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Full text of "The Anglo-Saxon chronicle, according to the several original authorities"

til .' 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



TRANSLATION. 



THE 

ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 



ACCORDING TO THE 



SEVERAL ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES. 



EDITED, WITH A TRANSLATION, 



BY 



BENJAMIN THORPE, 

MEMRER OF THE KOYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AT MUNICH, 
AND OF THE SOCIETY OF NETIIEBLANDISII LITEBATUEE AT LEYDEN. 



VOL. II. 
TRANSLATION. 



PUBLISHED UY THE AUTHORITY OF TilE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF HER MAJESTY'S 
TREASURY, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE MASTER OF THE ROLLS. 



LONDON: 
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS. 

1861. 







150 



ISfel 



Printed by 

EYKE and SPOTTISWOODE, Her Majesty's I*rinters. 
For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 



ANN ALES SAXONICI. 



IN the year that was past from the birth of Christ cccc.xciv., 
then Cerdic and Cynric his son landed at ' Cerdices ora ' from 
v. ships. And Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, 
Esla of Giwis, Giwis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, Freawine of 
Fritlragar, Frithugar of Brond, Brond of Bseldasg, Baeldseg of 
Woden. And vi. years after they landed they subdued the 
West Saxons' kingdom ; and they were the first kings who 
conquered the West Saxons' land from the Welsh ; and he 
had the kingdom xvi. years, and when he died, then his son 
Cynric succeeded to the kingdom, and held it xvn. winters. 
When he died, then Ceol succeeded to the kingdom, and held 
it vi. years. When he died, th6n Ceolwulf his brother suc- 
ceeded, and he reigned xvii. years ; and their kin reaches to 
Cerdic. Then Cynegils, Ceolwulfs brother's son, succeeded 
to the kingdom, and reigned xxxi. winters ; and he first re- 
ceived baptism of the West Saxons' kings ; and then Cenwalh 
succeeded, and held it xxx. winters ; and Cenwalh was the 
son of Cynegils ; and then Seaxburg his queen held the king- 
dom one year after him. Then ^Escwine succeeded to the 
kingdom, whose kin reaches to Cerdic, and held it n. years. 
Then Centwine, the son of Cynegils, succeeded to the West 
Saxons' kingdom, and reigned vii. years. Then Ceadwalla 
succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin reaches to Cerdic, and 
held it three years. Then Ine succeeded to the [West] Saxons' 
kingdom, whose kin reaches to Cerdic, and held it xxvii. 
winters. Then JEthelheard succeeded, whose km reaches to 
Cerdic, and held it xiv. winters. Then Cuthred succeeded, 
whose kin reaches to Cerdic, and held it xvii. years. Then 
Sigebryht succeeded, whose kin reaches to Cerdic, and held it 
i. year. Then Cynewulf succeeded to the kingdom, whose 
721. A 2 



4 ANNALES SAXONICI. 

kin reaches to Cerdic, and held it xxxi. winters. Then 
Beorhtric succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin reaches to 
Cerdic, and held it xvi. years. Then Ecgbryht succeeded to 
the kingdom, and held it xxxvii. winters and vir. months ; 
and then JEthelwulf his son succeeded, and held it eighteen 
years and a half. JEthelwulf was the son of Ecgbryht, Ecg- 
bryht of Ealhinund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa 
of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred ; and Ine of Cenred, and Cuth- 
burg [daughter] of Cenred, and Cwenburg [daughter] of 
Cenred ; and Cenred [son] of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cuth- 
wulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwine, Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of 
Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. And then JEthelbald his son suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom, and held it v. years. Then JEthel- 
bryht his brother succeeded, and held it v. years. Then 
^Ethered their brother succeeded to the kingdom, and held it 
v. years. Then JElfred their brother succeeded to the king- 
dom ; and then were past of his age XXIIT. winters ; and 
ccc.xcvi. winters since his kin first conquered the West 
Saxons' land from the Welsh. 



THE 



ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



THE island of Britain is eight hundred miles long, and two i 3 

hundred miles broad : and here are in the island five peoples : 
English, Brito- Welsh, Scottish, Pictish, and Book-Latin. 
The first inhabiting this land were Britons : they came 
from 2 Armenia, and first settled southward in Britain. It 
then befel, that Picts came from the south from Scythia, 
with long ships, not many ; and they first landed in north 
Ireland, and there prayed the Scots that they there might 
dwell. But they would not allow them ; for they said that 
they could not all dwell together there. And then said the 
Scots : " We can, nevertheless, give you counsel. We know 
another island here to the east, where ye may dwell if ye 
will ; and if any one withstand you, we will aid you, so that 
ye may subdue it." Then the Picts went and conquered this 
land northward ; southward the Britons had it, as we before 5 

said. And the Picts obtained them wives from the Scots, 
on the condition that they should ever choose their royal race 
on the woman's side, which they have held so long since. 
And it then befel, after a course of years, that some part of 
the Scots withdrew from Ireland into Britain, and subdued 
some part of the laud. And their leader was called Reoda, 
from whom they are named Dalreddi. 

1 N.B. The numerals in the side I 2 An error for Armorica. ft De 



margin denote the pages of the 
Saxon text. 



" tractu Armoricano advecti," are 
the words of Beda, H.E. i. 1, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Sixty winters ere Christ was born, Caius Julius, emperor 
of the Romans, with eighty vessels, sought Britain. There 
he was at first embarrassed by a fierce fight, and lost a great 
part of his army. And he then left his army to abide with 
the Scots, and withdrew south into Gaul, and there gathered 
six hundred ships, with which he again went to Britain. 
And when they first rushed together, the emperor's tribune 
was slain ; he was called * Labienus. Then the Welsh took 
great sharp stakes, and drove them into the fond of a river, 
within the water : the river was called Thames. When the 
Romans found that, they would not pass over the ford. The 
6, 7. Britons then fled to the wood wastes, and the emperor con- 
quered full many a chief burgh, with great labour ; and again 
withdrew into Gaul. 

f^ 2 An. Dom. I. Octavianus reigned LVI. years, and in the 
XLII. (LIT.) year of his reign Christ was born. 

An. ii. (m.) The three astrologers came from the east part, 
^ in order that they might worship Christ ; and the children 
were slain in Bethlehem, in persecution of Christ, by Herod. 

An. in. (iv.) In this year Herod died, stabbed by himself ; 
and Archelaus his son succeeded to the kingdom. And the 
child Christ was borne back from Egypt. 

An. iv., v. (vi.) 

An. vi. (vn.) From the beginning of the world to this year, 
five thousand and two hundred winters were past. 



'.V Before the incarnation of Christ, LX. winters, Caius Julius 
the emperor, first of the Romans, sought -the land of Britain ; 
and crushed the Britons in fight, and overcame them ; and 
yet might not there gain power . a 



J An error for Laberius. " Eo 
" die Q. Laberius Durus, tribunus 
" militum, interficitur," Csesar, E.G., 
v. 15. 

2 The notices which occur be- 
tween this and the year 449 are 
derived principally from Jerome's 



translation of Eusebius' Chronicle 
and its continuations, and from 
Bede's Chronicle and Ecclesiastical 
History, to the latter of which the 
few incidents relating to Britain 
during that period are owing. 
R.P. 



a MSS. A.B.C. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 7 

An. vii. (vin.) x. 

An. xi. In this year Herod, Antipater's sou, received the 
government in Judea. 

An. xn. Philip and Herod divided Lysia and Judea into 
four governments. 

An. xiii. (xiv.) xv. 

An. xvi. (xv.) In this year Tiberius succeeded to the 
empire. 

An. xvn. (xvi.) xxvi. (xxv.) 

An. xxvn. (xxv., xxvi.) In this year Pilate began to rule 8, 
over the Jews. 

An. xxviii., xxix. (xxvi. xxvin.) 

An. xxx. (xxix.) In this year Christ was baptized, and 
Peter and Andrew converted ; and James and John, and 
the twelve apostles. 

An. xxxi., xxxii. 

v An. xxxin. In this year Christ was crucified ; after five 
thousand two hundred and twenty-six years from the begin- 
ning of the world. 

v An. xxxiv. In this year St. Paul was converted, and St. 
Stephen stoned. 

An. xxxv. In this year the blessed Peter the apostle filled 
an episcopal chair in the city of Antioch, 

An. xxxvi., xxxvu. 

An. xxxviii. In this year Pilate slew himself with his own 
hand. 

An. xxxix. In this year Caius (Caligula) succeeded to the 
empire. * 

An. XL. Matthew in Judea began to write his gospel. 

An. XLI. XLIV. (XLIII.) 

An. XLV. (XLIV.) In this year the blessed Peter the apostle 
filled an episcopal chair in Rome. 

An. XL vi. (XLV.) In this year Herod died, who slew James w 
one year before his own death. 



An. xn. In this year Judea was divided into four te- 
trarchates. a 



F. 



8 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. XLVII. (XLVI.) In this year Claudius, second of the 
Roman kings, sought the land of Britain, and took under his 
sway the greatest part of the island ; and in like manner sub- 
jected the Orkney islands to the kingdom of the Romans. 
This was in the fourth year of his reign ; and in this same 
year was the great famine in Syria, which Luke recounts, in 
the book of the Acts of the Apostles, through Agabus the 
prophet. Then Nero succeeded to the empire after Clau- 
dius, who almost lost Britain through his sloth. Mark the 
Evangelist begins to write the Gospel in Egypt. 

An. XL vin. (XLVII.) In this year there was a very severe 
famine. 

An. XLIX. In this year Nero began to reign. 

An. L. In this year Paul was sent bound to Rome. 

An. LI. LXI. 

An. LXII. In this year James, the brother of the Lord, 
suffered (martyrdom). 

An. LXIII. In this year Mark the Evangelist died. 

An. LXIV. LXVIII. 

An. LXIX. (LXVIII.) In this year Peter and Paul suffered. 

An. LXX. In this year Vespasian succeeded to the empire. 
12, 13. An. LXXI. In this year Titus, son of Vespasian, slew in 

Jerusalem c.xi. thousand Jews. 

An. LXXII. LXXX. 

V An. LXXXI. In this year Titus succeeded to the empire 
after Vespasian, who said that he lost the day on which he 
did no good. 

An. LXXXII., LXXXIII. (LXXXII.) 

An. LXXXI v, (LXXXIII.) In this year Domitian, Titus' 
brother, succeeded to the empire. 



v An. XLVI. In this year Claudius the emperor came to Britain, 
and subdued a great part of the island, and also added the 
island of Orkney to the Roman power. a 

An. XLVII. In this year Claudius, king of the Romans, went 
with an army into Britain, and reduced the island, and 
subjected all the Picts and Welsh to the dominion of the 
Roman s. b 

An. LXIX. In this year Peter suffered on the cross, and 
Paul was slain (beheaded), a 

a F. b D. E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 9 

An. LXXXV. (LXXXIV.) LXXXVI. (LXXXIII.) (LXXXIV.) 

An. LXXXVII. (LXXXV. LXXXIV.) In this year John the 
Evangelist, in the island of Patmos, wrote the book Apo- 
calypse. 

An. LXXXVIII. (LXXXVI. LXXXV.) xcvm. (xcix.) 

An. xcix. (c.) In this year Simon the apostle, the kins- 
man of Christ, was crucified ; and John the Evangelist 
rested (died) on that day in Ephesus. 

An. c.i. In this year pope Clement died. 

An. c.n. c.ix. 

An. c.x. (c.ix.) In this year bishop Ignatius suffered (mar- 
tyrdom). 

An. c.xi. c.xv. 

An. c.xvi. In this year Adrian the emperor began to reign. 

An. c.xvu. c. xxxvi. 

An. c. xxxvu. In this year Antoninus began to reign. 

An. c.xxxvin. C.LIV. (C.LX.) 

An. C.LXT. (C.LV.) In this year Marcus Antonius (Antoninus) 14, 15. 
and Aurelius his brother succeeded to the empire. 

An. C.LXII. C.LXVI. (C.LVI. C.LX vi.) 

An. C.LXVII. In this year Eleutherius succeeded to the 
bishopric in Rome, and gloriously (worthily) held it for twelve 
winters. To him Lucius, king of Britain, sent letters, praying 
that he might be made a Christian : and he accomplished what 
he prayed for. 

An. C.LXVIII. C.LXXXVIII. 

y An. C.LXXXIX. (C.LXXXVIII.) In this year Severus suc- 
ceeded to the empire, and reigned seventeen winters. He 
begirt Britain with a dike from sea to sea. 



An. C.LXVII. In this year Eleutherus succeeded to the 
popedom, and held it for xv. years ; and in this same year, 
Lucius, king of the Brito-Welsh, sent and prayed for baptism, 
and he forthwith sent to him ; and he continued in the true 
faith till the time of Diocletian. a 

An. C.LXXXIX. In this year Severus succeeded to the empire, 
and went with an army to Britain, and by battle subdued u 
great part of the island ; and then made a wall of turfs, and a 
broad wall thereupon, from sea to sea, for the protection of the 



F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 

An. c.xc. (C.LXXXIX.) c.xcix. 

An. cc. In this year was found the holy rood. 

An. cc.i. CC.LXXXV. 

16, 17. An. CC.LXXXVI. (CC.LXXXIII.) In this year St. Alban the 
martyr suffered. 

An. CC.LXXXVII. CCC.XLII. 

An. CCC.XLIII. In this year St. Nicholas died. 

An. CCC.XLIV. CCC.LXXVIII. 

An. CCC.LXXIX. In this year Gratian succeeded to the 
empire. 

An. CCC.LXXX. 

An. CCC.LXXXI. In this year Maximus the emperor succeeded 
to the empire. He was born in Britain, and went thence into 
Gaul, and he there slew the emperor Gratian, and drove his 
brother from the country, who was called Valentinian. And 
Valentinian afterwards gathered an army, and slew Maximus, 
and succeeded to the empire. At that time the heresy of 
Pelagius arose throughout the world. 

An. CCC.LXXXII, cccc.vm, (cccc.vn.) 

V An. cccc.ix. (cccc.vm.) In this year the Goths took Rome 
by storm ; and never since have the Romans ruled in Britain. 
That was about xi. hundred and x. winters from the time 
that it was built. Altogether they ruled in Britain four hun- 
dred and seventy winters, from the time that Caius Julius first 
sought the laud. 

An. cccc.x. cccc.xvn. 

18, 19. An. cccc.xvm. In this year the Romans collected all the 

treasures that were in Britain, and hid some in the earth, that 
no man might afterwards find them ; and conveyed some with 
them into Gaul. 

An. cccc.xix. cccc.xxn. 



Brito- Welsh. He reigned seventeen years, and then ended 
(his days) at York. His son Bassianus succeeded to the 
empire. His other son was called Geta, who died. a 

An. C.LXXXVIII. In this year Severus built a wall of turf, 
after he had won the land by battle ; and a broad wall there- 
upon from sea to sea. And he reigned seventeen years, and 
then ended (his days) in York. b 



. C, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 



II 



An. cccc.xxni. In this year Theodosius the younger suc- 
ceeded to the empire. 

An. cccc.xxiv. cccc.xxix. 

An. cccc.xxx. In this year Palladius the bishop was sent 
to the Scots by Celestine the pope, that he might confirm their 
faith. 

An. cccc.xxxi. CCCC.XLII. 

An. CCCC.XLIII, In this year the Brito- Welsh sent to Rome, 
and implored aid against the Picts ; but they had none, because 
they were warring against Attila the king of the Huns. And 
then they sent to the Angles, and implored the same of the 
gethelings of the Angle race. 

An. CCCC.XLIV. In this year St. Martin died. 

An. CCCC.XLV. CCCC.XLVIII. 

An. CCCC.XLIX. (CCCC.XLVIII.) In this year Martian and 
Valentinian succeeded to the empire, and reigned seven 
winters. 1 And in their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by-*-- 20, 21. 



An. cccc.xxx. This year Palladius (Patricius) was sent by 
pope Celestine, to preach baptism to the Scots. a 

An. CCCC.XLIX. In this year Marcian and Yalentinian, &c., 
and in their days, Wyrtgeorn (Yortigern) invited the Angle 
race hither, and they then came in three ships hither to Britain, 

at the place named Heopwines fleot against them. 

King Wyrtgeorn gave them land in the south-east of this land, 
on condition that they should fight against the Picts. They then 
fought against the Picts, and had victory whithersoever they 
came. They then sent to the Angles ; bade them send greater 
aid, bade them be told of the worthlessness of the Brito- Welsh, 
and the excellencies of the land. They then forthwith sent 
hither a larger army, in aid of the others. Then came men 
from three tribes of Germany : from the Old- Saxons, from the 
Angles, from the Jutes. From the Jutes came the Kentish 
people and the people of Wight, that is, the tribe which 2 now 
dwells in Wight, and the race among the West Saxons 



1 Marcian governed the eastern 
empire from A.D. 450 to 457. 



Valentinian III. ruled the western 
empire from 425 to 455. 
2 That is, in Beda's time. 



12 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

^ Wyrtgeorn (Vortigern) king of the Britons, sought Britain, 
on the shore which is named Ypwines fleot ; first in support 
of the Britons, but afterwards they fought against them. 

An. CCCC.L. (CCCC.XLIX.) CCCC.L1V. 

An. CCCC.LV. In this year Hengest and Horsa fought against 
Wyrtgeorn, the king, at the place which is called -ZEgelsthrep 
(Aylesford) ; and his brother Horsa was there slain ; and after 
that Hengest succeeded to the command, and ^Esc his son. 

22, 23. An. CCCC.LVI. 

An. CCCC.LVII. (CCCC.LVI.) In this year Hengest and ^Esc 
his son fought against the Britons at the place which is 
called Crecganford (Cray ford), and there slew four thousand 
men ; and the Britons then forsook Kent, and in great terror 
fled to London. 



which is yet called the Jute race. From the Old-Saxons 
came the East Saxons, and South Saxons, and West Saxons. 
From Angeln which has ever since stood waste betwixt the 
Jutes and Saxons came the East Anglians, the Middle An- 
glians, the Mercians, and all the Northumbrians. Their lead- 
ers were two brothers, Hengest and Horsa. They were sons 
of Wihtgils ; Wihtgils was son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, 
Wecta of Woden. From Woden sprang all our royal kin, and 
the Southumbrians' also. a 

An. CCCC.XLVIII. In this year John the Baptist discovered 
his head to two monks, who came from the east, to pray at 
Jerusalem, in the place that was whilom Herod's dwelling. 
At the same time Marcian and Valentinian reigned ; and at 
that time came the Angle race to this land, invited by king 
Wyrtgeorn (Vortigern), as a help to him in overcoming his 
foes. They came to this land with three long ships, and their 
leaders were Hengest and Horsa. First of all they slew and 
drove away the king's foes, and afterwards they turned against 
the king, and against the Britons, and destroyed them by fire 
and by edge of sword. b 

An. CCCC.LVI. In this year Hengest and ^Esc, with edge of 
sword, slew four hosts of Britons, at the place which is named 
Creccanford (Cray ford). 13 

* E. * F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 13 

All. CCCC.LVIII. CCCC.LXIV. (CCCC.LVIT.) 

An. CCCC.LXV. (CCCC.LXVI.) In this year Hengest and JEsc 
fought against the Welsh near Wippedes fleet (Ebbsfleet ?), 
and there slew twelve Welsh aldormen ; and one of their 
thanes was there slain, whose named was Wipped. 

An. CCCC.LXVI. CCCC.LXXII. 

V An. CCCC.LXXIII. In this year Hengest and JEsc fought 
against the Welsh and took countless booty ; and the Welsh 
fled from the Angles as fire. 
An. CCCC.LXXIV. CCCC.LXXVI. 

An. CCCC.LXXVII. In this year JElle came to Britain, and 
his three sons, Cymen, and Wlencing, and Cissa, with three 
ships, at the place which is named Cymenesora (Shoreham ?), 
and there slew many Welsh, and drove some in flight into the 
wood which is named Andredeslea. 

An. CCCC.LXXVIII. CCCC.LXXXI. 24, 25. 

An. CCCC.LXXXII. In this year the blessed abbot Benedict, * 
through the glory of his miracles, shone to this world, as the 
blessed Gregory relates in the book of Dialogues. 
An. CCCC.LXXXIII., CCCC.LXXXIV. 

An. CCCC.LXXXV. In this year JElle fought against the 
Welsh near the bank of Markredes burne. 
An. CCCC.LXXXVI., CCCC.LXXXVII. 

An. CCCC.LXXXVIII. In this year ^Esc succeeded to the king- 
dom, and for twenty-four years was king of the Kentish 
people. 

An. CCCC.LXXXIX.J cccc.xc. 

An. cccc.xci. (cccc.xc.) In this year JElle and Cissa be- 
sieged Andredesceaster, and slew all that dwelt therein ; not 
even one Briton was there left. 

An. cccc.xcii. (cccc.xci.) cccc.xciv. 
An. cccc.xcv. In this year came two aldormen to Britain, 
Cerdic, and Cynric his son, with five ships, at the place which 
is called Cerdices ora (Charford); and on the same day fought 
against the Welsh. 
An. cccc.xcvi. D. 

An. D.I. In this year came Port to Britain, and his two 
sons, Bieda and Moegla, with two ships, at the place which 
is called Portsmouth ; and forthwith landed, and there slew a 
very noble young British man. 
An. D.II. D.VII. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



26,27. 



28, 29. 



An, D.VIII. In this year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British 
king, whose name was Natanleod, and five thousand men 
with him ; after that the land was named Natanlea as far as 
Cerdices ford (Charford). 

An. D.IX. In this year St. Benedict the abbot, father] of 
all monks, went to heaven. 1 

An. D.X. D.XIII. 

An. D.XIV. In this year came the West Saxons to Britain, 
with three ships, at the place which is called Cerdices ora ; 
and Stuf and Wihtgar fought against the Britons, and put 
them to flight. 

An. D.XV. D.XVIII. 

An. D.XIX. In this year Cerdic and Cynric assumed the 
kingdom of the West Saxons ; and in the same year they 
fought against the Britons, where it is now named Cerdic's 
ford ; and since the royal offspring of the West Saxons has 
reigned from that day. 

An. D.XX. D.XXVI. 

An. D.XXVII. In this year Cerdic and Cynric fought against 
the Britons at the place which is called Cerdices leag. 

An. D.XXVIII., D.XXIX. 

An. D.XXX. In this year Cerdic and Cynric took the island 
of Wight, and slew many men at Wihtgarasburh (Caris- 
brook). 

An. D.XXXI. D.XXXIII. 

An. D.XXXIV. In this year Cerdic, the first king of the 
West Saxons, died, and Cynric his son succeeded to the 
kingdom, and reigned on for twenty-six (twenty- seven) 
winters ; and they gave all the island of Wight to their two 
2 nephews, Stuf and Wihtgar. 

An. D.XXXV. D.XXXVII. 

An. D.XXXVIII. In this year the sun was eclipsed fourteen 
days before the Kalends of March (February 16th), from early 
morning till nine a.m. 

An. D.XXXIX. 



1 According to Mabillon, Benedict 
died in 543. 

2 Here the term nefe (nephew) is 



used with reference both to father 
and son. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 15 

^An. D.XL. In this year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth 
of the Kalends of July (June 20th), and the stars appeared 
full nigh half an hour after nine a.m. 

An. D.XLI. D.XLIII. 

An. D.XLIV. In this year Wihtgar died, and they buried 
him at Wihtgarasburh (Carisbrook). 

An. D.XLV., D.XLVI. 

An. D.XLVII. In this year Ida assumed the kingdom, from 
whom arose the royal race of the Northumbrians, and reigned 
twelve years, and he built Bebbanburh (Bamborough), which 
was at first inclosed by a hedge, and afterwards by a wall. 
Ida was son of Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa was son of Ingui, 
Ingui of Angewit, Angewit of Aloe, Aloe of Benoc, Benoc 
of Brand, Brand of Bseldasg, Baeldaeg of Woden, Woden of 
Freothelaf, Freothelafof Freothewulf, Freothewulf of Finn, 
Finn of Godulf, Godulf of Geat. 

An. D.XLVIII. D.LI. 

An. D.LII. In this year Cynric fought against the Britons at 
the place which is named Searoburh (Old Sarum), and put the 
Bri to- Welsh to flight. Cerdic was father of Cynric ; Cerdic 
was son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Giwis, Giwis of Wig, -A 
Wig of Freawine, Freawine of Freothogar, Freothogar of 
Brand, Brand ofBseldseg, Bselda3g of Woden. 

An. D.LIII. D.LV. 

An. D.LVI. In this year Cynric and Ceawlin fought against 
the Britons at Beranburh (Banbury). 

An. D.LVII. D.LIX. 

An. D.LX. (D.-LIX.) In this year Ceawlin succeeded to the 
kingdom of the West Saxons, and -/Elle assumed the kingdom 
of the Northumbrians, Ida being dead ; and each of them 
reigned thirty winters. ^JElle was son of Yffe, YfFe of Uxfrea, 
Uxfrea of Wilgils, Wilgils of Westerfalcna, Westerfalcna of 



An. D.LII. In this year Cynric fought against the Britons at 
the place which is called Salisbury; and ^Ethelberht was born 

son of Eormenric year of his reign, he 

received baptism, first of the kings in Britain. 3 - 



X, 



16 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Stefugl, S&fugl of S&bald, Saebald of Sigegeat, Sigegeat of 
Swebdaeg, Swebdajg of Sigegar, Sigegar of Wregdaeg, Waegdrcg 
of Woden, Woden of Frithowulf. 

An. D.LXI. (D.LX.) D.LXIV. 

An. l D.LXV. In this year JEthelberht succeeded to the 
kingdom of the Kentish people, and held it fifty-three winters. 
In his days the holy pope Gregory sent us baptism ; that was 
in the two and thirtieth year of his reign. And Columba the 
mass-priest came to the Picts and converted them to the faith 
of Christ. They are dwellers by the northern mountains ; 
and their king gave him the island which is named li (lona), 
where there are five hides, from what men say. There 
32, 33. Columba built a monastery ; and he was abbot there thirty- 
two winters, and there died when he was seventy-seven win- 
ters ; his inheritors yet have the place. The south Picts had 
been baptized long before ; to them bishop Nina, who had been 
taught at Rome, preached baptism, whose church and his 
monastery arc at Whiterne, hallowed in the name of St. Mar- 
tin; there he rests with many holy men. Now, in li (lona), 
there must ever be an abbot, not a bishop ; and to him must 
all the Scots' bishops be subjects, because Columba was an 
abbot, not a bishop. 

An. D.LXVI., D.LXVII. 

An. D.LXVIII. In this year Ceawlin and Cutha, Ceawlin's 
brother, fought against .JEthelberht, and drove him into Kent; 
and slew two aldormen at Wibbandun (Wimbledon), Oslaf 
(Oslac) and Cnebba. 

An. D.LXIX., D.LXX. 

An. D.LXXI. In this year Cuthwulf (Cutha) fought against 
the Bri to-Welsh at Bedcanforda (Bedford), and took four 



V An. D.LXV. In this year the presbyter (mass-priest) Co- 
lumba came from the Scots to the Britons, to teach the Picts, 
and in the island of Hii (lona) built a monastery. a 



1 The correct date, as given by 
Wheelocke, would seem to be 560, 
as according to Beda (H.E. n. 5), 



he died in 616, after a reign of 5G 
years. 



B.C. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



17 



34, 35. 



y : 



towns ; Lygeanburh(Lenbury?), and .^Eglesburh (Aylesbury), 
Bsenesingtun (Benson), and Egonesham (Ensham) ; and the 
same year he died. Cutha was Ceawlin's brother. 

An. D.LXXII. D.LXXVI. 

An. D.LXXVII. In this year Cuthwine and Ceawlin fought 
against the Britons, and they slew three kings, Commail, and 
Condidan, and Farinmail, at the place which is called Deorham 
(Derham), and took three cities from them, Gloucester, and 
Cirencester, and Bath. 

An. D.LXXVIII. D.LXXXII. 

An. D.LXXXIII. In this year Maurice succeeded to the 
empire of the Romans. 

An. D.LXXXIV. In this year Ceawlin and Cutha fought 
against the Britons at the place which is named Fethanleag 
(Frethern ?), and Cutha was there slain ; and Ceawlin took 
many towns, and countless booty ; and wrathful he thence 
returned to his own. 

An. D.LXXXV. D.LXXXVII. 

An. D.LXXXVIII. In this year *king ^Elle died, and ^Ethel- "ofDeira. 
ric reigned after him for five years. 

An. D.LXXXIX., D.XC. 

An. D.XCI. In this year * Ceol reigned five years. * of Wessex. 

An. D.XCII. In this year there was a great slaughter in 
Britain at Woddesbeorg (Wansborough), and Ceawlin was 
driven out. In this year Gregory succeeded to the popedom 
at Rome. 

An. D.XOIII. In this year Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and 
*Cryda, perished; and ^Ethelfrith succeeded to the king- * k. of Mcrcia. 
dom of the Northumbrians : he was son of ^Ethelric, ^Ethelric 
of Ida. 

An. D.XCIV., D.XCV. 

An. D.XCVI. In this year pope Gregory sent Augustine to 
Britain with a great many monks, who preached the word of 
God to the nation of the Angles. 

An. D.XCVII. In this year Ceolwulf began to reign over the 
West Saxons, and he constantly fought and strove against 36, 37. 
either the Angle race, or against the Welsh, or against the 
Picts, or against the Scots. He was son of Cutha, Cutha of 
Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, 
Esla of Giwis, Giwis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, Freawine of 
Freothogar, Freothogar of Brand, Brand of Bneldreg, Bseldaeg 

VOL. II. B 



18 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

of Woden. In this year Augustine and his companions 
came to England. 

An. D.XCVIII. DC. 

An. DC.I. In this year pope Gregory sent the pall to arch- 
bishop Augustine in Britain, and a great many religious 
teachers to aid him, and among them was Paulinus the 
bishop, who afterwards converted Eadwine, king of ilic 
Northumbrians, to baptism. 

An. DC.II. 

An. DC.III. In this year there was a battle at JEgesanstan 
(Dawston). 

An. DC.IV. In this year the East Saxons received the faith 
and bath of baptism, under king S^berht and bishop Mellitus. 

An. DC.V. 

An. DC. vi. (DC.V.) In this year pope Gregory died, ten 
years after he had sent us baptism. 1 His father was called 
Gordian, and his mother Silvia. And in this year ^Ethel- 
frith led his army to Chester, and there slew numberless 
Welsh ; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of Augustine, which 



An. DC.III. In this year JEgthan king of the Scots fought 
against the Dalreods, and against JEthelferth, king of the 
Northumbrians, at Dregsanstan (Dawston), and almost all his 
army was slain. There was slain Theodbald, -ZEthelferth's 
brother, with all his host. Since then no king of Scots has 
dared to lead an army into this nation. Hering son of Hussa 
led the army hither. a 

An. DC.IV. In this year Augustine hallowed two bishops, 
Mellitus and Justus. Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to 
the East Saxons, where the king was called Sreberht, son of 
* k. of Kent. Ricole, sister of 'JEthelberht, whom JEthelberht had there set 
38, 39- as king. And JEthelberht gave to Mellitus a bishop's see at 
London ; and to Justus he gave Rochester, which is twenty- 
four miles from Canterbury. 11 



1 Inserted in A. under DC.VII. I and Tigernach, the event took place 
According to the Cambrian Annals | in 613. 



E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 19 

he uttered : " If the Welsh refuse peace with us, they shall 
perish at the hands of the Saxons." There were also slain 
two hundred priests, who came thither that they might pray 
for the army of the Welsh. Their chief was named Scromail 
(Brocmail), who escaped thence with some fifty. 

An. DC. vii. (DC. vi., DC.VII.) In this year Ceolwulf fought 
with the South Saxons. 

An. DC.VIII. DC.X. 

An. DC.XI. In this year Cynegils succeeded to the kingdom 
of the West Saxons, and held it thirty-one winters. Cynegils 
was son of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric. 

An. DC.XII., DC. xni. 

An. DC.XIV. In this year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at 
Beandon (Bampton ?), and slew two thousand and sixty-five 
Welsh. 

An. DC.XV. 40, 41, 

An. DC.XVI. In this year JEthelberht king of the Kentish 
people died ; he reigned LVI. winters ; and Eadbald his son suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom ; who contemned his baptism, and lived 
in heathen manner, so that he had his father's relict to wife. 
Then Laurentius, who was archbishop of Kent, was minded 
that he would go south over sea, and forsake all. But by 
night the apostle Peter came to him, and severely scourged 
him, because he woulcl. so forsake God's flock ; and bade 
him go to the king, and preach to him the true faith ; and he 
did so, and the king was converted, and was baptized. In this 
king's days, Laurentius, who was in Kent after Augustine, died, 



An. DC.XVI. In this year ^Ethelberht king of the Kentish 
people died, who first of English kings received baptism ; and 
he was son of Eormenric ; he reigned fifty-three winters. 
After him Eadbald his son succeeded to the kingdom, who 
contemned his Christianity, so that he had his father's relict 
to wife. At that time Laurentius was archbishop ; and for 
the affliction that he had on account of the king's unbelief, he 
was minded to forsake all this land, and go over sea. But one 
night St. Peter the apostle severely scourged him, because he 
would so forsake God's flock ; and bade him boldly teach to 
the king the right faith, and he did so. And the king turned 
to right. In the days of this same king Eadbald, this same 

B 2 



20 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

on the ivth of the Nones of February (Feb. 2nd), and was 
buried beside Augustine. After him Mellitus succeeded to 
the archbishopric, who had been bishop of London. And 
within five years after, Mellitus died. Then after him, Justus 
succeeded to the archbishopric, who had been bishop of 
Rochester, and hallowed Romanus bishop thereto. 

An. DC. xvn. In this year JEthelfrith, king of the Northum- 
brians, was slain by Raedwald, king of the East Angles ; and 
Eadwine son of JElle succeeded to the kingdom, and ravaged 
42, 43. all Britain, save the Kentish people only ; and drove out the 
nethelings, sons of ^Ethclfrith : that was, first Eanfrith, and 
Oswald ; then Oswiu, Oslac, Oswudu, Oslaf, and Offa. 

An. DC.XVIII. 

An. DC.XIX. In this year archbishop Laurentius died. 

An. DC. xx. DC.XXIII. 

An. DC.XXIV. In this year archbishop Mellitus died. 

An. DC. xxv. In this year Paulinus was ordained bishop of 
the Northumbrians by archbishop Justus, on xii. Kal. of 
August (July 21st). 

An. DC. xxvi. In this year Eanflred, king Eadwine's daughter, 
was baptized on the holy eve of Pentecost (Jun. 8th). And 
Penda had held the kingdom thirty winters ; and he was fifty 



Laurentius died. The holy Augustine, while in hale life, 
had ordained him bishop, in order that the church of Christ, 
which was yet new in England, might not, after his decease, 
be at any time without an archbishop. Then after him 
Mellitus succeeded to the archiepiscopal see, who had before 
been bishop of London. And within five years after the 
decease of Laurentius, Eadbald still reigning, Mellitus departed 
to Christ. a 

An. DC.XXV. In this year archbishop Justus hallowed 
Paulinus bishop of the Northumbrians, on xn. Kal. of August 
(July21st). b 

An. *DC.XXVI. In this year Eomer came from Cwichclm, 
king of the West Saxons, thinking to stab king Eadwine ; 
but he stabbed Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded 
the king. And on the same night a daughter was born to 

a E. A. b E. F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 21 

winters old when he succeeded to the kingdom. Penda was 
son of Pybba, Pybba of Cryda, Cryda of Cynewald, Cynewald 
of Cncbba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomasr, Eomaer of Angel- 
theow, Angeltheow of Offa, Offa of Waermund, Woermund of 
Wilitlasg, Wihtlseg of Woden. 

An. DC.XXVII. In this year king Eadwine was baptized 
with his people at Easter (Apr. 12th) by Paulinus ; and 
this Paulinus also preached baptism in Lindsey, where the 
first who believed was a powerful man called Blecca, with 44, 45 
all his followers. And at this time Honorius, who sent Pau- 
lirius the pall hither, succeeded to the popedom after Boniface. 
And archbishop Justus died on the ivth of the Ides of 
November (Nov. 10th) ; and Honorius was consecrated arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, by Paulinus, at Lincoln. To Honorius 
the pope also sent a pall : and he sent a letter to the Scots, 
that they should turn to the right Easter. 

An. DC. xxvin. In this year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought 
against Penda at Cirencester, and after wards came to an 
agreement. 

Eadwine, who was called Eanfla^d. Then the king promised 
to Paulinus, that he would give his daughter to God, if by 
prayer he would obtain from God, that he might slay his foe 
who had sent the assassin thither. And he then went against 
the West Saxons with an army, and there slew five kings, and 
many of the people. And Paulinus baptized his daughter at 
Pentecost with twelve others. And the king within a twelve- 
month was baptized at Easter with all his nobles ; Easter was 
then on lind of the Ides of April (April 12th). This was 
done at York, where he first commanded a church of wood to 
be built, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter. There 
the king gave to Paulinus a bishop's see ; and there he after- 
wards commanded a larger church to be built of stone. And 
in this year Penda succeeded to the* kingdom, and reigned * of Mercia. 
thirty winters. 31 

An. DC.XXVII. In this year, at Easter (Apr. 12th), Paulinus 
baptized Eadwine, king of the Northumbrians, with his people; 
and earlier in the same year, at Pentecost, he had baptized 
Eanfloed, the same king's daughter, &c.b 

a E. b F. 



22 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 
All. DC. XXIX. DC.XXXI. 

k. of E. Auglia. An. DC.xxxn. In this year *Eorpwald Avas baptized. 

An. DC.XXXIII. In this year Eadwine was slain, and Pauli- 
nus returned to the Kentish people, and filled the bishop's see 
at Rochester. 

An. DC.XXXIV. In this year bishop Birinus preached baptism 
to the West Saxons, under king Cynegils. Birinus went 
thither by command of Honorius the pope, and he there was 
bishop until his life's end. In this year Osric, whom Paulinus 
had previously baptized, succeeded to the kingdom of Deira ; 
he was the son of ^Elfric, Eadwine's paternal uncle. And to 
Bernicia succeeded Eanfrith, the son of JEthelfrith. And in 
this year also Oswald succeeded to the kingdom of the North- 
umbrians, and he reigned nine winters : the ninth being 
reckoned to him, on account of the heathenship which they 
46, 47. had practised, who had ruled them for one year, between him 
and Eadwine. 

An. DC. xxxv. In this year Cynegils was baptized by 
Birinus the bishop at Dorchester, and Oswald king of the 
Northumbrians received him (for son). 

An. DC.XXXVI. In this year king Cwichelm was baptized 
at Dorchester, and in the same year died. And bishop Felix 
preached the faith of Christ to the East Angles. 



An. DC.XXXIII. In this year king Eadwine was slain by 
Cadwalla and Peiida at Heathfield (Hatiield chase ?), on the 
nnd of the Ides of October (Oct. 14th) ; and he reigned 
seventeen years ; and his son Osfrith was also slain with him. 
And then afterwards, Cadwalla and Penda went and laid waste 
all the land of the Northumbrians. When Paulinus saw that, 
then took he JEthelburh, Eadwine's relict, and withdrew in a 
ship to Kent. And Eadbald and Honorius received him very 
honourably, and gave him the bishop's see at Rochester, and 
he there continued to his end.a 

An. DC.XXXIII. In this year king Eadwine was slain, and 
Paulinus returned with ^Ethelburh, Eadwine's relict, to Can- 
terbury ; and archbishop Honorius received them with great 
honour, and gave Paulinus the bishop's see at Rochester; and 
there he continued until his end. b 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. DC.XXXVII., DC.XXXVIII. 

An. DC.XXXIX. In this year Birinus baptized king Cuthred 
at Dorchester, and received him for son. 

An. DC.XL. In this year Eadbald, king of the Kentish 
people, died, and he reigned twenty -five (twenty-four) winters. 
He had two sons, Erraenred and Ercenberht; and Ercen- 
berht reigned there after his father. And Ermenred begat 
two sons, who were afterwards martyred by Thunor. He 
cast down all the idols in his kingdom, and first of English 
kings he established the Easter fast. His daughter was called 
Ercongota, a holy maiden and wondrous person, whose mother 
was Sexburh, daughter of Anna, king of the East Angles. 

An. DC.XLI. 

An. DC.XLII. (DC.XLI.) In this year Oswald, king of the 
Northumbrians, was slain by Penda the Southumbrian at 
Maserfield (Mirfield ?) on the day of the Nones of August 
(Aug. 5th), and his corpse was buried at Bardney ; whose 
holiness and miracles were afterwards variously made known 48 > 49 - 
throughout this island ; and his hands are at Bamborough 
uncorrupted. And in the same year that Oswald was slain, 
Oswiu his brother succeeded to the kingdom of the Northum- 
brians ; and he reigned thirty years less two. 

An. DC.XLIII. (DC.XLII., DC.XLI.) In this year Kenwealh 
succeeded to the kingdom of the West Saxons, and held it 
thirty-one winters. And Kenwealh commanded the old church 
at Winchester to be built, in the name of St. Peter : and he 
was son of Kynegils. 

An. DC.XLIV. (DC.XLIII.) In this year archbishop Pauli- 
nus died at Rochester, on the vith of the Ides of October 
(Oct. 10th). He had previously been archbishop of York, and 
was afterwards at Rochester. He was bishop twenty winters 
less one, and two months, and twenty-one days. And in this 
year 1 Oswine son of Osric, Eadwine's uncle's son,' succeeded 
to the kingdom of Deira, and reigned seven years. 

An. DC.XLV. (DC.XLIV.) In this year king Kenwealh was 
driven out from his kingdom by king Penda. 

An. DC.XLVI. (DC.XLV.) In this year king Kenwealh was 
baptized. 



17 Here the original text is evidently corrupt. See An. DC.XXXIV. 
VOL. II. B 4 -f- 



24 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. DC.XLVII. 

An. DC.XLVIII. (DC.XLVII.) In this year Kenwealh. gave to 
Outlived his kinsman three thousand hides of land by Ash- 
down. Cuthred was son of Cwichelm, Cwichelm of Kynegils. 
In this year was built the monastery at Winchester, which 
king Kenwealh had caused to be made and hallowed in the 
name of St. Peter. 

An. DC.XLIX. (DC.XLVIII.) 

An. DC.L. (DC.XLIX.) In this year JEgelbyrht of Gaul re- 
ceived the bishopric of the West Saxons, after Birinus the 
Romish bishop. 

An. DC.LI. (DC.L.) In this year king Oswine was slain ; 
indisfarne. and * bishop Aidan died. 

An. DC.LII. (DC.LI.) In this year Kenwealh fought at Brad- 
ford by the Avon. 

An. DC.LIII. (DC.LII.) In this year the Middle Angles, 
under the aldorman Peada, received the orthodox faith. 

An. DC.Liv. (DC.LIII.) In this year * king Anna was slain ; 
and Botulf began to build a monastery at Ycanho (Boston ?). 
And this year archbishop Honorius died, on the und of the 
Kal. of October (Sept. 30th). 

An. DC.LV. (DC.LIV.) In this year Penda perished ; and 
the Mercians became Christians. Then had passed, from the 
beginning of the world, five thousand eight hundred and fifty 
winters. And Peada, son of Penda, succeeded to the kingdom 



An. DC.L, In this year Birinus the bishop died, and ^Egebert 
the Frenchman was ordained. a 

An. DC.L. In this year king Oswiu commanded king Os- 
wine to be slain, on the xinth of the Kalends of September 
(Aug. 20th) ; and twelve nights after, bishop Aidan died, on 
the und of the Kal. of September (Aug. 31st). b 

An. DC.LIV. In this year king Oswiu slew king Penda at 
Winwidfield (Wingfield), and thirty royal persons with him ; 
and some of them were kings : one of them was ^Ethelhere, 
brother of Anna, king of the East Angles, &c. c 

a F. b E. c E F 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 25 

of the Mercians. 1 In this year Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, 
hallowed Deusdedit to Canterbury, on the viith of the Kal. 
of April (Mar. 26th). 

An. DC.LVI. (DC.LV.) 

An. DC.LVII. (DC.LVI.) In this year Peada died (was slam), 52, 53. 
and Wulfhere, son of Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Mercians." 



1 In his time he and Oswiu, the brother of king Oswald, 
came together, and said that they would rear a monastery to 
the glory of Christ and the honour of St. Peter. And they 
did so, and gave it the name of Medeshamstede ; because 
there is a well there which is called Mede's well. And they 
then began the foundation, and thereon wrought, and then 
committed it to a monk who was called Saxulf. He was 
greatly the friend of Grod, and all the nation loved him, and he 
was very nobly born in the world, and rich ; he is now much 
richer with Christ. But the king Peada reigned no long while ; 
for he was betrayed by his own queen at Easter-tide. a 

2 In his time the abbacy of Medeshamstede, which his 
brother had begun, Avaxed very rich. Now the king loved it 
much, for love of his brother Peada, and for love of his 
'pledge-brother Oswiu, and for love of Saxulf the abbot. He 
then said that he would dignify and honour it, by the counsel 
of his brothers, ^Ethelred and Merewald ; and by the counsel 
of his sisters, Kyneburh and Kyneswith ; and by the counsel 
of the archbishop, who was named Deusdedit ; and by the 
counsel of all his ' witan,' clerical and lay, who were in his 
kingdom : and he did so. Then the king sent after the abbot 
that he should speedily come to him ; and he did so. Then 
said the king to the abbot, " Lo ! beloved Saxulf, I have sent 
after thee for my soul's need, and I will plainly tell thee why. 
My brother Peada and my dear friend Oswiu began a monas- 
tery to the glory of Christ and St. Peter. But my brother, 
as Christ has willed it, is departed from this life, and I will 
pray to thee, O dear friend ! that they work diligently on the 
work, and I will find thee thereto gold and silver, lands and 



3 i.e. baptismal brother. 



26 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

54, 55. An, DC.LVin. In this year Kenwealh fought against the 

Welsh at Peonna (Pen), and put them to flight as far as 
Pedrida (the Parret). This (battle) was fought after he came 



possessions, and all that thereto behoveth." Then went the 
abbot home, and began to work. He so sped as Christ granted 
him, so that in a few years the monastery was ready. When 
the king heard that said, he was very glad, bade send 
through all his people after all his thanes ; after the arch- 
bisop, and after the bishops, and after his earls, and after all 
those who loved God, that they should come to him ; and he 
then set a day when the monastery should be hallowed. At 
the hallowing of the monastery king Wulfhere was there, and 
his brother JEthelred, and his sisters, Kyneburh and Kyne- 
swith ; and Deusdedit, the archbishop of Canterbury, hallowed 
the monastery ; and the bishop of Rochester, Ithamar ; and 
the bishop of London, who was named Wine ; and the bishop 
of the Mercians, who was named Jaruman, and bishop Tuda. 
And there was Wilfrith the priest, who was afterwards a bishop ; 
and there were all his thanes that were in his kingdom. When 
the monastery was hallowed in the name of St. Peter and of 
St. Paul, and of St. Andrew, then the king stood up before all 
his thanes, and said with a loud voice, " Thanked be the high 
almighty God for the worthy deed that is here done ; and I 
will this day honour Christ and St. Peter, and I will that 
ye all assent to my words. I, Wulfhere, give to-day to St. 
Peter, and the abbot Saxulf, and the monks of the monastery, 
these lands, and these waters, and meres, and fens, and wears, 
and all the lands that lie thereabout, which are of my 
kingdom, freely, so that no man, save the abbot and the 
monks, have any authority there. This is the gift : From 
Medeshamstede to Northburh (Norborough), and so to the 
place which is called Folies ; and so all the fen right to 
Esendic (Asendike), to the place which is called Fethermuth; 
and so on the straight way ten miles long to Cuggedic, and so 
to Raggewilh (Rothwell ?) ; and from Raggewilh five miles to 
the straight river that goes to vElm (Elm) and to Wisbec 
(Wisbech) ; and so about three miles to Throkonholt (Tro- 
kenholt), and from Throkonholt right through all the fen to 
Dereword (Dereworth), which is twenty miles long ; and so 



THE ANC4LO SAXON CHRONICLE. 27 

from the East Angles. He was there three years in exile : 
thither had Penda driven him, and had deprived him of his 
kingdom, because he had forsaken his sister. 
An. DC.LIX. 



to Graetecros (Great Cross) ; and from Grsetecros, through a 
clear water called Bradan 03 ; and thence six miles to Paccelad ; 
and so on through all the meres and fens which lie towards 
Huntendun-port (Huntingdon) ; and these meres and lakes, 
Scaelfremere and Witlesmere, and all the others which lie 
thereabout, with the land and with the houses which .are on 
the east side of Scselfremere, and thence all the fens to Modes- 
hamstede ; and from Medeshamstede to Welmesford (Walms- 
ford) ; and from Welmesford to Clive (King's Cliff), and thence 
to JEstun (Aston); and from ^Estun to Stanford (Stamford), 
and from Stanford as the water runs to the aforesaid Nortli- 
burh." These are the lands and the fens which the king gave 
to St. Peter's monastery. Then said the king, " This gift is 
little ; but I will that they shall hold it so royally and so 
freely that there be taken of it neither tax nor gabel, but for 
the monks alone. Thus will I free this monastery, that it 
be not subject, save to Rome only; and here I will that we 
seek St. Peter, all those who cannot go to Rome." Between 
these words, the abbot desired that he would grant him that 
which he should desire of him ; and the king granted it to 
him. " I have here God-fearing monks, who would pass their 
lives in an anchoretage, if they knew where. But here is an 
island which is called Ancarig (Thorney Isle ?), and I will 
crave this, that we may there build a monastery to the glory 
of St. Mary, that they may there dwell who may desire to lead 
their lives in peace and in rest." Then the king answered, 
and thus said, " Lo ! beloved Saxulf, not that alone which thou 
desirest, but all the things which I know that thou desirest on 
our Lord's behalf, I will so love and grant. And I pray thee, 
brother .ZEthelred, and my sisters, Kyneburh and Kyneswith, 
for the redemption of your souls, that ye be witnesses, and 
that ye write it with your fingers. And I pray all those who 
come after me, be they my sons, be they my brothers, or kings, 
that come after me, that our gift may stand, as they desire to 
be partakers in the eternal life, and as they desire to escape 



28 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DC.LX. In this year bishop JEgelbyrht withdrew from 
Kenwealh ; and Wine held the bishopric for three years ; and 
^Egelbyrht received the bishopric of Paris, in Gaul, by the 
Seine. 



from eternal punishment. Whosoever shall lessen our gift, or 
the gifts of other good men, may the heavenly gateward lessen 
him in the kingdom of heaven. And whosoever shall amplify 
it, may the heavenly gateward amplify him in the kingdom of 
heaven." These are the witnesses who were there, and who 
wrote it with their fingers 011 Christ's cross, and agreed to it with 
their tongues. King Wulfhere was the first that confirmed it, 
first by his words, and afterwards with his fingers wrote on the 
cross of Christ, and thus said : "I, king Wulfhere, with the 
kings, and with earls, and with dukes, and with thanes, the 
witnesses of my gift, before the archbishop Deusdedit, confirm 
it with the cross of Christ."-}- 1 " And I, Oswiu, king of the 
Northumbrians, the friend of this monastery, and of the abbot 
Saxulf, approve it with the cross of Christ."+ " And I, king 

* Sighere, grant it with the cross of Christ."+ " And T, king 

* Sebbi, write it with the cross of Christ. "+ " And I, JEthel- 
red, the king's brother, grant the same with the cross of 
Christ."-}- 1 " And we, the king's sisters, Kyneburh and Kyne- 
swith, we approve it."+ " And I, Deusdedit, archbishop of 
Canterbury, grant it.''-}- After that, all the others who were 
there assented to it with the cross of Christ. They Avere by 
name : Ithamar, bishop of Rochester ; and Wine, bishop of 
London, and Jaruman, who was bishop of the Mercians ; and 
Tilda, the * bishop, and Wilfrith the priest, who was after- 
wards bishop, and Eoppa the priest, whom king Wulfhere 
sent to preach Christianity in Wight ; and Saxulf abbot, and 
Immine aldorman, and Eadberht aldorman, and Herefrith 
aldorman, and Wilberht aldorman, and Abon aldorman ; 
^thelbold, Brordan, Wilbert, Ealhmund, Frethegist. These 
and many others who were there, servants of the king, all 
assented to it. 

This writ was written after the birth of our Lord DC.LXIV., 
the seventh year of king Wulfhere ; the ninth year of arch- 
bishop Deusdedit. They then laid the curse of God and the 
curse of all the saints, and of all Christian people, on him 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 29 

An. DC.LXI. In this year Kenwealh fought at Easter at 
Posentesburh (Pontesbury) ; and Wulfhere, son of Penda, 
committed ravage as far.as^Escesdun (Ashdown). And Cuth- 
red son of Cwichelm and * king Caenbyrht died in one year. * father of 
And Wulfhere, son of Penda, committed ravage on Wight, and 
gave the people of Wight to JEthelwald, king of the South 
Saxons, because Wulfhere had received him at baptism. And 
Eoppa the mass-priest, by order of Wilfrith and king Wulf- 
here, first brought baptism to the people of Wight. 



who should undo anything that was there done. " So be it," 
say all. Amen. 1 

When this thing was done, the king sent to Rome to 
Vitalian, who was then pope, and desired that he would 
sanction by his writ and with his blessing all this aforesaid 
thing. And the pope then sent this writ, thus saying : " I, 
pope Vitalian, grant to thee, king Wulfhere, and archbishop 
Deusdedit, and abbot Saxulf, all the things which ye desire. 
And I forbid that either king or any man have any authority, 
save only the abbot ; and that he obey any man, save the pope 
at Rome, and the archbishop of Canterbury. If any one break 
this in anything, may St. Peter with his sword destroy him ; 
if any one observe it, may St. Peter with the key of heaven 
undo for him the kingdom of heaven. Thus was the monas- 
tery at Medeshamstede begun, which has since been called 
Burgh (Peterborough). 

After that came another archbishop to Canterbury, who 
was called Theodorus, a very good and wise man ; and held 
his synod with his bishops and with the clergy. There was 
2 Winfrith bishop *of the Mercians deposed from his bishopric, * of Lich field, 
and Saxulf the abbot was there chosen for bishop ; and 
Cuthbald, a monk of the same monastery, was chosen for 
abbot. This synod was held six hundred and seventy-three 
winters after the birth of our Lord. a 



1 See a late Latin copy of this 
spurious grant in Cod. Diplom. v. 



2 He was deposed for resisting the 
partition of his see by Theodore. 



a E. 



so 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



*bp. ofLindis- 
56, 57. 



* k. of Kent. 



An. DC.LXII., DC.LXIII. 

An. DC.LXIV. In this year the sun was eclipsed on the 
vth of the Nones of May ] (May 3rd); and Earcenbryht, king 
of the Kentish people, died, and Ecgbryht his son succeeded 
^o the kingdom; and *Colman with his companions went 
to his country. In the same year there was a great pesti- 
lence in the island of Britain; and of that pestilence died 
* bishop Tudn> and was buried at Wagel (Wayleigh?). And 

Ceadda and Wilfrith were ordained ; and the same year 
archbishop Deusdedit died. 

An. DC.LXV., DC.LXVI. 

An. Dc.LXVii. In this year Oswiu and *Ecgbriht sent 
Wigheard the priest to Rome, that he might there be hallowed 
for archbishop of Canterbury; but he died as soon as he 
came thither. 

An. DC.LXVIII. In this year Theodore was ordained arch- 
bishop, and sent to Britain. 

An. DC.LXIX. In this year king Ecgbriht gave Reculf 
(Reculver) to Bass, the mass-priest, to build a monastery 
thereon. 

An. DC.LXX. In this year Oswiu, king of the Northum- 
brians, died on the xvth of the Kal. of March (Feb. loth); 
and Ecgferth his son reigned after him. And lilothhere, the 
nephew of bishop JEthelbyrht, succeeded to the bishopric 
over the West Saxons, and held it seven years ; and bishop 
Theodore hallowed him. And Oswiu was son of jEthelfrith, 
JEthelfrith of JEthelric, JEthelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. 
V An. DC.LXXI. In this year was the great destruction of 
birds. 

An. DC.LXXII. In this year king Kenwealh died, find 
Seaxburh his queen reigned one year after him. 



An. DC.LXVII. In this year Wigheard went to Rome, as 
king Oswiu and Ecgbriht had sent him, &c. a 



1 This happened on the 1st of May, but the error is Bede's. R.P. 



F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 31 

Au. DC.LXXIII. In this year Ecgbriht, king of the Kentish 
people, died ; and in the same year there was a synod 53, 59 
at Heorotford (Hertford) ; and St. ^Etheldryth began the 
monastery at Ely. 

An. DC.LXXIV. In this year .^Escwine succeeded to the 
kingdom of the West Saxons ; he was son of Cenfus, Cen- 
fus of Cenferth, Cenferth of Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, 
Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. 

An. DC.LXXV. In this year Wulfhere, son of Penda, and 
jJEscwine, son of Cenfus, fought at Biedanheafod (Bedwin?); 
and the same year Wulfhere died, and ./Ethelred succeeded 
to the kingdom. 1 



1 In his time he sent bishop Wilfrith to Home, to the pope 
that then was, he was called Agatho, and announced to him, 
by letter and by word, how his brothers, Peada and Wulfhere, 
and the abbot Saxulf, had built a monastery, which was called 
Medeshamstede ; and that they had freed it, against king and 
against bishop, from all service ; and prayed him to sanction it 
by his writ and with his blessing. And then the pope sent his 
writ to England, thus saying : 2 " I, Agatho, pope of Rome, 
greet well the worshipful -ZEthelred, king of the Mercians, and 
the archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, and the bishop of the 
Mercians, Saxulf, who was previously abbot, and all the abbots 
who are in England, with God's greeting and my blessing. I 
have heard the yearning of king ^thelred, and of the arch- 
bishop Theodore, and of the bishop Saxulf, and of the abbot 
Cuthbald ; and I will that it be in all wise so as ye have 
spoken it. And I command, on behalf of God, and of St. 
Peter, and of all saints, and of all ordained persons, that nei- 
ther king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man have any autho- 
rity, or gabel, or tax, or military service; nor let any man take 
service of any kind from the abbacy of Medeshamstede. I 
command also that the shire-bishop be not so bold that he 
perform any ordination or consecration in this abbacy, unless 
the abbot request it of him, or have ( biscop-wite,' or synod, or 



2 See the Latin original in Codex Diplorn. v. p. 22, and a Saxon copy 
at p. 28. 



32 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

60, fil. A n . DC.LXXVI. In this year JEscwine died, and Ilcddc 

succeeded to the "bishopric ; and Centwine succeeded to the 
kingdom of the West Saxons. And Centwine was son of 
Cynegils, Cynegils of Ceolwulf. And JEthered, king of the 
Mercians, ravaged Kent. 



authority ihere of any kind. And I will that the abbot be 
Jiolden as legate of Rome over all the island ; and that every 
abbot who shall be there chosen by the monks, be blessed by 
the archbishop of Canterbury. I will and grant that every 
man who had promised to go to Rome, and cannot perform it, 
either from infirmity, or his lord's need, or from lack of means, 
or from need of any other kind he cannot go thither, be he of 
England, or of whatever other island he be, let him go to the 
monastery at Medeshamstede, and have the same forgiveness 
of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbot, and of the monks, 
that he should have if he went to Rome. I now pray thee, 
brother Theodore, that thou let be commanded throughout all 
England, that a synod be gathered, and this writ be read and 
observed. In like manner I command thee, bishop Saxulf, 
that so as thou yearnest it that the monastery be free, so I for- 
bid thee and all the bishops who shall come after thee, from 
Christ and from all his saints, from having any authority over 
the monastery, save as much as the abbot may allow. I will 
now say by word, that whoso holds this writ and this announce- 
ment, may he be ever dwelling with God Almighty in the 
kingdom of heaven ; and whoso violates it, be he excommuni- 
cated and cast down with Judas and with all the devils into 
hell, unless he come to repentance. Amen." 

This writ pope Agatho and a hundred and twenty-five 
bishops sent to England by Wilfrith, archbishop of York. 
This was done after the birth of our Lord DC.LXXX., the sixth 
year of king jEthelred. 

Then the king commanded the archbishop Theodore, that 
he should appoint a meeting of all the ' witan ' at the place 
which is called Ileatfeld (Hatfield). When they were there 
gathered, he caused the writ to be read which the pope had 
sent thither, and they all assented to and fully confirmed 
it. Then said the king: "All the things which my brother 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



33 



An. DC.LXXVII. 

An. DC.LXXVIII. In this year the star (called) comet ap- 
peared in August, and shone for three months every morning 
like a sun-beam. And bishop Wilfrith was driven from his 
bishopric by king Ecgferth ; and two bishops were hallowed in 
his stead : Bosa to Deira, and Eata to Bernicia. And Eadhed 
was hallowed bishop of the people of Lindsey ; he was the 
first of the bishops of Lindsey. 

An. DC.LXXIX. In this year *^Elfwine was slain by the 
Trent, where Ecgferth and ^Ethelred fought. And St. 
JEthelthryth died, and Coldingham was burnt by divine fire. 



Peada and my brother Wulfhere, and my sisters, Kyneburh 
and Kyneswith, gave and granted to St. Peter and the abbot, 
I will that they stand ; and I will in my day increase it, 
for their souls and for my soul. I now give to-day to St. 
Peter, for his monastery of Medeshamstede, these lands and 
all thereto adjacent : that is, Bredun (Bredon), Hrepingas, 
Cedenac (Cadney), Swineshajfed (Swineshead), Heanbyrig 
(Hanbury), Lodeshac (Loddington), Scuffanhalch, Costesford 
(Cosford), Stretford (Stratford), Wsetelleburne (Wellbourne), 
Lufgeard (Lufwick ?), JEthelhuniglond (Allington ?), Bartha- 
nig (Bardney). These lands I give to St. Peter as freely as 
I myself possessed them, and so that none of my successors 
take anything therefrom. If any one do it, may he have the 
curse of the pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and 
of all those that are here witnesses ; and this I confirm with 
the sign of Christ." + I, Theodore, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, am witness to this writ of Medeshamstede, and I confirm 
it with my writing ; and I excommunicate all who shall violate 
anything thereof, and I bless all who shall hold it. *{* I, 
Wilfrith, archbishop of York, I am witness to this writing, 
and I assent to the same curse. + I, Saxulf, who was first 
abbot and now am bishop, I give them my curse, and that of 
all my successors, who shall violate this. I, Osthryth, queen of 
^Ethelred, grant it. I, Adrian, legate, assent to it. I, Putta, 
bishop of Rochester, subscribe it. I, Waldhere, bishop of 
London, confirm it. I, Cuthbald, abbot, assent to it, so that 
whoso shall violate it, have he the cursing of all bishops and 
of all Christian folk. Amen. 

VOL. II. C 



34 TEIE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. DC.LXXX. In this year archbishop Theodore appointed 
a synod at Haethfeld (Bishop's Hatfield), because he would 
set right the faith of Christ. And in the same year Hild, 
abbess of Whitby, died. 

An. DC.LXXXI. In this year Trumbyrht was hallowed bishop 
of Hexham, and Trumwine of the Picts ; because at that 
time l they belonged here. 

An. DC.LXXXII. (DC.LXXXIII.) In this year Cent wine drove 
the Brito-Welsh as far as the sea. 
62, 63. An. DC.LXXXIII. 

An. DC.LXXXIV. In this year Ecgferth sent an army against 
the Scots, and Berht, his aldorman, with it ; and miserably 
they afflicted and burned God's churches. 

An. DC.LXXXV. In this year king Ecgferth commanded 
Cuthberht to be hallowed a bishop ; and archbishop Theodore 
hallowed him at York, on the first day of Easter, bishop of 
Hexham, because Trumbyrht had been 2 deprived of his 
bishopric. And in this year Ceadwalla began to strive for 
the kingdom. Ceadwalla was son of Coenbryht, Coenbryht of 
Cadda (Ceadda), Cadda of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin 
of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. And Miil was Ceadwalla's 
brother, and he was afterwards burnt in Kent. And in the 
same year king Ecgferth was slain by the north sea, and a 
great army with him, on the xm. of the Kal. of June (May 
20th). He had been king fifteen winters ; and Aldfrith, his 
brother, succeeded to the kingdom after him. Ecgferth was 
son of Oswiu, Oswiu of JEthelferth, ^thelferth of JEthelric, 
JEthelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. And Hlothhere, king of the 
Kentish people, died in the same year. And John was 
hallowed bishop of Hexham, and he was there until Wilfrith 
came in. John succeeded afterwards to the bishopric of 
York, for bishop Bosa was dead. Then Wilfrith, his priest, 
was after that hallowed bishop of Ceaster (York), and John 
went to his monastery of Derewood (Beverley). In this year 
there was bloody rain in Britain, and milk and butter were 
turned to blood. 



1 That is, the Picts ; they after- 
wards revolted and threw of the 
Anglian yoke. 



2 By the revolted Picts, who ex- 
pelled the Anglian prelate. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 35 

An. DC.LXXXVI. In this year Ceadwalla, and Mul, his 
brother, ravaged Kent and Wight. This Ceadwalla gave to 
St. Peter's monastery at Medeshamstede Hoge (Hook), which 
is in an island called Heabureahg (Egborough). The abbot 
then of that monastery was called Ecgbald : he was the third 
abbot after Saxulf. Theodore was then archbishop in Kent. 

An. DC.LXXXVII. In this year Mul was burnt in Kent, and 
xn. other men with him ; and in that year Ceadwalla again 64, 65. 
ravaged Kent. 

An. DC.LXXXVIII. In this year Ine succeeded to the king- 
dom of the West Saxons, and held it thirty-seven winters. 
And he built the monastery at Glastonbury, and afterwards 
withdrew to Rome, and there dwelt until his dying day. 
And in the same year Ceadwalla went to Rome, and received 
baptism from the pope ; and the pope named him Peter ; and 
after seven nights he died. Now Ine was son of Cenred, 
Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald was brother of Cynegils ; and 
they were the sons of Cuthwine, son of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of 
Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. 

An. DC.LXXXIX. 

An. DC.XC. In this year archbishop Theodore died. He 
was bishop twenty-two winters, and he was buried at Can- 
terbury ; and Beorhtwald succeeded to the bishopric. Pre- 
viously the bishops had been Roman ; since then they were 
English. 

An. DC.XCI., DC.XCII. 



An. DC.LXXXVIII. In this year king Ceadwalla went to 
Rome, and received baptism of Sergius the pope, and he gave 
him the name of Peter, and after seven nights he died, on the 
xnth of the Kal. of May (Apr. 20th), in his l baptismal 
clothes'; and he was buried in St. Peter's church. And Ine 
succeeded to the kingdom of the West Saxons after him. who 
reigned twenty- seven winters, and afterwards withdrew, 
&c. a 



l/ in albis adhuc positus. Beda, H. E. v. 7. under crisman, JElfr. Beda. 



E. F. 

c 2 



36 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



66, 67. An. DC.XCIII. In this year Bcorhtwald was hallowed arch- 

bishop by Guodun, bishop of the Gauls, on the vth of the 
Non. of July (July 3rd). At this time Gefmund, who was 
bishop of Rochester, died ; and archbishop Beorhtwald hal- 
lowed Tobias in his stead. And Dryhthelm was withdrawn 
from life. 1 

An. DC.XCIV. In this year the Kentish people compounded 
with Ine, and gave him thirty 2 men (pounds, thousands) 
for his friendship, because they had formerly burned Mfil. 
And Wihtred succeeded to the kingdom of the Kentish people, 3 
and held it thirty-three winters. Wihtred was son of 
Ecgberht, Ecgberht of Erconbryht, Erconbryht of Eadbald, 
Eadbald of ^Ethelbryht. 4 



An. DC.XCII. In this year Brihtwold was chosen archbishop 
on the Kal. of July (July 1st) ; he had previously been abbot 
of Reculver. There were then two kings in Kent, Wihtred 
and Webheard (Swebheard). :l 



4 And as soon as he was king, he commanded a great 
council to be gathered at the place that is called Baccanceld 
(Bapchild), in which were sitting Wihtred, king of the 
Kentish people, and Beorhtwald, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Tobias, bishop of Rochester ; and with them abbots and 
abbesses, and many wise men were gathered, all to deliberate 
concerning the bettering of God's churches that are in Kent. 
Now began the king to speak, and said : " I will that all 
the monasteries and the churches that were given and 
bequeathed in glory to God, in the clays of faithful kings, 
my predecessors, and in the days of my kinsmen, of king 



1 For an account of Dryhthelm 
and his vision, see Beda, H.E. v. 12. 

2 The payment, whatever its 
amount may have heen, was pro- 
bahly the legal compensation for the 
death of Mul. (See the vol. of A.S. 
Laws). Of the early Latin writers 
Ethelweard says it was 30,000 solidi, 
' per singulos constant! numero sex- 



decim nuromis ;' Flor. of Worcester 
3,750 pounds ; and Malmesbury 
30,000 mancuses, which at 8 to the 
pound would agree with Florence. 
R.P. 

a Prohably to the sole govern- 
ment, by the death or expulsion of 
Swsebheard. See Beda, H.E. iv. 
26. 



E. F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 37 

All. DC.XCV., DC.XCVI. 

An. DC.XCVII. In this year the Southumbrians slew 
Osthryth, JEthelred's queen, Ecgferth's sister. 

An. DC.XCVIII. 

An. DC.XCIX. In this year the Picts slew Beorht the 
aldorman. 

An. DCC., DCC.I. 



JEthelberht, and those who followed after him, so remain to 
the glory of God, and firmly stand to all eternity for 
evermore. For I, Wihtred, an earthly king, stimulated by 
the heavenly King, and kindled with the zeal of righteous- 
ness, have learned from the institutes of our forefathers, that 
no layman ought with right to appropriate to himself a 
church, or any of the things which to a church belong. And 
therefore strongly and faithfully we appoint and decree, and, 
in the name of Almighty God and of all saints, we forbid 
to all kings our successors, and to aldormen, and to all lay- 
men, ever any lordship over churches, and over any of their 
possessions, which I or my predecessors, in days of old, have 
given for the glory of Christ, and our lady, St. Mary, and the 
holy apostles. But be it observed, when it happens, that when 
a bishop, or an abbot, or an abbess, shall depart from this life, 
it be announced to the archbishop; and, by his counsel and 
suggestion, let such be chosen as may be worthy ; and let the 
archbishop inquire into his life and purity, who shall bo 
chosen to such offices .... and in no wise let any 
one be chosen, nor to such office hallowed, without the arch- 
bishop's counsel. Kings are to appoint earls and aldormen, 
yhire-reeves and judges ; and an archbishop is to direct and 
counsel, and to choose and appoint bishops, and abbots, and 
abbesses, priests and deacons ; and to hallow and strengthen 
them by good admonitions and example, lest any of God's 
herd wander and perish." a l 

1 Besides the mutilated copy of I See also Wiikins, Concil. i. p. 56, 

this instrument in MS. F., there is a I and Johnson's Ecclesiastical Laws, 

more perfect one in Cod. Diplom. v. | i. p. 125, edit. Baron. 

p. 36, from a collation of three MSS. | 



1'', 



38 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCC.II. In this year Cenred succeeded to the king- 
dom of the Southumbrians. 

68, G9. An. DCC.III. In this year bishop Hsedde died ; and he 

held the bishopric at Winchester twenty-seven winters. 

An. DCC.IV. In this year ^Ethelred, son of Penda, king 
of the Mercians, assumed monkhood ; and he had held the 
kingdom twenty-nine winters ; then Cenred succeeded 
thereto. 

An. DCC.V. In this year Aldferth, king of the Northum- 
brians, died on the xixth of the Kal. of January (Dec. 
ofLiciiCeid. 14th) at Driffield, and bishop *Saxwulf. Then Osred, his 
son, succeeded to the kingdom. 

An. DCC.VI. DCC.vm. 

An. DCC.IX. In this year bishop Aldhelm died : he was 

* of Siicrborne. *bishop west of Selwood ; and, in the early days of Daniel, 

the land of the West Saxons was divided into two bishop- 
shires; and previously it was one : one Daniel held, the 
other Aldhelm. After Aldhelm, Forthhere succeeded to it. 
And king Ceolred succeeded to the kingdom of the Mer- 

* k. of Essex, cians ; and Cenred went to Rome, and *Offa with him. 

And Cenred was there till his life's end. And in the 

* of Hexham. same year *bishop Wilfrith died at Oundle, and his body 

was conveyed to Ripon ; he was bishop forty-five winters, 
whom king Ecgfrith had formerly driven to Rome. 

An. DCC.X. (DCC.IX.) In this year Acca, Wilfrith's priest, 
succeeded to the bishopric which he had before held ; and 
in the same year the aldorman Beorhtfrith fought against 
* 70,71. the Picts between Hasfe and Csere (Heugh and Caraw); and 
Ine and Nunna his kinsman fought against Gerent, king of 
the Welsh ; and in the same year Sigbald (Hygbald) was slain. 

An. DCC.XI. DCC.XIII. 

An. DCC.XIV. (DCC.XIII.) In this year St. Guthlac died, and 
king Pepin. 

An. DCC.XV. (DCC.XIV.) In this year Ine and Ceolred fought 
at Woddesbeorh (Wansborough). In this year king Dago- 
bert died. 

An. DCC.XVI. In this year Osred, king of the Northumbrians, 

* eleven? was slain on the southern border ; he had the kingdom *seven 

(eight) winters after Aldferth ; then Cenred succeeded to the 
kingdom, and held it two years ; then Osric, and held it eleven 
years. And also in the same year Ceolred, king of the Mercians, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 39 

died, and his body lies in Lichfield, and JEthelred's, the son of 
Penda, at Bardney. Then JEthelbald succeeded to the kingdom 
of the Mercians, and held it forty-one winters. ^Ethelbald was 
son of Alweo, Alweo of Eawa, Eawa of Pybba, whose kin is 
before written. And the pious man Ecgberht turned the 
monks in the island of lona to right, so that they observed 
Easter rightly, and the ecclesiastical tonsure. 

An. DCC.XVII. 

An. DCC.XVIII. (DCC.XVII.) In this year Ingild, the brother 
of Ine, died, and their sisters were Cwenburh and Cuthburh. 
And Cuthburh raised the monastery at Wimborne ; and she 
was given (in marriage) to JEldferth, king of the Northum- 72, 73. 
brians ; but they separated during his life. 

An. DCC.XIX., DCC.XX. 

An. DCC.XXI. (DCC.XX.) In this year bishop Daniel went to 
Rome; and in the same year Ine slew Cynewulf the setheling. 
And in this year the holy "bishop John died ; he was bishop * of York. 
thirty-three years and eight months and thirteen days ; and 
his body rests at Beverley. 

An. DCC.XXII. (DCC.XXI.) In this year queen -^Ethelburh 
destroyed Taunton, which Ine had previously built. And 
Ealdbriht the exile withdrew into Surrey and Sussex ; and 
Ine fought against the South Saxons. 

An. DCC.XXIII., DCC.XXIV. 

An. DCC.XXV. In this year Wihtred, king of the Kentish 
people, died, on the ixth of the Kal. of May (April 23rd); he 
reigned thirty-four winters ; his kin is *above ; and Ead- * An. Daxci 
berht succeeded to the kingdom. And Ine fought against 
the South Saxons, and there slew Ealdbriht the aetheling, 
whom he had before driven out. 

An. DCC.XXVI. 

An. DCC.XXVII. In this year Tobias, bishop of Rochester, 
died ; and in his stead archbishop Beorhtwald hallowed Ald- 
wulf bishop. 

An. DCC.XXVIII. (DCC.XXVI.) In this year Ine went to Rome, 
and there gave up his life ; and ^Etlielheard his kinsman suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom of the West Saxons, and held it four- 
teen years. And in that same year ^Ethelheard and Oswald 
the setheling fought. And Oswald was son of JEthelbald, 74, 75. 
JEthelbald of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwiiie, Cuthwiue of 
Ceawlin. 



40 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. DCC.XXIX. In this year the star comet appeared ; and 
St. Ecgberht died in lona. And in the same year Osric died ; 
he was king eleven winters ; then Ceolwulf succeeded to the 
kingdom and held it eight years. 

An. DCC.XXX. In this year Oswald the ostheling died. 

An. DCC.XXXI. In this year Osric, king of the Northumbrians, 
was slain, and Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and held 
it eight years. 1 And Ceolwulf was son of Cutha, Cutha of 
Cuthwine, Cuthwine -of Leodwald, Leodwald of Ecgwald, 
Ecgwald of Aldhelm, Aldhelm of Ocga, Ocga of Ida, Ida 
of Eoppa. And archbishop Beorhtwald died on the Ides of 
January (Jan. 13th) ; he was bishop thirty-seven winters, 
and six months and fourteen days. And in the same year 
Tatwine was hallowed archbishop : he had before been a 
76, 77. priest at Breodun (Bredon) in Mercia : Daniel, bishop of 
Winchester, and Ingwald, bishop of London, and Aldwine, 
bishop of Lichfield, and Aldwulf, bishop of Rochester, hal- 
lowed him on the 10th of the month of June. He had the 
archbishopric three years. 

An. DCC.XXXII. 

An. DCC.XXXIII. In this year JEthelbald captured Somerton ; 
and the sun, was eclipsed and all the sun's disc was like a 

* Hexham. black shield ; and Acca was driven from his *bishopric. 

\f An. DCC.XXXIY. In this year the moon was as if it had been 

* of Canterbury, sprinkled with blood ; and *archbishop Tatwine and Beda 

died, 2 and Ecgberht was hallowed bishop. 

* of York. An. DCC.XXXV. In this year *bishop Ecgberht received the 

pall at Rome. 

* of Canterbury. An. Dcc.xxxvi. Iii this year 'archbishop Nothhelm received 

the pall from the bishop of the Romans. 

* of Sherborne. Aii. DCC.xxxvu. This year *bishop Forthhere and tqueen 
tofNorthum- Frythogith went to Rome ; and king JCeolwulf received St. 
bna * Peter's tonsure, and gave his kingdom to Eadberht, son of his 
"ofLindisfarne. paternal uncle ; he reigned twenty-one winters ; and *bishop 

* of Lindisfarne. JEthelwold and Acca died, and Cynewulf was hallowed "bishop. 

And in the same year king ^thelbald ravaged the land of the 
Northumbrians. 



1 Erroneously repeated under this 
date from DCC.XXIX., in which year 



Osric's death is placed by Beda, 
H.E. v. 24. 
2 Beda died in DCC.XXXV. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 



41 



An. DCC.XXXVIII. In this year Eadberht, son of Eata (Eata 78, 79. 
was son of Leodwald), succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Northumbrians, and held it twenty-one winters ; and his 
brother was *archbishop Ecgberht, son of Eata; and they * of York, 
both rest at York, in one porch. 

An. DCC.XXXIX., DCC.XL. 

An. DCC.XLI. (DCC.XL.) In this year king JEthelheard died, 
and Cuthred, his kinsman, succeeded to the kingdom of the 
West Saxons, and held it sixteen winters ; and he warred 
boldly against JEthelbald, king of the Mercians. And 
'archbishop Nothhelm died, and Cuthbyrht was hallowed * of Canterbury, 
archbishop ; and bishop Dun to Rochester. This year York 
was burnt. 

An. DCC.XLII. In this year ] a great synod was gathered at 
Clofesho (Cliff) ; and there were JEthelbald, king of the 
Mercians, and archbishop Cuthbyrht, and many other wise 
men. 

An. DCC.XLIII. In this year JEthelbald, king of the 
Mercians, and Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, fought 
against the Welsh. 

An. DCC.XLIV. In this year bishop Daniel resigned the sec 
of Winchester, and Hunferth succeeded to the bishopric. 
And stars went shooting rapidly; and Wilfrith the younger, 
who was bishop of York, died, on the mrd of the Kal. of May 
(April 29th) ; and he was 2 thirty winters bishop. 

An. DCC.XL v. In this year Daniel died : then were forty- 80, 81. 
three winters agone since he succeeded to the bishopric. 

An. DCC.XLVI. In this year *king Selred was slain. * of the E. Saxon 

An. DCC.XL vii. 

An. DCC.XL vin. In this year Cynric, aetheling of the West 
Saxons, was slain ; and Eadbryht, king of the Kentish people, 



1 The acts of this council are 
printed in the Codex Diplomaticus 
(i. p. 105) from three MSS. A cor- 
rupt copy is also in Wilkins, Con - 
cilia, i. p. 86 ; and a more complete 
one in the Latin text of MS. F. See 
also Johnson, Eccles. Laws, i. p. 236, 
edit. Baron. 

2 Wilfrith succeeded St. John of 



Beverley in the see of York in 721, 
and was consequently bishop only 
twenty-three years. M. Westm., 
Wendover, and other chroniclers 
place his death in 743, apparently 
confounding him with Wilfrith, 
bishop of Worcester, who, accord- 
ing to Florence, died in that year. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Cutlired's. 



82, 83. 



died, and .^thelbyrht, son of king Wihtred, succeeded to tlie 
kingdom. 

An. DCC.XLIX. 

An. DCC.L. In this year Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, 
fought against JEthelhun, the proud aldorman. 

An. DCC.LI. 

An. DCC.LII. In this year Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, 
in the twelfth year of his reign, fought at Burford against 
JEthelbald, king of the Mercians, and put hini to flight. 

An. DCC.LIII. In this year Cuthred, king of the West 
Saxons, fought against the Welsh. 

An. DCC.LIV. In this year Cuthred, king of the West 
Saxons, died ; and Cyneheard succeeded to the bishopric of 
Winchester, after Hunferth ; and in that year Canterbury was 
burnt ; and Sigebryht, * his kinsman, succeeded to the king- 
dom of the West Saxons, and held it one year. 

An. DCC.LY. In this year Cynewulf and the West Saxon 
' witan ' deprived Sigebryht, his kinsman, of his kingdom, for 
his unrighteous deeds, except Hampshire ; and that he held 
until he slew the aldorman who had longest remained with 
him. And then Cynewulf drove him into Andred ; and ho 
there abode until a herdsman stabbed him at Pryfetes flod 
(Privet) ; and he avenged the aldorman Cumbra. And 
Cynewulf fought often in great battles against the Brito- 
Welsh ; ! and about thirty-one winters after he had the 
kingdom, he would drive out an astheling, who was named 
Cyneheard, and Cyneheard was Sigebryht's brother. And he 



y o: 



An. BCC.LV. In this year Cynewulf deprived king Sigebryht 
of his kingdom ; and Sigebryht's brother, named Cyneheard, 
slew Cynewulf at Merantun (Merton) ; and he reigned thirty- 
one years. And in the same year ^Ethelbald, king of the 
Mercians, was slain at Repton, and Offa succeeded to the king- 
dom of the Mercians, Beornred being put to flight. 11 



1 The following narrative is here 
by anticipation, as the murder of 
Cynewulf was not perpetrated until 



784, under which date it is regularly 
recorded. It is no doubt an early 
interpolation. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



1 * Fores cunctas seratas invene- 
' runt,' Fl. Wigorn. I suspect, ne- 
vertheless, that the ' tobeiocen ' of 
the text means that they unclosed 
the gates, for the purpose of holding 
a parley with the king's followers, 



a sense which the context 1 seems to 
justify. 

2 According to the dates given in 
the chronicles, Cynewulf reigned 
only twenty-nine years, viz., from 
755 to 784. 



84, 85. 



'then learned that the king', with a small company, was on a i 
visit to a woman at: Merantun (Merton), and he there beset 
him, and surrounded the bower *(bur), before the men dis- * burh > E - c - 
covered him who wfere with the king. And when the king 
perceived that, he went to the door, and then gallantly 
defended himself, until he looked on the astheling, and then 
rushed out on him, and sorely wounded him ; and they were 
all fighting against the king, until they had slain him. And 
when by the woman's gestures the king's thanes had dis- 
covered the tumult, they ran thither, whoever was ready, and 
with all speed. And to each of them the astheling offered 
money and life ; and not one of them would accept it ; but 
they continued fighting, until they were all slain, save one, a 
British hostage, and he was sorely wounded. When' in the 
morning, the king's thanes, who had remained behind, heard 
that the king was slain, they rode thither, and Osric his 
aldorman, and Wigferth his thane, and the men whom he had 
previously left belling and found the astheling in the burgh 
where the king lay slain ; and they had * locked the gates 
against them, and they went thereto. And he then offered 
them their own choice of money and land, if they would grant 
him the kingdom ; and made known to them that their kins- 
men were with him, who would not forsake himf\ And they 
then said, that to them no kinsman was dearer than their lord, 
and that they would never follow his murderer. And they 
then offered that they should go from him uninjured ; and 
they said that the same had been offered to their companions, 
who before had been with the king. They then said that they 
no more minded it * than did your companions who were slain 
with the king.' And they then were fighting about the gates, 86, 87. 
until they followed in and slew the astheling and the men who 
were with him, all save one., who was the aldorman's godson ; 
and he saved his life, although he had been repeatedly wounded. 
And Cynewulf reigned 2 thirty-one winters, and his body lie- 



44 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Winchester, and the aetheling's at Axmiuster; and their direct 
paternal kin goes to Cerdic. And in the same year ^Ethel- 
bald, king of the Mercians, was slain at Seckington, and his 
body lies at Repton ; and he reigned forty-one winters ; and 
Beornragd succeeded to the kingdom, and held it a little while 
and unhappily. And in the same year Offa drove out Beorn- 
raed and succeeded to the kingdom, and held it thirty-nine 
winters ; and his son Ecgferth held it a hundred and forty-one 
days. Offa was son of Thincgferth, Thincgferth of Eanwulf, 
Eanwulf of Osmod, Osmod of Eawa, Eawa of Pybba (Wybba) 
Pybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, 
Cnebba of Ikel, Ikel of Eomcer, Eomaer of Angeltheow, 
Angeltheow of OiFa, Offa of Wcermund, Waermund of Wihtlceg, 
Wihtlaeg of Woden. 1 

An. DCC.LVI. 

An. DCC.LVII. In this year Eadberht, king of the North- 
umbrians, assumed the tonsure, and his son Oswulf succeeded 
88, 89. to the kingdom, and reigned one year, and he was slain by his 
household, on the vmth of the Kal. of August (July 25th). 

An. DCC.LVIII. In this year archbishop Cuthbyrht died ; 

* of Canterbury, and he held the *archbishopric eighteen years. 

* of Canterbury. An. pcc.Lix. In this year Bregowine was ordained *arch- 

bishop at St. Michael's tide (Sept. 29th) ; and held the see 
four years. And Moll JEthelwald succeeded to the kingdom 
of the Northumbrians, and reigned six winters, and then 
left it. 

An. DCC.LX. In this year JEthelbryht, king of the Kentish 
people, died; he was son of king Wihtred. '"And Ccolwulf 
also died. 

V An. DCC.LXI. In this year was the great winter ; and 
Moll, king of the Northumbrians, slew Oswine at Eadwine's 
cliff (Edwinstow ?) on the vmth of the Ides of August 
(Aug. 6th). 3 

* of Canterbury. An. DCC.LXii. In this year 'archbishop Bregowine died. 

90, 91. An. DCC.LXIII. (DCC.LXII.) In this year lanbryht was or- 

* of Canterbury, darned *archbishop on the fortieth day after Midwinter (Feb. 



1 See Elor.Wigorn. i. p. 251, edit. I -See An. ix'c.xxxvn. 
Kngl. Histor. Society. ' J See Sim. Duueha, co!. 105, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 45 

3rd), and held the see twenty-six years ; and Frithuwald, 
bishop of Whiterne, died on the Nones of May (May 7th) ; he 
was hallowed at York on the xvmth of the Kal. of Septem- 
ber (Aug. 15th), the sixth winter of the reign of Ceolwulf, 
and he was bishop twenty-nine winters. Then Pehtwine was 
hallowed bishop of Whiterne at -ZElfet-ee (Adlingflet ?) on the 
xvith of the Kal. of August (July 17th). 

An. DCC.LXIV. In this year archbishop lanbryht received 
the pall. 

An. DCC.LXV. In this year Alchrcd succeeded to the king- 
dom of Northumbria, and reigned nine (eight) winters. 

An. DCC.LXVI. In this year archbishop Ecgberht died at 
York on the xmth of the Kal. of December (Nov. 19th); he 
was bishop l thirty-seven (thirty-six) winters; and Fritheberht 
at Hexham; he was bishop thirty-three winters (thirty-four); 
and -ZEthelberht was hallowed to York, and Alchmund to 
Hexham. 

An. DCC.LXVII. 

An. DCC.LXVIII. In this year died king 2 Eadberht, son of 
Eata, on the xmth of the Kal. of September (Aug. 20th). 

An. DCC.LXIX. DCC.LXXI. 

An. DCC.LXXII. In this year *bishop Milred died. * of Worcester. 

V An. DCC.LXXIII. (DCC.LXXIV.) In this year a red cross 
appeared in the heavens after sunset ; and in this year the 
Mercians and Kentish men fought at Otford ; and wondrous 92, 93. 
serpents were seen in the South Saxons' land. 

An. DCC.LXXIV. In this year, at Easter-tide (April 3rd), the 
Northumbrians drove their king AJchred from York, and 
took jJEthelred, son of Moll, for their lord, who reigned four 
winters. 

An. DCC.LXXV. 

An. DCC.LXXVI. In this year *bishop Pehtwine died, on * of Whiterne. 
the xmth of the Kal. of October (Sept. 19th); he was bishop 
fourteen winters. 

An. DCC.LXXVII. In this year Cynewulf and Offa fought at 
Benson, and Offa took the town. And in the same year 



1 This is incorrect ; he was con- j 2 Formerly king of the North urn- 
secrated in 734. I brians. See An. DCC.LVII. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* of North- 
urabria. 



JEthelberht was hallowed bishop of Whiterne, at York, on the 
xvnth of the Kal. of July (June 15th). 1 

An. DCC.LXXVIII. In this year JEthelbald and Heardberht 
slew three high reeves, Ealdulf son of Bosa, at King's cliff, 
and Cynewulf and Ecga at Helathyrn (Ellerton ?), on the 
xith of the Kal. of April (March 22nd); and then Alfwold 
succeeded to the *kingdom, and drove JEthelred from the 
land ; and he reigned ten winters. 5 

An. DCC.LXXIX. (DCC.LXXX.) In this year the Old-Saxons 
and the Franks fought ; and the high reeves of the North- 
umbrians burned the aldorman Beorn at Seletun (Silton), on 



*ofLichfield. 
tofLindsey. 
* of Leicester. 



