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A 
NEW UNIVERSAL 

w FRENCH GRAMMAR; 

BSING 

AN ACCURATE SYSTEM 

OP 

FRENCH ACCIDENCE AND SYNTAX, 

m 

ON 

A BiETHODICAL PLAN. 



BY NICOLAS HAMEL, 

GBADUATB IN THE UNIVERSITY OP CAEN, AND RECTOR OF 
THE TOWN OP l'AIGLB IN NORMANDY. 



A NEW EDITION, 

CAMMWJJhLY OOUUK:TSD AHD OEXATLT XMPaOVED. 



•I 
i 

i 



LONDON: 

PEINTKD FOR 

JX>NOMAN, RSES, ORME, BROWN, GREEN. AND LONOMAN, 

AVD 
WHITTAKER AND Ca 




London : 

Printed by A. SporriswooDi. 

KeT7-StreeUSquarc; 



PREFACE. 



It is universally allowed that the only sure, and at the 
same time the shortest, method to attain the perfection of 
a language, is to study its principles after the most strict 
and exact rules of Grammar. 

Conformably to this truth, generally acknowledged, and 
confirmed by daily experience, I have composed this work 
with sound principles and exact definitions ; and in order 
to promote as much as possible the learning of this useful 
tongue, I have drawn a parallel between the French and 
English languages, which at the same time will confirm the 
English Student in the principles of his native tongUe, 
greatly facilitate the understanding of the French rules, 
and point out the different genius of each language with 
accuracy and precision. 

The first part of this Grammar, which has for its object 
Pronunciation and Orthography, treats of the sound of 
letters, vowels, and consonants. The different sorts of 
accents, the proper manner of using of them, and their 
effects upon vowels, are put in the clearest light ; the use 

A 2 



IV PREFACE. 

of the apostrophe and capital letters, the different sor*i^ 
of punctuation and abbreviations are treated in a method ' 
simple and concise, but at the same time so comprehensive, 
that I know not any thing which could be added on the 
same subject. 

The idea that it would be an encouragement to a pupil, 
if he could easily treasure in his mind a great collection of 
words, prompted me to compare the analogy between the 
two languages ; and, after mature consideration, I have 
devised four iundamental rules, whereby the scholar may, 
m a few lessons and without much trouble, acquire se- 
veral thousand French words (page 26). 

The rules by which we distinguish the gender of nouns 
are simple and comprehensive : the masculine substantives 
which cannot be reduced under any rule of terminations, 
are set in alphabetical order : thus, in a short time, that 
important point may be perfectly attained, in which most 
Grammarians are very defective, and which many do not 
even attempt to explain. 

The formation of the plural of nouns, and of the femi- 
nine of adjectives, is placed in a new light (the first, pages 
42 and 43 ; and the second, pages 46 — 48). 

On the verb I have been very extensive and methodical : 
having explained its nature and different species, I have 
fully conjugated a verb of each regular and irregular con- 
jugation ; to this explanation I have added (pages 112 — 



PREFACE. V 

114) a new method, grounded upon principles by which 
all regular and irregular verbs may be learnt with uncom- 
mon facility. 

Having explained the different parts of speech in the 
manner which seemed the most natural, simple, and me- 
tliodical, I proceed to the syntax, in which I treat of the 
union, concord, and disposition of words, in the same order 
as I had previously adopted in treating of their nature, 
declension, and conjugation. 

This part, as tne most essential and difficult, I have ex- 
plained at large, in a series of clear, short, and accurate 
rules, for tlie most part illustrated by instructive examples 
from good authors. The principles depend successively 
on each other, and the knowledge of the preceding leads 
usually to the understanding of that which follows. The 
rules which I have given for the construction of the lan- 
guage Bte set in numerical order, and so disposed, that 
they may be found as easily as a word in a dictionary ; an 
advantage peculiar to this Grammar. 

The most difficult points of the language, such as the 
construction of pronouns, the diffierent modes of negation 
and interrogation, the distinction of tenses, the use of the 
subjunctive mood, the government of verbs, &c. are parti- 
cularly and fully explained. 

The Grammar concludes with an alphabetical series of 
the French verbs most in use, denoting, at once of what 

A S 



▼1 PREFACE. 

conjugation they are, and the case they govern, by which 
two great difficulties in the French language will be 
lemoved. 

My first object was to render this work fit fi[>r the use of 
schools, and so to adapt it to the capacities of the yoiuigest 
learners, that in beginning to learn French they may begin 
it grammatically. For this purpose I have used my utmost - 
endeavours to unite simplicity of method with, clearness 
and precision ; and having in some measure succeeded in 
this point, I may assert from experience, that most of the 
rules and principles of this Gnunmar may, with the help 
of a good master, be understood and learnt by a child of 
six or seven years of age. Of this those will be easily 
convinced who will attend to the natural order which ex- 
ists in the different parts, to the precision of the rules, to 
the clearness of the style, and, in a word, to the work 
taken altogether, which, according to the opinion of se- 
veral learned gentlemen, is executed on a plan new, 
simple, and much improved. 

♦^* The present edition of this Grammar has under- 
gone a thorough revision i such corrections have been 
made, and such observations and explanations added, as 
appeared necessary to the improvement and utility of the 
work. 



A 

TABLE 



OF 



THE CONTENTS. 



Page 

The true definition of Grammar - - 1 

Division of this work - - - t^. 

PART I. Of Pronunciation and Orthography. 

Chap. I. Of Pronunciation - -. _ -2 

Of the French alphabet ... - i^. 

Of the French accents - - - 4 

Of vowels - - - ' - 6 

Of diphthongs - - - - 7 

Of consonants - - - - 8 

Observations i^on some consonants - - 10 

Remarks on the pronunciation of some words - 14< 

Chap. 2. Of Orthography - - - 16 

Of the apostrophe - - - 17 

Of the hyphen and cedilla - - - 18 
Of the trimay parenthesis, quotations, and abbre-^ 

viations - - - - 19 

Of punctuation - • - 20 

Of capital letters - - - 22 

An alphabetical series of kingdoms, provinces, and 

towns, which have a different denomination in 

French and in English • • • ib. 



Vlll TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



Page 



A method to learn the French denomination for the 
proper names of persons taken from the Latin and 

Greek - - - - 24 

A method to learn easily a great collection of French 

words' - - - - 26 

PART 11. Different Parts of Speech. 

Chap. 1. Of the French articles - - 28 

Chap. 2. Of substantives - - - ib. 

Of the nature and kinds of substantives • - 29 

Of the declension of nouns - - - t6. 
How to distinguish when a noun is masculine or 

feminine - - - - 32 
Of substantives masculine in one signification, and 

feminine in another - - - 39 

Rule9 to form the plural of nouns - - 42 

How compound words form their plural - ^^ 

Of substantives which have no plural • ' ib. 

Of substantives which have no singular - 45 

Chap. 3. Of adjectives . - -46 

How to form^ tlie feminine of adjectives •> ib. 

Of the plural of adjectives - • - 49 

Of comparatives and superlatives * - 50 

Of cardinal numbers - - - 51 
Of ordinal numbers - - '-55 

Chap. 4. Of pronouns - - - 56 

Of personal pronouns - - - 57 

Of possessive pronoims • • - 59 

Of demonstrative pronouns - - 62 

Of relative pronouns - - * 64 
Of interrogative pronouns - - -65 
Of indeterminate pronouns - -66 

Chap.' 5. Of verbs and their specijps - - 67 

Of moods, tenses, numbers, and persons of verbs 69 



TABLB OF THE CONTENTfi. IX 

Page 

Coi\jugation of tbe auxiliary verb avoir - - 70 

Coi^'ugation of the auxiliary verb 4ire - - 72 
Verbs conjugated with to have in English, and with 

Stre in French - • - 74 

Of regular conjugaticms - - -75 

Conjugation of aU the irregular verbs - - 80 

Conjugation of impersonal verbs - - 105 

Several ways t)f using a verb - - 106 

Conjugation of a reflected verb - - 108 

Observations on the reflected verbs - - 110 

Verbs reflected in French - v - 1 11 

An easy method to learn verbs ' - - 1 12 

Of adverbs - - - - 116 

Different sorts of adverbs - - - 117 

Of prepositions - - - - 118 

Veibs composed with a preposition •* - 120 

Of conjunctions - - - 122 

Of interjections - - - - 124 

PART III. Of Syntax. 

Chap. 1. Use of the French articles - - 125 

Article used in French and in English - 126 

Article used in French, and not in English - 127 

Articles used in English, and not in French - 129 

No article used either in French or in English - 131 

Chap 2. Syntax of substantives - - 134 

Chap. 3. Syntax of adjectives - - 136 

Of the concord and position of adjectives - 137 

Of the government of adjectives - - 139 

Of the adjectives of dimension - - 141 

Of comparatives and superlatives - 142 

Chap. 4. • Of personal and impersonal pronouns 146 

When they are conjimctive or disjunctive - ib. 



)C TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 

Page 

Of the ^ersonsQ pronouns, ity thet/t them « 149 

Of the right placing of personal pronouns - 153 

When the pronouns are or are not to be repeated 156 

Distinction between luiy elle, se, andsoi - - 157 

Chap. 5. Of possessive pronouns - - 15S 

Chap. 6. I Of demonstrative pronouns - - 163 

Chap. 7. Of relative pronouns - - 1 68 

Chap. 8. Of interrogative pronouns - - 170 

Chap. 9. Different sorts of interrogations - 172 

Chap. 10. Different uses of grtte - - 175 

Chap. 11. Of indeterminate pronouns - 178 

Of ^dti^ and its various constructions •* -183 

Of the different sorts of (^/I^^ ' - 185 

Chap. 12. Several modes of negation • - 191 

Distinction between /MZ5 and /Toen^ - - 194> 

Negative expressions in French, and not in English 195 

Syntax of verbs - - - - 196 

Chap. 13. Of the government of verbs - - 197 

Chap. 14. Of the infinitive mood - - 203 

Of the infinitive present ... £5. 

Of the gerund - - - - 210 

Of the participle - - - 212 

Concord of the verb with its nominative 1 - 214 

Chap. 15. Of the indicative mood - • 217 

Chap. 16. Of the use of the subjunctive - 222 

Words which always govern the subjunctive - tb. 

Words which govern sometimes the indicative, 

and sometimes the subjunctive - - 225 

Which tense of the subjunctive must be used - 228 

Chap. 17. Of the auxiliary verbs - • - 229 

Chap. 18. Of the impersonal verbs - - 232 

Chap. 19. Sjmtax of adverbs - - 235 

Chap. 20. Syntax of prepositions ... 237 

Chap. 21. Of the French idioms - - 240 



TABLE 07 THE CONTENTS. XI 

Pag* 

Idlomatlcal expressions of the verbs to have and io be 24C 
Idiomatical significations of several verbs - 244 
A series of the most curious French idioms - 24^6 
Chap. 22. The French proverbs most in use - 24*8 
Chap. 23. Of the concord, disposition, and repe- 
tition of words in a sentence - - 253 
What parts of speech agree together - - ib. 
The order of the words in a sentence - - 254 
What words must be repeated - - 256 
Words which may be elegantly repeated - 258 
Chap. 24. Distinction in French between many 
words which are expressed in the same manner in 
English - - - - 260 
An alphabetical series of the French verbs most 

in use - - - - . - 267 

Dialogue sur FHistoire de France • - 315 

Dialogue sur THistoire d'Angleterre - ' • 319 



A NEW 



GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



FRENCH LANGUAGE. 



Grammar is a guide to the arts of reading, speaking, 
and writingf correctly ; or, according to the definition of a 
celebrated author, Grammar is the art of reducing into 
rules the manner of speaking of a nation. 

A Grammar ought to treat of the sounds and characters 
of a language ; of the nature of the words of which it is 
composed ; and of the imion and arrangement which is to 
be made of them in speech. 

As I propose to consider these objects in their different 
points of view, this work is naturally divided into three 
parts. The first has for its object Pronunciation and Or- 
thography. The second explains the nature or etymology 
of the different parts of speech, the declension of Nouns 
and Pronouns, and the conjugation of Verbs. The third 
contains a series of clear, short, and accurate rules for the 
construction or syntax of the language, and is completed 
by a collection of the most curious French idioms and 
prorerbs. 



PART I. 

OF PRONUNCIATION AND ORTHOGRAPHif. 



CHAPTER I. 

PRONUNCIATION. ♦ 



Pronunciation is reading aloud, or speaking, the words 
of a language correctly. 

Words consist of one or more syllables ; and syllables, 
when written, consist of one or more letters : the letters 
of the French tongue are the following, named nearly 
according to the letters in English placed below each. 

FRENCH ALPHABET. 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, 
ah, bay, say, day, a, eff, ^^^^ ahsh, e, jee, ka, el, emm, 

N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z, &. 
enn, o, pay, qu, air, s, tay, u, vay, ex, egrec, zed, &. 

These five, a, e, t, o, t^ are called vowels, because they 
represent a distipct sound ; we will speak of ^ hereafter. 

The others are called consonants, because they cannot 
be sounded without a vowel. 



* As the English cannot of themselves learn the French pronun- 
ciation (because the true sounds cannot be conveyed by rules), and as 
tliey easily obtain this very essential point with the help of a good 
master, a long treatise would be useless ; therefore I will only give the 
rules, and mu^e the observations, which to this day have been found the 
most clear, simple, and useful, and which I have selected from the 
sutl^ors roost generally esteemed. 



Olf PRONCNCIATION. 3 

The vowels and consonants can be joined togetlier as 
follows : 

ba, be». bi, bo, bu, ab, eb, ib, ob» ub, 

ca, ce, ci, co, cu, ac, ec, ic, oc, uc, 

9aj — " -7 9o> 9u> 

da, de, di, do, du, ad, ed, id, od, iid, 

fa, fe, fi, fo, fu, af, cf, if, of, uf, 

ga> ge, g|, go, gu, ag, eg, ig, og, ug, 

ha, he, hi, ho, hu, ah, eh, ih, oh, uh, 

ja, je, ji, jo, ju, 

ka, ke, ki, ko» ku, ak, ek, ik, ok, uk, 

la, le, li, lo, lu, al, el, il, ol, ul, 

ma, me, mi, mo, mu, am, em, im, om, um, 

na, ne, ni, no, nu, an, en, in, on, un, 

pa, pe, pi, po, pu, ap, ep, ip, op, up, 

qua, que, qui, quo, qu, 

ra, re, ri, ro, ru, ar, er, ir, or, ur, 

sa, se, si, so, su, •. as, es, is, os, us, 

ta, te, ti, to, tu, at, et, it, ot, ut, 

va, ve, vi, vo, vu, av, ev, iv, ov, uv, 

xa, xe, xi, xo, xu, ax, ex, ix, ox, ux,, 

za, ze, zi, zo, zu, az, ez, iz, oz, uz. 

The letters of the French alphabet, like those of the 
English, are not so numerous as the elementary sounds 
they are used to represent. 

The deficiency is made up, in some measure, by the use 
of marks called accentj trenuiy cedille; and partly by com- 
bining two or more letters in a diphdiong. 

There is a class of sounds, too, called nasal, and repre- 
sented by a vowel or diphthong followed by k or m ; as : 



an. 


en, 


m. 


on, 


un, 


am. 


ein. 


am. 


em, 


im. 


om, 


um. 


aim, 


om. 



The whole number of simple and articulate sounds in 
French may be reduced to thirtynBeven elementary ones, 
with which every variety of syllable is formed. 

The capital letters in the following words serve to mark 
the thirty-seven elementary sounds : 

B 2 



OF PRONUNCIATION. 



IN-de, 


QUetf-e, 


BcBtf-fs, 


ON, 


GU««-x, 


Re-nais, 


UN, 


CH-ut ! 


Le-vain, 


OU, 


3euy 


Se, 


EU-x, 


Feuy 


Z-inc, 


gru-E,» 


\oeUy 


Te-nez, 


PST!t 


MeuSt 


l^euxj 


H-ache, 


Nott-d, 


JIfoti-ILL-e 


H-abit, 


Feu, 


^oi-GN^ 



A4i, 

A-Uez, 

fe-tre, 
E-sther, 

£-pi, 

I-da, 

0-s, 

0-ptez, 

U-rie, 

AN-dr^, 



OF THE FRENCH ACCENTS. J 

There are three different accents in French, caUed 
actUej grave, and cireumflex. 

The cunde accent (') gives to the vowel under it an 
acute sound, much resembling that of a in the English 
alphabet, as in the words vMU, trutli, probiMy probity, 
pr6mMiUy premeditated. 

The grave accent ( ^ ) gives to the vowel under it a 
broad and open sound, as in the words accesy access, pro- 
gres, progress, snccesy success. 

The circumflex accent ( "" ) gives a long sound to the 
vowel under it, as in the words dme, soul, tete^ head, giie, 
locking, ddmcy cupola, ^ii/^ flute. 

THE ACUTE ACCENT IS USED, 

1. Over the i final, in a substantive which ends in ^ in 
French, and in fy in English ; such are, impiitiy impiety, 
ckarite, charity, humaniti, humanity, &c. 

2. Over the first d, when there are two joined at the 
end of a noun, as in the words, ctrmecy army, pensecy 
thought, anneey year, trophecy trophy, mausoUey mauso- 
leum. 

* The e mute never begins a word. 

\ Ptt is intended to mark, that in some cases a faint e mute follows 
each consonant. 

I I treat here of accents, because they give to the vowels several 
sounds which cannot be easily distinguished without some notion of 
them. 



OP PRONUNCIATION, 5 

3. Over i followed by another vowel, which does not 
belong to the same syllable, as in the words, reW, real, 
criaJteuTy creator, reunion^ reunion, prioccupd, prepos- 
sessed, &c. 

4. Over the i final in the participles of all verbs of the 
first conjugation, that is, which end in er in the infinitive 
mood, such are parUy chantiy aeheti, aim^, donni^ from 
parler^ to speak, chanter, to sing, achetery to buy, aimevy to 
love, danner, to give. 

5. Over the 4 final of the first person singular of the 
indicative present in all verbs of the first conjugation, when 
they are used interrogatively, but not in other cases : thus 
we write, je donne, 1 give, je porte, I carry, je prejere, I 
prefer, &c. without accent, and donn^-Je, porti-je, pr^M-je, 
with an accent. 

THE GRAVE ACCENT IS USED, 

1. Over the open ^, followed by the final *, as in the 
words aupresy near, expres, express, progresy progress, &c. ; 
but practice alone can teach when e is open or not. 

2. Over d preposition, to distinguish it firom the third 
person of the verb avoir y il a, he has. Example : t'/y a 
mains de gloire k vaincre un ennemi quh, lid pardonner, 
quand on Fsl vaincu. There is less glory in conquering 
an enemy, than in pardoning him afler he has been 
conquered. 

3. Over Id adverb, to distinguish it from la article or 
pronoun. Example : ou la vertu Jimt, \k le vice commence ; 
where virtue ends, there vice begins. 

4*. Over des preposition or conjunction, to distinguish it 
from des article. Example : dds qtie jaurai de Vargenty 
facheterai des livres; as soon as I have money, I will buy 
books. 

5. Over oit adverb, to distinguish it from ou conjunc- 
tion : as, ou ites-vous 9 where are you ? vous ou moi nous 
ironsy you or I shall go. 

6. Over the vowel e when it is followed by a mute syl- 
kkite : as^ mane-gey sind'Teyji'-teyJidi'ley espi-rent 



B 3 



6 OP PRONUNCIATION. 

THE CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT IS USED, 

1. Over the penultimate or last vowel but one of all 
verbs, in the first and second persons {^ural of the pre- 
terite of the indicative. Example : nous parldmesj we 
spoke, virus parldtesy you spoke, nous agimes, we acted, 
vous ctgitesy you acted, nous regvmesy we received, voiis 
regutesy you received. 

2. Over the last vowel of the third person singular of 
the preterite of the subjunctive, but not of the preterite of 
the indicative: thus, il agii, he acted, il ^t, he did, ii 
vendity he sold, il regut, he received; without accent in 
the preterite of the indicative ; and il agity he might act, 
il fity he might do, il vendit, he might sell, il reguty he 
might receive, with a circumflex accent in the preterite of 
the subjunctive. 

3. Over the syllables which are long, and were formerly 
written with an « ; such are pdtCy paste, honnitey honest, 
tempitey storm, impdty tax, pitCy lodging. * 

4. Over duy participle of devoivy to owe, to distinguish it 
from duy of the, article. Over crw, participle of crottrey to 
grow, to distinguish it from cruy participle of croirCy to be- 
lieve. Over suvy sure, adjective, to distinguish it from sur^ 
upon, preposition : as^ je suis sur que le livre est sur la 
tablsy I am sure that the book is upon the table. 

5. Over i when followed by t in the verbs which have 
tlieir infinitive in oitre or aitre; as, croiireyio growy paraitrey 
to appear, disparaitrey to disappear, conmaitrey to know, 
naitrey to be born, &c. 

The other circumstances in which these accents must 
be used in French, cannot be explained by any general 
rules. 



Ot VOWELS. 



When the vowels have an accent, they have a sound either 
acute, open, or long, according as the accent is acute, grave, 
or circumflex. 

When they have no accent, they generally keep their na- 
tural sound, that is, the sound we have given them in the 



OF PRONUNCIATION. 7 

alphabet, except e, which is often ititite at the end of a word 
of several syllables, such as modesties modesty, justice, jus^ 
tice, il itudiey he studies, &c., and also in the futui'e and 
conditional of many verbs; thus, ^6 seraU I shall he,je se- 
nm, I should be, Je prierai, I shall pray, Je prierais, I 
should pray, are pronounced pretty nearly as if they were 
UTitten/e $rai,je srais^je prirai^je prirais. 

But the unaccented vowels are not always pronounced 
in one way : for the a of allez is not that of espace, gagner, 
&c. ; and o sounds very differently in carps, optez, from 
the in os, clos. The right pronunciation must be learnt 
by close attention to a correct speaker, as it cannot be 
conveyed by general rules. 

yhas the sound oft simple between two consonants; 
thus the word mystere, mystery, asyle, asylum, are pro- 
nounced as if they were written, mistere, asile. 

When y is between two vowels, it has usually the sound 
of it.* thus, essayer, to try, employer, to employ, are pro- 
nounced as if they were written, essatier, emphiier. 



OF DIPHTHONGS. 



A Diphthong is the meeting of two or more vowels in 
the same syllable, which convey to the ear a double sound, 
as, Dieu, God, mid, honey, in which we distinctly hear the 
sound of i, and the sound of eu, an>l e grave ; but being 
pronounced rapidly, they form only one syllable. 

Diphthongs ought not to be confounded with a coalition 
of two or more vowels, which produce only one single 
sound, as vous, you, deux, two, &c. : they are called* com- 
pound vowels. The following are sounded in French as 
follows : 

1. ^O is sounded like a in the words pa<m, paonne, 
peacock, peahen; and like o in the words aoriste, an aorist, 
and toon, a dun-fly. Aout, August, is sounded like oo in 
book. 

2. JEAJand Alsre sounded like an ^ acute in the pre- 
terite of all verbs of the first conjugation ; thus, jeparlaiy I 
spoke, /e mangeai, I ate, je donfudy I g|a.^e, j^ cKo3Mjw\\-, 

B 4e 



8 OF PRONUNCIATION. 

I changed, are pronounced as if they were writteoi jt 
parUjje mangiyje donni^je changi. 

3. Al^ EAIy AIEy in the middle or at the end of nouns, 
are sounded pretty much like an i with a grave accent ; 
such are the words maisan, house, dimangeauon, itching, 
hate, hedge, plaie^ wound. 

4. 0/is sounded in one emission of voice, but distinctly 
pronouncing the two sounds o and ^ grave in the words 
ending in of, oie, otr, oire: such are the words moiy I, em- 
ploiy employ, vote, way, vouloir^ to be willing, orcUmre^ 
oratory. 

5. JE is soimded like an t, and ue like an u , in the dif- 
ferent tenses and persons of Uie verbs which end in ier and 
Kcr, in the infinitive present : thyjiSyje prie^ I prB.yyJeprieraty 
I shall pray, je prieraisy I should pray, are pronounced,^ 
pri,Jeprirai,jeprircUs; andje remue, I move,^e remuerai^ 
I shall move, il remuercUtf he should move, are pronounced 
as if they were written,/^ remuyje remurat^ il remufmt, 

6. ^^'and EAUvlI the end of a word, have the sound 
of 6 long: thus, cotUeaUf knife, chapeam^ hat, are pro- 
nounced covJtd^ chapd, 

7. GEA^ GEOy GEUREy without an accent over e^ 
are always sounded joyjo^jure: thus, GeorgCy ilchangea, 
he changed, rums jtigeons^ we judge, gageurey wager, are 
pronounced as if they were written, Jorge, chanjcky jujoniy 
gajure. 

S. EUis uniformly sounded more open than the English 
u in burden, excepting the words gageurCy mangewrey and 
some parts of the verb avotr, to have', where it has the 
sound of t£, as evJty eu, eurenty had. 



OF CONSONANTS- 



RULE I. 



Wlien the following consonants, ccy ff, Uy mm, nn, pp, 
rr, ssy Uy meet together, we most frequently pronounce but 
one : thus, accabler, to overwhelm, offenser, to offend, 
aller, to go, commettre, to commit, nannette, a nun, opposer 



OF PRONUNCIATION. 9 

to oppose, arroser^ to water, attirer, to attract, are pro- 
nounced as if they were written, acabler, qfenser^ aler, 
cametre, nonetey oposer^ aroser, atirer, 

CC when followed by e or i, and dd^ are both sounded, 
as in the words, aeces, accident^ additioriy reddiUan, 

LLy mniy and rri are both sounded, when they are pre- 
ceded by an i at the beginning of a word ; such are, illigi' 
Hme, illegal, immobile, immovable, irresistible, irresistible. 

RULE II. 

When either of these four consonants, d, s, t, x, is the 
final of a word, and the next begins with a vowel or h 
mute, without a comma or pause between them, it is usually 
sounded on the next word, as follows : 

D is soimded as at: thus, grand ami, great friend, 
qwmd il viendra, when he will come, il attend a la porte, 
he is waiting at the door, are pronounced gran tami, quan 
til viendra, il atten td la porte, 

S is sounded as a, z: thus, des a prdsent, from this mo- 
raentyfavais iti, I had been, are pronounced di zd present, 
favai ziti. 

T is sounded on the next vowel, thus, un savant homme, 
a man of learning, Je suis tout a vous, I am quite yours, 
sHl vient d la vtUe, if he come to town, are pronounced un 
savan thomme,je suis tou td vous, s'il vien td la viUe. 

X is sounded like a z, thus, six amis, six friends, heureux 
&)enement, happy event, are pronoimced si zamis, heureu 
cfvenement. 

N in the words en, thereof, on, they, when they precede 
a verb, in hien, well, rien, nothing, followed by an ad- 
jective or a participle ; in adjectives, ending in n, placed be- 
fore a substantive, and in the preposition en, in, is sounded 
on the next word, when it begins with a vowel : thus, on 
apprend en itudiant avec m^thode, people learn, when 
studying methodically; mon bon ami, vous rCavez rien 
appris, my good friend, you have learned nothing ; are pro- 
nounced as if they were written, on napprend, en nitudiant 
avecmethode, mon bon nami, vous n*avez rien nappris. 

When the letter n is the final of a substantive, it is not 
sounded on the next word, though it begins with a voweh 

B 5 



10 OF PROI^WCUTIOIJ. 

thus the following, wne intention exoettentCy an excellent in^ 
tention, un pcdn exquisy excellent bread, un vin dgrcable^ 
an agreeable wine, are pronounced In two distinct words. 

RULE III. 

These consonants, ft, c, dyfyg,p, t, are not sounded at 
the end of a word, when the next begins with a consonant, 
in plomby lead, accrocy rent, banc, a bench, brocy a large 
jug, clerc, clerk, eric, a crane, to lift burthens, croCy a hook, 
estomaCy stomach, jflancy flank, Joncy rush, marcy eight 
ounces, tabacy snuff, il vainCy he conquers, noeudy knot, 
nidy nest, gondy hinge, muidy a hogshead, cerfy a stag, clefy 
a key, ^teufy a tennis-ball, coingy quince, itang, pond, fau- 
bourgy suburb, harengy herring, paingy fist, seingy signature, 
campy camp, champ, field, cf/v^, cloth, galcpy gallop, knq^, 
wolf^ sircpy syrup, attraity charm, ^^i^o^, faggot, and ety and. 

However, these six, b, c, d, m, r, s, are strongly sounded 
at the end of the names of heathen gods, and of proper 
names of persons, taken from ancient history : thus, Joby 
Jaeoby Isaaey Damdy Seniy Cesar, Dariusy Jupitety VenuSy 
Marius, are pronounced, Jobe, Jacobe, Isaaque, &c. Also 
s at the end of Latin words, as or&nus, gratis, patres, is 
sounded sharp. 



Observations tqfon some Consonants, * 

C. 

(7 has the sound of an s before e and i: thus, ceci, this, 
celay that, are sounded sesiy sela, C has the sound of an jr 
before a, o, and u, when it has a cedilla under it, and of ft 
ky when not : thus, fagads, front, FrangaiSy French, regu, 
received, are pronounced^^^oe^e, FransaiSy ressu; and ca- 
binety closet, cochony pig, cuisinier, cook, are pronounced 
habinety kockony kuisinier. 

C has the sound of a A before l, r, or t : thus, clair, clear. 



* Tlie letters not mentioned hereafter, are sounded as in the alpha- 
bet, except in the cases expressed in the three preceding rules. 



0» PftOKUNCIATlON. 1] 

erayofiy pencil, actuel, actual, are pronounced klair, krayon, 
ahiitel, 

C has the sound of ^, in second^ and its derivatives; 
it is not sounded before e and t, when preceded by an ^ 
which belongs to the same syllable : thus, science^ science, 
scerie, scene, &c., are pronounced iience, sine, 

Ch are generally sounded in French as sh are in English. 

Ck followed by a, o, u, are sounded ka, Jw, kuy in the 
words taken from the Greek or Hebrew: thus, AcTwby 
Chanaauy eucharistief are pronounced Akab, Kanaan, 
eukaristie, 

F. 

F is ptonounced like v in net^, nine, when it is placed 
before a substantive or an adjective beginning with a vowel 
or A mute : thus, netifhomtnesy nine men, neufenfans, nine 
thildren, are pronounced neu vkommes, neu venfans. 

G. 

G before e and i is sounded like y, but softer : thus, 
genouy knee, gibiery game, mangearUy eating, are pro- 
nounced, jenouy JUner, mawjant ; not djenou, djibier, 
tnancffanL 

G has a strong and harsh sound when it is followed by 
a, o, Uy ly r, as in the words, ffdteau, cake, gosier, gullet, 
aigu, acute, glorieuXy glorious, grandir, to grow tall, &c. 

Gn has a liquid sound resembling the last syllable of 
the English word onion. As this sound is attended with 
some difficulty, it must be heard from the master. 

H. 

His mute in the following words, their derivatives, and 
proper names, except la Hollander la Hongriey and a few 
more : it is aspirated in others. 



habile, 


able. 


hame^on, afish-hooh 


habit, 


a dress. 


harmonic, harmony. 


habiter, 


to inhabit 


hebdomadaire, weekly. 


habitude. 


habit. 


h^erger, to harbour^ 


haleine. 


br^/Uh, 


hebet6, blockhead. 
B 6 



12 



OV FRONUNCIATIOK. 



h^catombe, 

h^gire, 

heliotrope, 

hemisphere, 

hemistiche, 

h^morragie, 

herbage, 

herbe, 

h^riter, 

h^rlsie, 

hermetique, 

hermine, 

hermite, 

heroine, 

h^roique, 

heroYsme, 

hesiter, 

h6t6rodoxe, 

het^rogdne, 

heure, 

heureux, 

hexagone, 

hexametre, 

hier, 

hi^rogiyphe, 

hirondelle, 

histoire, 

histrion, 

hiver, 

holocauste, 

homeiie, 

homicide, 

hommage, 

homrae, 

homog^ne, 



hecatomb, 
hegira, 

hJisphere. 

hemistich. 

hemorrhage. 

pasturage. 

groAS. 

to inherit. 

heresy. 

alchymy. 

ermine. 

a hermit 

a heroine. 

heroic. 

heroism. 

to hesitate. 

heterodox. 

heterogenous. 

hour. 

happy. 

h^&agon. 

hexameter. 

yesterday. 

hieroglyphic. 

suxdhw. 

history. 

buffoon. 

fvinier. 

burnt-offering. 

a homtiy. 

homicide, 

homage. 

man. 

homogeneous. 



homi^te, 

honneur, 

hopital, 

horizon, 

horloge, 

horoscope, 

horreur, 

horrible, 

hospice, 

hospitalier, 

hostie, 

hostility, 

bote, 

h6tel, 

hdtellerie, 

hotesse, 

huile, 

huissier, 

huitre, 

humain, 

humble, 

humecter, 

humeur, 

humidite, 

humility, 

hyacinthe, 

hydre, 

hydromel, 

hydropisie, 

hymen, 

hymne, 

hyperbole, 

hypocrisie, 

hypotheque, 

hypothdse. 



honest* 

honour. 

hospital. 

horizon. 

clock. 

horosccpe. 

horror. 

horrid, 

hospital. 

ho^ntcdfle. 

victim-. 

hostility. 

landlord. 

hoteL 

inn. 

landlady* 

oil. 

usher. 

oyster. 

human. 

humble. 

to moisten. 

humour. 

dampness. 

humility. 

hyacinth. 

hydra. 

mead. 

dropsy. 

hymen, 

hymn. 

hyperbole. 

hypocrisy. 

mJortgojge. 

hypothesis. 



There are some more words in which h is mute ; but they 
are so seldom used, that I have thought proper to omit 
tliem ; and in the words where h is said to be aspirated, the 
breathing is scarcely audible, and never so strong as in 
house^ and other English words. 



OF PRONUNCIATION. 13 

L preceded by iy when doubled or final, is ordinarily 
liquid, and is sounded as in the English words, brillianiy 
vaUant. That sound being rather difficult, must be heard 
from the master. 

M. 

JIf is sounded as an ft, when it is followed by 6, orp: 
thus, ambiHoriy ambition, comparer^ to compare, are pro« 
nounced, anldtian, conparer. 

P. 

P is not sounded at all in haptimcy baptism, baptiser, 
to baptize, haptistaircy certificate of baptism, compter ac- 
count, and its derivatives ; in corpSy body, exempt^ exempt, 
exemptevy to exempt, prompty quick, and its derivatives ; 
in sculpteTy to carve, and its derivatives ; in septy seven, 
weptiemey seventh, sepHemementy seventhly, tempSy time, 
and in the persons of the verb romprey to break, and its de- 
rivatives, in which it is followed by « or ^ as je rompsy I 
break, il corrompty he corrupts. 

P^ are always sounded as an/.* thuSyphilippey philoso- 
phiey are T^ronoMViQediyJUippeyJilosoJie. 

a 

Q {7 have commonly the sound of a A.* thus, qwttrey four, 
qualUey quality, marquey mark, are pronounced, katrcy ha- 
liti, mark. 

But qu have the sound of coua . in aqtuztil, aquatic, 
eqiuUeuTy equator, in-quartOy a quarto, quadrupedey quad- 
ruped, and a few less common words. 

R. 

R is not sounded at the end of verbs ending in er, un* 
less when followed immediately by a vowel. 



14? OF PRONUNCIATION. 



S. 



S has generally the sound of a, z between two vowels, 
and after the syllable tran : thus, oser, to .dare, raisonner, 
to reason, transition, transition, are pronounced, ozer^ rai- 
zonner, tranzHion, &c. 

Some compounded words are excepted from this rule : 
as, prSseance, vraisemblable. 

In other circumstances, s has the hissing sound assigned 
to it in the alphabet, and particularly when it is double, or 
begins a wora : as, assiduitiy superstition, &c. 

T. 

• 27" not preceded by x, or s, are sounded as «*, I. in all 
words ending in tion; 2. in adjectives ending in tUd, tiel, 
tient, tieux, and their derivatives ; 3. in the names of per- 
sons or people, ending in tien; 4. in all the tenses of the 
verbs baJImtier, to stammer, and initier, to initiate ; 5. in 
the following words ending in tie; facetie, pleasantry, im^ 
pMtie, ignorance, inq)tie, folly, inertie, idleness, minutie^ 
trifle, primatie, primacy, prophStie, prophecy, and su- 
primatie, supremacy. 

X. 

Xis sounded, 1. like ks, in the middle of words, and in 
words beginning with ex, followed by a consonant, as 
tnaxime, maxim, extase, ecstasy ; 2. like gz, in words begin- 
ning with ex, followed by a vowel, as exemple, example, 
exiger, to exact ; 3. like k in all words beginning with exc 
followed by e or i, as excellent, excellent, exciter, to excite. 



Remarks on the Pronunciation of some Words, 

1. The final aient, which isFin the third person of the 
plural in the imperfect and conditional tenses of all verbs, 
IS sounded like ais of the first person of the same tense, 
only a little longer : thus, fetais and ils itaient,je pensais, 
and ilspensaient, are pronounced nearly alike. 



OF PROXUNCIATIOK. 



15 



2. The final ent, in the third person of the plural in the 
present and preterite of the indicative and subjunctive 
moods; thus, je parle and ils parlmty je parlasse and ih 
parlassenty are pronounced alike. 

3. There are several substantives or adjectives which 
are spelt absolutely like the third person plural of some 
verbs. They are not to be mistaken, as in the substantives 
and directives the final ent is pronounced like anty and in 
the verbs it is entirely mute. Such are the following : — 



SUBST. OR ADJ£CT. 

adherent, adherent. 



affluent, 

content, 

different, 

parent, 

president, 

violent, 



Jhimng, 
content, 
different, 
relation, 
president, 
violent. 



VERBS. 

ils adherent, ikei/ adhere. 



they resort, 
they relate, 
tliey differ, 
ihiy adorn. 



ils affluent, 

ils content, 

ils different, 

ils parent, 

ils president, they preside. 

ils violent, they violate. 

4". Some other words spelt alike, differ, by the pronun- 
ciation on account of the accent, or of oi having the two 
sounds at and oo, according to many printed books. 
Such are : — 

il bat, he heats. ( un Francois, a Frenchman. 

un bat, a pach'Saddle. (Francois, Francis. 



{ 

1 

{ 



il boite, he limps. 

une boite, a box. 

il chasse, he hunts. 

une chasse, a shrine. 

un foret, a gimlet. 

une forM, a forest, 
f p^cher, to sin. 
\ p^cher, toJUh. 

}un p^heur,o sinner^ 
un ^^che\xr,a^herman. 



{jeune, 
jeiine, 
J matin, 
(^ matin, 
C paroisse. 



youny. 
fast, 
morning, 
mastiff-dog. 

, parish. 

\ il paroisse, he may appear, 

{tache, a spot. 

tache, ta^k. 

{tacher, to spot. 
tacher, to endeavout. 



Hemarhs an the Prontmciation of Poetry. 

In poetry and in orations delivered in public, the finals 
of words are sounded much more strongly than in com- 
mon conversation; and we may here establish it a& ^. 



16 OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 

nearly general rule, that the final consonants, except n 
i^isal, are sounded on the next word, when it begins with 
a vowel or h mute. 

The following diphthongs, to, ie, to, ian, iouy are gene- 
rally sounded with one emission of voice in prose, and 
with two in poetry : thus, for instance, diademey passiony 
make two syllables in prose, and three in poetry. 

In reading poetry we commonly pause a little in the 
middle of a long verse ; and again at the end of every line, 
though there should be neitlier stop nor comma, provided 
the sense does not suffer by it. 



CHAPTER IL 



OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Orthography is the art of using proper letters and 
figures in writing the words of a language. 

In this chapter I will speak, ] . of the proper spelling of 
words ; ^. of the apostrophe ; 3. of the hyphen, and ce- 
dilla ; 4. of the parenthesis, quotations, diaeresis, and ab- 
breviations ; 5. of punctuation ; and 6. of the use of capital 
letters. 

I. Of the proper Spelling of French Words, 

Orthography in the French language consists in the 
proper spelling, I. of substantives in the plural number ; 
2. of adjectives in the plural and feminine ; 3. of verbs in 
their different tenses and persons. These objects are fully 
explained in the second part of this grammar. The plurals 
of substantives and adjectives are found in chapter the 
2d, section the 4th ; the feminine of adjectives is de- 
scribed in chapter the 3d, section tlie.lst ; and in the con- 
jugation of verbs will be found the different terminations 
of their tenses and persons. 

I will here only make some observations which are con- 
formable to the practice of good authors. 



OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 17 

1. A simple or radical word has usually for its final that 
consonant which begins the next syllable of the word de- 
rived froih it : thus, plamb, lead, has b for its final, blancy 
white, c, camp, camp, p, &c, because the second syllable 
ciplomber, to lead, begins with b, of blancheury whiteness, 
with Cy and of camper, to encamp, with j9. 

2. We usually write am, em, im, am, um, and pronounce 
on, en, in, on, un, in the words in which m is followed by 
b, p, or another m ; such are chamhre, room, emporter, to 
take away, emmener, to carry away, &c. 

3. We write dont with a t, when it is a relative pronoun, 
and with a c when it is a conclusive conjunction : as, les 
avantagea dont n&us jouissons viennent de Dieu; nous 
devon& done lui en rendre des actions de grace ; the ad- 
vantages wMch we enjoy come from God ; we ought then 
to thank him for them. 

4. The word quand has a d for its final, when it signi- 
fies when ; as, quand viendrez-vous ? when will you come ? 
and a t when it signifies a^ for. Example : qtuirU a moi, 
je le blame ; a^for me, I blame him. 

5. . We double the consonants in most words derived 
from the Latin, when they are double in that language : 
thus, approuver, to approve, is spelt with pp, and offrir, to 
offer, with ff, because they come from the Latin verbs, 
approbare, offerre, in which these consonants are double. 

6. The consonants /, m, n, t, are often doubled after a 
and e, when the syllable is to be sounded short or open, 
whether the words are derived from the Latin or not. 
Thus we write with a double consonant, scdle, chandeUe, 

femme, canne, cohnne, patte, assiette, &c. 

7. P is often double when it comes after a or o ; as 
apprendre, to learn, cpprimer, to oppress, &c. 



n. Of the Apostrophe* 

llie apostrophe is a kind of comma, formed thus ^, 
which is put between two letters, to denote the elision of 
one vowel before another. 

A and'e suffer elision in the monosyllables, /e> fo> je^ tn^^ 



18 OP ORTHOGRAPHY, 

tCf se, dcy ce, ita, que^ when the word following begins with 
a vowel or h mute : thus, we write, Foiseau, bird, Famitiiy 
friendship, Tkommey man, faij I have, &c. instead of le 
oiseau, la amitiS^ le homme^jeai; but <»i and j^^ joined to 
a verb preceding are not cut short : as, e^-ce a mot 9 is it 
mine ? ai-je iti avidef was I greedy ? 

They do not suffer elision before aui, yes, huity eight, 
huitieme, eighth, oTize, eleven, omiiime, eleventh, nor after 
a verb in the imperative mood : thus we write il ny a que 
out ou rum ; there is nothing but yes or no ; de onze^ it n'en 
resta que huU; out of eleven, eight only remained : dites-le 
d monperey tell it to my father ; and not il n'y aqu^oui ou 
non; nor donzcy il n'en resta quhuit; dites Vd monpere. 

I suffers elision in the conjunction si^ if, before the per- 
sonal pronouns t7, he, or iUy they, but not before elle, she, 
nor any substantive whatever : thus we write, s'il vienty if 
he comes, with an apostrophe ; and si elk vienty if she 
comes, without elision. 

A vowel, never suffers elision in a word of more than 
one syllable, unless it be a conjunction composed of qiiSy 
as quoiquil dise, though he says ; but the preposition entrsy 
between, joined with the pronouns eux, elles, and some 
verbs, as, entreux, entrouvriry also the adjective grandey 
when joined to some words, as, grand mihey suffer elision 
by the apostrophe. 



III. Of the Hyphen and Cedilla. 

The Hyphen (in French, le trait dunion) is a line across 
thus (-), which is used — 

1. After a verb followed by the pronouns, ^e, moi, tu, toiy 
nousy vousy ily ilsy elky eUeSy ley lay lesy luiy leWy y, ew, cc, 
on ; as parU-je ? do I speak ? viens-tu 9 dost thou come ? 
dis-moiy tell me, voyez-lesy see them, &c. 

2. Between several words so joined, that they make but 
one ; as, avant-coureury forerunner, arc-en-dely 'rainbow, 
cure-denty toothpick ; and with tres joined to an adjective, 
as, treS'hauty very high. 

3. Between the particles «, or Id, and the word which 



09 ORTHOGRAPHY. 19 

precedes them ; as, celui-^y this, celui-ldy that, cei hamme^ci, 
this man, cettefemme-ld, that woman. 

N. B. When a verb interrogatively used ends with a 
vowel, we put a t, with two hyphens, between it and tl)e 
pronoun a/, eUe, or on: thus, A-t-ilf Has he? Parle-t-elle? 
Does she speak ? Viendra-t-on 9 Will they come ? &c. 

4. The hyphen is used at the end of a line, when there 
is no room to write the whole word. The syllables of a 
word are then divided, but not the letters of the same 
syllable : thus, for instance, if you cannot write the word 
moment in the same line, you may end it with mo-, and 
begin the other with ment; but you cannot end one line 
with mom, and begin the other with ent. 

The Cedilla is a little comma, thus (,), which is put 
under pOj go, fu, when they must be sounded sa, so, su: 
thus, Tnenofuni, threatening, con^, conceived, legon, lesson, 
with a cedilla, are pronounced as if they were written 
menassct, consu, lesson. 

When c has the sound of an s, in the present of the in- 
finitive, it has the same sound in all the tenses and persons 
of the same verb, and therefore must have a cedilla when 
it is followed by a, o, or u. 



IV. Of Parentheses, Qtiotations, Diareses, and Abbr9* 

viations, 

1. A Parenthesis is made thus ( ), and is used to enclose 
an occasional . sentence, interposed in the middle of the 
principal one. The use of parentheses must not be too 
frequent. 

2. A Quotation is a double inverted comma {'*) put at 
tlie beginning, and at the end, or at the beginning of each 
line of a passage extracted from another author. Example : 
L' avarice est un vice infdme ; void ce qden dit Bourda- 
ioue: '* r avarice corrompt tout, eUe renverse tout, eUe do^ 
** mine les hommes, eUe en fait des esclaves, et Us abrutit* * 

3. The Diaresis (in French, le trimct) is two dots, thus, 
'••), put over the vowels c, %, or ii, when they are not of 
the same syllable as the vowel preceding ; such are NolU, 
Christn(ias, hdi, hated, SaiU. 



20 OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 

But the trima is not applied to all cases of this sort, 
though it would serve as a guide to the pronunciation of 

aiguiJh, needle, argwiy argued, 

aigmHon^ goad, Guise^ Guise, 

mguiser^ to whet, Le Cfuidey Guido, 

arffueTf to argue, 
as is the custom with aigue, acute, cigue, hemlock ; and 
the finals of verbs ; as, eanstitmezy conclutezy &c. 

4. The Abbreviations the most used in French are, Mr, 
or M. for Monsieur, Mde. for Madame, Mile, for Ma- 
demoiselle. MM. for Messieurs, S,M, for Sa Mqjeste, 
S, M, I^* for Sa Majeste Imperiale, S. M, T, C, for Sa 
MajesU Tres-Chrdtienne, S,M, Cath, for Sa MctjesU Co-' 
thoUque. S, M, Brit, forSa M(ijest6 Britannique, S, A, R, 
for Son Altesse Boyale, S,A,E, for Son AUesse Electo- 
rale, J, C, for Jesus Christ, CP, for Constantinople, 
MS, for Manuscript Sept, or 7bre, for Septembre, Oct, 
or Sbre, for Octobre, Nov, or 9bre, for Novembre, Dec 
or lObre, for BScembre, 



V. Of Punctuation, 

Punctuation is used in writing and printing, to distin- 
guish one sentence from another, and to mark the different 
parts of a sentence. 

The stops are of six sorts, of which the names and figures 
are as follow : — 

(,) une virgule a comma, 

(;) un point et une virgule a semicolon, 

(:) deux points a colon, 

(.) un point aJuU stop, 

(?) un point d*interrogation .a note ofinterrogaiion, 

[!) un point d*admiration a note of admiration, 

^ These stops are necessary to avoid obscurity, to prevent 
misconstructions, and for the better understanding of what 
we read or write. 

A Comma is used, 1. within a sentence, to distinguish the 
things enumerated : as, Les parties du discours sont, le sub- 
stantif, Vojdjectif le pronomy le verbe, Vadverbcj &q, * the 



ii 



OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 21 

parts of speech are, the substantive, the. adjective, the pro- 
noun, the verb, the adverb, &c. : 2. to distinguish the dif- 
ferent parts of a sentence, when they require no subdivision 
into subordinate classes : as, il est Men difficile^ quelque 
phUosophie qu^on aii, de sottffrir long-temps sans seplaindre^ 
it is very difficult, whatever philosophy we may have, W 
su^er long without complaining. 

The placing of full stops must determine whether the 
punctuation of a sentence can be graduated; and then the 
comma serves to subdivide the parts distinguished by a 
colon or semicolon, if they require it. 

A Semicolon is used to distinguish the two parts of a 
sentence of a pretty good lengdi, when the first has a 
complete sense of itself: 2^8, on est coupable qtuind on 
garde son argent sans votshir s^en servir au besoin; dest Id 
ee quon appeUe avarice; men are guilty when they keep 
their money, without being willing to apply it to the sup- 
ply of their wants ; this is what is called avarice. 

The Cohn is used after part of a sentence which might 
stand alone, because it makes a complete sense of itself^ 
but which is, however, followed by another, which ex- 
plains or extends it : as, t/ ne faut point se moqtter des 
malheureux : peut^on sejlatter de ne Vetre jamais soi-mime 9 
people ought not to laugh at the unfortunate : can they 
flatter themselves that they shall never be so themselves ? 

A Ftdl Stop is used when the sentence is complete : 
as, la chari^ est la premiere des vertus Chrdtiennes; 
charity is the first of Christian virtues. 

A Note of Interrogation is used at the end of a sentence 
which expresses a question : as, Mr, votre pire est-dl a la 
maison 9 is your father at home? 

A Note of Admiration is put at the end of a sentence 
which expresses admiration oi* surprise : as, qtte vous ites 
heuareux! how happy you are ! 

N. B. In reading a book, you must stop a little at every 
comma, a little longer at a semicolon, more at a colon 
than at a semicolon, and more at a full stop than at a 
colon. 



22 



FRENCH NAMES OF KINGDOMS, TOWNS, &C. 



VI. Gf Capital Letters. 

Capital or great letters are used, 

1. At the beginning of every sentence in prose : they 
are, besides, used at the beginning of every verse in poetry. 
Examples : — 

p J La vertu est aimable. Le vice est odieux. 

* \ Virtve is amiable. Vice is odious. 

'PnfiH-i J Choisissez des amis de qui la piet6 
^^^^' y Vous soit un sur garant de leur fid^lit^. 

2. All Christian and proper names of persons, kingdoms, 
provinces, towns, places, rivers, ships, mountains, and also 
the names of heathen gods and goddesses, are written with 
a capital letter : as, Marsy VSnuSy Cieiron^ Cesar^ LondreSy 
la Tamisey les Alpes, la France, VAngleterrey la Bour- 
gogncy &c. 

Observe that^e, I, is not written with a capital in the 
body of a sentence, as in English. 



AN ALPHABETICAL SERIES 



OF THE 



Kingdoms^ RepMics, Provinces, and prindpai Towns, 
which have a different Denomination in French and in 
English. 

The Letter E denotes an Empire, K a Kingdom, P a 
Province, T a Town, and R a Republic 



English, 


F'endi. 


Africa, 


Afriqvje. 


America, 


Amerique. 


Antioch, T. 


Antioche. 


Antwerp,' T. 


Anvers. 


Apulia, P. 


la Pouille. 


Athens, T. 


Athenes. 


Attica, P. 


Attique, 


Austria, P. 


Autriche. 


Babylon, T. 


BahyUme. 


Basil, T 


Bale, 



English, 


French, 


Bavaria, P. 


Baviere. 


Bern, T. 


Berne, 


Bohemia, K. 


Bokeme, 


Bologna, T. 
Brasil, P. 


Bohgne. 
Br^l. 


Bremen, T. 


Br4me. 


Brittany, P. 
Britain, K. 
Brussels, T. 


Bretagne, 
Bretagne. 
Brtixelles. 



Burgundy, P. Bourgogne. 



FRENCH NAMES OF KINGDOMS, TOWNS, &C. 



23 



Enstlish* French* 

Cairo, T. ' le Caire. 
Calabria, P. Calabre. 
Canterbury, T. CarUorbery. 
Cappadocia, P. Cappadoce. 
Calcedonia, T. Calcidoine. 
Cologn, T. Cologne. 
Copenhagen,T. Copenhague. 
Corinth, T. Corinthe. 
Cornwall, P. Comou€dUes. 



Corsica, 
Corunna, T. 
Cracow, T. 
Cyprus, 



Corse. 
Corogne. 
Craeovie. 
Cypre, 



Damascus, T. Damas. 

Dauphiny, P. Dauphine. 

Denmarl^ K. Danemarh 

Dover, T. Douvres, 

Dunkirk, T. Dunkerque. 

Edinburgh, T. Edimboyrg. 

Egypt, K. Egypte. 

England, K. Angleterre. 

Ephesus, T. EpJiese, 

Epidaurus, T. JEpidaure. 

Epirus, K. Epire. 

Flanders, P. Flandres. 



Francfort. 

Gciscogne. 

Geneve, 

Genes. 

Allemagne, 

Gand. 

Grece, 



Frankfort, T. 

Gascony, P. 

Geneva, R. 

Genoa, R. 

Germany, E. 

Ghent, T. ' 

Greece, 

Guelderland,P. Gveldres. 

Hague, T. La Hate. 

Hanover, P. 

Holland, R. 

Hungary, K. 

Japan, E. 

Iceland, 

Ireland, K. 



Hanovre. 

HoUande. 

Hongrie, 

Japan. 

Isumde. 

Irlande. 



Engtish* 
Italy, 

Lacedsemon, T. 
Lancaster, T. 
Leghorn; T. 
Leyden, T, 
Lisbon, T. 
Lisle, T. 
Lombardy, P. 
London, T. 
Lorrain, P. 
Lucca, R* 
Lyons, T. 
Mantua, T. 
Mecca, T. 
Mechlin, T. 
Mentz, T. 
Mexico, P. 
Miletus, T. 
Minorca, 
Mogul, E. 
Morocco, E. 
Muscovy, E, 
Nantz, T, 
Nimeguen, T. 
Nineveh, T. 
Normandy, P. 
Norway, K. 
Odenburg, T. 
Ostend, T. 
Otranto, T. 
Padua, T. 
Palermo, T. 
Persia, K. 
Pharsalia, T. 
Picardy, P. 
Poland, K. 
Prussia, K. 
Ratisbon, T. 
Saguntura, T. 
Sardinia, K. 



French* 
Italie, 

Lacidimone. 
JLancastre. 
Livoume. 
Leyde. 
Lisbonne. 
Lille 

Lombardie. 
Londres. 
Lorraine. 
Ltiques. 
Lyon. 
Mantoue. 
La Mecque. 
Malines. 
Mayence. 
Mexique. 
Milet. 
Mnorgue. 
Mogol. 
Maroc, 
Moscovie. 
Nantes. 
Nimegue. 
Ninive. 
Normandie. 
Norvege. 
Odemhourg. 
Ostende. 
Otrante. 
Padoue. 
Palerme. 
Perse. 
Pharsale. 
Picardie. 
Pologne. 
Prusse, 
Ratisbonne. 
Sagonte. 
SardaigvA. 



24 



PROPER NAMES OF THE ANCIENTS. 



English, 


^French, 


Sardis, T. 


Sardes* 


Savoy, 


Savoie. 


Saxony, P. 


Saxe. 


Scotland, K. 


Ecosse. " 


Sicily, K. 


Sidle. 


Sluys, T. 


L'Ecltue.- 


Spain, K. 


EspagTie, 


Sparta, T. 


Sparte. 


Suabia, P. 


S(mabe. 


Sweden, K. 


Suede. 


Tarsus, T. 


Tarse. 


Thebaid, P. 


IMxnde. 



EngUth, 

Thessaly, P. 
Toledo, T. 
Triers, T. 
Troy, T. 
Turkey, E. 
Tuscany, 
Valencia, T. 
Venice, R. 
Vicenza, T. 
Wales, P. 
Warsaw, T. 
York, T. 



French. 
ThessaUe 
Tolede. 
Treves. 
Troye. 
Turquie* 
Toscane. 
Valence, 
Venise, 
Vicence. 
GaUeg. 
Varsovie. 
Yorck. 



OBSERVATIONS- 

. All other names of kingdoms, provinces, and towns, 
ending in a English, become French by changing a into e 
mute. Examples : — 

English: Asia, Arabia, Cesarea, Carolina, &c. 

French: Asie^ Arabiey Cisariey Caroline, &c. 

2. The other names of towns, ending in burg, become 
French by changing burg into bourg, thus : — 

English : Ausburg, Friburgh, Hamburg, Brandeburg, &c. 
French : Ausbourgy Fribourg, Hambourgy Brandeb<mrgy&^ 

3. Most of the other names not here specified are the 
same in both languages. 



A METHOD 

To learn the French Denomination of Heathen Gods, and 
of Names taken from the Greek or Latin : and in what 
they differ from the English. 

1. The proper names of men ending in English in o, 
are the same in both languages ; thus we say, 

English: Agrippa, Dolabella, Nerva, Caligula, &c. 
French: Agrippa, DolabeUay Nerva, Caligulai, &c. 

2. The propernames of women and goddesses ending 



PROPER NAMES OF THE ANCIENTS. 25 

in o, become French by changing the final a into e mute. 
Examples : — 

EngU»h: Julia, Cleopatra, Octavia, Agrippina,Diana, &c. 

Frau^ : JvUe^ CUopatre^ Octavicy Affrippine^Dianey &c. 

3. The greater number of proper names ending in 
English in as^ become French by changing as into e mute. 
Examples : — 

English: Mecenas, Eneas, Pythagoras, &c. 

French : MScene, JEnee, P^thagore, &c. 

4>. The proper names ending in English in e^, become 
French by changing that final into e mute. Examples : — 
English : Demosthenes, Ulysses, Socrates, &c. 
French: Demastheney Ulysscy SocratCy &c. 

5. The proper names ending in o in English, become 
French by changing o into on. Examples : — 

EngUsh : Dido, Cicero, Cato, Plato, Scipio, &c. 
French : DidoTh Cidron, Caton, Platony Scipion, &c. 

6. The proper names ending in English in t^ or ius, are 
the same m French when they are of two syllables only 
Examples : — 

English : Brutus, C3n*us, Croesus, Venus, &c. 
French : BrutuSy CyruSy CrcesitSy VhmSy &c. 

7. Most proper names ending in usy euSy or iuSy become 
French by changing that final into e mute, when they are 
composed of three or more syllables. Examples : — 

English : Camillus, Orpheus, Esculapius, &c. 
French: Camilley OrpheCy Esctilape, &c. 

8. Most proper names ending in English in is or al, are 
the same in both languages* Examples : — 

English: Sesostris, Juvenal, Annibal, Asdrubal, &c. 
French: S^strisy Juvinaly Annibaly Asdrubaly &c. 

9. Most proper names ending in English in andery be« 
come French by changing ander into andre : as, 

English: Alexander, Leander, Lysander, &c, 
French : Alexandre^ Liandrcy Lgsandre, &c^ 



^ METHOD TO LEARN 

A METHOD 
For learning with ease several TTumsand French Wordi. 

RULE I. 

Most nouns, substantive and adjective, which end in 
. English with any of the seven following syllables, iie^ ee, 
de, ge, ne, wn, and ent, are th^ same in French as in 
English. Tlius we say in both languages, but without ac- 
cents in English : 

1. ble, Fable, visible, incapable, noble, sensible, &c» 

2. ce, Province, distance, vice, 6vidence, force, &c 

3. de, Servitude, habitude, prelude, &c. 

4. gcy Charge, passage, si^ge, febrifuge, &(^ 

5. ne, Machine, scene, famine, doctrine, &c. 

6. lOTZ, Nation, opinion, union, Education, religion^ &c 
?• ent, Prudent, diligent, patient, content, &c. 

RULE II. 

Most English words ending in any' of the seven follow- 
ing syllables, ary, ory, ct/, ty, ous, (mry and or^ become 
French by changing the final, thus : — 

1. ary, into aire^ as military, militairey &c, 

2. ory, ... oircy as glory, gloire, &c. 

3. cy, ... cBf as clemency, cUmence^ &c. 
4*. ty, ... te^ as humanity, hunumiUy &c. 

5. ous, ... eux, as dangerous, dbTt^ereuo?, &c. 

6. our, ... cwr, as favour, faveur^ &c. 

7. or, ... ewy as doctor, docteury Sec 

RULE III. 

Most English verbs ending in ise^ usey tUe, become 
French by adding an r to the final, thus : to 

1. ise, add r, as baptise, realise, bapUser^ rdaliser, &c. 

2. use, ... r, as abuse, excuse, abuser^ eaccusery &c. 

3. ute, ... r, as dispute, refute, disputeTf refutevy &c. 

RULE IV. 

Most English verbs ending in atCy fy^ or Uhy become 
French by changing the final> as follows : — - 



MANY THOUSAND FRENCH WORDS* 27 

ENGLISH. FRENCH. 

1. ate, into er^ as accelerate, abrogate, accHereryohrogery&c. 

2. fy, ... ./2^,as justify, liquefy, jusHfier^ liqu^fiery&ic. 

3. ish, ... ivy as abolish, accomplish, aboliry accompliry &c. 

Note 1. Most nouns which end in y, except those men- 
tioned in Rule 2, become French by changing that final 
into ie^ and have the plural alike in both languages, thus: 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

English: folly, tragedy, fury; follies, tragedies, furies. 
French: foUey tragiSey Jurie;foUeSy tragidiesy furies. 

Note 2. The verbs ending in bute and tute are excepted 
6rom Rule 3, and become French by changing ute into ver: 
as, to attribute, attribteer, to substitute, substituer. 

Note 3. There are some exceptions to these four rules, 
particularly to the words ending in ^; but they are very 
few, and a great advantage will certainly be derived from 
learning these finals by heart. 



O 2 



28 



PART II. 

OF THE NINE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

There are in French, as in otlier languages, nine parts 
of speech, called article, substantive, adjective*, pronoun, 
verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, artd interjection : the 
first five are declinable, and the four others indeclinable. 



CHAP. I. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 



The article is a little word, placed before a noun *, to 
specify the extent of the signification in which it is taken. 
There are iii French three sorts of articles : viz. 

1. definite: U, m. la, f. les, pi. the, 

2. indefinite : un, m. une, f. no pi. a or an. 

3. partitive : du, m. de la, f. des, pi. some or amy. 



.y 



y" 



CHAP. II. 

OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



This chapter is divided into four sections : the first ex- 
plains the nature and the different kinds of substantives ; 
the second speaks of their cases and declension ; the third 
treats of their gender, and shows how to distinguish the 
masculine from the feminine ; the fourth teaches the plural 
of nouns, and its formation from die singular number. 

« The word noun is applied to both substantives and adjectivesy but 
more commonly to the former* 



OF ARTICLES AND SUBSTANTIVES 1^9 

SECTION THE FIRST. 
Of the Nature and Kinds of Svbstantives. 

A Substantive is a word which expresses the name of a 
person, or an object, material, spiritual, or ideal : such as 
nommey man ; femme^ woman ; chevaly horse ; maison^ 
house ; vertu^ virtue, &c. 

There are liuree sorts of substantives: vvz proper^ com' 
mony and collective. 

The substantive proper expresses some individual person 
or thing which cannot be divided into species : such are, 
Pierre^ Peter ; Londres^ London ; Caton^ Cato ; Paris, ' 
Paris, &c. 

7%e substantive common comprehends all objects of the 
same kind : such are, royaume^ kingdom ; riviere^ river ; 
soMaty soldier. ,i^-— - -"^ . 

The substantive collective is a word which presents to the 
mind a collection of persons or things. The nouns collec- 
tive are gcTieral or partitive* 

A noun collective general represents the whole object : 
such are, la naiiony the nation ; larmiey the army ; la 
-Hotle^ the fleet ; leparlement^ the parliament. 

A noun collective partitive represents only a part of the 
whole object ; such are, un grand nambre, a great number ; 
unefotde, a crowd ; lapluparty the most part. 

N. B. See the use of substantives, Rules 21 and follow- 
ing, in the Syntax. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 

Of the Declension of Nouns. 

As the French nouns do not change their termination in 
the same number,, manj grammarians pretend, that there 
are no cases in our tongue ; but I think it is more simple 
And natural to give the same names, in all languages, to 
the same relation of things ; and the rather because many 
of those who learn French, learn at the same time Latin 
or Greek. Although the French noun%l;vaN^TiQ^«3\5^^ 

c S 



U.' 



30 DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

of termination to mark a variety of state in the object^ it 
must be allowed that the pronouns have a nominative, ac- 
cusative, and dative case ; and a substitute for a genitive 
in the indeclinable word en* The four states of the noim 
answering to these cases will form our declension. 

N. denotes the nominative, G. the genitive, 2>. the 
dative, Ac, the accusative. 

DECLENSION 
OF NOUNS WITH THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

1; ^ A Noun MofcuHne. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. Ac. le roi, Me king. les rois, the kings. 

G. du roi, of or from the king, des rois, of or frwn the* 

D. au roi, to the king. aux rois, to tne kings. 

2. A Noun Feminine. 

N. Ac. la reine, the qtieen. les reines, the queens. 

G. de la reme, oforfrrorm the. des reines, of or fivm the. 

D. k la reine, to the queen, aux reines, to ^ queens. 



/" 



3. A Noun beginning widi a VoweL 

N. Ac. rami, the friend. les amis, the friends. 

G. de Tami, of or frwn the. des amis, of or from the. 

D. k Tami, to the friend. aux amis, to the friends. 

4. A Noun beginning tmth an h mute. 

N. Ac. lliomme, the nutnp les hommes, the men. 

G. ' de rhommejo/^orj^ww^Ae. des hommes, of or from. 
D. a Fhommc, to the man. aux hommes, to the men. Q 

5. A Noun preceded by tout. . " '' /' 

SINGULAR. 

N. Ac tout le monde, every body. 

G. de tout le monde, of or from every body, 

D. k tout le monde^ to every body. 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 31 

PLURAL. 

N. Ac. tous les en&ns, all the children, 

G. de tous les enfans, of or from all the children, 

D. a tous les enfans> to all the children, 

DECLENSION . • 
OF NOUNS WITH THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE, 
MASCULINE. FEMININE. 

N. Ac. un jardin, a garden, una maison, a house, 

G. d'un jardin, of or from a, d*une maison, of or from. 

D. k un jardin, to a garden, k une maison, to a liouse, 

DECLENSION 
OF NOUNS WITH THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE. 
SINGULAR, MASC. PLURAL, MASC. , 

N. Ac du pain, some bread, des poissons,^Ae$. 
D. h. du pain, to some bread, k des poissons, to fishes. 

SINGULAR FEM. PLURAL, FEM.' 

N. Ac de la viande, some meat, des oranges, oranges. 
D. a^de la viande, to some meat, a des oranges, to oranges. 

DECLENSION OF PROPER NAMES. 

N. Ac Londres, London. Pa.ris, Paris, 

G. de Londres, of or from, de Paris, of or from. 

D. a Londres, to London, a Paris, to Paris, 

N. Ac Pierre, Peter, Annibal, Annibal, 

G. de Pierre, of or from Peter, d' Annibal, of or from. 
D. h, Pierre, to Peter, a Annibal, to Annibal. 

Observe, 1. Du and deSy which are in the genitive, me 
used by a contraction for dele^ deles ; and auy aux, for 
d le, a les, which contraction does not take place when a 
noun is preceded by tout, as above. 

Observe, 2. That all the nouns which begin with a 
vowel or A mute, take F in the nominative or accusative, 
de Tin the genitive, and H V in the dative, whether they be 
masculine or feminine, in order to avoid the hard sound 

c 4? 



32 GENDER OF MOUNS. 

which would result from the meeting of two vowels : thus, 
we say, Vdrm^ the soul, instead of la dme, Vambitiony the 
ambition, instead of la ambitiony &c. 



SECTION THE THIRD. 

How to distinguish when a Noun is masculine or feminine* 

The distinction of genders in substantives originates in 
the distinction of sexes ; by imitation the masculine or 
feminine gender have been given to all substantives, though 
they have no reference to any sex : thus, for instancy 
pain, bread, couteauy knife,^a7i^<n, garden, &c. are mascu- 
line, and cuiUery a 8W>onyfourchettey a fork, tabky a table, 
&c. are feminine./-' ^* 

A list of substantives that have two forms for the di- 
versity of the sexes, will be found after the Rules for 
forming the feminine of adjectives. 



^' 



^Z" A GENERAL RULE. 



The nouns which have reference to males are of the 
masculine gender, and those which have reference to fe- 
males are feminine. Thus, un hommey a man ; un chevaly 
a horse, are masculine: and une femntBy a woman; tmi 
jumenty a mare, are feminine. 

The gender of other nouns is known by their termin- 
ation, as follows : — 

N. B. Fishes, nptileSy and insectSy both male and femaky 
are known in French by one gender onlyy which is generally 
distinguished by their terminatwny as are the inanimate ch* 
jectSy ofwhixih hereafter; many birds and wild beasts are 
also of one gender only, \, 

MASCULINE TERMINATIONS. 

RULE I. 

Nouns which end in a consonant are of the masculine 
gender when they have any other final thaji Xy ewty and 
Mm, to which must be added, souy preceded by a vowel, of 
which we shall speak hereafter. 



GJjZNDER OF NOUNS. 



33 



Hiis nde, which comprehends many thousand words, 
has no other exceptions than the thirty-one following 
words : — 

la boisson, drinking, 
un% brebis, a sheep, 
de la chair, Jlesh, 
une chanson, a song. 



ime clef, 
la cour. 


a keg, 
the court. 


vme cuiller, 
la cuissoii, 
une dent, 


a spoon, 
baking, 
a tooih. 


ime dot, 
la fa^on, 
la faim, 
la fin, 


aportUm, 
rmking. 
hunger, 
the end. 


une fois. 


once. 


une for^t, 
la hart. 


a forest, 
haUer. 



une le9on, 


a lesson. 


la main, 


the hand. 


la maman. 


mainma. 


la mer. 


the sea. 


la mort. 


death. 


la moisson. 


harvest. 


la mousson. 


the monsoon. 


la nef. 


J the body of the 
y church. 


la nuit. 


the night. 


la part, 


the part. 


la ran9on. 


lh/e ransom. 


la soif, 


thirst. 


une souris, 


a mouse^ 


une tour, 


a tower f 


une vi^ 


a screw, I > 



/^^ A-l; RULE II. 



-Ah 



All trees, and also all adjectives and verbs substantively 
used, are masculine, whatever be their termination : such 
are, for trees, un howx^ a holy-oak ; un chhve^ an oak ; un 
Jiitre, a beech : for adjectives, un impie^ an impious man ; 
un soty a fool ; un brave^ a brave man : and tor verbs, h 
boircy the drinking ; le mangery the eating, &c. 

RULE III. 

The names of days, months, seasons, shrubs, towns, co- 
lours, metals, mountains, and winds, are masculine, except 
VomUminey the autumn, of both genders, les Alpes, ks 
pyr6n6esy les CordtUieres, . , 



RULE IV. 



• 1. 



Nouns which end in the vowels a, t, o, Uy are masculine ; 
and also those which end in e accented, and not preceded 
by a ^: as, un opera, an opera ; un oubli, oblivion ; un cha- 
peauy a hat ; h ih6y tea ; un priy a meadow. 

These four : la foiy faith ; la fourmiy the ant ; la loiy the 
law ; la merciy mercy; are excepted from the rule. 

c 5 - v^ 



34 GisiTDSH OP Kotms* 

These five: de bdle eau, fine water ; de la glu^ bird-limi 
. la peauy the skin ; une tribUf a tribe ; la veriUy virtue ; a 
excepted from the rule. The finals, a, o, ^9 have no e 
ceptions... _^ 

RULE V. /*-r 

Nouns ending m any of the following terminations, a^ 
ege, uge^ oire, acle, aiime, ime, isme, and dine, are masc 
lin^ : as, un pat/sage, a landscape ; un piige, a snare ; 
dilttge, the flood, &c. 

La ghire, glory ; une icritoirey an inkstand ; Tkistm 
the history ; une racloire, a strickle ; la nuwhoirey the jan 
la nageoirey the fin ; une passoire, a colander ; la victok 
victory; are excepted from the rule. 

The word crime, cream, is excepted from the rule. 

The words page, page, rage, rage, cage, cage, ima^ 
image, are excepted from the rule. K. 

FEMININE TERMINATIONS. 

RULE I. 

All nouns which end in x, eur, ion, and also in son, whi 
s is preceded by a vowel, are feminine : as, la paix, peac 
la chaleur, heat ; la nation, the nation ; la maison, the houi 

EXCEPTIONS. 

1. Le choix, choice, un crucifix, a crucifix, U flux, tl 
flux, U r^ux, the reflux, leprix, the price. 

2. L'auteur, the author, le bonheur, happiness, le coet 
the heart, le dishonneur, dishonour, Fequateur, the equate 
rhonneur, honour, le laheur, labour, le nudheur, misfbrtun 
lespleurs, tears. ^ ^ 

3. Le bastion, the bastion, un champion, a champion, t 
croupion, sl rump, un lampion, a lamp, un million, a mi 
lion, un scorpion, a scorpion, le septentrion, the north. 

4. Le hlaaon, heraldry, un gaaon, a green turf, Vhxmzo 
the horizon, un oison, sl gosling, un peson, a steelyard, 
poison, the poison, un tison, a brand. ^^^ 



A LIST OF l^OUNS MASCULINE. 



25 



RULE II. 

