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Full text of "The Anglo-Saxon version of the life of St. Guthlac, hermit of Crowland"



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THE 

ANGLO-SAXON VERSION 

OF THE 

LIFE OF ST. GUTHLAC, 

ficrmtt of CrotulantJ. 

ORIGINALLY WRITTEN IN LATIN, BY 

FELIX (CO^DIONLY CALLED) OF CROWLAND. 

Now first printed from a MS. in the Cotbonian Library. 
WITH A TRANSLATION AND NOTES, 

BY 

CHAKLES WYCLIFFE GOODWIN, M.A. 

FELLOW OF CATHARINE HALL, CAMBRIDGE. 



LONDON : 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 
4, OLD COMPTON STREET, SOIIO SQUARE. 

MDCCCXLVIII- 



^^02.? 



C. AND J. ADLABD, PniNTKMS, BAKTHOLOM KW-CLOSK. 



PREFACE. 



The Life of St. Guthlac, Hermit of Crowland, 
was originally written in Latin by one Felix, of 
whom nothing is with certainty known, further than 
what appears upon the face of his work.* From 
its being dedicated to Alfwold, king of the East- 
Angles, it may be conjectured that the author was 
an inmate of some monastery within the realm of 
East-Anglia ; and he cannot have written later than 
A. D. 749, — the year of Alfwold's death. Though 
not personally acquainted with Guthlac, Felix drew 
his materials from persons who had known and 
conversed with the saint, and notwithstanding the 

» The Latin Life is printed both in the Bollandine and Benedictine 
Acta Sanctorum, under the 11th of April. Fehx is usually called a 
monk of Crowland. In one MS. he is tenned in the prologue, 
CathoUca: Congregationis Sancti Bedan vernaculus, from which the 
Benedictine editor infers that he was a monk of Jarrow. But this 
reading is unsupported by other MSS., and no dependence can be 
placed upon it. 



IV PREFACE. 

marvellous colouring given to the incidents related^ 
the memoir may be regarded as, upon the whole, 
authentic, and as a curious picture of the belief and 
habits of the age. 

Upon the work of Felix is founded the poetica^ 
Legend of St. Guthlac, contained in that singular col- 
lection of Anglo-Saxon poetry the Codex Exoniensis. 
Less important, but not without its value to the 
student of our ancient literature, is the prose version 
in the same language, now for the first time given 
to the public. When and by whom this translation 
was made is unknown; the style is not that of 
iElfric, to whom it has been groundlessly ascribed. 
The florid rhetoric of Felix is much pruned and 
cropped, but without the omission of any material 
incidents ; the writer often paraphrases rather than 
translates, and in truth sometimes quite mistake? 
sense of the original. 

Only one MS. of this version is known to exist, 
preserved in the Cottonian collection, in the volume / 
marked Vespasian D. xxi. But amongst the con- 
tents of the MS. known as the Codex Yercellensis 
is an extract comprising two chapters of the Life 
of Guthlac. For a transcript of this most interestin 



If 



PROLOGUE. 



^O the truly-believing in our Lord^ for ever and 
ever^ to my dearest lord above all otlier men^ 
earthly kings : — Alfwold, king of the East- Angles, 
rightly and worthily holding the kingdom: — I, Felix, 
have set forth the true belief, and the blessing of 
eternal salvation for all God^s faithful people, and send 
greetildg. Thy words and commands I have obeyed ; 
the book which thou bespakest I have composed, 
concerning the life of Guthlac, of venerable memory, 
with clear words and testimonies. I therefore beg 
and beseect the learned and the faithful, if he here 
'i any ridiculous phrase, that he blame us not 
'fifore. But let each of these censorious and 
derisive persons reflect and consider that God^s 
kingdom standeth not in [eloquence] but in stead- 
fastness of the holy faith ; and reflect and consider 
that the salvation of "earth was not dcAdsed with 
light thoughts, but was preached and declared by 
fishermen. And if any man censure our attempt 



4 PROLOGUE. 

man ure angin and weorc teele (swa ic menige 
Avat on Angel-cynne mid )?am faegerum stafum ge- 
gylde, fiegere ^ and glaewlice gesette, j^aet hig ]?as 
hoc sylfe~ settan militon), ne wite he )?onne us 
swa [wc]^ neode and h^esc gehyrsumodon^ and 
word gefyldon. ForJ^an la ])u leornere gif )>u mid 
])an ]>cawe tjelendra me lilealitrige, warna ])e sylfne 
)wr ]m ];c hleahtres wene, J^cct ]>u ]>xr semninga ne 
wurSe mid dymnysse )7ystro ablend. pajt bi^ 
blindra j^eaw )7onnc hi " on leohte beoS^ )?aet hig 
sylfe nyton buton hi on ]?eostrum dwclion. On 
halgum gewrihtum bi^ oft unwisdom [blindnes] ^ 
geciged^ for]?on se fruma ealles yfeles arrest ]?onan 
cym^. For ]?isum Jnngum J?onne )m leornere ic J^e 
manige J^aet ]>\i J>a fremdan ne tsele^ J^elaes )?u fram 
o])ram eft' swa fremde getaded sig. Ac ])yla?s ic 
leuge )7one J^anc hefige ]>ara leornendra mid ge- 
segenum )?ara fremdrataeluysse, swa swa ic ' strange 
sae and mycele oferlic^e, and nu become to J^a^re 
smyltcstan hySe, Gublaces lifes. For])on ])u abiiede 
vet me ]rjit ic ]>e write and sade be )?are drohtnunge 
Gublaces and his lifes bysene, ic )>e forj^on hyrsu- 
mode and ic for)7on write swa me )>a dihteras sadon 
|>e his lif geornost cubon ; arost hwylc ware se 
fruina o]']>e on hwylcum cnde he hit eft geladde. 
For )>isuni Jnngum ic ))as boc ^ sette ; ]nvt J'a )>e his 
lif |>as cadigan weres cucion, )>a't him J)onne |)ig 

' MS. f:i«ger. ^MS. sylf. ^ [wr] not in MS. " MS. gchvrsuni. 
^ MS. he. ^ [l)lin(lnes] not in MS. ' MS. sec. « MS. bcc. 



PROLOGUE. 5 

and work (as I know many in England wlio might 
have written this book tliemselves, gilded with fair 
letters, fairly and cleverly composed) , let him not 
blame us who have but obeyed compulsion and com- 
mand, and fulfilled an order. Therefore, O ! learner, 
if thou deridest me after the manner of censurers, 
take heed to thyself, lest whilst thou thinkest of 
laughter, thou become suddenly blinded by the ob- 
scurity of darkness. It is the manner of blind 
men when they are in the light, that they know 
not but that they wander in the dark. In the holy 
Scriptures folly is often called [blindness], because 
from thence comes the beginning of all evil. For 
this cause I admonish thee, O ! learner, that thou 
censure not strangers, lest thou be afterwards as a 
stranger censured by others. But lest I longer 
weary the mind of learners by talking of the censure 
of strangers, I sail as it were over a strong and 
mighty sea, and now come to that most quiet haven, y 
the life of Guthlac. As thou didst require of me 
that I should write and relate concerning the con- 
versation of Guthlac and the example of his life, I 
have accordingly obeyed thee, and I write as those 
informants told me who knew his life most accu- 
rately; in the first place what was its beginning, 
and then to what end he brought it. For this 
cause I have composed this book, that as for those 
who knew the life of the blessed man they may be 



6 PROLOGUE. 

geneahhor his lifes to gemyndum come ; and )>am 
o^rura J7C hit aer ne cu);on swji swji ic him riimne 
weg and geradne taehte. pas Jnngc ))e ic her on- 
writc, ic gclcornode fram gcsegenum ];aes arwyrSan 
abhodes Wilfrides. Swilc eac manige oSre me J?aet 
ssedon, J^e mid ]>am eadigan were waeron and his lif 
hira eagum ofersawon. « Ne tweoge ic aht J>a mine 
dihtcras J)a?t hi mihton gemunan and call asecgan 
)m wundru )nscs eadigan wcres ; Tvseron hi swi^e 
wide cu^e and msere geond Angel-cynnes land. Ic 
for))on )?inum bebodum hyrsumede and )nn word 
and willan haebbe gefylled and )?aet gewrit )?isse 
andweardan hyrde swa ic mihte mid wisdome minra^ 
foregengena and J^sera" yldrena gcsette ; )7one fruman 
on )7am fruman ic gesctte^ and ]7one ende in Jmm 
ende. 

' MS. minre. = MS. Jjrcie. 



PROLOGUE. 7 

the more abimclantly reminded of his life; and that to 
others who knew it not before, I might as it were 
point out a wide and straight way. The things which 
I here write, I learned from the relation of the ve- 
nerable abbot Wilfrid. Also many others have 
related it to me who were with the blessed man, 
and saw his life with their own eyes. Nor doubt 
I aught that my informants were able to re- 
member and relate all the wonders of this blessed 
man; they were very widely known and famous 
through England. I accordiDgly have obeyed thy 
commands, and have fulfilled thy word and will, 
and I have composed the text of this present book 
as I best might, with the wisdom of my predecessors 
and their elders ; the beginning I have put in the 
beginning, and the end at the end. 



THE LIl-E OF 



I. 

r\N ]mm dagum JEj^elredes ];aes maeran kyninges 
Myrcua, was sum aej7el^ man on t>agre lieh-)?eode 
Myrcna-rice; se wa^s liaten Penwald.- He waes Jjaes 
yldestan and ]?ajs cej7elstan cynnes J;e Iclingas waeron 
genemnede. He waes for woriilde welig and myccle 
gcstreon lucfde, andj^aj^a lie welegost waes and 
mccst gestreon hasfde,-" Sa gyrnde he him his ge- 
maeccan to nymanne. He him ]?a ana geceas on 
]?cera ~ maedena heape f>e J7aer faegorost \yaes and 
aej^elestan kynnes; seo waes gehaten Tette: -and hi 
pa samod waeron o^ ]7one fyrst J7aet God foresceawode 
)?aet ]?aet wif mid bearne geeacnod waes. Da se tima 
com J>aet lieo ]m't beam cennan scolde^ }?a StTmninga 
com tacn of hcofenum,^and )7aet bearn'^ swytelice 
mid inseglum beclysde :->^ue, men - gesawon ane 
hand on J^am fiiegerestan readan hiwe of heofonum 
cumende ; and seo hiefde ane gyklene rode^ and 
waes aeteowod manegum mannum, and helde toweard 
toforan ]^9ps buses duru |)[er ]?a^t cild inne acenned 
waes. -^i)a men )7a ealle );e ))aet gesawon j^iderweard 
efeston Jniet ]iig ]?aet taccn swutelicor gescon woldon 
and ongitan^--^Seo hand J>a gewcnde mid Jwrc rude 
up to heofonum. Da men ))a ealle ))e ]>a^t tacen 
gesawon, lii hi ]>a ealle on cor^an astrehton, and 
God ba'dou ]>a^t he hcom gcswutclian scolde hwjpt 
}>cut tacn and J^a^t forcbeacn boon scolde ]>e him ]yn'v 

' MS. JKl^ela. = MS. \jxYe. ^ MS. tacn. 



ST. GUTIILAC. y 

I. 

J^TN the days of ^Ethelred, the famous king of the 

Mercians, there was a noble man of the province 

of Mercia, who was called Penwald. He was of the 

oldest and noblest family, ayIio were named Iclings. 

He was in worldly things wealthy and had great 

riches, and when he was wealthiest and had the most 

riches, he desired to take to himself a wife. He 

chose from the multitude of maidens the one who 

was fairest, and of the noblest kin ; she was called 

Tette. And they were together until the time that 

God ordained that the Avoman became with child. 

When the time came that she should give birth to 

the child, suddenly there came a sign from heaven, 

and clearly as with a seal marked out the child. 

Lo ! men saw a hand of the fairest red hue coming 

from heaven ; and it held a golden rood, and was 

manifested to many men, and it leaned forward 

before the door of the house wherein the child was 

born. Thereupon all the men who saw it hastened 

thitherward, that they might more clearly see and 

understand the sign. The hand then returned with. 

the rood up to heaven. Then all the men who saw 

the sign, stretched themselves on the earth, and 

prayed God that he would show them what that sign 

and portent should be, which was there so un- 



i§ 



10 THE LIFE OF 

swa faerlice aeteowod waes. ^ Da lii )?a );set gebcd 
gefylled heafdoD^ J^a com paer sum wif mid miccle 
raedlicnysse yrnan of ]mm. liuse J;e ]>cet cild inne 
acenned waes, and cleopode, and cwae^ )?us to j^am 
mannum : Beo^ ge staj^olfaeste and geliyrte^ for)?an 
)7aes toweardan wuldres man on J^isum middanearde 
her ys acenned. Da hi )7a men J^aet word gehyrdon, 
)7a spraecon liig heom betwynan pdst J^aet waere god- 
cundlic tacn j^e J^aer aetywed v,'ijes, forj^on ]je )?aet beam 
]7aer acenned waes. Sume hig ]7onne cwaedon j^aet ]>urh 
godcunde stihtunge J^aere ^ ecan eadignysse him waere 
seo gifu forestihtod, )?aes haliges tacnes J^e him aet 
his acennednysse aetywad waes. /Waeron men swij^e 
wundriende be J^aere wisan and be )7am tacne ]?e )7aer 
aetywed waes : and efne aer ]?on ])e sunne~ on setl code 
hit waes ofer call middel Engla-land cu^ and maere. 

I Da ]7aes ymbc cahta niht ]>aes ]?e raon J>a*t cild 
orohte to J?am lialgan ])weale fulwihte-baej^es, -Sa waes 
him nama sceapen of J?aes cynnes gereorde and of )73ere 
]7eode Gu];lac, swa hit waere of godcundhcre stihtunge 
gedon, ])jet he swa gcnemned waere : for]>on sw.i ]>a 
wisan leorneras sccgalS on Angcl-cynne ]nvt se nama 
standeS on twam^ gewritum: GuJSlac se nama ys on 
romanisc, BeUi munus : for]>on ])cah lie mid woruld- 
lice* geswince menige carfocSnysse adreah, and ])eah 
mid gccyrrcdnyssc J>a gife jrjirc ecan eadignysse mid 

' MS. ill ]pscre ccc. - MS. simna. 

^ MS. fcawum. * MS. \Yoruldlicrc. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 11 

expectedly displayed to tliem. When they had 
ended this prayer, a woman came in great haste 
running out of the house wherein the child was 
born, and said thus to the men : Be firm and of 
good heart, for a man of future glory is born here 
on this earth. When the men heard this word, 
they said among themselves, that it was a divine 
sign that was there showed to them, inasmuch as 
the child was born there. Some of them then said, 
that by divine providence the gift of eternal bliss was 
fore-ordained to him, in virtue of the holy sign that 
was shown to them at his birth. Men were much 
amazed at the matter and at the sign which was 
there displayed; and behold, ere the sun set it 
was known and famous over all the middle of 
England. 

II. 

About eight nights afterwards, when they brought 
the child to the holy laver of baptism, a name 
was given him from the appellation of the family and 
from the clan, Guthlac, as though it were done by 
divine providence, that he should be thus named. 
For thus the wise teachers in England say, that the 
name consists of two terms ; the name Guthlac is in 
Latin, Belli munus ; for that he not only endured 
many troubles with worldly labour, but also by con- 
version received the gift of eternal bliss with the 



12 THE LIFE OF 

sige eces lifes onfengc, and swci mid |?am apostolum 
cwej^ende: Beatus vir qui suffert teraptationem; quia 
cum probatus fuerit accipiet coronam vite quam re- 
promisit dominus diligentibus se. paet ys ou englisc: 
Eadig man biS, cwaeS he, se J^c her on worulde manig- 
fealdhce gcswincnysse and earfoSnvsse dreogeS, for- 
]?on mid J?am f>e he gecostod biS and geswenced, 
J70nne onfehS he ecum bea^; and |7aet God gehet 
Galium J^am ];e hine lufiaS-i^-'After ))on )>e he waes 
a)7wegen mid ];am J?weale J^aes halgan fulluhtes, ^a waes 
he eft^ju> haere faederlican healle gelaedd and J^aer 
gefedd.->Mid ];am J7e seo yld com ]7aet hit sprecan 
mihte aefter cniht-wisan, J>onne waes he nawiht hefig, 
ne unhyrsum his yldrum on wordum, ne ]>am ]?e hine 
feddon^ naenigum oJ^J^c yldran o]))?e gingran. Ne he 
cnihtlice galnysse uses begangende, ne idele spel- 
lunge folcricra manna, ne ungeliclice olaecunge, ne 
leaslicetunge : ne he mistlice fugela^-sangas ne wur- 
yode, swa oft swa cnilitlicu yldo bega^S.^ji^Ac on his 
scearpnysse ]>xt he weox, and wearS glaed on his 
ansyne, and hluttor and clttue on his mode, and bil- 
wite on ms pca\Mnn.^ -Kc on hmi wxs se scima 
gastlicre beorhtnysse swa swyJSe scinende, )>jet ealle 
]7a men J^e hine gesawon on hjiii geseon mihton J>a 
J^ing ))c him towcarde wiuron.'^^)a wivs a'fter siS- 
fate ])vet maegen on him -weox and gesti])ode on his 
geogoSe, jm gemunde he ]m strangau dii'da ])ara un- 
manna and ];a?ra woruld-frumcna ; he ]>a, swa he of 

' MS. fu-elas. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 13 

victory of eternal life, saying thus witli the apostle : 
Beatus vir qui suffert temptationem, quia cum pro- 
batus fucrit accipiet coronam vite, quam repromisit 
Domiuus diligentibus se. That is in English : 
Blessed is the man, saith he, who here in the world 
endureth manifold labours and troubles, for whereas 
he is tempted and tried, then receiveth he the ever- 
lasting ^war e i ; and this hath God promised to all 
who love him. After he was washed in the laver of 
holy baptism, he was led to his father's hall and 
there nourished. When the age came that the child 
should speak in child-fashion, he was no whit dull, 
nor disobedient to his parents in their commands, 
nor to those who niu'tured him, either elder or 
younger. Nor was he addicted to boyish le^dties, 
nor the vain talk of vulgar men, nor unseemly 
fawning, nor lying flattery. Nor did he study the 
various cries of birds, as childish age is often wont. 
But he grew up in sharpness, and was bhthe in 
countenance, and pure and clean in his disposition^ 
and innocent in his ways. And in him was the 
lustre of divine brightness so shining, that all men 
who saw him could perceive in him the promise of 
what should hereafter happen to him. After a time, 
when his strength waxed and he grew up to man- 
hood, then thought he on the strong deeds of the 
heroes, and of the men of yore. Then, as though he 



14 



THE LIFE OF 



slsepe onwoce, wearS his mod oncvrred, and he 
gesoranode miccle scole and wered his gej^oftena 
and hj> efen-haefdlingas, and him sylf to waepnum 
feng.>^pa wraec he his aefj^ancas on his feondum, 
and heora burh bc^rnde and heora tiinas ofer- 
hergode ; and he wide geond eorj^an menigfeald 
wael felde and sloh and of m annum heora aehta nam. 
pa waes he semninga innan manod godcundlice and 
laered ]??et he )?a word hete^ ealle ]?a he swa [genam] ^ 
he het }>riddan^^j]iel agifan ]?am mannum ]>e he hit 
3er ongona?mde.>^±)a waes ymbe nigon winter }7aes 
]>e he ]7a ehtnysse begangende waes se eadiga 
Guthlac, and he hine sylfne betweox ]?ises and- 
weardan middaneardes wealcan dwelode." pa gelamp 
snme nihte^ mid J^am ])e he com of farendum wege, 
and he hys J^a werigan lima reste, and he menig 
J?ing mid his mode )7ohte ; Sa waes he faeringa mid 
Godes ege onbryrd, and mid gasthcre lufan his heorte 
innan gcfylled : and mid ]?y he awoc he ge]>ohte ]?a 
ealdan kyningas J^e iu waeron,* ]>urh earmlicne dea^ 
and Jnirh sarhcne utgang ]?aes miiufuUan lifes, )?e 
]?as woruld forleton ; and ]m micclan welan ))e hig 
aer-hwilon aliton he geseh on hraedlicnysse ealle 
gewitan ; and he gescah his agen lif dii^ghwamlice 
to ]?am ende efstan and scyndan. J)a WcPS he 
saemninga mid J^am godcundan cgcsan innan swa 
swy]7e onbryrded, ]nvt he andcttc Gode gif he liim 
))aes mergcn-da^gcs geunnan Avolde, ])a^t he his ];eow 

' [C.enam] not in MS. = MS. wcolc ^ \vclodc. ^ MS. niht. 
* MS. and mid Jjy he gefiolite ^a caldau kyuingas Jsa iii waron he 
awoc burh, etc. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 15 

had woke from sleep, his disposition was changed, 
and he collected a great troop and host of his com- 
panions and equals, and himself took weapons. 
Then wreaked he his grudges on his enemies, and 
burned their city, and ravaged their towns, and 
widely through the land he^ made much slaughter^ 
and slew and took from men their goods. Then 
was he on a sudden inwardly admonished of God, 
and taught that he should thus give command ; of 
all thiugs which he had so taken he bade give back the 
third part to those from whom he had taken it. 
It was about nine years that he was thus engaged 
in hostile raids, the blessed Guthlac, and he thus 
wandered amidst the t-umuft' of this present world. 
It happened on one night when he had come from 
an expedition, and he rested his weary limbs, and 
thought over many things in his mind, that he 
w^as suddenly inspired with divine awe, and his heart 
within was filled with spiritual love ; and when he 
awoke, he thought on the old kings who were of 
yore, who thinking -en miserable death, and the 
wretched end of sinful life, forsook this world; and the 
great wealth which they once possessed, he saw all 
on a sudden vanish ; and he saw his own life daily 
hasten and hurry to an end. Then was he suddenly 
so exeitted: inwardly with godly fear, that he vowed 
to God, if he would spare him till the morrow, that 
he would be his servant. AVhen the darkness of 



16 THE LIFE OF 

beon wolde. -^lid ])j J^aere nilite j^ystro gewiton and 
hit daeg waes, J?a aras he and hine sylfne getaciiode 
insegle Cristes rode. Da bead he his geferum j^aet 
hi fundon him oSerne ealdorman and latteow hira 
geferscipc ; and he him andctte and saede J>cet he 
wolde beon Cristes ]?eow. ^lid )7am ]?e his geferan 
J>as word gehvrdon^ ])a wii^ron hi swij^e wundriende, 
and swyj>e forhte for ]?am wordum )?e hi J?cer ge- 
hyrdon : )?a hi ealle to him aluton and hine bsedon 
J>aet he niefre ];a ]?ing swa gelaeste swa he mid 
wordum gecwaeS. He )7a hwaejjere heora worda ne 
gimde, ac ]?a^t ilce }?aet he aer ge]7ohte j^aet he J^aet 
forSloestan wokle ; barn him swa sv.yj^e innan ]?aere 
Godes lufan ]?aet na laes ];aet an J^aet he )?as woruld 
forseah, ac swilce hys yldrena gestreon and his eard, 
and )?a sylfan his heafod-gemacan ])[et he );a?t eall 
forlet. Da he waes feower and twentig wintra eald, 
);a forlet he ealle ]7as wiizuld-glenga, and eallne his 
hiht on Crist gesctte AttCd ]?a a^fter ]>on ]?a?t he 
ferde to mynstre ];e ys gecweden Hrypadiin, and 
)7aer )m gerynelican sceare onfeng, See Petres 
J7aes apostoles under iElf Srybe abbodyssan : and 
syj7j?an he to sceare and to j^am munuc-life feng, 
hwaet he naenigre w;)?tan onbitan nolde ])c drun- 
cennys ^ )nirh come. J<^iid ]'a for ]nin ))ingum hine 
J>a brocSra liatedon, ]?y he sw<i forluvbbcnde waes : 
and )?a raSe sy)?])an hi |7a hluttorlicnysse his modes, 
and ];a cla^nnysse his lifcs ongcaton, ]wt liig ealle 

' MS. drunccnnysse. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 17 

night was gone, and it was day, lie arose and signed 
'himself with the mark of Christ's rood. Then bade 
he his companions that they should find them 
another captain and leader of their company ; and 
he confessed to them, and said that he would be 
Christ's servant. When his companions heard these 
words, they were greatly astonished, and very alarmed 
for the words which they had heard. Then they all 
bowed to him, and begged him that he never would 
perform the things which he had in words ex- 
pressed. He however cared not for their words, but 
the same thing that he had first intended, that 
would he perform. God's love burnt so within him, 
that not only did he despise this world, but also his 
■^parents' wealth and his home, and even his com- 
panions he all forsook. When he was four and twenty -^ 
years old, he forsook all the pomps of the world, 
and set all his hope on Christ. And after that he 
went to a monastery, which is called Hrypadun, 
and there received the mystical tonsure of St. Peter 
the apostle, under abbess ^Ifthrytha. And after 
he had taken the tonsure and the monastic life, lo ! 
he would taste no liquid through which drunkenness 
comes. And for these things the brethren hated 
him, because he was so abstinent ; but soon after, 
when they perceived the purity of his mind, and the 
cleanness of his life, they all loved him. He was in 



18 THE LIFE OF 

hine lufedon. Waes he on ansine mycel and on 
lichaman clsene, wynsum on his mode, and wlitig 
on ansyne ; he waes li^e and gemetfaest on his 
worde, and he waes gej^jddig and eadmod ; and a seo 
godcunde lufu on hys heortan hat and byrnende. 
Mid J?y he J)a waes in stafas and on leornunge ge- 
togen_, ])a girnde he his sealmas to leornianne : ]m 
wseron ]m waestm-bcrendan breost ]?aes eadigan weres 
mid Godes gife gcfyllede and mid )?am lareoAvdome 
Jjaes hean magistres Godes, )7aet he wees on godcund- 
lican J^eodscipe getyd and gelaered.^^yiLMid J^am ])e 
he waes twa gear on )73ere leornunge, ^a haefde he 
his sealmas geleomod and canticas, and ymnas, and 
gebeda defter cyriclicre endebyrdnysse. pa ongan 
he wui'^igan J^a godan J^eawas J7ara godra on J^am Hfe, 
eadnysse,^ and hyrsumnysse, ge}>yld, and l^olemod- 
nvsse, and forhcefednvsse his lichaman ;. and ealra 
)7ara godra maegen he waes begangende. Da ymbe twa 
winter j^aes J>e he his lif swa leofode nnder munuc- 
hade }>aet he J?a ongan wilnian westenes and sunder- 
setle. Mid ]>j he gehyrde secgan and he leornode 
be )mm ancernm, ])e gcara on westene and on sundor- 
settlum for Godes naman wilnodon and heora lif 
leofodon, Sa waes his heorte innan ]>urh Godes gifu 
onbryrdod, Jjaet he westenes gewilnode. Da w 
sona ymbe unmanige dagas ]nvt he him Icafe ba?d a?t 
]>fxm ])cowum ])e ]n^r yldcst wauron ])a't he feran moste. 

' Perliaps a mistake for cadmodnysse. 



ST. GUTIILAC. 19 

figure tall, aud pure in body, cheerful in mood, and 
in countenance handsome ; lie was mild and modest 
in his discourse, and he was patient and humble ; 
and ever in his heart was divine love hot and buraing. 
When he devoted himself to letters and learning, he 
was desirous of learning his psalms. Then was the 
fruitful breast of the blessed man filled with God^s 
grace, and with the teaching of God the great 
master he became instructed and learned in divine 
discipline. When he had been two years on this 
study, he had learned his psalms, and canticles, and 
hymns, and prayers, after ecclesiastical order. Then 
began he to study the good observances of the virtuous 
in that life, gentleness and obedience, patience and 
long suft'ering, and abstinence of body ; and he 
cultivated the virtues of all good men. After he 
had passed about two years of his life thus in the 
monastic state, he began to long for the wilderness 
and a hermitage. When he heard tell and learned 
concerning anchorites who of yore longed for the 
wilderness and hermitages for God^s name, and 
passed their lives there, his heart was inwardly in- 
spired with the love of God to long for the wilder- 
ness. So then not majay days after, he begged 
leave from the servants [of God] who were the 
eldest there, that he might depart. 



