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Krv. Bishop PAYNE. 


Rev. J. Tiieo. HOLLY. 








Wm. H. HALL. 
Ciias. M. WILSON. 


Geo. B. VASHON. 
Chas. L. REASON. 







3 A VISIT TO MY MOTHER'S GRATE ■ Amos Gerry Beman. 12 

4 THE MUSING SLAVE Poetry J. Sella Martin. 13 

5 THOUGHTS ON HAYTI J. Theodore Holly. 15 

6 WHAT IS OUR TRUE CONDITION ? . . . . Charles M. Wilson. 18 

7 THE TRIUMPH OF FREEDOM A Dream Frances Ellen Watkina. 21 

8 JOHN BROWN AT HARPER'S FERRY Joseph Murray W r ells. 23 




JANUARY, 1860. 

NO. 1 

§\u of % Elements of Reform. 


That human nature is supremely selfish, 
is a sad, disagreeable truth ; but it is, never- 
theless, a truth that stares us boldly in the 
face from out the pages of the past. It 
would be much more pleasant, no doubt, 
to believe, that justice, humanity, and be- 
nevolence, are the sole and sufficient incen- 
tives that move the race to action ; but facts 
disprove this beautiful theory, and clearly 
attest, that no great movement for the alle- 
viation of human suffering, or the advance- 
ment of human rights, has ever been com- 
menced and completed from motives of 
huuianity and benevolence alone. Humane 
and benevolent individuals we find in 
every age and country, who inaugarate be- 
neficent plans and purposes, which, consid- 
erations of self-interest finally compel na- 
tions and governments to adopt and carry 
out: but the great mass of mankind, or 
even the ruling majority, are never just, 
humane and benevolent; hence they can- 
not be moved to act in opposition to the 
promptings of self-interest, by the claims of 
of justice, the power of truth, or the dictates 
humanity. Truth is mighty ancl will final- 
ly prevail ; the right must eventually tri- 
umph. But the power of truth and the in- 
vincibility of right stand not in man's love 
of truth and right, but in the eternal pur- 
poses of Him who ruleth and overruleth 
for the triumph of truth and right. 

For the attainment of this end, God is 
pleased to work by human means; these 
means are the evil, as well as the good im- 
pulses of our nature; for "He maketh the 
wrath of man to praise Him," therein is hid- 
den the secret of His power. Men strive 
against His purposes of love and mercy, 
harden their hearts against His reproofs, 
stifle the promptings of their own better 
natures, and thus foolishly imagine that 
they can contend with their Maker; but 
their very rebellions, as well as their obe- 
dience, work out the Divine purposes of 
love and mercy, and tell for the final triumph 
of truth and right. In heaven, where only 
pure and holy beings are, the will of God 
is done from pure and holy motives only; 
but on earth, still cursed by sin and folly, 
whatever of general good is done, must 
necessarily be accomplished from a mixture 
of good and bad motives. There is, there 
fore, no reason to expect, that reforms will 
march on to complete success, unaided by 
human selfishness, and the baser passions 
of our nature; nor is there any reason to 
hope, that tyrants and oppressors will cease 
to tyrannize and oppress, as long as tyranny 
and oppression are perfectly safe and pro- 

Does this theory seem atrocious, and de- 
rogatory to human nature ? Suffer me then 
to illustrate and confirm it, by reference to. 



a few well-known historical facts. Witness: 
Pharaoh, in the days of Israelitish bondage 
in Egypt, hardening his heart against the 
sufferings of God's chosen people, and de- 
spising the reproofs and chastenings of the 
Almighty, until came that fearful night 
when every first-born of the oppressor fell 
beneath the sword of the Destroying Angel ; 
so that there was not a house where there 
was not one dead. "Then", as sayeth the 
Sacred Record, "were the Egyptians urgent 
to send them out of the land with haste, 
for they said, we be all dead men." 

Having at last come to the conclusion, 
that oppression was no longer safe and profit- 
able, they determined to let the people go ; 
thus yielding to the promptings of self-in- 
terest, what they had so long refused to the 
claims of justice, the dictates of humanity, 
and the direct commands of the Almighty. 

The Plebeians of Ancient Republican 
Rome were oppressed and enslaved by the 
Patricians, until, goaded to madness by their 
wrongs, they refused to enlist in defense 
of their country, until they obtained the 
assurance that their grievances should be 
redressed. And finally, having been often 
deceived by promises made in time of war, 
which were as often broken in the follow- 
ing peace, the plebeian armies deserted 
their officers in the midst of a pressing war, 
and marched to "Mons Sacer," a hill with- 
in three miles of Rome, where, being joined 
by a vast multitude of their discontented 
brethren, they compelled the haughty Pat- 
ricians, menaced by foreign foes without, 
and a servile war within, to grant them 
their freedom and the restoration of their 

Even Christianity, that sublime reforma- 
tory movement, whose origin was "God 
manifest in the flesh," and the teachings of 
Him, who "spake as never man spake," 
whose progress was marked by miracles, 
and the ministry of heaven-inspired Evan- 
gelists and Apostles, and whose truth was 
sealed by the blood of thousands of martyrs 
— even Christianity, heaven-sent and heav- 
en-defended, owed its general adoption, and 
complete triumph throughout the Roman 
Empire, to the state-craft and selfish policy 
of Constantine the Great, "who," as says a 
modern historian, as soon as he became 
master of Rome, revoked all the edicts that 
had been issued against the Christians, 
and paid great respect to the bishops and 
clergy, either on account of his miraculous 

vision, or, as is more probable, through 
gratitude for the efficient aid he had receiv- 
ed from the Christians in the recent contest ; 
and anxiety to secure their assistance in 
any future struggle." In further confirma- 
tion of this point, we quote from Mosheim's _ 
Church History x part I, chapter I, section 
XXIII, "There is no doubt, that the victor- 
ies of Constantine, the fear of puni hment, 
and the desire of pleasing this mighty con- 
queror and his imperial successors, were 
the weighty arguments, that moved whole 
nations, as well as particular persons, to em- 
brace Christianity." Waddington's Church 
History, page 79, corroborates this view, in 
the following words: "We are willing to 
admit, that his (Constantine's) conduct to 
the Christians, was strictly in accordance 
with his interests, and it is very probable, 
that the protection with which he disting- 
uished them, may, in the first instance, 
have originated in his policy." If a reform- 
ation, divine in its origin, favored by the 
supernatural powers of miracle and inspira- 
tion, approved by the absolute perfection 
of its author, and the blameless life and 
character of its early advocates, many of 
whom sealed their testimony with their 
blood, could not, or did not, triumph over 
ancient Paganism, without the aid of human 
selfishness, how can we expect, that modern 
reforms, of mere human origin, and advo- 
cated by fallible men, who, however much 
they may profess to love the "dear cause? 
are seldom willing to die in its defense, 
should succeed without this important 

That reforms do not succeed, except by 
appeals to the baser passions of our nature, 
is also attested by the fact, that the victo- 
ries of truth, justice, and liberty, over er- 
ror, injustice and oppression, have mostly 
been achieved on the battle-field, or wrung 
from the "powers that be" by threats, and 
the fear of the consequences. 

Thus, in 1215, the turbulent barons of 
England forced the reluctant King John, 
of odious memory, to sign the "Magna 
Charta," and secure the foundation of Eng- 
lish liberty. In 1789, the horrors of the 
French Revolution were required to break 
the iron frame-work of feudalism, that had 
fastened itself so firmly, and rusted so long, 
in its place above the heads of the lower 
classes, that no slow cessation, or gradually 
wasting effort, could avail for its overthrow. 
The independence of this country was 



wrung from England by an eight years I and sometimes extensive slaveholders, were 
war. The Negro Revolution in Hayti is yet deprived of all their civil and political 
another instance illustrating our theory. | rights, excluded from the society of the 
There is yet another reformation, which, ! whites, and everywhere subjected to insult 
as it is generally supposed to have resulted ; and persecution ; without the power of re- 
from motives of pure benevolence and hu- dress or retaliation. Now mark this: there 
manity, seems to demand something more were but four of these islands, in which 
than a passing notice. I refer to the Act this despised and oppressed free colored 
of British West India Emancipation, of ' population did not also outnumber the 
1834. What copious floods of eloquence j whites, and in three of these four, their 

and ink are annually poured out on the 
first of August, in praise of the justice, hu- 
manity, benevolence, and philanthropy of 
the British Government ! But while we 
gladly render due tribute of praise to those 
noble-hearted men, who were the prime 
movers in this work, while we admit the 
purity of the motives that prompted their 
action, and honor the persistency that char- 
acterized their efforts, it is well for us to 
remember, that there were circumstances 
attending West-India slavery, and causes 
at work among the oppressed people them- 
selves, which rendered emancipation a pru- 
dent and politic, if not a necessary measure, 
on the part of the English Government. 
British West- India slavery, in 1833, had 
long outlived its period of prosperity, and 
was fast becoming both an unsafe and un- 
profitable institution. A brief review of 
the relative number of slaves, free colored, 
and whites, of these islands, at the time of 
emancipation, may serve to place the truth 
i of this assertion in a clearer light. Of the 
whole number of slave-holding islands, 
there was not one, in which the slave popu- 
lation did not greatly outnumber the whites. 
Bermuda was the only colony in which the 
slaves were not at least double the number 
of whites. In four of the islands, the ratio 
of slaves to whites was more than 5 to 1, 
in four others, more than 8 to 1, in two, 
more than 11 to 1, in five, from 15 to 20, 
to 1; in one, 23 to 1, in another 30 to 1, 
and in two others more than 38 to 1 ; while 
the general average of the entire number 
of islands showed an excess of the slave 
population over the whites, of nearly 9 to 1 . 
But, in addition to this overwhelming major- 
ity of the slave population, there was yet 
another element in West-India society, more 
to be feared than this. Here, as in all slave- 
holding communities, an unbridled and un- 
blushing system of licentiousness had given 
rise to a large population of mixed blood, 
the free colored people, who, though in 
many instances wealthy, highly intelligent, 

numbers were nearly equal; while in the 
remaining islands, the free colored people 
outnumbered the whites, taking the general 
average, in the ratio of nearly 2 to 1. 

In several of the islands the free colored 
people, by their numbers, their wealth and 
their intelligence, had secured for them- 
selves civil and political equality, before 
the passage of the Emancipation Act. In 
Jamaica, as early as 1831, two years before 
the act passed the British Parliament, the 
colored people formed a union, by secret 
correspondence throughout the island, for 
the purpose of resistance. This conspiracy 
was detected, and all means were tried, in 
vain, to check the growing rebellion. 
Numbers of the free colored people were, 
imprisoned; Edward Jordan, a free colored 
man of Kingston, Jamaica, was tried for 
his life, on the charge of having published 
a seditious paragraph in the ''Watchman," 
a colonial newspaper, of which he was one 
of the editors. 

We quote the following account of his 
trial and its result, from Thome and Kim- 
ball's " Six Months Tour in Antigua, Bar- 
badoes and Jamaica;" from which work 
also the foregoing facts in regard to popu- 
lation arc compiled. " On the day of Mr. 
J.'s trial, the court-room was thronged with 
colored men, who had armed themselves, 
and were determined, if sentence of death 
were pronounced upon Mr. Jordan, to res- 
cue him at whatever hazard. It is supposed, 
that their purpose was conjectured by the 
judges — at any rate they saw fit to acquit 
Mr. Jordan, and give him his liberty. The 
"Watchman" continued as fearless and se- 
ditious as ever, until the assembly were ulti- 
mately provoked to threaten some extreme 
measures, which should effectually silence 
the agitators. Then Mr. Jordan issued a 
spirited circular, in which he stated the ex- 
tent of the coalition amongst the colored 
people, and in a tone of defiance demanded 
the instant repeal of every restrictive law, 
the removal of every disability, and the 



extension of complete political equality; 
declaring, that, if the demand were not com- 
plied with, the whole free colored popula- 
tion would rise in arms; would proclaim 
freedom to their own slaves, instigate the 
slaves generally to rebellion, and then shout 
war, and wage it, until the streets of Kings- 
ton should run blood. This bold piece of 
generalship succeeded. The terrified leg- 
islators huddled together in their Assembly- 
room, and swept away at one blow all re- 
strictions, and gave the free colored people 
entire enfranchisement. " 

Throughout all the islands, this free col- 
ored population, superior to the whites in 
numbers, and in many instances equal in 
wealth and intelligence, was a disturbing 
element in West-India society ; and, though 
not laboring directly for the downfall of 
slavery, was moving with determined pur- 
pose and resistless force against the then 
existing order of things, and thus affording 
a mighty lever for the overthrow of slavery 

Let it be also remembered, that in the 
very midst ol these slave holding islands 
stood the then Republic of Hayti, present- 
ing the ever-noble example of a long op- 
pressed and despised people, who had arisen 
in the might of their strength, shaken off 
their chains, and not only driven the last 
trace of the proud oppressor from the island, 
bat had come off victorious over the bravest 
and best disciplined soldiers of Europe — 
the veterans of Napoleon's "grande armee" 
the conquering heroes of a hundred battles. 
There stood Hayti, free and independent, 
self-emancipated, self-redeemed. Is it not 
evident, that slave-holding against such fear- 
ful odds, confined within the narrow limits 
of those sea-girt islands, far removed from 
the protection of the home government, with 
a slave population of more than 8 to 1, 
writhing and groaning under the lash, and 
a free colored population of nearly 2 to 1, 
rendered irritable and restive by prejudice 
and proscription, with Hayti constantly pre- 
senting to both these classes an example of 
successful revolt, was not the safe and prof- 
itable speculation that slave-holding is in 
this country, with the whole power of gov- 
ernment at hand to protect and sustain it, 
the commercial interests of the country to 
patronize it, the Church to bless and sanc- 
tify it, and plenty of room to extend the 
field of its operations? 

That it was unsafe^ abundantly proved 

by the frequency of insurrections, burnings 
of cane-fields, assassinations and murders 
of masters and overseers, during the latter 
years of West-India slavery, and by the 
testimony of the planters themselves, as 
recorded in Thome and Kimball's narrative, 
that, before emancipation, they lived in con- 
stant fear of an outbreak among the slaves. 
It had long been customary on some of the 
islands, to call out the militia during Christ- 
mas holidays, and place the inhabitants un- 
der martial law. 

That it was also unprofitable, is shown 
from the fact that the profits of a sugar 
plantation were often less than the expense, 
and thus estates were constantly passing 
by mortgage into the hands of a few great 
English mercantile firms, who, by securing 
the transportation in their own vessels, of * 
the sugars and the plantation supplies, with 
the commission on the sale and purchase 
of these, managed to clear sufficient, to cover 
the expense and risks of sugar planting. 

A report of the Legislature of Jamaica, 
datedNovember 22d,1792, represents that, 
in the course of twenty years preceding, 
one hundred and seventy-seven estates were 
sold for the payment of debts, fifty-five were 
thrown up, and ninety-two were then in the 
hands of creditors; while, during the same 
period, eighty thousand and twenty-one ex- 
ecutions had been lodged in the Provost- 
Marshall's office. 

Bryan Edwards, the historian of the 
West-Indies, informs us, that the profits to 
be expected from a sugar plantation, assum- 
ing a fair product and average prices, would 
not exceed seven per cent on the capital in- 
vested, and this, without charging a siiilling 
for making good the decrease of negroes — 
a heavy item — or for the wear and tear of 
buildings, or making any allowance for dead 
capital, or for the tax of six per cent of the 
gross value,levied on the crops of absentees. 
With these and other drawbacks, to say 
nothing of the devastations which are some- 
times occasioned by fires and hurricanes, 
destroying in a few hours the labor of years, 
it is not wonderful, he adds, that the prof- 
its should sometimes dwindle to nothing, 
or rather, that a sugar estate, with all its 
boasted advantages, should sometimes prove 
a millstone abont the neck of its unfortun- 
ate proprietor, which is dragging him to 

We might quote further testimony show- 
ing the dangerous and unprofitable tenden- 



cies of British West-India slavery, but we 
think, sufficient has been advanced, to avert 
from us the charges of folly and uncharit- 
ableness: if, in view of these facts, we 
should venture to assert, that even the glo- 
rious Act of British West- India Emancipa- 
tion does not present an insurmountable 
objection to the truth of our theory, that 
every reform must owe its success, in part, 
to appeals, to the selfishness of human na- 
ture. Be that as it may, we hazard the 
assertion, that, if slavery in this country 
existed under similar circumstances; if 
there were eight slaves to every free white 
throughout the slave states, and a free col- 
ored population nearly double the whites 
throughout the Union; if petty servile in- 
surrections were of frequent occurrence in 
the South, and if slave labor paid no better 
than it did in the West-Indies, there would 
soon be a powerful Anti-Slavery revival, 
that would extend through the length and 
breadth of the land, and gather its converts 
from every class in the community. But 
it may be objected to the above view of the 
causes of West-India emancipation, that, 
however disastrous and disadvantageous 
may have been the circumstances attending 
We.^t-India slavery, the planters, who 
alone felt the pressure of these circumstan- 
ces, were not in favor of emancipation. It 
is no doubt true, that the love of their dar- 
ling iniquity had so blinded the eyes of 
the planters, that they saw not the rock of 
ruin toward which they were drifting; but 
it is not strange, such blindness is ever the 
consequence of wrong-doing — "Whom the 
Gods wish to destroy, they first make mad," 
is a truth discoverable even by the dim 
light of ancient paganism. But it is not 
true, that the dangers and disadvantages 
of West-India slavery concerned the plant- 
ers alone. Colonies already bankrupt, or 
fast hastening to bankruptcy, the over- 
whelming majority of the slave population, 
the discontent, and, in some cases, open re- 
bellion, of the free colored people; were 
considerations which made emancipation a 
subject of financial and political importance 
to the British Government, and rendered 
it almost certain, unless some new policy 
was inaugurated, that the Home Govern- 
ment would be called upon for an expen- 
diture of blood and treasure, to preserve 
the sovereignty of the islands and prevent 
them from following the example of 

Now, if this general theory of reforms be 
correct, viz: that every reform must owe 
its ultimate success to the workings of the 
selfish principles of our nature; and more 
especially, if the above conclusion in regard 
to the final causes that secured the event 
of West-India emancipation, be fair and 
legitimate, the anti-slavery reformer of this 
country may learn therefrom the important, 
though perhaps unwelcome, truth, that his 
earnest and self-sacrificing labors will not 
be crowned with success, until, by some 
means, the forces of human selfishness are 
enlisted on the side of emancipation. 

More than fifty years ago, an anti-slavery 
movement was commenced by the churches 
of this country, many of which took radical 
anti-slavery ground, declaring slavery to 
be without sanction, human or divine, and 
contrary to the laws of God and man. 

This movement, which looked only to 
the gradual abolition of slavery, spent its 
force, after liberating a few thousand slaves 
in Maryland and Virginia, and securing 
general emancipation in the Northern 
States, in which States, mark you, the 
small number of slaves, the peculiar nature 
of Northern products, and the contiguity 
of free Canada, combined to render slave 
property insecure and profitless. Slavery 
did not pay at the North, hence Northern 
Legislatures could afford to be benevolent, 
and pass Emancipation Bills. 

In 1830, Benjamin Lundy and William 
Lloyd Garrison revived the anti-slavery 
cause and advocated immediate emancipa- 
tion. Then commenced that mighty 
struggle, which a band of chosen witnesses 
— few and despised at first, persecuted 
from city to city, suffering the rigors of the 
prison, bearing "the shackles' crimson 
span," but earnest and hopeful ever — 
have nobly continued until now. Here we 
have all the elements of success on the 
part of the reformer — honest effort, untiring 
energy, constant perseverance and unwa- 
vering faith. Now what have the self- 
denying labors of these noble-hearted men 
accomplished for the overthrow of slavery? 
How many states since 1830 have abolished 
the system? Not one. How many acts 
have passed the Congress of the nation, 
looking to its immediate or even gradual 
extinction throughout the Union ? Not 
one. " In twenty years slavery will be 
abolished," said the early abolitionists, as, 
with earnest purpose and hopeful hearts, 



they bent themselves to their self-imposed 
task. Well, they labored earnestly and 
faithfully for twenty years, and at the end 
of that period, in 1850, an American Con- 
gress passed the Fugitive Slave Bill, which 
nationalized Slavery throughout the Union, 
so that now, there is not a rood of land 
from the Gulf of Mexico to the Northern 
lakes, and from the crested waves of either 
ocean to the other, where the slave-catcher 
may not lawfully hunt his human prey — 
nay, more, he can compel you and me, by 
the terrors of the law, to play the blood- 
hound, and track for him the bleeding foot- 
steps of the flying fugitive; to whom we, 
in our pity, may not give a crust of bread, 
a cup of water, or shelter for an hour, under 
penalty of an indictment for rendering aid 
and comfort to his escaping chattel. 

But more discouraging still, after twenty 
years of labor, the abolitionists found the 
Church, the very institution in which op- 
position to Slavery first originated, with 
few exceptions, enlisted in its behalf, and 
sending forth sermons, in number like the 
frogs of Egypt, to prove it perfectly right 
according to the Law of Moses and the 
Gospel of Jesus, to return fugitive slaves 
and hold them in life-long bondage. Noth- 
ing daunted, however, they have labored 
on, until now; these faithful, fearless serv- 
ants of God and humanity — but alas! in- 
stead of the promised emancipation, behold 
Slavery rampant, trampling on the compro- 
mises of the past in favor of freedom, and 
hastening to stamp its cloven foot-mark on 
the virgin soil of the great North-West. 
Next came the Dred Scott Decision, shut- 
ting the door of citizenship against the ne- 
gro, bond or free, now we have the revival 
of the African slave-trade openly advocated, 
while the popular Christianity of the day 
constitutes the very bulwarks of Slavery, 
and the shield of man-stealers: sending 
God's word to the South-Sea islands with 
money raised by the sale of God's image 
in South Carolina — shedding tears over the 
heathen abroad, and laughing at the efforts 
of the philanthropist in behalf of the heathen 
at home: in a word, we find just such a 
state of things as our theory of reforms 
would lead us to expect, considering the 
value of the cotton, sugar and tobacco crop 
of the South, and consequently the increas- 
ing demand for likely negroes, selfishness 
triumphant in Church and State, and the 
vast majority of this nation lifting up their 

voices with one accord, and crying: "Great 
is Slavery, and greatly to be praised, and 
Cotton is king." 

More than thirty years ago, the early 
abolitionists saw that public sentiment was 
one of the strongholds of slavery, and set 
themselves earnestly at work to change it; 
"for," said they, speaking from the fulness of 
their own benevolent hearts, "it is only ne- 
cessary to enlighten the public mind on 
this matter, by exposing the cruelty, injus- 
tice and wrong of the System, and the 
people will rise as one man and demand 
its overthrow. n So they sent lecturers 
through the length and breadth of the free 
North, who set forth, in words of burning 
eloquence, as with tongues of fire, the suf- 
ferings of the slave, and the in justice and 
inhumanity of the System. Yea, fugitives 
from the very prison-house of Slavery, 
bearing on their own bodies the stripes 
and brands of the oppressor, came and told 
in our hearing the woes, the sorrows, the 
bleeding backs and broken hearts of those 
who were oppressed and had no h el pen 
But the North did not rise as one man and 
clamor for the abolition of Slavery ; it shed 
a few sentimental tears over the wrongs 
and sufferings of the slave, spoke a kindly 
word of sympathy for the outraged bond- 
man, and of encouragement to his noble 
advocate — and settled down into its usual 
apathy. And it was not until the encroach- 
ments of Slavery on the rights and liberties 
of white men called up from the vasty deep 
of human selfishness the Republican Party, 
that any really formidable opposition to 
Slavery existed at the North. I cite these 
facts, not to disparage the labors of the 
abolitionist, nor to destroy or aught dimin- 
ish our confidence in the ultimate success 
of the Anti-Slavery cause. The Supreme 
Ruler of men has so arranged the whole 
system of His government, and the general 
direction of His providence, that injustice, 
oppression, and wrong, in the end, destroy 
themselves ; they fall eventually by their 
own weight. If our only hope for the abo- 
lition of Slavery was the disinterested be- 
nevolence of slave-holders, the justice and 
humanity of the national or State Legisla- 
tures, or even the Christianity of the Amer- 
ican Church, we might well despair; but, 
thanks to Him who rules the affairs of men 
and controls the destinies of nations, it is 
not so; for, from everlasting He hath de- 
clared that, "he that pursue th evil, pursueth 



it to his own hurt," and of old He hath or- 1 haired bondman, whose half-civilized na- 
dained, that a constant course of wrong-do- 1 ture, goaded to desperation by the wrong9 
ing will not pay in peace and prosperity, of a life-time, cries aloud for vengeance; 
even in this present evil world. j and for whom a hecatomb of the mangled 

Hence Slavery in the United States, corpses of murdered men, of outraged wo- 
like Israelitish bondage in Egypt, like the men, and butchered babes, will be an offer- 
oppression of the Plebeians in Ancient ing of sweet-smelling sacrifice to the manes 
Rome, like the vassalage and feudalism of of his departed manhood, 
medieval Europe, and like slavery in Hayti "But this is horrible," says one, "such 
and the British West-Indies, will one day atrocities could only be the work of fiends." 
cease to exist; because, like them, it will True, but be pleased to remember, that 
one day become either unsafe or unprofit- j the manufacture of human fiends, and de- 
able. At present, the numerical prepon- mons incarnate, is the legitimate business 
derance of the oppressor over the oppressed of Slavery, hence that Slavery alone is re- 
seems to forbid the hope of a successful sponsible for all the horrid enormities at- 
servile insurrection; but should the Foreign tending servile insurrections. 
Slave-Trade be reopened, in accordance It is to be hoped that political and finan- 
with the mad projects of Southern propa- cial causes will avail for the abolition of 
gandists, the importation of native Africans, Slavery, before the System becomes ripe 
the natural increase of the present slave for insurrection. The signs of the times 
population, and the growing wealth and seem to encourage the hope that it may be 
intelligence of the free colored people, may, ! so. The Republican Party, though purely 
in time, render the negro element in the selfish in its origin, and partial in its oper- 
South so important, that even white men ations — its principles being, not Anti-Slav- 
will feel bound to respect it. It may be ery, but only Anti - White - Slavery, its 
too, (which event may God forbid) that the battle-cry: " Freedom for white men," not 
slave, at some not far distant day, may at- freedom for all men — is, notwithstanding, 
tempt to assert his rights by the strong a powerful means to this end, and is doing 
arm, and wade to freedom through the op- much to render Slavery unpopular and 
pressor's blood. Some years ago, Slavery hated at the North. Hence, when I hear 
produced a Nat Turner, who is said to have some eminent Republican orator, furious 
laid a well-concocted scheme for freedom, and frothy, hurling his anathemas against 
Even now, as I write, the consternation Slavery; not because it offends God, and 
caused throughout Maryland and Virginia brutalizes man ; but because it cripples na- 
by the recent outbreak at Harper's Ferry, tional industry, picks the national pocket, 
clearly indicates the inherent weakness and and encroaches on the rights and liberties 
insecurity of the System, and shows, that of white men ; taking, meanwhile, especial 
insurrection is, even now, the " bugbear, " pains, by affirming the inferiority of the 
the veritable "raw-head-and-bloody-bones" negro, and holding him up to ridicule and 
of the South. But much as we admire the contempt, to convince his hearers that he 
heroic fortitude and philantrophic frenzy is not an abolitionist ; I do not regard him 
of brave "old John Brown" and his little as an enemy or an evil-worker to the Anti- 
band of martyr?, we venture to predict, Slavery cause. I may not bid him "God- 
that the servile insurrection that shall yet speed," because it is doubtful if a divine 
strike terror to the heart of the South, and motive-power would avail as much with 
send a thrill of horror through this guilty him as human selfishness; but neither do I 
nation, will not be thus led, planned and | say "Devil take him," because, judging 
prosecuted. To attempt a bloodless insur- from his present course, that little matter 
rection, is fighting the Devil with foils; we is already settled. Meantime, he is labor- 
are sure to be "clapper-clawed" to death, ing for the right, according to the best of 
without inflicting a single wound in return, his ability, and unwittingly fighting the 
Besides, when the time for insurrection ' battles of justice and humanity with the 
comes to the South, (if it come at all) no sword of self-interest, the only weapon of 
free-born white man, however freedom- which he understands the use, or appreci- 
frenzied, whose heart beats for humanity, ates the power. The movements now be- 
truth and courtesy, will lead the forlorn ing made in behalf of freedom in Kentucky 
hope of the slave; but, instead, some crisp- and Missouri, spring from the same selfish 



source: fear of competition between white 
and slave labor. Nor need we repine at 
this, but rather rejoice that it is so ; that 
when men will not do right from a love of 
right principles, by a system of divine 
compulsion, they are forced to do right 
from a love of the happy results of right- 
doing; that, when a nation will not cease 
to tyrannize and oppress, from motives of 
justice, humanity and benevolence, it is fi- 
nally compelled to do so, from motives of 
self-interest — thus God governs the world. 

Whenever a tyrant binds one end of a 
chain around the neck of a suffering broth- 
er, the other end will, sooner or later, fasten 
itself around his own. The blighted and 
barren fields of the once fertile South, the 
contempt that attaches to free white labor, 
the ignorance and degradation of the non- 
slave-holding masses where Slavery existp, 
the late struggle in Kansas, the penalties 
inflicted on the citizens of the North under 
the infamous Fugitive Slave Bill, and the 
encroachments of Slavery on Free Speech 
and Free Labor, clearly indicate the pres- 


"You were yesterday speaking, Aunt 
Melissa, of Mrs. Highflyer and her daught- 
ers, what did ever become of that family ?" 

"Oh Jane, they all dropped away, one 
after another. " 

"Is it possible? How some families drop 
off; they stand, an unbroken family circle, 
year after year, and then, when death in- 
vades, they fall; like some forest tree de- 
caying in one of its limbs, and sending 
death to all its branches. We look on that 
family, with its thinned ranks, and thicken- 
ing graves, and say: why! how they drop 
off, here are four or five gone from that 
family in so many days, weeks, or months." 

ent operation of this Divine, eternal law, 
and show us, that the other end of the ne- 
gro's chain begins to chafe the oppressor's 

Thus is the Anti-Slavery question, at 
first, a moral and religious question only, 
gradually becoming also a question of 
financial and political efcpediency; thus, 
slowly but surely, are the forces of human 
selfishness arranging themselves on the 
side of the Anti-Slavery reformer. And, 
when once the self-interest of the masses 
of this nation enters the arena against Slav- 
ery, no defence that Courts, or Congress, 
or Constitutions may throw around it, can 
shield it for a moment, or prevent its mer- 
ited overthrow. Thus, by a beautiful arrang- 
ment of Divine Providence, not only the 
nobler and God-like traits of man's nature, 
but even his baser and ignoble passions 
are compelled to fight the battles of reform 
and human progress — and thus, if we mis- 
take not, must the Anti-Slavery reform in 
this country march onward to complete 
success and final triumph. 

"Well, that was the way with Mrs. 
Highflyer's family. First the old man was 
taken down with the typhoid fever, and 
then Juliet had it, and got better, and then 
was taken sick again. I always liked Jul- 
iet, she was the flower of that flock, a quiet, 
good-natured girl, and I think, her mother's 
main stand-bye; the old lady took her 
death very hard, I never saw her smile af- 
ter that. Well, the old woman lived by 
herself for some time after the death of the 
old man and Juliet; you see the old man 
had left the property in her hands, but 
the girls persuaded her to come and live 
with them, part of the time with one, and 

mm Infancy mift f>p Courage, or $m\q Sfoitjw. 





part with the other; well, she made arrange- 
ments to sell the farm, and somehow Xick, 
her son, got the deed in his possession, but 
she did not care about that, so long as they 
took good care of her. Well, she spent 
her time among her children, and as long 
as she could help work, and take care of 
their children, she was welcome. " 

"Oh Aunt, is it possible?" 

" Well, by-and-bye the old woman grew 
feeble; but she tried to shuffle along, till 
she almost fell off her feet into the bed; 
well, she happened to be with Emeline 
when she was taken sick. Now they were 
all able to get a nurse for their poor old 
mother, but somehow they quarreled 
among themselves, and one of them said, 
that Emeline had the good of her, and now 
she must have the bad; and Emeline com- 
plained of the tax the old woman was upon 
her strength, and after she died, I heard her 
say that: 'she had got rid of one trouble, 
and did not want another.' " 

u Oh Aunt, not after all she had done for 
them ! " 

"I think, Jane, that was the fault of 
their bringing-up. Poor old lady, she felt 
it before she died, for she said to me one 
day, 'Ah Melissa, if I had to live over again, 
I would bring up my children very differ- 
ently — I spoiled them ; and see what thanks 
I get for it.' Jane did not live very long 
after her mother; but I think she repented 
before she died. Emeline had a lingering 
sickness, and had time to reflect on her 
conduct, whether she repented or not, before 
she died. Xick was thrown from a horse, 
and never got over the hurt; the girls left 
several children ; but their husbands mar- 
ried again, and left for the West. But 
Jane, can you really imagine what could 
ever possess children to act as they did, 
and to feel so to their poor old mother ? 
Why, I really believe Mrs. Highflyer would 
have taken the blood out of her veins for 
her children; night after night has that 
old woman set up. nursing Jane's and Em- 
eline's children, when they would be at the 
theater, or enjoying themselves in the ball; 
it never seemed to me, that she thought 
she could do too much for them; and just 
see how it all turned out." 

M Well Aunt, I suppose we are apt to be 
grateful to people in accordance, not with 
what they give us, but what we receive ; 
that we are apt to like or dislike people, 
as they give us pleasure or pain. Now, I 

do not think that their home-education was 
calculated to impart them true happiness. 
Instead of happiness, she gave them excite- 
ment, instead of teaching them to rely on 
themselves, she permitted them to selfishly 
lean on others, instead of acting as their 
companion and adviser, she became their 
drudge and body-servant. 'The thorns 
she gathered were of the tree she planted.' " 
"And yet, Jane, she doated on her girls, 
when Juliet died, I thought it would al- 
most kill her, she never appeared to get 
over it." 

" Yes, Aunt, I believe she loved them, 
not with an intelligent love, but with a 
blind, impulsive affection. She liked to 
see them admired in company, and sur- 
rounded with beaux; but she did not rouse 
up her soul to comprehend the necessity of 
a higher and better training for them, than 
the excitements of fashionable life would 
afford. In sending them to school, she did 
not seek to have them benefit society, but 
to shine in it; she was more anxious to 
have them fashionable and admired young 
ladies, than well developed and useful wo- 
men; and her influence over them reacted 
' on their characters, and recoiled upon her- 

"It was a great pity; yes, it was; but 
really, Jane, don't sit here all day talking 
to me; fix yourself up, and go and keep 
| that young gentleman company. " 

"Fix myself up ! why, Aunt, I am sure 
I put on this dress nice and clean this 
morning, and my hair is in good order, for 
: I brushed it. carefully before breakfast, and 
I hope Mr. Ballard has too much good, 
common sense to expect us country folks 
to put on our best clothes before our morn- 
ing's work is done. " 

"Well, just do as you choose, Jane, for 
i you are bound to have your own way ; I 
believe that is the reason you never yet 
married, you are always so fond of doing 
j as you choose. " 

" Well, it is a fact that I do love to have 
' my own way; and I have never seen the 
; man I would like to pledge myself all 
i through life to obey ; I shouldn't prefer 
' promising to-day, what I should do twenty 
| or thirty years hereafter. I have quite an 
; objection to that clause in the marriage- 
ceremony. But I will just step into the 
! sitting-room, and while I pare these apples, 
1 1 can hear Miranda and the student talk. " 
"Pshaw," said Aunt, "as fond as you 



are of talking, no danger of your sitting 
still, listening all the time to other people." 

So I took the basket of apples, and 
found Miranda and the student deeply in- 
terested in discussing the question of negro 

"What is on the carpet?" said L "I 
hope I don't intrude?" 

"Not at all," said the student, rising po- 
litely and handing me a chair. 

"No, I thank you, I prefer a low seat; 
let me sit at your feet and learn wisdom, " 
said I with much gravity. 

He smiled blandly, and replied, that he 
would take that from me, and hoped I 
would join in the conversation. He never 
seems to act as though, because I am no 
longer very young, and what some people 
call an old maid, I had no right to be list- 
ened to, when a younger, or more intelli- 
gent woman is present. 

"I should think," said Mr.Ballard, " from 
the remarks Miss Jane made at the wed- 
ding, that she had not much faith in negro 
courage. " 

"Oh, you surely misunderstand me, if 
you think, from my remarks that evening, 
that I have no faith in negro courage. I 
think this western world has witnessed 
some of the most daring feats of this kind 
of courage, in both men and women; in 
men who dared all the perils of re-capture, 
in women who had suffered themselves to 
be boxed up as freight or goods, and trans- 
ported from State to State, to gain their per- 
sonal freedom. But I am inclined to think 
that the educational influences that sur- 
round us free colored people, and the tame- 
ness of our civilization, are but poorly cal- 
culated to inspire a high degree of courage. 
How many of those women who are glitter- 
ing in jewels, would be willing, like the 
women of Carthage, to sacrifice them for 
the good of their race? How many, if a 
naval expedition were needed, would be 
ready to cut off the hair of their head, to 
make cordage?" 

"Oh, I do hope," said Miranda, laying 
her hand upon her well arranged hair, 
"that no such test will ever be demanded; 
but mine is so short, it would not go very 
far. " 

The student smiled, and I just laughed 
outright, at Miranda's comic air of distress. 

"O cousin, you are too bad, to turn my 
sober conversation into ridicule. " 

" O cousin, do excuse me, but it struck 

me as such a comic affair, to see a half-a- 
dozen heads like mine, all shaved to make 
cordage; and what a time they would have 
tying them all together, to get them the 
right length." 

"Well," said I, resuming the conversa- 
tion, "how many of those men, who can 
put on pretty little aprons with showy ro- 
settes, and march amid the darkness of the 
Dred Scott Decision, over the very streets 
where the trembling fugitive is dragged 
back to bondage, are willing to devote one- 
half the money spent in parade,*to further 
the cause of freedom, to gain a single right 
that is now withheld from them? How 
many of us who can find money for fine 
dresses and good living, can find a dollar 
to spare for the "Anglo-African," for the 
spread of anti-slavery principles, and the 
overthrow of the despotism that surrounds 
us? Is there not a degree of isolation, of 
division and disunion among us, which 
would sit as a night-mare upon our courage, 
should such a thing as a war of the races 
ever occur?" 

"I am afraid," replied the student, "that 
our educational influences, in slavery and 
in freedom, have not been calculated to 
inspire us with respect enough of race, to 
risk much in a contest for freedom. " 

"I think," replied Miranda, " that there 
are causes for this want of proper self or 
race-respect; we are only living out our 
developments, and our characters are more 
the results of certain causes, than inherent 
traits. " 

"I agree with you there," replied the 

"What has been our history?" continued 
Miranda, "we have either been slaves our- 
selves, or are the descendants of slaves. 
On the plantation, the white man was the 
emblem of power, and the symbol of supe- 
rior station; and when we emerged into 
freedom, we brought with us the life-scars 
of slavery, and then we met with another 
educational influence, in the complexion 
prejudice that dogged our steps and sur- 
rounded our lives, tracking us in public 
and private life, and even following us to 
the very temples where God maybe mocked 
under the name of worship. It is not very 
strange, then, if we have, unconsciously, 
adopted the sentiments of the dominant 
race, and not fully learned to respect the 
race upon which they have placed the stig- 
ma of contempt and degradation." 