All nouns which end in td, tii^ ee, tV, vey acey ode, ttdcy 
anoBy ence^ anse, erne, iere, ure, lie, mmey nne, rre, sse, tie, 
are feminine. Examples : la charitSf charity, la pensie, 
thought, la vicy life, la vue^ sight, la glaecy ice, &c. 

EXCEPTIONS TO THESE FINALS. 

Un arr^y a resolution, un aiMcy an atheist, un aygurty 
an augury, du beurrey butter, un carrossey a coach, un 
chevre-fedUley a honeysuckle, un cimetierey a churchyard, 
un codiciUey a codicill^n colosscy a colossus, un comitiy a 
committoe^ u/n comt^y a county, le cdtiy the side, le derriere, 
the back, le foicy the liver, un espaccy a space, le genicy ge- 
nius> un gradey a degree, un iricendiey a conflagration, un 
intervalley an intervd, un libelley a libel, un mausolee, a 
mausoleum, le mercurey mercury, un murmurey a murmur, 
unparterrey a flower-garden, unparjurey perjury, unpara- 
pluiey an umbrella, un pdtiy a pie, lepreludcy the prelude, 
le. silencey silence, le tonnerrey thunder, le traitiy treaty, 
un trophiey a trophy. » 

RULE III. 

All nouns ending in e mute are feminine, when they 
have any other final than those mentioned in rule the fifth 
of the masculine terminations. Examples : la colerey anger, 
la face, the face, la rcunjiey the root, la bouckcy the mouth, 
lajarnbey the leg, &c. 





EXCEPTIONS. 






A 


ange. 


angel. 




xa. 


angle, ' 


angle. 


Abime, 


aby^. 


antidote 


arUidote^ 


acte. 


acU 


autre. 


a cave. 


adverbe 


an adverb. 


arbitre, 


umpire. 


adult^re. 


aduUery, 


arbre. 


a tree. 


^igle, 


eagle. 


arbuste. 


shrub. 


albdtre, 


alahaster. 


artifice, 


artifice. 


ambre, 


amber. 


asthme. 


oMhma. 



c (5 



36 



A LIST OF NOUNS MASCUtlNE. 



astrcy 


star. 


cloitre, 


cloister. 


asile> 


sanctuary. 


code. 


code. 


auspice> 


imspice. 


coffre. 


a trunk. 


axe, 


aans. 


colloque. 


a conference^. 






commerce, 


trade. 




B. 


concile. 


council. 




concombre. 


cucumber. 


B^ndfice, 


a living. 


cone. 


a cone. 


bl^e, 


blame. 


congre. 


a conger. 


bitume, 


bitumen. 


compte. 


an account^ 


branle, 


motion. 


conte, 


tale. 


bronze, 


cast copper. 


contraste. 


contrast. 


buste. 


bust 


coude. 


elbow. 






couvercle. 


lid. 




C, 


crdpuscule. 


twilight. 




v/» 


crepe, 


a crape. 


Cable, 


cable. 


crible, 


sieve. 


cadavre. 


a corpse. 


crime, 


crime. 


cadre. 


frame. 


cube, 


cube. 


calibre, 


size. 


cuivre. 


copper. 


calice. 


chalice. 


culte. 


uxyrship. 


calme. 


calm. 






camphre, 


camphire. 




D 


cantique. 


spiritual song 


• 


XJ, 


caprice, 


whim. 


D^compte, 


discounting. 


caract^rc. 


character. 


dddale. 


maze. 


casque. 


a helmet. 


ddlire, 


delirium. 


catalogue. 


a catalogue. 


d^mdrite, 


demerit. 


cauterre. 


a cautery. 


d^sastre, 


disaster. 


centre. 


centre. 


ddsordre. 


disorder. 


cercle. 


circle. 


diable. 


devil. 


chanvre. 


hemp, 
a chapter. 


dialogue, 


dialogue. 


chapitre, 


diam^tre, 


diameter. 


chifire. 


a cypher. 


dileuune, 


dilemma. 


cidre. 


cyder. 


diocese, 


diocese. 


cierge, 


wax temper. 


divorce. 


divorce. 


eigne. 


' a swan. 


dogme. 


dogma. 


cilice. 


hair-cloth. 


domaine, 


domain. 


cylindre. 


cylinder. 


domicile, 


abode. 


cimeterre, 


scimitar* 


doute. 


doubt. 


clistdre, 


a clyster. 


. 





A LIST OF NOUNS MASCULINS. 



37 



^change, 

edifice, 

eloge, 

^mltique, 

empire, 

eniplatre> 

episode, 

^quilibre, 

equinoxe, 

esclandre, 

escompte, 

6vangile, 

exercice, 

exode, 



Faite, 

faste, 

fiacre, 

flegme, 

fleuve, 

frontispice. 



Genievre, 

genre, 

germe, 

geste, 

glaive, 

globe, 

globule, 

gouffre, 



Havre, 



E. 

ebony, 

exchange^ 

edifice. 

praise, 

emetic, 

empire, 

plaster, 

episode, 

equilibrium, 

equinox. 

a bustle. 

discount, 

gospel. 

exercise, 

exodus. 

F. 

top. 

ostentation. 
hackTiey-coach. 
phlegm, 
river, 
frontispiece, 

G. 

juniper, 
gender, 
bud, 
gesture, 
a stvord, 
a globe, 
globule, 
whirlpool, 

H. 
haven. 



homicide, 
bote. 



Jeune, 
insecte, 
interr^gne, 
isthme. 



Lab3rrinthe, 

legmne, 

lierre, 

li^vre, 

linge, 

lucre, 

lustre, 

luxe. 



Male, 

malice, 

manifestc, 

marbre, 

martjnre, 

masque, 

massacre, 

membre, 

melange, 

mensonge, 

m^rite, 

merle, 

m^t^ore, 

meuble, 

meurtre, 

ministdre, 

mobile, 

module. 



a murder, 
landlord. 

1. 

fast, 
insect. 

interregnum, 
isthmus, 

L. 

labyrinth, 
pulse, 
ivy. 
hare, 
linen, 
profit, 
lustre, 
luxury. 

M. 

male. 
witcJicraft, 
manifesto, 
marble, 
martyrdom, 
a mask, 
a slaughter, 
member, 
mixture, 
a lie. 
merit, 

a blackbird, 
meteor, 
furniture, 
murder, 
ministry, 
motive, 
model. 



38 



A LIST OF NOUNS MASCULINE. 



monarque. 


monarch. 


pr^texte, 


a pretence. 


monde, 


the world. 


principe, 


a principle. 


monast^re, 


monastery. 


prodige, 


prodigy. 


monopole;. 


monopoly. 


proverbe, 


proverb. 


monstre, 


monster. 


' pupitre, 


a desk. 


myst^re, 


mystery. 




a diet. 




N. 


Regime, 


Navire, 


ship. 


regue. 


reign. 


n^goce, 


trade. 


remdde, 


remedy. 


noinbre, 


number. 


reptile, 


a reptile. 






reproche, 


f reproach. 




0. 


reste, . 


rest. 




reve, . 


a dream. 


Ongle, 


fiail. 


rhume, 


a rheum. 


opprobre, 


reproach. 


risque. 


a risk. 


ordre, 


order. 






organe, 


an organ. 




fi 


orge, 


barley. 




o* 






Sable, 


sand. 




P. 


sabre, 


broad-sworcL 




sacrifice. 


sacrifice. 


Facte, 


a bargain. 


sacerdoce, 


priesthood. 


paradoxe, 


aparadox. 


salp^tre, 


saltpetre. 


parricide. 


parricide. 


scandal^. 


scandal. 


participe, 


participle. 


sceptre, 


a sceptre. 


patrimoine, 


patrimony. 


schisme. 


a schism. 


peigne. 


a comb. 


scrupule. 


a scruple. 


pene, 


aboU. 

1 


seigle. 


rye. 


peuple, 


people. 


service, 


service. 


ph^nomene, 


phenomenon. 


sexe, 


a sex. 


platre. 


plaster. 


siecle, 


an age. 


poivre. 


pepper. 


signe. 


a sign. 


pole. 


pole. 


songe. 


dream. 


portique. 


portico. 


souffle, ^ 


breath. 


pouce, , 


tJiumb. 


soufre. 


sulphur. 


pr^cepte. 


precept. 


spectre, 


a ghost. 


precipice, 


precipice. 


style, 


a style. 


prejudice. 


prejudice. 


subside. 


subsidy. 


prestige. 


a charm. 


Sucre, 


sugar. 



SUBSTANTIVES MASCULINE, ETC. 



39 



supplice, 
symbole, 
synode, 
synon3rme. 



Telescope, 

terme, 

texte, 

theatre, 

triangle, 

trone, 

tropique, 

trouble, 

tube, 

tumulte, 



a iortneni* 
a symboL 
a synod, 
a synonym. 

T. 

telescope. 

a term. 

a text, 

theatre, 

triangle. 

a throne. 

tropic. 

trouble. 

tube. 

tumuU. 



V. 



Vacarme, 

ventre, 

verbe, 


uproar 

beUy. 

verb. 


verre, 
vestibule. 


glass, 
entry. 


vice. 


vice. 


tinaigre, 
volume, 


vinegaar, 
volume. 


ulcere. 


ulcer. 




Z. 


Z61e, 


zeal. 


z^phyre. 


zephyr. 



N. B. There are some more, but they are so little used, 
that I have not thought proper to insert them. 



SUBSTANTIVES 
Masculine in one Stgnificaiionf and Feminine in another. 



un aune. 


an alder. 


une aune, 


an ell. 


im barbe, 
ime barbe, 


a Barbary Iwrse, 
a beard. 


un Basque, 
une basque. 


a Basque, 
a skirt. 


un coche, 
une coche, 


a traveUing coach, 
a sow. 


un couple, 
une couple. 


a couple {a husba'^ 
a couple (of things] 


un enseigne, 


an ensign. 


une enseigne, 


a sign. 



{_wife). 



40 



SUBSTANTIVES MASCULINE IN ONE 



un exemplc, 
une exemple) 

lin garde, 
une garde, 

le greffe, 
la greffe, 

un guide, 
une gmde, 

\m iris, 
une iris, 

un livre, 
une livre, 

un manche, 
une manche, 

un m^moire, 
une m6moire, 

un mode, 
une mode, 

un mole, 
une mole, 

un moule, 
une moule, 

un mousse, 
la mousse, 

un oeuvre, 
une oeuvri 

unpage, 
une page, 

un paillasse, 
une paillasse, 

un parallele, 
une parallele, 

le pendule, 
une pendule. 



apaUem, 

a copy (m writing). 

a keeper, 
a guard, 

the registry, 
the graft. 

agtdde, 
a guidance. 

a rainbow. 

an iris [precious stone). 

a bock, 
a pound. 

a handle, 
a sleeve. 

a memorandum, 
a memory. 

afoiTn. 
afashion. 

a pier. 

a moon-^aif. 

a mould, 
a muscle. 

a shipboy. 
the moss. 

a uxyrk (of art). 
a work. 

a page (to a king), 
a page (of a book) 

a clown, 
a straw-bed. 

a comparison, 
a parallel-line. 

thependiUum. 
a clock. 



SIGNIFICATION, AUD FEMININE IN ANOIHXIU ,4l 



le p6riode, 


pitch. 


une p^riode, 


aperiod. 


le plane, 




la plane. 


Oe plane. 


le platine*. 


platim(ametal). 


U platiDe, 


the platen. 


le ponte. 


Oe punter. 


laponte. 


tAe laying of egg'- 


un pique. 


anumxA: 


une pique. 


apike. 


unpofilc, 


aatoee. 


unepofile. 


n frying-pan. ■ 


unposte, 




kposte. 


tAepoa.^ce., 


lepourpre. 


thepttrpks (a mrt ofiUnew]. 


lapourpre. 


purple. 


un quadrille, 


quadTiOe (ffom). 


une quadrille. 


a troop of horse. 


un Satjrre, 


a Satyr. 


une satire, 


aMtire. 


le solde. 


the balance <f<m accompt. 


la Bolde. 


v»y- 


un somnie. 


asleep. 


une Bomme, 


a turn. 


untoiB-, 


atridt. 


une tour. 


a fewer. 


un triomphe, 




une triomphe, 


a tnmp at cards. 


un trompette, 


afrtwyrter. 


une trompette. 


«fr««5«i. 


unvase. 


amse. 


lavage. 


the mad 



42 OF THE PLURAL OF NOUMS. 

un voile, a veiL 

une voile, a sail* 

personne, M. when pronoun. 

personne, F. when mbstanHve* 

Other substantives belong exclusively to the masculine 
or feminine gender. 

A list of substantives having a distinct form for the 
female sex will be given in Ch. 3. § 1. 



SECTION THE FOURTH, 
Of the Number of Stibstantives. 

Tlie number of noims donotes the distinction betweoi 
one and several objects. 

There are two numbers, called smgular and plural. A 
noun is in the singular, when it denotes but one person or 
thing : as, un hommey a man ; une mauoUy a house : a 
noim is in the plural, when it denotes several persons or 
things : as, des hommes, men ; des maisons, houses. 



How to form the Plural of Nouns 

FIRST RULE. 

Nouns which end in Sy ar, or 2? in the singular, have iioth 
numbers alike : as, le^, the son, la voixy the voice, ie nezj 
the nose, singular : lesfUsy les voixy les nezy plural. 

SECOND RULE. 

Nouns which end inuin the singular, take an x when u 
is preceded by e or a : as, le lieuy the place, le cha^f^eaxLy 
the hat, singular : Us lieuxy les chapeauXy plural. 

THIRD RULE. 

Most nouns which end in al in the singular, become 
plural by changing al into aux: as, chevaly horse, cctnaly 
channel, singular : chevauXy canauXy plural. 



OF THE PLURAL OF NOUNS. 



43 



FOURTH, OR GENERAL RULE. 

The plural of nouns is formed by adding an s to the 
singular. Example : — 



SINGULAR. 

un homme> a tnan^ 
un ami, afriendy 

une maison, a house^ 



PLURAL. 

des hommes, men^ 
des amis, friends^ 
des maisons, houses. 



List of irregular Plurals* 







RULE 


Aieul, 


grandfather^ 


aieux, 


4k 


Ail, 


clove of garlic^ 


aulx, 


4. 


Aval, 


surety for paymenty 


avals, 




Bail, 


lease, 


baux. 


4. 


Bal, 


haUy 


bals, 


3. 


Bijou, 


jewely 


bijoux, 


4. 


Cal, 


caUosityy 


caJs, 


3. 


Caillou, 


pehbky 


cailloux, 


4. 


Camaval, 


camivaly 


carnavals. 


3. 


Ciel, 


heaveny 


cieux. 


4. 


Ciel, 


iestersy 


ciels de lit 




Corail, 


coraly 


coraux. 


4. 


£mail, 


enamely 


^maux, 


4. 


Genou, 


kneey 


genoux, 
niboux. 


4. 


Hibou, 


OWly 


4. 


CEil, 


eye. 


yeux. 


4. 


CEil, 


in architecturey S^c, 


ceils de boeuf. 


Pal, 


pale (in heraldry). 


pals, 


3. 


Plumail, 


feather-brushy 


plumaux, 


4. 


Pou, 


lOUSCy 


poux. 


4. 


R6gaJ, 


treaty 


regals. 


3. 


Sfoupirail, 


air-hole, 


soupiraux, 


4. 


Travail, 
Travail, 


labour. 


travaux. 


4. 


in horse-shoeing, 


travails. 


4. 


Vantail, 


door-fiap. 


vantaux. 


4. 


KB. Thefifi 


cures show which rule is 


\ departed fr< 


}m. 



I 



i;^ OF THE PLURAL OF NOUNS. 

How Compound Words form their Plurat. 

Rule 1. When a word is composed of a substantive ah 
an adjective, both take the marK of a plural. E^campk 
un gentil-homme, a nobleman, des geniils-hommes ; un af\ 
botUanty buttress, des arcs-boutans. But the adjective den 
is an exception : as, des demi-dieux, des demi-lwnes. 

TtuLe 2. When a word is composed of a substantive an 
a pronoun, both take the mark of a plural : as, MansHeu 
Sir, Madame^ Madam, singular; messieursy Mesdame 
plural. 

Rtde 3. When a word is composed of two 8ubstantiv< 
not separated by a preposition, both take also the mark < 
tlie plural : as, un Garde-Suisse, singular ; des Garde 
Suissesy plural. 

Rtde 4. When a word is composed of two substantivi 
separated bv a preposition, the first alone takes the nun 
of the plural : as, un arc-en-ciel, a rainbow, un chef-d'ceuvr 
a master-piece, singular ; des arcs-en-ciely des ch^s-^Toeuvr 
plural. 

Rtde 5. When a word is composed of a substantive an 
a verb, or a preposition, the substantive alone takes tt 
mark of the plural, if required by the sense : as, un avan 
coureuTy a forenmner, singular ; des avant-coureurs, plun 
Un essuie-mainsy a towel, is better than un esstde-mmi 
in the singular. 

Substantives common have no plural when they denol 
something that has one uniform aspect or constitution. 

Substantives tohich have no Plural in French. 

The nouns which have no plural are, 1. the names < 
metals, taken in general ; as /'or, gold ; Vwrgenty silver ; 
cuvorey copper ; U plornb, lead ; lefery iron. Indeed, w 
sometimes say lesfersy lesplombsy &c.but then we considi 
these metals as wrought, and do not speak of them gi 
nerally. 

2. The names of habitual virtues and vices, such as i 
jbiy faith ; Vespirancey hope ; la eharitiy charity ; la pn 
dencey prudence ; Torgueily pride ; Vavaricey covetoui 
ness^ &c. 



OF THE PLURAL OF toUNS. 



4' 



45 



3. Infinitives and adjectives, substantively used : as, le 
boire, the drinking ; le manffery the eating ; le beau, the 
beautiful ; rutile, the useful ; le vraiy the true, &c. 

4. The following substantives have commonly no 
plural: — 



I'absinthey 
Tartillerie, 
le courroux, 
la disette, 
Fenfance, 
TestiSie, 
la&im, 
la gloire, 
I'enceus, 
reucharistie, 
la jeunesse, 
le lait, 
le miel, 
la moUesse, 



artiUerym 

wrath. 

scarcity, 

infancy, 

esteem, 

hunger, 

glory. 

incense. 

eucharist. 

yowih. 

milk. 

honey. 



la noblesse. 


nobility. 


Fodorat, 


smelling 


rouie, 


hearing. 


la pauvret6, 


poverty. 


le pourpre. 


redfever. 


le prochain, 


our neighbour. 


la renommie, 


fame. 


le repos, 


rest. 


le salut, 


salvation. 


le sang, 


blood. 


la soif. 


thirst. 


le sommeil, 


sleep. 


la vieillesse. 


old age. 


la virility, 


manhood. 



Substantives which have 



les accordailles, 
les annales, 
les ancetres, 
les armoiries, 
les arr^rages, 
les atoiirs, 
les bestiaux, 
les brossailles, 
les calendes, 
les catacombes, 
les ciseaux, 
les confins, 
les d6combres» 
les d^pens, 
les ^crouelles, 
les entraves, 
lea entrailles. 



espousals. 

annals. 

ancestors. 

coat of arms. 

arrears. 

elegant dress. 

cattle. 

briars. 

calends. 

catacombs. 

scissars. 

the confines. 

rubbish. 

cost, 

the king's evil, 

shackles. 

bowels, . 



Tio singular in French, 

es 6pousailles, espousals. 
es fian^ailles, betrothing. 
es frais, expenses. 

es fun^railles^ funerals. 
es gens, people. 

es mat6ri&ux, materials. 
es moeurs, manners. 
es mouchettes, snuffers. 
es munitions, ammunition. 
es obsdques, obsequies. 
es pleurs, tears. 

es proches, rdations. 
es pr^mices, jirstfruits. 
es repr^sailles, reprisals. 
es vivres, victuals, 

les t^n^bres, darknesSySfC. 



^ * OF ADJECTIVES. 

CHAP. III. 

OF ADJECTIVES- 

The substantive is the name of an object or person ; c 
Jectives are words added to substantives, and specify t 
qualities of a person or thing : as, la vertu est aimabJey 
vke est odieux : virtue is amiable, vice is odious. — Vet 
and vice are two substantives ; odieux and aimable two a 
jectives. 

A noim which makes good sense with the word joery 
or thing h an adjective ; a noun which cannot make ai 
sense with them is a substantive. This is an infallible rt 
in regard to adjectives, at least : for instance, the wo 
good is an adjective, because we may say a good person, 
good thing ; but the word man is a substantive, becau 
we cannot say, a man person, a man thing. 

The substantives, few excepted, are of one gender onl 
but the adjectives which qualify them admit of tv 
genders and numbers, because they must agree with tl 
substantives to which they have reference. They form ti 
feminine from the masculine termination, as^follows : — 



. SECTION THE HRST. 

How to form the Feminine of Adjectives. 

Six Rules, when these exceptions are known, will i 
elude all the feminine adjectives. 

IRREGULAR FEMININES, 
M. F. RULS 

Absous, absolved^ absoute, 6. 

Auteur, author^ auteur, 6. 

Bailleur, lessor, bailleresse, 4i. 

Bas, low. basse, 6. 

Beau, handsomcy belle, 6. 

B6nin, benign, b^nigne, 6. 

Blanc, white, blanche, 6^ 

Caducy declining, caduque, 6. 



OF ADJECTIVES. 



47 



F. 



chesniUf 



RULE 



M. 

Chataiiiy 

D6fendeur, 

Demandeur, 

Doux, 

Enchanteur^ 

£pais> 

£x§cuteur, 

Expr^s, 

Fat, 

Faux, 

Favori, 

Fou, 

Frais, 

Franc, 

Gras, 

Grec, 

Gros, 

Las, 

Long, 

Malin, 

Mou, 

Nouveau, 

Nul, 

P^cheur, 

profes, 

Pers^cuteuT) 

Public, 

Roux, 

Sec, 

Sot, 

Tiers, 

Traitre, 

Turc, 

Vengeur, 

Vieux, 

Rtde L A(]y actives which end in e mute in the mascu- 
line singular, are alike in both genders ; as, sa^e, wise, 
bravey brave, cHebre^ famous^ inasculine; stisf^ bravCf 
cilebre, feminine. 



defendaniy 


d6fenderesse 


,4. 


demandant) 


demanderesse,4«. 


sweety 


douce. 


2. 


enchantinffy 


enchanteresse,4<. 


tJiicky 


epaisse. 


6. 


exectitinffy 


ex6cutrice, 


4. 


expresSy 


expresse, 


6. 


affectedy 






fahey 


fausse, 


2. 


favouritey 


favourite. 


6. 


foolishy 


folle. 


6. 


freshy 


fraiche. 


6. 


frecy 


franche. 


6. 


faty 


grasse. 


a 


Greeky 


Grdque, 


6. 


Ingy 


prosse, 
asse. 


6. 


wearyy 


6. 


hfMfy 


longue. 


6. 


tmckedy 


maligne. 


6. 


softy 


moUe, 


6. 


newy 


nouvelle, 


6. 


no, 


nulle. 


6. 


sinningy 


p^cheresse, 


4. 


inttiatedy 


professe. 


6. 


persecutinffy 


pers^cutrice, 


4. 


publici 


publique, 


6. 


redy 


rousse, 


2. 


dryy 


seche. 


6. 


«%, 


sotte, 


6. 


ihirdy 


tierce, 


6. 


traiiorouSf 


traitresse, 


4. 


Turkishy 


Turque, 


6. 


avenginffy 


vengeresse, 


4. 


oldy 


vieifie, 


2. 



48 



OF ADJECTIVES. 



Htde 2. Adjectives which end in a? in the masculine, 
become feminine* by changing x into se : asjahuxy jealous, 
heureuxy happy, masculine ; jahusey heureusey feminine. 

Rule 3. Adjectives which end in/ in the masculine, be- 
come feminine by changing f into ve : as vify quick, acty\ 
active, neufy new, masculine ; vivey activcy neuvcy feminine. 

Rtde 4. Nouns ending in teur and eury when a ge- 
rund would arise from putting ant in the place of eicry 
make the feminine to end in eitse : 2&flatteury flattering, 
flaJUeuse; trompeuTy deceiving, trompeuse: because of Jlai' 
tant, trampant. In other cases they change teur into trice: 
as acteury acting, actrice; moteury moving, moiricey &c. 
Words ending in irieur; and majeury meilleury mineuTy 
follow the 6th or general Rule. 

Rule 5. Most adjectives in ely eily ety ieriy any on, . 
double their final consonant before e mute of the feminine: 
as, cruelley pareilhy muettey ancienncy paysanney honney from 
crudy pareily muety ancieny ban. 

Rule 6. Adjectives of all finals not mentioned before 
become feminine by adding an e to the masculine termin- 
ation : as grandy great, diviny divine, savanty learned, mas- 
culine ; grandey divine, savante, feminine. 

Remarks. The feminines, beUey moUe, folk, nouveUe, 
may be considered as formed from bel, moly fol, nouvel, 
which are used before a vowel or A mute, instead of beau, 
mouyfouy nouveau, 

m 

Some substantives have a distinct form for individuals of 
the female sex, founded partly on the foregoing rules : as, 

M. F. 

accusateur, 

ambassadeur, 

apprenti, 

baron, 

berger, 

bienfaiteur, 

chanoine, 

chanteur, 

chasseur, 

chasseur, 

danseur, 



accusery 


accusatrice. 


ambassador 


ambassadrice 


apprenticey 
barony 


apprentie. 
baronne. 


shepherdy 

bemfactoTy 

carumy 


bergere. 

bienfaitrice. 

chanoinesse. 


singery 
hurUery 


chanteuse, 
chasseuse. 


(in poetry), 
dancevy 


chasseresse. 
danseuse. 



OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES. 



49 



M. 




F. 


empereur, 


€fnp&roT^ 


imp6ratrice. 


jouvenceau, 
lion, 


lad. 


jouvencelle. 
lionne. 


lion. 


paien, 


heatheriy 


paienne. 


paon, 


peacocky 


paonne. 


prieur, 


prioTf 


prieure. 


prince, 


prince. 


princesse. 


t^moin, 


foiinessy 


t^moine. 


voisin, 


neiffAbaur, 


voisine. 



N. B. Observe, from the preceding rules, that all ad* 
jectives end in e mute in the feminine singular ; and as 
those which end in e mute form their plural by the addi- 
tion of an 5, all adjectives, without any exception, end 
in esin the feminine plural. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 

Of the Plural of Adjectives. 

Adjectives form their plural like the substantives, of 
which we have before spoken ; and the rules given in page 
42. can be applied to adjectives, with only three excep- 
tions to the second rule, infouy mou, bleu, which take an s. 

The following Adjectives have no Plural in the Masculine 

Gender: — 

histral. 

literal. 

early. 

natal. 

naval. 

pastoral. 

pascal. 

pectoral. 

q)ecial. 

venal. 



austral. 


sout/iem. 


lustral, 


boreal, 


northern. 


littoral, 


canonial, 


canonical. 


matinal. 


conjugal. 


coTifugal. 


natal, 


diametral. 


diametrical. 


naval. 


fatal. 


fatal. 


pastoral. 


fiUal, 


filial. 


pascal, 


final. 


final. 


pectoral. 


frugal, 


frugal. 


special, 


jovial, 


joviaL 


v6nal. 



1) 



30 01 COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES. 

SECTION THE THIRD. 
Of Comparatives and Stq)erlatives, 

A Comparaiive is a comparis^ of two or more objects, 
in order to know what proportion ^aey bear to one another : 
now as two objects can either be equal, superior, or inferior 
to one another, there are three sorts of comparatives, 
called of equoHtyy superiorityy and wferwrity, ^ 

The Comparative ofeqtudity is formed by prefixing the 
word aussi to an adjective : as,y6 suis aussi riche qtce voits; 
I am 05 rich as jou. 

The Comparative cf superiority is formed by prefixing 
the word plus to an adjective : as, je suis plus grand qm 
vous ; I am taller theai you. 

The Con^Hirative of inferiority is formed by putting » 
negation before the verb, and si before the adjective, or 
Only by prefixing the word mains to an adjective :. as, /e 
suis moins heureux que vous, or Je ne suis pas si heureux 
que vous ; I am not so happy as you. 

The Superlatives increase or diminish to the utmost de- 
gree the significatioix of adjectives. They are of two sorts : 
the one relative, and the other absolute. 

The first is formed by prefixing the article h, /a, les, 
YnXkipHuSy to the adjectives : 9&,fai vu la plus belle Jbmme 
d' Angleterre ; I have seen the handsomest woman in 
England. 

The second is formed by prefixing the adverbs tres or 
fort to the adjective : as, je sms \xes-malheureux ; I am 
very unfortunate. 

Comparatives and Superlatives formed irregula/rfy,^ 

These three adjectives, bon, good, mauvais, bad, petit, 
little, as well as their corresponding adverbs, deviate from 
others in the formation of their comparatives and superla- 
tives, which are as foUows : — 

POSITIVE. COMPAKATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

Tbon, good, meilleur, better, le meilleur, the best. 
adj. < mauvais, bad. pire, worse, le pire, the worst. 
(petit, little, moindre, less, le moindre, ^ least. 



OF CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



51 



• POSITIVE, COMPARATIVE. . SUPERLATIVE. 

^bien, well. miexm, better, lemieux, the best. 
adv. < mal, bad, pis, toorse, le pis, the worst. 
( peu, little, moins, less, le raoins, the least. 

We say also plus mauvais, plus petite plus mal; but 
never jdus bony plus bieny plus peu. 



SECTION THE FOURTH. 

Cff the Cardinal Numbers, 

The Cardinal numbers denote the quantity of persons 
or things, and answer to the question how nrnch? how 
num^f They are called cardinaly because they are the 
root of all others ; they are as follows: •— 

un, m, \meyf. 



^'] 


[ uns, unes, pi. 


2, 


deux. 


8, 


trois, 


4i 


quatre, 


5, 


cinq, 


5, 


six. 


7, 


sept. 


8, 


huit. 


9, 


neuf. 


la 


dix, ,, 


11, 


onze, 


1% 


douze. 


18, 


treize. 


14s 


quatorze, 


15, 


quinze. 


15, 


. seize, 


17, 


dix-sept, 


18, 


dix-huit. 


19^ 


dix-neuf. 


'20, 


vingt. 


21, 


vingt et un^ 


22, 


vingt-deux, 


23, 


vingt-trois, 



} 



one. 



tWOf 

threey 

fOWy 

fiyey 

StXy 

seven, 
eighty 
nine, 
ten, 
eleven, 
twelvey 
thirteen^ 
fourteen^ 
fifteeny 
sixteen, 
seventeen, 
eighteen, 
nineteetiy 
twenty, 
twenty'One^ 
tweniy^two, 
twen^-threey 
> 2 



r. 

II. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VIL 

VIII. 

IX. 

X, 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

xvin. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

xxn. 

XXIIl. 



52 



OF CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



24, 


vingt-quatre. 


25, 


vingt-cinq. 


26, 


vingt-six. 


27, 


vingt-scpt. 


28, 


vingt-huit. 


29, 


. vingt-neuf. 


30, 


trente, ^ 


31, 


trente et un, 


32, 


trente-deux. 


33, 


trente-trois. 


34, 


trente-quaire. 


35, 


trente-cinq. 


36, 


trente-six. 


37, 


trente-sept. 


38, 


trente-huit, 


39, 


trente-neuf. 


^40, 


quarantCj^^ 


41, 


quarante et un. 


42, 


quarante-deux, 


43,. 


quarante-trois, 


44, 


quarante-quatre. 


45, 


quarante-cinq. 


46, 


quarante-six, 


47, 


quarante-sept. 


48, 


quarante-huit, 


49, 


quarante-neuf, 


50, 


• cinquante, ^^ 
cinquante elun, 


"^51, 


52, 


cinqnante-deux, 


53, 


cinquante-trois. 


54, 


cinquante-quatre 


55, 


cinquante-cinq. 


56y 


cinquante-six. 


57, 


cinqnante-sept. 


58. 


cinquante-huit, 


59, 


cinquante-ncuf, 


60, 


soixante. 


:::s[. 


soixante et un. 


62, 


6oixante-deux, 


63, 


soixante-trois. 


64, 


solxante-quatre, 



twenty-fouTy 

twenty-five, 

twenty'six, 

ttventy-seveny 

ttoenty-eight, 

twenty-nine, 

thirty, 

thirty-one, 

thirty-two, 

thirty-three, 

thirty-four, 

thirty-five, 

thirty-six, 

thirty-seven, 

thirty-eight, 

thirty-nine, 

fofty-one, 

forty-two, 

forty-three, 

forty-four, 

forty-five, 

forty-six, 

forty-seven, 

forty-eiylU, 

foTty-mne, 

-one, 

f'two, 
-three, 
fifty-four, 
fifty-fif^e, 
fifty-six, 
fifiy-seoen, 
fifty-eight, 
fifty-nine, 
sixty, 
siacty-one, 
sixty-two, 
sixty-three, 
sixtyfour, 



XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII 

XXVII 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII 

XXXII 

XXXI\ 

XXXV, 

XXXVj 

XXXV 

XXXVJ 

XXXO 

XL. 

xLi: 

XLIL 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XL VII. 

XLVIIJ 

XLIX. 

LI. 

LII. 

LUI. 

LIV. 

LV. 

LVI. 

LVII. 

LVIIL 

LIX. 

LX,, 

LXI. 

LXII. 

LXIII. 

LXIV. 





OB CARDINAL NUMBERS. 


53 


65, 


Eoixante'Cmt], 


sixly-^ve. 


LXV. 


66, 


soixante-six. 


sixty-six. 


LXVI. 


67, 


soixante-sept, 


sixty-seven. 


LXVII. 


68, 


«oixante-lmit. 


sixty-eight. 


LXVIU. 


69, 


sojxante-neur. 


sixty-nine. 


LXIX. • 


JO, 


EOixante-dix, 


seventy 


LXX. 


il. 


aoisante et onzp, 


seventy-one, 


Lxxr. 


72, 


aoinante-douze, 


seventy-ttoo. 


LXXII. 


73. 




seventy-three. 


LXXIII. 


74, 


Eoixante-quatorze, 


seventy-four. 


LXXIV. 


U.7S, 


soixante-quinze, 


seventy-Jive, 


LXXV. 


76, 


Boixante-seize, -— 


seventy-six. 


LXXVI. 


77, 


soixante-ilLX-sept, 


seventy-seven. 


Lxxvir. 


76, 


Boixante-dix'huJt, 


seventy-eight. 


LXXVI [I. 


79, 


Soisante-dix-neLif, 




LXXIX. . 


JO, 


quatre-vingt, 


eighty. 


LXXX^ 
LXXXL 


81, 


qiiBtre -vingt-un. 


eighty-one, 


82, 


quatre-vingt-dcux, 


eighty-hM, 


LXXXII. 


8S, 


quntre-vingt-troifi, 




LXXXIII. 


84. 


quatre-vingt-quatre, 


eighty-four. 


LXXXIV. 


85, 


quatre-vingt-cinq, 


e>ghty.Jive, 


LXXXV. 


86, 


<juatre-vingt-six. 


eig/'lysix. 


LXXXVI. 


87, 


qoatre-vingt-sept. 


eighty-seven. 


Lxxxvri. 


88, 


quatre-vingt-liuit. 


dghty eight. 


LXXXVUI 


, 89, 


quatre-vingt-neui; 


etghlynine, 


LXXXIX. 


i^. 


quatre-vingt-dix, 


nimty. 


xc. 


quatre-vingt-oDze, 




xci. 


92, 


q uatre-v ingt- douze, 




XCII. 


93, 


quatre-vingt-lreize, 


ninety-three. 


XCIII. 


94, 


qu atre- V ingt-quatorz 


^.ninelyfour, 


XCIV. 


95, 


quatre-ringt-quinze, 


tiittetyjtve. 


xcv. 


96, 


quatre-vingt-seize. 


ninety-six. 


XCVI. 


97, 


qoatre-vingt-dix-sept, ninety-seven, 


XCVII. 


98, 


quBtre-vingt-dix-hui 


, mnety-eight. 


XCVIII. 


99, 
lOO, 


quatre-vingl-dix-ncu 
cent, 


hundred. 


XCIX. 


?00, 


deux cent. 


two hmidred, 


cc.- 


300, 


■ trois cent. 


tJiree hiaidred. 


ccc. 


400, 


quatre cent, 


Jour hmtdred. 


cccc. 


300, 


cinq cent. ■ 


Ave hundrtd. 


D. 


600, 


six cent. 


six hundred, 
D 3 


T)C. 



54 OF CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



700, 


sept cent. 


seven hundred^ 


DCC, 


800, 


huit cent, 


eight hundred. 


.DCCC. 


900, 


neuf cent, 


nine hundred. 


DCCCC 


1000, 


mille, 


one thousand. 


M. 



Olfservaiions upon Cardirud Numbers. 

1. When two numerals are joined together, the larger 
goes first in French : thus we say, vingt-cinq, vingt-six, 
&c. and not cinq Sf vingt, five and twenty, six 4* vtTigt, six 
and twenty, as the English sometimes do. 

2. When several numbers meet together, we do not put 
in French, any conjunction between them : thus, we say, 
cent vingt, cent trente, and not cent Sf vingt, cent Sf trente^ 
hundred and twenty, hundred and thirty. 

3. The English word thousand is rendered in French 
by rnXL, with one / only, when it is used for the date of the 
year, and by miUe with Ue, in other circumstances : thus, 
we say. Van mil huit cent huit, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and eight. 

4. When the words cent and mille are followed by a 
number, they are never preceded by the word un in 
French, as they are in English by the word one : thus, we 
say, cent cinquante, for one hundred and fifty ; mil stpt 
cent, for one thousand and seven hundred ; and not un cent 
cinquante, nor un mU sept cent* 

5. In speaking of several score or hundred, the words, 
vingt and cent take an s, when not followed by another 
numeral: thus, we write, quatre^ingts livres, fourscore 
pounds ; trois cents soldats, three hundred soldiers, with 
an s; but quatre-vingt^ix livres, ninety pounds ; trois cent 
vingt-six soldats, three hundred and twenty-six soldiers, 
without an s, 

6. The word million is a collective noun, and takes the 
mark of the plural : as, deux millions, dix millions. 

7. MiUe, when meaning a thousand, never takes an ^ , so 
we say, deux mille, two thousand ; but when mille means a 
mile, it takes s in the plural : as, un mille, one mile, deux 
miUes, two miles, &c. 

8. All numbers not mentioned in the preceding ob- 
servations are always indeclinable. 



OF ORDlNi^L NUMBERS. 



55 



SECTION THE FIFTH, 
Of Ordinal Numbers, 

dinal numbers denote the order and disposition of 
s ; they are as follows : — * 

premier, m. premiere, ^I 
seconde,yi 



second, m« 

troisieme, 

quatrieme, 

cinquidme 

sixieme, 

septierae> 

huiti^me, 

neuyi^me, 

dixidme, 

onzieme, 

douzieme, 

treizieme, 

quatorziemCy 

quinzieme, 

seizieme, 

dix-septieme, 

^ix-huitieme, 

dix-neuvieme, 

vingti^me, 

vingt-uni^me, 
f vjngt-deuxidme, et|^ 
\ ainsi de suite, j 



1st, JirsL 

2d, second, 

3d, tliird. 

4thji fourth. 

5th, fifth. 

6th, sixth, 

7th, seventh, 

8th, eighth, 

9th, ninth, 
10th, tenth, 
lltli, eleventh* 
12th, twelfth. 
13th, ihvrteenth, 
14th, fourteentli, 
15th, fifteenth, 
1 6th, sixteenth. 
17th, seventeenth. 
18th, eighteenth. 
19th, nineteenth. 
20th, twentietJi. 
2 1 St, twenty-first. 



Observations upon Ordinal Numbers. 

Except le premier and /e second^ the ordinal numbers 
brmed from the cardinal^ by changing e mute into 
for those which end with a vowel : as, quatre, quatri- 
and by adding leme to those which end in any other 
)nant thany.* as, trois^ dix, cardinaf; troisieme^ 'dix- 
ordinal, except cinq^ which takes u before ieme, 
.ieme, * 

Those which end in^ change that final into vieme : 
euf dix-neufy cardinal ; neuviime, dix-neuvieme, or- 



JR 4 



56 OF PRONOUNS. 

3. The English always use the ordinal numbers, when 
they put a date to any thmg ; the French, on the con- 
trary, most commonly use the cardinal in this case (ex- 
cept the first, which is ordinal) : thus we say, le premier 
de Janvier, le deux de JFivriery le trois de Mars, le quatre 
d'Avrily le cinq de Mai, &c. the first of January, the second 
of February, the third of March, the fourth of AprD, the 
fifth of May, &c. 

4. The English use the ordinal numbers with an ar- 
ticle after the Christian name of a sovereign ; the Frendi, 
on the contrary, use the cardinal (the two first excepted), 
and never put any article before them. Example: 
Henri premier, Henri second, Henri trois, Henri quoin, 
&c. ; Henry the first, Henry the second, Henry the third, 
Henry the fourth, &c ; we say also, nevertheless, Henry 
deux, Charles deux. 

5. The adverbs of number are formed from the ordtnal, 
by adding ment to the final : as, premier, dixieme, ordinal ; 
premierement, dixiimement, adverbs. 

There are again three other sorts of numbers, called 
collective, distrdmtive, and proportional: the collective de- 
notes a certain quantity of things joined together: as, 
une douzaine, a dozen ;. une cinquantaine, fifty. The itis- 
tribiUive express a part of the whole : as, la moiiiiy the 
half; le tiers, the third part; le dixieme, the tenth part, &c. 
The proportional express the same quantity multiplied: 
as, double, double ; fyiple, triple ; centuple, centuple. 



CHAP. IV. 

OF PRONOUNS. 

Pronouns are words used instead of nouns. If we were 
obliged to use a substantive before or after every verb, the 
repetition would be extremely tedious ; we avoid this in- 
convenience by the help of some little words used instead 
of them, which are called pronouns. They are of six sorts, 
called personal, possessive, demonstrative, relative, internh 
gative, and indeterminate, of which as follows : — 



OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS* 67 

L Of Personal Prorumns. 

The personal pronouns assign to persons three parts 
in discourse : the^r^ speaks, the second is spoken to, and 
vhe third is spoken of. The pronouns of the first person, 
jey mey moi, nous, and those of the second, tUy te, toi, vous, 
are said of persons only, or of personified objects ; but 
those of the third, il, ils ; elhy elles ; luiy leur, /e, lay les ; 
se, soi ; y, euy are said of persons, animals, and things. 

As the same pronoim is expressed one way when it is 
conjunctive (that is to say, indispensably joined to a verb), 
and another when disjunctive (that is to say, which may be 
used without any reference to a verb), strict attention 
must be given to the following declensions, in which they 
are carefully distinguished. 

Declension of Conjunctive Personcd Pronouns. 







FIRST 


PERSON. 








SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


N. 

G. 
D. 
Ac 


m.f. 

Je, 

£n, 

Me, 

Me, 


Of me. 
Tome. 
Me. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


m.f 

Nous, 
En, 
Nous, 
Nous, 


We. 
Of us. 
To us. 
Us. 






SECOND 


PERSON, 


» 




1 

N.' 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


7n.f. 

En, 
Te, 
Te, 


Thou. 
Of thee. 
To thee. 
Thee. 

HIRD 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 

PERSON. 


m.f. 

Vous, 

En, 

Vous, 

Vous, 


You. 
Of you. 
To yoiL. 
You. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


11,111. 

En, 

Lui, 

Le, 


He. 

Of him. 
To him. 
Him. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


lis, m. 
En, 
Leur, 
Les, 


They. 
Of them. 
To them. 
Them. 



D 5 



5S OW PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 







THIRD 


PERSON. 










SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


N. 
G. 
D, 
Ac. 


EUe, 
En, 
Lui, 
La, 


/. She. 
C)fher. 
To her. 
Her. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


Elles, 
En, 
■ LeuTj 
Les. 


./ 

( 


They. 
Cfihem. 
Toihm. 
Them. 






OF BOTH 


OSNDSRS. 




• 


N. • 
G, 
D. 
Ac. 


Se, 


• 

To one's 9^. 
One's seV. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


Se, 
Se, 


Toiheauehesm 
nemsehes. 



Ofrthe Disfunctive Personal Pronouns. 







yiRST 


PBRSON. 








SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


Moi, 
De moi, 
A moi, 
Moi, 


/. 

Tome. 

Me. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


Nous, 
De nous, 

A nous, 
N0US9 


We. 
Ofus. 
Tons. 
Us. 






SECOND 


PERSON 


. 




N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


Toi, 
De toi, 
A toi, 
Toi, 


Thou. 
Wthee. 
To thee. 
Thee. 

THIRD 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 

PERSON. 


Vous, 
De vous, 
A vous, 
Vous, 


You. 
Myou. 
To you. 
You. . 


N. 

G. 

D. 
Ac. 


Lui, m. 
De lui, 
A lui, 
Luiy 


Me. 

Ofhim. 
To him. 
Him, 


N. 
G. 
D. 
Ac. 


Eux, m. 
D'eux, 
A eux, 
Eux, 


They. 
Of them. 
To them. 
Them. 



N. Elle,/ She. N. Elles,/ They. 

G. D'elle, Of her. G. D'elles, Of them. 

D. A elle, To her. D. A elles, To them. 

Ac. Elle, Her. Ac. Elles, Them. 



PF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 59 

OF BOTH GENDERS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. — ^ , ^- — . 

G. De soi, Of ones self, G. De soi, Of themselves. 

D. A soi, To an^s self D. A soi, To themselves. 

Ac. Soi, Ones self Ac. Soi, Themselves. 



PronouTis used with reference to Animals^ and Things. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. II, elle, or ce. It. N. lis, elles, (yr ce, They. 

G. En, Of it. G. En, Of them. 

D. Lui, y, To it D. Leur, y. To them. 

Ac. Le, la, It. Ac. Les, Them. 

N. B. The compound pronouns wu>t-wi^c, myself ; toi- 
memey thyself; lui-memey himself; eHe-memet herself; nous' 
m^meSf ourselves ; vous-mimes, yourselves ; ettx-memes, 
themselves ; take the preposition de in the genitive case, 
and a in the dative. 

It has been already remarked, that en is only a substitute 
for a genitive case : it differs from a true pronoun as 
much as ^, which is an adverb signifying in or io tliat 
place. 



2. Of Possessive Pronouns. 

The possessive pronouns denote possession. They arc 
called coTifunctive, when they are joined to a noun, and 
disjunctive when they are used with reference to a noun 
antecedent. Both are declined as follows : 

Declension of Conjunctive Possessive Pronouns^ 

LINGULAR. PLURAL. 

m. f. m. &f ^ 

N Ac. mon, ma, mes, mt/* 

G* de mon, de ma, de mes, of my* 

D» a mon, a ma, ^ mes, 4q m^. 

D 6 



60 



OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



SINGULAR. 

m. /. 
N. Ac. ton, ta, 

G. de ton, de ta, 

D. a ton, k ta, 



PLURAL. 

tes, thy, 
de tes, of thy. 
d tes, to thy. 



N.Ac. 

G. 

D. 



SINGULAR. 

m. /. 

son, sa, 

de son, de sa, 

^ son» a sa. 



PLURAL. 



m. 8c f. 
ses, his, her, its. 
de ses, of his, Sfc. 
a ses, to hisy Sfc, 



SINGULAR. 



m. &f. 
N. Ac. notre, 
G. de notre, 

D. ^ notre. 



PLURAL. 

m.&f. 
nos, our. 
de nos, of our. 
a nos, to our. 



N. Ao. 

G. 

D. 



SINGULAR. 
m. &f. 

votre, 

de votre, 

^ votre. 



PLURAL. 



m.&f 
vos, your. 
de vos, of your, 
k vos, to your. 



SINGULAR. 

m. &f. 
N. Ac. leur, 
D. de leur, 

G. k leur. 



PLURAL. 



m.8^f 
leurs, their. 
de leurs, oftJteir. 
a leurs, to their. 



Declension of Disjunctive Possessive Pronouns. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

m. -f. tn, f. 

N.Acle midn, la mienne, les miens, les miennes, mine. 
G. du mien, de la mienne, des miens, des miennes, of mine. 
D. au mien, d la mienne, aux miens, aux miennes, to mine. 



OF POSSESSIVE FI^OKOUNS. 



61 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

tn» jl fn» fl 

N. Ac. le tieQ> la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes, thine> 
G. du tien, de la tienne, des tiens, des tiennes, of thine, 
D. au tien, k la tienne, aux tiens, aux tiennes, to thine. 



SINGULAR. 

m. f. 



PLURAL. 

N.Ac, le sien, la sienne, les siens, les siennes, hisy hermits, 
G. du sien, de la sienne, des siens, des siennes, of his, &c. 
D. au sien, a la sienne, aux siens, aux siennes, to his, &c. 



SINGULAR. 

N. Ac. le n6tre, la n6tre, 
G. du n6tre, de la n6tre, 

B. au n6tre, ^ la ndtre, 

' SINGULAR. 

N. Ac. le votre, la v6tre, 
G. du vdtre, de la vdtre, 

D. au votre, d la votre, 

SINGULAR. 

N. Ac le leur, la leur, 
G. du leur, de la leur, 

D. au leur, ^ la leur. 



PLURAL. 

les notres, ours, 
des notres, of ours. 
aux n6tres, to ours. 

PLURAL. 

m. &f. 

les votres, yours. 
des votres, of yours. 
aux votres, to yours, 

PLURAL. 

m. &f 

les leurs, theirs. 
des leurs, of theirs. 
aux leurs, to theirs. 



Observations upon these Pronmms. 

1. The possessive pronouns agree in gender and num« 
ber with the substantive which they precede, or to which 
they have reference. 

Son and sien do not refer, like his, her, its, in English, 
to the sex of the person; but agree in gender only with 
the noun that follows them. 



62 OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

2. Mon, ton, son, are used in the feminine instead of 
ma, to, sOy before a vowel or h mute : as, mon dme, mj 
soul, son humeur, his humour. 

S. The cor^imctive take the preposition de in the geni- 
tive case, and d in the dative, like proper names. The 
disjunctive are preceded by le, la, les, in the nominative ; 
by du, de la, deSf in the genitive ; and by ati, a kty aux, in 
the dative, like a substantive. 

4. Letir, to them, must not be confounded with leur, 
their. The first is a personal pronoun which goes before 
a verb, and never takes an s, as il leurparle, he speaks to 
them. The second is a possessive pronoun which goes 
before a sidistantive, and takes an « in the plural, as lewrs 
freres sont venus, their brothers are come. 

5. Notre and votre, conjunctive, are sounded short; 
le n^re, le vStre, disjunctive, are sounded long, and have 
a circumflex accent over 6: as, notre pere est mart; k 
v/kre est en bonne santi; our father is dead ; yours is in 
good health. 



3. Of Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Demonstrative pronouns denote precisely, and point out, 
?w it were, to the eye, the noun which they precede, or to 
which they have reference. They may be called cor^une- 
tive when they are joined to a substantive, and disfunetive 
)ivhen they have reference to a substantive antecedent. 

Pronouns used before a substantive. 

m. f. 

N. Ac. sing, ce, cet,* cette, this or that. 

G. de ce, de cet, de cette, of this or of that* 

D. k ce, a cet, a cette, to this or to thaU 

N. Ac. pL ces, — HI. kf these or those. 

G. de pes, of these or of those. . 

D. 4 ces> to these or to those. 

* This pronoun is used before a noun masculine, which bef^ns with 
a vowel or an h mute. 



OF DS&rOKSTRATIVE PROKbXTKS. 63 



Dem&nsiraiive PToncnms JoUowed by a gemti'ee or a relative 

Pronoun, 

U. F, 

N.Ac. sing. celui, celle, that, 

6. de celui, de celle, of mat* 

D« k celiUy a celle, to that* 

N Ac. pL ceuxy cdles, those, 

G. de ceux, de celles, '^^/uMe. 

D. ^ ceux, a celles, to those. 

Pronouns used with reference to the last Noun spoken of, 

M. F. 

N.Ac, sing, celui*ci, celle-ci, this, 

G. de celui-ci, de celle-ci, of this* 

D. k celui-ci, a celle-ci, to this, 

N. Ac. pL ceux-ci, celles-ci, these, 

G- de ceux-ci, de celles-ci, of these, 

D. a ceux-ci, a celles-ci, to these. 

Pronouns Used with rrference to the first Noun spoken of, 

N.Ac, skig, celui-ld, celle-1^ that' 

G. de celui-la, de celle-la, ofthaL 

D. a celui-la, / a celle-la, to that, 

N. Ac. pL ceux-1^, celles-la, those, 

G. de ceux-1^ de celles-la, of those, 

D. a ceux-la, d celles-la, to those. 

Pronouns used to denote an Ol^ect without naming it. 

N. Ac. sing, ceci, this, cela, that, 

G. de ceci, of this, de cela, ofthaL 

D. k ceci> to this. ^ cela, to thaL 



6i 



OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



4-. Of Relative Pronouns. 

Though every pronoun has reference to a substantive, 
and might be, on that account, called relative, yet the fol- 
lowing, qui, que, quoi, lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelks, 
especially bear that denomination, being more particularly 
related to their antecedent than any other. Of the rela- 
tive pronouns, some have reference only to persons or 
personified objects, and some to animals and things. They 
are declined as follows : 

Pronouns relative to Persons* 

M. F. SING. PLUR. 

N. qui, who> 

G. de qui, or dont, of whom. 

D d qui, to whom. 

Ac. qui, or que, whom. 



N. 



Pronouns relative to Animals and Tilings. 

SINGULAR. 

m. f. 



m.f. 
qui 



or lequel, laquelle, which. 



G. dont or duquel, de laquelle, of which. 



D. 

Ac. que 

m.f 



auquel, ^ laquelle, to which, 
or lequel, laquelle, which. 



PLURAI*- 

m. f. 

or lesquels, lesquelles. 



N. qui 

G. dont or desquels, desquelles, 

~ auxquels, aiKquelles, to which, 

or lesquels, lesquelles, which 



D. 

Ac. que 



which, 
of which. 



Observations. 1 . Dont, whereof, is a word of the same 
class with en and y, but has. come to be considered a pro- 
noun. 

2. The adverb ou is also substituted for lequel^ auquel, &c. 



OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 6o 



5. Of Interrogative Pronouns. 

Interrogative pronouns are those used to ask a ques- 
tion ; viz. qtbel^ quelle^ what or which ? used conjunetively ; 
and lequel, qui, quoi^ and qve, used disjunctively or abso" 
hUehfy for which, who, what ? 

Pronouns used tvith reference to Persons. 

N. qui ? who 9 

G. dequi? of whom? 

D. k qui ? to witom ? 

Ac. qui ? i£7Aom f 

Pronouns used with reference to Persons and Things, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

m. f m. f 

N. Ac. lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles, which f 
G. duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles, of which 9 
D. auquel, k laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles, to which 9 

What 9 used conjunctively. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

m. f m. f 

N. Ac. quel, quelle, quels, quelles, what 9 
G. de quel, de quelle, de quels, de quelles, of what 9 
D. ^ quel, ^ quelle, a quels, k quelles, to what 9 

What f not followed by a substantive. 

N. quoi, and que, what 9 

G. de quoi, of what 9 

D. a quoi, to what 9 

Ac. que, what 9 



66 OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 



6. Of Indeterminate PronouTis 

Indeterminate pronouns iu*e so called, because they 
allude to an object rather than specify it : they are divided 
into four classes. 

L Those which are never Joined to a Noun, 

091, one, people, they. fun VatUrey one anotlier. 

quelquun, somebody. autrm, others. 

quiconquey whoever. personne, m. nobody. 

citacun, every one. rien^ m. nothing. 

2. TTiose which are altoays joined to a Noun^ 

quelque, some. qtielconquey whatever. 

chaqtie, every, each. certain^ some* ^ 

3. Those whkh are sometimes joined to a Noun and 

sometimes not, 

nid, not oi^e. m I'un ni VautrCy neither. 

pas uny not on^ le mime, the same. 

nucuny not one. tely such. 

autrCy another, pltisieurs, many. 

Fun et faiUreyboth, tout, every,every thing 

I'un on fautrcy either. 

4f Those which arefollotoed by the Conjunction que. 

qui quCy whoever. quelque que, whatever. 

quoi que, whatever. tel qucy such as. 

quel qucy whoever or whatever, taut que, however. 
lequel quCy whichever. 

Observe,^!. After the indeterminate pronoun on, and 
others, in the singular, we express the personal pronouns 
which relate to them, by de soi, a soi, se, soi: as, on doit 
veiller sur soi, one must watch over one's self, chacun doit 
penser a soi, every one ought to take care of himself. 

2. L*un I autre makes Tun de Tauire, in the genitive, and 
Vun a V autre, in the dative ; Tun et V autre. Tun ou V autre, 
ni Vun ni Vautre, make de Vun et de Vautre, de Vun ou de 



OF VERBS. 67 

e, ni de Vun ni de Vttutre, in the genitive, and d Vun 
autre, d Vun ou d Vantre, ni d Vun ni d Vavtre^ in tlie 
3 ; le mime makes du mhns, au mime. 

All otlier pronouns take only the preposition de in 
enitive, and d in the dative. 



CHAR V. 

OF VERBS. 



is chapter is divided into ei^^ht sections : the firU 
A of the nature and species of verbs ; //le second treats 
eir different moods, tenses, numbers, and persons; 
vrd gives the conjugation of the auxiliaries avoir and 
ind contauis a list of those conjugated with to have 
iglish, and with itre in French ; we fourth compre- 
I the regular conjugations ; ihejifth contains all the 
liar verbs, in alphabetical order, fully explained ; the 
treats of tlie impersonal verbs ; the seventh displays 
conjugation of a verb, reflected on its conjunctive 
»un ; and the eighth teaches several manners of con- 
ing a verb. 



SECTION THE FIRST. 
Cfthe Nature and Species of Verbs, 

verby according to the Latin etymology, verbum, is the 
by which we make an assertion, concerning any 
in the nominative case. 

verb denotes an action done, or received ; or ex- 
es only the state of its nominative case ; hence arise 
! distinct sorts of verbs, which are called, 

1, active, actif 

2, passive, passif 

3, neuter, neutre. 

ie aiiwe verb expresses the action of its nominative 
gard to some object^ or noun in the accusative e^&e v 



68 DIFFERENT SORTS OF VERBS. 

as, Charles etudie sa legon^ Charles studies his lesson: 
etudie is a verb active, which expresses the action ^ 
Charles in regard to his lesson. 

The passive verb expresses an action received by its no- 
minative case : as, les mdchans serant jpunis de ZHatt 
wicked people will be punished by God. It will not en- 
gage our attention here, as it is rendered by the auxiliary 
verb etre, to be, in French as in English^ 

The neuter verb expresses the state of its nominative 
case : as, Je sfiis, I am ; Je dors, I sleep ; je langmSy I 
languish. It expresses also an action, but absolutely, or 
without reference to an object, or noun in the accusative 
case : as,^^ marche^ I walk,ya^, I act. 

Verbs admit of six further distinctions or epithets. 

VERBS, 

1, auxiliary, auxiliaires 

% reflected, rejUchis. 

3, personal, personnels, 

4, impersonal, impersonnels. 

5, regular, rigtdiers. 

6, irregular, irrigtUiers, 

1. The aiLoeiliary verbs are these two: avoir, to have; 
and itre, to be : they are called auxiliaries, because they 
help to conjugate all other verbs in their compound 
tenses. 

2. 7%c reflected verbs are those which have for subject 
md object the same person or thing : m, Je me live, I 
rise ; Je nChabille, I dress myself; Je me ripens, I repent. 

3. The personal verbs are those which are conjugated 
with three persons in the singular number, and three in 
the plural, in all the tenses of the indicative and subjunc- 
tive moods : as, Je park, tu paries, ilparle, nous p(mmh 
vous parlez, &c. ^ 

4. The impersonal verbs are those which are used only 
in the third person singular of each tense : as, ilpkut, it 
rains ; il neige, it snows ; il geh, it freezes. 

5. The regular verbs are those which are conjugated in ' 
all their tenses and persons, like the verb of the same &» 



OF MOODS, TEKSES, NUMBERS, ETC. G':) 

in the infinitive, which is given for example in regular con- 
jugations : thus, for instance, chanter and danser, to sing, 
aijd to dance, are regular of the first conjugation, because 
they are conjugated like parler in all their tenses and 
persons. 

The irregular verbs are those which deviate in some 
tenses or persons, from the verb regular of the same con- 
jugation which is given for example : thus, allevy to go, is 
irregular, because it is not conjugated like parler, though 
it has the same final in the infinitive mood. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 
Cf Moodsy Tensesy Number Sy and Persons (f Verbs, 

Verbs are necessarily subject, 1. to moods, whereby 
they are adapted to different modes of speaking ; 2. to 
tenses, by the help of which they represent the thing 
spoken of, as present, past, or future ; S. to numbers and 
persons, that they may agree with their nominative case. 
What is called conjugation is the method of varying these 
diiFerent moods, tenses, numbers, and persons. 

1. OF MOODS. 

Moods are the different manners of using a verb. There 
are four moods ; the infinitivBy the indicative, the sybjunc- 
Hve, and the imperative. 

The irtfinitive mood, which is the root of a verb, and by 
which the conjugations are distinguished from each other, 
eiepresses an action, but in an indeterminate manner, with- 
out specifying any particular agent : as, parler, to speak ; 
dormtr, to sleep ; agir, to act, &c. 

The indicative mood is adapted to the utterance of de- 
clarations and propositions : it forms a sense pf itself in- 
dependently of what precedes or follows : asj^e vetuc, I am 
willing ; Jicris, I am writing ; je parte, I speak. 

The subjunctive mood employs different tenses, but de- 
pendently on the verb or conjunction antecedent : as, il 



70 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

faut que nous soyons modestesy qudque mirite que nous 
ayons : if you take out ilfatct que, quelque ndriie que^ the 
rest, nous soyons, nous ayons, have not a complete sense. 

The imperative mood expresses the action of desiring, 
commanding, exhorting, &c. : as, ripondez'moi, answer 
me : — 

Tenez votre parole invioiablement, 
Mais ne la donnez pas inconsidirement* 

2. OF TENSES. 

Tenses refer to the time; and are expressed by different 
terminations : a verb has reference to present, past, or 
future. Their names are found in the following conjuga- 
tions, and their use is fully explained in the Syntax, 
chapters 15, 16, and 17. 

3. OF NUMBERS AND PERSONS. 

There are two numbers in a verb, which are the sm- 
gtdar and plwral: the singular is used when we speak df 
one : as, votre frere est mort, your brother is dead ; aaoA. the 
plural, when we speak of more than one : as, vos frhes 
sont marts, your brothers are dead. 

There are three persons in each number : iJie first is 
used when we speak of ourselves, (he second when we 
speak to another, and (he third when we speak of another. 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
Conjugation cf the afuxiliary Verb Avoir, to have, 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present tenee, avoir, to have* 

Gerund, ayant, having. 

Participle, eu, m. eue, / had. 

Compound of the present, avoir eu, to have had. 

Compound of the gerund, ayant eu, having had. 



OF AUXILIARY V£RBS. 71 






INDICATIVE MOOD. 

/ 

, PRESENT TENSE. 

■ i .■.■-,■, f^. /■. .. t • ' - * * 

SINGULAR. ' " PLURAL. 

*, I have Nous avons, we have 

s, thou hast vous avez, i/ou have, 

he has. ils ont» the^^ have, 

IMPERFECT^ 

ais, I had. 'Sons anions, toe had, 

vais, thou hadst. vous aviez, you had, 
aity he had, ils avaient, £ft«y had, 

PRETERITE. 

s, I had, "Sous eumes, toe had, 

us, thou hadst, vos eutes, i/ou had, 
Lt he had, ils eurent, they had, 



FUTURE. 

x2i\^ I shall or wilTi ^Nousaurons, vse shall \ ^ 
\3X2&yihou shaU > | vous aurez, youshaU\ | 
ira, Ae shall j ^^ auront, M^ ^Ao//) "^ 

CONDITIONAL. 

rais, IwauM 1 ^Nous aurions,t£«fM7MiSi 1 ^ 
irais, thouwouidest '^ | vous auriez, ^oti would > | 
raxty he would J '^ ils auraient, theyuxnddj ^ 

eiTUi? o^ the presenty J*ai eu, &c. / have had, 

und of the imperfect, J'avais eu, &c. / had had, 

und of the preterite, J'eus eu, &c. I had had. 

und of the future, J'aurai euy&clshcdl have had, 

J j^al j'Ai 1 f J'aurais eu, or I'eusse eu, &c. 
mdofiheanidaumd, 3^ I,,^^Uad. 

! figures 1, 2, 3, denote tiie first, second, and third penons. 



72 OF AUXILIARY VERBS, 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TBNSE. 

Que That 

1. JTaie, I may have, Nous'ayons, we may have, 

2. tu aies, thou mayest have, vous ayez, you may have, 

3. il ait, he may have, lis aient, they may havi. 

PRETERITE. 

1. J eusse, I might have. Nous eussions, toe might have. 
^, tM Q\}%%eSytkoumightest. vous eussiez, you might hasoe. 
3. il eOlty he might have, ils eussent, they might ham. 

Compound of the present^ J'aie eu, / may have had. 
Compound of the preterite^ Xeusse eu, / might have had. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Ayons, let us have. 

2. aies, have thou. ayez, have ye. 

3. qu il ait, let him have. qu*ils aient, let them %ive. ^ 

N. B. Though I have only put the first person of the 
compound tenses, the pupil must repeat all the persons by 
heart. 



Conjugation of the awnliary verby etre, to be. 
INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present tensey 


etre, 


to be. 


Gerund, 

Participle, 

Compound of tlie present. 

Compound of the gerund. 


^tant, 
6t§, 

avoir 6te, 
ayant §te. 


being. 

been. 

to have been, 

having been^ 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 



SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 . Je suis, / am. Nous sommes, toe are. . 

2. tu es, ^lou art. vous etes, yote are. 

3. il est, he is. ils sont, they are. 



OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 73 

IMPERFECT. 

1. J* 6tais, I was. Nous 6tions, we were. 

2> tu ^taisy thou wast vous 6tiez, you tvei'e. 
3. ft. ^^ty he was. ils 6taient, lA^ were. / 

PRETERITE. 

1. Je fus, I was. Nous ftlmes, we were. , 

2. tu fvL%jf[ thou wast vous futes, t/ou were. 

3. il fut«^ Ae was. ils furent, lA«y tc^ere 

i FUTURE. 

1 . Je serwL I shaU or t&t^ he. Nous serons^ ti^e <^aiZ or will be. 
B. tu serls, thou shaU or u;i/if be, vous serez, ^ou «Aa// or tuill be. 
3. il sera he shall or t&t/Z be, ils seront, Mej/ «^// or will be 

CONDITIONAL. 

1* Je serais, I would be. Nous serions, we would be. 

2. tu serais, thou wotddst be. vous seriez, you tooidd be. 

3. il serait, he would be. ils seraient, they vx}uM be. 

Can^pound of the presenty J'ai 6t6, I have been. 

Compound of the imperfect^ J'avais 6t6, 1 had been. 

Compound of the preteritey J'eus 6t6, I had been. 

Compound ofthefuturey J^aurai 6t6, / shaU have been. 

ry J r^T, j-j-r i f J*aurais 6t6, or j'eusse 6t6, 

Compound of the condttunudy | i ...auld Lve^been. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Que That 

]. Je sois, I may be. Nous soyons, we may be. 

% tu sols, thou mayst be. vous soyez, you may be. 

3. il soit he may be. ils soient, they may be. 

PRETERITE. 

1. Je fusse, I might be. Nous fussions, we might be. 

2. tafusaesy thou mightst be. vous fussiez, you might be, 
$• U fut, he might be. ils fussent, they might be, 

OoO^xmnd of the present, Jaie ^t6, I may have been. 
Con^found of the pretxritey J'eusse 6t6, 1 might have been. 



74 



OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



2. sois, be thfiu* 

3. qu'il soit, let him be. 



Soyonty ' Ittttsbe* 

soyez, bet/e. 

qu*ils Solent, let them be. i 



r 

These two verbs, avoir and itrey help td conjugate all 
others in their compound tenses, wid therefore must be 
learnt perfectly. AU verbs conjugated with the verb to he 
in English, take itre in French ; but all those conjugated 
with to have in English, do not take avoir in French. Hie 
following are excepted : -— 



Verbs cov^vgaled toith To Have» in EngUsh^ and Etre •» 

French. 

\. All reflected and reciprocal verbs, without exc^>tioii, 
take, in their compound tenses, the auxiliary iire m 
Frencjh, and the auxiliary to have in English. 

2. The sixteen following are conjugated with itr€ m 
French, and to have in Engfish : — 



aller, 
arriver, 
dichoir, 
d6cider. 


to go. 
to arrive, 
to decay. 
■ to die. 


entrer, 

mourir, 

naitre. 


to come in. 
to die. 
to be born. 


partir, 


to set Ota. 



tomber 

venir, 

devenir, 

disconvenir, 

intervenir, 

parvenir, 

revenir, 

survenir. 



tofaH 
to come, 
to become, 
to disagree, 
to intervene, 
to attain, 
tocome badu 
tohappen. 



These six, acc&wrir^ to run to; accroUre, to increase; 
apparaitrcy to appear ; croOre, to grow ; ditparaUre, to dis- 
appear ; and j9^>, to perish ; which are always conjugated 
with the auxiliary to have in English, are conjugated in 
French with avoir or itre, according as action or state is 
more particularly meant. 



REGULAR CONJUGATIONS. Y5 

Verbs vjikkh iake Avoir in one siffnificatton^ and Eire tn 

another. 

These six verbs, accauchery canventry demeurery descendre, 
fnorUbTy ttod patsery take avotry or itre, in their compound 
tenses, according to the following distinctions : — 

1. A^coucher takes avoiry when used in an active sense, 
BOEid 4irey when used as a verb neuter : as, voire mere est oc- 
oouck^ monfrkre Ta ojcc&acMe ; your mother' is brought 
to bed, my brother has delivered her. 

2. Cowoemr takes avoiry when it means to he convenient, 
and itrty when it signifies to agree .- as, votre maison aurait 
eonvenu a tnonpereyje suisfdcheqite votes ne soy ez pas con- 
wfenus duprix ; your house would have suited my father, 
I am sorry that you have not agreed upon the terms. 

3. Demeurer takes avoir, when it signifies to live in, 
and ^^ when it signifies to remain: as, y'ai demeure k 
Jjondresy I have lived in London ; il est demeur^ tn^a9»- 
iabUy he has remained immoveable. 

4. Descendre takes avoir, when it governs an accusative 
case, and itre in other cases : as, t/ a descendu Vesealier, he 
has gone down stairs ; il est descendu dune bonne famille, 
he is descended finom a good family. 

5. Monter takes avoir, when it governs the accusative, 
and itre in other cases : as, y'ai montd la colline, I have 
ascended the hill ; Je suis monti par degris aux charges 
militairwt I have ascended by degrees to military employ- 
ments* 

ۥ I^EUser takes avoiry when it is followed by a noun or 
a pronoun, and itre when not : B,s,fa.ipassipar la France, 
I ^ve passed through France ; cette mode estpassie, that 
^iriiion is past. 



SECTION THE FOURTH. 
QfJReguIar Conjugations. 

A comparative view of the different terminations of 
in &eir moods, tenses, and persons, enables us to 

E 2 



76 REGULAR CONJUGATIONS.. 

refer them all to one or other of two classes, distinguished 
by the ending of the infinitive mood in ER or IR: v^ 
parlevy to speak, agir^ to act, which we select as examplei 
of the two regular conjugations. 

Some verbs have the ending RE or OIR in the in- 
finitive mood ; and some of those in ER and IR deviate 
from the models, /^r/i^ and agivy in forming their tenses: 
these will be treated of in a separate section, on the coih 
jugation of irregular verbs. 



First Conjugation^ Parler. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present tense, parler, to speaks 

Gertmdy parlant, speaking. 

Participle^ parl6, spoken. 

Compound of the present, avoir parl6, to haoe ^poioi. 

Compound of the gerund^ ayant parl6, having tpohau 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

FRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. FLURAL. 

Je parle, / speak, Nous parlous, we spealL 

tu paries, ihau speakest, vous parlez, gou speak. 
il parle, he speaks. ils parlent, iheg speak* 



IMPERFECT. 



Je parlais, I was 1 i Nous parlions, we were 
tu parlais, thou wast \ | vous parliez, you were 
il parlait, he was J & ils parlaient, Hftc^ lewfv 



}( 



PRETERITE. 

Je parlai, I spoke. Nous parltoes, wesp(Ae. 

tu parlasy thou ^pokest. vous parlStes, you ipoke. ^ 
ii parla, he spoke. (Is parl^ent^ <lfte|/ ^polf ' 



REGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 77 

FUTURE. 

Je parleraiy IshctH speak. Nous parlerons, we shaU speak. 
tu parleras, thoushaUspeak.yo\x& parlerez, you shall speak, 
lis parlera> he shall speak, ils parleront> they shall speak. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Je parlenus,/ti^e^ 1 .J^ouspBxlerionSfVje tuotild 1 . 
tu parlerais, <^^ watildst>%vo}is parleriez, you wovJd> % 
U parleraity A« trot^ j **ils i^Bx\erBLVNit,iheyvxmldy ^ 

Compound of the present^ J*2X parli, I have spoken, 
Con^Hnmd of the impevfect^ J'avais parl6, / had spoken. 
Compound of the preteritey JTeus park, I had spoken. 
Ccmpofimd of the future^ J'aurai parle, / shaU have spoken. 
Compound of the condU 1 J*aurais or j*eusse parle, I would 
tionedf J have spoken. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Que That 

Je parle> I may speak. Nous parlious, we may speak. 

tu paries, thou mayst speak, vous parliez, you may speak. 

n parle, hemay speak. ils parlent> they may speak. 

PRETERITE. 

Je parlasse, / ndght speak. Nous parlassions^t/^^ niigkt speak, 
tu parlasses, Motf wightst speak, vous parlassiez, you might speak. 
Jl parl&ty he migfU specie. ils parlassent, theyrmghtspeak. 

Compownd of the present^ J*aie parl6, / mjay have spoken. 
Canyiound ^^ preterite, J'eusse parl^, I might have spoken, 

IMPERATIVE' MOOD 

Parlous, let us speak. 