1 In the days of king Offa there was an abbot of Medes- 
hamstede called Beonna. The same Beonna, by the advice 
of all the monks of the monastery, let to the aldorman Cuth- 
briht ten 2 " bon de-lands " at Swineshead, with leasow and 
with meadow, and with all thereto adjacent, and so that 
Cuthbriht should give to the abbot fifty pounds for it, and 
every year one night's entertainment, or thirty shillings in 
pennies ; and also that after his day the land should revert to 
the monastery. At this was witness the king OfFa and king 
Ecgferth and *archbishop Hygeberht, and "^bishop Ceolwulf, 
and *bishop Inwona, and abbot Beonna, and many other bishops 
and abbots, and many other great men. 3 In the days of this 
same Offa there was an aldorman who was called Brordan. 
He desired of the king that, for his love, he would free * his 
one monastery called Woking, because he would give it to 
Medeshamstede and to St. Peter, and to the abbot that then was, 
who was called Pusa. Pusa was after Beonna, and the king 
loved him greatly. And the king then freed the monastery 
of Woking against king, and against bishop, and against earl, 
and against all men, so that no one should have there any 
authority, save St. Peter and the abbot. This was done in 
the king's vill called Freoricburne. 



2 'terrain x. manentium.' Cod. 
Diplom. i. p. 201. 

3 See the Latin documents in Cod. 
Diplom. i, pp. 201, 204, from a MS. 



belonging to the Society of Anti- 
quaries. 

4 From all secular services. 

5 See Sim. Dunelm., H. Hunt, 
a. 778. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



94, 95. 



of York. 



O f 



the vin. of the Kal. of January (Dec. 25th) ; and archbishop 
^Ethelberht died at York, in whose stead Eanbald was 
hallowed ; and bishop Cynewulf resigned the bishopric of 
Lindisfarne. 

An. DCC.LXXX. In this year Alchmund, bishop of Hexham, 
died on the vn. of the Ides of September (Sept. 7th), and 
Tilberht was hallowed in his stead, on the vith of the Nones 
of October (Oct. 2nd) ; and Higbald was, at Soccaburh (Sock- 
burn), hallowed bishop of Lindisfarne. And king Alfwold 
sent to Rome for a pall, and made Eanbald *archbishop. 

An. DCC.LXXXI. 

An. DCC.LXXXII. In this year died Werburh, *Ceolred's 
queen; and Cynewulf bishop of Lindisfarne; and there was a 
synod at Aclea (Ockley) . 

An. DCC.LXXXIII. 

An. DCC.LXXXIV. In this year Cyneheard slew king Cyne- 
wulf, and he was there slain, and eighty-four men with him ; 
and then Beorhtric succeeded to the kingdom of the West- 
Saxons, and he reigned sixteen years, and his body lies at 
Wareham ; and his direct paternal kin goes to Cerdic. At 
this time king Ealhmund reigned in Kent. This king Ealh- 
mund was father of *Ecgberht, and Ecgberht was father of * O f Wessex 
Athulf ( JSthelwulf ) 

An. DCC.LXXXV. In this year there was a contentious synod 95, 97. 
at Cealchyth (Chalk ?), and archbishop lanbryht resigned 'a 
part of his bishopric, and Higebryht was chosen by king Offa; 
and Ecgferth was hallowed *king. In this year abbot Botwine *of Mercia. 
died at Ripon. And at this time messengers were sent from 
Rome to England by pope Adrian, to renew the faith and the 
peace which|St. Gregory had sent us by the bishop Augus- 
tine ; and they were received with honour and sent back in 
peace. 

An. DCC.LXXXVI. 

V An. DCC.LXXXVII. In this year king Beorhtric took Ead- 
burh, king Offa's daughter, to wife. And in his days first 
came three ships of Northmen from 2 Hseretha land. And then 
the reeve rode thereto, and would drive them to the 



1 Of which Offa created the tem- 
porary archiepiscopal see of Lich- 
field. 



2 Probably Haurftaland, a district 
on the west coast of Norway. 



48 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 



i vill, for he knew not what they were, and they there slew 
I him. Those were the first ships of Danish men that sought 
/ the land of the English race. 

An. DCC.LXXXVIII. In this year a synod was gathered in 
the land of the Northumbrians at Pincanheal (Finchale), on 
the ivth of the Nones of September (Sept. 2nd); and abbot 
Aldberht died at Ripon. 

98, 99. Ail. DCC.LXXXIX. Iii this year Alfwold, king of the North- 

umbrians, was slain by Sicga, on the vmth of the Kal. of 
October (Sept. 24th) ; and a heavenly light was frequently 
seen there, where he was slain ; and he was buried at Hexham, 
within the church ; and Osred son of Alchred succeeded to 
the kingdom after him ; he was his nephew. And a great 
synod was gathered at Aclea (Ockley). 

of Canterbury. An. DCC.xc. In this year "archbishop lanbryht died; and in 
the same year, abbot .ZEthelheard was chosen archbishop. And - 
Osred, king of the Northumbrians, was betrayed, and driven 
from the kingdom ; and JEthelred, son of ^Ethelwold, after- 
wards succeeded to the kingdom. 

An. DCC.XCI. In this year Baldwulf was hallowed bishop of 
Whiterne, on the xvith of the Kal. of August (July 17th), by 
'archbishop Eanbald, and by tbishop JEthelberht. 

An. DCC.XCII. In this year Offa, king of the Mercians, com- 
of the E. Angles, manded the head of 'king JEthelbryht to be struck off; and 
Osred, who had been king of the Northumbrians, having come 
home after exile, was seized and slain, on the xvmth of the 
Kal. of October (Sept. 14th) ; and his body rests at Tyne- 
mouth ; and king JEthelred took a new wife, who was called 
Rifled, on the md of the Kal. of October (Sept. 29th). 

100, 101. An. DCC.XCIII. In this year dire forewarnings came over the 

land of the Northumbrians, and miserably terrified the people : 
these were excessive whirlwinds and lightnings, and fiery 
dragons were seen flying in the air. A great famine soon 
followed these tokens ; and a little after that, in the same year, 
on the vith of the Ides of January (Jan. 8th), the havoc of 
heathen men miserably destroyed God's church at Lindisfarne, 
through rapine and slaughter. And 'Sicga died on the vmth 
of the Kal. of March (Feb. 22nd). 



* of York, 
t of Hexham. 



1 See DCC.LXXXIX. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCC.XCIV. In this year 'pope Adrian and king Offa 
died ; and JEthelred, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by 
his own people, on the xinth of the Kal. of May (Apr. 19th) ; 
and *bishop Ceolwulf and bishop Eadbald departed from the 
land ; and Ecgferth succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians, 
and died the same year. And Eadberht succeeded to the 
kingdom in Kent, whose other name was Praen. And the 
aldorman ^Ethelheard died on the Kal. of August (Aug. 1st). 
And the heathens ravaged among the Northumbrians, and 
plundered Ecgferth's monastery at Donemuth (Wearmouth) ; 
and there one of their leaders was slain, and also some of their 
ships were wrecked by a tempest, and many of them were 
there drowned, and some came to shore alive, and they were 
forthwith slain at the mouth of the river. 

An. DCC.XCV. In this year the moon was eclipsed between 
cock-crowing and dawn, on the vth of the Kal. of April 
(Mar. 28th) ; and Eardwulf succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Northumbrians, on the und of the Ides of May (May 14th) ; 
and he was afterwards blessed for king, and raised to his 
throne on the vnth of the Kal. of June (May 26th), at York, 
by archbishop Eanbald, and bishop *JEthelberht, a^id bishops 

* + _, .. 

Higbalcl and "Baclwuli. 

An. DCC.XCVI. In this year Cynulf (Ceolwulf), king of the 
Mercians, ravaged Kent as far as the marsh, and took Preen 
Ihcir king, and led him bound into Mercia, [and caused his 
eyes to be put out, and his hands cut off]. And JEthelheard, 
archbishop of Canterbury, appointed a synod, and confirmed 
and ratified, by command of pope Leo, all the things concern- 
ing God's monasteries, that were established in Wihtgar's day, 



102, 103. 



ofHexham. 

of Lindisfarno. 



1 Charlemagne, in his letter to 
Offa, (W. Malmesb. p. 129), men- 
tions the death of Adrian, which 
happened on the 25th Dec. 795, or, 
according to the reckoning then in 
use, on the first day of 796. Offa's 
death could not therefore have taken 
place in 794, but must, no doubt, be 
assigned to 796, under which date it 
is again given in MSS. IX and E. 
VOL. II, 



Offa began to reign in 756, and 
reigned 39 years, or, according to 
MSS. D. and E., 40 years. A char- 
ter of Offa, in Cod. Diplom. (i. p. 
204), is dated 796, though it does 
not appear on what authority it is 
assigned to that year ; it is the basis 
of the document here given under 
DCC.LXXVII. 



50 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



,and in the day of other kings. 1 In this year died OiFa, king of 
the Mercians, on the ivth of the Kal. of August (July 29th) ; 
he reigned forty winters ; and archbishop Eanbald, on the ivth 
of the Ides of August (Aug. 10th) of the same year, and his 

'ofLindsey. body lies at York ; and in the same year died *bishop Ceol- 
wulf ; and a second Eanbald was hallowed in the other's stead, 
on the xixth of the Kal. of September (Aug. 14th). 

104, 105. An. DCC.XCVII. In this year the Romans cut out the tongue 

of pope Leo, and put out his eyes, and drove him from his see ; 
and then soon after, with the aid of God, he could see and 
speak, and was pope again as he had been before. 2 And 
Eanbald received the pall on the vith of the Ides of September 

of Hexham. (Sept. 8th) ; and "bishop JEthelberht died on the xvnth of the 
Kal. of November (Oct. 16th), and Heardred was hallowed 
bishop in his stead, on the mrd of the Kal. of November 

ofDunwieh. (Oct. 30th). And *bishop Alfhun died at Sudbury, and he 
was buried at Dunwich ; and Tidfrith was chosen after him ; 



ia, 
Cod. Dipiom. 



1 And thus said : " I JEthelheard, humble archbishop of Can- 
terbury, with the unanimous counsel of the whole synod, and 
with .... of all .... to the congregation of all the monasteries, 
to which in old days immunity was given by faithful men, 
in the name of God, and by his awful doom, I enjoin, as I 
have command from pope Leo, that henceforth none dare to 
choose themselves lords over God's heritage from laymen. But 
as it is in the *writ which the pope has given, or as those 
holy men have established, who are our fathers and teachers, 
concerning holy monasteries, thus let them continue inviolate 
without any gainsaying. If there is any man who will not 
hold this command of God, and of our pope, and of us, but 
contemns and holds it for naught, let them know that they 
shall give account before the judgment-seat of God. And I, 
archbishop -ZEthelheard, with twelve bishops, and with three 
and twenty abbots, confirm and ratify this same with the sign 
of Christ's rood. 3 



2 See the story in Gibbon, Decl. 
and Fall, c. xlix., and the authori- 
ties there cited. 



3 F., inserted in the text. See Cod. 
Dipiom. v. p. 56, date 798. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



51 



of Canterbury, 
of Winchester. 



106, 107. 



and Sigeric, king of the East Saxons, went to Rome. In this 
same year the body of * Wihtburh was found at Dereham, all 
whole and uncorrupted, five and fifty years after she had 
departed from this life. 

An. DCC.XCVIII. In this year there was a great fight in the 
land of the Northumbrians, in Lent, on the ivth of the Nones 
of April (Apr. 2nd), at Whalley ; and there Alric, the son of 
Heardberht, was slain, and many others with him. 

An. DCC.XCIX. In this year *archbishop .ZEthelheard and 
Cynebryht, 'bishop of the West Saxons, went to Rome. 

An. DCCC. In this year king Beorhtric and the aldorman 
Worr died ; and Ecgbryht succeeded to the kingdom of the 
West Saxons ; and on the same day, the aldorman .^Ethelmund 
rode over from the Hwiccas (Worcestershire) at Cynemaeresford 
(Kempsford), when the aldorman Weohstan met him with the 
Wiltshire men ; and there was a great fight, and both the 
aldormen were slain ; and the Wiltshire men got the victory. 
In this year the moon was eclipsed at the second hour of 
night, on the xvnth of the Kal. of February (Jan. 16th). 

An. DCCC.I. 2 In this year Beornmod was ordained bishop of 
Rochester. 

An. DCCC.II. (DCCC.I.) In this year- the moon was eclipsed 
at dawn, on the xnith of the Kal. of January (Dec. 20th) ; 
and Beornmod was hallowed bishop of Rochester in the same 
year. 

An. DCCC.III. (DCCC.II.) In this year archbishop JEthelheard 
died in Kent ; and Wulfred was ordained archbishop ; and 
abbot Forthred died. In this year Higbald, bishop of Lindis- 
farne, died, on the vinth of the Kal. of July (June 24th) ; and 
Ecgberht was hallowed in his stead, on the mrd of the Ides of 
June (June llth). 

An. DCCC.IV. (DCCC.III.) In this year archbishop Wulfred 
received the pall. 

An. DCCC.V. (DCCC.IV.) In this year king Cuthred died 
among the Kentish people; and the *abbess Ceolburh, and * of Berkeley 
Heabryht (Heardbryht) aldorman. 



1 A daughter of Anna, king of 
the East Angles; she was a nun at 
Ely. 



2 Kepeated with the variation of 
gehalgod (hallowed') for gehadod 
(ordained}, in the following year. 
D 2 



52 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* the emperor 
Charlemagne. 



An. DCCC.VI. In this year the moon was eclipsed on the 
Kal. of September (Sept. 1st) ; and Eardwulf, king of the 
Northumbrians, was driven from his kingdom ; and Eanberht, 
bishop of Hexham died. Also in this same year, on the und 
103, 109. of the Nones of June (June 4th), a sign of the cross appeared 
in the moon, one Wednesday at dawn. And again, on the 
mrd of the Kal. of September (Aug. 30th), a wonderful circle 
appeared about the sun. 

An. DCCC.VII., DCCC.VIII. 

An. DCCC.IX. In this year the sun was eclipsed in the 
beginning of the fifth hour of the day, on the xvnth of the 
Kal. of August (July 16th), on the 2nd day of the week, the 
29th of the moon. 

An. DCCC.X., DCCC.XI. 

An. DCCC.XII. (DCCC.XI. DCCC.XIV.) In this year king 
Charles died, and he reigned live and forty winters ; and 
archbishop Wulfred and Wigbryht, bishop of the West Saxons, 
went both to Rome. 

An. DCCC.XIII. (DCCC.XII. DCCC.XV.) In this year arch- 
bishop Wulfred, with the blessing of pope Leo, returned to 
his own bishopric ; and in this year king Ecgbryht harried 
in West Wales from eastward to westward. 

An. DCCC.XIV. (DCCC.XIII. DCCC.XVI.) In this year the noble 
and holy pope Leo died, and after him Stephen succeeded to 
the popedom. 

An. DCCC.XV. 

An. DCCC.XVI. (DCCC.XIV. DCCC.XVII.) In this year pope 
Stephen died, and after him Paschal was ordained (hallowed) 
pope ; and in the same year the * Angle race's school was 
burnt. 

An. DCCC.XVII., DCCC. xviii. 

no, ill. An. DCCC.XIX. (DCCC. xxn.) In this year Cenwulf, king of 

the Mercians, died, and 2 Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom ; 
and the aldorman Eadbryht died. 

An. DCCC.XX. 



1 At Rome ; founded, according 
to Matthew of Westminster, (a. 727), 
by king Inc. 

2 Ceolwulf succeeded Cenhelm. a 



child, son of Cenwulf, who was 
basely murdered at the instigation of 
his sister Cwenthryth. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 53 

An. DCCC.XXI. Iii this year Ceolwulf was deprived of his 
kingdom. 

An. DCCC.XXII. In this year two aldormen, Burhhelm and 
Muca, were slain ; and there was a synod at Clovesho 
(Cliff). 

An. DCCC.XXIII. In this year there was a fight of the Welsh 
and Devonians at Gafulford (Camelford ?) ; and in the same 
year, king Ecgbryht, of the West Saxons, and king Beorn- 
wulf, of the Mercians, fought at Ellendun (Allington ?); and 
Ecgbryht gained the victory, and a great slaughter was there 
made. He then sent JEtkelwulf his son, from the army, and 
Ealhstan his bishop, and Wulfheard his aldorman, to Kent, 
with a large force, and they drove Baldred the king north, 
over the Thames; and the Kentish people, and those of Surrey, 
and the South Saxons, and the East Saxons, turned to him, 
because they had formerly been unjustly forced from his 
kinsmen. And in the same year the king of the East Angles, 
and the nation, sought Ecgbryht for peace and as protector, 12, 
from dread of the Mercians ; and in this same year the East 
Angles slew Beornwulf, king of the Mercians. 

An. DCCC.XXIV. 

An. DCCC.XXV. In this year Ludecan, king of the Mercians, 
was slain, and his five aldormen with him, and Wiglaf suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom. 

An. DCCC.XXVI. 

An. DCCC. xxvii. In this yetir the moon was eclipsed on 
Midwinter's ma^s-night ; and the same year king Ecgbryht 
subdued the kingdom of the Mercians, and all that was south 
of the Humber, and he was the eighth king who was BRYTEN- 
WALDA (Bretwalda, Bretenanwealda). The first was JElle, 
king of the South Saxons, who had thus much sway ; the 
second was Ceawliu, king of the West Saxons ; the third 
was jEthelbryht, king of the Kentish people ; the fourth was 
Raedwald, king of the East Angles ; the fifth was Eadwine, 
king of the Northumbrians ; the sixth was Oswald, who 
reigned after him ; the seventh was Oswiu, Oswald's brother ; 
the eighth was Ecgbryht, king of the West Saxons. And 
Ecgbryht led an army to Dore against the Northumbrians, n 4 
and they there offered him obedience and concord ; and 
thereupon they separated. 

An. DCCC.XXVIII. In this year Wiglaf again obtained the 






54 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

F of Lichfield. kingdom of the Mercians ; and * bishop ^Ethelwald died ; and 
in the same year king Ecgbryht led an army against the 
North Welsh, and he reduced them to humble obedience, 
of Canterbury. An. DCCC.xxix. In this year * archbishop Wulfred died, 
and after him abbot Felogild was chosen to the archiepiscopal 
see, on the vnth of the Kal. of May (April 25th) ; and he 
was hallowed on the vth of the Ides of June ( Jun. 9th), one 
Sunday ; and he was dead on the inrd of the Kal. of Sep- 
tember (Aug. 30th). 

An. DCCC.XXX. In this year Ceolnoth was chosen bishop, 
and ordained ; and abbot Felogild died. 

of Canterbury. An. DCCC.XXXI. (Dccc.xxxn.) In this year * archbishop 
Ceolnoth received the pall. 

An. DCCC. xxxii. In this year heathen men ravaged Shepey. 
lie, 117. r An. DCCC.XXXIII. (DCCC.XXXIV.) In this year king Ecg- 
bryht fought against the crews of thirty-five ships at Carrum 
(Charmouth), and there was great slaughter made, and the 
Danes held possession of the battle place. And * Hereferth 
of Winchester, and * Wigthen, two bishops, died ; and Dudda and Osmod, 
two aldormen, died. 
^- An. DCCC.XXXIV. (DCCC.XXXV.) 

V An. DCCC.XXXV. In this year a great naval force came to 
k the West Welsh, and they combined together, and warred 

against Ecgbryht, king of the West Saxons. When he heard 
that, he went thither with an army, and fought against them 
at Hengestesdun (Hengston), and there put to flight both the 
Welsh and the Danes. 

An. DCCC. xxxvi. In this year 1 king Ecgbryht died ; and 
before he was king, Offa, king of the Mercians, and Beorhtric, 
king of the West Saxons, had driven him from the Angle 
race's land into France, for three years ; and Beorhtric as- 
sisted Offa, because he had his daughter for his queen. And 
118, 119. Ecgbryht reigned thirty-seven winters and seven months ; 
and JEthelwulf, son of Ecgbryht, succeeded to the kingdom of 



1 Ecgberht's accession is invari- 
ably placed in the year 800. If, 
therefore, the length of his reign be 
rightly stated, his death could not 
have happened before 837.R.P. 



If Ecgberht's expulsion took place 
on the marriage, in 787, of Beorhtric 
with Eadburh, \ve ought apparently 
to read thirteen years instead of three, 
for its duration. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



( 



the West Saxons ; 1 and he gave his son JEthelstan the king- 
dom of the Kentish people, and of the East Saxons, and of 
Surrey, and of the South Saxons.' 

An. DCCC.XXXVII. In this year the aldorman Wulfhcartl 
fought at Southampton against the crews of thirty-three 
(thirty-four) ships, and there made great slaughter, and 
gained the victory. And in the same year Wulfheard died. 
And in the same year the aldorman JEthelhelm fought against 
a Danish 2 army at Port (Portland) with the Dorset men, and 
for a good while put the army to flight ; but the Danes held 
possession of the battle place, and slew the aldorman, 

An. DCCC. xxxvm. In this year the aldorman Herebryht 
was slain by heathen men, and many with him among the 
marsh-dwellers ; and again, in the same year, in Lindsey, and 
in East Anglia, and among the Kentish people, many men 
were slain by the army. 

An. DCCC.XXXIX. In this year there was a great slaughter 
at London, and at 3 Cwantawic, and at Rochester. 

An. DCCC.XL. In this year king .ZEthelwulf fought at Car- 
rum (Charmouth) against the crews of thirty-five ships, and 
the Danes held possession of the battle place* And * Lewis 
the emperor died. 

An. DCCCiXLI. DCCC.XLIV. 

An. DCCC. XL v. In this year the aldorman Eanulf, with the 
men of Somerset, and bishop Ealhstan, and the aldorman 
Osric, with the men of Dorset, fought at the mouth of the 



120, 121. 



17 and ^Ethelstan, his second son, succeeded to the king- 
dom of the Kentish people, and to Surrey, and to the kingdom 
of the South Saxons.a 



2 By the word ' here,' the army of 
the Danes, or Northmen, is usually 
understood in the Chronicle, while 
the English force is denominated the 
< fyrd.' 

3 Quantovic or Qiftntawich was 
the ancient name of S. Josse-sur- 



Mer, or Estaples ; it was sacked in 
842. Ann, Bertin. Bouquet, vii. 61. 
According to MS. C. it is Canter- 
bury K.P. 

4 The Debonnaire, or, as the Ger- 
mans style him, the Pious. 



D. E. F. 



56 THE ANGLO-SAXON CH11ONICLE. 

Parrot against the Danish army, and there made great 
slaughter, and gained the victory. 
,.. An. DCCC.XLVI. DCCC.L. (DCCC.LII.) 

~\ / An. DCCC.LI. (DCCC.LIII.) In this year the aldorman Ceorl, 
with the men of Devonshire, fought against the heathen men 
at Wicganbeorh (Wembury ?), and there made great slaughter, 
and gained the victory. And in the same year king JEthelstan 
and the aldorman Ealchere, fought in ships, and slew a great 
force at Sandwich in Kent, and took nine ships, and put the 
^- others to flight. |And the heathen men, for the first time, 
took up their quarters over winter in Thanet. And in the 
122, 123. same year came three hundred and fifty ships to the mouth of 
the Thames, and landed, and took Canterbury and London 
by storm, and put to flight Beorhtwulf, king of the Mercians, 
with his army, and then went south, over the Thames into 
Surrey, and there king JEthelwulf and his son ^Ethelbald, 
with the army of the West Saxons, fought against them at 
Aclea (Ockley), and there made the greatest slaughter among 
the heathen army that we have heard tell of until this present 
day, and there gained the victory.'J 



1 An. DCCC.LII. At this time Ceolred, abbot of Medesham- 
stede, and the monks let to Wulfred the land at Sempring- 
ham, on the condition, that after his day the land should 
revert to the monastery ; and that Wulfred should give 
the land at Sleaford to Medeshamstede, and that he should 
give every year ip the monastery sixty fothers of wood, and 
twelve fothers of pit coal, and six fothers of faggots, and 
two tuns full of bright ale, and two neats for the slaughter, 
and six hundred loaves, and ten measures (mittan) of Welsh 
ale ; and every year a horse, and thirty shillings ; and for one 
night give entertainment. Here, were present, the king 
* of Canterbury. Burhred, and Ceolred *(r. Ceolnoth) archbishop, and tTun- 
birht bishop, and * Cenred bishop, and f Alhhun bishop, and 
* Berhtred bishop, and Wihtred abbot, and Werhtherd abbot, 
JEthelheard aldorman, Hunberht aldorman, and many others. a * 

2 See a more complete copy in Cod. Diplom. n. p. 46. 
E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 57 

All. DCCC.LI1. 

Aii. DCCC.LIII. (DCGC.LIV.) In this year Burhred, king of 
the Mercians, and his ' witan,' prayed king -ZEthelwulf that he 
would aid him, that he might reduce the North Welsh to 
obedience. He then did so, and went with an army over 
Mercia against the North Welsh, and made them all obedient 
to him. And in the same year king JEthelwulf sent his son 
^Elfred to Rome. Then at that time, the lord Leo was pope 124, 125. 
of Rome ; and he hallowed him king, and took him for his 
episcopal son. Then, in the same year, Ealhhere with the 
Kentish men, and Huda with those of Surrey, fought in Thanet 
against a heathen army, and at first gained the victory, and 
there was many a man slain and drowned on each side ; and 
both aldormen fell. And the Easter after this, king JEthel- 
wulf gave his daughter to king Burhred, from the West 
Saxons to the Mercians. 
An. DCCC.LIV. (DCCC.LV.) . 

3fc An. DCCC.LV. (DCCC.LVi.)jIn this year heathen men first 
took up their quarters over winter in Shepey. 2 And in the 
same year king JEthelwulf chartered the tenth part of his land 
over all his kingdom, for the glory of God and his own eternal 
salvation : and in the same year went to Rome with great 
pomp, and dwelt there twelve months, and then returned 
home ;* and * Charles, king of the Franks, then gave him his * the Bald, 
daughter for queen ; and after that he came to his people, and 
they were rejoiced thereat ; and two years after he came from 126, 127. 
France, he died, and his body lies at Winchester, and he 
reigned eighteen years and a half. And ^Ithelwulf was son 
of Ecgbryht, Ecgbryht of Ealhmund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa 

r 



1 An. DCCC.LV. and when he was homewards, he obtained 
the daughter of Charles, king of the Franks; she was called 
Judith, and he came home safe ; and then after two years 
he died, and his body lies at Winchester; and he reigned 
eighteen years and a half ; and he was son of Ecgbryht. 
And then his two sons succeeded to the kingdom, JEthelbald 



2 For this grant of -ZEthelwulf's, I sion, see Asser, A. 855, and Cod. 
which has caused so much discus- | Diplom. n. pp. 50, 56, 57. 



58 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild ; Ingild was brother of Ine, king 
of the West Saxons, who held the kingdom thirty-seven 
winters, and afterwards went to St. Peter's, and there gave 
up his life. And they were sons of Cenred, Cenred of Ceol- 
wald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwine, Cuthwine of 
Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, 
Elesa of Esla, Esla of Giwis, Giwis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, 
Freawine of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brond, Brond of Baeldaeg, 
Bseldaeg of Woden, Woden of Frithowald, Frithowald of Frealaf, 
Frealaf of Frithuwulf, Frithuwulf cf Finn, Finn of Godwulf. 

128, 129. Godwulf of Geat, Geat of Ttetwa, Taetwa of Beaw, Beaw of 
Sceldwa, Sceldwa of Heremod, Heremod of Iteration, Itermon 
[of Hathra, Hathra of Hwala, Hwala of Bedwig, Bedwig of 
Sceaf, that is, the son of Noah] ; he was born in Noah's ark ; 
Lamech, Mathusalem, Enoch, Jared, Malalahel, Cainan, Enos, 
Seth, Adam, the first man and our father, that is, Christ. 
Jk Amenjj And then JEthelwulf's two sons succeeded to the 
kingcrom ; JEthelbald to the kingdom of the West Saxons, and 
jEthelbryht to the kingdom of the Kentish people, and to the 
kingdom of the East Saxons, and to Surrey, and to the king- 
dom of the South Saxons. And then ^Ethelbald reigned five 
r. fourth. years. JElfred, his "third son, he had sent to Rome; and when 
pope Leo heard say that he (^Ethelwulf ) was dead, he blessed 
JElfred as king, and* held him to episcopal hands, as his father 
.^Ethelwulf, in sending him thither, had requested. 
An. DCCC.LVI. DCCC.LIX. 

An. DCCC.LX. (DCCC.LXI.) In this year king JEthelbald died, 
and his body lies at Sherborne ; and JEthelbryht succeeded to 
all the kingdom of his brother ; and he held it in good har- 
mony, and in great tranquillity. And in his day there came 
a great naval force to land, and took Winchester by storm. 

130, 131. And the aldorman Osric with the Hampshire men, and the 
aldorman .ZEthelwulf with those of Berkshire, fought against 



to the kingdom of the West Saxons, and JEthelbyrht to 
the kingdom of the Kentish people, and of the East Saxons, 
and of Surrey, and of the South Saxons, and he reigned five 
years. a 

a D. E. F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 59 

the army, and put them to flight, and held possession of the 
battle place. And jEthelbryht reigned five years, and his 
body lies at Sherborne. 

An. DCCC.LXI. In this year died St. Swithin * bishop. "ofWiutou. 

An. DCCC.LXII. DCCC.LXI V. 

An. DCCC.LXV. (DCCC.LXVI.) In this year a heathen army 
took up their quarters in Thanet, and made peace with the 
people of Kent, and the people of Kent promised them money 
for the peace ; and during the peace and the promise of 
money, the army stole itself away by night, and ravaged all 
Kent eastward. 

: An. DCCOLXVI. (DCCC.LXVII.) In this year JEtkered 
(JEthelred), ^thelbryht's brother, succeeded to the kingdom 

f \Jj of the West Saxons. And in the same year came a great 
heathen army to the land of the Angle race, and took winter- 
quarters among the East Angles, and were there horsed ; and 
. they (the East Angles)' made peace with them, 
^/r An. DCCC.LXVII. (DCCC.LXVI n.) In this year the army went 

* i *") from the East Angles, over the mouth of the Humber, to York 

in Northumbria : and there was great dissension of the people 132, 133. 
betwixt themselves ; and they had cast out their king, 
Osbryht, and received a king, ^lla, not of royal blood ; and 
late in the year, they came to the resolution tkat they would 
fight against the army ; and yet they gathered a large force, 
and sought the army at York, and stormed the city, and some 
got within, and there was an immense slaughter made of the 
Northumbrians, some within, some without ; and both kings 
were slain ; and the remainder made peace with the army! 
And in the same year bishop Ealhstau died ; and he had the 
bishopric of Sherborne fifty winters ; and his body lies there 
in the town. 

An. DCCC.LXVIII. (DCCC.LXIX.) In this year the same army 
went into Mercia to Nottingham, and there took up winter- 
quarters. And Burhred, king of the Mercians, and his ' witan ' 
prayed ^Ethered, king of the West Saxons, and jElfred his 
brother, that they would aid them, tkat tkey might fight 134, 135. 
against the army. And they then went, with a force of West 
Saxons, into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and there found 
the army in the works, and there besieged them. But there 
was no hard battle there ; and the Mercians made peace with 
the army. 



60 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCCC.LXIX. (JJCCC.LXX.) Iii this year the tinny went 
again to York, and sat there one year. 

An. DCCC.LXX. (DCCC.LXXI.) In this year the army rode over 
Mercia into East Anglia, and took winter-quarters at Thet- 
ford ; and in that winter king Eadmund fought against them, 
and the Danes gained the victory, and slew the king, and 
subdued all that land, and destroyed all the monasteries which 
they came to. The names of the chiefs who slew the king 
were l Ingvar and Ubba. At that same time they came to 
Medeshamstede, burned and broke, slew the abbot and the 
137. monks, and all that they found there ; then made that which 

was ere full rich, that it was reduced to nothing. And in 
* of Canterbury, the same year died * archbishop Ceolnoth at Rome. 2 And 
3 JEthered, bishop of Wiltshire, was chosen archbishop of 
Canterbury. 



2 Then went king ^Ethered and JElfred his brother, and took 
3 /Ethelred, bishop of Wiltshire, and appointed him archbishop 
of Canterbury, because he had formerly been a monk of the 
same monastery at Canterbury. As soon as he came to Can- 
terbury, and he was firmly settled in his archiepiscopal chair, 
he thought how he might drive out the clerks who were 
therein, whom the archbishop Ceolnoth had before placed 
there, for such need . . . . as we shall relate. The first 
year that he was appointed archbishop there was so great a 
mortality, that of all the monks that he found there within, 
no more than five monks remained. Then for the .... 
. . he commanded his private priests, and also some of his 
vill-priests, that they should help the few monks who re- 
mained to do Christ's service, because he could not so readily 
find monks who might by themselves do the service ; and for 
this he commanded that the priests the while, until God 
should give peace in the land, should help the monks. At 
the same time this land was greatly harassed by frequent 
conflicts, and on that account the archbishop could not attend 



1 They were the sons of Ragnar 
Lodbrok, by a concubine. By the 
Danish -writers Ingvar is usually 
called Ivar. 



3 Or Ethered. Of the Wiltshire 
see nothing occurs elsewhere before 
the beginning of the following cen- 
tury. R. P. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. . "J\ 61 




n. DCCC.LXXI. (DCCC.LXXTI.) (In this year the- -army came rsiso. 
to Reading in Wessex, and three nights after, two jarls rode 
up, when the aldorman JEthelwulf met them at Inglefielcl, and 
there fought against them, and gained the victory, and orrenrf 
them was there slain, whose name was^SMl*oc. Four nights 
after this king ^Ethered and JElfred his brother led a large force 
to Reading, and fought against the army, ..and there was great 
slaughter made on each side ; and the aldorman JEthelwulf 
was slain, and the Danes held possession of the battle place. 
And four nights after, king JEthered and JElfred his brother 
fought with all the army at 'Ashdown ; and they were in two 13S, 139. 
divisions ; in one were Bagsecg (Bagsceg) and Halfdan, the 
heathen kings, and in the other were tlie jarls ; and then king 
JEthered fought with the kings' division, and there was the 
king Bagsecg slain ; and JElfred his brother fought against 
v the jarls' division, and there were the elder jarl Sidroc slain, Q^^ 



to this object ; for all that time there was strife and sorrow 
over England ; and therefore the clerks remained with the 
monks. Nor was there ever a time that monks were not 
there within, and they ever had lordship over the priests. 
Again the archbishop Ceolnoth thought, and also said to those 
who were with him : " As soon as God shall give peace in 
this land, either these priests shall be monks, or .... 
elsc\vhere I will place within the monastery as many monks 
as may do the service ' by themselves ; for God knows that 
I 



An. DCCC.LXXI. ' and the Danes were overcome; and they 
had two heathen kings, Bagsecg and Halfdan, and many jarls; 
and there was the king Bagsecg slain, and these jarls, Sidroc 
the old, and also Sidroc the young, Asbiorn, Frrena, and 
Harald, and the army put to flight, &c. a 



2 The original has ' 'Se,' apparently I 3 F., inserted in the text. For the 
an error for ' be :' see above. I Latin, see vol. I. p. 136. 



F. 



62 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



;jK.and the younger jarl Sidroc, and Asbiorn jarl, and Frrcna 

jarl, and Harald jarl, and both divisions put to flight, and 

many thousands slain ; and they were fighting until night. 

And fourteen nights after, king JEthered and -ZElfred his 

brother fought against the army at Basing, and there the 

Danes gained the victory. And two months after, king 

^Ethered and ^Elfred his brother fought against the army at 

140, Hi. Merton ; and they were in two divisions, and they put both 

to flight, and far in the flay were victorious ; and there was 

great slaughter on each side, Wt fliA Dn.npa T^ld pnaapaairm 

! of Sherborne. of the l^>+ln pi inn ; and there "wire * bishop Heahmund slain, 

and many good men. And after this fight there came a great 

1 summer-force to Reading. And the Easter after, king 

JEthered died ; and he reigned five years, and his body lies 

Sherborne, c. in *Wimborne monastery. 

Then ^Elfred, son of ^Ethelwulf, his brother, succeeded to. 

, the kingdom of the West Saxons ; and one month after, king 

JElfred, with a small force, fought against all the army at 

Wilton, and far in the day put them to flight ; bjit_tLii_Danes 

V>o.1fl possession of fhp. ha.tt.lp pln^p. v^And this year nine great 

battles were fought against the army in the kingdom south of 

the Thames ; besides which, Alfred, the king's brother, and 

individual aldormen, and king's thanes, often rode raids on 

142, 143. them, which were not reckoned. And within the year nine 

jarls and one king were slain ; and that year the West Saxons 

^ made peace with the army/j 

^ An. DCCC.LXXII. (DCCC.LXXIII.) In this year the army went 
from Reading to London, and there took winter-quarters ; 
and then the Mercians made peace with the army. 

An. DCCC.LXXIII. (DCCC.LXXIV.) In this year the army went 
into Northumbria, and took winter- quarters at Torksey in 
Lindsey ; 2 and then the Mercians made peace with the army.' 
An. DCCC.LXXIV. (DCCC.LXXV.) In this year the army went 
from Lindsey to Repton, and there took winter-quarters, and 
drove the king Burhred over sea, two and twenty winters after 




1 This compound word has under- 
gone divers interpretations. JEthel- 
weard (p. 514) has, I think, given 
the true sense of the passage : " ad- 



" venit sine numero sestivus exerci- 
" tus in loco Readingon." 

2 Omitted in D. and E., perhaps 
rightly, being apparently a repeti- 
tion from the preceding year. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



63 



he had obtained the kingdom, and they subdued all the land ; 
and he went to Rome, and there settled, and his body lies in 
St. Mary's church, in the school of the Angle race. And in 
the same year they gave the kingdom of Mercia to the custody 
of Ceolwulf, an unwise king's thane ; and he swore oaths to 
them, and gave hostages, that it should be ready for them, 
on whatever day they would have it ; and that he would be 
ready in his own person, and with all who would follow him, 
for the behoof of the army. 

An. DCCC.LXXV. (DCCC.LXXVI.) In this year the army went 
from Repton ; and Halfdan went with a part of the army into 
Northumbria, and took winter-quarters by the river Tyne ; 
aud the army subdued the laud, and often harried on the 
Picts and on the Strathclyde Welsh ; and the three kings, 
Guthorm, and Oskytel, and Amund, went from Repton to 
Cambridge with a large army, and sat there one year. And 
in the summer, king Alfred went out to sea with a naval 
force, and fought against the crews of seven ships, and took 
one of them, and put to flight the others. 

An. DCCC.LXXVI. (DCGC^xxyii.\^i^^^ veai* the army 
stole away to Wareham.^rortr^y yf LETT Wks/ Saxons ; and 
after that the king made peace with the army ; and they gave 
to the king as hostages those who were most honourable in 
the army, and they then swore oaths to him on the l holy 
f, which they before would not do to any nation, that they 



1 The < beag ' or bracelet appears 
to have been of a somewhat oval 
form, and open on one side ; but it 
also signifies a ring. The ceremony 
here noticed may perhaps be eluci- 
dated by the following passage from 
Arngrim Jonas : " In ara prseterea 
" annulus asservabatur argenteus, 
" vel ex orichalco, unciarum xx., 
" quern forensi aliquo munere fun- 
" gente s, j usj urandum j am prse stitur i , 
" victimarum illinitum cruore, re- 
" ligiose inter jurandum contrecta- 
" bant." Rer. Islandic. i. 7 ; and 
see Bartholinus de Armillis, p. 101. 
Compare Asser, A. 876. R.P. 

Of the solemn oath on the arm- 



let or bracelet, we find mention in 

Saemund's Edda, (see edit. Arnse 

Magn. in. p. 116, and n. p. 395): 

Baug-eiS O'Sinn hyggek at unnit 

hafi. 

Annulare juramentum Othinum 
opinor prcestitisse. 

Havamal, Str. 111. 
Ok at hringi Ullar. 
Et per Ulleri annulum. 

Atlaquifta in Graenl. Str. 31. 
On which the editor remarks: 
" Gentiles nostri proavi praestitere 
" juramenta ad sacrum quendam an- 
" nulum, in templo servatum, ac 
" interdum, quasi armillam, a sacer- 
" dote gestatum." 



144, 145. 




G\f THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

would speedily depart from his kingdom ; find notwithstand- 
ing this, the mounted body stole away from the army by night 
to Exeter. And in that year Hfilfdan divided the North- 
< "^.i^^pd*^* umbrians' lands, 'and from that time were ploughing and 
tilling them. In this year Rolf (Hollo) overran Normandy 

i g arm y> an d he reigned fifty winters. 

An. DCCC.LXXVII. (DCCC.LXXVIII). In this year the army 
came to Exeter from Wareham ; and the naval force sailed 
west about ; and then a great storm met them at sea, and 
14G, 147. there perished a hundred and twenty ships at Swanwick. 
And king JElfred with his force rode after the mounted army 
as far as Exeter, but could not overtake them before they 
were in the fastness, where they could not be come at. And 
they there gave him as many hostages as he would have, and 
swore great oaths, and then held good peace. And then, in 
the autumn, the army went into the Mercians' land, and 
divided some of it, and gave some to Ceolwulf. 
I' An. DCCC.LXXVIII. (DCCC.LXXIX.) In this year, at Mid- 
winter, after Twelfth night, the army stole itself away to 
Chippenham, and harried the West Saxons' land, and settled 
there, and drove many of the people over sea, and of the 
remainder the greater portion they harried, and the people 
submitted to them, save the king Alfred, and he, 
band, withdrew to the woods and moor-fastnesses.* And in the 
same winter the brother of Ingvar and Halfdan was in Wessex, 
in Devonshire, with twenty-three ships, and he was there 
slain, and with him eight hundred and forty men of his force. 
L And there was the standard taken which they call the Raven.*) 
And the Easter afteiyJElfred, with a little band, wrought a 
* 'fortress at .^Ethelney, and from that work warred on the army, 




1 An. DCCC.LXXVI. And in this same year the army of the 
Danes in England swore oaths to king -ZElfred upon the holy 
ring, which before they would not do to any nation, and also 
gave to the king as hostages those who were most honourable 
in the army, that they would speedily depart from his king- 
dom ; and that by night they brake. a 






THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 65 

/'with that portion of the men of Somerset that was nearest. 148, 149. 
Then in the seventh week after Easter he rode to Ecgbryht's 
stone, on the east of jjelwood, ana there came to meet him all 
the Somersetshire men, and the Wiltshire men, and that part 
of Hampshire ' which remained of it on this side of the sea ; 
and they were rejoiced on seeing him ; and one night after, he 
went from the camp to Iley^ and one night after that to 
Ethandun (Heddington ?), and there fought against all the 
army, and put it to flight, and rode after it, as far as the 
works, and there sat fourteen nights. And then the army 
gave him hostages with great oaths, that they would depart 
from his kingdom ; and also promised him that their king 
would receive baptism ; and that they so fulfilled ; and three 
weeks after, king Guthorm came to him, with thirty of the 
men who were most honourable in the army, at Aller, which 
is opposite to Athelney; and the king received him there at 
baptism ; and his " chrism-loosing was at Wedmore ; and he 
was twelve nights with the king ; and he largely gifted him 
and his companions with money. 

An. DCCC.LXXIX. (DCCC.LXXX.) In this year the army went 
to Cirencester from Chippenham, and sat there one year. And 
in that year a body of 3 vikings assembled, and sat down at 
Fulham on the Thames. And that same year the 4 sun was 
eclipsed one hour of the day. 

An. DCCC.LXXX. (DCCC.LXXXI.) In this year the army went 
from Cirencester to East Anglia, and occupied and divided the 
laud. And in the same year the army, which had before sat 
down at Fulham, went over sea to Ghent in France, and sat 
there one year. 

An. DCCC.LXXXI. (DCCC.LXXXII.) In this year the army 
went up into France, and the French fought against them ; 
and there was the army horsed, after the fight. 



1 Those that had not emigrated be- 
yond sea, see above : " qui non ultra 
" mare pro metu navigaverant pa- 
" ganorum." Elor. Wigorn. 

2 Apparently the removal of the 
fillet which, covering the chrism on 
the forehead, was bound round the 
head at confirmation. It.P. 

VOL. II. 



3 So called from their custom of 
lurking in creeks, O. Nor. vik. 

4 The eclipse happened on the 
1 4th of March 880. R.P. " Eodem 
" anno eclipsis solis inter nonam et 
" vesperam, sed propius ad nonam, 
" facta est." Flor. Wigorn. a. 879. 



GG 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCCC.LXXXII. (DCCC.LXXXIII.) In this year the army 
went up along the Maese far into France, and there sat one 
year. And that same year king JElfred went out to sea with 
ships, and fought against four ship-crews of Danish men, and 
took two of the ships, and the men were slain that were 
therein ; and two. ship- crews surrendered to him ; and they 
were sorely fatigued and wounded before they surrendered. 

An. DCCC.LXXXIII. (DCCC.LXXXIV.) In this year the army 
went up the Scheldt to Conde, and there sat one year. And 
Marmus the pope then sent 'lignum Domini' (of Christ's 
152, 153. cross) to king Alfred. And in the same year Sighclm and 
JEthelstan conveyed to Rome the alms which the king had 
vowed (to send) thither, and also to India to St. Thomas, and 
to St. Bartholomew, when they sat down against the army at 
London ; and there, God be thanked, their prayer was very 
successful, after that vow. 

An. DCCC.LXXXIV. (DCCC.LXXXV.) In this year the army 
went up the Somme to Amiens, and there sat one year. * In 
of Winton. this year died the benevolent "bishop JEthelwold. 

An. DCCC.LXXXV. (DCCC.LXXXVI.) In this year the fore-men- 
tioned army separated into two ; one part (went) east, the other 
part to Rochester, and besieged the city, and wrought another 
fastness about themselves ; but they, nevertheless, defended 
the city until king uElfred came without with his force. Then 
the army went to their ships, and abandoned the fastness ; and 
they were there Meprived of their horses, and forthwith, in the 
same summer, withdrew over sea. And the same year king 
Alfred sent a naval force from Kent to East Anglia. As soon 
as they came to the mouth of the Stour, then met them sixteen 
ships of vikings, and they fought against them, and captured 
all the ships, and slew the men. When they were returning 
154, 155. homeward with the booty, a great naval force of vikings met 
them, and then fought against them on the same day, and the 
Danish gained the victory. In the same year, before mid- 
winter, Carloman, king of the Franks, died, and a wild boar 
killed him; and one year before his brother died: he also had 



1 A clerical error ; JEthelwold 
died in 984. See that year. 

2 " Omnibus equis, quos de Fran- 



" cia adduxerant, derelictis.' 
Wigorn. 



Flor. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



.. 



the western kingdom ; and they were both sons of Lewis, who 
also had the western kingdom, and died in the year when the 
sun was eclipsed, who was son of *Charles, whose daughter * tie Bald. 
JEthelwulf, king of the West Saxons, had for his queen. And 
in the same year a large naval force assembled among the 
Old- Saxons ; and there was a great fight twice in that year, 
and the Saxons had the victory ; and there were Frisians with 
them. In the same year "Charles succeeded to the western * the Fat. 
kingdom, and to all the kingdom on this side of the Mediter- 
ranean sea, and beyond this sea, as his great-grandfather had 
it, excepting the 'Lidwiccas. Charles was son of Lewis, 
Lewis was brother of Charles, who was father of Judith, whom 
king jJEthelwulf had ; and they were sons of Lewis ; Lewis 
was son of the old Charles, Charles was son of Pepin. And 
in the same year the good pope Marinus died, who freed the 
Angle race's school, at the prayer of jElfred, king of the West 156, 15' 
Saxons : and he sent him great gifts, and part of the rood on 
which Christ suffered. And in the same year the army in 
East Anglia brake peace with king JElfred. 

' An. DCCC.LXXXVI. (DCCC.LXXXVII.) In this year 2 the army <fl 
again went west, which had before landed in the east, and then 
up the Seine, and there took winter-quarterafat the city of Paris. 
In the same year king JElfred 3 restored London ; and all the 
Angle-race turned to him that were not in the bondage of the 
Danish men; and he then committed the burgh to the keeping 
of the aldorman ^Ethered. 

An. DCCC.LXXXVII. (DCCC.LXXXVIII.) In this year the army 
went up through the bridge at Paris; and then up along the 
Seine as far as the Marne, and then up on the Marne as far as 



1 Of this word various etymons 
have been suggested. The words 
butan Lidwiccum are rendered 
by Florence " absque Armoricano 
" regno ;" and siV$an of Lidwiccuin 
(a. 918), " de provincia quse Lid- 
" wiccum dicitur." I am inclined to 
derive it from Llydaw, the British 
name of Brittany ; though it may, 
after all, be Norse, and composed of 
lid, a ship, and vik, a creek, firth, 



(see a. 879, note)', in which case 
Lidwic would signify the habita- 
tion, and Lidwicing (as in MSS. 
C. and D.), the inhabitant. 

2 " Oriental! Francia derelicta, 
" iterum in Occidentalium Franco- 
" rum regionem venit." Flor. Wi- 
gorn. exAssero. 

3 Sax. gesette, " honorifice restau- 
" ravit et habitabilem fecit." Ibid. 

E 2 



\ 



68 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* the Fat. 



4 

V 

. 



158, 159. 



ICO, 161. 



Chezy, and then sat there, and in the ' Yonnc, two winters in 
the two places. And in the same year 'Charles, king of the 
Franks died; and six weeks before he died Arnulf, his brother's 
son, bereft him of the kingdom. And then was the realm 
divided into five; and five kings thereto hallowed ; that was 
however, with the consent of Arnulf ; and they said that they 
would hold it from his hand, because none of them on the 
paternal side was born thereto, save him alone. Arnulf then 
dwelt in the land east of the Rhine, and Rodolf then obtained 
the middle kingdom, and Eudes the western portion, and 
Berenger and Wido the Lombards' land and the lands on that 
side of the mountain ; and they held that in great hostility, 
and fought two great battles, and oft and frequently ravaged 
the land, and repeatedly drove out each other. And the same 
year that the army went forth up over the bridge at Paris the 
aldorman JEthelhelm conveyed the alms of the West Saxons 
and of king Alfred to Rome. 

An. DCCC.LXXXVIII. (DCCC.LXXXIX.) In this year the aldor- 
man Becca conveyed the alms of the West Saxons and of kim>; 
JEJfred to Rome. And queen JEthelswith, who was king 
JElfred's sister, died on the way to Rome, and her body lies 
at Pavia. And in the same year archbishop ^Ethelred of Can- 
terbury and the aldorman JEthelwold died in one month. 

An. DCCC.LXXXIX. (DCCC.XC.) In this year there Avas no 
journey to Rome, except that king jElfred sent two couriers 
with letters. 

An. DCCC.XC. (DCCC.XCI.) In this year the abbot Beornhelm 
conveyed the alms of the West Saxons and of king Alfred to 
Rome. And Guthorm, the Northern king, died, whose baptis- 
mal name was JEthelstan ; he was king JElfred's godson, and 
he abode in East Anglia, and s first occupied that land. And 
in the same year the army went from the Seine to St. L6, 
which is between the Bretons and the Franks ; and the Bre- 
tons fought against them, and had the victory, and drove 
them out into a river, and drowned many of them. In this 
year Plegemund was chosen of God and of all the people to 
the archbishopric of Canterbury. 



1 " In ostium fluimnis quod dicitur 
" lona." Flor. Wigorn. 

" Provinciam illam, post mar- 



" tyrium sancti regis Eadmundi, 
" primitus incoluit et possedit." 
Ibid. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 69 

|7^ An. DCCC.XCI. (DCCC.XCII. )Jln this year the army went east. 

L and king Arnulf, with the East Franks, and Saxons, and Bava- 
rians, fought against the mounted force before the ships came, 
and put it to flight. 1 And three Scots came to king JElfred 
in a boat without any oars, from Ireland, whence^' they had 
stolen away, because they desired, for love of God, to be in 
a state of pilgrimage, they recked not where. The boat in 
which -they came was wrought of two hides and a half, and 
they took with them food sufficient for seven nights ; and on 
the seventh night they came to land in Cornwall, and then 
\f went straightways to king -ZElfred. Thus they were named : 

Dubslane, and Maccbethu, and Maelinmum. And Swifneh, i2, 163. . 
the best teacher that was among the Scots, died. V 

An. DCCC.XCII. And in the same year after Easter, about the 
Rogations (May 29th) or earlier, appeared the star which in 
Book-Latin is called cometa. Some men say in English, that 
it is a long-haired (feaxed) star, because there stands a long- 
ray from it, sometimes on one side, sometimes on each side.^ - 
| An. DCCC.XCIII. (DCCC.XCII. )jln this year the great army, of p 

which we *long before spoke, came again from the east kingdom * An. DCCC.XCI. *L 
westward to Boulogne, and was there shipped, so that they in Ctt^^^""! 
one voyage made the transit, with horses and all; and they caine Sf . / 

up to the mouth of the Limen with two hundred and fifty ships. 
The mouth is in the east of Kent, at the east end of the great 
wood which we call Andred. The wood is in length, from 
east to west, one hundred and twenty miles long, or longer, 
and thirty miles broad. The river, of which we before spoke, 
flows out from the weald. On the river they towed up their 
ships as far as the weald, four miles from the outward mouth. 
and there stormed a woik : within the fastness a few country- 164, 165. 
men were stationed, and it was only half constructed. Then 
soon after that, camo Hsesten with eighty ships into the 
Thames' mouth, and wrought him a work at Middleton (Mil- 
ton), and the other army one at Appledore.J 
q ^ ~~ An. DCCC.XCIV. In this year, that was a twelvemonth after 

.They had wrought a work in the *cast kingdom, Northumbria * at Middleton. 



1 This celebrated battle was fought j the invasions of the Northmen. Sea 
on the 1st Sept. on the banks of the Pepping, " Expeditions Maritime.? 



Byle near Louvain ; it freed the 
interior of Germany for ever from 



" des Normands," u. p. 35, and the 
authorities there cited, 



y 



I 



70 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

and East Anglia had given oaths to king ^Elfred, and East 
Anglia six hostages ; and yet against the compact, as often us 
the other armies with all their force went out, then they went 
out, either with them or on their side. And then king JElfred 
gathered his force, and went until lie encamped between the 
two armies, the nearest where he had room, for wood-fastness 
and for water-fastness, so that he might reach either, l if they 
would seek any field. Then after that, they went through the 
weald in bands and troops, on whichever side was then with- 
out a force. And they also were sought by other bands, 
almost every day, or by night, both from the (king's) force 
and also from the burghs. The king had divided his force into 
two, so that they were constantly half at home, half abroad, 
besides those men that held the burghs. The whole army did 
166, 167. not come out of their quarters oftener than twice, one time, 
when they first came to land, before the (king's) force was 
assembled ; the other time, when they would go from their 
quartersX/They had then taken a great booty, and would con- 
vey it northwards over the Thames into Essex towards the 
ships. The (king's) force then rode before them, and fought 
against them at Farnham, and put the army to flight, and 
rescued the booty ; and they fled over the Thames without 
* Thorney. any ford ; then up by the Colne to an "Island. The (royal) 
army then beset them there from without, for the longest time 
that they had provisions ; but they had then stayed their 
appointed time and consumed their provisions ; and the king 
was then on his march thitherwards with the division which 
was advancing with himself. Then he was thitherward, and 
the other force was homeward, and the Danish remained there 
^ behind, because their king had been wounded in the fight, so 

\]f that he could not be conveyed./ Then those who dwell with 

the Northumbrians and with the EastAn^les gathered &;ome/ \ 
hundred ships, and went south about; /^nooesregeol awtJrlr 
in Devonshire by the norin sea 1 ; ami those who went south 
about besieged Exeter, y When the king heard that, 
west towards Exeter with all the force, save a very 
*jP body of the people eastwards. J These went on until they 
came to London, -and then, with the townsmen and with the 



1 " Si aliquem canipuui preetlte vel preelii causa peterent." Flor. Wigorn. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 71 

aid which came to them from the west, marched east to Ben- 

fleet.^ Hoesten was then come there with his army, which had 

previously sat at Middleton (Milton) ; and the great army 

also was come thereto, which had before sat at the mouth of 

the Limen, at Appledore*' Hossten had before wrought the . 

work at Benfleet, and was then gone out harrying, and the 168. 

great army was at home. They then marched up and put 

the army to flight, and stormed the work, t and took all that 

there was within, as well "money, as women and children, * or property. 

and brought all to London ; -and ,all the ships they either 

broke in pieces, or burned, or brought to London, or to Ro- 169. 

Chester ; and Hresten's wife and his two sons were brought 

to the king, and he restored them to him, because one of them 

was his godson, the other the aldorman JEthered's. They 

had been their sponsors before Hasten came to Benfleet, and 

he had given him oaths and hostages ; and the king had also 

given him much money, and so likewise, when ^e gave up 

the boy and the woman.^But as soon as they came to Ben- *UA 

fleet, and had wrought the work, he harried on that end of 

his realm which JEthered his^$6ssi s had to defend ; and 



again, a second time, he had arrived on a plundering expedi- 

tion on that same kingdom, when his work was taken by S 

storm. \ When the king turned west with his force towards 7P 

Exeter, as 1 before said, and the army; had beset the burgh, 

when he had arrived there, they went to their ships, j While t? 

he was busied in the west against the army there, and both 

the armies had formed a junction at Shoebury in Essex n #nd. 

there wrought a work, they then Went both together up" along 

the Thames, and a great increase came to them, both from 

the East Angles and the Northumbrians. They then went". 

up along the Thamg, until they reached the Severn, then up. 

along the Severn. Then the aldorman JEthered, and the"" 

aldorman ^Ethelm, and the aldorman ^Ethelnoth, and the 

king's thanes, who were then at home in the works, gathered 

together, from every town east of the Parret,'as well west as - 

east of Selwood, as also north of the Thames and west of the . 170, 

Severn, and also some part of the North Welsh race. When 

they were all gathered together, they followed after the army * 

to Buttington 011 the bank of the Severff, and there beset 

them on every side in a fastness. When they had sat there 

many weeks on the two sides of the river, and the king was 171. 



72 



TEE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



west in Devon a^ the naval force, they were distressed 
for want of food, and had eaten a great part of their- horses, 
and the others had died of hunger ; tl^y thon went out to 
the men who were encamped on the east side of the river, 
and fought against them, and the Christians had the victory. 
And there was Ordheh, a king's thane, slain, and also many ^ (^ 
other king's thanes were slain ; ^and of the Danish there was 
a very grr^t slaughter made); and the part that came away 
\? thence was saved by flight. J When they came into Essex to 
their work and to their ships, the remnant gathered again a 
great army from the East Angles and from the Northumbrians, 
before winter, and committed their wives and their ships and 
their chattels to the East Angles, and went at one stretch, by 
day and by night, until they arrived at a Vlesolated city in 
Win-all, which is called Legaceaster (Chester). Then could 
the force not overtake them before they were within the 
work ; they however beset the work from without for two 
days, and took all the cattle which was there without, and 
slew the men that they might intercept outside, of the work, 
and burned all the corn, and with their horses consumed it on 
every 2 plain. And that was a twelvemonth after they had 
N come over sea hither. J 

^ J[ An. Dccc.xcv.fAnd then soon after that, in this year, the 
172,173. army went from Wirrall, because they could not abide there, 
into North Wales ; that was because they had been deprived 
both of the cattle and of the corn which they had obtained by 
plunder. When they had again wended out of North Wales 
with the booty which they had there taken, then they went 
over Northumberland and East Anglia, so that the (king's) 
force could not reach them, until they came into the eastward 
part of the East Saxons' laud, to an island that is out in the 
sea, which is called Mersey A And when the army which had 
beseiJSxeter again turned homewards, trrey^liaTned on the 
South &axgns near Chicliesster, antTThe townsfolk put them 
to flight, and slew many hundreds of them, and took some 
of their ships. Then, in the same year, before winter, the 



1 " Civitatem Legionum, tune 
" temporis dcsertam, quac Saxonice 
" Legeceastcr dicitur .... intrant." 
1'lor. Wigorn. 



2 The original word is efenneh'o', 
or efeneh'S, the Old high Ger. 
ebanod, GJI: ebene, 



/ A 
v ' 



T 
. \ 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 73 

Danish who sat in Mersey, towed their ships up the Thames, 
and the4i up the Lea. This was two years after they had 
come over sea hitherM 

An. DCCC.XCVI. J^Iii the same year the fore-mentioned 
army had wrought a work on the Lea, twenty miles above 
London. Then, in the summer after, a great number of the 
townspeople, and also of other folk went .until they came 
to the Danish work, and were there put to flight, and some 
four king's thanes slain. Then afterwards, during harvest, 
the king encamped in the neighbourhood of the town, while 
the people reaped their corn, so that the Danish might not 
deprive them of the crop. Then one day the king rode up 
by the river, and observed where the river might be ob- 
structed, so that they might not bring out their ships. And 
they then did so : they wrought two works on the ,two~ sides 
of the river. When they had actually begun the work, and 
had encamped thereby, then the army perceived that they 
could not bring out their ships. They then abandoned them, 
and went over land, until they arrived at QuatbrUlge (Bridge) 174, 175. 
on the Severn, and there wrought a work. Then rode the 
(king's) force w r est after the army, and the men of London 
brought away the ships, and all those which they could not 
bring oif they broke up, and those that were stalworth they 
brought into London. And the Danish had intrusted their 
wives to the East Angles before they went out from their 
work. They then sat that winter at Quatbridge (Bridge). 
That was three years after they had come hither over sea 
to the mouth of the Limen J 

An. DCCC.xcvn.fThen the summer after, in this year, the 
army went, some to East Anglia, some to Northumbria ; and 
they who were moneyless got themselves ships, and went 
south over sea to the Seine. ^ Thanks be to God, the army 
had not utterly broken up the Angle race ; but they were 
much more broken, in those three years, by a mortality of 
cattle and of men ; most of all thereby, that many of the 
king's most excellent thanes that were in the land died in 
those three years : of these one was Swithulf, bishop of 
Rochester, and Ceolmund, aldorman of Kent, and Beorhtulf, 
aldorman of the East Saxons, and Wulfred, aldorman of 
Hampshire, and Ealhheard, bishop of Dorchester, and Eadulf, 
a king'.' thane in Sussex, and Beornulf, wick-iveve at Win- 



74 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Chester, and Ecgulf, the king's horse-thane, and many, uls 
besides these, although I have named the most eminentt/ I 
the same year the armies from the East Angles and North- 
umbrians harassed the West Saxons' land, very much on the 
south coast, by predatory bands ; (though) most of all by the 
long ships (aescas), which they had built many years before. 
Then king Alfred commanded long ships to be built against 
them, which were full nigh twice as long as the others ; some 
had sixty oars, some more ; they were both swifter and 
steadier, and also higher than the others ; they were shapen 
neither as the Frisian nor as the Danish, but as it seemed to 
himself that they might be most useful. Then on a certain 
time in the same year, there came six ships to Wight, and did 
there much evil, both in Devon and elsewhere on the sea- 
shore. ' Then the king commanded (his men) to go thither with 
nine of the new ships, and they blockaded against them the 
mouth into the outer sea. They then went with three ships 
out against them, and three lay high up in the mouth, in the""~ 
dry : the men were gone off on shore. They then took two 
of the three ships at the outward mouth, and slew the men, 
and the one escaped, in which also the men were ^killed, save 
five, who came away because the ships of ,4;he others were 
aground. They were also aground very inconveniently ; 
three were aground on the side of the deep on which, the 
Danish ships were aground, and all the others on the other 
side, so that not one of them could get to the others. But 
when the water had ebbed many furlongs from the ships, then 
the Danish went from the three ships to the other three 
which had been left by the ebb on their side, and they then 
fought there. There were slain Lucumon the king's reeve, 
and Wulfhard the Frisian, and JEbbe the Frisian, and JEthel- 
here the Frisian, and JEthelferth the king's companion, and of 
all the men, Frisian and English, sixty-two, and of the Danish 
a hundred and twenty. > But then the flood came to the 
Danish ships before the Christians could shove theirs out ; 
and they therefore rowed away out ; they were then so 
damaged that they could not row round the South Saxons' 
land, for there the sea cast two of them on land, and the men 
were led to the king at Winchester, and he commanded Ihi-m 
to be there hanged ; and the men who were in the one hhip 
came to East Auglia sorely wounded. In the same summer 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 75 

no less than twenty ships, with men and everything, perished 
on the south coast. In the same year died Wulfrio the king's 
horse-thane, who was also Welsh-reeve. 7 

UWMMwAf 

An. DCCC.XCVIII. In this year died JEthelm, aldorman of 
Wiltshire, nine nights before Midsummer ; and in this year 
died Heahstan, who was bishop of London. 

An. DCCC.XCIX., D.CCCC. 

V An. DCCCC.I. In this year died Alfred son of Athulf (^Ethel- 
wulf), six nights before All-hallowmass (Oct. 26th). He was 
king over all the Angle race, except the part that was under 
the dominion of the Danes ; and he held the kingdom one 
year and a half less than thirty winters. And then Eadweard 
his son succeeded to the kingdom.J^Then ^Ethelwald a3thel- 
inj;, ' son of his paternal uncle, forcibly entered the vill at 
Wimborne and that at Tweoxneam (Twynham, Christchurch) 
against the will of the king and his e witan.' Then the king rode 
with a force, until he encamped at Badbury, near Wimborne; 
and ^thelwald sat within the vill with the men who sub- 
mitted to him ; and had obstructed all the entrances to him, 
and had said that he would one or other, either there live or 
there lie. Then, in the meanwhile, he stole away by night, 
and sought the army in Northumbria, and they received him 
for their king and submitted to him. And the king com- 
manded that he should be ridden after, but it was impossible 
to overtake him. They then beset the woman whom he had 
before taken without the king's leave, and against the bishops' 
ordinance ; because she had previously been hallowed a nun. 
And in this same year died .^Ethered, who was aldorman of 
Devon, four weeks before king ^Elfred. 

An. DCCCC.II. In this year 2 Ealhswyth died ; and in the 
same year was the fight at the Holme between the Kentish men 
and the Danish. 

An. DCCCC.III. In this year died the aldorman Athulf, 
brother of Ealhswyth,' mother of king Eadweard ; and Vir- 
gilius, abbot of the Scots, and Grimbald, the mass-priest, on 
the vmth of the Ides of July (July 8th). And in the same 



1 .Ktiielvvald was sou of .Etliered, I 2 Her death is again recorded 
Alfred's brother and predecessor. | under An. DCCCC.V. 



76 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

year the new monastery was hallowed at Winchester ; and 
the ' coming of St. Ludoc. 

An. DCCCC.IV. In this year JEthelwald came hither over 
sea with the fleet that he was able to get, and he was sub- 
mitted to in Essex. In this year the moon was eclipsed. 

An. DCCCC.V. In this year JEthelwald allured the army in 
East Anglia to a violation of the peace, so that they harried 
over all the Mercians' land, until they came to Cricklade, 
and there they went over the Thames, and took, both in " Bre- 
don and thereabout, all that they could carry offj and then 
again went homewards. Then king Eadweard went after them 
as speedily as he conld gather his force, and harried 3 all their 
land between the dikes and the Ouse, all as far north as the 
fens. When he again would withdraw thence, he commanded 
it to be proclaimed over all the force, that they should all 
withdraw together : then the Kentish men remained there 
behind against his command, although he had sent seven mes- 
sengers to them. Then the army there surrounded them, 
and they there fought, and there Avere the aldorman Sigulf 
182, 183. slain, and the aldormen Sigelm, and Eadwold, the king's 
thane, and the abbot Cenwulf, and Sigebriht, son of Sigulf, 
and Eadwald, son of Acca, and with them many others, 
though I have named the most distinguished. And on the 
side of the Danish were slain Eric their king, and JEthelwald 
ratheling, who had allured him to the infraction of the peace, 
and Byrhtsige, son of Byrhtnoth a3theling, and Y.sopa 4 hold, 
and Oskytel hold, and likewise very many others with 



1 The rt-lics of St. Judoc (Ludoc) 
were brought from Ponthieu by 
certain monks, and placed in the 
New Minster. II. P. 

2 " Silva qua3 Saxonice Bradene 
" vocatur." Fl. Wigorn. Bred on 
forest, near Malmesbury. 

3 " Terras illorum qusc inter terra? 
" limitem sanct't regis Eadmundi et 
" flumenUsam sitse sunt, devastat." 
Ibid. See Lappenberg, Engl. under 



fundi aviii vel allftdialis, and in the 
Index to the Gragas a holdr is 
described as colonus odalicus vel 
fundicm avitum tcnens. From his 
'wergild,' (or legal valuation), which 
is double that of a priest or thane 
it is evident that he was of very 
high rank in the state ; though the 
disparity may, perhaps, be justly 
ascribed to the assumed superiority 
of the victors over the vanquished ; 



the A. S. Kings, i. p. 242. i the thanes and priests being of the 

4 A title of honour introduced by latter class. See Ancient Laws 



the Danes into E. Anglia. Binrn 
Haldorsen defines holclr as dominits 



and Institutes of England, tit. Wer- 
gilds, 4. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 77 

them, whom we arc unable now to name. And there 
was a great slaughter made on either hand ; and of the 
Danish there were more slain, though they held possession 
of the place of carnage. And Ealhswyth died in the same 
year. This year a comet appeared on the xmth of the Kal. 
of November (Oct. 20th). 

An. DCCCC.VI. In this year died JElfred, who was reeve at 
Bath. And in the same year peace was concluded at Yttinga- 
ford (Hitchcn ?), as king Eadweard dictated, both with the 
East Angles and with the Northumbrians. 

An. DCCCC.VII. ' In this year Chester was renovated. 

An. DCCCC.VIII. 

An. DCCCC.IX. In this year died Denulf, who was bishop of 
Winchester. 

In this year St. Oswald's body was conveyed form Bardney 
into Mercia. 

An. DCCCC.X. In this year Frithcstan succeeded to the 
bishopric of Winchester ; and after that died Asser, who was 
bishop of Sherborne. And in the same year king Eadweard 
sent a force both from the West* Saxons and from the Mer- 
cians; and they made very great ravage on the north army, 
both in men and in every kind of cattle, and slew many of 
the Danish men ; and were five weeks therein. In this 
year the Angles and Danes fought at Tettenhall, on the 
vinth of the Ides of August (Aug. 6th), and the Angles 
gained the victory. And in the same year 'JEthelflsed built 
the burgh at Bramsbury. 

v An. DCCCC.XI. In this year the army in Nor'humbria broke 
the peace, and disdained every right (peace) which king 



An. DCCCC.VI. In this year king Eadweard, of necessity, 
concluded a peace both with the East Angles' army and with 
the Northumbrians'. a 

An. DCCCC.X. In this year the army of the Angles and of 
the Danes fought at Tettenhall. a 



See An. DCCC.XCIV. j 2 Sister of king Eadweard. 



78 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Eadweard and his ' witan ' offered them, and harried over the 
Mercians' laud. And the king had gathered some hundred 
ships, and was then in Kent, and the ships went south-east 
along the sea towards him. Then weened the army that 
the greatest part of his support was in the ships, and that 
they might go unassailed wheresoever they would. When the 
king learned that they were gone out to ravage, he sent his 
force, both from the West Saxons and from the Mercians, 
and overtook the army when it was returning homewards, 
and fought against them and put the army to flight, and slew 
many thousands of them ; and there was king Eowils slain/l 
and king Halfdan, and Ottar jarl, and Skurfa jarl, and 
Othulf hold, and Benesing hold, and Olaf the Black, and 
Thurferth holff, and Osferth Hlytte, and Guthferth hold, and 
Agmund hold, and Guthferth. 

Then in the year next after, died JEthered, aldorrnan of the 
Mercians. 

J An. DCCCC.XII. In this year died ^Ethered, alderman of the 
Mercians ; and king Eadweard took possession of London, 
and Oxford, and all the lands which thereto belonged. 

In this year ^thelflasd, the lady of the Mercians, came to 
Scergeat (Sarrat ?), on the holy eve of the Inventio Sancta? 
Crucis (May 3rd), and there built the burgh ; and in the same 
year that at Bridgenorth. 

An. DCCCC.XIII. In this year, about 2 Martinmas (April 
14th), king Eadward commanded the north burgh to be 
built at Hertford, between the Memera (Maran), and the 
Beneficca (Bean), and the Lygea (Lea). And then, the 
summer after that, betwixt the Rogation days (May 3rd) and 
Midsummer, king Eadweard went with some of his force to 
Maldon in Essex, and there encamped, while the burgh at 
Witham was being wrought and built ; and a good deal of the 
folk submitted to him, who were before under the power of 
the Danish men. And some of his force the while wrought 
the burgh at Hertford, on the south side of the Lea. 

In this year, God granting, .ZEthelflced, lady of the Mer- 



1 See An. DCCCC.V. note*. 

2 From the following dates, this 
would appear to be the anniversary, 



not of St. Martin of Tours, but of 
' Martin pope and martyr,' which 
was celebrated on the 14th of April. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 70 

cians, went with all the Mercians to Tamworth, and built 
the burgh there, in the early summer ; and before the follow- 
ing Lammas (Aug. 1), that at Stafford. 

Then in the year after this, that at Eddesbury, in the 
early summer ; and afterwards, in the same year, towards the 
end of autumn, that at Warwick. 

Then in the next year, after Midwinter, that at Chirbury, 
and that at Wardbury ; and that same year, before Midwinter, 
that at Run corn. 188 18 g 

An. *DCCCC.XIV. In this year the army rode out after * DCCCC.XVII. A 
Easter from Northampton and from Leicester, and broke the 
peace, and slew many men at Hocneratiin (Hockerton?) and 
thereabouts. And then, very soon after that, when the one 
came home, then they raised another troop, which rode out 
against Lygtun (Leighton) ; and then were the country 
people aware of them, and fought against them and put them 
to full flight, and rescued all that they had taken, and also a 
great portion of their horses and their weapons. 

>/ An. *DCCCC.XV. 'In this year there came a great naval *DCCCC.XVIII.A 
force over hither from the south, from the 2 Lidwiccas, and 
with it two jarls, Ottar and 3 Hraold, and went west about 
until they arrived in the mouth of the Severn ; and they 
harried on the North Welsh everywhere by the sea, where it 
pleased them , and took bishop Cameleac in Irkenfield, and 
led him with them to the ships ; and then king Eadweard 
afterwards ransomed him with forty pounds. Then after that, 
all the army landed, and would still go to harry towards 
Irkenfield. Then met them the men of Hereford and of 
Gloucester, and of the nearest burghs, and fought against 
them, and put them to flight, and slew the jarl Hraold, and 



1 An. DCCCC.XV. In this year Warwick was built.* 



2 See An. DCCC.LXXXV. note. I by transposition, as hros and hors, 

3 Apparently the same as Harold \ horse. 



80 THE ANGLO- SAXON CHRONICLE. 

the brother of Ottar the other jarl, and many of the army, 
and drove them into an ! inclosure, and there beset them from 
Avithout, until they gave them hostages, that they would 

190, 191. depart from king Eadweard's dominion. And the king had 
contrived so that his force sat opposite to them on the south 
side of the mouth of the Severn, west from the Welsh (shore), 
as far as the mouth of the Avon east, so that they durst not 
anywhere seek the land on that side. Then, nevertheless, 
they stole away by night, on some two occasions, on one 
occasion, up to the east of Watchct, and on another occasion, 
to Porlock. Then they were beaten on both occasions, so 
that few of them came away, save those only who there swam 
out to the ships ; and these seated themselves out on the 
island of Flatholme (Steepholm), until the time that they 
were greatly destitute of food ; and many men perished from 
hunger, because they could not obtain any foocl.7 They then 
went to South Wales, and then out to Ireland ; and this was 
in autumn. And then after that, in the same year, before 
Martinmas (Nov. llth), king Eadweard went with his force 
to Buckingham, and sat there four weeks, and wrought 
both the burghs on each side of the river, before he went 
thence. And Thurkytel jarl sought him for his lord, and 
all the 2 holds, and almost all the chief men belonging to 
Bedford, and also many of those belonging to Northampton. 

An. DCCCC.XYI. In this year abbot Ecgbriht was guiltless 
slain, before Midsummer, on the xvith of the Kal. of July 
(June 16th). On the same day was the feast of St. Cirieus 
the martyr and his companions. And three nights after, 
JEthelflaed sent a force into Wales, and took Brecknock by 
storm, and there captured the king's wife with four and 
thirty persons. 

An. DCCCC.XVII. In this year JEthelflasd, lady of the Mer- 
cians, God aiding her, before Lammas (Aug. 1), acquired the 

192, 193. burgh which is called Derby, with all that belonged thereto ; 
and there also were slain four of her thanes, within the gates, 
whose loss was a great sorrow to her. 



1 Sax. pearruc, hence our park ; \ 2 See An. ECCCC.V. note 4 . 
the word is Keltic. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 81 

An. DCCCC.XVIII. In this year, with the aid of God, in the 
early part of the year, she got into her power peacefully the 
burgh at Leicester ; and the greatest part of the army which 
belonged thereto became subjected to her. And the people 
of York had also promised her, and some given a pledge, and 
some confirmed by oaths, that they would be at her disposal. 
But very soon after they had agreed thereon, ' she died at 
Tarn worth twelve nights before Midsummer (June 12th), in 
the eighth year from the time she rightfully held the lordship 
over the Mercians ; and her body lies in Gloucester, in the 
east porch of St. Peter's church. 

An. DCCCC.XIX. In this year king Eadweard went with an 
army to Bedford, before Martinmas (Nov. llth), and gained 
the burgh ; and almost all the townsmen who had previously 
dwelt there turned to him, and he remained there four weeks, 
and commanded the burgh on the south side of the river to be 
built, before he went thence. In this year also the daughter 
of .ZEthered, lord of the Mercians, was deprived of all power, 
and conveyed into Wessex, three weeks before Midwinter. 
She was called JElfwyn. 

An. DCCCC.XX. In this year, before Midsummer, king Ead- 
weard went to Maldon, and built and established the burgh, 
ere he went thence. And in the same year Thurkytel jarl 
went over sea to France, with the men who would follow him, 
with the peace and support of king Eadweard. 

An. DCCCC.XXI. In this year, before Easter (April 1st), king 194. 
Eadweard gave orders to proceed to Towcester, and build the 
burgh. And then again, after that, in the same year, in the 
Eogation days (May 7th), he commanded the burgh at Wigmore 
to be built. In the same summer, betwixt Lammas (Aug. 1st) 
and Midsummer, the army broke the peace from Northampton 



An. DCCCC.XVIII. In this year died ^Ethelftad, lady of the 
Mercians.* 



1 See p. 83, where her death is again recorded under DCCCC.XXII. 



E. 
VOL. II. 



82 Till; A.VU.O-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

and from I>ioesf.er, and north from thence, and went, lo Tow- 
cester, and /outfit ajNiin.-i the bur^h a whole day, and thought 
that they should take it by .storm ; hut, novcrthele-.-, the 
people who woe -within defended it, until a ;/rc;iter t- 
arrived ; and they then ;th;iudoned the hiir^rh, ;md went away. 
And tljen a;rain, very noon after that, they a^ain went oul 
with a predatory band by ni^lit, and came upon men unpre- 
pared, and took no little, both in men and in cattle, betwixt. 
1 1 wood and Ayle.-bury. At the ; ame time, the army from 
Huntingdon, ami from t! . ent an<l wrought 

the work at Temp-ford, and inhabited it, and built, und for 

Huntingdon ; and thought that from thence they 

could, by will-fan in obtain more of the land. 

And they went until they arrived at JJedford ; and then the 

men who were th'Te within went out a^'ain.-t them, and fought 

witli them, ;iiid put. tin in to Hi^hl. and .-lew a ;_'<.od part of 

them. Then M^rain, after that, u my was ^atl- 

from the Ka-1 An^'h - and Irom the Mercian-' | ; ,i,d, and \venl 

lo the bur^h at Wi^i; I more?;, and be - | it. round 

about, and fou^ln it far in tin- d;iy, and took the cattle 

about it ; and, m nn-n def.-ndefl the bur^h who 

tln-n-iu ; and then th-y abaii'loner! || )( . |,iir;-li and \\ent 

away. Then, ufier that, in th- uinn-r, a ^rcat body of 

|<eojle a--embled in J.ii; dominion, from the 

ne;ire-( buiL'h , who could then jr(, s and \v nt lo Tnnj. ford, 

and be-d (he buiyh, and foil;': i it until they took it 

l)y Htorin, and hle\, ilr I jarl, and Manna jarl 

hiK HOII, and hi- brother, and all tho.-e who wen- there within 

and would defend them.-el ve-, and took the olhej>, ami all that 

wan thej-ein. 'I hen, very ,-hortly after thai body ol' 

people a--enibled in autumn, a- well from I< nl a from Surrey 

and from K ex, and every wh< -re from the neju-e: ! bur;-h .-, and 

went to (.'old tie billyh, and foii^hl B( 

until they n-diieed it. ; oj.le, and look all thai 

waH Ihere within, exccpl th<- men who Jlcfl a. the 

wall. Then, after that, yet, in . aiitunin, a ^n-at ai-my 

nbled from ti . olh of the hmd-ainiy and 

of the vi! .-.in they liad allured to their aid, and ihon 

thai they m iieir injuries. AIM! they went lo 

Maldon, and be-e| the biirMh. and fought i. until lh> 

'am- aid to tli '.in without ; and the 



THK AN01.0-SAXON CHKONb So 

army then abandoned the burgh and departed. And then the 
men from the burgh went out after them, and also those who 
had eonie to their aid from without, and put the army to 
flight, and slew many hundreds of them, both of the l axe- 
men and of the others. Then, very soon after this, iti the same 
autumn, king Kadweard, with a foree of \\V-. & v^-.s, went 
to rassenham, and sat there while they surrounded the burgh 
at Towcester with a stone wall. And Thur forth jarl, and the 
'holds, and all the army which belonged to Northampton, 
north as far as the Welland, submitted to him, and sought 
him for their lord and protector. "And when that army corps 
wont home, then went another out, and reduced the burgh at 
Huntingdon, and repaired and renovated it, where it \ 
before in a state of ruin, by order of king Kadweard ; and all 
the folk that were left there of the p. -ubmitted to 

king Kadweard, and sought his peace and his protection. 
Then again, after that, in the same year, before Martin: 
x ^ \. llth), .x .\veard, with an army of West Sax* 

went to Colchester, and repaired and renovated the bin. 
where it had previously been ruined ; and a great number of 
people submitted to him, both Vnglia and in Essex, 

who had before been under the power of the Panes. And all 
the army in Kast Anglia swore unity with him, that they all 
that would that he would, and would protect all that the kiu 
would protect, both by sea and by laud. And the army 
which belonged to Cambridge chose him specially for their 
lord and protector, and continued it by oaths, as he it then 
dictated. In this year king Eadweard built the burgh at 
Cledemutha. In this year king Sihtric slew Niel his brother. 
x A \\ 1 this year, between the Rogations (May 

27th) and Midsummer, king Kadweard went with a foree to 
Stamford, and commanded the burgh to be wrought on the 
south side of the river : and all the people who belonged to the 
northern burgh submitted to him, and sought him for their lord, 
.hen, while he Avas there sitting, JKthelthvd his sister died 
at Tamworth, twe. s before Midsummer. And then he 



o shipmen 5 from wsc, a *y, i * See An. DOCOCXV., mtfe, p, 76. 
jMrate iMtM< so calfcd apparently See Am* DCCCJCCIV . p. 70. 

tVv*ux beiu made of asid. 

P * 



84 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

took possession of the burgh at Tamworth ; and all the people 
in the Mercians' land, who had /before been subject to JEtliel- 
flasd, submitted to him ; and the kings of the North Welsh, 
Howel, and Cledauc, and Jeothwel, and all the North Welsh 
race, sought him for lord. He then went thence to Notting- 
ham, and reduced the burgh, and ordered it to be repaired, 
and peopled, both with Englishmen and with Danish. And 
all the people who were settled in the Mercians' land submitted 
to him, both Danish and English. 

196. An. DCCCC.XXIII. In this year king Eadweard went, after 

autumn, with a force to Thelwall, and commanded the burgh 
to be built, and inhabited, and manned ; and commanded 
another force also of the Mercian nation, while he there sat, 
to reduce Manchester in Northumbria, and repair and man 

197^ it. In this year died archbishop Plegemund : (and) in this 
year king Ragnald won York. 

An. DCCCC.XXIV. In this year, before Midsummer, king 
Eadweard went with a force to Nottingham, and commanded 
the burgh to be built on the south side of the river, opposite 
to the other ; and the bridge over the Trent, betwixt the two 
burghs ; and then went thence into Peakland, to Bake well, 
and commanded a burgh to.be built and manned there in the 
\Jf immediate neighbourhood. fAnd then the king of the Scots and 
all the nation of Scots/"and Ragnald, and the sons of Eadnlf, 
and all those who dwell in Northumbria, as well English as 
Danish and Northmen, and others, and also the king of the 
Strathclyde Welsh, and all the Strathclyde Welsh, chose him 
for father and for lord. 



*/ An. DCCCC.XXIV. In this year king Eadweard was chosen 
for father and for lord by the king of the Scots, and by the 
Scots, and by king Ragnald, and by all the Northumbrians, 
and also by the king of the Strathclyde Welsh, and by all the 
Strathclyde Welsh. a 

199. An. DCCCC.XXIV. In this year king Eadweard died in Mercia 

at Farndon ; and very shortly, in sixteen days after, his son 
^Elfweard died at Oxford ; and their bodies lie at Winchester. 



R 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 85 

^ An. DCCCC.XXV. In this year king Eadweard died, and 198. 
./Ethelstan his son succeeded to the kingdom. And St. 
Dimstan was born, and Wulfhelm succeeded to the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury. In this year king .^Ethelstan and 
Sihtric, king of the Northumbrians, came together at Tam- 
worth on the mrd of the Kal. of February (Jan. 30th) ; and 
^Ethelstan gave him his sister. 

An. DCCCC.XXVI. In this year fiery beams of light appeared 
in the north part of the sky. And Sihtric died ; and king 
jEthelstan assumed the kingdom of the Northumbrians ; and 
he subjugated all the kings who were in this island : first, 
Howel king of the West Welsh, and Constantine king of the 
Scots, and Owen king of Gwent, and Ealdred son of Ealdulf 
of Bamborough : and with pledge and with oaths they con- 
firmed peace, in the place which is named Eamot (Emmet ?), 
on the ivth of the Ides of July (July 12th), and renounced 
every kind of idolatry ; and after that departed in peace. 

An. DCCCC.XXVII. In this year king JEthelstan expelled 
king Guthfrith ; and in this year archbishop Wulfhelm went 
to Rome. 

An. DCCCC.XXVIII. In this year William succeeded to Nor- 201. 
mandy, and held it fifteen years. 

An. DCCCC.XXIX., DCCCC.XXX, 

An. DCCCC.XXXI. In this year Byrnstan was ordained bishop 200. 
of Winchester, on the ivth of the Kal. of June (May 29th) ; 
and he held the bishopric two years and a half. 

An. DCCCC.XXXII. In this year died * bishop Frythestan. * of winton. 

An. DCCCC.XXXIII. In this year Eadwine setheling was 
drowned in the sea. In this year king jEthelstan went into 
Scotland, with both a land-force and a ship-force, and ravaged 



And JEthelstan was chosen king by the Mercians, and hal- 
lowed at Kingston. And he gave his sister to Otho, son of 
the king of the Old-Saxons. a 

An. DCCCC.XXV. In this year bishop Wulfhelm was hal- 
lowed ; And in the same year king Eadweard died. b 

An. DCCCC.XXXI. In this year died Frithestan, bishop of 
Winchester, and Byrnstan was blessed in his stead.c 

a B. C. D. b E., partly repealed. c F. 



86 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 



a great part of it. And bishop Byrnstan died at Winchester 
at All-Hallows tide. 

An. DCCCC.XXXIV. In this year bishop JElfheah succeeded 
to the bishopric of Winchester. 

An. DCCCC.XXXV., DCCCC.XXXVI. 

An. l DCCCC.XXXVII. 



This year king JEthelstan, 

lord of earls, 

2 ring -giver of warriors, 

and his brother eke, 

Eadmund aetheling, 

life-long glory 

in battle won, 

with edges of swords, 

at Brunanburh. 

The board-wall clave. 

hew'd the 3 war linden, 

with * hammers' leavings, 



Eadward's offspring, 
as was to them congenial 
from their ancestors, 
that they in conflict oft, 
'gainst every foe, 
should the land defend, 
treasure and homes. 
The foes lay low, 
the Scots' people, 
and the shipmen 
death-doom'd fell. 
The field 5 stream'd 



202, 203. 



An. DCCCC.XXXVII. In this year king .ZEthelstan and Ead- 
mund his brother led a force to Brunanburh, and there fought 
against Olaf, and, Christ aiding, had victory: and they there 
slew five kings and seven jarls. a 



1 DCCCC.XXXVIII. W. 

2 Rings were worn about the 
head, round the neck, the arms, the 
wrists, on the fingers, the ankle, 
and probably even round the waist. 
See Guide to Northern Archce- 
* ology,' edited by the Eari of 
Ellesmere, 8vo. 1848, p. 54; also 
Weinhold, Altnordisches Leben, 
8vo. Berlin, 1856, p. 185. See also 
An. DCCC.LXXVI. and note, p. 63. 

8 shields, being made of the lime 
or linden tree. 

4 gomel laf, eald laf, yrfe laf, 



hamora (homera) laf, are all poetic 
expressions for a sword ; a sword 
being the leaving, or produce, of the 
operation of forging (hammering}. 

5 This translation of dseniede 
(dennade) is countenanced by the 
O. Norse dundi,from dynia, resonare, 
irruere : Blodid dundi, og tarin 
tidt, creberrima erat stillatio turn 
sanguinis turn lacrymarum. Biorn 
Haldorsen, voce dyn. The reading 
of MS. A. seems to be the error of 
an illiterate scribe, writing, as was 
customary, from dictation, and de- 
ceived by similarity of sound. 



