booed, 

VwDea bare. 
Barefaced, haroTast^ n, 

not masked ; shnmflf^is; unreserved ; without 

concealment ; undisguised. 
Barefacedly, bare Tuste-le, a</. Openly; ahame- 

fully; wiihoQt disgniM*. 
Barkfacednk^s, bare'fnste-nea, «. EOhniterj ; 

assnnuice; andadousnesa. 
Barefoot, bareTdt, a. Without shoes oa the feet 
Bareqhawk, bere'nawn, a. Katea barcL 

Know iD> name la lost ; 
B; treaaon** tOoUi barcymawn iui<J cmikOTblt. — ShaMM. 

BAitKiiEAhED, bare'hed-dcd, a. Ha\-tng the bead 

Barkleogbd, barft'Ieg-ged,(i. HaTin;;the legs bant. 

Bakelt. bnrele, a(i. Kokedly ; poorly; indigent- 
ly; slenderi\; without decoratiun ; merely; ouly; 
without anytliing more. 

UARt:NKCKKi>, bon'uclil, a. F.xposcd; haTbgtho 
nctk barvk 

BAitEttEe«, bore'nea, s. NakedneM; kannen; ptw 
verty ; mcauneaa of dothaa. 

B. part. Having the 
With the face naked *, 



BAfilUJI— BABll. 

BjLBEPlCKBDt bare'pikt. a. Pjcked to the bone. 

Kow, for the baret'Kk'd bnne of tDAJCfltjr, 

Doth fIi)pKrci wm- hrisili- tiii mn(prj crrtt. 

And enaricih tn Uio ^ni\c vy^t of pface.— ^Mb. 

Baberibbep, bvd'ribd, a. Haring the ribs ban. 

Tn hiB forrlicAd tits 
A httnrlhh'il death, whoiv office » this day 
To foAst a|K>u whole thouMuida uf the Pretu-h.— 

Babca, hayrx, j. Iq ScalpttirR, (linso pirts of an 
iiiuij;c or atntuv which rvpreaent ttie luire iksfa. 

Babful, tilr'ful, a. loll of obstructions, 

Bauuain, tdr'gin, *. {baiyuigHer, Fr.) A con- 
tract or agTMinetit conceniinK the sale uf Aomo- 
tbin^; tb« tbiiig bought or sold; npnirbAM!; Ilic 
thing purchaAOil ; ntipulalion ; intorL':>teJ lii-uliii^. 
In Lnw, bargain and uIq b a contruct or agne- 
ment made for Undjt, coodJ» &c.; fAio, the tranfl- 
furring the right of tDcm from ihe bargniiicr to 
tho turgaincQ; — v. a. to mnko a contract for tbo 
»alo or piarchasp of anjlhing. 

&AnGAlNB£, bdr-gin-nee', a. Tbo person who ae- 
C«pt« u barj;ain. 

Baroainbb, bdr'j^n-nnr, a. The p«non who prof- 
fen or niakcs a bargiin, 

Babob, bdij, a. (haru, Gr.) A flat-bottomM boat 
eniplDjrecl on rivers and canald ; a buut, thirty or 
fort^ feet in length, belonging to a mou-oi-wiir 
ahip ; a boat of plenstiro or ttatc. 

Babgedoardb, b(lr)'bo'nl&, s, Tho mclined pro- 
jecting boarda at tho gable of a buUJjng, wliich 
bide ibe horixontal timbers of a roof. 

Bakoecoursh, bflrjitoree, #. Thut part of tho 
tiling of a roof which projects beyond the external 
face of the pAble. 

BAnGRiiAH, iMJij'man, a. The mannj^cr of a barge. 