2. parle> yf^eak thou, parlez, speak ye, 

S. qu'il parle> tet him speak, qu'ils parlenc, Ut them speak. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. WaSy with the gerund in ing^ is the mark of the im- 
perfect in all verbs, shall or loilly of the future, vxmld, 

£ 3 



78 REGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 

covMy or~ sfumldy of the conditional, may of the present 
subjunctive, might of the preterite, and let of the impera- 
tive mood. 

2. Most French verbs have the infinitive in er, and an 
conjugated the same as parkry except aUer^ envayerj and 
renvoyer, which are in the list of irregulars. 

3. Verbs which end in ayery oyer, or uyer^ in the in- 
finitive mood retain i after y, in the first and second persons 
of the plural of the imperfect of the indicative, and pre- 
sent of the subjunctive : as, essayer, employery essuyer^ in£ 
nous essayionsy vous essayiez; nous emphyumsy vau$ m- 
ployiez ; notis essuyumSj vous essuyiezy imperfect indicative^ 
and present subjunctive. When y would be followed bjr 
an e mute, it is changed into t •• as, bcdayer^ to swe^ 
balaie. 

4. Verbs which in the infinitive end in iery are written 
with double it in the first and second persons plural of the 
imperfect of the indicative, and of the present of the sub- 
junctive : as, priery plievy inf. nous priionsy nous pluom; 
vouspriiezy vousplUeZy imperfect indicative, andpres. sulij. 

5. Orthography requires an e between g and a or ^ 

through the whole conjugation of verbs which end in g€t 

in the infinitive mood. Thus we say, jugery jugea$Uy ji 

jugeaisy nousjugeons; partagery je partageaisy &c, noljfi^ 

gantyjtigaisy as we say, parlant parkus, 

N. B. As the compound tenses of all verbs, r^^ular aad 
irregular, are nothing else than the conjugation of the 
verbs avoir or itrcy and the participle of the verb oofjii- 
gated ; the scholar, knowing well the auxiliaries, knam 
how to conjugate the compound tenses of all verbs ; there- 
fore we may dispense with inserting them in the followiDg 
conjugations. 



Second Cof^ugaHon. Agir 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present tense^ agir, to act. 

Gerundy agissant, acting 

Pqrticiple, agi, acted. 



REGULAR CONJUGATIONS. ?9 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

J' agisy I act. Nous agissons, we act 

tu agisy Ihou adest. vous agissee> you act. 

il agity he acts. Us agissent, ^let/ act. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

J* a^ssaiSy Itaas "^ ^ Nous agissions, tc^e t^^ere 1 ^ 
tu agissaisy thou toast > I vous agissiez, you toere > -| 
il agissaity he was J ^ ils agissaient,Mey were} ^ 



PRETERITE. 



J* agis, I acted. Nous agimes, we acted, 

tu agisy Uum actedst. vous agites, you acted. 
il agity he acted. ils agirent, they acted. 



FUTURE. 



J* agiraiy I shaU or will act Nous agirons, we shall act. 
tu agirasy thou shalty &c. €ict. vous agirez^ you shall act. 
il agira» he shaUy &c. act. ils agiront, they shall act 

CONDITIONAL. 

J' agiraisy Iwouldf &c. act* Nous agirions, ice would act. 
tu agirais, thou wouldst act. vous agiriez> you wmdd act. 
il agiraity he would act. ils agiraient,^Ae^ would act. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Que 7%u 

T agisse, I may act. Nous agissions, we may act 

tu agisseSy thou mayst acL vous agissiez, you may act 

il apissei he may act ils agissent, they may act 

PRETERITS. 

J' agisse, I might act. Nous agissions, «;e m^A/ oc^ 

tu agisseSy ihou mightst act. vous agissiez, you might act 
il agtt, he migiu act. ils agissent, they might act. 

E 4> 



^0 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Agissons, lei us acL 

2. agisy actthcu. agissez, act ye. 

3. qu*il agisse, let him act, qu'ils agissent, let them act* 

All verbs which end in the infinitive mood in t>, except 
those mentioned in the list of irregular conjugations, are 
regular in French, and conjugated after agir, HeMr^ to 
hate, is conjugated in the same manner; hut in the singular 
of the indicative present it makes je haisy tu haisy U kait, 
pronounced, ^e his, tu hisy il het. 



SECTION THE FIFTH. 
CknjugaJdon of aUihc Irregular Verbs. 

I. Absoudre, to absolve.* 

Irtf. Absoudre, to absolve. Crer. absolvant, absohnng. 

Part absousy absolved. 



PLURAL. 

1 2 S 

absolv -ons, ez, ent 

absolv -ions, iez, aient, 

absoud -rons, rez, ront . 
absoud -rions, riez, raienfe 

absolv -ions, iez, ent 

absolv -ons, ez, ent 



SINGULAR. 

Pres, Jabsou -s, s, t; 

Imp. Jabsolv -ais, ais, ait; 

Pret. None. 

Put. JTabsoud -rai, ras, ra; 

Cond. JTabsoud -rais, rais, rait ; 

S.P. Jabsolv -e, es, e; 

Pr^ None. 

Imper. abs- ous, olve ; 

On absoudre, as a patteruy confugate didsoudre, but fwi 

risQudre. 

* The pupil must learn to repeat ifae English words wiudi answer 
to every tense and person of the French verbs : this will be an eaagf 
task, if. he remembers that to is Ihe mark of the present of the infini- 
tive ; waSt with the gerund, the marie of the imperfect of the indicative ; 
tkaU or will of the Aiture ; would, could, or should, of the conditiooal; 
may of the present of the subjimctive ; rmght of the preterite ; and Idt 
of die imperative mood. The figures 1, 2, S, denote the first, seocHidi 
'Old third persons of the singular and plund. 



.IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



81 



an baitre 


5. 


on tenir 


43. 


an traire 


4f. 


an courir 


11. 


an connaltre 11. 


an cueillir 


15. 



Ooi^t^ Abattre, io pull downy 
S'abstenir, to refrain^ 
Abstraire, to abstrojcty 
Accourir, io run to, w. ^tre 
Accroitre, to increasey w. ^tre 
Accueillir, to wdcomey 



II. AcQUERiR, to acquire, 
hf* Acqu^rir, to acquire, Ger, acqu^rant, acquiring. 
Part, acquis, acquired. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

12 3 1 .2 3 

r. J'acquie -rs, rs, rt ; acqu -^rons, 6rez, ierent. 
. J*acqu6r -ais, ais, ait; acqu^r -ions, iez, aient. 
« J'acqu -is, is, it; acqu -iraes, ites, irent. 
J'acquer -rai, ras, ra; acquer -rons, rez, rent, 
rf. JTacquer -rais,rais, rait; acquer -rions, riez, r aient 
\ J'acqui^r -e, es, e ; acqu -6rions,6riez,i^rent. 
« J'acqui -isse,isses,it; acqu -is$ons,issiez,is8ent. 
er. acqui -ers, ere ; acqu -6rons, ^rez, ierent. 

Adjoindre, to Join tOy an craindre 13. 
Admettre, to admity an mettre 23. 



III. AlLer, to goy toith Hre. 
C AUer, to go. Ger, allant, going. Part^^^y gone. 




y. Je 
.. J'all 
e.J*aU 
. J'i 
td.ri 
\ Jwll 



-Tais, 

-ais, 

-ai, 

-rai, 

-rais, 

-e 



vas, 

ais, 

as, 

ras, 

rai&, 

es, 



va; 

ait; 

a; 

ra; 

rait; 

e; 



allons, 
all -ions, 
all -Ames, 
i -rbns, 
i -rions, 
all -ions. 



allez, 
iez, 
&tes, 
rez, 
riez, 
iez, 
all -assions, assiez, assent, 
allons, allez, allien t 

35. 



vont. 

aient. 

erent. ^^ 

ront. 

raient. 

aillent. 



tJail -asse, asses, kt; 
ler. va, aille ; 

S'apercevoir, to perceive, on recevoir 

Appartenir, to oelong, on tenir 43. 

Appendre, to append, on vendre 47. 

Apprendre, to learn, on prendre 33. 

Assaillir *, to assauliy an cueillir 15. 



VttSSr makes in the future and con^tionAi fassailHraiffassaiUirais* 

IS. 5 



t70AT] 



S2 IRREGULAR CONJt79ATIOK8. 

IV. S'asseoir, to sk dmofu 

Inf, S'asseoir, to sit doton. Ger, s'ass^yant, sittii 

Part, assisy sat 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 2 S 1 2 

Pres, Je m*ass -ieds, ieds, ied; asse -yons, yez, 

Imp, Je m'assey-ais, ais, ait ; assey-ions, iez, 

Pret, Je m*ass ^is, is, • it ; ass -imes. f tes, 

Put. Jem*assi6-rai*,ras, ra; assi6-rons, rez, 

CondJe m'assi6 -rais*,rais, rait; assi^ -rions, ries, 

S, P. Je m'assey-e, es, e ; asse -yions, yiez, 
Pret, Je m*as8 -isse, isses, it ; ass -issioos, issiez, 

In^per. ass -ieds, eye; asse -yons, yez, 

Astreindre, to subject^ on craindre 13. 

Atteindre, toreaehy om craindre 13. 

Attendre, to awaits on vendre 47< 

Attraire, to attract^ on traire 44. 

Avoir, to have. See Ch. 5. section S. 

V. Battre, to beat. 

Inf. Battre, to heat. Get. Battant, beaUng. I 

battu, beaten. 

Pres. Je ba -tis, ts, t ; batt -ons, ess, < 

Imp. Je batt -ais, ais, ait ; batt -ions, iez, ; 

Pret, Je batt -is, is, it ; \aXt -imes, ites, j 

Put. Je batt -rai, ras, ra ; batt -rons, rez, ] 

Cond. Je batt -rais, rais, rait ; batt -rions, riez, i 

S. P. Je batt -e, es, e ; batt -ions, iez, \ 

Pret. Je batt -isse, isses, it ; batt -issions, issiez, i 

Imper. ba -ts, tie ; batt -ons, ez, < 

VI. BoiRE, to drink. 

Inf. Boire, to drink. Ger. buvant, drinking, I 

bu, drank. 

Pres. Je boi -s, s, t ; buv -ons, ez, h 
Imp. Je buv -ais, ais, ait ; buv -ions, iez, ai 

• We also sa.y,je m*asseyerai,je nCnateyerm. 



TRREGVLAK CONJUGATIONS; 



83 



LINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 




1 2 


3 


1 2 


3 


PrtEt. Je b -us, us, 


at; 


b -umes, utes. 


urent. 


Fut, Je boi -rai, rieis, 


ra; 


boi -Tons, re?:, 


ront. 


CinuL3e boi ^ais, rais. 


rait; 


boi -rions, riez. 


raient. 


S, P. Je boiv-e, es, 


e; 


buv-ions, iez, 


boivent. 



PreL Je b -usse, usses, ut ; b -ussions, ussicz, ussent. 
Irnper. bois, boive; buvons, buvez, boivent. 



Vn. BOUILLIR, to botl. 

Inf. Bouillir, to bail. Ger, bouillant, boiling. Part, 

bouilli, boiled. 



Pres, Je bou -s, s, t ; bouill 

Imp. Je bouill -ais/ ais, ait; bouill 

Prei. Je bouill -is, is, it ; bouill 

Pui» Je bouilli-rai, ras, ra ; bouilli 

Comi. Je bouiUi-rais, rais, rait ; bouilli 

S. P. Je bouill -e, es, e ; bouill ■ 

Prei. Je bouill -isse, isses,it ; bouill 

Imper. bous, bouille ; bouill 



•ODS, 

•ions, 

•imes; 

■rons, 

•rions, 

•ions. 



ez, 

iez, 

ites, 

rez, 

riez, 

iez. 



ent. 

aient. 

irent. 

ront. 

raient. 

ent. 



-isfiions, issiez, issent. 



-ons, 



ez, 



Circoncire*, 

Circonscrire, 

Combattre, 

Commettre, 

Se complaire, 

Compren^e, 

Compromettre, 

Concevoir, 



to circumcise, 
to circumscribey 
1x>fighty 
to commit, 
to please, 
to understand, 
to expose, 
to conceive, 



on confire 
on 6crire 
on battre 
on mettre 
on plaire 
on pendre 
on mettre 
on recevoir 



ent. 

9. 
17. 

5. 
23. 
30. 
33. 
23. 
35. 



VIIL CoNCLURE, to conclude. 

Lrf. Condure, to conclude. Ger. concluant, concluding. 

Part conclu, concluded. 

Pre$. Jeconcl -us, us, ut; conclu-ons, 

In^ Je coKiclu''ais, ais, ait; conclu-ions, 

PreL Je oond -us, us, ut ; concl -iimes, 

FuL Je condu-rai, ras, ra ; condu-rons, 



ez, 
iez, 
utes, 
rez. 



ent. 
aieiit. 
urent. 
ront. 



But the participle is circoncis, 
E 6 



84i 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



SINGULAR. PLURAIr* 

12 3 12 3 

CWf. Jeconclu-rais^rais, rait;conclu-rions9 riez^ raient 
S, P. Je conclu-e, es, e ; conclu-ions, iee, ent 
PreL Je concl -usse,us8es,iit; concl -ussioiis,ussiez,us8ent 
Imper. concl -us, ue; conclu-ons, ez, ent 



Concourir, to compete, 
Condescendre, to condescend, 
Conduire, to conduct, 



on courir 12. 
on vendre 47. 
on mstruire21. 



CoNFiRE, to pickle. 

I pickle* Ger, confisant, pickUng, 
"^art confit, piMed. 



Pres, Je conf -is, is, it ; 

in^. Jeconfis-ais, ais, ait; 

Pret. Je conf -is, is, it ; 

Put* Je confi -rai ras, ra; 

Cond.Je confi -rais, rais, rait; 

iS^. P. Je confis-e es, e ; 
Pret Je conf -isse, isses, it ; 

Imper. conf -is, ise; 



confis-ons, ez, ent 

confis-ions, iez, aient 

conf -imes,- Ites, irent 

confi -rons, rez, ront 

confi -rions, riez, raient 

confis-ions, iez, ent . 

conf -issions, isslez, issent 

confis-ons, ez, ent 



Confondre, 

Conjoindre, 

Conqu^rir, 

Consentir, 

Construire, 

Contraindre, 

Contenir, 

Contredire, * 

Contrefaire, 

Contrevenir, 

Convaincre, 

Convenir, 

Correspondre, 

Corrompre, 



to confound, 
to conjoin, 
to conquer, 
to consent, 
to construct, 
to constrain, 
to contain, 
to contradict, 
to mimic, 
to contravene, 
to convince, 
to agree, 
to correspond, 
to corrtqpt. 



on vendre 47. 

on craindre 18. 

on acquerir % 

on sentir 41. 
on instruire 21. 

on craindre 13. 

on tenir 43. 

on dire 16. 

on fiiire, 19. 

on tenir 43. 

on vaincre 45. 

on tenir 43. 

on vendre 47- 

on rompre 39. 



* But it makes in the second person plural of the indicatire and ( 
tbe imperatiTe contredUex, 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS 



85 



X, CoNNAixRE, to knou. 

Inf. Connattre, to know. Ger. connaissant, knowing. 

Part, connu, knmon. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

12 3 12 3 

Preff. Je connai -s, s^ t ; coDnaiss-onSy ez, ent. 
Imp^ Je connaiss-ais, ais> ait; connaiss-ioDS, iez, aient. 
PreL Je conn -us> us, ut ; conn -umes^utes, urent. 
Fvt, Je connait -rai, ras, ra ; connait -rons, rez^ ront. ^ 
CondJe coandXt -rais, raisprait; connait -rions,riez, raient. 
iS^jP. Je connaiss-e, es, ' e; connaiss-ions, iez, ent 
PreL Je conn -usse,usses,ut ; conn -ussions^ussiez^ussent. 
Imper. connai -s, sse; connaiss-ons, ez, ent. 



XI. CouDRE, tasew. 

Inf. Coudre, to sew. Ger. cousant, sewing. 

cousu, sewed. 

Pres. Je cou -ds, ds, d ; 
Imp. Jecous-ais, ais, ait; 
PreL Jecous-is, is, it; 
Fut. Jecoud-rai, ras, ra; 
Cond. Je coud -rais, rais, rait ; 
S.P. Jecous-e, es, e; 
Pret. Je cous -isse, isses^ it ; 
Imper. cou -ds, se; 



Part 



cous -ons. 


ez, 


ent. 


cous -dons, 


iez, 


aient. 


cous -imes> 


ites, 


irent. 


coud -rons, 


rez, 


ront.^V 


coud -rions, 


riez, 


raient. ^ 


cous -ions, 


iez, 


ent. 


cous -issions, 


issieZ] 


, issent. 


cous -ons, 


ez, 


ent. 



XII. CouRiR, to run. 

h^. Courir, to run. Get. courant, running Part. 

couru, run. 



Pres. Je cou 
If/^. Je cour 
Pret. Je cour 
FuL Je cour 
Cond. Je cour 
8. P. Je cour 
Pret. Jecour 
Imper. cour 



-rs, rs, rt; cour 
-ais, ais, ait; cour 
-us, us, ut; cour 
-rai, ras, ra ; cour 
-rtus, rais,rait; cour 
-e, es, e; cour 
-usse,usses,tit; cour 
-s, e; cour 



-ons, 


ez. 


ent 


-ions. 


iez, 


aient. 


-Oimes, 


utes, 


urent 


-rons, 


rez, 


ront. 


-rions, 


riez, 


raient 


-ions, 


iez. 


ent 


•ussions 


, ussiez, 


ussent 


-OTIS, 


^SL^ 


e«^ 



86 IRREGULAR CONJUGATlOira. 

XIII. Craindre, to fear, 

Ir^, Craindre^ to fear, Ger, craignant, fearing. Part 

cx^t, feared, 

SINGULAR. FLURAXi 

12 3 1 2 3 

Pr«.. Jecrai -ns, ds, nt; crai -^ons, gnez, gn^t. 

Imp, Je crai -giiais,gnais, gnait; crai -gnions, gmez, gnaknt 

Pret, Je crai -gois, gnis, gnit; end -gnimesy gnltesy gnireBt 

Fvi, Je craindvrai, ras, ra; craind-rons, rez, root. 

C(md.Je craind-rais, rais, rait; cndnd-nons, riez, raient. 

S. P. Je crai -gne, gnes, gne ; crai -gnions, gniez^ fP^**^ 
Pret, Je crai •gpisseigmBseSjgiiit; crai ■gnissionSjgnisaiez.ggiiiBSflPt 

Imper, crai -ns, gne ; crai -gnons, gnez^ gnent. 

XIV. Croire, to believe, 

Inf, Croire> to believe, Ger, croyant, believing. Part 

cru, believed, 

Pres. Je croi -s, s, t ; cro -yons, yez, ieirt. 

Imp, Je croy -ais, ais, ait; croy-ions, lez, aient 

Pret, Jeer -us, us, iit;cr -umes, utes, ureot 

Pvt, Je croi -rai, ras, ra ; cro i -rons, reas, rout. 

CondJe croi -rais, rais, rait; croi -rions, riez, raieot 

S^P, Je croi -e es, e ; cro -jrions, yiez, ient. 

Pret, Jeer -usse,us8es,iit; cr -ussions, ussiez, uflsent 

Imper, croi -s, e; cro -yons, yez, ient. 

Croitre, to grow^ o» connaitre 11. 
Couvrir. to cover, on offrir 28. 

XV. CUEILLIR, ^9 ^KO^:^. 

Inf, Cueillir, to gather, Ger, cueillant, gathering. Part 

cueiUi, gathered, 

Pres, Je cueill -e, es, e ; cueill ^ons, ez, ent. 

Imp, Je cueill -ais, ais, ait; cueill -ions, iez, aient. 

Pret, Je cueill -is, is, it ; cueill -imes, ites, irent. 

Fut, Je cueille-rai, ras, ra; cueille-rons, rez, ront. 

Cond. Je cueille-rais, rais,rait; cueille-rions, riez, raient 

S. P, Je cueill -e, es, e ; cueill -ions, iez^ ent. 
Pret, Je cueill -isse, isseSjit ; cueill -issions, issiez, issent 

Imper. cueill -e, e; cueill -ons, ez, ent. 



IRAEGUUIR COMJUOATIONS. 



87 



Cuire, 

D6cevoir, 

D^coudre» 

D6couvnr}v 

D^crire» 

D6croitre, 

D6dire ♦, 

D6duire, 

D6faire, 

D6fendre, 

D^joindrei 

D6mentir, . 

D6mettre, 

Se D^mettre, 

D6peindre, 

Dq>endre, 

D^plaire, 

Se D^prendre, 

D^sapprendre, 

Descendre, 

Desservir, 

D^teindre, 

D6tendre, 

D^rdre, 

D6truire, 

Devenir, 

Devoir, 



XVI. Dire, to say. 
Inf. Dire, to say. Ger. disant, sc^ng. Part, dit, said^ 



to cook. 


OH instruire 


21. 


to deceive. 


on reoevoir 


35- 


to unsew, 


on coudre 


IL 


to discover, 


on offirir 


28, 


to describe. 


on 6crire 


17. 


to decrease, 


on connaitre 


10. 


to unsay. 


on dire 


16. 


to deduct, 


on instruire 


21. 


to undo. 


on faire 


19. 


*to defend. 


on vendre 


47. 


to disjoin. 


on craindro 


13. 


to belie. 


on sentir 


41. 


to put out. 


on mettre 


23. 


to resign. 


on mettre 


23. 


to depict. 


on craindre 


13. 


to depend, 


on vendre 


47. 


to displease. 


on plaire 


30. 


to hose, 


on prendre 


33. 


to unlearn. 


on prendre 


33. 


to descend,- 


on vendre 


47. 


to disserve, SfC. 


on sentir 


41. 


to discharge colour. 


on craindre 


13. 


to unbend. 


on vendre 


47. 


to untwist, 


on vendre 


47. 


to destroy, 


on instruire 


21. 


to become, 


on tenir 


43. 


to divest, 


on revetir 


37. 


to owe, 


on recevoir 


35. 



SINGULAR. 
12 3 

PreSn Je d -is, is, it ; 

Imp. Je dis -ais, ais, ait ; 

Pret. Je d -is, is, it ; 

Put. Je di -rai, ras, ra ; 

Cond. Je di -rais* rais, rait ; 



PLURAL. 
1 2 

tes, 

iez, 

ites, 

rcz, 

riez, 



di -sons, 
dis -ions, 
d -imes, 
di -t<ons, 
di -rions. 



3 
sent, 
aient. 
irent. 
ront. 
raient. 



* See the observaidon \ipoxi cofU^edire. 



88 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS* 





SINGULAR* 




PLURAL. 




1 


2 3 




1 2 


3 


S. p. Je dis -e, 


es, e; 


dis 


-ions, iez, 


ent 


Pret, Je d -isse, isses, it; 


d 


-issions, issiez, 


issent 


Imper. d 


-is, ise ; 


d 


-isons, ites, 


isent. 


Disconvenir, 


to disagree^ 




on tenir 


43. 


Disoourir, 


to discourse^ 




on courir 


12, 


Disjoindre, 


to disjoin^ 




on craindre 


13. 


Disparaitre, 


to disappear y 




on connaitre 


10. 


Dissou^re, 


to dissolve^ 




on absoudre 


1. 


Distraire> 


to distract^ 




on traire 


44. 


Dormir, 


to sleepy 




on sendr 


41. 


S'^battre *, 


to rejoice^ 




on battre 


5. 


Eboiiiilir, 


to boUdoumj 




on bouillir 


7 


Econduire) 


togetridrfy 




on instruire 


21 



XVII. EcRiRE, to torite. 

Inf. Ecrire, to write. Get. 6crivant, taritinp JPart 

6crit, written. 



Pres. J*6cri -s, s, t; 
Imp. J'6criv-ai8, ais, ait; 
Pret. J*ecriv-i8, is, it; 
Fvl. J*6cri -rai, ras, ra^ 
Cond. S^cri -rais, rais, rait; 
S.P. J'§criv-e, es, e; 
Pret. J*§criv -isse, isses, ft ; 
Imper. ^cri -s, ve; 

Elire, 

Emoudre, 

Emouvoir, 

Encourir, 

Endormir, 

Enfreindre, 

S'enfuir, 

Enjoindre, 

S*enqu6rir, 

S'ensuivre, 



ez, 

iez, 

ites, 

rez, 

riez, 

iez, 



to elect, 

to grind (knives), 

to stir up, 

to incur, 

to make shqp, 

to infringe, 

to run away, 

to enjoin, 

to enquire, 

to follow, 



§criv -ons, 

6criv -ions, 

6criv -imes, 

^cri -rons, 

€cTi -rions, 

^criv -ions, 

6criv -issions, issiez, issent 

^criv -ions, ez, 

on lire 

on moudre 

on mouvoir 

on courir 

on sentir 

on craindre 

on fuir 

on craindre 13. 

on acqu6rir 2. 

on suivre 42. 



ent. 

aient 

irent. 

ront 

raient 

ent. 



ent. 

22. 
24. 
26. 
12. 
41. 
13. 
20. 



* An old expresdon almosJl out oi \>9i^.' 



IRRBGULAR CONJUGATIONS, 



89 



Entendre, 

S'entremettre, 

Entreprendre, 

Entretenir, 

Entrevoir, 

Entr'ouvrir, 



io heary 


on rendre 


47. 


to inierpose. 


on mettre 


23. 


to undertake^ 


on prendre 


S3. 


to kef^, 


on tenir 


43. 


to have a glimpse^ 


on voir 


49. 


to open a IMe^ 


on ofirir 


28. 



XVin. Envoyer, to send. 

Inf. Envoyer, to send. Ger. envoyant, sending. Part, 

envoy^, sent. 



SINGULAR. 

12 
Pres. tTenvoi -e, es, 
Imp. J'envoy-ais, ais, 
f^rei. tTenvoy-ai, as, 
Put tTenver -rai, ras, 
Cond. J*enyer -rais, raiS| rait; enver 
S.P. tTenvoi -e, es, e; envo 
Pret. tTenvo^-asse, asses, at; envoy 

-e, e; envo 



3 

e; envo ■ 
ait; envoy 
a ; envoy 
ra; enver 



PLURAL. 

2 



1 

yons, 
ions, 
•ames, 
•rons, 
'rions ; 



3 

ient. 

aient. 

^rent. 

ront. 

raient. 

ient. 



Imper. envoi 

Equivaloir, 

Eteindre, 

Etendre, 

Etre, 

Exdure, 

Extrairey 



to be eqtuUy 
to extinguish^ 
to extendy 

to b€y 

to exclude, 
to extract. 



lez, 

ates, 

rez, 

riez, 
yions; yiez, 
assions, assiez, assent 
-yons, yez, ient. 

on valoir 46. 
on craindre 13. 
on vendre 47. 
See ch. v. sec. 3. 
on conclure 8. 
on traire 44. 



XIX. f AIRE, to do. 

Iftf. Faire, io do. Ger. faisant, doing. Part, fait, done. 



Pres. Je fai 


-s, 


8, 


t;. 


fai 


-sons, tes, font. 


Imp. Je fais 


-ais. 


ais. 


ait; 


fais 


-ions, iez, aient. 


Pret. Jef 


-is, 


is. 


it; 


f 


-imes, ites, irent. 


FfO. Jefe 


-rai, 


ras, 


ra; 


fe 


-rons, rez, ront. 


Cond. Je fe 


-rais. 


rais, 


rait; 


fe 


-rions, riez, raient. 


S.P. Jef 


-asse, 


.asseS; 


, asse ; 


f 


-assions, assiez, assent. 


Prei. Jef 


-isse. 


isses, 


it; 


f 


-issions, issiez, issent. 


In^^. f 




-ais, 


asse; 


f 


-a^sonS) ^\&%) «&^^^x\.« 



90 



IRREGULAR CONJUOATICrKS. 



Feindr^ 
Fendre, 
Fondre, 



iofeigny 
to cleave, 
to melt, 



an craindre 
on vendre 
on vendre 



13. 

47. 
47. 



XX. FuiR, to shun. 

Inf. Fuir, to shun. Ger, fuyant, shunning. Part M^ 

shunned. 



PLURAL. 

12 3 

fu -yons, jez, lent 

fuy -ions, lez, aient 

fu -tmes, ites> ..irent 

fui -rons, fez, roBt' 

fui -rions, riez, raient 

fu -yions, viez, lent 
fu -i«sions, issiez, issenti 

fu -yons, yez, lent 

9» Retire 17* 





SINGULAR. 






1 


2 


3 


Pres, Je fu 


-is. 


is, 


it; 


Imp, Je ftiy 


-ais, 


ais, 


ait; 


Pret, Je fu 


-is. 


is. 


it; 


Put. Je fui 


-rai, 


ras, 


ra; 


Condi Je fui 


-rais, 


rais, 


rait; 


S.P. Jefui 


-e, 


es. 


e; 


Pret Je fu 


-isse, 


isses, 


H; 


Imper. £u 




-is, 


ie; 



foscrirci 



to inscribe, 



XXL iKSTRUiREy to instruct 

/nf. Instruire, to instruct Crer, instmisant, instructrng* 

Part instruit, instructed, 

Pres, Tinstrui -s, s, t ; instrui -sons, see, sent 

Imp, J'instruis-ais, ais, ait ; instrui -sions, siez, sateni 

Pret. J'instruis-is, is, it; instruis-imes, ites, irent 

Put, J'instrui -rai, ras, ra ; instrui -rons, rez, ront 

Cone?. Jlnstrui -rais, rais, rait; instrui -rions, riez, raient 

S,P, J'instTuis-e, es, e; instruis-ions, iez, ent 

Pret J*instruis-isse, isses, it ; instruis-issions,issiez,issent 
Imper. instrui 

Interdire *, 

Interrompre, 

Intervenir, 

Inlroduire, 

Joindre, 



-s, 



se 



instrui -sons, sez, 

to forbid, on dire 

to interrupt, on rompre, 

to intervene, on tenir 

to introduce, on instruire 

to Join, .o» craindre 



sent 

16. 
39. 
43. 
22. 
13. 



* See the observation upon contredire, p. 84* 



UlRJBGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



91 



XXII. Lire, io read. 
1 Ger. lisant, reading. 



SINGULAR. 



JPres. Je 1 -is, 
Jmp. Je lis -ais, 
-Prifc Je 1 -us, 
FtU. Je li -rai, 
Cand, Je li -rais, 
£L P. Je lis -e, 
JPre$. Je 1 -usse, 
Iwper. 1 

Luire*, 
Muntenir, 
Maudire f , 
M^connaitre, 
Medire X^ 
Mentir, 
Se.m^rendre, 
m^soffirir, 




2 3 

is, it ; 

ais, ait ; 

us, ut ; 

ras, ra ; 

rais, rait ; 

es, e; 

usses, iit; 

-is, ise; 

to shincy 
io maintain, 
to curse, 
to mistake, 
to slcmder, 
to tett lies, 
to mistake, 
to bid too. low, 



lis 

lis 

1 

li 

li 

lis 

1 

lis 



1 

-ons, 

-ions, 

-times, 

-rons, 

-rions, 

-ions, 



PLURAL. 

2 



ez, 
iez, 

tites, 
rez, 
riez, 
iez, 



-ussions, ussiez, 
-ons, ez, 

on instruire 
on tenir 
on dire 
on connaitre 
on dire 
on sentir 
on prendre 
oh ofirir 



3 

ent. 

aient. 

urent. 

ront. 

raient. 

ent. 

ussent. 

ent. 

21. 

43. 

16. 

10. 

16. 

41 

33. 

28 



XXIII. Mettrb, to pta. 
If^» Mettre, tojnd, Ger, mettsixit, putting. Part. xa\s,put. 

Pres. Je me -ts, ts, t ; 

Imp. Je mett -ais, ais, ait ; 

Pnt. Je m -is, is, it ; 

Put. Je mett -rai, ras, ra ; 

Cond. Je mett -rais, rais, rait ; 

S. P. Je mett -e, ^ es, e ; 
Prei. Je m -isse, isses, it ; 

Imper. me -ts, -tte; 

Mordre, to bite, 

* But tiie Part, is ltd, unlike inshvU ; and it has no preterite tenses. 

f Maudbre ,makes in the Gerund, maudissant j in the plural of the 
Indicative present, nous maudissont, vous maudissez, ils mattdissent ; in 
the Imperfect je maudissais, in the Pres. and Pret. Subj.^ matutissei 
mid in the Impemtive qu*U maudisse, matidissons, maudissez, qu*Us mdu" 
dissent, like a r^ular veib in ia. 

i See the obsoration upon con/rccitrf. 



mett -ons, 


ez. 


ent. 


mett -ions. 


iez. 


aient. 


m -imes. 


ites. 


irent. 


mett -rons. 


rez, 


ront. 


mett -rions. 


riez. 


raient. 


mett -ions. 


iez, 


ent. 


m -issions 


, issiez*, issent. 


mett -ons. 


ez, 


ent. 


on vendre 


47. 





92 IRRBGtJLAR CONJUGATIOKS. 

XXIV. MouDREy to grind. 

/it^ Moudre, to grind. Ger. moulant, grinding. 

moulu, ground. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

12 3 12 

Pres. Je mou -ds, ds, d ; moul -ons, ez, 
Imp. Je moul -ais, ab, alt ; moul -ions, iez, 
P^ Je moul -us, vis> ut ; moul -umes, utes, 
Ftit, Je moud-rai, ras, ra ; moud-rons, rez, 
Cond. Je moud-rais, rais, rait ; moud-rionS| riez, : 
S, P. Je moul -e, es, e ; moul -ions, iez, 
Pret. Je moul -usse,usses,tit ; moul -ussions,ussiez, 
Imper. mou -ds> le; moul-ons, ez^ 

XXV. MouRiR, to die. 

Inf. Mourir, to die. Ckr. mourant, dying, i 

mort, dead. 

Pres. Je meu -rs, rs, rt ; mour-ons, ez, m 

Imp. Je mour-ais, ais, ait ; mour-ions, iez, ai 

Pret. Je mour-us, us, ut ; mour-iimes, (ites, u: 

Fvt. Jemour-rai, ras, ra; mour-rons, rez, r( 

CondJe mour-rais, rais, rait; mour-rioiis, riez, n 

SI P. Je meur-e, es, e; mour-ions, iez, na 
Pret. Je mour-usse,usses,^t ; mour-ussions,ussiez,ui 

Imper. meur -s, e; mour-ons, ez, n: 

XXVI. MouvoiR, to move. 

Inf. Mouvoir, to move. Ger, mouvant, moving. 

mu, moved. 

Pres. Je m -eus, eus, 
Imp. Je mouv-ais, ais, 
P^ Je m -us, us, 
Put. Je mouv-rai, ras, 
Vond. Je mouv-rais, rais, 
S. P. Je meuv-e, es, 
Pret. Jem -usse,u6ses,ut; 
Imper. meu -s. 



eut; 


mouv-ons, 


ez, 


m 


ait; 


mouv-ions, 


iez, 


ai 


ut; 


m -umes. 


,utes, 


. Ul 


ra; 


mouv-rons. 


rez. 


ro 


rait; 


mouv-rions. 


riez, 


ra 


e; 


mouv-ions. 


iez, 


m 


ut; 


muss -ions, 


iez. 


ei 


ve; 


mouv-ons, 


ez, 


m 



IRREGULAfi CONJUGATlOJrS. 



93 



XXVII. Naitre, ft) be honu 

Inf. Naitre> to be born. Ger. naissant, being bom* 

ParU n§, bom. 



SINGULAR. 

12 3 

Pres. Je nai -s, s, t ; 

Imp. Je naiss -aU, ais^ ait ; 

PreL Je naqu -is, is, it ; 

Fvt. Je nait -rai, ras, ra ; 

CbmilJenalt -rais,rais, rait; 

S. P. Je naiss -e, es, e ; 

Pret. Je naqu -isse, isses, it ; 

Imper. nai -s, sse; 

Nuire, * to hurty 

Obtenir, to obtain^ 



PLURAL. 



1 



naiss-ons, 
naiss-ions, 
naqu-imes, 
nait -rons, 
nait -rions, 
naiss-ions, 
naqu<-issions, issiez, 
naiss-ons, ez, 

on instruire 
on tenir 



2 

ez, 

iez, 

ites, 

rez, 

riez, 

iez, 



3 
ent 
aient. 
irent. 
ront. 
raient. 
eht. 
issent. 
eut. 

21. 
43. 



Part 



XXVm. Offrir, to offer. 

Jnf. Offrir, to offer. Ger. ciffrant, offering. 

offert, offered. 

Pres. J'offr -e, es, e ; 

imp. J'ofir -ais, ais, ait; 

Pnt. J'ofir -is, is, it; 

Pvi. J'ofiri-rai, ras, ra; 

CondL J'o£Bri -rais, rais, rait; 

S.P. J'offr -e, es, e; 

Pret. J'oflBr -isse, isses, it; 

Imper. ofir -e, e; 

Omettre, to omit, 

Ouvrir, to open. 



XXIX. Paitre, to graze. 

Inf. Paitre, ft> graze. Ger. paissant, grazing. Part, pu, 

grazed. 

Pres. Je ]^2Li -s, s, t; paiss -ons, ez, ent. 
Imp. Je paiss -ais, 'ais, ait ; paiss -ions, iez, aient. 
PreL None 

• But the Participle is nui, uii\ik.e inskniU. 



offr 


-ons, ez, 


ent. 


offr 


-ions, iez. 


aient. 


offr 


-imes, ites. 


irent. 


offri 


-rons, rez. 


ront. 


offri 


-rions, riez. 


raient. 


offr 


-ions, iez, 


ent. 


offr 


-issions, issiez. 


issent. 


offr 


-ons, ez. 


ent. 




on mettre 


28. 




on offrir 


28. 



94f 



IRREGULAR CONJUOATIONS. 



SINGULAR. 

12 3 

Fut, Jepaft -rai, ras, ra; 
Cond. Je pait -rais, rais, rait ; 
S, P. Je paiss -e> es, e ; 
Prd. None. 
Imper. pai 

Parattre, 

Parcourir, 

Partir, 

Parvenir, 

Peindre, 

Pendre, 

Perdre, 

Permettrey 

Plaindre> 



-Sy sse ; 

to appear f 
to run over, 
to aet&uty 
to arrive ai 
to pamt, 
to hangy 
to lose, 
to permit, 
to lament, 



PLURAL. 

1 2 
pait -rons, rez, ] 
pait -rions, riez, i 
Daiss -ions, iez, ( 

paiss -ons, ez, i 

on connaitre 
on courir 
on sentir 
on tenir 
on craindre 
on vendre 
on vendre 
on mettre 
on craindre 



XXX. Plaire, to please, 

flease. Ger, plaisant, pleasing, 
pleased. 



Pres, Je 
Imp. Je 
Pret. Je 
Fut. Je 
Cond,Je 
S. P. Je 
Pret. Je 
Inyper. 



•s, 
-aisy 
-us, 
-rai, 



8, 

ais, 

us, 

ras, 



plai 
plais 

plai 

plai -rais, rais, 

plai 

plai 



t, 

ait; 

ut; 

ra; 

rait; 

ses, se ; 

usse, usses, ut ; 

-s, sse ; 



-se. 



Pondre, 
Poursuivre, 



to lay eggs, 
to pursue. 



plais-ons, 

plais-ions, 

pi -umes, 

plai -rons, 

plai -rions, 

plais-ions, 

pi -ussions, ussiez, i 

plais-ons, ez, e 

on vendre 
on suivre 



ez, e 
iez, a 
utes, I] 
rez, r 
riez, r 
e 



lez, 



XXXI. PouRvoiR, to provide, 

Inf, Pourvoir, to provide, Ger, pourvoyant. 

pourvu. 

Pres, Je pourvoi -s, s, t ; pourvo -yons, yez, 
Imp, Jepourvoy-ais^ais, ait; pourvby-ions, iez, 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



9b 



SINGULAR* PLURAL. 

I 1 2 S 1 2 S 

rrtJ/k^Jepourv -us, QS, ut; pourv -(imesy (ktes, urent. 
At Jepounroi-rai, rasy ra; pourvoi-ronsy rez, rent. 
(WJepounroi-rai8|rai8,rait;pourvoi-rioD8, riez, raient 
APtJepourvoi-e, es, e; pourvdy-ions, iez, lent. 
AefcJepourv -u88e,U88e8|(kt;poiiry -ussionsyussiezyussent. 
hper, pourvoi -8, e; pouryo-yons, yez, ient 

XXXII. PouvoiR, to be able, 
if. Vawfoirj to be cifle, Ger, pouvant. Pari. pu. 

ifv&Jepeu <pX*9 X, t; pouv-ons, ez, peuvent. 

hfk Je pouv -aisy ais, ait ; pouv-ions, iez, aient. 

PnLJep -usy us, ut; p -limes, iites, {irent. 

FwL Je pour -rai, ras, ra ; pour -rons, rez, ront. 

CMJepour -ras, rais, rait; pour -rions, riez, raient 

^•P.JepuisB-e, es, e; puiss-ions, iez, ent. 
PnLJep -usse, usseSjdt; p -ussions,ussiez, ent. 
inper. Nme. . 

Predire f, tofaretely on dire 16. 

XXXin. Prendre, to take. 

Iff P^ndre, to take. Ger. prenant, taking. 

pris, taken, 

Pnf. Je pren -ds ds, d ; pren -ons, ez, 

^ Je pren -ais, ais, ait ; pren -ions, iez, 

PreL Je pr -is, is> it ; pr -Smes, Ites, 

Ati Jeprend-rai, ras, ra; prend-rons, rez, 

^WL Je prend-rais, rais, rait; prend-rions, riez, 

^ i^ Je prenn-e, es, e; pren -ions, iez, 

^ Je pr -isse, isses, !t ; pr -issions, issiez. 



Rescrire, 

Pfessentir, 

"I^^tendre, 

• PrgvjJpirJ, 



-ds, ne ; pren -ons, ez, 

to prescribe on 6crire 

toforebodcy on sentir 

topretendy on vendre 

toprevaily onvaloir 

to anticipate, on tenir 



Part. 

nent 

aient. 

irent. 

ront. 

raient. 

nent. ' 

issent. 

nent. 

17. 
41. 
47. 
46. 
43. . 



* We say more commonly^ puis, instead ofje pevX' 

t See the observation upon contredire. 

t But it makes in the Subj. pres. je prdvale, tu prevaleSf 



&c. 



96 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



XXXIV. Prevoir, to foresee. 
Inf Pr6voir, to foreseen Ger. pr6voyant. Part. pr£?a 



Pres, Je 
Imp. Je 
Pret Je 
Fut. Je 
Concise 
S.P. Je 
Pret. Je 
Imper. 



SINGULAR. 

1 2 S 
pr6voi-s, s, t; pr6vo ■ 
pr^voy-ais, ms, ait ; pr6voy- 
pr6v -is, is, it; pr6v 
pr6voi -rai, ras, ra ; pr6voi 
pr6voi-rais,rais,rait; pr^voi 
prevoi-e, es, e; privo 
priv -isse,isses, it ; prdv 
privoi -s, e ; pr^vo 



PLURAL. 

2 



1 

yens, 

-ions, 

•imes, 

-rons, 

-rions, 

-yions, 



jrez, 

lez, 

ites, 

rezy 

riezy 

7^ 



Produire, 

Promettre, 

Promouvoir, 

Proscrire, 

Provenir, 

Rabattre, 

Rapprendre, 

Se rasseoir, 

Rebattre, 

Reboire, 

Rebouillir, 



toproducey 

topromis€y 

to promote, 

to proscribe, 

to proceed, 

to abate, 

to learn again, 

to sit down again, 

to heat again, 

to drink again, 

to boil again, 



-issions, issie2s, 
-yons, yez, 

on instruire 
on mettre 
on mouvoir 
cm6crire 
on tenir 
on battre 
an prendre 
on s'asseoir 
on battre 
on boire 
onbouillir 



8 

lent 
aient 
ireitfi 
rant 
ndeni 
lent 
isient 
lent 

21. 
2S. 
2& 
17. 
48. 

5. 
88. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7 



XXXV. Recevoir, to receive.^ 

Inf. Recevoir, to receive. Ger. recevant, receiving^, Pmi 

re^u, received. 

Pres. Je re^ -ois, ois, oit ; re -cevons,cevez, f ohent 
Imp. Je recev-ais, ais, ait ; recev-ions, iez, aient 
Pret. Je re9 -us, uS; ut ; re9 -times, utes, urent 
Put. Je recev-rai, ras, ra ; recev-rons, rez, ront^;. 
Cond. Je recev-rais, rais, rait ; recev-rions, ries, raient ' 
S. P. Je re9 -oive,oives,oive; rec -evions, eviez, oiyent 
Pret. Je re9 -usse,usses,(it ; re^ 
Imper. re9 -ois, oive; re 

Reconduire, to lead back, 
Reconoaitre, to recognize, 



-ussions,ussiez,i]88ent 
-cevons, cevez, ^oivent 

on instruire 21. 
on connaStre 10. 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



97 



Reconqu^rir, 

Recoudre, 

Recourir, 

Kecouvrir, 

E.6crire9 

RecueiUir, 

Recuire, 

Red6&ire, 

Redescendre, 

Redevoir, ' 

Redire, 

Redormir, 

R^duire, 

Refaire, 

Refoncbre, 

Rejoindre, 

Rellre,. 

Reluire *, 

Remettre, 

Remoudre, 

Renaitre f , 

Rendormir, 

Rendre, v 

Renduire, 

Rentraire, 

Renvoyer, 

Repaitre:^, 

R^pandre, 

Reparaitre, 

Repartir, 

8e repcntir, 

R^pondre, 

Reprendre, 

Reproduire, 

Requ6rir^ 



to reconquer f 

to sew againy 

to have recourse^ 

to cover over, 

to write anew, 

to gather^ 

to cook again, 

to undo again, 

to come dovmagain, 

to owestillj 

to say again, 

to sleep again, 

to reduce, 

to do again, 

to melt over, 

to rejoin, 

to read over, 

to glitter, 

to replace, 

to grind again, 

to he bom again, 

to make sle^ again, 

to return, 

to piaster anew, 

to fine-draw, 

to send back, 

to feed, 

1o spread, 

to reappear, 

to setoff again, 

to repent, 

to answer, 

to take again, 

to reproduce, 

to require. 



on acqu^rir 
on coudre 


2. 
11. 


oncourir 


12. 


on ofirir 


28. 


on ^crire 


17. 


on cueillir 


15. 


on instruire 


21. 


on faire 


19. 


on vendre 


47. 


on recevoir 


35. 


on dire 


16. 


on sentir 


41. 


on instruire 


21. 


on faire 


19. 


on vendre 


47. 


on craindre 


13. 


on lire 


22. 


on instruire 


21. 


on, mettre 


•23. 


on moudre 


24. 


on nattre 


27. 


on sentir 


41. 


on vendre 


47. 


on instruire 


21. 


on traire 


44. 


on envoyer 
on paitre 
on vendre 


18. 
29. 

47. 


on connaitre 10. 


on sentir 


41. 


on sentir 


41. 


on vendre 


47. 


on prendre 
on instruire 


21. 
33. 


on acqu^rir 


2. 



• See note on Iture. 

•f But it has no Participle, and consequently no compound tenses. 
\ It makes in the Preterit of the Ind. je reput, and in the Fret, of 
.the Sulj. je repusse. 



F 



93 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



XXXVI. Resoudre, to resolve. 
Inf. R6soudre, to resohe, Ger, r^solvant. I^rt, r 



Pres, Je 
Imp. Je 
Fret. Je 
FtU. Je 
Cand. Je 
S.P. Je 
PreL Je 
Imper, 



SINGULAR. 

1 2 
r^sou -ds, ds, 
r^solv-aisy* ais, 
r^ol -us» us, 



PLURAL. 



3 1 2 

d; r^solv -ons, ez, 

ait ; r^sdv -ions, iez, 

ut; r^sol -umesy utes, 

r6soud-rai, ras, ra; r^soud-rons, res5> 

r^soud-rais, rais, rait^^soud-rions, riez, i 

r^solv -e, es, e ; r^solv -ions, lez, 
F^sol -usse,usses,ut ; risol -ussions,u88aez,i 

r6so -uds, lve;resolv -ons, ez, • 



Ressentir, 

Ressortir, 

Se ressouvenir, 

Restreindre, 

Retenir, 

Retordre, 

Retraire, 

Revaloir, 

Revendre, 

Revenir, 



to feel, 

to go ovt again, 

to remember, 

to restrain, 

toretaiuy 

to twist again, 

to redeem, 

to return like for like, 

to sell again, 

to come back, 



on sentir 
on sentir 
on tenir 
on craindre 
on tenir 
on vendre 
on traire 
on valoir 
on vendre 
072 tenir 



XXXVII. Revetir, to invest. 

Inf. Revetir, to invest. Ger. revetant. Part, r 

Pres. Je revh -ts, ts, t ; rev^t -ons, ez, e 

Imp. Je revet -ais, ais, ait ; rev^t -ions, iez, a 

Pret. Je rev^t -is, is, it ; revit -imes, ites, ii 

PtU. Je rev^ti-rai, ras, ra ; rev^ti -rons, rez, ri 

Cbȣ?. Jerev^ti-rais,rais, rait; rev^ti-rions, riez, n 

S. P. Je rev^t-e, es, e; rev^t-ions, iez, c 

Pret. Je revit-isse,isses,it ; rev^t-issions, issez, h 

Imper. revet -s,, e ; revdt -ons, ez, a 

Revivre, to revive, on vivre 

Revoir, to see again, on voir 



IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



99 



XXXVni. RiRE, to laugh. 

Rire, to laugh. Ger. riant, laughing. Part, ri, 

laughed. 



SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 






1 2 


3 




1 


2 


3 


Je r 


-is, is, 


it; 


ri 


-ons. 


ez. 


ent 


Je ri 


-ais, ais, 


ait; 


ri 


-ions^ 


iez, 


aient. 


Je r 


-isj is. 


it; 


r 


-imes, 


ites, 


irent. 


Je ri 


-rai> ras, 


ra; 


• 

n 


-rons, 


rez, 


ront. 


1 Je ri 


-rais, rais, 


rait; 


• 

ri 


-rions. 


riez, 


raient. 


. Je ri 


-e, es, 


e; 


ri 


-ions. 


iez. 


ent. 


Je r 


-isse, issesy 


it; 


r 


-issions. 


t issiezj 


, issent. 


r. r 


-is, 


ie; 


• 

n 


-ODS, 


ez, 


ent. 



XXXIX. RoMFRE, to break. 

Rompre, to break. Ger. rompant, hreakxng. Part. 

rompu, broheru 

. Jeronp-s, s, t; romp -ons, ez, ent. 

Je romp -ais, ais, ait ; romp ^ions, iez, aient. 

Je romp -is, is, it; romp -imes, ites, irent. 

Je romp -rai, ras, ra ; romp -rons, rez, ront. 

I. Je romp -rais, rais, rait ; romp -rions, riez, raient. 

\ Je romp -e, es, e ; romp -ions, iez, ent. 

Je romp -isse, isses, it ; romp -issions, issiez, issent. 

T. romp -s, e ; romp -ons, ez, ent. 

mvrir, to open agamy on ofirir 28. 

tisiaire, to satisfy^ on faire 19. 

XL. Savoir, to know. 

Savoir, to know. Ger. sachant, knowing. Part, su, 

known. 



. Je sm 
Je sav 

. Je s 
Je sau 

L Je sau 



-s, s, 

-ais, ais, 

-us, us, 

-rai, ras, 



t; sav -ons, 

ait; sav -ions, 

ut; s 

ra; sau 



-rais, rais, rait ; sau 



ez, ent. 

iez, aient. 

-iimes, Cites, urent. 

-rons, rez, ront. 

-rions, riez, raient. 



-e, 



es, 



sach -ions, iez, ent. 



\ Je sach 

. Je s -u8se,usses, ut ; s -\x«^voii^)\v.m<ex^\\&%.^^v»^ 
sach 



T. 



-e. 



e ; sach -oub, 
F 2 



ei, 



%x^« 



100 



MtREGULAR, CONJUGATIONS. 



Secourir, 

Seduire, 

S'ensuivre,. 



to relieve^ 
to seduccy 
tofailawy 



on courir 12. 
on instruire 21. 
on suivre 42.' 



XLI. Sentir, to smell or /eel. 

Inf. Sentir, to feel. Ger. sentant, feding. ParL send, 

felt. 



SINGULAR, 


PLURAL. 






1 


2 3 


1 2 


3 


Pres, Je sen 


-s, 


s, t ; sent- 


ons, ez, 


ent 


Imp. Je sent 


-{US, 


ais, ait; sent- 


ions, iez, 


aient 


Pret. Je sent 


-is,; 


is, it ; sent- 


imes, ftes, 


ifent. 


Fut. Je senti 


-rai, 


ras, ra ; senti- 


rons, rez, 


ront 


Cond. Je senti 


-raiS] 


» rais, rait ; -senti- 


rions, riez, 


raient 


*S^. P. Je sent 


-e, 


es, e ; sent- 


ions, iez, 


ent 


Pret. Jesent 


-isse. 


isses, it ; sent- 


issions, issiez, issait 


Imper. sen 




-s, te ; sent- 


ons, - ez, 


ent. 


Servir, 




to serve f 


on senfir 


41. 


Sortir, 




tOffOOUty 


on sentir 


41. 


Souffiir, 




to suffer y 
to submtty 


on sentir 


41. 


Soumettre, 




on mettre 


23. 


Sourire, 




to smiky 


on rire 


38. 


Souscrire, 




to suhscnbe, 


on ^crire 


17. 


Soustraire, 




to subtracty 


on traire 


44. 


Soutenir, 




to sustaiuy 


on tenir 


43. 


Se souvenir 


"• 


to remember y 


on tenir 


43. 


Subvenir, 




to succour y 


on tenir 


43. 


Suffire*, 




to SUffiCCy 


on confire 


9. 



XLII. Suivre, to follow. 

Inf. Suivre, to follow. Ger. suivant, following. Pari 

suivi, followed. 

Pres. Je sui -s, s, t; suiv -ons, 

Imp, Je suiv -ais, ais, ait ; suiv -ions, 

Pret. Je suiv -is, is, it ; suiv -imes, 

Ftit. Je suiv -rai, ras, ra ; suiv -rons, 



ez, 
iez, 
ites, 
rez, 



ent. 
ai^t 
irent 
ront 



* But the partldpVe is si^. 



IRREGITLAR CONJUGATIONS. 



101 



?r. 



sui 



SINGULAR. 

1 2 3 

dL Je 8uiv -rais, rais, rait ; suiv 
\ Je suiv -e, es, e ; suiv 
'. Je suiv -isse, isses, it ; suiv 

-s, ve ; suiv 

to ask foo much, 
to surpriscy 
to supersede^ 
to outlive^ 
to suspend, 
to keep silent, 
to dye, 
to stretch. 



iur&ire, 
•urprendre^ 
lurseoir*, 
lurvivre, 
luspendre, ^ 



'aire, 



'emdre, 
.''endre. 



PLURAL. 

1 2 

-rions, riez, 
-ions, iez, ' 
4Ssions, issiez, 
-onS| ez, 

(m faire 
092 prendre 
on pr^voir 
on vivre 
on yendre 
on plaire 
on craindre 
mi vendre 



3 

raient. 
ent. 
issent. 
en* 

19. 
S3. 
34. 

48. 
47. 
30. 
13. 
47. 



XLIII. Tenir, to hold. 

Tenir, to hold, Ger, tenant, holding. Part, tenu, 

held. 



Je t -iens, 


iens, ient ; t 


-enons, enez. 


iennent. 


Jeten sia. 


ais, ait ; ten 


-ions, iez. 


aient. 


Jet -ins. 


ins, int ; t 


-inmes, intes, 


inrent. 


Je tiend-rai, 


ras, ra ; tiend 


-rons, rez> 


ront. 


. Je ticnd-rais. 


rais, rait; tiend 


-rions, riez. 


raient. 


Jet -ienne. 

4 


,iennes, ienne; t 


-enions, eniez. 


iennent. 


Jet -insse, 


insses, tnt; t 


-inssionsjinssiez, inssent. 


r. t 


-iens, ienne; t 


-enons, enez. 


iennent. 


'ordre, 


to twist. 


on vendre 


47. 


!*raduire, 


to translate, 


on instruire 


21. 



XLIV. Traire, to milk. 

TrairOi to milk. Ger. trayant, milking. Part, trait, 

milked. 

f. Je trai -s, s, t; tra -yons, yez, yent. 

Je tray -ais, ais, ait ; tray -ions, iez, aient. 
'• None. . 

Je trai -rai, ras, ra; trai -rons, rez, ront. 

£ Je trai -rais, rais, rait ; trai -rions> viez^ oleivt. 

* But its participle is sursU* 



102 irrboular conjugations. 

"singular. plural. 

1 2 S 12 

S. p. Je tray -e, es, e; tra -yons, yez, 
Pret. None, 

Imper, tra -is, ye; tra -yons, yez, 

Transcrire, to transcribe^ on ^crire 

Transmettre, to transmit^ on mettre ' 

Tressaillir*, to starts on cueillir 

XLV. Vaincre, to vanquish. 

Inf. Vaincre, to vanquish. Ger. vainquant, vanqi 

Part vaincu, vanquished. 

Pres. Je rain -cs, cs, c ; vainqu-ons, ez. 
Imp. Je vainqu-ais, ais, ait ; vainqu-ions, iez, 
Pret. Je vainqu-is, is, it ; vainqu-imes, ites, 
PtU. Jevainc -rai, ras, ra; vainc -rons, rez, 
Cond. Je vainc -rais, rais, rait ; vainc -rions, riez, 
S. P. Je vainqu«e, es, e ; vainqu-ions, iez, 
Pret Je vainqu-isse, isses,tt; vainqu-issions,issiez 
Imper. vain -cs, que ; vainqu-ons, ez, 

XL VI. Valoir, to be worth. 

Inf. Valoir, to be vxyrth. Ger. valant, being worth. 

valu, been worth. 

Pres. Je vau -x, x. 

Imp. Jeval -ais, ais, 

Pret. Je val -us, us, 

Fut Jevaud-rai, ras, 

Cond. Je vaud-rais, rais, 

S. P. Je vaill -e, es, 

Pret. Je val -us8e,usses, (it ; val -ussions,ussiez,u 

Imper. None. 

XLVIL Vendre, to sell. 

Inf. Vendre, to sell. Ger. vendant, selling. Part 

sold. 

Pres. Jeven -ds, ds, d; vend-ons, ez, e 
Imp. Jevend-ais, ais, ait; vend-ions, iez, a 

* It makes in the future,, je tressaittirai, wad. viv \3ftft coxvdi^ 



t; 


val -ons. 


ez. 


e 


ait; 


val -ions. 


iez, 


a 


ut; 


val -umes. 


^tes, 


u 


ra; 


vaud-rons, 


rez. 


r 


rait: 


; vaud-rions. 


riez, 


rj 


e; 


val -ions, 


iez, 


V 



IRRBOULAR CONJUOATIONS* lU3 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

12 3 1 2 3 

evend-is, is, it; vend-imes, ites, irent, 

Bvend-rai, ras, ra; vend-rons, rez, ront.^,,^ 

e vend-rais, rais, rait ; vend-rions, riez, raient. 

Bvend-e, es, e; vend-ions, iez, ent. 
e vend-isse, isses, it ; vend-issions, issiez, issent. 

ven -ds, de; vend-ons, ez, ent. 

r, to come^ on tenir 43. 

XLVIII. VivRE, to live. 
re, to live. Ger. vivant, living. Part, v^cu, lived. 

it; viv -ons, ez, ent. 

ait; viv -ions, iez, aient. 

ut; v^c -umes, (ites, urent* 

ra; viv -rons, rez, root 

s viv -rais, rais, rait ; viv -rions, rie2, raient. 

3 viv -e, es, e; viv -ions, iez, ent. 
3v6c -usse,usses, ut; v^c -ussions,ussiez,ussent. 

vis, vive;viv -ons ez, ent. 

XLIX. Voir, to see. 



3V 


-IS, 


IS, 


3 viv 


-ais. 


ais. 


3 v6c 


-US, 


US, 


3 viv 


-rai, 


ras. 



oir, to see. 


Ger. 


voyant, seeing. Part, vu, se&i. 


5voi -s. 


s, 


t; voy -ons, ez, 


voient. 


3voy -ais, 


ais. 


ait; voy -ions, iez. 


aient. 


3 V -is. 


is. 


it; V -imes, ites. 


irentT 


3ver -rai. 


ras. 


ra; ver -rons, rez. 


ront._ 


ever -rais, 


, rais. 


rait ; ver -rions, riez, 


raient. 


3 vol -e. 


es, 


e; vo -yions, yiez, 


lent. 


3 V -isse, 


, isses, 


ft ; V -issions, issiez. 


, issent. 


voi 


8, 


e; vo -yons, yez, 


voient." 



L. VouLOiR, to he willing. 

doir, to be wiUing. Ger. voulant, being willing. 
Part, voulu, been wiUtng. 

Bveu -X, X, t; voul *onQ) ^l^ N^\iSfc^\\.« 
^voul 'ais, ais, ait;vou\ •\oiia> \ex> wtwX^ * 

F 4* 



104> IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

12 3 1 2 S ■ 

PreL Jev»ul -us, Us, ut; vou] -iiines, (ites, ur^niir. 

/^irf; Jevoud-rai, ras, ra; voud-rons, rez, ront.' 

Cond. Je voud -rais, rais> rait;voud -rions, riez, raieiill 

S, P. Je veuill-e, es, e ; touI -ions, iez, veafflai^ 
Pret. Jevoul -usse,usses,(it ; voul -ussions^ussiez^usseBt 

Imper. veuill -e, e; veuill-oDs, ez, ent« ^^ 

. 't 

The following Verbs are of common Use only in the T^ilfim 
and Persons hereafter menHoned, 

• ■ ■. V 

Inf. braire, to bray like an ass, Pres. il bratt, 3l 
braient. Fvt, il braira, ils brairont. Cond. il brabii^ 
ils brairaient. 

Inf bruire, to rustle, Ger, bruyant. Imp, il bniyri^ 
ils bruyaient. 

Inf, Choir, to fall. Part, chu. 

Inf, ^chpir, to expire, to fall by ht, to happen.^ Gm 
^ch6ant. Part, 6chu. Pres, il ^choit. Pret, j'^dius, ftCi 
FtU, j'^cherrai, &c', Cond, j'^cherrais, &c. 

Inf, d^choir, to decay ; like 6choir, except Ind.pre8^yi 
d^chois, &c Imper, d^chois, &c, Svb, pres, je d^choiey 
&c. 

Inf, clorre, to close. Part, clos. Pres, ind, je dos, tu 
clos, il clot. FtU, je clorrai, tu clorras, il clorra. Comi, 
je clorraisy tu clorrais, il dorrait. 

Inf, enclorre, to indose, is conjugated like clorre. 

Inf, Colore, to be hatched. Part, 6clos. Pres^imL il 
6clot, ils ^closent. FtU, il Sclera, ils ^cloronL GnuL i ' 
6clorait, ils 6cloraient. Pres, subf, qu'il ^close, qu% 
eclosent. 

Inf faillir, to fail. Part, failli. Preter. ind, je 6^ 
&c , D6faillir, to fainty is conjugated in the same mannery 
and makes besides Ind, pres. nous d^faillons. Imp. je d^ 
faiUais, &c. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 105 

fhre, to fry. Part. frit. Pres. irvi. je frls, tu fris, 
I FvJL je firirai, tu friras, il frira ; nous frirons, vous 
ils friront. Cond. je fri-rais, rais, rait ; fri-rions, riez, 

)ther tenses, we make use of the verb faire^ and of 
initive^^^, as jefaisais frire, tu faisais frire, &c. 

G^ir, to lie. Ger. gisant. Pres. ind. il git, nous 
» lis gisent. Imp. il gisait. 

ouir, to hear. Part, oui, heard. The participle is 
bllowed by dire, as fat out dire. 

qu6rir, to fetch, is used, in the infinitive, only after 
rbs aUeTf envoyer, and venir. 

seoir, to become. Pres. ind. il sied, ils sieent. Imp, 
it, ils seyaient. Put. il si6ra, ils sieront. Cond. il > 
, ils si^raient. 

', Saillir, to prefect Ger. saillant. Part, sailli. 

ind. il saille. Imp. il saillait. PtUi il saillera. 

il saillerait. Pres. suhj. qu'il saille. Pret. qu'il 

T^tir, to clothe. Part, vetu, clothed. 



SECTION THE SIXTH. 
Conjugation of Impersonal Verbs. 

Neiger, to snow. 

neiger, ^cr. neigeant, /?ar^.'neig^, comp. avoir neige, 
Deig6. 

8. ind. il neige, imp. il neigeait, pret il neigea, fut. 
^era, cond. il neigerait, j)res. suhj. il neige, pret il 
t, comp. tensesy il a neige, il avait neig^, &c. 

er, to freeze, 6clairer, to lighten, tonner^ to tAuadcr, 
iHer, to hcdly are conjugated ou neiger. 

F 5 



/ 



106 8EVEKAL DVATS 

y Pleuvoir, to raitu 

Ifif. pleuvoir, ger, pleuvant, part, plu, eomp. avoi 
ayant plu. 

Pres. ind. il pleut, imp, U pleuvwt, pr^ il plut, 
pleuvra, cancL il pleuvrait, pres. subf. il pleuve, preL i 
comp. tenses^ il a plu, il avait plu, &c. 

Falloir, to be necessaiy 

Inf. falloir, part, fallu, camp, avoir fallu, ayant Mi 

Pres. ind. il faut, imp. il fallait, pret. il fallut, 
faudra, cond. il faudrait, /wm wbf, il feille, /wic^. il 
comp* tmsesy il a fallu, il avait fallu, &c 

Y Avoir, to he there. 

Inf. y avoir, ger. y ayant, camp, y avoir eu, y ayac 

JPre9. tfidL il y a, there iSy imp. il y avdt, Mere tooj 
il y eut, there taas, fuL il y aura, £^6 ^Aa^ be^ cort 
aurait, there would he^pres. svbj. il y ait, there may b 
il y eut, there might bey comp. tenses^ il y a eu, the 
been^ il y avait en, ^ere had been, &c. 



SECTION THE SEVENTH. 
Several ways of using a verb. 

1. WITH NEGATION. Infinitive present: i^ 
donner, not to give ; ne donnantpas, not giving. 

Ind. pres. Je ne donne pas, I do not give ; tu net 
pasy thou dost not give ; il ne donne pas, he does not 
jufus ne donnonspasy we do not give ; wnis ne donne 
you do not give -; ilsne donnentpas, they do not give 
so on for all the other tenses of the indicative anc 
junctive moods. 

Compound tenses : je n*ai pas donni^ I l\a.ve not \ 



OF USING A VERB. 107 

n^as pas dotm^y thou hast not given ; il n'a pas donne, 
has not given, &c, and so on for all compound tenses 
1 persons. 

2. WITH INTERROGATION. Imperfect of the in- 
sitive : Ptmissais-jey did I punish ? ptmissais-tu, didst 
>u punish ? punissait'ily did he punish ? punissionS'nous, 
[ we punish ? punissiez-vous, did you punish ? punis- 
eni'ilsy did they punish ? 

Compound tenses : Ai-je punt, have I punished ? as tu 
miy hast thou punished P a-t-il puniy has he punished ? 
d so on for other tenses. 

S. WITH NEGATION AND INTERROGATION, 
eterite of the indicative : Ne marchaije pas, did I not 
Ik? ne marchaS'tu pas. didst thou not walk ? ne marcha- 
\ pcLSy did he not walk ? ne marchdmes-notis pas, did we 
t walk ? ne marchdtes-vous pas, did you not walk ? ne 
wchirent'ils pas, did they not walk ? 
Compound tenses : N'ai-je pas marche, have I not 
Iked ? n'aS'tu pas marche, hast thou not walked ? na- 

I pas marchi, has he not walked ? and so on for all other 
rsons. 

4j. WITH PRONOUNS. Future : Je les vendrai, I 

II sell them ; tu les vendras, thou wilt sell them ; il ks 
•M^rOy he wHl sell them ; nous les vendrons, we will sell 
em ; vous les vendrez, you will sell them ; ils les vendront, 
ey will sell them. 

Compound tenses : Je les ad vendus, I have sold them ; 
les, as vendtiSy thou hast sold them ; il les a vendus, he 
s -sold them, &c. 

5. WITH NEGATION AND PRONOUNS. Con- 
tional I Jenele connaitrais pas, I should not know him ; 

ne h connaitrais pas, thou shouldst not know him ; il 
le conmdirait pas, he should not know him ; nous ne le 
mudtrions pax, we should not know him ; vous ne le cofi^ 
tUriezpaSf you should not know him ;ils ne le connaitrai- 
i pas, they should not know him. 
Compound tenses : Je ne Vai pas connu, I have not 
lown him ; tu ne fas pas connu, thou hast not known 
m ; il ne Va pas connu, he has not known him, &c. 

6. WITH INTERROGATION A^D P^O^CWS^^- 
tture indicative : Les verrai-je, shaW \ ^e^ xJcv^xsv"^ Vsa 

F ft 



108 REFI/iEC!rED VERBS. 

verras-tUy shalt thou see them ? les verra-t-il, shall he see 
them? les verrans-notiSy shall we see them? les verrez' 
V0US9 shall you see them ? les verront-iis, shall they 9tt 
them ? 

Compound tenses : Les ai-je vttSy have I seen diem ? 
/es aS'tu VUS9 hast thou seen them ? les a-t-il tntSy has he 
seen them ? 

This method of conjugating verbs will serve to fiiBn- 
liarise the learner with the important distinctions of doiiu- 
native and accusative, and prepare for understanding the 
rules of the syntax ;. therefore I recommend it particular!? 
to children. 



SECTION THE EIGHTH. 
Conjvgation of a reflected verb, 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present tense, 


se lever, 


to rise. 


Gerundy 


se levant, 


rising. 


Participle^ 


lev6, 


risen. 


Compound of the present. 


s*^tre levd, 


to hai>e risen* 


Compound of the gerund. 


s'ltant lev6, 


having risen^ 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 
SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Je me l^ve, / me. Nous nous levons, toe rise. 

tu te l^ves, thou risest. vous vous levez, |/ot( rise. 
il se leve, he rises. ils se Idvent, they rise. 

IMPERFECT. 

Je mc levais, / was 1 ^Nous nous levions, we were ) < 
tu te levais, ^um wast /- •! vous vous leviez, you were > •§ 
il se levait, he teas j S ils se levaient, they were ) X 

PRETERITE. 

Je me levai, I rose. Nous nous levames, we rose. 

tu te levas, thou didst rise, vous vous lev^tes, you rose 
il se leva, he rose. ils se leverent, they rose. 



REFLECTED VERBS. 10ft 



FUTURE. 



Je me leverai, I shall rise. Nous nous levexonB^tveshallrise. 
tu te leveras, iJumshaUrise.\ou&vo\x^\Q\evezy youshaUiise. 
il 86 levera, he shaU rise, ils se leveront, they shail rise* 



CONDITIONAL. 



Je fne leverais, IwovM rise. Nous nous leverions^ttTe would. 
tn te leverais, thoutvouldstme.yoxxs vous leveriez, you would. 
il^eleverai^ hewouMrise* ils se leveraient, ^leyuxmld. 



COMPOUI^D TENSES. 
COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT. 

Je me suis lev^, / have men. Nous nous sommes leves, wey&c. 

tu t'es leve, thou hast. vous vous etes leves, you have. 

il s'est leve, he has risen, ils se sont lev^, they have risen. 

elle s'est levee, she has risen, elles se sont levees, Siey have,&c. 

COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT. 

Je m'^tais Jev6, / had risen. Nous nous 6tions lev^s, toe had. 
tu t'6tais ley6, thou hadst. vous vous dtiez levis, you had. 
il s'^tait lev6> he had risen, ils s'itaient lev6s, they had, &c. 

COMPOUND OF THE PRETERITE. 

Je roe fus lev6, / had risen. Notts nous fumes leves, we had. 
tu te fus \ev6, thou hadst risen, vous vous fiites leves, you had. 
il 86 ^t leviy he had risen, il se furent lev6s, ^^ nad^ &c. 

COMPOUND OF THE FUTURE. 

Je me serai lev6, / shall have. Nous nous serons leved, we shall, 
tQ, te seras leve, thou shaU. vous vous serez leves, you shall. 
U se sera lev6, he shall have, ils se seront lev^s, they shall. 

COMPOUND OF THE CONDITIONAL. 

Je me serais lev^, I should, &c. Nous nous serions leves, we,&c. 
tu te serais lev^, thou shouldst, vous vous seriez leves, yott,&c. 
^ se serait lev^, he should, &c, ils se seraient leves, they should. 



110 REFLECTED VEUBS. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Que That 

Je me leve, I may rise. Nous nous levions, we may rise* 
tu te Idves, ttum mayst rise, vous voug leviez, you mayrisi 
il se l^ve^ he may rise. lis se Invent, theymayrisi 

PRETERITE. 

Je me levasse, I might rise. Nous nous levassions,t<^m»^A£ 
tu te levasses, Ihou migktst, vous vous levassiez, youmighi 
il se levat, hemightrise, ils^e levassent, they might rise 

COMPOUND TENSES. 
COMPOUND OP THE PRESENT. 

Je me sois lev6, Imay^ &c. Nous nous soyons lev6s, we, ^. 
tu te sois lev ^^tJum mayst. vous vous soyez lev^s, you. Sit 
ils se soit lev§, he ma^ &c. ils se soient lev^s, Siey^ &c 

COMPOl^D OF THE PRETERITE. 

Je me fusse lev6,/7ra?^A^9&c.Nous nous fussions lev6s,t(?e>&c 
tu te fusse \ev€^thou^ &c. vous vous fussiez lev^s, you^ 
il se fut lev^, he might, &c.i]s se fussent lev^s, they^&c 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Levons nous, let us rise, 

2. leve-toi, rise thou, levez-vous, rise you, 

3. qu'il se leve, let him rise, qu'ils «e levent, let them rise, 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. All reflected verbs are conjugated with the auxiliar} 
etre in French, and to hive in English, in their compounc 
tenses. 

