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^-27^', /3 

Ee Ubria of 

Rev. Wm. Hooper, of N. C. 

Presented'to the Libraiy of 

Theological Seminary, j^ 

1872. ^^ ^ 




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TO WHICH AHB rill»IX>»y 





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AN ^ ^ 


lir WHICB 

are explained in their leading and derived Senses^ 

The DERIVATIVE WORDS are ranged under their mpectife PRIMITIVES, 


The BIE ANINGS assigned to each authorized by Referenceji to Passages of SCRIPTURE, 
and frequently illustrated and confirmed by Citations from 
Various Author s» ancient and modern* 



The nFTH EDITION, corrected and imp^oYed. 




!%€ same TkimgM uttered in Hebrew, and translaUd into another Tongue,, have not the tame FoaCE in 
CfcesB : wad not only thete Things^ but the Law itself, and the Prophets, and the Rett ojf the Books 
hue KO SMALL I>iFrERENCB whcH they are tpoken m their own Language. 






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\ J" 

■ O^gg G - 

Prof. Toy. 

' I 

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L i F £ 



JL HE Rer. John Pahki^urst, the s^l^ect of this sketchy ibs the seidoiidi 
son of John Parkhurst, Esq. of Catesby-house^ in the county of Northampton^ 
by Ricarda, the second daughter of Mr. Justtc(e Dormer » and ms bom in June# 
1728. He received the earliest rudiments of his education nt the school of 
Rugby, in the county of Warwick; — an education which» by intense mental 
labour, aided by a mind eminently g^ed with sound judgment and deep 
penetration, he rendered perfect in itstlf^ and beneficial to the world of 
letters, as Well as to the cause of the Christian rdig^on. The wfade life of 
this truly excellent man and devout Christian wis honourable' to htuhan nature f 
and his death a sublime example of faith and resigdfttion. From War-, 
wickshire he removed to Clate-iiall, Cambridge^ iriiere be prdce^ded 
.^B. 1748, A.M^ 1752, and was some time fellow of hb coHl^ge. Being a' 
younger brother, he was intended for the chorch ; but not long aftei^ his 
entering into holy orders, his elder bfoth^ died : thi» event mskk^Um'th^ h^ir 
of two coQsidendde estates, the one at Catesby in the county of Northampton^ 
and the other at Epsom iii the county of Surrey i but a» hie father #a9 
still living, it was some years before he came into the full po^essioA of them f 
and whel& he did, the acqiusitiom of fortune produced ne^ change in his 
hatnts oi' his pursuits. He continued to cfultivat* with afdour th^ studies be- 
coming a clergyman; and from his fiimity conHitxicfoSf as ^ell a^'from hi^ 
piety and learning, he certainly had a great right to kA>k fo^-n^ard to pre^ 
ferment in his profession ; but aoi early attachm^t to retirement^ zAd to H 
fife of close and intense study, ptevented him from seeking any^ In fhe 
capacity of curate^ bdt without any sataf y, he long" oMdiateri fcir a friend! 
with exemplary diligence ^nA ze;^. WheQ^ several fezn after, it felt to hb 
lot to exercise the fig^t of f»resentati<Hi9 h^ vrks tmfohi^onabie enotigh to^ con* 
stder churdi^patronage as a trust rather than a prbpierty ; accortdingly, re. 
aisting the inefluenc-e of inte]^est, fia^voor, and a^ectidki, h^ presented to the 
vicarage of Epsom, in thcf cownty of Surtrey^ the Rev. Jonathan Boucher. 
This gentlemaa was then known to him only by character ; biK having dis^ 

. tingoisb^ 

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tmguished hiijaself in America during the revolution, for his loyalty, and by 
teaching the unsophisticated doctrines of the Chtu-ch of England to a set of 
rebellious schismatics, at the hazard of his life, Mr. Parkhurst thought, and* 
justly thought, that he could not present < to the vacant living a man 'who 
had given better proofs of his having a due sense of the duties of his office. 

In the year 1754^ Mr. Parkhurst married Susanna Myster, daughter of John 
Myster, Esq. of Epsom; this lady died in 1759, leaving him a daughter and 
two sons; both his sons have been dead some years, but his daughter sur- 
vives him, and is the widow of the Rev. James Altham. In the year 1761, 
he was married a second time to MiDecent Northey, daughter of ThomM 
Nortfaey, Esq* of London^, by whom he had one daughter, married, in 1791» 
to the Rev. Joseph Thomas. This lady, reared under the immediate in- 
spection of faer learned and pious father, by an education of the very first 
order, has acquired a degree of classical knowledge which is rarely met with in 
the female world; atod those mental endowments are still more highly embd-- 
Ikhed by the exercise and example of every domestic virtue. 

Mr. Pa^kburst^s second wife closed her well-spent life at the advanced age 
of 79) on the S7th of April, 1800, having survived him upwards of three 
y^an. Never were itiodest worth, unaffected piety, and every domestic 
virtue) more strongly illustrated than in the diaracter of this most amiable and' 
excellent woman. Her sweetness of temper, simplicity of manners, and cha- 
ritaUe dispodtion, are seldom paralleled, and never excelled. 

la the year 175S, Mr. Parkhurst began his career of authorship, by pub* 
Udiingf in 8vo, *'A Friendly Address to the Rev. John Wedey, in relation 
to. a principal Doctrine maintained by him and his Assistants.^ This Work, 
ly>wever valuable, we may safely say, was of very little inqx>rtance when 
compared widi his next pubfication, which was *^ An Hebrew and EngHsh 
Lexicon, without Points; to which is added, a Methodical Hebrew Grammar) 
without Points, adapted to the Use of Learners,'* J 762, 4to. 

To attempt a vindication of all the etymological and philosophical disquisi^ 
tions which are scattered through this work, wpuld be fruitless ; but it is not 
perhaps top much. to say, that we have nothing of the kind equal to it in the 
EngUdi langtdge. Continuing to correct and improve this excellent work, he 
published a second edition, much enlarged, in 1778, and a thirdeditioh iii 1792.' 

His philological studies, were not confined to the Hebrew language ; for 
he published ^' A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testdfenent ; to 
which is prefixed a plain and easy Greek Grammar,^ 1769) 4to; a second 
edition, 1*794 ; and, being desirous of making his literary iidxxif s more ge« 
nerally useful, he determined on publishing octavo editions of both Lexicons, 


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sliQ farther enlarged and improved ^ for he continued to revise, correct, «dd 
to> and improve these works, till within a few days of his deiath. He had 
bat just completed the copies, and received the first proof-sheet of the Gredc 
Lexicon from the press^ when it pleased the All-wise Disposer of humam 
events to take this learned and excellent man to himself. Fortunately, th# 
task of filial virtue devolved on his daughter, Mrs* Thomas, whose ezto^ 
»vely cultivated- mind enabled her to undertake the charge of completing her 
fedier't purpose s and this work was published in 1798. As, from their nature^ 
there cannot be supposed to be anything in Lexicons that is particularly at* 
tractive and aUuring, the continued increasing demand for these two seems to 
be a sufficient proof of their merit. 

Itt 17S7, Mr, Parkhurst published ^*The Divinity and Pre-«xisteiice of 
our Lord smd Saviotu: Jesus Christ, demonstrated from Scripture, in Answer 
to the First Section of Dr. Priestley's Introduction to the History of earl/ 
Optnions concerning Jesus Christ; together with Strictures on some other 
Parts of the Work, and a Postscript relating to a late Publication by Mr. 
GiR>ert Wakefield.*' This work was very generally regarded as perfonning 
all that the title-page promised ; and accordingly the whole edition was soon 
sold off. The brief, evasive, and very unsatisfectory notice taken of this verf 
sMe pamphlet by Dr. Priestley, in a •* Letter to Dr. Home," shewed <mly AaC 
he was unable to answer it. 

Besides the above works, there is in the Gentleman's Magazine for Augtts^ 
1797, a curious Letter of Mr. Parkhurst's, on the Confusion of Tongues at 

Mr. Parkhurst was a man of very extraordinary independency of mind and 
firmness of principle. In early life, along with many other men of distiU'* 
piisfaed learning, it was objected to him, that he was an Hutchmsonian. 
Though Mr. Parkhurst continued to read Hutchinson's writings as long as 
he read at all, he was ever ready to allow that he was oftentimes a confused 
and bad writer, and sometimes unbecomingly violent. To have been de* 
terred from rea<ting the works «f an author, who, with all his faults, cer- 
tainly throws out many useful hints, for fear of being thought an Hutchinso- 
liian, would have betrayed a pusillanimity of which Mr. Parkhurst was in- 
capsule. What he believed, he was not afraid to profess; and n^ver pro- 
fessed to believe any thing which he did not very sincerely believe. He 
was indeed a most earnest lover of truth. The study of the Scriptures was 
at once the business and the pleasure of his life ; from his earliest to his 
latest years, he was a hard student ; artd, had the daily occupations, of every 
twenty-four hours of his Ufe been portioned out, as it is said those of 


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liig Alfred vere> into three equal parts, there is- reason to belfeve that 
a deficiency would rarely have been found in the eight hours allotted to 

What the fruits have been of a life so conducted^ few theologians^ it \sr 
presumed, need to be informed, it being hardly within the scope of a supposi- 
tion, that any man will sit down to the study of the Scriptures without availing^ 
kimself of the assistance to be obtained from his learned labours. 

Mr. Parkhurst's character may be collected with tolerable accuracy even 
from this imperfect sketch of his life. His notions of church patronage do* 
Iiim honour y and as a £utlier instance of the high sense he entertained o£ 
strict justice, and the steady resolution with which he practised it on all oc^ 
casions, an incident which occurred between him and oiie of his tenants may 
be here mentioned. This man falling behind-hand in the payment of hi» 
tent, which was ;^500 per annunty it was represented to his landlord that it 
was owing to -his being over-rented. This being believed to be the. casi^ a. 
new valuation was made: it was then agreed that, for the future, the rent 
should not be more than .^450. Justly inferring, moreover, that if the farm 
was then too dear, it mtist necessarily have been always too dear $ unasked 
and of his own accord, he inmiediately, struck off £50 from the commence- 
ment of the lease ; and instantly refunded all that he had received more thaa 
£^50 per annum. 

Mr. Parkhurst was in his person rather below the middle size, but re- 
markably upright and firm in his gait. He was all his life of a sickly habit ; 
and his leading so sedentary and studious a life (it having, for many years, 
been his constant practice to rise at five, and in winter to light his own Ere) 
to the very verge of David's limits of the life of man, is a consolatory proof 
to men of similar habits, how much, under many disadvantages, may still be 
effected by strict temperance and a careful regimen. He also g2ire less of 
bis time to the ordinary interruptions of life than is common. In an hospi- 
table, friendly, and pleasant neighbourhood, he visited liulev alleging, that 
such a course of life neither suited his temper, his health, nor his studies.^ 
Tet he was of sociable manners; and his conversation always instructive^ 
pften delightful : for his stores of knowledge were so large, that he has ofteiv 
been called a walking library. He belonged to no clubs ; he frequented no 
public places : and there are few men, who, towards the close^ of Ufe, may 
not, on a retrospect, reflect with shame and sorrow, how much of. their 
precious time has thus been thrown away, or peiiiaps, worse than thrown 
away. Like many other men of infirm and sickly frames, Mr. ParklUu^ 
was also irritable and quick, ^-arm and earnest in his resentBdents, though 




fwvcmnfbi^vmg. But whether it be or be not a matter of reproach to possess, 
a mind so constituted, it certainly is much to any man's credit to counteract 
and subdue it by an attention to the injimaions of religion. This Mr. Park- 
hurst effectually did : and few men have passed through a long life more at 
peace with his neighbours, more respected by men of learning, more beloved 
bj his friends, or more honoured by his family. The subject of this biogra* 
phical sketch serenely closed a life of study and of virtue, far removed £:om 
the din of senseless pleasures and the follies of trivial society, after a most 
painfiil and lingering illness of ten months^ on the 21st of February, 1797, 
ai Epsom in Surrey, where for many years he had resided. Mr. Parkhunt^ 
remains now repose in his family vault at Epsom, and in the church there is 
an exquisitely beautiful monument, (executed by that distinguished sculptor 
'Flaxman,) raised by conjugal aSection and filial piety to the memory of the 
kind husbind, the indulgent parent, and the enlightened preceptor. It bears 
the following inscription written by Mr. Parkhurst's valued and learned firiendr 
the late Rev. William Jones, of Nayland, in Suffolk. 


Sacred to the Memory 


Of this Parish, 

And descended from the Parkhursts of Catesby, in Northamptonshire. 

His Life was distinguished 

Not by any Honours in the Church, 

But by deep and laborious Researches 

Into the Treasures of Divine Learning: 

The Fruits of which are preserved in two invaluable Lexicons, 

Wherein the original Text of the Old and New Testament is interpreted 

With extraordinary Light and Truth. 

Reader ! if thou art thankful to God that such a Man liyed. 

Pray for the Christian World, 

That neither the Pride of false Learning, 

Nor the Growth of Unbelief, 

May so far prevail 

4lS to render his pious Labours in any degree ineffectual* 

He lived in Christian Charityj 

And departed in Faith and Hope 

On the 2 1st Day of February, 1797, 

In the 69th Year of hjs Age. 

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This Half »h€et is to IqBdw the Title Page. 

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• to 


WILLIAM STEVENS, ^. TREAtrau of Q. Amai's BouMtt, 





< ] 



• llm tmcription WM prefixed to the Third S^tioiL 

t Ai tliblnKription wm dktjgusd prct i omly to tht rnngh lam ii w d dwArf tliW tl i mwt tftd htmtd 
Prdatc, cIm AMhor Iiopc* to be tioiwd for tlmi pfibficUy aclm^^ 
mod for oot toppcoee&ng t^ naoit lo luJBurablc to hiaiMlf and hit Work. 


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Ir- ••■ 

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TO TliS 


IT is ffwrt from m afftoed HumilUf , but from lh« veal Sentkieftti «< «y Hitft, tkat 
1 btgin this PrefieK^e with remarking, that perha|)B m sMxmger instance of public 
crindoor was newer shown, ihtn in the reception given ta the twrmer* &^ion of this 
lexicon. Fr>r iiotwtthi»taTid'ng it's otnnerous defect and errourf, nrhich I am dtisuvpi 
of acknowledgmg in the plainest and most explicit terms, yiet in a few ff$a the whale 
Im^mvsion was dispersed, and ihe Wofk itself has stoce been fr^quend/ iiK)ttired afbH* 
by persons desirous of procuring it. These circuaaatances are at kaat good signs of an 
sncrva^ing regard to the Origmal Hthrew Scr^ures; and I can with the atrictesC vein* 
city affirm, that fhe^ hvrt buen a ver^ gi^^t and constant eucouragetnent to foe ^r 
exerting my be5t endeavcmrii to impfom tbeUxBuaw and ENOHtisM LfiXiOPH^ ao far 
as near twenty yv^rs advance in life, and a carrfnl parusat, or an attenlive cons^ltaiion 
of many writers, ancient and ni'idem, in various brancbes of learning, have etiabied 
tne. For it must be observed^ that though in the Title-*page this Voiun^ is set forth 
«s a Second f'dttion, yet it might with equal propriety and truth hav^ been introduced 
SIS a new jierformaiice; stnoe ibe great«r part of the explanations of theiiel)reir words 
tiavebeen com|K>sed anew, and tbm are very. few of them ia which roopaiderable addi- 
trons or corrections have not been m4ide: and wbareaa tb» ^»t cxUtioo, . together with 
ttie Su{>plement, consisted only of 422 quarto pages^ this, with the Ap^wndix^ contains 
no leaa than 758. l*heae observations will> I bupe, sufiiiuedtly apol^gifse lo the pur* 
chasers 'of the former pubircation for my not printtag.s^poraie^^, for tbeir use, the 
Alterations and Additions made in this) aa indeed 1 shouli hiftTe been aicoiigly in^icvd 
to do, eotild I bave aoeomplished it witboot lepiioting neatly i)v«-thirda jof tb^ X^nicon, 
.anJ,^ter all^ producing. a Work which must have been wery far from sat'isfying either 
ibens or myself. 

Bat, to convey the clearest notion in my power of what may be expected from the 
Lexicon in it's present form, it may be proper to ohterve, that tbe Author w^ loojie 
years ago much struck with what b related of the celebrated Duke de A/oa<aasur, 
*' who was Xh9 first promoter of what we call the Dmq)hiH Edition of the Classics.-^ 
He used often 16 say, that the d fliculties which occur to us in reading the Works of 
the Aiicieats roi^ht all be 42om|vrvhended ander two dassosi and that they ^irlse either 
- from ottr not knuwing in what sense «bey «sed eoch o^mMPd [orj«i^«nW} f9V«U:rly: or 
else, from our beii]g ignorant now of some opinion, pustom, or things that was familiarfy 
known among them. In the former case the commentator shouW^ehdeavour jlo 
detrunine ibei xneaning of tbe^^iprii [or ^xprjUMitM^ in ^uestion^ b^ vonsult^g haw it is 
used by «be same author, in other plaees, whese ibe meaiuiig of 4t may hu uoore .evldeujt ; 
or by any other of the same country » and (ad near as mi^ bt^ of tbe aaoie tinuis. 
In the second ^asp^ the tkiins, cjmtom, or o^m^n hinted at shpuld be fobjoiaed in as ftw 
Words as is consistent with clearness^.** - 

• Spim^/km^ymrtUjp. ^^\Jlm^ Cmmmit. De &sbas $ttiS|#. ^%6, edit. AmsuL 17)8; and 

a 4' The 

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Tb€ good sense and justness of these reoiarks speak soflicientty for themielvcf $ aad 
as in the prosecution of the tbllowing Work I have endeavoured to avail myself of 
them, it will be found that not only the ♦ Lexicographers and Verbal Critics* but the- 
more enlarged Philologists* the Writers of f Nataral and % Civil Histoiy* | TraveUcrt 
ancient and modem into the eastern countries, and even the || Poets, have been made 

•to draw water for the servke of the Sanctuary, or to contribute their quotas to the iUuf 
tration of the Hebrew Scriptures. In the Notes below I have named the authors princi- 
pally made use of | but, besides these, nuny others have been occasionally consulted. ^ 

But to be more particular — It appeap evident from the Mo»aic account of the original 
formation of Man, that Language was the immediate Gift qfGod to Adam, or that God 
himself either tatig ht our first parent to speak, or, which comes to the saoie thing, inspired 
him with language^. And the language thus communicated to the first man was* 
notwithstanding the objections of ancient or modem cavillers, no other (I mean as 
to the main and structure of it) than that H^nrew in which Moses wrote. £lse what 
meaneth the inspiied hXtorian when he saith. Gen. ii. 19, fFAoHoever Adam coiled every 
Uvi9^ creattiref that (there is nothing in the HeU for xvom) the name thereof f And the 
samcs of Adam, Eve, Cain, Abei, Seth, Noah, &c with their etymological reasons, are a^ 
truly Hebrew as those of Bskg, Abraham, Sarahf Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Moms, Joshua, or 
evien as Dofcid, ISolomon (Heb. Shelemah), Isaiah, and Malachi, And whatever dUfi- 
culty there may be in explaining thi< ot that, or a few particular words in Hebrew, yet 
it wiH be demonstratively evident to any one who will, attentively examine the subject, 
that the Hebrew language is ideal^ or that from a certain, and that no great, number of 
primitive, and ajfparently ** arbitrary, words, called Roots, and usually expressive of 
some idea or notion takenfrom nature, u e. from the external objects around us* or from 
€«ir own constitutions, by our senses or feelings^ all the other words of that tongue are de- 
rived, or grammatically formed; and that wherever the rodfco/ /e<<rrs are the same, the 
leading idea or notion runs through all the deflejidns of the word, however numeroua or 
diversified; diie alk>wance being made for such radical letters as are dropped, and conse- 
quently are to be supplied, by the rules of grammar. Indeed I believe that many other 
languages, not only the Greek and Latin, but even our own, and the rest which are now 

' tpoken in Efovpe, might, notwithstand'mg their apparent confusion* be, by persons pro- 
^triy qualified, reduced to their primitive Roots, and by consequence the IdeaUty (if 
the term may be allowed) qf such languages be recovered. And this, with r^;af^ to 
the Greek in particular, has* I hope, been in a good measure performed in tbe Gabkr 
and EiTGLiSH LiMcoif to the New Testament; and I will venture to prognosticate 
good success to those learned and ingenious men who will heartily attempt the like 

* At Afmr/i d€ Calatio, Concordant, et Lexic Kirckeri Concordant, (utifflli Lexic. Hepu^kitt. 

Cofceli Lexic. LeigPt Critica Sacra, RoUrUon Thetaunit Ling. Sanctx, Stociii Clavit Vtt. Test. Taj/l»r% 
' Hebrew Concordance. N0Uii PartlcuL Heb. A. Sciubem Ori^es I lebrsx, &c. Gtauii PhUologU Sacra, 

Bau*9 Critica Hebrxa, Ifituhkum't Woiict, 1^ Tohiniet» 8vo. whicb last I |:^ace under tlMt hewd^ 00c 
. knmiae where more properly to raofe them ; though indeed tlvty abound with much useful and enter* 

tatning leamina on ^mritw subjects, or as Mr. N.*% vmty adversary, Dn Siarff^ chose to express it, (Oe* 
. dication to Tw Dhsertdims et$ Elohim and Berith, p. viii.) '*'lbcre are h 4ome parts of his Works, 
' things both msefidznA curious,** — Fks est et ab RofTF. doceri. 

t PRmy Natural Hist. Buhmri Opera, 3 voL fol. Sek*uchner Pbysica Sacra. Bufii Hist. Nat. BrSa% 

Natural HisCory ; to which I nuut add Mtrkaa^*t Chemistry, and Instimtiones Medioi, and HaUtrt 

Wit * 

\ HtrodUM, D mJ kr tu Sict$Uu, Xenp^k^ Cyropaed. J«t*pbui, fiuUrck, Utterii Annates, Frtdeoux Connect. 
Uj$wrs4J Hist, 

Observatseos OS 

L,adv M, IT. Mmtagu/t Letters* 3 tqIs. Co^^g Sytttm ^ Gmgrafky, 2 vols. HoL Niehukr 
1 DessxipciQn de 1 Arafaio, at Ve>yaee, 2 teoiacib 

I OrtheOreeks, Orpkems, Btmer^TTti^kus, CMmukw; of the Latins, Lucretiut, rirgU, Ovid, Horace, 
/smeam^Jmmml, Persiui, 

ef 3ce BMreon thiainti^re«ii^ suhJecttnTheLexicon under rootinp IIL andin the tnthorsthcre^uoted. 
** But here I would be- unj^tstood to tfeept such as are formed by an mtpuhprnin, or immtdiaedy 
from tkt sound, of which many instaocet art )^en in the Lcaicon ; and indeed cuch wonlt are common 
* tn all languages. 


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m such other languages u they are well acquainted with. But to return to the Work 
be/bre as.— 

To assign the primary idea or notim qf each Hebrew Root is one of the points primS^ 
paUff UAwred in thisy as in the former edition:, and maj I be permitted to add, that I 
tnut it is here brought nearer to a completion f At least, I can safely assert, that, in stating 
yhK9% primary notions or senses^ I have earifesily^trrcen to lay aside all prejudices and par- 
tiality to the preconceived opinions, whether of any other man, or of myself; and ac» 
cofdiii|ly the reader, upon comparin| this with the former Work, will observe many 
alteraUoiM in this respect. Now, in fixing the leading sense of each Root, after caire- 
fully and constantly consulting the ancient versions (I mean those of the LXX and Vulg,\ 
together with the Chaldee Targums, and the fragments of the Hezaplar versions of 
AquUa, Symnutchus, Tkeodotion, &c. published by Montfaucon), I have endeavoured as 
much aspoBslble to let the Holy Scriptures, on a diligent and close examination and com* 
patiaon/ff^the several texts, speak for thcmselveii, well knowing that fio/A/iig: cz^s a A'dr* 
-m^md Hkc a diamond. But for the explanation of such words as occur in the Bible but 
once, or very rarely, as also of those which are evidently used, not in their primitive, but 
only in a sectHkdary or derivative sen^e, recourse hath been had to the eastern dialectieaf . 
{•'igoagep, particularly to the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, which, it u hoped, wM 
in such Instances be found to have frequently illustrated the true meaning of the IMrew» 
And in applying the Arabic language in particular to these purposes, I have been much 
assisted not only by the printed Works of the celebrated Aibert Schultens, formerly Pro- 
iessor of the Otiental limguages in the University of Leyden, but by a * Manuscript 
HdMrew Lexicon of the same author, kindly communicated to me by the Bev. and 
learned Mr. iFoide, Chaplain of his^ Majesty's Dutch Chapel at St. James*s. 

That Schuitens has from the Arabic happily and satisfactorily illustrated some very 
^olMcure and difficult words of the Hebrew text, must, I think, be acknowledged by eveiy 
imprtial enquirer after truth* But it seems equally evident, on the other hand, tiiat 
this great man carried his regard to the Alcorani h Arabic^ which is manifestly a corrupt 
dialect, or rather a hodge-podge or jumble of several corrupt dialects of the Hebrew, 
much too far; and that, t)eing continually converfaiit with the florid and highly figura- 
tive, not to say bombast, style of the Arabian writers, he has resolved some strictly 
just, proper, or philosophical expressions of the Hebrew Bible into tropes and figures, 
and has often called in his favourite Arabic to explain (or shall I say perplex?) the 
meaning pf the Hebrew, where it's aid was by no means wanted, but the import of the 
word or expression might have been clearly ascertained by the ancient versions, and an 
attentive comparison of the several texts wherein it occurred. But though I thought 
myself, on a subject of such importance, obliged to speak thus plainly concerning this 
very learned and respectable writer, yet it is with pleasure I add, that in this he b hardly 
enough to be commended, that he constantly (I think.) aims at giving a dear leading oe 
primary idea or sense to each Hebrew Root, which no doubt is the fundamental primipk 
of ei4>iaining the sacred language. 

But 1 have called the AUoranish Arabic a hodge-podge or jumble of several corrupt 
dialects of the Hebrew 5 and as this may be disputed, 1 add, that the fact is sufficient^ 
proved even from it's boasted c<^iousnem. f '' It so far excels other languages in copious* 

fte$$ (says Bishop Walton, Prdcgom. xiv. 6J) that the various appellation* qf one singk 


* Entiilcj Auian Scbultkits Ori^e$ HArmca im CoUtff ft^Uco HctaU, It v%^ coataiaed in two 
mo^ s s m vohuBci in quarto. The copy 1 was favoured with is imperfect, contaioiDg from the be^r 

e letter n to Root srvi, under a inclusive. The Roou under the letter are all wanting, but 
tboae uader * are eipbiocd from the beginning of that letter to R^oot nir, from wbich to the end of the 
letter V the copy is acain deficient. The Second Volume coatains from the begmaing oi a to Rvot^ 
ran Qodcr D; iodto tnb vohuae b (Meflsed the following Note: OntoiHts C/. f^iW Albert! ^hultrns, 
« 0ief4 a W rm mfue, M antt mcrium ti tmrtem Jein iHuiam sidttii^rai.** 

f ** Tanta cvpim aiiat Imf^mms xi^ermi, mt umtts ret appellatiooet vans, tarum^ue explicaticmet volvinu* 
aas iategri aatosaa prsbeanC Ltmu tmmima huUi quingenta, safemtit duceata, arnliu octogifltm, dt fw»- 
§m bdtgnm HMJum sari^ Firausabadius. JEumh wp« appcltatitm* ttsStOur idem we supra mille, fiior m 
iHf9 i^ imip^iits 0mm§rwvitt 


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4hing, tmd their explanations, a ford mauer for a complete volume. It has fite hundred 
names for a lion, tivo hundred for a serpent, eighty for honey, on which last Ftrauzaba* 
diu$ says ihat he haH written a whole booic. The same writer lestlfief that ihe names for 
m sword 2ite above a thousand^ which he has enumerated in a work composed by him.'** 
Thus say those wh»i are best slctlled in Arabic, And h<5re it may be }=afJly left to the de- 
terrrHnaiion of an/ consickrate man, whtt is at all acquainted with the nature of lao- 
4i;uagef whether this could possibly be the case in any one ili'.lect or language upon earth j 
or wheiher it is possible to imagine a stronger ir.ternal j„roof that a language answt-rii^ 
this character must in fact be made up of several various languages or dialects. And if 
the AlamttMh Arabic be indeed so copious (I had alnu)SL said infinite) as above declared, 
I believe no man of sense will be inclined to contest what the f Arabs ihtnis*;lved atiiroi 
concerning it, namely, that '* none can compiehend ii*s whole compass unless illwui* 
noted hy the prophetic spirit^ and that no one was ever yet able to cxhtost all it's ireg» 
Mixtt»*" Thus much for the Alcoranish Arabic, And for ever topbviaie the extravagant 
assertions which Schultens and sora? oiQer learned men have advanced conct-rniiig the 
^unparied purity and hih antiquity of the AraoiCf as now tpuktn in Arabia Felix, I &ball 
'Xubjom iknat Mo ^iehtht, one of the gentlemen who lattly tiavilKd into that rountrj 
At the expense of the King of Denmark, says of this language in hh TDescripLion dt 
VArahie, p. 72, &c. and this the rather because the very sensible and accurate author 
iiad no turn tt) serve, no .systtm to suppof t, in what he relates, and because I do i\ot 
know that his account has y«t appeared in English. 

** On voii, &c. One s es, sa)8 he, in Pocodce^ Observations on Abul Faraje, p. 15J, 
ibat d^ ancient Arabians had different dialects Ihe King of the Uamjares at t)h(^ur 
•aid to a foreign Arab, Theb, meaning that he should sit down« But as this >word i^ig* 
«i£ed in tbe language of the latter, Leap^ he leaped from a high pidce. and hurt him- 
^If. When they bad explained to the King the occasion of the mistake, he paid. Let the 
,^rtt6 who conns to l>/i^(/ar learn the Havijare dialect. Arrian likewis<* remarks that 
ihe Arabs had not only different dialects, but different lan;ptag€S\. Jl n'y a peui-etre 
point de langue ou Ton trouve aujoard'bui tant de dialtcte?, que dans TArabe. 7W<; is 
not perhaps any language in which one finds at present so many dialects as in the Arabic, 
^ot 01 ly they speak quite differently ^tout aulrement) in the mountains of the little dis^ 
tfict governed by the J/nam ot YetHen, frcna what they do in the Tehama or low country 
^n the coast of the Red sea; but (iersons of distinction have a pronunciation diifererrt 
irom that of the pesfanls, at)d oiher words to express many things ^ and these dialects 
iiavc not much resemblance to that of the Bedozveens, The difference is stilt greater in 
4be distant provinces. Since then for a very long lime there have been in ditteient pro- 
vinces of Arabia nmny dialects (plusiturs dialectts) in u^e, ^nd since the Arabic Ian* 
.guage has changed, or caused the neighbouring people to forget, languages of which 
jirobablyi sonH! words have been adopted and preserved in the modern Arabid, it is no 
Viondcr tluU this Iflneuage is more rich or copious than any other. At this lime the pro- » 
niinciation ot certain letters is very various; for instance, the Kuf' and Ktf, which 
the northern and .western Arabs use for a iCor a i^t is pronounced at Maskifi, and 
near the Persian gulph, as tsch [£ng. ch"]} and this is the reason why in some conn- 
tries they say, Bukkra, Kiab, whilst in others they say, Bdtsclun-, Tschi&f^ and* so of 
ihe rest,"— - 

'* As the Arabians profess being of the Mahometan Religion, I bey believe that the 
language in which the Book of their Law, i.e. the Koran, is written, and by conse- 
quence § the dialect in use at Mecca in the lime of Halumet, is tiie paresC of aA. This 


• Comp. Mkhatlhf Recuoil ds Questions, p. «4^, 950, 

f" CI Pocokius in dictu Moiu^^p, Jj3':), (iidt Axabes immmtopt wm Mag^M laiituJiMem ^rttJUarf^'ptam Uuium 
ttte volunt ut nuiitts nisi spiritu propheiicu illuatratus univ*rxum ejus ^M^itum ctunprehcndaty jus gmguam (ft 
mqmam fierytmgr'U ui oiHMes /jia thisaurtt fxhaurinf, Waltpty Proleg. xiv. 5» 

\ " Navigationi & Viaggi racolte da Ramusio, fol. 2B4. Pe^plus Maris £ryihra^,p. 1^.** 
>*^ 4 Here the iagcAiou8auiiu)r.tuppo8ei, I st, that the whole lSJ»^<ift wai publi&hed at Mtxcaj ^dly^.tliit 
xt was all pub!i6aed by Ma/nfmcHjxekher of which supposidons is true iu fact, j^e Fri^atux'ji Life^of M^i^ 

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dialect differs so ^nxatlj from the modern, that thej/ teach jai Mecca 2V«?K ^^ ^^^ only tit 
the'Coileirest the language qf the Koran, as ihey teach Latin at Rome. And as the dia^ 
iect used in Yemen Ji. e. the interior j)arts of Arabia Felix], eleven hundred years ago, did 
in those days differ from that qf Mecca, and is still more altered by intercourses with 
strangers, and by length qf time, they feach in Yemen likewise the language qf ihe Koran 
«9 a learned language J'* 

Thus far Mr. Niebukr^ and this authentic evidence from an ear-ioitness * entirely 
overthrows all such rash assertions* as that of Schultens, Orig. Heb. lib. i. cap. iv. 
t xxiii. entitled, f Tte Language of the Arabiaus unraried, where he says, ** Jn ihe 
Vrerince of Hisjas [by Niebufir called Hedajai^], w/ierc are tJie Hvh Cities Mecca and 
Medina, and also in Arabia Felix, the higUst purity qf ihe Arabic dialeoi stilljlourastcs, 
even the sanie as flourished when Mahomet arose.** 

Bat to return from this digntssion (Tsuch it should be deemed) concerning tlie Arabic 
language, — I would remark, ibat as Wurds in general express or explain Things^ so a 
knowledge of Things will frequently explain or illustrate particular IVords, especially in 
cbe ancient and less known Uuiguagcsj and of this observation there will, I fanpe, be 
"found numerous and convinpoing proofs in the course of the following pages. And t^is 
Work being professcily designed for somewhat more than a mese Vocabulary or Word- 
iKiok, although I will by no means presume to call it a Comment, yet I hope the reader 
^U be continually meeting with satisfactory expositions of many difficult or obsature 
texts qf the Hebrew Bible, derived not oiercfy from verbal criticism, but from those 
•otiH r various sources of information already intimated at p. viii. of this Preface. And here 
I think I o ght to pay my particular acknowledgements (to which, were I property nu* 
thorized, I would gladly add those of the Public) to the learned and ingenious Mr. Har^ 
mer, fur his very valuable Observations on divers Passages qf Scrwture, which be hoi 
▼ery h;&ppity illubtrated from Ci4'cumstances incidentally mentioned in Books of Voyages and 
fVareU into the East ; and 1 do not at all scruple to assure my leaders that they will find 
this Work a ricii-ireasury,. and, as it were, a library of entertaining and useful know- 
Ied£;e5 and, as I am an entire stranger to the person of the excellent author, I hope lie 
will foigive my further mentioning^ls Outlines qfa tiew Comnuntary on-Solomom^s Sot^, 
as highly deserving attention and a|iprobatipn. 

It a Root be found in no more thaxxfom' passages of the Bibley I have coostantif 
xited or referred to Cbem aH, that the reader, by consulting and considering them, mayjud|^ 
of the propriety &f the interpretation proposed. . So tlmt \n such instances as these (and 
they are not a fisw), where the assistance of a Bebrem Cmcordaacc b aioat wanted, tbit 
Xjexicon may very well 8U(t|ply it's place. 

And here I must, once far all, desire those who wisii to reap the full benefit of this 
^ork , constanlhf to examine and compare in the X Hebrew Bible those texts whkh they 
ihtM find cited for proqf or illustration; and I dare promise that their labour in this 
Tespect will be amply repaid by the knowledge they will shortly acquire of the aacced 

Two principal differences between the present and the ^9»«r edition are, ist. That in 
this S have, on mature deliberation and clear conviction^ with preceding Lexicographers 

Umef, p.^l— 1^.}; and 3dly, that if it had beep all published bf Jlfd^M««^,and that at Miccm^ it most 
iiirLCMfiiilyl>e in tbe Mecca dialect ; whereas even on tnis supposition it should seem mere probable that 
it vnmld be tiactmred with foreign dialects ; partly from what Mabomut himself had picked up during 
hsc mef can tile T»^cfe loto £ryp^ Fokitit^, and S^rut, and partly from what was fursished to him by 
Ins two assistants, the Je^v aaothe i^yrimm MmK especiaUy as ^ Arabs, sflMUg wheaa it was writt^ 
and published, were a v/rv UlUir^iU people. S^ ^rkUaiai^ a. 8^ 1 g» 41, aic Coou). Saitt lUvaB* fib. 
xvi p. »i3. Note r. ' ^ 

♦ Coap. JWiAi*r, Veyage, torn. 1. p. S«, !530. 

f *^AtafaBasi»uig«auivi(riata.** ** In J^n^^a pr<hfineid,iibi Sacrx Urbes Jlf^^^ et il^^ 

in jiraUk Ads^'^ununa etiammiiB ^vigetpuiiCBS DitUstti Armliat^ eaAaaiqtie plan^, qute Muki»mtdt 
oficnte vigebat.'* m 

t As some of the^editions of the Hebrew Bible difFer from others in numbtriititht verses, and tome^ 
tiaes the chapters, 1 have, for the cenveniencc of the readeri signified fuch diSerence by iiuerting the 
word ^or," between such different modes of aetatifia. 


