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* roB 1890; 4 vibcbiptiok or tai i 



TvnoH* iHD Aiaooii^ioai ; i>v ■ 


EuTEMMD acooidiiig to AU of Congreiii la the jmt 1638» by 

W. MamhiTiT. ft Co., 

in the (Mtee of the CLerk of the INftrict Coun of the Eutern District of Pennsyl^nie. 






AAy the sue o^ *3 riYcn, in Wmaia fiinope, iac in the Gnmd Ducky ef the lower RUne, 
m. lit, liaee $n Bamogitia, rone throoffh the ftfling info the Rhine, the other riaing In Naaec, 

Daehj of Conriaad into the beyof Ria; Stad^in ftUinf into the Lahn. 

Saioof ,&Uing into Lake Blanken; 3a. in Bwiti- Amtgrntu fenneilj a dietrict, hat fimned into ft 

tfland, fallinir into Lake Looeme ; 4tli, do. into eanton of Switierlaad ; about 060 i^. m. in ea» 

Uke Wakt^ten; 5th, do. into the Aar river; tent Pop. in 1796 abooi 130^000. 

Gth,in Weetohnlm, falling into the Wehr; 7th, JimrkuuSf the eeoond of the four bifhopri^ of 

do. into the V echt ; 8th, do. into the Enia ; 9th, Jutland ; it ia a very frmtftd diftrict, o» «Ihi V. 

ID Holland, filing into the Veeht, at Swaririuys ; aide of the Peninsnla, extending for about 60 m. 

10th, do. into tJie Oldyeeel ; Uth. in Oreryieel, along the ahore of the Cattegat, bounded on the 

(alUaginto '.^akeGiter; li2th, in Biihant, fUUng W. by the biahoprie of Viborg, intereeoted by 

iato tne Dommel ; and 13th, in pea de Calaia, nmnerooa atreama. abounding with fiah, and m 

Fiance, &Uing into the aea at Gravelinea. richly adorned witn fbreela. It containa the ree- 

Juk, the name of a river in Switaerland, and idencea of a great portion of the nobility of Den- 

oT two olhen in Suahia. ind alao of a town in mark. The chief town of the aanie name ie ait- 

Soahia, about 90 milee N. of Conatance. uate on the coaat, in 56. 10. N. lat. 10. 13. E. lonyr. 

AakmUfitm ehief townof a amall district of the The town a divided into two unequal parte, by 

nme name, in the govern ment of Munsier, one water oonveyed ftom a lake about 15 m. in the in* 

of the Pniaainii atatea, in the province of West- terior. It is largo and populous ; and haa sis 

philia. 8^tM» ^<' principal churches, two market-plaoes ; 

Aum'Charmim.h village near Jerusalem, said to a univerilty, a nee-ecfaool, and a weU-«ndowed 

be the puAce wheie Zachariua lived. It ia fie- homital, and haa a considerable trade in grain, 

qoentcd by pilgrima; and near it theie ia a eon- timber, dbc. 

vtot. a huge elegant building, with a handsome jferon's IdamiL See St. Mida, 

copoia, ana under H an eztxaordinary fine moaaio Aaraiubwrg. t. Northumberland Co. Pa. It is 

pavement; the A ar, which is a very aplendid aituated a little more than a mile E. of Elk ereek, 

one, enoompoeeed with marble 8tepe,is aaid to be whieh unites with Penn*s oreek, BUling into the 

boilt on the very spot where Joan the Bi^tist Susquehanna, 5 m. bekvw Sunbury 

was bom. JianmAwrg^ p.t. Centre Co. ra. 15 m. K. 

JkSktrg, one of the four bishopries of the Pen- Bellelbnte. 
insular province of Jutland, being the aaoet Mmck or Wtiimibmrgf a market town in Lower 
Dorthcriy part, and about 190 square milee in ex- Bavaria, aeated on tiM Danube, 7 m. ftom Ratie- 
lent, containing about 90,000 inhahitanta. The bon. It is di^nded bv a citadel, and is remark- 
chief town, of t»Ae aame name, is sitoale on the able for Roman antiquities, aa well ts Ibr tti min- 
nuth coast of the CNilf of Lymfiord, in 67. eial wateri, which are ceMurated for euringvaii- 
3. E. kmg. 7. 56. Next to Copenhagen it ia the OM diseases. Long. II. 56. £. kt.'48. 58. If. 
most considerable town in Denmark. It haa an Mtdt. or Skmdt Abrnde^ a village of E^ypt, en 
exchange for merchanta; the epieoop^ nakee, the left bank of the Nile, 80 m. 8. of Cairo; im* 
two churches, two poor-housea, a hospital, oon- mense architectural ruins testify its having been 
vent and cathedral scho<d-house^ are all respeet»* the alte of a gnat and populous ei^. 
ble edifices; a^d it haa a oonsiderahle trade in Jthmitk, a oonaideraMe town at the Bovth of 
com, heiringa, dre-arms, saddles, gloves. Ac. It the Tigris, pn^inoe of Fua, Penda. 
WIS taken by the Swedea m 1643 and 1668 JMtmuk, a town situate oo a braneh of the 

^sr, a large river in Switaerland, whMi rises river Yenisei, in the province ci Kottmrane, 

ra a lake, near Mount Saalbery, in the 8. of the flovemment of Tobolsk, Asiatie Russia. It waa 

euton of Bern, and running N. W. throuoh the founded in 1707, and rebuilt in 1735, and since 

whole extent of tibe lake oT Brienx and Tdma to fortified : some aneient tomba with fine ineorip- 

Bem, takes a eirenitous course to Boleure ; tions, beepeak it to have been a plane of impor- 

whenee it flowa £. to Arburg,aiid N. E. to Bragg; tance, prior to the oonquest of Siberia by Russia. 

bekiw which, being joined by the Reum and 54. E. kmg. 91. 14. 

Uaunett, it folia intr iie Rhine Oftpoaite Wald^ AMak, a town m the vicinity of Siberia, eele 

KkMt; also the name of two other rivers,oae via- braled foran image of the Virgin, whieh is vimt 





ftd \iy many pilffrima, and earned in proceaaion aontheni extremity of the FHth of Forth, lyinff fai 

annually to ToDolaki. the pa^^ of Coldingham and the co. of Berwiok, 

Abana, a river of Syria, oalled in Scripture, to- Scotland, about 10 milea N. of Berwick, and the 

cethcr with Pharpar, riveri of Damaaeua.— «ee aame diatance 8. from Dunbar. W. loxup. 2. 8. 

2 Kinga V. 12. hit. 65. 56. N. 

Jbtmeay, a proTinee of Peru, 8. America ; the JSMa^ a amall but fertile proT. of Moioeoo. 

vince, and another town in C^nca, province of It ia leated on a apacioua open bay in the Little 

Quito. Belt, aurrounded on three aidea by high monn« 

Jihano, a conaiderable town of Italy, in the vi- taina, which render the harbour aafe. Pop. about 

olnity of Padua, diatingniahed for iU hot aulphu- 3,000. Long. 9. 26. £. Ut 66. 3. N. 

bathe. Jibmuperg or Jihentbergf a town in the circle of 

JhaMia, or Mgah, a country of Aaiatic Runia, Begen, Bavaria, aeated on the Abena, near tbr 

iyinff between the Caapian and Black Seaa. The Danube, 16 m. S. W. of Ratiabon. 

inhiS. are eatimated at about 160,000, subaiating Mar, a village in Caemarvonahire, N. Walea. 

ehiefly by hunting and plunder, and apeaking a 6 m. £. from Ban^ror, on the direct road from 

lingnaf e peculiar to themaelvea. London to Holyhead. Pop. 625. 

dAo-l^fear, a j^atinate of Upper Hungary, *,* There are 16 towna and villagea in Walea, 

•bout 7(K) aq. m. m extent, divided into 102 par- to which the word Aber ia prefixed, which ligni- 

iihea. Pop. about 120,000. Be9 the fall of a leaser water into a greater, and 

Mbf a town in Yemen, Arabia. usually refers to a place aituate at the mouth of a 

JibbehkalL a village, 12 m. from Gloucester, 3 river, 

from Newnham, Eng. noted fi»r a mineral spring, Jiberbroikoekf or Arhroatk, an ancient royal burgh 

verv efficacious in the cure of cutaneous eruptiona. and sespport, aituate at the estuary of the river 

Jibberhmf or Jtlberhury, a large parish, divided Brothock, jntrtly in a pariah of the same name, 

into 6 townships, in Shropshire, and 4 othera in and partly in mat of St. Vifeans, in the co. of 

Montgomerydiire, contaimng together 1,946 in- ' Forfar, Scotland, 66 m. N. N. £. of Edinburgh, 

habitanta. The village of Albexbury is 7 m. W. in 66. 34. N. lat. and 2. 36. W. long. William I. 

of Shrewsbury. Pop. 332. It was formerly the sumamed the Lion, kinv of Scotland, founded a 

site of an alien priory and castle. magnificent abbey at Arbroath, in 1178, and con- 

jMemUe, a considerable town of France, in the ferred upon it yerj extensive immunities. Some 

department of Somme, and late province of Pi- vestiges of the bmlding still remain to attest its 

oardy, se^ed in a pleaaant valley, where the riv- former grandeur. A murbor was formed in 1194, 

er Somme divides mto several branches, and sep- to the eaatward of the present one ; the impor- 

arates the town into two parts. It ia pretty well tance of the town declined with the devaatation of 

peopled; has a woollen manufactoiy, tiesidea the abbey, during the ruthless period of the refor- 

manufactories of sail-cloth. It lies 16 m. £. from raation. The commerce of the town revived about 

the British Channel. 20 N. W. fVom Amiens, 52* the year 1738. when the linen manuftcture waa 

S. of Calaia^ and 80 N. W. of Paris. Long. 1. 5. introduced, wnich pro^ssiveljir extended up to 

lat. 60. 7. N. the commencement of^the war in 1793, when it 

MbmiaUj a village near Pershore, noted for a was vastly promoted by the increased demand 

bitter apenent mineral spring; also another vil- for sail-cloth. 4,000 to 5,000 tone of doping be-^ 

lage, 6 m. S. of Colchester. lon^ to the town, part or which is employ^ in 

MbemlU, a district of S. Carolina, about 700 aq. the importation of flax, deab, &c. from the Bai- 
rn, in extent. The landa are agreeably diveraified tic. A public library was established in 1727 ; a 
with hill and dale, well watered and productive, new town-hall has been more recently erected, 
Pop. 2B434. The chief town of the same name and the town at lerge haa undergone considera- 
is aituate on Savannah river, 118 m.W. by N. of ble improvement. The hariwur at spring tides 
Qolumbia. will only admit vessels of about 200 tons burthen, 

AhheyfedU, a parish in Connello, Upper Barony, but being exeeedinglr well sheltered and oommo- 

e#. of Limerick, Ireland, containing, in 18Sa, diooa, and easily made, it affords security to ves- 

3,070 inhab. The village contains 437 of the in- sels of easy draught of water. Arbroatii is, how- 

hab. It had formerly a monastery, and in the vi- ever, a manufacturing rather than a commercial 

einity are the ruina ca Purt Castle. town, it haa 3 fairs annually. 31st of Jan. SM 

Jmof-Grun, a village, in thejparish of Leamah- Wed. of June, and 18th of July. Pop. in 1821 

gow, eo. of Lsinark ; B m. S. W. of the town of 8,972. 

Lanark. It had formerly an abbey, and alao a Ahtreom, a village and pariah, in the co. of Lin- 

pnory. l^e entire parish of Lesmahgow con- lithgow^ Scotland, on the S. bank of the Tnth of 

(ained 6,692 inhab. in 1821. Forth, 12 m. W. of Edinburgh. A monastery ex- 

Mbey-Haimef a quarter of the pariah of Holm isted here in the 7th oentu^ ; and the casUe of 

Cnltram, co. of Cumberland. Pop. of the entire Aberoom was a place of great strength in the fk 

parish in 1821, 2,772, and of the Abbejr quarter, mUy of the Douglasses. It was £smantled in 

758, which is pleasantly aituate on the river Wa- 1446, and no trace of either monastery or castle 

▼er, 27 m. N. of Penritn. now rematna. Abercom still gives tne British 

MbeuldXf a parish in CuOinaffh Barony, title of Marquis, and the Scottish title of Earl to a 

Queen a Co. Ireland. Pop. in 1821, 0,486. The branch of the family of Hamilton. The Roman 

town is sometimes called Clonkyne, and contains wall is said to have begun in this narish. The 

about 2,000 of the inhab. 48 m. S. W . of Dublin, village has increased in importance since iSlOjJar 

MboUt9wnf p.t. York Co. Pa. ita contiguity to the Union Canal. Pop. in 1821, 

AbbeyviUef p.t. Mecklenburg Co. Va. 143 m. 1,044. 

fVnm Richmond. Ahtreom, v. Effingham Co. Geo. 18 m. H. Sa 

JiW» H^adf St. a promoDtory, forming the vannah 


djiirrftwi^ tlM prinQiml eitf in the North of pvUk hotldSafi mo tho lown-hBll, mttket*lMMn*y 
Sootiaad, aituated on the ooMt of the Genoon the hooM of the Aberdeen Banking CompeBT, 
ocean, et the efflux of the hyn Dee and Don, e oroM, an octagon boilding of onrioue wors- 
127 m. N. E. from Eidinbaigb It hae an obaer^ manahip, a diapeniary, infirmary, and lonatio asy* 
▼atorj ; in Ion. 3. 90. W. £t 57. 9. N. Under Inm, a poov-houae, teideweU, faol, and extensiTe 
the denomination of Aberdeen are comprehended banracka. An elegant alreet fnm the 8. ia eon- 
two towna, diatingaiflfaed aa the Old and Xlsw, tinnedoTaranaren of cut granite, 132 ft. apan, 99 
which, however, are almoet nnited by their le^ in height, and 40 wide fistween the parapete. 
apectiTo 8fri>iirba. Aberdeen had formerly aaveral religiona honaea ; 

Aierdemy Old, formerly Aberdon. in the pariah beaidea the oniTeratty, there ia areapeetable gram- 

of Old MachaTj or St Maohar, ia pieaaantly aita- mar aohool and aevenl alma-honaea, and npwaida 

aled on an emmenoe near the mouth of the river of 90 plaoea for religiona worihip. The harbonr 

Don, about a mile north of the New Town. It waa rormerly dangeroua, but haa been rendered 

m of great anticraity, and waa of some importance aafe and oommodioua, by apier 1,900 ft. in lengthi 

ID lomr ago aa 893, when, according to tradition, and % in perpendicular height ; and the conatme- 

kiii|g^ Gregory the Great conferred on it aome pe- tion of wet docks, anthoriaed by an act of itelia- 

euliar privileges, but no anthentic fecorda are ex- ment, in 1810. Aoerdeen waalormeriy celenrated 

tant pnor to 1154. By charter, the free buroesa- for the manufteture of knit stockings, and woollen 

ea or the town are vested with tne power of cEoos- fUnics generally, which, althoufffa still carried on 

in^ their own magistracy, who are a jptovost, 3 to some extent, are now superseded in importaaee 

beiliea^ a treasurer, and council, with the deacons bv the linen and cotton manufactures, which, in 

of 6 moorporated trades. The town eonaists autiieir branches, are carried on to a great extent, 

ehieflv of one lonff atreet. There ia a neat There ia a valuable salmon fiahery in the Dee ; a 

town-nonse, a new JEnilding, and a Trades Hcs- considerable number of vessels are built at Aber- 

pital for decayed freemen and their widows, and deen, and about 40,000 tons belong to it. It hae 

a hospital for 13 poor men, founded b^ Biahop several puhUc bieweriea, rope works, iron fonn- 

William Dunbar, in 1539. But the cmef oma- deries, oc. and three fairs annually on the 31st 

ment of CMd Aberdeen is the large and stately ia- Jan. 3rd Wed. in June, and 13th or July ; a canal 

brie of Kinff *8 College, founded by Bishop Elphin- 19 m. in length to Inverary, ccmtribntes not a lit- 

stone, in 1494, situ&d on the S. side of the town, tie to the advantage of botn places. 
It is built round a square, with cloisters on the Jtherdeen. a county of Scotland, bounded on the 

eonth aide. The structure contains a chapel, li- N. W. by Banfishire, and the Deveron ; on the N. 

brary, museum, common hall, and lecture-rooms, and N. £. by the German Ocean : on the S. by the 

rugged and 

town,' bein^ formerly the aeat of a bishop, had a mountainous, some of the hills risingto tne height 

most magmficient cathedral, first founded m 1154, of 4,000 ft. above the level of the sea, covered in 

but the preaent edifice was begun by Bishop Kin- some parts, with extensive natural forests ; the N. 

nimontn, in 1357, and was 80 years in building ; part is bleoJc and barren ; but the midland parts of 

it was dedicated to St. Machar, but like many the co. are more fertile ; and since the period of 

others it fell a sacrifice to the religious frenxy of 1788, have undergone improvementa ecual to any 

the reformers. Two very antique spires, and one part of Scotland. Its rivers are the Dee, Don, 

aisle, which is used as a cnureh, are all that is now Ythan, Bo^e, Urie, Ugie, Cruden ; and the Dev- 

left. In this cathedral there waa a fine library, eron, for many miles forms its boundary with the 

which was also destroyed. Over the Don at Ola co. of Banff; all of which abound- more or less, 

Aberdeen, there is a noble Gothic bridge, built by with salmon, and on the Tthan some valuable 

Bishop Cbeyne, in 1981, of one arch. A'feet span pearls have been found. Its mineral productions 

and 34 1-9 high from the surface of tne river. On are various, but none of much note, except the 

both sides it rests on a solid ledse of rock. The granite, the exportation of which constantly em- 

pi^Milation of Old Aberdeen and parish was 3,901 ploys several 100 tons of shipping, 

m 1801, and 18,319 in 1891. Jherdseiiy p.t. Brown Co. Ohio, on the nver 

Merdeen, JVhe, u the capital of the shire of Aber- Ohio, opposite Mavsville. 

deen. For extent, trade and beauty, it far exceeds Jibertumrj a parish in the N. of Aberdeenshire, on 

any town in the north of Scotland. It is built on the S. coast or Murray Frith. Pop. in 1891, 1 ,496 

a gentle eminence, rising firom a small bay, form- also another pariah and village 9 m. W. of Burnt^ 

e£by the river Dee, over which there is an elegant Island, in the co. of life, Scotland. Fop. in 

Mdge of 7 arches, rebuilt in 1794, the first having 1891, 1^. 

been built by Bishop Dunbar, in 1539. The streets Mafirrd, a town in the W. riding of Torfc- 

aie numerous, spacious, and well paved; the shire, 9 m. N. of Ferrybridge, on the direct road to 

houses are built of granite, {from adjoining quar- Durum; it haa a market on Wed. and 4 feir* 

ries) generally four storiea high, remariLabhr neat annually. Pop. of the parish 900, of the town 

and elegant, having almost nmversa]ly,garaens in 579. 

their rear. The whole town is about two miles Aberfrow, a village pleasantly aituate near the 

in circumference, and in 1891 contained a popu- coast of Cnmarvon oay, on the isle of Angleaaa, 

lation of 91,484. The municipal government is 9 m. W. of Llangefni, on the direct roan firom 

vested in a provost, 4 bailies, a dean of ffuild, Ban^r to Hd|vhead ; it had formerly a palace, 

treasurer, town-clerk, a town council, and 7 dea^ at wnich 11 Princes of Walea are aaid to have 

eons of incorporated trades. The town is a royal reaided. It haa 4 feira annuaUv, 7th March. Wed. 

borgli, and uniting witii Aberbrothock, Brechin, after Trinity, 93rd Oct and 11th t>ec. Pop. in 

Inverbervie, and Montrose, sends a member to 1821, 1,904. 

parliament. New Aberdeen is graced with an AbtrgmDmmy, a town of Monmouthshire, situ* 

elegant college, founded by George Keith, the ato at tibe confluence of the river Gavenny wHh 

Bar! Mtirisehal of Seotiaad, in 1593. Ito other the Usk, over the latter is a fine bridge of 15 

MM 8 A0T 

14 m. W. of MoamMlh; it hv the ai- yerf gM«U and it Iwa t eomidmhie mumlutaM 

▼sBtige of » ooUttenl out froot Che comli fiom of eoane linen, eeokiny, dco. It ie divided into 

lir eoo n to the Britieh chinnol : then m eomo two pomhee, eoeh having a ehnich, and Knda 

ooaaidBfable iion worka in the vioinitf , and it alao one member to jMrttunent. Pep. in 18SS1 , 6437. 

partioipotoa in the flauMl alannftotwe* Ithai dlMifdbiiy t Harford Go. Md. 26 m. N. £. Bal- 

a oonndenUe market on Tnee. and 3 fain annn* ttmoro. 

ally, on May Ut, Tnee. after Trinity, end Sep. Mingdtm. p.t. oaaital of Waahington Co. Va. 

S&th. Pop in 1801, 9,573, and in 1891, 3,368. 380 miV. 8. W. IQohmoBd. 

' 4krgib, a town in Denbi|^ehilo, Walea, JiHmgUm,p,L Plymouth Co. Maaik 98 m. 8. £. 

pleMantly eitoafte on the ooast of the Iriah eea, Boelan. Pop. 9,493. 

OB the dureet road from Cheater to Holyhead, 7 Ako, a eeeHBort, and diief town of what waa 

m. W. of 8t Aaeiph, and 994 from London ; it ia farmeKy Swodiah Finleyd, hut which waa wr c e t ed 

mooh fieqoented m the eommer eeeaon fix bath* from that power, by Rnmia, in 1806. The port 

Ing, hae *a market on Sat and 3 friia annually, and town of Abo are finely located in N. lat. 60. 

Pop. in 1801, 1,748, in 1891, 9,317. 97. W. k>nff. 99. 18. at the aouthem extremity of 

MergwUhff a villafe liear Carmarthen, 8. the Promontory of Finland, on the E. ehore of 

Wake. Btoate at the eonflnenoe of the river GuiU the Qalf of Bothnia, where it forma itaiunction 

If with the Towj, It oontaina the only epiaoo- with the Oulf of Fmland. Under the Bwedidi 

Ml pakee^bolonging to the eee of 8t David'e. govemnmit, Abo waa the eee of a biahop, euflSn- 

PoB. in 1891, 94S3. can of Upeal, and had a udiveni^, fi>unded by 

MmmUiff a town in Perthahire, Scothmd, liuoeB Chrietina, in 1640, endowed with the 

eeated near the junction of the Erne, with the eame privilem aa that of Upial; and aJeo . 

Tay, 7 m. from Perth. It ia eaid to have been iehool, foan£d by Guatavea Adolphne, for 300 

the eeat of the Pictiah kinge, aa well aa the aee eeholaia. It waatheaeatof thooonrerenoewhefe 

of an aichbiahop. In the town churoh-yard ia a the treaty of peaee waa eoaoloded between Ruana 

round tower 74 feet hiffh and 48 in cireumferenee, and Sweden, in 1743. The town haa flouriahed 

the only one beaides that of Brechin in ttcotland. oonaideiahly emoe ita trammer to Ruaaia; ita chief 

It paiticipatee in the manuftctnree of Perth, and trade ia in timber, deala, and grain. Pop. about 

hm three frire annually. Pop. of the pariah in 19,000. 

1891, 1,701. Alao the name of another pariah, jMomay, a populona town, the capital of the 

from 150 to 180 aq. m. in extent, partly in Elgin kingdom of Dahomey, on the Gold Coaat of Af- 

and partly in Invemeaa-ahire. abounding With rica. N. lat. 7. 50. £. long. 0. 55. Pop. about 

natural foreata of fir, which form an eztenaive 95,000. 

tiaflio. Pop. in 1891, 1,968. Ahoukir, a town of Egypt, in N. lat. 31. 18. E 

AU r f f MtwU ky a town of S. Wake, in Cardigan- long. 80. 38, about 6 le^iwn £. of Alexandria, 

ftire, eeated on the Tatwith near ita oonfluenoe A Britiah army of 19^000 men, commanded by 

'^^ '"^ " ^' ' ' " ««..... « ^. » . . .. landed here in 1801 

neck of land, on 
on the £. by anoth- 

and 39 N. E. firom Cardigan. It waa fiarmerly er neck of land which bounda the Roaetta branch 

fbrtified with aicaatle, and defrnded with walla ; of the Nile, ia very apaoioua, and will forever be 

but both are now in mine. It ia, however, a memorable m hiatory, aa the aoene of one of the 

flonriahing town, havinc a great trade in lead^ a moat aplendid and deciaive naval battlea on re* 

oonaiderBfile fiahery of herringa. cod, and whit- cord, in which 9 French ahipa of the line were 

inga, and a good weekly raaraet on Monday ; taken, and 9 oUien deatroyed, oy Lord Nelaon, on 

about 8,000 tone of ahipping belong to thia town, the lat Aug. 1798. 

In the bathing aeaaon, it ia much frequented aa a Mnmies. a town of Portugal, in Eatremadura, 

fiuhionable watering place. Long. 3. 58. W. lat. eeated on the Tagua, 45 milea £. by N. of Lbbon, 

69. 95. N. Pop. in 1891, 3,556. and belonging to a marqnia of that title. It ia 

Mez^ a eountry of Africa, on the Red Sea, aituated on high greund. aurrounded with w- 

which bounda it on the eaat ; on the weat it ia dena and olive-treea, ana containa about 35^K)0 

bounded by Abyaainia and Nubia, on the north inhabitanta, and haa 4 conventa, an hoapital, and 

by Egypt, and on the aouth by the coaat of Alan, an alma-houae. 

The cfiier towna are Arkeko, or Erooco.and Sua- JihrMas Idandt, dangeroua ahoala on the ooaal 

Stem; which laat ia the capital, and the aeat of of Braxil, S. lat 17. 58. W. long. 38. 96. 

e governor. It ia aubject to the Turka : and ia Mnuxo, one of the four great provinoea of Na^ 

very aandy and barren, being deatitute of water, plea, bounded on the E. by the jrnlf of Venice, on 

The heat ia exoeaaive,* and the air unhealthy to the N. and W. by Ancona, Umbria, and the 

Enrepeana. In the monntaina are foreata of ebo- Campagna di Roma, and on the S. by the Terra di 

njr treea, abounding with wild beaata. It ia 500 Lavoro and Moliae. It ia divided into two parts by 

Bulea in lentfth, and 100 in breadth. The mhabi- the river Peacan, called Ulteriore and Citeriore. 

tanta are BiyiometaiiB. The fivmer haa A({uila, and the latter Sulmona, 

Jibrngdon^ a market and borough town in Beik* for ita capital. It la fertile in com, rice, fniita, 

ahlre, fingknd, and, with the exception of Read- aaffion, vmea, and olivea. Pop. about 500,000. 

ing, the chief town ia the co« It ia aituate on JShg^ a town in France, in the department of 

the 8. bank of the river Thamea, 6 m. N. W. of Ardeohe, formerly the chief town of Vivarea, and 

OxfimL and 56 m. 8. W. firom London. It ia a a biahop'a aee, now in a very ruinoua atate. 

plaee of great aatiqoityjjuid haa flneqaently been Ahoukg; a town in Upper Egypt, on the aite 

the abode of royalty. The market-place la apap of the ancient Abotia, near the Nile, where great 

eiaua, in the centre of which ia a reapeotable edi- quantitiea of poppiea grow, of which the nativea 

fice, a apaoioua hall, aupported by lofty pillara, in make the beat opium in the Levant. Long. 33. 

whioh the awimi 1 maiaea for the eo. are held jUie £. let 96. 30. N. 

opaee beneath aerving ton a marketpheuae. The Mereomke, p.t. Glouceater Co. N. J. 

iftarket for grain anj auh, on Hon. and FVi. ia JHyv or Mugo, one of the Philippine ialaadai 

ACA » 4CQ 


m tlw EmI Indiefl between Mmdanao and Luon. whieh followed the Freneh revolatioA in 1T92, 

Loitf. ISi. 15. £. lat 10. N. nnoe whiph oeriod to the present time (1832) tiie 

J^iiiMii^ » kingdom on the E. dde of Afliea, commerce or all 8. America hae been ezpoaed to 

exfeandinf , m lengthy from about the 9Ui to the nnmerous Tidaaitadea, and Acapnlco has aonk 

I7th deg. of N. lat and at ita aonthem baae, into the ntmoat inaiffnificance. ita harbour ia oar- 

from about the 35th to the 43rd deg. c/£ E. long, pacioua and aecure, lieing formed into a baain by 

and at the N. from about the 35th to the 38th of the email ialand of Rogneta, and defended by a 

da. Ibimiiig an area of about 140,000 aq. m. fort on the N. W. The town oontaina only about 

booaded on the N. by Sennaar, on the £, by the 4/)00 inhalntanta, and ia exceedingly unhealthy. 

Arabian Gulf, w Red Sea, and on the 8. and W. the temperature preTailing aa hi^h aa 96, ana 

br ^«fy unddined limita, and countriea very lit- hardly ever below 86 of Fuirenheit. 

tie known. A range of rugged mountaina of jfeo w Ae jef e n , a riTer of Mexico, in the proTJnee 

eonaftderahle altitade, extending along the whole of Vera Paz, which rune into the Gulf of Dolce 

fine ef eoaet of the Red Sea, abut in Abyaainia, There ia alao a yiUage of the aame name, in the 

■ltd nearly exclude it from all adyantagea of man- proTince of Chiapa. 

dme intereourae. Some fine and frmtfbl plaina Aeeonutek^ a Co. of Virginia, forming the H 

perrade the aouthem part of the teritorjr, but the part of a pronrontory, bounded on the W. by 

fRTailing chaxaeteriatic of Ab^annia ia moun- Cheaapeake Bay, and on the £. by the Atlantic 

tainooa uid wild, and ita infaabitanta are aa rude Ocean, extending fiom the S. E. comer ef the 

■ltd feroeioaa aa tneir country ia wild and rugged. State of Maryland. Pop. 19,656. Drummond^ 

Ila efimate ia Tarioua, but on the whole fine; it town, 907. m.c. by N. otBiohmond, ia the chief 

la exceedingly rich in -ratable productioiia, both town . 

of utility and beauty, ifte elepnant, rhinoceroa. Atkun^ a kingdom, forming the N. W. part of 

bufikloea, kooarda of rarioua apeciea, zebra, ana the ialand of Sumatra, the head of Point Pedro, 

opeeially the hjmiay abound^ the latter ia particu- the meet northerly part being in 5. 42. N. lat. and 

lany ferociouB and deatructire; there are no ti* 95. 35. E. lonff> and extendmg about 50 m. E. by 

gera, and the lion ia not common; there are yari- 8. During; the early period cf the intereourae of 

ona other wild animala, aa well aa the domeatic Europe with Aaia, by the Cape of Good Hope, 

ooea common to Europe; the horaea are atrong AchcKBU waa a powerful atate and carried on an 

■ltd handaome, and there ia a apeciea of oxen with extenaire trade with the Malay and Coromaodel 

horaa 4 ft in length, and 90 inchea in circumfer- coeata, and other parta of Aaia; and on the Por- 

«Doe at the root; tlie hippopotami and crocodile tugueae aacceaaiveiy attempting to form a aettle- 

■le common to the awampa and riyera which flow ment upon the Ialand of Susuitra, in the early 

into the Nik. Amongat the nnmeroua feathered part of the 16th century, they were completely 

tribes common to the country ia the golden and exoelled by the Acheneae, and although conafder- 

black eagle, and aome owla of extraorainary aize ably declined in power and importance, the Ache- 

and beauty ; beea abound to auch a degree, that nese are atill an actiye, and wnen compared with 

honey, in ue aouthem parta of the country, rorma other Aaiatica, an efficient and induatriona people 

the ataple article of production, and atandard of The chief town of the aame name, ia aituate on 

yalue in exchange for all other commoditiea, and a riyer about 2 m. from the bay formed by King'a 

eoostitntea the principal article of food; locuata Point, in N. lat 5. 33. and ft. 17. £. long, and 

ccimmit great deyaatation, and there ia a apeciea Point Pedro aboye mentioned. 

of fly extremely ann^ing and eyen deatmctiye AckOl, an ialand, forming part of the Co. of 

to the cattle in the rmj aeaaon. The whole 6i Mayo, on the weatem coaat of Ireland, in 54. 7. 

the external traffic of Abyaainia ia carried on at N. lat. 10. 31. W. long. 

Maaaowah, a amall ialand on the coaat of the Red Aehimtm^ a town ofjESgypt, the reaidence of an 

Sea, in N. lat. 15. 34. £. long. 39 37. where ele- emir, or prince of the country. It haa manufbe- 

phaata' teeth, rhinoceroa' horaa, gold-duat, honey, turea of coarae cottonb. and atanda on a amall 

wax, and alayea are exchanged for apicea, iron, eminence, on the right iMtnk of the Nile, 200 m. 

lead, copper, tin, and manufactured gooda gener- S. of Cairo. Long. 31. 56. E. lat 26. 40. N. 

ally. The eoontry ia formed into tluee great di- Jiekonry, a popmoua pariah, in Leney Barony, 

yiaona. IsL Tim, N. of which the chief towna eo. of Sligo, Ireland. Pop. in 1821, 12,990. 

aie Adowa, Antuo, Dixan, and Axum; 2nd Am- Aehortiown, p. yillage in Middleiown, Colum- 

haim, W. of the Taueazze riyer, of which Gondar bia Co. Ohio, 160 m. N. E. Columbua. 

and Empiaa are the chief towna, and the former the Mun. a town of Lower Saxony, in the duchy 

capital of tiw whole kingdom; 3rd. Shoe Efiit, S. of Magaeburg, with a citadel, on the Elbe, 5 m. 

«r whieh Ankober and Tegnlet are the chief N. W. of Deaaau. 

fcpwiia. The Abyaainiana profeaa tobe Chriatiana, Aeklam, a yillage 12 m. firom York, where the 

end aome of their churchea are apacioua edificea, body of the Emperor Seyeroa, who died at York, 

but their religioua ceremoniea are made up of the waa burnt to aahea, agreeably to the euatom ef 

crude fimnafitiea of the Jewiah worahip^ and of thoae timea. 

the Greek Chriatiana. Their language la a dia^ Acoma, or A. EHefMUi de Aeamm, a town of 

laet of the Arabic; of the extent (? the pop. it ia New Mexico, aeated on a hill, with a good caatle. 

diffieuH to fbmi eyen a conjecture. The town ia aacended by a flight m atepe cot 

jteapiilea, a town of Mexico, on the ahoree of out of the rock. It waa rormet^ theeuutal of 

the F^ifie Ocean, in Ui. 16. 55. N. and 100. 54. that proyince. Lom. 104. 15. W. lat. 35. 0. N. 

W. kng. During the domination of Spaniah Aeontarua, one of^the'proyincea of Chile, in- 

rale in South America, Acapulco waa the princi- teraected l>y the 32d degree of S. lat and 70th of 

pal trading town of all New Spain; one. and W. Ion?. It ia inconaiderable both in extent and' 

aoowtimea two ahipa, annually, of aeyerai 100 population. There ia a town of the aame name. 

burthen, need to arriye from the Philippine and alao a riyer running thfou|^ the proyinee 

Uaada, laden with all the choiceatproductiona of and that of Quillota into tne aea. 

Aaia, to be exchanged for the gold and ailyer of Aequo, a town of Tuaeany, noted fbr ila warm 

Madea; but thia intareouxaa oeaMd with the wan batha, 15 m. E. of Leghonu 

Aeqm, a town of Italy, in the Doehjr of Moiit^ ' 44aow^ p.y. Hyde Co. N» C. 399 m. Wash 

ferrety on the river Bormia; it hae eoi|MdeFaUo AdammrgfB,r. Weetmoreland Co. Pa. 145 m 

manoftietiiiee of ailk. Pop. abont 7,000. W. Han^iifgn. 

Sata, a tenritoiy of Qutnea, on the Gold eoM(f MmmfUf f .▼, Washington Co. N. Y. G7 m. 

where aome Enropean atatea have ferts, and each Albaay. 

fart itsyillafle. Lat.5. S5. N. 0. 10. W. Umf, Adair ^ a County of Kentacky. Pop. BfiaO 

. Aer; or &. Jahi d'Aen, a eeaport of Sjn^ ia Colombia ia the capital. 

Paleatine, and a biahop'a tee. It Im ealkd Ptole* M^ama^ a town of Aaiatic Torkey^ in Cair- 

mab by the Gnelu, toad itands on a plain at th? mania^ and a biihop'a aee, with aatrongcaatle. It 

N. point of a bay, which eztenda in a lODueirele baa a trade in com. wine, and fruits; and ia aea^ 

of nine m. to fhie point of Mount Camel, neat ed on a riyer of the same name. 12 m. from the 

the mouth of the Kardanah, or ancient Elehis. Mediterranean, in N. lat. 36. 48. E. long. 3S. 0. 

In the time of the cnuadea, it underwent aereral Aidoy a river of Switzerland, which riaea in 

alegea; and nothing ia now to be eeen of thia an- the Gnaona, paaaes through the lake Corao^ the 

cient city, but the remains of monuments erected Vatteline. and the N. part of the Milanese, fiUla 

by the elwiatianB. and aome ruins of a church into the Pc^ 5m. above Cremona, 

diedioated to St. Andrew. The new city is dis- Addium^ a County of Vermont, on the W 

tani one m. fiom the ancient walla, tnd toe Iprii- aide of the Green Mountains near the centre o^ 

llcatians bi» of ]ittl» importance. The palace of the State. It contains about 700 so. m. Middle- 

the grand master of the order of St. John of Je- bury is the shire town. Pop. d4,dl0. 

Bosafem is the maidenoe of the chief of Acre. .^dtifson, p.t. Addison Co. Vt. on L. Chamnlain 

Here are three mosques, four churches, and a Pop. 1,306. Magnetic oxide ef iron ia toiind 

aynagogue. 'Hur obief articles of commerce are here. 

oom and cotton. In 1759 great damage was dono Addittmy t. Wafhiivgton Co. 1^. Pop. 741. 

by an earthquake; and the year following 5,000 AddiMon, i ^teubeu Co. N. T* Pop. 944. 

persons, near one tUid of the inhab. died liy the Ad^^tam, t. SomerBet Co. F^ 

phtfue. In 1790, aided by the British, under Sir Addy a kingdom of Afirica, called also Zqik^ 

Sitmey Smith, it withstood a flevere seige by the from a rich tnding town of that name, situatea 

Frencn under Buonaparte, who retreated after near ita coast by toe Red Sea. It aelaom taina 

fkiling in the twelfth assault. It is 27 m. 8. of here ; but the country is well watered by rivers. 

Tyre, and S3 m. N. N. W. of Jerusalem. N. lat. and abounds with wheat, millet, fr?mkinGense,ana 

So. 0. £. long. 36. 10. Pop. about 30,000. pepper. The inhab. are Mahometans. It waa 

Acrcnj a mstrict of the rantee territory, on the formerly a part of Abyssinia. The capital ia Au- 

Gold ooast of Africa, about 50 n. E. N. E. of cagurel. 

Cape Coest Castle. AddfoTM, a town of Sweden, in Smaland, iio« 

AeUmy the name of 6 villages, and a prefix to ted for iti gold mines, about 70 m. N. W. of Cal- 

10 others in difierent parts of England signifying mar. 

places originally situate among oaks; oc Ming AddM.\fX. Colerain township, Roaa Co. OhiO| 

the Saxon word for oak. Am the name of a 40 m. 8. £. Columbus. 

village in the parish of Ballymore, co. of Armagh, Adige, a riyer of Lombardy, which riaes S. of 

Ireland. the Lake of Glace, and passing by Tyrol, Brixen. 

Actorif t. Windham Co. Vt, 13 m. N. W. Bratp Trent, and Verona, falls into ttie gulf of Venice, 

tleboro. Pop. 176. a little N. of the mouth of the Po. 

jfeioM, p.t. Middlesex Co. Mass. Pop. 1,198. Adirbeitztanj a province of Persia (part of the 

AcUmrBumdf a village in Shropshire, 8 m. S. ancient Media,) bounded on the N. by Armenia, 

of Shrewsbuiy. Heve are eonaideimble remains E. by Ghilan, S. by Irae Agemi, and W. by Cur- 

of a castle, in which a parliament was held in distui. Tauris is the capitiu. 

the reign of Edward I. AdmiroUy-Ulands^ a cluster of islands in the 8. 

Aett^am, the c»ital of a district of the same Pacific ocean, to the N. W. of New Ireland, 

name in the Intendencia de Mexico, about 70 m. They were discovered in 1767, and are between 

N. N. E. of the city of Mexico. 20 and 30 in number ; some of them appear of 

Aeworth, p.L Sulliyan Co. N. Hampshire. 87 considerable extent; and the W. end of the 

m. from Portsmouth, and 93 from Boaton. f*op. principal island is in 2. 6. S. lat. and 146. 57. E. 

1,401. louff. 

Admmtkfwm^ t Lancastor Co. Pa. 20 m. N. E. Adoury a river of France, which rises in the 

Lancaster. department of Upper Pyrenees, flows by Tarbea 

Adamtf t. Cooe Co. N. Hampahire, 90 m. from and Dax, and enters tlie Bay of Biscay, below 

Portmouth. Pop. 515. Bayonne. The Duke of Wellington effected r 

Adams. p.t. Berkakire Co. Mass. Pop. 2j648. pauage across this river, with the allied Engiia^ 

Saddle Mountain Usa partly in this town. Here and Spaniah army, in the middle of February 

are extensive manufactures of cotton, woollen 1814, after considezable difficulty, in the presence 

and linen. of the French army, commanded by Marshi^ 

Adams, p.t. Jeffemon Co. N. T. 160 m. N. W. Soult 

Albany. Pop. 2,905. Adoway the capital and residence of the aoye- 

AdmMy p.t. Danphin Co. Plu 133 m. Washing- reign of Abyssinia, and the place through which 

ion. the commerce of the inland parts of Abyssinia is 

Adams, a Covm^ of Pennsylvania. Pop. 21, maintained with Massowah in the Bed Sea. 

Sro. Gettysburg is the capital. ^^f^ ^ leaport of Spain, in Gianada, 47 m. S 

Adamsy a County of Ohio, pn the Ohio river, E. of Granada. Long. 3. 7. W. lat 3!B. 45. N. 
20 m. in extent and containing 550 sq. m. West AdmmiHy a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Nat- 
Union in Tiffin township ia the seat c^ justice, olia, on the E. coast of a gulf of its name, 7D ai. 
Pop. 12^^78. N. by W. of Smyrna. Deng. 26. 50. E. lat. 39. 

JdoMM. a OovBtv of MisiuBippi. Pop. 12,120, 26. N. 

Natehea m the aapitaL Adrm, a town of Italy, in Polaaino di RoyigKi 


wlBch fiTW BUM to th* Adriatic MA. Md wi«' tiw ••mttJ; fart tfct tots md e fm fln tgOlMwiilwPf 

JbimedT of great note, bat haa been moon reduced kept tBtir court at Cabnl. About the year 1790 

br fi^e^ent inunttationi. It ia seated en the an army of A^huis invaded Penia, took lapahaa, 

Ivtaro. 25 m* S. 8. W. of Venice. and made the sultan Hune/n priioner. Thej 

JSdruuufpU^ a city of European Turkey, in kept poaaeiaiiA of lapahaa and thft aouthem pior* 

Rrnnania^ the aee of a Greek archbiahop. and ineea for ^n years, when they were defeated in 

fimnerly the European seat of the Turkian do* several battles, and driven 6ut.of the country by 

minion. It is eignt m. in ciroum&rence. situ- Nadir Kuli, commonly known in Euroce by the* 

ale in a idain, on the river Msrissa, whicn here name of Kouli Khan. After Nadir Ima deposed 

receiTcs two tributary streams. Several of the his sovereign, Shah Thames, he kid seige tc and 

mesques are very splendid, and many of the took Candimar j butafWrward received a conaid* 

bcnmes neat, but the streets are narrow and devi* erable bod^ of A%hana into his army, who ba» 

JOB. ^ The seraglio is separated from the city by came his mvourite foreign trooBs. On Jiis assai 

4be river Arda, and commands an extensive view stnstion, in 1747, the generaJi of the Afffhatt 

of the country, which is fertile^ and famous for troojps, Uiough Axtiously attacked b;^ the wlioito 

ezoeOent vines. The commerce of the city by Persian army, effected a sa& retreat mto his owll 

the river is considerable, and celebrated for ita country, where he caused himaelf to be acknowi* 

keantilul red dye. The Turks took this city edged soversign of the Afghan kingdom. In 1806 

from the Greeks in 1362. It is 135 m. N. W. of the English £. India company deputed the He^ 

Omitantinople. Long. 28. 30. £. lat. 41. N. Mount Stuart ElphiMtone on a mission to Cas- 

Mnatic 5m. See VmiMf Gulf ff, bul, aeeompaniea by a large military retinna. 

uUantere JBay. at the S. £. end of Van Die- The miasion fefl Delhi on &« 13lh Oct. the ra> 

men^s land, so called from the ship in in^chCap- suit of their observations and enquiries on the 

I Furoeaz sailed. Long 14?. 30. £. lat 4i3. then circumstances and condition of Caabul, Ay 

S. 9 which name the Afghan territory is genetam 

JFi^eAn or JEgoUa^ three small islknds on the called^) aa well as the countriea through whicn 

W. side of Sicily, between Maraella and Trapani} the mission passed, have been aince published, 
their names are Levenzo, Favignana, and Mare- Afrua^ one of the four great divisions of the 

tima. world, forming a peninsula to A«a, to which il 

Xttia or JBenai a celebrated burniiw mountain is oonneeted by a neck of land at the N. £. ex* 

of S^y, now called bv the nativea MonU Gibdr tiemity, about 60 m. across, called the isfthaaua 

I0. It IS situated in tne Eastern part of the isl- of Sues. In its extreme , length it extendi frssn 

and, in Jang. 15. 0. £. lat. 36. 0. N. Pindar, who Cape Negro, in lat. 37. 81. NT to Fake Gape in 

lived 435 years before Christ, calls it the PtUor ^ Jat 34. 25. S. being about 4^ m. and in its «»- 

Aesesii, cm account of its great beiffht, which la treme breadth from Cape Verd in 17. 34. W. ta 

ganerally reckoned to be about ll,(w0 feet; and Cape Gnardafui in 51. 32. £. long, being abool 

nm circumference at the baae 70 m. It affoids an 4^00 m. It will however in the first place ba 

epitome of all the di^ferencea of climate. The well to conaider Africa as divided by nature into 

summit ia a league in circumference, and within two great parts, N. and S., by a chain of moon- 

formed like a vast amphitheatre, from whence taina, commonly called the Motmtsina of the 

flamesy aahes. a|id smoke, issue in divers places* Moon, supposed to extend acroas the entire con* 

^Iruptions or thia mountain are mentioned by tinent between the 7th to the 11th degrees of N* 

Diodorua Siculus, as happening 1,603 y eara before lat North Africa will then on ita otEer sides ba 

Chriat; and Thucydidea speuui of three erup* bounded, on the £. by the Arabian gulf or Had 

4ana, which happened in Tm, 477, and 425, B. C. sea, on the N. by the Mediterranean, and on the 

From thia penod till 1447, there were about 18 W. by the Atlantic ocean, apptoximating in fSntn 

difl^ent ernptiona. the most destructive of which to a parallelogram; the mean length of which 

were in 11& anu 1329 ; there have been other fiom W. to £. la about fifty degreea of long, and 

muptiona since, which have done immense dam- the mean breadth fimn N. to 8. about 27 de greea 

tfc, po^f^iiluly those in 1669, 1765. 1780. and of lat. forming an area of about 42560,000 sq. m. 

1787. In 1809 eruptions took plaoe m 12 differ- ef which the gteat deserta of Sahara, Tuarick, 

ent parts of the mountain, and covered the adj»* and Lybia constitute about one third ef the ex* 

cent land with lava to the depth of 40 feet, tent. N. Africa ia subdivided into a great nnm« 

and another en^tion occurred in 1822. her of kingdoms, statea and terrimries ; the 

JlfghMusUoif a country of Asia, stretching moat prominent <m which are, Qalla, Abyssinia, 

from the mountains of Tartary to the Arabian Sennaar, and Nubia on the £. bordering on the 

aea, and from the Indus to the confines of Persia* Red sea, Esypt, at the N. £. extremity^ Ly^>^ 

The inhab. of this wide domain have no written Feaan, and Barbery , (oompriaing, TripoU, Tunis, 

character, and speak a languvc peculiar to them- Algiers, and Fea ;) on the N. Mrdenng on the 

selves. They are a robuot hardy race aC men ; MMiterranean, and Morocco at the N. W. ex- 

and being generally addicted to a state of preda- tsemity, bounded by the Atlantic ocean : a larga 

tciy wamre, their manners partake of a iMrbar^ extent of coaat S. m Morocco,is called Aaani^, 

ona inaolence. Tbejr avow a fixed contempt for and 8. of the river Senegal in lat 16. N. to Swr- 

the occu p ations of civil life ; and are esteemed m Leone in lat. 8. 30. the coast is occupied by sev- 

the most negligent of religious observanees, of all eral Negro tribes, the limits of whose temtoriea 

the Mahometans. Their common dress consists are verv imperfectlv defined. Inland, 8. of the 

of a ahirt, which falls over the upper part of flTcat deaert, are tne kingdtHna of Tombuctoo, 

long and narrow trowsera; a woolen vest, fitted Houssa, Caasina, and Wangara ; and £. of the 

closely to the body, and reaching to the midleg ; desert, are Aahber, Bomou, Begherm, Berffoo, 

and anigh tnmed-up cap of broadcloth or cotton, Darfur, dkc. &c. With the exoeption m the des> 

usually of one colour, and of a conic form, with arts and the more monntainoua diatrieti, this jMVt 

two amall parallel alits in the upper edge of ita of Africa is well watered, and exceedingly fertile. 

Cssing. The principal cities of Afgbaniatan are The moat celebrated river is the Nik, which, 

Cbnnahay and Cabal, the fomer S which waa rialag from various sources on the N. side of th9 

AFR » . APR 

giMt ehain of nMrnntaiiM, and flowing through cos withia tfaa tropics in Africa the wuaat eftefi 
Abjninia, Sennaar, Nubia, and Eg3rpt, ftllf into * aa within the lame degrees of latitade in other 

tlie Mediterranean sea by several channels between parti of the world. The prevalent drought is hera 

the lat of 80. 16. and 31. 60. E. The riTcr Niger in some meaanre checked by the tropical rains ; 

baa long fiimished a subject of considerable inter- and, so far as has been ascertained, the tropical re • 

est to tb learned. It is now known to run into the gions are perhaps that part of this continent whidh 

Atlantic ocean at the Bight of Benin. See/dger. u best watered. The mater jiart of the im- 

Numerons streams and lakes intersect all the mense deserts — thatof Suara for instance — lie in 

fanterior part of tha country situate between the general too far N. ever to be under the influence of 

desert of Sahara and the chain of mountains a vertical sun. The torrid sone may therefore be 

which divide the continent into two parts. Sev- considered as hiving only two seasons— the dry 

end rivers fidl into the Atlantic ocean 8. of the and the wet, which are likewise distinguished, in 

Great desert ; the first of these is the Senegal, the some places, as the summer and winter. In some 

entrance of which from the sea is in lat. 1^53. N. districts, inaeed, there are two dry and two wet 

Sad. the Gambia, in lat. 13. 8. N., and further 8. seasons in the year ; and these are called th^ 

the PoUfioa, Rio Grande, Noonez, and Sierra Le- abort and the long seasons. In all the countriee 

one, in uit. 8. 30. N. within 20. of the equator the difference in the 

Independently of the great chain of mountains amount of temperature is scarcely perceptible, at 

which divides Africa into two parts, a ridge of least in the countries lying near the coast, for the 

eonsiderable altitude extends along the whole ex- interior here is almost entirely unknown to us. 

tant of the shores of the Red sea;, and the states In the countries from Cape Blanco up to the 

ef Barbary are bounded on the S. by another Senegal, the mean temperature from Novemher 

ehain called the Atlas, which at the greatest ele- to the end of March is at 6 a. m. ahout 73. Fahr., 

vation rise to tha height of 13,000 feet above tha and at noon, in the shade, 67. Fahr. Farther into 

level of the sea tha interior of the country— at Bambouk, for in- 

Tlie middle portion of the western coast of Af> stance— 4he heat is much more intense. At the 
riea is denominated the Coast of Guinea, on Gambia, in the same months, the mean tempera- 
which several of the European states have forts ture at 6 a. m. is .77., and at noon in the shade, 
and settlements ; it is. occupied by several pow- 91. In the months of April, May, and June, at 
eif\il tribes of negroes, witn whom the Europ- the Senegal, the thermometer 6 a. m. indicatee 
eana carry on a very extensive traffic, with the 83., and at noon, in the shade, 96. From the 
nanufkctured productions of Europe in general, month of July to the end of October, the meaa 
in exchange fbr gold dust, ivory, skins, bees wax, temperature at 6 a. m. is 96. ; and at noon 107. In 
palm oil, barwood, &c.; S. of the Coast of Gui- the more southern countries the heat is still great- 
nea, for ahout 15 degrees of lat., the coast is also er, and also in the sandy plains ; in those dia- 
oeeupied with several Negro tribes, who live in tricts which are situated nither towards the E., 
eonstant collision with each other, and fix>m and even in those farther to the N., the heat ia 
amount whom about 100,000 annually, at the f%«quently rendered insupportable by peculiar 
period of 1820 — ^1896, were transported as slaves localitiea. Thus at Ombos and Syene, in the 
ey the ships of France, Portugal, and Spain, for 8. of Egypt, tha sand absolutely scorches the 
working the plantations of those countries in 8. feet of the traveller, and eggs may be dressed 
America and the W. Indies ; the remaining por- by burying them in the sand. At Algiers the 
tion of the W. coast, as well as all the interior, and mean temperature is 7S. ; at the Cape of Good 
the E. coaat of this part of Africa, is very little Hope the thermometer frequenUy rises to 96. or 
known ; but as far as Knowledge has been obtain- 96., and often much higher ; but change of tam- 
ed the inhab. appear mora rude and unsocial than peratnre is very quickly efiected here, and a 
even those of N. Africa. A very rude and un- Duming day is frequently followed by a chilly 
eiviliaed people, tha Hottentots, occupy the more nighL During eight monihs of the year constant 
S., extremity or the continent extending to tha fine weather is prevalent throughout a |[reat part 
Cape of Good Hope. of Afirica. The sun rises every mommg in a 

If the climate of America is distingfuished by clear atmosphere, and spreads a glaring light over 

auperabundant moisture and cold, that of Africa the whole country, too brilliant almost for the 

is not less remakable for its g^eneral want of hu- aye to sustain ; no cloud casts a passing shadow 

midity, and its warmth. Of this feet the immense over the landacape ; and, in the evening, the oi^ 

extent of and and burning deserts already men- of day rinks magnifioently into (he ocean But 

tioned, afibrda incontrovertible proof. The most the excessive heat diminishea the pleasure man 

northern and the most southern districts are might feel in contemplating the glorious aky; 

equally without a winter; and the greater part of and the first clouds whichtbretelfthe approach 

tM continent is situated within the tropics. of rain are hailed with delight by the Europeac 

The ancients indeed supposed the torrid sone resident, overwhelmed by the oppressive heat, 

to be so parched by the perpendicular rays of the The physical peculiarities which distinguish 

•un as to be nninhahitaole ; but modem disoov- Afirica, seem to aepend chiefly on the circum- 

eries have assured us that the theory of tha an- stance that almost her whole territory is rituated 

cients is not altogether true. The sun, when within the tropics. 1^ other portions of the 

vertical, universally brings with him an immense earth's surfkee which lie directly beneath the 

train of clouds, which pour down u pon the subja^ solar influence consist generally either of sea, or 

cent country an inc e s s ant deluge. When the sun of narrow and insular lands, refreshed by breexea 

is in the N. the rainy season wgins m the coun- from^ the ocean. But the greatest breadth of Af 

tries lying northward from the equator; when in riea is under the immediate power and dominion 

the S-ip^ rainy season is to the 8. of the equa^ of the sun ; and most of her people see that great 

tor. This quantity of rain cools the atmoephere, planet, in its annual progress from tropic to trop- 

so as to produce a temperature much more mod- ic, pass twice over their heads, and tnus experi- 

erats than that which prevails when the sun re- anoe a repetition of its most intense and perpendi 

moves~to a greater cpstance ; nnd the mm prodiK enlar myk Tha higheM Wassingi of tkia aqbliu 


iiarj world, when carried heynnd a certnin limit, in pverlaslinjr snow. Still more extensiye iithat 
become its deadliest bane. That imrent orb, which central range, which, amid its various local names, 
cheers and illumines the rest of tiie earth, jrlares is most generally known under the poetical ap- 
on Africa witli oppressive and malignant beam, pellation of '*The Mountains of the Moon." Yet 
blasting tlie face of nature, and covermg her with tJiese chains, besides beinff not altogether so gi- 
barrenness and desolation. Sometimes it con- gantic as those of the otner continents, labour 
verts tlie soil into a naked desert ; sometimes under the peculiar disadvantages of extending 
overspreads it with a noxious excess of animal and across the breadth only of Africa. The Andefi 
vegetable life. The soil, when not watered by and the Htminaleh, those stupendous heights of 
copious rains or river inundations, is scorclied America and Asia, as tliey traverse tliese conti- 
and dried up till it is converted into a dreary nents in the direction of their length, cover a 
waste. Hence it is, tliat in Africa, plains of sand much greater surface, and thus create fertility in 
Ibnn a feature so truly alarming. The Great Uie more limited plains which intervene between 
Desert, with the exception of the narrow valley of the mountains and the ocean. 3ut the largest of 
\he Nile, reaches across the entire continent, ex- tlie African rivers, directing their course through 
hibitin^ an expanse of burning surface, where for a vast extent of low land, reach the sea only by a 
muiy days the traveller finds not a drop of water, circuitous course. Several of them, too, difms« 
mor sees the least vestige of animal or vegetable ing their waters into lakes or marshes, expire in 
nature. He pursues his dreary route amid loose the very heart of the continent. The result is, that 
hills continually shifting, and leaving no marks the enormous breadth of the Sahara, or Great 
to guide his course. Every breeze is filled with Desert, is scarcely irrigated even by a streamlet. 
dust, which enters the mouth and nostrils, and It depends entirely on the periodical rains ; and 
penetrates between the clothes and skin. Some- these sink into the sandy and porous surface, till 
times it drives along in clouds and whirlwinds, being arrested at the depth ot eight or ten feet, 
beneath which it was once thought that caravans they form that " sea under ground" which has 
and even armies had been buried ; but it is been traced over a large portion of the waste. 
now ascertained that the numerous bones which Vegetable life, in consequence of this absence 
whiten the desert are merely those of travellers of moisture, is scantily diffused over ajgreat ex- 
who have sunk under famine, thirst and fatigue ; tent of the continent. In the heart of the moun- 
and that the sand, which continually blows, has tains, however, and in the kingdoms along their 
accumulated above them. Travellers over these border, the soil is most profusely watered, and, 
tracts of shingle have been impressed with the under the influence of a tropical sun, produces, 
idea of their being the bed of an ancient ocean, perhaps, beyond any other part of the world, that 
This is not the place to enter into a speculation luxuriant growth and those gigantic vegetable 
on the formation of the earth. That every part forms, which distinguish the equatorial regions. 
of its surfiice lay once beneath the waters is suffi- The baobab, or great calabash, appears to be the 
eiently apparent; but there is at least no histori- most enormous tree on the face or the earth. Ad- 
cal prooi that Africa emerged later than other anson assures us, that the circumference in some 
continents. The earliest records represent her cases is equal to thirteen fathoms, as measured by 
deserts to have been aa extensive as they are in his arms clasped round the trunk, that is varying 
our days, and to have pressed equally close upon from seventy -four to seventy-seven feet. Branch- 
the cultivated belt along the northern coast. In es extending horizontally from the trunk, each 
general, all regions between the tropics, when not equal to a large tree, make the baobab a forest as 
copiouslv watered, moulder into sand, alternating it were by itself. The mangrove, too, which 
with a Kard and impenetrable stratum of clay, rises on the borders of rivers or inundated spots, 
The central wastes of Asia, those of Arabia and diffuses itself in a manner truly remarkable. The 
of Sindetic Hindostan, though inferior to those of branches, dropping down upon the waterv bank, 
Africa, are yet of similar character and of im- strike root and grow ; hence the original plant, 
mense extent. In order to obviate the extreme ef- spreading farther and farther, forms over the 
fects of the tropical sun, which produces a desola- stream a species of natural arcade. These mighty 
tion so dreadful. Nature has provided suitable re- trees do not stand alone, but have their intersti- 
medies. Every country under this latitude has ced filled up by numberless shrubs, canes, creep- 
its ramy season, when, amid the blaze of li^ht- inf and paras j»tica] plants, which intersect and en- 
nings and the noise of thunders rending the sicy, twine with each other till they form a thick and 
heaven seems to open all her windows to pour an impenetrable mass of underwood. To cut even 
nnbroken flood upon the earth. The ground is cov- a narrow pass through these dense forests is a la- 
ered as with a deluge, and the dry beds of the bcrious process ; and as shoots are continually 
rivulets are converted into torrents ; yet so intense protruding inwards on each side, the track, witli- 
are the sun*s rays, that the moisture thus lavished out constant travelling, and the diligent use of tlie 
upon the surface is quickly dried up. Great riv- axe, soon becomes impassable. 
ers, which, swollen by the rains, overflow their As we approach the confines of the Desert, 
banks and lay the surrounding country under these giants of the wood disappear, and vegeta- 
water, or at least afford the means of artificial in- tion presents a different and more pleasing aspect. 
nndation, are the principal source of that luxuri- It exhibits now the light and gay form of^he aca- 
ant fertility, that mighty growth of vegetable cia, whole forests of which rise amid the sand, 
forms, which singulany characterize the tropical distilling those rich gums that afford an impor- 
climates. It is to the waters which descend from tant material of African commerce. The htns, a 
the lofty precipices and eternal snows of the Him- celebrated and classical shrub, the tamarisk, and 
maleh, that the plains of Hindoostan and China other small and elegant trees, afford agreeable and 
owe their amazing fruitfulnesa. Africa, too, has nutritive berries, which constitute the food of 
elevated mountain-chains, which give rise tosev- several nations. Various flowering shrubs of the 
eral rivers of great magnitude and most fertilizing most delicate tints, rising in wild and spontane- 
influence. Atlas, aloni; its northern border, pre- ocJ beauty, embellish the precincts of the waste. 
fento even in bo hot a cliniats, pinnacles wrapped Tbas the Desert, in its first approaches, and be- 


ita nulure u it pasKS from one to anollier of these 
oppOBite regioni. In those plains whicb aie in- 
UTidB.ted by the great rivers, it multipliea it iui 
utmordiniuy rate, and often BMumea huge and 
rcpulaive formi. Througliout all this continent 
the wild tiibea eiist in large and formidable num- 
bers, ond there is acucely a tract which, the; do 
not either hold in full posseBiion, or fiercely di>- 
pute with man. Even the moat denaely-peopled 
counttiei border on wide forests and wastes, 
vhose savttge tenants lind their prey occasionally 
in mui himself, u well as in the domeatjc ani- 
malg which surround him ; and when the scent 
of huinan slaughter is wafted on the broeie, 

to Ihe feast of blood. These ferocious creatorei 
hold, indeed, so commanding a position, that the 
coloniat scarcely makes any attempt to extirpate 
them, or even to keep down their Dumbers. He 
wages aeainst them only a defensive war, and 
employs his courage and skill chiefly in huutinE 
the elephant, the antelope, and other peacefiu 
species, by whose spoil hs may be enriched. 

4 AFA 

In the Urg« and broad riveTs of Aftiet, mwI 

through the immense forests which overshadow 
them, a nice of amphibious animals of monstrous 
form and aiie display their unwieldly figures. 
The rhinoceros, though not strictly amphibioos, 
slowly traverses marshes and swampy grounds, 
and almost equals the elephant in strength and 
defeniive powers, but wants his stature, hia dig- 
nity, and his wisdom. The single or doable 
horn with which tie defends himself is an article 
of commerce in the East, thonrh not valued in 
Europe, A still huger shape is mat of the hippo- 
potamus, or river-horse, fitted alike to stalk on 

The lion, that kin^ of the desert, that mightiest 

among the tribes which have the wilderness ibr 
theirabode, abounds in Africa, and causes all her 
forests to re-echo his midnight roar. Yet both 
his courage and fierceness have, it is said, been 
overrated ; and the man who can undauntedly 
face him, or evade his first dreadful spring, rarely 
falls his victim. Wider ravages ixo committed 
by the hyena, not the strongest, but the most fe- 
rocious and ontameable of all the beasts of prey. 
These creatures, by moving in numerous bands, 
achieve what is beyond the single strength of the 
greater animals ; they burst with mighty inroad 
into the cities, and have even carried by storm 
fortified enclosures. The elephant roams in vast 
herds through the denscly-wooded tracts of the 
.interior, disputing with the Uon the rank of king 
of the lower creation ; matchless in bulk and 
strength, yet tranquil, majestic, peaceful, led i 
troops under the guidance of the most ancient r 
the number, having a social and alnost mural ex- 
istence. He attach neither man nor beast. The 
human being is more frequently the agsfessor. not 
only with the view of protecting the fruits o^the 
earth, but also in order to obtain the bony sub- 
stance composing his tusks, which, under the 
name of ivory, forms one of the most valued aiti- 
lies of African trade. The prodigious slrenffth 
of the elephant, his almost impenetrable hide, his 
rapid though unwieldly movements, render him 
a most penlooB object of attack, even to the bold- 
est hunters ; so that pits and snares of vaiions 
ciod* are the usual modes by which hia capture 
is eSecled. Instead of the tiger, Africa hu the 
leopard and the panther ; bebnfing, howavar, 
unly lo eerlain of its di«trint«. 

land, to march along the bottom of the water*, or 
to swim on their surface. He is slow, ponderous, 
gentle ; yet when annoyed either by design or 
accident, his wrath is terrible ; he rashes up 
from bis watery retreat, and by merely slrikiag 

loaded canoe. But Ihe most dreaded of the in- 
habitants of the African rivers ie the crocodile, 
the largest and fiercest of the lizud tribe. He 
lies like a log upon the watera watching lor hia 
piej, attacking men, and even the strongest of 
animals, which, however, engage with him in ob- 

We have not yet done with all the monstroDa 
and prodigious forms which Africa generates. 
She swarma with the serpent brood, which spread 
terror, some by their deadly poison, others bj 
their mere bulk and strength. In tliis last re- 
spect the African aerpenta have atnick the world 
with amazement; ancient history records that 
whole provinces were overrun by them, and that 
one, after disputing the pasaage of a river with a 
Roman army, was destroyed only by the use of a 
battering engine. 

Emerging from these dark regions, where the 
earth, under the united influence of heat and 
moisture, leema with such a noiiona superabund- 
ance of life, we approach the Desert, Hers a 
change takes place equally singular and pleasinv 
as in the vegetable world. Only light, aity, and 
fantastic forms trip along the sandy border ; crea- 

lope of twen^ d 


bright eyes, erect, and uaually elegant figtire*. 

Keying neither on men nor animali, hut pursued 
, all on Bcooimt of the delioate food which thor 

mart remarkable i^ auinul formi, vith i(« long 
Ion-legs uid high-itratching neck of linguUi 
uid fonUatic b«sjtj, crop* me leavei of lh« Af- 
ricui forest. Though a nte ipeciei, he ii «««□ 
ocoaonallT itnyijig orer ■■ great proportum of 
IhU contiiiant. Here, Lew, roanu the lebra, with 
ill Gucly-stTiped akm wrapped around it like a 
robe of lieb cloth. 

Nature, ■poHinc as it woald eeam in the pro- 
dodion of eztraoidiauT objects, hae tilled Afnca 
nith a wonderful multitude of (hose aaimalt 
which beu the closeil alliance to " Ihe hunum 
fbim divine." The orang-oolsng appeals to 
coiulitale the link between man and the lower 
order* of living thing*. Standing erect, without 
a tail, with Hat face, and anus of not great); die- 
proportioned length, it displaya in every puticu- 

a defon 

It ■ 

a the lord of the 

proaeh than any other animal lo the exercise of 
reason. It has been taught to make its own bed, 
to sit at table, to eat with a knife and fork, and 
to pour out tea. M. Degrandpre mention* dqb 
kept on board a French vessel, which Lghted and 
kept the oven at a due lempenUure, put in the 
bread at a given aigoal, and even aaaialed in 
drawing the ropes. There was a strong siupi- 
•:ion among the sailors that it would have spoken, 
but for the fear of being put to harder work. 
The baboons, again, are a Targe, shapeteiB, brutal 
■pecies, Dg]y and disgnating in their appearance, 
yet not without some kind of onioB and polity. 
The monkey tribe, now familiar in Europe, and 
attracting attention by their playful movei 
„. ^.L .__ ----" -^e forests of u 


cheto and its allie* do not spread snch a fearfo] 

desolation ; ytt by their poisoned and tormenting 
stiagi, they reuiler life miserable, and not verf 
uofrequently lead lo its eilinclion. Even aawarm 
of wild hen, in the aolilary woods of Western 
Africa, has put a whole caravan to flight, wound- 
ing severely some of its members. But perhs^ 
the most extrsjordinary of all the insect race* are 
the termilea, or white ants, which display on a 
greater scale the arts and social organiiation for 
which their species have been so famed in Eu 
rope. They cover Ihe plains with their conical 
hula from ten to twelve feel in height ; they are 
regularly dislribuLed into labourer* and soldien, 
with others holding the rank of king and qoeen. 
This lalter personage, when she is about to add 
to the numbers of Uie tribe, presents a moat ei- 
traordinajy spectacle, being then awelled to many 
limes the amcunl of her natural dimenaions) and 
when the critical period arrive*, instead of a 
progeny of two or three, she produces as many 
thoiuand*. These anta are far from being of 
the same harmless description as the dorreapond- 
ing insect* of llija quarter, of the world. On 
finding their way into a houte, they devour every 
thin^, clothes, furniture, food, not even it is said 
sparing the imnates, who are compelled to make 
a epeedy retreat. 

Such are the evils to which the people of thia 
continent are perpetually exposed from the low- 
er creation ; and yet they experience in full force 
the truth of tlie pathetic lamenlation of the poe^ 
that " man is to man the aureet, deadlie*t foe.'' 
Africa from the earliest age* ha* been the motft 
con*picuoua theatre of crime and of wrong ; where 
social life has lost the traces of primitive simpli- 
city, wilhont rising to order, principle, or refine- 

e fraua , 


dragged ii 

opposing 1 

■ill with sportive cries all the fc 

The insectrace, which in our climate is gener- 
aUy haimle**, presents here many singular and 
eren formidable cbaracleiiatic*. The flying tribes, 
in particular, through the action of the sun on 
the swampy foreit*, rise up in terrible and de- 
stroeUve numbers. They fill tlie air and darken 
'lie aky ; they annihilate the labour of nations ; 
they dnve even armies before them. The locust, 
when it* band* iaaae in close and dark amy from 
the depth* of the Desert, commits ravsge* aur- 
P~'"ir tli°*c of the moat ferocious wila beasts, 
or even the more desolating career of human war- 
fiue. In rain do the deapairing inhabitant* seek 
with firs and other means to urest their progreu; 
the dense and irresistible mai* continue* to move 
onward, and soon baffle* every attempt to check 
it* cmne. Whole prorinoes, wliich at their en- 
trance are covered with rich haiveits and bril- 
liant verdure, are left without a leal or a blade. 
Even when destroyed by famine or tsinpeats, they 
aover tnunense tracts, exhaling the most noxious 
sunoh. Tel they may be used a* lood, and are 
eren irlkbed bj oartain nativs tribes. The mos- 

this contanent 
i of her unfortunate children 
aver its deseils and across the 
ir lives in foreign and distant 
of numberless petty slalns. 
It and deitruclive warfare in 
this BulTpring portion of the earth. 

Fever i* much lea* common among native Af- 
rican* than among European settlers. IVfricsn* art 
Brldom affected with enlargement of the *pleen. 
A dangerou* ipecie* of lethargy i* very frequent 
in the Foolah country. Venereal complaints 
occur in variou* forms in Africa, but mustly in 
tbatofgonorrbcea. The oni^i i^ so^ (sun-stroke) 
is unknown in this country, although the native* 
arc in the liahit of expoaing Ihe head to the per- 
pendicular ray* of the sun during tlie greateit 
bodily exertions, and Europeans, under such cir- 

kerchief folded round the head. Dysentery i* a 
frequent complaint on shore. Goat ii wholly un- 
known. The diseases of children are few ; and 
ly be readily imagined, a 

are about Uie SOth degree on each side of the 
equator. Within this region are the paasage 
wind*. The*e blow more or 1e*a N. B. in Se 
northern hemisphere, and S, E. in the Boutbem. 
The moi.ioons, which aie attong and regular in the 
open Arabian sea become changeable on approach- 
ing the land. In the Aiabian *ea they generally 
blow from the E. during Ihe month* and intsrven- 
ing months of October and May ; and during Ihs 

ATR 16 Am 

rMt of the year they blow flom the W. In the Red of terror forbade communication. Ita fiiry Bpent 
jea the S. E. wind prevails in the southern parta itself , like the stoTms of ocean, in sudden lulls 
from October to June, when the N. wind begins to and squalls ; but it was not until the third or 
blow, and lasts during the remainder of the year, fourth interval that our fears were sufficiently 
in the northern parts of this sea violent N. winds conquered to address each other ; nor shall I soon 
prevail for nine months of the year. The transi- lose the recollection of the impressive manner in 
tion from one season to another is generally ac- which that was done. ^Mah ktreem!* exclaimed 
companied by violent hurricanes and thunder- the poor Bedouin, although habit had familiarised 
storms. Some districts are more exposed to these him with these resistless blasts. * Allah kereemf* 
visitations than others ; as, for instance, the coun- repeated the Egyptians, with terrified solemnity ; 
tries between Cape Verga and Cape Monte, which and both my servant and myself, as if by instinct, 
are often visited betwixt the months of June and joined in the general exclamation. The bold im 
October by dreadful tornadoes, the effects of which agery of the Eastern poets, describing the Deity 
seldom extend to the neighbouring coasts. — In the as avenging in his anger, and temble in his 
deserts the wind is oflen very troublesome to the wrath, riding upon the wings of the wind and 
traveller, by raising the sand, and filling the air breathing his fury in the storm, must have been 
with dust, so as to render it impossible to keep inspired by scenes like these." 
one's eyes open, and difficult even to breathe.— Mr. In E^ypt a S. wind prevails in summer, which 
Buckingham, while travelling betwixt the Red raises immense quantities of sand, and is ofleo 
s^a ana the Mediterranean m 1814, encounter- so hot as to stop respiration. Another called sa 
ed one of these sand-tempests, which he has mid by the natives is still hotter and more tcrri 
described with ^reat beauty and effect. '* On ble. — But the most dreadful of all these burning 
leaving," says he, ** the site of these now eva- winds is the simoon^ which seems to be a concen- 
porated lakes, fthe Bitter lakes,) we entered up- trated column of tlie positive electric fluid, mov- 
nn a loose and snifling sand again, like that which ing northwards, from the S. or S. E., and carry- 
Pliny describes when speaking of Uie roods from ing sure destruction to all who breathe the bale- 
Peltisium, across the Hands of the desert ; in ful atmosphere which accompanies it. The only 
which, he says, unless there be reeds stuck in the chance or escaping destruction when the simoon 
ground to point out the line of direction, the way glides across the desert is, for the traveller tc 
could not be found, because the wind blows up Oirow himself flat on his face, which he has not 
the sand, and covers the footsteps. — The morning always time to do. for it moves with amazing m* 
was delightful on our setting out, and promised pidity. Bruce, wnose ardent mind was not eaji 
us a fine day ; but the light airs from the south ly deterred from the attainment of knowledge by 
soon increased to a gale, tne sun became obscure, the presence of danger, has described this fearfu* 
and as every hour Drought us into a looser sand, phenomenon. On tne attendants calling out that 
it flew around us in such whirlwinds, with the the simoon was coming, he immediately turned 
sudden gusts that blew, that it was impossible to for a moment to the quarter whence it came. I* 
proceed. We halted, therefore, for an hour, and resembled a haze, in o^lour like the purple part 
took shelter under the lee of our beasts, who of the rainbow, but not so compressed or thick. It 
were themselves so terrified as to need fastening was a kind of blush upon the air, and was about 
by the knees, and uttered in their wailings but 20 yards in breadth, and about 4 from the ground, 
a melancholy symphony. I know not whether it Its motion was so rapid, that before he could 
was the novelty of the situation that gave it ad- turn and fall upon the ground, he felt its violent 
ditional horrors, or whether the habit of ma^ni- heat upon his face. It passed like a gentle ros- 
fying evils to which we are unaccustomed, had tling wind, but was succeeded by a slight breeze, 
increased its effect ; but certain it is, that fifty which for two or three hours was of such inten- 
eales of wind at sea appeared to me more easy to sity of heat, as nearly to suffocate them. Bruce 
be encountered than one amongst those sands, unfortunately inhaled a little of the purple haze. 
It is. impossible to imagine desolation more com- which nearly deprived him of his yoice, anu 
plete ; we could see neither sun, earth, nor sky : caused an asthma of two years' continuance, 
the plain at ten paces distance was absolutely im- They saw it twice afterwards as they journeyed 
perceptible : our beasts, as well as ourselves, were across the desert. The second time, it was more 
so covered as to render breathin v difficult ; they southerly — its edges were less defined, resembling 
hid their faces in the ground, and we could only a thin smoke — and it had about a yard in the 
uncover our own for a moment, to behold this middle tinged with purple and blue. The third 
chaos of mid-day darkness, and wait impatiently time, it haa the same purple and blue appearance, 
for its abatement. Alexander's journey to the but was preceded by the largest sand pular they 
temple of Jupiter Ammon, and the destruction bad seen. — One of tne most striking phenomena 
of tne Persian armies of Cambyaes in the Lybian on the Gold Coast is the N. E. wind called harmat- 
desert, rose to my recollection with new impres- tan. It comes on indiscriminately at any hoar 
sions, made by the horror of the scene before me; of the day, at any time of the tide, or at any 
while Addison's admirable lines, which I also re- period of the moon ; and continues sometimes 
membered with peculiar force on this occasion, only a day or two, sometimes five or six days, and 
•eemed to possess as much truth as beauty : has been occasionally known to last fifteen or six- 

. Lo : when» our wide Numidlui w..t»i extend, ^^ ^^I\ There are genendly three or four re- 

Sudden ihe impetuoui hurricane* descend, turns of it every season ; it blows with a moder- 

Whlcb through Ihe air in circlinc eddies play. ate force, not so strongly as the sea-breeze, but 

Tew up the aanda, and sweep whole plains away. eomewhat more so than the land-wind. A fog or 

SS'tS'/il? irStlii ilUHLTbl-rrr- i^ « 0"e f the pecuniae, which dw.y. jj- 

And, smothered in the dusty whirlwind, dlcs.» company a harmattan ; extreme dryness is anoth- 
er property of it : no dew faUs during its continn- 

** The few hours we remained in this situation ance, nor is there the least appearance of moisture 

were passed in lubroken silence ; every one was in the atmorohere, yegetables of every kind are 

occupied with his own reflections, as if the reign much injured by it, and the grass withers vmier 




lU iafliience. The process of eyiqionktion daring 
this wud proceeds with astonishing mpiditv. 

.^^oA/y, a ]»oTince in the centre of N. Africa., 
the chief town of the same name is sitaate in 
about 20, N. lat. and 13. £. long. 

jlgnllda or GaUtUi^ an island of Africa, near 
M»£iga8car. Long. 24. 8. £. lat 10. 12. N. 

Agamenticus, a monntain in the State of Maine, 
about 8 m. fironi York harbour. It a^brda pasture 
up to its summit, and is a searmark for the en- 
tj^ of Piscataqua river. Long. 70. 30. W. lat. 43. 

Agmcam^ r. Mass. flows into the sea at Ware- 

JigdSf a town of France, in the deoartment of 
Hexmult, on the riyer Herault, not far from its 
mouth, in the Gulf of Lions, where there is a 
fort to defend the entrance. It is 17 m. N. £. of 
Narbonne. Long. 3. 28. £. lat. 43. 19. N. 

Agen^ a city of France, capital of the depart* 
ment of Lot and Garonne, and a bishop's see. 
Prunes form here a considerable object of com- 
merce ; and it has manu&ctures of camblets, ser- 
ges, and canyas. It is seated in a fertile country, 
on the banks of the Garonne, 80 m. £. S. £. of 
Bordeaux. Lopg. 0. 36. £. lat. 44. 12. N. 

Agga^ AggonAy or Aconahy a town and district 
on the coast of Guinea, in which is a very high 
hill, called the De yU's Mount. The £nglish bays 
a fort here. Lonf • 0. 5. £. hit. 6. 0. N. 

AggtrkuMSy a mrtress of Norway, in the gov- 
ernment of the same name, which is fnS of 
mountains. See Ckrittiawia. 

Aghuy there are 16 townships or parishes in 
Ireland, the names of which conunence with 
Agha y as, Agha-ftoe, hogy hoUogty da, dtrgy doty 
dmrnty gaUeHy gotsTy Ue,lvrehery lo, macarty Tnorty 
vaUaghy Tea, most of them contain from 4 to 6,000 
inbab. and A|rhalurcher in Fermanagh Ck>. up- 
wards of 12,000. 

AghrmmuUiHy a parish in the Co. of Monaghan, 
beUnd. Pop. in 1821, 15,627. 

Aghrimy properly Augkrim, See Augh. 

A^imarCy or AjmeWy a town of Hindoostan, cap- 
ital of a province of the same name. It stands at 
the foot of a high mountain, on the top of which is 
a fortress of great strength. It was at Ajmeer , that 
Sir Wm. Rowe, as English ambassador, was in- 
troduced to the Great Aiogul in 1716. it is 150 m. 
W. by S. of Agra. Long. 75. 20. E. lat. 26. 
35. N. ^ 

Aginamrty a village of France, in the depart- 
ment of Pas de Calais, famous in history for the 
battle fought here in 1405, wherein Henry V. of 
England, with an army of 10,000 men, defeated 
the French army of 60,000, leaving near 10,000 
dead on the field. It is 7 m. N. of flesdin. 

AgUahy the name of 4 parishes in Ireland, vis. 
1st, m the Co. of Kilkenny. Pop. 1,665, 2nd, in 
Kerry, pop. 2,298. 3rd, in Cork, pop. 2,446. 4th, 
in Waterford, pop. 3J268 

AgnuUy a town of Morocco, on a river of the 
same name, and on the W. side of one of the 
mountains of Atlas, 16 m. 8. of Morocco. 

Agmondeskam, See AmersJkam^ 

Agmamoy a circular lake in the kingdom of Na- 
ples, 7 m. from Puzzuoli. It is about half a m. in 
diameter, surrounded by mountains. On its mar- 
gin is the famous Grotta del Cane, where many 
dogs have been tortured and suffocated, to show 
the effect of a vapour which rises a foot above 
the bottom of the cave, and is destructive to ani- 
mal life. 

Agnes, St, one of die Soilly Islands, off the 


Lands End, Cornwall ; there is a light house upon 
it in lat. 42. 54. N. 6. 19. W. long. Also the 
name of a parish in the Co. of Cornwall, Eng- 
land, rich in mines. Pop. 5,762. 

Agouj AgoUy or Agotn^ an island of Sweaen, in 
the gulf of Bothnia, with a good harbour, long. 
18. 10. £. hit. 42. 55. N. 

Agotta, an island in the Adriatic sea, near the 
coast of Dalmatia, 18 m. in circumference, and 
18, S. W. of the isUnd of Gunola. Long 17. 
E. lat. 42. 55. N. 

Agastay a town of Sicily, in Val di Noto, with 
an excellent harbour, on the E. coast, 18 miles 
north of Syracuse. Long. 15. 10. E. lat. 37. 20. N. 

Agray a city of Hindoostan Proper, capital of a 

F province of the same name, witn a strong fort, 
t was once the most splendid of all the Indian 
cities, and now exhibits the most magnificent 
ruins. About the year 1566, the emperor Acbar 
made it bis capital, and gave his name to it; since 
which time it is often named Acbarabad. In the 
17th century, the great Mo^rul freauently resided 
here ; iiis palace was prodigiously large ; the pal- 
aces of the omrahs and others are very numerous; 
and there are above 60 caravanseras, 800 baths, 
700 mosques, and two magnificent mausoleums. 
It has since rapidly declined. In the war with 
the Mahrattas, m 1803, it was taken by the Brit- 
ish. It stands on the right bank of the Jumna, a 
branch of the Ganges, 100 m. S. by £. of Dehli. 
Long. 78. 30. £. lat. 27. 16. N. 

A^ram or Zagraby a strong town of Croatia, 
capital of the county of Zagrab, and a bishop's see; 
seated on the Save, 27. m. N. £. of Carlstadt. 
Long. 16. 18. E. kt. 45. 48. N. 

Agriuy a town of Upper Hungfury, and s 
bishop's see, with a citadel. It was besieged by 
the Turks, in 1552, with 70,000 men ; they lost 
8,000 men in one day, and were obliged to raise 
the siege, though the garrison consisted only of 
2,000 Hungarians, assisted by the women, who 
performed wonders on this occasion. It b seated 
on the Agra, 47 m. N. £. of Buda. Long. 20. 10. 
£. lat. 48. 10. N. 

Agrigaity or Island of Xavier, one of the La- 
drone islands, 43 m. in compass, and has several 
volcanic mountains. Long. 146. 0. £. lat. 19. 40. N. 

Aguas CalierUeSy a city in the province of Gua- 
dalaxara, Mexico, it is situate »>vtut 250 m. N. N. 
W. of the city of Mexico on tne direct route U> 
Santa Fe, and is noted for its warm springs. 

Agulhas Capty the most southern point of 
AfrKA, 13 leagues £. S. £. of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Long. 20. 18. £. lat 34. 55. S. 

AhanUiy a district on the Gold Coast, Africa 
Axim, the chief town, is on the coast in 4.57. N 
lat. 2. 55. W. long. Dixcove and Secondee are 
other stations on the coast through which con- 
siderable trafiic is carried on with the inland parts. 

Muucragky a town in the Co. of Gralway, Ire- 
land, containing 600 inhab. and the parish 4,240. 

Ahmedabad. See Amedahad, 

Ahmednagur. See Amednagttr. 

Akmedparsy a town in the province of Orissa, 
Hindoostan. 34 miles S. ftqm Cuttack. 

AkoghUlJL populous parish in the Co. of Antnm, 
Ireland. Pop. m 1821, 18,120; there is a town ot 
the same name. Pop. only 370. Port^enone 
town with 618 inhab. Ballykennedy, Culley- 
backy, and Galgorim, villages ; total pop. 796 
are all included m the parish. 

AjaedOy a seaport of Corsica, capital of the d*. 
partment of Liamone, and a bisnop s see This is 
the birth-place of Napoleon BonaparU. It stands 


AIR in All 

on the weit aide of the island, on a point of land Mrt^ a town of France, in the department of 

that juts into the golf, 160 m. S. £. of Toulon. Landes, seated on the side of a mountaixK on the 

Ijonff. 8. 43. E lat. 41. 56. N. river Adonr, 65 m. S. of Bourdeaux. Long. 0. 

A^an or Ajtn^ a countnr on the eastern coast of 10. E. lat. 43. 42. N. 

Africa, extending from Magodoza to Cape Guar- Avrty a town of France, in the department of 

dafui, 1,500 leagues. It is divided into several Pas de Calais. It communicates witn St. Omer, 

states or kingdoms ; the principal of which are by a canal, 22 m. S. of Dunkirk. Long. 2. 24. 

Adel and Magadoza. The south coast <yi Ajan is E. lat. 30. 42. 

sandy and barren, but to the N. it is more fertile. Airt^ a river in Yorkshire, which issues from 

The kings of Ajan are frequently at war with a lake on Malham moor, near Settle, flows by 

the emperor of Abyssinia, and sell the prisoners Skipton, Keighley, Leeds, and Snaith,and enters 

which they take. Ivory, ^Id, and horses of an the Ouse, below Howden. 

ezcellent breed, are the articles of trade. Aisne, a department of France, including the 

AjaziOf Aias or Ajasso, a seaport of Asiatic territories of Soissonnois and Vermandois. It 

Tuntey , in Syria, seated on the Mediterranean on takes its name from a river which runs by Sois- 

the site of the ancient Issus, where Alexander sons, and enters the Oise, above Compiegne. It 

fought his second battle with Darius. It is 30 m. was overrun by the allied armies in 1814, and was 

S. o£ Antioch, and 40 W. Aleppo. Long. 36. 10. the scene of several obstinate and bloody bat- 

E. lat. 36. 0. N. ties fought between the allies and French, in the 

Aiek or Aichaehy a town of Bavaria, with a cas- months of February and March, of the same year, 

tie, seated on the Par, 18 m. S. of Neuberg. Laon is the capital. 

AiehgtadtftL town of Franconia in Bavaria. In the Aix, an ancient city of France, capital of the 

church is a piece of curious workmanship, called department of the Mouths of the Rhone, and an 

the Sun of the Holy Sacrament, whicn is of archbishop's see. It was founded by C. S. Cal- 

massy gold, enriched with diamonds, pearls, ru- vinus, a Roman General, 120 B. C. and was 

bies, and other precious stones. It is seated on formerly the capital of Provence, when it had a 

the Altmuhl, 40 m. S. by E. of Nuremburg. parliament. It is seated in a plain, where there 

Lon^. 11. 10. E. lat. 48. 50. N. are hot baths near the river Arc, accidentally 

Atdy t. Lawrence Co. Ohio. discovered in 1704, but several medals and other 

Aidalf the principal seaport of Nubia, seated on antiques, dug up at that time, confirm the baths 

a mountain, on the coast of the Red sea. It has being known to the Romans. It is 75 m. E. of 

a trade in ebony, and aromatic plants. Long. 35. Montpelier. Long. 5. 27. E. lat. 43. 32. N. 

57. E. lat. 22. 2d. N. Aix, a town of Savoy, on the lake Bonrget. 

Aigerif a town of Austria, on the confines of Here are mineral waters, much frequented. It is 

Bohemia. 24 m. N. W. of Steyre. 12 m. N. by E. of Chamberry. 

AiffU, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Aix, a small island of France, between the isle 

Vaud. All the houses, even the meanest, are built of Oleron and the Continent. It is 12 m. N. W. 

of white marble, found in the neighbourhood. It of Rochfort. Long. 1. 10. W. lat. 46. 5. N. 

is seated near the Rhone, 6 m. from its entrance Aix4a-ChapeUe, a city of Prussia in the grand 

into the lake of Geneva. duchy of the lower Rhine, lately an imperial ci- 

Aigle, a town of France, in the department of ty oTGermany, in the duchy of Juliers. Charle- 

Ome, 47 m. S. W. of Rouen. magne was so delighted with the beauty of 

Aigiutn, St. a town of France, in the depart- the place, that he chose it for his residence ; he 

roent of Loire and Cher, on the river Cher, 24 m. is interred in the church of Notre Dame, where 

S. by E. of Blois. they keep his sword and belt. It is seated in a 

Ailahy a town of Arabia Petrea, at the head of bottom, surrounded by mountains, 22 m. N. E. of 

an inlet of the Red sea, 108 m. £. S. E. of Sues. Leige. Long. 5. 54. E. lat. 50. 52. N. Pop. 33, 

Lon^. 34. 10. E. lat. 29. 10. N. 000. 

Auiy, a town of France, in the department of The population of the town, during the period 

Somme, 9 m. S. S. £. of Amiens. of its prosperity, was estimated at upwards of 

AUsa, an insulated rock, in the frith of Clyde. 100,000, mostly supported by their native manu- 

off the coast of Ayreshire, Scotland, its base is 2 factures, which were carried on to a considerable 

m. in circumference. It consists of a stupendous eztent ; being chiefly in woolen cloths, needle- 

assemblage of precipitous cliffs, rising in a Pyra- works, Prussian blue, white soap, needles, and 

midial series, 900 ft. high, accessible on the it. E. pins. The impolitic selfishness of the trading 

It affords refuge to an immense number of sea- guilds or corporations has been a great check up- 

fowl, and is well stocked with rabbits. The ruins on manufacturing industry, and Hbe population 

of a chapel and of a castle, are still seen; and has proportionally decreased. The two last-nam- 

near the latter is a spring of fresh water. It ed branches of manufacture are, however, still 

gives the title of Baron of the United Kingdom, carried on with much spirit, 

to the family of Kennedy, Earls of CassilTis, in The town consists of two parts: the inner, about 

ScotV^d. three ouarters of a league in circumference, and 

Airif a department of France, which takes its flanked with ten towers, of which Charlemagne 

name from the river, boimded on tlie N. E. and is said to be, if not the founder, the great improv- 

' 8. by the departments of Jura, Mont Blanc, er ; and the outer, by which the former has been 

and Isere, and on the W. by those of the Rhone surrounded. The latter has eight gates, is about 

find the Loire, and Saone and Loire. Bourg is the two leagues in circuit, and is built partly of brick 

capital. and partly of a blue stone raised from a quarry at 

AirdrUf a town in the parish of New Monk- some distance. There are upwards of seventy 

land, Co. of Lanark^ Scotland. It has an iron streets ; some handsome, and adorned with fine 

foundry, and a considerable trade in the distilla- houses. Though no lairge river approaches tbe 

tion of malt spirits. It is 10 m. E. of Glasgow, town, it is abundantly supplied fh>m tnrce streams 

vn the direct road to Edinburgh. Pop. in 1821, which flow througn it, the Pau, the Paunelle, 

4,860, and of the parish, 7,362. and the Johannis, whose waters are found fully 


sufficient for the mannfacturmj; and domestic loda tnd carbonate of lime : thej are eztremelj 

fiemandfl of the inhabitants. nauseous ; though habit, arising from a convietion 

The town hall is chiefly remarkable for two an* of their utility , renders them at length somewhat 

eient towers, the erection of one of which is at- palatable. These waters near the sources an 

tributed to the Romans ; and for a spacious hall clear and pellucid, with a strong sulphureous 

measuring IG2 feet hy 60, in which the emperor smell resembling the washings of a foul ^n ; but 

dined on the day of his coronation. A picture they lose this smell by exposure to the air. Their 

representing the congress of 1748 is to be seen in taste is saline and bitter. They do not contain 

this building ; the portraits of all the members of iron. They are also neutral near the fountain ; 

the congress having been painted at the request but afterwards are manifestly and pretty strongly 

of the town magistrates. It contains also sever- alkaline, insomuch that clothes are washed in 

ai portraits of Charlemagne, and statues of all them without soap. The accounts of diftrent 

the emperors since his time. Opposite to this writers as to the height of their temperature are 

building is an antique fountain, on the top of various ; ranging, however, from 136. to 146. of 

which IS a statue of the same emperor, in copper Fahrenheit The baths are seven in number, 

filt, holding in his right hand a sceptre and in arising from five springs, called the Imperial, the 

IB left a globe. Cornelius, the Quirinus, the Small, and the Rose : 

The choir of the great church, in which the the two first named are deemed the most effica- 

ceremonial of the coronation took place, is a high- cions. Besides these, there is a cold spring called 

ly admired piece of Grothic architectures enriched Campasbad : though weaker, and therefore less 

vrith some exquisitely wrought pieces or tapestry, efficacious, it is frequented by many, on account 

In it is also the tomb of the emperor Otho. The of its lower temperature and its less disagreeable 

pulpit is richly ornamented with gold and pre- taste. The poorer classes also use it. The reve- 

cious stones. The remains of the great benefac- nues of the town arise in part lh>m the farming' 

tor of the town, so dften mentionedalready, were of these springs. 

deposited in a tomb covered with a plain black Like other watering places. Aix is resorted to 

■lab, under the centre of the dome, and msrked for pleasure as well as for health. A suite of 

with the simple inscription " Carolo Maono." anaitments called the Redoubte is laid out as a 

On the tomb being opened by Otho III., the body place of promenade and refreshment, together 

of the monarch was found seated in a chair of with a saloon for balls and evening entertainments, 

marble, dressed in his robes and adorned with the The charitable institutions are, an hospital for 

insignia of royalty. These were taken away, to the diseased, another for orphans, another for in* 

je used in subsequent coronations. The tomb was curables, an institution for the maintenance of 

again opened by Frederick I., and placed in an the poor who come to the waters, and a school 

antique sarcophagus, which was* carried off by for me education of the poor, with a house of 

the French on account of its singular beauty, and refuge for the indigent : both these last were 

lodged in the Louvre at Paris ; but it has since founded by the empress Josephine. 

been restored. The church is also much frequen- Aixenay, a town of France, 29 m. S. of J^antes. 

ted on account of the numerous relics deposited Akerman. See Bidmod, 

in it. The person in whose custody they are, Akissat, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, 

ftunishes the curious visitant with a long list of the ancient Thyatira, built in a fine plain above 

the particulars connected with each : they are 17 miles wide, which produces com and cotton, 

earetully preserved ; and many of them richly It is seated on the river Hermits. 50 m. 8. E. of 

embellidied with precious stones, and enclosed Fergamo. Long. 28. 30. E. lat. 38. 48. N. 

in cosUy cabinets. On the advance of the French jBcron, p.t. Portage Co. Ohio. 120 m. N. E. 

army, uier the Revolution, all the relics were re- Columbus. It is situated on the Ohio canal. 

moved into the interior of Germany, and placed Jikskehr, a town in Caramania, on the confines 

under the special custodv of the emperor. They of Natolia, about 250 m. E. of Smyrna, to which 

have since been restored to their ancient abode, place it sends considerable supplies of wool, fine 

with the exception of the sword of Charlemagne, carpets, wax, gum tragacanth, and galls. 

some earth steeped with the blood of Stephen the Alabimat one of the United States of America. 

' it. and 85. ana 
Tennessee, E. 

usuoc luf uis uvuuio lit lA&iug vara ui uie uuicm. i>jr wcTviKtii, ». uy x'iuiiui»»uu mxc^ OuII 01 AlCXlCOa 

The church of St. Nicholas has some fine paint- and W. oy Mississippi ; having a length of 280 

ings. and a breadth of 160 m. and containing an 

liearthe town is the hill of Louisburg, which area of 46,000 sq. m. It is divided into 36 

commands a fine view of it and of the sdjacent counties, and is watered by the Tennessee, the 

ooontry. On its summit was an obelisk, erected Chatahoochee, the Alabama and Tombeckbee, and 

in honour of Napoleon. After his flight from has in the south the seaports of Mobile and 

Russia it was thrown down by the Cossacks, m Blakeley. Population 308.997, of whom 117,294 

hopes of coming at the coins buried beneath. It are slaves. Tuscaloosa is tne seat of government, 

has been restor^ by the king of Prussia ; the in- Alabama was originally a pMurt of the Mississippi 

seriptions in praise of Napoleon being changed to Territory, but was erected into a separate ttfmto- 

others commemorating nis reverses and down- rial government in 1817, and into a State in 1819. 

fall. The Cherokees and Creeks occupy the northern 

But the peculiar characteristics of Aix, which parts, 

chiefly attract strangers and secure its prosperity, The soil, with the exception of the alluvial 

are its warm baths, which have been long in the tracts on Mobile river, is generallv a pine barren, 

highest repute for scrofulous and cutaneous dis- The surface is mostiy hilly and broken. In the 

^ases, and also for the removal of visceral ob- north it is mountainous, and in this region begins 

stmctions and diseases arising from a derange* the great Apalachian chain. The ^^^^^^JP^*^^ 

ment in the organs of digestion. Their analysis undulating. Toward the south, within 50 or 60 

shows t^at they oontain carbonate and muriate of miles of norida, the swamps are for the most part 


Bovered witii cyptew and gum trees, and the up- entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia. The principal 
lands with long leaved pine. These pine swells island, from which the rest take their names, is 
and levels have a very thin soil, with a snbstra- 40 m. long, and near 16 broad ; and is dom. N. £. 
turn of clay. They produce without the aid of of Stocklwlm. Pop. about 12,000. Lon^. 20.28 
manure, two or three crops of maize and one or £. lat. 60. 10. N. They were ceded with Fin- 
two of cotton. Among the pine grows a rank land, by Sweden to Russia, in the treaty of 1809. 
crass furnishing a fine and inexhaustible summer Alois ^ a town of France, in the department of 
feed. The alluvions on the Alabama and Tom- Gard. It has a citadel, and is seated near the 
beckbee rivers are generally wide and first rate river Gard, at the foot of the Cevennes, 28 m 
lands, and this species of soil on all the streams N. W. of Nismes. Long. 2. 54. lat. 44. 8. N. 
is generally productive. The hammock lands Alarcon^ a town of Spain, in New Castile. It 
constitute an mtermediate belt between the hot- is seated on the Xucar, 50 m. S. of Cuenca. 
toms and pine ridges. They generally have a w^ZotomoAa, or AUamaha, a river of Georgia, 
slope likea glacis. In the best lands, no pines U. S. formed by the Oakmulgee and Oconee, two 
.are to be seen. In second rate land, they are long streams which rise in Uie northern part of 
intermixed with dogwood, hickory and oak. the State. It flows into the sea by several moutiM 
Along the southern limit the soil is thin, and the at St. Simon *8 Sound, 60 m. from Savannah. It is 
unvarying verdure of the pine, beautiful as it is navigable 300 m. to Milledgeville on the Oconee, 
in itself, tires by its uniformity. On the head for boati of 30 tons, and including its longest 
waters of the Escambia and Conecuh, are groves branch is 500 m. in length. Its mouth is banred 
of orange trees. On approaching Florida, the by a shoal on which there is a depth of 14 feet of 
swamps become more and more extensive. Cy- water at low tide. 

press lands are abundant. On the alluvial ground Alatyr, a town of Russia, on the river Sura, 40 

which is not inundated, is large and rank cane. m. E. of Kasan. 

In these drowned regions tlie moschetoes are very AlatUa, a river of European Turkey, which ri- 

annoying. In goiuff toward the central part of ses in the mountains that separate Molaavia, from 

the State, the lands hecome high and broken, and Transylvania, flows through Wallachia, and en- 

the pines less frequent; oak, mckoiy and poplar ters the Danube, near Nicopolis. 

succeed. Aiha^ a town of Piedmont, in Montserrat, and aa 

The climate generally is &vourable to health ancient bishopric. It contains three parochial 

compared with we soutnem country in the same and three other churches, besides the cathedral, 

parallels. The lower part of the State is con- and seven convents. It is seated on the Tanaro, 

stantly fiinned during the summer heats, by the 20 m. S. E. of Turin. 

trade wind. There is hardly such a season as Albania^ a maritime province of European Tur* 

winter, yet the summers are not hotter than many key, 240 m. long, and 60 broad ; bounded on the 

degrees farther N. In the northern parts, tfaie N. by Dalmatiaand Bosnia, £. by Macedonia and 

sti^^ant waters often freeze. In the S. snow or Janna, S. by Livadia and W. by the Adriatic and 

ice is seldom seen. Cattle require no shelter Ionian seas. It produces excellent wines. It 

during winter, and maize is planted early in was formerly an independent kingdom. Durasso 

Marcn. is the capital. 

Cotton is the staple production of Alabama. Alhane, a town of Italy, on a lake of the sama 

Sugar, rice and tobacco are also cultivated. Many name, in Campaffna di Roma. The environs 

of the people about Mobile are shepherds, and produce the best wine in all this country. It is 

have large droves of cattle. Swine are raised 15 m. S. S. £. of Rome. 

with great ease where they can be guarded from Alhano^ a town of Naples, in Basilicata, on the 

the wolves, couffars and alligators. The small river, Basiento, 15 m. £. by S. of Potenza. 

breed of Indian norses are u^ly, but hardy and AlhanopoUs, a town of European Turkey, for- 

strong. Alabama exported m 1828, 1,174,737 merly the capital of Albania, out now a poor 

dollars value of domestic produce ; anil imported place, seated on the Drino, 43 m. £. of Alessio. 

merchandize to the amount of 171,909 dollars. Albans, St., a borough town in Hertfordshire, 

This State in 1800, had only 2,000 inhabitants, distinguished in every period of English history. 
No part of the southern or western country has It wss once the metropolis of Britain, and on the 
had a more rapid incresse of population. The invasion of the country by the Romans, became 
people began to pay attention to the business of one of their most important stations, they gave it 
schools and education, though seminaries of learn- the name of Verulam, and by the privileges con- 
ing and literary institutions are rare. The uni- ferred upon it, so attached the native inhabitants 
versity of Alabama is at Tuscaloosa. to their interest, as to excite the vexureance of 

Alabama, r. is the eastern branch of the Mobile. Queen Boadicea, who massacred 70,00(rof them, 

and is formed by the junction of the Coosa ana after which she was completely defeated by Sue- 

Talapoosa. It is navigable by laree vessels 100 tonius Paulinus, the then Roman governor of 

m. shove Mobile Bay. Beyond Uiis it affords Britain. St Albans again became tranquil, and 

a good boat navigation 150 m. further. This river flourbhed till the Diocletian persecution, about 

gives its name to the State. the commencement of the 4th century, when is 

Alaehua, a prairie in E. Florida, about 70 m. W became distinguished for the martyrdom of its 

of St. Augustine. It is level and grassy, but saint, whose name the town at present bears. 

'barren of trees and shrubs. It is 16 m. in length After this period, St. Albans declined, till m the 

and consists of a sandy soil surrounded with high 9Ui century Ofia, king of the Mercians, in expia- 

hiUs covered with orange trees. tion for his unprovoked murder of St. Ethelbert. 

MadttUa. a maritime province of Asiatic Tur- king of the East Angles, whom he had inviteil 

key, bounded on the S. by the N. E. extremity of to his court to be his son-in-law, erected and en- 

the Levant sea. The chief town is Adana. dowed a most magnificent abbey and monastery 

jMaman, a town in Switzerland, in the canton for Benedictine monks. After this period, St. Al- 

of Bern. 9 m. N. E. of Nion. bans experienced various alternations of fortune 

Aimi, a duster of islands in th« Baltk, at the till the final dissdiation of its monastexy in the 


■luwidiiif and rapacioiu age of Henry VIII. mat. Steamboats constantly pass between Al 

which led to the demolition of this magnificent bony and New-Tork. A railroad extends 15 

establishment, of which the gateway only m. to Schenectady ; the Northern Canal brin^ 

remains, now used as the boroo^ prison ; ex- the waters of Lake Champlain with those of Ene 

cept the abbey church, which was rescued from into the bosom of the city, and lines of staires 

impending destruction by the inhabitants, who pass to Boston, Saratoga, Utica and many other 

porchased it of the succeeding monarch, Edward parts. Albany was founded in 1612, and next to 

Vl. for iS400. when it was made parochial ; but Jamestown is the oldest settlement in the United 

was again doomed to a reverse, in being exposed States. It is governed by a Mayor and a Board 

to the plunder and fimaticism of Cromwell, dur- of Aldermen and Assistants. Fop. 24,238. 

ing the period of his predominance. It has since Albany , t. Oxford Co. Me. 18 m. N. W Paris. 

been repaired, and many vestiges of its former Pop. 387. 

grandeur still remain. It is one of the largest ec- »Ubanv, t. Orleans Co. Vt. 34 m. N. Montpeher. 

elesiastical edifices in Europe. There are three Pop. 683. 

other churches, in one of which (St. Michael) is Albany ^ a County of New York. Pop. 53,560 ; 

a monument to the memorjr of the illustrious its capital is the city of this name. 

Francis Bacon, whose analysis and organization Albany, t. Berks Co. Pa. on the S. side of Blue 

of the laws of nature will immortalize his name. St. Mountams. 

Albans is governed bv a mayor and 12 aldermen, Albany j JVeto, p.t. Clarke Co. Ind. 642 m^ Wash. 

and returns two members to parliament. Its mar- Albany, a river of Upper Canada, which flows 

ket on Saturdays is considerable in grain, &c. and E. through several small lakes into James's Bay , 

especially for straw-plait, which is brought in by there is a fort of the same name at its month. 

the country people, and bought up for manufac- Long. 82. W. lat. 52. 14. N. 

toring into bonnets in London. The town is sit- Awaraxin, a town of Spain, in Arragon, and a 

uate on the banks of the little river Ver, on bishop's see. Its wool is the best in Arragon. It 

which there are two mills for throwing silk. It is is seated on the Guadalaviar, 100 m. E. of Aladrid. 

21 m. N. of London. Albacete, a town of Spain, in Murcia, with 

Albans, St. p.t. capital of Franklin Co. Vt. 23 m. manufactures in iron and steel ; seated in a fertile 

N. Burlington. country on the post road from Madrid (dis. 40 lea.) 

Albans, St. D.t Somerset Co. Me. 30 m. £. N. E. to Carthagena, dis. 33 1-2 leag^ 

Norridgewock. Pop. 911. AUmzin, a town of Chinese Tartary, with a for- 

AlbMS, St. t. Licking Co. Ohio. Pop. 935. tress, on the N. side of the Saghalien. Lon. 123. 

Aliamv, capital of the state of New York, stands 30. £. lat. 53. 0. N. 

on the W. baink of the Hudson, at nearly the head Albeck, a town and castle of Suabia, on the river 

of tide water, 160 m. above New York city, and Alb, 5 m. N. by E. of Ulm. 

164 Boston. It is a place of much business and Albemarle, or Aumaie, a town of France, in the 

wealth, bein^ situated at the point where the great department of Lower Seine, with a manufacture 

Erie canal joins the Hudson, and commanding of serges and other stufls, 20 m. S. W. of Dieppe 

in a manner the whole interior trade of the State, and ^ N. N. W. of Kouen. 

The prosperity of the city has been wonderful AVbemarie, a central Co. of the state of Virginia. 

since the opening of this great channel of in- Pop. 22,618. Charlottesville is the chief town, 

temal navi^tion, and its population has increased Albemarle Sound, an inlet of the Atlantic ocean, 

one half within six years. Ite first appearance is in N. Carolina, 60 m. long, and from 8 to 12 broad. 

not prepossessing to a stranger, but the bustle and It is 30 m. N. of Pamlico Sound ; and is unit- 

haetivity of ite business give it an air of great liveli- ed with Chesapeake bay at Norfolk, by a canal 

nees ', while many public and private buildings cut through the Dismal Swamp, 

with which it is adorned, display much taste and Albtnea, a strong seaport on the coast of Genoa, 

elegance. There are many good specimens of the surrounded by olive-trees, 37 m. S. W. of Genoa, 

old Duteh architecture in various parte of the city, Lonjr. 8. 7. £. lat. 44. 6. N. 

but ite general appearance has been greatly mod- AUnon, p.t. Kennebeck Co. Me. 91 m. N. £. 

emized within a few years. The capital is a fine Portland. Pop. 1,393. 

stone edifice upon the brow of a hill overlooking AUnon, p.v. Edwards Co. Illinois. 88 m. S. E. 

the city, and immediately at the head of State VandaJia. 

street, a wide and handsome avenue. It is 115 Albion Jfew, a name given bySir Francis Drake, 

feet long and has in front an Ionic portico of 4 who explored the coast in 1578, to a country on 

magnificent columns, 33 feet in height. The the W. coast of N. America, extending from the 

pQDiic square adjoining the capitol, is laid out into 35 to the 48th. degree of N. lat. j but the northern 

walks and avenues. North of this building part is now comprehended in the Missouri territo- 

stands the Academy, the most elegant structure ry, and the soutnem in New California. 

in the city. It is built of freestone and has a mSlbona, a town of Italy, in Istria, near the gulf 

firont of 90 feet. The State Hall is an ancient of Camero, 16 m. E. bv S. of Rovigno. 

building. The Albany, Farmers and Mechanics AUret, a town of Irance, in the department of 

Banks are handsome edifices of white marble. The Gironde, 37 m. S. of'Bourdeaux. 

Ci^ Hall has a gilded dome. The Museum is one Albufeira, a town on the S. coast of Algarva, 

of the most splendid structures in the Stete, and Portugal ; pop. about 2,000. Also a town of Va- 

contains a large and valuable collection of curio*- lencia, Spain, on the sea coast, 

ities. The buin where the canal joins the river Albuquerque, a town of Spain, in Estremadnm, 

is fbrmed by a pier 4,300 f. in length and includes with a strong castle. It has a considerable trade in 

an area of'^32 acres. Here are stored immense wool and cloth, and is 18 m. N. N. W. of Badajoz. 

quantities of goods of every description. The city Also a town on the Rio del Norte, a few miles S. 

has a library of 8,000 vols., a theatre and 16 ofSanteFe, Mexico. There is also a village of 

churches. A mineral spring has been recently dis- thQ same name in the province of Puebla, Mex- 

eovered here. The neighbourhood is pleasant and ico. 

the fiu»lities for travelfing in every direction vexy Alburgh, p.t Grand Isl* Co. Vt in the S. W 

AhC 9t ALK 

comer of the state, surrounded by water on all wickshire. Many Roman coinSi brickfl, &4i. have 

sides but the N. Pop. 1,2^. been found near it, and the Icknild street passes 

My or ^Ibi. an ancient city of France, in the through the town. It has a manu&cture ofneed- 

department or Tarn, seated on the river of that les, and is situate at the confluence of the AIne 

name. It is the chief city of the Albigeois, and with the Arrow, 14 m. W. S. W. of Warwick, and 

was formerly the see of an archbishop. The ca- 103 N. W. of London. Market on Tuesday, 

thedral was dedicated to St. Cecilia, and before the AUrmaer or AUtmaer^ a city of North Holland, 

reyolution, was ornamented with a valuable silver It is a handsome city and one of the cleanest in 

shrine, of exquisite workmanship, of the Mosaic Holland. The streets and houses are extremely 

kind,, and contained the relics of St. Clair, the neat and regular, and the public buildini^ 

first bishop of this city. The chapel of this saint very beautiful. The Spaniards, under Frederick 

is a magmficent building, adorned with paintings, of Toledo, besieged it afler they had taken 

Alby has manufiictures of both linens and wool- Haerlem, in 1578; but were forced to ralr« 

ens, and four gates, which open into beautiful the sie^e, after lying before it three months, it 

and fruitful plains. openedits gates to the British troops in 1799, aiYer 

Alcala de Henares, a beautiful and extensive city the second battle near Bergen ; and here the trea- 

of Spain, in New Castile, seated upon the river ty for the evacuation of Holland by the invaders, 

Henares. The university, which had gone to de- was aflerwards concluded. It is recorded in the 

cay^as re-established in 1494, by Cardinal Fran- register of this city, that in the year 1G39, 120 

cu Ximenes ; at whose charge and under whose tulips, with the off-sets, sold for '90,000 florins ; 

direction, the first polyglot biole was printed in and in particular, that one of them called the Vice- 

this town. Without the walls is a spring, the ro;/ sold for 4,203 guilders! The States at last put 

water of which is so pure and well tasted, Uiat it a stop to this extravagant and ruinous passion for 

u inclosed for the king of Spain's own use, from flowers. The town has a good trade in butter and 

whence it is carried to IVIadrid. It is 11 miles S. cheese, which is esteemed the best in Holland. 

W. of Guadalaxara, and 15 N. E. of Madrid. It is about 4 m. from the sea, 15 from Haerlem, 

AUalalaRealj a city of Spain, with a fine abbey, and 20 N. from Amsterdam, 

situate on the summit of the Sierra de Granada, Jilcoutimy a town of Portutral, in Algarves, with 

on the high road from Madrid to Granada, from a strong castle, seated on onlsland in the Guadia- 

which it IS distant 18 m. and 190 from Madrid. na, opposite to San Lucar, 16 m. from tlie entrance 

AUala de GuadayrafB. town of Spain, dis. 6. m. of the Guadianainto the Gulf of Cadiz, 22 N. N. £. 

from Seville on the road to Madrid. of Tavira. 

AlcavMiy a town of Sicily, in Val di Mazaro, 25 Alcudia, a town of Majorca, situate on the N. £. 

m. S. W. of Palermo. coast, between two large harbours. Long. 3. 0. £. 

Alcanizy a town of Arragon, in Spain. It was lat. 39. 50. N. 

formerly the capital of the Kingdom of the Moors. Aldborougkj a borough, returning 2 members to 

It has a remarkable fountain, which throws up parliament, and sea-port, in SuflTolk, with a market 

water, through 42 pipes. It is seated on the on Wednesday and Saturday ; pleasantly seated on 

river Bergantes, 12 m. from Caspe. the Aide, between a high hill and the sea ; and the 

Alcantara, a fortified town of Spain, in Estre- harbour is tolerably good, but small. The town 

madura, ana the chief place of the knights of was formerly much larger ; but the sea has taken 

that name. It has a celebrated stone bridge over away whole streets. It is 40 m. E. of Bury, and 

the Tejo, or Tagus, built in the time of Trajan. 94 N. E. of London. Pop. in 1821, 1,212. 

It was taken by the earl of Gal way, in 1706, but Aldhorough, a borough in the West Riding of 

retaken the same year. It is situate on the high Yorkshire, returning 2 members to parliament, 

post road from Badajos to Ciudad Rodrigo. Here are many remains of Roman woras. It is 15 

Aleantaray or AUarUariUuy a town of Spain, in m. N. E. of York, and 208 N. by W. of London. 

Andalusia, near the river Guadalquivir. Here is Pop. 484. 

a bridge built b^ the Romans to pass the marshes Aldenburg, a town of Westphalia, 20 m. E. S. £. 

formed by the river. It is 14 m. S. of Seville. of Dusseldori*. 

Alcantara, a town of Portugal, near Lisbon, Alderbury, a town in Wiltshire, on a hill near 

having a royal palace. There is also a town of the Avon,d m. from Salisbury. It has amanufac- 

the same name in Brazil, in the proryince of ture of fustians. By a fire in 1777, 200 houses 

Maranham. were destroyed. 

Alcaraz, a town of Spain, in New Castile, with Alderkolmj an island in Sweden, formed bv tlie 

a strong castle, and a remarkable ancient aqueduct, three arms of the river Gefle,in the Gulf of 6oth- 

Itissituatenear the source of the Guadalquivir, 80 nia. It has a considerable trade in planks and 

m. E. by S. of Calatrava. Long. 2. 20. W. £. lat. deals. It is 60 m. N. of Stockholm. 

38. 28. N. Aldemeify an island in the English channel, 8 m. 

.^2earaz or ^(eorraz, a town of Arragon, Spain, in circunuerence, separated from France by a 

2 leagues from Lerida, on the road to Madrid. strait called the Race of Aldemey, which is a dan- 

Alaizar de Sal, a town of Portugal, in Estrema- gerous passage, on account of the rocks under 

dura. Fine white salt is made here. It is seated water. It is fertile in com and pasture ; and is cele- 

on the Cadoan, 15 m. from the sea, and 35 S. £. brated for a breed of small cattle, which yield an 

of Lisbon. Long. 9. 5. W. lat. 38. 18. N. abundance of very rich milk. There is a 

Alcazar Q^iber, a town of the kingdom of Fez, town of the same name. Long. 2. 12. W. lat. 49. 

near which Sebastian, king of Portugal, lost his 45. N. 

life in a battle with the Moors, in 1578. It is seated Aldgtone. See Alston-Moor. 

on the Lucos, 36 m. S. of Tangier. Alegre, a town of France, in the department of 

Alcazar Seguar, a town of tlie kingdom of Fez, Upper Loire, 15 m. S. E. of Brioude. 

on the strait of Gibraltar. It was taken by Al- Alemtejoj the largest, in its superficies, of the 6 

phonso, king of Portugal, in 1468, but soon afler provinces of Portugal, bounded on the north by 

abandoned. It is 14 m. E. of Tangier. the Ta^us, and south by the ancient kingdom of 

AlcesUr, or Alncester, a market town in War- Algarva. Ito superficial extent is 883 French 

leaipffs, and the p(miilatioa,tii 1800, was 380/480. baths, and ilands near the Pyrenees, on the river 

Evora is the capital. Auda, 15 m. S. by W. of Carcassone. 

jHeiuMm, a city of Fnnoe, capital of the de- Mmnuler, p.i. Athens Co. Ohio, 75 m. S. E. 

partment of Ofme. Its roanofaeture of lace is Columbus. This township and Athens belong to 

considerable. Near it are stone quarries in which the Ohio Uniyersity. 

are found a sort of crystal like Bristol stones. JUexandermiUe, p.t. in Miami township, Mont* 

it is seated on the Sarte, which divides the de- fomery Co. Ohio, on the Great Miami, 75 m. S. 

partments of L'Orne and La Sarte, 30 m. N. by W. W . Columbus. The Miami canal runs through 

of Lemans, and 87 W. S. W. of Paris. this town. 

Alepfo, the capital of Syria, and next to Con- .Alexander, a Co. of the state of Illinois, at its 

stantinople and Cairo, the most considerable city southern extremity, bounded ou the east by the 

in the Turkish empire. It stands on 8 hills, in Ohio river to the point where it unites wim the 

the middle of a fruitiui plain, and is of an oval Mississippi, which bounds on the county on the 

Sgure. The castle is on the highest hill, in the west. rop. 1 ,390. America is the chiei town. 

«e»tre of the city ; and the houses are better than Alexander, t. Washington Co. Me. Pop. 334. 

in oUier places in Turkey. As usual in the East, Alexander, a County of Illinois. Pop. 1 ,390. 

they consist of a laree court, with a dead wall to Alexander, p.t. Genessee Co. N. Y. 18 m. S. 

the street, an arcade running round it, paved Batavia. Pop. 2,331. 

with marble, and a marble fountain in the middle. Alexanders, p.v. York Dia. S. C. 441 m. Wash. 

The streets are narrow, but well paved '.vith. large Alfrandretta, or Seanderoon, a town of Syria, on 

square stones, and kept very clean. Here are the Mediterranean sea, and the port of Aleppo. 

many stately mosques and caravanaeras, fountains It is now a poor place, the tombs being more nu- 

and reservoirs of water, and vineyards and gar- merous than the houses. It is 60 m. N. W. of 

dens. The water in the wells is brackish, l>ut Aleppo. Long. 36. 15. £. lat. 36. 35. N. 

good water is brought from some springs about Alexandria, or Alessandria, a considerable and 

five miles off, by an aqueduct, said to have been strong city of Italy, in the Milanese, with a good 

built bv the empress Helena. The Christians castle, built in 1178, in honour of Pope Alexan- 

bave tneir houses and churches in the suburbs derlll. It was taken in 1706, by prince Eugene ; 

and carry on a considerable trade in silks, camlets, in 1746, by the French, but retaken in 1749, by 

and leatner. Large caravans freauently arrive the king of Sardinia. The French again took it 

from Bagdad and Bassorah, chargea with the pro- in 1798, but were driven out by the Austro-Rus- 

ducts ofrersia and India. sian army in 1799 ; it was delivered up to the 

Several European nations have factories here. French after the celebrated battle of Marengo, in 

and the merchants live in ^eater splendour and 1800, but reverted to the dominion of Austria, 

safety than inanyother city m the Turkish empire, after the peace of Paris in 1815. It is 15 m. S. 

Coadies are not used here, but persons of quality E. of Casal, 35. N. W. of Genoa, and 40. S. by 

ride on horseback, with a number of servants be- W. of Milan. 

fore them, according to their rank. Aleppo and its Alexandria, a celebrated city of Egypt, now 
suburbs are 7 m. in compass. An old wall, and a much decayed, though there are stiU some re- 
broad ditch, now in many places turned into gar- mains of its ancient splendor, particularly an obe- 
4ens, surround the city, which was estimated bv lisk full of hieroglyphics, called Cleopatra*s Nce- 
Dr. RuBsel to contain 230,000 inhab., of whom 8'>, die; and Pompey s Pillar, which is one entire 
000 were Christians, and 5,000 Jews; but at present piece of granite, vO ft. high, and 25 in circumfer- 
accordingto Mr. Eton, it does not contain more ence. The ancient Pharos, so famous in antiqui- 
than 50,<M)0, which depopulation, occasioned chief- ty, that it was numbered among the seven won- 
1y by the plague, baa taken place since 1770 ; ders of the world, is now a castle called Pharil- 
whole streets being uninhabited and bazars aban- Ion, and still used to direct vessels into the har- 
dened. All the iiuiabitants of botii sexes smoke hour. From the harbour is a canal to the west 
tobacco to great excess ; even the very servants branch of the Nile, at Rhamanie. This city was 
have almost constantly a pipe in their mouths, built by Alexander the Great, and now consists 
Eighteen miles S. E. of Aleppo is a large plain, chiefly of one long street, ftcing the harbour, the 
bounded by low rocky hills, called the Valley rest being a heap of ruins : part of the walls are 
of Salt : this is overflowed in winter, and in April, standing, with great square towers^ 200 paces dis- 
the water being soon evaporated by the sun, tant ; and the gates are of Thebaic and granite 
leaves a cake of salt, in some places half an inch marble. It was formerly a place of ^at trade, 
thick, which is sufficient to supply all this part all the treasures of the East Indies being depod- 
of the country. Aleppo is seateo on a rivulet, 70 ted there, before the discovery of the route by the 
miles S. E. of Alexandretta, or Seanderoon, and Cape of Good Hope. It is subject to the grand 
150 N. of Damascus. Long. 37. 16. E. lat. 35. seignior who, however, has but a Umited authority. 
40. N. It sufiered greatly by a succession of Alexandria was taken by the French, under Bona- 
eaxthquakes in 1^. parte, in 1796 ; and taken from them by the En^ 

Aleppo, t. Green Co. Pa. fish in 1801. It surrendered to the English m 

Alien, p.t. Erie Co. N. Y. 287 m. W. Albany. 1807, but was soon after evacuated. Itis seated 

Pop. 1,257. on the Mediterranean, 125 m. N. W. of Cairo. 

Alessttno, a town of Naples, near the extremity Long. 30. 16. £. 31. 11. N. 

of the promontory of the Terra d' Otranto, 15 Alexandria, t. Grafton Co. N. Hampshire, 70 

m. S. W. of Otranto. m. from Poitsmouth. Pop. 1,083. 