2. They are also conjugated with two pronouns relating 
♦to the same object \jeme\% used for the first person of the 
singular number ; tute for the second ; U or eUe se, for the 
tjjird ; nous nous, for the first of the plural number ; vous 



RJEPLECTSD VSBB& 



111 



for the second; ili or elks se^ for tbe diird, a« 

»iost passive verbs, which have an inammate object 
3ir nominative case, are reflected in French : as, Het 
Ues nouvelles se r^pandent plus pro mp ie meni que ks 
; bad news are sooner spread about tnan good. 

'he verbs which are followed in English by the pro- 
^y^ffy thysdf^ himsdfy &c. answer exactly to the 
1 reflected. The following have no pronouns in 
1, and, as they cannot be easily distiDguished, must 
nt by heart : — 

VERBS REFLECTED IN FRENCH. 



ler, to compound, 
Qir, to abdain, 
der, to agree. 
der, to lean upon, 
iTy to sit clown. 
ler, to stick. 
ner, to bathe. 
ser, to stoop. 
;onner, to canton. 
:her, toga to bed. 
ittre, to struggle. 
jrder, tojhw over. 
ire, to retract. 
iTy to distrust. 
Icher, to make hifte. 
lettre, to resign. 
ster, to desist 
•, to cry out. 
er, to leap upon. 
er, to go away. 
rer, to seize upon. 
esser, to be eager. 
*mir, to fall asleep. 
r, to run away. 
rdir, to grow bold. 
;iner, to take root. 
liner, to catch cokL 



s'enrichir, to grow rich. 

s'entretenir, to discourse with. 

s'envoler, tojly awaiy. 

s*6panouir, to blow. 

s'esquiver, to steal away. 

s'etonner, to wonder. 

s'^vanouir, to faint away. 

s'6vaporer, to evaporate. 

s*6vertuer, to strive. 

se farder, to paint. 

se fier, to trust 

se figurer, to fancy. 

se fl^trir, to fade away. 

se fondre, to melt. 

se formaliser, to find fault 

se glisser, to creep in. 

se h&ter, to make haste. 

s'imaginer, to fancy. 

s*ing6rer, to intermeddle. 

s*insinuer, to steal in. 

se lever, to rise. 

se hqu6fier, to ^quefy* 

se marier, to marry. 

se m^fier, to distrust. 

se m^prendre, to mistake. 

se moquer, to laugh at 

se mutiner, to mutiny. 



112 A NEW METHOD TO LEARN VERBS. 

se piquer, toprettmdto. se ressouvenir, to remimber, 

se plaindre, to complain* se r^volter, to rebel. 

se promener, io waOu se saisir, to seize upon, 

se r^jouir, to r^'oice. se soumettre, to submit, 

se repentir, to repent, se souvenir, to remember, 

se reposer, to rest, se vanter, to boast. 



An easy Method to ham Verbs, 

This method is divided into two sections: the first 
teaches how to form the tenses of a verb, and the second 
how to form the persons of a tense, 

§ 1. Rules for (he Formation of the Tefises of Regvlat 

Verbs. 

The PRESENT of the infimtivey the gerund, the par- 
ticiple, the present, and the preterite of the indicative^ 
are called the primitive tenses, because all others are 
formed from them according to the following rules ; 

Rule L From the jpresent infinitive are formed, 1. The 
fiiture, by adding ai to the final of those which end with a 
consonant : as, donnery dormir, infinitive ; je donneraiy je 
domdraiy future ; and by changing the final e into oi, in 
those which end with a vowel : as, lircy vendre^ infinitive \ 
je lirai, Je vendraiy futur^e. 2. The cortditioncd, by adding 
ais to the final of those which end with a consonant : as, 
chantcTy punir, infinitive ; Je chanterais,Je puniraisy condi- 
tional; and by changing e mute into ais in those. which 
end with a vowel : as, pkure, repondre, infinitive; ^cjpfet* 
rais,Je repondraisy conditional. 

Rule II. From the gerund are formed, 1. The tkm 
persons plural of the present of tlie indicativey by changing 
ant into onSy ezy ent : as, parlanty agissant, gerund, nous 
parlonsy vous parleZy Us parknt; nous agissonSy vous 
agissezy Us agissent 2. The imperfect of the indicative, 
by changing ant into ais : as, venant, connaissanty gerund, 
Je venaisyje connaissais, S. The present of the std^wictivey 



A'^ NEW METHOD TO LEARK VERBS. 1 13 

by changing ani into e: as, riduisanty ecrivanty gerund, ^« 
rykluiseyj*icrive* 

Rule III. With the participle are formed, in aHVerbs, 
regular or irregular, all the compound tenses, by means of 
the auxiliary verbs avoir or etre; aimiy finiy ouvert, venuy 
rependy participle ; j'ai aimdy j'avais jiniy faurai ouverty 
fe serais venuyje me sois rq>enti: no exceptions to this rule. 

Rule IV. From the present of the indicative is formed 
the second person of the imperextivBy by suppressing the 
pronounce .• asyj'aimeyje viens, je connaisy pres. ind. aime, 
vknsy connais. The first and second persons plural of tlie 
inkier, are similar to the same persons in the pres, ind, 
only suppressing the pronouns nousy vous ; as, nousfinis- 
sousy vous croyezy ind. pret, finissonsy croyezy imperative. 

Rule V. From the preterite of the indicative is formed 
the subjunctive preteritCy by changing the final ai into asse, 
fbr the verbs of the first conjugation : as, Je donnai, 
f^cumaiy pret. md^je donna^sey f aimassBy pret. subj. and by 
adding se to all those which end in s : B&yj*agisyje lusyje 
tmSy pret. \nd,j'agissey je lussey je tinssBy pret. subj. This 
fifth rule has no exceptions, not even in the irregular 
verbs. 

The exceptions to rule the first are, the verbs which 
change enir of the present infinitive into iendrai for the 
future, and into iendrais for the conditional : as, teniryje 
tkndraiy je tiendrais ; and the verbs which change oir of 
the present irifinitive into rai for the future, and into rais 
for the conditional: as, recevoiryje recevraiyje recevrais. 

The exceptions to rule the second are the same verbs 
of the preceding exception, which do not form from the 
gerund the third person plural of the pres, ind, nor the 
duree persons singular and third person plural of the pres. 
snbj. But they form them from the first person singular 
if the pres. ind, by changing s into nenty ncy nesy ncy and 
nent lor the verbs in enir; and into venty ve, vesy t?c, vent, 
for the verbs in evoir : as, je vienSy ils viennenty que je 
ffienncy que tu viennes, qu'il vienne, quits viennent; je 
regoisy its regoiventy que je regoive, que tu regoivesy qu'H 
regoiven quHls regoivent. 



114. 



A NEW MBTHOD TO LEARK VERBS. 



Verbs whose gerunds end in oyaiit^ vyamty change % 
into i before an e mute : as, nettoyarUy Us nettciaU; offfui^ 
antf qttej'appuie. 

To exercise the learner in applying the foregomg nilesi 
we subjoin a table of the primitive tenses of the twehe 
verbs following : 

Participle. 
parle, 

agi, 

sentiy 

ouvert, 

tenu, 

re9u, 

plu, 

craint, 
Oonnaitre, connaissant, connu, je connais, je connus, 
Instmirey intruisant, instniit, i'instruis, j'intruisis. 
Vendre, vendant, vendu, je vends, jeven(fis. 
Ecrire, ecrivant, ecrit j'eciis, j'toivis. 



Infl pres> 
Parler, 
Agir, 
Sentir, 
Ouvrir, 
Tenir, 



Gerund* 
parlant, 
agissant, 
sentant, 
ouvrant, 
tenant, 



Recevoir, recevant, 
Plaire, plaisant, 
Graindre, craignant. 



Ind» pre$» 
je parle, 
J'agis, 
je sens, 
j'ouvre, 
je tiens, 
je re9ois, 
je i^ais, 
je crains. 



jepKarlal 

j'agia. 
je sends, 
j'otivria. 
je tins, 
jere^us. 
jeplus. 
je craigius. 



§ 2. Rules for the Formation of Persons 



RULE 1. PRBS. IND. 

The first person ends either in e, s, or x. When it ends 
in e, the second adds an «, and the third is like the first: 
aSfje parle, tu paries, il parle. 

When it ends ia s or x, the second is like the first, and 
the third changes the final s or x into t': as,/? lis, tu Us,U 
lit; Je veiucy tu veux, il veut. 

However, s is left out in the third person of verbs 
which end in cs, ds, w ts, in the ^st i a&, Je vcdncs, tu 
vaincs, il vainc; Je perds, iu perds, il perd; Je tnets^ tu 
mets, il met. 

The three persons plural end in ons, ez, ent : as, parUad, 
ger. nous parUms, vous parlez, Us parlmt; phind of the 
pres. of the indicative. 



A NEW METHOD TO LEARN VERBS. 



115 



The JEaccepdons are: 

1. The verb oRery which makes je raw, tu vas^ il va; 
0U8 aJUonSy vaus allez, ils vont. 

2. The verb arotr, which makesy'at, tu cis, U a^ nous 
vonsy vous axeZy ils ont, 

S* JBtrSy which makes je stds^ tues,tl est; nous sommes, 
0U9 iiesy Us sont. 

4. Direy and redire, which make vous dUeSy and vous 



5. JFairey and its compounds, which make vous faiies, 
Ufont. 



RULE II. 



When the first person of any othet" tense is known, the 
ther persons are formed, either in regular or irregular 
erbs, by changing the final as follows : 



IMPERFECT OF THE INDICATIVE. 





SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 3 


ais, 


ais, 


ait. 


ions, 


iez, aient. 




PRETERITE OF 


THE INDICATIVE. 


ai, 


as. 


a; 


ames, 


ates, drent. 


is, 


is. 


it; 


imes, 


ites, ir^nt. 


ins, 


ins. 


int; 


inmes, 


intes, inrent. 


us, 


us. 


ut; 


limes, 


utes, urent. 



FUTURE. 

rai,. ras,, ra; rons, rez, ront. 

CONDITIONAL. 

rais, rais, rait; rions, riez, raient. 

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT. 

e, es, e; ions, iez, ent. 



116 OF ADVERBS. 



PRETERITE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

1 2 3 1 • 2 S 

asse, asses, at; assions, assiez, assent 

isse, isses, it; issions, issiez, issent. 

insse, insses, hit; ' inssions, inssiez, inssent 

usse, usses, ut; ussions, ussiez, ussent 

# 

The only exceptions are the verb itrey which makes k 
the subjunctive present, je soisy tu soisy il soUy nous tojfmit, 
vous soyezy ils soient; and the verb orotV, which makes^''tti^ 
tu aiesy il city twws ayonsy vous ayezy ils oienL . 



OF ADVERBS. 
The toord Adverb signifies joined to a Verb. 

The Adverb is a word indeclinable, which modifies s 
verb, a participle, or an adjective, and may be consi<faed 
as a substitute for an additional phrase by way of explan- 
ation. Example : 

Dieu est i7tfiniment\\\&Xf& ; il punira siverement les impies. 
God is inmiitelyy?^^/ he wiU punish severely the impum* 

Most of the French adjectives become adverbs by alter- 
ing their final according to the three following rules : 

RULE I. 

Adjectives which end in ant or ent become adverbs by 
changing the final ant into ammenty and ent into emmmt: 
as, constanty prudenty patient, adjectives ; constammaik 
prudemmenty patiemmenty adverbs. The only exceptioot 
are lentementy and prisentementy from the adjectives M 
QXid. present. 

RULE II. 

Adjectives which end in a vowel, become adverbs, by 
adding merU to the final : as, sage, poliy inginuy adjectives; 
sagementy polimenty ingSnumenty adverbs. The adjectives 
ieauy fouy nouveauy and mou, become adverbs by adding 



OF ADVERBS. 117 

ment to their feminine bdle^foUej nomeUe^ and moUe: beUe- 
mentf foUementy nouvellementy moUement. 

RULE III. 

Adjectives which end neither in a vowel, nor in ant or 
eni in the masculine singular, become adverbs by adding 
ment to thdr feminine termination : as, grandj douxy heu- 
refiXy adjectives masculine ; grande^ dcnuxy heurease^ ad- 
jectives feminine*: graafidementy doucement^ hereusementy 
adverbs. 

The e which precedes ment is mute in all adverbs 
formed from adjectives, except in the following, in which 
it takes an acute accent: aisSmentf assur6ment, aveugH- 
'menty commodiment, ccmmun6ment, canformementy dili" 
bMmenty dhnisurhnent, desesp4rimenty ddsardannement, 
dkerndnhntnty effronUmenty 6norm6menty expressimenty 
figwrimenty inyjorfundmenty impunimenty incommodement^ 
inoonddMmeniy indeterminementy inespir^meniy inopini-' 
menty mcdais^menty modirimenty nomm^menty obscurimenty 
cbttinimenty opinidtrhnenty passionnimenty posimenty pri- 
ds^menty primatwrimenty privimenty prof<mdimenty profusi- 
menty proportionnimenty sensimenty siparimenty serrhnenty 
9ubordonn6ment, 



DIFFERENT SORTS OF ADVERBS 

Besides the great number of adverbs formed from ad- 
jectives according to the three preceding rules, there are 
many others, which may be divided into nine classes, 
according to their signification ; they are as follows : 

1. ADVERBS OF ORDER : as, premierementy first ; 
Mcondementy secondly; troisiemementy thirdly, &c. de- 
vanty before ; derrierey behind ; apresy afler ; enstdtey 
afterwards, &c. 

2. ADVERBS OF PLACE : as, ow, where ; d'ouy 
from whence ; iciy here; ia, there ; dedansy within ; deJurrSy 
without ; en hcmty above ; en ^, below ;, hiny far ; presy 
near, &c. 

( * For the fonnation of the feminine of adjectiTes, see pages 46—48. 



118 OF PSEFOSITION5. 

S. ADVERBS OF TIME : as, aprimOy now; in^oitfu 
d^huiy to-day ; hievr yesterday ; autr^bis, formerly ; huHtH 
soon ; dans peu, shortly ; ddsormais, hereafter^ &c* 

4. ADVERBS OF QUANTITY: as, combien, how 
much ; beccucaupy much ; petih little ; assess enough ; m; 
so much ; autcmt^ as much ; trcp^ too mudi ; ircppeu, tot 
little, &c, 

5. ADVERBS OF COMPARISON: as, comme, n; 
de mSmey in the same manner ; aussty as ; autaniy as much; 
plus more ; moinsy less ; pareillementy likewise, &c. 

6. ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION: as, out, yes; i 
la viriUy indeed ; vraimenty truly ; sans doute, withont 
doubt ; assurSmentf assuredly ; certainemeniy certainly, Ac 

7. ADVERBS OF NEGATION : as, jmmi, no ; mp% 
not ; paint du toutf not at all ; fmlkmeniy by no meansi Ac 

8. ADVERBS, OF INTERROGATION : as, 
when ; pourquoiy why ; cambieny how much ; 
how ; ouy where, &c^ 

9. ADVERBS OF DOUBT: as, peutSirey perhqn; 
probablementy very likely, &c^ 



PREPOSITIONS. 



Prepositions are indeclinable words, so called from the 
Latin verb prapojiere (which signifies to place before), 
because they are always put in French before the word 
they govern. Example : Ce qui sefait dans lapasskmy st 
fait souvent contre la raisoUy et nous donne dans la smie de 
grands sujets de repenixr. What is done in passion is often 
done again^ reason, and gives us in time great cause €f 
repentance. 

Prepositions are indeclinable. They serve to denote 
the several relations of nounsy pronounsy or adverbsy with 
one another. They are the following : 

Prepositions which denote the Genitive Case, 

k cause de, on account of. ^ convert de, secure from, 
a cote de, by, a fleur de, even ivith. 



OF PftEPOSII^IONS. 



119 



ie^ 6^ dint of. au moyen de, bjf means of, 

e, shdteredfronu - au niveau de, even to. 
ir de, by means of. au p^ril de, at ihe peril iif. 
\TG^eyafierthefashum2^ii^r^^ de, near^ 
rve de, excepting that, au prix de, at dije expense of. 
de, with regard to. au risque de, at the danger of. 
tion de, excited. autour de, around. 
don de, exciting, au travers de, through. 
e, unknown to. aux d^pens dLe^attheeaqpenseof 

ite de, over against, aux environs de, round about. 
le, f£;td!er, en de9k de, on this side. 

de, a^ the rate of. en d^pit de, in spite of. 

en prisence de, in presence of 

ensuite de, after. 

faute dey for want of. 

hors de, out of. 

le long de, along. 

loin diQy far from. 

pour Tameur de^for the sakscf. 

pr^s de, near. 

proche de, nigh. 

tout aupr^s de, close to. 



de, contrary to. 
ie, cm /S^if ^nsfe. 
s de, within. 
s de, without. 
le, oit <S/to jtcfe. 
re de, behind. 
18 de, %mder. 
\ de, f(pon. 
t de, b^ore. 
e, instead. 



dcyinthe middle 47^vis-^-vis de, opposite to. 



epositions which 

after. 

irs, through 

before. 

vith. 

vt. 

» agmnsL 

n. 

» since. 

e, behind. 

om. 

, before. 

, during. 

between. 
t towards^ 



denote the Accusative Case. 

environ, about. 

except^, except. 

hormis, excepty but. 

ma]gr6, in spite of. 

raoyennKoXy for. 

nonobstant, notwithstanding, 

outre, besides. 

par, by. 

parmi, among. 

pendsuit, during. 

pcmr, for- 

proche, near. 

sans, unthout 

sauf, sctfe. 

selon, according to. 



120 OF PREPOSITIONS. 

SOUS, under, touchant, concerning^ 

suivant, aecording to. vers, towards, 

swty upon. 

Observe, that the prepositions formed with a, m 
auxy and a noun, require the genitive case, and that i 
others require the accusative after them. 

These lour, conformiment a, according to ;jusqu*dy a 
as ; jHzr rcq^port a, with respect to ; quant a, as for ; 
note the dative case. 

Prepositions joined to a Verb. 

Many prepositions come in English after a verb, 
make a part of its signification ; such are the follow 
which are not expressed in French : 

abattre, topuUdown. 6ter, to take away. 

abandonner, to give up. paraphraser, to comments 

cacheter, to seal up. ramener, to bring back. 

combler, toJUl up. trouver, to find ovt. 

d^chirer, to tear off. monter, to go up. 

d^raciner, to root out. descendre, to go dawn. 

s*envoler, to fly away, entrer, to come in. 

^poudrer, to wipe off. sortir, to go out. 
s'^vanouir, to faint auxiy. regarder, to look at. 

expulser, to tarn ovJt. chercher, to look for. 

ttxtirper, to root out. admirer, to wonder at. 

se lever, to get up. attendre, to wait for. 
mander, to send for. 



VERBS COMPOSED WITH A PREPOSITION. 

The English give to the most part of their verbs a 
nification quite opposite to the pnmitive one, by prefi 
to them the preposition un or dis. The French gi 
by prefixing dds to the words which begin with a vou 
h mute ; and di to those which begin with a consoi 
Example : 

border, to border. paver, to pave. 

di^border, to unborder, d^paver, to unpave. 



OF PREPOSITIONSw 



rei 



, to load, 
;er, to unload, 

do, 

to undo. 

Ire, to learn. 
endre, to unlearn, 

, to dress. 
Her, to undress, 

7 curl. 

, to uncurl, 

» lace, 
to unlace. 

He, 

o untie, 

% to count, 
ter, to discount, 

!o trust, 

r, to distrust. 

to cover. 

ir, to uncover. 



plaire, to please, 
d^plaire, to displease, 

poss6der, to possess, 
deposslder, to dispossess, 

tromper, to deceive, 
d^tromper, to undeceive. 

voiler, to veiL 
d^voiler, to unveil, 

tordre, to twist, 
d6tordre, to untwist, 

approuver, to approve, 
d^sapprouver^ to disapprove. 

armer, to arm. 
d^sarmer, to disarm. 

honorer, to honour. 
dishonorer, to dishonour, 

ob6ir, to obey. 
d6sob6ir, to disobey, 

unir, to unite, 
d6sunir, to disunite. 



Snglish put the word again., after a verb, to express 
eration of a thing. The French express the re- 
I by prefixing the preposition re to the verb, when 
s with a consonant, and r only when it begins with 
or A mute. Thus we say ^- • ^ 



to call. 
', to call again. 



faire, to do. 
refaire, to do again. 



r, to seal up. embarquer, to embarh. 

ter, to seed up again, rembarquer, to embarh again. 

iTf to compose. lire, to read. 

>s.er, to compose again, relire, to read again. 

er, to ash. mesurer, to measure. 

ider, to ash again. remesurer, to measure again. 

o 



122 OF CONJUNCTIONS 

paraitre, to appear. trouver, to find. 

reparaitre> to appea/r again, retrouver, to find again. 

plisser, &>j9/a2V. vendrcy 6> ^eZ/L 

replisser, to plait again. revendre, to sell again* 

prendre, to take. venir, to come. 

•reprendre, to take again. revenir, to come again* 

tomber, to fall. 
retomber, to fall again. 

There are many other prepositions which come imme* 
diately after a verb in English, and change its signification; 
such are away, haeky upon, otU, for^ with^ off^ &c. but these 
cannot be reauced to rules, and can be learned by practice 

only. 



OF CONJUNCTIONS. 



Conjunctions are indeclinable words, used in a sentence 
to join together the different parts of speech. Exam^: 

Parlez peu et pensez bien^ si vous vouliz qtjCan vout f«- 
garde comme un homme d*esprii. 

Speak little and think much, if you would be looked 
upon as a man of sense. 

In this sentence, et and si are two conjunctions, which 
show the dependency and conjunction of the clauses whidi 
compose it. 

Conjunctions are simple or compound ; the simple con- 
sist o£ one word, as et, oti, ni, &c.; the compound an 
formed of two or more words, such as cfin qucy au Um 
quey 81 ce riest que. Both simple and Compound may be 
shown to have been borrowed from otlier classes of words. 
The simple ones are mostly directing words, iAdependenl 
of the subject meant to be told, but introduced for the 
purpose of enabling us to understand a complicated state* 
ment or sentence. 

The above explanation being too abstract for many 
young students, I will dispose the conjunctions in three 
alphabetical lists. The first contains the conjunctioiis' 



OF CONJUKCTIONS. 



128 



govern the infinitive mood ; the second enumerates 
which govern the subjunctive ; and the third com- 
rids all others. 

1. CoT^ncHons which govern the Infinitive, 



de, in order to, 
is de, unless, 
de, before, 
1 de, instead of, 
inte de, for fear of, 
IT de, for fear cf. 



faute de, for want of, 

jusqu*d, ttU, 

loin de, far from, 

plutot que de, rather than* 

pour, Jor, 

sans, vnthout. 



2. Conjunctunu which govern the Svbfunctive, 



que, that, 
IS que, unless. 
que, before, 

que, in case that, 
ue, though, 
inte que, for fear, 
ir que, lest, 

que, if, 
\ que, (hough, 
I ce que, till, 
le, far from. 



malgr^ que, for all that, 
nonobstant que, for all thai, 
non pas que, not that 
pose que, suppose that, 
pourvu que, provided. 
quoique, though, 
sans que, without, 
soit que, whether, 
suppose que, suppose thai, 
Dieu veuille que, God grant 
pour que, (hat. 



functions which govern neither the Irifinitive nor the 

Subjunctive, 



se que, because, 

lition que, provided, 

ihtts, 

[ue, as. 

que, a^ier. 

1 que, whereas. 

ins, at hast 

also. 

)ien que, as well as, 

)t que, as soon as, 

plus, moreover, 

. que, €u much, 

r. 

iant, however. 



c'est pourquoi, (herrfore. 
comme, as, 

d'abord que, as soon as. 
d'ailleurs, besides. 
d'autant que, whereas. 
de fa9on que, so that. 
depms que, since. 
de plus, moreover, - 
de sorte que, so that 
des que, as soon as. 
done, then, 
durant que, during. 
et, and. 

en efict, indeed. 
o 2 



1245 OF INTERJECnaJTS. 

enfin, in short, pourquoi, why. 

ensuite, c^ienoards. pourtant, however. 

joint k cela, moreover. puis, then. 

lorsque, when» puisque, since, 

mais, but. quand, when. 

m^me, even. quand mdme, (Mwugh. 

n6anmoins, nx^oerthdess. selon que, according as. 

ni, nor. si, t^ 

non plus, neither. si bien que, so thai. 

non-seulement, not only. si ce n'est que, exctpi Aat, 

or, now. sinon, else. 

ou bien, or else. sit6t que, as soon as. 

ou, or. suivant que, according as. 

outre, besides. sur quoi, wheretoion. 

outre cela, add to that. surtout, especiaug. . 

parce que, because. tandis que, whUit* 

pendant que, wkUe. tant que, as long as. 

pour lors, then. toutefois, Jiowever. 

OBSERVE, that many adverbs become prepositicHUi 
when they govern a noun, a pronoun, or a verb : as, manka 
devanty walk before, adverb; marchez devani moi^ mSk 
before me, preposition. Some prepositions in their turn 
become conjunctions, when they are used to join difierent 
parts of speech : aSffaites cela pour moi, do it for me, pre- 
position ; je le feraipour vous plairCy I will do it to jJease 
you, conjunction. 

OF INTERJECTIONS. 

Interjections are some indeclinable words used to ex* 
press the affections of the niind, either of Jog, grief, fiat% 
aversion, derision, surprise, &c. 

1. Of joy, as bon! uxll! vivelajoie! huzza f 

2. Of grief, as helas ! alas/ ah ! ahf &c. 

3. Of fear, as ah I ah / h61as ! alas / he ! okf to 

4. Of aversion, as fi ! /Je tqxm ! fi done ! fie upon! 

5. Of derision, as oh] oh / zest ! pshaw / 

6. Of surprise, as bon Dieu ! Good God! eh ! lack a da^l 

7. Of encouraging, as allons ! come on ! courage ! cheer vpl 
3< To stop, as holli'! fwld! tout beau! si^Vg! 



125 



PART III. 

OF SYNTAX.* 

Sv)9TAX is the regular construction of the different parts 
of speech) conformably to the rules of grammar, and the 
genius of a language. 

Construction supposes three things in every tongue : the 
cAoice of words, their concordy and their arrangemefU : these 
objects are fully explained in the following Rules, which 
point out the different genius of the two languages with 
accuracy and precision. 

Syntax is here divided into twenty-four chapters : the 
chapters are again divided into sections when occasion 
requires it. 



CHAP. I. 

USE OF THE FRENCH ARTICLES. 

This chapter is divided into four sections : The First 
explains the several circumstances in which articles are 
used in both languages ; the seccmd enumerates the cases 
in which the article is used in French, and not in English ; 
^ ikM describes those in which it is used in English, and 
not in French ; the fourth contains all the circumstances 
in which both languages take no article. 

* Tlie learner must not begin the second chapter of the syntax, till 
he understands the rules of the first ; nor the third, before he knows 
the second ; and so on for all others. It is also proper that he should 
repeat at least once a week the principal rules which he has already 
learnt, lest he should forget them. 



t»M„. « 

o 9 



126 SYNTAX OV ARTICLES* 

SECTION THE FIRST. ' 
Article used in French and in English* 

Rule 1. — un, une, Oy an* 

The indefinite article {un^ masc. tine, fem. in English, a 
or on) is used in both languages before a substantire 
common in the singular, to denote one individual of a 
class, without specifying which one. Examples t 

A book, a house, a friend, a philosopher. 

Un UvrCy une maison^ un amt, ym pkiJoaophe* 

England is a fruitful country. A wise man. 

L^Angletorre est un paysfertUe* Un hamme sage. 

Rule 2. — le, la, les, the. 

The definite article (fe, masc kiy fem. T, of both gmders 
before a vowel or h mute, les for the plural of both genders, 
in English the) is used in both languages before a sub- 
stantive, taken in a particular and specified sense. Ex- 
amples : 

The house of my father. The book whidi I read. 
La maisan de mon pere, Le livre qwje lis. 
The horse which I have sold to you is excellent. 
Le chevcU qne Je vaus ai vendu est excellent 

Rule 3. — a or on rendered by &> la^ les. 

The English make use of the indefinite article a or on 
before nouns of measure, weight, and number, when they 
want to express how much a thing is worth, or sold for: 
the French, on the contrary, use the definite article k^ la, 
^(69, in such cases. Examples: 

{That lace is worth a crown a yard. 
Cette denteUe vant un 4cu Ibl verge. 
Coals cost two shillings a bushel 
Le charbon caute deux scheUings le baisssem. 



SYNTAX OP ARTICLES, 127 



Wei hi J Butter is sold for ten-pence a pound. 

^ ' \Le beurre se vend dix sous la livre, 

NinAfT ^ ^SS" ^^ worth fifteen-pence a dozen. 

* \Les ceufs vcdent quinze sotis la douzame. 



//' ^. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 
Article used in French and not in English* 

Rule 4^. — le^la^lesy not the. 

The definite article {fe^ loy les,) is used in French and 
not 'in English, befi3re substantives common, taken in the 
whole extent of their signification. Examples : 

Men are mortal ; Les hommes sont mortals, 

God hfttes sinners ; Dieu hait les pScheurs, 

"Virtue is amiable ; La vertu est aimable^ 

Vice is odious ; Le vice est odieux. 

The words men, sinners, virtue, and vice, are taken in a 
general sense ; because all men are mortal, God hates all 
sinnerSi all virtues are amiable, and all vices odious. 

Rule 5. — le, la, les, not the. 

The definite article (le, la, les,) is used in French and 
not in English, befi:)re the names of kingdoms, countries, 
and provinces. Examples : 

France and England are two powerful kingdoms. 
La Prance et YAngleterre sont deux puissans royaumes. 
I have passed through Spain, Switzerland, and Germany 
J*cdpassipaT YEspixgne, la Suisse, et YAUemagne, 

These nouns usually take no article, when they are in 
the genitive or ablative case, or after the preposition en. 
Examples: 

JC£8 royaumes de France ist YAngleterre sont puissans. 
J\d voyag6 en Italie. T arrive YAUemagne. Je viens ile 

G i 



128 SYNTAX OF ARTICLES, 

However, the names of distant countries take alwa3rs the 
article ; such are le Sen^cdy h Canada^ le Japan, le Mad' 
que, le PSrau, &c. Some names of provinces follow the 
same rule : as, le Dauphind, le Mcdne, le Perche, le Man^ 
Uman, le Givaudany &c. Thus we say, je vais au Japoiiy 
and not en Japan ; j* arrive du Canada, Xar du PSrou, 

N. B. When the names of kingdoms and republics are 
the same as those of their capital towns, they have a 
less definite use, and in either sense take no article ; of 
this ^ort are Naples, Venise, and Crenes: thus we say, 
Venise est une ripublique; not la Venise est une r4pubUqiu. 

Rule 6. — le, la, les. 

The definitive article {fe, la, les,) is used in Frendi 
before the adjectives substantively used, whether it is used 
or not in English. Examples : 

The industrious are praised, and the slothful punii^ed; 
Les dUigens sont lauis et les paresseux punis. 
Black and white are two opposite colours ; 
Le nair et le blanc sont deux cotUeurs opposies. 

Rule ?• — du, de la, des, some. 

The partitive article (du, m. sing. dela,tder before 8 
vowel or h, m. and des, plur. of both genders) is used m 
French before a substantive, when we want to express an 
indeterminate number, or a portion of a thing : this article 
answers to the English word same, expressed or under- 
stood. Examples : 

Give me some bread, some meat, and some eggs ; 
Donnez-moi du pain, de la viande, et des ceufk 
I have bought paper, ink, and pens ; 
J*ai acheU du papier, de \encre, et des plumes. 

Rule 8.— efe instead of cft^ de la, des. 

If a substantive, taken in a partitive sense as before, is 
preceded in French by an adjective, the preposition cfe is 
used for both genders and numbers, instead of the partitive 
article du, de la, des* Examples : 

Donnez-moi de bon pain, de bonne viande, et de bans cefufs. 
J'ai acheU de mauvais papier, et de numvaise encre. 



SYNTAX OF ARTICLES. 129 

N. B. Every time the words wme or anyy are, or can be 
used in English before a substantive, the partitive article 
du^ de loy de9y or the preposition de, must be used in 
Rrench, according to the distinction of the two preceding 
-ales, ^. r 

Rule 9. — Where the Article is required. f 

Every noun which is the nominative, or the term of a 
verb, must have in French one of the three articles, definite^ 
indefinUey or partitive^ of which before. Examples : 

Grold and silver cannot render man happy ; 
Uor et V argent ne sauraient rendre Yhomnie heureux* 
Spain produces wine, oranges, and olives ; 
UEspagne produit du vin, des oranges, et des olives. 

N. B. I do not comprehend in this rule the proper 
names of persons and towns, the substantives preceaed by 
a pronoun or an adjective of number, neither of which has 
any article, as we shall s^e in the rules 14th ^nd 15th. 

Rui^E 10. — Repetition of the Articles. 

The articles are repeated in French before every sub- 
stantive, and agree with them in gender and number ; in 
English, on the contrary, they are indeclinable. Examples : 

The genius of the French tongue consists in clearness, 
purity, elegance, and strength ; 

Le ginie de la Icmgue Frangaise 4xmsiste dans la clarti, la 
puretiy YiUgcmce, et la force. 

I have bought meat, cheese, and fruits ; 

y'ot aduti de la vUmde, du fromage, et des fruits. 



/ 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
Articles used in English and not in French. 

RuLls 1 1. — the, not k, la, Us. 

The definite article (the) is used in English, and not in 
French, before the ordinal numbers, the first, the second, ^ 
" thefour^, &c. used in quotations. Examples : 

G 5 



ISO SYNTAX OP AftTlOLfiS. 

Book the firsts chapter the sixth, section: the ninth ; 
Livre premier^ chapitresixy set^ion neuviime. 

No article is used in French before the ordinal numbers 
which come after the Christian names of sovereigns. 
Examples : 

Charles Me first, Philip M« second, George ^ third:* 
Charles premier^ Philippe second^ George trots* 

Rule 12. — a, not un or une. 

The indefinite article (a or an) is used in English, 
and not in French, before nouns which express the titiett 
professions^ trade, country, or any other attribute of the 
substantive antecedent. Examples : 

My father was a nobleman ; Monpere etait noble* 
Your brother is a physician ; Voire frere est.midechu 
Are you a Frenchman ? Etes-vous Frangais 9 

Rule 13. — a, not un or une. 

The indefinite article (a or an) is also used in English) 
and not in French, in the four following cases : 

1. Before a substantive used to qualify another. Ex* 
ample : 

The King was received ii^ /riumph, an honour he deserved 
Le ^Bmjm regu en triomphe, honneur qu'il mSritait hien, 

2. Before a substantive which specifies or explains the 
thing spoken of. Example : 

I have read to-day the Busy Body, an esteemed comedy; 
J'ai lu at^ourd^hui VEmpressi, commie estim^, 

3. In the title of a book, or of any performance. Ex- 
ample: 

A Grammar of the French tongue ; 
Grammaire de la langue Frangaise* 

4. After the word what, used to express surprise. Ex* 
ample : 

What a noise you«make ! 
Quel bruit vous famsf 

* Observe, by thfe preceding examples, that the ordinal numbefs 
(the two first excepted) are rendered in French by the cardinal, alter 
the names of sovereigns, and also often in quotations. 



BYKTAX Ot ARTtCLES* 131 

SECTION THE FOURTH. 
/ No Article used in French or in English. 

Rule 14. — No Article in either language. 

No article is used in French or English before the word 
God (Dieu)y nor before the proper names of heathen 
deitiesy of men^ jtoomen^ toums, villages^ days^ or months. 
Examples : 

Goa is present every where ; s 

IHea est prisent parUyid,* 

Cicero and Demosthenes were two great orators ; 

Cidron et Dimosthenes etaient deux grands orateurs. 

London and Paris are two large capital cities ; 

Z/ondres et Paris sont deux grandes capitales. 

Jupiter and Venus were heathen divinities ; 

Jtqnier et Vinus itaient des divinitds paiennes. 

Some (but few) proper names of persons take an article 
in French : such are, VAriostCy le Tasse^ VAritin, le Titien, 

-Some names of towns take also an article: such are, la 
Baye^ fAiglCy. la Eochelle, le Hdvrey le Mans, &c. 

Rule 15. — No Article in either Language. 

No article is used in French or in English^ before a 
substantive preceded by any pronoun-whatever. Examples : 

My friend will come Mon ami viendra demain, 

to-morrow ; 

This house is new ; Cetie maisoti est neuve. 

What's o'clock now ? Quelle heure est-il a present? 

Rule 16. — The Preposition de. 
No article (but the preposition de) is used in French 
after the words espece, sorte, genre, melange, or any other 
of the same signification. Examples : 

* The definite article should be used before the proper names, if they 
were in the plural, or particularized. Examples : le Dieu des Chri- 
Hens est tout-puissant, Les demons sont rares, 

f B^ore French proper names of persons, preceded by tne article 
le, the prepositions de and d are never contracted with ihat article ; 
dius we ssy, les tableaux de le Brunt ^^ ^ot du Brun ; except le Poussin, 
les tableaux du Poussin. 

Q 6 



132 SYNTAX OF ARTICLES. 

Man is exposed to all sorts of infirmities ; 

L'homme est sujet h totUes sortes dUnfirmkesi 

Jealousy is a mixture of love and hatred, of fear and 

despair ; 
La jalousie est un milange dLanumr et de haine^ de crainU 

et de dise^xnr. 

Rule 17. — Transposition of Words. 

No article (but the preposition de) is used before the 
latter of two substantives, when it expresses the noftfre, 
matter y species^ qwdity^ or country of the first. Examples : 

A head-ach, a tooth-ach ; Un mud de t&te^ un nud de 

dent, 
A gold watch, silk stock- Une montre d'or, des has de 

ings; soie. 

Spanish wool, Burgundy De la kUne diEspagne, du 

wine ; vin de JBourgogne, 

The English often make a transposition of words, and 
place the genitive case the first ; this transposition is not 
allowed in French, and the order, must be reversed : thus 
we say, 

The king's guards ; les gardes du rou 
A chambermaid ; une fiUe de chwnbre. 

Diana's anger was the cause of Acteon's death ; 
La co^ire de Diane causa la mort d Action. . \ 

RuLB 18. — The Preposition de. ^ 

No article (but the preposition de) is used in French 
after words of quantity, u'^asure, scarcity, or exclusion ; 
as, abondance^ plenty ; assez^ crough ; aune ell ; autanty as 
much ; beauan^y much ; boisseo/ky bushel ; combien^ how 
many; livrey pound; nomJbrey number; jamais^ never; 
moinsy less ; pas ot pointy no ; peuy little ; pintey pint ; poty 
pot ; piusy more ; qtumtitiy quantity ; rieuy nothmg ; tcaUy 
so many ; tropy too much ; vergey yard, &c. Examples : 

You have much wit ; Vous avez heaucoup ^esprit. 

He fias no prudence ; H rCa point de prudence. 

You make too much noise ; Vous faites trop de hrmJt, 
I have but little money ; Je rCai quepeu d^ argent, 



SYNTAX OF ARTICLES. 133 

NoU 1. The words qubt gnd qvm^ used in a sentence of 
^admiration, are also followed by de. Examples : 

How many sorrows ! Qae de chagrins ! 
What more sad ! Quoi de flua triste ! 

Noie 2. The word bien is always followed by an article, 
and beamoup is never. 

He has a great many friends ; 

U a bien des amisy il a beaucoup Samis. 

Rule 19. — The Preposition de. « 

No article (but the preposition de) is used in French, 
when the substantive is taken in a general sense. * 

1. Afler an adjective which governs the genitive case 
Examples: 

You are praise-worthy ; Vous itesdigne de louanges. 
Human life is full of disappointments ; 
La vie humaine estpleine de revers. 

2. After the verbs and participles which are followed in 
English by the word wUh. Examples : 

You are puffed up with pride ; Vous ites bouffi diorgueiL 
Fill up the bottle with mne ; Etnplissez la bouteiUe de vin. 

But when the substantive is specified, the article must 
be used. Examples : 

He deserves the praises which are given to him ; 
Hest diffne des louanges quon lui dmne. 
His life was filled up with the most dreadful misfortunes. 
Sa viefuJt remplie des plies ctffreux revers* 

Rule 20. — Cases where no Article is used. 

1. No article is used in either language before nouns 
which form but one idea with the verb which precedes 
Uiem : such may be discriminated by observing that they 
are, or could be expressed by one word in English, as In 
the following examples : 

To pity the unfortunate ; Avoir puid des nudheurettx. 

To envy the happiness of others ; 

Porter envie au bonheur d^autnd. 

To visit a friend ; Rendre visite d un ami 



134 SYNTAX OF STTBSTANTlVES. 

2. The article is not usecL after the prepositions mwi, 
avecy or pavy when the noun following forms with them a 
kind of adverb. Examples : 

You speak elegantly; Vousparlez avec Higance. 

To vanquish without danger, is to triumph witliout gbry; 
Avaincre sans pMly on triomphe sans gfoirt* 
I have travelled by land and by sea ; 
Tai voyagi par terre et par mer. 

3. The article is not used before the cardinal numberS) 
nn, one ; deux^ two ; troisy three, &c. Examples : — 

Lend n\p twenty pounds ; Pritez-moi vingt livres, 
I have six oranges ; •Ted six cranages* 

Nevertheless, the definite article masculine (/(S, hi) is 
used in French as in English before the cardinal numbers, 
when speaking of cards, of things which have a fixed 
number, of the date of the month, or of a particular num- 
' ber specified by a- relative pronoun : thus we say, with an 
article in both languages, h huU de cceuVy the eight of 
hearts ; les quatre saisans, the four seasons ; rendez-mai ki 
vingt livres queje vouspritai le dix de Mars, return me the 
twenty pounds I lent you on the tenth of March. 



^ 
y 



\ 



CHAP. II. 

SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

Rule 21. — Two Substantives in the same Case. 

When there is a conjunction between two nouns, they 
must be put in the same case ; and if a substantive is pre- 
ceded by a preposition, that preposition is usually repeated 
in French before all other substantives governed by it 
Examples : 

Your advice pleased the king, the minister, and the par- 
liament ; 

Votre conseilpUa au ro%y au ministrey et anparlement. 



SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES. 135 

A man without religion is in a state of doubt and confu- 
sion, fear, and distrust ; 

Un homme sans religion est dans un 4tat de dorUe et de 
conJnsUmf de crainte et de difiance. 

Rule 22. — The latter of two Substantives is put in the 

Genitive, 

The latter of two substantives relating to each other is 
generally put in the genitive case in French, whether it is 
in the genitive or dative in English. Examples : 

Impious men are enemies to virtue ; 

Les impies sont ennemis de la vertu. 

The dog is a friend to man ; Le chien est Vami de Xhomme 

Rule 23. — Nomi tri the Dative. 

When two substantives make a compound word in En- 
glish, their order is inverted in French, and the prepo- 
sition d intervenes, when the one expresses the use of the 
other ; as, 

Gun-powder ; De la poudre a canon. 

Fire-arms ; Des armes a feu. 

A dining-room ; Une salle a manger. 

It is preceded by au, a hz, or aux, when it signifies 
something proper to drink, or to eat : as, 

Call the oyster-woman ; Appekz la femme aux hui- 

tres. 
Where is the rabbit-man ? Ow est Vhomme aux hpins 7 

Rule 24. — A Noun collective general, 

A noun collective general (that is to say, representing 
the whole object, such as the words, peupk, nation, armSe, 
fiottCy &c.) requires that the adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, 
to which it has reference, should always be in the sin- 
gular. Examples; 

The great French army was totally defeated ; 
Im grande armie Frangaise fut entierement d6faite. 
. The whole fleet is at sea, it set sail yesterday morning ; 
Toute lafiotte est en mer, elle partit hier matin. 



136 SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 

Rule 25. — A Noun collective partUive. 

A noun coliective partitive. (that is, which represents 
only a part of the whole object, such as fouk, nomhn^ 
viulHtudey &c.) followed by a genitive plural, governs the 
verb and the pronoun in the singular, if it is preceded bj 
a definite article or demonstrative pronoun ; but if not, it 
governs them in the plural. Examples : 

The multitude of foreigners make bread dear ; 

La multitude des itrangers rend lepam cher ; — singular. 

A multitude of christians are led astray every day; 

Une muUxtade de chritiens 8*^garent tous les Jours; — plural 

These few plants deserve your attention ; 

Cepeu deplarUes m^rite votre attention; — singular. 

The reason of this difference is, that tlie collective is a 
substantive when preceded by le, la, les, and a kind of ad- 
jective when not : in the first case the verb aigrees with 
the collective, and in the second with the substantive 
which comes afler the collective. 

N. B. Tlie verb is always put in the plural after the 
words la plupart, beaucoup, nombre, unless they are fol- 
lowed by a substantive singular. Example: la plupart h 
croient ; la plupart du monde le croit. 



CHAP. III. 

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES.* 

This Chapter, for the sake of order and perspicuity, is 
divided into four sections. 77ie first explains the concord 
and the right placing of adjectives ; ^ second treats of 
their government ; the third has for object the adjectives 
of dimension ; and the fourth comprehends whatever con- 
cerns the construction of comparatives and superlatives. 

* For the formation of the feminine of adjectives, see pages 46 to 
49 : thdr plural is formed from the singular, like that of substantives, 
of wliicfa before, page 49. 



SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 137 

SECTION THE HRST. 
Of the Concord and right Position of Adjectives^ 

Rule 26. — AU Adjectives are declinable. 

j^M adjectives are declinable in French, and agree in 
nder and number with the substantive or pronoun which 
ey qualify : in English, on the contrary, they are all in- 
clinable. Examples : 

pious man ; 2l pious woman ; pious girls ; 

n homme pieux. unefemme pieuse. desJiUes pieuses. 

lis picture cost me dear, but it is Jine; 

e tableau me coute cher, mais il est beau. 

lis house cost me dear, but it v&Jine ; 

Me maison me coute cher^ mais elle (sst belle. 

Rule 27* — A^ecHves agree umn the last Substantive. 

When an adjective or a participle is applied to qualify 
veral substantives, it is put after them in French, if it be 
\t one of those mentioned in Rule 30, and it may agree 
th the last, especially if they are ne^ly s3monymous, or 
Ely be considered as parts of some whole ; but if the 
Jective were any of those mentioned in Rule 30, it 
ust be repeated before every substantive, and aerees 
th each. Examples :^ 

I have found the door and the window shut ; 

•Tot trouvi la parte et lafenitre fermde ; — singular. 

He has an absolute power and authority ; 

H a unpouvoir et une autorite absolue. 

She has 2l pretty bird, and ^. pretty cage ; 

JEUe a un joli oiseauy et une jolie cage, 

luLE 28. — A^ectives relcOing to Nouns of different 

Genders. 

When an aojective refers to several substantives oi per- 
ns, or even to several substantives of things, but is se- 
irated from them, it is always put in the plural feminine 
the substantives are feminine ; but if they are both mas- 
iline, or of diiferent genders, it is put in the plural mas- 
iline. Examples : 



138 SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 

He made his father and mother happy ; 

H rendu sanpire et sa mdn heureux. 

His courage and boldness seem agiamshing to me ; 

San courage et sa kardiesse meparaissent Itonnans ;— 

Your mother and sister are lecSmed; 

Votre mire et voire sceur sont savantes ; — pL £ 

My brother and sister are dead; 

monfrire et ma sceur sont morts ; (not sont mortea). 

Rule 29« -^ Where Adjectives ought to be placed. 

When tvro or. more adjectives refer to the same sul 
live, they usually follow it in French. Examples : 

An ingenious sensible man ; Une homme ingimeux e 

sible, 
A long tedious book ; Un livre long et ennuyei 

A wise and virtuous woman ; Uhefemme sage et verti 
A young liberal prince ; Un prince jeune et lib^n 

Rule SO. — ^ Ai^ectives placed before the Substanti 

The adjectives, beau, fine ; bon, good ; grand, § 
gros, big ; jeune, young ; mauvais, bad ; m^chant, wi 
meiUeur, better ; mmndre, less ; petit, little ; saint, 
vieux, old ; those of number, and all the possessive, d 
strative, or indeterminate pronouns (which some gra 
rians consider as mere aojectives), precede in Fren< 
in English the substantive to which they are ^< 
Examples : 

We have lost a great general in this war ; 

Nous avons perdu un grand g6n6ral dans cette guer^ 

Young men believe they shall live long ; 

Lies jeunes gens croient quHls vivront long- temps. 

Note 1. The adjective cher^ dear, comes before th< 
stantive, when it denotes affection, bs mon cher pdf 
ohere mere; my dear father, my dear mother : it ( 
after when it denotes the price of a thing, as un livre 
a dear book ; une maison chere, a dear house. 

Note 2. We say tm grand homme, for a great mar 
un homme grand, for a tall man ; une grosse femme, 
fat woman; and une femme grosse, for a woman with i 



SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVESr 139 

line ubge'^emme^ for a midwife ; and unefemme sage^ for a 
modest or wise woman ; un gakmt homme^ for a man of 
honour, and un homme gcdant, for a courtier. 

Rule 31. — ActjecHvea placed afier the Stihstantive. 

The adjectives not mentioned in the preceding Rule> 
ai^ usually placed in French after the substantive which 
they quahfy ; in English, on the contrary, they are always 
placed before. Examples : 

Grttii^ul people are like ^o^q fruitful lands which give 
more tlian they receive. 

Zef personnes reconnaisantes ressembknt d dee terrea 
fertQes, qui donnent plies qu'elles ne refoivent, 

PubUe good is preferable to private interest. 

Le hien public estprifirabU d Vintirit particulier. 

Noie. Adjectives which express some moral qualities 
may sometimes be placed before or after the substantive : 
we may say, for instance, un amifideley or unfMle ami^ a 
iaithfiu friend ; but this is not oflen the case, therefore I 
advise the learner to put them after. 

Obsieinoe. We always put after the substantives, 1, The 
participles considered as adjectives : as, des idies embrou- 
tUieif confused ideas. 2. Those of figure or colour : as, 
une table ronde, a round table ; un haint noir, a black coat. 
3. Those which end in ique^ esqtie, ile, ule, or able: .2^^ un 
emit pacifique, a pacific mind ; une figure grotesque, an 
odd figure ; une tdche facile, an easy task ; unefemme cr6- 
dule, a credulous woman. 4. Those of nations : as, la am- 
sHtuHon Anglaise, the constitution of England. 5. Those 
which may be substantively used, and in general all those 
not mentioned in Rule 30. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 
Of the Government cf Adjectives. 

RtlLE 32. — Adjectwes which govern the Genitive Com, 

1. Adjectives and participles which denote plenty or 
scarei^fy and in general all those which are foUowed in 



140 SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 

English by the pirepositions qf^from^ wUkf or Iw, govern in 
French the genitive or ablative case. Examples : 

I am deprived ot every thing ; Je suisprivi de txnd, 

' Tlie queen is loaded with honour ; 
La reine est comblde d*honneun 
Yoiu: sisters are arrived from France; 
Vos soeurs stmt arrivies de France. 

2. The following, acciisiy aisdy avide^ capable^ conienif 
digneyfatiffuifjurietix, incapable, indigneyjoyeux, las, Ubn^ 
micontent, plein, ravi, vide, govern sdso the genitive case. 
Example : he is praise-worthy ; il est diffne de louanges^ 

Rule 33. — Adjectives which govern the Dathe. 

1. Adjectives which denote aptness, fitness, inclination, 
ease, readiness, or ani/ habit, govern in French the noun in 
the dative case, and most commonly the verb iq the infi- 
nitive with d. Examples : 

He is fit £oT any thing ; il estprcpre a tout. 

That is easy to say ; Cela estfacUe k dire. 

A disturbed mind is not fit to discharge its duties ; 

Un esprit traid)le nest pas prcpre a remplir son devoir, 

2. The following, adroit, agrdable, aisi, ardent, beau, 
bon, cohforme, contraire, encUn, facUe, habile, ingimeia, 
intitile, tent, prit, prcpre, semblable, si^et, uHk, govern the 
iiovm in the dative case, and the verb in the mdfinitive widi 
a. Example : he is liable to mistake ; il est si^ k » 
tromper, 

3. Some, adjectives govern the dative in French, and 
the genitive in English: such are, attentif k, heedfiil .of; 
senswk k, sensible of; insensible k, insensible of. Ex- 
ample : I am sensible of your kindness ; Je stUs sensible a 
vos bontis. \^ 

Rule 34<. Adjectives followed bykar envers. 

* Some adjectives are followed in French by the preposi- 
tion a, and in EngUsh by the preposition in; such are, 
euneux d, curious in ; - exact d, precise in ; habile d, skilful 
in ; patient d, patient in ; z^l4 d, zealous in. Examples : 



.SYNTAX OF ADJBCTIVXS. HI 

You are skilful in doing every thing ; 
V(9us Sies habile a totUjaire. 
I am precise in my engagements ; 
Je tmis exact a mes engagemens. 

Others are often followed in French by the prepo- 
sition enverSf and in English by the preposition to : such 
are, affable enversy affieible to ; bon envers, good to ; cmel 
envers, cruel to ; poli envers, civil to. Example : 

We must be civil to every body. 
Ilfatet itrepoU envers tont le numde. 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
Adjectives of Dimension. 

Rule 35. — De hatit, or de hattteuT^ high. 

The adjectives of dimension can be rendered in French 
by an adjective, or by a substantive : thus, high can be 
expressed by de hatU, or de hauteur; 4ongy by de long, or 
de longueur; broad, by de large, or de largeur; deep must 
be expressed by de prrfondeur, not by deprofimd, and in 
general the substantive is more elegantly used than the 
adjective. 

. It must be remembered always to put the preposition 
dit before the words of dimension and number, if they arc 
not preceded by a verb. Examples : 

A tower two hundred feet high ; 

Une tour de dewx cents pieda de haul, or de hauteur. 

A table six feet long ; 

Una table de sixpieds de long, or de longueur, 

A river twenty feet deep ; 

Une riviere de vingtpieds deprqfondeur {not deprqfond). 

Rule 36* — Avoir, instead of to be, bffore the Adjectives 

of Dimension, 

To express the height, depth, or breadth of an object, the 
Enelish make use of the verb to be, and the French of the 
vero orotr, as they always do before a word of number. 



\ 



14>2 SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVSg. 

N. B. The preposition de^ is left out after the Terii 
avoir, but it remains before the word of dimensioiL 
Examples i] 

This tower is two hundred feet high ; 

Cette tour a deux cents pieds de hcmtewr. 

That table is six feet long ; f^^ 

Cette table a six pieds de longueur. 

That river w twenty feet deep ; 

Cette riviere a vingt pieds de profondeur. 



SECTION THE FOURTH, 
Cf Comparatives and Superlatives. * 

Rule S7. — As, expressed hy que, c^ier a Con^paratm, 

The word as, used in English after a comparative d 
equality or inferiority, is always expressed in French bjr 
que, and never by comme. Examples : 

You are as rich a« I am ; Vous ites aussi riche que moL 
I am not so learned a>s you ; 
Je ne suispas si savant que vous. 
I have as many books as they have ; 
tPai autant de livres c^eux. 

And not, J^ai autant de livres comme eux; nor je m 
stUs pas si savant comme vous. 

N. B. The comparatives and superlatives agree in 
French in gender and number with the substantive which 
they qualify, in the same manner as adjectives. Example : 

The most learned man ; the most learned woman ; 
Uhomme leplus savant. Lafemme la plus savanie. 

Rule 38. — By, expressed by de, after a Comparative. 

The word by, which is often used after a comparativei 
to denote how much a thing exceeds another^ is always 
expressed by de, and never hy par. Examples : 

* See page 50. for the different kinds of comparatives and superla- 
tives, and the mode of forming them from adjectives. 



SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 143 

I am taller than you by the whole head ; 
Je wis plus grand qm vous de toute la iite (not par). 
You are younger than I am bt/ four years. 
Votts ites plus jeune que mot de qtuUre ans (not />ar). 

LuLE 39. — Than, expressed hy que or de, after a Com'- 

paraiive. 

The word than, used after a comparative, is expressed 
r qttey when it is foUowed by a noun or a pronoun. £x- 
nples: 

Asia is greater than Europe ; 

UAsie est plus grande que Hilurope. 

He is more fortunate than you ; 

H est plus heureux que v(ms. 

The word iharh is always expressed by de before the 
irdinal numbers un^ deux, trais, &c. instead ofque^ as hi 
comparison of objects. Examples : 

am more than fifleen years of age ; J'aiplus de quinze ans* 
bu have more than a hundred guineas ; 
^ous opezplus de cent guindes. 

\otfaiplus que quinze ans; nor vous avez phis que cent 
guindes, 

ULS 4fO. — - Than expressed by que de^ or que ne, after a 

Comparative, 

The word ihan^ used in comparatives, is usually ex*- 
ressed by que de before an infinitive mood, and by que 
>. before a verb in the indicative. Examples . 

18 more noble to forgive than to revenge ; 
' esiphts noble depardonner que de se venger. 
iches are more dangerous than poverty is troublesome ; 
es richesses sont plus dangereuses que la pauvretd n'est 
commode. 

Note 1. If the first infinitive is preceded by the pre- 
osition dy then the word than is expressed by qud, 
Example : 

He is more inclined to hurt ^n to oblige you ; 
ii est plus disposi k vous nuire qu'k vous ooUgern 



144 SYKTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 

Note 2. The word dum is expressed by que before n 
indicative mood, only when there is a conjunction between 
the word than and the verb. Examples : 

You learn better than when you were in France ; 
Vaus ajjprenez mieux que quand vmu iiiez en Frtmof, 
My brodier recovers sooner than if he was in town ; 
Manfrere se ritabliiplus tdt que s*il iiaU d la vUle. 

Rule 41. — The more, expressed hy plus, and not hf 

le plus* 

The English make use> of the definite article before the 
comparatives of proportion, and the French ncTer : thus, 
the mare is expressed by phtSx the lesSj by moms^ and not 
by lepitts or le mains, which are used only in superlativeii 
Examples : 

TTie mare you will study, the mare you will improve ; 
Elus vaus ittidierez, plus vaus prafiierez, (not lephu)* 
The more I know mankind, the more I love them ; 
Plus ^6 cannais ks hammes, plus je les aime. 
Not leplusje oaf mats les hammes, le pktsje les 



Rule 42. — Precedenci/ of plus and moins. 

If a comparative of proportion is made with two sub- 
stantives or two adjectives, they are placed before the 
verb in English, and after in French. 

The words of this sort of sentence are disposed in the 
following order: 1. We put plus or mains. 2. The no- 
minative of the verb. 3. The verb. 4. The adjective or 
substantive ; the rest as in English. Examples : 

The mare difficult a thing is, ^ more honourable ; 
Plus un chase est dtfficUey plus elle est honorable 
The less money he gets, me more expenses he incurs ; 
Moins ilgagne d argent, plus Ufait de d^pense. 

In these and sentences of the like sort, the substantive 
is preceded by ds, and the adjective is not. 



SYNTAX t)F ADJECTIVES, 14fi) 

(JLK 48. — 7%^ Superlative governs the Genitive and the 

Svbjunctive. 

The superlative always governs, iii French, the noun 
Uowing in the genitive case, and most commonly the 
irb in the subjunctive mood. See Rule 155* Examples : 

lie navy of England is the most powerful in the world; 
a marine d*Angleterre est lapluspuissante du monde — gen. 
o\i are the most accomplished lady / know; 
lous ites la dame la plus aimable que je connaisse — sub;\ 

Rule 44'. — Of the Superlative* 

If die substantive precedes the superlative, both take 
le definite article, le, la, ks ; but the superlative alone 
les an article, if it precedes the substantive. Ex< 
nples : 

be most pleasing company is seldom the best company. 
a compagnie la plus agriable est rarement la meiUeure 

oompagnie. 
his is the most beautiful walk ; 
^mXoL la phAS belle promenadey ou la promenade la plus 

hdle. 

Note 1. The comparatives and superlatives agree in 
mder and number with the substantive or pronoun to 
hich they refer, as may be observed from the preceding 
camples. 

Note 2. Ze is indeclinable before plus and mains foU 
wed by an adverb, and also by an adjective, when there 
no comparison of objects. Example : 

Nous devons parler le plus clairement qu*il nous est 
jssible ; and not les plus clairement — adv 

Nous ne pleurons pas toujours quand nous sommes le 
ks afflig^s ;' and not les plus (iffligis — adj. 



H 



146 SYNTAX OF J^ERSONAt PRONaUNS. 

CHAP. IV. 

OF PERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL PRONi 

This Chapter is divided into five sections : 
enumerates the circumstances in which the perse 
nouns are conjunctive or disjunctive, and shows 
express them m both cases : the second treats of 
sonal pronouns it, thet^, or ^iem, when they are 
English with reference to animals or things: i 
ascribes to the conjunctive personab pronouns thei 
pla(fe in a sentence, and explains the order in wh 
must be disposed, when they meet together : ^ 
teaches wnen the pronouns are or are not to be i 
before the verb which they govern or are goveri 
the fifth informs us when the pronouns must be e: 
by hd or soiy and shows their difference with accu: 
precision. 



SECTION THE FIRST. 

When the Persorud Prommns are Conjunctive 

junctive. 

Rule 45. — Hon) to express the Personal Pronou 

Nominative Case, 

The personal pronouns /, ^um, he, she, we, y\ 
are corifunctive, and expressed hyje, tu, il, eUe, na> 
ils, eUes, when they are the nominative case of 
provided they are not joined to another noun or 
by a conjunction. Examples : 

I read, thou speakest, he owes, she comes, we fa 
Je lis, tu paries, ildoit, eUe vient, rums 

Observe, to use always il or Us, with referen 
noun masculine, and eUe or eUes with reference to 
nine : thus,, ihey are rich, is expressed in Frenc 
sont riches, speaking of men; and by elks sofU 
speaking of women. 






SYNTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 147 

The personal pronouns are disjunctive^ and expressed 
ifey moiy toiy hdy euey nousy vous^ eux, or eUes, under the fol- 
g circumstances : 

1. When they come before or after the words qui, que, 
Sind seul. Examples : 

r It is 1 who say so ; C*est moi qui le dis, (not c'estje,) 
' He is more learned than I ; il est plus savant que moi. 
.\I am younger than he ; Je suisplusjeune que lui. 
; .Thqr alone were present there; £ux seuls y itaieiit 
prisens 

% When they are used in an answer to a question. 
fenmples: 

;'■ Who has done that? I, he, they; 

:- Qfdajait cela f (Test moi, €^est lui, ce sont eux. 

•• ; 6b When they are joined to a noun or a pronoun by a 
iMijimetion. Example : 

We learn French, my brother and I ; 
Manjrire et moi nous apprenons le Pran^ats. 

4. When they come before a noun, or a verb used in 
opposition to, or distinction from the first. Example : 

You wiU return to town, and /will go into the covmtry. 
Vaus reviendrez d la ville, et moi jHrtd a la campoffne. 

Observe to repeat nous or vous before the verb, when it 
lias two or more nominative cases which are not both of 
Ifhe third person : as, vous et moi nous irons. Vous et lui 
jJIpNit danserez ensemble. 

Jhjlx 46. — Sow to express the Personal Pronouns in the 
[ Genitive Case. 

When the personal pronouns are in the genitive case, 
are di^unctive, and expressed by de moi, de toi, de 
d'ette^ de nous, de vous, d'eux, d'elles. Examples : 

H(& complains of me, I do not speak of him'; 
^H se plaint de moi,je neparlepas de lui. 

They are sometimes, but seldom^ cov^nctive, and ex- 
~ by en, Examples : 

H 2 



148 SYNTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

You love my cousin, you speak often of her ; 
Votes aimez ma cousiney vous en parlez souvent 
Were you speaking of me ? Yes, ye were ; 
ParlieZ'Vous demoif Ouh nous en parUons* 

Rule 47< — JBimo to express the Personal Pronouns m 

tkUive Case. 

When the personal pronouns are in the dative o 
they are most commonly cotyuncttvCf and expressed 
9fie, tCy ItUy nous, vous, leur, before the verb. Example 

He pleases me; 1 will do him good ; I will speak to dk 
II me plait Je lui^ot du bien, Je leur parleraL 

They are disfunctive, and expressed by a moi, a to^ 
luif a elle, a nous, -a vous, a etix, a eHes, afler the veit 
three cases. 

1 . When they come afler a noun or a pronoun to wl 
they are joined by a conjunction. Example : 

I speak to you as well as to them ; 
Je vouspprle aussi-bien qu*d eux. 

2. When they are governed by a reflected verb. '. 
amples : 

He applies to me; I do not trust Mm ; 
II dadresse ^ moi ; je ne mefiepa^s a lui. 
Not, il me s'adresse,je ne me lui fie pas. 

3. When they are governed by any of the follow 
verbs : aUer, to go ; courir, to run ; accourir, to run 
boire, to drink ; penser, songer, to think ; venir^ to co 
.Examples : 

He comes to us, go to him, I think of you ; 
H vient a nous, allez k lui, jepense k vous. 
And not il nous vient, allez lui,je votes pense. 

Rule 4?8. — Personal Pronouns in the Accusative Cm 

When the personal pronouns governed by a verb a« 
the accusative, they are generally conjunctive, and 
pressed by rm, te, nous, vous, le, la, Us. Examples : 



SYNTAX OP PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 149 

I know him; I wiH see her; I esteem them; 
Je le cannais. Je la verrau Je les estime. 
And notye connais luiyje verrai eMe^j* estime eux, 

N. B. When l^ la^ les, stand for the English word the, 
d come before a nomi, they are articles : as, the father, 
}ther, and children are dead ; le pere, la mire, et les 
fims sont morts : but when le, la, les, stand for hiTn, her, 
mh and come before a verb, they are personal pronouns : 
» I know him, I know her, I know them; Je le connais, Je 
connais, je les connais. 

Rule 49. — Personal Pronouns afier a Preposition* 

When the personal pronouns are preceded by a prepo- 
ion, they are always disjunctive, and expressed by moi, 
I, lui, die, ^c. IJp^amples : 

As for me, I think so ; Pour moi Jepense dinsu 
You will speak after them; Vous parhrez c^es eux. 
And not pour me Jepense ainsi; vousparl^ez apres les. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 
Of the Pronouns, it, they, them. 

Rule 50. — The Pronouns, it they, o^ them. 

The pronouns it and they, which the English use with 
brence to animals or things, are expressed in French 
U^ m. or eUe, f. for the singular, and by ils, m. or elks, 
ibr the plural, when they are the nominative of a verb. 
and tiiem are expressed by le, m. la, f. les, pi. when they 
3 governed by a verb in the accusative case% thus, 
eaking of a house, we say. 

It is fine, I will not sell it, I will keep it; 
Elle est belle, Je ne la vendraipas,Je la garderai. 

Observe, that these pronouns are expressed in French ia 
e same manner for the nominative and accusative as the 

H 3 



150 STVTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUKS. 

personal praioiniSy of which we have abeadj treated ; 
that they also agree in gender and number with the 
stantive to which thej have reference. 

Rule 51. — En used in the Gemikfef^Jar it or then 

The pronouns U and fftem, used with reference to ii 
mate objects, are expressed bj en^ when the Frendi 
goyems the genitive case, whether thej be precede 
English hy the prepositions qfrfi^i"^ withf about, for^ « 
or any other. Exmnples : 

Do not speak any more of it; N^en parlez plus. 
You have done me a service, I thank yon for U; 

Vous nCavez rendu service^ je vous en remercie. 
You have got a good place, I congratulate you tpoi 

Vous avez obienu une bo§meplacefje vous enJ^iUmie, 

When the words some and om^ coAie after a verb, 
refer to a sid)8taQtive antecedent, they are also exprie 
by en. Examples : 

I have some aj^les, will you have anjf f Give me a 
pie^^em, 

Jai des pommes, en voukz-vousf Donnez tnen 
couple. 

Take some more. What shall I do with them ? Yoi 
give some to your sisters. 

Prenez-en cUwantoffe. Qu^&aferai'jef Vous en 
nerez a vos soeurs. 

Rule 52. — lui or y, for it or them, in the Dative C 

The pronouns it and them, governed by a verb n 
requires the dative in French, are expressed by lui or 
as the personal pronouns, when they refer to animd 
plants, and usually byy, when they refer to other ii 
mate objects not personified. Examples : 

Your horses are hungry, give tiiem some oats ; 
Vos chevaux ontfoifn, donnez-lexa de ravoine. 
This tree is fine, do not hurt it; 
Cet arbre est beau, ne lui foites point de mal* 
There is a fine picture, put a frame to it; 
VoiUt un beau tableau, mettez-y une bordure. 



SYNTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 151 

It k a difficult undertaking, you will not succeed in it; 
Cest une entreprise difficuie, votes n*y rhessirez pas. 
And not mettez'lui une bardure, nor votis ne lui riussirez 
pat. 

If, however, the impersonal pronouns are used for in- 
vumate objects personified, or preceded by the verb to otoe, 
otiobe indebtedy they should be expressed by lui or leur^ 
"Ifand not by y). Thus ltd and y may be said of the same 
olgect, joined to difierent verbs. Example : 

This house is well situated, have some repairs done to it, 

you are indebted to it for your health ; 
Cetie maison est bien sitteSe, faites y faire des r4par- 

aUcnSi vous lui devez votre santi ; (not vous y devez, 

&c) 

The words en and ^, of which mention is made in the 
two preceding rules, are also two adverbs of place ; en 
stands for the words hence, from thence; and y for there, or 
AOher. Examples : 

. "Wll you go to London ? No, I come from ^ence ; 
Vtmkz'Votu venir d Londres 9 Non,fen viens. 
Have you been to France ? No, I have never been there; 
Avez^vous iU en France? Non,je n'y ai Jamais ite, 

RuLS 53. — When it or them comes ctfter a Preposition 

it is not expressed in French. 

When the pronouns it, them are preceded by a prepo- 
sitioDy they cannot be expressed by lui or eUe, eux or elles, 
which in Uiis case are said only of persons or personified 
objects ; but they are usually lefl out, and the preposition 
used in English becomes an adverb when it conveys the 
idea sufficiently. Examples : 

.The king was for the war, but the parliament was 
Oji^ainstii; 

IjB roi iimtpour laguerre^ mats hparUmentjvt centre. 
Come near the fire ; • I am near it; 
Approchez-vous dufeu. Je suis tout aupr^s. 

If the preposition cannot become an adverb, we must 
give the sentence another turn. Example : 

H 4 



152 SlfNTAX 6F personal FRONOt7N8. 

At first the house was burnt, and c^ier it the churdi ; 
D*abord la maitonjut brulSe, ei ensuite fSpHse. 

Rule 54<. — Use of the siqjptementary Pronouns^ le, la, let 

The supplementary pronouns, le, loy leSy are always used 
in French before the verb iirsy in answer to a question, 
though there be no pronoun expressed in English* 

Le is indeclinable: 1. With reference to adjectives of 
both genders and numbers. Examples : Are your brodien 
learned ? No, they are not ; Vas freres sarU-Us sawmsf 
Non, ils ne le sontpcts. Are your sisters sick ? Yes, they 
are ? Vos sceurs sant-eUes maiades f Ouiy eUes le sonL 

2. With reference to verbs. Example : Do you think 
they will come ? Yes, we do ; Croyez-vaus quails tnemtaitf 
Ouiy nous le croyons, 

3. With reference to substantives adjectively used. Ex- 
ample: Mesdamesy ites-vous parentesf (hdf nam k 
somrnes.* 

• 

Le indeclinable is also used with reference to adjec- 
tives or verbs, for the word it or «o, sometimes ex]H'efeed 
in English, but for the most part understood. Examples: 
You are happy, and I am not ; Vous ites heureuse^ H mm 
je ne le suis pas. I said so, but you would not believe it; 
Je le disids, mats vous ne vouUez pas le croire. 

But /e, /a, les, are declinable, and used according to the 
gender or ^number, when they have reference to indivi- 
duals. Examples: Are you Peter's brother? Yes, lam; 
EteS'Vous le frere de Pierre 9 Oui^je le suis. 'Are you 
Peter's wife ? Yes, I am ; Stes-vous lajemme de Piemf 
Ouif Je la suis. Are these your books ? Yes, they are; 
Sont-ce Id vos livresf Out, ce les sont, A re. these your 
houses? No, they are notf ; Sont-ce Id vos nudsomf 
Non, ce ne les sontpas. 

If the adjectives be substantively used, la should be 
used for the feminine singular, and les for the plural. £x- 

• We may also answer, oui, Monsieur t out, Madame, ^c without 
repeating the verb the question is asked by. 

f Ceis used in answer to a question asked by et^^e Itk, or sont-ce (i 
Example : Est-ce IcL votre chapeau 9 Oui, ce test. 



SYNTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS* 15S 

amples : Stes-voits la fnalade pour laqteelle on a fait venir 
. le midecin f Ouh Je la suis, Mesdemoiselles, ites-vous ks 
parentes de monsieur f Oui, nous les sommesw 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
J%« right placing of Personal Pronouns. 

Rule 55. — Place of the Personal Pronouns. 

The personal pronouns, ^e, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, or 
eUes, usually precede the verb of which they are the 
nominative case. Examples : Je lis, 1 read ; tu lis, thou 
readest, &c. 

They may be separated from it by the particle ne, and 
the governed pronouns, if there are any; but never by any 
adverb. Examples : 

He has not seen them ; I will not speak to them ofH; 
H ne les a pas vus. Je ne leur en parlerai pas. 

You always speak tlie truth ; He oflen speaks of you ; 
Vous (Utes toujours la viritS. Uparle souvent de votvs. 
Not vous tovjowrs dites la vMti. H souvent parle de voiis. 

The personal pronouns, je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, 
or dies, are placed immediately after the verb, or its 
auxiliary, in three cases. 