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^il ' PREFACE. 

dtittngtiii^bed thi Roots with n for the last radical, from those which have onty the two 
llrit tetters of the Root, as, for instance, mi from *)1, nos from D^: and %d\j* thMt I 
hive oonsiderec^ the Roots with M for the last radical, as being distinct from both 
the others, a^^ for example, WM both from mi and ^2i though I think it must 
h€ alloxved thai such Roots are ofVen related in sense to those ending in n, as 
Mbl to n^n, Hih to nin, MCr? to nBri; and sometimea to those of only the two former 
radicals, as nil to tn, von to ^rr, Moir to tar. 

This second edition being so greatly enlarged from the preceding one« it is not oidy 
ihttch more distinct and copious in explaining the several derived or secondary senses of 
(he Hebrew Root9^ hot nearly as great a number of the derivative xvordi are also inserted, 
it, for aught 1 know> in any Lexicon extant* Indeed I am in hopes the reader will 
hia^y meet with any di&ulty arising from an omission of this kind. And as I have 
ttow added a Chaldee Grammar, so I have been careful to explain such Chaldee words, 
iMtb Primitive and Derivative^ as occur in the Bible, in a much more particular man- 
ner than before; but in doing this I stilt thought that it would best suit the nature of a 
iLexicon, and tike conveniency of the i-eader, to place the Ckaldee words under the Hehxuf 
Roots qfthe saihe Utters; although the former do frequently far deviate from the sense of 
the latter^ and are even sometimeF, according to the rules of etymology, .plainly derived 
£-dm other Hebrew Roots. For instances sec Lexicon under Roots V^^f, ^Q9, Tibt, 

In the former publication were added, at the end of the explanation of many Hebrew 
Rootii, such English words as were either plainly or probably derived from them« And 
tfiOugh no great stress was laid on this part of thn work, yet it was apprehended, that it . 
might tend to fix the meaning of the Hebrew in the learner's memory, and might at the 
same time entertain him to see so many words still preserved in English^ from the com- 
moh mother of all tongues, and let him upon new enquiries of this kind, both in our own 
and other languages: I have now considerably enlarged this etjfmotogical part of my 
Work, by the addition not only of many ^igUsk, but of many Greek, Latin, and 
Northern words, which however I have often judged it more proper to insert in the body, 
than at the end of the Expositions of the Hebrew, 

7he pLViiLiTKRALs, or Words qf more than three radical tetters, whether Hebrew 
or Ckaideep are in this, as in most other Lexicons, placed in alphabetical order, at the end 
oi ^kch letter. 

And now, considering how many years it is since the Hebrew and English Lexicon was 
first published, and what has been above sud concerning the improvements in the present 
edition, my more sanguine readers may be surprized that I have nevertheless thought 
proper to subjoin An appendix *- containing Additions and (O mortifying word to komnn 
pride!) Corrections. But, for my own part, as long as 1 remain on this side the grave, I 
expect and desire to continue in the condition of a*leamer: and as on this occasion I 
think it right to be very plain and explicit with all those who shaH look into this Work, 
I frankly declare, that though scarcely any thing is easier than to acquire the Rudiments 
of the Hebrew Lon^t/ttgr, when unembarrassed with Points; yet that the Study qf it is a 
' Study for Life ; and that the Hebrew Scriptttres, like all the other works of God, will to 
the humble and diligent enquirer be continually opening new scenes of information and 
delight. And although some truly candid and ingenuous persons (I speak not of the 
scoffing injidel, the mercenary scribbler, nor yet of the ignorant conceited witling, whose 
applause I neither court nor desire) — though, I say, some really candid and ingenuous 
persons may be inclined to entertain a favour^tble opinion of the ensuing volume, yet I 
cannot forbear adding, that so man^d are the treasures of wisdom sMdinowledge con- 
tained in the inspired k)Ooks, that to compose z^riHcal and explanatory Hebrew. Lexicon, 
which might vf\xh any propriety be styled complete, seems to me, notwithstanding idl the 
helps hitherto published, to be hardly a work for one man, or one life. Sufficient, abun* 
danlly sufficient honour is it for me, if I have been M,e,Jfbr the benefit qf all who under-^ 

* N. B. The Appendix h in tht Tin«U EtRfivn MgtsttJ inU the imfy pfthc trtri. 


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PREFACE. « xm 

KlmiBH^A, to produce t * tolerable Hebrew Lexicon, and sucb as may initmfe tnj 
naifttt in the trii« knowledge of the origimd Scriptnres. But why speak 1 of honour 
er reputation among men? Alas I The fashion qf this xoorld pas$ctk away; which great 
tad iodimtaUe truth should remind all of us /o seek that honour which cometh of' God 
ea^« May I then exprett an humble hope that my labours in this blessed harvest will be 
gvadously remembered by the Lord of the harvest, and yield me comfort in that day^ 
which cannot be very far distant, when all t:reatore^x>mforts will, and must, fail, and a£ 
^ome wko expired ypcn the Cross can, through the consolations of the Eternal Spiiit, sup* 
port the par^ionetf siwier / ' . 

Before I conclude this Pteface, it may not be amiss to ofo some directions coneeminj^ 
Ae heu wseAod qfacftdrmg a knowledge qfthe Hebrew language, to those who iuive not the^ 
henefU eia wmster. In the first place, then, I would advise such persons to acquaint thenv- 
sdfes with the common grammatical rules and infiexions (a xmk, which, by th«^ assistance 
of the Grammar now put into their hands, and partioixlarly of the Sheet Grantmar, Ibey 
will, I bcKeve, upon trial, find much easier than they cookl well have imagined) — thea 
to bsgin reading the first chapter of Genesis with the Grammatical Praxis (Gram, 
sect, xi.), and after having well mastered every word in it, proceed to the f »lIowing 
chapters with the help of MoMtamis*s interlinear^ version, if they understand Latin; rt 
not, our t English Tranelatioa, with the marginal readings, will very well supply tbe 
place. But as they advance, they should stiU cake cam gran.mntically to account for 
every woni m tbe manner of the Praxis, and according either to the longer or the shorter 
Grammar. I would also^ as a help to memory, recommend to them, at least for tbe 
first two or ihree pionths of their reading, to write-down the Hebrew Roots (and occa* 
Moally the slerivative words) which occur, and their English interpretation in opposite 
cohmms, aad to endeavour, by frequent and attentive r4;petition, thoroughly to connect 
these in their minds. And I can «'enturt to assure any person of tolerable parts and abi* 
iities, that an application, thus directed, of two or three hours every day to the Uebreto 
^g^xg^i unadulterated with the Rabbinical Points, will, m a few months, enable him 
to read m iht* origimJ with ease and dtUght, most parts of those Holjf Scriptures, all 4^ 
which, St. Paul assures m, vHre Eiven by inspiration qf God, aul are abk to make us nise 
unto sahattonj through Faith, wKtch is in Christ Jesttstm 

May then the blessing of Godf and the influeiHaeof his Holy Spirit, accompany what 
IS here published! and may He be pleased to prpsper it to his own glory, and to the edifi- 
cation of every reader, even to his growth in ffrace, or m thcfyvour itf God, and in the 
hundedge qf our Lord and Sav.our, Jesus Chrisi, Amen, and Amen I 

* Thft good^aiatured critic will, I am sure, subKribe to the foUowiog seotiaent of f^«rr», De Ling. 
Lai. '^SifmUde Vocum OriguiibiM mtitta cmmtde £x<rit, f$iuu Umi tmimtrndum, qtiim si aUquid ncguivcnU 

i Dr. Jbutlm Ajly*9 late editicMi of the MArtur BMe^wtkih immmm Sm^uk Thmtatitm m the «/< 

I mm accoisnts, do wdl to consult. I would sltojarticm/arh rtcrnmtnd to hiai the «Ke learaeci Mr. 
iMr*s Mw mud LHmi Tnoulatmm •/ iht PaOtftnck, Ac. tuUh N»in CHticat mud ExhUkatory, in whirh 
ht wilsieacirithnuBiyeaceilent tfmsii^ oaiht Piil»i^ •f Scfif$mt,s^nAthitiphihiat Stmt*/ th» 
Lgrmu Bat,aikeraU,lechimfiotkioklipriis/5|MiMi|rftmu 

nmMiin, *• see wtk kit wvm tya^ andjwdge for hiwuSfi let htm, at the Apoitip adt«ics> I The». v. Si^ 
rtOTB eU tJkings, and aoLO r ast tAat yM^ U tmt, 

\ Sec 2 Ttm. iti. J5, 16. 


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IN order to mfomi the Reader whtA he mvy esipwrt fr©m this third edficion of tfi» 
Hebrew and English Ltxieon^ it may be proper to obeerve, that^ from \km time the 
sixond wa? printed, .the Author accustomed himself to write divert abort ii«tt» and r^ 
ferences in the margin of the book, partly for bry own use, and partly with a view to tbe 
improvement of a future editiony if such should ever be ea(l«d for. Towarda the das* 
of the year 1781, he began to draw out these concise hints into a lar^r and more disliACC 
form^ but without precisely determining how they were to be employed; and this prae* 
tiee he continued, at different times> till the Summer of the year I789« wbei^sevvyal' 
learned and kind friends, who certa'mly are not deficient in partiatttf to him, pivsae^l kim 
t undv^rtake a new edition of the wotk; and proposed, each of them, lo thaps in tke 
expense of the publication, 

ThuA stimulated and encouraged, he applied to (he busine«s in earnest, an^ bav eodea-* 
voured to execute it in- such a manner as not to disgrace either bis friends or biaasolt. 

ist. The explanatidf» of several of the Htrbrew Roots, especiaUy towards tho begifiaing 
of the Lexicon, are here worked over anew. 

idly. Considerable alterations have been made Vtt theexplamittons of others, and wntmj 
illustrations of scriptural texts from the ancient writers and from modem eastern tra- 
vellers have been added. And here the Author thinks himself obliged again to aeknow^ 
ledge the aiwstiince he has received from the late ingenious and accurate Mr. i/«rmer, to 
whose third slthI fourth vohermes of Obtervation^, Sec, published in 1787, Itie Reader w9l 
find himself indebted for many curious and valuable remarks which occur in tbe present 

3dly. The Appendix which was subjoined to the second edition is in this regularly 
digested into the body of tbe Lexicon 5 so that there wQt be but one Alphabet to con« 

4thly. The principal Various Rradingt m Dr. Ktmu^ott^'B Hebrew Bible have htea 
carefully noted* and are submitted to the Aeader^s oonsidetMion and judgeMeDt« And it 
is hoped that lh« U69 here made of that elaborate work cannot fail of being acceptable to- 
every serious and intelligent enoairer into the sense of the Hebrew Scriptures. But since, by 
a pomparison of the Doctor*s Various Readings with his Generai DisterpuJion, it a^ipeared^ 
that in numbering his authorities iie had ianUnmxed ptkutd editions mih mmuaeriptUp it 
was thought moat prosper to rc4er. to suck a«thoriti«i by \m owfr compKhcnsivo ten»> 

Lastly. Having in the course of the ensuing work frequently quoted writers, who in 
their sentiments on several, and even important, particulars, widely differ from each 
other, I wish to declare, once/or afi, that so far as vierely human expositors and critics oa 
the sacred writings are concerned, 1 heartily adopt those well-known rooltos, 

NuLLius addictusjurarc in verba Magistri h 

Tros RvTULtTsyB/tfO/, nuUo discnmine hahebo. 


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ALTHOUGH^ from the manner in which this Octavo Edition » printed^ the 
Lexicon is so much reduced in size, yet the Reader may be assured that Hofhhtg of 
the least consequence is designedly omitted merely to make room; on the contrary^ many 
little additions are introduced, which seemed proper to improve the Work« 


& al. (tt mUU) 

ic al. freq. (tt tM£ frequenter) 

iteq. occ. (frequetlter occurrit) 

inter at /iJi/er aliaj 

mm al. occ. Con alibi occurrit) 


Once, prefixed to a nngk tex^ 
q. d. (qwui dicasj 

and in other passages. 

and in many other passages. 

denote^ that the word occurs frequently. 

besides other places. 

denotes that the Root occurs no where else in the 

prefixed to one or more references^ denotes thai 

either the Root itself, or else the Root in 

the last mentioned form or sense, occurs ■ctfi^ 

in the texts referred to. 
denotes that the Root occurs in no other text in 

the Bible. 
u if one should sajr. 

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tw^ CoU line For Read 

433 a at ^rm. WW. 

443 J at »3m mro urn: narm iwruwintt^»r^ 

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TO wmca It fCBjoiMCD, 



mjy ^^ 7^ ^ ««r THtU shall tut /«// fim thi £«V, h^m tarn U U safe fir tu f m^ iven tkt 

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THEensuiug Grammar being designed for the Use of Learners, and even of those 
who are unacquainted wth the very Rudiments of all Grammar, I have endeavoured 
to make it as plaiu and easy as possible. To this end 1 have not only arranged the 
Rules and Observations in the clearest and most natural method I could devise, but 
have also taken care not to use a single grammatical term, without explaining it, either 
by an Example or a Definition. 

Tliere is no difiiculty in the Hebrew Grammar worth mentioning, except what relates 
to the Pronouns and to the I'trbs; and with regard to these it will be sullicicnt for the 
adult Reader, if he only commit to memory the Tables o{ Pronouns, which he will find 
^ V. 4, 5, and the Example of a Regular Verb in Kal, § vi. la. A careful and at- 
tentive perusal of the other parts of the Grammar in order, and a frequent consulta- 
tion of them as occabion may require, will soon enable a person of ordinary a'.iililics 
and capacity to analyse grammatically almost any word in tlie Ilrbrew Bible : -1 say 
aluicfsty because there are some few words of wicommon forms, whicli are taken notice 
of under their proper roots in the Lex/con, So easy b the task, so short the lal>our of 
acquiring the Elements of the Sacred Language even from the larger Grammar here 
pul^lished! Bui there is a slill shorter and easier Method, wiiich 1 wouhl rather re- 
commend to the Learner, namely at first to concern himsdf only with The Hehrro) 
d ramntar at One I'iew, for this being properly attended to, according to the Note 
stiUJoined to it, I know, from repeated and successful experience, will sulhcienlly enable 
liun to enter upon the Grammatical Praxis in § xi. of the larger Grammar ; and after 
mastering this, he will be qualified to proceed in reading the Hebrew Bible with the 
help of a Translation; the larger Gr^piar being, at present, regarded as a Comment 
on the smaller, and occasionally consulted on particular dilhculties. 

The learned Reader will indulge me in one refiec»ion on the great fiicility of the 

H^hrra Grammar—a reflection indisputably true, and which I would especially recoin- 

inend to the consideration of all those who are intrusted with that important charge, the 

eciuration of youth. It is this: Since the //f/>rrw Grammar,- unsophisticated by II ab- 

bi/iical Points, is so very easy, simple and concise, and those of oilier languages, of the 

Crreek and iMtinin particular, so dilhcult, complex, and tedions, so clo«»:ieil with nume- 

roiu Rules and Exceptions (as every School-boy to his sorrow knows), it is evident that 

tlie most natural and rational methodof teaching the learned langunj^cs would bi' to begin 

^tti the Hebrew. I now argue only from the greater easiness of the jjranimjticafl part, 

and do not ur^e, that Hebrew is certaudy the common Mother of Greek and liOtin, if 

not of all other languages^. Those, at least, of which I have any knowledge, retain a 

manifest resemblance of their original Parent: And the nearer the fountain, the purer 

tbc stream ; the more ancient and uncompounded the language, the more similar it is 

to the Hebrew. 

And I beg it may be seriously and impartially weighed on this occasion, especially by 
the Instructors of our Youth, whether to begin with teaching that Ori^rinal and Sacred 
Language, and then to descend to the Greek and Latinj woidd not be a most likely 
niethml of making those, who have the benefit of a learned education, not only better 
Grammarians and better Scholars, but, what is of infinitely greater conse(|uence,*(;ir«r/rr 
Divines, and better Christians, Ami though it be perhaps no easy mutter to determine 
wbetbtr of the two Languages, Greek or La///?, most resembles the Hebrew; yet it will 
scarcely admit a doubt, with tlie rational ^ndChristian Teacher, which of these should he 
taught next after the Hebrew; since not only the Idiom of Greek is much more similar 
to the English than that of Latin, but also the lively Oracles of the New Testament 
were by tiie inspired Penmen written ui tlie Greek Language. 

♦ See Fitrinia, Observat. Sacr. lib. i. cap. vi. vii. viii. 

ba CON 

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I. Of the Letter$ emd Readwg ; } , 

II. Of the Division of Letters . . , 

III Of Words and. their Dividing • • • • 

W.OfNwM • / • • , 

V. Of Pronouns • , . . 

\\. Of Verbs . . ... , 

VIII. OfSyntat 
IX. CyMc I7«f of the Serviles . . 

X. Of finding the Root 

XL '^ Grammatical Praxis or Exerpise on the JSpif fHhapiqr ofOpim* 
neU^renfGrmmrtUOr^Vvem ^ ^ . 




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The 2£anner of ioTVcan.^ the ]l(^Tevf lelteu in "Writiiig, 

"N.B . Helarew ou^htoM'ayj- to Ar trrilten broad and Strong 

BelA *7 i» or - ^ 2 

Gmtfl " 1 J i 

DaleiA - n 

ffe ^ ri 

Zain ^ t 

ffeth n n 

TetTi 3 *J O 

r^/J •> 3, final - *] 

lam^d "^ ^ h h 

Mem -^30 0, final ^''^SD 

Nun *• 1 a, ^^ M 

Samech » D 

<^i>z *♦ ♦T ;r J^ 

TV •^*l3at, final-^TT*] 

,7^^/- ♦• t» '1 ir ^, finar ^ f t 

A^yf "^ > P 

Rejh ^. or - n 

•f/4«« *^ 12* JP tt^ tt^ 

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HE Elements of all Language are certain simple Sounds, which in writing art 
expressed by certain Marks or Characters, called Lei ten. 
t. The Letters in Hebrew are twenty-two, of which the following Table shews 
















Koph or Quoph 

Shinor San 
Tan I 

*Nimher. F»rm* \Fmais. SlmUars, 





300 m 

400! n 


tD 600 


t\ 800 



D D 

Smmd or FrwiT. 

a broad, as in all, war 


|f hard, as in give, get 

e ai in where, there 

tt, pronounced as 00, or as the French ottj 
or (before a Towel) w 

h hard, or ffuttnral attiirtte 
tb, Saxon ^, or Greek 
i French, Or ee English, before a conso- 
nant, y before a vowel 
k^ or c hard, as in amc 

k) { loi^ as an whoU, tM 


J soft, as m the French jo2fr,/aiff«»f, or as 
" the- English t^ in /mitiirC|f/^m(iY. 

q orqu 


* That it» Numeral Power or Import as an arkhmeiusl mark. Accor<iing to the above tckeme rr should 
be used for 15, for V^ich however the Jews write yo (which amounts to the same sum, for n is 9 and 
^ 6) and this they do to avoid usinr one of the £yne mamtif tt, for a Number, 

f Letters thus written at the rtiJof a word. 

I ]f seems also to have had in some words somewhat of the sound of tht gutt^iral a, or t^, like the 
French mv. Ste Lexicon under )n IV. 

b 3 3. Hie 

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6 A Methodical 

3. The Order of t!ic Hebrew Alphabet seems justifiable by Scripture, especially by 
Ps. xxxiv. oxi. cxii.* cxix. cxlv. Lain. i. ii. iii. iv.+ 1 ., /i. -r 

4. Writing over the Characters several times, is the best way to make them fomiliar 
to the Learner. See the manner frontio!,' the firsfpage of Grammar. • 

5. JUbreu is read from the right hand to the left, and not from the left to the nglit, 
as the EnsUsh and other western languages. 

6. Of ;he Hebrew Letters five arc Vowels, namely «, n, 1, % ^3 all the rest are Con- 

^ 7^."\Vhen two Consonants occur without any of the five Vowels between them, you 
may I pronnunre them as if a short/ or- stood between them; as, inn, pronounce dcb^r 
or dab^r;'-\piip^q^d(v^u^d) or vaqtM. . 

8. Always observe to pronounce the Textual Vowels long and strong, the Supplied 
ones short and <|mf k ; as, nir«, pronounce ^sh'; Tm, d^bTr. ^ . , .. L' 

9. A Full Stop is expressed thus : as : H, a Colon thus ^ as «, a Semicolon tbus: as «, 

A Comma thus • as «. 

10. The first only of these stops is Used in most unpomted books. 

11. To exercise the Leanier in readin«;||, here follows, in English character?, P««lo* 
the first chapter o{ Genesis, which is prhited in Hebrew at the end of the Gramniir. The 
Oreek s stands for the Supplied Vowel; the Textual ones are to be pronounced broad, 
like the French, as in the Table of the Alphabet ; and when several Hebrew Vowels come 
together, they are not to be run into Diphthongs, but sounded distmctly, as inn pro- 
nounce be — u m two syllables, not beu in one. 

I. Bfrasit bsra aleim at escmim uat earf j. 

a. Uearfj eite teu ubeu, uhfsek ol peni Icum, uruh aleim merhepet ol pcui emim. 

3. Uvanigr aleim yei aur, uyei aur. 

4. Uira aleim at eaur ki thub, uibgdel aleim bin eaur ubio ehs^sV. 
«;. Uiqra aleim lauryum ulehfSfk qra li!e, uyei oreb uyei hsqsr yum ahsd. 

6. Uyamer aleim vei reqio bctuk eniim, nyei msbdil (or mgbfiilil) bin mim Um\m. 

7. Uyos aleim at ergqio, uibcdgl bin emim aser mf If hgt U r^qio ubin emim assr mol 
Urcqio, uyei ken. 

8. Uiqra aleim Ureqio sgmim, uyei orcb uyei bcqer yum scni. 

9. Uyamer aleim iquu {or iqwu) emim, SfC, 



1 . Bcsid&( that conmion Division of Letters into Vowels and Consonants, they are in 
Hebrew morepver distinguished into Radicals and Serviies. 

2. A Radic or Root in Hebrew, is a simple word, consisting of two, or more usually 
of three. Letters, from which other words are formed by the grammatical inflexions or 
variations; as, npSD, tisit; nn, speak. 

* Observe that in the cxith and cxiith Psalms) there are two, and fiometimes three, Hdtrrw vtnn 
in one of the Eitglhh translation. See Bp. L(nvtl?'9 Prelimin;iry Dissertation to Isaiah, p. v. 

f It it remarkable that in these three last chapters the initial letters y and D are transposed. 

\, I do not say muji, because where i^vo Consonants, if joined with a Vowel either preceding or fol- 
lowing, would form .in eosy sound, it may be most eligible (yea necessary in the poetic parts of Scripture) 
to run them into one syllable; for in^^tance, you may pronounce niy mto one syllable orS; and ITQ, 
ira: and indeed this is much the same as soundtnethe supplied Vowel vrry short. 

II The method of reading here recommended is tne same aa that proposed by Dr. Rohcrfjon, in his True 
mnd Amitnt Mrthod 6f Reading Hebrew, ficc. in which ingenious treatise may be found an ample and sa- 
tisfactory vindication of it, from a compaiison of the Hebrew with the ancient Greek Alphabet. 

3, Radical 

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3. Radical Letters Hrc those which always make part of a Radix or Root. 

4. Servile Letters are those which serve for the V ariation of the Root, by Gander, 
Number, Person, ^c. and for Particles. 

5. The servile Letters are eleven, and may be comprised ia tliese three technical 
words, ^b:}^ nttro ]ivvk. 

6. The other eleven Letters are radical, 

7. Except E) when used fot n, as in *§ Vf . 25. 

8. Observe, that although the radical Letters (except t&, as 10 Rule 7.) are never scr^ 
vik, yet the servile Letters are very ofun radical, ox very often make a part of the Root. 

Of TVORDS and their DIT^SIOK. 

I. Words in Iltbrao may be divided intd three kinds. Nouns or Names, Verbs, and 

a. A Notm is the Name of a Substance or Qualify; as U^'W a man, y)V) ^ood, 

3. A Vtrb denotctli the Action or State of a Being or Thing; as, a WW 1DK'), and 
God said; CD>n;>« U?^, and God made; CD'DU?n ^h:^\ and the heavens Kcre finished* la 
these sentences said and made express the Action ; xcere finished, the State. 

A. Varticlcs denote the Connexion, Relation, Distinction, Emphasis, Opposition, SfC, 
or m short the Circumstances of one's Thoughts^ or of the Words expressive thereof; as, 
andj wit A, or, much, atthoush, but, &c.' 

5. Bfany Particles in Hebrew are expressed by one or other of the servile Letters, 
which may then be considered as jibbreviations or Parts of Roots or Words. See Lexi- 
con in 2, ^, hi, o. 


I. Nouns or Names arc of two kinds, Substantive and /Adjective. 

a. A iVotf/i-Si/ W«/;//i7e is the name of sk Substance; as t2r« a man, fi> a tree, :ip)y» 
J^cob: of a Quality, or of an Action, Passion, or State^ considered abstractedly; as, 11 
funfjr, Kno a coming forth, nobs shame, rroniJO war. 

3. An Adjective, so called because adjectitious, or added to a Substantive, denotes 
some Quality or Accident of the Substantive to which it is joined; as, :i'ito good, in© (or 
'1\T(\Q) ffure: so in the phrases, ^\tD UTrt a good man, y^TWn 17\\ puregold, good and/mre are 

4. Nouns in Hebrew, as in English, are not declined by Ca^e*, or different Termina* 
tions, denoting tlie Particles of, to, from, S^x. as Noiins in Greek and Latin are. 

^. In Hebrew, Nouqs are of two Genders, mastulme mid feminine ; as Uf'W a w</», 
rnPH a womau: of two Nwnbers, singular, denoting one, as 1^0 a king; wad plural, de« 
ootiog more than one, as D'^^D kings, i. e. two or more. 

• N, S. Thi« Mark J itands for SECTION in the Orammar. 

b 4 6. Most 

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S A Methodical 

6. Most Hdrew Nouns not eodiog id rr or n senrUe are masculine ; tbose that do end 
in n or n servile are most general^ ^fenUninc. tv is said to be 9i feminine Termination f. 

7. The Feminine singular is formed from the Mcuctdiney by postfixing Ti\ as, l^tDgood, 
nil29 feminine. 

8. But Nouns ending in > add Jl for the feminine instead of n ; as from nvo tm Egypr- 
Hon man, TXh!^ an Egyptian woman : so when a letter is dropt the feminine ends in n ; 
as from p a son^n^ a daughter, ^ being dropt; from iriM one, HTiM femimne, 1 bcin^ 

9. The plural of masculine Nouns is formed by adding XD\ and sometunes only tD, to 
the singular ; as from ^te a king, ts^sio, or DDte, kings, 

10. The plural masculine of Hebrew Nouns is also often formed in t r> ^ P^ ^5»# 
Prov. xxxi. 3 ; f*te words. Job Iv. a ; pn ii*re#, Job xxiv. a 2. 

1 1. The plural offamnine Nojins is foimed by adding ni to the singular, as pH a 
/iwJ, plural niinw /aim/*; or by changing n or n mto T\\ as min « /aw, plural nmn 
lam ; mi» n ^^/rr, plural iTl^:i« &^/er«; or rr or m into nv, as nnij> an Hebrew wo- 
man, plural nvi,'!)) Hebrew women-,' r!\'27D a kingdom, plural m^slnD kingdoms: but in 
feminines plural the 1 is often dropt, as m nin« for niin«, in rrm for miin, &c. &c. 

I a. Some feminine Nouns have moreover another plural, formed by changing n into 
II O^n ; as from nom a damsel^ O^nom scceral damsels^ Jud. v. 30 : from nVitt) idle- 
ness, tD^ni?Vi^, Eccles. X. 18. 

13. Several masculine Nouns p/i/r^/ end in tw, as iVk a father, plural ni^lM; lt)^K Aoir^, 

1 K. X. 19. a Chron. ix, 19 § ; and many feminine Nouns plur. in % 0% as }LS^hD^ she- 
camels, tD^'W^ wives, tDnrAfe concubines, O^u? she-goats (Gen, xxx. 35.)f tD'bm ewes 
(Gen. xxxii. 15.), t3*ai sJte^bears (a K. ii. 24.) 

14. A Noun is said to be in Regimine, or tit Construction, when it is in a particular 
relation to a Noun following it, or has a Pronoun Suffix (of which see | V. 5.) ; as^ 
f*l« *libD king of a country, ^dbD his king: in these expressions ibo is said to be ui Regi- 
mme, or Construction. 

15. Nouns masculine singular m i^^imiiie suffer no change, but plural ones drop 
tlieir CD, as tD^D^D kings; p« ^3i>D kings of a coutUry; ly^i^O our kings. So Nouns fc- 
qiinine plural in tD'n. Comp. Rule 12. and Note. 

16. Nouns feminine singular ending in n, do, when m Regimine, change their n 
ino n ; as, mm a lawy mrp min the law of Jehovah, imin thy law: but other femi- 
nine Nouns, as also Feminines plural, except those in tD^, suffer no change tn Reghmine. 

17. Feminines plural in ni, when in Regimine, often postfix^ (see I>eut. xxxiL 13. 

2 Sam. J. 19, 25*), and those in ^''h drop the tb. 

• I sav most gateraify, npt alvfoys, for 8Qe Lexicon under rm X. - 

f And to it generaU^ is, #/ both tiu * andtbtTS be setwle^ as in ITTjm (Rule 8.) from "WO JJjJj;^- Ne- 
-vertheless ms, from *o u purify, xSaxwx^femifdne in 2 Sam. xxiii. b, comp. Dent. xxix. 20, or 21, it 
construed as a masc. N. Isa. xxviil 1 8. If the n be radical, the N. may be either masculine or femiiunc; 
thus n*a a Howe, from ro capacity y though generally masc. is yet construed as a fern, in Prov. ii. Ifl^ 
comp. 2 K. X. 26. In m the ^ is raHtalj so that wora comes not under the latter part of the Rule iierc 
given; and in r^m a Spear, from ran tofiuh, the « is stibttituted tor the radical, but mutable, n; and ac- 
cordingly the word forms it's plural with or 2 Chron. xxiii. 9, though in Isa. ti.,4. Mic. it. 3, for thf 
plur. in Kegim. it takes the.^. form «nr or *rr. 

I These are by many writers reckoned Chaldee or Syriac forms, but that they are also Hebmo ones it 
suffideatly manifest by their occurring so frequently in the Heb. books written before tlie Babylonish 
Captivity, and even before the Chaldee or Syriac langus^e was heard of. ir^ occurs no lets than tliirteen 
times in the Book of Job, iu which orbn is also used ten times. See the Concordances, and Mmttirf 
Grammat. Heb. p. 24>3. 

II Oi\\i\s plural the grammarians in general have made a dual; and it must be confessed, that in the 
abtoluU form it often Has a </ira/ signification, as OTOff txoo year/. Gen. xi. JO. xli. 1. IK. xvi. 8. Jcr. 
xxviii.3. onOK/w* cubitx, £xod. xxv. 10, 17, & al. orwD t'zpo meaxuresf 1 K. xviii. 32; ororiv/o 
tides, Exod. xxvi. 23; QPnxo Pw9 hundred, Oen. xi. 19, 3<2. But in the construct form (comp. Rule 15.) 
many such Nouns have a//irrtf/signiScation; asTfTm Aw laws, Exod. xviii- 16» ^e. 

§ So mnd, and nrro Governors, 1 K. XX. 24. Jer. li. 23. Erek. ixiii. 6. Neh. v. 15. But I do n<lt 
regard these as pure Hebrexv words. See Lexicon under nfi. 
^ Set Lexicon in B^m non I. 


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1. tTnder Kouns are comprehended Pronouns, so called because they stand Pro nomi- 
nibas, i. e. For, or iksiead of. Nouns or Names i as I, thou, he; tkat\ wh^ wbkk ; minCf 
kis^ Sec 

a. Vronouns are by Grammarians distinguished into several kinds; thus, 7, thou, he, are 
ealM primitive Pronouns ; mine, thine, his, possessive ; this, that, demonstrative', who, which, 

3. In a Hebrew Grammar it is necessary particularly to consider only the first of these, 
or the primitive Pronouns, under which the second, or possessive, are included ; the demon" 
strative and relative may be regarded nearly as other Nouns. Comp. § VIII. 23, 24. 

4* Primtive Pronouns are distinguished into three Persons, 

Tht First, *3M, ^33», and ^DH, singular, / and me : 13«, 13m», and ^^m, plural, ire 

and vf . 
The Second, rm, n», >n«, and inw, singular, thou and tkee: SDnw and CD5fW, 

pluial masculine; \n^, ruriH, and pnk«, plural fembine, jfc and j^tr. 
The Thiid, «in and «*rT, sinaitar, ^c, she, it: orr and nnn, plural, (generally) 

masculine ; \n and n:n, plural, (generdliy) fembine, they and /Acm. 

^. Farts of these fr»nt/ipe Pronouns are suffixed, i. e. postfixed, to Verbs and Noums 
as Allows, and are called Pronoun Si^ixcs. 

Of the 1st Pei«Hi, From I '^**' ^?S"'f ^ * ' ^"^ '^' ^' ^.^ ^^• 
VI luc «!. xciawu, j: ruui -^ ^^^^ plural, 13, w and our^ 

r t nn», singular. If ^td, and (fern.) { »:3, /Aec and /^ 

Of the nd Person, From*^ f ts^rib^, masculine plural, tDS, v&ti and your, masc. 

t pnH, feminine plural, p, and § 1135, you and ^owr, fern. 

Kin and wri, «i«gulw,{ ); H^f^^^' ^^™' **'°' *'"»«'<' ^> 

npn, and tsn, phir. masc. T^nn, on, D, or id, ft ^^cm and 

[their, masc* 
^n^rr and p, plur, fem.. rou, jn, andj, them and <//«>, fem. 

6. These Pronoun Si*ffixcs are also often postfixed to Nouns of Number, as tsrr^, 
thry tTso, or both of them, and to several Paiticles, as pH, pi, iinn, 1, D, &c« thus l^rM 
wtf Ac, t3^ m ^Acm, &c. &c. Itc. 

7. Parts of the primitive Pronouns prefixed or postfixed, form also the Parsons, and 
" " i the Tenses of Verbs; thus, 

^3K, M prefixed fbrms tlie First persos singular future. 

M)stlbied, the Fifsl person singular preter or ps 

'J ss^f^ prefixed forms the First person plisnl iuture. 

or the nid Person, From< 

( ^^K, M prefixed fbrms tlie First person singular future. 

#%r «u T^ 9 17 J ^f»«> ^^ postlfeied, the Fifsl person singular preter or pasU 

Of the 1st Peison, From-J ; ^ Infixed forms the First |^i^ pliral iutuiT^ 

I postfixed, the Fhrst person pkuml preterm 

• When * is thus suffixed to a phral Noun, that Noun loses it's awn V or rather the two Tods coalesce 
httaoa^ u^nartmy wordr, for •nn. Comp. J IV. 14, 15. 

t nc in these words may be considered as an independent Particle. See Lexicon under nnM VH. 1. 

f 2 K. iv. «, 7. 

§ Ezdc. ziiL 18, 20. xxiii. 48, 49. 

I See Gen. xxxvii. 20. 

^ Exod. XT. 2. Deiit. zxxii. 10. Jer. v. 92, and observe that in 10, TD andtiD^ 9 secxzK aided for the 

^ Gen. ix. 86, 97. !>•«€. xxxiii. 2. fsa. xUv. 15, liii. a Ps. n. 7« 

ffAlsoi (see § IX. under i4.}; andiD Jer.xzxi.l5| aadTi Ecod. xir. 2S, 0ciit. xxxii. 11. Pis^ 


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A Methodical 

n«, n 

•^nw, ^ 

Of the lid Pctsod, From^ 

{prefixed forms the Second person sinj[^1ar fiitufe. 
postfixed^ the Second person singular preter. 
"^n postfixed is sometimes used for the Second per- 
son fern, fiing. preter. 

* k postfixed to the Second person fem. singuUir 

* postfixed forms the Second person fern, singular 

^^n postfixed forms the Second person masc 
plural preter. 
} prefixed to the Second person masc plural 

{^n postfixed forms the Second person fem. plural 
r n prefixed, and rt3 postfixed, form the Second 
' \ person feminine plural future. 

' n postfixed forms theThird person fem. sing. pret. 

* prefixed forms tlieTliird person masc. singular, 
and, with 1 postfixed, plural fut. 

ID, 1 1 postfixed forms the Thu-d person plural preter, 
and, with > prefixea, future. 
, n^n, n3 postfixed to the Third person feminine plural fbt. 

8. A comparbon of this latter table with the ensuing Example of a regular Verb in 
Kal, § VI. 12, will remove any little difliculty which may occur to the Learner. 

9. The Pronouns forming the Persons, &c. of Verbs, are called Personal Affixes, 

10. From the two tables above given it appears that the former part of Pronouns are 
geneiallv prefixed, aud the latter or middle parts of them postfixed ; thus of ':« and ^n«, 
M is pre^xed, and % aud ^n, postfixed. 

Of the Illd Person, From<! 