Alessio, a town of European Turkey, in Dal- Alexandria, p.t. Jellereon Co. N. Y. 172. m. N 

matia, and a bishop's see, seated on Uie Drino, W. Albany. Pop. 1,523. 

near its entrance into the Adriatic Sea. 20 m. S. Alexandria, t. Hunterdon Co. N. J. on the Dela- 

of Scutari. Long. 19. 30. E. kt. 41. 53. N. ware, 15 ro. S. E. £a«ton. ' 

Aleutian Islands. See Arekivelago, ^ortkem. Alexandria, p.t. Huntington Co. Pa. 192 m. N. 

Alet, a town of France, in the department of ,W. Philad. 

Aude, lately an episcopal see. It is noted for its Alexandria^ a city and port of entiy in wm 

nictn«l d OdnniDis, on the W. bank of the Po- 
torase, 6 mile* below Wuhin^too. It ia 4 place 
of some baainen and ftahioBablH mart daring 
*■"" "n of Con^TMS, and ' " " ' 

, bot the neighbouih" 

fliinly inhiibiteJ. The _. 

wide and the waler in the channel 30 fuet in depth, 
but notwithitanding the commeicial Ednntagei 
within her reach, Aleiundria hu not inereased 
roach oTlntc, The citr ie regululy built, and the 
■breeta are clean and well pave^ The trade la 
chieflv in flour. The ahipping in 1831 ainoanled 
to S5J!37 tons. Here ia a TBeolorical Semina- 
r7. Pop. 8^. 

Maandria, JVae, p.t. Weatrooreland Co. Pa. 
aeU m. Waah. 

AUxandria, p.t. capital of the Pariah of Ra- 

Sides, Lou. OD the Red River, 70 m. above the 
[iaaiasippi in a atraight line. Itia aituated In a 
beautiful plain. Steamboata aacend the river to 
thia place, and vaat qnantitiee of cotton are ex- 
ported from it. The aumninding coiintij ia 

It W. of the Ba; of Gibraltar 
iSlgitri, a counb^ of Barbaiy, comptehendiog 
the ancient Numidia, and put of Mauritania. 
It ia 600 m. from E. lo W. and 170 in breadth , 
bounded on the E. by Tonii, N. by the Mediter- 
ranean, S. by Moont AUai, and W. by Morocco. 
Mineral apiinga and watera are met with in many 
place*, and aeretal of the chaina of mountaina 
contain lead and copper. In the interior of the 
country commence the dreaiy deaerta. TJie princi- 
pal rivera are the Shellif, Haiafran, Malva, and 
Zaine. The land toward the north ia fertile in com 
and the valleya are full of fruit. The melona have 
an eiquiaite taate, aome of which are ripe inaum- 
mer, and others in winter. I'be al«ma ofthe vinea 
are very laj^, and the buncbea of grapea are r 
foot and a h^f long. Itia divided into the territo- 

1. N. E. 

Ataandria, p.t. Smith Co. Lou. t 
Murftee aboroogh . 

Jtenatdria, t. in Waahington townabip, Scioto 
Co. Ohio : 90 m. 8. Columbua. 

JUzandria, a Co. of the diatrict of Columlna. 
Pop. 9,608. 

^leanufriona, p.v. Mecklenburz Co. N. C. 464 
m. Waah. 

JHbwrtW, Blown of Poitngal, in Beira, defend- 
ed by a wall and caaUe. ft la 150 m. N. E. of 
XJabon. 9. N. 

Jitfazeraii, a town of Portugal, on the aea wde, 
73. m.N.N. E.ofLiabon. Long.9.1S. 

Jlftld,^ town of Lower Saxony, 15 m. 8. 8. 

Alfotd, a town in Linconahire, Eng< with amar- 
kel on Tueaday, seated on a brook, 9in. from the 
■ea, 25 N. of Boilon, 140 of London. Pop. 1,506. 

Mford, a pariah of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire. 
Tilia pariah ia rendered memorable bj a battle 
fonght here, wherein the marqoiaof Montroee de- 
feated general Baillie and a party ofthe Covenant- 
era, on the 2d July 1645 ; and there wu lately dia- 
eovered in one ofthe moMCB a man in armour on 
horacback, HUppoaed to hare been drowned in at- 
temping to escape. 

AlfardiUnm, p.t. capital of Moore Co. N. C. 30 
m. N. W. Kayetteville. 

mordnUlt, p.t. Robereon Co. N. C, 108 ro. S. 
W. RaUigh. 

AUrcd, p.t. Tork Co. Me. 88 m. N. E. Boaton. 
Pop. 1,453. 

Alfrtd, p.t. Allegany Co. N. T. Pop. 1,416. 

Alfred, p.t. Glengaiy Co. Upper Canada, on 

Affi-^im, a town in Derbyahire, with a market 
on Monday. Here are maimiactnrea of atockioga 
and brown earthenware, and 3 iron worka. It la 
■eated on a hill, 13 m. N. of Derby, and 142 N. N. 
W. of London. Pop. in 1821, 4,^. 

AlgagUola, a email fbrtiSed aevport on the N. 
W. coaat of CoraicB, at the mouth ofthe Aregno, 
S8m. W. by 8. of Baatia. 

Algarea, or Algmytt, a provinoa of Portugal. 
Itf aaperflciea is 232 sq. leagues, and in 1800 con- 
tained 137^ inhabitanta. It fonw the S. ez- 
tnmitj of Portngal. Lacoa, Faro, and Tanra, all 
on the S. ooaat are the chief towns. It ia fertile 
in figa, oranges, almonds, dates, olives, tod eloel- 

who had the govemmeat in theif hands befbre 
the French conquest, were not above 7,000 in 
number ; and yet the Moora, or nativea of Africa, 
had no share in it. It was a kind of republic under 
the prolectioD of the grand aeignor, and governed 
"■ — overeign called the Dey, who, 

I governed 

in tenta, are a diatinct people, governed bj theiz 
own laws and magiatratcH, though the Torka in- 
terpoae aa often aa they please. The Dey waa an 
abeoluta monarch, but elected by the Turkish 
Boldiera and frequently deposed and put to death 
by them. The revenues of the government arose 
from the tribute paid by the Moors and Arabs, a 
detachment ofthe arm V being sent into each prov- 
ince every year to collect it ; and the prices Qmj 
took at sea aometimea equalled the taxca they laid 
npoo the nativea. The Dey had several thousand 
Moors in his service, both bone and foot ; and 
the beya or viceroy* of the provinces had each an 
army under bia command. Their religion ia 
Hahomelnniam and their language a dialect of the 
Aiabie. They have likewise a jargon, composed 
of Italian, French and Spaniab, called Lingoa 
Franca, which iaunderatood by the common peo- 
ple and merchants. The compleiion of the na- 
tives ia tawny, and they are strong and well 

The dresa of the Hoora consiats of a piece nf 
woolen doth. 5 ella in length and an ell and a 
half in breadth, threwu over the ahoulders and 
ftstened round the body. This is called aAouaa 
snd serves also for a covering by night when 
•sleep on their maltreases. To thia are added an 

AL« m ALL 

iipp«r ^armont called a eaftany with a red cap, a forrendered, and the French immediatelj took 

hood and slippere. The women in the coantijr poasesBion of the city. The Dey went into exile 

wear haiquee like those of the men. Their oma- at Naples, and a grreat treasure in ffold and silyer 

ments are ear-rings, bracelets }3pon their arms, found in his palace, indemnified Uie captors for 

and rinva npon their ankles, lliej tatoo their the cost of the enterprise. The French still hold 

rkins with representations of flowers Ac. and dye Alters, and appear determined to establish them- 

their hair, feet, and the ends of the fingers or a selves permanently in the country. The external 

■affroR color with henna. commerce, before the conquest, was principal! jr 

The ladies of the city differ little in the fashion, with Gibraltar, from whence the Algerines drew 

but considerably in the costliness of their oma- considerable supplies of European manufactures, 

ments. The caftan is of fine cloth or velyct, em- spices, and India piece-goods, in exchange for 

broidered with gold and fastened with buckles of cattle, fruits, &c. for the supply of the town and 

snld and silver. The head is surrounded with garrison. 

folds of gauze, wrought of gold and silk. The Alarnbia, a town of Spain, in Arragon, near a 

«ar-rinffs, bracelets, &c. for the legs, are of gold river of its name, 7 m. N. of Tereul. 

and siWer. Paint is sometimes used, and the Micanty a sea-port of Spain, in Valencia, fk- 

eyebrowB and eyelashes are frequently darkened, mous for excellent wine and fruits. It has also 

The Moon esteem corpulence a prime constitu- a great trade in barilla, and the Americans, £n- 

ent of beauty. ghsh, Dutch, French, and Italians, have consuls 

Algiers, a strong city, capital of the whole here. The castle, on a high rock, was reckoned 

country of Algiera. It is built on the side of a impregnable, but it was taken by the English, in 

monntain, in the form of an amphitheatre, next 1706. It was likewise taken by the French and 

the harbour ; and the houses appearing one above Spaniards, after a siege of almost two years, when 

another, of a resplendent whiteness, make a fine part of the rock was Mown up. It is seated on 

appearance from the sea. The tops of the houses the Mediterranean, on a bay of the same name, 

are flat, covered with earth, and form a sort of 64 French leagues S. E. of Madeira, 23 S. of Va- 

gardens. The streets are narrow, and serve to lencia, and 21^. of Carthagena. Long. 0. 29. W 

keep off the extreme heat of the sun. There are lat. 38. 20. N. 

five gates, but no public places or squares of con- AlietUa, a sea-port of Sicily, in Val di Mazara, 

•iderable extent. The larger mosques are ten, with a fortress on ^ small cape, at the mouth of 

bat there is nothing remarkable in their arehi- the Salso, 22 m. S. E. of Girgenti. Long. 14. 7. 

tf^^^nre, except the one begun to be built about £. lat. 37. 14. N. 

me year 1790, which is beautiful ; and the Dey's AUcudL the most western of tKe Lipari islands, 

palace is fiu: from being spacious and extensive, in the Mediterranean, 10 m. W. of Felicuda. 

The harbour is small, shallow, and insecure, and N. lat. 38. 33. £. long. 14. 32. 

its entrance is incommoded with numerous rocks. Al^, a town of Naples, at the foot of the Ap- 

The mole of the harbour is 600 paces in length, ennines, ^ m. N. W. of Benevento. 

extending from the continent to a small island, Allahabad^ an interior province of Hindoostan 

where there is a castle and a large battery of guns. Proper, 160 m. long and 120 broad ; bounded on 

The Turkish soldiers here were formerly great the N. by Oude, E. by Bahar, S. by Orissa and 

tyrants ; and would go to the farm-houses in the Berar, and W. by Malwa and Agra. The Ner- 

coun try for 20 days together, live at free quarters, budda, which rises on the S. £. border of the 

and make use of every thing, not excepting Uie province, flows from E. to W. near its side ; and 

women. There were about 100,000 Mahometans, the Ganges crosses it from W. to E. near its N. 

15,000 Jews, besides 2,000 Christian slaves in tliis side. 

city before its recent capture by the French. AUahahad, a city of Hindoostan, capital of the 

Their chief subsistence was derived from their province of the same name, with a magnificent 

piracies, for they made prizes of all Christian citadel. It was founded by the Emperor Acbar, 

ship« not at peace with them. The country about in 1583, who intended it as a place of arms ; but 

Algiers is adorned with gardens and fine villas, its fortifications will hardly resist the battering of 

watered by fountains and rivulets ; and thither a field-piece. It is seated at the confluence of 

the inhabitants resort in the hot seasons. Algiers the Jumna with the Granges, 470 m. W. N. W. 

had for ages braved the resentment of the most of Calcutta. Long. 82. 0. E. lat. 26. 45. N. It 

S>werfu] states in Christendom. The Emperor was finally ceded, together with the province, to 

faarles V. lost a fine fleet and army, in an ex- the English E. I. Company, in 1801. 

pedition against it, in 1541. The English burnt AUdh'Skehry or City of Ood, the ancient Phila- 

their vessels in the harbour in 1635, and 1670; delphia; it is now occupied by about 300 families, 

and it was bombarded by the French in 1688. In principa Uy Greeks. It is situate in the province 

1775, the Spaniards attacked it by sea and land, of NatoHa. Asiatic Turkey, about 100 m. due E. 

bat were repulsed with great loss, tliough they of Smyrna. 

had near 20,000 foot, 2,000 horse, and 47 royal Alleghany Mountains. See Apelatkian. 

ships of different rates, and 346 transports. In Alleghany, a river of Pennsylvania, which rises 

17^ and 1784, they renewed their attacks by sea in the S. W. comer of the state of New York, in 

to destroy the city and galleys ; but were forced lat. 42. It is navigable for keel-boats of 10 tons 

to retire without effecting either its capture or burthen, to Hamilton, 260 m. above Pittsburg, 

destruction. In 1816, a British squadron, under where it joins the Monongahela, and then assumes 

the command of Lord Exmouth, bombarded the the name of Ohio. See Ohio. 

town, and fleet in the harbour. But the year Alleghany, a County of New York, in the 8. 

1830 finally witnessed the fall of Algiers before W. Pop. 26,218. Angelica is the chief town, 

the arms of a Christian power. On the 14th of Alleghany, a County of Pennsylvania, in the 

June, the French landed an armv of 40,000 men W. Pop. 37,964. Pittsburg is the capital. 

in the bay of Sidi Feruch near the city, and afler Allevhany, a County of IVfiirvland, in the N.W. 

several battles, closely invested the place. The Fop. 10,602. Cumberland is the chief town, 

siege lasted six days. On the 5th of July, Algiers Alleghany is the name of G towns in Pcnnsyl- 

4 %./ 


vania, yi%., in WMtmoreUuid, Camliria, Hunt- and 68 N. of Mnioia. Lonf . 1. 10. W. lat. 38 

ingtton, Armstrong, Somerset, and Venango 48. N. 

counties. Mmeida, a fortified town of Portugal, in Beira. 

Mlemamee^ p.v. Guilford Co. N. C. 335 m. It was taken by the French, after a short sieee^ 

Wash. in 1810, who ulerwards demolished the fortifica- 

AUen^pX. Allegfaanj Co. N. T. S76 m. W. Al- tions. It is situate on the river Coa, and near 

bany. Pop. 898. the borders of Spain, 18 m. N. £. of Guarda. 

Alltn^ t Cumberiand Co. Pa. Almeria^ a seaport of Spain in Granada, and a 

AUen^ a County in Kentucky. Pop. 6,486. bishop's see, seated at the mouth of the Aimeria, 

AUen, a County of Ohio, in the N. W. part, 24 62 m. S. £. of Granada. Long. 2. 31. W. lat. 36 

m. in extent, containing 554 sq. miles. Pop. 578. 51. N. 

Wapakonetta is the capital. Mndsta^ a town of Dalmatia, famous for its 

Aflen.i. Union Co. Ohio. wines. It stands at the foot of a high rock, and 

AUen^s Ferry, p.v. Harrison Co. Ind* 537 m. at the mouth of the Cetina, 12 m. £. of Spala- 

Wash. tro. 

Allen's Frtshf p.r. Charles Co. Md. 91 m. 8. Almond, p.t. AUeghany Co. N. J. 27 m. W. 

W. Baltimore. Albany. Pop. 1,804. 

AUenUnon, p.t. Monmouth Co. N. J. 34 m. N. Almandburyy a village in West Yorkshire, sev 

£. Phil. ted on the Calder, 2 m. S. S. £. of Hudderafield. 

AUentown, p.v. Montgomery Co. N. C. 428 m. It was the Campodonum of the Romans, after- 
Wash, wards a seat of toe Saxon kinj|rs, and had once a 

AtUnMawn, t. Merrimack Co. N. Hampshire, castle and a cathedral. Pop. 5,680. 

58 m. fr. Boston : 38 fr. Portsmouth. Pop. 461. dfl^moiuifitiry, a village in Gloucestershire^ 7 m. 

AUenatowky p.t. Northampton Co. Pa. on the N. of Bristol, where Alimond, father of King 

Lehigh, 52 m. N. W. Phil. Kgbert, is said to have been buried. Here is a 

AlTensmlle, t. Mifflin Co. Pa. fortification of the Saxons, with a double ditch, 

AUensv'Mt, p.v. Switserland Co. Ind. 28 m. S. which commands an extenuve view of the Se- 

W. Cincinnati. vem. 

AUenburg, a town of Prussia, on the river Al- Almunaearf a town of Spain, in Granada, seat- 

le, 25 m. £. S. £. of Koni|[rBberg. ed on the Mediterranean, witli a jrood harbour, 

Allendale f a parish and mining district at the defended by a strong castle, 30 m. S. S. £. of Al- 

foot of Fuller Hill, in the Co. of Northumberknd, hama. Long. 3. 45. W. lat. 36. 30. N. 

£njr. Pop. in 1821, 4,629. ./2/im, p.t. Lincoln Co. Me. 53 m. N. £. Port- 

AUendarf, a town of Germany, fiunous for its land. Pop. 1,175. 

sait^ works, and three bridges over the Werra. It Alnwick^ a considerable town of Northumber- 

is 15 m. £. of Cassel ; also the name of several land^ on the road to Scotland ; a place peculiarly 

other small towns in Germany. fatal to some of the ancient Scottish monarchs. 

AUerttm, the name of a village in Lancashire, Here Malcolm UI. making an inroad into Nor- 

En^land ; another in Somerset ; and of 6 others thumberland, was killed, with Edward his son , 

in Yorkshire. and his army defeated, by Robert Mowbray, earl 

AUerUm, Jiarth. See Jfardi AUerton, of this county, in 1093. And here too his great 

AUietf a department of France. It is so called grandson, William I. invading England with an 

from a river which flows by Moulins, and onters army of 80,000 men, was encountered, his army 

the Loire, below Nevers. Pop. 254,558. routed, and himself made prisoner, in 1174. The 

Alligator, r. a stream of N. Carolina, runiiing town appears to have been formerly fortified, from 

into Albennarle Sound. the vestiges of a wall still to be seen in several 

AUoa, a seaport of Scotland, in Clackmanan- parts, and 3 gates, which remain almost entire, 

shire, near the mouth of the river, on the (Vith Alnwick is a well-built town ; and is ornamented 

of Forth. Here is a custom-house, and an ex- by a stately old gothic castle, the seat of the 

cellent dty dock ; and its harbour is the resort of duke of Northumberland. It is seated on the 

all the coal-vessels in the neighbourhood. It has Alne, 310 m. N. by W. from London, 33 N. of 

a glass-house, 2 distilleries, and 2 breweries, the Newcastle, and 26 S. of Berwick. Pop. in 1821, 

produce of which is in great repute. Near the 5,927. 

town is a tower 90 ft. in neLrht, with walls 11 ft. Alpnaeh, a town of Switzerland, in Unterwal- 

in thickness. It is 30 m. W. N. W. of £din- den, seated on an arm of the lake of the Four 

burgh. Cantons, 6 m. S. of Luoem. 

MUnoay Creek, t. Salem Co. N. J. '^^p^t ^ chain of mountains, in Europe, which 

AU-sainis Bay. See BakLa. begins at the Gulf of Genoa, to the E. of Nice, 

Almada, a town of Portugal, seated on a point Pfu^Ms into Switaerland, crosses that country and 

of land, on the south bank of the Tagus, nearly Tyrol, separates Germany from Italy, and ter- 

opposite Lisbon. minatesat the north part of the gulf of Venice. 

Almaden del Axogue, a town of Spam, in La This grand chain is sometimes mvidr^d into two 

Mancha, famous for its rich mines of meroury and or more ridges, ranging one by another, with on- 

vermillion, 45 m. S. W. of Ciudad Real. ly narrow valleys between : and the dlfierent 

Almaden de la PUUaj a town of Spain in Anda> portions have distinct appellations, as the Mari- 

usia, on the river Colar, 34 m. N. by £. of Se- time, Pennine, Lepontine, Helvetian, Rhetian, 

ville. Julian, &o. They are composed of stupendous 

Almanxay a town of Spain in Muroia, romarka- rocky masses, two, four, and even six being piL 

ble for the victory gained by the French and ed upon each other, and from 4,000 to uwve 

Spaniards over the alues in 1707, when most of 15,600 ft. high. There are few passes over them, 

the English wero killed or taken, having been and those of difiicult access. Switzerland has 

abandoned bj the Portuguese horse at the first the central part of these mountains, and the val- 

char^. It is situate in a fertile plain on the leys between them. These mountains are fre- 

frontiers of Valencia, 35 m. S W. of Xativa, quenled by the ehamob, an animal about the 

a of a, pxX, uid of wondeifn] aplit^. Thej 
II leap down piecipicea 30 feet in beigbt, nni 
lead appear rather to fly tEun ran. The 
atiar of the chunoia, ii full of Ubanr anil 
■ pnnaed with the bigheat iDthnu- 
'ile peneverance bj 

S.of CarHile.udSTlN.bjW.of Londoii. F<n. 
in 1631, 4^10. 

Jillai Mounlaitu, a fanfs of mountaiiu inter- 
■ecting Asia fVom Bouth to north, commeDoine 
wart of the Indos, in W. long, about 68. and dt- 
vareing northward b; wTenl iidg« towaiib 
Eaal ^pe, Id £. long. 170. 

JUavatr; a town of Naplai at the foot of the 
Apenninea, 10 m. N. E. of Gravina. Pop. about 

JAfliMi, a town of Lower Sazonj 
Ion of Bnuuwick, S m. T 

r Sazonv, in 
of Go«W. 

o erow the Alpe on the lide of Pisdmont, in 
winter teuon, wbco he iaraded Italy, and 
if hi* elephonta among them. Thfy 

d TOCoeMfiilly by "" " " 

srmr imder Bonaparte in 160 

D called finm iti vicinity to the 
that nune. The capital ii Embnin. 

Mpt, LoBKr, a department of Prance, ioclnd- 
ing part of the late pnmace of Provence. The 
capital U Digne. 

AlpM, Mantniu, a late department of Fianoe, 
including the oounty of fuce. The oapilal ia 

JlpiBttrras, high monntaina of Spain, in Grana- 
da, near the Mediterranean. They ue inhibi- 
ted by the Moriaeoa, who carefiiUy cultivate 
the groond, which prodnoea excellent winea and 

brd, a towi 

on Thnra. a _ 

It ia 18 in. N. N. E. of Soulhimipton, and 57 W. 
B. W. of London. 

Jllaaet, a late provinoe oT France, now divided 
into the Upper and Lower Rhine, which aee. 

M*aa, p.t. Berks Co. Fa. on the Schaylkill. 

aUtn, a fertile ialond of Denmark, in the Lit- 
tle Belt, between Bleawlck uid Funen, 100 m. 
W. of Copenbagen. The ohief town ia Sonder- 

M^idd, a town of Germany, with a oaatle, 12 
■n. E. of Marburg. 

AUieda, a town of Sweden, in Smaland, near 
wfaieh a gold mine wu diacovered La 1738. 

AhUrm, a town of Naptea, in the Moliae, on 
the rivFr Tiaemo, 33 m- K E. of Moliae. 

Jlsliten, a town of Upper Saiony, 9 m. S. 8. 
W. of Bembarg. 

JlUadt, a town of Upper Saiony, in Thnrin- 
1^ with a caatle, on the rivulet luiie, B m. W. 
of Qoeffiirt. 

Altudt, a town of Moravia, in tba circle of 
Olmnti, near the aoiuce of the Monn, 35 m.N. 
N. W. of Olmnti. 

Mtttad, p.t. Cbeahire Co. N. Hampahira, 82 ni. 
(t. Fortamonth. Pop. 1,669. 

.dbtoB, L N. C. on Little m. W. Bmna- 

AUlm-vuoT taJldttau, a town iitCnmberluid, 
with a market on Sat. Here ia an iron foundry, 
■nd a abot manufacture ; and in iti vicinity are 
numerona lead-fniuea. It id aeated on the aide of 
a hill, aa the 8. branch of Iha Tyna, SO m. E. by 

eelebratedforila tin mine, SO m. S. cd Dresden 
JUmitrg, a townof Upper Saiony, in Thurin- 

?'ia, with a caatle on a rook. It ia aeated on the 
leuae, 80 m. S. of Leipuc. 

JUtnhirg, a town of Lower Hungary, on the 
river Leitha, at ita entrance into Uie Danube. 
Hen are 3 chorchea and a college; and it* 
aneienl caatle ia now principally ased for a 
com magaiine. It ia 17 m. 8. B. E. of Preaburg. 

AltaJnrchtn, a town of (iermany, in the Wea- 
lerwald, chief of the county of Bayn, with a caa- 
Ue, 15 m. N. N. E. of Coblenti. 

jltettm, a town of Piedmont, between the riv- 
en Doire and Stora, 3 m. N. of Turin. 

AIMtcK, a town of France in the department 
of Upper Rhine, on an eminence, near the aourc* 
of the river lil, 25 m. 8. of Colmar. 

Alton, pL StaSbrd Co. N. Hunpahire, 33 m. tt. 
Portamonth. Fop. I 993. 

Alton, a town in Hampahire Eng. with a mar- 
ket on Saturday. It haj manuftctniei of wora- 
ted atofii, and roond the town are plantation* of 
hop». It la aeatad on the Wey, 28 ro. E. N. E. of 
Southampton, and 47. W. B. W. of London. 

Jlltim, t. Madiaon Co. lUinoia, on the Miaaia- 
aippi, 3 m. above the Miasouri. 

Altma, a city and aea-port of Lower Bazony, 
in Hotatein, seated on t^e Elbe,contiguoDB to 
Hambmrgh. The Danea boilt it in thii aituation, 
that it might rival Hamburgh in conunerce. It 
waa burnt by the Swedea in 1712, but haa been 
beautifully rebuilt, and ia estimated to contain 
25,000 inhab. Long, 9. 58. E, lat. 53. 34. N. 

■SlUnf, a town of Franconia, in the teTTitin|y of 
Nurenbcrg, with a univcnity, 16 m. S. E. of 

AUorf, a town of SuabU, 20 m. N. E. ^ Con- 

AWnf, a town of Switzerland, capital of the 
canton of Url. Here are two atone pillara, 130 
paces fKun each other, at which distance Tell ia 
aaid to have ahot the apple from hia aou'a head. 
This deliverer of hi* country lived at Burgli, near 
tht* place, and hia cottage ia changed into a chap' 
el, where mass ia solemnly aaid. Altorf standa 
on the lake of Lucem, near the iuSiu of tbs riv- 
er Ruaa, 20 m. B. E. of Lncem. 

Attringluait, a town in Cheahiie, Eng. govern- 
ed by a mayor, witha market on Tue»4ay. Here 
are aeveial manufacture* of worsted and cotton } 
and much fruit and vegetables are sent hence to 
Manoheiter. ItisBealEdnearlhe duke of Bridge- 
water's canal, 30 m. N- E. of Chester, and 180 
N. W. of London. 

Alttmktmri, a town of AaiaUo Turkey, the 
capital of Curdislan, and the realdence of a pa- 
cha It is ailuats on the river Altun, wbicb flowa 
into tha Tigris, 50 m. S. E. of Mosul. Long. 44. 
30. E. lat.ffi, 45. N. 

Altm Crttk, r. Ohio, ia a braneh of the Big 
Walnut Rivar 


jilva de TormeSf a town of Spain, in Leon, by an earthquake, in 1794. It is seated on the 

with a castle, once the residence of the celebrated Uasalmsck, wiiich falls into the Black Sea, 36 m. 

duke of Alva, seated on the Tormes, 16 m. S. £. N. of Tocat. Long. 36. 0. E. lat. 40. 31. N. 

of Salamanca. Atnatkiu, an ancient town in the isle of Cj- 

Alvaradoy a river of Mexico, in the province of prus, so called from Amathus the founder, or 

Vera Cruz, which rises 40 miles above the town from Amath in Phcenicia. It had a very ancient 
of Cordova, and flows N. E. till it enters the gulf temple of Venus and Adonis ; and according to 

of Mexico, at a town of the same name, 40 m. S. Ovid, was rich in copper ore. It is now called 

E. of Vera Cruz. lAmisso. 

jSlvaston. a villa^ in Gloucestershire, Enf., 8 wtfmazon, or Jlfarofum, a river of South Ameri- 
m. N. by £. of Bnstol. On the top of a nill, ea, and the greatest in the world. Ite source is 
near the Severn, is a round camp, called Oldbury, in Peru, not far from the Pacific ocean, and run- 
where several antiquities have been dug up. ing east, it enters the Atlantic Ocean, directly 

Alzira, or Alcira^ a populous town of Spain, under the equinoctial line. Ite course is 3,300 

which has a gr^at trade in silk. It is surrounded miles, ite mouth is 150 miles broad, and 1,50^ 

by the Xucar, 17 m. S. of Valencia. miles from ite mouth, it is 30 fathoms deep. \« 

Amadany or Hamadan, a town of Persia, in Irac receives, in ite progress, near 200 rivers, many 

Ajami. Here are many Jews, who allege that of whicn have a course of 1,500 miles, and some 

the tombs of Mordecai and Esther are in the of them not inferior to the Danube, or the Nile. 

5 lace which serves them for a synagogue. Ama- In the rainy season it overflows ite banks, and 

an is a very ancient city ; on ite site, or near fertilizes the adjacent country, 

it, the ancient Ecbatena is supposed to have stood. Anununtiaf a country of South America, 

It is said to have been destroyed by Nebuchad- 1 ,400 m. long and 960 broad ; bounded on the 

nezzar, and rebuilt by Darius, who brought hith- N. by Terra Firma and Guiana. E. by the 

er all his riches. It is situate to the norm of the Atlantic Ocean and Brasil, S. by tiie Paraguay, 

upper road from Bagdad to Ispahan, about 15 and W. by Peru. It was discovered in ISS) by 

miles from Kenghey. It has considerable manu- Francesco Orellana, who, coming from Peru, 

faetures of leather, and conUuns about 40,000 in- sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic, 

habitente. Observing companies of women in arms on ite 

Amadiaf a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Curdis- banks, he called the country Amazonia, and gave 

tan, governed by a Bey, seated on a high moun- the name of Amazon to the river, which had 

tain, 40 miles S. E. of Gezira. Long. 41. 35. lat. formerly been called Maranon. The air in this 

37. 20. N. country is cooler than might be expected, consid- 

Amakf or Amager, an island of Denmark, on ering ite situation in the torrid zone ; this is owing 

which part of (Jopenhagen, called Christiansha- partly to the heavy rains, which cause the inun- 

fen, is built. It is eignt miles long and four dations of the riven for one half of the year ; 

broad, and separated from Zealand by a narrow and partly to the cloudiness of the atmosphere, 

channel, over which are two bridges that commu- by wnich the sun is obscured the greatest part of 

nicate with Copenhagen. It is laid out in gar- the day. The fair season is about the time of the 

dens and pastures, andsupplies Copenhagen with solstices, and the rainy seasons about the equi- 

milk, butter, and vegetables. noxes. The soil is very rich and fertile ; the 

Amalf a town of Sweden, in €h)thland, with trees and plante are verdant all the year. The 

a good harbour on the lake Wener. It has a woods abound with game of various kinds. The 

great trade in timber, deals, and tar ; and is 175 rivers and lakes abound with fish, but are infested 

m. S. W. of Upsal. Long. 12. 40. E. lat. 59. by alligators and water serpente. Their banks 

0. N. are inhabited by difierent tribes of Indians, ffoy- 

Amalagano, one of the Ladrone islands, about emed by petty sovereigns, distinffuished from 

6 leagues in circumference. Lon. 145. 38. E. lat. their subjecte by a coronet of feathen, a belt of 

18. 0. N. tigers' teeth or claws, and a wooden sword. The 

AmaJfif a sea-port of Naples, in Principato Ci- natives are of a good steture and copper colour, 

teriore, and an vchbishop's see. Flavio Gioia, with handsome features and lon^ black hair, 

who is said to have invented the mariners com- They make cotton cloth, and their houses are 

pass, was a native of this town. It is seated on built of wood and clay, thatehed with reeds, 

the N. W. side of the gulf of Salerno, 13 m. S. Their arms are darte, javelins, bows and arrows, 

W. of Salerno. Long. 14. 45. E. lat. 40. 28. N. and targete of cane or fish-skin. The Spaniards 

Amandy St. a town of France, in the depart- have made many unsuccessful attempte to settle 

ment of Cher, near the river Cher, 21 m. S. of in this country ; but on the ooast, between Cape 

Bourges. North and the mouth of the Amazon, the Porto- 

Amandf St. a town of France, in the depart- guese have some small settlemento. 
ment of Nord, with an abbey; seated on the .^m^o-OwAen, a rock in Abyssinia, of a most pro- 
Scarp, 7. m. N. of Valenciennes. digious steepness, in the form a castle, built of 

Amanda, p.t. Fairfield Co. Ohio. free-stone, and almost impregnable. The Ethiopio 

Amandasmtte, p.v. Elbert Co. Geo. princes were formerly banished hiUier by their 

Amantea, a sea-port of Naples, near the bay fathers, the emperors, that they might not attempt 

of Eufemia, 20 m. S. W. of Cfosenza. Long. 16. any thing against the stete,and that their residence 

10. E. lat. 39. 12. N. . might be as noted for ite height as their birth. 

AmapaUa, a sea-port of Mexico, in Nicaragua, Jnn^er, p.y. Onondaga Co. N. T. 145 m. W. Al- 

seated on an island on the west side of the en- bany. 

trance of a gulf of the same name. Long. ^. Amhergj a fbrtified town of Bavaria, with a 

30. W. lat. 13. 10. N. strong castle. The magnificent churoh of St. Mar- 

Amasia, or Amasiekj a town of Asiatic Turkey tin contains many beautiful paintings and curi 

m Natolia, the birth-place of Strabo, the geogra- osities ; and the mint is esteemed one of the finest 

pher. It is the capital of a province which produ- buildings of the kind in Germany. In 1743 it 

ces excellent wines and fruite. It was devasteted was taken by the Austriana, and in 1796 by th* 

Freneh. It is seated oa the mer Ilk, or Wills, Ocesn,50in. in cirenmferenoe. Long. 166. 12. C. 

oo the confines of the principality of Sultsbach, 49 lat. 16. 10. N. 

m. £. of Nnrenberg. Long. 11. 48. £. lat. 40. Amedabady a city of Hindoostan, the cajpital of 

87. N. Guxerat. The walls are 6 m. in circumKrenoe, 

An^erty a town of France, in the department of and contain 12 sates ; but now not a quarter of the 

Puy de Dome. There are numerous papermakers area is inhabited. The mosque and tomb of the 

m its TicinitTjand it has a trade in coane lar founder, Tatay Ahmed^ are built of stone and mar- 

ees, camlets, ferrets, &c. Itis seated inabeauti- ble, the last of exquisite workmanship. It was 

iiil Talley , on the nrer Dore, 21 m. £. of Issoire. taken by general Groddard in 1780, from the Poo- 

^oi6£esuf«, a town in Westmoreland, standing on nah Mahrattas, to whom it was restored in 

the site of a Roman city, called Dtetms, wim a 17£8. It is seated in a level country, on a nav- 

naarket on Wednesday. Here is a manufacture of igable river that enters the gulf of Cambay, 

woolen cloth. It is seated on the Rotha, near £o m. N. of Bombay. Long. 72. 27. £. lat. fa. 

the head of Windermerewater, 13 m. N. W. of 18. N. 

iCendal, and 276 N. N. W. of London. Anudjuurtar^ a city and fort of Hindoostan, once 

JhmbUUusey a seaport of France, in the depart- the capital of the soubah of its name, which is now 
.sent of Pas de Calais, defended by a battery. At better known by that of Dowlatabad. This city 
this port CflBsar embarked his cavalry wh^ he was tiie residence of the emperor Aurungxebe, 
passed over into England; and here James II. land- during his conquest of the Deccan and the Gam- 
ed on his departure from £ngland, in 1688. It atic. In 1803 it was taken by the British armv 
is seated on the English channel, 8 m. N. of Bou- under general Wellesley (now Duke of Well- 
logne. Long. 1. 36. £. lat. 50. 49. N. ington.) It is 73 m. N. £. of Poona. Long. 75. 0. 

Amboisej a town of France, in the department £. lat 19. 10. N. 

of the Indce and Loire. The town is mean and Jimeenabad, a town of Hindoostan, in Lahore , 35 

ill-built ; but has been rendered famous in histon^, m. N. by W. of Lahore. 

by the conspiracy of the Huguenots, in 15^, w9me^, a town of Italy, seated on a mountain 

which opened the fatal religious wars in France, between the Tiber and Nira, 20 ul S. W. of Spol- 

Here Loms XI. instituted the order of St. Michael; eto, and 45 N. of Rome. 

it was also the birth-place of the poet Jesuit Com- Jimdia, an inland county of Virginia. Pop. 

■line, and the spot where Charles VIII. died. It lli^l. The court-house of the county is 58 m. 

is seated at the confluence of the Massee with W. S. W. of Richmond. 

the Loire, 12 m. £. by N. of Tours, and 115 S. by AmeUa, or AvuUa JsUmdj on the coast of £. 

W. of Paris. Florida, the north end of it is nearly ooposite St. 

Amkotf, or Perth Jhnboy, city, Middlesex Co. N. Mary's in Georgia. It is about 14 m. long and a 

J. upcm a ba^ at the South end of Staten Island, mile and a halfwide, with a good soil and an ez- 

eommunicating with N. York harbour by Arthur cellent hazbour, called Fernandina. 

Knll Sound and with the ocean below the nar- AmeUabwrgy p.t. Prince £dward Co. U. C. on 

rows. Thifl harbour is safe and easy of access and L. Ontario. 

Che town has considerable commerce. Amemay t. Duchess Co. N. T. Pop. 2,389 

Jkmho^j South, p.t Middlesex Co. N. J., lying America^ in its most comprehensive sense and 

8. of the above. present acceptation, may be considered as compris- 

Amboyna, an island of the Moluccas, in the ing half of the terrestial globe, or the whole of 
Indian Ocean. It is 56 m. in len|rth from N. to the western hemisphere. It has been usual to 
8. and divided on the west side by a lanre bay speak of America as constituting one of the four 
in two parts ; the largest of which is ealleiHiteu, <)uarters, or four grand divisions of the globe ; but 
and the other Leytimw. The face of this island it is equally matter for surprise as well as for re- 
is beautiful ; woody mountains and verdant plains cret, that the western hemisphere should so long 
being interspersed with hamlets, and enriched by have remained subject to a misnomer so obvious, 
eoltivation. The chief products are nutmegs, on- and a designation so inappropr ate and indefi- 
gar, coffee, and many delicious fruits, but more es- nite. This hemisphere first tiecame known to 
pectallv cloves. The princhial animals are deer Europe, in the year 1493 of the Christian era, 
and wild hogs. The £nglish and Dutch had &c- when Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa, 
tones here at the beginning of the 17th century ; who, from a long and close application to the stu- 
bnt the Dutch expefled the English, and tortured dy of geographv and navigation, had obtained a 
and put to death many of them. The natives knowledge or the figure u the earth, much su- 
wear large whiskers, and their dress is only a nerior to the generafnotions of the age in which 
slight piece of stuff wrapped round their mimile. se lived, was led to conceive that another conti- 
The men buy their wives of their parents, and if nent existed. Having fully satisfied himself of 
they prove barren, the marriage is void* Thej the truth of this vjrstem, he became impatient to 
are ^nerally Mahometans ; but there are some reduce it to practice, and accordingly laid his 
Christians among them. This island was taken scheme before the senate of Genoa, making his 
by the English in 1796, and restored by the treaty native country the first offer of his services. 
of Amiens in 1802, recaptured in 1810, and a^ain They, however, rejected his proposal, as the dream 
restored to the Dutch, Wthe treaty at Pans in of a chimerical projector. It met with the same 
1814, and confirmed in 1834. The chief town is fiite at the courts of Portu^nil, Spain, and £ng- 
of the same name, neatly built, and stands near land, and some of the ether JGuropean powers of 
the B. W. extremity. Fort Victoria is in long, less note ; but, still undiscouraged, he applied 
198. 15. £. lat. 3. 40. S. agun to the court of Spain, who were at length 

Ambrose St., an island on the coast of Chile, 15 induced to fit out a squadron of three small ves- 

ra. W. firom St. Felix Island. The crew of contain sels, of which Columbus was made admiral ; and 

Roberts, in 1792, killed and cured here 13,000 with these he set out on his voyage of discovery, 

seal skins, in seven weeks. Long. 80. 65. W. in 1492, in which voyage he discovered several of 

kt. 96. 13. 8. the Bahama islands, with those of Cuba and His- 

JsifcryM, one ofthelilMr Hebrides, in the Pastfit paaioiay and returned to Spain in the followitt|{; 


AMB 30 kUE 

year. In a second yoya^ he discorered many taini a superficies of aboat 2,700,000 sq. miles, 
more of the West Incua islands; and in a thira ai^d the promontory about 110,000 sq. miles. The 
he attained the great object of his ambition, by extreme length of the grand northern division, in 
discovering the southern^ division of the oonti- a straight, unbroken Una, from the mouth of the 
nent, near the mouth of the Orinoco. Amongst Copper-mine River which runs 8. to N. into the - 
the crowd of new adventurers who now followed Icy sea, in lat. 70, to Acapulco, in lat. 17, is 
from all parts of Europe, was one Americus Ves- attout 3,200 miles, and the extreme breadth, frouk 
pucius, a Florentine, who, with much art, and the mouth of the Penobscot river which falls into 
some degree of elegance, drew up an amusing the Atlantic Ocean in N. lat. 44. 24. W. long. 68. 
history of his voyage, in which he insinuated 45. to the mouth of Columbia river which falls 
tiiat he first discovered what is commonly called into the North Pacific Ocean in N. lat 46. W. 
the cotitinent of the New World. This being long. 124. the distance is about 2,500. The north- 
published and read with admiration, the country em part of this grand division of the western 
was from him called Amerieaj though it is now hemisphere is indented by Hudson *s Bay, which 
well understood that Columbus was the first dis- extenos from the line of the Arctic circle, to the 
coverer. The celebrity of Columbus and Amen- 51st deg. of N. lat. and in its extreme breadth, 
cus Vespucius soon resounded throughout all £u- from the 78th to the 95th deg. of W. long. It is 
rope, inspiring numbers of adventurers to witness also intersected by a chain of fresh water Takes of 
the fruits of their discoveries. Among the rest, vast extent. Athapescow, and the Slave Lake, 
Giovanni Gabota (Anglicised Cabot) a Venetian, (the latter of great extent,) discharging their 
and his three sons, under the auspices of Henry waters into the Icy Sea, Wmnipeg, and several 
VII. of England, sailed from Bristol, in 1497, and of leaser extent and note discharge their waters 
discovered the coast of Labrador as the 57th deg. into Hudson's Bay, whilst Superior, Michigan, 
of N. lat. Huron, Erie, Ontario, and Champlain, between 

On a second voyage, in the following year, in the latitudes of 42. and 48. N. oischarge their 
a ship, fumuhed by the king, accompanied by waters by Uie great river St. Lawrence into the 
four small barques provisioned by the merchants gulf of St. Lawrence, in the lat. of 50. N. and W. 
of Bristol, under the direction of Giovanni's long, about 65. the western extremity of lake 
second son, Sebastian, (who had been bom in Superior being in long, about 92. Innumerable 
Bristol, hence the claim of the northern division streams of n^ter intersect the country in all 
of the western hemisphere having been discovered directions, and form themselves into noble rivers, 
by an Englishman,) they discovered the island several of which run into Hudson's Bay, whilst 
of Newfoundland in N. lat. about 47, and coasted those south of the great chain of lakes and the 
southward as far as Florida. Cabot made a third St. Lawrence, run a course from N. to S. or S. £ 
voyage to Newfoundland in 1502. In 1519 a falling into the Atlantic Ocean. Taking them in 
body of Spaniards, under the command of Cortex, order from N. to S. the most prominent are St. 
landed at Vera Cruz, and discovered the populous John's, the Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, 
district of Mexica In 1524 the French sent an Piscataoua, Merrimack, Connecticut, the Hudson, 
expedition, which traversed the coast from the or Norm river, Delaware, Susquehannah, Poto- 
lat. of 28. to 50. N. France, Spain, and England mac, Rappahanock, James river, Roanoke, San- 
each sent successive expeditions to North Ameri- tee, and Savannah. All these rivers have their 
ea, and made attempts to establish settlements ; source £. of a chain of mountains, called the 
but so unsuccessfully, it is believed, that at Apalachian, running parallel with the Atlantic 
the commencement or the 17th century, not a coast, from about the 94th to the 43rd deg. of N. 
single European remained north of Mexico. In lat. and 2 to 300 miles from the ocean. South of 
1€(% renewed efforts were made by England ; the 34th deg. of lat. the Apalachicola, Alabama, 
since when, the extent, features, population, and Tombigbee, and some other rivers of less note, run 
productions of the whole of the W. hemisphere a course due S. fallmg into the Gulf of Mexico, 
nave progress! /ely been developed to Europe. West of the Apdachian mountains, innumerable 
America, or the western hemispnere, is subdivi- other streams have their source, forming another 
ded by nature into two grand divisions, north and collection of noble rivers, the most important of 
$ouih ; very distinct in diaracter and feature. which are the Ohio, and Tennessee, running from 

AmerUa. J^oHk, extends from the polar regions E. to W. the Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas, 

to the 15th deg. of N. lat.« the more norUiem and the Red river, running from W. to ^. all or 

part, as far as lat. 50., extending from about the which fall into one grand channel, called the 

56th to the 130th deg. of W. long, and at lat. 65. Mississippi, which has iU source about the 47th 

as far west as 168. of long. From the 50th to the Aitg. of rf. lat. ranning a course nearly due S. fal- 

30th deg. of lat. the country assumes a very com- ling into the Gulf of Mexico in lat. S». 5. N. and 

pact form, extending at the north from about the 89. 8. W. long. The Rio del Norte, or Rio Bravo, 

ti2nd to the 124th deg. of long, gradually con- another noble river, has its source westward of 

Verging southerly, and at lat. 30. extending only the Arkansas and Red riven, in N. lat. about 42. 

from about the 81st to the 115 deg. of long, at and falls into the Gulf of Mexico in N. lat. 26. 

about the 30th deg. of N. lat. The great gulf of W. long. 97. 25. On the westem coast, the Co- 

Mexico bounds the land, from about the SOth to lumbia, and Colorado, are the only rivers of im- 

the 97th deg. of long, the land converging into a portance, and they are not considerable ; the first 

promontory of about 10 deg. at the nortii, extend- ndls into the Pacific Ocean in N. lat. about 45. 

m^ S. to the chain which unites the northern and the other into the Gulf of California in N. 

with the ^and southern division, gradually con- lat. about 32. A ridge of mountains mns paral- 

verging in long, to about 1 deg. only, in N. lat. lei with the westem coast, the whole extent of 

15. ana in W. long. 95. The superficies of the the north division, from the point of the promon- 

first of these three divisions of the N. W. hemis- tory S. in lat. of 70. N. bearing west from ths 

phere, cannot be stated with any degree of accu- Ofito to the 122nd or 123rd of long, and about 10 

racy, owing to the unknown lioundaries on the deg. from the westem coast or shore of the Pacific 

side of the polar regions. The central part eon- Ocean ; this ridgs which seems to be a oontinma- 

Item tf lie AndM of the nntheni dlndoD, from 
tbt I Jlli lo aboDt tbe 40th deg. of N. Ut. ii oaUed 
iV Conlillena, and mora northarlj the Rocky 
Hraabuna, the gnateit altitode it in N. Ut. 
ibHt 19. where Popooatapetl umei tbrth Tolcuiio 
rraptiou at > height of 17,720 ft. ibcrre the level 
of Ibe Ha. Another range of moantaiiu nuu 
innlkl with the eastern or Atlaotic coait, fhHH 
iboal the Xth to the 45lh deg. of N. lat. diverg- 
inr jntoiererat distinct and parallel ridffet dengn- 
awd at the While, Greeo, CaUkiU, Blue, AUefrW 
af , Laoral and CunibeTluid mountaiiu, and coUec- 
linlr the; are called the Apalaehjaii Moantaim. 
ThriT altitnde doea not exceed BfiOO ft. aboTe the 
tm\ of the i». 

On the diacorery of tbi* Tait territory, at the 
prrioda prenooalj elated, it was found, to the N. 
of the 30th deg. oT lat. to b« thinly ^polated 
■itb inhabitauta, and except the Esqiumaoi at 
the moie northem pait, poaaesaing one common 
chaiadet, and apoaking one conunou tangoage, 
Lbongb Mtmewhat raiied in dialect. In peraon, 
tall ud well-proportioned J complexion coppery, 

Bay. In many porta of the United Btalea they 
exiat in great abundance and are taken in vaal 
nomben for their Seah and iiir ; they do great 

muchief to the ftiniera. The beaven are atill 
nomerooi in the North and Weat. Most of the 
animali of America form particular apeeies, or 
at least diatinct racea irom thoae of Europe, and 
ore eridently aboriginal in the connlry which 
they inhabit. 

In the plaina between the Apalachian and 
Rocky Moontaini, forail bonei of animala have 
been fbund &r exceeding in size thoae of any 
known animal now existing, oi erer known. 
Neither the elephant, lion, tiger, leopard, nor hy- 
ena have erer been found in America. 

The birdi of America are not, aa abrardly sta- 
ted by Bofibn, inferior to their kindred species of 
the old world. The Washington or great aea ea- 
gle a natire of the United ^(eb, is the noblest 
of his tribe. The bald eagle is distribuled orer 
nearly the whole continent. Vnlturei and hawks 
of many species are conunon. The pasaenger pi- 

Dcka, and when 

B the 

„ . :> black 

into Tariona tribea or eommanities, 
none of whom were found to have made any, or 
my little pro g reaa in the arte which contnbnla 
w Um eoaubtt of life j apears and atrowa being 
Ibeir only uutrumenta of deienca, of attack, ai^ 
sabwiMiee, whilst stun*, mats, and the coarKst 
doth df Red*, paaa, or hemp, conatitoted their 
ehitf dothinf and protection ftom the inclemen- 
cy of the weather. Ther were nevertheleM 
nond poaaaaainf many manlv qualities, and aooial 
riltaas, QDtil oormpted and debased by the Ti- 
■ ' ■•- ir invadeiB, before whom 

1 Anieiica, as in all other regions of the 
wDtId, the animal tribea bear a proportion both in 
LBmber and aiie, to the extent of the country 
which baa giTen them birth. The musk, or the 
North American bison, and the Mageleanio os- 
trich of Sonth America, equ^ in aiie their eor- 
iMpanding species of the old world. The elk or 
•titf of New California, atlaina a gigantic magni- 
twfe. The mooee is found from the Rocky 
Hoontaina to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is 
•mnrtimes 12 leet high. The elk and red deer 
IK inhabitants of the United Sutes. The while, 
Uaek, and griiily bear are common in various 
puts. The wolf and the cougar, or catamotmt, 
ut widely diatribated. Foxea and squirrels are 
abundant. The hare of America, u ~ 
nlVd rMii, is fbund as far North as 

The and dnckst>an alaogthe whole 


The robin and blue bird court the society of man, 
and in the colder districts ore the earliest harbin- 
gera of spring. The oriole, the woodpecker, the 
blue Jay, the cardinal and the lanoger, odbm the 
woods with their brilliant plumage ; while the 
unriralled mocking-bird makes tne forest echo 
with hia thousand melodious and varied notes. 
The deep woods and swampa of the Weat still 

the wild turkey, onoe eommwi 
all over the United States. 

Insects and reptiles are of conne larger and 
more abundant in the aoulhem than in the north 
em part of this country. Little incommodity is 
snJIbredfitan inaecta in the temperate poriionp. 
In the south the moechetoes are very annoying. 
Beea are numerDna in the woods of the waat, and 
the people who go into the forests to collect honey 
reluin with waggon loads. Loonats an onknown. 


and the iniMtnicKttroublaMnneto ■cnealtorktai, litonfh near half & eentsir elipaed befbr* aaj 
the Hevnui fir, vu imported thim i^nps. The effeotaaJ efforta wete mule bj the Portngnerc to 
finn In the Soalh twane wjtk mlligalon. Bat femi & pemuuient Mttlemenl, the whole of th« 
the tnoet ttnibk of AmerioM reptilei ii the rat- aauthem diTinon of the trestern hemiiphare 
(with the aieeption of a eompantiretv trifling 
eitent of tenilorj, between the 3rd aiiilTth deg. 
of N. lat. Ktlled b^ the Dutch, and the ■oulhem 
•xtramity continuinij ia poiHnion of the natirea) 
ftll nader the dominion of Spain and Porlogal; 
thfl Spaninh portJoD being dirided into fire de- 
Hitmenti: vii. New Granada, Venezuela, Pern, 
Bnenoa Ajres, and Chik, each sub-divided into 
— ' '- "—whole of the FortQ^eae 

HrlioiiooatinuingDDdeTone genera] goveinment. 
Since the period of 1635, the dominahoa and 

lleanake, who is fonnd in nearly all paita of the rale of both Spaia aad Portagal haa entirely cea- 
hot and temperate regioni of tnia country. aed over erery part of the great BOuthem diviiion 
The northern portion of the wegteia hemia- of the western hemiiphere ; new and diitinct (fov- 
phere ii at present divided into three great parti ; cmmenti having eatabliihed themaelvea, giving 
via. lat. North, under the dominian of Great riae to new bonndariea and anbdiviaioni of tern- 
Britain, which part extends S. fVom the Icy Sea, lory, which will be found detailed under the >ev- 
and polar regions, to about the 48lh deg. of N. eial heads of Cotombia, Peru, United Province! 
lal.eubdivided into seven provinceg orteiritoriea: of La Plata, or Sonth America, Chile, and Bra- 
yii. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Lower and zil, and the remaining portion under the heads of 
Upper Canada, Labrador New Bouth Wales, and Amazonia, Guiana, and Pilagonia. 
the H. W. terriloiy ; 2nd, the Centra] part, from The natural features of Oia division of the 

the baundarj of the Britiah terrlloriea on the western hemisphere are in the highest decree 
North, to the Gulf of Mexico 9. and W. from grand and impoaine; eitensive fertile puins 
the Atlantic Ocean to about the 100th deg. of W. yield a variety and uundance of every thing cal- 

long. and from the 4and to Ihe 49th deg. of N. . .. , - - 

lat. eitsndine W. to the Pacific Ocean under the tains display the majesty of creation, affording 
rule of the federal government of the U. S. af abundance en' malleable and indestructible metata, 
^TRffrifdand 3rd- the part extending from the Uui- aad innumerable streams, forming themselves 
ted States territory S. to the isthmus which unite* into noble riven, yielding their proportioa of sup- 
the northern with the grand southern division, ply, afibrdingfaciuty of conveyance, andemiaent- 
Thiapart.for three cenlurieB,continued under the ly contribnling to promote the sociality, enjoy- 
dominion of Spain ; but from the period of 1820 ment, and happiness of society. The range of 
or 1@Q1, it may be considered as forming asepa- mountains called tfie Andes, extends from the 
rate and independent territorv. utmost extreniity of this diviiion south, to the 
SouA Ametita extends llirough 68 deg. of cliain which nmlea it with the north, runoiDS 
lat.f^mCapelaVelaial2. IS-NTtoCapeHorn parallel with the abores of the Pacific Ocean, at 
in 55. 56. S. being about 4,100 miles, and under the distance of 100 to 200 miles from the sea, and 
the lat. of 5. S. extends through 45 deg. of long, occasionally in parallel ridges, the main ridge 
from Cape Sf.Roque in X. 40. to Cape^lanoo in maintainingan avarage altitude of 12,000 to 15/KIO 
81. 10. W. From the equator N. to the 7th deg. ft. above tie level of the aea, nearly the whole 
of lat, it extends only through aboat ZT deg. of extant of the continent. In 1803 the tiavellera, 
loag. and from the 7th to its northern extremity, Humboldt and Boaplaad, ascended the peak of 
only through about 20 deg. and 3. from about the the Andes called Cfaimboraio, ia the province of 
10th de?. of Ut. it assumes a form approximating Quito, to the beaght of 19,400 ft. it* extreme alti- 
to a ri^l angled triangle, of which the western tude being 21,440. Tbe peak of Cotopazi, 40 m. 
shore oa the Pacific (h»an ia tbe perpendicular, S. E. oftfie ssdelrt oity of volcanic, and 
and the eastern on the South Atlantic Ocean ia ftequently emits lire with terrific violence, from 
the hvpothenuse, so that whilst the exfrnu iU snnunit, 18,^ ft. above tbe level of the sea. 
breadth is about 2,700 milea, the mesa will not Various mountain ridges inteneet the more east- 
exceed more than abont 1,500, giving a su^erfi- em parts of the continent, all running iTcm soath 
cies of about 6,150.000 *q. milea. Tais diviaion to north, timilar in divenity and altitade to the 
of the western hemisphere, as prrviDualv staled, Apalachtan of the northern division. The rivers 
was first discovered by Columbus (on his third tan m every dirootioa : taking them from north 
voyage from Sp^un) on the first of Aagnst, 1498 ; to soath, the finrt demanding notice is the Magda 
but it was not till the year 1531 that any knowl- lena ; 2nd Orinoco ; 3d, the Ynpura, Tungunffua. 
edge was obtained, of its extent and productions, Ucaysle, Madeira, and T^pajoe, branches which 
in which year three low and unprincipled adven- form the Amaion ; 4th. the Amguay ; Gth, Paml- 
turers, Pizarro, Almagto, and the priest Lucques, ba, or Matanham ', 6th. the Francisco, and 7tli. the 

leovered the rich and then populous dia- mejo, and Salado branches, which form the Rio 
" - ■" • ■■ - ■ laP' ■ '■ ■■ 

. 1 and Peru, In the year 1500, the de la Plata, all of which will be found under their 

Portuguese admiral, Alvajei de Cabral, com- respective heads. The inhabitants of this division 

manding a squadron of 13 sail, with 1,300 men of the western hemiiphere, on the Gret inroads of 

■HI board, destined for the East Indies by the the Spaniards, at the commencement of the 16th 

CapeofGoodHope, accidentally diicoveredon the century^ appeared to be of the same stuck; and 

S41fa of April the soathem division of the west- possesaing the same common character of featiui; 

am hemisphere, abont 4 deg, S, of the equator, and colour as those of the north ; but on the west- 

and an the following day landed and took posaee- em side were much further advanced in the arti 

■ion of Ihe aountry, since galled Brail] ; and al- of social liffe. Of their origin no credible •« 

aoant citber of historj ot tncRtion coald ba ob- umwIiUo ■■ m rerj curioui litlle uiiiiul elu] in ■ 
tuned. Iiuteul o(an Adun, fornuKi of (he diut notunl coat of nnil, without hur. Thfj bonow 
t^ the MJth, and ta Et«, foimMl of Adun'i rib, in tha groand Ilka m rabbit uid ara genanllj in- 

the Pernnuis had a Manco-Capac, who 
frum an iiland on a great lake aooth, to inauori 
thi;ir men in &sncultai« and othat lueflil empliij- 
ments, and a Mama-Ocllo, to inatmct the women 
ID apinniag and weaving. Of the pnciae en, 
however, of their appearanoe, their chronologj 
waa too imperfect to define ; thej enumerated 14 
rei^a of iDcai or eorereigna since their time, 
which would carry the epoch back to about the end 
of tha J2th,or beginning of the 13lh centuir. In 
ace of eTideoce to imperfect, it would be ah- 

Dooent in their manuen. Monkeys of Tariooa 
spociea awarm in the foreati-, one of theae, the 
coaita, has a remarkable resemblance to an Indian 
old woman. The beaver of thia region doei not 
boild hii habitation after the manner of the com- 
mon beaver. The chinchilla is prized for iti val- 
uable >kin. The sloth ii peculiar to thii conntir : 
he ia nnfnmiafaed with teeth, and cianls ■loiA]' , 
from tree to tree devouring their leave*. The 
peccary eiiita in abundance here aa well ai in 
Mexico.' The cavy frequents the marahes, and 
the ooati prowls among the woods devouring 
amall aninala, poultry and egg*. The agouti is 
about the eiie of a hare, and burrow* in hollow 
tree* ; faeding upon potato**, yam* and *uch 


surd tfi haiard e 

that the north dinBioD was first peopled by em- 
igrant* from the louth, rather than from any part 
oTtbe eastern hemiipherc. Thi**eem* probable, 
as well from the similarity of geneial feature and 
ch*nu;ter, as from the regular gradation of the 
athletic power and energy whioh aeemed to pre- 
vail amcmget them from aauth to north. The most 
healthy and robuit of the race would doubtleaa 
be meet likely to advanoa onward. 

In the animal creation we bete meat with tha 
jaguar, or South American tiger, an animal lU' 

pmoT ID *i» to tbe leopard, with a tpotted hide, 
and ferocionk in habits. He i* found Stota Fare- 
gnay to Guiana. The eoDgar, or puma, lome- 
tmies called the South American Han, inhabits 
the >outhem at well as the northern put of tha 
American continent. The tapir dwell* in the 
riven of every part of South America and live* 
upon sugar cane, ^rau, ahrnbs and fruit*. Hie 
tiger cat ia a beautiful spotted animal not much 
larger than the common cat, and i* mi*chievon* 
apd lutameable. Here are three specie* of ant- 
eaters with a long snont, no teeth and a lotig 
toogne, perpetual^ occupied in destroying the 
autHiilla. The Uorna of Peru is a very useful 
beast of burthen ; the vicuna and alpaco famiih 

! droves. Th* 

fruit* a* &1I from the tree*. It use* it* paws in 
the manner of hand*, like a aqnirrel, and i* ex- 
ceedingly voracious. 

Birds are various in species, and numeron* ; 
tbe condor of the Andes ia considered superior 
in majeity to the ostrich of the deserts of 
Africa ; in the plains is another large bird of 
a species between the ostrich and caaaowary of 
New Holland ; there are eaeles of various kinds, 
and an endless variety of smuler birds oreiquisite- 
ly beautiful plumage. The winged tribe and in- 
sects are various and infinite, same surpassing in 
beauty, and others in noxiousness ; but next to 
the volcanic eruptions and natural convulsions 
of the earth, the greatest terror of 9. America 
are the reptiles, which eiceed in variety, number, 
and voracity those of any other part of the 
world. Of the inhabitants of the waters, the 
electric eel and ink-ii*h ars peculiar to the eaM- 
em ooaat of the equatorial latitudes of this hernia- 
pfaera ; in addition to which, nearly all tha specuea 
common to other seas and riven are also abun- 
dant. Indestructible metals and gem* are more 
abundant in this diviaion of the weMemhemie- 
phere than any other part of the world ; and 
gold and stiver seem to abound to *uch a degree 
aa is likely soon to satiate tbe mania for Iheir 
possession. Copper, in aeveml part*, is also 
ahtuidant. The vegetable productions eiceed iu 
variety, beauty, and ntihty, those of Asia, or any 
other part of the glbbe, whether oonudeied iu 
refsrenoe to ristenance, or to luxury, taste, and 
adornment in art. Vegetatlim presents a great 
number of gradations. From tne shores of tbe 
sea to the height of 1,083 ft. we meet with mag- 
nificent palms, the ma«t odoriferous lilie«| and 
the balsam of Tolu. Th* large flowered jsok 

neek. Thera 

and Uieti 


mine ond the dtton uborei. exhsl« at night theii Met, and turn> out SOO pieCea in i 
deliciou* pprfumr, and crmiment the head drra* ue ■ftituI other fsctoriei, bleuhenet, wo, 
or tlw luLieB with their beauLful fiowen. On AmcAaTi/, or AmbnAury, i. town in Wilbliire, 
the BTid shoieg ot the ocean u well u in the with & muket on Fridaj. It it WBted on the 
drplh of the interior Toreati, |[towb spontaneouBly lower Avon, at the plice where s number of Brit- 
Ihe cocoa tree, whose fruil ii applied to so many una were tre^cherouily murderpd, and near that 
useful purposea. The Irank ia conipo8cd of haril, faznaiu monument of antiquity, Stonelienae. EIrrir 
'rone fibrea crouiaff each other like net work, are the rnins of a venenble abbey . Thia ptac>? 

.J 1\ -^ properly no brancbea. The husk gave birth to Addison. Iti* U m. N. orSalisbiiry, 

1 nut u twitted into «ordafe, and of and 77 W. of London. Fop. 610. 

AmhuTa, a. diatrict of Abyninia, between the 
Deuder and Tacaiie brancbea of the ,\ile. 

Jmherit, a town, recently eatabliahed by the 
English, at the bottom of the gnlf of Martaban, in 
the Binnan empire. Here ii a Baptist Uiuioii- 

AmhtTtt, p.t. Hunpshiie Co. Mass. 91 m. W 
Boston and 7 E. of Conn, river. Pop. 2,ti3i : 
hai a callese incorporated in 1835. This Semina 
ry hai 7 Frofeaeora and 4 tutors. The number 
ol" Students is 188. The libraries contains about 
7,000 volumei. Here are also an academy, and 
an institution called the Mount Pleasant Inslilu- 
tioD, containing 9 initructiirs. 

Amktrit, p.t. one of the seats of justice in Hilla- 
borougb, M. H., on SouLegan river, a branch of 
the Merrimack, 47 m. Ir. Boston ; it is a pleasant 
town, and contains a mineral spring. Pop. l,ti5T. 
Amkerst, 1. Erie Co. N. T. IS m. M. BuSiIo. 
Pop, 2.4fW. 

Amkerat, an inland county ofVirginia. on thp 
north bank of James River. The court house of 
the county is 130 m. W. of Richmocd. Pop. 

JImhertt Springt, p.v. Amherat Co. Va. 211 tn 
W. Wash. 

AmAcTit, p.L Lorun Co. Ohio. 130 m. H. E. 

AmherstbuTg, a town and fort of Upper Canada , 

tlie pulp a ipecies of butter is made. Above the 
region of the palm commences that of the arbores- 
cent tern and the cinchona which beara the febri- 
fuge bark. Above this, a broad lone of fi.UOO to 
13,000 a. coutains the region of alpine plants. The 
sugar cane, the orange, coffee and cotton have 
been introduced bj tne Enropeans, and flourish 
in great luinriance. The climate, though nox- 
ious in certain confined and local situations, is on 
Bie whole delightful ; in abort, nothing is wanting 
but judicious and well-directed means, on the part 
of man, to render the whole southern division of 
the western hemisphere the abode of enjoyment 
and proa peri ty. 

Jhrterica, p.t. capital of Alexander Co, Illinots, 
on the Ohio, 7 m. above the Mississippi. 

JlTiuTpare, a town of Nepaul, 10 m. W of 

Amtrlaae, a fort of HindoosUn, in Ibe exten- 
sive sandy desert between the Indus and the Piid- 
dar. This place is celebrated as (be retreat of 
the emperor Humaioon, during his troubled; and 
here was bom his son, the illustrious Acbar. It 
is 160 m. E. N. E. of Tatta. 

Amrrafort, a town of Holland, in the atate of 
Utrecht. A considerable qiuinUly of tobacco is 
raised in the neighbourhood. It has a trade in 
beer, and goods from Germany are shipped here 
for Amstei^sm. It is seated in a fertile conntry, 
on the river Ema, 10 m. E. Pi. E. of Utrecht. 

Amertkan or Agmonde^am, a borough in Buck- 
inghamshire, returning 3 members to parliament, 
With B market on Tuesday. It has a conaidersble 
manufacture of black lace. The town-hall is the 

Pop, 2,G12. 

Ama, p,t, Athens Co. Ohio, 77 m. S. E. Co- 

Amabary, p.t. Essex Co. Mass. 40 m. N. E. 
Boston ; on the Merrimack 4 m. above Newbury- 

E>rl,, is a thriving manulaclurine town. Fop, 
445. In the iron faclnrias l,0(Xl tons of iron 
were formerly wrought in a venr. The nail ma- 
chine invented hv Jacob Perkins, was first put in 
motion here. Tne flannel faclary biM 5,000 spin- 

uu the east side of the river Detroit, at its bu- 
trance into Lake Erie, Long. 83. 56. W. lat. 42. 
36, N, 

AmiaiM, a large and populous town of France, 
in the department of Somme. It is a place of 
great antiquity ; being mentioned by Cesar (by 
whom it was called Samaro-Briva) as a town that 
had made a vigorous resistance against the Ro- 
mans, and where he convened a general assem- 
bly of the Gauls, The town ia enccmpasaed with a 
wall and other fortifications ; and the ramparta ars 
planted with trees, which form a delightful walk . 
The city has five gates. At liie nte of Noyon 
there is a suburb, remarkable for the abbe; of^St. 
Achen, The cathedral ia one of the largest and 
most magnificent churches in Fiance. Thre^ 
branches of the river Bom me pass through this 
city, and aderwards unite. Amiens was takev 
by the Spaniards in Il>07, but retaken by Henr/ 
IV. who built a citadel in it. A treaty of peace was 
concluded here, March 27, 1802, between Spain, 
Holland, France, and England. It has manufac- 
tures of linen and woolen cloth, which employ 
in tlie city and adjacent eountry, 30,000 people 
IliaaO m. S. E. of Abbeville, and 75 N. of Paris, 

Amite, a county of Mississippi, Pop. IfH^ 
Liberty ia the chief town. 

JhaUy, p.v. Washington Co. Pa. 

Amity, p.v. Allegany Co, N. Y. Pop. 872. 

Amity, t. Berks Co. Fa. 

AmUtrUle, p.v. CulpeppeiCo. Va.M. m. Wash. 

AnJteUh, a town of Wales, on the N. coast of 
Anglrwy with a hsrboDr for imall vessels. In 
17(W. when the Parys copper mines were opened, 
it did not contain above houK-si but ii Ih21, 


1J006, and 7^392 mhab. It is S5 m. W. of Bean- tnaciBUlity was distarb«d by tumults and kunir- 

maris, and Si66 N. W. of London. See Parys, rections occasioned bj the annbaptists ; in one of 

.An^moMy a town of Syria, anciently the capital which Van Geelen, the leader of these enthu- 

of the Ammonites, called Rabbah Ammon,and by siasts, led his followers openly in military array, 

tiie Greeks Philadelphia, and now the principal with drums beating and colours flying to the town 

place of a district. It is 30 m. S. W. of Bom, house, where he filed his head oaarters. He was 

and 38 N. of Jerusalem. however, soon disnossessed. The magistrates 

j§mcly a town of Usbec Tartaiy, in Bucharia, assembled the buri^hers, who showed no diiposi- 

and a place of considerable trade. It is seated on tion to take part with the insurgents, and being 

the Amu, which falls into the sea of Aral, 60 m. aided by some regular troops, surrounded the 

W. of Bucharia. Long. 60. 40. £. lat 39. 90. N. place; and afler an obstinate resistance, he and 

Jhmol, a town of Persia, in Masandesan, with the whole of his surviving band were token pris- 

tiie remains of an ancient fortress and palace. It oners, and put to death under circumstances of 

has manufactures of cotton, and in the neighbour- extreme cruelty. The city was taken possession 

hood are iron mines and cannon fbundenes. It of by the Hollanders in 1578, on condition that 

stands in a plain, at the foot of Mount Taurus, the religious lights of the Roman Catholic citi- 

and on the borders of the Caspian sea, 30 m. N. zens should be respected. The condition was but 

W. of Ferabad. Long. 52. 38. £. lat. 37. 30. N. ill observed ; for alt the ecclesiastics of both sexes 

Awumoasuckj Upper and Lower; two rivers were driven out of the city, the ima^s broken, 

rising among the White Mountains and flowing and the altars demolished. From this period its 

into thb Connecticut ; each about 50 m. lott|r. opulence and splendour increased with an almost 

Amar^o^ an island of the Archipela^, fertile in uninterrupted rapidity till its connection with the 
wine, oil, and com. The best cultivated parts revolutionary government of France, which cans- 
belong to a monastery. It is 30 miles in cxroum- ed a total annihilation of its commerce during the 
ference, and 67 north of Caadia. Long. 96. 15. continuation of tlie union of the countries. 
£. lat. 36. 20. N. One cause of the advancement of Amsterdam 

Amotkaag fdUg, on the Merrimack, in N. Hemp- was the decay of Antwerp, occasioned chiefly by 

■hire, 15 m. below Conoord, consist of 3 pitches the dosing of the navigation of the Scheldt ; an- 

withxn half a mile, descending about 50 feet. A other, which also concurred in securing the sta- 

eanal passes round them. bility of its commerce, was the erection of the 

AmewTy or Jkamry river of Chinese Taitary. public bank. This establishment was instituted 

See SagkaUen. m 1609, in order to obviate the inconveniences 

Jimnfy an iiland on the S. £. coast of China, arising from the very debased state of the curren- 

15 miles in circumference. The English had a cy oT Holland, which was made up of coins 

ftretory here, but abandoned it on account of the brought from every part of the world. Merchants 

impositions of the inhabitants. Its port, on tlie often found it diiEcnlt to procure standard coin to 

west side, is capable of receiving l/MX) ships, pay their bills ; but as the bank received the light 

Long. 118. 45. £. lat. 24. 90. N. and worn out coin at its intrinsic value, an inva^ 

AmplepmiM, a town of France, in the department riable standard was thus formed which tended 

of Rhone^ celebrated for its wines. It is 16 m. greatly to simplify the operations of trade. The 

W. of Villefranche, and 26 N. W. of Lyons. amount of the capital of the bank was never co^ 

Jimpthill, a town in Bedfordshire, with a mar- rectly aseertainea, though it ii said to have in- 

ket on Thursday. It was the residence of Cath- creased in the period of its prosperity to upwards 

arine, ^ueen of Henry VIII. during the time that of forty millions sterling of actual deposits. These 

her unjust divorce was in ^a^tation. This event originally consisted or coined money, but after- 

is commemorated by a poetical inscription on a wards large quantities of gold and silver bullion 

column where the old castle stood. It is situate were received. Afler the French invasion in 

between 2 hills, 6 m. SI of Bedford, and 45 N. 1795 it was ascertained, however, that its boasted 

W. of London. Pop. 1,587. treasures were ima^nary: the precious metals 

AmpuriMSf a ses^port of Spain, in Catalonia, at had been lent out by ^e directors to different 

the mouth <^ the Fluvia, 70 m. N. £. of Baicelo- public bodies, whose bonds were deposited in their 

na. Long. 3. 0. £. hU. 42. 9. N. stead. 

jfmrss, a castle or palace of Germany, in Tjrrol, In consequence of its extensive commercial 

at the foot of a mountain, 2 m. S. £. of Inspruck. credit, Amsterdam was long the centre of ex- 

Amsterdam, the principal city of Holland Pro- change for £arDpe ; but from the time that a 

per, the capital of the northern divisimi of the want of confidence in the bank began to be felt, 

Netherlanas, and formerly of the republic of the a great part «f the exchange transactions have 

Seven United Provinees, is sitiPated at the eonflu- bem canried on in London and Hamburgh. 

enee of the rivers Amstel and T, or Wye, near In the year 1757 this mty suffered considerably 

the south-western extremity ef the Zi^der Zee. firom the explosion of a powder magazine, bj 

90 m. N. by £. from. Antwerpi, in lat. «2. 25. N. which vmaj buildings were destroved. During 

kmg. 4. 40. £. Pop. 160/)OO. This city was un* the intemal troubles that agitated the republic m 

known in history before me latttr end of the thir- 1797, 'A was occupied by the Prussians, who main* 

teenth centurv, and 'Was then notioed only as a tained p oss e ss i on of it for a year ; afterwards, in 

collection of Mermen's huls in the middle of a 1905, it submitfted to the Fwnoh ; and when the 

morass. It first acquired a commeroial efaancter United Prorismes were incorporated into the body 

about tlie year 1370, but was not fortified Kill the of the FMBck empire under Napoleon,' Amster 

end of the succeeding century ; after which period dam was considered the tUrd^citv in rank, being 

it gradually increased in magnitude and mesean- dec«ied iaforior only io Parisaaa Rome, 

tile celebrity, yet not without experienoing nonn The govemaaeiit is veabed in a connoil called 

severe checa. In 1512 it was b es i e ge d bv the Vvoedsduqi, ef thirty-six members, in vHbtom tbs 

pe<^»te of Gfieldcrlaad, who, tm fidlnre in iheir suipreme power is lodged. The office is held 

attempt to take the ei^, set fire to the -shipping dnring Hfi&, and vacancies an filled by the snrvi* 

utheharbonr. Doring the mmm ocntwy its v«n. TUs hady aiaolB tfaa diiaf jnagis tnd/M , 

Alls y AM8 

nunedborgomasten or echeyim, a nak tomt- who paid a tax for Qie priTilege of uaing them; 

what similar to that of alderman : the number bf the magiatratea conceiving that the rolling of the 

these b twelve ; they have the direction of all wheels prodticed a dangerous concussion of the 

public works, and hold the keys of the city^ bank, piles. Goods are conveyed through the town on 

The military protection of the to?m is in the sledges ; and the common conveyance for those 

charge of the militia, consisting of siztv compa> who do not wish to walk is a kind of sleigh or 

nies of ftom 200 to 300 men each. Jews and traineau, consisting of the body of a carriage fix* 

anabaptists are excluded fVom this body, as ed on a hurdle, drawn by a single horse, and 

they are not allowed to bear arms : they are. guided by the driver, who walks by its side. The 

however, obUged to contribute to the support or streets in general are narrow, with the exception 

the city guard, consisting of 1/100 soldiers, and to of a few which present a fine appearance, and are 

the niffht watch, which patroles the streets and adorned with spacious mansions. The principal 

calls the hours. In addition to this night patrole, square is the Dam, in front of the palace ; besides 

trumpeters are stationed in every church steeple, which there are three others, where markets and 

who sound ev«ry half hour, and, in case of fire, an annual fair are held. The palace, formerly 

ring the alarm tiells, and durect enquirers to the the stadthouse, or town hall, is considered to he 

place. the most magnificent building in Holland.. It 

The city extends in the form of a semicircle on forms an oblonff square, 282 feet in length, 235 in , 

the southern bank of the T, wUch is its diameter; breadth, and 116 in height, besides uie tower, 

on the land side it was surrounded by a wall and which is 67 feet high. Within is a spacious hall, 

bastions, with a broad and deep fosse : the wall is 150 feet long, 60 broad, and 100 high. This hall, 

dismantled ; but the bastions still remain, and are and the other apartments of the pa&ce, are adorn- 

used as sites for corn-mills. The Amstel, on en- ed with some fine paintings. Strangers are ad- 

tering the citv, divides into two branches, from mitted daily to view it, under the sole restriction 

each of which issue numerous canals, forming « of writing down their names on entering. The 

collection of islands, connected with each other front entrance has seven doors, which were in- 

by 290 bridges ; of which, that over the Amstel, tended for the representatives of the Seven Unit> 

commanding a panoramic view of the city and its ed Provinces, but are now reserved exclusively 

environs, is the only one worthy of notice. That for the royal familv. All other persons obtain 

part of the river Y which forms the port of Am- admission through the back entrance. The base- 

sterdam, is guarded bv a double row of piles, with ment story was formerly used to hold the im- 

openings at intervals tor the admission of vessels : mense treasures of the bank, 

these openings are always closed at night. The The royal museum contains, besides other eu- 

deeplv laden ships lie outside the piles, in a place riosities, a fine collection of paintings, chiefly of 

callea the Laag. During the period of Dutch the Flemiah school. It is said that the emperor 

prosperity, an hundred vessels nave entered the Alexander offered the sum of 30,000/. for one 

port in one tide, and six or seven hundred were alone. Visitors are admissible to the museum on 

to be seen there at anchor together. On the op- terms of eoual liberality as to the palace, 

posite side of the Y are the locks b^ which ships The excnange is a large but plam building, 230 

enter the great canal, which is carried thence, in feet in length and 130 in breadth : it is capable of 

a straight line, northwards to the Texel; thus containing 4,500 persons ; and is divided into thir- 

preventing the risk and delay of a vo^a^ through ty-six compartments, for the transaction of the 

the Zuyder Zee. This canal, which has been various kinds of commercial business carried on 

recenUy finished, is 120 feet wide at the surface, there. 

and twenty-five deep. It was constructed at an The deficiency of architectural elegance in the 

expense of 1,000,000/. sterling. It terminates at places of public worship is very striking, particu- 

the Helder, which was nothing more than a fish- larly to travellers coming from the Netherlands, 

ing village, until it was fortified by Bonaparte for where much attention is raid to their embelish- 

the defence of a naval arsenal he formed there, ment. The old church of^ St Nicholas has some 

and which is now called Willems-oord. The isl- fine painted windows, and contains the tombs of 

and of the Texel is principally devoted to the several of the celebrated Dutch admirals. The 

breeding of sheep. The cheese made from their burial ground of one of the sixteen chapels attach • 

milk is much prized b^ the inhabitants. The ed to it was appropriated, by the catiiolic magis- 

canals with which the citv is intersected, though tracy of Amsterdam, during the period of religious 

extremely convenient ana ornamental, are attend- persecution, for the interment of the protestant 

ed with one very disagreeable consequence : from merchants of Hamburgh who died here. The 

the stagnation of the water, and the collection of new church of St. Catherine contains a splendid 

offal of everv kind dischareed into them, they monument of white marble, erected to the memory 

■end forth effluvia equally o&nsive and unwhole- of admiral de Ruyter. The Portuguese ^nagogue 

some, which all the characteristic cleanliness of is said to have been built in imitation or the tem- 

the inhabitants has not been able wholly to re- pie of Solomon. The churches of the established 

move. Mills have been erected on their banks, religion, which is the reformed or Calvinistic, are 

to promote a circulation of air by ventilation; distinguished by being the only places of worship 

others, called mud-mills, from the purpose to which are allowed the use of oells. The total 

which they are applied, are also used to raise and number of churches is, ten Dutch reformed, 

remove the slime which the river deposits largely, twenty-two catholic, one IVench reformed, one 

In consequence of the badness or the fbunda- Bhiglish presbyterian, three Lutheran, one ana^ 

tion, the whole citv is built on piles driven end- baptist, one Walloon, one Greek, and seven syna- 

ways into the mua ; a circumstance which occa- gogues. The number of resident Jews is estuna- 

rioned the witty remark of Erasmus, on visiting tea at 17,000. 

it, " that he was in a town where the inhabitants The management of thepenitentiaries is pecu- 

lived, like rooks, on the the tops of trees." This liarly worthy of notice. The number of convicts 

oiioumstance also occasioned the restriction of is great, not because crime is more common, but 

— ibei to men of oonseqoence and phyuciansi becauM the puniahment of death is seldom inflict- 

AM8 37 ANC 

imprisonment for rarioiia periods, in moat conTenient landing-place. Long. 77. 48. E. lat. 

I, vapplies iU place. The priBcipal prison ia 37. 51. S. 

the hottde of correction, called also the Rasp- Amsterdam^ Jfew, one of the Friendly islands. 

boup, because the chief employment of its in- See Tongatahoo. 

mates is the catting and raspmg of Brazil wood. Amsterdam^ p t. Montgomery Co. N. Y. 33 m. 

In this place of ooimnement, no one is sufiered to N. W. Albany. Pop. 3^54. 

be idle : and thus the government is indemnified Amu^ GUum^ Ami, or OxttSf a river of Indepen- 

lor much of the expenditure incurred ; and the dent Tortary, formed by numerous streams wnich 

priaoners, on their part, are frequently reclaimed, issue from the mountains of Belur, on the con- 

bv its wholeso m e and rigid discipline, from the fines of India and Persia, and flowing W. bv N. 

disaoliite and ncions habits which led tnem to be- through Bucharia, enters the S. extremity of th«« 

eome its inmates. In the yard of the prison is lake Aral after a course of 1,200 m., part of which 

one cell, and one only, for the treatment of the Is through a desert 

iiftcorrigiblj idle. A stream of water constantly Amioal, a village in Hertfordshire, 1 m. S. of 

flows into it, which can oidy be discharged througn Ware, famous for originally giving rise to tlie 

a pamp set np within. The only means, there- NewRiver, which supplies a great part of London 

tore^ by which the inmate can avoid being over- with water. 

whelmed by the inffresa of the water is by work- AmwdL^ p. t. Washington Co. Pa. 

ini; incessantly at we pump : if he persists in his Anacopia, the capital of the nation of the 

idleness, he is inevitably drowned. It is said that Abkahs, on the river Makai, near its entrance 

it is now never used. into the Black sea. Long. 40. 30. £. lat. 43. 20. N. 

The workhouse is intended for minor oflTenoes ; Anadir, a river of Siberia, which has its source 

sofDe of which are not recognised by our laws, in a lake in the province of Tchukotski, and runs 

Hasbands may send their wives thither on a into Notchen Bay, near Behring's straits, 

charge of drunkenness or extravagance ; and they Ana Capri. See Capri. 

are tLemselves liable to punishment for the same Anah, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Diarbeck, 

offences. Tonng women, also, even of good fam- in a country producing abundance of com and 

ilies, are sometimes sent thither as to a school o^ fruit. It stands on a river that flows into the 

rigorous reformation. The charitable institutions Euphrates, 80 m. W. N. W. of Bagdad and 240 

vte numerous, and generally well conducted. 8. S.E. of Diarbekir. Long. 42. 28. E. lat. 34. 6. N. 

Amsterdam can Doast of a fair proportion of j^nontoour, a town of Hindoostan. in Mysore, 

literary and scientific societies. Tne principal, 100 m. N. £. of Chitteldroog, and 120 N. otBan- 

namen Felix Meritis, comprehends among its galore. 

members most of the literature of the kin^om. AnamutOf a district in the province of Quito, 

Its business is distributed among five classes or and kingdom of Peru, where Almagro and Piz- 

committees : one fbr agriculture, manufactures, arro Qjoint ^scoverers of Peru, ) engaged each 

and commerce ; the second for mathematics ana other in battle, in 1546. 

its kindred sciences; the third for the polite arts; AiuUlom, an island, the moat southern of the 

the fourth for music ; and the fiflh for general or New Hebrides, in the racific ocean. Long. 170. 9. 

miscellaneous literature. The building contains £. lat. 20. 10. N. 

a theatre for the delivery of lectures, a museum, Anbar, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Irac Arabi, 

a gallery of sculpture, a drawing school, and an seated on the Euphrates, 50 m. W. of Baf dad. 

observatory commanding a fine view of the city Anearani, a town o£ Italy, 5 m. N. of^Ascoli, 

and its environs. The public botanic garden, and 82 N. £. of Rome. 

though plentifully stocked, does not contain any Ancasler, p.t. Upper Canada, at the W. end of 

plants of extraordinary value. In the Royal L. Ontario. 

Academy of Liberal Arts, a late institution for Ancaster, a village in Lincolnshire, Eng. 15 m. 

communicating instructions in painting, sculp- S. Lincoln. It stands on a Roman hiffh- way at the 

lore, and arehitecture, penaiona for fbor years are foot of a hill which abounds with antiquities, 

granted to the most oeserving pupils, which are and at the S. end are the remains of a castle. 

appr(M>riated to a journey to Italy. In the naved Ancenis.tL town of France, in the department 

schools, children of common seamen, when prop- of Lower Loire, seated on the Loire, 20 m. £. of 

erly recommended, are educated gratuitously ; as Nantes. 

are the sons of officers, on the payment of a small Aneholm, a river in Lincolnshire, Encr. which ri- 

pension. All are treated alike ; and almost every ses near Market Raisin, flows to Glanmbrd-bridge 

officer who has elevated ^e naval character of and is navigable thence to the Humber. 

hii countiT has received his education here. Andam, a fortified town of Hither Pomerania, 

mlwuterdam and St. Paid, two islands in the on tlie river Peene, 20 m. S. £. of Gripswald. 

'adian Ocean, Mnf in the same longitude, at Ancoder, a territory of Guinea, on the Gold 

40 m. distance. Their names are reversed by nav- coast, to the W. of Axim. It has a river of the 

i^ators, but most of them call the northern one same name flowing throuffh it ; and at its mouth 

Rt. Paul, and the southern Amsterdam. The is a town with a good harbour. Long. 1. 10. W 

latter is high land, and upward of 4 m. long, and lat. 4. 50. N. 

2 broad. It has evident marks of volcanic erup- Anama,Marquisateof, a maritime province of 

tion in every part, and is almost wholly covered the states of the church, Italy, bounded on tlie £. 

with a deep fertile soil, but is destitute of trees, by the Adriatic, and on the W. by the Apennines ; 

On the east side is a great crater, into which the it is very fruitful in com, fruits and silk. 

aea has made a narrow and shallow entrance ; its Ancona, a city and seaport of Italy in the a- 

shelving sides are 700 feet in perpeodiculax heieht, hove province, and a bishop's see, with a citadel 

in which, and in the causeway dividing it from on a hill. The cathedral stands upon another 

the sea, are several hot springs of ^sh water, hill, and the houses extend down the side of the 

St. Paul, or the northern island, presents no eminence toward the Gulf of Venice. Clement 

very high land, or any rise in a conic form. It XII. built a mole, to render Uie harbour safe ; it is 

is covered with shmbs and low trees, but has no erected on the ruins of the ancient mole, raised by 



Trajan, above 3,000 ft. in length. Near this stands AnAerkk^ a city of Usbee Tartary, capital of iJie 

tho iM^autiful triumphal arch of Trajan. Here province of Tokaristan. In its vicinity are rich 

likewise Clement XII. erected a lazaretto, which quarries of lapis lazuli. It is seated on a branch 

advances a little way into the sea iu the form of of the Gihon Amu, and near a pass through the 

M pentagon. Great numbers of Jews are settled in mountains of Hindooko into the Kingdom g? Cau- 

liiid citv, where they have a synagogue; and they bml, 240 m. E. S. E. of Balk. Long. 68. 58. E. 

liAve the principal share of its commerce. An- lat. 36. 10. N. 

(•('Ha was taken in 1796 by the French, who sur- Anderson, a County of E. Tennessee. Pop 

rendered it to thcAustrians in 1799. It is 116 5,312. Clinton, on CUnch river, is the chief town. 

m. N. by E. of Rome. Long. 13. 29. E. lat. 43. 38. Anderson, a County of Kentucky. Pop. 4,542. 

N. Pop. about 20,000. Lawrenceburg is the chief town. 

Ancrnnif p.t. Columbia Co. N.Y. 52 m. 8. Al- Andersonhurg, p.v. Perry Co. Pa. 36 m. N- 

baiiy. Pop. 1,533. Here are large manufactures of Harrisburg. 

Isar and pig iron. Anderson, t. Hamilton Co. Ohio. 

Ancyra, the capital of Galatia, near the river Andersontmon, p.v. Madison Co. Ind. 21 m. N 

lUlyH, said to have been built by Midas, king of W. Indianopolis. 

Pbrj gia, and so named from an anchor found AndersonviUe, p.v. Pendleton Dis. S. C. 150 m. 

there. See Angoura, N. W. Columbia. 

Andahnailas, the chief town of a district of the Andersonville, p.t. Hancock Co. Miss. 42 m. S. 

Kuiio name, in the intendcncy of Guamanga, Pe- E. Monticello. 

ru, about 100 m. W. of Cuzco. Andes, p.t. Delaware Co. N. Y. 87 m. W. Al- 

Andalusia, a province of Spain, which in its bany. Pop. 1,859. 

largest sense comprises the kingdom of Granada, Andero, St. See Sanlander. 

Seville, Cordova. Jaen, and the colony of Sierra Andes, a chain of mountains running through 

Morena, bounded on the N. by Estremadura and the whole extent of North and South America, 

La Mancha, £. by Murcia, S. bv the Mediterra- although the name is confined to S. America alone; 

nran, and W. by the Atlantic and Portugal. The and N. of the isthmus of Darien the chain is 

Guadalquivir runs through its whole length ; known by the name of the Cordilleras, Rocky 

and it is the most fertile and tradinj? country in Mountains &c. From the utmost extremity of 

Spain. Its aggregate superficies are 2,281 French the Southern division, in south lat. 54, to about 

leagues, and pop. about 1,900,000. The French the lat. of 18 south, thev continue in an unbroken 

overran this province in 1810, but evacuated it in line to run narallel with the shore of the Pacific 

consequence of the battle of Salamanca, in 1812. Ocean, at a distance of 100 to 200 miles, with here 

The capital is Seville. and there parallel ridges further east, and at an al- 

Andalusia, JWier. See Paria, titude of 12,000 to 15,000 ft. above the level of the 

Andalusia, p. t. Bucks Co. Pa. 94 m. E. Harris- sea ; from about the 18th to the 15th deg. of south 

burff. lat. the chain is somewhat broken, but further 

Andaman islands, several islands on the E. north they assume a more mnd and imposing 

side of the bay of Bengal. The largest called form, diverging into parallel ridges, and rising 

Great Andaman, is 120 m. long and 16 broad, near the equator to an autitude of 21,440 fl. and in 

indented by deep bays affording good harbours, several places issue forth volcanic eruptions with 

and intersected by rivers one of which passes quite terrific violence. N. of the equator they diverge 

through the island, and at high water is navigable into 4 parallel and distinct ridges, running to 

(or small vessels. The forests afford some precious the shores of the Caribean Sea, and Uie outermost 

trcofl, as ebony and the Nicobar bread-fruit : and ridge skirting the coast of that sea to the Atlantic, 

the eiible birds' nests abound here. The only through the chain which unites the two grand 

({uadrupeds seem to be wild hogs, monkeys, and flivisions of America, or the western hemisphere, 

rats. The inhabitants are in a state of barbarism, the mountains are considerably broken ; but at 

and live chiefly on fish, fruits, and herbs ; they about the 15th degree of north lat. through the 

perfectly resemble negroes, and their canoes are of teritoiy of Mexico, they afain assume their won- 

fhe rudest kind. In 1793, the English made a ted grandeur, rising to a height of 17,720 fl. and 

aettlement on the N. end of Great Andaman, the again pouring forth volcanic matter, and proceed 

largest island, which is called Port Comwallis, in an unbroken line at a somewhat greater dis- 

ana has a commodious harbour to shelter ships tance from the sea than through the south division, 

during the N. E. monsoon. Long. 93. 0. E. lat. by the name of the Rocky Mountains, to the Icy 

13. 30. N. &;a in the 70th deg. of north lat. From the 40th 

.^ndoye, a fortified town of France, in the departs deg. of lat. south, to tfie 30th north, the Andes 
ment of Lower Pyrenees, famous tor its brandy, abound with gold, silver, copper, and other me- 
lt is situate near the mouth of the Bidassoa, ttllic substances. 

almost opposite Fontarabia, in Spain, 18 m. S. W. ' In the Colombian orovinces, the Andes are di- 

of Bayonne. vided into three parallel chains separated by deep 

Andely, a town of France, in the department of and extensive valleys, which are the basins of 
Kure, divided by a paved road into Great and great rivers. Farther south these mountains in- 
Little Andely, a mue from each other. Great termingle in one group and stretch onward be- 
Andely is on the rivulet Gamons, and Little Ande- yond the equator. The Andes of Quito are the 
Iv on the Seine. The cloths manufactured here most elevated points of the whole chain, Chimbo- 
•are in high esteem. It is 17 m. N. E. of Evrenx, raao being the highest summit in America, unless 
.and 20 S. £. of Rouen. according to the statement of a recent traveller, 

Andemaeh, a town in the grand duchy of the the peak of Ylimani be entitled to this distinc- 
iy>wer Rhine, now forming part of the Prussian tion. Throughout Peru and Chile these moun- 
territory. Great quantities of timber are collected tains still maintain a sublime elevation and con- 
here, which are formed into vast rafls, and floated tain enormous metallic riches. The highest peaks 
hence to Dordrecht, in Holland. It is seated on are in the region of eternal snow, and they pre* 
the Rhine, 20 ro. N. W. of Coblentz. sent in evtrj quarter the most grand and imposing 

&«]aeiit]; no more than two kel in bresdih, sod 
icaembte ■ hollow ^ntlvry, open to the Ay, The 
traveller shudden Jn paninr along tbeie tremens 
duiu Suurei, wliich ue fUled with mnd; while 

Xiv! tliick vegtrtnllon, which, hinging down from 
tbow, coven the opening. Tbe quehradmM ore 
imoKuae renU breakins through the whole chun 
or the mountun* and forming Tut sbjnges luffi- 

cienl inaize to »w»llow up an ordinaij " 

It u hen that the e;e of die terrified tn 
Iwst com^ehend the gigiuitic magnifier 
Tl ■ ■■ ■ --• -.- 

The chittT 

viibg^ . , . .... 

tUmis and iheep ; orchardi bordered with qnick- 
Kt bedges and Inioriant and highly cnKivited 
eonirtetds, occusjring a station auapended ai it 
Wf re in the lorty legiona of the air ; uid tbe 
tniTeller can hardl; bring himaeif to believe that 
thia hatiitable region i> highei above the aea than 
the summit of the ryreneea, 

Jliuilaii, a town of France, in the department 
of Lower Rhine, with a castle, aituate on ■ moun- 
Uin, la m. S. S. W. of Blraabiug. 

Jndinxr, a borongh in Mampahira, Enr. re- 
turning two memlwra to Fu^amcnt, with a 
market on Satnrday, a manufacture of shallooni, 
and ■ conaidrrahle trade in moJt. A navigable 
canal paasea benc4? to BnuthoRiptOD water. It is 
■ilaate near th>^ river Ande, 10 m. N. bv W. of 
Wincheater, and 63. W. by 8, of Loodon. Pop. 
m 1821, 4,123. 

Aiidmer, p.\. Merrimack Co. N. H. SI. m. fr. 
Concord. Fop. 13* 

Andmier, p.t. Windior Co. Vt 66. m. S. Hont- 
pelier. Pop. 975. 

AaAner, p.t. Essex Co. Maia. SO m. N , Boaton. 
Pop. ifA^. Thie i* a pieuant and thriving town 
with manoi^torcB of flannel and other woolen 
elotha; but ie chiefly diatingoished for ila Theo- 
locical Seminary, &«t eatobliahed in 1907 and 
enlarged by eubsequent endowment!, amounting 
to 4<JO,000 dollars. It compHaea three large piles 
of building with aecomodalions for 120 atudenU, 
The doctrines of thia institution are aubstantial- 
Iv Calvinism. The library has 5,000 volnmea. 
Mo*t of the students are supported h» charity. 
The officrn are a Preaidenl and 4 ^rofeason. 
Andover also contains Phillipa Academy, founded 
in I78S. Its nfficcn are a princinal and !> asus- 
lants. The nanal number of itudents is 130 ; all 
of them are engaged in cliasical studies. The 
fVinda of tlie inatitution amount toSO.OOO dollars. 
AnJover baa a third Seminary called Franklin which classical studies are pursued. 
jfnifoTcr, p.t. Tolland Co. Conn. 15 TT E.Hart- 

Ando<ecT. p.t. Allegany Co. N. Y. 2S5 m. W. 
Albinv. Pop. 638. 

.diu/oDcr, p.t. BuBWixCo.N. J.48m. N. Trenton. 

At^attt, p.t. Ashtabula Co, Ohio. SOO m. N. 
E. Columbus. 

.l^itagiTy, the capital of a ItingdoD 
E. coast of tbe island of Sumatra. T 
produce ia pepper. It ia s 

modiouB for trade, 200 m. N. by W. of Bencooleii. 
Lone. 102. 0. E. Ut. 0. 56. 9. 

Aidranvm, a town of Sweden, in Gotliland, 

JindriaaktTg, a town of Lower Saiony, in thH 
duclw of Brunswick, with good silver mmea, 2d 
m. B. E. of Gottingen. 

Mdrtw, St. a town of Germany, in Carinthia, 
and a bishop's see ; seated on tha riverLavanl,20 
m. E. N. E. of Clagenfurt. 

Andmc; Si. a sea-port town of New Bruns- 
wick, at the entrance of Fnssamanuoddy River. 

^dr«c«, Si. a citr of Scotland, in Fifeshin-, 
ouee the metropolis of the Pictish kingdom, and 
tbe see of an arclibishop. 

About the middle of the twelfth cenlurv, Da- 
vid I. erected the town into a ro^al burgh, and 
the privileges which it thus obUined were con- 
firmed by Malcolm II. In the wars of subM-- 
quent times, it was more than once the object ot 
bloody contention between the Inyalista and the 

Reformation it sufiered ila fiiU share in the vio- 
lences which were committed. 

The cathedral, which was once the glory of the 
city, is now a ruin. It is eaid to have been not 
teas than l57yeDra in building, but waa nearly 
dealioyed in one day, the aasailanlB leaving only 
aufGcient of it standing to indicate ila Tbrmer 
magnitude and great antiquity. Tbe remainn 
conaiat of part of the east and west ends, and of 
the south side, logetlier with the chapel of 8t. 
Regulus, the entire' body and great tower of 
which alill exist. The latter is 103 fret high, and 
forms an immense equilateral triangle, each aide 
being twenty feet broad. 

The ancient caitla retains aa liltie of ite origi- 
nal grandeur as the cathedral ; but it Is still re- 

^bered as the scene of many a desperart^ 

I former times. It was from one of lli>- 
if thia building that cardinal Heatouii 
beheld hia unjust aentence of the heroic refbrmer 
Wishart put m eiecntjon ; and it was before the 
same window that hia own body was Inid aAer 
his asBaasinatioD by the (riend* of the reformer. 

The univeraity of St. Andrew'a ia the oldest in 
Scotland, and uri^natly consiatcd of three col- 

E' ea— Bt. Balvator'i, St. Leonard's, and St. 
ry's or the new college. Ita government i« 
formed of a chancellor, who, previous to the Re- 

■ince then has been elected by the professor, and of 
■he principalsof Ihecolleges. The numberof xtn- 
denbi seldom exceeds 300; but both the healthv 
situation of the town and ita accommodations for 
study gnve it great advantages aaa place of educa- 
tion. TTie college of St. Maiv is devoted entirely to 
studenla in theology ', that of 8t Salvalor to the 
sciences in genenu. The extensive library of 
the university contains near 40,000 volumes, and 
miiiietouB mannscripta. 

Dr. Johnson visited this ci^ in his tour throueli 
Reoltnnri, and speaks of it with more than usual 
urtmnify. " Wp found," says he. " that, by (lie 
interpr4ttinn <S same invisibls friend, lodgings 

.ruffgle i 


had been provided for Qs at the house of one of Andro$eoggmy a nVer rising from Umbogog 

the professors, whose easy ciyility quickly made Lake, on the W.side of the state of Maine, it runs 

us forget that we were strangers ; and in the into New Hampshire, and re-enters Maine, falling 

whole time of our stay we were gratified by every into the Kennebeck, about 18 m. above its conflu- 

mode of kindness, and entertained with idl the ence with the sea. 

elegance of lettered hospitality. In the morning Andnxaty or Andujar^ a town of Spain, in Anda- 

we rose to perambulate a city which only history lusia, with a castle, and some beautiful churches 

shows to have once flourished ; and surveyed the and convents. The environs abound in wheat, 

remains of ancient magnificence, of which even wine, oil, honey, and fruit. It is seated on the 

the ruins cannot long be visible, unless some care Guaaalquivir, and on the great post road from 

be taken to preserve them ; and where is the Madrid, dis. 5 1-2 leagues, by way of Cordova 

pleasure of preserving such moumfhl memorials ? to Seville and Cadiz. 

They have oeen till ver^ lately so much neglect- ^intmuTf Cape, the southern extremity of Cara 
ed, that every man carried away the stones, who mania, opposite the Isle of Cyprus ', on the prom- 
fancied that he wanted them. The university ontory are the ruins of the ancient city Anemu- 
within a few years consisted of tliree colleges, rium. N. lat. 36. 15. E. long. 32. 36. 
but is now reduced to two; the college of St. Angediva, a small island in the Indian Ocean, 
Leonard being lately dissolved by the sale of its off the coast of Malabar, belonging ^o the Portu- 
buildings and the appropriation of its revenues to guese. It is 60 m. S. S. £. of Goa. Long. 74. 12. 
the professors of the two others. The chapel of £. lat. 14. 43. N. 

the alienated college is yet standing — a fabric Anegada, the most northern of the English 

not inelegant of external structure ; but I was Virgin Islands. Long. 64. 7. W. lat. 18. 40. N. 

always by some civil excuse hindered from enter- ^tgeHeaj the chiex town of Alleghany Co. N. 

ing it. The dissolution of St. Leonard's college T. 2&. m. W. of Albany. Pop. 998. 

was doubtless necessary; but of that necessity AngdOf St., a town of Italy, 14 m. S W. of 

there is reason to complain. It is surely not Urbino. 

without just reproach, that a nation, of which the Angdo, St., a town of Naples, 6 m. N. N. W. of 

commerce is hourly extending and the wealth in- Conza. 

creasing, denies any participation of its prosperity Angdos, a city of Mexico. See PuMa de los 

to its literary societies, and, while its merchants Angaos. 

or its nobles are raising palaces, suffers its uni- Angerburg, a town oC Prussia, with a castle, 

versities to moulder into dust." In the year 1683, seated on the N. side of a lake, to which it gives 

the tomb of bishop Kennedy in the college church name, 70 m. S. E. of Konigsberg. Long. 22. 15. 

was opened, and six silver maces were found in £. lat. 54. 8. N. 

it of very beautiful workmanship. The other Angerbury. or Angermardand, a prrvincc of 

religious ftructures of this town are interesting Swe&n, in Noi dland, 150 miles long, &nd from 

for their i nti^uity ; and the principal church, 25 to 80 broad, the widest part being to the eiAt 

which is su.ficiently large to hold between two on the gulf of Bothnia. ' It is mountainous and 

ani^three thousand people, contains the monument woody, and in it are considerable iron-works*, 

of archbishop Sharpe, who was murdered near The chief town is Hemosand. 

the town by the covenanters, and whose tragical Angermunde, a town of Brai Jenburg, in the 

history is displayed in rude sculpture on one of Ucker Mark, on the lake Mund. , 48 m. N. N. E. 

the walls. of Berlin. 

Till the Reformation, St. Andrew's enjoyed the Angers, a large city of France, in the depa't- 

high distinction of being the metropolitan see of ment of Maine and Loire, situated near the rr n- 

the Scottish kingdom. It also carried on a profit- fluence of the Sarte, the Loire, and the Miioe, 

able trade ; and, in the time of Charles I., posses- which divides the citj into two equal partp, be- 

sed between thirty and forty vessels. Both its tween which there is a communication by two 

commerce and its manufactures have of late years large bridges. Angers contains 36,000 inhabit- 

been reduced to a low ebb, and the manufacture of anS. The castle is situated in the centre of the 

golf-balls is now the only one that exists. It is city, on a rock, overhanging the river. The 

associated with Dundee, Cupar, Perth, and Forfiir, cathedral is a venerable and elegant structure: 

in sending one member to parliament. It is seat- the principal gate is surrounded with three steeples, 

ed at the bottom of a bay, on the level top of a Here lies interred with her ancestors, the renown - 

small hill, 30 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh. I jong. ed Margaret, daughter of Rene, king of Sicily, 

2. 50. W. lat. 56. 18. N. Pop. in 1821. 4,900. and queen of Henry VI. of England, who ex- 

Andretos'bridge, p.v. Lancaster Co. Pa. 38 m. pired after many intrepid but ineffectual efforts 

S. E. Harrisburg. to replace her husband on the throne, in 1482, at 

Androa, an island in the Archipelago, 24 m. long the castle of Dampierre. The university of An- 

and 8 broad. It is one of the ancient Cyclades. gers was founded in 1398, and Uie academy of 

It has fertile plains, which are well watered; and Belles Lettres in 1685. It has a oonsiderable 

it wants only a good harbour. The inhabitants manufacture of handkerchiefs and canvas ; and 

are of the Greek church, and have a bishop and the produce of the slate quarries, at the extremity 

several monasteries. The principal riches of this of the suburb of Bressigny, forms likewise an im- 

inland consist in silks, and the fields produce oran- portant article of commerce. The walls with 

ges, citrons, mulberries, pomegranates, and figs, which kin^ John of England surrounded it in 

The capital is of the same name ; and about two 1214, remain nearly entire, and are of very great 

miles from it ore to be seen the ruins of a strong circumference. It is 50 m. £. N. E. of Nantes, 

wall, with the fragments of many columns, chapi- and 175 S. W. of Paris. Long. 0. 33. W. lat. 47 

ters, bases, broken statues, and several inscriptions, 28. N. 

some of which mention the senate and people of Anglen, or AngtUn, a small country of Den- 

Andros, and the priests of Bacchus ; from which mark, in the duchy of Sleswick. Many authors 

it is probable that thiK was the site of the ancient suppose that from the people of this country the 

city ; Long. 25. 2. E. lat 38. 0. N. English originated ; bping called in to assist thv 


BrJtnna against tlie invaden from Norway , they distributed among the departments of Charente, 

in process of time became masters of the country, Dordogne, and Deux Sevres, 

and gave it llie name of England. ^ngrOf the capital of Terceira, one of the Azores. 

Jin^iesey, an island and Co. at tha N. W. eztrem- It is a bishop's see and the resid«*nce of the gov- 

ity of Wales. It is separated from Caernarvonshire emor of the Azores. The town is well built, and 

by a long and narrow channel called Menai, which populous ; and here are royal magazines for all 

passes from St. €reoree*s Channel, by Caernarvon sorts of naval stores, a cathedral, five churches, 

and Ban^r, to the Irish Sea. That oart of the and several monastic houses. It stands on a bay, 

island wTiich borders this strait is finely wooded, between two mountains, on the S. side of the 

recalling to tlie mind its ancient state, when it was island. Long. 27. 12. W. lat. 38. 30. N. 

the celebrated seat of the Druids, whose terrific Angrognay a town of Piedmont, on a river of 

religious rites were performed in the gloom of the the same name, 7 m. W. of Pifnerol. 

thicKcst woods. Rude mounds and heaps of AnguiUay or Sriafce Island j the most nortlie riy 

•tone, said to be druidical remains, are still to be of the English Leeward islands in the West In- 

■crt^n ; but a little way within, the whole appears dies. It is 30 miles long and 3 broad, winding 

a naked tract, without trees or hedges, watered somewhat in the manner of a snake, and is G() m. 

by numerous rills, ferfile in grass and corn, and N. W. of St. Christopher. Lonff. €2. 35. W. lat. 

abounding in cattle. This island produces vast 18. 15 N. One of the Bahama iuands is also call- 

«|uan titles of copper and sulphur (see Par us) and ed Anguilla. 

in the N. W. part is a quarry of green marole, in- Angusshire, or Forfarshirty a maritime county 

tfnnixed witli asbestos. Beaumaris and Holyhead on the N. £. coast of Scotland ; bounded on tM 

are tJie chief towns. S. by the Frith of Tay, W. by the county of Pertli . 

Augotay tiie whole extent of territory on the and N. by Kincardineshire. The chief towns aro 

western coast of S. Africa, from near the equator Dundee, Arbroatli, Forfar, Montrose, and Brechin, 

to the 13th or 14th de^. of S. lat. comprehending It is prettily diversified with hill, dale, and water. 

Loan^o, Congo, Angola Proper, and Benguela, is An/utlty a principality of Germany, in Upper 

eoniinonly called Angola; but Angola Proper, or Saxony, 42 m. lonff and 10 broad ; bounded ou 

the kingdom of Angola lies S. of the Uonffo, Uie Mansfiela, W. bv Halberstadt, E. by the 

between the lat. of 7 to 9 S. All this part of 3ie ducliy of Saxony, and N. by Maedeburff. It 

coattt of South Africa is well watered and exceed- abounds in com, and is watered by me Salde and 

in«rly capable of yielding abundance, not only Mulda. Its ancient castle is gone to decay 

for ttio subsistence but tlie luxury of man. It is Zerbst is the capital. 

divided into numerous petty states and sovereign- AnhoUy an island of Denmark, in the Cattegat, 

ties, the chiefs of which live in constant collision surrounded by sand banks so dangerous to seamen, 

with each other ; since the restriction of the traf- that on it is a light house. The English took 

fie in slaves to the S. of the equator, rapine and possession of it in 1810, and made it a place ofren- 

crU'w'lty have reigned witli uncontrolled sway over dezvous for the North Sea squadron. Long. 11. 

tlie wliole of Uiis fine and extensive district ; and 35. E. lat. 56. 38. N. 

since the period of] 815 and 1816,more than 100.000 Anianey a town of France, in the department of 

of the natives have been annually transported as Herault, 13. m. W. N. W. of Montpelier. It has 

slaves, by the French, Spaniards, and Portuguese, an extensive manufacture of mineral alkali. 

to Marti nimie, Guadaloupe, Cuba, and the Brazils. Aniens^by a town of Uindoostan, in Travancore, 

St. Paulo ue Loango in lat. about 8. 30. S. is the whicn has a trade in pepper and calicoes. It 

princi}>al place on the coast of Angola Proper, at stands at tlie mouth of a river, 46 m. W. N. W. 

which the Brazilians more particularly carry on of Travancore. Lonf . 76. 40. £. lat. 8. 40. N. 

their o|jeration of slave tramc. Abstracted firom Animalyy a town of Uindoostan, in the province 

Llie unsfxsializing and debasing influence which of Coimbatore, with a fort. It has a trade in 

tile slave-traffic is so strongly calculated to excite dru^s, honey, and wax, collected in the hills to the 

and promote, the inliabitants of this part of South souui, and is seated on the Alima, 21 m. S. of 

Africa are much addicted to habits of idleness^ Coimbatore 

idolatry, and polygamy. AnjoUy a late pro vince of France, bounded on tho 

Angaiuy p.v. Erie Co. N. Y. 291 m. W. Al- Maine, W. by Bretaffne, S. by Poitou.and 

bany. £. by Touraine. It formerly belonged to the sov- 

Angora, or Angmirif the ancient Ancyra, a city weigns of England. It now forms the depart- 

of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, and a Greek arch- ment of Mayenne and Loire, 

bishop's see, remarkable for its remains of antioui* Ann, Si. a town of New Brunswick, situate on 

tv ; such as inscriptions, pillars, ruins of temples, the river St. John nearly opposite to Fredericton,. 

^c. The castle lias a triple inclosure, and the and 80. m. above the city of St John. Also the- 

walls are of white marble and stone, resembling name of the chief town of the province of Parana,, 

porphyry. The inliabitants are estimated at 100, in Paraguay, and of a lake in Upper Canada, to 

000. Here are bred tlie finest ^oats in the world; the norUi of Sjake Superior. 

tJie hair being almost like silk, is worked into fine Anne Anmddy a county of Maryland, on Wu" 

stuffs. It stands in a k>fly situation, 212 m. S. E. western shore of Chesapeak Bay. Pop. 28,^^.^). 

of Omstantinople. Long. 32. 50. E. lat. 40. 4. N. Annapolis is the chief town. 

AngauUmty a town ot France, capital of the AwHy Ca/m, a noint of land which forms the 
department of Cbarente, and the see of a bishop, north side of Massachusetts Bay. Two Ijj^ht- 
It IS seated on a mountain surrounded by rocks, houses on an island at the extreniitv of this Cape 
The river Charente runs at the foot of it; and are in N. lat. 42. 40. W.Longr. 70. ^. 
there are some paper manufactures in its environs. Anny Forty a town in Washington Co. N. Y. bo- 
lt is 50 m. W. S. W. of Limoges. Long. 0. 9. E. tween the North River and Lake Charapkin. 
lat. 45. 3!). N. Pop. 3,90]. 

Anfonnutisy a late province of Frtince, bounded Annabergy St. a town of Upper Saxony, in Mis- 

oil th'* N. by Poitou, E. by Limosin and Manche, nia, noted for silver mines and tlic maiuikctuie 

S. by PtTigord, and W. by Saintonga. It if now of laoe, 17 m. 8. of Chemnitx. 

6 D'^ 


AnnagKy an island on the W. coast of Ireland on Sonth Carolina, and bounded on the N. E. by 

5 miles in circumference, between the isle of the Yadkin River. Pop. 14,061. Wadesborougliy 

Achil and the coast of the county of Mayo. Long. 142 m. 8. W. by W. of Raleigh, is the chief town. 

9. 39. W. lat. 53. 58. N. Also the name of three jibuon, p.t. Somervt Co. IMe. on the Kenne- 

parishes in different parts of Ireland ; 1st, in the bee. Pop. Iy532. 

CO. of Kerry, pop. 2,089 ; 2d, in Cavan, pop. 10,488; Anspaeh or Onotxhatk a principalitr of Germany, 

3rd, in Majro, pop. 5,749. in the south part of the circle of Franconia. it 

Annaghf is also a prefix to several other parish- has iron mines and several medicinal springs ; 

es in Ireland, such as Annagh-c^<me, dovntj eu/fff ^. and the soil produces considerable quantities of 

Annamahoty dne of the principal commercial com, and feeds great numbers of cattle, 

places on the Gold coast of North Africa, in N. Jhupach, a city, and capital of the above prin- 

lat. 5. 9. W. long. 1. 41. cipalify, with a castle, a palace and an excellent 

Annamooka, one of the Friendly Islands, dis- academy. It has many handsome buildings ; and 

covered by Tasman, in 1643, and visited by cap- the principal manufacture is lace. It is seated on 

tain Cook in 1774 and 1777. It is well cultivated the Retzat, 24 m. W. S. W. of Nurenberg. Long, 

in many places^ consisting of plantations of yams 10. 28. £. lat. 49. 18. N. 

and plantains, inclosed with neat fences of reed. Anstrtitker^ East and WtH, two boroughs oft 

The bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees are interpers- Scotland, on the 8. £. coast of Fifeshire. They 

ed with little order, but chiefly near the haibita* adjoin each other ; and Blast Anstruther, which 

tions of the natives ; and the other parts of the is much the largest, is little more than a fishing 

island, especially towards the sea, are covered village, 9 m. S. 8. £. of St. Andrew. Pop. of 

with trees and bushes. It is situate about 187. £. both, 1,519. 

lonff. 20. S. lat. Antabf or Ahdab^ a town at the N. £. ex- 

Annan, a borouf h of Scotland, in Dumfries- tremity of S^ria. situate on two hills, and the 
shire, seated on the river Annan, 3 m. from its valley that lies oetween them is watered by the 
mouth, which forms a good harbour for vessels Sejour. It is three miles in circumference, with 
of 250 tons burden. Here was a fine castle, built a strong old castle on* a rock, and had formerly a 
by one of the Bruces, the. ruins of which still re- considerable manufacture of printed calicoes. Ma- 
main. Much com is exported hence ; and there ny medals of the Syrian kings have been found 
is a manufacture for carding and spinning. It is here, and some also of the kings of Cappadocia. 
16 m. £. 8. £. of Dumfries, and 80 S. of Edin- It is 50 m.E. of Alexandretta, and 60 N. by £. of 
burjrh. Long. 3. 8. W. lat. 55. 2. N. Aleppo. Long. 37. 35. £. lat. 36. 35. N. 

Jmnapolis. the capital of Anne Arundel county, Antequera, a town of Spain, in Granada, diri- 

and seat of the legislative government of tiie ded into the Upper and tne Lower. The Upper 

state of Maryland. The state-house, a noble is seated on a hill, and has a castle : the Lower 

building, stands in the centre of the city, from stands in a fertile plain, and is watered by many 

which point the streets diverge in ev^iy direc- brooks. Here are large quantities of natural salt, 

tion. Here also is St. John*s colle^, which with quarries of excellent stone, and a spring famous 

Washington college at Chester, constitute one for the cure of the gravel. It is 26 m. N. N. W. 

university, named the University of Maryland, of Malaga. Long. 4. 30. W. lat. 37. 1. N. 

Annapolis is situate on the west side of Uhesa- AnJLtquera^ a town of Mexico. See Gttaxaea. 

peak bay, at the mouth of the Severn, 40 m. £. Anthonif's Jfose, a point on the £. bank of the 

by N. of Washington, and 35 S. of Baltimore. Hudson, just above Peekskill. 

Long. 76. 48. W. lat. 39. 0. N. Pop. 2,623. Anthonys Kill, a little stream running into the 

Annapolis f a sea-port of Nova Scotia, on the Hudson irom the W. 7 m. above the Moiiawk. 

£. side of the Bay of Fundy. It has one of the Anthony, St.. Falls off on the Mississippi River, 

finest harbours in the world ; but the entrance is m N. lat. 45. W. long. 93. being more than 2,000 

through a difficult strait, called the Gut of Anna- m. above the entrance of the river into the Gulf 

polis. The town stands on the 8. side of the of Mexico. Tliere is a fort in the Missouri trrri- 

harbour, at the mouth of a river of its name, 86 m. tory, on the point of land formed by the St. Pe- 

W. by N. of Halifax. Long< 64. 55. W. lat. 44. ter s River, which river falls into the Mississippi 

50. N. just below the Falls .of St. Anthony. 

Annapolis f p. v. Salem township, Jefferson Co. AnHbtis, a town of France, in the department of 

Ohio, 135 m. N. E. Columbus. Var, with a str^n* castle, and harbour for small 

Anneeyf a town of Savoy, seated on a lake of vessels. Its teriitory produces excellent fruit; 

its name, whence issues the canal of Thioux, and it is seated on the Mediterranean, 11 m. S. S. 

which runs through the town and then enters the W. of Nice. Long. 7. 7. E. lat. 4b. 35. N. 

river Sier. It was l&tehr the see of a bishop, who Antieosti, an island at the mouth of the river 

also assumed the title or bishop and prince of Ge- St. Lawrence, 90 m. long and 20 broad. It is 

neva* Annecy is the largest town in Savoy next full of rocks, covered with wood, and has no har 

to Chamberry, and is 16 m. S. of Geneva. Long, boor ; but excellent cod is found on the shores. 

6. 5. E. lat. 45. 53. N. AnHetam, a small tributary of the Potomac, run- 

Annohon, an island near the coast of Guinea, so ninff into it near Shepardstown. 

called because it was discovered by the Portu- Mtiguaj one of the English Leeward Islands, 

guese on New Tear*s day. It is well stocked in the West Indies, about 20 m. in length and 

with catUe, and abounds with palm trees and breadth, and 60 east by south of St. Christopher, 

fhiit. Long. 5. 10. E. lat. 1. 50. 8. It is destitute of water, and the inhabitants are 

Annonay, a town of France, in the department obliged to save the rain water in cisterns. The 

of Ardeche, with manufactures of very fine pa- chief produce is sugar, of which it annually pro- 

KT : seated at the confluence of the Cances and duces about 10,000 hogsheads. It was taken by 

eumes, 12 m. 8. W. of Vienne. the French in 171^, but restored in 1783. The 

AunsvUle, p.v. Dinwiddle Co. Va. 54 m. 8. capital is St. John. See Appendix. 

Richmond. AntUlM, the name which tiie French give tf- 

AnsoUf a Coqnty of North Carolina, bordering the Caribbee, or West India islands, which set • 


^mtiochj OTAnthMa, a town of Syria, of which aboat 19 m. N. W. of Belfast. Fop. of tha town 
it was formerly the capital. This ancient city in 3,485, and of the parish. 5,129. The town b situate 
which Ihc disciples of Christ were first called on the bank of a small stream, which runs into 
Christians, and yet the see of a Greek patriarch, Lough Neagh, at a short distance on the north- 
is now almost come to nothing; but the magni- east. 

ficcnt ruins of it still remain. It is seated on the .^ntrtin, p.t. Hillsborough Co. N. Hampshire, 

river Orontes, now called Osi, 15 m. fiom the 67 m. fir. Boston. Pop. ljS)9. 

Mediterranean, and 50 N. W. of Aleppo. Long. Aurimf p.t. FVanklin Co. Pa. adjoining Mary- 

36. 40. E. lat. 36. 10. N. land. 

AnHoeketta, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Car- Antrim, t. Crawford Co. Ohio, 

auiania, and a bishop's see, seated on the shore of Antwerp^ a celebrated city of Biabant, and af- 

the Levant, opposite Cj^roB, 88 m. S. of Konieh. ter the decline of Venice and Genoa it became one 

Long. 32. 26. E. lat. 36. 30. N. of the most considerable commercial depots of 

AntiogOy St. an island on the S. W. coast of Sax- Europe. It is situated on the east bank of the 

diaia, 14 m. long and 3 broad. In 1793 it was Scheldt, in N. lat. 51. 13. and 4. 24. E. long 

taken by the French, but eyacuated soon after. The era of its greatest importance was about the 

AntuMpaa, or St. Fe de Antioauia, a town in the commencement of the i7th century, when its 
new department of Cauca, Colombia. It is seat- population amounted to about 200,000, but the de- 
ed on the banks of the river Cauca, about 200 m. Tsstating policy of Austria and Spain involved it 
N. N. W. St. Fe de Bogota. in Uie bigoted and ruthless contentions of that pe- 

AntiparoSy the ancient Of^ island of the nod ; further, bv the extent of the commercial 

Archipelago, two miles west of raros. It is onlj transactions, which its localities drew hither as 

a rock, 16 miles in circuit; yet in some parts is to a centre, it greatly rivalled the transactions of 

a vast variety of figures, and a white transparent in 1648, by the treaty of Westphalia, between 

crystalline substance resembling vegetables, mar- Spain and Holland, and Antwerp inconsequence, 

b!e pillars, and a superb marble pyramid. Long, progressively declined in population and impor- 

25. 44. E. lat. 37. 8. N. tance, until the period of the French revolution. 