1. In an interrogative sentence. Examples : 

Do you speak French ? Have you learnt it long ? 
Parlez-yoxx^ Frangais 9 Lavez-wows appris long-temps 9 

2. When they are the nominative case of the verbs 
dire, rip&ndre, ripHquer, continuer, poursuivre, or s eerier, 
used in a sentence as by parenthesis. Examples : 

You see, said he, the condition I am reduced to ; 
Vous voyez, dit-il, Vitat ouje suis riduit. 
Why, did I answer him, have you not told it me before? 
Pourqtioi, tm, r6pondis-je, ne me favez-vous pas dit 
plutdt 9 

Ho 



I54t SYNTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

3. Most frequently when the verb is preceded 
conjunctions au mains, aussi, mnsi, e» vain, petU- 
peine, and some others. Examples : 

In vain you seek for excuses ; Perhaps he will 
£n vain eherehez-vous des excuses. Peut-^tre viendi 

BuLE 56* — The gtnyerned Pronouns placed c^ier ike 

When the verb is in the imperative affirmative, tl 
vemed pronouns are put after it in French as in £ 
Examples : 

Speak to them ; write to him ; answer its ; see thi 
^arlezAQ\3x\ icrivez-hii; ripandez-^ous ; vo^ezAa 

But if there are two imperatives joined by a co 
tion, the governed pronouns are put after the firs 
and before the second. Examples : 

Lend or sell it me ; j9r^^z-le-moi, ou me le vende 
Forgive or punish them ; pardonnezAeur, ou lespt 

If the verb which is in the imperative affirmative g 
two pronouns, the accusative goes first. Example : 

Give it me, sell it them ; donnez-le-moi, vendez-le 

When the pronouns tfor en meet with another pn 
they go last: as, menez-Ze^-y, menez-nou^-y, d 
teur-en, &c. : however, y is placed before moi, and i 
used instead of moi en. Examples : • 

Carry me thither ; menez-y-moi; give me some 
u^-men. 

(Not rnenez-moi'S-y, donnez^moi-s-en, as said incoi 
by some persons). 

But an « is inserted after an imperative in the 
lar, joined to en pronominal : as, trouves-en, find 
chercheS'en, seek some ; also vas-y, go there : but 
Jtalie, where en is a preposition. 

But if the verb were in the imperative negative, i 
vemed pronouns should go before it, as they do in all 
tenses. Examples : 

Do not sell it liim ; do not give it them ; 
iVe le Itti vendez pas ; ne le leur donnez pas. . 



JTMTAX OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 155 

Rule 57. — The governed Pronouns placed before the Verb, 

When the verb is not in the imperative affirmative, the 
eoTemed pronouns are always put immediatiq}y before it 
in a siiople tense, and before its auxiliary m a compound 
one. Examples: 

You do not know them ; you have not seen them. 
Vous ne les connaissez pas ; votes ne les ctvezpas vits. 

The governed pronouns do not precede any other verbs 
than those they are governed by, or their auxiliaries : thus 
we say, 

I wanted to speak to them ; he could do it ; 

mTe wmkds \e\xr parler ; il pouvedt le ftUre. , 

(Sotje leur voulais parler ; nor il le pouvaitfodre.) 

Rule 58. — - Order in which Pronouns are put before the 

Verb. 

When two or more pronouns are governed by a verb, 
those of the first and second persons precede those of the 
third ; and if they are both of the third person, the ac- 
cusative is placed before the dative ; p and en go the last ; 
or, what is the same, the governed pronouns are invariably 
l^aced before the verb, in the following order : — 

Me, te, se, nous, vous, go before every others 

Le, la, les, go before lui, leur, y or en. 

Lui, leur, go hgore y or en. 

Yy goes brfore en. Examples : 

He gives it me, he has lent it you, he has sent them to us ; 
n me le donne^ il vous YapriUy il nous les a envoyis. 
When he sends them to me, I shall bring them to you ; 
Qmmd U me les enverroyje vous les porterau 
He gives it to him, he will lend it to them, he has sent 

them to him ; 
n le lui donne^ il le leur pretera, ils les lui a envoges. 
I will carry you some thither, I have carried some thither 

to them ; 
Je vous y enporterai,je leur y en aiporti. 

Iff 6 



156 SYNTAX OF PERSONAL PROKOUN^. 

SECTION THE FOURTH. 
When ihe Pronouns are or are not to be repeated in FrendL 

Rule 59. — The Personal PronaunSy je, tu, il, 4^ re* 

peated. 

The personal pronouns of the first and second persons, 
such as je, tu, nouSf vous^ are Usually repeated in French 
before every verb of which they are the nominative case, 
whether they are repeated or not in English. Examine: 

You should love God with all your heart, forgive your 
enemies, and pray for those who persecute you ; 

Vous aimerez Dieu de tout votre cceur; yovis pardonmm 
a vos ennemisy et vous prierez pour vos pers^cuteurs. 

The pronouns of the third person are usually repeated^ 
1. When they belong to different tenses. 2. Wheb the 
second is preceded by any other conjunction than et^ nit 
or ou. S. When the first is affirmative and the second 
negative, or vice versa. 4. When the second verb is se- 
parated from the preceding by many words. Examples : 

1. She is and will always be modest, I am sure; 
EUe est modeste, et elle le sera totefourSyJe suis sur. 

2. They are lovely, since they please you ; 
Elles sont aimablesy puisqv! elles vous pUdsent, 

3. He says so, but he does not believe it ; 
II le dity mats il ne le croitpas. 

4. He spoke yesterday to his father about his sister's 
marriage, and obtained his consent ; 

II parla hier a son pere du mariage de sa sceuTf et il 
obtint son consentement. 

In other circumstances, the pronouns il or eUey ils or 
elleSy are not usually repeated before verbs which are in 
tlie same tense. Thus we say : — 

He tookj;towns, conquered provinces, and subdued 
nations ; 

II prit des villesy conquit des provinces, et subfugua det 
nations. 



SYNTAX OF PEBSONAL PRONOUNS* 157 

* 

Rule 60. — Th» governed Prommns are altoai/s repeated. 

The pronouns, me, te, le, rums, vousy luty leur, le, la, ks, 
are always repeated in French before every verb they are 

fOYemed by, whether they are repeated or not in English. 
Ixamples : 

A son well educated never rebels against his father ; he 

loves, honours, and respects him ; 
Uh Jils bien ilev6 ne iarme jamais contre son pere^ U 

Yaimsy Yhonore, et le respecte. 
I love him, and always shall, if he behave well ; 
Je Vaime, etje Yaimerai ixmjoarsy iil se conduit bien. 



SECTION THE HFTH. 
Distinction between lui, elle, se, and sol. 

Rule 61 •—himself, herself, eapressed ^'se, lui, elle, 

or soi. 

The compound pronouns, himself, herself, themselves, 
joined to a verb, are generally expressed by se, if it is re-^ 
fleeted ; but if not, himself is expressed by lui-metne, and 
herself by eUe-mSme ; themselves by eux-mSmes, for the 
masculine, by elles-minies, for the feminine.*^ Examples : 

He submits himself to your orders, but he is not satisfied ; 
// se soumet d vos ordres, mais il n*est pas content. 
She always speaks of herselfj and never of others ; 
JBlle parte toigours d 'elle-m^me, et jamais des atUres. 
They ^e come of their own accord into the country ; 
Us sont venus df'eux-memes a la campagne. 

The compound pronouns, himself and herself, are ex- 
pressed by soi, speaking of persons in general, and after 
tlie indeterminate- pronouns, on, chacun, quelquun, qui- 
campiAm celui, or celk qui. Examples : 

The man who loves nobody but himself is not fit for 

Society ; 
L'homme qui n*aime que soi n'est pas propre pour la 

iocUti. 



158 ftTKTAX OF POSSESSIVE PR0K0UK8. 

Every one acts for kimselfin this world 

C^amn agiipour ^lence monde. 

Whoever thinks only of Atin«e^ is unworthy to live; 

QuieonquenepeMe qu*d soi est indigne de vivre. 

The word sat is not used with reference to a noun 
plural. 

Rule $2. -* itself is rendered ^ lui or sou 

The impersonal pronoun, itsdff is usually expressed by 
soif and not by iui^ when it has reference to a pronoun^ or 
to a substantive singular, taken in a general sense, which 
represents an inanimate object. Examples : 

That is good in itself; eela est ban en soi. 
Loadstone attracts iron to itself; I'aimant atHre k fer 
a sou 

When itself ^MS a reference to an animate object. It is 
expressed by lui-^nSme or eUe^^riime. It is also expressed 
by lu%-4nhney eUetnime^ and not by soi^ when it refers to 
an inanimate object, considered as a person. Example : 

La terre est fertile <f 'elle-merae — (not de sai.) 
Earth is fruitful of itself. 



sa 



CHAP. V. 

OF POSSESSIVE pronouns- 
Rule 63. — The J^assessive Pronauns agree with and an 
rqseated before all their Substantives. 

The possessive pronouns are repeated in French befbw 
all their substantives, and agree with them in gender anc 
number; they are indeclinable in English, and need not tc 
be repeated. Example : 

My father, mother, and brothers are in the country ; 
Mon pere, ma mere, et mes frires sant d la ccmipagne. 



SYNTAX OP POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 159 

We nevertheless use the pr(mouns mony tauy son^ masc. 
before a noun feminme which b^ins with a vowel or an ^ 
mute, in order to avoid the kialus which would result from 
the meeting of two vowels. Examples : 

Man Sme, f. ton ambition, f. son humeur, f. 
(Not tna dme, ta ambition, sa humeur). 

The English make the pronouns his and her agree with 
the noun antecedent ; the French, on the contrary, make 
alwajTS son^ so, ses, agree with the noun which follows. 
Examples : 

Her husband is young ; his wife is handsome ; 
Son 6poux est jeune ; sa femme est belle. 

Rule 64. — T7ie Possessive Pronouns are used in speaking 

to one*s delations. 

When we speak to our relations or friends, we use, in 
French, the possessive pronouns mon, ma, mes, before the 
words ^filsy fiiky frere, sceur, pere, mire, oncky tante, &c, 
though they are not used in English. Examples : 

Where are you, daughter ? Ou ites-vousy ma ^lle f 
Here I am, father ; me voiciy mon pere* 
Brother, will you come with me ? Yes, sister ; 
Mbny^i^, votdez'vous venir avec mot 9 Out, ma scsur, 

RutE 65. — When the Qualifications of Mr. and Mde. Sfc, 

are used. 

When we speak to any person respecting their relations 
or friends, and we mean to pay them some respect, the 
qualifications of Monsieury Madamey MademoiseUey &c, are 
usually prefixed, in French, to the possessive pronouns votre 
or ffos. Examples : 

How does your uncle do ? 

Comment se parte Monsieur votre ancle ? 

Are your sisters at home ? 

Mesdemoiselles vas sceurs sofU-eUes a la maison 9 

I met with your mother, who told me that your father 

was not well. 
J*ai rencontri Madame votre merCy qui rna dit que 

Monsieur votre pere ne seportaitpas Men. 



160 SYNTAX OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUKS* 

ObservCy The possessive pronouns, monj mOy of which 
these words, numsieur^ madamey mademaiseUey are com- 
posed, are changed into mes for the plural: so we say, 
messieurs, mesdamesy mesdemoiselles, 
« Monsieur and messieurs are employed as substantives, 
and may be preceded by an article or another pronoun: 
as, le monsieur que fai vtt, the gentleman I have seen ; je 
parlerai a ces messieurs, I will speak to these gentlemen. 
But the possessive pronoun is always left out before damey 
demoiselle, used substantively : cette dame, or ceUe demoi- 
selle, eM belle, that lady is handsome ; and not ceiie msukme, 
cette mademoiselle. 

Rule 66. — JfVhen the Possessive Pronoufis are rendered 

by the Personal, 

The possessive pronouns (my, thy, his, her, &c) are 
expressed in French by the personal pronouns, me, te, se, 
rums, vous, lui, leur, in the dative ; and not by man, ton, 
son, &c. when they are joined with the name of any part 
of the body to which the verb relates ; and in this case an 
article dennite takes the ordinary place of the pronoun. 
Examples ; 

You have broke his arm ; Votis lui avez rompu le bras. 
He has cut his finger ; II s'est coupe le doifft. 
You tread upon their feet; Votis leur marchez sur lespieds* 
You hurt my hand ; Vous me blessez la main. 

As if -it were : you to him have broken the arm ; he to 
him has cut the finger; you to them tread upon the feet; 
you to me hurt the hand ; and so on for all other like sen- 
tences. 

Observe, to express his, her, and their, by se, when the 
verb is reflected ; and by lui, or leur, when it is xiot. 

Rule 67 — JVhen the Possessive Pronouns are, or are not 

to be left out in French. 

If the verb does not express an action over any part of 
the body, the possessive pronouns (my, thy, his, her, &c.) 
are usually left out in French, and the definite article (le, 
la, les) is used instead of them. Example : 



8TNTAX OF POSSESSIVE PRONO'UKS. 161 

I have a pain in my side ; Ted mtd au c6t^. 
His eyes are sore ; II a nud aux yeux. 

But if the sense become obscure by leaving out the 
possessive pronoun, or for the sake of distinction and con-* 
trast, employ the possessive pronouns : as, 

I see that my arm swells ; Je vois que mon hras enfie. 
Do you think my hand will ever be cured? 
Pensez-vous que ma main se ffuirisse Jamais f 

• 

Observe^ I put mon brasy ma main, in the latter sen- 
tences, because I can see another person's arm swelling as 
well as mine ; but I put au edt^, aux yeux, not d man cdtdy 
St ses yeuxy because I cannot feel pains in any other side 
than mine, nor can he have other eyes sore than his own. 
This distinction is a nice point, and must be particularly 
attended to. 

Rule GS^-^When its or their is to be expressed by son, 

and when by en. 

When the possessive pronouns its, their, are used with 
reference to an inanimate object, they are expressed by 
«on, so, ses, leur, or by en, according to the following 
distinction: 

They are expressed by son, sa, ses, leur, or leurs, First, 
when they relate to the nominative of the preceding verb, 
as personified. Secondly, when they are m the genitive 
or dative, or preceded by any preposition whatsoever. 
Thirdly, when, being in the nominative, they are joined to 
a substantive, qualified by an adjective, or specified by 
some other words. Fourthly, when in the nommative, the 
next verb, or its government, is immediately or may be 
followed by the preposition de. Examples : 

1. London has its beauties ; Londres a ses beautds. 
% I admire the size of its streets ; 

J^ admire la grandeur de ses rues. 
S. Its regular buildings please at the first sight ; 

Ses batimens r^guliers plaisent au premier coup-d'oeiL 
4. Its trade produces immense resources ; 

Son commerce produit d*immenses ressourees. 



162 SYNTAX OF FOSSESSIYE PRONOUNS. 

Its ships bring the riches of all countries ; 

Ses vaisseaux efjpartmi les rickesses de tous lespayh 

Except on these occasions, Us or Metr is expressed by 
en before the verb ; and the article, ky loy lesy before the 
substantive. So we should say, speaJdng still of London: 

Its situation is agreeable ; 

Le site en est agriakle* 

Its squares appear to me beautiful ; 

Les places nCen paratssent superbesm 

Iparticularly adnire its rich warehouses; 

•Ten admire surtout les riehes magasins 

When its and their have reference to an animate (MesX, 
they are always expressed by son, so, ses, leur, kun, 
Example . 

Your horse lost its shoe ; votre cheval a perdu son far. 

Rule 69. — Of the Possessive Pronouns, mine, thine, &c. 

The possessive pronouns (mine, thine, his, hers, &c) 
agree, in French, both in gender and number, wit^ the 
substantive antecedent to which they have reference, and 
are always preceded by the definite article, k, la, ks* 
Example : 

Many houses have been destroyed durms the si^; 

yours and mine have been burnt, but mors has not 

suffered ; 
Beaucoup de maisons ont ibi detruiies pendant le si^; 

la vdtre et la mienne ont 6t6 brulies, mats la leur na 

point souffert 

These pronouns form their feminine according to Rule 5. 
page 48. 

Rule 70. — mine is sometimes expressed by mes. 

When the disjunctive pronouns (»»t«€, thine, his, hersi 
&c.) preceded by of, are placed after a substantive to which 
they relate, they are expressed in French by mes, tes, ses, 
nos, vos, leursy placed before the substantive, and not by 
le mien, le tien, le sien, &c. Examples : 



snnnTAx OF demonstrative pronouns. 169 

A friend of mine ; tin de mes amis — (not im ami des miens), 
A book of yours ; un de vos livres — (not un livre des vdtres). 

As if it were : one of my friends ; one of your books ; 
and in the same way all sentences of this sort. 

Rule 71. — mine, thine, expressed by k moi, h toi. 

The disjmictive, mine, thine, &c, are expressed by d moi, 
d toi, d lui, d eUe, a nous, d vous, d eux, or d elfes, when 
they come after the verb, to be, which has for its nomina- 
tive case a substantive, or a personal pronoun. Examples : 

That book is mine ;' Ce livre est ^ moi. 

It is not yours, I think ; II n' est pas ^ vous,^6 crois. 

If, however, the verb itre is preceded by ce, then mine^ 
MnCy &c. should be expressed by le mien, le tien, k sien, &c. 
Example : 

Is that your watch ? Yes, it is mine ; 

Est-ce Id votre montref Oui, c*est la mienne^ 

N. B. If a substantive come afier, or a relative pronoun 
come before the verb itre, signifying to belong, they are 
put in the dative case in French, and in the genitive in 
English. Examples: 

This horse is my father's ; Ce cheval est si mon p^re. 
Whose house is that ? A qui e5^ ceite maison ? 



CHAP. VI. 

&P bEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Rule 72. — ce, cet, cette, that; ces, those^ 

The demonstrative pronouns (this and that) are ex- 
pressed in French by ce before a substantive singular and 
masculine, when it begins with a consonant or h aspirated : 
as, ce jardin, this garden ; ce h6ros, that hero ; and by cet, 
when it begins with a vowel or h mute : as, cet oiseat^ this 



164 SYNTAX OV DEMONSTKATIVE PRONOUNS. 

bird ; cet hommey this man ; by cettCy before a substantive 
feminine : as, cette maisofiy that house : i^ese and those are 
expressed by cesy before a substantive plural of both gen- 
ders : as, ces hammes, these men ; ces femmesy these 
women. 

The demonstrative pronouns are repeated before every 
substantive, and agree with each in gender and number. 
Example : 

This garden, this tree, this house, and all this furniture, 

are not worth three hundred guineas ; 
Ce Jardiuy cet arbre, cette maisouy et tow ces meuhles, 

ne vcUentpas trots cents gu%n6es. 

To determine more precisely the subject we are speak- 
ing of, we add often in French the particle dor Id to the 
substantive preceded by ccy cet, cette, or ces. Examples: 

That man is a rogue ; cet homme-lsL est un coquin* 
These pens are good for nothing. 
Ces plumes-<\ ne valent rien. 

Rule 73. — ceci, cekc, this, that. 

The demonstrative pronouns {(Ms and that) are ex- 
pressed in French by ceci and cela, when they are used to 
point at some object, without specifying what it is ; when 
ceci and cela meet in the same sentence, ceci denotes the 
nearest object, and cela the most distant. Examples : 

This is good, that is bad ; ceci est ban, cela est mauvais. 
You always ask, what is this for, what is that for ? 
Vans demandez toujours^ pourquoi ceci, pourquoi cela? 
Why did you do that without my leave ? 
Pourquoi avez'vous fait cela sans ma permission f 

Rule 74-. — ce qui, or ce que; what, or that which. 

The pronouns, that which, or what, signifying that thing 
which, are expressed in French by ce qui, for the nomina- 
tive case; ce dont, for the genitive; ce a quoi, for the 
dative ; and ce que, for the accusative ; which are always 
singular and masculine. Examples : 



SYNTAX OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 165 

What is agreeable to the taste, is often prejudicial to 

the health ; 
Ce qui est agTiahU au gouty est souvent cantraire d la 

santd. 
I do not know of what he is accused ; 
Jie ne saispas ce dont on r accuse. 
You see to what you engage yourself; 

Votts voyez ce k quoi voils vous engagez 
You give me that which you do not like 

Vous me donnez ce que votes n'aimez point 

N. B. When ce qui or ce que begins a sentence of two 
parts, the word ce is repeated before the auxiliary itrcy if 
It is followed by a substantive, a pronoun, or a verb. 
Examples : 

What I fear most is treason ; 
Ce que 7(6 crains lepluSy ce sont les trakisons* 
What I wish for most, is that peace may be made ; 
Ce qaeje disire lepltiSy c*est qu'on fosse lapaix. 

The demonstrative ce must not be repeated, when the 
verb itre is followed by an adjective without a substantive. 
Example : 

What I have eaten was very good ; 

Ce que/ai numgi etait excellent — (not c'^tait excellent). 

Rule 75. — ceHui-ci, celui-ld ; this or that. 

When the demonstrative pronouns have reference to 
several substantives, this and these refer to the objects 
nearest or last spoken of; and are expressed, this by celui' 
ciy or celled ; Aese by ceux-ci, or ceUes-ci; that and those 
have reference to the most distant objects, and are ex- 
pressed, ihaty by celui-ldy or celle-ld ; mose, by ceux-ldy or 
celles4d; according to the gender and number of the 
substantive to which they have reference. Examples : 

The body perishes, the soul is immortal : however, we 
neglect mis, and sacrifice every thing for thai; 

JLe corps pdrity Vdme est immortelle : ctpejtdant nous nd' 
gligfions celle-ci, et nous sacnfions tout pour celui-1^ 



166 SYNTAX OF DEMONSTRATIVS PRONOUNS. 

Here are good books : which do you like best, lAese or 

those? 
Void de bons livres : legquds cdmez-voui le mieuXf de 

ceux-ci, ou de ceux-la ? 

N. B. TTie former is also expressed by cebU-ld or edk* 
Id ; and the latter by cekd^ or ce£fe-ci. 

Rule 76. — ceiui de^ or celle de^ &c that of ; odtd qtdf that 

which. 

When the demonstrative pronouns are followed imme- 
diately by the preposition o^ they are expressed, Aat eft , 
by cdui de, or ceQe de, and those of, by ceux de, or cdles &» 

Examples : 

He spends all his fortune, and that of his wife ; 
Hd^pense tout son bien, et celui de safemme. 
Take these horses, or those of my son ; 
Prenez ces chevattx, ou ceux de monfih* 

When the demonstrative pronouns are followed by 
which, expressed or understood, they are expressed, thai 
by edm or ceUe, those by eeux or ceUes, and which by the 
relative pronoim qui. Examples : 

This house is larger than that which I have sold ; 
Cette maison est plus grande que celle quejai vendue. 
These books are better than those you have lent me ; 
Ces livres valent mieux que ceux que vous nCavezprith. 

When the word which is used in answer to a question, it 
is also expressed by celui, or ceUe^qui, if the question is 
asked by the word which. Example : 

Which of these oranges will you have ? Which you please • 
LaqueUe de ces oranges voulez-vousf Celle qu't/ vous 
plaira. 

Observe. In this and the two following rules, the re- 
lative pronoun qui is changed into dont, for the genitive, 
a qui or auquel, for the dative, and qise, for the accusative, 
according to the case governed by the following verb. 

After a preposition, qui or que are only used when 
speaking of persons. See the next Chapter. 



SYNTAX OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 16 r 

Rule 77. — he who escpressed in French by celui qui. 

When the personal pronouns {hcy she, they, or those) 
are the antecedent of lohot that, or whichy they are not ex 
pressed by U or eUe, as before ; but he who is rendered by 
celui qui, she who by celle qui, they who by ceux qui, or 
c^es qui. Examples : 

He who cannot keep a secret, is incapable of governing ; 
Celui qui ne saurait garder un secret, est incapable de 

gouvemer. 
They whom you protect, betray you with indignity ; 

Ceux que vous protdgez, vous trahissent indignement. 

* 

Rule 78. — * celui qui, he who, must be joined in 

French. ■ 

When in an English sentence the pronouns, he, she, or 
they, are separated from the relative pronouns, who ot 
wmch, they must be joined in French, and the second 
part of the sentence is expressed the first Examples : 

He is a bad citizen who rebels against his country ; 
Celui qui se rivolte contre sa patrie est un mau/wUs 

cUoyen, 
Those are mistaken who believe that kings are happy ; 
Ceux qui croient que les rois sont heureux, se trompent. 

These pronouns can, however, be separated aa in 
English, by adding the particle Id to cdui or ceUe. Ex* 
amples: 

He is a bad citizen who rebels against his coimtry ; 
Celui-1^ est un mauvais citoyen qui se revoke contre sa 

p atrie, 
I%ey are mistaken who think that kings are happy ; 
Ceux-U se trofnpent qui croient que les rois sont heureu 



168 SYNTAX OF RELATIVE PRONOUliS. 

CHAP. Vll. 

OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.* 

Rule 79. — quiy que, wlio> that, or whiph* 

The relative pronouns, whoy that, or whichf are ex-' 
pressed by qui, for all sorts of objects, when ^bej are m ' 
the nominative case ; and by que when they are in the ac- 
cusative. Examples : 

The man who speaks ; The book which is on the table ; 
Lhomme qui parh. Le livre qui est 9ur la table. 
The woman whom I have seen ; The lesson which I have 

learnt; 
Lafemme quefai vue. La lefon quefai cgpprim, 

N. B. The word to which the relative pronouns havQ ; 
reference is called the antecedent. 

Rule 80. — dovU or de qui, of whom, whose, or of which. 

The relative pronouns, whose^ of whom, or ofwhU^tse 
usually expressed by dont, for all sorts of objects, when 
they follow immediately their antecedent. Examples : 

I have seen the person of whom you speak ; 
J'ai vu la personne dont vous parlez. 
It is an illness, the cause of which is unknown ; 
C'est une maladk dont on ne connaitpas la cause. 

But if the relative pronouns be separated from their 
antecedent by another substantive, then whose, or of whom, 
are expressed by de qui, and of which by dwpm, de la- 
quelle, desquels, or desqueUes, according to the gender and 
number of the substantive to which they have reference- 
Examples : 

He is a man to whose discretion I dare not trust ; 
C*est une personne d la discretion de qui je n'oserais me 
Jier. 

* See the definition and declension of relative pronouns, page 64. 



SYNTAX OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 169 

It is an illness to the progress of which one cannot apply 
too quick remedies ; « 

(Test une maladie avx progres de laquclle on nepevt ap- 
porter de trop prompts remedies — not atix progres de 
qui or dont. 

N. B. The relative pronoun from whom, which answers 
to the Latin ablative, is always expressed by de qui, and 
never by dont. Tlius we say : 

The man from whom I received a letter yesterday is 

sick; 
Lt *homme de qui (not dont) fai re^u hier une lettre est 

mahde. 

Rule 81. — qui or lequel, laquelle; whom, which. 

UWhen the relative pronouns are in the dative case, or 
«r any preposition, they are usually expressed by qui, 
Inieaking of persons ; and always by kqtiel or laquelle, 
[ttngular, lesquels or lesquelles, plural, speaking of animals 
^•nd things. Examples : 

Your father is a man to wltom I am much obliged ; ^ 
Votrepete est un homme a qui fai beaucoup ^obligation. 
Thp glory to which heroes sacrifice, is a false glory ; 
La gloire a laquelle les heros sacrifient est une fausse 

ghire. 
It is a reason to which there is no reply ; 
I C*est une raison k laquelle il riy a point de replique, 

i ■ . ■ ^ 

, Rule 82. — When ou can be used for lequel. 

When the relative pronouns are in the genitive, dative, 
Bbfative, or after a preposition, and refer to an inanimate 
object, they are almost indifferently expressed by ou or by 
lequely laquelle^ &c. if the verb denotes some motion or 
i^esty at least figuratively. Examples : 

Avoid the faults into which I have fallen ; 
JSvitez lesfautes ou (or dans lesquelles) ^c suis tombe, 
I know the principle from which all your system is de- 
rived ; 
I Jie canmtis le principe d*o\i (or duquel) decotde tout votre 
sysihne* 

t T 



170 SYNTAX OF INTERROGATIVE PROMOUHS. 

Note, Ou and d'au are also adverbs of plac^ and itand 
Jpr the words where or whence. Examples : 

Where are you going ? O^ attez-wnu f 

From whence do you come ? iJo^ venez^wms f 'i\ 

Where have you passed ? Par oii OMSP-voMf pattif ' 

Rule 83. — The Relative Pronouns am neoer omML k 

French. 

The relative pronouns, whoy whom, thai, and iMA, ani 
also the conjunction thcUy are often understood in En^Wi; 
but qui and que^ which answer to them, are never imder- 
stood in French. Examples : 

I think you are in the wrong ; Je crois que vous iwez tort 
The man I was speaking to ; L*homime k quljepaMM. 
The lesson I have learnt ; La legon que^^ot tgpprim 
The book you read is mine ; Le Uvre que vous iulez idi 

moL 

Rule 84!.^-^ Place and Concord of the Relative Pnmomit, 



The relative pronouns are placed in French ii 
afler the nouns or pronouns to which they have reference; 
and agree with them in gender and number. Examples: 

He rejected an advice, the utility of which he knew ; 
II rejeta un avis dont il connaissait rutiUti, 
The books for which I have subscribed are very good ; 
Les livres pour lesquels jai souscrit sont tres-Jboms. 



CHAP. VIIL 

OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. • 

The interrogative pronouns are, in English, these three: 
who, which^ and what: they are expressed in French tf 
follows : 



SYNTAX OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 171 

Rule 85. — qui? or qui est'ce qui f who? 

The interrogative pronouns, who, whose, to whom, &c. 
irhich are said of persons only, are expressed in French by 
grH^ or qui est-ce qui, when they are the nominative case of 
iTerb ; they are expressed by qui in all other cases, and 
iiever by que .or dont, as the relative pronouns, of which 
b^re* Examples : 

Who is there ? Qui est Id f or qui est-ce qui est Id 9 
QfioiAom do you speak? Deqmparlez-vous? — not dont 
' With whom do you live ? Avec qui demeurez-vous ? 
^ A u^om do you write ? A qui ^crvvez-vous f 
^ 'Whom have you seen ? Qui avez-vous vu ? 

V Rule 86. — lequel, laqueUe, &c, which. 

' Wh6n the word which is interrogatively used, it is always 
Baj^iretsed by hqud or laqueUe for the singular, and by ks- 
|iab or legquelks for the plural. Examples : 

Wki^ of my sisters will you marry ? 

Laquelle des mes soeurs votdez-vous 'ipouser f 
' Wiieh of these horses do you advise me to buy ? 
f L^uel de ces chevaux me conseillez-vous dacheter ? 
^ Wm^ of your brothers learns French and Latin ? 

Lequel de vosfreres apprend le Frangais et k Latin 9 

Rule 87. — qttel, queUe 9 what ? 

When the pronoim what is interrogatively used, it is 
iei{Hre88ed in French by quel, m. or queUe, f. before a sub- 

Ctive singular, and by quels, m. or queUes, f. before a 
itantive plund. Examples : 

What crime has this man committed to punish him so ? 

Quel crime cet homme a-t-il eommispour lepunir ainsi 9 

To u^at passion is he inclined ? 

ilquelle passion est-il enclin 9 

What game shall we play at ? ^ quel jeujoueronS'fious 9 



"HvLE 88. — what, expressed by que, or qu*est-ce que. 



tf 



When the interrogative pronoun what signifies whxU 
^ing, it b expressed in French by qae or by qu^est-ce qui 

I 2 



172 SYNTAX OF INTERROGATZONJ. 

for the nominative, and by qm or qiiestrce que for the 
accusative. Examples : 

What has happened to you? 

Que vaus est-U arrive f or, qu'est-ce qui vonu est arrMf 

What do you blame in that work ? 
Que bldmeZ'VOfis? or, qu'est-ce que vous Mdmez domed 
ouvroffe? 

Rule 89. — what is estpressed hy quoi cfier aPrspomUm. 

When the pronoun what is in the genitive, dative^ or 
afler a preposition, and signifies what thing^ it is almgfi 
expressed by quoi, whether the sentence be interrogative 
or not. Examples : 

In what am I guilty ? En quoi sui&je covpdk^ 

I know of what he complains ; Je sais de quoi il sepkusL 
0£what do you accuse me ? De quoi m*accusszvomf 
It is w/iat you are mistaken C*est en quoi vous von 
in; . tromj)ez. 



CHAR IX. 

ON THE DIFFERENT SORTS OF INTERROGATIONS. 

lluLE 90. — Interrogations made toith ou, d'oii, com- 
ment, 8^c 

Besides the interrogative pronouns, of which we have 
treated before, a question is oflen asked with the fbUowing' 
adverbs : combieny how much, how many; cammeni, how; 
pourqvoiy what for ; qyandy when ; ouy where ; d'ou^ fipo«| 
whence ; par ou, through what place. Examples : 

How many horses have you got ? 

Combien avez-vmis de chevaux f 

How does your father do to-day ? 

Comment se ports Monsieur voire pdre m^ourd'Aui f 



SYNTAX OF INTERROGATIONS. 173 

Why do you not answer ? Pourquoi ne repondez-vous pas 9 
When will you come to see us ? Quand viendrez-vous 

Tums voir 9 
Where are you going ? Oil altez-vtms 9 
From whence do you come ? D'oii venez-vous 9 

Rule 91. — 27ie Pronouns je, tu, il, 8^c. go after the Verb 

in an Interrogation, 

When the following pronouns, je^ tu, il, elle, nous, vom, 
U$^ eUesy ce, or on, are tlie nominative case of a verh inter- 
rogatively used, they are placed immediately after it, or its 
aiixiliary. Examples : 

Are you sick ? Have you been sick to-day ? 

JEies-YOus malade 9 Avez-Yous 4t4 nudade aujourd'hui 9 
Do you learn French ? Have you learnt Italian ? 

Apprenez-yoxx^ le Frangais f Avez-vous appris ritcUien 9 
Is there any news ? Have you heard any news ? 

JDit-^n des nouvelles 9 Vous a-t-on dit des nouvelles 9 

In an interrogative sentence we put always a h3rphen (-) 
between the verb and the pronoun : as, parlez-vous 9 vien- 
dront-iU 9 If the verb ends with a vowel, and the pronoun 
begins with another, we put between them a (-t-) with two 
hyphens, in order to avoid the hiatus which would result 
from the meeting of two vowels. Examples : 

Does he speak ? Will he come ? Does she sing well ? 
JPorfo-t-il? Viendrort'W.? Chante-t-eWe bien9 

A verb which ends in e mute in the first person singular, 
take^.an acute accent when it is interrogatively used. 
Examples : 

I speak. Do I speak? I walk, Do I walk? 

Je parte, ParU-je 9 Jeme promene. Me promeni-je 9 

N, B, When a verb interrogatively used has but one 
syllable in the first person singular of the present of the 
indicative mood, we ask the question with est-ce-que. 
Thus : 

Do I lose ? Est-ce-qveje perds 9 — not perds-je 9 
Do I sleep ? Est-ce-queje dors 9 — not dors-je 9 

T ^ 



174 SYNTAX OF INTERROGATIONS. 



Rule 92.^/n an InterrogaHon the Substanihe goa befm 

the Verb. 

1. When a substantive, or any of the following pronouM, 
ceci, celoy aueuny qudqu^uny personney or rten, is the no- 
minative case of a verb interrogatively used, it begini 
the sentence in French, and the verb is always followed 
by il or eUey Us or ettes^ as if there was no nominative 
case before. Examples : 

Is the dinner ready ? Le diner est-Hpr^f 

Is that good to eat ? Cela est-ii ban a manger f 

Did any body ask for me ? Quelqu'un m'o-^-il {HemanHf 
Is the company come ? La campagnie es^lle arrhief 

As if it was : the dinner is t^ ready ? that is ii good to 
eat ? and so on for all others. 

2. However, when the sentence begins by an interrogih 
tive expression, as who, qui, what, qiee or guoi, how moA^ 
cambien, where, ou, when, quand, &c. the pronouns U, dfe, 
ilsy eUesj may be omitted, and the substantive should be 
placed after the verb, and even after the participle in the 
compoimd tenses. Examples : 

Who is that man ? Qui est cet hamme f 

What does your son do ? Que^^z*^ voire fils f 
Where is your uncle gone ? O^est aUi votre ande f 

Rule 93. — est-ce Id, is that? tiest-ce pas Id, is not that? 

The English put the demonstrative pronouns, this or 
tbaty for the singular, and these or those for the plural, be- 
fore the possessive pronouns my, his, your, titeir, &c when 
thejr ask to whom belongs such or such a thing. Interro- 
gations of this sort are expressed in French by esi-ee Id, 
or sont-ce Id, if the sentence is affirmative ; and by n'est-^s 
pas Id, or ne sont-ce pas Id, if the sentence is negative. 
Examples : 

Is that your house ? Est-ce 1^, votre maisonf 

Are theise your gardens ? Sont-ce la, vosjardins f 






SYNTAX OF QUE. 175 

Is not that your house ? N'est-ce pas 1^ votn fxumon f 
. Are not /AeMjour gardens? Ne sont-ce pas IkvSjardins 9 

# 

All sentences of this kind are expressed in the same 
planner. 

' ftuLB 94*-— J^Mfierro^ottOTW rendered by est-ce que, or n est- 

ce pas. 

The English often ask a question less to be informed if 
foch a thing is or is not, than to show their surprise, that 
it 18 so. Literrogations of this sort are expressed in 
JB^rench by est-ce que* Examples : 

r^ It does not rain, does it? Est-ce quilpleutf 

Your brother is not dead, is he ? 
. Est-ce que votre frere est mort f 

If the question is negative, the first part of the sentence 

^having positively affirmed that the thing in question is 

aocii or such, it is expressed in French by n* est-ce pas que, 

at the b^inning of a sentence, or by n'est-ce pas, at the 

cmL Example : 

It is good weather, is it not? 

N*ert-ce pas quHlfait beau temps? or ilfait beau temps; 

n'est-ce pas ? 
We have seeii the king, have we not ? 
N'est-ce pas que turns avons vu le Bai ? or nous avons 

vu le Boi; n'est-ce pas? 



CHAP. X. 

DIFFERENT USES OF Q.UE. 

There are in French five distinct uses of que, called 
(y«e) relative, [que) interrogative, (que) admirative, (que) 
conditional, and (que) conjunctive. Having spoken at large 
of the two first, in the seventh and eighth chapters, we 
will next treat of the remaining three. 

I 4 



176 SyKTA.X OF ttUE. 

Rule 95. — Que of Admiration, how or how much. 

The que of admiration expresses wonder or surprise; 
it answers to the English words Jwwy how much, hm 
many. Examples : 

How happy you are ! Que vous ites heureux / 
How wonderful are the works of God ! 
Que les ouvrages de Dieu sont admirables / 
How I hate the impious ! Que^e hats les inqnes ! 
How much money you have ! Que vous avez d^argeat! 
How many misfortunes he has experienced ! 
Que de mcdheurs il a eprouvis f 

Observe, 1. That the adjective which follows how in 
English is always put after the verb in French. Ex- 
ample : 

How unhappy I am ! Queje suis malheureux f 

2. That if how much, and how many, are followed by a 
substantive, the que which answers to them is ahrays 
followed by de in French. Example : 

How much trouble you take for me f 
Que de peine vous prenez pour mot / 

N. B. How many, preceded by the preposition ^ to, or 
any other, should be expressed by comhien de, and not by 
que. Example : 

To how many dangers have I not been exposed in France. 
A combien de dangers nai-Jepas iibi expos€ en Franoe. 

Rule 96. — Que conditional, whether, or if, in English 

The conditional que is used in the beginning of a sen- 
tence, for the word wJieiher, and in the middle to avoid the 
repetition of si : in both cases it governs the subjunctive 
mood. Examples : 

Whether he does it or not, I do not care ; 
Qu't7 le fosse ou non,je ne rrCen sowdepas. 
If somebody comes and I am out, send for me ; 
S*il vient quelquun et que je sois sorti, envoyez-vm 
diercher. 



SYNTAX OF QUE. 1T7 

Rule 97- — Que used for several ConjtmcHons, 

The qtie conjunctive may be used for many conjunc- 
tions, and particularly for the ten following : 

1. Thaty afin que. 6. Since, depuis que. 

% Unless^ k moins que. ?• TiU, jusqu'a ce que. 

S. Before, avant que. 8. Because, parce que. 

4. Yet, cependant. 9. When, quand. 

5. For fear, de peur que. 10. Why, pourquoi. 

Examples : 

1. Come here, that I may speak to you ; 
Venez'id, que^ vousparle, 

^ I will not go and see him, unless he invites me ; 
Je n'iraipas le voir quHl ne m'enprie. 

5, You shall not go out before it is light ; 
Vous ne partirez pas qu't/ ne soitjour, 

4>. Though he should have all the gold in the world, yet 
he would not be satisfied ; 
II aurait tout Vor du monde, qa'il ne seraitpas content, 

5- Go out quickly, ybry«ar the master should come ; 
Sortez promptement de crainte que h maitre ne 
vienne. 

6. How long is it since your brother died ? 
Combien y tht'il que votrefrere est mort f 

7- Wait till the rain is over ; 
Attendez quit ne pkuve plus. 

8. If I did not come yesterday, it was because I had 

business ; 
Sije ne vinspas hier, cest que favais des affaires, 

9. I was at London the day wh£n he died ; , 
• Tetais a Londres Ujour qu'f/ mourut. 

10. Why do you not answer when I speak to you? 
Que ne r^pondez-vous quand je vous parh 9 

Note. The conjunction que is placed between two verbs, 
and serves to particularise the sense of the first ; this con-< 

I 5 



178 SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 

junction must be used in FrenA every time the worddbtf, W 
is or could be expressed in English. Examples : ' 

I think one cannot be happy without pracUsing virtue; 
Je pense qu'on tie peut &re Jieureux sans praikpm k 

vertuu 
I mamtain he is in the right ; it appears you are in the 

wrong; 
Je mainHens qu*f/ a raisan ; Uparaii que vous avez M. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

The word que is also used, 1. To join the two terms of 
a comparison : 2A,jesmsphujemie que vous ; I am yoangff 
than you. 2. To restrain a n^ative sentence, tiien it 
stands for hui or onfy: aSyje n*ai que qmnzeans; Im 
fmt fifteen years of age. 3. To express a wish, a oobh 
maud, an imprecation or indignation : as» qu'tl p6rm 
Cimpie; may the impious perish. 



CHAR XI. 

OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 

Rule 98. — Use of the ParUds on, one. 

All vague and general reports expressed in English by 
fhey say^ we say^ people sa^^ one saysy it is saidy it is rtportd, 
and such like, are rendered in French by on^ with the verb 
in the third person singular. Examples : 

People sayj it is thought^ they maintain every where 

that it is so ; 
On dit, on croit, on soutient pariotU que la chose est aSnti 
One is not always master of one's passions. 
On n'est pas toigours maitre de ses passions. 

The passive voice is seldom used in French, therefore, 
when the passive verb is not followed by a substantive and 
the preposition by, we oflen turn the passive into active. 



SYNTAX OF INI^ETERMINi^TE PRONOUNS. 179 

itting the pronoun an instead of the nominative used in 
oglisn : thus, t^ is said, it is reported, &c. are expressed 
r on dii, on rapporte, &c> Examples : 

It is believed that peace will be made this year ; 
On croit qtte lapaix sefera cette annie. 
Have letters been received from France to-day ? 
A-t^n regu des lettres de France aujourd'hui f 
A courier has been despatched to Spain ; 
On a envoyi un courier en Espagne. 

On must be repeated before every'verb oi which it is 
e nominative case. Example : 

They praise, blame, threaten, punish, &c. 
On Ume, on bldme, on menace, on punit, &c. 

Observe. The learner must, take care not to express 
is^ by on, except when it is employed absolutely without 
\y reference to a substantive plural ; when they relates to 
substantive plural, it is expressed by ils or elks. 

Rule 99* — Cases where Ton is used instead of on. 

On takes elegantly an /' after the words et, si, or ou. 
xamples : 

If we would practise virtue, we should be happy in this 

world, and procure ourselves an eternal happiness ; 
Si Ton praiiquait la vertu, on serait heureux sur la terre, 

e^ 1 on se procurerait un bonheur itemeL 
You have been, or will soon be rewarded ; 
On vous a recompense, ou Ton vous ricompensera bietitdt. 

Uon is also used after qm, when the next verb begins 
' c, or q. Examples : 

We learn better what we understand, than what we do 

not; 
On apprend mietix ce que Ton comprend, que.ce que Ton 

ne comprend pas. 
It seems they quarrel with the servants. 
H semble que Ton quereUe les domestiques. 

N. B. L'on sounds better than on in the above sen- 
nces, and is always used by good authors in such cases, 

I 6 



180 SYNTAX OF INOETERMIKATE PRONOUNS. 

provided it be not followed hy^le^ l(iy lesyin which case <w 
never takes an /. Thus we could not say, metiez Id votn 
lettre, etVonla lira; but we must say, etonla UrcL, 

Rule 100. — Different Significations afm^me. 

The words the same are expressed in French by il; or 
la meme for the singular, and by les mimes for the plural 
whether they be joined or relative to a substantive. Ex- 
amples : 

The same thing does not please every body 
La m§me chose ne plait pas a tont le monde. 
Customs are not the same in every country ; 
Les usages ne sontpas les memes dans tous lespa^s. 

The word mSme is often used in French to give more 
energy to the speech ; in that case it comes after a sub- 
stantive or a pronoun, and answers to the English expres- 
sions himself, herself itself &c. Examples : 

The king AtWe/f opposed it ; Leroi m^me s^y opposcu 
Religion ttoe/f forbids it ; La religion mdme h d^ad* 

On such occasions we more generally place Itd^ die, euxy 
elles, before mSme : as, Le roi lui-m^me s'y opposa ; la rdH- 
gion elle-m^me le defend. 

The word meme is sometimes an adverb, and answers 
then to the English words also or even. Example : 

We must love every body, even our enemies ; 
Ufaut aimer tout le mxmde, meme nos ennemis. 

Rule 101. — Plusieurs, many, or several. 

The words many and several are expressed by plusieurs^ 
always plural, of both genders. Examples : 

Many deceive themselves when they want to deceive 

others ; 
Plusieurs se trompent en votUant tromper les autres. 
Do not apply yourself to several things at once. 
Ne vaus appliquez pas a plusieurs choses a lajbis. 



SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 181 

Rule 102. — Un autre, pronoun and adjective, another. 

The indeterminate, pronouns other, another, are expressed 
by un autre for the singular, and by les autres for the plu- 
ral. These words are either pronouns o^ adjectives ; when 
pronouns, they are always masculine; and when adjectives, 
they agree in gender and number with the substantive to 
which they have reference. Examples : 

Another would not have forgiven you so easily as I did ; 
Un autre ne vous await pas pardonni si facilement que 

moi. 
Do not speak ill of otiiers, if you would not have others 

speak ill of you. 
JVe parlez pas mal des autres, si vous ne voulez pas que 

les Siiitres parlent mal de vous, 

N. B. When the word osiers is in the genitive or dative 
case, or preceded by a preposition, it is most commonly 
expressed in French by autrui. Examples : 

We must not covet other men*s goods ; 

H nefaut point ddsirer le bien d'autrui. 

Do not do by others what you would not be done by. 

Nefaites point a autrui ce que vous ne voudriez pas quon 

vous fit. 
People often excuse in themselves what they condemn 

in others; 
On exctise souvent en soi ce que Von condamne en autrui. 

Rule 103. — Chacun, always singular and masculine, 

every one. 

The indeterminate pronouns, ever^ one, every body, are 
generally expressed by chacun, always mascidine and sin» 
gtdar. Examples : 

God will reward every body according to his works ; 
Dieu rendra d. chacun sehn ses csuvres. 
Every one lives after his own way ; 
Chacun vit a sa maniere, 

Nevef theless, if we speak to ladies, we must employ 
ehacune in the feminine. Example : 



Chaque pa^s a ses usages. 

llie word each employed with relation to a substan 
plural expressed before, is always singular, and expre 
by chacun, masc. chacuney fern. Examples : 

Put these books each in its place ; 

Hemettez ces Uvres chacim d, sa place. 

The pictures of great painters have each their merit 

Les tableaux des graands maiires ant ohacun son m/irii 

Those two sentences have each a different sense ; 

Ces deux phrases ont chacun un sens different. 

Rule 104. — Quelqu un, sing, and masc. somebodj 

The indeterminate pronouns somdtocfyy any body, 
expressed by qudquCun^ singular and masculine, 
amples : 

Somebody will come to dine with us ; 
Quelqu'un viendra diner avec nous. 
Has ever any body doubted of the existence of Goc 
Quelqu'un a-441 jamais douU de Vexistence de Diea \ 

The words some and any before a substantive are 
pressed by the partitive article du^ de loy des, or by que 

l7.vomrkl<»a ? 



SYNTAX OF' INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 183 

. I will make use of some of your books ; 
Je me servirai de quelques-uns de vcs livres. 
Do you know ctm/ of uiese ladies ? 
ConmmseZ'Vaus quelques-unes de ces dames f 

^hen same and am/ have reference to a substantive used 
he preceding sentence, they are usually expressed by 
IS we have seen before, Rule 51. Example : 

I have some oranges, will you have any ? 
Tax des oranges, en voidez-vous f 



Of tout and its various Constmctions. 

he word tout is of extensive import in the French 
uage, being either a substantive, an adjective, a pro- 
1, or even an adverb, according to the following ex- 
ations. 

ULE 105. — Le tout, sidfstaniive sing, and masc. the 

whole. 

lien the English words the whole are not placed before 
»un, they are substantives, and expressed by le tout, 
ys singmar and masculine. Examples : 

7%6 whole is greater than a part ; 

Le tout est plus grand que lapartie. 

I will take the whole; Jiepref^ai le tout. 

he words all and everg thing, followed by a verb, are 
substantives, and expressed by tout, but without an 
Je. Examples : 

U is vanitv in this world ; Tout est vanitS en ce mondc. 
^rtune, dignities, honour, every iking vanishes when 
we die ; 
*iens, dignitisy honneurs, tout disparait a la mort. 

Rule 106. — Tout le, toute la, adf, all or the whole. 

rhen the words all and the whole come before ^ sub- 
tive, they are adjectives, and expressed by tout le, or 



184> SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PROKOtTNS. 

iouie loy for the singular, and by Ixnu Us or tomtes 2ef fortbe 
plural. 

I am with aU the respect possible, sir, &c. 

Je SUMS ctoec tout le respect passible, Monsietsr, S^ 

The whole fleet is at sea ; Toute ]siflot(e est en met. 

Note, When tout stands for the word every, placed be- 
fore a substantive, it takes an article in the plural, but not 
in the singular. Examples : 

Every man is mortal ; Tout homme est mortiL 

Come and see us every day ; Venez nous voir tous ks 

Jours. — And not tout r homme est mortel; nor vem 

nous voir tous jours. * 

Rule 107. — Tout ce qui, tout ce que, pronoun, all that, 

every thing that. 

The English words, aiU, that, every thing that, and also 
whatever, signifying all that, are pronouns, and expressed 
in French by tovt ce qui, or tout ce que, always singular and 
masculine. Examples : 

All that you say is true ; Tout ce que vous dites est vni 
AU is not gold that glitters ; Tout ce qui brille not 

pas or. 
You have not seen every thing that was curious ; 
Vous n'avezpas vu tout ce qu'iZ y avait de ettrieux. 

Rule 108. — Tout, declinable and indeclinable, quite. 

When the word tout stands for the adverbs quiie, esr 
tirely, although, or the first a« of a sentence, where that 
word is twice used, it is always indeclinable before an ad- 
jective or a participle mascuhne, singular or plural. Ex- 
ample : 

As learned as philosophers are, they are sometimes mis- 
taken; 

Les philosophes, tout savans quHls sont, se tron^t 
quelquejbis. 

* Except, however, tout le monde, for every botfy, and not tout 
monde. 



SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 185' 

It is also indeclinable before an adjective or a participle 
^minine of both numbers, which begins with a vowel or h 
lUte ; but it is declinable before an adjective or a parti- 
ple feminine which begins with a consonant, and agrees 
ith it in gender and number. Examples : 

Your mother is quite alarmed; your sisters are quite 

cast down ; 
Votre mere est tout alcmnie ; vos soeurs sont tout abattues. 

Those above are indeclinable; the following are de- 
inable: 

You mother was quite surprised at that news ; 

Voire merefia toute surprise a ceUe rumvelle. 

Your sisters, as rich and handsome as they are, do not 

marry; 
Vos sceursy toutes riches et toutes t)€Ues qu elles sont, ne 

se marient point* 



CyQuelque. 

Quelque is used in two ways : ^rst, adverbially, to 
n^fy in what manner and degree ; and it is then inde- 
inable before the adjective, which it modifies : secondly, 
ien used to denote one, some, or an uncertain number of 
ings, it agrees in number with the noun that expresses 
em. 

The two following rules will explain the arrangement of 
066 sentences in which this word occurs, wjbere the 
'ench construction is different from the English. 

.ULE 109. — Quelque, indeclinable, however, howsoever. 

When the English words, however, Iwwsoever, though 
er so much, or so little, come before an. adjective, or a 
irticiple, tliey are expressed in French by quelque inde- 
inable. 

The construction of the sentence is as foUows: 1. quelque 
put first; 2. the adjective: S. que; 4. the verb in 
e subjunctive mood ; 5. the substantive ; the rest as in 
ngiish. Examples : 



186 SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 

Though his fault be ever so greaty I will forgive him ; . 
Quelque grande que soit safauteyje ltd pardonnerai. 
Howeoer praiseworthy your conduct may be^ it will be 

condemned ; 
Quelque louable que soU voire condmU, die sera eoi^ 

damm/ie. 

Rule 110. — Quelque, adj. wnddedvnable^ whateren 

The English word whatever, followed by a substanttre, 
and any other verb than ft? ^ is an adjective, and .ex- 
pressed by ^tie/!/!^ before a noun singular, and by qudqum, 
with an s before a noun plural. 

The construction is: 1. quelque; 2. the substantive; 
3. qtie; 4. the verb in the subjunctive mood; the rest as 
in English. Examples : 

Whatever faults he has committed, I will forgive him; 
Quelques^at^^ qtCU ait comrMseSyje ltd pardonneraL 
Whatever fortime you have, you are never satisfied ; 
Quelques Uens que vous ayez^ vous tCitesjamaie contmL 

Rule 111. — Quel que, quelle que, Sfc, in two words. 

The English word whatever, followed by a substantive^ 
and the verb to be, is expressed in French by quel que, in 
two words, for the masculine singular, and by qudte que, 
for the feminine : by quels que for the masculine plural, 
and by quelles que for the feminine. 

The construction is: 1. quel or quelle; 2. que; 3. the 
verb in the subjunctive mood ; 4. the substantive : the rest 
as in English. Examples : 

Whatever his fault may be, I will forgive him ; 
Quelle que soit safaute,je lid pardonnerai,* 
Whatever your talents may be, you will not succeed 

without application ; 
Quels que soient voe takns, vous ne rSussirez pas sans 

application, 

* I have repeated the same sentence in these three rules, to render 
more obvious the difference between qudque indeclinable, ^udqau 
adjective, and quel que in two words. 



SYNTAX OP INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 187 

Rule 112. — Quelque chose que, or quoi que ce soit, 

whatever. 

The English words whatever^ whatsoever^ meaning all 
imgs saevery are usually expressed by qudque chose gue^ 
or guai que^ when they are placed at the beginning of the 
sentence, and by qieoi qice ce soit, when they are placed 
after a verb. Tiiey govern the next verb in the subjunc- 
tive mood. Examples : 

Whatever you do for me, I will reward you for it 
Quelque chose que (or quoi que) votis fassiez pour mot, 

je VQUS en recompenserai, 
I complain of nothing whatever; I have seen nothing 

whatever, 
Je ne me plains de quoi que ce soit ; je n*ai vu quoi que 

ce soit. 
I wish he would apply to any thing whatever. 
Je d^re qti'il s applique a quoi que ce soit. 

Rule 113. — Quinconque, qui que ce soit, whoever^ 

whosoever. 

The indeterminate pronouns, whoever^ whosoever^ are 
most usually expressed by quiconquey when they mean aU 
Aose who. Examples : 

Whoever abandons himself to his passions renders him- 
self unhappy. 

Qoiconque s abandonne a ses passions, se rend malheu' 
rettx. 

God will punish wliosoever transgresses his laws. 

IHeu punira quiconque transgresse ses his. 

I speak to wJwever will he^ me. 

JepnrU a quiconque veat nC entendre. 

They are usually expressed by qui que ce soit, qui or 
when they mean whatever nun/ be the person^ who. 
xamples : 

Of whomsoever you speak^ avoid slander ; 

De qui que ce soit que vousparliez, Mtez la mddisance. 

WItosoever shall ask for me, say I am engaged ; 

Qui que ce soit qui me demande, dites quejesuis occupi. 



que, 
£x£ 



188 SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PROKOUKS. 

Whomsoever you meet with, do not say what you have 

seen ; 
Qui que ce soit que vofus rencontrieZy ne dUes pas ce qut 

avez vtu 

N. B. Instead of qui que ee sait, we often more elegSDtly 
use qui que, except before il or ils; so in the precediDg 
examples we could say ; de qui que vous parUez ; qui qm 
vous renconfriez ; but we never say, qui qui in Uie no- 
minative, for qui que ce soit qui. 

The pronouns, any body whatever,\fhe:ii the senteDce 
expresses a doublt, and nobody whatevevy are almost in- 
differently expressed by qui que ce soit ox penwme. Ex- 
amples : 

I doubt whether that will please any body whatever; 
Je dovJte que celaplaise a personne, or a qui que ce soit 
He trusts nobody whatever ; 

II ne sefie a personne, or cL qui que ce soit. 
Nobody whaJbeoer has spoken to me against you ; 
Personne (or qui que ce soit) ne m'aparU centre «ot». 

Rule 114. — L'un Tautre, one another. 

The indeterminate pronouns, one aawthery eaek oAer 
are expressed in French, by Tun Vautrcy masculine, Vwm 
r autre, feminine, with reference to a noun singular, and 
by les uns les autres, masculine, les unes les autres, femiaiie^ 
with reference to a noun plural, as they are substantivelj- 
employed in either case. 

The first of these pronouns is always in the nfimiaatiTe 
in French : thus, if they are preceded by a preposition in 
English, that preposition must come between them in 
French. Example : 

My brother and your sister speak always of one anoAery 
they think of one arvother, they are made for one on- 
other, they cannot live without one another; 

Monfrere et voire sceur parlent totgours Vvn de Taube^ 
ils pensent Vun a V autre, ils sont fonts fun pour 
Vautre, ils ne sauraient vivre Vun sans Fixutre. 



SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS. 189 

Rule 115. — L'un et Tautre, both. 

L*un et Fautre, &c. Bothy one and anotJker, 
L'un ou I'autre, &c. - Either. 
Ni run ni Tautre, &c. Neither, * 

Tliese pronouns agree in gender and number with the 
noun to which they have reference : if they are preceded 
bj a preposition in English, that preposition must be re- 
peated in French, before Vun and before t autre. Examples : 

I will do it for them both ; 

Je hfercd pour Vun et pour V autre. 

I will do it for either ; 

Je leferai pour Vun ou pour V autre. 

I will do it for neither of them ; 

Je ne leferai ni pour Vun ni pour VatUre. 

N. B. The word both followed by a substantive is ex- 
pressed by les deux : Bs,je me sers des deux mains ; I use 
ooih hands. Beth followed by and is a conjunction 
sometimes expressed by ety but often er left out in French. 
Example : 

He is happy both in peace and war ; 
H ^ heuretujc et en paix et en guerre, or il est heureux 
enpaix et en guerre. 

Rule 116. -— Ne and personne, nobody. 

The indeterminate pronoun, nobody , is expressed hyper- 
mmney masculine and sing\^lar. Personne requires ne be- 
fore the verb. Examples : 

Nchudy knows whether he is worthy of love or hatred ; 
Personne ne sait sHl est digne damour ou de haine. 
You please nobody ; Vous neplaisez a personne. 

Personne is masculine as a pronoun, and feminine as a 
substantive. Thus we say : 

I know nobody so learned as you ; 

Je neconrtais personne si savant que vous — masculine. 

I know ^person as learned as you are ; 

Je conncUs une personne aussi savante que vot^-^femuiine. 

* Ni fun ni V autre requires ne before the verb. 



190 SYNTAX OF INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS* 

Rule 117* — Aucun aand ne pas un, nonBy nci one. 

Noim is expressed by awmn or aucunty and nol cm by 
pcu un or pcu une, adj* : both require ne before the verb. 
Examples : 

I had many friends, yet noi one has relieved me ; 
J'avais bien des amis, cq)endant pas un ne m*a secoitru, 
None of you were there ; Aucun de votis tiy itaxL 
That gentleman had six daughters ; none of them has 

married; 
Cet^homme aeu six JiUes; aucune (or pas UQe)i9ie«ei< 

mariie. 

JR.ULE 118. <— Ne and rien, nothing. 

The word nothing is expressed by rien, and requires «. 
before the verb which agrees with it. Example : 

Nothing is more rare than a true friend ; 

// ny a rien deplus rare quun viritable ami, 

I have seen noMng finer ; Je n*ai rien vu deplus beau, 

N. B. Rien is always joined by the preposition deto the 
following adjective, when not separated from it By the 
verbs iire, paraitrcy sembkr, 

Aucun, personne, and rien, do not require ne before the 
Verb, in a sentence interrogative or of doubt ; but then 
aucun stands for any, personne for any body, and rien for 
any thing. Examples : 

Was there ever any body more eloquent than Cicero? 
Y eut-U jamais personne jo/t^ Eloquent qtie Cic6ron9 
Have you ever seen any thing more curious? 
Avez-vous jamais rien vu deplus curieuxf 
I question if there is any author without a fault ; 
Je doute qu'U y ait aucun auteur sans difaut. 

When the words rien, personne, aucun, and some others, 
serve to answer a question, without repeating the veib 
used by the enquirer, they imply a negation, without em- 
ploying ne. Examples : 



SYNTAX OF NEGATIONS. 191 

On whom must one rely in misfortune ? On nobody. 

Sur qui doit-on compter dans le nudheur f Sur persoTme. 
Which do you prefer ? None of them. 
Lequd prifirez-vtms ? Aucun d *eux. 



BB 



CHAP. XII. 

SEVERAL MODES OF NEGATION 

This Chapter is divided into two sections : the first ok- 
iins the mode of expressing in French the English ne- 
tions ; the second shows the several circumstances in 
iich a negative expression is required in French, when 
ere is none in English. 



SECTION THE FIRST. 
-; How to express in French the English NegaHans.^ 

The English negations are these eight: \. nobody; 2. 
ne or not one ; 3. nothing ; 4. neither ;- 5. never ; 6. by 
I ^mecms ; 7. no ; 8. njot. As we have spoken in the pre* 
AdxD^ Rules of the first three, it only remains to treat 
ire of the ^yfi others^ 

Rule 119. — iVt or ni ne, neither (tnd nor. 

The word neither^ besides its being an indeterminate 
onoun (as we said before, Rule 115), is also a negative 
njunction when it is followed by nor. When neither and 
r come before two nouns, or two verbs in the infinitive 
M>d, they are both expressed by ni and ne before the 
rb which is in the indicative mood. Examples : 

Neither prayers nor threatenings could move him ; 
Ni prieres ni menaces ne parent Vattendrir. 
He knows neither how to read nor write ; 
H ne sait ni Ure ni ^crire. 



192 SYNTAX OF NEGAXiQNS. 

If these conjunctions come before two verbs in the 
dicative mood, rmther is expressed by nje before the £ 
and rvoT by ni ne before the second. Examples : 

I neither praise nor blame you ; 
Je ne votis lotie, ni ne vous blame. 
He neither loves nor hates you ; 

II ne votts aimey ni ne vous hait. 

Rule 120. — Ne a^ jamais, never; nuUement, byn 

means. 

The word never is rendered by jamais ; by no meati 
expressed by nullement; jamais and nuUement requin 
before the verb, without jmz^ after. Examples : 

I have never seen the queen of England ; 
Je n'm jamais vu la reine d^ Angleterre. 
Iby no means approve of your conduct ; 
Je xiapprouve nullement votre conduite. 

Rule 121. — Aueun, aucune, point de^ or nouy no. 

The negative expression no before a substantive is 
presSed in French hy point de, or by the adjective m& 
masculine, aucune feminine, before a noun singular, 
by aueuns masculine, aucunes feminine, before a n 
plural. Examples : 

You have no good qualities ; 

Vous navez aucunes bonnes qualitesy [or point de &n 

qualites). 
He takes no care of his business ; 
// n'a aucun soin (or point de soin) de ses ctffaires. 

When no is used in answer to a question, it is expres 
in French by no9%. Examples : 

Have you seen the king ? No, sir ; 
Avez-vous vu le roi 9 Non, monsieur. 
Do you learn French ? No, madam ; 
Apprenez-vous le Frangais ? Non, madame. 



k 



SYNTAX OF NEGATIONS. ' 193 



[ Rule 122. — Ne pas, non pas que, or non que, nai. 

The negative not is usually expressed by ne before the 
verb or its auxiliary, and by pas or point after. Eitfv 
amples : ' 

Do not speak to him ; have you not spoken to him ? 
Ne Itdparlez pas ; ne iui avez-vous pasparlSf 

If the verb, negatively used, is in the present infinitive, 
fie and pas are usually both placed before it. Examples : 

I go away, not to displease you ; 

Je m*en vaispour ne pas vous diplaire. 

One must be a fool not to perceive that he b in the 

wrong; 
Hfcttit itre insensipour ne pas voir quil a tori. 

The word not followed by thaty is expressed by non que, 
pit non pas que with the following verb in the subjunctive. 
fisample: 

I will do it, not that I am obliged, but to have peace ; 
Je le ferai^ non que, (or non pas que) fy sois obligcy 
nuUspour avoir lapaix. 

KuLB 123. — Ne without pas, before some verbsy not. 

The negative not is expressed by ne, without pas or 
poinij with these four verbs — cesser^ to cease, oser^ to dare, 
fomwdr, to be able, and savoiry used in the conditional, for, 
Jjb be able. Examples : 

lie does not cease complaining ; II ne cesse de sepkdndre 
it dare not speak to him ; Je vloss ltd pearler. 

I cannot walk ; Je nepuis marcher. 

Tou cannot refuse him ; Vous ne sauriez le refuser. 

Note. The words no more^ or not any more^ are ex- 
liretsed by ne before tlie verb, and pcu plus after, when 
mcfte is followed by than; but they are expressed by 
mhu without pas^ when nujre is not followed by Aan. 
JExamples: 

I am no more than twenty years of age ; 
Je VLoi pes plus de vingt ans. 

K 



194 SYNTAX OF NEGATIONS. 

It is no more than a week since I saw your brother ; yoa 

will see him no more ; 
H n'y a pas plus de huxtjotirs que f<d tm vatreftm\ 

vous ne le verrez plus — not vous ne le verrez pas ph& 

Rule 12'k — Distinction between pas amd point 

1. Point is more exclusive than /mm. The first denio 
absolutely, and signifies not at all. The second douei 
sometimes but in part. Examples : 

All the accused persons are not guilty ; 

Totis ceux quon accuse ne sont point coiqfiabksi 

Tous ceux quon accuse ne sont pas co^igpabks* 

The first sentence signifies that none of the accused ne 
guilty ; the second signifies only that the accused are nflt 
all guilty. 

2. We make use of point in an interrogative sentoKE; 
when we doubt of the thing in question, and of pas yHui 
we are persuaded of it. Example : 

Have you not seen my brother to-day ? 
JTavez-vou^ point vu nwnfrere aufourd*kmf 
N^aveZ'VoiLS pas vu monfrere aujourd^htdf 

In the first sentence, I doubt whether you have sees 
my brother or not ; in the second, I am persuaded yoi 
have seen him. 

3. We make use appoint to denote a thing that happeM 
never, or very seldom, and of pa^ to denote that it doei 
not happen in tlie time we are speaking, though it mf 
happen very often. Example : 

You do not study ; 

Vous rCetudiez point ; vous n 6tudiez pas. 

The first sentence signifies, that habitually you do not 
study ; and the second, that you do not study at preserii 
Uiough you may be very studious. 

N. B. This distinction is very exact, and conformable to 
the practice of the best French authors: there are many 
circumstances, however, in which pas and point can be 
almost indifferently used. 



SYNTAX OF NEGATIONS. 195 

SECTION THE SECOND. 
Neffoiive Expressions in French^ and not in English. 

luLE 125. — Negation used in French^ and not in 

EngUsh, 

The particle m is used in French after a comparative, 
id after atOre^ avJbrement^ otherwise : in all these cases 
ere is no negative expression in English. Examples : * 

Your brother is younger than I thought ; 
Voire frere est plus jeune queje ne pensais. 
The aifair is quite different from what it had been re- 
lated to me ; 
U(xffaire est taut autre quon ne me tavail racontiie. 

C7i:.E 126. — Negation used in Frenchy and not in English. 

The particle ne is used after these four verbs ; appre- 
TideTy to apprehend ; avoir peur, to be afraid ; craindre, 
fear ; empichery to hinder ; and prendre ganky lo take 
re, when they are affirmatively used. Examples : 

I wm hinder him from doing you wrong ; 

J^empicherai quil ne vousfotsse tort, 

I fear he will come ; Je crcdns qu'U ne vienne. 

Doutery to doubt, on the contrary, requires ne before 
e next verb, when negatively used. Example : 

We do not doubt that he is come ; 
Nous ne doutons pas gu'il ne soit arrive, 

UJ*B 127. — Negation used in Frenchy and not in English. 

The ^y^ following conjunctions, d, mains quey unless ; de 
winie quey for fear; depeur de, lest ; que, used for unless, 
d quey for before or until ; require the particle ne before 
e next verb. Examples : 

* He should be left out if the verb be in the infinitiye mood, or if 
sre be a conjunction between que and the Terb, as we said before, in 
i second note of Rule 40. t 

K 2 



196 SYNTAX OF VERBS. 

I will not go there unless you come with me ; 
Je n'iraipasy k moins que vous ne veniez avec moL 
I will not give you a watch until you speak French; 
Je ne vous donnerai pas de monltre, que vinu nepaiiiB 
Frangais. 

Observe^ That all the verbs and conjunctions mentioDed 
in these two rules govern the verb in the subjanctiie 
mood (si excepted). 

Rule 128. — 'Seb^brethe Va^f and qae afierfboXot 

only. 

When the words but and anfyf after a y&rb, 
more, nothings else, or nobocfy else than^ they are 
by 726 before the verb, andr que after, not by mdk Es* 

amples : 

J have but twenty guineas ; Je VLoi que vingt gmmkL 
I have but one true friend ; Je n*ai qvCun vSrmbk mm, 

The word only, ailer a verb, is expressed by 
in other circumstances. Example : 

If you had only two friends, you would succeed ; 
Si vous aviez seulement deux ands, vous rSuairm* 

When but begins the second part of a sentence^ it > 
ijisually expressed by mcds. Example : 

I could wish to travel, but I have no monev; 

Je voudrais bien voyager, maisye n'aipas a*aryeML 



SYNTAX OF VERBS. 



The verb is a part of speech the most extensmb At 
most essentia], and altogether the most dtffonilt eidier ti 
teach or to learn ; therefore close attenticm must be ffn» 
to die following pages, in which the construction of verin 
is fully explained, and the different genius of the two ht 
guages is pointed out with accuracy and [urecisioii* 



STYKTAX OF THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS.. l!^7 



CHAP. XIII. 

OF THE GOVERNMENT OF VEKBS.» 

HuLE 129. —* Verbs which govern the Genitive in French. 

1. Most of the reflected verbs not mentioned in the 
lext rule govern the genitive in French, whatever case 
faey govern in English. Examples : 

To perceive a trick, S*iq)ercevoir d*un tour. 

Ro veize upon something, S'emparer de quelque chose. 

Eft enquire about news, S'enqudrir de nouveiks. 

fo remember a history, Se ressouvenir d^une histoire. 

so on for others. 



^,2* The following — abuser^ to abuse; avoir besoin, to 
nint ; avoir pitUy to pity ; itre altere, to thirst after ; he- 
«tef% to' inherit; jouer to enjoy; manquer, to want; 
uStUrey to traduce ; rendre raison, to account for ; rougiry 
:o Uush ; tMer, to use ; govern the genitive in French. 
rhiiB we say : 

To want money. Avoir hesoin Sargent, 

rb pity the unfortunate^ Avoir pitii des maUieureux. 

To inherit a large fortune, HMter d'un grand bien. 

To enjoy good health, Jouir d'une bonne sante. 

To traduce one's neighbour, Medire de son prochain. 

And 80 on with the rest 

3. The verbs passive followed in English by the prepo- 
utions,^iom or withy govern the genitive case in French. 
Bxamples : 

« Me is loaded with spoil, II est chargi de buiin. 

^ ^This book is translated yrom the English ; 
-Ce Hvre est traduit de V Anglais. 

' '^ The ali^habetical senea. of ¥erh». at the end of the grammar having 
leeA^-eMcAinj^ revised and corrected in this edition, tfaa learner must 
lave recourse to it ; and he will there And the government of some 
rerbs not mentioned in the followinf rules. 

K 3 



198 



SYNTAX OF TH£ GOVERNMENT OF 



V^R8% 



4, The word hy^ which comes^ sometimes s^jder' a ferl 
passive, is usually expressed by de^ when the v^ does no 
express any action of the body, and by par whe^'it does 
Thus we say : 

Your brother has been killed^ two thieyes ; 
Votrefrere a iU tui par deux voleurs. 
Your sister is esteemed by every body ; 
Voire sceur est esHm^e de tout le monde. 

However, we make use of par to avoid the repetitia 
of c2e in the same phrase, though the verb does not ei 
press any action of the body. Example : 

Your work will be severely censured by the critics ; 
Votre ouvrage sera censuri d'lme mamhe sivere par k 
critiques — not des criHques. 



Rule 130. — Verbs 

1. The twenty-two 
dative : 

S'abandonner, 

s*accoutumer, 

s'adonner, 

s'amuser, 

s'appliquer, 

s*appr^ter, 

s'arr^ter, 

s*attacher, 

s'adresser, 

se determiner, 

se disposer, 

s'endurcir, 

s'engager, 

s'exposer, 

se fier, 

s'habituer, 

s'obstiner, 

s'occuper, 

s'opiniatrer, 

s'opposer, 

se plaire, 

se preparer, 



which govern the Daiwe in F'rendk 
following reflected verbs govern tfa 

to abandon one's self, 

to accustom one's se^ 

to addict one's w^ 

to amuse one^s s^. 

to apply one^s sdf. 

to dispose one's seJf* 

to stop. 

to stick to* 

to apply one's self. 

to resolve upon. 

to prepare one's self. 

to inure on£s self. 

to engage. 

to expose ones self. 

to trust 

to accustom one's se^. 

to be determined. 

to employ one's self. 

to be determined. 

to oppose one's self. 

to toke delight in. 

to prepare ones self. 