/-on pc 
i nbj 


1. It hath been already remarked, § HI. 3, that the Verb denoteth the j4ction or Siafe 
of a Being or Thing ; now an Action may be considered either as done, doing, or to he 
done ; so a State may be either past, present, or future. Hence 

a. The roost simple and natural Division of Time, or Tense (from the Latin tanpus, 
or French temps, time), is huo past, present ^ 2a\dfuivre. 

3. Again, J " A Verb may either indicate, i. e. declare an action with certainty and 
positireness, as the'svn is set, setting, or shall set ; or it may carry a command, as Sun stand 
thou Ml ; or a Verb may be indefinite as to Number, Person, or Tense, and so used very 
much in the sense of a Noun, as It is pleasant to see the sun, i. e. the sight of the sun is 
pleasant, for you, or me, or ihcm, now, at any timeJ' 

4. Hence arise the difterent Moods (Modi significandi. Modes of signifying) of a Verb, 
tts the Grammarians call them. 

5. A Being may either fifr/orm an action itself, or the action may be performed upon it ; 
it may either cause another to perform the action, or be caused itself to perform it ; or 
lastly, 1/ may perform it on itself, 

• See Note f last pa;:e. 

t But query, whether t postfixed to 3d Person plur. preter, and future, to ^d Person filMr, mate, fut- 
and Imperative, should not rather be deduced from the Root Tl, or n'n to t9nntct,jom U^ktrf Comp. 
under rDK II. in Lexkon. 

I See Dr. BaTfljf% Introduct. to Lanj^ua^, Part I. p. 53. 

' 6. Hence 

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6. Hence in Hebrew Verbs arise the three (or, as some choose to consider them^ the 
Jhe) Conjai^atiom, so called a cofijttgandoy because all conjoined or united in one Root. 

7. H threw Verbs then have three Conp/gatiom, Kalj Hiphil, and hithpael; three 
Moods, Indicatfte, Imperative (commanding), and Infinitive (indefinile, see 3, and 4.); 
two Tenses, past ^uil future — the past Tense or * Participle active being of^eil used for the 
present Tense {see i, und 2), and theyi/^i/re 7Vii*e supplying the place of the potential or 
subjunctive Mood of otlier languages, and so it is frequently to be rendered in English by 
may., caHj might, would, should, ought, could, all whidi words evidently impty somewhat 
future in their sigci£cation. 

8. Hebrew Verbs arc varied by fzro Numbers, singular and plural, three Persons (sec 
§ V. 4.) and two Genders, masculine and feminine. 

9. The old example of a Hebrew Verb was ii^Q. whence arc taken the following gram* 
matical terms, Niphalh:^^^, Hiphil Ij'^^QH, Huphal brEJH, Hithpael bi?ann, and Paoul ^)rB ; 
the Hebrew words being pronounced according to the Masoretical Points. 

10. The first Conjugation Kal (^p light, so called because in the preler it is burdened 
xsith no letter at the begiiming) is generally active, or signifies simply to do, as ^pQ to 
visit, nm to speak. 

1 1 . The lodicatro^ preler and the Imperative postfix the personal Affixes ; the future 
prefixes them, and in some of its Persons postfixes part. 

12. A regular Verb in Kal is declined thus, the Personal Affixes and other Serviles 
being, (or the assistance of the Learner, printed in hollffu) letters f. 

•^pSD Fisit. 


Preter or Past Tense. 



Ye (fern.) imp9 

Tp9 He ' 
rnps Thou 

'^?9 . They [ ''"''■'^^• 
cmps Ye 
l^nps We J 

Future Tense. 

Slia ' Tpsin 

IPS'" He 

Thou (fern.) npsn 

-^r^ Thou 

npo« I 

Thcv (fem.)nnpsn 

nps^ They 

Ye ' (fem.) ra^p^i^ 

npsn Ye 

Tp!33 We 

\shaU or av'// visit. 

• In Kal there arc two Participles, active and passive, otherwise called Benoni fsee Note • in the next 
page) and Paoul. Other Conjugationshave also Participles (as in the Example, Rule 17.) Participles are 
■o called a part'uipando, because ihey partuipiitt of the nature both of a Noun and of a Verb, being tU^ 
4limtd by GentUr and Number, like the former, abd denoting an Action or beip^ acUd upon as the latter. 

f If the Reader will take the trouble to colour the hoUo'w letters with rr^ink, in this and the follow- 
ing examples, he will make the examples still more clear and distinct ; and indeed this may be no un- 
profitable exercise tu a Bcgumer. ^ 


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W J Meihodical 


• Thou (tern.) np9 np9 VmtThoji 

Ye (feiu.) Hj-ips nps Yc 


mpD and TpQ To Visit. 

Participle active, or Beiioni *. 
fern. mpIS) nplQ masc. sing. Visiting. 

fem. plur. nilplS DHplE) masc. plur. 

Participle passive^ or Paout f. 
fern. rri)'^^ TlpQ masc. sing.* Visited. 

fem. plur. nit)pD Dnlp9 masc. plur. 

13. The passive of Kal is Niphat\ which prefixes 3 to the past or preter tense, and sig- 
nifies to be donCf as 1j7!3^ he is visited. Conip. Rule $• 

14. The Second Conjugation is Hipldi, which is formed, in tlie preter, by prefixing M 
to the preter of Kat, and by inserting > before the last radical ; thus npfi in Hiphil forms 
TJ?an. A Verb in Uiph'd generally signifies % to cause another person or thin^ to do^ or 
to cause a thing to be done, as n^n he caused to visit\\. The passive of Hiphil is Huphal, 
which is formed from Hiphil by generally dropping the cliaracleristic % and denotes to be 
caused to do or to be done. 

15. The Third Conjugation is Hiihpael, which is formed, in the preter, by prefixing 
nrr to the preter of Kal, and generally signifies reflected action^ or to act vpon oneseff, but 
is often used m a passive sense, as from npB, ^pann he visited himself, or vms visited^ 
Eithpael also often denotes to make or pretend oneself to be what b denoted by the Root, 
hence it has by some been called the hypocritical Cc«ijugation. 

16. To all these Conjugatioui the personal Affixes arc joined nearly as in Kal; but 
these things will appear more clearly by the following 

* 'VSitJitUntudiate or midiSe, because expretkive of the udermediaU time between the past and future, 
i e of the present, 

f The Participle Paowlin iui/ differs in sense and application from the Participle Betwii in Nipkai (see 
Rule 13.) The former denotes that the action expressed by the Verb is done; the Utter, that the acttoa 
Ut^Be done, OT going to be done. Thus in Judg. vi. 28, 103 that was or hkd been hnilty sedificatum, but 
1 Chroo. zxii. 19, rtn3 that is to be, or is going to be, bmlt, aediScandum; Gen. ii 9, 'nsrvikai is to be 
desired^ now or hereafter ; inS) To be desired, ProT. xxii. 1 . ; Gen. xlix. 29, ^po going, or about, to be 
mstiured. In short the Participle Pa$td in Kai nearly answers to the Participle preterperfect passive in 
latin, and the Participle Bemni in Niph4sl to the Latin Participle future passive in dms. ' See Dr, Bayiy* 
Introduction to Languages, part i. p. 71. 

I We have in some Enghsk Verbs something v^ry like the Hebrev9 Conjugation in Htphili thus H 
Mf, is, as it were, the Hiphil of siti false of risei feU of fall; lay of lie, 

I The Participle Hipkil often imports ieing about todo^i thmg, or going to do it presently, and, in such 
imtmnces, nearly answers to the Latin Participle future in ms. See Geo. vi. 13, 17. xix. 13, 14. £xod. 
^5. So the Hsb. Participle in Hnphal answers to the Latin one in diu, Ps. xlviii. 1, Jcr. iL 1. 

17. ExAMPtI 

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14 A Methodical 

OBSERVATIONS on the abcwe Example of a Regular Verbl 

18. The final ^ of the first person singular preter is sometimes, though rarely, dropt, as 
ininn^HTD, for in^n^tiro / drew him out, Exod. ii. 10. So in Hipb. 'jn'Oin for *]>n^i":rT 
J^^muUiply thee. Gen. xiviii. 4. But see Dr. KennicoU's Bible. 

19. In K<^i') is often inserted before the last radical of the future and Imperative^ as 
nptiikj for ^pD«, tipQ for npQ. 

ao. The "> in tlie Participle Bcnoni in Kal is frequently, and in the Participle Paoul 
sometimes, omitted. 

21. In the third person masculine plural future of Verbs, as } para^ogir is often post- 
fixed to the y, sd the 1 is sometimes dropt, and ] onlv retained, as in pn> for ]y2'n^ they 
shall 6trivc, Exod. xxi. 18 ; p>U?T for \\TWy they shall condewn, Exod. xxii. 8 ; \y^^> for 
p3n«> they may be prolonged. Dent. v. 16. So more rarelv in the second Person masculine 
plural future, as in p^'^Kn for p3n«n ye shall prolong, Dcut. iv. 26. 

22. In the third person feminine plural future of any conin?ation the n final is of^en 
dropt, as in \Xfb2n, Gen. xli. 24; pD«n, Exod. i. 19. So in irregular Veri>s(see § VII.) 
as in f^pu?n, from npm, Gen. xix. 33; pnn, -from m^r. Gen. xi\. 36 ; ^'^nn, from rrn. 
Gen. xxvi. 35 ; pDM, from nriD, Gen. xxvii. 1 ; f«vn, from hv% Exod. xv. 20: aLd more 
rarely in the second person feminine plural future, as in pnn yc (uomaij have preserved 
Mlive, from riTf, Exod. i. 18. 

23. In the second person feminine plural Imperative the final n is sometimes omitted^ 
as in potl^ hear ye (uowenj Gen. iv. 23 5 \i^)^Djindye (women J Ruth i. 9. 

24. In Hiphil as the characteristic '* is used only in three words of tlie preter, so it is 
often omitted in all words of that conjugation. 

25. In Hithpael the characteristic n is transposed and placed after the first radical in 
Verbs beginning with U^ or D, as ")cnu;n he kept himself, for ^,Da*nrT, from "lOU? to keep ; 
^Snon he loaded himself, for i^iDnrr, from h^D to load; and in Verbs beginning with », 
T) is not only transposed, but changed into to, as p-^lDYi we will justify ourselves, for pnxm, 
from pi'I to justify. Gen. xli v. 16 ; yytOT they made {or feigned) themselves Embassadours, 
for "11 ynV from "i^V an Embassadour, Jos. ix. 4. 

26. When the third person feminine preter of any coijjugation is followed by a Pro- 
noun suffix, it's n is changed into n, as tzjnii:!. Gen xxxi. 32, she stole them, not*on:u:i ; 
irrnbiM, Gen. xxxvii. 20, hath eaten him, not innbrM ; inning, i Sam* xviii. 28, she 
loved him, not innnnw ; CDntt^pi, Hos. ii. 9, she seeks them, not tDnil^i?!. Comp. § IV. 16. 

27. The second person masculine plural sometimes drops it*s O before a suthx, as in 
*inDV ye have fasted to me; for ^iDHDV, Zech. vii. 5 ; >3n^!?i;n ye have made us come vp, 
for iiDn^^)>n, Num. xx. 5. 

28. From the first person plural preter of Verbs the 1 is dropt before the Pronoun suffix 
jn him or it, as in iMibDW we eat it, for inii!?D«, s K. xvii. 12; in innti? tre have 
forsaken him, for iniJi?:;, 2 Chron. xiii. 10. So from the third person plural preter, and 
future, as in llYlpn they stab him, for imipl, Zcch. xiii. 3 ; inVDH they knew him^ for 
imYDH, Job ii. 12 ; "innri^ they shall terrify, for imni?n^ Job iii. 5 ; and from the 
second person plural future, as m yr\:))n, for imji^n, 2 K. xviii. 36. Isa. xxxvi. 21. 

29. In the farthest column to the left hand of the above Example, are added tbe 
' * Paragogic Letters, that is, such Letters as are sometimes postfixed to tlie respective 

persons of all conjugations against which thev stand, and are always cmphaticaL 

30. The above Example should be earefully perused by the Learner, and cc^itinually 
consulted for the forms of Regular Verbs. 

• From the Greek tsrapytwyuo; aJditicnal, 


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1. Those Verbs^ i^hich in their formation are not strictly reducible to the above Ex- 
ample of npe, are called irregular. 

2. But observe, that most irregular Verbs are also formed regularly, 

5. Irregular Verbs may be comprehended under two kinds, Defective and Redupli' 

4. Defective Verbs are such as in some forms drop one or more of their radical 

5. From the old Example br& (comp. § VI. 9.)* those that drop their first letter were 
called defective in Pe^ B ; those that were supposed to drop their second, defective w 
Oijt,^; and those that drop their third, defective in Lamed, b. 

Of each of these in their order, 

6. Defective Verbs, that sometimes drop Xhciv first letter, are chiefly those that begin 
with ^ or J, hence railed defective Pe Vod, >Q ; and defective Pe NuHf 39. 

7. Verhs defective Pe itod, or with > for the first radical, often drop it in the Future, 
Imperative and Infinitive of Kal, to which last they postfix n, and in Niphal and Iliphd 
they change their ^ into 1. 

8. Here follows an Example of a Verb defective Pe Yod, in which (as likewise in the 
succeeding Examples) not only the servile letters, as in *ipD, but also those wJierein it 
differs from that Verb^ are, for the benefit of the Learner, priuted in hollow letters ; the 
finit word only of each Tense, Mood, <^c. being given, whence the other words are 
/ormed regularly, as in ";p&. 

^U^ To dwell. 


















not used. 




r It rt> p t> jtn 












9. The formative 1 in Niphal and lliphil is sometimes omitted, as in rfr for rxb*, Gen. 
tL I ; in 'nntm for r:junn, Jer. xxxii. 37. 

10. The%e three Verbs m, yn\ and n::\ in Hithpail, change their ^ into 1, as 
rmnn, Sfc, 

1 1. npb To take or l)e taken ^ is in Kal formed like Itl^. 

12. Verhs defective Pe Nurf, or uith {for their Jirst radical, drop it in the Future, 
Imperative and Infinitive of Kal (to whidi last they also postfix n), in the Preter of 
jyjfhai, and throughout Hiphc^ and IJuphaL 

13. Ai 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


A Mtihodical 

13. An Example oft Verb drftct'tve Pe Nun. 

^Di To pour. 












not used. 










TO'' Future. 


14. Verbs with M for their first radical often drop if, as ibrr, 15r», see Lexicon. 

15. Verbs with h for their first radical ♦ often drop it m the first person sio^lar fti* 
hire, as ID^ for lot^M I will speaks and sometimes m other forms, ai m t ^nsD, for 
inQ^n she baked it, i Sam. xxviii. 24; f T)Cn, for I'^DHM ^f «Aa// <ay, 2 Sam. xix. 14; 
I^^D, for "i^nPHD^ teaching us, Job xxxv. 11. 

16. As for the second kmd of defective Verbs aboVe mentioned (Rule 5.), namely tfaose 
that are supposed to drop their xfcond radical 1 or ^ (hence called defective Oin Vau^ "OT, 
and Oin ¥od, >)^), as t=n», t3ip, n^, p, the truth seems to be this; that the former sort 
have, properly speakmg, only two radical letters^ but sometimes take a 1 before the last 
radical^ being m other respects (except that they are not used in the simple form in HUh^ 
pael, and in HuphalHssumt a ^ before the first radical, as tspin was set up, £xod. xl. 17.) 
formed quite regularly; and that the latter sort of Verbs, namely those with ^ Yod in- 
•erted, are cither Verbs in which the ^ is radical, fixed and immutable, as TM to wfest, 
in wbieh case they are decHned regularly ; or else they are in Hiphil, the characteristic tr 
being dropt, as tDnj; for ^'*u^, from CDU^ or tD^W to plcKe; p for prfj from p to dis^ 
cem, distinguish. 

- I J. Example of a defective Verb oftico radical letters. 

D»or DW To place. 







18. Verbs of this form frequently in Kal, and sometimes in Niphal, drop the 1 before 
the last radical. 

19. Of the third kind of defective Verbs, or of those which drop their tkitd radiat^ 
tre the Verbs ending in n, hence called defective Lamed He, nV, as n^Pf tih^. 

ao. Observe in general, first, that these Verbs usually either drop theirn before a ser- 
vile, as from nVj to reveal, iVi they revealed; or change it into > Yod, as n^i, for nnhl 
thou revealedst ; n^^i'lin, for nsnbjn they (women) shall reveal ; or before a servile n, 
into n, as rmh, for r\Tl'?:^ she revealed : secondly, that they oflen drop theup H final in the 
Future f and sometimes in the Preter and Imperative, as b^, for Tfpx* ; tr^^i for WK^, kc 













not used. 












* Not altoayf. See Job zvi. 5. 

t But in the words marked thus f some of Pr. Knmntt\ Cpdicct supply the ic^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Ml aiiiJlc; M, for rr\t he commanded, Deut. vi. 6, 24; !?i for T^i reveal. Psal. cxix. 18; 
"^i?: la^A constttncd us, for linbj. 
ai. Example of a Verb dcjectivt Lamed He, 

Hyy To reveaL 



not used. 

ni'^inn ni^yi 




♦r63rt n^35(fem.)rr!?3ornnS!i n^iiPrefrr. 


rfl^jn n)f?jr? 




bT or rf>y\Fatur€. 
(fem.) ^^:i nbMMPER. 

1^3 or n!?3 nMlNFJNIT. 
(fem.) n^]:j n^dBe/zo/zr. 

ta. Several Verbs, with H for their last radical^ sometimes drop it, as «a, Mton, MV, 
it^o (see Lexicon), and others of these Verbs form their Infimtive in m, like Verbs 
ending in n, as nikOp to call, Jud, viii. i ; tv^bo tofidfil, 2 Chron. xxxvi. si. 

as- Verbs endix^ 10 3 sometimes drop their last radical before* a : senile, as n:DMn, 
(key (fem.) $baU be supported^ for n^iDt^n, from }D« to support » Isa, Ix. 4. 

«4. So Verbs ending in n sometimes drop their last radical liefore a n servile, as \'n!D, 
€ow vrm I die. Gen. xix. 19; ^m^, for ^nnl3 / hare cut off, Exod. xxxiv. 27, 

a5. Some Verbs are doublif defective, chiefly such as have » and : for thei» first radi- 
cal, and rr for their last. Tims we have p^jn, second person masculine plural future Knt 
(with J para^ogic), from n:^ to f/fflict. Job xix. a.; imn, first person plural preter ///- 
f#i/7, from m> /o confess, Ps. Ixxv. 2.; D*, third person masculine singular Aiture Kaf, from 
ne3 ^o txteud. Gen. xii. 8. ; n^^, first person singidar future Kul, from nr: tu smite, Kxod. 
ix. 15. 

a6. The Verb \TM, to give, is doublj/ defective m a peculiar manner, for it not only 
drops it's initial 3, as ^D3 (llule 12.) and il's final one before miolher 3 (as in Rule 23.), 
but k also generally loses it's final 3 before a servile n> as ^nni / have given, for »n3n3 ; 
onnj ^e have given^ for onini ; and generally has in the Infinitive nn to give. 

ay. Reduplicate Verbs are such as have the last or^wo last Radicals doubled: they are 
derived from simple Verbs, as from h^ are derived hhl and l»:l»3; from huvk, l»!?OH; from 
5©3, >VS3; from isn, 1!l35rT ; from ^nD, 'imno. 

a 8. fiot in Reduplicate Verbs derived from tho6e with n for the last radical, the redu- 
plication is made by doidfling the letter, or two letters preceding the rr, as from n?D to com- 
plete, i^^D to complete entirely, and Vsl^a to nourish ; from n^p to be light, vile, bbp to be ex- 
ceedimgl^ vile, and ^pl>p to be exceedin^li/ light; from nyS) fo open, jnTD /o ^w*^ o/>eii. 
^9, Reduplicate Verbs arc declined regularly. 

^o. &u:ept that those of the form of b^3 sometimes use 1 instead of the last letter, as 
'^rtoi Josb. V. 9, for ^rbhy, ^nino Eccles. ii. ao, for ^nano ; and sometimes in Hithpael as- 
sume 1 after the first radical, as pnnrr from pi, Isa. i. j ; and more rarely in other cou- 
ju^atkMM, as fp\)r> third person masculuie singular future in Kal, from v\Xi^^ Gen. i. 20. ; 
lBDrr» Job XX vL 1 1, from rjEn f. Such Verbs also prefix D to the Participles both of Kal 
and Hukpael^ as in DD1>D //^h'l^ v/^, i Sam. ii. 7. Ps. ix. 14; tTDipDD raising vp hint'- 
self- Job xxvii ;. 

31. PluriUteral Verbs, or Verbs not reduplicate, but consisting of more than three ra« 
dical letters, as OD^D, by)0, jrc. are, the few times they are used, declmed regularly. 

• Mat con^ ifxn Dent. zl. 4, rv* b^ iviai. 5, tt I^am. Ii. I, wtf Nab. iiS. I, rotynn Mic. ii. IS, 
7nc Isa. xvi, 9; from which Ibrmi it apptart that Verbfe mcUng 10 a ra(Ucai but omiMiolc n do ia 
Hiph. insert a « between th« 6rtt and tecond radical letter. 

t Tluf redMtlkait form of Verbs with 1 inserted in Kal, the Hebrew Grammarians have called the 
C0(B|ti(Ufoa Am^ apd they add, tkat Verbs ^^/mZ/vtV boifow their itisf:patl from the coojugation Pe.-L 

c sEcr. t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

18 J Methodical 


I. Syntax, from the Greek "Lvrra^is Compo9ifiu»f h that part of Grammar whmh 
teaches to compose words properly iu Sentences. 

*2. Ui Hebrew the Adjective generally agrees with it's Substantive in gender and num- 
ber, as tD3n p a wise «(m, nln:! n^DO great strokes, 

3. Yet we meet with such expressions as these, nVli tD^ii? great citiex, Deut. i. 28. 
vi. 10, 6l al. niViJ tD^3n« g/ffl^ «/o»ei, Deut. xxvii. 1. Josh. x. 18, 27.; miilD CD^Mn aiwl 
my^'^ good and badjgs, Jer. xxiv. 2, 3. ; !r^!n:in n^lWDH the great tights, Gen. i. 16. But 
as to the former phrases, it has been observed, § IV. 13. that the termination tz)^ is not 
always masculine ; and |)erhaps in such expressions as CD^Viiin DlJ^on, the AHjectivc with 
a termination usually masculine Is joined with a feminine SubstantKe^as a mark of dig- 
nity or excellency. 

4. Pftrticiples follow the same Rules of Syntax as Adjectives. 

5. When two Substantives of a diftcreut gender have the same Adjective, that Adjec- 
twf is commonly of the masculine gender, as Job i. 1 3, C^^DW vn:ni v:3 llis sons and 
his daughters eating. 

6. \Vhen two Substantives have one Adjective, that Adjective is put in the plural 
number, as i K. i. 2!, CD'HiDn noV^ ^inn ^i« I and my son Solomon (shall be) sinful. 

7. The same rules of Syntax hold good of Pronouns, Gen. i. 27, rzriH H^n nnpDl ^^.T 
male and female created he them, masc. 

8. Coi/ective Kouns, or JS^duns of' multitude, though singular, may have an Adjective or 
Parti< iple plural, as CD^n^l CD)?n the people (are) mttnyy Exod. v. 5 ; tD^^ mirr b^ all 
Judah coming, Jer. vii. 2 ; CD^^iriD tDi?rt the people pipings i K. i, 40, 

9. An Adjective singular is sometimes joined to a Noun plural in a distributive sense, 
as Rsal. cxix. 137, T^DU^D yjf» right are thyjudgments, i. e. every one of them; Gen. 
x?itvii. 29, *irM l*"r.« they that curse thee (are) cursed, i. e.each one oj them. Comp. Gen. 
xlvii. 13. Exod. xvii. 12. 

10. The Cardinal Nouns of Number (as one, t'iva, three. Sec.) from one to ten, when 
masculine have a feminine termination ; when feminine, a masculine one. 

II. Cardinal Nouns of Number which have a plural termination arfe most usually 
joined to Substantives in the singular, but those that have a smgular termhiation to Sub- 
stantives in the plural : t=3^:r:M nu^hr Thnc (or a trinity of) men. Gen. xviii. 2 ; ni?S"l« 
ta^^D Four (or a quaternion of) kings, Gen. xiv. 9 ; rt^m niM!: W?2n, njtt^ fTiHO V^m 
Five, — Seven hundreds of' years, Gen. v. 26, 32, are Examples of both these last Rules. 
Comp. Job i. 2. 

12. Tlie Cardinal Nouns of Number are sometimes used for the Ordinals, nsone for 
first, three for third, ten for tenth, &c. See Gen. i. 5. Esth. i, 3. Gen. viii. 4. 2 Chron. 

»• 3- ", 

13. The Plurals in G* — of Nouns of Number from three to nine inclusive signify ten 
times 2i^ much as tjic singular. Thus wb^" is three, but Xr^^wbw thirty; vyitkfour, but 
&Vy^Vi f^t-ty. 

14. The Nominative or Noun to a Verb is known by askmg the question uho or 
ichat? with the Verb; thus In the sentence, God created the heavens, the word God an- 
swering the Question vcho created? is the t^oun to the Verb created; so in this sentence 
The iU'i shines, the sun is the Noun to the Verb shines. 

- 1 5. All Nouns, whether singuhir or pliirat, arc "of tlie third Person, except wbendiey 
are joined with the pronouns of the ^r*f and ^rcowrf Persons, /, thou, ue or ye. 

. 16. The Verb usually agrees with ifs Noun in gender, number, and person^ zs^bil 
te^n^Mrr The Jlcin^iur^ r^coiltrf/Gcu. xxxv. 7 ; nn>n r^^ the earth kos^ Gen, i. 2, 

17- Yet 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


17. Yet we fio<l, Gen. i. 14, rriHD >n», there shall be lights, where n*'M'3 feminine and 
plur. is joined with the Verb ^rr masculine and singular. But ^n* seems here to be used 
impenonaVy^ as in many Qthet instances. 

18. When two Nouns of vl dtferent Gender have or govern tlie same Verb, tliat Verb 
is geoerallv put ID the mrr«ctf///7e gewlcr, as Gen. ii. i, p«m tD^omn ^72^^ and the hea- 
few mtd tie earth wcreJinUhtd. Comp. above Rule 5. 

19. When several Nouns singular have the same Verb, that Verb is sometimes put 
IB the ;^vr«/ number, as Gen. xiv. i, a; non^JbiUfy — i'^ini— "lO^rVnD — Tinw Arioch — 
Qkedtrlaomcr — and Tindal^-nuide rear. See Gen. ix. 23. Comp. above Rule 6, and 7. 

20. Nouns of MuUitHde, though singular, may have a Verb plural, and though femi- 
nine, a Verb masculine, as Gen. xli. 7, nonVD ^»i y^»il ^31 and all the earth iame 
to Egypt \ Deut. ix. 28, Y^^'n yiO'A'* ffi lest ^ the land shall say. Job xxx. 12, iDip* nnl3 
the youth rose up. See £xod. xiii. 6, 47. xvi. 1, 2. xVii. i. xxxv. 20. 1 Chron. xiii. 3. 
Comp. above Rule 8. 

21. A Verb singular joined with a Noun plural, or a Verb plural with a Noun sin- 
gular, often signify distributivelyy as Joel i. 20, i'»"ii?n mu;n niTDna the beasts (i. e. each of 
the beasts) of the fields shall cry; Prov. xxviii. 1, ^W^ — ^D^ the uicked (every mckvd 
vian)Jlee. See Gen. xltii. 22. Exod. i. 10. Job xii. 7. Jcr. ii. 15. xxxv. 14. Comp. 
above Rule 9. 

a2. The Nonn masculine plural O^nVi*, when meaning the true God, Jehovah the 
ntr-blcssed Trinity, is often joined with Verbs singular, to express the Unity of Essence 
and Operation, as Gen. i. i, D^nfjH M'll The Alcim cnated. But comp. Rule x6, and 
Lexicon, p. 19, ool. 2. 

23. The Pronoun relative 'itt*K who, tchich, agrees with it's Substantive or Substan- 
tives iu gender, number, and person, and governs it's Verb accordingly, as Ezek. xiii. 19^ 
n^rnDn vb ^*J?^^ n^U^: n»an5»— /o slay the souls xvhich should not die/ Here -)t2?H agrees 
with it's .Substantive feminine phiral nim-5:, and accordingly n:n*i^n. the Verb it go- 
venis, is pnt in the feminine plural third person. So La. Ix. 12, b*V"!ir*Ht nrl'Dom ^:n *D 
n2K^ yn^X^,for the fiation and the kingdom, which shall not serve inee, shall perish. Here 
^A having two Substantives, one masculine) uud the other feminine, it's Verb 1*13>> is 
put in the masculine plural third person. See Rule 18, 19. 

24. The Pronoun rehitiye lun^ w/<o, which, \% often understood, and. that not only 
when it is governed by the Verb or by a Particle (understood) as in English, but also 
when itself governs the Verb; Isa. xUi. 16, / will cause the blind to go in a way 1);i> vh 
(Kikk) thep knew not; Exod. vi. 28, and it um iH the day mrr -^in {in which) Jehovah 
spake to Mosts; Lam. iii. i, / am the man ^^y rT«1 (who) hath seen affliction. 

2 «;. Wlleti the connective Particle 1, and, is prefixed to a Verb in tUeJuture tense, that 
Verb slides future in r^espect to the Time of (not to the Time in) wliich the histoiian 
is writing, or the person speaking, as Gen. i. 1, The Aleim h13 created fiie heavens and 
the earth, vcr. 2, "lOHn and then the Aleim said, ver. 4, K'^'i a/id then the Aleim saw, &c. 
Oen. ix. 27, The Alcim riB* shall persuade Japhtt, pm'>^ and then he * shall c/itc//— ^r.^l 
and then Canaan shall be a servant to than. So that when a number of facts arc reionled 
or foretold, the ^ with the sign of the future prefixed to a scries of Verbs denotes the suc^ 
«#*tr€ orc/er of the fectsf. 

26. The future b sometimes used in this sense, even where the t is not immediately 
prefixed to the Verb, but other words come between, as 2 Sam. xii. 31, nu;;:^ pi And 
thus he afltmcards did. 

27. Yea where 1 doth not precede at all, as Job i. 5, t3>o^n b ::V.'^ nmy^ HDD thus 
surcessktfy did Job all the days; Isa. vi. 2, V^D nor tD^hu?:! m'th two he then covered his 

face. Comp. Bxod. xix. 19. Job i. 7, 1 1. Eccles. xi. 5. . A 

a8, 1 eoonective prefixed to Verbs often supplies the place of the signs of Persons, 
Moods, Tenses, and Numbers,, and makes them take in siguification those of a preceding 
Verb, as (fjii/ often doth in English; thus.Gen. i. 28, and ^i^D fll ye the earth, nunrsl 

* We have no m/ tense in J&ng)ish which will express this Hdrew future. 
t Thus the future is used after m tben^ £xod. iv. i. Jush. x. 1*2. 

c 2 a^d' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

20 A Methodical 

end subdue it, for nit2>!i2 subdue yc it. (Comj). J«d. iv. 6, 7. Roth liL 5.) Exod, xii. 13, 
mm:3yi a/i(/ JrAorak shali pa^s-^lhe tense of/)aj? being here taken from the futurfc 
IKyn «5 ye shall not go out, in the preceding verse; Jud. i. 16, fl/JC? /^f *</«« of Kent ^^y 
/% c/7we up lb t fl«// ut/2/, sun a// J </at'/^, for 1Dij> they iL^etit, and Y::t^» fify dueli. 
Corap. Josh. X. 4. I Sam. ii, a8, where ^ny\ is for imniil, see the preceding verse. 

39. Verbs Infinitive are often used as our Eo^Jbh tcrbui Nouns iB^^f»g;-as Gcn. \L 4, 
hin* nitt^i? OVl in the day (f Jehovah's makings 1. e. xihen Jehovah made. 

50. Ferbs Injinitive thus applied admit the same Profioun Suffixes as Nonos (coinp. 
§ V. 5), as Gen. iii. 5, t3Dfe« CDVa in the day of your eating. 

3 1 . Ferbs Infinitive admit before them tlie Particles X Di V« 0> in the senses ^plained 
under these Particles in § IX. and more fully \n the Lexicon. 

32. Hebrew Verbs are frequently joined with their Infinitives, which latter may then 
be rendered as Participles active, or as the Latin Genmds in do. This sort of expressions 
generally, if not always, denotesuccession or continuance, asGen.xxii. 1 7,ni^m 1DnD«*p2 
linr n« nni» blessing or wi blessing (Lat. benedicendo) I will bless thee, and in multiply^' 
ing (Lat. multipiicando) I iisill multiply thy seed, i. e. / will continually bless thee, aid 
multiply thy seed; Isa. vi. 9, n))V) bn} 1H*1 1«*TJ lyan ini V^lZW 1i?Ptt^ hear%fe in hearing, i. e. 
be continually hearings and ye shall not perceive; and see ye in seeing^ i. e. be continually 
seeing^ and ye shall not know. So Gen. ii. 16, 17, (ff every tree of the garden bswi ten 
thou shall or mayest continually eat; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou 
shall not eat of it; for in the day thou eatest thereof n^ct) fi^D dying tiou shall die, ue. tho9 
shalt begin to die, and so continue liable to death temporal and spiritual. 

33. the Substantive. Verb rvn is, was, &c. is often omitted in Hebrew, ns Gen, 
i. a, &c. 

34. Particles m Hebrew have often other Particles prefixed; or several Particles ar« 
joined together hi one word. 

Of the USE of the SERVILES. 

1. H. I . Prefixed, from OH /, forms the first person singular future of 9U V^rbfli, ^ 

*);?£)« / mil visit, from npD. 

fl. Prefixed^ forms many Nouns, as nDH a lie, from 'XO to deeme; mm aiui- 
tire tree, from ni) to spread, 

2. X Prefixed only, In,forr &c. See Lexicon. 

3. n. 1. Prefixed, denotes the conjugation Hiphil or Huphal. 

a. —5 is emphatical, The, this. 

3. — — is vocative or pathetic. 

A^ ■ ^ expresses a question or doubt. 

For instances of the three last uses see the Lexicon in rr. 

5. Postfixed, is the sign of z feminine Noup, as rw» a xoomsm ; n:at9 good 
(bona). Comp. J IV. 7. 

6. Postfixedi denotes the third person feminine singular preter of VeitM, nsmpfc 
. she visited, 

7. Po^xed to a Verb or ^oun, from tvn, or Min, site, it denotes ker; asmpn 
he visited her, m> her hand: and sometimes to ]|i Noun, kis, as Gei|. xKx. 1 1 , TTW 
hhfoal, nniD bisifarment; Exod. xxii. 3, m^^i his beast; ver. a6, nmOD his 




2. Postfixed, t0 pr towards, of place or time. See L.exicoii under n 7. 

♦ See M//f/ Aanot. in Partic. lS9«k 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


4, ^ I. Prefixed, a conn^ive particle, and, Src See Lexicon. 

a. Inserted after the first radical, it detiotes the action signified hy the Root to 
be present and continued; hence it forms the Participle act he, as ^pD viiitirtg, and 
many Nouns in which such action is tmpfied, as imD a trader^ or person trading; 
rm Me spirit or air breathing or in motion ; CdV the day or tight in agitation 
(oaiDcly by being rejected from the earth) 5 and this not only without, but often 
i»ith ottitt* Serviles to the word ; thus m^D Gen. i. 14, are instruments or svonces 
rf (igfif, but nm«0, ver. 15; those sconces aetnaffy gi'^'"g light. 

3. Inserted afkr the second radical, it denotes an action pasty and so forms the 
Pafticiple panivty as "npa viMted, and many Nou:;s ia which surh action is im- 
plied, as tmi"^ "wealth atqniredy from wy^i to acquire, 

4. Poiktfixed to a Noun, it signifies /#/>• as ^iai his word; to a Verb, him, as 
T^2\ he remen.bered him. Also some* mei their or them. See Exod. xxiii. 23. 
Deut. iv. ^y. vii. 10. xxi. 10. Josh. ii. 4. Ps. xivi. 4. Isa. v. 25. 

5. Postfixed, denotes the third, or ia ihe Imperative Mood^ the second, person 
plural of Veiiw. 

6. Post fixed, forms the collective Noun ^TV\l beasts, from n^n (c^mp. IT Ezek. 
i 8, and liD in i»n:2, for Vm^S, Gen. xxxii.3 1 ; comp. ver. 30; and sec Lexicon 
under n^.H II.); also some other Nouns of a passive sfgiitfication, as 1^J7 humble, 
meek, from Hi:?; inn hollow ^ from nn; inn Tui^/e, from nn. 

j. \ I. Prefixed to the third persons masr. future sing, and plur. of all Verbs. 

2. Prefixed, forms soni« appellative Nouns, and many proper Names, ast:ip;> 
a scrip, from topb to collett ; pnfT' Isaac, from pnx to lau'gk; ::pT Jacob, frum 
3pj7 to supjdant. 

3. Inserted, forms matiy Nouns; and after the first radical, denotes the efnt 
OT consequence i^ the Participle active of the Verb; for inatance, from nn uir 
breathing or in motion, comes n^ odour or eshafatton (sec ni in tlie Lexicon). In- 
«rted af^cr the second radical denotes the rjj'ecl or consc/juence of the Partic/jde 
passive, as "jnfp harvest, from "TlVp cut dovm. 