20 



THE LIFE OF 



III. 

Ys on Bretone-lande sum fenn unmaetre mvccl- 
nysse ];oet onginneS fram Grante ea nalit feor 
frara pxre cestre, 5y ylcan naraa ys nemned Grante- 
ceaster. peer synd unmaetei moras, hwilon sweart 
waeter-steal, and liwiloa fdle ea-ri]?as yrnendc, and 
swylce eac manige ealand and hrcod and beorhgas 
and treow-gewrido, and liit mid menigfealdan big- 
nyssum widgille and lang J?urliwiina^" on norS-sse. 
Mid J7an se foresprecena wer and ]wre eadigan 
gemynde Gublac^ ]7aes widgillan westenes )7aungear- 
awan stowe ])?er_RQmette, )7a ^vaes he mid godcunde* 
fultume gefylst^-OTuTj^a sona ]mn rihtestan wege jn'der 
togeferde. pa wa^s mid J^am )>e he J7yder com J>aet he 
fryegn J7a bigengcan J7a?s landes, hwa^r he on ]?am 
westene him eardung-stowe findan mihte. Mid ]?y 
hi him menigfeald J^ing sa3don be f>aire widgilnysse 
)7aes westenes. pa waes Tiitwine gehateu sum man, 
saedc ];a j?at he wiste sum ealand synderhce digle, 
]7aet oft menige men eardian ongunnon, ac for menig- 
fealdum brogum and egsura, and for annysse )?ces 
widgillan westenes ])at hit na^nig man adreogan ne 
mihte, ac hit ale for])an .befluge. ]\Iid ])am yc se 
halga wer Gu^lac ))a word gehyrde, he ba^d sona )7aet 
he him ]7a stowe getahtc, and he ])a sona swa dyde ; 
eode ]?a on scip, and ))a ferdon begcn ]mrh pa rugan 
fennas o]y Jwt hi comon to J^aere stowe J^e man hateS 

' MS. unmaetre. « MS ]>c}\c^ wuna«. 

^ MS. G unlaces. ■• MS. godcundrc. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 21 

III. 

There is in Britain a fen of immense size, which 
begins from the river Granta not far from the city, 
which is named Grantchester. There are immense 
marshes, now a black pool of water_, now foul run- 
ning streams, and also many islands, and reeds, and 
hillocks, and thickets, and with manifold windings 
wide and long it continues up to the north sea. 
AVhen the aforesaid man, Guthlac of blessed memory, 
found out this uncultivated spot of the wide wilder- 
ness, he was comforted with divine support, and 
journeyed forthwith by the straightest way thither. 
And when he came there he inquired of the inhabit- 
ants of the land where he might find himself a 
dwelling-place in the wilderness. Whereupon thev 
told him many things about the vastness of the wdl- 
derness. There was a man named Tatwine, who 
said that he knew an island especially obscure, which 
ofttimes many men had attempted to inhabit, but 
no man could do it on account of manifold horrors 
and fears, and the loneliness of the wide wilderness ; 
so that no man could endure it, but every one on 
this account had fled from it. When the holy man 
Guthlac heard these words, he bid him straightway 
show him the' place, and he did so ; he embarked in 
a vessel, and they went both through the wild fens 
till they came to the spot which is called Crowland ; 



2^ THE LIFE OF 

Cruwland ; wies ])set land on middan j^ara ^vestene 
swa gcrad geseted J>oes foresccdan fennes/ swj^e 
digie, and hit swy)7e feaAva^ men wiston buton j^am 
anum }>e liyt liim ttehte ; swylc )?3?r nsefre ncenig 
man ser cardian ne mihte aer se cadiga wer GuSlac to- 
com for )73ere eardunga )7ara awerigedra gasta. And 
he pa sc cadiga wer GuSlac forhogode sona J^a 
costunge J7?era awerigdra gasta, and mid heofonUcum 
fultume gestrangod wear^, betwyx pa fenlican 
gewrido pses widgillan westenes, ]78et he ana ongan 
eardian. Da gelamp mid J^aere godcundan stihtunge, 
)78et he on J7a tid See Bartholomei ]7aes apostoles )7aet 
he com to J^am ealande, for]7an he on eallum ]nngum 
'^his fnltum sohte. And he J^a gelufode J^ciere' stowe 
digelnysse, and he pa gehet J?aet he wolde ealle dagas 
his lifes J^aer on j^am ealande Gode ]7eowian^^-Mid py 
he pa unmanige dagas J^aer wais, J?a geondsceawode he 
pa l^ing ];e to Jnere stowe bclurapon. Da J^ohte he 
];aet he eft wokle to ))am mynstre feran and his ge- 
broSra gretan, forj^an he a^r fram heom ungegret 
gewat. Da pxs on mergen mid ])an hit difg waes 
J7a ferde he eft to )?am mynstre ; ])a wa^s he )>£er 
hundnigantig nihta mid ];am brobrum : and )>a sy]>]?an 
he hig grette, he J^a eft hwierf to )7a?r£^towe )^aes 
leofan westenes mid twam cnihtura?-^Da waes se 
eahto(Sa dceg pves kalcudes Septcmbres, )>e man on 
J»a tid wur(Sa(S See Bartholomei ))a's apostoles, ])a se 
eadiga wcr GuMac com to JnL^re foresprecenan stowe, 
' MS. fcnnas. = MS. fcawe. ^ ^js. ^^ 



ST. GUTIILAC. 23 

this land was in such wise (as he said) situated in 
the midst of the waste of the aforesaid fen, very ob- 
scure, and very few men knew of it except the one 
who showed it to him ; as no man ever could inhabit 
it before the holy man Guthlac came thither, on ac- 
count of the dwelling of the accursed spirits there. 
And the blessed man Guthlac disregarded the tempta- 
tion of the accursed spirits, and was strengthened 
with heavenly support, so that he began to dwell 
alone among the fenny thickets of the wide wilder- 
ness. It fell out, by divine providenq.e, that he came 
to the island on the day of St. Bartholomew the 
apostle ; for he sought in all things liis support. And 
he was enamoured of the obscurity of the place, and 
vowed that he would serve God on that island all 
the days of his life. When he had been there not 
many days, he looked about at the things which ap- 
pertained to the place. Then he thought that he 
would return again to the monastery, and salute his 
brethren, for he had before gone away from them 
without taking leave. So in the morning, when it 
was day, he went back to the monastery ; there he 
remained with the brethren ninety nights. And 
after he had taken leave of them, he returned back 
again to the place of his beloved wilderness with two 
servants. It was the eighth day before the kalends of 
September, which is observed as the day of St. 
Bartholomew the apostle, when the holy man Guthlac 



24 THE LIFE OF 

to Cruwlande, forj^on lie liis fultum on eallum J^ingum 
aerest to ]?am sundor-sctlc solite. Htcfde he J^a on 
ylde six and twentig wintra Jm lie aerest se Godes 
cempa on )7am westene mid heofenlicre gife gewcor<Sod 
gesaet.^ pa sona wiS J^am scotnngum J^ara -vverigra 
gasta J>aet he hine mid gastlicum wajpnum gescylde, 
he nam )7one scyld J^aes Halgan Gastes geleafan ; and 
hync on )?iere byrnan gcgearo^vode J7aes heofonlican 
hihtesj and he him dyde heolm on lieafod claenera~ 
gej7anca ; and mid )?am straelum J^a^s halgan sealm- 
sanges^ a singallice "wiS J7am awerigedum gastum 
sceotode and campode. And nu hwaet ys swa swij^e 
to wundrianne J7a diglan mihte nres Drihtnes, and 
his mildheortnysse domas ; liwa maeg J^a ealle 
asecgan ! Swa se te];ela lareow calra J?eoda Scs Paulus 
se apostol, J>one ure Drihten admilitig God fore- 
stihtode to godspellianne his folce ; he waes aer-J>on 
ehtere his J>9ere halgan cyrcan, and mid J^an ])e he 
to Damascum ferde J^a^re byrig, )>a?t he was of ]mm 
)?ystrum gedwolum abroden ludea ungeleafulnysse 
mid )7am swege heofonlicre stefne ; swa Jwniie J^a^re 
arwurSan gemynde GutSlac of J^are gcdrefednysse 
J^issere worulde waes gelseded to camphtide ]>as ecan 
lifes. 

' MS. gcweoriSod. Gcsait }?a. ' MS. cla?uere. 

^ MS. sealm-sangas. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 25 

came to tlie aforesaid place Crowland, for that he 
sought his support first in all things in regard to his 
solitary life. He was six and twenty years of age 
when, endowed with heavenly grace^ God's soldier 
first settled in the wilderness. Then straightway, 
that he might arm himself against the attacks of the 
wicked spirits with spiritual weapons, he took the 
shield of the Holy Spirit, faith ; and clothed himself 
in the armour of heavenly hope ; and put on his 
head the helmet of chaste thoughts; and with the 
arrows of holy psalmody he ever continually shot and 
fought against the accursed spirits. And now how 
greatly must we admire the secret might of our Lord^ 
and the judgments of his mercy ; who can tell them 
all? As the noble teacher of all nations, St. Paul 
the apostle, whom our Lord Almighty God fore-ap- 
pointed to preach the gospel to his people; he 
was before a persecutor of his holy church, and whilst 
he journeyed to the city Damascus he was delivered 
from the dark errors of the Jews^ unbelief by the 
sound of a heavenly voice ; so Guthlac of venerated 
memory was led from the tribulation of this world 
to the victory of eternal life. 




26 THE LIFE OF 



P^o 



IV. 

Be j^am halgan were hu he eardode on j^aere stowe. 

nginne ic nu be Sam life "Saes eadigan weres 
GuSlaces, swa swa ic gehyrde secgan )7a J^e liis lif 
cu^on^ Wilfrid and Cissa ; J^onne secge ic swa aefter 
)?aere endebyrdnysse. Waes )7aer on )7am ealande 
sum hlaw mycel ofcr eorSan geworht^ J;one ylcau 
men iu geara for feos wilnunga gedulfon and braecon. 
pa woes ]?aer on o]7re sidan )nes Idawes^ gedolfen 
swylce mycel waeter-sea$ waere. On J^am seaSe 
ufan se eadiga wer Guthlac him 1ms getimbrode, 
sona fram fruman ];aes J>c he ]>ddi ancer-setl" gesaet. 
pa ge]7ohte he J^get he naSor ne wyllenes hraegles ne 
linenes brucan nolde, ac on fellenum gegyrelan )7aet 
lie wolde ealle his dagas his lifes alifian ; and he hit 
swa for^-gelaestende waes. ^Ice dsege waes his 
bigleofan swylc gemetegung^ of ]?aere tide J?e he )?aet 
westen cardigan ongan, J7a3t he nawiht ne onbyrigde 
buton berenne"* hlaf and waeter; and J;onne sunne 
waes on setk^4>onne J>igede he J^a" andlyfene \q, he 
bigleofode.A^ona J^aes ]?e he Westen cardigan ongan, 
))a gelamp hit sumc da^ge mid [];y he]^ ])an gcwnne- 
lican }?eawe his scalm sang and his gebedum befeal^ 
]?a se ealda feond man-cynnes (efne swa grymetigende 
leo, ])aet he his costunga attor wide todadcS,) mid 
);y he j^a his yfclnyssc ma'gen and grymnysse attor 

' MS. hlawas. ^ MS. ancer-setle. ^ MS. to gcreorde. 
* MS. berene. * MS. )jaes. ^ [>y he] uot iu MS. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 27 

IV. 

Conceiiung the holy mau, how he dwelt in the place. 

I begin now to speak of the life of the blessed 
man Guthlac^ as I have heard those relate who knew 
his life, Wilfrid and Cissa ; and according thereto I 
tell it in order. There was on the island a great 
mound raised upon the earth, which same of yore 
men had dug and broken up in hopes of treasure. 
On the other side of the mound a place was dug, as 
it were a great water-cistern. Over this cistern the 
blessed man Guthlac built himself a house at the 
beginning, as soon as he settled in the hermit-station. 
Then he resolved that he would use neither 
woollen nor linen garment, but that he would live 
all the days of his life in clothing of skins ; and so 
he continued to do. Each day, from the time 
that he began to dwell in the wilderness, the ab- 
stemiousness of his diet was such, that he never 
tasted aught but barley-bread and water ; and when 
the sun was set, then took he his food on which he 
lived. Soon after he began to dwell in the wilder- 
ness, it happened one day, when he had, after his 
wonted custom, sung a psalm and fell to his prayers, 
that the old enemy of mankind (who, even as a roar- 
ing lion, scatters wide the venom of his temptations), 
whilst he [was scattering abroad] the might of his 



28 THE LIFE OF 

[todaelde]^ )?aet he mid ]7aii )?a menniscan heortan 
wundode, J^a semninga swa be of gebendum bogan 
bis costungc streale on );am mode gefaestnode j^aes 
Cristes cempan. Da he ]?a se eadiga ^\er mid J>CEre 
geaettredan streale gewundod waes )7aes awerigedan 
gastes, "Sa waes his mod f>aes eadigan weres swi^e 
gedrefed on him, be ]7am onginne J?e he ongan Jjaet 
westen swa ana eardigan. Mid J^am he J^a bine 
liider and ];yder gelomlice on bis mode cyrde, and 
gemunde ]?a aerran synna and leahtras ]?e be gefre- 
mede and geworbt baefde, and J>a maran and un- 
maettran^ him sylfa dyde J?onne he wende j^aet he hi 
aefre gebetan mibte. Da hsefde bine seo deofoUice 
strsel mid ormodnysse gewundodne : waes se eadiga 
wer GuSlac mid j^aere ormodnysse J^ri dagas ge- 
wundod, )7aet he sylfa nyste hwider be wolde mid 
his mode gecyrran. Da waes J^y }7ryddan daege J^aere 
aefter-fylgendan nihte ]7aet he J7am tweogendum 
ge}7ohtum faestlice wiSstod ; and efne swa "witedom- 
lice mu]?e ]7aet be sang and clypode to Gode, and 
cwae^ : In tribulatione mea invoca\4 Dominum, et 
reliqua. paet ys on englisc : Min Drihten on minre 
geswincnysse ic J?c to clypigc, ac gchyr ]m me and 
gefultuma me on minum carfccium. Da -wa^s sona 
cefter )?on J^aet bis se getreowa fultum him to com, 
Scs Bartholomeus ; and na laes J>aet be him on slaepe 
aetywde, ac be waecccnde ]>one apostol on cngellicre 
faegernysse gcscab and sccawodc. And he ]m sona 

' [todrclde] not in MS. ' MS. unnijcttra. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 29 

wickedness and the venom of his cruelty, that he 
might wound the hearts of men therewith, suddenly, 
as from a bended bow, he fixed the dart of his 
temptation in the soul of Christ^s soldier. When, 
therefore, the blessed man was wounded with the 
poisoned arrow^ of the accursed spirit, his som (the 
blessed man^s) was greatly troubled within him, 
about the undertaking he had begun, namely, to 
dwell thus alone in the wilderness. Then he turned 
himself hither and thither continually in his mind, 
and thought of his former sins and wickednesses 
which he had committed and wrought, and how that 
he himself had done greater and more enormous 
sins than he thought he could ever compensate for. 
Thus had the devilish arrow wounded him wdth 
des^ei^ion : the blessed man Guthlac was three 
days wounded with this despair, so that he himself 
knew not whither he would turn with his thoughts. 
It was upon the night following the third day 
that he firmly withstood these doubting thoughts; 
and thereupon with prophetic mouth he sang and 
cried to God, and said : In tribulatione mea invocavi 
Dominum, et reHqua. That is, in English : My Lord, 
in my trouble I cry unto thee, and hear thou me, and 
support me in my tribulations. It was ^SeaSter this 
that his faithful support, St. Bartholomew, came to 
him, and did not appear to him in sleep, but w- aking 
he saw and beheld the apostle in angelic beauty. 



30 THE LIFE OF 

se eadiga wer GuSlac swyj^e bli]?e waes )?aes heofon- 
licaii cuman ; and him sona his heorte and his 
ge)?anc eall waes onlihtod ; and he ]7a hraedlice J>a 
yfelan and )?a twyfcaldan gej^ohtas forlet, and hine 
se heofonlica cuma frefrode^ Scs Bartholomeus, and 
hine mid wordum tiymcde and strangode, and hine 
het ]7aet he ne tweode, ac J78et he waere anrsed ; and 
)7aet he him on fultume beon ^yolde on eallum his 
earfeSum. Da se halga GuShic J^as word gehyrde 
his J;aes getreowan freondes, ]?a waes he mid gasthcre 
blisse gefylled, and his geleafan faeste on God sylfne 
getrymede and faestnode. 



V. 



€ 



Swylce cac gelamp on sumne sael, mid J^y he be 
j^aere drohtnunge smeade his lifcs^ hu he Gode 
gecwemlicost mihte lybban, \Sa comon semninga 
twegen deoflu to him of ];aere lyfte slidan and Jm to 
him cuSKce spraecon and cwttdon : We syndon 
gewisse Jnnes hfes, and Jnnes geleafan trumnesse 
we witon, and eac ];in ge)?yld we cunnon linofer- 
swy])ed ; and J?aer we )?in fandedon, and costodon, 
)7aet we mid manigfcaldc cnuftc lirc^ wai'pna wiJS ];e 
sendon. We nu heonon-forb nellaJS ]?c leng swencan 
ne ]yc bysmrian; ua ki3s Jnvt an ])a?t we J^e ];aes nu 
nellatS Icttan ]?a?s ]>u a?r gcj^oht hitfdest, ac we J^e 
cac wyllaS secgan be ])am eallum |7C iu geara westen^ 

' MS. lira. ^ MS. westene. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 31 

And fortliwith the blessed man Guthlac was right 
glad of the heavenly visitor ; and his heart and mind 
was soon all enlightened, and he quickly let go the 
bad and desperate thoughts; and the heavenly visitor, 
St. Bartholomew, comforted him, and confirmed 
and strengthened him with his words, and bid him not 
despair, but be constant ; and said that he would be 
his support in all his tribulations. When the holy 
Guthlac heard these words of his faithful friend, he 
was filled with spuitual joy, and strengthened and 
fixed his faith firmly upon God himself. 



V. 



It happened, also, on one occasion, when he was 
reflecting upon the conduct of his life, how he might 
live most acceptably to God, there came suddenly 
two devils to him, sliding down from the air, and 
they spoke plainly to him, and said : We are ac- 
quainted with thy life, and the firmness of thy faith 
we know, and also we know thy patience to be un- 
conquered; and therein we tried and proved thee, 
whilst with manifold craft we directed our weapons 
at thee. We now henceforth will no longer trouble 
nor injure thee ; not only will we now cease to 
hinder thee from that which thou didst first intend, 
but we will even tell thee respecting all those who 
of yore inhabited the wilderness, how they lived 



32 THE LIFE OF 

eardedon, hu hi heora lif leofodon. Moyses serest 
and Helias hi faestoiij and swylce eac se Haelend 
ealles middaneardes on westene he faeste, and eac 
swylce ]7a maeran munecas )?a mid ^giptum waeron 
and J^ier on westenum wunedon : J^a J^urh heora for- 
haefdnysse on heom ealle uncyste ofaslogon and 
acwealdon. ponne gif )7U ]>dst wilnast J7aet ]?u of ])e 
])2i aer gefremedan synna a]?wean wylt^ ]>onne scealt 
)7U )?inne lichaman Jmrh forhaefdnysse waeccan; forj^on 
swa myccle swa ]?u ]?e her on worulde swy];or swincst, 
swa J;u eft byst on ecnysse faestlicor getrymed ; and 
swa myccle swa ]?u on J>isum andweardan life mil 
earfo^a drigast, swa myccle )7U eft on toweardnysse 
gefehst ; and J?onne ];u on fassten her on worulde 
gestihst, )?onne hist ]m ahafen for Godes eagum. 
Forjjon J?in faesten ne sceal boon J^aet an twegra 
daga fyrst o)?]?e ))reora oJ^J^e aelce daegc, )?aet ])\i )7e 
swa on^ tela myccle forha?fdnysse ahebbe, ac on 
seofon nihta fyrstes faestene hi); to claensienne )7one 
man. Swa on six dagum aerest God ealles middan- 
eardes faegernysse gehiwode and gefraetwode, and on 
J7am seofoj^an he hine reste, swa )>onne gedafenaS 
J7am f>e gelice ];urh six daga faesten ]>one gast 
gefraetwian, and J?onne ])y seofotSan difge- mete 
J^icgan and j^one'^ lichaman restan. Da se eadiga 
wer GuSlac J^as word gchyrde, ]>a aras he sona and 
to Gode clypode, and liyne gcba^d and ]>us cwa?^ : 
Syn mine fynd, min Drihten God, it on-hinder ge- 

' MS. on s^^a. ' MS. dcCg. ^ j^jg^ i^jg 



ST. GUTHLAC. 33 

tlieir lives. Moses first, and Elijah, they fasted, 
and also the Sa^dour of all the earth, he fasted in 
the wilderness ; and also the famous monks who were 
in Egypt and dwelt there in deserts ; they, througli 
their abstinence, slew and quelled in themselves all 
corruption. Therefore, if thou desirest to wash from 
thee the sins thou didst once commit, thou shouldst 
afflict thy body with abstinence ; because by how 
much the more severely thou afflictest thyself in this 
world, by so much the more firmly shalt thou be 
strengthened to eternity ; and by how much thou 
suff'erest more troubles in this present life, so much 
the more shalt thou receive in future ; and when 
thou advancest here in the world in fasting, thou 
shalt then be exalted in God^s eyes. Therefore thy 
fasting must not be a space of two or three days, 
nor on each day, that thou shouldst exalt thyself 
thereupon as a very great abstinence, but it is 
necessary by a fast of seven nights' duration to 
cleanse the man. As on six days God first formed 
and adorned the beauty of the whole earth, and on 
the seventh rested himself; so, also, beseems it thee 
in like manner by six days'* fast to adorn the spirit, 
and then on the seventh day to take meat and to 
rest the body. When the blessed man Guthlac 
heard these words, he arose and cried to God, and 
prayed, and thus said : Let my foes, my Lord God, 



2§ 



34 THE LIFE OF 

cyrde, forJ?on ic f»e ongite and oncnawe, forj^on ];e 
]>u eart min scyppend. pa sona aefter ]7am wordum 
se awyrigeda gast efne swa smic beforan his ansyne 
aidlode. He )?a forseali ]?a deofoUican lare, for Jmm 
])G he ealle J^a ydele ongeat; ac p'a feng [to]^ med- 
mycclan bigleofan, J^aet waes to j^am berenan hlafe, 
and ]7one j^igedc and his lif bileofode. Da J>a 
awyrigedan gastas J^aet ongcaton )7a?t he hig ealle 
forhogode and heora lara, hig ]?a ])<xit mid wependre 
stefne sorhgodon, ]?aet hi oferswiSde waeron; and 
se eadiga wer swa gesigefaestod wearS J^aet he )?a 
bysmornysse forhogode heora lara and heora costnnga. 
^ A Swylce eac gelamp on sumne.sael ymb unmanige 
dagas J^aet he waeccende ]m niht on halgum gebedum 
awunode. pa on );aere nihte stilnysse gelamp 
semninga, J?8et J^cer comon mycele mcniu )>ara 
awyrigedra gasta, and hi call J^a^t hus mid heora 
cyme fyldon ; and hi on ealce hcalfe inguton ufan 
and neot)an and eghwonen. Hi wseron on ansyne 
egslice and hig haefdon mycele heafda, and langne 
sweoran^ and ma?gere" ansyne : hi waeron fiilice and 
orfyrme on heora beardum; and hi hti^fdon'' ruge 
earan, and woh nebb and reSelice eagan, and fiile 
mu'Sas; and heora toj^as wseron gelice horses twuxan; 
and him waeron )?a J>rotan mid lege gefyldc, and 
hi wa^ron ongristhce on stefne : hi haifdon woge 
sceancan, and mycele cneowu and hindan greate, 

' [to] not in MS. * ^^ig_ niauigre. 

^ MS. and ruge earan and hi lia;fdon woh nebb. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 35 

be for ever turned backwards, for I know and under- 
stand thee, that thou art my Maker. Immediately 
after these words the accursed spirit vanished from 
before his face like smoke. Then despised he the 
devihsh doctrine, for he understood that it was all 
vain ; and he took a moderate meal, that is, the 
barley loaf, and ate it, and supported his life. When 
the cursed spirits understood that he despised them 
all, and their doctrines, they bewailed with lament-, 
able voice that they were overcome ; and the blessed 
man was so victorious that he despised the blas- 
phemies of their doctrines and of their temptations. 
Also it happened, om a time not many days after, • 
that he was passing the night waking in holy prayers. 
Then in the stillness of the night it happened 
suddenly that there came great hosts of the accursed 
spirits, and they filled all the house with their 
coming ; and they poured in on every side, from 
above and from beneath, and everywhere. They ) 
were in countenance horrible, and they had great 
heads, and a long neck, and lean visage ; they were \ 
filthy and squalid in their beards ; and they had 
rough ears, and distorted face, and fierce eyes, and '>^ 
foul mouths ; and their teeth were like horses^ tusks ; 
and their throats were filled with flame, and they 
were grating in their voice ; they had crooked ' 
shanks, and knees big and great behind, and dis- 



e \^ 



36 THE LIFE OF 

and misscrcncc tan/ and Ms hrymedon on~ stefniim ; 
and hi J>a swa ungeuietlicum'^ gestundum foron and 
swa unmetlice* ege, J>aet him )7uhte )?aet liit call 
betweox heofone and eorSan hleoprode )7am eges- 
licum stefnura. Naes }>a naenig yldend to f'am j^aet 
syj7}?an hi on J^aet hus comon hi ]7a sona]70ne halgan 
wer eallum limum gebundon, and hi hine tugon 
and laeddon ut of );aere cytan, and hine )?a la?ddon 
on j7one sweartan fenn and hine ]?a on j^a horwihtan^ 
waeter bewnrpon and besencton. iEfter ]7on hi 
hine loeddon on J^am return stowum J^aes westenes, 
betwux. )?a j^iccan gewrido ]?ara bremela J^aet him 
waes call se liehama gewundod. Mid ]?y hi );a lange 
on ]?aere j^ystrunge hine swa swencton, ]m leton hi 
hine ane hwile abidan and gestandan ; heton hine j^a 
)7aet he of ]7am westene gewite, o)>)7e gif he ]}set 
nolde^ )70nne woldon hi hine mid maran bysmerum 
swencan and costian. He Jm se eadiga wcr GuMac 
heora worda ne gimde, ac he mid witegiende mu^e 
]?us cwae^ : Drihten me ys on ]m swyj^ran healfe, for- 
j7on ic nc beo oncyrred fram )7e. Da a^fter ]mn )>a 
avverigedan gastas hine genamon and hine swungon 
mid isenum swipum, and ])a a'fter )?on hi hine 
laeddon on )7am ongryrhcan fi(Serum betwux ]m 
cealdan faca ]wre lyfte. ]''a he ]'a wa^s on ]>o?re 
hcannysse J^iere lyfte, ]m gcseah he ealne uorcS-dael 
heofones, swylce he wsere )>am sweartcstan wolcnum 
ymbseald swi\Slicra ]?eostra. Da gcseah he fivringa 

' MS. miscrocetton. - has runigenduiu stcfnum. 

^ MS. ungemetlicre. ' MS. unmctlicrc. '^ MS. orwehtan. 