F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



8 



V 



with warriors' * blood, 
what time the sun up, 
at morning tide, 
the glorious star, 
glided o'er grounds. 
God's candle bright, 
the eternal Lord's, 
until the noble creature 
sank to its setting. 
There many a warrior lay, 
^ by javelins scatter'd, 
northern men, 
o'er the shield shot, 
so the Scots eke, 
weary, war-sated. 
The West Saxons forth, 
the live-long day, 
in martial bands, 
follow'd the footsteps 
of the hostile nations. 
They hew'd the fugitives 
from behind amain, 
with falchions 2 mill-sharp. 
The Mercians refus'd not 
the hard hand-play 
to any of the warriors, 
who with 3 Olaf, 
o'er the waves' mingling, 
in the ship's bosom, 
the land had sought, 
death-doom'd in fight. 
>04, 205. Five lay 

on that battle-stead, 



young kings, 

by swords laid to sleep : 

so seven eke 

of Olafsjarls, 

of the army countless, 

shipmen and Scots. 

There was put to flight 

the Northmen's prince, 

by need constrain'd, 

to the vessel's prow, 

wilh a little band. 

The bark drove afloat, 

the king departed 

on the fallow flood, 

his life preserved. 

So there eke the aged 

came by flight 

to his country north, 

Constantino, 

hoary warrior ; 

he needed not exult 

in the falchions' intercourse ; 

he of his kinsmen was bereft, 

of his friends depriv'd, 

on the trysting place, 

in conflict slain ; 

and his son he left 

on the slaughter place, 

mangled with wounds, 

young in warfare. 

Needed not boast 

the grizzly lock'd warrior 

of the bill-clashing, 



1 swat here, as often in poetry, 
signifies blood. In German, the 
blood of game is called schweiss, 
sweat. 

2 From the grindstone, on -which 
they were sharpened. The reading 
of MS. D. (my eel scearpum) re- 
quires no comment. 

3 The form of Anlaf for Olaf in 



A.S. (O. Nor. Olafr) seems quite un- 
accountable. Besides Anlaf, we find 
Onlaf and Unlaf. It has been sup- 
posed to have arisen from a clerical 
error of n for u, and that we should 
read Aulaf ; but this supposition 
will hardly apply to the reading 
Unlaf; and even on his coins the 
name stands Anlaf. 



88 



THE ANGLO-SAXON t 1! KONU'l.i:. 



ihe eld doeei\er. 
nor Olal' the more, 
with their armies' relies ; 
Ihrv needed not to Inu^h 
(hat they in works of war 
(ho bettor were 

.. -.it):, on the battle-stead, 

:it (ho rush of banners, 
the mooting of javelins, 
(ho tryst of men, 
(he clash of weapons, [Miov 
(hat on tho Hold ol' slaughter 
with EiAdW6ftrd'8 
oll'sprin^- play'd. 
IVparted then ilu .Nortlnnon 
in (hoir uail'd harks, 
llio darts' prorv IO:M 
IMI (lu> ' roaring 16^ 
IMM- tin- dco|> \va(or, 
Oul'lin lo sook, 
Ireland once more, 
in mind ahaslfd. 
Likewise the 
holh lo:;elhor, 
king and a- 
'ir country 
\\Csi .S;i\,>us' land, 



in >v:ir oxnlliiii;-. 



'JMiev lel'l hehind them, 
(he OarOMea to Miare, 

Avith ' pallid coal, 

the Mvarl rnviMi, 

\vith horned nel>, 

and him of goodly ooal, 

;: tlu> ea^'le \vhile hehind, 

(he carrion to de\ onr. 

(h(> u'reedy war-ha\vk, 

and (hat ivy heast. 

the wolf in (lie weald. 

N(^ slaii!;ht(M- has heen i;r(>ater 

in tliis island 

o\ or yet 

of folk laid low, 

hol'ore this, 

by the sword's od^os, 

from what hooks tells us, 

old chroniclers, 2 08, 

since hither from the ea>i 

Anglos and Saxons 

came to land. 

o'er the broad seas 

Britain sought, 

proud war-smiths, 

the Welsh oVreaine, 

men for ulory eauer, 

tho country 



'Tliis rciuU-rin:; of " on il\ ns^-.s 
" i l\ ui;;vs") nu-iv " is (juito oonjoo 
tunil. 

- Tho Mord * p:ulo ' t^t' tho original 
is hovi takon as sMionviuous \\ith 
tho r.oth. paida. Oh:-;, phoit, l>. Sax. 
ivda. <-.'(i^, iiidiistHni. ' Sa!o\\ iu 
' padau ' is. I havo no doul-l, an ap- 
position to lira, as both salo\ 
swoart oannot \\oll ho said of tho 
ra\ en. thoiivji 'xilou i:>.' pa 
applii's to .1 rorpM-. 'I'lu- I'ollov in:- 
i^ olli u a us .1 froor \ r.ston of tlio 



/.;// l>fhin<l thn* the 
sn\ii-t nivt-n with horned nt'fi, to share 
(lie i>alf-liiii'tl 0(//v ( /\c.v ; ami the 
white-tailed tatjlc with <j<Hnllt/ //- 
w/.n/r, ///(' <//(((/// irtir-luttck, and that 
(//<// bt'itst, the wolf in the /<<>(></, tlir. 
<<!///<>;< A' t!<T(>ttr. 

' (Iriiuin ^Andr. and Kl. p. \\ i."i 
proposi-s to road, i-arn a 1 thin h\\a-t. 
irsos hn'ioan. a<i;iHain /.>//r \c ( .M-,r 
ttjiquid ((/(/( (fft'twtutl), Tho onion- 
d.ition .Noonis liardl\ noodod. 01, in- 
dood. adnus>il>lo. 



I 111! ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



89 



An. i>< VIV.XXXN ill., invtv.x \\i\. 

An. mvtv.xi.. In (his year kin- .'Rthelstan died, at (llon- 
eoster, Dii the \illi !' I lu Kal. ol' No\einber ^Oct. 'JTlh 1 ), 
lorly-one winters, MYG one nii;h(, after kin;'; /Mll'red died; 
and Kadmnnd :rthc-lin, his brother, succeeded to (ho king- 
dom ; and ho was then eighteen winters old. And kin-- 
yiOthelstan roi^ni'd lonrtoi-n vt'ars and Ion works. Wull- 
hi'lin was IlitMi nrrhhislmp in Konl. 

An. nrccc.xi.i. In (his year (ho Nor(hnntl>rians holiod 
ihoii- loahy oaths, and ohoso Olat'of hvlniul tor thoir king. 



Here Kadtnnnd kin;';, 
of Angles lord, 
of his kin (tribes) protector, 
iMercia subdued, 
dear deed-performer, 
as the ' Dore it bounds, 
ionl Whil well's ^a(e, 
and Hnmbcr's riycr, 
broad ocean-stream. 
Ki\ e (owns, 
Leicester, 
and Lincoln, 
and Nottingham, Kadmnnd kin--;. 

An. DCCCC.XLIT. In this year "kino; Olafdied. 

An. DCCCC.XUn. In (liis year Olal' took Tamwoi (h by 
storm, and ^real slsui^hter was made on either side ; and the 
Danes had the \iclory, and led a\\av :.',real booty with them : 
there, dnriii'V the pillayv, \\ as \V idlrnn taken. In this\ear 
Kadmnml beset kiiii;- Olal' and archbishop \YnHsiaii 



so Slanil'ord ckc, 

and Dcrhy, 

won> orowhik- l>anish, 

niuh-r (ho Northmen, 

l>y need const raiifd, 

in lu:iilicns' 

capdyo bonds, 

tor a Ion;>; sjiaco, 

until au-ain roloas'd (honi, 

(hroii!;h his \\orlhincss, 

(ho warrior's 

K:ul\\ ard's 



1 Tlic Dun- N\>Mil<l si'i-ni to In- in- 
trndnl for the urstcrn bouiuhiry of 
MiMvia. \vhili' ^Vllit^v^l^s '^ito :uid 
tin- mouth of tlu- llinnluT ;uv its 
soutluTii ;uul iiortlu-rn limits on tin- 

I'llSt I'OMSt. 

-'Phis liiu- serins nu'vcly an op- 
position to tlif onr inunr.li;itrl\ 
pivivilin;v it. 

:i Sec II. Humiliation ami Sim. 
.-I' Diiih.ini, ;i. \\\ |. Tliriv \\rrr 



rhii-fs of that n;inii' at this 
period : Anlaf tin- son of (iuth- 
l>'i Hi, Anlaf tin- son ( .f Sihtric, and 
Anlaf I'wiran, miMitioiu-,1 a. '.> t'.. 
K.r. Olaf Kvaran \\ as kin:- of 
PuMiu. Si-i- S:i!-;:i Olafs Koiniii!',-; 
asonar. i. p. II'.), ,.,lit. 1825 5 
also his S:i.",:i in SIIOITH llrimskr. 
c:ip. M.-J. Mnilion oivurs of him 
:ilso in Ihr Annals of IHsIn . .1.1 



|6 THE AJTOfoO-SAXOX CHBOXICLR 

in Leicester ; and would hare captured them, had it not been 
ticy escaped ovt of die town by night. And after that, 

friendship ; and ting Ead- 

recei ved king Olmf at baptism, and he royally 
gifted him. And m die sairc year, after a good loiig interval, 
he retired kmgRagMM at the bishop's hand. In th year 
king EadmMd delirered Glastonbory to St. Dunstan, where 
he afterwards first became alvbot. 
212. sis. . Doooc-UJY. In this year ting Eadmnnd snbdned all 

T^,- ^^^-^ "Efc^^J^-kJB 2A lt*J- fl^^MMM " - - - ' . 

- N . - -: .-- " - - - - X ' . , . ." ". - - 

soacf Shtrk^ airfBagnaWscm of Gnthferth. 

La tfcta year Iritig Eadmund harried over 
d gave it all np to Malcolm king of die 

An. DOOCXXXI.TI. In this year king Eadmnnd died, on St. 
Angnsrine's mass-day (May 26th). It was widely known bow lie 
his days, tkatlJofa stabbed him 

of the 

And he had the kingdom ax years and 
him, Eadred *theling, his brother, 
kiagdom, and reduced all Northumberland 
his JMIWI t and toe Scots gave niai irmlKf^, that they 
all that he would. 

An. Doocxr.xi.vii. In this year king Eadred came to Tad- 
Scylf (Shett), and there Wnlfstin the archbishop and 
bnmbrian <witan,' swore fealty to the king ; and 
a fitde space belied it all, both pledges and also oaths. 
An. BOOGC.XLVHI. In tins year king Eadred harried over 

they had taken Eric lor their 
in that harrying was die famms monastery at 
Bipon burnl, which St. Wilierth built. And when die king 
was ImmM m il, the army within York overtook him : (the 
rear of the king's force was at Chesterford), and there made 
great slaughter. Then was die king BO i~j^*^ diat he 
marck in, aod totally destroy die country. When 

! 

aad made coa^eaBitiian fig die deed to king Eadred. 
--:. An. Doooc^tLEL In this year caa*e Olaf Cwiran to Nordi- 




THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 91 

An. DCCCC.L. 

An. DCCCC.LI. In this year died JElfheah, bishop of Win- 214. 
Chester, on St. Gregory's mass-day (Mar. 12th). 

An. DCCCC.LII. In this year king Eadred commanded nrrh- 
bishop Wuli'sttin to be brought into the fastness at J(jll)iir^li, 
because he had been often accused to (lie kini/. And in 
this year also, the king commanded a great slaughter to be 
made in the town of Thetford, in revenge for the abbot. 
Eadelm, whom they had before slain. In this year the North- 
umbrians expelled king Olaf, and received Eric, Harald's 
son. 

An. DCCCC.LIII. 

An. DCCCC.LIV. In this year the Northumbrians expelled 
Eric, and Eadred assumed the kingdom of the Northum- 
brians. In this year archbishop Wulfstan again received a 
bishopric, at Dorchester. 
s An. DCCCC.LV. In this year died king Eadred, on ^ 

Clement's mass-day (Nov. 23rd) at Frome, and he rests in 
I the * Old monastery ; and he reigned nine years and a half ; * at Winchester. 
\ * and then Eadwig ^succeeded to the kingdom, the son of 
king Eadmund and St. jElfgifu. And he drove St. Dunstan 
out of the land. 

An. DCCCC.LVI. 

An. DCCCC.I/VII. In this year died archbishop Wulfstan of 
York, on the xviith of the Kal. of January (Dec. 16th), and 
he was buried at Oundle. And in the same year abbot Dun- 217. 
stun was driven away over sea. In this year Eadgar aetheling 
succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. 

An. DCCCC.LVIII. In this year archbishop * Oda separated * of Canterbury. 
king Eadwig and -ZElfgyfu, because they were too near akin. 
In this year king Eadwig died, on the Kal. of October 216. 
(Oct. 1st.) ; and Eadgar his brother succeeded to the king- 



1 and Eadwig succeeded to the kingdom of the West 
Saxons, and Eadgar his brother succeeded to the kingdom of 
the Mercians ; and they were the sons of king Eadmund and 
St. 



D.F. 



92 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



dom, as well of the West Saxons as of the Mercians, and of 
the Northumbrians ; and he was then sixteen winters old. 




218. 



In his days 

it prosper'd well, 

and God him granted 

that he dwelt in peace, 

the while that he lived ; 

and he did as him behoved, 

diligently earn'd it. 

He up-rearM 

the praise of God widely, 

and God's law lov'd, 

and the folk's peace better'd 

the most of the kings 

that were before him 

in memory of men. 

And God him eke aided, 

so that kings and earls 

willingly to him submitted, 

and became subject 

to that which he wilPd ; 

and without contest, 

he govern'd all 

that he himself will'd. 

He was widely among nations, 

greatly, honour'd, 

because he honour'd 

God's name zealously, 



and on God's law meditated 

oft and frequently, 

and God's praise exalted 

wide and far ; 

and wisely rul'd 

oftenest ever constantly, 

'fore God 

and 'fore the world, 

all his people. 

One misdeed he did 

however too frequently, 

that he foreign 

vices lov'd, 

and heathen manners 

within this land 

brought too fast, 

and outlandish men 

hither enticed, 

and pernicious people 

allur'd to this country. 

But may God grant him, 

that his good deeds 

be more prevailing 

than his misdeeds, 

for his soul's protection, 

on the longsome journey. 



219. 



220. 



An. DCCCC.LIX. In this year Eadgar sent after St. Dunstan, 
and gave him the bishopric of Worcester ; and afterwards the 
bishopric of London. 

An. DCCCC.LX. 

An. DCCCC.LXI. In this year died Oda, the good archbishop ; 
and St. Dunstan succeeded to the archbishopric. 

An. DCCCC.LXII. In this year died JElfgar, the king's kins- 
man, in Devon ; and his body rests at Wilton. And king 
Sigferth killed himself, and his body lies at Wimborne. And 
then within the year there was a great mortality, and the 
great fever was in London, and Paul's monastery WHS burnt, 
and in the same year was again founded. In the same year 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 93 

Athelmod the mass-priest went to Rome, and there died, on 
the xvuith of the Kal. of September (Aug. 15th). 

An. DCCCC.LXIII. In this year Wulfstan the deacon died on 
Childermas day (Dec. 28th) ; and after that died Gyric the 
mass-priest. In this same year, abbot Athelwold succeeded 
to the bishopric of Winchester, and he was hallowed on the 
vigil of St. Andrew (Nov. 29) : it was Sunday on that day. 



An. DCCCC.LXIII. In this year Athelwold was chosen to the 221. 
bishopric of Winchester by king Eadgar ; and the archbishop 
of Canterbury, St. Dunstan, hallowed him on the first Sunday 
of Advent, that was on the nird of the Kal. of December 
(Nov. 29th). 1 a 





1 In the year after he was hallowed he made many monas- 
teries, and drove the clerks out of the bishopric ; because that 
they would not hold any rule, and set monks there. He made 
there two abbacies, one of monks, one of nuns ; all that was 
within Winchester. Then afterwards he came to king Eadgar, 
and besought him that he would give him all the monasteries 
which heathen men had before ruined ; because that he would 
restore them ; and the king blithely granted it. And the 
bishop then came first to Ely, where St. JEtheldrith lies, and 
caused the monastery to be made ; then gave it to one of his 
monks who was named Brihtnoth : then hallowed him abbot, 
and there set monks to serve God where whilom there were 
nuns. Then bought he many villages (cotlif ) of the king, and 
made it very rich. After that, bishop Athelwold came to the 
monastery that was called * Medeshamstede, which whilom * Peterborough, 
was destroyed by heathen folk : there found he nothing but 
old walls and wild woods. Then found he, hidden in the old 
walls, writings that abbot Headda had erewhile written, how 
king Wulfhere and ^Ethelred his brother had built it, and how 
they had freed it against king, and against bishop, and against 
all secular service ; and how the pope Agatho had confirmed 
it by his writ, and the archbishop Deusdedit. He then caused 
the monastery to be wrought, and set there an abbot who was 



E. 



94 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

222, 223. An. DCCCC.LXIV. In this year king Eadgar drove out the 

Winchester, priests in the "city, from the Old monastery and from the 

New monastery, and from Chertsey, and from Milton (Middle- 



called Aldulf ; and placed monks there where before there 
was nothing. He then came to the king, and caused him to 
look at the writings which had before been found : and the 
king then answered and said : "I, Eadgar, grant and give to- 
day, before God and before the archbishop Dunstan, freedom 
to St. Peter's monastery, Medeshamstede, from king and from 
bishop ; and all the villages which are thereto adjacent, viz., 
Eastfield, and Dosthrop, and Eye, and Paston. And so I free 
it, that no bishop have any command there, besides the abbot 
of the monastery. And I give the ' town which is called 
Oundle, with all that is thereto adjacent, that is, that which is 
called the Eight Hundreds, and market, and toll, so freely, 
that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor shire-reeve have 
any command there, nor any one save the abbot only, and him 
whom he shall appoint thereto. And I give to Christ and St. 
Peter, and through the prayer of bishop Athelwold, these 
lands : that is, Barrow, Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, 
Castor, Eylesworth, Walton, Witrington, Eye, Thorp ; and 
one moneyer in Stamford. These lands and all the others that 
are adjacent to the monastery, these I declare 2 clear, that is, 
(with) 'saca' and 'socn,' 'toll* and 'team,' and ' infangenthef.' 
These rights and all others I declare clear to Christ and St. 
Peter. And I give the two parts of Witlesmere, with waters, 
and with weirs, and fens, and so, through Merelade, direct to 
the water that is called Nen, and so eastward to King's delf 
(Knut's dike). And I will that there be a market in the 
same town, and that there be none other betwixt Stamford 
and Huntingdon. And I will that the toll be given thus : 
first from Witlesmere all to the king's toll of Norman's Cross 
hundred, and then back again from Witlesmere, through 
Merelade, at once to the Nen; and so as the water runs to 
Crowland, and from Crowland to Muston, and from Muston to 



1 It would seem that when this document was made, the word tun 
had assumed its present signification of town. 

2 i.e. without restriction or burthen. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 95 

ton), and planted them with monks ; and he set abbot -ZEthel- 
gar for abbot to the New monastery, andOrdbriht to Chertsey, 
and Cyneward to Milton. 

An. DCCCC.LXV. In this year king Eadgar took 'JElfthryth 
for his queen ; she was the daughter of the aldorman Ordgar. 



King's delf, and to Witlesmere. And I will that all the im- 
munities, and all the remissions that my predecessors have 
given, stand. And (this) I write and confirm with the sign 
of Christ's rood." + 

Then answered Dunstan, the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
said : " I consent to all the things which are here given and 
said ; and all the things which thy predecessors and mine 
have conceded, those will I that they stand : and whosoever 
shall violate this, then give I him the curse of God, and of all 
saints, and of all ordained heads, and of myself, unless he 
come to repentance. And I give, in acknowledgment to St. 
Peter, my mass-mantle, and my stole, and my robe, for the 
service of Christ." " I, Oswald, archbishop of York, assent to 
all these words, by the holy rood on which Christ suffered." -J- 1 
" I, Athelwold bishop, bless all who hold this, and I excom- 
municate all who violate this, unless he come to repentance." 
Here were JElfstan bishop, Athulf bishop, and Escwi abbot, 
and Osgar abbot, and -^thelgar abbot, and .^Elfere aldorman, 
JEthelwine aldorman, Brihtnoth, Oslac aldorman, and many 
other great men : and all assented to it, and all signed it with 
Christ's cross. + This was done after the birth of our Lord 
DCCCC.LXXII., the king's sixteenth year. 

Then the abbot Aldulf bought much and many lands, and 
then largely endowed the monastery with all : and he was 
there so long as until the archbishop Oswald of York was 
dead, and then he was chosen for archbishop. And then forth- 
with another abbot was chosen of the same monastery, who 
was called Kenulf, who was afterwards bishop of Winchester. 
And he first made the walls about the monastery; then gave it 
for name * Burch ' (Borough), that was before called Medes- 
hamstede. He was there so long as until he was appointed 
bishop of Winchester. Then another abbot was chosen of the 



1 The Elfrida of the Latin chroniclers. 



96 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 

An. DCCCC.LXVI. In this year Thored Gunnar's son harried 
Westmoreland. And in the same year Oslac obtained an 
aldordom. 

An. DCCCC.LXVII. 

An. DCCCC.LXVIII. In this year king Eadgar commanded all 
Thanet-land to be ravaged. 

An. DCCCC.LXIX., DCCCC.LXX. 

An. DCCCC.LXXI. In this year died archbishop Oskytel : he 
was first hallowed suffragan bishop of Dorchester, and after- 
wards, by favour of king Eadred and all his ' witan/ he was 
hallowed archbishop of York ; and he was twenty-two winters 
204. bishop, and he died on All- Hallows mass-night (Nov. 1st), ten 
nights before Martinmas, at Thame ; and abbot Thurkytel, his 
kinsman, conveyed the bishop's body to Bedford ; because he 
was then at that time abbot there. 

225. An. DCCCC.LXXII. (DCCCC.LXX.) In this year died Eadmund 

setheling, and his body lies at Rumsey. 

An. DCCCC.LXXIII. 

This year was Eadgar, hallow'd king, 

of Angles ruler, in the old town 

in a great assembly, Akemansceaster ; 



same monastery, who was called ^Elfsi. ^Elfsi was then abbot 
fifty winters from that time. He took up St. Kyneburh and 
St. Kyneswith, who lay at Castor, and St. Tibba, who lay at 
Ryhall, and brought them to Burch, and offered them all to St. 
Peter in one clay, and held it the while that he was there. 3 

An. DCCCC.LXXII. In this year Eadgar setheling was hallowed 
king, on the mass-day of Pentecost, on the vth of the Ides of 
May (May llth) in the thirteenth year that he succeeded to the 
kingdom, at the Hot-baths, (that is, at Bath) ; and he was then 
thirty years old, wanting one. And forthwith after that, the 
king led all his naval force to Chester ; and there came to meet 
him l six kings, and all swore fealty to him, that they would 
be his co-operators by sea and by land. b 

1 Eight, according to Florence, (A. 973), who gives their names; so also 
Malmesbury, Wendover, &c. 



* E., and a Latin copy in Cod. | b D. E. ~F. 
Diplom. in. p. 92. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



97 



also it the islanders, 

by another word, 

men, name Bath. 

There was great bliss, 

on that happy day, 

fall'n upon all, 

which children of men 

name and call 

Pentecost's day. 

There was of priests a throng, 

a great band of monks, 

as I have heard, 

of sages, gather'd ; 

and was then agone 

ten hundred winters, 

in number counted, 

from the birth-tide 

An. DCCCC.LXXIV. 

An. DCCCC.LXXV. 
Here ended 
the joys of earth 
Eadgar of Angles king, 
chose him another light, 
beauteous and winsome, 
and left this frail, 
this perishable, life. 
Children of people name, 
men on earth, 
the month everywhere 
in this land, 

those who erewhile were 
in the art of numbers 
rightly instructed, 
July month, 
when departed, 
on the eighth day, 



of the glorious King, 

light's Guardian, 

save that there yet remaining 

was of winter-number, 226. 

from what writings say, 

seven and twenty ; 

so nigh of the victor Lord was 

a thousand run out, 

when this befel ; 

and himself, Eadmund's 

offspring, had 

nine and twenty 

(stern against works of evil) 

years in the world, 

when this took place, 

and then, in the thirtieth, was 

sovereign hallow'd. 



the young Eadgar from life, 

1 ring-giver of men ; 

and then his child succeeded 

to the kingdom, 

a babe ungrown, 

prince of earls, 

whose name was Eadwcard. 

And a glorious man, 

ten nights before, 228. 

from Britain departed, 

the * bishop good * of Wells. 

through natural virtue, 

whose name was Cyneweard. 

Then was in Mercia, 

as I have heard, 

widely and everywhere, 

the Supreme Ruler's praise 



VOL. IT. 



See page 86, note 2 . 



98 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



227. 



laid low on earth ; 

many were driven away 

of God's sage servants : 

that was a great affliction, 

to him who in his breast bare 

a burning love 

of the Creator in his mind. 

Then the Source of marvels 

too greatly was despis'd, 

the Lord of victories, 

Ruler of the skies, 

when his right was violated ; 

and then was eke driven away 

the beloved hero 

Oslac from the land, 

over the billows' roll, 

over the gannet's bath, 

hoary -lock'd hero, 

wise and eloquent, 

over the waters' throng, 



o'er the whale's country, 

of home bereft. 

And then appear'd, 

up in the skies, 

a star in its station, 

which strong- soul'd 

men, sage-minded, 

widely call 

comet by name, 

men skill'd in arts, 

wise interpreters. 

Throughout mankind was 

the Ruler's vengeance 

widely proclaim'd, 

famine o'er the earth : 

that again heaven's guardian, 

Lord of angels, better'd, 

gave again bliss, 

to each isle-dweller 

through the fruits of earth. 



230. 



An. DCCCC.LXXV. The vmth of the Ides of July (July 



8th). 

This year died Eadgar, 
of Angles ruler, 
West Saxons' friend, 
and Mercians' protector. 
Widely was it known, 
through many nations, 
that Eadmund's offspring, 
over the gannet's bath, 
kings remote 



greatly honoured, 
to the king submitted, 
as to him was fitting. 
Was no fleet so insolent, 
no host so strong, 
that in the Angle race 
took from him aught, 
the while the noble king 
rul'd on the royal seat. a 



An. DCCCC.LXXV. In this year king Eadgar died, and 
Eadward his son succeeded to the kingdom. And in this 
same year, in autumn, the star cometa appeared ; and in the 



D. E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 99 

An. DCCCC.LXXVI. Here in this year was the great famine 
in England. 

An. DCCCC.LXXVII. Here was the great mote at Kyrt- 
lington, after Easter (April 8th) ; and there died bishop 
Sideman, by sudden death, on the und of the Kal. of May 
(April 30th). He was bishop of Devonshire, and he desired 
that his body's resting-place might be at Credit-on, at his 
episcopal see. Then commanded king Eadweard and arch- 
bishop Dunstan that he should be conveyed to St. Mary's 
monastery that is at Abingdon, and so it was also done ; and 
he is also honourably buried on the north side, in St. Paul's 
porch. 1 

An. DCCCC.LXXVIII. In this year all the chief 'witan' of 231 
the Angle race fell at Calne from an 2 upper floor, except the 
holy archbishop Dunstan, who alone was stayed upon a beam ; 
and some there were sorely maimed, and some did not escape 
with life. 



following year came a very great famine, and very many 229. 

troubles over the Angle race.* And .ZElfhere commanded 

the monasteries to be demolished, which king Eadgar had 

before commanded the holy bishop JEthelwold to found. 

And at that time also was Oslac the great earl expelled from 

England. 1 * 

In his days, whom Eadgar king ere order'd 

for his youth, the holy bishop 

God's adversaries ^Ethelwold to establish. 

God's law brake ; And widows plunder'd, 

JElfhere aldorman, oft and frequently, 

and others many, and many wrongs, 

and monkish rule obstructed, and evil, lawless deeds, 

and monasteries destroy'd, afterwards arose : 

and monks expel'd, and ever afterwards 

and God's servants persecuted, it greatly grew in evil.* 



1 Here ends MS. Cott. Tiber. I 2 " de solario corruerunt." Flor. 
A. vi. I Wigorn. 



D. E. " D. E. F. 



100 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

232, 233. An. DCCCC.LXXVIII. (DCCCC.LXXix.) In this year king 
Eadweard was slain [martyred], and JEthetred aetheling, his 
brother, succeeded to the kingdom ; and in the same year he 
was hallowed king. In that year died bishop Alfwold, who 
siiovborne. was bishop of * Dorset, and his body lies in the monastery at 
Sherborne. 

An. DCCCC.LXXIX. In this year king Eadweard was slain 
at eventide, at Corfe-gate, on the xvth of the Kal. of April 
(Mar. 18th), and then was buried at Wareham, without any 
kingly honour. To the Angle race was no worse deed done 
than this was, since they first sought Britain. Men murdered 
him, but God him glorified. He was in life an earthly king ; 
he is now, after death, a heavenly saint. Him his earthly 
kinsmen would not avenge, but his heavenly Father has amply 
avenged him. The earthly murderers would his memory blot 
out on earth ; but the Avenger above has spread abroad his 
memory in the heavens and on earth. They who before 
234, 235. would not to his living body bow, now humbly bend on their 
knees to his dead bones. Now may we understand, that men's 
wisdom, and their machinations, and their counsels, are like 
naught against God's decree. Then ^Ethelred succeeded to 
the kingdom ; and he was after that, very quickly, with great 
joy of the ' witan ' of the Angle race, hallowed king at 
Kingston.* 

Then were past from the birth of Christ four hundred and 
ninety-four winters, when Cerdic and Cynric his son arrived 
at Ccrdices ora with five ships ; and Cerdic was son of Elesa, 
Elesa of Esla, Esla of Giwis, Giwis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, 
Freawine of Freothogar, Freothogar of Brand, Brand of 
Baeldseg, Baeldseg of Woden. And six years after their arrival, 
they subdued the West Saxons' land ; and they were the first 
kings that took the West Saxons' land from the Welsh ; and 
he had the kingdom sixteen winters. Then he departed, and 
his son Cynric succeeded to the kingdom, and held it twenty- 
six winters. When he departed, Ceawlin his son succeeded, 
and held it seventeen years. When he departed, Ceol suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom, and held it five years. When he 

a D. E. F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 101 

An. DCCCC.LXXIX. Iii this year JEthelred was hallowed 
king at Kingston, on the Sunday, fourteen nights after Easter 
(Mar. 28th); and there were at his hallowing two archbishops, 
and ten suffragan bishops. In the same year was seen often- 
times a bloody cloud, in likeness of fire ; and that was most 
apparent at midnight ; and was coloured in various rays. 
Then when it was about to dawn, it glided away. 



departed, Ceolwulf his brother succeeded, and reigned seven- 
teen years ; and their kin goes to Cerdic. Then Cynegils, 
Ceolwulf's brother's son, succeeded to the kingdom, and 
reigned twenty winters ; and he first of the West Saxons' 
kings received baptism. And then Cenwalh succeeded, and 
held it thirty-one winters. Cenwalh was son of Cynegils. 
And then queen Sexburh held the kingdom one year after 
him. Then ^Escwiue succeeded to the kingdom, whose kin 
goes to Cerdic, and held it two years. Then Centwine son of 
Cynegils succeeded to the West Saxons' kingdom, and reigned 
nine years. Then Ceadwalla succeeded to the kingdom, 
whose kin goes to Cerdic, and held it three years. Then Ine 
succeeded to the West Saxons' kingdom, whose kin goes to 
Cerdic, and held it thirty-seven winters. Then ./Ethclheard 
succeeded, whose kin goes to Cerdic, and held it sixteen 
years. Then Cuthred succeeded, whose kin goes to Cerdic, 
and held it seventeen winters. Then Sigebriht succeeded, 
whose kin goes to Cerdic, and held it one year. Then Cyne- 
wulf succeeded, whose kin goes to Cerdic, and held it thirty- 
one winters. Then Brihtric succeeded to the kingdom, whose 
kin goes to Cerdic, and held it sixteen years. Then Ecgbriht 
succeeded to the kingdom, and held it thirty-seven winters 
and seven months. Then JEthehvulf his son succeeded, and 
held it eighteen years and a half. ^Ethelwulf was son of 
Ecgbriht, Ecgbriht of Ealhmund, Ealhmund of Eafa, Eafa of 
Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred. And Ine [was] 
son of Cenred, and Cuthburh and Cvrenburh [were] daughters 
of Cenred. Cenred [was] son of Ceohvald, Ceolwald of Cuth- 
wulf, Cuthwulf of CutliAvine, Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of 
Cynric, Cyuric of Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic. And then 
^Ethelbald his son succeeded, and held it five years. Then 
yEthelbriht his brother succeeded, and held it five years, 



102 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* of the New 
Monastery. 



An. DCCCC.LXXX. In this year * abbot JEthelgar was hal- 
lowed bishop, on the vith of the Nones of May (May 2nd), of 
the episcopal see of Selsey. And in the same year South- 
ampton was ravaged by a naval force, and most of the towns- 
folk slain or captured. And in the same year Thanet-land 
was ravaged. And in the same year Cheshire was ravaged 
by a North naval force. In this year St. Dunstan and the 
aldorman Alfhere fetched the body of the holy king St. 
Eadweard from Wareham, and conveyed it with great honour 
to Shaftesbury. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXI. In this year was Padstow ravaged ; and 
in the same year great harm was done everywhere by the 
sea-coast, both in Devonshire and in Wales. And in the 
same year died 'JElfstan, bishop of Wiltshire, and his body 
lies in the monastery at Abingdon ; and Wulfgar then suc- 
* of St. Peter's, ceeded to the bishopric. And in the same year died * abbot 
Womser at Ghent. 



[Then JEthered his brother succeeded to the kingdom and 
held it five years.] Then JElfred their brother succeeded to 
[the kingdom ; and then had passed three -and- twenty winters 
of his age, and three hundred and ninety-six winters from 
the time that his kin first subdued the West Saxons' land in 
Britain ;] and held it a year and a half less than thirty 
winters. Then succeeded Eadweard son of JElfred, and held 
it thirty-four years. When he departed, ^Ethelstan his son 
succeeded, and held it fourteen years, and seven weeks, and 
three days. Then Eadmund his brother succeeded, and held 
it six years and a half, less two nights. Then Eadred his 
brother succeeded, and held it nine years and six weeks. 
Then Eadwig, son of king Eadmund, succeeded, and held it 
three years and thirty-six weeks, less two days. When he 
departed, his brother Eadgar succeeded, and held it sixteen 
years, and eight weeks, and two nights. When he departed, 
Eadweard, Eadgar's son, succeeded, and held * * * * a 



1 See Flor. Wigorn. i. p. 147, note. 



MS. Cott. Tiber. A. m. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



103 



An. DCCCC.LXXXII. In this year arrived in Dorsetshire three 
ships of vikings, and ravaged in Portland. In the same year 236, 237, 
London was burnt ; and in the same year died two aldormen, 
JEthelmser in Hampshire, and Eadwine in Sussex ; and 
JEthelmser's body lies in the New Monastery at Winchester, 
and Eadwine's in the monastery at Abingdon. In the same 
year died two abbesses in Dorsetshire, Herelufu at Shaftes- 
bury, and Wulfwin at Wareham, And in the same year Otho, 
emperor of the Romans, went to Greece ; and then met he a 
great army of the Saracens coming up from the sea, and 
would go on a plundering expedition upon the Christian folk. 
And then the emperor fought against them, and there was a 
great slaughter made on each side, and the emperor had 
possession of the place of carnage ; and nevertheless he was 
greatly exhausted before he departed thence ; and as he 
homeward went, his brother's son died, who was called Otho j 
and he was son of Liudolf the a3theling ; and Liudolf was son 
of the old Otho and of the daughter of king * Eadweard. * the Elder. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXIII. In this year died ^Elfhere aldorman, 
and ^Elfric succeeded to the same * aldormanship. And pope "ofMercia. 
Benedict died. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXIV. In this year died ^Ethelwold, the 
benevolent bishop of Winchester, father of monks, on the 
Kal. of August (Aug. 1st) ; and the hallowing of the following 
bishop, -ZElfheah, who by another name was called Godwine, 
was on the xiinth of the Kal. of November (Oct. 19th) ; and 
he took possession of the episcopal chair at Winchester, on 
the mass-day of the two apostles Simon and Jude. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXV. In this year JElfric aldorman was driven 
from the country. And in the same year Eadwine was 238 239 - 
hallowed abbot of the monastery at Abingdon. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXVI. In this year the king laid waste the 
bishopric of Rochester. In this year first came the great 
murrain among the cattle into England. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXVII. 

An. DCCCC.LXXXVIII. In this year Watchet was ravaged, 
and Goda, the Devonshire thane, slain, and with him great 
slaughter made. And in this year died the holy archbishop 
Dunstan, and passed to the heavenly life ; and after him 
* bishop JEthelgar succeeded to the archiepiscopal chair ; and * of Selsey. 
little while afterwards lived, only one year and three months. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DC \ X. 

An.: In this year Sigeric was hallowed *archbishop. 

and afterw ;t to Koine after his pall. And * abbot 

Eadwine died, and abbot Wulfgar succeeded to the dignity. 

An, DOCCV.xci. In this year Ipswich was sacked ; and very 
speedily after that, the nldorman Brihtnoth was slain at 
Maldon. And in that year it was first decreed that tribute 
should be paid to the Danish men, on account of the great 
terror which they caused by the sea-coast: that was at iirst 
ten thousand pounds. That counsel first advised archbishop 
Sigeric. 

An. DCCCC.xcii. In this year the holy * archbishop Oswald 
left this, and passed to the heavenly, life ; and the aldorman 
JEthelwine died in the same year. Then the king and all 
his 'witan' decreed, that all the ships that were of any worth 
should be gathered at London. And the king then committed 
the leading of the force to the aldorman JElfric and to the 
earl Thored. to * bishop ./Elfstan, and to + bishop xEscwig ; 
and they -were to try whether they might anywhere abroad 
WO, 241. entrap the army. Then sent the aldorman JElfric, and bade 
the army take warning ; and then in the night when they 
should have encountered in the day, he departed by night 
from the force, to his great disgrace ; and the army then 
escaped, except one ship, the crew of which was there slain. 
And then the army met the -hips from East Anglia, and from 
London, and they there made a great slaughter, and took the 
ship, all armed and equipped, in which the aldorman had been. 



An. DCCCC.XCII. In this year died the blessed archbishop 
Oswald, and 'abbot Eadulf succeeded to York and to AVoi - 
oester. And in this year the king and all his ' witan ' decreed 
that all the ships which were of any worth should be gathered 
at London, in order that it might be tried whether they might 
anywhere without entrap the army. But the aldorman 
-3lfric, one of those in whom the king had the greatest trust. 
bade the army take warning, and in the night, when on the 
morrow they should have engaged, the self-same ^Elfric fled 
from the force, and the army then escaped.* 



THE AXGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



105 



And then, after the death of archbishop Oswald, abbot Ealdolf 
of Peterborough succeeded to the see of York, and to that 

rcester ; and Kenulf to the abbacy at Peterborough. 
An. Dcccc.xcin. In this year Bamboroagh was stormed, 
and a great booty there taken. And after that the army cane 
to the month of the Homber, and there wrought great eviL 
both in Lindsey and in Xorthumbria. Then a very great force 
was gathered ; and when they should hare engaged, then 
leaders the first took to flight : they were Fraena, and God- 
and Frythegyst. In this year the king commanded 
r, son of the aldonnan JEifric, to be blinded. 
An. DCCCC.XCIV. In this year came * CHaf (Anlaf) and 
- in to London, on the Nativity of St. Mary (Sept. 8th), 
with ninety-four ships, and then they were obstinately fighting 
against the town, and would also have set it on fire. But 
they there sustained more harm and evil than they ever 
weened that any townsmen could do to them. For the holy 
mother of God, on that day, manifested her mercy to the 
townsmen, and delivered them from their foes. Ajid they 
then went thence, and wrought the greatest evil that ever 
any army could do, in burning, and harrying, and in man- 
slayings, as well by the sea-coast, as in Essex, and in Kent, 



An. DCCCC.XCIII. * In this year came * Olaf with nil 
three ships to Siaines, and harried without it ; and then went 
thence to Sandwich, and so thence to Ipswich, and ravaged 
all over it ; and so to Maiden ; and the aldonnan Brihtnoth 
came against him with his force, and fought against him ; 
and they there slew the aldonnan, and had possession of the 
place of carnage. And after that, peace was made with him ; 
and the king afterwards received him at the bishop's hand, 
through the instruction of Sigeric, bishop of the Kentish 
people, and JElf heah of Winchester.* 



242,2 



1 Olaf Try ggrason, king of Nor- 
way. 



King of Denmark, 



* The exeats acre noticed belong 
to the years 991 and 994 of tfce 
text. RP. 



106 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



and in Sussex, and in Hampshire. And at last they took 
1 lie-in horses, and rode as far as they would, and were doing 
unspeakable evil. Then the king and his ' witan ' resolved 
that they should be sent to, and promised tribute and food, 
provided that they would cease from ravaging ; and they then 
accepted that. And all the army then came to Southampton, 
and there took winter-quarters ; and there they were fed 
from all the realm of the West Saxons, and they were paid 
sixteen thousand pounds of money, Then the king sent 
bishop -ZElfheah and the aldorman JEthelweard after king 
Olaf ; and the while hostages were given to the ships ; and 
they then led Olaf with great worship to the king at Andover. 
And king JEthelred received him at the bishop's hand, and 
royally gifted him. And Olaf then promised him, as he also 
fulfilled, that he would never again come with hostility to 
England. 

An. DCCCC.XCV. In this year appeared cometa the star ; and 
* of Canterbury. * archbishop Sigeric died ; and JElfric, bishop of Wiltshire, was 
chosen on Easter day (Apr. 21st) by king JEthelred and by all 
his ' witan.' This JElfric was a very wise man, so that there 
was no more sagacious man in England. Then went JElfric 
to his archiepiscopal see, and when he came thither, he was 
received by those men in orders, who of all were most dis- 
tasteful to him, that was, by clerks. 1 



* Canterbury, 

* Beda, i. 20. 



1 And forthwith he sent for all the wisest men that he any- 
where knew of, and in like manner, the old men, who were 
able to say the truest how everything was in this land in the 
days of their forefathers, besides what he himself had learned 
in books and from wise men. Very old men then told him, 
both ecclesiastical and lay, that their parents had told them 
how it had been by law established, soon after St. Augustine 
came to this land. " When Augustine had obtained the episco- 
pal see in the * town, then he was archbishop over all king 
.^Ethelberht's kingdom, as is read in * Historia Anglorum . . 

. . . make a see by the king's aid in was begun by 

the old Romans, and to sprout forth. In that company the 
foremost were Mellitus, Justus, Paulinus, Rufiauus. By these 
the blessed pope sent a pall, and therewith a letter, and direc- 
-ion how he should hallow a bishop, and in which places in 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 107 

An. DCCCC.XCVI. Iii this year ^Clfric was hallowed arch- 244, 245. 
bishop at Christchurch. In this year Wulfstan was ordained 
bishop of London. 

An. DCCCC.XCVII. In this year the army went about Devon- 246, 247. 
shire into the mouth of the Severn, and there harried, as well 
in Cornwall as in North Wales and in Devonshire ; and then 
landed at Watchet, and there wrought great evil in burning 
and in man-slayings ; and after that returned round the Laud's 
End, on the south side, and wended into the mouth of the 
Tamar, and then went up until they came to Lidford, and 
burnt and slew everything they found ; and burned Ordulf's 
monastery at Tavistock, and brought unspeakable booty with 
them to their ships. In this year archbishop ^Elfric went to 
Rome after his arch-pall. 



Britain he should set them. And to the king ... he sent 
letters and may temporal gifts of various things. And the 
churches which they had prepared he ordered to be hallowed 
in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and St. Mary ; and for 
himself and all his after-followers he should there fix a 
dwelling-place ; and that he should place therein men of the 
same order that he had sent to the land thither, and of which 
he himself was ; and also that each man of monk- 
ish order who should occupy the archiepiscopal chair at 
Canterbury ; and that should be ever observed by God's leave 
and blessing, and by St. Peter's, and by all theirs who come after 
him. When this deputation came again to king JEthelberht 
and to Augustine, they were very joyful through such indica- 
tion. And the archbishop then hallowed the monastery in the 
name of Christ and St. Mary, on the day which is called the 
mass-day of the two martyrs, Primus and Felicianus ( Juu. 9th), 
and therein placed monks, all as St. Gregory commanded. 
And they performed God's service purely j and from the same 

monks were taken bishops for every as thou 

mayest read in * Historia Anglorum." Then was archbishop * Beda, n. 3. 
JElfric very joyful that he had so many witnesses who stood 
best at that time with the king. Besides, the same ' witan,' 

who were with the archbishop, said : " Thus also we 

have continued monks at Christ-church, in Augustine's day, 
and in Laurentius', Mellitus', Justus', Honorius', Deusdedit's, 



108 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. DCCCC.XCVIII. In this year the army again wended east- 
ward into the mouth of the Frome, and everywhere there 
went up as far as they would into Dorsetshire. And a great 
force was often gathered against them ; but as soon as they 
should come together, then was there ever, through something, 
flight determined on ; and in the end they ever had the victory. 
And then another while they quartered themselves in Wight, 
248, 249. }inc i provisioned themselves the while from Hampshire and 
from Sussex. 



Theodore's, Briht wold's, Tatwine's, Nothelm's, Cuthberht's, 
Bregwine's, lanberht's, .... .ZEthelheard's, Wulfred's, Felo- 
gild's. But the (first) year, when Ceolnoth came to the arch- 
bishopric, there was such a mortality, that in Christchurch 
there remained but five monks. In all his time there was 
strife and sorrow in this land, so that no man could think 

about anything but Now, thanks to God, it is in this 

king's power, and in thine, whether they may longer be there 
within ; because they might never better be brought thereout 
than they may now be, if it be the king's will and thine." The 
archbishop then, without any letting, went with these men 
anon to the king, and made known to him all as we have here 
before told. Then was the king very joyful at this tiding, 
and said to the archbishop and to the others : " It seems to 
me advisable that thou first of all things shouldst go to Rome 
after thy [pall, and] that thou make known all this to the 
pope ; and afterwards proceed by his counsel." And they 
all answered, that that was the best counsel. When (the 
clerks) heard this, they advised that they should take two 
from themselves and send to the pope, and should offer him 
great treasure and silver, on condition that he should give 
them the arch-pall. But when they came to Rome,, the pope 
would not do that, because they had brought no letter, either 
from the king or from the people, and commanded them to go 
where they would. As (soon) as the clerks had gone thence, 
came the archbishop ^Elfric to Rome, and the pope received 
him with great worship, and commanded him on the morrow 
to celebrate mass at St. Peter's altar ; and the pope himself 
put on him his own pall, and greatly honoured him. When 
this was done, the archbishop began to tell the pope all about 
the clerks, how it had fared, and how they were within the 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 109 

An. DCCCC.XCIX. In this year the army again came about 
into the Thames, and then went up along the Medway, and to 
Rochester. And then the Kentish force came against them, 
and they stoutly engaged together, but alas ! that they too 
quickly gave way and fled ; because they had not the support 
which they should have had. And the Danish had possession 
of the place of carnage ; and then took horses and rode 
whithersoever they themselves would, and ruined and plun- 
dered almost all the West Kentish. Then the king with his 
* witan ' resolved that they should be opposed with a naval 
force, and also with a land force. But when the ships were 
ready, then they delayed from day to day, and harassed the 
poor people who lay in the ships ; and ever as it should be 
forwarder, so was it later, from one time to another ; and ever 
they let their foes' army increase, and ever they receded from 
the sea, and ever they went forth after them. And then in the 
end neither the naval force nor the land force was productive 
of anything but the people's distress, and a waste of money, 
and the emboldening of their foes. 



monastery at his archbishopric. And the pope in return re- 
lated to him how the priests had come to him, and offered 
great treasure, on condition that he would give them the pall. 
u But," said the pope, " go now to England again, with God's 
blessing, and St. Peter's, and mine, and when thou comest 
home, put into thy monastery men of that order which the 
blessed Gregory commanded Augustine therein to place, by 
God's command, and St. Peter's, and mine." The archbishop 
then with this returned to England. As soon as he came 
home, he occupied his archiepiscopal chair, and afterwards 
went to the (king) : and the king and all his people thanked 
God for his return, and that he had so succeeded as was most 
pleasing to all. He then went again to Canterbury, and drove 
the clerks out of the monastery, and therein placed monks, all 
as the pope had commanded him. a 1 

1 For the Latin of the foregoing, see vol. i. p. 245. 



F. 



110 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 

An. M. In this year the king went to Cumberland, and 

ravaged it very nigh all. And his ships went out about 

Chester, and should have come to meet him, but they could 

not : they then ravaged Man. And the hostile fleet was this 

Normandy. summer gone to * Richard's dominions. 

An. M.I. In this year the army came to the mouth of the 
Ex, and then went up to the town, and were there stoutly 
250,251. lighting; but they were very firmly and boldly withstood. 
They then went over the land, and did as was their wont, 
slew and burned. Then was collected an immense force of 
the Devonshire people, and of the Somersetshire people ; and 
they then came together at Penhoe. And as soon as they 
came together the people gave ground ; and they there 
made great slaughter, and then rode over the land : and 
ever was their last incursion worse than the preceding ; and 
they then brought great booty with them to their ships. 
And thence they went to Wight, and there went about as they 
themselves would; and nothing withstood them; nor durst 
approach them a naval force by sea, nor a land force, went 
they ever so far up. It was then in every wise sad, because 
they never ceased from their evil. 1 



1 An. M.I. In this year there was much hostility in the land 
of the Angle race through the naval force, and everywhere 
they harried and burned, so that in one course they went for- 
ward until they came to .^Ethelinga dene (Alton ?) ; and then 
came there against them the men of Hampshire, and fought 
against them. And there were ^Ethelweard the king's high 
reeve slain, and Leofric of Whitchurch, and Leofwine the 
king's high reeve, and Wulfhere the bishop's thane, and G-od- 
wine of Worthy, bishop JElfsige's son, and of all the men one 
and eighty ; and of the Danish many more were slain, though 
they had possession of the place of carnage. And then they 
went thence west until they came to Devonshire, and there 
came Pallig to meet them with the ships that he could 
gather ; because he had fled from king ^Ethelred, against all 
the assurances which he had given him : and the king had 
also well gifted him with vills, and with gold and silver. And 
they burned Teignton, and also many other good vills which 
we cannot name ; and peace was afterwards there made with 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Ill 



252, 253. 



An. M.II. In this year the king and his ' witan ' resolved 
that tribute should be paid to the fleet, and peace made with 
them, on condition that they should cease from their evil. 
Then the king sent the aldorman Leofsige to the fleet, and he, 
according to the word of the king and his * witan,' settled a 
peace with them, and that they should receive food and 
tribute. And that they then accepted, and were then paid 
twenty-four thousand pounds. Then in the meanwhile the 
aldorman Leofsige slew ^Efic the king's high reeve, and the 
king banished him from the country. And then in the same 
autumn came the lady, *Kichard's daughter, Emma ^Elfgifu, * i l ( l 1 1 \ t of Nor- 
hither to land ; and in the same summer * archbishop Ealdulf * O f York. 
died. And in that year the king commanded all the Danish 
men who were in England to be slain. This was done on the 
mass-day of St. Bricius ; because it had been made known 
to the king, that they would plot against his life, and after- 
wards those of all his ' witan ;' and then have his realm 
without any gainsaying. 

An. M.III. In this year Exeter was taken by storm, through 
the French * count Hugo, whom the * lady had appointed her * comes, Fl. 
reeve ; and the army then totally ruined the town, and took 
great booty there. And in the same year the army went up 
into Wiltshire. Then was gathered a very large force from 



them. And then they went thence to the mouth of the Ex, 
so that they went up, in one course, until they came to 
Penhoe ; and there were Kola the king's high reeve, and 
Eadsige the king's reeve, opposed to them with the force 
which they could gather : and they were there put to flight, 
and many were there slain, and the Danish had possession of 
the place of carnage. And the morning they burned the vill 
at Penhoe and at Clist, and also many good vills which we 
cannot name ; and then went again eastward, until they came 
to Wight ; and the morning after, they burned the vill at 
Waltham, and many other hamlets ; and soon after this they 
were treated with and made peace. a 



A. W. 



112 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Wiltshire and from Hampshire, and very unanimously marched 
towards the army. Then should the aldorman ^Elfric have 
led the force ; but he drew forth his old artifices ; as soon as 
they were so near that one army could look on the other, he 
feigned himself sick, and began retching to vomit, and said 
that he was sick, and so turned back (deceived) the people 
that he should have led ; as it is said : When the leader is 
faint-hearted, there will all the army be greatly hindered.' 
When Svein saw that they were not unanimous, and that they 
all dispersed themselves, he led his army to Wilton, and they 
plundered and burned the town ; and he went thence to 
Sarum, and thence again went to the sea, where he knew his 
waye-Jijca^es were. 

/ An. M.IVJ In this year Svein came with his fleet to Nor- 
wich, and plundered and burned all that town. Then Ulfkytcl 
with the * witan ' of East Anglia resolved, that it were better 
that peace should be purchased of the army, before they did 
over much harm in the country ; because they had come 
unawares, and he had not had time that he might gather his 
force. Then during the peace which should have been 
between them, the army stole up from their ships, and wended 
their way to Thetford. When Ulfkytel perceived that, he 
sent to have the ships hewn in pieces ; but they whom he 
trusted in failed him, and he then secretly gathered his force, 
as he best might. And the army then came to Thetford 
within three weeks from the time of their having before plun- 
dered Norwich, stfift. were one night there within, and plun- 
dered and burned the town. And then in the morning, when 
they would go to their ships, came Ulfkytel with his army, 
that they might there engage together ; and they there 
together stoutly engaged, and a great slaughter was made on 
each side. There were the chief of the East Angles' folk 
slain ; but if the full power had been there, they would never 
again have gone to their ships ; as they themselves said, that 
they never met with a worse hand-play in England than Ulf- 
kytel had brought them. 

An. M.V. In this year was the great famine throughout 
England, such that no man ever before remembered one so 
destructive. And the fleet went this year from this country 
to Denmark, and let be but a little space until it came again. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



113 



An. M.VI. In this year died *archbishop ^Elfric, and after * of Canterbury. 
him .^Elfheah succeeded to the archbishopric, and bishop 
Brihtwold succeeded to the *bishopric of Wiltshire. And in * Shcrborne. 
the same year from Wulfgeat was all his property taken ; and 
Wulfeah and Ufegeat were blinded, and the aldorman ^Ifelm 255, 257. 
was slain ; and * bishop Kenulf died. And then after Mid- * O f winton. 
summer came the great fleet to Sandwich, and did all as was 
before their wont, harried, and burned, and slew as they went. 
Then the king commanded all the population of Wessex and of 
Mercia to be called out ; and they then lay all the autumn in 
readiness against the army ; but it came to naught more than 
it had often done before. But for all this the army went as 
itself would ; and the armament did every harm to the country 
people ; so that neither did good to them, neither the in-army 
nor the out-army. When winter drew nigh, the force went 
home, and the army then came after St. Martin's mass 
(Nov. llth) to their asylum in Wiht, and procured everywhere 
there what they required. And then at Midwinter they went 
to their ready quarters, out through Hampshire into Berkshire 
to Reading : and they did according to their old wont, kindled 
their war-beacons as they went. They then went to Wal- 
lingford, and burned it all down ; and were then one night at 
Cholsey, and then went along Ashdown to Cwichelms hlcew 
(Cuckamsley hill), and there tarried out of threatening 
vaunt, because it had often been said, if they came to Cwic- 
helms hloew, they would never go to the sea. They then went 
home by another way. A force was then assembled at Kennet, 
and they there engaged together, and they soon brought that 
army to flight, and then conveyed their booty to the sea. But 
there might the people of Winchester see an insolent and 
fearless army, as they went by their gate to the sea, and 
fetched them food and treasures over fifty miles from the sea. 
The king had then gone over the Thames into Shropshire, and 
there taken his abode in the Midwinter's tide. Then was 258,259. 
there so great awe of the army, that no one could think or 
devise how they should be driven from the country, or this 



An. M.VI. In this year JElfheah was hallowed archbishop. a 



VOL. II. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

country held against them ; because they had cruelly marked 
every shire in Wessex with burning and with harrying. The 
king then began with his 'witan' earnestly to consider what 
might seem most advisable to them all, so that this country 
might be protected, ere it was totally fordone. The king then 
and his 'witan' decreed, for the behoof of all the nation, 
although it was hateful to them all, that they must of necessity 
pay tribute to the army. Then the king sent to the army, 
and commanded it to be made known to them, that he desired 
that there should be peace between them, and that tribute 
should be paid, and food given them. And they then accepted 
all that ; and then they were provisioned from throughout the 
English nation. 

An. M.VII. In this year the tribute was paid to the army : 
that was six and thirty thousand pounds. In this year also 
was Eadric set as aldorman over the Mercians' kingdom. In 
this year bishop ^Elfeah went to Rome after his pall. 

An. M.VIII. In this year the king commanded that ships 
should be strenuously built over all England : that is to wit, 
from three hundred and ten hides one 'long ship; and from 
eight hides, a helmet and corselet. 

An. M.IX. In this year the ships, about which we before 
spoke, were ready ; and there were so many of them as never 
before, from what books tell us, had been in England in any 
king's day. And they were all brought together at Sandwich, 
and were there to lie and hold this country against every 
foreign army. But we had not yet the happiness nor the 
honour, that the naval force should be useful to this country, 
more than it had often before been. It befel then, at this 
same time, or a little before, that Brihtric, the aldorman 
Eadric's brother, accused Wulfnoth child, the South Saxon, 
father of earl Godwine, to the king ; and he (Wulfnoth) then 
went out, and enticed ships to him, until he had twenty ; and 
he then ravaged everywhere by the south coast, and wrought 
every kind of evil. Then it was made known to the naval 
force, that they might easily be surrounded, if they would go 
about it. Then Brihtric took to him eighty ships, and 



1 ScegS. (O.N. skeift), " navigii longioris quoddam genus velocis vete- 
" rum." Bj. Haldorsen, Lex. Isl. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 115 

thought that he should make himself much talked of, that 

he should get Wulfnoth alive or dead. But as they were 

thitherward, such a wind came against them as no man before 

remembered, and beat and thrashed all the ships to pieces, 

and cast them upon the land ; and immediately came Wulfnoth 

and burned the ships. When this was thus known to the 

other ships where the king was, how the others had fared, it 

was as if all counsel was at an end, and the king, and the 

aldormen, and the high < witan ' went home, and thus lightly 

left the ships ; and the people then that were in the ships 

brought the ships again to London ; and they let the toil of 

all the nation thus lightly perish ; nor was the victory better, 

for which all the Angle race had hoped. When this naval 

force had thus ended, then soon after Lammas (Aug. 1st) 

came the immense hostile army, which we have called 

ThorkelPs army, to Sandwich, and soon went their way to 

Canterbury, and would soon have subdued the town, if they 

the more speedily had not craved peace of them. And all the 

East Kentish made peace with the army, and gave them three 

thousand pounds. And then, soon after that, the army went 

until it came to Wight ; and thence everywhere in Sussex, 262, 263. 

and in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, harried and burned, 

as is their wont. Then the king commanded all the nation to 

be called out, that they might be resisted on every side ; but 

lo ! they went, nevertheless, how they would. Then on one 

occasion the king had got before them with all his force, when 

they would go to their ships, and all the people were ready 

to attack them ; but it was then prevented through the 

aldorman Eadric, as it ever yet had been. Then, after St. 

Martin's mass (Nov. llth), they went again to Kent, and 

took them winter-quarters on the Thames, and sustained 

themselves from Essex, and from the shires which were there 

nearest, on both sides of the Thames. And they often fought 

against the town of London, but to God be praise that it yet 

stands sound ; and they there ever fared ill. And then, 

after Midwinter, they took an upward course, out through 

Chiltern, and so to Oxford, and burned that town, and then 

took their way, on both sides of the Thames, towards their 

ships. They were then warned that there was a force 

gathered against them at London ; they then went over at 

Staines ; and thus went all the winter, and that Lent they 

were in Kent, and repaired their ships. 

H 2 



116 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. M.X. In this year, after Easter (Apr. 9th), the before- 
mentioned army came to East Anglia, and landed at Ipswich, 
and went forthwith to where they understood Ulfkytel was 
with his force. This was on the day Prima Ascensio Domini 
(May 18th). And then the East Anglians immediately fled. 
Then Cambridgeshire stood firmly against them. There were 
slain ^Ethelstan, the king's son-in-law, and Oswig and his 
son, and Wulfric Leofwine's son, and Eadwig JEfic's brother, 
and many other good thanes, and people out of number. The 

264,265. flight first began Thurkytel Mare's-head. And the Danes 
had possession of the place of carnage, and were there horsed, 
and after that held sway over the East Angles, and for three 
months harried and burned, ay even into the wild fens they 
went, and there slew men and cattle, and burned throughout 
the fens ; and Thetford they burned, and Cambridge. And 
afterwards went again southward to the Thames ; and the 
horsed men rode towards the ships ; and then again quickly 
turned westward to Oxfordshire, and thence to Buckingham- 
shire, and so along the Ouse till they came to Bedford, and 
so forth as far as Tempsford, and ever burned as they went : 
went then again to their ships with their booty. And when 
they had gone to their ships, then should the force have 
again gone out to oppose them if they would land : then the 
force went home ; and when they were east, then was the 
force held west ; and when they were south, then was our 
force north. Then were all the 'witan' summoned to the 
king, and they should then advise how this country could be 
defended. But though something was then resolved, it stood 
not even for a month : at last there was not a chief man who 
would gather a force, but each fled as he best might ; nor 
even at last would any shire assist another. Then before 
St. Andrew's mass-day (Nov. 30th), the army came to 
Northampton, and speedily burned that town, and took there- 
about as much as they themselves would ; and thence went 
over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Canegan-mersc 
(All-Cannings ?), and burned all that. When they had gone as 
far as they would, they came at Midwinter to their ships. 

An. M.XI. In this year the king and his * witan ' sent to 
the army and desired peace, and promised them tribute and 
food, on condition that they would cease from their plundering. 

266,267. They had then overrun, 1st East Anglia, and 2ndly Essex, 
and 3rdly Middlesex, and 4thly Oxfordshire, and 5thly 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 117 

Cambridgeshire, and 6thly Hertfordshire, and Tthly Buck- 
inghamshire, and 8thly Bedfordshire, and 9thly half of 
Huntingdonshire, and lOthly much in Northamptonshire ; 
and south of the Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, 
and Surrey, and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much in 
Wiltshire. All these calamities befel us through evil counsels, 
that tribute was not offered them in time, or they were not 
fought against ; but when they had done the most evil, then 
a truce and peace were made with them. And, nevertheless, 
for all this, peace and tribute, they went everywhere in flocks, 
and harried our miserable people, and robbed and slew them. 
And then, in this year, between the Nativity of St. Mary 
(Sept. 8th) and St. Michael's mass (Sept. 29th), they besieged 
Canterbury and entered it, through treacherous wiles, for 
JElfmser betrayed it, whose life the archbishop JElfeah had 
before saved. And they there took the archbishop JElfeah, 
and .^Elfweard the king's reeve, and the *abbess Leofrun, and *of St.Mildred's. 
*bishop Grodwine. And the *abbot ^Elfma3r they let go away ; * of Rochester, 
and they took there within all the men in orders, and men tine's, 
and women. It was not to be told to any man how many 
people there were. And in the town they were after that 
as long as they would ; and when they had searched all the 
town, they went to their ships, and led the archbishop with 
them. 1 

Was then a captive where oft before 

he who was ere a head was seen bliss, 

of the Angle race, in that poor city, 268, 269. 

and of Christendom. whence to us came first 

There might then Christianity and bliss 

be misery seen, 'fore God and 'fore the world. 

And they had the archbishop with them as long as to the time 
when they martyred him. 

An. M.XII. In this year came the aldorman Eadric and all v 
the highest < witan,' ordained and lay, of the Angle race to 
London, before Easter ; then was Easter day on the date Ides 
of April (Apr. 13th) ; and then they were there so long after 
Easter as until all the tribute was paid ; that was eight and 
forty thousand pounds. TThen on the Saturday the army was 



1 Florence of Worcester (i. p. 164) gives a more circumstantial account 
of these atrocities. 



118 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* of Dorchester, 
t of London. 



270, 271, 



* of Wells. 



greatly excited against the bishop, because he would not pro- 
mise them any money, but forbade that anything should be 
given for him. They were also very drunken, for wine had 
been brought thither from the South. They then took the 
bishop, led him to their ' husting,' on the Sunday eve, the 
octaves of Easter, that was on the xmth of the Kal. of May 
(Apr. 19th) ; and there they then shamefully murdered him ; 
they pelted him with bones and with the heads of oxen ; and 
one of them then struck him on the head with an axe-iron, so 
that with the dint he sank down, and his holy blood fell on the 
earth, and his holy soul he sent forth to God's kingdom. And 
on the morrow the body was borne to London, and the bishops 
* Eadnoth and t^lfhun, and the townsfolk received it with all 
veneration, and buried it in St. Paul's monasteryj And there 
God l now manifests the holy martyr's miracles. When the 
tribute was paid, and peace-oaths were sworn, the army 
separated as widely as it had before been gathered. Then 
submitted to the king, from the army, five and forty ships, 
and promised him that they would defend this country ; and 
he was to feed and clothe them. 

An. M.XIII. In the year after that in which the archbishop 
^Ifeah was martyred, the king appointed * bishop Lyfing to 
the archiepiscopal chair of Canterbury. And in this same 
year, before the month of August, came king Svein with his 
fleet to Sandwich ; and went then very soon about East 
Anglia into the mouth of the Humber, and so upward along 
the Trent until he came to Gainsborough. And then straight- 
ways earl Uhtred and all the Northumbrians submitted to him, 
and all the people in Lindsey; and after that, the people in the 
Five burghs, and shortly afterwards, all the army north of 
Watling Street ; and hostages were given him from every 
shire. After he understood that all the people were submis- 
sive to him, he commanded that his army should be victualled 
and horsed ; and he then afterwards went southward with his 
full force, and committed the ships and the hostages to his son 
Cnut. And after he came over Watling Street, they wrought 
the greatest evil that any army could do. He then went to 
Oxford, and the townsmen immediately submitted and gave 



1 Hence it -would appear that this 
was written shortly after the event, 
as the archbishop's body -was in 



1023 removed from St. Paul's to 
Canterbury. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 119 

hostages ; and thence to Winchester, and they did the same. 
Then he went thence eastward to London, and many of his 
people were drowned in the Thames, 1 because they kept to no 
bridge. When he came to the city, the townsmen would not 
submit, but withstood with full war against him, because king 
.ZEthelred was therein, and Thorkell with him. Then went 
king Svein thence to Wallingford, and so over the Thames 
westward to Bath, and sat there with his fbrce. And thither 
came the *aldorman JEthelmaer, and the western thanes with * of Devon ' 
him, and they all submitted to Svein, and gave him hostages. 
When he had thus fared he went northward to his ships, and all 272 273 
the nation considered him then as full king. And after that 
the townsmen of London submitted and gave hostages ; for 
they dreaded that he would fordo them. Svein then com- 
manded a full contribution, and provisions for his army during 
the winter ; and Thorkell ordered the same for the army that 
lay at Greenwich ; and for all that, they harried as often as 
they would. Then nothing profited this people, neither from 
south nor north. Then was king JEthelred a while with the 
fleet which lay in the Thames ; and the *lady went over sea * Emma. 
to her brother Richard, and ^Elfsige, abbot of Peterborough, 
with her. And the king sent * bishop .ZElfhun with the * of London, 
sethelings Eadweard and ^Elfred over sea, that he might have 
care of them. And the king then went from the fleet at Mid- 
winter to Wight, and was there during that tide ; and after 
that tide he went over the sea to Richard, and was there with 
him until the time when Svein was dead. 2 



2 And while the lady was with her brother beyond sea, 
abbot JElfsige of Peterborough, who was there with her, went 
to the monastery which is called Bonneval, where St. Floren- 
tine's body lay. He there found a poor place, a poor abbot, 
and poor monks ; for they had been plundered. He then 
bought there of the abbot and of the monks St. Florentine's 
body, all but the head, for five hundred pounds ; and when he 
came back, he offered it to Christ and St. Peter. a 

1 " quja nunquam pontem neque vadum quserere voluerunt." Fl. Wigorn. 



120 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

V An. M.XIV. In this year king Svein ended his days at Can- 
dlemas, on the mrd of the Nones of February (Feb. 3rd). And 
in the same year ^Elfwig was ordained bishop of London at 
York, on St. Juliana's mass-day (Feb. 16th.) And then all the 
fleet chose Cnut for king. Then resolved all the * witan ' who 
were in England, ordained and lay, that king .ZEthelred should 
be sent after ; and said, that to them 110 lord was dearer than 
their natural lord, if he would govern them more justly than 
he did before. Then the king sent his son Eadweard hither 
with his messengers, and bade them greet all his people, and 
said, that he would be to them a kind lord, and amend all the 
things which they all eschewed, and all the things should be 

274 275. forgiven which had been done or said to him, on condition, 
that they all, unanimously without treachery, would turn to 
him. i And they then confirmed full friendship, with word and 
with pledge, on each side, and pronounced every Danish king 
an outlaw from England for ever. Then came king JEthelred, 
during Lent, home to his own people, and he was gladly 
received by all. Then after Svein was dead, Cnut sat with 
his army at Gainsborough until Easter (Apr. 17th) ; and it 
was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they 
should supply him with horses, and afterwards all should go 
together and harry. Then came king ^Ethelred thither to 
Lindsey, with a full force, before they were ready ; and they 
then harried, and burned, and slew all of human race whom 
they could reach. And Cnut went away out with his fleet, 
and the miserable people were thus deceived through him ; 
and he then went southward, until he came to Sandwich, and 
then caused the hostages that had been given to his father to 
be landed, and cut off their hands, and ears, and noses. And 
besides all these evils, the king commanded one and twenty 
thousand pounds to be paid to the army which lay at Green- 
wich. And in this year, on St. Michael's mass eve (Sept. 28), 
came the great sea-flood widely through this country, and ran 
so far up as it never before had done, and drowned many vills, 
and of mankind a countless number. 

An. M.XV. In this year was the great meeting at Oxford ; 
and there the aldorman Eadric insnared Sigeferth and Mor- 
kere, the chief thanes in the Seven Burghs. He enticed them 
into his chamber, and therein they were foully slain. And the 

276, 277. king then took all their possessions, and ordered Sigeferth's 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 121 

relict to be taken and brought to Malmesbury. Then after 
a little space, Eadmund cetheling went thither, and took the 
woman against the king's will, and had her for his wife. 
Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary (Sept. 8th), the aethel- 
ing went thence from the west, north to the Five Burghs, and 
immediately took possession of all Sigeferth's and Morkere's 
property, and all the folk submitted to him. And then, at the 
same time, king Cnut came to Sandwich, and then immediately 
went about Kent to Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the 
Frome, and then harried in Dorsetshire, and in Wiltshire, and 
in Somersetshire. Then lay the king sick at Coshani (Corsham). 
Then the aldorman Eadric gathered a force, and the astheling 
Eadmund one in the north. When they came together, the 
aldorman would deceive the aetheling, but he could not ; and 
then, on that account, they parted without a battle, and gave 
way to their foes. And the aldorman Eadric then enticed 
forty ships from the king, and then submitted to Cnut. And 
Wessex submitted, and gave hostages, and supplied the army 
with horses ; and it was there till Midwinter. 
v An. M.XVI. In this year Cnut came with his army, and the 
aldorman Eadric with him, over the Thames into Mercia at 
Cricklade. And then they went to Warwickshire, during the 
Midwinter's tide, and harried, and burned, and slew all that 
they came to. Then the astheling Eadmund began to gather 
a force. When the force was assembled, they were not con- 
tent with it, unless it were that the king should be with them, 
and they had the support of the citizens of London ; they 
withdrew then from the expedition, and each man went home. 
Then, after that *tide, a force was ordered, on pain of full * Midwinter, 
penalty, so that every man who was able to go should turn 
out : and they sent to the king at London, and prayed him 
that he would come to join the force with the aid that he 278, 279. 
might gather. When they all came together, it availed naught 
the more than it had often before done. Then it was made 
known to the king that they would be treacherous to him 
who should be a support to him. He then left the force and 
returned to London. 1 Then the setheling Eadmund rode to 
Northumbria to earl Uhtred, and every man imagined that 
they would collect a force against king Cnut. They then 
marched into Staffordshire, and into Shropshire, and to 
Chester ; and they harried on their part, and Cnut on his 



122 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

part. He went out through Buckinghamshire into Bedford- 
shire, and thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into North- 
amptonshire along the fens to Stamford, and then into 'Lin- 
colnshire ; then thence to Nottinghamshire, and so to North- 
umbria towards York. When Uhtred was apprized of this, 
he abandoned his harrying and hastened northwards, and 
then from necessity submitted, and all Northumbria with him ; 
and he gave hostages ; and, notwithstanding, they slew him, 
through the counsel of the aldorman Eadric, a,nd Thorkytel 
son of Nafena with him.) And then, after that, king Cnut 
appointed Eric as his earl in Northumbria, as Uhtred had 
been ; and afterwards went south, by another way, all to the 
west; and then all the army before Easter (Apr. 1st) came to 
their ships. And the oetheling Eadmund went to London to 
his father. And then, after Easter, king Cnut went with all his 
ships towards London. Then it befel that king JEthelred died 
before the ships came. He ended his days on St. George's 
mass-day (Apr. 23rd) : and he held his kingdom with great 
toil and difficulty, while his life lasted. And then, after his 
280,281. end, all the *witan' that were in London, and the townsmen, 
chose Eadmund for king ; and he boldly defended his king- 
dom while his time was. Then came the ships to Greenwich 
in the Rogation days (May 7th) ; and within a little space 
they went to London, and they then dug a great ditch on the 
south side, and dragged their ships to the west side of the 
bridge, and afterwards ditched the town without, so that no 
one could pass either in or out ; and they repeatedly fought 
against, the town, but they boldly withstood them. Then 
before that, king Eadmund had gone out ; and he rode ^^r 
Wessex, and all the folk submitted to him. And shortly 
after that, he fought against the army at Pen by Gillingham^ 
And a second battle he fought after Midsummer at Sherston 
(Sceorstan), and there was great slaughter made on each side, 
and the armies of themselves separated. In that battle the 
aldorman Eadric and JElmaer Dyrlingl gave aid to the army 
against king Eadmund. And then a third time he gathered a 
force and went to London, all north of the Thames, and so 
out through Clayhanger, and saved the townsmen, and drove 



1 Stamford was then included in Northamptonshire. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



123 



the army in flight to their ships. And then, two nights after, 
the king went over at Brentford, and then fought against the 
army, and put it to flight ; and there were drowned a great 
many of the English folk, by their own carelessness, those 
who went before the force, and would take booty. And after 
that, the king went into Wessex, and collected his force. 
Then the army went forthwith to London, and beset the city 
around, and obstinately fought against it, both by water and 
by land. But Almighty God saved it. 

The army then, after that, went from London with their 
ships into the Are we (Orwell), and there landed, and went 
into Mercia, and slew and burned whatever they overran, as 
is their wont; and provided themselves with food: and they 282,283. 
drove both their ships and their droves into the Medway. 
Then a fourth time king Eadmund collected all his force, and 
went over the Thames at Brentford, and went into Kent ; 
and the army fled before him, with their horses, to Shepey : 
and the king slew as many of them as he could overtake. 
1 And the aldorman Eadric then went to meet the king at 
Aylesford. Never was greater evil counsel counselled than 
that was. Vrhe army turned again up into Essex, and went 
into Mercia, and destroyed all that it passed over. When the 
king learned that the army was gone up, he, for the fifth time, 
assembled all the English nation, and went after them, and 
overtook them in Essex, at the hill which is called Assandun 
(Assingdon), and there they boldly engaged together. Then 
did the aldorman Eadric as he hacj, often before done ; first 
began the flight with the men of {Worcestershire and/Here- 
fordshire, and so betrayed his royal lord and all the people of 
Angle race. There Qnut had the victory, and won him all 
the English nation. VfThere were bishop *Eadnoth slain, and * of Dorchester, 
abbot Wulfsige, and the aldorman JElfric, and Godwine the 
aldorman of Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of East Anglia, and JEthel- 
weard son of the aldorman JEthelwin(& and all the flower of 
the Angle race was there destroyed. Then, after this battle, 



1 " Et nisi perfidus dux Edricus 
" Streona, suis insidiis et insiliis, 
" eum apud Eagelesford, ne suos 
" persequeretur hostes, retineret, 
" eo die plena potiretur victoria." 



Fl. Wigorn. " Sed cum perve- 
" nisset rex ad -^Egelesford, dux 
" Eadricus per dolum fecit exerci- 
turn Anglorum redire." F. Lat, 



124 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

king Cnut, with his army, went up into Gloucestershire, where 
he had learned that king Eadmund was. 

Then the aldorman Eadric and the ' witan ' who were there 
advised that there should be a reconciliation hatween the 
kings ; \_. an( i they gave hostages between themJ And the 
kings came together at Olneyf&y Deerhurs^ 'and there con- 
284, 285. firmed their friendship/ both with pledge anfl with oath ; and 
fixed the contribution for the army. And they then separated 
with this agreement : and Eadmund took to Wessex, and Cnut 
to Mercia. And the army then went to their ships with the 
things that they had taken. And the Londoners made a truce 
with the army, and bought themselves peace ; and the army 
brought their ships to London, and took them winter-quar- 
ters therein. Then, on St. Andrew's mass-day (Nov. 30th), 
king Eadmund died ; and his body lies at Glastonbury 
with his grandfather Eadgarft [And in the same year died 
Wulfgar, abbot of Abingdon ; and ^Ethelsige succeeded to the 
abbacy^] 

V An. M.XVII. In this year king Cnut succeeded to all the 
kingdom of the Angle racefand divided it into four : to him- 
self Wessex, and to ThorKell East Anglia, and to Eadric 
Mercia, and to Eric NortJiumbriaS And in this year the 
aldorman Eadric was slain0u London very rightly, and North- 
man son of Leofwine the aldorman, and ^Ethelweard son of 
JEthelmser *the Great, and Brihtric son of ^Elfeah in Devon- 
shire. And king Cnut drove out Eadwig the setheling, and 
afterward* commanded him to be slain, and Eadwig king of 
the churls/ And then before the Kal. of August (Aug. 1st), 
the king commanded the relict of king jEthelred, Richard's 
daughter^ to be fetched for him to wife ajthat was .ZElfgifu in 
English, Ymma in French} 

v An. M.XVIII. In this year the tribute was paid over all the 
Angle race : that was in all two and seventy thousand pounds, 
exclusive of what the townsmen of London paid, which was 



"and became fellows and sworn brothers, and confirmed it. a 
An. M.XVII. In this year Cnut was chosen king. b 

a r>. b A. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



125 



en and a half thousand pounds. And some of the army then 
went to Denmark, and forty ships remained with king Cnut. 286, 287 
And the Danes and the Angles were unanimous at Oxfor(fifor 
Eadgar's law. And in this year abbot JEthelsige died at 
Abingdon, and ^Ethelwine succeededj 

An. M.XIX. In this year king Cnut went with forty ships 
to Denmark, and there abode all the winter. 1 

An. M.XX. In this year died *archbishop Lyfmg : and king * of Canterbury. 
Cnut came again to England. And then at Easter (Apr. 17th) 
there was a great council at Cirencester, when the aldorman 
JEthelweard and Eadwig king of the churls were outlawed. 
And in this year the king went to Assingdon, 2 and * arch- * of York - 
bishop Wulfstan, and earl Thorkell, and many bishops and also 
abbots, and many monks with them, and hallowed the monastery 
at Assingdon. And JEthelnoth the monk, who was dean of 
* Christchurch, was in the same year, on the Ides of November * Canterbury. 
(Nov. 13th), hallowed bishop at Christchurch by archbishop 
Wulfstan. 

An. M.XXI. In this year, at Martinmas (Nov. llth), king 
Cnut outlawed earl Thorkell. And * bishop ^Elfgar the "ofEimham. 
alms-giver died on Christmas dawn. 

An. M.XXII. In this year king Cnut went out with his 
ships to Wight. And archbishop ^Ethelnoth went to Rome, 
and was there received by * Benedict, the venerable pope, * VIII. 
with great worship ; and he with his own hands, placed his 
pall upon him, and very honourably hallowed him archbishop, 
and blessed him, on the .Nones of October (Oct. 7th). And 



An. M.XIX. 'And in this year died archbishop ^Elfstan, who 
was named Lyfing, and he was a sagacious man, both before 
God and before the world.* 

An. M.XX. 2 and caused to be built there a monastery 
of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who were there 
slain, and gave it to one of his priests, whose name was 
Stigand. b 



D. in continuation. 



F. in continuation. 



126 



TIU<; ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



archbishop therewith immediately, on thai same day, sang 
:md (hen after, with the pope himself, honourably took 
refeelion, and also of himself took Mie pull from St. Peter's 
nltar, and then joyfully went home to his own country. 1 And 
abhot Leofwine, who had been unjustly driven from Ely, was 
his companion ; and lie- cleared fThnself of everything that 
was said against him, as the pope instructed him, with the 
witness of the archbishop, and of all the company that was 
wiMi him. 

An. M. xxin. In this year king Cnut came again to 
England, and Thorkell and he were reconciled; and lie 
intrusted Denmark and his son to the guardianship of 
Thorkell; and the king took Thorkell's son with him to 
England." In this year died * archbishop Wulfstan ; and 
"JElfric succeeded; and archbishop TEthelnoth blessed him at 

v. ii'ii/oni. Canterbury. 3 In this year king Cnut, within London, in 
St. Paul's monastery, gave full leave to archbishop JEthelnoth 

of siu-rborno. and *bishop Bryhtwine, and to all God's servants who were 
with them, that they might take up from the burial place the 
archbishop St. ^llfheah. And they then did so, on the vith 
of the Ides of June (June 8th). And the renowned king, 
and the archbishop, and suffragan bishops, and earls, and 
very many men in orders, and also laymen, conveyed in a 
ship his holy body over the Thames to Southwark, and there 
delivered the holy martyr to the archbishop and his com- 
panions; and they then, with an honourable band and win- 



288. 



* of York. 

289. 

* Puttuo. 



An. M.XXII. ' And afterwards with the pall he there 
celebrated mass, as the pope directed him : and he took 
refection after that with the pope; and afterwards with a 
full blessing went home.' 1 

An. M.xxin. 2 And he caused the remains of St. ^Elfheah 
to be borne from London to Canterbury. 5 

An. M.XXIII. :i And the same year archbishop ^Ethelnoth 
conveyed the remains of St. -ZElfeah to Canterbury from 
London. 



E. F. in continuation. 
C. 



E. F. in continuation. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



127 



some joy, conveyed him to Rochester. Then, on the third 
day, came Emma the lady, with her royal child Harthacnut; 
and they then all, with great magnificence and bliss, and 
song of praise, conveyed the holy archbishop into Canter- 
bury, and so honourably brought him to Christchurch, on the 
mrd of the Ides of June "^June llth). Again, after that, 
on the eighth day, on the xvnth of the Kal. of July (June 
15th), archbishop JEthelnoth and * bishop JElfsige, and bishop *ofWinton. 
Bryhtwine, and all those who were with them, deposited 
St. .ZEfheah's holy body on the north side of Christ's altar, 
to the glory of God, and the honour of the holy archbishop, 
and to the eternal health of all who there with devout heart, 
and with all humility, daily seek his holy body. May God 
Almighty have mercy on all Christian men through St. 
JElfheah's holy merits ! 

An. M.XXIV. Robert, count of Normandy, succeeds Richard. 

An. M.XXV. In this year king Cnut went to Denmark with 
ships to the Holm at the river Helgo. And there came 
{i^ainst him 'Ulf and Eylaf, and a very large army, both a 
hind force and a naval force, of Swedes. And there very 
many men perished on king Cnut's side, both Danish men 290, 291. 
and English; and the Swedes had possession of the place of 
carnage. 

An. M.XXVI. In this year* bishop ^Elfric went to Rome, * abp. of York, 
and received the pall from pope * John, on the und of the * XIX. 
Ides of November (Nov. 12th). 

An. M.XXVII. 



1 The Ulf here mentioned must 
not be confounded with Ulf jarl, 
who married Astrith (Estrith), the 
sister of Cnut, and by her was pro- 
genitor of a long line of Danish 
sovereigns, the last male of whom, 
Valdemar Atterdag, father of queen 
Margaret, died in 1375. This Ulf 
accompanied Cnut in the above- 
mentioned expedition. The brothers 
Ulf and Eylaf were sons of Rogn- 
vald, jarl of West Gothland, and of 
Ingeborg, a daughter of king Olaf 



Tryggvason. The halge ea' of the 
Saxon text (literally the holy river) 
is the ' Helga amnis ' of Saxo Gram- 
maticus, at the foot of the mountain 
Stanga ; and is the modern Helgo, 
in the government of Christianstad, 
in the south of Sweden. See Saxo 
Gramm. p. 518, ed. Miiller ; Olafs 
Saga hins Helga in Snorri, c. 161., 
Ann. Isl. a. 1027, ap. Langebek, 
t. in., and Suhm, Hist, of Damn, 
in. p. 634. 



128 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



292, 293. 



An. M.XXVIII. In this year king Cnut went from England, 
with 1 fifty ships of English thanes, to Norway, and drove king 
Olaf from the land, and possessed himself of all that land. 

An. M.XXIX. In this year king Cnut came again to England; 
and as soon as he came again to England, 2 he gave to Christ- 
church at Canterbury the haven at Sandwich, and all the 
dues that arise therefrom, from each side of the haven; so 
that when the flood is of all the highest, and of all the fullest, 
be a ship floating so nigh the land as it nighest may, and 
there be a man standing in the ship, and have a 3 ' taper axe ' 
in his 

An. M.XXX. In this year king Olaf was slain in Norway 
by his own people, and was afterwards sainted. And in this 
year, before that, died 4 Hakon, the doughty jarl, at sea. 

An. M.XXXI. In this year king Cnut 5 went to Rome ; and 
as soon as he came home, he went to Scotland, and the Scots' 
king Malcolm submitted to him, and became his man ; 6 but 
held that only a little while ; and two other kings, Maslbsethe 
and lehmarc. And Robert count of Normandy went to 
Jerusalem, and there died ; and William, who was afterwards 
king of England, succeeded to Normandy, though he was a 
child. 

An. M. xxxu. In this year appeared the wildfire, such as 
no man before remembered; and moreover it did harm in 
many places. And in the same year died bishop ^Elfsige 
at Winchester ; and JElfwine the king's priest succeeded to 
the see. 



An. M.XXX. In this year king Olaf came again to Norway ; 
and the people gathered against him, and fought against him, 
and he was there slain. a 



1 " L. navibus inagnis." Flor.Wi- 
gorn. 

2 See the entire charter in Cod. 
Diplom. iv. No. 737, vi. No. 1328. 

3 Tapar-oxi, securis malkata. 
Bj. Haldorsen. 



4 He was the son of Eric, jarl of 
Norway, by Gy tha the sister of Cnut. 

5 See his letter to the clergy and 
magnates of the land in Fl. Wi- 
gorn. i. p. 185, edit. E. H. S. 

6 He died three years after. 



D. E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 129 

An. M.XXXIII. In this year died * bishop Leofsige, and his * of Worcester. 
body rests at Worcester; and Brihteh was raised to his see. 
In this year died Merehwit, bishop of * Somerset ; and he is * Wells. 
buried at Glastonbury. 

An. M.XXXIV. In this year died *bishop Athene, and he lies * of Dorchester, 
at Ramsey. And in that same year died Malcolm, king of 
Scotland. 

An. M.XXXV. In this year died king Cnut ; and Harold his 
son succeeded to the kingdom. He departed at Shaftesbury 
on the nnd of the Ides of November (Nov. 12th) ; and 
they conveyed him thence to Winchester, and there buried 
him. And .^Elfgyfu Emma, the lady, sat then there within : 
and Harold, who said that he was the son of Cnut and of the 
other JElfgyfu, though it was not true, sent thither, and caused 
to be taken from her all the best treasures, which she could 
not withhold, that king Cnut had possessed ; and yet she sat 
there within, the while she might. 

An. M.XXXVI. In this year the innocent getheling JElfred, 
son of king ^Ethelred, came hither, and would go to his 
mother, who sat in Winchester ; but that earl G-odwine 
would not permit, nor other men also, who could exercise 
much power ; because the public voice was then greatly 294. 
in favour of Harold ; though it was unjust. But Godwine 
then impeded him, and in durance set him, and his com- 
panions he dispersed ; and diversely some slew ; some they 
for money sold, some cruelly killed, some they bound, some 



An. M.XXXVI. In this year died king Cnut at Shaftesbury, 
and he is buried at Winchester, in the Old monastery : and he 
was king over all England very nigh twenty winters. And 
immediately after his decease, there was a great assembly of all 
the ' witan ' at Oxford ; and earl Leofric and almost all the thanes 
north of the Thames, and the l i lithsmen ' of London, chose 
Harold to the government of all England, him and his brother 
Harthacnut, who was in Denmark. And earl Godwine and all 
the chief men of Wessex, opposed it as long as they could, but 
they could not prevail aught against it. And it was then re- 
solved that ^Elfgyfu, Harthacnut' s mother, should dwell at 

1 Sailors, from lift, a ship. 
VOL. II. I 



130 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

* or hamstrung, they blinded, some "mutilated, some scalped. No bloodier deed 
was done in this country since the Danes came, and here made 
peace. Now is our trust in the beloved God, that they possess 
bliss joyfully with Christ, who were without guilt so miserably 
slain. The aetheling yet lived, every evil they vowed him, 
until it was resolved that he should be led to Ely, thus bound. 
As soon as he was near the land, in the ship they blinded him ; 
and him thus blind brought to the monks ; and he there abode 
the while that he lived. After that, he was buried, as to him 
was befitting, full honourably, as he was worthy, at the west 
end, to the steeple full nigh, in the south porch. His soul is 
with Christ. 

An. M.XXXVII. In this year Harold was chosen over all for 
king, and Harthacnut rejected, because he was too long in 
Denmark. And then then they drove out his mother ^Elfgyfu 
the queen, without any mercy, against the stormy winter ; 
and she came then to Bruges beyond sea, and count Baldwinc 
there well received her, and held her there while she had need. 
And before, in this year, died JEfic, the noble dean at Evesham. 