"And I think, Mr. Ballard," I rejoined, 
" that peace has its tests of valor as well as 
war ; and if I hear a colored man boast of 
what he would do in the event of an insur- 
rection, and yet not brave enough to iden- 
tify himself with the colored people, but 
shrinking from social contact with them, 
on account of their ignorance, poverty and 
social disadvantages; if he is not brave 
enough to battle with them in freedom, 
against the hosts of error and ignorance, 
but stands aloof, as if he were some of the 
porcelain of humanity ; I am not sure that 
I could trust him to do effectual service 
for me, were I to appeal to him to help me 
break my chains, if there was much immi- 
nent danger to be encountered; if he is not ' 
brave enough to live with me in freedom, 
I am not sure that he will be courageous 
enough to risk his life for me in slavery. " 

" And yet, " said the student, " there is 
courage among us, courage that has been 
thrillingly sublime. Amid the annals of 
the past, have we ever had anything to 
exceed the courage of that Tennessee hero, 
who knew the plan of some of his fellow- 
slaves to obtain their freedom, but, rather 
than betray them, received 750 lashes, 
and died. There is a degree of grandeur 
and sublimity in that picture, which should 
awake self-respect in the bosom of any 
race or people capable of producing such 
a man. In vain they apply the torturing 
lash, the sensitive nerve may shrink, the 
quivering flesh may writhe, the lips grow 

ashy, the cheek turn deathly pale, but he 
will not stain his sonl with treason ; the in- 
tegrity of his soul was more precious than 
liberty, it was more valuable than life ; he 
would rather die a martyr, than live a trai- 
tor. Oh ! if I had children, the memory 
of this man should be stored up iu their 
earliest recollections, and by it I would 
teach them to hate, with a bitter and intense 
loathing, the despotism that crushed out 
his life. I would gather them by my side, 
and tell them stories of Margaret Garner, 
of Aunt Sally, of Toussaint L'Ouverture, 
of Denmark Veazy, of Nathaniel Turner, 
of Zombi and others. I would search for 
deeds of negro heroism, courage and noble 
daring, to inspire them with respect of race 
and hatred of oppression." 

"And who," said I, "was Zombi?" 

"Zombi was the only negro king, or 
elector, of the only negro kingdom that 
ever existed, that I know of, on this West- 
ern Continent. " 

" I should like to hear the story, but not 
now. I have just finished paring these 
apples, and though I enjoy this mental feast, 
yet I will go down and help prepare dinner; 
for these intellectual repasts, though they 
feed the mind, somehow do not make good 
bone and muscle. So I will leave you and 
Miranda to discuss your interesting topic, 
but please wait till I come back before you 
read about Zombi; because I want to hear 
about this negro king. " 



% m to Pu P4tr's ink 


" Sweet Memory, wafted by thy gentle gale, 
Oft up the stream of time I turn my sail, 
To view the fairy haunts of long lost hours, 
Blest with far greener shades, far fresher flowers. 

Seven } 7- ears had passed away, when the 
stage stopped in the beautiful village of 
, the place of my birth. A few mo- 
ments' walk found me quietly seated at 
the fire-side of a friend, passing away the 
evening in social conversation. We com- 
mended ourselves to the care and protection 
of that Divine Being who had watched over 
and guided us during this interval of years, 
and resigned ourselves to " balmy sleep, 
nature's sweet restorer/' The sable cur- 
tains of night were rolled away — the pow- 
erful king of day made his appearance in 
royal splendor. Wishing to meditate alone 
and unmolested, I retired to the grave-yard, 
where many, who were active and busy a 
few years before, now lay hushed and still 
in their last slumbers. 

Standing by the side of my mother's 
grave, is it possible, said I, that seven years 
have rolled in oblivion since I visited this 
sacred spot ? Oh 1 what a change has been 
wrought during that period ! True, the 
same rugged hills lift their craggy tops ; 
the same gentle stream meanders along 
their rocky base ; the same sky spreads its 
azure blue over this quiet place; the same 
sun rolls in majestic grandeur through the 
heavens ! There is the house of God, whose 
"church-going bell" has often called the 
inhabitants to come and learn true wisdom; 
that bell, too, has often announced, in deep 
and solemn tones, the departure of a soul 
to the "world of spirits." There stands 
the old school-house, where "in life's sunny 
morn," I used so reluctantly to con my 
task — yet all around how changed ! The 
good man, who for the space of thirty-nine 
years, called in the name of his Master 
upon the sons of men "to be reconciled to 
God," has laid down his cross and taken a 
crown. Where are the companions of my 

early days? Some of them are here; some 
on the "mountain wave"; some wander 
in distant. part3 of the earth among strang- 
ers, some are entombed upon the isles of 
the ocean, and some in the cells of the 
green sea. Where are others?— Echo only 
answers: where? 

Alas, said I, is this the fate of man ? and 
a feeling of despondency began to steal 
through my heart, and weigh my spirits 
down. Mother, how unconscious art thou, 
that thy son stands by the side of thy cold 
grave ! The hopes and fears which now 
agitate this throbbing bosom, are unknown 
to thee. Time was, when the darker and 
more portentous the sable clouds of adver- 
sity; the more ominous and threatening 
the appearance cf the storm, more pitiless 
and terrific the raging of the tempest, the 
more dreadful and intense the scenes of af- 
fliction, the louder and deeper the thunders 
of detraction, the more scathing and fiery 
the lightnings of slander, the more numer- 
ous, active, and malicious my foes; the 
nearer, the firmer, the more affectionately 
thou wouldst have pressed me in thy 
maternal arms ! — But thou art gone to thy 
rest 1 Thy loved form has perished from 
the earth. Thou wilt never again partici- 
pate in the joys or sorrows which may agi- 
tate this heart of mine. Hast thou indeed 
perished for ever? Shall I see thee no 
more ? 

While thus musing, the Genius of the 
Bible, with her flaming torch of inspiration, 
stood before me. She spoke, and her beam- 
ing features were irradiated with a seraphic 
smile. "Thy feelings are from the dust;" 
said she; "this light illuminates the grave, 
it dissipates the darkness of the tomb; 
it opens a bright vista to the vision; it dis- 
covers a nobler state of existence, a brighter 



world — 'scenes that fade not, realms that 
endure'; it enables you to read on the pa- 
ges of the future, that the time is coming, 
when that once fond mother shall aivake 
and arise, 'and shine in full immortal prime, 
and bloom to fade no more.' Behold — 'on 
the cold cheek of death smiles and roses 
are blended, and beauty immortal awakes 
from the tomb.' Away, then, with these 
despondent feelings! disperse these som- 
ber clouds — the future is not clothed in 
the sable drapery of sorrow and disappoint- 
ment — you 'mourn not as those without 
hope' — life and immortality are brought to 
light — you shall meet that mother again." 
She ceased; the music of her voice sent an 
ecstatic thrill of joy through my bosom. 
With an eye of faith I could see that 
brighter world, where no friends part, 
where no changes come ! 

Mother, I would not call thee from the 
quiet slumbers of the tomb to contend again 
with the rude cares of time; or rather, I 
would not call thy happy spirit from yon 
bright world, where all is peace and joy; 
for dying thou didst exclaim, " Tell the 
world I love JesusP Sleep quietly on, 

then, until the morn of the resurrection — 
and the last trumpet sounds, and thy Sav- 
ior bids thee rise. Farewell, grave of my 
mother! I may never stand here again. 
Farewell — I go to mingle again with soci- 
ety, yet I will often turn aside from the 
busy multitude, and think of thee! When 
howling tempests rock the ocean of my 
existence, when the rude shock of misfor- 
tune fails upon me, when fierce temptation 
and dreadful dangers beset my path, when 
my bosom beats with anxious solicitude, 
when false friends make me sigh in bitter- 
ness of soul, when tide after tide of disap- 
pointment overwhelms me, when my hours 
of peace are "like angels' visits, few and 
far between" — then, dear mother, I will 
think of thy example. And may I at all 
times be enabled to look up to heaven and 
say, "Father, thy will be clone." May I 
have patience to wait, and fortitude to 
overcome; and at last be prepared to meet 
thee in that fairer clime on high. Once 
more, then, grave of my mother, farewell ! 

Adieu, ye scenes of my youth and child- 
hood ; and if forever, then fare ye well. 

%\% gtnsing Shh. 


The queenly moon an artist seems, 

And paints, as if with magic touch, 
The midnight landscapes on the streams, 
And softens into angel dreams 
The scenes we love so much. 

The city, with its sparkling vanes, 

Like Mercy's fluttering wings, 
Seem hovering o'er religious fanes, 
To guard their altars 'gainst the pains 
Which crime and error brings. 


Its palaces, all fringed with art 

And lights of flickering gold, 
Its murmuring founts, that soothe the heart, 
Its bowers where romance plays its part, 
Are beauteous to behold. 

The waves, to silver turned on sea, 

Their bubbles turned to gems, 
The ship with wings and breezes free, 
Like some great night-bird in its glee, 
Plays with the tide it stems. 

The dreamy isles that sleep secure 

Upon the ocean's breast, 
Are fearless of the billows' roar, 
• v Or breakers dashing on their shore, 

For moonlight lulls to rest. 

Oh ! moonlight, thou art ever dear, 

Impartial in thy love; 
Thou playest on the mountains drear, 
In deep abysses thou art near, 

Whence gloom and fear remove. 

But there's a place thou canst not reach, 

With all thy magic art, 
And from its broken altar preach 
The truths that thou dost shine to teach — 

It is s the bondman's heart. 

In that one life-long night of woe 

In dreadful silence reigns, 
No golden sun-beams in their love, 
No silv'ry moon-beams, ever move 

Through stocks and whips and chains. 

No angel minstrels ever play, 

No magi watch the gemS, 
Which leads us in the glorious way 
To where our manhood's savior lay, 

In reason's Bethlehem. 

Oh, God ! how dreary is th t soul 
Where utter darkness dwells; 

Where doubt and dread and fear control ; 

Where grim dispair its billows roll, 
And anguish never quells ! 



What mockery in those words that saith: 

There pleasure reigns serene — 
Where prayer and cursing in one breath, 
Like grinning folly wed to death, 
Makes superstition queen. 

No, thou dost shine for all save me — 

The poor heart-broken slave — 
The rays that quicken reason's play, 
And lift the gloom from freedom's way, 
But points me to the grave. 

Cjjottgljts oh Jiifi, 




The present Crisis in Haytian Affairs, the Auspicious Era for an Emigration 

Movement Thither. 

To arrive at a just proportion and due 
equilibrium between the liberty of the in- 
dividual and general social order, there are 
two serious mistakes, that a degraded, in> 
experienced and denationalized people are 
apt to make, when they first set oat in the 
national career of self-government, if they 
do not have the fostering care of some well 
established friendly government to super- 
intend their development. These perilous 
mistakes are: anarchy, or an excess of indi- 
vidual liberty; and despotism, or an excess 
of social order. 

But of the two meandering paths toward 
a self-directed national development, that 
uf despotism is far the safest and surest to 
traverse, in order to reach the coveted goal ; 
because, when a country is in a state of an- 
archy, the people thereof continually prey 
upon their own vitals; and the contending 
factions inseparable from such a political 

condition, like the famous cats of Kilkenny, 
are liable to be reduced to the miserable 
extremity of two tails, without a head to 
either. Whereas, in a despotism there is 
always a strong and powerful head, by 
which all the other members of the body- 
politic are held in due subordination. The 
body being thus preserved entire, even 
though in iron bands, has some prospects 
of growing and expanding^ and thereby 
eventually bursting these bonds. The great 
Sclavonic or Cossack empire in the North 
ef Europe, by adopting the strictest regime 
of absolutism, has unaided and alone grad- 
ually thawed out a powerful national exist- 
ence formidable to all Europe; and now 
that social order has become secure by the 
advancing intelligence of the masses, she 
has begun to relax her iron despotism by 
the general abolition of the servile condi- 
tion of serfdom, in which her masses were 



enthralled. The Portuguese colony of 
Brazil started out in its career of national 
independence, also by a strong hereditary 

government, and is succeeding. 

On the other hand, the Spanish- Ameri- 
can Republics have sought their national 
development through internal anarchy, and 
they have not yet succeeded in establish- 
ing a government worthy of the name. 
And they cannot succeed, so long as they 
hold on to impracticable notions of political 
liberty, among a people who have not yet 
reached that point of virtue and intelligence 
that will enable them to understand and 
appreciate the same. Hence the present 
helpless condition of these Republics; and 
hence the tempting prey they offer to the 
fillib asters of America, and the freebooters 
of all nations. 

The Haytians, therefore, by a wise in- 
stinct seeing the perilous dangers of anar- 
chy; and having no guardian nation, as 
America is to Liberia, to superintend their 
development, and feeling too independent 
to accept such colonial vassalage if offered, 
judiciously resolved to enter upon her ca- 
reer of national development through the 
strictly conservative pathway of absolutism. 
Hence, during the past fifty years, we find 
that Hayti has marched forward, step by 
step, in the way of true civilized progress. 
Having in her bosom the most inflammable 
materials of social anarchy that slavery 
could plant there, she has, nevertheless, 
been able to quench and subdue this spirit 
by a strong hand, and prevent her people 
from tearing out their own vitals. She is 
able to point to a step of progress for every 
political change that has passed over her 
national horizon since the year of her sov- 
ereign independence. She stands higher 
in the scale of civilization to-day than ever 
before. But such cannot be said of the 
Spanish-American Republics, which have 
traversed a different path through blood- 
shed and anarchy. 

I have just said that Hayti is able to 
point to a step of progress for every polit- 
ical change that she has passed through in 
her present national career. I am now 
ready to substantiate this assertion, by a 
brief recapitulation of historical facts. 

At the Proclamation of her Sovereign 
Independence, in 1801, the General Jean 
Jacques Dessalines was elected Governor- 
General. It therefore fell to his lot to re- 
store social order, which fourteen years of 

sanguinary warfare had overturned ; to lay 
the foundation and consolidate a national 
government, and to revive the long-neglect- 
ed pursuits of peaceful industry. He began 
the restoration of social order, by the pro- 
mulgation of a National Constitution, that 
has been the basis of the Public Law of 
Hayti ever since; he consolidated the 
power of his government, by passing from 
the Governor-Generalship to imperial au- 
thority; and he revived industry, by rigor- 
ously enforcing the provisions of the Code 
Rural, which Toussaint had adopted, when 
he was Colonial Governor of the island, 
and administerd its affairs so successfully 
in the name of the Imperial Government 
of France. 

But when Dessalines became basely 
selfish, and converted his monarchical 
powers into an autocracy that exalted him 
above the constitution and laws of his 
country, he was forthwith deposed, and 
Henri Christophe proclaimed king. This 
latter monarch has been styled the "Fred- 
erick the Great of Hayti." He did every- 
thing in his power, to develop the interna] 
resources of his country, and to create a 
truly patriotic sentiment among the Hay- 
tians. But, above all, he was keenly 
alive to the educational wants of his people; 
and, in order to meet these necessities, he 
introduced the British Lancasterian system 
of schools among his subjects, under the 
superintendence of Wesleyan Methodist 

However, Christophe finally became in- 
toxicated with power, and forgot that he 
ruled for the benefit of the Hay tian people, 
and rather supposed that they were all 
created for his individual benefit. Such 
being the case, he was promptly deposed, 
as Dessalines and his predecessor had been, 
and Petion was proclaimed President. 
This latter general was more enlightened 
than either of his predecessors, and was 
thoroughly imbued with the idea of serv- 
ing for the general welfare of his people. 
And, being wholly unselfish, and eschew- 
ing all claims to despotic power, he would 
accept no other title but President, and in- 
augurated republican institutions in his 
country. Thus Hayti, at the period of 
her third political change, had made a gi- 
gantic stride, from the necessity of abso- 
lute despotism, which Dessalines had in- 
augurated, towards the yet future goal of 
civil liberty. Petion, however, was un- 


able to consummate the enlarged desires ; founded at the capital, and mechanics in- 
of his heart, in consequence of the faction I troduced into the island, at government 
that Christophe suceeded in rallying around ' expense, to instruct the natives in their 
him in one part of the island, even after handicrafts. But, after saying all this, we 
he was legally deposed. Matters thus re- must still confess that Faustin was an 
mained in a divided state between the par- 1 ignorant man. He was one of the rem- 
ty of despotism in one part of the island, 1 nants of the old slave generation of last 
and the party of liberty in another, until century. His instincts, therefore, were 
the election of General Jean Pierre Boyer i against real progress ; and he only went 
to the Presidency, in 1821. This illustri- 'along with the popular current for a time, 
ous chieftain was enabled to consummate ; i n order to make his own despotic grasp 
what Petion began. The whole island was upon the throats of his people more secure, 
united in one government under his Presi- j Hence, therefore, he improved every op- 
dential sway. Tlie laws of the country I portunity to stamp down his ironjheel upon 
were digested into six specific codes; an j the heads of his people. At last his op- 
emigration was set on foot to replenish the pression became intolerable, and having 
industrial forces of the island; and a true j fulfilled his mission in repressing incipient 
conservative progress maintained for a pe- 1 anarchy, the party of progress, headed by 
riod of twenty-one years. But, as Boyer the noble General Geffrard, gave Faustin 
grew more and more in age, and held on ar * opportunity to take a bloodless leave of 
longer and longer to the reins of govern- 1 the people whose confidence he had so 
ment, he became at last extremely con- 1 shamefully abused. 

servative. He did not, indeed, become ! Whilst the ex-emperor departed for Ja- 
selfishly despotic, as Dessalines and Christ- maica, the voice of his countrymen elevated 
ophe, but he imagined that he had done ! General Geffrard to the occupancy of the 
all that was necessary in the way of Hay- 1 National Palace. Under him the republic 
tian progress, and firmly resisted any fur- w as immediately proclaimed. Henceforth 
ther advance. At this juncture he was I liberty and order, progress and conserva- 
compelled to abdicate by the party of pro- tism, are to be indissolubly blended in the 
gress, and beeame an exile from the island, j Hay tian Nationality. An enlightened and 
Genera] Guerriere and Herard Riviere | self sacrificing man now holds the helm of 
succeeded him, and one another, in the state. In his person all excellencies con- 
Presidency. Their administrations, how- j verge. He is noted for the strictest morali- 
ever, were short ; and they were not able I ty, he is a reader of the daily journals and 
to make anv important advances in the I literature of the world, and thoroughly im- 
condition of Hayti. Nevertheless, a small ! bued with the proper spirit of the age. He 
Haytian navy was formed, and steam nav- 1 belongs to none of the factions that have 
igation introduced into her waters during 1 divided the people of the island, but his 
their terms of service. j great heart embraces his whole country. 

But the sudden changes that took place I He is willing to concede to his people the 
in the Presidency after the abdication of largest amount of rational liberty, and yet 
Boyer, gave an opportunity for the old j he is strongly determined to crush out an- 
leaven of anarchy to show its hydra-head archy. Dictatorial powers are laid at his 
again; and in order to repress it, General feet by a grateful people, and he is called 
Soulouque was elected President, in 1847, \ upon to punish all seditious persons by the 
by a combination of men of all parties, and ; fiat of his will; but, instead of receiving 
two years afterwards was invested with ! these powers, and acting thus absolutelv. 

imperial power, by general consent, under 
the title of Faustin I. This ruler sup- 
pressed the rising anarchy and rebellion 
with a strong hand, and, at the same time, 
continued to carry on the works of improve- 
ment that the party of progress had vainly 

he simply uses the military arm of the na- 
tion to hand these anarchists over to the 
civil courts of the country, and after a pa- 
tient investigation, during twenty days, 
which puts the recent indecent Harper's 
Ferry trials to the blush, they are punished 

demanded of Boyer. The navy was aug- j for their crimes by due process of law 
mented, steam sugar-mills introduced into Like Boyer, he has already opened an 
the island, a model farm of agriculture ; emigration into his country to develop her 
established, a house of mechanical industry I languishing resources; and, in addition 



thereto, has sent to Europe some of his 
young countrymen to be qualified, at the 
expense of the national treasury, to intro- 
duce a higher order of the arts and sciences 
into Hayti. 

Above all, as a pledge of his devotion 
to his people, he has willingly offered up 
no less than three of his children as a sac- 
rifice on the altar of his country. This, 
then, is the golden dawn of Haytian pros- 
perity; the clouds that have so long hung 
in doubtful gloom over her destiny, are 
being dissipated; and the day of her na- 

tional glory has at last arrived. The wild 
excesses of anarchy are effectually curbed, 
and the iron grasp of despotism is at last 
relaxed. Hence, therefore, such being the 
case, I may conclude my "Thoughts on 
Hayti," by saying that the present crisis 
in her affairs is the auspicious era when 
an intelligent emigration of colored Ameri- 
cans may set toward those shores, with 
every prospect of ultimate success in the 
regeneration of that people, and the pro- 
motion of the cause of the descendants of 
Africa throughout the world. 

SEttjrat is our Crue Condition? 


This is a question of weighty import. 
Many of our ablest writers, in their zeal 
to inspire the despondent and promote the 
interests of the cause of freedom, have 
written many able essays on the equality 
of the races, on our relative duties, on 
our intellectual advancement and mental 
capacity, yet seldom inform us of the 
status which the colored people of the 
United States, as a whole, bear to the 
dominant race. Is our condition really 
being ameliorated ? Have we been bene- 
fitted by the slavery agitation ? are ques- 
tions worthy of serious consideration. 

It is true that in some sections of this 
confederacy the social and political con- 
dition of the colored man has been im- 
proved — that he enjoys privileges that 
were denied to his father, is undeniable, 
and they constitute marks of progress in 
those favored localities. But these are 
local instances, and have no bearing on 
the whole; they only expose more clearly 
the (political) degradation of the masses 

That we will eventually attain to a 
political equality, is with many a religious 
belief, and only a question of time ; to this 
end tend their fondest aspirations ; to this 
consummation they concentrate their every 
energy. With many others, who are less 
sanguine, recent events have impressed 

them with the conviction that redemption 
depends on emigration. Indeed, the ques- 
tion of emigration has become a subject of 
serious reflection with a great portion of 
the colored people of the United States. 
They consider their future political and 
social postion by no means problematical. 
If the experience of the past, and indica- 
tions of the present, are any guarantee of 
the future, then our prospects are truly 
cheerless, our hopes of an amelioration the 
veriest chimera. The lullaby of a good 
time coming, which was wont to be sung 
to them, has long since lost # its effi- 
cacy, and something more tangible and 
plausible is required to reconcile them to 
the revelations of the future. That there 
is an irrepressible conflict, continually 
waged between freedom and slavery, is a 
proposition warranted by facts and the 
history of the times. But, alas for the 
cause of human rights generally, and the 
hopes of the colored people of the United 
States particularly, slavery, seemingly, 
is destined to be the rule, and freedom the 

Lamentable as this conclusion may be, 
the signs of the times will testify to its 
veracity. The history of the Anti-Slavery 
movement, almost from its inception, has 
been checkered with victories and defeats. 



At times, the friends oi humanity were 
made to rejoice at their progress in the 
march of freedom ; and again their hearts 
would sadden at the triumphs and victories 
of despotism. 

At first this agitation was literally sec- 
tional, confined to the advocacy of a few 
noble-hearted men; it was hut a small 
speck on the horizen of the public mind ; 
the speck grew into a cloud, and the cloud 
has assumed such vast proportions of omin- 
ous portent, as to overshadow every other 
object in our political heavens. 

The question may well be asked, how 
are the colored race to be affected by this 
agitation ? What good will accrue to them 
from this clashing of Republican and Demo- 
cratic interests ? In casting our eye over 
the history of American civilization and 
progress, we are forcibly struck with the 
fact that, though the American people have 
reduced the sciences to the utility of man- 
kind, and made rapid strides in all that 
conduces to the glory and prosperity of a 
people, yet that progression has been em- 
phatically material, ignoring in its march 
the rights of man, and suppressing all the 
finer feelings of humanity. There are only 
two great parties of political antagonism 
in this country — one strives to perpetuate 
human slavery, the other to restrict it. 
The doctrine of one is expansion — of the 
other, restriction. Despotism is the avow- 
ed object of one, whilst self-interest is the 
all-controlling power and ruling motive of I 
the other. The philanthropic doctrine of j 
equal rights is totally ignored. The poor 
negro, although the cause of this agitation, 
is denied by both parties as having any 
rights in common with humanity. They 
both worship at the shrine of Avarice and 
Cupidity, and sacrifice the rights of man 
to propitiate their gods. 

What good can possibly accrue to us 
from the supremacy of Republican prin- 
ciples, when we are stigmatized by the 
very leaders of that party as being natur- 
ally inferior, unsusceptible of any social 
or political equality, and an obstruction to 
any congenial relationship between the 
Northern and Southern sections of this 
confederacy. Whilst Southern Democratic 
States are enacting laws ejecting free per- 
sons of color from within their limits, the 
Northern Republican States are devising 
means for excluding their immigration. 
There seems to be an unanimity of feeling 

between North and South (with a few 
honorable exceptions) in regard to the 
colored residents of the United States. 

The rallying cry of the Republican 
party now is, lk Free soil for free white 
men," not taking into consideration the 
rights of the negro, thereby silently ac- 
quiescing in the iufamous Taney decision. 

Even in Kansas, that common battle- 
ground of liberty and despotism, what 
was the grand distinguishing characteristic 
of the Topeka Constitution, the creation 
of the Free- Soil party? "That no free 
negro should be admitted within the limits 
of the State," &c. Whilst they were 
shedding their blood in the name of liberty, 
they gave the lie to the assertion by per- 
petrating a despotic act, worthy of the 
most ultra Pro-Slavery State in the Union. 
Such is the position of the negro in the 
United States — in society an outcast, in 
politics a nonentity, in law almost an ab- 
stract technicality. Being the paramount 
staple for political agitation, he is emphati- 
cally magnus in nomine , at parvus in se. 
Ever since the passage of the Nebraska 
bill, in 1854, slavery has been the all- 
absorbing political issue. 

In effecting any reformation or revolu- 
tion in public sentiment, the means most 
invariably relied on and brought into 
requisition, is agitation. Indeed, in re- 
publics agitation is the only "modus oper- 
andi" for effecting any moral, social, or 
political reformation. But in regard to the 
great evil of human slavery, agitation, 
instead of ameliorating, seemingly intensi- 
fies the curse. This is manifest — not only 
in the expulsion of free persons of color 
from many of the slave States, in the 
opening of the slave trade, and the rapa- 
cious grasp for more slave territory, but 
even in the North, black laws, once re- 
pealed, have again been put in force, again 
disfranchising their partially enfranchised 
colored citizens, and prohibiting any fur- 
ther immigration within the limits of their 
respective States. But this is not all; it 
gave birth to that infamous and inhuman 
decree which has shocked the better feel- 
ings of humanity— a decree which Bacon, 
in his palmiest days of corruption, would 
have shrank from, and Jeffries, with all 
his infamy, would have refused to utter. 

American civilization is truly anomalous ; 
nominally a republic, it is a despotism', 
boasting of an enlightened civilization, it 



is unparalleled in its barbaric practices; 
beautiful in theory, but most foul in prac- 
tice. It is true that in a few Northern 
States the colored man enjoys a few politi- 
cal privileges — for taxation he has a partial 
representation. But he is not part and 
parcel of the body politic; his political 
privileges are not granted him as a right, 
but merely ex-gratta ; his tenure is pre- 
carious, liable to be swept away by the 
enactment of any Legislature. Political 
equality must always be based on social 
equality, that is the only guarantee for its 
permanency; and social equality will 
never be attainable as long as prejudice 
rankles in the American breast. Prejudice 
against African descendants being the off- 
spring of African slavery, it will be a long 
time, judging from the signs of the times, 
before its extinction is effected. The crea- 
ture will even outlive its creator; even 
after the earth has ceased to be cursed by 
African slavery, its impress will be felt in 
the form of that prejudice which, while it 
exists, will be a barrier to any social 

I am aware that this subject is unpala- 
table to many, who would fain believe 
that we are making rapid strides in the 
march of freedom. It is true that we have 
progressed in all that pertains to the de- 
velopement of the mind, have made mani- 
fest to the world our intellectual equality, 
but have made no advancement socially or 
politically, nor ever will, as long as preju- 
dice rears its hydra head. Has our politi- 
cal position been ameliorated in the last 
ten years? Do we enjoy any political 
privileges now that we did not then ? Has 
prejudice against caste softened down? 
Ilespect for the truth compels us to answer 
in the negative. The battle has been 
manfully fought, but the foe is steadily 
advancing. We see men, whom we have 
been taught to look upon as great high 
priests in the cause of freedom, proving 
traitors to the cause, and compromising 
with the enemy. These are truths that 
cannot be controverted. We would sup- 
pose that prejudice against color would 
vanish before the advancement of an en- 
lightened civilization ; but such is not the 
case. American prejudice grows with the 
growth and strengthens with the strength 
of American civilization; it is engrafted 
n the education, and is a distinctive ele- 
ment in the formation of American prin- 

ciples. Numerically too weak to assert 
and maintain their rights, there is only 
one emergency that could arise whereby 
the negroes of the United States would be 
in a commanding position to dictate terms 
of reconciliation, conquer this prejudice, 
and become part and parcel, de facto, of 
the American people. This could be in 
the event of war. Surely, the colored 
people of the United States, being ostra- 
cized from the rights and immunities of 
citizens, would not be expected to fight 
her battles. 

In these troublous times, war is by no 
means inevitable. In the event of a for- 
eign invasion, the negroes would be a 
mighty conservative element; they would 
hold the balance of power, and, if true to 
themselves, and true to the great cause of 
human freedom, they would not freely 
cast their lots in the fortunes of war, as 
on previous occasions, without some sure 
guarantee of immediate enfranchisement 
— a total removal of their civil disabilities, 
and a full investiture of all the rights of 
citizenship. The black man and white 
man righting side by side, in the same 
ranks, for the preservation of American 
institutions, and the repelling of a common 
foe, sharing alike the perils and hardships 
of war, would go far towards eradicating 
this prejudice from the American heart. 
In such an event, colored Americans would 
feel they were children of a common 
parent, although that parent was tardy in 
recognizing any ties of consanguinity, and, 
under that inspiration, these American 
Turcos would be to the American army 
what the Old Guard of Napoleon was to 
the French army. Nothing could so 
speedily clothe the colored man with all 
the attributes of citizenship as a foreign 
invasion by some powerful nation. This 
is a possible contingency, and by it could 
be worked out the social and political 
regeneration of colored Americans. 

This prejudice against color, is a peculi- 
liarity, an idiosyncracy of the American 
people; it is an infirmity of the mind, con- 
tagious only on American soil. Intellec- 
tual accomplishments and mental devel- 
opment, instead of eradicating it, only 
intensifies it. Like some poisonous mala- 
ria, it infuses its pestiferous breath, 
warping the understanding, controlling 
the judgment, and misleading the reason. 
Take, for instance, the State of California. 



In the years 1848, 1849, and 1850, when 
law and order were almost unknown, 
society recognized no social distinctions; 
all worshipped at the shrine of self-inter- 
est, and in their cupidity, ignored all con- 
ventionalism — all considerations of a minor 
nature. The black man and white man 
could be seen working in the same mine, 
travelling together, eating at the same 
board, drinking at the same bar, and stak- 
ing on the same card. Society then was 
in an abnormal state. But, in proportion 
as law and order were observed, and busi- 
ness and society settled down in a better 
organized condition, in the same ratio did 
prejudice rear its envenomed head and in- 
fuse its moral pestilence among all classes 
of society. The colored people made 
strenuous efforts to throw off this incubus 
and vindicate their manhood. They held 
conventions, and again and again petitioned 
the Legislature for a partial removal of 
their civil disabilities. Their petitions 
were treated with contempt, and legisla- 
tion only conspired to enact more degrading 
and inhuman enactments. The Mongolian, 
although repugnant in his manners and 
aspect, filthy in his habits and Pagan in 
his worship, is less obnoxious to the Cau- 
cassian than the colored American. A 

bill, called the "Negro Bill," unparalleled 
in the annals of despotic acts, overshadow- 
ing in its enormity any part of the Black 
Code of Virginia, actually passed both 
branches of the Legislature, and would 
have become a law of the State, but for 
some technical informality. Such is the 
position of the colored people of California. 
Public sentiment is more corrupt, preju- 
dice is more intense, and the colored man 
is more oppressed than at any previous 

Many of our wealthy and intelligent 
residents, no longer able to stem the tide 
set in against them, have removed to a 
more congenial clime. We have held no 
conventions, nor petitioned any Legislature 
for over two years. We deemed it inex- 
pedient and impolitic: the public pulse 
beat high against us, and agitation did not 
suffice to abate it. When next we assem- 
ble in convention, the subject of emigra- 
tion will, in all probability, be a leading 
feature in onr deliberations. But we have 
not all of us despaired of effecting some- 
thing, even yet, in the way of ameliora- 
tion. Agitation, thus far, has signally 
failed us. We must try other means — 
adopt other plans, which, as yet, lie unde- 
veloped in the womb of future events. 

®lje Crimnplj uf Jfreekm— % §rtam. 


It was a beautiful day in spring. The 
green sward stretched beneath my feet 
like a velvet carpet, fair flowers sprung 
up in my path, and peaceful streams swept 
laughingly by to gain their ocean home. 
Above me the heavens were eloquent with 
the praise of God, around me the earth 
was poetic with His ideas. It was one of 
those days when Nature, in the excess of 
her happiness, leans on the bosom of the 
balmy sunshine, listening to the gentle 
voices of the wooing winds. I had fallen 
into a state of dreamy, delicious languor, 
when I was roused to sudden conciousness 
by a startling shriek. I looked up, and, 
bending over me, I saw a spirit gazing 

upon me with a look of unmistakable sad 
ness. " Come with me ? " said she, laying 
her hand upon me and drawing me along 
with an irresistible impulse. Silently I 
followed, awed by her strange manner. 
" I wish," said she, after a few moments 
silence, "to show you the goddess of this 
place." Surely, thought I, that must be a 
welcome sight, for the loveliness of the 
place suggested to my mind a presiding 
genius of glorious beauty. " It is now 
her hour of worship, and I want to show 
you some of her rites and ceremonies, and 
also the priests of her shrine." Just then 
we came in sight of the goddess. She 
was seated on a glittering throne, all 



sparkling with precious gems and rubies; 
and, indeed, so bright was her throne, it 
threw a dazzling radiance over her sallow 
countenance. She wore a robe of flowing 
white, but it was not pure white, and 1 
noticed that upon its hem and amid its 
seams and folds were great spots of blood. 
It was the hour of worship, and her priests 
were standing by, with their sacred books 
in their hands; it was one of their rites to 
search them for texts and passages to 
spread over the stains on her garment. 
When this was done, they bowed down 
their heads and worshipped, saying : — 
" Thou art the handmaid of Christianity ; 
thy mission is heaven-appointed and di- 
vine." And all the people said "Amen." 
But during this worship I saw a young 
man arise, his face pale with emotion and 
horror, and he said, " It is false." That 
one word, so sublime in its brevity, sent a 
thrill of indignant fear through the hearts 
of the crowd. It lashed them into a 
tumultuous fury. Some of them dashed 
madly after the intruder, and hissed in his 
ears — " Fanatic, madman, traitor, and in- 
fidel." But the efforts they made to silence 
him only gained him a better hearing. 
They forced him into prison, but they had 
no chains strong enough to bind his free- 
born spirit. A number of adherents 
gathered around the young man, and 
asked to know his meaning. " Come with 
me," said he, "and I will show you?" 
and while they still chanted the praises of 
the goddess, he drew them to the spot, 
where they might view the base and inside 
of the throne, and the foundation of her 
altar. I looked, (for I had joined them, 
led on by my guide,) and I saw r a number 
of little hearts all filed together and quiv- 
ering. " What," said I, " are these ? " My 
guide answered, "They are the hearts of 
a hundred thousand new-born babes." I 
turned deathly sick, a fearful faintness 
swept over me, and I was about to fall, but 
she caught me in her arms, and said, 
"Look here," and beneath the throne were 
piles of hearts laid layer upon layer. I 
noticed that they seemed rocking to and 
fro, as if smitten with a great agony. 
"What are these?" said I, gazing horror- 
stricken upon them. " They are the hearts 
of desolate slave mothers, robbed of their 
little ones." I looked a little higher, and 
saw a row of poor, bruised and seared 
hearts. "What are these?" These are 

the hearts out of which the manhood has 
been crushed; and these," said she, point- 
ing to another pile of young, fresh hearts, 
from which the blood was constantly 
streaming, "are the hearts of young girls, 
sold from the warm clasp of their mothers' 
arms to the brutal clutches of a libertine 
or a profligate — from the temples of Christ 
to the altars of shame. And these, 7 " 
said she, looking sadly at a row of withered 
hearts, from which the blood still dropped, 
" are the hearts in which the manhood has 
never been developed." I turned away, 
heart-sickened, the blood almost freezing 
in my veins, and I saw the young man 
standing on an eminence, pointing to 
the throne and altar, his lips trembling 
with the burden of a heaven-sent message. 
He reminded me of one of the ancient 
seers, robed in the robes of prophecy, pro- 
nouncing the judgments of God against 
the oppressors of olden times. Some list- 
ened earnestly, and were roused by his 
words to deeds of noble daring. Others, 
within whose shrunken veins all noble 
blood was pale and thin, mocked him and 
breathed out their hatred against him; 
they set a price upon his head and tracked 
his steps with bitter malice, but he had 
awakened the spirit of Agitation, that 
would not slumber at their bidding. 

The blood-stained goddess felt it shak- 
ing her throne, its earnest eye searching 
into the very depths of her guilty soul, 
and she said to her worshippers: "Hide 
me beneath your constitutions and laws — 
shield me beneath your parchments and 
opinions." And it was done; but the 
restless eye of Agitation pierced through 
all of them, as through the most trans- 
parent glass. "Hide me," she cried to 
the priests, " beneath the shadow of your 
pulpits; throw around me the robes of 
your religion; spread over me your altar 
clothes, and dye my lips with sacramental 
blood?" And yet, into the recesses of her 
guilty soul came the eye of this Agitation, 
and she trembled before its searching 

Then I saw an aged man standing be- 
fore her altars; his gray hair floated in the 
air, a solemn radiance lit up his eye, and a 
lofty purpose sat enthroned upon his brow. 
He fixed his eye upon the goddess, and 
she cowered beneath his unfaltering gaze. 
He laid his aged hands upon her blood- 
cemented throne, and it shook and trembled 



to its base; her cheeks blanched with dread, 
her hands fell nerveless by her side. It 
seemed to me as if his very gaze wonld 
have almost annihilated her; but just then 
I saw, bristling with bayonets, a blood- 
stained ruffian, named the General Govern- 
ment, and he caught the hands of the aged 
man and fettered them, and be was then 
led to prison. I know not whether the 
angels of the living God walked to and 
fro in his prison — that, amid the silent 
watches of the night, he heard the rustling 
of their garments — I only know that the 
old man was a host within himself. The 
goddess gathered courage when she knew 
that she could rely on the arm of her ruf- 
fian accomplice; the old man offered her 
freedom, but she answered him with a 
scaffold — the gallows bent beneath his 
aged form. Her minions drained the blood 
from his veins, and they thought they had 
conquered him, but it was a delusion. 
From the prison came forth a cry of victory ; 
from the gallows a shout of triumph over 
that power whose ethics are robbery of 
the weak and oppression of the feeble; 
the trophies of whose chivalry are a plun- 
dered cradle and a scourged and bleeding 
woman. I saw the green sward stained 
with his blood, but every drop of it was 
like the terrible teeth sown by Cadmus; 
they woke up armed men to smite the ter- 

ror-stricken power that had invaded his life. 
It seemed as if his blood had been instilled 
into the veins of freemen and given them 
fresh vigor to battle against the hoary 
forms of gigantic Error and collossal 
Theory, who stood as sentinels around the 
throne of the goddess. His blood was a 
new baptism of Liberty. I noticed that 
they fought against her till she tottered 
and fell, amid the shouts of men who had 
burst their chains, and the rejoicings of 
women newly freed, and Freedom, like a 
glorified angel, smiled over the glorious 
jubilee and stood triumphant on the very 
spot where the terrible goddess had reign- 
ed for centuries. I saw Truth and Justice 
crown her radiant brow, from joyful lips 
floated anthems of praise and songs of 
deliverance — just such songs as one might 
expect to hear if a thousand rainbows 
would melt into speech, or the music of 
the spheres would translate itself into 
words. Peace, like light dew, descended 
where Slavery had spread ruin and desola- 
tion, and the guilty goddess, cowering 
beneath the clear, open gaze of Freedom, 
and ashamed of her meanness and guilt, 
skulked from the habitations of men, and 
ceased to curse the land with her presence; 
but the first stepping-stones of Freedom 
to power, v.ere the lifeless bodies of the 
old man and his brave companions. 

$(jjjn Dm ton at Jnffu's ^erru 


The Sabbath day had passed, and night 
Her sable mantle over all had spread. 
The silent pavement, now deserted quite, 
Gave back to mortal ear no echoing tread. 
The lordly master and the trembling slave, 
The poor, proud youth, who scorns his humble lot, 
The virtuous maiden and the scheming knave 
Had all in sleep their sins and woes forgot. 