ST. GUTIILAC. 37 

torted toes, and shrieked hoarsely with their voices ; \ 1| 
and they came with such immoderate noises and i 
immense horror, that it seemed to him that all 
between heaven and earth resounded with their 
dreadful cries. Without delay, when they were ^ 
come into the house, they soon bound the holy man 
in all his limbs, and they pulled and led him out of 
the cottage, and brought him to the black fen, and j, 
threw and sunk him in the muddy waters^ After 
that they brought him to the wild places of the , 
wilderness, among the dense thickets of brambles, s 
that all his body was torn. After they had a long 
time thus tormented him in darkness, they let him 
abide and stand a while ; then commanded him to 
depart from the wilderness, or if he would not do 
so, then they would torment and try him with greater 
plagues. He, the blessed man Guthlac, cared not 
for their words, but with prophetic mouth he thus 
spake : The Lord is on my right hand, that I be 
not turned back from thee. After that the cursed 
spirits took him and beat him with iron whips, and 
after that they brought him on their creaking wings 
amidst the cold regions of the air. When he was 
at this height in the air he saw all the north part 
of heaven as it were surrounded by the blackest 
clouds of intense darkness. Then he saw suddenly 



38 THE LIFE OP 

unmsetc^ werod J^aera awerigedra gasta him ongean 
cuman; and hi ]>a sona )>3er tosomne gcgaderodon, and 
hi );a sona eallc ))one halgan wer gelaeddon to f>am 
sweartum tintreh-stowum, helle dura" hi hine 
gebrohton. Da he ]?a J^aer geseah )?a fulnvsse )?aes 
smyces and ]7a byrnendan^ lega and )7one ege J^aere 
sweartan dcopnysse, he )?a sona waes forgitende ealra 
)?ara tintrega and )?aera wita ];e he fram )?am awyr- 
gedum gastum ser dreah and a|7olode. Hi J^a sona 
J>a awyrgedan gastas betwux )?a grimlican lega^ 
inhruron and feollon, and )?9er j^ara arleasra manna 
sawla mid manigfealdum witum getintregodon. 
Da se eadiga Gkithlac J^a micelnysse geseah ]?ara 
wita/' ]m waes he for ]7aera egsan swy^e afyrht. Da 
cleopodon sona )?a a^vyrgedan gastas mid mycelre 
cleopunge and )7us cwaedon : Us ys miht geseald ^e 
to sceofanne on ])as witii J7isse deopnysse, and hor 
[is]^ )?aet fyr )?aet )?u sylfa on ye onbserndest ; and 
for )?inum synnum and gyltum helle dnru ])C ongeau 
openaS. ^lid ]?y ]m awyrgedan gastas ]>isum wordum 
beotodon, ^a andswerode he heom ]ms, and cwaeS : 
Wa eow J?eostra beam and forwyrde tudder/ ge 
syndon dust and acsan and yscla : Inva scalde eow 
earman J^a^t ge min ahton gcweald on ]>as witu to 
sendanne ? hwa^t ic her eom andweard and gearu^ 
and bidige nimes Drihtnes willan ; for liwon sc^ilon 
ge mid eowrum leasum beotingum me cgsian ? Tlig 

' MS. unma?ta. 2 ^g. durii. ^ MS. byrnenda. ^ MS. lege. 

* MS. witu. « [is] not in MS. "^ MS. tuddre. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 39 

an immense host of cursed spirits come towards liim ; 
and they soon gathered together, and forthwith all 
led the holy man to the black places of torment, 
and brought him to helFs door. When he saw 
the foulness of the smoke and the burning flames, 
and the horror of the black abyss, he quickly forgot 
all the torments and the punishments which he had 
before suffered and endured from the accursed spirits. 
Then the cursed spirits rushed in and tumbled 
among the horrible flames, and there they tormented 
with manifold punishments the souls of unrighteous 
men. When the blessed Guthlac saw the greatness 
of the punishments, he was much terrified for dread 
of them. Then cried the cursed spirits with a great 
voice and thus spake : Power is given us to thrust 
thee into the torments of this abyss ; and here is 
the fire which thou thyself didst kindle within thee, 
and for thy sins and crimes hell^s door openeth be- 
fore thee. When the accursed spirits had threatened 
him with these words, then answered he them thus, 
and said : Woe to you ! children of darkness, and 
seed of destruction; ye are dust and cinders and 
ashes ; who granted you, wretches, that ye should 
have power over me, to send me to these punish- 
ments ! Lo ! I am here present and ready, and await 
my Lord^s will; wherefore should ye frighten me 
with vour false threats ? They then, the accursed 



40 THE LIFE OF 

'^i J?a sona )7a awyrgedan gastas^ to )?am eadigan 
woldon swjdcc hi Line j^ccr insceofan woldon. Da 
semninga com se heofones bigengca se halga apostol 
Scs Bartholomeus^ mid heofonlicre byrhtnysse and 
wuldre scinende, betwuhx ]?a dimnysse J^eostru )78ere 
sweartan helle. Hi ]?a awyrgedan gastas ne mihton 
for ]7aere faegernysse )?aes halgan cuman |?9er awunian, 
ac hi sylfe on )7eostre gehyddon. Da se eadiga wer 
Guthlac his ]?one getreowan freond geseah, )7a waes 
he mid gastlicre blisse and mid heofonlice^ gefean 
swi^e bli];e. Da aefter j^am het se halga apostol 
Scs Bartholomeus and heom bebead J^aet hi him 
wseron under]7eodde, ]?aet hi hine eft gebrohton mid 
smyltnysse on ]78ere ylcan stowe ]>e hi hine a?r a?t- 
genamon : and hig |;a swa dydon, and hine mid 
ealre smyltnysse swa gelaeddon, and on heora fiberum 
baeron and feredon, j^aet he ne mihte ne on scipe 
faegeror gefered beon. Mid )?y hi )7a comon on 
middan J^aerc lyfte heannysse^ ^a comon him togeanes 
haligra gasta heap^ and hi ealle sungon and )7us 
cwaedon : Ibunt de virtute in virtutem, et reliqua. 
Daet ys on englisc : Halige men gangeS of maegene 
on ma?gen. Da hit ]m on mergen dagian Avoldc ]m 
asetton hi hine eft ]nvY hi hine ser gcnamon.-^ Da 
he ]?a his morgen-gebed-tida wolde Gode gefyllan, 
)>a geseah he ]>xr standan twegen J^ara awerigdra 
gasta wepan* swyj^e and gcomcrian. INIid )>y he hi 
ahsode for Invan hi wcopon, ])a andswarodon hi him 

' MS. gastes. - MS. hoofonlicre. ^ MS. genaman. ^ MS. weupou. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 41 

spirits, motioned towards the blessed man as though 
they would push him in. There suddenly came the 
inhabitant of heaven, the holy apostle St. Bar- 
tholomew, shining with heavenly brightness and 
glory, amidst the dim darkness of the black hell. 
The accursed spii'its were not able to abide there 
for the splendour of the holy visitor, but they hid 
themselves in the dai'kness. When the blessed man 
Guthlac saw his faithful friend he was greatly re- 
joiced with spiritual gladness and heavenly joy. 
After this the holy apostle St. Bartholomew bade 
and commanded them that they should be subject 
to him, and that they should bring him again with 
gentleness to the same place which they had before 
taken him from. And they did so, and brought him 
with all gentleness and care, and carried him on 
their wings, that he could not have been carried 
more pleasantly in a boat. AVhen they came in the 
midst of the height of the air, there came towards 
him a troop of holy spirits, and they all sung and 
spake thus : Ibunt de virtute in virtutem, et reliqua. 
That is in English : Holy men shall go from \'3Tf^ 
to v glue: When it began to dawn in the morning 
they set him again in the place whence they had 
taken him. When he then was about to perform 
his morning prayers to God, he saw two of the cursed 
spirits standing there weeping and wailing greatly. 
When he asked them why they wept, they answ^ered 



42 THE LIFE OF 

and )7us cwsedon : Wit wepa^ forj^on ]>e uncer ma?gn 
eall )7urh 'pe ys gebrocen, and we ye nu ne moton to 
cuman, ne to J^e nane spraece habban ; ac on eallum 
j?ingum ]m unc lia?fst gebysmrod^ and ure miht eall 
ofers\yy);ed. Da aefter J^am wordum lii gewiton 5a 
awyrgedan gastas^ efne swa smic fram his ansyne. 



^ 



VI. 

Hu J?a deofla on brjtisc spraecon. 

Daet gelamp on )7am dagum Cenredes Mercna 
kyninges, ]?net Brytta-J^eod Angol-cynnes feond )78et 
hi mid manigum gewinnum and mid misscnlicum 
gefeolitum ])set hi Angol-cynne geswencton. Da 
gelamp hit sumre nihte J>a hit waes hancred, and se 
eadiga wer GuSlac his uht-gebedum bcfeal, ]m waes 
he sasmninga mid leohte slsepe swefed. pa onbrsed 
he GuSlac of J>am slaepe, and eode J?a sona ut and 
hawode and hercnode ; ]7a gehjTde he my eel werod 
J?ara awyrgedra gasta on bryttisc sprecende; and 
he oncneow and ongeat lieora gereorda for ]>am he 
ser hwilon mid him waes on wrace. Da sona lefter 
)?on he geseah eall his hus mid fyre afylled, and hi 
hine aefter |;on ealne mid spera ordum afyldon, and 
hi hine on ]7am sperum up on j^a lyft alien gon. pa 
ongeat sona se stranga Cristes compa ]?aet |)<Tt waeron 
)7a egsan and ])a witu ]nvs awyrgedan gastes ; he )7a 
sona unforhtlicc J^a straele ])ara awerigdra gasta him 

' MS. gastes. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 43 

him^ and spake thus : We two weep because our 
power is all broken through thee, and we now may 
not come at thee, nor have any speech with thee ; 
but in all things thou hast injured us, and altogether 
overcome our might. After those words the ac- 
cursed spirits departed, even as smoke, from his face. 



VI. 

How the devils s^akejn_British. 

It happened in the days of Cenred, king of the 
Mercians, that the British nation, the enemy of the 
Angle race, with many battles and various contests 
annoyed the English. It happened one night, when 
it was the time of cock-crowing, and the blessed 
man Guthlac fell to his morning prayers, he was 
suddenly entranced in light slumber. Then Guthlac 
woke from his sleep, and went imnaediately out and 
looked and hearkened ; there he heard a great host 
of the accursed spirits speaking in British ; and he 
knew and understood their words, because he had 
been erewhile in exile among them. Soon after 
that he saw all his house filled with fire, and they 
next struck him quite down with the points of 
spears, and hung him up in the air on the spears. 
Then understood the strong warrior of Christ that 
these were the terrors and the torments of the 
cursed spirits ; he then soon fearlessly thrust from 



44 THE LIFE OF 

fram asccaf, and J^one sealm sang : Exurgat deus 
et dissipentur, et reliqua. Sona swa he j^aet 
fyrmeste fers sang )7aes sealmes, ]7a gewiton hi swa 
swa smic fram his ansyne. JMid fj se eadiga wer 
Gu^lac swa gelomlice wiS J^am awerigedum gastum 
wann and campode, )7a ongeaton hi )7aet heora maegn 
and weorc oferswy)?ed wses. 

VII. 

Be Beccelle |?am preoste. 
Waes sum preost J^aes nama Wces Beccel ; f>a com 
he to f>am halgan were, and hine bsed ]7aet he hine 
to him gename, and ]7aet gehet ]?aet he eadmodlice 
wolde on Godes )?eowdome be his larum lyfian. He 
|7a se awyrgeda gast )7aes ylcan preostes heortan and 
ge)7anc mid his searwes attre geond sprengde^ and 
mengde ; Iserde hine se awyrgeda gast )wt he GuSlac 
ofsloge and acwealde, and )?us on his heortan ge- 
sende : Gif ic hine ofslea and acwelle, j^onne ma^g 
ic eft agan ]?a ylcan stowe aefter him ; and me J^onne 
woruld-men arwurSiaS swa swa hi hine nu doS. 
Da gelamp hit some daege yxt se ylca preost com 
to )7am eadigan were J^aet he hine wolde scyran, swa 
his gewuna waes ymbe twentig nihta, ]7aet he hine 
wolde j^wean, ]m waes he swyJSe oflysted )7a^t he l^aes 
eadigan weres blod agute. He ]m sona GuMac 
geseah )7a lare j^aes awyrgedan gastes, (swa him eallc 
)?a towcardan ])ing )?urh Godes gifu wseron gecydde, 

* MS. spregde. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 45 

him the weapon of the accursed spirits, and sang 
the psalm : Exurgat Deus et dissipentur, et reliqua. 
As soon as he had sung the first verse of the psalm, 
they departed like smoke from his presence. When 
the blessed man Guthlac thus frequently fought and 
contended against the cursed spiiits, they perceived 
that theii' power and work was overcome. 



YII. 

Concerning Beccel the priest. 

There was a priest whose name was Beccel; he 
came to the holy man and begged him that he w ould 
take him to him, and he promised that he would 
humbly live in God^s service by his instructions. 
Then the accursed spirit sprinkled and watered over 
with the poison of his deceit the heart and mind of 
this same priest ; the cursed spirit advised him that 
he should smite and kill Guthlac ; and thus suggested 
to his heart : If I slay and kill him, then may I 
afterwards possess this same place after him; and 
men of the world will then honour me as they now 
do him. It happened one day that the same priest 
came to the holy man to shave him (as his custom 
was eveiy twenty days to wash himself) ; then was 
he vehemently tempted to shed the blood of the 
blessed man. Guthlac soon perceived the persuasion 
of the cursed spirit (as all future things were through 



46 THE LIFE OF 

and cac swylce J^a andweardan, and he mihte )?one 
man innan geseon and gcondsceaAvian swa litan,) 
and he cwse^ )7us to him : Eala )m min Beccel to 
hwan hafast fu. bedigled under J)am dysigan breoste 
)7one awyrgcdan feond ? for hwon nelt )?u J^aes biteran 
attres J^a deaj^-berendan waeter of 'pe aspiwan ? ic faet 
geseo |?aet ]?u eart fram )?am awyrgedan gaste beswicen, 
and )7a manfullan smeaunge ]?inre heortan ; manna- 
kynnes costere and middaneardes feond hafa^ 
acenned on ])e ]?a unablinnu J^aes yfelan ge]>ohtes ; ac 
ahwyrf 'pe fram J^aere yfelan lare J>aes awyrgedan 
gastes. Da ongeat he sona ])aet he waes fram )?an 
awyrgedan gaste beswicen ; feol sona to J?aes halgan 
weres fotum, and J^a sona mid tearum him his synne 
andette. He ];a sona se halga wer Guc)lac, na la^s 
)7aet an )7aet he him J7a synne forgcaf, ac eac swylce 
he him gehet J73et he him wolde beon on fultume on 
eallum his earfe];um. 

VIII. 

Hu t^a deofla ferclon. 

Dset gelamp sumere nihte ])a se halga wer 
GuSlac his gebedum befeal, jm gehyrde he gry- 
metunga^ hry)?era and mislicra wildeora. Naes 
)7a nan liwil to J^am pxt he gcseah calra wihta 
and wildeora and wiirma hiw in cuman to him. 
^rest he geseah leon ansyne, and he mid his 

'MS. grymetigenda. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 47 

God^s grace known to him, and also present things, 
and he could see and look through the man within 
as well as without) ; and he said thus to him : Oh ! 
my Beccel, wherefore hast thou concealed under thv 
foolish breast the accursed fiend ? why wilt thou not 
spit out from thee the death-bearing waters of that 
bitter poison ? I perceive that thou art deceived 
by the accursed spirit, and I see the wicked device 
of thy heart. The tempter of mankind and the 
enemy of earth hath begotten in thee the unrest of 
this evil intent ; but turn thyself away from the evil 
teaching of the accursed spirit. Then perceived he 
that he had been deceived by the accursed spirit, 
fell at the holy man^s feet, and with tears confessed 
to him his sin. Thereupon the holy man Guthlac 
not only forgave him the sin, but also promised him 
that he would be his helper in all his trials. 



VIII. 

How the devils departed. 

It happened one night, when the holy man Guthlac 
fell to his prayers, he heard the bowlings of cattle 
and various wild beasts. Not long after he saw the 
appearances of animals and wild beasts and creeping 
things coming in to him. First he saw the visage 
of a lion, that threatened him with his bloody tusks ; 



48 THE LIFE OF 

blodigum tuxum to him beotode ; swylce eac fearres 
gelicnysse, and beran ansyne, J^onne hi gebolgene 
beoS. Sw}^lce eac nseddrena hiw, and swynes gry- 
metunge, and wulfa ge]?eot^ and hrsefena crsecetunge/ 
and mislice fugela hwistlunge ; ]>tet hi woldon mid 
heora hiwunge J^aes halgan weres mod awendan. 
He ]m se halga wer GuJ^lac hine gewaepnode mid 
}7an waepne Jjsere Cristes rode, and mid )7am scylde 
J7aes halgan geleafan, and forseah j^a costunge ]?ara 
awyrgedra gasta, and ]?us c^yae^ : Eala ]>\i earma 
wi^erwearda gast, ]>m maegn ys gesyne, and ]nn miht 
ys gecyj^ed : J^u nu earma, wildeora and fugela and 
wyrma hiw aetywest/ ]m iu ];e ahofe J>aet fu woldest 
beon gelic ]7am ecan Gode. Nu )?onne ic bebeode 
]7e on }>am naman );aes ecan Godes, se ]>e worhte 
and ]>e of heofones heannysse awearp, )7aet ]m fram 
J7isse^ ungej7W3ernysse gestille. pa sona aefter ]?on 
ealle j^a aetywnysse }>ara awerigdra gasta onweg ge- 
waton.* 



IX. / 

IIu )3Pet gewrit begsen waes. 

Daet gelamp on sumcrc nihte, ))a't |>npr com sum 

man to J7:bs halgan wcres spra'ce. ^[id ])y he J^aer 

dagas wunode, |)a gelamp hit J^Tt he sum gewrit 

awrat on cartan. pa he ])a luTfde \^i gewrit 

' MS. craicetimg. = MS. atywes. ^ j^js. j,isum. " MS. gew^t. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 49 

also the likeness of a bull, and the visage of a bear, 
as when they are enraged. Also he perceived the 
appearance of vipers, and a hog^s grunting, and the 
howling of wolves, and croaking of ravens, and the 
various whistling of birds; that they might, with 
their fantastic appearance, divert the mind of the 
holy man. Then the holy man Guthlac armed 
himself with the weapon of Christ^s cross, and with 
the shield of holy faith, and despised the temptation 
of the accursed spirits, and spake thus : O ! thou 
wretched rebellious spirit, thy power is seen and 
thy might is made known : thou, wretched one, 
now displayest the forms of wdld beasts and birds 
and creeping things, thou who once exaltedst thyself 
that thou mightest be equal to the eternal God. 
Now then I command thee, in the name of the 
eternal God, who made thee, and cast thee down 
from the height of heaven, that thou cease from 
this troubling. Immediately thereafter all the ap- 
pearances of the accursed spirits went away. 



IX. 

How the writing was recovered. 

It happened one night that there came one to 
speak with the holy man. When he had remained 
some days there, it fell out that he wrote some 
writing on a sheet of paper. When he had written 



50 THE LIFE OF 

awriten, J>a code he ut. Da com J^aer sum hrefen 
inn ; sona swa lie J?a cartan geseali }>a genam he hig 
sona and gewat mid on J>aene fenn. Sona swa se 
foresaeda cuma ongean com, J?a geseah he ]?one 
hrefen J?a cartan beran : )?a wees he sona swy^e 
unbhj?e. Da wa?s on )7am ylcan timan ]?cet se halga 
war GutSlac ut of his cyrcan eode ; ]m geseah he 
J>one bro];or sarig. pa frefrodc he hine and him to 
Gwae^ : Ne beo Jni bro]?or sarig j ac swa se hrefen 
)?urh }>a fennas upp aflige5_, swa J^u him sfter row ; 
)70nne metest ])U j^aet gewrit. Naes ];a naenig hwil 
to J)an ])cet he to scipe eode se ylca J>e )?aet gewrit 
wrat. Mid J>y he )?urh J?a fenland reow, j^a com he 
to sumum mere ]>e wel neah J^aet egland waes : )?a 
waes ]73er on middan J^am mere sum hreod-bed ; ]?a 
hangode seo carte on ]7am hreode efne swa hig 
njannes hand ]7aer ahengce : and he sona ]?a bHj?e 
feng to J^aere cartan, and he wundriende to )7am 
Godes were brohte : and he ]>a se eadiga wer Guthlac 
saede J>aet J7j£t naere his geearnung ac Godes mikl- 
heortnys.^ "^^/Waeron on Jmm ylcan yglande twegen 
hrefnas gewunode, to J;ais gifre, ]7a?t swa hwset swa 
hi mihton gegripan J^set hi j^aet woldon onweg 
alaedan; and he )>cah hwa-Jjcre heora gifernysse 
ealle aebier and gc)?olodc, yaet he eft sealde mannum 
bysene his gej^yldes ; and na la?s ))a?t an J?aet him J;a 
fugclas underj^eodde Wttron, ac eac swa )>a fixas, and 
wilde dcor ];aes westenes callc hi him liyrdon, and 

• MS. mildheortnysse. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 51 

the writing he went out. There came a raven in ; 
as soon as he saw the paper he took it and went 
with it to the fen. As soon as the aforesaid guest 
came back again, he saw the raven carrying the 
paper ; thereat was he very vexed. It happened at 
that time that the holy man Guthlac came out of 
his church ; there saw he the brother grieving. He 
consoled him, and said : Be not grieved, brother ; 
but when the raven flies up through the fens row 
thou after him ; so shalt thou recover the writing. 
Not long after he went into a boat, the same man 
namely who had written the writing. Having 
rowed through the fenlands, he came to a mere, 
which was very near the island; there was in the 
midst of the mere a bed of reeds ; there hung the 
paper on the reeds, even as though man^s hand 
had hanged it there; and he forthwith joyfully 
seized the paper, and brought it wondering to the 
man of God. And the blessed man Guthlac said that 
it was not the effect of his merit, but of God's mercy. 
There were settled on the same island two ravens, so 
greedy that whatsoever they could seize they would 
I carry away; and notwithstanding he bore and en- 
Idttred aU their greediness, that he might give men 
the example of his patience. And not only were 
the birds subject to him, but also the fishes and wild 
beasts of the wilderness all obeyed him, and he daily 



52 THE LIFE OF 

he hym daeghwamlice andlyfene sealde of his agenre^ 
handa^ swa heora gecjTide waes. 



X. 

Hu |ja swalawan on him siton and sungon. 

paet gelamp sume si]>e )7aet )7aer com sum arwiir]?e 
bro^or to him^ )7aes nama waes Wilfrid, se him waes 
geara on gasthcum^ J?oftscipe gej^eoded. Mid )?an 
]7e hig )?a on manegum gespraecum heora gasthe lif 
smeadon, J?a comon faer saemninga in twa swalewan 
fleogan, and hi efne blissiende heora sang upahofon, 
and )7a aefter J>on hi setton unforhtlice on |?a sculdra 
)78es halgan weres Gu^laces, and hi ]?aer heora sang 
upahofon ; and hi eft setton on his breost and on his 
earmas and on his eneown. Da hi J>a WilfriS lange 
)7a fugelas wundriende beheold, J>a fraegn hine 
WilfriJ? forhwon J^a wildan fugelas ]?aes widgillan 
westenes swa eadmodlice him on saeton. He j^a se 
halga wer Gu^lac him andswarode and him to cwae^ : 
Ne leornodest J?u bro^or WilfriS on halgum gcwritum, 
haet se ye on Godes willan his lif leofode, |)aet hine 
wilde deor and wilde fugelas ]>e near waeron ; and 
so man J^e hine wolde fram woruld-mannum his lif 
libban, )?aet hine englas }>e near comon : for]?on se 
be woruldlicra manna spra?ce gelomlice wilnaS, J^onnc 
ne maeg he )ni cngcllican spra?ce befeolan. 

' MS, agenra. ^ MS. gastlicre. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 53 

gave them food from his own hand, as suited their 
kind. 



X. 

How the swallows sat upon him and sung. 

It happened on a time that there came a venerable 
brother to him whose name was Wilfrith, who had 
of old been united with him in spiritual fellowship. 
Whilst they discussed in many discourses their 
spiritual life, there came suddenly two swallows 
flying in, and behold they raised up their song re- 
joicing; and after that they sat fearlessly on the 
shoulders of the holy man Guthlac, and then lifted 
up their song ; and afterwards they sat on his bosom 
and on his arms and his knees. When Wilfrith 
had long wondering beheld the birds, he asked him 
wherefore the wild birds of the wide waste so sub- 
missively sat upon him. The holy man Guthlac 
answered him and said : Hast thou never learnt 
brother Wilfrith, in holy writ, that he who hath led 
his life after God's will, the wild beasts and wild 
birds have become the more intimate with him. 
And the man who would pass his life apart from 
worldly men, to him the angels approach nearer. 
But he who frequently longeth for the converse of 
worldly men cannot meet with angelic discourse. 



54 THE LIFE OF 

XI. 

Ymb ]}& glofan j^e \}a. hrefnas bajron. 

Swylce eac gelamp sume si]7e witedomlic^ wundor 
be ]7isum lialgaii were. Waes sum fore-maera man 
aej^elan kyne-kynnes on MjTcna-rice, ]7aes namawaes 
^J;elbald. pa wolde lie to J?aes lialgan weres spraece 
cuman : beget }>a aet Wilfri^e J^aet he liine to )?am 
Godes were gelaedde ; and hi ]m sona on scipe eodon, 
and ferdon to J?am yglande J^asr se halga wer Guthlac 
on waes. Da hi ];a to J>am halgan were comon, )?a 
haefde Wilfrid forlseten his glofan on ]?am scipe : 
and hi ]7a wi^ j7one halgan wer sprascon, he J^a se 
eadiga wer Guthlac acsode hi hwaeSer hi aenig ]nngc" 
aefter heom on )7am scipe forleton^ (swa him God 
ealle J?a diglan }>ingc cu^ gedyde) : ]7a andswarode 
him Wilfrid and cwae'S J?3et he forlete his twa glofan 
on )7am scipe. Nses )?a naenig hwil to )mn sona 
swa hi ut of ];am inne^ eodon, ]7a gesegon hi ]7one 
hraefn mid J?an sweartan nebbe J>a glofe teran uppe 
on anes buses )?aece. He j^a sona se halga wer 
Gu^lac )7one hrefn mid his worde j^reade for his 
re]?nysse, and he ]?a his worde* hyrsumodc, swa fleali 
se fugel west ofer j^aefc westen ; he ])a AVilfritS mid 
gyrde of )?3es^ buses hrofe )?a glofe gersehte. Swylce 
naes eac naenig hwil to Jmm sona comon J7aer ])ry 
men to )?aere hy^e, and J^^er tacn slogon. pa sona 

' MS. witedomlice. - MS. )?inc. 3 MS. in. 

■* MS. worda. ^ MS. Jjaui. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 55 

XI. 

Concerning the gloves which the ravens carried off. 

. Also there happened on a time a prophetic miracle 
to^this holy man. There was a distinguished man 
of noble king^s-kindred in Mercia^ whose name was 
Athelbald. He wished to come to converse with 
the hoh^ man. He prevailed upon Wilfrith that 
he should bring him to the man of God; and they 
went into a boat, and journeyed to the island whereon 
the holy man Guthlac was. When they had come to 
the holy man, behold Wilfrith had left his glove in the 
boat. And while they conversed with the holy man_, 
he, the blessed man Guthlac, asked them whether 
they had left anything behind them in the boat 
{for God made known to him all secret things) ; 
then answered Wilfrith, and said that he had left 
his two gloves in the boat. Not long after, as soon 
as they had gone out of the house, there they saw 
the raven with his black beak tearing the glove 
upon the roof of a house. Then the holy man 
Guthlac rebuked with his word the raven for his 
mischief, and it obeyed his word, and the bird flew 
westward over the wilderness ; whereupon Wilfrith 
reached the glove from the roof of the house with a 
stick. Also not long after there came three men 
to the landing-place, and there sounded the signal. 



56 THE LIFE OF 

code se halga wer Gu^lac ut to J7am mannum mid 
bli^um andwlite and gode mode ; he )?a spaec wy6 
J7am mannum. Mid )?an J^e hi faran woldon, )?a 
brohton hi for^ ane glofe, ssedon )?aet heo of anes 
hrefnes mu]7e feolle. He se halga wer Guj7lac sona 
to-smerciende feng, and heom his bletsunge sealde, 
and hi eft ferdon ; and he eft ageaf )7a glofe )?am J^e 
hi aer ahte. 