An. M.XXXVIII. In this year died JEthelnoth, the good 
t sy. terbury ' *archbishop, and JEthelric, bishop of the t South Saxons, who 



Winchester with the king her son's ! ' huscarls,' and hold all 
Wessex under his authority. And earl Godwine was their 
most devoted man. Some men said of Harold, that he was the 
son of king Cnut and of JElfgyfu, the daughter of JElfhelmthe 
aldorman ; but it seemed very incredible to many men ; and 
he was, nevertheless, full king over all England. 8 

295 An. M.XXXVII. In this year ^Elfgyfu, king Cnut's relict, 

was driven out : she was king Harthacnut's mother : and she 
then sought the protection of Baldwine, south of the sea ; and 
he gave her an abode at Bruges, and he protected and main- 
tained her the while that she was there. a 

An. M.XXXVIII. In this year died JEthelnoth, the good 
archbishop, on the Kal. of November (Nov. 1st) ; and a little 



The Danish body guard, though retained till the time of the Conquest. 



E. F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



131 



desired of God that he would not let him live any while after 
his beloved father JEthelnoth : and within seven nights after, 
he also departed ; and bishop JElfric of * East Anglia, and 
bishop Byrhteh of Worcestershire, on the xnith of the Kal. 
of January (Dec. 20th) ; and then 'bishop Eadsige suc- 
ceeded to the archbishopric ; and Grymkytel to the bishopric 
of the South Saxons ; and * bishop Lyfing to Worcestershire 
and to Gloucestershire. 

An. M.XXXIX. In this year was the great wind ; and bishop 
Byrhtmaar died at Lichfield. And the Welsh slew Eadwine, 
the brother of earl Leofric, and Thorkell, and JElfgeat, and 
very many good men with them. And in this year also came 
Harthacnut to Bruges, where his mother was. 



296. 
Elmham. 

297. 
of Cretliton. 



after, JEthelric, bishop of the South Saxons ; and then before 
Christmas, Brihteh, bishop of Worcestershire ; and shortly 
after JElfric, *bishop of the East Angles. 

An. M.XXXIX. 2 In this year king Harold died at Oxford, 
on the xvith of the Kal. of April (Mar. 17th), and he was 
buried at Westminster. And he ruled England four years and 
sixteen weeks. And in his days, to sixteen ships eight marks 
were paid for every rower, as had before been done in king 
Cnut's days. And hi this same year king Harthacnut came to 
Sandwich, seven nights before Midsummer. And he was im- 
mediately received both by Angles and by Danes ; though his 
counsellors afterwards cruelly requited it, when they coun- 
selled, that to sixty-two ships should be paid, for each rower, 
eight marks. And in this same year the * sester ' of wheat 
went to fifty -five pence, and even further. 8 - 



of Elmham. 



1 This appears to be an error. In 
F. he is styled " t>ses cinges preost," 
and in F. Lat. and Florence, "regis 
" capellanus." 

2 From this time the dates in E. 
and F. are often faulty. Harold is 
here said to have reigned four years 



and sixteen weeks, although Cnute's 
death, Nov. 12, is placed under the 
year 1036, and the death of Harda- 
cnute, and the coronation of Ed- 
ward, which belongs unquestionably 
to the year 1043, are in like manner 
misdated. R.P. 



E. F. 



I 2 



132 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



298. 



* of North- 
u mbria. 



* of Durham. 



299. 



An. M.XL. In this year king Harold died. Then was Hartha- 
cnut sent after, at Bruges : it was imagined to be well done. 
And he then came hither with sixty ships before Midsummer, 
and imposed a very heavy contribution ; so that it was borne 
with difficulty: that was eight marks for each rower : and then 
was every one unfavourable to him who had before desired 
him ; nor did he perform aught kingly while he reigned. He 
caused the dead Harold to be dragged up, and had him cast 
into a fen. In this year archbishop Eadsige went to Rome. 

An. M.XLI. In this year Harthacnut caused all Worcester- 
shire to be ravaged, for the sake of his two 'huscarls,' who 
announced the heavy impost, when the people slew them within 
the town, in the monastery. And in this year, shortly after, 
came his maternal brother Eadward, the son of king ^iEthelred, 
from beyond sea, who before, for many years, had been driven 
from his country ; and yet was sworn king ; and he then 
dwelt so in his brother's family while he lived. And also in 
this year Harthacnut betrayed *earl Eadulf while under his 
safeguard ; and he was then a belier of his pledge. And in this 
year *bishop ^Egelric was ordained at York, on the nird of 
the Ides of January (Jan. llth). 

An. M.XLII. In this year died Harthacnut, as he stood at 
his drink, and he suddenly fell to the earth with a terrible 
struggle ; and then they who were nigh took hold of him ; and 



An. M.XL. In this year the military contribution was paid ; 
that was twenty-one thousand and ninty-nine pounds. And 
after that, there were paid to thirty-two ships, eleven thousand 
and forty-eight pounds. And in this same year came Eadward, 
king JEthelred's son, hither to land from Normandy. He was 
king Harthacnut's brother : they were both sons of ^Elfgifu, 
who was count Richard's daughter. 8 - 

An. M.XLI. In this year king Harthacnut died at Lambeth, 
on the vith day of the Ides of June (June 8th). And he was 
king over all England two years less ten nights ; and he is 
buried in the Old monastery at Winchester with king Cnut his 
father. And his mother, for his soul, gave to the New monas- 
tery the head of St. Valentine the martyr. And before he 



.F. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 133 

he afterwards spoke not a word ; and he died on the vith of 
the Ides of June (June 8th). And all the people then received 
Eadward for king, as was his natural right. 

An. M.XLIII. (M.XLII.) In this year Eadward was hallowed 
king at Winchester, on the first Easter-day, with great worship; 
and then was Easter on the nird of the Nones of April (April 
3rd). Archbishop Eadsige hallowed him, and before all the 
people well instructed him, and for his own and all the people's 
need, well exhorted him. And Stigand the priest was blessed 
bishop of the *East Angles. And shortly after the king caused * of Elmharn. 
all the lands which his mother possessed to be seized into his 300,301, 
hand ; and took from her all that she possessed in gold, and in 
silver, and in unspeakable things ; because she had before held 
it too strictly towards him. And soon after, Stigand was 
deposed from his bishopric, and all that he owned was seized 
into the king's hand ; because he was closest in his mother's 
counsel, and she went as he advised her, as it was supposed. 



was buried all the people chose Eadward king in London. 
May he hold it while God shall grant it him ! And all that 
year it was very sad in many and various things, both in tem- 
pests and in earth-fruits. And so much cattle perished in this 
year as no man before remembered, both through various 
diseases and through bad weather. And at this same time 
died JElfsine, abbot of Peterborough ; and then Arnwi, a 
monk, was chosen abbot ; because he was a very good man 
and very meek. a 

An. M.XLIII. In this year Eadward was hallowed king at 
Winchester on the first Easter-day (April 3rd). And in this 
year, fourteen nights before St. Andrew's mass (Nov. 16th), 
the king was so advised that he and earl Leofric, and earl 
Godwine, and earl Siward, with their attendants, rode from 
Gloucester to Winchester unawares upon the *lady, and they * Emma. 
bereaved her of all the treasures which she owned, which were 
not to be told ; because she had before been very hard to the 
king her son, inasmuch as she had done less for him than he 
would, before he was king, and also since then. And after 
that they let her reside therein. b 



a E. F. 



134 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 



* of Canterbury. An. M.XLiv. (M.XLin.) In this year * archbishop Eadsige re- 

signed the bishopric, on account of his infirmity, and blessed 
thereto Siward abbot of Abingdon, as bishop, by the king's leave 
and counsel, and earl Godwine's; it was else known to few men 
before it was done; because the archbishop thought that some 
other man would obtain it by solicitation, or buy it, whom he less 
trusted and liked, if more men knew of it. And in this year 
there was a very great famine over all England, and corn so 
dear as no man before remembered, so that the ( sester ' of 
wheat went to sixty pence, and even further. And in the 
same year the king went out to Sandwich with thirty-five 
ships; and JEthelstan the church -ward succeeded to the abbacy 
at Abingdon ; and Stigand obtained his bishopric. And in 
the same year king Eadward took Eadgyth, earl Godwine's 
daughter, to wife, ten nights before Candlemas (Jutfe 23rd). 

* of Sherbornc. An. M.XLV. In this year * bishop Bryhtwold died, on the 

302. xth of the Kal. of May (April 22nd), and king Eadward 
gave the bishopric to Hereman his priest. And in the same 
summer king Eadward went out with his ships to Sandwich ; 
and there so great a force was gathered, that no man had seen 
any greater naval force in this land. And in this same year 

* of Crcditon. died * bishop Lyfing, on the xmth of the Kal. of April (Mar. 

20th) ; and the king gave the bishopric to Leofric his priest. 

303. In this year died ^Ifward, bishop of London, on the vinth 
of the Kal. of August (July 25th). He was first abbot of 



1 



An. M.XLIII. (M.XLIV.) In this year king Eadward took the 
daughter of earl Godwine for his queen. And in this same 
year bishop Brihtwold died : and he held the bishopric thirty- 
eight years, that was the bishopric of Sherborne; and Hereman 
the king's priest succeeded to the bishopric. And in this 
year Wulfric was hallowed abbot of St, Augustine's at Christ- 
mas, on St. Stephen's mass-day (Dec. 26th), by the king's 
leave, and abbot JElfstan's, on account of his (JElfstan's) great 
infirmity. a 

An. M.XLVI. In this year bishop Brihtwold died in Wilt- 
shire, and Hereman was placed in his see. In that year king 
Eadward gathered a- great naval force at Sandwich, on 



a E.F, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 



135 



Evesliam, and greatly advanced that monastery, while he was 

there. He then went to Ramsey, and there gave up his life. 1 

And Manni was chosen * abbot, and ordained on the ivth of * of Eveskam. 

the Ides of August (Aug. 10). And in this year the noble 

woman Gunnhild, king Cnut's 2 kinswoman, was banished ; 

and afterwards she long resided at Bruges, and then went to 

Denmark. 



account of the threatening of Magnus of Norway ; but his 
(Magnus') and 3 S vein's war in Denmark hindered him from 
coming hither. a 

An. M.XLIV. (M.XLV.) In this year * bishop Lyfing died in * of Crediton. 
Devonshire, and Leofric succeeded to his see ; he was the 
king's priest. And in this same year JElfstan, abbot of * St. * at Canterbury, 
Augustine's, died, on the uird of the Nones of July (July oth). 
And in this same year Osgod Clapa was driven out. b 

An. M.XLVII. In this year died Lyfing, the eloquent bishop, 
on the xthof the Kal. of April (Mar. 23rd) ; and he had three 
bishoprics, one in Devonshire, and one in Cornwall, and one 
in Worcester. Then Leofric succeeded to Devonshire and to 
Cornwall, and bishop Aldred to Worcester. And in this year 
Osgod the * constable was outlawed ; and t Magnus won 
Denmark. a 



* stallcrc. 

t k. of Norway. 



1 Florence of Worcester is more 
explicit on the subject of bishop 



" -Mfwardus Lundoni- 
" ensis preesul, qui et ante episcopa- 
" turn et in episcopatu, abbatis jure, 
" Eoveshamnensi coenobio praefuit, 
" cum pontificatum administrare pro 
" sua infirmitate minus sufficeret, 
" Eoveshammi residere voluit, sed 
" fratres loci illius id omnino con- 
" sentire noluerunt. Quapropter, 
" ablatis ex maxima parte libris et 
" ornamentis, quae ipse eidem con- 



" tulerat loco, et qusedam, ut fertur, 
quae alii contulerant, ad monas- 
<* terium Kamesege secessit." The 
monks of Evesham would not admit 
him because he was afflicted with 
leprosy. Hist. Rames. c. xiv. 

2 She was his niece, being the 
daughter of his sister Gytha, married 
to Wyrtgeorn, king of the Wends, 
and was wife of Hakon jarl. Flor. 
Wigorn. 

8 Svein Estrithson, the son of 
Cuut's sister Astrith, by Ulf jarl. 



E. R 



136 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* of N. Wales. 



* of Sclscy. 



* of Winton. 



* of Elniliam. 



An. M.XLVI. In this year 'earl Swegen went into Wales, 
and Griffith, the * Northern king, went forth with him ; and 
hostages were given him. When he was homeward, he 
ordered the abbess of Leominster to be fetched to him, and had 
her while it listed him, and then let her go home. And in 
this same year Osgod Clapa was outlawed before Midwinter. 
And in this same year, after Candlemas (Feb. 2nd), came the 
severe winter, with frost and with snow, and with all kinds of 
bad weather, so that there was no man alive who could re- 
member so severe a winter as that was, both through mortality 
of men and murrain of cattle ; both birds and fishes perished 
through the great cold and hunger. 

An. M.XLVII. In this year died bishop Grimkytel ; he was 
"bishop in Sussex, and he lies in Christchurch at Canterbury; 
and king Eadward gave the bishopric to Hecca his priest. 
And in this same year died * bishop JElfwine, on the ivth of 
the Kal. of September (Aug. 29th); and king Eadward gave 
the bishopric to *bishop Stigand. And -ZEthelstan, abbot of 



An. M. XL vni. In this year was the hard winter ; and in 
this year died ^Elfwine, bishop of Winchester ; and bishop 
Stigand was raised to his see. And before that, in the same 

* Selsey. year, died Grymkytel, bishop of the * South Saxons, and Heca 

* k. of Denmark, the priest succeeded to the bishopric. And *Svein also sent 

hither, praying for aid against Magnus, king of Norway; that 
fifty ships should be sent to his aid. But it seemed unad- 
visable to all people; and then it was prevented, by reason 
that Magnus had a great naval force. And he then ousted 
Svein, and with great slaughter won the land ; and the Danes 
paid him much money, and received him for king. And in 
that same year Magnus died. a 

An. M.XLV. (M.XLVI.) In this year died Grimkytel, bishop 
of the South Saxons, and Heca the king's priest succeeded 
to the bishopric. And in this year died ^Elfwine, bishop of 
Winchester, on the ivth of the Kal. of September (Aug. 29th), 

1 One of Gbdwine's sons. 



D. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 



137 



Abingdon, died in the same year, on the ivth of the Kal. of 
April (Mar. 29th): then was Easter-day on the mrd of the 
Nones of April (April 3rd). And there was over all England 
a very great mortality in the same year. 

An. M.XLVIII. In this year there was a great earthquake 
widely throughout England. And in the same year Sand- 
wich and Wight were ravaged, and the best men who were 
there, slain. And after that king Eadward and the earls 



304. 



and Stigancl, * bishop in the north, succeeded to the bishopric. "ofElmham. 
And in the same year earl Swegen went out to Baldwine's 
land, to Bruges, and abode there all the winter ; and then in 305. 
summer he went out. a 

An. M.XLVI. (M.XLVII.) In this year died ^Ethelstan, abbot of 
Abingdon, and Spearhafoc, a monk of St. Edmundsbury, suc- 
ceeded. And in this same year died bishop Siward, and arch- 
bishop Eadsige again succeeded to all the * bishopric. And in * Canterbury, 
this same year 'Lothin andErling came with twenty-five ships 
to Sandwich, and took there unspeakable booty, in men, and in 
gold, and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all was. 
And they then went about Thanet, and would there do the like; 
but the country folk boldly withstood them, and refused them 
both landing and water, and completely drove them thence. 
And they went thence to Essex, and there harried, and took 
men, and property, and whatever they could find ; and then 
went east to *Baldwine's land, and there sold what they had * Flanders, 
plundered ; and afterwards went east frcm thence to whence 
they before came. a 



1 This predatory expedition, as- 
signed here to the year 1046, is of a 
much earlier date. Lothin was a 
wealthy Norwegian of rank, who, as 
was not unusual in those days, uni- 
ted with the profession of commerce 
that of piracy. He was stepfather 
to king Olaf Tryggvason, having 
married his mother Astrith, who 
had been captured by pirates, and 



whom he found exposed for sale in 
a slave market in Esthonia. Er 
ling was Olaf s brother-in-law, hav- 
ing married his sister, also named 
Astrith. Olaf Tryggvason fell in 
the year 1000. See Saga Olafs 
Tryggvasonar, pp. 185, 298. edit. 
1826, and his Saga in Snorri, cc. 1, 
58, 62. 



E. F. 



138 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



' Canterbury. 



Siward. 



308. 

* count of 
Flanders. 



306, 



went out with their ships. And in the same year bishop 
Siward resigned the * bishopric, on account of his infirmity, 
and went to Abingdon; and archbishop Eadsige again suc- 
ceeded to the bishopric; and *he died within eight weeks after, 
on the xth of the Kal. of November (Oct. 23rd). 

An. M.XLIX. In this year the emperor gathered a countless 
force against * Baldwine of Bruges, because he had destroyed 
the palace at Nymegen, and also of many other injuries that he 
had done him. The force was not to be told that he had 
gathered. There were Leo the pope of Rome, and many great 
men of many nations. He (the emperor) sent also to king 
Eadward, and craved naval aid from him, that he would 
not allow him to escape from him by water. And he (king 
Eadward) went then to Sandwich, and there continued to lie 
with a great naval force, until the emperor had from Baldwine 
all that he would. Thither came earl Swegen back again to 
king Eadward, and craved land of him, that he might sustain 
himself thereon. But Harold his brother and Biorn declared 
that they would not restore to him anything of what the king 
had given them. He came hither with guile, said that he 
would be his man, and prayed earl Biorn that he would support 
him. But the king refused him everything. Swegen then 
went with his ships to Bosham ; and earl Godwine went from 



An. M.XLIX. 1 In this year Svein came again to Denmark, 
and Harold, the paternal uncle of Magnus, went to Norway, 
after that Magnus was dead, and the Normen received him ; 
and he sent hither to this country about peace. And Svein 
also sent from Denmark, and prayed king Eadward for naval 
support, that should at least be fifty ships ; but all the people 
refused. And in this year was also an earthquake, on the 
Kal. of May (May 1st), in many places, at Worcester, at 
Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere ; and there was also a 
great mortality among men, and a murrain among cattle ; and 
the wildfire also did much evil in Derbyshire and elsewhere. a 



1 The narratives now, under the 
same date in the manuscripts, differ 
so widely in subject from each other, 



that it is no longer possible to note 
their discrepancies. 



a D. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



139 



Sandwich with forty-two ships to Pevensey, and earl Biorn 
along with him ; and then the king allowed all the Mercians 
to go home, and they did so. Then it was announced to the 
king that Osgod lay at Wulpe with thirty-nine ships. The 
king then sent after those ships which he could send off, 
which lay within Northmouth. But Osgod fetched his wife 
from Bruges, and came back again with six ships ; and the 
others went to Essex, to Eadulfsness (Walton on the Naze), 
and there did harm, and went again to their ships. Then lay 
earl Godwine and earl Biorn at Pevensey, with their ships. 
Then came earl Swegeii with guile, and prayed earl Biorn 
that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, 
saying that he would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to 
him. Then Biorn fancied that, on account of their kinship, he 



310. 



of Wells, 
of Ramsey 
307, 



An. M.XLVI. In this year was the great synod at Rheims. 
Thereat were Leo the pope, and the archbishop of * Burgundy, * Lyons. 
and the archbishop of BesaiiQon, and the archbishop of Treves, 
and the archbishop of Rheims, and many a man besides, 
both ecclesiastical and lay. And king Eadward sent thither 

* bishop Dudoc, and Wulfric, abbot of St. Augustine's, and 

* abbot .^Elfwiue, that they might make known to the king 
what should be there determined for Christendom. And in 
this same year king Eadward went out to Sandwich with a 
great naval force ; and earl Swegen, earl Godwine's son, came 
into Bosham with seven ships, and made his peace with the 
king ; and it was promised him that he should be held 
1 worthy of all the things that he before possessed. Then earl 
Harold his brother and 2 earl Biorn said in opposition, that he 
should not be worthy of any of the things which the king had 
granted him ; but a safeguard of four nights was fixed to him 
for his ships. Then it was, during that time, that word came 
to the king that hostile ships lay westward and harried. Then 
went earl Godwine west about with two of the king's ships, 
the one commanded by earl Harold, and the other by his 
brother Tostig, and forty-two ships of the country people. 



1 That is law-worthy, or legally 
entitled to. 

2 Biorn was a son of Ulf jarl 



and Astrith, sister of Cnut, and 
brother of Svein, king of Den- 
mark. 



140 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



would not deceive him. He then took three companions with 
him, and they rode to Bosham, as if they would go to Sand- 
wich, where Swegen's ships lay. And they immediately bound 
him and led him to a ship, and then went to Dartmouth, and 
there he caused him to be slain and deeply buried. But his 
kinsman Harold fetched him thence, and conveyed him to Win- 
chester, and there buried him by king Cnut his uncle. And 
the king then, and all the army declared Swegen a l i nithing.' 
He had eight ships before he murdered Biorn ; after that all 
but two forsook him. And he then went to Bruges, and there 
abode with Baldwine. And in this year died Eadnoth, the good 
of Dorchester. * bishop, in Oxfordshire; and Oswig, abbot of Thorney, and 
Wulfiioth, abbot of Westminster : and king Eadward gave the 
bishopric to 2 Ulf his priest, and ill bestowed it. And in this 
same year king Eadward discharged nine ships from pay, and 



3 Then was earl Harold moved up to the king's ship which earl 
Harold before commanded.' They then went west to Pevensey, 
and lay there weather-bound. Then two days after this, earl 
Swegen came thither, and spoke with his father and with earl 
Biorn, and prayed Biorn that he would go with him to the 
king at Sandwich, and aid him to the king's friendship, and 
he thereto assented. They then went as if they would go to 
the king. Then, while they were riding, Swegen begged of 
him that he would go with him to his ships, saying that his 
shipmen would go from him, unless he the more speedily came. 
They then went both to where his ships lay. When they came 
thither, earl Swegen prayed him that he would go with him 
on shipboard. He refused vehemently, so long until his ship- 
men seized him, and threw him into the boat, and bound him, 
and rowed to the ship, and put him therein ; then hoisted 
their sails, and ran west to Exmouth, and had him with them 
until they slew him : and they took the body, and buried it in 
a church. And then came his friends and sailors from London 
and took him up, and conveyed him to Winchester, to the Old 
monastery, and he is there buried by king Cuut his uncle. 



1 a wretch, outlaw. 
- " genere Nortmannus.' 
Wigorn. 



Flor. 



3 This passage I am unable to ex- 
plain : it is apparently corrupt or 
defective. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 141 

they went away ships and all ; and five ships remained behind, 
and the king promised them twelve months' pay. And in the 
same year bishop Hereman and bishop Ealdred went to Rome 
to the pope, on the king's errand. 

An. M.L. In this year, the bishops came home from Rome ; 312, 
and earl Swegen was inlawed. And in this same year died 
archbishop Eadsige, on the ivth of the Kal. of November 



And Swegen then went east to Baldwine's land, and resided 

there all the winter, at Bruges, with his full protection. And 

in the same year died * bishop Eadnoth in the north, and Ulf * of Dorchester. 

was appointed bishop. a 

An. M.L. l Thither came also earl Swegen, who had before 
gone from this land to Denmark, and had there ruined himself 
with the Danes. He came hither with guile, saying that he 
would again submit to the king. And earl Biorn promised 
him that he would support him. Then after the reconciliation 
was of the emperor and Baldwine, many of the ships went 
home, and the king remained behind at Sandwich with a few 
ships : and earl Godwine also went with forty-two ships from 
Sandwich to Pevensey, and earl Biorn went with him. Then 
it was made known to the king that Osgod lay at Wulpe with 
thirty-nine ships ; and the king sent after the ships, which he 
could send off, which had before gone home. And Osgod 
fetched his wife from Bruges, and they went back again with 
six ships. And the others went to 'Sussex, to Eadulfsness, ' 
and there did harm, and returned to their ships : and then a 
strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroyed 
but four, the crews of which were slain beyond sea. While 
carl Godwine and earl Biorn lay at Pevensey, earl Swegen 
came, and with guile prayed earl Biorn, who was his uncle's 
son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, 
and better his affairs with him. He went then, on account of 
their kinship, with three companions, and he led him towards 
Bosham, where his ships lay ; and then they bound him, and 
led him on shipboard, then went thence with him to Dart- 

1 Continued from 1. 16. p, 138. 



a E. F, M.XLVIII. F. 



142 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



(Oct. 29th) ; and also, in this same year, died ^Elfric, arch- 
bishop of York, on the xith of the Kal. of February 
(Jan. 22nd) ; and his body lies at Peterborough. Then king 
Eadward held a ' witena-gemot ' in London at Midlent, and 
appointed Robert archbishop of Canterbury, and abbot Spear - 
hafoc to London ; and gave to bishop Rothulf, his kinsman, 
the abbacy of Abingdon. And in the same year he discharged 
all the ' lithsmen ' from pay. 



mouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deeply buried. 
He was afterwards found, and conveyed to Winchester, and 
buried by king Cnut his uncle. A little before that, the men 
of Hastings and thereabouts won two of his ships with their 
ships, and slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sand- 
wich to the king. He had eight ships before he inveigled 
Biorn ; after that all forsook him but two. In the same year 
arrived in the Welsh Axe (Usk ?) thirty-six ships from Ire- 

* of S. Wales. land, and thereabouts did harm, with the aid of * Griffith, the 

Welsh king. People were then gathered against them, there 

* of Worcester, was also * bishop Ealdred with them ; but they had too little 

support ; and they came unawares upon them at quite early 
morn, and there slew many good men, and the others escaped 
along with the bishop; this was done on the ivth of the Kal. of 
August (July 29th). In this year died in Oxfordshire Oswig, 
abbot of Thorney, and Wulfnoth, abbot of Westminster ; and 
Ulf the priest was placed as pastor to the bishopric that 
Eadnoth had held ; but he was afterwards driven away, 
because he performed nothing bishoplike therein, so that it 
shames us now to tell more. And 1 bishop Siward died ; he 
lies at Abingdon. And in this year was hallowed the great 

* IX. monastery at Rheims ; there were the pope * Leo, and the 

* Henry in. * emperor ; and they had a great synod there concerning 

God's service. At that synod presided the pope St. Leo. It is 
difficult to know (the names) of the bishops who came thither, 
and certainly of the abbots ; and from this land two were 

* at Canterbury, sent, from * St. Augustine's and from Ramsey. a 

1 " Edsii Dorubernensis archiepiscopi corepiscopus." Flor. Wigorn. 



D. 



THE A-tfGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 1-13 

An. M.LI. In this year archbishop Eobert came hither over 
sea with his pall. And in this same year earl Godwiue and 



An. M.LI. In this year died Eadsige, archbishop of Canter 
bury, and the king gave the archbishopric to Robert the 
Frenchman, who had before been bishop of London. And 
Spearhafoc, abbot of Abingdon, succeeded to the bishopric of 
London ; and it was afterwards taken from him ere he was 
ordained. And bishop Hereman and bishop Ealdred went to 
Rome. a 

An. M.XLVII. (M.XLIX.) In this year there was a great 309. 
council at London at Midlent, and nine ships of * lithsmen ' were 
discharged, and five remained behind. And in this same year 
earl Swegen came to England. And in this same year was the 
great synod at Rome ; and king Eadward sent thither bishop 
HerSman and bishop Ealdred ; and they came thither on 
Easter-eve. And afterwards the pope had a synod at Vercelli, 
and bishop Ulf came thereto ; and they were very near 
breaking his staff, if he had not given the greater treasures, 
because he could not do his offices so well as he should. And 
in this year died archbishop Eadsige, on the ivth of the Kal. 
of November (Oct. 29th). b 

An. M.XLVIII. In this year king Eadward appointed Robert 313. 
of London archbishop of Canterbury, in Lent. And in the 
same Lent he went to Rome after his pall. And the king 
gave the bishopric of London to Spearhafoc, abbot of Abing- 
don ; and the king gave the abbacy of Abingdon to bishop 
Rothulf, his kinsman. Then came the archbishop from Rome, 
one day before St. Peter's mass-eve, and occupied his archi- 
episcopal chair on St. Peter's mass-day (June 29th) ; and im- 
mediately after went to the king. Then came abbot Spear- 
hafoc to him, with the king's letter and seal, to the end that 
he should ordain him bishop of London. Then the archbishop 
refused, and said, that the pope had forbidden it him. Then 
the abbot again applied to the archbishop for that purpose, 
and then claimed episcopal ordination, and the archbishop 



a D. b E . F. 



144 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

all his sons were banished from England. And he and his 
wife, and his three sons, Swegen, and Tostig, and Gyrth, went 



firmly refused him, and said, that the pope had forbidden it him. 
The abbot then went to London, and resided in the bishopric, 
which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all 
*^e summer an d the autumn. fAnd then came * Eustace from 
beyond sea immediately after the bishop, and went to the king, 
and spoke with him that which he wished, and then went 
homewards. When he came east to Canterbury, he and his 
men took refection there, and went to Dover. When he was 
a few miles or more on this side of Dover, he put on his coat 
of mail, and all his companions, and went to Dover. When 
they came thither, they would lodge themselves where it 
pleased them. Then came one of his men, and would quarter 
315. himself in the house of an inhabitant, against his will, and 
wounded the inhabitant ; and the inhabitant slew the other. 
Then Eustace mounted upon his horse, and his companions 
upon theirs, and slew him within his own home ; and then 
went towards the town, and slew, both within and without, 
more than twenty men. And the townsmen, on the other 
side, slew nineteen men, and wounded they knew not how 
many. And Eustace escaped with a few men, and went again 
to the king, and made known to him in part how they had 
fared. And the king became very furious against the towns- 
men. And the king sent off earl Godwine, and bade him go 
into Kent with hostility to Dover ; for Eustace had declared 
to the king that it had been more the sin of the townsfolk than 
his: but it was not so. And the earl would not agree to the 
inroad, because he was loath to injure his own followers. 
Then the king sent after all his 'witan,' and bade them come 
to Gloucester near the after-mass of St. Mary (Sept. 8th). 
The Welshmen had then built a castle in Herefordshire, 
among the followers of earl Swegen, and wrought every kind 
of harm and insult to the king's men thereabout that they 
could. Then came earl Godwine, and earl Swegen, and earl 
Harold, together at Beverston, and many men with them, in 
order that they might go to their royal lord and to all the 
'witan' who were gathered with him, that they might have 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 145 

to Bruges; and Harold and Leofwine went to Ireland, and 
there dwelt the winter. And in this same year died the old 
lady, king Eadward's and Harthacnut's mother, named Emma, 



the counsel and support of the king and of all the i witan,' 
how they might avenge the insult to the king and to all the 
nation. Then were the Welshmen beforehand with the king, 
and accused the earls, so that they might not come within his 
eyesight, for they said that they would come thither to betray 
the king. Thither had come * earl Siward, and earl f Leofric, 
and many people with them from the north, to the king; tofMercia. 
and it was made known to earl Godwine and his sons, that the 
king and the men who were with him would resolve con- 
cerning them, and they arrayed themselves firmly on the other 
hand; though it was hateful to them that they should stand 
against their royal lord. Then the * witan ' decreed, that on 
each side every kind of evil should cease, and the king gave 
God's peace and his full friendship to each side. Then the 316. 
king and his ' witan' decreed that, for the second time, a 
( gemot ' of all the ' witan ' should be held in London at the 
autumnal equinox; and the king ordered the army to be called 
out, both south of Thames and north; * all that ever was best, 
Swegen was then declared an outlaw, and earl Godwine and 
earl Harold were summoned to the 'gemot,' as speedily as 
they could come to it. When they had come * thither, they * to London, 
were summoned to the * gemot ;' then he desired a safe- 
conduct and hostages, so that he might come securely into the 
( gemot ' and out of the ' gemot.' Then the king required all 
the thanes whom the earls before had, and they gave them all 
into his hand. Then the king sent again to them, and com- 
manded them that they should come with xii. men to the king*s 
council. Then the earl again desired a safe-conduct and host- 
ages, that he might clear himself of each of the things that he 
was charged with. Then the hostages were refused him, and he 
was decreed a safe* conduct for five nights to go out of the land. 317, 
And earl Godwine and earl Swegen then went to Bosham, and 



1 " qui meliores in sua et illorum parte erant." Flor. Wigorn. 
VOL. II. K 



146 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

on the imd of the Ides of March (Mar. 14); and her body lies 
in the Old monastery by king Cnut. 

V" An. M.LII. In this year earl Harold came from Ireland 
with ships to the mouth of the Severn, near to the boun- 
daries of Somersetshire and Devonshire, and greatly ravaged 
there; and the country people gathered against him, both 
from Somersetshire and Devonshire, and he put them to flight, 
and slew there more than thirty good thanes, besides 
other people ; and immediately after that he went about - 
Penwithsteort (the Land's End). And then king Eadward 
caused forty smacks to be equipped. They lay at Sand- 
wich many weeks ; they were to lie in wait for earl God- 
wine, who was in Bruges that winter, and yet he came hither 



shoved out their ships, and went beyond sea, and sought Bald- 
wine's protection, and dwelt there all the winter. And earl 
Harold went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter un- 
der the king's protection. And shortly after this was, the king 
forsook the lady who had been hallowed his queen, and caused 
to be taken from her all that she owned, in land, and in gold, 
and in silver, and in all things, and committed her to his sister 
at Wherwell. And abbot Spearhafoc was then driven out of 
the bishopric of London, and William, the king's priest, was 
ordained thereto. And Odda was then set as earl over Devon- 
shire, and over Somersetshire, and over Dorset, and over 
Wales ; and JElfgar, son of earl Leofric, was set over the 
earldom which Harold had before possessed. 31 
V An. M.LII. In this year died JElfric, archbishop of York, 
a very venerable and wise man. And in the same year king 
Eadward abolished the military contribution (heregyld) which 
king JEthelred had before imposed : that was in the nine and 
thirtieth year after he had begun it. That tax distressed all 
the English nation during so long a space as is here above 
written. That was always paid before other taxes, which 
were variously paid, and with which people were manifoldly 
distressed. In the same year 'Eustace landed at Dover, who 
had king Eadward's sister to wife. Then his men went 



E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 147 

to land first, so that they did not know it. And in the 
time that he was here in the land he enticed to him all 
the Kentish men, and all the l ' butse-carls ' (shipmen) from 
Hastings, and everywhere there by the sea coast, and all the 
east end, and Sussex, and Surrey, and much else in addition 
thereto ; then all said that with him they would die and live. 
When the fleet which lay at Sandwich was apprized of God- 
wine's course they set out after him, and he escaped them ; 
he secured himself wherever he could, and the fleet went again 
to Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwine 
learned that the fleet which had lain at Sandwich was gone 313. 
home, he went again to Wight, and lay thereabouts by the sea- 
coast until earl Harold his son and he came together. And 
they did no great harm after they came together, except that 
they took provisions; but they enticed to them all the country- 
folk by the sea-coast, and also up in the country, and then 
went towards Sandwich, and collected ever on with them all 
the ' butse-carls ' that they met with, and then came to Sand- 



^foolishly after quarters, and one man of the town they slew, 
and another man of the town, their companion, so that there 
lay seven of his companions. And great harm was there done 
on each side, with horse and also with weapons, until the 
people gathered ; and they then fled, until they came to the 
king at Gloucester, and he gave them protection. When 
earl Godwine understood that such things should have hap- 
pened in his earldom, he began to gather people over all his 314, 
earldom; and earl Swegen, his son, over his, and Harold, his , 

other son, over his earldom ; {find they all gathered in Glou- 
cestershire, at Langtree, a great and countless force, all ready 
for war against the king, unless Eustace were given up, and 
his men delivered into their hands, and also the Frenchmen 
who were in the castle. This was done seven nights before 
the latter mass of St. Mary (Sept. 1st). King Eadward was then 
residing at Gloucester. He then sent after *earl Leofric, and * O f Mercia. 
north after *earl Siward, and required their followers. And * 9? Northum- 

bria. 



1 The first component of this word I buss ; O. Nor. bussa, a large boat ; 
is, no doubt, our buss, as in herring- \ Old High Ger. buso, 

K 2 



148 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

wich with an overwhelming army. When king Eadward 
learned that, he sent up after more succour, but it came very 
slowly; and Godwine with his fleet ever inclined towards 
London, until he came to Southwark, and there waited some- 
while until the flood came up. In that time he also arranged 
with the townsfolk, so that they almost all would that which 
he would. When he had settled all his proceedings, then came 
the flood; and they then immediately drew up their anchors, 
and steered through the bridge by the south shore; and the 



/they then came to him, first with a moderate aid, but when they 
knew how it was there in the south, they sent north over all 
their earldoms, and caused a great force to be ordered out, for 
the help of their lord ; and ' Ralph also, over his earldom ; 
and then they all came to Gloucester to the king's help, though 
it was late. Then were they all so unanimous with the king, 
that they would have sought Godwine's force, if the king had 
willed it. Then some thought that it would be great folly 
that they should engage, because there was most of what was 
most illustrious in England in the two bodies ; and thought 
that they would expose the land to our foes, and cause great 
destruction among ourselves. They then advised that hostages 
should be mutually given, and a rendezvous appointed at 
London; and thither the people were ordered out over all this 
north end, in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also 
elsewhere; and earl Godwine and his sons should come thither 
\vith their defence. They came then to Southwark, and a 
great multitude with them from Wessex; but his band waned 
ever the longer the more. And they bound to the king by 
surety all the thanes who were under his son, earl Harold ; 
and they then outlawed earl Swegen, his other son. Then 
it did not suit him to come with a defence to meet the king, 
and to meet the army that was with him. He then went away 
by night; and on the morrow the king had a ' witena-gemot ;' 
and, also all the army, declared him outlaw, him and all his 
sons, and he went south to Thorney, and his wife, and his son 



1 He was the son of Ead^ard's sister Goda, married to Eustace of 
Boulogne. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 14)9 

land-force came from above, and arrayed themselves along 
the strand; and they then inclined with the ships towards the 
north shore, as if they would hem in the king's ships. The 
king had also a great land-force on his side, besides his ship- 
men ; but it was repugnant to almost all of them that they 
should fight against men of their own race; for there was 
little else there who could do anything great, except English- 
men on each side ; and also they would not that this country 



Swegen, and Tostig and his wife, Baldwine of Bruges' kins- 
woman, and his son Gyrth. And earl Harold and Leofwine 
went to Bristol, in the ship which earl Swegen had before 
made ready and provisioned for himself. And the king sent 
bishop * Ealdred from London with a body of men; and they * of Worcester, 
were to overtake him ere he came on shipboard; but they 
could not, or they would not. And he then went out from 
the mouth of the Avon, and encountered such rigorous 
weather, that he with difficulty got away; and he there sus- 
tained much damage. He then went on to Ireland, when 
favourable weather came. And Godwine and those who were 
with him went from Thorney to Bruges, to Baldwine's land, in 
a ship, with as much treasure as they could possibly stow for 
each man. It would have seemed wonderful to every man that 
was in England, if any man before that had said that it would 
so happen; for he had been before exalted to that degree, as if 
he ruled the king and all England; and his sons were earls and 
the king's darlings, and his daughter was wedded and married 
to the king : she was brought to Wherwell, and committed to 
the abbess. Then soon came count * William from beyond sea, * of Normandy, 
with a great body of Frenchmen, and the king received him 
and as many of his companions as it pleased him, and let him 
go again.1 In this same year the bishopric of London was 
given to William the priest, which had before been given to 
Spearhafoc.* 

An. M.LII. In this year died ^Elfgyfu the lady, relict of 
king JEthelred and king Cnut, on the und of the Nones of 
March (Mar. 6th). In the same year Griffith, the Welsh king, 



150 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



320. 



a. M.XXXIX. 



should be the more exposed to outlandish peoples, in conse- 
quence of their destroying each other. They then resolved 
that wise men should be sent between them, and they settled a 
peace on each side. And Godwine and his son Harold landed, 
and of their fleet as many as to them seemed good. And then 
there was a * witena-gemot ;' and to Godwine was his earldom 
clean given, as full and as free as he first possessed it ; and in 



harried in Herefordshire until he came very near to Leomin- 
ster ; and the men gathered against him, both the countrymen 
and the Frenchmen from the castle ; and there were slain 
very many good men of the English and also of the French. 
That was on the same day thirteen years on which *Eadwine 
was slain with his companions, etc. a 

An. M.LII. In this year died JElfgyfu Emma, the mother of 
king Eadward and king Harthacnut; and in the same year the 
king and his ' witan ' resolved that ships should be sent out to 
Sandwich, and they set earl Ralph and *earl Odda as captains 
thereto. Then earl Godwine went out from Bruges with his 
ships to Ysere (Ysendyk), and set sail one day before Midsum- 
mer's mass-eve, so that he came to Nsess (Dungeness), which 
is to the south of Romney. 1 It then came to be known to the 
earls out at Sandwich, and they went out after the other ships, 
and a land-force was ordered out against the ships. Then in 
the meanwhile earl Godwine was warned, and betook himself 
to Pevensey ; and the weather was very violent, so that the 
earls could not know how earl Godwine had fared. And then 
earl Godwine went out again until he came again to Bruges, 
and the other ships betook themselves again to Sandwich. And 
it was then resolved that the ships should again return to 
London, and that other earls and other chief officers should 
be appointed to the ships. It was then so long delayed that 
the naval force all .lagged behind, and all betook themselves 



1 See contination as in F., p. 153. 






THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 151 

like manner to his sons, all tKat they had before possessed ; 
and to his wife and his daughter, all as full and as free as 
they had before possessed. And they confirmed between them 
full friendship, and to all the people they promised good law. 



home. Then was earl Godwine apprized of that, and, toge- 319. 
ther with his fleet, hoisted his sails, and they at once betook 
themselves to Wight, and there landed, and there harried so long 
until the people paid them as much as they imposed on them. 
And then they went westward until they came to Portland, 
and there they landed and did whatever harm they could do. 
Harold was then come out from Ireland, with nine ships, and 
landed at Porlock, and there much people was gathered against 
him, but he failed not to procure him food ; then went up 
and slew a great number of people, and took to him in cattle, 
and in men, and in property, as it might happen. And he then 
betook himself eastward to his father ; and then they both 
betook themselves eastward until they came to Wight, and 
took there what they had before left behind them. And they 
then betook themselves thence to Pevensey, and got on with 
them as many ships as were there ready; and so on until he 
came to Nness (Dungeness) ; and got all the ships that were in 
Romney, and in Hythe, and in Folkestone, and went then 
east to Dover, and landed there, and there took them ships 
and hostages as many as they would, and so went to Sand- 
wich, and did just the same ; and hostages were everywhere 
given them, and provisions wherever they desired. And 
then they betook themselves to Northmouth, and so towards 
London ; and some of the ships went, within Shepey, and 
there did great harm, and betook themselves to King's Mid- 
dleton and burned it all, and then went to London after 
the earls. When they came to London, the king and all the 
earls lay against them with fifty ships. The earls then sent 
to the king, and craved of him that they might be 'worthy 321. 



'See page 139, note l . 



152 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

And they then outlawed all the Frenchmen who had before 
raised up unjust law, and judged unjust judgments, and 
counselled evil counsel in this country; except so many as they 
resolved on that the king might like to have with him, who 
were true to him and all his people. And archbishop Robert, 
and bishopWilliam, and bishop Ulf, with difficulty escaped, with 
the Frenchmen who were with them, and so went over sea. 
And earl Godwiue, and Harold, and the queen, resided on their 
property.} Swegen had before gone to Jerusalem from Bruges, 



of each of those things which had been unjustly taken from 
them. Then the king, however, refused for some while ; so 
long until the people who were with the earl were much 
excited against the king and against his folk; so that the earl 
himself with difficulty stilled the people. Then went bishop 
Stigand to them, with God's support, and the wise men, both 
within the town and without, and they resolved that hostages 
should be fixed on each side, and it was so done. When 
archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen were apprized of that, 
they took their horses, and went, some to Pentecost's castle, 
some north to Robert's castle. And archbishop Robert, with 
bishop Ulf, and their companions, went out at East-gate and 
slew and otherwise maltreated many young men, and straight- 
ways betook themselves to Eadulfsness (Walton-on-the-Naze) ; 
and there lighted on a crazy ship, and he betook himself at 
once over sea, and left his pall and all Christianity here in the 
country, so as God willed it, as he had before obtained the 
dignity, as God willed it not. Then a great ' gemot ' was 
proclaimed without London, and all the earls and the best men 
that were in this country were at the gemot.' There God- 
wine brought forth his speech, and there declared before king 
Eadward his lord, and before all the people of the land, that 
he was guiltless of that which was laid to his charge, and to 
Harold his son's, and all his children's. And the king gave to 
the earl and his children his full friendship and full earldom, 
and all that he had before possessed, and to all the men who 
'Eadgyth. were with him ; and the king gave to the "lady all that she 
before owned. And archbishop Robert was without reserve 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 153 

and died when homeward, at Constantinople, at Michaelmas. 
It was on the Monday after St. Mary's mass (Sept. 14th), 
that Godwine with his ships came to Southwark ; and the 
morning after, on the Tuesday, they were reconciled, as it here 
before stands. Godwine then sickened shortly after he landed 
and l re-embarked : but he made altogether too little repara- 
tion for the property of God which he had from many holy 
places. In the same year came the strong wind on Thomas' 
mass-night (Dec. 21st), and everywhere did much harm ; also 
was Rhys, the Welsh king's brother, slain. 



declared an outlaw, and all the Frenchmen, because they had 
chiefly made the discord between earl Godwine and the king. 
And bishop Stigand succeeded to the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury ; and at this same time Arnwi, abbot of Peterborough, 
left the abbacy in sound health, and gave it to Leofric, a 
monk, by leave of the king and of the monks ; and abbot 
Arnwi lived afterwards eight winters. And the abbot Leofric 
then so enriched the monastery that it was called the golden 
borough ; it then waxed greatly in land, and in gold, and in 
silver.* 

An. M.LII. and so went to Wight, and took there all the 
ships which might be of any value, and hostages, and so 
turned eastward. And Harold with nine ships was arrived 
at Porlock, and there slew many people, and took cattle, and 
men, and property, and went eastward to his father ; and they 
both went to Romney, to Hythe, to Folkestone, to Dover, to 
Sandwich ; and ever took all the ships that they found, which 
might be of any value, and hostages as they went, and then 
betook themselves to London, etc. b 



1 In the text ' eft gewyrpte,' I translation is consequently conjee- 
which I do not understand ; my | tural. It may be a nautical term. 



b i?. in continuation, see p. 150. 



154 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

An. M.LIII. In this year the king was in Winchester, at 
Easter (April llth), and earl Godwine with him, and Harold 
322. his son, and Tostig. Then on the second Easter-day he was 
sitting with the king at refection, when he suddenly sank down 
by the footstool, deprived of speech and of all his power ; and 
he was then removed into the king's chamber ; and it was 
thought that it would pass over, but it was not so ; but he 
continued so, speechless and powerless, until the Thursday, 
and then resigned his life ; and he lies there within the Old 
monastery. And his son Harold succeeded to his earldom, 
and resigned that which he before had, and JElfgar succeeded 
thereto. In this same year died Wulfsige, bishop of Lichfield ; 
and Leofwine, abbot of Coventry, succeeded to the bishopric. 
And JEgelward, abbot of Glastonbury, died, and Godwiue, 
abbot of Winchcombe. Also the Welshmen slew a great 
number of English folk of the wardmen, near Westbury. 'In 



An. M.LIII. In this year was the great wind on Thomas' 
mass-night (Dec. 21st) ; and also all the Midwinter there was 
much wind. And it was resolved that Rhys, the Welsh king's 
brother, should be slain, because he committed ravages, and 
his head was brought to Gloucester on Twelfth-day eve. And 
in this same year, before All-Hallows mass (Nov. 1st), died 
Wulfsige, bishop of Lichfield, and Godwine, abbot of Winch- 
combe, and JEgelward, abbot of Glastonbury, all within one 
month ; and Leofwine succeeded to the bishopric of Lichfield, 
1 of Worcester. an d * bishop Ealdred assumed the abbacy of Winchcombe ; 
and JEgeluoth succeeded to the abbacy of Glastonbury. And 
in the same year died JElfric, Odda's brother, at Deerhurst, and 
his body rests at Pershore. And in the same year died earl 
Godwine, and he was taken ill where he was sitting with the 
323. king at Winchester. And Harold, his son, succeeded to the 
earldom, which his father had before had ; and earl JElfgar 
succeeded to the earldom which Harold had before had. a 



1 Stigand occupied the see of I pall from the pope. Kinsi did not 
Robert, and had not received his | get his pall before 1054, R.P. 



D. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 155 

this year there was no archbishop in this land ; but bishop 

Stigand held the bishopric of Canterbury at Christchurch, 

and Kynsige that of York ; and *Leofwine and Wulfwi went * of Lichficld. 

over sea, and there caused themselves to be ordained bishops. 

Wulfwi succeeded to the ""bishopric that Ulf had had, he being * Dorchester. 

living, and driven away. 

An. M.LIV. In this year *earl Siward went with a great * of Northum- 
army into Scotland, and made great slaughter of the Scots, 
and put them to flight, and the king escaped. Many also fell 
on his side, both Danish and English, and also his own son. 
In the same year was hallowed the monastery at Evesham, on 
the vith of the Ides of October (Oct. 10th). In the same 
year* bishop Ealdred went south over sea to Saxony, and * of Worcester, 
was received there with great veneration. In the same year 
Osgod Clapa died suddenly as he lay on his bed. In this year 
died* Leo, the holy pope of Rome. And in this year was so *ix. 
great a murrain among the cattle, as no man remembered for 
many winters before. And Victor was chosen pope. 



An. M.LIII. In this year died earl Godwine, on the xvnth 
of the Kal. of May (Apr. 15th), and he is buried at Winchester, 
in the Old monastery ; and earl Harold, his son, succeeded to 
the earldom, and to all which his father had owned ; and earl 
.ZElfgar succeeded to the earldom which Harold had before 



An. M.LIV. In this year earl Siward went with a large army 
to Scotland, both with a naval force and with a land force, and 
fought against the Scots, and put to flight the king Macbeth, 
and slew all that was best there in the land, and led thence 
great booty, such as no man had before obtained. But his son 
Osbern, and his sister's son Siward, and some of his ' huscarls,' 
and also of the king's, were there slain, on the day of the Seven 
Sleepers (July 27th). In the same year bishop Ealdred went 
to Cologne over sea, on the king's errand, and was there 
received with great worship by the * emperor ; and there he * Henry in. 
abode well nigh a year ; and each gave him entertainment, 



F. 



156 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 



* of N.Wales. 



An. M.LV. In this year earl Siward died at York, and his 
body lies within the monastery of Galmanho, which he him- 
self had before built, to the glory of God and all his saints. 
Then, thereafter, within a little space, was a * witena-gemot ' 
at London ; and earl ^Elfgar, earl Leofric's son, was outlawed 
without any guilt ; and he went then to Ireland, and there 
got him a fleet, that was eighteen ships, besides his own ; and 
they went thence to Brytland (Wales) to * king Griffith, with 
that force, and he received him in his friendship. And they 
gathered then a great force, with the Irishmen and with the 
Welsh race ; and earl Ralph gathered a great force against 
them at Hereford town. And they sought them there ; but 
before there was any spear shot the English folk fled, because 
they were on horses j 1 and a great slaughter was made there, 



324. 

1 of Lichfleld. 



of York. 



both the bishop of Cologne and the emperor. And he allowed 
* bishop Leofwine to hallow the monastery at Evesham, on the 
vith of the Ides of October (Oct. 10th). And in this year 
Osgod Clapa died suddenly in his bed. And in this year died 
St. Leo the pope ; and Victor was chosen pope in his stead. a 

An. M.LV. In this year earl Siward died at York, and he 
lies at Galmanho, in the monastery which he himself had 
caused to be built and hallowed in the name of God and St. 
Olaf ; and Tostig succeeded to the earldom which he had had. 
And *archbishop Kynsige fetched his pall from pope Victor. 
And soon thereafter, 2 earl JElfgar, son of earl Leofric, was 
outlawed, almost without guilt. But he went .to Ireland and 



1 Florence of Wcrces'er removes 
all doubt as to which were mounted 
on horses. " Timidus dux Radulfus 
" illis occurrens, Anglos contra 
" morem in equis pugnare jussit: 
" sed cum prcelium essent commis- 
" suri, comes cum suis Francis et 
" Nortmannis fugam primitus capes- 



" sit. Quod videntes Angli, ducem 
" suum fugiendo sequuntur," etc. 

2 " Algarus comes exul factus 
" est propterea quod debuit esse 
" delator patrise, quod ipse ante 
" cognovit ita esse, licet verbum 
" illud improvise exprimerit." F. 
Lat. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 157 

about four or five hundred men, and on the other side not one. 
And they went then to the town and burned it, and the great 
monastery, which the venerable bishop -ZEthelstan had before 
caused to be built, that they plundered, and bereaved of relics 
and of vestments, and of all things ; and slew the folk, and led 
some away. Then a force was gathered from very near all 
England, and they came to Gloucester, and so went out, not 
far into Wales, and there lay some while. And earl Harold 
meanwhile caused a ditch to be dug about the * town. Then * Hereford, 
in the interval peace was spoken for, and Earl Harold and 
those who were with him came to Bilsley, and there peace 32G. 
and friendship were confirmed between them. And earl .ZElf- 



to Brytland (Wales), and got him there a great band, and so 
went to Hereford ; but there came against him earl Ralph, 
with a large army ; and with little trouble he brought them to 
flight, and slew a great number in the flight ; and went then 
to Hereford town, and harried it, and burned the great monas- 
tery which bishop -ZEthelstan had built, and slew the priests 
within the monastery, and many besides, and took all the 
treasures therein, and led away with them. And when they 
had done the most evil, the counsel was resolved on that earl 
jElfgar should be inlawed, and his earldom restored to him, 
and all that had been taken from him. This harrying took 
place on the ixth of the Kal. of November (Oct. 24th). In 
the same year died Tremerin, the Welsh bishop, soon after 
that harrying ; and he was bishop JEthelstan's substitute 
after he was infirm. a 

An. M.LV. In this year earl Siward died ; and then was 
summoned a general * witena-gemot,' seven nights before 325. 
Midlent (Mar. 20th) ; ' and earl JElfgar was outlawed, be- 
cause it was cast upon him that he was a tra ; tor to the king 
and to all the people of the land. And he confessed it before 
all the men who were there gathered ; though the word es- 
caped him involuntarily. And the king gave the earldom to 
gar was then inlawed, and there was restored to him all 
that had before been taken from him. And the fleet went to 

1 See note 2 , p. 156. 



158 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* had. D. 



Chester, and there awaited their pay, which ^Elfgar had pro- 
mised them. The slaughter was on the ixth of the Kal. of 
November (Oct. 24th). In the same year died Tremerig, the 
of St. David's. * Welsh bishop, soon after that harrying: he was bishop 
JEthelstan's substitute, after he was infirm. 

An. M.LVI. In this year bishop JEgelric left his bishopric at 
Durham, and went to Peterborough, to St. Peter's monastery ; 
and his brother JEgelwine succeeded thereto. In this year 
died JEtkelstan, the venerable bishop, on the ivth of the Ides 
of February (Feb. 10th), and his body lies at Hereford town ; 
and Leofgar was appointed bishop. He was earl Harold's 
mass-priest. He * wore his l ' kenepas ' in his priesthood, until 
he was a bishop : he forsook his chrism and his rood, his 
ghostly weapons, and took to his spear and to his sword, after 
his bishophood, and so went in the force against Griffith, the 
Welsh king, and he was there slain, and his priests with him, 
and JElfnoth the shire-reeve, and many good men with them ; 
and the others fled away. This was eight nights before Mid- 
summer. It is difficult to tell the misery, and all the marches, 
and the encamping, and the labour, and the destruction of 
men, and also of horses, which all the English army under- 
went, until *eaii Leofric met them, and earl Harold, and 
* bishop Ealdred, and made peace between them ; so that 
Griffith swore oaths, that he would be to king Eadward a 
faithful and unfailing under-king. And bishop Ealdred suc- 
ceeded to the bishopric that Leofgar had before had for eleven 



*ofMercia 
* of Worcester. 



Tostig, son of earl Godwine, which earl Sjward had before 
possessed. And earl -ZElfgar sought the protection of Griffith, 
in North Wales. And in this year Griffith and ^Elfgar 
burned St. .ZEthelbryht's monastery, and all the town of 
Hereford.* 



1 Qu. headpiece, Scot, knapscap ? 

" Let ilca ane his knapscap lace, 
" Let ilca ane his steil-jack brace." 

Minstr. of Scot. Border, ra. 476, edit. 1821. 
Or Knapsack, Fr. canapsa ? 



a E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



159 



weeks and four days. In the same year died l Cona the em- 
peror. In this year died * earl Odda, and his body lies at * of Devon. 
Pershore ; and he was ordained monk before his end, a good 
man and pure, and very noble ; and he died on the und of the 
Kal. of September (Aug. 31st.) 

An. M.LVII. In this year came Eadward setheling to Eng- 328. 
land ; he was king Eadward's brother's son, king Eadmund, 
who was called Ironside for his valour. This Eetheling had 
king Cnut sent away to Hungary to be betrayed ; but he 
there throve into a good mun, as him God granted, and him 
well became ; so that he got the emperor's * kinswoman to * niece, 
wife, and by whom a fair offspring he begot : she was named 
Agatha. We know not for what cause it was done, that he 
might not see his kinsman king Eadward. Alas ! that was a 
rueful hap, and a baleful, for all this nation, that he so quickly 
his life ended, after he came to England, to the unhappiness 
of this poor nation. In the same year died earl Leofric, on 
the nnd of the Kal. of October (Sept. 30th). He was very 
wise 'fore God and also 'fore the world, which profited all 
this nation. He lies at Coventry, and his son u3lfgar suc- 
ceeded to his government. And in that year earl Ealph died, 
on the xnth of the Kal. of January (Dec. 21st), and lies at 
Peterborough. Also died bishop Heca in Sussex, and JEgelric 
was raised to his *see. And in this year t pope Victor died, * Selsc y- t n. 
and * Stephen was chosen pope. 



*ix. 



An. M.LVII. In this year Eadward aetheling, king Ead- 
mund's son, came hither to land, and shortly after died ; and 
his body is buried within St. Paul's monastery at London. 
And pope Victor died, and Stephen was chosen pope : he was 
abbot of Monte-Cassino. And earl Leofric died, and JElfgar 
his son succeeded to the earldom which his father before had. a 



1 I can account for this extra- 
ordinary appellation bestowed on 
the emperor Henry III. only by 
supposing it extracted by the simple 



scribe from the word Franconia, 
Henry III. being of the Franconian 
line of emperors. 



E. 



160 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. M.Lvm. In this year earl -^Elfgar was banished ; but 
*k. of N.Wales, he soon came in again with force, through * Griffith's aid. 
And this year came a naval force from Norway. It is long- 
some to tell how it all went. In the same year bishop 
Ealdred hallowed the monastery at Gloucester, which he 
himself had raised to the glory of God and St. Peter ; and 
then went to Jerusalem, with such state as no other did 
before him, and there devoted himself to God, and also offered 
a worthy gift at our Lord's sepulchre, that was a golden 
chalice of five marks, of very wondrous work. In the same 
year died pope Stephen, and *Benedict was appointed pope : 
he sent a pall to bishop Stigand. ^Egelric was ordained 
* bishop in Sussex, and abbot Siward bishop of Rochester. 

An. M.LIX. In this year *Nicholas was chosen pope ; he had 
before been bishop of the city of Florence ; and Benedict was 
driven out, who was pope there before. And in this year the 
steeple was hallowed at Peterborough, on the xvith of the 
Kal. of November (Oct. 17th). 



*x. 



of Selspv. 



* Wells. 

* of Rochester. 



An. M.LVIII. In this year pope Stephen died, and Benedict 
was hallowed pope : the same sent hither to land the pall to 
archbishop Stigand. And in this year died Heca, bishop of 
Sussex ; and archbishop Stigand ordained -<Egelric, a monk 
of Christ-church, bishop of Sussex, and abbot Siward bishop 
of Rochester. 11 

An. M.LXI. In this year died Duduc bishop of *Somerset, and 
Gisa succeeded. And in the same year died "bishop Godwine 
at St. Martin's, on the vnth of the Ides of March (Mar. 9th). 
And in the same year died Wulfric, abbot of St. Augustine's, 
within the Easter week, on the xivth of the Kal. of May 
(Apr. 18th). When word came to the king that abbot Wulf- 
ric was departed, he chose ^Ethelsige, a monk, in his stead, 
* at Winchester, from the 'Old monastery: he then followed archbishop 
Stigand, and was hallowed abbot at Windsor, on St. Augus- 
tine's mass-day (May 26th).*> 



a E. F. Here ends MS. Cott. Domit. A. vm. 



"E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 161 

An. M.LX. Tn this year there was a great earthquake, on the 
Translation of St. Martin (July 4th) ; and king *Henry died *i. 
in France ; and Kynsige, archbishop of York, departed on the 
xith of the Kal. of January (Dec. 22nd), and he lies at Peter- 
borough ; and *bishop Ealdred succeeded to the bishopric ; * of Worcester. 
and Walter succeeded to the bishopric of Herefordshire ; and 
bishop Duduc also died, who was bishop of * Somerset ; and * Wells. 
Gisa, a priest, was set in his stead. 

An. 3I.LXI. In this year bishop Ealdred went to Rome after 
his pall, and he received it from pope Nicholas. And earl 
Tostig and his wife also went to Rome ; and the bishop and 
the earl suffered great hardship when they came homeward. 
And in this year died *bishop Godwine, at tSt. Martin's ; * of ^J|^r. 
and Wulfric, abbot of St. Augustine's, on the xivth of the 
Kal. of 'April (Mar. 19th). And pope Nicholas died, and * Ma y ? seep. ieo. 
*Alexander was chosen pope ; he had been bishop of Lucca. * II. 

An. M.LXII. 

An. M.LXIII. In this year, after Midwinter, earl Harold 330. 
went from Gloucester to Rhuddlan, which was Griffith's, and 
burned the residence, and his ships, and all the equipments 
which belonged thereto, and put him to flight. And then, at 
the Rogation days (May 26th), Harold went with ships from 
Bristol about Brytland (Wales), and the people made peace, 
and gave hostages. And Tostig went with a land-force against - 
them, and they subdued the land. But in this same year, in 
autumn, king Griffith was slain, on the Nones of August 
(Aug. 5th), by his own men, because of the war which he 



An. M.LXII. In this year Le Maine was subjugated by 
William, count of Normandy. 8 

An. M.LXIII. In this year earl Harold and his brother, earl 331. 
Tostig, went both with a land-force and with a naval force 
into Brytland (Wales), and they subdued the land ; and the 
people gave them hostages, and submitted; and went after 
that and slew their king Griffith, and brought his head to 
Harold ; and he appointed another king thereto.* 



*E. 

VOL. II. 



162 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

warred against earl Harold. He was king over all the Welsh 
race ; and his head was brought to earl Harold, and Harold 
brought it to the king, and his ship's head, and the 'top there- 
with. And king Eadward delivered the land over to his 
* Rithwalan, two brothers, Blethgent and *Bigwatla ; and they swore oaths, 
Ft. Wifforn. ^^ ^ ve hostages to the king and to the earl, that they would 
be faithful to him in all things, and ready to [serve] him 
everywhere by water and by land, and to pay such requisitions 
from the land as had been done before to any other king. 
An. M.LXIV. 

An. M.LXV. In this year, before Lammas (Aug. 1st), earl 
Harold ordered a building to be erected in Brytland (Wales) at 
Portskewet, when he had subdued it ; and had thereto gathered 
much property, and thought to have king Eadward there for 
332. the sake of hunting. But when it was ah 1 ready, then went 
Cradoc, the son of Griffith, with all the gang which he could 
get, and slew almost all the people who were there building, 
and took the property which was there prepared. We know 
not who first counseled this evil counsel, 2 This was done on 
St. Bartholomew's mass-day (Aug. 24th). And shortly after 
this, all the thanes in Yorkshire and in Northumberland 
gathered together, and outlawed their earl Tostig, and slew all 
his household- men that they could come at, both English and 
Danish, and took all his weapons at York, and gold and silver, 
and all his treasures which they could anywhere hear of, and 
sent after Morkere, son of earl JElfgar, and chose him for their 



2 An. M.LXV. And the slaughter was on St. Bartholomew's 
mass- day (Aug. 24th). And then, after St. Michael's, all the 
thanes in Yorkshire went to York, and there slew all earl 
Tostig's 'huscarls' whom they might hear of, and took his 
treasures. And Tostig was then at Brytford with the king. 
And then, very shortly after, there was a great 'gemot* 
at Northampton ; and so at Oxford, on the day of St. Simon 



1 For ' bone ' of the text we 
should probably read bune, car- 
chesium, so called apparently from 



its cup-like form in the ancient ves- 
sels. Florence renders 'bone' by 



ornatura. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 163 

earl : and he went south with all the shire, and with Not- 
tinghamshire, and Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire, until he came 
to Northampton : and his brother Eadwine came to meet him 
with the men who were in his earldom, and also many Britons 333. 
came with him. There came earl Harold to meet them, and 
they laid an errand on him to king Eadward, and also sent 
messengers with him, and prayed that they might have Mor- 
kere for their earl. And the king granted it, -and sent Harold 
again to them at Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon and 
St. Jude's mass (Oct. 27th) ; and he made known the same to 
them, and gave his hand thereto ; and he there renewed 
Cnut's law. And the 'Kythrenan did great harm about 
Northampton, while he went on their errand, inasmuch as 
they slew men, and burned houses and corn, and took all the 
cattle which they could come at, that was many thousand; 
and many hundred men they took, and led north with them ; 
so that the shire, and the other shires which are nigh there, 
were for many winters the worse. And earl Tostig, and his 
wife, and all those who would what he would, went south over 
sea with him to *count Baldwine, and he received them all, and * of Flanders, 
they were all the winter there. And king Eadward came to 
Westminster at Midwinter, and there caused the monastery to 
be hallowed, which he himself had built to the glory of God, 



and St. Jude (Oct. 28th). And earl Harold was there, and 
would work their reconciliation, if he could, but he could not ; 
for all his earldom unanimously renounced and outlawed him 
(Tostig), and all who raised up lawlessness with him ; because 
he first robbed God, and bereaved all those of life and of land 
over whom he had power. And they then took to them Mor- 
kere for earl ; and Tostig then went over sea, and his wife 
with him, to Baldwine's land, and took a winter-residence at 
St. Omer's, etc. a 



>a Northernan men. E. 



C. 

L 2 



164 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



and St. Peter, and to all God's saints : and the church-hallow- 
ing was on Childermas day (Dec. 28th). And he died on 
Twelfth-day eve (Jan. 5th), and was buried on Twelfth-day, 
in the same monastery, as it hereafter says : 



This year king Eadward, 
of Angles lord, 
sent his truthful 
soul to Christ, 
into God's protection, 
a holy spirit. 
He in the world here 
abode a while 
in kingly majesty, 
334. of counsels mighty. 
Four and twenty 
winters number'd 
the noble ruler, 
wealth dispens'd ; 
and he a prosperous time, 
ruler of men, 
illustrious govern'd 
Welsh and Scots, 
and Britons eke, 
the son of ^thelred, 
Angles and Saxons, 
champions bold, 
whom clasp around 
cold ocean-waves, 
all that to Eadward, 
noble king, 
faithfully obey'd, 
warrior men. 
Was aye blithe of mood 
the baleless king, 
though he long ere 
of land bereft, 
in exile dwelt, 
widely on earth, 



after that Cnut o'ercame 

the race of >3Ethelred, 

and Danes rul'd o'er 

the dear realm 

of England, 

eight and twenty 

winters number'd, 

wealth dispens'd. 

After that came forth 

in trappings goodly, 

a king in virtues good, 

chaste and mild : 

Eadward the noble, 

his country guarded, 

his land and people, 

until came suddenly 

the bitter death, 

and so dearly took 

the noble [king] from earth. 

Angels bore 

the truthful soul 

into heaven's light : 

and the sage nathless 

the realm committed 

to an illustrious man, 

Harold himself, 

a noble earl, 

He in all time 

faithfully obey'd 

his lord, 

by words and deeds, 

nor aught neglected 

of what was needful 

to his sovereign king. 



33: 



And in this year also earl Harold was hallowed king ; and he 
experienced lit (b quiet therein, the while that he ruled the 
realm. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 165 

V An. M.LXVI. In this year king Harold came from York to 336. 
Westminster, at the Easter which was after the Midwinter in 
which the king died ; and Easter was then on the day the 
xvith of the Kal. of May (April 16th). Then was seen over 
all England such a sign in the heavens as no man ever before 
saw. *feome men said that it was the star cometa, which some 
men call the haired star ; and it first appeared on the eve of 
Litania major, the vmth of the Kal. of May (Apr. 24th), and 
so shone all the seven nights. And shortly after, earl Tostig 
came from beyond sea into Wight, with as large a fleet as he 
could get ; and there he was paid both in money and pro- 
visions. ! And king Harold his brother gathered so great a 
naval force, and also a land-force as no king here in the land 
had before done : because it had been made known to him 
that William the Bastard would come hither and win this 
land ; all as it afterwards came to pass. And the while came 
earl Tostig into the Humber with sixty ships ; and earl Ead- 
wine came with a land-force and drove him out. And the 
' bujsj>carl ' forsook him ; and he went to Scotland with 
twelve smackjy and there Harald, king of Norway, met him 



An. M.LXVI. In this year king Eadward died, and carl 
Harold succeeded to the kingdom, and held it forty weeks and 
one day. And in this year William came, and won England. 
And in this year Christclmrch was burnt. And in this year a 
comet appeared on the xivth of the Kal. of May (Apr. 18th). a 

An. M.LXVI. l And he then went thence, and did harm 
everywhere by the sea- coast where he could approach, until he 
came to Sandwich. Then it was made known to king Harold, 
who was in London, that Tostig his brother was come to 
Sandwich. He then gathered so great a naval force, and also 
a laud-force, as no king here in the land had before gathered ; 
because it had for truth been said to him, that count William 
from Normandy, king Eadward's kinsman, would come hither 
and subdue this land, all as it afterwards came to pass. 
When Tostig learned that, that king Harold was proceeding 
towards Sandwich, he went from Sandwich, and took some of 
the ' butse-carls ' Avith him, some willingly, some unwillingly ; 

"A. 



166 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 

with three hundred ships ; and Tostig submitted to him, and 
became his man ; and then they both went into the Humber, 
until they came to York ; and there fought against them earl 
Eadwine and earl Morkere his brother ; but the Normen had 
the victory. It was then made known to Harold, king of the 
Angles, that this had thus happened : and this battle was on 
St. Matthew's eve (Sept. 20th). Then came Harold our king 
unawares on the Normen, and met with them beyond York, at 
Stamford-bridge, with a large army of English folk ; and there 
during the day was a very severe fight on each side. There 
were slain Harald l Harfagri and earl Tostig ; and the Nor- 
men who were there left were put to flight ; and the English 
hotly slew them from behind, until they came to their ships ; 
some were drowned, and some also burnt, and so diversly 
perished, that few were left ; and the English had possession 
of the place of carnage. The king then gave peace to Olaf, 
the Normen's king's son, and to their bishop, and to the earl 
pan. O f * Orkney, and to all those who were left in the ships ; and 

they then went up to our king, and swore oaths, that they 
would ever observe peace and friendship to this land ; and 
the king let them go home with twenty-four ships. These 



and then went north into the Humber, and there harried in 
Lindsey, and there slew many good men. When earl Ead- 
wine and earl Morkere were apprized of that, they came 
thither, and drove him from the land ; and he then went to 
Scotland, and the king of the Scots gave him an asylum, and 
aided him with provisions, and he there abode all the summer. 
338. Then came king Harold to Sandwich, and there awaited his fleet, 
because it was long before it could be gathered. And when 
his fleet was gathered, he went to Wight, and there lay all the 
summer and the autumn; and a land-force was kept everywhere 
by the sea, though at the end it availed naughk When it was 
the Nativity of St. Mary (Sept. 8th) the men's provisions 
were gone, and no man could longer keep them there. The 



1 The English chroniclers give 
the surname of Harfagr, Fair-hair, 
Fairfax, to this prince, instead of 



Hardrada, Severe, Harald Harfagri 



died in 934. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 167 

two great battles were fought within five nights. Then came 
William count of Normandy to Pevensey, on St. Michael's 
mass-eve (Sept. 28th) ; and immediately after they were , 
ready, they constructed a castle at the town of Hastings. This 
was then made known to king Harold, and he gathered a great 
army, and came to meet him at the hoar apple-tree. And 
William came against him unawares, ere his people were in 
battle order. But the king, nevertheless, boldly fought 
against him with those men who would follow him ; and there 
was a great slaughter made on each side. There were slain 
king Harold, and earl Leofwine his brother, and earl Gyrth 
his brother, and many good men ; and the French had posses- 
sion of the place of carnage, as to them God granted for the 
people's sins. Archbishop Ealdred then, and the townsmen of 
London would have Eadgar child for king, as was indeed his 



men were then allowed to go home, and the king rode up, and 
the ships were ! driven to London, and many perished before 
they came thither. When the ships were come home, came 
king Harald from Norway, north into the Tyne, and unawares 
with a very large naval force, and no little .... that might 
be ... or more. And earl Tostig came to him with all that 
he had got, as they had before settled : and then they both 
went, with all the fleet, along the Ouse, up towards York. 
When it was announced to king Harold in the south, when he 
had come from on ship-board, that king Harald of Norway and 
earl Tostig had landed near York, he went northward, by day 
and by night, as speedily as he could gather his force. Then, 
before that king Harold could come thither, earl E ad wine and 
earl Morkere had gathered from their earldom as large a body 
as they could get, and fought against the army, and made 
great slaughter, and there were many of the English people 
slain, and drowned, and driven in fight ; and the Normen had 
possession of the place of carnage. And this flight was on the 
vigil of Matthew the apostle (Sept. 20th), and it was Wednes- 



1 A similar use of drifan, to drive, as a nautical term, occurs in Beowulf, 
5607. 



" j?a J>e brentingas 
" ofer floda genipu 
" feorran drifaft." 



those who their foamy barks 
over the mists offloads 
drive from afar. 



168 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

natural right ; and Eadwine and Morkere promised him that 
they would fight with him ; but as it ever should be the for- 
warder so was it ever, from day to day, slower and worse, as 
at the end it all went. _ This fight was fought on the day of 
Calixtus the pope (Oct. 14th[ And count William went after- 
wards again to Hastings, and there awaited whether the nation 
would submit to him ; but when he perceived that they would 
not come to him, he went up with all his army which was left 
to him, and what had afterwards come over sea to him, and 
harried all that part which he passed over, until he came to 
of York. Berkhampstead. And there came to meet him * archbishop 

Ealdred, and Eadgar child, and earl Eadwine, and earl Mork- 
ere, and all the best men of London, and then from necessity 



day. And then, after the fight, king Harald of Norway and 
earl Tostig went to York, with as many people as to them 
339. seemed good. And they gave them hostages from the city, 
and aided them in procuring food, and so they went thence to 
their ships, and agreed to full peace, so that they should all go 
with him south and this land subdue. Then, during this, 
came Harold, king of the Angles, with all his force, on the 
Sunday, to Tadcaster, and there arrayed his fleet ; and then 
on Monday went out through York. And king Harald of 
Norway, and earl Tostig, and their army were gone from their 
ships beyond York to Stamford-bridge, because it has been 
promised them as certain, that there, from all the shire, hos- 
tages would be brought to meet them. Then came Harold, 
king of the Angles, against them, unawares, beyond the bridge, 
and they there engaged together, and were fighting very boldly 
long in the day ; and there w^ere king Harald of Norway, and 
earl Tostig slain, and numberless people with them, both Nor- 
men and English ; and the Normen fled from the English. 
J Then was there one of the Norwegians who withstood the 
English folk, so that they could not pass over the bridge or 
gain the victory. Then an Englishman aimed at him with an 
arrow, but it availed naught ; and then came another under 
the bridge, and pierced him through under the corselet. Then 
came Harold, king of the Angles, over the bridge, and his force 

1 What follows is in a later hand, and exceedingly corrupt as to language. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



169 



submitted when the greatest harm had been done ; and it was 
very imprudent that it was not done earlier, as God would 
not better it for our sins : and they gave hostages, and swore 
oaths to him ; and he promised them that he would be a kind 
lord to them ; and yet, during this, they harried all that they 
passed over. Then on Midwinter's day, archbishop Ealdred 
hallowed him king at Westminster ; and he pledged him on 
* Christ's book, and also swore, before he would set the crown 
on his head, that he would govern this nation as well as any 
king before him had best done, if they would be faithful to 



the Gospels. 



onward with him, and there made great slaughter of both 
Norwegians and Flemings : and the king's son Hetmund 
Harold let go home to Norway with all the ships. 1 

An. M.LXVI. In this year the monastery at Westminister 337. 
was hallowed on Childermas day (Dec. 28th). And king 
Eadward died on Twelfth-mass eve (Jan. 5th); and he was 
buried on Twelfth-mass day, within the newly hallowed 
church at Westminster. And earl Harold succeeded to the 
kingdom of England, as the king had granted it to him, and 
men had also chosen him thereto; and he was blessed as king 
on Twelfth-mass day. And in the same year that he was 
king, he went out with a naval force against * William; and * of Normandy. 
the while came earl Tostig into the Humber with sixty ships. 
Earl Eadwine came with a land-force and drove him out, and 
the ( butse-carls ' forsook him. And he went to Scotland with 
twelve smacks\and Harald the Norwegian king met him with 
three hundred ships, and Tostig submitted to him; and they 
both went into the Plumber, until they came to York. And 
earl Morkere and earl Eadwine fought against them, and the 
Norwegian king had the victory. And it was made known to 
king Harold how it was there done and had happened ; and 
he came with a great army of Englishmen, and met him at 
Stamford-bridge, and slew him and the earl Tostig, and bravely 
overcame all the army. And the while count William landed 
at Hastings, on St. Michael's mass-day; and Harold came 
from the north and fought against him before his army had all 
come ; and there he fell, and his two brothers, G-yrth and 
Leofwine ; and William subdued this land, and came to West- 



Here ends MS. Cott. Tiber. B. i. 



170 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



him. Nevertheless, he laid a very heavy contribution on the 
people, and then, in Lent, went over sea to Normandy, and 
took with him archbishop Stigand, and JEgelnoth, abbot of 
Glastonbury, and Eadgar child, and earl Eadwine, and earl 
Morkere, and earl Waltheof, and many other good men of 
England. And 1 bishop Odo, and * earl William remained here 



minster, and archbishop Ealdred hallowed him king; and men 
paid him tribute and gave him hostages, and after wards bought 
their land. And then was Leofric abbot of Peterborough with 
that same force, and sickened there, and came home, and died 
soon after, on All-Hallows mass-night (Nov. 1st) : God be 
merciful to his soul! In his day there was all bliss and all 
good in Peterborough ; and he was dear to all people, so that 
the king gave to St. Peter and him the abbacy of Burton and 
that of Coventry, which earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had 
before founded, and that of Crowland, and that of Thorney. 
And he did so much for its good to the monastery of Peter- 
borough, in gold, and in silver, and in clothing, and in land, 
as never any other did before him, or any after him. Then 
3 Golden Borough became Wretched Borough. The monks 
then chose for abbot the provost Brand, because he was a very 
good man, and very wise, and sent him to Eadgar aetheling, 
because the people of the land weened that he should be king; 
and the cetheling blithely assented thereto. When king Wil- 
liam heard that say he was very wroth, and said that the abbot 
had contemned him. Then went good men between them and 
reconciled them ; because the abbot was a good man. Ho 
then gave the king forty marks of gold for a reconciliation ; 
and he then lived a little while after, only three years. After 
that came every tribulation and every evil to the monastery. 
God be merciful to it! a 



1 Odo, bishop of Bayeux, half 
brother of the Conqueror, being the 
son of his mother Arlette by her 
husband Herluin de Conteville. 



2 William Fitz Osbern, created 
by William earl of Hereford. 

3 See page 153. 



E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 171 

behind, and wrought castles widely throughout the nation, and 
oppressed the poor people ; and ever after that it greatly 
grew in evil. May the end be good when God wilUJ 

An. M.LXVII. In this year the king came again to England, 340. 
on St. Nicholas' mass-day (Dec. 6th) ; and on that day Christ- 
church at Canterbury was burnt, and bishop Wulfwig died, 
and is buried at his episcopal see in Dorchester. And Eadric 
child and the Britons were in a state of hostility, and were 
warring against the castlemen at Hereford, and doing them 
much harm. And in this year the king set a heavy tax on 
the poor people ; and, nevertheless, caused to be harried all 
that they passed over. And then he went to Devonshire, 
and besieged the town of Exeter for eighteen days, and there 
many of his army perished ; but ho promised them well, and 
ill performed. And they gave the town up to him, because 
the thanes had deceived them. And in this summer Eadgar 
child went out, with his mother Agatha, and his two sisters, 
Margaret and Christina, and Maerleswegen and many good 
men with them, and came to Scotland, under the protection 
of king Malcolm, and he received them all. Then king 
Malcolm began to yearn after * his sister Margaret to wife ; * Eadgar's. 
but he and all his men long refused ; and she herself also 
declined, and said, 

that she nor him nor any one the mighty Lord, 

would have, with corporal heart, 

if to her the heavenly Clemency in this short life, 
would grant, in pure continence, 

that she in maidenhood might propitiate. 

The king earnestly urged her brother, until he answered 



An. M.LXVII. In this year the king went over sea, and had 341. 
with him hostages and treasures, and came in the next year, 
on St. Nicholas' mass-day ; and on that day was Christ- 
church at Canterbury burnt. And when he came back, he 
gave away every man's land. And this summer, Eadgar child 
went out, and Masrleswegen, and many men with them, and 
went to Scotland ; and king Malcolm received them all, and 
took the child's sister Margaret to wife. a 



172 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 

* yea ;' and indeed he durst not otherwise, because they were 
come into his power. It then came to pass as God had before 
provided, and it might not be otherwise, as he himself in his 
gospel saith, that not even a sparrow may fall into a snaro 
without his providence. The prescient Creator knew before- 
hand what he would have done by her ; for she was to in- 
crease the praise of God in the land and direct the king from 
the erroneous path, and incline him, together with his people, 
to a better way, and suppress the evil habits which the nation 
had previously cultivated : as she afterwards did. The king 
then received her, though it was against her will ; and her 
manners pleased him, and he thanked God who had mightily 
given him such a mate, and wisely bethought him as he was 
a very sagacious man and turned himself to God, and con- 
temned every impurity ; according to what the apostle Paul, 
the teacher of all the gentiles, said : " Salvabitur vir infidelis 
" per mulierem fidelem ; sic et mulier infidelis per virum 
" fidelem," etc. ; that is in our tongue : Full oft the unbe- 
lieving man is halloived and healed through the righteous 
(believing) woman ; and, in like manner, the woman through 
the believing man. This aforesaid queen afterwards per- 
formed many useful deeds in the land, to the glory of God 
and also in royal qualities bore herself well, as to her was 
natural. Of a believing and noble race she sprang : her 
father was Eadward setheling, son of king Eadmund, Ead- 
mund was son of JEthelred, ^Ethelred of Eadgar, Eadgar of 
Eadnmnd for *Eadred, and so on in that royal kin : and her mother's kin 
goes to the emperor Henry, who had dominion over Rome. 
And in this year Gytha, Harold's mother, went out, and 
many good men's wives with her, to Flatholm, and there 
abode some while ; and so went thence over sea to St. Omer's. 
At this Easter the king came to Winchester ; and Easter was 
then on the xth of the Kal. of April (Mar. 23rd). And soon 
after that came Matilda the lady hither to land : and arch- 
bishop Ealdred hallowed her queen at Westminster, on Whit- 
sunday (May llth). It was then announced to the king that 
342. the people in the north had gathered themselves together, 
and would stand against him if he came. He then went to 
Nottingham, and there wrought a castle ; and so went to 
York, and there wrought two castles, and in Lincoln, and 
everywhere in that part. And earl Gospatric and the best 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



173 



men went to Scotland. And in the same time came one of 
Harold's sons from Ireland, with a naval force, into the mouth 
of the Avon unawares, and immediately harried over all that 
part ; they then went to Bristol, and would storm the town, 
but the townsmen fought stoutly against them; and when they 
could gain nothing from the town, they went to the ships with 
the plunder they had taken ; and so they went to Somerset- 
shire, and there landed. And Eadnoth the ""constable fought * stailcrc. 
against them, and was there slain, and many good men on each 
side ; and those who were left went away thence. 

An. M.LXVIII. In this year king William gave to *earl Robert * dc Comines. 
the government over Northumberland ; but the men of the 
country surrounded him in the burgh at Durham, and slew 
him and nine hundred men with him. And immediately after 
Eadgar retheling came with all the Northumbrians to York, 
and the townsmen made peace with them : and king William 
came unawares on them from the south, with an overwhelm- 
ing army, and put them to flight, and slew those who could 
not flee, which were many hundred men, and plundered the 
town, and defiled St. Peter's monastery, and also plundered 
and oppressed all the others. And the a3theling went back 
again to Scotland. After this came the sons of Harold from 
Ireland, at Midsummer, with sixty-four ships, into the mouth 
of the Taw, and there heedlessly landed ; and ' earl Brian 
came against them unawares, with no small force, and fought 
against them, and there slew all the best men that were in the 



An. M.LXVIII. In this year king William gave to earl Ro- 
bert the earldom of Northumberland. Then came the men of 
the country against him, and slew him, and nine hundred men 
with him. And Eadgar aethcling came then with all the 
Northumbrians to York, and the townsmen made peace with 
him. And king William came from the south with all his 
force, and ravaged the town, and slew many hundred men. 
And the retheling went back again to Scotland.* 



343. 



1 Brian was a son of Eudes, count I Maseres, Selecta Monumenta, p. 
of Brittany. See his pedigree in | 219, note. 



E. 



174 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



fleet ; and the others in a small body fled to the ships. And 
the sons of Harold went back again to Ireland. 

An. M.LXIX. In this year died archbishop Ealdred in York, 
and is there buried at his episcopal see : and he departed on 
the day of Prothus and Hyacynthus (Sept. llth) ; and he held 
the archiepiscopal chair with great dignity ten years, wanting 
fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark three 
sons of king Svein, and Asbiorn jarl and Thorkell jarl, with 
two hundred and forty ships, into the Humber ; and there 
came to meet them Eadgar child, and earl Waltheof, and 
Ma3rleswegen, and earl Gospatric, with the Northumbrians 
and all the country people, riding and walking, with a count- 
less army, greatly rejoicing, and so all unanimously went to 
York, and stormed and demolished the castle, and gained 
innumerable treasures therein, and slew there many hundred 
Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships ; but before 
the shipmen came thither, the French had burnt the town, 
and also plundered and burnt the holy monastery of St. Peter. 
When the king learned this, he went northward with all his 



* of Durham. An. M.LXIX. In this year * bishop JEgelric was accused at 

Peterborough, and sent to Westminster ; and his brother, 

* of Durham. * bishop JEgelwine, was outlawed. Then betwixt the 'two 

St. Mary's masses, came from the east, from Denmark, with 
three hundred ships, the sons of king Syein and his brother, 
Asbiorn jarl. And then earl Waltheof went out ; and he, 
and Eadgar getheling, and many hundred men with them, 
came and met the fleet in the Humber, and went to York, and 
landed, and won the castles, and slew many hundred men, and 
led to the ships much treasure, and had the chief men in cap- 
tivity ; and they lay between the Ouse and the Trent all the 
winter. And king William went into the shire and ravaged 
it all. And in this same year died Brand, abbot of Peter- 
borough, on the vth of the Kal. of December (Nov. 27th). a 



1 The Assumption (Aug. 15th) and 
the Nativity (Sept. 8th). Florence 



of Worcester has : " Ante Nativita- 
" tern S. MarisB." 



E, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 175 

force that he could gather, and completely harried and laid 
waste the shire. And the fleet lay all the winter in the 
Humbcr, where the king could not come at them. And the 
king was on the day of Midwinter at York ; and so all the 
winter in the land ; and came to Winchester at the same 
Easter. And * bishop JEgelric was accused, who was in Pe- * of Durham, 
terborough, and he was led to Westminster ; and his brother, 
* bishop JEgelwiue, was outlawed. * of Durham. 

An. M.LXX. 



M.LXX. In this year Lanfranc, who was abbot of Caen, came 
to England, who, after a few days became archbishop of Can- 
terbury. He was ordained on the ivth of the Kal. of Septem- 
ber (Aug. 29th) in his own episcopal see, by eight bishops, his 
suffragans. The others who were not there showed by mes- 
sengers and by letters why they could not be there. In that 
year Thomas, who was chosen bishop of York, came to Can- 
terbury that he might be there ordained according to the old 
custom. When Lanfranc craved confirmation of his obedience 
by oath-swearing, he refused, and said that he ought not to do 
it; the archbishop became wroth, and ordered the bishops who 
were come thither, by the archbishop Lanfranc's command, 
to do the service, and all the monks to unrobe themselves ; 
and, by his command, tl^ev (Jjid. So Thomas for that time 
went back without the blessings. Then soon after this it 
befel that the archbishop Lanfranc went to Rome, and Thomas 
along with him. When they came thither, and had spoken 
about other things, about which they would speak, Thomas 
began his speech, how he came to Canterbury, and how the 
archbishop asked obedience, with oath-swearing, from him, 
and he refused it. Then the archbishop Lanfranc began to 
show openly and distinctly that he with right craved that 
which he craved, and with strong discourses confirmed the 
same before the pope 'Alexander, and before all the council * n. 
that was there gathered ; and so they went home. After this, 
Thomas came to Canterbury, and all that the archbishop craved 
of him humbly fulfilled, and then received the blessings. 1 



T 

Here ends MS, C.C.C.C. C.LXXTII. /\ 



176 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



344, 



345. 



of Aarhus. 