And well they might; the minister that day 

Had tried his best with soothing words to please 

And exorcise the weight of guilt that lay 

Upon the conscience of the F. F. Vs. 

Of all the sins with which our earth is curst — 

Intemperanee, murder, theft — on land or sea, 

Thou, cruel slavery, art alone the worst, 

For none can bear comparison with thee. 

The hungry tiger, in his search for food, 

With vicious glare the weary traveler spies, 

Quickens his steps to sate his thirst for blood: 

One spring, and all is o'er — his victim dies. 

But thee alone, where'er thou holdest sway, 

The soul as well as body — all are thine ; 

Thou tflk'st God's image, manhood, quite away — 

How can they sleep who worship at thy shrine ? 

When e'er a people have betrayed their trust, 

And from their damning sins are loath to purge them, 

God, who is ever merciful and just, 

Sends forth his chosen instruments to scourge them. 

To teach the South a lesson through this town — 

To make her know the height of her offences — 

His justice had commissioned old John Brown, 

With scourge in hand, to whip her to her senses. 

And so the old man, upon this very night, 

Had gathered round himself a faithful band — 

Though few in numbers, yet prepared to fight, 

Or do whatever else he should command. 

Now starting forth, their duty to 'perform, 

With all their plans for action well matured, 

For fear he might announce the coming storm, 

The watchman on the bridge was first secured. 

Next gallant Colonel Washington — not he 

Who, with religious ardor, took the pains 

To convert almost every branch and tree 

Upon Mount Vernon into shilling canes, 

Until some ladies, moved by filial fear, 

Or by the lessons which the past had taught them, 

That he the bones of Washington so dear 

Would sell unto some button-maker, bought them ; 

But this another one, unknown to fame, 

Was, with his slaves, by the insurgents taken, 

Before he could well ask them whence they came, 

Or had a single chance to save his bacon. 

Thus far, they had their course in quiet shaped, 

With no opposing wave their hopes to drown, 

" Till, aided by the gloom, one man escaped, 



And by his cries aroused the sleeping town. 
"Ah, then and there was hurrying to and fro, 
And cries, and tears, and tremblings of distress." 
(So Byron has expressed it, but, you know, 
He wrote of folks who were already drest.) 
And when the news, at w T hich they all turn'd pale, 
Was heard, they all were dancing and quite merry;- 
So this, "though well enough for Waterloo," will fail 
To describe the fright of those at Harper's Ferry. 
The town was all alive, "Pray what's the matter?" 
Each neighbor asked, but not a soul could tell, 
While all seem'd anxious to improve the clatter, 
By setting up at once a general yell. 
Some had their hats forgot, some shoeless quite, 
Some minus pantaloons, had gathered there; 
While none had seized sufficient in their fright 
To shield them from the biting midnight air. 
At length, one man whose curiosity 
Was great enough to overcome his fear, 
Went up into the town, in hopes that he] 
Might meet some one from whom the news to hear. 
Soon he came back, and that they should not fail 
To learn from him whatever was amiss, 
They gathered round him while he told his tale, 
Which was, in substance, very much like this: 
That all their negro slaves had rallied forth, 
And on their homes with weapons keen were creeping, 
Headed by twenty thousand from the North, 
To cut their throats while they were sleeping; 
And that the soldiers all were ordered out, 
In time, they hoped, to quell this great surprise, 
And that a message by this time, no doubt, 
Was sent by telegraph to Governor Wise. 
Virginia's ruler in his study sits, 
His mouth well filled with the Virginia weed, 
The juice of which he at the fire spits, 
Then shakes his head, and cries: "I'm caught — I'm treed ! 
To think that I — so skilled in all the tricks — 
I might have thought a moment and known better 
Than prove myself a child in politics, 
• And writ to York — ah me ! — that fatal letter. 
And then the news the^ papers hourly bring, 
That lucious oysters now are daily found, 
Whose juicy richness well might tempt a king, 
Within the depths of old Long Island Sound. 
And then wild negroes, too, by slavers caught, 
In Africa, wherever they can take 'em, 


Are in fall shiploads to our country brought, 

And sold for half the price at which we make 'em. 

Oh, grievous state of things to think upon ! 

Oh, state of things too grievous to be borne ! — 

Here, ruined sits thy Governor and son ; 

Virginia dear, 'Thy occupation's gone !'" 

Oh, Wise by name, if not by nature too, 

Ambition's crown you've vainly sought to clasp; 

But though you've ever kept the prize in view, 

You've found 'twould always slip from out your grasp. 

Just as the verdant youth, in search of fame, 

Cons o'er the feats of Blondin and De Lave, 

And thinks like them that he will get a name, 

By walking on a tight-rope o'er the wave, 

Gathers his neighbors to behold the feat, 

Stretches his rope across a stagnant pool; 

They come in crowds, expecting a rich treat, 

Hoping to see well doused the ambitious fool. 

Meanwhile, the youth, determined to proceed, 

Starts trembling forth at the appointed time; 

When lo ! he slips, is covered well indeed, 

If not with glory, still with fragrant slime. 

While thus he sits, reflecting on the past, 

And sees his projects all disolve in air, 

He hears the sound of footsteps falling fast, 

As if some one in haste was coming there. 

Upon the door he hears a hurried knock — 

What do those signs of haste and terror presage ? 

Quickly he turns the key within the lock, 

When lo ! a stranger stands — with him a message ; 

The news, as well as he could understand, 

Was this — that twenty thousand Northern knaves, 

And every one with rifle keen in hand, 

Had come into the State to free the slaves. 

"Oh, glorious news! sure fortune favors me; 

No ! nothing in this world could have been better ; 

This very thing, if handled skilfully, 

Will certainly off set that foolish letter. 

I'll go at once, with an all-conquering force, 

Which, at my summons, will be gathered there, 

Quell these presumptious wretches, and, of course, 

Will gain my end — the Presidential chair." 

As if it was design'd to tame his pride, 

He found, alas ! that he had come too late; 

This little band, hemmed in on every side, 

Were forced, ere this, to succomb to their fate. 

Our Governor was very much enraged, 



On coming there and looking round him, when 

He found that the whole State had been engaged 

In lengthened combat with but twenty men. 

But time will not permit me to recount 

The valorous deeds which were that day performed, 

For certainly there was a vast amount 

Of courage shown, after the place was stormed. 

But justice bids ma here record one name, 

Distinguished from all others, and, in truth, 

One which should ever be preserved to fame, 

And set a pattern to our rising youth. 

While Brown, the old hero, pale and gory, 

Within the arsenal, in easiest posture lying, 

Covered with ghastly wounds as well as glory, 

And thought by most spectators to be dying, 

This mighty man, valiant Lieutenant Green, 

Thinking, no doubt, to give the coup dc grace, 

Drew out his sabre, and by all was seen 

To strike a blow upon the old man's face ! 

And will Virginia slight this timely warning ? — 

Will she go on puffed up with foolish pride. 

Although she knows her weakness, still with scorning, 

The plainly uttered voice of God deride ? 

Oh ! God avert the doom that's hanging o'er her — 

Open her blinded eyes that she may see, 

And keep this sacred precept — e'er before her — 

Break every yoke, and let the oppress'd go free. 

$n |(bribgf. „ 

Xearly half a century ago — in 1816-17, red slippers, he was wont to receive pas- 
to wit — there sailed from the port of Xew sengers with a ''stately courtesy , v which 
York, in one of the Liverpool packets, as was duly reciprocated by those who went 
steward thereof, a tall black man named . down to the sea in ships. The stewards 
Brown. He belonged to a class which, at j of the different lines of packets vied with 
that time and for years afterwards, even i each other in their style on board ship, and 
to the present day, occupied a respectable in their private houses. They were all 
and responsible position. The steward colored, and sailed to every port, at home, 
was then, next to the captain, the most j or abroad — Liverpool, Canton, Bremen, 
important personage in the ship. Dressed Charleston, New Orleans, Savannah, Sec. 
in his brilliant-colored morning-gown and | There are yet among us, in a flourishing 



old age, some of the stewards of that good 
old time: Henry Scott, the retired mer- 
chant, whose name is an anologue for pro- 
bity, and George Lawrence, Senior, and of 
a somewhat later day, Benjamin Fisher? 
the "bluff salt" who reigns in the Vander- 
bilt 'skimmer of the seas.' — And of those 
who have shipped on their last long voy- 
age, Bowser, Mack, Burchell, Portee, Har- 
ry Brown, Moses Sheppard, George B. 
Williams, and a hundred others; 

" Quon regio terrisV 

What part of the earth does not bear 
witness to their presence? 

In 1816-17, Mr. Brown, steward of a 
Liverpool liner, gave up following the sea, 
and hired a house on the north side of 
Thomas street, (nearly opposite that since 
made famous by the Helen Jewett tra- 
gedy,) and fitted up a tea-garden in the 
rear of the lot. In the evening he made 
the garden attractive by vocal and instru- 
mental music. His brother stewards and 
their wives, and the colored population 
generally, gave him a full share of patron- 
age. Among his artistes were Miss Ann 
Johnson, since Mrs. Allen, the mother of 
an excellent cantatrice of the present time, 
and James Hewlett. These evening en- 
tertainments were not dry affairs ; brandy 
and gin-toddies, wine-negus, porter and 
strong ale, with cakes and meats, enabled 
the audience to gratify several senses and 
appetites at the same time. James Hew- 
lett was quite a character in his line; a 
very fine singer for the times, he added by 
degrees, dramatic exhibitions to the enter- 
tainments. His off nights were invariably 
spent in the gallery of the old Park Thea- 
ter, and spent not in vain, for he soon be- 
came celebrated for the talent and versa- 
tility which enabled him — anticipating 
Mathews, we believe — to perform several 
widely differing characters, very perfectly, 
at one exhibition. He followed the fash- 
ionable world to Saratoga, and in the hight 
of the season, when rival singers would 

scatter their paper announcements through 
the hotels, there would appear, thickly 
scattered around, tastily printed on white 
satin : 

Vocalist, and Shakespeare's proud 

Will give an entertainment 
In the Large lloom of the United States Hotel. 
<fcc. &c. &c." 

Hewlett was a mulatto, of middle hight, 
with sharp features, and a well-set, coal- 
black eye. He was a native of one of the 
West-India islands. 

So great was Mr. Brown's success with 
his tea-garden, that in four or five years 
he built a theater in Mercer street, above 
Prince, then, of course, well up-town. The 
edifice was of wood, roughly built, and 
having capacity for an audience of three 
or four hundred. The enterprise was quite 
successful, the audience being composed 
largely of laughter-loving young clerks, 
who came to see the sport, but invariably 
paid their quarter for admission. 

The father of Ira Aldridge was Daniel 
Aldridge, a straw-vender in the city of 
New York. Mr Aldridge was a strict 
member, in high standing, in "Old Zion." 
We well remember the old gentleman — 
short in stature, with a tall, broad-brimmed 
white hat, mounted on a high cart filled 
with his merchandise, and dolefully crying 
straw, s-t-r-a-w! through the streets, espe- 
cially on Saturday nights. He was a na- 
tive of Baltimore, and his wife (Ira's mother) 
of North Carolina; so that the great actor 
himself hails from the region which has 
produced so many distinguished colored 

Ira Aldridge was born in Chapel street 
(now West Broadway) in the city of New 
York in .1808.* At the time of the exist- 

* The New American Encyclopedia states: Art. 
Jra Aldridge or Roscius, the real name of whom 
was said to be Hewlett, is a mulatto, . . born 



ence of Brown's theater, lie attended the 
African school in Mulberry street, on the 
site now occupied by colored Ward School, 
No. 1. He was among the "big boys" of 
our schoolmates, yet we do not recollect, 
nor do others of his schoolmates, that he 
especially distinguished himself in any di- 
rection. We have a dim remembrance of a 
great fight in which he was engaged with 
one Joe Prince, on the spot until recently 
occupied by the New York Gas Light Co.. 
at the corner of Collect and Hester street, 
when one — but which of them, we cannot 
say — got terribly whipped. His attain- 
ments were about the average of the schol- 
ars in attendance upon the school, then 
taught by the late Mr. Charles C. Andrews. 

It was a peculiar talent, constantly exer- 
cised by that teacher, to find out what a 
boy was good for — in other words, the bent 
of the child; and having once ascertained 
this, he would spare no pains to cultivate 
such bent with untiring industry. Mr. 
Andrews felt, and often said, that the char- 
acter of the race was in the keeping of his 
scholars, and that they must exert them- 
selves to maintain it. "Ira," in the words 
of his elder brother, Mr. Joshua Aldridge, 
now resident in New York city, "being a 
somewhat intelligent lad, was held in con- 
siderable favor for his quickness and atten- 
tion to his studies, both by his teacher and 
schoolmates. He lost his mother while 
yet a child, and being of a roving disposi- 
tion, only remained at home a few months 
after his father's second marriage; he ship- 
ped on a brig, and sailed south. While 
in a port in North Carolina, he attracted 
the attention of a slave-dealer, who offered 
the captain five-hundred dollars for him ; 

in a village called Bellair, about 1810; was appren- 
ticed to a ship carpenter, . . and from associa- 
tion with the German population, which is very 
large on the western shore of Maryland, learned 
the German language." Of these six statements, 
not one is true ! The writer evidently confounds 
James Hewlett with Ira Aldridge. 

but the captain, who happened to be a 
Christian man, refused the offer, saying 
that "the boy had trusted to his honor to 
carry him back to New York." Shortly 
after his return home, Brown's theater was 
opened, and Ira, with his brother Joshua, 
took to the stage; but their father, finding 
it out, took them away from the theater. 
Some time after this, Ira again shipped, 
this time as steward in a vessel bound for 
Liverpool. It happened that Mr. James 
Wallack, the actor, was passenger in the 
same vessel. Mr. Wallack engaged Ira 
as his personal attendant while on the pas- 
sage, and on the arrival of the vessel in 
Liverpool, Aldridge left her with that view. 
Ho has not since (this was in 1826-7) re- 
turned to the United States." In 1828-9 
he was engaged in a subordinate capacity 
in Astley's Amphitheater, London. 

In September, 1832, while in Liverpool, 
the writer of this sketch happened to put 
up at the same hotel with the wife of Mr. 
Aldridge. She was an English lady, the 
daughter of a" late member of Parliament, 
and had made a run-away match with the 
African Roscius. She was a lady of fine 
accomplishments and great converational 
talent. She showed me a bust, in plaster, 
of her husband, and very anxiously en- 
quired whether he had the true negro fea- 
tures, seeming especially desirous that he 
should be perfect in this way. Mr. Ald- 
ridge himself was absent on a professional 
tour, and I did not have the pleasure of 
meeting him until nearly two years after 
in the city of Glasgow, where he fulfilled 
an engagement at the Royal Theater, then 
under the management of the late Mr 

The engagement was a very successful 
one, the actor drawing large audiences and 
winning golden opinions from the press. 
The waters, however, did not run smoothly 
behind the scenes. Mr. Alexander, a tall, 
stalwart, coarse man, of great energy and 
perseverance, had won success in the man- 



agement,by alternately cuddling and scold- 
ing his audience in the midst of his own 
performances, and by bullying his actors 
behind the curtain. No small portion of 
the attraction to young gentlemen in the 
pit arose from his habit of suddenly break- 
ing off in the midst of Rob Roy, with: — 
4 'Ye Gods in the gallery must na licht 
your pipes at the gas-jets, and let your 
brent papers fall on the gentlemen below" 
— or as suddenly leaving the boiling caul- 
dron and coming down to the foot-lights 
with: — ''Madam, will you please stop that 
wean's crying!" 

One night, between the acts, Mr. Alex- 
ander, in a towering pnssion at some mis- 
hap, turned to vent his rage on Mr. Ald- 
ridge; the latter firmly resented ; Alexander 
uplifted sword in hand, sprang towards 
Aldridge, the latter, with a similar weapon 
quietly disarmed the manager, without stir- 
ring a footstep; grasping his sword again 
he rushed on, shrieking "I'll kill him, don't 
hold me back"— the latter being addressed 
to two female supes, who easily led him 

The good people of Glasgow, at the time 
we write of, were especially "down upon'' 
two institutions — Popery and the theater; 
and a man of repute — which meant a God- 
fearing, church-going individual— was cer- 
tain of losing caste if he patronized, or even 
ventured within the precincts, of either. 
Anti-slavery men, who were for the most 
part rigid dissenters, entertained these pre- 
judices in the highest degree. The secre- 
tary of the Glasgow Emancipation Society, 
the late John Murray, whose distinguished 
friendship I had the honor to enjoy, was so 
thorough in his anti-popery and anti-thea- 
ter views, that it was w T ith some reluctance, 
one Saturday morning, that I mentioned 
to him that my old school-mate, Ira Ald- 
ridge, would perform that night at the 
Royal Theater. To my surprise and de- 
light, he at once proposed to go, which we 
did. It was his first and only visit to a 

theater. He was "carried away" by thn 
acting of Mr. Aldridge, insisted on an in- 
troduction, and invited us to breakfast 
next morning. The reunion was a most 
pleasant one. When we left, and walked 
down Sauchiehall street to the coach, (Mr. 
A. was obliged to leave that morning to 
fulfill an engagement at Edinburgh) Ald- 
ridge grasped my arm, and his large, lamp- 
ing eyes filling with tears as he exclaimed, 
"Oh God, what unexpected treatment to a 
poor outcast actor !" 

Mr. Aldridge had not yet ventured on 
the London boards, although he had con- 
stant engagements in the provinces, and 
had received an offer from a Metropolitan 
manager. He was devoted to his profes 
sion, and determined to give several years 
of hard study and constant practice, before 
he risked his reputation, and that of his 
race, to the ordeal of City criticism. A few 
years after, feeling that he might make 
the venture, he accepted an engagement 
in London, which drew out the following: 
[From the London Spectator, Oct. 13th, 1835.*] 
"The African Roscius (in 1834). 
Mr. Aldridge, a native of Senegal, ap- 
peared as Othello, at Convent Garden The- 
ater, on Wednesday. His person is tall 
and well-formed, and his action free-flow- 
ing and graceful ; his face is not disagree- 
able, though we have seen better looking 
Africans, but is not susceptible of much 
variety of expression. His voice is rich, 
melodious and sonorous withal, and in pas- 
sages of tenderness its tones had great 
sweetness. It resembles Macready's, but 
has more volume. Indeed, the acting al- 
together — though with due intervals — re- 
minded us of that great tragedian. His 
deportment is manly, and occasionally dig- 
nified; he moves and speaks with deliber- 
ation and self-possession. He evinced a 

*We may be mistaken in the year ; the paragraph 
is copied from the files of the "N. Y. American" in 
the N. Y. Historical Society's library, and the year 
is left out of our copy. 



great deal of feeling and nature in his per- 
formance; these, indeed, were its redeem- 
ing qualities; but they could not reconcile 
us to its numerous and glaring defects. 
Its beauties, however, surprised us more 
than its faults." 

"An African is no more qualified, &c. 
In one particular alone, we might expect 
a native African to be better qualified by 
nature to personate a character of his own 
clime and complexion, that is, in having 

Anglo-Africans, when they feel the weight 
and the manifest nature of the barrier in 
their way to eminence, remember that, in 
1858, the first living tragedian in the world 
was Ira Aldridge, an American black man, 
who was once a pupil in Colored School 
No. 1, Mulberry street, New York City. 

We say this is a splendid example, for 
the reason that the severe criticism of the 
London paper, in 183-1, falling upon him 
when he had reckoned himself fit for the 

the fiery temperament of these children of ! London stage, so far from discouraging, 

the sun. But herein Mr. Aldridge posses- j 
ses no advantage; he is a remarkable ex- 
ception to the general rule, being on the 
contrary tame and Jarmoyant. So that in 
fact he is without the natural qualifications 
which are essential to the verisimilitude 
of the character. The swarthy actor is 
not new to the stage; he has played at 
several provincial theaters, and in some of 
the minor houses of London. His decla 
mation is not only ineffective, but faultv. 
Mr. Aldridge's grief is querulous and lach 
rimose, and his pathos whining. In the 
most violent bursts of passion he was defi- 
cient in energy and power; though in de- 
picting the struggles of mental agony and j he has hosts of friends and supporters 

only acted as a stimulant to Mr. Aldridge, 
and drove him to a more severe course of 
dramatic study, which, after twenty years 
of persevering assiduity, placed him on 
that pinnacle of fame, to attain which he 
had started out. What greater difficulties 
can there be in the way of any of our 
young men ? 

In his up-hill struggle after eminence, 
Mr. Aldridge met the warmest encourage- 
ment from the Irish people. Some of his 
best friends are among the middle and 
higher classes in Dublin and Belfast, who 
urged him constantly to aim at the highest 
excellence; and among the common people 

suppressed emotion he was vigorous and 
natural. The range of characters in which 
Mr. Aldridge can appear must necessarily 
be very limited, we therefore expect his 
acting to be more perfect. 'He has no 
genius, but is not without talent.' " 

Such was Mr. Aldridge in 1834. Per 
contra, let us look at the same Ira Ald- 
ridge, the colored tragedian, in 1858. (See 
Anglo- African Magazine, Vol. L, p. 63.) 

Here is a splendid example, worthy 
the emusation of all our colored youth. 
See the contrast. In 1834, Mr. Aldridge 
is pronounced by a competent London 
critic to be one who "has no genius, but is 
not without talent," and in 1858 he is pro- 
nounced the first of living tragedians, pro 
ducing effects only equalled by the won_ 
derful Rachel, in her best role. Let young 

who cheer him on, as only Irishmen can 
cheer. When we look to-day at the sen- 
timents of Mitchel, Meagher, and O'Conor, 
on the one hand, and at the chronic hate 
with which the Irish masses in America 
act out such sentiments towards the colored 
man in America, we are led to alter the 
the celebrated line and exclaim— "Qui 
trans nvare cnrrunt cozlum et animam 

"At Belfast, in Ireland, Mr. Aldridge 
played Othello, for ten days, to the Iago 

* "They who cross the ocean-change both their 
skies and their minds." Mr. Jeremiah Powers, at 
the O'Conor indignation meeting the other night, 
gare strong evidence to show that this change of 
mind will not be permanent: he said, the "blackest 
kind of men in New York are securing beautiful 
white Irish wives" &c. 



of the younger Kean, and also Orozembo 
to the same artist's Alvan. On the 

Continent he appeared in Amsterdam, 
Brussels, Berlin, Breslau, Vienna, Pesth 
Konigsberg, Dantrice, the Hague, Berne } 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, Dresden, Cracow, 

Gotha, and other cities, personating char- 
acters of every style and nationality. In 
most of these cities he received substantial 
tokens of approbation. The King of 
Prussia, at Berlin, wrote him an autograph 
letter, accompanying the first-class medal 
of Art and science. The Emperor of 
Austria conferred on him the Grand Cross 
of Leopold ; and at Berne he received the 
medal of merit in the shape of a Maltese 
cross. In Germany, Aldridge was looked 
on as performing his Shakspearian charac- 
ters with marked ability ; but in England 
he has not often appeared in any of Shak- 
speare's plays, except Othello and the 
Merchant of Venice. In Zanga, Orozembo, 
Zorambo, Rolla, Hugo (Gumbo ?) in the 
Padlock, and other characters, the physi- 
ognomy of which suits his color, he is 
thought to display rare excellence. He is 
also a good comedian. After returning 
from his continental tour, Aldridge ap- 
peared at Covent Garden, in 1857; and, 
after an engagement at the Britannia, was 
about to visit Sweden, whither he had been 
invited by King Oscar.'' {New American 
Encyclopedia, Vol. L, p. 305.) 

Mr. Aldridge is so nearly a pure negro' 
that there is probably not one thirty- 
second portion of white blood in his veins. 
His complexion is black, and yet of that 
shade through which the red blood may be 
seen glowing beneath. His hair is woolly. 
His features, of that negroe'd type which 
we see in the Egyptian Sphynges, are well 
represented in the plate accompanying this 
number. He is above the middle height, 
athletic, and of noble presence. Of the 
British actors, he may be classed with 
Garrick, in that it is hard to say whether 
he excels most in tragedy or comedy. 
His triumphs on the Continent are the 
greater from the fact that he used the 
English language in the various stages, 
whilst his audiences were French. German, 
Russian or Norse. He reached eye and 
ear and heart by something higher than 
pantomime, inasmuch as the tones of the 
voice swept the heart-strings with their 
resistless magic. It was the human ap- 
pealing to the human, through the uni. 
versal language of passion which accom- 
plished these highest triumphs of art. 

With Dumas, the father, first of living 
novelists, and Dumas the son, first of living 
dramatists, and Ira Aldridge, the first of 
living actors, who will have the hardihood 
to deny that the negro, in the middle of 
the nineteenth century, is fully entitled to 
the first place in the Temple of Art ? 










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So, taking up my apples, I found Aunt 
Melissa engaged in getting dinner, and 
singing one of her quaint, old-time hymns. 

"Well, Jane," said she, "I thought that 
you were going to listen to the conversa- 
tion, and 1 believe that you out-talked 
them all, the way I heard your tongue go- 
ing! I should have thought you would 
have felt shy before such a great scholar 
as Miranda says he is." 

"Well, Aunt, that is the reason why I 
feel so much at home with him; he has 
education enough to know how to behave 
himself, and understands human nature 
well enough to know how to adopt himself to 
its various phases. He is too well devel- 
oped to wish to build himself up by trying 
to pull others down ; I believe that he would 
rather approve, than censure. I think, in 
looking over a work, he would be more apt 
to show his literary acumen by selecting 
the beauties, than by picking out the 

Just then Miranda entered the room, 
and I repeated to her my opinion of Mr. 
Ballard, in which she fully coincided: "He 
can afford to be agreeable, he has such an 
amount of capital to fall back on. What 
a contrast he is to those would-be import- 
ant people, who spend part of their time 
criticising what they cannot create, and in 

| finding fault with what they can neither 
equal, or excel." 

"Well," said I, "how would you know 
that such perbons aspired to anything, if 
they did not take pains to parade it before 
you. A large man passing through the 
streets is under no necessity of crying out: 
See how large I am. And so if men have 
large, grand and glorious natures, they 
can apprize us of the fact without saying 
by their actions: see how great I am." 

Just then I looked out the window; and 
who should I see but cousin Julia Strong 
and her five children. 

"Now Aunt Melissa," said I, "look for 
trouble, here comes cousin Julia Strong 
and her five children; now for the house 
to be torn to pieces, my poor flower-garden 
to be ravaged, our ears to be stunned, 

"0 Jane, Jane, ' said Aunt Melissa half- 
chidingly, and yet with a look which seem- 
ed to say, I believe that you are about 
half right. 

"There they are at the door: go, Miran- 
da, and let them in ; and, if your conscience 
will let you, give them a hearty welcome. 
Do so if you can, I couldn't do it, and it is 
no use for me to go up to them and say, I 
am glad to see you, when I wish every 
one of them safe at home." 



"0 Jane, you ought to have more chari- 
ty. I love to hear Miranda read in one of 
her books, of a man who sa;d he loved God 
and every little child. I think he must 
have been a dear, good man, that said such 
beautiful words." 

"Well, Aunt, maybe I am not patient 
enough; but I do think cousin Julia has 
some of the worst-behaved children I ever 
saw. I do not think that the man who said 
he loved every little child, ever laid his 
eyes on Julia's." 

"Well, maybe he had seen some like 
them; 1 don't know; and yet I don't blame 
the children; 1 blame the mother." 

"I pity them both, Jane. When Julia 
was growing up she was very pretty and 
very vain; and her mother used to make 
so much of her, I knew she would be spoil- 
ed. Oh! she would work so hard to give 
her fine clothes and make her look fixed- 
up, and she used to wear her Sunday 
clothes every day. Well, when she went 
into company it was, who should and who 
shouldn't. It was go to this party, and that 
ball, this sleigh-drive, and that buggy-ride. 
It was like living in a whirlwind of plea- 
sure and gaiety. At last Mr. Strong came 
along, and wanted to marry her; but she 
was engaged to another gentleman; but 
that made no difference to her, she sent 
back his letters and likeness, and en- 
gaged herself to Mr. Strong." 
"But did be not know it, Aunt?" 
"Of course he did, but he did not care, 
as long as he got her, who was put out. 
He seemed proud to let people see that he 
could cut-out Julia's beaux. Well, after 
a few weeks' acquaintance, they were mar- 
ried. He was proud of his pretty wife, 
and liked to show her to his friends; and 
you know that Julia was very pretty, and 
became dress; and she thought that he was 
pretty well-off, and that she would have a 
fine home of her own — and so they got 

"And this," said I half-musing to myself, 
"was the foundation of a new home, and a 
rising family." 

"Before Julia got married," continued 
Aunt Melissa, "I tried to give her advice; 
but she got huffy, and I let her alone. 
Soon after she got married, her husband 
commenced staying out late at night; chil- 
dren gathered around her; but she knew 
nothing about raising them, and their fath- 
er thought he had done his part when he 

gave them victuals and clothes, sent them 
to sc%)ol and kept a house over their 
beads; and he thought that their mother 
ought to make them mind, and teach them 
how to behave." 

"But, Aunt, if a woman is ignorant, can't 
she learn; must she always remain a child- 
ish mother?" 

"Yes, Jane, she can learn if she will, but 
Julia is one of that kind that is so hard to 
learn. I do not think she understands fam- 
ily government any better now, than she 
did the first day when her little Anna lay 
helpless in her arms. Now, Jane, you read 
a great deal, suppose you would attempt 
to tell her some of the ideas you pick up 
in reading about raising children." 

"She would be very apt to say: Now just 
you wait till you get a family, it is very 
easy to talk, but you don't know what it is 
to be worried half to death with fbrty-'lev- 
en children." 

"And if I would attempt to advise her, 
she would say: Aunt Melissa, you never 
had such children as I have. Some people 
have a kind of knack of getting along with 
children and making them mind ; I never 
had; I do all I can with mine, I whip 
them, I scold them, I coax them, and do 
everything to make them mind; but their 
heads are so hard they worry me almost 
to death. If I had known as much as I 
know now, I would have never got mar- 

"Well," said I, "let me take up the din- 
ner;" which being accomplished, Aunt rang 
the bell and our guests came in to dinner, 
and then commenced the fulfilment of my 
prophecy. Aunt Melissa gave Julia a cor- 
dial greeting, noticed the children, and 
kissed the baby; and then, as the table 
was not very large, Julia told two of her 
children to wait — this was the signal for 

"I want my dinner." • "I ain't a-going to 
wait." "I want a piece of pie." "I want 
some bread." 

"Now do behave yourselves, and show 
Aunt Melissa how good you can be; don't 
you want her to see what nice little boys 
you can be?" 

"No, I want my dinner;" and then com- 
menced a cry which lasted till they both 
got tired, and went to fighting. Here Julia, 
out of patience, jumped up from the table, 
and slapping them both soundly, dragged 
them into the sitting*- room. 1 dreaded the 



effects of that act, and well I might; for 
when I went there my beautiful bible was 
torn, my daguerreotypes scattered around, 
my work-box in confusion, my spools un 
wound, my ink spilled, and any amount of 
paper wasted; and I just felt provoked en- 
ough to fight. Just then Miranda and the 
student entered the room, and, noticing the 
vexation* on my face, they asked "What is 
the matter ?" 

"Matter" — said I," just look at the confu- 
sion these children have made. You may 
talk as much as you will of the govern- 
ment and rule of ideas, our city friends 
may talk all day of getting wealth as a 
means of elevation, but I tell you we need 
something else for our people besides mere 
wealth and intellect; we need a good home 
education to underlie our intellectual ac- 
quirements. If we have wealth, we need 
a good foundation for it to rest upon — and 
that foundation is a right home culture." 

J ust then Julia's voice floated up to us, 
harshly scolding the children. 

"Stop, I tell you; I'll mash yoyr month, 
you are the worst boy I ever saw." 

"Oh ! I hurt my foot." 

"I don't care, it is good for you, that's 
what you get for not minding; nevermind, 
I'll tell your father, and I'll make him give 
it to you for not minding." 

"Well, he wonH whip me." 

"Very well, Mr. Impudence, we'll see." 

Just then the voices died away; and re- 
suming the conversation, I continued. 

"Now," said I, "here is Julia and her 
children, when you look on them and their 
home education, what hope can you have 
of their future? and is not the training they 
receive the training of thousands of other 
children? Now, Mr. Strong is wealthy, 
but what service is his money to the cause 
of freedom? He is wealthy and ignorant; 
he knows how to make money, and I think 
that is about the most he does know. Ask 
him to take an anti-slavery paper, and he 
has some excuse; ask him to aid a fugitive, 
and he may put his hand in his pocket and 
give you a quarter; ask him to take a de- 
cided stand in favor of our plundered 
rights, and he first thinks, or appears to 
think, whether it will hurt his business. 
He looks upon the uprising of an earnest 
manhood to rescue a fugitive as insane fol- 
ly. He thinks it as absurd as Ajax defy- 
ing the lightning of heaven. And now, 
my friends, with such views, what is the 

bare possession of his wealth to our people? 
His money helps to make and keep him 
conservative. I have heard him attempt 
to speak in a public meeting on some 
questions of vital importance to our people; 
it was a speech that seemed to breathe out 
the idea, there is nothing better for a color- 
ed man than that he can eat, drink, and 
take good care of No. 1. Well, I cannot 
say what good his money is to him, unless 
it is to afford his family finer clothes, rich- 
er food, and a more beautiful residence 
than many of their neighbors. His wife, 
as you see, is fashionable, his children neg- 
lected; he busy in making money, and 
she in spending it, or at least as much as 
she can lay her hands upon; and yet these 
children, badly trained, or rather not train- 
| ed at all, are to be our future men and 

"You draw a gloomy picture, Miss Jane 
j and yet I think the home education of the 
| human race is sadly neglected; and if there 
is a people under heaven needing all the 
benefits accruing from a well-directed home 
education, we are that people. We need 
mothers capable of moulding and developing 
aright the plastic mind of childhood, and 
of writing upon the tablet of childish inno- 
cence the holiest and purest lessons and 
maxims: maxims to be taught by precept, 
and lessons to be enforced by example. I 
have more hope for our people in the grad- 
ual uprising and improvement of the mas- 
ses, than in the mere acquisition of wealth 
or intelligence in the hands of a favored 
few. And for this end we should be will- 
ing to labor, live, and strive." 

"Yes, my friend," replied I, "and this 
work may need more true courage and for- 
titude than the battle-field calls for, and 
higher tests of valor than bloodstained 
warriors ever know or feel." 

"Speaking of valor," said Miranda, "re- 
minds me of your promise, Mr. BaUarJ, to 
read to us of Zombi, the negro elector of 
the negro kingdom in South America." 

"Very well, I am ready at any time to 
oblige you." 



"There had been a fearful struggle for 
supremacy between the Dutch and Portu- 
guese in South America, and during the 
contest a number of negroes had been arm- 
ed. But at length the dark wings of cam- 



age ceased to brood over the land; and 
peace, like a refreshing shower, descended 
Where an unholy strife had spread desola- 
tion and ruin around; the vesper hymn 
floated gladly on the air that had trembled 
'neath the crash and roar of w ar, and peace- 
ful streams flowed on rejoicingly, whose 
waters once had blushed with crimson gore. 
But to these armed negroes the ended war 
was more than a herald of peace, it was 
the evangel of freedom. So, instead of 
laying aside the implements of war for the 
badges of slavery, and tamely submitting 
their necks to the yoke of oppression, they 
set up a kingdom for themselves. They 
found a place of refuge in Porto do Codvo; 
and in course of time a number of fugitive 
negroes resorted to them, and their numb- 
ers soon became formidable. Like the an- 
cient Komans they were without wives; 
but this want they supplied by suddenly 
descending on the plantations and taking 
oft every woman of color by violence. 
This was a rather unceremonious way of 
courting; but I do not feel like blaming a 
man very much for stealing a wife, if he 
does not aggress the rights of a husband, 
and provided he cannot get her any other 
way, and that she is worth stealing. They 
occupied a fertile boundary, and increased 
with astonishing rapidity. They establish- 
ed equal laws among themselves, no hide- 
ous slave-code, all drenched with blood and 
stained with tears from eyes long used to 
weeping, disgraced their statutes. And 
though it is said they plundered the Por- 
tuguese settlements, they established equal 
rights among themselves. Finally they 
constituted a nation under the name of the 
Palmerese; the name was derived from the 
great palm forests of their region. They 
formed a government under an elector or 
monarch named Zombi. Around their chief 
towns and villages they placed stockades; 
not knowing how long they would be per- 
mitted to live unmolested, it was necessary 
to provide for the common defence; and 
they even managed to procure from the 
Portuguese planters fire-arms, ammunition, 
and other weapons of defence. Two de- 
cades passed over their heads, and this new 
kingdom had increased to more than twen- 
ty thousand inhabitants; when the fell 
spirit of destruction awoke in the bosom of 
the Portuguese government; and being im- 
pressed with the formidable power of this 
new government, they determined that the 

Palmerese must be extirpated, at whatever 
cost of money or men. John de Lane-astro 
with an army of six thousand men, well 
provided and armed, marched against the 
Palmerese city. Unable to meet the Por- 
tuguese, they retired within the defences 
of their own town, numbering about ten 
thousand. The Portuguese advanced, laid 
siege to the town, but were greatly dis- 
heartened on beholding the formidable 
condition of the defences; and being with- 
out artillery, they were unprepared to be- 
siege the town in regular form. They 
were soon harrassed by murderous sallies 
from the town ; whenever the Portuguese 
approached they were dismayed by the 
furious resistance on the part of the Palm- 
erese, who, not only with fire-arms, bows 
and arrows, but with scalding water, galled 
and frequently repulsed their enemies. 
This was an apparently hopeless siege on 
the part of the Portuguese, till the ammu- 
nition of* the besieged was exhausted, and 
their supplies of provisions cut off. Scarc- 
ity was threatening them with famine, and 
to add to* their disasters, a strong reinforce- 
ment came to the aid of de Lancastro, and 
the doomed and sadly fated place was 
stormed and taken. Zombi and his chief 
adherents resolved not to be taken alive; 
death in one of its terrible forms was before 
them; but they rushed to it in preference 
to captivity. Over the high and rocky 
precipices of the fort they leaped, and were 
dashed to death. Instead of dragging to 
death's shadowy portals slavery's heavy, 
galling chain, they met a sudden and fear- 
ful death ; the rest of the captured inhabi- 
tants were sold as slaves — and thus ended 
the first, though possibly not the last, negro 
kingdom on this continent. 7 ' 

"Oh ! how sad," said Miranda, the tears 
gathering in her eyes, "how much these 
things stir my soul against the wrongs 
which our people have endured age after 
age. But I feel that we are living in the 
beginning of the end, and that a better day 
is about to dawn on the fortunes of our 
race; and in the future that is before us I 
want to be an active worker, and not an 
idle spectator." 

"Well my dear child," said I, "there is 
work enough to be done to engage heart, 
intellect, and soul. Let all our women be 
in earnest, and then we may hope to see 
much accomplished in the future progres- 
sion and welfare of our race. Now, 1 tell 


yon, Miranda, one thing we can do, we can j at least as one 01 our monuments. I have 
do it ourselves and try and enlist others in the first volume, it was presented to me 
the same work, and that is to try to sustain | nicely hound, and it forms one of the valu- 
the "Anglo-African." It is one of the most ed hooks of my small library. I would 
welcome papers that reaches me, and I j like to see that book bound- in the houses 
want it to live; I think Mr. Toombs, or of our people, and kept in existence as 
some one else has said, that if we were \ something to stimulate our young people 
struck out of existence, the next twenty to an interest in their improvement and 
years would show no monument of our ex- , progress, 
istence. I want that Anglo- African to live 

Slfself it % %tmkM4Mt 


New thoughts are continually springing 
up in the mind, which, like mushrooms, at- 
tain their growth in a single night — and 
that is the end of them. The world ought 
to be extremely thankful that they thus 
go down to nothingness; and I presume 
it is: yet the world has long been noted for 
its egregious obtuseness, and seldom takes 
anything at its true valuation. These 
peculiar mental evolutions being rarely 
understood by the mass of mankind, the 
natural sequence is, that the world's grati- 
tude on this point is somewhat deficient in 
the essential element of caloric, usually so 
imponderable, and of imperfect conduction 
in gaseous and aeriform fluids. 