XII. 

Hu Hwsetred his haelo' onfeng. 

Waes on East-Engla-lande sum man aefeles cynnes 
J^aes nama wses Hwaetred. Mid pj he )7a daeghwam- 
lice mid arfaestnysse his ealderum underj^eoded wfes, 
hit gelamp sume si^e ]>&, he aet his faeder hame waes, 
J7aet hine se awyrgeda gast him oneode j^aet he of 
his gewitte wearS, and hine se awyrgeda feond swa 
swy)?e swencte mid j^sere wodnysse ]?aet he hys 
agenne lichaman^ mid irene ge eac mid his t6)?um 
blodgode and wundode ; and na laes j^aet an )?aet he 
hine sylfne swa mid J^am waelhreowum toj^um 
wundode ac eac swa hwylcnc swa he mihte ))aet lie 
swa gelice tser. Da gelamp sume sij^e J^a^t J>aer waes 
mycel menigo manna gegaderod his maga and eac 
o)?ra his neh-freonda, ]>tet hi hine woldon gebindan 
and don hine gcwyldne : he ])a genam sum twibil, 
and mid )>an );ry men to dcatie ofsloli, and o)?re 

' MS. hrela. - MS. ageiie lichama. 



ST. GUTHLAC. o7 

Then weut the holy man Guthlac out to the men 
with cheerful countenance and good humour, and 
there spoke with them. When they wished to de- 
part they brought forth a glove, and said that it had 
fallen from a raven^s mouth. The holy man Guthlac 
received it smiling, and gave them his blessing, 
and they then departed ; and afterwards he gave 
the glove to him who before owned it. 



XII. 

How Hwaetred received his health. 

There was in the land of the East- Angles a man 
of noble kin, whose name was Hwaetred. AYhereas 
he was daily reverently subject to his elders, it 
happened on a time, while he was at his father^ s 
house, that the accursed spirit entered into him, so 
that he went out of his wits, and the accursed spirit 
afflicted him so severely with this madness, that he 
bloodied and wounded his own body as well with 
iron as with his teeth ; and not himself only did he 
wound with his ferocious teeth, but also whomsoever 
he could he in Hke manner tore. It happened on 
a time that there was a great multitude of men 
gathered together of his kinsmen, and also of other 
his near friends, that they might bind him and bring 
him into subjection. Thereupon he took an axe, 
and with it smote three men to death, and wounded 



3§ 



58 THE LIFE OF 

manige mid gcsarode. pa3S )7a feowor gear j^aet he 
swa wa?s mid ]?3ere wodnysse swi^e geswcnced. pa 
waes he aet nextan genumen fram his magum, and to 
halgum mynstre gelaed, to )7on )78et hine maesse- 
preostas and bisceopas wi^ J^a wodnysse )?wean and 
claensian sceoldon. And hi hwaej^ere on menigum 
}>ingum ne mihton )?a yfelan maegn ]?ces awyrgdan 
gastes ofadrifan. Da aet nextan hi eft ham unrote 
mid ]?am maege ferdon^ and hi him deaj^es swy^or 
u)7on ]7onne he lengc |?a men drehte, 5a waes aet 
nextan gemaersod se hlisa on )7one^ j^eodscipe J^aet on 
)?am fenne-middum on anum eglande f>e Cruwland 
hatte waere sum ancra ]>e" missenlicum maegnum 
for Gode weohse. Hi ]7a sona, ]m hi J^aer )?one 
halgan wer acsodon, ]?ohton J^aet hi woldon J^aer ]7one 
man gebringan^ gif j^aet Godes stihtung waere 
)?aet hi J^aer are findan mihton. And hi hit swa 
gefremedon, ferdon ]?yder J?aet hi comon to sumum 
yglande )?e wel neah waes ]7am eglande j^e se Godes 
man on waes ; and ]?aer waeron on niht mid )>an 
seocan men. pa hit )7a on mergen da?g wres, J^a 
comon hi to ]?am^ foresprecenan eglande, and ])a 
mid )?an gewunelican )?eawc tacen slogon. He )>a 
sona se halga wer GuSlac to heom code mid healice 
maegne Godes lufan : )?a hi ]m hcora intingan him 
wepende saedon, J^a wa3S he sona mid mildheortnysse 
gefylled. Genam )7a sona ]>onc uutruman man and 
liine laedde into his cyrican, and )ni?r J)ry dagas 

' MS. ^. 2 MS. f. 3 ^^js. jjjcre. 



ST. GUTIILAC. 59 

mau}^ others witli tliem. It was four years that he 
was sorely afflicted with this madness. Then was he 
at last taken by his relations and brought to the holy 
monastery, to the end that mass-priests and bishops 
miglit wash and cleanse him from his madness. 
And they, however^ with many expedients^ could 
not drive out the evil powers of the accursed spirit. 
When at last they went home sorrowful with their 
relative, and they rather wished him dead than that 
he should longer annoy men, then at length the report 
was spread in the province that in the midst of the 
fen, on an island which was called Crowland, was 
an anchorite, who flourished before Grod with various 
virtues. Then they forthwith, when they heard of 
the holy man, thought that they would take the 
man thither, if it were God^s providence that they 
might there find help. And they performed this, 
journeyed thither till they came to an island, which 
was very near that on which the man of God was, 
and they were there during the night with the sick 
man. When it was day on the morrow, they came 
to the aforesaid island ; then in the usual manner 
sounded a signal. Then forthwith the holy man 
Guthlac went to them in the fervent power of God^s 
love. When they weeping had told him their affair, 
he was filled with pity. He took the sick man and 
led him into his church, and there remained three 



60 THE LIFE OF 

singallice on his gebedum awunode. pa on f>am 
friddan daege )7a sunne upeode, )7a ba)7ode he hine 
on gehalgedum waetre, and bleow on his ansyne and 
mid ]7an eall ]>%t maegn ]>aes awyrgedan gastes on 
him gebriec : and he J^a se ylca man swa he of 
hefegum slaepe raxende awoce, and he eft to his 
haelo feng, and ham ferde ; and him naefre sy|?)7an 
fa hwile )?e he leofode seo adl^ ne eglode. 



if^ XIII. 

Be AJjelbaldes gefere. 
Swilce eac gelamp on sumne sael )7aet J7aes fore- 
sprecenan wraeccan A)?elbaldes gefere ]?aes nama 
wses Ecga J>aet he waes fram )7am awyrgedan gaste 
unstille ; and swa swyj^e he hine drehte J7aet he his 
sylfes naenig gemynd ne haefde. Hi ))a his magas 
hine to )7am Godes men gelaeddon. Da sona )?a?s 
)7e he to him com, J^a begyrde he hine mid his 
gyrSele. Naes )?a naenig hwil to J^an sona swa he 
waes mid )7am gyrdele begjTd, eal seo unclaennys" 
fram him .gewat, and him sy)?)7an nasfre seo adl^ ne 
eglode. fjj Eac se* eadiga wer Gublac witedomhce 
gaste weox and fremede, and he ]m toweardan 
mannum cydde swa cuSHce swa )>a and wear dan. 

' MS. adle. = MS. uncla2nnysse. ^ MS. adle. ' MS. >one. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 61 

days incessantly at his prayers. When the sun 
rose on the third day, he bathed him in holy water 
and blew in his face, and with that all the power of 
the accursed spirit upon him was shattered : and this 
same man was as though he had awoke from a 
deep slumber, and he received his health again, and 
went home ; and the illness never ailed him after- 
wards so long as he lived. 



XIII. 

Concerning Athelbald's follower. 
Also it happened on a time that a follower of the 
aforesaid exile Athelbald, whose name was Ecga, 
was disquieted by the accursed spirit. And he 
plagued him so severely that he had no recollection 
of himself. Then his relations brought him to the 
man of God. As soon as he came to him he girded 
him with his girdle. No sooiier was he girded with 
the girdle than all the uncleanness departed from 
him, and the illness never after ailed him. Also 
the blessed man Guthlac flourished and prospered 
in the prophetic spirit, and he made known future 
things to men, as clearly as the present things. 



62 THE LIFE OP 

XIV. 

Be |jam abbode. 

paet gelamp sume si)7e )7aet J^aer com sum abbod to 
him }>e him waesgeara on gasthcum^ )?oftscipe gej7eo- 
ded. pa he J^a J^yder ferde J^a waeron his hand-J^egnas 
twegen, baidon hyne J^urh leofe-bene J>aet hi moston 
on oSerne weg faran^ and saedon )?aet him )?aes neod 
wsere and eac J^earf. pa geuj^e him ];aes se abbod 
)?aes )?e hi hine bsedon. Da he ]?a se abbod )?cer com 
to ]>dtire spraece )?8es eadigan weres Gu^laces^ mid )?an 
hi ]7a sylfe betwconum drencton" of ]?am willan 
haligra gewrita^ ]m betwyx );a halgan gewritu ]?e hi 
spraecon ^a cwaeS GuSlac to him : Ac hwyder 
gewiton ]7a twegen ]?e sev fram ]7e cyrdon ? pa and- 
swarode he him and cwae^ : Hi baedon laefe^ set me : 
waes heom oj^er intinga* j^aet hi hider cuman ne 
mihton. He J^a GuSlac him andswarode (swa him 
God ealle ]?a toweardan |7ing onwreah, J?aet him 
waeron swa cu^c swa ]m andwcardan), ongan him }m 
secgan J^one siS j^ara bro);ra and him cwaeS to : Hi 
ferdon ]7aer to sumre wydewan ham and j^aer waeron 
ondrencte mid oferdrynce. And na laes fxt an ^set 
he him ]7one heora si]> saede, ao eac swilce be hcora 
andleofone, ge eac swilce ]>a sylfan word )>c lii j^aer 
spraecon, call he be cndebyrdnyssc him gcrehte. 
Mid ]7an J?e se abbod his bletsunge haefde onfangen, 
he ]>a eft fcrdc. ^lid ))y ]'e )?a foresprecenan broj^ra 

' MS. gastlicre. ^ MS. dremdou. ^ MS. liufa. * MS. intingan. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 63 

XIV. 

Concerning the abbot. 

It happened on a time that there came an abbot 
to him, who was formerly united with him in 
spiritual communion. While he journeyed thither 
his two attendants were with him ; they supplicated 
him with a request for leave that they might go 
another way, and said that there was need and 
necessity for them to do this. Then the abbot 
granted them that which they begged of him. When 
the abbot came there to conversation with the blessed 
man Guthlac, whilst they mutually gave each other 
to drink from the well of the sacred scriptures, then 
amidst their talk of the sacred scriptures Guthlac 
said to him : But whither went the two that ere- 
while turned back from thee ? Then answered he 
him, and said : They begged leave of me ; they had 
another affair, so that they could not come hither. 
Then Guthlac aiiswered him, (as God revealed to 
him all future things, which were as well known to 
him as the present,) and began to tell him the 
way of these brothers, and said to him : They went 
to the house of a widow, and were there intoxicated 
with too much drinking. And not only did he tell 
him of their road, but also concerning their fare, as 
also the very words which they there spake ; he re- 
lated it all to him in order. When the abbot had 
received his blessing he departed. When the afore- 



64 THE LIFE OF 

eft to )7am abbode comon, ]?a fregn he hi hwaer hi 
waeron. pa andswarodon hi him and cwaedon )?aet hi 
waeron on heora nyd-J^earfum swy^e geswencte. pa 
axode he hi hw3e)?er hit swa waere ; )7a sworon hi 
swi^e )7aet hit swa waere. pa cwae^ he to him : Ac 
to hwon sweria^ git man ; ac waeron aet )7isse 
wydewan hame and j^aer )?us yncer lif leofodon and 
]7isum wordum )?us ]>xt spraecon ? pa ongeaton hi 
heora misdaeda, feollon )7a to his fotum and him 
forgifenysse baedon, and him andetton ]?aet hit waere 
swa he aer saede. 



XV. 

Be Jjam brojjrum ^e him to comon, 

Comon eac swylce twegen broSra to him on 
sumne sael of sumum myiistre. pa hi ))a f>Yder- 
weard ferdon^ )?a haefdon hi mid heom twa flaxan 
mid aela^ gefylde ; )7a gewearS him betweonan )7aet 
hi )?a gehyddon under anre tyrf, )?aet hi, ]?onne hi 
ham ferdon, haefdon eft mid him. Da hi po. to him 
comon, ]7a trymede he hi mid his lare and mid his 
manunge heora heortan intimbrede. i\Iid j^an J^e 
hi manig J^ing heom betweonum spraecon, Sa se 
eadiga wer GuSlac mid bli);um andwHtan and 
hlihhendre^ gespraece he cwaej? to heom : For hwon 
behydde git )7a flaxan under ane tyrf, and for hwon 
ne laiddon ge hi mid inc? Hi J^a swySe wiuidrodon 

' MS. hlihhende. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 65 

said brothers again came to the abbot, he asked them 
where they had been. They answered him, and 
said that they had toiled much in their needful affairs. 
Then he asked them whether it were so. Then 
they swore stoutly that it was so. Then said he to 
them : Nay, but wherefore swear ye to a wicked 
lie ; for ye were at the house of such a widow, and 
there passed your time in such wise, and spake there 
such words ! Then they were conscious of their 
misdeeds, fell at his feet, and begged forgiveness of 
him, and confessed that it was as he said. 



XV. 

Concerning the brothers who came to liira. 

Then came also to him two brothers on a time 
from a certain monastery. Whilst they journeyed 
thitherward they had with them two bottles filled 
with ale; then it was agreed between them that 
they should hide them under a turf, that, when 
they went home, they might have them with them. 
When they were come to him, he strengthened 
them with his counsel, and edified their hearts with 
his admonition. When they had spoken on many 
subjects amongst them, the blessed man Guthlac, 
with merry countenance and laughing words, said 
to them : Wherefore hid ye the bottles under a 
turf, and why brought ye them not with you ? 



66 THE LIFE OF 

)?ara worda J>8es halgan weres, and to him Inton 
and hine blctsunge baedon. And lie hi gcbletsode, 
and hi ]m eft ham ferdon. Waes on )7a sylfan tid 
j?aet )7one foresprecenan wcr missenlices hades men 
sohton, aegSer ]7ara ge ealdormen ge bisceopas, and 
abbodas, and aelces hades heane and rice. And na 
laes )7aet an J^aet hine men sohton of J^ccre heh-)?ef)de 
Mercna-rice, ac eac swjdce ealle )7a J^e on Bretone 
W3eron J^e )?isne eadigan wer hyrdon, J?aet hi 
aeghwonon to him efston and scyndon ; and )7a )?e 
waeron aj^er o]?]?e on lichaman untrumnysse, oS^e 
fram J^am awyrgdan gaste geswencte and numene, 
o]?)7e o]7rum yfelum, ]?e manna- cynn^ mid missenlicum 
sorgum and sarum utan ymbseald ys ; and on heora 
naenigum^ se hiht awticode ]?e hi to him genamon ; 
for)7an naes naenig untrum ]7aet he ungelacnod fram 
him ferde; naenig deofol-seoc |>8et he eft wel ge- 
witfaest ne Wcere ; ne on noenigre untrumnysse )?8et 
he eft gehseled him fram ne ferde. 



XVI. 

Be A)?elbal{les gefere. 
Da3t gelamp mid J^an ]>det manige men for mis- 
senlicum ]7ingum him to comon, ]>a betweox oj^re 
com ))ftr ]7a?s foresprecenan wraeccan jE]7elbaldes 
gefera J?aes nama waes Ova, ];3et he woldc )7one halgan 
geneosian and wi])gesprecan. Da gelamp hit );an 

' MS. manna-cynnes. '^ MS. menigum. 



ST. GUTHLAC. Q7 

They were greatly amazed at these words of the 
holy man, and bowed to him, and begged his 
blessing. And he blessed them, and they returned 
home. \ It came to pass at that same time, that 
men of divers conditions sought the holy man, as 
well nobles as bishops and abbots, and men of 
every condition, poor and rich. And not only men 
sought him from the province of Mercia, but also 
all who in Britain heard of this holy man, hied and 
hastened to him from all quarters : and those who 
were either in sickness of body, or plagued and 
possessed by the cursed spirit, or other evils, as 
mankind is compassed about with various griefs and 
pains : and of none of those whom they brought to 
him were the hopes thwarted ; for there^ was no 
sick person that went from him unhealed ; no pos- 
sessed person that did not come to his right wits 
again ; none afflicted with any disease that did not 
leave him curbed. 



XVI. 

Concerning Athelbald's companion. 

It came to pass when many men came to him 
for divers matters, among others came thither a 
companion of the before -mentioned exile Athelbald, 
whose name was Ova, that he might visit and con- 
verse with the saint. It happened on the second 



68 THE LIFE OF 

aefteran daege j^aes "pe he j^yder on )7aere fore w«s, )7a 
code he ofer sumne ]>6ru. on niht ; )7a besloh se f>oni 
on J?one fot, and svva Strang waes se sting ]?aes ]7ornes 
)7aet he code J>urh )7one fot, and he )?a unease )7one 
si^ geferde, and ]?urh mycel gewinn he to J?am fore- 
sprecenan eglande becom, J^aer se eadiga wer Gu^lac 
on eardode. And mid J>an )?e he J^aer on niht waes, 
]7a asweoU him se lichama ofer healf fram f>am 
lendenum o);j7a fet, and swa sarlice he waes mid j^am 
sare geswenced, j^aet he na^er J^ara ne gesittan ne 
standan mihte. Mid J?y man^ J?aet j^am Godes were 
saede Gu^lace, j^a behead he )7aet hine man to him 
gelaedde. pa he ]?a waes broht to him, f>a saede he 
to him )7one intingan ];urh hwaet he aerest swa 
gej^raest wsere, and hu him aerest )7aet earfo^ on 
become. He ]7a sona Gu^lac hine sylfne ungyrede, 
and )7aet reaf ])e he genehlice on him haefde he hine 
slefde on )7one foresprecenan man. Naes J^a naenig 
hwil to ]70n sona swa he mid ]7an hraegle swa miccles 
weres gegjTed waes, J?a ne mihte )?aet )?aet sar aberan. 
He )7a sona se ylca ]>6rUj efne swa swa strael of 
bogan astelle];, swa he of ]mm man afleah, and on 
]>a fyrle gewat ; and )7a sona on Jm sylfan tid eall se 
swyle and eall j^aet sar gewat fram him ; and he 
sona to )7a sylfan tid mid bli);um mode to ]?am 
halgan were spraec and he eft ]>anon ferde butan 
sceSnysse aeniges sares. Swylce eac gelamp )?aet 
eallc ))a men wnndrodon ))e )>as )>ing gehyrdon, and 
hi on |;an wuldredon and heredon heofones God. 

' MS. he. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 69 

day tliat he was on the journey thither, that he 
walked over a thorn in the night : the thorn stuck 
into his foot, and so strong was the prickle of the 
thorn that it went through the foot, and he with 
difficulty proceeded on his way, and with much 
effort he arrived at the fore-mentioned island, 
whereon the blessed man Guthlac dwelt. And 
when he was there at night, his body swelled, 
above half of it from the loins to the feet, and he 
was so grievously afflicted with the pain, that he 
could neither sit nor stand. As soon as they told 
this to Guthlac, the man of God, he ordered that 
he should be brought to him : when he was brought 
to him, he told him the cause through which he 
was first so tormented, and how that pain first came 
upon him. Thereupon Guthlac immediately stripped 
himself, and the garment which he wore next his 
skin he put upon the foresaid man. No sooner 
was he attired in the garment of so great a man, 
but the wound could not abide it : and lo ! this 
same thorn, as an arrow speeds from the bow, so 
did it fly from the man, and go to a distance ; and 
immediately at the same time all the swelling and 
all the wound departed from him, and he presently 
conversed with the holy man with blithe mood, and 
he afterwards went from thence without harm of 
any wound. And it came to pass that all men 
who heard these things wondered, and glorified and 
praised the God of heaven for them. 



70 THE LIFE OF 

XVII. 

Be pam halgan biscope See Haedde. 

Swylce nys eac mid idcle to forlaetenne ]7aet 
wundor ]?aet |?urli witedomes craeft [lie]^ wiste and 
cydde : forj^on him waes ]7urh Godes gife seald, f>8et 
he J?a word j^ara aefwearda swa geara wiste swa j^ara 
andwearda ]7e him foran gesaede weeron. Gelamp 
sume si]?e ]>?et sum bisceop to him ferde j^aes iiama 
waes Haedda, efne swa swa he waere mid heofonlicre 
)7eahte gelaered ]?aet he to )?aere spraece ferde ]7aes 
Godes mannes. pa haefde se bisceop mid hine on 
his geferscipe sumne man gelaeredne, )7aes nama waes 
Wigfri^. Mid )?an he )?a betweox J?a o^re J^aes 
biseeopes ]?egnas f>yder ferde/ ]m ongimnon hi fela 
J7inga be J^am halgan were sprecan and fela )>inga 
be his wundrum saedon. Sume hi J?onne seedon J7a 
heardlicnysse his lifes, )?a wundor ]?e he worhte; 
sume hi ];onne twiendlice be his life spreecon, and 
l^aet cwaedon J^aet hi nyston hwaeSer he on Godes 
mihte )?a J^ing worhte, ]>e Jnu'h deofies craeft. pa 
)7a hi ]7as J^ing ]7us heom betweonon spraecon, fa 
cwaej? sc witega to heom : Ic maeg, cwaeS he, cnnnian 
and gewitan hwaej^er he bi]> bigcngca )>a?re godcundan 
aefaestnysse ; for)7on ic waes lange betwux Sceotta- 
folc eardiende ; and ic geseah )?aer manige gode, and 
on Godes ];eodscipe wcl heora lif la^ddon ; and hi 
manigum wundrum and tacnum )7urli Godes mihte 

' MS. craeft wiste and bim cydde. - MS. ferdon. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 71 

XVII. 

Concerning the holy bishop St. Haedde. 
Also we must not pass over with neglect that 
wondrous thing, how that with prophetic power he 
knew and made things known. For through God^s 
grace it was given him_, that he should know the 
words of the absent as easily as those of the present 
which were uttered before him. It happened on a 
time that a bishop came to him, whose name was 
Haedda, as though he were counselled by a heavenly 
thought, that he should go to speak with the man 
of God. The bishop had with him in his company 
a learned man, whose name was Wigfrith. Whilst 
he journeyed thither among the other attendants 
of the bishop, they began to say many things about 
the holy man, and spoke much of his miracles. 
Some of them then spake of the severity of his life, 
the mu'acles which he wrought ; some then spake 
doubtingly of his life, and said that they knew not 
whether he wrought these things in the strength of 
God, or throuEfh craft of the de\^l. While thev 
spake these things among themselves, the philosopher 
said to them : I am able, said he, to try and find 
out whether he be a cultivator of divine piety ; for 
I was long dwelling among the Se8«^ people, and 
I saw there many good men, who led their life well 
in God's service; and they shone through God's 
power before the eyes of men, with many miracles 



72 THE LIFE OF 

beforan manna eagum scinon. Of J^ara manna life 
]>e ic J?aer geseali ic maeg ongitan liu gerad );ises 
mannes lif ys, hwaej^er he ))urh Godes miht )7a 
wundor wyrceS, )?e he Jmrh deofles miht deS. Mid 
pj )?a se^ foresprecena bisceop to J^cBre sprsece becom 
)7aes Godes^ mannes GuSlaces, hi }>a sylfe betweonum 
indrencton mid ]?ara cerenum J^aere godspellican 
swetnysse. Waes on J^am eadigan were Gu^lace seo 
beorhtnys )?9ere Drihtnes gife swa swy];e scinende, 
]>dst swa hwaet swa he bodode and laerde^ swa he of 
engcellicre spraece J^a word bodode and raede. Waes 
eac swi^e mycel wisdom on him^ heofonlice snyttro, 
J7aet swa hwaet swa he gelaerde J>aet he J^aet trymede 
mid )7a godcundan [bysena]^ haligra gewrita. And 
he ]?a semninga se bisceop^ on midre J^aere spraece 
)?e hi heom betwux smeadon, eadmodlice to )>am 
Godes were geleat and hine geornUce baed and 
halsode ]?aet he J^urh hine sucerdlice J^enunge onfengce, 
]7aet he hine moste gehadigan to maesse-preoste and 
to Jjenunge Drihtnes weofodes. He J^a sona Gu^lac 
his benum"* gej^afode, and he hine sylfne to eorSan 
astrehte, and J^aet cwaeS )7aet he wolde J^tes ])e Godes 
willa wsere and Jjaes biscopes. pa hi J>a haefdon )>a 
)?enunge gefylled and he waes gehalgod^ swii ic xr 
saede, he J^a se biscop bsed ]?one halgan wer ))a^t he 
scolde to gercorde fon mid him : and he ]>a swa 
dyde fjeah hit liis life ungc]>eawc wiiere. pa hi ])a to 
gcreorde saeton, swa ic aer saede, ])a locode Guthlac 

' MS. I^e. 2 jvis. g,5des. ^ [bysena] not in MS. * MS. benun. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 75 

tlie bishop's attendants; then he saw the aforesaid 
brother Wigfrith, and spake thus to him : And 
now, brother Wigfrith, what sort of man seemeth 
thee now the priest is of whom thou saidst yester- 
day that thou wouldst try whether he were good or 
bad ? Then "Wigfrith arose, and bowed to the earth, 
and confessed his fault to him. Then the holy man 
was forthwith reconciled to him, and gave and 
granted him his pardon. The hallowing of the 
island of Crowland, and also of the blessed man 
Guthlac, took place at harvest-time, five days before 
St. Bartholomew's mass. 



XVIII. 

Concerning abbess Ecgburh. 

It happened also on a time that the venerable 
maid Ecgburh, abbess, the daughter of Aldwulf the 
king, sent to the venerable man Guthlac a leaden 
coffin, and winding-sheet thereto, and besought him 
by the holy name of the celestial King, that after 
his departure they should place his body therein. 
She sent the message by a brother of worthy life, 
and bid him ask him, who should be the keeper of 
the place after him. When he had kindly received 
the message of the venerable maid, then concerning 
that which he was asked — who should be the 



76 THE LIFE OF 

stowe hyrde aefter him heon scolde, J?a andswarode 
he and cwae^, j^aet se mnn wsere on h8ej>enum folce, 
and J?a git noere gefullod ; ac )?eah hwae]7ere j^aet he 
)?a sona come^ and ]?a gennu sceolde onfon fulluht- 
bae]?es. And hit eac swa gelamp : for)7on se ylca 
Cissa, se ]>e eft ]7a stowe heold, he com ]7aes ymb 
litel faec on Bretone and liine man )?3er gefullode, 
swa se Godes wer foresccde. 



XIX. 

Be A^elbalde J?am kyninge. 

Swylce nys eac mid idelnysse to forelaetenne J^aet 
wundor ])e )?es halga wer Guthlac foressede and 
mannum cydde. Waes on sumre tide j^aet com se 
foresprccena wraecca to him Aj'elbald ; and hine 
Ceoh'ed se kyning hider and jnder wide aflymde, 
and he his ehtnysse and his hatunge fleah and 
scunode. Da com he to ]73ere spaece J^aes halgan 
weres Gu^laces ; ]m]m se mennisca" fultum him 
beswac, hine )7eah hwa'Jjere se godcunda fultum 
gefrefrode. Mid ])y he )?a to J^am Godes were com, 
and he him his earfo^a rehte^ ]m cwaeS GuSlac ]>us 
to him : Eala min cniht ]nnra gewinna and earfoSa 
ic eom linforgitende ; ic forjjon J^e geniiltsode, and 
for )nnum carfoSum ic ba.'d God ])iX3t he ]>e gcmilt- 
sodc and ])C gefultomodc ; and he ]>a mine bene 
gchyrde, and he })e sylc)^ rice and anweald ])inre 

' MS. com. - MS. raenuisce. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 11 

keeper of tlie place after him, — lie answered and 
said, thai the man was of heathen race, and was 
not yet baptised; but notwithstanding, that he 
should soon come, and should receive the rites of 
baptism. And so it came to pass; for the same 
Cissa, who afterwards held the place, came to 
Britain a little time afterwards, and they baptised 
him there, as the man of God foretold. 