4. Inserted before tlM last radical, it denotes the liiphil conjugation. 

5. Postfixed, denotes a national name, as^l)? an Hcfirciv, W^2 a Canaanite. 
6. . the ordinal Numbers, ^u;*bu/ third, '>):^T\ fourth, S^c. And observe, 

that m these ordinal Nonus of Number, > is not only postfixed, but fretpiently, 
as here, inserted also before I he la^ radical. 

7. ■ the second person feminine futtn^ and imperative, as n^&n thou 
(woman) shalt visit; npS) visit thou (woman), .and sometimes the second perj^»ii 
fem. preter, as ^notl^, and >nf.% Ruth iii. 3; ^mob Jor. xiii. ai. Comp. Jcr. 
xxii. 23. xxxi. ar, and E«ek. xvi. 19, >nnj; ver. 20, >inn>; ver. 37, »nT:paud 
Vr^J; ver. 43, W3t and 'n>u;V; so ver. 47, j*- 

8. is the si^i of the masculine plural in rcgimine, as p«n ^^Vo kings 

of the earth. Comp. § IV. 15. 

9. -— , is tbnnalive in some Nouns, both substmitive, as ^jth Lord, nQ 

fruit ; and adjective, as Mimnyrcc, n]5« violent, ^i)? afflicted, poor. 

10. — — — to a Noun, /«y, as f^Ti my word; to a Verb, me, as npfc Ac 

4. 5. 1. Prefixed, a particle of similitude, like, as. See Lexicon. 

a. Postfixed to a Noun, %, as l*im thfjvsord; to & Verb, Mce, aspps: Ac 
ri#f/e</ thee. 

7. ^. Prefixed only. To, for, &c. See Lexi<ron. 

5. D. r. Prefixed, a particle. From, &c. See Lexicon, 

a. Denotes the participle of Hiphif-^ud Uuphal (and with n aiideil, of llitk- 
pael), whence 

3. It forms many Nouns, si^ifying the instrument, or meauy 01 pUce of action, 

c 3 as 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

22 A Methodical 

as from p fo protect , p6 a shield^ instrument (tf protection; from Hit tosacrifict ; 
n^tD an altar; so with n or D postlixed^ many feminiiie nouus^ as nVt2nDD 
instrument or mean of ruling, 

4. Postfixed to a ooun, their, as CD*ini tlieir xcord; to a verb, them, as OipD 
Af visited them. 

5. Postfixed with 1, forms the noun iD^nB redemption, from mu /o redetnt, 

6. Postfixed, forms some adverbs, as ODV 6^ (/(7^, from tDV /:i^ ; tD:n gratis, 
from ^n ^o ^ A:iyi(/, gracious ; CDiDM /ra/y, from fOH truth ; tDp "> vuinitfy from 
pn rfl//«, 

9. ^ I. Prefixed, forms the preter and participle of the conjugation Niphal, 

a. the first person plural fiiture of all verbs. 

3. some few appellative noimt, as rho^ an ant, from ?D to crop-, 

i:*1i a vtutterer, whisperer, from \11 to whisper, 

4. Postfixed, t/tem and their, feminine. 

5. — — *— forms many nouns, as p*ip an offering, from y^'y to approach ; 
especially with 1 preceding, as ]^^^\ a memorial, from *1DT ta ranember-, f^DU^ 
drunkenness, from *)::U^ /o inebriate. 

10. il\ 1. Prefixed only, denotes the relative icho, uhich. 

2. the particle that, because. See Lexicon. 

X I. n. I. Prefixed, denotes a noun, as masc. ^irobn a disciple or scholar, from *i^l> to 
teach; masculine plural tD*2*)n Teraphim, from nsn to venerate; feminine Hinn 
a prater, means of obtaining favour ^ from fn f ^ gracious : also a particle^ as 
nnn under ^ from nnj ^a descend, 

2. Prefixed to the second person future of both numbers and genders ; and 
to third person future feminine sing, and plur. 

3. Postfixed, denotes the second person preter sinjr. of all verbs. 

4. in regimine for n fem. See § IV. 16. 

5. '*■ forms many nouns feminine, as miDp incense, from ^tDp to 


J 2. The above Table of the Serviles should be carefully perused by the learner, and 
continually consulted by l|im, when in words he meets with letters for whidi be cannot 


Ruksforfiuclmg the ROOT in the ensuing * LEXICON. 

1 . Reject all affixes, and letters acquired in forming ; if three letters remain, that is 
jnrencrdlly the root: thus in the word fi'U^t^^l, Gen. i. 1, 1 is a particle or affix signifying 
in, § IX. 2. n^ a termination of nouns, see § |V. Q, therefore t2;M"i is the root. 

2. But if, atler rejecting the affixes and formative letters, the word hath 1 or > inserted 

* As T would wish the reader, who has opportunity ^d abilities, to consult 0/i^ works of this kind, 
and particularly the highly valuable Lexicon and Concordance of Marius de Calasio, I here subjoin 
Swme sk»rt RuUt for finding the Rmt in Other Lexicons ' 

I. Reject all affixes, and letters ac<^uired in forming; M three letters remain, that is the' root. 

*Z If only t-wo^ add * or 3 in the begmning ^and in the deflections of npb to take, S), * or *» in the middle, 
n or K at the end, or double the second radical letter — for instance, if the word aao occurs, 3D is the root. 

a. Observe ms to be added at the beginning, ) in the middle, or n at the end, much more frequently 
than the other. 

4. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only one letter should remain^ add ♦or: to the 
beginning, and n at the end. Thus for frn, seen.*; for th, see npo. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


(uiJesi before * n), yon mmt reject them also, and then you will fgenfraifj/ find it under 
Uic tw9 remainiiig letters. (Comp. § VII. i6.) Thus in "i^n^. Gen. i. 17', b is aparttcic 
to or for, § IX. 7. n the sign of conjugation Hipii. § IX. ), n^« then remaining, I 
also reiecl ^, and look for root m. 

3. ir, after rejecting tlic aifixes and formative letters, only tKo letters remain^ that is 
frequently the root. Thus in onDU^rr, Gen. i. i, n is a particle emphatic^ thr, \ty 
k IX. 3. cr is the termination of a noun masculine plural, by § IV. 9. tsm thcrHbjiS 
remains for the root. 

4. But if^ in this case, yon cannot find it as a hco-lctiered root, add ^ or i to the" 
be«;mnin^ of Ihe w-ord, and to the deflections of np? to tnke^ b (comp. § VII. 7, 8, 11, 
12, 13 ) or n, and more rarely H to the end. (Comp § VII. co, 21, 22.) Thu8innr"n 
Gen. ii. 9, n fe emphatic, the, \ IX. 3. n is a feminine termination, § W, ! i ; these 
then being r^ected, in remains; but not findmg this in a two-lettered form, I jdd > Yod 
to the beginning, and find it under root )^^V Again, in n^'^ and he took. Gen. ii. 15, 
1 is a particle aW, § IX. 4:' ^ is tlie si^n of the third person masculine fuMire, § IX. 5; 
np then remaining^ 1 add b to the begimiin<?, and look for n^b. la >:&, Gen. i. 2, ^ Is 
the si^n of the N. masc. plur. in regimine, § IV. 15 ; this theref '/re being rejected, and 
■ot fii>diDg the root p in a t\yo-!ettered form, I add n to the end, and look for ma. 

5. If, after rejecting the affixes and formative letters, only one letter should remain, 
add * or 3 to the beginning, and rr to the end. Thus Gen. xiv. 15, in tDS'l, 1 is a con- 
nective particle aire/, § IX. 4; > the sign of the thnd person mascuUne future, § IX. 5 ; 
and r? a suliix, thcm^ § V. ^, and IX. 8; there remaining then only tl^ letter 2, prefix 
i to the beginning, and add n to the end, and look fm- the root nix Comp. § VII. 25. 

6. Nouns or particles of two letters ending in ^ must usually be sought un<ier roots 
with n for tiie final letter, as for ^D tlie mouthy see na ; but for O thut^ S4?e nn'^ ; and 
aometiQics such nouns l>elong to roots with 1 thr the middle letter, as o a bumhtg 
to m3. 

7. Reduplicate words must be sought under their simple ones} thus, for Vp:i and b:h^ 
aee Vi, for ifiDDn see lan. Comp* § VII. 27, 28. 



Chapter of GENESIS. 

substance the and ^heavens tlie of substance the Aleim the created beginning the la 

HKi D^tt?n nx avhi^ K-12 /^^tt^^^-^n i. 

: earth the of 

: Y■^^*^ 

rrtim*)^ see § X. I . M'^i third person masculine singular preter in Kal of the verb 
lOi, and consequently the I root itself, and joined with the noun CD*nl>«, though 
plural, by § VIII. 22. CD^nVrt a noun nrasculine plural, § IV. 9, from the root ritJN, 
i X. I. DA, a particle, the, from rootrrn«, § X. 4. ta^DJ^n, see § X. 3. rwi, 1 a particle, 
§ IX. 4. fiH as before. Y^n^ n is emphatic, pn a noun with a formative H, § iX. 1, 
from Ihe root p. * 

♦ Oheerwt that when 1 or ms the middle, and n the final letter of th< rbbf , the yqr^k retaltoed, as in 
TfOi rrn, m. •♦ * . \ t ' ^ 

f In some Verbs the 1 in the middle is radical and immutable, as in rrv, y^* * 

t N. B. The Grammarians and Lexicographer^ always consider the third person Jitesc. sing, pretf'r 
in Jfai, as thr root in such words as occur in a verbal form. 

c'4 pw^ 2. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

2+ A Methodical 

deep the of flkoea the tipfm dtrkBets aad ^hollow and imfbrffled was etrfh tarn Ami 
.wafers the ef fiioes tile upon motioo a causing Aleim the of spirit the and 

1 o/f/f, pHrr just expla'oed. nn*n^ third p€rs<>B feminme singular preter of the verh 
irn, .§ ViL 20, %i ; aod agreeing with p« in geader, number, and person, % VIIL 
15, 16. inn a noun acyecfive, § IX. 4. mil, 1 and^ inn a noun adjective, § IX. 4. 
*7t2m a noun from the root y^n, h)i a particle from the root rh^. >:& a noun m-dscuLine 
plural ill regimiMe^ from the root n:S, see § X. 4. tDinn a noun, | IX. 11, from Ib^ 
root can, ^ X. a. m^ a noun, § IX. 4. of the root m, § X. a. nfin'io a participle 
feminine iu Hiphily from the root >=^n*i,.by ^ VL 17, «4, aad agree'mg in gender and 
Biirabcr with tX\\ by § VIII. a, 4; the verb substantive being omitt^ b)' § VIII. 35. 
O^cn, ^^ a uOun masculine plural, from the root Xd\ See Lexicon. 

.Light was there then and ,Light be shall there Alcim the said then And 

^lOMI, 1 and, ^t)H^ a verb third person masculine singular future in Kal, § VI. is, 
from root "los § X« i. see also § VIIL aj. >rr third person masculine singukir future, 
from root r^'*T}y for mi*, § VIL ao, ai. nm a noun, i IX. 4, from the root ")», % X. »• 

between Aleim the divided tiien and ,9*od that Light the Aleim the sow then And 

.Dr.rkness the between and Light the 

: Item r2) nwn 

HV tliird person BsascuUne singular, from root n^^, for r\ye\\ (.VII. ao, ai. >^ m 
ivarticle, from the root rrno, ( X. 6. 3lto a noun, § IX. 4, from the root nto, ( X. s. 
iii:}> tJiird person mascutin^ siuguliur of the root hi, ( X. 1. pi a particle of t^ root 
p, k X. a-, 
called he Darkness the (to) and Day Light the (to) Aleim the called then And 

.first the Day Morning was there and Evening was tliere and ;Nigbt 

: Tn« DV np2 \ti nny ^nn rhh 

K'lf?* third person masculine smgular future, from the root H^p, § X. i . "y\^\ b a par- 
ticle following the verb M^i?, see I^icoo*. or a nomi, § IX. 4. ^oa the root 53% § X. »• 
nVb a nouu feminine, § IV. 6, from the root Vb, § X. a. I'Ti? a noun masculine singular, 
from the root :ni^. "ipl a noun masculine singular, from the root Ipn, nn« a noun 
masculine singular, from the root ^XV^ \ X. 4. 

waters the of midst the in Ei^anse an be shall there Aleim the said then And 

o^n linn y>pi n^ a^rb^ noh^^i 6. 

•waters to waters between division a causing be shall it and 

iTp^ a noim masculine, $ IX. j. from the root )9p\ § X. i. T»^n, 1 a particle ijh 
^>rt a noun, § IX. 4. from the root ^r\, § X. a. ^iip a particq>le masculine sii^ular m 
HiphU, from the root hxi, i VI. 17, 

which waters the between divided be and Expanse the Aleim tlie made then And 
Expanse the (to) above (at) which waters the between and ,fi](paBse the (to) under (at) 

.(mechanized or) so was it and 

;p vm 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


W tbiitl pflson in:isciiliiie sinf niar future, ibr ntUOT, frotti the root rm^y, § VII. 2d, si. 
Vi^ tbc pronoun rclalive (see § V. 2.) vihkh^ from the root lUTH, D apartkle, tf^.^oiiied 
by $ VllL 34, nitli another particle nnn, from the root inn:, § JX. li. So hjD com- 
pouoded of c, at^ and ^:; uptMy from the root n^^. p see Lexicon. 

was there and ,(ptacers) Heavens expanse the (te) Aletm the called then And 

vn WU& T\rh xz.'^rhik Knp^ 8. 

.se«ood the Day morning was there and eveuin* 

;^w QV lp2 N-n any 

^W an ordinal nonn of number, § IX. 5. from the root n^u^, \ X. 4. 

i ) < " ^ 

appear shall then an<l ,one place to * waters the teild shall Aleim the said then And 

.so was it and ,()mA) &rj tbc 

:p ^m ntcfaT? 

^^p> third person masculine phiral future m Kal or Nipk. from^ the root mp, § VII. 
20, 21, agreeing with (he noun masculine plural Cd^d. i>H a particle, to, from the root 
^M. Di;7t3 a noun, § IX. 8, from the root CDp, § X. 2. HHin third person feminine 
singular ffiture in NipM, firom the root rwn, $ Vll. a.i, agiveiag wkfe the fetniaine mtmm 
Tt^y, with n emphatic pre6ife<l, from the roet WT. 

tendiag of pbce the (to) and ,earth (land) dry the (to) Aleim the called then And 

.g*od that Aleim the sMf then and soas called be waters the of 

:niD o o^r6« «t> d^^ mp a^an 

miJcVi, 1 <w»rf, b a particle, /o, after the rerb vnp, as In rer. 5. TTipio a no«n of pface« 
§ IX. 8, from the root rvp, § X. 2, and note. CrtD^ a firotm mascoihie plural, § IV. 9, 
^oia the root t3% § X. 3. 

I — — ^ 

,seed seeding herb of bod the esrtfa the forth ifawt shaU Aldm the said then And 

jnt ymo 3W wn \^nn hwm orfTH norrir. 

•so was it and ,eaith the upon it ia seed it's which Jiiiid il*s foriruit bearing fruit of tree the 

;p vn Y"***' 53^ ia Tjrw urn wd^ ib rwy na \y 

iwrm third person feminine singular future in Kd, of the root Fttn, § X. i, a«^cmg 
with the noun feminine pM. ntr^, a noun, from the root 3ts^. irntp a participle mas- 
culine singelar, in Hipkii^ from the root int, § VL 1 7, and | IX. 8. no a noun mascur 
line sii^ular, ( IX. 3, from the root rriB, § X. 4. ^tt^3^ a participle masculine Bmovi^ 
or active, ia Kal, from the root rwj?, § VI. 17, 20. IJlDb, > a particle, />r, 1 an aftix, 
iu, or t/*s (masculine) § IX. 4. po a noun masculine singular, from root n^o, see § X. 4. 
11, 3 a particle, m, prefixed to the pronoun suffix 1, ^/m, or t7 masculine, § V. 5, 6.^* 
llirnmrM wkiek Wi med in it, mi Hebrav«i lor nhote iwi in it. 

tree the and jkm4 Wn for seed seeding herb of bud the earth the forth brought then And 
.goed tint Aleua the saw then and kind it's for it in seed it's whivh fruit bearing 

Mnn tlurd person fenunine singular fntare in Hiphil of the root HIP, see | VII. 7, 8, 

* This stroke f ■ \ oter several EnglhA and Hebmo words denotes that you must begin 

fo read the BngfiA wtftAar words answerm^ to thqse Hebrew ones whiclr are placctl at the end of 
the strdbe towards the left hand; as here, for instance, the Engl'uh^ to aakr sense, mutt be read, the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

e6 A Methodical 

wad 5 VI. 24, agreeing with the noun feminine pH. inyoi, poi, before explained, >rT 
m pronoun suffix, hU, § V. j. 

.third the Day morning was there and evening was there And 

:^2^*7iercv •ipn Nnn n^y vr-i 13. 

ni^htf an ordinal noun of number, § IX. j, from the root u^Vi^, § X. i. 
expanse the in light of mstruments be shall there Aleim the said then And 

rp^3 rr\)XO ^iv c^n'?» nosn 14. 

be sliail they and ,niKht the between and da% the between division a cause to for heavens the of 

.years and days for and seasons for and sii^ns tor 

^rv See § VIII. 1 7, mwo a noun feminine phiral; § IV. 1 1, from the root *^», % X. .9^ 
with D, denoting the instrument, h IX. 8. 5>Mnn!>, hjor, prefixed bv § Vlil. 51, to 
Viyn, Infiuitive tiipkii of the root m, § VI. 17. vm See § Vlll. a8. nn«i>, Vor, 
riDM feminine plural of MlH, from the root inDH, § X. 4. O^l^iO a noun masculine 
pinrah § IV. 9, from the root *!)>* of the form of a participle Hiphil, sec § VII. 7, 8, aud 
\ IX. 8. o*D^ plural of ov, dropping the\ Corap. § IX. undern a, and § VII. 16, 17, 18. 

upon light give to for beavcm the of expanse the in lighu for be shall they And 

by n^NH*? c^Dtt^n j^pna niWD^ vm 15. 

•SO was it and ,earth the 

fillHD, see § IX. 4. ^^nb, b/or, jotoed by § VIII. 31, to i*Hn infinitive Wpkil of 
the verb 1H, § Vil. 16. Comp. § X. a. 

great light tlie great light of instruments two the Aleim the made then And 

e ^ 

.stars the and night the of rule the for little light the and ,day tlie of rule the for 

OU^ a'noun masculine, from the root rt:m, § X. 4. O^Vrjin, n is emphatic, see § VIII.3. 
*)i«D a noun masculine, from the root *)«, § IX. 8. nVo^oo!?, bfor, r6it»r:o a noun temi- 
nhie singular in regimine, § IV. 16, from the root bwD, § iX. 8. tD^331^ a noun mascu- 
'line plural, from the root 133, § IX. 4. 

light give to for heavens tlie of expanse the hi Aleim the them placed then And 

n^KH*? CL^Dt^rn ypi2 dm*?k d/)h ]nn 17. 

.earth the upon 

|n^ thud person masculine smgular friture in Kal, from the verh^n^, § VII. a6. 
^ between division a cause to for and night the ui and day the in rule to for' And 

V2 *?n3n^i n^bii cva bvDb^ 18. 

.good that Aleim the saw then and ,darkness the between and light the 

!?u;tD infinitive of tlie verb ium, with b prefixed, by § VIII. 51 . 

.foiuth the Day morning was tlierc and evening was there And . 

:^ran cv np2 ^nn n^^y \'ti 19. 

^^5*1 an ordinal noun of nmnber, § IX. S, of the root x^Ti, § X. x. 

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i — 

^livbg acreature reptile the waters the abundantly produce shall Aleim the said then And 
Jieaveos the of expanse the of faces the upon earth the above flutter shall fowl and 

>r)»* third person masculine plural future in Kal of the root pa^, agreeing with O^D, 
§ VIII. i6. two a noun feminine singular, from the root U^23. TVn a noun adjective 
femioioe singular, agreeing with trQ3, from the root nn, % X. 4. i^afliT third person 
masculine singular future in Kal^ agreeing with the noun Ppy, of the reduplicate verb 
^V> § VII. 30, from the root F]^, § VII. a;, and § X. 7. 

r- ^ I ^ , ■ ■ ■) 

Jiving creature eier}' the and ,great whales the Aleim the created then And 

fowl every the and ,kind their for waters the abundantly produced which ^creeping 

^y *?D n»i cni>D^ d^dh ^^-w ^v^ rwr:r\n 

.good that Aleim the saw then and ,kind his for wing of 

t3r:n a noun masculine plural, § IV. 9, of the reduplicate word pjn from the root 
ri:n. See§'VII 28. nttnD*in, n emphatic, prefixed to rwoi, the participle feminine 
Benoni in Kal, of the root wn\ § VI. 1 7. See Lexicon under n 3. 

ye multiply and fruitful ye be (saying) say to Aleim the them blessed then And 

.earth the in multiply shall fowl the and ,sea the in waters the ye fill and 

T^* third person masculine singular future in Kal of the root "pia. noH^, ^ prefixed 
to an infinitive, to, for to, see Lexicon." I'lQ second person masculine plural imperative 
in Kal. of the verb mS3, soUl of nn"), § VII. 20. CD*D^3, n a particle, /;/, prefixed to 
C*o^ masc plural of the noun n:». IT third person mastniline future in Kal of the root 
n3*i, § VII. jto, 21, agreeing with the masculine noun ^;;. 

.fifth the Day morning was there and evening was there And 

r^DHDV npa VT^i nny >n>i 23. 

nr>Dn an ordinal noun of number, § IX. 5, from the root WDn, § X. 1. 

Jwind il*s for living creature the earth the forth bring shall Aleim the said then And 

.so was it and ,kind it's for earth the of beasts wild and reptile and cattle 

n:^ob, p^b above explained, rr a pronoun suffix, ^cr or it*s, feminine, § IX. 3. n»:ni 
a noun fem. of the root ona. troT, 1 and, unDI a noun masculine singular of the 
root tron. in^m, 1 mid, ^rvn a coUective noun singular from the root r^'^n, see § IX. 4. 

cattle the and «kind it's for earth the of beast wild the Aleim the made then And 

noran ii«i n^D*? v">»n nrt du a^rhik tyjn 25. 

Aleim the saw th^i and ,kiod it*s for ground the of reptile evecy the and ,kind it*s for 

.good that 

rrn a noun feminine sFngular in regmine, § IV. i6, of the root mn, § X. 4. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

dS A Methodical HEBRFJV GRAMMAR. - 

Jikeness our according to image our in man make will we Aleim the said then And • 

cattle the over and betrens the of fowl the over and sea the offish the overrule shall they and 

.earlh the ufiDn creeping repiile the t\try over and earth the all over and 

:y-^Krr bv vr^^n ttroin bzy\ y^rxn ^mi 

mif)!) first person [^ral future in Kal^ from the root nu^. tTJ» a noun masculine 
kiogular, from tberoot non, § X. 4. 1io'?y2, 3 t/r, \) a pronoun suffix, our, § V. 5. tDinf 
a noon masculine stitgular, iron the root dW. 1^niD"i2, :3 a particle a», according to, 
•W a pronoun suffix our, nioi a noun feminine singular, see § IV. 6, from root ncn, 
§ X 4, see Lexicon. "iTjn, 1 and, nT third person masculine plural future in Kdl, of 
the roo( rm, § X. 4. r;in3, ^ wi, run a collective noun feminine singular in reghaUe 
I IV. 16, from the root ii, § X. 3. 

Aleim the of Image the in jimage his in man the Aleim the created then And 

a^n^ o^»2 iD^M D-wnnn c^n*?^ »*>nn ^y. 

^ .them created he female and male ,him created he 

ink* from the particle nkt, and ^, kirn, n^t a noun masculine from the root ")^\. M^i?^ 
a noun feminine from the root 2p3. onki from HM and O /i&o/t. See § Vill. 7. 

^uitfol ye be Aleim the them to said then and Aleim the them hlessed then And 
tea the ef fish the over j-e rule and ^it sul>dne and earth the ye fiU and yc multiply and 
.earth the upon moving t>ea8t eveiy over and heavens the of fowl the over aud 

tDlih, b a particle ^a, § IX. ;, prefixed to Csn /^on. rTtt^:3D, rr t/ feminine. See 
i Vill. at^, 

r -I 

seed seeding herb every the you to given have I bdiold Aleim the said then And 

ynr yiT 2m bD tk dd^ ^nna n^n o^n^j^ •JOHn 29. 

tree a of fruit the it in which tree every the and ,earth the all of faces the upon which 

yy ^•^D n ^^^^ xvn ' bn msc\ ^^^n bi *iD bv '^h 

•food for be shall it you to ,seed seeding 

\ryi2^b xvTV^ u^b y>? y->T 

n'^Tt a particle from the root n^rr. .^nni first person pretcr of the verb fn3, § VII. a5. 
ti3rV h to^ prefixed to tD3 you, § V. 5. ii'r^M a noun feminine, § IV. 6, from the 
root h'^e^, § X. I. 
creeping (.tiling) every to aini heavens theof fowl c venr to and earththeof beast every to And 

ron ^^D^i ci^Dtt^n «)iy 7D*?i pNn. n^n !?2*?) 30. 

.so was it and ,food for herb green every the ,lire of breath the it in which earth the upon 

: p ^nn r\b2\id 2m p"»' b2 n^ n^n u^eu 12 "»tcf« y'^i^n Vy 

p^ a noun from the root i?1\ 
very good behold and made had he which whole the Aleim the saw then And 

n^eoaio n:i-n nw '^vr^ b^ n« anbt^ vn^ 31. 

.sixth the Day morning was there and evening was tliere aud 

ptt^it^rr cv npn ^n^-^ n^y mv, 

•?HD a particle from the root 1HD. "^U^Ufl, n emphatic prefixed to ntM2^ an ordmal noun 
of number, \ IX. 5. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



\ resembliog ^^ in some Forms use i instead of tlte last 
".^20 ; and in Hith, and sometimes in other Conju^tions, 
Radical, as in punn from pn, in fp^:J'^ from ^t^. 

f verbs J 


'"alfy ag^rees with it's Substantive in gender and number^ 
an, rr\m ry\::D great strokes. 

f' ees with it's Noun in gender, number, and person, as 
uff. futJ^^'^^ '** ^^^ Future, denotes succession. 
-eter. i^i'^s, oAen supplies the signs of the grammatical In- 
mg.fut/'^ ««/6(/ii« {ye) it. Gen. i. 28. 

m gjugje sometimes the particles 1, 5, 7, D, prefixed, of which 
j2> 6, 7, 8, and Lexicon. 

> I ■' 

lur.futj » 


Digitized by 


•^««u ctse i/p^^TOoming was thistf and evening; was I 

a particle from the root 1«D. '>w\lf^, n emphatic prefixed to ^uny an ordi 
ibcr, § IX. 5. 

Digitized by 







SdJu Chaldaram out Syriacam Linguam etiam mnu exffrmur omnium minimi «! HebneJt Lili|ul 
£f€rrt, ita «f DUlectttt /o/itf / U^ variata Elocutio, quam, ab Hebraea diverta, haienda tit, 

" In truth we even now find that of «// Languages the CbaUet or ^nan difFert the Zm## from the 
fMrexa, to that it is rather to be et teemed a Dialect or varied Prmitndatitft than a different 

C. ViTEiNGAfObiervat. Sacr. Kb. L cap. 5. $ ▼. •dit. 4tjr. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1 FIE want of a Chaldce Grammar, in the first Edition of this Work, seemed • 
real deficiency. This I have now endeavoured to supply in the following pages; 
with ^bich however I would by no means advise the Leanier to concern himself, 
(ill in hb course of reading the Origuial Scriptures he comes to such parts of them 
ns are written in ChaldfCy or, at soonest, till he has well mastered the Hebrew ; and 
then he may be assured that the ensuing Grammar will be found, tiiough coBcise, 
yet extremely easy, and sufficiently copious to instruct liim in tlie Grmimetical In- 
^^exions of the Chaldce, as extant in the sacred writings, and even (speakinij generally) 
in the earliest Targums or Chaldce Paraphrases; I mean those of Otihelifs and 
Jonathan. For the Bibhcai and more ancient Chaldce f^as to it's external form) 
differs not more from the Hebrevj than ()he modem Spanish from the Latin, or even 
than the Doric from tlie Attic or Ionic Dialect in Greek, 

In composmg thb little Tract, I liave been chiefly indebted to Masclcf*s Gram^ 
niatica ChaldsHi ; but as upon a close inspection that work appeared not to ha\e 
been drawn up with the accuracy that might have been wished, such mistakes and 
ovjersights as were observed ib it have been carefully corrected. 

Besides some Chaldce Words occasionally inserted in the historical and prophetical 
Books, after the Israelites became acquainted with the Assyrians and Babylonians, the 
following Parts of Scripture are written ip the Chaldce Dialect: namely, 

Jeremiah^ ehap. x. ver. 1 1 . 

Daniel, from ver. 4 of the second to the end of the seventh chapter. 

£va, chap. iv. from ver. 8 to chap. vi. ver. 19, and chap. vii. from ver. 12 to 
ter. 27. 


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C O N T E N T S. 


I. Of the Letters and Redding 
WOftheirordsinCkaldee ..... 

III. Of the Division of Words, and first of Nouns 

IV. Of Pronouns ♦ . . . . 
V. Of Verbs, awl first of the Conjugation Ktil , . 

VI. Of the Conjugation Aphel • ... 

\ll. Of theCorijugationlthpehaly Saphel, and Lhthapal 
\UL Of defective and Reduplicate Verbs 
IX. Of the Changes niade in Verbs on account ef PronouM Si^xcs • 

X. Of Syntax, of the Use of the Scrviks^ and of ^finding the Root 
XI. A^hort Grammatical Praxis on the Chaldee of Jeraniah and Daniel 








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I . The Lctten and Manner of Reading are the lame as in Hebrew. 

3. There is the same Distinction of the ChaUte Letters as of the Hdrm, nfe» Ba» 
dkalt and Serdtei. 

3. Bat observe that 1. which in Heinw is radicat, is in ChaUtt lertik; and, vice 
versa, w, which is in Hdirew-itnUe, is in Chaidee radieaL 


1. Many of tbe Words io Chaidee are exactly the same as m Hebrew. 

t. Many others are formed either by adding some letter at the begiimkig of a Hebrew 

wofdy as 

p^„ f ^^- tan Btood, ChaW. tanw, 
rrom | ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

er at the end, as 

p / ^^^' ^^ ^ another, Ch. HDI»> 
rfom j^ jj^j^ ^^ /«op/e, Ch. HOj^; 

or even in the middle, as 

{Heb. Tjrm thorn, Ch. ?imn, 
Heb. HDD a tknme, Ch. MO'iD, 
Hcb. p:s /o f/etfgil/, Ch. p3n&, 
Heb» m^m a sceptre, Ch. ID^Ittf ; 

or both in the middle and at the end> as 

«^^ f Heb. T a hand, Ch. MW, 

3« Some Gbldiw words are formed by drtfppwg a letter (soul the JBir^rop, as 
ut^^ / Hcb. ViK one, Ch. Vl, 
™™ t Heb. tt^^ a man, Ch. »i. 

d 4. Some 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34 ^ Short 

*4. Some by irmupoitng a letter, a» 

From Heb, fhn aportiotiy as of land, Cb. bpM aJiM, 

5* Many by changing some letter: thus 

D in Heb. is in Chald. changed into ft: as 
fHeb. Via iron, Ch. ^HD. 
From < Heb. rpa /o break, Cb. ypB 

l^Heb. nrpn a volky. Qk. *«r»pfi; 

y into V, as 
rHeb. p« the tarfh, Ch. ir)«, 
Prom < Heb. I«V «Af«p, Cb. fw, 

LHeb. nn im e^, Ch. H^O; 

tt^ mto D, as 
fHeb. nott^ *o i«'<7>. Ch. *^D0, 
From < Htb. ^m^Jieth CJi. *^D3, 
LHcb. ^tt^)^ ten, Ch, •ip;^. 

6. BvttbeitoostiMqtientcbMiResof Inters ^rt of the Heb. #i6ttoiU or /^ 
into the Chaldee DentaU or Teeth* tetters: thus 

t is often changed luto \ as 
fHeb. :3m ^o/rf, Ch. :im. 
From < Heb. n^t /o sacrifice, Ch. nni, 
LHeb. 1DI ^0 remcmtfer, Ch. ^D*T ; 

y into D, as 
fHeb. f p sumtntr, Ch, to^p, 
From -{ Heb. X)^ to consult^ Ch. ID))*, 

LHeb. OV flii antelitpcy Ch. «>!»; 

tt^ into n, as 
fHeb. yym to return, Ch. iin, 
From < Heb. •OU^ /o 6reaXr, Ch. inn, 
LHeb. •la^ fo fre ricA, Cii. ^iny. 

7. There are some other, but less usual, changes of the Contfmants in ChaUk^ Words 
derived from the fiebreip, as of :i into d, *i into tD» 5 into p, i into *1| 1^. 

8. Of tlie Fovjels, M is often changed into >, as 

r Heb. mnrt a head, Ch. UT), . 
From ] Heb. infc|*i^ /At ^mre, Ch. Vw, 
L Heb. *10HD a icori/, Ch. *1D*0 ; 

rr into m, as 
in fbnping noons feipinine anc) the ^fAc/ (QJpW) and lUpehd (Hitkpaei), CoiyogatioDS 
of Verbs; 

rr into » or K, as 
in Chaldee Terbs derived from Hebreir^oes ending in Ti, ihm firom Heb. rT:Hl io be 

1 into M, as 
From ffeb. yp good, Ch. :tMt9» Aot 
1 into \ as 
fpi the ^f |2/ or partkiple passire of feii»s« 

^ T)itt w«rd apraoifer ^pt the y, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


SECT. in. 
Of the DIVISION of fWRDS, and first of NOUNS. 

I. Words in ChaldeCt as in Htbrew, may be divided into Nowii or Names, Verbs and 

a. Cialdee Nouns are likewise disttn^isbed into Substantivfs and Adjectives; and 
bi¥e two Genders^ masculine 2ud feminine; and two Numbers, sngular and plum!. 

3. The Gender of Chaldee Nouns is koown eitlier bythcir sigRf^calion, as in Hebrew 
and other Languages; or by their Termination. 

4. * Ckaldce nouns ending in K, 1 and > servile zxe feminine ; most others are masculine. 

5. Chaldee nouns feminine ending in M, are plainly formed by imitation of Hebrew 
ones ending in n, as Ch. ^OiM wiiflom, of Heb. nom. 

6. Those in 1 or * are formed from the Hebrew ones by dropping a final servile n, 
9s^^bD a kingdom^ from nD:>D; ^HH another (fern ), from nnn«. 

7. The plural of mascnline nouns is formed by adding p to the singular, as "^^o a king, 
phir. fdho kings. 

8. The plural o£ feminine nouns is formed by adding } to the singular, as r'M a landy 
plur XiTM lands; or by changing M final into ], as «.>au^ fern, beautiful ^ plur. n^QU?; 
or w\, into \Ay as «moo a wa/cA, plur. fW*itOO watches. 

9. The above are the most usual forms of plured noons both masculine said feminine; 
but there are also others which may be better learned by use and obtiervation in reading, 
than by having the memory loaded with a multiplicity of rules* 


10. Nouns masculine singul|r in regimine suffer no change, but nouns masculine 
plural in regimine drop their final ], as p:D sons; Ht2^^H ^^n sons of many Dan. ii. 38. 
Coop. hetf. Grammar^ § IV. 1 5. 

I I . Nouns feminine singular in regimine change their final K into n, as iv^ MT^)> 
tieworkof tkekjuse, for H^^nv* Ezra vi. 7; those ending in »n drop the «, as tho 
ici^ the -word of the king, for «n!?D; comp. Hcb. Gram. % IV. 16. 

11. Feminines plural in f, do when in regimine change their final } into n, as TOiV^H 
im*) the toes of the feet, for piYM, Dan. ii. 43. 

13. Thus far may be observed a great resemblance between the Chaldee and Hebrew 
Boons; we must now take notice of a circumstance wherein they differ, namely, 

Of the EMPHATIC Form of Chaldee Nouns. 

14. Ai n prefixed to a Hebrew noun often denotes the emphatic or definitive article. 
The, so does K posffixed to a Chaldee noun, as ibo a king, iCho The king; but in Dan* 
and Ezra rr is often postfixed instead of M, as nsVo The king, Dan. ii. 11. Comp. 
Etat V. I, a. • 

IK. N0UQ8 masculine singular emphatic only postfix M ; but nouns masculjpe plural 
empkatic moreover drop their \, as pD^o kings^ emphat. M^3^0 The kings. 

• 1 consider xhe/eminimt nouns in Daniel and Ezra, which end in rr, it Behrevt onet. 

d 2 i<$. Noons 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

36 A Shof^e 

1 6. NooM femiiiine siofalar ending in H do in the emphatic form change M into MJn; 
at MDSn viidom^ emphat MUD^n The xoisdam (or in Dan. into rrn) ; but nouns femi* 
nine singular ro hh suffer no change when emphatic. 