ArUitaiuLy a peak of the Andes, in the depart- When the Frencn overran th'is part of Europe in 

ment of Quito, which is volcanic, 19,150 ft. alMve 1794, they proclaimed the free navigation of the 

the level of the sea. There is a tillage of the Scheldt, and after the renewal of the war subse- 

same name, a few leagues east of the city of Qui- quent to the peace, or rather the respite of Amiens 

to, at a height of 13,500 ft. being the highest in- in 1802, Antwerp claimed the especial notice of 

habited pli^e on the globe. Napoleon, who constructed a basin to hold about 

AntouUf ^. a town of France, in the department 20 sail of the line^ and a noble quay, along the 

of Isere, 5 m. N. E. of St. Marcellan. east bank of the nver, and made it his principal 

Antonio f St. the most northern of the Cape Verde naval .arsenal for the northern part of his empire, 
islands, 15 m. firom St. Vincent It is fiiU of high It was not, however, till subsequent to the g«ne- 
mountains, whence proceed streams of excellent ral peace of Europe in 1814. when the Nether- 
water, which render the land fruitful. The prin- lanos were ceded to Holland, and Antwerp de- 
cipai town is seated among the mountains. Long, clared a free port for the transit of merchandise, 
2o. 0. W. lat. 17. 0. N. that it began to resume its former wonted activity 

j^ntonio <fe ^eAor, Sent, the Capital of Texas, on and importance. Since that period, Brussels, 

the S. Antonio river. It is a village composed of and a vast extent of countnr westward «f the 

mud cabins covered with turf. Rhine, draw their supplies of foreign produce from 

Antonio de Conoy St. a town of Bnunl, in the prov- Antwerp, which is, m consequence , progressively , 
ince of Pemambuco, situate near Cape St. Angus- though slowly, increasing in population and in- 
tin, 30 m. S. S. W. Olinda. terest. It has, however, but few articles of ex- 

** There are near 100 other towns and streams port, either within itself, or of transit, 
in different parts of South America and Mexico, Tne city is nearly a semicircle, of about seven 
dedicated to the tutelar saint of the Portuguese miles round. It was defended by the citadel, 
and Spaniards, AnAony, or SanAnUmio, who does built by the duke of Alva to overawe the inhabi- 
not appear to have done much for them, as they tants. The whole appearance of its public build- 
are mostly insignificant. ing>» atreets, and houses^ afibrds the most incon* 

Antrim, a maritime county, on the N. E. coast testible evidence of its former splendour. Many 
of Ireland. It has two sreat natural curiosities ; instances of the immense wealth of its raeichants 
Lough Neagh, a large luce, the area of which ex- are recorded : among others, it is said that when 
cee£ 100,000 acres, the waters being of a petrify- Charles V. once dined with one of the chief mag- 
ing quali^ ; and the Giant's Causeway, consist- istrates, his host immediately after dinner threw 
Ing of lofty nillazB of basaltes, all or angular into the fir^ a bond for two millions of ducats, 
shapes, firom uiree sides to eight, and extending which he had received as security for a loan to 
three miles alon^ the north shore. The linen manu- that monarch, saying that he was more than re 
facture is carried on very extensively in this paid by the honour of being permitted to enter- 
county, and since about 18S» the cotton manufac- tain his sovereign. 

ture has been nvkking considerable progress. The The most remarkable of the streets is the Place 

principal towns are Belfast, Lisburne, and Carrick- de Mer, said to be unequalled by any in Europe 

fer^}9, each of which (in addition to the two for for its great length, its still more unusual breadtJi, 

the county) returns one member to the parliament and the extraoniinary sumptuousness of its hou- 

of the United Kingdom. Carrickfergus is the a«- ses. A crucifix thirty-three feet high, made fh>m 

size town. The county contained in 1821, 270, a demolished statue of the duke of Alva, stands at 

fn^'.l inhabitanto, and 48,088 houses. one end of the street ; but the eye of taste is of 

Antrim, a town and parish of the above county, funded here and elsewhere by the great intermix 

ANT 44 A08 

tore of dwellings of the lowest description with the then kings of France, Denmark, Portugal, 

splendid palaces. The noble and the mechanic Poland, Bohemia, and the Romans, were made 

often inhabit adjoining houses. The want of knifhts of the order^ of the Grolden Fleece, by 

sunken areas before the houses, and of raised foot- Philip II. of Spain, in the year 1555. 

paths for pedestrians, is also severely commented The church of St. James contains the tomb of 

on by British visitors. the great Rubens : It is of black marble, simple in 

The quays present a noble appearance : they design, but most appro]>riately adorned witn one 

are richly planted, and form one of the mort fa- of that master's own paintings. The windows of 

vourite promenades. In the neighbourhood of this church are much admired, 

the basins for shipping, is a square building, 230 The church of St. Paul or of the Dominicans 

feet long each way, intended as a place of mer- Jms in it some works of Rubens and Vandyke ; 

chandise for the Oosterling or Hanseatic towns cf .particularly the scourging of Christ, by the for- 

Germany. In its middle story, which has a igii mer. But it is more nequently visited to see a 

lery quite round the square, there are^SOO Iwg- -represetatation of mount Calvary near its en- 

ing rooms, but they are no longer used as silcB. .trance. On desc^andinff into a cavity in the rocL 

The cellars serve for stables. intended to represent the place of our Saviour e 

Besides the canals usual in all Dutch towns, snfierings, the body of Christ is seen laid out on 

others of an extraordinary construction are to be a tomb, and covered with a shroud of silk ; the 

found here. They are carried on wholly under walls around are painted to resemble the flames of 

ground, having been excavated at the expense of purgatory, and the figures of those su^ring its 

individuals, in order to convey in small boats, to .torments. The whole is executed in a coarse 

their storehouses, the goods which had been style, almost bordering on the grotesque ; yet, sit- 

brouffht in by the usual conveyance of the open uate as it is, it seldom fails to produce a solemn 

canals. They are now used as sewers. efiect The other churches are in possession of 

The town hall, in the great market-place, is a paintings by the old masters, 

spacious building 250 feet long, having its front At the academy of fine arts upwards of 1,000 

adorned with statues. It was rebuilt in 1581, the students receive gratuitous instruction in painting 

period of the commercial downfid of the city, and its kindred arts. The academy is held in 

This buildinf contains the public library, which some of the departments of the museum, where 

is not remarkable for the number or rarity of its also there is a fine collection of pictures and of 

books. It also contains a fine collection of paint- casts. A public annual exhibition of the produc- 

ings. The royal palace in the Place de Mer, tions of the pupils is held here alternately with 

which had been fitted up for the residence of Bo- Brussels ana Ghent; prizes are distributed ; and 

naparte, contains also some fine paintings. The the successful pictures are purchased by the cities 

Exchange, a large, but by no means an elegant to which the victors belong, to be lodged in their 

structure, has served as a model for those of public collections, as rewards to the successful 

Amsterdam and London. candidates and as excitements to others. Ant- 

Of the places of public worship, the cathedral is werp boasts of being the native place of Ru- 
by far tlie most noble, not only as compared with bens and Vandyke, as also of Teniers, Snyders, 
those in the neighbourhood, but with any other on and Joerdans. Opposite to the town, ancf near 
the continent. It is 500 feet long, 230 wide, and the spot whence it was bombarded by the English 
360 high ; its erection occupied a period of ninety- in 1809, the place of a new city was traced out by 
six years. The spire is 46(B feet in height. Ac- Bonaparte, its site is now occupied by some 
coruin^ to the onginal design, another of equal forts ouilt under the direction of the duke of 
dimensions was to nave been erected on the other Wellington. 

side of the great entrance. But after having been The recent separation of the Netherlands from 

carried up to a certain height, the work was dis- Holland, will doubtless have a considerable efiect 

continuec ; yet, notwithstanding this defect in upon the commercial prosperity of Antwerp, 

uniformity, it is thouffht that the want of the sec- During the insurrection wnich preceded this 

ond spire adds to the simple grandeur of that event, the city was bombarded by the Dutch, and 

which has been completed. .The gallery to the a great number of its buildings burnt. The Dutch 

summit of the tower is attained hj an ascent of were ropulsed afler much hard fighting. 

'€122 steps ; and the toil of goins up Is well repaid jMteern, p.t. Jefibrson Co. N. x . iS m. N. W. 

by the commanding view afiforded of the city be- Albany. Pop. 2,412. 

ueath, the country, the Scheldt, and its neigh- Anvil y p.t. Lebanon Co. Pa. 

bouring islands, stretching into the main sea. ^nriUe /r/oiuf, an island in the gulf of Georgia. 

This church contains many fine paintings, mostly discovered by Vancouver, and so called from its 

by Rubens : that of the taking down of our Sa- shape. 

viour fVom the cross, in which the figures are as AnweUer, or AwHUer, a town in the duchy of 

large as life, is universally con&dered his master- Deux Ponts, 6 ni. W. from Laudan. It was 

piece. It also contains the monuments of Am- formerly a city of Austria, and the inhabitants en- 

brose * Capello, seventh bishop of the see ; joyed the singular privilege of exemption frnm 

those of Moretus the printer, the successor toll dues in aU parts of Uie empire ; but in 1330 it 

of Plantin ; of Plantin himself, and of Van was brought under the dominion of the counts 

Delft. Outside its walls is the tomb of Quinten palatine. 

Matsys, originally a blacksmith, but who, on be- Anxtrmaf a town of New Granada in tlie prov- 
ing refused the daughter of Flors the painter till ince of Popajran, where there are mines of crold. 
he had proved himself a painter also, laboured It is seated on the Cauca, 140 m. N. N. E. (»f 
with incessant assiduitj^ till he overcame the old Popayan. Long. 75. 25. W. lat. 4. 58. N. 
man's scruples, and ultimately surpassed him in AnxikOf a kingdom of Guinea, lying east of 
fais favourite art. Near the tomb is a pump, the Gabon and north of Congo, but it is little known, 
iron-work of which is said to have been wrought The king is styled the Micoco, whence the coun- 
by Matsys before his transformation. In this ca- try is sometimes so called. The capital is Mons* 1. 
^odral Henry VIII. of England, together with j9mCs, or jimtsty duchy of, a province of Piid- 


nv^Qt, boniMied on the west and north hj the chiefly by agriculture ; and aiz exterior, bordering 

Aip^, or rather on the north by the Valaia, for on the canton of St. Gall, are Protestant, with a 

ut' uiountunsrun from north to south into Aoust, population of 40,000, a great portion of which are 

vWx'ti miy be considered altogether as a moun- employed by the manufacturers of the city of 

U:nio4 district. Pop. about 65,000. The princi- St. Gall. 

pal o^:/ of the same name, which b a bishop's see, JS^enzd^ the chief town of the aboye Canton, 

.i s.tuite about the centre of the province, be- is situate on the bank of the river Sitter, on the 

ivcfQ two streams of the Baltea River, which interior side, and containing about 3,000 inhab. 

iiils into the Po, and on the great high road from Apfia Via^ or JSppian Way^ a celebrated road 

thepiasofSt. Bernard to Timn. It contains sev- from Rome through Capua to Brundusinm. It 

cnl Dionuments of the Romans. Pop. 5,500. was besun by Appius ClaudiuB Coecus, and con- 

Apaluckian Mountains^ the name given to the tinned by Julius and Augustus CsBsar. 

iuitnen^ chain extending along the whole At* JippU Forum, a town in the south west of Italy, 

lontic coast of the U. States, from Alabama to about 50 m. S. of Rome, and IB from the Three 

Maine, in the Southern States they are 200 m. Taverns ; where the Christians of Rome came to 

fr^m the sea, but as they extend northward ap- meet Paul in his journey from Puteoli to that me* 

pnvu:h near the coast. They run ^nerally in tropolis of the world. 

pirallcl ridges and their various divisions go by .^jip/e^j^, a borough in Eng. returning two mem- 
al.ierent names. These are the Cumberland hers to parliament, and the county- town of West- 
mountains of Tennessee, the Blue mountains of moreland, with a market on Saturday. It was a 


t'le White mountains of New Hampshire. They part is the castle, and at the lower end is the 

ire sometimes broken into ^rroups and isolated church. The town is governed by a mayor, and 

rinins. Their highest summits are in N. Hamp- almost encircled by the Eden. It is 20 m. N. N. 

s'lin* ; and are between 6 and 7,000 ft. above the E. of Kendal, and 270 N. N. W. of London. Pop. 

l*M-e] of the sea. East of the Hudson they are in 1821, 824, and Bongate, which fonns part of 

^a.-iitic. In the W. and S. they consist of zran- the town, 6^ more. 

itp. gneiss, mica and clay slate, primitive Time- Applecro8Sy a parish extendinj? for about 20 

•U)n-», &c. Their name in the language of the miles along the western coast of Koss-shire, Scot- 

ladians signified endUss. land. Pop. in 1821, 2,793, who subsist mainly by 

Jpalofkuufla, a river of North America, formed the herrin? fishery. There is a town of the same 

by the junction of the Chatahooche and Flint, at name, in which the population is principally con- 

an old Indian fort of the same name on the south centrated. 

rnnfines of Georgia, and thence flows between Appltdore, a village of England in Northam, 

>Vcst and East Florida into Apaiache bay, in the Devonshire, situate at the mouth of Towridve, in 

ipilf of Mexico, east of Cape Blaise. Barnstable bay, three miles north by east of Bid* 

Afmmmm, a town seated on the N. W. coast ford. Here the Danes landed, under Hubba, in the 

of the island of Santorin, 7 m. N. N. W. of time of Alfred. It is now resorted to for bathing. 

Scanro, at the entrance of the Grecian Archipe- Appltton, t. Waldo Co. Me. Pop. 735. 

lago. AjtpUngf a Co. of Georgia, in the S. E. part of 

jfMe, one of the New Hebrides, near MallcoUo, the state, upon the Altamaha. Pop. 1,468. 

in the Pacific Ocean. Long. 168. 27. £. lat. 16. Jipplingmlle, the chief town of Columbia Co. 

46. S. Geo. 93. m. from Millcdgeville. 

jipenradBf or Ampewrade, a sea-port of Denmark, AppoUonia, a district extendin|r about 100 miles 

ia S!«^wick, with a citadel. It is a place of consid- on tne S. W. coast of North Africa. Cape Appol- 

enble trade, seated at the bottom of a gulf of the Ionia is in 5. N. lat. and 3. 57. W. long. 

Little Belt, 27 m. N. N W. of Sleswick. Long 9. Appolobamba, a town in La Paz, one of the 

3d. E. lat. 55. 8. N. united provinces of Paraguay, on the border of 

Apkiomj or A/imm^kara'kissar, a town of Asiatic Peru. 

Turkey, in Natolia, built round a high rock, on Appomattox, a stream of Virginia, falling into 

the top of which is a fortress. It is 3 m. in the James from the S. near City Point, 

drcunuerence, and has a considerable trade. The Appoqtunimink, a stream in the state of Dela- 

chief manufacture is carpets ; and the country ware, running into Delaware Bay, a little below 

aroond produces much opium, called aphiom by Reedy Island. 

'he Tons. It stands on the Mindra, 150 m. E. Appoquinimink, t. Newcastle Co. Del. 

/Smyrna. Long. 31. 10. £. lat. 38. 35. N. ^^, a town of France, in the department of 

ApoliU, a town of Upper Saxony in Thuringia, Mouths of the Rhone. It has a trade in prunes, 

8 m. N. of Jena, and 40 S. W. of Leipsic. coarse serges, and wax chandlery ; and contains 

Ayenmnrj, a chain of mountains, in Europe many Roman antiquities. It is seated on the 

which begins near Oneglia, on the gulf of Genoa, Calaron, 20 m. N. of Aix. 

passes round that gulf at no great distance from ApuUa, p.v. Onondaga Co. N. T. 129 m. W. 

the sea, then proceeds east to ue centre of Italy, Albany. 

and afterward divides that country in a mediate Apure, a river of Colombia rising from varions 

vrath-east direction to the extremities of the sources on the E, side of the eastern range of the 

kingdom of Naples. Hence proceed all the rivers Andes and falling into the Oronoko. 

vhich water Italy. The Apnmines are at first a Apurhnac,a, river of Peru, which rises ID miles 

branch of the Alps, but, in general they may rather N. of Areouipa, and flows N. about 430 miles; 

be regarded as hills than as mountains. receiving the Pauoartambo, and Pilcomayo from 

Jhfemxel, a canton in the N. E. part of Switxer- the E. and the Jauja or Mantaro from the W. It 

haa, bordering on Tyrol. It is divided into 12 then takes the name of Ucayale, and continuing 

communities : six called the interior, are Roman its course 470 miles further, enters tlie river AraSi- 

Cith<4ic, with a pc^QlaUon of 16,000, subsisting son, in long. 72. 46. W. 


Jfui, «. town Pltdniont. in tlie duchy of Mont- 
fEnat, wilh & ciladf 1, and balhs of miupr&l water ; 
■eutcJ oil the nonh bonk of the Borniida, 15 m. 
a, of AlcxRuilm. 

jtqiula, s fine large city of the kingdom of 
Nd()U, uiicientlj cSled AiU, uid AvelU, the 
cafiilal uf Abruziu, Bealed on a hill, eutof the 
A|>eaiiines, on the builii of the river Alletno, or 

Slid IB a bishop 8 aec. An earthquske wu lovlo- 
tcut litre in Feb. 1703, that 24,000 peoole peiiih- 
cJ,iind^eiitnuniben were wounded. It iaiituale 
:Si m. W. from the Adriatic, and 92 E. of Romi-. 
Long. 14. 30. E. kt. 42. 50. N. 

Jiaudtia, an ancient and large city of the Cami, 
or Veneti, in Italy, Bcat«d near the coaat at the 
head uf the ^ulfof Vrniire. A Roman colony 
wai aettled in it, betwrrn the hret and aecond 
Mac-doniaji wars, to \k a bulwark aifainst ttie 
lliina and Goths. In iS> it was beaie^d by Attila 
with an innumerable host of barbariana. Three 
montliB were consumed without efFoct in the 

) AHA 

rietirs uf tlie chuie, lliia, though klie most labori- 
ous, ia yet the most enlerUiiniiig. Aaaoon ai> tbt 
hunlei comes within sight of bia prey, he- puts an 
his horso witli ■ gentle gallop, so aa to keep the 
ostrich still in sight ; yet not to ai to terrily him 

that the troops shauld strike their tents the next 
iiiorninjf, and begin their retreat. But as he rode 
round the wall, pensive, angry, and disappointed, 
he observed a stork preparing to leave her nest in 
una of iht tDn-irN,and to liy, with iK-r infant fami- 
ly, towards the country ; this he interpreted as an 
omen that those towera were devoted to iuipend- 
ing ruin and solitude. The siege waa renewed 
and pnisecuted with fresh vigour ; a targe breach 
was made in tlie part of the wall frnm whence the 
atork had taken her flight; the Huns mounted to 
the assault with irresistible ftiry; and the suc- 
ceeding generation could scarcely discover the 
ruina of Aquilein. 

Ji^irui, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, 
ruined by the emperor Conrad. It ia the birth- 
plac- of Juveual, and sealed near the Carig- 
liano, on the great high road ftum Rome to Na- 
ples, 20 m. S. V K. of Sora. 

Araiiat, a town and fort of tlie Crimea, and 
province of Taurida, on the borders of the sea of 
Asoph, 2a m. N. by E. of Caffa. 

Jirahia, a country of Asia, extending from the 
13th t(i the 32nd drg. of N. jat. and from the 33rd 
to the r>Hlh of W.long. being about I Am m. in 
length, 1,200 in breadth; bounded on the W. by 
the Ked Sea, and the isthmus of Suez, N. E. by 
the Euphrates, which divides it from Diarlwhir, £. 
by the f;ulfs of Persia and Ormus, and S. by the 
Indian Ocean. It ia divided into three parts, Ara- 
bia Petrea, Deserta, and Felix, so namvd by Eu- 
ropeans from their supposed qualities of soil and 
climate. Arabia Petrea, much the smallest of the 
three, lies to the south of Syria olonir the east 
coast of the Red Sea. The nortii part is moun- 
tainous, and in general atonv, smdy. and barren; 
but some parts yield sufficient nourishment for 
cattle, whose milk, and camels' flesh, ia tlie chief 
food of its few inhabitants. Arabia Deserta lies 
south of Syria, and east of Arabia Petrea, and 
the Red Sen. It is for the moat part desert, be- 
'm% intersected by barren mountains, and many 
of tln^ plains nothmg but great sands and heaths; 
t— there are some plains and valleys that feed 
great flocks of sheep and goats ; there are aim 
grpst ■ numbe-s of oslriches, and a fine breed of 

nohlesl of the species. 

The Arabians train up their bi>st and fleetest 
lurscs, to hunt ttie ostrich. Perhaps, of all va> 

from the plain into the mountaiuB. Upon observ- 
ing himself, therefore, pursued st a distance, the 
bird begins to run at first, but gently, either in- 
sensible of his danger, or sure of CHcaping. In 
this situation he somewhat resemblra a man at 
full spent ; his wings, like two arms, keep work- 
ing with a motion corn^spondent to that of hi- 
\f& : and his speed would verv soon sn^lrh him 
fri^m tlie view of his pursuersj but. unlbrtunale- 
Iv for the sill/ cn-ature, instead of going otF in a 
direct line, lie takes his course in circles; while 
IliG hunters still make a small course wilhin, re. 
Ilcvc each other, meet him at nnexpented turns, 
and keep him thus still employed, still followed, 
for two or three days together. At last, spent 
with fiitigue and famine, and finding all power of 
escape impossible, he endeavours to hide himself 
from those enemies he cannot avoid, and covers 
hisheadiu the aand, or the first thicket he meets. 
Sometimes, however, he attempts to face his piT- 
suera : and, though in general the moat gentle 
animal in nature, when ^Iven to desperation, h<- 
defends himaelf with his beak, his wings, and 
hia feet. Such is the force of his moUon, that a 
man would be utterly unable to witbatand him in 
the shock. The oxen of Arabia have generally 
a hump on their bock like Uiriie of Svria. 
The sheep have a tliick and broad tail, wliirh 
they are said lo drag liehind them on a carriage ; 
tlieir wool is coarse, and their flesh not very deli- 
rate. The »ild goat is found in the mountain!! 
of Arabia Petrea. The other animals are the 
jackal, hy«na, many aorta of apes, the jerboa 
or rat of^ Pharaoh, antelopes, wild oxen, wolves, 
foxes, wild boars and the great and little panther. 
The CBiacal or syagoah is a sort of lynx, and is 

probably the lynx of the ancienla. It follows the 
lion and lives npon the remains of that animal's 
meals. It is somewhat larger than a fox, ami 
much fiercer and stronger. Itclimhs wilh nslon- 
iahing agility to the tope of the tallral trees ii 

of bar 
called c 

1 hirds. 

•pm, betwrrn tlie Red S«a auil lb* ludiu Oocui. 
It ■• by Ax Uie inoal enasidenble put, uid thongb 
th# centre is occupivd bj vttj drj lieferU, tlisn 
MP manj ricli proviucei on Ihe cnuta, producing 
m vuii'tv of fruiU, hone^, wat.cinDanion.canu, 
nvuias, ipikcnnrd, rnaliiiicenae, myrrh, imd cof- 
fee, of whlcli latUr gnul qiuntitiei are exported 
riom Moka. Thi; Arabi us of a loiddle ■tature and 

inebuicholy ur. The; dsrlre their BuUiiitvnce 
froui their Bovks, from hunting, and from what 
they acquire by plunder of the cunivuis which 
pisi from Aleppo to Bauora, and from Buaon 
to Mecca. They auknowledge no Bovereign but 
the emirm of (heir tribfli, who arc their natural 
princM,and In whom they pay obedicDce. Tlicy 

' ' - -•--'•-- -- chieft of snadviuieed age, 

inlt, and wIiok advice tiiey 
I of the Arabs oouststii of a 
white robe, bouod roand with a brood leather gir- 
dle, raateaed by a itrong buckle or loroa clasp. 
Tileir dnwers ore mode of linen, and deocend lo 
the lower part of the leg. They wear a kind of 

ilipp-'». aHer the manner of tlie Turk>, but are 
leufnlly iu hiilf boots thai they may be ready to 
jftonhomebick. Winter and Huniiner Ihey wear 
a liri^ elo;ik, itriped block and white, made of 
the liair of goatu or some other aniinal. Tlii>ir 
einin drru in the sorne manner, eicepi thai their 
■ for Ihe most part nil black. The 

count of tbs rarogpa made by theie aniinali. 

phanti' teeth, beei' wm», and rice ; but its trade 
wa» never very eooaidcrahle. Aracan wa» long 
on independent nation, governed by a hing ; but 
it WB* lubdued by the Birmana in ITSK.and i* 
now a province of that empire, 

Aracan, the capital of the country of the name 
nwiie, with an extensive fort. It isiitualp at Die 
head uf an inlet of the ta, which fnriits one ot 
the finest and most capacious harbours for "hip- 
ping in the world. The river Anuan run! through 
the city, and waters the street* by means of seve- 
ral orins or canals, into which it is divided. The 
inhabitajita are about 100,000. ]t was token by 
tbe Birmans in 1783. It is StM m. S. S. E. of 
Islamabad, and ?J0 \V. S, W.of Ava. Lon« iO 
10. E. lal. 90. .18. N. 

^raJ^ an interior county of Upper Iluigary, 
poitulation about l.W.OOO. There are two lownii 
of the same name, Uie Old, which ia the capital 
of the county, on the north, and tlie New town 
on the south side of (he Marosch river. The old 
lown it a great mart for eatlle, and is about SI m. 
N. N. E. of Tcmeswor. 

^rafnt, or Grbel Orphal, a mountain of Arabia, 
alwul IM A. in h«i):ht, 15 m. 8. B. E. of Mecca. 
Its name implies the Jfniutfo-'n nf KnoirMte, 
and as such is an object of adoration with t)ie 
devoteea of Mahomet; in 1607, upwird of WIJKK) 
pilgriniB, including 4.'>,r)0U mnuiiled Wab^bees, 
were assembled about it. 

.Iragaaya, ■ river of South America, which 
rises in the tat. of abool 19.8. near loth<- Parana, 
which runs from north to south, whil*l the .4ra- 
gUBva runs tlirough the heart of Brimil from south 
In iiurlh. to the lat. of about 7. 8. where it h join- 
ed hy the Toeonlina, and about .1 Jep. fbrl.her it 
diyerges Into two branches, one foiling into the 
Amazon, and the olher forniin-T a separate ehan- 
nel into (he Atlantic, called Paro, in the lut. ot 
0. 90. S. and 4lf- 20. W, long. 

•Iral, a lake of Indejiendent Tarlary, 190 miles 
east of the Caspian Sea. It is 300 miles in length, 
and in some ])laceB 70 in breadth, inleraeeted by 
llie lines of 43. N. lat. and CO. W. long. The 
water is salt, and there are many small aaline 

I the d 

from place Iu place, partly for the sake of pasture, 
and partly to lie in wait for the caravans. The 
funoo* Mahomet wob a native of this country ; 
and his followers^ soon after Ilia death, conquered 
agreul part of Asia, Africa, and Europe, eatahlish- 
iog their religion wherever they came. The in- 
t-'nor of Ihia vast territory is very little known, 
but il aei'ms nearly destitute of water, aa but very 
few riven are found round its coast for near 2,!50O 
miles. Medina, Meoco, and Moka, all on Uie 
oail of the Red Sea, arc the diief towns. 

Aracan. or Itwraa, a maritime and fertile coun- 
try of Asia, on the cost coast of the bay of Ben- 
gll. bounded on the east by Birmah. The rainy 
c-'a-wn continues from April lo October, and the 
r>-sl of llie year ia called summer. The inhabitants 
ate Idol^leni. The women ate tolerably fair, but 
Ihe lonn-st cars are reckoned the most beaatJAll, 
and in lliesc ther wear manv rings. They ire a 
dasiardly race of people, and have only conraffe to 
H'.laek defenneless merchants and boatmen. TTiere 
are such numbers of elephants, buffaloes, and 
tigera, tlut bnt few places an Inbo^ted, on oc- 

ity. but il h 
nicalion with the sea. 

JlraHJuez, a town of 8pain, in New Castile, 
with broad streeti) intersecting each olherat right 
angles. The great square is surrounded by porti- 
coes, and has a fountain that snpplies the lown 
witli water. Here are three churches, and a thea- 
tre for bull-fights; but the glory of Aranjuei ia 
the royal palace and gardens, situate on an island 
fbrnied by the Tagun, Ihe Xaroma, and a eanal. 
This palace justly ranks among the finest and 
most agreeable residences in Europe ; it was in it 
the supreme junta of government of the king- 
dom, on the declaration in favour of Ferdinand 
VII. were installed, and held their first meeting, 
Sept.SSlh, leOd. Aranjuei isBCated on the Tajo, 
90 m. 8. at Madrid. - 

Ararat, a mountain of Armenia, distingui^ed 
in Mosaic history. See Oen. TJii. 4. Its height 
is about D,500 ft. above the level of the sea. 

Ararat, a mountain in N. Carolina, 19 m ftom 
Bethany in Stokes Co. 

Ariuri, a maritime town of the territory of Ge 
noa, 5 m. 8. W. of Albengn. 

Araa, a town of Switierland, capital of tke 
department of Lower Argo, canton of Beme, 
with mann&ctlirei of cotton, printtd Hneti, and 


cutlery. A treaty between the protestant and greatly declined in importance rince the building 

cathouc cantons was concluded here in 1712. It of St. Peteraburg, it atill exports considerable 

is seated on the river Aar, 27 m. W. of Zurich. quantities of tallow, deals, and some bristles ; but 

J9raiKOf a district extending from the 42nd to as it ia only attained by the dreary coast of Nor 
the ^th deg. of S. lat. on the shore of the Pacific way, and tne North Cape, in lat. 71 . 10. , it is ac- 
Ocean, bounded on the E. by the Andes, and is cessible only a few months in the year, in Jul^, 
considered as belonging to Chile, but it is inhabi- August, and September, during which short peri- 
ted almost exclusively by natives, who have not od it is resorted to by 60 or 70 sail of vessels an- 
only successfully resisted every attempt of the nually, principally Enfflish. It was nearly de- 
Spaniards to become masters or the countrjr, but stroyed by fire in 1793, out has since been rebuilt 
frequently made incursions into their territory, with neatness, principally of wood, the severity 
The district contains both gold and silver, is wa- of the winter beinff counteracted by stoves. Pop. 
tered by several streams, is very ^rtile, and about 7,000, who nave about a doien churches, 
the climate is delightful. The Spaniards con- one Lutheran, one Calvinist, and the others 
structed a fort about 40 m. S.of Concepcion, (na- Greek. Archangel is about 400 m. N. E. of St 
med after the district) ss a defence against the Petersburg, 
incursions of the Araucans. Archer, t. Harrison Co. Ohio. 

Araxes, or Aras^ a river of Asia, which rises in Archipelago, is a term applied to a cluster or 

Georgia, flows S. £. across Armenia, and joins group of islands, hence the Grecian, Eastern, 

the Kur, near its entrance into the Caspian Sea. Nortnem, &c. &c.; but the most celebrated group 

It is a very rapid river, and is supposed to be the is the Grecian, at the head of the Mediterranean 

Gihon mentioned by Moses. sea, having Romania on the north, Natolia on the 

Arbe, an island 30 m. in circumference, on the east, the isle of Candia on the south, Macedonia, 

coast of Dalmatia, from which it is 5 m. distant. Livadia, and the Morea on the west. It is partly 

The soil is rich, but the inhabitants are indolent, in Europe, and partly in Asia, containino; the isl 

It has a town of the same name. Long. 14. 55. ands of Rhodes, Negropont, Lemnos, Tcnedos, 

E. lat. 45. 5. N. Scyros, Mytilene, Scio, Samos, Patmos, Paros, 

Aiherg, a town of Switzerland, in the canton Antiparoe, Cerigo, Santorini, Andros, Tina,Nax- 

of Berne, on an island formed by two branches ia, Milo, Delos, Argentiera, and many others. 

of the Aar. It is 10 miles W. by N. of Berne. Archivda^o, Northern, a part of the Pacific 

Arbdj a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Curdistan. Ocean, having the peninsula of Kamschatka on 

ancient Arbela, near which Alexander defeatea the west, and the coast of America on the east. 

Darius. Here are the remains of an ancient cas- It includes a number of islands, amonor which arc 

tie, and in the vicioHy are naptha nits. It is four i>rincipal groups. The first, called Sasignan, 

seated in an extensive plain 36 m. N. or Altunku- contains five islands; the second, called Khoa, 

pri, and 50 E. of Mosiu. includes eight islands ; and both these groups to- 

Arbela, p. v. Lancaster Co. Pa. 45 m. E. Harris- gether are styled the Aleutian Islands. The 

bure. 9iird group is called the AnpreofTski Ostrova^ and 

Arbois, a town of France, in the department of comprises 16 islands. The fourth group is the 

Jura, famous for its white wines. It is 22 m. S. Lissie Ostrova or the Fox Islands, lo in number. 

W. of Besantj'on. They all belong to Russia, and are valuable chiefly 

Arhoga, a town of Sweden, Westmanland, for tne skins of animals found there, particularly 

seated on the Ulvison, by which river, and a ca- the sea-otter. Sec Fox Islands. 

nal, it has a communication with the lakes Hiel- Arcis-sur-Aube, a town of France, in the depart- 

inar and Maelar. It is 25 m. E. N. E. of Orebro. ment of Aube, seated on the river Aube, 15 m. 

Arbon, a town of Switzerland, situate on a north of Troyes. 

point of land jutting into the lake of Constance, Arco, a town and castle of Germany, in Tyrol, 

12 m. S. E. of Constance. taken by the French in 1703, and abandoned soon 

Arbroath. See Aberbrothioick. after. It stands on the Sarca, near the bead of 

Arburgy a town of Switzerland, in the canton the lake Garda, and 15 m. W. S. W. of Trent, 

of Berne, with a citadel on a rock, seated on the Areas, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, seated on 

Aar, opposite Olten, 12 m. E. of Soleure. a craggy rock, on the river Guadalete, 28 m. N 

Arcadia, a division of Modem Greece, in the E. orCadiz. It is the residence of the vicar gen- 
central part of the Morea. eral of the metropolitan church of Seville. T^iere 

Arcadia, a town on the west coast of the Morea, are several other towns of the same name in Spain 

near the gulf of its name, W. of the above district, and Portugal. 

22 m. north of Navarino. Long. 21. 42. E. lat. 37. Areot, a city of Hindooetan, capital of the Car 

24. N. natic, which became subject to the English East 

Archangd, a large province of Russia, boun- India Company in 1801. The citadel is largi.. 

ded on the north by tne Arctic Ocean. It is di- and esteemed a place of some strength ; but me 

vided into eight circles : viz. Archangel, Chen- nabob often resides at Madras. In the vicinity 

courisk, Chounegar, Kem, Kola, Meson, Onega, are several celebrated temples, visited by numer 

and Senega. It is a very dreary district, especial- ous pilgrims. Arcot has a manufacture of coarse 

ly the eastern part ; it supplies some fir timber cotton cloth. It is seated on the south bank of 

and deals, and contains many wild animals, which the Paliar. 66 m. W. by S. of Madras, and 180 E. 

are slaughtered for their fat; and tallow and bris- by N. of Seringapatam. Long. 79. 24. E. lat. 12. 

ties form great articles of export. 51. N. 

Archangel, or St. Michael, the chief town of Ardagh, the name of a barony in the county of 

the above province, is situate on the east bank of Longford, Ireland, containing 6 parishes, and the 

the Dwina River, a short distance above its en- towns of Longford and Edgworthstoun ; a parish of 

trance into a bay of the White Sea, in N. lat. 64. the same name, in 1822, contained a population 

34. £. long. 38. 59. It was for many years the of 4,962, and which, united with Kilmore gives 

pnneipal sea-port of Russia, and was fint resort- name to a bishopric, but there is neither cathedral 

ed to by th« Engliih in 1553| and although nor epiacopal rendenoe in Ardagh. There are 


four other pmruhM of the tame name in difibrent Jfrequipaf an emsoopal town of Peru, fonnded 

parts of Ireland: viz. Ist in Meath, pop. 1,074 ; by Pizarro, in 1539. Near it is a volcano. Itha« 

S2nd in Cork, pop. 2,344 ; 3rd in Limenck, pop. been four times laid in ruins by earthquakes. It 

l^tiSO ; and 4th in Mayo, pop. 1,556. There are stands in a fertile country, a few miles south of a 

40 other parishes in different parts of Ireland be- small lake, which is the source of the Apurimae 

ginning with Jird. branch of the Amazon River ; 240 m. 8. or Cuzco, 

Ard^U, a town of Persia, in Aderbeitzan, the and 460 S. £. of Lima. Long. 72. 30. W. lat. 16 

residence and burial-place of many kings, putic- 40. 8. 

ularly of Sheik 8e8si, the founder of the Persian ^ezzOf a town of Tuscany, in the Fiorentino. 

sect. Pilgrims resort to this place from all parts Guy Aretin, a Benedictine monk, inventor of the 

of Persia ; and caravans are frequently' passing to musical notes, ut. re, &c. was born here ; also the 

and from Constantinople and Smyrna. It is 35 celebrated Francis Petrarch, and Mecenas. It 

m. £. 8. E. of Tauris. Long. 47. «10. £. lat 38. stands on a hUl, at the conflux of the Chianno 

flO. N. and Amo, 15 m. west of Citta di Castello. 

Ardeeke, a department of France, including the Argau^ or Lower Argow^ a canton of Switzer- 

latc territory of Vivarez. It takes its name from land, formerly the north part of the canton of 

a river, which flows into the Rhone, at the south Berne, lying to the west of that of Zurich. Arau 

extremity of the department. Privas is the capi- is the capitS. 

jal. Pop. about 285,000. Argencu, a town of France, in the department 

ArdMf a borough of Ireland, in the county of of Calvados, on the river Menace, 10 m. E. of 

Louth. Here is a large mount, apparently artifi- Caen. 

sial : some suppose it to have been a burial place Argentan. a town of France, in the department 

>f the Irish km^ ; others, that it was a place of Ome, wnich has a considerable trade in lace. 

where the people assembled to deliberate on pub- It is seated on an eminence, in the middle of a 

(ic aflbirs. It is 14 m. N. W. of Drogheda. Pop. fertile plain, on Uie banks of Uie Ome, 12 m. N. 

of the town 3,588, and the parish 1,773 more. W. of Seez, and 110 W. of Paris. 

Ardemneg^ a department of France, containing Argenteuily a town of France, on the river 

part of the late province of Champagne. It is so Seine, 5 m. N. W. of Paris. It has a fine vine- 

named from a &moua forest, Iving on the river yard, and in the environs are quarries of the plas- 

Meuse. The principal town is Sedan. Pop. about tor of Paris. 

350,000. Argentieraj a barren island of the Archipelago, 

Anffertf a borough of Ireland, in the county of so called from the silver mines in it. There is 

Kerry, and a bishop's see united with Aghadoe. but one village, and it has no water but what is 

to Lixnerick. It was formerly the capital of the kept in cisterns. Long. 23. 10. £. lat. 36. 50. N. 

county, but is now a pocw pl^^y ^ik extensive Argenton, a town of France, in the department 

ruins. It is seated on a nver which runs into of Indre, divided into two parte by tne river 

Tralee bay, 7 m. N. N. W. of Tralee. Pop. Creuse. It is 37 m. 8. W. of Bourses. 

of the town 629 ; of the oommons 283 ; and of the Argdis, one of the divisions of Modern Greece 

whole parish 2,481. in the eastern part of the Moreaor Peloponnesus, 

Ardmore, a town of Ireland, in the county of established since the recent independence of that 

Waterfbrd, on a cape and bay of ite name, 10 m. country. 

8. 8. W. of Dun^urvon. Pop. of the town 403, Argos^ a seaport of Modem Greece, m the pre- 

and of the parish 2,761. ceding district, 25 m. 8. of Corinth. Long. 23. 

Atdra, a small kingdom of Guinea, on the Slave 5. £. Tat. 37. 30. N. 

coast, at the bottom of the gulf of St. Thomas. Argostoli, a town of the island of Cefalonia, 

The country is fertile in maize, palm wine,plante with a fortress and the best harbour in the island, 

and fruite, which last all the year; and it pro- It is 8 m. W. 8. W. of Cefalonia. 

duces a great deal of salt. It lias a to *^ of the ArgueU, a town of France, in the department 

■ame name. Long. 3. 5. £. lat 6. 0. N. of Lower Seine, 18 m. N. E. of Rouen. 

Ardres, a town of France, in the department Arguing an island and fort on the coast of Za- 

of Pas de Calais. On an open plain between the hara, 30 m. 8. E. of Cape Blanco. It was taken 

town and Gnisnes, was the celebrated interview by the Duteh from the Portuguese, in 1637; af> 

between Francis I. of France, and Henry VIII. terward the French took it firom the Duteh. 

of England, in 1520. It is 10 m. 8. 8. E. of Long. 17. 5. W. lat. 20. 30. N. 

Calais. Argun^ a river of Asia. See Sagkalien. 

Areea, an island in the ffulf of Persia, 3 m. Argun»koi, a town of Siberia, on the fron- 

8. W. of Ormus. The DuUm attempted to estab- tiers of Chinese Tartary. Tliere are mines of 

lish a factory, and built a ibrt here, but were ex- silver and lead near it, and a pearl fisherv in tlie 

|ielled by the Persians. river Argun, on the west bank of which the town 

j^sikea, a searport of Abvssinia. is situate. Itis70m. 8. E. of Nertohinsk. Long. 

Arauborgf the capital of a county of the same 118. E. lat. 52. 30. N. 

name, in the dnch^ of Westphalia. It is seated Argyle^ t. Penobscot Co. Me. Pop. 326. 

on a hill, by the river Roer, 22 m. 8. S. E. of Argy^y p.t. Wasliington Co. N. Y. 4(> m. If 

Ham, and ^ N. £. of Cologne. Long. 8. 10. E. Albany. Pop. 3,459. 

lat 51. 23. N. ArgyUshiref a county of Scotland, bounded on 

Arensburg, a sea-port of Russia, in the govern- the north by Invemesshire, east by the counlies 

ment of Riga, capital of the isle of Osel, and a of Perth and Dumbarton, and south and west 

bishop's see. Long. 25. 40. £. laL 58. 15. N. by the Atlantic ocean, by which it is broken 

Araukardef a district in Denmark, in the duchy into islands and peninsulas. It is 110 miles long 

of Sleswick, containing the greatest part of the from the Mull of Canty re to ite N. K. extremity ; 

famous rampart built by king Gotric, in the be- ite breadth is very uneaual, about 40 miles vrhora 

ginning of the 9th century, as a defence against greatest. To the N. W. is a peninsula, nearly do- 

the irruptions of the Saxons, it extends across tached from the rest of the county : it containH 

the country, about 9 m. in length. the districte of Ardnamurcfaom, Morven, Sunart^ 

7 E 


ind Ard^wtf. Tho peninralas of Cantyn tnd There are nmra of hiUa, that hafe the name of 

CowbI are Ukewioe very large. The chief udanda, moantams, whioh separate the waters of Ar- 

attached to this county, are Mull, ^^Jt Jura* kanaas from thoee of Washita. Near the Hot 

Tirey, and Col. The soil of Arcyleshirei in the springs, these rid^^ mount up into elevated 

hiffh fTQunds, though little fitted for cultiyation. peaks, which in the eye of a visitor at the springs, 

afiords excellent pasture. Some parts are coverea from the level country of Louisiana, have the as- 

with heath, and others exhibit rugged and bare pact of loftv mountains. At the south-western 

rocks. The sides of the hills and lakes are in- extremity or the territory, there are three parallel 

t^rspersed with woods ; and there are rich mines ranees of hills, that divide the watere of Red riv- 

of copper, iron, and lead. The mountainous parts er from those of Washita. There are, also, many 

abound wiUi deer and the heaths with grouse. The detached hills, and flint knobs. On some of these 

chief town is Inverary. is found the whortleberry *vaccuumn^ of the north, 

ArUa^ a seaport at the south extremity of Pern, in fi[reat perfection and abundance. These hills 
It is but badly fortified, and has been much injur- exhibit red cedars and savins, such as ^ow on 
ed by earthquakes. Here the treasure brought hillsof a similar appearance on the Atlantic shore, 
from Potosi 18 shipped ; and there are many farms In the c^tral parts of the territory, and intermedi- 
employed in the cultivation of Guinea pepper, in ate between Arkansas and Washita riven, on the 
which it has a great trade. It is 550 m. d. £. of waters of the latter is that singular detached el- 
Lima. Long. 70. 25. W. lat. 18. 27. S. evation, called < Mount Prairie? On the waters 

ArUnzOy a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, 6f White river and St Francis, the country gene- 
14 m. N. £. of Naples. rally is rolling.^ But, take the extent of the terri- 
er tru^, a town of Norway in the government tory together, it is either very level or very hilly, 
of Berfifen, noted fof the poductive iron mines in In some places, the hills rise at once firom level 
its vicinity. It is seated near the sea, 10 m. N. prairies and plains. A very considerable portion 
N. £. of Christiansand. of the country is broken land, and unfit for culti- 

'Arisch. or El Arisch, a town and fort of £gypt, vation. A ^at part of the *■ Darrens' of this state 
on a gulf of the Mediterranean, to -which it £^]^s are what their name imports. There are four con- 
name. The French became masters of it in 1799 ; siderable detached bodies of good upl^d. But 
but it was rettUien by the Turks and English at it may^ be assumed as a general fact, that the high 
the end of the year. In 1800, the Turks and prairies and timbered lands are sterile. Thatpurt 
French signed a convention here, by which the of the course of the Washita, which runs in this 
troops of the latter were to evacuate Egypt ; but territory, has narrow, though in some places rich 
tlie English admiral refused to ratify we capitu- >>ttoms. Here are cane brakes, birch, maple, 
lation. Arisch stands on the confines of Arabia holly, and muscadine grape vines. The tender 
and Palestine, 36 m. S. W. of Oaza^, and 1520 N. soil on the banks is oAen torn away by the sweep- 
E. of Suez, in N. lat. 31. 8. E. long. 34. 3. ing and rapid course of the fyXi river. Rugged 

ArispBj the chief town of the extensive district hifis, covered with stinted pines and cedars come 

of Sonora, Mexico. Arispe it situate at the foot in close to the river \ and the valley is so deep, 

of the Cordilleras, near the souree of the Hia, or and its boundaries so abrupt, that tlie sun is seen 

Taqui river, in tne lat of about 31. N. and 109. but a few hours in a day. 
W. long. There is a large tract of country, on the upper 

ArkansaSy a territory of the U. S. formed from waters of Wiiite river, which has sometimes been 
a part of the Missouri territory in 1819. It lies denominated New Kentucky, either from its be- 
between 33. and 36. 30. of N. lat. and between ing fertile, rolling, and abundant in lime stone 
90. and 100. W. long. Bounded N. by the state ^>rings ; or firom its being more congenial to the 
of Missouri, E. by the river Mississippi, separat- staple products of Kentucky, than the country 
inj|r it from Tennessee and Mississipm, S. by Lou- lower down. It is sheltered on the north by 
isiana, and W. by the Mexican ana Missouri ter- mountains. The fertile tracts are valleys emboe- 
ritories, Containing above 500,000 sq. m., and a omed between high hills ; and the productions of 
population of 30,383, of which 4y578 are slaves, the north and the south for the most part succeed 
The limits of this region are stronfirly defined by in this soil. It has one great inconvenience, 
physical and geographical lines. These lines are The streams, that run amon^r its precipitous hills, 
for the most part large rivers and the ocean of receive the watere of the powernil showere that 
prairies beyond. The chief rivers are the Missis- occasionally fidl, and po«ir these waten from an 
sippi, Arkansas, White, Washita and Red rivers, hundred shelving declivities into the streams. 
The western part is traversed by the Ozrak and They have been known to rise forty feet in per 
Maaseme Mountains. penoicular height, in a few houn. The stanoing 

For some distance up the watera of Arkansas com and cotton is submerged ; and the hope <? 

and White riven, the country is an extensive, the year destroyed. 

heavily timbered and deeply inundated swamp. Arkansas is ^e northern limit of the cotton 

Near the St. Francis hills and at Point Chico, the growing country. The rich lands on the Arkansas 

eastern front along the Mississippi is above the produce cotton of the same staple and luxuriance 

overflow. The remainder of the eastern line is a as those of Red river ; but, having a season some 

continued and monotonous flooded forest. It has what shorter, it cannot ripen so well. Neverthe 

r large and level prairie plains. It possesses a great less, the planten here assert, that even here they 

extent of rocky and sterile ridges, and no inconsid- can raise more, that their hands can 'pick out/ 

erable surface covered with mountains. Perhaps as the phrase is ; consequently they affirm, that 

no section of our country is more diversified, in re- they lose nothing by the shortness or their season, 

gard to its surface. Rs northern line is inter- Cotton becomes an uncertain crop north of the 

sected by a range of hills, which are commonly river St. Francis. As we ascend the Arkansas 

denominated the ' alack mountains,' a line of towards the hig^ table prairies, the temperature 

elevations running from Black river to the west- diminishes more rapidly, than would be indicated 

em extremity of u; territory, and separeting be- by the latitude ; and cotton ceases to be a sure 

tween the waten of White nver and Arkansas. — erop a little beye^ 34. in that direation. It j« al 


preient the stapte aiticla of cnltiviium. The rich soil on the St Francis if very fertile ; and ia cov 

ianda bring fine maixe, sweet potatoes, and the ered with a heavy growth of beech, generally de- 

regetahles generally of Miaaisaippi and Louisiana, noting a rich soil ; out the hilb are so precipitous, 

In the high country above 34. wheat does well, and exposed to wash, as hardly to be susceptible 

Rye and Earley will thrive almost in any parts of of cultivation. On the whole, this territory haa a 

tlie country. Mulberry abounds ', and on the ba- aufficiency of excellent lands, to become a rich 

see of the precipitous hills of White river, we and populouaatate. — ^In its eastern front, and near 

should suppose, would be the happiest soil and the Mississippi and the Arkansas, it is exposed to 

climate for the vine. Muscadine, and pm€ wood' 9 excessive annoyance from its myriads of mos- 

gj^p^ abound ', as do pawpaws, and peraimons. chetoes. 

rigs are raised, but with difficulty ^ and the tree Thia climate is a compound of that of Missouri 

is ofien killed to the ground by the frost. Peach- and Louiaiana. Until we advance 200 miles west 

t^s are raised in great excellence and abundance, of the Mississippi, in its humidity it more nearly 

Apple orchards 3o well at Mount Prairie, and in resembles the latter. The season, in point of the 

m Point on forwardness of vegetation in the spnng, is also, 
Red river} andlio doubt, will thrive in all the much more like that of Louisiana. The season of 

the open and high lands above Peccan 

higher and more northern regiona of this territory, planting is three weeks later than on the coast 
In the lower and more settled parts of it they have above New Orleans ; and is more than that in ad- 
no where succeeded well. Chickasaw and prairie vance of the climate of Missouri. — ^Tbe distribu- 
plums iprow wild in abundance , -and the woods tion of rain is extremely unequal. There are often 
and prairies abound in native fruits and berries drenching rains and thunder eveiy day, for thirty- 
The soil is of all qualities from the best to the six days m succession. At other times, the weatn- 
most sterile. The settlement of Point Chico, on er is as remarkable, for long droughts. Planting 

generally so rich, as those of Red river. — The shores of no river show a deeper tangle of vines 

belt of cultivated land below the Post of Arkan- near the soil, and of nobler forest trees above, 

ns, called 'the coasy does, indeed, somewhat The riiores of Arkansaa, as far up aa Little Rock, 

resemble the delightful country so called above are decidedly unhealthy. Great tracts on all sides 

New Orleans in appearance. The resemblance are covered with sleeping lakes and stajornant bay- 

oeases here. It has a soil of but moderate rich- ous. The country is a dead level. The falling 

ness ; and needs manuring to produce large cot- waters of the rains cannot be drained off. In the 

ton, or maiie. To one emerging from the inun- commencement of summer they are exposed to 

dated and mephitic swamps beh>w, this line of the intense ardors of the sun. Sickness is the 

open, contiguous plantations, dotted with beauti- natural result. On the vast prairie, which com- 

ful clumps of the fine trees of thii climate, and mences just above the Post, and extends ninety 

French habitations, which generally have a miles up the country, it is more healthy; and there 

very picturesque appearance, this tract, odled is less annoyance from the moschetoes. This long 

'the cooMt^ has a charihing appearance. There is sweep <^ country is thoroughly ventilated. But 

a great extent of cotton luids of the first quality, the air, in the timbered bottoms, is close, and un- 

in the country along the river, above the ^ost, m elastic; and the moschetoes are excessively trouble- 

the * Quawpaw purchase.' The country, five or some. There is but too often an abundant visita- 

six hundiea miles up the Arkansas, where the tion of bilious and remittent fevers in the latter 

American garrison used to be, and that, where it part of summer and the first of autumn. Farther 

now ii, and the country where the Arkansas mis- up the country and on the open prairies, it is as 

sion is settled, have large prairies interspersed healthy as in any other country in the same di- 

with forest bottoms, and great tracts of excellent mate. It is a very absurd idea, that a country of 

soil. There is much fine country in this territory the extensiveness of this should all be alike sickly, 

above Peccan Point on Red river. Mount Prairie, In this territory there are many positions, but a 

whioh rises, like a prodigious Indian mound, from few miles apart, one of which may be aa sickly as 

the siibjaeent plains, may be reckoned among the the dioies of Surinam, and the other as healthy, 

striking spectacles of the country. It is ten or as any country in America, 

twelve miles in .diameter ; and is situated on the Among the curiosities of this region may be 

waters of the Washita. It has a soil of great fer- mentioned the vast masses of sea shells, that are 

tility, and of the blackness of ink ; rather expos- found dispersed over different tracts of the coun- 

ed, nowever,- to *■ bake,' as the phrase is, in the try. They are generally found in points remote 

hot and dry weather. They obtain water from from limestone ; and answer a valushle purpose 

wells, which are obliged to be dug of very Ijp^at to the inhabitants, who collect, and burn tnem for 

depth. — ^In the whole depth vast Quantities of sea- lime. Far above the poJtical Umits of the territo- 

shells appear. — ^In a state of pulverization they ry, and towards the sources of the Arkansas, is the 

are mixed with the earth, communicating a maw- sublime elevation, which we hope will always re- 

kish and unpleasant taste to the water, and very tain the name of Pike's mountain. The prairies 

great fertility to the soil. On White river are are bounded in that direction by the stupendous 

some of the finest lands and the healthiest sites ridges of the Rocky mountains. There are very 

for planters in this country. In short this terri- considerable mountains near' the Hot Springs, 

tory possesses great bodies of the best soil. There which see. 

are vast tracu, too, of precipitous knobs, sterile The Quawpaw Indians intermixed with many 
ridges, sandy, or muddy prairies, and miierable fugitive Choctaws^jreside on the Arkansas not far 
bamns. The country on the Mississippi, between above the Post. That portion of the Cherokee 
White river and the St Francis, is in many places nation, which has emigrated west of the Mis- 
above the overflow, and of the highest fertility, sissippi, has its chief sr tSements on the Arkansas. 
Wappanocka bottom, opposite Memphis, is an un- Beyond this territory < b White river are congre- 
eommonly high, rich ana extensive bottom. The gated the Shawnees - pA Delawares, that have 

emignted from Ohio ani HufonH. Abore the 
Ch^kees, on the Arkuuu, >re the OeKgci ; and 
rtill higher ue ths P*wii«««. In the vut warie 

!.?.fJ.!;.i /i| .' 

of pnurie*, that interpoge between this territorj 
and the Rocky mountAJns, loun diSerenl tiibea 
of Indians, among which are oflen seen, Indiana 
from th* Mexican connUy, who come here to huDt 
the biaon. TheM inimala with deei, elk, bean 
and wolres are abnndant in thia region. Herdaof 
wild horaea are seen rangingthe prairies and foi- 
esla of the weslera parU. The; are rather amall 
in aiie hu*. very fleet and hardy. They are MMht 
with the noosi^ or ciitiapped into pens, and wEem 
die or hajneaa. 

There (re no Ittge towns m this territoiy ini] 
the settlements are scattered about in iaolated and 
detached siluaUana, generally with great tracts oT 
wild countiT between them. Little Rock, on the 
muth bank of the Arkaiua*, u the seat of gov- 

Arkantat, a great rirer running into the Mia- 
■isaippi, from the West, through the centre of the 
Territory of Arkansas. 

The extent of thismightyatreBni,wbioh is said 
to meander a long distance in the Rocky moun- 
tains, ia commonly gtren at 3,500 m. This la prob. 
ably an eitravagant calculation. Itia believed, that 
Its distance Irom the point, where it has a rotume 
of waters to entitle it to the itsen- 
Irnnce into the Mississippi, metsuring its cnrrea, 
is about 2,000 miles. In summer it poura abroad 
and deep stream from the mooDtains upon Iha 
arid, bare, and sandy plains. The sand and Iha 
dry snnoiinding atrooaphere ao drink np the wa- 
ter, that in the drr aeaaoa itmajbe crossed, manj 
Iiundred miles below the niount&ins, without wa- 
ding oa high aa the kneea. The tributary atream* 
are far from being so well known, as to render 
themsnsceptible of anaccurate description. Some 
of them are remarkable for being impregnated 
irith sail to such a degree, thai we have tasted 
Die waters of the main river ao sail, as la be un- 
potable. Th* whole allavial earth along the 


banks is so strongly impregnated with salt, tba 
the cattle aomettmes kill themselvss by eating it 
Tor a distance of many hundred miles fhim iU 
mouth, it receives no tributaries of any conuder' 
able length, owing to the conRguiation of the 
coanliy Uirough which it pasBea,and to the vicinity 
of Red river and Washita on one aide, and the 
Tellow Stone, Kanaas, and Osage on the other. 
When it haa arrived within four hundred miles 
ofthe Mis*UDppi,itbegina tossaiime the charac- 
ter of Red river, in the numbers nfits bayou* and 
lakea. Tfaebeltof highland, betweentheriverand 
the cypress swamps, taby nomeanaso wide,aathat 
on the other river. "Ybe aUnvial aoil is of tls 
same colQat and qualities, though it is notgener 

a" aofertile. Ithasabroaderchsnnel.and gene. 
J a narrower valley. We believe, thai ildoek 
not oany so much water ; and the rapidity o( 
its ordinary current is less. When it is full, its 
waters ha»e a still deeper colour. IB curves, that 
is to say, its ^nfi and hendt are broader and 
deeper. It surpasses the Misaisaippi, or any riter 
of the west in the perfect regularity of these, and 
in the uniformity and beauty of the yonng cotton 
wood groTes, that spring up on the convex aand 
ban. In other respects, it has a surprising re- 
semblance to Red river. The Arkansas has de- 
cidedly the advantage in the eitent of its naviga- 
tion. In the spring floods, steam-boats can as- 
cend it nearly to the mountains. The first thirty 
or forty railea of its course, is through a heavy, 
inundated forest, with very little Isna sufficiently 
above the floods, to admit of cultivation. Forty or 
fifty mtlea by the course of the river above the 
Post, blufi, crowned with pine, come into the river. 
Between that distance and the Post, only a narrow 
belt along the river is above the overflow; andeven 
through this belt the river haa torn greal numbers of 
erCBOMei, through which in high floods its waters 
escape into the swamps. Directly beyond these 
heltasregnm trees, and othervegelatioti denoting 
swampy soil. Beyond these are vast cyprcsa 
swamps ; and in all its conrse from the blulfs to 
the mouth, like Red river, il has its net-work 
cheeqaering ofbayous and lakea. The lakes, on 
the aubsidence of the river, are covered with vast 
leaves of the Nymphca ffehanho. The bayous, 
when filled with the river waters, have the aamo 
curves as the river : and while the river U toll, 
the same colour; and, until we observe their want 
of current,might easily be, as they have a thous- 
and times been, mistaken for the river itself. 

Arktou), a baniny containing 13 pariahea, and 
the towna of Arklow, and part of Wicklow, in 
the county of Wicklow, Ireland. The town of 
Arklow ia sitnate on the ahore oT St. George's 
channel, about 13 m. S. of Wicklow, and contain* 
ed a popnlaUon of 3,808 in 1631, and the parish 
3,418 more. 

Jlrla, an ancient cityof France, in the depart 
ment of Months of the "Rhone, lately an archiepis- 
copal see. It was the chief city of ancient Oan) 
during the reign of Constsntjne , and Boson made 
it the capital of Ibe kingdom of Borgundy. Tho 
country around prodncea good wine, vermilion, 
manna, oil, and fruits. There are a great number 

the Rhone, 30 m. S. E. of Nismes. Long. 5. 37. 
E. lat. 43, 40. N. 

.irlington, p.t. Bennlnglan Co. Vt. 40 m. from 
Troy, Saratoga Springs, Whitehall and Rutland 
Pop. 1,307. It has quarries of marble and lime 


Armagh f an interior county in the N. £. part of etopC ap the hwbovr. Salt-works are its chief re- 
Ireland. 32 m. long and 19 broad ; bounded on the source. It is 3 m. E. of Middlebnr^. 

The soil is reckoned the richest in Ireland ; but a Anukwy^ a town of Brandenburg in the Old 

tract called the Fewes is hilly and barren, and there Mark, witn a ruined castle, on a hill on the river 

are also some considerable liogs. Some good mar- Elbe, 3 m. from Werben. 

ble is found in this country ; and the linen man- Anudoy a seaport of Peru, with agood harbour, ^ 

ufacture flourishes in all its branches. It has no in the Pacific Ocean, 25 m. N. of (Sllao. Long, 

river of consequence but the Blackwater, which 76. 53. W. lat. 11. 40. 6. 

separates it from Tyrone. Arnkanua^ a town of Crennany, in Pomerania, 

Armaorkj a populous parish and city of Ireland, 24 m. E. of J^ew Stettin. Aleo another town on 

the capital of the countj^ of its name, and the see the east bank of the Saal, bishopric of Warts- 

of an archbishop, who is primate or all Ireland, burg. 

It has one of the best linen markets in Ulster, and jSmkeimy a strong town of Holland, in Gelder- 

many bleaching grounds in its vicinity. It is land, capital of the quarter or county of its name, 

seated near the river Kalin, 45 m. S. £. of Lon* It was formerlv the reaidenoe of the dukes of 

donderry, and 62. N. by W. of Dublin. Long. Gelderland, and is seated on the Rhine, 8 m. N. 

7. 6. W. lat 54. 20. N. Pop. of the ci^ in 1821, of Nime^n. Long. 5. 54. £. lat. 62. 2. N. 

8,493, and the parish 22,650 more. Jhrmkeim Bay, on the N. W. side of the gre^ 

Armagh, p. v. Indiana Co. Pa. 160 m. W. Har- gulf of Carpentaria, 

rltfburg. Amoy a celebrated river of Toseany, which risef 

jfniumuie, a late province of France, in Out* in the Apennines and passing by fiorence and 

enne, 55 m. long and 40 broad. It is fertile in Pisa, enters the grulf of Qenoa a little below the 

com and wine, and has a trade in brandy and latter town. 

wool. This province, with Gsscony, now forms AmMf a populous parish contiguous to Not^ 

the department of Gers. tingham, Eng., bordering on Sherwood Forest. 

Jtrmenia, a country of Asiatic Turkev, border- Pop. in 1821,^,572. 

mg on the S. £. extremity of the Black Sea, Jhmshdmt the name of two towns in the palate 

and extending eastward into Persia ; it lies be- inate of the Lower Rhine, one near Worms, and 

tween the 38th and 45th deg. of £. long, and the other about 10 m. £. of I^iew Baumberg.' 

under the 39th and 40th of N. lat. The Euphra- Anukorf, the name of several' small towns in 

tes, which has its source at the S. E. extremity Germany, one in Lower Bavaria, two in Silesia, 

of the country, runs parallel with its southern one in Obieland, and another in Ermeland. 

boundary ; it is watered by several other rivers Amstadt, a town of Upper Saxony, in the prin- 

falling into the Black Sea, and the Karsi which cipality of Grotha, with a castle, a palace, and 

rises in the centre of the country runs eastward three churches ', seated on the Gere, 11 m. S. of 

falling into the Caspian. It is a mountainous Erfurt. 

eonntry (Ararat rising to the height of 9,500 ft.) Amstein, a town of Fraaconia, in the prineinali* 

and abounds in minerals, whilst the valleys yield ty of Wurtzburg with a castle, seated on the We- 

abondance of com and fruit. The inhabitants ren, 9 m. S. W. of Schweinfurt, and about the 

are much addicted to commerce and have a high same distance E. from Carlstadt 

reputation for probity, they are the chief mer- Arokkage, a city of Persia, in Se^iestan, and 

emuafs for the eastern commerce of Turkey, as the capital of a district to which il gwes name. 

Ihe Greeks are for the western. The Armenians It is 110 m. S. S. W. of Cannahar and 210 

form a distinct sect of Christians under a patri- E. S. £. of Zareng. Long. 65. 40. £., lat. 31. 

tfch and an archbishop. Erzerum, or An Roum, 20. N. 

m N. lat 40. and 40. 50. E. long, is the capital. AroUan, a town of Germany, in the electorate 

Of the dvil, judicial, or military institutions, or of Hesse, county of Waldeck, near the river Aar, 

•xtent of population of Armenia, but yery little 29 m. S. S. E. of Paderbom. 

m known to Europeans ; the Persians clum au- Arona, a town of Italv, in the Milanese, with a 

ihority over the eastern part, and the Kurds in- ruined castle, on the lake Msggiore, 30 m. N. W. 

«rfere from the south. of Milan. 

ArmaUUrSf a town of France, in the depart- ArpinOf a town of Naples, in Terre di LavorO| 

ment of Nord, seated on the Lis, 8 m. W. N. W. 8 m. N. of Aquino. 

of Lisle. Armia, a town of Italy, in the Padoan, lemarit- 

AfmkT9f a town of France, in the department able for the tomb of Petrarch, it is 10 m. 8. of 

t€ Nord, seated on the Sambre, 20 m. S. of Mens. Padua. 

Jtmaro, a town of European Turkey, in Thes- AnptaJUky a town of the teiritory of Genoa, eeat- 

ja)y, on the gulf of Volo, 30 m. S. £. of Larissa. ed on the Sorivia, 25 m. N. of Genoa. 

Long. 23. 22. £., lat 39. 30. N. ArqyuUy a town of France, in the department of 

^tfrsumJ, Se. a town of Lower Canada, at the N. Lower Seine, with an ancient castle, fiere 

end <Q& Lake Champlain. Henry IV. gained a complete victory over the 

Armttron^y a Countv in the western part of duke of Mayenne, general of the leagues, in 1569. 

Pennsylvania. Pop. 17,625. Kittaning,2l4 m« It stands on a river of its name, 4 m. S. £. of 

W. by N. of Harrisburg, is the chief town. The Dieppe. 

AUegnany river enters the county at the N. jS^agon, a province of the kingdom of Spain. 

W. extremity, runs in an angle to the centre, Arragon was tormerlv an independent kingdom 

and leaves it at the S. W. extremity. Kittaning and comprehended Arra^n Proper^ CataEmmy 

is situate on the east bank, near the centre of Valenci|i, and the Baleanc isles or Majorca, MIb- 

the eounty . orea» Ivica, Cabrem, and FooBeatefu. The kin^ 

Armuyden^ a town of IloUand, in the island of dom of Axnfon Prcwe* is an interior distiiot, es- 

Wakheren, now inconsiderable, the sea having tending south from New Castile in the lat of 40 

■ 2 

AR8 fi4 ARZ 

N. in a N. E. direction to the Pyreneea, boondsd Jlgwr, a town on the eout of Syria, in Palestine, 
on the N. W. by. Old Oastile and Navarre ; and on with a fortrem, 10 m. N. of Jafia. 
the east by the north end of Valencia, and Cata- jfrta, a seaport of European Turkey, in Albar 
Ionia ;. its superficies is about 1,230 sq. French nia, and a Greek archbishop's see. It nas a con- 
leagues, and its population in 1810 was about siderable tnde in tobacco and skins, and is seated 
6()0,000. The river Ebro enters the territory on the Arta, 70 m. N. N. W. of Lepantc. Lon^. 
from the N. W. and runs through the middle of 21. 20. E. lat. 39.26. N. 

it in a S. £. direction. Sarsgosaa seated on the Jhtald^ a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, 

bonks of the Ebro, is the chief and only place of on the south coast of the sea of Marmora, 76 m. 

importance in the whole territory, nor is it re- 8. W. of Constantinople. Long. 27.40. E. lat. 39. 

markable for any natural productions ; whilst the 90. N. ^ 

domination of the priestcraft, which oervades all Artakulj a town of European Turkey, in Rom- 

Spain, operates as a barrier to all social enterprise ania, 48 m. N. W. of Gallipoli. 

and improvement. jfrfern, a town of Upper Saxony, in the county 

Arraky or Arraha, a river on the east side of the of Mansfield, circle of Thurin^fia, on the rive 

piovince of Mekhran, Persia. There is a town Unstrutt, 29 m. N. N. E. of Ermrt. 

of the seme name on the coast about 60 m. west ArtoiSj a late province of France, bounded oa 

of the river, in lat 2$, 30. N. 65. E. long. the north and east by Flanders, and south and 

Arrak, a town of Hindoostan, in Bahar, 33 m. west by Hainault. C&mbresis, and Picardy . It is 

W. by S. of Patna. now included in tne department of Pas de Calais 

ArroMy an island of Scotland, In the frith of An^y an island 15 m. in circumference, situ- 

Clyde, to the south of the isle of Bute. It is of ated near the month of the gulf of Maracaybo. 

an oval form, 20 m. long and 12 broad, and oon- 46 m. W. of Curasao. Long. 70. 6. W. lat 12. 

■litutes the greatest part of the county of Bute. 10. N. 

Ridges of ruffged mountains extend across the Antnddy a borough in Sussex, Eng., governed 

island, and Uoatfell is near 3,000 ft. in height, by a mayor. It is seated on the side of a hul on the 

The southern parts present low and cultivated river Arun, about 5 m. from the sea, and has a 

grounds. The climate is healthful, and invalids venerable gothic church, formerly, collee^ate. Its 

resort hitherto drink the whe^ of goats milk, castle, the ancient seat of the aukes of Norfolk, 

Robert Bruce took refuge in tms island, during stands on the hill, and is of great extent ; a vast 

the time of his greatest distress. Among the sum was expended upon it by Charles the XII. 

rocks are found iron-ore, spar, and a great variety duke ; the interior court forms a sijuare of 200 ft. 

of beautiful pebbles. On tne coast are many each way, the centre of the east side is decorated 

wonderful caverns, which often afford shelter to by a magnificent work of art, a has relief, repre- 

smugglera. It is divided into two parishes, Kil- senting Alfred and the assembling of the first jury, 

bride, and Kilmorey. Total pop. 6,541. The prin- It was executed by the elder Rossi, and is toe 

cipal place is Lamlash. finest and most characteristic work of art of the 

ArraSy a fortified ci^ of France, capital of the kind in Europe ; the library is on the same side, 

* department of Pas de Calais, and an episcopal see, fitted up with the finest maho^anjr and cedar most 

and one of the most ancient towns or France ; it highly wrought ; the west side is occupied by a 

was the seat of the Atrebates in the time of CsBsar. grana banqueting room and chapel ; the south, the 

It is divided into two towns ; one named the city, state apartments ; the north is open to the gardens, 

which is the most ancient; and the other the but at the N. W. comer is the old gateway, and 

town, which is modem. The great square is tower, a circular building of great dimensions, and 

full of fine buildings, surrounded with piazzas, was formerly the strongest place of defence in 

It <T as the birth-place of Robespierre, and is seat- Britain. The possession of tnis castle confers an 

ed on the Scarpe, 22 m* W. N. W. of Cambray. earldom on the proprietor. The river is naviga- 

Long. 2. 46. K. lat. 50. 17. N. Pop. about 19,000. ble for barges, and great quantities of timber are 

ArrUgty a department ofFranoe, containing the sent hence for the oock-yards. It is 11 m. S. E. 

late provinces of Couserans, and Foix. It is so of Chichester and 56 S. 8. W. of London, 

named from a river, which rises in the Pyrenees, Array a County at the northern extremity of 

and passingby Foix and Pamiers, enters the Gar- Lower Hungary, intersected by the Carpathian 

onne, near Toulouse. Gold dust b found among mountains; it contains a pop. of about 75,000, 

its sands. Foix is the ci^ital. Pop. about 2^, subsisting chiefly by agriculture, more paiticular- 

000. ly flax for domestic manufacture and some foi 

Arroe or Aarot and JEroey two islands of Den- trade. There is a town which ^ives name to the 

mark, the first about the middle of the little Belt, county, situate on a stream which &lls into thp 

and the other at its entrance into the Baltic. WaglUver. 

There are a cluster of islands also called Arroe, .frve, a rapid river of Savoy, which ris^s in 

just within the Red Sea, opposite to Moka. Faucigny, and watering Salenche, Cluse, and 

Arrooy five Islands in the Indian Ocean, to the Bonneville, joins the Rhone, below Geneva, 

south and west of New Guinea, extending from 5 Arwangmiy a town and castle of Switzerland, in 

30. to 7. 0. S. laL with nairow channels between the canton of Beme, on the river Aar, 12 m. E. 

Oiem. The chief product is sago. During the ofSoleure. 

dry or western monsoon, numerous flocks of the ArzeWy a seaport town of Algiers, about 15 m. 

birds of paradise, from New Guinea, reside in W. of Gran. It appears to be die ancient Arsen- 

these islands, where great numbers are killed, aria, there being many relics of antiquity in the 

dried, and exported to Banda. The Arroo isles neighbourhood, 

are considered as belonging to the Dutch. ArzUlay a seaport in the kingdom of Fez. about 

Arsanuu, a town of Russia, situate near the 30 m. S. of Cape Spartel, and oO S. S. W. of Tan- 
source of the Techa, a branch of the Oka river, in giers. It was formerly a Roman colony, and a 
the province of Nishnei, or Lower Novogorod. place of considerable importance, but at present 
Tt is about 100 m. E. of Moscow, and has a variety does not contain more than 1,000 inhabitants, 
of raanufiietuiM. Pop. about 6 000 Arzmfftm, a town of Armenia, on the west 


Imnk of a bnnch of the Euphntei, 45 m. S. W. mnito rock with very fbw trees. The nimmit cf- 

of An Roum. fords an eztensire prospect of the Connecticut 

Jmiby or As9aby a town of Abyssinia, in Dan- and a hij^y cultiTated region in the neighboar- 

caii, on a bay in the straits of babehnandel, 96 hood, 

m. S. £. of Bailur. wisftontee, an interior territory of North Afiica, 

Asangaroj a town and district of Peru, west of extending ftom the meridional line to the 5th or 

the Andes, north of the lake Chniento. It is very 6th deg. of W. long, boonded by the Gold coaiit. 

thinly peopled. The Aahantees have for a long period been the 

Jisuffh, Si. a city of Wales, and a bishop's see, most powerful of all the Negro tribes of W. Africa, 

in FUntshire, on the river ^ Elway, where it not only in their contests with their neighbours, 

anites with the Clwyd. It is a poor plaoe, of but they have frequently defied the scientific and 

note only for its catheorajL but has a market on destruetiTS means of European warfiue: daring the 

Saturday. It is 27 m. W. of Chester, and 217 period of the uncontrolled sway of the slave trade, 

N. W. of London, on the line of road to Holyhead, previous to the commencement of the present 

j2s6«a, an interior country of North Afinca, of century, the Ashantees, though little known upon 

which Agadas is the capital ; it is bounded on the coast, were the main instruments in the in- 

the east by Bomou, and north and west by the terior, by which that debasingr traffic was carried 

d e s e rt s of Zaara and Tuarick. on, being constantly at war with their neighbours 

jSsbunf, p.v. Warren Co. N J. 34 m. N. W. for the <%taining or prisoners to send to the coast 

Trenton. as slaves, and it was the Ashantees who gave nse 

Aaealtm, a town on the coast of Palestine, dis- to the famous, or rather infamous Assientocootract 

tinguished in Jewish history as one of the chief of the Spaniards : since the restriction of the slave 

cities of the Philistines. It is now an insiAuficant trade to the south of the eduator, the Ashantees. 

pla^ about 30 m. S. W. of Jerusalem, and 10 N. though still full of thirst tor war, have directea 

of Ckoa. more of their attention to commerce. It was in 1806 

jfjceiusoit, a parish in the Eastern District of that they first appeared formidable on the coast 

Louisiana, upon the BiissisBippi. The soil is rich against the Annamboes, and in 1823 they com- 

and produces sugar and cotton. Donaldson, 75 m. pletely defeated the whole British force of the 

from New Orleans, is the chief town. Pop. of the coast, which took the field against them ; the 

parish, 5,400. governor who commanded in person being slain 

•isesiuisn, a barren island in the Atlantic Ocean, m the conflict, and the wreck of the army com- 

GOO m. N. W. of St. Helena. It hss a safe pelled to take refuge in the forts, 

liarbour, at which the East India ships often touch. JSskhoraugh^ p.v. Randolph Co. N. C. 78 m. W. 

to procure turties which are here plentiful ana Raleigh. 

large. Long. 13. 50. W. lat. 7. 57. S. Also the Mbonu, a town of Derbyshire, Eng It is fk- 

name of a bay on the east coast of Tucatan, and moos for cneese, and seated between the rivers 

of the chief town of the island of Margarita on Dove and Compton. 10 m. N. E. of Uttozeter, 

the coast of Cnmana. and 139 N. N. W. or London. Pop. of the pariah 

Jtsek or Jhtsekj a town of Bohemia, in the circle 4,688. 

of Leutmeritz, situate on the banks of a small AMumhmm, p.t. Worcester Co. Mass. 65 m. 

river which fails into the Elbe, about 90 miles N. W. Boston. Pop. 1,403. Leather is made here 

above the town of Leutmerits. Also the nsme of in large quantities by an incorporated company 

a small town in Wirtemburg, and cf another in with a capital of 30,000 dollars. Here is also the 

Bavaria. Boston Soap-stone manufactory with a capital of 

jSMkack, a considerable town of Upper Austria, 90,000 dollars, 

in the quarter of Hausruck, on the south bank of Ashhurtan, a borough in Devonshire, Eng. It is 

the Danube. one of the four stannary towns, and has a consid- 

AaeMadmry, a town of Germany, lately in erable manufacture of serges. It is seated among 

the territory of^Mentz, but now the capital of a hills (remarkable for tin and copper) near the river 

principality of the same name, in the circle of the Dart, 19 m. S. W. of Exeter, and 199 W. by 8. 

Lower Rhine, insnlated in that of Fianconia. of London. It returns two members to parliament. 

Here is a palace in which George II. of England Pop. in 1891, 3,403. 

took up his quarters the night before the battle of Ashby,yX, Middlesex Co. Mass. 50 ro. N. W. 

Dettingen, in 1748. It was taken by the French Boston. Pop. 1,940. 

in 1796 and 1800. It is situate near the^ conflux of Athby dt la Ztmehy a town in Leicestershire, 

the Asehaff with tlie Maine, on the east side of Eng. It had a castle with a very high tower, some 

the latter river, 90 m. E. S. £. of Frankfort, and ruins of which are standing. Here are manufae- 

40 W. N. W. of Wurtzburgh. Long. 9. 5. £. lat. tures of stockings, hats and ribands, and a con- 

50. 0. N. siderable trade m malt. A canal from the town 

JiMkerdeben, a considerable town on the west communicates with the Coventry canal. Ashby 

bank of the Saal, in the principality of Anhah, cir- is 13 m. 8. of Derby, and 115 N. N. W. of Lon- 

ele of Upper Saxony. don. Pop. in 1891, 4,297. A vein of coal, of a 


bv t . _ 

Long. 13. 99. E. lat 49. 44. N. has been much resorted to. 

Jlseoli di SatrianOy a town of Naples, in Cap- Asher^y or HMref; a town of Persia, situate. on 

itanaU. seated on a mountain, 70 m. E. of Naples, a small rivulet which fidls into the Caspian Sea 

Long. 15. 50. E. lat. 41. 8. N. at its south end. 

./iSearay a town in the island of Majorca, with a Athfidd, p.t. Franklin Co. Mass. 105 m. W. 

church containing a celebrated image of the Vir- Boston. Pop. 1*739. 

gin much resorted to by pilgrims. AMord, p.t. Windham Co. Conn. 97 m. N. E. 

Asattiuvy a mountain in Vt. between Weathers- Hartfbrd. Pop. 9,668. 

field and Windsor, 3,390 feet high. It is chiefly a Atkfordy a town in Kent, Eng., governed by a 

An M An 

intyor, with a market on Tneiday. TIm ekvzeh then fonns the remainder of its weetem bonndar 

u larffe, and wu formerly collegiiUe. It is aeafed rj, and the Arabian Sea. Indian Oeean, and Chi- 

on the Aah, near its confluence with the Stoori na ^ee, bounds it on tne sooth, and the North 

l<m. S. W. of Canterboiy, and 65 8. £. of London. Pacific Ocean on the east, and the Arctic Ocean 

Pop. m 1821, 8,773. as preTiomdy stated, forms its notthem boundary ; 

AMmdj p.t. Montgomery township, Richland this vast extent or territM;y is divided into 11 

Co. Ohio, 90 m. from Columbus. 827^ P"!^ ^* Siberia, Chmese Tartary, China, 

«f a citi 

on the 

Cairo. Long. 31. 7^ E. lat. 28. 10. N. ly insular. Beyeral noUe riyers flow in various 

JshnaruTf a town of Hindoostan, in the prov- nirections : the Obi, the Tnessei and Lena, fidl 

ince of Cabnl, seated on the Kameh, 80 m. N. into the Arctio Ocean, the Amoor or Saffhalien, 

»f Attook, and 110 S. E. of Cabul. into the sea of Oehotik, in the North Pacific, the 

Asktabulaf a County at the N, E. extremity of Yellow and Great Rivers intersect China from 

Ohio, bordering on Jake Erie. Pop. 14|564. Jef- west to east falling into the bay of Nankin, and 

feraon is the chtef town. the Ganges, Indus, and Euf^irates flowing from 

AMkttAula^ p.t. in the shove County, on L. Erie, north to south \ but it is worthy of remark, thaJi 

200 m. from Columbus. It has a fgaoA harbour neither in Asia or Europe, or in either of the two 

and is a flourishing town. grand divisions of the western hemisphere, ai^ 

^AMhtahula^ a stream of Ohio, shout 30 m. in tneie any riven of importance that flow finom east 

length, running into L. Erie. to west, whilst in Afinca there are none that flow 

JlrAloi^«(ju2er-(tiia, a town and populous jpariah from west to east. 
of Lancashire, Eng. ; the town is seated on a Although the riven of Asia do not vie in mag- 
high bank which rises from the river Tame. 7 m. nificence with those of the western hemisphew, 
east of Manchester. The parish is dividea into Asia far exceeds it in the magnificence of its 
four districts, viz. that of the town, which in 1821 mountains. The Himalaya range which separates 
contained 9,225 inhab. Audenahaw, 3,781, Harts- Hindoostan firom Tartary in the lat. of 20. N 
head J 9,137, and Knott-Lanes, 3,827: total 25,967, rises to the prodigious height of 27,677 ft. shove 
formmg together one of the most important seals the level of the sea ; the Ural ridge extends in a 
of the cottdn manufacture, containing upwards of uniform and unbroken chain, from the line of the 
60 large establishments for spinning and machine- Arctic circle to the sea of Aral, and although not 
weaving, four iron and brass foundries^ as many rising higher than about 4,600 it they are em- 
machine manufactories, and about 30 establish- phaticallv denominated by the Russians, the backy 
ments for the manufacture of hats. It has also and by tne Tartan, the gir^e of the world ;• the 
extensive collieries in its vicinity, and it is inter- Altaian chain intersects the entire territory in «• 
sected by the Manchester, and the Huddersfield N. £. direction, from the Arabian Sea to the east 
and Peat Forest canals. The foundation stone of cape in Behring's straits, snd in the lat of 49. N. 
a new church in the gothic style was laid in 1821. rises to the height of 12,800 It. and Mounts Can- 
There are 16 other towns or viUsges in different ^pasus, Taurus, Ararat, Ac. dbc. spread over the 
parts of England named Ashton, or to which it is western part of Asia, rising to the height of 8 to 
prefixed. 10,000 ft The Casman, Baikal, and sea of Aral, 

Askudoi, r. Cheshire Co. N. Hampshire, flows are the only inland waten that merit notice in 

8. W. into the Connecticut this plaoe^ and when compared with those of the 

Asia^ one of the three grand divisions of the north division of the western hemisphere, they 
eastern hemisphere ; its boundaries are so exceed- are very insignificant The islands of the eastp 
ingly irregular as to render it difficult to convey em ocean are so numerous, and so difiuselv scat- 
an accurate idea of its position, limits, and extent, tered, as to render it ^fiicnlt to decide which prop- 
except by a map; it lies however whoUy north erly belong to Asia, and which do not; those 
of the equator. Point Romaine, the most souther- however which admit of no dilute may be enu- 
ly point of the Malaya promontory, being in lat merated as follows, beginning at the north : vis. 
1. !i3. 30. N. Bounded on the north dv the Arctic Saghalien, Jesso, the Juianeee, Loo Choo, For- 
Ocean, or as a medial line by the 70th deg. of N. mosa, Hainan, the Philippines, Borneo, Cele- 
lat. firom west to east it extends in its extreme bes, Java, Sumatra, Ceyton, the Maldives, and 
limits from the Dardanelles in 26. to Behring*s Laocadives; the Ladrone, New Carolines, Pelew, 
straits in 190. £. but exclusive of the promonto- New Guinea. Solomon's, New Hebridn, New 
ries of Natolia. Hindoostan, Malaya, Kamschatka, Caledonia, Sandwich, Society, Friendly. -New 
and the islands under the equator, Asia may be Zealand ; and Van Diemen's Land, will most 
considered as lying between the 15th snd 70th probably hereafter become more particularly iden- 
deff. of N. lat and the 40th and 131th of E. long, tified with New Holland, 
and containing an area of about 11,000,000 of sq. Asia was the parent of nations, and the scene 
m. Asia is separated firom Europe on the west of most of those remarkable transactions whict 
bv the Ural mountains, extending firom the line are recorded in sacred history. After the deluge, 
or the Arctic circle in the long, or 63. E. bearing Noah is said to have settled near the borden ok 
west to the lop^. 54. in the lat of 63. fW>m which the Euphrates, and to have peopled the whole 
point they agam bear to the east to the long, of continent, the posterity d Shem occupying the 
59. in the lat of 65., firom which point, while the central regions, Japhet the northern, and Ham the 
Ural mountains run in a parallel line with the southern. Javan and his descendants. Ashkenas, 
59th of long, the Asiatic boundary becomes part- Dodanim, Tharahish, Elisha, Togermui, and Rip- 
Vf conventional, bearingwest to the sea of Asoph ; hath, are supposed to have been the ancient in- 
Rom which, the Black Bea, the Sea of Marmora, habitants of^ Asia Minor. The Cuiaanites and 
the Dardanelles, and Levant, form the western Amalekites were the peqile of Syria and Arabia 
boundary to the isthmus of Sues which separates Petrea. Modem writers have referred the pres- 
et fhnn Afitioa: Un Arabian gulf or Red Sea. ent natives of Asia to thow different stocks th« 

ASl Sr AM. 

Hebravi, tndiuu, uid Tnrtui, the piopiietj of niei il up tbe trees. Uraillj he ihnn* nun, but 

wliich will oppeur from their make, teatuies, uid when cloeeljr preEsed, he tuma npoa the hnntrt 

langiuge*. There are, however, •oioe large tribe* and aonietiiaea when pinched by hangei be will 

which ciumat be referred to any of thew al— M. attack unprovoked, though by Keilth, the hnnuuk 

Mr. PiokertoD observes that tbe popalation of race. Tbe interior climes of theanimal creation 

Asia is allowed by alt aothors to be wbally ptimi- will be more particularly adverted to under the 

live, with the exception of the Tahuktahia (whom beada of the seveiaj diviaiooi of Asia. Althouffb 

the RuaaLan hlstoriant sapiKisa to have paned apparently not bo rich in precioua minei^a aalLa 

from the opposite coast of America), the colonies aoDthem division of the western hemisphere, 

that have mifraled &om KussLa to the nortbem AaiaindieateBBbandaneeof void, and some silver, 

tirts as fax aa tbe sea of KamCschatka, the well- and its gema are deservedly held in the higbeit 

TiDWO European settlements, and a few others, estimation. Of the inierior melals, if tbej 

A^iA certainly contains a decidedly original popa- abonnd, a snbduinz species of policy preclodes 

lation, and preaenta an ample field for tbe study their preparation tor utility, and Asia drawi con- 

of man in all tbe stages of his progress finm bar- aiderable SDppLea of iron, copper, tin, and lead 

harisin to civilization. Tbe weatern part of Asia &ora Europe. 

appears to have been occupied by nomcTODS pet- Rice fS» food, and cotton fbr clothing, are tha 

tf sovereignties, whose very names an now ex- main productions of the soil over all the aonlb 

lincU Al a somewhat Eater period the Bahvlon- parts of Asia and China, and in the latter coon- 

ian empiie extended over the greater part of West' try, a decoution of the well known tea shrub, 

em Asia; the Persians next reigned paramount constitutes the principal drink of that populous 

on that side, 3S3 years before the Christian era; empire, whilst the vegetable tallow tree snppUes 

Alexander uf Macedon extended his arms as &r many of their domestic wants, 

as tbe Granges; but his exploits in Asia may be Hahomediam ia establiahsd in the central and 

considered as incuraioni rather than conquests. western pails, white paganism, sod the most de- 

The ascendancy of the PersLani in its turn grading sjid cruel superstitions, prevail in all the 

yielded to tbe still greater ascendant inSnence other regions of Asia. Christianity is scarcely 

aDdpoweroftbeTartaisfiom tbenorth,whoalao known Uiroushout this part of the globe, except 

in me 12th century subdued China in the east; in Siberia and in Qreece, where the profesaiou 

and indeed such was tbe extent of their power, of it has been perpetuated amidst cruelly and 

that at one period nearly tbe whole of Asia as oppieaaion; — nor have any adequate exertions 

well as a great part of Eoiope fell under their been made by Europeans for its introduction, tha 

dominion. small tract of India brought under cullivaUon by 

Tbe Mogul empire succeeded the Tartar, whilst our missionaries being only as a single oasis in a 

tlie greater part of Eastern Tattary became uni- vast and dreary desert. 

■ "o China, which ft* several centuries has re- Tbe govemments of Asia appear in all ages to 

, nd despotic 

present time, a company of Cngliib traders, un- much addicted to parade and pageantry, and that 
der the denomination of "The United ComMny to a degree of which Europe has exhibited no 
of Merchants of England trading to tbe £aat parallel. The government of China, altboDgh in 
lodiea," may be regarded as the ascendantpower, name and form a complete despotism, appears 
and as reigning lords paramount over all Asia, however to be administered not only with temper- 

" may be regarded as the ascendant power, name and form a complete despotism, appei 
I reigning lords paramount over all Asia, however to be administered not only with temp 
The Rnsaians however occupy the whole of tbe anee, but with a paternal solicitude for tbe wel- 

nnrth of Asia, from the Arctic Sea to tbe 50th fare of tbe great body of the people, who may 
degree of north latitude ; and it tsiU prababiT yet at the same time be ranked amongat tbe moat 
be their turn next to rule the S. as well as the N. abject of tbe human race. The ascendancy of 
The productions of Asia, animal,mineral,vegB- the English at the close of the 18tb and corn- 
table, as well as birds, insects, reptiles, and Gahes, mencement of the I9tb century is unqueationa- 
are as majeatic, valuable, and useful, as tbej are bly the most important era in the bistoiy of Aaia; 
various and infinite. The elephant m Asia, like and, allhougb much that is objeetionable and rep- 
the camel in Africa, is made the inatrument of rebenaible prevails, in sinne respects il indicates 
burthen, and in war and pageantry ranks highest brighter and better prospects to Asia than it has 
in importance ; tbe lion and tiger of Asia are the ever before eiperienoed. 

noblest of their species, and as distinguished for ^fia Maior comprehends that part of west- 
their heautv and their symmetry as for their g^- em A«a under the dominion of tbe Turks, bol 
ity, strengUi, and ferocitj^. The leopard inhabits dering north on the Black Bea, and south on the 
eaaitem and southern Asia and in rapidity and Levant, including the provincesof JValoiM, Caro- 
sgilitj of motion i* unrivalled by anv othsr ani- nanis, and Koiisi. which see. 
iral. He ha« a restiess eye uid • sinister Aiiage, a considerable town of Italy, in Vioen- 
tino, 30 m. N. of Vioenia. 

Mnara, an island in tbe Mediterranean, on tha 
N. W. coast of Sardinia, 17 m. N. b; W. of Sa»- 
aari It is 38 m. in compass, and la fertile and 
Long. g. 34. E. lat. 41. O.N. 
^UKsoum, a town and parish of Inland, in (he 
county of Limerick, noted for its castle, and fiHr 
one of the most perfect abbeys in the oonntry ; 
bnilt by one of tbe earls of Desmond. Il is seat- 
ed on the Dee, near ils oonflnence with the 
— r-^ \>>--;^».>i.^ 8hannon,aOm.W.B.W. of Limerick. Pop. in 

"^^-^^^^-^-"^"-^^^ 1820, 1539, and of the parish, 3,435. 

ce, and is remark^tlr distingnlsbed by Ming, a town in North Yorksbite, Enr. seat- 
die beauty of his bide, covered wii brilliant ed near the Ure, 18 m. W. 8. W. of Richmond 
lyota. He lurks for bis prey in ambush, or pur- and S46 N. of London. Pop. in 1031,765. 

A8B m AST 

Asni&ras, a town of France, in the department try of Cutch, at the moat eastern mouth of the 
of Upper Vienne, 10 m. N. W. of Bellac. Indus, 38 m. W. of Boofebooge. 

JSmif a town of Italj, in Breaciano, 20 m. S. Jisseerpw^ a strong hiU fort of Hindoostan, io 
£. of Brescia. Candeisn. In the war with the IVfahrattas, in 

AsolOf k town of Ital]^. in Treyisano, with a 1803, it surrendered to the British. It is 20 ra. 
spacious citadel on a hill. It is snrroonded bj N. £. of Burhanpour. 

walls, and situate near the Musone, 17 m. N. W. Asseuy a town of Holland in Overyssel, 12 in. 
of Treyiso. ^. of Groningen, and 51 N. N. W. of Coevordon 

Asophf or Axoff a sea, anciently the Palus JisgetUuimf a town of Germany, in the circle of 
MttotiB, lying N. of the olack Sea, with which Upper Rhine, at the conflux of the Wetter with 
it conmiunicates by the strait of Ca&, the an- the Nidda, 11 m. N. £. of Frankfort, 
dent Cimmerian Bosphoms. The sea, which Assens, a sea-port of Denmark, in the island of 
is' sometimes called the Sea of Zabak, extends Funen. It is the common passage from the duchy 
240 m. from S. W. to N. £. between the* latitudes of Sleswick to Copenhagan, and is 17 m. S. W. 
of 42. to 47. N. and 34. to 39. of W. long. of Odensee. Long. 10. 22. £. lat. 55. 17. N. 

Aaophf a district of the Russian empire, in the JSUsiniboinSy or Assetubayney a river of North 
province of Catharineslaf, including a large tract America, falling into the S. W. end of Lake 
of territory to the east and west of the town of Winnipeg ; the North West Fur Trading Coni- 
Asoph. It was ceded by the Turks in 1774, and pany have a house on the south bank of the rivcr^ 
after that period, several new towns were built about 15 m. above its entrance into the lake, 
by Catharine II. ; one of which, Catharineslaf, is Assisif a town of Italy, in the duchy of SpoIet(K 
now the capital. with a magnificent church| 22 m. N. W. of 

Asoph, a town of Russia, lately the capital of Spoleto. 
a district of the same name, seated on tne east AstamptUn^ a township and village of Lower 
bank of the Don, near its entrance into tho sea Canada, situate on the bank of a river of the same 
of Asoph. It has been several times taken by the name, which falls into the St. Itawrence a little 
Turks and Russians. It is not of the importance below Montreal. 

it was in the reign of Peter the Great ; the river Assontt, p.v. in Berkley, Bristol Co. Mass. 
bein^ now so choked with sand as scarcely to ^jjo*, a^a>port of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, 
admit the smallest vessel. Long. 38. 32. £. lat. on a bay of the Archipelago. 12 m. S. £ of Troas. 
46. 58. N. Long. 26. 36. £. lat. 39. 32. N. 

Asperen, a town of Holland, famous for a long AMsurnvdon, an episcopal city, capital of a prov- 
sieffe which it held out against the Geldrians, in ince in Paraguay. It stands in a fertile country, 
1517. It is seated on the Linghe, 13 m. S. of on the east bank <^ the river Paraguay, a little 
Utrecht, and 22 £. of Rotterdam. above the confluence of the Pilcomayo. Long. 

Aspem, a town of Austria, on the north bank 57. 40. W. lat. 22. 47. Also the name of one of 
of the eastern branch of the Danube, a little the Ladrone islands, in N. lat. 19. 45. and 45. 
below Vienna, distinguished for a ^at battle 35. E. lon^. 

fought between the French and Austnans in 1809, Assumptum, a parish in the £. District of Lon- 
dunng which the town was totally destroyed, but isiana, on the river Lafourche. Pop. 5,400. The 
has been since re-built. court-house is 90 m. W. of New Orleans. 

Assam, an interior country of Asia, bounded on Astabat, a town of Persian Armenia^ 3 m. from 
the W. by Bengal and Bootan, N. by Thibet, and the river Aras, and 32 S. £. of Naksivan. 
8. £. and S. by Meckley. The nver Burram- Astara, a town of Persia, in Ghilan, on a river 
pooter divides it into two provinces ; the northern, of the same name, near its entrance into the S. W. 
which is the most fertile, being called Uttercul, end of the Caspian Sea. Long. 50. 40. £. laL 
and the southern Dachincul. Among the pro- 38. 30. N. 

ducts are many kinds of valuable fruits, with silk, Asterabad, or Esttrahad, a town of Persia, capi- 
musk, pepper, cocoanuts, sugar, and ginger. The tal of a province of its name at the S. £. part of 
open parts are marked with population and tillage ; the Caspian Sea. It stands at the mouth of a 
the woods abound with elephants. The moun- river, wnich forms a bay convenient for trade, 
tains are inhabited by a savage tribe called Nancs, 410 m. E. of Ferahad. Long. 54. 58. £. lat. 37. 
who go naked, and eat dogs, cats, mice, locusts, 16. N. 

and any thing they can find. The other inhabi- Asd, a city of Piedmont, capital of the depart^ 
tants or Assam are base and unprincipled, have ment of Tanaro, with a citadel. Beside the cath- 
no fixed religion, nor any rule but their inclina- edral, it contains upward of thirty other churches, 
tion. They eat all flesh except human, and even It is seated on the Tanaro, 24 m. £. of Turin 
animals that die a natural death. They are en- Pop. about 22,000. 

terprizing, savage, vindictive, and fond of war. Astorga, an episcopal town of Spain, in Leoa. 
They have neither horses, asses, nor camels; but well fortified by art and i^ature. It is seated in 
these are sometimes brought there from other a plain, on the nver Tueria, 25 m. S. W of Leon, 
countries. Asses they are fond of, but are so and about midway on the high road from Co- 
much afraid of a horse, that one trooper would runna to Madrid. 

put a hundred of them to flight. The invention Astrahad, a tongue of land on the northeast 
of gunpowder is sscribed to the Assamese. It coast of the Crimea, extending into the sea of 
was known in China and Hindoostan in very Asoph. 

remote antiquity ; and in the code of Gentoo laws Astracan, a city of the Caucasus, and the prin- 
there is a pronibition of the use of fire-arms : cipal city of Asiatic Russia, capital of a province 
but what these fire-arms were is not distinctly of^the same name, and an archbishop's see. It 
known. Ghergonf is the capital. is situate on an island formed by two branches 

Assaneale. or HasankalOj a town of Turkish of the Volffa River, near its entrance into the 
Armenia, which has hot baths much frequented, north end of the Caspian Sea, in tiie lat. of 46. 
It is seated on the Ares,' 22 m. E. of Enerum. and has a good harbour, it is surrounded by 

Assarpour^ a town of Hindoostan, in the coon- walls, and on the west has a triangular rortress 


Here are 25 Russian churcheS) and two conventi ; this riirer, and becoming clogged between ha 

the Armenians, Lutherans, and Papists, have Ibeir banks have formed what is callea the Great RaH. 

places of worabip ; and the Hindoos of Mou)tan where the river is covered with a floating bridge or 

nave been permitted to erect a temple. The hou- timber, extending with interruptions, a lengUi of 

•es are in general of wood ; and the inhabitants are 95 miles. 

estimated at 70,000. It seldom rains here, but the JStauif a town of Nifties in Principato Citeriorei 

river Volga overflows, like the Nile, and when near the river Negro, 22 m. N. of rolicastro. 

the water has run off, vegetation is very rapid* j(ilA,a fortified town ofthe Netherlands, in Hain* 

Here are several large vineyards from which some ault. It has been often taken, and is seated on the 

wine is made for home consumption ; also mann* Dender, 12 m. N. W. of Mons, on the road from 

factores of ^npowder, and nitre, and on the side Brussels to Toumay. Pop. about 7,500. 

of the Caspian Sea, are lonf marshes which pro- jSthabolif a town of European Turkey, in Ro- 

duce a great quantity of saU. The Vol^ either mania, on the coast of the Black Sea, 70 m. N. 

of itselfyor by its numerous branches, mtersects £. of Adrianople. 

half of the interior provinces of European Russia, JiihapescotD, a lake in the N. part of British 

and affords to Astracan a facility of communication America, discharging its waters into Slave Lake. 

by water of inestimable advantage ; it communi- It is 200 m. lon^. 

cates with Moscow by the Kashma branch and •ithboy. a parish and town in the county of 

with St. Petersburgh from Twer, pvtjy by canal, Meath, Ireland. In 1821 the town contained a 

and partly by intermediate waters. Ijie months population of 1,569, and the parish, including the 

of the river abound with bdumi, a species ofstmv commons, and the village of Castletown, 4,275. 

geon, from the sound of whi^ is made the finest The town is 30 m. N. of Dublin, and has three 

isinglass, which forms a very extensive branch of annual fairs. 

the commerce of Astracan. Here is also the cen- AUubMy^ an island in Somerset, Co. Eng. at the 

tre of all the commerce of Russia with Persia and confluence of the Thone and Parret, a few miles be- 

the East, in which Russians. Persians, Armenians, low Taunton, memorable for having afforded ahel- 

Greeks, Tartars, Jews, Hindoos, French, attfl ter to kmg Alfred. Here he collected some of his 

English all participate. It was taken fr^m the retainers, on which accouRt he called it £tlielin- 

Mongol Tartars about the middle of the 15th gay, or the isle of Nobles, and hence he made fre- 

century, and is about 770 m. S. E. of Mos^ quent sallies upon the Danes. 

oow, and 1,060 S. S. E. of St. Petersburgh. Athenrey, a populous parish and town in the 

Attiaiu, a maritime province of the northwest county of Gal way, Ireland ; in 1821, the pop- 

of Spain, extending for about 12(1 m. along the ulation of the town was 1,093, and total of the par- 

■here of the Bay of Biseaj. It is dividecf into ish 10,977. 

two parts, Astnrias deOviedo and Asturias de JhkinSf a once celebrated city, situate on a p. 

8antillana, so named from their chief towns. This montory at the southern extremity of Eastern Eu 

province is full of mountains and forests, its wine rope, supposed to have been founded by Cecrops, 

and horses are excellent^ and it has mines of gold, ld556 years antecedent to the Christian era, or 

lapis lazuli and vermilion. The eldest son of the about tne period of the height of Egyptian glory 

king of Spain is styled prince of the Asturias. It in the age of Moses ; it became the seat of kingly 

was formerly a principality of the kingdom of auUioritv under Codrus, about the period of the 

Leon, and is bounded on the S. by the province reign of David in Palestine, and in about l^OOO 

of Leon ; on the W. b^ €rallicia ; and on the E. years subsequent to its foundation, it had attained 

by Biscay and Old Castile ; it extends inland from the summit of its glory, when it became the chief 

the Bay of Biscay about 45 m. and contains a -city of the Grecian republic, which successfully 

superficies of 308 sq. leagues, and in 1810, a poj^* contended against the powerful arms of the Per- 

nlation of 364,238. St. Andero at the eastern ex- sian monarciiy, and excelled in all the arts of 

tremi^ of the province, in lat. 43. 28. N. and 3. poetry, painting, sculpture, and architecture ; the 

40. W. long, and distant by way of Segovia two last^ the Atnenians may be said to have per- 

87 and by Aranda 711-2 leagues north firom fected, for all that succeeding ages have done has 

Madrid, is the principal town on the coast, and been to copv, mix, and truismrm. Eighty-six 

Oviedo, 75 1-2 leagues N. W. from Madrid, is the yealts antecedent to the Christian era, when refine- 

ehief town inland. ment among the Athenians had sunk into licen- 

Asylum, t. Luzerne Co. Pa., on the Snsquehan- tiottsness, and patriotism into selfish ambition, and 

na, 66 m. N. W. Wilkesbarre. individual aggrandisement, Athens fell a prey to 

jftoeoma, a seaport and province of Peru. The the furious arms of Sylla, who sacked it of some 

province has a g£eat desert of the same name', of itschoioest treasures; from this period it may 

which sepentes Peru firom Chile. The town is be considered as having passed the meridian of 

remarkable for the fish called tollo, with which it its glory. In the 50th year oi the Christian era. 

carries on a great trade with the inland provinces, it was visited bv the apostle Paul, whose speech 

It b 210 m. S. by £. of Ariea. Long. 69. 30. to the multitude from the celebrated temple oa 

W. Ut 21. 20. 8. Mar*s HHl, as recorded in the 18th chap, of the 

Jltddmk, a considerable town in the goverment Acts of the Anostlee, Terse 22nd, will best testify 

of Tobolsk, on the frontiers of Col^van. It is sit- the social and moral condition of its inhabitants 

uate on a branch of the Obi river, m the lat. of 56. at the period ; it subsequently became a prey to 

20. N. and 89. 30. E. long. internal commotiens, as well as to external ene 

JtUkafalAva, a river or Louisiana, one of the mies, and after experiencing various alternations 

mouths of the Mississippi, striking off firom that of fortune, it became tributary to the Turks, on 

stream just below the entrance of Red River, their establbhing their dominion in Europe, and 

and llowing south into the Gulf of Mexico. It is under them was the chief town of the district of 

only however when the river is very high, that Livadia; numerous vestiges of architectural gran 

any great portion of the waters of the Mississippi deur still remain to attest the supremacy of the 

passes off by this channel. Vast quantities of drift Athenians in that noble and useful art. The tow- 

Maiber have passed from the main streaia into er of the new ehurch of St. Paneias, built in LoB« 


4on in 1822, U a copy of the oelebnted 'jTemple jftAoI, p.t. Warren Co. N. T. 61 m. N. Albany, 

of the Winds which adorned Athena ; and it is Pop. 909. 

propoaed to erect in Westminister a fao simile of AAom^ or MonU SaniOf a hi^h mountain of 
the Parthenon, an edifice which has delighted the Greece, Macedonia^ on a peninsula at the en- 
eye of evezy beholder, throufh a perioa of 2,500 trance of the gulf of Contessa. It has been cele- 
yeais, Uie latter part <n which it has been a proT brated in all a^es for its singular locality, and the 
to every species of «poliation. In 1806, lord £1- majesty of its appearance, and became an object 
gin, then ambassador from England at Conatan- of such great attraction to the Greeks, as to draw 
tinople, ransacked the Parthenon of the choicest deyotees from all parts of Eastern Europe, who 
vestiges of its friezes, &o. which now adorn the have intersperaed it with numerous churches, 
national Museum in London. Athens was besieged monasteries, and hermitages ; hence it has acquir- 
by the Greeks in the early part of their rev^u- ed the name of Monte Santo, or the Holy Moun 
tionarjr struggle, and the acro^lis fell into their tain. The monks amount to about 6,000, who sul' 
hands in 18^. Since which tmie they have been sist chiefly by preying on the numerous devoteep 
masters of the city. It stands in a spacious plain ; whom their arocted sanctity and craft continuar 
the hill of Mars, on the summit of which stcod the ly draw around them ; they however cultivate th . 
temple, dedicated to the idol of that name, was, olive and the vine to some extent, and there are four 
during the zenith c^ its greatness, in the centre of establishments of education for Greek ecclesias- 
the city, but now, at some distance from the pre- tics ; there is a fortified town called Kareis, about 
sent town, which is bounded on one side by Mount halfway uj^ the mountain, at which a Turkish aga 
Hvmettus, deservedly celebrated for the honey resides. It is about 70 m. E. of Salonica, and in lat. 
which it produces. On the sea ude it has three 40. 7. N. and 24. 15. £. long. 

forts; the Phalereus,Munchyia, and Piraus, about Mky,9. borough of Ireland, in the county of 

miles distant from the town, and throUjgh which Kildare. It is seated on the river Barrow, 12 m. 

it carries on some little external traffic in honey, S. of Kildare, and communicates with Dublin daily 

wax, oil, olives, silk, &c. in exchange for the by passageboats, by the line of the grand canal, 

manufactures of Western Europe generally, but Fop. in 1621, 3,693. The remains of an old castle 

for which, its chief means of payment consist in now serve for a countv jail, and there are ruins 

the bilk of exchange, drawn to defray the ex- of two monasteries in the vicinity, 

penses of its numerous visitors ; it is in lat. 37. j^tfctiuoit, p.t. Rockingham Co. N. Hampshire, 

58. N. and 23. 46. W. long. Pop. 12,000. 36 m. fr. Boston : 30 fr. Portsmouth. Pop. 555. 

Athens, p.t. Somerset Co. Me. Pop. 1,200. Atlantie.'aT Jitlaniie OeeoHj takes its name from 

Athens, t. Windham Co. Vt. 25 m. N. Brat- mount Atlas in Africa, and lies between the west 

tleboro. rop. 415. continents of Africa and Europe, and the east 

Athens, p.t. Greene Co. N. T. or the E. bank continent of America. Its least breadth frt>m 

of the Hudson, opposite Troy. 26 m. below Al- Guinea in Africa, to Brazil in South America, is 

bany. Pop. 2,4!^. 2,300 miles. On one side of the equator, it is call- 

Athens, p.t. Bradford Co. Pa. on the Susque- ed the North Atlantic Ocean, and on the other 

hannah. the South Atlantic Ocean. 

Athens, p.t. Clarke Co. Geo. 68 m. N. Mil- Adas, a chain of high mountains, in Africa, 
ledgeville, contains the university of Georgia, separating Barbary from Biledulgerid, and extend- 
which has a President and 6 Professors ; the librae ing east from the coast of the Atlantic to the ber- 
ries contain 4,500 vols.; the students in 1831 der of E^pt, upwards of 2,000 m. ; their greatest 
were 95. Pop. 1,100. altitude is about 13,000 ft. above the level of the 

Athens, a Co. of Ohio, in the S. £. part. Pop. sea. Silver, copper, iron, lead, and antimony, are 

9,763. Athens is the chief town. found in aififerent parts of these mountains. 

Athens, p.t. capital of the above Co. belongs to Another chain, calleo the Little Atlas, extends 

the Ohio university . ThecoUege at this place com- from the strait of Gibraltar to Bona in the state 

f rises 2 buildings, and had in 1831, 57 students, of Algiers. These mountains have different 

ts annual revenue is 2,300 doUars. Athens is 70 m. names, according to the various countries thev 

8. E. Columbus. pass through, and the plains and vallevs bv wliich 

Athens, t. Harrison Co. Ohio, 125 m. £. Colum- they are intersected. They are inhabited almost 

bus. in every place, except where the extreme cold 

AthersUm, a town in Warwickshire. Eng.. with will not permit, 

manufactures of hats, ribands, and shalloons. Atiiseo, a town of Mexico, in Tlascala, seated 

Richard III. held a council with his nobles here, in an extensive plain of its name, 20 m. W. S. W. 

the night before the battle of Bosworth. It is seat- of Puebla de los Angelos. 

ed near the Anker, on the high road from Lon- Atooi,otiB of the Sandwich islands, in the North 

don to Holyhead, by Chester. 13 m. N. of Cov- Pacific Ocean. It is 30 m. long, and contains a 

entry, and lOB N. W. of London. Pop. in 1821, sreat portion of gently rising land. On the S. 

3^34. W. sioe is a good road and anchoring place, called 

AtkUme,% borough of Ireland, partly in the Wymoa. Long. 159. 40. W. lat 21. d7. N. Pop. 

Co. of Westmeath, and partly in Roscommon, about 55,000. 

It stands on both sides of the Shannon, over which Atayaq%te, a town of Mexico, south of the river 

is a lonff bridge that is the grand pass between Zacatula, and a few miles inland from the Pacific 

the provinces of Leinster and Connauffht. It is Ocean in lat. 18. N. 

60 m. W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1821. 7,543, and Atrato.h, river of Colombia, which rises be- 

of tiie parishes of St. »Iu7 ^^^ St. Peter tween the first and second ridge of the Andes, 

in which the town is situate, 0,270 more. This and runs from south to north about 250 m. into 

is now one of the most extensive military stsp the gulf of Darien, in lat. 8. N. and W. long, 

tions in all Ireland ; and sends one member to 77. 6. 

the parliament of the United Kingdom. Atri, a town of Naples^ in Abruzzo Ulteriore^ 

Aihol, p.t. Worcester Co. Mass. 70 m. W. Bos- on a craggy mountain. It was the birthplace of 

Ion. Pop. 1,325. th« emperor Adrian. It is shout 4 m. from 


the shore of the Adriatic, and 10 S. E. of Teramo. 109 m. W. Albany. Pop. 4,486. It is Biti]«i«d near 

Long. 14. 2. E. lat. 42. 40. N. the W. end of Owaaco lake and i« very hand- 

jfesioM, a village in Burlington Co. N. J. 30 m. lomelj boilt. It contains a Theological Seminarj, 

E. by S. Philad. Here are several iron fbunderies. and the New-Tork State Prison. 

JUtea, a province of Greece, of which Athens ^uhumy or Aldhom. a town in Wiltshire, Eng., 

is the capital ; boanded N. by Thessaly ; £. by seated on a branch of the Kennet, 8 m. N. £. of 

the Archipelago ; 8. by Peloponnesus and W. by Marlborough, and 81 W. of London. 

Locris. U includes the most celebrated portion Aubuston^ a town of France, in the department 

of ancient Greece. The soil is very productive of Greuse, with a manufacture of tapestry; ses^H 

in wine, olives and fruits. Under the Turks it on the river Creuse, 37 m. N. E. of Limoges, 

was called Livadia. JSueagural, the capital of the kinjrdom of Adel, 

dittica, p.t. G«nnesee Co. N.J. 288 m. W. seated on an eminence near the nver Hawash. 

Albuny. Pop. 2,485. Long. 44. 25. E. lat. 856. N. 

Jtttlebanmghj p.t Bristol Co. Mass. 28 m. S. jfudk, a city of France, capital of the department 
Boston, 9 m. K. Providence, pop. 3,215 : has 3 |>oet of Gers ; lately an archiepiscopal see, and the cap- 
offices. Here are 3 cotton ana woolen fiustories, ital of Gascony. The cathedral is one of the finest 
with a capital of above 200,000 dollars. in France. Here are manufactures of velvet, ser- 

Mddtoraugh, an inland town in Norfolk, Eng., ges, crapes, hats, and leather. It is seated bythe 

14 m. N. E. of Thetford on the road to Norwich, summit and side of a hill, on the river Gers, 37 m. 

Pop. In 1821, 1,659. It was formerly a city and W. of Toulouse. Long. 0. 35. E. lat. 43. 39. N. 

chief town of the county. Auckland BiakojM, a town in the bishoprick of 

Attack f or Attack Benares , a city and fortress of Durham, En^.. at which the bishop has a palace. 
Hindoostan, in the province of Lahore. It stands It has a beautiral castle, and a chapel, whose archi- 
on the east bank of the Indus, near the confluence tecture is very curious. Hera are manu^tures 
of the Cabul, and on the site of the Tazila of of cotton and muslin. It is seated by the side of 
Alexander, where he crossed that river, and ad- a hill, on the river Wear, 8 m. S. by W. of Dur- 
vanced onwards to the Ganges, in the year 328 ham, and 249 N. N. W. of London. Pop. 2,180. 
antecedent to the Christian era. Attock is about AtuUf a maritime department of France, at the 
700 m. above the entrance of the Indus into the S. E. extremity, containing part of the late pro- 
Arabian Sea, and about midway between Cabul vince of Languedoc. It receives its name from 
and Liahore, or 180 to 200 m. fit>m each, in lat. 33. a river, which rises in the Pyrenees, and flow- 
6. N. and 71. 15. E. long. The present fortress ing bv Quillan, Limeux, and Carcassone, enters 
was built by the Emperor Akbar, in 1581. the Mediterranean near Narbonne, and which, by 

AUooTf a strong town of Hindoostan, in the the Royal canal and Graronne, is united with the 

Camatic,60 m. NT of Tritehinopoly, and 80 W. Atlantic Ocean. Carcassone is the capital. 

S. W. of Pondicheny. Audieme, a town of France, in the department 

Atwatety p.t. Portage Co. Ohio ; 140 m. N. E. of Finisterre, seated in the bay of Biscay, 18 m 

Columbus. W. of Quimper. 

Atub, a town of Germany, in the principality of Auerbaeh, a town on the east side of the Vogt- 

Wurtzburg, on the river GoUach, 12 m. S. £. of land, in the S. W. comer of the circle of Upper 

Wurtzburg. Saxony. 

j9u^, an interior department in the N. E. of jfu^rsto^if, a village of Thuringia, circle of Upper 

France, containing part of the late province of Saxony, W. of the Saal River, celebrated for a bat^ 

Champagne. It takes its name from a river, tie between Napoleon and the Prussians, on the 

which, passing by Bar-sur-Aube and Arcis, joins 14th October, 1806. This battle is called Uie battle 

the Seine, above Nogent. Troyes is the capital, of Jana; because the portion of the French army 

Pop. about 240,000. under the immediate command of Napoleon was 

Aubenas, a town of France, in the department euffaged with the armv at that town. See Jena. 

of Ardeche, with manufactures of woolen cloths, Augilaj a territory ox North Africa, lying to the 

red cotton, and silk ; seated on the Ardeche, at the south of Barca, between Fezzan and Egypt. It 

fl>ot of the Cevennes, 15 m. S. of Viviers. abounds in dates ; and many of the inhabitants 

Aubentan, a town of France, in the department engage in the caravan trade. The capital is of the 

of Somme, situated on the Aine, 10 m. S. of same name, 220 m. W. of Siwah, and 540 E. by 

Viviens. N. of Moursouk. Long. 23. 40. lat. 29. 33. N. 

AuheUrre, a town of France, on the fit)ntiers of Auglaize, r. a branch of the Maumee, Ohio. 

Charente and Dordogne, seated on the Drome, 22 Augsburg , a city of Suabia, lately imperial, and a 

m. 8. of Angouleme. Long. 0. 12. E. lat. 45. 17. N. bishop's see, but now the capital of a principality 

Aubieres, a town of Fruice^ in the department subject to Bavaria. It is a large fortifiea place, has • 

of Pay de Dome, 3 m. S. E. of Clermont. a variety of manufiustures, and is one or the prin- 

Awi^ne, or Avbigmt, a small town of France, cipal trading towns, and for the negociation of^bills 

in the department of Cher, seated in a fine plain, of^exchange, in the interior of Germany. The ca^ 

24 m. north of Bourges, surrounded with strong thedral, town-house, and other public buildings, 

wallsy wide ditches, and high counterscarps. The are magnificent. In the bishop's palace, the Luu 

castle is within the town, and is very handsome, erans presented their confession of faith to the eia 

Aubiuj St. a town of the island of Jersey, with a peror Charles V. in 1550, hence called Uic Confes 

fi>rt, standing on a bay of the same name, opening sion of Augsburg. It was taken by the French in 

to the south. See St. Hdier. 1703, and again m 1796. It is seated between the 

Aubomu, a town of Switzerland, in the Pays Werdach and Lech, 30 m. N. W. of Munich 

ds Vand, on a river of its name, which frils into Long. 10. 55. E. lat. 48. 17. N. 

the lake of Geneva, 10 m. W. of Lausanne. Augusta, p.t. the capital of the State of Maine, 

Ambumj p.t. Susquehanna Co. Pa. situated upon the W. branch of the Kennebec 

Auburn, 2 towns, in Geauga and Richland river, in the co. of Kennebec, 2 m. above Hallo- 
Counties, Ohio. well. Pop. 3,990. It contains a State House of 

A^Arnn^ p.t. the chief town in Cayuga Co. N.T. ^tone, a eonrt-house, aoademy jail and bank 

• P 

AUR m AdlB 

Here u a bridge acroes the river. Tlie nvet is kiiiffdom of Hanover .eested in a plain rarnnmdetf 

navigable below for vessels of 100 tons. by forests, 12 m. N. E. of Emden. 

Augusta, p.t Oneida Co. N. T. 110 m. N. W. SmrtUus, p.t. Cayuga Co. N.T. 173 m. W. Alba- 
Albany. Fop. 3,058. ny, on Owasco lake. Pop. 2,767. 
Augusta, p.t. JNorthnmberland Co. Pa. Aurelius, p.t. Washington Co. Ohio ; 96 m. S. 
Augusta, a County of the W. District of yir|^- £. Columbus, 
ia, near the centre of the State, subdiyided into AuriesmtUf p.T. Montgomery Co. N. C. 123 m. 
N. and S. AugusU. Pop. of N. A. 9^142. of 8. A. 8. W. Raleigh. 
10,783. Staunton is the seat of justice tor both. AuriUac, a town of Franoe, in the department 

Augusta, p.t. the capital of the State of Georgia, of Cantal. Quantities of lace and relvet are man- 

stau(u on the S. W. bank of the riyer Savannah, u&ctured here. It is seated on the Jordanne. 30 

alK>ut 140 m. from the sea. It is regukrly built of m. S. W. of St. Flour. Pop. 10,500. 

brick upon a level spot and surrounded by a fer- Auriol, a town of France, in the department of 

tile country i It has a great trade in cotton and Mouths of the Rhone^ 12 m. S. £. of Axis, and 

other>productions of the interior. Pop^,696. 12 N. N. E. of Marseilles. 

Augusta, p.v. Perry Co. Mississippi. 72 m. 8. E. Aurora, p.t. Erie Co. N. T. 175 m. W. Albany. 

MonticeUo. Pop. 2,421. 

A%^;usta, p.v. Montgomeiy Co. Alab. 67 m. £. Amira, p.t Portage Co. Ohio ; 140 m. N. E. 

Cahawba. Columbus. 

Augusta, t. Columbiana Co. Ohio. Aurora, p.v. Dearborn Co. Ind. 25 m. W. Cin* 

Agustin, St, a cape on the coast of Brazil, 300 cinnati. 

m. N. E. of the bav of All Saints. Long. 35. 40. Aurora, an island, one of the New Hebrides, 

W. lat. 8. 80.. S. Also the name of a river, bay, in the Pacific Ocean. It is 36 m. long and six 

and port, on the coast of Labrador, in the straits bsoad, affords plenty of wood and water, and has 

of Belleisle ; and of a river and bay, at the 8. W. a small bay on the a. W. coast. Long. 168. 18. E. 

end of the island of Madagascar. lat. 15. 8. H. 

Augustine, St. p.t. St Jonn's Co. E. Florida, on Aurungahad, a considerable city of Hindoostan, 

the eastern coast. It was formerly the capital oapital of Dowlatabad. It owes the greatest part 

of the whole territory of Florida. The town of its msfnificenceto the neat Aurungzebe^ who 

stands in a prairie near the sea, with a good bar- made it nis place of residence and eave it the 

hour, which however hss a shallow entrance, present name. It stands in a fertile puiin, almost 

It is regularly built of a stone formed by the con- surrounded bymountains, 110 m. 8. W. of Bnrh- 

cretion of sea-shells. One of the churches is an anpour, and 250 £. 8. £. of Snrat. Long. 76. 2. 

old edifice in the gothic style. The situation of £. lat. 19. 45. N. 

the town is low, but pleasant. In the neighbour- Aurungabunder, a town of Hindoostan in the 

hood are numerous groves of oranfe trees. Before province of Tatta, on the branch of the Indus, to 

it came into the possession of the United States, its which it gives name, 40 m. 8. by W. of Tatta. 

population was about 5,000. Since this period Ausa, formerly Alsa, a river of Camiola, which 

the yellow fever has made its appearance, and the' running southward bv AquUeia, after a short 

population has diminished. St. Augustine is 310 courBe,lalls into the Adriatic. On the banks of this 

in. S. S. W. of Charleston, in lat. 29. 45. N. river, Constantinej the son of Constantino the 

Long. 81. 40. W. Grei^, fighting agamst Constans was slain. 

Augustow, a town of Poland, in Polaehia, seat- AuspUz, a town of Moravia, 20 m. S. 8. E. of 

ed on the Narieu, 44 m. N. of Blelisk. Brunn. 

Augustus, Fort, a fortress of Scotland in Inver- Aussig, a town of Bohemia, seated on the Elbe, 

ness-shire, at the influx of the Oich into the south 11 m. iT. N. W. of Leutmeritz. 

extremity of I^iOchNess, 34 m. 8. 8. W. of Inver- .^tut, a village in Gloucestershire, Eng. 10 m. 

ness. north of Bristm, noted for its ancient ferry over the 

Augusthurg. See SeheUenberg, Severn. 

Aidtndoff, a town of Suabia, situate on the river AusteU, St. a town of Cornwall, in the centre of 

Schus, 9 m. N. of Ravensburg. an extensive mining: district. In the environs is 

Aulnay, two towns of Fruice adjoining each abundance of fine clav, which is sent to Liver- 
other, in the department of Calvados, 14 m. 8. W. pool, Bristol and Staflbrdshire, for the potteries, 
of Caen. Pop. about 3,500. Also the name of It is seated near the English Channel, 13 m. £. 
another town in the department of the Lower N. E. of Truro, and 245 W. by S. of London. 
Charente. Pop. in 1821, 6,175. 