SYNTAX OP THE GOVERNMEKT OF VERBS. 



199 



aitir, 


to consent. 


penser, 


jvenir, 


to infringe. 


plaire, 


buer, 


to contribute. 


rem^dier, 


re, 


to displease. 


ressembler, 


§ir, 


to disobey. 


r^sister, 




to hurt. 


songer, 




to obey. 


subvenir, 


» 

> 


to obviate. 


succider, 


nner, 


to forgive. 


survivre, 


lir, 


to attain. 





Examples : 

custom yourself to study ; Accoutumez-vous k Vitvde. 
pply myself to mathematics ; 
nth applique aux math6matiques. 
not stop in London ; Ne vous arritez pas a Londres. 

e following verbs govern the dative in French, what- 
jase they govern in English : , 

to think of 
to please, 
to remedy, 
to resemble, 
to resist, 
to think of 
to relieve, 
to succeed, 
to outlive. 



Examples : 

splease one's master, DSplaire k son maitre, 
it disobey your parents, Ne ddsobiissezpas k vosparens. 
ive my enemies, Jepardonne k mes ennemis^ 

eases every body, II plait a toiU le monde. 

k of your business, Jepense a voire affaire. 

The following — applatidir, to applaud ; insulter, to 

; persuader, .to persuade ; renoncer, to renounce ; 

to dream ; travaiUer, to work, sometimes govern 

^cusative case, but most frequently the dative. Thus 

y- 

ACC. DAT. 

u insult every body ; You insult my misfortune ; 
us insuUez tout le monde, Vous insuUez a ma misere. 

131. — Verbs which govern the Accusative in French. 

verbs which may be used in the passive voice govern 
ccusative in French. For instance, aimer, estimer, 
, recompenser, &c. govern the accusative, because we 
ly, il est aimiy il est estimd, il estpuni, &c. 

K 4* 



200 



SYNTAX OF THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS* 



By the same rule, the following verbs •— 



Abattre, 

accepter, 

admirer, 

approuver, 

attendre, 

chercher, 

critiquer, 

d^clurer, 

demander, 

d^noncer, 



to puU dawn, d6raciner, 
to mccept of, ^poudrer, 
to wonder at examiner, 
to approfse of, huer. 



to wait for, 
to look for, 
tocavuat 
to tear off, 
to ask for, 
to inform 



mjurier, 
juger, 
lorgner, 
paraphraser, 

regarder. 



torooiout 

to W^K offi 

toexammemb* 
tohootat 
toraUoL 
to judge €f. 
to heron, 
to comment 

tqxm, 
to lookaL 



against. 

And some others, which are attended by a prepositioi 
in English, govern the accusative in French, because thcf 
may be used in the passive. We can say, for instance : 

Your offer has been accepted ; Votre offre a itdaeeqatk 
This tree has been pulled down ; Cet arore a M dbattnk 

Your conduct has been approved; 
Votre conduite a itd approuvie. 

And so on with the rest. 

Rule 132. — Verbs which govern the Accusative and 

Genitive Cases, 

When the following verbs govern two nouns or pro- 
nouns, not joined by a conjunction, the first is put in the 
accusative, and the second in the genitive case in Frendi: 

Absoudre, to absolve, d6toumer, to divert 



accabler. 


to overwhein 


accepter. 


to accept. 


accuser. 


to accuse. 


avertir. 


to warn. 


bannir. 


to banish. 


bltoer. 


to blame. 


chasser. 


to expel. 


combler. 


to Jill up. 


corriger. 


to correct. 


d6busquer. 


to drive out 


d^go^ter, • 


to disgust. 


d61ivrer. 


to free. 



dissuader. 


to dissuade. 


emplir. 


toJUL 


exclure. 


to exclude. 


expulser. 


totumout 


informer. 


to inform. 


louer. 


to praise. 


menacer. 


to threaten. 


obtenir. 


to obtain. 


recevoir, 


to receive. 


priver. 


to dqjmve. 


soup9onner, 


to suspect. 



RYNTAX OF THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 



201. 



Examples : 

To load an enemy with injuries ; 

Aecabler un ennemi d*injures. 

To accept the offers of a friend ; 

Accepter ies offres d'un ami. 

To fill a bottle with wine ; Emplir une bouUeiUe de vin. 

To blame one's conduct; Bldmer la condmte de qvelqvun. 

To exclude a liar from society ; 

Exclure un memteur de la societi* 

RuLB 133. — Verbs which govern the Accusative and the 

Dative. 

When the following verbs govern two nouns or pro- 
nouns, that which has reference to. persons is to be put in 
the dative in French, and the other in the accusative. If 
they have both reference to persons, tliat before which the 
preposition to is or could be prefixed is put in the dative, 
ana the other in the accusative. No verb governs two 
.accusative cases in French : 



Accorder, 

adresser, 

annoncer, 

apporter, 

attribuer, 

anrouer, 



to grant, 
to direct, 
to announce, 
to bring, 
to attribute, 
to oum. 



expliquer, 

oter, 

pardonner, 

pr6dire, 

pr6f(§rer, 

prendre, 



oommuniquer, to communicatepr^senter, 



confesser, 

confier, 

conseiller, 

dearer, 

dMier, 

demander, 

devoir, 

dire, 

donner, 

6crire, 

enseigner, 

envoyer, 

^pargner. 



to confess, 
to trust, 
to advise, 
to declare, 
to dedicate, 
to ash. 
to owe. 
toteU. 
to give, 
to write, 
to teach, 
to send, 
to spare. 



prater, 

procurer^ 

promettre, 

raconter, 

rapporter, 

refuser, 

rendre, 

renvoyer, 

r6p§ter, 

reprocher, 

r^pondre, 

r^v^ler, 

vendre, 



to explain, 
to take away, 
to forgive, 
toforetel. 
to prefer, 
to take, 
to present 
to lend, 
to procure, 
to promise, ^ 
to relate, 
to bring back. 
to refuse, 
to return, 
to send back, 
to repeat, 
to reproach, 
to answer, 
to revel, 
to selL 



K 5 



202 SYNTAX OF THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS* 

Examples : 

Grant him that favour ; Accordez4m ceUe prdee. 

Tell me the truth ; DUes-^moi la vMtL 

To beg the master's leave ; 

Ikmander permission au maiJtre* 

To reproach one with a fault ; 

Bepricher ttnefaute a qudqdun* 

OBSERVATIONS. 

JofWT governs the genitive, when it signifies to play on 
some musical instrument ; and the dative when it sigmfies 
to play at some game. Examples : 

You play well <5n the violin, but you do not play weU at 

cards; 
Vousjouez hien du vidon, gen. — mais vous nejouezpat 

him aux cartes — dat. 

Some verbs are followed in French by a preposition dif- 
ferent from that used in English : such are, 

• 

To ^it at one ; Cracker sur qudqu^un. 
To £ure at the enemy ; Fairefeu sur VennemL 
To intermeddle with other people's business ; 
S*ing6r€r dans les affaires des autres. 
To struggle vnth death ; Lutter contre la morL 
To shoot at a hare; JHrer sur tin liivre: and some 
others. 

A verb in French cannot govern two objects, as in 
many English phrases. For instance : 

I have heard your father repeat the same truth : in 
French, your father must be rendered by a M. votrepcre. 

Most verbs' which govern the genitive or ablative in 
Latin, govern the genitive in French ; and most of those 
which govern the accusative or dative in Latin, require 
the same case in French. This observation will be of 
great use to those who have learnt Latin. 



SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD» 203 

CHAP. XIV. 

OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 

As there are three forms in the infinitive mood| called 
jpresefUy gerund^ and participle^ this chapter is naturally 
divided into three sections : the first describes the circum- 
stances in which a verb is used in the infinitive mood, 
without being preceded by any preposition; it explains 
also the cases in which it is preceded by de^ by a, or by 
pour: the second teaches that a gerund is always indeclina- 
ble in French, and furnishes an easy method to distinguish 
it from a verbal adjective, which is always declinable : the 
third establishes two general rules, which explain when a 
participle is declinable or indeclinable. 



SECTION THE FIRST. 
Of the Infinitive Present. 

The infinitive present is sometimes used in French 
without any preposition before it ; it is sometimes preceded 
by dey sometimes by ^, and sometimes by poury according 
to the following rules : 

Rule 134. — Infinitive without Proposition, 

A verb in the infinitive present has no preposition 
before it. 

1. When it is substantively used, and is the nominative 
case of another verb. Examples : 

To speak too much is dangerous ; 

Trop parler est dangereux. 

To relieve the poor is a praiseworthy action ; 

Secourir les pauvres est una action digne de Umange. 

2. When it is governed in the infinitive by any of the 
following verbs : 

K 6 



204. 



fiYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 



AUer, 
croire, 
daigner, 
declarer, 
devoir, 
entendre, 
envoyer, 
esp6rer, 
faillir, 
faire, 
• falloir, 
laisser. 



to go. 


nfer, 


to deny. 


to believe. 


oser. 


to dare. 


to deign. 


paraitre, 


to appear. 


to declare, 
to owe. 


pr^tendre, 
pouvoir, 


tomnetend. 
to oe able. 


to hear. 


savoir. 


to know. 


to send. 


sembler. 


tocppear. 


to hope. 


souhaiter. 


to wish. 


to miss. 


soutenir, 


to nudntam. 


to do. 


venir, 


to come. 


to be requisite, 


. voir. 


to see. 


to let. 


vouloir, 


tobewiUuiff. 


EXAMPLES : 





Go and see your friend ; AUez voir votre (rmi. 
Do you believe you are in the right ? 
Croyez-vous avoir raisonf 
D^ign to answer me ; Daignez me repondre. 
I will cause your orders to be executed ; 
Jeferai ex§cuter vos ordres. 

And so on with tlie rest. 

Note. — The \erb faire is used for to do, to mahcy to caun 

and to oblige; in all cases it is immediately followed, i 

French, by the next verb in the infinitive, which it govern 

without a preposition. Examples : jeferai batir une nudso9 

je vofisferai faire votre thime. 

Rule 135. — Infinitive toith de. 

We place the preposition de before a verb in the i* 
jfinitive mood. 

1. Afler a substantive which governs a verb so as to b 
a necessary part of the affirmation. Examples : 

It is time to set out ; II est temps de partir. ] 
You have no cause to be angry with me ; 
Votis rCavezpas sujet di'itrefdche centre moL 



SYNTAX Of THE INFINITIVE MOOD* 205 

2. The English preposition for^ with a gerund afler a 
substantiye^ is generally expressed by de with the infinitive. 
Example : 

I am obliged to yoMfor having succeeded ; 
Je V0U8 sais ban pri di avoir riussi. 

3. After an adjective, whenever, by inverting the sen- 
tence, the clause containing the infinitive might be made 
the leading term of an assertion expressed hy is to be; 
and likewise after capable^ able, incapabley unable, digncy 
worthy, indigncy imworthy, and perhaps a few others. 
Examples : 

You are very clever to have succeeded so well ; 
Vous ites tris-adroU ^ avoir si Men riussi. 

We may say : to have succeeded so well is to be very 
clever ; avoir si bien riussi^ c*est ^tre tres-adroit 

He is worthy of being preferred to that employment ; 
H est diff^ aitre prifiripour cet emphL 

4. After any adjective preceded by the impersonal verbs 
ii estf it is, il semble, it seems, il paraity it appears, and 
after several impersonal verbs which could be expressed 
by il esty with the adjectives derived from them, as, il con- 
inenty U importSy il soffit, for il est convenabUy il est im- 
poftanty il est sttffisant. Examples : 

It will be enough to speak to him ; 

Jl stijffira de luiparler. 

It is dangerous to trust every body ; 

// est dangereux de sejier a tout le numde. 

5. Most commonly when it is governed by any other 
reflected verbs than those mentioned in rule 130. Ex- 
amples : 

I am sorry I spoke of it, since that displeases you ; 
Je me repens d en avoir parUy puisque cela votis deplait. 
He has a mind to go and see you to-morrow evening ; 
// se propose dialler vous voir demain an soir. 



206 



SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVB MOOD. 



6. When it (viz. the infinitive) is immediately preceded 
by any of the following verbs : 

to thretOeiu 
todeserve. 
ionegkct 
to offer, 
toomit, 
to order, 
to forget, 
to speak, 
to permit, 
to persuade, 
to pity, 
to prescribe, 
to urge, 
to pray, 
to promise, 
to propose 
to refuse, 
to thank, 
to resolve, 
to swmmtm, 
to suspect, 
to beg. 



Accuser, 


to accuse. 


menacer, 


affecter. 


to effect. 


m6riter, 


avertir. 


to advise. 


n§gliger. 


blamer, 


to blame. 


ofitrir, 


cesser, 


to cease. 


omettre, 


commander, 


tocammuxnd. 


ordonner, 


conjurer. 


to intreat 


oublier, 


conseillef. 


to advise. 


parler, 


craindre. 


to fear. 


permettre, 


defendre, 


to forbid. 


persuader. 


d§toumer, . 


' to deter. 


plaindre. 


diffi§rer, 


to differ, 
totelL 


pr6scrire. 


dire. 


presser, 


dispenser, 


to excuse. 


prier, 


dissuader. 


to dissfiode. 


promettre, 


§crire. 


to unite. 


proposer. 


emp^cher, 


to hinder. 


refuser, 


enjoindre. 


to enjoin. 


remercier, 


entreprendre, 


to undertake. 


r^soudre, 


essayer, 


to try. 


sommer, 


feindre, 


tofeign. 


soup^onner 


finir, 


tojinish. 


supplier, 



EXAMPLES : 



He does not cease complaining ; H ne cesse de se plaindre, 
I advise you to stay here ; Je vous conseiUe de rester icL 
I beg of you to forgive him ; Je vousprie de lui pardonner. 



Rule 136. — Infinitive with a. 

We place the preposition d before a verb in the infinitive 
mood. 

1. Afler a substantive^ when to express something to be 
done. Examples : 

I have no time to lose ; Je nai point de temps a perdre 
I know a house to be sold ; Je connais une maison k vendre. 



SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD< 



207 



2. After a substantive, when the following verb is or 
ay be expressed by in with the participle. Example : 

I have great pleasure in seeing y&u. 

J*ai beaucoup de plaisir k vans voir — en vous voyant. 

3. After any adjectives which take a verb in the infini- 
ve to complete tlie sense ; though to is rendered by de 
'hen the infinitive is alleged as a reason for using the 
djective. Examples : 

I am ready to go out ; This fruit is good to eat ; 
Je suis prit k partir, Cefruii est bon k manger. 

But we ought to say : I am glad to see you ; Je suis case 
e votis voir, as the sentence means : I am glad because I 
Be you. 

4. Tlie following verbs also govern the infinitive with a : 
Lccoutumer, to accustom, employer, to employ* 



dmettre, 


to admit 


encourager, 


to encourage. 


Ider, 


to help* 


engager. 


to engage. 


imer. 


to like. 


exhorter, 


to exhort 


pprendre, 


to learn. 


inviter, 


to invite. 


itoriser, 


to authorise. 


penser, 


to think of. 


)ndamner, 


to condemn. 


persister, 


to persist in. 


liercher, 


to endeavour. 


porter, 


to induce to. 


3n8ister, 


to consist. 


pousser, 


to excite to. 


isposer, 


to dispose to. 


rosier, 


to stay. 


onner 


to give. 


travailler, 


to work. 




And jsome others. 






EXAMPLE : 





I learn to dance ; I like to sing, &c. 
tPapprernds ^ danser ; Taime a chanter^ &c. 

< 

5. The reflected verbs, s'abandonner^ s'aecoutumer^ s^adon- 
sr, and others mentioned before (rule 130), govern the 
ifinitive with the preposition a. Example : 

Prepare yourself to answer me ; 
. DiqwseZ'Vous k me ripondre. 



208 SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Rule 137* — Infimixoe wiih dear i. 

The verb fnanquer usually governs the infinitive with (fe 
when it is negatively used, and with d when aflirmativdj. 
Example : 

I will not fail to punish you, if you neglect to do your 

exercise ; 
Je ne tnanquerm pas de vaus punir, si vous numquez a 

faire voire thime. 

Tdcher governs the infinitive with de when it means is 
endeavour^ and with a when it means to aim at Examples: 

I will endeavour to satisfy you ; 
Je tdcherai de voits satirfaire. 
He aims at doing me a prejudice ; 
Htdche k me porter prijudice. 

Tarder governs the infinitive with de^ when it is imper- 
sonal, and with a when it signifies to dday. Example : 

I long to see your brother, he delays a long time A? come ; 
U me tarde de voir votrefrhrey il tarde bien a venir» 

Venir governs the infinitive without a preposition* when 
it signifies to come ; it governs the infinitive with de when 
it is to express a thing jv^t happened; and with d when it 
signifies to happen. Examples : 

Come and see me to-morrow ; Venez me voir demairu 
My father is just gone out ; Monpere vient desortir. 
If it happens to rain, you will be wet ; 
S*il vient sLpkuvoir, votes serez mouille. 

The following: commencer, continuer, 'coniraindreyjoner, 
seffoTceTy and ohliger, govern the infinitive with de rather 
than a, when the expression is not vague as to the appli- 
cation or action of the infinitive. 

Rule 138. — Infinitive toith pour. 

We use in French the preposition pour before an in- 
finitive, to express the end, the design, or the cause for 



SYNTAX OP THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 209 

which a thing is done ; and, in general,* every time the 
preposition to could be changed into in order to, without 
altering the sense of it. Examples : 

I am come to see you ; Je suis venu pour vaus voir. 

I will do every thing to oblige you ; 

JTeferai tout pour vous obliger. 

Men are bom to live in society ; 

Les hommes sont nis pour vivre en sociiti. 

The preposition pour is also used afler the words assezy 
enough ; tropi too much ; suffire^ and etre suffiscmt^ to be 
sufficient. Example : 

^vti are tall enough to be a soldier, but you are too 
' great a coward to enlist ; 

V6u8 ites assez grand pour 4tre soldat, nuns vaus ites trop 
Idche pour vous engager. 

% 

Note. — When, after a verb, the preposition for conies 
before a gerund, it is expressed in French by pour^ with 
the infinitive present, if the verb has reference to a present 
or future time, ar d with the compound of the present, if it 
refers to a past time. Examples : 

How much do you ask for making me a suit of clothes ? 
Camhien me demandez-vous pour mefaire un habit f 
He was hanged for robbing ; Hfutpendu pour a/voir vole. 

Rule 139. — Infinitive instead of the Gerund. 

We hever put a gerund in French after any othe/ pre- 
position than en. But we put the present of the infinitive 
after the preposition de^ a, par^ apres^ pour^ sans, and every 
otiier. Examples: 

One cannot speak against the truth witJumt being guilty ;. 
On ne peut trahir la virite sans se rendre coupable. 
1 must begin bg saying my lessons ; 
Jlfaut queje commence par reciter mes legons. 



inese names express uinereni: lunciions or i 
words ending in anti derived from verbs: the 
rule teaches how to distinguish them invariably. 

Rule 140. — The Gerund is always indeclinable 

A word ending in English in 972^, and in ant 
is an adjective when it precedes the substantive : 
and a gerund when it comes after: in the fii 
agrees in French with the substantive to which it 
it is always indeclinable in the second. Exampl 

^ r An obliging lady ; Une dame obligear 

g I A convincing proof; Une preuve convai 

'*§ I Bleating sheep ; Des brebis belantei 

(^ I. Surprismg effects ; Des effets surprens 

A lady obliging her friends ; 
Une dame obligeant ses amis — not obligea 
A proof convincing every body ; 
Une preuve convain quant taut le monde- 
convainc. 

It will be observed, from the preceding examp 
word ending in anty in French, is an adjectiv* 
qualifies the substantive to which it is joined, anc 
(from gero ; whence vice-gerent) when it rules or 




SYNTAX OF THE GERUND. 211 

de luiy in mourrcaJt de sa maladie — not attx midecins 
se tenant. 

The poets contain exceptions to this rule, as this yerse 
of Delille : 

Vois ces groupes d'enfants se 
Jowmt sous Tombrage. 

Rule 142. — by expressed hy en. 

An English participle, preceded by the preposition hy^ is 
most commonly rendered in French by the gerund with 
en. Examples : 

We have obtained peace hy making great sacrifices ; 
Nous avons obtenu iapaix en faisant de grands sacrifices. 
More glory is acquired hy defending tiian by accusing 

one's fellow-citizens ; 
On acquiert pltis de gloire en defendant ses concitoyens 

quen les accusant. 

■ Nbie 1. — An English participle preceded by the preposi- 
tions qfyfroniy without^ after^far^ &c, is rendered in French 
by the infinitive, with de, a, pour, or sans (as we have seen> 
before, rule 139), and not by the gerund. 

Note 2.—- rAn English participle, preceded by tlie verb to 
bCf is expressed in Frencn by the indicative of the principal 
y&b only. Examples : 

I am speaking ; Je parte. I was dancing ; Je dansais. 
What are you doing here ? Quefaites-votis id 9 

Note 3. — An English participle, preceded by the definite 
article thcy is rendered by a substantive in French. Ex 
ample : 

The learning of languages is difficult; 
Vitude des kmgties est difficile. 

The word in ant is invariable so long as it represents a 
transient action or state ; otherwise employed, it becomes 
an adjective, and assumes liie marks of number and gender 
peculiar to its noun. Examples : 



212 8TXTAX OF THE PARTICIPLE. 

The wound still bleeding, she fainted ; 
La plaie mgnead encorty die sevancuit* 
He showed his wound, still bleeding ; 
n numtm mi plak enan^ ioignanie. 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
OfdiePartic^. 

Rule 143 Whm the Partie^ is decUnabk m Frmk 

A participle b always declinable in French^ and rout 
agree, in gender and number, with the word to which it 
relates, as an adjective. 

1. When it is employed as an adjective* 'R'gawiplff : 

A book well written ; A letter well written ; 
Un Uvre hien 6crit« Una lettre hkn torite. 

2. After the verbs itrcy to be (when not preceded by a 
conjunctive pronoun),/xiralM, to appear, imblery to seenii 
<woir Vaivy to look. Examples : 

My brother is tired ; Monfrere est fatigu^ 

My sister is tired ; Ma scBur est fatiguee. 

Your father appears afflicted; Voire p^paraU afflk^. 

Your mother appears afflicted ; Voire mire paraU afflig^ 

That tragedy seems well written ; 

Ceite tragidie me sembU hien ^crite. 

Your daughter appears greatly afflicted ; 

Voire fiUe a Voir ^re«-afflig6e. 

3. In the compound tenses of reflected verbs, when iin 
takes the place of avoiry Uie participle agrees in gender 
and number with the conjunctive pronoun that precedes 
the auxiliary, if it is in the accusative, and not otherwise. 
So we must say, 

She has wounded herself ; eUe iest bless6e ; 
Because 5e is in the accusative : but we should say, 

She lias wounded her foot ; eUe iest blesse lepied; 
Because ^ is in the dative, and stands for d elle^mime. 



SYNTAX OF THE PARTICIPLE. 213 

4. In compound tenses with avoir and itrey when the 
accusative, governed \x^ thaJttense^ goes before the auxiliary, 
the participle agrees with it in gender and number. Ex- 
amples : 

The land which I have iold is good and fruitful ; 
La terre que fat vendue est bonne et/erHle. 
The books I have bought are new ; 
Les livres que J*cu achet^s sont netifs* 
The rules which I have explained are difficult ; 
Les regies que j*ai expliqu^es sont difficiles. 
What aflPau: have you undertaken f 
QueUe qffmre avez-vous entreprise ? 

When the accusative, governed by the compound tense, 
is a conjunctive pronoun, or que^ the gender and number 
of the participle are determined by those of the noun that 
will answer to the question, what f put immediately after 
the participle. So m the foregoing examples: 

Sold — what? La terre — fem. singular. 
Bought — what ? Les Uvres — masc plur . 
Undertaken — what? Affaire — fem. sing. 

Rule 14*4. — When the Participle is indeclinable. 

The participle after the auxiliary is invariable when the 
accusative follows the compound tense; when the verb 
18 impersonal, or in its nature takes no accusative case. 
Examples : 

He has studied; She has sung; They have spoken to her; 

H a ^tudi^. JSUe a chants. JSUes lui ant parl6. 

We met some ladies ; 

Nous avans rencontr^ des dames. 

There arose a dispute ; 

JR s*est ^lev6 une dispute. 

The four years that the war has lasted; 

Les quatre annies que la guerre a dur^. 

An accusative may precede the compound tense and 
not be governed by it| but by another verb in the infinitive. 
Examples : 



214 SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 

The house which I have advised you to buy is a new one, 
La maison qtieje vous ax conseill6 d^acheter est neuve. 
The rules which I have b^tm to explain are easy ; 
Les riffles qtiefai commenc6 a eapUquer sontfaciks. 

If we say, as before directed, in order to ascertain the 
agreement of the participles, 

Advised — what ? begun — what ? 

The answer, to buy', to explain, will show that the participle 
is indeclinable. Again : 

These melons are better than I should have thought: 

If we say, thought — what ? T^at they* ufere, is the 
answer ; and shows that we must leave cru unchanged: 

Ces melons sont meilleurs queje ne Vawrais cru. 

N. B. The verbs faire and Imsser^ followed by an infini- 
tive, form with it a sort of compound verb, and the 
participle is indeclinable. Examples : 

That woman whom you have put to death ; 
Cettefemme qwe vous aves^ fait mourir. 
The opportunity which you have suffered to escape ; 
L 'occasion que vous avez laiss^ 6chapper. 



CONCORD OF THE VERB WITH ITS NOMINATIVB. 

Rule 14?5. — 7%€ Verb agrees with its NomiTuOice. 

All the personal verbs agree in number and person witb 
their nominative case. Examples : 

I give ; Je donne. We give ; Nous dannonSf &c. 
My father is dead ; My brothers are dead ; 
Mon pere est mart, Mesfreres sont marts, 

A verb is put in the third person plural, in both lan- 
guages, when it is preceded or followed by more than one 
noun singular in the nominative case, and agrees with the 
pronoun they imderstood. Examples : 

Homw: and Virgil are the princes 'of poets; 
Homere et Vtrgile sont les princes des poetes. 



SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 215 

The paper and ink are good for nothing ; 

£^ papier et VeTicre ne valent rien. 

The distress in which a family, six children, and a mul- 
titude of affairs involved him. 

Uaccablemeat ou le mettaient unefamtUe, six enfans, urn*, 
rmdtitude des affaires* * 

Rule 146. — 77ie Verb with Nominatives of different 

Persons. 

When a verb has several nominative cases of different 
persons, it is put in the plural, and agrees with the first in 
preference to the other two, and with the second in pre- 
ference to the third, and then it is preceded by notiSf if it 
!>e in the first person, and by vous, if in the second. Ex- 
unples : 

My brother and I will go to-night to the play ; 
Mmifrere et moi, nous aliens ce soir a la comedie. 
You and your sister will stay at home ; 
Vous et voire sceury vous resterez a la maison. 

RiJLE 147. — The Verb when preceded by qui, S^c. 

The pronoim qui requires the verb following in the same 
number and person as the substantive or pronoun antece- 
dent. Examples: 

It is I who have seen him ; C^est moi qui Z'ai vu. 

It is he who has done it ; ' (Test lui qui Wfait 

It is you who have spoken of it ; Cest vous qui en SLvezparl^, 

It is they who have taken it ; Ce sont eux qui /'ont pris. 



SOME USEFUL OBSERVATIONS. 

1. When the English address God, they put the pronoun 
and verb in the singular ; the French, on the contrary, have 
them in tb^ second person plural, in prose. . Example ; 

Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name, &c. 
Notre Pere qui ^tes aux deux, votre nam soit sanctifie, <^c* 

Not Ndh^ Phre qui es aux deux, ton nom soU sanctifiiy as wg find 
in some prayer-books printed in England. 



t!J16 SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 

• 

2. The pronouns and verbs are usually put in the second 
person plural in both languages, when we speak to one 
person ; but if an adjective follows, it remains in the 
singular. Example . 

Sir, you are very obliging ; 
Monsieur f vads ites tres^hligeanU 

S. The third person is elegantly used instead of tbe 
second, when we speak to persons for whom we have some 
consideration. Example : 

Madam, will you come to the park ? 

Madame^ veut-elle venir au pare f — for voulez^wms, ftc. 

4. The second person singular is oflen used in French 
between intimate friends, and also between brothers and 
sisters, husband and wife, &c. : as, viens-tct, man Jrirtt 
come here, brother — for venez-ici, 

5. Poets and orators use the second person singuhr 
when they address God, heroes, or sovereigns, as in the 
following sonnet of Desbarreaux : 

Grand Dieu ! tes jugemens sont remplis d*^quit£ : 
Toujours tu prends plaisir k nous ^tre propice ; 
Mais j'ai tant fait mal, que jamais ta bont6 
Ne me pardonnera, qu*en blessant to justice* 

Qui, Seigneur, la grandeur de mon impi6t6 

Ne laisse a tan pouvoir que le choix du supplice; 

Ton int^ret s*oppose k ma f^licit^, 

£t ta clemence m^me attend que je p6risse* 

Contente ton d^sir, puisqu'il ^*est glorieux ; 
Offense-tot des pleurs qui coulent de mes yeux : 
Tonneyfrfxppe^ it est temps, rends^xaox guerre pour guem 

•Tadore en p6rissant la roison qui ^'aigrit : 
Mais dessus quel endroit tombera Um tonnerre. 
Qui ne soit tout couvert du sang de J^sus-Christ? 



SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOO. 217 

CHAP/XV. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Rule HS. — When the Present oftiie Indicative is tised. 

The present of the indicative — asyjeparle, I speak ; je 
pais, I do ; Je regois, I receive, &c. is used in French, 

1. To express a thing which is present at the time we 
are speaking. Exainples : 

It TViVCiSysil pletU, I am sick, Je suis nudade. 

2. To express a thing which we do habitually, though 
not at the moment in which we are speaking. Examples : 

I learn French ; Tapprends le Francois, 

You go often to the play ; 

Votes allez souvent a la comddie. ,/» 

9. To express an eternal truth. Examples : 

God is merciful ; Dieu est misiricordietLX. 
Men are mortal ; Les hommes sont mortels, 

4. To express in a more lively and emphatical manner a 
thing that happened in a time quite past Example : 

I have seen your son dragged by his horses ; he called 
to them to stop ; his cries frightened them ; they 
ran on, till his body was but one wound ; 

J*ai vu votre fls entrain^ par ses chevaux, il veut les 
rappder ; sa voix les efifraie, ils courent, tout son corps 
nest qu'une plaie. 

5. To express a future time at no great distance, when 
some other word in the sentence denotes futurity. Ex- 
^ples : 

I shall set out to-night for London ; 

Je pars ce soirpour Londres — for^c partirai. 

I shall be ready in a moment ; 

Je suis pret dans un moment. 

Rule 149. — TVhen the Imperfect of (Jit Indicative is used, 

• The imperfect of the indicative — as,^^ parlaisyje recevaiSf 
&c. is used in French, 



218 SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 

1. To express a present with respect to something pest, 
and then it exactly answers to the English expressioD, I 
toas going. Examples : 

I was writing you a letter when I received yours ; 
Je vaus 6crivais une lettre^ qwmdje re^us la vdtre. 
We were dining when we learnt that sad news ; 
Nous dinions, qwmd nous appHmes cette fdcheust mm- 
veRe. 

2. To express something past, but habitual, during a 
time not specified, and then it answers to the English efr 
pression, / used to do. Examples : 

Tlie Romans cultivated the arts, encouraged sdenoei) 

and rewarded merit ; 
Les Romains cultivaient les aartSy encourageaient Im 

sciences^ et recompensaient U mMte. 
Our ancestors went a hunting every day, and lived xofn, 

game; 
Nos andtres allaient Urns les jours d la chasst^ d m 

vivaient qtie de gibier, 
Caesar was a great general ; 
Cesar 6tait un grand gdneraL 
Cicero was a great orator ; 
Ciceron etait un grand oraieur. 
Lewis the sixteenth was a good king ; 
Ijouis seize ^tait un hon roi. 

Rule 150. — When the Preterite of the Indicadve is taei 

Thd pieterit.e of the indicative — as,jeparlaiy I spoke; 
je Jisy I did ; je regus, I received, &c. is iised in Frencli» to 
express a particular fact or event which has happened bat 
once, or very seldom, and in a time quite past, and at the 
di&tance of at least a day. Examples : 

The Romans expelled Tarquin from Rome • 

Les Romains chassdrent Tarquin de Rome. 

Caesar was killed in the senate ; 

Cisar fut ttii dans le senat. 

Cicero had his head cut off; 

CicSron eut la tete tranche 

I went yesterday to see your father ; 

J*al]ai hier voir voire pere. 



8YKTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. .219 

USEFUL OBSERVATIONS. 

From the three preceding rules it appears, that a verb 
which is in the preterite in English, may sometimes be 
put in three different tenses in French. 

1. In the imperfect, when it expresses a thing habitual, 
or which was present when another thing happened. Ex- 
amples : 

When I was in the country, I walked often ; 
Qucmdj'itais a la campagneyje me promenais souvent, 
I was sick when you came : 
f^tais mcdade quand voUs ites venu, 

2. In the preterite when it denotes a particular fact, 
vhich happened at a time quite past A period of time 
B past when the pronouns this or our could not be pre- 
hed to it. Examples : 

I walked yesterday ; Je me promenai hier. 

I was sick last week ; Je fus malade la semaine demiere. 

3. In the compound of the present, when the period spe- 
Nfied is not quite past. Examples : 

r walked this morning for two hours ; 

Je me suis promen6 ce matin pendant deux heures. 

I was very sick this week ; 

J'ai 6t6 men malade cette semaine. 

Observe. I have repeated the same examples, to render 
nore obvious the distinction between the imperfect, the 
veterite, and the compound of the present. 

luLB 151. — When the Ftiture and the Conditional are 

used. 

The future — as, je parlerat, je ferai, je recevrai, &c., 
) used in French as ia English, to express a future time. 
Ixample : 

Our bodies will rise again in the day of judgment ; 
Nos corps ressusciteront aujour dujugemenL 

The English often use the present tense, or the com- 
ound of the present, after die conjunctions, when, as soon 

L 2 



1220 SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 

as, or qftery when they want to express a thing to come: 
the future, however, must always be used in French in* 
stead of the present, and the compound of the fbtme 
instead of the compound of the present. Examples: 

When I am in the country, will you come to see me? 

Quandje serai a la campagne, vatdez-vous venir mewrJ 
You will play, when you have finished your exerdie; 

Votisjouerez, qwmd vans aurez^m voire ihSme. 

The conditional tense — aSyJeparleraiSf I would fspak; 

je ferais, I would do ; Je recevrazs, I would receive^ fc 

which some grammarians improperly call the imperfsct 

of the subjunctive, is used in French as in EnffS^to 

express a conditional sentence. Examples : 

We should be happy, if we knew how to fix our denro; 
Notts serions keuretix, si nous savionsjixer nos dUm, 
Though you should be rich, yet you would not be mon 

happy ; 
Qicand vous seriez riche vous ne seriez pas plus luuntL 

Rule 152. — No Future nor Conditional c^ier sL 

When the conjunction si signifies whether^ the fbtare 
and conditional are used after it in French as in £n|^ 
Examples : 

I do not know if (or whether^ it will be good weather to- 
morrow ; 

Je ne sais sil fera heau temps demain. 

I do not know if (or whether) my brother would conMi 
should I desire him ; 

Je ne sais si nionfrere viendrait, sije Ven priais. 

But when the conjunction si signifies suppose that, tbe 
English future must be rendered in French by the pre- 
sent, and the conditional by the imperfect. Examples: 

You will become a learned man, if you toill simfy well; 
Vous deviendrez savant, si vous 6tudiez bien — not d 

vous itudierez. 
I should become rich, if I uxmld continue my trade ; 
Je deviendrais riche, sije continuais mon commerce '^'os^ 

sije continuerais. 



SYNTAX OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 221 

ivLE 153. — When the Compound of the Present is used. 

The compound of the present — as, j'ai parUy I have 
M)ken ; J'aifaUy I have done ; fed regu^ I have received, 
&, is used in French to express a thing past, in a period 
Hi yet elapsed, or at a time which is not specified. A 
ariod is not elapsed when the pronoun this or owr is, or 
Nild be, prefixed to the words age, year, monthy week, or 
y, mentioned in the sentence. Examples : 

Our age has produced great men ; 

Notre Steele a produit de grcmds hommes — not produisity 

nor produisait. 
We had much company this winter ; 
Nous avons eu beaucoup de compagnie cet hirer — not 

nous eumes, 

tuLE 154» — When the other Compound Tenses are used. 

The compound of the imperfect — asyfavaisparli,favais 
tiiyfavais repw, &c., is used in French to express a thing 
one before another, which is also past: but it is em- 
foved when the previous action was habitual, or when 
ttning points out the approximation of the two actions. 
Example: 

Hie king had named an admiral, when he heard of you ; 
Le Roi avait nomm^ un amircU, quAnd on lui porta de 
vous. 

The compound of the preterite — sls, feus parli, feus fait, 
Wt refUy &c., is also used to express a thing done before 
'tother : but, like the preterite, it can be employed only 
^ a time entirely elapsed ; and besides, it points out the 
iproximation of the two actions, and for this reason it is 
oet commonly used after the conjunctions, quand, des que, 
fssitdt que, ctpres que. Example : 

As soon as the f^arliament was assembled, the riot ceased ; 
JDis que lepariement se fut assemble, rimeute eesaa. 

The compound of the future and conditional are gene- 
Uy used in French as in English, and as they ofier no 
mcultj, they require no explanation, 

L 3 



222 SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOODb 

CHAP. XVL 

OF THE USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

This chapter is divided into three sections : the frtt 
enumerates the adjectives, pronouns, verbs, and coDJunO' 
tions, which always govern the subjunctive mood: tk 
second treats of the verbs and conjunctions which gofcn 
the following verb, sometimes in the indicative, and 80M> 
times in the subjunctive, and points out in what drcm* 
stances each mood must be used: the ihird esphni 
when the verbs, governed in the subjunctive^ must be used 
in the present, when in the preterite, and when in the 
compound tenses. 



a 



SECTION THE FIRST. 
Words which always govern the Subjunethe Mood. 

Rule 155 Tlie Subjunctive is used after a SuperhAet. 

A verb preceded by qui or que is put in the subjunctiTe, 

1. Afler a superlative, as we have said before. Rule 43. 
Examples : 

The best guard a king can have, is the heart of his 

subjects ; 
La meiUeure garde qu*un roi puisse avoir, c^esi le coBur di 

ses sujets. 
You are the most learned man I know in this town ; 
Vous Stes le plus savant queje connaisse dans eette ft/&. J 

2. After these ^ye indeterminate pronouns, qudqtii^ 
whatever ; qui que ce soit, whoever ; personne, nobody; 
pas un, not one ; aueun^ none ; rien, nothing, as we have 
said before, speaking of indeterminate pronouns. Rule 10^ 
and following. Examples : 

Of whomsoever you speak, avoid slander ; 

De qui que ce soit que vous parliez, 4vitez la medisawx. 



SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 223 

I know nobody who is so happy as you are ; 

Je ne connaispersonne qui soit attssi heuretix qw votts. 

I have seen nothing reprehensible in your conduct ; 

Je fCai rien vu qt£on puisse hldmer dans voire condtate, , 

* 3. After the ordinal numbers -» as, leprenUery the first ; 
It second, the second ; /e troisiemey the third ; le demiery the 
hstf &c. when pfeceded by a verb. Example : 

You are the first friend I have met with in London ; 
Votts ites le premier ami que j'aie rencorUri d Londres, 

4w After these two words, le seuly and VuniquBy the only 
one* Example : 

lAy son is the only one upon whom I can rely ; 
monJUs est le seid sur quije puisse compter. 

N. B. In the preceding rules qui and que do not govern 
the subjunctive when they are preceded by a genitive case 
to which they relate. Examples : 

This is the best reason you have just given me ; 

Vaild la meiUeure des raisons que vous venez de m/e 

donner* 
I do not know any of the ladies who live in your house ; 
Je ne connais aucune des dames qui demeurent chez vous. 
Do not say any thing of what I trust to you ; 
Ne dUes rien de ce queje vous confie. 
I have read the first volume of the work you had lent 

to me; 
Jai lu le premier volume de touvrage que vous m'aviez 

priti. 

Rule 156. — The Subjunctive is used after Verbs of fear 

or doubt, 

A verb preceded by the conjunction que is always used 
in the subjunctive, after verbs which express any doubt, 
wish, command, order, fear, ignorance, or any affection of 
the mind, and particularly after the following : 



Aimer, 


to like. 


d^sirer. 


to wish. 


commander. 


to command. 


douter. 


to doubt 


craindre. 


to fear. 


s'^tonner. 


to wonder. 


difendre 


toforbid. 


nier, 
L 4 


to deny. 



Tl^ SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

ordonner, to order. souhaiter, to wish. 

prier, to pray, supposer, to sttppote. 

se rejouir, to rejoice. vouloir, to he wUUng, 

And likewise after charmiy enchanti, or hien aise^ very glad, 
etonniy astonished, content, satisfied, fdchiy sorry, t^fiigii 
afflicted, surpris, surprised, preceded by itre^ pardte, 
semblcTy avoir Voir. Examples : 

I fear my father is dead ; > 

Je crains que mon pere ne soit fnorL 

I wish you may succeed ; Je desire que vous r^ussissieL 

I doubt that he is come ; Je doute qu'U soit arrive. 

I wish they would make peace ; 

Je souhaite quon fasse lapaix. 

I will have him obey me ; Je veux quil m'oblisse. 

I am sorry they have deceived you ; 
Je suisfdch^ quon vous ait trampe. 

And so on with the rest above mentioned. 

Rule 157. — TTie Subjunctive is used after some Impet* 

soncd Verbs. 

A verb preceded by que is always put m the subjunc- 
tive, afler the impersonals, ilfaut, it must ; U est/dehaut^ 
it IS ^ad ; il est juste, it is just ; U est injuste, it is unjust; 
il convient, it becomes ; il importe, or U est important, it 
matters ; and generally after all those not mentioned in 
the next section. Rule 160. Examples : 

It is necessary that there be some motive for acting ; 

II est nicessaire qu'ily ait quelque motif pour agir. 
I must go to town ; Ufaut que j*ail]e en viUe. 

It is just that he should see her ; H est juste qu'U la voie. 

And so on witli the rest. ' ^ 

Rule 158. — The Subjunctive is used cfier same Cam- 
junctions. 

A verb is always put in the subjunctive, mood after the 
following twenty conjunctions : 



SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



22,5 



A fin que, that, 

a moins que, unless, 
avant que, before, 
bien que, though, 

de crainte c\}xq^ for fear, 
de peur que, lest, 
ea cas que, if 
encore que, though, 
jiuqu'^ ce que, till, 
lorn que, far from. 

malgr^ que, for aU that. 



nonobstant que, 
non que, non)^ 



pas que, 
pos6 que, 
pour que, 
pourvu que, 
quoique, 
sans que, 
soit que, 
suppos6 que, 



; 



for all that, 
7tot that 

suppose that, 

that, 

provided, 
ihovgh, 
without, 
whether, 
suppose that. 



EXAMPLES : 

Unless you come with me, I will not go out ; 

A moins que vous ne m'accompagniez,y6 ne sortiraipas. 

Though he is lazy, yet he improves much ; « 

Sien qtCU soit paresseuxy Ufait beaueoup deprogres. 

Send me your book, that I may read it ; 

Envoyez-moi votre livre, afin queje le lise. 

I will be ready before they are come ; 

Je serai pret avant quits soient venus, 

N. B. The subjunctive is always used in the beginning 
of a sentence, to express surprise, an imprecation, or an 
ardent desire* Examples : 

May you be happy ! Puissiez-votw itre heureua ! 
May 1 rather die, than not succeed ! 
Que je meure, sije ne ritissis ! 



SECTION THE SECOND. 

Verbs and Conjunctions which govern sometimes the Lidica- 
tive and sometimes the Subjunctive, 

Rule 159. — Verbs which govern the Indicative and 

Subfunctive, 

The following verbs : 

Aflirmer, to affirm, apercevoir, to perceive, 

assurer, to assure. avouer, to confess, 

L 5 



'226 



SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



conclure, 


to conclude. 


penser. 


convenir, 


to agree. 


pr^dire. 


croire, 


to believe. 


prevoir, 


declarer, 


to declare. 


promettre, 


dire, 


to say. 


publier. 


esp^rer, 


to hope. 


savoir, 


juger, 


to judge. 


songer, 


jurer, 


to swear. 


soutenir. 


luaintenir, 


to maintain. 


supposer. 


oublier, 


to forget. 


voir. 



to think, 
toforeteL 
to foresee, 
topromiae, 
topubU^ 
to know, 
to tkink. 
to nuxhUam. 
to suppose, 
to 



And in general, all those which express the intellectaal 
faculties of the mind, govern the indicative, when they are 
affirmatively used, and most commonly the subjunctire 
when they are used negatively, interrogatively, or are pre- 
ceded by the conjunction si. Examples : 

I believe he is in the right ; do you believe he if in tbe 
right ? I do not believe he is in the right ; 

Je crois quil a raison — indicative ; croyez-vtms qu'ii ait 
raison f je ne crois pas quil ait raison — subjunctife. 

I hope he will come; Do you hope he vnll come f 

Tespere quil viendra — indicative ; Esp&rez-vous qiiH 
vienne ? — subjunctive. 

Let us go, if you think it wiU he fine weather ; 

Partons, si vouspensez quHl fasse beau temps -« subj. 

If we ask a question, less to be informed of a thing tium 
to inform others of it, the second verb is put in the indica- 
tive, and not in the subjunctive. Examples : 

Have I told you that my father is dead? 

Votis ai-je dit que monpere est mortf — indicative. 

Did you perceive they wanted to deceive me ? 

Vous aperputes-vous qu*on voiilait me tramper f — indie. 

Rule 160. — Verbs Impersonal which govern the Indieatioe 

and Suh/unctive. 

The impersonal verbs, with an adjective, denoting evidemXt 
lertitudey or probahilitg of a thing — such as, il est ckar^ it is 
clear ; il est certain^ it is certain ; il est vraiy it is true ; il 
estprobablCf k is probable, &c., govern the next verb in the 



SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 227 

indicative, when they are affirmatively used, and most fre- 
quently in the subjunctive, when they are used interroga- 
tively, negatively, or conditionally. Examples : 

It is certain that you are in the wrong, but it is not cer- 
tain I am in the right ; 

n est certain que vous avez tort — indicative ; mais il 
n*estpa8 certain qtie j'aie raison — subjunctive. 

It is probable they will make peace this year. Is it pro- 
bable they will make peace this year ? 

U est probable qu'on fera lapaix ceUe annie — indicative ; 
Est-U probable qt£on fasse lapaix cette ann^f — subj. 

It is true that I may be deceived. If it were true that 
I might be deceived ; 

n est vrai qmje puis me tromper — indicative. S'il 4tait 
vrai queje pusse vne tromper — subjunctive. 

Rule 161. — Conjunctions which govern the Indicative 

and Stdfjunctive, 

The following conjunctions, de maniere qvjey de sorte que, 
uUement que, so that, sinon que, except that, govern the 
indicative, when the sentence affirms positively that the 
thing in question is or will be, and the subjunctive when 
the thing is not certain, but rather wished for. Ex- 
amples : 

r Your son behaves in such a manner, that he is, and 
^. J fvill always be, loved by his masters ; 

J Votre jiU se comporte, de maniere qt£il est et sera 
\ toujowrs aime de ses maitres. 

{Behave in such a manner, that you may be loved 
and esteemed by your masters ; 
Comportez-^ofis de maniere que vous spyez aime et 
estimi de vos maitres. 

Note. The word que, used in the second part of a sen- 
tence, to avoid the repetition of a conjunction occurring 
in the first, governs the same mood as the conjunction it 
stands for. Examples : 

/* As soon as my brother writes to me, and I have the 
in^ J opportunity, I will let you know ; 
^'^^^ I Aussitdt que mon frere m'6crira, et que j'aurai des 
V. occasions, je vqus donnerai de ses nouvelles. 

L 6 



^8 SYNTAX OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

( Unless 3'^ou come or write to me, I will not doit* 
sub, < A moitis que vous ne venlez ou que vaus ne m'6crivieZ; 
( je ne ieferaipas. 

The word que, used to avoid the repetition of «, govern 
the subjunctive. Example : 

If somebody comes, and I am not at home, send forme; 
S^il vientqudauun et quejfe ne sois pas a la nunsoHteMr 
voyez-moi cnercher. 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
Which Tense of the Subjunctive must be used.' 

Rule 162. — Which Tense of the Subjunctive Mood msA 

be used. 

A verb required to be in the subjunctive mood by any of 
the preceding rules is usually put in the present, when the 
time of its action is present or future ; and in the preterite, 
when that time is past, or only conjectural. Examples : 

I fear lest he should come ; 
Je crains quil ne vienne — future. 
I feared lest you would come ; 
* Je craignais que vous ne vinssiez — past. 
I shall be obliged to do it ; Ufaudra queje le fasse. 
I should be obliged to do it ; Ufaudrait queje le fisse. ^ 

Rule 163. — Compound Tenses of the Subjunctive, 

The compound tenses of the subjunctive are used to 
express a past action, but prior to that expressed by the 
preceding verb : the compound of tlic present is used after 
the present or future of the indicative ; and their com- 
pounds and the cdmpound of the preterite after any other 
tense. Examples : 

I ^ear you have complained of me ; 

Je crains que vous n'oyezfait desplaintes de moi. 

I feared you would have complained of me ; 

Je craigiiais que vous n'eM&siezfait des plaintes de moL 



SYNTAX OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. 229 

I do not believe he has learnt geography ; I did not be- 
lieve he had learnt geography ; 

Je ne croispas quil ait appris la g4ographie — pres. 
je ne croyaispas quil eut appris la geographie — past. 

Rule 164. — Preterite of the Subjunctive, 

Though the first verb be in the present or future, the 
econd is put in the preterite subjunctive or in its com- 
ound, when the sentence implies a condition, and parti- 
ularly if the conjunction si is followed by a verb in the 
nperfect. Examples : 

Do you think they would refuse me, if I requested it of 

them? 
Croyez-vous quails me refusassent, sije les enpriais 9 
I do not think your brothers would have come, had it 

not been for me. 
Jie ne crois pas que sans moi vos freres fussent venus. 

Sans moi is a conditional expression which signifies, if I 
lad not persuaded them to come. 

I 



CHAP. XVIL 



OF THE AUXILIARY VERBS, WOULD, COULD, 

SHOULD, AND MIGHT, 

The words wotdd, could, should, and might, which we 
ave hitherto considered only as the distinctive marks of 
enses, and with which we have conjugated all our verbs, 
egular and irregular, are also sometimes distinct verbs of 
bemselves, and expressed in French by vouloir, pouvoir, 
r devoir, according to the following rules : 

KuLE 165. — 1. Sow to express will and would. 

When the words tvill and uxmld are not joined to any 
erb, they are verbs of themselves, and must be expressed 
>y vouloir^ to be willing. Thus we say, 



230 SYNTAX OF THE tBRSOULAB VERBS. 

Why do you not do your exercise ? because I wiU not, 

or I am not willing ; 
Pourquoi ne fcttiB9-4jaus pas voire thhne f parce gueji 

ne veux/xu. 
If I am not married, it is because I would not, or have 

not been willing ; 
Sije ne suispas maridy c*€8t qteeje n*ai pcu voulu. 

The words toill and would, though followed by another 
verb, are also expressed by the verb vou/btr, when they 
are said emphatically. Examples : 

I will be obeyed ; Je veux qu^on m*obSisse. 
He would hay e you beg his pardon ; 

II voulait que vous lui demandassiez pardon, 

^ ^ 2. Should. 

The word should is a verb, and must be expressed in 
French by some tense of the verb devoir^ when it is und 
for ouffht to, denoting necessity or duiif. Examples : 

You should not do that, since religion forbids it ; 
Vous ne devez pas lefaire, puisque la religion le difend* 
If he wants money, he should ask me for some ; 
STU a besoin d argent, il devrait m*en demanekr, 

3. Could and might. 

The words could and might are verbs when they denote 
possibility: they are both expressed in French by the verb 
pouvoir, to be able. Examples : 

If I could do you that service, I would not refuse you; 
Sije pouvais vous rendre ce service, je ne vous refusenii 

pas. 
You could liave done your exercise, if you had been 

willing ; 
Vous auriez pufaire votre theme, si vous aviez voulu. 

The words mag and can are usually verbs, and expressed 
in French by the present tense of the verb pouvoir. Ex- 
ample: 

You can write your letter before dinner ; 
Vous pouvez icrire votre lettre avant diner, . 



SYNTAX OF THE IRREGULAK VERBS. 251 

N. B. The words wotddy cotdd, and might may sometimes 
be rendered by a separate verb, or by the conditional of 
the following one : thus we say, je pourrais vouspayer^ si 
fe voulaiSf or je vous payerais, si je voulais; I cotdd pay 
you if I would : but this being sddom the case, the fore- 
going explanation must be particularly attended to. 

Rule 166.-^ In which tense would and could are to be put 

in French. 

When the auxiliaries, wouldy couldj should^ migJu, are 
not followed by any verb, or by one only, they may be ex- 
pressed by the imperfect^ the conditional^ the preterite of 
the indicative, or of the subjunctive, according as the 
senses require it : thus, / toouldy may be rendered by je 
ffoulaisyje vovlus^je voudrais, or je votdusse; I shovJdy by 
je defoaiSyje dus, je devrais, orje dusse; and I covldy hyje 
pouvais, je pus, je pourrais, or je pusse. Examples : 

I coidd do that yesterday ; Je pouvais ^atre cela hier, 
I could do it formerly ; Je pus lefaire autrefois. 
I could do it if I would ; Je Je pourrais sije voulais. 
1 do not thinki cotdd do it ;Jene crois pas queje le pusse. 

Rule 167* — would and covld, followed hy two verbs. 

When the auxiliaries, would, could, should, might, are 
followed by two verbs, of which the last is in the participle, 
they may be rendered in French, 

1. By the imperfect, or the conditional of avoir, and 
the participle vmUu, pu, or du, if you speak of a past time. 
Example : 

You should have written to me, since you knew my ad- 
dress ; 
Vous auriez du ni4crire,puisque vous saviez mon adresse. 

2. By the conditional of votdoir, pouvoir, or devoir, and 
the verb avoir in the infinitive mood, if you speak of some- 
thing not yet done. Examples : 

I would I had done my exercise ; 
Je voudrais avoir faU mon ihime. 



232 SYNTAX OF THE IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

These sentences, IvnU have htm pay mcy He would haoe 
me betray my dnty^ and others of the same sort, are ren- 
dered in French by Je veux qu*il tnepaye^ II voudrait qm 
je trahisse mon devoir — as if it were, I will that he pay rae^ 
Hq would that I betray my duty. 

Note. If you are at a loss in which tense to put the auxi- 
liaries loofdd, could, shoulds or might, consider would as a 
tense of the verb to be wiUing ; should as a tense oftoht 
Miged ; could as a tense of to be able ; and then put the 
verbs pouvoir, vouloir, and devoir, into the same tense in 
French as the verb to 6e is in English, and you will neier 
be mistaken. 



CHAR XVIII. 

OP THE IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

We have already treated of the impersonal verbs, in 
Rule 160. They are used in the third person only, and are 
generally construed in French as in English, except the fol- 
lowing — ilfaut, il y a, il est, and c*est, which require par- 
ticular attention. 

Rule 168 — Use of the Impersonal Verb il faut, ii musL 

The verb must is always expressed by the impersonal U 
faut. The noun or pronoun, which in English is the no- 
minative of must, becomes in French the nominative of the 
next verb, which is put in the subjunctive. Examples : 

I must see him ; Ufaut queje le vote. 
You must come to-morrow ; 

II faut que vous veniez demain. 
Your brother must write to him ; 
Ilfaudra que votrefrere lui derive. 

The verb Iiave, which oflen comes after must, is some- 
times put in the subjunctive : as, ilfaut quej*&ie des livreSy 
I must have books ; Ilfaut que votrefrere ait un chapfM, 



SYNTAX OF THE IMPERSONAL VERBS. 233 

'Our brother must hxme a hat: but it is more elegantly 
uppressed, and then the nominative of must is put in the 
[ative case : thus, U mefaut des livres ; ilfaut un chapeau 
\ votre fr^re. 

The verb should^ coming at the end of a sentence, is also 
isually expressed by ilfaut. Example : 

Your exercise is not done as it should he; 
Votre tkhnevC est pas fait comme il faut. 

Rule 169. — *Use of the Impersonal il y a, there is. 

The verb to be, preceded by the adverb there, becomes 
mpersonal, and is expressed by the third person of the 
rerb avoir, for every tense, thus : il y a, there is, or there 
tre; il t/ avait, there was, or there vere ; il y eut, there 
v^ere ; tl y aura, there shall be ; il y auraxt, there should 
ye; il y ait, there may be ; and il y eut, there might be. 
Examples : 

There are many difficulties in your affair ; 

H y a beaucoup de difficultds dans votre affaire. 

There is no talent more shining than that of speaking ; 

II n*y SL point de talent plturbrillant que celui de la parole. 

The verb to he, preceded by the word some ox many, is 
ilso oflen expressed by the impersonal, il y a, il y avait, 
with the partitive article, &c. as if it were, there are some, 
Examples : 

Some Christians are unworthy of that name ; 
II y a des Chretiens qui sont indignes de ce nom. 
Many firiends are false ; II y a bie^ defaux amis. 

The impersonal, il y a, il y avait, &c, is also used in 
French in three circumstances, where there is is not used 
n English. 

1. To ask the distance from one place to another; then 
t answers to the English words how far f Examples ■ 

How far is it from Winchester to London ? 
Combien y a-t-il de Winchester d Londres f 



234* SYNTAX OF THE IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

2. To ask the number of a thing, in which case it 
answers to the words haw many 9 Examples : 

How many inhabitants are there in France ? 
Combien y a-t-il d*habitans en Prance f 
How many kings are there in Europe ? 
Combien y a-t-U de rats en Europe f 

3. To ask how long it is since a thing haj^ned. Ex- 
ample : 

How long has your father been dead ? 
Combien y a-t-il que M. voire pere est mortf 

When the question is made hy ily OyUy avaiif &c* we 
generally answer by the same verb. Examples : 

Combien y a-t-il de Douvres d Calais ^ II y a dix Ueta. 

Combien y a-t-il d'dmes en Angleterre ? 

H y en a. douze millions, 

Combien y a-t-il que la guerre dure f II y a qwftre ant. 

Rule 170. — Distinction between 11 est and c'esty it is* 

The impersonal, it is, it was, it will be^ &c is expressed 
in French by il est, il itait, il Sera, &c. when it is followed 
by an adjective without reference to any thing expressed 
before, or by a substantive of time. Examples : 

t is six o'clock ; it is time to set out ; 
II est six heures; il est temps deparUr. 
It is difficult to please every body ; 
II est difficile deplaire a tout le monde. 

C*est is sometimes used before an adjective, in sadtences 
like these : c'est bon, c*est mauvais, &c. but then they have 
reference to something mentioned before. 

It is expressed by c'est, citait, ce Jvt, &c. when it is fol- 
lowed by a substantive which has not reference to time, 
by a pronoun, or by a verb in the infinitive mood. Ex- 
amples : 

It is not fortune which renders us happy, it is virtue ; 
Ce n'est pa>s V argent qui rums rend heureuao^ ^est la vertu. 



SYNTAX OF ADVERBS. ^2S5 

It is your turn to play ; C'est a vaus djouer. 

Not to punish the wicked is to sanction vice ; 

C'est autoriser le vice-gue de nepaspunir les michans* 

Rule 171. — it is, expressed by c'est and ce sont. 

The impersonal, ttU^it was, &c. followed by a substan • 
re, or the pronouns eux or eUeSy in the nominative plural^ 
expressed by ce sont, and not by c*est Examples : 

It is they who have seen him ; Ce sont eiue qui Vont vu. 

It is your brothers who are in the right ; 

Ce sont vosfreres qui ont raison. 

Not c*est vos frires qui ont raison — nor c'est eux qut 

Vont vu. 
Are those your sisters ? Yes, they are. 
£st-ce Id vos sceurs f Out, ce sont elks. 

The impersonal, it is, it vhis, &c. is always expressed by 
St or c*dtaitf in the singular, before the pronouns moi, toiy 
tis, VOUS9 and also before the pronouns eux, eUes, and a 
bstantive plural, when they are not in the nominative 
se« Examples : 

It is you who are in the wrong ; C'est vous qui avez tort 
It is their turn to answer ; C'est d eux d ripomdre. 
It is of your brothers I complain ; 
C'est de vosfreres queje me plains. 
Is it you who gave us this book ? 
Est-ce vous qui nous avez donni ce livre 9 



CHAP. XIX. 

SYNTAX OF ADVERBS. 

Rule 172.— Where the Adverbs are to he placed. 

Adverbs are usually placed after the simple tenses of a 
arb, and between the auxiliary and die participle of the 



236 SYNTAX OF ADVERBS. 

compound ones ; they are never put, as in English, between 
the nominative and the verb. Examples : 

I often think of you ; Jepense souvent a vous. 

1 never ftpeak ill of any body ; 

Je ne purle jamais mal de personne. 

I never have spoken ill of any body ; 

Je n'ai jamais malparle de personne, 

(And not^c souvent joew^c a vous). 

Rule 173. — Adverbs ajier the Participle, 

The few adverbs in ment which govern a noun are 
always placed in French after the participle in a compound 
tense, and even after the words it may govern. Examples : 

I despatched the goods agreeably to your orders ; 
Jai expedie les marchandises conform^ment d vos ofdm. 
You have acted independently of my orders ; 
Votis avez agi ind6pendamment de mes ordres. 

The following adverbs of time, at0ourd^huiy to-day, (fc- 
maiuy to-morrow, hier, yesterday, and those composed of 
two or three words, are usually placed after the participle 
in a compound tense. Examples : 

It has rained to-day; H aplu aujourdliui. 
I met with him by chance ; Je Vai rencontrd par hasard. 
And not, II a aujourd'hui plu; Je rat par hasard rex- 
contre. 

Note 1. Many adverbs usually begin a sentence in 
French, or a member of it. Such are, cq)endant, mean- 
while ; c*est pourquoiy therefore ; comment^ Tiow ; combkni 
how much ; qvxmd^ when ; ou^ where, &c. Example : 

When will you go to France? Quand irez^vous en Prance f 

Note 2. The adverb presqtie, almost, is always placed 
before totif ours, jamais, and souvent, when they meet; and 
these three go before all others when several meet to- 
gether. Examples : 



SYNTAX OF PREPOSITIONS. 237 

The king is scarcely ever weU ; 
Le rai estpresqae toujours nudade. 
Your brother and mine are always togetlier ; 
Votrefrire et le mien sani toujours ensemble. 



CHAP* XX* 

SYNTAX OF PREPOSITIONS. 

Rule 174«. — PrqfosUions are placed before the Word which 

they govern. 

Prepositions are placed in French before the words they 
govern ; in English they are sometimes placed after. Ex- 
amples : 

The person whom you are interested ^^; 

iMpersonne pour qui vous vous intiressez. 

Whom do you speak to? A qui parlez^ousf 

What do you complain off De quoi vous plaignez-voiis ? 

Rule 175. — How to empress from followed hy to. 

. The prepositions ^^WTi and to^ used in the same sentence 
before substantives of place, are expressed in French in 
two different manners. 

1. To express the distance, or the going from one place 
specified to another, from is rendered by de^ and to by a. 
Examples: 

I go in one ^9i.yfrom Paris to Rouen ; 

Je vais en unjour de Paris a Houen, 

There is no great distance ^rom his house to the diurch ^ 

// n'l/ a pas loin de chez lui k Veglise. 

2. When the same word is repeated afler from, and 
after tOy and also when they are placed before names of 
kingdoms, provinces, and vast countries, from is rendered 
by dey and to by en. Examples : 



238 SYNTAX OF PREPOSITIONS. 

I go from street to street, fMn town to town, from 

province to province ; 
Je vais de rtte en rue, de viUe «n viUe^ de province en 

province. 
My brother will go to Germany, and from Germany to 

France, from France to Italy y from Italy to Spain, and 

there he will embark for America. 
Mon frdre ira en Allemagne, et ^Allemagne en Frantt, 

de France en Italie^ d''Ildlie en JEspagne, etlail iem- 

barquera pour VAmMque. 

Rule 176. — from, to, in respet^ of time* 

From is rendered by depuisy and to by jusqiia^ when 
speaking of time. Example : 

I will stay in the country y^iom Midsummer to Christmas; 
Je resterai a la campagne depuis. Ja St, Jean jusqu'd NoA 

Wlien the preposition to signifies aafar as, it is generaHj 
expressed hyjiisqud. Examples : 

I have drunk tlie cup to the dregs 
J^ai bu le calice jusqu'a la lie, 
I will prosecute him A> the end ; 
Je le poursfiiforai jusqu'^ la fin. 

Note, — An English preposition has often several signifi- 
cations, and consequently must be variously expressed in 
French. Let us take, for instance, the preposition o&wt 
Examples : 

I am come to speak to you aboiU our affair ; 

Je suis venupour vous parler touchant notre ajfmre. 

I will go and see you dbowt the end of the next month; 

J'irai vous voir vers la fin du nuns prochain. 

Dinner was about over when he came ; 

n arriva sur la fin du diner. 

Rule 177. — When the Prepositions are to be rgjeated 

The prepositions de, en, a, are usually repeated before 
every noun, pronoun, or verb ; others, such as avec, contn^ 



OF CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. 239 

ns, &c. are repeated before noiins or verbs of different 
unifications, whether they are or are not repeated in 
iglish. Example : 

The Son of God came on earth to redeem men, and to 

destroy the empire of the devil ; 
Le FUs de Dieu est venu sur la terre pour raeheter ks 

kommes, et pour ditmire l* empire du dhnon. 

They are not usually repeated before words which have 
etty near the same signification. Examples : 

The Son of God came on earth to redeem men, and to 
free them from sin ; 

he FUs de Dieu est venu sur' la terre pour radieter les 
hommesy et les dMivrer du pecM — not et pour les de- 
livreTy because rocketer and delivrer signify the same 
thing. 

Our law judges nobody without having heard and ex- 
amined him ; 

Notre hi ne juge personne sans V avoir entendu et ex- 
amine. 

But the preposition must be repeated before two verbs 
en of the same signification, when they govern different 
luns or pronouns. • Example : 

Our law judges nobody tmthout having heard him and 

examined his conduct. 
Notre loi ne juge personne sans V avoir entendu et sans 

avoir examine sa conduite. 



OF CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. 

We have spoken at large of conjunctions, pages 122 and 
llowing : Uieir use and construction have been fully 
iplained in the Syntax, in Rules 97, 158, and 161 ; and 
ithing further remains to be said of ^em. 

The different species of inteijections have been treated of 
pa^e 124* : then: construction is the same in French as in 
Dglish, therefore they require no further explanation. 



240 OF THE FRENCH IDIOMS. 

CHAP. XXL 

OF THE FRENCH IDIOMS. 

Idioms are modes of speaking peculiar to a language, 
which cannot be literally translated into another. 

The chapter of idioms is divided into three sections: 
the^r^ explains the idiomatical expressions of the auxi- 
liary verbs ^ have and to he: the second shows tiie 
idiomatical significations in which the verbs aUer^ aodrt 
venir, donner^fairey Jotiery and mourir may be taken: the 
third contains a series of the most remarkable Frendi 
idioms. 



SECTION THE HRST. 
Idiomatical Eocpressions of the Verbs to have and to be. 

Rule 178. — Cases in which the Verb to be t9 expressed bf 

the Verb avoir. 

The verb to be is expressed in French by the same tense 
of the verb avoir, in the seven following cases : 

1 . Wlien speaking of the dimension or age, it is followed 
by a word of number, such as one, two, three, fowr, &c 
Examples : 

Our house is twenty feet broad ; 

Notre jnaison a vingtpieds de large — not est 

I am twenty-five years of age ; J'ai vingt-dnq ans. 

2. When it is used to ask the age of a person or an 
animal. Examples : 

How old are you ? Quel age avez-^70^^^ 9 — ^not ites-vwi* 
How old t* your dog? Quel age a voire chien f 

3. When it is followed by the words hungry, dry^ nr 
thirsty. Examples : 



OF THE FRENCH IDIOMS. 241 

Are you hungry, daughter? Yes, mother, I am very 

hungry. 
Avez-voits faimy ma JiUe f Oui, ma mere, fai grande 
faim. 
- Are you dry ? No, I am not dry at present ; 
AwGL'Vous soiff Non^jen^dXpas soifdprisent 

4* When it is followed by the words hoty fvarmy or cold. 
The part of the body referred to is preceded in French by 
Off for the masculine, hy dla for the feminine, and by aux 
for the plural, instead of the possessive pronouns my^ thy, 
tiSf her, our, your, or their, used in English. Examples : 

My feet are cold ; J^aifroid attx pieds. 

Are your hands warm ? Ayez-votis chaud atix mains f 

Warm yourself, if you are cold; 

ChauffeZ'Vcue, si vans avez fraid. 

5. When it is or might be followed by the adverb 
there, without altering the sense of the sentence, as we 
said, Rule 169. Example: 

There are many poor people in England and France ; 
27 y a beattcoup depauvres en Anglkerre et en France. 

6. When it is followed by the words in the wrong, in 
the right, or afraid. Examples : 

You were in the right, and I %iHis in the wrong ; 
Vous aviez raisofi, et moij*ay&i8 tort. 
Why are you afraid ? Pourquoi avez-vous peur f 

7. When to be is followed by in vain, it is commonly 
expressed by avoir beau. Examples : 

It is in vain to wait for him, he will not come | 

Vous avez beau TaJtUndre, ii ne viendrapas. 

It was in vain for me to advise him, he would not be* 

lieve me ; « 

i/'avais beau Favertir, U ne voulaitpas me croire* 



M 



21r2 OF THE FRENCH IDIOMS. 



Rule 1Y9.— to be, eapressed hy £ure. 

The verb tohex^ expressed hyfairey when applied to the 
state of the weather ; and with the words jour^ mdty iokUt 
vent, &c. Examples : 

It is fine weather to-day ; II fait beau tempt aujouarfhtL 
It was bad weather yesterday; II fmsait mawoais temps kier. 
It wili be cold soon ; iZ fersifroid dans pen. 

Is it hot in France ? Fait-tZ chaud en France f 

If the word taeather is the nominative case of the verb 
to bcy then it should be expressed by itrey and not bj 
faire. Examples : 

The weather is fine ; Le temps est beau. 

The air is cold ; L*air estfraid — not k im^ 

faitbeauy rairfaitfrM 

KuLE 180. — The Verb to be expressed by the Verh ta 

porter. 

The verbs to be, and to do, used in English in enquiring 
or speaking of a person's health, are both expressed in 
French by the reflected verb se porter. Examples : 

How do you do 9 Comment vous portez-^^ottf f 

I am very well ; Je me porte fort bien. 

Is your father well ? M. votre pere se porte-t-fl hienf 

He was well yesterday; // se portait bien hier. 

Rule 181. — Hen est de, it is with. 

The impersonal — it is, it was, it will be, &c. followed by 
the preposition tcitk, is expressed by il en es/ dls^ for the 
present ; il en itait de, for the imperrect ; il en Jut de, fi)f 
the preterite ; il en sera de, for the future ; Hen seraitdt, 
for the conditional ; il en soit de, for the pres. subj.; t/cn 
fut de, for the preterite. Examples : 

It is with you as with other men ; 

H en est de vous comme des autres hommes. 



OP THE FRENCH IDIOMS. 243 

I do not believe it vnU be with my son as with yours ; 
^e ne croispas qu*\[ en soit de monjils comrm du vdtre. 

N. B. The verb to be before an infinitive is sometimes 
expressed by the verb devoir ; sometimes it is not ex« 
pressed at all, and then the next verb is put in the future. 
Example : 

I am to dine out to-day ; 

Je dois diner, (or^c dinerai) en viUe aujourdhui. k 

Rule 182.-— The Verb to have, expressed by the Verb 

^tre. 

The verb J to have is expressed by ^trey 1. in the com- 
pound tenses of all the reflected verbs. Examples : 

I rose this morning at dix o'clock ; 
Je me suis levi ce matin a six heures. 
Have you perceived the trick ? 
Vous ltes-t70tA9 aperfu du tottr f 

2. In the compound tenses of the verbs aZ/ler, arrivery 
dichoiry diddevy entrery mourir, naitrcy partir, tombevy also 
ofveniry and its compounds, deveniry discanvemr, interve- 
fdvy parveniry reveniry and surveniry and of such intransi- 
tive verbs as admit of their participles following a sub- 
stantive in an adjective sense. Examples : 

You haoe gone to London without my leave ; 
Vous dtes alU d Lomdres sans ma permission. 
My brother died this morning at seven ; 
Monfrire est mort ce matin d sipt heures. 

Rule 183. — Avoir mal ky speaking of illness. 

We make use of avoir mal dy to ask or to express what 
p^rt of the body is a£fected with some illness or pain. 
Examples : 

Have you the head-ach? Avez-vous mal a la tite 9 

My eyes are sore ; tTai mat aux yeux. 

Have you the tooth-ach ? Avez-vous mal aux dents ? 

I feel a pain in my side ; J'ai mat au cdti. 

His feet are sore ; II a mal aux pieds. 

M 2 



24 1r ar the FltExcn idioms. 

SECTION THE SECOND. 
Idiomatical Significations jailer. « 

The verb aUery besides its general signifiGation of ii>gi, 
has many others, as may be seen in the following ex- 
amples : 

Le commerce ne va plus. Trade is dead. 
Est-ce dinsi que vous y allez ? Is this your way of proceeding? 