17. Tn nouns feminine plural the emphatic form is made from the absolute by changing 
f uto M, as from p^m toet, emphat. HrQ;iVM The ioe$, Dan. ii. 41/ 


t\ The prmitioe Fromoim in Chaldee are* 
Of the First Person, m:m« and r\m singular, J; kom», and kum, and sometimes n^n^M 

and ru"t^. and sometimes evoi pM and prr plural^ /Fe; 
Of the Second, nM, n^M, and nn^H singular, 7Aaii; priM and pn^H (masc.) and priM 

^nd rn^M (fern.) plural, f^e; 
Of the Third, kTin ^e, and H'n 5^e, singular ; p^M, and sometimes p^^, p>n, Csn* Oin 

and port plural masc. They\ p^M and sometimes p3*M and psn plural tem. They. 

3. The Pronoun Siiffixe$ to nouns and verbs in Chaldee are very like those in Hebrew, 
diiis we have, 

Of the First Person /*T«^1"'' '^ ""^ postfaed to a verb, > niy, to a noun, 

fsingular, f thee and /^y, generally masc. V and ^^^ /A«e and fh$^ 
Of the Second < generally fern. 

t plural, p^ you and vour^ masc. p vou and yotir, fem. 

Of the Third / ^"8^**^ ^ **^ •"^ ^*> *^ *^ *"*■ ^^'**- 

I plural^ p3 them, masc. and fem. pn /Atir, masc jr? MrtV, fem. 

J. The above are the most usual Pronqun Sujffixes; but observe, that for > my, is some* 
times n»ed H» as Targ. Josh. ii. 13, HDM r^^ MDH rAny father and mv mother; for H^ 
oirr, oAen p and f; for p3 sometimes D13 and'rsS; for p of^en p3; n>r rr verv often 
rr* ^» ^> <^d ^; fof n soipetimes Mil; for pn often Dirr and on, and sometunea p, 
and f. 

4. The Personal Affisa to verbs have a great resemblance to those in Hebrew, as will 
be evident from the Example of a Regular Verb in the ensuing Section. 

SECT, y, 

Of VERBS, andfrst of the Conjugation KAL. 

1. Verbs in Chaldee have three Corrugations, iCa/, HiphU or Aphel, and Hithpad or 

2. Kal denotes sun|>ly to do, as ip& he visitedf pho he went up* 

3. 4phel generally si^iifies to cause tq do, or to cause to be done, like Hiphil ip Heb. 
as np&M he caused to visiii but sDmetin|es Jphel wta^i^s only the simple significatioa 
of the Verb. 

4. Ail|»^b passive, of sonifies to be doncy as np&DM he was visited; but Ithpekai 
•ometimes denotes r^/Ucted actum as in Hel^rew. Here follows, 

5. An 

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5. An Examj^ of a Regi^ar CkMee Veri m Kal, wiA iht PertomU 4fi9t$ aud 
ctier ier*Ue$ printed in hoUow letters. 



Preter or Past Tense. 


Thou (fem.) 


Ye (fem.) riT!i?D 


Tps He ^ 
«mp3 Thou \msited. 
rrrpsl ) 


nps They ) 
Ti/nj® Ye >«7Mi/c<f. 

Thou (feiii.) 

They (fem.) 
Ye (fem.) 

Thou (fem.) 
Ye (fem.) 



fem. sing, 
fem. plur. 

fem. sing, 
fem. plur. 

CMip.iVII. 9. 

«rTps We ) 
Future Tense. 


npsr» He ") 
ipsn Thou WAo/^ or wttf visit. 

•Tp9«I 3 

TnpB'' They ) 

TlpBD Ye V^Aotf or mil tisit. 
Tp®3We 3 


np9 TpB fTtnV Thou 
«rTp9 npg Ye 


Participle active, or Benoni. 
>n^ TpS masc. sing. Visiting. 

ppD v^ masc. plur. 

Participle passive, or Pehil. 
MT9D Tpg masc. sing. Visited, 
HT© rTTS masc. plur. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

38 A Short 

OBSERVATIONS or\ the above Exarnpk of ^ Regular Vcrh in Kal, 
and first on the Pretcr Tense. 

6. In the third Person masc. sing. ^ is often inserted before the last radical, as Tpfi 

7. The third person fern. sing, sometimes postfixes r\\ frequently H, and m Dan. and 
£rra the Heb. n, instead of M. 

8. The second person sing. masc. in Dan. and Ezra often postfixes rrn and n instead 

9. The second person sing. fem. sometimes postfixes n^ for n« 

10. The first person stus. fem. often postfixes only n for n% particularly m Dan. and 
Ezra J and sometimes *n after the Hebrew form. 

1 1. The third person pluf. often assumes i paragogic after 1, and sometimes droppmg 
1 retams only the f; and in Dan. often ends m p*. 

12. The third person plur. fem. sometimes postfixes M instead of 1. 

15. The second person plur. masc. as also all others regularly ending in ), drop that 
letter before a Pronoun Svffix, 

14. The second person plur. fiem. sometimes ends in pn or \n instead of pn. 

15. The first person plural sometimes postfixes p (from pM) instead of feO, and before 
pronoun affixes drops it's M, or changes it into 1 or \ 

OBSERVATIONS ou the Future Tense. 

16. In the future tense of verbs, 1 is often inserted before the last radical, as in 

17. The third person plur. fem. in^ead of the affix ^ sometimes assumes n. 

r€. The second person fem. sing, often end« in p, and sometimes dropping the * in f. 

19. The third person masc. plur. sometimes ends in p instead of p. 

20. The second and third person plur. fem. often end like the masc in p/ especially 
in Dan. and Ezra; and, with rronoun Suffixes following, in 1. 

21. After M of the first person sing. ftit. > is often inserted. ' 


22. In the sing. fem. M is sometimes postfixed instead of ^ 

23. The plur. fem. sometimes drops it's final m, and ends in [• 


24. In Dan. Ezra and the Targums we meet with several Infinitives without the 
formative D prefixed. 

25. lu Infinitives 1 is sometimes inserted before the last radical. 

26. M is often postfixed'to the Infinitive, and m Dalk. and Ezra, M. 

27. Some Infinitives as well of regular as of defective verbs are formed in m, or the 1 
being dropped, in D. 


28. This Participle often inserts *i before the last radical, like the Hebrew Participle 
Passive or Paoul, as fem. HnunK;i abominable, Ezra iv. 12. 

♦ If wordfl of thit form should not rather be regarded at Participles Bmom masc nlur« oMd for 
Verbs, as in Ith. ]^wpnD Dan. ii. 13. r- *^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


SECT. VI. . 
Of the Conjugation APIIEL. 

1. The Coajugation Aphd prefixes fe« to the preter, imperative, and infinitive, and D 
to the partkipie. 

2. The persons oi Aphel are formed, and the participle declined, in the «y»vy lyiaf^ ^M^r 
AS in KaL 

r. It will be sufficient therefore to set down 

The &aX word of every tease and mood b the conjugation AphtU 

tpBM Pret. He caused to visit. 
^^ Fut. 

TpQQ Participle Benoni. 

4. Apkel sometimes mserts '» before the last radical, as H^hil in Hebrew. 

5. In Dan. and Ezra the Hebrew characteristic r? is generally used for H> both ia 
Jpiei and Ithpehal. 

6. This characteristic n is sometimes in Chaldee retained after a servile, both in the 
Future and in the Participle, as in b^wxv he ahali humble^ Dan. vii. 24; DD^nriD urging^ 
Dan. ii. 15. 

7. The infinitive often occurs without the final M. 

8. In Dan. and Ezra n is often both prefixed and postfixed to infinitives in Aphel and 
Itkpekal, as in vn'owrhfor to destroy, Dan. vii. 26; npo^nbfor to bring up, Dan. vi. 231 
or 24. 

9. Sometimes the infinitive of ApM ends in ni« as of Kal., Comp..^ V. 27. 

Of the Conjugation ITHPEHAL. 

I. The Conjugation Ithpehal prefixes nn to the Preter, .Imperative and Infinitive, r»0 
to the Participle, and in the Future the formative H is dropped. 
2» The persons are formed, and the participle declined as in Kai, 

TpDn^ Pi-et. He zvas visited. 
■rp9n> Fut. 
npsm IMPERAT. 
li^HQ Participle. 

$• In Itlpehal the characteristic n is generally transposed and placed after the fir{t 
ladkal in verbs 4>eginning with m and d, as in n^nu^ he xtas found, for nStt^DK, fr<^ 
.rottf tojkid; nsnOM ke was ihut, for 13DnM, from *^DD to shut. 

4. 1b the Ithpehal of verbs beginning with T, tlie n is not only transposed, but changed 
mto 1 ; so in those beginning with V into D; as in pn:o"iTn (ftiarg. and Compiut.) from 
jot, Dan. ii.9; pi^Tinr they shall be moved, from i?W, Targ. Isa. xxviii, 16 j )?a»r Ar 
sMl be wetted, nomnx,lhn.iv. 12. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


A Short 

$. tn the likpehal of verbs beguming with n> t9 or \ the characteristic n is generally 
dropped. / 

6. In JikpekaltiM is often prefixed instead of HM, as in rp^rm {Walton &c.) were 
plucked tm, Dan. vii. 8. Comp. § V. 2 1 . 

7. In tem. and Ezra the Hebtew nn is more frequently used than MM for the cha- 
racteristic of ItkpckaK 

8. In Dan. and Ezra occur many poisive verbs exactly of the same fonn as the Hebrew 
Nipkal and Httpkal. 

9. In Dan. and Ezra there n also another passive verb, formed as it were from the 
JMrtidple passive Pekil, as follows: 

TpD He ^ 
KjTT^ Thou yzv€Uf visited. 
nn>ps I ) 

iTpD TTiey \ 
piTPpD Ve \were visited. 
MmpDWe 3 

10. The characteristic of this conjugation is ^ inserted before the last radical. 
ii« This ^ is sometimes dropped, as in *in&3 they were bound, Dan. iii. 2 1 . 

19. Besides the above stated conjugations of Chaldee verbs, there are two others used 
in the Targums, which have been denominated Shaphel, and Ishthapal\ the former 
prefixes W, the latter nam, to the simple verb, as lil>i2^, nnwiTH, from mv to serve. 

13. Shaphel is nearly of the same import as the Heb. Hiphil, as ^2^m he caused to 
serve; Ishthapal is ifs passive n^VMUfH he toot caused to serve. 

14. The persons, infinitives and participles in Shaphel and Ishthapal, are formed as 
in Aphel and Ithpehal; the formative H in Ishthapal being drop)>ed after another servile. 

She rwpQ 

Thou (fern.) riTpS) 

Ye (fem.) Trsv;^ 


J. Defective Verbs m Ckaldte greatly resemble those in Hebrew. 

2. Verbs defective in thejirst radical are those beginning with % i or H; hence callec^ 

as m Hebrew, defective PeVod, — Pe Nun, or — Pe Alepk 
3. An Example of a Verb defective Pe Yod, 


yT Preter. 

jm Future. 

jno&jn^b INFINITIVE. . 

jn^ Benoni. 
jrr Pehil. 

4. Observe, that in this, and likewise in the following examples 0^ defective Verbs, tli« 
first word only of each mood, tense, &c. is given, whence the other words are formed 












:• ■ Hjm« 



• mo . 

reguboiy, as in *7pB, afiter the CAiiJliffr attniner. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



J. Verbs drfeetive Pe Yod^ in Aphel or Hiphil, generally change their > into 1. bu 
oc ahniys; thus in Ezra v. 14, we have bxn he canied away; in Ezra vii. 15, npn^n 

not always; thus in If^zra v. 14, we bave 7nTT fie can tea away; m JSzra vu. 15, •i;7n^n^ 
for to carry away. Comp. § VI. $9 8. 

6. Tlic infinitive of thes^ verbs is often formed in ni or n, as nninnb to shaw^ Dan. ii. a6. 

7. Throoghout the Jihpehal of these verbs the > b generally changed into ^, but not 
always; thus in Ecra iv« so, we have imno given; and in Targ. Deut. xxiil 8, plVn^ 

%. An Euunfiie of a Verb drfeetive Pe Nan. 

iDJ To take. 



regular throughout, 
retaining the 3. 


2D3 Preter. 

aD'» Future. 


3D3 Benoni. 
n>D3 PeAiY. 

9. In these verbs ^ is sometimes retained in the future and infinitive of Kal, as in 
^nr he$kaUgive^ Dam ii. 16; in n&D)b /or /o pour outy Dan. ii. 46; and in Aphel^ as 
m lpt)3n they had brought out, Dan. v. 3 ; pEisn Ae had brought out, Ezra v. 14. 

10. In Jtkpdnal, Um 3 is sometimes dropped^ as in Targ. Gen. xxxviii. dj, M>n 
Mpfino ike (vHuJ broi^ht out^ for MpD^nD. 

11. Verbs widi M n>r the first radical are in Chaldee much more frequently defective 
than m Hebrew. (Comp. Hebrew Grammar, § VII. 15.) Here follows therefore 

la. An Example of a Verb drfeetive Pe Jleph. 

n^« To destroy. 


regular throughout, 
retainmg the K. 



12^ Prefer. 

nn>^ Future. 


in« Benoni. 
Tnh* Pekil. 

13. In the folnre and infinitive in Kal of these verbs h is generally chaimd mto \ 
bat not always; thos we haw nt3M^ he thall tpeak^ or let him tpcak, Dan. u. 7 ; IDIU 
ttr will gpeak, Dan. ii. 36; IDMob/or «o tpea^, Dan. ii. 9. 

14. In Dan* and Ezra M is often used for the formative M of Aphel, as m rrain^ 
for to destroy, Dan. iL id. 

1$. From the root fOM lo be iteady is formed m Hiph. or Aph. f>DTr. 
i6. Verba of bat two radical letters, commonly called drfeetive Oin Vau, and Oi'ii 
Yod, are thus dedhied: 

n*5 To stand. 






DP Preter, 



C3lp> or Qp> Future. 






oipo or OpD INFINITIVE, 



op Benoni. 

17. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

42 ' -^ Short 

17. The participle Btnoni m Kai of these terbs Bomttkata iaserfs M and sometimes % 
as t=JHp or tD^p, see Dan. ii. 3 f . iv. 23. 

18. These Verbs sometimes take ^ after the formative t of the infinitiTe Kaly as Targ . 
Gen. viii. a i , toVob /or ^o ctir^ff, from ©V to cifrjc. 

10. The verbs called drfective Oin Yod^ are such as sometimes assume a ^ before the 
second radical, in all foniis where the preceding Example has a \ 

ao. Verbs which have «, n, and » for the last radical, and are called drfective Lamed 

Aiepkf Lamed He, Bnd—Lamed Yod^ often interchange those letters witbofBit at all 

varying the signification, as vh^, T\h^, and ^;i, to migrate, 

%i. They arc generally declined as in the following 

Example of a Verb drfective Lamed Aieph. 

Knp To call. 



Prefer or Past Tense. 



a-yp He ^ 

Thou (fem.) 


HTinp Thou > called. 


Ye (fem.) 


linnp Ye V called. 
M31-9 We J 

Future Tense. 




«-9^ He ^ 

Thou (fem.) 


Hnpn Thou > iAa/Z or wiU call. 

M->p« I y 


They (fem.) 
Ye (fem.) 




Tl-^n Ye ^ shall or mil calL 

«ip3 We 3 


Thou (fem.) 


np Ca// Thou. 

Ye (fem.) 


l-ip Cd// Ye. 


Participic active, or Benoni. 
fem. sing. nnp np masc. sing. Calling. 

fem. plur. ynp pp masc. plur. 

The Participle pamve, or Pebili diflkrs not from Benooi. 

1^ The 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


SI. The third person sing. iem. preter of these verbs often ends in M, as M^ip the 
called^ Targ. Gen. xxxviii. 3 ; sometimes in n% as n^n3 was darkaied, Targ. Job 
xvii. 7. Sova Itkpekal, nnDn« if (fern.) wat grieved y Dan. viL i.^. 

43. The second person sing, niasc. preter sometimes ends in IV, .as n^rr thou wast, 
Dan. ii. 3 1 ; n^n*> Moci xvast grown, Daq. iv. 19. 

24. The first person sing, preter often ends in ^n, as ^iiM*il / kave created, Targ. 
Gen. vi. 7 ; ^nnn I ttoj, Targ. Gen. xxviii. 16. 

25. The third person plur. preter sometimes has only "J postfixed, as ^yj^ were 
changed, Dan, iii. 27 ; and sometimes ends in ")«% as ")H>^1 grew old, Targ. Isa. Ixiv. 4 ; 
)«nn they rejoiced, 

2b. The third person phir. preter, when construed with n noun fem. sometimes ends 
in fH ; as in }Hm have seen (fem.) Deut. iv. 3. 

ay. The third person ibt masc. sing, b terminated indifferently in M, h, or ^ ; and 
so the participle Bemmi, 

28. The infinitive in Kal of these verbs are not only of the form M^jTO, but also of 
«'ip,^.p9, np and n^'yp (as riHDW^ Targ. Hos. v. 13.), and sometime they end in rr, as 
Dan. iiL 19, Tvrob to heat ; (Qu.) so in Hiph. or Aph. Dan. ii. 10^ n^nnb to tell. 

29. APHEL. 

npK Prefer. 

v-,p> Future. 
^-sp^ IMPERAT. 
T\^-\'^tk INFINIT. 
'n^'O Benotii. 

$0. Itkpekal is <Iecliaed as KaU prefixing it's characteristic MM ; as in npfi, \ VII. 2. 

31. Verbs doubly defective are such as have % ^ or M ibr their first radical letter, and 
«, rr or > for their last. 

3». These verbs, as to their first radical, follow the rules of verbs defective Pe Yod,"^ 
Pe Nwty and — Pe Aleph, above dven ; and as to tlieir last, those of verbs defective 
Lamed Aieph, — Lamed He, nud-^-^med Yod. Comp. Hebrew Grammar, § VII. 15. 

33. RethtpUcate verbs, or such as double their $econd radical, take ^ after tbeur first 
radical in Kal and Ithpehal, after the manner of the reduplicate Hebrew verbs. Comp. 
Hebrew Grammar, § VIL 30. 


Of the CHANGES made in Verbs on account of the 

I. The persons of verbs ending in p often drop the 1 before the pronoun sufiix, as 
Dan. ii. 9, »3aininn t^e shall cause me to know^ or tell me, for ^ajio^^nnn, aa it is wiittea 
ver. 5 ; Dan. iv. 3, >i3in"»rr thej/ might teUme, for 'Jiimn^ so ver. 2, *«!?nn^ and ven 16. 
riiini\ Comp. Hebrew Grammar, § VI. 28. 

a. Verbs defective Jjomed Aleph, — Lowed He, and — Lamed Yod, generally drop their 
fast tetter before a pronoun sutfix, as Targ. Gen. xxxiL a; l)yin he saw them; 2 Sam. 
I 7, *3tr! he taw me; Isa, xlv. 1 8, mn he created it. 

3. : or p are frequently mserted bet^ieen a verb fiiture and the pronoun suffix, and 
me earely between a verb preter and the sufiix; as p33l)t2^ he shall deliver you, Dan. 
w. 15; "pnm^Ae will deliver thee^ Dan. vi. 16, or 17, pil'Htt^ he ihall aik of you. 
Earn viL ax« 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

44 A Short 


Of SYNTAX, or the USE of the HERVILESyOnd of Jinding 

the ROOT, 

The rules relating to each of these particulars in Chaldee arc so dearly the same as iu 
Hebrew^ that it seems sudident to refer thtf Reader, who has carefully pefused the pre- 
ceding part of this Grammar, to what b said on these points iu the Hebrew Grammar, 
^ VIII. IX. X. I proceed therefore to remove such remaiuiug didiculties as may be 
most apt to puzzle the Learner, by 



cf Jeremiah and Daniel. 

JER. X. ir. 
made have not earth the and heaveiis the who Aleim the them to say shall ye Thus 

.these heavens under from and earth the from perish shall 

;n^N im^ nnn pi MxnNo naw^ 

n3l3 Tkui, a compound particle from 3 like, as, and mn thit, p^OHn, a verb second 
person masc. plur. fut. from root "^dh by § V. 5, and VIII. 1 3. csinb, b a particle /a, 
and tsin a pronoun suffix than, by § iV. 3. H^n!?M a noun masc. plur. emphatic by 
i III. 15, from root n^M. n the pron. relative who, Hnsu^ a noun masc. plur. em- 
phatic. HPH the earthy a noun fern, srag emphatic by § III. 14. See Lexicon. li^M^ 
«Aa// perifA, after the Heb. form. M^nMD, Dfrom, HP1M a noun fern. sing, emphatic 
See Lexicon. 


Ver. 4. Then spake the Chaldeans to the king n^cnn (in) AremtUh or Chaldee^ . 
•shew will we interpretation the and ^servants thy to dream the tell ;live ages for king O 

:NTn: K^msi Tnny*? KoVr now >n vch^") ^^'to 

vcho a noun masc. sing, emphatic, the postfixed H being here used as a si^ of the 
▼ocative, as n prefixed in Heb. poVi^b, bjovf pDi»i?'a noun masc. plur. by } III. 7, from 
root pb^. ^n a verb second person masc. sing, imperat. in Kal, from root rm or H^n 
by § VIII. 31. MoVn a noun masc. sing, emphatic, from root tsbn. Mim a verb fir^ 
person masc. plur. flit, in Kal, from root mn or Hin, by § VIII. 21. 

not If : gone is me from thing the ,Chaldeans the to said and king the Answered 
houses your and ,made be shall ye pieces ^interpretation it's and dream the me tell shall y^ 

P3">n3i rnnynn roxi rvonsn vschr} ^::Tjrrnn 

•made be shall confiicatt 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


n;fe a noun fem. emphatic for »n^D (sec § III. 14, and comp. ver. 8.) from root io 
to tpeak^ so properly a word,\x^A for a things as Heb. 'liT mm a verb third person sing, 
prefer b> § V. 7, ironi root nt». OJimnn, 'i a pronoun suffix me by § IV. a. pamrm 
a verb second person niasc. plur. fut. in Hiph. or Aph* Irom root ^> by § V. 5. VL^6 
VIII. 3. rrm^, n a pronoun suffix ii*$ (roasc.) for the more usual n> by § IV. 3. pDin 
a noun masc. plur by § III. 7. pin^nn a verb second person masc. plur. fut. in Ith. 
from root mi^. pD^"»3, *rin a noun masc. plur. in Reg. by § III. 10. pD a pronoun 
suffix masc. plur.^OMr by § IV. 2. "bn a noun fem. by § III. 4. See Lexicon, pott^n* 
a verb third person masc. piur. l'.it. in Ith. from the root C3U^> and observe tiiis is an 
instance where tt^ and D are not trans]>osed, as they usually are according to § VII. 3. 

great honour and reward a and gii^s ^tell shall ye interpretation it's and dream the if And 

OT«; -y^ ^?^^P P^^ '^'^^ rw^Ef) ko'th ttd 6. 

.me ye tell interpretation it's and dream the therefore ^me before from receive shall ye , 

pnnn a verb second person masc. plur. ftit. in Hiph. or Aph. from root Mm or nin by 
^ VI. 6. VIII. ai, for pinnn, the two V$ coalescing mto one, as in ^^mn at the end 
of the verse, pno a noun fem. phir. from sing, jno by § III. 8, of root p3. rrni^ 
a nooB fem. a^er the Heb. form^ See Note on § III. 4^ and Lexicon, ^inn, >^ a pro- 
noun suffix me inn a verb second person plur. imperat. in Hiph. or Aph. from root rviti 
or Hin, for "nnn, the two Vs coalescing into one. 

^servants his to t^Il will dreani the kipg the ,said and (time) second a answered They 

Tmoy*? no«'^ WD*7n wtd post mo^Dn w ^ 7- 

.tell will we interpretation it's and 

:rrinn: rronsi 

pe^ tbhxi person masc. plur. preter^ or rather the participle Bemmi masc. pliur. used 
ft>r the verb, from root '^D^, see § V. 1 1, uiid note. »rmni?>, b to, ^nr.nj; liU urvant9^ 
*m here denoting both the noun masc. plur, and the pronoun his, 

gaiomg (are) ye time ihut I know truth a of ,said and king the Answered 

( " • p- — ; > r » 

.tlie thing me froii* gone is that see ye as for as much 

jrr a participle masc. sing. Benoni in Kal of root ^> used for the present tense. See 
Hebrew Gramnuir^ § VI. 7. Mry a noun fern, pnnn a verb second person masc. plur. 
preter m Kal, from root wm or rwn, by § VIII. ai. 

Ver. 9. ''iOi^Tinn j^ J»*^i// <W/ fnc, for ^331imnn by § IX. I. r\yi^ nro a deceiO'ul 
\bord. See note on \ III. 4. pHSOin j^e have prepared, a verb second person inr.^c. plur. 
preter in Hiph. or Aph. from root fot. 10t^DP/or /o .vpe^A, 7/or, *id«d a verb infmirice 
in Kal, from root 10« by §t VIII. 13. fcon:!^ </*oii/(i be changed, a verb tljird perMMi 
masc sing. fut. in Ith. frgra root n^ttf or Mm, W and n being transposed by § VII. 3. 
rnrt / «Aa// ibio:i7. See Lexicon in i?T VII. 

Ver. 10. '*m\ is, are, a verb iqipersonal, like Hebrew W\ see Lexicon under n^ II. 
M)^T the dry land, ^ noun f^m* sing, emphatic by iUL 16. nbo the word, a nouu 
fem. ang. m Reg. aft^r the Hebrew form. 

Ver. II. rr^te the king, a noun masc. sing, emphatic, for HDbo by § III. 14. vnn^ 
itu, from the unpersoiial vcrb,^n'M and >m pbsthxed Mm, comp. '^n'K ver. 10. 

Ver. la. nniVTi»/or*o destroy, b a particle /oi-, mnin, a verb intinitive Hiph. or Aph. 
from root *12H by § V. ?6, and VIII. 14, bdb all, b is ptlen expletive in Uuildee, as it 
is sometiflies in Hebrew, or it may be regarded only ^& the sign of the accusative case. 

Ver. 13. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ver. 13. l^blDpno slain, a partici|>1e masc. f»lur. Ith. from root Viop, for third person 
plur. preter were sfain. ni»topnnb, b for, nilo,:nrT lo be slain, a verb infinitive lib. for 
vfyiDpnH by § VI. 5, 8. 

Ver. 14. p«l (ken, from a tn and pH then, a>nn cau^^d <o rtf/Mm, a verb third 
person sing, prefer in Hiph. or Aph. by § VIII. 16. VI. 5. 

Ver. 15. nDYnno urging, a participle fem. sing, in Aph. or Hiph. by § VI. 6. witii 
n postfixed^ after the Hebrew form, for h, from root ^vn. 

Ver. 16. mrmb, an infinitive verb by § VHI. 28, with b used eliipdcally^ see 
Lexicon andcr ^21. 

Ver. 18. pmim, a verb third person masc plur. fut. m Hiph. or Aph from rootl^^^ 
see i Vin. 12. VI. 5, 6. 

Ver. 20. wnoDH n for, or on account of, the wisdom, for this seems the force of n 
in this place. 

Ver. 22. «np^oa^ the deep things, a participial noun fem. plur. emphatic by § III. 17. 
80 wrnDD. 

Ver. 23. ^nn^H qf my fathers, nn!l« a noun masc. plur. with a fem. Jfdb-ew termi- 
nation^ like the Hebrew mn« or nSH and the radical n retained fromrootTl^K to desire. 
Hi^i?n, a verb first person plur. preter in Kal, from root w:i or Wa by f VHI. 21. 

Ver. 25. nbnanni, a in, nbnann hastening; which word may be considered either 
as a verb infinitive in Ith. or as a noun fem. sing, from root Via to hasten, bn^yib Daniel, 
with the h redundant, as very usual in Chaldee. Corap. ver. 12, 48, and Hoby^ ver. 3 j> 
and Lexicon under V 22. 

Ver. 26. ^^rDmn!? for to ull me, WTin a verb infinitive Hiph. or Aph. from root 
jn> by § VI. 5. VIII. 6. 

Ver. 31. pn this. See Lexicon in p. tSHp a participle Benom masc. sipg^ iu Ka1> 
from root tup by § VIII. 17. 

Ver. 34. x\'or\ tfiem, by § IV. i. 

Ver. 35.-nDnu^n wasfoimd, a verb third person masc. sing, preter in Ith. from root 
n::U^, U^ and n being transjjosed by § VII. 3. 

Ver. 39. "»*in» lai'O, two fem. nouns sing by § III. 4, 6. 

Ver. 4 1 . nn^iPf a verb second person masc. sing, from root wtn or ntn to see, by 
% VIII. 21, and V. 8. nni?!^ the toes, ^ noun fem. plur. emphatic, from .sing. ^aVM 
by § If I. 17. H^nhfor, to be. Kin a verb infinitive from root mn by §f VIII. 28. 

Ver. 43. pnb, hfor, \ tliem, and in to he, infinitive, from «in or mn by § VIIL 28. 
IX. 2. Comp. also Lexicon under b 2 1 . n^ from 3 /i'Arr, £(5, and n Ma/. 

Ver. 45. fo^no faitl^ful, a participial noun m the Hiph. or Aph. form, from tbc 
root }D« to be steady, by § VI. 6. VIII. 15. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The Plate shewing the Manner of forming Hebrew Letters in Writing, to be placed 
immediately after the T&ble of Contents of the Hebrew Grammar, and faaag Puge 
istof the Grammar. 

• The Hebrew Grammar at One View, to face the End of the Methodical Hebrew 
Grammar, viz. p. 28. 
. The Plate of th^ Cherubiln to be placed ilicnig p. 340 of the Lexicon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





DM To swdl, ketne, distend. It otcnn 
not however as a Verb in this sense ; 
but hence, 
I. As a N. fbn. phir. itl^M BottUs of skin, 
skm*boities,so called from being remark- 
ably <^pable of distaision or swelling, 
Saoculi. occ. Job xxxii. 19; where it 
. seems evident from the context, particu- 
larly from the mention of wirte, which 
has no vent, in the former part of the 
verse, that this is the true sense of tlie 
word ; and accordingly one of the Sep- 
tuagint trandations (for^ in this place, as 
in some others, there are two) seems to 
explain it by Aoxof, and Montanvs ren- 
ders it Utres. tsntnn tr)M may perhaps 
mean bottles of new wines^ i. e. bottles 
with new wines or fermenting liquors in 
them. See Scotfs note. It is too well 
known to be insisted on, tliat the ancients 
made use of bottles of skin to hold their 
rrine, as is^ usual in many countries to 
thb day. Thus Homer mentions witic 
b«ng brought acrxw sv euy^m in a goat's 
sian, ILaii. lin. 94 7. Odyss.' vi. lin. 78. 
ix. lin. 196,91a. Herodotus, ii. lai, 
a^^f vXr^ravla otvs, having filled skins 
mtk wine. And Mamdrell *, speaking 
of the Greek convent at Bettmount^ near 
TripoU, in Syria, says, " the same per- 
son, whom we saw <rificiatmg at the altar 
in his embroidered saceraotal robe, 
tirougfat ns, tiie next day, on his own 

* Joomey, MtpDh is. 


back, a kid, and a goat^s skin of wine, as 
a present ^om the convent. Comp* 
Josh. ix. 4, 13. Mat. ix. 17, and Wet'* 
steins note there. 
From Heb. niH may be derived the Latin 
Ol}ba, ** a bowl with a great belly, a 
bottle, a jug." Ainsworth. 

II. As a N. masc. M State of swe^g, 
grecnneas, viridity; i^ke»-of a plant 
while growing and dilating, occ. Job 
viii. 12. As a N. masc. plur. in Regim. 
^IM Fritits whcii in this expanding state, 
occ. Cant. vi. 10, or 1 1. 

III. As a N. tem. niM seems used Job 
ix. s6, for the Egyptian Papyrus, a plant 
remarkable for its vigorous thriving. 
My days are passed away as the ships of^ 
vessels o/'Papynis. Comp. Isa. xviii. 2, 
and under md:i II. and Schultens and 
Scott on Job. 

IV. As a N. masc. ^1M, and fern. plur. nn»» 
and n^H, are words often used in S. S. 
when s|>eaking of the heathen conjura- 
tions. On an attentive review I thmt 
the singukr 11H ntust, in the following 
texts, Lev. xx. %y, VtM^ xfiii. 11. 
I Sam. xxviii. 7, 8, denote ffee.crz/ ^in7 
himself, the trvfUjuta, wt/fiwvof spirit rf 
divination, as St. Luke calls him, Acts 
xvi. 16, ; and that it may so signify in 
every other passage where it occurs, 
namely 2 K. xxi. 6. i Chron. x. 13,^ 
% Chron. xxxiii. 6. Isa. xxix. 4. Bate, 
Crit, Heb. places these words undar niH 
to be willing f and says, J this b a very 

B ' ♦ proper 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




proper word for a familidr spirit, from th^fe | 
qlfectioH he was supposed to have taken 
to the person he attended/* But since the 
fern. plur. niH or rv»l« in thb view al- 
ways denotes tite persons or women who 
had the evil spirit, or who were y\n n5j)i 
mistresses of the y\^, aS it is expressed 
1 Sam. xxviii. 7 j (see Lev. xix. 31 
1 Sara, xxviii. 3, 9. Isa. xix. 3.) I ap- 
prehend that both 11« and ni« may 
better be referred to the stcelling or in 
Jiation with which the persons who had 
the S1H in them tjm (see Lev. xx. 27.) 
were affected. Thus aiw will be literally 
the wflater, and mnn the woman in- 
Jiated. Virgil has described an in/kUed 
Prophetess of this kind> Mn. vi. 46. 

— Aiij Deuf, eece Dent! Cut talia ftmti 

Ante fir esy suMti noH vuitus, fwt color unus^ 
Non compue mAnstre coma ; scdfectus anhelum, 
Mtrahiefira corda tument, majorquc vUerit 
Nee mortale sonatu: adflata est numitte qvando 
yam propiore Dei, 

The yirgm cries. The God, behold the God ! 
And strai^t her visage and her colour change, 
Her hair*8 diaheveird, and her heavikg brea-it 
And lai>pig heart arc s-woVn with sacred rage ; 
Jjarger she seems, her voice no mortal sound, 
As the itupirinv God near and more near 

Seizes her soul. 

This shews what the Heathen meant 
Vhen they spoke of their Diviners being 
Jjeni Deo, JuU of the God: *' And al- 
though in Uiose frantic fits of the Hea- 
then Diviners there might frequendy be 
much qfectation and imposture, yet no 
' doubt In many such instanC^, there was 
a real possesion by an evil spirit. This is 
loo plain to be denied in the ^ase of the 
divining damsel. Acts xvi. r6, 18*." 
tM occurs not as a V. but hence. 
As a N. masc. yn« New corn still green, 

corn swollen or dilated to it's full size. 

Exod.ix. 31. Lev. ii. 14. 
y*Mn win The month of green com; LXX, 

rwY vewv, of next> fruits. Exod. xiii. 4. 

xxiii. 15. xxxiv. 18. Deut. xvi. i. Jt 

answered neaily to our March, O. S. 

and had this namfe because in E^ipt and 

Falestme com, particularly f barleif, was 

• Greek and Engihb Lexicon to New Testament 
Tinder j«»v7ivo/uuii, where see more* 

f Dr. Shaxv says, that in Egypt Sarley is usually 
rpe about the beginning of April (O. S.) and in 
<*/«»' the beginning of March. Travels,p,406,7. 
Sd£dtt Co^p. under 7fiH. 

in ear at that time. Sb jlpril among tliii 
Romans was called ab aperiendo terrain^ 

from opening the earth. The Auliior of 
the Ceremonies and Religious Customs of 
all Nations observes. Vol. lii. p. 108, 
that the year among the Hurons, and 
several other liations of Canada and 
Missisippi, is composed of t^Arelve syno- 
dical lunar mondis, and that all die lunar 
months have names suitable to them. 
They give the name of Ae toorm moon to 
the month of March, because those rep-a 
tiles bc^ to discover themselves at that 
time ', that of the moon of plants to the 
mondi of April; the moonofswalUms td 
that of May, and so on. The Flemings 
have the same form of speech in their 
tongue; the month of February is by 
them called % '^^ month in which they 
crop or prune the trees; the month of 
Jpril, tnat § in which the meadows are 
ft for mowuig ||. The sit^ns of the Zo- 
diac also received their names in much 
the same manner, as may be seen in 
Pluche's Hist, du Cid, Vol. i. p. 11, 

*iaH To be hst, perish. 

L To be lost, as cattb which go astray. 
I Sam. ix. 3, ao. Ps. cxix. 176. Jer. 1. 
6. Ezek. xxxiv. 4, 16.— «r other things 
which are missed by the owner. Deut. 
xxii. 3. As a N. fem. mi», and in 
Regim. man A thing lost. Exod. xxii. 9. 
Deut xxiir 3. & al. 

II. To be lost, undone^ nigh to perishing. 
Exod. X. 7. Num. xxi. 29. Deut. xxvi. 5^ 
Job xxix. 13. I 

III. To be lost, be destroyed, perish. Lev. 
xxvi. 38. Nutn. xvi. 33. Comp. Ps. 
xxxi. 13. In Kal and Hiph. To cause to 
perish, to destroy. Deut. xii. 2^ 3. z K. 
xxi. 3. Num. xxiv. 19. xxxiii. 5a. As 
a N. X^ll'A Destruction. Job xxviii. aat. 
xxxi. 12. Ps. Ixxxviii. la. & al. So I^K 
occ. Num. xxiv. ao, 24. 