Aii. M.LXXI. In this year earl Waltheof made his peace with 
the king ; and in the following Lent (Feb. 17th) the king 
caused all the monasteries that were in England to be ' plun- 
dered. And in this year there was a great famine, and the 
monastery at Peterborough was plundered. It was by the 
men whom bishop JEgelric had before excommunicated, because 



An. M.LXX. In this year earl Waltheof made his peace with 
the king ; and in the following Lent the king caused all the 
monasteries that were in England to be plundered. Then, in 
the same year came 2 Svein king of Denmark into the Humber; 
and the country people came to meet him, and made peace 
with him, weening that he would overrun the land, Then 
came to Ely Christian, the * Danish bishop, and Asbiorn jarl, 
and the Danish ' huscarls ' with them ; and the English 
folk from all the fen-lands came to them, weening that they 
would win all thd land. Then the monks of Peterborough 
heard say that their own men would plunder the monastery, 
that was Hereward and his company. That was because they 
had heard say that the king had given the abbacy to a French 
abbot named Turold, and that he was a very stern man, and 
was then come to Stamford with all his Frenchmen. There 
was then a church-ward there named Yware, who took by 
night all that he could ; that was, gospels, mass-mantles, 
cantor-copes, and robes, and such little things, whatever he 
could; and went forthwith, ere day, to the abbot Turold, and 
told him that he sought his protection, and informed him how 
the outlaws were to come to Peterborough, and that he did 
all by the advice of the monks. Then soon on the morrow 
came all the outlaws with many ships, and would enter the 
monastery, and the monks withstood so that they could not come 



1 The monasteries were the de- 
positories of treasure belonging to 
rich individuals ; of this William 
despoiled them : " rex Willelmus 
" monasteria totius Angliae per- 
" scrutari, et pecuniam quam ditiores 
" Angli, propter illius austeritatem 
" et depopulationem, in eis depo- 



" suerant, auferri et in serarium 
" suum jussit deferri." Flor. Wi- 
gorn, a. 1070. 

2 Svein did not come, but sent his 
two sons, Harald and Cnut, with 
their uncle Asbiorn jarl. See Dahl- 
mann, Gesch. v. Dannem. I. p. 176. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 177 

they had there taken all that he owned. And in the same 
summer the fleet came into the Thames, and lay there two 
nights, and then held on their course to Denmark. And *eaii * f Flanders. 
Baldwine died, and Arnulf his son succeeded to the govern- 
ment ; and the *king of the Franks and l earl William were to * Philip I. 
be his guardians. But there came * Robert, and slew Arnulf *surnamedthe 

Frisian. 

his kinsman, and the earl William, and many thousands of his 
men. 



in. They then set it on fire and burned all the monks' houses, 
and all the town, save one house. They then came in through 
fire, in at 2 Bolhithe gate, and the monks came to meet them, 
praying for peace. But they recked of nothing, went into the 
monastery, clomb up to the holy rood, then took the crown from 
our Lord's head, all of beaten gold ; then took the ' foot-spur ' 
that was underneath his foot, which was all of red gold. They 
clomb up to the steeple, brought down the crosier that was 
there hidden ; it was of gold and of silver. They took there two 
golden shrines, and nine of silver ; and they took fifteen great 
roods, both of gold and of silver. They took there so much gold 
and silver, and so many treasures in money, and in raiment, 
and in books, as no man may tell to another, saying that they 
did it from affection to the monastery. They then betook them- 
selves to the ships, proceeded to Ely, and there deposited all the 
treasures. The Danish men weened that they should overcome 
the Frenchmen ; they then dispersed all the monks, none re- 
maining there save one monk named Leofwine Lange; he lay 
sick in the sick man's ward. Then came abbot Turold, and 
eight times twenty Frenchmen with him, and all fully armed. 
When he came thither, he found within and without all burnt, 
save only the church. The outlaws were then all afloat, knowing 
that he would come thither. This was done on the day the ivth 
of the Nones of June (Jun. 2nd). The two kings, William and 



1 William Fitz Osbern, created by 
the Conqueror earl of Hereford. See 
for an account of him, Will. Gem- 
met, cc. vii. vin. Ord. Vital, pp. 
526, sq. (edit. Maseres, pp, 270, 271). 
Roman de Bou, n. pp. 122-126. 



W. Malmesb. pp. 431, 432, edit. 
E. H. S. 

2 " Janua ab australi parte monas- 
" terii Petroburgensis, vulyo hodie 
" Bulldykegate dicta." Hugo Can- 
didus ap. Sparke, p. 49. 



VOL. II. M 



178 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

346. An. M.LXXII. (M.LXXI.) In this year earl Eadwine and earl 

Morkere fled away, and went diversly in woods and in fields, 
until Eadwine was basely slain by his own men, and Morkere by 
ship went to Ely : and there came bishop JEgelwine, and Sige- 
ward Barn, and many hundred men with them. But when king 
William was informed of that, he ordered out a naval force and 
a land-force, and beset the land all about, and wrought a bridge 
and went in, and the naval force on the water-side. And then 
all the outlaws went and surrendered to the king : these 
were bishop -ZEgelwine, and earl Morkere, and all who were 
with them, except Hereward only, and all who could flee away 
with him. And he boldly led them out, and the king took 



Svein, became reconciled, when the Danish men went out 
from Ely with all the aforesaid treasure, and conveyed it with 
them. When they came in the middle of the sea, a great storm 
came and scattered all the ships in which the treasures were : 
some went to Norway, some to Ireland, some to Denmark; and 
all that thither came were the crosier, and some shrines, and 
some roods, and many of the other treasures; and they brought 
them to a king's town called . . . . , and placed them all in 
the churcn. Then afterwards, through their heedlessness, and 
through their drunkenness, on one night the church was burnt, 
and all that was therein. Thus was the monastery of Peter- 
borough burnt and plundered. May Almighty God have com- 
347. passion on it through his great mercy. And thus the abbot 
Turold came to Peterborough, and the monks then came again, 
and did Christ's service in the church, which had a full sennight 
before stood without any kind of rite. When bishop ^Egelric 
heard that say, he excommunicated all the men who had done 
the evil. Then there was a great famine this year ; and in 
the summer came the fleet from the north out of the Humber 
into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and afterwards 
proceeded to Denmark. And count Baldwine died, and his son 
Arnulf succeeded to the government ; and earl William was 
to be his guardian, and the king of the Franks also ; but then 
came count Robert and slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, 
and put the king to flight, and slew many thousands of his 
men. a 

E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 179 

their ships and weapons and many treasures ; and all the men 
he took, and did with them what he would. And bishop 
JEgelwine he sent to Abingdon, and he there died, in the 
winter, shortly after. 

An. M.LXXIII. (M.LXXII.) In this year king William led a 
naval force and a land-force to Scotland, and lay about that 
land with ships on the sea-side ; and himself with his land- 
force went in over the 'ford, a and he there found naught 
for which they were the better/ And king Malcolm came and 
made peace with king William, and gave hostages, and was his 
man ; and the king went home with all his force. And bishop 
JQgelric died : he was ordained bishop at York, but it was 
unjustly taken from him, and the bishopric of Durham given 
to him, and he had it while he would, and afterwards left 
it and went to Peterborough, to St. Peter's monastery, and 
there lived twelve years. Then after that king William had 
won England, he had him taken from Peterborough and sent 
him to Westminster. And he there died on the Ides of 
October (Oct. 15th), and is there buried within the monastery, 
in the porch of St. Nicholas. 

An. M.LXXIV. (M.LXXIII.) In this year king William led an 
English and French force over sea, and won the land of Le 
Maine. And the Englishmen greatly wasted the land ; vine- 
yards they ruined, and towns burned, and greatly wasted the 
land, and reduced it all into the hand of king William ; and 
they afterwards went home to England. 

An. M.LXXV. In this year king William went over sea 
to Normandy i and Eadgar child came from the Flemings' 
land to Scotland, on St. Grimbald's mass-day (July 8th) ; 
and king Malcolm and his sister Margaret received him with 



An. M.LXXIV. In this year king William went over sea to 
Normandy, and Eadgar child came from Scotland to Nor- 
mandy ; and the king inlawed him and all his men ; and he 



1 " His land-fyrde set j?am gewsede 
" in Isedde." led his land-force in 
at the ford, probably at the Forth. E. 
" in loco qui dicitur Abernithici." 
Flor. Wigorn. Whence it would 



2/ I cannot satisfactorily interpre 
this passage. Lingard renders it : 
"He there found naught that him 
" better was," which is not very 
intelligible. See his note. 



seem that he reached the Tay. 

M 2 



180 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

I. great worship. At that same time * Philip king of France 

wrote to him, and bade him come to him, and he would give 
him the castle of Montreuil, that he might then daily do harm 
to his enemies. Moreover, king Malcolm and his sister 
Margaret gave him and all his men great gifts and many 
treasures, in skins decked with purple, and in pelisses of 

minever? marten skin, and *weasel skin, and ermine skin ; and in palls, 
and in golden and silver vessels ; and led him and all his 
shipmen with great worship from his dominion. But on the 
voyage evil befel them, when they were out at sea ; so that 
there came on them very rough weather, and the raging sea 
and the strong wind cast them on the land so that all their 
ships burst asunder, and they themselves with difficulty came 
to land, and almost all their treasures were lost. And some of 
his men also were seized by the Frenchmen ; but he himself 
and his best men went back again to Scotland : some ruefully 
going on foot, and some miserably riding. Then king Malcolm 
advised him that he should send to king William over sea, and 
pray his peace ; and he also did so, and the king granted it to 
him, and sent after him. And king Malcolm and his sister 
again gave him and all his men innumerable treasures, and 
very worthily again sent him from their jurisdiction. And the 
shire-reeve of York came to meet him at Durham, and went 
all the way with him, and enabled him to find food and fodder 
at every castle which they came to, until they came over sea to 
the king. And king William then received him with great 
worship, and he was there in his court, and took such rights, 
as he allowed him. 

348, 349. An. M.LXXVI. (if.LXxv.) In this year king William gave to 
earl Ralph the daughter of William Fitz Osbern. And the 
same Ralph was a Breton on his mother's side, and Ralph his 
father was l English, named Ralph, and was born in Norfolk. 



was in the king's court, and received such privileges as the 
king granted him. a 



1 Probably Radulf the ' stallere ' 
(constable), who had large posses- 
sions in Norfolk and Suffolk, ' Tem- 



' pore Regis Edwardi.' Engl. under 
the Norman Kings, p. 167. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 181 

And on that account the king gave his son the earldom of 
Norfolk, and also of Suffolk. He then conducted his wife to 
Norwich. 

There was that bride-ale, 

that was many men's bale. 

1 There were *earl Roger, and earl Waltheof, and bishops and * ( 
abbots ; and they there resolved that they would drive their 
royal lord from his kingdom ; and this was forthwith made 
known to the king in Normandy. Earl Ralph and earl Roger 
were the chiefs in this evil design ; and they enticed the 
Bretons to them, and sent also to Denmark for a naval force. 
And Roger went west to his earldom, and gathered his people 
for the king's detriment, as he thought, but it was to their own 
great harm. Ralph would also go forth with his earldom ; 
but the castlemen who were in England, and also the country 
folk, came against them, and prevented them all, so that they 
did nothing ; but he was fain to flee to the ships : and his wife 
remained behind in the castle, and held it so long until peace 
was granted her ; and she then Avent out from England, and 
all her men that would go with her. And the king afterwards 
came to England, and took earl Roger, his kinsman, and set 
him in prison. And earl Waltheof went over sea, and accused 



An. M.LXXV. ' There were earl Roger, and earl Waltheof, 
and bishops, and abbots ; and they there so resolved that 
they would displace the king from the kingdom of Eng- 
land. And it was forthwith made known to the king in 
Normandy how it was resolved. It was earl Roger and earl 
Ralph who Avere the chiefs in that evil design ; and they 
enticed the Bretons to them, and sent east to Denmark, for a 
naval force to their support. And Roger went west to his 
earldom, and gathered his people for the king's detriment ; but 
he was prevented. And Ralph, in his earldom, would go forth 
with his people ; but the castlemen who were in England, and 
also the country folk, came against him, and acted so that he 
did nothing, but went on shipboard at Norwich. And his 
wife was within the castle, and held it so long until peace was 
granted her. And she then went out from -England, and all 
her men who would go with her. And the king afterwards 
Carrie to England, and took earl Roger, his kinsman, and im- 
prisoned him ; and earl Waltheof he also took. And soon 



182 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

himself, and implored forgiveness, and offered treasures. But 
the king treated it lightly until he came to England, and then 
caused him to be taken. And soon after this came two hun- 
dred ships from Denmark, wherein the chiefs were Cnut, son 
of king Svein, and Hakon jarl ; but they durst not maintain a 
battle against king William ; but went to York, and brake 
into St. Peter's monastery, and therein took much property, 
and so went away ; but all perished who were of that counsel ; 
that was the son of Hakon jarl, and many others with him. 
And Eadgyth the lady died seven nights before Christmas, 
at Winchester : she was the relict of king Eadward, and 
350, 351. the king had her brought to Westminster with great worship, 
and laid her by king Eadward her lord. The king was that 
Midwinter at Westminster : there were all the Bretons con- 
demned who were at the marriage at Norwich : some were 
blinded, and some banished from the land, and some punished 
ignominiously. Thus were the king's traitors crushed. 
s An. M.LXXVII. (M.LXXVI.) In this year died Svein, king of 
Denmark, and Harald his son succeeded to his kingdom. In 
this year king William gave the abbacy of Westminster to 
* aWwtswper- abbot ! Vitalis, who had before been a *monk at Bernay. And 
in this year earl Waltheof was beheaded at Winchester, on 
St. Petronilla's mass-day (May 31st) ; and his body was con- 



after that there came from the east twe hundred ships from 
Denmark, and therein were two chieftains, Cnut son of Sveiu, 
and Hakon jarl ; but they durst not maintain a battle against 
king William, but proceeded over sea to Flanders. And Ead- 
gyth the lady died at Winchester, seven nights before Christ- 
mas. And the king had her brought to Westminster, with 
great worship, and laid her by king Eadward her lord. And 
he was at Westminster that Midwinter. And all the Bretons 
were fordone who were at the bride-ale at Norwich : some 
were blinded, and some driven from the land. So were 
William's traitors crushed. 11 



A large slab covers his remains in the cloister at Westminster. 



E. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 183 

veyed to Oowland, and he is there buried. And king William 
went over sea, and led a force to Brittany, and besieged the 
castle of Dole ; but the Bretons held it until the king came 
from France, and king William then went thence, and there 
lost both men and horses, and innumerable treasures. 

An. M.LXXVIII. In this year the moon was eclipsed three 
nights before Candlemas (Feb. 2nd). And JEgelwig, the 
' world- wise ' abbot of Evesham, died on St. Juliana's mass- 
day (Feb. 16th) ; and Walter was set as abbot in his stead. 
And bishop Hereman died, who was bishop of Berkshire, 
and of Wiltshire, and of Dorsetshire. And in this year king 

Malcolm won the mother of Mselslaeht and all his 

best men, and all his treasure, and his cattle, and he himself 
escaped with difficulty. And in this year was the dry summer, 
and wildfire came in many shires, and burned many towns ; 
and also many burghs were burnt. 

An. M.LXXIX. In this year Robert, the son of king William, 
fled from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders ; because 
his father would not let him rule over his county of Normandy, 
which he himself, and also king Philip, with his consent, had 
given him ; and those who were best in the land had sworn 
oaths to him, and taken him for lord. In this year Robert 
fought against his father, and wounded him in the hand, and 



An. M.LXXVII. In this year the king of the Franks and king 
William of England were reconciled ; though it lasted but a 
little while. And in this year London was burnt, one night 
before the Assumption of St. Mary (Aug. 15th) so extensively 
as it never was before since it was founded. And in this year 
died ^gelwig, abbot of Evesham, on' the day the xivth of the 
Kal. of March (Feb. 16th). And bishop Hereman also died, 
on the day the Kal. of March (Mar. lst). a 

An. M.LXXIX. In this year Malcolm, king of Scotland, came 
into England, betwixt the two St. Mary's masses, 1 with a large 
force, and harried Northumberland, until he came to the Tyne, 
and slew many hundred men ; and led home many treasures 

1 " post Assumptionem S. Marise." Flor. Wigorn. See p. 174, note. 



184 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

his (father's) horse was shot under him, and he who brought 
another to him was straightways shot with a cross-bow : that 
was Toki, son of 'vYiggod. And many were there slain, and 
also taken ; and Robert went again to Flanders. We will, 
however, write down no more injury which he . . his father 
m i 

An. M.LXXX. In this year bishop Walchere was slain in 
Durham, at a meeting, and a hundred men with him, French 
and Flemish ; but he was himself born in Lorraine. This the 
Northumbrians did in the month of May. 

An. M.LXXXI. In this year the king led a force into Wales, 
and there freed many hundred men. 

An. M.LXXXII. In this year the king took bishop Odo ; and 
in this year there was a great famine. 

352. An. M.LXXXIII. In this year arose the discord at Glaston- 

bury, betwixt the abbot Thurstan and his monks. It came 
first from the abbot's lack of wisdom, so that he misruled his 
monks in many things, and the monks meant it kindly to him, 
and prayed him that he would entreat them rightly, and love 
them, and they would be faithful to him, and obedient. But 
the abbot would naught of this, but did them evil, and threat- 
ened them worse. One day the abbot went into the chapter- 
house, and spake against the monks, and would misuse them, 
and sent after laymen, and they came into the chapter-house 
upon the monks full armed. And then the monks were 
greatly afraid of them, knew not what they were to do, but 
fled in all directions : some ran into the church, and locked 
the doors after them ; and they went after them into the 



and precious things, and men in captivity. And in the same 
year king William fought against his son Robert without Nor- 
mandy, near a castle called Gerberoi ; and king William was 
there wounded, and his horse slain, on which he sat. And 
his son William was also there wounded, and many men were 
slain. a 



Here ends MS. Cott. Tiber. B. iv. All that follows is from E. 



E, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 185 

monastery, and would drag them out, as they durst not go out. 
But a rueful thing happened there on that day. The French- 
men broke into the quire, and hurled towards the altar where 
the monks were ; and some of the young ones went up on the 
upper floor, and kept shooting downward with arrows towards 
the sanctuary, so that in the rood that stood above the altar 
there stuck many arrows. And the wretched monks lay about 
the altar, and some crept under, and earnestly cried to God, 
imploring his mercy, seeing that they might not obtain any 
mercy from men. What can we say, but that they shot 
cruelly, and the others brake down the doors there, and went 
in, and slew some of the monks to death, and wounded many 
therein, so that the blood came from the altar upon the steps, 
and from the steps on the floor. Three were there slain to 
death, and eighteen wounded. And in the same year died 
Matilda, king "William's queen, on the day after All-Hallows 
mass-day (Nov. 2nd). And in the same year, after Mid- 
winter, the king caused a great and heavy tax to be exacted 
over all England ; that was for every hide, two and seventy 
pence. 

An. M.LXXXIV. In this year died^Wulfwold, abbot of Cherts- 
ey, on the xnith day of the Kal. of May (Apr. 19th). 

An. M.LXXXV, In this year men declared, and for sooth 
said, that Cnut king of Denmark, son of king Svein, was 
bound hitherward, and would win this land with the aid of 
Robert count of Flanders ; because Cnut had Robert's daughter 
to wife. When William king of England, who was then re- 
siding iu Normandy, because he owned both England and 
Normandy, was apprized of this, he went into England with 
so large an army of horsemen and foot, from France and from 
Brittany, as never before had sought this land, so that men 
wondered how this land could feed all that army, But the 
king caused the army to be distributed through all this laud 
among his vassals ; and they fed the army, each according to 
the measure of his land. And men had great affliction this 
year ; and the king caused the land about the sea to be laid 
waste, so that if his foes should land, they might not have 
whereon they might so readily seize. But when the king was 
informed in sooth that his foes were hindered, and could not 
further their expedition, he let some of the army go to their 
own land ; and s-oine he held in this land over the" winter. 



186 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



353. 



* MS. M.LXXXV. 



/{Then at Midwinter the king was at Gloucester with his 
'witan,' and there held his court five days ;[and afterwards 
the archbishop and clergy had a synod three days. There 
were Maurice chosen bishop of London, and William to Nor- 
folk, and Robert to Cheshire. They were all the king's clerks) 

^^After this the king had a great council, and very deep speech 
with his ' witan ' about this land, how it was peopled, or by 
what men ; then sent his men over all England, into every 
shire, and caused to be ascertained how many hundred hides 
were in the shire, or what land the king himself had, and 
cattle within the land, or what dues he ought to have, in 
twelve months, from the shire. Also he caused to be written 
how much land his archbishops had, and his suiFrp^gan bishops, 
and his abbots, and his earls ; and though I may narrate 
somewhat prolixly what or how much each man had who 
was a holder of land in England, in land, or in cattle, and how 
much money it might be worth. So very narrowly he caused 
it to be traced out, that there was not one single hide, nor one 
2 yard of land, nor even it is shame to tell, though it seemed 
to him no shame to do an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine, was 
left, that was not set down in his writ. And all the writings 
were brought to him afterwards. J 

An. *M.LXXXVI. In this year the king bare his crown, and 
held his court in Winchester, at Easter ; and so he went that 
he was by Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son Henry 
a knight there. After that he went about, so that he came by 
Lammas to Salisbury, and there his * witan ' came to him, and 
all the landholders that were of account over all England, 3 be 
they the men of what man they might ; and they all sub- 
mitted to him, and were his men, and swore to him oaths of 
fealty, that they would be faithful to him against all othei 
men. Thence he went to Wight, because he would go to 
Normandy, and afterwards did so ; and yet he first did after 
his wont, obtained a very great treasure from his subjects, 
where he could have any accusation, either with justice or 
otherwise. He then went afterwards to Normandy ; and 
Eadgar setheling, the kinsman of king Eadward, revolted from 



1 Here is the beginning of the 
great Domesday survey. 

2 For the virgate, or yard, of land, 



see Ellis. Introd. to Domesday, i 
p. 155. 
3 i.e. the vassals of what lord soever, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 187 

him, because lie had no great honour from him ; but may the 
Almighty God give him honour \n the life to come. And 
Christina, the setheling's sister, retired to the monastery at 
Rumsey, and received the holy veil. And the same year was 
a very heavy, and toilsome, and sorrowful year in England, 
through murrain of cattle, and corn and fruits were at a stand, 
and so great unpropitiousness in weather, as no one can easily 
think : so great was the thunder and lightning, that it killed 
many men ; and ever it grew worse with men more and more. 
May God Almighty better it, when it shall be his will. 

An. *M.LXXXVII. After the birth-tide of our Lord Jesus Christ * MS. M.LXXXVJ. 
one thousand and seven and eighty winters, in the one and 
twentieth year after William ruled and held despotic sway over 
England, as God had granted him, there was a very heavy 
and very pestilent year in this land. Such a malady came on 
men that almost every other man was in the worst evil, that is 
with fever, and that so strongly that many men died of the evil. 
Afterwards there came, through the great tempests which came 
as we have before told, a very great famine over all England, so 
that many hundred men perished by death through that famine. 
Alas ! how miserable and how rueful a time was then ! when 
the wretched men lay driven almost to death, and afterwards 354. 
came the sharp famine and quite destroyed them. Who can- 
not feel pity for such a time ? or who is so hard-hearted that 
cannot bewail such misfortune ? But such things befal for a 
folk's sins, because they will not love God and righteousness : 
so as it was in those days, that little righteousness was in this 
land with any man, save with the monks alone, wherever they 
fared well. The king and the head men loved much, and over 
much, covetousness in gold and in silver, and recked not how 
sinfully it might be got, provided it came to them. The king 
gave his land as dearly for rent as he possibly could ; then 
came some other and bade more than the other had before 
given, and the king let it to the man who had bidden him 
more ; then came a third and bade yet more, and the king 
gave it up to the man who had bidden most of all. And he 
recked not how very sinfully the reeves got it from poor men, 
nor how many illegalities they did; but the more that was said 
about right law, the more illegalities were done. They levied 
unjust tolls, and many other unjust things they did, which are 
difficult to reckon. Also, iii the same year, before autumn, the 



188 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

holy monastery of St. Paul, the episcopal see of London, was 
burnt, and many other monasteries, and 1 he greatest and fairest 
part of the whole city. So also, at the same time, almost every 
el lief town in all England was burnt. Alas! a rueful and de- 
plorable time was it in that year, which brought forth so many 
misfortunes ! Also in the same year, before the Assumption 
of St. Mary (Aug. 15th), king William went from Normandy 
into France with a force, and made war upon his own lord, 
Philip the king, and slew a great part of his men, and burned 
the town of Mantes, and all the holy monasteries that were 
within the town; and two holy men,who obeyed God and dwelt 
in a hermitage, were there burnt. This being thus done, king 
William turned again to Normandy. A rueful thing he did, 
and a more rueful befel him. How more rueful ? He fell 
sick, and was severely afflicted. What can I tell ? Sharp 
death, that leaves neither powerful men nor humble, took him. 
11 e died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of 
St. Mary (Sept. 9th), and he was buried at Caen, in the mo- 
nastery of St. Stephen, which he had formerly erected, and 
afterwards manifoldly endowed. Alas! how false and how un- 
stable is this world's wealth ! He who was before a powerful 
king, and lord of many a land, had then of all his land only a 
portion of seven feet ; and he who was whilom decked with gold 
and with gems, lay then covered over with mould ! He left after 
him three sons; Robert was the eldest named, who was count of 
Normandy after him; the second was called William, who bare 
after him the royal crown in Kngland : the third was called 
Henry, to whom his father bequeathed treasures innumerable. 
If any one desires to know what kind of man he was, or what 
worship he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then we will 
v* rite of him so as we understood him who have looked on him, 
and, at another time, sojourned in his court. The king Wil- 
liam, about whom we speak, was a very wise man. and very 
powerful, more dignified and strong than any of his predecessors 
were, lie was mild to the good men who loved God ; and 
over all measure severe to the men who gainsayed his will. 
On that same si end, on which God granted him that he might 
subdue England, he reared a noble monastery, and there placed 
355. monks, and well endowed it. In his days was the noble monas- 

tery at Canterbury buill. and jdso very many others over all 
Kngland. This land wa. al.-o plentifully supplied with monk>. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 189 

and they lived their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. And 
in his day Christianity was such that every man who would 
followed what belonged to his condition. He was also very 
dignified ; thrice every year he bare his crown, as oft as he 
was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester ; at 
Pentecost in Westminster; at Midwinter in Gloucester. And 
ilicn were with him all the great men over all England, arch- 
bishops and suffragan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and 
knights. So also was he a very rigid and cruel man, so that no 
one durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his 
bonds, who had acted against his will ; bishops he cast from 
their bishoprics, mid abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into 
prison; and at last he spared not his own brother named Odo : 
he was a very rich bishop in Normandy, at Bayeux was his 
episcopal see; and he was the foremost man besides the king ; 
and he had an * earldom in England, and when the king was * Kent, 
in Normandy, then was he the most powerful in this land: and 
him he set in prison. Among other things is not to be for- 
gotten the good peace that he made in this land ; so that a 
man 'who had any confidence in himself might go over his 
realm, with his bosom full of gold, unhurt. Nor durst nny 
HI a i) si ay another man had he done ever so great evil to the 
other. And if any common man lay with a woman again st 
her will, he forthwith lost the members that he had sinned 
with. He reigned over England, and by his sagacity so tho- 
roughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land within 
England that he knew not who had it, or what it was worth, 
and afterwards set it in his writ. Brytland (Wales) was in his 
power, and he therein wrought castles, and completely ruled 
over that race of men. In like manner he also subjected Scot- 
land to him by his great strength. The land of Normandy was 
naturally his, and over the county which is called Le Maine he 
reigned ; and if he might yet have lived two years he would, 
by his valour, have won Ireland, and without any weapons. 
Certainly in his time men had great hardship and very many 
injuries. Castles he caused to be made, and poor men to be 
greatly oppressed. The king was so very rigid, and took from 
his subjects many a mark of gold, and more hundred pounds 

1 ' he himsylf aht wsere.' who in I correctly expressed the sense of the 
himself was aught? I believe I have | words. 



190 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHEONICLE. 



*MS.bewihte, 
by weight 1 



356. 



of silver, which he took, by * right and with great uDright, from 
his people, for little need. He had fallen into covetousness, 
and altogether loved greediness. He planted a great * preserve 
for deer, and he laid down laws therewith, that whosoever 
should slay hart or hind should be blinded. He forbade the 
harts and also the boars to be killed. As greatly did he love 
the tall deer as if he were their father. He also ordained con- 
cerning the hares, that they should go free. His great men be- 
wailed it, and the poor men murmured thereat ; but he was so 
obdurate, that he recked not of the hatred of them all; but they 
must wholly follow the king's will, if they would live, or have 
land, or property, or even his peace. Alas ! that any man 
should be so proud, so raise himself up, and account him- 
self above all men ! May the Almighty God show mercy to 
his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins ! These things 
we have written concerning him, both good and evil, that good 
men may imitate their goodness, and wholly flee from the evil, 
and go in the way that leads us to the kingdom of heaven. 
Many things we may write which happened in the same year. 
So it was in Denmark, that the Danish, that earlier was ac- 
counted the most faithful of all folks, were turned to the 
greatest faithlessness, and to the greatest treachery that ever 
could be. They chose and submitted to king Cnut, and swore 
to him oaths, and afterwards 2 basely slew him in a church. 
In Spain also it befel, that the heathen men went and com- 
mitted ravages on the Christian men, and reduced much under 
their sway. But the Christian king, Alfonso by name, sent 
everywhere into every land, and desired aid ; and aid came to 
him from every land that was Christian ; and they went and 
slew and drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land 
again, through God's support. Also in this same land, in the 



1 The word deor (like the Ger. 
Thier, Dan. Dyr) signifies beast in 
general ; here it is applied to beasts 
of venery only. The allusion is 
evidently to the New Forest. If the 
manuscript is correct, frift in the 
sense of enclosure is neuter, while 
fri'S, peace, is masculine. 

2 He was afterwards canonized 



and became the patron saint of Den- 
mark. Cnut the saint perished in 
an insurrection caused by his ex- 
actions ; he was assassinated in the 
church of St. Alban (afterwards St. 
Cnut's) at Odense, in the island 
of Fyen, in which he had taken 
refuge. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 191 

same year, died many great men : Stigand bishop of Chichester, 
and the abbot of St. Augustine's, and the abbot of Bath, and 
the *(abbot) of Pershore, and then the lord of them all, William Thurstan.^ 
king of England, of whom we before spake. After his death, 
his son, called also William, like his father, succeeded to the 
kingdom, and was blessed for king by archbishop Lanfranc at 
Westminster, three days before Michaelmas day. And all the 
men in England submitted to him, and swore oaths to him. 
This being thus done, the king went to Winchester and in - 
spected the treasury and the riches which his father had 
before gathered ; it was not to be expressed by any man how 
much was there gathered in gold, and in silver, and in vessels, 
and in robes, and in gems, and in many other precious things, 
which are difficult to recount. The king then did as his 
father had commanded him ere he died, distributed the 
treasures, for his father's soul, to every monastery that was 
in England : to one monastery ten marks of gold ; to one, 
six ; to every country church, sixty pence ; and into every 
shire were sent a hundred pounds in money, to distribute to 
poor men for his soul. And before he departed, he commanded 
that all the men should be released, who were in durance 
under his power. And the king was that Midwinter in Lon- 
don. 

An. M.LXXXVIII. In this year this land was much disturbed, 
and filled with great treason ; so that the most powerful 
Frenchmen that were in this land would betray their lord the 
king, and would have for king his brother Robert, who was 
count of Normandy. In this plot the first was bishop Odo, 
and * bishop Geoffrey, and William bishop of Durham. So * of Coutanccs. 
well had the king done by the * bishop, that all England went * O f Durham. 
after his counsel, and so as he would : and he thought to do by 
him as Judas Iscariot did by our Lord. And *eaii Roger was * of Shrewsbury , 
also at that plotting, and very many people with them, all 
Frenchmen. And this plot was formed in Lent (Mar. 1st). 
As soon as Easter came, they went and ravaged, and burned, 
and laid waste the king's farm-vills, and laid waste the lands 
of all the men who remained faithful to the king. And each 
of them went to his castle, and manned it, and provisioned it 
as he best could ; and bishop Geoffrey and Robert of * Monbrai * Also Molbray, 
went to Bristol, and harried, and brought the booty to the 
castle. And afterwards they went out from the castle and 357. 



192 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

ravaged Bath and all the land thereabout, and all the district of 
Berkeley they laid waste. And the chief men of Hereford and 
all that shire forthwith, and the men of Shropshire with many 
people from Brytland (Wales), came and harried and burned in 
Worcestershire, on till they came to the city itself ; and would 
then burn the city, and plunder the monastery, and win the 
king's castle into their hands. Seeing these things, the vene- 
rable bishop Wulfstan was sorely troubled in his mind ; be- 
cause the castle had been committed to his keeping. Never- 
theless, the men of his household went out with a few men 
from the castle, and, through God's mercy and through the 
bishop's deserts, slew and captured five hundred men, and put 
all the others to flight. The bishop of Durham did all the 
harm he could everywhere in the north. One of them was 

* Bigot. called * Roger, who ' seized by surprise' the castle at Norwich, 

* of Grente- and did yet the worst of all over all that land. * Hugo was 

also one who did nothing better, either in Leicestershire or in 
Northamptonshire. The bishop Odo, 2 who by his mother 
was related to the king,' went into Kent to his earldom, and 
sorely ruined it, and laid completely waste the lands of the 
king and the archbishop, and brought all the spoil into his 
castle of Rochester. When the king was apprized of all these 
things, and what treason they were practising against him, 
he was greatly troubled in mind. He then sent after English- 
men, and told to them his need, and desired their support, and 
promised them the best laws that ever were before in this 
land ; and every unjust impost he forbade, and granted to 
men their woods and liberty of the chase ; but it stood no 
while. But the Englishmen, nevertheless, betook them to the 
aid of the king their lord. They then went towards Rochester, 
and wished to get bishop Odo, thinking that if they had him 
who was erewhile the head of the evil counsel, they might the 
better get all the others. They came then to the castle at 
Tonbridge : in the castle then were bishop Odo's knights, and 
many others, who wished to hold it against the king. But the 
Englishmen went and brake into the castle, and the men who 
were therein made peace with the king. The king with his 



v hleop into J>am castele, literally I -' Here the original text is either 
ran or leaped into. \ defective or corrupt. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 193 

army went towards Rochester, and they weened that the 

bishop was therein ; but it became known to the king that the 

bishop was gone to the castle at Pevensey ; and the king with 

his army went after, and beset the castle about, with a very 

large army, full six weeks. In the meanwhile, Robert the 

count of Normandy, the king's brother, gathered a very large 

force, and thought to win England, with the aid of the men 

who were in this land against the king : and he sent some of 

his men to this land, and would come himself after. But the 

Englishmen who guarded the sea seized some of the men, and 

slew and drowned more than any man could tell. After that, 

food failed those within the castle ; they then desired peace, 

and gave it up to the king ; and the bishop swore that 

he would depart from England, and come no more into this 

land, unless the king sent after him ; and that he would give 

up the castle of Rochester. Just as the bishop w r as gone, 

and was to give up the castle, and the king had sent his men 

with him, the men who were within the castle rose, and took 

the bishop and the king's men, and put them in durance. 

Within the castle were some very good knights : * Eustace the * of Boulogne. 

young, and three sons of earl Roger, and all the best born men 

that were in this land or in Normandy. When the king was 

apprized of these things, he went after with the army that he 

had there, and sent over all England, and bade that every man 358. 

that was ( unniSing ' should come to him, French and English, 

from town and from country. Then much folk came to him, 

and he went to Rochester, and beset the castle, until they who 

were therein made peace and gave up the castle. Bishop Odo, 

with the men who were within the castle, went over sea ; and 

so the bishop left the dignity that the had in this land. The 

king afterwards sent an army to Durham, and caused the 

castle to be beset ; and the bishop made peace, and gave up 

the castle, and left his bishopric, and went to Normandy. 

Many Frenchmen also left their lands, and went over sea : and 

the king gave their lands to the men who had been faithful to 

him. 

An. M.LXXXIX. In this year the venerable father and com- 
fort of monks, archbishop Lanfranc, departed from this life ; 
but we hope that he went to the heavenly kingdom. Likewise 
there happened over all England a great earthquake, on the 
day the mrd of the Ides of August (Aug. llth). And it was 

VOL. II. N 



194 THE ANGLO SAXON CHEONICLE. 

a very backward year in corn and in fruits of every kind ; so 
that many men reaped their corn about Martinmas (Nov. llth), 
and yet later. 

An. M.XC. Indiction xiu. This being thus done, as we have 
before above said, relative to the king and to his brother, and 
to his men, the king was considering how he might take ven- 
geance on his brother Robert, most annoy him, and win Nor- 
mandy from him. Thus through his cunning, or through trea- 
sures, he obtained the castle of St. Valery and the haven ; 
and so he got that at Albemarle ; and therein he set his foot- 
soldiers ; and they did harm upon the land in harrying and in 
burning. After this he got more castles in the land, and 
therein placed his knights. When the count of Normandy, 
Robert, found that his sworn men deserted him, and gave up 
their castles to his harm, he sent to his lord Philip, king of the 
Franks, and he came to Normandy with a large army ; and 
the king and the count, with an immense force, beset the castle 
about wherein were the men of the king of England. King 
William of England then sent to Philip, king of the Franks, and 
he, for his love, or for his great treasures, deserted his vassal, 
the count Robert, and his land, and went again to France, and 
left them as they were. And amid these things this land was 
sorely fordone by unlawful imposts and many other calamities. 
An. M.XCI. In this year king William held his court at 
Christmas in Westminster ; and thereafter at Candlemas (Feb. 
2nd) he went, to the detriment of his brother, out of England 
into Normandy. While he was there, their reconciliation took 
place, on the condition, that the count should cede to him 
Fecamp, and the county of Eu, and Cherbourg, and, in addi- 
tion thereto, that the king's men should be sackless in the 
castles that they had gotten against the will of the count. 
And the many which their father had won, and those which had 
revolted from the count, the king in return promised to reduce 
to obedience ; and all that his father had there beyond, except 
those which he then ceded to the king ; and that all those who 
in England had before lost their land for the count, should by 
this agreement have it back ; and that the count should have 
in England as much as was in their treaty. And if the count 
359. died without a son by lawful wedlock, the king should be heir 
of all Normandy : by this same treaty, if the king died, the count 
should be heir of all England. To this treaty swore twelve 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 195 

of the "best on the king's side, and twelve on the count's ; yet it 
stood but a little while afterwards. While this reconciliation 
was pending, Eadgar aetheling was deprived of the land which 
the count had previously ceded to him ; and went out of 
Normandy to the king, his 'brother-in-law, in Scotland, 
and to his sister. While king William was out of England, 
king Malcolm of Scotland came hither into England, and 
harried a great deal of it, until the good men who had charge 
of this land sent a force against him, and turned him back. 
When king William in Normandy heard of this, he made ready 
for his departure, and came to England, and his brother the 
count Robert with him, and forthwith ordered a force to be 
called out, both a ship-force and a land-force ; but the ship- 
force, ere he could come to Scotland, almost all perished mise- 
rably, a few days before St. Michael's mass : and the king and 
his brother went with the land-force. But when king Mal- 
cholm heard that they would seek him with a force, he went 
with his force out of Scotland into the *district of Leeds, in * provincia 
England, and there awaited. When king William with his FI. w'igorn. 
force approached, then intervened count Robert and Eadgar 
aetheling, and so made a reconciliation between the kings ; 
so that king Malcolm came to our king, and became his man, 
with all such obedience as he had before paid to his father, and 
that with oath confirmed. And king William promised him in 
land and in all things that which he had had before under his 
father. In this reconciliation Eadgar aetheling was also re- 
conciled with the king ; and the kings then, with great good 
feeling, separated ; but that stood only a little while. And count 
Robert continued here with the king almost to Christmas, and 
during that time found little of the truth of their compact ; 
and two days before that tide, took ship in Wight, and went to 
Normandy, and Eadgar aetheling with him. 

An. M.XCII. In this year king William, with a large force, 
went north to Carlisle, and 2 restored the town, and raised the 
castle ; and drove out Dolphin, who previously had ruled the 
land there ; and garrisoned the castle with his own men, and 



1 The word ' aftum ' usually signi- 
fies son-in-law. 



" nos diruta, et usque ad id tempus 
" mansit deserta." Flor. Wigorn. 



2 " a Danis paganis ante cc. an- 

N 2 



196 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

then returned south hither. And very many country folk 
with wives and with cattle, he sent thither, there to dwell and 
to till the land. 

An. M.XCIII. In this year, in Lent, the king William was 
taken so sick at Gloucester, that he was everywhere reported 
dead. And in his illness he promised many promises to God i 
to lead his own life righteously, and to grant peace and pro- 
tection to God's churches, and never more again for money to 
sell them, and to have all just laws among his people. And 
the archbishopric of Canterbury, that had before remained in 
his own hand, he delivered to Anselm, who had before been 
abbot of Bee ; and to Robert his chancellor, the bishopric of 
Lincoln; and to many monasteries he granted land ; but which 
he afterwards withdrew, when he became well ; and abandoned 
all the good laws that he had before promised us. Then after 
this, the king of Scotland sent, and demanded the fulfilment of 
the treaty that had been promised him. And king William 
summoned him to Gloucester, and sent him hostages to Scotland, 
and Eadgar getheling afterwards, and the men back again, 
who brought him with great worship to the king. But when 
he came to the king, he could not be held worthy either the 
speech of our king, or the conditions that had previously been 
360. promised him ; and therefore in great hostility they parted, and 
king Malcolm returned home to Scotland. But as soon as he 
came home, he gathered his army, and marched into England, 
harrying with more animosity than ever behoved him. And 
then Robert the earl of Northumberland ensnared him with his 
men unawares, and slew him. Morel of Bamborough slew him, 
who was the earl's steward and king Malcolm's gossip. With 
him was also slain his son Edward, who should, if he had lived, 
have been king after him. When the good queen Margaret 
heard this her dearest lord and son thus deceived she was in 
mind afflicted to death ; and with her priests went to church, 
and received her rites, and obtained by prayer to God that she 
might give up her spirit. And the Scots then chose Donald, 
Malcolm's brother, for king, and drove out all the English, 
who were before with king Malcolm. When Duncan, king 
Malcolm's son, who was in king William's court, his father 
having before given him as a hostage to our king's father, and 
had so remained afterwards, heard all that had thus taken 
place, he came to the king, and performed such fealty, as the 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 197 

king would have of him, and so, with his permission, went to 
Scotland, with the support that he could get of English and 
French, and deprived his kinsman Donald of the kingdom, and 
was received for king. But some of the Scots afterwards 
gathered together, and slew almost all his followers, and he 
himself with a few escaped. Afterwards they were reconciled, 
on the condition that he never again should harbour in the 
land either English or French. 

An. M.XCIV. In this year king William had his court at 
Christmas in Gloucester, and messengers came to him thither 
from his brother Robert of Normandy, who declared that his 
brother renounced all peace and agreement, unless the king 
would perform all that they had before settled in the agreement; 
and besides that he called him forsworn and faithless, unless 
he held to the agreement, or went thither and there exculpated 
himself where the agreement had before been made and also 
sworn to. Then went the king to Hastings, at Candlemas 
(Feb. 2nd) ; and while he was there waiting for weather, he 
caused the monastery at Battle to be hallowed, and took his staff 
from Herbert *Losang, bishop of Thetford ; and thereafter at * de Losiuga. 
Mid-Lent went over sea to Normandy. After he came thither he 
and the count Robert, his brother, said that they should come 
together in peace, and they did so, yet might not be reconciled. 
After that they came together again with the same men who 
had before made the compact and also sworn the oaths, and 
they charged the whole breach upon the king : but he would 
neither allow this nor also hold to the agreement ; and there- 
fore they separated with great animosity. And the king 
afterwards won the castle at Bures, and took the count's men 
therein, some of whom he sent hither to this land. Against 
this, the count, with the support of the king of France, won 
the castle of Argences, and therein took Roger Poitevin, and 
seven hundred of the king's knights with him; and afterwards 
that at Houlme : and repeatedly each of them against the other 
burned the towns and took the men". Then the king sent hither 
to this land, and commanded twenty thousand Englishmen to be 
called out to his support in Normandy ; but when they came 
to the sea, they were ordered to return, and to give, for the 
king's behoof, the money that they had received; that was 361. 
half a pound each man ; and they did so. And after this, the 
count, within Normandy, with the king of France, and with 



198 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

all those that they could gather, went towards Eu, wherein 
was the king William, and thought to besiege him therein ; and 
so proceeded until they came to Longueville. There was the 
king of France turned back by craft, and all the expedition 
was afterwards dispersed. In the meanwhile king William 
sent after his brother Henry, who was in the castle of Dom- 
front ; but because he could not pass through Normandy in 
peace, he sent ships after him and Hugh earl of Chester. But 
when they should have gone towards Eu, where the king was, 
they went to England, and arrived at Southampton on All- 
Hallows eve (Oct. 31st), and there afterwards continued, and 
at Christmas were in London. Also in this same year the 
Welshmen assembled and raised a war against the French who 
were in Wales, or in the neighbourhood, and had previously 
deprived them of their lands, and demolished many fastnesses 
and castles, and slew many men ; and after their multitude had 
increased they divided themselves into more. Against one of 
those parties Hugh earl of Shropshire fought and put them to 
flight. But, nevertheless, the others all this year ceased from 
no evil which they could perpetrate. In this year also the 
Scots ensnared and slew their king Duncan, and after took to 
them again, a second time, his paternal uncle Donald for king, 
through whose machination and incitement he was betrayed 
to death. 

An. M.XCV. In this year was king William the first four 
days of Christmas at Wissant, and after the fourth day came 
hither to land, and arrived at Dover. And Henry, the king's 
brother, dwelt in this land till Lent, and then went over sea 
to Normandy, with great treasure, on the king's behalf, against 
their brother, count Robert, and frequently warred upon the 
count, and did him great harm both in land and in men. And 
then at Easter the king held his court at Winchester, and the 
earl Robert of Northumberland would not come to court, and 
the king on that account was sorely excited against him, and 
sent to him, and harshly commanded, if he would be worthy 
of protection, that he should coine to court at Pentecost. In 
this year Easter was on the vmth day of the Kal. of April 
(March 25th) l ; and then at Easter, on the mass-night of St. 



1 The dates here appear to be inaccurate. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 199 

Ambrose, that is the und of the Nones of April (April 4th), 
there were seen, nearly over all this land, and nearly all the 
night, very many stars, as it were, to fall from heaven, not by 
one or two, but so thickly that no man could count them. 
Hereafter at Pentecost the king was at Windsor, and all his 
4 witan' with him, except the earl of Northumberland; because 
the king would neither give him hostages, nor grant upon 
pledged faith that he might come and go with peace. And 
the king therefore ordered his army, and went against the earl 
to Northumberland. And soon after he came thither, he won 
many and almost all of the best of the earl's retainers in a fast- 
ness, and placed them in durance. And the castle at Tyne- 
mouth he besieged until he won it, and the earl's brother 
therein, and all those who were with him; and afterwards 
went to Bamborough, and besieged the earl therein. But when 
the king saw that he could not win it, he ordered a castle to 
be made before Bamborough, and called it in his speech 
* Malveisin,' that is in English, l Evil neighbour,' and garri- 
soned it strongly with his men, and afterwards went southward. 
Then immediately after that the king was gone south, the earl 362. 
one night went out from Bamborough towards Tynemouth ; 
but those who were in the new castle were aware of him, and 
went after him, and attacked and wounded, and afterwards 
captured him ; and of those who were with him some were 
slain, some taken alive. In the meanwhile it became known 
to the king that the Welshmen in Wales had demolished a 
castle called Montgomery, and slain earl Hugh's men who had 
to hold it ; and he therefore commanded a second army to be 
suddenly levied, and after St. Michael's mass went into Wales, 
and distributed his force, and penetrated all the land, so that 
the force all came together on All-Hallows (Nov. 1st) at Snow- 
don. But the Welsh went constantly before into mountains 
and moors, so that it was impossible to come at them. And the 
king then turned homewards, because he saw that he could not 
do more there that winter. When the king came back, he com- 
manded earl Robert of Northumberland to be taken and led 
to Bamborough, and both his eyes to be put out, unless those 
who were therein would give up the castle. His wife and 
Morel, who was his steward, and also his kinsman, held it. 
Through this the castle was then given up ; and Morel was 
then in the king's court, and through him were many, both 



200 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* amitae. 
Fl. Wigorn. 



ordained and also lay, discovered, who with their counsel had 
been among the adversaries of the king. The king had then 
before this time commanded some to be brought into durance, 
and it afterwards to be very rigorously announced over all 
this land, that all who held land of the king, as they would 
be worthy of protection, should be at court in time. And 
the king commanded the earl Robert to be led to Windsor, 
and to be there held within the castle. Also in this same 
year, towards Easter, the pope's legate came hither to this 
land. This was Walter, a man of very good life, bishop of the 
city of Albano; and at Pentecost, on behalf of pope Urban, 
gave to archbishop Anselm his pall ; and he received him at 
his archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And the bishop Walter 
continued this year long afterwards in the country ; and 
afterwards the Rome-scot was sent by him, which had not 
been done for many years before. In this year also were very 
unseasonable tempests, and therefore, through all this land, the 
earth-fruits were all turned to mediocrity. 

An. M.XCVI. In this year king William held his court at 
Christmas in Windsor ; and William, bishop of Durham, died 
there on New year's day. And in the Octaves of the Epi- 
phany (Jan. 13th) the king and all his council were at Salisbury. 
There Geoffrey Bainard accused William of Eu, the king's 
kinsman, that he had been in the treason against the king, and 
maintained it against him by fight, and overcame him in single 
combat, and after he was overcome, the king commanded his 
eyes to be put out, and afterwards to emasculate him; and his 
steward named William, who was the son of his "maternal aunt, 
the king commanded to be hanged on a rood. Then also were 
Eudes, count of Champagne, the king's Cousin, and many 
others, deprived of their lands, and some led to London, and 
there 2 deprived (of sight). In this year also, at Easter, there 
was a great excitement through all this nation and many 
other nations, through Urban, who was called pope, though he 



1 In the text he is called 
which usually signifies son-in-law; 
but see his relationship in Orderic. 
Vitalis, p. 254, edit. Maseres. 

2 This rendering of ' spilde ' is 
conjectural, but is supported by the 



passage (a. 1124), 'spilde of here 
' segon.' The punishment being 
common, the word ' spillan ' might 
have sufficiently designated it, with- 
out further specification. Or it may, 
perhaps, simply mean destroyed. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 201 

had nothing of the see at Rome. And numberless people, 
with wives and children, went in order that they might fight 
against the heathen nations. Through this expedition, the 
king and his brother, count Robert, became reconciled, so that 
the king went over sea, and for money received from him all 
Normandy in pledge, so that they then were reconciled. And 
the count afterwards went, and with him the counts of Flan- 363. 
ders and of Boulogne, and also many other chief men. And 
count Robert and those who went with him continued during 
the winter in Apulia. But of the people that went by Hun- 
gary, many thousands there and by the way miserably perished; 
and many sad and ' hunger-bitten,' towards winter, journeyed 
home. This was a very dismal year over all England, both 
through manifold imposts and also through a very sad famine 
that this year afflicted this country. Also in this year the 
chief men who held this land frequently sent a force into 
Wales, and many a man thereby sorely afflicted; but there 
naught was gained but loss of men and waste of money. 

An. M.XCVII. In this year was king William at Christmas in 
Normandy, and then towards Easter was coming hither to this 
land, because he thought to hold his court at Winchester ; but 
he was detained by bad weather until Easter-eve, so that he 
first arrived at Arundel, and therefore held his court at 
Windsor. And thereafter, with a great army, went into 
Wales, and penetrated the land in all directions with his force, 
through some of the Welshmen who came to him, and were 
his guides ; and he continued therein from Midsummer almost 
till August, and lost much therein, in men and in horses, and 
also in many other things. The Welshmen, after they had 
revolted from the king, chose them many chieftains from them- 
selves ; one of these was called Cadogan, who was the worthiest 
of them, he was brother's son of king Griffith. And when the 
king saw that he could there further nothing according to his 
will, he returned to this land, and shortly after that he caused 
castles to be made on the borders. Then at St. Michael's mass, 1 
the ivth of the Nones of October (Oct. 4th) there appeared an 



1 This is an error, Michaelmas being on the 3rd of the Kal. of Oct., as 
Florence has it. 



202 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



extraordinary star, shining in the evening, and soon going to 
its setting. It was seen in the south-west, and the ray that 
stood from it seemed very long, shining south-east ; and almost 
all the week it appeared in this wise. Many men supposed 
that it was 'comet. Immediately after this the archbishop 
Anselm of Canterbury took leave of the king, though it was 
against the king's will, as men supposed, and went over sea ; 
because it seemed to him that in this nation little was done 
according to right, and according to his instruction. And the 
king thereafter, on St. Martin's mass-day (Nov. llth) went to 
Normandy ; but while he was waiting for weather, his court, 
in the shires where they lay, did the greatest harm that ever 
court or army could do in a peaceable land. This was in all 
things a very sad year, and over grievous, from the tempests, 
when the land should be tilled, or after, when the produce 
should be gathered ; and in unjust imposts which never ceased. 
2 Many ships also, which with their work belonged to London, 
suffered great detriment by reason of the wall which they 
wrought about the Tower, and of the bridge, which was almost 
dispersed by the flood ; and of the king's hall- work, which was 
being wrought at Westminster, and many men thereby injured. 
Also in the same year, soon after St. Michael's mass, Eadgar 
aetheling, with the king's support, went with a force into Scot- 
land, and in a hard-fought battle won that land, and drove out 
the king Donald, and in king William's vassalage, set as king 
his kinsman Eadgar, who was the son of king Malcolm and 
of queen Margaret ; and afterwards returned to England. 
364. An. M.XCVIII. In this year at Christmas king William was 

in Normandy ; and Walkeliu, bishop of Winchester, and Bald- 
wine, abbot of St. Edmunds, within that tide both died. And 
in this year also Turold, abbot of Peterborough, died. In this 
year also, in the summer, at Finchamstead in Berkshire, a pool 
welled out blood, so as many trustworthy men said who should 
* of Shrewsbury, have seen it. And *earl Hugh was slain in Anglesey by 



1 That is, the star so called ; 
our forefathers apparently regarding 
comet as a proper name. 

2 This passage, as far as the word 
injured, is not very intelligible, 



though I believe it to be nearer to 
the true meaning of the original 
than -what is given in former edi- 
tions. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



203 



1 vikings, and his brother Robert was his heir, as he had 
obtained from the king. Before St. Michael's mass, the heaven 
appeared almost all the night as if it were burning. This was 
a very sad year, through manifold unjust imposts, and through 
the great rains, which ceased not all the year : nearly all the 
tilth in the marsh-land perished. 

An. M.XCIX. In this year king William was at Midwinter 
in Normandy ; and at Easter came hither to this land ; and at 
Pentecost held his court, for the first time, in his new building 
at Westminster ; and there gave to * Ranulf his chaplain the 
bishopric of Durham, who had before 2 held and supervised all 
his ' motes ' over all England. And immediately after, he 
went over sea, and drove the count * Helie out of Le Maine, 
and afterwards reduced it under his power ; and so on St. 
Michael's mass came again hither to land. In this year also, on 
St. Martin's mass-day (Nov. llth), the sea-flood sprang up to 
that degree, and did so much harm, as no man remembered that 
it ever before did ; and it was on the same day a new moon. 
And Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, died during Advent. 

An. M.C. In this year king William held his court at Christ- 
mas in Gloucester, and at Easter in Winchester, and at Pente- 
cost in Westminster. And at Pentecost, at a town in Berkshire, 
blood was seen to well from the earth, as many said who should 
have seen it. And thereafter, on the morning after Lammas 
day (Aug. 1st), king William was shot with an arrow in 
hunting, by one of his men, and afterwards brought to Win- 
chester, and buried in the bishopric. That was in the 
thirteenth year after he had succeeded to the realm. He was 
very rigorous and stern over his land and his men, and towards 
all his neighbours, and very formidable ; and through the 
counsels of evil men, that were always grateful to him, and 
through his own covetousness, he was ever tormenting this 
nation with an army and with unjust exactions ; because in 
his days every right fell, and every wrong in the sight of God 
and of the world rose up. God's churches he depressed, and 



1 The viking (utviking of the 
original) who shot him was Mag- 
nus Barfod, king of Norway. See 
Flor. Wigorn. n.p. 42, ed. E. H. S. ; 
also his Saga in Snorri, and Orderic. 



Vitalis, p. 767. 

2 " qui prius tenuerat placita sua 
" per totam Angliam." Ann. Wav. 
p. 141. See " England under the 
Norman Kings," p. 226. 



204 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

all the bishoprics and abbacies, whose heads died in his days, 
he either sold for money, or held in his own hand, and let for 
rent ; because he would be the heir of every man, ordained and 
lay ; and so that on the day he fell, he had in his own hand the 
archbishopric of Canterbury, and the bishopric of Winchester, 
and that of Salisbury, and eleven abbacies, all let to rent. 
And, though I may longer delay it, all that was hateful to God 
and oppressive to men, all that was customary in this land in 
his time ; and therefore he was hateful to almost all his people, 
and odious to God, as his end made manifest ; for he departed 
in the midst of his unrighteousness, without repentance and 
any atonement. On the Thursday he was slain, and on the 
morning after buried ; and after he was buried, those of the 
council who were nigh at hand, chose his brother Henry for 
king ; and he straightways gave the bishopric of Winchester 
to William Giffard, and then went to London ; and on the 
Sunday after, before the altar at Westminster, promised to 
God and all the people to put down all the inj ustices that were 
in his brother's time ; and to maintain the best laws that stood 
in any king's day before him. And then, after that, the bishop 
of London, Maurice, hallowed him king ; and all in this land 
submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men. And 
the king soon after this, by the counsel of those who were 
about him, caused bishop Ranulf of Durham to be taken, and 
caused him to be brought into the Tower of London, and be 
there held. Then, before St. Michael's mass (Sept. 29th), the 
archbishop of Canterbury, Anselm, came hither to land, as king 
Henry, by the advice of his council, had sent after him, be- 
cause he had gone out of this land for the great wrong that 
king William had done him. And then soon hereafter the king 
took to wife Matilda, daughter of king Malcolm of Scotland 
and the good queen Margaret, king Edward's kinswoman, 
of the right royal race of England. And on St. Martin's 
mass-day (Nov. llth), she was given to him, with great 
worship, at Westminster ; and the archbishop Anselm wedded 
her to him, and afterwards hallowed her queen. And the 
archbishop Thomas of York died soon after. In this same 
year also, in autumn, count Robert came home to Normandy, 
and count Robert of Flanders, and Eustace count of Boulogne, 
from Jerusalem. And as soon as count Robert came into 
Normandy, he was joyfully received by all the people, except 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 205 

the castles, which were occupied by king Henry's men ; 
against which he had many onsets and contests. 

An. MC.I. In this year, at Christmas, king Henry held his 
court in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester. And then, 
soon after, the chief men here in the land became hostile against 
the king, both from their own great faithlessness, and also 
through count Robert of Normandy, who was meditating a 
hostile invasion of this land. And the king then sent ships 
out to sea, to the detriment and hindrance of his brother; 
but afterwards some of them failed at need, and turned from 
the king, and submitted to count Robert. Then, at Midsum- 
mer, the king went out to Pevensey with all his force against 
his brother, and there awaited him. But, in the meanwhile, 
count Robert landed at Portsmouth, twelve nights before 
Lammas (Aug. 1st), and the king with all his force came 
against him. But the chief men went between them, and 
reconciled the brothers, on the condition, that the king should 
relinquish all that he held by force in Normandy against the 
count ; and that all those in England should have their land 
again, who had before lost it through the count ; and * count * of Boulogne. 
Eustace also all his paternal land here in the country ; and that 
count Robert every year should have three thousand marks of 
silver from England ; and that whichever of the brothers 
survived the other, should be heir of all England, and also of 
Normandy, except that the deceased had an heir in lawful 
wedlock. And this then twelve of the highest on each side con- 
firmed by oath : and the count afterwards continued here in 
the land until after St.MichaePs mass ; and his men incessantly 
did much harm as they went, the while that the count con- 
tinued here in the country. In this year also bishop Ranulf 
at Candlemas escaped by night out of the Tower of London, 366. 
where he had been in durance, and went to Normandy; through 
whose machination and instigation chiefly count Robert had 
this year sought this land with hostility. 

An. MC.II. In this year, at the Nativity, king Henry was 
in Westminster; and at Easter in Winchester. And soon after 
became inimical to each other the king and the earl Robert of 
Belesme, who had the earldom of Shrewsbury here in the coun- 
try, which his father Roger had previously held, and a great 
territory thereto, both on this side of the sea, and beyond. And 
the king went and besieged the castle at Arundel; but when he 



206 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

could not so speedily win it, he caused castles to be built be- 
fore it, and garrisoned them with his men ; and then with all 
his force went to Bridgenorth, and there continued until he 
had the castle and deprived earl Robert of his land, and taken 
away all that he had in England. And the earl so retired over 
sea, and the army then returned home. Then after that, at 
St. Michael's mass, the king was at Westminster, and all the 
chief men in this land, both ordained and lay ; and the 1 arch- 
bishop Anselm held a synod of the clergy, and they there set 
forth many canons that appertain to Christianity. And many 
there, both French and English, lost their staves and authority 
which they had unjustly acquired, or lived on with iniquity. 
And in this same year, in Pentecost mass-week, there came 
thieves, some from 'Auvergne, some from France, and some 
from Flanders, and broke into the monastery of Peterborough, 
and therein took much of value, in gold, and in silver, which 
were roods, and chalices, and candlesticks. 

An. MC.III. In this year, at Midwinter, king Henry was at 
'ofWinton. Westminster. And soon after the * bishop William Giffiird 
went out of this land, because, against right, he would not 
receive his ordination from the archbishop Gerard of York. 
And then at Easter the king held his court in Winchester ; 
and thereafter the archbishop Anselm of Canterbury went to 
Rome, as was agreed by him and the king. In this year also 
count Robert of Normandy came to the country to speak with 
the king ; and before he went hence he forgave the three 
thousand marks that king Henry, according to agreement, was 
to give him every year. In this year also, at Hampstead in 
Berkshire, blood was seen [to well] from the earth. This was 
a very calamitous year in the land, through manifold imposts, 
and through murrain of cattle, and perishing of fruits, both 
in corn and also in all tree-fruits. Also in the morning, on 
the mass-day of St. Laurence (Aug. 10th), the wind did so 
great harm here in the country to all fruits, as no man remem- 
bered that it ever did before. In this same year died Mat- 
thias, abbot of Peterborough, who lived not longer than one 



1 For the particulars of this I and Canons, edit. Baron, u. p. 
synod, see Eadmer, Hist. Novorum, I 22. 
p. 67, or Johnson, Eccles. Laws I 2 At that time a separate state. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 207 

year after he was abbot. After St. Michael's mass, on the 
xnth of the Kal. of November (Oct. 21st), he was with pro- 
cession received as abbot, and on the same day of the second 
year he was dead in Gloucester, and there buried. 

An. MC.IV. In this year king Henry held his court at Christ- 
mas in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, and at 
Pentecost again in Westminster. In this year, the first day 
of Pentecost was on the Nones of June (June 5th) ; and on 
the Tuesday after there appeared four circles at mid-day about 
the sun, of a white hue, each twined under the other as if 
they were painted. All who saw it wondered, because they 
never remembered such before. Hereafter were conciliated 
count Robert of Normandy and Robert de Belesme, whom 
king Henry had before deprived of his lands and driven from 
England ; and through their conciliation the king of England 
and the count of Normandy became adversaries. And the 
king sent his folk over sea to Normandy ; and the chief men 
there in the land received them, and with treason to their 
lord the count, admitted them into their castles, whence they 
did the count many injuries by harryings and burning. In 
this year also William count of Mortain went from this land to 
Normandy ; but after he was gone he wrought against the 
king, for which the king deprived him of the land and all he 
had in this country. It is not easy to recount the miseries 
of this land which it was at this time suffering, through va- 
rious and manifold illegalities and imposts, which never ceased 
nor failed. And ever as the king went there was plundering 
by his followers upon his wretched people, and at the same 
time very often burnings and murders. All this was to the 
anger of God, and the torment of the miserable people. 

An. MC.V. In this year at the Nativity, king Henry held 
his court at Windsor ; and thereafter, in Lent, he went over sea 
to Normandy, against his brother count Robert. And while 
he there abode he won from his brother Caen and Bayeux ; 
and almost all the castles and the chief men there in the 
land became subjected to him ; and he afterwards, at autumn, 
returned to this land ; and what he had won in Normandy con- 
tinued afterwards in peace, and obedient to him, except those 
who dwelt anywhere near to the count William of Mortain, 
whom he repeatedly oppressed to the utmost of his power, 
for the loss of his land here in this country. And then before 



208 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Christmas came Robert de Belesme to this land to the king. 
This was a very calamitous year in the land, through the 
perishing of the fruits, and the manifold exactions, which never 
ceased before the king passed over, and while he was there, 
and then again after he came back. 

An. MC.VI. In this year king Henry was at the Nativity 
in Westminster, and there held his court ; and at that tide 
Robert de Belesme went from the king unreconciled, from this 
land to Normandy. Then afterwards, before Lent, the king 
was at Northampton, and count Robert his brother came thi- 
ther to him from Normandy ; and because the king would not 
give up to him what he had taken from him in Normandy, 
they parted in enmity ; and the count went immediately back 
over sea. In the first week of Lent, on the Friday, the xivth 
of the Kal. of March (Feb. 16th), there appeared in the even- 
ing an uncommon star, and for a long time after was seen 
shining a while every evening. The star appeared in the 
south-west ; it seemed little and dark, but the ray that stood 
from it was very bright, and appeared ' like an immense beam 
shining north-east ; and one evening it appeared as if the beam 
were entering the star from an opposite direction. Some said 
that they saw more unknown stars at this time, but we do not 
write it more openly, because we did not ourselves see them. 
368. On the night, the morrow of which was Crena Domini, that is 
the 2 Thursday before Easter, were seen two moons in the 
heaven, before day ; one in the east and the other in the west, 
both full ; and the same day was the xivth of the moon. At 
Easter the king was at Bath, and at Pentecost at Salisbury; 
because he would not hold a court on his departure over sea. 
Thereafter, before August, the king went over sea to Nor- 
mandy; and almost all who were there in the land submitted 
to his will, except Robert de Belesme and the count of Mortain, 
and a few others of the chief men who yet held with the count 
of Normandy; and therefore the king afterwards went with an 
army and besieged a castle of the count of Mortain, called 
Tinchebray. While the king was besieging the castle, came 
count Robert of Normandy, on the eve of St. Michael's mass, 



1 " quasi ingens trabes." Flor. I 2 Called also Maundy Thursday 
Wigorn. | and Shere Thursday. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



209 



against the king with his force, and with him Robert de 
Belesme and William count of Mortain, and all who would be 
with them ; but the strength and the victory were the king's. 
There were the count of Normandy taken, and the ! count of 
Mortain, and Robert de Stuttevile, and afterwards sent to 
England, and placed in durance. Robert de Belesme was 
there put to flight, and William Crespin taken, and many with 
him. Eadgar astheling, who a little before had gone from the 
king to the count, was also there taken, whom the king after- 
wards let go sackless. Afterwards the king subdued all that 
was in Normandy, and established it all according to his will 
and power. In this year also were very heavy and sinful 
contests between the emperor of Saxony and his son ; and 
during these contests the father died, and the son succeeded to 
the empire. 

An. MC.VII. In this year, at Christmas, king Henry was 
in Normandy, and ordered and established that land under his 
power ; and then afterwards came hither to this land in Lent, 
and at Easter held his court in Windsor ; and at Pentecost, in 
Westminster. And afterwards, in the beginning of August, 
he was again in Westminster, and there gave and appointed to 
the bishoprics and abbacies, which in England or Normandy 
were without head and shepherd. Of these there were so 
many that there was no man that remembered that ever before 
so many together were given. And at this same time, among 
the others who received abbacies, Ernulf, who before was prior 
in Canterbury, succeeded to the abbacy of Peterborough. 
This was just about seven years after king Henry succeeded 
to the kingdom, and that was the one and fortieth year since 
the Franks ruled this land. Many said that they had seen 
various tokens in the moon this year, and its light waxing 
and waning contrary to nature. In this year died Maurice, 



1 " Le vainqueur ne se contenta 
" pas de le depouiller de toutes ses 
" proprietcs (et en particulier du 
" comte de Mortain, qu'il donna a 
" Etienne de Blois) mais encore il le 
" renferma dans une etroite capti- 
" vite, et poussa la barbaric, dit on, 
" jusqu'a lui faire crever les yeux 
VOL. II. 



" de sang-froid dans sa prison. 
" Cette circonstance ne fut connue 
" qu' apres la mort de Henri. Voyez 
' fHistoire de Geoffroi Planta genet, 
" par Jean de Marmoutier," cited 
by M. A.Le Prevost, Roman de Rou, 
n. p. 360, note. 



210 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

bishop of London, and Robert, abbot of St. Edmundsbury, and 
Richard, abbot of Ely. In this year also died king Eadgar of 
Scotland, on the Ides of January (Jan. 13th), and Alexander 
his brother succeeded to the kingdom, as king Henry granted 
him. 

An. MC.VIII. In this year king Henry was at the Nativity 
in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, and at Pentecost 
again in Westminster. And, thereafter, before August he went 
to Normandy. And Philip, king of France, died on the Nones 
*vi. of August (Aug. 5th), and his son * Lewis succeeded to the 
kingdom ; and there were afterwards many strifes betwixt the 
king of France and him of England, while he abode in Nor- 
mandy. In this year also died the archbishop Gerard of York, 
before Pentecost ; and Thomas was afterwards thereto' ap- 
pointed. 

369. An. MC.IX. In this year king Henry was at Christmas and 

at Easter in Normandy ; and before Pentecost he came to this 
land, and held his court in Westminster. There were the 
contracts completed and the oaths sworn for the marriage of 
Henry v. his daughter with the *emperor. In this year were very many 
thunderstorms, and those very awful. And the archbishop 
Anselm of Canterbury died on the day the xith of the Kal. of 
April (March 22nd) ; and the first day of Easter was on Litania 
major (April 2oth). 

An. MC.X. In this year king Henry held his court at Christ- 
mas in Westminster ; and at Easter he was at Marlborough ; 
and at Pentecost, for the first time, he held his court in the 
New Windsor. In this year, before Lent, the king sent his 
daughter, with manifold treasures, over sea, and gave her to 
the emperor. On the fifth night of the month of May, the 
moon appeared in the evening brightly shining, and afterwards, 
by little and little, its light waned, so that as soon as it was 
night, it was so completely quenched that neither light nor orb, 
nor anything at all of it, was seen. And so it continued very 
near until day, and then appeared full and brightly shining. 
It was on this same day a fortnight old. All the night the air 
was very clear, and the stars over all the heaven were brightly 
shining. And the tree-fruits on that night were sorely nipt. 
After that, in the month of June, a star appeared in the north- 
east, and its beams stood before it in the south-west ; and thus 
it was seen for many nights ; and further in the night, when 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 21.1 

it rose higher, it was seen going back to the north-west. In 
this year were Philip de Braiose, and William Malet, and 
William Bainard, deprived of their lands. In this year also 
died count Helie, who held Le Maine of king Henry and 
'Anjou; and after his decease the count of Anjou assumed 
and held it against the king. This was a very calamitous 
year in this land, through the taxes which the king levied for 
his daughter's marriage, and through tempests, by which the 
earth-fruits were greatly injured, and the tree-fruits over all 
this land almost all perished. In this year it was first begun 
to work on the new monastery at Chertsey. 

An. MC.XI. In this year king Henry did not bear his crown 
at Christmas, nor at Easter, nor at Pentecost; and in August 
he went over sea to Normandy, on account of the hostility 
that some had against him on the frontiers of France, and, 
above all, on account of the count of Anjou, who held Le 
Maine against him. And after he came over thither, many 
hostile inroads, and burnings, and harryings they did between 
them. In this year died count Robert of Flanders; and his son 
Baldwine succeeded thereto. In this year was a very long, and 
sad, and severe winter ; and thereby were the earth-fruits 
greatly injured ; and there was the greatest murrain of cattle 
that any man could remember. 

An. MC.XII. All this year king Henry abode in Normandy, 
in consequence of the hostilrty that he had against France, 
and against the count of Anjou, who held Le Maine against 
him. And while he was there he deprived of their lands the 
count of Evreux and William Crespin, and drove them out of 
Normandy; and to Philip de Braiose, he restored his land, who 
had before been deprived of it ; and Robert de Belesme he 
caused to be taken and put into prison. This was a very good 
year, and very abundant in wood and in field ; but it was very 
sad and sorrowful one, through a most destructive pestilence. 

An. MC.XIII. In this year king Henry was at the Nativity, 370. 
and at Easter, and at Pentecost, in Normandy; and afterwards, 
in the summer, he sent hither to this country Robert de Be- 



1 If the reading of ' Angeow,' for 
the senseless ' on cweow' of the text, 
be well founded, it shows that Helie 



held of both princes, of Henry, as 
count of Normandy, and of the 
count of Anjou. 

o 2 



212 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

lesme to the castle at Wareham ; and himself soon after came 
hither to this land. 

An. MC.XIV. In this year king Henry held his court at the 
Nativity in Windsor; and afterwards this year he held no court 
oftener. And at Midsummer he went with a force into Wales; 
and the Welsh came and made peace with the king ; and he 
caused castles to be built therein ; and afterwards, in Septem- 
ber, he went over sea to Normandy. In this year, in the latter 
end of May, was seen an uncommon star, with a long train, 
shining many nights. Also in this same year was so great 
an ebb everywhere in one day as no man before remembered, 
and so that men went riding and walking over the Thames 
to the east of the bridge at London. In this year were very 
great winds in the month of October; but it was excessively 
great in the night of the octave of St. Martin (Nov. 18th), 
and that was everywhere manifest, in woods and in towns. 
Also in this year the king gave the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury to Ralph, who had previously been bishop of Rochester. 
And Thomas, the archbishop of York, died ; and Thurstan 
succeeded him, who had previously been the king's chap- 
lain. At this same time the king went towards the sea, 
and would cross, but the weather hindered him. In the 
meanwhile he sent his writ after the abbot Ernulf of Peter- 
borough, and commanded him that he should come to him 
with the utmost speed, because he would speak with him in 
private speech. When he came to him, he forced upon him the 
bishopric of Rochester ; and the archbishops, and bishops, and 
the nobility that were in England supported the king : and 
he long withstood, but it availed naught. And the king then 
commanded the archbishop that he should lead him to Canter- 
bury, and bless him for bishop, whether he would or would not. 
This was done in the town which is called Bourne (East- 
bourne). That was on the day the xvnth of the Kal. of 
October (Sept. 15th). When the monks of Peterborough 
heard that said, they were so sorry as they never were before; 
because he was a very good and meek man, and did much good 
within and without, while he there abode. May God Almighty 
ever abide with him! Then soon after, the king gave the 
abbacy to a monk of Seez, named John, at the desire of the 
archbishop of Canterbury. And soon after, the king and 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 213 

the archbishop of Canterbury sent him to Rome after the 
archbishop's pall, and a monk with him, who was called War- 
ner, and the archdeacon John, the archbishop's nephew : and 
they well sped there. This was done on the day the xith of 
the Kal. of October (Sept. 21st), in the town which is called 
Rowner. And on the same day the king went on shipboard 
at Portsmouth. 

An. MC.XV. In this year, at the Nativity, king Henry was 
in Normandy; and while he was there, he did so that all the 
chief men in Normandy did homage and swore oaths of fealty 
to his son William, whom he had by his queen; and after that, 371. 
in the month of July, he came hither to this land. In this 
year there was so severe a winter, with snow and with frost, 
that no man that then lived ever before remembered a severer; 
and through that there was an immense mortality of cattle. In 
this year pope Paschal sent the pall hither to Ralph, archbishop 
of Canterbury ; and he received it with great worship at his 
archiepiscopal see in Canterbury. It was brought by abbot 
Anselm from Rome, who was the nephew of archbishop Anselm, 
and the abbot John of Peterborough. 

An. MC.XVI. In this year, at the Nativity, king Henry was 
at St. Alban's, and there caused the monastery to be hallowed; 
and at Easter at Odiham. And this year also there was a very 
gloomy winter, both severe and long, for cattle and for all 
things. And immediately after Easter the king went over sea 
to Normandy ; and there were many hostile inroads, and plun- 
derings, and castles taken, between France and Normandy. 
This hostility was chiefly because king Henry supported his 
nephew, count Theobald of Blois, who then was at war against 
his lord, Lewis king of France. This was a very grievous 
year, and deficient in earth -fruits, through the excessive rains 
that came immediately before August, and greatly troubled and 
afflicted [people] until the coming of Candlemas (Feb. 2nd). 
This year was also so wanting in mast, that in all this land, and 
also in Wales, none was heard spoken of. This land and this 
people were this year r.lso oftentimes sorely oppressed through 
the imposts which the king took, both within town and with- 
out. In this same year all the monastery of Peterborough 
was burnt, and all the houses, except the chapter-house and the 
dormitory ; and in addition thereto, all the greatest part of the 



214 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

town was burnt. All this happened on a Friday, which was 
the Jind of the Nones of August (Aug. 4th). 

An. MC.XVII. All this year king Henry abode in Normandy, 
on account of the hostility of the king of France, and his other 
neighbours. And then in the summer came the king of 
France, and with him the count of Flanders, with a force into 
Normandy, and remained therein one night, and in the morning 
returned without a battle : and Normandy was greatly op- 
pressed, both by the imposts, and by the force which king 
Henry gathered against them. This nation also, through this 
same, through manifold imposts, was severely oppressed. In 
this year also, on the night of theKal. of December (Dec. 1st), 
there were most violent storms, with thunder and lightning, 
and rain and hail. And in the night of the nird of the Ides of 
December (Dec. llth), the moon was far in the night as if it 
were all bloody, and afterwards eclipsed. Also in the night of 
the xvnth of the Kal. of January (Dec. 16th), the heaven was 
seen very red, as if it were a conflagration. And on the 
octave of St. John the Evangelist (Jan. 3rd), was the great 
earthquake in Lombardy, through which many monasteries, 
and towers, and houses fell, and did great harm among men. 
This was a very deficient year in corn, through the rains that 
ceased not almost all the year. And the l abbot Gilbert of 
Westminster died on the viuth of the Ides of December 
*Faricius. (Dec. 6th); and *Faritz, abbot of Abingdon, died on the vnth 

of the Kal. of March (Feb. 23rd) ; and in this same year 



372. An. MC.XVIII. In all this year king Henry abode in Nor- 

mandy, on account of the war of the king of France, and the 
count of Anjou, and the count of Flanders. And the count 
of Flanders was wounded in Normandy, and so wounded 
went to Flanders. Through the hostility of these the king was 
sorely troubled, and lost much both in money and also in land ; 
but his own men vexed him most, who frequently revolted 
from and betrayed him, and turned to his foes; and, to the 
king's harm and betraying, gave up their castles to them. All 



1 A gravestone on the south side I is supposed to cover the remains of 
of the cloister of Westminster abbey I this abbot. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, 



215 



this England dearly bought through the manifold imposts, 
which all this year did not cease. This year, in the week of 
the Epiphany, there was one evening very great lightning, 
and a most immoderate thunder-clap afterwards. And queen 
Matilda died at Westminster on the day of the Kal. of May 
(May 1st), and was there buried. And in this year also died 
count Robert of Meulan. Also in this year, on St. Thomas' 
mass (Dec ; 21st), there was so very violent a wind that no 
man who then lived remembered any greater ; and that was 
everywhere seen, both in houses and also in trees. In this 
year also died pope Paschal, and John of Gaeta succeeded to 
the popedom, whose other name was Gelasius. 

An. MC.XIX. 'All this year king Henry abode in Normandy, 
and by the war with the king of France, and also with his own 
men, who with treachery revolted from him and joined his 
enemy, was oftentimes greatly embarrassed,' until the two 
kings with their people came together in Normandy. There 
was the king of France put to flight, and all his best men 
taken ; and afterwards many of king Henry's men submitted 
to him and accorded with him, who before with their castles 
were against him ; and some of the castles he took by force. 
Iii this year went William, the son of king Henry and queen 
Matilda, to Normandy to his father, and there was given to 
him and wedded to wife, the daughter of the count of Anjou. 
On St. Michael's mass-eve was a great earthquake in some 
places here in the land, though most in Gloucestershire and in 
Worcestershire. In this same year died pope Gelasius on this 
side of the * mountain, and was buried at Cluny. And after * the All)S 
him the archbishop of Vienne was chosen pope, whose name 
was Calixtus. He afterwards, on the mass of St. Luke the 
Evangelist (Oct. 18th), came to France to Rheims, and there 
held a council. And the archbishop Thurstan of York went 
thither ; and because that he, against right, and against the 
arch-see of Canterbury, and against the king's will, had 



v The integrity of the text seems 
here more than doubtful ; the sense, 
however is, I believe, faithfully ren- 
dered, and in accordance with the 
words of the continuator of Florence 
of Worcester ; " Plures Norman- 



" norum quam regi Henrico jura- 
" verant fidelitatem postposuerunt, 
" et ad regem Francice Ludovicum 
" principesque ejus, adversaries sci- 

<' licet, se transtule- 

" runt." 



216 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

received his ordination from the pope, the king prohibited 
q. j imi from till return to England. And thus he * forfeited his 
archbishopric, and went with the pope towards Rome. Also 
in this year died count Baldwine of Flanders of the wounds 
which he received in Normandy ; and after him Charles, the 
son of his paternal aunt, succeeded to the government ; he was 
the sou of Cnut the saint, king of Denmark. 

An. MC.XX. In this year the kings of England and France 
were reconciled, and after their reconciliation, all king Henry's 
own men in Normandy accorded with him, and the counts of 
Flanders and of Ponthieu. Then, after this, king Henry set- 
tled his castle;' and his land in Normandy after his will ; and 
373. so before Advent came hither to this land. And on the passage 
were drowned the king's two sons, William and Richard, and 
Richard carl of Chester, and Ottuel his brother, and very 
many of the king's court, stewards, and chamberlains, and cup- 
bearers, and from divers habitations, and a countless number 
of very excellent folk along with them. This death was a two- 
fold pain to their friends : one, that they were deprived of this 
life so suddendly ; the other, that few of their bodies were 
found anywhere afterwards. In this year came that light to 
the sepulchre of the Lord in Jerusalem twice ; once at Easter, 
and a second time on the Assumption of St. Mary (Aug. loth), 
as credible persons said who came thence. And the arch- 
bishop Thurstan of York was, through the pope, reconciled 
with (lie king, and came hither to this land, and received his 
bishopric, though it was very displeasing to the archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

An. MC.XXI. In this year king Henry was at Christmas at 
Brampton ; and afterwards at Windsor, before Candlemas, was 
given him to wife Adela, and she was afterwards hallowed 
queen; she was the daughter of the 'duke of Lou vain. And 
the moon was eclipsed on the night of the Nones of April 
(April 5th), and was fourteen days old. And the king was at 
Kaster in Berkeley; and afterwards, at Pentecost, he held a 
great court in Westminster ; and afterwards in the summer 
went with a force into Wales ; and the Welsh came to meet 
him, and after the king's will they accorded with him. In this 

1 Godfrey VII mmit ut' Limviiiu. I quis of Antwerp ; afterwards duke 
duke of Lower Lorraine, and mar- I of Brabant. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 217 

year came the count of Anjou from Jerusalem to his land, and 
afterwards sent to this land, and caused his daughter to be 
fetched, who had previously been given to wife to the king's 
son, William. And in the night of the vigil Natalis Domini 
was a very violent wind over all this land ; and that was in 
many things manifestly seen. 

An. MC.XXII. In this year king Henry was at Christmas in 
Norwich, and at Easter in Northampton. And in the Lent-tide 
before that, the town of Gloucester was burnt while the monks 
were singing their mass, and the deacon had begun the gospel 
' Praeterieus Jesus.' Then came the lire on the upper part of 
the steeple, and burned all the monastery and all the treasures 
that were there within, except a few books and three mass- 
robes. That was on the day the vmtli of the Ides of March 
(March 8th). And afterwards, on the Tuesday after Palm 
Sunday, was a very violent wind on the day the xith of the 
Kal. of April (March 22nd); after which came many tokens 
all over England, and many spectres were seen and heard. 
And on the night of the vmth of the Kal. of August (July 
25th) there was a very great earthquake over all Somerset- 
shire and in Gloucestershire. Afterwards, on the day the vith 
of the Ides of September, that was on St. Mary's mass-day 
(Sept. 8th), there was a very great wind from the * third hour of * 9 A.M. 
the day to the swart night. In this same year died Ralph, the 
archbishop of Canterbury, that was on the day the xuith of the 
Kal. of November (Oct. 20th). Afterwards there were many 
shipmen on the sea and on (fresh) water, who said that they 
saw in the north-east a great and broad fire near the earth, 
which at once waxed in length up to the sky; and the sky 
separated into four parts, and fought against it as if it would 
quench it ; but the fire, nevertheless, waxed up to the heavens. 
The fire they saw in the dawn, and it lasted so long till it 
was light over all. That was on the day the viith of the 
Ides of December (Dec. 7th). 

An. MC.XXIII. In this year at Christmas-tide king Henry 374 
was at Dunstable ; and there came envoys from the count of 
Anjou to him ; and thence he went to Woodstock, and his 
bishops and all his court with him. Then it befel on a 
Wednesday, which was on the ivth of the Ides of January 
( Ian. l(Mh), thai the king was riding in his deer-fold, and the 
Roger of Salisbury on one side of him, and the bishop 



218 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* abp. Ralph. 



of Anjou. 



Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the other side of him ; and they 
were there riding and talking. Then the bishop of Lincoln 
sank down, and said to the king, " Lord king, I am dying." And 
the king alighted down from his horse, and lifted him betwixt 
his arms, and caused him to be borne to his inn ; and he was 
then forthwith dead ; and he was conveyed to Lincoln with 
great worship, and buried before St. Mary's altar. And the 
bishop of Chester, named Robert Pecceth, buried him. Then 
immediately after this the king sent his writ over all England, 
and bade his bishops, and his abbots, and all his thanes, that 
they should come to his council on Candlemas day (Feb. 2nd), 
at Gloucester, to meet him; and they did so. When they were 
there gathered, the king bade them that they should choose 
them an archbishop of Canterbury, whomsoever they would; 
and he would consent to it. Then spake the bishops among 
themselves and said, that they never more would have a man 
of monkish order for archbishop over them. And they all 
went together to the king, and desired that they might 
choose a man of the clerical order, whomsoever they would, for 
archbishop. And the king conceded it to them. All this was 
done previously through the bishop of Salisbury, and through 
the bishop of Lincoln, before *he was dead; because they never 
loved the rule of monks, but were ever against monks and 
their rule. And the prior and the monks of Canterbury, and 
all the other men of monkish order who were there, withstood 
it full two days ; but it availed naught ; for the bishop of 
Salisbury was strong and ruled all England, and was against 
it all that he might and could. Then they chose a clerk, who 
was named William of Corbeil, he was canon of a monastery 
called Chiche (St. Osyth). And they brought him before the 
king, and the king gave him the archbishopric, and all the 
bishops received him ; almost all the monks, and earls, and 
thanes who were there opposing him. At the same time 
the envoys of the *count went in enmity from the king, 
nor recked they aught of his favour. At the same time came 
a legate from Rome, named Henry ; he was abbot of the 
monastery of St. Jean d'Angely; and he came after the Rome- 
scot. And he said to the king that it was against right that a 
clerk should be set over monks ; and therefore they had earlier 
chosen an archbishop in their chapter according to right. 
But the king would not undo it, for love of the bishop of 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHKONICLE. 219 

Salisbury. Then went the archbishop soon after to Canter- 
bury, and was there received, though it was against their will, 
and was there immediately blessed as bishop by the bishop of 
London, and the bishop Ernulf of Rochester, and the bishop 
William Giffard of Winchester, and the bishop Bernard of 
*Wales, and the bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then soon in Lent * St. David's, 
the archbishop went to Rome after his pall, and with him went 
the bishop Bernard of Wales, and Sigfrid abbot of Glaston- 
bury, and Anselm abbot of St. Edmund's, and John archdea- 
con of Canterbury, and Giffard, who was the king's domestic 
chaplain. At the same time went the archbishop Thurstan 3 ' 5 - 
of York to Rome by the pope's command ; and came thither 
three days before the archbishop of Canterbury came, and was 
there received with great worship. Then came the archbishop 
of Canterbury, and was there full seven nights ere he could 
come to speech of the pope. That was because the pope had 
been made to understand that he had received the archbishop- 
ric in opposition to the monks of the monastery, and against 
right. But that overcame Rome which overcomes all the 
world, that is gold and silver. And the pope was pacified, 
and gave him his pall ; and the archbishop swore subjection to 
him in all the things which the pope enjoined him, on the altar 
of St. Peter and St. Paul, and sent him home with his blessing. 
While the archbishop was out of the land, the king gave the 
bishopric of Bath to the queen's chancellor named Godfrey : 
he was born in Louvain. That was on the day of the Annun- 
ciation of St. Mary (March 25t h) at Woodstock, Soon after- 
wards the king went to Winchester, and was there all Easter- 
tide; and while he was there he gave the bishopric of Lincoln 
to a clerk called Alexander : he was the nephew of the bishop 
of Salisbury. This he did all for love of the bishop. Then the 
king went thence to Portsmouth, and lay there all through 
Pentecost week. Then as soon as he had a wind, he went 
over to Normandy, and committed all England to the care and 
rule of bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then was the king all this 
year in Normandy ; and there grew great hostility betwixt 
him and his thanes, so that the count Waleram of Meulan, and 
Amauri, and Hugh of Montfort, and William of Roumare, and 
many others, turned from him, and held their castles against 
him. And the king held strongly against them. And in this 
same year he won of Waleram his castle of Pont-Audeiner, 



220 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

and of Hugh, Montfort ; and after that he sped ever the 
longer the better. In this same year, before the bishop of 
Lincoln came to his bishopric, almost all the town of Lincoln 
was consumed, and a countless number of people, males and 
females, were burnt ; and so great harm was there done, that 
no man could say it to another. That was on the day the 
xivth of the Kal. of June (May 19th). 