AumaU. See AJhemarU, Austerlitx, or Slawhow, a town of Moravia* 

. Aumont, a town of France, in the department Near this place a great and decisive victoiy was 

of Lozere, 15 m. N. W. of Mende, obtained oy the French, commanded by Bons 

Aumore, a town of Hindoostan, in Bengal, 30 m. parte, over the Anstrians and Rusuans, on tho 

8. of Rajemai; and 46 N. N. W. of Moorshedabad. 2nd of Dec. 1805, which led to the treaty of Pres- 

Aunis, lately a small territory of France, in the burg. It is 12 m. £. of Brunn and 30 8. 8. W. of 

8. W. part ofroitou, and now forming part of the Olinuti. 

department of Lower Charente. AustsrUtz, p.t. Colombia Co. N. J. 34 m. 8. E. 

Auraek, a fortified town of Suabia, seated at the Albany. Pop. 2,245. 

feot of a mountain, on the rivulet Eras, 15 m. E. Austhilnary, p.t. Ashtabula, Co. Ohio ; 192 m. N. 

of Tubingen. E. Columbus ;nas a number c^ mills and woolen 

Auras, a town of Silesia, on the river Oder, 12 manufactories, 

m. N. W. of Breslan. AustmUnm, p.t. Trumbull Co. Ohio ; 160 m. N. 

Auray, a town of France, in the department of E. Columbus. Pop. 1^^. 

Morbihan, on a river of its name, near its entrance AustmoilU, p.v. Wythe Co. Va. on the Km- 

into the gulf of Morbihan, in the Bay of Biscay, nahwa. 

8 m. W. of Vannes. Australasia, a name conventionally applied to 

Aurieh, the capital of East Friesland, in the the •Jtemmw Isffitoiy of Mew HolhMtd, and ibm 

Mfenl gnxip* ei uluuu lonui of tae eqaabn, in 
tlK FaeSc Ooon. 8e« Jfac BoOmKd. 

Jutritt, Emfirt. CirtU, mad Ardtduduf tf, in 
Eonipe. The Aiutrun enifiue mid^Iwimu tlia 
laeieul kingdom* of Bi>iieim&, Honvu, and Hon- 
guj, the Italian Slotea of the Tjrol, uid the ut' 
dent rajniblie of Venice, Dafautu, the dochiei 
et Mantua nod Milancw, parta of the cirele of 
Banna, of SvitKrland, and of Poland^^uid the 
circle wliich inchidea tbe aichdaohj. Thia fine 
empire liei betveen the 45th and Slat iag. of N. 
kt. and the 9th and 87th of E. long, and oeottina 
■ nipcrticiea of aboot 300,000 aq. m. and SSfiOOitW 
i£ inhabitants In an a^gregBte Benae the Ana- 
trian empire maj be oonndered an interiM and tg- 
ricnluual, nther than a maritime and oommaiieal 
eonntrj,the only part that bordera npon the na 
beiag the Italian State* on tbe aouth, which maj 
be coniideied trlbularjr, rather than integral parte 
tri'the empire, and ea aiich are held b; too preoari- 

lO rank of order, is fiee &am creduL 

tj, inpeiatitian and bigotij. Bat although the 
inAabitanta are ignojant, they ere not coirupt j 
it, and the dom ■■ - ■ ■ 

me men are noneat, and L . 
oheria^d in the ftmilj ciide. 

excite a tpirit of commercial enterpdie. 
e river the Danube, rnua finm weal b> 
zh the heart of the empire, and bj ita 

branchee, interaerla almoat every part, 

itfiirding great interna] bellit]' of commnnication, 
and adrantages ; bat the peculiar locality of it* 
eammnnieation vith the Black Sea within the 
Dardancllea, pieolndea it fiwn affording auyveiy 
grrai external advanta^. The Elbe riie* in Bohe- 
niia; but it* conree la too circuitous, and too 
much liable to political impedbnenla, to afibrd any 
advanlages to Auatria to be relied on ; all thcnse- 
fnl branehe* of mana&ctun, however, in wool, 
flax, silk, and leather, and moat of the (uetbl art* 
whieli contribnte to the comfiirt and promeri^ of 
■neietv, are carried on over erery part of the em- 
pire, &i>m materials drawn from its Own internal 

of almost e»ery species .. , 

the foreata eupp^ abnDdanee of timber, and tbe 

C' u inch number* of cattle and abeep, aa to af- 
■everal million lb«. wei^t^wool to beennn- 
ally exported, after anpplying their own internal 
demands. The Italian Statee fhmiah nlk, olive*, 
and oil, and Hnngary the ehiuceet wine* ; and in- 
deed the Austrian empire may be eoniidered a* con- 
taining within itself all the mean* of mbetantial 
*nb«i*tance and of comJbrI, and mneb of Inxtiiy. 
Bat althoogh Amrtria ia not de*titnle of seuin*, 
enterprise, and efficiency in the higberdepart- 
Bients<rf' art, a bigoted and idotatrons specie* i^ 
religiona &ith, and ■elf-«uffieienay of p(ditieal aa- 
MndancT, tend to aabdue rather than excite the 

n Ibrm, and tbe formnlane* of the cbnroh 
Rone, axe tbe eatabliahed religion of the empire i 
the government however if not mild, is not lan- 
ninary, and the religion i* rendered loletaot. 
The ruling passion of the government ia military 
paiade, to maintain which a rerenoe of man than 
50,000^ dollara is abstracted annnally fhim the 
pTodnctive classes of the empire. 

RaUes from every part of the emjiire settle In 
the capital, and eontribata bf their wealth to 
inorcase it* eommerce and jndoatry. The ia- 
dolenee and ennni of the rich render many place* 
of amnscment necessary, but none are so much 
Kequented a* the theatre. Much has not been 
done in literature, still less in science; mnslc forms 
the only exception ; it baa been caltivated with 
great soeoee* Tbe peo^ an panetilion* in ob- 

71i< CJreUo/vfmfru, is bounded on the east by 
Hungary, north by Moravia and Bohemia, west by 
Bavaria, Suabia, and Switierlaod, and south by 
the Austrian and Italian Stale*, and Iho gulf of 
Venice,and containa superficies of about 50,000 sq. 
miles, and 4,600,000 mhabitant*. It i* divided 
into the Voratberff, and the counties of Bregen 
and Tyrol, the bishopric of Trent, the duchic* of 
SUria, Carinthia, and Camiola, each subdivided 
into upper and lower, Friuli, and Istria, the biah- 
opricB ofSalibnrg and Fasaau , insulated in the circle 
of Bavaria, and two small lerrilories of the Teuton- 
ic knights, insulated in the circle of Suabia and 
Franoonia, all of which will be found more amply 
deecribed under their respective heads. 

7l« ^chducky of Auttria, i* bounded on the 
N, by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, 
8. by Stiria, and west by Bavaria ; it form!* the 
the north-eaat part of tbe circle, and is divided 
into Weat, Upper, and Eaat, Lower, Upper Aua- 
tria is agam aubdivided into tbe Inn Quarter, Hi- 
hel Quuter, Quarter i^)Iau*ruck, and Black and 
Traon Quarter* ; and Lower Auatria north of the 
Danube ia aubdivided into the circle*, weat above 
and eaA below the Manhartaberg, and *onth of 
the Danube, into the circles above and below the 
foreat of Vienna. Upper Auatria contains abont 
5,100 aq. miles, 100 cities and towns, nnmeroos 
villages, and 630,000 inhobitanU; and Lower 
Auatria abonl 78 JXWsq.mUea, 280 cities and towns, 
numeroiu villagea, and 1,100,000 inhabilanto. 
lite Archduchy of Austria constitutes what con- 
ventkinally is conaiderod the hereditary dominion* 
of the house ofHapsborg, the reigning and ruling 
Amily, and the dtv of Vienna, situate on tbe 
south bank of the Danube, in the circle below 
the fbreat of Vienna, in lower Anstria, ia the 
■eat ofgoremment of the whole Austrian em- 
pire. Incept Vienna, there are no other citiea 
or town* in the Archduohy of Aiutria, that merit 
any particalBr notice ; it may be considered an 
agricnltnral and a somewhat frnitflil diatrict, and 
it* peasantry are cotuidered to be the happiest 
ancf best conditioned of any in Europe. To obtain 
however a just view, and to form a just estimate of 
Ibeir condition, and indeed of the condition of any 

itanees under which they are bom,Biid by whict 



they are rarrounded. The peaaaots o^ Austria It ii situate on the S. side of the Erahaitj, 4 m. 

have been bom under the innuence of the star of S. W. of Ummerapoorai the present capital, in N. 

p4unve chedience, which for jean past has been lat. 522. £. long. 96. 5. 

preached to them with mildness and persuasion, ^valon, a town of France, in the department of 

rather than violence ; and as such has made them Yonne, which has a great trade in grain, wine, 

a quiet and contented people, and as fkr as con- and cattle, and a maniuactore of cloth. It is seat- 

tentment constitutes happiness, the peasantry of ed on the Cousin, 24 m. S. S. £. of Auzerre. Pop. 

the archduchy of Austna, may perhaps, justly be about 4,300. 

considered as the happiest and best conditioned Jivallon, a town of France, on the east side of 

in Eurupe ; but after all. in the leffitinlate sense the department of Yonbe, about 90 m. S. by E. <^ 

of the term happiness, it is a condition alike re- Auzerre. 

puguant to common sense, and derogatoiy to the .^MitKAa, or Ateal^a, a laree bay, forming a 

character of man. The character or the ffOTem- very commodious harbour for snips of the largest 

ment, courtiers, and privileged classes of the arch- buithen, near the 8. £. extremitv of the coast of 

duchy of Austria, although tending somewhat to Kamschatka. The town of St. reter and St. Paul 

self-importance, is on the whole, courteous, affa- on the north side of the bay, is in lat. 53. I. N. and 

ble, ana condescending ; and whilst the peasantry 15.8. E. long. Saratounka is another town on 

of the archduchy may oe considered the most con- the S. side. 

tented, the court may be considered the least licen- .Aveiro, a town of Portugal, in Beira, with a 

tious of any in Europe. good harbour for vessels of a moderate size. The 

JhUaugay a county of Alabama, on the river Al- chief trade is in salt, of which great quantities are 

abama. rop. 11,872. Washington is the chief town, made in its vicinity. It stancb on a small gulf, 

Autun, a city of France, and an episcopal see, at the mouth of the Vouga. 33 m. S. of Oporto, 

m the department of Saone and Loire. It con- Long. 8. 40. W. lat. 40. 40. N. 

tains many vestiges of Roman magnificence, par- Aveinm, an interior department of the south of 

ticularly the temples of Janus and Cybele. Here France, including the late province of Rouergue. 

are manufactures of tapestry, carpets, coverlets, It is named from a river which rises near Severac 

and delft ware. The cathedral of St. Lazarus, le Chateau, and flowing by Rhodes and Ville- 

the college, and the seminary, are worthy of no- franche, joins the Garonne, below Montauban. 

tice. Autun is seated on the Arroux, at the foot The Lot intersects the northern, and the Tarn the 

of three mountains, 45 m. E. by S. of Nevers, and southern part of the department ; it is divided in- 

162 S. £. of Paris. to five arondisements ; Villefranche, Milhau, St 

AuvergntjK late province of France, 100 miles Afriqne, Espalion, and Rhodes, the last is the 

long, and 75 broad ; bounded on the north by the capital of the deputment, which contains a popn- 

Bourbonnois, east by Forez and Velay, south by lation of about SiO,000. 

Rouergue and the Cevennes, and west by Limo- Aodla, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro 

sin, Querci, and La Manche. It now forms the celebrated for its honey and apples, 15 m. N. E; 

two departments of Cantal and Puy de Dome. of Naples. 

AuoMard.n. town of France, in the department AvMinOf a town of Naples, in Principato Ulte- 

of Lot and Craronne, situate on the river Oaronne, riore. It was almost ruined 1^ an eartnquake in 

13 m. S. E. of Agen. 1694, and vain in 1806. Near it is the celebrated 

dtfttxerre, a city "of France, capital of the depart- convent or Monte Virgine, on a wild mountain, 

ment of Von ne, and lately an episcopal see. It which formerly had a sumptuous temple of Cybele. 

contains many fountains and squares, and the Avellino is famous for the dye of cloth, also for 

episcopal palace is deemed one of the most beau- nuts and maccaroni. It is 25 m. E. of Naples, 

tiful in France. It is seated on the side of a hill. Pop. about 9,000. 

on the river Yonne, 75 miles W. N. W. of Dijon, Avenay^ a town of France, in the department 

and 90 S. S. £. of Paris. Pop. about 11,000. of Mame, on the river Mame, 15 m. W. rf. W. of 

Jhtzan^ a town of France, in the department of Chalons-sur-Mame. 

Aube, 13 m. S. of Troyes. Jhotmeke^ a town of Switzerland, in the canton 

i^uxonns, atown of France, in the department of Berne, formerly the capital of Helvetia, but 

of Cote d'Or, with a castle, an arsenal, a foundry now greatly decayed, grain and tobacco being 

for cannon, and a school for the artillery. It is raised on the site of part of the ancient city. It 

seated on the Saone, 17 m. E. of Dijon. Pop. stands at the south end of Ihe lake Morat, 15 m. 

about 5,300. W. of Bern. 

Auzen or Tigre. a town of Abyssinia, capital of AvenUmUef p.y. Nash Co. N. C. 75 m. N. E. 

the province of Tigre, and a place of considerable Raleigh. 

commerce. It is seated on a river that flows into Averbach, a town of Upper Saxony, in Yogt- 

the Taccazze, 170 m. N. £. of Gondar. liong. land, near which is a rock nmous for pale topazes- 

39. 93. E. Ut. 14. 4. N. It is 14 m. S. of Zwickau. 

AvQy a country of Asia, now generally called AverilLtL town in Essex Co. Vt. 63 m. N. Honi- 

BtrmoA, which see. pelier. Fop. 1. 

AvQj a lar^ city, formerly the metropolis of the AvemOf a lake of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro. 

Birman empire. It is diviaed into an upper and 600 jrards in diameter, near Puzzuoli. Virgil and 

lower city, ooth of which are fortified ; the lower others have said the water was so bad, that birds 

is the most extensive, about four miles in circnm- dropt dead when flying over it, and nence they 

ference, protected by a lofty wall, now moulder- call it the lake of hell; but it now has no such 

ing into decay. The materials of the houses, con- poisonous quality, for birds swim upon it. A lit- 

sistinflr chiefly of wood^ were removed about the tie to the west of the lake is a cave, where some 

year 1783 to the new city ; and its numerous tem- pretend they went formerly to consult the Cume- 

Eles, on which the Birmans never lay sacrilegious an sybil. There are also some old walls, which 

ands, are dilapidating by time. Cmmpsof Dam- some suppose to be the ruins of a temple of Apol 

boos, a few plantain trees, and tall thorns, occupy lo, and othen t>f Pluto, 

most of the area of this lately flourishing capital Atartm, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro 


In 1805, it nifieied cmtfy by an aaztliqaalM. tiaetioik to tlta other is called tho Lower Aton 

It ifl aeated in a 6iie plain, 18 m. N. £. of Nwplea. Awm^ another rirer which riaes near Bedwin, 

AMn u horo, p.v. Comberland Co. N. C. on Cape In Wihahire, numing paat Saliabnry, and akirting 

Fear river, 35 m. S. Raloiah. the edce of the New Toreat, &llin|r into Chriat 

dtfoea, or Ths IsUmd» ofBirdMf ao called from the Church hay, in the Englidi Channel. 

Eatnomber of birda tiiat frequent them, thootfh Avam, p.t. Someraet Co. Me. Pop. 745. 

y hare not a trae. They an 70 m. £. of (%• Avam^ p.t. livingaton Co. N. T. S36 m. W. Al- 

raeao, and 100 N. of the ooaat of Tam Finna, in bany. Fop. 3,363. 

N. laft. 15. 60. W. long. 63. 43. .ANm, p.t Lorain, Co. Ohio. 146 m. N. £. Co- 

• J§99$ns9f a frontier town of Ftenoe, in the aoath Inmboa. 

afthe department of Nord| aeated on the high Avo^tUu. a pariah in the weatem diatrict of 

road from Mona to Paria. Loniaiana, oetween the Miaaiaaippi, Red and At- 

dAeefCodk^ a town of Sweden, in Weatmania, chafalaya rivera. It prodncea great qnantitiea of 

noted fat ita copper- worka, and a mint for copper eotton. Pop. 3,488. Markayille ia the chief town. 

moMmy, 35 m. N.n. W <A Weatexoa. AcramekMSy a town of FVance, in the aouth of 

dtfaaaono, a town of Naptoa, in Abraiio Uheri- the maritime department of La Manche. It ia 

ore, 18 m. 8. of Aqnilla. aitoate on an eminence, about 3 milea from the aea, 

Aione, a town of Xtalyi In I^inll, 23 m. W. of in a fine agricnlttural oiatrict It waa formerly a 

Udina. biahop'a aee, to which Henry II. of England went 

•tfe^tano, a Ibrtified town of Piedmont, on a to obtain absolution from tne pope's nuncio, for 

InU near the Cotian Alpa, 10 m. W. of Turin. the murder of Thomas a Becket in 1172. Al- 

JMgmom, a city of the south of France, capital though much declined in importanoe^ the cathe- 

of thedepartnentof Vancluae,andabiahop'aaee. dral, epiacopal palace, and caatle, giye it some 

It waa rannerly dependent on the pope, and an oonaequenee ; and it contains about d,000 inhab- 

ardkbiahop*a aee, but became annexed to France itanta ; 10 m. £. of St. Malo. 

in 1791. It haa a uniyersity, aeyeral handaome Aw. Loch, a lake of Scotland, in Argyleshire, 

chnrchea and a nrnagogue, and numeroua menu- 30 miles long, and in some parte aboye 2 broad. It 

factoring eataWianments. It ia aeatedin the heart eontaina four little islands, tufted with trees, on 

of a yeiy fruitfol district, (in which the oliyc, one of which are the ruins of an ancient castle; 

yine, and fruita of all kinoa are yenr abundant,) and on a peninsula of a lake are the noble ruins 

on the east bank of the Rhone, near tne confluence of Kilchum castle. At the north extremi^ rises 

of the Durance, about 20 m. N. £. of Miamea. the mountain of Cruachan, eleyated 3^390 ft. 

Pop. 32,000. aboye the auriace of the lake ; and near its top is 

Avil^t a town of SiMtin, in Old Caatile, and a the sprinff which forms this beautiful expanse of 

biahop*B aee. with a uniyeraity and a manufacture water. The riyer Aw, the outlet of this lake, 

of fine dotn. It is seated on the Adaga, in a rune into Loch Etiye, at the yillage of BonaW. 

krge plain, aonoonded by mountaina eoyered jtftoaCtAca. Bee AwUteka, 

wim miit^treeo and yinejnurda, 66 m. N. W. of Jhoeri^ or Otero, a kingdom of Africa, depen- 

Madrid. It waa fiirmerly one of the.moat conaid- dent on Benin, with a town of the same name, 

vnii^ citiea of Spain, butdoeanot now oontain on the riyer rormoaa. Long. 5. 10. £. lat. 6. 

more than 4,000 inhabitants. 10. N. 

AMeOj a town of Spain, in Aatuiaa, near the Awoti. a town of Snabia, on the riyer Cochen, 

bay of Biscay, 16 m. N. of Oriedo. 20 m. W. S. W. of Oeting. 

AtkOy a town of Portugal, in Alente}o, aeated on Axbridgej a tow&in Someraetshire, Eng. seated 

an eminence, with a caatle, near the riyer Ayb. on the riyer Ax, under the Mendip hills, 10 m. 

Hence the military order of the knights of Ayia N. W. of Wells, and 130 W. of London, 

haye their name. It ia 25 m. N. W. of Eatremos. Axd, a town of the Netherlands^ in Flanders, 

Aoiotfj a town of Naplea, in Terra di Layoro, 6 aeated in a moraaa, 10 m. N. of Ghent, 

m. £ of Sora. Axkn, a territory of Qxunea, on *he Gold Coast, 

Ammy a riyer of EnglancL celebiated fiir ita a^ with a riyer of the same name flowing through it, 

aeeiatk»n with the name of Shakapeaze. It riaea and a town on the eaat aide, at its entrance into 

6om aereral aprings in Naaeby Field, intheoom- the ocean. The country ia fertile, and weU cul^ 

ty of If orthampton ; ita moat eleyated aouroo tiyated, producing pafan-oil, cocoaa, oringes^ pine- 

springa from under the wall of afrrm yard, a ftw apples, yams, water-melona, and a piodigioua 

pacea north of the church, in the yilla|ra of If aaeby, quantity of rice. The Dutch haye a fnt ano frc- 

aad within a quarter of a mile fhmi tne aooice of tory hm, called St. Anthony. Long. 1. 3. W. 

the Nee, whidi flowa eaat^ and in a eonimy di* hit. 4. 42. N. 

reetion to the Ayon, ibih^ inio the German AxminoUrj a town in Dsrvonahire, Eng. on the 
Ocean ; whilBl te Ayon puraoea a westerly riyer Ax. King Athelstan eatabliahed a minater 
oonrae, a abort diatance ftoaa ila aaaraa, dividing ban ta the memery of the princes slain in his 
the coun^ of Nortiwanpiwa ftoaa that of Leiceater , amy, when he defeated the Danes in this neigh- 
ontilitentaattecountyofWarwick, in whichit booriiood. Here ia a mamilhetnie of leather 
oraamenta the fine domain of Stoneleigh Abbey, gloyea. Ao. and a fiunoua one of carpela. It 1827 
afterward waahing the rocky foundation of War- m. £. by N. of Exeter^ and 147 W. of London, 
wick caatle, firom whence it prooeeda to Strat- Axwrn, a town, anciently the capital of Abya- 
fbid, the birth-plaoe of Shak ape ara, and where it mtSm^ Maroina are yeiy extenaiye, among v. hich 
beeomea nayigahle ftr baigea of 30 to 50 tone bur- are many obellska ef gpanite, with sculptures, but 
then, running past Eyesham to Tewkeabury in no hieroglyphica. It la 70 m. N. W. of Auaen. 
Qeocesteishire, where it fidla into the Seyem. It Long. 38. 45. E. lat 14. 10. N. 
haa numeroua com and paper milla on ita baaka. A^bnoMik, AtnOf or Alemoutk^ a town in North- 
There ia also another riyer of tiie aame name in umberland, at the mouth of the Alne, 4 mileaeaat 
England, which riaeain the north of Wiltafaire, of Alamak. It haa a good harbour fiir ^hing 
nma paat Blahnabury and Chippenhaaa la Bath, yeaaela. In the vaign of queen Elizabeth the 
iaOingintotheBiisCoIChannelythaainoontnuUa- Fkenchhalditand ftrtifiedk^ai hwaa the fiiat 

• f2 


port near Scotland, when they eonld aafely land paztieular notice. Pop. in 1821, 7,425, and JVoe^ 

their anpplies for Mary of Goiae, the queen regent. Town Jiyr^ immediately contiguona, 4,027 mora. 

It is aaid that the bones of giants are often dug up The Ayr nyer aa well as the Don, affords a eon« 

in the neighbourhood. It exports considerable siderabie supply of salmon, 

quantities of grain for the London market. Jtysgartk, a parish and Tillage of North Tork- 

AyamonU, a seaport of Spain, in Andaluaia, ahiie ; the parish contains 12 townships, and a 

'with a castle on a rock, at the mouth of the river population of 5^620 \ the village contains 2^ in- 

Guadiana, opposite Castro-Marino, 80 m. N. W. habitants ; and is seated on the Eure, four miles 

of Cadiz. Long. 7. 15. W. lat. 37. 12. N. east of Askrigff. Here is a grand picturesque 

AyUsbunff a Imrough in Buckinghamshire, Enf . waterftU, eallea Ajragarth Force ; and a bridge of 

It is the centre of the bostness of the fertile vale one aich, 72 feet in the span, overgrown with 

of Aylesbury. Many people here derive their ivy. 

support from a pecuhar manner of rearing ducks Jhamor^ a town of Morocco, on the river Mot* 

for the London market; and the making of lace beys, near the sea, 80 m. N. of Morocco, 

is carried on to a great extent. It is 17 m. S. £. Atmredo^ a sea^port of Brazil, in the bay ol 

of Buckingham, and 38 N. W. of London. Pop. Spirito Santo, celebrated for sugar. Long. 40. 

in 1821, 4,400. 10. W. lat. 20. 18. 8. 

Aylesford. a town in the county of Kent, Eng. Atom or Western idandSf a gnmpof ialandsia 

situate on tne west bank of the Medway river, the Atlantic, between 25. and 30. W. longhand 

Pop. in 1821, 1,136. 37. and 40. N. lat. 900 m. W. of Portugal. They 

AyU$ham^ a town in Norfolk, Eng. 11 m. N. of are nine in number, viz. St. Maria, St. Michael, 

Norwich, and 118 N. E. of London. There is a Terceira, St George. Graeiosa, Fayal, Pico, 

spring aoout a mile from the town, very eifica- Flores, and Corvo. Toey were first diseoverea 

Clous in chronic disorders. It is seated on the in 1439, by John Vanderberg, a merchant of Bru- 

south bank of the river Bure, which is navigable ges, who waa driven here by stress of weather, 

to Tarmouth. Pop. in 1821, 1,853. On hia arrival at Lisbon, he boasted of hia dis- 

Ayr, a county, parish, royal burgh, and river of covery ; on which the Portugneae set sail, and 

Scotland. The county extends for about 56 miles look possession of them, which they have retained 

alonff the S. W. coaat, and is about 20 in mean ever since. They have all a clear sky and salu- 

breadth. It is one of the most productive coun- briousair; are extremely fertile in com, wine, 

ties in Scotland, and exports considerable quanti- and various firuits \ and breed great numbers of 

ties of grain to Liverpool; and the north part of cattle. It is said they are quite free of venom- 

the county participates largely in the cotton man- ous animals ; but they are subject to earthquakes 

ufoctnre. It also abounds in coal and iron, and and volcanic eruptions. They are seen at a great 

has some veins of copper and antimony, and sonie distance, one of them having a very high moun- 

kelp is made on the coast firom sea weed, which tain, called the Pico, or Peak of the Azores. The 

is aiso extensively used aa manure. It has been govemor-^neral resides at Angra, in Terceira ; 

proposed to intersect the north part of the county but St. Michael is the largest island. In the year 

with a canal from Adrossan to the Clyde at Glas- 1819 they exported to Great Britain 51,706 boxes 

gow, but after having been completed for about 12 of oranges, and in 1824-5 a still greater quantity, 

miles fiY>m the Clyde, the work has been suspend* Azoth, Atobu, or Ashdodf one of the Are cities 

ed. Agates, mphjij, jasper, and calcareous pet- of the Philistines, and a celebrated seaport of the 

rifactions are found in various parti of the county; Mediterranean. It was in this city that the idol 

whilst lime, and freestone abound, and on the nv- Dagon foil down before the Ark ; and ao strong 

er Ayr is obtained the whetatone, so usefril in a place it was, if we may believe Herodotus, that 

sharpening of agricultural cutlery. The principal it sustained a siege of S9 years, by Psammeticua, 

towns beside Ajrr, are Kilmarnock^ Kilwinning, king of Egypt It was, nowever taken by the 

and Irvine, N., St. Quivox, Mauchline, Muirkirk, Maccabees, m a much shorter time, who burned 

in the centre, Maybole, Kirkmichael, Daily, both city and temple, and with them about 8,000 

Girvan, and Ballantrae, S. men. The town is now called by the Arabs Has- 

2%ei20yaZ^«r^Aefifyr is situate in the parish, ansyvit. It is but thinly inhabited, though the 
and at the mouth of the river of the same name, utnation Is very pleasant. The town is wiut a 
on the sea coast, the light-house beinff in lat. 54. mile and a hair in circumference, and has in it a 
35. N.'and 4. 26. W. long. It is a puoe of eon- mosque, a public bath, a market-place^ and two 
aiden^le antiquity, having been a royal burgh aa inns. Here is an old structure with fine marble 
far back as 1202 ; its commercial importance de- pillars, which the inhabitants say waa the house 
elined with the rise of Glasgow, but has revived that Sampaon pulled down ; and to the S. £. just 
somewhat since the commencement of the present out of the town, is the water where Philip bap- 
century. Itsexportof coal is very great. About tized the Ethiopian eunuch. There are several 
6,000 tons of shipping belong to the plaoe, a por* ancient buildinga, with capitals and pillars stand- 
tion of which is empfoyed in the timoer trade, to ing. It is situiSed about 14 or 15 m. S. of Ekron, 
Britiah America, its buildings do not merit any between that and Asoalen, 


BAAL BECK, or the Valley of Aurf, a fertile Baha, or Babadagf a town of European Turkey, 

country of Asia, between Lebanon and AntiUba- in Bulgaria, celebrated for its knives and sword 

nus, about 30 miles from Damascus, where there blades. It stands on a gulf of its name, in the 

was formerly a magnificent temple of the Sun, Black Sea, 90 m. N. K. of Silistria. Long. 28, 

the ruina of which are atill admired by travellere. 38. E. lat. 44.40. N. 

Some geomphers make it a part, and othera Uie Bahdmtmddf a strait between the coast of 

whole of Ccelosyria ; but all agree, that it was Abyssinia and Arabia, uniting the Bed Sea with 

one of tiia most pleaaant apots on the earth. the Indian Ocean. In it is a small ialand and a 


moontain of the lame name. Long. 43. 60. £. leflsedby Ruana, since 1801. The eonntiy round 

lat 12. 50. N. abounds in petroleum, and, in some placesy oon- 

BabenKaugeHf^ a town of Suabia, in Germany, stantlj emits flame, but without i»oducing any 

5 m. N. of Tubingen. very sensible degree of heat. . It was prooably 

Babic, or BabaStg, a town of Persia, on the con- this district that gave rise to the sect of the Par- 
fines of the Desert of Kerman, situate at about an sees, Guebres, or Fire Worshippers, by whom it 
equal distance from the cities of Kerman, Shirax was formerly much resorted to. A similar phe* 
and Zed. nomenon or ignited petroleum prevailed near 

BabiiigUy, a village of Norfolk, Kng. is noted as Brosely, in Smopshire, Eng. from 1711 to 1750, 

being the place where Felix the Burgundian first since when the flame has entirely ceased, 

landed, to instruct the East Angles in the doc- What was more singular at Brosely wai^that the 

trines of the gospel, and where the first church is flame emitted from a spring of water There are 

said to have been erected. It is 4 m.^. E. of a number of inflammable springs in the western 

Lynn. part of N. ToriE. See Burning Sjningw. Baku 

BakuyantBj a cluster of six or seven small iai- is now an ine<msiderable place ; it is in 40. 5. N. 

ands in the North Pacific OceaiK 10 leagues N. of lat. and 50. 10. £. long. 

the isle of Luconia. The chief produce is wax, Badafox, a town of Spain, capital of Estremadu- 

ebony, bananas, cocoas, and plantains. ra, and a bishop's see. It is ntmous for a bridge 

BwyUrHf the capital of the ancient kingdom of built by the Romans over the Guadiana. On this 

Babylonia or Chiddea. Semiramis is said bj bridge the Portuguese were defeated by don John 

some, and Belus by others, to have founded this of Asturias, in 1661. Badajoz was taken by the 

city. But by whomsoever it was founded, Nebu- French in 1809, and retaken by the allied army, 

chadnezzar embellished it, and made it one of the under Lord Wellington, by storm, on the 6th of 

wonders of the world. The most fiunous works in April, 1813. It is a frontier town toward Portu- 

and about it were, the walls of the city, the temple gal. and well fortified. It is 14 m. £. of Elvas, 

of Belus, Nebuchadnezzar's palace, the hanging and 175 S. by W. of Madrid. Long. 6. 40. W. 

I of the city, the temple gal. and well fortified. It is 14 m. £. of £1 
r's palace, the hanging and 175 S. by W. of Madrid. Long. 6. 40. 
river, the artificial Uke, lat. 38. 45. N. 

gardens, the banks of the river, 

and the canals. The walls were 87 feet thick, 2S56 Badakshan, a citv of Usbec Tartary, or Great 

feet high, and 60 miles in circumference, forming Bucharia, capital or the province of Kilan. Gold, 

an exact sauaie, having 100 gates of solid brass, 25 silver, and rubies are round in its vicinity ; and 

on each side, with a street running firom each in a caravans pass by this city to Cabul and China. 

straight line to the opposite gate ; so that there It is seated on the main branch of the Gihon, about 

were in all 50 great streets, each 15 miles long. 100 miles from its source, at the foot of the Belur 

It is supposed to have stood on both banks of the mountains, 120 m. £. of Balk. Long. 68. 50. N. 

Euphrates, in long. 44. 0. E. lat. 3S. 0. N. Alex- lat 37. 10. £. 

anoer of Macedon died here April 21, B. C. 323. BaMnirv, a village in Dorsetshire, Eng. on a 

B4Mea.oT Boat, a town of Spain, in Granada, 15 considesable eminence, 4 m. N. W. of Win- 

m. N. E. of Guadix. Pop. about 7,000. bom. It was a summer station of the Romans, 

Baeky or Botha, a town of Hungary, formerly and many of their coins, urns, &jc. have been 

the see of a bishop^ seated near the Danube, 30 m. feund. Here is also a Saxon camp, which con- 

E. N. E. of FuiEfjurehen, and 85 S. of Buda. sists of three oblong ramparts. 

Baeharaeh, a town of Germany, in the palatin- Badelvna^ a town of Spain, in Catalonia, seated 
ate of the Rhine. It is fkmous for its wine, and on the Mediterranean, 10 m. N. £. of Barcelona, 
stands at the foot of a mountaiivn®'' ^^ Rhine, Baden, or Baaden, formerly amargraviate, in the 
24 m. S. by £. of Coblentz. The Counts pala- circle of Soabia, stretching along the east bank of 
tine had fermerly a castle here, and levied. toil on the Rhine, from the canton of Kule, in Switzer^ 
the produce and merehandize passing up and down land, on the south, in the lat. of 47. 30. to the bish- 
tiieRhine,which, from the extent of the exaction, opric of Spires, in the lat. of 49. 10. N. bounded 
was denominated the golden toll. It at present on the E. by the Black Forest. It was divided in- 
forms part of the Prussian territory. to upper and lower, or Baden-Baden and Baden- 

Baekettrai, a town of Russia^ in the province of Duriach, firom the names of the chief towns of the 

Taorida. It was lately the residence of the Tar- two divisions. Under Napoleon's formation of the 

tar elans of the Crimea, and the palace is a curi- Rhenish confederacy in 1806, Baden was conrtitut- 

oiQs species of painted Chinese structure. Near ed a grand duchy, with some change of territoiy. 

this |Maoe, on a high rock, is an old fort called the divided into three parts of the Upper, Middle, ana 

Jews* Citadel^ so named as having been from time Lower Rhine ; but receiving a further accession 

immemorial mhabited by about 200 femilies of of territorv of Brisgan^ &c. m 1809, it was divi- 

Jews. Bacheseiai is seated in a deep valley, on ded into the 10 following oireles, viz. The Lake 

the rivulet Katza, 18 m. S. S. W. ot Symphero- Danube, Weisen, Treisam. Kinzig, Murg, Pfutz 

sol. and Enz, Neckar, Odenwald, and Main andlTauber, 

BaekioHf an island, the largest and most south- being names of so many rivers intersecting the 

em of the proper Moluccas. It is 70 m. in cir- territory ; the code Napoleon was adopted as the 

c umfere nee, and the interior rises into woody hills, constitution of the state, and the seat of govern- 

it is governed by a sultan, who is also sovereign ment, established at Carlsruhe, about two miles 

of Onby and Ceram ; and he receives a pension from Durlaeh. The whole territory contains 

^om tbie Dutch, either for the destruction or sup- about 5,600 square miles, and a population of about 

ply of nutmegw. The Dutch first formed a settle- 925,000, from the productive portion of whom a 

ment here in 1610. Zabonga is the chief town, revenue of about £600,000 annually is collected 

Long. 127. 0. E. lat. 0. 23. S. fer military and state purposes. That portion of 

BaekUj or Baku, a city of Sliirvan, in Persia, the territory bordering on the Rhine, includinr 

sitnate on the shore of a fine haven on the W. the old margraviate. is exceedingly f^uitflily and 

side of the Gaspian Sea. It was taken possession contains about 180,000 inhabitantsc The forests 

of by Russia at the eommenoement of the last yield abundance of materials for buildingand fuel, 

eentory ; ceded back to Persia in 1735, and repos- Baden, the capital of Upper Baden, with a ca»* 

lAO it B4H 

tfa, on the top ofa hill, wherethe prinee often le- Mason. It is about 60 miles north of the site of 

sides. It is remarkable for its hot baths, and is the ancient Babylon, fSO north of Bassora, and 8 

seated between the Murg and the Rhine, 40 m. 6eg. due east of Damascus. Lat 33. 20. N. and 

W. of Stuttgard, and 20 S. of Cwlsruhc. Long. 44. 46. £. long. Pop. estimated at from 60JOOO to 

6. 22. £. ho. 48. 48. N. 90,000, three-fourths of whom are Turks, Uie xe- 

Badetit a town of Switxerland, in Arg[au, capital mainder are Jews, Persians, and of vanous na- 

of tbe county of the same name. Near it are some tions. 

warm baths, mentioned by the ancients under the Ba^Uma, a country of the Deccan of HindoostaSi 

names of Aquas and Therme Helvetice. In bounded on the north by Guierat^ east by Cande- 

1714, a treaty was concluded here between Ger- ish and Dowlatabad, south by Visiapour, and west 

many and Spain. It is seated on the Limmat, 10 by the ocean. It is exceedingly mountainous, hoi 

m. N. W. of Zurich. Long. 8. 24. E. lat. 47. 26. N. fertile in many places. 

Badem, a town of Austria, fiunons for its numer- BagtUUuea. or Banjahikaf a town of European 

ons hot baths ; seated on the Suechat, 15 m. S. 8. Turkey, in tne N. W. comer of Bosnia, on the bor* 

W. of Vienna. Also of a Tillage in the Valais, der of Croatia, 55 m. N. W. of Serai. 

Switxerland, with a hot bath of a sufficient degree Bagnara, a seaport of Naples, in Calabria Ulter* 

of heat to boil an egg. lore. Here are several high waterfalls : and among 

BadenweUer, a town of the grand duchy of Ba- the rocks are the ruins of the former town, in 

den, in the circle of Weisen^uch frequented for iti which 3,017 |>ersons perished by an earthquake in 

hot baths, seated near the Rhine, 5 m. B. S. W« of 1783. It is situate near the straight of Messina, 

Sulzburg. 15 m. N. N. E. of Rejn^io. Long. 16. 8. £.<iat« 38. 

Badmoarih, a village in Gloucestershire, En^. 7 15. N. Pop. about 5,000. 

m. N. £. of Gloucester. Here is a mineral spring Bagnarea^ a town of Italy, in the patrimony of 

called Cold Pool, nearly the same in quality as that St. Peter, 5 m. S. of Onrieto. 

of Cheltenham. Bagnertiy a town of France, in the department 

Baexa, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, seated of Upper Pyrenees, famous for its baths and min- 

near the source of theGuadalaquivir. It was onoe eral waters ; seatea on the river Adonr, 10 m. 8. 

the residence ofa Moorish king, and was since a of Tarbes. 

bishop's see, and seat of an universitv, but is now BagnoU, a town of France, in the department of 

deemed of little importance, although its popula- of Gud, near the river Cese, 8 m. S. of Pont St. 

tion is still considerable. It lies four leagues £. £sprit. It has manufactures of silk, 

of the great post road from Madrid to Cadiz by JBafsAoC, a villi^ in Surrey, £ng. 12 m. N. by 

Cordova, ana about 10. N. of Jaen. E. ofnPamham. It is surrounded by an extensive 

Bafa,B, seaport town at the west end of the heath, bordered on the west by Windsor park. 

Isle of Cyprus, with a fort, near the ancient Pa- Since 1800 a considerable portionhas been enclosed 

ihos, of wnich considerable ruins remain, particu- and brought under cultivation. 

arly some broken columns, which probably be- Bahama ty or Lueayos lsUmi$i a group of Islands, 

\ onged to the temple of Venus. Long. 32. 30. E. forming part of the Britidi West Indies, exten* 

lat. 91. 50. N. ding from the long, of 79. W. in the lat of 28. in 

Buffings Bay, a vast expanse of sea, so called from a S. E. direction, to the long, of 70. in the lat of 

an English captain of the name of Baffin, who 21. N. The northern part Bes contiguous to the 

navigated it in 1616. It is entered from the Atlan- coast of Florida, and the southern contiguous to 

tic by Davis's Straits, between the lon|^. of 54. the north end of St Doming. The greater por- 

and uT. W. and in the lat. of the Arctic Circle. It tion are mere rocks and umnhabited ; the follow 

is still questionable whether it be a bay or not ; ing are the principal islands : Bahama^baco, An- 

and the English govemcnt, since the general dreas. New Providence, Eleuthera, £xuma. Cat 

Seaoe of Europe in 1814, have sent several ezpe- Island, Long Island, Crooked Island, Mariguana, 

itions, to endeavour to penetrate in the direction Great Cai^cos, Grand Turk, Tnsgna, Square 

of that sea into the Pacific Ocean. Handkerchief. Of these Cat Island first deservea 

Bagdad, a celebrated city of. Asiatic Turkey, notice, as being the first land of the western 

the capital of a pachalic of the same name, or, as hemisphere, discovered by Columbus on the 12th 

it is now more commonly called, Irac Arabi ; Bac- of Oct 1492, by whom it was called Guanahana. 

dad is finely seated on the east bank of the noblB New Providence is the best cultivated, producing 

river Tigris, and previous to the route to India by a little aogar^ coffise, and cotton, and exporting 

the Cape of Good Hope, it was the centre of a large quantities of fruit to the U. S. of America, 

very extensive corameroe. It was the capital of £xuma and Turks Islands have exported 30,600 

the Saracen empire^ till taken by the Turks in tons of 'salt annually; but the chief occupatioo of 

the 13th century ; since which it has ofien been the inhabitanti, is we turtle fishery. The passage 

an object of contention between the l\irks and between the northernmost island and the ecMt 

Persians, until it was taken the last time by the of Florida is called the Bahama channel, end 

Turks, in 1631. It still continues to be a place of another passage between Long and Crooked isl- 

considerable resort, for all the commodities of ends is called &e windward passage, and fiirms the 

Natolia, Sjrria, Persia, and India ; but has lost route of the ships bound from Jamaica tor Europe : 

much <n its ancient splendour, and is not so opu- the Jamaica packet touches st Cnxtked IsMund 

lent as when in the possession of the Persisns. homeward-bound as the point of departure. The 

The tomb of the Jewish prophet Eaekiel is still number of slaves upon the whole islands acooard* 

shown here. Ii has several manufiustories of silk, ing to a return made to parliament in 1823, wss 

cotton, wool, and leather, and has a cannon foun- 10^08, and the while population probably amounts 

dij. Tbe city is surrounded by a wall shout five to about 4,000. 

miles in circumference, and contains some commo- Bakar^ an interior province of Hindoostan, west 

dious houses, bat its general character is mean and of Bengal ; bounded on the north bv Ncpaul, west 

dittf . its markets are abundantly supplied with bv Ou& and Allahabad, and south bv Bexar and 

ail kinds of provisions ; but the great neat of its (hissa. It is intersected by the Cfanges fi'om 

eluaats rsnoBrs it uneomfortaUe i the summer west to east, which reocivcs sewal tribntaiy 


itreuns in its eonne through the province, the comer of the ffolf of AiaMo, supposed to hare been 

most considerable of which are, the Goosey from the ancient Issus, celebrated for the Tictory of 

the north, and the Soane from the south. It is an Alexander over Darius. 

exceeding'lv fertile district ; its rice is the finest Baibaurdij an inland town of Armenia, about 

of all Hinaoostan ; suffar, silk, indigo, cotton, and 45 m. N. of Arz Roum. 

sah petie are produced in great abundimce. Pat- Baikalf a lake of Siberia, in the province of 

n% on the south bank of the Ganges, is the chief Irkutsk, 350 ro. in length, but its greatest breadtli 

town. The town of Bahar, formerly the capital, not above 40, between the lat. of52. and 55. N. 

is about 35 m. S. £. of Patna. The whole prov- and 104. to 109. £. long. The water is fresh, and 

inoe is subject to the English East India Company, the Russians speak of it with reverence, calling it 

Bakittf one of the 12 captaincies of Brazil, ly- the Holy Sea. There are many seals in it of a 

ing south- of Pernambuco, and extending from blackish colour, and abundance offish ; also sev- 

Uie 11th to nearly the 16th deg. of S. lat. and west eral islands, and that of Olchon, the largest, has 

from the Atlantic Ocean in £e long, of 40. to a sulphureous springs, and naptha sometiirtes floats 

ridge of mountains in 44. which bound it on the on its snr&ce. It receives the Selinga from the 

west ; it is intersected bv another ridge of moun- south, and its outlet is the Angara, which flows 

tains, its whole extent uom south to north in the north into the Yenisei.' 

long.of about 42. and the river St. Francisco runs BaUeyshurg^ p.v. Surry Co. Va. 70 m. S. £. 

from south to north between the two ridges of Richmond. 

mountains, to the north extremity of the territo- BaUltvl, a town of France in the department of 

ry ; when it abruptly changes its course to the east Nord,9 m. 8. W. of Ypres. It is » manufactur- 

forming the boun<uiry between Bahia and Per- ing town. Pop. about 9,000. There are several 

nambuco. Bahia contains a surface of about 50,- other .towns of the same name, in different parts 

COO sq. miles, and is the most extensively culti. of France. 

▼aied district of all Brazil ;su^, coffee, cotton, BaUur^ a seaport of Abyssinia, and chief town 

and tobacco are all produced in great abundance, in the country of Dancali. It stands on a spacious 

and the culture is progressively extending. Tht bay of the Red Sea, 340 m. £. by N. of Gondar. 

forests abound in a variety ox wood, and are so Long. 42. 40. £. lat. 13. 3. N. 

dense as to be almost impenetrable. The chief town jBotn. atown of France, in the department of 

of the same name, or as it is sometimes called, St. Ille ana Vilaine, 16 m. S. of Rennes. 

Salvador, is situate in lat 12. 45. S. and 38. 25. Bainbridge,ja.t. Chenango Co. N. T. 135 m. W. 

W. long, on the east bank of a noble bay, called Albany. Pop. 3,040. 

the bay of All Saints, which runs up from south BaxtJnidgey p.t. Ross Co. Ohio, 

to north about 40 m. being about 8 m. wide at its Bainbru^e, p.v. Franklin Co. Alab. on the 

mouth. The town is situate just within the en- Tennessee, 5 m. above Florence. 

the centre of which buildings have been extended of Syria, in Palestine, and tne chief town or the 

to the summit of the rising ground, which com* Druses. The port is nearly choked with sand 

mands a very extensive and beautiful view of and ruins ; but many cottons and silks axe expor- 

the sea and the country inland. Next to Rio Ja- ted hence for Cairo. It stands on the north side 

neiro, Bahia is the most important town of Brazil of a broad promontory, 50 m. W. N. W. of Da- 

and in point of commerce is the greatest. The mascus. Long. 36. 10. £. lat. 33. 45. N. Pop 

houses are in general well built, mostly of stone, about 7,500. 

and it has several churches and convents of con- Bakery a County in the S. W. part of Georgia 

siderable magnitude. Pop. about 100,000. on Flint river. Pop. 1 ,2^. B^on is the capital. 

Baklingenj a town of Wurtemburg, situate near Bakersfidd,_p.i, Fraxiklin do. Vt. 48 m. N. W. 

the source of the Teyah, a branch of the Neekar MontpeUer. Pop. 1,067. 

River, about 20 m. S. W. of Hohenzollem. Baker*s River , a branch of the Merrimack, 

Bakrtateky a town of Hindoostan, in the prov- Grafton Co. N. Hampshire, 

ince of Oude, G2m. N. N. W. of Fyzabad, and Bakerstoum, p.v. Allegany Co. Pa. 13 m. N. 

65N. E. of Lucknow. Long. 81. 56. £. lat. 27. Pittsburg. 

30. N. BakeweSly an extensive parish and town, in the 

Bdhrenhurgy a town of Westphalia, in the Peak of Derbyshire, £ng. Here is a large cotton- 
county of l£>ya, on the river Sunlingen, 20 m. mill ; and near it at the village of Ashford, are 
W. or Nieuburg. marble works, where the black and grey marbles 

BoAroA, a town of Arabia, situate on an island, fbund in the vicinity are sawn and pDlished. It 

30 m. long, in the ffulf of Persia. It gives name is seated on the Wye, 27 m. N. N. W. of Derby, 

not only to the is&nd on which it is built, but and 153 of London. The town contains a pop. 

also to a cluster of them, celebrated for the pearl of 1,782, and the parish about 9160. 

fishery ; and likewise to a province, extending BakatOf or BakoUy a town of European Tnrkevy 

alonf the west coast of the gulf. The town is in Moldavia, on the river Bistritza, 60 m. S. W. 

fortified, and belonged once to the Portuguese, but Jassy. 

IS now possessed by the Wahabees. It stands on Biaku or Backn, a town of Persia, in the prov- 

tbe west side of the island, 70 m. N. Ifi. of Lasha. ince of Schirvan, the most commodious haven of 

Long. 49. 5. £. lat. 26. 20. N. the Caspian Sea. on the west coast of which it is 

Bwa, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, situate. The vicinity produces much rook-salt, 

formerly fiimons for its not baths and elegant pal- sulphur, and naptha, and it is &mouB for sal&on. 

aces, of which some ruins remain . It is seated on Baku is a fortress, surrounded by high brick walls, 

the bay of Naples, 12 m. W. of Naples. 300 m. S. of Astiaoan. Long. 49. 15. £. lat 40. 

Bb/0, a town of Lower Hungaiy, on the east 2. N. 

bank of the Danube, 35 m. N. W. of Esseg. BoZa, a corporate town of Wales, in Merioneth 

BmaSf or PaigaSf a town of Syria, at the N. £. shire. It is seated on the lake of BaUi or Fem 

•AI. 7i BAL 

blemere, which is three miles long, and one broad, forming part of the province of Arragon ; thej are 

and abounds with a fish called gulnard, resem- named, Maiorca^Minorca, Ivica, Formentera, and 

bling a salmon in shape, and tasting like a trout. Cabrera, which see. 

The river Dee issues from this lake. It has the Balfiushj a town of Persia, in Mazanderan, on 

remains of three Roman camps, which seem to the south shore of the Caspian Sea, 12 m. W. ot 

have been used as exploratory stations, befbre the Ferabad. 

Ordoyices were totally subdued. The inhabitants Balga, a town of Prussia, on the Frisch Haff, 

carry on a considerable trade in knit woolen stock- 24 m. S. W. of Koni^berff. 

ings. It is 40 m. S. £. of Caemarron, and 196 BaU, or Ballyf an island, 75 miles long and 45 

N. W. of London. Pop. 1,163. broad, at the east end of the isle of Java, from 

BalacheOf a town of European Russia, situate which it is separated by a channel called the Strait 

on a brancn of the Don, 90 m. W. of Saratov. of Bali. It is populous, abounds in rice and fruits, 

Balachnay a town Russia, seated near the Volga, and fornishes staves, cotton-ram,- and pickled 

40 m. W. N. W. of Niznei Novogorod. pork. Long. 11. 50. £. lat. 8. 30. S. 

BalaffUeTy a fortified town of Spain, in Catalon- BaUzty a river which divides the provinces of 

ia, on the- river Segra, at the foot of a craggy rock, Yucatan and Guatemala, fidling into the bay of 

75 m. W. N. W. of Barcelona. Long. 0. 4a £. Honduras in lat. 14. 50. N. 91. 15. W. long. There 

lat. 41. 43. N. is a town of the same name near the mouth of the 

Balaganskoi, a town in the province of Irkoutsk, river, which forms the principal settlement of the 

Siberia, about 30 m. N. of the city of Irkoutsk. English for supplying mahogany and logwood, to 

Balakatoa, a seaport at the south-west end of the extent of 20,000 tons annuauy. 

the Crimea. There is also a fort called Balize in the Swamp, 

Balambanganf a smaH but very fruitful island, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, in lat. fa, 

off the north end of Borneo, in fat. 7. 16. N. and 6. N. 89. 20. W. long. 

116. 58. W. long. Balky a southern province of Independent Tar- 

Balamhuan. See Palambuan. tary, bordering on Persia, now subject to Caubul. 

Balapura. Chiea, a town of Hindoostan, in My- The principal city of the same name is situate on 

sore, noted for the manufacture of sugar-candy and the De wasn, a branch of the Oxus or Amu River. 

clayed sugar, 15 m. N. E. of Doda Salapura. and is a place of grreat antiqui^, once the capital 

Balnpuraf Doda, a town of Hindoostan, in My- of Persia, and the residence of Cyrus. It is s^l 
sore, surrounded by a mud- wall and hedge, and a place of considerable importance and intercourse 
has a strong mud fort with a palace. Here are between the inhabitants of the countries border- 
manufactures of cloth and suffar. It is 22 m. N. ing on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, and 
by W. of Bangalore, and 57 S. E. of Sera. the sea of Aral and Bukharia on one side, and of 

BalaraCj a town of France, in the department Hindoostan on the other. The khan's castle is a 

of Herault, fiunous for its baths. It is 12 m. from magnificent structure, built of marUe, dug out of 

Montpelier. the neighbouring mountains. It is ai>out 220 m. 

Batasore, a seaport of Hindoostan, in Orissa, and S. £. of Bokhara, and 260 N. W. of Attock Bena^ 

a place of considerable trade ; situate on the Gon- res on the Indus, in 36. 28. N. lat. and 65. 20. W. 

gahar, 20 m. fit>m its moUth in the bay of Bengal, long* Pop. about 7,000. 

and 124 S. W. of Calcutta. Long. 86. 46. E. lat BaUaghj a parish in the county of Mayo, Iie- 

21. 26. N. land. Pop. in 1821, 3,380, in which is mcluded 

BdUUouy a lake in the south part of Lower Hun- the town of Minola with 415 inhabitants and the 

gary , 40 m. in leuj^th, and 1 to 4 broad. The N. village of Ballagh with 329. 

endi8^bout5m. fromStuhl-Weisenburgh, and 36 BaUaiUrae^ a town of Scotland, in Ayrshire, 

more from the Danube, with which it is proposed near the mouth of the Stinchar, 24 m. S. S. W. of 

to unite the lake b^ a canal. Ayr. 

Balbastroj an episcopal town of Spain, in Arra- BalUeborough, a parish and town in the county 

gon, on the river Vero, near its conflux with the of Cavan. Ireland. In 1821, pop. of the pari^ 

Cinca, 45 m. E. N. £. of Saragossa. Pop. about 6,283, and of the town 804. 

5,000. BaUibaphay^ a town in the county of Donegal, 

BalheCf the ancient Heliopolis, a town of Syria, Ireland. Pop. in 1821, 290. 

at the foot of Mount Libanus, near the north-east BaUina. a town in the county of Mayo, Ireland, 

extremity of the fertile valley of Bocat. On the 7 m. S. of Killala, and 120 W. by N. of Dublin, 

east side are magnificent ruins, particularly those Pop. in 1821, 4,422. It was occupied by the 

of the temple <tedicated to the Sun. The town French in 1798. 

was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, in 1759, BaUinaslo^y a town chiefly in the parish of Kil- 

and is now a poor place, 37 m. N. N. W. of Da- doony, county of Galway, but extends into the 

mascus. parish of Creagh, in the county of Roscommon, 

BaldeagUf ts. Lycoming Co. Pa. and Centre Co. Ireland. It is distinguished fbr its great annual 

P^ sheep fair, the first week in Oct. when about 100,- 

Baldiffia. 8ee Valdima. 000 sheep, and 10,000 head of homed cattle are 

Baldoekf a town in Hertfordshire, Eng. seated brou^t to market. It is 12 m. W. of Athlone. 

among hills, 9 m. W. S. W. of Royston, and 37 and 72 W. of Dublin. It is sometimes called 

N. N. W. of London. It was originally built by Dunloe. Pop. in 1821, 1,811. 

the knights templars in the 12th century, on the Ballinffarru, a parish and town in the county 

Mte of the Roman way, called the Ikeneild street, of Limerick, Ireland. Pop. of the town 1,553. and 

Pop. in 1821, 1,550. of the parish 5,328 more. 

Baldwin^ t. Cumberland Co. Me. Pop. 947. Balhnakiny a town and parish in Queen's Coun- 

Pop. 2,32i. Blakely is the chief town. Gallen, 2,467. 

BaUarie Ides, five islands in the Mediterranean, */ There are about 300 other parishes and -vil 

SAL -i 

hft* in IreUnd be^nning witJi BaBin, but dodb 
that merit tnj puticnlor notice ; wKreral o( Ihem 
ue popnloQ*. 

BoUkoh, p.t. Sarat^x Co. N. Y. 35 m. N. A1-~ 
banj. Pap. 2,113. Tbia lawn U bmoui for iU 
mineral Bprinfji, See SartOoga. 

B^y, m Lriih li^ifiea town; thero ore up- 
mrdi oflSO p&iiahci, lowoB, and TilIafM in Ire- 
land beginainf with BaJtj, auch aa Baltybey, Bfd- 
lytattU, 4«. 4<. 

BaiiHTUD, a tom of Scotland, in t^feahire, 
which ha* a bade in corn and aalmon. The niina 
or ita once maf(mfic«&t aiibej, fbnuded in 1929, 
•re much admired. It ia aeated on the trith of 
Taj, oppomte Onndee, 10 m. N. W. of St. An- 

BiUtie, an inland mb, in the N. W. af .Europe, 
between the coaata of Sweden, RoMia, Courland, 
PmcBB, 0«munT,UMl Denmark, aiteDding irom 
the 64th U) the 60Ui dec. of N. lat. the Gulf of 
P^*'"" ninnlne up to Uw lat. of 66. and lying 
between the 16th and 32nd dec- of W. long, the 
Golf of Livonia extending S 3eg. fWther west, 
and that of nnland aa Git u 30. lU aorftuie ia 
eatimated at L20/)0D aq. milea, it contaiua a great 
niunlier of ialanda, the principal of which aie 
Aland, Dago,Oeael, aothfand,Oeland, Bomholm 
Rdgen, and Lalaod ; and the ialanda of Zealand 

atmetore loe feet in length and 127 feet high to 
thecToaeat theaiunmitoftbe dome. It oontaina 
the largeat organ in tha United atatei, IwTing 
6,000 pipea a--* ™ -• — " •- — - 

ftaTigahle ehannela into the Baltic from the aea 
enlM the Cattc^U, which commDnloatea with the 

Oennan Oteao : lat which ia the moat northeiij 
and moalfte4tienled,ia called the Sound, between 
tbe coaat o( Sweden S. and the coaat of the lale 
at Zealand S. Thia paaaage ia about fVmr nulea 
actoaa, and ia naTigat^ bj 8,000 to 9,000 aail of 

Daniah goTemment, fbi the maintenance of the 
light-honaea on tbe coeata of the levenl cbanneta. 
'The middle channel between the aouth side of the 
lale of Zealand, and tbe lalei of Fanen and Laland 
ia called the Great Belt ; and the moat aoutherly, 
between the iale of FiiDen and Laland, and the 
coast of Jutland, tbe Little Belt ; but tha naviga- 
tion of both ii ciicuitoDs and intricate compared 
with the Sound, and (her are onN paaaed under 
Teiy partienlar ciroumatancei. There ia little or 
no ti<to within the Baltic, and the ehaoneU and 
barbonia are generally Ainen np three or foor 
montha in the winter. Amber is fbnnd on the 
«oaat of Praaria. 

Baltiriutrt, a town of Ireland, in the county of 
Cork, OD a headland which runa iuta the leo, and 
fbmii a good harbour, 5 m, N, E. of Cape Clear- 
It haa tbe raina of an abbey, and ia 50 m. S. W. 
of Cork. Long. 9. 14. W. hit. 51. 16. N. 

Babiawj a Coonty of Maryland, on Cheaa^ 
peakBay. Fop. ISO^K. The city of Baltimore 
lalhe aeatof juatice. 

Bmltiaon, the ohlef city in Harjland, near the 
mouth of the river Patapaco on the wealem aide 
of Cheaapeak Bay, ia a place of great oommeree 
and wealth. It waa founded in 17dQ, but grew 
■o riowly that in 1753 it oonaiated of only SS 
lioiuea. Since the revolation il haa increaaed 
wilh aitoniihiog- rapidity and at pfeaent ia one of 
the Grit American cttira. Itstanda at tbe head of 
tide-water, 14 miles from the bay, and containa 
45 chnrcbea, 5 rauketa, 2 Uiealrea, in banks, an 
' exchange, a public library, St. Mary's College 
and the Ifnivenilyof Maryland, alonatiD aavlun, 

an obaervatai;, 2 mnaanms, and snrerr' -' * 

pthtic fonulauis. Tha Cathedral ia 

in length, with a hall 86 feel bj 53, lighted from 
the dome of the building; in this hsJl the mer- 
chants meet daily to tranaacl bnajnes*. 

There are two aplendid ntonnmenta at Balti- 
more. The Battle Monument is bnlll of marble, 
55 feet in height, and conuneniontes the defeat of 
the British in tfaeir attack upon the city in (614. 
The Washington Monument ia also of white mar- 
ble, 50 feet aqnare at the baae and aualaining a 
coloaaal atatue of Waahington at the height of 
163 feel ftom tbe gronml. The City Hotel ia one 
of the first public hooaea in theconntrj. Moat of 
the streets of tbe citT are broad and at right as 
gles. Fell'i Point, the lower part of the city, ia 
the quarter where moat of the stores and shipping 
are collected. Baltimore is the greateat flour 
market in the United Slatea. In Um immediate 
neighbourhood are above 60 flour mills, a aingle 
one of which haa produced 32/X)0 barrela in a 
year. In tha aame compass sre also 13 cotton 
mannfactoriei, and others of cloth, powder, paper, 
iron, gloss, ateam engines, chemical worka, Ac. 
Baltimore haa 80,625 inhabitants and is tbe third 
commercial city in tbe United States. It ia in 
lat. 39. 17. N. and long. 76. 36. W. 37 m. 
n. G. Washington, and JW m. S. W. Fhiladel- 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad eitenda ftom 
thia city to the Ohio river at Pittaburg, 300 miles. 
It was begun in 1829 and a great portion of il 
is already completed. There are aeveral viadoMa 
and emunkments In ita course near Baltimore, 
substantially built of granite, and a deepcut three 

with aails go sometimes SS mites an hour and can 
lie within 4 points of tbe wind. The whole dis- 
tance from Baltimore to Pittaburg, when oomplet- 
ed,will be travelled according to estimation, br 
hone power in 30 houra, and by ateam in SO. 
Another railroad has been commenced to extend 
from Ballimore to York Havan on the SuMpie. 
banni, GO mjlea. 

BaUimore, Jfca, p.t. Gieeue Co. N. Y. 90 m. 
S. Albany, on the Hudson. Pop. 3,370. 

BaltimBTt, t. Sussei Co. Del, compri^ng tha 
Hundreda of-Dayaborongh, Indian River, LewM 
Rehobolh and Broad Kiln. 

BalHnglait, a town and pariah of Ireland fai 
tbe county of Wioklow. It has some mannfte- 
turea of linen and woolen, and is saalad on th* 




Slaney, 29 m. S. W. of Dublin. Population of 
the town in 1820, l^SOO, and of the parish, 2,303 

Bamlbaf a town of the kingdom of Con|^, in a 
rich province of the same name. It camea on a 
traffic in alaves, and is seated on the Lose. 160 m. 
8. W. of St. Salvador. Long. 13. 45. £. lat. 7. 

Bamharray a kingdom of Negroland. which lies 
to the S. W. of that of Tombuctoo. The cultiva- 
tion of. com is here carried on to a great extent ; 
and the inhabitants are liospitable to strangers. 
Sego is the capital. It is intersected from west 
to east by a river, the supposed Niger, navigable 
for canoes the whole extent of the countnr. 

Bambergy the territory of, formerly an miperial 
bishopric but made over to Bavaria m the Bona- 
partean territorial arrangements in 1803, and is 
now called the Circle of the Mayne. It is inter- 
sected by the lines of 50. N. lat. and the 11th of 
E. long, containing a surface of about 1,430 sq. 
miles, several towns and villages, and a popul&> 
tion of 210,000. The chief town of the same name 
is situate in the centre of the territory, on the cast 
bank of the Rednits River, a little above its conflux 
with the Mayne. It is the seat of an university, 
and the cathedral and episcopal palace are stately 

Bawberg, a town of Bohemia, at the foot of a 
mountain, 30 m. S. of Glatz. 

Bamboraugky a village in Northumberland, Eng. 
on the sea-coast, 14 m. N. of Alnwick, it was 
once a borough, and gave name to a tract called 
Bamborooghshire. It has a castle, on a rock, in- 
accessible on all sides, except the south, said to 
have been built by king Ida, about 560. 

"Bamboukf a kingdom of Africa, between the 
rivers Faleme and Senegal. It is said to be very 
populous, and on the borders of the rivers fertile, 
but in other parts sandy and barren. The most 
remarkable animals are a species of whito apes, 
which the inhabitants will not allow to be sent 
out of the country \ whito foxes, and the giraffe, 
an animal like a camel, and of extraordinary 
swiftness. There are mines of ^old, silver, tin, 
lead, and iron. The capital is of the same name. 
Long. 9. 30. W. lat. 13. 30. N. 

^ Bamian, a city of Usbec Tartary, in the pro- 
vince of Gaur, south of the Gaur moimtains. 
Here are a great number of apartments and re- 
cesses cut out of a mountain, some of which, from 
their ornamental work and extraordinary dimen- 
sions, are supposed to have been temples. It is 
seated near a river of the same name, 170 m. S. 
S. E. of Balk, and 100 W. of Cabul. Long. 66. 
10. E. lat. 34. 30. N. 

BsmoA, a town on the north border of the 
kingdom of Birmah, with a fort, seated on the 
Irrawaddy, 170 m. N. N. E. of Ummerapoora. 

Bampton, a town in Oxfordshire, £ng. The 
remains of its ancient castle yet exist ; and it has 
a trade in leather gloves, jackets, and breeches. 
It is seated near the Thames, 12 m. W. of Oxford, 
and 71 W. by N. of London. Pop. 1,460. 

Bampton, a town in 'Devonshire, Eng. with a 
chalybeate spring and a manu&cture of serges. It 
is seated in a bottom, surrounded by hills, 20 m. 
N. N. £. of Exeter, and 163 W. by S. of London. 
Pop. 1,630. 

Banagker, a borough of Ireland, in King's 
County, seated on the Shannon, 15 m. 8. of a3i- 
lohe. Pop. 2,813. 

JBofMtoara, a town of Hindoostan, in Mysore, 
with a fine mud fort, and the ruins of an extensive 

palace. Much tobacco is cultivated in the vicmi 
ty. It is 68 m. N. W. of Seringapatam. 

Bankuryy a borough in Oxfordshire, Eng. It 
is noted for ito cakes and ale, and is seated on the 
Cherwell, 71 m. N. N. W. of London, and on the 
line of the Oxford Canal. It has a manufacture 
of silk plush, and returns one member to parlia- 

Btonca, an island on the S. £. coast of Sumatra, 
celebrated for ite productive tin mines. It has a 
town and strait of the same name. It was possess- 
ed by the English during the war of 1812-13, 
but ceded back to the Duteh in 1814. 

Baiuaiiy a seaport on an island off the east coast 
of Sumatra, in tne straite of Malacca, where the 
Dutoh have a settlement. It is 130 m. S. of Malac- 
ca. Long. 101. 7. E. lat. 1. 15. N. 

Bancaluiiry, the chief town of the island of Ma- 
dura. It is the residence of the Sultan, and po- 

Baneapaur, a frontier town of Mysore, in lat 
14. 58. belonging to the Mahrattas. 

Banroek, a town of the kingdom of Siam, with a 
fort ; seated near the mouth of the Menan, 48 m. 
south of Siam. Lon^. 101. 48. E. lat. 13. 44. N. 

Banamif or Fort Vtetoria, a town and fortress of 
Hindoostan, on the coast of the Concan, with a 
good harbour, and a trade In salt. It was taken 
by the British in 1755 ; and is 66 m. S. of Bombay. 
Long. 72. 48. £. lat 18. 5. N. 

Bamda. the chief of the Banda, or Nutmeg Isl- 
ands in tre Indian Ocean. The group comprises 
the isle called Lantor, and six or seven others. 
The nutmeg, covered with mace, grows principal- 
ly on these islands. It flourishes best in a black 
mould, and grows also amon^^ the lavas of Go- 
nong, the highest of all the islands, ite summit 
being 1,940 ft. above the sea. In ite general ap- 
pearance the nutmeg resembles the clove tree, 
only it is less pointed at the top, and ite branches 
are more spreading. Ite leaves are similar to 
those of the pear tree, but larger, and like those 
of the nut tribe are dark green on the upper 

surface and gray beneath. After sm^U white 
flowers it produces a firuit very similar in form 
and colour to a nectarine. When ripe it resembles 
a ripe peach, and bursting at the furrow, discovers 
the nutmeg with ite reticulated coat, the mace, of 
a fine crimson colour. The external pulpy cov- 
ering has an astringent taste. Within the mace is 
the nutmeg, inclosed in a thin shell of a glossy 
black, and easily broken. It has 8 varieties which 
appear to bepermanent. Ite cultivation is nice and 
difficult. The best trees are produced from the 
seeds voided by a blue pigeon called the nirfm^ 
hird. These islands have been subject to the 
Duteh ever since 1609, when they expelled both 
the English and natives. Tliey are all very small, 
the largest being only 20 m. in circumference, and 
are subject to earthquakes. Banda was taken by 


the Extf Itflh, in 1796, and restored in 1802. Re- shore of the bay of Carrickftr^s, opposite tlM 

taken in IdlO, and restored a^a at the peace in town of that name. Pop. in lo2l, of the town, 

1814. Lat 4. 40. S. lon^. 12J. £. 2,043 ; of the corporation, 327 ; and of the parish. 

Banda OriaUal, or Eastern Shore, a district of 6^2, making a total of 9,542 ; 90 m. N. by £. ot 

the United Provinces of Buenos Ayres, lying in Dublin, and about 10 £. of Belfast, 

the eastern part, between the riyer Uruguay and Bangor , p.t. Penobscot Ck>. Me. on the Penob- 

the sea. It is bounded N. by Brazil and S. by scot, & m. above Castine. It has a considerable 

the bay of the Rio de la Plata, and contains about commerce in lumber, and a Theological Seminary. 

70,0J0 sq. m. It is a fertile and well watered dis- Pop. 2,868. 

trict and has been the subject of contention and Bangor , p.t. Franklin Co. N: Y. 204 m. N. W. 

warfare between the Buenos Ayrean and Brazil- Albany. Pop. 1,076. 

ian governments. Monte Video is the chief town. Bonutor, p. v. Halifiuc Co. Va.' 140 m. S. W 

Bandon, or itoiujon-^ridf e, a borough of Ireland, Richmond. 

in the county of Cork. It is commonly a milita- Banjahika. See Bagnaluka. 

'■y station, and has manufactures of cotton, cam- BaHjer, or Bender , a considerable river in the 

lets, ticking, &c. It is situate on a river of the island of Borneo, which flows almost due south 

same name, 13 m. 8. W. of Cork. It extends from the centre of the country to the harbour of 

into three parishes, the part in the parish of Desart, Banjermassinff, and at its mouth the Dutch have 

contained in 1820, 10,179 inhabitants, and the re- their principu fkctory. 

inainder about 4,000 more. Banjemuissingf or Bendermassinjr, ft kingdom 

Bandora, a town of Hindooetan, on the south in the south part of the island of Borneo, the 

side of the island of Salsette which is separated capital of which is Metapura. The country pro- 

from that of Bombay, by a narrow channel. It is duces great quantities of pepper ; also ffold, iron, 

6 m. N. of Bombay. diamonds, canes, birds-nests, wax, and dra^ns- 

Bof^f a County of Scotland, bounded on the N. blood. It has a town of the same name, with a 

by the ocean, S. £. by Aberdeenshire, and W. by eood harbour, at the mouth of the river Banjer. 

MurraysMxe. Its greatest length is 50 miles, and Long. 114. 30. £. lat. 3. 15. S. 

Aa extent along the coast 22, but tiie main breadth Banks Island^ an island in the Pacific Ocean, 

« not more thui 16. The south part is very moun* on the east side of New Zealand, about 100 m. in 

tainous, but the northern district is level and fer- circimiference. Lon^. 184. 0. £. lat. 43. 30. S. 

tile. The principal rivers are the Deveron and Banks Jsland, an island in the Pacific Ocean, 

9pey, which form a part of its east and west boun- near the west coast of North America, about 60 

Uries, and yield abundance of fine salmon. The m. long and 5 broad. Long. 130.0. W. lat. 53« 

Aven rises firoma small lake at the south extrem- 30. N. 

ity of 'the county, ftlling into the Spey, where that Bann, a river of Ireland, which issues from the 

river divides the county from Mnrrayshire. The Mourne mountains, in the county of Down, flows 

principal towns are Gamry, Cullen, Fochabers, N. W. into Armagh, throufirh Lough Neagh, and 

Keith, Aberlour, and Kirkmichael. thence forms the boundary oetween Londonderry 

Banff, the chief town of the preceding county, and Antrim, entering the sea four miles below 

is situate at itsN. W. extremity, on the east bank Coleraine. 

of the Deveron, over which is a handsome bridge Bannalec, a town in the S. £. part of the depart- 

of seven arches. It has some manufactures of lin- ment of Finisterre, France, 15 m. £. ot Quim- 

en and cotton, but it is more a place of fashiona- per. 

Me resort than either a manufacturing or cominer- Bannhrids^e, a town of Ireland, in the county of 

eial town. The town-hall was built m 1798, and Down, on the river Bann, 14 m. N. by £. of 

is a handsome edifice. It is a royal burgh, gov- Ncwry, on the road to Belfast. Pop. in 1821 , 

emed by a provost, fi>ur bailies, aud 12 councillors. 1 ,715. 

45 m. N. of Aberdeen, and 167 of Edinburgh. Pop. Bannockburny a village of Scotland in the parish 

in 1820, 3y866. of St. Ninians, on the river Bannock, two miles 

Bangalsre, a city of Hindoostan, in Mysr>re. south of Stirling. It is noted fi>r a battle between 

It had a strong fisrt, built by Hyder, deemed the £dward II. and Robert Bruce, in 1314, in which 

bulwark of Mysore, toward Arcot : it was taken by tlie former was defeated. Here also James the III. 

the English in 1791, and restored the next year in 1487. was defeated by his subjects, wounded, and 

to "nDpoo, who destroyed it : but since reverted to soon after murdered by a priest takmg hisconfes- 

the English. The palace is composed of mud, sion. 

jet not without some degree of magnificence, and Bannow, a town of Ireland, in the county of Wcx- 

there are two extensive gardens made by the two ford, seated on the east shore of a bay to which it 

sultans. The chief manufactures are silk and cot- gives name, 20 m. S. W. of Wexford. Long 6 

too cloths, mushus, leather, and oil. It is 74 m. 50. W. lat. 52. 12. N. Pod. in 1821, 1,298. 

N. £. of Sieringapatam. Long. 77. 37. £. lat. 1 3. Bantam^ a town on the N. W. coast of Java, cap 

0. N. ttal of a kingdom of the same name, with two forts 

Bangor J a city of Wales, in Caernarvonshire. It is divided into two parts by a river. The Ku 

It is situate on the east shore of the Mrnai Strait f lish and Danes had factories here till 1652, whoii 

on the high road from London to Holyhead. It tney were expelled by the Dutch. The chief pro' 

was once so considerable, tliat it was called Ban- duce of the country is pepper, of which vast quan 

gor the 2*^^* ^^^ defended by a castle. The tities were formerly exported by the Dutch, whr» 

principal buildings are the cathedral and the bish- deposed the kings of the ancient race, and raonop- 

op*s palace. Tte see is of very great antiquity, olized the entire traffic of the country. Bftntain, 

The church was dedicated to St. Daniel, who once populous and flourishing, is now a poor place, 

was bishop about the year 51(i. It is 36 m. W. its harbour being so choked up that it is inacces- 

of SL Asaph, and 251 N. W. of London. Pop. in sible to vessels of burden ; its commerce is trans- 

1321,3^79. feredto Batavia. Long. 105. 26. E. lat 6. 20. S. 

Bangor, a borough and populous parish of Ire- Bantry, a capacious bay, at the S. W. extremi- 

Itnd, in the uounty of Down, seated on the south ty of Ireland, on the coast of Cork, capable of 

10 G 


oontainiiig all the shipping of Europe ; but loiiie- tioui until the year 1813, when a very aingalar phe- 

what cxpoaed to the swells of the Atlantic Ocean, nomenon occurred, wluch contributed essentially 

A Frencn fleet endeavoured to land succours of to its resuscitation ; a yaat dense cloud of matter 

arms in this bay to the adherents of James II . 1689, from the eastward, composed ^parently of rolcan- 

aad they madf* another unsuccesful attempt to ic eruption, fell, and covered nearly the whole sur- 

effect a landing with a formidable force 1796. It &oe of the island, which tended greatly to its fer- 

is 26 miles long, 3 broad, and 40 fathoms deep in tility. Barbadoes was constituted an ecclesiastical 

the middle. There is a town named Bantry^ at see over the whole of the Carribee Islands in 1824. 

tlio head of the bay on the east side, the spacious It is also the chief seat of commissariat for the same, 

liarbour of which is defended from the swells of which occasions the internal commerce of the is- 

the ocean by the island of Whiddy. It is 46 m. land to be considerable. It was first settled by the 

W. by S. or Cork, and 163 from Dublin Pop. in English in 1624 ; after the restoration of Charles 

1821 , 3,659. II. a duty of 4 1-3 per ct. was exacted upon all pro- 

BanwtU. a village in Somersetshire, £ng. four duce exported, under the pretext of maintaining 

miles N. N. W. of Axbridge. Here was a mon- and keeping in repair the forts of the island, and 

Astery, founded by one of the Saxon princes, for other protection. The duty has continued 150 

which was destroyed by the Danes. On its site years, and in 1820 amounted fo jS18,637, but whol- 

an episcopal palace was erected, some remains of ly converted into pensions, and the expenses of the 

which are to be seen near the church. Pop. 1,430. island defrayed out of the taxes levied in £ng- 

Bapaumef a town of France, in the department land. It is divided into five districts and 11 par- 

of Pas de Calais, 12 m. S. E. of Arras. Pop. 3,150. isbes. Bridgetown, the chief town, is in lat. 13. 

There is a river of the same name, falling into the 5. N. and 59. 43. W. long. Charles's, James's, and 

Seine, which drives about 20 paper mills. Speight's towns are the other towns of the island ; 

BMitistawHf p.v. Hunterdon Ck>. N. J. 30 m. N. the tree population amounts to about 20,000. 

W. Trenton. Barbaraf St. a town on the west coast of North 

Bar, a town of Podolia, in Russian Poland, on a America, capital of a jurisdiction of its name. It 

river that flows east into Uie Bog. In 1768, a cath- stands in a rugged, barren country, but has a good 

olic confederation was held here, to protect the reli roadstead. Ix>ng. 119. 17. W. lat. 34. 54. N. 

fion of the country fiaom the encroachments ot Bar(areen, a village of Ceylon, on the west 

issenters. It is 48 m. £. N. £. of Kaminieck, and coast, 35 m. south orColombo. It has a harbour 

55 N. W. of Braclaw. Long. 27. 40. E. lat. 49. 14. for ship-boats, and a considerable manufacture of 

N. cordaffe and cables from the cocoa tree. 

Bar, a town of Hindoostan, in Bahar, near the BaHforyf or the Barbary SUiUs. comprise the 

Ganges, 34 m. £. S. E. of Patna. whole northern coast of North Amea, bordering 

Bar, or fiaiTots, a late duchy of France, lying on on the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic 

both sides of the Mouse, between Lorraine and Ocean to Egypt ; bounded or rather intersected, 

Champagne. It now forms the department of on the south by the Atlas chain of mountains and 

Meuse. bounded by the deserts of Sahara, Tuarick, and 

Baracoa. a town on the N. E. coast of Cuba, with Lybia, extending in length from the long, of 10. 

a good harbour for small vessels, 90 m. E. N. £. of W . to 25. of £. and varymg in breadth from 300 to 

St. Jago de Cuba. Long. 74. 42. W. lat. 20. 30. N. 600 or 700 m. between the lai of 29. and 37. N. di- 

Baraneo de MaJUunba, or BarangmBA, a town of vided into the six foUowing sovereignties, or 
Colombia, in the province of Magdaiena, and a states : vis. first, beginning with the west ; Mo- 
bishop's see, with a ffood harbour, at the mouth rocco. bordering whoUy on the Atlantic .Ocean, 
of the Majrdalena. 70 m N. £. of Carthagena. Fes, torming the north-west comer of the African 
Ijong 74. 50. W. lat. 11. 20. N. continent^ and Algiers^ Tunis, Tripoli^and Barca, 

Barony, or Baranwokr, a town of Lower Hunsa- all bordermg on the Mediterranean. This exten- 

rvt capital of the county of Barany, taken from uie* sive territory was known to the ancients by the 

Turks m 1684. It is seated in an island, formed name of Mauritania, Numidia, Africa Proper, 

by the river Crasso, 14 m. N. E^egi ^^^ ^^ S. and Ljrbia, and at one period contended with 

of Buda. Long. 19. 16. E. lat. 45. 42. N. Rome for the empire of the world; and although 

Barataria, a bay or the coast of Louisiana, near at the present day its inhabitants are among ttie 

the mouth of the Mississippi, surrounded by a flat most unsocial and ilUterate of the communities of 

marshy country. Boats can pass from the Mis- civilization, they were at one period as distin- 

sissippi at New Orleans, through this bay to the guished for their attainments in art, as in arms. 

This was formerly a great resort for pirates. The whole country abounds in local beauties, and 

the east side of the lake Maracaybo, 130 m. S. by as lemons, oranges, the vine, olives, figs, almonds, 
W. of Venexuela. and dates are in great profiision ; the mountains 
Barbadoes. iht most easterlyof the Windward are rich in minerS substances, and all the domes- 
islands, in tne West Indies^ 25 m. long and 15 tic animals common to Europe abound over the 

of culture is the sugar cane, the produce of which merous in the mountains, and frequently make 

IS about 15,000 tons of sugar annually, which, with inroads into the plains. Reptiles are also verj 

some ginger and arrow-root, form its main exports, numerous, and the Boa-Constrictor, the most fero 

The island sufleredgreatly by the storm, on the cious of the serpent kind, is common on the bor 

10th of October, 1780, when upwards of 4,000 per- ders of the deserts. The external eommerce of the 

sons perished by its violence, and at the commence- cotmtry is limited, but will be more particularly 

ment of the 19th century^ was considerably on the adverted to when treating of the respective d*iri 

decline, the soil indicating symptoms of^oxhaus- sions. Mahometanism, in its utmost degree of 




personal indiil||[eiiee and wantonnesa of power, 
prevails alike in all the states, and lestralns aU 
rational and social advancement. 

BarherinOy a town of Tuscany, at the foot of the 
Apennines, on the river Sieva, 12 m. N. of Flor- 

Barbesievx, a town of France, in the departr 
ment of Chaiente, with a mineral spring, and a 
minn&ctnre of linen cloth. It is 45 m/N. E. of 
Bordeaoz. Pop. 2,750. 

BarbovmUUy p.v. Orange Co. Va. 78 m. N. W. 

BarboursviUef p.t. Knox Co. Ken. on Comber- 
land River, 125 m. S. E. Frankfort. 

Barbuda^ one of the Leeward islands, in the 
West Indies^ 20 m. lon^r and 10 broad. It has 
^od road for shippinsr, but the inhabitants (about 
t,oOO]) are chiefly employed in raising com, and 
breeding cattle, for the use of the neighbouring 
islands. It is 35 m. N. of Antigua. Long. 61. 
50. W. lat. 17. 50. N. 

Barhy, a town in the Prussian principality of 
Anholt, circle of Upper Soxonj, capital of a coun- 
ty of its name, witn an ancient castle, and an 
academical coUe^, foimded bv the United Breth- 
ren, in 1754. It 18 seated on tne Elbe, 15 m. S. £. 
of Magdeburg. Long. 12. 4. E. lat. 52. 2. N. 

^ Barcaf one of the six Barbary states, the an- 
cient Cyrenaica, on the south coast of the Medi- 
terranean, between Tripoli and Egypt. The 
south part is a barren desert, inhabited oy won- 
dering Arabs. The north part along the coast 
is fertile and well peopled. It belongs to the 
Turks, and is governed by a sanjgiac, dependent 
on the bashaw, who resides at Tripoli. Derne is 
the capital. 

Bandona, a city of Spain, capital of Catalonia, 
and a bishop's see, with a good harbour, on the 
Mediterranean. It is of an oblong form, defend- 
ed by a strong fort, called Montjuicli, which stands 
on a Tockv mountain, a mile west of the town. 
It has double walls on the north and east, and 
the sea on the south, with a mole for the security 
of ships. It is divided into the new and old town, 
by a wall and a ditch ; and the sea having retired 
considerably from the portgates, a whole quarter 
of the town now stands on the sands that were 
once the bottom of the harbour. It has a fine 
univernty, an inquisition, a cathedral with two 
lofty towers, a palace for the viceroy, a large ex- 
chan^, an extensive cannon foundry, on arsenal 
containing arms for several thousand men, and 
docks for the building of galleys. It has various 
mann&ctures, but is more particularly distin- 
guished for those of fire arms of all kinds, swords, 
catlery, and soap, and there are several very ex- 
tensive distilleries of brandy ; its commerce is gen- 
eral. In 1705 it was taken by the earl of Peterbo- 
rough, after a siege of three weeks. In 1706, 
Philip V. invested it with a numerous army, but 
was obliged to raise the siege. In 1714, it was 
taken by the French and Spaniards, and a citadel 
boilt to keep it in awe. The French took this 
city by treachery in 1806. In 1823 it held out to 
the last in favour of the constitutionalists, and did 
not yield until all hmie or expectation of success- 
ful renstonce was obviously useless. It is 250 
m. E. by N. of Madrid. Long. 2. 12. E. lat 41. 
23. N. Pop. of the citv and the new town or 
anbuib of Barceloneta ldO,000. 

BMred&na, is also the name of a populous sea- 
port town situated at the mouth of the little river 
Neveri, in the new province of Oronoko, Colom- 
bia, about 50 m. W. of Cumana. It is a mean 

dirty place ; the inhab. about 14,000, under the 
proscnbed system of Old Spain, were the cbief 
medium of the smuggling carried on between 
Trinidad and the interior ^rts of the country. 

Barcehnetie, a town of France, situate among 
the Alpine mountains, in the department of the 
Lower Alps, about 10 m. S. of Embrun. 

Baredore, or Boretcra, a town of Hindoostan, on 
the coast of Canara, wluch gives name to a dis- 
trict, but has been long in ruins. If is 40 m. N. 
N. W. of Mangalore. 

Barcelos, a very ancient town of Portugal, in En- 
tre Douro e Minho, near the river Cavado, 10 
m. W. S. W. of Bra^, supposed to have been 
founded by Homilcar oorca, 250 B. C. 

Bardj and BardiUjiwo towns in the province of 
Kerman, Persia. JBardin is on the route firom 
Ormus to Lake Gaxel, and Bard about 10 m. E. 
of Bardin. 

Bardewicky a town of Lower Saxony, in the 
dutchy of Lunenburg, on the river Ilmenau, 17 
m. S. E. of Hamburg. 

Bardi, a town of Italy, in the Parmesan, with 
a magnificent castle. ^ m. S. W. of Parma. 

Bardt, or Bartk. a town of Swedish Pomerania, 
with a castle and narbour, near the Batlic, 15 m. 
W. by N. of Stralsund. Long. 12. 50. E. lat. 54. 
25. N. 

Bareges^ town of France, in the department 
of Upper Pyrenees, much freq[uented on account 
of its mineral baths. It is seated in a valley of the 
same name, 24 m. S. of Tarbes. 

BarenUm, a town of France, in the department 
of Manche, 20 m. E. S. E. of Avranches. 

BarJUury a town of France, in the department 
of Manche. It was from this port that William 
the Norman embarked on his expedition to Eng- 
Und in the 11th century. Barfleur was destroyed 
by the English in 1346, and the harbour filled up. 
The cape of that name is 12 m. E. of Cherburg 
and near it jpart of the navy of France was destroy- 
ed by the English in 1692. It is 174 m. N.W. of 
Paris. Long. 1. 10. W. lat. 49. 40. N. 

Bcirga, a considerable town of Italy, about 10 
m. N. of Lucca. Pop. about 9,000. 

Bargainttnony p.v. Gloucester Co. N. J. 50 m. S. 
E. PWlad. 

Bar gey or Barges, a town of Piedmont, 7 m. S. 

Barguzinsk, or Barghouxmy a town of Siberia, 
in the government of Irkutsk, on the east side of 
the Lake Baikal, at the influx of the Borguzin, 170 
m. N. N. E. of Selenginsk. Long. 109. 30. E. lat 
53. 20. N. 

Bariy or Terra di Bari. a maritime province of 
Naples, on the shore of the Adriatic, Dounded on 
the south-east by Otranto, south-west by Basilica- 
ta, and north-west by Capitanata. Tfie soil is fer- 
tile, but there are many serpents and tarantulas. 
See Trani. 

Bariy a seaport of Naples, capital of Terra di Bari , 
and an archbishop's see. It is seated on the shore 
of the Adriatic, has a good harbour, and is well 
fortified. The trade principally consists in olives 
and almonds. It is 26 m. E. by S . of Trani. Long. 
E. 17. 0. lat. 41. 15. N. 

BarioUy a town of France, in the department of 
Var,l9m. S. S. W. ofRiejK. 

BarkhamsUady p.t. Litchfield Co. Conn. Pop. 

BarAaA^, a town in Essex, Eng^ It was cele- 
brated for a magnificent nunnery, of which a gate- 
way and part of the walls are still visible. It is 
diiefly inhabited by fishermen, and seated on 




the river Roding, near the Thames, 7 m. E. of 

BarUtta, a seaport of Naples, in Qari. It has a 
large stone pier, and a trade in com, almonds, and 
salt. It is seated on the shore of the Adriatic, 25 
m. W. S. W. of Ban. Long. 16. 32. E. lat. 41. 
19. N. 

Barmouthf a small seaport of Wales, in the par- 
ish of Corwen, Merionethshire. It has a good 
trade in flannels and hose, and is much frequented 
m the bathing season. It stands on a bay of the 
same name, 12 m. S. of Harlech, and 222 N. W. 
of London. Long. 3. 53. W. lat. 52. 44. N. Pop. 
of the parish 1,742. 

BanuunUf a considerable town in the province 
of Colyvan, Asiatic Russia, situ'ite at tho mouth 
of a river of the same name, falling into tlie Obi 
obout 200 m. S. of the city of Coljvan. It is 
the seat of the supreme court of all the mines in 
the Altaian mountains. Pop. about 5.000. 

Bamardy p.t. Windsor Co. Vt. 60 m. N. E. 
Bennington. Pop. 1,881. 

Bamegatf an inlet on the coast of New Jersey, 
70 m. N. E. Cape May. 

BamesvUlej p,y. Montgomery Co. Maryland, 
12 m. S. Fredericktown. 

BamesmlUf p.t. Belmont Co. Ohio. 

Bametf p.t. Caledonia Co. Vt. on the Connec- 
ticut. Pop. 1,764. 

Bamet, a town in Hertfordshire, En^. Near this 

glace was fought, in 1471, the decisive battle 
etween the houses of York and Lancaster ; and 
at the meeting of the St. Alban and Hatfield roads 
is a column, with an inscription to commemorate 
this event. Bamet \m 11 m. N. by W. of London, 
and being the first port town out of London on 
the Great North road, is a place of great inter- 
course and bustle. 

Bamevdt*s IslandSf two small islands a little 
north of cape Horn, and to the south of Terra del 
Fuego. LK)no:. 66. 58. W. lat. 55. 49. S. 

Bamevd£y or Barnweldy an interior town of 
Guelderland, Holland, situate about an equal dis- 
tance from Arnheim and Ammersfort. Pop. about 

BamsUyj a town of West Yorkshire, Eng. Here 
are considerable manufactures of coarse linen, and 
in the vicinity are many bleaching grounds, a 
glass manufacture, and several coal mmes. It has 
a canal to the Calder, and another to the Don, and 
is seated near the Deme, 19 m. S. of Leeds, and 
172 N. by W. of London. Pop. in 1821, 8,284. 

BamstahUj s County of Massachusetts compris- 
ing the peninsula of Cape Cod. Pop. 28,525. The 
chief town has the same name. Vast quantities 
of salt are made in this county by solar evapora- 

Barnstable^ p.t. the capital of the above Co. stands 
on a harbour at the bottom of Cape Cod Bay. The 
town is built with considerable neatness and has 
some conmierce and fishing business. There are 
extensive salt marshes in ue neighbourhood, but 
vhe soil here is better than in almost any other 
part of the Co. It is 64 m. S. E. of Boston. Pop. 

BamstapU, a seaport and borough in Devon- 
shire, Eng. It had formerly a castle, but none of 
the works remain except the mount. Here are 
manu&ctures of tammies, shalloons, baize, &c. 
an^ a variety of articles are exported. It is seat- 
ed on the river Taw, 12 m. E. of Barnstaple bay, 
in Bristol channel, 35 N. N. W. of Exeter, and 192 
W. by S. of London. Long. 4. 5. W. lat. 51. 8. N. 
Fop. IB 1821, 5,079. 

Barnsteadf p.t. Stafford Co. N. H. 36 m. torn 
Portsmouth. Pop 2,047. 

BamwtUf a district in the south part of South 
Carolina, bounded on the south by tne Savannah, 
and north by the Edisto River. Pop. 19,236, who 
are chiefly occupied in the culture and cleaninjg 
of cotton. The chief town of the same name is 
situated in the centre of the district, 116 m. S. by 
W. of Columbia. 

Baroach, a town and fortress of Hindoostan, Gu- 
zerat, with considerable manufactures of cotton ; 
seated on the N. bank of the Nerbudda, near its 
entrance into the gulfof Cambay, 40 m. N. by £. 
of Surat. Long. 72. 55. E. lat. 21. 45. N. 

BarquisimetOf an ancient inland town of th 
province of Venezuela, Colombia. It is situate ift» 
a fertile plain, about 20 m. from the E. shore or 
the bay of Maracaybo, and 120 W. by S. of the 
city of^ Caracas. 

Barra, or Barray. one of the Hebrides of Scot- 
land, to the south of South Uist. It is 12 m. long 
and 4 broad, and has a mountainous appearance, 
but the soil in many parts is fertile. Great quan- 
tities of cod and ling are caught on the coast ; and 
shell-fish, especially cockles, are found in freat 
abundance. On the N. E. side is a good harbour. 
Long. 7. 27. W. lat. 57. 2. N. 

Barra, a town of Naples, in the vicinity of the 
city of Naples. Pop. about 5,000. 

Barra, a fertile and populous district, north of 
the Gambia, in North Afirica, bordering on the At- 
lantic Ocean. 

Barra Inding or Barranding^ situate on the 
west bank of a small river which falls into the 
Gambia, near its conflux with the Atlantic Ocean. 
it is the capital town of the territory of Barra, ana 
is a place of considerable traffic. There is anoth- 
er town of the same name, about 100 miles up the 
river, on the north bank, between the rivers Ko- 
lar and Badiboo. 

Barraconda a considerable town in the interior 
of North Africa, about 400 miles up the Grambia, 
where there are some falls which impede the nav- 
igation of that river. 

Barragonj a small town about 12 m. below Bu- 
enos Ayres, situate on the shore of a bay to which 
it gives name. 

BarrauZy a fortress of France, in the Alpine de- 
partment of Isere, at the entrance of the valley of 
Gresivauden, and on the river Isere, 6 m. S. of 

Barre, p.t Washington Co. Vt. Pop. 2,012. 

BarrCf p.t. Worcester Co. Mass. 60 m. W. Bos- 
ton. Pop. 2,503. 

Barre i. Huntingdon Co. Pa. 

BarreUf a County in the south central part of 
Kentucky. Pop. 14,821. Glasgow, the chief 
town, is 134 m. S. W. by S. of Frankfort Two 
rivers, one called the Little, and the other the Big 
Barren, have their source within the county, run- 
ning in difierent directions, but both falling into 
the Green River. 

Barrinstonf p.t. Strafford Co. N. H. 65 ro. fir 
Boston : 20 fr. rortsmouth. Pop. 1,895. 

Barringtonf p.t, Bristol Co. R. I. 8 m. S. E 
Providence. Fop. 612. 

BarrotOj a river of Ireland, which rises in the 
N. part of Queen's County, and flows S. by Athy, 
Canow, ana New Ross, into Waterford harbour. 

Barrow f a village in Leicestershire, Eng. on the 
river Soar, two miles N. of Mountsorrel. It has 
for centuries been famed for a very fine lime, m 
particular request for works in water, and which 
IS exported in large quantities. Pop. 1,668. 


Bmr UDmCfOtBm^mir'Ot miii, > town of IVance, ilai«f , a town and pariah on the N. W. ooMt of 
QapitalofthedemurtaiantofMeaae, withaoaaOe. the iale of Lewia. Pop. in 1821, 3,668. The 
Ita wine ia aa delicate aa Champagne, and^ it haa town ia litaato on the ahore of a fine haj. 
MTeial mannfaetniea. It ia leatea on the side of a Ba*, a small island off the N. coast of the de- 
hill, bj the riynlet Ornain, 30 m. W. of Toul, and partment of Finiatene, France, in N. lat. 48. 46. 
133 E. of Paria. Pop. abont 10,000. W. long. 4. 2. 

Bar-«air-»Jai6e, a town of France, in the depart- BaMrt«dUdk,a town of Eoropean Turkey, in Ro- 

ment of Anbe, famoos for ita winea ; seated at the mania. It haa a ipreat trade, and is seated on the 

loot of a mountain, 18 m. 8. W. of JoinTille. Pop. river M erite. Long. 24. 40. £. kt. 42. 19. N. 

3,600. Basel, BadSf or SaUf a canton of Switzerland, 

Bar^naT'SemB, a town of France in the depart- 24 miles long and 21 broad: bounded on the north 

ment of Aube, on the riyer Seine, at the foot of a bv Brisgau, east by the Forest towns, south by 

mountain, 20 m. S. W. of Bar-sur-Anbe. Pop. tne canton of Soleure, and west by the bishopric 

%aOO. of Basael and France. It contains about 38/)00 

Bart, an interior county in the north part of inhabitants, and is of the reformed reliflHion. 

liower Hungary ; a town of the same name, for- Basd a biahopric in tne N. W. part <n Switzer 

•nerly fortified, waa once the capital. Kremoni land ; bounded on the east by the canton of Basel* 

In tlie centre of a mining diatrict m now the chief south by that of Soleure, and weat and north by 

lown. France. The biahop was a prince of the German 

BmrmCf a town of France, on the weat bank of empire. In 1796 the French seized on this terri- 

the Garonne, ahout 20 m. 8. £. of Bordeaux. It tory, annexed it to France, and made it a new de- 

givea name to a fovourito wine. partment called Mont Terrible. 

Bmrt, p.t. Lancaster Go. Pa. ^<ve<) the capital of the canton of the same name, 

Btutfidty a town in the County of Baroa, north and the largest town in Switzerland, ia situate at 

part of UppMsr Hunnry , situate among the Carpa- the north extremity of the canton, and on the 

thian mountains. It had a nrinting pnm in the firontiers of F^ce on the west, and the duchy 

16th centnry . It haa manumcturea of linen, and of Baden on the eaat It is surrounded by thick 

eontaina about 4i)00 inhabitaata. walls, flanked by towers and bastions ; and ia di- 

Baifan, and Auteastam, two interior towna of yided into two parts by the Rhine, which com- 

the kingdom of Pruasia Proper, 30 to 40 m. E. of muntcato hf a handsome bridge. The largest 

Konigsfisig. part is on tlus side of Switzerland, and the least 

Bmrtholmiiitw, a riyer which risea in Arkansaa on that of Germany. The larger has fiye gates, 

territory, and falla into the Waahita, in the state six suburbs, numerous streeta and fountains, 

of Louisiana, a Uttle below the town of Waah- and is partly seated on a hill ; the other stands 

ington. on a plain, and has but two gates^ with seyeral 

BartMamsis, a small island in the Pacific Ocean, streete and fountains. The principal church is 

one of the New Hebrides. Long. 167. 18. E. lat. an elegant gothic building but disfigured by rose- 

15. 42. S. coloured paint spread oyer the whole edifice. 

Bmrikdomtw, St. one of the Canibee islands, in Under a marble tomb in it ia interred the great 

the Weat Indies, 24 miles in circumference, and Erasmus, who died in 1596, The town-house, 

25 north of St. Chiiatopher. The Ftanch ceded it and fine puntings in fresco are much admired. 

to the Swedea ia 1785 ; and it waa taken by the The Uniyersity founded in 1459, haa a fine libra- 

Britiah in 1801, but restored to Sweden in 1814. ry and a rich cabinet of medals. The clocks here 

niie chief exporte are drugs and lignumyits ; are always an hour too fast, because the town-clock 

and it haa a good harbour. Long. 63. 40. W. lat went so on a day appointed to murder the magis- 

17. 46. N. trates, by which the conspiracy was disconcerted. 

BmrthdomeWf Si. a pariah of S. Carolina, in Basel haa seyeral manumotuns, particularly of 

Charieston District. V^V^h ribands, and cottons ; and it carriea on an 

AwflcC. p.t Gooa Co. N. H. at the fbot of the extenaiye trade. Three treatiea of peace were 

White Mountains, 85 m. fr. Portsmouth. Pop. concluded here in one y«v» 1796, with the French 

644. republic ; namely, by Pruasia, Spain, and Hesse 

Barton, a town in Lincolnshire, Eng. It haa Cassel. The alhes passed through this city, when 

two large churehea, and waa formerly a conaider- they inyaded France, in December, 1813. Baael 

able place, surrounded by a rampart and fosse, the is capable of containing IQOflOO inhabitante ; but 

remains of which are yet yiaible. Four miles E. the number is scarce^ more than 14j000. It u 

8. B. are the noble ruins of Thornton abbey. Bar- 174 m. N. by £. of Geneya, and 250 E. by 8. of 

ton ia seated on the Humber, oyer which is a fer- Paria. Long. 7. 30. E. lat. 47. 35. N. 

ry into Yorkshire, 34 m. N. of Lincoln, and 167 of Basket, an iahmd in the China Sea, the moat 

London. Pop in 1821, 2,496. eastern of a cluster called from this, the Baabee 

B&rtam ia also the name of a populoua town- islands, lying to the South of Formosa. The pro- 

riiip in the parish of Eocles, situate on the hanks ductions are plantains, bana n as, pine-apples, su- 

of the Irw^, 7 m. £. of Manchester. Pop. in gar-canes, potatoea, Vams and cotton. The quad- 

1890, 1,077. There are also 30 other towns or yil- rupeds are gptU and hen. Baabee is of a cir- 

lages called Barton in dififerent parte of England, cular form, six miles in mameter, and has a town 

Barteii, p.t. Orleans Co. Vt 50 m. N. E. Mont- of the same name. Long. 121. 50. £. lat. 20 

peliei. Pop. 729. A riyer of this name runa 30. N. 

through the town N. into Lake Memphramagog, BanUeato, a maritime preyince, in the south ol 

and in 1810 waa the scene of a remarkable inun- Naples, bounded on the nmrth by Capitanata and ' 

dation oocaaioned by the bunting of a lake from Bari, east by the gulf of T^ranta, aouth hjf Cala- 

ito banks. See VermonL bria Citeriore and west by PrincipataCitenore and 

Bamtk, a town of Luaatia. on the fSmntiera of Ulteriore. it haa aome mountaina continually 

Brandenbuigh, 25 m. 8. by. E. of Potadam. covered with snow, but is fertile in com, wii^, 

Banak, a town of Syria, with a Chriatiaa oil, cotton, honey and saffion. Aroerensa ia the 

•lNDeh,90m.N.E.ar8a7da. aapilal. 

• ft 

flA8 76 MAS 


BmgiUpatamo^ a river of European Turicer, in bounded on one aide by liif h hiHs, wooded, in 

thp Morea, which flows into the ^f of Colocj- many places, to their bases -, on the other, bj the 

thia. It was called Eurotas by the ancients. , fields and the skirts of Skiddaw. The river Der- 

Baringstoke^ a town in Hampshire, Ens. It has went flows throo^fh its whole length. There is a 

a great trade in com and malt, a mano&ctore of villa^ named Bwnenthwaite on tne east bank of 

drug^ts and shalloons, and a navigable canal to the lake, containing 264 inhabitants, 

the nver Wey, near its entrance into the Thames; Basseterre, the capital of St. Christopher, boilt 

and being situate at the junction of several great by the French, when this part of the isUnd was in 

roads, from all parts of the West of England, it is possession, before it was ceded to the En^ish in* 

a place of considerable bustle. Pop. in 1821 , 3,615. 1713. It is situate on the S. £. end of the island, 

It is 18 m. N. N. E. of Winchester, and 45 W. by and is defended by three forts. Long. 63. 13. W 

S: of London. lat. 17. 10. N. 

The yilla^ of Old Basing, which is a township Basseterre, the capital of Guadalonpe^ on the 8. 

in tlie pansh of Bnsingstoke, situate about two W. part of the island, defended by a citadel and 

miles in the east, is distinguished for the deter- other fortifications. Long. 61. 59. W. lat 15. 59. 

mined stand which it made against the forces N. 

of Cromwell, by whom it was ultimately taken, BasjisB,orPersa»i»,acityofPegn,eapitalofth0 

when he put nearly the whole garrison to the province of Bassien. It is a trading place,- situate 

sword, and razed the fortress, which was the real- on a river of the same name, whicn is the west 

dence of the marquis ofWinche8ter,^to the ground, branch of the Irrawaddy, 110 m. 8. W. of Pegn. 

Pop. 1073. Long. 94. 53. E. lat 16. 92. N. 

Baskenridge, p.i. Somerset Co. N. J. 8 m. S. W. Bassarah, or Basra, a city and se^Knt of Asiatic 

Morristown. General Lee was taken prisoner Turkey, in Irac And>i. It stands on the west 

here by the British during the revolutionary war. bank of the Euphrates, or Shat-nl- Arab, navignhle 

Basques, a late territory of France, which inclu* Tot ships of 500 tons burthen up to the town, nboai 

ded Lower Navarre, Laliourd, and Soule, and now 65 m. above the entrance of the river, into the Gulf 

forms with Beam, the deparUnent of Lower Py- of Persia. Bassorah appears to have beenfiiunded 

renees. about the middle of the seventh century, and priH 

Bass, an insulated rock near the coast of Scot* gressively advanced into importance until it be- 

land,at the entrance of the Frith of Forth, between came the most considerable trading town of all 

the towns of North Berwick and Dunbar. On western Asia ; and previous to the route to India 

the south side it is almoet conic, on the other it by the Cape of Good Hope, it was the medium 

overnangs the sea in a tremendous manner. It through which a great portion of the eommeroe 

b inaccessible on all sides, except the south-west, of Asia passed to Venice and Genoa, and from 

and there it is with difficulty a man can climb up thence over western Europe. It was taken poa- 

by the help of a rope or laddier. In May and June session of by the Turks, in 1688, since which pe- 

it is quite covered with the nests, eggs, and young riod it has continued to decline, having been al- 

birds of the gurnets and solan geese. The rock is ternatelv exposed to the inteimptions of the Per* 

one mile in circumference, ana has a rabbit war^ sians, Arabs, and Turks ; and since the oom- 

ren and pasture for a few sheep. A ruinous mencement of the 19th century, when the tide of 

castle, once the state i>rison of Scotland, stands at commerce besan to set firom thie west to the east, 

the edge of the precipice. The garrison in 1694,, Smyrna has become what Baasoreh was, for so 

surrendered to king WUliam, and the fortifications many centuries, the emporium of the greater por* 

were demolished. tion of the commerce of that part of^the world. 

Bass Islands, a group of islands in Lake &rie, Baasorah however still continues to be a place of 

comprised in Huron county, Ohio. There are 3 considerable traffic, which is participated m,more 

large and several snudler ones. The southern- or less, by most of the trading nations of both £u- 

most contains the haven of Put-in-Bay, near rope and Asia. The city is surrounded by a wall 

which Commodore Perry engaged and captured of^olay, said to be six miles in cireunuerence, 

the whole.British squadron, £pt. 10th, 1813. mounted with a great number of cannon ; the 

Bass*s Strait, a channel about 40 leagues wide, streets are bad and narrow, and the houses con- 

which separates Van Diemen*s Land fVom the structed of bricks have a mean aspect It is 

south extremity of New Holland. It contains a nominallv under the dominion of Turkey, but 

chain of islands that run north and south. This governed by an Arab chieflain, with little defer 

etrait was discovered, in 1798, bv surgeon Bass, ence to the Ottoman authority. The great desert 

in an open whale-boat and passed through by him of Arabia runs up nearly to the town ; ue immedi- 

and lieutenant Flinders, in tne Norfolk, in 1799. ate vicinity, however, is very fertile. A wallof seva- 

BassoHo, a town in the north of Italy , in Vincen- ral miles in exteat has been constructed on the side 

tino, on the east bank of the river Brenta, in a of the desert, as a check on the predatory incursions 

country productive of excellent wine and oil . The of the Arabs, who frequently commit depredations 

French defeated the Austrians at tliis place in under the very walls of the town. The popula- 

1796. It u 18 m. N. of Vicenza. tion is estimated at about 60.000, among whom 

Basses, or La Basse, a town of France, in the de- are a considerable number or Jews, Armenians, » 

partment of Nord, fi^nnerly of great strength, but and Arabs, and natives of the more eastern parts 

dismantled by Louis XIV. It b seated on the of Asia. It is about 210 m. 8. W. of Ispahan, in 

Deule. 18 m. S. W. of Lisle. lat. 30. 30. N. and 47. 45, £. long. 

Ba^seen, a townaf Hindoostin, in the countrv Bastia, a seaportof European Turkey, in Alba- 

of Baglana. It was taken by the English in 1780, nia, opposite the island of Corfu, at the mouth of 

but lestoied to the Mahrattad in 17S3. It stands the Calamu. Long. SO. 20. £. lat. 39. 40. N. 
on the sea^<M>a3t, opposite the N. W. point of the Bastia, a city on the N. £. coast of the Island 

island of Salsette, 20 m. N. of Bdmbay. L ng. of Corsica, capital of the island, with a good bar- 

72. 40. E. lat 19. 20. N. hour and a strong castle. It was taken by the En 

Bassentkwaite-'waler, a lake in Cumberland, three glish in 1794. It is 80 m. S. S. W. of Leghora 

miles N. W. of Keswick. It is four mUe > long, Long. 9. 20. E. hU. 42. 38. N. Pop. about U,500 


Bmttimmaotj mnamXi ialnids new the itknnas of D«teh on fhe peace of 1814, who haym; reldsed' 

ihoien, at tiie entranee of tbe b^ of Nombre de aomewliat ftoanT their fbrmer system of proacriptkin 

Dioa, with a fert and « good harbour. Long. 79. and monopoly in their commercial reffolauons, 

45. W. Ut. 9. 90. N. Hatayia oontmoea a flonrishinff and important 

BatUgnSf a city of the Netherlands, in Lnxem- place. Tlie atadthouae is the pnncipal edince de- 

m. N. N. W. of Loxembuiv. charehes, mooqaes, and templesi bnt there are 

Banompaimitna, a town ofHindoostan ,in Mysore, none that merit any particular notice. The nature 

with a fort and a celebrated mosque, 60 m.£. by of its commerce will be more fully elucidated un-< 

•N. of Nagura. dor the head of Jaya. The observatory is in lat 

Balabaita, a town on the south coast of Cuba, 69. S. and 106. 52. £. long. 

knate on the north side of a large bay, opposite Botosia, p.t. Oennesee Go. N. Y. 38 m. N. E. 

Finos Island, 55 m. 8. S.W. of Hayannah. Long. BuiEdo. Pop. 4,271. It is a handsome town, 

^ 0. W. lat S3. 20. N. with considerable trade. 

BataeoU j jL town of Hindoostan, on the coast of Bsfoma, p.t. Geauga Co. Ohio. 

Canara. The country produces a great quantity BtUemriUs, p.t. Inifependenoe Vo, Arkansas, on 

of pepper. It is 10 m. N. of Baroakne. White riyer. 110 m. N. E. Little Bock. 

Ba<aeolo, a small fortress on the east side of Cey- Bath, a oi^ of England, in the east oomer of 
Ion, built by the Dutch. It is of great importance, the county of Somerset, on the confines of Glon- 
an account of the extreme fertility of the adjacent cester and Wilts ; it is bounded on the north by 
country, which, during a war, or times of scarcity a range of hills, up the decliyity of which build- 
in tbe distiict of Trinoomale, can supply the gar- ings haye been constructed in yaried, ornamental, 
risons there with all kinds of provisions. It sur- and tasteful styles of architecture, terraces, ores- 
rendered to the English in 1796; and is situate at cents, Ac. of a beautiful white stone, dug on the 
the head of a deep bay, 54 m. 8. 8. E. of Trineo- spot. The city is beautifully situated on the riv- 
male. er Avon. Its foundation is generally ascribed to 

Bslntt*, a town of Portugal, in Estiemaduraj the Romans. A rude tradition, however, exists 
celebrated for its rich monastery, founded, in 1386. which would carry its origin back mto more dis- 
hy John I. who is interred here, with his queen tant times, and attribute tne honour of its com- 
niilippa. It is 8 m. 8. 8. W. of Lerida. mencement to one of the earliest British kinn, 

Baiamaf the ancient name of an island in Hd- who, being expelled while a prince from his fath- 

land, whence the Dutch are sometimes called Ba- er's court, cured himself of leprosy by accidentally 

tayiaas. washiog m its waters. But rejecting what ap- 

BatamOj a city and seaport, on the N. E. partof pears most fabulous in this tale, it is not impro- 

the island of Java, ountal of all the Dutch settle- bable that the inhabitants of the Strict were well ■ 

ments in the East uidies, finely situate in the acquainted with the virtue of the spring before 

bosom of a raaeioos bay. Toe fort is built the arrival of the invaders, and thai the elements 

of eoral rock, brought mm some of the adjoin- of a town or village existed there from very early 

ing islands, and hw a fortification of brick. A times. The Romans, chancteristically luxurious 

part of the town wall is built of dense lava in their baths, and choosing their situations with 

from the mountains in the centre of Java. No the most scrupulous care, were not likely to neg- 

slone, of any kind^ is to be found for many lect the advantages which such a neiffhbourhoM 

miles beyond this city ; but marble and granite presented. The mildness of the air, ana the lovely 

are brought here from China. The harbour is ex- amphitheatre of hills which sunonnds this valley 

eeOent, and there are canals in the principal of waters, vrould tend still farther to delight them 

streets, planted on each side with trees, after the with the station, — the best counterpart of their 

manner of the towns in Holland. The inhabitants own Italy which the uncultivated land afforded, — 

are composed of natives fWim nearly all the conn- and we accordingly learn from the best accredited 

tries and islands of Asia and the Indian Ocean, accounts, that it shortly became the fovourite re- 

as well as of most of the chief trading parts of Eo- sidence of the Roman governors, and sometimes 

rope and America, amongst whom tie number of of the emperors. The form in which the city was 

Chinese is consideiable. first built was a parallelognm, extending fi«m east 

The ci^ was founded in 1619, and rose rapidly to west about 400 yvds, and from north to south 

into importance ; during the eighteenth centuiy about 380. It was'fortiiied b^ a wall twenty feet 

it was denned the finest European settlement in high, and of a thickness varying fhmi aixteenfoet 

all Asia; and althonsh considered unhealthy, fipom at the base to eight at the top. Sevetal strong 

the influence of the Eeat of the dimate on the mnd towers supported its angles ; and its four gates 

and stagnant waters of the canals and streams by stood one at each extremity of the two pjmd 

which It is intersected, it was vainly denominated streets, which intersected each other, and divided 

bj the Dutch, the << Queen of the East." The the city mto four ports. Near the centre of the 

houses oftwo streets, forming the European part of town were built tnose splendid baths, of which 

the town, are handsome and commodious, and vie the ruins were discovered in 1755 at the depth of 

with if they do not excel in capaciousness and con- twenty feet below the surface of the ground. 8ey- 

venience Inose of the best towns in Holland ; bnt oral other Roman relics have been also dug up in 

the ports occu]ned by the Javanese, Chinese, and late yean ; and among them a head of Minerva, 

other natives (n'the east, like most of the Asiatic reckoned one of the most valuable remains of an- 

towns, are crowded, mean, and dirty. Bataviawas tiquity. In the time of William the Conqueror 

very sensibly sifiBcted by the war of 1793, and be- it was named as one of the royal demenses ; and in 

came almost deserted^ until its capture, with the that of Rufhs it was erected mto a see by John 4s 

whole of the Island of Java, by the EnffHsh, in Villnlo, who removed thither firom Wells. After 

1811, when it became again the centre of an ex- nndeming several changes during the p oliticU 

tensive oomfneroe. It ms oetfed back to Iks ttsnvidnons of the following oentniiss, it saoaivM 


A charter from qoeen Elisabeth in 1590, wliidi was hiaespeiiaaabyaloiignmof ■oeoeHaithe gun- 

lenewed and modified in 1794. Aocordinff to this ing table. His dreaa waa covered with expenaiTe 

charter, it is governed by a major, eight aldermen, lace, and he wore a laiffe white cocked hat. The 

and twenty-rour eonmion connciUnen ; and sends chariot in which he roae was dmwn by six grey 

two members to parliament. horses, and attended by a long cavalcade of ser- 

The situation of Bath affords every advantage vants, some on horses, others on foot ; while his 
for architectural effect ; and the arrangement of progress through the streets was made known by 
its streets and terraces, the splendour and richly a bund of French horns and other instruments, 
ornamented character of the buildings, together His common title was the Kin^ of Bath ; and his 
with the luxurious beauty of the intervening gar- reign continued, with undiminished splendour, 
dens and villas, form one of the loveliest aoenes for more than fifteen years. His health then 
that can be found in any city of these northern began to decline, and nis resources grew less 
climes. The hills on which it is built open on plentiful. As the change in his spirits and cir- 
the two opposite sides to admit the Avon, which, cumstances became more evident, his former 
flowing through the valley, and being the princi- acquaintances gradualljr forsook him ; and he died 
pal channel for the trade of the neighbouring at the age of eiffhty-ei^ht, in comparative indi- 
counties, adds greatly to the beauty andliveliness gence and solitude. His character, however, was 
of the prospect. As the streets rise one above the so estimated by the corporation of the cit^, that 
other, according to the gradual elevation of the he was buried with mat magnificence at its ex- 
hills, the principal part of the cit^ at a distance pense, and his epitara, a neat tribnte to his memo- 
hss a close resemblance to the interior of a mighty ryjwas written by Dr. Haninaton. 
theatre, which gave rise to Smollet's well-known The Crescent, the North andSouth Parades, the 
sarcasm, '*an antique amphitheatre turned in- Circus, and Pultenev-street, are the principal 
side out." The opinion of the novelist has not public avenues ; but toe great points ofattraetion 
been unsupported by others ; and it is argued by for the visitors of Bath are the pump and ball- 
persons of the best taste, that however imposing rooms : the former is 85 feet long ; the interior is 
the prospect of Bath is at a distance, the arehitec- surrounded by three-quarter Ccmnthian columns, 
ture, when more closely inspected, is greatly de- crowned with entablatures and surmounted by a 
foctive in taste and correctness of aesign. five-feet coving. At the west end is a music gal- 

The citv is divided into four parishes— St. Pe- lery ; and a recess at the east is occupied by a 
ter's and St. Paul, St. James's, St. MichaeFs, and statue of Nash. In the centre of .the south side 
Walcot ; besides which there are some out-parish- stands the marble vase, from which the water is 
es, now closely connected with the more ancient taken by an attendant and handed to the com- 
part of the town. The abbey chureh is regarded pany. 

as one of the most beautiful specimens of the rich- The public baths are, the king's and queen's, 
ly ornamented 'style of Gothic arehitectnre that the hot bath, and the cross bath ; besides which, 
exists, but its numerous windows, amounting to there are the duke of Kingston's, the corpoca- 
fifty-two, have gained it the appellation of the tion's, and some other private onea. The kmg's 
lantern of Engiuid. Some of the monuments it is on the south side of the pump-room, and is 
contains are verv much admired ; and the oratory rather more than €5 feet long and 40 broad, con- 
of prio^ Bird, who died in the early part of the taining, when filled, more than 346 tons of water : 
aixteenth century, is extremely rich in monumen- it is surrounded by a Doric colonnade ; and in the 
tal beauties. Amouff the tombs which generally centre, where the spring rises, is a brass hand- 
attract attention in this church, are those of lady rail. In the hottest part of the bath the thermom- 
Waller, wife of the celebrated sir William Waller ; eter stands at 111 ; m the coolest, at 100. The 
of the noted comedian Quin. of bishop Montague, hot bath raises it to 117. 

and Beau Nash, the well-known originator or There are several public charities in this city 
most of the regulations of Bath etiquette. There of great utility. The general hospital, which was 
are few names connected with the histoir of the founded at the benevolent instigation of Nash, 
city better known to fame than that of tnis oele- receives poor persons, to whom the waten are 
Ivrated master of fashion ; and his fortunes are likely to be beneficial, ttam all parts of the king- 
well calculated to point a moral for the place of dom. Two or three establishments also exist for 
which he was the hero. He was bom in 1674, at the support of sged men and women ; and eariy 
Swansea in Qlamorganshire, and was intended in the uist century the venersble Robert Nelson 
for the law. but entered the army ; which, taking founded a charity school for fifty boys and fifty 
disgust at tne discipline and his subordinate rank, girls. Nor b Bath wanting in previsions for lit- 
he soon forsook, and took chambers in the Tem- erary and scientific pursuits : it nas a large public 
pie. Here he oevoled himself entirely to pleas- library, a society for the promotion of sgriculture, 
ure and fiuhion ; and when king William visited uid a philosophical society. 
the Inn, he was chosen as master of the pageant Bath is 10/ miles west from London, and 19 
with which it was customary to welcome the mon- miles east horn Bristol. Lat. 51. 23. N. Ion. 2. 
areh. So pleased was William with the enter- 22. W. Pop. 37,000. 

tainment, that he oflfered him the honour ofkni|^t- JBelA, p.t.lancoln Co. Me. on the Kennebec, 12 

hood ; but Nash refused it, saying, '* Please your m. from the sea, has considerable commerce and 

majesty, if you intend to make me a knu4it, 1 ship building. It has two academies and two 

itmay beoneofyourpoorknightiof Wind- banks. Pop. 3.773. 

sor, and then I shall have a fortune at least equal JBelA, p.t. Grafton Co. N. H. on the Connecti- 

the wants and society of the piece. While in the N. C. and Ohio. 

plenitade of his power and popularity, Nash lived BsU, a County in the centre of Virgmia. among 

<n the most splendid s^le of elegance, supporting the Apalacbian mountains, but comprised in the 


Western District. Pop. 4,006. Amonc tiieee BaitUotUi^ a town in the northern part of Cey^ 
monntuna, 183 m. W. N. W. of Riohmona, are the Ion, where la an American nuBsionaiy atation. 
hot springs which give name to the countv. There BaUU, a town in Sussex, Ezig* near the English 
is another spring a few miles north, called the Channel. Near this place, William, duke of 
Warm Spring ; me north and south forks of the Normandv, defeated Harold, king of England, 
Jackson Kiver run through the plain between the 1066, and in memory of Uiis yictoiy, he found- 
two ridges of mountains and the Cow Pasture ed here an abbey, which from its remains ap- 
River, east of the eastern ridge, all of which fall pears to haye been magnificent. This town is 
into James River, at the south end of the county, famous for a manufacture of gunpowder. It is 
There is another hot spring in Berkeley county, S4 m. £. of Lewes, 6 N. of Hastings, and 56 S. E. 
Virginia, between the root of the Bluff of the C«- of London. Pop. in 1821, 2,868. 
capon ridge of the Alleghany Mountains and the Batd^M.^ a Tillage in Shropshire, Eng. 6 miles 
Potomac RiTor, about 40 m. N. by W. of the city N. of Shrewsbury. Here a aecisire victory was 
of Washington. gained by Henry IV. over Henry Percy, sur> 

BaAj a County of Kentucky, in the N. E., on named Hotspur. 

Licking river. Pop. 8,799. Owingsville and BaUUtown^ p.v. Frederick Co. Va. 6 m. E. Win- 

Sharpsburg are the cnief towns. Chester. 