The name ACaWcwr, Rev. ix. 1 1, is plainly 
the Hebrew word p^i« in Greek letters> 
only doubling the k for tlie sake of pro- 

IV. In a moral or spiritual sense. To destroy^ 
corrupt, pervert. Eccles. vii. 7. Also, To 

\ Snoeimaand. $ Grasmaandj || Ouf 

Saxon Ancestors, in like manner, gave descri^shfe 
Names to the l4o&tha. Set Vmtagcnt A&u^ui* 
des,f. 64h. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



be corrupt, prq/iigate. Job xxx. 2, wliere 
sec SchUiens and Scott. 

VIM with a radical, (see Exod. x. 27. Deut. 
if. 50. X. 10.) but mutable or omissible n. 

It denotes, in general, acquiescence, and is 
opposed to }HO refusing, Isa. i. 19, 20. 
'' na» ^o acqtuesce is one thing, m« /o 
d<fjtrc is anotlier," says Cocceius. 

h To acquiesce, be wiUing, submit, Isa. i. 
19. with an Iniinitive V. Ibllowing. Job 
xxxix. 9. In this sense it is generally 
preceded by the negative Particle «ij not, 
and frequently followed by ^^ Iniinitive 
V. with b prefixed . Gen. xxiv. 5, 8. 
Exod. X. 27. Lev. xxvi. 21. & al. freq. 

IL Transitiveiy, or with b and a N. or 
Pron. following, To acquiesce with, con^ 
sent to. Prov. 1. sj, 30. Deut. xiii. 8. 
Ps. Ixxxi. 12. 

HI. Absolutdj, To acquiesce, rest content. 
Prov. vi. J5. In Prov. i. 10, tliirty-six 
of Dr. Kennicotts Codices for «in have 
niHn, and the LXX and Vulg. appear 
to have followed tlie same reading. How- 
ever the common reading Hin b^ go not, 
laakes a very good sense. 

IV, As a N. niasc. sang. M 

I. ji father, from lib ropyi? or natural af- 
fectum to his children, in whom he (/e- 
Ughteth. See Ps. ciii. 13. Prov. iii. 12. 
MaL iii. 17. MaUvii. 9, 10, 11. Hence, 

3. Afore-father, progenitor, ancestor. Gen. 
xxviii. 13. xxxi. 42. xivi. 34. & al. freq. 

|. A first author, origin. Gen. iv. 3O9 21. 

4. ,A father, in honour or dignity, a gover- 
nomr, protector, or the like. 2 K, v, 13. 
vL 21. Isa. xxii. 21. 

An Uutrmcter, teacher. Jud. xvii. i o. xviii. 19. 
I K. xiii. fi, 12. 2 K. ii. 12. vi. %% 
xiiL 14. Isa. xliii. a;, X\m\!ir\7) yi\ik Thy 
chief Father hath sinned, i. e. tlie High 
Priest, Urijali. See % K. xvi. iO'^16. 

A tender and constant benefactor. Job 
xxix. 16. Comp. Job xxxi. 18. 

5. This title is ascribeii to God ; 
ist, With respect to men, as being tlieif 

father by creation, Isa. Ixiv, 8. Mai. i. 6. 
ii. 10. — 4>y redemption and protectioft, see 
DenX, xxxii. 6. Isa. ixiii. i6. 

adir. With rc^ct to the htman nature of 
Christ. See Ps. ixxxix. 27. 

3dK, It is also ascribed to Christ God-Man, 
ua. ix. 6, Comp. John xiv^4-r-i !• 

To denote that this N. ^m a father is de- 
rived from the root TIM^ it is» wben m 

construction, always (except in two pas- ' 
sages, Gen. xvii. 4, 5,) written ^1« (the 
^ being substituted for tlie n) and to dis< 
tinguish it from r:D^2^ £ t» fruits, it 
always forms its plural in nV or n" as 
nii«, or niH, never m C3\ 

In 2 Chron. iv. 16, VIH ^i^ Father seems 
hardly inteUigible. The LXX render 
tlie word by xa* anjyfyxfi tfitd brought, 
so appcKir to have read H^:yi which makes 
a good sense. 

H^nce Syr. Abba, Eng. Abbot, Mess, ah* 

V. As a N. p^^M Acquiescent or submissvoc - 
from poverty, poor in this sense, like La- 
zarus in our Lord's parable. Exod. xxiii. 
6, II. Deut. xxiv. 14. Job xxix. i6. 
XXX. 25. & al. freq. 

VI. As a N. fem. riiV^H Acquiescence, ac* 
qmescent satisfaction, occ. Ecdes. xii. (• 
And satls&ction shall be abolished. The * 
old man, as in the case of Barzillai, 
2 Sam. xix. 3^, or ^6, has no satisfaC'^ 
tion in any thing. 

Juvenal, Sat. x. Im. 205, 

Aon Mdb» vinii otque cibit lorpenle p4dai9, 

Nor wine, nor food, his toipid psMe pleaM; 

Comp. Sat. vii. lin. 34. 

The evu days arc now come, in which bt 
must say I have no pleasure in them. 

In the two first editions of this work, I 
was prevailed on by the authority of the 
LXX and Vulg. and b^ the comment of 
Dr. Smith, to render this word tlie caper^*^ 
ttxe, or 'fruit ; and in tlie^ second edi- 
tion, I endeavoured to explain the sen- 
tence as well as I could on that interpre- 
tation ; but I must now confess, that I 
cannot approve that explanation, and am 
inclined to say with Cocceius, ''What 
the LXX mean by nuLttap^i let otheis 

VIL ^"i^M An Interjection of sorrow or la- 
mentation, Alas ! occ. Prov. xxiii. 29. 
It seems formed, like many other Inter- 
jections, and like nH in the same verse, 
by an onomatopoeia, and like that is 
used as a N. Ai^a<, Alas ! is almost the 
same word m Greek letters. 

n^M occurs not as a V. but as a K. fem. in 

Reg. T\XX1^ is used once, Ezek. xxi. 15, 

or 20, and is variously rendered the point, 

theterrour,ox the glittering of the sword. 

B a Schultem^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ScJivHeni, in his MS. Orig. Hcb. ob- 
serves that the Arabic V. ra\ or MiH 
crgnifies crepaie to make a noisCy to rattle, 
also increpare to chide xclth noiffe; whence 
says he, mn nn^K Ezek. xxi. 15, incre- 
patio gladiij includes both the prbper and 
improper signtficatton> as denoting both 
the noise made by the 8word> and also the 
T^ke which accompanies it. Perhaps 
the phrase ro^ best be rendered in Eng- 
lish, the noise, or noisy rebuke of the sword, 
TTie Vulg. translates nrriH by conturba- 
tionem the disturbance, 
*\y» In Hith. To mount up, or, according; to 
others, to be dispersed, or dissipated. Tike 
smoke. Oncelsa. ix. 17 or 18; where 
Bp. LoirM, And they ^lall mount up in 
volumes of rising smoke. 


I. InKal, To be desolate, waste. Isa. xxiv. 7. 
Jer. iv. 28, & al. Also, To lay waste, 
make desolate; so Montanus desolavit* 
and Frendi translat II a desol^. Lam. 
ii. 8. 

II. In Kal, To nunnm, Hos. x. ^. Joel i. 9. 
Amos viii. 8. In Hith. To bemoan one- 
self. Ezek. vii. 12, 27. Also, To make 
or pretend oneself a mourner. See Exod. 
xxxiii. 4. a Sam. xiv. 2. As a N. hl\k 
A nouming. Gen. xx\'ii. 41. 1. 1 1. 

in. tew A particle of sorrowful, and thence 
(^serious or earnest affirmation. 

I* Alas indeed! ok indeed! Gen. xlii. 21. 
2 Sam. xiv. 5, where the Vulg. Heu ! 
Alas ! Comp. i K. i. 43. 2 K. iv. 14. 

9. Indeed, in truth. Gen. xvii. 19. Dan. 
X. 21. 

3. But indeed, yet indeed. 2 Chron. i. 4. 
xix. 3. xxxiii. 17. E'^^ra x. 13. Dan. x. 7. 

The above-cited are all the texts where b^H 
occurs as a Particle ; and thence plainly 
the Greek Particle AfaXs Alas ! O that ! 

pH See under rrn 

D5H To stiff, cram, or Jill vithfootL Hence 
as a Particip. paoul. DinH Stuffed, cram- 
tned, fatted, occ. i K. iv. 23, or v. 3. 
Prov. XV'. 17. 

As a N. D^iH A stall, crib ; a place where 
cattle are^eJ. Job xxxix. 9. Prov. xiv. 4 
Isa. i. 3. 

As a Participial N. masc. plur. in Reg. 
^DiWD, Store-houses, magazmes of prori' 
sions. So LXX, avohpcag. But as the 
richer and more pampered Babylonians 
are in the next verse described under the 

image of young buUs, perhaps w« nOj, 
with Dr. Blayney, better render ^03K0 
fattening stalls, understanciUng by that 
term their sumptuous houses and palaces, 
which had been the scenes of their luxury, 
occ. Jer. 1. 26. 
Df.r. Lat. Obesus, whence in Eng. Obesity. 
Boose, 2L Stalls see Junius*s Etymd. An* 

I. In Kal and Niph. To collide, wrestle, 
^f^ggf^' occ. Gen. xxui« 24, «5- 

II. As a N. plH Small dust, or poxpder, sodi 
as is formed by the collision of larger 
portions of matter. Exod. ix. 9. Sc aL 
As a N. fem. npM Small dust or powder 
of aromatics, made by colUaon or poond- 
ing. occ. Cant iii. 6. 

I. As a N. TIH Strong, stout, ndgkty. Jdb 
xxiv. 22. Jer. xlvi. 15. As a N. masc 
plur.O^*ltt is used for bulls, Isa. xxxhr. 7. 
Ps. xxii. 13. 1. 13. Ixviii. 31. — forkorses, 
Jud. V. 22. Jer. viii. 16. xlvii. 3. 1. 11, 
from the great strength of those animals. 
In Jer. xlvi. 15, forty-eight of Dr. Ken^ 
nicott's Codices read TTS» V^ ^^rot^, or 
mighty one, in the singular. The LXX 
explain the word by i Avi^, 6 fto^o^ 

exXtxIo^ cr8, Apis, thy chosen ca^, as if 
that idol were particularly intended. But 
we may perhaps better understand it of 
the mighty king of Egypt. 

dh n^nw Stout-Hearted, Esprits forts. Pi- 
Ixxvi. 6. Isa. xlvi. 12. Sifmmachns in the 
former text renders it ws^ipavoi rrpfmof- 
itav, proud, or haughty, ifi heart ; in the 
latter, aycXr^poxaphot, hard-hearted. 

II. The material heavens are called by tlus 
name> Ps. Ixxviii. 2$ ; for what is in tlttt 
verse expressed by lDn>:i« tDflb bremd ef 
the strong ones, is called in the preceifiz^ 
sentence lD*Dm f^l com of the heavens. 

It would be an affront to the reader^s under- 
standing, to go about to persuade him that 
Angels do not eat manna, any more than 
any thing else. But that the Phemdans 
OT-Canaanites worshipped iheii God, the 
heavens, under this name, or atoibiite of 
t3n^3» the strong ones, is highly probable 
from the plain remains of a rkenician 
temple at Ahiry (^>1«) in Wilitkire, 
which still retains the name. For an ac* 
curate and ingenious account of which, 

1 refo to the reverend Mr. Cooke'n E»^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


CP'TK— T» 

muy iBto the Patriqarcial and Dntidical 
ktHgiims Temples, 4^« though I must, 
mth due deference, dissent from that 
learned eeutleman's supposition, that 
this temple was erected to Jehovah, the 
ever biased Trinity, as I believe it was 
dedicated t# the material trinity of the 
^cai?«M,whichtheP^emciaiM worshipped . 

III. As a N. raasc. ^M, and fern. tt^M The 
%Bing or pimon of a bird, in which their 
strength consists. Deut. xxxii. ii. Ps. 
Iv. 7. It is once used as a Verb, Job 
xxxix. a6. To wing, move the xuings, 

"UM occurs not as k V. in Heb. but in 
Chaldee signifies to bind, bind together, 
collect; and that this b nearly the idea 
of the Hebrew word awears from the 
tiuDgs to which it b applied, for hence, 

I. Asa N. fem. in Reg. m:iH A bunch or 
^wmfl^of herbs, as of hyssop, occ. Exod. 
xii. 22. So the LXX. 'hcr(ji.r^v, andVulg. 

II. As a K. fem. plur. nii:iH The bunches 
or icnots of a yoke*, formed, I suppose, 
by the cords inserted into the wooden 
part of it occ. Isa. iviii. 6. 

HI. As a N. fem. miW A close body, or 
knot of men, Manipulus. occ. & Sam. ii. 
2 j. LXX, SvyoyTijo-iy, a collected band, 

IV. As a N. fem. sing. m:i« occ. Amos 
fit. 6. He who buildeth his lofis in the 
keaoens (see Ps. civ. 3, 13.) 'bi; 'iniiHI 
mo^ vn« and {us for) his troop (Eng. 
Tranalat.) Juah founded it upon the earth. 
What can im:)M here mean but, as tlie 
Geneva translation renders it, *' his globe 
of elements,** or the celestial Jiuid compress^ 
ingitmlfand the earth on every side f Mr. 
Bate queries whether ni^H in Amosix. 6, 
may not mean Xh^ mountains; but as jhe 
word is singular, I tliink it caimot : let 
the attentive Reader, however, ccmsult 
his Critlca Hebrma, and judge for himself. 

UM See under u 
km See under b:i 
C3:sM See under 0:1 
^M See under p 
ypH See under r\:k^ 

J, To gather, collect, occ. Deut. xxviii. 39. 

Frov. VI. 8. X. ^. 
II. As a N. fem. rr\^^ pi. m'i:i« An epistle, 
a letter, " perhaps from its being roiled or 
folded together:' Bate. " ♦The (modem) 
* Nkbuhr, Description <k l'A(»bie, p. 90. 

Arabs rott up then: letters, and then flat* 
ten them to the breadth of an inch, and 
paste up the end of them instead of seal- 
mgthem.'^ The Per^uui^ make i)p their 
letters in f " a ro// about six incheslon^, 
and a bit of paper b fastened round it 
with gum, and sealed with an impression 
of ink» which resembles our printers' ink, 
but not so thick." 

Sanballat appears to have sent hb letter to 
Nehemiah (ch. vL 5.) open, i. e. tfmii- 
closed, in contempt, as the Turks do to 
thb day when they write to a mean or 
common person ; but when they write 
to their superiours, they inclose their let^ 
ters in a handsome bag, with a paper tied 
to it directed and sealed. See Mr. Har'^ 
mer's Observations, Vol. ii. p. 129. To 
what he has produced I add from Nie- 
buhr, as above, " The Turks send their 
letters to their equals in long purses of 
silk:' freq. occ. 

lU. Chald. As a N. fem. Kn:i» The saipe. ' 
Ezra iv. 8. and m the emphatic form, 
MrYTiJM. Ezraiv. ii. v. 6. 

IV. As a N. fem. m Reg. nti:i« A small 
piece or coin of silver, (so Montanus mi- 
nuto) probably from the rootmi, which 
therefore sec. 

Der. Gr. ayeipu), to gather, Lat. agger, a 
heap, whence Eng. aggerate, to heap 
up, esagRerate, &c 

nH Sec under m> 

i^M See under ii 


1. In Kal, Hiph, and Hith. To be fed, 
reddish, ruddy. Lam. iv.r 7. Isa. i. 18. 
Prov. xxiii. 31. As a N. Oin^ fem. 
nmH Red, reddish, occ. Gen. xxv. 30. 
Num. xix. 2. 2 K. iii. 22. Isa. Ixiii. »• 
Zech. i. 8. vi. 2. Dr. 5^aw, Travels, 
pr 140, 2d Edit informs us, that the 
inhabitants of Barbary still make of 
lentils, boiled and stewed with oil and 
garlic, a pottage of a chocolate colour, 
and adds, '* thL we find was the red pot- 
tage for which Esau, from thence calkd 
Edom, sold hb birth-right. Gen. xxv. 
30, 34." As a Participial N. C3l*Tif 
Ruddy, occ. Cant. v. jio. As a N. *:ip"?» 
Red, ruddy. Gen. xxv. 25. 1 Sam. xvi. 12. 

IL As a N. OlM A ruby, a beautiful gem 
of a red colour^ with an admixture of 

f H(TOicay*s Travelf, Vol. Up. 317. 

B 3 purple* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^nM-— n» 

^ft»*— an» 

purple, occ. Exod. xxvtii« 17. xxxix. 10. 
Ezek. xxviii. 1 3 . 

ni. As a N. fem. HD^w Ground, vegetable 
mould. Gen. ii. 5, 9. iv. 3, & al. freq. 
It is thas denominated^ say some weakly 
enough, because the best vegetable mould 
is of a reddish colour. So Josepkus, Ant. 

* lib. i. cap. i. § 2. speaking of nD*i«, 
which he calls mv^pa^ yr^?, reddish earth, 
says, " toiavlri yap ertv ij vrapisvo^ yr) 
xou aX)j9iMj, true virgin earth is of this 

, colour." But is this true ? Or, when man 
IS turned again to his earth, is that red ? 
See therefore under ho^i. 

IV. tD^^ Man, see under non. 

CD^DTfe* (the doubling of the Inst syllable 
heightening the idea as usual) V^y or 
iHtefisely red. Lev. xiii. 19, 24, 42. 

•1. As a N. ^ ruler, a socket. See under p. 

II. Chald. As a Particle, p«, from the 
Heb. M, () as usual, being changed into 
n, and tlie syllable f> added) Thtm, at that 
time. Dan. ii. 14, 1$.^. * 

With a in or at prefixed, p«n At that time. 
Dan. iii. 3, 13. & al. freq. 

I. In Niph, To be or become f/iagni/iccnt, 
pompous, illustrious, glorious, occ. £xod. 
XV. 6, II. In n^HD ver. 6, the final » 
is )i poetic addition *, as in >"DH Gen. 
xlix. II. In Hiph. To magmfy, glorify, 
occ. Isa. xlii. 21. As a N. WK Magni- 
ficent, pompous, illustrious, goodly, gh- 
rious. It is spoken of God, i Sam. iv. 8. 
— of Men, Jud.v. ij.— of Waters, £xod. 
XV. 10.— of Cattle, Jer. xxv. 34, 35. — 
of Trees or Plants, fzek. xvii. 8, 23. 
freq. occ. 

Hence Gr. a^pos, great, rich, strong ; and 
Lat. adorea, glory, praise, renown. 

JI. As a N. masc. y^1^, and more conmionly 
fem TtUA, A magnificent mantle or robe. 
Jonah iii. 6. These were fr^uently then 
made of, as they are now adorned witli, 
skins, ftirs, ermine, &c. See Gen. xxv. 25. 
The prophets used to be dothed with 
them on a religious account. See 2 K. 
i. 8. Zech. xiii. 4. Mat. iii. 4. This 
word is used for ElijaKs Ijairy garment, 
1 K. xix. 13, 19, & al. Micah ii. B, Ye 
stiip ^"Vjk the cloak or bumoose from off 
the hyke. The bumoose or upper garment 

• S«e Ltnpth Pncloct m» Note p. S4 edit. Okw. 
p. 42. edit. Gm'tng. 

(see 2 K. ii. 13.) was, I suppose, aSM. 
^^^, from it's being more shewy dum die 
llyke, as it is among the Moors in Bar- 
bary to this day f. 

III. Chald. As a N. masc. plor. in Beg. 
'Titk Threshiiig-Jioors, perhaps so called, 
by a slight variation from the idea of the 
Hebrew, from their abounding in com. 
So the LXX. akotjvog, arid Vulg. area^ 
occ. Dan. ii. 55. The Ta r gums ofren use 
the word in die same sense. Hence the 
Lat. Ador, a kind of com. 

IV. Chald. As a N. *n« Adar, the name, 
after the Babylonish captivity, of the 
twelfth mondi, nearly answering to our 
February, O. S. and perhaps so called 
from the richiess or exuberance of the 
earth in plants and fiowers at that sea- 
son in the warm eastern countries. £si 
vi. 15. £sth. iii. 7. & al. Comp. iMac 
vii. 4v 

" As February [N. S.] advances, the fieUs, 
which were pardy green before, now, by 
the springing up of the brtter grain, be* 
come entirely covered with an agretabk 
verdure ; and though the trees continue 
in their leafless state till the end of this 
month br the b^inning of March, 
[N. S.] yet the almond, when kteit, 
being in blossom before die middle of 
February, and quickly succeeded bjr tfae 
apricot, peach, &c. gives the gardons an 
agreeable appearance. The spring noir 
becomes extremely pleasant*** Thus Dr- 
Rvssell, Nat. Hist, of Aleppo, p. 15. 
and to the same purpose, p. so, 31. 
Comp. Hassclquist's Tt^vels, p. 27, a8. 

:irT« To hoe. It denotes the ejection cf 
love in general, r^cynv, ayvtxar* See 
Gen. xxii. 2. xxiv. 07. xxv. 28. 'xx^. 4« 
Lev. xix. 18, 34. As a N. fem. mntt 
Ime, affection, Prov. x. 12. xvii. 9. 

|7rm An interjection or natural exclamation 
in fear or grief. Ah! Jud. vi. 22. Josh, 
vii. 7. & al. freq. 

I: To pitch or spread a tent. Gen. siii. 
12, 18. As tor Isa. xiii. 20, whidi is 
usually placed under this root, Mr. B^e 
jusdy remarks, that '* brp may be regu- 
larly from Imi to drive cattle/' neitikcr 
shall the Arabi^tt^tnre (his catde) tkerc ; 
and this interpretation is confirmed by 
f See Slaw'B Trav. p. 225. and Siewart*$ Journey 

to Mequiaez> ch. i. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^httfcSiown, neUher sk^ll the shepherds 
cause ^t heir flocks J to lie down there. As 
a N. VlH A tent, Gpn, xviii. i, 2. Jt 
is ofleD applied to the tent or tabernacle 
. comsecrated to divine worship, and called 
nyiD bn» Tabernacle of meeting (^ee udt 
da: ni^' III.) Exod. xxvlii. 43. xxix. 4. 
& al. fre<^. Fem. n^n« Thp same. Gen. 
xii. S. ix. aij Noah vms wicavered ox 
rolled himself hVhh TlW w ^^ mdst of 
(not i^M but) the tent, if ^. of the teni or 
tabernacle consecrated to (jod's wonhip, 
whither, after drinking the wine, he had 
retired in ei^eptation of^propheticdream^ 
which it appean he had } and therefore 
he was n:ot wruuk ; for doth God insp'rre 
drunkards in their very ^tate of drunk- 
enness? As the Cherubim were insti- 
tuted at the fall of mgn, (Gen. iii, ^4.) 
so no doubt a sacred tabernacle ^'as then 
vUso preparpd for their rec^tion, and 
continued in the believing line y and it 
is plain, firom Exod. xxxiii. 7 — 9, that 
the Isradit^ had a sacred tabernacle l^e- 
fore that erected by Moses. See note 
under p^ I. 

♦ MichatUs observes, that " besides the 
ffeneral and well known signification of 
JCiK, it has another special one, peculiar 
to Moses, in describing the Tabernacle of 
meeting, and to the Book of Job. Moses 
Jn tlie tabemac}^ just mentioned distin- 
guishes, 1st, ptt;D the dwelling, i. e. the 
ten inner and more ^egant curtains, 
which were hui^. over the boards ; and 
adly, ^rTH the ten other curtains made of 
goat's hair, which were put over the for- 
mer. Exod. xxvi. I, 7, {pWDTi h^ ^r\vh) 
14. xxxvi. 8, 14, 19. xl. 2, 18, 19. In 
the same manner the magnificent tent of 
ibe unjust is in Job xxi. 28, ca]}cd !?nM 
p^y^Wib, i. e. the covering of the (richer) 
curtains of the inner tent.*' 

)]pice Gr. AfAij, La^. Aula, En§. Hall 
Also Gr. ^u/<aia, tat Aubzunn, a cur- 
tain, hangings. 

Jl. Because, tho^ ancients who dwelt iQ 
tents usually abode a considerable time 
where they (encamped, hence bnM is used 
ifor any settled habitation or dwelling place. 
See Jo9h. ^xii. 4, 6,. 7, 8. a Sam. xviii. 
17. xix. 8. X K. xii. 16. Vs, lii. 7. xci. 
lo. cxxxii. 3. Lai^. ii. 4. MaL iL la. 

f 3opphnncsta ad hn. Btb. in )nHi 

III. InHiph. Itis qK>kenofthd m», or 
lusuw light. Job XXV. 5. Behold eeem to 
the light of the moon, VriH'* vh) and he 
(God) hath not fixed it's tent. It is said 
of unDty the^c^r light, Ps. xix. $» In them 
(the heavens) hath he set wpm for the 

. .fo/ar/^iUbnHatentQrtabemaole^namdy 
the orb or body of the nxm, fixed like a 
tabernacle in the centre, from whence 
the light is on all sides perpetually 
springing forth, enlightening and en- 
livening the universe. But as for the 
lunar light, that has no fise^tabetnade, 
but the orb which reflects it f , revolves 
round the sun in company with the earth, 
and, from this complex motion, is to the 
inhabitants of the earth sometimes lumi- 
nous^ sometimes partly dark, and some- 
times totally so. If then, to return to 
our passage in Job, the Imar li^ht, that 
beauteous and even idolized object, (9ee 
Job xxxi. 26.) thus changeth and de- 
creaseth in, otupon^ her perfection , or ra- 
ther till it disappears % (Ecclus. xliii. 7.^ 
and the stars be not pure in his sight, how 
much less shall man be perfect and sin- 
less ? Man that is a worm, and the son of 
man which is a worm ? 

IV. As a N. masc. plur .ta^l^rtH Aloe^^trees, 
or lign-aloes, as our translation rightly 
senders it. *f A sort of tree,** says Gcu- 
met, '' which comes £:om the Indies, 
of about eight or ten feet high. At the 
head of it is a large bunch of leaves, 
which are thick and indented, broad z% 
bottom, but growing narrower xoward 
the point, and about four feet m length.*' 
It is manifest that a tiumber of th^e 
trees growing regularly together, ahd 
viewed trom an eminence, woul4 look 
not unlike an encampment ; and to these 
Balaam compares the tents of Isra4* occ« 
Num. jxiv. 6. 

As a N. masc. plur. tshr\^ and fism. T\\>T\^ 
are mention«t;d among other aromafics or 
perfvMes. Ps. xlv. 9. Prov. vii. 17/Cant. 
iy. I4« In which last pas^a^e the LXX 

f The reader ivho desires satisfactory infonna« 
tion concenung the motions of the moon, and their 
true physical cause, I with great pleasure ref^r to 
Mr. Spearman's excellent treatise, entitled, Am En* 
quiry after FhiUsophy and Theology^ &C. page SIO, 
&C. Edit. Edinbwrgb, 

% Sse French tranilat. and ArnM% Comment 
J on the place. 

B 4 (according 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

m)t— iw 



(a^cordiog to some copies) tmA AquUa\ 
render it aXctn^, as our translatt<ni does in 
all the tbree^ aloes, plainly meaning the 
tign^-alQiSy aloes wood, or agaJlockum ; the 
finest sort of which " * is the most resi- 
nous of all the woods we are acquainted 
whh. — Its scenty while in the mass, is 
very fragrant and agreeable. The smell 
of die common Aloe^wood is also very 
agreeable, but not so strongly perfiuned 
as the former." The Texts just cited are 

' all wherein the word denotes a species of 
wood or tree. 

^1H. See unddr IM 

*nH. See under rrr 

mM with a radical^ but mutable or omis- 
siUe n. 

I. In Kal and Hith. To desire, cocef, lust 
4^er, choose, Deut. xii. 20. Num, xi. 4. 
In Niph« To be desirable, beautiful, comely, 
txcking {^ection. Isa. Hi. 7. Cant. i. 
j, 10. As a Participial N. fem. plur. 
ntW Desirable things, Symmachus ci^fluo- 
7tj7wv speciositatibus, shewy things, jewels, 
y Ps. Ixxiv. %o,for the dark or obscure places 
of the land are filled with DDH n^HS va- 
luable plunder. Also Pleasant, desirable 
places, Ps. xxiii. 2. Jer. xxv. 37. Amos 
i. a, where Vulg. speciosa. 'in^D TWVO 
Pleasant places, or spots, of the desert, Ps. 
Ixv. 13. Jer. ix. lo. xxiii. 10. Joel i. 
19, ao. ii. 22- In all which texts, ex- 
cept Jer. xxiii. 10, the Vulg. renders the 
words speciosa deserti, so LXX in Joel 
i. 19, ao, roL w^eua, rr^i £^f^> Ihe beaut i^ 
fnl places of the wildemess. And these 
places are in most of the passages men- 
tioned as proper for pasturing cattle. TTiis 

• circumstance may be illustrated from Dr. 
Shaw's Travels, p. 9, note. *' By desert, 
or midemess, the reader is not always to 
understand a country altogether barren 
and unfruitfiil, but such only as is rarely 
or never sown or cultivated ; which, 
though it yields no crops of com or 
fruit, yet chords herbage more or less for 
the grazing of cattle, wUh fountains or 
rills oj water, though more sparingly in- 

. . terspersed than in other places.'* Comp. 

In Ps. Ixxxiii. 13. Jerome renders niM3 by 
pulchritudinem f^e 6eaii/^ i where LXX 
(MS. Alexand.) explain it by ay^arij- 

• New and Complete Dictionary of Artt in 
XijlfMiloes, wkere »« more. 

f lOK, atid tfo Vulg. by sanctnariont^ ike 
sanctuary. Comp. under Tin I. As a 
N. "JH Desire, occ. Prov. xxxi. 4, It is wot 
for kings to drink wine, nor for rviers in 
the desire of strong drink; or else ^M may 
be here rendered as a Particle or. It is 
not for kings to drink wine, or for rulers; 
or (to drink) strong drink. As a N. maac. 
plur. in Reg. ^«D, or rather as ten'of 
Dr. Kennkote% Ckxiices read, n«0, Dc^ 
sires, occ. Ps. cxl. 9. As a N. fem. in 
Reg. m« Desire, appetite, concupiscence. 
See Deut. xii. 15, ao. xviii. 6. Jer. ii. %j^ 
As a N. rriHn Somewhat desired or d!r- 
sirable, an object of desire. Gen. iii. 6. 
xlix. 26. Prov. xiii. la. Also, Desire or 
lust. Num. xi. 4. 

Hence Latin aveo, to desife; whence <»«- 
dus, avaritia, and £ng. avidity, ava^ 
rice, &c. 

XL ^H A Particle impl3ring choice; as the 
Lat. vel or, from tbd Verb velle to desire, 

1. Either, or. Lev. xxv. 49. Exod. v. 3. 
xxii. I. &al. freq 

2. Whether, or, Exod. xxi. 31, Lav. v. r. 

3. Or else, otherwise, a Sam. xviii. 13, 
Otherwise, / should have wrought false' 
hood against mine own life. Eng. translat. 
In this verse not only the Keri, but six- 
teen of Dr. Kennicott's Codices read 
^Wt)^2 against my own life, so Vulg. 
contra vitam meam. But if we f<dk>w 
the printed textual reading l»Bi3 we 
may with Bate render the words. Nor 
(supplying the negative from the preced- 
ing hVi) would I play false toith his Itfe, 
*' i. e. he would not destroy him pn- 
vately any more than openly." 

4. Interro^ve, Lat. An? Ezek. xxi. 10, 

or '5» . 

III. As Particles ^«,and m» (Ps. cxx. J.) 
Interjections, or natural exclamations in 
threatening or grief. Oh! ah! woe! Oveu, 
Vst ! Num. xxi« %<). xxiv. aj. i Sam, 
iv, 8. 

rV. As a Particle of desiring or asking, M 
Ha ! what ! Jer. v. 7. comp. T%^. 

As Particles of place t*. Mid rm Where. 
See under *«. 

V. As an Interjection or natnnd exclama- 
tion of grief or concern, with h fr^owing 
>H* Jh! alas! woe! Ai.occ. Eccl. iv. 10. 
X. 16. So LXX. Ouoi, and Vulg. Va ! 
Observe that in Ecdcs. iv. 10, tiR'cnqr- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




lint of Dr. KenmMft Codkes read in 
two words^ iV nf . 

VL As a N. rm A species of unclean hird^ 
remarkable for h's sharp sight, bcc. Job 
xxvilL 7. Lev. xi. 14. Deut. »v. 13. In 
the first pass^e the £n^sh trandation 
renders it a viiUvre, in the two latter, a 
kite, I should rather thinlc it means a 
vulture, and that this bhrd was so called 
either from its ravenousnese, or from the 
cry it makes. 

yiL AsaN. masc phir. Cr>M. According 
Co Bockart, voL ii. 843, it stgnifiesjoci- 
uUy in Isa. xiiL 22. xxxiv. 14. Jer. 1. 39; 
but by the several contexts, perticnlarly 
the last, it may as weH denote a kind of 
unclean birdt, and so be the ploral masc. 
of the preceding word ml. 

VIII. As a N. ^ -^ cowttry. See «« 

^M with a *) radical, fixed and immutable 
ajinjr^j, T^V, ni^, jna^. 

It occurs not as a V. in Heb. bat the 
learned Albert SckuUens in his Com- 
ment on Pcov, xiy. 24, and more dis- 
tinctly in his Aiamucript Origines He- 
braicx, from the Arabic use of the root 
inn ("Incrassoit liquor,* CaMeU) pro- 
poses for the primary notion of the He- 
brew, '' crassus fuit, spissatus fuit, cum 
spissatione qu^dam eminuit, prominuit, 
to be gross, thickened, to be extant at 
prominent with some degree ofspissitude or 
/Afdbtesf ;*' whence it is applied to thick- 
nens, grossness, sottiskness, stupidity of 
mind, by a metaphor, says he, taken, after 
the oriental manner, from ' tran^rent 
or milky liquors, which, when they grow 
tkkJc and turbid, with their beauty lose 
also their Uste. He remarks that the 
, Greeks have somewhat like this in their 
use o£vavvs gross for stupid, sottish ; and 
80, it is obrious to add, have the Latins 
in their similar application of crassus, pin- 
gois. Hence he es|^'ms ViH Ps. Ixxiii. 4, 
as referring to the grossness both of body 
and mind, and translates ViM Job v. 3, 
by stultum divitem the foolish rich man ; 
and observes that Lucian, in like manner, 
unites the two significations of the Greek 
^xxt^Sf when he says, Tuf va^iig rwv 
ajf0furgwf-^(tJtox&p9flef *, fleecing the 
Jhi iefiowt/" nwaning those who were 

• PMadomant. 6. or Tom. 1. p. 869. Edit. BmaL 
Co0ip. #7M)Eiai'f Mote of Mfttt. xiii. i& 

both rich and, stupid. And hence he 
excellendy interprets a passage which 
on the common exposition seems mere- 
ly tautological, namdy Prov. xiv. 24, 
nViH t3>V»D3 nViK tsimir CD>DDn mtaj; 
The crotpM or diadem of the wise (is J 
their riches, (but) the opulence of fools 
. (is) gross folly ; since they abuse their 
affluence, and so appear more and more 
foolish ) and to make something like a 
translation, we might render the words — 
but the abundance of' fools is abundant 
folly. I would just add, that as in the 
latter part of the verse there is an anta-- 
naclasis, (as in Jud. xv. 16. & al.) or the 
same wqrdnVM is used in different senses, 
00 in the former part there is a pcu-ono^ 
tnasia or turn upon the words tT\tQ^ and 
t3lt2^. Conip. under Kn^ HI. 

I. As a N. Vim Growtess, both of body and 
mind. occ. Ps. Ixxiii. 4, \oh)H H^i, Their 
grossness is plump, i. e* they are very 
plump, gross, and stupid — pingues^£{)i- 
curi de Grege Porci. Comp. ver. 7. As 
a N. masc. plur. in Regim. >ViH is used 
for the rich and affluent, ma^sis* occ. 
2 K. xxiv. 15, where LXX, Kr^vpuf, 
strong, £ng. translat. mighty. Butt it 
should be remarked that the Kcri and 
twenty-four of Dr. Kennicott's Codices 
have here ^!r« Leaders. 

II. As a N. >i« Gross, stupid, sottish, 
foolish. See Job V. 3. Ps. cvii. 17. Prov. 

i. 7. X. »i. xi. 29. XV. ai, Isa. xxxv. 8. 
In several of whicli passages, as well as 
in others, i^ implies the grossness, stu* 
pidity, or insensibility induced by vicious 
habits. Comp. undbr ttmt9 . 

Hence Teut. Uvel, and Eng. Evil. 