[The boarders looked puzzled, and the 
landlady's youngest, who is in delicate 
health, and at present on a strict regimen 
of hot buckwheat cakes and powdered su- 
gar, looked knowingly at the medical stu- i 
dent, and said in a loud whisper: "That's 
Dutch, what the boys in the back-alley 
speaks when they swear."] 

I perceive, remarked I, that T have the 
misfortune to be somewhat unintelligible. 
The phrase which I have just used is one 
I borrowed from my friend, the Professor, 
who is thoroughly conversant with the 
technicalities of every post-diluvian art 
and science. He has an astonishing ge- 
nius for invention, and has invented an en- 
tire philosophical nomenclature, which he 
designs giving to the w r orld assoonashe can 

prevail on any publisher to accept the 
manuscript. A great genius is the Tro- 
fwsor, a very great genius, and considera- 
bly in advance of the nineteenth century. 

— Not that I think it remarkably meri- 
torious to be an inventor of mere words. 
When the Professor was explaining to me 
the elaborate research and immense effort 
of mind he found necessary to bring his 
new system to an approximation toward 
perfection, I said to him what I am about 
to say to you — that the world has a suffi- 
ciency of words; empty, high-sounding 
words exist superabundantly; wdiatitnow 
needs, is deeds — earnest, lofty, vigorous, 
effective deeds. The earth is full of ado- 
lescent truths, waiting to be taken up and 
given a tangible practical existence. 
Hoary errors lift their Gorgon fronts here 
and there, and, Medusa-like, eject their 
i venom over suffering humanity. Great 
falsehoods are embodied, and stalk like 
hideous demons through the land, crushing 
the poor at every tread, and religiously 
worshipped by old devotees and neophites. 
Workers, then, are what the stern actuali- 
ties of life demand. No possible good can 
result from mere denunciation of evil; the 
devastating beast is not such a fool as to 
be frightened by men yelling at him from 
a distance, he is accustomed to the rattle 
of their tongs, shovel and poker, and will 
not heed them. It is fully time that all 
this nauseating babbling and whining over 



the prevalence of wrong and oppression 
Lad ceased, it inevitably weakens the abili- 
ty to do, to say nothing of the cowardice 
and hypocrisy it evinces. No corrupt civ- 
il or political institution was ever over- 
thrown by piling np inflated vituperative, 
or grandiloquent words. If anything would 
really be accomplished let men talk less, 
and act more. 

"That's so. I generally acts, 'specially 
when there's eatables around," said the 
young fellow whom they call Tom, wink- 
ing in a very unbecoming manner at the 
boarders. [1 thought the landlady looked 
as if she would like to corroborate the 
young gentleman's statement, but much to 
my regret, she remained silent, contenting 
herself with glancing very meaningly at 
the hot rolls, to which he was helping Kim- 
self with his usual liberality.] 

"Then you dont believe in agitation, 
sir?'' said the medical student, with an in- 
terrogation-point at the conclusion of the 
sentence. "Certainly I do; agitation must 
precede all great reforms; but I do not be- 
lieve in agitation being made an everlast- 
ing substitute for action. What would you 
think of a farmer who, instead ot sowing 
his seed in the spring, would sit quietly 
down and spend the genial months in dis- 
cussing the general expediency of seed- 
sowing, and the principles involved in their 
germination and growth ? I have an orig- 
inal apophthegm, to which I should like to 
call your attention ; it is this — please ob- 
serve the emphasis: Action is, and from 
the very constitution of man, must ever 
be, the great instrumentality of all im- 
provement.' And, in elucidation of this, 
I will further say, that no real permanent 
greatness can ever be achieved without 
strenuous, continued, positive effort. 

"Are youlistening, Theodore Augustus?" 
said the landlady, addressing her youngest 
who was making a vigorous attack upon 
the buckwheat cakes for the sixth time. 
[I think the landlady manifests a decided 
appieciation of the remarks which I am 
accustomed to make at the breakfast table, 
and I have come to the conclusion, that she 
is a very inteMigent woman.] 

Human nature is a very complex thing, 
although unanylitical by any but profound 
psychologists, such as Kant, Scheming, 
Fichte, and other German metaphysicians, 
with whose writings you are doubtless fa- 

[This last observation was directed to 
the medical student and the young lady 
who wears short curls, and reads the Sor- 
rows of Werter, bound in antique calf gilt 
edged, every morning in the front parlor.] 

Human nature is, furthermore, a 

very selfish and unequitable thing. Men 
generally consider themselves, and the 
class with which they are immediately as- 
sociated, monopolists of all terrestial virtue 
and talent that is worth having, steadfastly 
refusing to acknowledge the existence of 
merit in any other class. Don't misunder- 
stand me. I have acquired 3uch habits of 
generalization that my assertions are often 
rather ambiguous. The remark I have 
just made has especial applicability to the 
American people, and is very strikingly 
illustrated in the persistence with which 
they refuse a manly recognition of the 
mental abilities which they are well aware 
the colored people of this country posses. 
This fact is, I think, attributable to inor- 
dinate selfishness, with a certain admixture 
of jealousy and fear of consequences. 

Preposterous as is the cry of Anglo-Af- 
rican inferiority, it is an all perv ad ; ng 
thing, common among the illiterate and 
the educated. Naturalists, Statesmen, Doc- 
tors of divinity, annually make their usual 
quota of sycophantic offerings to the 
Southern oligarchist, in the form of sneer- 
ing disquisitions on the idiosyncrasies of 
the "negro race," and send them forth with 
lie stamped broadly and fairly upon their 
faces. And they know it, and the people 
know it; yet no one has the hardihood to 
immolate himself upon the altar of a cring- 
irg, servile public opinion, by saying fear* 
lessly, "thaVs a lie.'' 1 

The old lady opposite, mildly suggested 
that some other word than lie, would 
sound better and mean the same thing 

"No, madame, no. I despise, I con- 
temn, I abhor euphemism. Let a man say 
what he means without any circumlocution. 
Give us idc,§,s in their quint-essence, regard- 
less x of any seemingly objectional words 
necessary- to be employed in their express- 
ion ' 

I was just on the point of observ- 
ing, when I was interrupted, that all this 
puerile and nonsensical twaddle, about the 
intellectual inferiority of the negro, and 
his unsusceptibility of attainments in liter- 
ature, science, and the arts, is getting to 


be an insufferable bore, beside, being an 
everlasting disgrace to American science, 
and that misnomer, her religion. 

My friend, the Professor, told me yes- 
terday, that he regarded the fact, that the 
African and Saxon races are entirely and 
absolutely equal in their mental confor- 
mation as incontestable and self evident, 
as that the three angles of a triangle are 
equal to two right angles. I will take 
great pleasure in telling you sometime, 
many of the logical things he said on the 
subject, which he has spent considerable 
time in investigating. I think you will be 
pleased with his profound argumentation. 

Before you go this morning, I want to 
read you a copy of some verses I wrote 
the other day. Here they are: 


The royal casket fair, 
Hath ne'er a jewel rare 

From tropics brought, 
That we could e'er compare 

With gems of thought. 

Such gems a? glow and glow, 
la beauty evermore: 

Upon each page; 
Whose earnest lines doth show 

Poet and sage. 


Sent on its mission pure, 
The loving heart and true 

Makes strong in right; 
To the false and selhsh too, 

It beareth light. 

Monthly its way it wings, 
To where the mother sings, 

Her lullaby 
To the "wee toddling things,'' 

Who slumber nigh. 

Beside the hearth-stone bright, 
The father reads at night, 

To loved ones there 
Those words of truth and might, 

Those words of prayer. 

God's blessings evermore 
From yon fair blissful shore, 

Upon them be, 
Who "Anglo" conned us o'er 

And gave us thee. 

To make our fainthearts strong, 
To battle with the wrong, 

To break each rod, 
Oh, may 'est thy life be long 

Sustained by God! 


Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jfntpunfs of Cjottgjjl 


Elements in the Character of a Great Woman. 

BY D. A. P. 

Everything in nature has a distinctive 
character, and certain elements constitut- 
ing it. The horse is a great animal — the 
elements of his greatness are his large 
muscles r powerful nerves, and large bones, 
these constitute him great in force — his 
natural timidity and capacity for discipline 
constitute him great in usefulness, and 
make him the most valuable of all domest- 
ic animals; prized alike by the wild Arab, 
and the enlightened European. Causing 
the inspired poet to exclaim: 

"Hast thou given to the horse strength? 
Hast thou clothed his ne^k with thunder 1 

Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper? 
The glory of his nostrils is terrible ! 
He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his 

Among the metals, gold has its distinct- 
ive character, the elements of which are 
ductility, malleability, tenacity, immutabi- 
lity, and a beautiful color. Not only as 
an ornament, but as a circulating medium, 
it is the most useful, and therefore the 

So, also, a great woman has certain ele- 
ments in her character which constitute 
her great. Let us see what are some of 



There is her medeAty, by which we d<* 
not mean the bashfulness or diffidenn 
whicli is c o characteristic of some people 
blinding their eyes and stopping their ean 
to both the form and the voice of duty — 
thus neutralizing all their gifts and graces: 
but that virtue which gives to her talents 
the greatest force, and to her accomplish 
ments the finest polish. It is a virtue 
which has both its spring of action and its 
foundation of rest, in a deep son so. of one's 
own abilities, and a just recognizance of 
the merits of others. This virtue leads her 
to correct behavior abroad, as well as at 
home. ] Vies it make her reverence the 
Sanctuary of the Lord of hosts? so, also, it 
teaches her to respect the hall of Science, 
and the lecture-room. She is attentive 
when the man of science instructs, and se- 
rious while the messenger of grace is un- 
folding the truths of eternity. By such a 
deportment she commands alike the love 
and esteem of the purest men, with the fear 
and respect of the debauchee. 

The Spirit of Inquiry is another ele- 
ment in the character of a great woman. 
This spirit gives activity to her intellect, 
and sends her winged over the universe in 
search of truth. No subject is too high for 
her attention, none too low,which can make 
her wiser and better by increasing her 
powers of usefulness to God, her father, 
and man, her brother. Hills and vallies, 
plants and minerals, fountains and rivers, 
lakes and oceans — everything which Al- 
mighty Power has created, is a lesson to 
instruct her; the whole volume of nature 
is a book which she daily studies to find 
the manifestations of infinite wisdom and 
infinite goodness. 

Nor does she contemn the Volume of 
Inspiration. In her ardent pursuit of that 
which is technically called science, she is 
ever regardful of her sacred duty, a duty 
which makes her more like ^od, because 
it brings her in daily contact with him. In 
addition to this exalted truth, she knows 
that of all books the Volume of Inspiration 
contains the sublimest truths that ever 
came from God, uttered in the sublimest 
language that ever graced the lips of man. 
As the mountains of California and the riv- 
ers of Africa are rich in gold— as the fields 
of Arabia and the groves of Ceylon are 
fragrant with spices; so is the great woman 
with knowledge. 

A Hound Judgment is another element 
in the character of a great woman. As 
she promenades the field of knowledge, this 
is her inseparable companion.. This gives 
her the ability to eschew the vitiating, and 
ruinous literature of the age ; a literature 
which is to the mind, just what alcoholic 
drinks are to the body. This sound judg- 
ment, like the authority of the Almighty, 
tells her what, and how to read ; what, and 
how to think; what, how, and when to 
speak ; so that she neither spends her 
money for literary trash, nor wasts her 
precious time in reading it. 

The pursuit of her life is, truth, lofty, 
pure, eternal as the heavens ! Penetrating 
the subtile guise of error, she is able to 
detect it, though robed in light, and to re- 
ject it, as an imp from the pit that is bot- 

The love of the moral, is another ele- 
ment in the character of a great woman. 
— this is the climax of her greatness — the 
heart and soul of it. Without this, all her 
talents, and other acquirements, would be 
comparatively useless. 

By the love of the moral, she appropri- 
ates to herself all the blessings of all — 
commuting even its ills into sources of joy ; 
not that they may terminate in herself, but, 
that they may conduct her to the pure, the 
good, the eternal. 

Such is the great women, to whom, bla- 
zing suns and rushing planets, magnifici- 
ent constellations — the sublime universe 
itself are but flaming chariots and horses 
of fire, bearing her to the bosom of God. 

Such is the great woman, whom the age 
calls for, but cannot get ! — whom posterity 
demands, and must obtain to be the future 
wife, and mother of the men, who shall 
lead our crushed race to goodness and to 

And is it true, the present age cannot 
get her? Are there no Susannah's to train 
our Wesleys' ? No "virtuous woman" to 
give us a L'Ouverture? But why, my 
soul, 0, why dost thou repine? The hour 
shall bring the man. When the captivity 
of Israel was ended, Moses came from the 
depths of the Arabian wilderness. When 
the spiritual thraldom of ten centuries was 
to be broken, Luther was at hand. So, 
also, the child may now be smiling in the 
arms of its mother, whom God has ordain- 
ed, and will gird with the needed omnipi- 



ence to lead the American bondmen into I nation is its great women — its great wives 
the light of holy freedom. The glory of a| — its great mothers. 

BY E T H I P . 

This is a grave question, and gravely 
will we attempt to consider it. But be- 
fore entering upon the discussion, a brief 
outline of the rise and career of this 
people in this country may be necessary. 

For many centuries now have they been 
on this continent; and for many years have 
they had entire rule and sway ; yet they 
are to-day no nearer the solution of the 
problem, "are they fit for self-government" 
— than they were at the commencement of 
their career. Discontent and disaffection 
have marked every footstep, and the 
word 11 failure" is to-day written on every 

They came over to this country in the 
first instance in small numbers, and forth- 
with began upon a course of wrong doing. 
The Aborigines were the first victims of 
their cupidity. They took advantage of 
them in every conceivable manner. They 
robbed them of their lands, plundered 
their wigwams, burned their villages, and 
murdered their wives and children. This 
may seem over-drawn ; for in some instan- 
ces small purchases of lands were made; 
but this was merely for the sake of foot- 
hold — a kind of entering-wedge ; and 
when once gained, the work of ravage and 
devastation would commence. Thus, step 
by step they advanced, until now they 
have almost the entire possesssion of 
the continent. 

One would naturally conclude, that 
with such a condition of things, this people 
would be content, that a condition seem- 
ingly so favorable, would ensure some 
sort of quietude, some substantial peace. 
Not so this people. Restless, grasping, 
unsatiated, they are ever on the lookout , 

for not what is, or ought to be theirs, but 
for what they can get. Like a band of 
sailors (call them by what name you 
please), who, after having appropriated all 
the rich treasures of a merchantman, make 
the captain, crew and passengers walk the 
plank, so these white people insist not 
merely in having country and government 
and everything else therein, but that right- 
ful owners shall vacate and tread the plank 
in the bargain. Twice they have quarreled 
with, stripped off, and fought the mother 
who gave them origin and nursed them till 
they were grown; and once have they 
most unmercifully beaten their weaker 
and more pacific neighbor; and then des- 
poiled him of a large portion of his lands, 
and are now tormented with longings af- 
ter the balance. 

If we go back to an earlier page in their 
i history, we find them stealing and appro- 
priating what? Why, men, women and 
children from abroad and consigning them 
to a perpetual bondage; them and their 
children, and their childrens' children for- 
ever. This infamous business they con- 
tinued unmolested for over a century; but 
for some reasons, certainly not from any 
convictions of wrong they abandontd the 
practice; only however, as it has subse- 
quently appeared to fasten the chains 
tighter and to press harder the hereditary 
victims they so cruelly hold in bondage. 
It is but just to add, that the internal 
slave trade, is, to-day, more actively carried 
on than was ever the foreign trade by this 
people, and, too, with great pecuniary 
advantages, which, with them, is sufficient 
for a full justification of the business. 
Let us turn our attention to another 



page of their history. Prior to their broil 
with the English people in Europe, they 
framed a form of government, which to 
all human appearance promised well. It 
seemed to contain all the elements of suc- 
cess. Its foundation had the look of solid- 
ity and its frame work, that of strength 
and durability. " We hold these truths to 
be self-evident, that all men are created 
free and e<]u(d; and endowed with certain 
and inalienable rights; among which are 
life, liberty, and the pursuits of happi- 

This grand, this lofty, this truthful lan- 
guage constituted its four corner stones; 
and the civilized world naturally enough 
looked for a noble and lasting superstruc- 
ture to be built thereon. The great mass- 
es of the old world sighed and hoped for 
it: and the Crowns trembled and feared 
because of it. Both clearly expected the 
rearing high up in its topmost lattice a 
beacon light that would lead to a new era 
among the governments of the world; but 
both have been disappointed. 

Disaffection and discontent came almost 
simultaneously with the bud and the blos- 
som, and ere the first summer fruits, con- 
fusion and division had entire sway. From 
thence forth have they gone on, amidst the 
jar and confusion of tongues, until we 
stand, t >-day, a most perfect Babel; out- 
rivalling in every respect that ancient one 
so summarily disposed of by the Great 
Disposer himself. 

Scarce three-fourths of a century has 
passed away since the basis of the govern- 
ment was laid, and we find the foremost of 
their leaders earnestly and laboriously en- 
gaged in pulling out the foundation stones 
thereof and anathematizing them as "glit- 
tering generalities;" gross blunders, un- 
tempered mortar, &c, &c. Dissolution and 
overthrow are the war-whoop of the entire 
corps of their leaders; not one of whom, 
but would, were it in his power, pull down 
the pillars of the Republic over his own 
head. Such is the unbridled sway the 
vilest of passions have over them. 

If, in our scrutiny, we pass down to the 
present, we shall find increased discontent 
and disruption. Looking at this ]|eople in 
the light ol their present existing institu- 
tions, what do we behold ? Strife, con- 
fusion and disaffection. If we peruse their 
journals, which constitute the true index of 
the general mind, without exception we 

find nothing but grumblings, murmurings 
and moanings over the bad state things 
are in ; coupled with a war of words, gross 
language and shameful vituperation. — 
These make up the sum of all you find 
therein. If we go into the Halls of Legis- 
lation, which are the exponents of the will 
of this people, we shall discover that fear- 
ful quarrels, brutal fights, cowardly assas- 
sinations, bludgeons, knives and pistols, 
are the chief arguments used, the weighty 
bills passed, the grave laws made; the 
burthen of the legislation accomplished; 
True, there are other arguments offered, 
other bills passed, and other codes enacted; 
but these play but a secondary part, and 
fall as dead weights at the feet of the peo- 
ple. In these little or no interest is taken. 
They afford the people no satisfaction : 
they bring them no content, no happi- 

If we ascend to the Judicial Chamber, 
we shall find there operations in process, 
producing the same unsatisfactory results 
to this people. We shall find there in- 
stead of laws, wicked codes ; for justice 
we find injustice; for truth, falsehood; for 
right, wrong; and these perversions insist- 
ed on and enforced to the very letter. 
They reverse there the very principle of 
law, so that in doubtful cases, or where the 
interpretation may favour right or wrong, 
justice or injustice, humanity or inhuman- 
ity ; they give wrong, injustice and inhu- 
manity the benefit of the doubt. And 
moreover, that these worst of codes, may 
be enforced and recognized as law, and 
this perversion of principles swelled and 
digested the worst and most unprincipled 
of men- -men without scruple and with- 
out conscience, are selected to do their 
work, and faithfully do they execute their 
task. "The people," say they, '"must be 
made to conquer their prejudices and ac- 
cept these proceedings. 

If we goto the pulpits we behold the same 
unsatisfactory state of things- We find 
these places filled with men who, to do them 
credit, we firmly believe, try to preach the 
gospel of Christ but fail in the attempt. 
The fault is not so much their's as the sys- 
tem under which they have been reared. 
A system under which, instead of proclaim- 
ing the everlasting gospel of Christ, they 
are compelled to look after their bread, 
or places of preferment. Instead of utter- 
ing the truths that Christ's system teaches 



and applying them to the hearts and 
consciences of men, and bringing them to 
bear upon their daily life and practice, we 
find them wholly absorbed in cutting and j 
trimming theological garments to suit 
their various patrons. Though, not with 
standing all this, manifestations of dissatis- 
faction may be traced through all their 
clerical performances. How can it be 
otherwise. They feel that something is 
wrong, that a screw is somewhere loose in 
the general machinery of society. Stand- 
ing by, they dare not bind what they find 
loosed, and they dare not loosen what 
they find bound. 

They stand a powerless, self-condemned 
body, and call up all our pity, and we can 
scarcely mingle with it any tincture of 
bitterness. The congregations who gath- 
er round these pulpits make God's word of 
none effect. No love, no humility, such 
as Christ taught, is there. They build 
costly and gorgeous temples, and worship- 
ing instead the Great God therein they 
turn them into engines, for generating pre- 
judice and bitter hate against the oppressed, 
the outcast, and the lowly, thus making 
God's word a contempt, and their own con- 
duct a wonder to angels. 

If we look into their social state, we 
shall discover but strife, bitterness, and 
distraction. Not those honest and frank 
differences of opinion that beget and 
strengthen sound opinion, but low petty 
captiousne'ss and cowardly vindictiveness, 
everywhere pervade. On looking over 
the country as a whole, we see section di- 
vided against section, and clan pitted 
against clan, and each cheered on by fierce 
leaders and noisy demagogues on the one 
side; while compromises and harmony and 
quiet are sued for on the other by men 
who are denounced as fogies and fossils 
by the general voice of the whole people. 
If we take locality after locality, we shall 
find the same state of turmoil and confus- 
ion. Hand raised against hand, and frown 
meeting frown. Everywhere is the excla- 
mation sounding "Am I my brother's keep- 
er! ! " Everywhere is written the sen- 
tence "What have I to do with thee !" 
It would seem as if this people anew had 
builded a tower of Babel, and that a con- 
fusion of ideas infinitely more disintegra- 
ting than aconfasion of tongues, had began 
the work of separation and isolation, — their 
first, step in the downward path of barbar- 

ism, just as truly as" E Pliiribiis Unum" was 
their first step to progress and civilization. 

Go with us over the plains of Kansas, 
and witness there the recent death strug- 
gle between sections of this people for the 
supremacy of wrong over right. Go stand 
by the grave mounds made there by that 
fierce struggle; or returning go through 
the guilded palaces and gorgeous streets, 
and then through the low sickening hovels 
of the metropolis of the country; or go 
with us even to cold philosophical New 
England, even industrious intellectual 
Massachusetts, and wander about the fac- 
tories there; and above all, go with us to 
the regions of the sunny South, where, 
without shadow of law, they torture men 
to their death, outrage women gather up 
their own little children as calves for the 
slaughter, and sell them to the highest bid- 
der. Witness all this, and tell us if these 
things of this people are not true? 

The manifold blessings, physical and in- 
tellectual, with which God and nature 
have crowned them in granting them a 
country so manifestly fitted for the devel- 
opment of a people — a people especially 
of their peculiar bent and endowments, 
stand out in wonderful contrast with their 
conduct, their course, their abuse of the 
great priveledges so kindly bestowed upon 
them. Climate the finest in the world, 
soil the most fertile, topographical facilities 
the best conceivable ; resources greater 
than that of any other part of the globe, 
and facilities for their development be- 
yond that of any other country extant; 
with just enough difficulties — (no more) — 
to develop in addition, their genius in 
overcoming the same. These all have 
been theirs. Everything that nature could 
bestow and art devise has been placed at 
their hands, and yet the blight of discord 
disruption and disunion, has, like a Simoon 
settled down upon this people. 

What then shall we Anglo- Africans do 
with these white people ? " What shall 
zae do with them ?" It may seem strange, 
that a people so crushed and trodden upon; 
so insignificant as the Anglo-Africans, 
should even ask the question "what shall 
we do .with the whites V Indeed, the. 
question may seem presumptuous, quizzical 
ridiculous; but the truth is, that these 
white people themselves, through their 
Press and Legislative Halls, in their pul- 
pits, and on their Rostrums, so constantly 



talk of nothing but us black people, and 
have apparently got so far beyond every 
thing else, that it would seem that their 
very instincts regard us as in a measure 
able to settle and make quiet there rest- 
lessness, and hence they have actually 
forced upon us »the question which is, the 
title of this article. It has indeed become 
a serious question with us: What shall 
* we do with the white people? 

We have, perhaps, been too modest, 
else we would have raised the question be- 
fore; and might, it may be, ere this, have 
found its proper solution. Let us endeav- 
or to compensate for past neglect by an earn- 
est endeavor to settle this important ques- 
tion. But before proceeding to theanswcr 
we find another aud equally vital question 
forcing itself in our way, which demanding 
a moments attention, viz: What is the 
cause of all this discontent, this unquiet 
state, this distress ? This answer we 
think may be found in this, viz: along con- 
tinued, extensive, and almost complete sys- 
tem of wrong-doing. Like a man who 
commences the life of a pick-pocket and 
changes not his way, becomes not only an 
adept in the profession, but a hardened 
offender, and reaps the bitter fruits in the 
end thereof, so also this people. They 
commenced with the plunder of the Indian, 
theft of the African, followed by the 
grossest wrongs upon the Africo- American, 
and broils with their neighbors without, 
and stripes among themselves within, the 
fruits of which are thorough disaffection 
and agitation. 

But another and equally important 
question forces itself upon us, viz: whither 
are this people tending? If permitted in 
their course; if no restraining hand arrest 
them, who does not forsee that the goal at 
which they will ultimately arrive will be 
sure and certain barbarism. Already do 
we hear it proclaimed through iiiQir presses 
that if other hands than their own are not 
compelled to labour for them, want and 
starvat ion will stalk abroad through the 
land; blood will flow through the streets 
like water from the fountain, and repine 
follow in its train. That where now they 
have thrift and plenty, dirth will abound, 
the thorn and the thistle and the deadly 
brier will spring up and grow, and the 
more deadly serpent will hiss and nestle 
therein, that the harvest will be passed 
and ended, the summer over and gone, and 

the voice of the turtle be no more heard 
in the land. 

And, indeed, this picture which is not 
ours but theirs, seems to be not an exag- 
geration, no fancy sketch, but a reality ; 
for already do we find them grappling each 
other by the throat for opinion sake — opin- 
ions, the result of honest convictions of 
right ani truth. In a large portion of the 
country already no man among them can 
express honest truth, without risk of life 
while everywhere will the hiss of con- 
tempt follow him, and the finger of scorn 
point toward him if he venture upon it. 
Honesty and truth, unless they be of a : 
certain character, are at discount among 
this people, and like Rachel for her child- 
ren go weeping through the land; while 
dishonesty and falsehood, if of a certain 
character, stalk boldly forth with the 
laugh and the joy of demons, and ex- 
claiming, ■ we have triumphed ! we have 
triumphed 1 ! " 

And verily they have triumphed; and 
in that triumph and what else we have in- 
stanced, who does not see that this people 
are on the direct road to barbarism. 

What then shall we Anglo Africans do 
with them? How save them and the 
country from their sure and impending 
fate ? What agencies shall we put forth to 
arrest so direful a calamity? These are 
indeed serious questions, and reviewed in 
the light of earnestness demand, if possi- 
ble, immediate solution. 

This people must be saved; quiet and 
harmony must be restored. Plans for the 
removal of these white people, as all such 
schemes are — such for example as these 
people have themselves laid for the remov 
al of others out of their midst — would be 
wrong in conception, and prove abortive 
in attempt; nor ought it be desirable on 
our part were it even possible to forcibly 
remove them. It is their right to stay, 
only they have no right to jeopard the in 
terest or the peace of the country if per- 
mitted to remain. God, in his all wise 
purpose, has reserved this fair land for oth- 
er, and higher and nobler purposes than a 
theatre for Jie exhibition of prejudices, 
bitter hates, fierce strifes, dissentions, op- 
pressions, frauds. On the contrary, it was 
so to speak, reserved for centuries, like a 
sealed book, and then thrown open just 
when needed by the Great AutJtor hi** 
self that men of every tongue, and clime 



and hue, should gather thereon, and per- hese people that they come forth in the 
feet their development. light of the Nineteenth century, and, too, 

So long as we have entertained the be- ' alter creating the agitation and confusion 
lief that this people would ultimately ap- 1 which now effervesce the entire nation and 
proach toward this point, we have silently demand the whole country for themselves 
bowed without remonstrance or even mur- and their posterity. 

mur. We have labored long and faithful- Seriously do we hope, that if the peace 
ly with little or no remuneration, we have of the country is to be so continuously 
been[ patient, under every trial, and endur- disturbed that they would withdraw. We 
ing under every burthen placed upon us have arrived at a period when they could 
or seltimposed, that these people might easily be spared." We have ceded to these 
redeem themselves, that they might retrieve people energy and force of character, and 
their past errors and return to a sense of we may add one other characteristic, viz: a 
right. Pressed and circumscribed by them, | roving, unsettled, restless disposition. They 
we have been disposed to make the best ! are in inclination if not habit, marauders, 
of our way ; narrow as the space we have It may be, unless we shall find some 
as yet been enabled to acquire for our la- 1 other effective means ot adjusting existing 
bours, we have been content. But the difficulties, that from this point we may 
white people, on the other hand are not ! have some hope foi their Exodus, 
content. We find even under depressing 1 We give them also high credit for their 
circumstances room enough for us in this ■ material progress. Who knows, but that 
country, they the white people and % they , some day, when, after they shall have ful- 
alone, find its boundaries too circumscribed filled their mission, earned arts and sciences 
for their greedy grasp. Possessing acres i to their highest point, they will make way 
by the millions, yet they would elbow us for a milder and more genial race, or be- 
and all others off of what we possess, to come so blended in it, as to lose their 
give them room for what they cannot oc- 1 own peculiar and objectionable charactcr- 
cupy. We want this country, say they, I istics ? In any case, in view of the exist- 
for ourselves, and ourselves alone. What i ing state of things around us, let our con- 
right have they but that of might, to put stant thought be, tchat for the best good of 
forth such a cool assumption ? Who are [ ail shall we do with tlie White people ? 

IHusinns 611 Clje fiiimbom Of (tljrist. 



Its relations to the Kingdoms of this tcorld. 

It seems to me that the potent cause ofttion of the full and ultimate scope of 

the contradiction and confusion which ex- 
ist betwec n Christian profession and prac- 
tice in the world, is owing to a misconcep. 

Christ's Mission of Redemption, and a mis- 
apprehension of some of the simplest 
teachings of the gospel on this point. And 



while I dare not be so presumptuous to 
arrogate to myself the idea, that I have 
arrived at the true conception and appre- 
hension of the same, yet I hope it will 
not be considered vanity in me to offer to 
the thoughtful, the result of my own med 
ilationi on the subject. 

No other theme can compare in gran- 
deur, interest and importance to this, be- 
cause we are commanded by the infallible 
words of inspiration to "Seek first the 
Kingdom of God and His righteousness;'' 
and to look upon every other considera- 
tion as a consequential addition to follow 

Hence, then, according to the true spirit 
of the gospel, it is not only the highest 
duty of every individual to obey this com- 
mand, but it is also obligatory upon each 
one to do whatsoever within him lies to 
incite others to the same duty. It is there- 
fore under the impulse of this obligation, 
that I presume to give to the world these 
musings on the Kingdom of Christ. 

When the blessed Savior made this 
startling declaration "My kingdom is not 
of this world," he claimed for Himself a 
kingdom that looked to the utter subver- 
sion of all worldly dynasties, and the 
upbuilding of His power and authority 
upon their devastated ruins. 

This must be so from the very irrecon- 
cilable antagonism of the principles of 
His Kingdom in respect to those on which 
the kingdoms of this world are founded. 

There is not, and there never has been, 
an earthly power, but that its authority is 
and was cemented by the spoliation of the 
weak by the strong. Land monopoly on 
the part of individuals, and territorial ag- 
grandizement on the part of tribes and 
nations, with their consequential concomi- 
tants war, slavery and social caste, is now 
and has ever been the fundamental ele- 
ments that cement together every worldly 
nationality without one solitary exception. 

To these capacious principles of robbery 
bloodshed, rapine and murder — the pre- 
cepts of the gospel wage an uncompromis- 
ing hostility. That the kingdom of Christ 
is opposed to land monopoly on the part 
of individuals, may be deduced from the 
young man mentioned in the gospel, who 
had great possession; and which our bless- 
ed Lord told him it was necessary that he 
should dispose of for the benefit of the 
poor, in order to qualify himself to follow 

him. It may also be deduced from the 
commendation that the Saviour bestowed 
upon all those who should forsake houses 
and lands in this life for the gospel's sake; 
and the promised reward that all .such shall 
inherit, both here and hereafter. We may 
deduce the same conclusion from the tact 
that He gloried in the fact that the "Son 
of Man had not where to lay his head." 
And finally, this opposition of the gospel 
to private land monopoly may be interred 
from the practice of the primitive converts 
to Christianity who sold all they had and 
laid the proceeds at the Apostles' feet, that 
they might contribute to the necessities of 
the Saints; so that we learn that none of 
them called anything his own; but all 
property was in common; the wants of 
every one was supplied ; and the poorest 
lacked nothing. The office of Deacon was 
created in the christian church, forthe very 
purpose of carrying out this principle of 
gospel communism, and to be a living em- 
bodiment of the protest of Christ's king- 
dom, against the selfishness of the human 
heart, as shown in individual monopoly. 

And that the Holy Ghost affixed God's 
seal of approbation to these communal 
principles, as he then dwelt in the chinch 
in all His pentecostal fulness, no one can 
doubt, when they study His awful visita- 
tions upon Ananias and Sapphira, the first 
violators of their gospel obligations in this 

That the Kingdom of Christ is opposed 
to territorial aggrandizement on the part 
of nations, may be deduced from the fact 
that He has taught us by His holy apostle 
that "here we have no continuing city," 
that we are only pilgrims and sojourners 
here as all our fathers were; that weseek a 
city that hath foundations, whose builder 
and maker is God; and that there is neith- 
er Jew nor Greek, Barbarian or Scythian, 
but we are all one in Christ Jesus. 

That the Kingdom of Christ is opposed 
to war, we may learn from the ancient pro- 
phecies that predicted it, assuring us that 
under the sway of the gospel "nation shall 
not lift up sword against nation; neither 
shall they learn war any more," and to this 
end we are also informed by the same holy 
seers, that they shall "beat their swords 
into ploughshares; and their spears into 
pruning-hooks." The rebuke that the 
Savior administered to Peter, when this 
•Apostle drew his sword and smote off the 



ear of Malchus, is also proof of this an- 1 And here let no one urge that this gos- 
tagonisin to war on the part of Christ's 1 pel antagonism only applied to the national 
Kingdom. Finally, the declaration of the politics that then existed ; and that there 
Apostle Paul that the Christian's weapons ! was to be a compromise between the King- 
are not carnal, but spiritual, and mighty ! dom of Christ and the powers of the 
through God to the pulling down of strong- : world as soon as those nations were brought 
holds, is another proof of this opposition to profess the faith of the gospel. "With 
of the gospel to war. all due deference, let me say to all who 

Finally, that the Kingdom of Christ is 1 may hold such an opinion, that it is entire- 
opposed to Slavery and social caste, may ly a gratuitous assumption, without a 
be discovered from His answer to the 1 shadow of foundation in the word of God. 
question as to who should be the greatest i The Kingdom of Christ contemplates the 
in the Kingdom of Heaven. He condemn- : utter subversion of the so-called Christian 
ed the Introduction of the principle of Nationalities of the present day, as it did 
Gentile domination among His disciples. ! that of the ancient heathen empires eigh- 
To this end He forbade them to call any teen centuries ago. These so called chris- 
man master, and made it the duty of the tian nations in their rise and growth, is as 
highest to be the greatest servant to his ! much cemented by the bloodthirsty and s 
brethren. It was in the enforcement of ! unrighteous principles condemned by the 
this same principle of opposition to slavery gospel, as the worst pagan nations. They 
and social caste, that St. Paul declared have all used the sword and they all must 
that there is "neither male nor female, perish by the sword, plunged into their 
bond nor free" in Christ Jesus ; the same own vitals by their own suicidal hands, 
idea led St. Peter to declare that "God is : There can be no compromise between God 
no respecter of persons." And St. James ' and the devil ; and no concord between 
puts God's seal of condemnation on the i Christ and Belial. Aud the great apostacy 
injustice and oppression that comes in the of the christian church, grew out of this 
train of slavery and social caste, where he attempt to make the Kingdom of Christ 
exclaims so emphatically, "Go to, now, ye ' one with the kingdoms of this world at the 
rich men, weep and howl for your miseries conversion of Constantine the Great. When 
that shall come upon you. Your riches are 1 that unbaptized heathen was allowed to 
corrupted, and your garments are moth sit in the Council of Nice on the bare lip 
eaten. Your gold and silver are cankered; profession of his faith, and dictate its de- 
and the rest of them shall be a witness crees to the three hundred and eighteen 
against you, and shall eat your flesh as it Bishops assembled therein; by his mai:date 
were fire. Ye have heaped treasure to- 1 there was fulfilled that prediction of our 
gether for the last days. Behold the hire Savior, which told of one who should 
of the laborers who have reaped down your 'come after Him, who would deceive, if 
fields which is of you kept back by fraud \ possible, the very elect. This support of 
crieth: and the cries of them which have \ the powerful arm of the Roman Empire, 
reaped are entered into the ears of the i these deluded christians regarded as the 
Lord of Sabaoth. Ye have lived in beginning of the glorious reign of Christ, 
pleasure on the earth, and been wanton, j They threw aside their robes of purity and 
Ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day humility, and decked themselves in the 
of slaughter. Ye have condemned and stained and haughty vestments of the Ce- 
killed the just ; and he doth not resist ! sars. The ministry arranged themselves 
you." | in lordly and hierarchal ranks, and assum- 

These facts, that I have now drawn out ed lofty and high sounding titles; and 
at length to prove the antagonism of the j everything, in fine, was done by these so 
Kingdom of Christ to those of this world, ! called followers of Jesus in the beginning 
may all be legitimately deduced from that of the fourth century, to make His king- 
golden rule that he enunciated as the Con- dom just what He said it was not, a king- 
stitutionai Law of His government among dom of this world. 

men: "Love thy neighbor as thyself." As the result of this fatal error, the Ro- 
Such then being the fundamental princi- man Apostacy of the "Man Sin" came rap- 
pies of His gospel, He might truly say idly to a head in the West, and the Mo- 
"My Kingdom is not of this world." hammedan imposture of the "King of fierce 



countenance, understanding dark sentences" 
was as rapidly developed in the East. By 
this result, we see around us to-day, what 
appears to be a complete union between 
the Kingdom of Christ and those of this 
world. But it is only a seeming alliance. 
It is only a man-made union, and one 
which God never put together. It is a 
combination, in fine, outof which the voice 
of God now calls his faithful servants, say- 
ing: "Co'me out of her, my people, if you 
would not partake of her plagues." All 
such combinations, whether it be suprema- 
cy of the religious over the civil power, as 
at Rome; the civil over the religious as in 
Russia and England; or the gratuitous 
service of the world and the devil as among 
the religious denominations of America, 
they are alike an abomination unto the 
Lord. This very combination shall only 
tend to hasten the destruction of the na- 
tions of the earth ; and He will thereby 
vindicate the fact, that His kingdom is not 
of this world, by building it up on their 

That the Scriptures clearly show that 
even the so-called christian nations are to 
be thus utterly subverted, together with 
the apostate church that they have sought 
refuge in, may be discerned by every stu- 
dent of prophecy. Not only do the vis- 
ions of Daniel and John show the destruc- 
tion of the Ancient Heathen Empires in 
the three great beasts that have already 
come to their end ; but the fourth monster 
also, with his ten horns that constitute the 
present christian nations of Europe„is also 
to be destroyed. The little stone cut out 
of the mountains without hands, consum- 
mates the utter destruction of the false 
principles of the ancient empires, by smit- 

ing the ten toes of the metallic image as 
they now exist in Europe, (with America 
as a bunion growing oul of the same 1 ) ; and 
thus the gold, silver, brass, iron, and clay, 
which compose it, shall be, eventually, 
ground to powder ; whilst this wonderful 
htone shall grow to be a mountain to fill 
the whole earth. 

From this view of God's ultimate pur- 
poses yet in store, in respect to the presi nt 
nations of the earth, we may see that the 
Kingdom of Christ is not yet fully revealed. 
The seed only were sown by our Blessed 
Savior when He was on earth eighteen 
centuries ago. His Holy Spirit was after- 
wards given to water the plant, and the 
Apostles sent to dig about and dung the 
roots. But centuries were required to ma- 
ture its growth. And during this germin- 
ating process, the gentile domination has 
been allowed to continue ia the world. 
"Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the 
Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles 
shall be fulfilled." Until this fulfillment 
we are to labor and wait, and pray for this 
coming Kingdom of Christ. 