Barceuasxeu, bdrj'inds-tur, <. Tho owner of a 

Baridius, ba-rid'e-us, a. {bariM, banJot^ a ship or 
yacht, Gr.) A genus of oolcoptcroaa inaoctii with 
depresned rhomboidal bodifK, and havnig th>u an- 
tenns composed of twelve joints : Family, Rhyn- 

Baqilla, ba-ril'Ia, a. (Spanhdu) An impure car- 
bonate of soda, importtnl from Spain and other 
places, produced by burning difTi-rcnt kinds o( si-ii- 
woed to aahea. It U chiclly used la the inaua- 
fiictare of soap asd glass. 

BAR-xnoa^, bar'i-um, i. iron made in malleable 

Baris, ba'ris, ». A genus of Wewila, one of which, 
B. li^tHiritUf liveti and feedii upon tho elm, both 
in Itn hin-ji alsto and that of the pcifect insect. 

^itiTA, ba-rit'a, t. llie Tipiiig Crow, a geiitis 
of Aimtralimi birds alUed 1« the crow and 

Baritone, bar'c-tnnp, «. (bary„ heavy, and jowur, 
a tone, Gr.) In Mufjc, a hi;^ hn^A which, in 
ancitniit chnrdi tunes, iit wriiu-n with Ibe F def 
on the third line of the BtafT; — a. having a ^ve 
deep aotind. 

Babium, bi're-iim, a. (haiya^ heavy, Gr.) The 
metallic haae uf the mTncnsI barytcs. It ia of a 
dark colour, fusible at a red beat, and turns into 
bnryto when left QX)]oaed to the uir; wlini lieiilt-d, 
it bumn with a deep red light Its chcinicj] com- 
paunds arc : — 

Baiuuh, Bromult tyf: — I otom of bariam 4~ 1 <>' 
bromine = 78.4; atomic weight, 147.1. 

Babii;3I, ChioritU t^fi — 1 atom of bnrium Hj- 1 of 
dilurine = 35.42 ; atomic weight, 104.12. 

BARirif, fluoriife of: — I atom of barimn + W 
fluorine =: 18.68; atomic weight, 87.38. 

BARli:Jf, Fvdide of: — I ntom of bnrium -f* 1 of 
iodine = 12G.3, atomic wei;;ht, 105.0. 

BaRIUH, Peroxide of: — I atom of li.iiiiim'f>2 el 
oxygen::^ 16; atunuc weight, 84.7, 

Baricu, Protoxide of: — I ntom of Uarinm = C&J 
•^ I of oxygen := 8 ; atomic weight, 7G.7. 

Bakmtu, Su^^fitaxt </.— 1 atom of barium -|- 1 ef 
aulpburz= 16.1; atomic weight, 84.8. 

Baric, Wrk, i. (bcrgcn, to pM)!:!, Germ.) TU 
rind or external coating of the trunk imd bntncbci 
of trees, cwresponding with the kkin of an nntmal; 
a vessel havliig a goiT topsail, instend of tikt a^re 
mixea topsail ; the noise a dog makes whem cx- 
prcsvDg aogcr or alarm. PtntviaH bark, a n}d- 
able medicine, the produce of tha OmcAoha, frooi 
many parts of South Aiuericn, but chiefly fnm 
Peiu; tlie nu^dictiud property in termed qvtuiM; 
— r. a. to strip tree* of their bark ; to enclose ; le 
cover; — ^r. n. to make the noise which a dog doa 
when he tlireatetu or puisnes ^ to cUunour at ; U 
pursue with reproaches. 

Barkaicy, bflr'ka-re, «. Tho place in which tcmnm 
deposit the bnrk used li the process of tittriin-c. 

HARi{-B.ARnn, bffik'bayrd, u. Strippv«l «( theluHc, 

Bark-BOUKD, b(Jik'bouud,a. Having the barktm 

Babkbb, bilrliDr, a. One who faarlcB or clauxMnt 
one employed in stripping tree*. 

Barkino-irons, UirU'tng-i urns a. lostnaentt 
uard in taking the bark off trer*. 