A^ a N. '»b'tk Stupid, foolish, occ. Zech. 
xi. 15. But between sixty and seventy 
of Dr. liC<'/in*co/^*s Codices here read ^^m. 
Qu. Was not the original reading ^^ I 

As a N. fem. mVim Grossness, stupidity, sot-^ 
tishness, foolishness, folly. ?tqv. v. a3. 
xiv. 3. XV. 21. xix. 3. xiv. 24,' above 
explained. It is frequently joined with 
i'^O^ stupid, insensible, which confirms the 
sensehereassigned to it See Prov. xii. 23. 
xili, 16. xiv. 8. XV. 2. In Prov, xiv. i, 
rh i» seetns used for a foolish woman. So 
LXX 19* appwy, and Vnlg. insipiens* 

III. As a Particle denoting an ignorunt, mi* 
inf orated, uncertain, dMous state of mind. 
^!nM Periapi, maybe. Greo. xvi. 2. xvi)i. 24. 

xxir. 5. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



n?it— ptR 

XMiv. 5. xxvii. II. In OM pasMge, Gen. 
mdv. J 9, the pxinted copies have this 
word wiUkmt Uie 1, >Ht ; but the Sama^ 
ritan Pentateuch and four of Dr. KemiU 
catt's Codices expieu it fully ^Vk, which 
seems the true reading. Comp. ver. 5, 
in Heb. 

r» occurs not as a V. but as a N. and par- 
ticle denotes a particular ;Hwt^<2/'<ij77f. 

I. With joyrom prefixed, W fO From the 
pmit ot'time,J'rom the, or that, time. occ. 
Jer. xliv, 1 8, where Vulg. ex eo tempore. 
Tare, pir |D« So with p prefixed, tMD 
Ps. Ixxvi. 8. n&H mo From (or at) the 

* time of thy vrath, where Targum ^3^9. 
See Ruth ii. 7. £xod. iv. 10. Josh. xiv. 
10. P». xciii. 2. Prov. viii. ai. Isa, xlv. 
31. xiviii. 8. From such a time, 2 Sam« 
XV. 34, French tninslat. dcs long-tenqps, 
for a long time, 

\X, And most generally, as a P^cle M At 
that time, then. Gen. iv. 26. xii. 6* fc al. 
fireq. So nn Ps. cxxiv. 3, 4, 5. 

III. At thi^ time, now. Josh. xxii. ji. 

IV. At that point of time, imtantfy, imme^ 
diateljf. Ps. lxix.\5. 

Mm, nm, and ^H Chald. To heat, m^lce hot 
with fire. occ. Pan. iii. 19, 22. Hence 
Gr. a(a;, to dry, dry vp ; aCa> *oot, 

pm See under l? 

nm Chald. To escape, get away.^ occ. Dan. 
ii. ^\ 8. So Theodotion airsnj, and Vulg. 

I. To go away, go off, fail, i Sam. ix. 7. 
Job xiv. II. Prov. XX. 14. In Dent, 
xxxii . 56, nVtH may either be a Participle 
fem, benoni in Kal. Failing ; or, a N. 
fem. in Reg. A failing, failure. 

II. Chald. To go away, go, occ. £zra iv. 
aj. V. 8, 15. 

|. 'To 'wdgh, try the vceight qfauy thins^. It 

• occurs not as a Verb In Heb. simply in 
this sense, but in Arabic the cognate 
Verbs jn, and p signify to weigh, ha- 
hmce, (see Castell) -, and in Heb. as a N. 
noasc. plur. s>:tMO A pair of scales, an 
instrument of weighing, called likewise in 
Lat bilanx (whence &ig. balance), from 
its tuo scales or basins. Lev. xix. 36. Jer. 
xxxiL 10. Exek. V. i. 

Cbsld. As a N. masc. plur. emphat. m^^Thd 
The scales or balances, occ Dan. v. 27. 

L As aN. jm W^ tar^ from its ipeighing 

sounds, as it were, or wondecfoi^ ae* 
cibmmodating itself to their various im- 
piessioDs. fine}, occ, Camp..frQ. See Job 
xii. II. xxxiv. 3 i in both which pas- 
sages, however, it denotes the ^aroftkc 
mind, i. e. the ^cul^ of understanding, 
and atien^vely conAtaering end dtsttn^ 
gyi'^ktpg, o£ which the Mi4y ear is a 
very proper and instructive emblem. 
Comp. ^iat, xi. u. & al. it seems odd 
to mention, Amos iii. 12, )tH Vil apiece 
4^ an ear, as what a shepherd rescues imni 
a lion; but Dr. Hv^ell, Nat^ Hist, of 
Aleppoi p. 53, informs us, that about 
that city they have one species of goat, 
whose ears are oofisiderable things being 
" ojien afoot long, and broad in propor-r 
tioH,'* Conm. Harwer^s Observations, 
vol. iv. p, 162, As a V. in Hiph. Te 
hearken, attend to. So perhaps our £ag, 
to hear, from the N. car. Gen. iv. 23. 
ic al. fireq. The h is dropt, Prov. xvii. 4. 
Job xxxii. I r . But in Prov. two of Dr. 
Kenmcotfs Codices read ftHD and iaai in 
Job X*um. For ^ Deut. xxiii. 14^ see 
under mr. 

III. As a V. in Kal, To weigh menialfy, 
consider xvith attention^ ponder. Eccles. 
xii. 9. 

ptM See under p? 

I. In Kal an4 Hiph. To surround, encamp* 
pass. Ps. XXX. 12. Isa, 1. ii, n^pnnmo 
Putting /?<imtf* around. Vitringa on the 
place, apd SchuUens (Orig. Heb. lib. i. 
cap* 2* § 3'* whom see) reier thes^ 
words to the seditions and rebellions of the 
Jews against the Romans, after they had 
rejected the true Messiah. 

II. To bind round, to gird. As a N. ^^m A 
girdle, % K. i. 8. al. freq. 

III. Because from the length and looseness 
of the ancient garments, it was necessary 
to bind th^m dose with a girdle, when 
they wanted to exert 8treng& or activityi 
hence, to bind, or gird up the Ukns, is ta* 
prepare oneself for action. Job xxxviii. 3 ^ 
xl. 2. Jer. i. 17. Comp. Exod. xii. xi. 
Ephes. vi. 14. 1 Pet. i. 13. And 

IV. Because this was especially the military 
habit (see Isa. v. 27. viii. 9. xlv. ^ 
^rding is applied to warlike strength an4 
fortitude. Ps. xviii. 33, 40, & al. freq. 

Comp, Greek and Eng. Leacon, in Ava^ 
fytfyrVfH and fUptlia^yyvfu, Skfw'^ Ttay. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

nnn— ^TTW 



p. 2t4, 226. 2d Edit* and Bp. LatOJ^s 
Noteonlsa. v. 27. 

vm See underTTP 

nrm occun not as a V. in Heb. but in 
Chaldee denotes to Join, connect, cotiso-^ 
date, and in Aiabip the cognate V. ^nw 
»gnifies to bifida fasten by binding, '* vin 
xit, v'mciendo nexuit." Sciuitens. Henoe 

I. As a N. masc. n« and in Regim. >nH J 
person connected or consociated with us in 
whatever manner^ A brother by nature, 
Gen.iv. 2. A relation, e(w«wi,Gen.xiv. 14. 
A countryman. Lev. xxv. 46, 47. Num. 
Kxv. i8. One consociated hy a similarity 
of condition or manners. Job xxx. 29. 
One connected uith us by partaking of 
the same nature^ \jex. xix. 1 7. {comp. 
L.uke X. 29, 30. & seq.) Like, similar, 
Frov. xviii. 9. Ezdc. xviii. 10. Fem. 
ninK or rm)jk A sister, &c. Gen. iv. 22. 
Num. XXV. 18. Fem. jdur. in Reg. 
^rmw Sisters, Job i. 4. xlii. 11. 1 Chron. 
ii. x6 ^ the radical n being supplied by ^ 
as in "Oi/k, TM in Reg. and the 1 plm*. 
dropped, which is however retained in 
all the three texts by manv of Dr. Ken- 
nicatfs Codices. As a N. fem. mriM 
Broikerkood or connection, occ. Zech. xi. 
1 4. The LXX have in this passage given 
the idea of the word, rendering it by 
Karx^e9'i¥ close connection. 

n. As a N. masc. MM £ng. translat. A 
hearth, LXX, etr^st^, Vulg. arula, a 
little akar. occ. Jer. xxxvi. 22, 23. In 
all |irobability the word means a kind oC 
braskr or portable machine, to keep fuel 
together for burning, such as are still used 
in the East to warm their rooms in win 
tec See Harmefs Observations, vol. i. 
p. 215^ &C. I to which I add, that such 
contrivances were in use among the an- 
. dent Greeks, and are called by Homer 
Aaftn^pf^, Odyss. xix. lin. 63, 64 5 
whiere ne says that Penelope*^ maids 
** threw the embers out of the brasiers 
niton the floor, and then heaped fresh 
wood on them, to a^rd both light and 

Tlvp I* mm AAMHTHpaK xnf*tt^ti /S«X«v* aXKu 
fitnow luh» «fXX«t ^«a'; f/uirv nit ^EPESeAJ* 

Comp. Odyss. xviii. lin. 306—310, 342. 
D. ix. lin. 467—9. 
The modeni Greeks imitate their ancestors, 
^J XbecB are no cUmneyf;* §sf% Mons. d^ 

Guys*, *' in the Greek housed. A brtakt 
is placed in the oaiddle of the room, tliat 
those who are not sufficiendy wanned at 
a distance may more conveniently draw 
near it. This is a tery ancient custom sM 
over the East, The Romans had no 
other, and the Turks adhere to it. This 
brasier, called AaiMtrrip, says Hesychivsy 
quoted by Madame D'Acier, was placed 
in the muldle of the chamber, on which 
tliey burnt wood to heat the room, and 
torches to light it. It stood on a tripod 
as at present. Lamps Were not used till 
a long time after." 
Mons. Martins French translatioci vesf 
properly rend«^ rm in Jer. xxxvi. 22, 23, ' 
by Brasier. 

III. As a N. irm, A species o/plani, tsjlag^ 
sedge, or reed, so called from its fitness 
for making rapes, or the like, to caanedt 
or join things together. Thus the Latia 
juncus, a bull-rush, a jungendo from 
joining t for the same reason. 00c Gea. 

xli. 2, 18. Job viii. 11. I suspect ^rm 
to be that sort of reed gnrwing near the 
Nile, which Hassebfuist (Travds, p. 97,) 
describes as '< having scarce any braodbes, 
but numerous leaves, which are narrow, 
smooth, channelled on the upper surface, 
and the plant about eleven feet high. 
The Egyptians (says he) make ropes of 
the leaves. They lay tbexn in water like 
hemp, and then noake good and strong 
cables of tfaem.** 

IV. A Particle or natural exclamation of 
grief or threatening, riM Ah J hah! occ* 
Ezek. vi. 11. xxi. 15, or 20. Hence, 

V. As a compound Particle ^l^nw from rw 
Ah ! alas ! and >i to me. Ah me ! uh that f 
occ. 2 K. V. 3. Ps. cxix. 5. Hence also, 

VL As a N. masc. plur. tSTiH, Isa. xiii. 2t. 
Bochart (vol. ii. 86;) agreeably to the 
LXX version ij^a, interprets it the hoKl- 
ing or yells of wild beasts ; but by. th^ 
company tliey are joined with, the word 
should rather mean animals or birds so 
called from their iio/r^crv. Eng. timns- 
l#t. doleful creatures, Bp. Lowth, kaiolittg 
m(/nsters. Comp. Hos. xiiL 1 5, aiKi under 

I. 2b catch, seixe, lay hold on. Gen. xxii. 1 )• 
Exod, iv. 4. I K. vi. 6. 

• Sentimeittal Jwmey tbrmtgh Greece^ citcd in Cr'f 

tistlJRewvf for Juae ma, p. 457. 

II. la 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




II. InNiph. To bepoittsBed or seized cf (as 
we say) i. e. to poueu, have in po$semon, 
€en. xxxlv. lo. Nam. xxxii. 30. Josk. 
xxii. 9, 19. 

VlH It denotes behind, after, either of place 
m time, 

I. As Particles of place, irw and nrw 

1. Behind, Gen. xviii. 10. xix. 17, 26. 
xxii. 13. 

a« -4/^eT. Gen. xxxvii. 17. Exod. xiv. 10, 
17. Num. XXV. 8. 

J. As a N. masc. plur. tannw The hinder 
or back parts. £xod. xxvi. 12. xxxiii. sj. 
£zek. viit. 16. 

n. As a Particle imM 

X* Behind, i Chron. xix. 10. Ezekiel's RoU^ 
ch. ii. 10, was written *^^r^yk^ ta^iB b^ore 
OKd behind, or on the fore-side, ana the 
hack. This was not usual in the ancient 
vehtmes or rolls, which were conimonlj 
written only on one side, though some- 
times, from the abundance of matter^ on 
both. These latter were called by the 
Greeks oiriaioypafa ^i^Kix *, Books 
written on the back, or outer side, and 
from them by the Romans, f Libri opis- 
tographi, or as Juvenal, Sat i. lin. 6, 
Script! in tergo. Books written on the back. 
Comp. Rev. v. i . 

a. Backwards. Gen. xlix. 17. Jer. xv. 6. 

3. nirw according to some as a N. The 
West, Job xxiit. 8. Isa. ix. i^; but in 
those passages it may perhaps better be 
rendered backward or behind, as in our 
translation. But Qu ? and comp. Sense V. 

III. As a Particle n^iinn Backwards, Gen. 
ix. 23. 1 Sam. iv. 18. &al. 

IV. As a N. fem. sing. nnn« The hinder- 
most, or extreme part. Ps. cxxxix. 9. 

V. At a N. p'lnH The hinder or hindermost, 
i. e. since the Jilarth moves from West to 
East, the western. Deut. xi. 24. xxxiv. 2. 
Joel ii. 20. So dp the foremost (which 
•ee) denotes the East. Plur. tD^iinH, 
J(fter, hindermost. Gren. xxxiii. 2. 

VI. As Particles of time, "jnw, and ^mh, 
yxasA with a N. After. Gen. iX. 28. 
xvii. 7, 8. — ^wilh a V. After, afterwards. 
Ixod. V. I. After that. Gen. v. 4.. 7. 
ter. xiv. 43. & al. Also, Besidu. Neh. 
V. 15. 

VII. As a V. To rft%, postpone, defer, stay. 
Qen. xxxii. 4. xxxiv. 19. Jud. v. 28. 

* Lucian, Vit. Auct 9. 
t JP/t»jt Bp. iii. 5. 

k aL Hab. m S« ")f^^ Vih It shaU noihe 
put cff, or postponed, \. e: beyond the 
appointed time. As ^mc is a dtflfereiit 
H^rew word from that just before tran»^ 
lated in our version tarry, it certainly 
shocdd have been rendered by a different 
English word. 

VIII. As a N. fem. tntXA End, latter Omcp 
or state. Num. xxiii. 10, Deut viii. i6* 
xi. 12. Eccles. vii. 9. Isa. ii. 2. Futurity. 
Isa. xlvi. 10. 

IX. As a N. p'lriM Latter at Cast in time. 
£xod. iv. 8. Deut. xxiv^ 3. Isa. xliv. 6* 
Hence Acheron, the nttue of one of the 
infernal riven, in the Gredcand Roman 

X. As a N. IMM An other, i. e. one, in some 
respect, after, or posteriour. Qfai. iv. 25. 
xxvi. ft I, 22. xli. 3. & aL freq. 

XI. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. nriM Potee^ 
f^ty, Posteri. i K. xiv. 10. xvi. 3. ic al. 
Comp. Jer. 1. 2 1 . So as a N. fem. sing. 
mriH Posterity. Ps. cix, 13. Dan. xi. 4. 

Der. After, other, Q, ? Comp. under TUr. 

tOH with a formative H, from ntD^ ^o incline^ 
as "IH from n^^ 

I. As a N. or Particle, In an inclined pos^* 
ture, stooping, occ. I K. xxi. 27, And 
he lay in sack-cloth and xveni )DM stoop- 
ing, looking down, Yja/rr^^i$, as persons 
in grief and shame. So LXX, according 
to Aldus z edition, xfixA/ogvoj inclined, 
and Complut. kskv^s stoi*piug, Vulg. 
demisso capite with the head bending 
downwards. Hos. xi. 4, / drew them 
with the cords of' a man, with the bands 
of' love, and I was to them as those whik 
lift up the. yoke aver their jaws or cheeks 
(as it were to yodhg cattle); vbn »H1 
n^H and gentiy, or by condescension^ / 
got the better of or prevailed over hin^- 
(Israel). Thus Mr. Bate in Grit Heb. 
whom see. 

With l> prefixed, to»b Condescendingly, 
gently, occ. 2 Sam. xviii. 5. ^wh, witii >^ 
perhaps f<M: the radical n postfixed^ 
Gently, with the body stooping as a man 
going slowly and attending a flock of 
sheep. Gen. Xxxiii. il. Isa. viii. 6, 
Waters ofSiloh going tOM7 gendy; if this 
does not rather belong to the root t>¥hp 
which see. 

[I. As a N. masc. plur. C31DM rendered 
charmers, occ. Isa. xix. 3. It meant 
some kipd of Egyptian ^m^^ararsif pro« 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•)t3«— no» 


3*>*— ^» 

baUy so called " from tfaeir creeping, 
ttooping, and prying about, as diviners 
and soothsayers did." Bate. 

^HM occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in 
Arabic dgnifies to fasten or drive in 
stroHgbf, ** panxit firmius/' Schultens. 

As a N. *itDM A bramhUy or thom^ with large 
and strong prickles. So both in Jud. and 
P8. the LXX, pOLiLvog, Vulg. rbamnus^ 
and Josepkvs Ant lib. v. cap. 7. § 3. 
pcLfJLvOf, *H h ia^vof axavBa jxev sri iJ^e- 
yir>j xcu toy Tta^jeTrorarov fiaXXaa-x. The 
rJUaimtts is the largest of thorns^ and 
fiimished with the most dreadful darts^ 
nays* TAeodoret on Ps. Iviii. 10. Diosco- 
rides, as cited by Bochart,. vol. i. 752, 
remarks, that the Africans or Carthagi- 
nians caUed the rkamnus or Ckrisfs thorn, 
Krai^ifi,, which is the plural of TOK. occ. 
Jud. ix. 14, 15. Ps. Iviii. 10. 

C7C7H To shut, close, stop, applied to the lips, 
Prov. xvii. a 8. — to the ears, Ps. Iviii, 5. 
— to windows, I K. vi. 4. Ezek. xl. 16. 

flDM occurs not as a V. but as a N. ptOM is 
usually placed under this root, though it 
'' is regularly formed from mD to spin, 
-with the formatives M and }.'* Bate. So 
it may denote somewhat spun, thread, 
occ. Prov. vii. 16. In Chaldee it signi- 
fies a rope, Comp. under nion. 

Hence Gr. Odovij and Ohyiov, a linen cloth. 

*^M To obstruct, shvt, as the aperture, or 
mouth of a pit. occ. Ps. Ixix. 1 6. T ")tOM 
^3^* Obstructed in his right hand, i. e. 
sot able readily to use it. occ. Jud. iii. 1 5. 
XX. 16. That this is the true sense of 
the expression appears, because the person 
said to be li^D^ T *^to» Jud. iii. 1 5, made 
use of his left hand to take the dagger 
from his right thigh. Comp. ver. 16, 21, 
The English margin renders the Heb. 
phrase in Jud. iii. 15, by "shut ojhis 
right hand;" the Chaldee Targum in 
both passages by Hi^n rrr TD> con- 
tracted or impeded in his right hand, i. e. 
having his right hand contracted or im- 
peded. Le Clerc observes on Jud. xx. 16, 
that the seven hundred left-handed men 
there mentioned seem to have been there- 
fore made stingers^ because they c6uld 
not use the right hand, which is employed 
in managing heavier arms. HenceGreek 
an-ap but, a,TBp uithout. 
♦ Quoted by JMitb^u S^pp»cBi. ad Lex. Heb. in 

>« occurs not as a V. in Heb. but the Idea 
seems to be To settle, to take up one's ha^ 
bitation, or the like j for hence die Arabs 
appear to have had their >M or ^M to take 
up one's abode, " manstonem capere/' 
Castell, Hence also the Greek Ata ofkn 
used in Homer, for a country or regum, 
and hence in Heb. 

L As a N. t ^, plor. C3^«, and Chald. 7^ 
(Ezek. xxvi. 18.) ^ settlement, habitation. 
Job xxii. 30, He (God J shall deliver ^ 
'pi the habitation rfthe innocent, Isa. xx. 
6, where it denotes Judea or FaUstine 
at large 3 and our margin translates it 
country, Isa. xlii. 4, where LXX, cS>^ 
nations. The Versions and Lexicons 
usually render this word by an Isle, or 
Island, but it may be justly doubted 
whether it ever has stricdy this meaning. 
Even when joined with tD' the sea, it 
seems more property to denote such 
countries or places as bordered on the ua^ 
as Isa. xi. II. xxiv. 1$. Comp. Jer« 
XXV. 22. Ezek. xxvi. iS. iDan. xi. 18. 
Esth. X. 1. In Ezek\ xxvii. 6, 7, >>it 
ta^na at least includes the counjtry of 
Italy, and rmri»« «« that of Felopomie' 
sus; (see ^ochart, vol. i. 155, 158.) and 
neither of these are Islands, In Isa. xxiit 
2, 6, ancient Tyre, which was situated on 
the continent, is called >H. But in Isa. 
xlii. 1 5, we read in our translation, / will 
* make the Rivers Islands, which is absurd ; 
but tD^-H i. e. habitable places the Riven 
might be made. 

II. As Pardcks of place, >H with or without 
an Interrogation, Where, See Gen. iv. 9. 
I Sam. xxvi. 16. JT« Where f widi an 
Interrogation. Gen. xix. 5. xxxviii. 21. 
& al freq. So V« Where ? 2 K. xix. 1 5. 
Jer. xxxvii. 19. ni ^« Where. See Esth. 
vii. 5. I Sam. ix. 18. mo ^H From 
whence f whence f Gren. xvi. 8- Job u. 2. 
Comp. 2 Sam. xy. 2. Jon. i. 8. 

III. As a N. tTH piur. C=>^M see under mil 

Tik To be an enemy or adversary to, to irfest, 
perse^te, infensum, vd infestum esse. It 
is more than lOU; which denotes the 
aversion or hatred of the mnd, this rather 
the external acts of enmity, occ. Exod. 
xxiii. 22. As a Participle or Participial N. 

f On this word see Job. Dav. MicbaeUs Spi- 
cilegium Geographix Hebrxorum Extene. Pars I. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Q^— l^K 


^M— r» 

y^, aod a^. An entmy, a foe. Gen. 
xxii. 17. xlix. 2. & aL freq. As a N. 
fen. rD^ Enmity, occ. Gen. iti. 15. 
KlGBD. XZXV. 31, 22. In Reg. M^K 
£iek. xxF. 15. XXXV. 5. Hence as a 
IVtrticipial N. ^VM Jcb^ the persecuted 
me, • 


I. Y^ As a PSirtide, compounded of -'»« a 
particle of desiring or ashing (which see 
under m» IV,) and T a particle expressing 
the means or manner. 

U With or without an interrogation. In 
what manner. By what means y Horn* See 
Gen. xxvi. 9. 2 Sam. ki. j. i K. xii. 6. 
Ruthiii. 18. 

S. 7b «^^ a degree, how much ? 2 Sam. 1. 
25. Prov. V. 12. 

II. iTS^fc^ As a Particle compounded of ^» 
and rrD Thus or iierc. 

I. Haw, in what manner. Deut* xviii. 21. 

^ K. vi. 15. % 

a* Ta xc/mf a degree, how much, Jer. xlviii. 

17. Lam. i. i. ii. i. 
5. Where, 2K. vi. 13. Cant. i. 7. 

III. As a Particle roD^W, comiwunded of 
^ and niJ:3 Mi«, How ^ Cant. v. 3. 
£sth. viii. 6. 

V« See under bn 

C3^ occurs not as a V. but 

I. As a N. masc. Hd^h, fem. no^H TerrUtk. 
occ. Hab. 1.-7. Cant. vi. 4, 10. As a 
N. masc. plur. D^d^« Terrible ones, 
namely, Idois of the Chaldeans, Jer. 
!. 38. See some such described in Ba- 
Tuch, ch. vi. 14, 1$. As a N. masc. 
plur. witliout the radical % CD^D« Ter- 
rours. Job ^. 2 ^ ; but twenty-seven of 
Dr. KeHmcoit*s Codices read O^a^. So 
for *^^DH Ps. Ixxxviii. 16, forty of his 
Codices have T^'^H. As Ns. fem. nD^« 
in Reg. nD*« Terrour, Deut. xxxii. 2 5. 
£xod. xxiii. 27. Ps. Iv. 5 ; and, accord- 
ing to the common printed copies, with 
oat the > noH Job ix. 34 ; but twenty 
nine of Dr. KcnnicotC^ Codices here read 
>noW witli tlie \ LXX render it by f o- 
Co^ feoTf 80 Vulg. pavor. nno^K Nearly 
the same. Exod. xv. r6. As a N. masc 
plur. O^D*« The name of a people, q. d, 
Terrible ones. Gen. xiv. 5 . But the Moa- 
bites called them 0*D« common people, 
having concjuered and driven them out 
See Deut. h. 10, 11. 

Is not iD^« formed from t3^ or tDTfj to fU' 

multuaie, by prefixing «, and so is ft 
not expressive of the tumult or cotifusiott 
both of body and mind occasioned by 
terrour ? 

II. Chald. As a N. >inDH Terrible, occ. 
Dan. vii. 7. 

l*» See under fK 

ttr» See under nuf» 

tVH See under n' 

fn>« See under jnH 

IH A Particle denoting that the q)eaker is 
veri/ earnest, much moved, or, as we say, 
greatly struck, and accordingly it may be 
regularly deduced from n3i to strike, as 
to» from ntoi. It may be rendered 

1. Indeed, surely. Gen. xliv. 28. 

2. At least. Exod. X. 17. 

3. Yet itideed, but yet, 2 K. xxiiL 26. 

4. Indeed only. Gen. vii. 23. ix. 4. 

I. To eat, eat up^ devour, as men or animals 
do. Gen. ii. 16. xxxvii. 20, 33. xl. xp. 
Joel i. 4. 

As a N. i»:j« The devourer, Mai. iii. 1 1, a 
descriptive name of the locust, to which 
the Verb b^tk is likewise applic^j Joel ii. 
25. Amos iv. 9. 

II. To corrode or consume, by separating the 
parts from each other> as tire. Lev. ix. 24. 
2X. i. 10, 12, 14. Nahum iii. 15.-* as 
a moth. Job xiii. 28. — as the sword, 
2 Sam. ii. 26. xi. 2$. At a N. b^H. 
Food. Gen. xli. 35. Fem. n!73HD A large 
knife or sKX)rd. Jud. xix. 29. Gen. xsjL 
6, 10. 

III. Chald. To accuse. Corop. under pp V. 
p« See under p 

F]D« See under HEJD 

13« See under mD 

^bt This is one of the most difiicnlt Roots in 
the Hebrew language, and various me* 
thods have been taken by learned men to 
account for its several applioitions. After 
the most attentive conskie^tion I think 
the notion oibitcrpoUtion, intervention, or 
the like, bids the fairest for the ideal 
meaning of it, and best reconciles it's 
different uses. 

I. To interpose, intervene, mediate, come or 
be between, for protection, pretention^ &c. 
It occurs not simply as a V. in this sense, 
unless, perhaps, 1 Sam. xiv. 24, be aa 
exception, tD^n n« i»«^l And he (Saul} 
interposed "with the people, saying. Sec. 

II, As a N. ^H. It is used as a name or 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




iStkc^tt^tmeGod, ThertKterpoier,In' 
iervener, or the like^ Jebovah under this 
character. Iteiqtresses ^ ommpresence 
of God, i. e. the unirtrsai extension (I 
will not presume to say of his substance, 
but) of his icnowledge and pow't *, ac- 
cording to those awfiil questions in Jer. 
xxiii. i3, a4, Am I a God (ilpo) at 
luindy saith Jekavah,4indmt a God (pmo) 
afar off ? Com any hide himself in secret 
places, that I shall not see him i saith Je- 
^hvak : Do not I an. heaven and earth ? 
saith Jehovah, i. e. with my divine spi^ 
riinal presence. Comp. i K. viii. ay, Ps. 
cxxxix. 7 — 12. The idea of this attri- 
bute, however, is to be taken from the 
celestial fitad, in its three conditions of 
fire, Iis^, and spirit, or gross air» inter- 
vening between all material substance^ 
and tbehr parts, according to the Orphic 
verjes cited from Stobaus in EscJtenba- 
dtntt's edit. p. 246, where the Air (who 
is there csdled also Aia or Jupiter) is in- 
tTDdoced speaking, 

Eytfc i' H ^nt t^it ifyn, tifju tcravr«^w 
Brrav9* n A9*fiw» j, x. t. X. 

vx t^t Toirof 

'Ow iah Vt AHP. 

Wlmetr the -work rf Gtdeottmdi, lam ; 

Ncr it tltrt arty piaee^ vabere AltLunotf. 

And as it will appear presently that the 

Heathen worshipped the maten'nl b«, we 

may perceive the propriety with which 

the distinctive epithet fvb:^ ^zg/*, or 'most 

Mig^h, is added to this word, the first time 

it is mentioned as a name of the true 

God, Gen. xiv. 18, 19 5 we may also the! 

better understand Job's expression, ch. 

xjjxu 28, that by shewing any religious 

respect to the light, (He^). ^IK), or to the 

moon, he should have denied or disowned 

iiyoo ^vh the God that is above. From 

what is here said we may further see how 

proper it was in Abram to give to the 

most high b^, the title of possessor nr\p of 

heaven and earth. Gen. xiv. 22 > and 

how significantly the Prophets oppose 

God, by this name hb^, to fnan. See Isa. 

xxxi.3. Ezek. xxviii. 2, g-, from which 

latter texts it appears that the impious 

•-^ee EKychp^tk Briton, in METAPHYSICS' 

t See the learned sir H^iam Jatus's E»ay on 
the Fint Pxiacif les of Natoral Philotopby, p. 903. 

Frinoe (tf Tyre assumed the title of,^ ; ts 
we know the heathen Emperours of Rome 
afterwards did those of Dominus. Bnrus, 
and Deus, Lord and God {. It were to 
be wished that all such blasphemous ap- 
pellations to mortals had ceased with 
Heathenism. But " it is strange,*' sayi 
Jortin (Remarks on Eccles. Hist. vol. iv. 
p. $.) " that Christian fin^rours of 
the^ourth and fifth centuries would so&r 
themselves to be called, t^our Divinity, 
your Godship, Numen §.'* 
III. The LXX have in one {^ce, Isa. 
xiv. 13, rendered hvk by Oopa,vH the 
heaven; (comp. Dan. viii. 10.) and it is 
plain from £xod. xv. 11, (where not 
only the Samaritan Pentateuch, but also 
very many of Dr. Kennicott*s Heb. Co- 
dices read D»i»Ha) Deut. iii. 24. Ps. 
xhv. 21. Ixxvii. 14. Isa. xUii. 10. xhv. 
10, ic, 17. xiv. 20, (comp. Isa. Ivii. 5.) 
that the Heathen worshipped their Ardi- 
idol the Heavens (comp. tOf*iyt» in Ottf 
XI.) under this attribute bn orplur. tTb». 
So II Damascius, in the Life of Isidorus, 
tells us that the Phenidans ^oid Syrians 
call Cronos or Saturn, HA Ei; and Ser^ 
vius speaking of Belus the Phenidan, 
affirms, " M in those parts (about Phe* 
nici'aj worship the Sutt, who in their 
language is called ife/;*' and again he 
says, ** God is called Hal in the Pvnic or 
Carthaginian tongue." It appears from 
Josh. xix. 38, that the Canaanites had a 
Vmd tower or temple to b». Hence, 
CD^V^^il Softs of Alim, Ps. xxix. i.lxxxix. 7, 
seem to be those kings who worshipped 
these material interposers. It is well 
known how the heathen princes affected 
to be reckoned the Sons of their Gods. 
llius did Romulus, Alexander, and thos 
did even the polite Augustus -, else his 
well-bred poet Horace would never havt 
called him Filius Maia, meaning Jupi- 
ter's son by Maia, as he doth Lib. I. 
Ode 2. lin. 43. No doubt these whims 
arooe from a perversion of the true tra- 

t See Eacbard'hEcclet, Hist. vol. ii. p. 406, 656, 
Sufton. in Domit. c. 13. Daitbuz on Rev. p. 559, 
and yitHngs on Rer. p. 594, edit. ult. 

§ " See Ks, de Idol. III. 1 7. Barthw on ClawBan, 
3 Consul. Honor. Pracf. 16. and Le Cierc, Pari- 
huian.I. 331." 

II See Bocbart, voL i. 707, and 7.S6. F9ssiv* Dc 
Ong. 3c Pro^. Idol. Lib. ii. cap. 4. HuUhiiuont 
Works, vol. ill. p. 50. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




d(tion> (hat the S(m of God should be the 
Umversul King and Conqueror, 

IV. In Ezek. xxxi. 1 1, for tD*i:i i»H no fewer 
than thirty of Dr. Kennkotfs Codices 
have ta*):! ^« the Leader <^the Nations, 
meaning Nahypoioisar Kkig of Babylon, 
whb> in conjunction with Ofaxares Kmg 
of Media, took- Ninecek, and overturned 
tfie Assyrian Empire. See Ijowth's Notes 
on Ezck. xxxi. 3, ir, and Prideaux, 
Connect Book I. An. A. C. 612. And 
as Vvk seems here the true reading; so 
does ^!^« Ezek. xxxii. at, which is like- 
wise supported by twenty- three Codices. 
Comp. below Sense XVJ. 

V. As an Article or Pron. denoting some- 
what interposed^ ^M The or that, sing, 
lSam.xiv.32. Isa.xxxviii. 19. Jer. x. 2. 
Ps. ii. 7. See Bate'% Crit. Heb. and 
comp. Jer. xxv.9. Also, These, plur. Gen. 
xix. 8. xxvi. 3, 4. I Chron. xx. 8. Jiin 
These, plur. Gen. ii. 14. 8c al. fireq 
Cotoeius observes^ that rpH denotes the 
nearer, and tDH the more remote, as hi 
and illi in Latin> these and those in Eng- 
lish, nim and n^ repeated. Some, and 
tome, some and others, alii et alii. Dan. 
xii. 2. Ps. XX. 8. 

VI. !j« As a Particle before Verbs, it de- 
notes interposition or prevention, 

1. 'And most generally it imports prohibit^ 
ing, dissuading, deprecating, or the like, 
joined with Verbs future, Kof, Ne. Gen, 
xiii. 8. xvi. i. xxii. 12. k al. freq. 
Hence bvk seems used as it were rfp^wxo;^, 
Job xxiv. 25, as we sometimes apply an 
if, or a hut, in English, jyho wUi make 
me a liar ^nfe ^HtS tDttn crwrf rff(^f «iy 
•aords to a not, or a don't, i. e. shew them 
to be such as ought not to be uttered, or 
as ought to be interrupted with a donH 
say so. Comp. 2 K. Hi. 13, and see 
Gusset Comment. Ling. Heb. p. 41. 
bn is sometimes used elliptic^Uy, and a 
Verbis to be si^plied, as Amos v. 14, 
Seek good, T) i?Kl and not erii, i. e. seek 
not eviL So i Sam. ii. 24, *31 }m (Do) 
not j(so) my sons. 

2. But rarely, it is negative, Not, no, Non. 
2 K. vi. 27. Prov. xii. 28. Ps. xxxiv. 6. 
1. 3. Comp. Ruth i. 13. 2 Sam. xiii. 16. 
Jer. vii. 6. 

VII. As a Particle before Nouns Vh and in 
Kegim. ^i?« (comp. Job xxix. 19. 2ech. 
ii, 4, or 7.) must^ agreeably to the genius 

of the En^ish language, be rendered dlf> 
ferently, according to the context, but 
•tiQ die attentive reader will discern the 
leading sense throughout. 

1. To, into. Gen. i. 9. Exod. iii. ij. Josh* 
X. 18. Gen. vi. 19. 

2. Among, I Sam. x. 22. Jer. it. 3. Esek* 
ii. 6. 

3. Within, Dent. xvH. 5. 

4. At, near to. Gen. xxiv. 11. Exod:xxfX. X2» 

5. Towards. Exod. xxv. »o. Num. xxiv. i. 

6. Against, in opposition to. Gen. iv. 8. Josh. 
X. 6. Isa. ii. 4. 

7. As to, concerning, quoad, de. Gen. xx. 2. 

1 Sam. i. 27. XV. 35, 2 K.xix.32. Jer. 
xl. 16. 

8. For, because of, on account of, Jud. xxi. 6. 

2 Sam. xxi. i. Comp. i K. xix. 3. 

VIII. bM has sometimes h prefixed, and T 
the hand, power, following, as Gen. xxxi. 

.29, It is^ bw, literally, for, belonging 
tOy the interposition of my hand, i. e. u 

1 interpose my hand, / can — ^LXX, Nuy 
i^^vet ij %cij9> {Mi, Vulg. Valet menus 
mea. The phrase occurs disoDeut.xxviii. 
32. Neh. V. 5. Prov. iii. 27. Mic. u. x. 
And observe, that in the two first of thesa 
passages die expression is eiliptical; in 
the former may be suf^ed, to preomt^ 
help it, or &c ; in the latter, to redeem 
them^ as in our translation^ 

IX. As a N. fern, rhvk A q)ecie8 of oak. 

2 Sam. xviii. o. Isa. i. 30. £f al. fireq. 
plur. masc. Cd«7M occ. Isa. Ivii. 5. in Be- 
gim. >l»» occ. Ezek. xxxi. 14 ; if >^H in* 
this last passage be not a Particle, signi- 
fying by or near, as the LXX understood 
it. The tree may have this name from 
its remarkably interposing and protecting 
men and animals from storms and tem- 
pests. The LXX have once rendered it 
descriptively hy ^v^pn' <rv<rMct^oyhg the 
overshadowing tree, Hos. iv. 13. Comp. 
Ezek. vi. 13. 