XIX. 

Concerning Athelbald the king. 

Also we must not pass over with neglect the 
w^onder which this holy man Guthlac foretold and 
made known to men. It happened on a time that 
the before-mentioned exile Athelbald came to him; 
and Ceolred the king hunted him hither and 
thither, far and wide, and he fled from and shunned 
his persecutions and his malice. He had recourse 
then to the conversation of the holy man Guthlac ; 
for when human help had failed him, notwithstanding 
divine support comforted him. When he came to 
the man of God, and related to him his troubles, 
Guthlac spake thus to him : O ! my son, I am not 
forgetful of thy conflicts and thy troubles ; for this 
cause I took pity on thee, and for thy troubles I 
prayed God that he would have pity on thee, and 
support thee ; and he has heard my prayer, and he 
wiU give thee kingdom and rule over thy people. 



78 THE LIFE OF 

l^eode, and J^a calle fleo^ beforan f>e J?a ]7e hatia^, 
and )?in sweord fornyme(S ealle ]>ine ba wi]?erweardan, 
for);on Drihten ^e hrS on fultume. Ac be ]m 
ge];yldig, forJ;on ne begitest ]m na J^aet rice on 
gerisne woruldlicra j^inga, ac mid Drihtnes ful- 
tume ]}u J>in rice begytest; for];on Drihten ];a 
geny)7eraS "pe ])e nu hatiaS, and Drihten afyrre^ 
)7aet rice fram him and haefS ]>e gemynt and geteohhod. 
pa he ]7as word gehyrde^ he )7a sona Aj?elbald his 
hiht and his geleafan on God sylfne trymede, and 
he getrywode A^d gclyfde ealle J^a J^ing J^e se halga 
wer foressede_,lfpS ricu^ beo^ onwende and ofanumene 
and hit a to }>am ende efesteS ; and se rica and se 
heana, se gelaereda and se ungelterda^ and geong and 
eald_, ealle hi gelice se stranga deaS forgripeS and 
nym^. 



XX. 

Be ]pFcs halgan weres lifes lenge and be his forSfore. 
Da gelamp hit on fyrste a?fter Jnssum ])aet se 
leofa Godes j^eow Guthlac aefter J^on fiftyne gear ];e 
he Gode willigende laedde his lif, J^a wolde God his 
J>one leofan J^eow of ]>am gewinne j^isse worulde 
yrm]7a gelsedan to ];aere ecan reste J78es heofoncundan 
rices. Da gelamp on sumne ssel mid J7y he on his 
cyrcan aet his gebedum wa^s, Jni wa^s he semninga 
mid adle gcstandcn. And lie sona ougeat J^a^t him 

' MS. rice. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 79 

and tliey shall flee before thee who hate thee ; and 
thy sAYord shall destroy all thy adversaries, for the 
Lord is thy support. But he thou patient, for thou 
shalt not get the kingdom by means of worldly 
things, but with the Lord^s help thou shalt get thy 
kingdom. For the Lord shall bring down those 
who now hate thee, and the Lord shall remove the 
kingdom from them, and hath remembered and 
appointed thee. When he heard these words, 
Athelbald soon fixed his hope and faith on God 
himself, and he trusted and believed all the things 
which the holy man foretold, — how that kingdoms 
are overturned and taken away, and are evermore 
hastening to an end; and the rich and the poor, 
the learned and the unlearned, and young and 
old, — all these alike, strong death clutcheth and 
taketh. 

XX. 

Concerning the length of the holy man's life, and his departure. 
It happened, some while after this, that God^s 
beloved servant Guthlac, after that he had led a life 
serving God for fifteen years, — then God pleased to 
lead his dear servant from the conflict of this world^s 
miseries to the eternal rest of the heavenly kingdom. 
It happened on a time, when he was in his church 
at his prayers, he was suddenly attacked with illness. 
And he soon perceived that God^s hand was sent 



80 THE LIFE OF 

wses Goclcs hand to sencled, and he swyj^e gebhj7e 
hine het gynvan to ]?am ingangc J^aes hcofonlican 
rices. Wies he scofon do gas mid ]?8ere adle ge- 
swenced, and J^aes eahtoJ>an da3ges^ he waes to J>am 
ytemcstan gelaeded. pa gestod hine seo'^ adl J^on 
wodnesdyege' nehst eastron and J>a eft ]?an ylcan 
daege on );tere eastor-wucan he ))aet lif of f>ani 
lichaman sonde. Waes sum broSor mid him ])3£s 
nama wa3s Beccel, J?urh j^one ic ]7a forSfore ongeat 
J7aes eadigan weres. Mid J;y he J7a com ])y daege );e 
hine seo adl* gestod, )7a acsode he hine be ge- 
hwilcum J^ingum. pa andswarode he him hnetlice, 
and mid langre sworetunge )?aet orS of J?am breostum 
teah. pa he )?a geseah J?one halgan wer swa un- 
rotes modes, ];a cwaeS he to him : Hwaet gelamp 
]?e ny wes nu ^a ; ac J^e on J^ysse nihte sum untrum- 
nys^ gelamp ? pa andswarode he him and him 
cwaeS to : Adl^ me gelamp on ))isse nihte.y pa 
fraegn he eft hine : Wast J7u min faeder ];one intingan 
]?inre adle o])]ye to hwylcum ende wenest ]m j^cet seo 
mettrumnys^ wylle gelimpan? pa andswarode he 
him eft se halga wer and him cwaeS to : peos^ ongi- 
tenys minre untrumnysse ys, ])aet of ]nsum lichaman 
sceal beon se gast aheded; forpon ]>an ealito])an 
daege"' biS ende )?aere minre mettrumnysse ; forj^on 
]7aet gedafenaS ];aet se gast bco gegcarwod, ]>aet ic 

' MS. (Ircge. ^ ^is. se. ' MS. wodncs dxg. * MS. adle. 

* MS. untrumnysse. ^ MS. adle. "^ MS. mettrumnysse- 

^ MS. j^es ongitcnysse. ^ MS. dajg. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 81 

upon liim, and he right gladly began to prepare 
himself for his entry into the heavenly kingdom. 
He was seven days afflicted with the malad}^, and 
on the eighth day he was brought to the utmost 
extremity. The malady attacked him on the 
Wednesday next before Easter, and on the same day 
of the Easter-week after he gave forth his life from 
his body. / There was a brother with him whose 
name was Beccel, through whom I have been in- 
formed concerning the departure of the blessed man. 
When he came to him on the day when the sickness 
seized him, he asked him concerning certain things. 
And he answered him slowty, and drew the breath 
from his chest with long sighing. When he saw 
the holy man in so distressful mood, he said to 
him : What new thing has now happened to thee ; 
has some sickness befallen thee on this night? 
Then he answered him and said to him : Sickness 
has befallen me this night.) Then again he asked 
him : Knowest thou, my father, the cause of thy 
sickness, or to what end thinkest thou that this ill- 
ness will cQ^me ? Then again the holy man answered 
and said to him : The meaning of my illness is this, 
that the spirit must be taken away from this body; for 
on the eighth day there will be an end of my illness ; 
therefore it behoves that the spirit be prepared, that 



4§ 



82 THE LIFE OF 

maeg Gode filian. pa he J>a J^as word gehyrde se 
foresprecena broSor Beccel^ he ]?a swy)7e weop and 
geomrian oiigan and mid mycelre uneSnysse his 
eago-spind mid tearum gelomUce leohte. pa frefrode 
hine se Godes wer Guthlac and him cwae^ to : Min 
beam, ne beo ]m na geuurotsod for]?on ne biS me 
naenig une];nys^ J?aet ic to Drihtne minum Gode 
fare. Waes swa mycel rumnes on him J>aes halgan 
geleafan and swa mycele he to J^aere Godes lufan 
haefde, J^ost se. cuj^a and se nncu);a ealle him wees 
gelice gesegen on godum dsedum. Da ]?aes jTnbe 
feower niht com se forma easter-daeg, he ]7a se eadiga 
wer GuSlac on J^aere his mettrumnysse Gode lac 
onsaegde and maessan sang, and syJ^J^an he J^a deor- 
wyr]7an hic oJBfrode Cristes blodes, J^a ongan he ]mm 
foresprecenan brcj^er godspellian; and he hine swa 
swy)7e deoplice mid his Mre ineode^ J>aet he naefre ser 
ne sy]>|7an swylc ne gehyrde. Mid ]7an ]7e [se]^ 
seofo^a da3g com f)aere his mettrumnysse, ]m com se 
foresprecena broSor on ]?aere sixtan tide J^aes da?ges, 
J79et he hine geneosian wokle : J7a gemette he hine 
hleonian on J^am hale his cyrcan wi^ J?ani weofode. 
pa hwa?)?ere he ne mihte wiS hine sprecan, forj^on 
he gescah J^aet his untrumnys^ hine swy]7e swencte : 
];a )7cah hwne))ere he hine luftcr ]?on ba^d ])a't he his 
word to him forlete ser )7on )?c he swiiltc. He )>a 
se eadiga wer Gu])lac hwii't-lnvcgo fram )>am wage 
J7a werigan limii ahof, cwa^tS ])a j>us to him : ]\Iin 

' MS. unc)?nysse. - [se] not in MS. ^ MS. untrumnysse. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 83 

I may go to God. When the aforesaid brother 
Beccel heard these words, he wept much and began 
to lament, and in great grief incessantly moistened 
his cheeks with tears. Then the man of God 
Guthlac comforted him, and said to him : Mj son, 
be not thou grieved, for to me it is no sorrow that 
I am going to the Lord my God. There was in 
him such a depth of holy faith, and so great love of 
God had he thereto, that the known and the un- 
known was entirely alike in his sight in respect of 
good deeds. "When after four nights the first 
Easter-day arrived, the blessed man Guthlac in his 
sickness performed service to God, and sang mass, 
and after that he offered up the precious sacrifice of 
Christ^s blood, he began to preach the gospel to the 
aforesaid brother ; and he penetrated him so deeply 
with his counsel, that he never before nor after 
heard the like. When the seventh day of his illness 
came, then came the aforesaid brother at the sixth 
hour of the day to visit him. He found him leaning 
in the corner of his oratory, against the altar. 
Notwithstanding he might not speak to him, for he 
saw that his malady violently afflicted him ; however, 
afterwards he begged of him that he Avould leave 
his last words with him before he died. Then 
the blessed man Guthlac raised a little his weary 
limbs from the wall, and thus spake to him : My 



84 THE LIFE OF 

beam, nu ys ]7?ere tide swij?e neah, ac behealt ]?u 
mill )7a ytcmcstan bebodu. iEfter J70n )?e min sawl 
of ]?am lichaman fere, J^onne far J^u to minre swustor 
and hyrc seege J^aet ic forj^on ber on middanearde 
hire ansyne flcab and bi geseon nolde, J78et wyt eft 
on beofonum beforan Godes ansyne unc eft gesawon ; 
and bi bidde ]?ivt beo minne bcbaman on ]7a J^rub 
gesette_, and mid )wre scytan bewinde ye me 
Ecgburb onsende. Nolde ic )7a bwile ]>e ic leofode 
mid linenum braegle gegyred beon, ac nu for lufan 
)?aere Cristes faemnan, ]7a gife ];e beo me sende ic 
wylle to |7on don 'pe ic beold ; ]?onne se bcbama 
and seo sawul bi todsele^, ]7oet man ]?one bcbaman 
mid ]mm braegle bewinde, and on J?a Jn'ub gelecge. 
Da sc foresprecena broSor )?as ]nng gebyrde, be )?a 
waes ]7us sprecende : Ic ]?e balsige, mm se leofa 
faeder, nu ic ]nne untrumnysse geseo and ongite, 
and ic gebyre J^aet ]>\x J^as woruld scealt forlsetan, 
]net ]m me secge be ];a3re wisan })e ic naefre aer nss 
gcdyrstig J^e to axianne. Of ]7a?re tide J^e ic aerest 
mid ];e on J^isum Avestene eardode, ic ]>e gebyrde 
sprecan on aefenne and on a^rcn-mergen ic iiat mid 
bwaene. For])on ic )7e bidde and balsige ]7a?t ]7U 
me neefre bebydigne and sorbfulne be ]7isse wisan 
ne laete aefter J7inre forbfore. He )7a se Godes wer 
mid langre sworetunge J7aet or<S of ]75im breostum 
tcab, andswarodc him J7a and cwa^cS : ^lin beam, 
nclt ])u boon gemyndig, ]7as ]?ing ]7C ic aer nolde 



ST. GUTHLAC. 85 

son, now is it very near the time, and do tliou at- 
tend to my last commands. After ray soul departs 
from tlie body, then go thou to my sister, and say 
to her, that I for this end here on earth avoided 
her presence and Tvould not see her, that we two 
hereafter might see each other in heaven, before the 
face of God ; and bid her that she place my body 
in the coffin, and wind it in the sheet which Ecgburh 
sent to me. I would not, whilst I lived, be clothed 
with a linen garment ; but now, for love of the maid 
of Christ, the gift which she sent me I will put to 
the purpose for which I have kept it, namely, when 
my body and my soul part, let them wrap my body 
in the vestment, and lay it in the coffin. When 
the aforesaid brother heard these things, he thus 
spake : I beseech thee, my dear father, now while I 
behold and understand thy infirmity, and I hear 
that thou must leave this world, that thou explain to 
me concerning a matter which I never before durst 
ask thee about. From the time that I first dwelt 
with thee in this wilderness I have heard thee at 
even and at daybreak speaking I know not with 
whom. "Wherefore I beg and beseech thee that 
thou never leave me anxious and troubled about 
this matter after thy departure. The man of God 
with a long sigh drew the breath from his breast, 
answered him and said : My son, be thou not 
troubled, — the things which before I would tell to 



86 THE LIFE OF 

naenigum woriild-men secgan, ]?a liwile "pe ic lifigende 
wsere, ic hit ]>e wylle nu onwreon and gecyj^au. 
Dan a?fteran geare );e ic J^is westen eardode, J^aet on 
sefen and on asrne-mergen God sylfa pone engcel 
mmre frofre to me sende, se me );a heofonlican 
geiy'no openode^ ]7a nancgum men ne alyfa^ to 
secganne, and Jm heardnysse mines gewinnes mid 
heofonlican engellicum spraecum ealle gehihte ; J^e 
me aefweardan gecydde and geopenode swa ]m and- 
weardan.^ And nu min beam, J^aet leofe, geheald 
]>n min word, and ]?u hi nsenigum o]?rum men ne 
secge buton Pege minre swustor and Ecgberhte 
)7am ancran, gif J^aet gelimpe )?aet ]7U wiS hine 
gesprece. pa he J>as word spra?c he ]>a his heafod 
to ];am wage onhylde, and mid langre sworetunge 
]?a?t orS of J;am breostum teah. ^lid pj he eft 
gewyrpte, and J^am orSe2 onfeng, J7a com seo swetnys 
of J)am muvSe swa ];aera wynsumestra^ blostmena 
stenc. And ];a ]7oere sefter-fylgendan nihte mid ]?an 
J>e se foresprecena bro^or nihtlicum gebedum bcfcall, 
)>a geseah he call |7cet hus litan mid mycelre beorht- 
nesse ymbseald; and seo beorhtnys y^r awunode 
o^ daeg. pa hit on mergen dseg waes, he ])a se 
Godes wer eft styrede hwaet-hwego and ]>a weregan 
leomu upahof. pa cwffiS he to him ))us : ^lin 
bearn, gearwa J^e ]?aet^ ]ni on ]>one siS fere ]>e ic J^c 
gehet ; forjmn nu ys seo tid jnvt se g;tst sccal for- 

' MS. andweardum. - MS. orS. 

^ MS. wyusuraesta blostman. "' MS. -j 



ST. GUTHLAC. 87 

no man of the Tvorld wliile I lived, I will now reveal 
and make known to tlice. The second year after 
I dwelt in this wilderness, at even and at daybreak 
God himself sent the angel of my comfort to me, 
who opened to me the heavenly mysteries, which it 
is lawful to no man to tell, and the hardness of my 
conflict he quite softened with heavenly angelic dis- 
courses ; who also made known and revealed to me 
absent as well as present things. And now, my son, 
beloved one, keep thou my word, and tell these 
things to no other person except to Pege my sister 
and to Ecgberht the hermit, if it chance that thou 
speak with him. When he had spoken these words, 
he leaned his head to the wall, and with a long sigh 
drew the breath from his breast. When he turned 
himself again and recovered his breath, there came 
fragrance from his mouth like the odour of the 
sweetest flowers. And on the following night, when 
the aforesaid brother fell to his nightly prayers, 
he beheld all the house encompassed about with a 
great brightness ; and this brightness remained 
there till day. When it dawned on the morrow, 
the man of God stirred again a little, and raised up 
his weary limbs. Then spake he thus to him : My 
son, prepare thyself to go on the journey which I 
bid thee ; for now is the time that the spirit must 



88 THE LIFE OF 

laetan J^a weregan limo and to ]7am uiigeendodan 
gefean wyle gefcran^ to licofona rice. Da lie ]?a J7as 
J?ingc spra?c he ]?a his handa a]>enede to )?am weofode^ 
and hinc getrymede mid ]mm heofonlican mete, 
Cristes lichaman and his blode^ ; and J^a aefter )7on 
his eagan to heofonum ahof, and his earmas aj^enede, 
and ]m ]?one gast mid gefean and bhsse to J^am ecum 
gefean sende^ )?aes heofonlican rices. Betwux ))a 
J^ingc se foresprecena bro^or geseah eall J^aet hus mid 
heofonlicre brj^hto geond goten, and he ]79er geseah 
fyrenne torr^ up of J>aere eor]?an to heofones heannysse, 
)7£es beorhtnys wDes eallum o)7rum lingelic, and for his 
faegernysse ]7aet seo sunne sylf set middum dsege, 
eall hire* scima waes on blaeco gecyrred. And eng- 
cellice sangas geond J^ajre lyfte faco he gehyrde ; 
and eall )?aet igland mid mycelre swetnysse wnnder- 
lices stences ormsedum wees gefylled. He )m se 
foresprecena bro]?or sona mid mycelre fyrhte wa?s 
geslegen, eode )>a on scip and |?a ferde to |>aere stowe 
]>e se Godes wer aer behead ; and J^a com to Pege 
and hire f>a eall J^a J^iug saede aefter endebyrdnesse 
swa se broSor hine liet. pa heo ]>a gclnTde ])one 
bro]?or foriSferedne, heo )?a sona on eor^ian feoU and 
mid mycelre hefignyssc gefjdled weartS J^a't heo word 
gecwcjmn nc mihte. Mid ]mi\ heo ]>a eft hig gehyrte, 
heo ]m of ]>am breostum inneweardum lange swore- 
tunge teah, and ]>a ))am Wealdende J^anc saedc )7aes 
]}C he sw;i wolde. Ili ])a )mn refteran daege aefter 

' MS. hlocl. - MS. ferde. ^ MS. fyrene topp. •• MS. Lira. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 89 

leave tlie weary limbs^ and will go to the endless 
joy, the kingdom of heaven. When he had said 
these things,, he stretched out his hands to the altar, 
and strengthened himself with the heavenly food, 
Christ^s body and blood. And after that he raised 
his eyes to heaven, and stretched out his arms, 
and then sent forth his spirit with joy and bliss to 
the eternal happiness of the heavenly kingdom. 
Amidst these things the aforesaid brother saw all 
the house perfused with heavenly brightness, and he 
beheld there a fiery tower, from the earth up to the 
height of heaven, whose brightness was unlike all 
other, and by its brilliance the sun itself at midday, 
— all its lustre was turned to paleness. And 
he heard angelic songs through the regions of the 
air ; and all the island was profusely filled with the 
exceeding sweetness of a wondi'ous odour. There- 
upon the aforesaid brother was smitten with great 
fear, went on board a boat, and travelled to the 
place which the man of God had before bidden him 
seek ; and there he came to Pege, and told her all 
these things in order as her brother had bidden him. 
When she heard that her brother was departed, she 
forthwith fell on the earth, and was filled with great 
sorrow, so that she could not speak a word. When 
she presently recovered herself, she drew from her 
breast within a long sigh, and gave thanks to the 
Lord for that he would have it so to be. Then 



90 ^ THE LIFE OF 

];am behode ]>aes eadigau weres hi becomon to J>am 
eglande, and hi ealle ]m stowe and J7a hus J^aer ge- 
metton mid ambrosie J?aere wyrte swetnysse gefylde. 
Heo^ ]^a )7one halgan wer on J^reora daga faece mid 
halgum lof-sangum Gode behead, and on ]mm. ];nddan 
dsege swa se Godes wer behead hig )?Qne hchaman 
on cyrcan mid arwui^nysse behyrgdon:-^ Awolde seo 
godcunde" arfaestnys mannum openhce aetywan on hu 
mycclum -vruldre he waes se eadiga wer sy]?)7an he be- 
byrged wass ; for]7on J^e he ser beforan manna eagum 
swa manigum wundrum scean and berhte. Mid ]?y he 
)7a waes twelf mona^ bebyrged sefter his for^fore, ^a 
onsende God on J^aet mod J^sere Drihtnes J^eowan, 
)7ast heo wolde eft j7one bro^orlican lichaman on oSre 
byrgene gesettan. Heo J?a ]?yder togcsomnode 
Godes ];eowa and ma^sse-preosta and circHcre^ ende- 
byrdnysse, )7aet ]?y ylcan daege J7ses y mbe twelf mona"5 
J7e seo forSfore J^aes eadigan weres waes, hi ]7a J^a 
byrgene untjudon ; ]>r gemetton hi ]?one lichaman 
ealne ansitndne swa he aer waes and jm gyt Ufigende 
waere, and on li]?a* bignyssum and on eallum )>ingum 
)?aet he waes slaependum men gelicra myccle J^onne 
forSferedum. Swylce eac ]7a hraegl ]>aere ylcan 
niwnysse J^e hig on fruman ymbe )?one lichaman 
gedon waeron. pa hi J^as J^ing gesawon )>e Jpser 
samod aet wseron, ]?a wivron hi switic forhtc for )ng 
)7C hi y?ev gesawon ; and lii swa swy^Se mid J)a?re 

' MS. Hi. 2 MS. godcundnysse arfo'stlicc manna. 

^ MS. eynlice. ■* MS. lij?o. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 91 

they on the next day, according to the command of 
the blessed man, came to the island, and they there 
found all the place and the buildings filled with the 
sweetness of the herb ambrosia. She then for three 
days^ space, with holy hymns of praise commended 
the holy man to God, and on the thu'd day, as the 
man of God had bidden, they buried the corpse in 
the church with solemnity. The divine goodness 
would openly display to men in how great glory the 
blessed man was after he was buried ; as he erewhile, 
before the eyes of men, shone and was resplendent 
with so many miracles. After his death, when he 
had been buried twelve months, G<id4niLitj.ntpjth£ 
heart__ofJhe_servaiitj)f_ihe^ 

move her brother^s body to another tomb. She 
assembled thither many of the servants of God, and 
mass-priests, and others of ecclesiastical order; and 
on the same day, on which, twelve months before, the 
departure of the blessed man took place, they opened 
the tomb, and there they found the corpse quite 
sound as it was at first, and as though he were yet 
living ; and in the flexibility of the sinews and in 
all things, it was much more like a sleeping man 
than a dead one. Also the garments were of 
the same newness as when they were first put round 
the body. When they who were there assembled 
together saw these things, they were much amazed 
at what they saw; and they were so smitten with 



92 THE LIFE OF 

fyrlite Wccron geslegene ]r£t lii naht sprecan ne 
militon. Da lieo J>a seo Cristes ]?eowe Pege J^aet 
geseah, )7a waes heo sona mid gastlicere blisse ge- 
fylled and ]?a ]7one halgan lichaman mid )7aere 
arwurSnj^sse Cristes lof-sangum on oJ?re scytan be- 
wand, ]7a Ecgbriht se ancra 3er him lifigende to J^aere^ 
ylcan )?enunge sende. Swylce eac J;a )?ruli na laes 
)7aet hi eft J^a on eorSan dydon^ ac on gemyndelicre 
stowe and on arwyrj^re hi )?agesetton. Seo stow 
nu eft fram A^elbalde )7am kyninge mid manig- 
fealdum getimbrum ys arwurSlice gewur]>od, ]?£er se 
sigefaesta lichama j^aes balgan weres gastlice restej? ; 
and se man se ];e f'a stowe mid ealle bis msegne 
gesec^, ]?onne ];urb J7a J^ingunge j^aes halgan wei'es 
he gefremeS and ];urhtyhj; ];aet he wihiaS. Se 
eadiga wer GuSlac he waes gecoren man on god- 
cundum dsedum and ealra gesnyttra gold-hord ; and 
he waes gestae J^J^ig on his ]>eawum^ swylce he waes on 
Cristes ];eowd6me swa geornfulHce abysgod J)aet him 
nsefre elles on his muSe naes buton Cristes lof, ne 
on his heortan butan arfa?stnys, ne on his mode 
butan syb and lufu and mildheortnes ; ne hyne nan 
man yrre gcseah ne ungcornfuhie to Cristes 
]>cowdomc, ac ii man militc on his andwhtan lufe 
and sibbe ongytan, and a waes swetnys on his mode 
and snyttro on his brcostiim and swa mycel 
glaednys" on him wix?s, yxt he a ])am cuc^um and 
]mm uncu])um waes gchce gescgen. 

' MS. jjam. '^ MS. glicdnysse. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 93 

the fear thereof that they could say nothing. But 
when Pege^ the servant of Christ, beheld it, she 
was forthwith filled with spiritual joy; and she 
wound the holy corpse, with praises of Christ^s 
honour, in the other sheet which Ecgbriht the 
anchorite formerly sent him, when alive, for that 
same service. Also the coffin they did not put into 
the earth again, but they set it in a memorable 
place and an honourable. The place has now 
since then been honourably distinguished by king 
Athelbald with manifold buildings, where the vic- 
torious body of the holy man spiritually rests : and 
the man who with all his heart seeks that place, 
through the intercession of the holy man he shall 
accomplish and bring about what he desires. The 
blessed man Guthlac was a chosen man in divine 
deeds, and a treasure of all wisdom ; and he was 
steadfast in his duties, as also he was earnestly 
intent on Christ^s service, so that never was aught 
else in his mouth but Christ^s praise, nor in his 
heart but \'irtue, nor in his mind but peace and 
love and pity ; nor did any man ever see him angry 
nor slothful to Christ's service ; but one might ever 
perceive in his countenance love and peace; and 
evermore sweetness was in his temper, and wisdom 
in his breast, _ and there was so much cheerfulness 
in him, that he always appeared alike to acquaint- 
ances and to strangers. 



94 



THE LIFE OF 



XXI. 

Be Ajjelbalde kyningce. 

JEfter j^yssum geacsode A];elbal(l se foresprecena 
wraecca on feor-landum ]?a3S halgtin weres forSfore, 
See GuJ?laces ; for]70ii he ana ser fon wjks hys 
gebeorh and frofor. pa waes Le semninga mid 
unrotnysse gestyred, ferde )7a )?ider to ysere stowe 
)?3er J>aes Godes weres lichama on waes, forj'on he 
gehyhte ]7urh ]7one halgan wer ]?aet him God sealde 
his ge\^'innes frofre. pa he )7a to J?8ere bp'gene 
com ]?cTes halgan weres^ he pa wepende mid tearum 
]7us cwae^ : Mm fseder h\Yaet ]7U canst mine yrmf^a, 
]m me waere symble on fultume on minnm nny^- 
nyssum : hwider wylle ic me nu cyrran, hwa frefre^ 
me gif ]?u me forlaatst ? Mid J)y he ]?a ]7as J?ing 
and manig o)7er oet J^aere byrgene wepende sprsec, 
pa seo nihtlice tid com, pa wses he ]7aer on sumum 
huse inne pe he ser be Guthlace hfigendum hwilum 
on gaesthpnesse wunode. Da he pa on pam huse 
inne waes, pa waes he on pam unrotan mode hider 
and pyder pencende, him pa iet nyxtan waeron pa 
eagan mid pam slaepe betyned. He pa fa?ringa 
forhthce abranl, ]m geseah he calle pa cytan innan 
mid hcofonhcc Icohte gefykle. ]\Iid ])an lie ]>a waes 
forhtlice gewordcn for poere ungcwunclican gesihpe, 
■<Sa geseah he pone eadigan wer Guthlac on eiigel- 
licre ansyne him beforan standan and him cwaeS to : 



ST. GUTHLAC. 95 

XXI. 