Bathgate, a town of Scotland, in Linlithgow- Bavaria, PalatinaUf Duchy, Electorate, CircU, 

ahire, 19 m. W. by S. of Edinburgh, on the high and Kingdom cf. The former drde cf BawnriaMen 

road to Glasgow. Pop. in 1821, 3^268, principaUy between the 47th and 50th deg. of N. lat. and the 

employed in weaving. 11th and 14th of E. long., is bounded on the north- 

Bamar, an interior town of Upper Hunganr, in east by Bohemia, soum-east and souUi by Aus- 

the county of Szabolts, about 30 m. N. WT of De- tria and the TVrol, sooth- west by Suabia, and 

bretzin. « north-west by Franconia ; and comprises the pal- 

Batktarst, an English settlement on the W. coast atinate, and principalities of Sulzbach and Neu- 

of North Africa, at the entrance of the river Gram- berg, in the north ; the duchy, which constituted 

bia. the greater portion of the circle, divided into 

Batkurst Plains, extensive fertile plains, west Lower and Upper, the county of Werdenfels in 

of a ridge of mountains, called the Blue Moun- the south-west ; the bishopric of Passau on the 

tains, running parallel vrith the east coast of New east ; the provostship of Berchtolsgaden, insulated 

Holland in tte lat. of about 36. S. in the archbishopric of Saltzburff, which formed 

Batinda, the chief town of a fertile district of the south-east put of the circle, forming together 

the same name, on the N. W. confines of Dehli, an area of about 16,500 sq. miles, and containing 

bordering on the desert of Moultan. a population of 1,300,000. ^ 

Batoa, a small island in the Indian Ocean, near Jne Ducky of Baoaria, which formed about 

the west side of Sumatra, on the equinoctial line, two-thirds of the circle, was part of the ancient 

in long. 96. 0. E. Noricum, peopled from ancient Gaul, firom which 

Baton RougCj a parish in the £. District of they were driven about 590 years B. C. It was 

Louisiana, subdivided into E. and W. The form- constituted a duchy in the early part of the 10th 

er has a pop. of 6,717, ch. town Concordia. The century of the Christian era, under which title 

latter has a pop. of 3,092, ch. town Baton Rouge, it contmued uninterrupted until the reign of the 

Baton Rouge, p.t. capital of the aboTe, on the E. emperor Ferdinand of Grermany, who raised Ba- 

bankof the Mississippi, 138 m. above N. Orleans, vana into an Electorate of the Germanic confed- 

along the river. The country around is fertile, eracy; but Maximilian Emanuel, grandson of the 

but me town is small. first elector, forfeited his possessions, by violating 

BatomUu, a considerable town of the Andes, or his allegiance in entering into an aUiance with 

Cordilleras of Mexico, in the intendency of Du- France, against the emperor. He was however 

lango. reinstatea in his possessions in 1714, and the sue- 

jSaUmmi, a town at the mouth of a river of the ceeding elector^ Charles, introduoed numerous 

same name, falling into the Black Sea, and form- salutary regulations into the social institutions 

ing the N. E. boundary of Armenia. of the state, under which it rose in prosperity and 

^^tta, two towns on the west bank of the Dan- reputation, and continued to make advances in 

nbe, in Lower Hungary ; one a few miles S. of social improvement, and to retain its influence in 

Buda, and the other afew miles E. of Funfldrchen. the Germanic diet, until Napoleon interposed his 

BttttaUak, a town of Hindoostan, about 60 m. power, at the commencement of the 19th century 

east hy south of Lahore, in the province of that when the elector was affain induced to withdraw 

name. from the Germanic coi&deraey under the pledge 

BaUeeoUi, a town on the Malabar coast, about of being rested with regal authority, and guaran- 

100 m. N. oif Mangalore. teed in an accession of territory at the expense of 

BaUenburg, a town of Holland in Guelderland, Austria ', hence the 

with a castle on the north bank of the Mouse, 10 m. Kingdom of Bawuria, which was acknowledged 

8.W. ofWimeguen. by the emperor of Austria at the peace of Pres- 

Battmburg, a town and castle of Germany, in burg in 1805 : the accession of territoir obtained 

Upper Hesse, seated on the Eder, 14 m. N. of with the regal title, lay on the side of Franconia, 

llarbcirg. Suabia, and the Tyrol. The disaster experienced 

Battereea, a Tillage in Surrey, Eng. on the N. by Napoleon at M'lecow in the winter of 1812, 
bank of the Thames, 4 miles W. S. WT of London. lol3, induced the new king to conclude a secret 
Here was the seat of the St. Johns, where the fa- treaty with the confederate powers against his 
BOOS Lord Bolingbroke was bom,and died. On the former patron, on condition of being guaranteed 
^te of it now stands a distillery and a horizontal in the integrity of his newly acquired &miniof!s , 
air-mill for grinding malt. Here is a timber bridge and at the congress of Vienna, in 1818, the bound- 
over the river to Chelsea. Pop. in 1^1, 4,7&, ariesofthe Bavarian kingdom were finally adjust- 
ehiefly occupied in gardening and supplying the ed, when the territory was divided into the eight 
Loodon markets with vegetables. following eiroles, with the chief towns of each 


innezed u follows : viz. Boui, a town in the interior of the maritinie 

1 The Rhine, W. Spiiet. PJ^^^ «f MorbiWJ?^ce, about IS m. N. E. 

S Lower MaJne. N. Wurxborgh. "^LPr/^it^i^^^f ^" ;„ th-. A.™.H«.«nt rf 

3 Upper ditto. N. BayreuthT Bai^e, aftown of France, in the department of 

5Upper'Dannbe,S.W. AogSiarj. "iL'lfr*^* wL?:?^ 0?fT' 

A T«l» fl M7!«ii«.K Bott^AuMMi, t. Wayne Co. Ohio. 

S T ' i> u 5* wanicn. B^eah, a town of Hindooetan, in Bemral, on 

ft fe^l^n 'n V ^^n tfc« feft bLik of the Gangea. It i. on^of' the 

8 Regen, «. t. Katiabon. principal stations for coUecting of silk, 22 m. N. 

Of these divisions the 1st lies on both sides of £. of Moorshedabad. 

the Rhine, at the northern extremity of the terri- Baunum's Islandtj three islands in the Pacific 

tory of the mnd duke of Baden, and is detached Ocean, discovered by Bamnan, a Datchman, who 

from the ouier seven. Nos. 2, 3, and 4, formed accompanied Roggewein, in 1722. They are cov- 

part of the circle of Franconia, and No. 5 of Sua- ered with firnit trees, and divers^ sorts of vegeta- 

bia. The last three previously forming the ^rand bles. The inhabitants are numerous, and arme» 

duchv and the palatinate, the archbishopric of with bows and arrows; but of a gentle and humane 

Saltzburg having been ceded to Austria. The disposition, and fiiendly to stiui^ers. The largest 

whole of this territory comprises about 32,000 sq. island is about 22 m. in circumference. Long, 

miles, and a pooulation of about 3^,000. The 170. 0. W. lat. 14. 0. S. 

frontier parts of Uie kingdom of Bavaria are in Baume Us Jfonts, or JB^ncms Ut Vamu. a town 

general rugged and mountainous, but the inland of France, in the department of Doubs. It has a 

parts are remle in com and pasture ; all the va- nunnery, from which it received its ap»ellation ; 

rious branchesof manufacture of flax, wool, some and is seated on the Doubs, 15 m. N. £. of Be- 

silk, leather, and working of metals, are followed sancon. 

more or less as domestic occupations over most Eattsk^ or BautUa^ a town of Conrland. on the 

parts of the country ; having but little surplus frontiers of Poland, with a castle on a rock. It is 

produce of any kind for external traffic. Bavaria seated on the Musza, 15 m. 8. £. of Mittau. 

may be regarded as possessing within itself all the Bautzen f or Budisseiiy the capital of Upper Lusa- 

means of domestic and social comfort. It is ex- tia, with a citadel on a rock, called Ortenburg. Its 

ceedinffly well watered ; the Danube, which rises trade arising from various manufactures is con 

on the border of the Black Forest in Suabia, runs siderable. It is famous for a great battle having 

from west to east through the heart of the country, been fought here on May 20, 1813. between the 

passes Dilligen, Donauwerth, Neuberg, Ingol* allied army under the emperor of Russia and the 

stadt. and Ratisbon to Passau, where it enters the king of Prussia, and the French army commanded 

archauchy of Austria. The Inn, Iser, Lech, and by Napoleon, in which the former were defeated. 

Iller, run from south to north into the Danube, It stands on the river Spree, 30 m. C. by N. of 

and the Maine runs from east to west, past Dresden. Long. 14. 30. £. lat. 51. 10. N. 

Schweinfurth and Wurtzburg into the Rhine. Baux, a town of Fhmce, in the department of 

Four-fifths of the inhabitants are Roman Catho- Mouths of the Rhone, seated on a rock, at the top 

lies, and the remainder Protestants : the latter of which is a castle, 10 m. E. by N. of Aries, 

however not only enjoy the unrestrained exercise Batctryj a small town in the West Riding of 

of their worship, but are eligible to civil offices Yorkshire, Eng. It has a trade in lead, mill- 

and military appointments. Like all the other stones, and grindstones ; and is seated on the ri- 

Germanic states, militarv pretension and parade ver Idle, 9 m. S. by £. of Doncaster, and 153 N. 

is the rulinff passion of tne government, and from of London. 

40,000 to 50,000 men are held under military Baya^ a seaport of Guinea, on the Gold coast, 60 

discipline, to sustain which and other expenses m. E. S. £. of Acra. Long. 1. 59. E. lat. 5. 45 N. 

of the state, taxes, equal to about 11,000,000 dol- Bay of Idandg^ there aCre several bays in differ- 

lars American money, are levied annually on the ent parts of the world so called ; viz. 1st, on the 

produce of the labour of the people. IViunich is west coast of Newfoundland ; 2nd, in the straits 

the capital of the whole kingdom, and tlie seat of of Magellan ; 3rd, on the noilh-east coast of New 

fovemment. which is unlimited, and vested in the Holland in lat. 10. 30. ; 4th. on the north-west 

ing, the title to which is hereditary. The power coast of America in lat. 57. M. ; 5th, on the east 

has however been exercised with discretion, coast of New Zealand. 

prudence, and mildness, although not with all BayagtuoMj an inland town of the Island of St. 

the wisdom and efficiency to be desired. Edu- Domingo, about 35 m. N. £. of the city of St 

cation has of late years been widely diffused Domingo. 

through the Bavanan states ; academies, Iv- Bayamo. a town in the east part of Cuba ,on 

ceums, and universities, have been multiplied ; the river Estero, which forms a t>ay on the coa«*, 

productions of foreign literature have been im- 20 m. below the town. It gives name to a chan- 

ported ; and the effects are already apparent in nel, between Cuba and the islands, called the 

the improved condition of society and the grad- Queen's Garden, and is 80 m. W. S. W. of St. 

unl advance of moral and physical renovation. Jago. Long. 77. 20. W. lat. 20. 45. N. 

Bavaria may now be considered as holding the %a^ta,or J?atezia, a large town of Asiatic Tur- 

first rank among the secondary class of European key, m the south-east comer of Armenia, near 

states. the souroe of the Euphrates, on the confines of 

Baeavt a town of France, in the department of Persia. It is surrounded by a wall, and contains 

Nord. It was taken by the Austrians in ITdSi^ two mosques, and several other edifices of gn^at 

but recovered the same year. It u 6 m. N. £. or arohitectural beauty, and about 30,000 inhab. 

Quesnov, and 12 S. W. of Mons. Baytrgdorf, a town of the Bavarian cirole of the 

BaueiermlUt a beautifully located village, on Upper Mayne, with a seat of rastiee and a large 

the west bank of the river St. lAwrence, awmt 10 synagogue, seated on the Rednitx, 4 m. N. of 

Ui, VV. of Montreal. Erlang. 

83 BSA 

Bftjllnix, a town of France, in the department of Bazas, a town of Franoe, in the department of 

Calyadoa, and a bishop's see. The cathedral is Gironde and lately an episcopal see. - It is seated 

yerj ho^le, end contains an exhibition on tapes- on a rock, 5 m. from the riyer Garonne, and 42 

tnr, of the conouest of England by William the 8. E. of Bordeaux. Long. 0. 2. W. iat. 44. 22. N. 

Norman, and there are 17 other churches. The Beaeky Head, the highest promontory on the 

chief trade is in leather. It is seated on the riy- south coast of England, between Hastings and 

er Aiiie, 4 m. from the English Channel, and 140 Seaford. Long. 0. 15. £. Iat. 50. 44. N. 

W. by N. of Paris. Long. 0. 42. W. Iat. 49. 17. Beaecntfidd. a town in Buckin^ghamshire, Eng. 

N. rop. shout 10,500. The poet Waller liyed here, and is interred in the 

Bayon, a town of IVance, in the department of churchyard. It is also the place of interment of 

Meuzthe, on the riyer Moselle, 12 m. e. of Nancy. Edmund Burke. It is seated on a hill, 23 m. W. 

Bsyoa, a town of Spain, in GalUcia, on a small N. W. of London. Pop. 1,756. 

gulf of ttie Atlantic, with a oonyenient harbour, BeaUsvilU, p.y. Wasningion Co. Pa. 7 m. W. 

12 m. W. by N. of Tuy. Brownsyille. 

Baytmn^y a city and seaport of France, in the Beaminster, a town in Dorsetshire, Eng. with 

department of Lower Pyrenees, and a oishop's manufactures of canyas, iron, and copper. This 

see. The Niye and Adour unite their streams in place suffered greatly by fire in 1781. It is 15 m. 

the middle of the city, and proceed to the sea, at W . N. W. of Dorchester, and 132 W. by S. of Lon- 

the distance of a mile. The first, which is deeper don. Pop. in 1821, 2,806. 

and mote rapid than the Adour, diyides the town Bearcampf r. N. H. fidls into Ossipee Lake, 

into two unequal parts, the smallest of which is Bearfidd, t. Perry Co. Ohio, 

called the Bourg neuf, or new town. They haye Bear Island, an island in Bantry Bay, Ireland, 

acommunicationby three timber bridges. A bank with fortifications which form a strong defence 

of sand, at the mouth of the Adour. renders the en- to the head of the bay. The island is about 12 m. 

trance of the harbour difilcult. The citadel is the firom the town of Bantry. 

strongest in France, and the cathedral is remark- Beam, a late proyince of France, 40 m. long 

able for the heijght of the nefand the delicacy and 30 broad ; bounded on the east by Bigorre, 

of the pillars which support it The military weap- south by Spanish Nayarre, west by Soule and a 

on, the bayonet, beai-j the name of this city, in part of Lower Nayarre, and north by Gaacony and 

which it was inyented. The chocolate of Bayonne Armagnac. The plains are fertile, especially in 

is hmoQB ; and it also exports wines, woolen pastures, and the hills are loaded with yines. It 

cloths^ silks, cottons, &c. The chief trade arises now forms with Basques the department of the 

out of its relation with Spain ; and it is a kind of Lower Pyrenees. 

emporium for the merchandise of that country. Beat, St. a town of France, in the department 

The courted France was held here for some time of Upper Ghironne, the houses are built of marble, 

in 1808, when the king of Spain and his son, the there being no other stone in the neighbourhood, 

prince of the Asturias, were myited here to settle It b seated on the Garonne, 12 m. S. S. E. of St. 

their difierences before Bonaparte, the result of Bertrand. 

which was. that they were made to mgn a treaty, Beaueaire, a town of France, in the department 

resigning the crown of Spain into his hands. Bay- of Grard. on the Rhone, about 20 m. from the sea, 

onne was besieged by the English in 1814, during where tne riyer forms a spacious harbour and has 

which the French made a sally, and attacked the a communication b^ a bridge of boats with Taras- 

English with success, but were at length driyen con on the opposite bank of the riyer. Much 

back. The loss of the British in this affiiir was trade is carried on here, and an annual fair, held 

considerable, and their commander wounded and for six days, in the month of Jul;^, was formerly 

taken prisoner. It is 25 m. S. W. of Dax and 518 S. the most famous in Europe, but is now of little 

by W. of Paris. Long. 1. 29. W. Iat. 43. 29. N. importance. It is 11 m. E. of Nismes. 

Bavp<mr, a town of fiindoostan, in the proyince Beauee, a late proyince of France, between the 

of Malabar, on a riyer capable of receiyingyessels Isle of France, Blasois, and Orleanois. It is so 

of 400 tons. It is 15 m. S. bj E. of Calicut. fertile in wheat that it is called the granary of 

Bayam, the name giyen in Louisiana to the Paris. It now forms the department of Eure and 

forks of the riyers,or natural canals which inter- Loire. 

sect almost eyery part of the state. It is probably Beatrfbrt, a maritime district, forming the 

a corruption of the French word boyau. south-east corner of the state of South Carolina ; 

Ba^eutk, a city of Franconia, capital of a prin- bounded on the south-west by the Sayannah Riy- 
cipahtj of the same name, witn a palace, a fine er. It is a low swampy district, but yery pro- 
castle, and a fimious college. Near it, forming a ductiye in rice and cotton. In addition to the 
Mnd of suburb, is the town of Georgen, which has Sayannah on the south, it is bounded on the north 
a large castle, a manufacture of excellent brown by the Big-sl^c-hatchie Riyer, and the Coosaw- 
aad white porcelain, and a house of correction, in hatchie intersects the district from north-west tO' 
which the marble of the country is polished by the south-east, diyiding into two branches aboat 
means of a machine. In 1783 the archiyes of the • the centre of the district and forming an island 
principality were brought to Bayreuth, from Pla- called Port Royal Island, on which is a town nam- 
senbnrg;see CulwAaeh: and in 1791 the margrayate ed Beaufort, formerly the capital of the district, 
of Bayreuth, with that of Anspach, was abdicated but the courts are now held at the town of Coosaw- 
by the reigning prince in fiiyour of the king of hatchie, about 20 m. N. W. of Beaufort, and 193 
Prussia, but both were* annexed and guaranteed S. of Columbia, the capital of the state, 
by Bonaparte, and afterward confirmed by the Beaufort, a County of North Carolina, diyided 
congress at Vienna, to the kingdom of Bayaria, in two parts by the Pamlico Riyer, at its entrance 
(which see ;) and Bayreuth is now the capital of into Pamlico Sound ; it is a swampyand dreary 
the circle of Upper Mayne. It is 32 m. £. of dbtrict, with a population of 10,949. Washington, 
Bamberg. I^mg. 11 . 44. £. Iat. 49. 55. N. 130 m. E. by S. of Raleigh is the chief town. 

Baza, a town of Spain, in Granada, seated on Beaufort, p.t. a seaport of North Carolina, chief 

the Gaudalantin, 21 m. £. N. E. of Guadix town of Carteret County. It b aitnats on tlie N. 

BHUk 9A BgK 

E. side <^ Core Sound, 65 m. S. S. E. of Newbem. namet of a number of other towne in different parte 

Long. 76. 50. W. lat. 34. 38. N. of France, aAd to a few in England. 

Beoa^ort, p.t. Beaufort District, S. C. on the ial- Bemtrivagtf a river of Lower Canada, south of 

and ofrortiloyal, 75 m. S. Charleston. It has a the St. Lawrence; it falls into the (Jhaadien;, 

fine harbour, but tlue town is not in a very flour- about four miles above the entrance of that river 

ishing state. into the St. Lawrence. 

Beaufort, a (own of France, in the department Beaver, r. N. H. fiJls into the Merrimack at Dra- 

of Mayenne and Loire, with a castle, 15 m. £. of . cut, Mass. 

Angers. Pop. 6,000. Beaver, Great and LUde, two head streams of the 

JBeauJfart, a town of Savoy, on the river Oron, Ohio, the former in Pa. and the latter in Ohio, 

a branch of the Ysere, 12 m. N. £. of Moutier. Beaver, a County at the west extremity of th« 

Pop. about 3,000. state of Pennsvlvania, bordering on Ohio ; it is in 

SeaUgeney, a town of France, in the department terseeted by tne Ohio River. Pop. 24,206. 
of Loire, famous for its wines, seated on the river Beaver, or Beverton, the chief town of this conn- 
Loire, 6 m. W. of Orleans. ty, is situate at the junction of the Beaver Riv«*' 

Beaujeu, a town of France, in the department with the Ohio, near the centre of the county, 2«0 

of Rhone, with an ancient castle, seated on the W. by N. of Harrisburgh. 

Ardiere, at the foot of a mountain, 13 m. N. N. There are also 9 other towns in Pa. called Bea- 

W. of Villefranche. Pop. 1,600. ver N. S. Little, Big &c. Also 3 towns in Ohio. 

Beamjoloig, a late province of France^ 30 m. Beaver Islands, a cluster of Islands at the north 

long and 24 broad. It lies north of the Lyonois^ extremity of iiske Michigan, 

ana both of them now form the department or Beaver Dam, in Southampton township, Long 

Rhone. Island, and in Roxbury township, Delaware coun* 

Bea/uUff, a river of Scotland in Inverness-shire, ty, and in Berne township, Albany county, and 

formed by the union of the nvulets Farrar, Can- Aeaver-kiU, in Hurlytownship, Ulster county, all 

nich, ana Glass, on the borders of Ross-shire. It in the state of Newiork. 

takes a N. £. course, and afler forming the falls BMin^en, a town of the kingdom of Wurtem- 

of Kilmoraek and other cascades, flows to the bursh, withacastle onahill,10m. N. W. of Stut 

town of Beauley , where it enters the head of Mur- gara. 

ray frith. It produces a considerable supply of Bee, a town ofFrance, in the department of Low- 
salmon for the London market. er Seine, with a noble Benedictin^ abbey, 18 m. S. 

Beauleify a town of Scotland, in the parish of W. of Rouen. 

Kilmoraek, in Inverness-shire, at the mouth of the BeeancMir, a river of Lower Canada, which falls 

river Beauley, 12 m. W. of Inverness. into the St. Lawrence, from the south, opposite 

BeauUeu, a village in Hampshire, Eng. on a riv- the town of Three Rivers, 

er of its name, six miles S. S. W. of Southampton. Beeearia, X. Clearfield Co. Pa. 

It has a manufacture of coarse sacking; and on Beecles, a corporate town in Suffolk, Eng. It 

the opposite side of the river are the remains of has a noble church, with a lofiy steeple, and a 

its &mous abbey, founded by king John. grammar school, endowed with 10 sholarships for 

Beaumarckez, a town of France, in the depart* Emanuel college, Cambridge. It is seated on the 

ment of Gen, 13 m. W. of Mirande. Waveney, 12 m. S. W. ofYarmouth, and 109 N. 

Beavfitaru, a borough of Wales, capital of An- E. of London. Pop. in 1821, 3,493. 

glesey *, governed by a mavor, a recorder, 24 burg- Beehin, a town in Bohemia, capital of a circle 

esses, and other officers, woo return one member to of the same name, in which are several medicinal 

parliament. It stands on the strait of Menai, was springs and mines of salt It has an ancient for- 

rortified with a castle by Edward I. and has a good tified castle, and stands on the river Lausnitz, 57 

harbour. It is 59 m. W. by N. of Chester, and m. S. by W. of Prague. Long. 14. 28. £: lat. 49. 

251 N. W. of London. Long. 4. 15. W. lat. 53. 18. N. 

15. N. Pop. 2,205. Beeket, p.t. Berkshire Co. Mass. 110 m. W. 

BeaununU, a town of the Netherlands, on the Boston. Pop. 1,065. 

frontiers of the department of Nord, France, about BeekkaimsviUe, f.t. Chester Die. S. Con the 

eight miles east of Maubeuge. There are eijrht Wateree, 32 m. N.W. Camden, 

other towns in different parts of France caUed Beckum, a town of Westphalia, in the principal! 

Beaumont, but none that merit any particular no- tv of Munster, at the source of the Verse, 20 m. 

tice, unless one in the department of Vaueluae, S. E. of Munster. 

the residence of Mirabeau . Bedale, a town in North Yorkshire, Eng. the sur- 

Beaune, a town of France^ in the department of rounding district is distiniruished for its breed of 
Cote d*Or, remarkable for its excellent wine. It horses, and of horse-jockies, 10 m. S. E.of Rich- 
is ^ m. S. S. W. of Dijon. mond, and 222 N. N. W. of London. Pop. 1 ,137. 
is, a town of France, capital of the depart- Bedarieux, a town of France, in the department 

ment of Oise. and lately an episcopal see. The of Herault, with a manufacture of druggets, and 

cathedral is aamired for its fine architecture ; and other woolen stuflb, seated on the Orbre, 16 m. N. 

the church of St. Stephen is remarkable for its of Bezieres. Pop. 3,350.^ 

curious windows. It was besieged in 1463, by the Beddington, a village in Surrey, Eng. 2 m 

duke of Burgundy, at the he^l of 80,000 men, W. of Croydon. HereisBeddington-park,one of 

when the women, under the conduct of Jean de the many said to have been the residence of queei» 

Hachette, obliged the duketo raise the siege. The Elisabeth. The church is a €h>thic pile, with 

inhabitants carry on a good trade in beautiful ta^ stalls in the aisles, like a cathedral. Pop. 480. 

pMtary. It is seated on the Thesin, 42 m. N. of Beder, a town of France in the department of 

Paris. Pop. about 30,000. Ille Vihune, 10 m. W. N. W. of Rennes. 

Bsttuvoir, a town of France, in the department Beder, a fortified town of Hindooeton, in Dow 

of Vendee, on the Bay of Biscay, 32 m. If. N. W. latabad, situate on the south bank of the Maniorah 

of Sables d^Olonne. river, once the capital of a considerable kingdom, 

Bsai, whieh implies fine, is prefixed to the and still celebrated for the number and magnifi 

BED 86 0BE 

cMsnce qf its pagodas. It is 80 m N. W. of Hydra- Bt^fordy is also the naine of a county in West 

bad. Long. 78. 2. £. lat. 17. 48. N. Tennessee. Pop. 30,444. She]lbyyille,&m. south 

Be^ordy an inland county of £ngland. At the of Murfreesboroughy is the chief town. 

time firitain was inyadcKl by the Romans, Cassib- Bedford, another county in the Western Dis- 

elinus, the chief of the inhabitants of this part of trict of Pennsylyania, botderinff on Maryland, 

the country, was appointed to the command of all* lying between the Tusoarora and the main ridffe 

the forces of Britain, against Ciesar ; and under ra the Alleghany Mountains. Pon. 54,636. The 

the heptarchy of the Saxons, it formed part of the chief town of the same name, in the centre of the 

kingdom of Mereia, and the couoty-town is sup- county, is 105 m. W. of Harrisburg. 

poeed to haye been the burial-place of king Offii; Bedford, p.t. Hillsborough Ck>. N. H. 58 m. fr. 

It was afterwards the scene or many contests be- Boston. Pop. 1,554. 

tween Britons, Saxons, and Danes and at later Bedford, p.t. Middlebury Co. Mass. 16 m. N. W 

periods became inyolyed in the collisions between Boston. Pop. G&S. 

king John and the barons; and in 1642 it took Bedford, p.t. West Chester Co. N. T. 110 m 

the side of the people against the kingly authority S. Albany. Pop. 2,750. 

of Charles I. The river Ouse intersects it by a Bedford, p.y. Uuyahoga Co. Ohio, 

very winding course from west to east ; and the Bedminsler, t. Somerset Co. N. J. 

Ivel, with several tributary streams, waters the Bedminster, t. Bucks Co. Pa. 

south part. The &ce of the country is varied with BedMore, a district of Hindoostan, forming the 

small nills and valleys ; and on the south is a N. W. comer of the Mysore, intersected by the 

range of chalky hills, which, rising to a consider- Ghaut Mountains, the cluef town of the district, 

able elevation, and projecting irregularly over the and which was formerly the capital of Canara, is 

valleys, give the landscape a bold and remarkable situate east of the mountains, and is supposed 

appearance. From the south-east comer to the once to have been a magnificent and important 

middle of the county rans a line of good meadow- place ; but having been repeatedly subject to the 

land ; and the north and east portions have a deep assaults of the Ma^rattas, tne British, and Tipp'>o 

soil, which is well cultivated aud produces large Saib, it is much reduced. It is seatea on a branch 

crops of com. The mineral productions are lime- of the Trombudra River, 185 m. N. W. of Ser- 

■tone, coarse marble, and imperfect coal ; and ful- ingapatam. 

ler*s earth is obtained in considerable quantities. Bedotdns, tribes of wandering Arabs, who live 
Mineral springs are found in different parts of the in tents, and are dispersed all over Arabia, Egypt, 
county, but they have not acquired much celebri- and the North of Africa, governed by their own 
ty. The manufactures are chiefly confined to the chieft. in the same manner as the Patriarchs liv- 
making of lace and preparing straw plat for bon- ed ana governed anciently ; the principal employ- 
nets, baskets, toys, &c. The remains ofboth Sax- ment of both, the grazing of cattle. 
on and Gothic architecture are to be seen in sev- Bedtoin, GreaJt, a borough in Wiltshire, Eng. 
era] of the churches, as also a few specimens of it has neither market nor fiur, but returns two 
stained glass in their windows. Roman antiqui- members to parliament. It is situate on the line of 
ties have also been firequently discovered in the tiie Kennet and Avon Canal, five miles S. W. of 
county; and it is intersected by three Roman roads. Hungerford, and 70 W. of London. Pop. 1,928. 

Bedford, the chief town ofwe preceding conn- B3Lv>ortk, a town in the county of Warwick, 
ty, is situate about the centre of the county, on England, seated on the great coal strata, which is 
a spacious plain, north of the Chiltern hiUs, here extensively worked. A number of oersons 
which run across the south part. The river Ouse, are also employed in the riband manufacture ', 
over which there is a beautiful stone bridge of 5 m. N. of Coventry. Pop. in 1821,3,519. 
five arches, divides the town into two parts It Beekinan, p.t. Duchess Co. N. Y. 86 m. S. Alba- 
has five churches, a county hospital, and the lana- ny. Pop. 1,584. 

tic asylum, a well endowed public school, and Beckmantoum, p.t. Clinton Co. N. T. 160 m. N. 

about 50 alms-houses, liberally endowed by Sir Albany. Pop. 2,^1. 

William Harpur, knight, a former inhabitant of Be«97uiA, a river of Hindoostan, which rises in 

the town. It is a borough town, governed by a the mountains to the North of Poonah, and flows 

mayor, recorder, aldermen, two chamberlains, and S. E. upwards of 300 miles, till it joins the Kristna, 

13 common council, and returns two members to near Kaghir. 

parliament, by the suffrage of the male inhabitants Beering*s Bay, a bay formerly called Admiral- 

at large. It is the seat of assize, and of election ty Bay, in N. lat. 59. 18. on the west coast of North 

p\f the county. Pop. in 1821, 5,46C, 27 in. E. by Amenci. 

N. of Buckingham, and 50 N. by W. of London. Beering's Island, an Island in the Pacific Ocean, 

Bedford Level, a tract of fenny land, about about 90 m. long and 30 wide, 30 leagues east of 

300,000 acres, in the counties of Norfolk, Suf- the coast of Kamschatka. Long. 166. 30. £. lat. 

f jlk, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, and 55. 30. N. 

Lincoln. Afler various attempts to drain these Bearing's Slraitf the narrow sea between the 

fens, in the reign of Henry VI. and Charles I., west coast of North America and the oast coast 

William, earl of Bedford, in 1649, undertook and of Asia. It is 13 leagues wide in the narrowest 

completed it; and in the reign of Charles II. a part, between the capes Prince of Wales and 

corporation was established for tlie government Tchukotskoi, in lat. Go. 45. N. 168. 17. W. long, 

of tiiis great level. In these fens arc several de- Beeroo, a country of Negroland, between Zahu- 

coys, in which innumerable quantities of wild fowl ra on the north, and Bambara on the soath. 

are taken during the season. Walet is the capital. 

Bedford, a County in tlic £. District of Virgin- Bees, St. a village in Cumberland, Eng. near the 

ta, bounded on tlie west by the Blue Ridge : on sea, five miles south of Whitehaven. Here is a 

the north by James River, and ou the sooth oy the noted free-school ', also the remains of a priory, the 

Staunton, a branch of the Roanoke. Pop. 2i),253. nave of its church being now used as the parish 

UberijjOie chief town, in the centre of the coun- church. 

ty, is IGS m. W. by 3. of Richmond. Bessko, a town of Brandenburg, Prussia, witli a 


olotfa mtnn&etan ; wated on the Spne^ 40 m. 8. fiaUr*, or BdUbre, m town of Fnnee, in the de 

E. of Berlin. partment of Indre, 25 m. S. W. of Chateannmx 

Bcfortf or Beifort, a fortified town of France, in Bdairj p.t Hartford Co. Maryland, 53 m. N 

the department of Upper Rhine, with manufac- Annapolis. 

tures of excellent iron. It stands at the foot of a Bt&eia, a considerable town of Egypt, 35 m. N 

mountain, 34 m. S. W. of Colna. Pop. about £. of Cairo, and 45 N. W. of Suez. 

5,000. Befoutra, a town of Naples, in Calabria tJlteri- 

Btghermtf an interior country, in the centre ore, seated on a mountain, eight miles from the 

of North Africa, south of Bornou. The capital, of Gulf of Squilace and 12 S. W. of St. Severino. 

the same name, is situate in the lat. of 17. N. Belchertownj p.t. Hampshire Co. Mass. 80 m. 

and 22. 50. G. long. A salt lake in the centre of the N. W. Boston. Pop. 2,491 . 

territory supplies a great extent of country with Belchite, a town of Spain, in Arragon, on the ri- 

that inaispensable article. ver Almonazir, 20 m. S. of Sara^ossa. 

BdtabuT^ a town of Hindoostan, in Lahore, 75 Belez. or Bdz^ a town of Gallicia, abont 25 m 

m. W. by N. of Lahore, on the road to Cashmere. N. by £. of Lemberg. 

Behkeff or Bhahor, a town of Hindoostan, capi- Bdem, a village oiPortugal, in Estremadura. on 

tal of a country of the same name. It stands on the north side ox the Tagu8,four miles below Lis* 

an island formed by the Indus, near the Junction bon. Here b a royal monastery , where the kings 

of the Dummoody, 160 m. S. by W. of Moultan. and oueens of Portugal are interred ; a strong fort, 

Long. 70. 2. £. lat. 27. 30. N. which defends the entrance to the city ; and to 

BeiUteiftf the name of several towns in different the north a noble modem aqueduct, 

parts of Germany : 1st in the Duchy of Wurtem- Bdtstaty a town of France, in the department 

Kurg at which is a mineral bath, about 20 m. N. of Aude, 27 m. S. W. of Carcassone. 

by £. of Stuttf ard ; 2nd in the Prussian states of Belfast^ a town in the county of Antrim, Ireland, 

the Grand Ducny of the Lower Rhine, on the east situate at the head of a spacious bay, about 15 

bank of the Moselle, about 5 m. N. of Zell, and miles in length, which forms a safb and commo- 

S2 S. W. of Coblentz ; 3rd a little to the west of dious harbour. Vessels drawing more than eight 

Leon, on the Mayhe. or nine feet of water load and unload by lighters, 

BsiiiA^'m, a town of France, in the department about seven miles below the town. Bielfast is a 

of Lower Rhine, seated on the Sur, near its con- regular well-built town ; the principal street 

fluenoe with the Rhine, 22 m. N- N. £. of Stras- runs in a straight line from the head of the bay, 

burg. and is very handsome. It is the entrepot for a 

Seiraf a province of Portugal, bordering on the great portion of the linens manufiu;tured in the 
Atlantic Ocean, extending from the mouUi of the north of Ireland, for the storing of which there is 
Mondego River, S. in lat. 40. to the Douro, which a spacious edifice called the Linen Hall, on the 
forms its northern boundarv, in lat. 41. 11. N. It plan of the cloth halb in Leeds. It has a thea- 
is bounded on the cast by the Spanish province of tre and an exchange, over which is an assembly- 
Salamanca, and south by the Portuguese province room ) two handsome churches, and several meet- 
of Estremadura, and contains an area or 823 so. ing-houses. and in 1806 a public school on an ex- 
foagues, and in 1810 a population of 1,121,695. tensive scale was founded; there are also very ex- 
The province is interspersed with mountains, tensive barracks on the north side of the town ; 
from which rise several streams, some falling into the river Lagan, over which there is a bridge of 
the Ta^s, and others into the Douro, in addition 21 arches, falls into the bay, on the S. £. side, and 
to the Mondego, which intersects nearly the communicates with Lough Neagh by a canal, 
whole province from east to west, and is, on the The markets are exceedingly well supplied with 
ii()iole, a fine and fruitful district. The capital is all kinds of provisions, and large quantities of 
Coimbra, and the other chief towns are Lamego. linens, in small parcels, are brought in for sale 
Visen, Pinhel, Almeida, Guarda, and Castel by Uie country people, tor whose accommodation 
Branco. there is a separate market. In addition to large 

BeitdFakiyh. town of Arabia, in Yemen, fa- quantities of linens, butter, salt provisions, and 

mouB asbeinga|rreat mart for conee. It is 24 m. grain, shipped to Great Britian, partly in ex- 

E. S. £. of Hodeida, and about 70 N. by £. of Moka. change for manufactures and partly m payment o' 

Beith, a parish and town of Scotland ; tlie parish rent, to a non-resident proprietor, Belfast carries 

is partly in Ayr and partly in Renfrewshire, and on a direct trade to the West Indies, Spain, Amer- 

in 1821 contained 4,472 inhabitants. The town, ica, and the Baltic; builds and owns a considera- 

tn which the greater portion of the population is ble extent of shipping, and has several manufiu;- 

concentrated, and emploved in the cotton manu- tures of leather, chemicals, glass, &c.; and the 

facture, is in Ayrshire, about 10 m. S. by W. of cotton manufacture, is endeavouring to establish 

Paisley. itself in Belfast and iU vicinity. It is 88 m. N. of 

Be;a, a town of Portugal, in Alemtejo, supposed Dublin. Pop. in 1821, 37J2^, and returns one 

to hive been the Pax Julia of the Romans, seated member to the parliament of the United Kingdom, 

on an eminence in an extensive plain, near a lake Bdfastf p.t. Waldo Co. Me. at the month of the 

of its name, 72 m. S. £. of Lisbon. Long. 7. 40. Penobscot, 12 m. W. Castine, lias a food harbour 

W. lat. 37. 58. N. Pop. about 6,000. and considerable trade in lumber. Pop. 3,077. 

• Beiapour. See Visiapour, Bdfast, t. Bedford Co. Pa. 

Bekesh, a town in a county of the same name, Bdfardf p.v. Nash Co. N. C. 64 m. E. Raleigh, 

in Upper Hungary, situate in a fork of the Korash Bdfordy a town of Northumberland, Eng. on Uic 

River, a few miles east of Tur. line of the high road from London to Edinburgh. 

B«te, a large towh of Upper Hungary, situate a- 49 m. N. by W. of Newcastle, and 15 S. by E. of 

roon^rtlie Carpathian Mountains on the frontiers Berwick. Pop. 1,206. 

of Poland . Bdgard^ a town of Prussian Pomerania, immedi- 

Bd'Aleasar, or Baleatar^ a town of Cordova, ately contiguous to Corbin, and about 15 m. 8. by 

Spain, situate on the east bank of the Goga river, £. of Colberg. 

96 m. N. N. W. of Cordova. Bdgem^ a town of Saxony Proper, with a good 

W B£L 

tnde in lieer, seated on the Elbe, 8 m. S. E. of ^^ttUjf, a town of France, in the department of 

Torgao. Ain, and lately a bishop's see ; seated near the 

Bi^Mtm. BeeJftAaUmdi Rhone,40 m. S. E.of Bourg. Long. 5. 44. £. lat 

BelgnuU^ a celebrated town and fortress of En- 45. 47. N. Pop. about 3,8(S). 

lopean Turkey, capital of Senria, and a Greek BdUdem^ a town in the BaTBiian circle of the 

hiahop*8 see, seated at the confluence of the Saave Rhine, lying between Laudan and Phillipsburg, 

with the Danube, immediately contiguooa to the on the west side of the riyer. 

Selavonian fortress of Semlin. It was first pos- BdUn, a town of Brandenburg, in the new Mark. 

seseed by the Turks in 1522, retaken by the east of the Oder Canal, about 18 m. N. N. W. oi 

confederated Gierraan powers in 1688, but again Kustin. 

taken by the Turks in 1690. It was taken by Bellingham, a town in Northunberland, Eng. 

prince £ugene in 1717, and kept till 1739, when seated on the north branch of the Tyne, 15 m. N. 

it was oe<led to die Turks. It was a^n ta^en in N. W. of Hexham, and 300 of London. 

1789, and restored at the peace of Reichenbach, in HelUngkamyp.i, Norfolk Co. Mass. 26 m. 8. 

1790, and in 1806 it surrendered to an insurgent W. Boston. Pop. 1,101. 

force of Servians, in opposition to the wanton au- BelUnzona, a town of Switzerland, capital of the 

tbority of the Janissanos. In addition to its emi- canton of Tessin. It is seated on the Tesino, five 

nenoe as a fortress, it is one of the most considen- miles above its entrance into the lake Magiaore, 

ble trading towns in Western Turkey. It is about and 22 W. S. W. of Chiavenna. Long. 8. &, £. 

440 m. N. W. of Constantinople, and 160 S. S. £. lat. 46. 8. N. 

of Pest BdJUnos Falls ^ a cataract on the Connecticut be- 

Bdgrade^ a town of European Turkey, in Ro- tween Walpole and Rockingham, consisting of 

mania, on tlie strait of Constantinople, 2U miles several pitches in a reiy narrow strait of the riv- 

north of that city. er. A large rock here myides the stream into two 

BeUradOya. town of Italy, in Friuli. seated near channeb, each 90 feet wide, but when the river ia 

the T^iamenta, 81 m. S. by W. of Udina. low the whole current is thrown into the western 

BelidafOT Ble^tUf a town of Algiers, in the pro- channel, where it is contracted to 16 feet and rush- 

▼ince ofTiteria, at the foot ofa ridge of mountams, es with astonishing rapidity. A bridge is built 

15 m. S. £. of Algiers. over these falls, and a canal passes round them. 

Belitx^ a town of Brandenburg, Prussia, in the Bell Rocky or Inch Cape, a ledge of partly sunk- 
Middle Mark, with a manutacture of cloUi, sea- en rocks, off the east coast of Gotland, bietween 
ted on a river of the same name, 27 m. S. W. of the Friths of ForUi and Tay, formerly very dan- 
Berlin. gerouB in fognr weather, and by night, but some 

BeUaCy a town of France, in the department of what obviated since 1811, by the erection of a 

Upper Vienne, seated on the Vinoon, 20 m. N. of light-house upon the most prominent point, in lat 

Limoges. Pop. about 4,000. 66. 26. N. and long. 2. 23. W. 

BtUmmf Bank, r. unites with the Piscataqua at Bellunese, a district of Italy, lying between Fri- 

Dovar, N. H. nil, Cadorino, Feltrino, and Tyrol. It has large 

JBsiis/iirte,p.t<yentre Co. Pa. woods, and iron mines; and is fertile in com. 

BelUgardef a fortjess of France, in the depart- wine, and fruit. Belluno is the only place or 

mentotEastem Pyrenees, and an important place, note. , 

OB account of its being a pas8a|pe to the Pyrenees. BeUvno, a town of Italy, capital of the Bel- 

It was taken by the Spaniards in 1793, but retaken lunese, and a bishop's see, seated among the Alps, 

tbe next year. It is 15 m. S. of Perptgnao. on the river Piave. 15 m. N. £. of Feltri. Long. 

BtUegarde, a town of France, in the department 12. 9. E. lat. 43. 13. N. Pop. about 7,500. 

of Saone and Loire, on the river Saone, 15 m. N. Belmantj a county on the east side of the state 

£. of Chalons. of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio River, which se- 

BelUisU, an island of France, 15 miles from the paratcs it from Virginia. Pop. 24,412. St. Clairs- 

coast of Bretagne. It is 10 miles long and three vilio, the chief town, is 123 m. E. of Columbus. 

broad, diversified with craggy mountains, salt- _ Bdmonty p.t Waldo Co. Me. 20 m. W. Castine 

, and fertile plains. The principal place Pop. 1,024. 

is Palais, a fortified town, with a citadel. It was Belmont^ Wayne Co. Missouri. 

taken by the English, in 1761, and restored in Bdmonty the name of two inconsiderable towns 

17G3. It now forma part of tl^ department of in France^ one in the department of Loire, and 

Moffiriiian,and cmttains a population orabout 5,800. the other in Aveiron. 

Long. 3. 5. W. lat. 47. 17. N. Belavery a town in the N. E. part of Croatia, 

S^2scs2e, an island at the N. E. end of a channel near the frontiers of Sclavonia. 
between New Britain and Newfoundland, called BehockisUaiy a country of Asia^ lying between 
the Strait of Belleisle. The island is 20 miles Peraia and the Indus, the boundanes of which are 
io circuit, and has a small harbour on the N. W. very imperfeotly defined; the inhabitants consist- 
side. Long. 55. 25. W. lat 51. 58. N. ing wholly of pastoral tribes, extend their territo- 

BeUatme, a town of France, in the department ry wherever ]>asture and fertility invite, and the 

of Ome, with an ancient castle, 24 m. £. 8. £. of power of their arms prove sufficient to defend 

Alenoon and 80 8. W. of Paris. them against interruption ; in fact, instead of Be- 

Beuariewy p.t. Washington Co. Missouri, in the loochistan being designated a country, it would be 

Mine Durtrict more proper to consider it as tbe eastern part of 

BsUsmtts, p.v. Essex Co. N. J. on the Passaic, 5 Persia^ inhabited by numerous nredatory and law- 

m. above Newark. Here are calico printing less tribes, possessing peculiar Mahometan tenets, 

woriu which turn oat annually near 7,000,000 from which the name of Belooches has been deriv- 

yards, slso manufactares of copper, brass, silver, ed, and which will be more fully described under 

led and while lead, dbc. the head of Persia. 

BeiUmlUy p.t. Wood Co. Va. on the Ohio. Theie BeUuza, a town of Hindoostan, in Mysore, with 

■re also towns of this name ia Ohio, Illinois, Ken a citadel, both of them strongly fortified with a 

tocky and Alabaau. mud wall and a ditch. In the ricinity is laoch 


fine rice groand, and a great number of sheep Benar§gf an exceedingly fertile district of Hin- 

aie bred. — It is 38 m. N. of Seringapatam. doostan, in the north-east part of the province of 

Beipetf a town in Derbyshire, Eng. Here are Allahabad, between those of Bahar and Oade. It 

■everal large cotton-mills, a bleaching mill and an contains the circars of Benares, Jionpour. Chunar, 

iron-forge, and about a dozen large establishments and Gasypour ; and was ceded to the Englbh in 

for the manufacture of nails. It is seated on the 1775. It is very productive in rice, sogar, silk, 

Derwent, 8 m. N. of Derby, 134 N. N. W. of cotton, and indigo, 

l«ondon. Pop. in 1821,7,235. Benares , the chief town of the district, is one 

Belpre, p.t. Washington Co. Ohio, on the N. of the finest and most populous towns of all Hin- 

W. bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of the dooetan. It is beautifully situated on the north 

Little Kanahwa, 14 m. S. W. of Marietta, and bank of the Ganges, and celebrated as the ancient 

4G N. E. of Gallipolis seat of Brahminical learning. Several Hindoo 

Belpuigf a town of Spain, in Catalonia, with a temples embellish the high banks of the river; 

famous convent, 18 m. £. N. E. of Lerida. and many other public and private buildings are 

Belt J Great f a strait of Denmark, )>etwecn the magnificent. The streets are narrow, the houses 

islands of Zealand and Funen, which forms a com- hivn, and some of them five stories each, inhabit- 

munication between the Cattegat and t!u' Baltic, eaby different families, but the more weaUhy 

Owing to its more circuitous course it is not so Grentoos live in detached houses, with an open 

muchlrequented as the Sound. (See Baitie.) In court, surrounded by a wall. Nearly in the cen- 

,1658 the whole strait was frozen so hard, that tre of the city is a considerable Mafaomedan 

Charles Gustavus, king of Sweden, marched over mosque, built by the emperor Aurunffzebe, who 

it, irith a design to take Copenhagen. destroyed a magnificent Hindoo temple to make 

Belt, Little, a strait, west of the Great Belt, be- room for it. Tnere is also a very superb temple, 

tween Funen and North Jutland. It is one or the built by the rajah Cheytsing, who was driven from 

passages from the Cattegat to the Baltic, though Benares for exciting an insurrection against the 

not three miles in breadth, and very crooked. British in 1781, and who was finally deposed in 

Belturbet, a town in tlic north part of the coun- 1783. There are ruins of several Hindoo temples 

tyof CavaUjIreland, itisintheparishof Annagh, in the vicinity, destroyed by the intolerance of 

which in 1821 contained a population of 10,4b8, Mahometans. In addition to the consequence 

and is sometimes called BeUurbet. The town derived from the vast congregatipn of persons oc- 

contains about 1,800 inhabitants, 9 m. N. N. W. casioncd by the priestcraft of Benares, it is the 

of Cavan, and 61 of Dublin. centre of a very extensive traffic for all the pro- 

Bdvedere, a town of European Turkey, capital ductions and manufactures of the eftst, and is dis> 

of a fertile province of the same name, in the Mo^ tinguished for its trade in diamonds, and works in 

rea. The raisins called Belvederes come from this ffold and jewelry. It is the seat of a Britishjuris- 

8 lace. It is 17 m. N. E. of Chirenza. Long. 21. diction, and is about 130 m. W. by 8. of ratna, 

5. E. lat. 38. 0. N. ^ and 460 W. by N. of Calcutta. Pop. about 600,000. 

Belvedere, p. v. Warren Co. N. J. on the Dela- Benatek, a town in the circle of^Bunzlau, Bohe- 

ware. mia, situate on the west bank of the Iser River. 

Belvez, a town of France, in the department of about 30 m. N. E. of Prague. Tycho Brahe diea 

Dordourne, 27 m. S. S. E. of Perigucux. Pop. here in 1601. 

about 3,000. Benaeari, a town of Spain, in Arragon, 17 m. 

Bdum, a town of Hanover, near the mouth of N. of Lerida. 

the Gate, 24 m. N. W. of Stade. Considerable BenaveHte, a town of Spain, in Leon, on the 

quantities of flax are raised in its vicinity. river Esla, 26 m. S. S. W. of Leon. 

Belur, a town of Usbec Tartar^ , capital of a BenaoeHte, a town of Portugal, in Alemteio, on 

province of the same name, which is a hilly coun- the river Soro, near its confluence with the Tagns, 

try, bounded on the north and east by tiie Belur 30 m. E. N. E. of Lisbon. 

'Ag, or Dark Mountains, ancienuy the Imaus. Benbeevla, an island of Scotland, one of the 

The capital is 200 m. E. of Badakshan. Long. 74. Hebrides, between North and South Uist, fixnn the 

10. E. lat. 36. 35. N. last of which it is separated b^ a narrow channel, 

Belmdere, p.t. Franklin Co. Vt. 38 m. N. Mont- nearly dry at low water. It is of a circular fonn, 

pelier. Pop. 185. including the inlets of the sea, 9 miles in 

Being, a town of Saxony Proper, with a castle, ter. The soil is sandy and unproductive, but 

seated on the Walse, 25 m. N . K. W. of Witten- much kelp is made fipom the sea-weed thrown on 

burg. the coast 

Ben, a name prefixed to most of the mountains Benuoolen,, a settlement of the English East 

in Scotland ; the following are among the most India Company, on the south-west side of the 

considerable^ with the counties in which they be- Island of Sumatra. The settlement was first form- 

long and their altitude above the level of the sea: — ed in 1690, siter the valiant Dutoh drove all liie 

FeU, English from BataTia. The unhealthiness of the 

Ben Ardlanich Perth 3,500 spot first chosen, destroyed in 1698, nearly the 

Beauchonzie 2,922 whole of the European population: a new site 

Beinglo 8,725 was chosen, and the fort called Fort Marlborough, 

Abonrd Aberdeen 3,940 has proved more congenial to the physical oon- 

, Avon 3,920 stitutions of Europeans, but it is still oonsidered 

Choachan Ross 3,000 the most disagreeable place in all the British do- 

Cloch Clackmannan 2,420 minions cf the east The town is inhabited by 

Ivas Perth 4,000 natives from all parts of Asia. The chief occupa- 

Nevis Inverness 4,370 tion of the people of the ooontry is the culture of 

Lomond Stirling 3,240 the pepper plant, the extent of liie produce of 

BsRA, or Bens, a fortified town of Piedmont, in which is very great, and oonstituies its exclusive 

the north-west part of the province of Mondovi, means of external oommerce. Fori Malborougii 

28 m. S. by E. of Turin. Pop. about 5,000. is in lat 3* 48. 6. and 102. 28. £. long. 

. . . _ ..rMt eztremiW 

of the iilud of SmiMm, about LW m. B. E. of 

Cniutuitine, 35 m. B. 3. E. oT' Seleef.' 

flndala, a town ofBoniou, North Aftio, about 
900ni.E. ofDwupital. 

BauUr, or Tckem, a ibrtiSed town ot Eoropean 
Tnrkej, capita] of BMHrabia. Here Charka the 
XII. of Sweden resided, after hii defeat at Pullo- 
wa Id 1709. Previoiu to 1770, when the Ruviani 
look Bender b; ator>n, and totallj deatroyed tba 
town, and afl«rwajdii abandontd it^ it ooQtauied 
ainut 30,000 inhabitanU. in 17t» it waa taken 
agiin bj the Hmsiana aliowt withoat a atmgglc, 
bat restored to the Turks in the following year; 

X'n taken by (he Kuiaiana, to whom with the 
le of Beaaarabia and all that part oTMoldaTia 

ter, about iOU m. E. b; S. of Jaaaj, and tlO N. of 
Conatanlinoi^. Freaent pop. about 10,000, 

Balder Major, Bagk, and Bitlur, thiee towna 
on the oDrth-eaat shore of tbe PenUo rolf- 

Bmdorf, a town on tbe east bank of tbe I 
aboat 5 m. N. of CoUeoti. 

Bejuadi, a laxve town of Upper Effjpt. oi 
veat wde of tbe Nile, in lat. about 87. 30 N. 

BaiudeUo, St. a town of Italr, in tha Hull 
near tbp river Po, 15 m. 8. 8. E. of Mantua, distin- 
gniahed before the rarolution, for one of the rich- 
er and fioeat conrents in all Ital^. There iaalao 
another town of the same name la Piedmont, 19 
na. E. of Bena. 

le Rhine, 

SSlli and 9]>t deg. of low. He Bnrramncntn' 
anten the province from tbe north-east 
eitnmit}', and unitea with the moat northern, 
whieh ia the main branch of the Ganges at ila 
confluenoe with the aea; whilst tbe Dutnoiaoda 
waten the south aide of the province, falling into 
tbe Hooffly, or southern braneb of Uie Ganges, 
below CaJcutta: theM [ivtn, with their numer- 
oni Iributarj itreams, afford a facilitj of oomma 
nication bj water to almost every town in the 
province, and by their periodical overflowinga add 
fertilitv to the luxuriant and cibauatlca* aoil. 
Bengal ia altogether a level country, former^ il 
vast plaitu, IwnndtKl to the rye only by Ihe 
horiion, yielding, with but tittle aid of culture, all 
the plants nnd fruits peculiar lo a tropical climati-. 
Rice, cotton, silk, and saltpetre, are its indigenoui 
and staple productions, and sugar and indigo have 
been recently cultivated with great iuccees and lo 

alaa produced for internal coniamption, but being 
inferior in quality to the like productione of 
America and Europe, they are not eiported. 
Giuni and medicinal plants are varion* and abun- 
dant. Tbe great forests and manhy districts art- 
peopled with elephanta, Tlieae ginntie animals, 
once fonnidahte in the field ofbattfe, an now em- 
ployed only lo drag cannon and canj amunitioD, 

Btiuilui, SI. a iwvket town of Hue 

lut, SI. a markat town of Himgarr, <m 
It bank of tha Gran, about 5 m. W. of 

Beaetdaa, a town in the aonth-weat part oT 
Sileaia, on the ihmtiei of theprincipali^ of Tn^ 
pan. Also the name of Ibar small towiu in Bo- 

uid fiaz ; aeated on 

BaievaiU, a town of France, 
ofOense, 10 m. N. N. ■" "' 

I m. S. of Cairn. 

nee, ui the depart 
of Borganeuf. 

1 small 

Benereato hai lul 
patticnlariy in 1388, 
out of (ha rains alive. Except Borne, no city in 
Italy can boast of so many miua of ancient aculp- 
toie aa ate to bo fonnd in tlua plaoe. It is teated 
near the conSoence uf tbe Sabato and Caloro, 
35 m. N. B. ofNaplea. Lonr. U. 47. E. lat. 41. 
8. N. Pop. aboiit 14,000. 

Ba^eUsa, a town of rranee, in the deurtmant 
of Lower Bhine, on the river III, 13 m. 8. S. W. 

ne, Ulaly belonging to the pope. 
niBeied greatly^v eaitluiuakeB, 
188, when the ardiliiahap waa dng 

Baigmt, a maritinr province fuiming the north- 
eut extremity of tlie great promontory of Hiu' 
davtan, Iviag between the lat of Sa. and 96. 30. 
N. and the Sdiand9&iddca. ofE. lonr. His 
boDDded on the north-eart and north by Heeklrv, 
n laniii, and Bootan, eonntrie* at preaent liut little 
known ; north-weal by Bahar ; south bj Oriaaa : 
•ad >o(rth-eaat by IheooaaB or ha* of Bengal, and 
eontaina an aiea i^ apwarda of 1(10,000 aq. roiloi. 
1^ river Gangeo inteneeta tha proviiue Aom 

^ ~raat to aMttfa-eaat, dividing into Dnmarooa 

la Mbn it Ufa iato the mr, L bI wm i U» 

to aet heavjenginea in motion, to eany 

Uiicfc jungle which overspreads the plaiiu 
tigera are numerous among the underwood of the 
marshes. The rhinoceros lives in the mud and 
water, and is espcciatly common upon the lelanda 
at the mouth ofthe Ganges. Bunloee and horn- 
ed cattle are nunteroua, and horaea of various 
kind* are common. Birds and domestic poultT]' 
of a]] kinda are very abundant. Frevioua lo the 
oommenoement of tbe 13th century, Bengal was 
inhabited by an nnmiied and feeble race of Hin- 
doos, who at that period yielded their authority 
to a horde of Mahometan marauders from the con- 
fines of Persia and Tartary. They established 
their leat of empire at Dehti, and Bengal con- 
tinued tributary for about HO yean, when it re- 
mined, and preaerredits independence fbrnearlr 
? ^-.„ .. ;-7ftded again b- •»— - 

Bhah, and af^rwards by the emperor J 

again rendered it tributary to Dehli, iv wuitu n 

continued aubject until the year 1756, when the 

i, to which it 

the authority 
rftbe llagliBh East India Company, who for half 
a century nevionalj had ealablisbed settlement* 
on the hanks of the Ganges, and progreaaivelj ex- 
tended their influence. They have since divided 

> three diatricti fbr civil and " "--' 

I <ri«. Oaloatta, DaMa. and lil 

and formed riz great mifitanr ttatioiifl of which po|rahnis of all Weateni Afhoa, oontainiaff about 

Calcatta is the chief, as well as the seat of soy- 15,000 inhabitants. It is situate inland about 40 

enunentcf the whole British empire in Asia. The m. from Gatto. a town standing at the head* of a 

total po]fulation is about ZfiOOfifM, of whom about large inlet of tne Formosa river. The road from 

nine>tentbs are native Hindoos, and the remain- Gatto to Benin is over a level country, in some 

der a mixed race of Mahometans, descendants of places swampy and thickly wooded, and the coun- 

of the early conquerors, by intermarriages with try around the town of Benin is also thickly wood- 

the natives; and a few Europeans. Miuiufactures eu. Like all other African towns, Benin is very 

of cotton, or silk, are carried on in almost every unequaJly laid out. The houses are all built with 

town of the province, and in the principal cities clay, ana covered with reeds, straw, or leaves, 

tlie works in gold and jewelry are very extensive. The royal palace is of vast extent, but neither el- 

The nature and present extent of Uie commerce egant nor commodious. All male slaves here are 

of Ben^ will be more fully elucidated under the foreigners ; for the inhabitants cannot be sold for 

head of Calcutta, and the nature and extent of such, only they bear the name of the kings 

revenue under the head of Ilindoostan. slaves. Since the restriction of the slave-trade to 

Ben^tida, a maritime district on the west coast the south of the equator, Benin, in common wiUi 

of South Africa, lying south of the Congo river, the whole extent of the western coast of Africa, 

between the lat of 10. 30. and 16. S. There are from the river Gambia, in lat. 13. N. to Malemba, 

two towns or settlements of the Portuguese on the in lat. 5. S. has shewn itself capable of affording 

coast, called Benguela, Old and New, the former ail the means requisite for the formation of an 

in tl^ lat. of 10. 60. and the other in about 12. intercourse, as social and reciprocal, as the slave 

30. S. from whence the Portuguese and Brazilian traffic was debasing, partial, and^ vicious. The 

ships obtain a considerable portion of their slaves, commerce of Great Britain with this part of Africa 

Benif a large river of South America, rising is inconsiderable, 
near the south extremi^ of La Paz, running north, Bmun-DazUf St. a town of France, in the de- 
parallel with, and within the most easterly ridce partment of Nievre, having several iron mines in 
of the Andes, and forming the east branch of the its vicinity. Pop. 1,600. 

Ucayale, which falls into the Amazon aflcr run- Bcnisurf, a town of Egypt, with manufoctures 

ning from south to north through the whole inte* of carpets, and woolen and linen stoflb, seated on 

rior of Peru. The Jesuits founded some settle- the Nile, 60. m. 8. of Cairo, 

ments on the banks of the Beni, of which St. Fran- BenAcnsCstK, or Bameekmutmnf a town of the 

Cisco, Trinidad, and Reyez, in the lat. of 12. to Prussian states, in the duchy of Saxony, 11 m. 

14. 8. are the chief. S. W. of Halberstadt 

BaueariOf a town of Valencia, Spain, a few m. Benrnngen, a village of Wirtemburg, on the 

north of Peniscola. It u celebrated for its wines, Neckar, where the remains of a Roman town 

of which considerable quantities are exported. were discovered in 1597. 

BenignOf St. a populous villa^ of Piedmont, Bennbufton^ a village in Hertfordshire, England 

situate on the high road to tlie Alps, about 10 m. near Stevenaffe. Here the Mercian kuigs had a 

N. of Turin. Pop. about 4,500. palace; and ue castle, in which a council was 

Benihassen^ a maritime province of Fes, border- neld in 850, still remains near the church. Pop. 

ing on the Atlantic, of which New Salee or Rabat, 668. 

in lat. 34. 5. N. is the principal outport. Baadngtim, a County forming the south-west 

ffsiun, a country in North Africa, towards the part of the state of Vermont, mirdering on the 

cast extremity of upper Guinea, lying principal- state of New York. Pop. 17,470. 

ly north and west of the river Formosa, the en- Bemungtan^ the chief town of the pieceding 

trance to which is in lat 5. 33. N. an^ 4. 35. £. County. Though the largest and oldest town in 

louff. It is bounded on the west bv Dahomey \ the state, the judicial courts are commonly held 

on the east by Waree ; and north by undefined at Rutland and Windsor alternately. Near this 

boundaries and countries but little known. Benin town. General Staric guned two battles, on Aug 

exhibits many beautiful landsci4»es ; but the air 16th, 1777, which contributed to the subsequent 

IS noxious near the coast, on account of the gross surrender of general Burgoyae's army. Benning- 

vapours from the marshes. Oranges and lemons ton is situate at the foot of the Green Mountains 

grow on the side of the roads, and the cotton and near the 8. W. oomer of the state, 30 m. E. by 

pepper plants are indigenous to the soil, but both N. of Albany and 1S9 8. 8. W. of Mon^lier. 

are very imperfectly cultivated. Among the ani- Pop. 3^19. 

male are elephants in great number, leopards, lliereaiealsoiownsof thie nameinNewTork, 

stags, wild boars, civet and mountain oats, horses. Pa., Ohio and Alabama, 

hares, and hair^r sheep ; a vast number of serpents BenssZsm, t. Burks Go. Pa. 

and other reptiles; and the principal birds are Bsiuforo, p.v. Pitt Co. N.C. 60 m. 8.E. Raleigh, 

parroquets, pigeons, partridges, storks, and ostri- Bauktrg, a town of the duohy of Berg, West- 

ches. The dress of the natives is neat. Th^ rich phalia, 7 m. £ of Mulheim, on the Rhine, 

wear white calico or cotton petticoats, but the up- BenMstm, a town of Germany, 25 miles N. N. 

per part of the body is commonly naked. The W. of Heidelberg, and ION. a. of Worms. Pop. 

women use great art in dressing their hair, which about 3400. 

they reduce into a varietur of forms. The people Be$uittgtmiy commonly called Bshmii, a town 

are skilful in making various sorts of dyes ; and in Oxforul^re, Eng. on the high road from L(m- 

they manufacture some cotton into cloths. Poly- don to Oxford. It was formerly the abode of royal- 

^amy is allowed, and the number of wives is lim* ij, and has a hospital called God's House. Pop. 

tied by the state of their circumstances only, doO. 

Tliougii jealous of each other, they offer their JBsiison, p.t. Rutland Co. Vt on L. Cfaamplain. 

wives to Europeans. Their religion is paganism^ Pop. 1^93. 

the king himself bein^p fetiekef and as such the BetUktim, formerly a eoonty of the drole of 

chief object of adoration in hiii dominion. The Westphalia,but now forming part of the kingdom 

chief town, called also Bmin, is one of the ipost of Hanover. It is about 18 nules in breadth aad 

46 in kngtfa, botderinff on th» United r w y faMw warn exported to Engluid; the dbtriet pndiMte 

of Holland, inteTseetea from sonth to north by the gre«t muuititiefl of aut. 

Vecht. Pop. about 35/)00. There is a town of Berioa, a town of Perua, in EriTan, eeated m 

the same name, inconsiderable. The chief town* a fertile plain, 16 m. £. 8. E. of Gangea. 

are Neinhns, Northern, and Sohnttorf. Bwte AUtan, a borongrh m DeTonshire, Eng. 

Bmiofogiw, a town of Italy, in Bolo^rneae, 10 eontaining ebont 100 hooees, seated between the 

m. N. E. of Rologna. Tamar and the Tive, 10 ro. If. by W. of Ply- 

BentleysmlU, p.T. Halifax Co. Va. 180 m. S. W. mouth, and 212 W. by S. of London. It returns 

Richmond. * two members to parliament. 

Benitm, p.t Yates Co. N. Y. 200 m. West Al- Bere lUgU, a town in DorBetshire, Eng. On 

bany. Pop. 3,957. Woodbnry-hill ; half a mile to the north-east, is a 

BeiUon, p.T. Scott Co. Missouri, 100 m. fr. St. circular lloman camp, inclosed within three 

Louis. • trenches. The town is seated on the Bere, near 

Benzhausen, a populous village with seTeral its confluence with the Piddle, 12 m. £. by N. of 

iron forges, in the mining district of Smalcalden, Dorchester, and 112 S. W. of London. Pop. 968. 

county <^ Henneberg, circle of Franconia. BereUly, a city of Hindoostan, capital ofRohil- 

Btrart an interior proTince of the Deccan of Hin- k, which was conquered by the nabob of Oude, in 

doostan, bounded on the north by Malwa and Al- 1774. It is 120 m. N. N. W. of Lucknow. Long, 

lahabad, east by Orissa, south by Golconda, and 79. 40. E. lat. 28. 30. N. 

west by DowUtabad and Candeish. The princi- Berel&s, a lake of Egypt, between Damietta and 

pal pait of itis nominally subject to a nuah, under Rosetto, of an oval form, 32 miles long, and 10 

mrreillanceof the English East India Company, broad in the middle. 

tfaeothertocheNisamofthedeocan. The rajah's BereUk, a town at the south-east frontier of 

country extends 550 miles from east to west, and TransylTania, near the pass of Oitosch. 

in some places 200 from north to south. Its cap- Bertgh^ a frontier county of Upper Hungary. 

ital is Nagpour. Little is known respecting the bounded on the south by the river Theiss, and 

interior ; hut that about Nagpour is fertile and north by the Carpathtan mountains. Pop. about 

well cultivated. The genend appearance of the 46,000. 

country, particularly between Na^^ur and Orie- Beregh, and Ber€ghMtax, two of the principal 

sa, is that of a forest, thinly set with Tillages and towns, are situate In the S. W. part of the pre- 

towns. ceding county. 

Berat or Arnmith Bdgradey the ancient Eordea, Berezinaf a rirer of Lithuania, which has ite 

m large interior town of Albania, about 40 m. N. E. source near a village of the same name, in lat. 54. 

ofValona. Pop. about 12,000. 50. N. and after receiving several tributery 

Beraim-Podbradf an interior circle of Bohemia, streams, and running south through the palatinate 

lying between 49. 25. and 50. of N. lat. and 13. of Minsk, parallel with the Dnieper, through 

4^. uid 14. 30. of E. lonjr. It is intersected from nearly three degrees of lat. fells into that river a 

south to north by the Moldau river, which fells little above Rzeczyca. It is memorable for the 

into the Elbe, aoout 20 miles nortn of Prague, disasters which ite passage occasioned to the 

Beramn, the chief town, is mtuate near the fVench army on ite retreat from Moscow in 1812. 

nothem frontier of the circle, on the south bank There is a small river of the same name falling 

of a river, of the same name, which rises near the into the Vistula, a few miles S. £. of Thorn, 

frontiers of Bavaria, and fells into the Moldau a Benxiiukoi, a town of Siberia, on the Irtisch 

few miles south of Prague. It has manufrbctures river, about 40 m. 8. £. of Tobolsk. 

of fire-arms and earthen ware ; 15 m. W. S. W. BerexoVf a considerable town of Siberia, situate 

of Prague. near the confluence of the Soswa river, with the 

BerSera, the projecting coast of Eastern Africa, west branch of the Obe, in lat. 64. 

extending fit>m the straite of Babelmandel to ^^g^ ^ duchy of Westphalia, lying along the 

ei^ Guardafui. At a town of the same name river Rhine, to the south of the duchy of Cleves, 

upon the coast, in lat 10. 25. N. and 45. 8. E. long, about 60 miles in length, and from 10 to 22 in 

a famee annual feir is held, at which the manufec- breadth. It is frill of woods and mountuns, but 

tnrea productions of Persia and India are ex- fertile upon the banks of the Rhine, and in the 

changed for gum, frankincense, myrrh, and va- valleys ; and has mines of lead, iron, and coal. 

rimis other commodities. This seems to be a point Dusseldorf is the capital. It now forms a part of 

0^ the African coast from whence a more advan- the Prussiannrovinces of the Lower Rhine. Pop. 

tageons intercourse might be established with the about 296,000. 

interior, than any other either on the western or Berg is also the name of several towns in differ- 

eastem ooasto. ent pute of Germany. 

BerHe*. a river of South America, the entrance Btrga, a town of Spain in Catalonia, seated on 

U» which IS in lat. 6. 29. N. and 57. 11. W. long, the Lobregat. 18 m. E. N. E. of Solsona. 

Plantations, formed by the Duteh, extend on Berga, is also the name of two towns in Saxo- 

both sides of the river for about 150 miles along ny, one in Switzerland, and another in Norway, 

the coast. Thecolony was surrendered to the Eng- Ber^iiuuetf, a province of Italy, bounded by 

fish in 1790; given up at the peace of Amiens; Brescia, the Valteline, and the Milanese. Toward 

retaken on the renewal of the war, and confirm- the north it is ntountainous and rocky, and has 

ed to England at the peace of 1814. mines of iron ; some of the valleys produce much 

BcrcAteZmden, provostehip of, encircled by the wine and oil ; and in the vicini^ of the capital, 

archbishopric of Saltzburg, formerly part of the Bergamo, it is very fertile. It formed part of 

circle of Bavaria, but now of the Austrian em- the kingoomof Italjr, under Bonaparte, but was 

pire. The chief town of the same name is situate transferred to Austria at the Congress of Vienna, 

at tiie N. E. part of the district, about 14 miles 8. subsequent to the peace of 1815. Pop. about 

of Sahxburg. It has a handsome church. POp. S05.0W. ^,^ 

about 3,000, who are much employed in the man- Bergmas, an ancient city of Itely, ^^'^^^^^ 

ufeetors of wooden toys, large quantities of which op's see, capital of Bergamaseo, with a eilwel. It 

1i ftmom for iti tewiiii; cilk ; and iU fUr o* 8l. Rmmo eoias have been oAeii dog up heie , 
Bartholomew's day , is resorted to by merchants and on the north side are the remains of a oasile, 
from distant parte. It stands on a hilly between the residence of the kings of Mercia. In -697 a 
the rivers Bremba and Serio, 30 miles N. £. of parliament was held here, and Ina's laws publish- 
Milan ; and eontains several fine edifices, and is ed. Here William the Conqueror swore to his no- 
distinguished as the birth-place of several eminent bility to maintain the laws made by his predeces- 
artiats and literati. Pop. about 30,000. sors. Henry II. kept his court in this town, and 

Bergamo f a city of Natolia. See Permmi. granted to it many privileges ; and James I. whose 

Bergedoffjji. town of the north bank ofthe Elbe, children were nursed here, made it a corporation ; 

about 10 m. £. of Hamburgh. but this government was dropped in the civil wars. 

Bergen, a city and seaport of Norway, capital The church is a handsome Gothic structure. It 

of a government of the same name, and a bishop's is seated on the west branch of the river Grade, 

see, with a castle. It forms a semicircle round a and on the Grand Junction Canal, 26 jn. N. W; of 

smallgulf of the sea, and is the most populous London. Pop. in 1821^2,310. 

town m Norway, containing 19,000 inhabitante. Berkley , a town in Glouoesterihlre, Eng. It 

On the land side it is defended by mountains, and has a trade in timber, coals, malt, and cheese 

on the other by several fortifications. All the which is benefited by means of a canal from 

churches and many of the houses are of stone, but Gloucester. Here is an ancient castle on a rising 

most of the latter are constructed of wood. The ground, in which Edward II. was murderea. 

castle and cathedral are remarkable edifices. It Berkley has the honour of ffiving birth to the 

carries on a great trade in skins, fir-wood, deals, justly celebrated Dr. Edward jenner. the discov^ 

tar, and dried fish; and \b 170 m. W. by N. of ererofthe vaccine inoculation. It is seated on 

Christiania. Long. 5. 20. £. lat 60. 24. N. the Little Avon, near ito confluence with the 

Bergen, a town of North Holland, noted for two Severn. 15 m. S. W. of Gloucester, and ) 14 W 

bloody battles, in 1799, between the English of London. Pop. 836. 

and Russian forces opposed by the Duteh and BerUw, p.t. Bristol Co. Mast. 35 m. 8. Boston. 

French, which terminated in fr.vour of the former. Fop. 907. 

It is situate among woods, 4 m. N. N. E. of Ale- BerkUy, p.v. Glouoetter Co. N. J. 13 m. fr. 

maer. Philadelphia. 

Bergen, the chief town ofthe island of Rugen^ BerkUu, a frt>ntier County of Virginia, bound- 

which see. ed on tne north by the Potomac River, which 

Bergen, p.t. Genessee Co. N. T. 258 m. W. Al- separates it from Pennsylvania. Pop. 10,526. 

banv. Pop. 1,508. MTartinsburgh, 192 m. N. W. of Richmond, is 

Bergen, a GMinty of New Jersev, bordering on the chief town, 

the Hudson. Pop. 22,414. Hacaensack is the Berkley 9fring$, p.v. Morgan Co. Va. on the 

chief town. Potomac. 

Bergen, p.t. in the above Co. The inhabitante Berks, or BerkdMre, an inland and verjlrregn 
are mostly descendante from the Duteh settlers. It lar shaped county of England. The riverThames 
is surrounded by water excepting the north, and by a very circuitous course, divides it on the nortl* 
separated b> the river Hudson from the city of and east from the counties of Oxford and Wilt- 
New York, 3 miles distant. shire, and south from Hampshire. Reading, 39m. 

Berjrenrop-Zoam, a town of Dutch Brabant, cap- west of London is the chief town. At the east 
ital of a marquisate of the same name. It is a end of the county, on the south bank of the 
handsome place, and ite fortress is one of the Thames, is the castle and extensive domain of 
strongest in the Netherlands, seated partly on a Windsor, a residence of the kings of England, 
hill, and partlv on the river Zoom, which conimu- and one of the most stately and ma^iificent abodes 
nic&tes with the Scheldt by a canal. It has sev- in Eurooe or the world. The other princmal towns 
era! times been besieged to no purpose ; but was are Maiuenhead, Newbury, and Hongerford. The 
token by the Fronch, m 1747, and 1794. In 1814, countv has but few manuuctnres : some sarking 
the English attempted to carry this place by storm, is mane in the vicinity of Abingdon, and some 
but after forcing a passage into the town, their re- ribands and silk plush m the vicinity of Read- 
treat was cut on*, wnen tney were nearly all kill- ing ; but ite supply of colonial, foreign and man- 
ed or made prisoners. It is 15 m. N. of Antwerp, uractured productions, is obtained by means of a 
and 22. S. W. of Breda. Long. 4. 22. E. lat 51. surplus of grain, flour, malt, wool, some cattle 
30. N. ana sheep, and a considerable quantity of oak tim- 

Bergerae, a town of France, in the denartment her. Berkshiro has long been distinguished as 

of Dordogne, seated on the north bank ot the Riv- containing the most oelebrated reaidenoe of roy- 

er Dordogne, 24 m. S. by W. of Perigueux, and alty in the whole British dominions, Windsor 

48 E. of Bourdeaux. Pop. 8,600. Castle, which wss founded by WiUiam the Coc 

Bergoo, an interior district of North Africa, ly- queror. In this county are also IVogmore. Cum- 
ing to the east of Begherme. /Farra is the chief berland Lodge, Cranboum Lodge, ana other 
town. residences of the royal family, with above 150 

Berg'RiUhenstem, and Bergetadt, two towns in seate belonging to the nobility and gentry, 

the circle of Prachin Bohemia, situate in a mining Berks, an interior county in the E. district of 

district on the frontiers of Bavaria. Pennsylvania, bounded on the N. W. by the blue 

Bsrguss, a fortified town of France, in the de- ridffe of the Apalachian Mountains, and intersect- 

partmant of Nord, on the river Colme, at the foot ed from the N. W. to S. E. by the Schuylkill Riv« 

of a mountain, 5 m. S. of Dunkirk. er. Pop. 53,357. Reading, 52 m. E. by N. of 

Bergxabem, a town of Bavaria, cirole of the Harrisburgb, is the chief town. 

Rhine, seated on the Erlbach, 6 m. S. S. W. of Berkshire, p t Franklin Go. Vt on the Misais- 

{(■apdau. #nd 34 S. £. of Deux Fonts. que. ?op. 1,308. 

Berkka m s te n d or Barkkanuiead, i, Litohfield .Bsr&sMre, a countf forming the whole western 

Cb. Con. Pop. 1,715. boundary ofthe state of Maasachuaette, bordering 

Bsri^^wniirqad^a town hi HartfordsfaiNi, Eng. on the state of New Toifc. Pop. 37^. LcnoX| 

Bioi m 

th« cliief town, in the oenln of the oeniilyy ie 1S9 Britain ever gince. They tbound in oedar wood 

:d. doe west of Boston. with which a nomber of small vessels aie built 

Btrkskirt, p.t. Tioga Co. N. T. 21Q m. S. W. Some aufar and coffee is cultivated for ezporta- 

Alhanv. Pop. 1,683. tion. The white inhabitants are estimated at 

Berkshire, p.t. Delaware Co. Ohio. aboot 4,800, and in 1823 there was 5,176 slaves. 

Berlamont, a town of France, in the department The principal island is called St George, and the 

of Nord. 6 miles E. S. E. of Quesnoj. town, of the same name, is in lat. 32,22. N. and 

BerUburg, a town of Germany in the Electo- 66. 33.W. long. 
rate of Hesse, with a castle seated on the Berle- BemnuUaHj p.y. York Co. Pa. 48 m. S. Harris- 
bach, near its oonfloence with the Eder, 20 m. N. bn^. 
W. of Marburg, and 70 S. £. of Cassel. Bern, the largest of the cantons of Switzer- 

BerliMjB, city of Germany, capital of the electo- land, beinff 160 m. long uid 75 broad. It is the 
rate of Brandenburg, and of the whole Prus- most fertile country in Switaerland, and divided 
sian dominion ; one of the Itftgest, beet built, and into two principal parts, called the German and 
best governed of any in Grermany. It is defended Roman ; but the last is most commonly called the 
partly bywalls, partly by palisades, and has 16 Pays de Vaud. It is intersected from south to 
gates. The streets are straight, wide, and Ions ; north by the river Aar ; on ^e S. E. part are the 
and its large squares, magnificent palaces, church- lakes of Thun and Brienz, and on toe N. W it 
es, and other buildings, are scarcely to be equalled, extends to Lake Neufchatel, and to that of Gene- 
It is 12 m. in circumference ; but within this in- va. The religion is Calvinism. Pop. about 215.000. 
closore are numerous gardens, and many beauti- Bern, a town of Svdtzerland, capital or the 
All houses are let in stories to mechanics. The canton of Bern. Here is a celebrated academy 
population in 1803, was 153,128, exclusive of the and a rich hbrary. It is a strong place, in a pen- 
garrison. The royal palace contains a fine libra- insula, fermed by the river Aar, and estimatod 
2, a rich cabinet of curiosities and medals, and to contain 18,000 inhid>itants. The houses are 
e supreme colleges of j^vemmenL Near the built of fivestone, and pretty uniform, particular- 
palace stands the magnificent cathedral. Here ly in the principal street, and there are piazzas 
■re also several aeademicB, and hospitals, an as- on each side, with a walk raised four feet above 
tronomical observatory, a superb arsenal, and a the level of the street, very commodious in wet 
royal cloth manufecture. Berlin has a flourishing weather. The streets are traversed by a canal, 
trade occasioned by its numerous manufactures oi and the public buildings are magnificent. In the 
■ilk, wool, cotton, cameb' hair. Unen, Pxussian arsenal are preserved the figure and armour oi 
blue, cutlery, and porcelain ; and hj its enamelled, the celebrated Wm. Tell, in the act of taking aim 
inlaid, and embroidered works. It b seated on the at the apple on his son's hea4. Bern was taken 
river S^ree, from which there is a canal to the in 1796, by the French. It is 70 m. N. £. of Ge- 
Oder on the east, and another to the Elbe on the neva. Long. 7. 29. E. laL 46. 57. N. 
west; thus it has a communication by water, both ^sm, p.t. Albany Co. N. T. 31 m. fir. Albany, 
with the Baltic Sea and the German Ocean. This Pop. 3,605. There are also 3 towns of this name 
city was taken, in 1760, by an army of Russians, in ra. 

Austrians, and Saxons, who were obliged to evacu- Bernard, p.t. Somerset Co. N. T. 
ate it in a few days. In 1806, ten days after the Bernard, Grand, St, a mountain of the Pen- 
battle of Jena, the French entered this cit^, and nine Alps, on the fix>ntiers of Piedmont, 15 m. 
Bonaparte held a court in the palace. It is 100 N. N. W. of Aosta. On the summit, at a heiffht 
m. N. of Dresden, and 185 N. W. of Breslau. of 11, 000 feet, isa large convent, where the monks 
Long. 13. 22. E. lat 59. 31. N. entertain all travellers gratis fer three days. It 

Berlin, p.t. Washington Co. Vt. 5 m. 8. E.* was by this passage Bionanarte conducted his 

Mon^>elier. Pop. 1,664. army into Italy in 1800. Little St. Bernard, to 

Berlin, p.t. Worcester Co. Mass. Pop. 692. the S. W. is 7,194 ft. in height. 

Beiim, p.t Hartford Co. Conn. 10 m. S. Hart- Bernard CaiiU, a town in the countj^ of Dup- 

feid. Pop. 3,038. This town is celebrated fer ham, Eng. with manufectures of stockings and 

the manumeture of tin warn. camlete. It takes iU name &om a castle built 

BerUn, B^nsselaer Co. New York, on the east by Bernard Baliol, kin^ of Scotland, whofeunded 

bank of the Hudson River, 15 m. £. of Albany, an hospital here. It is seated on the river Tees, 

Pep. 9,019. 24 m. 8. W. of Durham, and 246 N. N. W. of 

BeHin, p.v. Adams Co. Pa. 100 m. W. Philad. London. Pop. in 1821, 3,580. 

BuUn, p.y. Somerset Co. Pa. There are also 8 Bemaw, a fortified town of Brandenburg, in 

towns of tnis name in Ohio. the middle mark. The principal eommerce is 

BerimoiZZe, p.y. Northampton Co. Pa. in beer, of which large quantities are brewed. . It 

Bermeo or Bormeo, a town of Spain, in Biscay, is seated on the Pancho, 15 m. N. N. £. of 

on the bay of Biscay, near the cape of MaohioaF BerUn. 

eo, 15 m. E. of BUmo. Bemay, a town of France, in the department 

fiermuda Httndred. or CUuPoint, a port of Vir* of Eure, seated on the Carantonne, 90 m. 8. W. 

ginia, in Chesterfield Co. The exrorts from this of Rouen. Pop. 6,500. 

place are collected at Richmond 90 m. above it, Bemhurg, a town of Upper Sazooy, in the 

and to which it is the out-port. City Point, firom princirality of Anhalt, seated on the Saale, 29 

whieh it is named, is on the south bank of James m. S. W. of Magdeburg. Pop. about 9,500. 

River, 4 m. 8. 8. W. of the town. Long. 77. 31. BemeagtU, a town of Germany, remarkable 

W. lat 37. 16. N. for ffood wine; seated on the Moselle, 18 m. N. 

Bemmdaa, or Samara UUmds, four islands in the E. of Treves. 

Atlantic Ocean. 500 m. east of Carolina, and sur» Bama, t. FVanklln Co. Mass. 

lounded by roexs. They were discovered by Jn- Bamgritaj or BaUngriea, a town of Franconit, 

an Bermndes, a Spaniard, in 1527; but not in^ in the principality of Aichstadt, on the Altmuh), 

habited till 1609, when Sir G«oige Somers was 17 m. N. E. of Aichstadt, and 26 W. of RatisboU; 

cast away upon them; and they have belonged to BamaUidi, a town of Silesia, in the pxinoipaU* 


^ of Oek, with a oasUe, seated on the W«da, Beeigk&kn, atewnof Biial>ia,inihe1ruigdom of 

80 m. E. of Biealau. Pop. 2,860. Wirtembnrgy with two old castles, at the confln- 

Berrty a town of France, in the department of ence of the Neckar and Ens, 25 m. If. bj W. of 

Months of the Rhone, foimerly one of the stronif- Stuttgard. Pop. about 2,000. 

est towns of Provence. It stands on a lake of Bessarahittf or Budxae, a territory of European 

the same name, at the influx of a river, 18 m. W. Turkey, on the N. W. coast of tne Black Sea, 

8. W. of Aix. Pop. 1,800. between the mouth of the Dannbe and the 

Berry, a late province of France, bounded on Dniester. On the banks of the last river the 

the norUi bj the Orleanois and Blaisois, east by Tartar inhabitants rove from place to place. Their 

the Nivemois and Bourbonnois, south by tlie common food is the flesh of oxen and horses, 

Bourbonnois and Marche, and west by Touraine cheese, and mares* milk. Bender is the capi* 

and Poitou. It is fertile in com, fruit, hemp, tal. 

and flax; and there is excellent wine in somepla- Bessay, a town of France, in the depaitnient 

ces. It now forms the two departments of Cfher of Allier, 8 m. 8. of Moulins. 

and Indre. fiesM, a town of France, in the department ol 

BerrytkuTgy p.v. Dauphin Co. Pa. 30 m. fr. Har- Puy de Dome, leS m. 8. of Clermont, 

risburg. Btssenay, a town of France, in the department 

BernilOf a town of Italy, in the Modenese, of Rhone, 12 m. W. of Lyons, 

with a ca«tle, seated on tne Po, at the influx of Beftricia, a town of Transylvania, with gold 

the Linza, 10 m. N. N. E. of Parma. mines in its neighbourhood, ft is 85 m. N. W. of 

Bertie, a County of North Carolina, bounded Hermanstadt. Long. 28. 45. E. lat. 47. 30. N. 

on the south by the Roanoke River, and east by Betanxoa, a town of Spain, in Galieia, seated 

Albemarle Sound. Pop. 12^6. Windsor tbe on the Mandeo, at its entrance into the bay of 

chief town, is ld4 m. E. by N. of Raleigh. the AUantic, 20 m. S. of Ferrol. Long. 8. 6. W. 

BettieuTOy a town of Italy, in Romagna, with lat. 43. 20. N. 

a citadel, seated on a hill, la m. 8. of Blvcnna. BeUlfaugi, or Beit-el-fekik, a town of Arabia 

Bertrtmdf St. a town of France, in the depart- Felix, fiunous for the vast quantity of coflte 

ment of Upper Garonne. It was lately an epis- bought and sold in it. It is 25 m. E. of Che Red 

copal see, and is 45 m. 8. of Auch. Long. 0. 48. Sea. Long. 57. 20. E. lat 15. 40. N. 

£. bt. 42. 56. N. Btthabara, a town of North Carolina, in Stokes 

Bervie, or ItuferhervU, a borough of Scotland, Conn^, noted for being the first settlement of 

in Kincardineshire, at the mouth of the Bervie, the Moravians in those parts, begun in 1753. It 

which forms a harbour for small vessels, 12 m. N. is 6 m. N. of Salem. 

£. of Montrose. Pop. 1,092. Betkania, or BefAmy, a village at the foot of 

BenoUk'^upon.' Tweed, a borough on the borders Mount-Olivet, on the east side, where Lazarus 

of England and ScoUand. It was once a strong dwelt, and was raised from the dead ; and where 

fortress, of great importance, when England and Christ appeared among his disdples for the last 

Scotland were hostile nations, to each of which time aAer his crucifixion, it is anout two miles 

it alternately belonged, or was considered aaa dis- to the east of Jerusalem. 

trict separate from both countries. It now be- Bethama, p.t. Stokes Co. N. C. 126 m. N. W. 

longs to the bishopric of Durham, and the En^- Raleigh. This^aoe was settled by the Moraviam. 

lish judges hold the assises here, it is still forti- BeUumy, t. Wayne Co. Pa. 

fied, ana has good barracke for the carrison, but Bethany, ^X. GenesBee Co. N. T 850 m«W. 

its castle is now in ruins. It supplies the Lon- Albany. Fop . 2,374. 

don markets with considerable quantities of sal- ^ Bethd, there are 14 towns of this name in the 
mon, pickled pork, and grain, and has some menu- * U. States ; namely in Me., Vt., Conn., N. T., Pa., 

factuies. Pop. in 1821, 6,723. It returns two and Ohio. 

members to parliament, and is seated on the north Bethlehem, a town of Syria, in Palestine, fa- 
side of the Tweed, near the sea, 54 m. 8. E. of mons for the birth of Chriet. It was once a flour- 
Edinburgh, and 337 N. by W. of London. Long, ishing town, but now an inconsiderable place. 
2. O.W. lat. 55. 46. N. Here is a church erected by the famous Helena, 

Beriosdb,p.tYorkCo.Me.7m.N.W.Tork.Pop. in the form of a cross; also a chapel, called the 

3,168. There are also 3 towns of this name in Pa. Chapel of Natiyity, where they pretend to shew 

Benokkshire, a maritime end the S. £. border the manger in wnich Christ was laid ; another 

county of Scotland. Coldstieam. Greenlaw, called the Chapel of Joseph ; and a third of the 

Danse, and Lauder are the principal towns ; it is Holy Innocents. Bethlehem is much visited by 

an agricuitiural eooniy, and has but few manu- pilerims ; and is seated on a ridge of hiUs, sis 

foctures. miles 8. £. of Jerusalem 

Berwick, Jforth, a borough of Scotland, in Had* Bethlehem, a town of Pennsylvania, in North- 

dington8hire,on tne Frith of Forth, 9 m. N. of Had- ampton County, eituate on the Lehigh, a branch 

diitfton and 28 E.N. £. of Edinburgh. Pop. 1,094. of the Delaware. The town being partly en an 

BemUu,ik town of fipaiiK in Catalonia, seated eminence, and partly on the lower banks o^ the 

near tlie Fluvia, 44 m. N. N. W. of Gerona. Manakes (a fine creek) has a pleassnt and healthy 

BeMibgoB, a fortified city of France, and an situation, and isfieonently visited in summer by 
archiepiscopal see, capital of the department of the gentry from difletent parts. It is the princi- 

Doubs. It has a citadel^ on a high rock, the base pal settlement in America of the Moravians, who 

of which touches two odes of tne Doulw, which were fixed hen by oount ^insendorf, in 1741. 

liere fonns a peninnula; also an universitj^, sn The German language is more in use than the 

academy of sciences, a literary, military society, English ; but divine service is performed in both 

and a public library in the abbey of St. Vincent, languages. It ie 53 m.N. N. W. of Philadelphia. 

The trramphal arcn of Aurelian, and other Ro- Long. 75. 8. W. Ut. 40. 37. N. There are 11 other 

man antiquities, are still to be seen. It is 52 m. towns called Bethlehem, in N. U., Conn., N. T., 

K. of i>ijen, and 228 S. E. of Paris. It has sey- Pa., Va., Geo., CMiio., and Ind. 

<*nl DMiiQfaetnicii. Pop.28;MK). BeAmmt Orem, one of (iit ottt-parinhsy on tkt 

?A ^'i.?^ ^ London, in whack there am aiMMt priiictpalkv af Padarboni, at toa ooiuiuaiioa of CM 
10,000 looooa employed in tbe broad aUk OMnnfito- Beurar and Weaer, 24 m. S. E. of Paderbom. 
^ ,'^^?\™ 1«21, 45,fi76. Be9ertmf€k, a town of North HoUand, on the 

BetJuauia, p. ▼. Jonea Co. Goo. 25 m. W. Mil- Wyckemieor, which oomnninicatea with the .Wye, 

^P!!r' ^_^ , ^ 7 IB. N. of Hariem, and 11 8. by W. of Alc- 

Beihmu, a ibrttfed town of France, in the do- maer. 
pwtment of Fka do Cahaa, with a caaUe. It waa Beuthen, a town of Silena, capital of a lon^diip 

^^ ^TT* "i?"' ™ *''^^' "^ rettored by the of the aame name. It stands near a branch of the 

*^~*^i.^ *'7S^ 'L" ^^ ®° * "^» ^7 ^^ ^«^ ^^ **>« fronliere of Poland, 45 m. E. N. E. 

mw Brette. 120 m. N. of Ptois. of Ratisbon. Long. 18. 58. E. lat. 50. 21. N. 

-Be««y, a toiji m Staffordahire, Eng. 18 m. N. Beuthen, a town of SHesU, in the principality 

£•• Stafford, and 157 of London. Pop. of Carolaih, on the river Oder, 18 m. N. W. Glo- 

"*• can. 

B4itis, a town of European Turkey, formerly BeicdUy^ a borough in Worceaterahire, Eng 

the capital of Curdiatan. Itia now the residence It has a good trade in malt, leather, aalt and 

of a bey, who is neither subject to the Turks nor iron ware ; and a free school founded by James I. 

Persians, and has a numerous army of horsemen It i* seated, on the Severn, 14 m. N. of Worcester 

and infantry. It stands on the Khabur, between and 129 N. W. of London. It returns one mem- 

iwo mountains, 150 m. N. N. W. of Altuukupri. her to parliament. Pop. in 1821, 3,720 
Long. 43. 20. E. lat. 37. 20. N. Btx, a town of Switaerland, m the canton of 

BeUenMusen, a'populous village of the county Bern, noted for its salt rocks, 4^ m. 8. W. of Bern. 

^. Henneberg, Saxony, six miles west of t^--~ »— * — - -'^- -^ " . .» , - 
ungen ; it has considerable manufactures 

•^v ., . -w^ , . _ ■• circus, and' some' inscriptions, bespeak ita an- 

BetUak, a town of Hindooetan, in Bahar, 85 m. cient grandeur. It is seated near the royal ca-' 

N. N. W. of Patna. nal, on a hill, at the foot of which flows the Obre, 

Betzkoj a considerable town of Lower Hungary, a few miles from the sea, 85 m. E. by 8. of Toul- 

situate on the east bank of the Waag River, a few ouse, and 30 8. W. of Montpelier. Lonir 3 12 

miles south of Trentsehin. E. lat. 43. 20. N, Pop. 12-500? 

Betuwe, an island of Holland, in Guelderland, BAof^on^, a considerable town of Nepaul, about 

40 miles long and 10 broad, formed by the bifurca- eight miles E. bv 8. of the capital, Catmandoo ; 

tion of the Hhine above Nimeguen, and by the it is the principal residence of the chief Brahmin 

union of ita streams, under different appellations, of Nepaul. Pop. about 7,000. 

near Worcum. It was the ancient Batavia, ana Bhurtpore, a town and fortress of Hindooatan, 

firmerly gave the name of Bataveeren, or Batavi- in the province of Agra. The British took it by 

ans, to the inhabitants of the Dutch Netherlands, storm, in 1805. Is it 38 m. W. of Agra. 

In this island the ancestors of the present race first Biafra, a country of Guinea, to the 8. E. of 

spttledj when they emigrated from Germany. Benin, of which Ltlle is known; but is said to 

The principal place is Nimeguen. have a capital of the same name, on the river 

Bndaj t. Cambria Co. Pa. 58 m. E. Pittsburg. Camerones. which enters ths Atlantic in long. 11. 

Bcteeum. a town of the Netherlands, in Brabant, 30. E. lat. 3. 28. N. 

10 m. S. or Louvain. ^ Biala, a town of Gallicia, on the frontiers of 

BeDtland, Jforth and SatUhy two islands of Hoi- Silesia, opposite to Bilitz ; it participates in the 

land, in Zealand, between the east and west branch- linen manufacture of the district. Pop. about 

ea of the Scheldt. They were occupied by the 2,300. It is the name of three other sntaU towns 

English at the period of their disastrous expedi- in different parta of Germany, 

tion to Waicheren in 1809. Bialystock, a considerable town of Russian Po- 

Bevergem, a town of Westphalia, in the princi- land, seated on the Biala, a branch of the Vistula 

oality of Munster, on the river Ems, 5 m. N. River, 15 m. E. of Wilna. 

W . of Tecklenburgh. Biar, a town of Spain, in Valencia. Its principal 

Beveren, a populous town of the Netherlands, riches consists in honey, celebrated for its white- 

5 m. N. N. £. of Oudenarde. nessaad solidity, which is not affected by weather. 

£«rer/«3f, a borough in East Yorkshire, Eng. It is 6 m. fit>m Vilena, 
It has two churches, besides the Minster ; and a Bibb, a county of Alabama. Pop. 6,305. Gen- 
large marketr place, adorned with a beautiful cross, treville, 112 m. N. by E. of Cahawba, is the seat 
The chief trade is malt, oatmeal, and tanned lea- of judicature for the county. 
ther. It is famous for being toe retirement of Biberaeh, a town of Suabia, with a mann&c- 
John de Beverlev, archbishop of York, who lived ture of fustians, seated in a fertile valley, on the 
here four years, built a monastery, and died in Reuss, 20 m. 8. 8. W.of Ulm. Pop. about 4,500 
1211 ; in honour of whom several kings, particu It now belongs to Wurtemburg. 
laxly Athelstan, who chose him guardian saint, en- Bibra, a town of Upper Saxony, in Thurinjp^ 
dowed the place with manv privileges and immu- muoh frequented on account of its mineral spring 
nities. It is seated near the river Hull, 28 m. £. It is 9 m. 8. of Querfurt. « 

by S. of York, and 183 N. of London. It returns Btchester. a town in Oxfordshire, Eng. 11 m. 

two members to parliament. Pop. in 1821, 7,503. N. N. E. of Oxford, and 54 W. b^ N. of London 

BcverlujD.i. Essex Co. Mass. is a seaport, and on the mail coach road to Leamington and War 

separated from Salem by an inlet which is crossed wick. Pop. 2,544. 

bv a bridge. This town was formerly a part of '^BUkatuer, a town of Hindoostan. capital of a 

fitelem. It if pleasantly situated and has consid-> cicar, in the country of Ajnmere. It is ^ m. W. 

erable commerce and fishing business. Pop. 4,079. of Nagore. Long. 74. 0. E. lat. 27. 12. N. 

Beverly, p.v. the seat of iustice of Randolph Co. BidaclUf a town of France, in the departmegft 

▼a. on the E. branch of t&e Monongahela, 250 m. of Lower Pyrenees, with a oaistle, seated on tibs 

N. W. Richmond Bidouse, 12 m. E. of Bavonne. Pop. about 2^. 

Bt9enmgm^ a town of Wactphalia, in thia JBmImm*, a river of Spun, which zi«M is tlM 


Pjreneea, and enten the Bay of Biicay , at Fob- with the rains of a eoOgnmlto church, 10 m. 8. E 
tarabla. This river wai a long time a snhieet of of Caniwarth. Pop. 1,727. 
dispute between France and Spain, hot it is now Biggluwadt^ a town of Bedfordshire, Eng. seat- 
common between the two nations ; the duties paid ed on the iTel, 10 m. £. 8. E. of Bedford, and 45 
by those who pass from Spain to France belong- N. N. W. of London. Fop. 2,778. 
ing to the latter, and by those who pass the con- Bigorre, a late prorinoe of France, bonnded on 
trary way to the former. the north by Armagnac,east br Comminges, west 

Hidburtr^ a town of Netherlands, in tlie dnchy by Beam, and south by the Pyrenees. See Ff- 

of Luxemburg, 30 m. N. N. £. of Luxemburg. reuses Upper. 

Biddrfbrd, a seaport of England, in Devonshire. Bigkmm^ a river of the Missouri territory, North 

It has a tracte in coal, culm, timber, and oak bark, America, rising from the Rockv Mountains in the 

also in the herring and Newfoundland fisheries, lat. of about 41. N. runs nortn into the Yellow 

and builds and owns a considerable burthen of Stone which falls into the Missouri in the lat. of 

shipping. A great quanti^ of Welsh lime-stone 48. N. It is represented as flowing through a 

is burned here ; and there is a large pottery. It fertile, but at present an uninhabited country, 

is seated on both sides of the Torridge, over Big Sandy^ a river which divides the state of 

which is an ancient Gothic bridge of 24 arches, Virjginia from that of Kentucky, falling into the 

16 m S. by W. of Ilfracomb, ana201 W. of Lon- Ohio, opposite Burlington, in Lawrence county, 

don. Pop. in 1821 , 4,053. stote of Ohio. 

Biddefordf a seaport of York Co. Me. The Bij^bay p.v. Johnson Co. 111. 

County courts are sometimes held here. It is sit- Btg Bone lick, a small river in Woq^ord Co. 

uateonthesea-coast, at themouthof the Saco, 14 Ken., where numbers of enormous bones have 

m. S. S. W. of Portland. Pop. 1,995. Long, 70. been found. 

35. W. lat. 43. 26. N. Biguba, a kingdom on the west coast of Africa. 

Bidxifur, a town of Hindoostan, in Allahabad, watered by the Rio Grande. The capital is of 

with a tort on a steep and lofty rock, 50 m. S. of the same name, seated on the north bank of the 

Benares. river, about 100 miles from its mouth. Long 

Biedenkopf, a town of the grand duchy of Hesse, 13. 50. W. lat. 11. 12. N. 

situate on tne north bank of the Lahn, near its Big Walnytf r. an easterly branch of the Sciote 

source, 15 m. N. W. of Marburg. in Onio. 

BieeZf a town of Poland, in Cracowia, remarka- Bihar, a county of Upper Hungazy, bordering 

ble for its mines of vitriol; seated on the Wese- on Transvlvania. It is mtersected by the Korosn 

loke, 50 m. S. E. of Cracow. river. Groswarden u the capital. The east part 

Biel or Biamef a town of Switzerland, capital is mountainous, and inhabited by Wallachiaas. 

of a small territory, lately subject to the bishop Pop. about 223,000, chiefly Hungarians, 

of Basil. It stands near a lake of the same name, BihaiZj a town in Croatia, on the frontiers of 

on the river Suss, 17 m. N. W. of Bern. Bosnia, seated on an isle formed by the river 

Biela, a town of Piedmont, and capital of &prov- Unna, 65 m. S. E. of Carlstadt. Long. 16. 32. E. 

ince of the same name, bounded on the W. by lat. 44. 51. N. 

Aoust. The town is situate near the river Cerva, BUbaOf a city and seaport of Spain, capital of 

24 m. W. of Vercelli. Pop. about 8,300. Biscay. The upper part is built mostly of wood, 

^ BielaWf a populous town of Silesia, with con- and has narrow streets, which temunate in a 

siderable manufactures of linen and cotton, 15 great square ; the lower part is of freestone and 

m. east of Buntzlaw. Pop. about 7,000. brick, with fine broad streets. The houses are 

Bielfdd, a town of Westphalia, in the county rather high, and fully inhabited. The principal 

of Ravensberg. The linen made and bleached exports are wool, oil, chesnuts, sword-blades, and 

here is much esteemed. It is 18 m. north of Lip- other manufactures in iron and steel. It is seat- 

stadt. Pop. about. 5,500. ed in a fertile country, on the banks of the Du- 

Bielgorodf a town of Russia, in the government range river, which forms a good harbour near the 

of Kursk, and an archbishop's see, 80 m. S. S. W. Bay of Biscay, 50 m. W. of St. Sebastian, and 

of Kursk. Pop. about 10,000. 72 1-2 leagues N. of Madrid, by way of Aranda, 

Bielgorod, or ^kermun, a strong town of Euro- and 88 by way of Valladolid and Segovia. Long. 

g;an Turkey m Bessarabia, on Uie coast of the 2. 44. W. lat 43. 14. N. 

lack Sea. at the mouth of the Dniester, 70 m. BUdeston, a town in Snfiblk, Eng. seated on 

S. S. £. of Bender. Lon^. 31. 15. E. lat 46. 8. N. the river Breton, 12 m. 8. E. of Bury, and 63 N. 

Bislaif a town of Russia, in the government of E. of London. It has two fairs annually. Pop. 836. 

Smolensk, 60 m. N. E. of Smolensk. BiUdtdgerid, a country of Barbary, bounded 



same distance E. of St, Petersburgh. Pop. about mountainous and sandv, producing little susten- 

3}000. ance, except dates, which are ezchaiLged with the 

Bielskf a town of Prussian Poland, capital of neighbouring countries for wheat. The inhabit- 

Podiakia, seated on the Biala, one of the sources of ants are deemed lewd, treacherous, thievish, and 

the Vistula, 130 m. E. N. E. of Warsaw. Long, cruel. They are a mixture of ancient Africans 

23. 39. E. lat. 52. 40. N. and wild Arabs ; the former living in towns and 

BtsitvsAtc, a bayou in the Parish of Orleans, the latter in tents. 

Lon. running E. into Lake Boigne. Bythischan- BUm, a town of Bohemia, in the south-west 

nel the British army reached the Mississippi in part of the circle of Leutmerits, near a mountain 

Dec. 1814 when marching upon New Orleans. of its name, 17 m. W. of Leutmeritz. 

BisrpUet, a town of the Netherlands, in Flan- BtKte, a town of Silesia, with a castle, and 

ders, situate on the West Scheldt, and on a small oonsidersble manu^ture of doth ; situate on the 

island of its name, 20 m. N. N. W. of Ghent. Biala. on the verge of Poland, 18 m. E. N. E. of 

Biggm, a town of Scotland, in Iianarkshire, Tesehtn. Pop. aSrat S^400. 



BUUrieay, a town in Essex, Eng. seated ^n a 
hill, 9 m. 3. W. of Chelmsford, and 23 E. of Lon- 
don. Pop. about i;200. 

BiQesdin, a town in Leicestershire, 'Eng. 8 m. 
N. of Leicester, and 93 N. bj W. of London. Pop. 

BiUom, a town of France, in the department of 
Pay de Dome, seated on an eminence, 15 m. £. S. 
E. of Clermont. Pop. 5,S00. 

BUmah, a vast burning desert of Africa, be- 
tween Fezzan and Bornou, which caravans are 
ten days in passing'. 

BUsahy a town of Hindoostan, in Malwa, capital 
of a circar, noted for producing excellent tobacco. 
It is situate near the source of the Betwa river, 
120 m. E. ofOugein. 

BUsen, a town of the Netherlands, in the terri- 
tory of Liege. Near it is Munster Bilsen, a cele- 
brated temporal foundation and abbey for noble 
ladies. It is situate on the Demer, 15 m. N. N. 
W. of Liege. Pop. about 2,000. 

BilstetJij a town of Germany, in the duchy of 
Westphalia, situate on a mountain, 24 m. S. a. £. 
of Arensburg. 

BUstonf a l&rge Tillage in Staffordshire, Eng. 
2 m. S. E. of Wolverhampton. It has a naviga- 
ble canal, communicating with the Staffi)rdshire 
and Worcestershire canals, and several great riv- 
ers. Near it are large mines of coal, iron-stone, 
&c. also furnaces, forges, and slitting mills ; and 
manufactures of japanned and enamelled goods. 
Pop. in 1821, 12,003. 

Biminif one of the Bahama islands, near the 
channel of Bahama, 8 miles long, and nearly as 
many broad. It has a good harbour. Long. 79. 
30. W. lat. 25. 0. N. 

Bhnlepatam, a town of Hindoostan, on the 
coast of the Circars, 12 m. N. of Vizigapatam. * 

BinaroSy or Vinaros, a town of Spain, in Valen- 
cia, seated near the Mediterranean, at the mouth 
of a river, which forma a small harbour, 7 m. N. 
by E. of reniscola, and 23 S. of Torsosa. 

Bineky a fortified town of the Netherlands, in 
Hainault, on the river Haye, 9 m. E. of Mons. 
Pop. 3,800. 

BinehesteTy a village in the county of Durham, 
Eng. on the river Wear, near Durham. By 
several inscriptions and monuments, it appears to 
have been the Roman Vinovium ; and many Ro- 
man coins have been dug up here. 

Bingaziy a town of Barbarv, in Barbaca, with 
a harbour for small vessels, 3o m. S. W. of Tolo- 

Bingeuy a town of Germany, seated at the con- 
fluence of the Nahe with the Rhine, 15 m. 
S. of Mentz. Pop. 2,700. 

Bingenheim, a town of Germany, in the circle 
of Upper Rhine, 16 m. N. N. E. of'^Frankfort. 

Binghaniy a town in Nottinghamshire, Eng. in 
the vfle of Belvoir, 9 m. E. of Nottinoham, and 
124 N. by W. of London. Pop. 1,574. 

Binghamy t. Somerset Co. Me. Pop. 538. 

Bh^eyy a town in West Yorkshire, Eng. seat- 
ed on the Aire, 14 m. S. E. of Skipton, and 202 
N. N. W. of London. Pop. in 1821, 6,1 7G. 

Biobio, the largest river of Chile, which rises 
in the Andes, runs through veins of gold, and 
fields of sarsaparilla, and passing the city of Con- 
ee^ion, enters the Pacific Ocean, in lat. 36. 55. S. 
It 18 the boundary between Chile, and the coun- 
try of the Araucan Indians. 

Biom^urgy a town of Russian Finland, near 
the mouth of the Kune, in the Gulf of Bothnia, 
75 m. N. of Abo. Long. 22. 5. £. lat. 61. 42. N. 


Btr, El-Biry.Beery or Biredgiky a town of Asi- 
atic Turkey, in Diarbeck, with a castle. It stands 
on the east bank of the Euphrates, near a high 
mountain, in a fruitful country, 60 m. N. E. of 

Btrboaniy a town of Hindoostan, in Bengal, 66 
m. W. S. W. of Moorshedabad, and 115 N. N 
W. of Calcutta. 

Bird FsUmdSy there are a dozen islands and clus* 
ters of islands in different parts of the world, cal- 
led Bird Islands, mostly uninhabited, except by 
birds, from which they have been named. Tlie 
most considerable group is in the Carribean Sea, 
E. of Curacao. 

Birdshorougky p.v. Berks Co. Pa. on the Schuyl 
kill, 8 m. below Reading. 

Birdsvillcy p.v. Burke Co. Geo. 48 m. S. E. 

Birkenfeldy a town of Germany, in the county 
of Spanheim, in the circle of Upper Rhine ; seat- 
ed near the source of the river Nahe, 25 m. £. S. 
E. of Treves. It is distinguished for its cattle 

Birmahy an extensive empire in Asia, to the 
east of the Bay of Bengal ; containing Uie king- 
doms of Birmui, Cassay, Aracan, and Pegu, and 
all the west coast of Siam, to the promontory of 
Malay, extending fVom the 10th to the 24th deg. 
of N. lat. The kingdom of Birmahy frequentlV 
called Ava, from the name of its ancient capital, 
has Pegu on the south, and occupies both sides of 
the river Irrawaddy, or Errabatty, to the frontiers 
of Assam on the north ; on the west it has Am- 
can and Cassay, and on the east China and Upper 
Siam. This kingdom was conquered in 1752, by 
the kin^ of Pegu, who carried the Birman mon- 
arch pnsoner to Pegu, and caused him to be mur- 
dered there in 1754; but Alompra, a Birman of 
low distinction, who was continued by the con- 

aueror as chief at Monchaban, a small place to 
ie north of Ava, revolted against the Peguese, 
fot possession of Ava in 1755, and after continued 
attlen, with various success, became the conquer- 
or of Pegu, in 1757. This deliverer of his coun- 
try continued in a state of warfare to his death, in 
1760 ; and his successors have since added the 
other countries, which now form the Birman Em- 
pire. The climate of Birmah is very salubrious ; 
the seasons being regular, and the extremes of 
heat and cold seldom experienced. The soil is 
remarkably fertile, producing rice, su^ar canes, 
tobacco, indigo, cotton, and all the tropical fruits 
in perfection ; and on the banks of the Irrawaddy, 
which runs south Uirough the whole country, is 
produced pure amber, and the finest teak timber in 
the world. The kingdom of Birmah abounds in 
minerals ; it has mines of gold, silver, rubies, and 
sapphires ; and affords amethysts, garnets, chrys- 
olites, jasper, load-stone, and marble. The gene- 
ral disposition of the Birmans is strikingly con- 
trasted with that of the natives of Hindoostan, 
though separated only by a narrow ridge of moun- 
tains, in several places admittinor of an easy inter- 
course. The Birmans are a fivelv, inquisitive 
race, active, irascible, and impatient ; but the 
character of their Bengal neighbours is known to 
be the reverse. The passion of jealousy which 
prompts most eastern nations to immure their 
women, and surround them with guards, seems to 
have little influence on the minds of the Birmans; 
for their wives and daughters have as free inter- 
course with the other sex as the rules of Euro- 
pean society admit. The Birmans are extremely 
fond both of poetry and music. Their religion ia^ 


ia &at, that of the Hindooi, thoojrii tbey am not 
votaiiea of Bnuno,, but aectaricB ofBoodh. Thtix 
jariipnidenca U distinguiihed Kbove Uidt of uij 

olIicT Hindoo I 
K monarch, nnd 

iinanity for pertpieuity and 
mpiTor of BirmaJi is a d*»pot- 
■.f Ihe aoverelgn of Chinn bc- 

rt ii piide. There 

hereditKij digniliei oi emplayments in thii goT- 
emment. for Si honour* uid officwa, on the demise 
of the the poMKBBOr, revert to the crown. Tha 
capital «M (ormeTly Ummeiapoora, but this city 
■8 now deserted, and the old capital Ava rebuilt. 
Tlie chief seaport is Rangoon. 

Birmingliata, a larfp, inland, popu Ions and im- 
portant town of En^Tsjiil, in WarwickBhire, bor- 
dering on the counliei of Worceatf r and Stafford. 
It is a place of great antiquity, and has long been 
celebrated for its worka in every kind of metal, 
and the manufacture of hardware, Gre-arma, cut- 
lery, japanned ware*, and trinkets. I'lte era of 
ils pro-eminenoa however ia comparatively recent, 
ils commencement may be dated subsequent to 
Ihe war ofJTTG— 1783; since when it has mora 
than doubled in eileut and population. The 
number of its inhabitants, inoluding Alton, imme- 
diately contigiioua, in 1801 was 72,532, and in 1821 
106,723, and the adjacent country, on the borders 
of the counties of BtaSbrd and Worcester, contains 
from 80,000 to 100,000 persons more, chiefly occu- 
pied in the manufacture of articles brought to Bir- 
mingham, for sale and distribution. The StaObrd- 
■hire border abounds in iron and coal of the Gnest 
quality, which contributes essentially to tlieeicet- 
Icneeandftcilily of most of it* manufactures. The 
town is considered peculiarly healthy, the chief 
partbeingbuilt along the ridge of a hill, having 
a dry, sandy soil- Tne streets are regular, and 
the buildings spacious. The church ofSt. Philip, 
boilt in 1711, is a stately and fine edifice, and 
since 1800 two other churches have been built, 
both equally bandsonie. It has several sectarian 
meeting honses, a well^endowerf public school, 

handsome theatre, i 

The perspective of the town, especially on the 
teaat aide, is very imposing, and independent of 
ils innate importance, being nearly in the centre 
of the kingdom, it is a place of vast intercourse. 
It has a canal basin at its hiehesC level, from 
whence outs diverge in every direction, and by 
which the manufactures of the district are con- 
veyed to all the ports of the kingdom, for distri- 
butionovereverypartofthehabitableglobe. The 
surrounding country ii very ftrtiie, and ita mark- 
_. !_ ■_ exceedingly well supplied 

Filh all the e 

irporated town, and, i 

' importance, has at 

parliament, thoush this evil 
will probably be soon removed. It u governed 
by two bailiffs and two constables, and there are 
several resident mngistrates who are chosen an- 
nually from the most respectsble part of the com- 
munitv. In 1C43 Birmingham was besieged and 
taken by prince Rupert, and ordered to be burnt 
to tlie ground, but, owing to some propitious cir- 
cumstances, the conflagration did very little dam- 
age. In 1065, or IGUfi, the town suffered severe- 
ly from the plague. It began shortly afler this 
period to be considerably enlarged, though in 1700 
It consisted of only 31) streeU, wiierBaa there are 
now upwards of 300. It is 109 m. N. N. Vf. of 
London, by way of Coventry or Warwick, &odi 
each of which it is distant IS m. and 116 by way 
of Oxford, from wliich it is distant 58 m. 

There are 3 towns in Pennsylvania by tha 
name of Birmingham, 

Binum, a hilfof 9cotland, in Parthshire, cele- 
brated by Shakspeare in his Macbeth, 1580 feet 
above the level of the sea. It wa* anciently ft 
forest and part of the Royal domain of Scotland. 

Binm, a town of France, department <^ Dor- 
dogne, 73 miles E. of Bordeaux. 

Siron, a town in the departmsnt of Lower 
Charenle, 13 m 8. E. of Sainlea. 

BijT,f. parish and town of Ireland, in King'* 
county, near the borders of Tipperary, The town 
is sometimes called Famns Town : it is 34 m. 
N.E. of Limerick, and 34 N.N. W.of Kilkenny. 
Pop. in IBSl, 5,406 ; and tlis parish 2,972 more. 

Birte, a town of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, 
seated on the Dee, 98 m. West of Aberdeen. Pop. 

Birliev, a village in the county of Dnrham, Eng. 
10 m. N. of Durham, Pop. in 1821, 1,386. There 
is a village of the same name in Northumberland, 
having a salt spring, at which great quantities of 
salt were fonnerly made. 

Birnusca, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, 13 
ra. N, of Burgos. 

fitria, a town of Poland, in Bomogitia, 43 miles 
S. E. of MitUu. 

Biaaccia, a town of Naples in PrincipatO Ult«- 
riore, 15m. N. E. ofConia. 

BtKora, a town of Algiers, in the province 
of Conslantina, anil the chief place of the dis- 
iHct of Zaab. It is an ancient town, 130 m. S, S. 
W. of Conslantina. Long. 5. 12. W. lat. 33. 35. N. 

Biscay, a maritime proviikce on the N. coast of 
Spain, extending &om the Bidassoa, which di- 
vides Spain from France in the long, of 1. 40. W. 
to Santona, in 3. 18. W. lying on the shore of 
of the Bay of Biscay, nearly in a straight line, in 
the lat, of 43. 20, tf. extending inland, in nearly 
a pyramidal form, to Logrono, m Old Castile ; its 
area being 248 snusre leagues, and in 181(1 con- 
tained a pop. of 283,450. It is bonnded on the 
W. by Asturias and Old CaJtile, and E, by the 
Navarre. The river Ebro, which runa B. into the 
Mediterranean, rises nearly in the centre of the 
province, and afterwards forms part of its west- 
ern boundary. It is divided into three parts via. 
Alava, S, containing 90 leagues of area, and 67,523 
of the pop. chief town Vittoria ; Guipuscoa, E, 
conlaining 52 leagues of area, and 104,491 of pop. 
chief town St, Sebastian ; this, it will be per- 
ceived, is the most popalons part; Biscay Proper, 
on the W. containing 106 leagues of area, and 111,- 
438 of pop. chief town Bilbao. The oonnbry i« in 


■ome puts mountainoiifl, but w»n coT«red with s market on Friday, much frequented by the 

wood, and yielding abundance of iron and lead. Welch. It is seated near the River Clun, 8 miles 

The plains and vaueys are well cultivated, yield- £. of Montgomery, and 159 W. N. W. of London. 

ing aunple supplies of all that is essential to the It returns two members to Parliament. Pop. in 

comfort of the inhabitants. The Biscayans are a 1821, 1,880. Voters about 180. 

brave choleric people, possessing a character and BishopsmUe, p.v. Sumpter Dis. 8. C. 00 m. S 

speaking a language distinct from that of every E. Columbia. 

other part of Spain ; and through all the mutations * * There are about 36 other towns and villages 

to which Spain has been exposed during aperiod with Bishop or Bishops prefixed to their names 

of 2000 years, by the irruptions of Romans, Cfartha- in different parts of England. 

ginians. Moors, d&c. Biscay has retained its an- Bissigano, a town or Naples, in Calabria Cite- 

cient Cantabrian laws and independence, and at riore, with a castle : seated on a hill near the 

the present time forms an independent republic river Boccona, 16 m. N. of Cosenza. 

under the protection of Spain, rattier than an integ- BisUu^ a village in Gloucestershire, Eng. 3 m 

ral part ot the kingdom. It admits a corregidor S. E. of Stroud. It has a large church standing 

and commissary appointed by the crown, but on an eminence. Pop. in 1^1, 5,421, much em- 

permits no taxes to oe levied without the sanction ployed in the woolen manu&cture. 

of the province, and yields none to the crown but aisnaguVy or BijnaguTj a town of Hindoostan, in 

as gratuitous donations, and sanctions no title of the country of Sanore. It was the capital of the 

the king but that of lord. ancient kingdom of Narsinga, and tormerly a 

Biscay^ Bay of, a large bay of the Atlantic large city. It is seated on the 8. bank of the 

Ocean ; formed by the Isle of Ushant, N. in lat. Toombudra, ^ m. S. S. E. of Sanore, and 106 

48. 22. N. and Cape Ortega! S. in lat. 43. 47. N. N. by W. of Chitteldroog. Long. 76. 0. E. lat. 15. 

and 7. 14. W. long, washing the N. coast of 20. N. 

Spain, from Cape Ortegal to St. Jean de Luz, in Bisnte, a town of Bootan, capital of a district 

lat. 42. 23 N. and the W. coast of France, on a on the borders of Bengal and Assam. It is 50 m. 

line of longitude from St. Jean de Luz, in 1.40. E. N. E. of Rangamutty. and 130 S. £. of Tas- 

to Ushant m 5. 3. W. During a prevalence of sasudon. Long. 90. 45. E. lat. 26. 27. N. 

westerly winds, the swell of the Atlantic Ocean BissagoSf or B^ugaa, a cduster of islands and 

sets into this Bay, and renders the approach to shoals on the W. coast of Africa. The largest, 

the British channel by vessels from the S. and called Bissago, is 8M) m. in circuit, inhabited by 

8. W. exceedingly difficult, and if the gfales Portuguese and Negroes, and well cultivated. Its 

are powerful, quite impossible, until they subside ; N. end b opposite Uie mouth of the Rio Grande, 

there being however, plenty of sea-room, it is a Lon^. 15. 10. W. lat. 10. 58. N. ^ ^ 

position or tediousness and labour, rather than ^tssimopur, a town of Hindoostan, capital of a 

of danger. oirear in Bengal, 74 m. N. W. of Calcutta. 

BUeaVy JfeWj a name given b^ the Spaniards to Bistriez, a populous town in the N. E. part of 

a part of the W. coast of Mexico ; now incorpo- Transylvania, on the River Bistrics, 142 m. N. 

rated with the intendency of Sonora, Durango, E. of Coloswar. — also the name of another town 

and Guadalaxara (all of which see.) in the circle of Prerau, Moravia, 

Bischofsteinf a town of Prussia Proper, about Bitchsj a fortified town of France, in the depart- 

50 m. S. of Konigsberg, and 5 S. E. of Heilsburg. ment of Moselle, with a castle on a rock. It is 

Bi«eAiy/kAs£m,a town ofthe duchy of Wurtzburg, seated at the foot of a mountain near the river 

seated on the Tauber, 20 m. 8. S. W. of Wurtx- Schwelb, 30 m. N. by W. of Straaburg. Pop. 

burg. — Another seated on the Rhom, 44 m. N. by 2,300. 

E. of Wurtzburg. Bitehen. See PUsehai. 

Bisekofslack, a town of Upper Camiola, with a BittetOf a town of Naples, in Terra di Bari, 11 

good trade in linen and worsted, 17 m. W. by N. m. S. S. W. of Bari. 

of Laybach. Bitono. a town of Naples, in Terra di Bari, 10 m 

Biaehofnoerda, a town of Upper Saxony, in Mis- W. S. W. of Bari. 

nia, seated on the Weiseritz, Id m. E. of Dresden. BiUerfeld, a town of the kingdom of Saxony, 

BuckofnoerdeTf a town of Prussia, in the prov- seated on the Mulda, 14 m. 8. of Dessau. 