An. MC.XXIV. All this year king Henry was in Normandy ; 
that was on account of the great hostility that he had with the 
king Lewis of France, and with the count of Anjon, and with 
his own men most of all. It then happened on the day of the 
Annunciation of St. Mary (March 2oth), that the count Wale- 
ram of Meulan went from one of his castles, called Belmont, to 
another castle of his called Wattevile. With him went Amauri, 
the king of France's steward, and Hugh Fitz Gervase, and 
Hugh of Montfort, and many other good knights. Then came 
against them the king's knights from all the castles that were 
there about, and fought against them, and put them to flight, 
and took count Waleram, and Hugh Fitz Gervase, and Hugh 
of Montfort, and five and twenty other knights, and brought 
them to the king. And the king caused count Waleram and 
Hugh Fitz Gervase to be imprisoned in the castle of Rouen ; 
and Hugh of Montfort he sent to England, and caused him to 
be put in miserable bonds in the castle of Gloucester. And of 
the others, as many as to him seemed good, he sent north and 
south to his castles, in durance. Then afterwards the king 
went and won all the castles of count Waleram that were in 
Normandy, and all the others which his adversaries held 
against him. All this hostility was on account of the son of 
count Robert of Normandy, named William. The same Wil- 
liam had taken to wife the younger daughter of Fulk, count of 
376. Anjou; and therefore the king of France, and all these counts, 
and all the powerful men, held with him, and said, that the king 
with wrong held his brother Robert in durance, and unjustly 
drove his son William out of Normandy. In this same .year 
were many failures in England, in corn and all fruits, so that 
between Christmas and Candlemas (Feb. 2nd) the acre -seed of 
wheat, that is, two seedlips, were sold for six shillings; and 
that of barley, that is, three seedlips, for six shillings; and the 
acre-seed of oats, that is, four seedlips, for four shillings. That 
because there wf^ little corn, and the penny wa* so had, 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 221 

that the man who had at a market a pound could by no means 
buy therewith twelve pennyworths. In this same year died 
the blessed bishop Ernulf of Rochester, who was before abbot 
of Peterborough; that was on the Ides of March (March 15th). 
And thereafter died king Alexander of Scotland, on the day the 
ixth of the Kal. of May (April 23rd) ; and David his brother, 
who was earl of Northamptonshire, succeeded to the kingdom, 
and had them both together, the kingdom of Scotland and the 
earldom in England. And on the day the xixth of the Kal. of 
January (Dec. 14th), died the pope in Rome, who was named 
Calixtus, and Honorius succeeded to the popedom. In the 
same year, after St. Andrew's mass (Nov. 30th), before Christ- 
mas, Ralph Basset and the king's thanes held a court at Huncot 
in Leicestershire, and there hanged so many thieves as never 
were before, that was, in that little while, altogether four and 
forty men ; and six men were deprived of their eyes and 
emasculated. Many righteous men said, that there were many 
unjustly deprived ; but our Lord God Almighty, who sees and 
knows every secret, sees that the miserable folk are treated 
with all injustice ; first they are bereft of their property, and 
then they are slain. A full heavy year it was : the man who 
had any goods was bereft of them by violent exactions and 
violent courts ; those who had none died of hunger. 

An. MC.XXV. In this year, before Christmas, king Henry 
sent from Normandy to England, and commanded that all the 
moneyers that were in England should be deprived of their 
members ; that was the right hand of each, and their testicles 
beneath. That was because the man that had a pound could 
not buy for a penny at a market. And the bishop Roger of 
Salisbury sent over all England, and commanded them all that 
they should come to Winchester at Christmas. When they 
came thither they were taken one by one, and each de- 
prived of the right hand and the testicles beneath. All this 
was done within the twelve nights ; and that was all with 
great justice, because they had fordone all the land with 
their great quantity of false money which they all bought. 
In this same year the pope sent from Rome to this land a 
cardinal named John of Crema. He first came to the king 
in Normandy, and the king received him with great wor- 
ship ; commended him afterwards to the archbishop Wil- 
liam of Canterbury, and he conducted him to Canterbury, 



222 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



and he was there received with great worship, and with 
a great procession; and he sang the high mass on Easter 
day at Christ's altar. And afterwards he went over all Eng- 
land to all the bishoprics and abbacies that were in this land, 
and everywhere he was received with worship, and all gave 
him great and noble gifts. And afterwards he held his council 
in London for full three days, on the Nativity of St. Mary, in 
September (8th), with archbishops and with suffragan bishops, 
and abbots, and clergy, and laity ; and commanded there the 
1 same laws that archbishop Anselm had before commanded, 
and many more, though it availed little. And thence he went 
377. over sea soon after St. Michael's mass, and so to Home ; and 
archbishop William of Canterbury, and archbishop Thurstan 
of York, and bishop Alexander of Lincoln, and bishop J. of 
* Lothian, and the abbot G. of St. Alban's ; and they were 
there received by-pope Honorius with great worship, and were 
there all the winter. In this same year was so great a flood 
on St. Lawrence's mass-day (Aug. 10th) that many towns and 
men were drowned, and bridges shattered, and corn and mea- 
dows totally destroyed, and famine and disease among men 
and cattle ; and for all fruits there was so bad a season as 
there had not been for many years before. And in this year 
died the abbot John of Peterborough, on the und of the Ides 
of October (Oct. 14th). 

An. MC.XXVI. All this year king Henry was in Normandy 
until quite after autumn ; then he came to this land betwixt 
the Nativity of St. Mary (Sept. 8th) and Michaelmas (Sept. 
29th). With him came the queen, and his daughter, whom 
Henry v. he had formerly given to wife to the emperor * Henry of 
Lorraine. And he brought with him count Waleram and 
Hugh Fitz Gervase ; and the count he sent to Bridgenorth in 
durance, and thence afterwards to Wallingford, and Hugh to 
Windsor, and caused him to be put in hard bonds. And then 
after Michaelmas came David the Scots' king from Scotland 
to this land; and king Henry received him with great worship; 
and he then abode all that year in this land. In this same 



1 See them in Flor. Wigorn, edit. 
E. H. S., p. 81, and a curious anec- 
dote of this legate John, in Hoveden. 
See also Wilkins, Cone. i. p. 408 ; 



Johnson, Eccles. Laws and Canons, 
ii. p. 34; and Spelman, Cone. n. 
p. 33. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



223 



year the king caused his brother Robert to be taken from the 
bishop Roger of Salisbury, and committed him to his son 
Robert earl of Gloucester, and had him conducted to Bristol, 
and there put into the castle. That was all done through his 
daughter's counsel, and through the Soots' king David, her 
uncle. 

An. MC.XXVII. This year king Henry held his court at 
Christmas in Windsor, where were the Scots' king David, and 
all the chief clergy and laity that were in England. And 
there he caused the archbishops, and bishops, and abbots, and 
earls, and all the thanes that were there, to swear to his 
daughter 1 ^Ethelic, who was before the wife of the emperor of 
Saxland, possession of England and Normandy, after his day; 
and afterwards sent her to Normandy, and with her went 
her brother, Robert earl of Gloucester, and Brian, son of 
*count Alain Fergant ; and caused her to wed the son of the * of Brittany. 
count of Anjou, Geoffrey, sur named Martel. Nevertheless, 
all the French and English thought ill of it ; but the king did 
it to have peace from the count of Anjou, and to have help 
against his nephew William. In this same year, in Lent-tide, 
the count Charles of Flanders was slain by his own men in a 
church, where he lay and prayed to God before the altar, 
during the mass. And the king of France brought William, 
the son of the count of Normandy, and gave him the *county, * of Flanders. 
and the land-folk accepted him. This same William had before 
taken the count of Anjou's daughter to wife, but they were 
afterwards divorced on account of consanguinity. That was 
all through king Henry of England. After that he took the 
king of France's wife's sister to wife, and on that account the 
king gave him the county of Flanders. In this same year he 
gave the abbacy of Peterborough to an abbot named Henry of 
Poitou, who had in his hand his abbacy of St. Jean d'Angely : 
and all the archbishops and bishops said that it was against 
right, and that he might not have two abbacies in hand. But 378. 
the same Henry gave the king to understand that he had left 
his abbacy, on account of the dissension that was in the land, 
and that he acted by the counsel and leave of the pope of 



1 This seems to have been the English name of Henry's daughter 
Matilda. 



224 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Rome, and by the abbot of Cluny's, and because he was legate 
for the Rome-scot. But it nevertherless was not so ; but he 
would have both in hand, and had so, as long as it was God's 
will. He had in his clerkhood been bishop of Soissons, after- 
wards he became a monk of Cluny, and then prior of the same 
monastery ; and then he became prior of Savenni (Savenay ?); 
afterwards, because he was a relation of the king of England, 
and of the count of Poitou, the count gave him the abbacy of 
the monastery of St. Jean d'Angely ; afterwards, through his 
great intrigues he got the archbishopric of Besangon, and had 
it in hand three days ; he then lost it with right, because he 
had before obtained it with wrong. Then he got the bishopric 
of Saintes, which was five miles from his abbacy : that he had 
almost a week in hand. Then the abbot of Cluny brought 
him thence, as he had before done from Besangon. Then he 
bethought him, that if he could be firmly settled in England, 
he might have all his will. He then sought the king, and said 
to him, that he was an old and broken-down man, and that he 
could not endure the great injustice and the great dissen- 
sions that were in their land, and craved in his own name, 
and through all his friends by name, the .abbacy of Peter- 
borough ; and the king granted it to him, because he was his 
relation, and because he was retained to swear on oath and 
bear witness, when the son of the count of Normandy and the 
daughter of the count of Anjou were parted, on account of 
consanguinity. Thus miserably was the abbacy given at 
London between Christmas and Candlemas. And so he went 
with the king to Winchester, and thence he came to Peter- 
borough, and there he abode just as drones do in a hive ; all 
that the bees draw towards them, the drones devour and draw 
from them; so did he : all that he could take, within and with- 
out, from clerical and from lay, he sent over sea, and did no 
good there, nor any good left there. l Let it not to any one 
seem incredible, [and] that we say not sooth ; for it was fully 
known over all the land, that as soon as he came thither, which 
was on the Sunday when they sing * Exurge quare, o Domine.' 
then immediately afterwards many men saw and heard many 



1 My version of this passage, 
though not satisfactory, is the best I 
can offer. Without the insertion of 



the negative <ne' in the text, it 
seems void of sense. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 225 

hunters hunting. The hunters were black, and large, and 
ugly, and all their hounds black, and broad-eyed, and ugly ; 
and they rode on black horses and on black bucks. This was 
seen in the very deer-fold in the town of Peterborough, and in 
all the woods that lead from the same town to Stamford ; and 
the monks heard the horns blow that they blew in the night. 
Truthful men, who observed them in the night, said from what 
it seemed to them, that there might well be about twenty or 
thirty horn-blowers. This was seen and heard from the time 
that he came thither, all the Lenten-tide on to Easter. This 
was his entrance ; of his exit we cannot yet say aught, God 
provide. 

An. MC.XXVIII. All this year king Henry was in Normandy, 
on account of the hostility that was between him and his 
nephew the count of Flanders. But the count was wounded in 
a battle by a peasant, and so wounded he went to the *monas- * St. Omer's. 
tery of St. Bertin, and there immediately became a monk, and 
lived five days after, and he was then dead and there buried. 
May God have mercy on his soul. That was on the day the 
vith of the Kal. of August (July 27th). In this same year 
died bishop Ranulf Passeflambard of Durham, and was there 
buried on the Nones of September (Sept, 5th). And in this same 379. 
year the aforesaid abbot Henry went home to his own monas- 
tery at Poitou, by the king's leave. He had given the king to 
understand that he would entirely leave that monastery and 
that land, and abide with him 'there in England, and in the 
monastery of Peterborough. But nevertheless it was not so : 
he did it because he would, through his great wiles, be 'there, 
were it a twelvemonth or more, and then come again. May 
God Almighty have his mercy over that wretched place. In 
this same year came from Jerusalem Hugo of the Temple to 
the king in Normandy, and the king received him with great 
worship, and gave him great treasures in gold and in silver. 
And afterwards he sent him to England, and there he was 
received by all good men, and all gave him treasure ; and 
in Scotland also; and by him sent to Jerusalem great property, 
altogether in gold and in silver. And he summoned folk out to 
Jerusalem ; and there went with him and after him so many 

1 From the use of the word ' }>ocr ' (there), it would seem that the 
chronicler wrote from abroad. 

VOL. II. P 



22G 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 



people as never did before, since the first expedition was in 
the day of pope Urban ; though it availed little. He said that 
a great conflict was resolved on between the Christians and 
the heathens : when they came thither, it was naught but 
leasing. Thus miserably was all the folk harassed. 

An. MC.XXIX. In this year the king sent to England after 
count Waleram, and after Hugh Fitz Gervase ; and they there 
gave hostages for them; and Hugh went home to his own land 
in France ; and Waleram remained with the king, and the 
king gave him all his land, save only his castle. Afterwards 
the king came to England in the autumn, and the count came 
with him, and they became then as good friends as they had 
before been foes. Then soon, by the king's counsel, and by 
his leave, 1 the archbishop William of Canterbury sent over all 
England, and bade the bishops, and abbots, and archdeacons, 
and all the priors, monks, and canons, that were in all the 
cells in England, and after all who had to preserve and watch 
over Christianity, that they should all come to London at 
Michaelmas, and should there speak of all God's rights. When 
they came thither, the meeting began on Monday, and held on 
to the Friday. When it all came forth, it was all about arch- 
deacons' wives, and about priests' wives ; that they should 
leave them by St. Andrew's mass (Nov. 30th) ; and he who 
would not do that, should forgo his church, and his house, 
and his home, and never more have any calling thereto. This 
ordained the archbishop William of Canterbury, and all the 
suffragan bishops who were then in England ; and the king 
gave them all leave to go home; and so they went home, and all 
the decrees stood for naught : all held their wives, by the king's 
leave, as they did before. In this same year died bishop William 
GifFard of Winchester, and was there buried, on the vuith of 
the Kal. of February (Jan. 25th) ; and king Henry gave the 
bishopric, after Michaelmas, to the abbot Henry of Glaston- 
bury, his nephew; and he was hallowed bishop by the archbishop 
William of Canterbury on the xvth of the Kal. of December 
(Nov. 17th). In this same year died pope Honorius. Before 
he was well dead there were chosen two popes ; one was 



1 For the particulars of this synod 
at Westminster, in 1127, see Flor. 
Wigorn Cont. u. p. 85 ; Johnson 



' Eccles. Laws and Canons,' IT. p. 37 ; 
Wilkins, Cone. i. p. 410; Spelraan, 
Cone. u. p. 35. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHBONICLE. 227 

named Peter, lie was a monk of Cluny, and was born of the 

richest men of Rome ; with him held those of Rome and the 

duke of Sicily. The other was named Gregory, he was a 

clerk, and was driven out of Rome by the other pope, and by 

his kinsmen. With him held the emperor of Saxony, and the 

king of France, and king Henry of England, and all those OH 

this side of the mountains. Now there was so much error in sso, 

Christendom as never before was : may Christ impart counsel 

for his wretched folk. In this same year, on St. Nicholas' 

mass-night, a little before day, there was a great earthquake. 

An. MC.XXX. In this year the monastery of Canterbury was 
hallowed by archbishop William, on the day the ivth of the 
Nones of May (May 4th). There were the bishops John of 
Rochester, Gilbert Universal of London, Henry of Winches- 
ter, Alexander of Lincoln, Roger of Salisbury, Simon of Wor- 
cester, Roger of Coventry, Godfrey of Bath, Everard of 
Norwich, Sigefrid of Chichester, Bernard of St. David's, 
Owen of Evreux from Normandy, John of Seez. On the 
fourth day after that, king Henry was in Rochester, and the 
town was almost burnt down. And the archbishop William 
hallowed the monastery of St. Andrew, and the aforesaid 
bishops with him. And king Henry went over sea to Nor- 
mandy in the autumn. In the same year came the abbot 
Henry of Angely, after Easter, to Peterborough, and said that 
he had quite left that monastery. After him came the abbot 
of Cluny, named Peter, to England, by the king's leave, and 
was received everywhere whithersoever he came with much 
worship. To Peterborough he came, and there abbot Henry 
promised him that he would get him the monastery of Peter- 
borough, that it might be subject to Cluny. But it is said for 
a proverb, < The hedge abides that fields divides.' May God 
Almighty frustrate evil counsels. Shortly after this the abbot 
of Cluny went home to his country. 

An. MC.XXXI. This year after Christmas, on a Monday night, 



An. MC.XXX. In this year Anagus was slain by the Scots' 
army; and there was a great slaughter made with him. There 
was God's right avenged on him, because he was all forsworn. a 



P 2 



228 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

at the first sleep, the heaven was, on the north side, all as though 
it were burning fire, so that all who saw it were so affrighted 
as they never were before. That was on the inrd of the Ides 
of January (Jan. 1 1th). In this same year there was so great a 
murrain of the cattle, as never was in the memory of men over 
all England. That was in neat and in swine ; so that in the 
town where there were ten or twelve ploughs going, there was 
not one left; and the man who had two or three hundred swine 
had not one left. After that died the domestic fowls ; Ihon 
flesh meat became scarce, and cheese, and butter. May C4od 
better it when it shall be his will ! And king Henry cnme 
home to England before the autumn, after the mass of St. 
Peter ad Vincula (Aug. 1st). In the same year the abbot 
Henry went before Easter from Peterborough over sea to Nor- 
mandy, and there spoke with the king, and said to him that 
the abbot of Cluny had ordered him that he should come 
to him and deliver over to him the abbacy of Angely ; and 
after that he would come home by his leave. And so he 
381. went home to his own monastery, and there abode quite to 
Midsummer day. And the second day after St. John's mass- 
day (June 26th), the monks chose an abbot from themselves, 
and brought him into the church with procession, sang ' Te 
Deum laudamus,' rang the bells, set him in the abbot's seat, 
showed him all obedience, as they should do to their abbot; and 
the earl, and all the chief men, and the monks of the monas- 
tery, drove the other abbot Henry out of the monastery. They 
had need : in five and twenty winters they had never enjoyed 
one good day. Here failed him all his great crafts : now it 
behoved him to creep, in his great 'tribulation, into every 
corner, if there were at least one miserable trick, that he might 
yet deceive Christ and all Christian folk. He then went to 
Cluny, and there he was held so that he could not go east or 
west. The abbot of Cluny said that they had lost St. John's 
monastery through him, and through his great sottishness. 
Then he knew of no better compensation to them, but to pro- 
mise them, and swear oaths on relics, that if he might visit 
England, he should get them the monastery of Peterborough; 
so that he should set there a prior from Cluny, and a church- 
ward, and treasurer, and vestment-keeper; and all the things 

1 The original word is ' codde,' which I do not understand. 



THK AXGLOSAXOX CHKOX1CLE. 229 

tluit were within the monastery and without, he should deliver 
to them. Thus he went to France, and there abode all the year. 
May Christ provide for the wretched monks of Peterborough, 
and for that wretched place : now stand they in need of the 
help of Christ and of all Christian folk. 

An. MC. xxxii. In this year king Henry came to this land. 
Then came abbot Henry, and accused the monks of Peter- 
borough to the king; because he would subject that monastery 
to Cluny ; so that the king was well nigh deceived, and sent 
after the monks ; and through God's mercy, and through the 
bishop of Salisbury, and the bishop of Lincoln, and the other 
powerful men who were there, the king knew that he pro- 
ceeded with guile. When he could do no more, he wished 
that his nephew should be abbot of Peterborough; but Christ 
willed it not. It was not very long after that, that the king 
sent after him, and made him give up the abbacy of Peter- 
borough, and go out of the land : and the king gave the 
abbacy to a prior of St. Neot's named Martin : he came on 
St. Peter's mass-day with great worship to the monastery. 

An. 3IC.XXXIH., xc.xxxiv. 

An. MC.XXXV. In this year king Henry went over sea at 
Lammas (Aug. 1st); and the second day, as he lay and slept in 
the ship, the day darkened over all lands, and the sun became, 
as it wore, a three-night-old moon, and the stars about it at 
midday. Men were greatly wonder-stricken and affrighted, 
and said that a great thing should come hereafter. So it did, 
for that same year the king died, on the following day after 
St. Andrew's mass-day (Dec. 2nd), in Normandy. Then there 
was tribulation soon in the land; for every man that could 
forthwith robbed another. Then his ' son and his friends took 
his body and brought it to England, and buried it at Reading. 
A good man he was, and there was great awe of him. No 
man durst misdo against another in his time. He made peace 
for man and beast. Whoso bare his burthen of gold and silver, 
no man durst say to him aught but good. In the meanwhile 
his nephew Stephen of Blois was come to England, and came 
to London, and the London folk received him, and sent after 
the archbishop William Corbeil, and hallowed him king on 

1 Robert earl of Gloucester, the only one of his numerous progeny 
present at his death. 



230 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Midwinter day. In this king's time all was strife, and evil, 
and rapine ; for against him soon rose the powerful men who 
were traitors. The first of all Baldwin de Redvers, who held 
Exeter against him ; and the king besieged it, and then Bald- 
win capitulated. Then the others took and held their castles 
against him ; and David, king of Scotland, took to vex him. 
Then, notwithstanding that, their messengers passed between 
them, and they came together, and were reconciled ; though 
it was to little purpose. 

An. MC.XXXVI. 

An. MC.XXXVII. In this year king Stephen went over sea to 
Normandy, and was there received ; because they imagined 
that he would be such as his uncle was, and because he had 
got his treasure : but he distributed it and scattered it foolishly. 
Much had king Henry gathered of gold and silver, and no 
good was done for his soul thereof. When king Stephen came 
'to England (a. 1139), he held an assembly at Oxford, and there 
he took the bishop Roger of Salisbury, and Alexander bishop of 
Lincoln, and the chancellor Roger, his nephew, and put them 
all into prison, till they gave up their castles. When the 
traitors perceived that he was a mild man, and soft, and good, 
and did no justice, then did they all wonder. They had done 
homage to him, and sworn oaths, but had held no faith ; they 
were all forsworn, and forfeited their troth ; for every power- 
ful man made his castles, and held them against him ; 
and they filled the land full of castles. They cruelly op- 
pressed the wretched men of the land with castle-works. 
When the castles were made, they filled them with devils and 
evil men. Then took they those men that they imagined had 
any property, both by night and by day, peasant men and 
women, and put them in prison for their gold and silver, and 
tortured them with unutterable torture ; for never were mar- 
tyrs so tortured as they were. They hanged them up by the 
feet, and smoked them with foul smoke ; they hanged them by 
the thumbs, or by the head, and hung fires on their feet ; they 
put knotted strings about their heads, and writhed them so 
that it went to the brain. They put. them in dungeons, in 
which were adders, and snakes, and toads, and killed them so. 
Some they put in a * crucet hus,' that is, in a chest that was 
short, and narrow, and shallow, and put sharp stones therein, 
and pressed the man therein, so that they brake all his limbs. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 281 

In many of the castles were [instruments called] a * ' lao' and * r \^ hly and 
grim,' these were neck-bonds, of which two or three men had 
enough to bear one. It was so made, that is, [it was] fastened 
to a beam ; and they put a sharp iron about the man's throat 
and his neck, so that he could not in any direction sit, or lie, 
or sleep, but must bear all that iron. Many thousands they 
killed with hunger ; I neither can nor may tell all the wounds 
or all the tortures which they inflicted on wretched men in 
this land ; and that lasted the nineteen winters while Stephen 
was king ; and ever it was worse and worse. They laid im- 
posts on the towns continually, and called it u censerie r'when 
the wretched men had no more to give, they robbed and burned 
all the towns, so that thou mightest well go all a day's journey 
and thou shouldst never find a man sitting in a town, or the land 
tilled. Then was corn dear, and flesh, and cheese, and butter; 
for there was none in the land. Wretched men died of hun- 
ger ; some went seeking alms who at one while were rich men ; 
some fled out of the land. Never yet had more wretchedness 
been in the land, nor did heathen men ever do worse than 
they did; for everywhere at times they forbore neither church 383. 
nor churchyard, but took all the property that was therein, 
and then burned the church and altogether. Nor forbore they a 
bishop's land, nor an abbot's, nor a priest's, but robbed monks 
and clerks, and every man another who anywhere could. If 
two or three men came riding to a town, all the township fled 
before them, imagining them to be robbers. The bishops and 
clergy constantly cursed them, but nothing came of it ; for 
they were all accursed, and forsworn, and lost. However a 
man tilled, the earth bare no corn ; for the land was all fordone 
by such deeds : and they said openly that Christ and his 
saints slept. Such and more than we can say, we endured 
nineteen winters for our sinsi In all this evil time abbot 
Martin held his abbacy twenty winters and a half year, and 
eight days, with great trouble ; and found the monks and the 
guests all that behoved them, and held great charity in the 
house; and, notwithstanding, wrought on the church, and 



1 In the MS. ' tenserie.' Censerie j " tage est charge envers le seigneur 
is, no doubt, the same as ' cens,' in " du fief d'ou il depend." Roque- 



Low Latin censaria, " rente seig- 
" neuriale et fonciere, dont un heri- 



fort, Glossaire Eomain. 



232 THE AXGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

added thereto lands and routs, and greatly endowed it, and 
'had it provided with vestments, and brought them (the 
monks) into the new monastery, on St. Peter's mass-day, with 
great worship. That was in the year from the inearnation of 
the Lord MC.XL., from the burning of the place xxni. And he 
went to Rome, and was there well received by pope " Eugenius, 
and there got privileges : one for all the lands of the abbacy, 
and another for the lands which are adjacent to the 3 church - 
dwelling ; and if lie might have lived longer, he meant to do 
so for the treasurer's dwelling. And he got back the lands 
that powerful men held by force : from William Malduit, 
who held the castle of Rockiiighnm, he obtained Cotingham 
and Easton ; and from Hugo of Waltevile he obtained Irling- 
borough and Stauwiek ; and from Oldwinkle sixty shillings 
every year. And he made many monks, and planted a vine- 
yard, and made many works, raid rendered the town better 
than it ere was ; and Avas a good monk and a good man, and 
therefore God and good men loved him. Now we will say 
a part of what befel in king Stephen's time. In his time the 
Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child before Easter, and 
tortured him with all the same torture with which our Lord 
was tortured ; and on * Longfriday hanged him on a rood, in 
5 hatred to our Lord, and afterwards buried him. They ima- 
gined that it would be concealed, but our Lord showed that 
he was a holy martyr. And the monks took him and buried 
him honourably in the monastery; and through our Lord he 
makes wonderful and manifold miracles, and he is called St. 
William. 

An. MC. xxxvin. In this year came David, king of Scotland, 
with an immense force to this land : he would win this land. 
And against him came William, count of Albemarle, to whom 
the king had intrusted York, and c two other chief men, with 



1 Or perhaps had the walls adorned \ 4 -The Scandinavian nations still 



w ith hangings. The meaning is very 
doubtful. 

2 Eugenius II. did not reign till 
1145. 

3 Probably the inhabited part of 



say Langfredag for Good Friday. 



5 For ' lime ' of the text I suspect 
we should read laSe, hate. At 
p. 382 of the text there is appa- 
rently a similar error of ' lof ' for la'b 1 . 



the abbey, as distinguished from the j 6 Perhaps Koger of Monbrai and 
abbey-church. j Walter Espec. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHIIONIOLE. 233 

few men, and fought against them, and put the king to flight 
at the Standard, and slew very many of his followers. 

All. MC. XXXIX. . 

Aii. l MC.XL. In this year king Stephen would take Robert 
earl of Gloucester, the son of king Henry; but he could not, for 
he was aware of it. Afterwards in Lent, the sun and the day 
darkened about the noontide of day, when men were eating, 
and they lighted candles to eat by ; and that was on the xinth 
of the Kal. of April (Mar. 20th). Men were greatly wonder- 
stricken. After that died William, archbishop of Canterbury ; 
and the king made Theobald archbishop, who was abbot of 
Bee. After this waxed a very great war betwixt the king 
and Randolf earl of Chester ; not because that he gave him 
not all that he could ask from him, as he did to all others ; but 354. 
ever the more he gave them, the Avorse they were to him. 
The earl held Lincoln against the king, and took from him all 
that he ought to have. And the king went thither and be- 
sieged him and his brother William de Roumare in the castle. 
And the earl stole out, and went after Robert earl of Glou- 
cester, and brought him thither with a great force; and they 
fought obstinately on Candlemas day (Feb. 2nd) against their 
lord, and took him; for his men deserted him and fled. And 
they led him to Bristol, and there put him into prison, and 

Then was all England stirred more that it ere was, 

and all evil was in the land. After that came king Henry's 
daughter, who had been empress of Almaine, and was now 
countess of Anjou, and came to London; and the London folk 
would take her, and she fled and 2 lost thus much.' After- 
wards the bishop, of Winchester, Henry, the brother of king 
Stephen, spoke with earl Robert and with the empress, and 
swore oaths to them that he never more would hold with the 
king his brother, and cursed all the men who held with him ; 
and said to them, that he would give Winchester up to them, 
and made them come thither. When they were therein, then 
came the king's queen with all her strength and besieged 



1 Under this date are included 
e rents belonging to following years. 

-' MS. ' J?as mycel,' "which I do 
not understand ; but supposing that 
1 J>as ' may be an error for ' hus,' I 



have translated accordingly. Flo- 
rence of "Worcester has : 4< omni sua 
" suorumque supellectile post ter- 
" gum relicta." 



234 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 

them, so that there was great hunger therein. When they 
could no longer hold out, they stole out and fled. And they 
without were aware, and followed them, and took Robert earl 
of Gloucester, and led him to Rochester, and there put him in 
prison; and the empress fled to a monastery. Then went wise 
men betwixt the king's friends and the earl's friends, and so 
agreed : that the king should be let out of prison for the earl, 
and the earl for the king, and they so did. After that, the 
king and earl Raudolf agreed at Stamford, and swore oaths, 
and plighted troth, that neither of them should prove traitor to 
the other ; but it stood for naught ; for the king afterwards 
took him at Northampton, through wicked counsel, and put 
him in prison, and eftsoons, through worse counsel, he let him 
out, on the condition that he should swear on a relic, and find 
hostages, that he would give up all his castles. Some he 
gave up, and some he gave up not ; and then did worse here 
than he should. Then was England much divided ; some 
held with the king and some with the empress ; for when the 
king was in prison, the earls and the great men imagined 
that he never more would come out; and agreed with the em- 
press, and brought her to Oxford, and gave her the burgh. 
When the king was out, he heard that say, and took his force, 
and besieged her in the tower; and she was let down by night 
from the tower with ropes, and she stole out, and fled, aiid 
went on foot to Wallingford. After that she went over sea, 
and they of Normandy all turned from the king to the count 
of Anjou, some voluntarily, some by compulsion, for he be- 
sieged them till they gave up their castles ; and they had no 
help from the king. Then went Eustace, the king's son, to 
Constance. France, and took the king of France's *sister to wife, imagining 
to get Normandy thereby ; but he sped little, and by good 
right, for he was an evil man, for wheresoever he was, he did 
more evil than good. He robbed the lands, and laid great im- 
posts on them. He brought his wife to England, and put her 

in the castle of A good woman she was, but she had 

little bliss with him; and Christ would not that he should long 
rule ; and he died, and his mother also ; and the count of 
Anjou died, and his son Henry succeeded to the county. And 
the queen of France parted from the king, and she came to the 
young count Henry, and he took her to wife, and all Poitou 
with her. He then went with a great force to England, and 



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 235 

won castles; and the king went against him with a much larger 

force; and yet they fought not; but the archbishop and the wise 

men went betwixt them and made this agreement : That the 385. 

king should be lord and king while he lived; and after his day 

Henry should be king ; and he should hold him as a father, and 

he him as a son, and peace and concord should be betwixt them 

and in all England. This and the other compacts which they 

made, the king, and the count, and the bishops, and all the 

powerful men, swore to observe. The count was then received 

at Winchester and at London with great worship ; and all 

did him homage, and swore to hold the pacification. And it 

was soon a very good pacification, such as never had been 

before. Then was the king stronger than he ever was before ; 

and the count went over sea ; and all folk loved him ; for he 

did good justice and made peace. 

An. MC.LIV. In this year king Stephen died, and was buried 
where his wife and his son were buried, at Faversham, the 
monastery which they had founded. When the king was dead 
the count was beyond sea ; but no man durst do. other than 
good, for the great awe of him. When he came to England he 
WHS received with great worship, and blessed for king in Lon- 
don on the Sunday before Midwinter day ; and there he held 
a great court. That same day that Martin, abbot of Peter- 
borough, should have gone thither, he sickened and died, on 
the ivth of the Nones of January (Jan. 2nd) ; and the monks 
within a day chose another for themselves, William de Walte- 
vile, a good clerk and good man, and well loved of the king 
and of all good men. And all the monks buried the abbot 
honourably; and soon the abbot elect went, and the monks 
with him, to the king at Oxford ; and the king gave him the 

abbacy; and soon went to Peterborough .- . and 

he Avas also at Ramsey ......... 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



239 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



A.D, 





Pag 
A.S. text. 


es of 
' > 
Transl. 




A. 






C5G 


Abon, aldorman, signs charter to Medeshamstede . 


53 


28 


710 


Acca, bishop of Hexham ..... 


69 


38 


733 


expelled from his see ..... 


77 


40 


737 


dies ........ 


77 


40 


973 


Acemannes ceaster, Bath so called .... 


'224 


96 


7821 
789 / 




95,99 


47,48 






Adela. See Athelis. 






116 


Adrian (Hadrian), emperor of Home 


13 


9 


675 


Adrian, legate in England, attests charter to Medes- 








hamstede ....... 


59 


33 


' 785 


Adrian L, pope, sends legates to England 


-97 


47 


794 


dies 


100 


49 


897 


^Ebbe, a Frisian, slain 


176,177 


74- 


1002 


JEfic, king's high reeve, murdered by Leofsige 


252, 253 


Ill 


1037 


^Efic, dean of Evesham, dies 


294 


130 


650 


JEgelbryht, bishop of Wessex (Dorchester) . 


50,51 


24 


660 


leaves England 


54,55 


28 


571 


^Egelesburh (Aylesbury), taken from the Britons . 


32, 33 


17 


455 


JEgelesthrep (Aylesford), battle at ... 


20,21 


12 


1053 


JEgelnoth, abbot of Glastonbury .... 


322 


154 


1066 


accompanies William the Conqueror to Nor- 








mandy ....... 


339 


170 


1041 


^Egelric, ordained bishop of Durham at York . 


298 


132 


1056 


retires to Peterborough ..... 


326 


158 


1069 


accused and brought to Westminster 


342,343 174,175 


1070 


excommunicates Here ward and his men . 


344, 347 


178 


10721 
1073 J 


dies ........ 


346, 347 


179 


1057 1 
1058 J 


jEgelric, bishop of Sussex (Selsey) 


328, 329 


159, 160 


1053 


JEgelward, abbot of Glastonbury, dies . 


322 


154 


10771 
1078J 


JEgelwig, abbot of Evesham, dies .... 


350, 351 


183 


1056 


./Egelwine, bishop of Durham .... 


326 


158 


1069 


outlawed 


342, 343 


174, 175 


1071 \ 


flees to Ely submits to William, and dies at 






1072J 


Abingdon 


346, 347 


178,179 




jEgesanstan. See Daegsanstan. 







CHRONOLOGICAL IKDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


003 


i 
JEgthan, king of the Scots, defeated by kingTKthel- 








ferth .... 


30 37 


18 


1006 


JElfelm, aldorman, slain ..... 


250, 257 


113 


902 


-5lfgar, king Eadgar's kinsman, dies 


218 


92 


993 


JElfgar, son of JElfric, blinded by order of king 








TEthelred 


240,241 


105 


1021 


JElfg&r the Alms-giver, bishop, dies 


286 


125 


1048V 


JElfgar (Ealgar), son of Leofric, succeeds to Harold's 1 


317,321, 


146, 154, 


1053 J 


earldom J 


322, 323 


155 


1055 


outlawed and joins Griffith, and plunders the \ 
abbey at Hereford . . . . J 


324, 325 


J 156, 15 7, 
1 158 


1055 


his outlawry reversed and possessions restored . 


324, 326 


157 


1057 


succeeds to his father's earldom 


328, 329 


159 


1058 


banished and returns . . . . 


328 


160 


1039 


-^Elfget, slain by the Welsh 


296 


131 


958 


.^Elfgifu, wife of king Eadwig, separated from him . 


217 


91 


1002 


vElfgifu Emma, comes to England | 


251,252, 
253 


111 


1013 


takes refuge in Normandy < 


271,272, 
273 


119 


1017 


marries Cnut ....... 


284,285 


124 


1023 


accompanies the body of abp. A-'A( heah to Can- 








terbury ....... 


288 


127 


1035 


despoiled of her treasures by king Harold 


292 


129 


1036 


appointed to the regency of Wessex with God- 








wine and others ..... 


203 


129 


1037 


expelled by Harold Harefoot and retires to 








Bruges 


294, 295 


130 


1041 


gives St. Valentine's head to the New monastery 








at Winchester ..... 


299 


132 


1043 


her treasures seized by her son, king Eadward . 


300,301 


133 


1051 I 
1052 J 


dies 


312,316, 
317 


145,149, 
150 


955 


TKlfgyfu (St.), queen of king Eadmund . 


215 


91 


1035 


.^Elfgyfu, ^Elfhelm's daughter, concubine of Cnut . 


292,293 


129 


934 


JElfheah, bishop of Winchester .... 


200, 201 


86. 


951 


dies 


214 


91 * 


984 


^Elf heah, bishop of Winchester .... 


236,237 


103 


993 


with abp. Siric counsels kin gJE their ed to make 








peace with Olaf(Unlaf) .... 


240,241 


105 


994 


sent to king Olaf ( Anlaf ) to sue for peace 


242, 243 


106 


1006 


succeeds to Canterbury 


254,255 


113 


1007 


goes to Eome for his pall 


258 


114 


1011 


captured by the Danes ..... 


266,267 


117 


1012 


murdered by them and buried at St. Paul's 


268,269 


118 


1023 


his body removed to Canterbury 


288, 289 


120 


972 


JElfhere (^Ifere), aldorman of Mercia, signs the 








charter of donation to Medeshamstede . 


221 


95 


975 


destroys monasteries and expels the monks 


229 


99 


980 


removes the body of king Eadward from Ware - 








ham to Shaftesbury ..... 


234, 235 


102 


983 


dies ........ 


236, 237 


103 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



241 



A T) 




Pag 


esof 


* V. 1 /, 




A.S. text 


Transl. 


1012 


vElfhun, bishop of London, receives and buries the 








body of abp. JElfheah. 


268,269 


118 


1013 


accompanies TEthelred's sons to Normandy 4 


271,272, 
273 


| 119 


792 


JElflsed, wife of JEthelred, king of Northumbria 


99 


48 


1011 


yElfma?r, abbot of St. Augustine's, betrays Canter- 








bury to the Danes . . . . 


266,267 


117 


1056 


./Elfnoth, shire-reeve, slain 


326 


158 


W " ' > "I 
*"" ' I 


yKlfred, son of vEthelwulf his genealogy sent to 






854 j 


Rome 


2,122,123 


4,57 


853 1 
854 J 


consecrated king by pope Leo .... 


123, 127 


57, 58 


868 


marches to Nottingham, in aid of Burhred, king 








of Mercia 


132, 133 


59 


U8T71 


succeeds to the kingdom of Wessex 


140 141 


62 


871 


defeated by the Danes at Wilton 


140, 141 


G2 


871 


fights nine battles with the Danes in one year . 


140, 141 


62 


875 


defeats the Danes at sea 


144, 145 


63 


876 


makes peace with them ..... 


144, 145 


63 


877 




146, 147 


64 


877 


takes refuge in Athelney .... 


146, 147 


64 


878 


defeats the Danes and becomes sponsor for 








Guthorm .....*. 


148, 149 


65 


882 


fights with the Danes at sea .... 


150, 151 




883 


sends alms to Rome and India 


152,153 


60 


885 


raises the siege of Rochester .... 


152,153 


66 


885 


sends a naval force to the mouth of the Stour . 


152, 153 


GG 


885 


conflicts with the vikings at sea 


152,153 


66 


885 


obtains the freedom of the English school at 








Rome ....... 


154, 155 


67 


886 


restores London and commits it to the aldor- 








man .ZEthelred . . . . 


156, 157 


G7 


8871 








888 I 


sends alms to Rome 


158, 159 


68 


890 J 








892 J 


receives three Scottish (Irish) pilgrims . 


160, 161 


69 


,894 


defeats of the Danes at Farnham . 


166,167 


70 


X 896 


blockades the river Lea ..... 


172,173 ' 


7-'5 


897 


orders the construction of long ships 


174,175 


71 


897 


his conflict with Danish ships at the Isle of 








Wight 


176,177 


74 


901 


dies 




M *. 


906 


Alfred, reeve of Bath, dies 


182, 183 


t >) 

77 


1013 


YElfred, son of king ^Ethelred and Emma, sent 








abroad 


271,272 


119 


1036 


comes to England, and is cruelly murdered 


292 


129 


634 


JElfric, father of Osric, king of Northumbria . 


45 


22 


983 


JElfric, aldorman of Mercia . 


236, 237 


103 


985 


banished ....... 


236, 237 


105 


9921 
1 003 J 


his treachery 4 


238,239 
252, 253 


104 
112 


TOT 


IT, 


Q 





242 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



A.D. 


. 


Pag 
A.S. text. 


?s of 
Transl. 


995 


JElfric, bishop of Wilton, chosen archbishop of Can- 


243 


106 


996 




244 245 


107 


997 
1006 


goes to Rome for his pall and about the expul- 
sion of the secular clergy .... 


244, 247 
254 255 


107 
1 13 


1016 
1023 
1026 
10oO\ 


JElfric aldorraan, slain at Assandun 
JElfric, archbishop of York 
goes to Rome for his pall .... 


282,283 
289 
290 

312 


123 
126 
127 

14 146 


1052 J 
1038 
1053 


./Elfric, bishop of the East Angles, dies . 
JElfric, brother of Odda, dies 


294,295 
302 


181 

154 


(1006) 
1013 

1013 
1041 
1023 

1032 


^Elfsige (^Elfsi, JSlfsine), abbot of Peterborough . 
accompanies queen Emma to Normandy . 

buys the body of St. Florentine 
dies 
jiElfsige, bishop of Winchester, assists in removing 
the body of archbishop ^Elfheah 


221 
271,272, 
273 
272 

299 

288 
293 


95 
| 119 

119 
133 

127 
128 


972 


^Elfsine. See JElfsige. 
JElfstan, bishop of London, attests a charter to 
Medeshamstede ...... 


2 Q 1 


95 


992 
981 
10431 
1044J 
965 

1045 
924"! 
925 J 
1011 

1014 
679 
1032 
10471 


commands king JEthelred's fleet 
JElfstan, bishop of Wilton, dies .... 

JElfstan, abbot of St. Augustine's, resigns 
JElfthryth, married to king Eadgar 
JElfward, bishop of London, dies .... 
JElfweard, son of Eadward the Elder, dies 

JElfweard, king's reeve, captured by the Danes at 
Canterbury . . . 
JElfwig, bishop of London . . . 
JElfwine, brother of king Ecgferth, slain 
-^Elfwine, bishop of Winchester .... 

dies 


238,239 
234 

301 
223 
303 
198,199 

266,267 
272 
60,61 
293 

302 303 


104 
102 

134, 135 
95 
134 

84 

117 
120 
33 

128 

136 


1046 J 
10461 
1048 I 


-^Ifwine, abbot of Ramsey, sent to the synod at 


305 


139 


919 

656 


JElfwyn, daughter of JEthelred aldorman and^Ethel- 
flsed, deprived of the government of Mercia 

JElhmund (Ealhmund), signs charter to Medesham- 
stede 


192, 193 
53 


81 

28 


867 

477 
485 
491 


JElla, king of Northumbria, slain .... 

JElle, arrives in Britain and defeats the Welsh 
fights against them at Mearcredes burne . 
destroys Andredesceaster .... 
the first Brytenwalda 


132, 133 

22,23 
24, 25 
24, 25 
112, 113 


59 

13 
13 
13 
53 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



243 







Pag 


es of 


A.D. 


_ 


i ' 


' ^ 






A.S. text. 


Trans]. 


560 


JElle, succeeds Ida in Northumbria 


30,31 


15 






30, 31 


15 


588 


dies ........ 


34,35 


17 


1011 


JElmoer, abbot of St. Augustine's. See -JElfinser. 






1016 


JElmser Dyrling, aids Cnut against king Eadmund '. 


280, 281 


122 


455 


JEsc, reigns with his father Hengest 


20,21 


12 


457| 
465 } 
473 J 


his battles with the Britons .... 


22,23 


12, 13 


488 




24, 25 


13 


992 


JEscwig, bishop of Dorchester, commands JEthelred's 


238, 239 


104 




fleet 






674 


JEscwine, king of Wessex his genealogy 


1,58,59 


3,31 


675 


fights against Wulf here, son of Penda 


58,59 


31 


676 


dies ........ 


60,61 


32 


716 


JEthelbald, king of Mercia ..... 


70,71 


39 


733 


takes Somerton ...... 


76,77 


40 


737 


ravages Northumbria ..... 


77 


40 


742 


attends the synod at Clovesho .... 


79 


41 


743 


fights against the Welsh ..... 


78,79 


41 


752 


defeated by Cuthred of Wessex 


80,81 


42 


755 


slain at Seckington ...... 


83 86, 87 


42,44 


851 


JEthelbald, son of .^Ethelwulf, defeats the Danes at 


' 






Ockley 


122, 123 


56 


856 J 


succeeds to the kingdom of Wessex 


2,127,128 


4, 57, 58 


860 


dies ........ 


128,129 


58 


778 


./Ethelbald and Heardberht, slay three high reeves . 


93 


46 


552 


JEthelberht (Egelberht), son of Eormenric, born 


~29 


Ts 


565 


succeeds to the kingdom of Kent 


30,31 


16 


568 


defeated by Ceawlin and Cutha 


32,33 


16 


604 


gives the see of London to Mellitus, and of 








Rochester to Justus 


38,39 


18 


616 


dies . . . 


40,41 


19 




the third Brytenwalda . . . 


112,113 


53 


766 


JEthelberht, archbishop of York .... 


91 


45 


780 




95 


47 


777 


JEthelberht, bishop of Whiterne . 


93 


46 


795 


JEthelberht, bishop of Hexham, assists at the conse- 








cration of king Eardwulf .... 


103 


49 


797 


dies ........ 


105 


50 


664 


JEthelbold, signs charter to Medesbamstede . 


53 


28 


855 


JEthelbryht, king of Kent, Essex, Surrey, and 








Sussex ....... 


127, 128 


58 


860 


succeeds to Wessex 


2,128,129 


4,58 


865 


his death and burial 


130,131 


59 


633 


JEthelburh, king Eadwine's relict, takes refuge in 








Kent 


45 


22 


722 


JEthelburh, queen of Ine, destroys Taunton . 


72,73 


39 


748 


JEthelbyrht, king of Kent . . . 


80 


42 


760 


dies 


88,89 


44 






Q 2 





244 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A,D. 





Pages of 
'A.S. text. Transl. 


792 JEthelbyrht, king of East Anglia, murdered by Offa 


98, 99 


48 


1055 monastery dedicated to him at Her-eford plun- 






dered and destroyed 


324, 325 


157 


673 JEtheldryth (St.), founds the monastery at Ely 


58, 59 


31 


679 dies . . 


60, 61 


33 


963 body of, at Ely 


220 


93 


593 ^thelferth (JEthelfrith), king of Northumbria 


34, 35 


17 


603 defeats JSgthan, king of the Scots . 


36,37 


18 


606 defeats the Welsh at Chester .... 


38, 39 


18 


617 killed in battle with king Rsedwald of East 






Anglia 


41 


20 


897 i ^Ethelferth, king Alfred's geneat,' slain 


176, 177 


74 


910 .TEthelflsed, lady of the Mercians, builds the burgh at 








Bramsbury 


184, 185 


77 


912 


builds fortresses at Scergeat (Sarrat ?) and 








Bridgenorth 


186, 187 


78 


913 


also at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddesbury, War- 








wick, Chirbury, Wardbury, and Runcorn . 


186, 187 


79 


916 


takes Brecknock 


' 190, 191 


80 


917 


Derby 


190,191 


80 


918 


Leicester . . 


192, 193 


81 


9181 
922 J 


dies at Tamworth 


192, 195 


81,83 


946 


JEthelflaed of Damerham, queen of king Eadmund . 


213 


90 




^Ethelfrith. See JEthelferth. 






964 


^Ethelgar, abbot of the New monastery at Winchester 


222, 223 


9o 


980 


bishop of Selsey 


234 


102 


988 


archbishop of Canterbury .... 


238, 239 


103 


7281 
726 J 


jEthelheard, king of Wessex his genealogy fights 
with Oswald the a3theling .... 


1,72,73 


3,39 


741 1 
740 J 




78,79 


41 




790 


JEthelheard, archbishop of Canterbury . 


98,99 


48 


796 


holds a synod 


103 


49 


799 




104 105 


^i 


8031 
802 J 


dies ....... 


106, 107 51 




794 


JEthelheard, aldorman, dies 


101 


49 


852 


JEthelheard, aldorman, witnesses charter to Medes- 










123 


56 


837 


JEthelhelm (^Ethelm), aldorman, slain in battle by 








the Danes . 


118, 119 


5 5 


887 


-^Ethelhelm (-ZEthelm), aldorman of Wiltshire, con- 








veys the West Saxon alms to Rome 


158, 159 


08 


894 


blockades the Danes at Buttington . 


168,169 


71 


898 


dies 


178, 179 


75 


655 


.^Ethelhere, brother of king Anna of East Anglia, slain 


51 


24 


897 


-3thelhere, a Frisian, slain .... 


176, 177 


74 


750 


./Ethelhun x aldorman, contends with king Cuthred of 








Wessex 


80, 81 


42 




TEthelic. See Matilda. 








^Ethelm. See JEthelhelm. 







CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



24-5 







Pag 


esof 


A.D. 





i ' 


k ^ 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 


982 


vEthelmser, aldorman, dies 


236 


103 


1013 


7Ethelma3r, aldorman, and the western thanes, submit 










TO 271 


119 


800 


JEthelmund, aldorman, slain 


104,107 


51 


894 


-ZEthelnoth, aldorman, blockades the Danes 


168, 169 


71 


1020 


./Ethelnoth (JEgelnoth), archbishop of Canterbury . 


286,287 


125 


1022 


goes to Rome for his pall .... 


286, 287 


125 


1 023 


consecrates JElfric archbisbop of York 


289 


126 


1023 


assists in removing the body of abp. yElfheah . 


288, 289 


126 


1038 


dies 


294,295 


130 


664 


./Ethelred (JEthered), brother of king Wulfhere, 








assists at the consecration and endowment of 










58 


25 


G75 


succeeds to the kingdom of Mercia, and sends 








bishop Wilfrith to Rome .... 


58,59 


31 


676 


ravages Kent ....... 


60,61 


32 


679 


battle between him and Ecgferth of Northumbria 


60,61 


33 


680 


confirms Wulfhere's charter to Medeshamstede 


58 


31 


697 


his queen Ostryth murdered .... 


67 


37 


704 


becomes a monk 


68,69 


38 


716 


buried at Bardney ...... 


70,71 


39 


774 


JEthelred, son of MolLEthelwold, kingt)f Northumbria 


91 


45 


778 


expelled ....... 


93 


46 


790 


restored ....... 


99 


48 


792 


marries JElflaed ...... 


99 


48 


794 


slain by his own people ..... 


100, 101 


49 


866") 
867 J 


vEthelred I. (JEthered), king of Wessex . 


1, 130, 131 


4,59 


868 


aids Burhred, king of Mercia .... 


132, 133 


59 


871 


his battles with the Danes .... 


138-141 


61,62 


871 


dies . . . 


140, 141 


62 


870 


^Ethelred (JEthered), archbishop of Canterbury, 








resolves on expelling the secular priests from 








Canterbury ....... 


134, 137 


60 


8881 
889 / 


dies ........ 


158,159 


68 


886 


./Ethelred, aldorman of Mercia, London committed to 








him 


156, 157 


67 


894 


sponsor to a son of Haesten .... 


168,169 


71 


894 


besieges the Danes at Buttington 


168, 169 


71 


912 


dies ........ 


186,187 


78 


978 


^Ethelred II., king of England ..... 


232, 233 


100 


979 


consecrated ....... 


234, 235 


101 


986 


lays waste the diocese of Rochester . 


238,239 


103 


992 


raises a fleet 


238, 239 


104 


993 


commands TElfgar to be blinded 


240, 241 


105 


993 


makes peace with Olaf (Anlaf) 


242, 243 


106 


9931 
994 J 


receives him at confirmation . . 


240 
242, 243 


105 
106 


999 


prepares an armament against the Danes 


248,249 


109 


1000 


lays waste Cumberland and Man 


248, 249 


110 



246 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text, i Transl. 




-ZEthelred If., king of England cant. 




1002 


makes peace with, and pays tribute to, the Danes 


250,251 


ill 


1002 


banishes Leofsige married to Emma 


252, 253 


111 


1002 


causes the Danes to be massacred . 


251,252 


111 


1006 


order a general levy from Wessex and Mercia 


256, 257 


113 


1006 


goes to Shropshire, and resolves on peace and 








paying tribute 


256,257 


113 


1008 


orders ships and arms ..... 


258,259 


114 


1009 


orders a general levy ..... 


262,263 


115 


1011 


solicits peace ....... 


264,265 


116 


1013 


appoints Lyfing to the see of Canterbury 


270,271 


118 


1013 


besieged in London by Svein .... 


270,271 


119 


1013 


sends his queen to Normandy .... 


272,273 


119 


1013 


goes to Normandy 


272,273 


119 


1014 


recalled 


272, 273 


120 


1014 


ravages Lindsey . . . . 


274,275 


120 


1014 


orders a contribution of 21,000 for the army 








at Greenwich 


274, 275 


120 


1015 


seizes the property of Sigeferth and Morker . 


274,275 


121 


1015 


falls sick at Corsham 


276,277 


121 


1016 


dies in London ..... -j 


277,278, 
279 


| 122 


588 


JEthelric, king of Northumbria .... 


35,35 


17 


1038 


-flCthelric, bishop of Selsey, dies 


294,295 


130 


1016 


JEthelsige, abbot of Abingdon .... 


284, 285 


124 


1018 


dies 


287 


125 


1061 


JEthelsige, abbot of St. Augustine's 


329 


160 


836 


^Ethelstan, king of Kent, Essex, Surrey, and Sussex 


118,119 


55 


851"! 

853 / 


defeats the Danes at Sandwich . . -| 


120,121, 
122 


| 56 


883 


^Ethelstan, sent with the West Saxon alms to Eome 


152,153 


66 


9241 
925 J 


^Ethelstan, king, accession of 


198,199 


85 


925 


marries one sister to the emperor Otho, and 








another to Sihtric, king of Northumbria 


199 


85 


926 


on the death of Sihtric becomes sole monarch 








of England 


199 


85 


927 1 
933 J 


expels Guthfrith from Northumbria 


199 


85 


934 


invades Scotland ...... 200,201 


85 


937 


defeats Olaf (Anlaf ) and Constantine at Brunan- 








200, 201 


86 


940 




208, 209 


89 


1010 


JEthelstan, son-in-law of king xEthelred, slain 


262,263 


116 


1044 


./Ethelstan Churchward, abbot of Abingdon . . 300, 301 


134 


10461 
1047 J 


dies 


302, 305 


136, 137 




1055 


JEthelstan, bishop of Hereford, builds the monastery 










324 


157 


1056 


dies 


326 


158 


888 \ 
889 / 


^Ethelswith, queen of Mercia, dies in Italy . . 158, 159 


68 



CllliOlS OLOG ICAL INDEX. 



247 



A.I). 



Pages of 



A.S. text. I Transl. 



661 

828 
901 

904 
905 
905 


^Ethelwald, king of Sussex, receives the Isle of 
Wight from king Wulfhere 
./Ethelwald (JEthelbald), bishop, dies 
JEthelwald setheling, revolts, and is received as king 
by the Northumbrians .... 
invades England 
excites the East Anglians to hostility 


54,55 
114, 115 

178,179 
180,181 
180,181 
182, 183 


29 
53 

75 
76 
76 
76 


994 


JEthelweard, aldorman, sent to king Olaf (Anlaf ) to 


242, 243 


106 


1001 
1016 

1017 


^Ethelweard, king's high reeve, slain 
-^Ethelweard, son of JEthelwine (JSthelsige), slain at 
Assandun 
JEthelweard, son of ^Ethelmser, slain by order of 
Cnut 


249 
283, 283 
284, 285 


110 
123 
124 


1020 
972 


JEthelweard, aldorman, outlawed by Cnut 
^Ethelwine, aldorman, signs charter to Medesham- 


286, 287 
221 


125 
95 


992 
1018 
737 

8881 
889 J 

823 
836 
836 


dies ........ 
-ZEthelwine, abbot of Abingdon .... 
-flSthelwold, bishop of Lindisfarne, dies . . 

-^Ethelwold, aldorman, dies 

JEthelwold. See Athelwold. 
TEthelwulf, sent into Kent by Ecgberht, his father 
succeeds to the kingdom of Wessex 
gives Essex, Surrey, and Sussex to his son 


238, 239 

287 
77 

158, 159 

110,111 
117,118 

118, 119 


104 
125 
40 

68 

53 
54 

55 


840 
851 

8531 
854 J 
8531 
854 J 
853 1 
854 f 


defeated by the Danes at Charmouth (Carrum) 
defeats the Danes at Ockley .... 

subdues North Wales " 

sends his son jElfred to Home 
gives his daughter to Burhred, king of the 


120, 121 
121,122 

122, 123 
122 

124 


55 
56 

57 
57 

57 


8551 
856 J 
855 1 


grants a tenth of his land to the church . 


124, 125 
124,125 


57 
57 


856 J 

855 1 




124, 125 


57 


856 J 
855 1 
856 / 
860 
871 


dies his genealogy . 
JEthelwulf, aldorman of Berkshire, defeats the Danes 


1,126, 127 

129, 130 
136, 137 


4,57 

58 
61 


901 
1034 
1057 
1067 


JEthered, king of Wessex. See ^Ethelred I. 
^Ethered, archbishop of Canterbury. See ^Ethelred. 
-<Ethered, aldorman of Devonshire, dies . 
-ZEtheric, bishop of Dorchester, dies 
Agatha, mother of Eadgar setheling 
takes refuge in Scotland .... 


180, 181 
292, 293 
328 
340 


75 
129 
159 
171 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 


Pages of 




A.S. text. 

1 


Transl. 


680 
911 
651 
283 
1116 
1125 
766 
780 
765 
774 
788 

709 

729 

727 
731 

1127 
1061 
1070 

1107 
1124 
1123 
1125 
1130 

1137 
799 
1087 

778 
780 
789 
978 
852 

765 
774 
883 1 
887 I 
888 } 
889 I 
890J 

798 
1123 


Agatho, pope, his letter to king ^Ethelred of Mercia 
Agmund hold, slain 
Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, dies .... 
Alban, St., martyred 
Alban's, St., abbey of, consecrated .... 
abbot of, goes to Kome ..... 
Alchmund, bishop of Hexham .... 
dies 
Alchred, king of North umbria .... 
expelled 
Aldberht, abbot, dies ...... 
Aldfrith, king of Northumbria. Sec Ealdferth. 
Aldhelm, bishop of Westwood (Sherborne), dies 
Aldhelm, ancestor of Ceolwulf .... 
Aldred, bishop of Worcester. See Ealdred. 
Aid wine, bishop of Lichtield, assists at the con- 
secration of archbishop Tatwine . 
Aldwulf, bishop of Rochester .... 
assists at the consecration of archbishop Tat- 


58 
184,185 
50,51 
16 
371 
377 
91 
95 
91 
91 
97 

68, 69 
74,75 

7 7 
75 

77 

377 
328 

344 

368 
376 
375 

377 

380 
382 
105 

356 
93 
95 
99 
232 

123 
91 
91 

153, 154 
158, 159 
158, 159 
158,159 

28 
105 

375 


31 
78 
24 
10 
213 
222 
45 
47 
45 
45 
48 

38 
40 

40 
39 

40 

223 
161 

175 
210 
221 
219 
222 

227 
230 
50 

190 
46 
47 

48 
100 

56 
45 
45 

G6 
68 
68 
68 

15 

51 

219 


Aldwulf, abbot. See Ealdulf. 
Alein Fergant, count of Brittany .... 
Alexander II., pope .... 


confirms the supremacy of Canterbury over 
York 


Alexander, king of Scotland 


dies 


Alexander, bishop of Lincoln . 
goes to Rome 


assists at the consecration of Christclmrch 
Canterbury, and Rochester cathedrals . 
imprisoned by king Stephen .... 
Alfhun, bishop of Dunwich, dies .... 
Alfonso (Anphos), king, drives the infidels from 


Alfwold, king of Northumbria .... 
sends to Rome for a pall for archbishop Eanbald 
slain by Sicga . 


Alfwold, bishop of Sherborne, dies .... 
Alhhun, bishop of Worcester, attests a charter to 
Medeshamstede . 


Alhred, king of Northumbria .... 
deposed 


Alms (West Saxon) sent to Rome J 
Aloe, ancestor of Ida 


Alric, son of Heardberht, slain at Whalley . 
Amauri (Hamalri) of Montfort, count of Evreux, at 
war with Henry I 



CHRONOLOGICAL 1 SDKX, 



249 



A.D. 





Pages of 
A.S. text. Transl. 


1124 


Amauri, steward of the king of France, captured . 375 


220 


884 


Amiens, occupied by the Danes . . . . 152, 153 


66 


875 


Amund, a Danish king ..... v 144, 145 


63 




Ancarig. See Thorn ey. 




4771 
893 J 


Andred, wood or forest of .... -] 

I loz, Ibo 


13 

69 


491 


Andredesceaster, destroyed by JElle . . .24, 25 


13 


1130 


Andrew, St., monastery of, at Rochester, consecrated 380 


227 




Angeltheow, ancestor of Penda .... 


42 


21 




ofOffa .... 


86 


44 




Angewit, ancestor of Ida . . . . . 28 


15 


-14 ( J 


Angles, arrive in Britain, and fight against the 








Picts 


20, 21 


11,12 




Angles (East). See East Anglia. 








Angles (Middle). See Middle Angles. 








Anjou, counts of. See Fulk, Geoffrey, Henry. 








Anlaf. See Olaf. 






654 


Anna, king of the East Angles, slain 


50,51 


24 




Anphos. See Alfonso. 






1093 


Anselni, archbishop of Canterbury .... 


359 


196 


1095 


receives his pall from the legate Walter . 


362 


200 


1097 


leaves England ...... 


363 


202 


1100 


recalled by Henry I. . . 


365 


204 


1100 


marries Henry I. and Matilda . . . . 1 365 


204 


1102 


holds a synod . . . . . . . ' 366 


206 


1103 


goes to Rome 366 


206 


1109 


dies 369 


210 


1125 


laws of, sanctioned . . . . . . i 376 


222 


1115 


Anselm, abbot of St. Eadmund's, brings the pall 






for archbishop Ralph . . . . . 371 


213 


1123 


goes to Rome with archbishop William . 


374 


219 


137 




13 


9 




Anwend. See Amund. 








Arcenbryht. See Erkenberht. 






1} 


Archelaus, son of Herod ..... 


6,7 


6 


1094 


Argences, castle of, taken by Count Robert of Nor- 








mandy . 


360 


197 




Armenia (Armorica), Britons derived from . 


3 


5 


8871 
888 J 


Arnulf, king of Germany ..... 


156, 157 


68 


891 \ 
892 J 


defeats the Danes 160, 161 


69' 


1070 


Arnulf, count of Flanders, slain . . . . 344,347 


177,178 


I i 




1041 


Aruwi, abbot of Peterborough .... 299 


133 


1052 


resigns 321 


153 


1102 


Arundel, castle of, besieged by Henry I. . . 366 


205 


871 


Asbiorn jarl, slain ...... 138, 139 


62 


1069 


Asbiorn jarl, lands and plunders York, etc. . . 342, 343 


174 


1070 


comes to Ely ....... 345 


176 


87! 


Ashdown, battle at 137, 138 


61 



250 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pages of 


'Z.S. text. Transl? 


1016 


Assanduii (Assingdon ?), battle at . 


282, 283 


123 


1020 


monastery founded there by Cnut . 


286, 287 


125 


910 


Asser, bishop of Sherborne, dies .... 


182, 183 


77 


1121 


Athelis (Adela), married to Henry I. ... 


373 


216 


961 


Athelmod, priest, dies at Rome .... 


220 


93 


884 


Athelwold, bishop, dies. (See note.') 


152, 153 


66 


963 


Athelwold, bishop of Winchester .... 


220 


93 


(963) 


expels the secular priests ..... 


220 


93 


(963) 


restores Ely and Medeshamstede 


220 


93 


(963) 


attests charter to Medeshamstede 


221 


95 


984 


dies 


236, 237 


103 


903 


Athulf, aldorman, dies 


180, 181 


75 


963 


Athulf, bishop, signs charter to Medeshamstede 


221 


95 


1130 


Audoenus (Owen), bishop of Evreux, assists at the 








consecration of Christchurch Canterbury, 








and Rochester cathedrals .... 


380 


227 


597 


Augustine, St., arrives in Britain .... 


37 


18 


601 


receives the pall from pope Gregory 


36,37 


18 


604 


consecrates two bishops, Mellitus and Justus . 


36,37 


18 


605 "1 
606 J 




38,39 


18 






B. 






694 


Baccanceld (Bapchild), council at . 


66 


36 




Badewulf, bishop. See Baldwulf. 








Bseldseg, ancestor of Ida and Cerdic 


1,28 


3, 15 


871 


Bagssee, a Danish king, slain ..... 


137, 138 


61 


924 
823 


Bakewell (Badecanwylla), a fortress erected there . 
Baldred, king of Kent, driven across the Thames . 


196 
110,111 


84 
53 


1037 


Baldwine V., count of Flanders, receives queen 










294, 295 


130 


1045 \ 
1046 / 


receives earl Swegen ..... 


303 


137 


1049\ 
1050 J 


at war with the emperor Henry III. 


308 


138 


1065 


receives earl Tostig and his wife . 


332, 333 


163 


10701 
1071 / 


Baldwine VI., count of Flanders, dies 


344, 347 


177,178 


1111 


Baldwine VII., count of Flanders .... 


369 


211 


1117 


invades Normandy 


371 


214 


1118 


mortally -wounded ...... 


372 


214 


1119 


dies ........ 


372 


216 


1098 


Baldwine, abbot of St. Edmundsbury, dies 


364 


202 


1135 


Baldwin de Redvers, holds Exeter against king 








Stephen 


382 


230 


791 


Baldwulf (Beadowulf, Badewulf), bishop of Whit- 








erne 


99 


48 


795 


assists at the consecration of king Eardwulf . 


103 


49 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



251 



AD 




Page 


s of 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 


547 
993 
1095 

11:24 
669 
577 
9721 
973 J 
1013 
1088 
1087 


Bamborough (Bebbanburh), built by king Ida 
pillaged by the Danes 
besieged and taken by William II. . 
Bapchild. See Baccanceld. 

Barley, high price of . . 
Bass, a priest, builds a monastery at Reculver 
Bath, taken by Cuthwine and Ceawlin . 

king Eadgar consecrated there 

occupied by king Svein ..... 
plundered by insurgents .... 
Battle abbey, founded ...... 


28, 29 
240, 241 
361 

376 
56,57 
32,33 

224, 225 

270, 271 
357 
354 


15 
105 
199 

220 
30 
17 

96 

119 
192 

188 


1094 
614 

734 


consecrated ....... 
Beamdun (Beandun), battle at .... 
Bebbanburh. See Bamborough. 

Beda, dies ........ 


360 
38,39 

76,77 


197 
19 

40 


571 
919 
921 

482 


Bedford (Bedcanford), battle at .... 
taken and fortified by king Eadward the Elder 
garrison of, defeats the Danes . . . 


32,33 
192 
194 
23 


16 
81 
82 
13 


509 
1087 
983 
1022 


dies ........ 
order of, prevalent in England 
Benedict VII., pope, dies . . 
Benedict VIII., pope, consecrates JEthelnoth arch- 


27 
355 
236 

286,287 


14 
189 
103 

125 


1058 

1059 
911 


Benedict X., pope, sends the pall to Stigand, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ..... 
expelled ........ 


328,329 
328, 329 

184, 185 


160 
160 

78 


894 

571 

777 
888 \ 
889 1 


Benfleet, or South Bamfleet (Beamfleot), fortress 
erected there by Ilacsten .... 

Benoc, ancestor of Ida ...... 
Bensington, taken by king Cuthwulf 
battle there, between kings Cynewulf and Offa 
Beocca, aldorman, conveys the West Saxon alms 


166,167 
28 
32,33 
92,93 

158,159 


71 

15 
17 
45 

68 


777 
710 

897 
690 


Beonna, abbot of Medeshamstede, lease granted by 
Beorhtfrith, aldorman, fights with the Picts . 

Beorhtric. See Byrhtric. 
Beorhtulf, aldorman of Essex, dies .... 
Beorhtwald (Brihtwald), the first native archbishop 


92,93 
68,69 

174,175 
64, 65 


46 
38 

73 
35 


693 
693 
694 
727 
731 
851 
780 


consecrated ....... 
consecrates Tobias bishop of Rochester . 
assists at the council at Baccanceld (Bapchild) 
consecrates Aldwulf bishop of Rochester . 
dies 
Beorhtwulf, king of Mercia, defeated by the Danes . 
Beorn, aldorman, burnt by the Northumbrians 


67 
67 
66 
75 
74,75 
120,121 
93 


36 
36 
36 
39 
40 
56 
46 



252 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



\ 1) 




Pag 


.'S Of 


-iV.ly. 




A.S. text, 


Transl. 


1046 "1 
1048 J 


Beorn, earl, opposes earl Swegen .... 


307 


138 


1049 1 




307, 308 


140, 141 


1050 / 










Beorngar. See Berenger. 






8 '.10 | 


Beornhelm, abbot, sent with the West Saxon alias to 






891 / 


Rome . 


158,159 


68 


801 1 
802 J 


Beornmod, bishop of Rochester .... 


106, 107 


51 


755 


Beornred, king of Mercia, deposed . 


86,87 


44 


897 


Beornulf, wick-reeve of Winchester, dies 


174, 175 


73 


823 


Beornwulf, king of Mercia, defeated by Ecgberlit at 










1 ' 0, 1 1 1 


53 


8 2- '5 


slain by the East Angles .... 


110, 111 


53 


887 


Berenger (Beorngar), king of Lombardy 


158, 159 


68 


684 


Berht (Briht), aldorman, invades the Scots 


63 


34 


699 


slain by the Picts 


67 


37 


1088 


Berkeley, district of, plundered by Robert of Mon- 








bray and Geoffrey, bishop of Coutances 


357 


192 


1123 


Bernard, bishop of St. David's, assists at the conse- 








cration of archbishop William Curboil 


374 


219 


1123 


accompanies him to Rome . ... 


374 


219 


1130 


assists at the consecration of Christchurch Can- 








terbury, and Rochester cathedrals 


380 


227 


501 


Bieda, son of Port, arrives in Britain 


24,25 


13 




Biorn. See Beorn. 






671 


Birds, great destruction of 


56 ; 57 


30 




Birinus. See Byrinus. 






627 


Blecca, first Christian convert in Lindsey 


45 


21 


1063 


Blethgent, brother of Griffith, made prince of Wales 


330 


162 


685 




63 


34 


1098] 


I 


364 


202 


1100 I 


springs of, in Berkshire < 


364 


203 


1103 J 


[ 


366 


206 


627 


Boniface, pope . 


45 


21 


678 


Bosa, bishop of Deira 


61 


33 


685 


dies 


63 


34 


654 


Botulf, founds a monastery at Icanho 


50,51 


24 


785 


Botwine, abbot of Ripon, dies .... 


97 


47 




Boulogne, counts of. See Eustace II. and Eustace 








III. 






876 


Bracelet or Ring (Beah), Danish oath on the. (See 








note) ........ 


144, 145 


63 


910 


Bramsbury, or Bramsby (Bremesburh), fortified by 








^Ethelfloed 


184, 185 


77 




Brand, or Brond, ancestor of Ida and Cerdic . 


1,28 


3,15 


1066 


Brand, abbot of Peterborough, sent to offer the 
crown to Eadgar cetheling ; but reconciled to 








William I 


337 


170 


1069 


dies 


343 


174 


916 


Brecknock (Brecenanmere), taken by JEthelflsed . 


190, 191 


80 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



253 



A T) 




Page 


s of 


,/i.t .!-/ 




A. S. text. 


Transl. 


759 


Bregowine, archbishop of Canterbury 


88,89 


44 


702 


dies ........ 


89 


44 




Bretwalda. See Brytenwalda. 






1068 


Brian (Breon), earl, repulses the sons of Harold . j 


342 


173 


1127 


Brian, son of count Alein Fergant, attends the em- 








press Matilda to Normandy 


377 


223 


912 


Bridgenorth (Bricg), burgh at, built by ^Ethelflsed . 


186,187 


78 


1102 


the castle taken by Henry I 


366 


206 


j 


Briht. See Berht. 






1033 


Brihteh, bishop of Worcester 


292 


129 


1038 


dies 


295,296 


131 


963 


Brihtnoth, abbot of Ely 


220 


93 

* 


963 


Brihtnoth (Beorhtnoth), alderman .... 


221 


95 


991 1 
993 / 


slain at Maldon j 


238, 239, 
240 


104 
105 


1009 


Brihtric, accuses Wulfnoth child .... 


260, 261 


114 


1009 


fails in his expedition against him . 


260, 261 


114 


1017 


Brihtric, son of jEJfheah, slain by order of Cnut 


284, 285 


124 




Brihtwald, abp. of Canterbury. See Beorhtwald. 






1006 


Brihtwold, bishop of Sherborne .... 


255 


113 


10431 
1045 y 


dies / 


301, 302, 


1 134 


1046 J 




303 


J 


1088 


Bristol, pillaged by Robert of Munbray . 


356 


191 




Britain, description of ...... 


3 


5 


60 B.C. 


subdued by Julius Crcsar .... 


4,5 


6 


A.D-1 








46 I 
47 J 


by Claudius 


10,11 


8 


461 
47/ 


nearly lost by Nero 


11 


8 


189 


invaded by Severus, who builds a wall from sea 








to sea ........ 


14,15 


9 


1065 


Britford, earl Tostig with king Eadward the Con- 








fessor, at ....... 


332 


162 


1002 


Britius, St., massacre of the Danes in England on 1 


251, 252, 


1 




his day ...... J 


253 


J 


189 


Britons, Brito- Welsh, converted to Christianity 


14, 15 


9 


443 


apply to the Angles for aid against the Picts ; 








their wars with the Saxons .... 


18, 19 


11 


605 \ 


Brocmail (Scrocmail, Scromail), a British chief, 






606 J 


put to flight ...... 


38,39 


19 




Brond. See Brand. 






664 


Brordan, signs charter to Medeshamstede' 


53 


; 28 


777 


Brordan, aldormau, his grant to Medeshamstede 


92 


46 


937 


Brunanburb, battle of 


200, 201 


86 


1023 


Bryhtwine, bishop of Sherborne, assists in removing 








the body of archbishop JElfheah . 


288 


126 




Brytenwalda (Bretwalda), the eight Brytenwaldas 








enumerated ....... 


112, 113 


53 


915 


Buckingham (BuccingahAm), fortified by king Ead- 








ward tbe Elder ...... 


190,191 


80 



254 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





1 Pa 5 

A.S. text. 


es of 
Transl. 


1094 


Bures, castle of, taken by William II ... 


360 


197 


652 


Burford, battle at, between Cuthred and ^Ethelbald 


80,81 


42 


822 


Burhhelm, aldorman, slain 


110,111 


53 


8531 


Burhred, king of Mercia, assisted by king JEthel- 






854 J 


wulf, reduces North Wales .... 


122, 123 


57 


853 


marries ^Ethelwulf's daughter 


124,125 


57 


868 


applies to king JEthered and JElfred for aid 








against the Danes 


132, 133 


59 


874 


driven beyond sea by the Danes 


142, 143 


62 


874 


dies and lies at Home 


142, 143 


63 


1066 


Burton, abbey of, held by abbot Leofric 


337 


170 


685 


Butter turned to blood 


63 


34 


894 


Buttington, Danes besieged at .... 


168,169 


71 


1039 


Byrhtmaer, bishop of Lichfield, dies 


296 


131 


784 


Byrhtric (Beorhtric), king of Wessex 


1,94,95 


3,47 


787 


marries Eadburh, daughter of king Offa . 


96,97 


47 


787 


first landing of the Northmen in his reign 


96,97 


47 


800 


dies 


104, 105 


51 


905 


Byrhtsige, son of Beorhtnoth, slain 


182, 183 


76 


634 


Byrinus, bishop (of Dorchester), converts the West 








Saxons 


44, 45 


22 


635 
636 


baptizes Cynegils, king of Wessex . 
and king Cwichelm 


46,47 
46,47 


22 

22 


639 


and king Cuthred 


46,47 


23 


650 


dies 


50,51 


24 


931 


Byrnstan, bishop of Winchester .... 


200 


85 


934 


dies 


200 


86 




c. . 






1097 


Cadogan, brother of Griffith, chosen prince by the 








Welsh 


363 


201 


1087 


Caen, William the Conqueror buried in St. Stephen's 








at 


354 


188 


1119 


Calixtus II.. pope, holds a council at Rheims . 


372 


215 


1124 


dies 


376 


221 


978 


Calne, accident at 


231 


99 


1010 


Cambridge, burnt by the Danes .... 


264,265 


116 


1010 


Cambridgeshire men, valour of the . 


262,263 


116 


915 


Cameleac, bishop of Llandaff , captured and ransomed 


188,189 


79 


754 


Canterbury, burnt 


80,81 


42 


851 


taken by the Danes 


120,121 


56 


1011 


betrayed to the Danes by abbot JElfmaer . 


266,267 


117 


1087 


cathedral at, built by William the Conqueror . 


355 


188 


1087 


disturbances at, on account of Wido, abbot of 










387 





1130 


consecrated 


380 


227 


1065 


Caradoc, son of Griffith, destroys Eadward the Con- 








fessor's hunting seat at Portskewet 


330 


169 




Carl (Charlemagne). See Charles, 







CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



255 



A.D. 




Pag< 

( A. 

A.S. text. 


JS Of 




Transl. 


1092 


Carlisle, restored by William IT., and the castle 








built 


359 


195 




Carloman. See Charles. 






1067 


Castles built by William the Conqueror, at Notting- 








ham, York, and Lincoln . 


342 


172 


897"] 


- 


174, 175 


73 


986 ' 




238,239 


103 


1041 




299 


133 


1046 




302 


136 


1049 




306 


138 


1054! 
1086 f 


Cattle, pestilence or murrain among the . . < 

i 


323 
353 


155 

187 


1103 




366 


206 


1111 




369 


211 


1115 




371 


213 


1125 




377 


222 


1131J 


L 


380 


228 


664 


Ceadda, ordained bishop 


56,57 


30 


633 


Ceadwalla, king of Wales, slays king Eadwine and 








ravages Northumbria ..... 


44,45 


22 


685 


Ceadwalla, king of Wessex his genealogy , 


1, 62, 63 


3,34 


686 


his donation to Medeshamstede ... 63 


35 


686 


ravages Kent and the Isle of Wight . .62, 63 


35 


687 


again ravages Kent 


62,63 


35 


688 


baptized and dies at Rome 


64,65 


35 


785 


Cealchyth (Chalk ?), synod at .... 


96,97 


47 


556 


Ceawlin, fights with the Britons at Banbury . 


30,31 


15 


560 


succeeds to the kingdom of Wessex 


30,31 


15 


568 


fights with and defeats king ^Ethelbryht of 








Kent 


32,33 


16 


577 


defeats the Britons at Derham 


32,33 


17 


584 


at Fethanleag . 


34,35 


17 


592 


expelled 


34,35 


17 


593 


dies . . . . . 


34,35 


17 




the second Brytenwalda 


112,113 


53 


430 


Celestine L, pope, sends Palladius to the Scots 


18,19 


11 




Celrn, ancestor of the West Saxon kings . 


2 


4 


661 


Cenbyrht, father of Ceadwalla, dies 


54, 55 


29 




Cenhelm (Kenelm), succeeds his father Cenwulf 





52 note. 


6741 
675 J 


Cenfus, father of JEscwine, king of the West Saxons 


58 


31 




Cenred, father of king Ine (geneal.) . . . 2 


4 


702 \ 
704 / 


Cenred, king of Mercia 67, 68, 69 


38 


709 


' goes to Rome and dies there . . . . 68, 69 


38 


716 


Cenred, king of Northumbria .... 


70,71 


38 




Censerie. See Tenserie. 






676 


Centwine, king of Wessex 1,60,61 


3,32 


6821 
683 J 


defeats the Britons ...... 


60,61 


34 


905 


Cenulf, Cenwulf, abbot, slain . 


182, 183 


76 




Cenulf, bishop. See Kenulf. 





256 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A.S.text. 1 Transit 


6421 

G43J 


CVnwalh (Kcnwealh), king of Wessex . 


1,40,48 


3, 23 


642 1 
643] 


luilds the old church at Winchester 


48,49 


23 


0441 
645 J 


expelled by Penda, king'of Mercia . 


48, 49 23 


baptized i 48, -19 23 


048 grants land to his nephew Cuthred . . . 48, 49 24 


052") f 50,51 24 


058 1 battles of . . . . . . . -i i 54, 55 20 


GG1 J [ 54, 55 29 


672 ; dies 56, 57 ; 30 


796 j Cenwulf (Cynulf, Ceolwulf), king of Mercia, ravages 






Kent and captures Eadbert Pra?n . 


102,103 49 


^j dies 


110,111 52 


591 i Ceol (Ceolric), king of Wessex .... 


1,34,35 3,17 


805 


Ceolburh, abbess, dies 


106, 107 51 


1006 


Ceoleseg (Cholsey), the Danes at . 


256 113 


897 


Ceolmund, aldorman of Kent, dies .... 


174,175 73 


830 


Ceolnoth, archbishop of Canterbury . . . 114,115 54 


831 


receives the pall 114, 115 | 54 


870 


dies at Rome 137 ' 


| GO 


709 


Ceolred, king of Mercia . . . . . . 68, 69 38 


715 ' 


fights with king Ine at Woddesbeorh . . 70,71 38 


716 


dies 70,71 38 


852 


Ceolred, abbot of Medeshamstede, lets land to Wulfred 122 50 




Ceolwald, son of Cuthwulf, ancestor of the West 






Saxon kings 2 4 


597 


Ceolwulf, king of Wessex 1,34, 35 | 3, 17 


007 


fights with the South Saxons . . . .38,39 19 


731 


Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria his genealogy . 74, 75 


40 


737 


receives the tonsure and abdicates . . . 77 


40 


700 


dies 


89 


44 


794 


Ceolwulf, bishop of Lindsey, departs from the land . 100, 101 


49 


796 


dies . 


103 


50 


819 


Ceolwulf, king of Mercia 110,111 


52 


821 


deprived of his kingdom 110,111 


52 


874 


Ceolwulf, a king's thane, set over Mercia by the Danes 142, 143 


63 


877 


retains a part of Mercia ! 146,147 


04 


851 


Ceorl, aldorman, defeats the Danes at Wicganbeorh | 120,121 1 50 


495 


Cerdic, and his son Cynric, arrive in Britain their 






genealogy 


1 24,25 3. 13 


508 


fight with and slay Natanleod 


26,27 


14 


5 1 9 


establish the kingdom or the West Saxons, or 


I 




Wessex 


26,27 14 


527 


fight with the Britons at Cerdicslea . 


26,27 


14 


530 


take the Isle of Wight 


26,27 


14 


534 


Cerdic dies 


9fi 97 


14 


812 


Charles (Charlemagne), dies 108,109 


52 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



257 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


8551 


Charles the Bald, gives his daughter, Judith, in 






856 J i marriage to king TEthelwulf 


124, 125 


5? 


8851 
886 J 


Charles (Carloman), killed by a boar 


154,155 


66 


8871 
888 J 


Charles the Fat, dies 


156, 157 


68 


1119 


Charles, count of Flanders, son of St. Cnut, king of 








Denmark ..... 


372 


216 


1120 


makes peace with Henry I. 


372 


216 


1127 


assassinated in a church ..... 


377 


223 


964 


Chertsey, secular priests expelled from . . . '' 222, 223 


94 


1110 


the new abbey there begun . . . . 369 211 


980 


Cheshire, ravaged by the Northmen 


234 


102 


894 


Chester (Legeceaster), occupied by a Danish army 


170,171 


72 


907 


restored ....... 


182, 183 


77 


879 


Chippenham, occupied by the Danes 


148, 149 


65 


913 


Chirbury, burgh at, built by JEthelfloed . 


186,187 


79 


1029 


Christchurch Canterbury, grant by Cnut of Sand- 








wich to ....... 


290 


128 


10661 


J 


330 


165 


1067 J 


burnt 4 


340, 341 


171 


1130 


restored and consecrated by William, archbishop 








of Canterbury ...... 


380 


227 


1070 


Christien, bishop of Aarhus, comes to Ely 


345 


176 




Christina. See Cristina. 






577 


Cirencester, taken by Cuthwine and Ceawlin . 


32,33 


17 


628 


Cynegils and Cwichelin fight and make a treaty 








there with Penda 


44,45 


21 


879 


occupied by the Danes 


148, 149 


65 


1020 


a ' witenagemot ' there ..... 


286,287 


125 


916 


Ciricus, St., his festival 


190,191 


80 


477 


Cissa, son of ./Elle, lands in Britain 


22,23 


13 


491 


with his father at the siege of Andredesceaster 


24,25 


13 


461 
47 J 


Claudius, subdues Britain and the Orkneys 


10,11 


8 


922 


Cledauc, king of North Wales, submits to Eadward 








the Elder 


195 


84 


921 


Cledemuth, fortified 


194, 195 


83 


101 


Clement I., pope, dies ...... 


12, 13 


9 


964 


Clergy, secular, expelled from the monasteries of 








Winchester, Chertsey, and Milton 


222,223 


94 


1001 


Clist, Glistim (Clist), burnt by the Danes 


251 


111 


7421 
822 j 


Clovesho, a synod at { 


79 
110, 111 


41 
53 


568 


Cnebba aldorman, slain at Wimbledon . 


32, 33 


16 




Cnebba, ancestor of Penda ..... 


42 


21 




ofOffa 


86 


44 


1013 


Cnut, son of Svein, king of Denmark, hostages com- 










270,271 


118 


1014 




272,273 


120 


1014 


deserts the men of Lindsey, sails to Sandwich, and 








mutilates his hostages . . . . 274,275 


120 


VOL, II. B 



258 



OHJIONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



Ay\ 




Pag 


es of 


.Jv. 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Cnut cont. 






1015 


ravages Dorsetshire, Wilts, and Somersetshire . 


276,277 


121 


1016 


crosses the Thames at Cricklade, and marches 








with Eadric to Warwickshire 


276,277 


121 


1016 


reduces Northuinbria and causes earl Uhtred 










278, 279 


122 


1016 


creates Eric earl of Northumbria 


278,279 


122 


1016 


besieges London 


277, 280 


123 


1016 


goes up the Orwell and into Mercia . 


280,281 


123 


1016 


defeats king Eadmund at Assingdon 


282, 283 


123 


1016 


encounters king Eadmund at Olney, and makes 








peace 


282, 283 


124 


1017 


on the death of king Eadmund, becomes sole 








king of England, which he divides into four 








governments ...... 


284, 285 


124 


1017 


banishes Eadwig setheling, and afterwards orders 








him to be slain, and many others 


284,285 


124 


1017 


banishes Eadwig, ' king of the churls ' 


284,285 


124 


1017 


marries JElfgifu Emma 


284,285 


124 


1019 


goes to Denmark 


286, 287 


125 


1020 


returns 


286,287 


125 


1020 


holds a witenagemot at Cireneestej . 


286,287 


125 


1020 


consecrates a monastery at Assingdon, for the 








souls of the slain there .... 


286, 287 


125 


1021 


outlaws earl Thorkell 


286,287 


125 


1022 


goes to the Isle of Wight .... 


286,287 


125 


1023 


commits Denmark to the care of Thorkell, and 








holds his son as a hostage .... 


288 


126 


1023 


permits the removal of the body of archbishop 








JElfheah from St. Paul's to Canterbury . 


288 


126 


1025 


defeated by the Swedes at the Holm 


289 


127 


1028 


subdues Norway and expels king Olaf . 


290,291 


128 


10291 


returns to England and gives the haven at 






1031 J 


Sandwich to Christchurch Canterbury . 


290,291 


128 


1031 


goes to Rome 


290, 291 


128 


1031 


invades Scotland 


290, 291 


128 


10351 










dies .... 


292 293 


J29 


1036 J 








1065 


his laws restored 


338 


163 


10751 
1076 J 


Cnut, prince of Denmark, invades England . 


348,349 


182 


1085 


king of Denmark, his designs against England 








rendered abortive 


352 


185 


1087 


murdered 


356 


190 


1124 


Coinage, debasement of 


376 


220 




Coiners. See Moneyers. 






1001 


Cola, a king's high reeve, defeated at Pennho . 


250 


111 


921 


Colchester, taken from the Danes .... 


194 


82 


921 


repaired by Eadward the Elder 


195 


83 


679 


Coldingham (Coludesburh), burnt 


61 


33 


664 


Colman, bishop of Lindisfarne, leaves Ens-land 


54 


30 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



259 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A.S. text. 


Transl. 


560 


Columba, comes to the Picts, and founds the monas- 










30,31 


16 


678^ 


r 


60,61 


33 


729 




74,75 


40 


892 




162, 163 


69 


905 , 


Comet -^ 


182, 183 


77 


975 [ 




227, 228 


98 


995 


1 


242, 243 


106 


1066 




336 


165 


1097J 




363 


201 




Cona. See Henry III., emperor. 






8831 
884 J 


Conde (Cundoth), occupied by the Danes 


150,151 


66 


577 


Condidan, a British king, slain .... 


32,33 


17 


577 


Conmaegl (Commail), a British king, slain 


32,33 


17 


1140 


Constance, daughter of Philip I., king of France, 








married to prince Eustace .... 


384 


234 


926 


Constantine, king of Scotland, subjugated by king 








^Ethelstan . 