Bark-btove, bfirk'stove, s. A hothouse contain* 
in;; a b.irk-bed for forcing phinl!C 

Barry, b<ir'kc, a Cousintiog of boric; eantMmnj 

Barlhria, brfr-lc'rfr-a, «. (after .T. nnrreliir.) A 
gpnus of plnnts, cliaracterized by its ''piny W-ttit, 
large upper and lower sepab, and iLi tivl»ieJ fiu>> 
iiel-«]iaped coi-olla: Order, Acxnth;ice». 

Bahley, bifr'le, ». {ben. Sax.) The Honleum of 
Botanista, a bread-corn exteiudvely um!^ hi m:i!(> 
ing, from which beer, ale, and purter are dintHW; 
and, in 8eotInnd, tn making a aonp cnllcd bmth. 

Bauley-bhake, brtr'Ie-biakc, a. A nr*l gaunor 
play; n trial of swiftness. 

Baulk Y-BROTii, b«Jr'Ic-brD/.*(, «. Broth made of 
barley and c:ibb»ge, or oLher vcgct.ilil«, with ■ 
piece of butcher meat, in oommon uat in Seollaiid; 
a low Word, sometimes used for strong beer. 

Can sixideii wnlcr, 
A drench (i»r eurnin'd Jadiii, Ihcir tar(n»'&o9fii. 
Decoct ftieir cuM h\vwl tu «uch mltant fivnl !— 5ftUa 

Barleycorn, b<ir le-corn. s Tbo gmin of borWy 
diveated nf its husk, funning what is aillcd pot or 
penrl barley. In Meaauretnent, the third pari of 
an inch. 

DAnLKY-MCAi- h(»r'lc-mcel, «. Barley ground lole 


Barley-mow, bdrle-mow, a. The placa Then 

reaped bai ley is stowed up. 

Whnnrrn' hy ;on bntifp'mom t pan. 
Before my vya wlil trip tita lid> tats.— <r^ 

Barley-sugar, h<Ir'le-»hu'gur, a. Sugar boiled 

tiU it becomes brittle, formerly with a decoetioB 

of barl'^y. 
Barlby-vater, b^rle-waw'tnr, a, A drink made 

by boiling barley in water. 
Baru, bdnn, «. (freoraia. Sax. and barma, Qerm.) 

Yeast; the aubstunca used in nuking leat'or.ed 


BAnoMirrmcAL— BAn08ELEKIT£. 

pd fffmcfitiDi; liqaon. A portion of dnugh 
till it frnncnts or become* sour; tliis is 
mdi echer dough, and causes it to rise; 
e acid is diMMi;;a^«d, a iTnous soieU is folti 
^i\-« fCTinrncattva gjon on. 
k Ulr'uuyd, «. A frinalc who alterds the 
1^ inn or other boiuc of public Qntcrtoin- 

rfbrW^ &. Containiiig bArm ; jreast^. 
n« a> (Um, Sax-) A ^lace or bouM for 
^ anj cort of gnun, ba^, or straw ; — f . a. 
p in a barn. 

^ btr-nnltl, §. (frarriL, a chili, and aae, 
kS*X.) Tiic coniDHiu ii.iii)e fur tlio Peiita- 
pdtilcrm. nr Anutifa Ix-vis, the duck b.-inin- 
■nliiped, with 9, slivli ttltiwiwd to a ttv^hr 
mnS fRHqneutly adlitriiig to bhipa or flont- 
pbcTk From the frjthery ^ippearaiiLv of 
bnl pntrnding from tbe shell, it wo^i m>- 
■nppowd that the&e abulhi produced tlio 
lied the hamide fiKMc ; and also, that tbe 
peuuelrca were givtvu uimd trees, or were 
^ from rotten timber, such as the mnsts, 
|d pL-«nk> uT brvbea &hip&, beiice the uauie 
L ar * child of the oak.' In Fiirricrr, an 
|n( mad lor boldinK horses by lUt- iiom', 
kjrflpention is to be pcTfunncfl. In Omi- 
L iuf JHM'ie or bemncif ffooM^ the Anser bcr- 
p «|Mciea of goose which is found in hi^h 
p laHtu)cj;,and ti*ita Britniu in tht-;iiiluiiiii. 
fimde hna a shorter and slenderer bill th,in 
tntm eoae. £amacie$ u an old Scotcii 
p ft pur of spectacles. 
pLt, bnr-ndr'd^•a, i. (in honour of E. 
B, F.R.&) A ^a\is of Chinese bulbous- 
phuts: Order, As^iihodclex;. 
lin*rok'ft, s. A technical word used in 
expma a ^Ilo^tic mode of leasoninj;, in 
prvpodition Is a oniversal affimia- 
other two piirtkular nef;nt)ves; as, 
is discreet : tetd is often not dU- 
of Mftl ar« thtrefon not vir- 