Ince of Oberland, on the river Oss, 28 m. N. E. of BlnekhirHf an extensive parish and town in the 

Culm. centre of the county of Lancaster, England, in- 

Buekofzdl, a town of Switzerland, inThurgau, tersected by the Leeds and Liverpool canal. It 

with a castle ; seated at the confluence of the is divided into 23 townships, and in 1821, contain- 

Sittur and Thur, 12 m. south of Constance. ed a population of 53,350, chiefly enmloyed in the 

*,* There are several other towns prefixed by various branches of the cotton manuncture. Parts 

BisclufSf in different parts of Germany. of the parish are bleak and dreary, but it is part- 

BisegUa, a town of Naples in Terra di Bari. on ly situate on the great ooal strata, which supplies 

m hill, near the shore of the Adriatic, 6 m. E. of abundance of fuel. The town of Blackburn is 

W. Trani. Pop. 10,600. seated in a valley, on both sides of a stream call- 

Biseria^ Bizerta, or Binxert, a seaport of the ed the Derwent, over which there are four bridges, 

kingdom of Tunis, in a country abounding with and it is skirted by the Lieeds and Liverpool canal, 

com, fruit, oil, cotton, and other valuable produc- Next to Manchester, it is one of the principal 

lions. It stands on a canal, which communi- focuses of that wide occupation, the cotton man- 

eates with a gulf of the Mediterranean, 37 m. N. ufacture, there being about a dozen laree establish- 

of Tunis. Long. 9. 79. E. lat. 37. 20. N. * menU for spinning, forty more largelv occupied 

BisentZfK town of Moravia, near the frontier in the manufacture of calicoes, twenty large estab- 

of Hungary, 15 m. 8. W of Haradish. Pop. about lishments for printing of ditto, with all the attend- 

2,600. ant occupations of bleaching, dyeing, iron found- 

BiMkopw-Aueldand, Stortford, Waltham, and ing and machine and reed making. It has three 

Wearmouth. See JhuMand, &Jt. public breweries. In 1821 it contained 21^10 of 

JKs*ops-«Mfle» a borough in Shropshire, with the above population. 12 m. 8. of Preston 

■ndSSN. W.aTHuisheBleT. U hua &ee grun- 
mu ■chool, wilh an endowment of >bout £150 
- par um. and b1» a female cbuity school, witli 
nearlj ■ limilai endowment ; four churchea, two 
of them haadwme, and aeveral meetiag-hoiuea. 

Blatk FaresI, a mounlainous and woody district 
of Germany, part of the ancipnt Hercyniui Foreal, 
eitending M, from the frontiereof Switicrland, 
fbr aboul 100 m. parallel with the N. course of 
the Rhine. The principal part liee within the 
territory of the Duchy of Baden, bordering on 
Bavuria, the N. part running into the terrilorjf of 
Wurlemburg. It ii in some places rich in iron 
and other metaln, and its wood it verv valuable 
(U well for fuel as for building both of faoutcs and 
I'MieU for navigating (he Rhine. 

Blackheath, an elevated and epacioui pinin, tlie 
»»c»ntlowhichi»5ra. E. of London nrhlgf. I( 
'.A partly in the pariih of Greenwich, and llie up- 
per part of the park ofthe hospital of Greenwich 
IS part of the plain. It ii intersected by the great 
liigh road from London to Dover, and is celebni- 
led in several periods of English history. The 
Danes encamped upon it in 1013. In lilOO the 
celebrated Wat Tyler assembled 100,000 men 

fered to his daughter by a pctly tai-gattierer at 
Darlford. In U50, Jack Cade nesembled his 
forces on the same spoil and in )4'.IT, it was the 
scene of a contest between Henry VII, and Lord 
Andley. It isiurroundedby detached haUBCi,and 
ranges of handsome buildings, residences of some 
o( me more opulent cla>^<es connected wilh the 
IS of London. Il commands some tins 

'ir^o si^' 

stone canal extending from WorcMler to ProTi* 

deuce, «3 miles. It contains 4H locks baUt of 
hammered stone, and is 34 feet wide at (he sur- 
face and i feet deep. It was built at a cost of 600, 
000 dollars and finished in laaa. The navigaliwi 


ofthe ascent from London is a 
of seven targe moms, which communicate by 
■rcbed avenues ; (he sides and roofs of rocks of 
Chalk ; and it has a well of cleat water, 27 feet 

£atk Laie, a river of Louisiana rising in the N. 
W. expanding into a wide sheet of water and 
flowing into the Salme. 

Blatk Uck, t. Indiana Co. Pa. 

BUdauit-aaUe, a fort of Scotland, in Linlith- 
gowshire, built on a kind of peninsula on the frith 
ofForth,9m, N. E.ofLinlithaow. llconsistsof 
four bastiona, and is one of ue foils which, by 
the anides of mnion, are to be kept in repair. 

Blaclipool, a village in Lancashire, Eng. H m. 
W. of Poultoo, muS resorted (o for sea-bathing. 

Black RivtT the name of several rivers in dif- 
ferent parts of the world. Isl. In the county of 
Hajo, Ireland, falling into I.ake Mask. 2nd. In 
the S. W. part of the island of Jamaica, foiling 
into the Caribean Sea. 3rd. In Upper Canada, 
ftUing into Black Bay, Lake Superior, 4tb. In 
Orleans county, Vermont, falUog into Lake Mem- 

Ebremagog. 5(h. In Windsor conntr, ditto, fal- 
ng into uie Connecticut, Gth, In Virginia, fai- 
ling into the Nottoway, on the frontiera of N. Car- 
olina. 7th. Interaecting Darlington district, S. 
Carolina, falling into the great Pedee. 8th. Fal- 

3 into Lake Michigan, towards the 3. E. «nd ; 
several others, but alt inconsiderable. 
Blatk Rock, p.v, Erie Co. N. T. on Lake Erie 
4 m. N. Buffalo. It is a small village with a har- 
bour artificially improved by a pier. The seams 
and patches of dark coloured chert in the lime- 
stone hero have given its name to this place. 

of Massachusetta finds by lU means a re 
ket in the commercial c ty of Providence 

UlacktbuTg p V Montgomery Co \ a 217 m 
B. W. Richmond. 

Blatkaburg, and BlatJitrriUt, 2 towns onlha riv- 
er Alabama in Monroe Co. Alab. 

Blatk Sea. See Eiediu. 

Blarkicall, a suburb of London, sitmte in a nook 
at the a. E. eitremity of the county of Middlesex. 
Il is bounded on the E. by the river Lea, which 
divides it from the county of Essex, at its junc- 
tion with (he Thames, which fi^m Blackwall to- 
wards London Bridge, makes > considerable detour, 
the distance by Uie course of the river being about 
10 miles, snd more than double the distance of the 
meridional line. This has led to the construction 
of a tide canal, nearly a mile in length, for ships 
of 600 to 800 tons burthen, Bcrom the isthmus for- 
med by the delour of the river ; and also to the 
construction of basins or docks jbr the reception 
of all the ships arriving from the West and East 
Indies. The West India dock establishment is 
the most magnificent and complete work of the 
kind in the world : it consists of two outer basins 
from the river at Blackwall which lead to the 
grand receiving basin, tui oblong square, 1,200 
yards in length, affording quay room for about sev- 
enty sail of large vessels to discharoe their cargoes 
at one time, with moorings for iOO to 200 vessels 
more in the centre. On the S. side is a range of 
magnificent store houses, alternately of two and 
five stories, of sufficient capacity to warehouse 
100,000 tons of merchandise. The N. side has a 
covered quay, and alow range of warehouses over 
vsulls, for the storing of 50,IW0 pnocheoni of mm, 
dye-woods, dtc.&c. After discharging their car- 
goes, the vessels leave the receiving basin at the 
W. end throngh an outer basin that communicates 
again with the river, or to the outward bound basin 
on the 8. in aline parallel with the grar"* '-'— 

the o 

quays of Qie grand re- 
ceiving basin are all of stone, and the conveniences 
for unjoadiiig stores, and distributing ofthe mer- 
chandiie, with the swing-bridges over the entrance 
(o(he outer basins and the dock ntes, are all as 
complete as labour and art can make them, whilst 
a suitable taste pervades tbe whole. It was first 
opened in 1802. Between the West India Dock* 


r I,e> 

IS basins for the 

mjL Ml 6LA 

but all the more Talaableartieleflaiv stored in ware- mulment of Indre, with a castle, seated on the 

houses in different parts of the E. side of London. Urease, 35 m. E. of Poitiers. Pop. 3,850. 

There is also the largest private ship-buiiding yard Blanco, a cape of Patagonia, 130 m. N. E. of 

in the world, where eight or ten ships, averaging Port St. Julien. Long. 65. 56. W. lat. 47. 90. S. 

1,000 tons each, are occasionallv on the stocks, BlaneOf a cape of Peru, 120 m. S. W. of Guay- 

or repairing, at one time. BlacKwall commands aquil. Long. 81. 10. W. lat. 4.24. S. 

a very extensive view down the river, which draws Bhmeo. a ca{>e on the W. coast of Africa, 180 

a constant succession of visitors to witness the m. N. ef the river Senegal. Long. 17. 10. W. 

nnrivalled passing scene of vessels from and to all lat. 20. 55. N. It is the name of iS or 14 other 

parts of the world, which almost every flood and Capes or Promontories in different parts of the 

ebb of the tide presents. The pop. of this appen- world. 

dage of London in 1821 was 12^223. Blandfordy a corporate town in Dorsetshire, 

Blaek Walnuty p.v. Halifax Co. Va. 100 m. S. Eng. In 1731 almost all the town was burnt 

W. Richmond. down ; but it was soon rebuilt, and a neat town- 

Black Warrior, r. the N. E. branch of Tombig- hall of Portland stone, on columns, in wbich is a 

bee river in Alabama. It rises among the moun- pump, was erected in remembrance of that disaster, 

tains in the northern part of the state and is nav- The nouses and shops are very handsome. It has a 

igable for a great part of its course. considerable manufacture of thread and shirt but- 

Biadcwater, a river of Ireland, which flows tons, and is seated on the river Stour, near the 

through the counties of Cork and Waterford into Downs, 18 m. N. E. df Dorchester, and 103 W. 

Tooghal Bay. by S. of London. Pop. in 1821, 2,643. 

BuukwaUrjK riyer in Essex, Eng. which flows Blandford. p.t. Hampden Co. Mass. 15 m. N. 

byBradfield,Braintree,Coggeshal,Kelvedon,and W. Springfield and 116. S. W. Boston. Pop. 

Maiden, and then enters the estuary, to which it 1,594. 

gives the name of Blackwater bay, near the month Blan^fordy p.v. Prince Geo. Co. Va. 

of the Thames. It is also the name of four or Btarus, a town of Soain, in Catalonia, near the rivers in the United States, but all inconsider- mouth of^the Todera, 20 m. S. of Gerona. 

able. Blankenhtrfr^ a town and fort of the Netherlands, 

Bladen, a county in the 8. part of N. Carolina, in Flanders, situate on the German Ocean, 8 m. 

bordering on the maritime county of Brunswick. N. E. of Ostend. 

It is intersected by Cape Fear River. Pop. 7,801. Blankenburg. a town of Westphalia, at the S. 

Elizabethtown, 96 m. S. of Raleigh, is tne chief end of the ducny of Berg, on the river Sieg, 12 

town. m. E. ofBonn. 

Bladenoek, a river of Scotland, which rises in Blankenburg, a town of Lower Saxony, capital 

the hills in the N. part of Wigtonshire, and after of a principality of the same name, in the Hartz 

a winding course of 24 m. enters Wigton bay. distnct, containing about 140 »({. miles. The 

Several islands are formed in its bed, which are castle stands on a cn.zey mountain and is one of 

ftmous for the resort of eaeles. the finest buildings oftne kind in Germany. It 

Madentburg, a town or Maryland, in George was the residence of Louis XVIII. during a part 

eotmty, on the E. side of the Potomac, 9 m. from of his exile. The town contains about 3,000 in- 

its mouth, at Washington, and 38 S. W. of Balti- habitants, and is m. S. of Ilalberstadt. 

more. Tne American army sustained a defeat by Blankenburg, a town in the principality of 

the British at this place, on the 24th of August, Schwartzburg, circle of Thuringia, 5 m. N. W. of 

1814, in attemptiiur to arrest the progress of the Saalfeld. 

British towards Washington. Blankeneese, a town of Holstein, on the north 

BUoM, a town of France, in the department of bank of the Elbe, 9 m. W. by N. of Hamburg- 
Lower Loire. 22 m. N. N. W. of Nantes. Pop. about 2,000. 

BWr jStkol, a town of Scotland, in Perthshire, BUmkenhayn, a town of Saxony, 10 m. S. W. 

with a castle, the seat of the Duke of Athol, 36 of Jena. Pop. about 1,850. 

m. N. N. W. of Perth. Blannerhanett^s Island, a small but very beau- 

BUur OMeris, a town of Scotland, in Perthshire, tiful island in the Ohio, near Belpre. It was 

with a manor boose, built in the form of a castle, namedfrom an Irish gentleman who settled upon it 

SS m. N. N. E. of Perth. Pop. 2,253, partly em- in 1801 and was implicated in Burr's conspiracy. 

ployed in the cotton manufiusture. Blarney, a parish and town in the county of 

AlainmUe, p.v. Indiana Co. Pa. 184 m. W. Cork. Ireland. In 1821 the parish contained a 

Hanisbnrg. population of 1,851. The town is situate abont 4 

Blaaais, a late province of France, bounded on miles N. W. of Cork, on a branch of the river Lee, 

the N. by Beance, E. by Orleanots, S. by Berry, which works a paper-mill, and the cotton manu- 

Kcd W. by Touraine. It now forms the departs facture was attempted in this neihbourhood about 

ment of Loire and Cher. 1820, at which period the town contained 333 in- 

BlaUon, a town of France, in the department of hah. 

Marenne and Loire, 8 m. S. £. of Angers. Bias San, a seaport town of Mexico, on an is- 

Blakely, p.i. a seaport of Baldwin Oa. Alab. on land at the mouth of the Rio Grande, or Santiago 

a branch of^he Mobile, at the head of Mobile Bay. river, which hihi into the Pacific Ocean in lat. Si . 

The town was founded in 1816, and is a flonrisn- 30. N. and 104. 46. W. long, 

ing place. The situation is healthy, and the har- BUmbeuren, a town of Suabia, in the kingdom 

boor commodious. of Wurtembnrg, with a castle on a hill. Great 

BUtkelft t. Luzerne Co. Pa. quantities of fustian and linen cloth are made 

Blakeimrg, plantation, Penobscot Co. Me. Pop. here. It is seated af the confluence of the Ach 

403. with the Blan, 11 m. W. of Ulm. 

Blmnoni, a town in France, in the department of Blofe, a seaport of France, in the department of 

Menrthe, seated on the Veiouze, 12 m. E. of Ln- Gironde, on the east bank of the river of that 

ae-viUe. name, 17 miles below Bordeaux. It has a good 

B Umu m bm rWf a Iowa of Fkinoe, in the d«- eitadel, and a fort on an island in the Girondei or 


BLO 108 BOB 

Gvonne, which is here 3,800 yardi wide. Ite BloommgdalUy a TJllafe on the Hadeon, 7 m. 

tnule consists in the wines of the adjacent oountrj. above New York. 

Its harbonr is much frequented, beinff the outport .Blooming Grove, p.t. Orange Co. N. T. 102 m. 

to Bordeaux, as Gravesend is to London, and S. Albany. Pop. 2,009. Also 2 towns in Ohio, 

ships bound to Bordeaux having ^ns on board, BloondngUm^ p. v. the capital of Monroe Co. Ind. 

leave them at Blaye. Pop. about o,000. 70 m. N. £. Vincennes. 

Bledsoe^ a county of E. Tennessee. Pop. 6,448. BioomingviUt, p v. Huron Co. Ohio, 123 m. N. 

Pikeville is the capital. Columbus. 

Bltkingen, a province of Sweden, in Gothland, Blottmsbutg^ 3 towns ; in Columbia Co. Pa : in 

on the coast of the Baltic. It is DO m. long and Hunterdon Co. N. J. and Halifax Co. Pa. 

21 broad; and though mountainous, is one of the Blore, a village in Staffordshire, £ng. 10 m. N. 

most agreeable countries in tlie kingdom. The of Utoxeter. Its heath is famous for a battle be- 

principal trade is in potash, pitch, tar, tallow, twcen the houses of York and Lancaster, in which 

hides, and timber. The chief town is Carlscruna. Ncvil, earl of Salisbury, for York, with 500 men 

Blenheim^ a village of Snabia, now in the Bava- only, defeated lord Audley with 10,000. TU/ 

rian circle of the Upper Danube, seat'^d on the latter was killed, and on the spot is erected k 

Danube, 3 m. N. E. or Hochstat. It is memorar stone-cross to his memory, 

ble for the signal victory over the French and Ba- Blount ^ a County of £. Tennessee, pop. 11,- 

varians, gained August 2nd, 1704, by the duke of 027, Marysville is the capital ; also a O^unty of 

Marlborough. The Austrians were defeated by Alabama, pop. 4,233, Blountsville is the capital, 

the French near this place in 1800. Blountsville j is also a village of Jones Co. Geo 

Blenhdmy p.t. SchoWie Co. N. Y. 53 m. from Bluekillf p.t. Hancock Co. Me. Pop. 1,499. It 

Albany. Pop. 2,280. stands upon a bay, 12 m. N. £. Castme. 

BUre, a town of France, in the department of Blue Mountains, several mountains so called in 

Indre and Loire, on the river Cher, 18 m. £. by different parts of the world; viz. 1st, intersecting 

S. of Tours. Pop. 2,600. the island of Jamaica from east to west. North 

Blessington, a parish and town in the county of Peak is 8,180 fl. above the level of the sea ; 2nd, 

Wicklow, Ireland. The parish contains quarries the most easterly ridge of the Apalachians, in the 

of granite which are very extensively worked, state of Pennsylvania, extending in the south-west 

Pop. in 1821, 1,618. The town is 14 m. W. byS. direction, from the Delaware to the south of the 

of Dublin, on the border of KHdare, and in 1821. Susquehannah river, altitude, 3,000 to 4,000 ft.; 

contained 494 inhabitants, partially cmployea 3rd, a more southern branch of the same ridge, 

in a branch of the woolen manufacture . extending in the same direction from the north 

Bletekin^yf a borough in Surrey, Eng. seated of the Potomac river, through the state of Vir- 

on a hill, 4 m. £. of Ryegate, and' 21 S. of Lon- giniainto North Carolina. Otter Peak is 3,103 ft. 

don. It returns two members to parliament, high, and is the highest point in all Virginia. 

Pop. in 1821, 1,187. The passage of the Potomac river through this 

Block Id4indj on the coast of Rhode Island, ly- rid^e is peculiarly grand ; 4th, an extensive range 

ing 21 m. S. S. W. of Newport and in Newport in New Holland, aividing the settlements of Port 

County. It is 7 m. in lensrth, and 4 in its ex- Jackson, &jc. on the coast, from Bathurst Plains : 

treme breadth, and famous tor cattle, siioep, but- 5th, intersecting the island of Java in various 

ter, and cheese. The south part of it is in lat. 41 . directions. 

8. N. It is inhabited by about 700 persons, a con- Blue Rock, t. Muskinmim Co. Ohio, 

ciderable portion of whom subsist oy the fishery. Btufton. p. v. Ray Co. Missouri, on the Missouri, 

BlockUiff p.t. Philadelphia Co. Pa. 3 m. from 280 m. from St. Louis. 

Philad. Blytk, a large parish and town^ at the north-west 

Bloekxylf a town of Holland, in Overyssel, with extremity of Uie County of Nottingham, Eng. bor- 

a fort ; seated at the mouth of the Aa, on the dering on Yorkshire. The town is 5 m. N. of 

Zuyder Zee, where there is a good harbour, 8 m. Woruop. Pop. 801, and of the parish 3,456. 

N. W. of Steenwick. Long. 5. 39. £. lat. 52. 44. N. Blyth, a town of Northumberland, England, sit- 

BloiSjh city of France, capital of the depart- uate at the mouth of a river of the same name, 

ment of Loire and Cher, and lately an episcopal which falls into the €rerman Ocean, 14 m. N. N. 

see. The cathedral is a lar^ structure, seated on £. of Newcastle. It has a convenient quay from 

an eminence at one extremity of the city, and on which a considerable quantity of coal is shipped, 

another eminence at the other end is a magnifi Pop. 1,805. There are two other rivers of the 

cent castle. In this castle Louis XII. was lK>rn ; same name, in Enffland : viz. one in the County 

and here in 15^, Henry III. caused the Duke of of Suffolk, falling into the sea at Southwold, and 

Guise, and his brother the cardinal, to be assassin- anotlier in the Cx)unty of Warwick, falling into 

ated. Here are some fine fountains, supplied by the Tame, below Coleshill. 

an aqueduct, supposed to have been erected by Boad, a town of Hindoostan, in Orissa, on th* 

the Romans. The principal commerce is in wine river Mahanuday, 65 m. S. S. E. of Sumbul- 

and brandy; and the chief manufactures are ser- pour, and 115 W. of Cuttack. 

ges and ticken, It it seated on the Loire, over Botdthurg^ p. v. Centre Co. Pa. 115 m. N W. 

which is a handsome bridge, 37 ra. £. N. £. of Harrisburg. 

Tours, and 100 S. S. W. of Paris. Pop. about Boardman^ p.t. Trumbull Co. Ohio. 

13,000. BMiaj a town of Italy m the Milanese, on th« 

B^ofiies, a town of Poland, in Masovia, 20 m. river Trebia, 25 m. S. £. of Pavia. Pop. 3,500. 

W. of Warsaw. Bohenhausen^ a town of Germany, in Hess* 

Blo&m^ there are 6 towns of this name in tlie Darmstadt, with a castle, seated on the Gers 

U. S., 4 in Ohio, and 2 in Pa. brenti, 43 m. S. E. of Frankfort on the Mayne. 

Bloon^iMf there are 14 towns of this name Sober, a river of Germany, which rises in Si 

in the 17. S. lesia, on the borders of Bohemia, flowa north b^ 

Bloominghtrgf villagef in SuHivan Co. N. Y. Lowenburg, Buntzlau, and Sagan, and joins the 

and Fajette Co Ohio. Oder below Croaien. 

BOO lot BOH 

Sober Aerg, a town of Braadenburff, in the New It hia considenble mannfactarei of leather. Pop. 

Mark, and duchy of Croesen; seated on the tide about 7,000. 

of a hill, by the river Bober, 5 m. S. of Croesen. Bogtunr, a village in SuMex, Enf. 7 m. S. of Chi- 

BofoWen, a town of Bavaria, 9 m. S. of Aug«- cheater. It is an improving place, and much 

burg. rop. about 1^500. frequented in summer for sea-bathing. 

Bobravoa, a town in the circle of Brunn, Mo- BogoUif a river of Colombia, which &lb into 

ravia, 4 m. S. W. of Bistitz. the Acific Ocean, in the lat. of 1. N. 

BtiretZj a town in the County of Liptau, Up- BogarodiUky a handsome town, containing 

?Br Hungary, among the Carpathian Mountains, about 5,000 inhabitants, m the province of Thoula, 

op. about 1,700. Russia. 

Bobrysk, a town in the palatinate -vf Minsk, Bogota^ a laree citv and the capital of Colom- 

Lithuania ; situate eaet of the Bobri^ia river, just bia. During the nue of the Spaniards in S. 

above its confluence with the Berezma. America, it was the capital of the viceroyalty of 

Boca, signifying mouth, is a term which has New Granada, and was then more commonly call- 
been prefixed oy the Spaniards, to the name of ed Santa Fe. Since the orffanization and estab* 
several straits or sea-passages in difierent parts lishment of the republic of Colombia, it has been 
of South America; the most celebrated is the more commonly called Bogota, and made the 
north strait, between the island of Trinidad and chief town of the province oi^ Cundinamarca. 
the coast of^Cumana, called the Boea dd Drago, and seat of the whole republican ^vemment of^ 
or Dragon's Mouth. Colombia. It is situate on a spacious and fertile 

Boea Tigris, a strait in Canton river, China. plain, on the most easterly ndge of the Andes, 

Boeheita, a chain of mountains, in the territory m the lat. of 4. 36. N. and 73. 30. of W. long, 
of Genoa, over which is the road into Lombardy. at an elevation of upwards of 8,000 feet above tro 
On the highest mountain is a strong pass that level of the sea, wnich, notwithstanding its con- 
will hardly admit three men to ffo abreast; and tiguity to the equator, renders its climate com- 
this is, properly, the Bochetta. It is the key of paratively temperate and agreeable. It is inter* 
Genoa, and was forced bv the French in 1796 sected by a small river called the Bogota (hence 
and by the Aostrians in idOO. its recent appellation^ which falls into the Maf - 

Bochua, a town of Poland, in the palatinate of dalena, W. of the rioge of mountains on which 

Cracow, with large salt mines, 20 m. £. S. £. the town is situate. The town is tolerably well 

of Cracow. Pop. about 3,300. laid out, having four squares, containing some 

BockoUf a town of Westphalia, in the principal- handsome buildings ; and, although its remote- 

ity of Monster, on the river Aa, 40 m. W. of ness firom the sea, and destitution of water com- 

Munster. munication, will operate against its becoming a 

. Bodcenkdm. a town of Lower Saxony, in the place of the first magnitude, should it continue 

principality of Hildesheim, on the river Nette, 13 to be the seat of government, it will doubtless 

m. S. S. £. of Hildesheim. considerably increase both in extent and popula- 

Bocking,9. large village in Essex, En^. adjoin- tion, which at present amounts to about 40,000. 

ing to Braintree. Its church is spacious ; and The most convenient points of debarkation for 

here is a great manufacture of baize. Pop. in Bogota from Europe, are either Laguira or Car- 

1821, 2,786. thagena, the distance fh>m the former about 600 

Bockum^ a town of Westphalia, in the county miles N. W. and from Carthagena about 450 

of Mark, 26 m. S. E. of Wesel. N. £. ; but the routes usually taken will in both 

Boden See. See Coiutanee, Lake of. instances, greatly exceed those distances. It is 

BodnUn, a borough in Cornwall, Eng. The about 450 m. N. E. of Quito, about 15 m. S. W. 

summer assizes areheld here. It has some man- of the town, at a place called Tequendama ; the 

nfiustures of serge, and a trade in wool and yam. river Bogota fidls down a precipice with coosid- 

The church is the largest in the county, and the erable fury, and is an object of great attraction 

remains of an episcopal palace and a priory are to the strangers who visit Bogota, 

still to be seen. It is 32 m. N. £. of Falmouth, Bogwannoor, a town of Bahar, Hindoostan, a 

and 235 W. by S. of London. It returns two few m. S. £. of Benares, 

members to Parliament. Pop. in 1821, 3,278. Bohemia, a kingdom and very compact terri- 

Bobrogh, a river of Upper Hungary, rising tory in the centre of Europe, supposed to have 

among the Carpathian mountains, and falling into derived its name from a tribe of Celts called the 

theTfaeissatT^kay. Boii. It was ori^nally more extensive, inclu- 

Bodrwiy a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, ding Lusatia and Silesia on the N. E. and Mora- 

on the N. side of the gulf of ScaUmova, 18 m. S. via on the S. E. Previous to 1&17, it was an in- 

of Smyrna. Another, on the site of the ancient dependent kingdom, having an elective form of 

alicamaasus, on the N. side of the gulf of Stan- government, tlie popularity of which excited the 

hio, 45 m. W. by S. of Melassa. jealousy of the. Emperor of Germany, Ferdinand 

Bog, a river which rises on the S. border of I. who obtained at that period the consent of the 

Volhynia, in Poland, flows through Podolia and Germanic diet, to declare it an hereditary append- 

Budzae Ttotary, v»<l enters the Black Sea, be- age of the dominion of Austria. This union was 

tween Oczakow and the river Dnieper. severely contested on the part of the Bohemians 

S. S. E. of Trieste. 5. N. and 12. 20. to 16. 30. of W. long. Its south 

Boglipour, a town of Hindoostan, capital of a em point borders on Upper Austria,and it is boun 

circar in Bengal ; seated on the Ganges, 112 m. ded by Bavaria on the S. W., Saxony on the N. 

N. E. of MocShedabad. W., Lusatia and Silesia on the N. £., and Moravia 

Bosrodauk, or Bogoduchow, a large inland town on the S. £., its extreme length and breadtb wiu 

of Euopean BussSa. in the province, of Khaicov. be about 180 by 190 m., but each of the four sides 



of its qnadrilatenl figure will not aTonge more Bokmentaldf a denw monntun forest, forming 

than about 125, and as such give a tuperScial ex- the aouth-wett boundaiy of Bohemia. The tenn 

tent of 15.025 m. m. implies Bohemian Fartat^ Baum in German signi- 

Since 1751 it has been divided into the 12 fol- fying wood ; Bokm is probablj a corruption of 

lowing circles, named after 12 of the principal that term in Bohemia, and may have given name 

towns, (ezclosive of Prague, the metropolis of the to the country, signifying a woody country, and 

whole territory, which has a separate jurisdiction :) the two following places as situated in woods, 

▼is. Leutmeritx, Bunzlau, Konigingratz, Chmdim Bohmiseh Mehe, a town of Bohemia, in the cir- 

Tchaslau, Bechin, Prachin. Bohemia is consider^ cle of Bunzlau, 20 m. N. of June Bunzlau. 

ed the most elevated part of Europe, no riven Bohmiseh Brodf a town of Bohemia, in therCir- 

running into it. The Spree, the Neisse, and the cle of Kaurzim, 14 m. E. S. E. of Prague. 

Bober, running north through Lnsatia and Silesia, Bohcl. one of the Philippine islands, to the 

have their source on the frontiers of the circles of north of Mindanao. Long. 124. 5. E. lat. 10. 0. 

Bunzlau and Koniginsrratz, and the Elbe has its N. 

source in the latter circle near the frontier of Boholy or Boot, a town at the mouth of a river 

Silesia, running south into the circle of Chrudim, of the same name, fkUing into the Sooloo Sea, on 

and then takes a north-west course, bounding the the north coast of the isle of Celebes, 

circle of Buntzlau on the south, intersectingLeut- Bohus, or BahuSf a small district of West Cvoth- 

meritz towuds Dresden in Saxony. The Mol- land, Sweden, bordering on the Cattegat, north 

dau rises near the frontier of Austria at the south of Gottenburg. Stromstadt, on the coast, in lat. 

extremity of the circle of Bechin, and runs near- 58. 56. N. and 11. 15. E. long, is the principal 

ly due north past Prague, into the Elbe at Melnik town. 

in Buntzlau. Sevenu streams have their sources Bojador, a cape on the west coast of Africa, 

in the circle of Pilsen, which unite near the town doubled by the Portuguese in 1433. Long. 14. 

of that name, and there form the Beraun, which 27. W. lat. 26. 12. N. 

runs into the Moldau a little below Prague. The Boiano^ a town of Naples, in the Molise, at the 

Eger intersects the circle of Saaz from south-west foot of the Apennines, on the east, near the river 

to north-east, falling into the Elbe a little below Tilemo In 1808 it suffered jgreatly by an earth- 

the town of Leutmeritz. These rivers, with their quake, and most of the inhabitants were destroy- 

several tributary streams, contribute alike to the ed. It is 45 m. N. N. E. of Naples, 

diversity and fertility of the country. There are Boi$ BlanCf an bland in Micnigan Teritory, in 

also several small lakes in the south part of the Detroit river, opposite Amherstburg. 

cirele of Bechin. The firontiers on all sides, ex- Bois le Due^ a fortified city of Dutch Brabant, 

cept on that of Moravia, are mountainous and capital of a district of the same name, which con 

woody, whilst the whole of the interior possesses tains also the towns of Helmont, and Eyndhoven 

a soil of great capability ; but as a species of feudal It has a castle named Papen-briel, and a little to 

tyrannv pervades the whole territory, it naturally the south are two forts, called Isabella and St. 

precludes all excitement to social exertion, and Antony. It was taken by the French in 1894. 

Its productions are consequently confined to a It is situate amon^ morasses, on the river Dom- 

bare means of subsistence. It grows a considers- mel, where it receives the Aa, 22 m. £. by N. of 

ble quantity of flax, which, as well as their wool, Breda, and 45 S. S. E. of Amsterdam. Pop. 

is manufactured into linens and cloths, for domes- about 13,000. 

tic use, and some on the side of Lusatia and Silesia Boiscommun, a town of France, in the depart^ 
for exportation. Almost every kind of mineral is ment of Loiret, 25 m. N. E. of Orleans, 
found in one part of the country, or the other, and Boitieahurgf a town of Lower Saxony, in Meek- 
having but little external intercourse, every branch lenburg, at the confluenco of the Boxite with the 
of manufacture is carried on as domestic occupa- Elbe, S) m. S. W. of Schwerin. 
tions for internal supply. It has several mineral Boitienburgf a town of Brandenburg, in the 
springs, but it is deficient in the essential article Ucker Mark, 10 m. W. of Prenslow. 
of salt, part of the supply being obtained from Bokharaj a city of Usbec Tartary, in Bokharia. 
external sources. It stands on a rising ground, surrounded by a 

On the subjugation of Bohemia by Austria, the slender wall of earth, and a dry ditch, on t)ie 
ancient form of government was retained, but it south side of the river Sogd. The houses are 
was merely the form : and absolute snd despotic low, and mostly built of mud ; but the caravan- 
dictation nullified whatever was calculated to jus- seras and mosques, which are numerous, are all 
tiijr or vindicate the rights of man, and the con- of brick. The baoan, or market-places, have 
duct of blind, passive obedience, may now be con- been stately buildings, but the greatest iMirt of 
sidered as firmly established in Bohemia, as in them are now in rums. Here is also a statelv 
any part of Europe, or the world. The establish- building for the education of the priests. Great 
ed religion of Bohemia is the Roman Catholic, numbers of Jews and Arabians fiequent this 
and before the vear 1781 the Protestants were not place ; and the trade with Russia and Penia is 
permitted the free exeroise of their wonhip : at considerable. In 1220, Bokhan was taken by 
present all religious creeds are tolerated. Out of Jenghis Khan, with a numerous army, who burnt 
a population of^about 3,000,000, the dissentients the city, and demolished the castle ; but after the 
from Catholicism do not exceed 100,000, about city had remained in ruins some jean, he at 
half of whom are Jews. In time of peace, about length ordered > to be rebuilt. It is 138 m. W. 
50,000 men are maintained in arms, to support by S. of Samarcand. Long. G2. 56. E. lat. 39. 4. 
whom, and other state pretensions, exactions, N. 

equal to about 9,000,000 American dollan, are im- Bohhtaia^ or Buthariay a country of Usbec Tar- 
posed on the productive labonre of the people, tary, bounded on the north by Turkestan, east by 
The original language of Bohemia seems to have Cashgar, south by Hindoostan and Persia, and 
been Sclavonic, a dialect of which is still common west oy Chorasan and Charism. It is fertile in 
in the eonntry ; but the German or high Dutch is com and fruit, and the best cultivated of any part 
spoken with considerable parity. ofTarttry. This eouatry comprehends the a&cieni 

dutrict of B>ctiUii>, the Datira countrj ol the 
tirD-hiiimped eunel. Tbe one-humped cunel, or 
dromedary, i> ft much'— — -~" — 

The iiihabitantii tie in general tawny, with blocli 
hair, bill >ome are while and well made. Thev 
are cleanly in their food, which often coneisH of 
minced meat.and tea ib the general drink. Thej 
are not wartime, but u>e the bow, lance, and aabre. 
Samarcand ia the capital. 

Bokharia, Lilde. See Cathgar. 

Bolatola, one of the Societv the Pa- 
cific Ocean, 4 leamiei N. W. of Olaba. Lonir. 
151. 52. W. lat. m. 32. 9. 

fioIcAereii, B town of Kamtachatka, on the river 
Botchoireka, Zi miles from iti mouth, in the aea 
of Okolak. Lodg. 156. 37. E. lat. SH. 54. N. 

BoUnghnke, a town in LincolDBhlie, Eng. It 

waa the birth-place of Henry IV. and has a 

manufactnre of earthen ware. It itandi at the 

' aoorce of a river which luna into the Witbom, 

29 m. E. of Lincoln, and 133 N. by E. of London. 

BoUcia, a Kepublic of South America, formed 
ont of the province of Upper Peru in 1825. It ia 
bounded N. W. by Peru, N. E. and E. by Braiil, 
3. by Boenoa Ajrei, and W. by the Pacific Ocean 
and Pern. The territory ia mounlainoui, and 
manv of the streajni wtuch fall into the Amaion 
and La Plata had their origin here. It containi 
many silver minea, among other the celebrated 
mine of Pntosi. Its principal towni are Potoii, 
Charcas, Oropeaa, Oruio, La rax, Cocbabamba, and 
La Plata or Chuquisaca which ii the capital. The 
population is estimated at something more than 
a million. The ffovernment consists of a Presi- 
dent, and a legislative body of three chambers. 
The battle of Ayacucho which eatablished the in- 
dependence of this territory, waa the last eSbrt 
Buide by the Spaniards to retain a footing in their 
ancient dominion of South America. This battle 
waa fboght Dec. 9, 1824. The Colombian army 
under Ueneral Sucre, gained a complete victory 
over the Spaniards, commanded by the Viceroy 
La Sema. Sucre was mute Preaident of Bolivia, 
bat was afterwards asussinated. 

AiUenAdi/n, a town of Silesia, in the principali- 
ty of Schweidniti, m few nulei west of the town 
M Schweidniti ; the inhabitanla chiefly employed 
in the linen manufacture. 

BoUuneUz, or PolkwUt, a town of Sileiia, 12 m. 


munificently (limisbed with their best prodoc- 
tioo*. Nor have the exertions of art been con- 
fined to tbe sphere of painting ; the city eihibila 
Bome of the finest monumenta of architecture, 
(Ucb aa the palace of Capraria, the marble foun- 
tain in the riaiia-del-GLganle, and in ract,almo«l 
•very building of any note. The academy of arts 
and sciences is a building of great inagni lice nee, 
and the public theatre ia one of the Urgest and 
most beautiful in Italy. Tbe church of St. Petro- 
nlus is the largest in Bologna, but ia more remark- 
able for its pavement, wliere Cassini drew his 
meridian line, 180 ft. lon^. T-be trade of Bnlugna 
ia very considerable, being ailualed in a fertile 
country, and having an easy conveyance of its 
produce by a canal to the Po. Tbe exuberance 
of the adJBceDt country enables the inhabilanta to 
furnish all Europe wiUi the greatest delicacies in 
confectionary, distilled waters, essences, &ji. oil, 
wine, flax, hemp, and silk, also furnish abundant 
sources of trade and employment. The Rene 
which passes by the i ' " 

mills for si Ik- works. 

than 400 
ituated at tbe foot of 
the Apennines, '£i m- 8. E. of Modena, and 175 N. 
W. of Rome. Lang. II. 21. G. lat. 44. 30. N. It 
waa taken poaaession of by the French in 1796, but 
restored to the state* of Rome at the general peace. 
BoUigiieie, a province of Italy, bounded on the 
north by the Ferrareae, west by Modena, south 
by Tuscany, and east by Romasoa, It is watered 
by aiany snull rivers, and prepuces all aorta of 

grain and fruit, particularly rich muscadine grapes 
ome miles before the entrance into Bologna, the 
country seems one continued garden. Toe vina- 
yarda are not divided by hedges, but by rowa of 
elms and mulberry-trees; tlie vines banging in 
fcstooiks, from one tree to another. There are 
also mines of alum and iron. Bologna ia the cap- 
ital. There are about 300 other towna, contain- 
ing a population of about 200 
Baliena, a town of Italy, i 
St. Peter, on a Inks of its na 
of Viterbo. 

BoUmtr, a town in Derbyabire, En*; It has 
a spacious castis on the brow of a hill > and is 
noted for the manufacture of tolwcco pipes. It is 
C m. E. of Chesterfield, and 145 N N. W. o( 
London. Pop. in 1821, 1,245. 

Bolttetart, a town of Holland, in Friesland. near 
the Zuyder Zee, 10 m. N. of SloLen. Near tliU 
town, which ia about two miles in eatent. was 
formerly an abbey of the Cistertians, wbeni tna 
Munstcr Auahaptists look refuge in 1534, and 
where William, count of Holland, waa buried in 
the 14th century. 

Beltaii'it-MoiiTt, a large and populous town in 
Lancashire^ Eng., consisting of two townshipa. 

ray of 
Pf W. 

ijancasnire, l:.Dg., conj 
Great and Little Bolto. 
amidst se 

Bologna, a city oflta]y,aapitalofllie Bolognese, 

It ia about 5 mSes in 

} inhabilanta. 

and an arohbiahop's aee. ft ia about 5 m 

It has long been distinguiahed as a school of 
•ncc; the oniTersity wing one of the moat an- 
ejent and celebrated in Europe. An academy of 
arta and sciencea was founded in 1712, and con- 
trOnited greatly to that fame which the oity haa 
acquired. As a school of pain ting, it is immortol- 
iied by the nnmber of masten it baa produced. 
There are here 169 churchea, and these, aa well 

" -' lanaiona of the moat 


ao called from it 

to distinguish it from another town in the north 
part of &B county, called BoUonAt-Sandt. It ia 
h miles N. W. of Manchester, on the mail-ooach 
road to Preston and Glasgow, and, neit to Man- 
chester, is one of the most considerable stations 
of the cottonmonufacture.the branches more par- 
tioularly puraned beinir those of muslina, dimitira 
and counterpanea. The canal to Manchester, 
&om which there is a branch to Bnry, has added 
materially to the proaperitj of the place ; and the 
new railway to Leigh, by afibrding facilities for an 
additional anpply of oosl, has rAlnced tbe price 
of that indispensable fuel. Besides the fKrish 
chntch, here are two other episcopal churchea 
of nccnt election, a Aoman Catholic chapel, ud 


tbont ■izteen meeting hooset for duMenten, with Fort St. Andrew, and u not more than 4 in tha 

rariouB achools and charitable institutions. A broadest part. It was taken hv the French in 

town hall, for the transaction of public business, 1672, and again in 17!)4. 

has been recently erected. Pop. in 1821, 89,197. Bonay a seaport of Algiers, in the province of 

of which Little fiolton contained 9,258. The earl Constantina. Near it are the ruins of the ancient 

of Derby was executed here, in 1651, for pro* Hippo Regius. It has a trade in com, oil, wax 

claiming Charles II. and wool, and is 270 m. £. of Algiers. Long. 7 

*/ There are 12 other towns and villages 45. £. lat. 36. 52. N. 

named Bolton, besides Bolton on the Sands, in Bonair, or Buen Ayrc^ a fertile island in tlie 

different parts of England ; viz. three in Cumber- Caribean Sea, to the E. of Curagoa. It is 60 ni. 

land, one each in Northumberland and Westmore- in circuit, and has a good harbour and road on 

land, and seven in Yorkshire. the S. W. side. Long. 68. 18. W. lat. 12. 10. N. 

Bolton J p.t. Worcester Co. Mass. 33 m. W. Bos- Bonavista, one of the Cape Verd islands, so call 

ton. Pop. 1^8, The town abounds in lime-stone, ed from its beautiful appearance to the first dis- 

BoUon. p.t. Chittenden Co. Vt. 24 m. N. W. coverers, in 1450; but is now become barren. 

Montpeher. Pop. 452. through the extreme idleness of the inhabitants. 

Bolton, p.t. Tolland Co. Conn. Pop. 744. Long. 22. 47. W. lat. 16. 6. N. 

Bc^tton, p.t. Warren Co. N. T. 69 m. N. Albany. Boruivista, a cape on the east side of the island 

Pod. 1,466. of Newfoundland. Long. 52. 32. W. lat. 48. 

Bomalyn. town of the Netherlands, in Luxem- 15. N. 

burg, on- the river Ourt, 20 m. S. of Lie^e. Bondf a County of Illinois or the Kaskaskias. 

Bombay f an island on the west coast of the Dec- Pop. 3,124. Greenville is the chief town, 

can of mndoostan, 7 miles in lengfth, and 20 in Bondorf, a town of Suabia, in the Black Forest, 

eireumference. It came to the English by the capital of a county which ioins the Brisgau. It 

marriage of Charles II. with Catherine of rortn- is 7 m. S. by W. of Furstenourg, now included in 

gaL and was made over to the East India Compa- the territory of the Duchy of Baden, 

ny in 1688, when it was made the seat of govern- Bondtm, an interior country of North Africa, 

ment of all their possesions on that side of Hin- lying between the rivers Senegal and Gambia, in- 

doostan, which was previously at Surat. It is habited by the Foulah race of negroes, who are 

now one of the three presidencies by which their industrious and social in their habits, and Mahom- 

oriental territories are ^verned. It contains a etans in religion. 

strong and capacious fortress, a city, dockyard, Bontss. or BorrowsUmneSf a town of Scotland, 
and marine arsenal. Here the finest merchant ships in Linlithgowshire, with a safe and commodious 
are built all of teak, supplied from the neighbour- harbour on the frith of Forth. It has a consider- 
ing countries, which is more durable than the ble trade in ship-building and coal, and extensive 
best English oak ; and in 1810, the Mindcn, 74 manufactures of salt and stoneware. It is 5 m. 
gun ship, was launched, having been built entirely N. of Linlithgow. Pop in 1821 ^ 3,018. 
under the superintendence of a Persee. The Bonhommey t. St. Louis Co. Missouri, 
ground is in general barren, and good water scaree ; Bonnefemme, t. Howard Co. Missouri, 
but it has abundance of cocoa-nuts, and its mar- Boni, or Bony, a spacious bay between the two 
kets are well supplied with every delicacy. The southern promontories of the tsle of Celebes. It 
population of the territory of Bombay is estimated has numerous shoals and rocks, and is commonly 
at 225,000, three-fourths of whom are Hindoos, called Bugges Bay by Europeans. Near the up- 
the remainaer Mahometans, Armenians, and Jews per end of the bay, on the shore of the western 
and about 8,000 Persees or fire worshippers. (See promontory is the town of Boni, which is the can- 
Baehu.) The city of Bombay, next to Calcutta, iial of a kingdom of the same name, but little 
may be considered the most commercial place in known. The inhabitants are partly Mahometans. 
Hindoostan; its intercourse with China is very It is in the lat. of 3. S. and 120. 30. of E. long, 
great, the export of cotton sometimes amounting Bonifaeio, a fortified seaport of Corsica, with a 
to 350,000 bales per annum. It is much resorted good harbour and a coral nshery. It stands on a 
to, by traders from Persia, Arabia, Abyssinia, Ar- small peninsula, at the south extremity of the 
menia, and all parts of western Asia, as well as island, 37 in. S. of Ajaccio. Long. 9. iX. E. lat. 
from most of the islands of the Indian Ocean, and 41. 25. N. Pop. about 3,000. . 
all the eastern parts of Asia, and the commercial Bonn, a city of Germany, in the territory of 
transactions are conducted with more integrity Cologne. It nas a flourishing university, four par- 
than is usual in Asiatic cities. It is about iS) m. ish cnurches, and several religious foundations 
S. of Surat, and 1,300 W. by S. of Calcutta. The It was taken by the Duke of Marlborough, in 
lighthouse, whieh is a very prominent object, and 1703, and by the French in 1794. It is seated ob 
visible for 20 miles out at sea, is in lat. lo. 53. the Rhine, 14 m. S. by £. of Cologne. 
N. and 72. 53. £. long. BonruU, a town of France, in the department of 

Bomene, a seaport of Holland, In Zealand, on La Creuse. Pop. alwut 2,000. 

the north shore of the Island of Schowen, 3 m. E. Bonnetable, a town of France, in the depart- 

of Browershaven. ment of Sarte, 15 m. N. E. of Mons. Pop. 4,500 

Bommel, a town of South Holland, in th« isle Bonneval, a town of France, in the department 

of Overfrakke, 7 m. W. of Williamstadt. of Eure and Loire, seated on the Loire, 8 m. N. of 

Bommd, a strong town of Holland, in Guelder- Chateaudun. 

land, in the island of Bommelwert, on the river BonneviUe, a town of Savoy, capital of Fan 

WaaJ, 21 m. S. by £. of Utrecht, and 7 N. of Bois- eingay , seated on the river Arve, at the foot of a 

le-Dnc. Pop. about 3,000. mountain called the Mole, 20 m. S. E. of Geneva. 

Bommdwert, an island of Holland, formed by Bonny, a kingdom of Guinea, N. Africa, lying 

the junctions of the Waal and Maese. It lies in between Warce and Callabar. The inhabitants 

the province of Guelderland, except a small dis- are less social than their neighbours, and live in 

trict at the west end, which belongs to South Hoi- constant collision with those of Callabar. 

ImhI. It is 15 miles in length, fh>m Lowettein to JS^ntAom, a seaport at the 8. extremity of the 


western promontory of the island of Celebes, ieat- mont of Coneze. It wss the birth-plaoe of 

ed on the shore of a large bay, where ships may Marmontel. 

Ue in secnrity daring both the monsoons. The BorbUf a town of Alemtejo, Portugal, lying be- 

iown has a^alisado^ fort, and stands on the tween EBtremoz and Vitra-Vicosa. 

south side of a small but deep river. Long. 120. BardsauXy a city of France, an episcopal lee, 

32. E. lat 5. 31. S. and chief town of the department of the Ghx>nde, 

Boogdtoogej a town of Hindoostan. capital of the lies on the left bank of the Garonne , in a semicircu- 

country of Cutch, 140 m. S. E. of Tatta, and 230 lar or oval form, corr^ponding with the curve of 

W. by N. of Amedabad. Long. 69. 2. £. lat. 23. the river which constitutes its port. The date of 

16. N. its foundation, like those of many other cities, is 

Bod. See Bohol. lost in the distance of time. It is mentioned by 

Boom, a town of Brabant, on the north bank of Strabo and some of the Augustine histuriaii». 

the river Nethes, 10 m. S. of Antwerp. Pop. The etymology of its Latin name, Burdigala, it 

about 3,500. doubtful, and throws no light upon its fouuderi. 

Boone, a firontier country of the state of Ken- Under Augustus it was regarded as a great oily, 
tncky, nearly encircled by the Ohio River, which and was further agmndised and emb^Iished by 
divides the north end from the states of Ohio and him. Adrian ma£ it the metropolis of the 
Indianfi, opposite to where the Miami River falls second Aquitaine. In the third century it became 
into the Ohio. Pop. 9,012. Burlington, 90 m. N. by an episcopal see, and in tlie fourth was distin• 
E. of Frankfort, is the chief town, gniahed for the cultivation of arts and letters. 

Boonsioro, p.v. Washington Co. Maryland, 16 The Roman dominion gave way to barbarism and 

m. N. W. Fredricktown. the Visigotlis, who were themselves soon driven 

Boon^orou^h, a town of Kentucky in Madison out by the still more barbarous Clovis and his 

coonty, seated on Red River, which runs into the Franks. Henceforth it was an integral part of 

Kentucky, 38 m. E. S. E. of Lezinjrton. France, and capital of Guienne, with the ez- 

Boonelon, v. Morris Co. N. J. 30 m. N. W. oeption of the periods during which it was un- 

Newark. der English dominion. The Saracens ravaged 

BoonmUe, p.t. Oneida Co. N. T. 116 m. N. W. it in the eight century, and the Normans in the 

Albany. Pop. 2,746. tenth. 

Booinnk, a town of Hindoostan, in Bengal, 98 The long and violent rather than sangoiuary 

m. N. E. of Calcutta. contests between the French and EnfUah, for the 

Bootan, a mountainous country of Hindoostan inheritance of Eleanor of Guienne, bore directly 

Proper, lyin^ between the province of Bengal and upon Bordeaux, the capital, which, alternately 

Thibet. It is a feudatory province of Thil^t, and French and English, and more indebted to the 

abounds in mountains covered with verdure, and latter, retained for them a strong partiality for 

rich with abundant forest trees; there is scarce- which it was severely mulcted by Charles VII. 

ly a mountain whose base is not washed by in 1451. From that period it has continued an 

some torrent, and many of the loftiest bear popu- integral {>art of the kingdom of France, partak- 

lous villages, amid orchards and plantations, on ing, but in a less deme than other cities, the 

their summits and on their sides. The southern- troubles of the Reformation, the League, the Fronde 

most ridffe of the Bootan mountains rises near a (during the regency of Anne of Austria), and 

mile and a half above the plains of Bengal, in a the Revolution. Bordeaux sent to the national 

horizontal distance of only 15 miles ; and from the assemblies several of the most eloquent and vir- 

summit the astonished traveller looks on the plains tuous men of the popular party, called * Gircn- 

below as on an extensive ocean. The Booteas are dists,' from the department of which it is the chief 

much fairer and more robust than their neighbours town. Deprived almost wholly of its foreign 

the Bengalees, with broader faces and higher commerce by the wars and decrees of Bonaparte, 

cheek-bones : their hair is invariablv bla^k, and it was the first place to open its gates to the 

cut ^ort ; their eyes small and black, with long Bourbons. 

pointed comers; and their skins remarkablv The most striking objects upon approaching 

smooth. The houses are built on props, thougn Bordeaux are the port and the stupendous bridge, 

the country is hilly, and ascended by a ladder : projected and partly executed by Bonaparte, over 

the lower part, closed on all sides, serves for hold- the Garonne, an arm of the sea rather than a 

ine stores, and accommodating hogs, cows, and river. The practicability of such a bridge was 

other animals. The capital is Tassasudon. long doubted, from the breadth of the river — ^nearly 

Bootkbay, p.t. Lincoln Co. Me. between Sheeps- a quarter of a league — and the violence of the 

cut and Damariscotta river. Pop. 2,290. current. The port should be viewed from La 

Bootle, a village in Lancashire, Eng. contiguous Bastide, a village opposite Bordeaux, on the right 

to Liverpool, which it supplies with fine fresh bank : it then presents its magnifioent curve 

water, from abundant and never-fiuling springs round the corresponding segment of the river , 

near the sea-shore. its fagade, uniform and noble ; the quays, crowd- 

Bopal, a town of Hindoostan, in Malwa, 98 m. ed and animated ; and the river, covered with 

£; otOugein. vessels, generally in a state of gentle movement,' 

Bopfingen, a town of Suabia, on the river Eger, heaving with the waves. The town is semicir- 

Id m. N. W. of Donawert. cular ; out the port is an elliptic curve, near two 

Boppart, a town of Germany, seated at the leagues in diameter between its extremities. 

fixyt or a mountain, near the Rlune, 8 m. S. of Bordeaux, like so many other cities, is divided 

Coblentz. into the old and new town, on tlie rignt and left. 

Baraks, a town of W. Grothland, Sweden, about The ** course" or avenue of Toumy, leading to 

10 m. £. of Gottenburg. the fauxbourg de Chartrons, is remarkably beaa- 

B&rekolz, a town on the west side of the bishop- tiful. The theatre, in the rue de Chapeau-rougOi 

ric of Paderborn, Westphalia, now part of the is a noble building, surpassing in its exterior, but 

Prussian States. . not interior, most other theatres of Europe, lie 

Bordf or BoU^ a town of France in the depart- peristyle consists of twelve Corinthian oolu 


•unnonnted by a baloBtrade, with a statne to each knowledge and the arts ; a branch univeraity, an 

colomn. The vestibule is majestic and ornament- academy, a library containing an old copy of 

ed. having a double staircase lighted from a cu- Montaigne 4i Essays corrected and noted by him- 

poia. The exchange, at the extremity of this self, a cabinet of natural history, a museum of 

street, is a vast and imposing structure, with in- antiquities and painting, an observatory, but with- 

terior arcades round the walu ; the central space out an observer or instruments of observation, 
covered in, and lighted from the top ; and a grand The ancient parliament of Bordeaux was dis- 

door opening into the Place Royale, one of the tinguished for eloquence, learning, and philoso- 

handsomest squares of Bordeaux, and deficient phy. — Montaigne, Montesquieu, and the presi- 

onl^ in extent. This p2ac« merits particular de- dent Dupaty, were among its ornaments. The 

scnption : its form is that of a horseshoe, opening modem bar has maintained its ancient reputation 

upon the river, with a fine quay between. It is for eloquence in Ferriere, some years dead ; 

lined by the- exchange and the custom-house, with Deseze, Lune, and Ravez — all three peers of 

corresponding fronts; all the facades richly or- France. In the second national or legislative 

namented, and bearing allegorical figures m re- assembly the palm of eloquence was born awiy 

lief. by Vergniaud, mferior only to Mtrabean of all th« 

The cathedral is the principal Grothic edifice of orators of the Revolution. Guadct, Gensonne, 

Bordeaux, but by no means of France, as some and Duces, who perished by suicide or the ^uil- 

have described it. It is remarkable chiedy for the lotine, also eloquent members of the national as 

two bold, light, and lofly spires which rise above sembly and convention, were of tlie bar of Bor- 

the portal. The £n|rlish built it, in part at least, deaux. Among the other distinguished natives 

during their occupation of Guienne. There are of Bordeaux are the two Dupatys, sons of the 

three other large Gothic churches, — ^those of St. president; the engraver Andrieux ; the two mu- 

Michael, St. Croix, and St. Sturin, — which con- sical composers Garat and Rode, the former the 

tain some good pictures. The ancient Roman first singer — by the way, an equivocal distinction, 

remains called the '' Palais Gallien,'* without any — the second, the first violin player — of France, 

good reason fi>r the name, have nearly disappear- — and consequently of Europe. Lais, who was 

ed, to make way for modern elegance and avarice, the first singer at the Parisian grand opera for 

The Roman remains, called the ** Palais de Tute- several years, and since the restoration, was also 

le " ffave way to the chateau de Trompette ; a Bordelese. Berquin, the author of *' L'Ami 

which, in its turn, has recently made room for des Enfans ;" the grammarian Lebel, several 

new and beautiful edifices, and the spacious Place Jesuit controversialists, whose memory has pass- 

de Louis XVI. It was in the chateau de Trom- ed away with the controversy respecting that or- 

pette that general Clausel held out so long against der ; and the Latin poet Ausonius, who lived in 

the Bourbons. This was probably the main cause the time and in the court of Adrian, were natives 

of Its demolition upon their re*establishment. It of Bordeaux. 

is well supplied by the place, new streets, and The city of Bordeaux, especially the new town, 

market^ which occupy its site, but which will take is beautiful, rather as a uniform whole, than from 

some time to be finished. Count Lynch, mayor any detached or single objects. There are no 

of Bordeaux, at the fall of Bonaparte, and chiefly very striking beauties in its environs, with the 

instrumental in opening its gates to the Bour- exception, perhaps, of the verdant and pictur- 

bons, erected in this quarter a small museum, in esque banks of the Gironde. — The chateau of 

which are preserved aU the antiquities discovered Brede is visited rather as the residence, and in 

in or about Bordeaux : \hey are scanty. The some measure the creation, of Montesquieu, than 

house of Montaigne still exists as a curiosity in for its intrinsic merits. It is situated in a plain, 

the street bearing liis name, and his monument is well wooded ; a simple hexagonal building, Avith a 

in a church in the same street. drawbridge, and approached by a long avenue of 

The communications open to Bordeaux by the oak trees. The Tour de Cordouan, at the mouth 

Atlantic with the north, America, and the Indies, of the Gironde, is the finest lighthouse in 

and by the canal of Lan^uedoc with the south France. 

and the Levant, afford to it the greatest facilities A natural phenomenon called the mascaret, 

for maritime commerce. It accordingly, has an observed at tne mouth of the Dordogne, and in 

extensive and the most various trade of any port, no other river of Europe, should not be passed 

in every ^ecies of produce and manufacture, over. When the waters of the Dordogne are 

But the difference of peace and war, especially low, and especially in summer, a hillock of wa- 

war between England and France, is to it the dit- ter, about the height of an ordinary house, is ob- 

ference between prosperity and ruin. Its com- served at its confluence with the Garoime. It 

mercial relations (it has been said) have no other suddenly rises and spreads, rolls along the bank, 

limits in time of peace than those of the world ; ascends the river in all its sinuosity, with extra- 

m time of war they do not extend beyond the ordinary rapidity and a fi^arful noise. All that 

lighthouse at the mouth of the Gironde, except comes in its way, on the bank by which it moves, 

smuggling and privateering. The quay of Char- yields to its fury. Trees are torn up, barges 

toon was grass-grown during the continental sunk, and stones are driven to the distance of 

blockade : it is, since the peace, the most busy fifty paces ; all fly from it in consternation ; cat* 

and crowded, especially with the export of wines, tie even, with a strong and fierce instinct. It 

The merchants of Bordeaux are hospitable and sometimes takes the centre of the river, and 

polite ; and the higher orders emulate the capital changes its shape. The watermen are able by 

in liun^y, the love of pleasure, and what is called their observations to discover its approach, and 

ftshion. The women are considered to come thus escape certain destruction. A similar phe- 

nearest to those of the capital in accomplishments, nomenon was observed by the French traveller 

graeetf, Suk. the love of amusement. Condamine in the Amazon river, and by the 

It oontains the same establishments as the other English Rennell in the Ganges. Its cause is 

great tovms, but not on the same scale or with the known, and simple, — ^the tide flowing with a dis- 

■ame degrM of eultivationy for the purpose of proportionate quantity and impulse into the Dor- 

BOR 109 BOR 

dogne, which ia light in the direction of the Gi- Borja, a town of Colombia, sitaate on the head 

ronde, whilst the course of the Garonne is angu- waters of the river Amazon, 300 m. £. by N. of 

lar or divergent. The impediments which the Paita and 90 W. by N. of Jaen. Long. 76. 36. W. 

mascaret meets as it ascends the Dordogne from h^t. 4. 15. S. 

■and banks, the sinuosities, and the rapidity of Borja, a town in the province of Buenos Ayres, 

the opposing current, all tend to increase, and it near the frontier of Brazil. It was founded by 

may be said to enfuriate, its force. Such is its the Jesuits. 

velocity, that a second must not be lost by him BorUogUbsky a town of Russia, situate on the 

who would escape it. banks of the Verona, near the south end of the 

The population of Bordeaux fluctuates with its province of Tamboy, about 300 miles S. E. of 

commerce between 60,000 and 100,000. From Moscow. — It is also the name of a town in the 

the most recent calculations, in 1828, it appears province of Jaroslav, on the west bank of the Vol- 

between 93,000 and 96JD00. Its distance from ga, a few miles north of the city of Jaroslav. 

Paris is, by Orleans and roitiers, 155 1-2 leagues ; Pop. of each about 3,000. 

bv Tours and Angouleme, 154 1-2 leagues ; by Borrissmo, a town of Russian Poland, on thft 

Uhateauroux and rerifrueux, 153 1-2 leagues, banks of the Berezina, about 35 m. £. of Minsk. 

Lat. 44. 60. N. long. 0. 40. W. Borkdo, a strong town of Holland^ in the coun 

BordeuUnon, a town of New Jersey ^n Burling* ty of Zutphen, remarkable for having been the 

ton county^ on the west side of the Delaware, 6 subject or two wars : one in 1665, against the 

m. below Trenton, and 23 N. £. of Philadelphia, bishop of Munster, and the other with France, in 

BoTffe, a town of Denmark, the chief place in 1672. It is seated on the river Borkel, 15 m. E. 

the island of Femem, with a fort, on Femem N. £. of Zutphen. 

Sound. Lonff. 11. 17. E. lat. 54. 27. N. Borketif a town of Westphalia, in the principal!- 

Bor^ejUruckjOT Berventrychf a town on the S. tv of Munster, witii a collegiate church, seated on 

W. side of the Bishopric of raderbom, Westphalia, the Aa, 38 m. W. of Munster. 

BarghettOf a town on the E. bank of the Adige, Borkumy an island of the kingdom of Hanover, 

at the southern extremity of the bishopric of^ lying between the east and west channels of the 

Trent. — ^Also the name of a village in the vicinity Ems river. It is partly inundated at hish water, 

of Mantua, where a severe battle was fought be- It has a town of tne same name, the iimabitants 

tween the French and Anstrians in 1796. subsisting chiefly by fishing. 

Borgkolm. a fbrtinea town wn vo >^*H Me of Bormio, a town of Switzerland, capital of a 

theisleofOland, in the Baltic, iMurt of the province county of its name, on the confines of Tyrol, 

of East Gothland. About a mile from the town are medicinal baths. 

Borgy Bargy or BergnoiZAaUitiiy a town in the It is seated at the foot of the mountains, on the 

county of Ravensburg, Westphalia. river Fredolso, near its confluence with the Adda, 

BorgfUy a lar^e lake or inlet of the sea, between 40 m. S. E. of Coire. Long. 10. 20. lat. 46. 17. N. 

the states of Mississippi and Louisana, com- Bormto, or BoniM(2a, a large river of Piedmont, 

municating with the Gulf of Mexico, and inland which rises in the territory of Finale, runs north, 

with lake rontchartrain. intersecting the dutchy of^ontferrat, falling into 

Bar go y a seaport town of Russian Finland, lyincr the Tanaro a little below Alessandria. 

betv':rin llelsingfurt and Lovisa. In lat. 60. 21. BorruLy a town of Upper Saxony, in the circle 

N. and 25. 45. £. long. of Leipzig, with a manufacture of stuffs ; seated 

Borgo Rusz. Pruni and PasSy three towns con- near the river Pleysse, 13 m. S. E. of Leipzig, on 

ti^uous to eacn other, near the source of the Bis- the road to Altenburg. 

tntz River on the eastern frontier of Transylvania, BomeOy an island of Asia, in the Indian Ocean, 

bordering on the Bukowine. They have salt discovered by the Portuguese in 1521, lying be- 

springs snd some manufactures of earthenware, tween the lat. of 4. 10. S. and 7. N. and 109. 15. 

The population is considerable, principally Wol- to 119. 25. W. long, beinff in its extreme length 

lachians. 775 geographical miles otQQ 1-2 to a degree, and 

BorgOy signifying a market town, is prefixed to 650 in extreme breath ; but, as the north part con- 
twelve towns in difierent parts of Italy. verges into a promontory, if resolved into a square , 

BorgOy St. Donniniy a town in the duchy of Par- the sides would not exceed 600 miles ; which^ 

ma, so called from the martyrdom of Donnini, who however, will give a surface greater than that of 

was beheaded herein 304. It is a bishop's see, any island in the world, except New Holland, be- 

and is situate about midway, on the road from ing about 360,000 sq. m. or nearly five times larger 

Piaceuza to Parma. than Great Britain. Although under the equator, 

Borgo di St. SepoUrOy a town of Tuscany, in the air is not so excessively hot as might be ex- 

ihe Florentine, with a fort, seated near the source pected, being frequently refreshed with showers 

of the Tiber, 12 m. N. £ of Arezzo. In 1789 and cool breezes, the thermometer varying from 

about 1,000 of the inhabitants were destroyed by 82. to 94. of Fahrenheit. In the monsoon, from 

an. earth^v* April to September, the wind is westerlv, and 

BorgojotUy a town oi iv&iy, in uic riaubutia, on the rains are constant and heavy, attended with 

the river Po, at the influx of the Oglia, 10 n^ S. violent storms of thunder and lightning. The 

of Mantua; and nine others, all inconsiderable . rainy season continues for eight months, and 

BorgOy or Bttrgo D^Osnuiy a town of Spain, sur- during that time all the flat country, from ten to 

rounded with walls, and containing aoout 200 twenty miles from the coost, is overflowed, and 

families. 33 m. W. of Soria, and 40 S. E. of the air rendered very unhealthy. For this reason 

Burgos. the inhabitants build their houses on floats, which 

Burgo di Si. Awdo, a fortress of the island of they make fast to trees. They have but one floor, 

Malta, a little to the east of Valetta. with partition^ made with canes ) and the roofs 

Bona, or Bergosay a town of Spain, in Arra- are covered with palmetto-leaves, the eaves ot 

n, in a fixiUful spot, riear Mount Cayo^^ at the which reach within four or five feet of the bottoro. 

tc f 


gon, in a iruitiui spot, near Mount uayo, at me wmcn reacn witnin tour ornve teet ot tne ooirora. 
Kwt of the Pyrenees, 42 ra. W. N. W. oi Sara- Some of their houses are built upon pillars, a suf 

ficient height from the surface not to be deluged 

BOR 110 BOE 

The eoantriet on the cout are inhabited by a mix- clusiTe line of policy. Aa &r as onr knowledge 
tare of Malaya, Javanese, and Macassars The of the country does extend, whilst the coast on 
aborigines of the island, however, live in the in- all sides is low and swampy, the interior seems 
terior, and are called Biadjoos, Biayos, or Dijak- much intersected by mountains ; a river called 
kese. &c., who are represented as the most un- the Banjar has its source in the centre of the 
couth and unsocial of the human race. Indeed it country, about two decrees north of the equator, 
seems to be here where nature has united the and runs south into the sea of Java. There are two 
chain of animated creation, and placed the orang or three rivers running from £. to W. falling into 
outang as the conoectinj^ link between the articu- the sea on the west side, but the north and east 
lating, modulating, and inventing, and He instinc- coasts appear deficient m good navigable rivers 
tive ; or, in other words, between the biped and for internal communication t>y water. There are, 
the quadruped race of animals. Qn one side of however, several fine harbours and roadsteads 
the orang outang, which seems to be a native of round the coast ; the principal is Bandermassinf, 
the soil of Borneo, are apes, monkeys, bears, at the mouth of the Banjar ; Sambar at the south- 
goats, deer, horses, buffaloes and other homea west point ; Sambas on the west coast ; Borneo 
cattie, tigers, and the elephant; whilst on the at the north-west : and Passir at the south-east, 
other side is a class of beings with apparently no BomeOj the principal city, and capital of a 
other claim to the character of man but that of kingdom of the same name at the north part of 
the power of articulation ; and yet, amidst this the above island, is situate up a river about 10 m. 
unsocial and unappreciating race of beings, na- from the sea, in the lat. of 4. 55. N. and 114. 15. 
ture seems to have bestowea in lavish profusion £. long. Like most or all the other towns on the 
all her most delectable gifls ; with iron, tin, and coast, the houses are built on piles driven into the 
various other metals for purposes of utiUty ', gold,, swamp, inundated at high water, and the trading 
diamonds, and various other precious gems, for or- transactions, which are here very considerable 
nament, abound. Itisherethatthesalangane.aspe- with the Chinese and other eastehi nations, ai« 
cies of swallow, constructs its edible nest, which is carried on in boats and wherries, 
exchanged to gratify the luxurious palates of the Bornkeim, a town in the electorate of Cologne, 
Chinese, at a rate cjouble its weight of silver. In about 15 m. W. by N. of Bonn. Pop. about 1,100. 
the veffetable kingdom, in admtion to rice and — Also, a town of the Netherlands, about 10 m. 
maize for substantial subsistence, the sensations N. £. of Dendermonde. 

of taste and smell are here to be gratified in the Bomkolnif an island of Denmark, just within 
highest possible degree. Cassia, cinnamon, fiank- the Baltic, of an oval A»fm, attooi ^m miles in cir- 
incense, and myrrh, are indigenous productions cumference, and nearly snrromided by rocks.* The 
of the country. The laurus camphoratus yields soil is stony, but fertile, witn excellent pasture ; 
an endless abundance of its fragrant and inflam- and there are mines of coax, ana quarries of mar- 
mable substance ; whilst agaric, musk, aloes, and ble. It lies 10 m. S. E. of t&e soothem extremity 
various other substances and plants^ are dispersed of Sweden. The chief town is Roune, on the 
over the country in endless profusion to aid the west side ; the north end is in lat. 55. 16. N. and 
domestic and social economy of man, and to serve 14. 49. £. long. 

Is alteratives in case of accident or disease. On BamoSy a town of the province of Seville, about 
the other hand, the pernicious and poidbnous 15. m. N. £. of Cadiz. Pop. about 3,000. 
class 9f plants and reptiles are also common, and Bonum^ an extensive empire in the interior of 
the natives appear equally adept at applying them North Africa, having Cassina or Kashna on the W. 
in revenge a^nst their enemies, as in the appli- and Nubia on the £. It consists of a number of 
cation of medicines to avoid their consequences, oases, or fertile spots, interspersed with arid 
Thus, whilst the soil of Borneo appears suscepti- wastes. The climate is said to be characterized 
ble by social arrangements and due cultivation to by excessive, though not by uniform, heat. Two 
sustam in a high degree of comfort and enjoy- seasons, one commencing soon after the middle of 
ment, a fourth of the whole population of the April, tne other at the same period in October, 
globe, the total number of inhabitants is suppos- divide the year. The first is introduced by violent 
ed not to exceed 3,000,000, divided into numerous winds firom the south-east and south, with intense 
petty sovereignties. With the exception, how- heat, a deluge of sultry rain, and auch tempests 
ever, of the coast, very little is known as to the of thunder and lightning as destroy multitudes of 
extent and condition of the population. The the cattle, and many ofthe people. At the com- 
English £ast India Company formed some settle- mencement of the second season, the ardent heat 
ments upon the coast towards the close ofthe 17th subsides ) the air becomes soft and mild, and the 
century ; but, in 1706, the Dutch, in the prime weather perfectly serene. Maize, rice, tne horse- 
of their valour, drove the English entirely from bean, cotton, hemp, and indigo, are cultivated ; 
the country, and for more than a century were the and there are figs, napes, apricots, pomegranates, 
only European nation jthat maintained any direct lemons, limes, and melons. The most valuable 
intercourse with the island. Their grovelling tree is called redeynah, in form and height like 
policy has ever been, and still continues to be, to an olive, the leaf resembling that of a lemon, and 
preclude the world from all knowledge of the po- bearing a nut, the kernel and shell of which are in 
aition, people, condition, and resources of the great estimation ; the first as a fruit, the last on 
countries with which they trade, as far as it is account of the oil it produces. Horses, asses, 
possible for them to do so. During the war, sub- mules, dogs, homed cattle, goats, sheep, and 
sequently to the peace of Amiens in 1802, when camels (the flesh of which is much esteemed) are 
in their turn the Dutch were driven fivm all their the common animals. Bees are so numerous, that 
positions in Asia, the English again established the wax is often thrown away as an article of no 
themselves on the coast of Borneo, and were value. The game consists of partridgres, wild 
making progress in the arts of cultivation and ducks, and ostriches, the flesh of^ which is prized 
social eeonomjT, when, by treaty in 1816, the above every other. The other animals are the 
Dutch were re-instated in their possessions, and lion, leopard, civet cat, wolf, fox, elephant, bufia^ 
Borneo again exposed to their confined and ez« lo, antelope, and the camelopard or girafie, one of 



Out talleBt, mot t beautiful aud moit hamileM aui- 
m ^l^ in nature. Its neck u very long and its fore 
legs much longer than the hinder ones, at least 

>^ ... .»»»^;C.ii< 

m outward appearance. It sometimes feeds upon 
the grass, which howeyer is scarce in this coun- 
try, and its ordinary food is the leaf of a sort of 
mimosa. Within a few years, several of these 
animals have been transported to Europe. Here 
are also great numbers of the hippopotamus. They 
abound m Lake Tchad and the waters of the 
neighbourhood. Major Denham in his travels in 
this country saw a whole troop of them in the 
water following a band of martial music in a negro 
army marching along the shore. In this country 
are also many snakes, scorpions, centipedes, and 
toads. The complexion ot the natives is black, 
but they are not of the Neffro cast. The dress of 
the greater part consists of shirU of blue cotton 
manufactured in the country, of a red cap brought 
from TrinoU, and a white muslin turban from 
Cairo Nose'riuffs of ffold are worn by the prin- 
cipal people. But tne only covering of the poorer 
sort i« a kind nf wiidle for the waist. In their 
manners lue people are courteous and humane : 
they ar* i»«««n»telv fond of play j the lower 
classes of drau«rtits, and the higher excel in chess. 
More than 30 diflbrent languages are said to be 
spoken in B^vnoii und its dependencies ; and the 
reigning wniffVM is the Mahometan. The mon- 
amiy is elective The sultan is said to have 500 
ladies in his seraguo, and that his stud contains 
likewise 500 horses. His dominions extend be- 
yond the desert into the fertile country of Negro- 
luid, of which he possesses a large portion. He 
has a vast army, which consists almost entirely 
of horse : the sabre, pike, and bow, are their 
weapons of offence, and a shield of hides is their 

armour. , 

Bamou, the capital of the empire of the same 
name, with a palace like a citadel. The whole 
city is surrounded by a high wall, encompawed 
with a ditch ; but the other towns of the kingdom 
are open. The principal trade is in gold-dust, 
sUves, horses, ostriches' feathers, salt, and civet. 
It is seated on the Oazel, 750 m. E. N. E. ot 
Kashna. Long. 25. 5. E. lat. 19. 45. N. 

Boro Sudor, the chief temple of the Javanese, 
situate about 60 m. from Samarang, nearly in 
the centre of the island. It is dedicated to Boodh, 
and contains several hundred subordinate idols. 

Borodino, a village of RuBsia. near the river 
Moakwa, about 90 m. W. of Moscow. It will 

long be memorable in the annals of Russia, for 
the desperate conflict between the French and 
Russian armies, during the march of the former 
towards Moscow, on the 7th of September, 1612, 
when about 90,000 men on each side were either 
killed or wounded. 
Borough, t. Beaver Co. Pa. 
Boroughhridg0, a borough in W. Yorkshire, 
Eng. It has a trade* in haraware. Here Edward 
II. m 1322, defeated the rebel earl of Lancaster. 
It is seated on the Ure, over which is a stone 
bridge, 18 m. N. W. of York, and 206 N. by W. 
of London. It is immediatelv contiguous to Aid- 
borough ; each place returmng two members to 
parliament. Pop. 860. 

Borovitehiy a town of Russia, on the south 
east side of the province of Novogorod, bordering 
on Twer, seated on the south bank of the Msta 
river, about 170 m. S. E. of St. Petersburg. Pop. 

Borototsky or Boroosk, another town of Russia, 
about 60 m. S. W. of Moscow. 

BonianOy or BorrioZ, a town of Spain, in Valen- 
cia, near the mouth of the Manjares, 21 m. N. of 
Valencia. Pop. about 4,000. 

Borris, in Oasory, a village in the parish of Ag- 
haboe. Queen's County, Ireland, 68 m. "W. by S . 
of Maryborough. Pop. in 1821, 919. 

Borrosj a parish in Queen's County, Ireland, 
which includes the town of Maryborough, by 
which name the parish is sometimes called. Pop. 
of the parish, exclusive of the town, 2,032, and 
of the town, 2,677. Qee Maryborough. 

BorrotDdaU. a village in Cumberland, Eng. six 
miles south of Keswick. It stands at the end of 
a narrow and crooked valley, and is famous for 
mines of plumbago or black-lead, a substance al- 
most peculiar toxlngland and the vicinity of Ma- 
laga, Spain. 
Borrowatonnes. See Boness. 
Borrod, a county in the north part of Upper 
Hungary, bounded on the east by the Shajo 
branch of the Sheif river. It is one of the most 
fertile dirftricU of the country. Pop. about 95, 
000. Mishkoltz is the capitol. 

Basay a seaport on the west coast of Sardinia, 
and a bishop's aee, with a castle, on a river of the 
same name, 17 m. S. S. E. of Argeri. Long. 8. 
50. E. lat. 40. 29. N. 

Boseatoeny p.t. Merrimack Co. N. H. 68 m. 

from Boston : 52 from Portsmouth. Pop. 2,093. 

Boseawen Island, an island in the Pacific Ocean, 

about 10 m. in circumference. Long. 175. 10. 

W. lat. 15. 50. S. ^ ^^., 

Boscoy or Boschiy a town of Italy, in the Milan- 
ese, seated on the Orbe, 5 m. east of Alexandria. 
Boscobdy a village in Shropshire, Enjr. 9 m. 
south east of Newport, where Charles II. was 
concealed in an oak, after the battle of Worcester. 
Boshuana. or BooUhutaia, an extensive tract of 
country in Uie interior of South Africa, extending 
through about 5 deg. of lat. from 25. to 20. south, 
inhabited by numerous tribes of people, of whom 
at present very little is known. They seem phv- 
sically considered, to be of the same stock as the 
Caffres, but somewhat more advanced in social 
economy, which seems to improve northwards. 
Hence it may be inferred, that civilization and 
improvement in Africa gradually extended itself 
from the north. The chief town, as far as the 
country is at present known, is Lattakoo, repre- 
sented to have contained about 15,000 inhabitants, 
reduced to 7 orS.OOO during the present century, 
bv the continued intestine broils of tlie dtfitfirent 

lis BOS 

tribes. They CQltirateTariouskindiof min, and and convents, with their pointed windows and 
look upon fish, as an article of food , with horror, archways, and varied styles of tasteful architcctur- 
As far as pretension to worship prevails, the peo- al display, were spread over the country, as bar- 
pie are idolaters ', but they seem indifferent to racks, gaols, and workhouses, are at the present 
worship of any kind : polygamy is general ; the day, l^ston ranked among the most important 
elder men have usually one young wife, and towns in the country, having had not less than ten 
another who is past child bearing. Mahomedism fraternal establishments ; all of which were an- 
appears not to have reached them. Their dress nulled, and the inmates dispersed under the gen- 
is principally of skins, which they tan into lea- eral demolition of those institutions by Henry 
Uicr ; and, in the more northern parts, they ap- VIII. Afler this reverse, when England ex- 
pear to have made some progress m the smelting changed her agricultural productions and raw n:a- 
and working of iron. terials fur the haberdashery and other manufac- 

Bosnia^ a compact and naturally fertile diBtrict tures of Germany and Holland, Boston became 
of European Turkey, lying between the lat. of 43. one of the principal markets in the kingdom for 
18. and 45. 10. N. ana the 17th and 20th of W. wool, which used to be e^qported in large quanti- 
long. It is bounded on the west by the Austrian ties to Holland, and the Hanse Towns : but, on 
province of Croatia, north by the Soave river, the exportation of wool being totally prohibited, 
which falls into the Danube, and divides it from Boston was doomed to a further reverse, and grad- 
Sclayonia ; on the east by the Turkish Prov- ually declined until towards the close of the last 
ince of' Servia, and south by the north end of century, when a paper circulating medium sub- 
Albania and Dalmatia. It has some mountain verted that of ^rold and silver, and the modem 
districts, and is intersected by several rivers, run- system of creatmg ideal wealth by funding had 
ning from the north into the Saave; and the doubled and trebled the money rate of all articles 
Narenta, which rises in the south j>art of the of subsistence, thereby exciting an unusual de- 
province, runs south through Dalmatia, into the gree of enterprise in agriculture pursuits, a great 
Adriatic at Narisi, a few mues north of Ragusa. portion of the pasture lands of Lincolnshire 
Its area may be stated at about 15,000 square m. ; were converted into tillage, and Boston became 
yet the population is supposed not to exceed 80,- the principal port through which the surplus pro- 
000. As a frontier district, it is principally oc- duce found its way to market, and it has, since the 
eupied by Turkish soldiery, who subsist upon the commencement of the present century, gradually 
products of the occupiers of the soil ; and as the been rising in population and importance. The 
soldiery of the province amount to 40 or 50,000, number orinhabitonts, which in 1801 was only 
they or course tend to subdue all excitement to 5,926, in 1821 amounted to 10,330. The town is 
a^pricultural exertion ; and thus, although the situate on both the banks of the river Witham, 
vine and the olive would yield fruit in abundance, over which is a handsome bridge, of one arch, of 
one of the finest districts in Europe is kept a cast iron, eighty-six feet in span, a few miles 
wilderness, hy an undisciplined, lawless, and ruth- above the entrance of the river '>* ' ^he sea, called 
less horde of'^ soldiery. The principal towns are, Boston Wash, with which river, and by canals, 
Sorajo. the capital ; Bonjaluka, Swomiek, Trau- it communicates with a considerable portion of the 
mik, , (the seat of the pacha,) and Prisrendi. As interior of the country, and, in addition to its very 
fiir as any external commercial intercourse is considerable trade in <naio for the London mar- 
maintained with Bosnia, it is principally through ket, it carries on a direct trade with the Baltic for 
Dalmatia from Ragusa. The greater part of the deals, hemp, tar, &c. The parish church founded 
province formerly belonged to Hungry. The by St. Botoiph in 1^4)9, is a very stately edifice, 
inhabitants are principally Sclavonians, speaking being 300 feet in leniitti, supported by dorinthian 
the Sclavonic with great purity, and professing pillars, lip-hted by Domted windows, and its steeple 
the formulary of the &reek churcn. ascended'by steps, eoiresponding in number with 

BospkoruSf the narrow strait, 20 miles in length, the months, weeks, and days, in the year. The 
and from I to 1 1-2 broad, which unites the Black steeple or tower w ?R6feet in height, surmounted 
Sea with the sea of Marmora. It is sometimes with a lantern, which serves as a beacon for ma- 
called the strait of Constantinople. ny miles out at sea, and the country being very 

Basra f a town of Syria, where Mahomet is said level inland, it forms a beautiAil and interesting 

to have received much information from a Nesto- object in the perspective many miles distant, 

rion monk, towards founding his religious doc- The town is governed by a mayor, recorder, twelve 

trines. It is 100 m. S. of Damascus. aldermen, and eighteen common councilmen, with 

Bossiny, or TVevenna, a borough in Cornwall, subordinate officers, who are vested with the ad- 

£ng. seated near the Bristol channel, 17 m. N. miralty jurisdiction of the adjoining coasts. The 

W. of Launceston, and 233 W. by S. of London, corporation, since 1600, have erected a commodi- 

See Tintagd. ous fish market, which is abundantly supplied, and 

Bostf a strong town of Persia, capital of Sigis- large quantities are conveyed into the interior 

tan or Seistan. It is seated on the Heermund, counties of Nottingham and Leicester. It has 

and on the route of the caravans, from Ispahan to four fairs annually, and two endowed schools, and 

Caubul, about 170 m. W. S. W. of Candahar. returns two members to parliament. It is % m. 

Long. 64. 15. E. Ut. 32. 30. N. S. E. of Lincoln, and 116 M. of London. Lat. 52. 

Bastatif a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the north 48. N. Long. 0. 2. W. 
part of the province of Aladeul, situate near the Boston Deeps, is the sea channel of the inlet 

eastern confines of Cafamania, and near the source called the Wash, leading from the German Ocean 

of a river which falls into Uie Levant Sea, at by the Lincolnshire coast, up to the port of Boston 

Adanah. llie opposite side, which washes the coast of Nor- 

Boston, a borough and seaport town of Lincoln- folk is called Lynn Deeps. The body of the Wash 
shire, Eng. When the idle, the crafty, and the is a large shoal, partly dry at low water, and even 
vicious, sought subsistence and refuge, and the op- the Deeps are the reverse of what their name im- 
pressed and indigent relief, from monastic insti- plies, not admitting at the most, vessels of more 
tutions ; and when monastsriesy abbeys, priories, than 200 tons burthen. 

Botiit, tbB capital of M«—rJiB«etU, uid Ih* 
chief citj in N«w England, atanda apon a penin- 
sula in a CHMcloui batlMur, \l the ■reelern ex- 
tfemltj of MaaBachiuetta Bay. Ita nlualioii la 
noble and commanding, the aite being elerated 
and the citj' near); iiuTounded bj water, ao that 
to the eye of the ipectalor iti Mlj donm and 
■pirei leenu like Ihoae of Venice to ijie ont of 
the waTea, In the inlprior, there ja much irren>- 
Uiity, and many crooked and narrow atreeti, but 
there are also in Boaton a greater nnmber of ele- 

Eint building!, bcautirul ailfa, and objects that 
■pla« the wealth, tMte,Bnd pablic spiiit o( the 
iohabitanla, than in any other citjr of the United 
Stales The beautiful common in the iFcslein 

bvh, and ia bnilt of whi(« granite, with poitiooea 
of^colnmni eat from a amgla stone. This is 
probably the handaoroest market-hooae in the 
world, and ia fronted on both sides by solid blocks 
of stone sloies in a anilbrm architecture. The 
street on the north &aot ia l)5,and thalon the south, 
llHfeet in width. In the hallsof the upper story, 
are annually held the great sales of American 
manufactui^. Old Fanruil Hall, immortal in 
the annals of our country u the ' cradle of 
Liberty ' stands west of the maikel, and is an an- 
cient pile of brick, containing a upaciauB hall, in 
which popnlar assemblies are still held and pub- 
lic dinnen, celebrations. &c. are performed. The 
Post Office and City Hall are in the Old State 
House, at the head of State Street. Many of the 
banks are elegant slone edificea. The County 
Court House ia stone and of bindsome nronor- 
tions but its situation is nnfavourable for display, 

able for a public squflre. The Massac huseltn 
Genera] Hospital ia lar^, and eltgantlr built of 
atone it is a monument of the philanlbTopic 
munificence of private ciliiens. 

Here also the tincel hotel in the United State* nit- 
playa the public spirit and liberality of the Boai 
people. This edifice iscalled the Tremont Hou 

itiful si 

KMCQpies the southerly nlupe of Beacon Hill 
I aqoarter of a mile in extent surrounded by 
a. mall planted with elms, with an open prospect 
to the west and fronted in other parta by elegant 
traildings. The State House, which stands on the 
vnmmit of the hill OTerlooking the common, and 
indeed the whole city, is a apacioiu brick edifice, 

Cinted of a stone colour and aurmoUBted by a 
Fly dome. The Gneet omameDt of its interior, 
u a statoe of Waahington in while marble, by 
Chantry. Fronting the mall, is atao 9t Paul a 
church, built of hanimeied granite with a Gtc^e 
of&eestone, exhibiting six massy Doric columns. 
ThecSiKtof the sloiple elegance of thia structure 
is much injured by the contrast of a huge golhic 
pile at its Bide, the Maspnic Temple, whoaa loHy 
boat, howoTor, exhibits an impoaing specimen of 
that order of architecture. The Stone Chapel is 
the name given to a chnich of considerable an- 
tiqnity ; it Is a plun edifice, with a iqnare tower, 
nuTonnded by a Doric colonnade, and the style ia 
both ehaste and dignified. Trinity church ii of 
nnigh gianile, in Uie mixed gothic style, with a 
lofty tower, and its whole appearance is mas^ 
and imposing . The congregational church in 
Bowdoio streetjs another ediliee in the aame sCjle, 
botanialler. The chnrch, in Church Green, is of 
white granite, octagonal in ahape and supporting 
■ tall and slender spire ; it ii much admired by 
Buuj, but is rather finical. The Brattle Street 
church is worthy a straoger'a notice for displaying 
in its front the cannon Mil shot into it during the 
nege of Boston in 1775. The Old South church, 
which the British soldiers turned into a hippo- 
drome while they held possession of the city, still 
remaini, but its locality is now central and not 
•outheriy. Park Street church at the head of the 
tnall.has a spire that tonen above every other in 
(be city. There are besides these, many honaea 
of worship, not without cluins to notice. 

But the stmeture which rooet strikes the atten- 
~ " Hall Mar. 

granite, with an elegant portico of fluted col- 
ums cut from a single stone. The wings in the 
rear are brick with stone basements, and with the 
front form three siden of a qiiadmngle. This 
hotel contains nearly 200 apartments, and ia un- 
rivalled in the conn try for the excellence of its 
accommodations. There are other structures for 

Eublic obiecti worthy of ntlentiao,aslhe prisons, 
ouses or industry, 'dtc, these are generally of 
Quincy or Chelmsford granite, an ezoeflenl 
□uilding stone, of which there ia an abundance in 
the neighhourbood of the place. 

Alterations and additions have of late jears 
vastly improved the appearance of Boston. Tba 
Btreeta which were formerly almost without an 
exception, narrow and crooked, have been in 
a great degree rendered wide and cammodioDS) 
the old wooden itructures, have in the greater 
part of the city been replaced by handsome build- 
ings of stone or brick. In the western part, par- 
ticularlv, there is much neatness and elegance. 
The splendour of the private building* here, ia 
not equalled in any other part of tba Union. 

The literary institutions of this city are of the 
firat Older. The public libraries contun 70,000 
volumea. The Boston Athcneom is the finest ei- 
tablishment of its kind in the United States ; ita 
library contains above 25,000 volumes, and a read* 
ing room, in which the most esteemed periodical*, 
from all parts of the world, may be found, If we 
add to these the libran' of Harvard College, in the 
neighbourhood of 40,000 volumes, making the 
number of books within the reach of the uiliien* 
110,000, it must be allowed that Boston offer* to 
the scholar a more advantageous residence than 
any other spot in the western world. The litera- 
ry chaxactei of the citiiens correapond* to these 
advantages^ Boston is distinguiahed for the num- 
ber and talent of its periodical works : the North 
American Review, which is allowed to ba the 
moat able of all the literary journals of our eonn- 
try, and the only one that bu gtuned a reputation 
in Europe, Is pubhshed here. TThe Christian Ex- 
cnlarged ita plan, and ac- 

tion of the stranger, is perhaps rsDoeil Hall Mar- loiiiad more of a purely literary ohsraoter, is lank- 
bet. Tht* pOs IB 536 feat in Wnftb, two ftoria* ad unonc ttw first pnbUcatioaB of th* dajr. Th> 

pnioiieait of the city ore more than CO, includliig 
31 ncwipspera, 7 of which are daily. The put 
lie ichoola are not eqnalled in any olhpr city in 
the world. The ambilian uf the acholaTs is eici- 
tcd by ainmal rewarda lo th« moat woithy, in the 
aliape of a public dinner al Faneuil Hall in com- 
pany with Ihe Mayor and officsra of the city ; 
and the dialribution of gold and Bilrer medala, 
the product of a fiind for thiH purpoie established 
hy the great Franklia, who wo* bom in Ihii 
city. In the department of the fine arts, Uiere is 
much taale and liberal patronage displayed here. 
The annual exhibitions of paintings in the galleiy 
of the Allieneum is the beat in the country, and a 
fund is collecting from its proceeds for the eacour- 
a^ment of the arta. 

This citv is distinguished for the earty and rea- 
olule Gtand which it made in favour of American 
liberty. It was, in fact, the birth-place ol oar in- 
dependence, and the first American blood shed by 
the Briliati, waa in the skinniah between the citi- 
lena of Boston and the soldiery, in Stale Street, 
on the 5th of March, 1770, whidi ii known by the 

earth, Biced with itona, 
inlengt- "" ' 

a a, mils and a half 

if the lights ttpon tl 
ue>, Blretctung in long line* acroas the wide bay 
that embosoma the city. The western portion oT 
tlie bay is enclosed by the causeway above meni' 
tioned, and aervea for a mill-basin. 

The wealth of Boston ia computed at OS million* 
of dollars; probably no other city of iti liie can 
be found equally rich. The inhabitants, although 
distinguished for being ' full of notiona,' yet have 
more of a settled and permanent character than 
those of any other American citv. The high de- 
gree of wealth, education and literary talent 
which prevaila here, has imparted to the upper 
clasKB a portion of that eiclusive feeling, which, 
for want of a more precise definition is called 
aristof^racy , although there ia no wider distiactioa 
of clasaea llian auch as the natural operationa of 
society mark out. The rich, the gifled, and the 
well-bred, are self-complacent in the possession of 
their power, or tuperiority, but their pride i> tem- 
pered with urbanity and never wears a repuUive 
shape. No people are more tolerant in religion, 
ana they have long aince diacarded every Uiing 
oBenaive in the atrmt-laced purilaniam of thou 
ancestors ; yet no where is the state of moral feel- 

ing rn 




name of the Boston Maaaacre. The anlmoaity 
occasioned by this occurrence never anbaided, and 
ux yean atlerward the BriUah were driven from 
the place. 

In commerce, Boaton is the second city in the 
Doion, and its trade is carried on with every quar- 
ter of the world. The yearly imports are 
13,000,000 doUara, and the exports 9,009,000. 
The ahlpping of the port amounted in lS2d, to 
161,583 tons. The wharves here are the finest in 
the United SUtes. Long Wharf and Central 
Wharf are each nearly a quarter of a mile in 
length, and eovered with stores ; those of the 
latter are a aolid pile, with an observatory in the 
centre, where sienal* are received by iclecraph 
from the islands in the bay. India Wharf has a 
•(did pile ofbuildinga, of large extent. All these 
form apacioua docks, and are furnished with broad 
carriage waya. 

The manufactores ofthe city and suburbs, con- 
sist of glass, iron, cordage, leaUier, &c.; the finest 
cut and croirn glass in the coantry ia made here. 
Tlie manufaolurmg Interests are strongly support- 
ed in Boston, and a great portion of its capital lies 
In the esUbliahments of Lowell, Waltham and oth- 
er manqfacturing towns. A railroad is in progress 
ftom Boatoa to Lowell, which, when completed, 
will give additional spirit to the monufactniing in- 
dnst^ ofthe state and contribute to the prosperi- 
ty of the capital. There are 8 avenues to the city, 
*ii., 6 bridges, the neck, and the western cause- 
way. "Hk bridges lead from Ghsrlestown, Cam- 
bridge and BoqUi fioston ; they are of wood, and 
that leading to Cambridgeport is nearly two thirds 
ofa mile in length. The weslemavenueisof •olid 

ere are au seuia lu iviigiun, 

e the most numerous, and 
their clergy can boast of some ofthe ablest heads 
of the day. The people are noted for their love 
of parade, pomp, and public celebrations, but the 
occasions are generally well chosen, and the per- 
formances seldom offend good lasle. 

The hcilities for travelling in the neighbour- 
hood of Boston are very great. Tiiere art more 
stage coaches running to and &om this city than 
any other in America, Hoorly and half-hoorly 
stages carry passengers to the neighbouring towns 
at a vary low rate. The number of daily arrivals 
and departures is abont 250. In summer there 
are steamboats running to Hlngham, Nahant ana 
the coast of Maine. The roads about Boston an 
excellent, and the public houses ofthe first order. 
The country here is exceedingly varied and pic- 
turesque, Bdomed with every graceful variety of 
bill and dale, garden and grove, and abounding 
illages and elegant country seats. 

beautiful islands and the ocean twyond, formings 
panorama not surpassed by any view of its kind 
in the world. The harboor is capacious, safe^and 
impregnable to an enemy. The heights of Dor - 
_i — ._j.^ which command the city and hr-' 

drove the Bntiah &om Boa- 
new within the limits of the ciiy. 
IS first adopted in l&i ; 

and whoae bi 
ton in 1776, a 

A city government 
the officen ate a Mayor, eight Aldermen, anu > 
Common Council of 48, ail elected byapopo- 
larvotein December annualtv. With Cbelsea, 
on the oppowte side ofthe liarbonr, Boston eom- 
poaas the county of Suffolk, which has 6 Senators 
m the State Legislature. The city alone sendaone 
Representative toCongreis, The yearly e xpenses 
are about 300,000 dollars, of which above 50,OUO 
are appropriated to the support of common scboolai 
80,000 for improving the ilreets and 30,000 for 

Boston was founded in 1630. Its name in the 
Indian lancuage was ^aumul ; and it was called 
by the setUers TVanunU or TVnwiuitsua, ftom its 

three hills. 'The ttro-hnndndth jretr of the city 
wu Klemniied oa the 17lh September 1830 bj a 
tplendid jubilee, when *1\ the public officer*, u- 

muched to the Old South Church, the niual ecene' 
f<>r euch fettivitiea, and were addrened b; the 
PreodeDt of Ilsrvard CollegB. 

to all practical nurponea, ■□ manj portions o 
capital, ita whole papulatioa will amount to i 
80,000. The city proper haa 40 churchea ; \0 
baaka, 3 tbeatrea, 80 public achaols,5a bookatores, 
and ia 210 m. N. E, from New York ; 300 N. E. 
&01I1 Philadelphia; 300 S. B. E. from Montreal, 
and 436 N. E. from Waahiogton. It ia in N. lat. 
<a, 82. and in W. long. 71. 3. 

Botlon, p.l. Erie Co. N. T. 220 m. W. Albanv. 
Pop. 1,9». 

BoMen, t. Portage Co. Ohio. 

BonMmilU, p.r. Louiia Co. Va. 30 m. N. W, 

Boite<irlA, Marlut, a town in Leicealoraliire, 
Eng. In ita vicinity, in 146S, waa fought the fa- 
mout battle between Richani III. and the Earl 
of Rjcbtnond, afterward Henry VII. in which 
the former loat hia crown and life. It ia seated 
Mil, 13 ro. W. of Leieeater, and 106 N, N. 

great qnantit; of herb*, 

promontoriei which Ibr^. ._ euu>uw am ..imcu 
Cape Banka and Point Solandar. It woi nrl^i- 
aallj fixed on for a eolanj of coavicti firom Great 
Britain, which in the aequel, waa eatabliabed at 
Port Jackaon, 13 m. fiirther to the N. See Hel- 
latul ffeu. Long. 151. 31. E. lat. 34. 0. 8. 

SotaMf Iiland, a amall ialaod in the Pacific 
Ocean, to the a. E. of New Caledonia. Long. 
167. 17. E. lat. as, 27. *" 

farming iti northern continuation, extending in a 
north by eaat diieelion, from the tale of Aland, in 
the lat. of 60. to Tomea, in the hit. of <!6. N. and 
having an averve breadth of about 3 degree* of 
long, between 17. and S5. E. ll ig bounded on 
the weat by Sweden and eaiC by Finland. 

Bothnui, £■!*(, the northern province of Pin- 
Und, eitendiog liroin Finland Proper, in the lat. 
of 62. N. to the line of the arctic circle, which 
divide! it [torn Lapland ; lying on the eaet ahore 
of the Quif of Bothnia, between 21. and 30. oT 

about 28,000 square miles, bat having only about 
70,000 inimbilanta. Itiagenerally lovandmanhy, 
intersected by lakea and small rivers, abounding 
with fish, some aalman. The climate is geiieraf 
ly nnfaToureble to vrgFlatiun. It haa, however, 
some herds of amall Iwrned cattle, and bears, and 
other furred animala are common ; and it eiporti 
aome fir timber, deala, tar, and pitch. It it di- 
vided into Iwenty-eight parishes under the ecclea- 
iasUcal jurisdiction of ttie see of Abo. which fa- 
vours the tenets of Luther. The inhabitants, 
with some little eieeption of Swedish, speak the 
Finniah language. The chief towns are Kajana 
on the east sid<-, and Ulcnborg, Brahestod, Car- 
Icby, Jacobstadt Wou and CFiristianiitBdt all on 
the shores of the gulf of Bothnia. This prov- 
ince, with Finland, waa ceded by Sweden to Rus- 



Lapland, extending south from Angerman- 
land, inlhs lat. of 63. BO. to that of 67. N. and 19. 
to 25. E. long. Its area is about half that of Goat 
Bothnia, and the population does not exceed 50, 
000. It difiers but little in character from the 
eastern province; it abounds somewhat more in 
fhrred animals, which serve alike for subsistence 
and traffic, it is lotersacted by numerons streams, 
all running from west to east into the gulf Ths 
four principal rising from the moonlajns which 
divide Lapland from Norland, give name to as 
many districts and towna ; via. Tomea, at the head 
of tlie gulf, Lulea, Pilea, and Umea, al the south 
extremity of the province, all upon the coast of 
the gulfT It contains some veins of oopper and 
iron ; but ita ohief eiporta ore timber, deals, and 
tar. It is under the ecclesiastical juiiadiction of 
the aee of Hem^and. 

BmIiwM, a town of Scotland, in the county ot 
Lanark, aituate on tbe eaat bonk of the Clyde, be- 
tween Hamilton and Glasgow. It is distingnish- 

ed for the battle fought in its vicinity in 1670, be- 
tween the covenanters and the Toyal forces com- 
manded by the duke of Monmouth, when the fbi- 

raUey, IS n 
Pop. SS4. 

BtAetmirt, an interior county of the W. District 
of Virginia, lying between the two most easterly 
ridge* of the Ap^achian moontains. The Roan- 
oke and James rivers have both their aourcea 
within this county ; and it ia bounded on the north 
by the valley over which is the natural bridge, 
90 feet in length and 300 feel above the surlac* 
ofthe water, gee Cedar Creat.) Pop. 16,354. Tii 

mer were completely defeated. 
BMley, a village in Hampahire, Eng. 6 m. E. of 

Belvoir castle, the ancient seat of th« 
dnkes of Rutland. In the church are aeveral 
handsome monuments of that noble family ; and 

many Roman antiquities have been found in tha 
neighbourhood. Pop. 1,070. 

BottUluU, p.L Morris Co. N. J. IS m. N. W. ol 

Bonear, a town in the north part ofthe duohr 
of Wlrtemburg, On a river of its name, 16 a. S. 
S. E. of Hulbion. Pop. about 9,000. 



Botxen, a large town in the interior of the TV- 16 m. S. W. of Calais, in lat. 50. 46. N. mi 1. 

rol, beautifully located near the junction of the 37. E. long. There is also another town of the 

Eich and Eisach, branches of the Adiffe river, same name in France, in the department of Upper 

It has some manufactures of silks, and nas four Garonne, having several tanneries. It is 12 m. 

feirs annually, numerously attended. The sur- N. by W. of St. Gaudins. 

rounding country produces excellent wine. It Bourbon^ an island in the Indian oeeaiK 50 m. 

was taken by the French in March, 1797, but re- long and 35 broad, Ijring 400 m. east of Madagas- 

taken by the Austrians immediately after. An oar. It has not a saJe labour, but there are some 

Austrian commandant resides here. It is about roads for shipping. On the S. £. is a volcano. 

18 m. N. of Trent. Pop. about 8,000. It is a fertile island ) producing, in particular, the 

Boizemburghf a town of Brandenburg, in the finest cotton, and excellent coffee. The French 

Ucker Mark, 9 m. S. W. of Prentzlau, and about settled here in 1672. It surrendered to the EnfUsh, 

50 m. N. of Berlin. It has a manufacture of silk, after the capture of the Isle of France, on the 3d 

Bauehain. a fortified town of France, in the de- of December, 1810. But Bourbon was restored 

partment of Nord, divided into two parts by the at the General Peace in 1815 ; since when, the 

Scheldt. It was taken by the allies m 1711, un- culture of sugar, coffee, and cotton, has been pur 

der the Duke of Marlborough, but retaken the year sued with great avidity, by the aid of slaves, ob 

following ; and was invested by the Austrians in tained firom Madagascar. . It also produces a va- 

1793, but soon relieved. It is 9 m. W. of Valen- riety of woods, resins, ffums, and fiints. Wild 

cicnnes. goats and hogs abouna in the mountains and 

Bauchart, a town of France, in the department woods. The cattle in the plains are numerous ; 

oflndre and Loire, situate on an island in the river and the coasts supply abundance offish. On 

Vienne, 15 m. S. S. W. of Tours. the whole, this island affords, not onl^ all the 

Bouekemainf a town of France, in the depart^ means of subsistence, but of enioyment m a very 

ment of Mayenne and Loire, 4 m. S. of Angers, high degree. The white inhabitants are suppos- 

BouelanSj a town of France, in the department ed not to exceed 5,000 ; and the slaves about 20,- 

of Doubs, 8 m. E. of Besanoon. 000. St. Denis is the chief town, in lat. 20. 52. 

£oic(fry, a town of Switienand, in the County N. and 55. 30. E. long, about 100 m. S. of the 

of Neufchatel, 4 m. S. W. of Neufchatel. It was Isle of France, 

the 'birth-place of Marat. Bourbon, an interior County in the N. W. part 

BougainviUe's Strait f on the S. Pacific Ocean, of the state of Kentucky. Pop. 18,434. Paris, 
between an island of the same name and the north situate on a fork of the south branch of the Lick- 
end of Solomon's Island, in the lat. of 7. S. and in^ river, 40 m. E. of Frankfort, is the chief town. 
156. E. long. Bourboti Lancy, a town of France, on the west 

BomUon^z. town of Netherlands, in Luxem- side of the department of Saone and Loire, cele 
burff, with a castle, en an almost inaccesible bnted for its not mineral waters, and a larse mar- 
rock. The French took it in 1676, when Louis ble pavement, called the Great Bath, which is a 
XIV. gave it to the duke of Bouillon. In 1794 work of the Romans. It is 28 m. S. W.of Autun. 

this town was taken by storm, by general Beau- Pop. 2^800. 

_ _ fiunily 

France, 6 m. N. N. E. of Sedan, and 46 W. by kings of France. Ifis situate near the nver Al- 

N. of Luxemburg. lier, 15 m. W. of Moulins. Pop. 2,600. 

BouUly, a town of France, in the department Bowrhonnt U» Baing, a town of France, in the 

of Aube, 7 m. S.. of Treves. department of Upper Mame, fiunous for its hot 

BouUvy a town of France, In the department baths, 18 m. E. N. E. of Langres . Pop. 3,200. 

of Moselle, 13 m. N. E. of Metz. Bo w bo mu nSf a late province of France, boun- 

Boulozfi»f a seaport of France, in the depart- ded on the north by Nivemois and Berry, west 

ment of Pas de Calais. It is divided into two by Berry and Marche, south by Auvergne, and 

towns, the Upper and the Lower ; the former is east b^ Burgundy and Forez. It abounds in 

strongly fortified ; but the latter is merely sur- com, fruit, pastures, wood, game^ and wine. It 

rounded with walls. The ^ort has for a lone now forms the department en Allier. 

time been so shallow that no ships of burden could Bourbourg,tL town of France, in the depart^ 

enter it. But owinff to some recent improve- ment of Nord, seated near the river Aa, and on 

ment, it is represented to hold ten feet at low wa- a canal, that communicates with Calais and 

have been added. Under Bonapute, Boulogne ent parts of France ; among the more considera- 

was made a royal port, and no merchant vessel, ble are, 

{>rivateera, nor even prizes were admitted, unless Bomrg'tn-BresM, the capital of the department 

oaded with ordnance or military stores, being the of Ain. Near it is the magnificent church and 

principal depot of the armaments which he intend- monastery of the Augustins, which contains the 

ed for the invasion of Britain. Since the peace mausoleum of Margaret of Austria, and of Charles 

in 1815, it has been noch resorted by the £n^ V. The principal commerce is in com, hones, 

ish, several hundreds of families having adoptml cattle, and white leather. It stands in a marshy 

it as their place of residence, who, subsisting on but fertile country, on the river Ressousse, 36 m. 

annuities paid out of the taxes raised in England, N. E. of Lyons, and 233 S. S. E. of Paris. It was 

eontribttte essential^ to the interest of the town the birth place of Lalande. Pop. about TJdOO. 

and neighbourhood. Bonaparte oommeneed the Bomrg^nar^Mery in the department of Gironde, 

•fBOtionof a. tower, apMjentlf intended to be car- with a tide harbour on the Dordogne, near the 

riedto a^greathei^ht ; but it is left in an tinfinish- point of land formed by the junction of that river 

ed state, and its utility is not very obvious. It is with the Gan>iuie, on its north aide. It has a 




great trade in wine, and ia 15 m. N. by £. of Bor- 
deaux. Pop. 2,700. 

BouTEaneufy a town of Francei in the depart- 
ment of Crease. Here is a lofty tower, faced with 
stones cut diamond-wise, erected by Zisim, broth- 
er of Bajazet II. emperor of the Turks, when he 
was obliged to exile nimself, after the loss of a deci- 
sive battle. Bourganeuf is seated on the Taurion, 
20 m. N. E. of Limoffes. Pop. about 2,000. 

BauTfeSf a city of France, capital of the depart- 
ment of Cher, and an archiepiscopal see, with a 
university, founded by LK>uis Xl. the Nero of 
France, who was bom nere. In extent, it is one 
of the greatest cities in France, but the inhabitants 
hardly exceed 17,000. The principal manufac- 
tures are cloth, woolen stuffs, and stockinffs ; but 
the trade is inconsiderable. It is seated at the 
conflux of the Auron and Tevre, 25 m. N. W. of 
Nevers, and 125 S. of Paris. 

Bourgetf a town of Savoy, on a lake of the 
same name^ near the Rhone, 6 m. N. of Cham- 

BauTgntmfj a seaport of France, in the depart- 
ment of Lower Loire. The chief trade is in salt, 
made &om the adjacent saltpmamhes. It stands 
on a bay to which it gives name, between the 
isle of Noirmoutier and the continent, 20 m. S. 
W. of Nantes. It has an oyster fishery on the 
coast ; some ships are also fitted out from hence 
for the Newfoundland fishery. Pop. about 2,000. 
LK>ng. 1.51. W. lat. 47. 3. N. 

Baurgoinj a town of France, in the department 
of Isere. Some hemp is raised in the vicinity, 
and it has some mannfiictures of chintz. Pop. 
about 3,600. 

BoMTgmeU, a town of France, in the department 
of Indre and Loire, 22 m. W. of Tours. It has a 
Benedictine abbey and castle. Pop. about 2,800. 

Bourlas, a large lake, or bay, lying between the 
Rosetta and Damietta branches of the Nile. On 
the East Cape is a town called BourloSf in the 
lat. of 31. 36. N. and 31. 27. £. lone. 

Boumumif a town of France, in Uie department 
of Upper Mame, on a steep mountain, 20 m. £. 
by N^ of Chaumont. 

BouTHj a town in Lincolnshire, Eng. It has a 
navigable canal to Boston, and is seated at the 
source of a rivulet that runs to Spalding, 35 m. S. 
of Lincoln, and 97 N. of London. Pop. in 1821, 

Bcvmabatf a villaee in the vicinity of Smyrna, 
where Homer is said to have written his Iliad. 

BaurOj one of the Molucca islands, in the Ban- 
da Sea, between Celebes and Coram, about 90 m. 
long and 30 broad. Some mountains in it are ex- 
tremely high, and the sea on one side is uncom- 
monly deep. It is represented as being exceed- 
ingly fertile, yielding abundance of rice. One of 
«ts peculiar vegetable productions is the meUdeuea 
evtigoUa, from the leaves of which the Cajeput 
ml IS extracted, which forms one of the principal 
articles of traffic. The nutmeff, clove, cocoa, 
banana, and ebony trees, as well as the orange, 
lemon, citron &C., are also common to the island. 
The natives, who live mostiv in the interior, are 
re p resented to be as rude ana unsocial as those of 
Borneo, to whom they bear a dose affinity in fea* 
tnze, manner, and character. Wild boars, goats, 
and no|gr deer, ranffe in the woods, which are also 
mnch infested wiu reptiles, and some of an enor- 
mous sia». There is a town of the same name on 
tlie shore of a commodious bay, called Cajeli, on 
the north east part of the island, in lat. 3. ^. S. 
and 127. £, long, where the Dutch have a fort ', 

their grovelling policy precludes alike all social 
improvement among the natives, whilst it consti- 
tutes a barrier to the attainment of all knowledge 
of the details of their numbers, economy, and re- 
sources. Some Mahometans, and natives of oth- 
er islands, who live in subservience to the Dutch, 
inhabit the towns upon the coast. 

BvurUusj a town of France, in the department 
of Pas de Calais, 12 m. S. E. of Boulogne. 

BaussaCf a town of France, in the department 
of Creuse, with a castle on a rock, 25 m. N. E. of 

Bouton, an island of the Indian Ocean, lyine 
off the south east promontory of the island <n 
Celebes, about 180 miles in length from N. to S. 
and 25 in breadth. It is in part mountainous and 
woody, but in other parts exceedingly fertile. 
The natives appear to be of Malayan ongin, pro- 
fessing the Mahometan faith. It is governed by 
a sultan, who lives in considerable state, and 
whose authority extends over some small islands 
contiguous. Forts are constructed, on several in- 
accesaible heights, in difierent parts of the island. 
It is said to proauce cotton of a very superior 
miality, whicn the natives manulaeture into 
cloth. The north point of the island is in lat. 4. 
21 . S. and 123. 5. E. long. The Dutch attempted 
to establish tiiemselves upon this island > but 
their perfidy led to a ffencral massacre, and they 
have not since renewed the attempt. There is a 
town of the same name at the nortn west extremi- 
ty of the island, at which the sultan usually re- 
sides. There is also another island (a small one) 
called Bautan, off the Malay coast, in lat. 6. 25. 
N. and 99. 15. E. long. 

BotUottne, a river of France, rising in the de- 

Sartment of Deux Sevres f becomes navisnible at 
It. Jean D'Angely, and falls into the Charente 
about 10 miles above Rochefort. There is a town 
of the same name, on the north bank of the river, 
about 18 m. W. of St. Jean D'Angely. 

BoumgneSf a small fortified town of the Neth- 
erlands, on the west bank of the Meuse, about 14 
m. S. of Namur. This is the spot where a great 
victory was gained by Philip Augustus, king- of 
France, over the Emperor Otho IV., A. D. 1214. 

Bouzdoffony a town in the south west part of 
Natolia, tmout 18 m. N. W. of Melasso. 

Bouzokf a town of Asiatic Turkey, near the 
north east confines of Caramania. and near the 
source of a branch of the Kisil Jarmak River, 
which falls into the Black Sea. 

Bauzonmlle, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Moselle, on the river Nied, 27 m. N. £. 
of Metz. 

Bova, a town of Naples, in Calabria Ultra, at 
the southern extremity of the promontory of 
Italy. The inhabitants are supposed to be de- 
scendants of Albanians, ^reat numbers of whom 
are scattered over the adjacent country. Pop. of 
Bova about 2,300. 

Bavellesy a town of France, in the department 
of Somme, 6 m. W. S. W. of Amiens. 

Bavenden^ or Bawarien, a town in the princi- 
pality of Callenberg, about 3 m. N. ot Goi- 

Sovenaef or Borgense, a town on the north 
coast of the island of Funen, firom whence there 
ia a ferry over to KliUcring, in Jutland. 

Boves, a popidoos town in Piedmont, a few m. 
S. of ConL 

Botfinayp.L Delaware Co. N. Y. 76 m, fi. W 
Albany. Fop. 1,346. 

BimnOf a town of Naples, in Capitanata, aeato<} 

BOX 118 BRA 

at ike foot of the Apenniiiefli 15 m. N. £. of BosElctf, a village in Kent, Gng., four miles north 

Benevento. of Mai<Mton(!, funous for an abbey, founded in 

BotDf or Stratford le Bow, one of the out ptrisb- 1146, some remains of which still exist. In this 

es of London, on the east side. The church is 4 abbey, Edward II. granted the charter to the eity 

miles from the Royal Exchange. Bow is situate of London, empowering them to elect a mayor, 

at the south-east extremity of the county of Pop. 1,166. 

Middlesex, separated from Essex by the river Lea Boxtd, a town of the Netherlands, in Brabant, 
(see Blackwall). The church is Tory ancient; seated on the river Bommel, and furnished with 
and an old stone bridge over the river is supposed sluices. Here the British anid Dutch troops, un- 
to have been the first erected in England, and der the duke of York, were defeated by the 
the cu^e or bow of the arch to have given name French in 1794. It is 6 m. S. of Bois le Due. 
to the town. Over this bridge is the great outlet Pop. 2,650. 

from London to the 3 eastern counties of England : Boydstown, p.t. Mecklenburg Co. Va. 

vis. Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. The pop. of BoydsvUUf p.t Davidson Co. Ten. 20 m fritn 

the parish of Bow in 1821 was 2,349 ; and of Nashville. 

Bromley, immediately contiguous, 4,360. In this BoyU, a populous parish, and borough of Ire- 
section of the metropolis are several very exten- land, in the county of Roscommon, on the fron- 
sive floor-mills, chymical laboratories, and other tier of Sligo. Here are the ruins of an abbey, 
works, the operations of which are aided, con- near the lake Key, and manufactures of linen and 
jointly with steam, by the waters of the Lea. yam. It has extensive barracks, seated on the 

BoWf one of the Society Isles at the south east river Boyle, 23 miles north of Roscommon, and 
extremity of the Cluster, in lat. 18. 23. S. and 86 north west of Dublin. It returned two mem- 
141. 10. W. long. It was discovered by Captain hers to the Irish parliament previous to the union. 
Cook on his first vovage ; but, with 130 fathom of Pop. of the town in 1821, 3/107; and of the par- 
line, no bottom could be found for anchorage. It ish, including the town, 11 ,181. 
seemed barren ; but from appearance of amoke, Boyiston, p.t. Worcester Co. Mass. Pop. 820. 
it was conjectured either to be inhabited or vol- Boyrts, a river of Ireland, which rises in the 
canic. north part of the county of Kildare, crosses the 

Bow, t. Merrimack Co. N. H. adjoining Con- county of Meath, past Trim and Navan, and en- 
cord. Pop. 1,065. ^ ters the Irish channel below Drogheda. In this 

Bawdoin, p.t. Lincoln Co. Me. Pop. 2,095. river and on its banks James II. was defeated by 

Bowdoinham, p.t. in the same Co. Pop. 2,061. William HI. in 1690. 

Bowerkmk, t. Penobscot Co. Me. 40 m. N. W^ Bozolo, a fortified town of Italy, in the Maa- 

Bangor. Pop. 49. tuan, sealed on the Oglio, 15 m. 8. W. of 

Bowers, p.v. Essex Co. Va. and Southampton Mantua. 

Co. Va. Botrah, p.t. N. London Co. Conn. Pop. 

Bowes, a town at the north west extremity of 1,078. 

the county of York, Eng., situate at the foot of Bra, a large town of Piedmont, in the province 

the mountains on the frontier of Westmoreland, of Alba, situate near the Junction of the Stura 

on one of the Roman military ways, now the high with the Tanaro River, 10 miles louth east of 

road from London to Carlisle. Its antiquity is fur- Carmagnola. Pop. about 10,000. Cherasco, with 

ther manifest, from a stone in the church, which, at a further population of about 11,000, is situate on 

the commencement of the last century, was used the opposite bank of the river, 

as a Communion table, on which is an adulatory Braan, a river of Scotland, in Perthshire, 

inscription to the Emperor Adrian. It holds a which descends from the hills east of Loch Tay, 

market on Fridays, 53 m. S. by E. of Carlisle, and and flows into the Tay above Dunkeld. Upon 

250 N. by W. of^ London. Poo. in 1821 .1,438. this river is a grand soene, at a place called the 

BowUi^ Green, there are villages of tnis name Rumbling-bridge. Under an arch, thrown over a 

in Va., l^n., Ohio., Geo., and Missouri, narrow chasm, between two prmectin^ rocks, 

Bowmare, a town of the isle of Islay, Scotland, the river is precipitated in a mil of^near 60 

on the coast of Argyleshire, on the east coast of feet! 

Loch Indal. Pop. iSout 700. Brmhant, a territory in the north west part of 

Botones, a village in Westmorland, Eng., on the Europe, lying between the lat. of 50. 30. and 51 . 
east side of Windermere-water, 9 miles west by 85. N. and 4. and 5. 10. £. long, formeriy belong- 
north of Kendal. It is a great mart for fish and ing to Austria, and afterwards part of the king- 
charcoal ; and the chief place for trading and dom of the Netherlands. It will be best under- 
pleasnre boats used in navigating the lake. stood divided into two parts : vis. North or Duteh 

Bownsss, a village in CumberUnd, £ng.,at the Brabant, and South or Austrian Brabant. Dutch 

west end of the ricts wall, on Solway finith, 13 Brabant lies north of the Scheldt, the north east 

miles west by north of Carlisle. It was a Ho- being bounded by the Af aese, its 4 principal towns 

man station, called Blatum Bulgium; and firom being Bergen-op-Zoom, Breda, Bois-le-due, and 

hence Antoninus began his Itinerary. Endhoven. South, or Austrian Brabant, is bound- 

Boxberg, a town of Germany, m the grand ed on the west by Uie Dender and Scheldt, south 

duchy of Baden, with an ancient castle on an by Namur, and esst by Li«gC[« This district was 

eminence ; seated on the Tauber, 13 m. W. or overrun by the French in 1792, who were driven 

Mergentheim. back the following year; but returned in 1794 

Boxkorougk, p.t. Middlesex Co. Mass. Pop. and effectually subdued liie whole of the Austri- 

474. an Netherlands, which were confirmed to them 

Bozford, a village in Suffolk, Eng., 5 miles by the treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, and of 

' from Sudbury. It has a great trade in malt, and Luneville in 1801, when they divided South Bra- 

a manufacture for dressing sheep and deer skins bant into two departments; vis. Deux Nethes. af- 

(n oil. Pop. 743. ter the name of two rivers which run from N. to 

Boxford, p.t. Essex Co. Mass. on the Merri- 8. uniting at Lier, and afterward fall into the 

maok, 14 m. above Newburyport. Pop. 987. Scheldt ; and the Dyle, named after another riveti 

BKA 119 BRA 

miuuiig from S. to N. past LKmraiii 9nd Malues, dries, as many maohine maniifaetories, and aeTeral 

into the Nethes, before it falls into the SoheldL employers both in the manufacture of hats and 

The fonuer of these divisions, besides the towns combs ; and, that there may be no lack of un- 

above mentioned, contains the city of Antwerp, ceasing toil, the cotton manufacture has also es- 

and the towns of Tumhout and Herenthals, and tablished itself in the parish. The town is situato 

numerous villages; and the latter, Brussels, at the foot of the ridge of mountains which divides 

AxBchot, Tirebnont, &o. &c. With some partial the West Riding o? Yorkshire from Lancashire, 

exceptions, this is a very fertile and important on the banks of a small river, felling into the Aire, 

district ; it yields, after supplying its inhabitants on the south side. It has also the advantage of a 

with abundance of all things necessary for sub- collateral cut to the Leeds and Liverpool canal ; 

slstence and comfort, a surplus of flax and of and consequently a facility of communication, of h 

wheat of very superior quality. It was annexed water, witli all parts of the kingdom. The snr- 

to Holland at the general peace; and Brussels rounding country abounds in iron ore, coal, flag- 

made the seat of government in alternate years stones, and slates. The parish church is a stately 

with the Hague (see Netherlands.) The inhabitants Grothic edifice : a new church, built by subscrip- 

are Catholics, and speak the French language. tion, was opened in 1815. It has several other 

BratadaU, a town and parish of Scotland, on religious places of worship, a free grammar 

the west coast of the isle of Skye, which in 1821 school, and a market hall for the exhibition of the 

contained a pop. of 2,103. worsted stuffs brought for sale ; It is 10 m. W. of 

Braedano, a town of Italy, in the patrimony of Leeds, and 9 N. E. of Halifax. 

St Petor, celebrated for manufactures of paper, Bradfordj derived f^om two Saxon words imply- 

the ruins of Veia, and some warm baths in its ing Broad ford, is the name of six other towns and 

vicinity. It is situated on a hike of the same viflaffes in diflerent parts of England, situate on 

name, 12 m. N. W. of Rome. the banks of streams that formerly used to be 

Bracciffliano, a town of Naples, in Prinoipato forded. 