^Comment va la santi ? How do you do ? 

Tout va Inen, tout va maly All is well, all is bad. 

Cet liahit vous va bieuy That coat suits you well 

Monfrere va partir, My brother is going out 

Aller aux voix. To put to the vote. 

// va pkuvoir, neiger. It will rain, snow. 

Uyydidela vie, Life is at stake. 

Cela va sans dire, That is understood. . 

Aller jtwec? sl pied, pas kpas, To act deliberately- 

Ili/\a,de man honneur, My honour is concerned m it 
Vous nefaites ^u'aller et ve- You are ever running up and 

nir, down. 

// va venir, He is coming. 

Allez-ro2« sortir 9 Are you going out ? ^ 

Idiomatical Signijications o/* avoir,* 

Avoir hesoin de quelque chose. To want something. 

Avoir bonne mine, To look well. 

Avoir mauvaise mine. To look ill. 

Avoir (iffairede guelqite chose, Tq have occasion for some 

thing. 
Avoir le cceur sur les levres, To be free and open. 
Avoir des affaires par desszcs To be full of business. 
les yeux, 

Idiomatical Significations of doTineXm 

The verb donner, besides its signification of to give, is 
used in many other senses, as appears by the foUowing 
Examples : 

* The vprbs used in the infinitive present, in some idiomatical flg- 
nlfications, may be used in oil other tenses and persons in te 9UM 
sense. 



or THE PREKCR IDIOMS. 245 

)nner des airs, To take a great deal upon 

one's self, 
ler dans hpiige. To be caught in the snare. 

onner d garder d quel' To make a fool of somebody. 

)nner du bon iernps. To pass one's time merrily^ 
)nner de ga/rde de faxrt To be sure not to do such a 
^ chose, thing. 

ler sur Vennemd, To fall upon the enemy. 

'n donne d la tite. That wine flies iip to the head. 

voir ou donner c2e la tite. To know not what way to turn, 
ler carte blanche. To give full powers. 

IdionuUiccd Significations o/*faire. 

grace d qu€lqu*un. To forgive somebody. 

le malade, To sham sickness. 

foTid sur qtielqu*un. To rely upon somebody. 
/aire un montre. To bespeak a watch. 

voile, or mettre diavoile. To set sail, 
[re des amm. To get friends, 

ire des (iffaires. To bring one's self into trouble, 

ire drJa fatigue, ' To inure one's self to hardships. 

bien ses affaires* - To prosper. 

des contes d dormir de- To tell idle stories. 

a, 

unpas de clerc. To take a false step. 

des armes. To fence. 

la sourde oreille. To give a deaf ear. 

bonne mine d quelquun. To receive one kindl}^ 

Vfiomme d' importance. To pretend to great matters* 

Several Significations o/'jouer. 

des instrumens. To play upon instruments* 

d quelquejeu. To play at some game. 

une piece de theatre. To act a play. 

un tour d qudqu'un. To serve one a trick. 

d quitte ou dcmU, To run all chance. 

de son reste. To use one's last shifts. 

au plus fin, To vie in cunning. 



M 3 



246 OF THK FBESCH IDIOSfS. 



Idiomatiad t^gmfieatiotu cfmaanr. 

Mouiir defaim^ To be starred. 

Mourir de toif. To be dioked with thnst 



Mourir defrcidy To stanre with odd. 

Mourir de ckaud^ To be eztremelj hot. 

Mourir depeur. To be frightened to deatb. 

Mourir de chagrm, To griere one's sdf to deidk 

Mourir de dtndeur. To hare one's heart broken 

Idiomaiieai SlgnipcaikmM cfdie Wordmmn. 

Donner la main aun malheu- To reHete an ut^ariumaie. 

reux, 
Donner nn coup de main. To ke^ 
Donner a pleines mains, To give larffefy. 
Donner de main en main. To handle abouL 
Faire main basse surFemiemi, To put the enemy to Ae twmi 
Faire un coup de main, To do a boidactknu 

Fwre quelque diose sous main, To do wmedijng eeeredy* 
Mettre Tep^e a la main. To draw the sword* 

Prendre a toutes mains, To catch every way* 

En venir aux mains, TofighL 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
A Series of the most curious French 

Aller a bride abattue, To goJuU speed. 

Avoir le pied au tombeau, To Juive dready one foot w 

the grofoe. 
Avoir la t^te pres du bonnet, To tcJie fire presmdy. 
Boire le calice jusqu'a la lie. To drink the cup to the drtgt» 
C'est la mer k boire, It is an endless business. 

Chercher k pied et a cheval. To look every where. 
Couper la parole k quelqu*un, To interrupt one who speaks. 
Decouvrir le pot aux roses, To find out the mystery, 
Dormir la grasse matinee, To sleep very late. 



OP THE FRENCH IDIOMS. » 247 

quelqu*un jusqu'aux To praise one to excess* 

leux doigts de sa perte. To be on ^ brink of ruin, 

ndre d la mouche, To be very captious. 

Q la poudre aux y eux, To cast a mist brfore one*s eyes. 

;u et flamme, To fret and fume. 

* son bl6 en herbe, To eat the caif in the cow*s 

belly. 
de Teau dans son vin, To aUay on^s passion. 
les fers au feu, To fall stoutly to work. 

une arm^e sur pied, To raise an army. 
nander que plaies et To thmkthe.more mischief the 
s, better sport. 

}\x sur quel pied dan-iVb^ to knoio which way to 

turn. 
du bonnet, To absent Mindly. 

r le gateau, To share the profit. 

quelquun au fil de To put somdxHiy to Hie sword. 

J Fair du bureau. To feel people' sptdse. 

! quelqu*un au pied To snap one up. 

' ciel et terre, To leave no stone unturned. 

' le tout pour le tout, To set all at stake. 

i clou a quelqu'un, To give one as good as lie 

brings. 
i la paille avec qael-Tofall out with one. 

i court f^tu. To draw cuts. 

m ^pingle du jeu. To slip one's neck out of the 

!- collar. 

: chaussure a son pied. To be well fitted. 
r son maitre. To meet wUJi one's match. 

bout de ses desseins, To succeed in one's designs. 



u 4 



248 OF THS ITRBNCH ?aOVEIIB«. 



CHAP. XXIL 

A SERIES OF PROVERBS MOSIVUSED IK 

FRENCH. 

Abondance de bien ne nuit A store is no sore. 

pas, 
A force de forger, on de- Assiduity makes all ihkigi 

vient forgeron, easy, 

A Fimpossible nul n'est TTiere is no fence agamd fb 

tenu, fiaXU 

A m^chant chien, court A cursi cur must be M 

Hen, short. 

Ami au pret, ennemi au / lose my maney^ dnd wof 

rendre, friend. 

Apprenti n*est pas maitre, .Fotf mttU spoil b^bre ytm. 

spin, 
Apr^s la mort le m^decin, ' After death comes the phf' 

sician* 
A qui veut mal, raal arrive, JEvil be to him that evil Ahikt* 
Argent comptant porte ni6- Ready money is a remedy. 

decine, 
Aux grands maux les grands A desperate disease must had 

remddes, a desperate cure. 

Beau parler n'^corche pas Fair words cost nothing. 

la langue, 
Beaucoup de bruit, et peu Great cry and little wool 

d'effet, 
Bon avocat, mauvais voisin, A good lawyer and evil neigh- 
bour. 
Bonne renommee vaut mi- A good name is better Aim 

eux que ceinture dorde, riches. 
Ce n'est pas pour vous que TTiere is nothing for you. 

le four chaufFe, 
Ce n'est pas Fhabit qui fait It is not the cowl thai makt 

le moine, the friar. 

Celui qui cherche le danger Harm watch, harm catch. 

y p^rira, 
Ce qui abonde ne vicie pas^ Excess of right is no wrong* 



OF THE FRENCH PROVERBS. 249 

Ce qui est differt^, n'est pas All is not lost iJuU is delayed* 

perdu, 
C'est de la moutarde apres After dinner comes mtisfyird 

din6, 
C'est 1^ od git le li^vre, I^ere is the point* 

Charite blen ordonn^e com- Charity begins at home. 

mence par soi-m^me, 
Chien qui aboie ne mord pas, Barking dogs seldom bite. 
Dans les petits pots sont les Short and sweet. 

bonnes 6pices, 
De tout s'avise a qui pain Necessity is the mother of in* 

&ut, vention. 

De deux maux il faut choisir Of two evils choose the least. 

le moindre, 
Faire d*une pierre deux To kill two birds toith one 

coups, stone. 

Familiarity engendre mcpris, Familiarity breeds contempt. 
Faute de parler, on meurt Spare to speak and spare to 

sans confession, speed. 

Faute d*un point Martin A miss is as good as a mile. 

perdit son ane, 
Fin contre fin n'est pas bon Diamond cut diamond. 

k faire doublure, 
Grands vanteurs, petits fai- Great boast, little roast. 

seurs, 
n a les yeux plus grands His eyes are bigger than his 

que le ventre, beUy. 

11 a plus de bonheur qu'un He is more lucky than wise. 

honn^te homme, 
II a plus de peur que de mal. He is more afraid than hurt. 
II est comme Foiseau sur la He is in a wavering situation. 

branche, < 

D est comme lepoisson dans The dog^s head is in tJie por- 

Teau, ridge pot. 

II crie avant qu*on T^corche, He halts before he is lame. 
II en fait ses choux gras, He feathers his nest by it. 
n ennuie a qui attend. Waiting is tedious. 

II fait bon p^cl^er en ediU It is good fishing in troubled 

trouble, waters. 

II faut battre le fer quand il Strike the iron while it is hot. 

est cliaudf 

If 5 



250 OF THE FRENCH PROVERBS. 

II &ut faire vie qui dure, Old yowng and old long* 
II ne faut pas juger des gens One must not hang a man bg 

|>ar la mine, his looks. 

II n'a ni bouche ni eperon, He has neither toU nor cownqt, 
U n'est sauce que d'app^tit, Good stomach is the hestsamx, 
U n*est si bon charretier qui That is a good horse that «#• 

ne verse, '>^ ver stumbles. 

II n'est pire eau que celle Smooth water runs deqf. 
» qui dort, 
II n est point de roses sans No rose without a thorn. 

Opines, 
II n'y a point de feu sans Where is the smohey then ii 

fum^e, thefire. 

II n*y a que la premiere peine The first step over^ the redu 

qui coute, easg. 

II sent bien oil le batle blesse, He feels wliere the shoe pksAa. 
II vaut mieux faire envie que It is better to be emned Am 

pitie, pitied. 

II vaut mieux plier que -de It is better to bend Mon bnok 

rompre, 
II vaut mieux tard que ja- Better late than never, 

mais. 
La clef d*or ouvre toutes les Bribe can get inwiAoutknoA' 

serrures, ing. 

La faim chasse le loup du Hunger wHl break throng a 

bois, stone waU. 

La fin couronnc Toeuvre, AUs tpeU that ends weU. 
La n^cessiti est la m^re de Necessity is the mother af tJ^ 

rindustrie, vention. 

La nuit tous chats sont gris, When candles are out^ ail cats 

are grey. 
La patience est un remede a Patience is a pilaster for aU 

tous maux, sores. 

Le bien mal acquis ne profite lU gotten goods never prosper, 

jamais, 
Le jeu n'en vaut pas la chan- Tlie business wiU not quit coA> 

delle, 
Lerenard pr^cheauxpoulets, The devil rdmkes sin* 
Le sage en tend d demi mot, A word to the wise is enough. 
Les bons comptes font les Short reckonings make long 

bons amis, friends. 



>■■ 



* OF X.HE FRENCH PROV£Rfi$. 251 

g fjBM honneurs changent les Honour changes manners, 
^1 moeurs, 

i; Les petits^ruisseaux font les Many drops make a shower* 
V grandes rivieres, 

Les plus courtes folies sont The shortest foUies are the 
• les meillures, best, 

• L'occasion fait le larron, Opportunity makes the thief, 
' Xt'oisivet^ est la m^re de tous Idleness is the root of all evil, 
les vices, 
.Marchai^id qui perd ne peut l^et him laugh Oiat tvins, 

rire, 
Mauvaise lierbe croit Xo\x- III weeds grow apace, 

jours assez, 
-Sfarchandise qui plait est a Good wares make quick mar- 

moitii vendu, kets. 

Necessity n*a point de loi, Necessity has no law, 
Ne rdveillez pas le chat qui When sorroto is asleep awake 

dort, it not, 

Nouveaux rois,nouvelleslois. New lords, netv laws. 
On n'a jamais bon march6 de The best the cheapest, 

mauvaise marchandise. 
On n!a rien sans peine, No pain, no profit. 

On ne fait pas march^ du More words than one go to the 

premier mot, bargain. 

On ne saurait faire boirc un A man may lead his Jwrse to 
tae s'il n*a soif, water, but he cannot make 

him drink, tmless he lists, ' 
O^ il n'y a rien, le roi perd Where nothing is to be had 

ses droits, the king loses his right, 

Paris n'a pas 6te fait dans un Home wa>s not built in a day, 

jour, 
Parmilesaveugleslesborgnes^»2cw^ the blind the one-eyed 

sont rois, is a king. 

Pas ^ pas on va bien loin. Fair and soft goesfa^t. 
Point aargent point deSuisse,iVb money no pater-noster, 
Promettre et tenir sont deux. It is one thing to promise, and 

anoiJier to perfoiTn, 
Porter de Teau a la mer. To carry coals to Newcastle, 
Quand on eipprunte on ne Beggars must not be choosers, 
choisit pas, 

M 6 



^2 or THE FRENCH PROVERB:^ 

Quand on parle du loup, oa Talk t^ihe devil andkU hum 

en voit la queue, appear. 

Qui aime Bertrand, aime son Lofoe mt, love my dog. 

chien, 
Qui fera bien, bien trouvera, DoweMy and have welL 
Qui menace a souvent peur, Svoaggerers are great cawank 
Qui r^pond paye, The Sail must pay. 

Qui ne hasarde rien n'a rien, Nothing venture^ nothing haet* 
Qui trop embrasse mal etreint, Covet all, lose alL 
Qui 86 fait brebis, le loup le Who makes himself a skup^ 

mange, him the vxdfeatkh. 

Selon ta bourse gouverae ta Cut your coat accordxng b 

bouche, your doth. 

Si vous n'dtes pas content, If you do noi Hhe it, tumycm' 

prenez des cartes, Ifuckles behincL 

Tirer d'un sac deux mou* To take double fees. 

tures, 
Toujours pdche qui en prend Still he^fishes thai caichei cm, 

***** /00t^ 

Tout ce qui brille n'est pas Ml is not gold that gliUen* 

or, 
Toute y^rite n'est pas bonne Trzith is not to be spokm d 

k dire, all times. 

Un bon chien chasse de race, Cat after kind. 
Un chien regarde bien un ^ co^ may look upon a hkuf* 
' ^v^que, 
Un honnete homme n'a que An honest man. is as good (U 

sa parole, his word. 

Un malheuc ne vient jamais One misfortune comes on At 
' seul, neck rf another. 

Une souris qui n'a qu*un It is good to have two stringi 

trou est bientot prise, to one*s bow.- 

Un tiens vaut mieux que A bird in the hand is teorA 

deux tu Tauras, two in the bush. 



COKCORD OF WORDS. 25S 



CHAP. XXIII. 

OF THE CONCORD, DISPOSITION, AND REPETI- 
TION OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE. 



SECTION THE HRST. 

What Parts of Speech agree together in French. 

1. Articles, 

The three articles, definite^ indefinite^ and partitive^ 
agree in gender and number with their substantive. Ex- 
amples : 

The &ther, mother, and children are in the country. 
XfC pere^ la mere^ et les enfans sont a la campagne, 
I have a good garden and a fine house near London. 
J*ai un honjardiny et une hdle maison pres de Londres, 
Give me some bread, some meat, and some eggs. 
JJonneZ'-moi du pain^ de la viande, et des o^tfsn 

2. Adjectives, 

All adjectives agree in gender and number with the sub- 
stantives to which they are united or related. Examples : 

A learned man ; a learned woman ; learned girls. 

ZTn homme savant; unefemme savante; desfiXks savantes. 

3. Pronouns, 

All pronouns, personal, possessive, demonstrativey rela- 
Hvcy and interrogativcy agree in gender and number with 
dieir substantive. Examples : 

1. My brother wishes to marry your sister, yet I think 

he does not know her. 
Mon frere veut ipouser votre sc^r, cependanJt je crois 
quil ne la connattpas, 

2, His son, daughter, and sisters will come here to-night. 

Son fils, s&fiUef et ses sceurs viendront tW ce soir. 



€54 DISPOSITION or words. 

3. This book is new, this house is old, these pens are good 

Ce Uvre est naify cette nunaon tti vkUlty cesphmet 
sant bonnes. 

• 4w The vice against wbidi I speak ; the reasons I rdj 
upon are without reply. 
Le vice contre lequel je park; les raisoHs swr les- 
quelles/s mefimdey soni sans r^pUque. 

5. What is his crime, and what is his excuse ? 
Quel est son crimen et quelle est son excuse? 

4. Verbs. 

All personal verbs agree in number and person with tbeir 
nominative case. Examples : 

I speak, we speak; Je parky nousparUms. 
Man is mortal, men are mortal ; 
Lhomme est mortely ks hommes sont mortds. 
He says the truth, they say the truth ; 
Hditki viritd, Us disent kt vMti. 



SECTION THE SECOND. 
Of Collocation. 
The Order in which the Words cfa Sentence must bepkeed. 

Rule 1. The articles, the possessive, demonstrative, 
and interrogative pronouns, always precede in French, as in 
English, the substantive to which they are joined ; as may 
be observed in the examples of the preceding section. 

Rule' 2. The adjectives of number, as, t/n, deux, trm, 
quatre, &c. and also the following, beaic, bon, grand, groSt 
jeune, mauvais, m^hant, meilleur, moindre, and petit, pre- 
cede their substantive, but others are usually placed after; 
as un bon Jiomme, un grand homme; a good man, a great 
man. 

Rule 3. The relative pronouns, qui, que, dont, legud, 
&c. come immediately afler the noun or pronoun to which 



DISPOSITION Off WORDS. 255 

they have reference. Example : Do not reject advice, the 
utility of which you know ; Ne rejetez pcLS un avis dont 
vaus covmaUsez VutilUi. 

Rur.E 4. The prepositions always come before the wor4 
which they govern. Example : What do you complain of? 
De quoi vous plaignez-vous ? 

Rule 5. The adverb is usually put after the verb, in a 
simple tense — as, he answers well, it ripond bien; and aft«r 
the auxiliary in a compound one — as, he has well answered, 
%l a bien ripondti. 

Rule 6. The nominative of a verb precedes it in an af- 
firmative sentence: as, my father is come, he has given me 
some money ; mon pdre est ventiy il ma dpnn^ de V argent. 

IP the sentence be interrogative, and the nominative of 
the verb be any of the following pronouns, je, tu, il, elle, 
natiSy vousy ils, elles, ce, or on, it is placed after the verb 
when it is a simple tense, and after the auxiliary when it is 
a compound one. Examples: Parle-t-il? A-t-il parlif 
Dit'OTi? A't'Ondit? 

If the nominative be a substantive, or any other pronoun 
than those before mentioned, it precedes the verb in an inter- 
rogative sentence, but then the personal pronouns il or elie, 
ils or elles, must be used after the verb or its auxiliary. 
Examples: Is your father come? Is your mother at home? 
Voire pere est-iX venu 9 Votre mire e^^-elle d la maison f 

Rule 7. The personal pronouns are placed immedi- 
ately after the verb they are governed by, when it is in 
the imperative affirmative : as, give it me, donnezAe-moi ; 
sell it us, vendez'le-nous. 

When the verb is not in the imperative affirmative, the 
governed pronouns are put immediately before it in a 
simple tense, and immediately before the auxiliaries avoir 
ot itrCf in a compound one : as, he will give them to you ; 
il vous les donnera ; he has sold them to us, il nous les a 
vendtis; he has promised them to me, il me les apromisi 
do not return it to him, ne le lui rendez pas, &c. 

If a verb governs two or more pronouns, they are placed 



256 DISPOSITION 09 WORDS. 

before it in this order — me, te, scy nous, vous, go before b, 
loy les; ley loy lesy go before lid and leur; /ta and leurgt 
before y and en; and y goes before en. Examples: be 
will lend them to you, il vous les priiera / he will lend 
them to him, il les Xm priiera; 1 will send you some tbere^ 
je vous y en enverrai; I have sent them some there, jt 
leur y en ai envoyi; he will carry some thither, il y&a 
portercu 

Rule 8. If the sentence be negative, ne precedes the 
verb and the governed pronouns ; Uie other word of negt- 
tion, such as paSy jamaisy rieuy &c. usually comes after tbe 
verb in a simple tense, and after its auxiliary in a com- 
pound one. Examples : I will never believe it, je ne Ir 
croirai jamais ; he has not seen them, ilne les a pas vut; 
there is nothing finer, U Viy a rien deplus beau. 

If the verb be in the infinitive, both the negative words 

go before it, and even before the governed pronouns : tbe 

preposition, if there be any, precedes the negation and 

thepronouns. Example : I will do it not to displease jw, 

je h ieraiy pour ne pas vous dipkare* 

The otl^er parts f>f speech not mentioned in these eight 
rules usually follow the same order in French as in English. 



SECTION THE THIRD. 
WhU Words must be repeated in a Sentence, 

1. Articles repeated* 

The article must be repeated in French before every 
substantive. Example : 

The heart, the mind, and manners, are formed by edu- 
cation ; 

Le comry Yesprity et les mceurs seformentpdr V^ducaHon* 

2. Pronouns repeated. 
The possessive and demonstrative pronouns are repeated 



'^ORDS to B8 kSPEATEl^; 257 

in French before every noun, though they are not repeated 
in English. Examples: 

. We must govern our taste, ex{)enses, and pleasures ; ■ 

IlfayJt rigler son goul, sa dSpensey et sesplaisirs. 

Tnis man and woman are very unfortunate ; 

Get homme et cettefemme sont tres-nudheureux. 

The personal pronouns of the first and secoixd persons 
are generally repeated before every verb of which they 
are the nominative case ; those of the third are also re- 
floated before verbs which are in various tenses, and when 
the first is affirmative and the other negative, or vice vefsd. 
Examples: 

I say, and will always say, that you were in the wrong ; 
Je disy et je dirai toujours que vous aviez tort. 
He says so, but he does not believe it, I assure you ; 
U le dity mais ilne le croitpasy je vous assure. 

All personal pronouns must be repeated in French be- 
fore every verb they are governed by^ though they are not 
in English. Example: 

My brother esteems and honours you ; 
Monfrere vous estime et vous bonore. 

3. Verbs t^peaied. 

A verb is repeated in a sentence of two parts, if one is 
negative and the other affirmative. Example: 

We must expect every thing from God, and nothing 
from men ; 

// fmU tout attendre de Dieu, et ne rien attendre des 
hommes. 

In answer to a question, we ofren repeat the same verb 
the question is asked by ; the English repeat only the 
auxiliary. Example : 

Have you seen the king? Yes, sir, I have ; 
Avez-vous vuleroif Chdy monsieuTy Je Vcd vu. 

4. Prqxmtians r^ieated. 
The prepositions— -«£?, d, en, and pour, are usually re- 



258 WORDS TO BB RBPBATED. 

peated before every noun or verb which thej senre to con* 
nect with a common source, or general term. Example : 

Brazil produces a great quantity of indigo, sugar, pep- 
per, and saltpetre ; 

Lt BrisUproduit une grande guamtiiS d*indiffOf de suertf 
depaivrey ei de saipitre. 

The propositions, avec, canire, sans, &c are repeated 

before nouns of different significations. Example: 
He is angry with you, but not with your money ; 
II estfdchi contre vaus, nunsnonpas contre voire wrgtriL 



SECTION THE FOURTH. 
Words which may be ekgcmtly rtpeated. 
1. Substantives degandy repeated. ' 
La vue de V esprit a plus d^etendue que la vue du corps, 

BOSSUET. 

Ce qui sert d la vanit6 nest que vanit6, tout ce qui n'a que 
ie monde pov/r fondementy se dissipe et sivanouU avee le 
monde. Flechieb. 

C*est le privilege deM.de Turenne d' avoir pu vcdnen 
Venvie; le m6rite Vavait fait ncMre^ \e va^nXj^ la ft 
mourir, Flechieb. 

Remains, souffirirez-vous qu*on vous immole un homme 
Sans qui Rome aujourdliui cesserait d'etre Borne? 
Dis, Valere, dis-nous, puisqu'il faut qu'il p^risse, 
O^ penses-tu choisir un lieu pour son supplice ? 
Sera-ce entre ces murs que mille et mille voix 
Font r^&onner encore du bruit de ses exploits ? 
Sera-ce hors des murs, au milieu de ces places, 
Qu*on voit fumer encor du sang des Curiaces ? 

CORNEILLB. 

2. Adjectives elegantly npeated. 

II y a une infinite de choses, qui ne d^f)endent que d*uni 
lumiere humaine, dune expirience humaine, dune piM- 
tratian humaine. 



« WORDS TO BE REPEATED. 259 

JDes qu*an sort de la naJturCy tout dement faux dems Vilo' 
quence; la cJudeur de ses mouvemens les plus passionnSs 
n'est quune fausse ckaleur; VeckU de see figures tCest 
quun faux iclat. 

L*amaur propre est plus hobUe que le plus habile homme 
dunumde. 

3. - The Verb degarvdtf repeated. 

... ^ 

/*oublie que je suis malheureux, quand je songe que votes 
. ne m*avezpas oubli^ ; 

La reine sanctifia sa cour eh se sanctifiant elle-mS/ne. 

Flechier. 

• 

II s*est effoTci de qonnaitre IHeu^ qui par sa grandeur est 
inconnu aux hommes, et de connaitre l* homme, qui par 
sa vaniti est inconnu d lui-mime. Flechier.' 

En quittant le monde, on ne quitte le plus souvent ni les 
erreursy ni les folks passions du monde, 

BOURDALOUE. 

The following verses of Lusignan to Zaire contain seve- 
ral repetitions of substantives and verbs : 

Ma fille, tendre ^bjet de mes dernieres peines, 
Songe au moins, songe au sang qui coule dans tes veines ; 
• C*est le sang de vingt rois, tous Chretiens comme moi ; 
C*est le sang des h6ros defenseurs de ma loi ; * 
(Test le sang des martyrs. — O fille encor trop chere ! 
Connais-tu ton destin? sais-tu quelle est ta mere? 
Sais-tu bien qu'^ Finstant que son flanc mit au jour 
Ce triste et dernier fruit d'un malheureux amour, 
Je la vis massacrer par la main forcen^e. 
Par la main des brigands k qui tu t*es donn6e ? 
Tes fr^res, ces martyrs ^org^s k mes yeux, 
Touvrent leurs bras sanglans, tendus du haut des cietuH 
Ton Dieu que tu trahis, ton Dleu que tu blasphemes, 
Pour toi, pour tes p6ch6s est mort en ces lieux m^mes, 
£n ces lieux oh mon bras le servit tant de fois, 
£n ces lieux oik son sang te parle par ma voix. 
Vois ces murs, vois ce temple envahi par tes maitres ; 
Tout annonce le Dieu qu'ont veng6 tes ancetres. 



230 DISTINCTION BETWEEN MANY WORDS. 

Tourne les yeux ; sa tombe est pr^s de ce palats ; 
C'est ici la montagne oii, lavant nos for&its, 
II voulut expirer sous les coups de Fimpie ; 
C'est 1^ que de sa tombe il rappela sa vie ; 
. Tu ne saurais marcher dans cet auguste lieu, 
Tu VLj peux faire un pas, sans y trouver ton Dien , 
£t tu nypeux rester sans renier ton pdre» 
Ton honneur qui te parle, et ton Dieu qui t*6claire. 

VOLTAUU. 



Chap. xxiv. 

DisHnctian in French between many Wards wkieh are ex- 
pressed in the same Manner in English. 

1. An, ANNiE,«-^-Pkir* 

The word year is expressed by aumie when it is con- 
sidered as a duration of twelve months, and by an when 
we mean only to express one or more units or a twelve- 
month, at whatever part of the year it may begin. Ex- 
amples : 

It is two years since my father died ; My &ther died the 
first year of this century ; 

H y a deux ans ^^ man pire est mart; and, Man pen 
maurut la premiere ann6e de ce si^le^cu 

The whole year has been cold; Tauie ream^ea itiifrmk* 

I go every year to France ; 

Je vats t(ms les ans en France, 

Every year of his life has been marked by some mis- 
fortune ; 

Tautes les annUs desavie ant iti marqudes par guelqf» 
mcUheur, 

2. Jour, . . Joum6e, .... Day, 
S. Matin, • . Matinee, . . . Morning. 
4. Soir, .... Soiree, • . • • Evening. 



8. 



4. 



DISTINCTION 9ETWEEN MANY WORDS. 261 

Tlie word day is expressed hyjour; morning by matin; 
an4 evening by soivy when we speak of any part of them ; 
they are expressed by jowmiey matiniey and soiriey when 
we express their whole duration. Examples : 

C I have been sick all the day long ; 
2. < J^ai iti malade totUe la joum6e. 

(The days are short now; les jours sont courts ^ present. 

!I go a hunting every morning; 
Je vais a la chaise Urns Us matins. 
It has rained all the morning ; 
II aplu totUe la matinee. 

{I will go and see you to-morrow evening ; 
Tirai vous voir dsmain au soir. 
I will spend the evening with you ; 
Jepasserai la soir^ avec votts. 

5. Battre, Frafper, to Beat. 

The verb to beatf is rendered by frappery in speaking cf 
a single blow, and by battre when several are implied ; 
thus, on peut Jrapper sans battre, mais on ne petit battre 
sansjrapper. 

6. Combat,— Bataille, Battle. 

The word battle is expressed in French by combat^ when 
it denotes a partial action, such as happens at the passage 
of a river, at the intercepting of a convoy, &c. It is 
expressed by bataille^ when it denotes a general action of 
two armies, such as la bataitte de PharsaJe, la bataille de 
Fontenoi, la bataille de Jemmc^pesy &c. 

7. Casser, RoMPRE,— -— ft) Break. 

The verb to break is expressed by easser, when we speak 
-of something brittle, and hy romprey when the object is 
not brittle. Thus we say. 

You have broken my glass, you have broken my stick ; 
Yotis avez cass6 mon verre, vous aivez rompu mon bdton. 
^•^Not vous avez rompu mon verve et ca8s4 man bdton. - 



262 DISTINCTION BETWEEN MANY WORDS. 
8. CoNNAITREy SaVOIR, ft ? EhoW. 

The verb to know is always expressed by conndCK, 
when it signifies to be acquamied with; and most couaamAj 
by savoir in all other circumstances. Thus we say, 

Do you know that lady? Connaissez-ooti« ceUe dam$kf 
Do you know your lesson ? Sayez^wnu voire le^on f 

9. Marcher, Se fromener, to Walk. 

The verb to walk is expressed in French by mankr, 
when we walk for business, and by se promener when we 
walk for pleasure. Thus we say, 

I have been obliged to walk much to-day ; 
J'ai 6t6 obligi de marcher beaucoup aufowyTkuL 
I have been toalkinff in the garden with my brother; 
Je me suis promeni dans lejardin avec numfrire. 

N. B. It must be observed that the French verb se pn- 
mener does not mean properly to waJk^ though it be often 
translated so in English, but to take a diversion either by 
walking, or riding, or in a boat, &c So we say, se prth 
mener a ckeval, en carrosse, sur un dne^ en bcieau, dan 
une gondohy en mer, all expressions which would be ridi- 
culous i£ translated by to waUu 

10. Amener, Apporter,— ft> Bring. 

The verb to bring is . expressed in French by amesffi 
when the object can walk, and by porter when it cannot 
Thus we say, 

Bring your wife with you; Amenez votre htouse avec voui- 
Bring me my books ; Apportez-wiot mes livres, 

11. Mener, Porter,- to Carry. 

The verb mener is used in French when the' obied 
can walk, and|x>r^ when it cannot. Thus we say^ 

Take that dog to the stable ; Menez ce chien d Vicwrit* 
Carry that hat to your brother ; 
Portez ce chapeau d votre frere. 



DISTINCTION BETWEEN MANf WORDS. 263 

12. Neuf, NouvEAu,— -*-iVcw. 

The word new is most comraonly expressed by neuf^ or 
neuve^ when we speak of something which has been re- 
cently made, or has not been used since it was made, and 
by rumveau or nouvelh, when we speak of something of a 
new kind, a new shape, a new fashion, or different from 
another used before. Thus we say. 

He lives in a new house ; 

H demeure dans une maison neuve — if we mean a new- 
built house. 

H demeure dans une nouvelle maison — if we mean that 
a person has removed, and lives in another house. 

' .3. AvANT, Devant, Before. 

The word before is expressed in French by avant, when 
it denotes a priority, and by devanty when it signifies in 
presence of. Examples : 

I shall have done before noon; J^awaifini avant midu 

I dared not appear b^ore you ; 
Je n*osais paraitre devant vous. 

The contrary of avant is apres ; that of devant is 
derriere, 

14?. Dans,— En, In, 

The preposition in^ when speaking of a place, is ren- 
dered in French by dans, when we mean to express in a 
definite manner the inclusion, and bv en, when we express 
in a vague manner the situation. Ihus we say: 

He lives in a furnished house, near St. James's palace ; 

II demure dans une maison gamie, pris le palais de St. 
James. 

It is more convenient for me to live in a furnished 

lodging ; 
n est plus commode pour moi de vivre en c/iambre gamie. 

When speaking of time, dans expresses the epoch, and 
en the duration. Example : 



26^ DISTINCTION BETWEEN MANY WOBDS. 

Death arrives in the moment we think least of it, and we 
pass in an instant from this world into the next ; 

La mart arrive dans le moment qtian y penae le moiiM^ H 
Von passe en un instant de ce monde a V ombre* 

When speaking of the state or qualification, dans is used 
in a particularised sense, and en in a general sense* Thus 
we say : 

To live in liberty, to be in a fury, to fall inio*VL lethaigj; 
Vivre en libertd, Sire en /ureter, tomber en lilhargie. 

To live in an entire liberty ; 
Vivre dans une entiere Itberte. 

To be in an extreme fury ; 
Eire dans une extrimejurewr* 

To fall into a profound lethargy ; 
Tomber dans une prof onde le^hargie. 

15. Plus,—— Da VANTAGE, More. 

The word nwre is always expressed by plus, when it is 
not at the end of a sentence, and by davanta^e when it is 
at the end of an affirmative sentence. Examples : 

I am younger than you ; 

Je suis plus j'eune que vous, — not, davantaffejeune. 
You have no bread, will you have some more ? 
Vous n*avezpas de pain, en voiUez-vous davantage?— not, 
en voulez-vous plus. 

When the word more is at the end of a negative sentence^ 
it is often indifferently expressed by plus, or by pat da- 
vantage. Example : 

I will not eat any more ; 

Je ne mangerai plus— or, ^e rue mangerai pas davantage. 

16. Pour, Pendant, For 

The word /or is expressed in French by pendant, when 
it is followed by a word which denotes a certain duration 
of time, and when it could be expressed by during. It is 
expressed by pour in other circumstances. Example : 






EXPLANATION OF MARKS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 265 

I Study for two hours every day — or^ during two hours. 
J*etudie pendant deux heures tous Us jours — not jpour 

deux heures. 
I lend it you for two hours ; 
Je v€us le prite pour detix heures — not pendant dettx 

heures. 

17. SuR, Dessus, Upon. 

18. Sous, Dessous, Under. 

When the words upon and ufider are followed by a 
noun, they are prepositions, and expressed, upon by sur, 
and under by sous. Examples : 

Your book is upon the table ; Votre livre est sur la table. 
Your shoes are under the bed; Vos soldiers sont sous le lit 

When the words upon and under are not followed by a 
noun, they are adverbs, and expressed, upon by dessus, 
and under by dessous. Examples : 

You thought the dog under the bed, and he was upon it ; 
Vous croi/iez le chien sous le lit, et U itait dessus. 
Your handkerchief i^ not upon the chair, but it is under it ; 
Votre numchoir n*estpa>s sur la chaise, mais dessous. 

19. En Campagne, a la Campagne. 

We make use of en campagne, only when we speak of 
the army, or the motion of troops : as, 

L'arm6e se mettra bientot en campagne. 

We must make use of a la campagne, when we speak of 
going or living in the country. Example : 

Venez nous voir a la 'campagne. 



Explanation of the Marks and Abbreviations made use of 
in the following Series of Verbs. 

I, 2,) mark the two regular conjugations : all the 

verbs preceded by one of these figures are regular. 
T^ose preceded by number 1, are conjugated after 

N 



266 EXPLANATION OF MARKS AND ABBBEVIATIOHS. 

parler^ page 76 ; those preceded by number 2, are cos* 
jugated after agivy page 79. 

^ir.) denotes an irregular verb, which is conjugated 

in the grammar, 80, and following pages. 

{Se or £*) denotes that the verb is reflected in Frendi, 

and must be conjugated with two pronouns: thu8,J€fli 
is used in the first person singular ; tu tein the second; 
il se in the third ; rums nous in the first person plonl; 
vaus vaus in the second ; and Us se hi the third, as the 
verb se lever ; see page 108. 

(*) denotes a neutral verb conjugated with the anxiliaiy 

verb itre in its compound tenses. 

^e, dcu ac.) denote the cases which the veib mott 

commonly governs in French ; ffe. denotes the genitlYe; 
da, the dative ; and ac. the accusative.* 

de, a, pour) are the Frendi prepositions which are 

required before the next verb, when it is to be put in the 
infinitive. Those followed by (o) govern the infinitive 
without prepositions. 

(Sub^\) denotes that the next verb must alwa^ be pot 

in the subjunctive in French, when the infinitive is not 
required. 

N. B. The following series of verbs points out, 1. what 
verbs are regular and what irregular ; 2. the case thej 
govern ; 3. what preposition they require before the in- 
finitive ; and 4. those which govern the subjunctive: 
thus, by this useful vocubulary, four great difficulties of 
the French languiage will be removed. 

* When two cases are placed after a verb, they denote that the Tob 
may govern two substantives at once ; for instance, one in the loco- 
sative, the other in the genitive or dative; but if Uie two cases be a^> 
parated by the conjunction ort it denotes that the same substsntift 
may be put in one of the two cases, ahnost indifiiBrently. 



267 



AN 



ALPHABETICAL SERIES 



OP 



FRENCH VERBS, 

REGULAR AND IRRSGULAR. 



All regular Verbs are conjugated according to one of the 
two following, which are themselves conjugated at full 
length in the page mentioned after each verb. 

1. Parler, to spsaky see page 76. 

2. Agir, to acty 78. 

The following list contains above- 1500 regular verbs, 
and all the irregular ones, which are, comparatively, sl 
small number ; as four-fiflhs, at least, of the French verbs 
fkll under the first conjugation in er. 



Conjugations. 


Cases. 




Infinitive. 


1 Abaisser, 


ac. 


to bring doum. 




1 s*abaisser, 


da. 


to stocpy — 


— ll. 


1 abandonner, 


ac. da. 


to abandon. 




ir abattre. 


ac 


topidldown. 




1 abdiquer. 


ac. 


to abdicate. 




1 abhorrer, 


ac. 


to abhor J — 


— de. 


1 abimer, 


ac. 


to destroy entirely. 




1 abjurer, 


ac 


to dbjure. 




2 abolir, 


ac. 


to abolish. 




1 abonder en. 


V 


toaboundwith, 




; 1 s'abonner, 


da. 


to con^fxmndy 


— pour. 



K. B. When the verbs are taken in a different sense, they govern 
different cases and prepositions : as they could not have been all in- 
serted without confUsion, those only have been mentioned whrch they 
govern most commonly. 

N 2 



268 



FRElirca VERBS. 



2 abonnii, 
1 aborder 



ac. 



1 ac. 

[ ge- 

J da. 



1 6 aboucher avec, 

2 aboutir, da. 
1 aboyer, 

1 abrlger, ac 

1 abreuver, ac. ge. 

1 abroger, ac 

2 abrutir, ac. 

1 s*absenter, ge. 

1 absorber, ac. 

ir absoudre, ac. ge. 

ir, s*abstenir, ge. 

ir, abstraire, ac. ge. 
abuser, gc 

accabler, ac. ge. 

accaparer, ac 
acceder, da. 

acc61erer, ac. 

accentuer, ac 

accepter, ac ge. 

accommoder, ac da. 

accompagner, ac da. 

2 accomplir, ac 
accorder, ac da. 
saccorder, 
accoster, • ac 

♦ ge. 



accoucher. 



' J ac» I 
s'accouder sur, 

2 accourcir ac* 
ir, accourir, da. 

accoutumer, ac. da. 
s'accoutumer, da. 

accr6diter, ac. 

accrocher, ac. da. 

ir, accroitre, ac. 

t>. accueillir, ac 

] accumuler, ac. 



to better. 

to come up with. 

to go near. 

to land. 

to confer withy — po 

toendf — — 

to bark. 

to abridge. 

to water. 

to abrogaie 

to absent ones wf, 

to absorb. 

toabsolvcy — 

toforbeaTy — 

to abstract 

toabuse. 

to ovenjcheim. 

•to monopolize. 

to accede. 

to accelerate. 

to accent 

to accepty — 

to accommodate. 

toaccompcmy. 

to accomplish. 

to granty — 

w agree, — 

to accost 

to be delivered. 

to deliver a woman. 

to lean upon. 

to shorten. 

to run to. 

toaccustoniy — 

to use ones sdfy — 

to give credit 

to Jiang tqpon a hook, 

to increase. 

to weilcome. 

to heap up. 



French: verbs. 



269 



accuser, ac. 

ac^rer, ac. 

s*acharner, 

s'acheminer vers, 

acheter, ac. 

achever, ac. 

. acqu^rir, ac. 

acquiescer, 
i s'acquitter, 

[ adapter, ac. 

I additionner, ac. 
I adherer, 

. adjoindre, ac. 

I adjuger, ac. 

. admettre, ac. 

[ administrer, ac. 

[ admirer, ac. 
[ s*adonner, 

I adopter, ac. 

[ adorer, ac. 

I adoucir, ac. 

L adresser, ac. 
I s*adresser, 

I afiaiblir ac. 

I afPamer, ac. 

i affecter, < * 

( ac. 

L afFectionner, ac. 

[ afFermer, ac. 

I afFermir, ac 

I afficher, ac. 

affiler, ac. 

i affilier, ac. 

[ aflfe'^er, ac. 

i affliger, ac. 
I aflhici^ 

I afiranchir, ac. 

[ afironter, ac. 

aiFubler, ac 
L s*agenouilIer, 

I aggraver, ac. 



ge. 


to accuse^ 
to steel. 


•—" 


de. 


da. 


to be eager at, 
to set forward. 


•— 


a. 


ge- 


to Imy. 








tojinishj 


— 


dew 




to acquire. 






da. 


to yield. 






ge. 


to discharge. 






da. 


to adapt. 

to make an addition. 




da. 


to adhere to. 






da. 


to associate. 






da. 


to adjudjge. 






da. 


to admit. 


-^ 


•a. 


da. 


to administer. 








to admire, — 


(subj.) 


de. 


da. 


to apply ones self to. 


a. 




to adopt. 








to adore. 








to sf^ien. 






da. 


to direct. 






da. 


to apply to, 


— pour 




to weaken. 








to starve. 






da. 


to appropnote. 








to affect, 


— 


de. 




to love. 








tolet. 








to strengthen. 






da. 


to post up. 
to sharpen. 






da. 


to adopt. 






da. 


to assert, 


— 


0. 




to afflict, 


— 


de. 




to abound. 






ge. 


to set free, 
to encounter. 






ge- 


to muffle up. 
to hneel down, 
to aggravate. 






V 


r 3 







70 


FRENCH 


VS&BS. 


1 agioter. 






tosiock-jcb. 


2 agir, 






to act. 


1 agiter, 


ac' 




toagitaie. 


2 agrandiTy 


ac 




toenlargt. 


1 agr^er, 


ac 


ge. 


to aooqfij — (su 


1 • agr^ger, 


ac 


da. 


tooffffregate. 


2 s'aguerrir, 




da. 


to inure ones sdf, •.— 


1 aider, 


acorda. 


tohe^f — 


2 aigrir, 


ac 




to exiuperate. 


1 aiguiUoner 


ac 




to stir up. 


1 aiguiser> 


ac 




to sharpen. 


1 aimer. 


ac 




to lovey — 


1 aimer mieux, 


ac 




to like better y — 


1 ajoumer, 


ac 




to summon^ — 


3 ajouter, 


ac 


da. 


to add. 


1 ^uster, 


ac 


da. 




] alarmer, 


ac 




to alarm. 


1 aligner, 


ac 




to alienate. 


1 aligner, 


ac 




to Jay out straight 


1 allmter, 


ac 




tostuMe. 


1 all6ger, 


ac 




to alleviate. 


1 all^guer, 


ac 


da. 


to allege. 


r, aller*, 


ac. 


da. 


toga. — 


1 allier, 


ac 


da. 


to allay. 


1 s'allier, 




da. 


to make an alliance. 


1 allumer, 


ac 


da. 


to light. 


1 allonger, 


ac 




to lengthen. 


1 alt^rer, 


ac. 




to adulterate. 


1 amasser, 


ac 


da. 


to heap up^ — 


1 ambitiomier,^ 


ac 




to pursue ambUUmsfy, 


1 am^liorer, 


ac 




to improve. 


1 s'amender, 






to grow better. 


1 amener, 


ac 


da. 


to bring y *^ 


1 ameuter, 


ac. 




to raise a mcb. 


2 amollir, 


ac 




tomoOify. 


1 amonceler, 


ac 




to heap up. 


1 amercer, 


ac 




to allure. 


2 amortir, 


ac 




to quench. 


1 amplifier, 


ac 




to an^Ufy. 


1 s'amuser. 


ac 


da. 


to amuse cniis sdf^ 


2 aniantir. 


ac 




to anmhilaie. 



FRENCH VERBS. 



271 



animery 


ac. 


da. 


annoncer. 


ac. 


da. 


annuUer, 


ac. 




* anoblir, 


ac 




anticiper, 


ac. 




'. apercevoir, 


ac. 




'• s apercevoir, 




ge. 


1 apetisser, 






1 . s*apetisser, 






2 aplanir, 


ac. 




I aplatir, 


. ac. 




I appaiser, 


ac. 




I appareiller, 


ac. 




• appartenir, 




da. 


I s'appauvrir, 


< 




appeler, 


ac. 




'• appendre, 


ac. 


da. 


I appesantir, 


ac. 




i applaudir, 


acorda. 


I appliquer, 


ac. 


da. 


I s*app]iquer, 




da. 


I apporter, 


ac. 


da. 


I apposer, 


ac. 


da. 


I appr^cier, 


ac. 


da. 


I appr^hender, 


ac. 


ge. 


•• apprendre, 


ac. 


da.. 


I appr^ter, 


ac. 


da. 


I apprivoiser, 


ac. 




i approcher, 


ac 


ge. 


2 approfondir, 


ac. 




L approprier, 


ac 


da. 


I s*approprier, 


ac 




L approuver, 


ac* 




1 appuyer, 


ac 




I s*appuyer sur. 






L arborer, 


ac 




1 argumenter, 


ge- 


da. 


1 armer, 


ac 


ge. 


1 arpenter, 


ac. 




1 arracher, ac.ge.orda. 


1 arranger, 


ac 





k. 



— o. 



o. 



— de. 



to animatey 

to announce^ 

to abrogate. 

to ennoble, 

to anticipate. 

to perceive f 

to perceive. 

to diminish. 

to groiv short 

to level. 

to make fiat. 

to appease. 

to match. 

to belong^ 

to grow pooTy — 

to colly — 

to append. 

to make heavy. 

to appkmdy — 

to apply. 

to apply one*s self, 

to bring. 

to set. 

to appraise. 

tofeavy — (subj.) de* 

to lemmy — ^ 

to prepare, — a. 

to tame. 

to approach. 

to examine into, 

to appropriate. 

to usurp. 

to approvcy — de> 

to prop. 

to lean upon. 

to set up. 

to infer. * 

to arm. 

to survey land. 

to pull out. 

to set in order. . 



a. 
a. 



de. 



N ^ 



272 




FRENCH 


VERBS. 




arreter, 


ac. 




to stop, to determine^ ( 




g'arr^ter, 




da. 


to stay, — 




arriver*, 




da. 


to come to, to happen, ( 




s'arroeer, 
arrondir, 


ac. 




to claim to ones self, ( 


2 


ac. 




to make round. 




arroser, 


ac. 




to toaier* 




articuler, 


ac 




to articulate. 




asperger. 


ac. 


ge. 


to besprinkle. 




aspirer, 




da. 


to aim at, — 




assaisonner, 


ac. 


ge- 


to season. 




assassiner, 


ac. 




to assassinate. 




assembler, 


ac. 


da. 


to^bring together. 


ir. 


asseoir, . 


ac. 




to sit. 




assi^ger, 


ac 




to besiege. 




assigner, 


ac 


da. 


toassign, — 




assimiler. 


ac 


da. 


to assimilate. 




assister, 


ac. 


ge. 


to stand by. 




associery 


ac. 


da. 


to associate. 




assommer, 


ac 


ge- 


to knock down. 


2 


assortir, 


ac 


da. 


to match. 


2 


assoupir, 


ac 




to make drmosg. 


2, 


s'assoupir, 


•■ 


da. 


to faU asleep. 


2 


assouvir, 


ac 


ge. 


to glut. 


2 


assujettir, 


ac 


da. 


to subdue, — 


1 


assurer* 


ac. 


da. 


to affirm, — 


tr. 


astreindre, 


ac. 


da. 


to subject, •— 




s*attabler, 






to sit down at table, ' 




attacher, 


ac. 


da. 


tofasten. 




s'attacher, 




da. 


to stick. — 




attaquer, 


ac. 


ge. 


to attack. 




s'attaquer, 




da. 


to stand up against. 


ir. 


atteindre, 


acorda. 


to reach, > 


1 


atteler, 


ac 


da. 


to put horses to a coach. 


ir. 


attendre, 


ac 




to wait, — 


ir. 


s*attendre, 




da. 


to hope for, — 


2 


attendrir, 


ac 




to scften. 


2 


s attendrir, 






to bemoved. 


1 


attenter, 




da. 


to attempt. 


1 


att^nuer, 


ac. 




to attenuate. 


1 


atterrer, 


ac 




to strike down. 


1 


attester, 


ac. 


da. 


to attest, — 



ntENCH' verbs; 



273 



atti6dir, 

attirer, ^ 

s'attirer, 

attiser, 

attraire, 

attraper, 

attribuer, 

s'attrister, 

attrouper, 

s'attrouper, 

augmenter, 

augurer, 

auner, 

autoriser, 

avaler, 

avancer, 

s'avancer, 

avertir, 

aveugler, 

avilir, 

s'aviser, 

avoir, 

avouer, 



ac. 

ac. da. 

ac. 

ac. 

ac. 

ac 

ac. 



ac 



ac. 
ac. 
ac. 

ac. 
ac 



da. 



da. 
ac ge. 
ac. ge. 



da. 



ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. da. 



ge. 

ge- 
da. 



to cool dawn, 

to attract 

to draw upon one^s self. 

to stir up, 

to allure, 

to catch, 

to ascribe J — 

to be sOrrowfuly 

to assemble, 

to troop, 

to increase, 

to augur, 

to fneasure by the ell, 

to authorise, — 

to swallow, 

to advance, 

to go so far as. 

to warn, — 

to blind, 

to disgrace, 

to bethink one's self 

to have, — 

to confess, — 



de. 
de. 



a. 



de. 



de. 

N 

a. 



B. 



Babiller, 
badiner, 
se baigner, 
bailler, 

baiser, ac. 

baisser, ac 
se baisser, 

balancer, ac 

balayer, ac 

balotter, ac. 

bander, ac. 

bannir, ac 

baptiser, ac. 

barbouiUer, ac 

barrer, ac 



ge- 

ge- 
da. 



V 



to prattle, 
to joke, 
to bathe, 
to yawn, 
to kiss, 
to letdown, 
to stoop, 
to balanc 
to sweep, 
to toss, 
to bend, 
to banish, 
to baptise, 
to daub, 
to bar, ' 
5 



274. 



f RXSCH VMRBM. 



tr 



tr. 



tr. 



barricader, 

bassiner, 

b&ter, 

b&tir» 

battre, 

b^ffajer, 

bder, • 

b6nir, 

bercer, 

biaisery 

biffer, 

bMmer, 

blancfahr, 

blasphemer, 

blesser, 

bloquer, 

boire, 

boiser, 

bombarder, 

bondir, 

border, 

bomer, 

boucher, 

bouder, 

bouillir, 

boulanger, 

boulevei^ser, 

bourdonner, 

boutonner, 

branler, 

brasser, 

braver, 

brider, 

briguer, 

briller, 

briser, 

broder, 

broncher, 

brosser, 

brouiller, 

broyer, 



ac 
ac 
ac 
ac. 



ac 



ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 

ac 
ac 
ac 



ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac. 

ac. 
ac 

ac 
ac. 
ac« 



to barricade. 

to warm a bed. 

toeaddk. 

to build. 

to beat. 

to stammer. 

iobleai. 

to bless. 
ge. to IvU to sletp. 

io use evasions. 
ge. to blot out. 
ge. io blarney -i- d 

towhiien. 

tobkupheme. 

towomd. 

to block vp. 

to drink. 

to wainscot. 

to bombard. 

to jump about. 

to border. 

to limit, * <— 

to step up. 

topout. 

to boil. 

to bake. 

to overthrow. 
da. to buzz. 

to button. 

to shake. • 

to brew. 

to affront. 

to Mdle. 

to sue for an office. 
da. to shine. 

to break. 

to embroider. 

to stumble. 

to bmsh. 

to confound. 

to grind. 



da. 





FRENCH 


VERBS. 


275 


[ bruler, 


ac. 


■*■ 


to bum. 




I brunir. 


ac. 




to burnish* ' 




L brusquer, 


ac. 




to blunt. 




butiner, 


ac 




to plunder. 




Cabaler, 




C. 


to cabal.' 




cacher. 


ac. 


da. 


to hide. 




i cacheter, 


ac. 




to seal up. 




1 calciner, 


ac. 




to calcinate. 




caleuler, 


ac. 




to calculate. 




calmer, 


ac 




to calm. 




calomnier, 


ac 




to slander. 




camper, 


ac 




to encamp. 




canoner, 


ac. 




to storm. 




se cantonner. 






to canton. 




capituler, 


/ 




to capitulate. 




caract^riser. 


ac. 




to characteri^. 




caresser, 


ac 




to caress. 




carrer, 


ac. 




to square. 




casser, 


ac. 


da. 


to break. 




cat6chiser, 


ac. 




to instruct. 




causer, 






to prattle. 




cautionner,, 


ac 




to bail. 




c6der. 


ac 


da. 


to yield. 




c616brer, 


ac 




to celdfrcUe. 




c6ler. 


ac. 


da. 


to conceal. 




censm'er. 


ac 


ge- 


to censure. 




certifier, 


ac 


da. 


to certify, — 


0. 


cesser, 


ac 




to cease, — 


de. 


L chagriner, 


ac 




to vex, — 


de. 


t chanceler. 






to totter. 




I changer, 


ac 




to change. 




I chanter, 


ac 




to sing. 




I charger, 


ac 


ge. 


to charge, — x 


de. 


L charmer. 


ac 




to charm, — 


de. 


I chasser. 


ac 


ge. 


toeaipel. 




L chauflPer, 


ac 




to warm. 




I cheminer. 






to walk. 




L chercher, 


ac 




tolook/oTf *- 


L 








H 6 







FRENCH 


VERBS. 


chiHrer, 


ac 




toKumler. 


choisir, 


ac 




to choose, 


choquer, 


ac 




tooff^rul, - 


cicatriser, 


ac 




tocicatrite. 


cinienter, 


BC. 








ac 




to circumscribe. 




ac 




to describe minute 


circuler. 


ac 




to circulate. 


citer. 










ac 




tociciliee. 


clarifier' 


ac. 




to clarify. 


coaguler, 


ac 




tocoagviale. 


coUer, 


ac. 


da. 


to glue. 


colorer. 


ac. 




locoUmr. 


combattre. 


ac 




tofight. 


combler. 


ac 


ge. 


toheaptga. 


commander, 


ac 


da. 


to command. 


comraencer, 


ac 




to begin. 


coinmenter, 


ac. 




tocommenL 


commercer. 






to trade. 


commettre, 


ac. 


da. 


to commit, 


communiquer, 


ac 


da. 




comparer, 


ac 


da. 




compatir. 




da. 


to compassionate. 


compeoser, 






tocompenwie. 


se complairc, 




da. 


to please. 




ac 


ge- 




composer. 








com prendre, 


ac 


da. 


to understasid. 


com primer, 


ac 




toa^pteeze. 


se compromctt 


re, 




to expose one's sel 


compter, 


ac 




to count. 


concentrer. 


ac 






concemer. 


ac. 




to concern. 


cdncevoir, 








concilier. 


ac. 






condure, 


ac. 




to conclude. 






da. 




condamner, 


ac 


da. 


to condemn. 


GondeBcendre, 




da. 






ac. 


da. 


to conduct. 



(.ubj.)J 





FRENCH 


VERBS 


"111 


conf(6rer, 


ac. 


da. 


to confer. 


• 


confesser, 


ac. 


da. 


to confess, 


— 0. 


confier. 


ac. 


da. 


to trust. 




confiner, 


ac. 




to confine. 




confire. 


ac. 




topiekle. 




confirnier, 


ac. 


da. 


to confirm 




confisquer, 


ac. 




to confiscate. 




confondre. 


ac. 




to confound. 




conformer, 


ac. 


da. 


to conform. 




comforter, 


ac. 




to comfort. 




confronter, 


ac. 




to compare. 




congidier, 


ac. 


ge. 


to dismiss. 




conjecturer, 




ge- 


to guess. 




conjoindre, 


ac 




to conjoin. 


\ 


conjuguer, 


ac. 




to conjugate. 




conjurer, 


ac. 


ge. 


to intredt. 


(subj.) de. 


conniver, 




da. 


to connive. 




connaitre, 


ac. 




to know J 


— 0. 


conqu^rir, 


ac. 


^ 


to conquer. 




consacrer, 


ac. 


da. 


to consecrate. 




conseiller, 


ac. 


da. 


to advise. 


(subj.) de. 


consentir. 




da. 


to consent, 


(subj.) k. 


conserver, 


ac. 




to preserve. 




consid^rer, 


ac 




to consider. 




consigner, 


ac 


da» 


to consign. 


— de. 


consister, 






to consist. 


— a. 


consoler. 


ac. 


ge. 


to comfort. 


— de. 


consolider, 


ac 


^^ 


to consolidate. 




consommer. 


ac 




to consummote. 




conspirer, 


ac. 




to conspire. 


— de. 


constemer. 


ac. 




to dispirit. 




constiper. 


ac 




to make costive. 




constituer, 


ac 




to appoint. 




construire. 


ac. 




to build. 




consulter. 


ac. 




to consult. 




consumer, 


ac. 




to consume. 




contempler. 


ac 




to contemplate. 




contenir, 


ac 




to comprehend. 




contenter, 


ac 




to satisfy. 




center, 


ac. 


da. 


to relate. 




contester, 


ac 


da. 


to contest, 


- (subj) 



278 



FRENCH VBRB8. 



1 continuer, ac« 

1 contracter, ac 

tr. contraindre, ac* 

1 contrarier, ac 

1 contre-ba]ancer,ac. 

tr. contredire, ac 

tr. contrefaire, ac 

1 contre-mander, ac 

1 contre-miner, ac 

1 contre-signer, ac 

tr. contrevenir, 

1 contribuer, 

1 contrdler, ac 

tr. conyaincre> ac 

tr. convenir *, 

1 converger avec, 

2 convertiry ac 
1 coop^rer, 

1 copier, ac 

1 corder, ac 

tr. correspondre, 

1 corriger, ac 

1 corroborer, ac 

ir, corromprey ac 

1 cotoyer, ac 

1 coucher, ac 

1 se coucher, 

tr. coudre, ac 

1 couler, 

1 couper, ac 

1 courber, ac. 

ir, courir, 

1 couronner, ac 

1 courtiser, ac 

1 coiiter, 

1 couver, ac 

tr. couvrir, ac 

1 crachery ac 

tr. craindre, ac 

1 crajonnefy ac 

1 cr^er ac 



togoonj •— de or a. 

tocontraeU 

to oompd, — de or a. 

to contradict. 

to coumierpoise* 

tocontradici, 

to counieffeii. 

to counternuauL 

to countermine, 

to coimiersign. 
da. toif^ringe. 
da. toconbrOmie^ — a. 

to coniroL 
ge. to con/mnccy — de. 

gc toagreey — de. 

to converse, 
• to convert 
da. to co-operaie. 

to transcribe. 

to twist.' 
da. to correspond. 

to correct. 

to strengthen. 

to corrupt, 

to coast (dong. 

to put to bed. 

to go to bed. 

to sew. 

tojhw. 
da. to cut. 

to bend, 
da. to run, 
ge. to crown, 

to court* 
da. to cost, 

to brood. 
ge. to cover, 
da. to spit. 
ge. tofeary — (subj.) de. 

to draw, 

to create. 





FRBMCH 


VBRBS. 


creuser, 


ac. 




to hollow out. 


crever, 




ge- 


to burst. 


crier, 




da. 


to cry* 


critiquer, 


ac. 




to caod. 


croire, 


ac 




to beUeve, — 


croiser, 


ac 




to cross. 


croitre, 






to increase. 


croquer, 


ac 




to scranch. 


crotter, 


ac 




to dirt 


croupir, 






to stagnate. 


crucifier, 


ac 




to crucify. 


cueillir, 


ac 




to gather. 


cuire, 


ac 




tocook. 


cultiver, 


ac 




to cultivate. 


curer, 


ac 


D 


to cleanse. 


Daigner, 






to deign f — 


damner, 


ac. 




to damn. 


danser, 


ac 




to dance. 


d^bander, 


ac 




to untie. 


d§barquer, 


ac 




to disembark. 


d^barrasser/ 


ac. 


ge. 


to disengage. 


d6barrer, 


ac 




to unbar. 


debattre, 


ac. 




tod^ate. 


se d^battre, 






to struggle. 


d^baucher, 


ac 




todebawh. 


d^biter, 


ac 




to set forth, 
to unoorder. 


d6border, 


ac. 




se d^border, 
d^botter, 


ac 




to over/low, 
topuUoffomis boots. 


d^boucher, 


ac. 




to clear. .^ 


d^bourser,* 


ac 




to dithwrse. 


d^boutonner, 


ac 




to unbutton. 


d^brider, 


ac 




to unbridle. 


d^brouiller, 


ac 




to clear. 


d§busquer, 


ac. 


ge- 


to drive out. 


d^cacheter, 


ac 




to unseal. 


d^camper, 




ge. 


to run away. 


d^capiter, 


ac. 




to behead. 



279 



0. 



— o. 



280 



FRENCH VERBS. 



d^cllner, 



d6c6dery 

d6celer, ac 

d^cemer, ac da. 

ir. d^cevoir, ac 

dechainer, ac. 
se d^chainer contre, 

d^charger, ac. ge. 

d^kamer, ac. 

d^chausser, ac 

d^chifirer, ac 

d^chiqueter, ac. 

d^chirer, ac. 

t>. d6choir, ge. 

decider, ac 

d6cimer, ac. 
d6clamer contre» 

declarer, ac. da. 

I 

j ac. 

d6coiffer, ac. 

d^coUer, ac 

d6colorer, ac 

decomposer, ac. 

d^compter, ac 

d^concerter, ac 

d^corder, ac. 

d6corer, ac ge. 

tV. d^coudre, ac. 

d^couler, ge. 

d^couper, ac 

decoupler, ac 

d6courager, ac. 

ir, decouvrir, ac da. 

dicrediter, ac 

d6cr6ter, ac. 

d^crier, ac 

ir. d^crire, ac 

ir. d6croitre, ac 

d6crotter, ac 

d^daigner, ac 

d^dier, ac da. 



to die. 

fb detect. 

to decree. 

to deceive.. 

to let loose. 

to ifweiffh againtt. 

to unload. 

topuU offihefieih. 

to pull me stockings off 

to decipher. 

to sn^. 

to tear off. 

to decay. 

to decidcy — de or 

to decimate. 

to inveigh against. 

to declarCf — 

to decay. 

to decline. 

to put off the head-dress. 

to ungiue. 

to discolour. 

to dissolve. 

to discount. 

toputouty — c 

to untufist. 

to adorn. 

to unsew. 

to flow. 

to cut. 

to uncouple. 

to discourage, — ( 

to discover. 

to discredit 

to decree, — < 

to discredit. 

to describe. 

to decrease. 

to rub off the dirt. 

to despise, — ( 

to dedicate. 



FRENCH V£RBS. 



281 



d6dire, 

(]6dommager, 

d^ulre, 

d^faire, 

d^fendre, 

def(§rer, 

d^er, 

se difier, 

d^figurer, 

d^filer, 

definir, 

d^fleurir, 

defoncer, 

d^former, 

defrayer, 

difricher, 

defriser, 

degager, 

d^gainer, 

d6garnir, 

degeler, 

degen6rer, 

d(3gourdir, 

d^gouter, 

se d^gouter, 

d^goutter, 

d^grader, 

d^graisser, 

d^guiser, 

dejeuner, 

d6joindre, 

dilacer, 

dilaisser, 

dilasser, 

delayer, 

d§l§guer, 

d^liberer sur, 

duller, 

d^livrer, 

deloger, 

demander. 



ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac/ 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 

ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 



ac 
ac. 



ac. 
ac. 
ac. 

ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 

ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 



ge. 
ge- 

da. 
da. 

ge. 



ge- 



ge« 



ge. 
ge- 



— • de. 



ge. 
ge« 

da. 



to unsay • 

to indemmfyy — de. 

to subtract 

to undo. 

to forbid, (siibj.) de. 

to yield. 

to challenge, 

to distrust 

to disform. 

to unstring, 

to define, 

to let fall its blossoms, 

to stave a cask, 

to put out of form, 

to defray. 

to clear, 

to uncurl, 

to disengage, 

to unsheath a sword, 

to unfumish, 

to thaw. 

to degenerate, 

to revive, 

to disgust, — de. 

to be weary, — de. 

to trickle dmon, 

to degrade, 

to take away the fat, 

to dissemble, 

to breakfast, 

to disp'oin, 

to unlace, 

to abandon, 

to rest, 

to dilute, 

to delegate, 

to deliberate, 

to untie, 

to rescue, 

to remove, 

to ask for, (subj.) a or de. 



£82 



FRENCH VERBS. 



Q^manger, 
d^mater, 
d6m^ler, 
tV. d6mentir^ 
ir, se d6mettre, 
d6meubler, 
demeurer, 
d^olir, 
d^monter, 
d^montrer, 
d6nier, 
dinommery 
d6noncer, 
d6noter, 
d^nouer, 
d6paqueter, 
t>. departir, 
ir, se d^partir, 
dipaver,' 
d6p#cher, 
se d^p^cher, 
tr. (d^peindre, 
ir. d^pendre, 
d^penser, 
d6peuple^ 
d^placer^ 
ir. d6plaire, 
d^planter, 
d^plier, 
d^plisser, 
d§plorer, 
d^plumer, 
2 Cl^polir, 
d^poser, 
d^poss^der, 
d^pouiller, 
depraver, 
d^primer, 
d^puter, 
deraciner, 
d^raisonner, 



to itch. 
ac to unmast 

ac. to disentangle, 

ac to give the lie 

. ge. to resign. 
ac to u^umish. 

to dweUy or to stay. 
ac to demolish. 

ac to dismount. 

ac da. to demonstrate. 
ac to deny. 

ac. to name. 

ac da. ft> denounce. 

denote. 

untie. 

undo a bundle. 

distribute. 

stray. 

unpave. 

despatch. 

nuxke haste, — de 

describe, 

depefnd, — de 

spend, — a 

depopidaie. 

displace. 

displease, (subj.) de 

tran^lani. 

unfold, 

unplak. 

lament. 

take out the feathers. 

unpolish. 

dtpose, — ( 

dispossess. 

strip. 

d^rave. 

depress. 

depvOe. 

root out. 
to talk nonsense. 



ac 




to 


ac 




to 


ac 




to 
to 
to 


ac. 




to 


ac. 


da. 


to 
to 


ac 


da. 


to 




ge- 


to 


ac. 




to 


ac 


ge. 


to 


ac 




to 




da. 


to 


ac 




to 


ac 




to 


ac. 




to 


ac 




to 


ac 




to 


ac 




to 


ac 




to 


ac. 


ge. 


to 


ac 


ge- 


to 


ac 


, 


to 


ac 




to 


ac 


da 


to 


ac 




to 



FRENCH VERBS. 



283 



d6ranger, ac ge. 

-^ d^r^gler, ac 

d^river, ac ge. 

d^rober, ac da. 
d^roger, da. 

dirouiller, ac. 

d^sabuser, ac. ge. 
tr. d^sapprendre, ac. 
d^sapprouver, ac. 

d6sarmer, ac 

d^savouer, ac. 

. descendre, <^ ^^ 

d6sennuyer, ac. 

deserter, ac or ge. 

d^sesperer, ac. 

d^shabiller, ac. 

se d6shabituer> ge. 

dishonorer, ac. 

designer, ac. da. 

d^sirer, ac. ge. 

se d6sister, ge. 

2 d6sob6iry da. 

d6sobliger, ac. 

d^soler, ac. 

d^sorienter, ac 

d^osser, ac 
2 d^saisir, ^ ge. 

dessaler, ac 

dess^cher, ac. 

desseller, ac 

tr. desservir, ac 

dessiner, ac 

dessouder, ac. 

destiner, ac da. 

2 d^sunir, ac 

detacher, ' ac ge. 

tr. d6temdre,^ ac 

tr. d^tendre, ac 

determiner, ac 

se d6termiBer, da. 



a. 



(subj.) 



to disorder. 

to disorder, 

to derive, 

to steal, 

to deroffote, 

to get out the nist, 

to undeceive, 

to UTileamy 

to disapprove, — 

to disarm, 

to disown, — (subj.) o. 

to takedown. 

to go down, — o. 

to divert, 

to desert, 

to despair, — (subj.) de. 

to undress, 

to break offonis custom, de. 

to diskcfwur, 

to appoint, 

to long for, (subj.) o. or de. 

to give over, 

to disobey, 

to displease, 

to desolate, — de. 

to put one out, 

to unbone, 

to let a thing go, 

to unsalt, 

to dry up, 

to unsaddle, 

to clear up, 

to sketch, 

to unsolder. 

to design, -— ^ 

to disunite, 

to untie, 

to discolour, 

to unbend, 

to determine, * — a. 

to resolve upon, — a. 



284 



FRENCH VERBS. 



1 d^tester, 
ir, d^iordre, 

ditourner, 

d6tremper, 

d^tromper, 

dtodner 
ir. d6truire, 

d^yaliser, 

devancer, 

d^velopper, 
:>. devenir*, 

d6verrouilIer, 

divider, 

deviner, 

d^voiler, 
ir. devoir, 

d^vorer, 

d^vouer, 

dieter, 

diffamer, 

difF^rer, 

dig6rer, 

dilater, 

dimer, 

diminuer, 

diner, 
ir, dire, 

diriger, 

discerner, 

discipliner, 

discontinuer, 
ir. disconvenir*, 
ir, discourir, 

disculper, 

discuter, 

disgracier, 
tr, disjoindre, 
ir. disparaitre, 

dispenser, 

disperser, 

disposer, 



ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 

ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac. 



ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 

ac. 
ac 
ac 



ge. 



da. 
da. 
da. 
da. 
da. 



da. 



ge. 
ge. 
ge« 



ge. 
ge. 

da. 



to abator 

to untwist 

to divert, — ( 

to diltUe. 

to undeceive, 

to dethrone. 

to destroy., 

to strip, 

to outrun. 

to unfM. 

to become, 

to unbolt. 

to unraveL 

to guess. 

to unveil. 

to owe, — ' 

todexKmr. 

to dedicate. ' 

todidate. 

todrfame. 

to d'^er, — d 

to digest* 

to dilate. 

to tith^ 

to decrease* 

to dine. 

to say,. 

to direct. 

to discern. 

to discipline. 

to cease, — c 

to disagree, (subj.)( 

to discourse. 

to justify, — c 

to discuss. 

to turn out of favour 

to disjoin. 

to vanish away. 

to excuse, — d 

to scatter. 

to set in order, — 



-^ d 



FRENCH VERBS* 



285 



disputer, 

diss6quer, 

dissimulery 

dissiper, 

dissoudre, 

dissuader, 

distiller, 

distinguer, 

distraire, 

divaguer, 

divertir, 

diviser, 

divulguer, 

dogmatiser, 

dominer, 

dompter, 

donner, 

dormir, 

doter, 

doubler, 

douer, 

douter, 

dresser, 

durcir, 

durer, 



Eblouir, 

6branler, 

^carter, 

^changer, 

6chapper, 

^chauffer, 

6chouer, 

6clabou8ser, 

6claircir, 

6clairer, 

6clater, 

s'^clipser, 

6conduire, 







to qttarrel. 




ac. 




to dissect. 




ac. 




to dissemble. 




ac. 




to dissipate. 




ac. 




to dissolve. 




ac. 


ge- 


todissuadey 


— de. 


ac. 




to distiL 




ac. 


ge- 


to discern. 




ac. 


ge. 


to distract, 
to ramble.' 




ac. 




to diverty 


— a. 


ac. 


ge- 


to divide. 




ac. 




to publish, 
to dogmaiise. . 




ac. 




to suxxy. 


t 


ac. 




to subdue. 




ac. 


da. 


to give, 
tosleq). 


— a. 


ac. 




to give a portion. 




ac. 


ge- 


to line, to double. 




ac. 


ge- 


to endow. 






ge- 


to question. 


- (subj.) 


ac. 




to make straight. 


— I 


ac. 




tohmden. 
tolast 




ac. 