Irfr'o-Ute. i. (t/my*^ heavy, and li/has, a 
if.) The carbuHAie ot ban'tcs, a poison- 
found in lend veins, oonsistinfc of 80 
of boryto. and 20 per cent, of carbonic 
IP". 4-3. — See \\ ilhtfrite. 

rss, ba-rv-Dia luurnVtuffS. (baro*, 

itrott long, and me/ron, measure, Or. 

Gemti.) An inatnimcnt for de- 

tbe «cij{ht and length of new-bom 

W-nxn'me-tur, a. (barot, weight, and 
a UMaanre, Gr.) An instnimcnt for 
tbe ncifiht of the atmosphere, luut 
in it, in order chieHy to determine 
kapBof tbe weather. U differs from tlto 
MM taShod tbe baroscope, which only sli(m.<* 
p air ia besricr at one tinto than auuther, 
|l lyedfying the difference. The barometer 
IdH upon tlie Torricv-lUan experiment, 6o 
Efiwm TorricclU, who invented it at Flo- 
pt 1G43. It is a gtriM lube filled with 
p, hcmteiicftUjr indid ui one en J : the otluT 
|p4 Hmu a i g al in a baain of stagnant mcr- 
m tbat, aa tbt woight of tlie atmosphere 
Ums, tbe mcnnry in th« tube deaoeuds, 
I it increases, the mercury ascends; the 
ft of mercury cuspeaded in tlie tube being 

always equal to tb« wotght of the iominbeut at- 

Barometrical, ba-ro-met'ro-kal, a. Belatin); to 
the hjtrometer. 

BAnoMLTniCALLT, ba-ro-met'ra-lul-lp, ad. By 
means of the liarumeter. 

Barometrogbath, bar-0-inet'ro-graf, a. {btiroine- 
troffrai*he^ ft. from Aarw, weiji;ht, mttn/n^ meu- 
•ure, and gropho^ I write, Gr.) An inatrumcnt 
wliich, of iL»olf, inscribes on paper the varialionb 
of atmospheric prcwtire. 

Barometz, bur'o-nieti, *. The Scytliian I^mb, 
a singular wgotohlo prudoction, conuiiting uf tbo 
pntsttAte hairy »tem of the furu Aspidlum toro- 
mcti, which, from its shaggy nature anJ positloni 
his the appearance of a crouching animal. 

Baros, bar'nin, «. (French.) A title of Bobility 
next to a vuicnunt, and above a buronet, Barojia 
of lAs Fxdifqaer, the jodj;es in the Court of ICx- 
cheijjucr, tu whom the admin istrallon of justice is 
iatnistod, in causes between the sovereign and 
t!io subject rrhiUng to the revenue. Bmvna r-J 
Uu Cinque Poj-ta^ so called from the fundol servioa 
uf bearing a canopy over th^-' bead of tJic king on 
the dfly of hia OTmnntion, iinjioscd on the freemen 
of the five pijrts, Hiinlin^, l>nver, Ilythe, Kuiimey, 
And iiaDdwicb, tu which have been since added, 
Rye and Winchelsea, In Law, baron ami/rmme b 
a term for hnsUind and wife, who ore deemed but 
one person ; tliervby precludiiij; the liUflbjiinl frum 
bcin^ Bvidfficc ogaiuat the wife, or the wife apunst 
the biLsbnnd, in all cases excepting high t.eiLsun. 
In llenitdry, when the coats of arms of a man 
and wife nn* hfirne }kt ptJe in the same escut- 
cheon, the mim's bcinj; on the dexter ade, and lbs 
wnmun s on the sinister. 