Citeriore, 7 m. N. N. W. of Salerno. Bradford, a county in the E. District of Penn- 

BraeevUU, p.L Trumbull Co. Ohio. sylvania, bordering on New York. It is intersec- 

Bracken, a frontier county on the north east ted by the east branch of the Susquehannah river, 

side of Kentucky, bounded by the Ohio River, which receives numerous collateral branches 

Pop- 6,392. Augusta, on the Ohio, 90 m. N. £. flowing from all directions within the county, 

rf Frankfort, is the chief town. Pop. 19,669. Towanda, 189 m. N. by E. of Harris 

Brackenham, a town of the duchy of Wirtem* burg, is the chief town, 

berff, about 6 miles W. of the Necker at Lauflfen, Bradford, p.t. Merrimack Co. N. H. 80 m. fr. 

and 18 N. of Stutoard. Pop. about 1,500. It Boston. Pop. 1,285. 

has a well endowed hospital. Bradford, p.t. Essex Co. Mass. on the Merri- 

BnuMeyy a borough in Northamptonshire, Eng. mack, opposite Haverhill. Pop. 1,856. This town 

It contains two churches, and had formerly a has some ship-building and manufacture of shoes. 

college, now a ftee-school. It is seated on the It is 10 m. from Newburyport. 

OuM, 18 m. S. S. W. of Northampton, and 63 Bradford, p.v. Orange Co. Vl. 53 m. S. E. 

N. W. of London. It returns two members to Montpelier. Pop. 1,507. 

parliament. Pop. in 1821, l^L Bradford, East and West, towns in Chester 

BraeUuo, a strong town in the south of Rus- Co. Pa. 

sian Poland, capital of the Palatinate of its Bradford, t. Clearfield Co. Ohio. 

name, in Podolia. It stands on the river Bog, 85 Brading, a corporate town of Hampshire, Eng. 

m. E. of Kaminieck. near the east angle of the Isle of Wight, at the 

Bradfidd, a town in f^asex, Eng. seated on the head of a large haven, which admits small vessels 

river Blackwater, 16 m. N. of Chelmsford, and 44 to the quay at high water. It is 6 m. E. of New- 

N. N. E. of London. Pop. 822. port, and 8 S. of Portemouth. Pop. in 1821, 2,023. 

Bradfidd, is also the name of a township, in Bradley, derived from two Saxon words, broad 

the parish of Ecclesfield, Eng. 6 miles north of ley, the latter signifying meadow or pasture 

Sheffield, in the manufactures of which it is ex- land, is the name c? about twenty towns and vil- 

tensiveiy occupied. Pop. in 1821, 5,298. It is lafies in different parte of Exurland ; all inconsider- 

also the name of seven other towns and villages able. And Brad precedes different terminations, 

in diflTerent parte of England, all inconsiderable, names of about twenty otiier towns and villages 

Bra^ord, a town in Wiltohire, Enjr. It is the in England ; all, likewise, inconsiderable, 

centre of the greatest fabric of superfine cloths in Braga, a city of Portugal, capital of Entre- 

England, and IS eminent for the nicest mixtures. Douro-e-Minho, and the see of an archbishop, 

Tbne are about twenty extensive establishmente. primate < f Portugal. It contains four churches, 

It stands on the side of a rocky hill, on the Lower besides the oathearal, and eiffht convente. There 

Avon, 10 m. N. bv W. of Warminster, and 100 are some ruins of an amphiueatre, and an aqua- 

W. of London. Pop. in 1821, 10^231. duct. It is seated in a fertile country, on the 

BraMfrd, a krj^ andpopulous parish and town Cavado, about 25 m. N. by E. of Oporto, and 180 

in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Eng. in which m. N. of Lisbon. 

manufkcturing industry manifested itself as strong- Braganxa, a city of Portugal in Tras os MonteS| 

ly daring the fint 20 yean of the present centu- capitelof a duchv of the same name. It is di- 

ry, as in any part of the kingdom. The town, vided into the ol^ and new town : the former is 

which in 1801 contained a pop. of only 6,393, and en an eminence, surrounded by double walls, now 

in 1811 of 7,767, in 1821, contained 13,064, and the in ruins ; and the latter is on a plain, at the foot 

agwre^ate of the parish 52,954, which in 1811 was of a mountain, defended by a fort. It is seated 

onfy 36,358. In the town there are about finrty on the Fervanza, 32 m. N. N. W. of Miranda, 

luge deidera in wool, about 30 lai^ establisli- and 88 N. E. of Oporto. The duchy was con- 

mente for the spinning of ditto, and sixty factories stituted in 1442, and the possessor of the title was 

for the weaving of ditto, into various kinds of raised to the throne of Portugal in 1640, and hts 

stvflb. It has five or six extMisive iron fova- oonti&iied in sttcoession to the preftsnt tnr 



Brahettadf on* of the ^re principal towns of Kanrsim, on the south bank of the rirer Elbe, 10 

the Ruaaian province of East Bothnia, situate, on N. E. of Prague. 

the east coast of the ipilf of Bothnia, about 30 Brandenburg , eUetaral marquisaU ofj an inte- 
rn. S. S. W. of Uleaborg, in lat, 64. 40. N. and nor and irregularly shaped territory of Eu^pe, 
24. 30. E. long. in the circle of Upper Saxony, lying between the 

Braila^ BrAilme, or IbraUm, a fortified town of lats. of 51. 45. and 54. N. .and 11. and 16. of E. 

European Turkey, situate on the north buik of long. It is separated from the Baltic, on the 

the Danube, at the east extremity of the province norUi, by Mecklenburg and Pomerania ; bounded 

of Wallachia, a few miles south of Galatz, and on the east by Prussian Poland, and on the south 

about 320 N. by W. of Constantinople. by the duchy of Saxonv and principality of An- 

Brailowj or BraJudow, a town of Poland, in Po- bait, and on the west by M^deburg. Its area 

dolia, on the river Bog, 30 m. N. W. of Braclaw. may be estimated at about 12,000 square miles. 

BrMiurtL, a missionary station in Tennessee, From the tenth to the fifteenth century this 

on the Tennessee river, about 140 m. S. W. territory passed under various governments sub- 

Knoxville. ject to Poland, when, in 1417, it was vest- 

Brmn le ConOe, a town of the Netherlands, ed in perpetuitv, by the emperor Sigismund, 

in UainauJt, 15 m. S. S. W. of Brussels. Pop. with consent or the Germanic confederacy, to 

about 3,000. Frederic VI. of Nuremberg, and his descendants ; 

BrmitUree, a town in Essex, Eng. It has a a succeeding margrave havinff been acknowledg- 

considerable manufacture of baize, and is joined ed sovereign of the then duchy of Prussia which 

on the north by the extensive village of Booking, in 1701 was converted into a kingdom. The 

It is eeated on the river Blackwater, 11 m. N. by seat of government was transferred from Konip- 

£. of Chelmsford, and 40 m. N. £^ of London. Pop. berg, in Prussia, to Berlin in Bradenburg, which 

2,983. has thereby become the chief part of the Prus- 

BraintrMj p.t. Orange Co. Vt. Pop. 1,209. sian dominions. It is divided into the five fol- 

Braintrte, p.t. Norfoik Co. Masa S m S. by E. lowing parts : vix. the Old Mark, west ; Prignitz, 

of Boston. Pop. 1,752. It was the birth place of north-west; Middle Mark, south; Ucker Mark, 

John Adams second, and father of the sixth north ; and the New Mark, on the east. It is in 

president of the United States. part a sandv and sterile district ; but having the 

Braintremy p.t. Luzerne Co. Pa. on the Sus- advantage of several navigable rivers, and by the 

quehannah. aid of culture, it is rendered tolerably productive 

Brakel, a town of Westphalia, in the principal- in all that is necessary for subsistence and com- 
ity of Paderborn, on the rivulet Brught, 16 m. E. fort. The bigoted edict of Nantes, which in 
orPaderbom. 1685 drove thousands of the most industrious 

BraliOja, mountain of the Alps, in the country and intelligent of the manufacturing population 

of the Grisons, which separates the valley of of France from their homes, led a number of 

Munster from the county of Bormio. It is sup- them to settle in this part of Europe^ where they 

posed to be the same which Tacitus mentions introduced their respective occuiMitions in the 

under the name of Jo^'Rhetica. manufacture of silk and worstea stuffs, which 

Bramantj a town of^Savoy, on the river Arc, now contributes essentially to the reciprocal bene- 

20 m. E. S. E. of St. Jean de Maurienne. fit of the various classes of the country. The 

Brambetf a borough in Sussex, Eng. It is principal rivers are, 1st, the Oder, which enters 
seated on the Adur, immediately contiguous to the New Mark from the south, runs north, past 
Steyning,51 m. S. by W. of London. Each place Frankfort, Kustrin, and Schwedt, through Pom- 
returns two members to parliament. Pop. of erania, into the Baltic ; 2nd, the Netie, enters the 
Bramber 98 and of Steyning, 1,324. New Mark firom the east, and &Us into the Oder 

BrampUm, a town in Cumberland, Eng. On at Kustrin ; 3rd, the Spree, enters the Middle 

the top of a high hill is a fortified trench, called Mark from the south, runs west by north, falling 

the Mote. It is seated on the river Irthinf , 9 into the Havel west of Berlin ; 4th, the Havel, 

m. £. N. E. of Carlisle, and 311 N. N. W. of rises near the aouth confines of the Ucker Mark, 

London. Pop. in 1821, 2,921. runs south to Potodam, when it makes a circui- 

BrampUm, is the name of twelve other towns tons course west, to the town of Brandenburg, then 

and vUlages ; and Bram, derived from a Saxon north to Havelbierg, where it falls into the Elbe ; 

word implying a bushy country, precedes the 5th, the Elbe, from the south-east, divides the Old 

termination or the names of upwards of twenty Mark from the Prignits ; the Havel is also united 

other towns and villages in different parte of with the Elbe hy a canal across the principality of 

England, all inconsiderable. Magdeburg from Brandenburg past Gentin ; and 

BramsUdty a town of LoweV Saxony, in Hoi- with the Oder by another canaifrom Liebenwalde, 

■tein, near which is a medicinal spring. It is past Neustadt, to Oderberg; the Spree is also 

seated on the Bram, 21 m. N. of Hamburg. united with the Oder by a canal from the south- 

BrmuiWy or Broimav, a town of Bohemia, on east extremity of the Middle Mark to the point 

the confines of Silesia, with a mannfiustuxe of where the Oder enters the New Mark firom 

coloured cloth, 11 m. N. W. of Glatz. Lusatia. The population of this part of the 

BranedUotief a town of Naples, in Calabria Prussian domimons amounts to about 1,250,000, 

Ultoriore, 9 m. S. E. of Bova, at the south ex- who contribute a money tax equal to about 4,500, 

tremlty of the peninsula. 000 dollars per. annum. The inhabitante are 

BranauteTf a village in Norfolk, £n^. 4 m. W. mostly dissenters from the church of Rome, in- 

by N. of Bumham. It was the ancient Brano- dulging in the peculiar tenete of Luther, who 

dunum, a considerable Roman city, and has now promulgated his doctrines at Wittemberg ; and 

a considerable trade in malt. some of Calvin ; but the state makes no distinc- 

Brttncktoumf p.v. Philadelphia Co. Pa. tion ; religious profeaaion be it what it may, being 

firondkotOe, p.v. Sussex Co. N. J. 78 m. N. no obstacle to civil service. The following is a 

Trenton. statement of the principal towns in each m the 

' BrmtdtUf a town of Bohemiai in the circle of five diyisionf ; yii. PngniU, Wittemberg, Put 

BRA 121 BAA 

litz, Perieberg; Old Mark, Werben, Oalerberg, W. S. W. of Fueg<>, and inhabited by the Porta 

Kalbe ; MiddU do. Brandenburg, Potsdam, fier- ffaeBe. The land is high and mountainous, but 

lin ; Ucker do, Prenzlo, Boytzenburg, Anger- lertile ; and horses, beeves, asses, and hogs are 

munde ; Jfew do. Fulkenburgh, Arenswald, Kus- numerous. It has three harbours, but Porto Fer 

trin. reo on the south side is the best for large ships 

Brandenburg, the city which grives name to Long. 34. 39. W. lat. 14. 52. N. ' 
the preceding territory, is divided into two parts, Braubach, a town of Germanv, in the Wester- 
old and new : the former on the north bank of wald, with a castle, seated on the Rhine, 6 m. S. 
the river Havel, and the latter on the south. It of Coblentz. 

is a place of considerable antiquitv, supposed to Bravnau, a fortified town of Bavaria^ formerly 

have been first founded by the Sclavonians, and the residence of the elector. In 1742 it was taken 

fortified in the earlv part of the tenth century, as by the Austrians ; and, in 1777, by the peace of 

a barrier against tne incursions of the Huns. It Teschen the town and its district were ceded to 

has various manufactures. Pod. about 13,000. It Austria. In 1805 it was caotured by the French 

is about 30 miles S. of Havelsberg, and about the and Bavarians. It is seated on the east bank of 

same distance W. of Berlin. There are two other the river Inn, on the frontier of Upper Austria, 

towns named Brandenburg; one in Mecklenburg- 28 m. S. W. of Passau, to which country it now 

Strelitz, surrounded by walls. The streets are belongs. 

wide and straight, the church of St. Mary is a Braunau, a town on the eastern fi^ntier of the 

lar^ structure, and the townhouse is worthy of circle of Koningsgratz, bordering on Silesia. ■ It 

notiqp. It is situate on the Tollensee, 72 m. N. is a manufacturing town, and has a rich Benedic- 

of Berlin : and the other in East Prussia, with an tine abbey. 

ancient castle, at the south end of the Frische jBratmfiB2«, capital of die county of Solms. Here 

HaffjlS m. S. W. of Konigsberg. is a magnificent palace, the seat of the prince of 

Brandon, a town in Sunolk, Eng. It stands Solms-Sraunfels ; and near it is the decayed cas- 

on the Little Ouse, over which is a bridge, and a tie of Solms. It is seated near the Lahn, 10 m. 

ferry a mile below for conveying goods to and W. by S. of Wetzlai. Long. 8. 28. £. lat. 50. 30. 

firom the isle of Ely. It has a great trade in corn, N. 

malt, coal, timber, Ac. and in the vicinity are ez- BraunAurg, a town of west Prussia, in Erme- 

tensive ranbit warrens. It is 15 m. N. by W. of land. It has an academy for catholics, establish- 

Buy, and 78 N. N. E. of London. Pop. in 1821, ed in 1783; and is seated on the Passarge, near 

1,77X). ite entrance into the Frische Haff. It ezporto 

Brandon, p.t. Rutland Co. Vt. Pop. 1,940. great quantities of linen yarn to England, 18 m. 

Brandytcine, a river of Chester county, in the K. £. of Elbing. .Long. 19. 56. E. lat. 54. 30. N 

south east paitrof Pennsylvania, which fails into Bravnston, a village in Northamptonshire, Eng. 

the Delaware a little below Wilmington. It is four miles N. W. of^Daventry, and 72 from Lon- 

distinguished in American history tor a defeat don, on the confines of Warwickshire. Here 

sustained by the revolutionaxy army, on the 11th commences the Grand Junction canal, under a 

of September, 1777. tunnel three-fourths of a mile in length, to the 

Brandyioine, towns in Chester Co. Pa. and Thames, which, with the Oxford ana Coventry 

Newcastle Co. Del. canals, render it the central place of inland navi* 

Branfordf p.U New Haven Co. Con. Pop. gation. Pop. 1^238. 

2,333. Bray, a town of Ireland, in the cou nty of Wick- 

BrasUuDj or Breslau, a city of Lithuania, in low, seated on the river Bray, near St. George's 

the palatinate of Wilna, on tne north side of a channel, 10 m. S. of Dublin. Pop. in 1821, 2,481. 

lake which communicates with the Dwina, 76 m. Bray, a village in Berkshire, Eng. one mile 

N. N. £. of Wilna. south of Maidenhead. It is famous in song for 

Bratsa, or Bressay, one of the Shetland islands, its vicar, who was twice a papist and twice a pro- 

Between this and the principal island, called testant, in four successive reigns, and when taxed 

Mainland, is the noted Brassa Sound, where 1^000 with being a turncoat, said, he always kept to his 

sail of vessels may at once find commodious principle, ' to live and die vicar of Bray.' Pop. 

mooring. m 1821, 3,159. 

Brassaw, or Cronstadt, a strong town in the Brazil, a vast territory of South America, lying 

south east part of Transylvania, on the river between the lat. of 4. N. and 34. S. and 35. and 

Borezel, 50 m. E. by N. of Hermanstadt. 72. of W. long, but being triangular in form, con- 

Brattleboro, p.t. Windham Co. Vt. on the Con- verging into a point southerly, ite area will not 

ncticut. Pop. 2,141. exceed 2,000,000 of square miles, though estima- 

BratUmtiue, p.v. Prince William Co. Va ted by some writers as exceeding 3,000,000. The 

Brava, a republic on the southern extremity of first discovery of Brazil has been claimed for a 
the kingdom of Mogadoxa, and the only one in Martin Behcm, who is said to have visited it in 
Africa. It was founded by seven Arabian breth- 1487, but the credit of making it known to Euro- 
ren, who fled hither from the tyranny of Lacah, peans is assigned to the Portuguese admiral, Pedro 
a petty monarch of Arabia, Fmding a most de- Alvarez Cabral, who sailed from Lisbon on the 
lightful situation between two rivers, near their 9th of March, 1500, with a sauadron of thirteen 
confluence into the Indian Ocean, they built the sail, destined for the East Inoies; when stretch- 
city of Brava, which is now large and populous, ine more than usual to the westward to avoid the 
and the greatest mart on all the coast. . Ite raer- calms on the coast of Africa, he accidentally dis- 

Brava, one of the Cape Verd islands, 12 miles ritory in the name of Emanuel, king of Portugal 
16 L 


For nearly fifty yean, however, it was but little 
appreciated y there being no indications of gold, 
Sliver, or gems, upon Uie coast : it was merely 
used as a place of transportation for criminals, 
the ships conveying them, carrying back nothing 
but the red wood so important in dyeing ; and its 
capabilities would probably have remained much 
longer undisclosed, but for the banishment of the 
.Vcws from Portugal in 1549, who, bv the assistance 
oC their friends in other parts of tne world, intro- 
duced the sugar-cane from Maderia, which flour- 
rished to such a degree as soon to render it an ob- 
ject of great importance. Although its profuse 
treasures of gold, silver, and gems, remained un- 
disclosed, enough had been discovered, and the 
celebrity of the colony became sufficiently general 
by the close of the centur3r, to excite the jealousy 
and cupidity alike of the French, Spaniards, and 
Dutch. In 1724 the Dutch dispatched a squadron 
under the command of Admiral Willikens, who 
succeeded in taking possession of St. Salvador, or 
Bahia, the principal settlement, and proclaimed 
the conquest of the whole territory. The Span- 
iards next sent a formidable squadron, who com- 
pletely dislodged the Dutch; but, in 1G30, the 
Dutch again returned to the country with a force 
of not less than forty-six armed ships, and afler 
seven or eight years of continued warfare, suc- 
ceeded in extending their influence over more 
than half the country ; but their oppressive, mean, 
and grovelling policy became so obnoxious to the 
settlers as to render their tenure exceedingly 
precarious. After various collisions and alterna- 
tions of success between Dutch, Spaniards, and 
Portuguese, towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, the Dutch by treaty ceded all their inter- 
est to the Portuguese, and the influence of the 
Spaniards having been previously subverted, at 
the commencement of the 18th century the whole 
territory came into the possession of the Portu- 
guese. With them it remained for more than a 
century, silently advancing in cultivation and im- 
portance, though, comparativelv speaking, but 
little known to the world until the events of the 
twenty years* war growing out of the French 
revolution in 1793, led, in 1807, to the emigration 
of the Portuguese court from Lisbon, to Rio Ja- 

From this period, the barriers which had pre- 
viously confined the intercourse of Brazil to Por- 
tugal, were at once annihilated, and its features, 
condition, character, and resources, laid fairly 
open to the view and intercourse of^ the worla. 
Since then, cultivation has been vastly extended, 
and its supply of productions doubled, trebled, 
and in some cases, quadrupled. For purposes or 
civil and militaryjurisdiction, it has been divided 
into the thirteen following districts, viz. 1st, Gui- 
ana, comprising the whole extent of country north 
of tne main branch of the Amazon river, bounded 
on the north bj the New Colombian Territory 
and French Guiana. 2d, Para, which comprises 
a vast tract extending from the frontier of Peru, 
the whole breadth of the country parallel with 
Para, south of the main branch of the Amazon to 
*he Atlantic Ocean, and the following nine border 
«ni the AUantic coast, beginning at the north : 

frontier of the United Provinces of Buenos Ayret 
The extent and production of each of these dis- 
tricts will be more fully elucidated under their 
respective heads. lodependeat of the noble river 
Amazon, which has one of its sources near the 
shore of the Pacific Ocean, and by numerous col- 
lateral branches opens a communciation with the 
whole interior of Peru, and dividing the before- 
mentioned provinces of Guiana and Para. The 
Maderia, Tapajos, Xingu, Araguay, and the Toc- 
antins, lUl flowing from the souUi into the Amazon, 
intersect all the interior and northern part of 
Brazil; whilst the Paraguay, and Parana, with 
innumerable branches, mtersect all the southern 

fiart, running south into the great river La Plata, 
n addition to these the Pinare, Barbadoes, Parai- 
ba, St. Francisco, and numerous others of minor 
note, water all the maritime provinces falling into 
the AUantic Ocean. 

A chain of mountains intersects the maritime 
provinces from south to north, from Rio Grande 
to the St. Francisco River, which separates the 
province of Bahia from Pemambuco. The ground 
rises gradually from the ooast to the summit of 
this ridge, wnich varies in altitude from 3,000 to 
5,000 feet above the level of the sea. Westward 
of this ridge, the ground gradually slopes till it 
again ascends to form another mountain ridge of 
somewhat greater altitude than the ^ceding, 
dividing Goias from the maritime provinces, and 
running east of^ and parallel with, the Tocantins 
to its entrance into the Para mouth of the Ama- 
zon. From this chain a collateral ridge branches 
off, intersecting the province of Seaiu, in a direc- 
tion from south to north, to near the shore of the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

Over so vast a tract of land, it cannot be imag- 
ined that the climate will be found at all equal, or 
the seasons uniform. The northern provinces 
are subject to heavy rains, variable winds, torna- 
does, storms, and the utmost fury of the elements ; 
while the southerlv regions are favoured with all 
the comforts which a fine fertile soil and temper- 
ate climate can afford. In some of the provinces 
the heat of the climate favours the generation of a 
variety of poisonous insects and reptiles ; some 
of which, as the Uhoya^ or roebuck snake, are 
said to extend to the length of thirty feet, and to 
be two or three yards in circumference. Lizards, 


3. Maranham. 

4. Seara. 

5. Pemambuco 

6. Bahia. 

7. Minas Geraes. 

12. Goios, interior ; and 13. Matto Grosso, on the 

8. Rio Janeiro. 

9. St. Paul. 

10. St. Catherine. 
IJ. Rio Grande. 

which are found in almost every part of the world. 

row here to an enormous size, and are oflen found 
or 3 feet in length. The rattle-snake, and other 
reptiles of the same kind, grow likewise to an in- 
credible size ; and the serpent called ihabaloka. is 
affirmed to be seven yards long, and half a yard 
in circumference, possessed too of a poison instan- 
taneously fatal to the human race. Here also are 
scorpions, ant-bears, the jaguar, porcupines, janon- 
veras, and tapirs. No part of tne world affords a 
greater number of beautiful birds or greater vari- 
ety of the most exquisite fruits. The chief indig- 
enous vegetable production which gave name 
to the country ana title of prince to the heir pre- 
sumptive of the sovereignity of Portugal, is the 
U^wum BrasiUanumf or Brazil wood, so justly 
celebrated for its colouring properties. Forests 

of tnM, ■■ atelelr in nu >■ «ndlMi in Tuiet;, 
intermixed with bramble* 4Dd creeping planti 
floweringineirery varietjand linffe of colour, emit- 
tlDg the most detieioiu odoun, uid for hundredB 
of Mfture miles in eitenl bo denie m to be quite 
impenetrable, except to tJie native Indisni, tie 
■praad over the greater part of the countr; from 
the Beircoost to the Araguay river, vhich lepaTatea 
tioiaa from Malta Grouo. In the cultivated 
paiU, the palma chijati, orange, lemon, citron, 
■sd Tsrioua olbertreea and planti fiouriah in tb* 
utmostluxuriance ; and among the foreign plaoti, 
the angar-eane, coSae tree, and cotton plant, are 
yielding an increaain; supply of their respec^ve 
piodocti of the very choicest quality ; but tlie 
productions for which BiBiil has hitherto been 
the most celebrated are ita gems, gold, and silver. 
The gems are as various aa beautiful ; and, al- 
thooga diamonda have been appreciated from the 
evlieat periods of social refinement, the lanefft 
and most valuable ever known was found in Bn- 
zi], weighing in its rongh stale 1660 carats or 14 oi. 
troy, whioh, according to the imaginary and con- 
ventional rule of valnlion, at £3 slerhng ibr the 
firrt carat, wooM be equal iu vslue lo ^JXS^IS 
ilollan American miKiey. The quantity of gold 
and silver during a series of years averaged in 
money, about 'JH million doUais per annum. On 
the gold and silveT, the E^vernment levied a tax 
of oae fifth of the pnHTuce, but restricted the 
Marching for diamonda and outting of the Brazil 
wood to iu own agents, subjecting the rioUton 
ofthelawtatheseveieitpenaltieg. Kich as Bra- 
ail is, in a comparatiTe sense, in gems and metals, 
they have obviously retarded, rather than advanc- 
ed, the genuine prosperity of the country, having 
tended to divert the mhabitants from the mora ra- 
timal and socioliiiug pnrauits of agriculture. 
Since 1806, however, cultivation has been pursu- 
ed with greater avidity, and its superior advanta- 
ges once established, it will probably increaae in 
eatimation, whilst the infataating purauits in 
March of diamonds and gold will sidtatde. The 
reToIntionary tpirit, so widely spread over all 
Spanish America ■hortlj aner the commence- 
ment of the present century, extended itself in- 
to Brazil. Pemamboco, in 1917, revolted agunst 
the government, and the whole country maniiest- 

X rather an equivocal dispositon towards the 
g bmily, the court of Rio Jauerio, in 1831, 
emigrated liack to Lisbon, leaving Don Fedro, 
the eideat son of the Icing, as vicero;, who no 
■ooner felt himself sspsrated from paternal allegi- 
anee, than be began to turn hia thoughts to his 
individual agemadizement, and strove to cherish, 
nlber than sobdue, the rcvolutiaaary spirit which 
had previoosh been excited; and on the 11th of 
September, all alle^ance to Portugal was formal- 
Ij denonnced, and Don Pedro proclaimed emper- 
w of Braail, This change not provingsatisfacto- 
ij to all parties, and the integrity of Don Pedro 
^poarinB: equivooat to the neighbouring gr — ~ 
meat of Buanoa Ayres, a spirit of poUticalt! 
etude generally prevula, and the linal 
mode of government Bonseqoently remains pro- 
blematicaf The political cabals, however, have 
Dot materially retarded cultivation and eomnierce, 
which continue toinerease. Of the extent of the 
population accounts are much at variance. The 

._t,,^ — t: r -I. — e jjig ooast of AGrica, 

icnllure commenced, 
, _ moat have added at 

IcMt 50,em annually to the mpulation of the 
■oMt, iiiilias lb* inorlality has Wb proporliana- 


bly great with the importation. The aggrento 
" -'— probably amounts lo near a milmm, 
of whom are slaves and people of eol- 
OUT. The Brazilians ue indolent, and great nam- 
ben of ihoae who are wealthy paae their time up- 
on their estates in the oounlry, where their chief 
delight is to swing in their hammocks all the af- 
ternoon. The cQef amusement beside* this is 
hunting, which iVom the abundance of game in 

it of political disqui- 

ffnee the i 
haa been very great, i 

be carried on to a great . 
inhabit the inland parts, 
live almost in a state of nature ; they are copper- 
coloured, go naked, cohabit indiscriminately, and 
have no signs of religion ; they are strong, lively, 
and gay, and subject lo few diseases ; but of their 
aggregate number, whether one, two, or more 
millions, or only a few thousand, even conjecture 
does not hazard an opinion. See Liiton, Portugal, 
mo JaneiTO. 

Braiza,aa island in the Adriatic, near the coait 
of Dalmatia, 30 mile* long, and 10 broad. Tlie 

and this article, with fire-wood and sheep, form 
the chief trade. It has a town of the same name, 
several villages, and an aggregate population of 
about 15/K)0. Long. 17. S\ K lat,43. 50. N. 

Breagi.t, populous village on the shore of 
Mount's Bay, Cornwall, Eng. with ten mines in 
its vicinity, 4 m. W. of Helstone, and 10 E. by 
8. of Penzance. Pop. in 1821 3,668. 

BrecAiH, a borough of Scotland, in For^, aD~ 
ciently a bishop'* see and Ihe county town. The 
oathedntl il p«tly ruinous, but one of ila aisles 
serves for the parish church. Adjoining to this la 
a cucions antiaue ronnd tower, which tapera firom 
the bottom, and is very slender in proportion to it* 
height. Here is a manufacture of linen and cot- 
ton, and a considerable tannery. It is seated on 
the South Esk, 8 m. W. of Montrose, and 13 E. 
N.E. of Forfar. Pop. in 1831 , 5,906. 

Bnckmridgt, a county of Kentucky, on tfce 
Ohio. Pop. 7^45. Hafdensburg is the chief town, 

Brecketfeld, a town of Westphalia, in the conn- 

R of the Mark, about 30 m, H. N. E. of Cologne.- 
IP. 1,100, 

Brtclatock, towns in Berks Co, and LaneaatH 
Co. Pa. 

Brtam, or Bncknotktlurt, a border county of 
South Wales, bounded on the east by the oonu 
ties of Hereford and Monmouth, north bf Radnor, 
west by Caermaithen and Cardiganahires, ood 
south by Glamorgan, It is a mountainous dia- 
triet, yielding iron, coal, and limestone in ^Mt 
abundance, and some copper and lead, arid Ot 
Uanelly, on the border of Olamorgandiir*, tke 

BRE 194 BOR 

smelting of iron is carried on to some extent. It forraerlj belonged to the Swedes, but was sold to 

has some fertile valleys, and is watered bj the the elector of lianover, in 1719. Stade, on the 

rivers Wye and Uske and other streams, and has south bank of the Elbe, is the seat of regency. It 

the advanta^ of a canal for barges of 25 tons bur- is about 2,100 square miles in extent, contains a 

then from the centre of the county to the Bristol population of about 170,000, and now forms part 

Channel at Newport. It has few or no manufac- of the kingdom of Hoi^over. 

tures ; but, in addition to its iron, it produces a Bremetif a free city, and capita] of the duchy of 

surplus of grain, cattle, and butter, and some wool, the same name. The Weser divides it into the 

out of which a considerable rent and other taxes old and new town, both of which are fortified : the 

are discharged, and a supply of manufactured, former is the largest, and in it stands the cathedral, 

colonial, and foreign productions obtained. The It has a harbour, nine miles below the town, and 

four principal towns are Brecon, Builth, Crick* carries on a considerable trade, bat which was 

howel, and Hay. formerly much more extensive. In 1757 it was 

Brecknock^ or Brecon^ a borough and chief town taken by the French, who were driven out in 1758, 

of the preceding county. It is an ancient place, by the Hanoverians It is 22 m. £. of Oldenburg, 

as appears by the Roman coins that are oflen dug and 54 S. W. of Hamburgh. Pop. about 40,000. 

up ; and its once magnificent castle is now an in- Long. 8. 40. E. lat. 53. 5. M. 

sig^nificant ruin. It contains three churches, one of Bremenm>rd, a town in the duchy of Bremen, 

which is collegiate ; and in that part of the town, defended by a castle. The chancery of the duchv 

called the Watton is a fine arsenal. To the east is kept here. It stands near the Oste, 32 m. if. 

of the town is a considerable lake, well stored with by E. of Bremen. 

fish, whence runn a rivulet into the Wye. It is Brem^ar/«n, a town of Switzerland, in the free 

seated at the confluence of the Hondey with the lower bailiwics, between the cantons of Zurich 

Uske, which &lls into the Bristol Channel and and Bern. The inhabitants deal chiefly in paper; 

with which it communicates by a canal to New- and it is seated on the Reuss, 10 m. W. of Zurich, 

port, near the mouth of the ITsKe, 34 m. N. W. Breiw, a town of Italy, in Bresciano, seated on 

of Monmouth, and 171 W. by N. of London. Pop. the Oglio, 36 m. N. of Brescia. Pop. about 2,000. 

in 1821 , 4,193. Brento, a river which rises in the principality of 

BretUif a fortified city of Dutch Brabant, sur- Trent, passes by Bassano and Padua, and enters 

rounded on all sides by water and morasses. The the gulf of Venice, a little S. of Venice, 

great church is a noble structure, with a lofty Brentford^ an appendage to London, 7 m. from 

X' e 3G2 feet in height. In 1G25 the Spaniards, Hyde Park comer, on the great western road. It 

r a memorable siege of 10 months, reduced is seated on the north bank of the Thames, where 

this city; but, in 1637 me prince of Orange retook the grand junction canal originally communica- 

it. In 1793 it surrendered to the French, after ted with the river ; but an extended line having 

a siege of only three days, but was retaken soon since been cut, skirting the whole of the north 

ailer. It is seated on the river Merk, 25 m. N. side of London, to the vicinity of the docks on 

N. E. lof Antwerp, and 60 S. of Amsterdam. the east, and jetting in its course into the very cen- 

BredoHj a considerable village in Leicester- tre of the city, Brentford derives but little compar- 

shire, Eng. 5 m. N. N. E. of Asnby de la Zouch, ative advantage from that canal. It has however 

seated at the base of a high limestone rock, on some very extensive flour mills, distilleries, soap 

the summit of which the church stands, and com- works, pan, tile, and coarse pottery works, exten- 

mands very extensive views. Pop. 1,044. sive nursery grounds, and various other occupsp 

Bredstedtf a town of Denmark , in the duchy tions dependent on the metropolis. It is a very 

of Sleswick, 21 m. W. N. W. of Sleswick. Pop. old town, as may be inferred m>m its name being 

about 1,500. derived from the Saxon, implying a ford over 

Breeds Hillf an eminence on the north side of the little river Brent, which here falls into the 

Charlestown, in Massachusetts, celebrated for the Thames ; and in earlier times it was distinguish* 

stand made by the Americans against the Brit- ed as having a market on Tuesday, whilst now, 

iah troops, at the commencement of hostilities from the continual intercourse with London, it 

with the mother country. This action is usually has every day the appearance of holding a great 

called the battle of Bunker Hill (another hill near fair. . On the opposite bank of the nver is a 

it.) See Bunker Hill. Gothic edifice, bmlt by George III. for an ooca- 

BregerUZf or Bergena^ a town of Grermany. in sional residence ; and at the west end of the town 

Tyrol, with a castle on an eminence ; seated at is a magnificent edifice, called Sion House, form- 

the mouth of a river of its name, on the east end erly a monastery, now oelonging to the dukedom 

of the Lake of Constance, 6 m. S.E.of Lindau. of Northumberland. The Section of the two 

Pop. about 2,000. members of parliament for the metropolitan coun- 

Breglio, a town of the continental part of Sar- ty of Middlesex is held here ; and dunnga contest, 

dinia, 19 m. N.E. of Nice. ^ ^ tne whole line of road from London and Brent- 

Brehar^ the most mountainous of the Sicily ford itself, presents a scene of gaiety, animation, 

islands, 30 miles W. of the Land's End. Long, and spirit^ that must be seen to be understood ; 

6. 47. W. lat. 50. 2. N. for descnbed correctly it cannot be. Being on 

Brednaf a town of the duchy of Saxony, 8 m. the confines of two or three parishes, the popula- 

N. E. of Halle. tion has not l)een specifically retuned; ont, in 

BrcmBf a town of Italy, in the Milanese near 1826, it may be stated at 9,00i0. 

the confluence of the Sessia .with the Po, on the Brentwaodf p.t. Rockirgham Co. N. H. 20 m. fr. 

frontiers of Montferrat, 28 m. W. of Pavia. Portsmouth. Top. 891 . Here are manu&ctoriea 

Bremenj a duchy and maritime district of Ger- of cotton, 

many, in the cirele of Lower Saxony, lying be- BrentmUe, p.v. Prince William Co. Va. 

1#»U8, but in winter is subject to inundations. It Mantua and the Cremonese, west by BergamiMo, 

north by the country of the Qnaonm, and east by the by Savo^, south by the Viennois, and west b^ the 

principality of Trent, the Veroneee, and Mantua. Lyonnois. It now forms the department of Am. 

The Oglio has its source in the north extremity Bressuire, a town of France, in the department 

of this province, runs south for about 30 miles, of Two Sevres, with a college, 35 m. IS, W. of 

when it forms the lake of Jeso, and afterwards Poitiers. Pop. 2,000. 

the boundary betvreen Bergunasco and the Cremo- Brestj a maritime town of France, in the depart- 

nese. The Chiana intersects the east side, falling ment of Finisterre. Prior to 1631 , it was an insig- 

into the Oglio at the south-east extremity of the nificant fishing town ; but having one of the most 

provinoe ; the Smela and several other streams, commodious and secure harbours in Europe, it 

intersect the centre and southern part of the prov- was improved by the French government, under 

mce. aU falling into the Oglio, and lake Garda the administration of Richelieu, in the reign of 

divides it from the Veronese on the east Its su- Louis XIV. for a marine station, and it is now the 

perficies may be stated at about 3,000 square miles, chief naval depot of France ; situate on a promon- 

and population at 500.000. It has some dreary tory at the western extremity of the kingdom. It 

spots ; but on the whole it may be considered a is equally convenient for tlie equmment of expedi- 

fertile district, producing com, wine, and oil, in tions to all parts of the coast, or oithe world. The 

abundance. Tne vine, olive, and mulberry, all English made an ineflei'stual attempt to take it in 

loxuriate in its soil ; azid the lakes and rivers sup- 1694 ; and during the twentv-thrae years' war, 

ply abundance of fish. It exports some silk ; firom 1793, to 1814, it compelled the "English to 

out its manufactures do not much, if at all, ex- maintain a large blockading squadron off the bar- 

eeed the demand and consumption of the province, hour, without doing the least possible injury to 

Besides Brescia, the capital of the other principal France. The extensive occupations attendant on 

towns are, Breno, Ohiari, Orci, Novi, and Salo. the building, repairing, and equipment of a great 

It was formerly a part of the republic of Venice : national marine, necessarily gave rise to an ex- 

biit is now under tne dominion of Austria. tensive interchange and consumption of commod- 

Brsssui, an ecclesiastical city and capital of the ities of various kinds ; and the town of Brest has 

preceding province, situate in a spacious and fer* consequently risen into importance proportionate 

tile plain, between the rivers Mela and Navilo, to the consequence derived from its being the chief 

on the hi^h road firom Bergamo to Mantua. It is naval station of the kingdom. It now contains 

well fortified, and has a good citadel, on an em- a population of about &,000. It has a marine 

inenee. It has twelve churches, and thirtv con- academy, theatre, &c. It is 33 m. £. of Ushant 

vents. The cathedral and the palace are aaomed Light, in the lat. of 48. 23. N. and 4. 20. of W. long, 

with beautaful paintinn, and in the former is heina 87 m. S. and 6 deg. 49. ) or about 325 geo- 

shown the standard or Constantine. Here are graphical miles, W. by S. of Paris, 

■evend flooruhing manufactures, and its fire-arms BretagtUy or Brittany ^ a late province of France. 

are particalarly celebrated. This city has been 150 miles long and 112 broad. It is a promontory, 

taken and retaKcn several times, by thie Austrians united on the east to Maine, Anjou, and Poitou. 

and French. Pop. about 50,000. A stream, cal- The air is temperate, and it has large forests. It 

led the Gana, runs through the city, aAerwards now forms the departments of Finisterre, Cotes du 

filing into the Mela. It is about 50 m. N. of Nord, Ille and Villaine, Lower Loire, and Morbi- 

Parma, 40 N. W. of Mantoa, and 30 S. £. of ban. 

Bergamo. BreUuU^ a town ofVFrance, in the department 

Bretdlo, a town of Italy, in the Modenese, on of Oise, 14 m. N. N. E. of Beauvais, and 18 S. of 

the fiver Po, 27 m. K. W. of Medena. Amiens. Pop. about 2,200. 

BredoMj an ecclesiastical city and capital of a Breton Cape. See Cape Breton. 
principality of the same name and of all Silesia; Bretten^ a town of Grermany, in the late palati- 
seated on the banks of the Oder, just below the nate of the Rhine, on the frontier of Wurtem- 
innction of the little river Ohlau, which runs berg, 20 m. S. of Heidelberg, and about 30 N. by 
through several of the streets, snd forms two is- W. of Stuttgard. Pop. 2,mK). It was the birth- 
lands. It hss one Lutheran and twenty-six Gath- place of Melancthon, and is now included in the 
abc churches, and is surronnded by walls, territory of the duchy of Baden, diele of the 
strengthened by ramparts and other works. It Pfints and Enz. 

has a great trade in linen, leather, Hungarian Brettam Woods, t. Coos Co. N. H. at the foot of 

wines, ^. and contains 60,000 inhabitants, the White Mountains. Pop. 108. 

The public squares are spacious, the streets toler- Brt/wrd, at Brmaoorty a strong town of Holland, 

ahty wide, and the houses lofi^. Here the Jes- in the county of Zutphen with a castle, situate in 

uits founded a university, in 1702, at which there a morass, 24 m. S. £. of Zutphen. 

are generally about four hundred students. The Brmoery p.t. Penobscot Co. Me. Pop. 1,07B. 

two principal churehes bel<mg to the protestants ; Brewood, a town in Staffordshire, Eng* 10 m. 

near one of which is a couege. This cit^ be- S. by W. of Stafford, and 129 N. W. of London, 

came snbjeot to the king of Prussia in 1741. It Pop. in 1621, 2,263. 

was taken by the Austrians, in 1757, but regained Brsioster, p.t. Barnstable Co. Mass. upon Cape 

the same year. It was for some time besieged by Cod, 16 m. £. Barnstable. Pop. 1,418. 

the French, and surrendered to them in January, Braansk, an interior town of Russia, in the 

1607, and again in 1813; but reverted to Prussia province of Orel, situate on the Desna, an eastern 

after the peace of 1814. It is 112 m. N. E. of branch of the Dnieper, about 250 m. S. W. of 

pFBffue, and 165 N. of Vienna. Long. 17. 9. E. Moscow. Pop. about 4.000. It has an annual fair 

lat. 51. 3. N. The principality contains about 960 very numerously attended. 

square miles of area, and 180,000 inhabitants. jBrunifOA, a town of France, on the fh>ntier r' 

Brede, a river of France, which divides the Piedmont, in the department of Upper Alps, with 

department of Lower Seine irom that of Somme a castle on a craggy rock, and other fortifications, 

and entera the English chann^ at Treport In its neighbourhood, manna is gathered from a 

BrosBe, a late province of France, bounded on . sort of pine tree. It has a handsome churoh, and 

tha north by Burgundy and Franeht Camte, east a noble bridge over the Durance, 20 m. N. of - 


Bm IM BRl 

Embrun, and about 70 E. bj S. of Turin. Pop. her* e^ery other year. In the wan between 

about 3,000. Charles I. and the parliament, the forces of the 

Brianconruty a fortrew of Savoy, near the town latter reduced great part of the town to aahee ; 

of MouBtiers, situate on a rock inaccessible every and the castle was then so far demolished, that few 

way, except by the side of a river, where it is a«- vestiges of it are now observable. The river ia 

cended by two or three hundred steps. The com- navigable up to the town, for vessels of 200 tona 

mon passage from Savoy to Italy is by this burthen, ana for barges as far as Lan^port, and 

fortress. by the Tone to Taunton ; and althoujgh a preva> 

Briartj a town of France, in the department of lence of westerly winds causes the tide at times 

Loiret, seated on the Loire, and has a canal be- to set into the nver with great fury, its naviea- 

tween that river and the Seine. It is40 m. E. S. tion contributes essentially to the interest of uie 

£. of Orleans. town ; commercial intercourse however is prin- 

BHcksvUle, t. Cuyahoga Co. Ohio. cipally confined to the coast. The population 

Bridffehampton, p.v. Suffolk Co. N. Y. at the E. which in 1801 was only 3,644. in 1821 was 6,155. 

end of Lon^ Islana. and the adjoining parish of North Fertherton, om 

BridgeruLf a town of Wales, in Glamorganshire, the south, contained a further population, of 3,091 

with a woolen manufacture -, seated on the Og- It returns two members to parliament, and is 31 

more, a river abounding in trout and salmon, 7 miles S. S. W. of Bristol, and 138 W. by S. of 

miles W. by N. of Cowbridge, and 181 W. of London. It was the birth place of Admiral 

London. Fop. in 1821, 1,701. Blake, the worthy antagonist of Van Tromp. 

Bridgenorth, a borough in Shropshire, £ng. It Bridgewater^ t. Grafton Co. N. H. 70 m. from 

has two churches, and^ a free-school that sends Portsmouth. Pop. 783. 

and maintains eighteen scholars at the university Bridgewalerj p.t. Windsor Co. Vt. 16 m. N. 

of Oxford. It was formerly fortified with walls, W. Wmdsor. Pop. 1,311. 

and had a castle, now in rums. Its trade both by Bridgeioaier^ p.t. Plymouth Co. Mass. 22 m. 

kmd and water is considerable. It is seated on S. Boston. Fop. 1,855. Here are manufactures 

both banks of the Severn, over which is a hand- of cotton, woolen and iron, 

some bridge of six arches. The upper part of the Bridgewater^ p.t. Oneida Co. N. T. 83 m. N. 

town is 180 feet above the bed of the river, and W. Albany. Pop. 1,608. There are 3 towns of 

commands an extensive and delightful prospect, this name m N.J. and Pa. 

An annual fair, on the 29th of October, is very nu- BridgewateTf or Lundy's Lone^ a spot in Upper 

merously attended, and the quantities of cattle, Canada on the West side of Niagara river, near 

sheep, butter, cheese, and bacon, brought for sale, the falb, celebrated^ the scene of a battle be- 

u very great. It had formerly some manufactures tween the Americans and British, on the 25th 

of worsted, which have declined, and the popu- July, 1814. 

lation, since 1800, has in consequence remained ^rti&'furton, commonly called BMrZu^ffttm, a sea- 
stationary, being in 1821, 4,345, and two out par- port in East Yorkshire, Eng. The narbour is 
ishes about 1,100 more. It returns two members commodious and defended by two strong piers, 
to parliament, and is 23 m. S. £. of Shrewsbury , Its mineral waters, and accommodations for sea- 
and 139 N. W. of London. bathing, draw much company in summer; and 

Bridgenort, p.t. Fairfield Co. Conn, on L. I. its trade is considerable, owning about 6/)00 tons 
Sound, 10 m. S. W. Strafford. Fop. 2,803. Also 2 of shipping. It is seated on a creek south of Flam- 
towns, in Harrison Co. Va. and Belmont Co. Ohio, borou^-head, 40 m. £. N. E. of York, and 206 

Bridgeton, p.t. Cumberland Co. Me. Fop. 1,541. N. of Tiondon. Fop. in 1821, 4,275, being 1,145 

BruQetown, p.t. Cumberland Co. N. J. and the more then in 1801. 
seat or justice, 40 m. S. E. Philadelphia. It ^ Bridport^ a borou^^h in Dorsetshire, Eng. It 
stands on a creek running into the Delaware ; it is seated about 3 miles fit>m the shore m the 
is a port of entrv and has some manufactures. British channel, between the rivers Brit and Bride, 
There are also i villages in Maryland of this which unite just below the town, and form a con- 
name, venient harbour, which, since 1822, has been im- 

Bridg€iovm^ih» capital of the island of Barba- proved so as to admit vessels of 200 to 300 tons 

does, situate m the inmost part of Carlisle bay, ourthen. It was formerly celebrated for its man- 

which is large enough to contain 500 ships, but ufactures of cordage, MU-cloth, twine, and net- 

the bottom is foul, and apt to cut the cables. This ting; and Henry V III. granted it a monopoly 

city was burnt down in 1688 ; and suffered also for making all the cordage for the national ma^ 

neatly by fires in 1756, 1766, and 1767. Before rine, which it retained for about sixty roars; 

these fires it contained 1,500 houses; and it has but its manufactures are now inconsiderable. It 

since been rebuilt. The streets are broad, the hous- builds and owns some shipping, and carries on a 

es high, the wharves and quays convenient, and little external, as well as coasting trade. It re 

the forts strong. The church is as large as some turns two members to parliament. Pop. in 1821. 

cathedrals. I^re also is a free-school, an hospi- 3,742. It is 12 m. W. of Dorchester, and 135 

tal, and a college ; the latter erected by the socie- W. by S. of London, 

ty forpropagaUng the gospel, pursuant to the will Bruipoft, p.t. Addison Co. Vt. on L. Cham- 

from its foundation bv a hurricane in 1780, in cathedral, and several other churches for pro- 

which many of the innabitants perished. It is testants and catholics. Here is a manufacture 

scarcely yet restored to its former splendour, of cloth. It was taken by the Prussians in 1741, 

Long. 59. 43. W. lat. 13. 5. N. See Barbadoes. and its ancient castle burned down during the 

Bridgewater, a borough in Somersetshire, Eng. siege. It is seated on the Oder, 25 m. sTE. of 

It is seated on the Parret. over which is a hand- Breslau. Fop. about 9,000. 

some bridge. It has a large handsome church Bring , or Brig, a handsome town of the VaUus, 

with a lofiy spire. The summer assists are held seated on the Saltina river, which fails into ths 

BRI. Vff BBl 

Rhone on the south ndei about 26 miles east of sure. Th^ other places of worship connected 

Sion. It sufiered much from an earthquake in with the establishment, are the Chapel Royal, St 

1755. James's Chapel, and Trinity Chapel, and four oth- 

Bridj or Bri&f a fortified seaport of South Hoi- era situate in the eastern and western divisions of 

land, capital of the island of Voom. The Dutch the town, besides the church of St. Peter's, recent 

took it from the Spaniards in 1572, which was ly erected, which is W &r the most beautiful oma 

the foundation of the republic. It was the birth ment that Brixton nas to boast. Here are also 

place of Van Tromp, and is seated at the mouth a Roman Catholic chapel, a Jews* svnaflrogue, and 

of the Maese, 20 m. W. S. W. of Rotterdam, several meeting houses for the different denomi- 

Long. 4. 1. £. lat. 51. 48. N. Pop. about 3,000. nations of dissenters, most of whom have their 

Brienne, a small town of France, in the depart- schools and distinct benevolent and religious in- 
ment of Aube, distinguished for its military stitutions. Besides the accommodations for sea- 
school, at which Napoleon received his educa- bathing, warm, cold, and vapour baths, of the most, 
tion. It is about 20 m. E. of Troyes. elegant and commodious^ construction, have also 

Brientz, a town of Switzerland, in the canton been erected; while the park furnishes a beautiftd 

of Bern, famous for the cheese made in its neigh- ride, and the spa all the varieties of artificial, 

bourhood. It is situate on a lake of the same mineral, and medicinal waters. Here are also two 

name (nine miles long and three broad) 42 m. S. assembly rooms, a handsome theatre (opened in 

£. of 6em. 1807,) a celebrated race ground, &c. After the 

Briezaij a small town of Brandenburgh, in the battle of Worcester, in iSl, Charles 11. embark- 

middle mark, on the frontier of Anhalt, about 25 ed at this place for France, in a vessel which is 

m. S. of Potsdam. said to have been moored after the restoration in 

BrieuXf St. a town of France, ci4pital of the de- the Thames, opposite Whitechapel. Brighton is 
partment of Cotes du Nord, and a bishop's see, subject to the county magistrates. It is 17 miles 
with a small harbour. It is seated among hills, W. by N. of Beachy Head, 50 £. by N. of Ports- 
near the £nglish channel, 30 m. S. W. of St. mouth, and 52 S. firom London. 
Malo. Pop. about 6,000. Brighton, p.t. Middlesex Co. Mass. 5 m. W. 

Briey, a town of France, in the department of Boston. Pop. 972. This town is celebrated for its 

Moselle, near the river Manse, 12 m. N. W. of Annual Cattle Show and Fair which has been 

Metz. Pop. 1,800. held here ever since the revolution. Vast num- 

Brigalaf a town in the Col de Tende, on the bers of cattle for the Boston market are brought 

frontier of Nice, a few miles S. of the town of here from all parts of the coun^. 
Tende. BrMtaitf p.t. Monroe Co. N. T. 235 m. W. Alba- 

BrigktkdmsbofM, commonly called Brighton, a ny. Pdp. 6,ol9. Also a town in Beaver Co. Pa. 
town of England, in the County of Sussex, situ- Brightgide^ BierUno, the west quarter of thepar- 

ale on a very abrupt and uninteresting part of the ish ofSheffield (whicn see,) containing in 1821 a 

coast of the British channel, at the foot of a range population of 6,615. 

of naked hills, without a tree, either for shelter, BrignaU, a town of France, in the department 

or to diversify the scene. Having no accommoda- of Rhone. During the summer season it is the 

tion for shipping beyond a fishing boat, and the fitvourite resort of Uie citizens of Lyons, who have 

coast here formmg a sort of bay with shoal water, here many elegant villas and country houses. It 

vessels passing up and down the channel keep is seated on the small river Garron, 9 miles S. 

too far out at sea ever to be visible from the of Lyons. 

shore; so 'that Uie view by sea and by land is Bn^o/Ze«, a town of France, in the department 

equally monotonous, yet without any one natural of Var, famous for its prunes. It is seated amo^ 

feature or convensenoe to recommend it, from an mountains, in a pleasant country, 20 m. N. N. £. 

insignificant fishing town. Brighton has become of Toulon. Pop. about 9,000. 
(chiefly in consequence of the patronage of the late Brikuega, a town of Spain, in New Castile, with 

king) one of the principal resorts of gaiety and a manufacture of broad cloth, and a trade in wool. 

fiuduon in the kingdom. Here General Stanhope and an English arm? were 

In 1784 the prince of Wales, afterwards George taken prisoners, in 1710. It is seated on the Ta- 

IV., erected at Brighton, for an occasional resi- juna, 43 m. N. £. of Madrid. 
denoe, an edifice called a marine pavilion. This BrUUm, a town of the duchv of Westphalia, on 

he aflerwards converted into a splendid palace, the river Alme, 27 m. £. by S. of Annsberg. 

^-.-.^ improvements within the last twelve years . -, ^ ^o c^ if-r, 
have been very considerable. A new and perfect- Adriatic, in the lat. of 40. 39. N. and 18. 90. of £. 
ly unique village, denominated Kemp Town, long. Its harbour at one period was the most 
forms the eastern boundary of Brighton; while commodious and secure in the Mediterranean; 
Brighton Terrace, a magnificent range of houses but during the commercial career of Venice, it be- 
on Uie west, stretches into the parish of Hove. A came neglected and. inaccessible, except for small 
commodious market is erected in the Bartholo- vessels. Within the present century, efforts have 
mews, on the former site of the workhouse ; and been made to render it again convement and use- 
it is in contemplation to build a town-hall near fid ; but so long as the subduing and precludmg 
the same spot. The new workhouse, near the sum- line of policy of the present government of Na 
mit of the Church Hill, is a building of consider pies prevails, all efforts at social improvement will 
able extent, well adapted to secure the health be made in vain. The adjacent country, hke the 
and comfort of its inmates. The parish church, harbour, presents an aspect of desolation. It is 
situate on an eminence at the north-west, was surrounded by extenaiye forests ofohve trees, ami 
formerly at a small distance from the town, which some mulberries, from which silk is gathMed. 
has now almostentienohed upon its sacred enclo- Present pop. of the city about 6,000. Itisalioiil 

100 m. S. E. of Naples. ^Higtl <fiad ti Brindin, kingdom. Si|ice th« latter period, although it 

B. C. 19. haf not deelined, it hai been greatly exceeded in 

Brtttii. See Brumn. population, commerce, and importance by Glaa- 

Britnidey a town of France, in the department of ffow, LiTerpodI, Manchester. Leeds, and binning- 

Upper Loire. Near it is a small town called ham. The population of sristol including the 

Church Brioude, on account of a famous chapter, suburb of Bedminister, on the Somersetshire side 

Brioude stands on the Allier, over which is a of the river, and Clifton on the north (which see) 

bridi^ of one aich, 173 fea in diameter. It is 32 in 1810 was 65,dSM, and in 1821, 95,758 of which 

miles N. W. of Fuy, and 34 S. by £. of Clermont, number 42,169 were in the out-parishes, and 52, 

Pop. about 5,000. It was the birthplace of La 819 within the cit^ ; of the increase, the gjestest 

Fayette, distinguished for his enthusiasm in the proportion was m the suburb of Bedminister, 

cause of the Americans to obtain their indepen- which was as 7,979 to 2,279. As into all the 

dence. rivers falling into the Bristol channel, the tides 

Britaehf Old and Aeto. Old Brisach is on the rise to a ^at height, and occasionally rush in 

east bank of the Rhine, and was formerly the with considerable rarv. The spring tides at Bris- 

chief town of the Brisgau ; but the fortifications tol rising to the height of 42 feet, ebbs and neaps 

were demolished in 1741, and the ordnance re- were consemientl^ attended with great inconven- 

moved to Friburg, about 15 miles in the interior, iences and detentions. This circumstance, since 

New Brisach is a fortified town on the opposite the completion of the canal navigation of the in- 

bank of the river, in the French department of land counties communicating with Liverpool and 

the Upper Rhine, about 40 m. S. or Strasburg, London, neither of which puts are materially 

and 250 £. by S. of Paris. The fortification is one afiected by the inequality or the tid^iended to 

of those constructed under the superintendence of divert a considerable portion of the West India 

Vauban, in the reign of Louis XlV. trade, and refining of sugar, from Bristol. It 

BrisofOj a town of Switzerland, on the lake however, retains a certain portion : the importa- 

Maprgiore, 5 m. S. of Looamo. tion of sugar, on an average, of the nx years 

Brisgau, a territory in the circle of Suabia, of 1819-— 1824, wai about 27,0(X) hogsheads per ann. 

about 1,000 square miles in extent, intersected It also imports a considerable quantity of wool, 

by the line of the 48th degree of N. lat. and 8th of firuit, and wine, direct from Sjpain, Portugal ana 

£. long, extending eastward from the Rhine into France ; and maintains a partial intercourse direct i 

the Bfiick Forest As a frontier district border- vrith all other parts of the world, except the East 

inff on France, it has been exposed to ravage in Indies, to which, up to 1826, it had not sent more 

all the wars between that nation and Austria, than one or two ships. From 1809 to 1822, about 

and has been the scene of several bloody contests. £000/)00 had been expended towards the improve- 

At an oarly period of the French revolution, in ment of the harbour. In the latter year an- 

1793, the French reduced nearly the whole of the other act vras mnted for its further improve 

town of Old Brisach to ashes \ and, in 1796^ after ment; and in 1825 numerous arbitrary and op- 

a severe action possessing themselves of Friburg, piessive town does were abolished, or dulv reg 

the capital, but which they were obliged to aban- ulated ; all of which are as well calculated^ to re 

don the sauM year. After various changes of vive and maintain its commeroial prosperity, as 

sovereignty, it was wholly ceded by Bonapvte to to add to the comfort, mterest, and character, of 

the grand duke of Baden, in 180^ confinned by the city at large. It has some extensive works 

treaty with Austria, and in the new subdivisions in copper and brass, and m an u i ac tu ies of glase 

of the territory of the states of Baded, in 1810, the bottles, lead, painters' colours, Ac. &e. Th« 

Brisgau was divided between the three circles of value of ite exporte, however, are inconsiderable, 

Wiesen, Treisam, and Kinzig, the names of three tte West India produce being imported to defrmy 

rivers by which the territory of Baden in inter- the interest on mortgages, or ss the proceeds of 

sected. property acquired by means of the traffic in slaves, 

BrisHno^ a town of Naples in Capitanata, 11m. and the ^iroduce of their labour, since the traffio 

8. S. W. of Manfredonia. was abolished. Ito imports from all other parts 

i?risfac, a town of France in the department of are principally equalned through London. In 

Maine-et-Loire : seated on the Anbenoe, 13 m. 8. addition to the advantages derived from ito com* 

of Angers. merce it is indebted to a hot vrell for a considenr 

Bridolj an ancient maritime, and ecclesiasti- ble portion of the increase fjf its popnlatioii, the 
oal city and county of England, situate at the water being consideBed very efficacious in the 
south-west extremity of the county of Glouces- cure of diabetes, phthisical, scorbutic, and inflaam- 
tor, at the confluence of the little river Frome matoty disorders, it renders it the resort alike of 
with the Lower Avon, which divides it from valetudinarians and of fiuhion. Besides the eft- 
Somersetshire on the south, about ten miles above tbedral and the church of St. Mary Radcliffi;, it 
the confluence of the Avon with the Severn into has sixteen other churches, and Bve episcopal 
the arm of the sea called the Bristol Channel, chapels, some of them beautiful and moalof them 
Bristol was known at a very earW period ; and fine edifices. There are several diasentbig meet- 
abost the year 490 it is mentioned as one of the ing-houses, thirteen feUowship companies, some 
fi)rtified cities of Britian. It was known to the ofwhom have elegant halls, several hospitals, and 
ancient Britons by the name of Cser Oder tuaU other public buildings ; and being surrounded by 
Badan^ or the city of Ostorius, in the valley of a very finlile as well as picturesque country, ite 
Balli, and by wsy of eminence it was sometimes marketaare abundantly supplied with every kind 
called Coer fnis, the British city, and by the of fish, flesh, fowl, veffeUbles, and fruito ; and 
Saxons, JSijgAlffetM, pleasant ^lace. It is adverted two annual faira in March and September are 
to both by Gildus and Nenains, in the fifth and very numerously attended. It has a distinct 
aeiwnth eentnries, and from the period of Henry junsdietion, and returns two memben to pM^iiA* 
U. in the IwelAh, to the middle of the eighteenth ment, the voten amounting to about 8,000. In 
osalttry, it mnlked, next to London, as the most November 1831 this city wis the scene of a teiri- 
papmloa^ cornmevcinl aadiinpotflast plaoe ia the ble riol oecasimied by the reiection of the Re- 


fbnn Bill by the Hoiue of Lords. The popiilaoe parates it firom New Guinea ; and captain Carte- 
were in complete insurrection for two or three ret, 1767, sailed through a channel wnich divides 
days ; many buildings if ere set on fire and des- it on the N. £. from a lon^ island, called New 
troyed, and several people killed. It is 13 m. Ireland. New Britain lies m long. 152. 20. £ 
W. N. W. of Bath, 34 S. S. W. of Gloucester, and lat.4. 0. S. The shores of both islands are 
and 114 W. of London. Long. 2. 36. W. lat. 51. rocky, the inland parts high and mountainous, 
27. N. but covered with trees of various kinds, among 

Bristol, a maritime county of the state of Mas- which are the nutmesr, the cocoa nut, and differ- 

lachusetts, bounded on the south by Buzzard's ent kinds of palm. The inhabitants are black, and 

Bay, and west by the state of Rhode Island, woolly-headed, like negroes, but have not their 

Pop. 49,474. Taunton, the chief town, situate near flat noses and thick lips, 

the head of a river of tne same name, nearly in the Brittany. See Bretagru, 

centre of the county, is 33 m. south of ^Boston. British Anerieay comprises the whole of the 

New Bedford, on Buzzard's Bay, is the other prin- north part of the northern division of the western 

cipal town. hemisphere, from the Atlantic to the Pacific 

Bristol, a small maritime county of the state of Ocean, extending south in the lonff. of 83. W. to 

Rhode Island, bounded on the west by the upper the lat. of about 42. N. but fVirtner west it is 

part of the preceding county, and on the east bounded on the south by a conventional line di- 

by Naraeanset Bay. Pop. 5,466. The chief viding it fh>m the territorv claimed by the United 

town of the same name, situate near the south end States of America, in the fat. of about 48. N. This 

of the county, was aistinguished for the part extensive territory of several millions of souare 

which it took in the slave trade previous to its miles will be found more particularly eluciaated 

abolition by the American government. It owns under the ten heads, as specified un<ler the head 

about 7,000 tons of shipping. of British Empire. 

Bristol, p.t. Lincoln Co. Me. 13 m. E. Wiscas- Brive, a town of France, in the department of 

•et. Pop. 2,450. Correze, with manufactures of silk handkerchiefs, 

Bristol, p.t. Graflon Co. N. H. 90 m. from Bos- muslins, gauzes, dtc. It is seated on the Gor- 
ton. Pop. 799. reze, opposite the influx of the Vezere, in a de- 

Bristol, p.t. Bristol Co. R. I. seat of justice for liffhtful valley, 12 m. S. W. of Tulle. Pop. about 

the county of the same name. It stanos on Nar- 6^K)0. 

aganset £iay, 15 m. S. Providence. It is a hand- Brix, or Brux, a considerable town of Bohemia, 

some town and has considerable commerce. Pop. at the north end of the circle of Saaz, about 8 m. 

3,054. S. W. of Bilin, and 40 N. W. of Prague. Pop. 

Bristol, p.t. Hartford Co. Conn. Pop. 1,707. 2,500. 
This town has large manufactures of wooden and Brixen, a principality of Grermany, lately a 
brass clocks, and 30,000 are sometimes made in a bishopric, in the east part of Tyrol. It is extreme- 
year, ly mountainous, but produces excellent wine. 

Bristol, p.t. Ontario Co. N. T. 218 m. W. Alba- Brixen, a town of Germany, capital of the prin- 

ny. Pop. 2,952. There are 7 other towns of this cipality of Brixen. Beside Uie cathedral, there 

name in Pa. and Ohio. are one parochial and six other churches. It was 

Bristol Bay, a spacious bay, formed by two pro- taken by the French in 1796, and a^ain in 1797. 

jecting points of the west coast of North America. It is seated on the Evsach, at the influx of the 

The mouth of a river called Bristol River, fidlinf Rientz, 38 m. S. by E. of Inspruck. Pop. 4.000. 

Into the head of the bay is in the lat. of 58. 12. N. Brixham, a small seaport in Devonshire, Eng. 

and 157. 33. W. long, and Cape Newnham, which on the west side of Torbajr. celebrated for its 

forms the north point of the bay is in lat. 58. 34. fishery. A quay has been built for the purpose of 

N. and 161. 55. ty. long, and the island ofOona- supplying the ships of war with water. The 

laska, one of the Aleutian group off the south pnnce of Orange, afterward William III., landed 

point of the bay, is in lat. 53. 54. W. and 166. 22. here in 1688. It is 4 m. N. E. of Dartmouth, and 

W. long. 201 W. by S. of London. Pop. in 1821, 4,503. 

Bristol CkamuL an arm of the sea between the Brixen, or Britten, a town of Brandenbufrg, in 

south coast of Wales and the north coast of the the Middle mark, on the Adah, 18 m. N. £. of 

counties of Somerset and Devon, leading into the Wittenberg. 

rivers Severn and Lower Avon on which the city Broach. See Baroaeh. 

of Bristol is situate ; hence its name or rather BroadaUnn, p.t. Montgomery Co. N. T. 45 m. 

misnomer, for it should properly be called Bristol N. W. Albany. Pop. 2,657. 

Bay, the term channel being applicable only to BroadkUn, t. Sussex Co. Del. 

straits of the sea that have passages through tiiem, Broadstairs, a village in Kent, Eng. on Jhe sear 

which that in question has not. shore, two miles north of Raxnsgale. It has a 

Britain, See Great Britain, small pier, with a harbour for li^ht vessels ; and 

Britain, Jfew, a country of North America, is a fashionable resort for searbatmn^, more retired 

comprehending all the tract N. of Canada, com- than Ramagate. Population inconsiderable. 

monJy called toe Esquimaux coun^, including Broadwater, a village in Sussex, Eng. near the 

Labrador and New North, and South Wales. It is sea-coast, 4 m. W. of Shoreham. Pop. in 1821, 

subject to Great Britain ; and lies between 50. and 3,725. 

70. N. lat. and 50. and 100. W. long. There are Brod, Broit, or Brodo, a strong town of Sclar 

innumerable lakes and morasses, wnich are cov- vonia, on the river Saave, which divides it from 

eied with ice and snow a great part of the year, the Turkish province of Bosnia, where the empe- 

The principal settlements belong to the English ror gained a victorv over the Turks in 1688. It 

HndMm Bay Company. See Esqvimaxa, Hudson is 45 m. S. W. of Esseck, and about 120 west of 

Bsw, and Labrador. Belgrade. Long. 18. 30. E. lat 46. 10. N. 

Britain, New, an island in the South Pacific Brod Han, or Hun Brod, a town of Moravia, on 

Ocean^ to the east of New Guinea, explored by the frontiers of Hunganr, 10 m. £. S. E. of 

Dampier, who sailed through the strait which m- Hiadisoh. Pop. about a,000. 


See BokmitcA. 
Brod', DetUidt, ■ town of Bohemia on the titbi 

Sua«&,30m. B. b; E. ofCuilaa. 

Broatra, a town BJid rarlrcBs ofHIndoiMtaDr in 
Guierat, c«Jebrated Tor iu linen*, indigo, and 
luce. It ii 62 m. 8. S, E. of Amedabad. Long- 

Brodiuu, a town of Lithaania, on tha riTvr 
Bereiin&, 100 m. S. ofPolalak, and 40 W. oTMo- 

Broek, a town of Wntphalia, in the dueliT of 
fierg, capital of a eooat; of ita dobie ; leatea on 
llie Rocr, 11 m. N. of Dnneldorf. 

Brotk, a rilloge of North HoUuid, aii milea 
from Aaulerdam. It i> one of the moat lingolu 
and pictureique placet in the world. Tbeatneli 
an payti ja moaaic work with raiiegated bricka ; 
and no corriagec erer enter them. The hoiuei 
are painted on the outiide, and each has a terrace 
and garden to the atrrel, incloaed bj a low rsil- 
ing ; the garden ia adorned with china nana and 
(bell-work, with border* composed of minute par- 
ticlei of itlaaa, of dlfierent colonn. Behind the 
hoiuei are meodowi, full of cattle, in which the 
inhabitant! eanj on a neat trade. Pop. about 

» mo 

pin, on kitd Nelson, fin hia naTal aerricm, aRcr 
the battle of the ^ile. 

Braokt, aConnt; in the W. District of VirfiU' 

ia, bounded on the east bji Washington couotj. 
Pennsylvania, and west bj the OhioRirer. Pop. 
6,774. Wellibarg, on the east bank of the Ohio, 
409 m. N.W. of Richmond, is the chief town. 

BtoelffuU, p.t. Stnfibrd Co. N. H. 90 m. frooi 
Boston. Pop. 671. 

BroolOtld, p.t. Orange Co. VL 16 m. B. MoU- 
pelier. Pop. 1,677- 

Broolifidd, p.t. HodiMD Co. N. T. B6 m. W 
Albany. Pop. 4,387. 

AvoJEjieU, p.t. FairSeld Co. Con. Pop. 1,301 
AUo S towns in Ohio. 

early period, and during Philip'a war in 
1675, was attacked bj the Indians. 'Hie inhabit 
anti collected in onehonie which was immediate 
\j besieged bj the oaragei who set Era inatonllj 
to everj otiwr bnilding in the town. For two 
dajB and nivfati the Indians poured in shot apon 
the people in the house incessantlj but were met 
b; a moat determined defence on the part of the 
besieged. Tbej then attempted to hn> the house 

mouth of a great riTcr colled the Hawkesbnrj, 
and is a irooirharbaur. Lons. 151, 27. E, lat. 33. 

t, Eng. Here is a col- 
clergymen's widows; and neoi 

, ..»ce of the bishops of BochestaT, 

where there is a chalybeate spring, fiiomley is 
senti-d at) the Rarensbaurn, 10 m. 9. bv E. of Lon- 
don. Pop. in 1821,3,417. 

BTomley, a town in Stafioidshire, Eng. 
farmerlv called Abbots-Biomlej, and a( 
Paget Bromley, being giren to lord Paget at the 
disBolulion of the abbeys. It is 7 m. E. of 
Stafford, and 120 S. W. of London. Pop. 1,533. 

•/ There are seren other inconHderable placea 
named Bromley in diSerenl parts of England. 

Brimpton, a Tillagv in Rent, Eng. situtte on an 
easy ascent from Chatham, and containing fine 
barracks for the military of that garrison. See 

Brompiim, an appendage to London, in the par- 
iah of Kennington, whick rte. 

•,* There are six other towni and Tillages 
nonied Brompton, in different parts of England^ 

Brovugraei, a corporate town in Worcester- 
shire, hae- Here are mann&cluies of aheeting, 
nails, andueedlesi and ■ grammar school, found- 
ed by Edward VI. It is seated on the Solwarp, 
13 m. N. N. E of Worcester, 13 S. W. of Bir- 
mingfaam.and HON. W. of London. Pop. in 1821, 

Bnnmeitk, WtM, a town in Staffordshire, Eng. 
7 m. W. by N. of Birmingham. Pop. in 1891, 
9,505, exleosiyelj oocupieain the rarious branch- 
es of the hardware mannlacture. 

Bromyant, a town in Hertfordshire, Eng. seat- 
ed near the Frome, amid fine orchards, 13 m. IT. 
E. of Hereford, snd tiS W. N. W. of London. 

Pop- i;aa7. 

Brono, or Brtmi, a town of Italy, near the south 
ftontier of the Milanese, where the FVnob defeat- 
ed the Anstrians in IBOO. It ia 10 m. S. E. of ' 

Bmti, a town of Sicily, in Val di Dsmona, at 
the foot of Mount JEtna,onthe west side. IIwm 
onfe-^d, with its teniloty, by tha luag at Na- 

In <'""'"g torches at the ends of long poles) bnt 
the garrison continued to de&nd themseWss bj 
firing from the windows and throwing water upon 
the Sames, as they ibrtunately had a pump with- 
in the house. These attempts failing, the Indians 
then prepared a cart loaded with llai, hemp snd 
other combnatible matters, and under cover of a 
barricade of bauds thrust the burning mass by the 


movement one of the wheels came off which tu 
ed the machine aside and exposed the Indians to 
the fire of the garrieon ; a shower of rain coming 
on at the same time extinguished the flames. 
Shortly afterwords a reinforcement of forty men 
arrived fhim Boston, forced their way through 
the enemy and Joined the garrison. The Indians 
then abandoned the siege and retired, having snf 
fered a heavy loss. 

firosUovsn, a township of New York, in Suffiilk 
dounty, Long Island, 60 m. E. of New York. Popi 

" -'■'as, t. HiIU>oronghCo.N.H.43in.fhMa 

lu, p.t. Norfblk Co. Mass. adHiiniDg 
Boston, fivm which it is separated by a wide bay, 
and with whiah it . -.. i 

Is bay, 
It charming view nom Boston Com 

The fi 


Brooklyn J a larj^ town on Lonz Island, sepa- Brouea, a town of Sicily, in Valdi Demona, on 

rated from the citv of New Yaxkhy the narrow the gulf of Catania, 15 m. S. of Catania, 

channel called East River. It is properly a Brough, a town in Westmoreland , £ng. Near 

suburb of that city and is aolace of great business, it is a cotton spinning manufacture, at the foot of 

It is regrularly built, and contains many fine a mountain. It is 8 m. £. 8. £. of Appleby, and 

houses, uie residcnca of merchants from the city. S61 N. N. W. of Liondon. Pop. (MO. 

The United States Navy Yard is in the cast pajt Bowershaten^ a seaport of Holland on the north 

of the town upon a bay called the Wallabout. side of the island of Schonen,9m. S. W. of Hel- 

Pop. 15,306. Near this town a bloody battle was voetsluys. Long. 3. 50. £. lat. 41. 38. N. 

fought with the British in 1776, and the neigh- BrottUj a frontier county of the state of Ohio, 

feiourhood exhibits many remains of the fortifica* bounded on the south by the Ohio River, which 

tions thrown up at that time. divides it from Mason county, Kentucky. Pop. 

Brooklyn, t. Cuyahoga Co. Ohio. 17,867. Georgetown is the chief town. 

Brooksifillej p.t. Hancock Co. Me. Pop. 1,089. Brown, is also the name of a county in the 

Brookville, the chief town of Franklin county. Michigan territory, westward of Lake Michigan. 

Indiana. It is finely situated between the east and Pop. %4. Menomonie, is the chjef town or sta« 

west forks of the White Water River, which fiUls tion of the county. 

into the Miami, a little above its entrance into Brovmfidd, t. Oxford Co. Me. Pop. 036. 

the Ohio. Brownkdm, p.t. Huron Co. Ohio. 

Broome, a south frontier county of the state of Brovmmgton, t. Orleans Co. Vt. Pop. 412. 

New York, bordering on Snsquehannah county, Brovmsborougk, p.t. Madison Co. Alab. 

Pennsylvania, and the S. £. corner borders on Brownsburg, 2 vill^[es in Rockbridge Co. Va. 

the Pelaware River. It has some mountain dis- and Washington Co. Ten. 

tricts. Pop. 17,582. Bingham pton, on the north Broumgtown, p.v. Wayne Co. Michigan, 16 m. 

bank of the Susouehannah, 148 miles W. by S. of S. W. Detroit. 

Albany, is the cnief town. Brownstovm, p.t. the seat of justice for Jackson 

Broome, is also the name of a township in Scho- Co. Ind. 43 m. N. W. Louisville, 
narie county, New York, 53 m. W. of Albany. BroiensviUe, p.t. Jefierson Co. N. Y. on Sack- 
Pop. 3,161. ett's Harbour. Pop. 2,938. 

Broom Lock, Great and LUde, two lakes or arms BrowntvUle, p.t. Penobscot Co. Me. Pop. 409 
of the sea, on the west coast of Scotland, in Ross- Alio the name of 5 other towns in Pa^, N. and S 
•hire. They oontain several good harbours, have Carolina, Ken. and Illinois, 
long been noted for excellent herrings, and are Broumsmlle, a town of Pennsylvania, in Fay- 
esteemed as the best fishing stations on the coast, ette county. The trade to Kentucky renders it a 
Ullapool, on the N. £. coast of the Ciieat Loch is flourishing place, and many boats are built here, 
a good harbour, and at the head is the town of The vicinity abounds with monuments of Indian 
LfMshbroom, the parish of wliich, in 1821, contain- antiquity. It is seated on the Monongahela, at 
ed a population of 4,540. the mouth of Redstone Creek, 30 m. S. S. £. of 
Broro, a river of Scotland, in Satherlandshire. Pittsburg. Also the name of 3 townships in Pa. 
which issues from a lake of the same name, ana and Ohio. 

forms seyeral cascades in its course to the town of Bretcetoton, p.v. Frederick Co. Va. 

Brora, where it enters the sea. Braceville, p.v. Knox Co. Ind. 

Brora, a villa|re of Scotland, on the S. £. coast Bruchml, a town of the duchy of Baden, circle 

of Sntherlandshtre, with a small harbour at the of Pfinz and £nz. It has a large salt-work, and 

mouth of the Brora, 14 m. N. £. of Dornoch. is seated on the river Satz, 5 m. S. £. of Phillipa- 

Brosdey, a town of Shropshire, £ng. it Is sita- burff. Pop. about 6.000. 

ate near the Severn, on the west side, in a very Brack, a town of Saxony, 25 m. N. l^ W. of 

interesting and important district, abounding in Wittenburg. 

coal, iron, and lime. The celebrated iron-works Brack, a town of Austria, on the river Leyta, 

of Oolebrooke Dale are in the parish, and inune- 20 m. £. S. £. of Vienna. 

diate vicinity of the town, on the banks of the Brack, or Brug, a town of Switzerland, in Ar- 

river, over which there is an iron bridge of one gau, witn a college, seated on the river Aar, 22 

arch, leading to Madely, on the opposite side, m. S. E. of Basel. 

which mav be considered an appendage to the Brack, or Prack, a town of Bavaria, on the 

district. It has also an extensive porcelain inanu« river Ammer, 12 m. W. of Munich. Another in 

fiieiory, and another of tobacco pipes. The coal the Palatinate, 22 m. N. N. £. of Ratisbon. 

of this district contains much kiiumen, and in 1711 Brack, or Praek, a town of Germany in Stiiia, 

naphtha was dbcovered issuing from asprin^f of capital of a cirole of its name. It stands on the 

water, bnt which has totally disappeared sinoe river Muehr, 24 m. N. N. W. of Gratz, and 82 8 

1755. Brosely is 6 m. N. N. W. of Bridf^enorth, W. of Vienna. 

and 146 N. Vf. of Lcmdon. Po]^. in 1821, 4,815, Brae, a river in Somersetshire, Eng. which rises 

which owine to Hie more extensive inn- works in in Selwood forest, on the borders of Wiltshire, 

Glamorgansnire having superseded a piHiion of the and flows through the county, by Bruton and 

demand from this district, is rather less than in Glastonbury, into Bridgewater bay. 

1800. Madoly and tlw sorrounding district oon» Brag, or Brig, a town of Switzerland, in the 

tain a fxiithei popnl«tion of 6,000 to 8,000. Valais, seated on the Rhone, 30 m. £. of Sion. 

BratherUm, a village in West Yorkshire, Enir. Brugeo, a city of the Netherlands, in Flandetv. 
one mile north of Ferrybridge, where Thomas & It was once a great trading town ; but, in the 16th 
Brotherton, son of Edward f. was bom. It has a ocntaxy, the civil wars drovte the trade fixst ta 
tndc in lime. Pop. 1 ,736. Antwerp, and then to Amsterdam. The inhabit 
Brmutge, a town of France, in the dnpartment ants are estimated at 20,000, bnt it is not poooloni 
of Lower Charente. It has the most considembis in prey o rt io n to its extent Its sitmtioB still cam- 
salt-works in France, snd stands near ahi^ of the numds sonoe trade, for its hascanals to Ghent^Oi* 
sea, 17 m. S. sf RsdislW. tani, Bteys, Nisuport, Fumss, Tpies, and Pm 

BRa 132 BRU 

kirk. Bruges )ina been oflen taken. It is 14 m. malt, tops of fir and birch, and yarions herbs ; and, 

£. of Ostend. with the exception of Leipzig and Frankfort, the 

Bntgge, or Bruggen^ a town of Lower Saxony, fain of Brunswick are more numerously attended 

in the principality of Hildesheim, on the river than in any other town in Germany, it formerly 

Leyne, 13 m. S. W. of Hildesheim. ranked as a free independent city ; and for the 

Bruggen, a town of Germany, the duchr of continuance of its freedom it long and strenuous- 

Juliers ; seated on the Schwalm, 6 m. N. £. of ly contended ; but towards the close of the 17tb 

Ruremonde. century, yielded all its pretensions, and became 

BrugenetOj a town of the territory of (}enoa, at the ducal residence in 1764. It is 47 m. W. by 

the foot of the Apennines, 35 m. £. S. £. of Ge- N. of Magdeburg, 35 £. by S. of Hanover, aiid 

noa. about 110 S. by £. of Hamburs^h, in the lat. of 

Bmgviere La^ a town of France, in the depart- 52. 16. N. and 10. 30. of £. long. Pop. about 

ment of Tarn, 5 m. S. of Cashes. Pop. about 35,000. 

4,000. Brvnstoiekf Tfew, a province of British America, 

Bruhl. a town of the Lower Rhine, in the elec- extending from the bay of Fundy south , in the 

torate of Colosne, about 7 m. S. of the city of Co- lat. of 45., to the frontier of Lower Canada, in 

logne. Pop. lUDout 2,000. the lat. of 43. N., bounded on the west, partly by 

BmmaUy a town of Moravia, in the circle of the Schoodic River, and partly by a conventional 

Hradisch, at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, line running from the head of tide water in the 

on the frontiers of Hungary, 26 m. £. Hradisch. above river, which divides it from the American 

Brumment a populous vUlage of Holland, in State of Maine, in the long, of 67. 45. W., to the 

Oueldexiand, on the road from Arnheim, to Zut- Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the long, of 64. It is 

phen. joined to Nova Scotia, at the south-east comer, by 

Brtanpf or Brumeih, a frontier town of France, an isthmus, about 15 miles in breadth, and con- 
in the department of the Lower Rhine, 10 m. N. tains an area of about 8,500 square miles, and an 
of Strasburg. aggregate population of about 60,000. It is inter- 

Brutugf or Pntnecken, a town of the Tyrol, sit- sectea from tne north by the river St. John, which 

uate in a fork of two branches of the river Rientz ; falls over a rapid into the bay of Fundy : the 

it has medicinal baths in its vicinity, and is about rapid impedes the navigation ror vessels of 100 

15 m. £. by N. of Brixen. tons burthen for a hundred miles, and vast quan- 

Brumt, or Briim, a town of Moravia, capital of tities of masts and loss of timber are floated down 

a circle of the same name, and a bishop's see. It for shipment in the bay, which is spacious and 

is defended by a strong fortress, called Spilberg, secure. St. John's, the chief town of the i>ro- 

built on an eminence ; and has manufactures of vince, it situate on the east shore of the bay, im- 

cloth, velvet, and plush. The Prussians besieged mediately contiguous to the river of the same 

it in 1742, but were obliged to ndse the siege. It name. It has several rivers running from W. to 

is seated at the confluence of the Zwittau and £. into the ffulf of St. Lawrence, on which side 

Schwartz, 33 ra. S. W. of Olmutz. Long. 16. 38. of the provmce are several snacious bays, 8uch 

£. lat. 49. 13. N. as Chaleur, Mirimichi, Richibucto, &c., from 

Brutmen^ a town of Switzerland, in the canton whence vast quantities of timber are shipped to^ 

of Schweitz. Here the cantons of Uri, Schweitz, Great Britain annually. A few tribes of native 

and Underwalden, formed the alliance which was Indians are scattered over the province. It pos- 

the foundation of the republic of Switzerland. It sesses in general a capable sou, but cultivation 

is seated on the Waldstiedter See, 2 m. S. W. of has made but little progress ; the inhabitants de- 

Schweitz. pending more on the forests and the fishery, in 

Brunshuttdy a town of Germany, in Holstein, obtaining a supply of manufiustures and other for- 

near the mouth of the £Ibe, 13 m. N. W. of eign productions, than on agriculture. Besides 

Gluckstadt. St. Jonn's, the other chief towns are, St. Andrews, 

Brunswieky Dudiy off a territory of Germany, on the east bank of the Schoodic, and St. Ann's, 

in the south part ofthe circle of Lower Saxony, or, as it is now called, Fredericton, which is the 

This territory formed the patrinK>ny of the family seat of the provincial government, about 80 m. up 

of Guelph, Welf, or WheljpB, who trace their de- the river St. John. 

scent from the marouis of^ £ste, who died about Brunswiekj p.t. Cumberland Co. Me. Pop. 

the middle of the 10th century. In 1546, it was 3,747. It is situated on the south side of Andros- 

divided by Ernest, the then duke, between his two coggin river, 26 m. N. £. of Portland. The river 

sons ; one founding the dukedom of Brunswick has many falls at this place on which are situated 

Luneburg, and the other of Brunswick Wolfbn- a number of mills as well as cotton and woolen 

buttel; the former will be described under the manufitctories. But what chiefly distinguishes 

head of Luneburff and Hanover, and the other the town is £0iodoinCo2^^, which was estfmlisheo 

under that of Wolfenbuttel. here in 1806. It has a President and p professors. 

Brunswick, the chief town of the states of Brans- Its library contains 12,000 vols, and it has a phi- 
wick Wolfenbuttel, is situate in the principality losophical and chemical apparatus and a cabmet 
of Wolfenbuttel, on the banks of the river Ocker, of minerals. The college is supported partly by the 
which falls into the Aller. It is strongly fortified, income of property bequeathed by James 6ow- 
and contains ten Lutheran churches, a cathedral, doin. Governor of Massachusetts, from whom it 
dedicated to St. Blasius, one Calvinist, and one derives its name. The number of students is 
Catholic church, a college, two academies, a mint, 137. There are 3 vacations, in May, September 
opera house, town hall, £c. The ducal palace was and December, of 13 weeks. Commencement is 
formerly a monastery. There is a large building in September. 

appropriated as a public storehouse for wine. It BruMwick, p.t. Rensselaer Co. N. T. Pop. 

liBB several manufactories, and claims tlie inven- 2,570. Also the name of 3 towns in yt.,Pa.,and 

tion of the spinning wheel ; and is distinguished for Ohio. 

its breweries of mufn, made principally from Brunstoidc, a south frontier county of the £ 

vheattn malt, with a portion tf oat and b«an District of Virginia, bordering on Northampton 


eonntj, North Carolina. The south-west corner Dormg the revolution of 1830, it was the scene 

jets upon the Roanoke river. Fop. 15,770. Law- of the most bloody battles between the inhabi- 

renceville is the chief town. tants and the Dutch troops. *The 24th, 25th and 

Brunswick, a maritime and frontier county at 26th of October were days of perpetual and tern- 

the south extremity of North Carolina. It is ble carnage in the streets of the city. The 

bounded on the north and east by Cape Fear Riv- Dutch were driven out of Brussels on the 27th 

er. It is a swampy and desolate district. Pop. with the loss of 3,000 men. 

(>,.523. Smith ville, near the mouth of Cape Fear Brussels has always been eminent as a manu 

River, %5 ra. S. by E. of Raleigh, is the chief facturin^ town ; the fabric of lace, which is in 

town. It has also a town of the same name about high estimation eveiy where, gives employment 

30 miles up the river. to upwards of 10,000 individuals. Its camlets, 

Brunswick, a seaport of the state of Geo., chief and still more its carpets, are much admired, and 

town of Qlynn county, with a safe harbour, capa- command high prices. It is also celebrated for 

ble of containing a numerous fleet of men of war. the manufacture of carriages, which are consider- 

It is seated in a fertile country, at the mouth of ed to be superior to those of London and Paris in 

Turtle River, in St. Simon Sound, 60 m. S. S. cheapness and elegance. Neither, although in 

W. of Savannah, and 10 S. of Darien. Long. 81. an island position, is it without a consider- 

0. W. lat. 31. 10. N. able share of commerce, not only with the sur- 

Brunifs Iste, an island off the S. E. point of rounding parts, but with foreign countries. It 

Van Dieman*s Land, about 30 m. in length, in- owes this great advantage to its numerous canals, 

dented by Adventure Bay. by which it communicates with the Scheldt. The 

Bruree, a parish in tne county of Limerick, principal of these is that leading to Antwerp, 

Ireland. Pop. in 1821, 4,038. A small village of constructed about the year 1560, at an expense of 

the same name, within the parish, 16 m. 8 ofLim- £ 170,000 sterling. It is 110 feet above tne leve* 

erick, was formerly celebrated as the half yearly of the sea. 

rendezvous of the Irish bards ; but avarice and The present flourishing condition of the city 
oppression have long since subdued all social in- is also owing to the great influx of foreigners, 
tercourse among the native Irish ; and the min- particularly French and English. To the latter 
strel has not sounded at Bruree since 1746. it has become peculiarly attractive of late years, 
BrussdSf or BruxdUs, one of the chief cities from its contiguitjr to the plain of Waterloo ; 
of Belgium, in South Brabant, and formerly the but, before that period, the salubrity and mildness 
capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It of its temperature, the cheapness of its economi- 
etands on a gentle eminence on the banks of the oal arrangements^ and the tone of its society, had 
Senne, a small stream flowing into the Scheldt, made it a favourite place of abode with numbers 
Its existence can be traced to a very remote period, of this nation. So early as the time of Cromwell, 
and the simplicity of its origin forms a striking it was marked in the annals of England, as beinjg 
contrast with its subsequent splendour. Early in the chosen residence of Charles ll., and of his 
the seventh century, St. Oery, bishop of dam- brother, afterwards James II., during Uie greater 
bray, erected a small chapel in one of the islands part of the period of their exclusion from their 
formed by the Senne, and there preached the native country. The interior of the town, of it- 
gospel to the surrounding peasantry. The beau- self, oflTers mudh to attract and to retain strangers. 
ty of the situation, and the piety and eloquence Its environs are also beautiful by nature, and are 
of the preacher, attracted many to the spot ; their rendered still more so by the elegant additions of 
anited numbers soon formed a large village, artjraided by refined taste, 
which increased so, that in the year 990 it could The city was formerly surrounded by a wall 
boast of a market and a castle. In process of and ditch, neither of which now exist : what were 
time it became the favourite residence of the the ramparts, are, at present, beautiful walks bor- 
dukes of Brabant, and of the Austrian governors dered with trees ; those to the north and east are 
who succeeded them, and even acquired the title called boulevards. The lower part of the city, 
of " the ornament of the Netherlands." In the adjacent to the river, is irregular, and, from its 
vear 1565, it was chosen by the emperor Charles situation, somewhat unhealthy; but in the new 
V. as the place in which he made a formal resig- part, which occupies the more elevated portions, 
nation of hie dominions to his son, afterwards the streets are spacious and airy, the houses well 
Philip II. : the chair in which he sat, on that me- built and lofly. Considerable attention is paid to 
morable occasion, is still reli^ously preserved, architectural ornament ; and the custom of paint- 
Durfng the wars that raged m Europe in the ing the outside with some lively colour presents 
ifeventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and' of an agreeable variety to the eye. 
which the Netherlands were the principal theatre, The appearance of the city is much enlivened 
Brussels underwent its share of suffering; being by the elegance of its squares ; the principal are 
occupied, in turn, by each of the contending the Place Hoyale, the U-reat Market, the Place 
powers. In 1695 it was bombarded bv marshu St. Michael, the Com Market, and the Grand Sa- 
Villeroy ; when fourteen churches, and upwards blon. Of these, the ^reat market-place is indis- 
of 4,00t) houses, were destroyed. Afler the cele- putably the finest : it is an oblong of large dimen- 
brated battle of Rami Hies, its keys were surren- sions ; each side is of a different style of architec- 
dered to the duke of Marlborough. It was taken ture, yet all combine to form a whole highly 
by the French under marshal Saxe in 1746, but pleasing to the view. The town hall, and several 
restored to its former master at the peace of Aix- of those of the different trading companies, form 
H-Chapelle. During the revolutionary war it three of the sides, and one uniform eaifice on the 
again fell into the hands of the French, to whom remaining side completes the parallelogram. St. 
it remained subject till the general peace of £u- Michael's square, also, deservedly attracts much 
rope in 1814. While under their government, attention : it is, like the former, an extended ob- 
it was made the seat of a court of criminal and long ; but it differs from it in having the buildings 
si>eciid justice, a chamber and tribunal of com- of uniform architecture, ornamented with pillars 
merce, and a court of appeal for five departments, of the Doric order. The centre has been planted 



uid laid out M a pkamm ground. Tho fiah mar- lectures are gratnitoiia ; and atipeBda ar» alltwtd 

ket, which has iMen but a few years erected, is to a number of pupils whose means are not ade- 

one of the neatest in Europe. There is also a quate to defray the moderate ej^naes of their 

market for frogs, which are brought alive in paila board. 

and cans, and prepared for dressmg on the spot • The principal church is that of St. Gudule, 

The hind hmbs, which are the only parts used, erected on an eminence, and adorned with two 

are cut from the body with scissors by the women square towers which command a very extensive 

who bring the Mnimnla for sale. prospect. It contains no less than sixteen chapels, 

The favourite place of recreation for the inha- which are enriched with numerous paintings, 

bitants is the Park. It is a large pleasure ground. The windowa are adorned with curious painted 

adjoining the palace, laid out with neat taste, glass ; and the pulpit exhibits a beautiful speci- 

planted with a variety of fine trees and flowering men of sculpture in wood, both as to design and 

shrubs, and diversified with lawns ornamented execution. The monument of John II. duke of 

with fountains and statues. Some of these latter Brabant is in the choir : it is of black marble, 

are of the purest stvle of sculpture. In the centre with a lion of copper, weighing 6,000 pounds 

is a fine basin, stocked with gold and silver fish, couching on it. The archduke Ernest has also a 

On each nde of the principal walk is a valley mausoleum here. This church is celebrated in 

planted so as to exclude all annoyance from the legendary history for three miraculous hosts, 

overpowering rays of the sun. A fountain, in which were stolen by Jews, but were afterwards 

one of tl^se, is marked with an inscription, stat- restored. The event is commemorated by an an- 

ing that Peter the Great, during his residence nual procession, during which time the church 

here, sat down by iu margin to drink a bottle of la decorated with six exquisite pieces of tapestry 

wine: another version of the story says, that he explanatory of the event. 

fe\\ into it, while strolUng through the park after The cemeteries are detached from the churches, 

dinner. Both may be true. being situate outside the boulevards. David, the 

One of the approaches to the town also forms a celebrated French painter, b buried in that with- 
fikvourite promenade. It is called the AUee Verte, out the gate of Louvain. Among the hospitals, 
and is planted with a triple row of trees along the is one for foundlixi^, one for penitent women of 
canal ; the prospect of which, with the numerous the town, and a third in which strangers are main- 
villas around, and the varying scenes of pleasure tained gratuitously for three days, 
and employment that every moment present In the village of Jjackefi, about half a league to 
t^naelves, render it singularly beautiful. the north of Brussels, is the splendid palace of 

A copious supply of water is secured to the Schoenburg, or Schoonenburg, originallv intend- 

itthahitants by a number of fountains, whose ed for the reception of the governor of tne Neth- 

elegance of structure adds much to the beauty of erlands. During the reign of Napoleon, it was 

the city. One of tiie finest was erected by Lord occasionally his residence, as also that^ of his 

Aylesbury, an En^^lish nobleman, as a public ex- brother, the late king of Holland. The interior 

pression of his gratitude for an agreeable residence of the palace is laid out m a style of sunerior ma^ 

of forty years in the town. The water for the nificence. A subterranean grotto, ana aome tem- 

supply of these fountains is raised, by machinery, pies connected with it. are uso much admired, 
from a lake about half a mile fronrthe city. The inhabitants of Brussels are Catholics, and 

The pakoe of the States-general is a mafnifi- speak the French language, but all relijgious te- 
cent building, supported on pillars of the Ionic nets are tolerated. The population has mcreased 
order. Its entrance leads to a spacious hall, on considerably since 1814 ; and, in the absence of 
each side of which is a marble staircase ; one con- correct data, may be estimated at 80,000 to 90,000 
ducting to the chamber of peers, the other to the It is 25 miles S. of Antwerp, about the same dis- 
chamber of deputies. This latter is in the form tance £. by S. of Ghent, and 148 N. by £. of 
of a semicircle, with a very capacious gallery for Paris. Lat. 50. 51. N. long. 4. S2. E. 
the people. The town-hall is a noble specmien BruUm, a town in Somersetdiiire, Eng. Here 
of the old irregular but highly ornamented Gothic are manufactures of silk and hosiery; a free- 
style. So irregular is the bmldinff,that its tower school, founded by Edward VI. *, and a stately 
stands at a considerable distance from the centre, alms-house, consisting of the ruins of a prior]r» 
The elevation of this part of the edifice is 364 with an income of nearly X 3,000 per annum. It is 
feet : it is surmounted with a statue of St. Mi- seated on the river Brue, 13 m. S. E. of Wells 
chael with the dragon under his feet, in copper and 100 W. of London. Pop in 1831, 1,858. 
gilt, seventeen feet high, which it turns on a Brutus^ a township of Cayuga county. New 
pivot, and serves as a vane for showing the direc- York, lymg between the south shore en Lake 
tion of the wind. Ontario, and the Erie Canal, 161 m. W. by N. 

The Orange Palace, generally called La Vieille of Albany. Pop. 1,827. 
Cour, was formerly the residence of the govern- Bruzy a town m the north part of the circle of 

on of Belgium } but is now occupied as a muse- Saaz, Bohemia. 

um, a pubfic library, a cabinet of natural history, Bruyeres, a town of France, in tho department 
and singing and dancing schools. It is also fbr- of Vosges, 11 m. E. N. E. of Epinal. Pop. 1,900. 
nished with a valuable, though not large, collec- Brtfauy a small maritime county of the state of 
^ tion of Flemish paintings. The library, which Georgia, bounded on the north by the Ogeechee 
( contains upwards of 100,000 volumes, was chiefly Riv^r, which divides it from Chatham county; 
collected from suppressed convents. Adjoining the Cannouchee River intersects it fit>m the S. 
the building is a fine botanic garden, containing W. corner, falling into the Ogeechee about the 
more than 4.000 exotics. The philosophical cot- centre of the north side. rop. 8,319. The 
lege, which nas been but a few Vf ars in existence, court-house of the county is about 15 miles south 
is founded on a liberal scale. The great hall, or of Savannah, and 206 S. £. bj £. of Milledgeville. 
amphitheatre, is capable of accommodating 1,200 Bryan^mdgty a village of'^ Ireland, in the par- 
persons. Each student has a room furnished at ish of Killaloe, county of Clare, seated on the 
the expense of government ; all the courses of Shannon, 8 m. N of Limerick. 

BVC 196 W€ 



, or Pdena^ Pa l a ti nate ef, a diBtrict of Buehotz^ a town of Bxandenbarg, in the middle 

..w^ Poland, Ijixig between the rivers Bug on mark, seated on the Dahme, near the froatier of 

the west, and Dnieper on the east, intersected by JLusatia, 23 m. S. S. £. of Berlin, 

the line of the 52nd decree of N. lat., and also Buekoregt, a strong city of European Turkey, 

from W. to E. by the raspice River, with nti- capital of Wallachia, where the hospodar com- 

merous collateral branches mllin^ into the Dnie- monly resides. The patriarchal chorch is larflje, 

per. These rivers, from a totu absence of all adjoining to the palace of the archbishop , andin 

attempt^ to free the obstructions of their currents, a square, near the centre of the town, is the great 

tend to make Brzesc a marshy and dreary district, church of St. George, the patron saint of Wal- 

which, under social and reciprocal arrangements, lochia. The inhabitants are estimated at 60,000. 

might easily be made to rank among Uie most It is seated on the Domboriza, which falls into 

fertile in Europe. The Pina, a branch of the the Danube, 25 m. S, S. £. of Tergovist, and 

Pmpice, is united by a canal to the Machawiza, 200 N. by W. of Adrianople. Long. 26. 8. £. lat. 

a branch of the Bug, falling into the Vistula, 44. 37. N. 

thereby uniting the waters of the Black Sea with Buchom, a town of Suabia, seated on the north 

those of the Baltic. bank of the lake of Constance, Id m. N. W. of 

Brzsse litov, the chief town of the above dis- Lindau. 

trict is situate at the confluence of the river Ma« Buckden^ a village in Huntingdonshire, Eng. 

chawiza with the Bug, opposite to Therespol. It 5 m. S. W. of Huntingdon, and 61 N. of Lon- 

is a considerable place, the see of a Greek bishop, don. Here is a superb palace of the bishops of 

and celebrated for its being the chief place for the Lincoln, and sevend of^ the prelates have been 

instmetion of Jews destined for rabbinical pur- interred in the church. Pop. 363. 

suits, [t is strongly fortified, and has a castle on Buektburg, a town of Westphalia, in the coon- 

an eminence about 100 m.E. by S. of Warsaw, and ty of Schauenburg, with a castle, on the river 

250 8. £. of Dantsnc. Aa, 3 m. £. S. £. of Minden. 

Bnetc, is also the name of another town, capi- Buekengkaimy Old and JVeto, two towns in Nor- 

tal of another Palatinate of the same name, lying folk, £ng, 12 m. £. by N. of Thetford, and 93 

between the rivers Wartha on the S. W. and VIb- N. £. of^London. Pop. together 1^854. 

tula on the N. £. The town, seated near the Buckfastlagky a village m Devonshire, Eng. 

Vistula, is about 90 m. W. by N. of Warsaw, and three miles 9. by W. of Ashburton. Here are 

150 due S. of Dantzic. some remains of a Cistercian abbey ; and many of 

Brzezanyy a town in the S. £. part of Austrian the houses are built with matorialB from its ruins. 

Gallicia, seated near a small lake communicating Pop. 2,240. 

with the Dneistor River. Pop. about 5,000. Buckjidd, p.t. Oxford Co. Me. Pop. L510. 

Brze^ and Bna, begin the names of numerouB Buekhead^ p.t. Fairfield Dis. S. C. 33 m. N. 

other towns and villages in different parte of Po- Columbia. 

•and and Grallicia» but none of them merit any Buckingham, an interior county of £ngland, 

particular notice. bounded on the south by the river Thames, which 

BrzesnitZy a town o£ Bohemia, in the circle of divides it fit>m Berkshire, east by the counties of 

Saatz, on the frontier of the principality of Mies- Middlesex, Hertford, and Bedford^ sou|h by North 

sen, with manufactures of lace, fire-arms, and ampton, and west by Oxfordshire. The south 

hardware, 24 m. W. N. W. of Saatz. Another, part is intersected by the Ouse River, running 

in the north part of the circle of Prachin, 18 m. from west to east into Bedfordshire, working flev- 

W. N. W. of^Pisek. eral com and paper mills, but is now navigable 

Baa, an island in the gulf of Venice, on the within the county. The Svuel runs from south 

coast ofDalmatia,cidled likewise Partrid^ Island, to north into the Ouse, ana the Coin, which di- 

because frequented by those birds. It is joined vides the county from that of Middlesex, runs 

by a bridge to the town of Traon, about 20 m. W. from north to south into the Thames. The Thame, 

8. W. of spalatro. which riees in the centre of the county, runs 

Biiarce5, a town of Portugal, in Beinuon the west, falling into the Thames, in Ozfbrdehiie. 

sea-coast, at the mouth of the Mondego, 27 m. S. The north part is intersected bv a range of chalk 

of Aveira. It suJered greatly by the earthquake hills, and the Grand Junction Canal runs throv^i 

which destroyed ibe greater part of Lisbon in the south-east part of the countjr, being oarriid 

1759. over the river Ouse, by an aque4fuct three quar- 

Bueoari, or Buchari, a seaport of the Austrian ten of a mile in length. The coun^ may be con- 

empire ^n the coast of Morlachia, at the head of sidered divided by the chalk hills into two eicten- 

the N. £. part of the gulf of Venice, declared by sive plains the south part producing wheat and 

the emperor, in 1730, a fi^ee port for commerce beans of superior quality, and the north part ap- 

with the £ast Indies ; but the favour might just propriated more to pasture. In addition to its 

as well have applied to trading with the moon, for chalk, which is distributed over all ite inland 

any advantage that has resulted from the declara- counties, for whitewashing, it has veins of fuller*s 

tion. It is 1h m. £. of FHume. Pop. about 3.000. earth and ochre. 

Stukanetf the most eastern promontorv of Boot- This county has loxuf been celebrated for ite oom 

land, to the east of Peterhead, in Aberdeenshire, and cattle : formerlv fine flocks of sheep were fed 

in long. 1. 34. W. lat. 57. 27. N. Near this prom- m the vale of Aylesbury, but the breeding of 

ontory are the Bullers of Buchan, and other stu- these useful animals has been for soma time on 

pendous rocks and precipices, much admired for the decline. At present this vale feeds oxen for 

their awful grandeur. the London market, to which it also sends im- 

Buduaia. See Bokharia. mense supplies of butter weekly. There is a 

Btfdhau,atown of Suabia, with a nunnery, seat- small proportion of arable land in the northern 

ed on a small lake, called Feyder See, 2o m. 8. division of the county ; and not much in imy 

W. of Ulm. other part, except the Chiltem districte, which 

Buehau, a town of Bohemia, in the cirde of are usually cultivated with wheat, barleVf oate, 

SaaU^aam. S. W. of Saatz. beans, and Mtinfoin. In the neighbouihood of 

BUD Ida BU£ 

AjleBbury, duclu are reazed very early in the between the Torka and the Christian powers of 

apring, and sometimea at Christmas, which being Europe ; when, in 1686, it surrendered to the lat- 

aent to London, sell at high price. The only ter, who streuj^hened the fortifications, and by 

manufactures of consequence in this county are whom it has since been retained without inier- 

those of bonelace and paper. The former is car- ruption. It suffered greatly by fire in 1810, when 

ried on at Olney, Newport-Pagnell, and Han- 600 houses were destroyed ; but their places have 

slope, and the latter principally in the neighbour- since been supplied witn imoroved buildings. It 

hood of Wycomb. At Amersham there is a is about 130 m. E. S. E. or Vienna, and 180 N. 

manufacture of sacking and of white cotton goods; N. W. of Belgrade. Long. 19. 5. E. lat. 47. 30. N. 

and at Marlow are some large works of copper, BudanUza^ a town at the north-west end of 

brass, and brass- wire ; and miUs for making thim- Sclayonia, near the south bank of the Drave, 23 

bles and pressing rape and linseed. This county m. S. W. of Funfkirchen. 

is adorned with several magnificent seats, and in BudUchj a town of (Germany, in the territory 

various parts Roman rcKids and military stations of Treves ; seated on the Traen, 12 m E. N. E. of 

are traced, and Roman antiquities have been Treves. 

occasionally discovered. The principal towns BiuimcA, or £uncA, a town of Germany, in the 
are Aylesbury, Buckingham, Marlow; and of duchy of Cleves ; seatedon the Rhine, 22 m. S.E. 
a secondary class, Amershaim, Wycomb, and of Cleves, and 4 S. E. of Wesel. 
Wendover ; each of which returns two members Budiuj a town of Bohemia, in the circle of Ra- 
te parliament, in addition to two for the counter. konitz, with a castle, 9 m. S. by W. of Leut- 

buekinghamf a borough, and one of the prin- meritz. 

cipal towns in the preceding county, is situate Budingen^ a town of Germany, in Wettera^ia, 

on the north bank of the Quae, by which it is with a castle ; situate on the Sambach, 25 m. E. 

nearly surrounded^ and over which there are N. E. of Frankfort, on the Mune. 

t]^ree bridges. It is a place of considerable an- BimUazs, a town of Sclavonia, 18 m. S. W. of 

tiquity , having been fortified by Edward the Elder E ssey . 

in 918, against the incursions of the Danes. It Budoay a strong seaport of Dalmatia, and a 

had formerly a castle in the centre of the town, bishop's see. It sustained a siese by the Turks, 

on the site of which, towards the close of the last in 16o6, and is 30 miles S. E. of Ragusa. Long, 

eentury, an elegant new church was erected. Tb« 18. 58. £. lat. 42. 10. N. 

summerassizes for the county are held here. The Budrio.h town of Italy, in the Bolognese, 8 

town hall is a spacious edifice of brick. A great m. E. of Bologna. 

number of calves are fattened, and large quantities Budtodsy a fortified town of Bohemia in the 
of better made for the London market in this part circle of Bechin, and lately a bishop's see. In the 
of the county : lace is also made here. Market environs ti^re mines of gold and silver. It is seat- 
on Saturday. Pop. in 1821, including four ad- ed on the Muldau, 75 m. W. of Prague, 
joining hamlets, 3,465. 16 m. north of Aylesbury, BudwetSy a town of Moravia in the circle of 
26 N. E. of Oxford, 23 S. W. of Northampton, Znaim, 40 m. S. W. of Bunn, and 65 N. N. W. 
and 55 N. of London. of Vienna. 

£uc&»R^Aam, an interior county in the E. district Buenos Ayres. Under this head it has been 

of Virginia, forming nearly a square, the west usual to include a vast portion of the southern 

and north sides of which are bounded by James divisions of the western hemisphere, extending 

River. Pop. 18,351. The court-house, in the firom the 13th to the 41st de^. or south lat. com- 

centre of the county is 64 m. W. of Richmond, prising an area of aJx>ut 1,450,000 square miles; 

Also the name of three towns in Pa. constituted a vice-royalty of Spain m 1778, but 

Budan^hamshirey a county of Lower Canada, from the ])eriod of July, 1806, to Julv, 1821, it 

m the district of Trois Rivieres, on tlie south continued in perpetual revolution ; when at the 

bank of the St. Lawrence. latter period it was constituted an independent 

BiuMandj p.t Franklin Co. Mass. 105 m. W. republic by the title of the United Provmces'of 

N. W. Boston. Pop. 1,039. South America, under which head its aggre^rate 

Bucks, a frontiei* county in the E. district o£ and general features will be found exhibited, 

the state of Pennsylvania, bounded on the north- ^ Buenos Ayres, one of the eight united provinces 

east and south-east by the Delaware River, which of South America, is the most easterly division 

divides it fit>m New Jersey , and on the south-west of the republic, being bounded on the east fit>m the 

by Montgomery county, the south-west comer 26th to tne 34th deg. of south lat. by the Brazilian 

jetting upon Philadelphia. Population, 45,740. territory, and from the 34th to the frontier of Pata- 

Brist^, the chief town, in the south-east part of fonia, in the lat. of 41 south by the Atlantic Ocean ; 

the county, on the bank of the Delaware, is 142 divided into two parts north and south by the great 

m. E. of Uarrisburg, and 18 N. E. of Philadel- river La Plata, which fells into the Atlantic Ocean, 

phia. between the fats, of 35. and 37. The north part 

Bueksport, p.t. Hancock Co. Me. on the E. bank of this province is intersected from north to soutii 

of the Penobscot, 17 m. above Castine. It is a by the great rivers Parana and Uruguay, the 

maritime town and has a considerable trade. Pop. united waters of which form the La Plata. This 

2,237. part is bounded on the west by a conventional 

Buda, or Ofen, the caiutal of Lower Hungary, line, which divides it frt>m the province of Cor- 

situate en the side of a bill, on the west side of dova, firom 50 to 120 m. W. of Parana River, 

the Danube,^ over which is a bridge of boats to The greater portion of this division of the province 

Pest. The inhabitants are estimated at 25,000. is exceedingly fertile, and the congeniality of its 

The churches and public buildings are handsome, climate worthy of the title which it has conferred 

In the adjacent country are vineyards, which pro upon the country. It contains several considera- 

duce excellent wine. Prior to 1526, when it sur- bie towns, the most important of which are Cor- 

rendered to the Turks, it was tlie residence of the rientes in the north, on the east bank of the 

kings of Hungary. From that period, for 160 Parana : Santa Fe, south, on the west bank of 

yeara, it was an object of jealousy and contention ditto ; and Monte Video on the north bank of the 

BUS w Bim 

La Plata towards its entnne« into the aea. On Mveral eonTents, and otiier similiar inatitntuinfl. 

the east bank of the tJniff oay there are nnmeroue The public edinoes are all built of stone of a 

settlements founded by tiie Jesuits. The south whitish colour, and produce an unposing effi»ct. 

part of this proYince ie abo divided by a conven- Its commercial interoourse now extends to all 

tioaal line &om Cordova, and south by the Rio parts of the world, and its export productions of 

Negro, which separates it from Patagonia, and is nides and tallow, in addition to the silver and gold 

intersected from north-west to south-east, between from the mines of Potosi, ^. enable it to com- 

the late, of ^. and 40. by the Colorado River, and mand an abundant supply of all the manufac- 

in the lat of 36. by the Saladillo, which falls into tared productions of Europe and Asia, as well as 

the La Plata. This part of the province is very of every other commodity, from every quarter of 

little known, but ia celebrated as containing the the globe. The population, which at the com- 

chief town and seat of government of the eight menoement of the present century was estimated 

united provisoes. at about 40,000, in 1835, was supposed to amount 

Buawt Aym^ city of. is seated on the aouth to 70,000. 
bank of the La Plate, about 180 miles from its Bufalo, p.t. Erie Co. N. T. on Lake Erie, near 

mouth, in the lat of 34. 35. S. and 66. 34. of W. its outlet. This is a port of entry with a ffood 

long, opposite to ^ere the Um^piay forms its harbour, furnished at the entrance with a hght- 

junetion with the Parana. This city u joatly es- house. It is the great emporium of the lake com- 

teemed as the finest country and as containing merceand the point at which the great eanalfrom 

the most active and intelligent population of aO Albany joins the waters of the lue. The town 

South America. It was founded by Mendoza, in occupies a pleasant spot on a gentle aecUvity , and 

IQ35, but afterwards abandoned; and in 1544, consists pnncipally of one longstreet with many 

another colony of the Spaniards came here, who handsome and commodious buudinn. It is a ve-- 

left it also ; but it was rebuilt in 1582, snd inhab- ry flourishing place and increases nst from year 

ited by Spaniards and the native Americans, to year. The harbour is frequented by great uum* 

been restrained bv a rigorous monopoly, when in Bttgj a river of Poland, rifling near Leopol or 
1746 the annual fleet of the monopolists saUed for Limberg, running north, dividmg Austrian Qnl- 
the last time to Cadiz, the intercourse being licia from Russian Poland, to Brzese, (wkieh see.) 
thrown open to the whole of Spain. In 1774, the It then takes a westerly course, between Gallicia 
freedom of its intercourse waa extended to the and Prussian Poland, falling into the Vistula a few 
greater part of the ports of the other Spanish miles below Warsaw, 
governments in Amenca; and in 1778, when the Bugles Bay. See Bani. 
prormces of Buenos Ayres, which had previously Bt^ta, or Bujeiny a seaport of Algiers, in the 
been under the government of Peru, were consti- province of Constantina, at the month of the Ma- 
tuded a separate vicerojralty, and. the city of jor, on a bay of the Mediterranean. It has a 
Buenos Ayres made the seat or the viceroy, it grad- strong castle , b ut Sir Edward Sprague destroyed 
ually increased in extent, population, and import- several Algerine men of war under its walls in 
ance, during the remainder of the last century ; 1671. The haibour is safer' and more capacious 
about which period the imperial French ffovero- than that of Algiers, but its entrance is equally 
ment under Napoleon sent emissaries for the pur- dangerous. The principal trade is in instruments 
pose of rendering it subservient to the views and of agriculture, made of iron, obtained from moun- 
policy of France, which tended materially to re- tains near the town. It is 90 mike £. of Algiers, 
tard Its commerce and career, on which alone the Long. 5. 28. E. lat. 36. 49. N. 
prosperity of the city depended. To oounteraet BxigUf a town of Egypt, situate on the west 
this influence, the Einglisn, in 1806^nt an expe- ^ore of the Red Sea, almost opposite to Ziden. 
dition from the Cape of Good Hope a^nst the port town of Mecca, and about 110 m. W. or 
Buenos Ayres, which they took by surprise m the it Long. 36. 6. E. fait. 22. 16. N. * 
month of Mav of that year, but the whole force Bwiiky or BuaU,^ town of Wales, in Brecknock- 
were comDelied to surrender at discretion, after shire. Here was an ancient castle, whose keep, 
a few weeks, to a body a militia under the com- its last remains, was burnt down in 1690. In this 
mand of Qeneral LinierSs a partisan of the French neighbourhood the Welsh made their last stand 
government. In June of the following vear^uc- for independenee, and were defi»ated by Edward 
cessive reinforcements having arriveafrom Eng- I. in 1283. Builth has a manufrusture of stockings, 
laud, a renewed attack was made upon the city It is seated on the Wye, over which is a bri£re 
with a force of 10,000 men under the command of into Radnorshire, 13 m. N. of Breeknock, and 173 
General Wfaitelocke, but the inhabitants, animated W. by N. of London; Pop. 946. 
b^ Liniers to the most determined resistance, and Buu^ a town of France, in the department of 
aided by tiie militia, converted every house into Drome, 40 m. E. of Orange, and 65 S. S. E. of 
a fortress, from which they assailed the English Valence. 

troops at all points with such disastrous cfiect, as Bmtrago^ a fortified town of Spain, in New 

to compel the whole force to surrender prisoners- Castile, on the fh>ntier of Segovia, celebrated for 

of-war. From this period, up to July, 1816, the the wool collected in its environs. It is seated on 

c ty became the theatre of internal dissensions, the Lozoya,40 m. N. of Madrid, 

when a declaration of independence was agreecf Bukkaria Great. &^ Bokhara. 

upon, and it has since then remained compara- Bukharia Idttle. See Caehgur. 

tively tranquil, and been progressively recover- BukewnUf a district in the nortb-west part of 

ing from the disasters of the preceding fifteen or the province of Moldavia, bordering on GalHcia 

twenty years. The buildings of Buenos Ayres comprising about 4,000 square miles, and 160,000 

axe stately and uniform, and the streets regu- inhabitants of various nations, among whom arc 

lar. Among the public buildings are a stately about 2,000 gypsies. It is nominally under the^do 

cathedral, and two or three ahurohes, town hall, minion of Austria. 

18 k2 

BmUe, B town of Egypt, on the Nile, twomilM 
weit oT Gsiro, <uid Iha port of th&t city. On the 
north dde of it ig the Caliach, whoM banks are 
cut every year, to convey the vralen of ths Nile, 
by a cuul, to Cairo. 
• Btdan, or Booiam, an iiland on the we«t coaat 
ofA&ica, at tiie mouth of the Rio Grande. The 
(Oil if good ; and a nettlemeDt of tree blacki m* 
fotmed here in 1793, but abandoned tha rollowuur 
year. Long. H. 30, W. lat.ll. 0. N. 

Bulgaria, a province of European Turkey, 
bounded on the north by the Dannbe, nhich u- 
videsitfrom Wallachinuicl Bessarabia, east by the 
Black sea, loath by Romanis and Macedonia, and 
weat bj Servia. It ia monntainona, but fertile 
in the intervening valleys. Sofi, or 8o;Jiia, on 
the frontier of Romania, 380 m. N. N. E. of Con- 
stantinople, is the oapital. 

BMttt, a oonn^ of Kentneky, the west end of 
which borders upon' the Ohio River. Pop. 5,660. 
Shepherdfville, 69 m. W. 8 W. of Frankfort, ii 
the chief town. 

AiUaei, an interior oovnty of Georgia, lying be- 
tween the Ctnnouohe and Great Ogecbee Riven. 
Pop. 2,586. Stalesborongh, in the eentte of the 
county, 35 m. N. W. of Savannah, is the chief 

SMilftm, a township in E>yette Co. Pa. 
BtdUmmi, p.*. Uwit Co. Va. 
ihiiu»M, a village of Scotland, in Argyleshire, 
on the cHt aide of Loch Etive, at the inSui of 

men and were unable to make the least use ol 
their advantage. . To perpetnite the memory of 

■r Awe. 


■ E, N. H. 

able salmon Gihery, and a bay 
anchorage in any wind. It ia 11 
of Oban. 
BuHcomi, a large connty at the western eitrem- 

Kof North Carolina, bounded on the north by 
nneieee, and south by South Carolina. Pop. 
16,259. Aahville, inthe centre of the county, 273 
m. W. by S. of Raleigh, is the chief town. 

Bunddetind or fiwuUa, a cicar of Hindoostan, 
lying south of the Oangea, in the province of Al- 
lahabad, inhabited by a tribe of Rajpoots. It ia 
a mountainous tract, and oontuns the celebrated 
diamond mines of Paunah, with sonie strong fort- 
resses. Chatterpoaristhe capital. Itwasannei- 
ed to Benares in 18M. 

BitKgay, a town in Suffolk, Eag. seated on the 
Wavenay, which is navigable hence lo Yarmouth. 
It has two churcbes, and the ruins of a nunnery 
aadacastle. It i«36m. N. by E.of Ipswich,and 
lOeN. E.ofLondon. Pop. 3^. 

.Adw, a kingdom of Japan, ' in the island of 
JC mo. The king <d this connlry was converted 
'j> Christianit}', and sent a solemn embaiiy to the 
v>pe in I5S3. The capital is Fumay. Long. 139. 
). E. Ut. 33. 40. W. 

Adbib, a mountain of Greece, between Janna 
ind Livadia, extending to the gulfofZeiton. The 
ina'.ent name was (£la ; and it is faninui for the 
3BSS of Tbermnpylai, f so called from the hot baths 
>n he neighbourhood) wlicre Leonidu, and his 
WO Spartans, resisted for three days the whole 

unkar HiU, a steep height occupying the cen- 
'.re of the peninsula open which stands the town 
ii' Charlestown, Massachusetts. The loiithern 
■I remity offers a less abrupt eminence detached 
ram the main height, and properly called Orcrd's 
II U. Here was ftugbt on the 17lh of June 1775 
the celebnted battle known as the Battle of Bunk- 
r HUl. General Warreu fell in the action, and 
the Americans finally retreated from the snot, but 
the British suSered the loss of nearly half their 

New England and the reterans of Brit- 
ain, a nool* monument has been commenced on 
the spot, and la now aboat one third finished. It 
is a plain obeliak ef granite, and will be 220 &et 

Bimtingfyrd, a town in Hertfordshire, Eng. 31 
m.N. by E. of London. Pop. 907. 

BuntaaU, a town of Hindoostan, in Canai*, 
which has a great inland trade ; aitnate near the 
Netiawari, 10 m. E. of Hangalore. 

Buatzlini, a town of Silesia, in the principality 
of Jauer. It has a mauubeture of brown pottery 
with sold and silver flowers; and is aealed on 
the Kiher, 33 m. W. by N. of Ligniti. Pop 

circle in the north part of Bohemia, 
between Iientmeriti and Konigmgrati, bounded 
on the north by Lnsatia, and south by the Elbe, 
which divides it Irom Kaonem. It contains 
about 1 ,850 square miles, and 380,000 inhabitant*. 
The Iser intcrseeti it from N. to S. falling into 
the Elbe. 

Bimti^, Jit, a town of Bohemia, sealed on the 
Elbe, 16 m. S. S. W. of Jung Bnntilau. 

SanUlsii, Jung, a town of^Bohcmia, capital of 
the circle of Buntilaa. It was a royal town un- 
der Rodolphus II , and ia sealed on the Iser, 28 m. 
N. N. E. of Prague. 

Burtgrag, a mer of the kinnlom of Fez, which 
cntf n UiB Atlantic Ocean, at Bailee. 