Hence He taught His disciples to pray, 
"Our Father who art in Heaven, hallowed 
by thy name; thy kingdom come; thy will 
be done on earth as in heaven." We are 
to watch for the sign of the Son of Man 
which shall herald his coming. Then shall 
all the nations of the earth wail because of 

But then may all of his long suffering 
saints lift up their heads, for their redemp- 
tion draweth nigh ; His kingdom shall 
come ; His will shall be done on earth as 
it is done in heaven ; and peace shall for- 
ever reign among men of good- will. 



%\t f oubait Cimcs §\\ W&t$\ <$nbia (Kmiracipalion. 

Surely the best abused persons in the 
world, at this momtnt, are Louis Napoleon 
Emperor of the French, and — the negro 
race. The one has achieved greatness, 
and the other have greatness thrust upon 
them. Both represent progressive ideas, 
and are pelted with the ooze and slime of the 
stagnant waters which they are stirring up. 
Louis Napoleon, although among the ablest 
men who have ever lived, is but one man, 
and can stamp but one man's impress on 
his country and age, the mere straw on 
the crest of the wave indicating the course 
and direction, and it may be the force of 
the waves which buoy him up: thejiegroes 
are a people, with a stronger vitality and 
more persistent endurance than most races 
of men, and will make their mark on the 
present, and perhaps direct the coming 
ages of civilization — they will germinate 
and develope ideas for the ages, and will 
intertwine indissolubly with the coming his- 
tory of the whole human race. But a few 
years ago it was a matter of prophecy* 
that the negro element would mould the 
destinies of the American people — that 
prophecy is now in course of fulfilment 
And wherever the Anglo-Saxon race dwells, 
there will be found able editors, who, like 
the monk of St. Gall, exclaimed, "0 the 
negroes, the negroes ! " f and vainly strive 
to shut out the vision of the coming man, 
by madly abusing him. 

We sometimes fancy that the admission 
of the negro race into the midst of civiliza- 
tion is not unlike the admission of a new 
candidate into one of the secret societies 
of Masons, Odd-Fellows, or Sons of Malta. 

* "Destiny of the people of color in the United 
States." A lecture delivered before the New York 
Philomathean Society, in 1841. 

The candidate is first blindfolded, his arms 
pinioned, and is then led into an unknown 
presence and questioned as to his antece- 
dents and wishes; he is then secured and 
chained, and dragged hither and thither; 
screamed at, howled st, charged with an 
infinity of crimes, passed through fervent 
heats, and ice cold plains, shot into the air, 
caught and tossed and tumbled, until, when 
almost wearied out, the bandage is remov- 
ed, and he stands, recognized as a brother 
in a band of magnificently dressed breth- 
ren in a temple of gorgeous magnificence. 
So this dark-skinned race of ours, blind- 
fold, chained, hustled and tortured amid 
the screams and hootings of modern civili- 
zation, will one day burst the restraints of 
our pupilage, and be welcomed as brethren 
wherever civilization obtains. 

To-day, we are but in the midst of our 
probation ; our tormentors shriek and howl 
on every side; the voices of our friends 
are hushed, and we are left alone with 
nothing except our own right h nds with 
which to grasp our fate and work out our 
deliverance. Yet our case was never mo e 
hopeful. We represent a principle, as 
well as comprise a race, and we must 
conquer, even if the very race which op- 
poses us, must first go down. Dumas t 
has gloriously said "in a grave contest of 
a principle against a race, though the strife 
may be prolonged, the result is never 
doubtful: it is the wrestling of the angel 
with Jacob : it may continue for a night 
or a century ; but, in the event, man is al- 
ways vanquished." 

It is the boast of the Queen of England, 
that the sun never sets on her dominions; 

t Gaul et France, p. 151. 



r& may say of our race that the sun never 
sts upon its maligners and oppressors. 
Vhen the ocean shall give up its dead, 
he most frightful horrors of the last two 
enturies and a half will be revealed as 
aving been perpetrated on the middle 
assage. From California to Wisconsin; 
om Wisconsin to Nova Scotia, and thence 
> London and away off to India, where, 
a the midst of the late rebellion, the sou- 
briquet "niggers" was applied to the rebel- 
lious natives — there issues one shout against 
the negroes, sometimes from the platform, 
sometimes from the hustings, sometimes in 
the shape of legislation, and most frequent- 
ly through the newspapers. If the charges 
made against us had either the merit of 
truthfulness or novelty, it would be in 
their favor; but the vilest falsehoods, and 
stalest untruths comprise the most of them. 

The London Times is an old hand at 
these calumnies. To a great extent the 
organ of the English Aristocracy, of those 
who live by the labor of others, it finds 
fitting vocation in crying down any prin- 
ciple or event which tends to the emancipa- 
tion of labor. In 1832-34, it was the or- 
gan of the West India planters, and oppos- 
ed emancipation with all its tremendous 
ability. And now, quite a quarter of a 
century after emancipation has occurred, 
and when the West Indies are emerging 
from the financial prostration in which 
emancipation found them — a prostration 
due to the slave system which had mort- 
gaged the Islands beyond their value— the 
London Times true to its Pro-slavery in- 
stinct, hurls upon the negro race its anath- 
emas, and its falsehoods with the purpose 
— if purpose it have — to retard emancipa- 
tion in the United States. 

The occasion of the present diatribe of 
the Times is the review of a book on "The 
West Indies and the Spanish Main, " by 
Anthony Trollope: the views of Mr. Trol- 
lupe are so thoroughly adopted and up- 
held by the Times, that we shall consider 

them as the views of that newspaper, in 
its issue of January 6, 18G0. They con- 
tain a dissertation on the negro character, an 
affirmation that the great decrease in the 
productiveness of the West Indies since 
emancipation, is due to the unwillingness 
of the free men to work, and that the mild 
form of slavery in Cuba, is the source of 
its vast productiveness compared with the 
unproductiveness of Jamaica, &c, leaving 
unuttered the logical sequence that slavery 
is better for the negro and tin white in 
the West Indies, than emancipation. 

1st. Taking up these views in this or- 
der, we will first give at full length the 
London Times portrait of the negro, as 
follows: "The negro is no doubt a very 
amusing and a very amiable fellow, and 
we ought to wish him well ; but he is also 
a lazy animal without any foresight, and 
therefore requiring to be lei and compelled. 
We must not judge him by ourselves. That 
he is capable of improvement everybody 
admits, but in the meantime he is decided- 
ly inferior — he is but very little raised above 
a mere animal. The negroes this th emsel ves, 
they have no idea of Country and no pride of 
race. They despise themselves. They know 
nothing of Africa except that it is a term 
of reproach, and the name which offends 
them most is that of a nigger. * So little 
confidence have they in any being who 
has an admixture of their blood, that no 
negro will serve a mulatto when he can 
serve a European or a white Creole. These 
colored people too despise themselves, and 
in every possible way, try to deny their 

* The Times must except our townsman, Jere- 
miah Powers; he is quite fond of the appellation 
bravely so: one day, passing with the crowd in 
Wall street, he trod heavily on the toes of a white 
man, who exclaimed "look out!" 

Powers — Are you an American? 

White wan— "Yes." 

Powers — "What, you a white American, one of 
the great go-aheads who compass all things and 
conquer all things, do you a'sk me, a ni<rger, to 
t'look out" for you 1 I should think you could 
look out for yourself!" A crowd gathered, the 
colloquy went on, Powers stabbing and the man, 
cursing, and the crowd cheering the former, until 
the American was glad to escape. 



African parentage. To compensate for 
this absence of pride, there is in the negro 
composition an excess of vanity. Who- 
ever would win the heart of a negro for 
an hour, must call him a gentleman. Who- 
ever would reduce him to despair must 
tell him that he is a filthy nigger, that his 
father and mother had tails like monkeys, 
and that he cannot have a soul like a white 
man. Mr. Trollope gives some very amu- 
sing instances of the working of this van- 
ity, and perhaps the best of these is the 
story of the negro lady in white. One 
Sunday evening, as our author was "riding 

with a planter over his estate, ; 
girl was seen walking home from 
and arrayed from head to foot in virgin 
white. Her gloves were on and her parasol 
was up. Her hat was white, so also was 
the lace and the bugles which adorned it. 
She walked with great dignity, and behind 
her was an attendant virgin who carried 
the lady's prayer-book, as everything is 
carried by the negroes, on the head. As 
the fine lady passed the riders, she recog- 
nized her "massa" and courtesied. "Who 
on earth is that princess V* said Mr. Trol- 
lope. "They are two sisters who both work 
at my mill," was the reply. Next Sunday 
they will change places; Polly will have the 
parasol and the hat, and Jenny will carry 
the prayer-book on her head behind her." 
This little incident is very characteristic 
of the negro, who is void of self-reliance, 
and is the creature of circumstances. He 
is a very funny sort of an animal, and 
there is something interesting in a being so 

self to the hospital to be cured of a mortal 
disease. Although he is fond of his child- 
ren, he will in his rage, ill-use them fear- 
fully. Although he delights to hear them 
praised, he will sell his daughter's virtue 
for a dollar. A little makes him happy, 
and he is so entirely the creature of the 
present that nothing can make him per- 
manently wretched. Mr. Trollope com- 
pares him to a dog in his attachments. 
The dog is faithful to us, and so is the ne- 
gro. In return for our protection the dogs 
give us all their hearts, but it is not given 
in gratitude; and they abstain with all 
their power from injury, but they do not 

y oun & i abstain from judgment. The master may- 
church, I . , 1 • J 'U • 

use either his dog or his negro ever so cru- 
elly — yet neither has any anger against 
him when the pain is over. If a stranger 
should save either from such ill-usage, 
there would be no thankfulness after the 
moment. Affection and fidelity are things 
of custom with him. As for the negroes' 
religion, our author has little faith in it. 
The negroes, he says, much prefer to be- 
long to a Baptist Congregation, or to a so- 
called Wesleyan body, because there an 
excitement is allowed to them, 'which is 
denied in the Church of England. They 
sing, they halloo, they scream, they have 
their revivals, they talk of their dear brod 
ders and dear sisters, and in their exstati 
howlings, get some fun for their money 
They have little or no perception however 
of their relation to the spiritual world, and 
the extremely practical view of religion 
they take, is summed up in the verse of a 

-, . r . ° ; J hymn which we present to Mr. Trollope, 

dependent as he is on the sympathies of L , . , -,. . on «, 

others ; but it is evident that he is scarcely 
fitted to take care of himself. He has no 
care of himself. He has no care for to- 
morrow, and it is enough if he can strut 
for a little hour in his finery. His virtues 
and his vices are alike those of momentary 
impulse. Although he is desperately fond 
of life, yet if he can lie in the sun for an 
hour without pain, he will not drag him- 

for his next addition (edition ? ) as illustra- 
ting the ecclesiastical convictions of the 
dear b rodders' in the United States. 

"De Lord he lub de niggarwell, 
He know him nigger by de smell : 
And when de nigger children cry, 
De Lord, he gib dem possum pie."* 

* We rather think there is internal evidence, 
that the authorship of this ribald paraphrase be- 
longs of right to the London Times writer, not to 



In these illustrations of character the 
chief thing to be noticed is that there is 
little self-sustaining power, and no sense 
of the future in the negro — facts that are 
all-important in determining the question 
of labor in the West Indies." 

To this long and unamiable delineation 
of negro character, we shall say little in 
reply in this place, because flat contradic- 
tions of several points will be found in 
parts of the same article of the "London 
Times," which we shall quote under an- 
other head in this paper. We can only 
say that if the delineation be true, it is 
the picture of the negro, not as God made 
him, but as the British slave-system made 
him and to alter which, British philanthro- 
py has done little since the day of emanci- 
pation from body-piracy, leaving him the 
victim of land-piracy, or land-lord-o-cracy. 
The picture, if true, is true not of the negro 
only, but of the Irish, the Canadian French, 
and the vast population of the East Indies, 
from whom the British lion is pressing 
out the heart's blood to satisfy its "busi- 
ness" appetite. 

That it is not a true picture of the ne- 
gro as God made him, is easily shown by 
the following consideration. Had there 
been taken from the lowest class of opera- 
tives in London and Manchester, (and more 
ignorant and brutal wretches do not live,) 
two or three hundred thousand of both 
sexes, and had these been transported to 
the continent, and kept hard at work eigh- 
teen hours a day, without the slightest 

the United States : niggar may be very good cock- 
ney, but very poor nigger: besides, "pie" does not 
enter the cuisine of our southern slaves: with them 
possum fat and hominy" (that is hominy eaten 
with fingers dipped in possum fat) is the ideal of 
high living; pie — "veal pie," "mutton pie," "cats- 
meat pie" tfcc., belong to the higher civilization of 
the British Metropolis. Besides, the paraphrase 
is deficient in the music common to all negro melo- 
dies A real negro "eating song" is not far be- 
hind a goodGerman drinking song. For example : 
"Sometimes chicken foot, 
Sometimes rice, 
Possum fat an' hominy 
An' eb'ry ting nice." 

chances for education, carefully watched 
by a military force adequate to prevent 
them from any combination to resist — 
would these persons, in half a century, be 
admitted by any reasonable person, to be 
fit representatives of the Anglo-Saxon 
character? Certainly not. 

Yet, the negroes who reached Jamaica 
and the other British West Indies, were, 
almost to a man, those who had been slaves 
to the negroes in Africa. They ivere the 
African servile class in Africa, before they 
were sold as slaves to the British slave- 
traders, and having been subjected to the 
doubly oppressive demoralization of West 
India slavery, this doubly servile class are 
taken as the basis on which to construct 
due estimate of negro character forsooth ! 
But if a fair estimate of British character 
cannot be made from degraded British op- 
eratives, with what fairness can negro 
character be drawn from negro slaves? 

There is one remark, however, in this 
delineation of negro character, not without 
a basis of truthfulness, and from which we 
may learn something of service to us. 
"Fas est ab hoste dcceri"-+"we> may well 
learn from our foes." The remark is: — 
"They have no idea of country and no pride 
of race. They despise themselves. They 
know nothing of Africa, except that it is a 
term of reproach ; and the name that offends 
them most is that of nigger." 

While we seriously question whether 
"idea of country," or "pride of race" have 
done much for the progress of mankind ; 
the two things conjointly making up that 
"patriotism" scarcely elevated above the 
pirate's code, and which finds expression 
in the formula "our country right or wrong ;" 
and while we deny that the negro owes to 
Africa any more than he does to the bed- 
ticking, or perhaps the plank he was boin 
upon, and deny that a negro owes any 
debt or feality to the members of the black 
variety of mankind, which he does not also 
owe to the brown, yellow, or Tjthite varie- 



ties of mankind — yet we must admit, that 
we are sensitive to an absurd, foolish, and 
even sinful degree, to the term nigger, or 
negro, when applied to us individually, or 
as a class. It is a term which barbs the 
iron with which two centuries of oppression 
have entered into our soul, and we writhe 
under it as individuals and as a people. 
We know but one black man who is supe- 
rior to this taunt, who handles the poisoned 
arrow as if it were common wood, and 
robs it of its baleful charm, and when that 
man, (Jeremiah Powers) in common con- 
versation, or in the street, or on the plat- 
forms, coolly, evenly, naturally speaking 
of "colored people," uses the term "niggers," 
he is doing for us a good work. He is 
learning us *o respect ourselves, the first 
element in a people's progress. Whenever 
we cease to wince under this as a term of 
reproach, it will cease to be used as a term 
of reproach ; and then will disappear from 
the popular vocabulary, the mongrel eu- 
phuisms "men of color,'' and "colored 

In regard to the religious character of 
the negro, the "Times" is miserably misin- 
formed. The true state of the case is, that 
it is the religious nature of the negro, de- 
veloped by Methodism in the West Indies 
and by Methodism in our Southern states? 
which was and is the great strong-hold of 
slavery, oy diverting his attention to the 
next world, it has made, and now makes, 
the slave less regardful of the wrongs 
perpetrated on him in this. Woe to the 
white man in our South, whenever the 
negro conquers his religious prejudices ! 
There will then arise among them, instead 
of fat and sleek black priests, a race of 
lean and haggard prophets who will ex- 
claim with Dessaliues: "Men, women, and 
children, cast your eyes around, seek for 
your wives, your husbands, your brothers 
and your sisters, — what do I -say? seek 
your infants, your infants at the breast, 
what has become of them? Instead of 

those interesting victims, the eye sees only 
their assassins; tigers still covered with 
blood, whose frightful presence reproaches 
you with your insensibility, and with your 
slowness to punish them." And again: — 
"May divine justice sooner or later, send 
on earth men of strong minds, superior to 
vulgar weakness, for the terror and the 
destruction of the wicked."* 

The truth is, that the standing army 
which now protects American slavery, and 
which did protect British slavery in the 
West Indies, is the Methodist church. 

2d. The next point in the article under 
discussion, is, that the immense decrease 
in the productiveness of the British West 
Indies, is mainly due to the unwillingness 
of the negro to work for wages. Says the 
'"Times": — "A servile race, peculiarly fitted 
by nature for the hardest physical labor 
in a burning climate, the negro has no de- 
sire for property strong enough to induce 
him to labor with sustained power. He 
lives from hand to mouth. In order that 
he may have his dinner and some small 
finery, he may work a little, but after that 
he is content to lie in the sun. This in 
Jamaica he can very easily do, for eman- 
cipation and free trade have combined to 
throw enormous tracts of land out of culti- 
vation, and on these the negro squats, get- 
ting all that he wants with very little 
trouble, and sinking in the most resolute 
fashion back into a savage state. Lying 
under a cotton tree, he refuses to work 
after ten o'clock in the morning. 'Xo, 
tankee massa, me tired now; me no want 
more money/ Or, by way of variety, he 
may say: 'Xo, workee no more: money no 
'nuff, workee no pay/ And so the planter 
must see his canes foul with weeds, because 
he cannot prevail on Sambo to earn a sec- 
ond shilling, by going into the cane-fields." 

We are glad to present to our readers, 
clear contradiction of these statements, by 

* Proclamation of Dessalines. See Dr. Beard's 
' Life of Touissant L'Overture," pp. 292-296. 


two authorities, one English, and one Am< r- 
ican ; and both of weight and responsibil- 
ity, at least equal to the London Times 
and Mr. Trollope. 

The Westminster Review,* says, — "We 
find it repeatedly stated on good authority, 
that the deficiency of labor (in the British 
West Indies, since ^mancipation,) such as 
it is, does not arise from the indolence of 
the negroes. Of course in such a climate, 
no one can be so energetic as in England. 
But ' I deny,' says the Governor of Tobago 
in 1857, 'that the peasantry are abandon- 
ed to slothful habits. On the contrary, I 
assert that a more industrious class does 
not exist in the world, at least when work- 
ing for themselves.' 'There are few races 
of men' says Sir Charles Gray, (1852) 'who 
•will work harder, or more perseveringly, 
ivhen they are sure of getting for them- 
selves, the whole produce of their labor. 1 

Dr. Davy observes, 'It is a mistake often 
committed to suppose that the African is 
by nature idle and ignorant, less incliLed 
to work than the European. He who has 
witnessed as I have, their indefatigable and 
provident industry, will be disposed, prob- 
ably, to over-rate, rather than under rate 
the activity of the negro, and his love of, 
or rather I would say, his non-aversion to 
labor." "The testimony of so independent 
and scientific an observer as Dr. Davy, to 
the indefatigable and provident industry of 
the negro is remarkable." 

"The real causes of the scarcity of labor 
are these; — First, that during the early 
years of freedom, the planters, especially 
in Jamaica, by their short sighted conduct 
irritated the negroes, and drove them to 
seek a livelihood off the estate. Secondly, 
that from 1847 forwards, for several years, 
the planters had no capital to pay wages 
with. This was one of the most potent 
causes of the secession of the laborers. 
Thirdly, That many of the agents of the 
planters have been harsh and violent to 
* Vol. L. p. 227, Apr'l 1859. (American Edition.) 

the negroes. Fourthly, that though the 
planters would be glad to hire the laborers 
during crop time, after that for several 
months he would have little work for him 
to do. Of course the laborer would not 
sacrifice other pursuits for a temporary en- 
gagement. This is a point of striking im- 
portance. Lastly, — and here, after all, is 
the soul of the matter; the negro's freehold 
actually puts more money into his pocket 
(taking the whole year through,) than the 
planter's wages. It is stated by Lord 
Harris, that in Trinidad a negro can make 
10£ an acre by his provision ground.* 
If so, it is better for the community that 
he should bring forth more tcealth in that 
way, than by working for hire." 

The wages of an able bodied field labor 
er in Jamaica is only six shillings a week 
(Westminst. Rev. ut supra. p228). Hence 
the laborer earned more by cultivating an 
acre and a half of his own per year, than 
he could by hiring out his time. Hence 
the Jamaica freeman, cultivating his own 
spot, disproves two of the malicious libels 
of the London Times — first he shows that 
he regards himself as a better master than 
the white man, and is self-dependent; and 
secondly, he exhibits a shrewd forecast in 
pursuing that kind of enployment which 
accrues best to his own benefit, thereby 
showing an abundant ability to take care 
of himself. When we may add, that by 
cultivating his own freehold, he secures to 
himself the right to vote for members of 
the assembly, and really votes for, and 
elects black men to the legislature, another 
libel of the London Times, 'that the ne- 
gro despises himself and his fellows,' is 
effectually stamped with falsehood. 

With great pleasure we now turn to our 
American authority which contradicts the 
London Times. This authority — a name- 
sake by the way — is the New York Daily 
Times. This news-paper has recentlj'- 
withdrawn from political partizanship, it is 
* Return, 1853, p 157. 



ne longer a Republican nor a Democratic 
paper, and we feel grateful for the change, 
in as much as among other things it has tem- 
perately but effectually vindicated negro 
emancipation in the West Indies by send- 
ing to Jamaica a correspondent, whose state- 
ments of things as they are in that island 
clearly establi.-hes the good policy as well 
as the justice of the British Emancipation 
Act. This correspondent remarks — " I had 
a good opportunity to see the laborers of 
both sexes on these and other roads in 
different parts of the country (Jamaica.) 
Most of the male laborers were strapping 
young fellows of twenty or there-abouts. 
who seemed to do good service, to judge 
by the amount of work performed. They 
belong to the new race of freemen born; — 
how superior to the old race born in slavery 
I need not say. The overseers on their 
roads make no complaints against the men 
under their charge, that they are idle and un- 
willing to work; and, what is of more im- 
portance, they make no complaints of in" 
sufficiency of hands. They have succeed- 
ed in getting a larger supply of labor than 
most people deemed possible, and their 
success has excited some surprise in dis- 
tricts where the planters have long and 
bitterly complained that they could get no 
labor at all." 

"Expound to me the riddle," I say to 
the planter. " Oh," he answers, " the peo- 
ple are too independent — too well off, here 
— too fickle, arbitrary and uncertain as to 
when they will work and when they wont 
work. They do just as they please. 
They work in the road for a month, and 
then give it up. Then they take to some- 
thing else, and give tliat up. This is the 
way they have treated us. They ride up- 
on our backs, sir. They work for us only 
four days in the week, and hang about 

♦Emancipation in Jamaica — No ITT. New York 
Daily Times, Feb. 8, 1860. The letter is dated | 
Jamaica, Jan. 1860. 

jtheir own properties, or go to market in th 
other two," <fcc, &c. 


Expound to me the riddle," I say t 
i the overseer on the road, to the merchan 
1 the small proprietor, or any one I suppos 
| to be partial to the negro in the controversy 
| between the laboring and the proprietary 
interest. " Surely, it is a work less severe 
I to hoe in a cane field than to hammer 
; stones on the road-side P 

" Well you see as how the laborers on 
the road are paid regularly once a week, 
while laborers on the estates often go two or 
three months without their wages ; and the 
men don't like that. Sometimes, too, they 
j loose their pay altogether.*" 

The same writer goes on to say, " I con- 
tinued to find the settlers (freedmen.) with- 
i out exception at their work. I met them 
j in troops at early morning traveling along 
the road — every man and woman ready 
with their polite greetings. I never met a 
peasantry more civil or more ready to 
oblige. Among the small settlers there 
are few heads of families who are not 
qualified voters, jxiying either ten shillings 
a year taxes, or owning land worth £6 
sterling a year. Nine out of ten of the 
settlers — I speak generally of the peasant- 
ry throughout the whole island— rely prin- 
cipally on their own properties for the sup- 
port of themselves and their families, but 
are willing, nevertheless to work for the 
estates or on the roads when it does not in- 
terfere with necessary labor on their own 
lands. In the remarks I have here made, 
I merely wi?h to give point blank denial 
to a very general impression prevailing 
abroad, that the Jamaica negro will not 
work at all. I wish to show that he gives 
as much labor even to the sugar estate, as 
he consistantly can, and that it is no fault 
of his if he cannot give enough. I wish to 
exhibit the people of Jamaica as peaceable 
law-abiding peasantry. I wish to bear wit- 
ness to their courtesy. I speak exclusive- 



y of the peasantry, not of the dissolute 
idlers, loafers and vagabonds that congre- 
gate in Kingston, and other towns. They 
are as different from tjieir country brethren, 
as the New York rowdy is different from 
the honest farmer in his home in Niagara or 
St. Lawrence." 

"Since emancipation, they have passed in 
a body to a higher, civil and social status; 
and the majority of them are too much 
their own masters ever again to submit to 
the mastership of others. They cannot be 
blamed for this; and any unprejudiced re- 
sident of Jamaica will endorse the state- 
ment here made, that the peasantry are as 
peaceable and industrious a people as may 
be found in the same latitude throughout 
the world. The present generation of Ja- 
maica Creoles (meaning native born Jamai- 
cans,) are no more to be compared to their 
slave ancestors, than the intelligent English 
laborer of the nineteenth century can be 
compared with the serfs of Athelstane or 

We think these statements amply dis- 
prove the assertion of the London Times, 
' that the negro in a state of freedom will 
not work in the West Indies." And it 
follows that whatever decrease in the pro- 
ductiveness of Jamaica, &c, may have fol- 
lowed emancipation, such decrease cannot 
be charged to the indolence of the freedmen- 

It is hardly necessary to show why there 
has been a decrease of productiveness in 
the West Indies since emancipation, yet 
we are willing to do so since it throws 
needed light on the relatively larger pro- 
ductiveness of the island of Cuba, where 
slavery still reigns in all its horrors. The 
main cost of the productiveness of Jamaica, 
and the other British West India Islands 
before emancipation, was the expenditure 
of human life. This we have shown in a 
former article* by quotations from Mr. 

* Anglo- African Magazine, vol. I, p. 96, 

Carey's work oh Slavery &c The produc- 
tiveness of the British West India Islands, 
was a result caused by the expenditure of 
one million and forty thousand slaves up 
to the date of emancipation, to say nothing 
of their natural increase, also destroyed. 
It is at a like cost, that the superior pro- 
ductiveness of Cuba is now maintained, 
and it is to supply this frightful destruction 
of human life, that the Slave Trade from 
the coast of Africa to the Island of Cuba is 
now maintained. 

On the other hand, in these tame British 
West Indies,! by the Census taken in 
1844; the Slaves set free, increased at the 
enormous rate of 34 per cent, in ten years, 
equal to the largest increase of any class of 
population in the United States; present- 
ing a case in which, as after desolating 
war, or famine, or any other destroyer of 
human life, genial nature strives to fill up 
the deficiency by a grant of extraordinary 
productiveness to the race. 

So that one good reason why the British 
West Indies are less productive under a 
free, than under a slave system, is the 
organic need that human life may be pre- 
served ; and, surely, that man is worse than 
a brute, be he slaveholder in fact, or be he 
like the writer in the London Times, only 
a slaveholder at heart, who prefers the life- 
destroying productiveness of Cuba, better 
than the life-preserving if less productive 
system of Jamaica. 

A second reason for the diminished pro- 
ductiveness of the West Indies after eman- 
cipation, consists in the fact that the capital 
with which the estates were carried on up to 
the hour of emancipation, was almost entire- 
ly money loaned to the planters by mortgag- 
es on their estates and slaves. The twenty 
million pounds sterling, fell into the hands 
of the mortgagees, the creditors of the 
planters, and left the planters at the same 
instant without slaves to work without 
wages, and without money to pay the freed 

tlbid., p. 144. 



slaves for their labor; from this double 
blow the planters have uever recovered. 
And Jamaica simply presents to the econ- 
omist another Ireland, in which the ab- 
sentee landlords do not employ and pay 
the resident peasantry. 

No ! not another Ireland either ! for the 
freed negroes, without fear of a standing 
army to evict them, have managed as we 
have seen above, to possess themselves of 
real estate enough to support themselves? 
and to become voters. The negro, therefore 
freed from slavery, rose superior to the 
circumstances which have almost crushed 
the life blood out of the Irish at home. 

Besides this peaceful revolution, where- 
by they gained for themselves a portion of 
the earth to till, which should be free to 
all, thereby doing noble battle in working 
out a great problem in human destiny, 
these unrecognized land reformers with- 
stood and surmounted triumphantly an 
other revolution which the blatant Democ- 
racy of these United States are only brave 
enough to carry*out in large words and un- 
substantial theories. In 184.6, barely ten 
years after complete emancipation, the 
British Parliament almost withdrew protec- 
tion from their own West India sugar, by 
great diminution of duty on all foreign sugar. 
By this act, West Indian sugar, which, in 
1840, sold in bond at 49s. had sunk in 
1848, to 23s. 5d.— a fall of twenty-five 
shillings and seven pence, out of forty-nine 
shillings per cwt. This severe experiment 
of Free Trade, ruined the already over 
mortgaged planters, but, glorious fact for 
the doctrine of Free Trade, actually in- 
creased the activity and energy of the free 
negro producers, as shown by the follow- 
ing figures, which we quote from the West- 
minster Review, vol. L., p. 226. 

"Since 1840, the importation of sugar to 
the United Kingdom from the West Indies, 
has been as follows: — 
Six years before free trade, 1841-1846, 
14, 629, 550. cwt. 

Six years after free trade, 1847-1852, 

17, 918, 362. cwt. 
Last six years, 1853-1858, 

18, 443, 331. cwt. 

Besides their triumph over absenteeism, 
or its equivalent, the poverty of the land 
owners, the freedmen of the West Indies, 
have triumphed over the temporary disas- 
ter caused by replacing Protection by Free 

In the further discussion of this question, 
if we leave out the i&land of Jamaica, in 
which cholera, earthquakes and bad gov- 
ernment have contributed to its special draw- 
backs in material wealth, then the assertion 
that the British West Indies are less pro- 
ductive since emancipation, than before 
emancipation is a lalse assertion. In a 
Colonial office document, entitled the State 
of the West Indies in 1855, p. 19, it is 
shown, that in the other sixteen British 
West India Islands, omitting Jamaica 
whereas in the last six years of slavery 
they exported on an average, 3, 007, 782 
cwt. of sugar, the same islands for the four 
years ending in 1855, exported an average 
of 4, 855, 52 1 cwt.! that is to say, freedom 
and free trade have beaten slavery and 
protection, at the rate of twenty-five per 
cent, per annum in productiveness. 

But we eannot omit Jamaica from our 
data: it is the scene of grander revolutions; 
than those of pounds of sugar, or shillings 
and pence. We have shown that the peo- 
ple thereof, according to the statement of 
an American writer, are working out — nay, 
have worked out in practice, problems re- 
lating to human freedom, and human pro- 
gress, which it has taken the great Anglo- 
Saxon race from the days of the Saxon 
Kings until now, to grapple with, and only 
half accomplish. And the freed negro is 
working out these problems without book 
theory, or scientific learning, but by the 
simple force of that, rude common sense, 
practical common sense, with which God 
endows this portion of his human creatures. 



We gave, in the commencement of this 
article, the London Times' delineation of 
negro character professedly drawn from the 
Jamaica negroes: we proceed to complete 
this picture by a few statements of fact, 
copied from the same article in the London 
Times, and quoted by it from Mr. Trol- 
lope's book: it is refreshing to look on the 
one picture, and the other. It is well 
known, that while the professed object of 
introducing Coolies into the West Indies, is 
to supply an alleged deficiency of laborers 
the real object is, to keep down the wages 
of the negro laborers. 

The Times says, as we have already 
quoted, " The negro is void of self reliance, 
and is the creature of circumstances: is 
scarcely fitted to take care of himself; he 
has no care for to-morrow. 1 

Mr. T rollope says, as quoted by the 
Times, in relation to the introduction of 
Coolies " In Trinidad and Guana, where 
they have no House of Commons, or shall 
we call it House of Niggers ? — with Mr. 
Speaker, motions for adjournment, and un- 
limited powers of speech, they have man- 
aged to get Coolies to make a decent labor 
market. In Jamaica, where the negro in- 
terest, as well as the talking faculty is 
strong, they have as yet, succeeded only in 
debating the matter." 

This looks very like an ability on the 
part of the negroes of Jamaica, to foresee 
something of to-morrow, and to keep out 
of Jamaica, a miserable horde of Coolies 
who would debase and diminish the value 
of their own free labor. Have any mass 
of white men since the world began, exhib- 
ited greater sagacity or self-reliance in such 
matters ? 

The Times also says in the first part of 
its article, " The negro is a lazy animal 
without any foresight, and therefore requir- 
ing to be led or compelled. They despise 
themselves. Mr. Trollope compares him 
with a dog in his attachments. The dog 

is faithful to us, and so is the negro, The 
master may use either his dog or his negro 
ever (?) so cruelly — yet neither has any 
anger against him, when the pain is over." 

So little confidence have they (the ne- 
groes) in any being who has an admixture 
of negro blood, that no negro will servo, a 
mulatto, when he can serve a European or 
a white Creole. These colored people too 
despise themselves." 

Mr. Trollope says as quoted by the 
Times, " The consequence of the electoral 
franchise, and Parliamentary System of Ja- 
maica in which the negro and colored pop- 
ulation are about twenty-five times as nu- 
merous as the whites, is that the planter 
scorns (?) the House of Assembly (as the 
fox did the grapes,? or Anglo-Saxon scorns 
rule?) and will have nothing to do with it. 
Colored men are chosen representatives 
(by those who despise them); vote away 
white mens' taxes, and legislate for them 
in other ways; the process goes on from 
bad to worse: blacks get into office as well 
as mulattoes and quadroons. What is our 
old aristocratic planter to do with a negro 
church-warden on one side, and a negro 
coroner on the other. The ascendancy of 
the negro and the colored population over 
the Europeans and the white Creoles, seems 
to be every day becoming clearer. Since 
there is no provision in the Jamaica House 
of Assembly which debars members from 
holding government contracts; it is aston- 
ishing how many government contracts are 
in the hands of members of the Jamaica 
House of Assembly." 

Rather sagacious that; quite as wise as 
anything done by the experienced politic- 
ians who comprise the Aldermen and 
Council, of the City of New York. 

Again Mr. Trollope says, " a majority 
of the planters would prefer to be rid of 
the Jamaica Legislature altogether, and to 
be governed by a Governor and Council, 
with due power of reference to the Colonial 



Just as the Lords aud Dukei of England 
would prefer the rottenborough system to 
the government of a House of Commons 
elected by the people. 

Once more Mr. Trollope " finds the color- 
ed people every-where pushing themselves 
forward — at the Governor's table, in the 
House of Assembly, and in State "parties: 
he finds on the other hand, the white race 
iu a minority, afflicted with a sort of home 
sickness.'' , 

"Alba ligustra cadunt; vaccinia nigra 
leguntur /" 

This completes the picture of the negro 
character. It proves him to be the most 
extraordinary being yet endowed with the 
human face divine. Within the limits of 
one generation, without any protection from 

the Home Government, he has peacefully 
and thoroughly gone through three revolu- 
tions, either of which has occupied the 
white masses of Europe, centuries to ac- 
complish not half so completely or perfect- 
ly. With this picture before them, why 
need our foes — why need our friends de- 
mand any proof of the capacity of the ne- 
gro for freedom, equality or self-govern- 
ment ? Verily they see through a glass 
darkly what stares them in the face. 
They who look at Liberia on the coast of 
Africa for evidences of negro capacity, and 
look past Jamaica, are like one who would 
take a telescope, and seek for light from a 
star of the ninth magnitude, at mid-day, 
while the glorious sun is shedding light 
around him. 


[inspired by a cold interview with an abolitionist.] 


Oh! dieadful, crushing thought, that grirds itself 
Into the soul of him, who knows and feels, 
He bears a name, whose mention will debar 
Him from all right. It indicates no crime — 
Fixes upon the soul no stain of sin, 
And from the exalted character of man, 
Takes not an attribute; yet, he who wears 
This name upon his forehead, is despised; 
And is cast out, and scorned, and trampled on, 
As though he were a reptile in the dust. 

What though a heart as generous, and as warm 
As fills an angel's bosom, may be his ! 
What though Apollo's faultless God-like form 


Encase a soul as perfect as its mould ! 
What though his mind be limitless, and stored 
With all the wealth of science, and of lore ! 
Burning upon his soul, are found the words- 
I am a negro ! and his heart wells up 
Its deep emotions, till its fertile fields 
Are deluged with the gall of bitterness, 
That overfloweth from its channels deep. 

Oh! who can paint the anguish that must dwell, 
In a proud soul, divine in its creation, 
In its broad comprehension, and aspirings; 
Chained down unto a mote ! 

How it must writhe 
With agony, so far exceding death's, 

That 'tis beyond compare! 
It's groans, unutterably deep and full 
Of intense misery, would rend a rock, 
Had it but ears to hear. 

If aught could wring 
Tears, from the happy eyes of angels kind, 
Methinks this sight would. 

Plow my heart has thrilled 
To think that God is just; that He who bade 
Man " love thy brother as thou dost thyself," 
Will judge with impartiality all kind, 
And unto merit, give its own reward, 
Without regard to whether its possessor, 
Be black or white, a negro or Circassian. 

He gave predominence to none, but said — 
Who was himself predominant o'er all — 
According to your works, shall ye be judged. 
Now look unto your works, ye arbitrators, — 
Usurpers of God-given sacred rights! 
Who in the name of honesty have robbed, 
And in the name of freedom, have enslaved ; 
In God's name have wrought your iniquity, 
And sloughed the soul ye feign'd to be upraising. 
Look to your works ! a day of reckoning comes, 
When mysteries and wrongs shall be unveiled. 



Aye look! and quick repair thy breaches, 
Quick repair or amend, what then thou would'st 
[not have undone. 

A dark array will else comfort you there, 
Of not brows only ; there will be accounts 
Of outrages upon God's image done; 
Of wrongs upon the Son's beloved "brother,'' 
Presumptuous creature! that doth rear thyself 
'Bove thy Creator; that doth lift thyself 
Above thy fellow; that hath dared to bind 
In dust thy brother; nor stopped even there; 
But placed thy rigerous foot upon his neck, 
Crushed out his inner life, obscured the light 
Of intellect, that burned within his brain. 

Look to thy works ! search well their records, 
And by amendment blot out past misdeeds, 
That else will glare terrific and distinct, 
To light thy guilty soul to its deserts. 
Look to thy works ! while yet it is to-day! 
There comes a night, whose darkness will forbid 
What thou would'st fain do, when 'tis all too 


Night unto the evil — day unto the good — 
The time of retribution and reward. 

Hofo or Hcutr. 


Foster, in his Essay on Decision of Char- 1 To one at all versed in reading prominent 
acter, remarks, that "It is a poor and dis- ; traits of character, nothing is more interest- 
graceful thing, not to be able to reply with j ing, than the discovery of the germ of a 
some degree of certainty to the simple j prompt and decided character in a young 
questions, "What will you be?" "What man or woman justs tarting in life, honestly 

will you do ?" Age and experience confirm 
the justness of this remark, and know how 
important it is, for the young especially, to 
be able to answer promptly these two 
questions to the satisfaction of their inner 

determined by industry, integrity and per- 
severance, to earn a position among their 
fellow men, at once honorable and useful. 
— Self-reliant, yet diffident of their real 
abilities, they early win the respect and 

self. confidence of every good and true benefac 



tor of the world, and find on all Hides, 
friends to cheer and comfort them under 
trials and difficulties the most annoying to 
young and inexperienced beginners in the 
stern pursuits of life. 