\ 


to dazzle. 




ac. 




to shake. 




ac. 


ge- 


to drive awag. 




ac 




to exchange. 




ge. of da. 


toescc^. 




ac. 




to warm. 





ac. 
ac. 
ac. 



ac. 



to run on shore, 
to spatter, 
to clear up. 
to light, 
to hurst out. 
to disappear, 
to dismiss. 



286 



FRENCH VERBS. 



H 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 



2 
1 



Scorcher, 
s'^couler, 
^couter, 
^eraser, 
6crire« 
icrouter, 
6cumery 
6difier, 
6fiacer, 
6fFectuer, 
4ffiler, 
6ffleurer, 
s*eflPorcer, 
Affrayer, 
6galer, 
egorger, 
61aguer, 
s'^lancer sur, 
^argify 
Clever, 
61ire, 
Eloigner, 
embarquer, 
embarrasser, 
embaumer, 
embellir, 
embraser, 
embrasser, 
s'emerveiller, 
emmenoter, 
^monder, 
^moudre, 
6inousser, 
^mouvoir, 
empailler, 
empaqueter, 
s*emparer, 
emp^cher, 
empeser, 
emplir, 
employer, 



ac. 

ac 

ac. 

ac da. 

ac 

ac. 

ac. ge. 

ac 

ac 

ac 



ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac 



ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 

ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 



da. 



ac 

ac 

ac. 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac ge 

ac 



da. 

ge. 
ge. 



ge* 



ge- 



ge- 
da. 



to skin. 

toJlawouL 

to listen to, *— 

to crush. 

to writCy — 

to chip bread* 

toJboM. 

to edify. 

to bUotouL 

to put in execution, 

to ravel. 

to touch slightly. 

to endeavour, — 

tofrighi, — 

to equal. 

to cut the throat, 

to eliminate. 

to leap upon. 

to widen. 

to raise, to educate. 

to elect. 

to remove, — 

to embark. 

to perplex, — 

to enAalm. 

to embellish. 

to set on fire. 

to embrace. 

to vxmder at, — 

to manacle. 

to prune. 

to sharpen. 

to blunt. 

to move. 

to cover witJi straw. 

to pack up. 

to seize upon. 

to hinder, — (subj.) 

to starch. 

to fill up. 

to employ. 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 





FRENCH 


VERBS. 


287 


empoisonner, 


ac. 




to poison. 




emporter, 


ac 




to carry away. 




s'emporter, 






to fall into a passion. 




s*empresser, 






to he eager, — 


de. 


emprisonner, 


ac 




toputinjaiL 




emprunter> 


ac. 


ge. 


to borrow. 




encaver, 


ac. 




to put in a cellar. 




encenser, 


ac 




to offer incense. 




enchainer, 


ac 




to put in chains. 




enchanter. 


ac 




to chaTMy\ — 


dc 


ench6rir, 






to raise price. 




encourager> 


ac 




to encourage^ — 


a. 


encourir, 


ac 




to incur. 




s'endetter. 






to run into d^ 




s'endormir, 






to fall asleep. 




endurer, 


ac 




to suffer. 

to bnngfordi a child. 




enfanter. 


ac. 






enfermer, 


ac 




to shut in. 




enfiler, 


ac. 




to thread. 




enflammer, 


ac 


ge. 


to set on fire. 




enfler, 


ac. 


ge^ 


to swell. 




enfoncer, 


ac 




to break open. 


• 


enfreindre. 


ac 




to transgress. 




enfumer, 


ac. 




to smoke. 




engager, 


ac 


da. 


topersuade, — 


a. 


s'engager, 
engendrer, 


ac 


da. 


to take upon ones self 
to beget. 


a. 


engloutir, 


ac 




to swallow. 




engraisser, 


ac 


• 


tofatten. 




s'enhardir, 




da. 


to grow boldy — 


a. 


s'enivrer, 




ge. 


to make one's self drunk. 


enjoindre, 


ac. 


da. 


to order i — 


de. 


enlever, 


ac 


ge. 


to take away. 




s'ennuyer, 




ge. 


to be weary , — 


de. 


s'enorgueillir, 




ge. 


to beproudy — 


de. 


s'enqii^rir, . 
s'enraciner, 




ge. 


to enquire, 
to take root. 




enrager, 






to enrage, — 


de. 


enregistrer, 


ac 




to register. 




s'enrhumer, 






to catch hold. 




s'enrichir, 






to grow richy — 


d. 



28ft 



TEESCa VERBS. 



1 ouroler ac. 

1 ensangUmter, ac 

I enseignery ac 

1 ensemencery ac 

2 ensevelir ac 
1 eDtasser, ac 

tr. eDtandre, ac 

1 enterreTy ac 
1 s'ent^ter, 

1 entrainery ac 

1 entravery ac 

1 entrdaceTy ac 

1 entrem^lery ac 

1 entrer *, 

tr. s'entremettre, 

tr. entreprendre, ac 

tr. entretanir, ac 
tr. s'entretenir avec, 

tr. entreyoir, ac 

ir. entrouvrir, ac 

2 envahir, ac 
envclopper, ac 
envenimery ac 
envier, ac 
environnery ac 
envisager, ac 
s'envoler, 

tr. envoyer, ac. 

2 epaissir, ac 
2 8 epanouiry 

6pargneiif ac. 

6peler, ac. 

6picer, ac 
6pier, 

ac. 
ac. 

6poudrer, ac. 

6pouser, ac. 

^pouvanter, ac. 

^prouver, ac. 

^puiser, ac 



^pier, 
epointer, 



toenJuL 

to make Moody. 
da. to teaekj — 

tosow, 

to bury. 

to keep t^i. 

to hear J — 

tobwy. 
da. to be vrfaiuatedj — 
da. to drag awayy — 

toJeUer. 
ge. to mlermingle, 
gc to intermix. 
da. to getin. 
ge. to interpose. 

to undartakej — 
ge. to ketp. 

todiixntrse untk. 

to have a glimpse. 

toopena Hitle. 

to invade. 
ge. to fold up. 

topoison, 
da. to envy. 
ge. to encompass. 

to look in the face. 

to fig away. 
do. to sendy — 

to thicken. 

to spring out 
da. to spare, — - 

to spelL 

to spice. 

to ear, to spire. 

to spy. 

to blunt » 

to wipe off tlie dust. 

to marry. 

to terrify, — 

to try, 

to exhaust 





FRENCH 


VERBS. 


289 


6purer, 


ac. 


ge- 


to refine* 




i ^quiper, 


ac. 


ge- 


to equip. 




. ^quivaloir 




da. 


to be equal. 




i ^riger. 


ac. 




to ered. 




errer, 






to ramble. 




escalader, 


ac. 




to scale. 




escamoter, 


ac. 


da. 


tofilch. 




escarmoucher, 






to skirmish. 


• 


escompter. 


ac. 




to discount. 




escrimer, 






to fence. 




escroquer. 


ac. 


da. 


to trick. 




esp6rer. 


ac. 


ge. 


to hope, 


0. 


espionner, 


ac. 




to be a spy. 




s'esquiver, 




ge- 


to steal away. 




.. essayer, 


ac. 


da, 


to try. 


— de. 


essuyer, 


ac 




to wipe off. 




estimer, 


ac. 




to value. 


— 0. 


estropier, 
! 6tablir, 


ac. 




to lame. 




ac. 




to establish. 




Staler, 


ac. 


^ft. 


to display. 




6tancher, 


ac 




to quench. 




. ^teindre, 


ac 




to extinguish. 




. 6tendre, 


ac 


- 


to spread. 




6temuer, 






to sneeze. 




6tiqueter, 


ac. 




to title. 


t 


6tonner, 


ac. 




to surprise, 


— de. 


s'6tonner, 




ge- 


to wonder at. 


(subj.) de. 


6touffer, 


ac. 




to stifle. 




I ^tourdir. 


ac 




to stun^ 


. 


I 6tranglery 


ac. 




to stijle to death. 




. ^tre, 






to be. 


— i. 


I 6tr6cir, 


ac. 




to make narrow. 




[ s'^tudier. 






to endeavour. 


— iL 


[ 6yacuer> 


ac. 




to evacuate. 




[ s'6yader, 


, 


da. 


to steal away. 




I ^valuer, 


ac. 


to value. 




I s'^yanouir, 






to faint away. 




L s'^yaporer, 
I ^yeiller. 






to evaporate. 




ac. 




to awake. 




I 6yiter, 


ac 




to shun. 


— de. 


L exag6rer, 


ac 




to exagyeraten . 





I 



S9a 



FRBNCH VERBS. 



exalter, 

examiner, 

exaucer, 

exc^der, 

exceller, 

excepter, 

exciter, 
tr. exdure, 

excommunier, 

excuser, 

exempter, 

ex^uter, 

exercer, 

exhorter, 

exiger, 

exiler, 

exister, 

s*expatrier, 

expldier, 

expier, 

expirer, 

expliquer, 

exposer, 

exprimer, 

expulser, 

exterminer, 

extirper, 
tr. extraire, 



ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac ge. 

ac. ge. 

ac. da. 

ac ge. 

ac 

ac 

da. ge. 

ac 

ac. da. 

ac da. 

ac ge. 

ac. 



ac. da. 

ac 

ac 

ac. da. 

ac da. 

ac. da. 

ac ge. ' 

ac 

ac. ge. 

ac ge. 



toexak. 

io enquire into, — 

to hearfavourabfy 

toexceetL 

toexceL 

to excgDt. 

to incite, — 

to exclude. 

to excommunicctte. 

toexcusCf •*— I 

toexemj]^ — < 

to execute, 

to exercise, — 

to exhort, — 

to require, ' (subj.) < 

to banish. 

to exist. 

to quit onis awn country 

to despatch. 

to atone. 

to expire, to die. 

to explain. 

to esepose. 

to express. 

to turn out 

to exterminate. 

to rootout. 

to extract. 



1 Fabriquer, ac. 

1 facher, ac 

1 se facher, 

1 faciliter, ac. 

1 fa9onner, ac. 

tr. faire, ac. 
' tm/>. falloir, 

1 falsifier, ac. 

1 se familiariser, 

2 farcir, ac ge. 



da. 
da. 



to manufacture. 

to vex, *-> 

to be (mgry, (subj.) 

to facilitate. 

to fashion. 

to make or to do, — 

to be necessary, (subj.) 

io counterfeit. 

to grow familiar. 

to stuff . 





VRENCfl 


VERBS* 


291 


se farder, 






top:iint 




fatiguer, 


ac. 




to tire^ — 


de. 


favoriser, 


ac 




to favour. 




. feindre, 


ac 




to dissemble^ -^ 


de, 


. fendre, 


ac 




to split or chav 




fermentery • 






toferment. 




fermer, 


ac 




to shtU up. 




ferrer un chevaly 




to shoe a horse. 




se ^er, 




da. 


to trust to. 




se figer, 






to congeal. 




figurer, 


ac 




to represent. 




se figurer, 


ac 




tofancy^ — 


0. 


filer, 


ac. 




to spin. 




filtrer, 


ac 




tofiUrate. 




\ finir, 






to make an end, — 


de. 


flamber, 






to blaze. 




se flatter, 




ge- 


toflaJtter one's self, — 


de. 


1 fl^chir, 


ac 




to soften. 




J fl^trir, 


ac 




to wither, or tarnish. 




] fleurir, 


ac 




to bloom. 




flotter, 






tojloat. 




fomenter, 


ac 




to foment. 




. se fondre. 


ac 




to melt. 




forcer, 


ac. 


da. 


to compel, — ^ or de. 


fijrger, 


ac 




to hammer. 




se formaliser, 


ac 


ge- 


tofindfauk, — 


de 


former, 


ac 




to form. 




fortifier. 


ac 




to strengthen. 




foudroyer. 


ac 




to storm. 




I fouetter, 


ac. , 




to whip. 




fouler aux pieds, ac 




to trample upon. 




I foumir, 


ac 


da. 


tofumish. 




frapper. 


ac. 


ge- 


to struie. 




) frtoir, 




ge- 


to tremble, — 


de. 


I frequenter, 


ac 




to haunt. 




I friser. 


ac 




to curl. 




L frissonner. 




ge. 


to shiver, — 


de. 


I froidir. 






to grow cold. 




L froisseiy 


ac 




to bruise. 




L frotter, 


ac 




to rub. 




L frustrer, 


ac 


ge. 
o i 


to disappoint. 
2 


• 



292 



JfHENCP V£RBS« 



tV. 


fiiir> 


ac* 


ge* 


to shun. 


1 

■ 


fuifi^r 


ac 


G 


to smoke. 


1 


Gager, 


ac. 


to Ic^ wagers. 


1 


gagner, 
galoper. 


ac 




to tnn. 


1 


ac. 




to gallop. 


1 


se gangrlner, 






to gangrene. 


2 


garantir, 


ac. 


ge- 


to preserve. 


1 


garder, 


ac. 




to keep. 


1 


se garder. 




ge. 


to beware, — ( 


2 


gai'iiir, 


ac. 


ge. 


to furnish. 


1 


garotter, 


ac. 


ge. 


to tie fast. 


1 


gater, 


ac. 




to spoiL 


1 


geler, 






to freeze. 


2 
1 


g^mir, 
gesticuler, 






to groany — ( 
tobefuUofacUon. 


1 


glacer, 




ge. 


to freeze. 


1 


glaner, 


ac 




to glean. 


1 


glisser, 






iosHde. 


1 


se glisser. 






to creep in. 


1 


goiiter, 


ac. 




to taste. 


1 


gouvemer, 


ac. 




torule. 


2 


grandir. 






togrowtalL 


1 


gratter. 


ac. 




to scratch. 


1 


graver, 


ac 




to engrave. 


1 


griler, 






to haxL 


1 


griller. 


ac 




to broH. 


1 


griller. 


• 


ge. 


to bum with impatience^ 


1 


grincer les dents, 




to gnash the tekh. 


1 


gronder. 


ac 


ge. 


to scold at, — 


2 


grossir. 






to grow big. 


2 


guerir, 


ac 


ge. 


to cure. 


2 


se gu6rir, 






to recover. 


1 


guider. 


ac 


da. 
H 


to guide. 


1 


HabiUer, 


ac 


ge. 


to clothe, to dress. 


1 


sliabiller, 






to dress one*s sdf. 


1 


habiter, 


ac 




to Hve in. 







FRENCH 


VBRB& 


1 


s'habituer, 




da. 


to get a habU^ 


r. 


hair, 


ac. 




to hatCy -^ 




haranguer> 


ac 




to tnake a speech. 




hasarder, 


ac. 




to venture f - 




se h^ter, 






to make hastef — 




h^riter, 




ge. 


to inherit 




h^siter, 






to hesitate, — . 




honorer, 


ac. 


ge- 


to honour. 




humilier, 


ac 


« 


to humble. 




Idoltoer, 


ac. 


I 


to worship tdols. 




ignorer, 


ac 




to be ignorant. 




illuminer, 


ac 




to illuminate. 




s'imaginer, 


ac 




tofancy, — 




imbiber, 


ac. 




to imbibe. 




s*iminiscer, 


ac 




to intermeddle. 




immoler, 


ac 


da. 


to sacrifice. 




immortaliser, 


ac. 




to immortalize. 




impatienter, 


ac 




to tire onf^s pcOience. 




implorer, 


ac 




to implore. 




importuner, 


ac 




to be troublesome* 




imposer. 


ac 


da. 


to lay on* 




imprimer, 


ac 




to print 




imputer, 


ac 


da. 


toinqmtej — 




incliner, 




da. 


to indine^ -— 




incommoderi 


ac 




to disturb. 




incorporer, 


ac 


da. 


to incoTporaie. 




inculper. 


ac 




to accuse, — 




inculquer, 


ac. 


da. 


to inculcate. 




indemniser, 


ac 


g«- 


to indemnify. 




indiquer, 


ac. 


da. 


to show, — 




indisposer, 


ac 


• 


toaUenate. 




infecter. 


ac 


ge- 


. toinfeet 




infester, 


ac 




to infest 




influencer, 


ac 


ge- 


to influence. 




informer, 


ac 


ge- 


to inform. 




infiiser. 


ac 




to infuse. 




8*ing6rer, 




ge* 


to mtermeddk wiihj 




inhumer, 


ac 


c 


to bury. 
» 3 



29S 

dc 

de. 
de. 



a« 



de. 

N 

a. 



— de. 



— de. 



— de. 



294 



VRBNCH VEBB& 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 
tr. 



tr. 



iDJurier, 

innover, 

inonder, 

inqui6ter, 

inscrirey 

s'insinuery 

insinuer, 

inspirer, 

instituer, 

instruire, 



ac« 
ac 
ac« 
ac 
ac 

ac. 



ge- 



ac 

ac 



da. 
da. 

ge- 



insiilter, ac or da. ge. 

interc^der, ac. 

intercepter, ac 

interdire, ac 

s'interposer, ac 

interpr^r> ac ge. 

interroger, ac 

interrompre, ac 
intervenir, 

intimider, ac 

intituler, ac 
intriguer, 

introduire, ac. 
invectiver contre, 

inventer, ac 

investir, ac ge. 

inviter, ac da. 

invoquer, ac 

irriter, ac 



to abuse. 

to innovate. 

to overflow. 

to trouble. 

toinscribe. 

to9teialin. 

to innnuatey — < 

to intpire with, — ( 

toegffpoini. 

to teach. 

to insult. 

toiniercede* 

toiavkrcqft. 

tohUercUeL 

to ifUermeddle. 

to expUtin. 

to ask questions. 

to inierrtq)t^ 

to intervene. 

tofriffhi. 

to entitle. 

to cabal. 

to introduce. 

to inveigh against. 

tofind outy — ( 

to invest. 

to invitey — k or < 

to invoke. 

to exasperate. 



1 Jardiner, 

J Jeter, 

1 jedlner, 

tr. joindre, 

1 jouer, 

2 jouir, 
1 juger, 
1 jurer, 

1 justifier, 



to dress a garden. 

ac da. to throw. 

ac to fast. 

ac da. tojoin. 

ac ge. da. toplag. 

ge. to enjoy. 

ac. ge. tojudgey - 

ac da. ft> swear, ^— 

ac ge. to/ustify, 



de or 



FRENCH VERBS. 



29d 



tr. 



tr. 



Labourer, 

lacer, 

lacher, 

laisser, 

lambrisser, 

lamenter, 

lancer, 

languir, 

larder, 

se lasser, 

laver, 

l^gitimer, 

leguer, 

se lever, 

Her, 

se liguer contre, 

limer, 

limiter, 

liqu6fier, 

lire, 

livrer, 

loger, 

loucher, 

louer, 

luire, 

lutter contre, 

lutter, 



ac topUmghm 

ac» to lace* 

ac* to loosen. 

ac. da. to leave, — o 

ac. to wainscot 

ac to bemoan, 

ac. da. tofiing, 

ge. to Uxnguish. 
ac ge. to lard, 

toheweary^ — . de or ^ 
ac da. to wash. 
ac to legitimate. 

ac. da. to leave by wilL 

to rise. 
ac. to tie. 

to enter into a kague. 
ac to file off. 

ac da. <(0 limit. 
ac to liquefy. 

ac da. to read. 
ac da. fo give tq). 
ac to lodge, to dwelL 

to sqmnt. 
ac ge. topraise, — de 

to shine. 

to struggle with. 

to wrestle. 



M 



1 
1 
2 
iV. 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Mdcher, 

maconner, 

maigrir, 

maintenir, 

maitriser, 

maltraiter, 

xnander, 

manger, 

mamer, 



ac 
ac 

ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac 
ac 



ge- 
da. 



o 4 



to chew, 
to build, 
to grow lean, 
to maintain, 
to subdue, 
to use ill. 
to send for, 
to eat. 
to handle. 



- de 



296 



FRENCH VERBS. 



manifester, ac 

;manquer, ac 

manquer, ge. 

marchander, ac 
marcher, 

marier, ac 

se marier, ac 

mariner, ac 

marquer, ac. 

massacrer, ac 

tV. maudire, ac 

tr. 86 m^connaStre, 

tr. m^connaitre, ac 

tr. m^dire, 

m^diter, ac 
se mdfier, 

m61anger> ac. 

m^ler, ac ge* 
se m^ler, 

menacer, ac 

manager, ac 

tr. mentir, 

tr. se m^rendre, 

mlpriser, ac 

miriter, ac. 
m6sofirir, 

mesurer, ac 
m6tamorphoser, ac 

tr. mettre, ac 

meubler, ac 

mem'trir, ac 
miauler, 

mod6rer, ac 

moissonner, ac 

molester, ac. 

monter, . ac 

montrer, ac. 
se moquer, 
moraliser, 

tr. mordre, ac. 

1 moucheter, . ac 





to reveal. 




to miss. 


da. 


to toant, tofailj «- ( 




to cheapen. 


da. 


totodk. 


da. 


to marry. 


da. 


to marry. 




topickle. 


da. 


to marJu 




tomassacre. 




to curse. 




to forget one*s 9df. 




to take for another. 


ge- 


to slander. 




to medUaiBy — ck 


ge- 


todtstrusL 




to mix together. 


da. 


to mix. 


ge- 


to meddle with^ -— d( 


ge. 


to threaten^ — di 


da. 


to spare. 




to tell lies. 




to mistake. 




to despise. 




to deserve, — di 


^ 


to heat down price. 


da. 


to measure. 




to metamcrphose. 


da. 


topuL 


ge. 


tojumish. 


ge- 


to bruise. 




to mew. 




to moderate. 




to harvest 




to grieve. 


da. 


to get up, to take up. 


da. 


to showy ^ 


ge. 


to laugh at. 




to moralise. 




to bite. 




to spot. 



FRENCH VERBS. 



297 



er. xnoudre, 

t>. mourir*, 

1 murer, 

2 xnurir, 

1 murmurer^ 



ac. ' to grind. 

• ge. to die, 
ac deu to waU up. 

to ripen. 

to mvUer* 



N 



1 Nager, 

tV. naitre *, 

1 n^cessiter, 

1 n^gliger, 

1 negocier, 
imp. neiger, 

1 nettoyer, 

1 nier 

2 noircir, 

1 nommer, 

] noter, 

1 notifier, 

1 nouer, 

2 nourrir, 
1 noyer, 

1 se noyer, 

1 nuancer, 

ir. nuire, 



ac. 
ac 
ac. 

ac 

ac 

ac. 

ac da. 

ac 

ac da. 

ac 

ac ge. 

ac gc. 

ac 
da. 



to swim, 
to bebom. 
to compdy 
to neglect, 
to trade, 
to snow, 
to clean, 
to deny f 
to blacken, 
to name, 
to note. 

to let one know, 
to tie. 
to feed, 
to drown, 
to be drowned, 
to shadow, 
id hurt. 



— a. 
de. 



— (subj.) 0. 



— de. 



a.. 



2 Obeir 

1 objecter, 

1 obliger, 

2 obscurcir, 
1 obs6der, 
1 observer, 
1 s'obstiner, 

ir. obtenir, 

1 obvier, 

1 occuper, 

1 offenser, 

ir. offrir, 



O 

da. 
ac da. 
ac da. 
ac 
ac 
ac 

da. 
ac. ge. 

da. 
ac da. 
ac. 

ac. da. 
o 



to obey, 
to obfect. 
toobUge, 
to darken, 
to beset, 
to observe, 
to be obstinate, 
to obtain, 
to obviate, 
to employ, 
to offend, 
to offer. 



— deor^. 



o. 

X 

a. 
de 

a. 

de. 



i 



298 


> 


tftSHCH 


Vfift»8» 






offusquer, 


ma. 




todkn. 






ombrager, 


ac. 




to shadow. 




• 

•r. 


omettre, 


ae. 




to Mdtf *— 


de 




opiner. 




da. 


tovoie. 






s'opinidtrer, 




da. 


to he obsHnaief — 


a. 




s'opposer, 




da. 


tobeoffcdfut 






opprimer, 


ac 




tooppre$s. 






opter, 






to choose. 






ordonner, 


a& 


da. 


to order, -^ (>u^*I 


de. 




omer, 


ac 


ge. 


to adorn. 






orthographier, 


ac 




to spelL 






oser, 


ac 




todarey — 


0. 




6ter, 


acg€ 


uda. 


totoiheatoayn 






oublier, 


ac 




^forgety — 


de. 


2 


ourdir, 


ac. 




to weave. 




1 


outrageF) 


ac. 




to affront. 




tr. 


ouvrir, 


ack 


da. 


to open. 










P 




1 


Pacifier, 


ac> 




to pacify. 




tr. 


paitre, 


ac* 




to ffriize. 






pallier, 


ac 




topaUicOe. 






panser, 


ac 




to dress wottmis. 






paraphraser, 


ac 




to eammeni tqton. 




tr. 


parcourir, 


ac 




to run over. 






pardoimer, 


ac 


da. 


toforgiioey — 


de. 




parier, 


ac. 




tobety — 


0. 




parler, 


ge. 


da. 


to speaky -^ 


de. 


tr. 


parailre^ 






to appear y — 
tofoid. 


0. 




parquer, 


ac. 








parsemer) 


^. 


ge- 


to strew. 






partager, 


ac 


da. 


to share. 




tr. 


partir *, 


■ ' 


ge. 


to set out. 




tr. 


parvenir *, 




da. 


to arrive at 






passer, 


ac. 




to pass. 






patienter, 






to take patience. 






patiner, ^ 






to skaiL 






paver, 


ac 


da. 


to pave. 






payer, 


ac. 




topay. 






p6cher, 






tosm. 





VltXKtM V£lifi8» 



299 



1 p^cher, 
tr. peindre) 

peler, \ 

pencher sur, 
tr. pendre, 

p6ndtrer dansi 

penser, 

percer, 
«r. perdre, 
tr. permettre> 

persister^ 

persuader, 

2 pervertir, 
peser, 
p6trifier, 
peupler, 
piler, 
piller, 
pincer, 
piquer, 
se piquer, 
placer, 

ir, plaindre, 
tr. se plaindre, 
tr. plaire, 

planter, 

platrer, 

pleurer, 

plier, 

plisser, 

plomber, 

plonger, 

ployer, 

poignarder, 

poivrer, 

policer, 

polir, 

pomper, 

ponctuer, 
tr, pondre, 
1 porter. 



ge- 
ac 

ac 

ac 

ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 

ac. 
ac. 

ge- 

ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 



da. 

da. 
da. 

da. 



— i 



N 

a. 



^ 



— dfe. 



ac tojUk. 

ac da. topcdnt* 
ac topeeL 

to lean upon. 
ac da. to hanig, 

to get into. 

to think ofy 

to pierce. 

to lose, 

topermitj — <» (subj.) dc. 

to persist, 

to persuade, 

to pervert. 

to weigh. 

to petrify. 

to people. 

to bruise. 

to plunder. 

to pinch. 

to prick. 

to pretend to, 

to place. 

to pity, -. 

to complain, 

toplease, 

to plant. 

to plaster, 

to bewail, to cry. 

to plait, to bend. 

to plait. 

to lead. 

tophxnge. 

to fold up. 

to stab. 

to pepper. 

to regulaic. 

to polish. 

to pump. 

to point. 

to lay eggs. 
da. to carryl 
o 6 



,ge- 



da. 
da. 

ge- 
da. 

da. 
da. 



ge. 



— de 

de. 

(subj.) de. 

-^ a. 



— ^ 



\ 



300 



FRENCH VERBS. 



1 poser, 

1 ppss^er, 

I poucker, 

tr. poursuivre, 

tr. pourvoir, 

1 pousser, 

tr. pouYoir, 

1 pratiquer, 

1 pr6c6dery 

1 pr^cher, 

tr. pr^dire, 

1 pr^dominery 

1 pr6f6rer, 

1 pr6judicier, 

1 pr61ever, 

1 pr6m6diter, 

tr. prendre, 

1 preparer, 

1 proposer, 

1 pr^sager, 

tr. prescrire, 

1 pr^enter, 

1 preserver, 

1 pr^sider, 

1 pr^enter, 

tr. pressentir, 

1 presser, 

1 pr^sumer, 

tr. pr6tendre> 

^:jL prater, 

«fc...,p|lf!6valoir, 

tr. prgvenir, 

ir. pr^voir, 

1 prier, 

1 priver, 

1 pr6c6der, 

1 proclamer, 

1 procurer, 

1 prodiguer, 

tr. produire, 

1 profaner, 



ac. 

ac 

ac. 

ac 
ac ge. da. 

ac da. 

ac da. 

ac 

ac ge. 
da. 

ac. da. 

ac 

ac da. 
da. 

ac 

ac 
8cge.da. 

ac da. 

ac. da. 

ac 

ac 

ac da. 

ac. 

ac« 

ac. 

ac 

ac. 

ac ge. 

ac da. 

ac da. 

ac. ge. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 

ac. 

ac da. 

ac. 

ac. 

ac. 



e. 



tolas/. 

to possess, 

to powder, 

to pursue* 

toprovide.' 

to thrustt to puAf •^ i 

tobealdey — a 

to practise, 

toprecede. 

topreach^ — de. 

toforetdy — o. 

topredominc^ 

topr^er^ ^-^ o. 

toprl^udice, 

to deduct, 

to premeditate, *— de. 

to take, 

topreparey -^ i 

to set over, 

to portend, *^ o. 

to prescribe f — de. 

to offer, — i 

to preserve. 

to preside, 

topresent, — a. 

foforesee, 

to press, or sgueeee, de. 

topresumcy — de. 

to pretend to, to design, a 

to lend. 

to prevail, 

to anticipate. 

to foresee, — o. 

to pray, — (subj.) de. 

to dqnive, — de. 

to proceed, 

to proclaim. 

to procure, — dct 

to lavish. 

to produce, 

to profane. 





FRENCH ^ 


irSRBS. 30] 


1 profi^ser, 


ac. 




to utter. 


1 professer, 


ac. 




to profess. 


1 profiter, 


• 


ge. 


to improve. 


1 projeter, 


ac. 




to iniendy «— de 


1 prolonger, 


ac. 




to prolong. 


1 se promener, 






tovxdk. 


f>. promettre, 


ac« 


da. 


to promise, — de 


1 prononcef) 


ac. 


da. 


to pronounce. 


1 propager, 


ac» 


• 


taprcpagate. 


1 proph^tiser, 


ac. 




toforeteJ. 


1 proposer, 


ac 


da. 


toproposey — de 


ir. proscrire, 


ac. 


ge. 


to proscribe. 


1 prosp6rer, 






toprosper. 


1 se prostemer, 




da. 


to prostrate one*s self. 


1 prot^ger, 


ac. 




to protect. 


1 protester-codtre, 




to protest. 


[tr. provenir *, 




ge. 


to proceed. 


1 publier. 


ac. 




topublishy — 


2 punir, 


ac. 


ge. 


to punish, — de 


1 purger, 


ac. 




to purge. 


1 purifier. 


ac. 




to purify. 


1 se putr^fier, 






to rot. 


1 Quadruplet, 


ac. 


Q 

to quadruplate^ 


1 qualifier. 


ac. 




to qualify. 


1 quereller. 


ac. 




to scold at. 


1 questionner, 


ac. 




to ask questions. 


1 queter. 


ac. 




to beg. 


1 quitter. 


ac. 


T 


to quit. 
1 


1 Rabaisser, 


ac. 


It 

to abate. 


1 raccommoder, 


ac. 




tomend. 


1 racheter. 


ac 


ge- 


to redeem* 


1 racheter, 


ac. 




to buy again. , | 


1 raconter, 


ac. 


da. 


to rdaie. 


y se radoucir. 






to be appeased. • ^ - 


2 raffermir, 


ac 




to strengthen. 


1 raffiner, 


ac 




to refine. 



m 


► 
1 


9RRHCH 


VERBS. 




2 


rafraichir, 


ac 


^ 


to cool. 




2 


se raidir, 






togrow iHff. 




1 


•raisonner, 


ac 


ge. 


toreasoiu 




8 


ralentir, 


ac 




torelent 






rallier, 


ac 




to ratty. 






rallumer, 


ac 




to kindle again. 






ramasser, 
ramener, 


ac 

acge. 


.da. 


to pick up. 
to bring hack. 




2 


ramollir, 


ac . 




to sofien. 






ramper, 




da. 


to crawl. 






ran9onner, 


ac 




to ransom. 






ranger, 


ac. 




to set in order. 






ranimer. 


ac. 




torevivcy — - 


a. 




ripper, 


ac 




to grate. , 






rappeler, 


ac 


da. 


to caU again. 






rapporter, 


acge 


• da. 


to bring hack. 




r. 


rapprendre, 


ac 




to learn again. 






rapprocher^ 


ac 


ge. 


to draw near again. 






rarlfier, 


ac. 




to rarefy. 






raser, 


, ac 




to shave. 






rassasier, 


ac 


ge. 


toMtisfyy — 


de. 




rassemblet> 


ac 




to join together. 






rassurer, 


ac 




to encourage. 






ratifier, 


ac 




to ratify. 






ratisser, 


ac 




to scrapeoff. 






rattacher, 


ac 


da. 


to tie again. 






raturer, 


ac. 




to scratch out. 






ravager, 


ac. 




to layufaste. 






ravir, 


ac. 


ge. 


to ravish, — 


dc. 




rayer, 


ac. 


ge. 


to bar, to erase. 






r^aliser, 


ac 




to realise. 






r^signer, 


ac. 




to assign anew, — 


a 




reb&tir, 


ac. 




to rebuild. 






rebaptiser, 
reblanchir, 


ac 
ac 




to rd>aptize. 
to wash agaxn. 






rebondir, 






to rebound. 






reborder, 


ac 




to newborder 






reboucher, 


ac 




to stop again. 






rebridcr, 


ac 




to brtdle again. 






rebuter, 


ac. 




toreject. 






recacheter, 


ac 




to seed up again. 





VJUNCB VXASS. 



reenter, 


ac 




towteeaL 


recevoir. 


ac 


ge- 


toreeeiee. 


redianger, 


ac. 




to Aange agaxm. 


recharger, 


BC. 


ge. 


to load again. 


r^aulFer, 


ac. 




tomtmagmn. 


rechercher, 


sc 




toietkagain. 


r&iter. 


ac 




tor^tarx. 


r6clamer, 


BC 


ge. 


todaim. 


recoller, 


ac 




toglwagmn. 




ac 


da. 




rgcompeiiiier, 


ac 


ge. 


to nuxird, — de 


recomposer, 


ac 




to compose again. 


recompter, 


ac 




to reckon again. 


r&oncilier, 


ac 




torecondk. 


reconduire, 


ac 


da. 


towaiit^onoHeiaoli. 




ac 




to know again. 


Be reconnaltre. 






to come to one's telf. 


reconqugrir, 


ac 




toaynqmr. . 


recoDter, 


ac 


da. 


totdiover ogam. 


recopier, 


KC 




to write Jair again. 


recoudre, 


ac- 






recourir, 




da. 


to have retourte. 




8C 




to recover. 


recouvrir, 




da. 


to new cover. 


r&rger, 


ac 




toreereaU. 


Be rgcrier, 






to exclaim. 


r^iminer, 








rferire, 


ac 


da. 


to write over, — de. 


recruter, 


ac 




toreervit 


rectifier. 


ac 




tarect^. 


recueillir. 


BC 




to gather. 


reculer, 


ac 




to Awe bat*. 


r£cuser, 


ac 




toexcfftagahuL 
to undo again. 


red6feire, 


ac 




redeinander, 


BC. 


da. 


to ask again, — i. 


redescendre, 






to come doton again. 


redevoir, 


ac 


da. 


tooweUiU. 


rgdiger, 


ac 




to put in order. 


redire. 


ac 


da 


to Mas again, - "le. 


redouner. 


ac. 


da. 


logioeagmn. 


redorer, 


ac 




tOKOogUd. 



304^ 



VRSNCH VERBS. 



1 redoubler, 

1 redoubler, 

1 redouter, 

1 redresser, 

tr. r^duire^ 

1 r66difier, 

t>. refaire, 

1 r^6rer, 

2 r^6chir sur, 
1 refluer, 

cr. refondre, 

1 reformer, 

1 r^fr^ner, 

2 refiroidir, 

1 se rjgfugiery 

1 refuser, 

1 r^ter, 

1 regagner, 

1 r^gaier, 

1 regarder, 

2 rcgamir, 
imp, regeler, 



r6g6n6rer, 
r^, 



1 

2 

J r6gler, 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



r^gner, 
regorger, 
regratter, 
regretter, 
r^habiliter, 
rehausser, 
rejaillir, 
rejeter, 
r^int^er, 
ir, rejoinare, 
2 se rejouir, 
1 r6it6rer, 

1 reldcher, 

2 r61argir, 
1 relaver, 
.1 rel^guer. 



ac 




'to new line. 




ge- 


to redouble. 


ac 




todread^ — 


ac 




to make straiffkL 


ac. 


da. 


to reducej •— 


ac. 




to build up agca^ 


ac. 




to do over again. 


ac. 


da. 


tor^er. 
toreAecL 
to flow back. 


ac 




tomeUagann. 


ac. 




to rrform. 


ac 




to repress. 


ac 




tocooL 

to take sanctuary. 


ac. 


da. 


tor^use^ — 


ac 




torefiite. 


ac 




to get again. 


ac 


ge- 


toentertam. 


ac 




to lock upon, — 
tofiimuh again. 


•ac 


ge- 






to freeze again. 


ac 




to regenerate. 


ac. 




to govern. 


ac 




to rule, 
to reign. 




ge. 


to overflow. 


ac. 




to scratch again. 


ac. 




to lamenty — 


ac. 




to rehabilitate. 


ac 




to raise.' 
to spurt up. 


ac. 


g«- 


to reject. 


ac. 




to restore. 


ac 




to join again 




ge. 


to rejoice, — (sul 


ac. 




to repeat. 


ac 




to slacken. 


ac 




to make wider again. 


ac 




to wash again. 


ac. 


da. 


to banish. 



— d 



— d 



VRENCH VERBS. 



S05 



5 



1 relever, 
1 relief, 
r. relire, 
r. reluire, 
1 remander, 
1 remarier, 
1 remarquer, 
1 remballer, 
rembarquer, 
rembourser/ 
remeler, 
remener, 
remercier, 
remesurer, 
rem^dier, 
remettre, 
remeubler, 



remonter, 



' { 



remontrer, 

remoudre, 

rempaqueter, 

remplaceri 

remplir, 

se remplumer, 

remporter, 

remprunter, 

remuer, 

renaitre, 

renchainer, 

rench^rir, 

rencontrer, 

se rendormir, 

rendre, 

renduire, 

renfermer, • 

renfler, 

renforcer, 

reneainer, 

renier, 

renoncer, 



ac. ge. 

ac 

ac. 



da. 
da. 



ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 

ac. 

ac. 

# 

ac. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 



ac. da. 
ac ge. 



da. 
ge. 

da. 
da. 

da. 
da. 
da. 



ge. 



ac. 

ac 
ac 
ac 



ac da. 

ac ge. 

ac 

ac. 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 



da« 



io raise tp e^jfom. 

to bind, 

to read over, 

to ff litter, 

to send back agamf 

to marry €k0tm. 

to observe, 

to pack up again, 

to embark ogam, 

to reimburse. 

to shuffle again, 

to carry back, — 

to thanky — 

to measure again, 

to remedy, 

to put again, 

to furnish again, 

to get up again, 

to take up again. 

to remonstrate, 

to grind again. 

to pack up again. 

to replace, 

tojSlup, 

to new feather, 

to carryback, 

to borrow again, 

to stir, 

to be bom again, 

to chain up again, 

to raise, 

to meet with, 

to fall asleqy again, 

to return, 

to new plaster, 

to shut up again, 

to swell again, 

tofortify, 

to sheaUi* 

to disown, 

to renounce f — 



— de. 



0. 
de. 



a. 



306 



VRixcH Yuaau 



1 renouery 
1 renouvder, 
1 renter, 
1 rentrer, 
1 renvergefy 
ir, renvoyer, 
tr. r^pandre, 

1 r^parer, 
tr. reparaitre, 

2 r^partir, 
ir, repartir*, 

repasser, 
repasser, 
repenser, 

tr. se repentir, 
r^peter 
repeupler, 
replacer, 
replanter, 
repKer, 
r^pliquer, 
repllsser, 
replonger, 
repolir, 

ir, r6pondre> 
reporteri 
se reposeri 
repousser, 

tr. reprendre, 
repr^enteTi 
r^primandery 
r^primer, 
reprocheri 

tr. reproduire, 
r6pudier, 
r^pugner, 
repurger, 
r6puter, 

tr. requ^ir, 
r^server, 
r^sider. 



ac 




to He again. 




ac 




to renew. 




ac 




to endow. 






da. 


tocomeagamm 




ac 




totkrowdown. 




ac 


da. 


tosendbackf — 





ac 




toepiUy toepnad. 




ac 




to repair, 

to appear agcin. 






da. 


tonpfy, 

to goback again, 

to tross again. 




ac 




toiron. 






da. 


toremindf — - 


i 




^ 


torqjenty — 


de 


ac 


da. 


torq)eat. 




ac 


ge. 


torqteopU 




ac 




to pkwe again. 




ac 




to plant again^ 




ac 




toJiM again. 




ac^da. 


to reply. 




ac 




to pkdt again. 




ac' 

'i 




to d^ again. 




ac 




to polish again. 




ac 


da. 


to answer. 




ac 


da. 


tocarry hack. 
toresL 




ac 




to drive hadu^ 




ac 


ge. 


tochtdsy — 


de. 


ac 


da. 


torepresmt. 




ac 


ge. 


torebukey — ^ 


de 


ac 




torqn'ess. 




ac 


da. 


toreproa/chj — 


de. 


ac. 


da. 


torqiroduce. 




ac 




to divorce. 






da. 


torqmgny — 


de. 


ac 




to purge again. 




ac. 


• 


torqnUey — 





ac 


ge. 


to require, ^- 


de. 


ac 


da. 


to reserve. 






da. 


to reside. 





JRSNCH VERBS. 



S07 



tr. 



retoumer, 

retracer, 

se r^tracter, 

retrancher, 

se retrancher, 

r6tr6cir, 

r6trograder, 

retrouver, 

r6veiller, 

r^v^er, 

revendiquer, 

revendre, 



ac, 
ac. 

\ac, 
ac 



da. 



ge. 



r6s]gner, ac* da. 

r^silier^ ac da. 

r6sister| da. 

tr. r6soudre, ac* 

tr. se r6soudre> da. 

respecter, ac 

respirer, aCk 

ressembler, 

ressentir, ac 

resserrer, ac 

tr. ressortir, 
tr. se ressouyemr> 

ressusciter, 

restaurer, ac 

Tester, 

restituer, ac 

restreindre, ac 

r6sulter, 

r6sumer, ac 

r^tablir, ac 

retarder, ac. 

in retenir, ac 

retirer, ac. ge. 

se retirer, ge. 

retomber, 

retordre, 

retoucher, 



da. 

« 

ge. 



da. 



ge- 
ac. ge. da* 

ac. 



e. 



tr, revenir *, 



ac 

ac 

ac. oa. 

ac 

ac da. 

ge. da. 



to resign^ ^ sL 

to caned. 

to resist 

to resolve^ — de or ^ 

to resolve vgpon^ «• ^ 

to respect 

to breathe. 

to resemble. 

tofed. 

to He lighter. 

to go out again. 

to remember^ . •-• de* 

to raise from the dead. 

to restore. 

to stop, — a. 

to return. 

to Imity -— I* 

to result from. 

to recapitulate. 

to re'establish. 

to put off. 

to detain^ — k. 

to draw back. . 

to withdraw. 

to fall again. 

to twist again. 

to revise again. 

to return^ -— o. 

to turn again. 

to draw agctin. 

to recant, — de. 

to diminish. 

to intrench. 

to make narrow. 

to retrograde. 

to find again. 

to awake. 

to reveal. 

to claim. 

to seU again. 

to come again^ «— > o. 



'S08 

1 rfever, 

1 r6verb6rer, 

1 r6v6rer, 

tr, rev^tir, 

4r. revivre, 

tr. revoir, 

1 se r^volter, 

1 r6vo(]juer, 

2 r6ussir, 
1 rider, 

1 ridiculisery 

1 rimer, 

1 r^imprimer, 

1 riposter, 

tr. rire, 

1 risquery 

1 rissoler, 

1 river, 

1 rogner, 

ir. romprei 

1 

1 

2 

2 

1 



ronner, 

ronger, 

r6tir, 

rougiry 

rouler, 



2 rouBsir, 

tr. rouvrir, 

1 miner, 

1 se ruiner. 



FRENCH 


VERBS. 






to dreamy *— i 


ac 




to reflect. 


ac 




to honour » 


ac 


ge- 


to invest, 
to revive. 


ac 
ac 


da. 


toreunile. 
10 9eeagaimu 
torevolt 


ac 




torepeoL 

tosucceedy — i 

io fvrinkle. 


ac 




to lauffh at 


ac 




to rhyme. 


ac 




tonprinty 


ac 


da. 


to reply. 




ge. 


tolamghy •<— d 


ac 




toveniurey — &ord 


ac 




to roast brown. 


ac 




to rivet 


ac 


da. 


to cuty to pare. 


ac 


da. 


to break, 
to snore. 


ac 




to gnaw. 


ac 




toroast 

to blushy to reddeny — d 


ac 




to roll. 

to prow red. 


ac 




to open again. 


ac 




to ruin. 




da« 


to ruin one*s sdf, — 





Sabler, 


ac 




to graiveL 




sabrer, 


ac 




to cut with a hxmger. 




saccager, 


ac 




to plunder. 




sacrer, 


ac. 




to consecrate. 




sacrifier, 
saigner, 


ac 
ac 


fia. 


to sacrifioey -i- 
toletUood. 


2 


se saisir. 




ge- 


to lay hold of. 



FRENCH VERBS. 



309 



«r. 



tr. 
ir. 



salir, 

saluer, 

sanctifier, 

saper, 

sarcler, 

satiriser, 

satisfaire, 

tr. savoir, 
sauter, 
sauver, 
scandadiser, 
scier, 
sculpter, 
s^cher, 
seconder, 
secouer, 
secourir, 
s6duire, 
sojourner, 
sembler, 
semer, 

tr. seotir^ 
s6questrer, 
serrer> 
servir, 
sevrer, 
siffler, 
signaler, 
signer, 
signifier, 
soUiciter, 
sommeiller, 
sommer, 
sonder, 
songer. 
sonner, 
sortir, 
se soucier, 
souffler, 
sou£Brir, 
souhaiter. 



tr. 



tr. 



ir. 
1 



ac. 

ac 

ac 

ac. 

ac 

ac 

ac. 

ac 

ac 

ac ge. 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

ac 

da. 

da. 
ac 
ac 
ac 

ac da. 
ac da. 

9 



ac. 

ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 



da. 
da» 



ac 
ac 

da. 
ac 

ge- 
ac da. 

ac da. 



iofauL 

tosahUe. ' 

tosancHfy 

to sap. 

to weed. 

to satirUe. 

to satisfy, 

to know, — 

to /!aqp, tojwmp* 

to some. 

to scandalise^ 

to saw. 

to engrave.' 

to dry. 

to help.] X 

to shake. 

to relieve. 

to seduce. 

to stay in a place. 

to seem, 

to sow. 

tofeelf tosmdL 

to sequestrate. 

to squeeze. 

to serve, 

to wean. 

to whisde. 

to make famous 

iosubsdibe. 

to notify, 

to soUcit^ — 

to slumber. 

to summon, 

to sofund. 

to thmk, 

to ring. 

togoout, 

to care for, 

to blow. 

tosu^er, 

to wish, — 



— de. 

0. 

— dew 



— 0. 



^ a. 



de. 
kor de. 

de< 

— iL 

de. 

— de. 

(subj.) o. 
(subj.) 0. 



310 

1 
I 
1 
1 
tr 
1 

1 
tr. 
tr. 
«r. 
tr. 
tr. 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 



souiller, 

soulager, 

86 soSler, 

soulever, 

soumettre^ 

8oup9onnery 

souper, 

soupirer, 

sourire, 

souscrire» 

soustraire^ 

soutenir, 

86 souvenir, 

specifier, 

8tatuer, 

stipul6r, 

stupifier, 

subdiviser, 

subir, 

submerger, 

subordonner, 

suborner, 

subroger, 

subsist^r, 

substituer, 

subtiliser, 

subvenir, 

succeder, 

sucrer, 

suffire, 

sufFoquer, 

sugg^rer, 

suivre, 

supplanter, 

supplier, 

supplier, 

supporter, 

supposer, 

supprimer, 

supputer, 

surcharger, 



FRBKCH 


VERBS. 




ac. 


g«- 


todtriy. 




ac 


ge. 


to relieve. 






g«- 


to cloy one's self. 




ac. 


g«- 


to raise. 




ac. 


da. 


to submit. 


— a 


ac. 


ge. 


to suspect, 
to sup. 
to sigh. 


- dc 




da. 


to smile. 




ac. 


da. 


to subscribe. 


- 


ac.g6.da. 


to stdftract. 




ac. 


da. 


tomcdntcan, 







ge- 


to remeTnber, 


— de 


ac 




to specify. 








to ordain. 


— de 


ac. 




to stipulate. 




ac 




tosUipefy. 




ac 




to subdivide. 




ac 




to undergo. 




ac 




to sink. 




ac 


da. 


to subordinate. 




ac 




to corrupt. 


• 


ac 




to substitute, 
to subsist. 




ac 


da. 


to substitute. 




ac 




to subtilise. 






da. 


to relieve. 






da. 


to succeed. 




ac 




to sugar. 






da. 


to suffice, 


de 


ac 




to stifle. 




ac 




to suggest, — 


dc 


ac 


da. 


to follow. 




ac 


« 


to supplant. 




ac. 


da. 


to supply. 




ac 


ge. 


to entreat. 


(subj.) dc 


ac 




to suffer, to hear 


up. 


ac 


da. 


to suppose, (ind. subj.) c 


ac 


ge. 


to suppress. 




ac 




to compute. 




ac 


ge- 


to overcharge. 





FJRBNCH VERBS. 



311 



ir. surfaire, 
1 surmonter, 
1 surnager, 
1 surpasser, 
tr. surprendrey 
tr. survivre, 
tr. suspendre, 
sustenter, 
sympatiser, 



ac 

ac. 
ac. 

ac« 
ac 



da. 
da. 



io exacL 

to exceL 

to swim over. 

to excel. 

to surprise, 

to survive. 

to hang up. 

to give sustenance. 

to syn^pathise. 



'— de. 



tr. 



tr. 



tr. 
tr. 



Tacher, 

tacher, 

tacheter, 

tailler, 

taire, 

tamiser, 

taner, 

tapisser, 

tarder, 

tarlr, 

tasser, 

tater, 

taxer, 

teindre, 

temp6rer, 

temporiser, 

tendre, 

tenir, 

tenter, 

tergiverser, 

terminer, 

terrasser, 

tirer, 

toiser, 

tol6rer, 

tomber*, 



ac. 



ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 

ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 
ac 



— de. 



da. 



ac da. 
ac da. 
ac 

ac 
ac 

{aC(.ge.da. 
da. 
ac 
ac 



— a. 



— de. 



to stain. 
j to endeavour, 
[toaimcU, -« 

to spedkle. 

to cutout 

to hem silent. 

to sift. 

to tan. 

to furnish with hanging^ 

to delay, 

to dry up. 

to heap tq). 

tofoeL 

to tax, 

to dye. 

to allay. 

to delay. 

to tend, 

to hold. 

to tempt, 

to sh^L 

to terminate. 

to throw doom. 

to draw. 

to shooL 

tomeasure. 

to tolerate. 

tofalL 



L 



— de. 



312 



VRENCH VERBS* 



tr. tondre, 

imp. tonner, 
toucher, 
tounnenter, 
toumer, 
toumoyer, 
tousser, 
tracer, 

tr. traduire, 
trafiquer, 
trahir, 
trainer, 

tr. traire, 
traiter, 
tramer, 
trancher, 
tranquilliser, 
transcrire, 
transferer, 
trftnsformer, 
trtosgresser, 
transiger, 

ir, transmettre, 
transpirer, 
transplanter, 
transporter, 
transposer, 
transvaser, 
travailler, 
traverser, 
se travestir, 
tr^bucher, 
trembler, 
tremper, 
tr^paner, 

ir, tressaillir, 
tricoter, 
triompher, 
tripler, 
tromper 



ac 

ac« 
ac 
ac. 



ac. da. 
ac ge. 
ac 
ac. 
ac. 
ac. 
ac 
ac 

ac. da. 
ac 
ac 
acge. da. 
ac 
ac 

ac da. 

ac. 
ac ge. da. 
ac 
ac 

ac da. 
ac 



ac 
ac. 

ac 

ac 
ac 



to shear 

to thunder. 
da. to touch. 

toplague. ^ 
da. to turn round 

to whirl about 

to cough. 

to draw. 

to transktce. 

to trade. 

to betray. 

to drag along 

to milk. 

to treat. 

to plot. 

to cutqffl 

to quiet. 

to transcribe^ 

to transfer. 

to transgress. 

to transact. 

to transmit. 

to perspire. 

to transplant. 

to transfer. 

to transpose. 

to decant. 

totDorh, — 

to cross. 

to disguise onis sdf. 

to stumble. 
ge. to shiver^ — 

to soak. 

to trepan. 
ge. to starL 

to knit. 
ge. to triun^hf — 

to trebHe. 

to deceive. 



d 







FRENCH 


yERBS» 




tronquer, 


ac. 




to mutilate* 




troquer, 


ac. 




to barter. 




trotter, 






to trot. 




troubler, 


ac. 




to trouble. 




trouver, 


ac. 




to find out, 




tyranniser, 


ac. 




to oppress. 




<* 




1 


U 


I 


Ulc^rer, 


ac. 




to ulcerate. 


2 


unir, 


ac. 


da. 


to unite. 


1 




f 


ge. 


to use. 


I 


user, 


• 

\ ac. 


o 


to wear out. 



SIS 



— k. 



. 


Vaciller, 






to staff ger. 


• 


vaincre, 


ac. 




to vanquish 


. 


valoir, 


ac 


da. 


to be worth. 


. 


valoir mieux, 






to be better, •— 




vanter, 


ac. 




to commend. 




se vanter, 




ge- 


to boast, — 


. 


v^g^ter, 






to veffetate. 




veUler, 


ac. 


da. 


to watch, ^ — 


. 


vendre, 


ac. 


da. 


to sell. 
r to come to, — 
^ to happen, — - 
(^to haoejust, — 


• 


venir*, 


ge- 


da. 












venter, 






to blow. 


4 


verdir. 






to become ffreen. 




vergetter, 


ac. 




to brush. 




v^rmer, 


ac. 




to verify. 


I 


vemir, 


ac. 




to varnish. 


. 


vemisser, 


ac. 




to varnish. 


k 


vexer, 


ac 




to vex* 


t 
ft 


vicier, 


ac 




to viciate. 


L 


vider. 


ac. 




to empty. 


I 


vieillir, 






to grow old. 


, 


violefy 


ac 




to transgress^ to vtokUe* 



o. 
dc 

0. 

k. 
de 



./ 



314 

1 viser, ac da. to mm o^ .. i 

1 vitrer, 

tV. vivre, 

ir. voir, ac tosee^ -— o. 

1 voler, \ 

1 vouer, 

tr. Touloir, ac. to be willing, ^subj.) o. 



FRENCH 


VERBS. 


ac da. 
ac. 


to otm agf 
to glaze, 
to Hve. 


ac 
ac 

da* 
ac. da. 
ac. 


tosee^ 
to rob. 

to devote, 
to be willing. 



315 



DIALOGUES. 



Dialogue I. Sur rHistoire de France, 

D, Combien y a-t-il eu de rois en France dcpuis Pharamond 
jusqu'a Louis Seize ? 

i?. Soixant , , 

D, Nomme2^1es dans I'ordre qu'ils ont r^gn^, mettez en litre 
le nom de chaque famille, et apres chaqtie roi, I'ann^e ou il a 
commence son regne. 

/?. Volontiers, mais a condition que voua les apprendrez par 
coeur. 



ROIS DE FRANCE. 



21 Merovingiens, 

Pharamond - - 420 

Clodion - . - 427 

Merovee - •» 448 

Ghildericl. - - 45« 

Clovis 1. - - 481 

Child^bertl. - - 611 

Clotaire 1. - - 558 

Charibert - m 561 

Chilpericl. - - 567 

Clotaire IL - - 584 

Dagobert 1. - - 628 

Clovis IL - - 638 

Clotaire III. - - 656 

ChildericIL - - 670 

Thierry L - - 673 

Clovis IIL - - 691 

ChildebertIL - - 695 

Dagobert IL - - 711 



Chilp^ric IL 
Thierrjr IL 
Interregne 
Child^c IIL 

12 CiXitoviHgietu. 
P^pin . - - 

Charlemagne 
Los^is 1. 

Charles ie Chauve 
Louis IL 

Louis HI. et Carloman 
Charles IL 
Eudes* 
Charles IIL 
Robert* 

Raoul * - - 
Louis IV. 
Lothaire 
Louis V. 



715 
720 
737 
742 

752 

768; 

814 

840 

877 

879 

884 

687 

898 

922 

923 

936 

954 

986 



* Eudes, Robert, et Raoul ne sent point de la famllle des Carlo- 
vingiens; Eudes et Robert ^taient, Pun Corate de Paris, et Tau'tre 
Due de France. Raoul ^toit Due de Bourgogne. 

P 2 



316 



SUR L HI8TOIRE BR FRANCE. 



33 CapSHens, 

Hugues Capet - - 987 

Robert - - 996 

Henri I. - - 1031 

Philippe L - - 1060 

Louis VI. . -1108 

Louis VIL - . 1137 

PhiHft)eIL - - 1180 

Louis VIII. - - 1223 

Louis IX. - - 1226 

Philippe in. - - 1270 

PhUippe leBel " - 1285 

Louis X. - - 1314 

Jean I. . . . 1316 

Philippe V. - - 1316 

Charles IV. - - 1322 

Philippe de Valois • 1328 



Jean II. 


m 


1350 


X^harles V. 


m 


1364 


Charles VL 


m 


1380 


Charles VIL - 


. 


1422 


Louis XL 


• 


1461 


Charles VIIL - 


. 


1483 


Louis Xn. 


m 


1493 


Francois I. 


m 


1515 


Henn IL 


m 


1547 


Francois II. 
Char es IX. 


. 


1559 


. 


1560 


Henri IIL 


. 


1574 


Henri IV. 


• 


1589 


Louis XIIL 


. 


1610 


Louis XIV. - 


• 


1643 


Louis XV. 


• 


1715 


Louis XVI. - 


• 


1774 



'2>. Quels sont les rois qui ont plus particulierement proteg^ 
les sciences ? 

H. Charlemagne, Robert, Philippe-le-Bel, Fran9ois Premier^ 
et Louis Quatorze. 

JD, Combien de rois ont eu des morts tra^ques ? 

jR, Sept, savoir, ChUperic Premier, Childeric Second, Charles 
le Chauve, Lothaire, Henri Trois, Henri Quatre, et Louis Seize. 
Chilperic Ait assassin^ par un de ses nobles Pan 584. Childeric 
Second fiit tue en revenant de la chasse Tan 673. Charles le 
Chauve fiit empoisonn^ par son m^decin Tan 877. Lothaire fiit 
empoisonne par sa femme Tan 986. ^enri Trois fut assassine 
par Jacques Clement Pan 1589. Henri Quatre fiit tu^ par Ra- 
vaillac en 1610. Louis Seize fut decapit^ par ordre de la Con- 
vention Nationale en 1793. 

D. Y a-t-il eu des guerres civiles en France? 

B, Oui, particulierement quatre*; la premiere arriva a la mort 
de Louis Premier, qui avait nomm^ Charles le Chauve son jeune 
fils pour son successeur, par preference a Lothaire son fils aine. 
Lothaire disputa la coiu-onne, et la bataille la plus sanglante qui 
ait et6 livree depuis le commencement de la monarchic Fran- 
9aise se donna entre les fils de Louis, a Fontenay, Tan 842. 

La seconde fut entre Henri Premier et sa mere Constance qui 
voulait mettre sur le trone Robert son jeune frere. 



SIR l'histoire de francs. 8f? 

La troisieme fut excitee par les Calvinistes qui se liguerent et 
attaquerent Henri Trois en 1575; ils prirent plusieurs. places 
fcrtes et livrerent bien des combats avaiit qu*on put les reduire. 

La quatri^xne commenca Tan 1793, dans la Bretagne; die fut 
tres-cruelle, et tres-sanglante. 

Le parti-royaliste a coute plus de cent mille hommes avant 
d'etre detruit. 

D, Nommez-moi quelques faits remarquables depuis Phara- 
mondjusqu'au douzieme siecle. 

R, Clovis Premier se fit baptiser et etablit le Christianisrae 
Tan 496. En 583 une peste cnielle desola toute la France, 
et surtout Paris: Childeric Trois et dernier de la famille des 
Merovingiens fut depose et enferm^ dans un monasterc, Tan 
752. Pepin fut elu a sa place par les ^tats assembles a Sois- 
sons. La celebre University de Paris commen9a sous •Iharlt 
magne en 796. 

En 922 Charles Trois, dit le Simple, fut depose par les seig- 
neurs, qui mirent Robert sur le trone : Charles fut arrete "?eu de 
temps apres, et renferme dans le chateau ^e Thieri, ou il mourut. 

n y eut une famine si cnielle en 1033, qu'au rapport des his 
toriens on derobait les petits enfans pour les manger, et qu'on 
attendait les voyageurs au coin des bois pour les devorer. Les 
croisades pour la Terre Sainte commencerent en 1096 

D, Kapportez-moi quelques faits remarquables depuis le dou 
zieme siecle jusqu'a Louis Seize. 

R, La Pragmatique sanction est publiee en 1269, par laquelle 
les cathedrales et les abbayes obtiennent le privilege d'elire leurs 
prelats. Humbert attacha le Dauphin6 k la couronne de France 
en 1349, a condition que le fils ain6 du roi en porterait le nom 
et les armes. En 1356, Jean et son iils flirent faits prisonnicrs 
par le Prince Noir, fils d'Edouard Trois, roi d'Aneleterre, qui 
pretendait a la couronne de France au droit de sa mere, mats qui 
en ^tait exclu par la loi Salique. Henri Six, Roi d'Angleterre, 
fut couronne Roi de France ran 1431, au droit de son pere, qui 
avait 6t6 nomm6 heritier de la couronne ; mais le Dauphin sou- 
tint ses droits, se fit reconnaftre, et chassa Henri Six de ses 
etats. La France fut un theatre de carnage en 1569. Charles 
Neuf fit ^gorgerles Calvinistes a Paris en 1572. Les Calvi- 
nistes exciterent une guerre civile en 1575. 

Henri Quatre, qui avait ^t^ ^eve dans la religion Protestante, 
*2 convert! t a la religion Catholique en 1593, et par sa conver- 

P 3 



318 SUR L*HISTOIRe OE FRANCE. 

sion appaisa les troubles et les guerres civiles qui desolaicnt la 
France. 

Louis Quatorze, qui regna pres de soixante-douze ans, detruisit 
les duels, protegea les sciences, et r^compensa toujours le merite; 
il r^ussit k mamtenir son petit-fils Phuippe Cinq sur le trone 
d'Espa^ne, malgr^ plusieurs rois ligu^s contre luL Louis Seize 
aspembla les ^tats g^n^raux en 1789, pour r^parer I'etat de ses 
finances ; cette assembl^e a op^re la revolution Fran9aise, dont 
rhistoire seule demand e des volumes cntiers. 



319 



Dialogue II. Sur VHistoire d*Angleterre. 

D, Combien y art-il eu de rois et de reines en Angleterre de- 
puis TEptarchie Saxonne ? 

R. H y a eu quarante-neuf rois, et quatre reines. 

2>. Nommez-les dansPordre qu'ils ont re^e, mettez en titre 
le nom de chaque famille, et apres chaque roi^ Tepoque ou il a 
commence a r%ner ? 

R, Volontiers, mais soyez attentif, et tachez de vous en res- 
souvenir. 

ROIS D' ANGLETERRE. 

15 Saxons. 
Egbert 
Ethelwolf 
Ethelbald 
Ethelbert 

Ethelred I. - - 
Alfred - - 
Edward le vieux 
'Athelstan 
Edmond I. 
Edred 
Edwin 

Edgar - - - 

Edward lejeune 
Ethelred II. 
Edmond II. - 

3 Danois. 
Canut 

Harold I. - 
Hardi-Canut 

Encore 2 Saxons, 
Edouard le Con/esseur 
Harold II. 

3 Kormans, 
Guillaume I. le Conq. - 
Guillaume II. le Roux 
Henri I. - - 

Maiton de Rlois, 
Etienne 

8 Planfagenets, 
Henri II. - - 

Hi chard I. Cceur de Lion 





- Jean sans terre - 


• 


1199 


819 


Henri HI. 


« 


1216 


837 


Edouard I. 


•' 


1272 


858 


Edouard IL 


• 


1307 


860 


Edouard IIL - 


« 


1327 


866 


Richard II. 


. 


1377 


871 


3 Lancastres, 






900 


Henri IV. 


• 


1400 


925 


Henri V. 


. 


1413 


940 


Henri VL 


• 


1422 


946 


3 Yorks, 






955 


Edouard IV. - 


. 


1461 


959 


Edouard V. 


• 


1483 


975 


Richard IIL 


. 


1483 


978 


5 Tudors. 






1016 


Henri VIL 


« 


1485 




Henri VIIL 


• 


1509 


1017 


Edouard VI. - 


. 


1547 


1036 


Marie 


« 


1553 


1040 


Elizabeth 

6 Sfuarts, 


m 


1556 


1042 


Jacques I. 


m 


1602 


1065 


Charles I. 


m 


1625 




Charles II. 


m 


1660 


1066 


Jacques II. 


• 


1685 


1087 


Guillaume HI. et Marie 


1689 


1100 


Anne 

4 Brunswicks, 


- 


1702 


1135 


George I. 


- 


1714 




George IL 


- 


1727 


1154 


George IIL 


- 


1760 


1189 


George IV. 


- 


1820 



820 ftUU L*HISTOIRB D ANGLETERRE. 

D, Quels droits avaient h. la couronne les premiers rois de 
chaque famille? 

R, Egbert ^tait un des rois de TEptarchie Saxonne, il sou- 
rait les six autres, et se fit courdnnef rcH de la Bri^caghe sup6ri- 
eure, a laquelle il donna le nom d'Angleterre. 

Canut, Prince Danois, avait partag^ I'Angleterre ayec Edmond, 
et Alt reconnu roi de tout le rovaume & lamort du dernier; il 
n'y avait d'autre droit que celui ae conqu^te« 

Guillaume, Due de Normandie, occupa I'Angleterre k titre 
d*h6ritier d'Edouard le Ck>nfesseur, et prit cehii de Con- 
qu^rant. 

Etienne de Blois s'empara du trone dansPabsence de Mathilde, 
iille de Henri Premier, et h^ritiere legitime. 

Henri Second, fils de Mathilde, monta sur le trone a la mort 
d'Etienne, qui, pour mettre fin a la guerre civile, s*etait engage 
par un traite a lui laisser la couronne au prejudice de ses propres 
enfans. 

Henri Quatre fut eleve sur le trone au prejudice d'Edmond 
llortimer, ce qui, occasionna de funestes divisions entre les mai- 
sons d'York et de Lancastre. 

Edmond Quatre, de la maison d*York, qui se croyait herider 
de la couronne, reussit a detroner Henri . Six apres une guerre 
civile. 

Henri Sept, de la famille des Tudors, avait du c6te de sa mere 
tous les droits de la famille de Lancastre a la couronne, et du 
c6t6 de sa femme tous ceux de la maison -d'York. 

Jacques Premier, roi d'Ecosse, etait .le plus proche parent 
d' Elizabeth, qui I'avait nomme pour son successeur dans son 
testament. 

George Premier etait sorti de la maison des Stuarts par sa 
m^re, petite fille de Jacques Premier ; la Heine Anne I'avait 
nomme son successeur. 

jD. Combien de rois ont ete tues en combattant ? 

/?. Trois : Ethelred Premier fut tue dans une bataille contrd 
les Danois qui venaient continuellement ravager son pays. 
Harold Deux fut tu6 dans une bataille contre GKiiUaume le Con- 
qu^rant. Richard Trois flit tue dans une bataille contre Henri 
Sept. 

D. Combien de rois ont eu une mort tragique ? 



SUA l'histoirie d'angleteare. 321 

JR, Les neuf suivans ; Edmond Premier, Edouard le Jeune, 
Edmond Second, Guillaume le Roux, Richard Premier, Edouard 
Second, Richard Second, Edouard Cinq, et Charles Premier. 

1. Edmond Premier flit assassin^ par un nomme Leol, sce« 
l^rat renomm6, ^e le roi avait envoye en exil. 2. Edouard le 
Jeune fiit assassm^ par les ordres de sa belle-mere Elfride, qui 
voulait faire r^gner son propre fils Ethelred Second. 3. Edmond 
Second fut cruellement assassin^ par les domestiques de son 
beau-frere.Edrick, k aui Canute fit trancher la t^te. 4. Guillaume 
le Roux, etant a la cnasse, fiit tu6 d'un coup de fleche tir^ sans 
dessein par un de ses domestiques. 5. Richard Premier, sur- 
nomme Cceur de Lion, voulant obliger un Seigneur Limousin a 
lui rendre un tr^or qu'il avait trouv^, s'approcha du chateau de 
ce gentilhomme pour Tattaquer; il re9ut un coup de fleche 
dont il mourut. 6. Edouard Second fiit depose par le parle- 
ment, et enferme au chateau, de Berkley oii il fiit cruellement 
assassine. 7. Richard Second flit depose par le parlement, et 
cnferm6 dans le chateau de Pontefiract oil it flit inhumainement 
assassin^ par Tordre de Henri Quatre, chef des m^contens, qui 
fut ^lu a sa place. 8. Edouard Cinq, et son frere le Due d' York, 
furent enfermes a la Tour, et ensuite etouffes dans leur lit par 
Tordre du Due de Glocester, qui prit le nom de Richard Trois 
quand il flit monte sur le trone. 9. Charles Premier fut d6- 
capite par Tordre du parlement, le 30 Janvier 1C49; son fils, 
Charles Second, ne monta sur le trone qu'en 1660, onzeans 
apres la mort de son pere. 

2>. L' Angleterre a-t-efle eu bien des guerres ' etrangeres a 

soutenir ? 

R. Qui, du temps des rois Saxons, les Danois y firent des 
descentes fr^quentes pendant plus de deux cens ans. II y a eu 
beaucoup de guerres entre 1' Angleterre et la France depuis 
Guillaume le Conquerant, mais particulierement depuis la Reine 
Anne ; il y a eu aussi des guerres contre I'Espagne, contre la 
Hollande, et contre I'Am^nque. 

D. Y a-t-il eu plusieurs guerres civiles en Angletewe ? 

R. Oui, et nous pouvons compter entre autres les quatre 
suivantes comme les plus memorables. La premiere commen9a 
en 1135, quand Etienne de Blois monta sur le trone au pre- 
judice de Mathiide, fille unique et ledtime h^ritiere de Iwnri 
Premier. La seconde arriva sous le regne de Richard Second, 
ct finit par le deposer. La troisieme fut suscitee par la maison 
d'York, et finit par mettre Edouard Quatre sur le trone a la 
place de Henri Six, qui fut depos^. La quatrieme fut celle du 



322 St7R l'hISTOIRK D'AN6L£TBRRfi. 

parlement contre Charles l^emier ; ce prince malheureux fiit 
vaincu et d^apit^. 

Z). Depuis quand les rois d'AngieCerre prennent-ils le titre 
de rois de France ? 

jR. Depuis Edouard Trcna, qui avait ^us^ la soeur de 
Charles Quatre, qui mourut skns enfans : u etait ezclu de la 
couronne par la loi Salique; cependant il prit le titie de rci de 
France, que ses successeurs ont consery^ jusqu'en 18C0> 

D, Y a-t-il eu des rois d'Angleterre qui aient ^t6 couronnes 
rois de France ? 

R. Qui : Henri Six encore enfant fut couronn^ roi de France 
dans r^lise de Notre-Dame de Paris, Tan 1431. 

D, Quels droits aviut-il ^ la couronne ? 

R. Son pere avait ^pous^ Catherine, fille de Charles Six, Koi 
de France, qui Tavait reconnu pour heritier de sa couronne, au 
prejudice du Dauphin. 

2>. Henri Six jouit-il long-temps de la couronne de France ? 

R, Non : le Dauphin, connu sous le nom de Charles Sept, se 
fit aussi couronner roi de France : il soutint son droit, reprit 
toutes les villes que son pere avait perdues, et chassa Henri Six 
de son royaume. Jeanne d'Arc (sumomm^e la Pucelle d' Or- 
leans) fit des choses extraordinaires dans cette guerre contre les 
Anglais. 

J), Y art-il eu plusieurs pestes en Angleterre ? 

R, Oui, et de tres-cruelles; il y eut une peste d^sastreuse en 
1094, une seconde en 1349, une troisieme en 1407, une qua- 
trieme en 1603, et la demiere en 1665. 

D. Y a-t-il eu des incendies considerables k Londres ? 

R, Oui, •particulierement deux : le premier arriva en 1 132, et 
brula un tres-grande partie de Londres ; le second en 1666, il 
y eut quatre-vmgt-neuf eglises et plus detreize mille raaisons 
brulees. 

X>. Noramez-moi deux ou trois ^poques considerables de 
rhistoire d' Angleterre. 

R, Les trois evenemens les plus interessans sont : 1. La con- 
(jUete de TAngleterre par Guillaume, Due de Normandie, en 



SUB LHISTOIRE D ANOLETERRX. 323 

1066. 2. La r^onne que Luther commenca en 1517. 3. La re- 
volution que Cromwell et le parlement oper^eat en Angleterre, 
et dans laquelle Charles Premier fut d^capit^. 

2>. En quoi consiste Tautorit^ des rois d' Angleterre ? 

">► 

R, lis ont le pouvoir de fedre la psax et la guerre | ils dispo- 
sent des arm^ de terre et le mer ; ils peuvent seuls convoquer, 
proroger, ou casser le parlement; les d^crets pass^ dans lea 
deux chambres n'ont pas force de loi sans leur consentement 
formel : ik donnent les places de r6tat» disposent des charges de 
la mag^strature, et nomment k tous les ^ech^s. 



PIK. 



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