Burdteait, a town of Hindoostan, capital of a 
district in Bengal, seated on the north bank of tha 
Dummooda, 57 m. N. W. of Calcutta. 

flureUo.or Citala.BicriUa, a town of Naples, in 
Abruizo Citeriore, 20 m. B. of Lanciano. 

itkmi, a town of Holland, in Gnelderland, with 
* fortified castle, 22 m. W. of Nimeguen. Pop. 

Bitrm, or Biurtn, a town of Westphalia, ii 

Barfori, a town In Oxfordshire, Eng, Heie 
are manufactures of saddles, dusaels, and ruga. 
It is seated on the Windrush, 17 m. W. by N. of 
Oiforf.andTSro.W. of London. Pop. 1,686. 

BuTg, a town of Holland, inthe connty of Zut- 
phen, seated on the Old Yssel, 18 m. E. by N. of 

Bvrg, a town of Lower Saxony, in the duchy 
cf Ma|deburg, on die Riferlhle, I2m.N.N.E. 
ofMagdebun. Fop. about 7,000. 

Burg, ar Borg, a town of Westplialia, in the 

BUR 190 mm 

dachj «f Betgf with mannfaeturM of gmt barrels bounded on tho west by the Bine Ridge of the 

and woolen stuift ; seated on the Wipper, 18 m. Alleffhany mountains, which divides it from Bun 

S. E. of Dusseldoif. comb. The Great Catawba River rises from 

Burgasy a town of European Turkey, in Roma- about twenty sources, at the foot of the mountains, 

nia, 50 m. W. of the coast of the Black Sea, and within this county. Pop. 17,727. Morgantown, 

116 N. N. W. of Constantinople. 205 m. W. of Raleigh, is tlie chief town. 

Burgeuy a town of Suabia, with a castle which Bicr&e, a frontier county in Georgia, bounded 

fives name to a marquisate, ceded to Bavaria in on the N. E. by the Savannah River, which di- 

805, and now forming part of the circle of the vides it fW>m South Carolina. It is bounded on 

Bwrgdmft a town of Switzerland, in the canton is the chief town. 

of Bern, with a castle, seated on ai\ eminence, on Bwrkt^ p.t Caledonia Co. Vt. 86 m. N. E 

the river Emmen, 8 m. N. E. of Bern. Montpelier. Pop. 866. ^ 

Bwgdorff a town of Lower Saxony, in Lune- Burken, a town of Germany, m tlie territory of 

burff, with a castle, on the river Awe, 15 m. S. of Mentz, 27 ra. E. of Heidelberg, 

^fl. Burkkauaen, a town of Bavaria, with an old 

Burghj a village in Cumberland, Eng. 5 miles fortified castle on a mountain. It is the seat of a 

W. N. W. of Carlisle. Near it is a column, erect- regency, and stands on the river Salza, near its 

ed to denote the spot where Edward I. died, when confluence with the Inn, 97 m. N. N. W. of 

preparing for an expedition against Scotland. Salzburg. 

Burghavn. a town of Germany, in the princi- Bwriington, a town of England. See Brid- 

palitv of Fulda, on the river Haun, 8 m. N. N. E. Ungton. 

of Iiilda. Burlin^Um, p.t. Chittenden Co. Vt. on Lake 

Bwrghauseny properiy BtarkkaMsaif (which see.) Champlam, is a beautiful town situated at the 

BwrgUngaMy a town of Bavaria, in the princi- bottom of a small bay. It has considerable com- 

patity of Neuburg, seated on the river Nab, 16 m. merce and manufactures and a population of 

N. Vr. of Ratisbon. 3,526. Here is the University of Vermont, which 

BuTgoSf a city of Spain, capital of Old Castile, has a President and 4 Professors and Tutors, 

and an archbishop's see. It has an antique castle, The library however is small. The number of 

once the abode of the kings of Castile ; and the students is 36. There are 2 vacations in January 

cathedral is one of the most magnificent Gothic and August of 12 weeks. Commencement is in 

ftbrics in Europe. The squares, public buildings, August. 

and fountains, are fine, in 1812 the allied army, BvrUngian^.t. Middlesex Co. Mass. 10 m. N. 

under Wellington, entered Burgos, afler the bat- W. Boston. Pop. 486. 

tie of Salamanca, and besieged the castle near Burlington^ p.t. Hartford Co. Conn. Poj>. 1,301. 

three months, during; which they made several at- Burlington, p.t. Otsego Co. N. Y. 6o m. W. 

tempts to carry it by assault, out in vain ; and Albany. Pop. 2,459. 

the allies were ultimately obliged to raise the Burlington, a county of New Jersey, the S. E. 

siege and retire into Portugal, but it surrendered point of which jets upon the Atlantic Ocean, at 

the following year without resistance. It is seat little Ere Haroour. and the N. W. end is 

ed partly on a mountain, and partly on the river boundea oy the Delaware River. Pop. 31 ,0(i(>. 

Aranzon, 95 m. E. by S. of Leon, and 117 N. of Chief town Mount Holly. 

Madrid. Pop. about 9,000. Burlington, cilV, in the Co. of the same name, 

BurgUj or Berdoa, a territory of Zaliara, in the N. J. stands on the Delaware opposite Bristol, 20 

desert of Libya, to the south of Augtla and east m. above Philad. It is handTsomely situated, 

ofFezzan. The capital is of the same name, 250 mostly on an island communicating with tJie 

m. S. S. W. of Augila, and 430 E. S. E.of Mour- main land by several bridges and causeways, 

xook. Long. 81. 40. E. Ut.26. 10. N. There are 8 other towns of this name in Pa., 

Burgundy., or Bourgogne, a late province of Ohio, Ind., and Ken. 
France, 112 miles long, and 75 broad; bounded Burnkam, tL town in Norfolk, Eng. It stands 
on the east by Franche Comte, west by Bour- near tlie sea, on the river Bum, in which is a 
bonnois and jiivemois, soutli by Lyonois, and small harbour. Around it are five villages of the 
norUi by Champagne. It is fertile in com, fruits, same name, with an addition ; and that of Burn- 
and excellent wines, and is now formed into the ham Thorp is the birthplace of the celebrated ad- 
three departments or Cote d'Or, Saone and Loire, miral lord Nelson, whose father was the rector, 
bnd Tonne. Burnham is 20 m. N. W. of Norwich, and 1 17 N. 

Byrhampour, a town of Hindoostan, capital rf E. of Ijondon. 

Candeish, and, at one period, of the deccan also. Burnham, a town in Essex, Eng. at the mouth 

It has a ^at trade in fine cotton for veils, sliawls, of tlie river Crouch, which is' here called Buni- 

ftc In the war with the Mahrattas in 1803 it ham Water. The Walfleet and Burnham oysters 

surrendered to the British. It is situate in a de- are the product of the creeks and piu of this 

Ughtful country, on the river Tapty, 225 m. E. river. Burnham is 11 m. S.E. of Maiden. Pop. 

by N. of Surat. Long. 76. 19. E. lat. 21 . 25. N. 1 ,371 . 

Bwiano, a town of Tuscany, in the Siennese, Burning Springt, the name ffiTen to eertatn 

near the lake Casligleno, 10 m. S. S. E. of Massa. springs in the western part of Uie State of New 

Buriek. See Bwleridt. York, chiefly in the towns of Bristol, Middlese.t 

Burka, a fortified seaport of Arabia, on tlie east and Canandaigua. They emit pm which may be 

eoast, in the province of Oman, 45 m. W. N. W. set on fire. At Bristol the gas rises from the defU 

of Mascat. of the slate rocks on the marjgin of a brook, and 

Bicrios, one of the Philipoine islands lymg with- here it bums continually with a steady flame 

in the S. E. promontory of Luzon. Where it rises through the water it is formed into 

Badfcs, a wwCen county of North Carolina, bubbles and flashM whan tlM iama is applM 

90IL 140 

In Mddkmx the vfiangB lie tAoug a tmet about a BmrmLf or Pnuo. a. city of Aitatie Turicej, in 

mile in leagth, partly ct the bolUm of a TaUmr. Natolia, boih by Praaiiia, kin^ of Bythmia. It 

Tbe gas ariees from the aammite of little hiBecu was the capital of the Ottoman emptie, befoie the 

of a dark bitamiiioua moiild, aad borne with a taking of Gonstaniinople ; and it now oontaina 

steady flame. In winter when these hillockB are about BOflOO inhabitants. It stands upon several 

covered with snow, openings are made through little hills, at the bottom of Mount Oljrrapus, and 

it, and the gas when set on nre, bums in contact cm the ed^ of a fine plain full of fruit-trees. So 

with the snow. Sometimes tahe^ of ice are form- many spnngs proceed from the mount^ that eve- 

ed about the currents of gas, and rise to the height ry house has its own fountain : and at its foot are 

of several feet ; when several of these are lighted splendid hot-baths. The mosques are elegant, as 

at once in a still evening, the illumintftion produc- are the caravanseras. The Elezestine b a large 

es a most brilliant effoct There is another buxning structure fiill of warehouses and shops, containing 

sprinff ui^on Niagara river about half a mile above all the commodities of the east, besides their own - 

tne fidls, and wiUiin a few feet of the rapids , the manidactnres in silk. Here are the best woifc- 

water is charged with sulphuretted hjrdrogen gas. men in all Turkev, who are excellent imitatees 

In the 80uu-«a8t part of Lake Erie, about 20 of the tapestry of Italy and France. None but 
rods from the shore, is a burning spring rising from musselmen are permitted to dwell in the city -, 
the bottom of the lake. The water is here 4 or 5 but the suburbs, which are much finer, and better 
feet deep, and the stream firom the spring is thrown peopled, are filled with Jews, Armenians, and 
to the surface with considerable force When a Greeks. Bursa is seated on the banks of the Nil- 
brand is applied to the water it bursts into a flame, ifur, which falls into the sea of Marmora, 68 m. 
if drank, it proves a powerful emetic. 8. by £. of Consteiitinople. Long. S9. 12. E. tat 

BurmUy^ a town in the parish of Whalley, 40. 12. N. 

Lancashire^ Eng. situate at tne foot of the range Bwnidimy a village in Hampahire, Eng. five 

of hills whieh cGvide Lancashire from Torkahire, miles E. S. E. of Southampton. It stands on the 

In the centre of a very populous district, exten- Hamble, three miles from its mouth, and several 

sively occupied in the cotton manufacture, aoMi ships have been bolt here for the navy. Pop. 473. 

abounding m coal; immediately conti|^ous to mtnUmy a town in Staffordshire, Eng. Till 

Burnley Uiere are eight extensive c<^lenes, about towards the close of the last oentniy, it was an in- 

30 extensive cotton mills and manufactories, four considerable nlace, but beinff interseoted by the 

calico printers, five or six machine makers, dtoe. Trent and Memey CSanal, it nas become one of 

Ac. Tiie Leeds and Liveroool Canal nearly en- tl»e ^ineipal centres of the potterr, porcelain, 

circles the town, which in 1801 contained a pop- eaithenwave and several other manuiactures. The 

ulation of onlv 3,305, but in 1821, 6^4 ; 24 mUes mmvlation, which in 1801 was 6/78, in 1821 war 

due north of Manchester, and 15 W. of Halifax. 9,d99. It is three miles north of Newcastle-under- 

BuTfU Island^ an island near the sooth coast Line, and 151 N. by W. of London, 

of Newfoundland, 15 m. £. S. £. of Cape Ray. Bioton-t^oii-TVmt, a town in Staffordahire, 

Long. 58. 50. W. Ut. 47. 30. N. Eng. It has the remains of a large abbey ; and 

Burnt Islands^ a cluster ol islands m the Indian ie seated on the west bank of the Trent, which 

Ocean, W. N. W. fiom Goa. Long. 73. 30. £. lat. here divides the counties of Staflbrd and Deit»y ; 

16. 0. N. there is an old bridge of36 asohes over the river, 

BurwMand, a borouffh of Scotland, in Fifb- and on its banks are two extensive com mills, one 
ahire, on the frith of f^rth, with an excellent cotton mill, and six extensive breweries, the prod- 
harbour, and a trade in ship-building. It is seated uce of which is distributed, and justly esteemed, 
at the mot of lofty hills, 9 m. north of Leith. over every part of the world. Tnere are also six 
Pop. 2,136. or eight emplojrers in the nwnufiietnre of hats ; 

BurrampoolerfMegntky or BrakamapootrafjLTiYM the cotton spinning, at the commencement of the 
of Asia, which rises in the mountains of Thibet, present oentury, was more extensive, and, in con- 
near the head of the Ganges, in the lat of 34. N. se<}nenoe of its transfer to Lancaahire, the popu- 
and of 80. of E. long. These two rivers, issuing lation of the town, wMch in 1801 was 4,459, in 
from opposite sides of the same ridge of mountains. 1821, was only 4,114, four eootiguons hamletseon- 
direct ttieir course toward opposite quarters, till taining 2^586 inhabitants more. It is 12 m. £. of 
they are more than 700 miles asunder ; and after- Litchfield, 12 W. of Derby, and 123 W. of Lon- 
wards meet in one point near the sea, each hav- don. 

ing performed a winding course of about 1,400 \* There are about 36 other towns and villages 

mues. From its source, the Burrampooter pro- named Burton, or to which it is prefixed, in &f- 

ceeds S. E. through Thibet, where it is named San- ferent parts of England, but all of them are in- 

poo, or Zancin ; that is, tie River : after washing considerable. 

the border of the territory of Lassa, it proceeds S. Bnnodb, a town of Hindoostan, in Bengal, on 

£. bejrond the 95th degree of E. long, to within the border of Orissa, 256 m. W. by N. of Cal- 

220 miles of Tunan, the western-most province of cutta, 

China : it then turns auddenly to the west, and Bury, a town in Lancaehire, Eng. extensively 
passing through Assam, assumes the name of Bur^ engaged both in the cotton and woolen manufte- 
rampooter. It enters Bengal on theN.E., makes ture, in all the branches of spinning, weaving, 
a circuit round the western point of the Garrow scouring, fulling, dressing, bleaching, printing, 
Mountains, and then, altering its course to south, &c. in all the various branches of which there 
meets the Gauges about 40 m. from the sea, in are nearly 100 establishments, some of them very 
the lat. of 22.40. N. During the last 60 miles be- extensive. There are also iron fonnderies, ma- 
fore its junction with the Ga^es, it forms a stream chine makers, and six or eight employers in the 
which « wfpaiuly ficom four to ^^ miles wide, manufacture of hats ; it communicates with the 

BumUMfUU, p.t. Providenee Co. R. I. in the Leeds and Liverpool canal by a collateiml cut cal- 

N. W. eanxer of^ the state. Pop. 2,106. led the B«y Extension. It is seated on the bank 

jDnrten,!. JSlsaflbid Co. N. H. Pep. 395. Also of the Irwell, 9 m. N. of Maneheater. Pop. a 

^«Ea.iaUNH||a4O9.Ohi0. JMU, I0|fi8S, being MU »» than in 1810, 


and the totel population of Um pari^, whkli in- Buder, a oountj in Alabama. Pop. 5,634 

eludes hamlets, m 1821, was 34«d81. Greenville is the capital. Also the name of S 

Btiry, St. Edmund, a borough in Suffolk, £ng. towns in Pa. and Ohio. 

Tt took its name from St Edmund the king, who ' Buder, the name of 2 towns in Ohio, 

was buried here ; and to his honour an abbey was ButrintOf a sewort of £^ropean Turkey, in 

founded, of which some noble ruins remain. Albania, and a bisnop's see ; seated on the canal 

Here are two parish churches, which stapd in of Corfu, at the entrance of the gulf of Venice, 

one church-yard ', in St. Mary's lies Marv, queen 30 m. S. of Chimera. Long. 19. 9. E. lat. 36. 49. N. 

of France, who was married to Charles Brandon, BuUemmtSf p.t Otsego Co. N.T. 94 m. W. 

duke of Suffolk. At this town the barons met Albany. Pop. 3,991. 

and entered into a league against king John. BuUennere, a lake in Cumberland^ Eng. eight 

Henry VI. called a parliament here in 14w, when miles 8. W. of Keswick. It is two miles long, and 

Humphrey, duke or Gloucester, was imprisoned, nearly half a mile broad. On the west side it is 

and here he died, as supposed, by poison. The terminated by a mountain, called, from its fer- 

assizes for the .county are held here; and it has ruginous colour, the Red rike; a strip of culti- 

a free-school founded by Edward VI. The num- vated ground adorns the east shore ; at the north 

ber of inhabitants inlSll was 7,966; and in 1821, end is the yilla^ of Buttermere and a group of 

9,999, and most of them were returned as employ- houses, called Gatesgarth, is seated on tne south 

ed in trade and manufactures. It is seated on extremity, under an amphitheatre of mountain- 

the Larke, a branch of the Onse, 25 m. N. W. of ous rocks. Here Honister Crag is seen rising to 

Ipswich, and 71 N. N. E. of London. a yast height, flanked by two conical mountains, 

BuryenSf St. a village in Cornwall, Eng. 5 m. Fleetwith on the east, and Scarf on the west side. 

W. S. W. of Penzance. It was once of great Numerous mountain torrents create iieyer-&iling 

note, and had a college founded by kin^ Auels- cataracts that thunder and foam down the rocks, 

tan. The church is spacious, and contains many and form the lake below. This lake is called the 

curious relics of antiquity. In its neighbourhood Upper Lake; and, near a mile from it, to the 

are 19 large stones standing in a circle, 13 feet north-east is the Lower Lake, called also Cro- 

from each other, and in the centre is one much mack-water. The river Cocker flows through 

larger than the rest. Pop. 1,188. both these lakes to Cockermouth. 

Busheir, or BitfAire, a town of Persia, in Far- Buttenoortk, an appendage to the town of Roch- 

sistan, surrounded by a wall, with a few bastions, dale, in Lancastershire, Eng. Pop. 5,554. See 

The English East India Company had formerly Bockdals. 

a fkctory here. The trade wiu ^raz, by oara* Buttevanty a town and parish of Ireland, in the 

vans, is considerable. It is situate on a narrow county of Cork. The town is 4 m. N. of Mallow. 

neck of land, in the gulf of Persia, 110 m. W. S. and in 1820 contained a population of 1,020 ; total 

W. of Shiraz. Long. 51. 0. £. lat 29. 20. N. of the parish, 5^9. 

BuMaU. t. Northampton, Co. Pa. Button Bay, the north part of Hudson Bay, 

Buskwiek. t Kings Co. If. T. on Long Island , through which attempts were made by Sir Thom- 

3 m. from Brooklyn. Pop. 1,620. as Button, to discover a north-west passage to 

Bussorak. See Bassorak. China, when he lost his ship, and came back in a 

Bute, an island ofSeotland, in the frith of CWde, sloop built in the country. It lies between 60. 

separated on the north from Uie peninsula of Cow- and 66. N. lat. 

al in Arg}[leshixe by a narrow channel. It is Buttstadt and Buttdstatdt, two towns of Upper 

fourteen miles long and four broad ; the north Saxony, in Thuringia, seated on the Loss, 16 m. 

parthilljr and barren, but the south fertile and W.ofNaumburg. 

well cultivated. The coast is rocky, and indent- BiUzbachf a town of Germany, in Wetteravia. 

ed witb several safe harbours, chiefly appropriat- seated in a marshy but fertile plain, 10 m. S. or 

ed to the herring fishery. Rothsay is the capital. Giessen, and 25 N. of Frankiort Pop. about 

Buteshirtf a county of Scotland, consisting of 3,200. 

the island of Bute, Arran, Great and Little Ciun- Butzow, a town of Lower Saxony, in Mecklen- 

bray, and Inchmamoe, lying in the fnth of bnrg-Schwerin, seated on the Wama, 17 m. S. 

Cl^de. between the counties iff Ayr and Argyle. W. of Rostock. 

Tms shire sends a member to parliament alternate- BuzadettaTf a strong fort of the country of 

ly with Caithneeshire. Bootan, at the entrance of the mountains from 

Butgembtukj a town of the Netherlands, 25 m. Bengal. It stands on the top of a rook, 20 m. N. 

8. by £. of Aix-la-Chapelle. of Cnichacotta. 

Butler, an interior county in the W. District Buxar^ a town and Ibrt ot Hindoostan, in Ba- 

of Pennsylvania, the south-east point jetting upon bar, on the south bank of the Ganges, 72 m. W. 

the AUeffhany River, 18 m. above Pittsburg. Pop. of ratna. ^ 

14,683. xhechieftown,of the same name, in the BuxtekudB^ a town of Lower Saxony, in the 

centre of the county, is 5242 m. W. by N. of Har- duchy of Bremen, on the river Este, 18 m. S. £. 

risburg ' ofStade. 

BuSer, an interior county in the west part of Buxton, a village m Derbyshire, Eng. at the 

Kentucky, intersected from east to west by Green entrance of the Peak. It has nine wells that rise 

River, which falls into the Ohio. Pop. 3,066. near the source of the river Wye ; and they are 

Morgantown, on the south bank of Green River, deemed one of the seven wonders of the Peak. 

144 W. by S. of Frankfort, is the chief town. Their waters, noted in the time of the Romans, are 

Buder, a frontier county at lb': S E. extremity hot and sulphureous, temperature about 82 ; much 

of the state of Ohio, bordiering on Iiidiana. It is company resort to them in the summer. The 

intersected from the north-west comer to the cen* builaing for the bath was erected by Georse, earl 

tro of the south border by the Miami River. Pop- of Shrewsbunr; and here Mary, queen of Soot- 

lUation, 27,044. Hamilten^on the east bank of land, resided tor some time. Tne duke oflVvon- 

the Miami, 107 m. W. S. W. of Columbus, and shire has erected a beautifhl building in the form 

IS north of Cincinnati, is the chief town. of a eresctnt, under which are piassas and shopa« 


A mile hence is anotlier of the wonders, called gation aroond the cape. But although aueh a 

Poors Hole, at the foot of a monntain. The en- commonication has been talkod ahoat for aboiw 

trance is low and narrow, but it presently opens an hundred yean, the want of a good harbour at 

to a cave of considerable height, and 696 f€«t lonf , the northern extremity will protebly hinder its 

with a roof resemblm^ a Uothic cathedral. It beingimdertaken. 

contains many stalactitious concretions, and sey- i^srry, t. Philadelphia Co. Pa. 

eral carious representations both of art and nature, ByehoWj a town of Lithuania on the west bank 

produced by the petriQfing water continually drop- of the Dnieper, 160 m. S. 8. W. of Wifaia, and 8 

pinff from the rock. Buxton is 32 m. N. W. of 8. of Mohilow. 

Derby, and 160 N. N. W. of London. Resident Bv/ield,tL Tillage in Essex Go. Mass. 6 m. 8. 

pop. m 18S^, 1,036. W. fnun Newbnryport, containing Dunmier Aca- 

Buxionj p.t. York Co. Me. a little above the demy, and another Female Seminary, 

mouth of the Saeo. Pop. S,8S6. Byibar, an appenda|fe to Newcastle-on-iyne. 

Buxanfois^ a town of France, in the department Pop. in 1831, 3,w2. See Newcastle. 

of the Indre, on the east bank of the river of that byron, p.t. Gennesee Co. N. Y. 968 m. W. Al- 

name, 12 m. S. £. ofChatillon. Pop. 3;200. bany. Pop. 1,939. 

Buxzard*3 Bay, in the southern part of Masssr Byron IdatuL an island in the Pacific Ooean, 

chusetts. is about 30 miles long and 7 wide. On discovered by Clommodore Byron in 1766. It is 

the south it is bounded by a range of idands cal- low, Ml of wood, and very populous. The na- 

led the Elizabeth Islands. A canal 31-2 miles in tives are tall, well-proportioned, and clean ; and 

lenffth from the bottom of this bay to the waters their countenance expressive of a surprising mix- 

of Massachusetts Bay would completely insulate ture c^ intrepidity and cheerftdness. Long. 173 

the whole peninsiUa of Cape Cod and enable the 46. E. lat. 1. 18. S. 
coasting craft to avoid a long and dangerous navi- 


CABABJCAS, a small interior county of North oovered with snow, hills of moderate height, 

Carolina, lying to the west of the Tadkin River, rich plains, stately forests, and innumerable 

Pop. 6^796. Concord, 143 m. W. S. W. of Ra- streams. It produces every article necessary for 

leiffh, IS the chief town. hnman life, with the moet delicate fruits and 

Caheta de Vide, a town of Portugal, in Alemtejo, flowers. It is sometimes called Zabnlistan, from 

with a castle, 12 m. S. W. of Por&legro. Zabul, one of the names of Ohisni. It now forms 

Cabdlj a large mountainous coun^ of the W. a part of A%hanistan. 

District of Virj^inia, bounded on the 8. W. by the Cahul, the capital of thenrovince of Cab^l, and 

Big Sandv Rrver, which divides it firom Ken- of the dominions of the sultan of the Afghans, 

tudiy, ana on the N. W. by the Ohio River, seated near the foot of the Hindoo-ko on tlie river 

which divides it from the state of Ohio. It is Attock, a branch of the Indus. It carries on a 

about 50 miles in length from 8. E. to N. W. and consideTable trade, and is considered as the jnte 

25 in breadth. Pop. 5,884. Onyando, at the of India toward Tartary. In 1739, Nadir Shah 

month of a river of the same name, which inter- took it bv storm, and plundered it of great tree- 

sects the country its whole length, &lling into suxes. It is 170 m. N. £. of Oandahar. Long, 

the Ohio, is the chief town. 68. 35. £, lat 34. 30. N. 

CabdUfj or CsesUo. See Porto CoMlo, Caeaea, or Kasuaa, a town of the kingdom of 

Cabeitda, a seaport on Oie west coast of South Fex, with a fort nnon a rook, 16 m. 6. ofMelilla, 

Africa, subject to Portugal, 100 m. 8. £. of Loan- on die shores of toe Mediterranean, 

go. Long. 12. 2. E. lat. 4. 5. 8. CactiU, or Thceila, a town of Portugal, on the^ 

Cahts, or Gabes. a town of the kingdom of 8. E. coast of Algarva, 6 m. E. by N. of Tavira, 

Tunis, near a guli of the aame name, 170 m. south and 8 W. 8. W. of Ceatro Marim. 

of Tunis. Lonff. 10. 55. lat. 33. 40. N. Cacertt, a town of Spain, in Estremadnra, seat- 

CoAoe, p.t. Caledonia Co. Vt. Pop. 1,304. ed on the Sabrot, 22 m. S. £. of Alcantara, on the 

Cobra, a town of Spain^ in Andalusia, with six road to Tnudllo. P<^. about 8,000. 

convents, and a college for the studv of philoeo- Caceres, a town in the south part of the island 

phy and divinity. It is situate at the foot of a of Lnconia, capital of the province of Camarines, 

mountain, near the source of a river of the and a bishop's see. Long. 124. 0. £. lat. 14. 33. N. 

same name, 25 m. 8. E. of Cordova. Ctuhan, of JSasAan, a town of Persia, in Irae 

Cabraf a town of the kindom of Tombuctoo. Agemi, which has considerable trade in silks, 

It is a place of great trade, seated on the Niger, sihrer and gold brocades, and porcelain. Here 

and serves as a port to the capital, 10 m. S. E. of are many Christians, and Guebres, or worship- 

Tombuctoo. pers of fire. (See Boika.) It is seated in a vast 

Cabrera, one of the Balearic Isles, in the Medi* plain, 56 m. N. by W. of Ispahan. 

terranean,7m. 8. of Majorca. It has a large bar- Cachac, or Keako, the cuital of the kingdom 

hour, on the north sioe, defended by a castle, of Tonquin. It contains 20,000 houses, whose 

Long. 2. 55. £. lat. 39. 8. N. walls are of mud, and the roofs covered with 

Cabul, a country of Asia, bounded on the west thatch ; a few are built with brick, and roofed 

by Persia, north by the Htndoo-ko, east by Cash- with pantiles. The principal streets are very 

mere and Lahore, and south b^ Candahur. It was wide, and paved with small stones. The king has 

ancientlv a province of Persia, afterward it was three palaces here, such as they are ; and near 

aimexea to the Mo^ul empire till 1739, when it them are stables ibr his horses and elephants, 

was restored to Persia bv Nadir Shah. The ooun- The house of the English factory is the oeet in 

try is highly divaratfied, consistiog of moantaios the city ; and the fikctories porcbasa silks and 


laekered ware, aa ki Chiaa. It ic leated on tha pooitioii qoalifies it as aaamporiiuii lor the com* 

river Hoti, 60 m. from the gulf of Tonquin. Long, meree of ooth hemiepher^a. Tlie city ia an epis- 

105. 11. £. lat. 21. 10* N. copal see, including, however, only twenty-eight 

CocAm, a town of the kingdom of Gumbo, on parishes ; ita cathedral ia ancient, and very mag- 

the west coast of Nosth Africa, seated on the riv- nificent : there are also thirteen convents, aa 

er Cacheo, or St Domingo, 50 milee from its academy of the fine arts, a nautical and mathe- 

mouth, between the Gambia and Rio Grande. It matical school, an excellent observatory, a naval 

ia subject to the Portuguese, who have three fbrtsj and military asylum, a chirurgical institute, a 

and formerly cairied on a great trade in wax and botanic gaiden, a theatre, and thirteen hospitals 

slaves. Long. 14. 55. £. lat. 12. 6. N, Since the year 1786, Cadiz has been much en- 

Caeh&irOf a town of Brazil, in the government larged and improved. In 1808, the number of 

of Bahia. It ia the mart for the northern gold houses was 8,000, and that of the inhabitants, in* 

mines, and stands on a small river, 42 m. N. W. eluding many English and Germana, 75,000 ; but 

of St. Salvador. at the last census the population had suxik to 

Caeongo, a town of the kin^om of Loango, on 53,000, — a diminution in a great measure aaoriba- 

the west coast of South Africa, seated near the ble to the loes of trade with the colonies. On the 

mouth of a river, 40 m. S. S. £. of Loango. isthmus, near the town, are important saltworks, 

CacarUif a town of Spain, situate between two and some vineyards which produce good wine, 

mountains on the frontiers of La Maneha, Murcia, There is a considerable tunny fishery. Among 

and Granada, 15 m. £• N. £. of Ubeda. the inconveniences of Cadiz, that which is most 

Cddenaey a town of Fraace, in the department severely felt by foreiffnera ia the want of good 

of Moutha of the Rhone. 28 m. S. £, of Avignon, spring water. Each house, indeed, has its da* 

CadenaCf a town of France in the department tern; but the fresh water chiefly in request is 

of Lot, on the river Lot, 27 m. £. N. £. or Cahora. brought in casks across the bay from Fort St 

level of the sea; and on it an several lakes jecting slate roofs, have rather a gloomy appear- 

abounding in fish. ance, notwithstanding their whitened walls. The 

CadtiWy a tovra of Spain, in Gsaaada, 28 m. S. principal square ia that of St Antonio. A fa- 

£. of Giaaada. vourite luxury, during the summer heals here, is 

Ca^UaCf a town of Franea, in the department water cooled with snow brought from the distant 

of Gironde, with acastie, seated on the east bank mountains of Honda, 

of the Garonne, 15 m. 9. £. of fiordeanx. When Cadiz had become the centre of the com- 

Cadiz, a celebrated city and seaport of Spain in mereial intercourse between Spain and the Indies. 

Andahista, called by the Pfa<BaioiaDsv who found- all the maritime nations of Eurojie establishea 

ed it, Gfwicr, a fonce oc feaeed place, and by the relations with it by meana of resident consuls, 

Araba Qexxra CoAs, ia the rioliest trading port of agents, and corre8p|ondents. In 1795, there were 

Spain, and one of its finest cities. It stands on 110 great commercial houses ; and about the same 

the weatemeztresiity of a tongue of land project- perimi, or a few years previous, the imports 

iuff from the isle of Leon, which on its sonth-eaaC amounted to 100 millions of reals, and the exporta 

si& was formeriy connected with the main land to 270 millions. In 1804, the number of vessels 

by a bridge. The town ia sorrooaded with a wall that entered the port was 1,386. The battle of 

and irregular bastjons, adapted to the variations of Trafalgar, in the following year, ruined the Spaa* 

the ground. On tbe south side there are steep ish navy ; and the decline of Cadiz was accele- 

aocltvities which render it Inaisceaeible, and the rated by the usurpation of Bonaparte, which 

landii^-place on tlie north is defended by sand- afibrded the South American states an opportuni* 

banks and sunken roeka. On the south-west point ty to declare their independence and open a direct 

IS a range of rocks, partly covered at high water ; intereourse with Europe. 

and the potet of St Seoastiaa is defamted by a Few seaports can boast of higher antiquity. In 

strong fort At the neck of the iathmoa, where it the sea, near the isle of Son Pedro, are still to be 

ia most accessible, every precaution haa been traced the ruins of the temple of Hercules and of 

taken to secure it against hostile attacks ; and it the ancient Gades. The port was successively 

may, therefore, be regarded as almost impregna- oocunied by the Tyriana, the Carthaginians, and 

ble. Its spacious bay forms an excellent haven, the Romans, who preserved to it ue name of 

and ia divided into two harbours communicating Gades. The Arabs, after their invasion of Spain, 

with each otiier ; the one caUed the bay of Cadiz, made themselves aiaaten of the town, and held it 

the other that of Puntales. The entrance to until 1262, when it was taken from them bv the 

each, as well as the town and port generally, are Spaniards. In 1696, it was plundered and burnt 

commanded by the forts of St Catherine, St Se- by the English, alter which it was rebuilt and 

bastian, Onelano, lifaAa^rda, Puntales, and Fort more strongly fortified. Duriaff the wan with 

Luis. The bay of Cadiz is the am»ointed resort £nglaad it was frequently blockaded, and once 

of merchant vessels ; that of the Puntales is re- bombarded, but without success. From 1808, un 

served for Spanish men of war, and merchantmen til the return of Ferdinand VIl., it was the rally 

trading with America; a pasiiage into it is not iau^ point of Spanish loyaltv; and, on theadvanea 

permitted fo diipe of foreig^n nations. The en- oftfae French troops into Andalusia, the supreme 

trance to this inner faarboor is conraianded en one junta adopted strenuous measures fw its defeDca, 

side by the fort of Puntales, an isle formed by the and obtained poweiful reinforosments ftom Gib* 

Cortadura, and on the other by the fort of M8ta> raHar and Portugal. The French laid sic^ ta 

fforda. The Tvocadero n an i^e formed by the Cadiz on the 6th of Febraary, 1810, and, notwithr 

bay of Cadiz and the ebanael leading from Mata> atanding a determined &te from the ahipa, forts^ 

gorda to Puerto Real. These, and other advan- and floating batAeries, seized sereial stioog oointa 

tages of nature and art, render Cadiz the most ^ang the iNiy, and in particular the fon of Mata^ 

Gomplate maritime statian in • fiuropo, while its gorda, whenoa they detarminad to bonriiard the 

CAE 144 CAE 

eity, notwithBtanding its grieat distance; and mor- and flowa twice in 24 hoon. The oountj and 

tan for this purpose were cast at ScTille. Some city send each a member to parliament 
shelb and i^nuies were thrown ; bat as the hou- CSocmuiftAeii, a boroa|rh of Wales, capital tit 

ses of Cadiz were strongly built of stone, no con- Casrmarthenshire. It is seated on the Towy. 

flagration cnsued^and tne damage done was but over which is a stone bridge, to which vessels of 

inconsiden^le. The possession of the isle of 200 to 300 tons burden may come up. It was 

Leon was the object for which the most strenuous fortified with a wall and a castle, now in rains ; 

£ reparations were made on both sides^as it must and on the east side of the town, near the river, 

ave decided the fate of the city. These were are the remains of a monastic building of consid- 

continued until the autumn of 1812, when the erable extent. There are iron and tm mines in 

victorious uro^ss of Lord Wellington in the the neighbourhood. It is 24 m. S. £. of Cardi- 

centre of Spain compelled the FVench to depart gan, and 220 W. by N. of London. Pop. in 1821, 

from Andalusia, and abandon a siege which nad 5,90i5. 

been continued and resisted with extraordinary CaemarvonshirBy a county of North Wales, ^f 
vigour and pertinacity. Few subsequent events 
occurred here of much importance. In 1820, 
lUego commenced the ill-starred military revolu- 
tion on the isle of Leon. In 1823, during a short be called Liverpool Bay, from the celebrity of the 
blocki^e, the French, under the duke iTAngou- town of that name : the Menai Strait divides it 
leme. carried the Trocadero. Since the return of from the Isle of Anglesea on the north-west, and 
Ferdmand VII. to absolute power, the trade of the river Conway divides it from Denbighshire 
Cadiz has been on the decline ; and, perhaps, the on the east, whilst part of the south-east side bor- 
measure best calculated for its revival, thou^h^ ders on Merionethsnire. This county, being the 
unfortunately, that which he seems least willing most rugged district of North Wales, may be truly 
to adopt, would be to recognise the independence called the Cambrian Alps. Its centeal part is oc- 
of the South American colonies. Lat. 36. 30. N. cupied by the famed Snowden, rising to the height 
long. 6. 25. W. Pop. 53.000. of 3,571 feet above the level of the sea, and the 

Cadiz, p.t. Harrison Co. Ohio, and Trigg Co. prospects around are rude and savage in the high- 

Ken. est aegree ; but not without a mixture of beauty, 

CadobhmrVf a town of Bavaria, circle of Rezat, when the dimensions of the vales admit the vari- 

6 m. W. of Nuremberg. eties of wood, water, and meadows. The soil in 

Cadore. a town of the Austrian Venetian terri- the valleys on the side of St. Geotge^s Channel is 

tory, the oirth-place of Titian, the painter. It is pretty fertile, especially in barley ; great num- 

seated on the riave, 15 m. N. of Bellune. ben of black cattle, sheep, and goats, are fed on 

Cadsandj or Cassand, an island of Holland, on the mountains; and the sea, lakes, and rivers, 
« the north coast of Flanaers, at the month of the abound with a variety of fish. Copper mines 
Scheldt. The land is fertile, and the inhabitants have been worked in various parts of these moun- 
make a large quantitv of excellent cheese. The tains, as weU as lead; and quantities of stone, ex- 
chief town 18 Cfassancuia. cellent for hones, are dug near Snowdon ; to the 

Cosn, a city of France, capital of the depart- dreary region of which the rich vale of Conway 

ment of Calvados. It has a celebrated university, below forms a pleasing contrast, 
and a castie with four towers, built by the Eng- Caemarwmy a borouffh and seaport of Wales, 

lish. The abbey of St. Stephen was founded by capital of Caernarvonshire. It is seated within 

William the Conqueror, who was buried in it. the Menai strait, near its entrance into Caemar- 

The river Ome, which fails into the English chau- von bay, and carries on a considerable trade with 

nel, runs through the city, to which the tide Ireland, and the principal English ports, to which 

brings up large vessels. It exports large quanti- it exports vast quantities of sfites. It has a cele- 

ties of Clover seed to England. It is 65 miles W. brated castle, built by Edward I. in which his son, 

'>y S. of Rouen, and 1% W. by N. of Paris. Edward II. the first prince of Wales, was born. 

JLiong. 0. 22. W. lat. 49. 11. N. Pop. about Caernarvon is governed by the constable of the 

36,000. castle, who is uwavs mayor. Here are salt-water 

CaerUonf a town of Monmouthshire, Eng. baths, and elegant not and cold baths, which are 

Many Roman antiquities have been found here, much frequented during the season. It is 7 m 

and it has the ruins of a casUe. It is seated on S. W. of^ Bangor, and 244 N. W. of London, 

the Usk, 19 m. S. W. of Monmouth, and 146 W. Long. 4. 20. W. lat. 53. 8. N. Pop. in 1821, 

by N. of London. Pop. in 1821, 1,062. 5,m 

Caermarthenshiref a maritime countv of South GaerpAtUy.atown of Wales, in Glamorganshire. 
Wales, 48 miles long and 25 broad. It is bound- The rmns of its celebrated casUe more resemble 
ed on the south by the Bristol channel, on the that of a city than a single edifice ; a circular 
west by Pembrokeshire, on the north by Cardi- tower, about 7S feet in height, inclines 11 feet 6 
ganshire ; and on the east by Brecknock and inches fix>m its base. It is seated between the 
Glamorganshire. The air is wnolesome, and the Taafe and Rumney, 7 m. N. of Cardiff, and 160 
soil less rockv and mountainous than in most W. of London. Pop. 899. 
other parts of Wales, and consequently it is pro- Caerwentf a village of Monmouthshire, Eng. 4 
portionally more fertile both in corn and pasture, m. S. W. of Chepstow, and about 2 m. from the 
It has also plenty of wood, and is well supplied bank of the Severn. It b the Venta Silurum of 
with coal and lime-stone. The principal nvers the Romans, once crowded with palaces and tern- 
are the Towy, Cathy, and Tave ; of which the pies ; but now the buildings within its ruined 
first abounds with excellent salmon. It abounds walls are only a church and a few scattered 
with ancient forts, camps, and tumuli. Near houses, the rest of the area being laid out in fields 
Caermarthen towards the east, may be seen the and orchards, where a tasselated pavement, and 
ruins of Kastolk Kerry and several vast caverns numerous other antiquities have been discovered, 
supposed to have been copper mines of the Ro- Pop. 394. 
nans. Near this spot is a fountain, which ebbs Caenotfs^ a town of Wales, in Flintshire, 5 m 


W. of Flint, and 919 N. W. of London. Pop. 969. the coantr/, u tobacco, water-melona, kidae; 
Caffa,at Ijleoriiina, the lirgeBttown of the Cri- beani, and hemp. Their huts are higher uid 
mea, wWh an excellent road and harbour. Il waa more commodioui than UuMe of the Hotteotota, 
Utken, in 1366, b^ the Genocss, who made it one and their landa more fertile, bat their oien, and 
of the most fluunBhiaf (owne in Ihe east of Kn- almost ail their animala, are much amaller. In- 
rope. It VB8 taken nam them bj the Veneljana, dnstiy is the leading trait in the character of the 
in 1297, but soon recovered ; however, in 1474, Caffres, who are distingTiiahed from their neigh- 
the Tartam, aaaistcd bj the Turks, final It expel- boors tothesouthby theirfondneasfoia^nculture 
V-A them. It wia the faat poat io the Crimea of They have a high opinion of ihe Supreme Being, 
which the Genoese retained the sovereignty, and of his power ; they believe in a future atalf 
CaUk waa the Theoddeia of the ancients ; a name of rewards and puoishmeala ; but think that the 
which has been restored to it since the Russians world had no beginning, and wQl be everlasting, 
became poaseued of the Crimea, in 1770. Ilcon- T^ey have no sacred ceremonies, and consequent- 

-;.. .!,„... on mm ™i,.i.;..„.. „_-i :. ..„.jy j^ „„ priests; but they have a kind of conjurers 

, rs, whom tliey greatly revere. They are (tovernea 
I, and female slaves; by an hereditary king, wboee power is very limit- 
most of the latter are brought from Circaaaia, and ed ; but, being permitted to take as many wives 
are here sold at from 400 to £:&Xi each, in propor- as he pleaaes, he has a larger portion of lands to 
tion to their charms. Caffa ia sealed on a bay of cultivate, and a greater number of cattle to tend 
the BlackSea, at the footofsome high mountains, and feed. Tbe distance of the diBTerent hordes 
(S m. E. by N. of Sympheropo], and 130 8. E. of makes it necessary that they should have inferior 
Precop. Long. 35. 20. E. lat. 40. 0. N. chiefs, who are appointed by Ihe king. 

Cagy, Strait of, the uieient Cimmerian Bos- One of the most remarkable inirnds of Itiia re 
phorua, a strait that forms the communication be- rion is the spring-bok a specias of antelope about 
tween the Black Sea and the aea of Aaoph, and a two feet and a half in height, of a pale yellowish 
separation between Europe and Asia. colour, with a stripe of white, bordered by dark 

Caffrutin, or Kettore, a mountainous country of brown extending Irom the tail half way up the 
Asia, lying between the north-eaat part of Persia back and a iimifir alripe on each side from the 
andTulary. The valleys are =nhal>i(ed by vari- shooiders to the haunches ; the belly is of a anow- 
ons independent tribes possesding manners, and white. The name of spring-bok waa oiven it by 
speakinc a language peculiar to themselves, but the Dutch settlers of the Cape of Good Hope, 
rf whicB very Tittle is known. from the prodigions leaps which this animal takes 

Caffraria, or Ka^Taria, a country on the east when slartUd. When thus alarmed, It has the 
coast of South Africa, extending trom the latitude power of extending the while space about the tail 
■if about 30. S, to the Great Tish River, in the into the form of a circle, which returns In iU lin- 
latitude of a]»ut 34., which divides it from the ear form whenihe animal is tranquil. When pur- 
eonntry of the Kottenlola, ita western bonndaries sned, it is pleasing and curious to see the whole 
are not ascertained. The CafFres are tall and well herd leaping to a consideTabls height over each 
proportioaed ; and^ in general, evince great cour- other's hoadB ; and the; will sometimes take three 
ag« in attacking lions and other beasts of prey, or four leaps successively. In this situation the^v 
Their skin is ajet black, their teeth white as ivo- seem suspended in the air, looking over their 
ry, and their eyes large. The clothing of both iboulders at their pursuers, and farming the radi- 
us of the white part about the tail in a most beau- 
tiful manner. They are extremely swift, and it 
must be a good hone that can overtake tbem. 
Thev migrate annually from the interior of the 
country In small herds, and continoe near the Cape 
for two or three months, and then retreat towards 
the north in herds of many thousands, covering 
the great plainsfor several hours in their usssage. 
They are attended in these migrations by num- 
bers of lions, hynnaa, and other wild beasts of 

They also 
eight ye 


leave their haunts in the Terra de Natal by the 

. , „ g .jtirely of the hides excessive drought of that region, where it aome- 

™ „. J, which are as pliant as cloth. The men times happens that not a drop of rain falls for two 

wear tails of different aniroals lied round their or three jeaia. In these nugrations they apresd 

thighs ; pieces of brass in their hiur, and large over the whole country of Cal&aiia, which thev 

ivory rings on their anus ; they are adorned also desolate, notleavingabladeofgrasa. Tbcir flesli 

with thAair of lions, and feathers fiistened on is excellent ; and, with other antelopes, they fur- 

Ibeir beads, with many other fantastical orna- nisli the venison oTthe Cape. 
mcnts. They are fond of dogs; and have greal Thompson, in his travels in Southern Africa 

pride in their cattle, which pay the most perfect gives the following account of these animals, 

obedience to their voice. Their exercise is hunt. " I passed through prodiirions flocks of spring 

lug, fighting, or dancing. They are expert in bolis, spread over the plains as far as the eye 

throwing lances, and, in time of war, use shields could reach : the number il is impossible to esti- 

raade orthe hides of oxen. They sometimes make mate with an/ nicety, but I suppose I aaw at 

incorriona into the English lemtories of the Cape least 100,000 in Ihe course of fifty miles. Th^r 

of Good Hope. The women are employed in the were migrating from the great desert towards the 

cultivation oftheir gardens and com. They raise Colony. Toe colonists, as I came along, inquir- 

■everal vegetables, which ara not indigenoui to ed aniionslj If 1 had seenmany spring-boks,an* 
19 N 


« uuch eoiMenMd to bear lliat Ilit 

Tuicins upOD Ibem 

for these beaatifiu CI. ._. 
er llie ioh&bited coontrj in 
migration*, are man dreaded than even the 
deToiiring locust ; they ent up entjrely both corn 
and paiture, and frequent]; oblige the fiirniera 
to 9; with theii flacks to other diatricta. The 
incredible numben wuich lometinief pour in from 

Ihr north, during ^rotnoted droughta, diatieaa 
the farmer incoaceiTably. Aair attempt at dd- 
merieal oompulation would be vain ; and by I17- 
ins to come near the truth, the writer would 
auhjeet himaelf in the eye* of IhoM who haTe do 
knowledge of (he oountry, to a euspicion that he 
Wa*»TaiImghiniBelf of attaveller'i amumed priv- 
ilegfi. Yet it is well known in the interior, Ihat 
on their approach the graiier makea up bia mind 
to look for paiturage for his flocks elsewhere, and 
conaiders hmuelf entirely dispossessed of hia land* 

. until heavy rains fall. Every attempt lo sare the 
cultivated fields, if they be not enclosed by high 
and thick hedges, prove* abortive. Heap* of <fty 
manure {the fuel of the Sne*iiwbergen and other 
pari*) are placMJ close to each oOier round tl|e 
field*, and set on fire in the evening, so a* to 
eanse a den*e irooke, by which it is hoped the an- 
telopes will be deterred from their inroads; but 
the dawn of day eipoaea the inefficacy of ths 
preoaution,bjihowing the lands, which appeared 
pnind of tbeir promising verdure the evening be- 
ibre, covered with thousands, and reaped level 
with Iha BTound. Instances have been known of 
*oniB of these prodigioua droves passing through 
docks of sheep, and numbers of the latter, carried 
alonv with the torrent, being lost to their owner, 
and becoming a prey lo the wild beast*. As long 
u these drought* last, their inroads and deproda- 
tions continue ; and the havoc k oommitled upon 
them i* of conrw great, as they constitute the 
food of all cla» e s ; but no sooner do the rains 
fall, than they disappear, and in a few days be- 
come ■* scarce on the northern borders a* in the 
more protected districts of Bruinties-Hoocts and 
Camdeboo." ■■ " 

' Cagayan SooImi, an eastern island lying off the 

q north-east point of Borneo, in the lat. of 7 N 
•nd 118. 36. E, long. It is sbant 90 ra. in 
circiunterence, and governed by a Rajah. 

Ctgayait, a dislnct, the mwt northern part of 
Lnconia, the chief of the Philippine islands. It 
»• fertile and popnlons district, in the lat of la 

I group of small island* in the 

Gapilal of Ihe island, anaan archbiahop's see, with 
a university and a castle. Here are numerous 
churches, besides the cathedral, three of which 
are collegiate. It stands on the south port of the 
island, at the bottom of a gulf of its name, which 
form* a large and secure harbour, and exports con- 
siderable quantise* of olive-oil and salt. Long. 
9. 8. E. Ut. 30. 20. N. Fop. about 30,000. 

Ct^ntU, CaxtU,or Oiiarco,a town of Peru, cap- 
ital of a district of the same name, extending 
about 24 league* along ths seacoaat. It is situate 
near the sea, 80 m. B. £. of Lima- Long. 70. 16. 
Vr. lat 13. 10. B. 

CuAainia, the chief town of Dallas County, 

tn. B. W. of Washington, and about 180 north 01 
New Orleans. 

Caiiir, a town and parish in the south part of 
the county of Tipperary, Ireland. The town i* 
sealed on the west bank of the Suir, about aiz 
miles south of Casbel, and 85 B. W. of Dublin, 
and in 1820 contained a population of 3,288, and 
the parish 4,310 more. 

Cahir, i* also the name of a small island off the 
■outh-west coast of the county of Mayo, in the 
lat. of 53. 44. N. and 9. 53. W. Long. 

Cakokia, p.v. Bt. Clair Co. 111. on the Mississippi. 

Cohort, a city of France, capital of the depart- 
ment of Lot, and a bishop's sea, with a universily. 
It is sealed on a peninsula, made by the river Lot, 
and built partly on a craggy rock. There are 
three bridges over the river. The calhedrol is a 
Gothic structure, and bos a large square steeple. 
The town has a manufacture of fine cloths and 
ratteens, and furnishes excellent wine,of the kind 
called twt dt grazt. It was taken by asaaolt, in 
1580, by Henry IV. by means of petards, which 
were first employed here. In one of the suburbs 
are the remains of a Roman amphitheatre. Ca 
hore is 70 ro. N. of Toulouse, and 315 S. by W 
of Pari*. 

Caieoi, or Ca^cet, the soulhemmost of the Ba 

a Isles 


Cat;/(nif ,a city of China, capital of the province 
of Ho-nan, It is situate on a plain, tax milee 
from the river Hoang-ho, or Great Yellow River 
about 300 m. above its entrance into the sea, 
which is higher than the plain, and kept in by 
raised dikes that extend atmve 90 m. When the 

the inhabitants. 8omi 
which shows that its present stale is far inferior 
to its former magnificence. Ilsiurisdiction com- 
prehends four cities of the second class, and 30 of 
the third. It is 350 m. B. B. W. of Fekin, an4 
about 850 N. by E. of Canton. Long. 114. S8 
E. lat. 34. 63. N. 

Cii(/ii,ori/affa,aBeai>artof Syria, in Palestine, 
defended by a wall and a citadel. It stood* 00 
the south side of the bay of Acre, 8 n. S. 
W. of Acre. 

coast of Cuba. The noTth.east point of Grand 
Caymans is in lat. JG. 12. N. and 81 . 26. W. long. 
Tm inhabitants of Jamaica come hither to catca 

Ccumgorm, a mountain of Scotland, at ItM 
■onlh-weiteitreniity ofBanfishire, on the border 
of Inverness. It rise* in a oonical brm 1,750 ftet 
above the level of a small lake near its b«M 

OAI 147 «AL 

wliiebiitheMqraeofUie Aren^ and 4,060 feet V There are S other towns aamtd CmMor,im 

whom the level of the tea. Its sides clothed with the countj of Norfolk. 

firs, and its top generally covered with snow. It CaUhness-shirej a county at the S.' £. extremity 

is ihsDoos for beautilul rock-crystals, '::iuch es- of Scotland, 35 miles long and 20 broad ; boundf- 

leeiaed bj lapidaries. About 30 m. £. of Fort ed on the north by Pentland Frith, which divides 

AnfiMtas. it from the Orkneys, east and south-east by the 

Cairo, or Graml Cairo, a large city, capital of German Ocean, and west by Southerlandshire. 
Egypt. It oonsists of three towns, about a mile The south angle is occupied by mountains ; and 
aput ; Old Cairo, New Cairo, and the port term- a vast ridge of hills forms the south- west bounds- 
ed Bulac. The population is estimated at 300,000. ry,ending in a promontory called the Ord of Caith- 
Old Cairo is now reduced to a small place. New ness, which runs out into the sea, in the lat. of 
Cairo is a mile from the river, and seven miles 58. 10. N. The jest of the county may be deem- 
in cireumference. The streets are narrow; and ed an immense morass, interspcursed with some 
the finest houses are built round a court, in which fruitful spots, producing oats and barley, and others 
Ihey make the best appearance, having few affording pasture for sheep and black cattle. Its 
ar no windows next to the street. The castle other chief products are butter, cheese, yam, 
stands oo a steep rock, and is surrounded by skins, feathers and kelp. It sends a member to 
thick walls, on which are strong towers. Josephs parliament alternately with Buteshire. English 
Well, made by a Tizter of that name, about the is chiefly spoken on the coast, but in the high- 
Tear 1100, is the most curious part of the Castle : lands the Gaelic prevails. Thurso on the north, 
it is sunk in the rock S60 feet deep and 40 in cir- and Wick on the east coast, are the chief towns. 
evmfennce, with a staircase carried round ; and Cajana, or Kajana, one of the seven principal 
a aaaehine, turned bv oxen, raises the water townsof fiast JBiothinia, loJUcAsss. 
(which comes firom the Nile) into a reservoir, Cajatzo, a town of N^>les, 25 miles north of 
whence it is again laised by a similar machine, the city* of Naples. 

There are many other reservoirs for water ; and Calabar, Old and JCow, a territory at the east- 
aomeroos bazaan, where each trade has its allot* em extremity of the coast of Guinea on the west 
led quarter. There are several public bagnios, coast of North Africa. Since the restriction of 
▼ety handsome within, and used as places of the slave trade to the south of the Equator, this 
refreshment and dirersion, especially for the district has carried on a more extensive trade in 
women, who go there twice a week: but the palm oil and bar wood, and some elephante* teeth, 
wives of great men have baths at home. The than any other part of the coast. The town of 
women have greater liberty here than in any part New Calabar is situate at the mouth of a river 
of the Turkish empire ; and on Friday a mosque of the same name, in the lat. of 4. 10. N. and 6. 
without the wall is frequented bv them as a pil- 42. of E. long. Dukes Town, the chief town of 
grimage of pleasure. The Calisn,acanal which Old Calabar, is situate at the mouth of another 
conveys the waten of the Nile into the city, is 90 river of the same name, falling into a bay, about 
Btet bread, and has houses on each side of it. As 80 m. £. by N. of New Calabar. 
soon as the water begins to rise, they close the Calahazo, or Calabaeo, an interior town of Co- 
month of the canal with earth, and place a mark, lombia about 150 miles south of Caracas, oontam 
to show the time when this and all other canals ing about 5,000 inhabitante. 
in the kingdom are to be opened, which is done Calabria, a promontory and province of Naples. 
with great solemnity. There are not less than forming the foot and southern extremity of Italy, 
300 mosques in Cairo, the lofty minarete of which extending fit)m 37. 53. to 40. 5. of North lat. and 
present a very pieturescue appearance. It was a being about 40 m. in mean breadth, between the 
plaee of verv great traae before the diseoyery of long, of 15. 40. and 17. 30. E. A ridge of mountains, 
the Cape of Good Hope ; and is still the centre the Apennines, intersects the whole territory from 
of that of Eastern Africa. The chief manufac- north to south, and numerous streams fall into 
tnres are sugar, sal ammoniac, glass lamps, salt- the sea on both coaste. It gives the title of Duke 
petre, gunpowder, red and yellow leather, and to the eldest son of the king of Naples. It is di- 
linen made of the fine Egyptian flax. This city Tided into two parts ; Cttra, north, bordering on 
was taken by the French, under Bonaparte, in the Basilicate, contains about 350,000 inhabitants, 
1796, and retaken by the British in 1801. It and Ultn, south, containing about 400,000. This 
etends on the east bank of the Nile, about 120 m. country abounds in excellent fVuit, com, wine, 
B. E. Alexandria, and about thesame distance from oil, silk, cotton, and wool. In 1783, a great part of 
each of the two mouths of the river at Rosetta Cslabria Ultn, as well as of Sicily, was destroyed 
and Damietta. Lat. 30. 2. N. and 31. 20. ofE. long, by one of the most terrible esrthquakes on rec- 

Gstrs, a town of Piedmont, 25 miles, west of ord : besides the destraction of many towns, tiI- 

Genoa. It was the scene of a sanguinary battle lages, and farms, shove 40,000 people perished by 

between the French and Austrians m 1794, and in this calamity. The principal towns are Bova, at 

1796 was tsken by the French. Pop. about 4,000. the south extremity, Reggfio, Rosarao, St. Eufe- 

GsfTo, p.t. Green Co. N. T. 35 m. 8. W. Al- mia, Castiglione, and Paula, on the west; and 

bany. Pop. 2,912. Also 2 towns in Ten. and Ohio. Rossano, Cariato, Catensaro, and Squillace on the 

Ckhoan, or Katrwam, an interior town of the east coast, and in the interior, Cossano, Bisagna- 

kingdom oif Tunis, and next to tiie city of Tunis no, Cosenia, (the capital) Policastro, Mileto, and 

fiw trade and number of inhabitante. It is situate Oppido. 

near a sandjr desert, where are found many ves- Calahorra, an episcopal town of Spain, in Old 

tiges of fomier magnificence, and on the river Castile, on the side of a hill, which extends to the 

Magrida, about 60 m. S. E. of Tunis, snd a few Ebro, 90 m. E. of Burgos. It was the birth-place 

miles west of Snsa. of Quintilian. Pop. i3>out 4,300. 

CaiMtor, a town in Lincolnshire, Eng. Near it CalmU, a seaport of France, in the department 

are the remains of a monasteiy, and many Roman of Pas de Calais, with a citadel. It was taken by 

prestiges. It is 12 m. B. W. of Grimsby, snd 156 Edw. III. of England, in 1347, after a siege of 

N. of LondMi. Pop in Ittl, i;»3. mora than 11 months, whieh has gifM rise to soms 

CAL 148 CAL 

kistorical as weU aa dramatic fiction. In 1557 it of the river Hooglj, (the western arm of the 

was retaken by the doke of Guise. It was bora- Ganges) about 100 miles from the sea. Its name 

barded by the "Enfflish in 1696, without receiving Is derived from Cutta, a temple, dedicated by the 

much injury. The fortifications are good ; but Hindoos to Caly, the Goddess of Time, which 

its matest strength is its situation among the was situate between the villages of Chuttanuttv 

marsheSy which may be overflowed at the approach and Gobindpore, where the agents of the English 

of an enemy. In the centre ofthe town is a spacious East India Company, in 1690, obtained permis- 

square, surrounded bv good buildings, and the sion of Aurungzebe to establish a trading facto- 

church is a stately edifice ; the harbour, which is ry, which, in 1606, in consequence of the disturb- 

formed of two wooden piers run into the sea, only ed state of the province or Bengal, they were 

admits small vessels. Calais derives all its im> allowed to fortify. 11^1696, Prince Azeen Ooshan, 

portance from its contiguity to the English coast, grandson of Aurungzebe, granted a lease to the 

being only 20 miles from Dover, with which a daily agents of the En^Ush Company, ofthe villages 

intercourse is maintained ; several hundred per- above mentioned m perpetuity, upon which, they 

sons passingto and from it weekly. It is 2o m. strengthened the fortification, and gave it thk 

W. bv S. ofDunkirk, 20 E. of Bouloj^ne, and name of Fort WUliamj in compliment to the Eny 

145 due north of Paris. Pop. about 8,000. lish monarch of that time. From this period Cai- 

Ca/at5,p.t.Washin^n Co. Maine. Pop. 1J586. cutta gradually increased in population and im- 

Also a p.t. in Washington Co. Vermont. Pop. por^nce up to 1756, when it was attacked by the 

1,539. soubah of Bengal, with an army of 70,000'horse 

Calais f A. a town of France, in the department and foot, and 400 elephants, whien the besieged 

of Sarte, 24 m. E. S. £. of Le Mans. were forced to abandon their posts, and retreat into 

CalamaSf a town of Persia, on the coast of Mek- the fort ; on which the enemy's troops entered 

ran, 60 miles east of Guadal, and 290 west of the town, and plundered it tor 24 hours. An 

Tatta, on the western branch ofthe Indus. order was then given for attacking the fort ; the 

CalanuUaf a town of Greece, at the head ofthe garrison of whicn defended themselves bravely 

ffulf of Coron, in the Morea, on the river Spinarza, for some time ; but many of them being killed 

36 m. W. 8. W. of Misitra. and wounded, and their ammunition almost ex- 

Ca2afiiiafi«f. a cluster of islands, the most wes- hausied they were at last obliged to surrender 

terly ofthe Pnilippines, and to the north of Bor- and were all, to the number of 149, crammed 

neo. They are 17 in number, and mountainous, into the Black Hole prison, a dungeon about IS 

but produce great onantitiea of wax, honey, and feet square , from whence only 23 came out alive 

edible birdsnests. The principal island is' Para- in the morning. The rest were all sufibcated 

goa, in thelat. of 12. N. and 120. of £. long. firom want of air. Calcutta, however, was 

CaUmoref a town of Hindoostan, 70 m. £. of retaken the next year; and, afrer the victory of 

Lahore, distinguished as the place where the em- Plassey, the inhuman soubah was deposed, and 

peror Akbar ascended the throne of Indir in 1556. put to death by his successor, and the whole of 

Calataprone, a large town in the interior of the province of Bengal transferred to the Eng 

Sicily, about 50 m. W. by N. of Syracuse; it has lish East India Company. Immediately after 

manunctnres of earthenware. Pop. 15,000. this victory, the erection of a new fort, about a 

CaUUayudf a city of Spain, in Arragon, with a mile below the old one, was commenced, which 

castle on a rock. It stands at the foot of a hill, is superior in extent and security to any fortress 

on the river Xalon, at the influx of the Xiloca, in India, containing commodious accommodation 

42 m. 8. W. of Saragossa. It has manufactures for 4,000 men. From this period Calcutta rapidly 

of soap. Pop. about 9,000. increased in extent and population. Inl79othe 

Calatanisetta. a town of Sicily, in Val di Noto, number of houses was 76,760, exclusive of the 

50 m. N. W. of Lentini. forts, since which time they have increased more 

CaUUrava, a town of Spain, in New Castile, the than one half. The number of inhabitants, corn- 
chief place of the military order of itto knights of posed of people from all parts ofthe world, amount- 
Galatrava. It is seated near the Guadiana, 90 m. ing to 600,000 or 700,000. The part inhabited 
8. of Madrid. Long. 3. 10. W. lat. 39. 4. N. by the English is elegantly built ; but the great- 

Calhet or Kalbe, a town of Lower Saxony, in the est part is built after the general ftshion of the 

duchy of Magdeburg, on the river Saale, 16 m. cities of India. Their streets are exceedingly 

8. by E. of Magdeburg. Pop. about 3,000. confined, narrow, and crooked, with a vast num- 

Gsifrs, a town of Brandenburg, in the Old Mark, her of ponds, reservoirs, and gardens, interspers- 

with a castle, 7 m. 8. W. of Slendel. ed. A few of them are paved with, brick. The 

Calbergaf a town of Hindoostan, in Golconda, houses are built, some with brick, others with 
formerly a vast city, and the residence of the sov- mud, and a still greater number with bamboos and 
ereigns ofthe Deccan. It is a5 m. W. of Hydra- mats ; all which different kinds of ftbrics, inter- 
bad, and 110 E. of Visiapour. Long. 77. 20. £. mixed, form a very uncouth appearance, and are 
lat. 17. 25. N. very readily destroyed by fire. The brick houses 

CaUaTf a town of Germany, in the duchy of are seldom above two stories high, with flat and 

Clevea ; seated near the Rhine, 8 m. 8. £. of terraced roofii ; those of mud and bamboos are 

Cleves. only one story, and are covered witib thatch. 

CaUanUf a river of Louisiana, which rises 20 m. During the administration of the Marquis Welles- 

8. of Natchitoches and flows through a lake of ley, at the commencement of the present century, 

the same name, 30 m. long and 10 wide into the a magnificent palace was erected at the distance 

Gulf of Mexico. of about a mile from the fort. The line of houses 

Caldnato, a town of Italy, in Bresciano, where that surround two sides of the esplanade of the 

a victory was gained over the Austrians by the fort is also magnificent ; they are all on a large 

Ftonch, in 1700. It is 8 m. 8. £. of Brescia. scale, and detached from one another. From the 

Caiaittafihe capital of Bengal, and the seat of necessity of having a free circulation of air in a 

the governor-general ofthe British dominions in climate so extremely hot, the approach to the hon 

the East Indies, is situated on the eastern bank ses is generally by a flight of^atepsi with great 

CAL 149 CAL 

projecting porticoes, or sarrounded by colonnades another contignoas to Montalepe, 60 m. N. E. of 

ana •rcades, which give them much the appeal- Oporto; another 15 m. N. of Barcelona; another 

ance of Grecian temples. Since the commence- 25 m. N. of Vigo. 

ment of the present centory, Calcutta has been Caldecot, a Tillage in Monmouthshire, Eng. sea- 
greatly improved, both in appearance and in the ted in a plain, five miles S. W. of Chepstow and 
salabritj of its air; the streets have been proper- noted for the massy remains of its castle. There 
ly drained, and the ponds filled ; thereby remov- are six other villages of the same name in differ- 
ing avast surface of stagnant water, the exhala- ent parts of England. 

lions of which were particularly hurtful. Con- (^iler, a river of England which rises on the 

Ltaousto the old fort is a spacious square, on west border of Yorkshire, flows by Halifax to 

<»ie side of which is the college, founded also un- Wakefield, and eiffht miles below joins the Aire. 

der i e administration of the Marquis Wellesley It is navigable ue greater part of its course. 

in IdOJ ; another side of the square is occupied There are Diree or four rivers, and as many yilla- 

eutta is the residence of a bishop, who, assisted of Anspaeh. ft is now included in the Bavarian 

b^ three archdeacons, is intrusted with the eccle* circle of Rezat. 

uastical afikirs of all the British possessions in Caldwdlf p.t. Warren Co. N. T. on Lake 

Asia ; the cathedral is a spacious edifice. Here George, 56 m. N. Albany. Pop. 797. Also a 

is likewise a supreme court of judicature, in which town in Essex Co. N. J. 

lostioe is disjMnsed according to the laws of Eng- Caldwell, an interior conn^ in the western part 

land, by a chief iustice and uree puisne judges, of Kentucky, bounded on the south-west b^ the 

The natives of tne province still retain their Hin- great Cumlierland Biver. Pop. 8,3^. Eddv- 

doo laws, as well as rellj^on, and courts are dulv ville, on the north bank of the river, sbout 30 

appointed for the administration of justice accord- miles above its entrance into the Ohio, and 200 

ingly. The southern part of Calcutta is occupi- S. W. of Frankfort, is the chief town, 

edatmostentirelj by Europeans, who have adopt- Caledony a town in the parish of Aughlo^, 

ed a style of building at once magnificent in its (sometimes called Caledon,^ south part of the 

appearance and well uapted to the climate. Eve- county of Tyrone, Ireland. Pop. of the town in 

ry house is detached, inclosed with walls and firont- 1821, 856, and of the parish 7446. 

ed with an elegant veranda shading a flight of CaUdotda, a county in the north part of Ver- 

«Ce^. The northern part is chiefly inhabited hy mont, the south-east part of which is bounded by 

natives, whose dwellings are for the most part the Connecticut River, which divides it from New 

mere mud or bamboo cottages. The mixture of Hampshire. Pop. 20,967. Danville, in the oen- 

European and Asiatic manners, that may be ob- tre or the county, about 20 m. N. E. of Montpe- 

served in Ckleutta, is curious : coaches, pnaetons, lier, is the chief town. 

single-horse chaises, withthe palanquins and hack- CaUdimia, a township of Livingston county, 

eries of the natives, the passing ceremonies of the N. York, lying to the west of Genesee river, and 

Hindoos, and the di^rent appearance of the south of Erie canal, 245 m. W. of Albany. Big 

ftkirs, form a sight more novel and extraordinary, Spring, remarkable for the abundance of its water, 

perhaps, than any other ci^ in the world can is in Uiis township. Pop. 1,618. 

oresent. The Hoogly is navigable up to the town Caledonia, Jfew, an island in the Pacific Ocean, 

for ships of 400 to Sob tons, but those of greater to the east of New Holland, discovered by Cook, 

burden lie at Diamond Point, about 50 miles below, in 1774. It is 260 miles firom north-west to south- 

their oargoes being conveyed to and from the east, and 70 broad. The inhabitants are strong, 

town by lighters. Independentlv of its commer- active, and well made; their hair is black and 

in the eastern seas, with which an interchange per made firom the bark of a tree, or of leaves, 
is efifected in every possible commodity that man- Tlieir houses are circular, like a bee-hive ; form- 
kind can desire^ either for subsistence and com- ed of small spars and reeds, covered with long 
ibrt, or to gratify the most refined and luxurious coarse grass, and the floor laid with dry msa. 
taate. Bhip-boilding is also carried on to aj^rreatex- They £posit their dead in the gpund, and deco- 
tent; there are several banking establishments rate the ertive of their chiefs with spears, darts, 
to fiusilitate the operations of commerce, and in- paddles. &c. They are of a pacific disposition, 
vsoranoe establisunents for its protection. Tlie and their women chaster than those of the more 
control of the govemor-general.and council of eastern islands. They cultivate the soil with 
ilengal, at Calcutta, extends over the presidencies some art and industry , out subsist chiefly on roots 
ofB^ulrar, Bombay, and Bencoolen; the extent and fish. Plantains and sugar-canes are not plen- 
of the civU establishments attending the admin- tiful; bread-firuit is scarce, and cocoa-nut trees 
istration of so extensive an empire, m addition to are but thinly planted ; but yams and taras are in 
the military and oommereial affairs of the place, great abuncbnce. The cape at the south end, 
necessarily give an importance to Calcutta beyona called Queen Charlotte Foreland, is in long. 167. 
thatof any city in Asia, except those of China and 12. E.laL 22. 15. 8. 

Japan. The new ibrt u in the lat. of 22. 35. N., CaUnhtrg, a principally of Lower Saxony, 

and 88. 28. E . h>ng., 1,030 m. N. N. E. of Madras, which constitutes a part of the duchy of Bruns- 

and about 1^00 £. N. E. of Bombay. wick. It is divided into two parts by the princi- 

Qddas, the name of several small towns m dif- pality of Wolfbnbuttel. The southpart is inter- 

ISirent parts of Spain and Portugal, which, like seeted firom east to west by the Werra, and the 

tlwBadeas of Germany, implies their contiguity chief town is Oottingen. The Lena hu tts 

to hot or medicinal springs : one 25 m. N. by E. source in this part, near th6 banks of ^^/^!^ 

of LAtbm, MMfthtr 10 m. fl . E. of CtiUl Bnmoo } and nus north thiough the principality of Wolf 


enbnttel, then dividing the Bishopric of Hildei- ram parallel with the coa«t, its whole 'extent 

heim from North Calenberg on the east) and after- rising in some places to. the height of about 4,700 

wards intersects the north part of North Calen- feet The soil in many places is excellent ; and it 

berff. The Weser also intersects the south part 'is reported that vines grrow naturally in the moun- 

of N. Calenberg from south-east to north-west, tains, and that the Jesmts, when they resided here, 

the chief towns being Hanover, Neustadt, ana made abundance of wine, in taste approaching to 

Hameln. The aggregate extent of the surface that of Maderia. The chief town is St. Joseph, 

may bf estimated tlI about 1,700 square miles, and about S5 m. N. £. of Cape St. Lucas. The por a. 

the population at 220,000. The soil is generally lation of the whole territory is supposed nr« to 

fertile, and under social and reciprocal arrange- exceed 10,000. 

ments, Calenbeig might be made to yield a sur- Ca/tfomui, JVetc, is an extension of territory 

plus produce sumcient to command an abundance alon^ the coast, north of the promontory of Call- 

of tropical and other luxuries, the consumption of forma to the lat. of about 40. N. comprising the 

which has hitherto been very limited. greater part of the coast formerly called New Al- 

CalhucOf a town at the south extremity of bion. The same mountain ridge which intersects 

Valdivia. Louf. 73. 37. W. lat. 41. 40. S. rection, found the soil somewhat more congenial 

CitUf a city of Colombia, in the valley of Popa- for the general purposes of culture, and founded 

yan, on the west bank of the river Cauca. The about twentv settlements upon and between the 

ffoyemor of the province generally resides here, coast and the mountain nd^, each settlement 

It is 90 m. £. of 3onaventura, and 200 W. by 8. dedicated to some saint of their holy order. The 

of St. Fe. Long. 77. 6. W. lat. 3. 15. N. four principal settlements on the coast are St. Die- 

Calieuif a city of Hindoostan, capital of a pro- go, in the lat. of 32. 42.; La Furissima, in 34. 32.; 

yince of the same name, on the coast of Malabar. St. Carlos de Monterey, in 36. 36.; and St. Fran 

It was the first Indian port visited by European cisco. in 37. 48. N. The total popuktion of this 

sluroing ; being discovered by the Portuguese, in district is estimated at about 16,000. 

149i0. Here is a manu&cture of plain cotton Calix, a town of Sweden, in West Bothina^ on 

goods ; and much salt is made by the natural a river of the same name, near its entrance into 

evaporation of the sea water. The principal ex- the gulf of Bothnia, 22 m. W. of Tomea. 

ports are cocoa and betel nuts, black pepper, gin- CaUah, a town of Algiers, in the province of 

g|er, and turmeric. It is seated at the mouth of a Mascara, which has a considerable trade, and the 

nver, 110 m. S. W. of Seringapatam, and 130 S. greatest market for carpets in the country. It is 

S. E. of Mangalore. Long. 75. 52. E. lat. 11 . 12. 40 m. E. of Oran. 

N. It was ^rmerly mucn more considerable, CoUan, a town of Ireland, in the county of Kil 

having been much encroached upon by the sea. kenny, on the frontier of Tipperary, 7 m. S. W 

Cahfomiaj a nromontory, in the Pacific Ocean, of the city of Kilkenny, and 66 from Dublin 

separated from the west coast of North America Pop. in l&l, 5,678. 

by the Vermilion sea, or Gulf of California; ex- Callander, a town of Scotland, hi Perthshire 

tending N. W. firom Cape St. Lucar, in the lat. of with a considerable manufacture of muslin ; seal* 

22. 44. to lat. 33. N. being about 50 miles in aver- ed on the river Teath, 30 m. W. S. W. of Perth. 

age breadth. It was discovered by Cortex, in Pop. 2,030. 

1536; and is said to have been visited by Sir Ca22ao, a seaport of Peru, with the best harbour 
Francis Drake, m 1578. Toward the close of the on the coast, and a large and sa& roadstead de- 
seventeenth century, the Jesuits formed several fended by the islands of Callaoand St. Lawrence, 
settlements here, and endeavoured to govern the In the port every commodity is to be procured 
natives with the same policy and authority that that vessels may be in need of The town was 
they exeroised in iheir missions in Paraguay, almost totally destroyed by an earthquake, in 
They seem studiously to have depreciated the 1746. It is seated on a river of the same name, 
chmate and soil of the country ; but on their ex- 5 m. W. of Lima, of which it is the port. Long, 
pulsion from the Spanish dominions, the court ap- 76. 58. W. lat 12. 2. S. 

e>inted Don Joseph Galvez to visit this peninsula. Callaufay^ a county of Kentucky. Pop. 6,159. 

is account of the country was favourable ; he Wadesborough in the chief town, 

found the pearl fishery on its coast to be valuable, Calle, a town of Algiers, in the province ol 

and he discovered mines of ^old of a very promis- Constantina, where the Trench have a fiustory es- 

ing ^>pearance. Diven naUons or tribes inhabit tablished for a coral fishery, and trade for grain, 

ue country, without acknowledging any chief wool, leather, and wax. It stands on a rock, al- 

Each fother is a pnnce over his own family ; most surrounded by the sea, 36 m. E. of Bona, 

but his power ceases when the children are able CalUnger, a fortified town of Hindoostan, in 

to provide for themselves. Each tribe, neverthe- the province of Allahabad, formeriy capital of 

less, has persons appointed, who call assemblies Bundelcund. It was ceded by the Mahrattas to 

to divide the productions ot the earth, regulate the English in 1793. It is 20 m. N. of the Dia- 

the Mieries, and inarch at their head when en- mond Mines of Punoah, and 150 W. by S. of 

gaged m war. Want of provision obliges them Benares. 

often to chan^ their abodes ; and in severe win- CaUington, a borough in Cornwall, Eng. with 

ten they ntire into caves. A girdle and piece a manufacture of cloth; situate on the Lynher, 

of hnen round the body, some omamento for the 12 m. S. ef Launceston, and 216 W. bv S. of 

head, and a chain of pearls, serve them for dress London. It returns two members to paruament. 

and finery. Those. who Uve toward the north, Pop. in 1821, l,3Sil. 

Tf* ^JS[ ^^ **** pearls, dress their heads with CaUatna. or Caillomo, a town of Peru, oelebrat 

■hells. The women commonly wear a kind of ed for ito silver mines, 50 m. N. by E. of AnHjoipay 

.^g robe, made of leaves of palms ; though some and 170 S. of Cusco. 

wear nothing but a girdle . A range of mountains CalmmTf a strong seaport of Sweden, capifttl of 

CAM 151 CAM 

Smaland, and a bishop's see. It if celebrated as ^ CamarmeSf the mosc southern, province of tlie 

the place where the deputies of Sweden, Den- isle of Luzon, of which Caceres is the chief 

mark, and Norway, were appointed to assemble town. 

for the election of a kin^, according to the Union Camargve^ an island, or cluster of islands, of 

of Calmar. On an eminence, hau a mile from France, in tne mouths of the Rhone, separated 

the town, is- the ancient castle, now converted by canals and fortified. The whole contains 80 

into a distillery. The cnief exports are deals and square miles ; the land is fertile, but the air is 

tar. It is seated near the Baluc, 190 m. S. S. W. unwholesome. 

of Stockholm. Long. 16. 22. £. lat 56. 41. N. Camifatf the southernmost province of Abyssi- 

Calminaf or CoZtmno, an island of the Grecian nia, inhabited by a people called Seb-a-adja, who 

Archipela^, near the coast of Asia, 7 m. N. W. are a mixture ot Pagans, Christians, and Mshom- 

of Stanchio. Long> 26. 46. £. lat 36. 56. N. etans. It is abundant in fruits. 

CaUif Eagt and West, townships in Chester Co. Cawhay^ a considerable city of Hindoostan, in 

Pa. the province of Guxerat. It stands on a jrulf ot* 

Cabu, a borough in Wiltshire, £ng. It has the same name, and was the Camanes of Ptol» 

eight or ten extensive manufactories of woolen my. Here are three bazars, and foor publick cis 

cloth, and in the vicinity are many fulling and terns, capable of supplying the whole town wiU 

corn nulls. It is seated on a river of the same water in times of the greatest drou^t. Its pro 

name, ^ m. £. of Bristol, and 88 W. of I^ndon. ducts and manufactures are considerable ; for the 

It returns two membere to parliament Pop. in country abounds in corn, cattle, and silk : aa^ 

1881,4,612. cornelian and agate stones are found in its rivers. 

CaUwra, a town on the west coast of Ceylon, The inhabitants are noted for embroidery. It is 

with a fort. A great quantity of arrack is made 100 m. N. of Surat, and 50 m. S. of Amadabad, 

here, and other manufactories carried on. It of which it is the port. It belongs to the £ng- 

stands at the month of a large branch of the Mu- lish, and is included in the presidency of Bombay. 

Uwaddv, 28 m. S. by £. of Columbo. Long. 79. Long. 72. 34. £. lat. 22. 17. N. 
56. E. lat 6. 44. N. Camhtr^, a town of Germany, on the south- 

Calvados^ a maritime .department of France, in- west frontier of the electorate or Hesse, situate on 

eluding part of the late province of Normandy, a hill, 17 m. £. by S. of Nassau, and 20 N. W. of 

bounded north by the English channel. It is so Frankfort on the Maine. 

called from a ri<lge of rooks of the same name. CambenoeUf a parish in Surrey, contiguous to 

near the eoast of what was heretofore callea London, on the south side ; and to which it forms 

Normandy, eztendiuff twelve miles in length. It an appendage, being occupied principally by the 

contains an area of wboni 2,200 square miles, and private resiaences of the merehants, shopkeepers, 

upwards of 500,000 inhabitants. It is intersected and clerks emploj'ed in the several public estab- 

from the south to the sea by the river Orne. It lishments of the Bank, £ast India House, cus* 

is a fertile province, and exports a considerable toms, &c. dec. The number of inhabitants in 

quantity ot clover seed. Caen, on the banks ol 1821 was 17,876 ; since when the^ have consider- 

tne Orne is the chief town. ably increased. The old church is 2 1-2 m. S. of 

Calvert f a county of Maryland, lying between London Bridj^ : an additional church, after the 

the Patnxent River and Chesapeak Bay. Pop. model of one in Rome, was erected in 1825. 
8,899. Prince Frederick, 40 m. S. of Annapous Cambodia, Camboja, or Camboya, a kingdom 

and St Leonard's, in the south part of the county, or territory of Asia, extending from Cape Cam- 

oo the shore of the Chesapeak, 71 m. S. of An- bodia, in the China sea, south, m the lat. of 8. 40. 

napolis, are the chief towns. to Laotchua or Laos, in the lat. of about 17. N. : 

Calm, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, bounded on the east, at the south end, b^ Tsiom- 

eight miles north of Capua. pa, and further north by the country or the Ke 

Calm, a town of Corsica, on a craggy moun- moys, which divides it from Cochin- China, and 

tain and gulf of the same name, wiUi a strong on the west fit>m the 8th to the 14th degree of 

fortress and a good harbour. It was taken by latitude by the Gulf of Siam, and further ndrth 

the Engibh in 1794. It is 38 m. W. S. W. of by the territory of Siam; being of an average 

Bastia. breadth of about three degrees of longitude te- 

Calmsano, a town of Bresciano, 12 m. S. by tween 101. and 106. £. comprising an, aggregate 

£. of Brescia. Pop. about 3^000. extent of surface of about 100,000 square miles. 

Cahp, a town of 8uabia,in the kingdom of As far as any knowledge of this country has been 

Wortemburg, with a porcelain manu&cture, and obtained, it appears to oe exceedingly rich, alike 

a great trade in stuffs. It is 20 m. W. by S. of in vegetable, animal, and mineral produotions; 

Stnttgard. Pop. 3,500. whilst the unsoeial habits of the people, who ap- 

Cam, a river which rises in Hertfordshire, Eng. pear to be a mixture of Japanese, Cochin-Chi- 

flows by Cambridge into the isle of Ely, and nese. Malays, and natives of the Eastern islands 

there joins the Oose, to which river it is naviga- preclude nearly all intercourse with Europeans. 

ble from Cambridge. In the 17th century, the Portuguese, Dutch, and 

CamMta, a town of Pern, capital of a jurisdic- £nf lish, each unsuccessfully endeavoured to es- 

tion ; situate on a river of the same name near tabush an intercourse in this country, and all suc- 

the Pacifio Ocean. 70 m. W. of Arequipa, in ceeding attempts, except to a trifling extent sur- 

lat. 16b 10. N. and 73. 15. W. long. reptitiously, appear to have met with disadvan- 

Camanui, an island of Arabia on the Red Sea. twous results. It is intersected by a noble river 

where there is a fishery for white coral and pearl of^e same name, which rises in Chinese Tarta- 

oysten. Long. 42. 22. E. lat. 15. 6. N. ry, runs through Thibet and the west side of 

Camaret, a town of France, in the department xunnan, the south-west province of China, and 

of Finisterre. In an expedition against Brest, in Laos, and through the Cambodian territory in a 

1694. the English landed here, and lost a great south-east direction, falling into the C^una Sea, 

number of men. It standi on a bay of the same by several channels, between the latitudes of 9* 

uuoBfQm. S. of Brest and 11. N. In Thibet, this river is eaUed th« 


Mati^iou, in China the £to« Limg, and throoffh the ties of wild fowl. Its snppljr however of fimign 

Laos the May Kung, and the eastern channel into and mannfiibctared prodactiooa is obtained in ex- 

the C2a is sometimes called the Jawmese. The change for the ezpenditoxe of the students at the 

chief town of the country, called also Cambodia, university of the town of Cambridge, and rents 

is situate on the western bank of the river, about abstracted from different parts of the country, on 

240 miles above its entrance into the sea. Cam- account of the endowments of the several colleges 

bodia appears to be thinly peopled, but of the The only other place in the coun^ deserving of 

number of its inhabitants no estimate has been notice, besides the town of Cambridge, is the dty 

formed. They appear to manufacture both silk of Ely. (See Bedford LmeL) 
and cotton, and tne country producing every pos- CsmM^s, the chief town of the preceding 

sible article necessary for subsistence and com- county, and seat of one of the two universities of 

fort, and aJso to gratify the most luxuriant sense, Enffhind, is situate in the south nart of the coun- 

either of taste, smell, or ornament, there is but ty, 17 m. south of Ely, 33 east of Bedford, and 28 

little inducement on the part of the Cambodians west of Bury, and 51 north by east of London, 

to cultivate an intercourse with Europeans, more It is a corporate town^ govemeii by a mayor and 

especially on the overbearing, higgling, and self- 13 aldermen ; but its importance is derived from 

ish principle which they seem to have ezerciied its universitv, which dates its foundation by Si^ 

over all Asia. As far as the Cambodians main- bert, king of the East Angles, in 630. It acqutr 

tain an external commerce, sandal wood, ele- ed, however, but little celebrity until afier the 

{Plants' teeth of the finest quality, camphor, and period of the collisions between the barons and 

the gum called cambogia, or gamboge, from the the court had subsided, in the 13th century, from 

name of the country, constitute the cnief articles which period, to the dose of the 16th century , 12 

of export. (See Siam.) collejgfes and 4 halls were founded, by the names, 

Camhray, a fortified city of France, capital of and m' the order of date as follows, viz. : 
the department of Nord. The linen manufacture COLLEGES 

is extensively carried on in this district, and 

the term eamhrie was derived fimn the finer 1 St. Peter^s m 1257 

qualities of Unen, which were distributed firom 2 Gonville, 1346 

this city. It has since been applied by the Eng^ 3 Corpus Christi, 1350 

lish to the fine fabric of cotton as well as of linen. 4 King's^ 1441 

Cambray has also some manu&ctuies of lace and 5 Queen s, 1448 

leather. It is seated near the source of the 6 Christ's, 1505 

7 St. John's in 1509 

6 Magdalen, 1519 

9 Trinity, 1546 

10 Jesus*, 1570 

11 Emanuel, 1584 

12 8yd. Sussex, 1596 

Scheldt, which runs through the city^ 18 m. S. by HALLS. 

W.ofyaIencieimeSj^S.VE.ofLwle,andl(ia i cUue. 1326 I 3 Trinity, 1350 

N.N.E pfPans. Thefortifi^Uonwasoneof g pe^bioke, 1343 4 Cathe&e, 1475 

those retained by the aUies for five years after the ? i » 

peace of 1815. These institutiotts, founded in ages of monastic 

CamMa, a county in the W. District of Penn- influence, and when architecture was the ruling 

sylvania, lying west of the main ridge of the Al- passion of those who possessed the means of in- 

leghany mountains. The south-west branch of dnljgring either in acts of benevolence or vanity, 

the Susquehannah River rises in this county, and claim uie attention of the present age, some for 

a branch of the Alleghany intersects its south their monastic features, some finr the history of 

part. It is about 33 miles in length from north to their foundations, and others fi>r their architec- 

south, and 18 in breadth. Pop. 7,079. Ebens- tural beauty. Most of them have chapeb and 

burg, in the centre of the county, 143 m. W. by Lbraries attached, some of them extensive and 

N. of Harrisburg, is the chief town. valuable, and the chapel of King's College is 

Cambria, p.t. iViagara Co. New York, near the justly esteemed, as the most beantobl Gothic edi- 

ffieat falls of Niagara, 290 m. W. Albany. Pop. nee m the world. It is 304 feet in length, 71 

1,712. broad, and 91 in height ; the efifect of its propor- 

Cambridge, an interior coun^ towards the S. E. tions, and beauty ofits deoorations, must be seen 
part of England, being about oO miles in extent to be understood. In 1807 another college was 
from north to soutii, and 20 to 25 fix»m west to founded, pursuant to the will of a Sir George 
east. It is bounded on the south by a range of Powning, whose name it bears ; and, in 1810, 
hills which divide it from the counties of Bedford viscount Fitxwilliam bequeathed a very extensive 
and Essex, having the counties of Suffolk and and valuable cabinet of works of nature and art, 
Norfolk on the east, and Bedford, Huntingdon, and ample funds for the foundation of an observa- 
Northampton, and Lincoln on the west, the north- tory and a building for the reception of his oolleo 
em extremity jetting upon the Boston Wash, tion, for the use of the university at large. Thii 
The river Ouse intersects it from west to east, munificent donation excited a general spirit of 
whilst the Nen forms the boundary between the improvement, both in the town and university 
counties of Northampton aiul Lincoln, and the several of the coHeges have been enlarged, r^- 
Cam, which rises at the foot of the lulls, which paired, and beautified, several old buildingi in the 
form the southern boundary, falls into the Ouse, town taken down ; judicious sites for tne new 
about the middle of the county. After descend- buildings selected, and those edifices more par- 
ing the hills from &e south, the country is one ticularly deserving of attention for their architec- 
entire level, and that port was formerly httle bet* ture, laid more open to the view. In addition to 
tor than a swamp, which, by well-directed eflR>rts the libraries attached to the several colleges and 
in draining and embanking, since the middle of halls, there is also one common to the university ; 
the hurt oentnry, has been converted into rich and a senate house, and schools for public examine- 
verdant pastures, which yield a vast surplus of tions, v^eh, together with 14 parish ohorches, a 
butter, and cream-cheese, for the London market, county hospital, and other public buildings for 
It has no sttfplns of msnuf^Ectures of any hhid. oount^ purpos^, afford a very interesting extent 
but in aAfimi to ite butter, it yields a surplus or of rvned architectural display. There are also 
calves, ««tl2fr, rfieep, and wool, tad Urge quaati- six bridges of stone, over the river Can, whiolii 


iaadditioiii to their eoDTemeiice, add eonndenbly and the aoath end lets opon Albennarle Sound, 

to the general picturesque efl^ct. The county, between PaaquetanK and Greoree Riyers. Pop. 

town, and uniTorsity, each aenda two membera to 6,721. New Lebanon is the chieftown. 
parliament. About two miles from the town, one Camden, a maritime county of the state of 

of the laijgest fairs in England is held, for a fort- Georgria, bounded on the south by St. Mary's Riv- 

i^rht, commencing on the 7th of September, er, which divides it from East Florida. It is 

The population in 1801 was 10,067, and m 1821. about 20 miles in extent each wav, bounded on 

14,1^, of whom about 1,000 maybe considered the west by the Great Swamj) of Oke-fin'-ocaw. 

members of the uniyersity. The Santilla River intersects it from the N. W. 

Cmmibrid^tf p.t. Middlesex Co. Mass.^ This comer, running to the centre of the county, falling 

town is sepanied from Boston by the wide bay into the sea, at the N. E. comer. It is very pro- 

which nearly surrounds the city. Two long ductive in rice and cotton. Pop. 4,578. Jefier- 

bridges open a communication between them, son, is the chief town. 
Hie town properly consists of three divisions, Camden, p.t. Wddo Co. Me. Pop. 2,200. 
Tiz. 1. East Camhndg9, or Lechmere Point, which Camden, p.t. Oneida Co. N. T. Fop. 1,945. 
is a suburb of Boston and connected with the Camden, p.t. Gloucester Co. N. J. opposite 

city by Craigie*s bridge. This is a flourishing Philad. Also a town in Kent Co. Del. 
place, and has many manufactories of ^lass, iron Camden, y.t. Kenhaw District. S. C. on the 

Ac. i Camhridge-wfrt, which commumcates with Wateree, So m. N. E. Columbia. It is the seat of 

tho city by West Boston bridge, and 3. Old Cam" justice for the district. Here the Americans, un- 

bridjfe, 3 miles fit>m Boston, containing Harvard der €^en. Gates, were defeated by Lord ComwalUs 

VmSereUff, the oldest and richest literary institu- in 1780, and another battle fought between Gen. 

tion in the United States. It was founded in 1638. Greene and Lord Rawdon in 1781. 
The officers are a president and 23 professors Camel, a river in Cornwall, Eng. which rises 

and tutors. The libraries contain 40,000 volumes, two miles north of Camelford, flows south almost 

and the philooophical apparatus, cabinets and to Bodmin, and then north-west to Padstow, 

similar materials for scientific purposes are of the where it enters the Bristol channel. Its banks 

first excellence. The Botanical Garden and green- were the scenes of some bloody battles between 

house, are handsomely arranged and fUmished the Britons and Saxons. 

with the choicest plants. The college buildings Cam^ord, a borough in Cornwall, Eng. A 

are 6 ; one of these is elegantly built of granite ; great quantity of yam is spun in this place and 

the others are brick. They are beautiful^ situa- its neighbournood. It is seated on the Camel, 14 

ted upon a spacious level common. The number m. W. of Launceston, and 22S W. by S. of Lon- 

of students is 236. There are 3 vacations in April, don. It returns two members to parliament. Pop. 

August and December, of 10 weeks. Commence- in 1821, 1,256. 
ment is in August. Camerino, a town of Italy, in the marquisate of 

A short distance west of the colleges is the spot Ancona, and an archbishop s see. It is seated on 

ooensied by Washington as his head quarters dur- a mountain, near the river Chiento, 37 m. S. W 

ingtlie siege of Boston, in 1775 and 6. Man^ of Ancona. 

psiits of the town exhibit the remains of the forti- Cameron, p.t. Steuben Co. N. T. Pop. 924. 
ncatkwis thrown up by the Americans at that pe- CamiUus, p.t. Onandaga Co. N. Y. Pop. 2,518. 
riod. In the western part of the town and bor* Camin, a seaport of Further Pomerania, and 

dering upon Walertown, is JlfoKja Auburn, a spot once a bishop's see, which was secularized at the 

lately chosen for the establishment of a Cemetery peace of Westphalia; but it still has a fine cathe- 

aad Horticultural Garden. This place is charm- dral and a chapter. Its navigation and commerce 

ingly variegated with hills and dells, woods and were formerly extensive, but it is now of little 

lawns, and when the design is fuUy completed note. It stands on the Diwenow, or east mouth 

will be among the moat interesting objects m the of the Oder, opposite the isle of Wollin, 25 m. N. 

sonntry. of Stettin. Long. 14. 52. E. lat. 53. 54. N. 

In the san^ neighbourhood is Fresh Pond, a Caminha, a town of Portugal, in Entre Douro 

■mall sheet of water skirted by steep and woody e Minho, with a fort ; seated at the mouth of the 

hiUa in a hi^ly picturesque manner. This is a Minho, 12 m. N. of Viana. 
&yoatite resort of the people of Boston in the Canudin, a village in the county of Wexford, 

•nnuiier. Pop. uf Cambridge, 6,071. Ireland, on the north bank of the Bann, 4 m. 8. 

Ckmkridge, Wut, p.t. Middlesex Co. Mass. ad- W. of Gorey. Pop. in 1820. 377. It was possess^ 

joining the preceding town. Pop. 1,230. ed by the insurgents in 1796. 

Camkridgt, p.t ftanklin Co. Vt. Pop. 1,613. CSsmorta, one of the Nicobar isles off the west 

Cambridge, an unsettled township in Coos Co. coast of Malaya, in the lat. of 8. N. 
N. H. Cam^pagna^ or Campania, a town of Naples, in 

Cambridge, p.t Waahinffton Co. N. T. Pop. Principato Citeriore, 40 m. S. £. of Naples. 
2,319. Also towns in Maryland, S. C, and Ohio. Camipagna di Rama, or Tirriiory of Rome, the 

CambriUa, a town of Spain, in Catalonia, sur- most south-west province of the ecclesiastical 

rounded by a wftll, and seated near the sea, 14 m. states of Rome, extending from the river Tiber, 

W. by S. of Tarragona. for about 65 miles along the shore of the Mediter- 

Camburg, a town of Thuringia. on the east ranean to the Neapolitan province of Lavoro, being 

bank of the Saal, 18 m. N. by E. or Jena, and 32 about 50 miles wide, bounded on the eaatby Abras- 

8 W. of Leipiig. lo. This extensive district, lying between the 41st 

Cambyma, an island lyinc between the S. E. and 42d degree of north latitude, was the ancient 

nomontory of Celebes, ana the Isle of Bonton. Latium, and was once the most populous and fer- 

It is about 60 miles in circumference. tile district in the world, but now presents one 

Camden, a county in the N. E. part of North general scene of desolation. The Pontine marsh- 

Garolina, about 25 m. firom N. to 8. and four in es, which are constantly emitting the most noi- 

breadth ; the north end borders on Virginia, some vapours, comprise a great portion of the 

and ibnof part of the Great Dismal Swamp, south^*aft part of the province ; nssides the. eity 



of Rome on the banks of the Tiber, at the north- Alemtejo, on the frontier of Spain, 14 m. N. bjr C 

em extremity of the province, Aloano, Velletri ofElvaa. Pop. about 5,000. 
' and Piperno, all on the western side, still exhib- Campo St. PietrOf a town and castle of Italy, in 

it marks of former ffreatness, whilst the ruins the Paduano, on the river Menson, 12 m. N. of 

of temples, baths, and other stately edifices, are Padua, and about the same distance N. W. of 

seen scattered in all directions. ^See Rome.) Venice. Pop. about 3,000. 

Campbdlf a county in the E. District of Virjgrin- CamvoUf a town of Naples, in Abrnzio Ulter- 

ia, being nearly « square, about 14 miles each lore, 23 m. N. by £. of Aquila. 
way, bounded on the south by the Roanoke River, Oumpredtnif a town of Spain in Catalonia, at 

<anj north by James River. It is a fertile district, the foot of the Pyrenees, and on the river Ter, 45 

Pop. 15,704. Lynchburg is the chief town. m. N. of Barcelona. 

Campbellf a county of Georgia. Pop. 3,323. Campsie, a village of Scotland, on the south 

Gampbellton is the capital. confines of Stillingshire, 9 miles north of Glas- 

Campbell. a county of East Tenessee, bounded gow. It has some extensive printfields, and oth- 

on the nortn by Harlan county, Kentucky ; in- er manufactures. 

terseoted by the Cumberland ri^^ of the Allegha- Camptaftf p.t. Grafton Qo. N. H. 75 m. fr. Ports- 

ny mountains^ and firom the north-east to the mouth. Pop. 1,313. 

south hy Powell's River, a branch of the Tenessee. Canaim, p.t. Somerset Co. Me. Pop. 1,076. 
It contains an area of about 290 square miles, Canaan, p.t. Essex Co. Vt. Pop. 373. 
and a population of 5,110. Jacksonborough is the Canaan, p.t. Grafton Co. N. H. 103 m. fir. Ports- 
chief town, mouth, rop. 1,428. 

CarnvbeUf a county of Kentucky, containing Canaany p.t. Litchfield Co. Conn, on the Hous- 

about 90 square miles, bounded on the north by atonic. Pop. 2,901. This town has some iron 

Boone county, and on the east and north by the manufactures ; and near it is a fkll upon the 

Ohio River, and intersected firom south to north river. 

by the Licking. Pop. 9,893. Newport, on the Canaan, p.t. Columbia counUr, New York, on 

east bank of the Licking, at its entrance into the the east side of Hudson River, 25 m. W. by 8. of 

Ohio, opposite to Cincinnati, 96 m. N. N. £. of Albany. Pop. 2,064. 
Frankfort, is the chief town. Canaan. See Syria. 

CampbdlatiUt, p.v. Green Co. Ken. on a branch Canaan, Jfew, p.t. Fairfield Co. Conn, near the 

of Green River. the shore of L. i. Sound. Pop. 1,826. There are 

CampbeUUnon, 3 villages in Steuben Co. N. T., 3 townsh^s called Canaan in Pa. and Ohio. 
Lebanon Co. Pa. and Edgefield Dis. S. C. Canada, a vast territory of North America, ly- 

Campbeltan, a borough and seaport of Scotland, in^ between the 42d and 54th degrees of north 

in Argyleshire, situate on a bay, toward the south latitude, and the 65th and 96th of west longitude, 

extremity of the peninsula of Uantyre. It has a This country appears to have been first made 

considerable trade in the distillation of whiskey, known to Europe in 1535 by Cartier, eommahd 

besides being the general rendezvous of the fisn- ing a fleet fittcKi out fimn St. Malo, under ^e 

ing vessels uiat annually visit the western coast, auspices of the ¥Vench government. Three or 

It IS 65 m. S. S. W. of Inverary. Long. 5. 32. W. four attempts during the fifteen years firom 1535 

lat. 55. 28. N. Pop. in 1821,6,445. to 1560 were made to establish a colony upon it 

Campden, a corporate town in Gloucestershire, but all proved unsuccessful. In 1607 the fint 

Enff. S2 m. N. £. of Gloucester, and 90 W. N. W. permanent establishment was formed by M. De 

of London. Pop. 1,249. Champlain, from Prance, who founded the oity 

Campeacky, a town of Yucatan, on the west of Quebec ; but for more than fifty years it remain- 
coast of the bay of Campeachy, in the Gulf of ed without any laws or social arrangements, the 
Mexico, defended by strong forts. The port is settlers being little better than hordes of banditti, 
large but shallow, and has a good dock. It is no- living in constant collision with the native lu- 
ted for logwood, which, however, does not grow dians,with whom the most sanguinary conflicts 
very near it. It was taken by the English in 1659, firequently occurred with alternate success, 
by the buccaneers in 1678; and by Die freeboot- In WS&, at which period the European inliabit- 
ers of St Domingo, in 1^5, who burnt it, and ants did not exceed 7,000, the French govem- 
blew up the cita&l. Long. 91. 30. W. lat. 19. ment affected to extend its paternal re^^ard to the 
35. N. colony, and appropriated n train of civil officers 

Campen, a town of Holland, in Overyssel, with to organize and administer a code of laws on the 

a citadel, and a port almost choked up. It is principles of those then prevailing in France, 

seated near the mouth of the Yssel, on the Zuy- Tbis arrangement produced some excitement and 

der Zee, 8 m. *W. N. W. of Zwoll. Pop. about indications of improvement ; but both were of 

6,000. short duration. The collisions with the natives 

Camperioten.tL. seaport of Holland, about 25 were renewed, and their frequent incursions 

miles south of Texel Inand. fkmousfbrthe signd upon the lands of the settlers which were often 

victory obtained by admiral lord viscount Duncan, stained with acts of cruelty, operated as a eheck 

off its coast, over the Dutch fleet, on the 11th Oc- to all social enterprise ; so uAt at the end of 

tober, 1797. another half century, the number of settlers did 

Campo Basso, a town of Naples, in the Molise. not exceed 20,000. During the earlier part of 
In 180o, it sufiered greatly by an earthquake, and . the 18th centmy the colony made some progress to- 
most of the inhabitants were destroyed. It has a wards improvement ; but the objectof the French 
considerable trade in articles of cuttery, and is 12 government seemed to be extension of territory 
m. S. of Molise. Po^. about 6,000. rather than social arrangement, and as such, in ad- 

Campo Formio^ a village of Italy , in Friuli, with dition to the hostilities m which it was so fifi^iiient- 

an elegant castle, where a treaty of peace was ly involved with the natives, it interfered itself 

concluded between the Austrians and French, in also with the outposts of the English, who then 

1797. It is 2 m. 8. W. of Udina. possessed the territory now forming the United 

Can^ Mayor, a fortified town of Portugal, in States of N. America, and on war being deekred 

OftJI 166 CAll 

between FriMe and Engkad in 1756, the Sagw 

Ikh pteptxed to expel t£e French entirely from ^ 

ikt North American continent, in which they 3 

oonpletelj svcceeded in 17S0. At thie period, * 

the nnmber of settlers in Canada amonnted to ^ 

•boot 70,000. During the first fifteen years af- 1 1 

ter its surrender to the English, it made but little ^ 

progress either in popnlatien or improvement, the 3 

prejudices of some of the older settlers being in- & 

unica] to the Enrlish laws introduced immediate- ^ 

1 Huntingdon f 12 Yoik 

3 Bedford 

3 Montreal ia 

4 Richelieu '^ 

5 Surrey ^ 

6 Kent g -{ 

7 Buckingham « 

8 Dorehester S 

9 Hertford o 
10 Devon ® 

13 Effingham 

14 Leinster 

15 Warwick 

16 St. Maurice 

17 Hampshire 

18 Orleans 

19 Quebec 

SO Northumberland 

It after its surrender, led, in 1775, to a revision of 1. 11 Comwallis ^^ 

toe civil code, more conformable to the usage of these, the firat eight, which all lie within or 

and preindioes of the inhabitants. The revolt south-west of the river Chaudiere, are the mo^t 

of the American States taking place about this fertile, and ^ord the most &vourable spots for 

time, occasioned a considerable accession of pop- agricultural and commercial enterprise. The 

ulation to Canada, which progreasively increased counties of Comwallis and Northumberland, 

up to the periodof 1792, when a further import- ^f^]^ extend from the latitude of about 47, the 

ant arrangement took place in its internal admin- former to the district of Gaspe, and the latter bor- 

iatration, the territory was divided into two parts, ^ers on Labrador, all of wnich at present mav 

denominated Upjier and Lower Canada, with \f^ looked upon as one great wilderness. With 

separate iurisdictions, and a council, and As- f^ subdivision of territory and new organization 

aembly or representatives established for each, of the government of Canada in 1792, a more 

as more particularly elucidated under each of gtedftst career of improvement seems to have 

their respective heads, viz. been pursued than in any former period. 

Canada. Lower , although the least favoured in One of the most distinguishing characteristics 

climate of the two, is by far the most populous, of Lower Canada is its cumate, m the intensity 

owing to its near contifuity to the sea, ana earli- of cold in the winter, and of heat in summer, 

er settlement. This mvision extends from the ^^^ the sadden transition from one to the other. 

United States Territory, in the lat. of 45. to that without producing any injurious effect upon the 

of 53. N. ; and W. from the 65th degree of long, constitutions either of the inhabitanto or other 

to an undefined boundary ; the part, however, parts of the animal creation. The frosts begin 

which is inhabited and under cultivation, lies about the middle of October, the sun continmng 

within much narrower limits, comprising a tract to render the days mild and agreeable for three 

oif territory about 700 miles in lenm, and 150 in or four weeks, when the snow storms set in, 

mean breadth, lying in a N. E. direetion, from which continue for about a month, with varia- 

«FWM.^ •» .«^ «.»r^ ..,w. — , ^MMiuixj couHtTy Is covcred with an average depth 

tersects it in thai direction its whole extent, fall- of snow of three to five feet. An invariable season 

ing into the gulf of St. Lawrence, at the N. £. now commences ; an uninterruptedly clear sky 

Tne settlemeniB extend along both banks of the prevails for about 20 weeks, the thermometer rang- 

river, and are intersected on both sides by uig the greater part of the time from 20 to 25 m- 

innumerable tributary streams and riven, some low zero, sometimes descending more than SO 

of them of great magnitude ; the most consider- below, wnen the frost suddenly breaks, and in 

able of those on the south side of the St Law- the course of a few days, about the end of April, 

rence, taking them in order from the west, are or middle of May, the snow as suddenly disap- 

1st the Chambly, which runs out of Lake Cham- pears. All the energies of the husbandman are 

plain, falling into the St Lawrenoe about 60 now directed to prepare the earth for seed, and 

miles belowMontreal ; Snd the Tortue ; 3rd the in the short space or a month the most luxuriant 

St. Francis ; 4th the Nieolet ; 5th the Becancour ; verdure and vegetation are spread over all Canada ', 

6th the Beanrivage; and 7th the Chaudiere, the thermometer sometimes, in June, ranging as 

which falls into the St. Lawrence, about 20 miles high as 95 or 100, prevailing through the summer 

below Quebec *, east of the Chaudiere, the waten from about 75 to 80. Although the severity of 

chiefly flow to the south, or east into the gulf of the winter hinders the earth from yielding any 

St Lawrence ; the north bank is intersected at produce, yet it essentially fiusilitates the convey- 

the distance of ereij 15 to 20 miles by riven of anoe to market of its summer products ; a track 

greater or less magmtude, the most considerable once beaten upon the snow, which is easily effect- 

IS the Piekouagamis, which, after passing through ed afier the storms have ceased, enables a horse 

a lake of consulerable extent is called Uie Segu- to drag, on a sledge, a twofold weight, twice or 

enai and fidls into the St Lawrence about 150 thrice the distance in a day, which he would be 

miles below Quebec. At the neworganizatiott of able to draw in the best constructed carriage on 

the government in 1768, this territory was divi- the best possible road. In any country this ftcili* 

ded into the four districts of Montreal, Trois ^ofconveyanee would be agreat advantage, but 

Rivieres, Qoebee, and Gaspe ; the three firat ex> in Canada especially, whew the rapidity of vegeta- 

tend on both sides of the river; the latter, whieh tion, and the abunaant produce of the summer, 

is called the district and county of Gispe, com- claims all the attention and all the energy of the 

prises all the S. £. part of the tetritory, south of population during that season, it more tbi conn- 

tka St. Lawrence, bounded on the east by the temlanees the mrtte and lonff duration of the 

Gulf of St Lawrence, and south by the Province winter, inasmuch as it supMrsedea the necessity; 

of New Brunswick, the three first distriets were of cost and labour in the oonstruetioa of bridgea 

tether subdivided into 20 oounties, II on the and roada, and renden ooaveyanee easy by routed 

•oath, and nine on the north side of the river, sad over tneta that would otherwise be impassai 

•■ feUowiB, beginniug at the S. W. via.^ ble ; thus so fur Stom being deemed severe or m- 

ooflvaniBiit, iiia legasdadl^ t^CaaadiaBa aaths 


MMon of •odal mtereoorae aod feetlTity, The 
bull of the commerce oTdatt^uin the pnidace 
of it* fbresti, which, aince 1617, have sapplied 
Engluid ind the West Indies with ui KTenge 
of iibont 300,000 loads (of 50 cabic fMt e&ch)or 
timber annnBlly. Ili next •oorco of eapply for 
export ia the akiiu of the inmuDenble wtlcl uii- 
maim which tohiUiit the foreata, compriaing the 
beu, (tag, elk, deer, fbi, marteD, wild cat, and 
VBiiona ochen, iTiclnding hare and rabbit, u well 
u a greal ruiety of the weuel speclei, and the 
banks of the numeroui lakea and riven supply 
large quanlities of otter and beaver akina. Tbe 
aggregate vslae of Ihia branch of commerce to 
CanadB may he estimated at from £100,000 to 
£150,000 annnally, varying, in some measure, 
according to the caprice of faahion. Foi and 
otter skins, which at one time sold in Loudon for 
£10 to £15 a akin, at other times obtain only 'two 
or three to five pouadB each ; the others occasion- 

pearl aah, whiiA, with a few other articles of mi- 
nor importance, constitute the wbole of the ei- 
ports; amounting in the aggregate, including 
the freight of a portion of the wood ■- •''—■<■ — 

chiefly oQt of gnutt of land made nnder the 
i^nca government, and an aMenment of one 
twenty-iixtb part of all grain produced on tlw 
lands held by catholicB. The protestant eatab- 
liihment oonutta of a lord bishop, also resident at 
Quebec, nine rectors, and aeieral curates or cler- 
gymen supported in part out of the civil lilt, and 
an appropriation of one-seventh of all the lands 
held by proteatants. The protestant bishop haa 
alao a aeat in the legislatiTe conncil by virtue of 
L! :-, . ^Q distinction is otherwise made 

built vt 

r value of about £ 

ed bv an export of erain, i 
blind policy of the British legiilature prefer con- 
fining the manufactaring populstion of England 
as well (U of Ireland to a potato diet, and that in 
the most sparing aupplTilest any grain of foreign 

troduction ahould be admitted into England, and 
•wer the mooe; price, and thereby preclude a 
high money rent tax. The exclusion ofa market 
for the surplus of grain, vhich would easily be 
supplied, is, however, more than counterbalanced 
to Canada by a large military force and civil ea- 
tablishment, which is maintained in tbat country 
out of the taxes levied on the people of England. 
These maintenances, in addition to its exports 
whilst the system ■ubjecla the people of England 
to iDcreasing privation, enables the Canadians to 
draw from Englanda supply of manufaelared and 
Auatic productions to the amount in mooej value 
of about £1,400,000 annually, whilst ^e direct 
intercourse ofCanada with the British West In- 
dia Islands enables it to obtain a liberal sap[^ of 
the products of those loiuriant climes. From 

Omada alfords great advantage to agricultural 
enterprise, and well-directed exertion. 

The civil government consists of a govetnor, 
who is uniformly a mihtary man and commander- 
in-chief of all the forces in Britieh America, and 
an execntive council of fourteen other memberg, 
who are all appointed by the governor for the 
approval of the king, Tcie House of AsKmbly 
ooniists of fifty-two members, elected for four 
jean in doe proportions from each district of the 
"'mtry by the freeholdera of forty shillings a 

try, tl 

parts of this rait eonn- 

. about whicb period the amall-pox 
raged with snch deetmctive fiuy as to entirely 
depopulate several hundred thousand square miles 
of territory. Since the abatement of that dreadful 
catastrophe, and the conciliatory meainres of the 
Canadian government towards them, although 
they still withhold thamselvei as much u ever 
from the society of the settlers, they have main- 
tained a much more social intercourse, with hut 
few attempt* at open hostility ; and it ia the In- 
dian population who contribute so eesentislly to 
the traffic in fun. The principal towns in Lower 
Canada are Quebec, Montreal, and Trois Rivieres, 
The pine bresta of this region are inhabited by 
vaat niunben of martens, who live in the lollf 

..,- of the Ireei. rbeir fnr li highly erteemed, 
and great numben of them an hnntad for tiMnr 
skins. This animal dr-' -'" ' 

iting of not le 

Thera is also alegislative council, seeks 

less than fifUen members. The 

Bench, Common Pleas, and coart of Appeal ; and 
the civil and criminal law is administered by a 
chief justice and two puisne judges: the cluef 

Ktice is also president of the legislative council- 
a eccleaiaitical affidr* of thie country are under 
the superintendence of a catholic bishop resident 
at Quebec, and an assistant bishop, nine vicars- 
.{•nanl, udahont SOD cores, wbo m lupporlcd 

skins. This animal destroy* great quantities of 
small quadrupeds and birds. He frequently makes 

t: . :_ .L- 1.-11 — ,f J ir^^^ bni commonlj 

>t, drives away or kilu 
uiB owner, ana laaes possessian- 

The wolverene inhahits the northern parts of 
Canada and America generally, quite to the Arc- 
tic Sea, and it ie probable that its visits extend 
bejond the continent towards the Pole, aa a aknll 
ofthis animal was foond on Melville Island by 
Capt. Parry. It is an inhabitant alike of the 
woodj and barren grounds, and is capable of en- 
dnring the severest cold. Tbe motions of the 
wolveiene are oeopswrily (low, and ib fail 




hVarj, bat the aeateness of its tight and power 
of tinplUiig are an ample compensation ; as thej 
are seldom or never killed without being found 
fiit, there is good reason 'few believing that thev 
rarely soffi^r macb from hanger. This animal is 
snrprtsinglj strong, and an overmatch for any 
quadruped near its own size ;— indeed its sharp 
cKiws and teeth enable it to offer a v^ry effectual 
resistance even to the bear. 
Among the birds may be mentioned the wild 

Cigeon, spotted groase, and the smallest hamming 
ird known. Tne raven, a bird* found in evety 
quarter of the world, is also very common here. 

13. Hastings, 

14. Lennox, 

15. Addington, 

16. Frontinac^ 

17. Prescot, 

18. Russell, 

19. Leeds, 

20. Grenville, 

21. Dnndas, 

22. Stormont, 

23. Glengary 

He seems to bear the cold of the northern regions 
with as much indifierence as the heat of the tor- 
rid lone. It is remarkable, that wherever these 
birds abonnd, the common crow seldom makes 
bis appearanoe. 

Omaday Upper f in its most comprehensive 
sense, comprises a tract of country extending from 
the OftMsa, or Grand River, which divides it from 
Lower Canada at its iunction with the St. Law- 
rence, in the longitude of 74. 30. W. and 45. of 
N. lat. to the north-west extremity of Lake Win- 
nipeg, in the latitude of 59. N. and the 98th of 
W. kng. bounded on the south by the chain of 
lakes which discharge their waters into the sea 
by the great river St. Lawrence, and on the north 
bv the Ottawa River, in a north-west direction to 
tne longitude of about 82., when it borders by un- 
deBned limits on the Hudson's bay and north- 
west terntories. However, like Lower Canada, 
the part under cultivation, and which at present 
more particularly merits attention, lies within 
comparatively narrow limits, in a south-west di- 
rection, along the north bank of the St. l^awrence, 
and north shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, from 
the Ottawa River before-mentioned at its en- 
trance into the St. Lawrence to the straits of Erie 
and St. Clair River, between the Lakes Erie and 
Huron, in the longitude of 62. 30. W. It is about 
570 miles from N. £. to S. W. and 40 to 50 in 
breadth, inclnding about 10,000.000 of acres of as 
fertile land as any in all North Ameiica. The 
vonth-west extremity extending to the 42d degree 
of latitude, it is not subject to such severity of 
winter as the lower province ; numerous streams, 
affording tlie most advantageous site for the erec- 
tion of mills, fall into the lakes, and two consid- 
erable rivers in the eastern district fall into the 
Ottawa, and two others run in a south-west di- 
rection, &ning into Lake St. Clair, between the 
strait of Erie and the St. Clair River. The 
southernmost of these rivers is called the Thames, 
with a London on its banks, destined perhapsi al 
some future time, to rival in population and im- 
portance its namesake in Britain. Upper Canada 
IS divided, for judicial and local purposes, into 
eight districts, which are again subdivided into 
the 23 following counties, tucing them in order 
from the south-west : vis 

1. Essex, 

2. Kent,.' 

3. Suffolk, 

4. Middlesex, 

5. Norfolk. 

6. Oxford, 

7. Lincoln, 

8. York, 

9. Durham, 

10. Carleton, 

11. Prince Edward, 

12. Northumberland, 
These counties are further subdivided into about 
160 townships. Nearly one-third of the lands 
were wanted in free and common soccage prior 
to 18!^, about 500,000 acres of which aie already 
under cultivation, one-third more being reserved 
for the crown and clergy, leaves about 4,000,000 
of acres of fertile land, m the immediate vicinity 
of settlements already formed, for future grants ; 
in addition to which, millions of acres in the rear, 
northward, covered at present with the finest tim- 
ber of oak, hickory, beach, walnut, maple, pine, 
Sui. Ac. present a rich field for exertion, and the 
supply of future ages. The population of this 
province has increased, and continues increasing 
in a greater ratio than the lower one. The inhab- 
itants, which in 1783 did not exceed 10,000, in 
1814 amounted to 95,000, and in 1825 to double 
that number. Its civil and religious institutions 
are similar to those of the sister province, with 
the exception that being settled since the expul- 
sion of the French, there are no feudal tenures or 
lands held in seignorage, which is the case with 
all those granted to the original French settlers 
in the lower province. Tlie inhabitants also of' 
Upper Canada being emigrants from the United 
States, Scotland, and England, are principally 
protestants, and as such there are no special 
enactments or reservations for the catholics. The 
executive council of this province consists of six 
members, the legislature of not less than seven, 
and the house of^sembly of twenty-five. Upper 
Canada participates in common in the commerce 
of the lower province, in addition to which it has 
also the advantage of interchanging its surplus 
productions with the United States, as either one 
direction or the other may best promote its inter- 
est. As long, however, as the English govern- 
ment are enabled* to afford the same protection to 
Upper Canada, and under the same circumstan- 
ces as prevailed in 1826, and more especiallv 
should the English government qualify their 
present policy of excluding min of foreign 
erowth importation into England, the interest of 
the Canadians will unquestionably lie on the side 
of England, and the Canadas afford the fairest 
field for agricultural exertion of any country in 
the world : independent of its abundant supply of 

Srain and animal food, the forests supply abun- 
ance of every variety of same and fowl, and the 
rivers and lakes everv variety of fish common to 
inland waters ; and, by due attention to culture, 
the gardens maj be made to yield every variety 
of delicious fruits. 

The Canadas, in a general sense, may be con 
sidered a level counUy, beautifully undulated, 
but no where attaining an elevation exceeding 
300 to 500 feet above the level of the waters of 
the great chain of lakes. A ridge of mountain 
skirts the northern boundaries of botJi provinces 
from the 74th to the 98th deg. of west longitude 
the altitudes have not been correctly ascertained 
but they seem to claim the character only of t 


CAN 158 CAN 

chain of brokcn^ hiUs. rather than monntams. mined reojtance of the natives; the whole of 

But little discovery of minerals has as yet been whom, dnring the 16th century, fell victima to 

made : coals, copper, and iron, have been found, the cruelty of the Spaniards, either by the sword 

and as population extends itself, and when necea- or the inquisition, which was established in these 

sity requires tbem, the mineral substances will islands in 1532. 

most probably not prove deficient. Th^two prin- Canary, Grand^ one of the pnAcipal of the above 

cipal towns are York and Kingston. islands, lying between the east sicle of Teneriffe 

Canajokarie, pX. Montgomery Co. N. T. Its and the south end of Fuerte-ventora.. Next to 

vicinity abounds with apple-trees, from which it Teneriffe, it is the most fertile and productive of 

makes cider of an excellent quality. It stands on the joproup . The surface near the coast is bean- 

a creek of the same name, between Uie Mohawk tifully oiversified with hill and dale and well 

River and the Erie Cand, 25 m. N. R, of Coop- watered with streams issuing from mountains 

erstown, and 53 W. N. W. of Albany. Pop. 4,348. which lie towards the centre of the island. The 

Canandaigwiy a lake in the western part of the vine in all its varieties flourishes in this island ir 

State of New York, which discharges its waters the utmost luxuriance. It is here that the mosY 

into Lake Ontario. It is 20 miles long, and from delicious malmsey wine or sack is made, and it 

2 to 3 miles wide. The banks are high and va- was from hence that the English obtained their 

no coated, and ornamented with many beautiful sack, so celebrated in the time of Shakspeare. 

villas Under reciprocal arrangements and due excite- 

Canandaimuif p.t. Ontario Co., on the outlet of ment of protection and reward, this island would 

the above lake. It is one of the pleasantest towns produce nearly all the fruits and vegetables com* 

in the country. The principal street runs alone mon to the tropics ; but under the proscriptive 

the ridge of a hill which rises from Uie north end and bigoted policy of Spain, nothing depending 

of the lake ; it is handsomely planted with trees, on human exertion prospers, and, though the Ca- 

and the houses have an uncommonly neat ap- nary Islands are less exposea to its despotism than 

pearance, being generally painted white, with an^ other part of the Spanish dominions, everj 

green blinds. In the centre of the town is a large tlung languishes. The extent of this island is 

square. In the neighbourhood are many beauti- about 30 m. from north to south, and 28 in breadth, 

ful gardens. Canandaigua has a very flourishing Palmaa, or Canary, as it is sometimes called, the 

traoe, and a steam-boat plies upon the lake. It is chief town,is situate on the coast towards the north- 

208 m. W. of Albany. Pop. 5,162 east end of the island, in the latitude of 28. 43. N. 

Cajtanore, a town of Hindoostan, in Malabar, and 17. 46. W. long, having a tolerable harbour 

defended by a fortress, with other works afler tlie for vessels of 100 to 2U0 tons burthen, sheltered 

Europeai) fashion. It is the head-quarters of the by a promontorv jetting for about two miles into 

Srovince. This town was taken in 1790 by the the sea from tne norUi-east extremity of the 
ritish, in whose possession it remains. It has island. Palmas was formerly the capitu and seat 
several good houses, and carries on a good trade ofgovemment,bothcivilana ecclesiastical, of the 
with other parts of the peninsula, and with Ara- whole group of Islands, but the governor now re- 
bia and Sumatra. The country furnishes a lar^ sides at Santa Cruz on Teneriffe ; the bish