Baronagb, bor'nin-at^e, $, The body of boroiifl and 
peers; the dignity of a baron; the land which 
givc3 title to a baron. 

Bakonk^s, bar'ruu-cs^ s, A baron's lady, 

Uajio>ct, bar'mn-et, a. Tbe luweitt degrva of 
honour that is hereditary, and bus the pruceJeiioe 
of all other knigbto, except tlie knights of the 

Uaiuin etc y, bor'o-net'SC, a. The condition or rank 
of n baronet. 

Baronial, ba-ro'nc-al, a. Bdnting to the person 
or place, a bnron or barony. 

BAR<>NTAr.i:. bnr'nn-tac^a, «. Tho collective body 
of baroieti. 

Bai»>nv, bsr'mn «, a. The hononr and lerrilory 
which BU'o title to a baron, comprcheudinfr not 
only tholecs and laniU of tamporol horonn, but of 
bishops also, who have twci estates; one ns they 
arc Apiritual persons, by reason of their tiplritunl 
reventies and pnwiutions ; tbe other grew Sroxxt 
the bounty of our English kings, whereby they 
have baronies and lands added to their spiritnal 
linnps and preferments. 

Baroscope, bar'ro-skope, a. An instnunent to 
hlioiT the weight of the atmosphere. 

Bauosuoi'IC, bar-0-eitop'ik, \ a. ReliUng to 

BAROBCoriCAi^ bar-o-skop'e-kAl,! or determined 
by the lwro*eiipc. 

BAUoaKLii-MfK, bar-o-sere-nite,*. (Aoroa, weight, 
(jr, and aeitftite,) IIcaTy-spar, the sulphate of 
borytes. A mineral conmting of borj-tes, 6(*^ 
and sulphuric ocid, 34, It occuns in veins in van ■ 
ons rt)cks, bcith igneonti and stratified ; one of which, 
in Henfrewslure, Scotland, ia abteen feetwi>1e: U 




ii oftrn of a white or flesh eokmr, and of a fbK*t«d 
■tractnre; sp. gr. 4.7> 

Barosmji, bA-rua'mii, t. (Mry*, hMry, and ann«, 
srncll, Gr.) A gtrnoa of planta, k named from 
the stroox fa»vj smell of all the Bpcdea : Order, 

Barouciib, ba-tuosh*. a. A fonr • wbfcled carriage 
witli a falling top, and Matn aa in a coach. 

Bar-postii, bMr'prnt.'*, jr. Pools driven into tbr 
groand to form the Miles of a field-pate. 

BakraCAN, l>»r'rn-kan, *. {baraauir, IIjI.) A thick 
strong stuff resembling camlet, but coanter in the 
qiinlitr. used fur mnkj^g clocks and other outer 

IlAunAC'K, har'rak, *. Qbarracet, Span.) A liltle 
CAbin made bj the Spanit'h fii^hennen on the sea- 
shnro; a hat or buildinf; for l'*<l^ing tKiKlifni. 

BAnRACK-XASTER, bar'rak-maa'tur, j. The officer 
whn han the stiperiiitendrnce of the barnidk d*>- 

BARRAcrDA, baf'ni'ka'da, a. A name ^^'ren hj 
Calesb^ to a Urge species of pike, t«n feet long, 
inhabtiing the West Indian Scm. 

Barras, bar'nu, i. Tb« resin whii'h exudes from 
the bark of trees. 

Baiuutor, bar'ra-tar, «. (harat^ olJ Fr.) A 
wrangler and eiicoam{;cr of Inwsuits; the master 
of ft Ttnel who defrauiis tbe owners. 

BaARATBOUS, b*r'ra-tnui,a. Tainted with barratrj. 