198 


85 


937 


defeated by him at Brunanburh 


200, 201 


86 


1039 


~j C 


297 


131 


10431 
1044J 


>Corn, high price of ..... -I 


300, 301 


134 


1124 




376 


220 


1137 


J I 


382 


231 


813 


Cornwall, or West Wales, laid waste by king Ecg- 








berht ........ 


108, 109 


52 


835 


joins the Danes against Ecgberht 


116, 117 


54 


997 


ravaged by the Danes ..... 


246, 247 


107 


1020 


Council (Gemot, Witenagemot), at Cirencester 


286, 287 


125 


10471 




309 


143 


1049 J 








1048 


at Gloucester . ..... 


315 


144 


1048") 


r 


316 


145 


1050 




312 


142 




at London < 


315 


145 


1052 


) 


320, 321 


148, 150 


1055J 


I 


324, 325 


157 


1065 


at Northampton and Oxford .... 


332 162 


1123 


at Gloucester 


374 


218 


10761 
-1082 J 


divers, held by Lanfranc 


387 





1066 


Coventry, abbey of, founded by earl Leofric . 


337 


170 


1065 


Cradoc, son of Griffith, destroys king Eadward's 










332 


162 




Crespin. See William. 






593 


Crida (Cryda), king of Mercia, dies 


34,35 


17 


626 




42 


21 


755 
1067 


ancestor of king Offa 
Cristina, sister of Eadgar setheling, takes refuge in 


86 


44 






340 


171 


1086 


takes the veil at Rumsey , 353 


187 



R 2 



260 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pag 

, ' 
A.S. text. 


es of 
Transl. 


1041" 


f 


299 


133 


1044 




300, 301 


134 


1086 




353 


187 


1089 




358 


194 


1095 




362 


200 


1097 




363 


202 


1103 




36 G 


206 


1105 |>i Crops, failure of, { 


367 


208 


1110 




369 211 


1111 




369 211 


1116 




371 


213 


1117 




371 


214 


1124 




376 


220 


1125 




377 


222 


1137 




382 


231 


1112 
200 


Crops, good 369 
Cross, the holy, found 15 


211 
10 


883 


a piece of it sent to king Alfred by the pope . 150, 1 51 


66 


773 \ 

774 J 


Cross, seen in the heavens 


90,91 


45 


806 




52 


1066 


Crowland abbey, given to abbot Leofric of Peter- 






borough 337 


170 


10961 

1128J 


Crusade . . 


3G2 
379 


200 
225 




Cuenburh. See Cwenburh. 




945 


Cumberland, laid waste by king Eadmund, and 






granted to Malcolm, king of Scotland . . 212, 213 


90 


1000 
755 
568 


laid waste by king ^Ethelred .... 248, 249 
Cumbra aldorman, slain by king Sigebryht . . 82, 83 
Cutha, brother of Ceawlin, king of Wessex, defeats 


111) 
42 




king JEthelbryht ... 3-> 33 


1 fi 


584 


slain 34 35 


17 




Cutha, father of Ceolwulf .... 7475 


40 


656 


Cuthbald, abbot of Medeshamstede .... 53 


t\j 
29 


680 


attests charter to his abbey . . . . 59 


33 


685 


Cuthberht, bishop of Hexham .... 63 


34 


777 


Cuthbriht aldorman, lease granted to him by the 








abbot of Medeshamstede .... 


92 


40 


741 
742 


Cuthbryht (Cuthberht), archbishop of Canterbury . 
assists at a council at Clofesho 


78,79 
79 


-II 
41 


758 


dies .... 


88, 89 


44 


718 


Cuthburh, sister of king Ine . 


2, 70, 71 


4, 39 


718 


founds the abbey at Wimborne 


70,71 


39 


718 


married to Ealdferth, king of Northumbria, 
but separated from him 


72,73 


39 


639 


Cuthred (king), baptized at Dorchester . 


46,47 


23 


648 


receives lauds from his kinsman, king Cenwalh 


48,49 


24 


661 


dies .... 


54, 55 




740 1 


Cuthred, king of Wessex, his wars with JEthelbald 






741 } 


ofMercia .... 


1 7S 7Q 


9 41 


743 


fights against the Welsh with^thelbald ofMercia 78, 79 41 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



261 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A. S. text. Transl. 




Cuthred, king of Wessex cont. 






750 


fights with vEthelhim aldorman 


80,81 


4-2 


752 


defeats JEthelbald at Burford 


80,81 


42 


753 


fights against the Welsh .... 


80,81 


42 


754 


dies ........ 


80, 81 


42 


805 


Cuthred, king of Kent, dies ..... 


106, 107 


51 




Cuthwine, ancestor of Ceolwnlf .... 


74,75 


40 




Cuthwine, father of Cuthwulf of Wessex (geneal.) 


2 


4 


577 


with Ceawliu, defeats the Britons . 


32,33 


17 


571 


Cuthwulf (Cutha) his genealogy defeats the 








Britons at Bedford dies .... 


2, 32, 33 


4, 16 


389 


Cwantawic (St. Josse-sur-mer, or Estaples), a great 








slaughter there 


118, 119 


55 


7 1 8 Cwenburh, sister of king Ine . 


2, 70, 71 


4,39 


593 Cwichelm, brother of Ceawlin, dies 


34,35 


17 


614 Cwichelm, son of king Cynegils, defeats the 








Britons with his father .... 


38,39 


19 


626 


king of Wessex, sends an assassin to king 








Eadwine ....... 


42,43 


20 


628 


fights with Penda of Mercia at Cirencester 


44,45 


21 


636 


baptized and dies ...... 


46,47 


22 


625 


Cycle of Dionysius, of what it consists . 


42 





477 


Cymen, son of JEMe, lands in Britain 


22,23 


13 


799 


Cynebryht, bishop of the West Saxons, goes to Home 


104, 105 


51 




Cyneburh. See Kyneburh. 






611 


Cynegils, king of AVessex . . . 


1, 38, 39 


3, 19 


614 


fights with the Britons at Bampton (Beandun) 


38,39 


19 


628 


with Penda of Mercia at Cirencester 


44,45 


21 


635 


baptized at Dorchester ..... 


46,47 


22 


754 


Cyneheard, bishop of Winchester .... 


80,81 


42 


784 


Cyneheard setheling, slays king Cynewulf, and is 


"I 82, 83 


42 






1 94, 95* 


47 




Cyneswith. See Kyneswith. 


J *^ ? v v 






Cynewald, ancestor of Penda 


42 


21 




ofOffa 


86 


44 


964 


Cyneweard, abbot of Milton 


222, 223 


95 


975 


bishop of Somerset (Wells), dies 


228 


97 


721 . 


Cynewulf aetheling, slain by king Ine" . 


72,73 


39 


737 


Cynewulf, bishop of Lindisfarne .... 


77 


40 


7801 
779/ 




95 


47 




7Q9 




95 


47 


/ O-5 

755 


Cynewulf his genealogy deposes king Sigeberht, 








and becomes king of Wessex 


1, 82, 83 


3,42 


777 


fights with Offa of Mercia at Benson 


92,93 


45 


784 


r 


82,83 
94,95 


42 
47 




778 
495 




93 
1, 24, 25 


46 
3, 13 


Cynric, son of Cerdic, lands in Britain . 


495] 


[ 


24,25 


13 


508 I 
519 J 


his battles with the Britons 


26,27 
26,27 


14 
14 



262 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 
A.S. text, 1 Transl. 


527^1 


Cynric cont. . 


26,27 


14 


530 1 
552 f 


his battles with the Britons 


26,27 
28,29 


14 
15 


556j 


I 


30,31 


15 


534 


succeeds to the kingdom of Wessex 


26,27 


14 


552 




28, 29 


15 


748 


Cynric, setheling of the West Saxons, slain . 
Cynulf. See Cenwulf. 


80,81 


41 




D. 






603 


Dsegsanstan (JEgesanstan), battle at ... 


36,37 


18 




Dselreodi (Dalreodi), arrive in Britain . 


5 


5 


603 


fight against JEgthan, king of the Scots . 


36,37 


18 


7151 

714 ; 


Dagobert, king of the Franks, dies 


71 


38 


787 


Danes and Northmen, first land in England . 


96,97 


47 


793 


plunder and destroy the church at Lindisfarne 


101 


48 


794 


their leader slain and ships wrecked at ' Done- 










101 


49 


832 


ravage Shepey ...... 


114, 115 


54 


833 


defeat Ecgberht at Charmouth 


116, 117 


54 


835 


defeated by Ecgberht at Hengston . 


116,117 54 


837 


defeated by Wulfheard at Southampton, and 






defeat JEthelhelm at Portland 


118,119 55 


8511 


defeated at Wicganbeorh ; winter in Thanet ; 






853 J 


take London and Canterbury ; defeat Beorht- 






8531 
854 J 


wulf, king of Mercia ; defeated by king JEthel- 
wnlf and^Ethelbald at Ockley ; defeated by sea 
fight with the men of Kent and Surrey in Thanet 


120, 121 
124,125 


56 
57 


855 


winter at Shepey 


124,125 


57 


860 


take Winchester, and are defeated by Osric and 








JEthelwulf 


128, 129 


58 


865 "] 
866 J 


winter in Thanet and ravage Kent . 


130,131 


59 


8661 

867 J 


winter in East Anglia 


130, 131 


59 


8671 
868 J 


invade Northumbria ..... 


130,133 


59 


868 


winter at Nottingham, and make peace with 








Mercia 


132-135 


59 


869 




134 135 


60 


8701 


defeat and murder king Eadmund, and subdue 






871 J 


East Anglia 


134, 135 


60 


871 


battles with them by king JEthered and JElfred 
at Englefield, Heading, Ashdown, Basing, 








Merton 


136-140 


61,62 


872 


winter in London, and make peace with the 








Mercians 


142, 143 


62 


873 


-winter in Lindsey 


142, 143 


62 


874 


subdue Mercia " 


142, 143 


62,63 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



263 



A.D. 




Pag 


BS Of 






i 
A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Danes and Northmen cont. 






875 


take winter quarters by the Tyne, and proceed 








to Cambridge ...... 


144, 145 


63 


875 


defeated at sea by king Alfred 


144, 145 


63 


876 


proceed to Wareham, make peace with JElfred, 








and divide Northumbria among them . 


144,145 


63 


877 


defeated by ./Elfred, and divide Mercia among 








them 


146,147 


64 


878 


subdue Wessex 


146,147 


64 


878 


defeated by -ZElfred, and their standard, the 








t Raven,' taken .... 


146, 147 


64 


878 


defeated by Alfred at ' Ethandun' their king 








Guthorm baptized 


148, 149 


65 


879 


march to Chippenham a body of vikings at 










148, 149 


65 


880 


settle in and divide East Anglia 


150, 151 


65 


880 


those at Fulham proceed to Ghent . 


150, 151 


65 


881 \ 
882 J 


advance into Prance . 


150,151 


65,66 


883 


proceed up the Scheldt to Conde 


150, 151 


66 


884 


up the Somme to Amiens . 


152,153 


66 


885 


besiege Rochester raise the siege . 


152,153 


66 


885 


defeat Alfred's fleet 


152, 153 


66 


886 


proceed up the Seine to Paris, and winter there 


156, 157 


67 


887 


pass two winters on the Marne and the Yonne 


156,157 


67 


8901 
891 / 


defeated by the Bretons at St. L6 . 


160,161 


68 


8911 


defeated by the Franks, the Old Saxons, and 






892 / 


the Bavarians ...... 


160, 161 


69 


893 


embark at Boulogne, and arrive at the mouth 








of the Limen 


162,163 


69 


893-897 


their battles with ^Elfred .... 


162-179 


69-74 


894 


construct a fort at Shoebury .... 


168, 169 


71 


895 


proceed from Wirral to North Wales 


170,171 


72 


895 


. and thence into Essex ..... 


172,173 


72 


896 


fortify themselves on the Lea .... 


172,173 


73 


896 


destruction of their ships .... 


174,175 


73 


896 


proceed to Quatbridge ..... 


174, 175 


73 


897 


separate their force, some going to East Anglia, 








some to Northumbria, some to the Seine 


174, 175 


73 


902 


fight with the Kentish men at the Holme 


180, 181 


75 


905 


their land in East Anglia ravaged by Eadward 








the Elder 


180, 181 


76 


906 


those of East Anglia and Northumbria make 








peace with king Eadward at Yttingaford 


182, 183 


77 


910 


defeated at Tettenhall 


184, 185 


77 


911 


those of Northumbria break the peace and are 








defeated 


184, 185 


77 


9141 
917J 


break the peace, and are put to flight at Leighton 


188,189 


79 


9151 


cross over in great force from Brittany go to 






918 J 


South Wales, and thence to Ireland 


188-191 


79-81 



264 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A ~n 




Page 


sof 


.^V.-Ly. 




A.S. text. 



T ran si. 




Danes and Northmen cont. 






921 


assault Towcester, but are repulsed proceed 








to Tempsford and construct a fortress are 








defeated with great loss by king Eadward 








proceed to Maldon, but are put to flight 


194 


82 


9211 

924 J 


submit to king Eadward .... 


195 
196, 197 


83 
83,84 


943 


storm and plunder Tarn worth .... 


211 


89 


94.3 


their leader Olaf (Anlaf) embraces Christianity 


211 


90 


980 


ravage Cheshire and Thanet .... 


234 


102 


981 


ravage Padstow and the west coasts 


234 


102 


991 


defeat and slay Byrhtnoth aldorman, near] 


238,239, 


1 104 




Maldon / 


240 


/ 105 


991 


tribute first paid to them .... 


238, 239 


104 


992 


defeated by the East Anglian and London ships 


240, 241 


104 


993 


plunder Bamborough, and ravage Lindsey and 








Northumbria 


240, 241 


105 


994 


besiege London, and winter at Southampton . 


240-243 


105, 106 


997 


plunder the southern and western coasts . 


246, 247 


107 


998 


plunder Dorsetshire, the Isle of Wight, etc. 


246, 247 


108 


999 
1000 


enter the Thames and Medway, and ravage Kent 
sail to Normandy . . ... 


248, 249 
248,249 


109 
110 


1001 


ravage the south and west of England 


248, 249 


110 


1002 


tribute paid to them 


250,251 


111 


1002 


massacred by order of JEthelred 


251-253 


111 


1003 


ruin Exeter, and plunder Wilton and Salisbury 


252, 253 


111 


1004 


plunder and burn Norwich, and invade East 








Anglia under king Svein . . . 


253-255 


112 


1005 


their fleet returns to Denmark .... 


254,255 


112 


1006 


arrive at Sandwich, and plunder in the Isle of 








Wight, Reading, etc 


256, 257 


113 


1007 


tribute paid to them 


258,259 


114 


1009 


plunder many parts of England, and winter in 








the Thames 


262, 263 


115 


1010 


proceed to Ipswich, defeat Ulfkytel, burn Thet- 








ford, Cambridge, Notrhampton, etc. 


262, 265 


116 


1011 


take Canterbury, and capture archbp. ^Elfheah 


266,267 


117 


1012 


tribute paid to them, and murder by them of 








archbishop JElfheah 


268, 269 


118 


1012 
1013 


forty five Danish ships go over to king JEthelred 
under king Svein subdue the north of England, 


270,271 


118 




but are repulsed at London .... 


270,271 


118 


1013 


subjugate England 


270-273 


118, 119 


1014 


choose Cnut king, on the death of Svein . 


272, 273 


120 


1015 


ravage divers parts of England 


276,277 


121 


1016 


besiege London 


280,281 


123 


1018 


tribute paid to them in accordance with the 








English at Oxford, for king Eadgar's laws . 


285, 286 


124, 125 


1070 
709 


in league with Hereward, plunder Peterborough 
Daniel, bishop of the West Saxons 


345 

68,69 


176 

38 


721 


goes to Rome . 


72, 73 


39 


731 


assists at the consecration of archbishop Tatv, me 


77 


40 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



265 



A.I). 





Pages of 
A.S. text, Transl. 


744 
745 

1124 
1126 
1127 

1135 
11,35 
1138 
1124 

909 
577 
917 
941 
10481 
1049 J 
1049 
823 
851 
878 
894 

8971 
981 V 
997 J 
1001 
655 
656 
664 
1092 
1085 "1 
1087 J 

84 \ 
83 j 

998 \ 
1015 J 
1048 1 
1052 J 
793 
693 
8911 
892 J 
833 
1048 

10601 
1061 J 
1093 

1094 
1097 


Daniel, bishop of the West Saxons cont. 
resigns his see ...... 
dies ........ 
David, king of Scotland, accession of 
visits Henry I. ...... 
swears to secure England and Normandy to 
Matilda 
his hostility to king Stephen .... 
invades England, but makes peace . 
defeated at the battle of the Standard 
Dearth, a great 
Denulf, bishop of Winchester, dies .... 
Deorham (Dyrham), taken by Cuthwine and Ceawlin 
Derby, taken by ^Ethelflaed 
one of the Five burghs ..... 


78,79 
80,81 
376 
377 

377 
382 
382 
383 
376 
182,183 
32,33 
190,191 
210,211 

304, 306 

306 
110,111 
120, 121 
146, 147 

166,167 
176,177 
234 
246, 247 
248, 249 
51 
52 
56, 57 
359 

353, 355 
12, 13 

246,247 
276,277 

312,313 

101 

67 

160,161 
116,117 

305 
328, 329 

360 
361 
363 


41 
41 
221 
222 

223 

230 
230 
232 
220 

77 
17 
80 
89 

137, 138 

138 
53 
56 
64 

70 
74 
102 
107 
110 
25 
25 
30 
195 

186, 189 
8 

108 
121 

144, 146 

48 
36 

69 
54 

139 
160,161 

196 
198 
202 


an earthquake at . . 


Derbyshire, damage in, by -wildfire 
Devon, men of, fight with the Welsh 
with the Danes at Wembury .... 
the brother of Ingvar and llalfdan slain there . 
invaded by the Northumbrian and East Anglian 


coasts of, ravaged by the Danes . . 4 

Danes land at Exmouth ..... 
Deusdedit, archbishop of Canterbury 
counsels the founding of Medeshamstede . 


Dolphin, ruler of Cumberland, expelled by William II. 




Donald. See Dufenal. 
Dorsetshire, invaded by the Danes 4 

Dover, riot at, caused by count Eustace . 


Dryhthelm, dies 
Dubslane, an Irish pilgrim, arrives in England 

Dudda aldorman, dies 
Duduc (Dudoc), bishop of Wells, sent to the 
council at Rheims ..... 


Dufenal (Donald), chosen king of Scotland, and 


recovers his throne 

expelled . 



266 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A.S. text. Transl. 


741 


Dun, bishop of Rochester ..... 


78,79 


41 


1093 


Duncan, king of Scotland 


360 


196 


1094 


murdered at the instigation of Donald t . 


361 


198 


925 


Dunstan, born 


198 


85 


943 
957 


Glastonbury bestowed on him by king Eadmund 
banished by king Eadwig 


210,211 
217 


90 
91 


959 


recalled by king Eadgar, and receives the 








bishoprics of Worcester and London . 


218 


92 


961 


archbishop of Canterbury .... 


218 


92 


978 


escapes miraculously at Calne 


231 


99 


980 


removes the body of king Eadward from Ware- 








ham to Shaftesbury 


234, 235 


102 


988 


dies 


238, 239 


103 




E. 






616 


Eadbald, succeeds ^Ethelberht, king of Kent, re- 








nounces the Christian faith, but is regained 








thereto by archbishop Laurentius 


40,41 


19 


633 


receives queen ^Ethelburh and bishop Paulinus 


45 


22 




dies 


46,47 


23 


794 


Eadbald, bishop, leaves the country 


100, 101 


49 


656 


Eadberht aldorman, signs charter to Medeshamstede 


53 


28 


725 


Eadberht, king of Kent 


72,73 


39 


748 


dies 


80,81 


41 


7371 
738 f 


Eadberht (Eadbriht), king of Northumbria . 


77,78,79 


40,41 


757 


becomes a monk 


87 


44 


768 


dies ........ 


90,91 


45 


794 


Eadbryht (Eadberht) Prsen, king of Kent 


100,101 


49 


796 


captured and led into Mercia .... 


102, 103 


49 


787 


Eadburh, daughter of Offa, married to Byrhtric of 








Wessex 


96,97 


47 


8191 
822 / 


Eadbyrht aldorman, dies 


110, 111 


52 


952 


Eadelm, abbot, slain 


215 


91 


957 


Eadgar, king of Mercia 


214,215 


91 


9581 
959 / 


succeeds to the whole kingdom 


216,217 


91 


959 


recalls Dunstan, arid gives him the sees of 








. Worcester and London ; 


218 


92 


961 


and the archbishopric of Canterbury 


218 


92 


963 


endows and charters Medeshamstede 


220 


92 


964 


expels the secular clergy from several monas- 








teries, and substitutes monks 


222,223 


94 


964 


marries JElfthryth 


223 


95 


968 


ravages Thanet 


223 


96 


973 


consecrated king at Bath, and sails to Chester, 








where six kings pay him homage 


224, 225 


96 


975 


dies .... 


226,227 


97,98 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



267 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. ; Transl. 


1066 


Eadgar child, or aetheling, grandson of Eadmund 








Ironside, the crown offered to him 


338 


167 


1066 


accompanies William the Conqueror to Normandy 


339 


170 


1067 


takes refuge, with his mother and sister, in 








Scotland 


340, 341 


171 


1068 


makes a treaty with the insurgents at York, 








and returns to Scotland .... 


342, 343 


173 


1069 


joins the Danes and plunders York . 


342, 343 


174 


10741 
1075 J 


received into favour by William 


347, 348 


179, 180 


1075 


goes again to Scotland, and as invited by the 








king of France, who offers him Montreuil . 


346 


179 


1086 


revolts from William 


353 


186 


1091 


deprived of his lands in Normandy, and again 








takes refuge in Scotland .... 


359 


195 


1091 


mediates between the kings, William and Mal- 








colm of Scotland ..... 


359 


195 


1091 


reconciled to William II., and returns to Nor- 










359 


195 


1097 


aids Eadgar, son of Malcolm of Scotland . 


363 


202 


1106 


captured at Tinchebray, and set at liberty by 









Henry I 


368 


209 


1097 


Eadgar, king of Scotland, placed on the throne by 








Eadgar se the] ing . . . ... 


363 


202 


1107 


dies ........ 


368 


210 


1044 \ 


Eadgith, daughter of earl Godwine, married to Ead- 






1043 J 


ward the Confessor ..... 


301 


134 


1048 1 
1052 J 


deprived of her property and sent to Wherwell 4 


314 

317 


146 
149 


1052 


reinstated in all things 


320, 321 


151,152 


1075 \ 
1076 J 


dies 


348, 349 


182 


678 


Eadhed, first bishop of Lindsey .... 


61 


33 


870 


Eadmund, king of East Anglia, slain by the Danes . 


134, 135 


60 


937 


Eadmund cetheling, at the battle of Brunanburh 


200, 201 


86 


940 


succeeds to the kingdom ..... 


208, 209 


89 


941 \ 

942 J 


subdues Mercia ...... 


208, 209 


89 


943 


besieges Olaf (Anlaf), and archbishop Wulstan 








in Leicester ...... 


211 


90 


943 


receives Olaf (Anlaf) andRsegenald at the font 


210,211 


90 


943 


gives Glastonbury to Dunstan .... 


210,211 


90 


944 


subdues Northumbria and expels Olaf (Anlaf) 








and Rsegenald 


212,213 


90 


945 


ravages Cumberland and grants it to king Malcolm 


212,213 


90 


946 


assassinated by Liofa at Pucklechurch . 


212,213 


90 


970 \ 
972 J 


Eadmund setheling, son of king Eadgar, dies . 


224, 225 


96 


1015 


Eadmund Ironside, son of .^Ethelred, marries the 








widow of Sigeferth, and takes possession of 








his lands ....... 


276,277 


121 


1015 


collects an army in vain ..... 


276,277 


121 



268 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



\ I ) 




Tag 


es of 


J.X. U 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Eadmuud Ironside cont. 






1016 


joins earl Uhtred in Northumbria, and ravages 








Staffordshire, Shropshire, and Chester 


278,279 


121 


1016 


chosen king 


278, 279 


122 


1016 


fights with Cnut at Pen, Sherston, and Brent- 








ford 


280,281 


122, 123 


1016 


goes to Kent ....... 


282, 283 


123 


1016 


fights with Cnut at Assingdon 


282, 283 


123 


1016 


encounters Cnut at Olney, makes peace, and dies 


283, 285 


124 


1012 


Eadnoth, bishop of Dorchester, receives the body of 








archbishop -ZElf heah ..... 


268, 269 


118 


1016 


slain at Assingdon ...... 


282, 283 


123 


1048 1 
1049 J 


Eadnoth, bishop of Dorchester, dies 


307, 310 


140, 141 


1067 


Eadnoth, stallere (constable), slain 


342 


173 


946 


Eadred, king, succeeds his brother Eadmund, sub- 








dues Northumbria, and receives the submis- 








sion of the Scots 


212,213 


90 


947 


receives archbishop Wulstan and the Northum- 








brian < witan ' at Taddenesscylf . 


213 


90 


948 


ravages Northumbria ..... 


213 


90 


952 


imprisons archbishop Wulstan at Jedburgh, and 








orders a great slaughter at Thetford 


215 


91 


954 


takes possession of Northumbria 


215 


91 


955 




214, 215 


91 


1007 


Eadric, appointed aldorman of Mercia . 


258, 259 


114 


1009 


hinders the general levy .... 


262,263 


115 


1015 


causes the murder of Sigeferth and Morker 


274,275 


120 


1015 


gathers a force and deserts to Cnut . 


276, 277 


121 


1015 


his treachery towards Eadmund Ironside . 


276,277 


121 


1016 


causes the murder of earl Uhtred . 


278,279 


122 


1016 


aids Cnut against Eadmund .... 


280,281 


122 


1016 


takes to flight at Assingdon . 


282, 283 


123 


1016 


counsels peace between Eadmund and Cnut . 


282, 283 


124 


1017 


receives the government of Mercia from Cnut . 


284, 285 


124 


1017 


slain by order of Cnut ..... 


284, 285 


124 


1067 


Eadric child, with the "Welsh, makes war on the cas- 








tlemen at Hereford 


340 


171 


1001 


Eadsige, king's reeve, defeated by the Danes . 


251 


111 


1038 


Eadsige, archbishop of Canterbury 


295,297 


131 


1040 


goes to Rome ...... 


296 


132 


1043 


consecrates king Eadward the Confessor . 


298,299 


133 


1044 


resigns his see . . 


300, 301 


134 


1048 


resumes his see 


304, 305 


137 


10501 


dies 


312 -I 


141, 142, 


1051 J 






143 


897 


Eadulf, king's thane, dies ... 


174, 175 


73 


924 


Eadulf (Ealdulf), of Northumbria, sons of, submit 








to king Eadward the Elder .... 


196 


84 




Eadulf, abbot. See Aldulf. 






1041 


Eadulf, treachery of Harthacnut to ... 


298 


132 


905 


Eadwald, son of Acca, slain , 


182.183 


76 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



269 



A.1X 


Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl? 


905 


Eadwald (Eadwold), a king's thane, slain . . j 182, 183 


76 


901 


Eadward the Elder, king . . . . ' 178 179 




905 


ravages part of East Anglia . . . . 180, 181 


76 


900 


makes peace with the East Anglians and North- 








umbrians at Yttingaford .... 


182, 183 


77 


910 


ravages in the north, and defeats the Danes at 








Tettenhall 


184, 185 


77 


911 


defeats the Danes 


184, 185 


78 


912 


takes London and Oxford under his own j 








186, 187 


7ft 


913 


builds the northern and southern castles at 




* o 




Hertford, and the castle at Withani 


186,187 


78 


915 


goes with a force to Buckinghamshire 


190, 191 


80 


919 


takes the castle of Bedford .... 


193 


81 


920 


builds the castle at Maldon .... 


192 


81 


921 


at Cledemuth .... 


194, 195 


83 


921 


at Towcester and Wigmore . 


194 


81 


921 


his forces take Tempsford .... 


194 


82 


921 


fortifies the castle at Towcester with a stone 








wall 


195 


83 


921 


receives the submission of Thurferth jarl and 








his holds, also of East Anglia, Cambridge, 








and Essex ....... 


195 


83 


922 


builds the castle at Stamford, and receives the 








submission of North Wales and Mercia 


195 


83, 84 


922 


restores and repeoples Nottingham . 


195 


84 


923 


builds the castle at Thelwall, and restores 










196 


84 


924 


builds the castles at Nottingham and Bake- 








well, and a bridge across the Trent 


196 


84 


924 


receives the submission of the king of Scotland, 








and of the Strathclyde Britons, and others . 


196 


84 


924"! 
925 J 




196,197 


84, 85 




975 


Eadward, son of Eadgar, king . . 


226,227 


98 


978 


inurdered 


232, 233 


100 


980 


body of, removed from WarehamtoShaftesbary 


234, 235 


102 


1013 


Eadward sctheling (the Confessor), sent abroad 


272,273 


119 


1014 


sent to England by his father .... 


272, 273 


120 


1040 I 
1041 J 


arrives in England from Normandy 


296,297 


132 


1041 1 
1042 J 


chosen king 


298,299 


132, 133 


10421 


consecrated, and seizes his mother's lands and 






1043 J 


chattels 


298, 299 


133 


10431 








1044 L 


sails from Sandwich with thirty-five ships 


300, 301 


134 


1046J 








10431 
1044 J 


marries Eadgyth, daughter of earl Godwine 


300, 301 


134 


10451 
1046 J 


gathers a great naval force at Sandwich . 


303, 307 


134, 139 



270 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



A.D. 





Pag 

t 1 
A.S. text. 


es of 
Transl. 




Eadward (the Confessor) cont. 






10491 


goes with a fleet to Sandwich in aid of the 






1050 J 


emperor 


308 


138 


1049 


pays off nine ships ..... 


310 


140 


10521 


puts away his queen, and deprives her of all 1 


314,315, 


146 


1048J 


her possessions ..... J 


317 


149 


1050 


holds a witenagemot in London discharges all 








the sailors ....... 


312 


142 


1051 


banishes earl Godwine and his family 


312 


144, 145 


1052 


remits Danegelt 


312 


146 


1052 


sends for the earls Leofric and Si ward against 








Godwine 


314 


147 


1052 


equips forty vessels against him 


316 


146 


1052 


restores their estates to Godwine and his family 


320, 322 


151, 152 


10651 


causes the abbey of Westminster to be conse- 1 


330, 332, 


164,165, 


1066 J 


crated, and dies J 


334,337 


169 


1057 


Eadward setheling, son of Eadmund Ironside, arrives 










328, 329 


159 


1093 


Eadward, son of king Malcolm of Scotland, slain . 


360 


196 


955 


Eadwig, king of Wessex ..... 


214,215 


91 


955 


expels Dunstan 


214 


91 


958 


divorced from JElfgyfu 


217 


91 


959 


dies . 


216,217 


91 


1010 


Eadwig, brother of JEfic, slain .... 


262, 263 


116 


1017 


Eadwig sstheling, banished by and slain by order of 








Cnut 


284, 285 


124 


1017 


Eadwig, ' king of the churls/ banished by Cnut . 


284, 285 


124 


1020 




286 


125 


617 


Eadwine, king of Northumbria ravages all Britain 








except Kent 


41 


20 


626 


escapes assassination, and invades Wessex 


42,43 


20,21 


627 


baptized by Paulinus 


42,43 


21 


633 


slain in battle against Ceadwalla and Penda 


44,45 


22 




the fifth Brytenwalda 


112,113 


53 


933 


Eadwine aetheling, drowned 


201 


85 


982 


Eadwine aldorman. dies . 


236 


103 


985 


Eadwine, abbot of Abingdon .... 


236, 237 


103 


990 




238, 239 


104 


1039 


Eadwine, brother of earl Leofric, slain by the Welsh 


296 


131 


1064 


Eadwine, son of JElfgar, joins his brother Morkere 








against Tostig ..... 


331 


163 


1066 


repulses earl Tostig ..... 


336 


("165,166, 
1 169 


1066 


defeated by Harald, king of Norway . / 


336,337, 
338 


166,167, 
169 


1066 


promises to support Eadgar setheling 


338 


168 


1066 


accompanies William the Conqueror to Nor- 








mandy . ..... 


338 


170 


1071 


flees from William and is slain 


346, 347 


178 




Eafa, ancestor of the West Saxon kings . 


2 


4 


722 


Ealdbriht the exile, retires to Surrey and Sussex . 


72,73 


39 


725 


slain by Ine . ... 


72,73 


39 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



271 



A.D. 





Pag< 
I.S. text. 


jsof 
Transl. 


685 


Ealdferth (Aldfrith), king of Northumbria 


62,63 


34 


705 




68, 69 


38 


926 


Ealdred, of Bamborough, submits to king Eadward 








the Elder ....... 


199 


85 


1047 




302 


135 


1050 


assists in repelling an invasion from Ireland 


310 


142 


1047 I 
1049 I 
105lJ 


goes to Rome ......-< 


309,310, 
312 


| 143 


1052 


sent to overtake Harold and his brothers . 


314 


149 


1053 


assumes the abbacy of Winchcombe 


322 


154 


1054 


goes to Cologne 


322 


155 


1056 


with Harold, makes peace with the Welsh 


326 


158 


1056 


receives the bishopric of Hei-eford . 


326 


158 


1058 


consecrates the abbey church at Gloucester 


328, 329 


160 


1058 


goes to Jerusalem 


328 


160 


1060 


succeeds to the archbishopric of York 


328, 329 


161 


1061 


goes to Rome for his pall .... 


328 


161 


1066 


eubmits to William the Conqueror . 


339 


168 


1066 


crowns him ....... 


337, 339 


169,170 


1067 


crowns queen Matilda ..... 


340 


172 


1069 




342 


174 




Ealdulf, bishop of Rochester. See Aldwulf. 






778 


Ealdulf, son of Bosa, slain . . 


93 


46 


972 


Ealdulf (Aldulf, Eadulf), abbot of Medeshamstede, 








enriches his abbey 


221 


95 


992 


succeeds to the sees of York and Worcester 


240, 241 


104 


1002 


dies { 


251,252, 

OKQ 


}m 




Ealfgar. See Mlfgax. 


^JO 


J 


897 


Ealhheard, bishop of Dorchester, dies 


174,175 


73 




Ealhmund. See Alchmund. 






784 


Ealhmund, king of Kent, father of Ecgberht . 


1, 94, 95 


4,47 


823 


Ealhstan, bishop, sent into Kent by king Ecgberht . 


110, 111 


53 


845 


defeats the Danes at the mouth of the Farret . 


120, 121 


55 


8671 


dies 


132, 133 


59 


868 J 








9021 
905 J 


Ealswyth, wife of king JElfred, dies. (See note, f 
p. 180) \ 


180, 181, 
182,183 


}75,77 


780 


Eanbald I., archbishop of York .... 


95 


to 
j 


795 


consecrates Eardwulf, king of Northumbria 


103 


49 


796 


dies 


103 


50 


796 


Eanbald II., archbishop of York .... 


103 


50 


797 


receives the pall 


105 


50 


806 


Eanberht, bishop of Hexham, dies .... 


107 


52 


626 


Eanflsed, daughter of king Eadwine, baptized . 


42, 43 


20 


617 


Eanfrith, son of king JLthelfrith, expelled by king 








Eadwine 


43 


20 


634 


king of Bernicia 


45 


22 


845 


Eanulf (Earnulf) aldorman, defeats the Danes . 


120,121 


55 




Eanwulf, ancestor of king Offa .... 


86 


44 


795 


Eardwulf (Eardulf), king of Northumbria 


103 


49 


806 


expelled 


107 


52 



272 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A : D. 





Page 
A 
A. S. text. 


s of 
^ 
Transl. 


! 








Earkenbryht. See Erkenberht. 








Earnulf. See Arnulf. 






1048^) 





304 


137 


1049 




306 


138 


1060 




328 


161 


1089 > 


Earthquake, in England .... 


358 


193 


1119 1 




372 


215 


1122 




373 


217 


1129J 




380 


227 


1117 




371 


214 


449 


East Anglia, by whom peopled .... 


20,21 


12 


636 


converted by Felix 


46,47 


22 


823 


seeks the protection of king Ecgberht 


110, 111 


53 


838 


harassed by the Danes ..... 


118, 119 


55 


866 


Danes take winter quarters in . 


130, 131 


59 


8701 
871 J 


subdued by the Danes 


134, 135 


60 


880 \ 
881 J 


colonized by the Danes 


150,151 


65 


8851 
894 / 


array of, breaks the peace with king TElfred -I 


156, 157 
164, 165 


67 
69 


894 


collects a fleet and attacks Exeter . 


166, 167 


70 


905 


part of, laid waste by king Eadward the Elder 


180, 181 


76 


906 


makes peace with king Eadward 


182, 183 


77 


921 


joins the Danish army against king Eadward . 


194 


82 


921 


submits to king Eadward .... 


195 


83 


1004 


invaded by the Danes under king Svein . 


252, 253 


112 


1010 


men of, flee from the Danes .... 


262, 263 


116 




East Saxons. See Essex. 






678 


Eata, bishop of Bernicia ..... 


61 


33 




Eawa, ancestor of king Offa 


86 


44 


1114 


Ebb, an extraordinary 


370 


212 


778 


Ecga, high-reeve, slain . . . . . 


93 


46 


664 


Ecgbyrht (Ecgbriht), king of Kent 


57 


30 


664 


sends Wigheard to Rome .... 


57 


30 


669 


gives Reculver to Bass, mass priest . 


56, 57 


30 


673 


dies 


56, 57 


31 


716 


Ecgbyrht, reforms the monks of lona 


70,71 


39 


729 


dies ........ 


74,75 


40 


734 


Ecgbyrht, consecrated bishop .... 


T*T 
/ / 


40 


735 


receives the pall 


77 


40 


766 


dies 


91 


45 


800 


Ecgbyrht, king of Wessex 


104, 105 


51 


812] 
813 I 
815J 


ravages "West Wales (Cornwall) 


108, 109 


52 


823 


overcomes Beornred at Ellendun 


110,111 


53 


823 


the East Angles seek his protection . 


110,111 


53 


827 


subdues Mercia 


112, 113 


53 


827 


leads an army to Dore ..... 


112, 113 


53 


827 


the eighth Brytenwalda 


112,113 


53 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



273 



A.I). 




Tage 


sof 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Ecgbyrht, king of Wessex cont. 






828 


leads an army against the Welsh 


114, 115 


54 


833"! 

834 J 


fights with thirty-five ships at Charmouth 


116,117 


54 


835 


the Welsh and Danes at Hengestsdun 


116,117 


5 4 


830 




116, 117 


54 


80o (_ 
802 J 


Ecgbyrht, bishop of Lindisfarne . 


107 


51 


916 


Ecgbyrht (Ecgbriht), abbot, guiltless slain 


190,191 


80 


G70 


Ecgferth, king of North umbria 


56,57 


30 


G78 


expels bishop Wilfrith ..... 


60, 61 


33 


679 


battle between him and JEthelred of Mercia 


60,61 


33 


684 


sends an army against the Scots 


63 


34 


685 


causes Cuthberht to be ordained bishop . 


, 63 


34 


685 


slain 


63 


34 


777 


Ecgferth, son of Offa, signs charter to Medeshamstede 


93 


46 


785 


consecrated king 


96,97 


47 


794 


succeeds to Mercia, and dies .... 


100, 101 


49 


794 


Ecgferth's monastery at Wearmouth, destroyed 


101 


49 


897 


Ecgulf, king JElfred's horse-thane, dies . 


174, 175 


74 








40 


538" 




28,29 


14 


540 




28 9 


15 


664 




54, 55 


30 


733 

809 f 


Eclipse, of the sun ..... 


76,77 
109 


40 
52 


879 




150,151 


65 


1135 




381 


229 


1140 




383 


233 


795^ 




103 


49 


800 




105 


51 


802 




107 


51 


806 




106, 107 


52 


827 1 




112, 113 


53 


904 




1801 81 


76 


1078 




350 


183 


1110 




369 


210 


1117 




371 


214 


1121^ 




373 


216 


913 


Eddesbury, burgh at, built by ^Ethelflsed 


186,187 


79 


686 


Egbalth, abbot of Peterborough .... 


63 


35 


1140 


Eleanor, queen of France, marries Henry, count of 










384 


234 




Elesa, father of Cerdic 


1,30,31 


3,15 


189 


Eleutherius, bishop of Home, king Lucius' message 








to him . 


14,15 


9 




Elias. See Helie 






823 


Ellendun battle at 


110, 111 


53 


673 


Ely, monastery at, founded by St. JEtheldryth 


58, 59 


31 


963 


restored by bishop Athelwold for monks only . 


220 


93 


1070 




345 


176 




Emma. See JElfgifu Emma. 







VOL. II. 



274 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Page 

t * 

A.S. text. 


S of 
Transl. 


1018 


English and Danes, in unison under Cnut for the 








laws of king Eadgar 


285, 286 


125 


1096 


Eoda (Elides), count of Champagne, deprived of his 








lands in England 


362 


200 


905 


Eohric (Eric), a Danish king, slain 


182, 183 


76 




Eomeer, ancestor of Penda 


42 


21 




Offa . . . 


86 


44 


626 


Eomer, attempts to assassinate king Eadwiue 


42,43 


20 




Eoppa, ancestor of Cerdic and Ida . 


2,28 


4,15 


661 


Eoppa, preaches Christianity in the Isle of Wight 


54,55 


29 


552 


Eormenric, father of ^Ethelberht, king of Kent 


29 


15 


632 


Eorpwald, king of East Anglia, baptized 


44,45 


22 




Eourard. See Everard. 






911 




184, 185 


78 




Eric. See Eohric, and Trie. 






640 


Erkenberht (Arceubryht), king of Kent casts down 








the idols 


46,47 


23 


664 


dies 


54 


30 


640 


Erkengota, daughter of Erkenberht, king of Kent . 


47 


23 




Erling. See Yrling. 






640 


Ermenred, son of Eadbald, king of Kent 


46 


23 


1107 


Ernulf, abbot of Peterborough .... 


368 


209 


1114 


made bishop of Rochester .... 


370 


212 


1123 


assists at the consecration of abp. William 


374 


219 


1124 


dies . 


376 


221 




Esa, ancestor of Cerdic and Ida .... 


28 


15 




Esbeorn. See Asbiorn. 








Esla, ancestor of Cerdic 


1,28 


3,15 


449 


Essex (East Saxons), kingdom of . 


20,21 


12 


604 


converted to Christianity .... 


36,37 


18 


823 


submits to king Ecgberht .... 


110,111 


53 


913 


to Eadward the Elder 


186,187 


78 


921 


assailed by the Danes people turn to Eadward 


194, 195 


82,83 


994 


ravaged by the Danes 


242, 243 


105 


1011 


subjugated by the Danes 


266, 267 


116 


8871 
888 / 


Eudes (Oda), his share, in the partition of the empire 


158, 159 


68 




Eudes, count of Champagne. See Eoda. 






1137 


Eugenius III., pope, grants privileges to Peter- 








borough 


383 


232 


10511 
1052 / 
1088 


Eustace H, count of Boulogne, his affray at Dover 1 
Eustace HI., among the insurgents in Rochester castle 


312,313, 
315 
357 


1 144, 146 
193 


1096 


goes to Jerusalem 


363 


201 


1100 


returns 


365 


204 


1101 


receives back his forfeited lands in England . 


365 


205 


1140 


Eustace, son of king Stephen, marries the sister of 








Lewis VII. his character .... 


384 


234 


1140 


dies 


384 


234 


1130 


Everard (Eourard), bishop of Norwich, assists at the 








consecration of Chistchurch Canterbury, and 








Rochester cathedrals 


380 


227 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



275 



A.D. 




Pages of 


. 


A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1054 


Evesham, abbey of, consecrated .... 


322 


155 


1112 


Evreux, count of, deprived of his land 


369 


211 


8771 
878 / 


Exeter, taken by the Danes 


144, 145 


64 


894 


besieged by the Danes, and relieved by king 








Alfred 


166,167 


70 


1003 


taken and ruined by the Danes 


252, 253 


111 


1067 


taken by William the Conqueror 


340 


171 


1135 
1025 


besieged by king Stephen .... 
Eylaf, defeats king Cnut at the Holm 


382 

289 


230 
127 




F. 






47 




10,11 


8 


471 
48 } 




11 


8 


793 




101 


48 


976 




227, 230 


99 


1005 




254, 255 


112 


1044 




300, 301 


134 


1070 


in England 4 .....< 


344, 347 


178 


1082 




351 


184 


1087 




353 


187 


1096 




363 


201 


1125 




377 


222 


1137 


- 


382 


231 


577 


Farinmail, a British king, slain .... 


32,33 


17 


1117 


Faritz (Faricius), abbot of Abingdon, dies 


371 


214 


636 


Felix, bishop, converts the East Angles . 


46,47 


22 


829 


Felogild (Feologild), abbot, chosen archbishop of 










115 


54 


830 


dies 


114,115 


54 


584 


Fethanlea, battle at 


34,35 


17 


962 


Fever, in London . 


218 


92 


1087 


(drif), many die of, in England 


353 


187 


788 


Finchale, synod at 


97 


48 




Finn, ancestor of Ida 


28 


15 




Fithele. See Vithele. 








Flambard. See Ranulf. 






1096 


Flanders, Robert, count of, joins the crusade . 


363 


201 


1100 


returns ........ 


365 


204 


1014"] 


I 274,275 


120 


1099 I 
1125J 


Flood, a great \ \ 364 
1 377 


203 
222 


1013 


Florentine, St., body of, bought for 500 


272 


119 


1087 


Forest, or Game, laws, enacted by William I. . 


355 


190 


1088 


temporary repeal of, by William II. 


357 


192 


626 


Forthhere, stabbed by Eomer 


43 


20 



S2 



276 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


709 


Forthhere, bishop of Westwood (Sherborne) . 


68,69 ; 38 


737 


goes to Rome 76,77 40 


803 


Forthred, abbot, dies 106 51 


871 




138 139 61 


993 


Frsena, an English leader, takes to flight 


240,241 105 


780 


Franks, fight with the Old-Saxons . . .92, 93 


46 


887 


empire of, divided into five . . . . 156,157 


68 




Freawine, ancestor of Cerdic . . . . 1,30 


3, 1 5 




Freothelaf. ancestor of Ida 28 


15 




Freothewulf, ancestor of Ida 28, 31 


15, 1.6 


885 


Frisians, aid the Old Saxons against the Danes . 154, I5.j 67 


766 


Fritheberht, bishop of Hexham, dies . . . 91 45 


993 


Frithegist, an English leader, takes to flight . . | 240, 241 105 


910 


Frithestan, bishop of Winchester .... 


182,183 


77 


932 


dies 


200, 201 


85 


707 


Frithogith, queen of Wessex, goes to Home 


76,77 


40 




Frithugar, Freothogar, ancestor of Cerdic 


1,30 0.15 


763 


Frithuwald, bishop of Whiterne, dies 


89 


4: 


955 


Frome, king Eadred dies at 


214,215 


91 


1110\ 
1115 j 


Frost, severe j 


.369 
371 


210 
213 


1103\ 
1110J 


Fruit trees, injured -1 


366 
369 


206 
210 




Frythestan. See Frithestun. 






879 


Fulham, Danes at 


150, 151 


65 


1110 


Fulk V., count of Anjou, holds Le Maine against 








Henry I 


369 


211 


inn 


f 


369 


211 


1112 }- 




369 


211 


1118J 




372 


214 


1119 


his daughter married to William, son of 








Henry I 


372 


215 


1121 


returns from Jerusalem and takes back his 








daughter .... 


373 


217 


1123 


sends messengers to Henry, -who return at vari- 








ance with him .... 


374 


217, 218 


1124 


at war with Henry 


375 


220- 


1127 


makes an alliance with Henry, and bethroths his 








son to Henry's daughter, the empress Matilda 


377 


223 


1140 


dies ..... 


384 


234 




G. 






823 


Gafulford (Camelford ?), battle at . 


110, 111 


53 




Game. See Forest. 








Geat, ancestor of Ida 


9ft 


15 


693 


Gefmund, bishop of Rochester, dies . . . 67 


36 


1118 


Gelasius II., pope ... 379 


215 


1119 


dies ... 370 


215 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



277 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Genealogies, royal, pp. 1, 28, 30, 36, 42, 58, 60, 62, 








64, 66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 86, 126, 127, 








232, 340. (A.S. text.) 






1088 


Geoffrey (Gosfrith), bishop of Coutances, rebels 








against William II. and plunders about Bristol 


356 


191 


1096 


Geoffrey (Gosfrei) Bainard, overcomes William of 








Eu in single combat 


362 


200 


1125 


Geoffrey, abbot of St. Alban's, goes to Rome . 


377 


222 


1127 


Geoffrey Martel, son of the count of Anjou, marries 








the empress Matilda 


377 


223 


1140 


reduces Normandy ...... 


384 


234 


1150 


dies 


384 


234 


710 


Gereiit, a Welsh king, fights with kiug Ine and 










68, 71 


38 




Gewis (Giwis), ancestor of Cerdic .... 


1,30 


3,15 


693 


Gifemund (Gefmund), bishop of Rochester, dies 


67 


36 


1123 


Giffard, chaplain to Henry I., goes to Rome . 


374 


219 




Giffard. See William. 






1117 


Gilbert, abbot of Westminster, dies 


371 


214 


1130 


Gilbert Universal, bishop of London, assists at the 








consecration of Christchurch Canterbury, and 








Rochester cathedrals ..... 


380 


227 


1103 


Girard (Gerard), archbishop of York, his right to 








consecrate bishops denied .... 


.366 


206 


1 1 08 




368 


210 


1060 1 
1061 J 




328, 329 


160, 161 




1067 


Githa, mother of king Harold, retires to Flatholm, 








and thence to !St. Omer's .... 


340 


172 




Giwis. See Gewis. 






688 


Glastonbury, abbey built by king Ine . 


64 


35 


1083 


dissensions at, between the Norman abbot and 








the monks 


352 


184 


577 


Gloucester, taken from the Britons by Cuthwine and 










32 


17 


1058 


abbey church at, consecrated by bishop Kaldrecl 


328 


160 


1122 


burnt ........ 


373 


217 


1123 


a council there ...... 


374 


218 


988 


Goda, a thane of Devonshire, slain 


238,239 


103 


1123 


Godfrey (Godefreith), bishop of Bath . 


375 


2J9 


.1130 


assists at the consecration of Christchuvch 






Canterbury, and Rochester cathedrals . . 380 


227 




Godrum, or Guthrum. See Guthorm. 






Godulf, ancestor of Ida 


28 


15 


693 Godun (Guodun), a Gallican bishop, consecrates 






Brihtwold archbishop ..... 


67 


36 


993 


Godwine, a leader of the English, takes to flight . 


240, 241 


105 


1001 


Godwine, son of bishop JElfsige, slain 


250 


110 


1011 


Godwine, bishop of Rochester, captured by the 








Danes at Canterbury 


266,267 


117 


1016 


Godwine, aldorman of Liudsey, slain at Assingdon . ! 282, 283 


123 



278 



CHRONOLOGICAL r 



A.D. 




r.iuvs of 




A.S. text. 




1036 
1043 
1044 

1048 
10481 
1050 / 
1048 
10491 
1080 J 
1051 
1052 
10.-) -2 
1052 
1052 
1052 
10511 
1052 J 
1052 

1053 

1053 
1061 
606 
1088 
1067 
1069 
4081 
409 J 
379 
982 
1013 
5911 
592 J 
596 
601 
6051 
606 J 

1046 

1050 
1052 
1055 
1056 

1058 
1063 
903 


Godwine, earl, causes the murder of the irthelinc: 
Alfred supports Harthacnut 
assists in bereaving queen Emma of her pro- 
perty 
marries his daughter, Eadgith, to Eadward the 
Confessor 
ordered to quell the tumult at Dover 

with his sons at Beverston .... 

cited before the 'witeiKi^inot ' 
accompanies earl Biorn from Sandwich i 
vensey ....... 


293 

1>!>8 

800 
813,318 

816 

308 
312,314 
:U4 
314,318 

:U i 
314 
316 

317,319 

320 
320, 321, 

3Si 

. .329 
38 

342 
344 

16,17 

16,17 
236 
873,873 

34,35 

34,35 
36,37 

38,39 

SOS 
810 

316 
. :\25 

326 

330, 331 
180. 181 


!-_.) 

184 

144 

144 

i W 

139, Hi 
143, n; 

148 
148 

148 
150,151 

150,152 
154 
155 
154 

1 C,o, Mil 

171' 
174 

10 

10 

loa 

119 

17 

17 

18 

18 
136 

141! 
149 
156, 158 

160 
16 1 
75 


banished with all his family .... 
with his sons, gathers a force at Langtree 
summoned to appear in London 
with his sons, outlawed 
escapes by night to Thorney, thence to Bruges 
sails with Harold to London . 

comes to Dungeness .... 

pleads his cause and is restored to all his ho- 
nours ..... 


dies 


I 
Godwine, abbot of Winchcombe, dies 
Godwine, bishop of Rochester, dies 
Gordianus, father of pope Gregory 
Gosfrith. See Geoffrey. 
Gospatric, earl, retires to Scotland .... 
joins the Danes in plundering York 

Goths, take Rome 
Gratian, emperor 


Greece, invaded by the Saracens .... 
Greenwich, Thorkell and his force stationed at 

Gregory I., pope . 


sends Augustine to preach the gospel in Britain 
sends the pall to Augustine .... 

dies 


Gregory. See Innocent II. 
Griffith, king of North Wales, accompanies earl 
Swegen into South Wales . 
aids an invasion from Ireland .... 
ravages Herefordshire 
with earl JElfg&r, burns Hereford . 
makes peace with kim; Ka<hv;ml, and becomes 
his vassal 


supports earl JElfgar 
slaiu ........ 
Grimbald, priest, dies 



CHRONOLOGICAL : 






A. P. 




Tao, 


^sof 






A S text. 


Trausl. 


1038 


Grimkvtol, bi>' 


BS6, 


131 


10451 








1046 1 
1047 f 


dies ........ 


. 303 


136 


1048 J 








1077 


Gundulf. bishop of "Rochester .... 







1045 


Guuuhild. niece of Omit, banished .... 


309 


135 


iUl 


(.nith forth hold, slain 


IS 4, 185 


7S 


HL>: 


Guthfrith. king of Northmnbria, expelled by king 








_V.thelstau ....... 


199 


85 


714 


uthlae. St., dies 


70,71 


38 


875 


Guthorm (Guthrum), a Danish king 


144. 14 ; 


63 




baptized 


148. K'.) 


66 


810 1 
891 J 


dies 


159, 160 


88 




Gypeswio. See Ipswich 






963 




220 


93 


10.M ; 


Gyrth, son of earl Godwine, withdraw to IV 






I058J 


and thenee to Ireland 


. :U4 


14'.) 




slain at Hastings 


836. 


167, 169 




Gytha. See Githa. 








H. 






UMO 


Ilacun (Hakon) jarl, dies 


290 


1*8 


1078 1 


Hacun (Hakon) jarl, with prince Cuut, makes a 






107T. 1 


liostile attempt on England .... 




181 




ll:rrothaland, Northmen first land in England from 


96,97 


47 


893 




It' 4. 165 


69 


894 


constructs a fort at Benfleet .... 


166,167 


71 


8'.' 4 


receives his wife and children from king -1 








yet continues his ravages .... 


168,169 


71 




11 amain. .SVt: Amauri. 








1 lampshire, ravaged by the Thanes .... 


242, -2 to 


|08 


s:i 


llarald. a Danish jarl, slain ..... 


138, 139 


n 


1048 


Harald Hardrada, returns to X or way from Denmark 


SM 


138 


1066 


king of Norway, i inland, deteai>"| 
Eadwine and Morkerc, and is slain at I 


336, 337, 


165, 166, 




niford bridge J 


339 


169 


lore! 

10:: . 


llarald (llein), king of Denmark .... 


350,351 






Harold, reputed son of Cuut, king of England, north 








of the Thames 


292, 293 


199 




despoils queen Kiuma of her treasures 






1037 




. --.".i,") 


180 




dies at Oxford, and is disinterred by order of 






1040 r 


Harthacnut 


.297 


131. 



280 



CHRONOLOGICAL 1NDE1X. 



A T) 




Page 


sof 


./v. J 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


10461 


Harold, son of earl Godwine, opposes his brother 


i 




104.Q f 




307 


138, 139 


i \j<j j 

1049 


removes the body of Biorn to Winchester 


310 


140, 142 


1050 


joins his father in opposing king Eadward 


314 


144 


10501 
1048/ 


cited before the ' witenagemot ' 


312,316 


142, 145 


1051 1 
1052 J 


withdraws to Bristol, and thence to Ireland 


312,314 


J145, 146 
\ 149 


1052 


sails with his father to London 


318 


149, 153 


1052 


reinstated in his possessions .... 


320 


159 


1053 


present at his father's death .... 


320 


154 


1053 


succeeds to his father's earldom 


321,322 


154, 155 


1055 


makes peace with earl TElfgar 


324,326 


157 


1056 


makes peace with Griffith, king of North Wales 


326 


158 


1063 


reduces Wales 


330,331 


161 


1064 


treats with Morkere ..... 


332, 333 


183 


1065 


orders a hunting seat for king Eadward at 








Portskewet 


330 


162 


1065 


strives to reconcile earl Tostig and the North- 










332 


163 


1066 


chosen king of England ....-< 


330, 335, 
336, 337 


164, 165, 
169 


1066 


collects an army to oppose Tostig and William 








of Normandy 


336,337 


165, IG'J 


1066 


defeats Harald Ilardriida and Tostig at Stam- 








ford bridge 


336, 337 


166, 169 


1066 


slain at Hastings 


336, 337 


167, IG'J 


1067 


Harold, king, sons of, one lands in the Avon, but is 


312 


173 




repulsed .... ... 






1068 


land at the mouth of the Taw, but are repulsed 


342 












1023 


Harthacnut, son of Cnut, assists in removing the 









body of archbishop ^Elfheah 


288 


126 


1035 


lingers in Denmark after his father's death 


293, 294 


129 


1037 


supplanted by Harold 


294 


130 


1039 


joins his mother, queen Emma, at Bruges 


296 


131 


10391 


succeeds to the kingdom of England, and levies 






1040 J 


a heavy contribution ..... 


296,297 


131 


1040 


disinters the body of king Harold . 


296,297 


13-2 


10401 
1041 J 


levies a heavy ship-money .... 


297 


131, 132 


1041 


causes Worcestershire to be ravaged 


296 


132 


1041 


his treachery to earl Eadulf .... 


298 


132 


1041 \ 
1042 J 


dies at Lambeth 


298, 299 


132 


680 


Hatfield, synod at 


60,61 


34 




Heaberht aldorman. See Heardberht. 






963 


Headda, abbot of Medeshamstede .... 


220 


93 


8711 
872 J 


Heahmurxd, bishop of Sherborne, slain 


140,141 


62 


398 


Heahstan, bishop of London, dies .... 


178, 179 


75 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



281 



A.D. 




Pag< 


JS Of 

V 

Transl. 




A.S. text. 


8711 
872 / 
8751 
876 J 
8761 
877 J 
911 
778 
804 1 
805 f 
797 
10471 
1048 J 
10571 
1058 J 
676 
703 
1099 

1110 
449 
449 
455 

457 ] 
465 I 
473 J 
835 
1060 

1049 J 
1050J 

1056 
1106 
1086 

1087 
1094 
1095 
1100 
1100 
1100 
1101 
1102 

1104 
1105 
1106 

1107 
1108 
1110 


Ilealfdcne (Iliilfdan), a Danish king 


137, 138 
142, 143 


61 
63 

64 

78 
46 

51 
50 
136 

159 

32 

38 

203 
211 
11 
12 

12 
12,13 

54 
161 

138 
159 
. 209 

186 
188 
198 
198 
204 
204 
204 
205 

205 

207 
207 

209 
209 
210 

210 


divides the land among his followers 

slain 
Heardberht, with JEthelbald, slays three high reeves 

dies 

Heardred, bishop of Hexjiam .... 
Ileca (Hecca), bishop of the South Saxons 


144, 145 

184, 185 
93 

106,107 
105 
302, 303 

328,329 

60, Gl 
68, 69 

364 
369 
18, 19 
20,21 

20,21 
22,23 

116,117 
328 

308 
326,327 
368 

353 
354 
361 
361 
364 
365 
365 
365 

366 

3G7 
367 

368 
368 
368 

369 


lledde, bishop of the West Saxons (Winchester) 


Ilelie (de la Fleche), driven out of Le Maine by 
William II 
dies 
Hengest and Horsa, land in Britain 
their genealogy 
fight with Wyrtgeorn ( Vortigern) at^Eglesthrep 


and his son JEsc, fight with the Britons . 

Hengestdun (Hengestesdun), battle at . . 
Henry T., king of France, dies .... 
Henry III. (Cona), makes war on Baldwine, count of 
Flanders, and solicits aid from Eadward the 
Confessor ....... 




Henry, son of William the Conqueror, knighted by 
his father ........ 
inherits vast treasures from his father 


aids king William against his brother Robert . 
king of England ...... 


sends bishop Eanulf Flambard to the Tower . 
marries Matilda, daughter of king Malcolm 
his war and compact with his brother Robert . 
his quarrel with Robert of Belesme, and siege 
of Arundel castle ..... 
sends a force to Normandy .... 
takes Caen and Bayeux ..... 


gains the battle of Tinchebray, and reduces the 
whole of Normandy ..... 
supplies the vacant sees in England 
goes to Normandy contests with France 
gives his daughter in marriage to the emperor 
Henry V. 



282 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pag 
A.S. text. 


2S of 
\ N 
Transl. 




Henry I., king of England cont. 






1111") 


r 


369 


211 


1112 I 


goes to Normandy < 


369 


211 


1113J 


I 


369 


211 


1114 


reduces Wales ....... 


370 


212 


1115 


causes the barons of Normandy to do homage 








to his son William 


370 


213 


1116 


contests with the king of France 


371 


213 


1116 


causes the abbey of St. Alban's to be consecrated 


371 


213 


1117") 


r 


371 


214 


1118 > 




372 


214 


1119J 




372 


215 


1119 


puts king Lewis of France to flight . 


372 


215 


1120 


makes peace with the king of France 


372 


216 


1121 


marries Athelis (Adele) of Louvain, and invades 








Wales 


373 


216 


1121 


the Welsh submit to him . 


373 


216 


1123 


summons a council at Gloucester 


374 


218 


1123 


at war with the barons in Normandy 


375 


219 


1124 


his successes in Normandy .... 


375 


220 


1125 


his severity against false coiners 


376 


221 


1126 


returns to England 


377 


222 


1127 


causes the clergy and nobles to swear allegiance 








to his daughter 


377 


223 


1128 


in Normandy 


378 


225 


1129 


returns to England 


379 


226 


1130 


goes to Normandy 


380 


. 227 


1131"! 
1132J 


returns to England 


380 


228, 229 


1135 


goes to Normandy and dies his character 


381 


229 


11091 


Henry V., emperor, marries Matilda, daughter of 






1110 J 


Henry I 


369 


210 


1123 


Henry of Poitou, abbot of St. Jean d'Angely, legate 








of Rome 


374 


218 


1127 


obtains the abbacy of Peterborough sketch of 








his life 


377, 378 


223 


1128 


goes to Poitou 


378 


225 


1130 


returns, and promises to subject Peterborough 








to Cluny 


380 


227 


1131 


goes to Normandy .... . 


380 


228 


1131 


expelled from St. Jean d'Angely 


381 


228 


1132 


goes to Cluny fails in his attempt to subject 








Peterborough to Cluny is deprived . 


381 


228, 229 


1129 


Henry (of Blois), bishop of Winchester . 


379 


226 


1130 


assists at the consecration of Christchurch Can- 








terbury, and Rochester cathedrals 


380 


227 


1140 


deserts his brother, king Stephen 


384 


233 


11401 


Henry, count of Anjou, marries Eleanor, queen of 






(1152)/ 


France 


384 


234 


11401 

cuss) f 


invades England and makes a compact with 
Stephen 


385 


234 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



283 



A rj 




Page 


sof 


AtLt* 




A.S.text. 


^ 
Transl. 




Henry, count of Anjou cont. 






1154 


visits Oxford, Peterborough, and other parts of 










385 


235 


1094 


Herbert Losang (de Losinga), bishop of Thetford, 








deprived of his staff by William II. 


360 


197 


838 


Herebryht aldorman, slain by the Danes 


118, 119 


55 


833 


Hereferth, bishop of Winchester, dies 


116,117 


54 


1055 


Hereford, burnt by^Elfgar and Griffith of North Wales 


324 


157 


1067 


castlemen at, attacked by Eadric child 


340 


171 


1048 


Herefordshire, a castle in, built by the Welsh . 


315 


144 


656 


Herefrith aldorman, signs charter to Medeshamstede 


53 


28 


982 


Herelufu, abbess of Shaftesbury, dies 


236 


103 


10431 
1045 L 
1046 J 


Hereman, bishop of Sherborne -1 


301, 302, 
303 


| 134 


10471 
1049 [ 
1051 J 


sent to the synod at Home \ 


309, 310, 
312 


| 143 


10771 


dies 


350, 351 


183 


1078 J 










Herethaland. See Haerethaland. 






1070 


Hereward, plunders Peterborough .... 


344, 345 


176 


10711 
1072 J 


escapes from William I. .... 


346, 347 


178 


603 


Hering, son of Hussa, a leader of the Scots 


37 


18 


673 




58, 59 


31 


913 


burgh built there by king Eadward the Elder , 


186, 187 


78 


1066 


Hetmund, son of Harald, king of Norway, returns 










339 


169 




Higbald. See Hygbald. 






780 


Higbald, bishop of Lindisfarne .... 


95 


47 


795 


assists at the consecration of king Eardwulf 


103 


49 


803 




107 


51 


785 


Higebryht, bishop of Dorchester, made archbishop 








ofLichfield 


96, 97 


47 


680 


Hild, abbess of Whitby, dies 


60,61 


34 


670 


Hlothhere, bishop of the West Saxons, hallowed by 








archbishop Theodore ..... 


56,57 


30 


685 


Hlothhere, king of Kent, dies 


62 


34 


627 


Honorius L, pope, sends the pall to Paulinus writes 








to the Scots concerning Easter 


45 


21 


634 


sends Byrinus to England .... 


45 


22 


1124 


Honorius H., pope 


376 


221 


1129 


dies 


379 


226 


627 


Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury, receives the pall 


45 


21 


6531 
654 J 


dies ; 


51 


24 


449 


Horsa, with his brother Hengest, lands in Britain . 


18,19 


11 


455 




20,21 


12 


1094 


Houlme, castle at, taken by count Robert 


360 


197 


922 


Howel (Huwal), a king of North Wales, submits to 








Eadward the Elder 


195 


84 



284 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



A.D. 




Pag 

t ' 
A.S. text. 


3S Of 




Transl. 


926 

1052"! 
1053 J 

915 

853 
1094 

1094 
1098 
1123 
1124 
1124 
1126 
1129 
1137 
1003 
1088 
1128 

744 
754 
921 

710 

654 

547 

559 \ 
560 / 
640 
1031 
110 
656 
688 

694 

7091 
710| 
7151 
714J 
721 


Howel, king of West Wales, submits to king 


199 
320 

188,189 
123, 124 

361 
361 
364 
375 
375 
375 
377 
379 
383 
252,253 
357 
379 


85 
153,154 

79 

57 

198 
198 
202 
219 
220 
220 
222 
226 
232 
111 
192 
225 

41 

42 

83 

38 

24 
21 

44: 

15 

15 

23 

128 
9 
28 

3,35 

36 

38 

38 
39 


Hris (His), brother of the Welsh king, slain . 
Hroald (Hraold; jarl, ravages North Wales from 


Hrothulf. See Kodolf. 
Huda, aldorman of Surrey, slain .... 
Hugh (Lupus), earl of Chester, attends prince 
Henry to England 
Hugh, earl of Shrewsbury, puts the Welsh to flight 
slain in Anglesey by vikings .... 
Hugh of Montfort, rebels against Henry I. 
captured and imprisoned at Gloucester 
Hugh Eitz Gervase, taken and imprisoned at llouen 




Hugh of Waltevile, restores lands to Peterborough . 
Hugo, a Frenchman, causes the taking of Exeter . 
Hugo (of Grentemaisnil), rebels against William II. 
Hugo, Grand Master of the Templars, visits England 
Hulme. See Houlme. 
Hunferth, bishop of Winchester .... 


succeeded by Cyneheard .... 
Huntingdon, castle (burh) at, restored 
Huwal. See Howel. 
Hygbald (Sigbald), slain 


80,81 
195 

71 

50, 51 
42 
86 

28,29 
31 

47 
291 
12, 13 
53 

1,64 

66,67 

68,71 

70,71 
72, 73 


Hyryc. See Yryc. 

I. 

Icanho (Ycanho), monastery founded at . 
Icel, ancestor of Penda 


Offa 


Ida, king of Northumbria, builds Bamborough his 


dies 


Idols, destroyed in Kent by king Erkenberht . 
lehmarc, a Scottish king, submits to Cnut 
Ignatius, St , martyred 
Immine aldorman, signs charter to Medeshamstede 
Ine, king of Wessex his genealogy founds Glas- 
tonbury 


receives a blood-line from Kent, for the murder 
ofMul 

fights with Gerent, king of the Welsh 

with Ceolred, king of Mercia, at Woddes- 
burh 


slays Cynewulf setheling 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



285 



A.D. 




Tag* 


is of 






A.S. text. 


1 Transit 




Ine, king of Wessex cont. 






725 


fights with the South Saxons and slays Eald- 








bryht 


72,73 


39 


728 


goes to Rome, and dies there . . 


72,73 


39 


718 


Ingild, brother of king Ine his genealogy dies . 


2,70,71 


4,39 




Ingui, ancestor of Ida ...... 


82 


15 


870 


Ingvar, a Danish -chief, slays king Eadmund of 








East Anglia . . . . 


135 


60 


731 


Ingvvald, bishop of London, assists at the consecration 








of archbishop Tatwine .... 


77 


40 


1129 


Innocent II., pope 


379 


227 


1014 


Inundation of the sea 


274,275 


120 


777 


Inwona, bishop of Lindsey, witnesses a lease by the 








abbot of Medeshamstede .... 


92 


46 


565 


lona, abbey founded in, by St. Columba . 


30,31 


16 


71G 


monks of, prevailed on by Ecgberht to observe 












39 


991 


Ipswich (Gypeswic), plundered by the Danes 


238, 239 


104 


993 


byOlaf. 


240 


105 


655 


Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, consecrates Deusdedit 








to Canterbury ...... 


51 


25 


656 


assists at the consecration of Medeshamstede . 


52 


26 




J. 






763 


Janbryht (Jaenbyrht), archbishop of Canterbury . 


88,89 


44 


764 


receives the pall . . . . 


90,91 


45 


785 


deprived of part of his diocese .... 


96,97 


47 


790 


dies . 


98,99 


48 


656 


Jaruman, bishop of the Mercians, witnesses king 








Wulfhere's grant to Medeshamstede 


52 


26 


855 \ 


Jeothete (Judith), daughter of Charles the Bald, 






856 / 


married to king vEthelwulf 


124, 125 


57 _ 


922 


Jeothwel, king of North Wales, submits to Eadward 








the Elder 


195 


84 


71 


Jews, 11 1,000 slain by Titus 


12, 13 


8 


1137 


of Norwich, crucify a boy .... 


383 


232 


448 


John the Baptist, discovers his head to two monks . 


19 


12 


685 


John fof IJeverley), bishop of Hexham of York 








resigns 


63 


34 


721 


dies 


73 


39 


1114 


John, a monk of Seez, abbot of Peterborough, sent 










370 


212 


1115 




371 


213 


1125 




377 


222 


1114 


John, archdeacon of Canterbury, goes to Rome 


370 


213 


1123 


accompanies archbishop William Curboil to 








Rome 


374 


219 


1118 


John, pope. See Gelasius. 







286 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Page 

A.S. text. 


>sof 

> , 
Transl. 


1125 


John of Crema, cardinal, sent to England holds a 








great council ... . 


376 


221 


1125 


John, bishop of Lothian, goes to Rome . 


377 


222 


1130 


John, bishop of Rochester, assists at the consecration 








of Christchurch Canterbury, and Rochester 








cathedrals 


380 


227 


1130 


John, bishop of Seez, assists at the consecration 








of Christchurch Canterbury, and Rochester 








cathedrals 


380 


227 




Judith. See Jeothete. 






903 


Judoc, St. (or Ludoc), translation of . . . 


181 


76 


B.C. 60 


Julius Caesar, invades Britain 


4 


G 


A.D. 604 


Justus, first bishop of Rochester .... 


36, 37 


18 


616 


archbishop of Canterbury .... 


40,41 


20 


625 


consecrates Paulinus bishop of the Northum- 








brians 


42,43 


20 


627 


dies 


45 


21 


449 


Jutes, what races in England descend from the 


20,21 


11 




K. 






819 


Kenelm, succeeds his father Kenwnlf, king of 








Mercia 





52 note. 


449 


Kent, peopled by the Jutes 


20,21 


11 


676 


ravaged by JEthelred, king of Mercia 


60,61 


32 


6861 
687 / 


by Ceadwalla, king of Wessex . 


62,63 


35 


694 


pays a blood-fine to king Ine, for the murder of 








Mul ... 


66, 67 


36 


8651 
994 J 


ravaged by the Danes .... 


130, 131 
242, 243 


59 
105 


1088 


by bishop Odo 


357 


192 


992 


Kenulf, abbot of Peterborough 


221 
240, 241 


95 
105 


963 


bishop of Winchester 


221 


95 


1006 


dies -[ 


255, 256, 
257 


1 113 


I 




Kenwalh. See Cenwalh. 








Knut. See Cnut. 








Kola. See Cola. 






656 


Kyneburh (Cyneburh), sister of Wulfhere of Mercia, 
advises and attests Wulfhere's grant to Medes- 








hamstede 


52, 53 


25, 26 


9G3 


body of, removed to Peterborough . 


221 


96 




Kynegils. See Cynegils. 






65G 


Kyneswith (Cyneswith), sister of Wulfhere and 1 


52,53 


25,26 




Kyneburh (as above) ..,..../ 


221 


96 


1053 


Kynsige, archbishop of York ..... 


322 


155 


1055 


fetches his pall ..... 


324 


156 


1060 


dies .... 


328, 329 


161 


977 


Kyrtlington, witenagemot at 


230 


99 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



287 



A D 




Pag 


es of 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1086 


L. 

Landholders in England, swear allegiance to 
William I 


353 


186 


1070 
1070 
1072 

1087 


Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury 
asserts the supremacy of Canterbury over York 
goes to Home holds a council at Winchester . 
crowns William TL . 


344, 386 
344, 386 
386 
356, 387 


175 
175 

191 


1089 
616 


dies 
Laurentius, archbishop of Canterbury, resolves to 
depart scourged by St. Peter, converts king 
Eadbald, and dies 


358 
40,41 


193 
19,20 


896 

785 

918 
942 

797 

813] 
814 I 


Lea, river, blockaded by king ^Elfred 
Legates, sent from Rome 
Legeceaster. See Chester. 
Leicester (Legraceaster), taken by JEthelflaed . 
recovered from the Danes by king Eadmund . 
Leo III., pope, maimed, deposed, and restored to 
sight and speech .... . . 


172, 173 
97 

192, 193 
208, 209 

102, 103 
108, 109 


73 

47 

81 

89 

50 

52 


816J 
8531 
854 / 
1048 
10471 
1049 J 
1054 


Leo IV., pope, consecrates Alfred .... 
Leo IX., holds a council at Eheims 
and at Rome and Vercelli .... 
dies 


124,127 
305 
309 
323, 324 


57 
139 
143 
155, 156 


982 


Leodulf (Liudolf), nephew of Eadward the Elder, 
dies in the East ..... 


236 


103 


1056 


Leodwald, ancestor of Ceolwulf .... 
Leofgar, bishop of Hereford, slain in battle against 
the Welsh 


74,75 
326 


40 
158 


1001 


Leofric, of Whitchurch, slain .... 


249 


110 


1036 
1043 
10481 
1052 J 
1056 
1057 


Leofric, earl, supports Harold Barefoot . 
assists in despoiling queen Emma . 

summoned by king Eadward to Gloucester 

makes peace with the Welsh .... 
dies 


293 
298 

314,315 

326 
328, 329 


129 
133 

145, 147 

158 ' 
159 


10451 
1046 J 


founder of the abbey of Coventry . 
Leofric, bishop of Devonshire and Cornwall (Cre- 
diton) 


337 
302, 303 


170 
134, 135 


1052 
1066 

1011 


Leofric, abbot of Peterborough .... 
at the battle of Hastings sickens and dies 
his munificence 
Leofrun, abbess of St. Mildred's, captured by the 


321 
337 
266, 267 


153 
170 
117 


1002 
1002 


Leofsige aldorman, sent to propose peace to the 
Danes 
banished for the murder of JEfic aldorman 


250,251 
252, 253 


111 
111 



288 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pag 

, 
A.S. text. 


es of 
Transl. 


1033 


Leofsige, bishop of Worcester, dies 


292 


129 


1001 


Leofwine, high reeve, slain 


250 


110 


1022 


Leofwine, abbot of Ely, clears himself before pope 








Benedict 


287 


126 


10511 
1052J 


Leofwine, son of earl Godwine, flees to Ireland 


312,314 


145, 149 


10GG 


slain at Hastings 


337,338 


167, 169 


1053 


Leofwine, bishop of Lichfield consecrated abroad . 


322 


154,155 


1054 


consecrates the abbey of Evesham . 


322, 324 


155, 151) 


1070 


Leofwino Lange, a monk of Peterborough 


345 


177 


1046 


Leominster, abbess of, abduction of, by Swegen 


302 


136 


840 


Lewis I., emperor, dies 


121 


55 


1108 


Lewis VI., king of France ..... 


368 


210 


1116 


at war with Theobald, count of Blois 


371 


213 


1117 


invades Normandy 


371 


214 


1119 




372 


215 


1120 


makes peace with Henry .... 


372 


216 


1124 


again at war with -Henry .... 


375 


220 


1127 


gives his wife's sister in marriage to William, 








son of count Robert 


377 


223 


1127 


gives Flanders to William of Normandy . 


377 


223 


1129 


acknowledges Gregory (Innocent II.) as pope . 


379 


227 


885 


Lidwikings, Lidwiccas 


154, 155 


67 


915 


ravage North Wales and Ireland 


188,189 


79 


1120 


Light, at the holy sepulchre 


373 


216 


793] 


r 


101 


48 


1086 1 
1117 f 


Lightning, extraordinary < 


353 
371 


187 
214 


1118J 


[ 


372 


215 


626 


Lilla, king Eadwine's thane, stabbed by Eomer 


43 


20 


941 \ 

942 J 


Lincoln, recovered from the Danes by king Eadmund 


210,211 


89 


1067 


a castle built at 


342 


172 


1123 


nearly burnt 


375 


220 


1140 


besieged by king Stephen .... 


384 


233 


793 


Lindisfarne, pillaged, and church at, destroyed by the 








Danes 


101 


48 


627 


Lindsey, Christianity preached in, by Paulinus 


43 


21 


838 


many slain iu, by the Danes .... 


118, 119 


55 


993 


ravaged by the Danes 


240,241 


105 


1013 


submits to king Svein 


270 


118 


1014 


to Cnut, and ravaged by JEthelred 


274,275 


120 


946 


Liofa, stabs king Eadmund 


212,213 


90 




Liudolf. See Leodulf. 






887 


Lombardy, assigned to Berenger and Yi r ido 


158,159 


68 


839 


London, a great slaughter at 


118,119 


55 


886 


restored by king JElfred, and given to the aldor- 








man ./Ethelred 


156,157 


67 


962 


great mortality and fever in 


218 


92 


982 


burnt ....... 


236 


103 


994 


besieged by Olaf (Anlaf) and Svein 


240, 241 


105 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



289 



AD 




Page 


JS Of 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1009 
101G 
10471 


London cont. 
assailed by the Danes 
besieged by Cnut 


262,263 

280, 281 

309 


115 
122 

143 


1049 J 
1077 \ 
1087 J 
1097 
896 
896 
1013 


burnt j 

Tower of, walled 
Londoners, put to flight by the Danes . 
seize the Danish ships 


361 
354 
363 
172,173 
174,175 
272, 273 


183 
188 
202 
73 
73 
119 


1016 
1040 
1125 
10461 
1047 J 
167 
897 
825 

1013 
1020 
1038 


buy peace of the Danes 
attempt to seize the empress Matilda 
Lothian, bishop of, goes to Rome .... 
Lothin and Erling, plunder Sandwich and the 
eastern coast ...... 
Lucius, a British king, his conversion 
Lucumon, a king's reeve, slain .... 
Ludecan, king of Mercia, slain .... 
Ludcc. See Judoc. 
Lyfing, archbishop of Canterbury .... 
dies 
Lyfing, bishop of Crediton, made bishop of Wor- 
cester arid Gloucester ..... 


284, 285 
384 
377 

304, 305 
14, 15 
176,177 
112, 113 

270,271 
286, 287 

297 


124 
233 
222 

137 
9 
74 
53 

118 
125 

131 


1044] 
1045 I 




302, 303 


134, 135 


10*7 J 

1054 

891 1 


M. 

Macbeoth, king of Scots, defeated by earl Siward . 


322 


155 


892 J 
501 
1031 


Maccbethu, an Irish pilgrim, visits king JElfred 

Macgla, son of Port, lands in Britain 
Maelbsethe, a Scottish king, submits to Cnut . 
Mseldvin. See Maldon. 


100, 161 

24, 25 
291 


69 

13 
128 


891 
10G7 

1069 

1046 
1047"! 
1048 J 
1048 


Meelinmum, an Irish pilgrim, visits king JElfred 
Maerleswegen (a Danish chief), retires to Scotland . 
' Daneis esteit, riche e baron.' Gaimar. 
joins the Danes in demolishing the castle at 
York 
Magnus, king of Norway, threatens England . 

drives out Svein and wins Denmark 


160, 161 
340,341 

342 
303 

302, 304 
304 


69 
171 

174 
134 

135, 136 
136 


1062 

10741 
1073 J 
1099 

nio 


Mahald. See Matilda. 
Maine, Le, subjugated by William, coimt of Normandy 

reduced by William I 

subdued by William IL . . . 
seized by Fiilk, count of Anjou 


329 
346, 347 

364 
369 


161 
179 

203 
211 



VOL, II. 



290 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


945 


Malcolm I., king of Scotland, holds Cumberland of 










212,213 


90 


1031 


Malcolm II., king of Scotland, submits to Cnut 


290,291 


128 


1034 




292 


129 


1067 


Malcolm III., king of Scotland, marries Margaret, 








sister of Eadgar setheling . . 


340, 341 


171 


1072 \ 
1073 J 


does homage to William I 


346, 347 


179 


1075 


receives Eadgar setheling at his court his 










346 


179 


10791 
1091 J 


invades and ravages England ... -1 


351 
359 


183 
195 


1091 


his compact with William II 


359 


195 


1093 


summoned to Gloucester by William his treat- 








ment there .... . 


359 


19G 


1093 


invades England and is slain .... 


360 


196 


920 


Maldon, fortified by king Eadward the Elder . 


192 


81 


921 


besieged by the Danes . . . 


192 


82 


991 \ 
993 J 


a battle at Brihtnoth aldorman, slain 


238, 239 
240 


104 
105 


1095 


Malveisin, a castle built by William II., opposite 








Bamborough 


361 


199 


1000 


Man, Isle of, ravaged by king ^Ethelred . 


248, 249 


110 


923 


Manchester, repaired and garrisoned by Eadward 








the Elder 


196 


84 


921 


Manna jarl, slain 


194 


82 


1045 


Manni, abbot of Evesham 


303 


135 


1087 


Mantes, burnt by William I 


354 


188 


155 \ 
161 J 


Marcus Antoninus, emperor 


14,15 


9 


1067 


Margaret, sister of Eadgar setheling, takes refuge in 








Scotland, and is married to king Malcolm . 


340, 341 


171 


1093 


dies of grief for the death of Malcolm 


360 


196 


883 "1 


Marinus (Martinus), pope, sends a piece of the true 






884 J 


cross to king Alfred ..... 


150,151 


GG 


885 


dies 


154,155 


67 


449 


Martian and Valentinian, emperors .... 


18,19 


11 


444 


Martin, St., dies 


19 


11 


1132 


Martin, abbot of, Peterborough .... 


381 


229 


1137 


his beneficence goes to Rome 


383 


231,232 


1154 


dies 


385 


235 


6421 
641 J 


Maserfeld, king Oswald slain at .... 


46,47 


23 


1116 


Mast, scarcity of 


371 


213 


1103 


Mathias, abbot of Peterborough, dies 


366 


206 


1067 


Matilda, wife of William L, arrives in England, and 








is crowned . . ' 


340 


172 


1083 


dies 


352 


185 


1100 


Matilda, daughter of king Malcolm and Margaret, 








married to Henry I. 


305 


204 


1118 


dies 


372 


215 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



291 



A.D. 




Page 


s of 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1109 


Matilda, daughter of Henry I., settlement of her 








marriage with the emperor Henry V. . 


369 


210 


1110 


married to the emperor Henry V. . 


369 


210 


1126 


returns to England ..... 


377 


222 


1127 


receives oaths of allegiance from the nobles 








and clergy 


377 


223 


1127 


marries Geoffrey, count of Anjou 


377 


223 


11401 
(1141)} 


comes to London and flees away 


384 


233 


1140 1 
(1141)} 


besieged in Winchester and escapes 


384 


233 


1140 1 
(1142)} 


besieged in Oxford and escapes to Wallingford 


384 


234 


1140 1 




384 


234 


(1146)} 








1140 1 
(1141)} 


Matilda, queen of Stephen, besieges the empress 
Matilda in Winchester 


384 


233 


1140 1 

/ 1 tf>\ r 


dies 


384 


234 


(1152) J 








1085 


Maurice, bishop of London ...... 


353 


186 


1100 


consecrates Henry I 


365 


204 


1107 


dies 


368 


209 


573 




34,35 


17 


381 


Maximus, emperor, slays Gratian slain by Valen- 








tinian ....... 


16,17 


10 


655 


Medeshainstede (Peterborough), monastery at, 








founded by kings Peada and Oswiu 


50 


25 


G56 


endowed and chartered by king Wulf here 


52 


25 


656 


consecrated by abp. Deusdedit and other prelates 


53 


26 


675 


privileged by pope Agatho, and chartered by 










58 


31 


686 


grant to, by king Ceadwalla . . . . 


63 


35 


777 


land at, let by abbot Beonna .... 


92 


46 


870 


burnt by the Danes .... 


135 


60 


963 


rebuilt by bishop Athelwold, and chartered by 










220 


93 


963 


name changed to Burch (Borough) 


221 


95 


1052 


called the golden borough .... 


321 


153 


1059 


the tower consecrated ..... 


328 


160 


1066 


miserable state of ...... 


337 


170 


1070 


pillaged by Hereward and his men . 


344, 345 


176 


1102 


by robbers from Auvergne, Trance, 










366 


206 


1116 


burnt ....... 


371 


213 


1127 


spectral huntsmen seen at .... 


378 


224 


1137 


enriched and improved by abbot Martin . 


383 


231 


604 


Mellitus, bishop, converts the East Saxons 


36,37 


18 


604 


receives the see of London .... 


38,39 


18 


616 


succeeds to the archbishopric of Canterbury 


40,41 


20 


624 


dies ....... 


43 


20 


449 


Mercia, peopled by the Angles .... 


20,21 


12 


655 


converted to Christianity .... 


50 


24 



T 2 



292 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


827 
8681 
872 } 
874 
877 
905 
910 

911 
922 
1016 
1033 
656 

449 
653 

9G4 
772 
685 
759 
761 
963 
1071 
1087 

1124 
963 

1125 

734 
806 
1107 
1110 
1117 
1106 
1123 
1095 
1093 

1095 

1015 

10641 
1065 J 
1066 

1066 
1066 


Mercia cont. 
subdued by king Ecgberht .... 

makes peace Avith the Danes . 

given by the Danes to Ceolwulf 
partition of, by the Danes .... 
ravaged by the Danes 
with the West Saxons, fight against the Danes 1 
at Tettenhall / 
ravaged by the Northumbrian Danes 
submits to Eadward the Elder 
ravaged by Cnut 


112, 113 
134, 135 
142, 143 
142, 143 
146, 147 
180, 181 
183,184, 
185 
184, 185 
195 
276,277 
293 

52 

20,21 
50 51 


53 
59 
62 
63 
64 
76 

} - 

77 
84 
121 
129 

25 

12 
24 
94 
45 
34 
44 
44 
93 
176 
188 

220 

94 
221 

40 
52 
209 
210 
214 
208 
220 
199 

196 

199 
120 

162, 163 

165, 166 
166, 167 

1G9 
168 


Merehwit, bishop of Wells, dies .... 
Merewald, brother of Wulfhere, king of Mercia, 
assists in founding Medeshawistede 
Meulan (Mellent), counts of. See Robert, and 
Waleram. 
Middle Angles, their origin 


Middleton (Milton), secular priests expelled from . 
Mildred (Milred), bishop of Worcester, dies . 
Milk and butter, turned to blood .... 
Moll JEthelwold, king of Northumbria . 
slays Oswine at Eadwine's cliff 
Monasteries, many founded by bishop Athelwold 
despoiled by William I. . 


222, 223 
90,91 
63 
89 
89 
220 
344 


many built in his reign ..... 
Monbray, or Moubray. See Robert. 


354 
376 

220 
376 

76,77 
107 
368 
369 
371 
367 
375 
362 

360 

362 

274, 27.-) 

331,332 

336 
336, 337 
338 
338 


Money ers (Minters), one at Stamford for Peter- 
borough 


false moneyers punished for issuing base coin . 
Moon. See Eclipse, 
appears bloody 
a cross seen in the 


tokens seen in the 


extraordinary appearance of the 
appears bloody 
Moons, two seen 


Montfort, castle of, taken by Henry I. ... 
Montgomery, castle of, demolished by the Welsh 
Morel, steward to Robert of Monbray, slays king 
Malcolm 


surrenders Bamborough to William II., and 
reveals the names of the instigators to rebellion 
Morker, thane, murdered by Eadric, aldorman 

Morkere, son of JElfgar, chosen earl of Northumbria 
repulses earl Tostig . 


worsted by Harald, king of Norway . . / 
promises to support Eadgar setheling 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



293 



A.D. 