Concerning king Athelbald. 

After these things Athelbald, the afore-mentioned 
exile, heard in far lands of the death of the holy 
man St. Guthlacj for he alone* was formerly his 
refuge and comfort. Then was he suddenly agitated 
with sorrow, and went thither to the place where 
the body of God^s servant was, for he hoped that 
through the holy man God would grant him comfort 
in his conflict. When he came to the tomb of the 
holy man, weeping with tears, he thus spake : My 
father, lo ! thou knowest my miseries, thou wast 
ever my support in my afflictions ; whither shall I 
now turn myself; who shall comfort me if thou 
forsakest me ? After he had with weeping said 
these things and mxich else at the tomb, when the 
hour of night came, he was in a house where he had 
often abode as a guest whilom when Guthlac was 
living. Mliilst he was in this house, whilst he was 
turning his thoughts hither and thither in his 
sorrowful mind, his eyes were at length closed in 
sleep. Suddenly he woke up in a fright, and there he 
saw all the cottage filled within with heavenly light. 
Whilst he was in fear at the unusual sight, he saw 
the blessed man Guthlac in angelic aspect stand 
before him, and he spake thus to him : Thou shalt 



96 THE LIFE OF 

Ne wylt J7U j^e ondrsedan, ac beo ]m anroede^ for)?on 
God J?e ys on fultume : and ic for)?on to J?e com, 
J?urh mine )?ingunge God ];ine bene geliyrde. Ac 
ne beo ];u geunrotsod for]7on dagas synt gewitene 
)?inra yrmSa, forj^on ser sunne twelf monSa hringc 
utan yrabgtin hcebbe ]m wealdest );ises rices^ )?e )?u 
hwile refter wunne. And na laes )?aet an )?2et be bim 
)?cet rice towerd saedC;, ac eac j^a lengce bis Ufes be 
him call gerebte. Das tacna God gcsvorbte );urb 
)7aes balgan weres geearnunge sefter )7on J^e be forS- 
fered waes and bebyrged. 



XXII. 

Waes sum his scipes-man J>aes foresprecenanSwraeccan 
A|?elbaldes on J^aere maegSjji Wissa, }>aes eagan wseron 
mid fleo and mid dimnesse twelf monb ofergan. 
Mid py bis laecas'^ bine mid sealfum lange teolodon, 
and bit bim nawibt to baelo ne fremede ; cia waes he 
innan godcundUce manod ])aet gif bine man to J^aere 
stowe gelaedde Gutblaces, j^aet he )7onne bis haelo 
and gesibj^e onfengce. Naes J^a naenig bwil to )>on 
|;aet him bis frynd on ])aere stowe brobton to 
Cruwlande, and hi )?a gespraecon to J^aere Cristes 
)?eowan Pegan ; and beo ]yivs mannes geleafau 
trumne and faestne gehyrde. pa laedde beo bine 
on )7a cyrcan )7a?r se arwyrcSa licbama inne wa3S 

' MS. rice. ^ MS. forcsprcccua. ^ MS. lacces. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 97 

not be afraid, but be thou steadfast, for God is thy 
support ; and I am therefore come to thee, for that 
through my intercession God hath heard thy prayer. 
But be tliou not sorrowful, for the days are past of 
thy afflictions ; for ere the sun shall have gone a 
twelve months' circuit round about, thou shalt 
wield this kingdom, which thou erewhile didst con- 
tend for. And not only did he prophesy to him 
his future kingdom, but he also related to him 
completely the length of his life. These signs God 
wrought through the holy man's merit after he was 
dead and buried. 

XXII. 

There was a boatman of the aforesaid exile 
Athelbald whose eyes had been for twelve months 
overspread with the white speck and dimness. 
When his physicians had long treated him with 
salves, and this no whit effected his healing, he was 
divinely admonished within, that if they brought 
him to Guthlac's resting-place he should recover 
his health and sight. Not long after his friends 
brought him to the place Crowland, and they spoke 
to Christ's servant Pege ; and she was informed of 
the firm and fast faith of the man. Then she led 
him to the church wherein the venerable body of 



98 THE LIFE OF 

Guthlaces; genam )?a ];ces gehalgodan sealtes ]>e 
Guthlac aer sylf gehalgode, aud waette and drvpte 
in ]7a eagan ; and ):>a isv lieo o]7erne dropan on f>cet 
o]?er eage dyde, J^a mihte he mid )?an o5ron geseon, 
and on )7am ylcan inne lie gearlice oncneow hwaet 
)?aer inne waes, and lie lial and gesund ham ferde. 

Sy urum Drihtne lof and wuldor and wurSmynt, 
and )?am eadigan -were See Guthlace on ealra Avorulda^ 
woruld aa buton ende on ecnvsse. Amen. 



MS. woruld aworuld. 



ST. GUTHLAC. 99 

Giitlilac was ; she took some of the hallowed salt 
which Giithlac himself had formerly hallow^ed, aud 
wetted it, and dropped it on his eyes ; and ere she 
put a second drop on the second eye he was able 
to see with, that eye, and he readily perceived what 
there was in the room, and he went home whole 
and sound. 

Be praise and glory and honour to our Lord, and 
to the blessed man St. Guthlac, world of all worlds, 
for ever and ever, without end to eternity. Amen. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 2. Prologue. 

As a specimen of the style of Felix, and to enable the reader to 
form some judgment of the Hberties taken by the Saxon translator, I 
transcribe the Latin prologue entire.* 

4- Incipit Prologus de vita Sci Guthlaci, 

In Domino dominorum domino meo. Mihi prae ceteris regalium 
primatum gradibus dilectissimo, zElfwaldo regi orientalium Anglorum 
rite regimina regenti, Felix catholicae congregationis vernaculus per- 
petucB prosperitatis in Christo salutem, 

Jussionibus tuis obtemperans libellum, quern de vita patris beatae 
memoria^ Guthlaci componi prjecepisti, simpUci verborum ^^mine 
textum, non absque procacitatis imprudentia, institui : ea tamen 
fiducia coram obtuli, obsecrans ut si ullatenus, ut fore arbitror. illic 
\-itiosus sermo aures eruditi lectoris perculserit, Htteram in fronte 
paginal veniam poscentem intendat. Reminiscatur quoque, efflagito, 
quia regnum Dei non in verborum facundia, sed in fidei constantia 
persistit. Salutem quidem saeculo non ab oratoribus sed a piscatoribus 
praedicatam fuisse sciat. Sancti quoque Hieronimi dicta meminerit, 
qui rem ridiculam esse arbitratus est, ut sub reguiis Donati gram- 
matici verba ccelestis oracidi redigeret. Sed si forsitan alius aninio- 
sitatis nostras fastibus hoc opus nos arripere imputat, dum alii plurimi 
Anglorum librarii, quorum ingeniositatis fluenta inter floras rethorica 
per wecta litteraturse pure liquide lucideque rivant, qui melius lucu- 
lentiusque componere valuerint, — sciat nos hoc opusculum non tarn 

* From the Cotton MS. Nero E. 1, with some corrections from the Benedictine 
and Bollandine texts. 



102 NOTES AND 

volentiae quam obedientiae gratia incepisse. Propterea laboris mei 
votis, Lector, quisquis es faveas ; sin etiam ut adsolet more obtrec- 
tatoris succensueris, cave ut ubi lucem pntaveris ne a tenebris obcae- 
ceris; — id est, ne cum recta reprehenderis ignorantiai tenebris fusceris. 
Mos enim caecorum est, cum in luce perambulant tunc in tenebris 
errare putant. Lucem enim nesciunt sed in tenebris semper oberrant. 
Caecitas autem in Scripturis ignorantia est, ut apostolus dixit : Caecitas 
ex parte contigit in Israel donee plenitudo gentium subintraret. Origo 
quidem totius raali ab ignorantia venit, Quapropter te admoneo, 
Lector, ut aliena non reprehendas, ne ab aliis quasi alienus reprehen- 
daris. Sed ne sensus legentium prolixae sententiae molesta defensio 
obnubilet, pestiferis obtrectantium incantationibus aures obturantes, 
velut transvadato vasti gurgitis aequore,advitam Sancti Guthlaci stilum 
flectendo quasi ad portum vitae pergemus. Quoniam igitur exegisti a 
me ut de vita Sancti Guthlaci vel conversatione tibi scriberem,quem- 
admodum coeperit quidve ante propositum fuerit vel qualem vitae 
terminum habuerit, prout a dictantibus idoneis testibus quos scitis 
audivi, addendi minuendique modum \itans, eadem ortbothemio de- 
pinxi; ad hujus utilitatis commodum hunc codicellum fieri ratus, ut 
illis qui sciunt ad memoriam tanti viri nota revocandi fiat, his vero 
qui ignorant velut late pansae viae indicium notescat. Non enim sine 
certissimu inquisitione rerum gestarum aliquid de tanto viro scribebam, 
nee tandem ea quae scripsi sine subtilissima indubiorum testium sanc- 
tione libratim scribenda quil)usdam dare praesumpsi ; quin potius dili- 
gentissime inquirens quantacunque scripsi investigavi a reverendissimo 
quodam abbate AVilfrido et a presbitero purac conscientia?, ut ar])itror, 
Cissan, vel etiam ab aliis qui diutius cum viro Dei convcrsati vitam 
ipsius ex parte noverant. Ergo quantacunque de vitae ipsius ortho- 
nomia stilo perstrinxero, minima de magnis pauca de plurimis audisse 
aestimate. Non enim ambigo illos dictatores non omnia facta illius 
potuisse cognoscere, nee ab illis tola dictata me descripsisse glorifico. 
Sed ut tanti \-iri tanti nominis relatio compleatur, prout ul)ique mi- 
racula illius fulserunt, percunctamini, ut singulis qua; novere referen- 
tibus sequentis libelli materia adgregetur. Igitur eximia^ dilectionis 
tuffi imperils obtemperans, textum praesentis cai-tulaj prout potui di- 
gessi, majoris scientiac auctoribus majorem partem linquens; prin- 
cipium in principiura, finem in fine compono._ 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 103 

Page 2, line 3. Alfwold. 

Grammatical correctness requires the dative, Alfwolde. The Saxon 
scribe is often guilty of cutting off an e, and as frequently of adding 
one when not required. To avoid swelling the number of alterations, 
I suffer Alfwold to stand here, and the reader, if he pleases, may take 
the word for a vocative. 

bid. line 9. Ahtest. 

Literally, Thou didst own. This can hardly be the true reading : 
Qu. ? iTehie^X, prcecepisti. 

Ibid. I^sere arwurSan gemynde. 

The MS. has, j^a^s arwur<San gemynde, which I have altered as 
above, because in the two other places in which the phrase occurs in 
the Life of Guthlac, as well as in numerous instances in Alfred's 
Beda, such is the form of the expression. In p. 20, 1. 9, we have. 
Mid \)BXi se foresprecena wer and jjsere eadigan gemynde Guthlac, etc. ; 
and p. 24, 1. 22, Swa jjonne jjsere arwurSan gemynde GufSlac .... 
waes gelaed, etc. In Beda, lib. iv, cap. xxiii (p. 593, 1. 4, Smith;, To 
lare jjfere eadigan gemynde Paulinus, \)ve?, aerestan biscopes \or)5an- 
hymbra, etc.; and ib. p. 594, 1. 18, Cwom Jia to Cent to c5a^re 
eadigan gemynde Theodore aercebiscope. See also lib. iv, cap. xxxiii, 
(p. 606, 1. 46) ; and lib. iv, cap. xix, (p. 587, L 27). 

The idiom is remarkable in two points: 1, for the use of gemynd 
in the feminine gender ; and 2, for the agreement of the definite 
article with a word to which it does not properly belong, by the 
process expressively named, Attraction. 

1. In .Elfric's Homilies, gemynd is used constantly as a neuter (or 
possibly masculine ; as the oblique cases, which occur the most fre- 
quently, do not determine whether the word be masculine or neuter). 
Bosworth considers it masculine. But in Hom. vol. i, p. 288, Jraet 
gemynd occurs several times. In Alfred's Beda the usage is com- 
monly the same. One instance I have remarked of seo gemynd 
(lib. V, cap. vii, near the end) ; a stricter search may perhaps yield 
more. 

2. The phrase, )3a?re eadigan gemynde wer, is a substitute for se 



1Q4 NOTES AND 

wer eadiges gemyndes (or, eadigre gemynde). A transposition taking 
place of the qualitative genitive and the noun qualified, we should 
obtain, Se eadigre gemynde wer. But the article being attracted by 
the substantive -VN-ith which it is now in juxtaposition, the ear 
triumphingover logic, the phrase becomes, jjacre eadigan gemynde wer. 
This process is very different from that which takes place when a 
possessive genitive is placed before the noun it defines. For instance, 
j?aet heafud Jja;s horses, properly becomes, Jjses horses heafod. Here 
it will be observed, that the genitive, ha\'ing an article of its own, 
naturally retains it on changing its position, the other noun dropping 
its article, which becomes superfluous. If, however, the genitive be a 
word which does not admit of, or at any rate has not, the definite 
article, then the principal noun retains its article unchanged ; e. g. for 
]p2dt word Codes, we find, jpait Codes word (Matt, xii, 20) ; for {ja^re 
lufan Codes, ]pscre Codes lufan (Cuthl. p. 16, 1. 14); and, se Codes 
man, seo Cristes faemne, are expressions of constant occurrence. So 
Beda, lib. iii, cap. ii, (p. 536, 1. 18,) Jjaere waepned-manna stowe, the 
men's apartment. Perhaps, however, in some of these cases, the geni- 
tive may be more properly considered as one of qualification than of 
possession ; and words thus connected may be looked upon as com- 
pounds, the latter word merging that which precedes, so that the 
intervening genitive leaves the concord of the article vrith its noun 
undistm"bed. 

The following are instances of the change of the article by attraction : 
Luke xvi, 8 ; jjaere unrihtwisnesse tun-gerefan, instead of, l^one tun- 
gerefan unrihtwisnesse, the steward of unrighteousness, i. e. the 
unrighteous steward. John xvi, 13; jsaere so^fajstnysse Cast, instead 
of, bone Cast so^fa;stnysse, the Spirit of truth. 

Page 2, line 11. [wordum]. 
The whole of this passage is very corrupt. Without emendation it 
yields no sense at all. The insertion and alterations which I have 
made, make it agree in some measure with the original. The words, 
ac gemune and gejjence, are repeated apparently by mistake ; fram 
idclum Jjaucum, must be wrong ; but whether the mistake be that of 
the translator or the scribe, I cannot determine, and leave the words 
as I find them. 



LLUSTRATIOXS. 105 



Page 4, line 1. swa ic menige, etc. 

The translator has departed entirely from the original, and it is not 
easy to tell exactly what he means. The order of the sentence appears 
to be inverted ; gegylde and gesette agreeing, as I believe, with hoc ; — 
faegere and glaewlice gesette, could hardly be said of the writers of books. 
As a similar instance of inversion, compare p. 14, 1. 20, )7a ealdan 
kyningas, .... J^mrh earmlicne dea^ and j^iirh sarlicne utgang ^aes 
manfidlan lifes, Jjc Jjas woruld forleton. 

Ibid, line 27. j^aet him f^onne, etc. 

See Vernon's Guide to the Anglo-Saxon Tongue, p. 86, for similar 
constructions. An instance occurs, p. 16, 1. 13, barn him swa sw7|3e 
innan |?aere Godes lufan. 

Page 6, line 3. geradne. 

Gerad, means apt, mited, ivell-calculated ; from rsedan. The sense 
of the modern German, gerade, i. e. straight, seems appropriate in this 
place. 

Ibid, line 7. Ne tweoge ic aht, etc. 

It will be perceived that the Saxon version expresses exactly the 
opposite of .the meaning of the original. The insertion of a negative, 
lie, before mihton, would remedy this ; but the latter part of the 
paragraph does not seem to favour the alteration. 

Ibid, line 13. hyrde. 

This word, which answers to cartula? in the Latin, is not foimd in 
the dictionaries. Can it be an error of the copyist for hyde ? Is that 
word ever used in the sense of a parchment or skin for writing? 
The passage is probably corrupt ; and moreover the translator seems 
to have quite mistaken the sense of the original, as the reader will see 
by comparison. 

5§ 



106 NOTES AND 

Page 8, line 1. .Ej^eliedes. 

i^thelred began to reign a.d. 075, resigned his throne a.d, 704, 
and died a.d. 716. See Mr. Thorpe's Translation of Lappenberg's 
History of the Anglo-Saxon Kings, vol. i, p. 222 ; and the table of 
the kings of Mercia, at the end of the volume. 

According to the Saxon Chronicle, Guthlac died a.d. 714. Felix 
says, anno 715 ab incarnatione Domini; a reckoning commencing 
nine months before the birth of our Lord. This date may therefore 
he considered to correspond with that of the Chronicle. AccorcUng 
to Felix, St. Guthlac was twenty-six years old when he settled at 
Crowland, and resided there fifteen years ; he must therefore have 
been forty-one or forty-two, at the time of his death. This brings his 
birth back to 673 or 672, and therefore before the commencement of 
^Ethelred's reign. 

Ibid, line 2. heh-):eode. 

Latin : De egregia Merciorum stirpe. Does heh-J^eod mean rather 
the principal or royal family of Mercia ? But compai'e p. 66, 1. 7. 
where it must needs be rendered, province. 

Ibid, line 4. Iclingas. 

The sixth in descent from Woden, in the genealogy of the kings of 
Mercia, was Icel, from whom this family took its name. 

Ibid, line 8. ^a ana. 

Qu. ? Should we read )>& anan, or ane. In the sense ef alone, ana 
is used as an accusative ; e. g. Horn, i, p. 184, Me ana forlajt, leave me 
alone ; and p. 350, Min latteow me ^asr ana forlet, my guide left me 
there alone. 

Ibid, line 15. mid inseglum. 

Did the termination um originally characterize the dative or 
ablative sinyular of substantives as well as of adjectives ? There is no 
sense of plurality in such expressions as : on swefnum (see Matt, ii, 22), 
in a dream; to gemyndum, to remembrance; on hys gewealdum, in 
his power; be lyfum, alive; and many like phrases. It is usual 
to term um, in these instances, an adverbial termination ; but I see 
nothing to distinguish it in the examples adduced from a regular 
case-ending. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 107 

Page 10, line 3. J^a com sum wif . . . vTiian. 

In Anglo-Saxon, after verbs expressing motion, or the absence of it, 
the infinitive is required, where in modern English a present, in 
German a past, participle is used. Thus, A.-S. he com yrnan ; Germ. 
er kam geraunt ; Eng. he came running. 

For instances, see p. 30, 1. 16, j^a comon twegen deoflu of j^ajre 
Ix'fte slidan ; p. 40, 1. 26, j^a geseah he |?aer standan twegen (jara 
awerigdra gasta wepan (MS. weopon) swyj?e and geomerian. 

In the poetical Legend of St. Guthlac, Cod. Ex. 179, 4 ff. 
^a cwom leohta maest. 
halig of heofouum. 
hsedre scinan. 

In the poem of the Phcenix, Cod. Ex. p. 204, 5 ff. 
hwonne up cyme. 
fCjjelast tungla. 
ofer ycS-mere. 
estan ILxan. 

Ibid, line 9. forjjon }pe Jjaet beam )?ger acenued wjes. 

There is some defect in the Anglo-Saxon version here. The Latin 
is as follows : Alii vero hsec audientes, ex divino prsesagio ad mani- 
festandam nascentis gloriam illud fuisse perhibebant. Alii autem 
sagacioris sententiae conjecturis promere cceperunt hunc ex divina dis- 
pensatione in perpetuae beatitudinis praemia destinatum esse. 

Ibid, line 20. of J^aere |?eode Gujjlac. 

Latin : Ex appellatione illius tribus quam dicunt Guthlacingas, 
proprietatis vocabidum ex coelesti consilio, Guthlacus, percepit, quod 
ex qualitatis compositione consequentibus meritis conveniebat. Nam 
ut illius geutis gnari perhibent Anglorum hngua hoc nomen ex duo})us 
integris constare videtur, hoc est Guth et lac. 

This passage seems to indicate that the author, Fehx, was not an 
Englishman. The MS. has, feawum gewi-itura ; a mistake, it is to be 
hoped, of the copyist. 1 have merely substituted twam for feawum, 
but suspect that error still lurks in gewritum. Gewrit signifies rather 
a sentence, or inscription, than a single term. 



108 NOTES AND 

Page 10, line 24. forjjon jjeah. 

Perhaps l^eah is merely an error of the scribe for j^e. I have trans- 
lated the passage as if )?eah .... }jeah, were equivalent to cum cum, 

for which, Jje . . . . Jje is commonly used in Anglo-Saxon. The Latin 
runs thus : Quia ille cum vitiis bellando scterna) beatitudinis prajmia 
cum triumjihali infula perennis vitaj percepisset. The Saxon trans- 
lator has apparently taken cum for a conjunction. There is a passage 
in Caedmon where J^eah appears to be used like \it\ p. 34, 1. 2 (Thorpe's 
edition) : 

nat |?eah jju mid hgenum fare. 
|je )3U drihtnes eart. 
boda of heofonum. 
" I know not whether thou comest with lies, or whether," etc. 

Page 12, line 20. Ac on his scearpnysse )?8et he weox. 

An ellipsis of the words ^a waes or 5a gelamp, must be supposed to 
take place here, to account for the use of the particle of dependence, 
|78et. Instances of tliis are frequent in the Life of Guthlac, e. g. 
p. 24, 1. 17, ff.. He w.Ts a?r->on ehtere his Jjsere halgan cyrcan, and 
mid Jjan |je he to Damascum ferde ^aere byrig, j^aet he wa?s of l^am 
l^ystrum gedwolum abroden, etc.; p. 18, 1. 18, Da ymbe twa winter 
^a^s ]pt he his lif swa leofode under munuchade, |ja;t he ^a ongan, etc. 

Ibid. ult. he {^a, swa he of slsepe onwoce, wearcS his mot oncyrred. 

An instance of anacoluthon, or change of construction ; mod is the 
jiominative to wearS, and he, the priuciiial nominative in the sentence, 
is left -without a verb. So p. 88, 1. 13, And for his faegernyssc 
Jpffit seo sunne sylf at middum da:ge, eall hire scima wa^s on blaeco 
gecyrred. 

Page 14, line 14. wealcan dwclode. 

The passage corresponding to this in the original is as follows 
Inter dubios volvcntis temporis eventus et atras caliginosje vitac ne- 
bulas, fluctuantisque satculi gurgites jactaretur. The words in italics 
arc those of which only a translation is attempted in the Anglo-Saxon 
The MS. reads weolc *} welode. Weolc. perf. from wealcan is explained 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 109 

by Bosworth (who refers to this passage), revolvit, effervesceljat ; and 
welode (which he identifies with wellode fr. wellian), acstuavit. That 
the passage is corrupt appeal's, I think, from this, that betweox re- 
quires an accusative or a dative (Vernon, p. 89), and such word must 
immediately follow middan-eardes. By the alteration of one letter, 
and a distribution of those contained in -j (and), a reading is obtained 
which at least presents less difficulty than that of the MS., and is 
nearer to the Latin. Wealcan may be either the dative pi. from wealc, 
for wealcum, or possibly the infinitive of the verb, wealcan, used as a 
substantive, according to the German usage. I am not, however, pre- 
pared to adduce instances of this use of the infinitive. 

Ibid, line 19. ff. 

The original runs thus : Nam cum antiquorum regum stirpis suae per 
transacta saecula raiserabiles exitus et flagitiosum \ita3 terminum con- 
templaretur, necnon et caducas mundi di^^tias contemptibilemque 
temporalis vitas gloriam pervigili mente consideraret, tunc sibi proprii 
obitus siii imaginatam formam osteudit, etc. I have translated the 
passage, under the impression that allusion was made to the numerous 
nstances of Saxon kings who forsook their thi'ones to become monks 
ir anchorites ; a practice which came into fashion in Guthlac's time. 
The sense of the Latin is however diiferent ; and it may be perhaps 
better to translate : " who departed this world, by a miserable death 
and a wretched ending of their sinful life." 

Page 16, line 20. Hrypadun. 

Repton, in Derbyshire, once famous for its monastery, and as the 
capital city and burial-place of the kings of Mercia. 

Page 18, line 20. wilnian westenes and sundor-setle. 
Qu. ? whether we should read sundor-setles. Perhaps, however, the 
habitual dislike of uniformity which displays itself in the Anglo-Saxon 
spelling, may be traced in this junction of two different cases with the 
same verb. (Wilnian generally requires a genitive, or a dative pre- 
ceded by the preposition, on or to.) As instances of a similar usage, 
compare -Elf. Hom. vol. ii. p. 604, gelyfan on f^a Halgan Drynnysse 
and so^re Annysse ; Luke viii. 34, on |ja ceastre and on tunum. 



110 NOTES AND 

Page 20, line 9. Se foresprecena wcr and J^sere eadigan gemynde Gu«lac. 

The use of two articles coupled by a conjunction, to indicate one 
and the same object, is worthy of notice. For a similar instance, 
see Beda, lib. iv, cap. xxvii (p. 603, 1. 26), Mon >one halgan wer and 
J?one arwurj^an CuJ^byrht to biscope gehalgode. 

Ibid, line 14, j^aere stowe digelnysse. 
The MS. reads j^a stowe digelnysse. But as this expression must 
be considered as equivalent to {^a digelnysse f^ajre stowe, I have no 
hesitation in altering )?a to )?8ere, in conformity with the principle 
alluded to in the note on p. 2, 1, 9. 

Ibid, line 26. eahto^a da;g. 

In the original, die nono Kalendarum Septembrium ; i. e. the 24th 
of August. 

Page 24, line 12. sceotode. 

Sceotian, to shoot, a transitive verb, from sceotan, sceat, scutou, 
scoten, intransitive ; a distinction which has been lost in modern 
English. So hangian, to hang, transitive, from hon (hangan), heng, 
hangen, intransitive. See p. 50, 1. 16, 17. 

Page 26, line 4. Was l^a^r on j^am ealande, etc. 

The Vercelli Fragment begins here abruptly. Was }pKY in Jjam 
sjjrecenan iglande sum mycel IiKtw of eorf^an geworht, f?one ylcan 
hlaew iu geara men bracon and dulfon for feoc [r. feos] jjingum, etc. 

Ibid, line 11. 
Verc. Fr. pa fjohte he ^ifct he nawXer {^ara, etc. 

Ibid, line l.'i. 
Verc. Fr. ealle dagas his lifcs. 

Page 26, line 14. 
Verc. Fr. he hit swa for^-gela^ste. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. HI 



Ibid, line 15. 

Verc. Fr. wa3S his ondleofones swylc gemetegung. This last word 
I have adopted in the text, instead of the Cottonian reading, to 
gereorde, which does not agree with the original, and is tautologous. 

Ibid, line 20. 

Verc. Fr. mid \>\ he )?y gewunelican {?eowdome his sealmas sang 
and his gebedum aetfealh, fja se ealda feond mancynnes gengde geond 
|j3et grajs-wang, swa grymetende leo, \)2&t he his costunga attor wide 
geond stregde. 

Page 28, line 1. 

The remainder of this sentence is very carelessly written in the 
VercelU Fragment ; the reader may find some exercise for his ingenuity 
in correcting it. Mid ]py he fja j^elnes mgegen and his grimnesse 
attor teldaiS [r. todaeletS], j^aet he mid )jy atre j^a menniscan heortan 
wundatS, l^a semninga swa he of bendum and of brogan waes his cos- 
tunga cSa he ^a j^am earh winnendan straele on j?am mode gefaestnode 
fjses Cristes cempan. 