Life thus begun, with a clear perception 
of the moral obligation resting upon each 
individual member of society, so to employ 
their talents and opportunities as shall 
honor Glod and benefit their fellow crea- 
tures, seldom fails sooner or later to reap 
a reward more enduring than monuments 
of costly marble — more precious than the 
rarest jewels that gleam jn the diadem of 

The testimony and experience of the 
wise and prudent of all nations in the past, 
whose history has been recorded for our 
benefit, show conclusively, that a firm and j 
decided character, (next to honesty of heart j 
and intention) at the commencement of life, 
are essential and all-important to secure 
success in every department of human en- 
terprise and skill, requiring and taxing 
both physical and mental powers. 

With the refulgent light of the nine- 
teenth century shining upon their path, 
with all the inducements for mental culture 
spread before them to day, what shall be 
said of the young of both sexes who are 
spending precious time, health and talents 
in the pursuit of vicious and debasing 
pleasures, or listless apathy and indifference 
to the stirring events that environ them on 
every side, and those events too, shaping 
themselves in a manner that involves the 
future destiny of those very idlers, so re- 
miss in performing their part in the drama 
of life ! All ranks of society, plebeian or 
patrician, present the same disgusting fea- 
tures of moral leprosy every where, the 
same downward tendencies in the youth of 
the present day until the philanthropist asks 
himself sadly, " If such be the children of 
this generation, what will be the character 
of the men who shall succeed us in the 

If these views of the laxity of morals, 
the progidal waste of time, intellect, and of 
the souls' best energies, be true of youth in 
general among that favored class who 
arrogate to themselves the name of Anglo- 
Saxons, 2 mr ezcellance; what shall we say 
to our colored young men and women, 
thus found wasting life and its facilities j 
with the same criminal disregard of conse- 1 

quences as their fairer, but no less guilty 

Young man, young ivoman, did either 
of you ever give a thought to the fact, 
" That the prejudice under which you suffer 
in the land of your birth, demands that you 
' of all other people, under the canopy of 
Heaven, should, (by reason of that very 
prejudice that meets you every where) con- 
centrate every thought of your heart, every 
effort of your soul, upon the present and 
future condition and prospects of yourselves 
and your oppressed brethren, with a view 
to your and their elevation ?" and have you 
resolved, within yourselves, that henceforth 
the frivolities of life shall give place to an 
earnest and constant endeavor to live for 
the cause of liberty to the millions of Amer- 
ica, and the elevation of the nominally 
free in the Northern States. 

" Now or never," is the time to ask each 
for himself, or herself. 

"What will I be?" "What shall I do?" 
Do anything honest, my young friends, 
the doing of which shall expand the mind, 
develop and strengthen the body; but 
shun as you would the plague, any and 
every business voluntarily assigned to you, 
as an oppressed race, by the whites, as a 
badge of degradation and inferiority. 

Till the soil; hold the plow; fell the 
forest; build houses, mills, machinery; as 
men, as agriculturists, as mechanics; be hard 
and rugged del vers in the soil; be anything, 
rather than the miserable serfs of those ty- 
rants, whose fore-fathers having robbed 
yours of liberty, would to day, rob you of 
all that renders life worth preserving. 

Young woman, don't fancy that Heaven 
has not assigned to you as well as to man, a 
position honorable, and quite as important 
in helping to develop a glorious future 
here, or elsewhere, for your race; dark as 
may seem to you, the clouds, that at pre- 
sent veil God's Providence in reference to 
us. As daughters, you owe a debt of love 
and gratitude to your aged parents, whose 
watchful and fond care of you, from help- 
less infancy, to the present hour, when you 
are about to enter upon a new phase of ex- 
istence, has been unceasing and true. 

Now or never, is the time that, to the 
best of your ability, you should repay in 
part their kindness by all those little name- 
less, but grateful attentions, so acceptable 
to parents, whose advancing years call for 



the dutiful protection of a son, or the gentle 
and quiet love of a beloved daughter. 

Your influence on men in all the rela- 
tions you sustain to them, whether as sis- 
ters, wives, or associates and friends, in 
domestic or social life, no tongue can tell, 
no pen describe its boundary, since it runs 
parallel with eternity itself. 

See to it then, girls, that you bend all 
your faculties to the sacred purpose of ele- 
vatiug the standard of morals among young 
men ; be they relatives or associates in the 
walks of every-day life. By precept and ex- 
ample, endeavor tostimulate our youngmen 
to cultivate habits of industry and perseve- 
rance in such pursuits as require the exer- 
cise of artistic skill, such as exercise and 
expands the soul while it invigorates the 

associations. No matter — "hope on, hope 
ever," be your rallying cry; the day follows 
the night in the moral, as in the physical 





world ; remember, 
faint not." 

"Now or Never? young man, is the 
time to be up and doing. Now or never 
is the time for you to enter upon a steady 
pursuit of whatever (after mature delibera- 
tion) presents itself as the most suitable 
means to establish yourself in the future 
as a useful member of society, be it as a 
farmer, tradesman, or mechanic, anything 
that points upward and onward; follow 
steadily, firmly, to where reasonable desti- 
ny points the way; nor pause until, sur- 
mounting every obstacle, you find yourself 
master of your business or profession, and 

body. Bid them quit the saloon for the ! competent to lead, not follow, where your 
lecture-room, or the billiard and card table, oppressors point the way. No longer shift 
for a studious and rational hour at home, the responsibility from your own shoulders 
or with such companions as measure their j to the shoulders of others, by the old plea, 

"I do not possess influence enougl 

time by improvement in every thing that 
elevates and expands the mind and dis- 
tinguishes man from the brute. 

Fail not to hold yourselves as heaven- 
appointed instruments to stay the tide of 
vice, and rear the standard of excellence 
in the present and future generations of 
our colored young men, who have an un- 
trodden future before them, stern, dark, 
and earnest, ere they come out of the more 
than Egyptian bondage, they have had 
thrust upon them and their forefathers. 

Of virtuous, intelligent, aud loving wo- 
man to-day, may be said as truly as of 
times past, "First at the cross, first at the 
tomb." Truly will it be a eross, my young 
female friends, to encounter, at the outset, 
the many obstacles thrown in your way 
by many of your own sex less intelligent, 
less alive to the great work of regeneration 
set before you ; but fear not — move on — 
success shall crown your efforts. No less 
a cross will you find it on approaching 
those of our sex, many of them so steeped 
in selfish and debasing pursuits, as nearly 
to have lost all moral sense of shame and 
self-respect for themselves, much less for 
women whom they have long since ceased 
to respect by reason of their own vicious 

1 among 

the people to do any good." There may 
be others more energetic than you have 
been, perhaps, in laboring for the oppres- 
sed, but does it follow that, because you 
have neglected your duty in times past, 
that you must continue to neglect the 
claims that humanity and justice have 
upon you? Certainly not ! Then now or 
never is the time for you, and every other 
young man and woman, to work for the 
great cause of liberty to the captive; four 
million of whom wait with beating hearts 
and tearful eyes for their deliverance from 
the hands of the Pharaohs of this Egypt, 
through and by the intercession of leaders 
who, like the Moses of the Hebrews, are 
being learned in the midst of the tyrant's 

Your foes are numerous, specious, and 
active; do you not feel, see, and believe 
that now or never is the time to draw the 
sword of truth and justice, and throwing 
away the scabbard, determine solemnly 
before the altar of human liberty, to sleep 
no longer while the heel of American slav- 
ery and prejudice rests upon the neck of 
your crushed and heart-broken brethren 
in this slave-cursed land? 




" In heaven, the angels are advancing continually to the spring-time of their youth, so that the 
oldest angel appears the youngest." — Swedcnborg. 

Not for them the length'ning shadows, 

Falling coldly 'round our lives; 
Nearer, nearer, through the ages, 

Life's new spring for them arrives. 

Not for them the doubt and anguish 

Of an old and loveless age; 
Dropping sadly tears of sorrow, 

On life's faded, blotted, page. 

Not for them the hopeless clinging, 

To life's worn and feeble strands;* 
Till the last has ceased to tremble, 

In our aged, withered hands. 

Not for them, the mournful dimming 

Of the weary tear-stained eye, 
That has seen the sad procession, 

Of its dearest hopes go by. 

Never lines of light . and darkness, 

Thread the brows forever fair; 
And the eldest of the angels, 

Seems the youngest brother there. 

There the stream of life doth never 

Cross the mournful plain of death; 
And the gates of light are ever 

Closed against its icy breath/ 



JOHN s. rock. 
GEO. 13. VA8HON. 


1. — ZOMBI, Or FANCY SKETCHES Anonyraora 83 






7. — LINES (Poetry) A Elizabeth Chancellor 59 

8. —NOW OR NEVER James Fields 6l 

U.— YOUTH, IN HEAVEN Frances Ellen Watkins 64 

Rev. Bishop PAYNE. 




« E. P. RpGERS. 

- CHAS. B. RAY. 





J. M. BELL. 


Rev. Bishop PAYNE. 











J. M. BELL. 









N T E N T S 


2. — HISTORY OF THE CHURCH IN AFRICA William E. Walker 6£ 




6. — FANCY SKETCHES, No. 5 Anonymous 83 

7 — TRUTH (Poetry) Frances Ellen Watkins 87 




|iwjla - African pTag^mt. 

vol. ii. MARCH, 1860. no. 3. 

Sousings on flje Jlingbom of Cjms't. 



The Present Mystical Nature of the Kingdom. 

In the previous article on this subject 
I sketched out the bold and irreconcilable 
antagonism that the principles of the Gos- 
pelopposed to the existing national politics 
of the world; and set forth the idea, that 
the Kingdom of Christ will only be estab- 
lished by their utter subversion. But I 
have also indicated, that this Kingdom has 
not yet been fully revealed, but is yet to 
come; and that the seed only was planted 
by the Savior, at his first Advent, and has 
been left to grow to maturity, until His 
second coming, under the watering of the 
Holy Ghost, and the culture of the Apos- 
tolic ministry. And while this growing 
process of the coming Kingdom is going 
on, I have shown that the Gentile denom- 
ination continues in the world, under the 
guise of nominal Christian Nations in the 
West, and Mohammedan and Pagan pow- 

ers in the East. 

The present article is designed to discuss 
the aspect of Christ's Kingdom during its 
period of germination. St. Paul calls it 
the " Kingdom in a mystery," and refers 
to its members, as now looking through "a 
glass darkly," but hereafter as seeing "face 
to face." 

St. Peter refers to its light, as "a lamp 
shining in a dark place until the dav 
dawn, and the day-star arise in our hearts* 7 ' 
St. John also speaks of its members as not 
knowing now, what they shall be; bu' feel- 
ing assured that when the Lord comes 
again, they shall be like him, because they 
shall see Him as He is ; and He, who is now 
the only Begotten from the dead, shall then 
be the First-born, among many brethren 
raised up in like manner. And the Blessed 
Savior, in describing His present followers, 



says of them, that they are in the world, 
but not of the world. And that they are 
not to be taken out of the trials and tribu- 
lations of this life; but are to be kept from 
the evil, and sanctified through the truth, — 
God's word being truth. 

From all this, the present position of the 
Kingdom of Christ in the world is an 
" Imperiv.m in imperio" "A power behind 
the throne greater than the throne itself." 
It is silently sapping and undermining the 
despotisms of ages, and stealthily erecting 
on their ruins the Great White Throne of 
Christ. The means by which it marches 
onward to attain this end, is by a policy 
of non-intervention, set forth in this rule 
given by Christ as the law of His Mystical 
Kingdom: "Render unto Cesar the things 
that be Cesar's, and unto God, the things 
that be God's." In other words, the tem- 
poral, and I may say, temporary authority 
of the State, is to be respected, so far as 
the same does not dare to trespass on the 
requirements of the Gospel. But should 
an ungodly power of the world so far pre- 
sume on its authority, to enforce mandates 
contrary to the Word of God, the Holy 
Ghost speaking through St. Peter, leaves 
us no doubt as to whether God or man 
should be obeyed. God is always to be 
obeyed, rather than man. 

This non-intervention policy is a truce 
that the Savior of mankind graciously be- 
stowed upon the powers of this world, 
which is to continue from His first, to His 
second advent. At that time nothing will 
be left to the guardianship of Cesar; but all 
will belong to God. Jesus Christ as a 
priest forever, according to the order of 
Melchizedek, will take in his own hands 
all spiritual power, and as king of kings, 
and Lord of Lords, will also assume the 
government of all temporalities. But until 
that time, and under such a personal reign 
of Christ, no man, nor set of men have the 
right to take in their hands these two-fold 
functions of the world's government. In 
other words, there must be no union of 
Church and State, neither Roman, Russian 
or Anglican, whether by law established as 
in the aristocratic despotisms of the old 
world; or by a voluntary servility, as in 
the democratic despotisms of the new world. 
Bat, guaided by Christ's holy rule of non- 
intervention, the Church of God, which is 
the Mystical Kingdom of Christ, must pur- 
sue the even tenor of her way, maintaining 

her conversation in heaven from where she 
expects the Lord herj Righteous Judge, 
keeping herself unspotted from the world. 
Tims shall she ever be prepared as a bride 
adorned to meet her husband. 

Let me now endeavor to speak more 
particularly of the points of this non-inter- 
vention policy, by which God has given a 
respite to the despotisms of the world, in 
order that they may have a little more 
breathing time to die in; and that the 
wrong principles on which they are based 
may reach their most effectual destruction. 

The Church is pledged by the gospel 
not to use any carnal weapons in the over- 
throw of these pernicious principles; nor 
yet to use any under-handed or evil means 
whatever, in order that good may come. 
Hence, she must not preach an agrarian 
warfare on the land monopolist ; she must 
not anathematize and dethrone conquering 
kings. She must not preach insurrection 
to the slave; and, "neither must she strip 
the rich of their hoarded and ill-gotten 
goods." But in the fear of Him who is 
coming to execute judgment on such un- 
righteous deeds, she must warn all men to 
flee from the wrath to come; and command 
all such as shall seek refuge within her 
portals, to cease from such evil practices. 
She must not tolerate and countenance 
them around her altars. * 

In the name of that Lord, whose death 
she shows forth until He comes again, she 
must not admit any to His memorial table, 
who live in open violation of any of those 
Gospel principles. To this end, the Savior 
invested the ministry of His Church with 
the solemn excommunicatory powers of 
binding and loosing; and pledged Himself 
to respect the validity of their acts, when 
administered in vindication of these ever- 
lasting and immutable principles of the 
Gospel. But it is clear, that not only the 
inhuman relation of master and slave should 
be anathematized and driven from the por- 
tals of the church, but the distinctions of 
rank, whether of wealth, blood or official 
positions in the state. Around the altars 
of the church, and within the doors of the 
sanctuary, the distinctions of rich and poor 
should not be known, nor that of king and 
peasant acknowledged. All shall meet on 
a level, and worship together as brethren, 
one common Lord. But as soon as those 
distinctions are acknowledged in the church 
it is giving to Cesar what belongs to God. 



Hence there should be no throne erected 
in any cathedral for a political sovereign to 
occupy during the hours of worship. He 
should not he distinguished in this manner 
any more than the commonest beggar. 
Neither should pews be rented and auction- 
eered off to the highest bidder, so that the 
rich man may purchase by his riches a seat 
nearest to the altar; and the poor man be 
thrust down by the door, because of his 

This is a violation of the advice given us 
by the Holy Ghost through St. James. It 
is having respect to the man who comes to 
church in fine apparel; and it enables the 
rich man, by his actions, to say every time 
he enters church, to the poor man by the 
door, "You stand here, while I go yonder 
and pray." This is anti-Christian, because 
it brings the world into the Church. It is 
allowing Cesar to break the truce of God 
and invade the reserved rights of His sanc- 

This practice of buying and selling pews 
in the church is turning our Heavenly 
Father's house into a den of thieves, instead 
of making it a house of prayer; and when 
the Son of man comes again, all such per- 
sons may expect to receive as their portion 
the spiritual counterpart of that scourging 
with knotted cords, that he administered to 
those ancient venders whom he drove from 
the temple of Jerusalem. Hence, then, a 
church that nourishes such a principle of 
the world as this in its bosom, cannot bear 
an effective testimony against the sin of 
human slavery. It baptizes the very sin 
from which human, bondage springs. * 
And the man-stealing church has a right 

* Senator Seward, in a recent speech in the U. 
S. Senate, by defining the slaveholding states as 
the "Capital States,'" hit the right, nail on the head 
which goes home to the root of the evil. Slavery 
is but an offspring of the principle of Mammon, 
and is the ultimate product of the accumulation of 
capital in the hands of a few. Such being the case, 
the late John C. Calhoun seeing this spirit of 
Mammon prevalent everywhere, deduced the very 
philosophical conclusion that all communities must 
eventually settle down in the two classes of master 
and slave. And Dr. Lord, a New England divine, 
reasoning on the conclusions of the same inexo- 
rable logic, has recently predicted that 80 years 
will not elapse before the free states will seek do- 
mestic servants by trafficking again in African 
slaves. And nothing but the special intervention 
of the power of God, which is stronger than the 
logic of wicked men or devils, will avert this catas- 
trophe from our money-grasping age and monopo- 
ly-flruling civilization. 

to retort on its mammon-worshipping, per- 
son-respecting sister, when she utters her 
rebukes, and say to her, "Physician, heal 
thyself." On this point we cannot stop to 
weigh which of the two practices is the 
greatest evil, however such an idea may 
be admissible in politics. It is enough 
that God's word condemns both as sins; 
and assures us that he who offends in one 
point is guilty of breaking the whole law. 
Under this divine rule of God, and not un- 
der a balancing and compromising rule of 
expediency belonging to Cesar, I pronounce 
the man- stealing and mammon-worshipping 
church equally apostate. Destroy Mam- 
mon and respect of persons in the Church, 
and political toadyism to the world's great 
men on the part of her ministers, and the 
blood of the oppressed bondman would 
never sully the hands of her communicants. 
But while kings, queens, and nobles are 
to be honored as such in the Church, and 
rich men are to be preferred before the 
poor because of their wealth, contrary to 
God's rule, who is no respecter of persons, 
so long will human slavery find a secure 
resting-place under her altars, from whence 
the cry of the bondman will continually 
ascend in accents of wild entreaty and de- 
spair: — "How long, O Lord holy and true, 
dost thou not judge and avenge our blood 
on them that dwell on the earth?" 

This fatal apostacy of the Christian 
Church, that gave to Cesar that which is 
due to God, took place as we have already 
intimated, at the so-called conveision of 
Constantine, when bishops placed them- 
selves under his patronage and the pastors 
of the Church became pensioners on the 
blood-stained coffers of his empire, instead 
of subsisting, as in the apostolic age, on 
the free-will offerings of the faithful. Since 
then the Church has lost her savor as the 
salt of the earth ; and such being the case, 
wherewith can it be salted? The result 
has been her utter powerlessness to stem 
the tide of corruption that has come in like 
a flood and deluged her altars with iniquity 
and blood. 

Hence, then, if the evils of the world 
are to be abated by the power of the gos- 
pel, it must not be by any mere abstract 
denunciations of distant evils; but it must 
be by a return to the practical personal 
discipline prescribed therein for the con- 
duct of the members of the household of 
faith. If the Church had been true to her 



Lord, and firm and unbending in maintain- 
ing the integrity of the democratic princi- 
ples of the gospel in the sanctuary, earth's 
evils would have long since been removed 
by the irresistible power of her example. 
Peace on earth among men of good-will 
would have long since been established. 
The kingdom of heaven would have come, 
and mankind would have long since wel- 
comed the second advent of our returning 
Lord. For be it remembered, His delay 
is not so much one of time as that of con- 
dition. All that He awaits is a proper 
preparation of righteousness and holiness 
in His Church, so that she may be adorned 
as a bride to meet her husband ; by her 

members being purified as people zealous 
of all good works, and ready to be present- 
ed unto Sim without blemish, spot, wrinkle 
or any such thing. In this respect one day 
is to the Lord as a thousand years, and a 
thousand years as one day. All idea of 
time is swallowed up inthis one thought of 
the readiness of His waiting people. Bnt, 
nevertheless, He has fixed a periodical limit 
in the history of the Church, beyond which 
He will not wait, and within which time 
He designs to make ready an elect number 
to welcome His advent. And this histori- 
cal limitation will constitute the theme jof 
the next paper on this general subject of 
the Kingdom of Christ. 

pisiorjj of llje <£|}nnjj in %ttm 


In tracing the rise, progress and full de- 
velopment of the Church of Africa, with 
her decline and fall, I shall only notice 
some few of the most important events, and 
some few of the most prominent men who 
figured in those events; and leave the re- 
mainder for the attentive student of history 
to supply. 

I shall treat this subject, as one of the 
four quarters of the globe in its most ex- 
tended sense, and not as some would limit 
its signification to the country inhabited 
by the immediate descendants of Ham. 

The gospel is thought by some to have 
found its way into Africa, through Candace, 
qu^en of Ethiopia, by an Ethiopian eunuch. 

John Mark is the first to found a christian 
church in Africa. This was founded at 
Alexandria: he also introduced Christianity 
into Egypt, — so say Eusebius, Epipha- 
nes, and others. It is also stated by Soc- 
rates, that Matthew also preached the gos- 
pel in Ethiopia. As to the precise date, 
it is uncertain, hence, questioned by some; 
but the authorities in favor are very re- 

This was during the first century, and 
Eusibius and others make him the first 

bishop, this however is doubted by others; 
it is however almost certain, that he was 
the first to carry the knowledge of the gos- 
pel into Africa, — Egypt was the first por- 
tion to receive a knowledge of the gospel. 

Some few of the Alexandrian schools 
were among the first to teach and proclaim 
its doctrines. After the planting of the 
church at Alexandria, it became a very 
easy matter to find its way into Cvrene, 
which was a city of Lybia, Africa, and 
which for a long time sought to rival the 
famous Carthage ; in profane writers it is _ 
mentioned as the birth-place of Calum- 
machus the poet, and Eratosthenes, the 
mathematician. The prevalence of the 
Greek language, with which they were un- 
acquainted, (the Egyptians), because from 
lower Egypt, to middle and upper, were 
filled with Grecian colonies — the power of 
the priest, and the old Egyptian supersti- 
tions; — these causes combined to retard the 
progress and extension of the gospel during 
the first century. But against these, or 
errors equally gross, has Christianity had to 
combat in all ages of the world, and in all 
countries to get a foot-hold, its triumph, 
however, against all opposition, has always 



given strength to its character and perma- 
nency to its support. Truth is slow but 
sure in its progress, it wins its way through 
difficulties and barriers however great, un- 
obtrusively, by its own inherent power and 
virtue. Simon, who was compelled to bear 
the cross of our Savior, up Calvary's rug- 
ged summit, was a native of Cyrene, in 
Africa, and had the proud honor of helping 
the Savior bear His cross, which doubtless 
gave him an opportunity of testifying in 
behalf of the truth to his own countrymen. 
The fact stated above is a very significant 
one, and involves a world of interest 
and meaning and thought; and challenges 
our most potent and profound investigation 
and research. 

In the first part of the second century, 
Christianity held its own in Alexandria, 
for it had not made much, if any, progress 
elsewhere. Adrian, Emperor, visits Alex- 
andria, A. D. 13 i., just one century after 
the death of Christ, and gave this testi- 
mony that the worshippers of the religion of 
Serapis and of Christ, were both worshipped 
and that the followers of Christ constituted 
no unimportant part of the inhabitants 

Mark is said to have erected a catecheti- 
cal school at Alexandria. There can be 
no doubt that these schools bywhomsoevor 
established, did much for the propagation 
of religion. Mark was succeeded by Anno 
minus, and he, by Panteus who was a stoic, 
who flourished A. D. 180; became a con- 
vert, and had the school under his direc- 
tion and control ; and through his influence 
and ability much good was done. He re- 
signed his office, A. D. 190, to serve as a 
missionary. It is not known with what 
success his subsequent efforts met, as he 
went towards the higher regions of the 
Nile; butthe persecutions of the christians 
in Thebais, under the Emperor Septimus 
Severus, show that Christianity had sprt ad 
itself even into upper Egypt, in the latter 
part of the second century. 

In the first part of the third century, 
this province possessed a translation of the 
New Testament in the old language of the 
country. Panteus was succeeded by 
Clement (Titus Flavius, of Alexandria), 
one of the fathers of the church, and dis- 
tinguished for his learning and eloquence; 
the time and place of his death is unknown. 

There is no distinct and authentic ac- 
count given of the progress of Christianity 
during these centuries in Ethiopia; although 

the eunuch of the queen of Meroe had 
been converted to the faith. But (Neander 
informs us) the gospel soon reached Car- 
thage and the whole of pro- consular Africa 
from their intercourse with Rome. Thi 
church is first known to us by Tertullian, 
in the latter half of the second century. 
It was then in a flourishing condition. He, 
mentions in an address to Governor Scapu- 
la, a persecution in Mauritana. After the 
middle of the 3d century Christianity had 
made such progress in Mauritana and Nu- 
midia, that under Cyprian, bishop of Car- 
thage, a synod of 180 bishops was held. 

Having traced the history of the Church 
up to the 3d century, I shall return now 
and comment a short time upon the life 
and character of that great man, Origen. 
He was an African, born in Numidia, A. D. 
185; studied philosophy under Ammonius, 
and theology under the great African, Cle- 
mens. He wrote much and ably, but ow- 
ing to the number of teachers he had, all 
inculcating different views, belonging as 
they did to different nations, it is not 
strange that he should have had strange 
views on theology as well as on other sub- 
jects. Panteneus, his last teacher, was a 
heathen philosopher, but had embraced 
Christianity; and we are told that he was 
the first teacher appointed in charge of the 
Alexandrian school; this was a compli- 
ment to his talents and education. Cle- 
mens was the pupil in theology of Pante- 
neus the African, who succeeded him in 
the chair; and became teacher of Origen, 
who succeeded him in turn. The life and 
character of this great man, whose genius 
and learning awarded him the title of be- 
ing the most eminent of all the Christian 
fathers, a brief outline can only be given 
at this time, it would require a treatise it- 
self to do him justice. There are some 
few incidents in his early life I will note, 
which mark him as an uncommon youth, 
a remarkable genius — one of which was 
that under the tyrannical persecutions of 
Septimus Severus, then but a stripling of 
sixteen, his faith and zeal in the cause of 
religion superinduced by the example of 
the martyrs, he was anxious to declare 
himself a Christian, so that he might ex- 
pose himself to death. Such was the feel- 
ing and spirit of this youth that, although 
it may be said to be intemperate, yet it 
shows his great love of truth; for we should 
never recklessly and needlessly throw our- 



selves away or sacrifice our lives when it 
can be avoided without a sacrifice of prin- 
ciple. Patience and courage are essentia] 
in its vindication, yet we should always 
exercise discretion. 

But, so we are told by historians, that 
such was his ardor that when his father 
Leonilas was thrown into prison, all argu- 
ments and entreaties proved fruitless, and 
his mother was unable to retain him in any 
other way than by concealing his clothes 
The love of Christ so completely over- 
whelmed him that when be found he was 
prevented from sharing bis father's fate — 
a martyr to the truth— be wr^te to him in 
these memorable words: "Take heed, and 
not change your mind for our sakes." He 
felt confident that bis father cared nothing 
for his own life, but God, in bis wisdom, 
had something far him to do, and these rare 
developments, which be so early manifest- 
ed, were to be used in shaping the future 
destiny of man; these powers of mind were 
to be used in combatting and disposing of 
some of the prevailing errors of the day, 
and dispelling those clouds of darkness in 
which mankind was enveloped, and which 
obscured the light and were in the way of 
salvation. This itself shows extraordinary 
individuality, and would even in this (so- 
called) progressive age be attributed to 
poor, weak, human nature. No one who 
will think or assume the right to think for 
himself, or assume the right to question 
the opinions, sentiments, and acts of others 
if in the majority or popular, is either de- 
luded or a fanatic; otherwise it is attributed 
to poor, weak, human nature. True genius 
is always fitful and strange in its character, 
governed by no known law, often found 
fault with because those who denounce it 
do not possess it themselves. 

To pursue the sketch a little further, 
Origen, after the martyrdom of his father, 
became the ward of a very rich and well 
esteemed lady of Alexandria, who was a 
Christian, yet she allowed one Paulus of 
Antioch to deliver his lectures on Gnosti- 
cism in her house, and numbers of both 
were thereby brought to her house, the 
Gnostics as well as the orthodox. But we 
are told that young Origen did not allow 
respect for his patroness to withhold him 
from speaking freely his abhorrence of the 
Gnostic doctrines, he refused also to give 
them his presence in their assemblies, be- 
cause he would have had to join their 

prayers, and thus give concurrence to their 

He soon released himself from this de- 
pendence and commenced the teaching of 
Greek and literature, with which he was 
familiar; and by his intellectual endow- 
ments and strict, exemplary life, was soon 
promoted to fill the chair as catechist of 
the Alexandrian school, which became va- 
cant; and during the time he frequently 
visited them that were imprisoned on ac- 
count of their faith in their dungeons, and 
even accompanied them to the execution, 
and encouraged them by the strength of 
his faith and love; and in the most immi- 
nent dangers that threatened his life he 
was intrepid, fearless and bold. There 
are many incidents connected with the, his- 
tory of this great man, which are peculiarly 
interesting and exciting, but it will occupy 
too much space and does not bear directly 
on the subject-matter before me. 

Origen was elected to fill the cathecati- 
cal chair at Alexandria at 18 years of age, 
the successor of his great teacher Clement; 
and he filled it 30 years with such persua- 
sive eloquence and elegance of diction and 
distinguished ability, that it was a question 
whether religion was ever advanced so far 
by any one else. He was expelled, after 30 
years' useful service, from his chair and 
country, by the jealousy of the bishop De- 
metrius, to be tortured in his old age by 
the brutality of the Roman emperor Gallus, 
A. D. 253. His labors consisted chiefly 
in getting a collection of correct copies of 
the Holy Scriptures and giving them a 
strict translation. He sought truth only, 
yet such was the warmth of his imagination 
and attachment to philosophic speculations, 
he was carried away into error and absurd- 
ity. He construed the Old Testament as 
allegorical after the Platonic method. Yet 
he rendered essential service to the Chris- 
tian church in procuring true copies of the 
whole Scriptures, and by his honest, faith- 
ful adherence to principle, which marked 
him as a reliable man. He was a genius, a 
scholar, and a christian; his fame was not 
confined to his native country, schools of 
philosophy, nor professions of faith — it was 
world-wide, the then known world. Mar- 
minea, mother of Alexander, sought con- 
ference with him in Syria. He was known 
in Rome and Greece, and on two occasions 
of heresy in Arabia, where a numerous sy- 
nod was held, he succeeded in convincing his 



opponents, he being present by invitation. I the latter is much more probable according 
His school gave birth to a number of learn- 
ed men, Plutarch, Serenus, Heraclides, 
Heron and others, whose lives attested the 
virtue of their master. 

He died A. D. 254, being G9 years of 
age. Origen, after having spent his life in 
the midst of persecutions, schisms and her- 
esies, most of which he succeeded in over- 
throwing and successfully encountering, 
was, at this advanced age, the object of 
their fanatical fury and hate; so he was 
thrown into a dungeon according to the 
plan of the Descian persecutions, to be 
gradually tortured to death or else renounce 
his faith; but his faith made him more 
strong. Instead of having the effect de- 
signed by his persecutors, he, while in 
confinement, wrote a letter full of comfort 
and encouragement to others. This cir- 
cumstance, hi3 patience, his forbearance, 

his christian fidelity, obtained for him his 
freedom and partially set aside the perse 
cutions. These instances show rare powers 
of mind and evince most clearly the truth 
of the words of our blessed Savior: "Who- 
soever shall lose his life for my sake, shall 
find it." This man was one of God's noble- 
men, and did more for the establishment 
of the Church in Africa than all others 
who had preceded him. He left his mark 
upon the world's history, and the friends 
and lovers of Christianity are, perhaps, 
as much indebted to him as to any other 
one man for the Scriptures of truth, which 
we now have as a lamp to our feet and a 
light to our path. 

The influence of Origen on the formation 
of theological opinions and of a theological 
system, continued to remain and develop 
itself by means of his writings and disci- 
ples, notwithstanding the bitter opposition 
against him by the Mends of Chilaism, 
and the literal interpretation of the Scrip- 

Demetrius, the bishop under whom he suf- 
fered (who was not so much an enemy to his 
doctrines as his personal enemy), died soon 
after the breaking out of these controver- 
sies, A. D. 231. I must now refer back 
to Tertullian, or, as he is called, Qnintius 
Septimius Florens Tertullianus, was born in 
the latter year of the second century, was 
an advocate or rhetorician, and arrived 
to manhood before he was converted to 
Christianity, and then obtained the office 
of presbyter either of Rome or Carthage — 

to the most ecclesiastical historians. If 
Jerome and Eusebius be true, his character 
in brief, was that he was distinguished as 
a man of learning and genius, but combin- 
ed a number of contradictions; he was in- 
defatigable in his labors, and wrote many 
works which partook of the character of 
the author — zealous in behalf of religion, 
and yet embracing the most absurd heresy. 
He was not reliable, but inconstant — no 
firmness — unfit to govern or lead. He 
became presbyter of Carthage A. D. 192, 
at the age of 45. His secession from the 
Church occnred 7 years after. It was 
supposed his most valuable works were 
written during the period of his heresy, and 
that he continued to adhere to his views 
on Montanism, although they may have 
been somewhat modified. He was born 
in Carthage and, notwithstanding his pe- 
cuiarities, his great learning and zeal en- 
abled him to render essential service during 
the 7 years he was presbyter. 

The fame of this man was succeeded by 
Cyprian, or to give hn name in full, Eos- 
cius Caecilius Cyprian, who was born at 
Carthage in Africa, about the beginning of 
the 3d century. He was bred a lawyer 
and distinguished as an orator; and in A. 
D. 2 18 was elected bishop. His first effort 
was to restore discipline to the Church, 
but the vile persecutions which soon broke 
out and threatened him, caused him to 
leave and remain absent for 2 years in a 
place unknown except to his friends; from 
which place he sent forth epistles to the 
persecuted brethren, strengthening them 
by his words of hope, encouragement and 
comfort. While exiled a schism took 
place in the churches of Alexandria and 
Rome called the Novatian schism, against 
which he employed his pen so effectually, 
as to be threatened with death if he did 
not cea-e his zeal in behalf ol the religion 
of the Church. This he sternly refused, 
which so excited the ire and hate of the 
pro-consul as to cause his banishment. 
A. D. 259 he was permitted to return, but 
did not remain long in peace, but was mar- 
tyred by the emperor Valerian; and when 
brought out for that purpose, his last act 
was to fall on his knees and worship the 
only true God, the maker of heaven and 

Cyprian was an African and a heathen, 
and was converted and raised to the see of 



Carthage, A. D. 250, some 248. 
It is said he was raised there by the popu- 
lar voice of the Church contrary to his own 
inclinations; through his influence and 
writings file episcopal dignity was more 
exalted and its supremacy more respected 
than ever before. 

Neander informs us that Ileraclius, the 
friend and scholar of Origen, became head 
of the catechistical school at Alexandria, 
and was also made successor to Demetrius 
in the episcopal office. A. D. 247 ho was 
succeeded by Dionysius, a disciple and 
pupil of Origen, who also succeeded him 
as bishop. This man was a diligent in- 
quirer after truth, and labored and sought 
incessantly by research and investigation 
to obtain the truth. He was eminently 
successful and rejected all their heretical 
systems and thereby subjected himself to 
the rage and enmity of the persecutors. 
He followed the Origeni&tic system of in- 
terpretation of the Bible. Afterwards, also 
in the last period of the 3d century, Pierius 
and Theognostus distinguished themselves 
as teachers of the Alexandrian church. 
The next man of note was Hieracas, at 
the end of the century, who taught those 
doctrines peculiar to Origen. But, as 
he was well acquainted with the Greek and 
Coptic literature, it is supposed that many 
elements of both he mingled with that of 
Christianity; yet it remains a matter of 
doubt in the minds of many, because views 
similar to these might have been formed 
in other parts of Egypt. He was an 
Egyptian ascetic, as such many of his 
views were not consonant with the views 
of Origen, because his views of the Trinity 
and some few other subjects are antagonis- 
tic to those of Origen; yet, with all his 
peculiarities, he was quite an accession to 
the Church. Hieracas was a very skillful 
penman. He followed the church system 
of doctrine as taught in the 4th century, but 
would during his life-time have been con- 
sidered heretical; Neander therefore con- 
cludes that he can only be called so in a 
historical sense, as he cannot be justly 
considered a heretic. 

There was little else of importance dur- 
ing this century, except that Capocrates, 
who was an Alexandrian, propagated his 
extravagant doctrines and theories exceed- 
ing the Gnostic themselves, to whom his 
notions in general were similar. Valentine 
also, who was an Egyptian and a Gnostic, 

had a sect which spread itself through 
Asia, Africa and Europe. His system was 
more complex and extravagant. Those, 
with Patamenia and Marcella, suffered mar- 
tyrdom in the commencement of the 3d 
century with Leonidas — these names have 
been rendered illustrious; these constitute 
some of the most important events which 
occurred , and some of the most distinguished 
personages who figured in those events 
during these centuries, aud these are they 
who molded the Church and planted it on 
such a basis as to prepare the way for oth- 
ers who should succeed them in giving it 
a. more permanent foundation and still 
higher character. 

I shall briefly note the characters of one 
or two others whom 1 shall introduce on 
the stage, by whom the Church attained 
her great celebrity, and to whom the world 
is indebted for her system of evangelical 
doctrines. Sabellius also figured largely 
in the 3d century on account of his doctrines 
in reconciling the Trinity with the unity 
of the Godhead. He was an African, and 
his character and history are too well 
known to justify comment. Nothing more 
of interest took place until the end of the 
4th century, when a canonical council was 
held in Carthage, A. D. 398, which forbade 
the study of secular books by bishops. A 
dearth of learning soon followed, and from 
thence, for some time, there are only two 
or three names respectable for talents or 

Just 45 years previous to this event, a 
being came into existence whose name and 
fame will outlive all time. He had as 
large a heart and clear a head as any man 
that ever graced the world's stage. He 
was emphatically a true child of genius; 
a genius himself whose originality has 
given the Christian church a character she 
has never lost nor ever before had. His 
comprehensive, penetrating mind laid bare 
all those knotty, intricate questions, upon 
which the Church at that day was so much 
divided, respecting man's salvation; and, 
although not universally embraced, his 
doctrines have been adopted by the major- 
ity of orthodox Christendom. To attempt 
to give an expose of the hi tory and char- 
acter of this extraordinary man will be 
fruitless — suffice it to say, he was an orna- 
ment to the Church, his country, and the 
world; celebrated for his ripeness of erudi- 
tion, his convincing natural eloquence, his 



close logical acumen, aud more especially, 
his moral qualities, his conscientious relig- 
ious scruples, his philanthropy which he 
evinced and illustrated by the famous 
maxim, that "It is better to entertain a 
rogue, than refuse an honest man." He 
was also a plain, homespun man, hospitable 
to a fault; he sought only to know the 
truth aud to confute error. In a word, his 
qualities of mind and heart have rarely 
been equalled and never surpassed! He 
was born in Numidia, A. D. 354; during 
his youth he was averse to study, but ow- 
ing to his vivid imagination was inclined 
to the Manichean doctrine, which he re- 
tained for 10 years, but after reading the 
sermons of Ambrose and writings of Paul, 
became converted and ministered as priest, 
afterwards became bishop, and died in the 
35th year of his episcopate, A. D. 430. 
This man was an African, and is well 
known by the name of St. Augustine, and 
the doctrines of the Church attributed to 
John Calvin he is beyond all question en- 
titled to the credit of being the author of. 
Space will not permit stating his errors, 
nor the great good he did ; he was one of 
God s noblemen, and the unbiased mind 
in perusing his history can but conclude 
that he has had no superior. 