Page 


sof 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Morkere cont. 






1066 


accompanies William the Conqueror to Nor- 








mandy 


339 


170 


1072 


revolts from William and flees to Ely 


346, 347 


178 


1072 


submits to William 


346, 347 


178 




Mortain. See William. 






822 


Muca aldorman, slain 


110, 111 


53 


686 


Mul, brother of Cead walla of Wessex, ravages Kent 


- 






and Wight 


62,63 


35 


687 


burnt by the Kentish people .... 


62,63 


35 


684 


his death compensated for .... 


66,67 


36 




Mundbrseg. See Robert. 








Murrain. See Cattle. 








N. 






508 


Natanleod, a British king, slain .... 


26,27 


14 


343 


Nicholas, St., dies 


17 


10 


1059 


Nicholas II., pope 


328, 329 


160 


1061 


dies ........ 


328 


161 


921 


Niel, slain by his brother, king Sihtric . 


195 


83 


565 


Ninna (Nina), bishop, converts the southern Picts . 


31,32 


16 


876 
1096 


Normandy, subjugated by Rolf (Rollo) . 
pledged to king William II. by his brother 


145 


64 




Robert 


362 


201 


1106 


reduced by Henry I. 


368 


209 


1140 


revolts to Geoffrey, count of Anjou . 


384 


234 


1010 


Northampton, plundered and burnt by the Danes 


264, 265 


116 


1065 


plunder and slaughter at, by the ' Ry threnan ' . 


332 


163 


1017 


Northman, son of Leofwine, slain .... 


284, 285 


124 




Northmen. See Danes and Northmen. 






449 


North umbria, peopled by the Angles 


20,21 


12 


633 


ravaged by Ceadwalla and Penda 


45 


22 


737 


by ^Ethelbald of Mercia 


77 


40 


794 


by the Danes ..... 


101 


49 


827 


submits to king Ecgbryht .... 


112, 113 


53 


867 


civil dissensions between kings Osbryht and 








JElla 


132, 133 


59 


875 


subdued by Halfdan 


144, 145 


63 


876 


divided among his followers .... 


144, 145 


64 


^894 


fleet of (Dano-Northumbrian) attacks Exeter . 


166, 167 


70 


941 


Olaf chosen king of 


209 


89 


944 


reduced by king Eadmund .... 


212,213 


90 


948 


ravaged by king Eadred 


213 


90 


952 


Eric, Harald's son, chosen king of . 


215 


91 


954 


expelled .... 


215 


91 


1017 


placed by Cnut under Yric .... 


284, 285 


124 


1065 


men of, expel earl Tostig and choose Morkere 








for earl . 


331,332 


162 


1069 


laid waste by William the Conqueror 


342, 343 


174 



294 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 


Page 

1 A. S. text. 


8 Of 

Transl. 




Northumbria cont. 






1079 


laid waste by Malcolm of Scotland . 


351 


183 


1028 


Norway, subdued by Cnut 


290,291 


128 


1058 


a fleet from 


328 


160 


1030 


Norwegians, slay their king St. Olaf 


290, 291 


128 


1066 


invade England under king Harald Hardrada . 


336,337 


165, 167 


1098 


slay Hugh, earl of Shrewsbury, in Anglesey . 


364 


202 


1004 


Norwich, plundered and burnt by the Danes 


252-255 


112 


1075 "1 


marriage at, of earl Ralph and the daughter of 






1076 J 


William Fitz Osbern .... 


348, 349 


180, 181 


1088 


castle of, occupied by Roger, earl of Hereford . 


357 


192 


1137 




383 


232 


736 


Nothhelm, archbp. of Canterbury, receives the pall 


76, 77 


40 


740 




79 


41 


922 


Nottingham, restored and re-peopled by Eadward the 








Elder 


195 


84 


924 


fortified on the south side of the Trent 


196 


84 


942 


recovered from the Danes by king Eadmund . 


210,211 


89 


1067 


a castle built at, by William the Conqueror 


342 


172 


1016 


Nottinghamshire, ravaged by Cnut 


278,279 


122 


710 


Nunna (Nun), kinsman of king Ine, fights with 








Gerent, the Welsh king .... 


68,71 


38 


1049 


Nymegen, palace at, destroyed by Baldwine, count 








of Flanders 


308 


138 




0. 






1124 


Oats, high price of 


376 


220 




Ocga, ancestor of Ceolwulf 


74,75 


40 




Ockley. See Aclea. 






1 


Octavianus, emperor 


6,7 


6 




Oda. See Eudes. 






958 


Oda, archbishop of Canterbury, separates king Ead- 








wig and ^Elfgyfu 


217 


91 


961 


dies 


218 


92 




Odda, emperor. See Otho. 






1048 


Odda, earl of Devon, Somersetshire, etc. 


317 


146 


1052 


appointed to command the fleet . 


317 


150 


1056 


dies 


326 


159 


1066 
1082 


Odo, bishop of Bayeux, left as regent of England . 
arrested by William I 


339 
351 


170 
184 


1088 


rebels against William II 


356 


191 


1088 


ravages his own earldom (Kent), and conveys 








his booty to Rochester flees to Pevensey . 


357 


192 


1088 


'surrenders and leaves England 


358 


193 


617 


Offa setheling, son of king ^Ethelfrith of Northum- 








bria, banished by king Eadwine . 


43 


20 




Offa, ancestor of Penda 


42 


21 




Offa 


86 


44 


709 


Oifa, king of the East Saxons, goes to Rome . 


68, 69 


38 



CHBON6LOGICAL INDEX. 



295 



A.D. 





Pagj 
A.S. text. 


s of 
Transl. 


755 
777 
777 
792 
7941 
796 J 
911 
915 
911 
937 

941 
942 
943 
943 
943 
944 

949 
952 
994 

994 
1028 

1030 
1066 
780 
885 
964 
894 
965 
461 
47| 

1054 
1072 

867 
911 
633 
10441 
1045 1 
1016 f 
1047 J 
10491 
1050 J 
1054 
875 


Offa, king of Mercia his genealogy 
fights with king Cynewulf of Wessex, at Benson 
witnesses a lease by the abbot of Medeshamstede 
murders JEthelbyrht, king of the East Angles 

dies 

Ohter (Ottar) jarl, slain 
Ohter (Ottar) jarl, ravages NorthWales from Brittany 
Olaf (Anlaf) the Black, slain .... 
Olaf (Anlaf), king of Dublin, defeated at Brunan- 
burh ... 
chosen king by the Northumbrians 


83, 86, 87 
92,93 
92 
98, 99 

100, 103 

184, 185 

188, 189 
184, 185 

200, 201 
209 
209 
211 
211 
211 

212,213 
215 
215 

240,241 
240, 242, 
243 

290,291 
290,291 
338 
92,93 
154,155 
222,223 
170,171 
223 

10,11 

322 
386 

132, 133 
184, 185 
45 

302, 303 

308 
322, 324 
144, 145 


42,44 
45 
46 

48 

49,50 

78 
79 
78 

86 
89 
89 
89 
89 
90 

90 
90 
91 

105 
1 105, 106 

128 
128 
166 
46 
67 
95 
72 
95 

8 
155 

59 

78 
22 

134, 136 

139,141 
155,156 
63 


Olaf (Anlaf), takes Tamworth .... 
besieged in Leicester by king Eadmund . 
baptized ......... 
Olaf (Anlaf), son of Sihtric, expelled from North- 


Olaf Kvaran (Anlaf Cwiran), comes to Northumbria 


Olaf (Anlaf) Tryggvason, king of Norway, comes 
with Svein, king of Denmark, to London, 
goes thence to Staines, Sandwich, Ipswich, 
and Maldon, and defeats and slays Bryhtnoth 


confirmed at Andover, and promises never "1 
again to invade England . . . . J 
Olaf Haraldsson, king, driven from Norway by king 
Cnut 


slain by his own people and sainted 
Olaf, son of Harald Hardrada .... 
Old Saxons, battle between them and the Franks . 
with the Frisians, fight against the Danes 


Ordeh (Ordeah), a king's thane, slain . 
Ordgar aldorman, father of queen JElfthryth . 

Orkneys, subdued by Claudius .... 

Osbearnjarl. See Asbiorn. 
Osbern, son of earl Siward, slain .... 
Osbern. bishop of Exeter 
Osbern. See Asbiorn. 
Osbryht, king of Northumbria, deposed and slain . 
Osferth Hlytte, slain ...... 


Osfrith, son of king Eadwine, slain at Hatfield 
Osgod Clapa, banished and outlawed 
lies with a fleet at Wulpe plunders on the 




Oskytel, a Danish king . 



296 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Page 

/ 

A.S. text. 


sof 
Transl. 


905 
971 

568 
617 

966 
975 
617 

833 
1099 


Oskytel hold, slain 
Oskytel, archbishop of York, dies .... 
Oslac (Oslaf ) aldorman, slain .... 
Oslac tctheling, son of king ^Ethelfrith of North- 
umbria, banished by king Eadwine 
Oslac, made an aldorman 
banished ....... 
Oslaf aetheling, son of king JEthelfrith of North- 
umbria, banished by king Eadwine 
Osmod, ancestor of Off a 
Osmod aldorman, dies 
Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, dies .... 


182, 183 
222 
32,33 

43 
223 

228, 229 

43 
86 
116, 117 
364 


77 
96 
16 

20 
96 

98, 99 

20 
-H 
54 
203 


705 
716 

789 
790 


Osred I., king of Northumbria .... 
slain 
Osred II., king of Northumbria .... 


69 
70,71 
99 
99 


38 
38 
48 
48 


792 
634 
716 

729 1 


slain 
Osric king of Deira, baptized by Paulinus 
Osric king of Northumbria 


99 
45 
70, 71 

74 75 


48 
22 
38 

40 


731 J 
755 
845 


Osric aldorman 
Osric aldorman, defeats the Danes, at the mouth of 
the Parret 


84,85 
10 121 


43 
55 


860 
680 

697 


Osric, aldorman of Hampshire, defeats the Danes . 
Osthryth (Ostryth), queen of JEthelred of Mercia, 
signs charter to Medeshamstede . 
murdered 


128. 129 

59 

67 


58 

33 
37 


617 

634 
635 
642 


Oswald setheling, son of king ^Ethelfrith of North- 
umbria, banished by king Eadwine 
succeeds to the kingdom of Northumbria 
sponsor to king Cynegils of Wessex 
slain at Maserfeld 


43 
45 

46,47 
46 47 


20 
22 
22 
93 


909 
728 


the sixth Brytenwalda . . . . 
his body transferred from Bardney to Mercia . 
Oswald, son of ^Kthelbald, fights with king JEthel- 
heard of Wessex . 


112, 113 
182, 183 

79 73 


53 

77 

39 


730 


dies ' 


74 75 


40 


992 
1010 


Oswald, archbishop of York, dies . 
Oswig, with his son, slain 


238,239 1 
62 9 63 


104 
1 1 fi 


10491 
1050/ 
6441 


Oswig, abbot of Thorney, dies .... 
Oswine, king of Deira 


310 
49 


140,142 
93 


643 J 
651 
761 
617 

642 
651 
655 

667 


murdered by command of king Oswiu 
Oswine setheling, slain by Moll, king of Northumbria 
Oswiu (Osweo), son of king ^Ethelfritb of North- 
umbria, banished by king Eadwine 
succeeds to the kingdom of Northumbria 
causes king Oswine to be slain 
with Peada, king of Mercia, founds the monas- 
tery at Medeshamstede .... 
sends Wigheard for consecration to Rome 


50,51 
89 

43 
48,49 
51 

50 
57 


24 
44 

20 
23 
24 

25 
30 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



297 



A.D. 





Page 

, N 
A.S. text. 


sof 
Transl. 




Oswiu cont. 






670 


dies his genealogy . . . 


56,57 


30 




the seventh Brytenwalda .... 


112, 113 


53 


617 


Oswudu aetheling, son of king JEtkelfritli of North - 








umbria, banished by king Eadwine 


43 


20 


757 


Oswulf (Osulf), king of Northumbria slain by his 








own household ...... 


89 


44 


773 


Otford, battle at, between the Mercians and the 










90,91 


45 


925 


Otho (Ofse), son of the king of Germany, marries 








king JEthelstan's sister .... 


199 


85 


982 


Otho, emperor, defeats in Saracens in Greece . 


236 


103 


982 


his brother's son, Otho, dies .... 


236 


103 


911 


Othulf hold, slain 


184, 185 


78 


1120 


Ottuel, brother of the earl of Chester, drowned 


373 


216 


926 


Owen. See Uwen, and Audoenus. 






1009 


Oxford, burnt by the Danes ..... 


262, 263 


115 x 


1013 


submits to king Svein 


270,271 


118 


10151 
1036J 


a great council at 4 


274,275 
293 


120 
129 


11401 
(1142)/ 


held by the empress Matilda against king 
Stephen 


384 


234 




P. 






981 


Padstow (St. Petroc's stow), pillaged 


234 


102 


430 


Palladius (Patricius), sent to preach to the Scots . 


18, 19 


11 


1001 


Pallig, a Danish chief, deserts from king JEthelred, 








and burns Teignton ..... 


250 


110 


8161 
817J 


Paschal I., pope ...... 


108, 109 


52 


1115 


Paschal II., pope, sends the pall to archbishop Kalph 


371 


213 . 


1118 


dies 


372 


215 


9621 

1087 J 


Paul's, St., monastery in London, burnt . . < 


220 
354 


92 

187 


601 


Paulinus, converts king Eadwine of Northumbria . 


36,37 


18 


625 


ordained bishop of the Northumbrians 


42, 43 


20 


626 


baptizes Eanflsed, daughter of king Eadwine 


42,43 


21 


627 


baptizes king Eadwine, receives the pall, and 






627 


preaches the gospel in Lindsey 
consecrates archbishop Honorius 


42,43 
45 


21 
21 


633 


takes refuge in Kent, and obtains the see of 






644 1 


Rochester 


44, 45 


22 


643 J 


dies 


48,49 


23 


6. r . 3 


Peada aldorman, Middle Angles converted under . 


50, 51 


24 


655 


succeeds to the kingdom of Mercia, and founds 








the monastery at Medeshamstede 


50,51 


25 


656 


slain, through his queen, by treachery 


52,53 


25 


762 


Pehtwine, bishop of Whiterne .... 


89 


45 


776 


dies ........ 


93 


45 


381 


Pelagian heresy 


16,17 


10 



298 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A.S. text. Transl. 


626 


Penda, king of Mercia his genealogy . 


42,43 


20,21 


628 


fights with Cynegils and Cwichelm of Wessex 








at Cirencester 


44,45 


21 


633 


slays Eadwine of Northumbria at Hatfield, and 










44,45 


22 


642 


defeats and slays Oswald of Northumbria at 








Maserfeld 


46,47 


23 


6451 
644 J 


expels Cenwalh, king of Wessex . 


48,49 


23 


655 1 
654 J 


slain at Winwidfeld 


50,51 


24 


7141 
713 J 


Pepin, king, dies 


71 


38 


1087 


Pershore, (Thurstan) abbot of, dies 


356 


191 




Pestilence. See Plague. 






616 

1073 


Peter, St., scourges archbishop Laurentius 
Peter, bishop of Lichfield 


40,41 

387 


19 


1129 


Peter (Anacletus II.), chosen pope 


379 


227 


1130 


Peter, abbot of Cluny, comes to England 
Peterborough. See Medeshamstede. 


380 


227 




Petroc's (St.) stow. See Padstow. 






7931 
1122 J 


Phenomena, remarkable j 


101 
373 


48 
217 


1075 


Philip I. of France, invites Eadgar setheling to 








France 


346 


180 


10771 
1076 J 


at war with William I. . 


350,351 


183 


1077 


makes peace with William .... 


351 


183 


1087 


at war with William ..... 


354 


188 


1090 


abandons count Robert of Normandy 


358 


194 


1094 


bribed by William 


361 


198 


1108 


dies 


368 


210 


1110 


Philip de Braiose, deprived of his lands 


369 


211 


1112 


recovers them 


369 


211 




Picts, from Scythia, land in Ireland, and sent to 








Britain their regal succession . 


3 


5 


565 


northern, converted by St. Columba 


31,32 


16 


(400) 


southern, by bishop Nina (Ninna) . 


31,32 


16 


699 


slay Beorht, aldorman 


67 


37 


710 


fight with Beorhtfrith aldorman 


68,69 


38 


875 


harried by the Danes 


144, 145 


63 




Pincanheal. See Finchale. 






1073 


Pinenden, meeting at 


387 





664^1 


r 


55,56 


30 


897 1 


I 


174,175 


73 


962 I 
1087 f 


Plague, or Pestilence, in England j 


218 
353 


92 
187 


1112 J 


369 


211 


1125J 


I 377 


222 


. 890 1 
891 / 


Plegemundj archbishop of Canterbury . . 160,161 


68 


923 




196 


84 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



299 



A.D. 





Pages of 
A.S. text. ! Transl. 


1152 


Poitou, acquired by Henry of Anjou (Henry II.) 








by marriage 384 


234 


1120 


Ponthieu, count of, makes peace with Henry I. . 372 


216 


501 


Port, lands in Britain 24, 25 


13 


982 


Portland, ravaged by the Danes .... 234 


103 


1052 


plundered by earl Godwine . 


319 


51 


775 


Pusa, abbot of Medeshamstede .... 


93 


46 


(680) 


Putta, bishop of Rochester, at the council of 








Hatfield 


59 


33 




Pybba, father of Penda 


42 


21 






86 


44 




E. 






617 


Rsedwald, king of East Anglia, defeats and slays 








king JEthelferth 41 


20 




the fourth Brytenwalda ..... 


112,113 


53 


944 


Rsegenald. -See Regnald. 






685 


Rain of blood 


63 


34 


10981 


f 


364 


203 


1116 I 


Rains, heavy { 


371 


213 


1117J 


I 


371 


214 


1052 


Ralph, earl, raises forces for king Eadward the 










314 


148 


1052 


commands king Eadward's fleet 


317 


150 


1055 


raises a force against earl ^Elfgar and Griffith . 


324 


157 


1057 


dies 


328 


159 


10761 


Ralph (of Guader), earl of Norfolk, marriage of, 






1075 J 


and conspiracy ...... 


348, 349 


180 


1114 


Ralph, bishop of Rochester, made archbishop of 








Canterbury 


370 


212 


1115 


receives the pall 


371 


213 


1122 


dies f . ... 


373 


917 


1124 


Ralph Basset, hangs or mutilates 50 persons . 


376 


m + i 

221 


1154 


Ramsey, visited by Henry II. .... 


385 


235 


1140 


Randolf, earl of Chester, revolts from king Stephen 


383 


233 


11401 


holds Lincoln against Stephen, and with the 






(1141)1 


earl of Gloucester, defeats and captures him. 








and sends him to Bristol .... 


383 


233 


11401 
(1144) J 


reconciled to Stephen ..... 


384 


234 


11401 
(1145)/ 


imprisoned, and released .... 


384 


234 


1099 


Ranulf (Passeflambard), bishop of Durham . 


364 


203 


1100 


committed to the Tower . . . . . ' 365 


204 


1101 


escapes to Normandy 


365 


205 


1128 


dies 


378 


225 


8781 
879 J 


Raven, the Danish standard, taken 


146, 147 


64 


669 


Reculver, monastery founded at .... 


56,57 


30 



300 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A.S. text. 


Transl. 


923 


Regnald, king, takes York 


197 


84 


924 submits to king Eadward the Elder . 


197 


84 


943 j baptized 210,211 


90 


944 


Regnald, son of Guthferth, expelled by king Eadmund 
Reoda, leader of the Dalreodi 


212, 213 
5 


90 
5 


10461 
1048J 


Rheims (St. Rerai), a great synod at ... 


305 


139 


1050 


abbey at, consecrated 


310 


142 


1119 


a council at 


372 


2]5 




Rhys. See Hris. 






942 


Richard I., count of Normandy .... 


200 


994 


dies 


243 


994 


Richard II., count of Normandy . 


243 





1013 


receives king ^Ethelred 


272,273 


119 


1024 


dies 


289 


127 


1024 


Richard III., count of Normandy .... 


289 




1107 


Richard, abbot of Ely, dies . . . . 


368 


210 


1120 


Richard, sou of Henry I., drowned .... 


372 


216 


1120 


Richard, earl of Chester, drowned .... 


372 


216 


1123 


(Richard), bishop of London, assists at the conse- 








cration of archbishop William Curboil . 


374 


219 


604 


Ricole, sister of king ^Ethelberht of Kent 


36,37 


18 


1063 


Rigwatla, made prince of Wales .... 


330 


162 




Ring. See Bracelet. 






948 


Ripon, monastery at, burnt 


213 


90 




Ris. See Hris. 






1024 


Robert I., count of Normandy .... 


289 


127 


1031 


goes to Jerusalem and dies there 


291 


128 


1048"! 


Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, goes to Rome 






1050 / 


for his pall 


312, 313 


142 143 


1051 


returns from Rome 


312 


143 


1050 


refuses to consecrate Spearhafoc bishop of London 


312,313 


143 


10511 
1052J 


flees from England and is outlawed . . | 


317,320, 
321 


| 152 


1068 


Robert (deComines), made earl of Northumberland 








slain 


342 


173 


1070 


Robert I., count of Flanders 


344, 347 


177 178 


1085 


supports Cnut, son of the king of Denmark, in 








his attempt on England .... 


352 


185 


1079 


Robert, son of William I, rebels and fights hand to 








hand with his father .... 


350, 351 


183 


1087 


succeeds to Normandy .... 


354 


188 


1088 


his schemes against England .... 


357 


193 


1090 


calls the king of France to his aid . 


358 


194 


1091 


his treaty with his brother, William II. . 


359 


194 


1091 


accompanies William to England, and mediates 








between him and king Malcolm returns to 








Normandy .... 


359 


1 QT 


1094 


declares war against William .... 


360 


i yo 
197 


1096 


pledges Normandy to William, and joins the 








Crusade 


362 


om 


1100 


returns to Normandy .... 


36o 


2U I 

204 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



501 



A.D. 




Page 
A.S. text. | 


sof 
Transl. 




Robert, son of William I. cont. 






1101 


lands in England, treats with his brother, 








Henry I., and receives a pension . 


365 


205 


1103 


relinquishes his pension 


366 


206 


1104 


forms an alliance with Robert of Belesme . 


367 


207 


1106 


comes to his brother at Northampton 


367 


208 


1106 


captured by Henry at Tinchebray . 


368 


209 


1126 


confined in Bristol castle, in the custody of 








Robert, earl of Gloucester .... 


377 


223 


1085 


Robert, bishop of Chester ..... 


353 


186 


1088 


Robert of Monbrai (Moubruy), rebels against 








William II., and plunders about Bristol 


356 


191 


1093 


surprises and slays king Malcolm 


360 


196 


1095 


refuses to attend at court, and rebels against 








William 11 


36,1 


198 


1095 


captured and confined at Windsor . 


362 


200 


1093 


Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln . . 


359 


196 


1123 


dies suddenly 


374 


218 


1096 


Robert II., count of Flanders, joins the Crusade 


363 


201 


1100 


returns 


365 


204 


1111 


dies , . 


369 


211 


1098 


Robert of Belesme, earl of Shrewsbury . 


364 


203 


1102 


quarrels with Henry I. , and forfeits his lauds . 


366 


205 


1104 


joins count Robert of Normandy 


367 


207 


1 105 




367 


208 


1106 


again quarrels with Henry, and returns to Nor- 










367 


208 


1106 


put to flight at Tinchebray .... 


368 


209 


1112 


taken and imprisoned 


369 


211 


1113 


sent to Wareham castle 


370 


211 


1106 


Robert of Stuttevile (Estotevile), captured at 








Tinchebray ....... 


368 


209 


1107 


Robert, abbot of St. Edmundsbury, dies . 


368 


210 


1118 


Robert, count of Meulan, dies 


372 


215 


1123 


Robert Pecceth, bishop of Chester, buries the bishop 










374 


218 


1126 


Robert, earl of Gloucester, count Robert of Nor- 








mandy committed to his custody . 


377 


223 


1127 


accompanies Matilda to Normandy . 


377 


223 


1140 


eludes the designs of king Stephen . 


383 


233 


11401 
(H41)J 


takes Stephen prisoner 


384 


233 


11401 
(1141) J 


taken prisoner and exchanged for Stephen 


384 


234 


\ y J 

604 


Rochester, see of, given to Justus .... 


37,38 


18 


QQQ 




I ] Q 1 1 Q 




ooy 
8851 
886 [ 


siege of, by the Danes, raised by king JElfred . 


1 1 Oj 1 1 y 
152, 153 


55 

66 


J 

986 
1088 


bishopric of, laid waste by king vEthelred' 
castle of, besieged by William II. . 


238,239 
357 


103 
193 


1130 


nearly burnt cathedral consecrated 


380 


227 




Rodla (Rollo). See Rolf. 







302 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


887 


Rodolf (Hrothulf), his share in the division of the 








empire 


158,159 


68 


1075 \ 


Roger, son of William Fitz Osbern, earl of Hereford, 






1076 J 


rebels against William I 


348, 349 


181 


10751 
1076 J 


taken and imprisoned 


348, 349 


181 


1088 
1088 


Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, rebels against William II. 
Roger (Bigot), seizes the castle of Norwich 


356 
357 


191 
192 


1094 


Roger Poitevin, captured at Argences by Robert, 










360 


197 


1123 


Roger, bishop of Salisbury his power assists at 








the consecration of archbp. William Curboil 


374 


218,219 


1123 


regent of the kingdom 


375 


219 


1125 


inflicts punishment on false coiners 


376 


221 


1130 


assists at the consecration of Christchurch 








Canterbury, and Rochester cathedrals . 


380 


227 


1132 


opposes Henry, abbot of Peterborough 


381 


229 


1137 


imprisoned by king Stephen .... 


382 


230 


1130 


Roger, bishop of Coventry, assists at the consecra- 
tion of Christchurch Canterbury, and Roches - 










380 


227 


1137 


Roger, chancellor of Henry I.,imprisonedby Stephen 


382 


230 


8761 
877 J 


Rolf (Hrolfr), conquers Normandy . . 


145 


64 


408 1 
409 / 


Romans, end of their sway in Britain . 


16, 17 


10 


418 


collect their treasure and depart 


18, 19 


10 


616 


Romanus, bishop of Rochester 


40,41 


20 


1095 


Rome-scot, sent to Rome by the legate Walter 


362 


200 


1123 


by Henry, abbot of St 








Jean d'Angely 


374 


218 


1048 1 
1050 J 


Rothulf, abbot of Abingdon .... 


312,313 


142, 143 


913 


Runcorn, burgh at, built by JEthelflaed . 


186,187 


79 


1065 


Rythrenan, their ravages . 


333 


163 




S. 








Ssebald, ancestor of JElle . ... 


30 


16 


604 


Ssebyrht, king of Essex 


36,37 


18 




Ssefugl, ancestor of .ffille 


30 


16 


1009 


Sandwich, fleet assembled at . 


258, 259 


114 


1031 


harbour, given to Christchurch Canterbury by 








Cnut 


290 


128 


1048 


ravaged 


304 


137 


449 


Saxons, land in Britain ' 18, 19 


n 


7791 
780 J 


Saxons (Old), fight with the Franks . . . ! 92, 93 


46 




Saxulf. See Seaxulf. 




816\ 

817J 


School, English, at Rome, burnt . . . .108,109 


52 


885 


enfranchised by pope Marinus . . . 154, lf>r> 


67 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX, 



308 



A.D. 





Pages of 

A.S. text. Transl. 

1 


924 

933 \ 
934 f 
946 
1031 
1073 
10731 
1072 J 

430 

684 

891 

6541 
655 J 
675 
675 
705 
656 

746 
852 
774 
1881 
189 J 
639 1 
640 J 
672 
832 
855 
1052 
897 
1008 
894 
1124 

1127 

789 
793 
977 
871 
871 

754 
755 
905 
962 
1015 


Scotland, acknowledges the supremacy of Eadward 
the Elder 


196, 197 
200,201 

212,213 
290,291 
340 

386 
3 
18,19 
63 
160,161 

51, 52 

59 
53 

68 

53 

80,81 
122 
90,93 

14,15 

47 

1, 56, 57 
114, 115 
124, 125 
319 
174, 175 


84 
85 

90 
128 
179 

5 
11 
34 
69 

25 

88 

29 
38 

28 

41 
56 
45 

9 
23 

3,30 
54 
57 
151 
74 
114 
71 

220 
223 
48 
48 
99 
61 
62 

3,42 r,< 

42 
76 
92 
120 


invaded by king JEthelstan .... 

submits to king Eadred ..... 
to Cnut ...... 
to William I 
Scotland (Scolland), abbot of St. Augustine's, Can- 
terbury 
Scots, of Ireland 




of Ireland, attacked by king Ecgferth 
three pilgrims from Ireland visit king JElfred . 
Scrocmail, Scromail. See Brocmail. 
Scurfa jarl. See Skurfa. 
Seaxburh. See Sexburh. 

Seaxulf (Saxulf), abbot of Medeshamstede 

attests charter to Medeshamstede 
bishop of the Mercians (Lichfi eld) . 
dies 
Sebbi, king of Essex, attests charter to Medesham- 
stede 


Sefred. See Sigfrid. 
Selred, king of Essex, slain ..... 
Sempringham, land at, leased for life to Wulfred 
Serpents, extraordinary, in Sussex .... 
Severus, invades Britain makes the wall from sea 
to sea 


Sexburh, wife of Erkenberht, king of Kent . 
Sexburh, queen of "Wessex 


Shepey, ravaged by the pagans (Danes) 


plundered by earl Godwine .... 
Ships, built by king Alfred 


king^Ethelred .... 
Shoebury, Danes raise a fort at .... 
Sibylla, daughter of the count of Anjou, married to 
William, son of count Robert of Normandy . 


258, 259 
168, 169 

375 
377 
99 
101 
230 
138, 139 
138, 139 

1, 80, 81 


Sicga, slays king Alfwold of Northumbria 


Sideman, bishop of Devon (Crediton), dies suddenly 


Sidroc jarl, the younger, slain .... 
Sigbald. See Hygbald. 
Sigebryht, king of Wessex 




82, 83 
182,183 
218 
274,275 


Sigebryht, son of Sigulf, slain .... 
Sigeferth, king, kills himself 
Sigeferth, thane, murdered by Eadric aldormnn 



304 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pag 
A.S. text. 


es of 

*"' i 
Transl. 


1130 


Sigefrid, bishop of Chichester, assists at the con- 








secration of Christchurch Canterbury, and 








Rochester cathedrals 


380 


227 




|l g ^ t | ancestor of TEIle 


30 


16 




Sigeric. See Siric. 






990 


Sigeric (Siric), archbishop of Canterbury 


238,239 


104 


991 


advises the payment of tribute to the Danes 


238, 239, 
241 


J104, 105 


995 


dies .....*... 


242, 243 


106 


1123 


Sigfrid, abbot of Glastonbury, accompanies arch- 
bishop William to Rome .... 


374 


219 


883 


Sighelm, sent with the West Saxon alms to Rome . 


152, 153 


66 


905 


slain 


180, J81 


76 


656 


Sighere, king of Essex, signs charter to Medesham- 










53 


28 


905 




180, 181 


76 


921 


Sihtric, king, slays Niel, his brother 


195 


83 


925 


Sihtric, king of the Northumbrians, marries king 








.ZEthelstan's sister 


199 


85 


926 




199 


85 


606 
1130 


Silvia, mother of pope Gregory I 
Simon, bishop of Worcester, assists at the consecra- 


38 


18 




tion of Christchurch Canterbury, and Ro- 








chester cathedrals 


380 


227 


798 


Siric, king of Essex, goes to Rome .... 


105 


51 


10431 
1044 J 


Siward, archbishop of Canterbury .... 


300, 301 


134 


10461 








1047 i 




304, 305, 


137, 138, 


1048 [ 




310 


142 


1050 1 








1042"] 
1043 J 


Siward, earl, assists in despoiling queen Emma 


298 


133 


1052 1 
1048 J 


summoned by king Eadward to Gloucester 


314,315 


145, 147 


1054 


enters Scotland with an army, and loses his son 








in battle .... 


322 


1 KK 


1055 


dies ... 


004. *\c>f. 


i OO 
1 t\f 1 t\" 


1054 


Siward, nephew of earl Siward, slain 


O ^r, ).) 

322 


Job, lr>, 
155 


1058 


Siward, bishop of Rochester 


328 329 


160 


10711 
1072 J 


Siward (Sigeward) Beam, flees to Ely . 


346, 347 


178 


911 


Skurfa jarl, slain .... 


184 185 


78 


1015 


Somersetshire, ravaged by Cuut 


276,' 277 


4 O 

121 


733 


Somerton, taken by TEthelbald of Mercia 


76,77 


40 


9801 
994 J 


Southampton, ravaged by the Danes . . J. 


234 
242, 243 


102 
106 




South Saxons. See Sussex. 






697 
1052 


Southumbrians, murder queen Ostryth of Mercia 
Southwark, earl God wine, with his fleet, comes to . 


67 
318 


37 
148 


10461 
1047 J 


Spearhafoc, abbot of Abingdon .... 


305 


137 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



305 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


10481 
1050 J 
1051] 
1048 I 
1050 J 
1122\ 
1127 J 
913 
1016 
922 
942 

1138 
1066 

7441 
1095 J 
10971 
1106 1 
1110 f 
1114J 
8131 
814 I 
816J 
816\ 
817 J 
1057 
1058 
1 1 35 

1137 
1137 

1137 
1140 
1140 

11401 
(1141)1 
1140 

11401 
(1142)1 
11401 
(1153)1 
1154 
10421 
1043J 
1043 
1044 


Spearhafoc con t. 
bishop of London, but refused consecration by 
archbishop William ..... 

deprived of his see . 

Spectres, seen and heard \ 

Stafford, burgh at, built by ^Ethelflsed . 
Staffordshire, ravaged by Cnut .... 
Stamford, fortified by Eadward the Elder 
recovered from the Northmen by king Ead- 


312,313 
312,313 

373 
378 
186,187 
278,279 
195 

210,211 
383 
336,337, 
339 
79 
361 
363 
367 
369 
370 

108, 109 

108, 109 

328, 329 
328, 329 


142, 143 
143, 146 

217 
224 
79 
121 

83 

89 
232 

1 166, 168 

41 
199 
201 
208 
210 
212 

52 

52 

159 
160 

229 
230 

230 
230 
233 

233 
233, 234 

234 
234 

234 
235 
133 

133 
134 


Standard, battle of the . 
Stanford- (Stamford-) bridge, battle at . . j 

Stars fallin * \ 


Stars, of uncommon appearance 








Stephen, count of Blois, consecrated king of Eng- 
land 


381 
382 

382 

382 
383 

383, 384 
384 

384 
384 

385 
385 
298,299 

301 
301 


goes to Normandy, and squanders his uncle's 


arrests the bishops of Salisbury and Lincoln, 
and the chancellor 
sad state of England during his reign 
strives to seize the earl of Gloucester 
at war with the earls of Chester and Gloucester, 
and other partisans of the empress 
taken prisoner, and exchanged for earl Robert 


reconciled with, but afterwards imprisons, the 
earl of Chester ..'.... 


his compact with Henry of Anjou (Henry H.) 


Stigand, bishop of East Anglia .... 


restored 



VOL. II. 



306 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pag( 

t * 
A.S. text. 


?sof 

\ 
Transl. 


1 04-^ 1 


Stigand cont. 






1 \J*tJ 1 

1046J 


translated to Winchester .... 


302, 303 


137 


1051 1 


mediates between king Eadward and earl God- 






1052 J 


wine ........ 


317,321 


152 


]052 


translated to Canterbury .... 


319,321 


153 


1058 


receives the pall from pope Benedict 


328, 329 


160 


1066 


accompanies William the Conqueror to Nor- 










339 


170 


1087 


Stigand, bishop of Chichester, dies 


356 


191 


875 


Strathclyde Britons, invaded by the Danes 


144, 145 


63 


924 


submit to Eadward the Elder .... 


196,197 


84 


514 


Stuf and Wihtgar, defeat the Britons 


26,27 


14 


534 


receive the Isle of Wight from Cerdic and 








Cynric 


28,29 


14 




Stuttevile. See Kobert. 








Sun. See Eclipse. 






806 


a circle about the 


109 


52 


1103 


four circles about the 


366 


207 


823 


Surrey, submits to king Ecgberht .... 


110, 111 


53 


449 


Sussex (South Saxons), kingdom of ... 


20,21 


12 


607 


Ceolwulf, king of Wessex, fights against . 


38,39 


19 


823 


submits to Ecgberht 


110,111 


53 


9941 
1009J 


ravaged by the Danes -I 


242, 243 
262, 263 


106 
115 


994 


Svein, king of Denmark, besieges London 


240, 241 


105 


1003 


plunders and burns Wilton .... 


252, 253 


112 


1004 


Norwich and Thetford 


252-255 


112 


1005 


returns to Denmark 


254, 255 


112 


1013 


again invades England, and proceeds to Gains- 








borough, Oxford, Winchester, and London, 








thence to Bath 


270,271 


118 


1013 


received as king 


272,273 


119 


1014 


dies 


272,273 


120 


1046 


Svein (Estrithson, nephew of Cnut), his war with 






1045] 
i n4.fi \> 


Magnus of Norway 
vainly seeks aid of England against Magnus, 


303 


135 


1U*D > 

1048 J 


and is driven from Denmark 


302 


136 


1049 


returns to Denmark 


306 


138 


1049 


solicits aid against Norway .... 


306 


138 


1069 


sends his three sons with a fleet against England 


342, 343 


174 


1069 


they enter the Humber 


342, 343 


174 


1070 


makes peace with king William 


345 


177 


10761 
1075 J 


again sends a force against England 


348, 349 


182 


10771 
1076 J 


dies 


350,351 


182 




Swebdaeg, Swsefdseg, ancestor of JEUe 


30 


16 


692 


Swebheard (Webheard), king of Kent . 


65 


36 


1025 


Swedes, fight with and defeat Cnut at the Holm 


289 


127 


1046 


Swegen, son of earl Godwine, invades Wales orders 








the adduction of the abbess of Leominster , 


302 


136 



(CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



307 



A.D. 






Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Swegen cont. 








10451 
1046 J 


retires to Bruges .... 


. 


303 


137 


1046 1 
1050 J 


comes to Bosham, to make his peace with king 1 
Eadward 


305, 307, 
308, 309 


} 138 
J 


1048] 










1049 I 


murders his cousin Biorn, and sails to Flanders 


307, 308 


139, 141 


1047 J 










1048 1 










AUtO 1 

1050 J 






315,316 


148 






1050 


his outlawry reversed 


. 


312 


141 


1052 


joins his father against king Eadward 


. 


314 


147 


1051 \ 


again outlawed, and retires to Thorney, thence 






1052 J 


to Bruges 


. . 


312,314 


145 


1052 


dies at Constantinople, on his way from 


Jeru- 








salem 


. 


320 


152 


891 \ 

892 | 


Swifnch, a learned doctor, dies 


. 


161,162 


69 


1131 


Swine, mortality among 


. 


380 


228 


861 


Swithin (Swithun), St., dies . 


. 


129 


59 


897 


Swithulf, bishop of Rochester, dies 


. 


174,175 


73 


673 


Synod, at Hertford 


. 


58,59 


31 


680 


at Hatfield . . 


. . 


60,61 


34 


694 
742 


at Bapchild (Beccanceld) 
at Cliff (Clofesho) . . 





66 
79 


36 
41 


782 


at Ockley (Aclea) .... 


. 


95 


47 


785 


at Cealchyth (Chalk ') 




96,97 


47 


788 


at Finchale (Pincanheal) 


. 


97 


48 


789 


at Ockley (Aclea) .... 




99 


48 


796 
822 


at Bapchild (Beccanceld) 
at Cliff (Clofesho) .... 





103 
110, 111 


49 
53 


977 


a t Kyrtlington .... 


. 


230 


99 


1046 "I 










1048 L 
1050 J 




{ 


305 
310 


139 
142 




10471 
1049 / 






309 


143 






1 nj.7 i 










JLU^r / 1 

1049 J 






309 


143 






1075 


at London 




387 


_ 


1102 


at Westminster .... 


. 


366 


206 


1119 


at Rheims ..... 




372 


215 


11251 
1129/ 


at London 


: { 


376 
379 


222 
226 




T. 








913 


Tamworth, burgh built at, by ^Ethelflocd 




186,187 


79 


943 


taken by storm by Olaf . 


. 


211 


89 



308 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pages of 


A. S. text. I Transl. 


731 
734 
7221 
721 
997 
1001 
921 

1137 

910 

1114 
865 
968 
980 
923 

1116 
603 

1140 
11401 
(1153)/ 
668 
673 
680 
680 
685 
690 
423 
10041 
1010J 
1124 

1070 
1070 

1100 
1108 
1114 
966 
992 

656 
1066 
10861 
1109 I 
1117J 
640 


Tatwine, archbishop of Canterbury .... 
dies ........ 


74, 75 
76,77 

72, 73 
246, 247 
250 

194 

382 
183, 184, 
185 
370 
130, 131 
223 
234 

196 
371 

37 
383 

385 
53, 56, 57 
57,58 
59 
60,61 
63 
64,65 
18, 19 
254, 255 
264, 265 
376 
86 

344 

344 
365 
368 
370 
223 
238, 239 

52 
337 
353 
369 
371 
46,47 


40 
40 

39 
107 
110 

82 
231 

} 

212 

59 
90 
102 

84 
213 

18 
233 

235 
29,30 
31 
33 
32,34 
34 
35 
11 
112 
116 
221 
44 

175 

175 
204 
210 
212 
96 
104 

27 
170 
187 
210 
214 
23 


Taunton, built by king Ine, and destroyed by his 
queen JEthelburh 
Tavistock, abbey of, burnt by the Danes 
Teignton, burnt by the Danes .... 
Tempsford, recovered from the Danes by Eadward 
the Elder 


Tenserie CCenserie), a Norman impost (apparently 
an error for Censerie, Censaria) . 

Tettenhall (Teotanheal), battle at . 

Thames, extraordinary ebb of the .... 
Thanet, Danes quartered there .... 
ravaged by king Eadgar 
by a fleet of Northmen 
Thelwall, fortified and garrisoned by Eadward the 
Elder 
Theobald (Thibaud), count of Blois, aided by 
Henry I. against Lewis VI. of France 
Theodbald, brother of JEthelferth of Northumbria, 
slain 


Theodbald, archbishop of Canterbury 
makes peace between king Stephen and Henry 
of Anjou (Henry II.) 
Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury 
assembles a synod at Hertford 
attests charter to Medeshamstede 
assembles a synod at Hatfield 
consecrates Cuthberht bishop of Hexham . 


Theodosius the younger, emperor .... 
Thetford, plundered and burnt by the Danes . 

Thieves, forty-four hanged, and others mutilated . 
Thincgferth, ancestor of Offa 


Thomas, archbishop of York, denies the supremacy 
of Canterbury 
loses his cause at Rome, and submits to arch- 
bishop Lanfranc 
dies 


Thomas, archbishop of York 
dies 
Thored, son of Gunnor, ravages Westmoreland 
Thored, earl, commands in king JEthelred's fleet . 
Thorkell. See Thurkyll. 
Thorney (Ancarig), a monastery founded at . 
held by LeofHc, abbot of Peterborough . 

Thunder, awful J 


Thunor, murders the sons of king Erinenred of Kent 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



309 



A.D. 





Pag 
A.S. text. 


3S of 


Transl. 


911 


Thurferth hold, slain 


184,185 


78 


921 


Thurferth jarl, submits to Eadward the Elder 


195 


83 


1009 


Thurkyll, arrives, receives a contribution from East 








Kent, and ravages the neighbouring counties 


260,261 


115 


1013 


besieged in London with king ^ZKthelred . 


270, 271 


119 


1013 


exacts pay and provisions for his army . 


272,273 


119 


1017 


made governor of East Anglia 


284, 285 


124 


1020 


assists at the consecration of the monastery at 








Assingdon 


286 


125 


1021 


outlawed by Cnut 


286,287 


125 


1039 


slain by the Welsh 


296 


131 


1069 


Thurkyll jarl, with the sons of king Svein, lands and 








plunders York, etc 


342 


174 


915 


Thurkytel jarl, submits to Eadward the Elder . 


190,191 


80 


920 


goes to France 


192 


81 


971 


Thurkytel, abbot of Bedford 


224 


96 


1010 


Thurkytel Myranheafod (Mare's-head), the first to 








flee in a battle 


262, 263 


116 


101G 


Thurkytel, son of Nafena, murdered through Eadric 








aldorman 


278,279 


122 


1083 


Thurstan, abbot of Glastonbury, misuses his monks 








and causes a tumult 


352 


184 


1087 


Thurstan, abbot of Pershore, dies .... 


356 


191 




Thurstan. See Turstein. 








Tibba, St., body of, removed to Peterborough 


221 


96 


10 


Tiberius Caesar 


6,7 


7 


1099 


Tide, an extraordinary high 


364 


203 


1114 


low 


370 


212 


797 


Tidfrith, bishop of Dunwich ..... 


105 


50 


780 


Tllberht, bishop of Hexham 


95 


47 


1106 


Tinchebray, battle of 


368 


208 


8551 
856 J 


Tithe, granted to the church by king JEthelwulf . 


124, 125 


57 


71 


Titus, slays 111,000 Jews succeeds to the empire . 


12,13 


8 


693 


Tobias, bishop of Rochester ..... 


67 


36 


(594 


assists at the council at Bapchild 


66 


36 


727 




75 


39 


921 


Toglos jarl, slain . . . 


194 


82 


1079 


Tokig Wiggodson, brings a horse to William I. in 








the battle at Gerberoi 


350,351 


184 


1088 


Tonbridge, castle stormed 


357 


192 


8731 
874 / 


Torksey (Turcesig), Danes winter at ... 


143 


62 


1051"! 


Tostig, son of earl Godwine, banished, retires to 






1052 J 


Bruges 


312,314 


149 


1053 


present at his father's death .... 


3<>0 


154 


1055 


receives earl Siward's earldom of Northumbria 


324, 325 


156,157 


10G1 


goes with his wife to Rome .... 


328 


161 


1063 


with his brother Harold, reduces Wales . 


330,331 


161 


i nr>;> \ 


expelled from his earldom by the Northumbrian 






10G4J 


thanes, and goes to Flanders 


331,332 


162, 163 



310 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Tostig cont. 






1066 


invades England, and is repulsed by Eadwine "1 
and Morkere, and slain at Stamford bridge J 


336, 337 


/165, 166 
I 169 


921 


Towcester, repaired and fortified by Eadward the 








Elder 


194 


83 


1097 


Tower of London, injury sustained by many during 








the building of the wall .... 


363 


202 


1055 


Tremerig (Tremerin), bishop of St. David's, dies . 


324, 326 


157, 158 


924 


Trent, a bridge built across the, by Eadward the 








Elder 


196 


84 


991^1 


r 


238, 239 


104 


1002 | 




250,251 


111 


1007 }> 


Tribute, paid to the Danes ^ 


258,259 


114 


1011 


1 


264,265 


116 


1018J 


I 


284, 285 


124 


681 


Trumbyrht, bishop of Hexham .... 


61 


34 


685 


expelled 


63 


34 


681 


Trumwine, bishop of the Picts ( Whiterne) 


61 


34 


656 


Tuda, bishop of Lindisfarne, at the consecration of 








Medeshamstede 


52 


26 


664 




55 


30 


852 


Tunberht, bishop of Lichfield 


123 


56 


1070 


Turold, abbot of Peterborough 


345 


176,177 


1098 


dies 


364 


202 


1114 
1119 


Turstein (Thurstan), archbishop of York 
assists at the council of Rheims deprived of his 


370 


212 




see goes to Rome .... 


372 


215 


1120 


reconciled with the king ..... 


373 


216 


1123\ 
1125J 


goes to Rome, by command of the pope . 


374,377 


219,222 




u. 






870 


Ubba, a Danish chief, slays king Eadmund of East 








Anglia 


134, 135 


60 


1006 


Ufegeat, blinded j 


254,255, 
257 


I 113 




1013 
1016 


Uhtred, earl of Northumbria, submits to king Svein 
submits to Cnut, and by him is put to death 


270, 271 
278,279 


118 
122 


1025 


Ulf, defeats king Cnut at the Holm 


289 


127 


1046] 








1048 1 
1049 [ 


Ulf, bishop of Dorchester 


307,310 


J140, 141 
\ 142 


1050 J 








1147 \ 
1149 / 


nearly deprived of his episcopal staff at Vercelli 


309 


143 


1052 
1004 


escapes from England with difficulty 
Ulfkytel, earl of East Anglia, advises the 'witan 'to 


320, 321 


152 




buy peace of king Svein .... 


252, 253 


112 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



311 



A !) 




Page 


s of 


-il_ iJ 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Ulfkytel cont. 






1004 


vainly orders the Danish ships to be broken up 








makes a great slaughter among the Danes . 


254, 255 


112 


1010 


defeated by the Danes 


262,263 


116 


1016 


slain at Assingdon 


282, 283 


123 


1095 


Urban II., pope, sends the pall to archbishop Anselm 


362 


200 


1096 


instigates the first Crusade .... 


362 


200 


926 


Uwen (Owen), king of Gwent, submits to Eadward 








the Elder 


199 


85 




TJxfrea, ancestor of ^Elle 


30 


15 




V. 






1041 


Valentine, St., head of, given by queen Emma to 









Winchester . 


299 


132 


10471 
1049 / 


Vercelli, council of ...... 


309 


143 


70 


Vespasian, emperor 


10,11 


8 


1054 




323, 324 


155, 156 


10571 


dies 


328,329 


159 


1058 J 








903 


Virgilius, abbot of the Scots, dies .... 


180, 181 


75 


656 


Vitalianus, pope, confirms king Wulfhere's grant to 








Medeshamstede ...... 


53 


29 


10761 
1077 J 


Vithele (Vitalis), abbot of Westminster . 


350, 351 


182 


449 


Vortigern (Wyrtgeorn), king, invites the Angles to 










19, 21 


11 


455 


fights with Hengest and Horsa 


20,21 


12 




w. 








Wsegdseg, ancestor of Mile 


30 


16 




Wsermund, ancestor of Penda .... 


42 


21 




' ofOffa 


86 


44 


1080 


Walchere, bishop of Durham, murdered . 


351 


184 


675 


Waldhere, bishop of London, attests charter to 








Medeshamstede 


59 


33 


1123 


Waleram, count of Meulan, revolts from Henry I. . 


375 


219 


1124 


captured, and imprisoned in the castle of Rouen 


375 


220 


1126 


removed to England, and imprisoned at Bridge- 








north and Wallingford 


377 


222 


1129 


released, and reconciled to king Henry . 


330,379 


226 


828 


Wales, invaded by king Ecgbryht .... 


114,115 


54 


853 


by king JEthelwulf 


122,123 


57 


915 


, , by pirates (Lidwikings) from Brittany 


188, 189 


79 



312 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 




Pages of 

A 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




Wales cont. 






916 


invaded by JEthelflaed 


191 


80 


10G3 


by earl Harold 


330, 331 


161 


1081 


by William I 


351 


184 


10951 
1097 J 


by William H j 


362 
363 


199 
201 


11141 
1121 J 


by Henry I \ 


370 
373 


212 
216 


1098 


Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, dies 


364 


202 


1060 


Walter, bishop of Hereford 


328, 329 


161 


1078 


Walter, abbot of Evesham 


350,351 


183 


1095 


Walter, papal legate, brings the pall to archbishop 








Anselm .....'.. 


362 


200 


1001 


Waltham, burnt by the Danes .... 


<>5I 


111 


1066 


Waltheof, earl, attends William the Conqueror to 








Normandy 


339 


170 


1069 


joins the Danish invaders,, and plunders York, 








etc 


342, 343 


174 


10701 
1071 J 


makes his peace with king William 


344, 345 


176 


1075"! 
1076 J 


joins in the conspiracy of earls Ralph and Roger 
goes over to Normandy and accuses him- 
self to William 


348,349 


181 


10761 
1077 J 


beheaded at Winchester 


350,351 


182 


913 


Wardbury, burgh at, built by JEthelflaed 


186, 187 


79 


8761 
877 J 


Wareham, Danes occupy ..... 


144, 145 


63 


1114 


Warner, a monk of Peterborough, sent to Rome 


370 


213 


913 


Warwick, burgh at, built by .ZEthelflsed . 


186,187 


79 


1016 


Warwickshire, ravaged by the Danes 


276,277 


121 


988 


Watchet (Wecedport), plundered by the Danes 


238,239 


103 




Wecta, ancestor of Hengest and Horsa . 


21 


12 


823 


Welsh, battle of the, and Devonians 


110, 111 


53 


1048 


accuse earl Godwine and his sons 


315 


145 


1053 


slay many English at Westbury 


322 


154 


1055 


join earl -<Elfgar in attacking Hereford 


324, 325 


156 


1094 


attack the Norman intruders .... 


361 


198 


1095 


take by storm the castle of Montgomery . 


362 


199 


1121 


comply with the will of Henry I. 


373 


216 




See also ' Britons.' 






800 


Weoxstan (Weohstan), aldorman, slain . 


106, 107 


51 


782 


Werburh, queen of Ceolred of Mercia, dies 


95 


47 


852 


Werhtherd, abbot 


123 


Rfi 


449 


Wessex, by whom peopled. (See also Cerdic and 




OO 




Cynric, Stuf and Wihtgar) .... 


20,21 


12 


626 


invaded by king Eadwine of Northumbria 


43 


21 


634 


converted to Christianity by Birinus 


44,45 


22 


871 "1 
872 f 


makes peace with the Danes .... 


142,143 


62 


878 1 
879 J 


subdued by the Danes 


146, 147 


64 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A. I). 


, 


Pages 

A_ 

A.S. text. 


5 of 
Transl. 




Wessex cont. 






897 


ravaged by the Danes ..... 


174, 175 


74 


910 


with the Mercians, defeats the Danes at Tetten- "1 


183, 184, 


I -7 




hall J 


185 


I " 


1015 


submits to Cnut ...... 


276,277 


121 


1016 


to Eadmund Ironside .... 


280,281 


122 




Westerfalca, ancestor of JElle .... 


30 


15 


1UGG 


Westminster, abbey of, consecrated . . \ 


332, 334 
337 


163 

169 


1097 


Westminster Hall, built by William II. . 


363 


202 


1099 


William holds his court in .... 


364 


203 


966 


Westmoreland, ravaged by Thored, son of Gunnar . 


223 


96 




West Saxons. See Wessex. 








West Wales. See Cornwall. 






1039 


Wheat, sold at 55 rience the ' sester ' and upwards . 


297 


131 


1044 


at 60 pence 


301 


134 


1124 


high price of 


376 


220 


755 


Wiferth (Wigferth), thane of king Cynewulf of 








Wessex ....... 


84,85 


43 


8871 


Wido (Witlia), Lombardy assigned to him in the 






888 J 


partition of the empire .... 


158, 159 


68 


1088 


Wido, abbot of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, distur- 








bances caused by his election 


387 







Wig, ancestor of Cerdic 


1 30 


3, 15 


812 


Wigbryht, bishop of Wessex (Sherborne), goes to 




1^5 * * 




Rome 


108, 109 


52 


667 


Wigheard, archbp. of Canterbury elect, dies at Rome 


57 


30 


449 


Wight, Isle of, peopled by Jutes .... 


20,21 


11 


530 


subjugated by Cerdic and Cynric 


26,27 


14 


534 


given by them to Stuf and Wihtgar . 


28, 29 


14 


661 


ravaged by Wulfhere of Mercia converted to 








Christianity 


54,55 


29 


686 


by Ccadwalla of Wessex 


62,63 


35 


8971 


\ 


176, 177 


74 


1001 } 


by the Danes ....-< 


250,251 


110 


1009J 


[ 


262. 263 


115 


1022 


visited by Cnut, with a fleet .... 


286,287 


125 


1048 


ravaged 


304 


137 


8-25 


Wiglaf, king of Mercia 


112,113 


53 


828 


regains his kingdom ..... 


114, 115 


53 


921 


Wigmore (Wigingamere), burgh built at, by Eadward 








the Elder besieged 


194 


81 


833 


Wigthen, bishop (of Winchester), dies . 


116,117 


54 


797 


Wihtburh (daughter of king Anna of East Anglia), 








body of, found entire ..... 


105 


51 


514 


Wihtgar, nephew of Cerdic, defeats the Britons 


26,27 


14 


534 


with his brother Stuf, receives the Isle of Wight 








from Cerdic and Cynric .... 


28,29 


14 


544 


dies ........ 


28, 29 


15 




Wihtgils, father of Hengest and Horsa . 


21 


12 




Wihtlffig, ancestor of Penda . 


42 


21 




ofOflfa 


86 


44 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A.D. 





Pag( 



A.S. text. 


:s of 
> 
Transl. 


694 
725 


Wihtred, king of Kent his genealogy holds a 
council at Bapchild (Baccanceld) . 


66,67 
72, 73 


36 
39 


852 
656 
10321 
1078J 
656 

664 
678 
680 
680 
685 


Wihtred, abbot 
Wilberht, aldorman, signs charter to Medeshamstede 

Wildfire, destruction caused by < 

Wilfrith (Wilferth), priest, assists at the consecra- 
tion and endowment of Medeshamstede 
ordained bishop . ... 
ejected by king Ecgferth 
goes to Rome 
attests charter to Medeshamstede 


123 
53 
291 
350 

53 
56,57 
60,61 
58 
59 
63 


56 
28 
128 
183 

26 
30 
33 
31 
33 
34 


709 

(721) 

744 

928 
1031 
1052 


dies, and is buried at Ripon .... 

Wilfrith (Wilferth), bishop of York 
dies 
Wilgils, ancestor of JElle 

William I., count of Normandy .... 
William II., count of Normandy (the Conqueror) . 
visits England ...... 


69 

63 
79 
30 

201 
291 
314 


38 

34 
41 
15 

85 
128 
149 


1062 
1066 

1067 


subjugates Le Maine 
lands at Pevensey, defeats Harold, and isl 
crowned king of England . . . J 


329 
330, 337, 
338, 339 
339 341 


161 
167 
169 


1067 

1067 
1068 

1068 


returns to England levies a heavy contribution, 
besieges and takes Exeter .... 
builds castles at Nottingham, York, Lincoln, etc. 
gives Robert (de Comines) the earldom of 
Northumberland 


340 

342 

342, 343 
342 


171 
172 

173 


1069 
10701 
1071 J 
1070 


lays Yorkshire waste 
despoils the monasteries in England 

makes peace with Svein (Estrithson), king of 
Denmark 


342, 343 
344, 345 

345 


174 
176 


10711 

1072 J 
1072 1 
1073 J 
10731 
1074 J 
1074 1 
1075 J 
10751 
1076 J 


reduces the insurgents in Ely .... 

reduces William, king of Scotland, to subjection 

reduces Le Maine, with a French and English 
army 
again in Normandy, and receives Eadgar aethel- 
ing at his court 
quells the conspiracy of the earls Ralph and 
Roger 


346, 347 
346, 347 

346, 347 
346, 347 
348 349 


178 
179 

179 
179 
181 


10761 
1077 J 
1077 
1079 


leads an army into Brittany, and besieges Dole, 
which is relieved by the king of France 
makes peace with France .... 
fights hand to hand with his son Robert, at 
Gerberoi ....... 


350, 351 
351 

350,351 


183 
183 

183 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



315 



A D 




Page 
A 


sof 


J.JL.-L/. 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 




William (the Conqueror) cont. 






1081 


invades Wales ....... 


351 


184 


1082 


arrests bishop Odo 


351 


184 


1083 


imposes a heavy tax ..... 


352 


185 


10851 
1087 J 


causes the great survey of England to be made 


353 


186 


1086 


dubs his son Henry a knight .... 


353 


186 


1086 


assembles his ' witan ' and vassals at Salisbury, 








who swear fealty to him .... 


353 


186 


1086 




353 


186 


1087 


his rapacity 


354 


187 


1087 


invades France, burns Mantes, and dies . 


354 


188 


1087 


his character (by a contemporary) . 


354 


188 


1079 


William (Rufus), wounded at Gerberoi . 


351 


184 


1087 


king of England 


356 


191 


1087 


his gifts to the church for his father's soul 


356 


191 


1088 


quells the rebellion raised by bishop Odo and 








others ........ 


356 


191,192 


1088 


implores the aid of the English 


357 


193 


1088 


besieges Rochester and Durham castles 


358 


193 


1090 


at war with his brother Robert 


358 


194 


1091 


makes peace with Robert, and the conditions . 


358 


194 


1091 


makes peace with Malcolm of Scotland, who 








becomes his vassal 


359 


195 


1092 


restores Carlisle, and re-peoples thereabouts . 


359 


195 


1093 


falls sick, and promises amendment of his life . 


359 


196 


1093 


cites king Malcolm to Gloucester, and treats 








him contemptuously ..... 


359 


196 


1094 


again at war with his brother Robert 


360 


197 


1094 


causes the abbey of Battle to be consecrated . 


360 


197 


1094 


deprives Herbert, bishop of Thetford, of his 








staff 


360 


197 


1094 


carries on the war against Robert fraudulent 








treatment of his soldiers .... 


360 


197 


1095 


quells the Northumbrian rebellion under Ro- 








bert of Monbray 


361 


199 


1095 


invades Wales without success 


362 


199 


1096 


receives Normandy in pledge from his brother 








Robert 


362 


201 


1097 


invades Wales, and builds castles on the border 


363 


201 


1097 




363 


202 


1099 


holds his court in the new building at West- 








minster ....... 


364 


203 


1099 


reduces Le Maine 


364 


203 


1100 


slain his character ..... 


364 


203 


10501 
1052 J 


William, bishop of London 


314,315 


146, 149 


1066 


William Fitz Osbern, left as regent of England 


339 


170 


1070 


slain in Flanders ...... 


347 


177,178 


10761 
1075 / 


his daughter's marriage ..... 


348, 349 


180 


1085 


William, bishop of Norfolk (Thetford) . 


353 


186 



316 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A D 




Pag( 


*of 






A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1088 


William, bishop of Durham, rebels against William 


356 


191 


1088 




357 


192 


1088 


returns to Normandy ..... 


358 


193 


1096 


dies at Windsor 


362 


200 


1096 

1096 
1100 
1103 


William, count of Eu, overcome in single combat 
by Geoffrey Bainard his punishment 
William, steward of the count of Eu, hanged . 
William Giffard, bishop of Winchester . 
leaves England 


.'362 
362 
365 
366 


200 
200 
204 

206 


1123 
1129 


assists at the consecration of William, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury 
dies 


374 
379 


219 

99(J 


1104 


William, count of Mortain, forfeits his lands in 
England ...... 


367 


207 


1105 


his hostilities 


367 


9 07 


1105 
1105 
1106 
1112 
1110 
1110 
1112 


holds out against Henry I 
captured at Tinchebray .... 
William Crespin, captured at Tinchebray 
deprived of his lands and banished 
William Bainart, deprived of his lands . 
William Malet, deprived of his lands 
William, count of Evreux, deprived of his lands and 
banished 


368 
368 
368 
369 
369 
369 

369 


207 
209 
209 
211 
211 
211 

91 ] 


1115 

1119 
1120 


William, son of Henry I., receives the homage and 
fealty of the Normans .... 
marries the count of Anjou's daughter . 
drowned 


370 
372 

373 


21-3 
215 
9 16 


1123 


William Curboil (Corbeil), archbishop of Canter- 
bury ..... 


374 


91 Q 


1123 


consecrated by the bishops of London, Roches- 
ter, etc 


374 


919 


1123 
1125 


obtains his pall at Rome by bribery 
again goes to Rome 


375 
377 


219 

929 


1129 
1130 


holds a synod against the marriage of priests . 
consecrates Christchurch Canterbury, and Ro- 
chester cathedrals .... 


379 

380 


226 
997 


1135 
1140 


consecrates Stephen, king of England . 
dies 


382 
383 


229 
9%1 


1123 


William of Roumare, earl of Lincoln, revolts from 
Henry I. ...... 


375 


91 Q 


1140 


revolts from king Stephen, and takes him pri- 
soner .... 


004. 


900 


1124 


William, son of count Robert of Normandy, at war 
with Henry I 


Q7 


99O 


1124 


marries Sibylla, daughter of the count of 
Anjou .... 


375 


990 


1127 


divorced, and marries the sister of the king of 
France, and receives from him the county 
of Flanders ... 




99 


1128 


dies at St. Omer's . 


' ', 'i S 


o.irj 


1127 


William Malduit, surrenders lauds to Peterborough 


383 


232 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



317 



A.D. 




Pages of 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1137 


William, St., a boy crucified by the Jews of Norwich 


383 


232 


1138 


William of Albemarle, defeats king David of Scot- 








land in the battle of the Standard 


383 


232 


1154 


William of Waltevile, abbot of Peterborough . 


385 


235 


1003 


Wilton, burnt by the Danes 


252,253 


112 


1015 


Wiltshire, ravaged by Cnut 


276,277 


121 


718 


Wimborne (Winburne), monastery at, built by Cuth- 
burh, sister of king Ine .... 


70,71 


39 


6421 


Winchester, Old monastery at, built by king Ccn- 






643 I 




48,49 


23,24 


Lf-XtJ J 

860 




128, 129 


58 


903 


New monastery at, consecrated 


181 


76 


964 


secular priests expelled from the old and new 








monasteries at ...... 


222,223 


94 


1013 


submits to king Svein ..... 


270,271 


119 


11401 


besieged by king Stephen's queen, Matilda 


384 


233 


793") 


r 


101 


48 


1039 


1 

i 


296 


131 


1053 


1 


320 


154 


1103 
1114 " 


Wind, high 


366 
370 


206 
212 




1118 




372 


215 


1121 




373 


217 


1122J 


I 


373 


217 


6561 


Wine, bishop of London, assists at the consecration 






(664)/ 


of Medeshamstede 


53 


26 


660 


bishop of Winchester 


54,55 


28 


673 


Winfrith, bishop of Mercia (Lichfield), deprived of 








his see 


53 


29 


761~ v i 


r 


88,89 


44 


1046 




302 


136 


1111 }> 


Winter, severe -] 


369 


211 


1115 1 


| 


371 


213 


1116J 


I 


371 


213 


654 ) 
655 / 


Winwidfeld, Penda of Mercia slain at ... 


50,51 


24 


465 \ 
466 J 




22,23 


13 






Witena-gemot See Council. 








Witha. See Wido. 






913 


Witham, in Essex, castle (burh) built at by Eadward 








the Elder 


186,187 


78 




Witta, ancestor of Hengest and Horsa . 


21 


12 


477 


Wlencing, son of ^Elle, arrives in Britain 


22,23 


13 


592 


Woddesbeorh (Wodnesbeorh), great slaughter at . 


34,35 


17 


715 


battle at, between Ine of Wessex and Ceolred of 








Mercia 


70,71 


38 




Woden (geneal.) 


1 21,28, 


3, 1 2, 1 5 






30, 36, 42, 


bis, 17,21, 






86,126 


44, 58, 






232 


100 



318 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A T) 




Pag 


esof 


XlL.-L/. 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


777 


Woking, monastery at, given to Medeshamstede 


92 


46 


981 


Womaer, abbot of Ghent, dies .... 


234 


102 


1041 


Worcestershire, laid waste by king Harthacnut 


296 


132 


1088 


ravaged by the men of Shropshire and the 








Welsh 


357 


192 


800 


Won', aldorman, dies . . .... 


104, 105 


51 


1006 
981 


Wulfeah, blinded by order of king ^Ethelred . 
Wulfgar, bishop of Wilton 


254, 255 
234 


113 
102 


990 


Wulfgar, abbot of Abingdon 


238,239 


104 


1016 


dies 


284, 285 


124 


1006 


Wulfgeat, deprived of his property .... 


254, 255 


113 


823 


Wulfheard aldorman, sent into Kent by king 








Ecgbryht 


110,111 


53 


837 


defeats the Danes dies 


118, 119 


55 


860 


Wulfheard (Osric), aldorman of Hampshire, defeats 








the Danes 


128, 130 


58 


897 


Wulfheard, a Frisian, slain 


176,177 


74 


925 


Wulfhelm, archbishop of Canterbury 


198 


85 


927 


goes to Eome 


199 


85 


656 


Wulfhere, king of Mercia 


52,53 


25 


664 


charters Medeshamstede 


52,53 


25 


661 


gives the Isle of Wight to ^Ethelwald, king of 








Sussex 


54,55 


29 


675 


fights with ^scwine of Wessex dies 


58,59 


31 


1001 


Wulfhere, a bishop's thane, slain .... 


250 


110 


1009 


Wulfnoth child, accused by Brihtric, flees and 








ravages the coast, and burns Brihtric's ships 


260, 261 


114, 115 


1049"! 
1050 J 


Wulfnoth, abbot of Westminster, dies . 


310 


140, 142 


803 


Wulfred, archbishop of Canterbury 


106, 107 


51 


804 


receives the pall 


106, 107 


51 


812 


goes to Rome 


108,109 


52 


813 


returns 


108, 109 


52 


829 




114, 115 


54 


852 


Wulfred, rents Sempringham of Medeshamstede 


122 


56 


897 


Wulfred, aldorman of Hampshire, dies . 


174,175 


73 


897 


Wulfric, king's horse-thane, dies .... 


178,179 


74 


1010 


Wulfric, son of Leofwine, slain .... 


262, 263 


116 


1043 


Wulfric, abbot of St. Augustine's, Canterbury . 


301 


134 


1046 


sent to the synod at Kheims .... 


305 


139 


1061 


dies .... 


328, 329 


160, 161 


943 


Wulfrun, captured by the Danes at Tamworth 


211 


89 


1016 


Wulfsige, abbot of Ramsey, slain at Assingdon 


282,283 


123 


1053 


Wulfsige, bishop of Lichfield, dies . 


322 


154 


943 


Wulfstan (Wulstan), archbishop of York, besieged 








in, and escapes from, Leicester 


211 


89 


947 


pledges his faith to king Eadred, and breaks it 


213 


90 


952 


imprisoned at Jedburgh 


215 


91 


954 


made bishop of Dorchester .... 


215 


91 


956 


dies 


215 


91 


963 


Wulfstan, deacon, dies 


220 


93 


996 


Wulfstan, ordained bishop of London . 


245 


107 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX. 



A T) 




Pag< 


sof 


2\.t L/ 




A.S. text. 


Transl. 


1020 


Wulfstan, archbishop of York, assists at the conse- 








cration of the monastery at Assingdon 


286, 287 


125 


1020 


consecrates archbishop ^Ethelnoth . 


286,287 


125 


1023 


dies . 


289 


126 


1088 


Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, defeats the Norman 








rebels ...... 


357 


192 


1053 


Wulfwig, bishop of Dorchester, consecrated abroad 


322 


155 


1067 


dies 


340 


171 


982 


Wulfwin, abbess of Wareham, dies 


236 


103 


1084 


Wulfwold, abbot of Chertsey, dies .... 


352 


185 




Wyrtgeorn. See Vortigern. 








Y. 








Yceanho. See Icanho. 








Yfie, ancestor of ^Elle 


30 


15 




Ymme. See JElfgifu Emma. 






626 


York, St. Peter's church at, built by king Eadwine 


43 


21 


741 


burnt ... 


79 


41 


923 


taken by Ragnald ...... 


197 


84 


1067 


two castles built there, by William I. 


342 


172 


1068 


sacked by him 


342 


173 


1069 


plundered by Eadgar aetheling and the sons of 








Svein, king of Denmark .... 


342, 343 


174 


1069 


Yorkshire, laid waste by William the Conqueror . 


342, 343 


174 


449 


Ypwines- Heopwines-fleet, Angles land at 


20,21 


11, 12 


948 


Yric QEric), chosen king by the Northumbrians, 








and forsaken by them 


213 


90 


952 


Yric, son of Harald, chosen king by the Northum- 








brians 


215 


91 


954 


expelled 


215 


91 


1016 


Yric, made earl of Northumberland by Cnut 


278, 279 


122 


1017 


confirmed in his government .... 


284, 285 


124 


1047 


Yrling (Erling), and Lothen (Lothinn), plunder 








Sandwich and along the coast 


304, 305 


137 


905 


Ysopa hold, slain . 


182, 183 


76 


1070 


Yware, churchward of Peterborough, secures the 








church property 


345 


176 



321 



A GLOSSARY 



A FEW ANGLO-SAXON TERMS NECESSARILY RETAINED IN THE 
TRANSLATION, FOR WHICH THERE IS NO EXACT EQUIVALENT 
IN ENGLISH. 



Aldorman (Ealdorman), dux; for 
so the Saxon appellation is usually 
rendered in Latin ; though we 
also find, as its equivalent, prin- 
ceps, comes. Although originally 
signifying prince, it appears in 
later times, rather to designate a 
title of office, than as eorl, a dis- 
tinction of caste. The aldorman 
was the governor, civil and mili- 
tary, of a shire. In the Kentish 
laws the title of aldorman does 
not occur, its place being supplied 
by that of eorl ; a difference 
arising probably from its being 
unknown to the Jutish followers 
of Hengest, to whom the dignity 
of eorl, or jaii was, no doubt, 
native and familiar. 

JEscman. See p. 83, note. 

Bonde-land ; p. 46. This species 
of land, as far as I am aware, 
occurs only in this place : it is 
probably part of the bocland 
rented to a * bonda ' or husband- 
man. 

Butse-carl. See p. 147, note. 

Censerie. See p. 231, note. 

Gild, child. A title nearly synony- 
mous with aefteling ; though im- 

VOL. II. 



like it in being given not only to 
the younger branches of royalty, 
but to those of the highest fami- 
lies : as Wulfnoth cild, Eadric 
cild : even Eadgar retheling is 
sometimes called Eadgar cild. 
So in France, under the old 
regime, we have enfants de 
France ; also in Spain. 

Cotlif, a vill, or small holding, the 
precise nature of which is not 
known. 

Eorl, Dan. Jarl, earl, comes. A 
title of honour which, though in 
early use amongst us, particularly 
among the Jutes of Kent, may, as 
designating an office, be regarded 
as a Danish innovation, and to 
have been substituted by Cnut for 
the Saxon title of ealdorman, as 
governor of a shire or province. 
Unlike ealdorman, it denoted, at 
least originally, a caste or order, 
in contradistinction to 'ceorl'; 
the antithesis of ' eorl and ceorl ' 
signifying the highest and lowest 
orders of freemen ; hence an 
1 eorlcund man ' signified one of 
the noblest birth ; the wer (capi- 
tis aestimatio) of the former being 
sixfold that of the latter ; whence 
x 



322 



GLOSSARY. 



the expressions ' twelf hind man ' 
and 'twihind man.' 

Gerefa, reeve. A fiscal officer ap- 
pointed by the king, but subordi- 
nate to the aldorman of the shire. 
This definition, however, applies 
strictly only to the highest class 
of gerefan, to the scir-gerefan, or 
sheriffs, the vicecomites of the 
Latin chroniclers, a title intro- 
duced probably when that of 
aldorman was supplanted by that 
of eorl, comes. In the Sax. 
Chron. (a. 897), mention occurs 
of a ' Wealh-gerefa,' with whose 
functions we are unacquainted. 
We have also a wic-gerefa, a 
village or toivn-reeve, a denomi- 
nation probably equivalent to 
port-gerefa, the title anciently 
borne by the official of later times 
styled mayor and lord mayor. 
Besides the king we find other 
dignitaries having their reeves, 
as aldormen, bishops, and others. 

Hold. See p. 76, note. 

Hors-J>egn. See pegn. 

Hus-carl. See p. 130. 

Infangenfef. The privilege of ex- 
ecuting summary justice on a 
thief, if captured on the land with 
the stolen property in his posses- 
sion. 

Kenepas. See p. 158, note. 

Lidwiccan. See p. 67, note. 

Mitta, modius, a corn measure of 
uncertain capacity. 

NiSing, a vile person, outlaw, from 
ni<5erian, to lower, humiliate. To 
declare a man a niSing, was to 
proclaim him infamous and outlaw. 

Saca and Socn (from sacan, to con- 



tend, litigate, and secan (secean), 
to seek). Saca is the privilege 
enjoyed by a lord of hearing and 
deciding causes in his court. 
The two terms are usually con- 
joined, and seem nearly synony- 
mous, one standing occasionally 
for both. Soc sometimes signi- 
fies the court itself. 

ScegS. See p. 114, note. 

Saedleap (from said, seed, and leap, 
basket). A measure of seed- 
corn. 

Sester, Sextarius : one horse-load, 
according to Hen. Huntend., who, 
speaking of the famine in 1044, 
says, " Circa hoc tempus tanta 
" fames Angliam invasit, quod 
" sextarius frumenti, qui equo 
" uni solet esse oneri, venunda- 
" retur quinque solidis, et etiam 
" plus." A sester of honey was 
thirty-two ounces, Cod. Diplom., 
No. 950. 

Socn. See Saca and Socn. 

Stallere, the comes stabuli, or con- 
stable : from steall, stall, stable, 
and here, lord, master. The 
steallere was an official of the 
highest rank. The title does not 
appear till the later times of the 
Saxon monarchy. In what his 
functions differed from those of 
the king's hors-J>egn, is uncertain ; 
the latter may probably have 
been subordinate to the former, if 
not an earlier denomination of 
' steallere.' 

Tenseri. See Censerie. 

pegn (pegen), thane (from ]>egnian, 
servire, ministrare). Though sig- 
nifying originally a domestic ser- 



GLOSSARY. 



323 



vant, a king's thane (like a king's 
minister now) was a high digni- 
tary, and a noble by service. Of 
thanes there were many degrees 
and kinds, as the king's horse- 
thane, perhaps the subordinate of, 
or identical with, the steallere ; 
the hrasgl-pegn, or wardrobe 
keeper ; the bur-Jegn, bower- 
thane, or chamberlain. The idea 
of service seems at length to have 
become obsolete, as a 'ceorl,' or 
simple freeman might, by owning 
a certain quantity of land, attain 
to thane-right, or the rank of 
thane. In fact, the thanes were 
the gentry of the kingdom. 
Team. The privilege possessed by 
a lord of taking cognizance in 



cases of tracing, from one to an- 
other, property that had been 
stolen, or, as it is termed, vouch- 
ing to warranty. It is thus de- 
fined by Spelman : " Jurisdictio 
" cognoscendi in curia sua de 
" advocationibus ; hoc est, ut ju- 
" risconsulti loquuntur, de voca- 
" tis ad warrantiam." 

Toll. The right of the lord of levy- 
ing toll on all sales and purchases 
on his laud. 

Viking (Ut-viking). See p. 65, 
note. 

Witan (plur. of wita, gen. plur. 
witena), the councillors, or mem- 
ber of the great national assem- 
bly (mot, gemot), or witena 



x 2 



CORRIGENDUM. 



Page 143, after An. M.XLVIII. a<l<l (M.L.), c/wrf p. 14G, at foot, for E., 
read E.F. 



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CALENDARS OF STATE TAPERS, 



[IMPERIAL 8vo. Price 15s. each Volume.] 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, DOMESTIC SERIES, OF THE REIGNS OF 
KDVVARD VI., MARY, ELIZABETH, 1547-1580, preserved in ihe 
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Edited by ROBERT LEMON, Esq., F.S.A. 1856. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, DOMESTIC SERIES, OF THE REIGN OF 
JAMES I., preserved in the State Paper Department of Her 
Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited by MARY ANNE EVERETT 
GREEN. 1857-1859. 

Vol. I. 1603-1610. 

Vol. II. 1611-1618. 

Vol. III. 1619-1623. 

Vol. IV. 1623-1625, with Addenda. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, DOMESTIC SERIES, OF THE REIGN OF 
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Vol. III. 1628-1629. 

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Vol. L, the Scottish Series, of the Reigns of Henry VIIL, 
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Edited by H. C. HAMILTON, Esq. 
Vol. II. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, DOMESTIC SERIES, OF THE REIGN OF 
CHARLES II., preserved in the State Paper Department of Her 
Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited by MARY ANNE EVERETT 
GREEN. 

Vol. II. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VIII. 
Edited by the Rev. J. S. BREWER, M.A., Professor of English 
Literature, King's College, London, and Reader at the Rolls. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, COLONIAL SERIES, preserved in the 
State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office. 
Edited by W. NOEL SAINSBURY, Esq. 
Vol. II. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, FOREIGN SERIES, OF THE REIGN OF 
MARY. Edited by W. B. TURNBULL, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, 
Barrister-at-Law, and Correspondant du Comite Imperial des 
Travaux Historiques et des Societes Savants de France. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS, DOMESTIC SERIES, OF THE REIGN OF 
CHARLES I., preserved in the State Paper Department of Her 
Mnjesty's Public Record Office. Edited by JOHN BRUCE, Esq., 
V.P.S.A. 

Vol. V, 



THE CHRONICLES AND MEMORIALS OF GREAT BRITAIN 
AND IRELAND DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 



[ROYAL 8vo. Price Ss. 6d. each Volume.] 

1. THE CHRONICLE OF ENGLAND, by JOHN CAPGRAVE. Edited by the 

Eev. F. C. HINGE STON, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford. 

2. CHRONICON MONASTERII DE ABINGDON. Vols. I. and II. Edited by 

the Rev. J. STEVENSON, M.A., of University College, Durham, 
and Vicar of Leighton Buzzard. 

3. LIVES OF EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. I. La Estoire de Seint Aed- 

ward le Rei. II. Vita Beati Edvardi Regis et Confessoris. 
III. Vita JEduuardi Regis qui apud Westmonasterium requiescit. 
Edited by H. R. LUARD, M.A., Fellow and Assistant Tutor of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

4. MONUMENTA FRANCiscANA ; scilicet, I. Thomas de Eccleston de 

Adventu Fratrum Minorum in Angliam. II. Adas de Marisco 
Epistolse. III. Registrum Fratrum Minorum Londonise. Edited 
by the Rev. J. S. BREWER, M.A., Professor of English Literature, 
King's College, London, and Reader at the Rolls. 

5. FASCICULI ZIZANIORUM MAGISTRI JOHANNIS WYCLIF CUM TRITICO. 

Ascribed to THOMAS NETTER, of WALDEN, Provincial of the 
Carmelite Order in England, and Confessor to King Henry the 
Fifth. Edited by the Rev. W. W. SHIRLEY, M.A., Tutor and late 
Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. 

6. THE BUIK OF THE CRONICLIS OF SCOTLAND ; or, A Metrical 

Version of the History of Hector Boece ; by WILLIAM STEWART. 
Vols. I., II., and III. Edited by W. B. TURNBULL, Esq., of 
Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. 

7. JOIIANNIS CAPGRAVE LIBER DE ILLUSTRIBUS HENRICIS. Edited 

by the Rev. F. C. HINGESTON, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford. 

8. HISTORIA MONASTERII S. AUGUSTINI CANTUARIENSIS, by THOMAS 

OF ELMHAM, formerly Monk and Treasurer of that Foundation. 
Edited by C. HARDWICK, M.A., Fellow of St. Catharine's Hall, 
and Christian Advocate in the University of Cambridge. 

9. EULOGIUM (HISTORIARUM siVE TEMPORIS), Chronicon ab Orbe 

condito usque ad Annum Domini 1366 ; a Monacho quodam 
Malmesbiricnsi exaratnm. Vols. I. and II. Edited by F. S. 
HAYDON, Esq., B.A. 



10 

10. MEMORIALS OP KING HENRY THE SEVENTH : Bernard! Andreas 

Tholosatis de Vita Regis Henrici Septimi Historia ; necnon 

alia quaedam ad eundem Regem spectantia. Edited by J. 
GAIRDNER, Esq. 

11. MEMORIALS OF HENRY THE FIFTH. I. Vita Henrici Quinti, 

Roberto Redmanno auctore. II. Versus Rhythmici in laudem 
Regis Henrici Quinti. III. Elmhami Liber Metricus do 
Henrico V. Edited by C. A. COLE, Esq. 

12. MUNIMENTA GILDHALL^E LoNDONiENSis ; Liber Albus, Liber 

Custumarum, et Liber Horn, in archivis Gildhallae asservati. 
Vol. I., Liber Albus. Vol. II. (in Two Parts), Liber Custumarum. 
Edited by H. T. RILEY, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 

13. CHRONICA JOHANNIS DE OXENEDES. Edited by Sir H. ELLIS, K.H. 

14. A COLLECTION OF POLITICAL POEMS FROM THE ACCESSION 

OF EDWARD III. TO THE REIGN OF HENRY VIII. Vol. I. 
Edited by T. WRIGHT, Esq., M.A. 

15. The "Opus TERTIUM" and " OPUS MINUS" of ROGER BACON. 

Edited by the Rev. J. S. BREWER, M.A., Professor of English 
Literature, King's College, London, and Reader at the Rolls. 

16. BARTHOLOM^EI DE COTTON, MONACHI NORWICENSIS, HISTORIA 

ANGLICANA (A.D. 449 1298). Edited by H. R, LUARD, M.A., 
Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

17. The BRUT Y TYWYSOGION, or, The Chronicle of the Princes of 

Wales. Edited by the Rev. J. WILLIAMS AB ITHEL. 

18. A COLLECTION OF ROYAL AND HISTORICAL LETTERS DURING THE 

REIGN OF HENRY IV. Vol. I. Edited by the Rev. F. C. 
HINGESTON, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford. 

19. THE REPRESSOR OF OVER MUCH BLAMING OF THE CLERGY. By 
REGINALD PECOCK, sometime Bishop of Chichester. Vols. I. 
and II. Edited by C. BABINGTON, B.D., Fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

20. THE ANN ALES CAMBRI^E. Edited by the Rev. J. WILLIAMS AB 
ITHEL. 

21. THE WORKS OF GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. Vol. I. Edited by 
the Rev. J. S. BREWER, M.A., Professor of English Literature, 
King's College, London, and Reader at the Rolls. 

22. LETTERS AND PAPERS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE WARS OF THE 
ENGLISH IN FRANCE DURING THE REIGN OF HENRY THE SIXTH, 
KING OF ENGLAND. Vol. I. Edited by the Rev. J. STEVENSON, 
M.A., of University College, Durham, and Vicar of Leighton 
Buzzard. 

23. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, ACCORDING TO THE SEVERAL 

ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES. Vol. I., Original Texts. Vol. II.. 
Translation. Edited by B. THORPE, Esq., Member of the Royal 
Academy of Science at Munich, and of the Society of Netherlandish 
Literature at Leyden. 



11 



In the Press. 

RlCARDI DE ClRENCESTRIA SPECULUM HlSTORIALE DE GfiSTIS REGUM 

ANGLIC. (A.D. 4471066.) Edited by J. E. B. MAYOR, M.A., 

Fellow and Assistant Tutor of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
LE LIVERE DE REIS DE BRITTANIE. Edited by J. GLOVER, M.A., 

Chaplain of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
RECUEIL DES CRONIQUES ET ANCHIENNES ISTORIES DE LA GRANT 

BRETAIGNE A PRESENT NOMME ENGLETERRE, par JEHAN DE 

WAURIN. Edited by W. HARDY, Esq. 
THE WARS or THE DANES IN IRELAND : written in the Irish language. 

Edited by the Rev. Dr. TODD, Librarian of the University of 

Dublin. 
A COLLECTION OF POLITICAL POEMS FROM THE ACCESSION OF 

EDWARD III. TO THE REIGN OF HENRY VIII. Vol. II. 

Edited by T. WRIGHT, Esq., M.A. 
A COLLECTION OF SAGAS AND OTHER HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS relating 

to the Settlements and Descents of the Northmen on the British 

Isles. Edited by GEORGE W. DASENT, Esq., D.C.L. Oxon. 
A COLLECTION OF ROYAL AND HISTORICAL LETTERS DURING THE 

REIGN OF HENRY IV. Vol. II. Edited by the Rev. F. C. 

HINGESTON, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford. 
LETTERS AND PAPERS OF THE REIGNS OF RICHARD III. AND HENRY 

VII. Edited by JAMES GAIRDNER, Esq. 
MUNIMENTA GILDHALL^E LONDONIENSIS ; Liber Albus, Liber Cus- 

tumarum, et- Liber Horn, in archivis Gildhallse asservati. Vol. III. 

Translations from the Anglo-Norman portions of the Liber Albus ; 

Appendix ; Glossaries ; and Index. Edited by H. T. RILEY, Esq., 

M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 
EULOGIUM (HISTORIARUM siVE TEMPORIS), Chronicon ab Orbe 

condito usque ad Annum Domini 1366 ; a Monacho quodam 

Malmesbiriensi exaratum. Vol. III. Edited by F. S. HAYDON, 

Esq., B.A. 
LETTERS AND TREATISES OF BISHOP GROSSETETE, illustrative of the 

Social Condition of his Time. Edited by the Rev. H. R. LUARD, 

M.A., Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
THE WORKS OF GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. Vol. II. Edited by the 

Rev. J. S. BREWER, M.A., Professor of English Literature, King's 

College, London, and Reader at the Rolls. 
LETTERS AND PAPERS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE WARS OF THE ENGLISH 

IN FRANCE DURING THE REIGN OF HENRY THE SIXTH, KING 

OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. Edited by the Rev. J. STEVENSON, M.A., 

of University College, Durham, and Vicar of Leighton Buzzard. 
DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF MANUSCRIPTS RELATING TO THE EARLY 

HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. Edited by T. DUFFUS HARDY, Esq. 



12 



In Progress. 

HISTORIA MINOR MATTH^I PARIS. Edited by Sir F. MADDEN, K.H., 
Chief of the MS. Department of the British Museum. 

CIIRONICON ABBATI^E EVESHAMENSIS, AUCTORIBUS DOMINICO PRIORE 
EVESHAMI^E ET THOMA DE MARLEBERGE ABBATE, A FuNDA- 
TIONE AD ANNUM 1213, UNA CUM CONTINUATIONE AD ANNUM 
1418. Edited by the Rev. W. D. MACRAY, M.A., Bodleian 
Library, Oxford. 

A ROLL OF THE IRISH PRIVY COUNCIL OF THE 16TH YEAR OF THE 

REIGN OF RICHARD II. Edited by the Rev. JAMES GRAVES. 

POLYCHRONICON RANULPHi HiGDENi, with Trevisa's Translation. 
Edited by C. BABINGTON, B.D., Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. 

February 1861. 



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