The words earh winnendan are apparently a gloss carelessly in- 
serted in the wrong place ; perhaps we should read {^am earh-winnendan 
mode, the faintly striving soul. Earh, substantive, means an arrow ; 
but I do not see how that sense can be given to it here. The Latin 
runs thus : Dum enim omnis nequitia; suae vires versuta mente ten- 
taret, tum veluti ab extenso arcu venenifluam desperationis sagittam 
totis \iribus jaculavit, quousque in Christi militis mente umbone defixa 
l)ependit. 

Ibid, line 5. 

Verc. Fr. werigan for awerigedan. The same sul)stitution takes 
place wherever the word occurs. 

Ibid, line 10, 
Verc. Fr. fvrena for svuna. 



112 NOTES AND 

Page 28, line 18. 
Verc. Fr. wol-berendan for tweogendum. 

Po^eSO. line 1. 
Verc. Fr. feonde for bli)?e. 

Ibid, line 7. 
Verc. Fr. hine het j^ait him ne tweode no, etc. 

I did. line 9. 

Verc. Fr. ^a he se haliga GuSlac ]?2es word geliyrde his )jass ge- 
trywan freondes, pa. waes he on gsestlicre blisse and heofoncnndre 
gife switSe gfeode [r. gefeonde] and his geleafan faeste in God sylfne 
getrymede and faestnode. SytS^an seo tid waes \>xt naefre Jjaet deoful 
eft wi^ hine |?aere ormodnesse waepuum on hine sceotode. 

Ibid, line 16. 
Verc. Fr, tu for twegen. 

Ibid, line 20. 
Verc. Fr. cunedon for fandedon. 

Ibid, line 21. 
Verc. Fr. ussa for ure. 

fbid. line 22. 
Verc. Fr. Wene ic [r. is] pset we pe fur^or ne wyllan leng bwencau 
ne ^e mid l)rogan hysmrian, !kc. 

Page 32, line 3. 
Verc. Fr. middangeardes for middaneardes. 

Ibid, line S, ft. 
Verc. Fr. ponne gif pu ]pxs wihiast \>xt pu of ie i5a acrran fre- 
mcdnesse vfeh-a leahtra of-a^wea, fjonne scealt Jju |jinne lichauian 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 113 

fjurh forlifcfednesse weccean, forj^an swi^Sor swa <Su j^e her on wonilde 
wecst [qu. ? swencst] and weccest to forgifenesse Jjinra gylta swa cSu 
Jjonne eft bist in ecnessum getrymed fasstlicor, and swa raicle switSor 
swa ^u on fjyssan andweardan life ma earfeSa dreogest swa micle pu 
eft in to^^7rdnesse forgifest, and fjanne pn bist on fasten her on worulde 
astreaht, fjonne bist j^n ahafen for Godes eagan. 

Page 32, line 18. 
Verc. Fr. swa on teala micelre, etc. 

Ibid, line 19. 
Verc. Fr. bits to clajnsigeanne se man. 

Page 34, line 1. 
Verc. Fr. gej^ence for oncnawe. 

Ibid, line 3. 
Verc. Fr. rec for smic. 

Ibid, line 5, fF. 
Verc. Fr. hie jja ealle idle and unnytte ongeat ; ac ]pa feng to j^aere 
teala myclan andleofone, j^aet waes to j^ara berenan hlafe, and jjone 
gejpygde and his feorh bigferede. 

Ibid, line 10. 

Verc. Fr. mid wependre stefne bemurnon and wide geond l^set land 
wacSdon ; and he se geadiga wer swa gesigefa^sted jja. bysmornesse ealle 
forhogode J^aera werigra gasta and him for-naht dyde. 

The verb watSan, to wander, flee, is not in Bosworth. 

Ibid, line 18. 
Verc. Fr. cyi'me for cyme. 

Ibid, line 19. Hi waron, etc. 

This description has been somewhat abridged by the Anglo-Saxon 
translator : I give it in full, marking in itaUcs the parts omitted in the 
translation. 



114 NOTES AND 

Erant enim aspectu truces,, forma terrihiles, capitibus magnis, collis 
longis, macilenta facie, lurido vultu, squallida barba, auribus bispidis, 
fronte torva, trucibus oculis, ore foctido, dentibus equinis, gutture 
flammivomo, favcUms toriis, lahro lato, vocibus borrisonis, comis 
combuittis, huccnld crassd, pectore arduo, femoribus scabris, genibus 
nodosis, cruribus uncis, talo tuniido, plantis aversis, ore patulo, cla- 
moribus raucisonis. Ita enim imraensis vagiti])us horrescere audie- 
bantur, lit totam poena a coelo in terrain intercapedinem clangisonis 
boatibus implerent. 

The Vercelli Fragment agrees in these omissions, which is sufficient 
to show that it is based upon the same text as the Cotton MS., not- 
withstanding the material alterations introduced throughout. 

Page 34, line 20. 
Verc. Fr. lange for langne. 

Ibid, line 21. 

The word manigre (Verc. Fr. maenigre) I have replaced by maegere, 
in accordance with the original, macilenta. 

Ibid, line 22. orfyrme. 

From or, privative, and feormian, to cleanse. Verc. Fr. bearde for 
beardum. 

Ibid, line 23. 

Verc. Fr. egeslice eagan and ondrysenlice mu^as, and heora te^ 
wffiron horses tuxum gelice, and him wasron }7a hracan lige afylled. 
Tojjas (in the text) for teS is worthy of note. The same form occurs 
in the poetical dialogue of Saturn and Solomon, line 230. In Cod. 
Ex. 219, I. 22, fotas is used for fet. 

Page 36, line 1. 
Cott. MS. mis crocetton. Verc. Fr. misscrence tan. The latter 
reading I adopt in the text. Bosworth explains mis-crocetton, croaked 
badly. This does not come very near the original, ore patulo; and 
the reading misscrence tan answers much better to the words plantis 
aversis. Gescrencean, for-screncan, mean to trip up, supplantare. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 115 

.Elfric uses the word for-screncend to explain the name Jacob, i. e. 
supplanter. Horn. vol. i, p. 586. Gescrincan, forscrincan, from which 
these words are derivatives, mean to shrink, wither, intransitively. 
Mis-screnc (qu. ? mis-screnct) may therefore well mean distorted, 
shrivelled. 

Page 36, line 2. 

Verc. Fr. and hi swa ungemetlice hrymdon and foran mid forht- 
licum egesum and nngej^warnessum \)kX, hit jpuhte Jja;t hit eall be- 
tweoh, etc. 

Ibid, line 5, 

Verc. Fr. ylding for yldend. The termination end denotes an actor, 
ing or ung, an action. The words, Naes j^a naenig yldend must there- 
fore be explained to mean, None of them delayed ; not, There was 
no delay. 

Ibid, line 7. 
Verc. Fr. gebundenum hine tugou. 

Ibid, line 9. 
Verc. Fr. ]p?eX swearte fenn. 

Ibid, line 9. 

The Cotton MS. reads orwehtan, which Bosworth explains, without 
water (from or, and, waet). The original is, coenosis. The reading of 
the Verc. Fr. horwihtan, from horu, horuwe, filth, mud (like %iddmht, 
haeriA^), seems clearly the true one, and I have adopted it in the text. 

Ibid, line 12. 
Verc. Fr. betuh for betwux. 

Ibid, line 1-1. 
Verc. Fr. on j?sere )?ystran nihte. 

Ibid. Ic.ie 15. 
Verc. Fr. Lajton hie hine bidan ana and cestandan. 



116 XOTES AND 

Paffe^C), line 17. 
Verc. Fr. Mid maran brogan bysmrigan and waecan. 

Ibid, line 21. 

Verc. Fr. omits the words fram \}e, which come in awkwardly 
enough in the text. 

Ibid, line 24. 
Verc. Fr. in p&m ondrjsenhcum fi^erum betuh j^a caldan facu. 

Ibid, line 27. 

Verc, Fr. j^am sweartestum afylled s'oiSra genipa, pa geseah he 
semniuga )?aer tSa ondrysenlican fi^eru ongen cuman |?ara werigra 
gasta, and unmajte weorod hyra Jjaer coman togenes. 

Page 38,7me 2. 
Verc. Fr. gejsyddon for gegaderodon. 

Ibid, line 4. 

Verc. Fr. tintreges gomum helle dures. The Cottonian MS. reads 
duru, which, if retained, must be considered, I suppose, as an ac- 
cusative. The passage seems to require the dative, and I have ac- 
cordingly placed diu-a in the text. If dures be not a mere blunder 
of thft scribes, it adds another anomaly to the declension of duru, 
which is properly decl. iii. 3 of Rask, but takes dura and duran in 
the oblique cases. 

Ibid, line 4. 

Verc. Fr. Da he *aer geseah pa. smicendan l^ismas (qu. ? jjrosmas) 
Jjara bmienda ligaf and Jjone ege Jjaere sweartan nywylnesse, he 5a 
sona wajs ofergeotol calra ]pXTa. tintrega ^e he fram J^am werigum 
gastum ajr drcah and drefde ; and na lajs j^iin (r. ]pxi an) ^a^t he l^aer 
Jja leglican luiSe 5a;s fyrcs up|?yddan geseah and cac ]?& (r. jjaes) 
fullan swefles ^ajr geseah upgeotan. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 117 

To these latter words there is no equivalent in the Cottoniau MS. 
They correspond, hoAvever, to a paragraph in the original. 

Page 38, line 9. 
Verc. Fr. ligeas for lega. 

Ibkl. line 13. 

Verc. Fr. ^ara wita, and hine for ^y ege swicShce onfjrfec, ^a 
cleopodon, etc. 

Ibid, line 16. 
Verc. Fr. on Saes witu jjisse neowolnesse. 

Ibid, line 20. 

Verc. Fr. {jystra bearnum and forwyrde tuddor, ge syndon dustes 
acsan : hwa geaf eow jTmingura, etc. 

Ibid, line 24. 
Verc. Fr. earo for gearu. 

Ibid, line 26. 
Verc. Fr. bregian for egsian. 

Page 40, line 5. 

Verc. Fr. betiili jja dimman ^ystro. The Cottonian text has ^a 
dimnysse {jeostni. Dimnysse, a genitive of quality, intervenes between 
the substantive and its article, in place of an adjective, without dis- 
turbing the concord. See Note on p. 2, 1. 9. 

Ibid, line 7. 
Verc. Fr. gewunigean for awunian. 

Ibid, line 8. 
Verc. Fr. hie svlfc in heolstre hvddon. 



118 NOTES AND 

Page 40, line 10. 

Verc. Fr. gefeannesse for gefean. The Fragment winds up here 
with the words : And ]7a aefter Jjam fleah se haliga GutSlac mid )7am 
Apostole See Bartboloniei toheofona rices wuldre, and hine se Ha?lend 
Jjaer onfeng, and he J^ajr leofa^ and rixad in heofona rices wuldre a 
butan ende on ecnesse. Amen, fiat. 

Ibid, line 21. Ibunt de virtute, etc. 

These were the words which Furseus heard chanted by the angelic 
host. I refer the reader to Mr. Wright's interesting work entitled, 
St. Patrick's Purgatory, for an account of the \isions of that saint, 
and others of a similar character, which belong to the age of Guthlac. 

Paye 42, line 7. 
Cenred began to reign a. d. 704, and in a.d. 709 went to Rome, 
where he ended his days. 

Ibid, line 20. afyldon. 

The original runs : Ilium vcro intercipientes, acutis bastarum spiculis 
in auras levare coeperuut. I am doubtful whether afyldon should be 
translated " they filled" or " they felled," but have adopted the latter 
meaning. 

Page 44, line 22. )?wean. 
It may be proper to observe that the original has nothing equivalent 
to the words, j^aet he bine wolde }jwean, which would seem to imply 
that Guthlac's ablutions took place only every twenty days. The 
Latin is : Ut assolebat, post bis denos dierum cursus tonderare deve- 
nisset. 

Page 46, line G. >a dca)?-bereudan waiter. 
Several neuters of the third declension in el, en, er, or, which should 
regularly form their nominative and accusative plural in u, are found 
occasionally (as if belonging to the second declension), making no altera- 
tion in these cases. See p. 36, 1. 9, )?a horw ibtan wieter. Beda, p. 690, 
1. 10 '^Suiitb), \}A wundor. Oro<;ius, lil>. iv, cap. 2, )pd. yfclan wundor. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 119 

Life of Gutlilac, p. 72, 1. 3, )7a wundor. Cod. Ex., p. Ill, 1. 15, |jurh 
gastlicu wundor. Beda, p. 608, 1. 39, eall }ja hraigel . . . ungeweinmed 
wffii-on ; and p. 609, 1. 10, Jja sylfan hrjegel. Life of Gutlilac, p. 90, 
1. 23, }?a hra^gl. Cod. Ex., p. 204, 1. 12, tungol beo<S ahyded. Cod. 
Ex., p. 20, 1. 11, beo5 wolcen towegen. 

Page 46, line 10. unablinnu. 
Bosworth explains this word to mean incessatio, non intermissa series, 
from blin or ablinnan. The Latin text has no word corresponding 
to it. It seems to belong to the class of neuter plurals used in an 
abstract sense, like ea<5metto and ofermetto. (Rask, Gram. 92.) 

Ibid, line 20. befeal. 

This is the perfect of a verb, befeolan, which is not given in Bosworth's 
Lexicon, but which occurs infra, p. 52, ult. ^tfeolan, perf. aetfealh 
is given in the Lexicons, and the Yercelli Fragment uses this word for 
befeal, p. 26, 1. 21. There appears to be two distinct verbs, namely, 
feallan,p.feoll. part, gefeallan (conj.ii, 2, of Rask); and feolan, p. feal 
or fealh (qu. ? iii, 1, making, perhaps, folgen in the participle). As the 
Anglo-Saxon does not form one verb of the complex order from another 
of the same, I question whether there be any radical connexion be- 
tween these verbs ; and would suggest, as matter for inquiry, whether 
the verb fyligean or fylgan (conj. ii, 2, the g being a radical letter) be 
not derived from feolan, fealh. (See Rask, Gram. 347.) The h in the 
perfect points to a ^ in the root. Befeolan, setfeolan, answer to the 
words incumbere, insistere, and involve the idea of pursuing rather 
ihdMfalling. 

Page 50, line 8. sarig. 

Grammar requires sarigne. It is difficult to say whether a reading 
of this kind is the result of mere carelessness in transcription, or of 
lax and corrupt usage. In p. 92, 1. 22, we find : Ne hyne nan man 
yrre geseahne ungeornfulue, etc., where yrrue would be grammatically 
correct. 

Ibid, line 14, jjKt egland. 

Qu. ? jjsem eglande. Neah governs the dative. In p. 58, 1. 19, we 
find, wel neah ^am eglande. 



120 NOTES AND 

Page 50, line 20. 
Qu. ? whether we should not read gcamunge, and raildheortnysse, 
according to the Latin construction; non sui meriti, sed divinae 
miserationis. However, in p. 58, 1. 16, we find : Gif )?aet Codes 
stihtung waere, which may support the use of the nominative in this 
passage. 

Ibid, line 10. gefere. 
Properly gefera ; and in the title we should read geferan. The 
word is of Decl. i, 2, of Rask. I abstain from correcting in the text, 
thinking that this spelhng may be not so much an error of the scribe 
as a corrupt usage, occasioned by the existence of a numerous class of 
words in ere (Decl. ii, 2), to which gefere may have been thought to 
belong. In the title of chap, xviii, Haedde is WTitten for Hsddan, 
and in that of chap, xvii, abbodysse for abbodyssan. The latter I 
have corrected in the text. 

Page 52, line 4. leofe-bene. 
Leof, laef or leaf, leave. Hence leafe-ben, leave-asking. 

Ibid, line 9. drencton. 
MS. dremdon. If this reading be retained, translate, " they de- 
lighted each other." The original is, Divinarum Scriptuarum 
haustibus inebriarent ; from which, and from the similar use of in- 
drencton, p. 72, 1. 7, I have Uttle doubt drencton is the time reading. 

Page 54, line 22. Jjaes buses hrofe. 
The MS. has j?am. As a particular house is meant, it is to the word 
huses that the article must belong, and I correct accordingly. See 
Note on p. 2, 1. 9. 

Page 56, line 2. raid bliSum audwhte and gode mode. 

1 have before noticed the use of two different cases with one pre])o- 
sition. Here we have the dative and ablative joined witli mid. 

Page 58, lint 5. acsodon. 
The verb acsian, like the Greek 7Tvv9dvof.iai, means to receive in- 
formation as well as to demand it. See p. 94, 1. 1. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 121 

Page 60, line 6. raxende. 

This word is not to be found in Bosworth, nor in any of the Anglo- 
Saxon glossaries which I have consulted. The Latin runs thus : Ipse 
auteni, velut qui de a^stuantis gurgitis fluctibus ad portum deducitur, 
longa suspicia imo de pectore trahens, etc. To these latter words 
raxende appears to correspond. The word raxed occurs in Piers 
Ploughman, explained by Mr. Wright in the glossary. To hawk, spit. 
Raux, or rax, is also a north-country word, signifying to stretch (see 
Jameson's Scottish Dictionary, and Halliwell's Dictionary of Archaic 
and Provincial Words), probably akin to the Anglo-Saxon raecaii, 
reach, rerch. 

Page 64, line 23. behydde. 

For behyddon. It is not noticed in the grammars that the perfect 
(as well as the present, see Rask, Gram. 197) frequently takes the 
termination e for on in the plural, when the pronoun follows the 
verb. As instances, take the following : Matt, vii, 22, Hu ne witegode 
we on |?inum naman? Matt, xii, 3, Ne raedde ge? Matt, xxiii. 31, 
gyf we waeron on ure faedera dagum, nsere we geferan. Matt. xx\'i, 
37, Hwfenne gesawe we ? John xv, 16, ne gecure ge me. iElf. Horn, 
vol. ii, p. 350, 1. 5, Da become wit to anre dene. 

Page 66, line 11. af^er o^^e. 

A similar redundancy of the disjunctive a)?er occurs in Alfred's 
Orosius (Thorpe's Analecta, p. 84) : Eall f^aet his man af^er o^^e ettan 
oc5t5e erian maeg. 

Page 68, line 17. bine. 

Reaf being neuter, if this reading be correct, we must suppose bine 
to refer to some mascuHne noun signifying a garment; gegyrla, 
perhaps. 

Ibid, line 23. on )?a f}Tle. 
German : in die feme, into the distance. 

Page 72, line 14. [bysena.] 
Latin: Dinnarum scripturarum exemp'.is. 



122 NOTES AND 

Page 74, line 1. Jjam l)iscopes )jegnum. 
I have abstained from correcting, but have little doubt that the 
true reading is j^aes biscopes J?egnum, the officers of a particular 
bishop being meant, not bishop's-officers, as we say sheriifs-officers, 
indicating a distinct class of persons. In p. 70, 1. 12, we find, cor- 
rectly, jjaes bisceopes )jegnas. 

Ibid, line 3. \i\\y\c JjincS. 

MS. )jince, in the sul)junctive. But it does not seem correct to use 
the subjunctive after a direct interrogative. If the words saga me 
precede, so as to make the interrogative dependent, the Anglo-Saxon 
permits either the indicative or subjunctive to follow. The dialogues 
of Salomon and Saturn, and of Adrian and Ritheus, afford numerous 
examples of this varying usage. In the latter dialogue, Question 24, 
Saga me, hw)dce wihta beocS, etc. ; and Question 28, Saga me, hwylc 
man wacre dead, etc. 

Page 74, line 10. harfaestlice. 
MS, .'irfaestlice. Latin : In autumnali tempore. 

Ibid, line 14. Aldwulfes. 

Aldwulf, king of the East-Angles, began to reign a.d. G63, died a.d. 
713. His daughter Ecgburh was abbess of Repandun. See Genealogy 
of the Kings of East-Anglia, Thorpe's Lappenberg, vol. i. 

Page 76, line 13. Ceolred. 

Began to reign a.d. 709, died a.d. 71G. /Ethelbald, the exile here 
mentioned, succeeded him in a.d. 716. See Genealogy of the Kings of 
Mercia, Thorpe's Lappenberg, vol. i. 

Page 78, line 5. on gerisne. 

Dr. Bosworth translates this phrase rapina, from risan or gerisan, 
to seize. The original certainly is : Non in pra.Mla, nee in rapina regnum 
til)i dabitur. But qu. ? whether it be not from gerisen, fit, right ; 
meaning jure or ratione, by right, or, in consetiuence of. Compare the 
phrases mid rihte and mid gerisenum, coupled in p. 2, 1. 4. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 123 

Page 78, line 12. )?act ricu, etc. 

In the original tliese ^vor(ls commence the next chapter, and are 
preparatory to the account of Guthlac's death. Verum quoniam 
humanuni genus ab initio mortaUs miseria} quotidie ad finem decuiTit, 
mutatis temporibus generatioues et regna mutantur, etc. A Hne has 
apparently been lost in the translation, wherein mention was made of 
the human race, to which hit is meant to refer. But compare 
p. 86,1. 2. 

Ibid, line 13. se rica, etc. 

These nominatives want a verb, the construction Ijeing changed, as 
in p. 88, U. 13, 14. 

Page 80, line 2. hine het g^rwan. 
Latin : prajparare coepit. Literally, he bid himself prepare. 

Page SO, line 21. mettrumnys. 

]MS. mettrumnysse. The termination nysse for nys in the nominative 
occurs so frequently in the MS. hereabouts, that it may be thought to 
be less the blunder of the copyist than an evidence of decUning atten- 
tion to correctness of grammatical inflexion at the time when he wrote. 
Smith's Beda affords numerous instances of the same corruption. 

Page 82, line 4. eago-spind. 

Literally, eye-fat. The glossaries spell this word in a great variety 
of ways. Hagu-spind, hagu-swind, eagan-spind, eagan-swind, heago- 
spind, hecga-spind. 

Ibid, line 10. 

The original has : Tantaj ergo fidei fuit, ut mortem quae cunctis 
mortalibus timenda formidandaque \-idetur, ille velut requiem aut 
praemium laboris judicaret. The words se cujja, etc., seem introduced 
by mistake, and afford no sense. A phrase somewhat similar occurs 
p. 92, ult., where the original is : Ita ut extra humanam naturam notis 
ignotisque esse videretur. 



124 NOTES AND 

Page 84, line 1. behealt. 

So the MS. Beheald is tlie correct reading. Synt occurs for synd, 
p. 96, 1. 4, perhaps indicating that the final d (as in modern German) 
often assumed the sound of t. 

Ibid, line 7. bidde. 
More correctly, bide. Rask, Gram. 230. 

Ibid. lilt. nelt. 

Wyllan lias no imperative mood ; because, as vElfric the grammarian 
observes, the will should ever be free. It is in accordance with this 
rule that we find nelt and ne wylt (p. 96, 1. 1), the 2d person present 
indicative, used instead of an imperative. Yet as the will may be 
controlled, a real imperative (nelle) of the negative verb nyllan is also 
admitted. So in Latin, noli ; there being no corresponding imperative 
to volo. 

Page 86, line 8. gehihte. 

Iliht means hope, joy; hence gehihtan must mean here to alleviate 
by inspiring hope. 

Page 88, line 11. torr. 

MS. topp, i.e. vertex, fastigium. The Latin has turrim; and in 
the metrical version, Cod. Ex. p. 180, 1. 26, the word used is tor. 
Heofonlic leoma. 
from foldan up. 
swylce fyren tor. 
rvht araered. 



Ibid, line 1 7. orniaMlui 



Qu. ? ormfctum. 



Page 90, line 7. Awolde, etc. 

A very similar passage occurs in Alfred's Beda. lib. iv, cap. 30, by 
the help of which we may correct the errors of the text in this place. 
Wolde Sa optMilicor ictywan sco godcunde arfaistnysse (read arfa^stnys} 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



125 



on hu myclum wulcire se Drihtnes wer Cujjbyrht aefter his deajje lifede, 
Sfcs his lit' XT jjam dea)?e mid healicum tacnum heofonlicra wundra 
openode and a;ty\vde. 

Ibid, line 16. circlicre. 
MS, cynlice. Latin : aliis ecclesiasticis gradibus. 

Page 96, line 12. his scipes-man. 

Latin : quidam vir paterfamilias in provincia Wissa, without any 
mention of Athelbald. Probably the true reading is hiwscipes-man, 
and the words, )?ses foresprecenan wrseccan AJjelbaldes, should be 
omitted. 

Ibid, line 13. Wissa. 

The province of the Gewissas or West Saxons, I presume. See 
Thorpe's Lappenberg, vol. i, p. 109. 

Ibid, line 14. fleo. 

Latin : albugo. A white spot in the eye. Written also fleah. 
Somner gives the word eag-flea, in the same sense. 



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Anecdota Literaria : A Collection of Short Poems 

in English, Latin, and French, illustrative of the Literature and History of 
England in the Xlllth Century ; and more especially of the Condition and 
Manners of the different Classes of Society, by T. Wright, M.A., F.S.A., 
&c. 8vo. cloth, only 250 printed, 7s 6d 

Philological Proofs of the original Unity and recent 

Origin of the Human Race, derived from a Comparison of the Languages 
of Asia, Europe, Africa, and America, by A. J. Johxes, Bvo. [cloth, 
reduced from I2s (jd to 6s 
Printed at the suggestion of Dr. Pritchard, to whose works it will be found a useful 
supplement. 

Early Mysteries, and other Latin Poems of the 

Xllth and Xlllth centuries, edited from original MSS. in the British 
Museum, and the Libraries of Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Vienna, by 
Thos. Wright, M.A., F.S.A., 8vo. bds. 4s Od 

" Besides the curious specimens of the dramatic style of Middle-Age Latinity, Mr. 
Wright has given two compositions in the Narrative Elegiac Verse (a favourite measure 
at that period), in the Comocdia Babionis and the Geta of Vitalis Blesensis, which form a 
link of connexion between the Classical and Middle-age Literature ; some remarkable 
Satyrical Rhymes on the people of Norfolk, written by a Monk of Peterborough, and 
answered in the same style by John of St. Omer ; and lastly, some sprightly and often grace- 
ful songs, from a MS. in the Arundel Collection, which Jilford a very favourable idea of 
the Lyric Poetry of our clerical forefathers." — Ge7j</«7ia;i'« Mag. 

An Essay on the Origin, Progress, and Decline of 

Rhyming Latin Verse, with many specimens, by Sir Alex. Croke, post 
8to. cloth, 7s 6rf — redticed to 3* 

"This is a clever and interesting little volume on an attractive subject, the leisure 
work of a scholar and man of taste." — British Critic. 

On the Origin and Formation of the Romance Lan- 
guages ; containing an examination of M. Raynouard's Theory on the Re- 
lation of the Italian, Spanish, Provencal, emd French, to the Latin, by 
Geo. CoRifEWALL Lewis, 8vo. cloth, Vis — reduced to 7s (td 



John Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 3 

Essays on the Literature, Popular Superstitions, 

and History of England in the Middle Ages, by Thomas Wright, 
M.A., F.S.A,, 2 stout vols, post 8vo. elegantly printed, cloth, 16* 
Contents:— E%^^Y ^- Atifrlo-Saxon Poetry. II. An-iIo-Xorman Poetry. III. Chan- 
sons de Geste, or Historical Romances of the Middle Affos. IV. On Proverbs and Po- 
pular Sayinss. V. On the Ancrlo-Latin Poets of the Twelfth Century. VI. Abelard and 
the Scholastic Piiilosophy. VII. On Dr. Grimm's German Mytholojry. Till. On the Na- 
tional Fairy Mytholosy of Eniiland. IX. On the Popular Superstitions of Modern Greece, 
and their connection with the Enfrlish. X. On Friar Rush, and the Frolicsome Elves. XI. 
On Dunlop's History of Fiction. XII. On the History and Transmission of Popular Stories. 
XIII. On ilie Poetry of History. XIV. Adventures of Hereward the Saxon. XV. The 
Story of Eustace the Monk. XVI. The History of Fulke Fitzwarine. XVII. On the 
Popular Cycle of Robin-Hood Ballads. XVIII. On the Conquest of Ireland by the Anglo- 
Normans. XIX. On Old English Political Songs. XX. On the Scottish Poet Dunbar. 