From the history of this great man we 
learn one valuable lesson at least, that true 
greatuess does not consist in learning ; for 
it is quite doubtful whether Augustine 
knew anything of Hebrew or Greek; if 
any, his acquaintance with them was cjm- 
paratively limited, and that learned after 
30 years of age. During his life and the 
century following, Christianity attained its 
greatest zenith on account of the numerous 
errors aud isms he succeeded in exploding 
aud refuting in and out of councils, verbal- 
ly and by his writings. After his death 

some few men of note came on the stage, 
most of whom were Africans, who added 
to the luster already acquired by the 
Church. Space will not allow any comment, 
but to say, that soon after the Church was 
overrun by the Saracens and Vandals, and 
Mohammedanism became the prevailing 
religion of the day for some time after; 
yet it is a fact that does not admit of doubt, 
cannot be controverted, and will not be 
denied, that to Africa the world owes more 
than to any other quarter of the globe for 
her orthodox religious doctrines. She has, 
in a word, contributed more to religion, 
literature, science, and art, by her divines, 
philosophers, scholars, and artists, than can 
be said of any other quarter of the globe. 
She gave biith, both to science and art, 
aud brought to light the great doctrines 
upon which the Christian church is based; 
which not till then were understood or em- 
braced : these doubtless may have been 
more perfectly systematized and legalized 
since, by other nations and in other parts of 
the world, but surely the meed of praise be- 
longs to the author, originator and inventor. 
But alas ! how the gold has become dim, 
how is the most line gold changed ! She 
is not what she was ; such is the history of 
the world: nations rise, decline, and fall ; 
such is the destiny of man: he comes into 
existence, grows up to maturity, declines 
and passes away. Although Africa has 
not yet passed off the stage of existence, 
she still lives and may stretch forth her 
hands unto God, and she may yet attain 
her former reputation. The present looks 
dark; but let us leave her in the hand of 
God, who controlleth the destiny of nations, 
and so mark the progress of human events 
and improve thereby, that our last days 
may be our brightest and best. 




A review of the past and present condi- 
tion of the social world proves, beyond a 
doubt, that the human family are yet to 
attain a grander attitude than ever before. 
No earthly power can resist the rapid 
march of intelligence, wealth, and progress, 
which now distinguish every enlightened 
movement; all errors, prejudices, and false 
dogmas inu>t recede before its advancing 
strides; and level all differences among the 
brotherhood of men, by its culminating 
glory. While the affairs of mankind are 
to be controlled and dispensed by the sev- 
eral and distinct races in proportion to their 
capacity, none may hope to win individual 
eminence or collective greatness, unless by 
a display of force and character essential 
to the occasion. The Anglo-Africans, un- 
like the migratory bands of other countries 
who, forgetful of the many reminiscences 
of home, become contented in any land, 
have nobler aspirations and higher claims 
in the future upon the law and justice of 
their country, than to be moved as mere 
machines to others' dictation ; they will not 
vote unless they understand that the exer- 
cise of such an inestimable privilege will 
benefit the happiness of society, and con- 
duce to the perpetuity of a wise and bene- 
ficent government; they will scorn false 
evidence in a conflict between right and 
wrong, because the precepts of religion, 
and the fidelity of nature, enjoin otherwise; 
these manifestations of the superior force 
of mind over the materiality of matter, 
must make its impression, and convince 
the dominant authority that all immunities 
should be divided alone among those re- 
sponsible for tneir actions. The 10th cen- 
tury has produced many startling revolu- 
tions, which have amazed the learned, in- 
duced some to think, and confounded the 
illiterate, annihilated space and time, les- 
sened the drudgeries of life, and almost 
transcended the sublime laws of nature; 
yet the triumphs of genius have not solved 

its problems, the object of the Creator in 
diffusing the countless millions of his child- 
ren in widely different circumstances, varied 
climates, and unlimited distances of separ- 
ation; some rich and swaying power, cloth- 
ed with liberty and its benignant advan- 
tages; while others poor and suffering the 
depravities of misfortune. The primary 
cause, the unequal disparity, lias not been 
accounted for — who can study the reflex 
of time, and cull examples from the record- 
ed pages of antiquity, denoting the many 
changes of dynasties, the reverses of men, 
and not to be able to divine the unmistak- 
able solution, why the motives of oppression 
seem inexhaustible. 

The lessons of experience are unfolding 
mighty results, they are pregnant with 
interest; every moment that flies, every 
hour that passes, and every morn that 
beams the light of day, afford hope and 
encouragement to the coming generation 
to press forward. 

The "Anglo-African and the Future," a 
period of bliss and promise! it enchains 
meditation, divests reflection of its gloom 
and solitude, intoxicates all thought, and 
enchants the imagination with contempla- 
tive beauties and wonders unseen and not 
realized. The hidden and untrodden fu- 
ture it foreshadows, a time almost beyond 
comprehension; of things which are to take 
place, and innumerable changes that will 
be made, showing a greater number of 
equals than inferiors of full age and rank, 
all ready to fulfill their endless variety of 
duties— the works of art, the emanations 
of the brain, the touch and grace of the 
pencil, the mold and finish of the sculptor, 
the achievements of learning, the inspira- 
tion of poetry, and the charms of eloquence, 
will not be ascribed to any one race more 
than another; all will vie upon equal mer- 
its for the highest niche in the temple of 
fame; the Anglo- African, against all oppos- 
ing difficulties, will have a tremendous 


work to perform, to meet the exigency of] 
the future and assume the elevating condi- 
tions which the improved state of society 
will impose upon him. 

Throughout the civilized world the ac- 
quirement of knowledge has been the in- 
centive of men's ambition; but here, in 
progressive America, the general laws of 
philosophy, the wonders of science, and the 
abstruse doctrines of theology are made 
subservient to the accumulation of money ; 
so powerful is the sway of this necessary 
evil that it warps the understanding, cor- 
rupts the conscience, corrodes affection, 
friendship, and patriotism, and turns the 
very virtues of congeniality into perverse- 
ness; its seductive allurements check im- 
partial legislation, penetrates the piivacy 
of Executive prerogatives, and guides the 
destiny of legal authority. In such an 
age and struggling under sueh diverse cir- 
cumstances, the Anglo-African, now only 
nominally recognized, will be forced to 
gain the control of that element which ac- 
complishes so much, and without which all 
things languish and decay; are they pre- 
pared to sacrifice their accustomed ease of 
living, to enter the wilderness amid bleak 
winds and storms, to hew towering trees, 
to engage the sterile and rugged earth, 
with her huge boulders and uncounted 
rocks, which may consume years of toil 
before labor will be rewarded ; in order to 
build cities, rear churches and school-houses 
so that home may be happy in the success 
of free institutions; it is here where man- 
kind will become ennobled, minds embel- 
lished, blood nourished, bones and muscles 
strengthened, in the children who are 
growing to maturity, to combat the degra- 
dation which poverty exercises to her dis- 


Among the prominent features that will 
charactarize the future, will be the respec- 
tive grades that men will occupy in society; 
position must be attained at all hazards, 
whatever class embraces menial pursuits 
to the exclusion of all other employments, 
must remain in a state of vassalage, and a 
consequent inferiority; equal advantages 
flow through the sources of equal motives 
and respect; that a race of people inured 
for hundreds of years to perform the mean- 
est duties of life, can, at one bound, imitate 
the controlling class in the intricacies of 
commerce, the perplexities of professions, 
and the civilizing influences of education, 
none will pretend to maintain; but that 
the fathers and mothers — the pupils of the 
school of time — have a most sacred obliga- 
tion in preparing the rising child for all 
the conditions that may be entailed, is 
clearly apparent and expedient. 

The future to the Anglo-African resem- 
bles the genial drops of the dew to the 
sprouting vegetation ; there is a self-respect 
to one another deficient which must be 
changed, the rank weeds must be torn from 
the soil, so that fragrant flowers may bud 
and perfume the surrounding air. The 
young babe in the cradle, when it com- 
mences its lispings, should be taught the 
grand idea of the natural equality of the 
human family, that all distinctions ensue 
from the impress of intellect and native 
power, and wherever its mark is discerned, 
whether enveloped under the fair skin of 
the Anglo-American or the swarthy, repul- 
sive countenance of the African, it is none 
the less a gem to the votaries of letters; 
the rare and priceless gifts of nature are 
an inheritance seldom enjoyed, but are 
composed of qualities which will only com- 
mand its intrinsic value in the time which 
is to come. 




There have neverbeen two subjects which 
have so deeply engrossed the public mind 
as the two which stand at the head of this 
article; and never were questions of more 
importance or greater interest discussed in 
our land. Temperance, the greatest bles- 
sing, next to liberty, which has ever agi- 
tated the minds of any people upon the 
globe, has at last gained a permanent foot- 
ing in our country. Years of toil, of weary, 
wasting toil, have passed ere this has been 
gained; many noble, warm-hearted hus- 
bands, fathers, sons and brothers, have 
gone down to drunkards' graves, while the 
glorious work of reform has been going on ; 
and scores of suffering wives, mothers, and 
sisters, have prayed daily that the curse 
might be removed; those prayers wrung 
from bleeding, agonized hearts, have enter- 
ed the ear of the great Avenger, and the 
curse has been stayed. The flood of in- 
temperance has been, in a measure, dried 
up; and by the help of the Most High, we 
shall yet see the spotless banner of total 
abstinence waving over the United States ! 

North and South go hand in hand in this 
great and noble reform — but the question 
of human rights is sectional, and ever will 
be; but, though only a portion of the Union 
engage in this glorious work, it will pros- 
per. The North is strong in intelligence 
and moral worth, while the South is weak ; 
the North has right and justice on her side, 
while the South has naught save tyrrany, 
oppression, and wrong: — and while God 
lives in heaven, the cry of the bondman 
ascends not in vain. 

Human rights — what are they? The 
right to belong to yourself; the right to 
pursue any occupation which will secure 
comfort to yourself and friends (providing 
always that your occupation be an honest 
one); the right to think and act with the 
powers of mind and body which the Crea- 
tor has given, and not to have another 

think and act in your stead. It is un" 
necessary to enumerate, what human rights 
properly are is plain to every unprejudiced, 
thinking mind; and the Constitution of the 
United States has told us in a few terse 
terms what the human rights of the people 
of this Union were meant to be; but only 
on one side of Mason & Dixon's line is 
that clause of the Constitution observed, 
and — shame that I must tell it, — but even 
here at ,the North, where we pretend to 
uphold human rights, there are States (or 
rather is a State), for I believe there is but 
one, —where none are really free to carry 
out the principles of the Constitution unless 
God gave him a white skin. Yes, there is 
a State here at the North, whose laws limit 
the man or woman, — aye,— and child, in 
whose veins flows African blood, to certain 
rules and regulations; and yet we call 
ourselves a free people, we glory in our 
rights, and our African brother at our side 
has no right; the pursuit of happiness 
which the Constitution grants him is pro- 
scribed to certain narrow limits, and he is 
scarcely human in the eyes of the masses. 
''Surely God will bring this people into 
judgement for all these things." 

The African child is debarred from the 
public schools in the State of Indiana, the 
laws of that State say: "He shall not be 
admitted as a pupil in the public schools 
of the State;" and yet the people of this 
State boast of their freedom ! The man 
who has a black skin pays tax for property 
as well as the man with a (so-called) white 
skin, and yet the former has no right to 
receive the benefit of that tax by having 
his child educated at the public school— is 
this human right? A temperance organi- 
zation is formed; surely in this great and 
noble cause, a cause dear to the heart of 
every philanthropist, a cause that has done 
and is doing so much for the amelioration 
of our race, a cause in which all feel inter- 



ested; surely the colored brother or sister I creatures to be trampled upon thus in all 
can sit here, can have a voice here where coming time? "We answer emphatically 
both sexes meet, even woman, who hasjiVb/ Just as sure as God reigns in the 
been next to the Anglo- African in point of j heavens, the cause of the oppressed will 
right, even she is here, and her brother \ reach His ear and His mighty arm will be 
surely can come? But no, in parts of this outstretched to aid those who have no hel- 
State the negro has no human rights; and per. The cause of humanity is in the 
I do not wonder that he sometimes doubts 1 hands of a just God and He will teach His 
his humanity. instruments how to work in this cause — let 

Can this state of things continue ? Will j us learn of Him. 
the all- wise Creator suffer a portion of his ' 

% fclorb for % "Smitf) fam%" 

If your name be not Smith, dear reader, 
skip over this article; it does not concern 
you; it is a family matter, in which the 
humblest member of a tribe whose num- 
bers are myriads, essays to give aid and 
comfort to his synonimes, in the hope that 
he may enable them to bear with exem- 
plary patience, a nime, the worst thing 
about which that can be said is — that it is 
"so common." And this humble individual 
hopes, before he gets through, to convince 
this great family, race, or variety of man- 
kind that the most comfortable, nay, the 
most distinguished circumstance connected 
with this great name, is, that it is so com- 
mon; and this shall be proven, on grounds 
not fanciful, but thoroughly scientific, wor- 
thy the attention of the Smithsonian (a 
mere mongrel Smith) Institute itself. 

Those antiquarians who trace this pat- 
ronymic to the pure Anglo-Saxon word 
" Smith? smith ian; or the Dutch Smicl; 
or the German Schmid, sclimid-e/i ; or the 
Swedish Smed, smed-a, one who smii-eth 
(sc.) with a hammer, fail to recoguize the 
real source of this venerable name. The 
Smiths are older than the Anglo-Saxons, 
they were mighty among that great race 
who have left us the Sanscrit tongue; 
which could easily be shown, but, as the 

majority of our readers are not familiar 
with that language, we shall be content 
with a comparatively modern but still very 
ancient proof of the source of this name. 
Take down your Homer, gentle reader, 
and glan .e from the thirty-seventh to the 
thirty-ninth line of the first Iliad: — 

Kluthi mcu, Argurotoz * * 

Smin'hcu! * * * * 

which freely translated reads: — 

Hear me, Bearer of the sitter boic * * 

O Smith /**♦** 

We know that this is not the accepted 
reading of this passage, for most, if not all, 
Homeric critics agree with Aristarchus, the 
grammarian, in deriving this appellative 
Smintheu, from Sminthe, a town in Troas, 
which, Apolio having freed from mice, in 
pure gratitude erected a statue in honor of 
this noble act of his. Whoever heard of 
people raising a statue to a mouse-killer? 
It would be little else than doing like hon- 
or to the Lyonses and Costars of our time 
and city. 

Then, look at the context in Homer. 
Chryses, priest of Appollo, is in deep dis- 
tress; Lyrnessus, a city of Troas, having 



been taken and plundered by the Greeks, 
his daughter, the darling of his heart, the 
beautiful Astynome, fell to the share of 
Agamemnon; the poor old man, in deep 
distress, went to the Grecian camp and 
sought to recover possession of the idol of 
his old age; the proud and cruel "ruler of 
men," Agamemnon, haughtily refuses his 
solicitations; and then, as a last resort, the 
aged priest calls upon the god before whose 
altar he ministers, and beseeches from him 
aid and vengeance. The grandeur of his 
prayer, "Hear me ! Bearer of the silver 
bow !" is equal to the occabion ; would he 
be likely, in apostrophizing Apollo, to say, 
"Thou bearer of the silver bow, who cir- 
clest round Ohryses and the majestic land, 
who rulest Tenedos — thou mouse-killer /" 
Would it not be far more in keeping with 
the occasion, for him, holding in memory 
the great family — great through all time, 
and of which Apollo was doubtless the ce- 
lestial head — to exclaim, O Smith! 

Aristarchus, the learned pedagogue, un- 
questionably became of this opinion before 
his death, for it is recorded of him that in 
his old age he grew fretful, (and doubtless 
remorseful at the great wrong he had done 
the "Smith family"), became dropsical and 
finally starved himself to death. 

So much for the antiquity of the "Smith 
family." It is not only a numerous family 
but one of marvellous continuity. Our 
New England friends think it a great mat- 
ter to be able to trace back their genealogy 
to some cadaverous, psalm-singing, old 
codger, who knelt on Plymouth rock the 
other day. And our Old England friends 
take airs upon themselves if they can trace 
back their names to any one of the filli- 
busters who swelled the ranks of William 
of Normandy when he won the field of 
Hastings. Shall we of the "Smith family" 
any longer conceal the glorious fact that 
our ancestors were at the siege of Troy, 
holding rank with the gods themselves? 

Take up the New York Directory for 

1859-GO, Smith, descendant of Apollo! 
and you will find that while the Johnsons 
of the city aforesaid only fill four or five 
columns, the Jacksons three or four, the 
Williamses still fewer, the "Smiths" occupy 
twenty-one columns and number 10,060 
house-holders, which (calculated by the 
Smith multiplication table), gives 50,000 
Smith men, women and children on the 
island of Manhattan 1 If you have hitherto 
been shocked and mortified at so many 
bearing this vulgar name, be shocked and 
mortified no longer. Let the Laumonier, 
the Zin, and others who muster but one or 
at most two names, turn up their noses at 
your very common, and take on airs at 
their very uncommon, nay rare, name. 
The very rarity of their names betrays 
feebleness of stock — and geology tells us 
that, rarity is the precursor of extinction! 
They are dying out, poor devils, their 
pride is a harmless idiosyncracy which may 
well tickle the fancy of an expiring race. 
Our numbers, on the contrary, make the 
symbol of our strength: we are not dying 
out, we are thoroughly alive and likely to 
live and "multiply and replenish the earth n 
Perhaps some outsider — not one of the 
"family" — who has, notwithstanding our 
preliminary warning, read this paper thus 
far, throws it down carelessly or skips over 
the rest of it, supposing that he has "the 
hang of the thing," and that our next step 
must be to glorify the "Smith family" by 
recounting from history and biography the 
noble deeds done by various individuals 
of the name of Smith. Let him throw 
down the magazine or skip the rest of this 
paper — but thou, O Smith ! 

"tender and true" 

resolutely keep on, altho' it be dull read- 
ing, and learn how the greatness of our 
family, the distinction of our family, and 
the power of our family all rest upon a 
truly scientific basis — a basis which can no 
more be shaken than the primeval rock, 
which our family truly represents; while 



the gneiss, the sandstone, and the tertiary 
formations (such names as the Thompsons, 
the Johnsons, nay, even the great alluvial 
family of the Macs'), can no more vie with 
us in strength or durability than soft mud 
can cope with graywacke. 

We are now prepared, O brother Smith, 
or sister Smith— for both have or will have 
an interest in the antiquity and the contin- 
uity of our name— we are now prepared 
to enter the secret arcana which unfold our 
greatness and our destiny. 

Charles Darwin — worthy to have been 
named Charles Smith — of England, has 
written a book which he^ entitles, " On the 
Origin of Species by Means of Natural 
Selection, or the Preservation of Favored 
Races in the Struggle for Life.'' 1 Stop 
just here, Smith, read that title again — 
"D'ye see the place?" If you don't see it, 
let me explain. 

But, in limine, who are you, Smith? 
In moderate circumstances, of course. The 
wealthy Smiths do not patronize our ma- 
gazine; they are close-fisted among the 
close-fisted — regular dime-squeezers, and 
up-start-ish at that. We prefer to believe 
you to be one of the torZ-fisted not the 
c/ose-fisted of the Smiths; a house-painter, 
for instance, sitting quietly, waiting tea, 
after a hard day's work, yourself the four- 
teenth or fifteenth son of the venerable 
Smith jmter, and nobly "taking after your 
father," seipsum, hustled, tugged at, punch- 
ed, teased, beleaguered, cuffed, dragged, 
inveigled, frowned at, groaned at, jerked, 
kicked, loved by as many little Smiths, 
(Smithiculce?) as I have piled up perfect 
participles in this sentence, a perfect Smith 
(calling you papa) for each perfect parti- 
ciple ; — and with the pleasing but worn and 
wear} 7 smile of the Olive Branch (how can 
she be named without caps?) from whom 
sprang these tendrils (and rough-rills); 
with busy needle bending over a curious 
paralellogram of fine linen with wings (or 
arm-holes) jutting out at two of the angles. 

Don't be down-hearted, my dear fellow, 
you are in the midst of a glorious destiny, 
the pivot, perhaps, on which for the mo- 
ment "our family" rests and revolves; 
cheer up with this comforting stave: — 

"Fill the cup and fill the can, 
Let us have a bout till morn . 
Every minute dies a man, 

[A Johnson 1] 
Every minute one is bom." 

[A. Smiih, of course.] 

Do you "see the plaie" now? — "natural 
selection ;" "favored races." 

Darwin is a profoundly learned natura- 
list. He has devoted twenty years of close 
and ardent study to the profound problem 
of the manner in which living beings, from 
the sponge up to mankind, have peopled 
the earth from the dawn of creation until 
now; why they differ so much in appear- 
ance, in functions, in relations and in the 
end subserved by their being. In his book 
he gives the results of these years of study, 
only results, which he informs us are based 
upon an examination and comparison of aU 
the tribes, genera, species, sub-species and 
varieties of birds, animals, insects, fishes 
and plants that the patient labor of natu- 
ralists have placed on record: this is doubt- 
less the very widest generalization ever 
made, and the book bears evidence that it 
has been well and carefully and acutely 
made. The grand result of these labors 
is the announcement of the Catholic idea, 
that the Creator, instead of putting on ap- 
ron and rolling up sleeves in the laboratory 
of nature, and manufacturing each separate 
genus and each separate species by a sep- 
arate and peculiar manipulation, and then 
setting them down in pairs, nicely and 
safely in the valley of the Andes or the 
Himmalaya (or perchance making up a 
separate pair for each locality) — the Crea- 
tor simply set in motion the earliest form 
of organism (a crystallization of quartz, e. 
g.) and out of this, favored by concurrently 
favoring circumstances, grew a higher and 



a higher organism. 

"Beast, bird, fish, insect, that no eye can see, 
No glass can reach from thee to infinite, 
From infinite to thee !'' 

This grand, this catholic idea wipes out 
the American School of Ethnology with 
its leaders, Nott, Leconte and Agassiz. 
The bungling philosophers who would bend 
the Almighty to their puerile ideas of cre- 
ating five or six species of mankind, at in- 
tervals of time or space in the earth's his- 
tory, receive their quietus without even 
being named. Mr. Darwin shows very 
clearly that mankind are not only of one 
origin, but that origin — common to all — 
passes through all the inferior gradations 
of animals (apes included * ), plants and 
crystals. So that the Egyptians in wor- 
shipping the Ibis, cats and the sacred bull, 
were possibly governed by aruncular in- 

Another dogma of our American School 
of Ethnology receives a coup cle grace from 
the unconsciously severe Darwin. Accord- 
ing to Nott & Co., the alleged -\ short-liv- 
edness and sterility of the great mulatto 
race (the y oiler stationed it y, eh, Brother 
Garnet?) arises from the fact that they are 
the products of two different species of 
mankind, the negro one species and the 
white man the other species. This very 
plausible theory is contradicted utterly by 
the fact shown by Darwin that a crossing 
of different species of the same genus is 
often, and of the mongrel offspring, is most 
frequently fertile: while, on the other hand, 
in and-in-breeding, that is an admixture 
of closely allied individuals, produces a 
short-lioed, imbecile, decaying offspring. 

* The common parents alike of Carthagenian 
and Caucasian, Anglo- African and Anglo-Saxon. 

t We say alleged short-lividness and sterility, 
because there do not exist anywhere any statistics 
which prove this allegation. Twenty years ago 
Dr. Nott published statistics on this point, which 
he claimed were made up from the bills of mortali- 
ty in Boston and New York. The late Dr. Forry J 

Intermarriage of cousins and nearer rela- 
tives, among the royal families in Europe, 
among the society of Friends, and in one 
of the Western States,have led to the most 
deplorable results of this character. Hence 
it follows, that if the mulattoes are short- 
lived and sterile as Nott & Co. assert, it 
only proves the absolute consanguinity, 
the near relationship by blood and by de- 
scent, of the negro and the white man. 

But forgive me, Smith ! for wandering 
into the side issue of the laws of multiply- 
ing. Let us look at Darwin as he affects 

Mr. Darwin asserts that there has ever 
been going on a struggle for existence: 
that infinitely more individuals are born 
than survive even a small portion of their 
normal length of existence: and infinitely 
more perish in the germ than reach even 
independent existence. In that roe of the 
shad, dear Smith, which you contentedly 
munch whiie you glance over this paper, 
how many thousands of "possible shad" 
contribute their innocent lives at each 
movement of your maxillary bones; and 
for what? Why simply that you, exem- 
plary member of the "Smith family ," may 
accumulate fibrin enough therefrom to give 
you new muscle to do your day's work at 
house painting to-morrow, and thus earn 
food and clothing and shelter for the dear 
darling branch of the "Smith family" to 
which you hold the fond relation of patew 
familias. The fisherman who took those 
shad inadvertently tipped the boat, fell 

exposed the fraud by showing that no such statis- 
tics had ever been gathered in either city. These 
statistics of Dr. Nott "break out" periodically in 
the pro-slavery press : Dr. Forry's contradiction 
is forgotten : an instance of a falsehood being 
longer lived than the truth it vilifies. So far from 
the mulattoes being short-lived, or as Dr. Nott ex- 
presses "never a race," a distinguished European 
ethnologist, M. de Gobineau, asserts and proves 
that the Egyptians were a race of mulattoes. 
"Essai sur Vincgalitc des races liumaincs." Tome 
I., Paris, 1855. 



over, and was drowned; the man who 
made the rope out of which the net was 
woven was also cut off by accident, and all 
these lives went out, while you and yours, 
O Smith, survive— and why ? The myr- 
iads of possible shad perish directly, be- 
cause if all the offspring of the shad family 
should survive and live to the full length 
of days allotted to the shad, the ocean 
would in a few years be solidified with 
shad — there would be no room for any 
other fish, nay, for even water. This ac- 
counts for the shad, but why have these 
men perished ? Hear Darwin: "As many 
more of each species are born than can 
possibly survive ; and as, consequently, 
there is a frequently recurring struggle for 
existence, it follows that any being, if it 
vary however slightly in any manner profi_ 
table to itself, under the complex and vary, 
ing conditions of life, will have a better 
chance of surviving, and thus be naturally 
selected." "Natural selection almost inevi- 
tably causes much extinction of the less 
improved forms of life."* And again, 
t u How will the struggle for existence act^? 
Can the principle of selection, which we 
have seen so potent in the hands of man ) 
apply to nature? I think we shall see 
that jt can act most effectually. Let it be 
borne in mind in what endless member of 
strange peculiarities our domestic produc- 
tions, and, in a lesser degree, those under 
nature vary, and how strong the hereditary 
tendency is. Under domestication it may 
be truly said that the whole organization 
becomes in some degree plastic. Let it be 
borne in mind how infinitely complex and 
close-fitting are the mutual relations of all 
organic beings to each other and to their 
physical conditions of life. Can it then be 
thought improbable, seeing that variations 
useful to man have undoubtedly occurred, 
that other variations useful in some way 

♦Darwin "On the Origin of Species," &c., 

tlbid. p. 77. 

to each being in the great and complex 
battle of life, should sometimes occur in the 
course of thousands of generations? If 
such do occur, can we doubt (remembering 
that many more individuals are born than 
can possibly survive) that individuals hav- 
ing any advantage, however slight, over 
others, would have the best chance of sur- 
viving and of pro-creating their kind ? On 
the other hand, we may feel sure that any 
variation in the least degree injurious 
would be rigidly destroyed. This preser- 
vation of favorable variations and the re- 
jection of injurious variations, I call Natu- 
ral Selection." 

"As man can produce and certainly has 
produced a great result by his methodical 
and unconscious means of selection, what 
may not nature effect ? Man can only act 
on external and visible characters; nature 
cares nothing for appearances, except in so 
far as they may be useful to any being. 
She can act on every internal organ, on 
every shade of constitutional difference, on 
the whole machinery of life. Man selects 
only for his own good; Nature only for 
that of the being which she tends. Every 
selected character is fully exercised by her; 
and the being is placed under well-suited 
conditions of life. Man keeps the natives 
of many climates in the same country; he 
seldom exercises each selected character in 
some peculiar and gifted manner. * * * * 
He often begins his selection by some half 
monstrous form, or at least by some modi- 
fication prominent enough to catch his eye 
or be useful to him. Under nature the 
slightest difference of structure or consti- 
tution may well turn the nicely-balanced 
scale in the struggle of life, and be pre- 
served. How fleeting are the wishes and 
efforts of man ! how short his time ! and 
consequently how poor will his products 
be, com] ared with those accumulated by 
nature during whole geological periods. 
Can we wonder, then, that Nature's pro- 
ductions should be far truer in character 



than man's productions; that they should 
be infinitely better adapted to the most 
complex conditions of life, and should 
plainly bear the stamp of far higher work- 

"It may be said that natural selection is 
daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout 
the world, every variation, even the slight- 
est; rejecting that which is bad, preserving 
and adding up all that is good; silently 
and insensibly working, whenever and 
wherever opportunity offers, at the im- 
provement of each organic being in rela- 
tion to its organic and inorganic conditions 
of life. We see nothing of these slow 
changes in progress, until the hand of time 
has marked the long lapse of ages, and then 
so imperfect is our view into long past 
geological ages, that we only see that the 
forms of life are now different from what 
they formerly were." 

"Although natural selection can only 
act through and for the good of each being, 
yet characters and structures, which we 
are apt to consider of very trifling impor- 
tance, may thus be acted on. When we 
see leaf-eating insects green, and the bark, 
feeders mottled gray, the Alpine ptarmi- 
gan white in winter, the red grouse the 
color of the heather, and the black grouse 
that of peaty earth, we must believe that 
that these tints are of service to these 
birds and insects in preserving them from 

"Illustrations of the actions of Natural 
Selections. — In order to make it clear how? 
as I believe, natural selection acts, I mus* 
beg permission to give one or two imagi- 
nary illustrations. Let us take the case 
of a wolf, which preys on various animals^ 
securing some by craft, some by strength, 
and some by fleetness; and let us suppose 
that the fleetest prey, a deer for instance, 
had from any change in the country in- 
creased in numbers, or that other prey had 
decreased in numbers, during the season 
of the year when the wolf is hardest press- 

ed for food. I can, under such circumstan- 
ces, see no reason to doubt that tire swift- 
est and slimmest wolves would have the 
best chance of surviving, and so be pre- 
served and selected." * 

And now, Smith, house-painter, I have 
done. You see very clearly into our great 
family secret; you see that we are a nu- 
merous family by the Great Law of Natu- 
ral Selection; we hold our patent directly 
from Nature herself, our Alma Mater, 

"hos Smitheos ampkibebakas," 
who has from time immemorial, away 
back to the geological ages, cared for, im- 
proved, favored and developed, out of all 
mankind, the great "Smith family." Mr. 
Darwin calls the naturally selected races 
or varieties the "favored races," we are, 
therefore, O Smith, of the favored races- 
favored by nature herself, and, therefore, 
according to the great naturalist, we "bear 
the stamp of (her) far higher workmanship." 
Instead of suffering ourselves to be snub- 
bed any longer for the common name we 
bear, let us rather look with proper com- 
miseration on those dwindling, evanescent, 
dying-out members of society who bear 
names the very exclusiveness of the sound 
of which, and the unfrequency ot persons 
called by the same, prove them to be dead 
or dying branches of some effete race 
whose only hope of surviving is in their 
marrying into the great "Smith family." 

We should like to pursue this matter 
farther, O Smith, and point out hoiv na- 
ture has thus favored "our family;" but 
this might excite the envy of the less fa- 
vored races, and urge them to combine in 
some way to serve our family as the Re- 
publicans served Seward at Chicago. It is 
enough to say here that wo are a race of 
respectable marrying men; that we are 
blessed with children, a large proportion of 
which are boys, who, like their respective 
patres familiarum, (?) in their turn become 
heads of families, principally boys. And 
herein seems the secret by which dame 


Nature preserves and favors the Smiths; 
what "slimness and speed" are to the 
wolves in Darwin's illustration of Natural 
Selection, the preponderance of boy chil- 
dren is to the "Smith family." In a word, 
"we are the boys." Keep this secret to 
yourself, dear Smith, don't let it leak out; 
do not the next time you call on your 
friend Rosin, or Peterson, or Lennard, who 
have no children at all, or on your friend 
Rae or Kauffman, who have only gid chil- 
dren^ do not put on a forward conscious- 
ness of the relative greatness of your own 
"Naturally Selected" family. 

An idea has just seized us— who was the 
great progenitor of the Smith family? 

| What individual, and at what remote age, 
I was it whom nature first endowed with 
j boy-producing proclivities ? Perhaps the 
i Directory will help us, for in all probabili- 
! ties his "Christian name" or "given name" 
1 will be held by the great majority of the 
Smiths. In the Directory, of the Smiths 
there is but one Adam, (therefore he was 
not the first of the Smiths) a few Benja- 
mins, fewer Josephs, (among the Smiths) 
a large number of Charlies, still mora 
Jameses, but the largest by a whole column 
of the Smiths bear the doubtless primeval 
patronymic of 

John Smith. 



Aunt Melissa has had several solicita- 
tions to take boarders, and as Miranda and 
myself are ready and willing to assist in 
making them comfortable, she has consent- 
ed. On last Thursday our first arrival 
came. They were all ladies: an old lady 
and her two nieces. Saturday we had an- 
other accession to our family in the per- 
sons of two individuals from the city; they 
are both intelligent men, and I hope they 
will be agreeable, though one of them does 
not impress me very favorably ; the other 
is more pleasant, but has a vast amount of 
egotism about him ; he seems to be in per- 
petual good humor with himself and highly 
impressed with bis" industry and acquire- 
ments, yet he is good-natured, tells amus- 
ing stories and keeps us part of the time 
laughing. The other one, I think, is prob- 
ably as egostical as he is, but he manifests 
it in another way; he spends part of the 
time in taking care of his dignity ; his pres- 
ence reminds me of a straight-jacket, it 

impedes the freedom of your motions. 

The old lady is what I call a kind of 
fussy-brained old body, well-meaning, but 
her feelings lie on the surface, intellect not 
much cultivated, and somewhat deficient 
in good common sense, rather dressy for 
her age and too juvenile in her manners, 
with quite a spice of vanity in her compo- 
sition. She is a woman of the world who 
does not know how to "grow old grace- 
fully." Her nieces seem to be as much 
unlike as it is possible for two rational hu- 
man beings to be. The younger one, who 
is called Anna, is a very dressy, showy 
girl, full of airs and pretensions, has two 
prominent ideas in her head, and they are 
making a fine appearance and catching a 
beau; and has the silly habit of turning 
up her nose and making fun of people. 
The other one, named Emma Jane, is a 
sad, quiet looking girl, plain in her dress 
and unpretending in her manners; she has 
very little to say Sometimes I hear her 



aunt reproving her for moping about an 3 
being so unsociable; I heard her answer 
very sadly, "I can't help it, 1 have no 
heart for society." 

I think something must have saddened 
her life, possibly 1 will find it out before 
they leave. Last week we had an anti- 
slavery lecture by a young lady in the 
adjoining village; we heard it late in the 
afternoon, but resolved immediately to go, 
at least all of us except the student, he 
hesitated, but Miranda said "Oh do come!" 
and that decided him. I think he went 
more co gratify Miranda than to please 
himself. 1 think he is opposed to female 
speaking, thinks it is not woman's province 
or place to be a public lecturer. However, 
he went; and I think from the attention 
he paid that he was interested. The speak- 
er showed the nature of slavery, its terrible 
invasions of human rights and its fearful 
reaction on Church and State. It was 
an earnest, straightforward appeal to the 
reason , j udgment, and the highest faculties of 
the soul; its somber shadows relieved here 
and there with a sparkle of wit or a ray of 
hamor. Her voice was clear and sad, pos- 
sessing a penetrating power that seemed 
to linger and vibrate upon the air, as if 
she herself had met with some great sor- 
row and conversed with it. She spoke for 
about one hour and a half, and then sat 
down. She looked very pale and laid her 
hand upon her heart as if she was suffer- 
ing; her apparent fragility awakened my 
sympathy, and I felt as if I could have 
thrown my arms around her and pillowed 
her head upon my bosom, I felt so attract- 
ed to her. After the meeting was over, 
Aunt Melissa invited her home. She look- 
ed so grateful, as Aunt Melissa grasped her 
hand so cordially and pressed her to come 
home with us. Now, thought I, Aunt 
Melissa has invited this lady home, and 
she forgets that we all came here in the 
market-wagon. T commenced to apologize. 

"Oh! do not make any apology," she 
replied, "I like a wagon of this kind, it 
lcoks so social." 

Well, said I to myself, I like that speech, 
for it looks as if you are not starched up. 
After reaching home we sat and conversed 
awhile, and then on retiring to bed, the 
leclurer and I shared one room. \V e a-ked 
a few questions and got a little better ac- 
quainted l efore we fell asleep. She is not 
so easily reed as seme of the rest of our 

guests, she is generally frank, but not en- 
tirely unreserved; well, I may understand 
her better in a few days. How I do love 
to scan and read characters, every human 
soul is a study worthy of patient research 
and careful investigation. 

The lecturer has been with us a week, 
and it is interesting to hear the various 
comments she draws forth. The old lady 
says she is a curious body and don't know 
what to make of her. Anna says she has 
not a bit of style about her, wonders where 
she could have been raised, was surprised 
to hear that she never wore a low-necked 
dress or short sleeves as a full evening 
dress, is really puzzle i what to make of 
her. Some think her a little proud and 
haughty, but to me she is an enigma that 
lean hardly solve. At one time she looks 
so self-sustained as if she never felt the 
need of human sympathy; it seems to me 
as if there is something in her eyes that 
looks out half defiantly, as if they said, I ask 
nothing of society, no sympathy, no recog- 
nition, no notice; I only want the privilege 
of being let alone: and then again there 
comes over her such a look of appealing, 
half-despairing earnestness, as if she was 
being shipwrecked and was grasping eager- 
ly at some helping hand. I think she 
struggles against her nature, that she strives 
to sink the woman in her, and it is this 
conflict of the two natures which makes 
her so hard to be understood. There is 
something about her which always seems 
to me as if there were s >me deep unwritten 
tragedy connected with her life. 1 think 
some hearts are graveyards thickly studded 
with tombstones and memorials; I think 
if we could read these inscriptions we would 
pause at many spots and read, "Sacred to 
the memory of departed friendship;" "Here 
sleeps of a broken vow;" "The ashes of a 
blighted love;" "An early faded hope;" — 
while many a hillock green in the memory 
as the burial-place of vanished joys would 
rise before our mournful vision. I think 
the heart of this woman has a large corner 
full of such memorials, through all her 
apparent coldness I see the woman's heart. 
I see it regining in her verses, I hear it sob- 
bing through her speeches and I sometimes 
detect it in the passionate tenderness of 
her voice and the mournful radiance of 
her eye. That woman his ha 1 a sal his- 
tory; some call her distant wlirepelliag 
in her manners, I have hs ird lav spoken 



of as a heartless old maid, but I think i 
we knew her heart we would pity w here 
wo censure, and blame where we condemn 
As self-sustained as she seems now,I think 
the hour has been when she was a clinging, j 
loving, dependent woman, clinging to hu- , 
man hearts that have repulsed her and 
thrown back the deep love of her heart to 
stagnate at its fountain. How forcibly 
does this bring to mind the words of the 
ill-fated L. E. L. on the death of Mrs. 
Hemans: — 

"Oh! dearly purchased is the gift, 
The gift of song like thine ; 
A fated doom is her's who stands 
The priestess of the shrine." 

To-day I went into the room where the 
old woman and her nieces were talking; just 
as I went in I heard the aunt exclaim: 

"Oh ! it's all folly, moping and grieving 
yourself to death about that worthless fel- 
low; you ought to be ashamed of yourself.'' 

I turned to go out, not wishing to intrude) 
when the aunt said, "Don't go, Miss Jane? 
I do wish that you would help me to make 
this niece of mine see things in the right 
light. Here she is fretting herself to 
death about a man who is unworthy of 
her, when she has a good offer and could 
marry to-morrow. Here she might marry 
and do well, and have a fine home of her 
own, and somebody to wait on her, and 
she tells me she can't transfer her affections. 
Transfer her nonsense !" said the aunt, 
with an air of contempt and worldly wis- 
dom that kindled my indignation ; but I 
thought it best to keep calm, and yet hard- 
ly knew what to say ; and just then the 
young girl looked so appealingly at me 
that I felt like enlisting in her defence. 

"You say," said I, "that she has formed 
an unfortunate attachment ?" 

"Yes," said the aunt ; "but she had good 
sense enough left to break her engage- 
ment with him." 

"How long since?" 

"A few weeks," replied the aunt. 
"* ' "Oh, Aunt," said the niece, depreciating- 
ly, and feeling as if she, poor girl, was be- 
ing tortured by the conversation. * 

I excused myself, and left somewhat 
abruptly. In the afternoon we met again, 
and the aunt was absent. 

i: Miss Jane,' 1 said she, "did youlove any 

"Why, yes," said I. 