BarraTST, bar'ra-lr«, t. The practice or crime 
of a barratof. In Murine iDninuice, when) the 
nuuter of the ship or the mariners defraud th(> 
owners or insnrera, whether bj running awar with 
the ship, nnkiiig or deserting her, or cinhnzhng 
the cargo. 

Babbbo, bdrd, a. Fastened with a bar ; hindered ; 
mtrained; exdnded; forbid; striped. 

Babrbl, bar'nl, a. {baril, WeUh. ) A roand woodf-n 
vessel of more length than bnodtb, formed so as 
to be stopped ckMe } also, a raeastire of capsritj : 
Beer barrel = 36 imperial galkma ; bajTrl of flour 
= 196 Rm.; barrel of pot ashes = 200 lIis. ; 
barrel of anchovies := 30 lbs. • bnrrel of soap ^ 
256 lbs. ; barrul of hotter = 224 lbs. ; barrel »f 
cindlis =120 lbs. In Ireland, barrel of vrhrat, 
poaae, beans^ anil irc ^ 20 stones of 14 Ihs. ; 
barrel of boriej, here, and mpeseed ^16 slwies ; 
barrel of oats is gcnorallr 14 sttmes; biurel of 
malt ^ 12 stones. In MwhankH, tbe cylinder 
abont which anything is wound. ArrrW btifk, in 
tbipi^ng, is a mensun) of capadtj f<v freight = 
5 cubic feet; and 8 barrel bnlk, or l^cnhK frrt, 
= I ton measansDent. Barrtl (^ a gun, the 
tuho of a mnskcL BttrrrJ orrfniL, an oq^an, a 
part of the machincrj of which oonaists of a cylin- 
der moved by the hand ; — r. a. to put anything 
in a barrel for preservation. 

BABBBI.-BKLL1ED, barril-bellid, o. Having a 
large belly. 

BabRSH, bar'mi, n. (bare, Sax.) Withoof the 
quality of producing its kind; not prolific; st(Tih?; 
liot copi'ins ; sc-inty ; dpstitute of intrflect ; on- 
meanini! ; uninTenttre ; dull; unpHxluctive. 

Barrenly, bor'ren-le, <w/. Uofniitfully. 

BABBENXK9S, bnr'rrn-ncs, t. Want of offspring; 
want of tl»e powrr of procrwiiion ; nnfniitfulne:ut ; 
Sterility; infcrtilily; want of invention; wnnt of 
the power of producing anything new -, want uf 
raitter ; aeantJness. In Theulogy, aridity ; want 
of flmotkm or sensiUUty. 

Barrex-spibitcd, har'ren-ipir'it-td, a. 
temper or mean spirit. 

A & jn tm tfl> U ad fIrDow 

Barrrx Wort. — Sec Epunediam. 

BABRlCADEf bar're-kade, i. (French.) A 
tion, made in haste, of tmv, canh 
anything: else, to keep off an nttodc ; 
bar ; obfftniction ; — r. a. to stop up a 
to hinder by sioppnge. 

Babuioado, bor-re-ka'do, s, — Same as Bi 

BARRlEn, barre-nr, #. (barriere^ Fr.) In 
cation, a fence made in a passaf^ to 
entrance of the enemy; xn entmichmrat 
tress, or stron;^ place, as on the front 
comitrj'; a wall, gate, or any other ob»i 
a bar to mark the tnnits of any place; the 
Ilit-t, within which joiuts and taunia-ii< 
performed; a boundary; a limit. 

tlARRiMa, bor^ring, part llakiug fast wHU 
cxcEudlng ; prcn'enting ; prohibiting. 

BARRt7iii-ocT, bar'ring-owt, s. ExdnsWui 4 
son from a pUcr ; a boyish sport at Cliriil 

Knt srhtml'lmj*, at a Borruip^Mrf^ 

RAis'd er«T •ttcfa tnceasant nat^—Sm^ 

Barri?»otoxia, bar-ring-lo'nc-a. #. (in li 
the H«n. I>. B.irrin(rt"n.) A hftr and 
Indiiin tree, with rich shady branches 
wedge-sliaped corinoeous Icarea, and laeg 
Bouio flowers, which open at i 
sunset : Order, MyrtJicew. 