The Earl}^ History of Freemasonry in England, 

Illustrated by an English Poem of the XlVth Century, with Notes, by 
J. O. Halliwell, post 8vo. Second Editiox, with a facsimile of the 
original MS. in the British Museum, cloth, 2s &d 
" The interest which the curious poem of which this publication is chiefly composed 
has excited, is proved by the fact of its having been translated into German, and of it 
having reached a second edition, which is not common with such publications. Mr. Hal- 
liwell has carefully revised the new edition, and increased its utility by the addition of a 
complete and correct glossary." — Literary Gazette. 

Torrent of Portugal ; an English Metrical Ro- 
mance, noiv frst published, from an unique MS. of the XVth century, 
preserved in the Chetham Library at Manchester, edited by J. O. Halli- 
well, &c. post 8vo. cloth, uniform, with Ritson, Weber, and Ellis's 
publications, 5s 
" This is a valuable and interesting addition to our list of early English metrical 
romances, and an indispensable companion to the collections [of Ritson, Weber, and 
Ellis." — Literary Gazette. 

"A literary curiosity, and one both welcome and serviceable to the lover of black- 
letter lore. Though the obsoleteness of the style may occasion sad stumbling to a modem 
reader, yet the class to which it rightly belongs will value it accordingly ; both because it 
is curious in its details, and possesses philological importance. To the general reader it 
presents one feature, viz. tiie reference to Wayland Smith, whom Sir W. Scott has investecT 
with so much interest." — Metropolitan Magazine. 

The Harrowing of Hell, a Miracle Play, written in 

the Reign of Edward II., now first published from the Original in the 

British Museum, with a Modern Reading, Introduction, and Notes, by 

James Orchard Halliwell, Esq. F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. 8vo. seu-ed, 2s 

This curious piece is supposed to be the earliest specimen of dramatic composition in 

the English Language ; vide Hallam's Literature of Europe, Vol. I. ; Strutt's Manners 

and Customs, Vol. II. ; Warton's English Poetry ; Sharon Turner's England ; Collier's 

History of English Dramatic Poetry, Vol. II. p. 213. All these writers refer to the 

Manuscript. 

Nugae Poeticse ; Select Pieces of Old English 

Popular Poetry, illustrating the jSIanners and Arts of the XVth Century, 

edited by J. O. Halliwell, post 8vo. only 100 copies printed, cloth, 5* 

Contents -.—Colyn Blowbol s Testament; the Debate of the Carpenter's Tools ; the 

Merchant and his Son ; the Maid and the Magpie; Elegy on Lobe, Henry Vlllth's Fool ; 

Romance of Robert of Sicily, a7id^i;e otli£r curious pieces of tlie same kind. 

Reliques of Irish Jacobite Poetry, with Interlinear 

Translations, and Biographical Sketches of the Authors, and Notes by 
J. Daly, also English Metrical Versions by E. Walsh, 8vo. parts 1 and 2, 
(all yet published,) 2^ 



4 John Russdl Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 

Rara Mathcmatica ; or a Collection of Treatises on 

the Mathematics and Subjects connected with them, from ancient inedited 
MSS. by J. O. Halliwell, 8vo. Second Edition, cloth, 3* G</ 
Contents: Joliannis de Sacro-Bosco Tractatiis de Arte Ntimerandi ; Method used in 
England in the Fifteenth Century for taking the Altitude of a Steeple; Treatise on the Nu- 
meration of Algorism; Treatise on Glasses for Optical Purposes, by W. Bourne; Johannis 
Robyns de Comotis Commentaria ; 'I'wo Tables showing the time of High Water at 
London Bridge, and the Duration of Moonlight, from a MS. of the Thirteenth Century ; on 
the Mensuration of Heights and Distances ; Alexaiidri de Villa Dei Carmen de Algorismo ; 
Preface to a Calendar or Almanack for 1430 ; Johannis Norfolk in Artem progressionis 
summula ; Notes on Pearly Almanacs, by the Editor, &c. &.c. 

Popular Errors in English Grammar, particularly 

in Pronunciation, familiarly pointed out, by George Jackson, 12mo. 
Third Edition, with a coloured frontispiece of the " Sedes Busbeia7ia," 6d 

^robmnal ©lalertsi of (iSnglantr. 

Bibliographical List of all the Works which have 

been published towards illustrating the Provincial Dialects of England, by 
John Russell Smith, post 8vo.l.9 
" Very serviceable to such as prosecute the study of our provincial dialects, or are 
collecting works on that curious subject. We very cordially recomment ii to notice." 

Metropolitan. 

An Historical Sketch of the Provincial Dialects 

of England, illustrated by numerous examples, Extracted from the " Dic- 
tionary of Archaic and Provincial Words," by James Orchard Halli- 
well, 8vo. sewed, 2s 

Poems of Rural Life, in the Dorset Dialect, with a 

Dissertation and Glossary, by William Barnes, second edition, en- 
larged AND corrected, royall2mo. cloth, 10s 
A fine poetic fe»iing is displayed through tlie various pieces in this volume; according 
to some critics nothing has appeared equal to it since the time of Burns ; the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine' for Dec, 1844, gave a review of the first edition some pages in length. 

A Glossary of Provincial AYords and Phrases in use 

in Wiltshire, showing their Derivation in numerous instances from the 
Language of the Anglo-Saxons, by John Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S.A., 
12mo. cloth, 3s 

The Vocabulary of East Anglia, an attempt to 

record the vulgar tongue of the twin sister Counties, Norfolk and Suffolk, 
as it existed in the last twenty years of the Eighteenth Century, and still 
exists ; with proof of its antiquity from Etymology and Authority, by the 
Rev. R. FoRiJY, 2 vols. postSvo. cloth, \2s (original price £1. 1*) 

Westmoreland and Cumberland Dialects, Dialogues, 

Poems, Songs, and Ballads, by various Writers, in the Westmoreland and 
Cumberland Dialects, now tirst collected, to which is added, a Copious 
Glossary of Words peculiar to those Counties, post 8vo. pp. 408, cloth, Os 
This collection comprises, in the Westvwriland Dialect, Mrs. Ann Wheeler's Four 
Familiar Dialogues, with Poems. &c. ; and in the Cumherlamh Dialect, I. Poems and 
Pastoralsby the U*:\. Josiah Kelph ; II. Pastorals, &c., by Ewan Claik ; III. Letters from 
Dublin by a young Borrowdalo 8hei)herd, by Isaac Hitson; IV. Poems by John Stagg ; 
V. Poenis by Mark Lonsdale; VI. Hallads and Songs by Kobert Anderson, the Cumbrian 
Bard {includiiKj gome nowjirst printed); VII. Songs by Miss Hlnmire and Mi.ss Gilpin; 
VIII. Songs by John Hayson ; IX. An Extensive Glossary of Westmoreland and Cumber- 
laud Words. 



JoJm Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 5 

Specimens of Cornish Provincial Dialects, collected 

and arranged by Uncle Jan Treenoodle, with some Introductory Remarks 
and a Glossary by an Antiquarian Friend, also a Selection of Songs and 
other Pieces connected with Cornwall, post 8vo. with curious portrait of 
Dolly Pentreatti, cloth, As 

Exmoor Scolding and Courtship in the Propriety 

and Decency of Exmoor (Devonshire) Language, with Notes and a Glos- 
sary, post 8vo. 12th edition, \s Gd 

" A very rich bit of West of En^landhm."— Metropolitan. 

The Yorkshire Dialect, exemplified in various Dia- 
logues, Tales, and Songs, applicable to the County, with a Glossary, post 
8vo. Is 
" A shilling book worth its money; most of the pieces of composition are not only 
harmless, but good and pretty. The eclogue on the death of ' Awd Dai<y," an outworn 
horse, is an outpouring of some of the best feelings of the rustic mind ; and the addresses to 
riches and poverty have much of the freedom and spirit of Burns." 

Gent.'s Magazine, May, 1841. 

A Collection of Fugitive Pieces in the Dialect of 

Zummerzet, edited by J. O. Halliwell, post 8vo. only bQ printed, 2s 

Dick and Sal, or Jack and Joan's Fair, a Doggrel 

Poem, in the Kentish Dialect, 3rd edition, i2mo. 6fZ 

Jan Cladpole's Trip to 'Merricur in Search for Dollar 

Trees, and how he got rich enough to beg his way home ! written in Sussex 
Doggerel, 12mo. %d 

John Noakes and Mary Styles, a Poem, exhibiting 

some of the most striking lingual localisms peculiar to Essex, with a Glos- 
sary, by Charles Clark, Esq. of Great Totham Hall, Essex, post 8vo. 
cloth, 2s 
" The poem possesses considerable humour."— TaiTs Mag." A very pleasant trifle." 
Lit. Gaz. " A very clever production." — Essex Lit. Journal. Full of rich humour." — 
Essex Mercury. "Yery droll." — Metropolitan. "Exhibits the dialect of Essex per- 
fectly," — Eclectic Tteview. " Full of quaint wit and hnxaonr."— Gent.'s Mag. May 1841. 
•' A very clever and amusing piece of local description." — Archceologist. 

Grose's (Francis, F.S.A.) Glossary of Provincial 

and Local Words used in England, with which is now first incorporated 

the Supplement by Samuel Pegge, F.S.A. , post 8vo. elegantly printed, 

cloth, is 6d 

The utility of a Provincial Glossary to all persons desirous of understanding our 

ancient Poets is so universally acknowledged, that to enter into a proof of it would be 

entirely a work of supererogation. Grose and Pegge are constantly referred to in Todd's 

" Johnson's Dictionary." 

arrftaeologp anli Numismatics. 

The Druidical Temples of the County of Wilts, by 

the Rev. E. Duke, M.A., F.S.A., Member of the Archaeological Institute, 

&c., Author of the " Hall of John Halle," and other works, 12rao. plates, 

cloth, OS 

*' Mr. Duke has been long honourably known as a zealous cultivator of our local 

antiquities. His collections on this subject, and on the literature of Wiltshire, are nowhere 

surpassed ; while his residence on the borders of the Plain, and within reacii of our most 

interesting remains, has afforded scope to his meritorious exertions. The work before us is 

the fruit of long study and laborious investigation."— i)a^ts&itr?/ Journal. 



6 John Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 

An Archaeological Index to Remains of Antiquity 

of the Celtic, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon Periods, by John Yonge 

Akerman, F.S.A., in 1 vol. 8vo. illustrated with numerous engravings, 

comprising upward of Jive hundred objects, cloth, 15* 

This work, though intended as an introduction and a guide to the study of our early 

antiquities, will it is hoped also prove of service, as a book of reference to the practised 

ArchEeologist. The contents are as follows : 

Part I. Celtic Period. — Tumuli, or Barrows and Cairns.— Cromlechs. — Sepulchral 
Caves. — Rocking Stones.— Stone Circles, etc. etc.— Objects discovered in Celtic Sepulchres. 
— Urns.— Beads.— Weajmns. — Implements, etc. 

Part II. Romano-British Period. — Tumuli of the Roman-British Period.— 
Burial Places of the Romans.— Pavements.— Camps. — Villas.— J^epulchral Monuments. 
— Sepulchral Inscriptions.— Dedicatory Inscriptions. — Commemorative Inscriptions. — 
Altars.— Urns.— Glass Vessels.— Fibulae.— Armilla;. — Coins.— Coin-Moulds, etc. etc. 

Part III. Anglo-Saxon Period.— Tumuli.— Detailed List of Object* discovered 
in Anglo-Saxon Barrows.— Urns.— Swords.— Spears. — Knives. — Umbones of Shields. — 
Buckles. — FibuliE.— Bullae. — Hair Pins — Beads, etc. etc. etc. etc. 

The Itinerary of Antoninus (as far as relates to Britain). The Geographical Tables 
of Ptolemy, the Notitia, and the Itinerary of Richard of Cirencester, together 
with a classified Index of the contents of the ARCHiEOLOGiA (Vols. i. to xxxi.) are given 
in an Appendix. 

Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire, and the 

Sepulchral Usages of its Inhabitants, from the most remote ages to the 
Reformation, by Thomas Bateman, Esq. of Yolgrave, 8vo. profusely 
illustrated with u-oodcuts, cloth, £\. 1* 

Notitia Britanniae, or an Inquiry concerning the 

Localities, Habits, Condition, and Progressive Cinlization of the Abori- 
gines of Britain ; to which is appended a brief Retrospect of the Results of 
their Intercourse with the Romans, by W. D. Saull, F.S.A., F.G.S., &c. 
8vo. engravings, Zs Gd 

A Verbatim Report of the Proceedings at a Special 

General Meeting of the British Archaeological Association, held at the Theatre 
of the Western Library Institution, 5th March, 1845, T. J. Pettigrew in 
the Chair. With an Introduction by Thomas Wright, 8vo. sewed, Is&d 
A succinct history of the division betwetn the Archaeological Association and Institute. 

British Archaeological Association. — A Report of 

the Proceedings and Excursions of the Members of the British Archaeolo- 
gical Association, at the Canterbury Session, Sept. 1844, by A. J. Dun- 
kin, thick 8vo. with many engravings, cloth, £\. \s 
" The volume contains most of tlie jiapers entire that were read at tlie Meeting;, and 
revised by tlie authors. It will become a scarce book as only 120 were printed ; and it 
forms the first yearly volume of the Archa'ological Association, or the Architolopical 
Institute." 

Coins of the Romans relating to Britain, Described 

and Illustrated, by J. Y. Akerman, F.S.A., Secretary to the Numismatic ■ 
Society, &c. Second edition, greatly enlarged, 8vo. ic it h plates and wood- 
cuts, lOs (jd 
The "J'rix de Xumismatique" has just been awarded by the French Institute to the 
author for this work. 

" Mr. Akerman's volume contains a notice of every known variety, with copious 
illustrations, and is published at very moderate price; it should be consulted, not merely 
for these i)articnliir coins, but also for facts most valuable to all who are interested in the 
Romano- 11 ritish hiitory ."— Arc?ia'olu(jical Jouriuil. 

Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes, Geographically 

arranged and described, IIisi'ama, Gallia, Britannia, by J. Y. Aker- 
man, F.S.A., 8vo. with engravings of many hundred coi?is from actual 
examples , cloth, ISs 



Johri Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 7 

Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions 

of the New Testament, Jjue paper, ymmerous woodcuts from the original 
coins in various public and private collections, 1 vol. 8vo. cloth, bs 6d 

Lectures on the Coinage of the Greeks and Romans, 

delivered in the University of Oxford, by Edward Cardwell, D.D., 
Principal of St. Alban's Hall, and Professor of Ancient History, 8vo. cloth, 
reduced from 8s 6d to 4s 
A very interesting historical volume, and written in a pleasing and popular manner. 

Essa}^ on the Numismatic History of the Ancient 

Kingdom of the East Angles, by D. H. Haigh, royal 8vo. 5 plates, con- 
taininr/ numerous fgures of coins, sewed, 6s 

A Hand-Book of English Coins, from the Conquest 

to Victoria, by L. Jewitt, 12mo. \\ plates, cloth, \s 

i)eraiar{) anir CopograpI;L>^ 

The Curiosities of Heraldry, with Illustrations from 

Old English Writers, by ]'.Iark Axtoxy Lower, Author of " Essays 
on English Surnames ;" icith Illuminated Title-page, and numerous engrav- 
ings from desigyis by the Author, 8vo. cloth, gules, appropriate It/ orna- 
mented, OR, 14s 
"The present volume is truly a worthy sequel (to the ' Sttrn ames') in the same 
curious and antiquarian line, blending with remarliable facts and intelligence, such a fund 
of amudng anecdote and illustration, that the r^'ader is almost surprised to find that he has 
learnt so much, whilst he appeared to be pursuing mere ente!tainment. The text is so 
pleasing that we scarcely dream of its sterling value ; and it seems ;is if, in unison with the 
woodcuts, which so cleverly explain its points and adorn it>5 various topics, the whole 
design were intended for a relaxation from study, rather than an ample exposition of an 
extraordinary and universal custom, which produced the most important effect upon the 
minds and habits of mankind." — Literary Gazette. 

" Mr. Lower's work is both curious and instructive, while tl;e manner of its treatment 
is so inviting and popular, that the subject to which it refers, which many have hitherto 
had too good reason to consider meagre and unprofitable, assumes, under tlie hands of the 
writer, the novelty of fiction with the importance of historical XTXilh." —AtJieiKCum. 

English Surnames. A Series of Essays on Family 

Nomenclature, Historical, Etymological, and Humorous ; with Chapters 
on Canting Arms, Rebuses, and the Koll of Battel Abbey, a List of Latin- 
ized Surnames, &c. by Mark Antony Lower. The second edition, 
enlarged, post 8vo. pp. 292, icith 20 woodcuts, cloth, 6s 
To those who are curious about their patronymic, it will be found a very instructive 

and amusing volume — mingling wit and pleasantry, with antiquari.n research and 

historical interest. 

An Index to the Pedigrees and Arms, contained 

in the Heralds' Visitations, in the Brid^h Museum, alphabetically arranged 

in Counties, 8vo. cloth, 10* (id 

An indispensable work to thofc engaged in Genealogical and Topographical pursuits, 

affording a readv clue to the Pedijrees and Arms of nearly 20,000 of the Gentry of 

England, their Kesidences, &c. (distinguishing tlu- different families of the same name in 

any county), as recorded by the Heralds in their Visitations between the years 1528 to 1686. 

History and Antiquities of the Ancient Port and 

Town of Rye in Sussex, compiled from Original Documents, by William 
HoLLOWAY, Esq., thick 8vo. only 200 printed, cloth, £\. \s 



10 John Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 

Historia Colle2:ii Jesu Cantabrio-iensis a J. Sher- 

MANNO, olimprses. ejusdem CoUegii. Edita J. O. Halliwell, S\o. cloth, 2» 

History and Antiquities of the Hundred of Comp- 
ton, Berks, with Dissertations on the Roman Station of Calleva Attre- , 
batum, and the Battle of Ashdown, by W, Hewitt, Jun. 8vo. 18 plates, 
cloth. Only 2^)0 priyited, lbs — reduced to 9s 

Newcastle Tracts; Reprints of Rare and Curious 

Tracts, chiefly illustrative of the History of the Northern Counties ; beatiti- 
fully printed in crown 8vo. on a fine thick paper, vith facsimile Titles, 
and other features characteristic oftheoriyinals. Only 100 copies jirinted, 
Nos. I. to XLIX. £b. OS 
Purchasers are expected to take the succeeding Tracts as published ; the Series is nearly 
completed. 

A Journey to Beresford Hall, in Derbyshire, the 

Seat of Charles Cotton, Esq. the celebrated Author and Angler, by W. 
Alexander, F.S.A., F.L.S., late Keeper of the Prints in the British 
Museum, crown 4to. printed on tinted paper, irith a spirited frontispiece, 
representing Walton and his adopted Son Cotton in the Fishing -house, and 
vignette title-page, cloth, bs 
Dedicated to the Anglers of Great Britain and the various Walton and Cotton Clubs; 
only 100 printed. 

aSiograpftp, ^literarp Jjfetorj), anlr Critin'sim^ 

A New Life of Shakespeare, founded upon recently 

discovered Documents, by James Orchard Halliwell, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
with numerous illustrations of objects never before engraved, from draw- 
ings by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A., in 1 vol. 8vo. cloth, \2s 

An Introduction to Shakespeare's Midsummer 

Night's Dream, by J. O. Halliwell, 8vo. cloth {2b0 printed), 3s 

An Account of the only known Manuscript of 

Shakspeare's Plays, comprising some im])ortant variations and corrections 
in the Merry Wives of Windsor, obtained from a Playhouse copy of that 
Play recently discovered, by J. O. Halliwell, 8vo. sewed. Is 

On the Character of Falstaff, as originally exhibited 

by Shakespeare in the two parts of King Henry IV., by J. O. Halliwell, 
12mo. cloth, {only 100 printed,) 2s 

Shakesperiana, a Catalogue of the Early Editions of 

Shakespeare's Plays, and of the Commentaries and other Publications illus- 
trative of his Works, by J. O. Halliwell, 8vo. cloth, 3.y 
" Irulisponsiihle to everybody who wishes to carry on any iiKiuiries connected with 
Shakespf are, or who may have a fancy fur Shakespearian Iliblioj;raphy."— ^7;<rra/t>r. 

England's Worthies, under whom all the Civil 

and Bloody Warres, since Anno 1G42 to Anno 1G4 7, are related, by John 
Vicars, Author of "England's Parliamentary Chronicle," tkc. ifcc. royal 
12mo. reprinted in the old style, (similar to Lady Willovghby^s Diary,) 
with copies of the 18 rare portraits after Hollar, 6rc. half morocco, bs 
Copies of the original edition have been sold from £1C. to £'20. 
The portraits comjjrise, Kobert, l-url of Essex ; Robert, Earl of Warwick ; Lord ^fon- 
fagu, Earl of Denbigh, Kiirl of Stamford, Dnvid I^sley, General Fairfax, t^ir Thomas Fair- 
fax, O. Cromwell, Skippon, t^olonel Alasney, Sir W. Hrereton, Sir W. Waller, Colonel 
Langhornc, General Poyntz.Sir Thos. Middkton, General Brown, and General Mitton. 



J 



John Russell Smith, 4, Old Campion Street, Soho. 11 

Autobiography of Joseph Lister, of Bradford, in 

Yorkshire, to which is added a contemporary account of the Defence of 
Bradford, and Capture of Leeds by the Parliamentarians in 1G42, edited by 
Thomas Wright, 8vo. only 250 copies printed, cloth, As 

Love Letters of Mrs. Piozzi, written when she was 

Eighty, to the handsome Actor, William Augustus Conway, aged Twenty- 
seven, 8vo. sewed, 2s 

'« written at three, four, and five o'clock (in the morninK) by an Octogenary pen, 

a heart (as Mrs. Lee savs) twenty-six years old, and as H. L. P. feels it to be, all your 

otcn."-Lrttcr r.Srd Feb. IS'20. 

Collection of Letters on Scientific Subjects, illustra- 
tive of the Progress of Science in England temp. Elizabeth to Charles II. 
edited by J. O. Halliwell, 8vo. cloth, 3s 
Comiirising letters of Digges, Dee, Tycho Brahe, Lower, Harriott, Lydyat, Sir W. 

Petty, Sir C. Cavendish, Brancker, Pell , &c. ; also the autobiography of Sir Samuel 

Morland, from a MS. in Lambeth Palace, !Xat. Tarpoley's Corrector Analyticus, &c. 

Cost the Subscribers £1. 

A Rot among the Bishops ; or a Terrible Tempest 

in the Sea of Canterbury, set forth in lively emblems to please the judicious 
Reader, by Thomas Stirry, 1641, 18mo. (a satire on Abp. Laud,) four 
very curious woodcut emblems, cloth, 3* 
A facsimile of the very rare original edition, which sold at Bindley's sale for £19. 

Bibliotheca Madrigaliana. — A Bibliographical Ac- 
count of the -Musical and Poetical Works published in England during the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, under the titles of Madrigals, Ballets, 
Ayres, Canzonets, &c. &c. by Edward F. Rimbault, LL.D., F.S.A., 8vo. 
cloth, OS 
It records a class of books left undescribed by Ames, Herbert, and Dibdin, and 

furnishes a most valuable Catalogue of the Lyrical Poetry of the age to which it refers. 

Who was ''Jack Wilson" the Singer of Shake- 
speare's Stage ? An attempt to prove the identity of this person with John 
Wilson, Dr. of Musick in the University of Oxford, a.d. 1644, by E. F. 
Rimbault, LL.D, 8vo. 1^ 

^Sopular lUttv^, Moiit^, mxH ^upersititionsi^ 

The Nursery Rhymes of England, collected chiefly 

from Oral Tradition, edited by J. O. Halliwell. The Fourth Edition, 
enlarged, with 38 Designs by W. B. Scott, Director of the School of 
Design, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 12mQ. in very richly illuminated cloth, gilt 
leaves, 4« 6rf 
" Illustrations ! And here they are ; clever pictures, which the three-year olds under- 
stand before their A, B, C, and which the fifty-three-yeur olds like almost as well as the 
threes." — Literary Gazette. 

" We are persuaded that the very rudest of these jingles, tales, and rhymes, possess 
a strong imagination-nourishing power; and that in infancy and early childhood a 
sprinkling of ancient nursery lore is worth whole cartloads of the wise saws and modern 
instances which are now as duly and carefully concocted by experienced litterateurs, into 
instructive tales for the sjielUng public, as are works of entertainment for the reading public. 
The work is worthy of the attention of the popular antiquary."— Ta<<'« Mag. 

Wonderful Discovery of the Witchcrafts of Margaret 

and Philip Flower, daughters of Joan Flower, near Bever (Belvoir), executed 
at Lincoln for confessing themselves actors in the destruction of Lord 
Rosse, son of the Earl of Rutland, 1618, 8vo. 1* 

Ooe of the most extraordinary cases of Witchcraft on record. 



12 John Russell Smith, 4, Old Compton Street, Soho. 

Saint Patrick's Purgatory ; an Essay on the 

Legends of Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, current during the Middle Ages 
by Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A., &c. post 8vo, cloth, 6« 

" It must be observtd tliat tliis is not a mere account of St. Patrick's Purgatory, but t 
complete history of the lep:ends and superstitions relating: to the subject, from the earliesi 
times, rescued from old MSS. as well as from old printed books. Moreover, it embraces a 
singular chai)ter of literary history, omitted by Warton and all former writers with whom 
we are acquainted ; and we think we may add, that it forms the best introduction to Dante 
that has yet been published."— Z.i/crrtr// Gazette. 

" This appe:ir» to be a curie us and even amusing book on the singular subject of Pur- 
gatory, in which the idle and fearful dreams of supeistition are shown to be first narrated 
as tales, and then applit d as means of deducing the moral character of the age in wliich 
they prevailed."— Spccidtor. 

Trial of the Witches at Bury St. Edmunds, before 

Sir M. Hale, 1664, with an Appendix by Charles Clark, of Totham, 
Essex, 8vo. Ia- 
" The most perfect narrative of anything of this nature hitherto extant." — Prrface. 

Account of the Trial, Confession, and Condemnation 

of Six Witches at Maidstone, 1652 ; also the Trial and Execution of Tliree 
others at Faversham, 1645, 8vo. \s 

Those Transactions are unnoticed by all Kentish historians. 

An Essay on the Archaeology of our Popular 

Phrases and Nursery Rhynces, by H. B. Ker, 2 vols. 12mo. new cloth, As 

(pub. at 12*) 
A work which has met with great abuse among the reviewers, but those who are fond of 
philological pursuits will read it now it is to be had nt so very moderate a jirice, and it really 
contains a good deal of gossiping matter. The author's attempt is to explain every thing 
from the Dutch, which he believes was the same language as the Anglo-Saxon. 

The Merry Tales of the Wise Men of Gotham, 

edited by James Orchard Halliwell, Esq. F.S.A., post Svo. 1* 

Illustrations of Eatino;, displaying the Omnivorous 

Character of Man, and exhibiting the Natives of various Countries at 
feeding-time, by a Beef-Eater, fcap. Svo. irith u-oodcuts, 2s 

Elements of Naval Architecture, biing a Translation 

of the third part of Clairbois' " Traite Elementaire de la Construction 
des Vaisseaux," by J. N. Strange, Commander, R.N., Svo. with 5 large 
folding j^lates, cloth, bs 

Poems, partly of Rural Life (in National English), 

by William Barnes, Author of " Poems in the Dorset Dialect," 12mo. 
cloth, bs 

Waifs and Strays (a Collection of Poetry), I2mo. 

onlg 2b0 printed, chief g for presents, sewed, Is Gd 

33ocik m tl)e ^3irsi^. 

Facts and Speculations on tlie History of Playing 

Cards in Eurojjc, by W. A. Chatto, Author of the ' History of Wood 
Engraving, with Illustrations by J. Jackson,' Svo. profnselg illustrated 
irith engravings, both plain and coloured. 

0. ^•ORMAN, riii.NTEK, maide;n lane, covknt gardeit. 



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