"Oh, no; did you love any man well 
enough to marry him ?" 
"Well, yes," said I. 

"Well, now you can understand me 
when I tell you what has made me so un- 
happy. 1 was on the eve of being married ; 
the day was set; my clothes were partly 

made, when ." And here she broke 

down and burst into tears. I drew her 
close to me, and laid her head upon my 
lap, for I knew that bosom's rain was 
good for her; it was a more hopeful sign 
than that cold, stony, restless manner 
which had characterized her. 

"And what," said I, "did he prove faith- 
less ?" 

"Oh, no," said she; "I would have borne 

"Did he die?" I inquired, becoming 

I more interested. 

"Oh, no; I would have borne that, but 

I just before the appointed day he was ac- 

! cused of committing a heavy forgery. 
Circumstantial evidence was against him, 
and he fled the country. I gave him up. 
I could have borne poverty and toil with 
him, but I could not brook dishonor; I 
could live in penury, but not in shame. 

i But, oh! it cost me so much suffering! And 
then the thought distresses me so much to 
think that had he not been preparing for 
the wedding he had not been so tempted — 
he had not fallen into sin ; and I feel that 

| if his future life is overshadowed, that in 

i some measure I have been the innocent 

! cause." 

"My dear child," said I, "you have 
| trouble enough without adding any such 
self-reproach to your trials." 

She drew closer to me as I said this, 
and looking up gratefully into my face, 

"I feel better since you have talked 
with me. Some of my other friends tried 
to sympathize with me, and I suppose they 
meant well, but they did not understand 
me: they seemed to think that I was meie- 

I ly grieving that I was deprived of the 
chance of getting a husband, when I ex- 
pected to be married, when that was one 

j of the least of my trials. I was grieved 
because I thought him upright, and was 
deceived; because I had grasped what I 
I thought a fair and lovely image, and 
found it a mouldering corpse. I was 

| grieved more for his sake than my own, 

| because he had overshadowed his own life 



and thrown a barrier between him and his 
anticipated happiness — and I am afraid 
that if I forsake him he will be ruined- 
that if I turn from him, he will become a 
hopeless wreck." 

"And would you," said I, "marry him 
under the circumstances ?" 

"Oh, no," said she. 

"I hope not," I replied. 

"Why, Miss Jane?"' 

"Because I think you have duties which 
you owe yourself and society, which de- 
mand of you that you should break the al- 
liance. In the first pHee, you would not 
be doing right to promise to honor a man 
whom you had ceased to respect; neither 
have you a right to introduce such a man 
into your family circle as one of its mem- 
bers, or to place him at the head of your 
home as the father of your children." 

"But, Miss Jane, could I not reform 

"You might; but then, my friend, is it 
not a dangerous experiment to marry a 
vicious man for the sake of reforming him? 
Is there no danger that instead of reform- 
ing him the result might be a downward 
re-action upon your own soul ? If you 
cannot reform a man before marriage, it is 
probable that you will fail afterwards. But 
do not, my friend, I entreat you, ally your- 
self to infamy and guilt from any false no- 
tions and romantic ideas ; you have trouble 
enough already, do not invite any more." 

"Yes," she replied, "I feel it is a great 
trouble that now overshadows my life; but 
my aunt and cousin, and some of the rest 
of my friends say to me, 'Emma, you 
ought to be glad that you have made such 
an escape;' and others say to me, 'You 
would not catch me grieving about any 
one that would act as he has.' Now, when 
they tell me it is not worth grieving about, 
I think that they are either ignorant or 
heartless. It don't do people any good 
that are in trouble to tell them that they 
have no trouble and ought to be happy, 
when they are almost distracted with suf- 
fering, does it Miss Jane? The suffering 
is real — at least it is real to them. But 
everybody does not understand that. 
Possibly some people cannot comprehend 
any mental suffering they have not expe- 
rienced themselves. It is we who have 
suffered should learn to sympathize. 
Have you ever suffered, Miss Jane ? you 
appear so cheerful aud active, I thought 

you never had any trouble. Never had a 

fit of the blues?" 

Just then we heard a bustling footstep, 
and the aunt made her appearance at the 
door, looking half vexed and somewhat 

"Well, Emma, I have been hunting and 
calling after you this half hour. 1 thought 
you were in the garden, and I have been 
all over the house, and here you are ! I 
want you to put the lace on my cap bor- 
der. I have been asking Anna, but she 
puts me off, saying. Must wait a few min- 
utes/ and instead of doing it, she is paint- 
ing and powdering her face, and smearing 
the tallow on her hair, trying to make it 
look straight. I wish the girl would not 
take so much time to dress and fix her- 

"Very well, Aunt," she replied, and left 
to comply with the demand. 

"Now be sure," said the aunt, "to put 
on the lace full enough; I do hate a skim- 
py border, and Emma, child, do fix up my 
undersleeves for this evening; that's a good 
girl. Oh, dear me," said she, throwing 
herself on the sofa, or rather settee. "She 
is a good girl, but she gets so many curious 
chrotchets in her head. Now, she has a 
splendid offer for marriage, but she won't 
accept; she says she does not love him. 
His name is Mr. Graygoose. He is a 
widower, with a splendid home, and his 
first wife used to live like a perfect lady, 
had everything she wanted, and I tell you, 
there was no other woman among us that 
could outdress her; and she had such ele- 
gant jewelry. We used to be girls to- 

"Girls 1" said I; "what, would you have 
a young girl like her, only about nineteen 
or twenty years, marry a man of his age?" 

"Why, he is not so dreadful old. How 
old do you suppose I am ?" 

"I suppose about fifty." 

"Well, I am a little over that; but she 
had better be an 'old man's darling than 
a young man's slave.' " 

"Well, I do not see the necessity of be- 
ing either." 

"Well, I think that she has a good offer, 
and that when a woman has a good offer, 
she ought to have sense enough not to re- 
fuse it. I tell you, such offers are not to 
be picked up every day." 

"But suppose she does not love him." 

"But what is to hinder her from loving 



him if lie is good and kind to her, and 
gives her everything she wants ? Could 
not you love any man well enough to be 
his wife, if he always kept you in full and 
plenty ?" 

"I do not know — I never tried, and 1 
should never advise any woman to marry 
a man she did not love, for the sake of the 
most elegant home on earth." 

''Well, I would marry him, and let the 
love come afterwards." 

"But suppose there is no congeniality of 
souls, no union of hearts. Did you not love 
your husband before you married him ?" 

"Well, yes, I kind o' thought I did, but 
I was never dying in love with him or any 
other man, and we always got along com- 
fortably. He was easy, just like an old 
shoe, and I always did pretty much as I 
choosed. He liked to have his own way 
about things, and I had mine, and so we 

did not meddle with each other, but got 
along without any trouble But I do wish 
that Emma would accept that offer, for I 
think it is a good chance, and I hope she 
will not throw it away. I wish he wanted 
Anna, I guess she would jump at the 

Very likely, thought I, but said nothing 
on that score. I tried to reason with the 
old lady, but it seemed like throwing words 
away. A good match with her meant a 
man with plenty of money, and a good 
home to live in ; and for this she seemed 
perfectly willing to give up the youth and 
early womanhood of her niece; willing for 
the sake of a good home to see her married 
to a man more than twice her age, whose 
life was in its deeline, and upon whose 
brow old age was slowly creeping, all for 
the sake of a home. 

% nt t \ . 


A rock for ages stem and high, 
Stood frowning 'gainst the earth and sky ; 
And never bowed his haughty crest, 
When angry storms around him prest. 

Morn springing from the arms of night, 
Had often bathed his brow with light; 
And kissed the shadows from his face, 
With gentle love and tender grace. 

Day pausing at the gates of rest, 
Smiled on him from the distant west; 
And from her throne the dark browed night 
Threw round his path her softest light. 

And yet he stood unmoved and proud, 
Nor love, nor wrath his spirit bowed — 
He bared his brow to every blast, 
And scorned the tempest as it passed. 



One day a tiny, humble seed, 
The quickest eye would hardly heed, 
F«U trembling at that stern rock's base, 
And found a lowly hiding-place. 

A ray of light and drop of dew, 
Came with a message kind and true — 
They told her of the world so bright, 
Its love, its joy, and rosy light; 

And lured her from her hiding-place, 
To gaze upon earth's glorious face ; 
So peeping timid from the ground, 
She clasped the ancient rock around; 

And climbing up with childish grace, 
She held him with a close embrace — 
Her clinging was a thing of dread, 
Where'er she touched a fissure spread; 

And he who r d breasted many a storm, 
Stood frowning there a mangled form-; 
So truth dropped in the silent earth, 
May seem a thing of little worth — 
Till spreading round som& mighty wrongs 
It saps its pillars proud and strong. 

BY H. H. S. 

"Do these things mean nothing? What the 
tender and poetic youth dreams to-day and con- 
jures up with an articulate speech, is to-rnorrow 
the vociferated result of public opinion, and the 
day after is the charter of nations." — Phillips. 

The stars of the tropics are the guiding 
stars of the age. The sympathy of the 
world is with the South, and the tenden- 
cies of things are southward. The con- 
trolling influence of the great commercial 
staple of our Southern States, the growing 

demand for the productions of the tropics, 
the discovery of gold toward the torrid zone, 
and a consequent want of labor in that di- 
rection, indicate firmly the force of these as- 
sertions. Other causes apparently indi- 
rect or yet apparently opposed, such as 
the disappearance of slavery from Maine 
to Maryland, and the rapiditywith which 
the slaves are hurried further South, might 
be cited on the one hand, and on the other 
the fillibustering propensities of Southern 



^re-eaters as the unerring and immutable 
laws of destiny, guided by an all-wise and 
overruling Providence. The coral zoo- 
phite does not know that while it builds 
itself a house, it also creates an island for 
the world; and the master, as he pays the 
passage of his slave from the more North- 
ern slave States to New Mexico, is but the 
rude agent of a superior power, urging him 
to more inviting fields for interprise and 
for his higher and more responsible duties 
as a freeman. 

Reforms do not go backwards, nor filli- 
bustering northwards, and "nothing is more 
certain than that the people are to be free;" 
but the problem as to what position they 
are to sustain as freemen, is but little 
thought of, and, of course, less understood. 
It is true, some suggestions have been of- 
fered on this subject, foremost amongst 
which stands that of Mr. Helper, as the 
most absurd and ridiculous. It did not 
occur to Mr. Helper, when he suggested 
the broad idea of chartering all the vessels 
lying around loose for the huddling to- 
gether of the blacks after emancipation 
aud shipping them off to Africa, it did not 
occur to him that they were men, and 
might not want to go; at least it did not 
occur to him that they were men. Sol make 
this suggestion for his benefit, and for the 
benefit of those who may come after him, 
this being a question not to be settled by 
arbitrary means, but by means which shall 
meet the approbation of all parties concern- 
ed, nor yet forgetting that at the head of 
these parties stands He whose name is 
not to be mentioned without reverence. 

"Whence comes the colored people's in- 
stinctive horror of colonization in Africa? 
Colonizationists say they cannot account 
for it, since Africa is their fatherland. But 
if this was any argument, I could account 
for it by the simple affirmation: it is not 
their fatherland. The [truth is, time has 
shown that the causes which have produced 
races never to improve Africa, but to aban- 
don it and give their vigor and derive their 
strength from other climes, is not to be re- 
versed by the best efforts of the best men. 
Besides this, charity begins at home. Al- 
lowing the colonizationists, by sending a 
few handfulsof colored men to Africa, may 
plant the germ of civilization there, that 
the seed may spread or the fire may flame 
until the whole continent becomes illumi- 
nated with Christian love, and her sons 

stand forth regenerated and redeemed from 
the dark superstition that enthralled them. 

And what of that? It is a great deal, 
and a great deal more than we can hope 
for, and a hero is he who will sacrifice his 
life in making the attempt to bring about 
such a magnificent result; but, in doing 
this, very little will be accomplished for 
the millions who remain, increasing, on this 

Nevertheless, there is a growing dispo- 
sition among colored men of thought to 
abandon that policy which teaches them 
to cling to the skirts of the white people 
for support, and to emigrate to Africa, 
Hayti,or wherever else they may expect to 
better their condition; and it is encouraging 
to know that the time is at hand when men 
can speak their conviction on this subject, 
without being made the victim of illiterate 
abuse and indiscriminate denunciation, all 
of which is the natural result of more gen- 
eral information, and which will lead to 
the discovery at last of what is to be the 
final purpose of American slavery — the 
destiny of the colored race after slavery 
shall be abolished. 

The history of Hayti and Jamaica, 
and of the American tropics generally, in- 
dicate the propagation of the colored race, 
exclusive of the whites or blacks. This is 
simply calling things by their right names, 
for which the compiler of these facts ex- 
pects to be made the most popular writer 
of the age, of being highly flattered, infi- 
nitely abiued, feared, hated, and all that 
attends the discovery of truth generally. 
Throughout the West Indies, with the sin- 
gle exception of Cuba, the whites have 
been unable to keep up their numbers, 
and in that instance only by a recent flood 
of emigration on a large scale from Europe. 
The colored race, on the contrary, is per- 
fectly adapted to this region, and luxuriates 
in it; and it is only through their agency 
that some small portion of the torrid zone 
has been brought within the circle of civ- 
ilized industry. I have said their history 
would prove this. 

When discovered by the Spaniards, 
these islands were iuhabited by a colored 
people not unlike our Indians. Their 
homes were invaded; they were reduced 
to a state of miserable vassalage, and the 
proud Caucasian stalked about, the con- 
queror of every spot of earth his avarice or 
cupidity desired. The natives, unable to 



endure the persecution to which they were 
subjected, withered and fell like the au- 
tumn leaves, and Africa became the hunt- 
ing-ground of the slave pirate for hardier 
and more enduring slaves. 

Africa became (heir hunting-ground, and 
quiet villagers were startled in the dead 
of night to behold their huts in flames and 
to hear the shrieks of their fellow-men and 
fellow-women, who were being torn away 
from their native homes, as victims for the 
slave-ship, there to suffer all the tortures 
of the yoke and the branding-iron, and fi- 
nally to be landed, if at aU, on the Ameri- 
can coast, with no other prospect than that 
of a life-bondage spread out before them. 
This state of wickedness continued, so far 
as England was concerned, until its glar- 
ing outrages challenged the attention of 
the British realm, and until the Parliament 
of England passed an act declaring all 
British subjects should be free. "An act 
of legislation which, for justice and mag- 
nanimity, stands unrivalled in the annals 
of the world, and which will be the glory 
of England and the admiration of posterity, 
when her proudest military and naval 
achievements shall have faded from the 
recollection of mankind." An act of legis- 
lation which restored the liberties of eight 
hundred thousand of our fellow-men, and 
left them in possession of superior claims 
and circumstances to those from which they 
had been originally removed. Then came 
a series of American slanders; "Jamaica 
was ruined f "the negro unfit for freedom f 
and the downfall of prosperity and the loss 
of trade was everywhere said to be inevi- 

But the negro and his descendants are 
proof against slander and against the New 
York "Herald/' which terms are seen to be 
synonymous. Jamaica was not ruined — 
but, while these complaints were raised 
against her population, 40,000 land patents, 
varying from ten to one hundred acres 
each, were being taken up in a single year! 
Lands having been provided and schools 
introduced, happiness began to smile, pros- 
perity re-appeared, and the whole country 
was redeemed from what had been a field 
of terror to what promises to become the 
very garden of the Western world. 

This is said to be an axiom of politi- 
cal philosophy, upon which it is safe to re- 
ply : For any people to maintain their rights, 
they must constitute an essential part of 

the ruling element of the country in which 
they live. The whites of the tropics are 
but few in numbers. They have hereto- 
fore sustained themselves by their .supe- 
rior wealth and intelligence. But, as fast 
as the colored people rise in intelligence, 
their white rulers are pushed aside to make 
way for officers of their own race. This 
is perfectly natural. When a colony of 
Norwegians come over from Norway and 
settle a county in Wisconsin, do they elect 
a Yankee to represent them ? Norwegians 
elect Norwegians, Germans elect Germans, 
and colored men elect colored men, when- 
ever they have the opportunity. 

Even now a large majority of the subor- 
dinate officers of Jamaica, I understand, 
are colored men. The Parliament is about 
equally divided, and the Attorney-General 
and Emigration Agent-General are colored 
men; and it is fair to assume, within a few 
years of the date of this paper, there will 
not be a single white man throughout the 
West Indies occupying a position within 
the gift of the people. In Hayti there are 
now none white, and no white man, not 
even old Uncle Judge Taney himself, has 
there any rights that black men are bound 
to respect. The government of Hayti 
changes, but the Accune Blanc clause in 
her Constitution is unchangeable. 

A retired merchant of Philadelphia, a 
man of large thought and liberal views, 
having an experience of fifteen or twenty 
years residence in Hayti, in reply to certain 
letters asking for information and advice 
respecting the subject now under consider- 
ation, publishes a pamphlet in which he 
says: "There is a long view as well as a 
short view to be taken of every great ques- 
tion which bears upon human progress; 
but we are often unable or unwilling to 
take the former, until some time after a 
question is settled. 

" 'Manilest destiny' has been, for some 
years, a familiar and accepted phrase in 
the mouths of our politicians, and each 
class suggests a plan for carrying it out in 
accordance with its own specific interests, 
or some preconceived theory. The pro- 
slavery adventurer may yet gain a footing 
in Central America, but it will not be to 
establish slavery. Slavery once abolish- 
ed, has never been re established in the 
same place, in America, except in one in- 
stance — that of the smaller French colonies, 
now again free. The vain effort to re-en- 



slave St. Domingo cost the French forty 
thousand men. The free negro, that noth- 
ing else, can arouse, will fight against the 
replacement of the yoke which he has once 
thrown off; and the number of these in 
Central America is sufficient to prove a 
stumbling-block, if not a barrier to its re- 
turn. To re-establish slavery permanent- 
ly, where it has once been abolished, is to 
swim against the great moral current of 
the age. 

"We can acknowledge to-day, that the 
persecution of the Puritans by Laud and 
his predecessors, only intended, as it was, 
to produce conformity to the Church, really 
produced New England. And we can 
now see that the obstinacy of George the 
Third was as much a cause of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, at the time it was 
made, as the perseverance of John Adams, 
— the one being the necessary counterpart 
of the other, the two together forming the 
entire implement which clipped the tie. 
Now if we can make the above admissions 
in respect to these, the two greatest settled 
que tions of modern times, without excus- 
ing either persecution or obstinacy in 
wrong, but keeping steadily in view that 
ev ry man is responsible for the motives 
which govern his conduct, be the result of 
that conduct what it may, why should we 
not begin to look at this, the third great 
question, of the same class, still ?//?settled, 
from the same point of view ? 

"If then, I were asked what was 'proba- 
bly the final purpose of negro slavery, I 
should ansiver, — to furnish the basis of a 
free population for the tropics of America. 

"I believe that the Anglo-Americans, 
with the Africans, whom a part of the for- 
mer now hold in bondage, will one day 
unite to form this race to the tropics, with 
or without combination with the races al- 
ready there. But whether the African 
quota of it shall be tranferred thither by 
convulsive or organized movements — or be 
gradually thinned out from their present 
abode, as from a great nursery, by direct- 
ed, but spontaneous transition — or retire, 
by degrees, with the 'poor whites/ before 
the peaceful encroachments of robust 
Northern labor, it would be useless now to 
conjecture. It is enough now to know 
that labor, like capital, goes, in the end, to 
the place where it is most wanted; and 
that labor, free from the destructive ele- 
ment of caste, has been, and still is, the 

great desideratum of the tropics, as it is 
of all other places which do not already 
possess it. I have already spoken of the 
presumed ability of the Southern States to 
spare this kind of labor. Should there, 
however, prove to be any part of the Union 
where the climate or the culture really re- 
quires the labor of the black man, then 
there he will remain, and eventually be 
absorbed by the dominant race; and, from 
that point, the complexion of our popula- 
tion will begin to shade off into that of the 
dark belt of Anglo-Africans, which will 
then extend across the northern tropics. 

"I know that most of our Northern peo- 
ple, while they demand, in the strongest 
terms, all the rights of man for the negro 
or mulatto, are unable to eradicate from 
their minds a deeply grounded prejudice 
against his person. In spite of themselves, 
they shrink from the thought of an amal- 
gamation, such as the foregoing observa- 
tions imply. But these friends are not 
aware how quickly this prejudice begins to 
melt away, as soon as one has entered any 
part of the tropics where the African race 
is in the ascendant, or where people of col- 
ored blood have attained to such social con- 
sideration as to make themselves respected. 
I suppose no Northern man ever forgets 
the occasion when, for the first time, he ar- 
rives at such a place, and the colored mer- 
chant to whom he is addressed comes for- 
ward with the self-possession which attends 
self-respect, and offers him his hand. He 
begins to be healed of his prejudice from 
that hour." 

I am also aware that the notion prevails 
generally in the United States that the 
mulatto has no vitality of race; that after 
three or four generations he dies out. 
This idea, I believe, finds its strongest ad- 
vocates among the slaveholders and the 
readers of De Bow's "Review," and possi- 
bly it may be correct when applied to the 
colder latitudes; but I have no reason to 
think it is so in or near the tropics. Moreau 
de St. Mery, in his minute "Description of 
the French part of St. Domingo," says, 
with respect to the vitality of the mulatto, 
which term includes all persons of color, 
however slight, of mixed European and 
African descent : "Of all the combinations 
of white and black, the mulatto unites the 
most physical advantages. It is he who 
derives the strongest constitution from 
these crossings of race, and who is the best 



suited to the climate of St. Domingo. To 
the strength and soberness of the negro, 
he adds the grace of form and intelligence 
of the whites, and of all the human beings 
of St. Domingo he is the longest-lived. . . 
I have already said they are well made 
and very intelligent, but they are as much 
given to idleness and love of repose as the 
negro. These men are capable of succeed- 
ing in all the liberal and mechanical arts, 
and some of them have proved this in a 
manner which would excite them all to im- 
itation, if idleness were not their supreme 
good." ****** 

The above mentijned author was a 
slaveholder, which I hold up to his child- 
ren, as a small portion of revenge for what 
he says of the mulattoes "love of repose." 
But Hermann Burmeister, Professor of 
Zoology in the University of Halle, who 
spent fourteen months, in 1850-1, in study- 
ing at Brazil the "Comparative Anatomy 
and Physiology of the American Negro," 
speaks thus of the Brazilian mulatto : "The 
greatest number of the colored inhabitants 
of Brazil are of the mixed negro and Euro- 
pean races, called mulattoes. It may be 
asserted that the inferior classes of the free 
population are composed of such. If ever 
there should be a republic, such as exists 
in the United State of America, as it is the 
aim of a numerous party in Brazil to estab- 
lish, the whole class of artizans would 
doubtless consist of a colored population. 
* * * Already in every village and 
town the mulattoes are in the ascendant, 
and the traveler comes in contact with 
more of them than of whites." There is 
nothing in these extracts, or in the essay 
from which they are taken, to indicate that 
the Brazilian mulatto is dying out. These 
are the observations of a patient investiga- 
tor and man of science, and they have the 
more value, inasmuch as they were not set 
down to support any particular theory. 
The Professor speaks elsewhere in high, 
but qualified terms of the moral and intel- 
lectual qualities of the mulatto, coming to 
conclusions similar to those of Moreau de 
St. Mery, except that he does not accuse 
them of indolence. 

The author of "Remarks on Hayti and 
the Mulatto," whose experience as a mer- 
chant I have mentioned, farther says: 
"From an instinctive precaution for the 
preservation of his caste, which is possibly 
neglected by the mixed race of some othe r 

countries, the Hayiian mulatto of the pres- 
ent day takes good care that his race ,s!iall 
flow on in a firm and direct channel. . . . 
A Ilaytian mulatto always hears with sur- 
prise and mortification that in the Uuited 
States persons of all degrees of color are 
confounded together and popularly called 

With few exceptions, the men of color 
are the merchants, the lawyers, physicians, 
schoolmasters, editors and mechanics of 
Ilayti. Even under black rulers, many 
of the chief functionaries of the govern- 
ment are of this class, and most of the de- 
tails of the public business are transacted 
by them. Of some dozen productions of 
the pen — political, historical and literary 
— which, within the last fifteen years, I 
can call to mind as having been published 
by Haytians, not one was written by a 
I black man. And the only artists that I 
have known in Hayti — four in number — 
were all men of color. They are the or- 
gans of intelligent communication between 
the great body of the Haytian population 
and the civilized communities with which 
they have intercourse. As common labor- 
ers, also, if not too light-colored, the indi- 
viduals ot this class are equal to the blacks 
in strength and endurance, and superior 
to them in skill and address. 

This race, if on the white side it derives 
its blood from either the English or French 
stock, possesses within itself a combination 
of all the mental and physical qualities 
necessary to form a civilized and progres- 
sive population for the tropics, and it is 
the only race yet found of tvhich this can 
be said. 

I have no wish to undervalue the blacks 
of Hayti. I have found many shrewd, 
worthy, and intelligent men amongst 
them; and the country, it is well known, 
has produced several black men of a high 
order of talent; but these have been ex- 
ceptional cases, like the King Philips, 
Hendricks, Tecumsehs, and Red Jacket, 
of our North American Indians. As a 
race, they do not get on. The same may 
be said of every other original race. The 
blacks form no exception to the well-known 
law, that culture and advancement in man 
are the result of a combination of races. 
The black man can contribute invaluable 
elements to a forming population for the 
torrid zone, the principal of which are 
physical power and docility in the lower 



arts of civilizition. He can furnish a sol- 1 
id basis for a population for the tropics, 
but not the population. 

This subject might be pursued indefinite- 
ly, and testimony given in support of it, 
ad infinitum. Some amusing incidents 
of the kind have occurred under my own 
observation. But having cited "the author- 
ities" on this subject, I desire to submit 
the case after the manner of we law- 
yers — in other words — when the pay 
is small. Not long since a distinguish- 
ed statesman, who has given this matter 
some attention, and who has also given us 
inklings of his doubt of the mulatto, enter- 
ed into a correspondence with a number of 
colored men (black men, as he supposed),! 
on the subject of inter-tropical emigration,! 
and soon their letters were produced, with 
the words, "from a black man," printed 
above them; the joke was, when he came 
to see them, they were about all mulattoes. 
It is said, at a State convention held re- 
cently in Ohio, a subject of great import- 
ance was introduced, which excited unu- 
sual intersst. The subject was warmly 
discussed, it being no less than the pledg- 
ing of the lives, property and honor of the 
colored people of that State to resist, by 
force, the execution of the laws of the 
United States. Watkins, Langston, Day 
and others, spoke in the affirmative, and 
but few against it. The next day there 
was "whispering with white lips," the vote 
was taken, and without any premeditation 
whatever, every mulatto voted for it, and 
every black man against it. I have no 
desire to pursue this subject. I am not an 
amalgamation^, certainly not in the com- 
monly accepted sense of that term. The 
whole subject of social intercourse is a mat- 
ter which must be left to regulate itself 
free from the influence of human laws, and 
subject only to the laws of nature aud the 
influence of surrounding circumstances. 
But certain it is, a combination of the two 
vital species is essential to produce a race 
possessing all the attributes necessary to 
raise the states and Elands of the tropics 
up to what they should be— the centre of 
attraction for the civilized world. 

With respect to the intellectuality of the 
col >red race of the tropic s 1 have only to 
say: It ought to be enough for the slander 
er to know (especially those who think no 
great mau was ever born outside of Mary- 
land or Virginia) that the tropics has pro- 

duced the first general and the finest Latin 
poet of the nineteenth century ! 

Not long has it been since the world 
was wildly excited with respect to the 
French Zouaves, and England was said to 
be in a state of chronic nightmare from fear 
Napoleon might pounce upon her with his 
fiendish, sable and irresistable guards. 
What, then, was England's tactics ! She 
went to the West Indies, there to collect a 
body of black men, whose teeth were as 
white, and who could grin lightning as 
fiercely as the Frenchman's Zouave. Add 
to this the glory of the Hay tian revolution, 
the only instance in the history of the 
world where a race of slaves has freed 
themselves without some outside assistance, 
and let the dunces who slander the colored 
race ponder. 

So erroneous are the impressions usually 
entertained with respect to the climate, 
health and scenery of tropical America, 
that a lew hasty extracts, from highly in- 
teresting publications, may not be amiss. 
Mr. Wells, a gentleman of rare talents and 
attainments, in speaking of the natural 
productions of Honduras, says: "Every 
variety of climate, generally avoiding the 
distressing extremes of each, is included 
within the limits of Honduras — and here 
may be raised a large majority of the nat- 
ural productions known to man. At an 
elevation of .3,500 to 5,000 feet above the 
ocean level, wheat reaches a remarkable 
degree of perfection. Rice abounds upon 
the upper plateaus without submersion; 
beans, corn, potatoes, and all garden vege- 
tables flourish, while the wild rose, the 
morning-glory, and other familiar flowers 
grow spontaneously or are cultivated in 
many localities. The blackberry vine and 
sensitive plant clamber among the rocks 
or spread over the grassy slopes; and the 
stranger, as he faces the norther that whis- 
tles keenly through the gorges of the sier- 
ras, can scarcely realize that he is within 
the tropics, and almost in sight of the re- 
gion of the palm and plantain, and the 
green foliage of the coffee, the sugar-cane, 
the cocoa and indigo plants. It is here 
that nature, robed in her richest garb, seems 
to have fascinated the inheritors of her 
charms into listless inaction with the very 
excess of beauty. To the agriculturist, 
the merchant, the scientific explorer and 
aimless adventurer, Honduras, rich in nat- 
ural advantages, throws open her portals 



and offers to the world a share in those 
treasures which only await the magic 
touch of industry to reward the labors of 

"In all ray life, ' writes Dr. Hall, "I 
never knew a person born in the tropics, 
voluntarily leave his native climate for a 
temperate zone: it seems to be a general 
law of nature, exceptions so few as only to 
confirm the law. While in any part of 
the tropics which I have visited, I never 
failed to find many people from the temper- 
ate regions ; and however brief their intend- 
ed stay, never did I know one that did not 
acknowledge the superior claims of the 
tropical world, and thousands who came 
but for a month or year, have broken all 
ties of home, country and kindred, to live 
and die under ts soothing influences. It 
is said when Columbus first discovered 
Hispanolia and the rosy islands of the 
West, he could scarcely realize but that he 
Lad reached the fabled regions of romance. 
'These countries/ said he, in a letter ad- 
dressed to his patrons, Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, 'as far surpass all others in beauty 
and convenience as the sun surpasses the 
moon in brightness and splendor. 7 " 

And an English Baptist minister, the 
author of a history of Jamaica, in describ- 
ing the grand beauty of the moonlight 
scenery, stretching away toward the moun- 
tain peaks which ride high into the clear, 
blue sky, selects the most vivid of Homer's 
glowing verses, and declares they are not 
applicable : — 

"As when the moon's refulgent lamp of night, 
O'er heaven's clear azure spreads her useful light; 
When not a breath disturbs the deep serene, 
And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene — 
Around her throne the vivid planets Toll, 
And stars unnumbered gild the glowing pole ; 
O'er the dark trees a yellower luster's shed, 
And tips with silver every mountain's head : 
Then shine the vales, the rocks in prospect rise, 
A flood of glory bursts from all the skies ! 
The conscious swains, rejoicing in the sight, 
Eye the blue vault and bless the useful light." 

I have only to add, how proudly will 
the colored race honor that day, when, 
abandoning the policy which make them 
the tools and lickspittles of the whites, they 
shall set themselves zealously at work to 
create a position of their own — an Empire, 
which shall challenge the admiration of 
the world, and shall bloom with all the 
glory of its luxuriant clime, and live and 

flourish when our polar patrons shall have 
faded as these autumn leaves. 

[The above paper was written by an 
enthusiastic defender and magnifier of the 
"mulatto race." We print it for the reason 
that every shade of opinion among our 
people is of intrinsic value at present, and 
will become matter of historic interest to 
those who may come after us. We should 
have no concealments from each other; 
there is no question regarding our condi- 
tion, motives, or influences which ought to 
be hushed up for any reason whatever, 
buried in the silence of our hearts, or re- 
strained upon our tongues, a question is 
not therefore hushed nor inoperative: it 
gathers mirk and gloom, reticence and dis- 
trust, where there should be light and 
movement and full-souled confidence- 
No matter what complexion we bear, 
from milky white to jetty black, so long 
as there can be traced in us one drop of 
negro blood, we are all in the same cate- 
gory of the oppressed. By a strange ano- 
maly, prejudice, the blind, has, in this mat- 
ter, anticipated science, the clear sighted: 
more than a century ago, the laws of the 
French W T est India colonies laid down the 
principle that it was the origin, the germ, 
the source of the development, not the 
physical characteristics of the man which 
gave him his social and political status: if 
in that germ there was, however remotely, 
the negro blood, then that germ, when de- 
veloped, fell under the negro laws — classi- 
fication — became a negro man or woman. 
And this principle reached through all the 
West Indies, except, perhaps, the Spanish, 
whose infusion of Moorish blood left them 
more Catholic in their humanity. 

Unwittingly, this mode of dealing with 
the people of mixed blood conveys a strange 
but high compliment to the negro race. 
The mathematical dogma asserts, "If you 
add equals to equals the results will be 
equals." If the white race be equal to the 
black, then their admixture should be rec- 



koned: more thaii half white blood, whites: 
more than half black blood, blacks. Bat 
the towering potency of the latter is fairly 
admitted when one-tenth or one-twentieth 
proportion of black blood is admitted to 
overrule the other nine-tenths or nineteen- 
twentieths o/ white blood. 

The writer on whom we comment does 
not state one fact which should be taken 
into the account in comparing the blacks 
and mulattoes in the West Indies, and 
especially in Hayti. The reason why the 
mulattoes are the educated class in such 
localities, is not any special fondness or 
superior aptness on their part for learning. 
Under the slave system the white slave- 
holders held the slaves down to that utter 
ignorance which is alone compatible with 
slavery in general, and slavery on islands 
where the slaves are in the majority, in 
particular. These same whites, following 
that bent which the Catholic religion seems 
to foster in a larger degree than the Prot- 
estant, the bent of affection towards their 
half-breed offspring; educated their mulatto 
children with great care. And to this 
cause must be attributed the fact that this 
latter class have, in time, relatively to the 
blacks — become the educated class. This 

fact of course destroys the assumption of 
any relative superiority of one class from 
an admixture of white blood 

The writer of the essay, Mr. H., is a 
native of North Carolina, and was play- 
mate of the heroic Leary, who fell nobly 
at Harper's Ferry. That was not Leary 's 
first essay at arms. While yet a youth 
under age, on one occasion he and another 
took refuge in a swamp near his native 
village: and the entire militia company 
was sent out to "bring them in." After 
exchanging a few shots, the company 
turned and ran, followed by Leary and 
his companion into the village itself. 

Mr. H., yet under thirty, has already 
been a pioneer in our great West, and 
would still be there, were it not for the 
fact that the construction put by a pro- 
slavery government on the pre-emption 
laws renders the title of a colored man to 
the public lands imperfect. Mr. H. is now 
in that part of Hayti held by those of 
Spanish descent. He goes there to look 
out a home for himself and like-minded 
associates, whom the stringency of our 
laws and the inexorable influence of caste 
are driving from the West. — Ed.] 

[From The True Royalist.] 

SHia^amation ^mong tjje laments. 

It is a very remarkable fact that the 
most eminent men of ancient history mar- 
ried black women. 

The Patriarch Joseph — the great Vice- 
roy of Egypt— married a black woman. 
She was Asenath, the daughter of Potiph- 
erah, Priest of On. 

The city of On, or Heliopolis, as it was 
called by the Greeks, was the famous seat 
of Egyptian learning. It was to this great 
seat of learning that the erudite from all 
parts of the civilized world in ancient times 

repaired to finish their education. Here, 
at this great center of learning, Herodotus 
and Plato acquired their knowledge of his- 
tory, philosophy and astronomy. As many 
white men repaired to this ci f y to complete 
their education, it is not improbable that 
numbers carried home black wives with 

Heliopolis was the city of Moses, the 
great leader of the hosts of Israel, and 
Prophet of God. This accounts for his 
having been learned in all the wisdom of 


the Egyptians, which so eminently quali- 
fi d hini to the hi,j;li position he was di- 
vinely appointed to fill, and made him "a 
man mighty in word and deed." 

Moses was married twice, and on both 
occasions he married a black woman of the 
Ethiopian race. He married Tharbis, the 
daughter of an Ethiopian king, at one 
time; and on the other occasion he mar- 
ried Zeporah, the daughter of Jethro, the 
Priest of Midian. Jethro was an Ethiop^ 
ian, and a descendant of Midian, the son 
of Oush. 

King Solomon also married a black wo- 
man. She was an Egyptian princess, the 
daughter of one of the Pharaohs of Egypt, 
a great and warlike prince, known as Pha- 
raoh Cheops. King Solomon was a great 
lover of women; and most of all he loved 
beautiful women. Besides this black 
Egyptian princess, his royal queen, — who 
was one of the most beautiful women of 
her time, and perhaps of any time — he had 
three-score queens, four-score concubines, 
and virgins without number; all celebrated 
for their beauty ; but so far did the black 
royal queen excel the most beautiful, that 
Solomon says: — "The daughters saw her 
and blessed her, yea, the queens and the 
concubines; and they praised her." Ex- 
claiming, in admiration of her exceeding 
beauty, "Oh, thou fairest among women r 

King Solomon himself gives us the most 
glowing portrait of her beauty, when he 
describes her as "She that looketh forth as 
the morning;" "Fair as the moon;" "Clear 
as the sun." The name of this beautiful 
woman was Naamah. She is the only 
woman whose beauty is set forth and cele- 
brated by the holy spirit of prophecy in 
the Word of divine truth. 

Queen Esther is spoken of as having 
been beautiful, but her especial type was 
that of a deliverer of the Church. Naamah 
is a type of the Church in her divine love, 
perfection and beauty. 

King Solomon is said to have been a 
very wise man and a very great king: the 
wisest man of his time and the greatest 
king of his day. It has been said by those 
who have never carefully read the Song 
of Solomon, that he was a black man; but 
no person who reads that book properly 
can say so. That King Solomon was a 
white man is as certain as it is that his 
royal queen was a black woman; for his 
queen, when speaking of him in the Song 

of Solomon, says: — "My beloved is white 
and ruddy." And again, when speaking 
of herself, she says:— "I am black, but 
comely. ,; King Solomon married this 
princess because he loved her. He loved 
her not only for her beauty, but for her 
wisdom and intelligence. He was a great 
lover of wisdom. He says, "wisdom is 
the principal thing;" it ought to be pre- 
ferred beyond riches, before honors, and 
superior to beauty. Speaking of her wis- 
dom and intelligence, he says: "Thy lips, 
O my spouse, drop as the honeycomb." 
"Honey and milk are under thy tongue." 
As sweet as honey to his palate, so delight- 
ful were her sentiment? to his soul. Solo- 
mon built a palace expressly for this beau- 
tiful woman, which was thirteen years in 
building, and was one of the most magnifi- 
cent edifices in his whole kingdom. 

Should the world think any the less of 
Solomon because he loved and married a 
black woman? Should the name of the 
Patriarch Joseph, and of Moses, the prophet 
of God and the deliverer of his people, be 
set aside because they married black wo- 
men? They were all great, wise and vir- 
tuous men. They were all men of patri- 
otism, God-fearing and God-loving men; 
and yet they respected, honored and loved 
black women enough to marry them. 

Amalgamation then, is not "a new thing 
under the sun;" it is an established fact 
that white men have loved black women, 
even as far back as the days of King Solo- 
mon, yes, even as far back as the days 
when the old Patriarch Israel himself went 
down to Egypt to see his son Joseph and 
Asenah, his black wife; and white men 
have continued to love black women ever 
since. They love black women just as 
much now as ever, but they do not honor 
and respect them so much. Shakespeare 
hints that white women can love black 
men; at least he says that a certain black 
man, named Othello, thought so. Othello, 
no doubt, had a sound head, but if he had 
whispered these admissions in certain lo- 
calities of this new world, he might have 
received certain significant raps on his cra- 
nium which, while greatly impairing the 
soundness of his head, might also have 
raised -thereon sundry bumps not marked 
on the phrenologist's charts. 

Jeroboam, the patriot king of Israel, is 
another illustrious personage that married 
a black woman. 




* 7 





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^nglfl-^friom limine, 


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