BABBiflTCR, bar'ris'tur. #. A roausellor 
in law, qmUtiied to plead case* at th* 
tu tAke upon himwlf the defence of Ui 
An outer harnsUr is a pleader without 
diflljopuish him frwn an tmur harrittrr^ 4 
counM^l: called, in En^Und, sergeant; in S 
aihocate; and in other countries, lioentirt 

Bakkow, bar'ru, ». f&rreirr-, Sox.) A so: 
carriage. A hmtd-bfrrroie is a fram* o 
the middle with boardK, and borne by and 
two men. A trhfd-bttrrtfvt is a frame will 
supported by one wheel, and rolled by m w 
son, A portfT'*~h<rrrr>»c ta a sniJill twoJ 
cart, drawn or pushed by an individast 
rouia also signify lar^ hillocka nr moonds 
which were anciently nuMd o»er the bodio 
cea»wd hemcn, and other diallnguishcd 
l*hey were uf rarioos shapes, and had 
appellations desc-riptire of their ippearvll 
Ibo bowl-barrow, bell-barrow, eooe-barrn 
barrow, broad-barrow, &c. &c. The nm 
barmws in this country are supposed lol 
in the tinghbourhuod of Stooehenge m 
iSornw, a caslntiil lu)( — bcooo bsnw' 

I sAj * cn'tlCi' though this humc (rrunt at the 

BARRrMCT, bnr'ru-lrt, s. In It-^ 
part of tbe btir, or tbe one-bnli 

Barrl'LT, har'ni-Ie, s. In 11- 

firld is divided bor-waya, that is, acnaa h 
to side, into Mrvenl psirta. 

Barrt^ bar're, s. In UcraMry, wbfn an cm 
is divided bar-waya, that is, serusa tnm 
side, into aa eren nmnber of panitioosv ei 
of two or mote tinctures iotcrrhaogMl 

Barrt-dekt>T, bar'rr-hen'de, ». la BcnUl 
2a escutcheon is divided nvnlr, baraad 
hj lines drawn trans feiae awl 



I^r nuTiag the tinetunt of which it oon- 

Lr, har're-pile, a. In RmUdrj, ipplied 
tvat vf xrmt if diviilrJ hj wvinl linos 
lli>^ucly ffuro ade to side. 
biir'ftbot, /. L)ouUe-boa4ed afaoti coo- 
r a bar aith half a bdl at nch end. 
#r'liizv R. «. (bara/arf Span.) To IrniHo 
tiff^ one comnwdHy for anotber, in op- 
|» paictuuuig with monej ;— r. a. to give 
, ta cjushange for wmctiiiag elM ; — «. the 
Ktiec of trafficking l>y exchange of com- 
\ aot u t dmu the thing given la exchange. 
^ Wr1ar>lir« «. One who tntfBcs by waj 

Wr'tar-rr, «. Exchange of conimoilitipH. 
VA. Wr-fA<»-Ie'uaf «. (in hnnour oi T. 
|V, II Duisli phjrmicum.) Tlie Ari!t.liri.Mi 
I «f Xinimu« an orcfaidian plant n-otu the 
Good Hope, separated ioto a genua by 

MLKW TiIfE, lMlr-£'<o]'(i-mu tide, i. The 
r St. Bartholooiew's dar. 
Ix, Uirt-tiuje-a, t. (in Uonoor of Mr. C. 
^ A (cDuaof AostraitaQ plants: Order, 

tfr'Coo, a: (Aerr-fim, Sax.) A wurd used 
ptirm for the denircna Unds nf a manor \ 
■r itadf; the yard and oathouaca of a 

^ Ur-(o''De-«, A. 0'* hoDonr of D. S. Bar- 
pf North Ajiiericin biemuol shntlu: 

|a, bsr-trxniV-a, $. (in Itonoor of John 
•) Ad elegant geniiA of inoasea, remark- 
Ibctr fine capillary light greeu learei and 

a. (id bononr of Dr. J. Bartacb.) 
I of bobaoeoua plunti: Order, Scrupha- 

k }mt^w4At a. A red dyewood produced 

m *uA other places in Africa. 

Iftla, W-re-^kiA'se-B, a. (Maryi, heavy^ anij 

ktoocTMi, Or.) Heary, alow, difficult artj* 

;«r ipecch. 

m V«-te-U'le-a, a. ihatyt, aad laJUXj 

br.} Siune as BaryjrUkuia. 

r, ba-rv-no'toa, a. (^barys, and fu*Au, 
Gr.) A geiioa of ooleopteroua inaccta; 

lU M-n-oa'nia, a. (AarjMt and onne, 
^) Ageunaof Cape of Goml Hope ahrubs, 
^^^-•ccnted leavea: Order, Rutaccr. 
pla, ba-Tv-fn'oe-a, a. (^imryt, and pAvne, 
p.) Dilficnlty of pronondulion. 
IBrxvaJtrTK, ta-re-vlmn'te-oii-itrT a. (6a- 

Satrofdua%, a mineral.) A nunt-ral of 
|ta Colour exteraally, bat approaching 
riijte intemuJIy: it is soft and brittle, 
m with adda. It conaittta of carbo- 
m^ €$M; sulphate of baryta, 27.5 ; 
fine, 3.6; oxide of Iron, 0.1 \ losat 
I «eean at Stroinueaa in Orkney ; henco 
•d Scromnite. 

U-ri'ta, a. (Aorjta, Gr.) The Shrike crow, 
pi cniws wiLit (truight billa, ibe top only 
M; fecC aKfO0([, robuat, and formed for 



a. (Aoryi, Gr.) The pro- 
toxide of barium, so called 

irom its great density. Heary-spar, (he sulphate 
of barytca, a mitienil, occurriog Iwth tnasaive and 
cryBtalixcd, with a Umt'lhir stmcture. Thn ci^-s- 
tals are diviaible into n right rhuitibic prism. It 
ia of varioua different colours, but generally wbita 
or of reddish white, aoinetimex red, grey, or blue ; 
tranaporentoropuque. Its varieties are: Colnmnar 
Henvy-spar, Dalo(£nian slotie, or mdlated bur)'tcs, 
Cawk, a coarse earthy vanity, and Hepatite : ap. 
gr. 4.41—4.67. 

Babttic, bu-rit'ik, o. Containing barrtoa. 

Baiittimk, bur'o-tine, a. Birytea. — Which see. 

Baiiyto-calcitu, ba-ritVkat'^tc, a. A mineral 
of a whitish, yclluw-i>ib, or greyish colour, cryKta- 
lixed and maaaiTc; tramtpurenC or translucent; 
cn-stal, a rhombic priim. It coufiisti of barytn^ 
5G.9 ; carbonate of liine, 33.ti ; ap, gr. 3.6. 

Barytoxe.— See Boritouc. 

Bauyxtldm, ba-rix'tt'lum, a. (baryt, and xylon^ 
wood.) A gcnusof treCT, cnnbiating uf thv hnjum- 
wctodcd baryxylum. a nalivo of Cochin- China. 
The wood h iron -coloured, and extronicly htavy. 

BasaI/, ba'sai, a. Feitaiuing to tho base ; ooDsti- 
tilting the base. 

Basalt, ba-aawit', a. (etymology uncertain.) For- 
merly callvd basaltes; a vulcauic riAik, of igneooa 
or voluuiic origin, oonsisUngof the iriinerub, unfile, 
felspar, and the oxide of irun. It occurv nijas- 
sive, columnar, and in glubuhtr maases com|)oued 
of concentric layers. The Giant's Canseway, and 
the Inland