X. As a N. p^M Another species of oak. So 
the LXX generally render it by Afu;. It 
is mentioned together with the n^M Issu 
vi. 13. Hos. iv. 13 ; there is therefore 
some particular difi^rence between them, 
though a general agreement in the idea of 
interposing, protecting, or &c. 

XI. Chald. As a N. masc. ^Vh, mdered 
by Thcodotion Asv^pov, and by the Vulg. 
Arbor, a Tree, but conadered as a cor- 
ruption of the Heb. ]^b^^ seems rather ta 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



h^«— ^« 

clenote seme species of oak, Dan. iv. 7, 

. or 10. & al. 

Xll. For Vj«, »5n«, biM, nVik, see under 
root bi«. 

XlU. As a N. i'^M Somaoliat interpoi'mg 
rffectuaUy, defense, aid, assistance, occ. 
Ps. Ixxxviii. $. Thus tlie LXX reader pH 
V'M by aCoij6*j unaided, and VuJg. by sine 
aditttorio without kelp. So fern. plar. 
mrw occ. Ps. xxii. 20, where the LXX 
render the Heb. wV« jjmn in by fwj 
p^cucpuyTfS TTfV ^9rfieixv ^, </«» i?of ^r re- 
tnave tmf help; aod Vulg. ne elongaveris 
auxihum tuum a me, do not rcjnove tht/ 
help/arfrum me, 

XIV. As a N. fem. in Regim. rh^tik Inter* 
vontion. occ. Ps. xxii. i. Comp. under 

XV. As a N. W* A homed animal; an ani^ 
fnal furnished witM horns for Ms defense, 

t. A ram, plur. 0*r«. Gen. xxii. 13. xxxi* 
38. & al. freq. 

%. A stag, hart, or detr. Deut. xii. 1 5. Ps. 
xlii. a. Isa. xxxv. 6. Fem. nW» plur. 
jr\b>H A hind or </oc. Jer. xivi 5. % Sam. 
xxii. J4. Ps. xvui. 34. & al. Ilie UCX 
renders the word, whether masc. or fem. 
by tXapof, which denotes both a stag 
and a kind. Dr. S^ou; (Travels, p. 414. 
ad edit.) understands Vm in Deut.xiv,. 5, 
as a name of the genus, including all the 
Mies of the deer kind, whether they are 
dbtinguished by round horns, as the stag; 
or hy Jiat ones, as theyo/to (fcer; or by 
the smallness of the branches, as the roe. 
But Q? 

XYI. As a N. masc. plur. ID'^» Leaders 
who go before and conduct the people, as 
rams anciently did tlic flocks. Exod* xv. 
15. LXX, kpyfiyrss Rulers J £zek« xvii, 
13. (LXX, Hy^fMyscf Leaders^ Vulg. 
Aiietes Ream) Comp. Isa. Ix. ;« Thus 
Homer speaking of Ulysses marshalling 
the Greeks, XL iii. lin. 196, kc. 

At/rs; ti, xTiXo; wf, tvurwXurai f^x^ aytfwT 
ApiMff fJLiv tywyt uayou mir/tctfjuOO^ttf, 
Or* oiter fjuy» 9vu iup^mu ofytnaun* 

Kor yet appear hit care and conduct amalt; 
From rank to rank he mores and orders all. 
The stately JUm thus measures o*er the ground, 
And, master of the flocks, surveys them round. 


Aristotle, H.A . VL 1 9, says, Ev ixanj yap 
moifim^ xaroccusvAliiiriy 'HPEMONA ro/yj 
9LfpivaiY, i$ irav QfOfhari uXijiyi vt9 th^ 


woijU^vOiT, nPOHrEITAI. In every flock 
they prepare a leader of tlie males, who, 
wlien the shepherd calls him by name, 
goes before them.'* 

XVII. As a N. Vw, and fem. nVw Some 
kind tf tree, perhaps so called from its 
xcide-spreading, aoershadowing branches. 
The LXX render it reos^ivhg, the tur- 
pentine tree. Gen. xiv. o. It occurs also 
Isa. i. ao. Ixi. 3. Gen. xlix. 21, wliich 
last citea verse may best be rendered, after 
the LXX, Nephtali is a tceU'-spread 
or fhurishing tree shooting forth goodly 
branches. See Bochart, vol. ii. 96. Bp* 
Pearson, Praifat. Parwnet. in LXX, and 
Spearman s Letters on the Septuagint, 
Lett. iii. p. 169, and comp. Ps. xxixi 9. 

XVIII. As a N. 7>H, and ^H is mentioned 
as a part of, or appendage to, a building. 
I K. vi. 31. Ezek. xl. 29, & al. fre^. 
Mr. Bate seems to have best explained it 
of the coins of stone, or brick^uork^ ot 
small turrets^ on each side of the door-* 

frames; and to his Crit, Heb. p. ao, I 
refer the reader for further satisfaction. 

XIX. ihn and 'hv^. See the distinct Roots 

bhn occurs not as a V. but hencej^ 

I. As ^Js. b»l?« and b'hH, Nought, nothing, 
vain, nothing-worth, Res niliili. occ. Job 
xiii. 4« Jer. xiv. 14. Zech. xi. 1 7. Tiiis 
application, of tliese reduplicate words 
seems to be taken from that of bt\ VL 

II. As a N. masc. plur. tpW5< and Cd^^Ijh 
is spoken of idols. Vain, worthless ^ things 
of nought i nullities. Lev. xix. 4. i Chrou. 
xvi. 26. Isa. ii. 20. & al. So Montanus 
renders it by inutilia & vana. Comp. 
Acts xiv* ic. I Cor. viii. 4, and Greek 
and English Lexicon in E^^(v\ov III. 

III. .As an ^clamation of grief or distress 
^^» fFo ! alas ! occ. Job x, 1 5. Mica vii. i . 
'b ^ii« Wo to me! Wo is me! I dm or 
shall come to nought I Heu perii ! 

IV. As a N. ini>« Elul. The name of tlic 
sixth month, nearly answering to our 
August, at which season, in Judca and 
the neighbouring countries, the earth is 
burnt up and disoUtc by the summer 
drought SeeKwwers Nat. Hist, oi Aleppo, 
p. 13. occ. Neh. vi. ij. 

With a radical, but mutable r? 
I. As a V. in Kal» To curse, denounce a 
C curse. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




curse, occ. Jud. xvii. 2, where LXX 
Vat. fjis fjpOLCoo thou atrsedst me, Alex. 
s^tvpKicra,^ thon adjwred^t. And this is 
the only undoubted instance I can find 
where this word occurs as a Verb* 
In I Sam. xiv. 24, "hvc mat/ be translated 
either Savl was wilful, selt- willed, foolbh 
xvith (from the root i»«^),or he denounced 
• a curse on, the people, or laid tketn under 
a conditional curse. In the printed edi« 
ticns of the LXX both senses are re- 
tained *. 

n5>« and nii'H Hos. iv. 2. x. 4, may better 
he construed as Nouns than as Verbs. 
TiljMnb 1 K. viii. 31.,may, 
without any difference in the sense, be 
rendered either verbally in Hiph. to 
cause him to swear, or noromally, for his 
oath. As for Deut. xxxii. 17, see under 
st'iise II. 6. 

As a N. n!j« A denoimchig of a curse, 
a curse denoftnced either upon oneself or 
others, or both, so an oath taken or given; 
for what is an oath but a conditional curse 
or execration f ? See inter aU Gen. xxiv. 
41. (comp. ver. 9.) Gen. xxvi. a8. Lev. 
V. I. Num. V. 21, 27. Deut. xxix. 19, 
20, 21. And here it must be observed, 
that the ancient manner of adjuring sub- 
jects or inferiours to any conditions, was 
by their superiours denouncing a curse on 
them in case Ihey violated those condi- 
tions. For proof of this I refer to Gen. 
xxiv.41, Deut.xxvii. 14, & seq. Jer. xi. 2. 
&c. Lev. V. I. Num. v. 19—21. Josli. 
vi. 26. Jud. xxi. 18. I Sam. xiv. 24. 
I K. viii. 31. xxu. 16. Prov. xxix. 24, 
.where our Translators very properly 
render n^H cursing. To this manner of 
swearing our blessed Lord himself sub- 
mitted, Mat. xxvi. 63, 64. 
And, to prevent mistakes, let it be further 
remarked, that when the curse was ex- 
pressed in genera] terms, as cursed be he, 
i.e. whosoever, doth so or so, the su- 
periour, who pronounced it» was as much 
bound by it, as the infetkmr who heard 
it; thus there can be no doubt, but the 

* Kat SflwX HrNOnlEM ArNOIAN fxtyakift n rv 
xixt^ ixtivijf %at APATAI vui Katis — A/ut Saut com- 
mitted a great foHy m t6atdaj,'*mi pronounced a 
curse to tl^e feopU, 

f Tb\l« Flutarcby xffn; cpx«; tt; nat' faf tO.tV'za 
rnj iiriopxMj;. Etfery oath terminates in a ^urse 
upon perjury." (^y^xtl, Rom. torn. ii. p. 275, C. 
Edit. XyLtnJr, 

curses pronounced Deut. xxvii. 14, &c* 
obliged the Levites, who pronounced 
them, and those abo, Josh. vi. 26, and 
I Sam. xiv. 24, obliged Joshua and Saul, 
who pronounced them, as much as the 
. other people. They, therefore, by pn>- 
nounong those curses, sware or took an 
oath themselves. Hence 

II. As a N. masc. plur. tD>nl»« (with the 
rr retained, as in n^noH from non, tviti^i^ 
from ni3, rx)nb:i and ta^nteo from nbs, 
&»ni:j from ni3, Isa, v. 1 5. & al. fnq.) 
The denouncers of a conditional curse. 

I, A name usually given in the Hebrew 
Scriptures to the Ever-blessed Trinity^ by 
which they represent themselves as under 
the obUgation of an oath to perform cer- 
tam conditions, and as having denounced 
a curse on all, men and devils, who d% 
not conform to them. 
What those tenns or ^ndilions were to 
which the Q^rim smare, seems evident 
from Ps. ex. namely, that the Man C^iif 
Jesus, m coDseqnesoe of his humiHatiom 
and sufferings, (vet*. 7. comp. Phil. iL 6, 
10.) sliould be exalted to the right hand 
of God till all his enemies were made his 
Jbot'Stool, (comp. I Cor. xv. ac.) that 
the rod of his strength (his Gospel) skould 
be sent out of Sion ; and that Kw this he 
should rule even in the midst of hu ene* 
mies; that his people [true Christiaiis] 
should iffer themsetoes wilHngly in the or- 
naments of holiness: and that those which 
should be * begotten by bhn to a resur^ 
rection from sin here, and from death 
hereafter, should be more numerous than 
the drops of momtng-dew, (Comp. Isa. 
xxvi. 19.) All this I take to be briefly ' 
comprehended or summed up in that aatk 
of Jehaoah to Christ, ver. 4. Thou art a 
Priest for ever afier the order fi^McIchi- 
sedec, which by interpretation is King of 
Bighteousness, Heb. vii, 2. As a Priest, 
Christ through the Eternal Spirit offered 
himself U'/MoK^ spot to God, Heb. viii. 3. 
xi. 14; as a Priest for ever, he u able to 
save them to the uttermost (Marg. ever- 
more) that come unto God by him, seeing 
he ever liveth to make intercession for them; 
as being after the order o/'Melchisedec, he 
ii King as well as Priest, King of lUghte^ 
ousness, and Kfaig of Peace, Heb. vii. 2. 

imV* Tbj pr^ny. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

iibii il) 


Heoc^ then we learn, that Jehovah swdre 
to Adofd or Christ, (see Matt. ^xii. 4 J.) 
and that this oath had reference to the 
redemption of man by him. The Psalm 
itself does not indeed determitie the time 
rsken this oath Mras pronounced, but other 
Scriptures do. For St. Vdul sav$, that 
Cmsf was mait a Priest^ i. e. aner the 
order of MekkUedec, hy this very oath, 
Heb. vii. 21. But his inauguration to 
the Friesikood and Kingdom was j^no/- to 
the cttotion of the xcorld, Prov. viii, 33, 
at seq. (fbr the use of ^n3Di see Ps. ii. 6. 
and compare John xvn. 34.) Therefore 
* this very oath, recorded in Ps. ex. was 
prior to the creation. Accordingly Je- 
hocak is at the beginning of the creation 
called tD^« Gen. i. i, wliicli hnplies, 
th^t the divine persons had sworn when 
tkey created; it is e\ident ako from Gen. 
iS. 4, $, that both the seipent and the 
woman knew Jehovah by this name, 
Orfm before the fail; and, to cite but 
two passages out of maiiy that might be 
prodoced from tbe New Testament to 
this purpose, St Peter is express, i £p. i. 
18 — 20, that Christ was fore-ordained to 
redeem us — nrpo xaraCoXij^ xoo'^Mt, before 
the foundation of the world; and St. raul 
aflmns, £ph. 1. 4, that God, teen the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, hath 
chosen us in Mm, wpo xaraCoXij^ xQ^fUH, 
before the foundation qfthe world. 
By virtue of this antemundane oath, the 
Man Christ Jesus was enabled to over* 
come the t>evfl and all the enemies of 
tnan, and perfect his redemption; and 
from this oath it was that the Ever-blessed 
fHREE were pleased to ta&e that glorious 
Toad fearful name^ (Deut. xxviii. 58.) 
CD*Pt5« mm Jehovah Aldm; glorious, in 
as mnch as the transaction, to which it 
refers, displays in the most glorious man- 
ner llie attributes of Gbd to men and 
angels; tindfharfui, in as much as^ by 

^ At for the expression concerning the Mftft, Md. 
Vii. 88, 'O y»f9f-~^g hprnfAitetai <nif META njr Wjuw, 
Tlbe mfifrd ff the •ath njobkb -w^ APTER tbe Unv^ 
tH» plainly relates uoi to the ume when the oath 
kas made, but to that in which it was to take effect, 
which was tb be after the cessation of the law. 
Comp.ver. 11, 12, 18. of this chapter, '^ zvbUb 
(reminj Bktond ibe U^r DotUbridgey who adds 
in a note, ** Our Translators render ^m tov vo/uoy 
imee the law. But fMTa often simplifies beywtL 
Qmnp. eh. ix. B, and many other place?-'* 

one part of tlie oatli, eternal and infinite 
p&tL'tr, Jehovah himself, is engaged to 
make the etiemies of Christ his foot- stool, 
Ps. ex. \. 

Let those who, in these days of ArioTf, 
Socinian and Rabbinical blasphemy, have 
any doubt whether Onh^, when mean- 
ing the true God, Jehovah, is plural or 
not, consult the following passages, wbeie 
they will find it joined with Adjectives, 
Pronouns, and Verbs ylural. Gen. i. 26. 
iiik 23. xi. 7. XX. 15. xxxi. 53. xxxv. 7. 
Deut. iv. 7. V. 23, or 26. Josh. xxiv. 19. 
I Saib. iv. 8. a Sam. vii. 23. Ps. Iviii. 
12. Isa. vi. 8. Jer. x. lo. xxiii. 36. So 
Cliald. pni»M Dan. iv. 5, 6, 1 5, or 8, 9, 
18, See also Prov. ix. io. xxx. 3. Ps. 
cxlix. 2. Ecdes. v. 7. xii. i. Job v. i. 
Isa. vi. 3. liv. 5. Hos. xl. 12, or xii. i* 
MaL i. 6. Dan. vii. 1 8i 22, 25.* 
O that the children of Mruham, according 
to the flesh, would attentively consider 
and compare the texts above cited fr6m 
their own Scriptures ! Could they tlicn 
help owning a Plurality of CbWH in 
Jehovah f When they read, for instance, 
Gen. i. 26, that the t3^n!?« said nu^y: 
Li£t us, or WK uill, make Man in OUR 
ifhage, according to OUR likeness — and 
vcr. afj So the tz)^ni»fc^ created R^i Man, 
&c. and compared these words with Ec- 
des.' xii. I, yHy\^ n\k 'IDtl ^Ind remember 
thy Creator S, could they doubt whether 
CD^nbw, as apph'ed by Moies in the his- 
tory of the eteation, denoted a PluraHty 
6f Aeentsf And yet surely, as saith tlie 
Prophet Isaiah, ch. xliv. 24, Jehovah 
stretched forth the heaven^ alone (nib) 
and spread abroad the earth by himself, 
without the aid or connirrenc e of any 
Creature^ how exalted soever. Comp. 
ch. xlii. j;. xlv. ta. 

From this name C3'^«, 6f the true God, 
the Greeks had, by a perverted tradition, 
thehr Zev^ '0(vo$ Jupiter^ who presided 
over oaths. Hence also the corrupt tra- 
dition of Jupiter's oath which over-ruled 
even Fate itself, that is, the fatal and 
necessary motions of the elements of this 
world. This truly did Jehovah Ateim 
when they interposed by miracles; this 

• The reader may find the plurality of CD^nbM 
more fully diicussea and proved in my pamphlec 
. against Dr. Priestley and Mr. fVskefieldy p. S— 9, 
I and p. 148, &c. 

C a will 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




w ill tliey again do in the most glorious 
manner at the recalling of our bodies 
from the ^ve, when the heavens them- 
selves, which are thus necessarily or me- 
chanically moved, shall pass away, and 
the elements melt with fervent heat. 

2. The Messiah seems to be* once called by 
the plural name tD>ni»«, Ps. xlv. 7, 
(comp. Heb. i. 8.) as being, in re8{>ect 
of his regal office, which is the subject 
of the )^m, the Representative of the 
Trinity. So He is in other places styled 
XD'^'nbn XDW (see under tDW IX.) See 
Mat. xxviii. 18. i Cor. xv. aj, and 
comp. Gen. xlviii. 15, 16. £xod.iiL2,4,6. 

3. The ancient Idolaters in general called 
the material heavens, or their representa- 
tives, O^n^H, and accordingly expected 
from them, protection, victory, happiness. 
Hence this glorious Bndfearfvl title is 
frequently claimed for Jehovah in ex- 
clusion of those idols. See inter al. Dent 
iv. 35» 39. vii, 9. xxxii. 1 7. a K. xix. 19. 
Isa. xlv. 14, 21. Jer. ii. ii. Hos. xiii. 4 
And although the heavens are eminently 
dbtingubhed into Jire, light, and spirit, 
and many actions or operations are tm- 
mediately performed by one or two of 
these, yet as the whole celestial fluid acts 
jointly, or all its three conditions concur 
in every eflect; hence lib that the an- 
cient Heathen called not only the whole 
heavens, but any one of its three condi- 
tions, denoted by a name expressive of 
some emuient operation it performs, 
tD^n^M. For they meant not to deny the 
joint action of the whole material trinity, 
but to give it the glory of that particular 
attribute. See Jud. viii. 33. xi. 24. i K. 
xi. 33. 2 K. i. 2. xvii. 29, 33. xix. py. 
and Hutchinson's Trinity of the Gentiles, 
p. 246. and Moses' Suie P. p. 116. 

4. In Ps. viii. 6. xcvii. 7, t3>iiVM has from 
the LXX translation, and from Heb.ii. 6. 
i. 6, been imagined to signify created 
spiritual angels. But sec the former text 
explained under ^Dn L And from the 
whole tenour of Ps. xcviL smd particu- 
larly from ver. 9, it b evident that 
w3>ni'M b^ at ver. 7, means all the Aleim 
of the Heathen, i. e. the heavens in their 
several conditions and operations, which 

* But comp. Gen. xxxii. 25 — Sl. £zod. xxiv. 
9—11, and see Greek and Englhb Lexic$n, 2d edit. 

are indeed the AvysXoi Agents or Mm^ 
sters of Jehovah, Comp. Ps. xcvi* 4, 5, 
J. ts'nbM has been supposed to agnify 
Princes, Rulers, or Judges. £xod. xxi. 6. 
xxii. 8, 9, 28« I Sam. ii. 2$. Ps. Ixxxii 
I, 6. cxxxviii. i. But Gusset (Comment. 
Ling. Heb. p. 48, 9.) more justly, I 
think, rejects thb meaning. Let us re- 
view the Texts. 

Exod. xxi. 6. Then his Master shall bring 
him to the Aleim, i. e. to Jehovah Aleim, 
to the door of the sacred tabernacle; so 
the LXX, lupos to %pirfipiov m Qs8, to the 
tribunal of God. 

Exod. xxii. 8. Then the Master of the house 
shall be brought to the Aleim, (LXX, 
svujitioy ra ©ff«) 9. Even to the Aleim 
(0^n^«n nr LXX syouifioy ra (Beu) shaU 
tlie affair of them two come; whom the 
Aleim shali condemn (LXX, 5 oXou; ha. 
rou 0£ou he who is condemned by God) 
he shall pay double to his neighbour. But 
the oath in thb case was to be brousht 
to the altar of Jehovah AUim^ and J«- 
hovah himself to hear and judge. See 
I K. viii. 31, 2. 

Exod. xxii. 28. Thou shalt not reoUe the 
Aleim, nor curse the Ruler of thy people^ 
Why should not t3>nbK here retain its 
usual meaning, and the text be under- 
stood as nearly parallel to that of St. 
Peter, i Ep. ii. 17, Fear God, honour the 

1 Sam. ii. 25. If man sin against man, tiic 
Aleun shall judge him; but if a man sin 
against Jehovtm, who shall intreat for 
him? Is not this very good sense, and 
much to the purpose? 
Ps. Ixxxii. I. The Aleim stand in the con* 
gregation of God, (i. e. in the assembly 
of Israel, comp. Num. xvi. 3. xx. 4. 
Josh. xxii. 16.) lOBtt^ tD>rTb« T\p^ in the 
midst (of thb congregation namely) the 
Aleim uiU judge, or judgeth. So Sym- 
machus, 6 Qsos Karsr»i ev avvo^tjf 0£if, 
(in coetu Dei, Hieron.) sy /xscroti^ Beo^ 

Ps. Ixxxii. 6. / haoe said ye are Aleim. In 
thb last Text the word CD>nl)H is indeed 
applied to eatihly Magistrates or Judges ; 
but that will never prove (as Gusset i\xs>tiy 
remarks) that the word itself properiy 
signifies Judges or Magistrates; for thus in 
Isa. xl. 7, it is said tDj>n y^n the people 
is grass, yet no one would from heuce 


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^^H— )!?» 

infer tbat "^rm agnifies people. Hie truth 
is, both expressions are only CTnparativt 
or meiaphoricaL And as the latter de- 
notes no more than that there is some 
retemblance between the people and grass, 
so the former imports only that there is 
a resefMance between earthly Jndges and 
the supreme Aleim, whose Vicegerents 
they are, and with whose authority they 
aire in some d^ree intrusted. So that in 
Ps. Ixxxil 6, the Particle 9 like, as, is to 
be understood before ts^^H^ just as it 
plainly is before *iYn> Isa. xl. 6; phinfy, 
I say, for thou^ it b omitted in the 
former member of the sentence, it is 
expressed in the latter; All flesh is ytn 
grass, and aU the goodHness thereof pT!) 
as the flacoer ofthefleld. 
Ps. cxxxviii. J. / will praise thee with my 
VJhele heart; tyrhnk n:il openly or pub- 
iicfy, (Lat coram) O Jleim, vnll I sing 
unto thee. So a Greek version in the 
Hexapla, •acLpfrMia, 0E£, a/rw coi. 
6. It may be doubted whether n^» in the 
singular be ever in the Hebrew (as dis- 
tinct from the Chaldee) Scriptures used 
as a name for Jehovah the true God. 1 
can find but two passages, namely, Deut. 
xxxii. 17. and Dan. xi. 38, where it may 
seem to be thus applied ; and even as to 
these tyrhn ni?H «i> in Deut. may be 
translated. These (were) not Aleim. But 
twenty-three of Dr. Kenmcott^s Codices 
for rhvk here read m^; and in Dan. 
xi. 38, for r^b twenty-two read rri^b. 
rdn in the sinsulary however, is used for 
the foist God of the Chaldeans, Hab 
L II; and (according to the textual 
reading) of the Sepharvites, % K. j^vii. 3 1 ; 
and in the Chaldee Scriptures we have 
not only the plural \*li7A used for the 
true God, Dan. ii. 11. iii. a$. iv. 5, 6, 15. 
but also the singular n^H Ezra v. i. 
vi. 9, 10. vii. la, 15. Dan. ii. 28, 45. 
Sc al. and in the emphatic form (sing, J 
Hnhn Ezra Iv. 24. v. 8. vi. 7. Dan. ii. 20. 
ui. 26. & al.* 
III. As a Partidpie, or participial N. pas- 
iive mi»H (formed like nin:! Ps. cxxxviii. 

• Id Capt. C«(uPt Yoj^gt to the Pacific Ocean, 
vol. i.^p. 404, we £nd tlmt ** the jyfrfme G^d of 
Hafate (one of the Fr'umdly Islands) it called AU^ 
AU/* Could they have got this same from any 
of the Mahometans T Or must we refer it to a 
higher and more ancient origin ? 

6.) One accursed or subject to a curse, 
EffDcaraparos : and such, the Redeemer, 
condescended to become for us. For 
Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of 
tlie law, being made a curse, xarafa, 
for vs. For it is written, cursed, vgiKo," 
rapsLtos, is every one that hangeth on a 
tree, Gral. iii. m. ' This, then, is a title 
of Christ, God'Man. See Deut. }uxii. 
15. Job xvL 20. xix. 25 — 27. And 
it is justly remarked by Mn Bate, that 
as ^< the Scriptures frequently cballcaige 
the title of Aleim to Jehovah, against the 
Heathen Gods, so do they this title of 
Alue/' See Ps. xviii. 32. Isa. xliv, 8. 

IV. As a N. fern. sing, in Reg. nb»n, A 
curse, occ. Lam. iii. 65. 

V. As a N. fem. smg. n4« T1i€ large 
rump or tail of the eastern sheep. It 
might be so called from its primitive use 
in sacrifice, which probably was to be 
devoted to, and consumed by the fire, 
as we find it always was by the Levitical 
law. Mr. Bate deduces it from T)h to 

finnish, dropping tlie ^ as, usual after a 
formative, or servile H; for my own part 
I would rather refer it to rxh to join, add, 
adhere, which therefore see. 

I. A Particle^ from h\^ interpose, and 1 it, or 
from tD« if (droppmg the O), and ^b 
of nearly tne same import If, supposing, 
posito qu6d. occ. Ecdes. vi. 6. £sth. 
vii. 4. 

n. Chald. the same as 11« which see, by 
changing ^ into b, See^ behold, lo. Dan. 
ii. 31. 3c al. 

In Arabic signifies To grow sour and cor* 
rupted, as milk does by an acescent fer- 
mentation. In Heb. it occurs not as a 
y. in Kal, but in Niph. To be corrupt 
in a moral or spiritual sense, to be tainted 
or leavened with corrupt ion i occ. Job 
XV. 16. Ps. xiv. 3. liii. 4. Comp. £xod. 
xii. 15, &c. T Cor. v. 6, 7, 8. Mat. xvL 6. 

A Particle compounded of H Ah ! hah ! a 
natural exclamation of grief, and ^b to me. 
Ah me! Hence, like ^H Prov. xxiii. 3^9, 
and ^n £zek. ii. 10, it is once used as a 
N. Joel i. 8, There s/ioti be ah me! (L e. 
lamentation) as of a virgin, &c. See . 
more in Mr. Bate* % Scripture meaning 
of Aleim and Berith, p. 17, iS. 

C3 l5i« 

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Chald. As a Pronoun, tbe $aine n3 the Heb. 

n!)M, These, those. Dan. iii. 12. & al 

I. To compress, const ringe, press, or 
clos» together. Gen. xxxvii. 7, As a N. 

■* hihtk A bundle or «^e(^ of com. Gen. 
xxxvii. 7. Ps. cxxvi. 6. Hence by trans- 
position the Greek ofjMXKx a bundle, 
afjuxXXsvw, &c. 

II. As a N. tD^A A band of men, mani" 
puius. Conip. mi« under n:H III* occ 
Ps. Ivi. I*. Iviii. 2. 

In the rendering of tbe former passage, 
5a^ Mr. Fenxdck, ** 1 am for agreemg 
with those who translate oh^ h^v op- 
pressionem manipuli, the oppression of the 
handful; but would understand |his hand- 
jvl to mean, somewhat differently, the 
kandfd, or little flock of true bieuevers 
dispersed and distressed among the Gen- 
tiles, the to^rri* those that were afar 
off, in the language of the Apostle; 
which agrees with the rendering of the 
LXX, tiie people that were far aieo 
rttiv iyiwy from holy things. For it 
seems to be this little flock of true be- 
lievers among the Gentiles, which here, 
under the figure of David, praying for 
deliverance from the Philistines, accord- 
ing to the latter part of the title, ispray- 
mg for protection and deliverance from 
their oppressors.** Thoughts on the He- 
brew Titles of the Psalms, p. 59, 60. In 
Ps. Iviii. 2, }dhtk is of doulitful significa- 
tion. The LXX render it as a Particle, 
apa indeed, so Vulg. utique. Perhaps it 
is put for CD^b» Qi/e mighty! 

III. As a N. tsbM Silevtt, mute, Exod. iv. 1 1. 
It al* As a V^ in»iph. To be silent or 
mute. We have the idea plainly given 
Ps. xxxi, 19, TheUps of falsehood r\^i:h^T\ 
shall be cbmpvessed, 1. e. squeezed close 
together, so as not to iitter a word. So 
Virgil, Mxi. vi. lin. 155, 

Pressoque obmutuit ore. 
She ceaa*d with mouth conprest. 

And Horace y Ub. i. sat. 4. 1. 138, 
Compmsis — labrU. 

IV. As Ns. tD^K, tD^lH and XD^Vk, An 
arch or vault, an arched porch, or por^ 
tico, formed by stones closely bound or 
compacttd togemer. See i K, vi. and vii. 
|:zek. xL 

V. As a N. fan. plwr, rx\^tf^V(ttdtedp9r^ 
ficoes or pakce^. occ. Isa. xiii^ 22. ^sek, 
xix. 7. 

VI. tSTtkt A Particle expreastve offimmus 
or cosjfidence. Yet notxoUhstandmg,, but 
truly. Gen. xlviiL 19. Job xiii. %. 

VII. As a N. fem. niDl»« Widowed, a 
widow, quat, amissa ja^i viro^ constrkto 
est utero, whose womb k dosed hj the 
^oss of her husband. Gen. xxxviu. 1 1. 
2 Sam. xiv. j. i K. xi. 26. As a N. 
fem. m^D^H JVidowhood. Gen. x&xviii. 
14, 19. Isa. liv. 4. As a N. poVn The 
same. occ. Isa. xlvii. 9. ph^ is once used 
as a V. spealdng of Israel and Judah, 
considerea as having the Aleim for their 
^usband. Jer. li. j. For Israel )d^ mV 
is not widowed or left as a widow^ nor 
Judah, of his Aleim. So LXX, e^piU" 
^ey, and Vul^ fuit vidoatus. C<Mnp. Isa. 
liv. 4 — 6, Ixii. 4, C. 

VJII. ^ipl>», from a>H silent, (of the like 
form as >;ibnK from OIn), Passed offer in 
siknfie, not expressed. It is used instead 
of naming the perso.n or ^iqg alluded 
to, Such an one. occ. Ruth ^v. \, (where 
LXXy Kpv(pis unktfovml 1 Sam. xxl s, 
or 3. 2 K. vi. 8, 

Der. The Latin Alumcn, and Eng. Alum^^ 
from its eminently astringent quality; so 
Alum is called in Greek rvtlf^pia, ixom, 
S'V(fw to astringe. 

I. An oak. So under 7H^. 

II. Chald. As a Pron. jb« and r^» from 
the Heb. rh% Tlic^e, those, Dan. ii. 44^ 
vi. 6. & al. 

It denotes being chief, principal, leader. 

I. As a N. F]"jV», plur. C3WH and tD'th^, 
A chief, a chieftain, a head-man, a leader. 
It is very frequently used in Gen. xxxvi. 
for the chiefs or heads of the families of 
£dom, and is not badly rendered in our 
version Dukes. The LXX generally 
translate it 'Hyfi/jtc^y, and once, Micah 
vii. 5, 'Hy8/x€vo^, which from iJyeo/Atfi 
to leadf lead t/ie way, eiv^ the idea of the 
Hebrew. See Jer. xiii. 21. Zecb. ix. 7. 
xii. s, 6. A guide, Prov. ii. 17. Jer. 
iii. 4. Micah vii. 5. Ps. Iv. 14. (comp. 
2 Sam. xvi. 23.) and so Diodati renders 
it, Prov. xvi. 28. xvii. 9, by U conduit, 
tore, which in a note he explains by ilpid 
qffidato andcoj che serve di consigUo ordi- 


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OK— T^« 

Mario tf» ogni d^colid e perpkisitd, t&e 
•oiltnMty friend who is one's usual coun- 
sellor in every difficulty and poplexity/' 
aodiefiento Pa. !▼. 14. Micah vii. 5. 

Q.AsaN.v^ A d^ or principal nwnbfr, 
Btkouumd. finecuocc So the Greek term 
XiXioi aeenia a derhrative from Heb. nh^ 
to comoLetty aad Lat mille from vho to 
flL vpM in Heb. like the conrespondrat 
words in odier lao^ages, is frequently 
Matdfoirnnmd^Smiefy gnat number. See 
Exod. XX. 6. xxxif. 7. Deut L ii. Job 
iz. 3. xxxia. 23. Ps. Ixxxiv. 1 1. xd. 7. 
Ecdes. vii. 19. i Chron. xvL 15. As a 
Ftertic^>le lem. phir. in Hiph. mb^D 
iq. d. mai^cantes) Bringing fortk thou- 
amir, occ Ps. cxliy. 13. 

m. Aa aN. f^, phir. C3t)^ and in Re- 
giin. "filVn Anox ot beeve^ the chief of 
all cattle, and indeed of all dlsos beasts. 
Ps. viiL 8. cdtv. 14* Jer. xL ig, Bui I 
9tuUhe a lamb for) ^^ an ox^ that is 
bnmgki to the sloMghier. << A pioverbial 
9eecb," says Mr. Lawlk, << eifnipssing a 
/alteoeaaityofinienmbiiitif of danger. See 
Prov. vii. i»«— That phrase. He is brought 
as a imnb to the slaughter^ Isa. liiL 7, b 
of a dU^uent imfi^rtance'' [^' meekly 
submitting to the violence of his perse- 
ctttoD, and not offera^ to make the 
least resntance'']. ''BwMrt supposes the 
word Alhiph to be an adjective, and 
leaders the former part of the sentence 
thus, I was brought as a tame sheep to 
the daughter. But we may very well 
admit ^ the common tranalation, the 
disjunctive particle being elsewhere un- 
derstood, astV-lxix. 21. ba. xxxviil 14.'' 
Thus fiur Mr. Lofwth, I add, that in the 
former editions of this work, I had on the 
authority of the LXX and Vulg, ren- 
dered »p^ tt^id^, Hke a gentle or tract- 
able lamb. But 1 now give up this inter 
pretatioo, because it does not so well 
acree with the import pf the Hebrew 
^ as the other. 

^Vm pkir. in Reg* includes the female as 
well as the male. Deut. vii. 13, xxviii. 4. 
fc^i. laPs. 1. 10, ¥^\k seems used as a 
colkctioe N. fpH ^m on the mountains 
for beeves, i. e. where they feed. 
Hence Greek EXsfas an "Elephant. Thus 
we are informed bith by P/itVty and Varro, 
that the first time the Romans saw Ele- 
phants, which happened in Jjucania, 

they called them Lvcas Boves, Lu- 

IV. As a V. To lead, guide, teach, occ. 
Job XV. 5, For thv iniipdty guideth thy 
mouth, I e. out 01 the abundance of thy 
wicked heart thy mouth speaketh. Job 
xxxiii. 33, Be silent and I will teach 
thee wMom. Job xxxv. 11, l^&bo (for 
l^fiiwD, the M bemg dropped, comp. 
Grammar § vii. 15.) Teadung us more 
than the heaatotf the earth. InaNipb. 
or passive sense, Prov. xxii. a;, r^nn \si 
vrr\mvt Lest thou be taught, learn, or, be 
led into his wt^. 

V. For ni^bn see among the Pluriliterals 

To urge, tease, distress. So LXX, sre- 
voxo/^o-fK. Once Jud. xvi. 16. Tiie 
word has the same sense in Chaldee and 
Svriac; and hence the Greek ^Au;, trou- 
bie, anxiety, ql^jd^cuj to be troubled, an- 
xious, oAvo^flMva; to be grieved; hence 
also prefixing d, the L^itin moles, trouble, 
difficulty ; whence molestuSp troublesome, 
and £ng. molest. 

To support, sustain, confirm. It occurs not as 
a V. but wfe may collect this meaning 
from the things to which it is applied. 

I. As a N. fem. plur. mzM Fosts, pillars, 
supporters. Isa. vi. 4. 

II. As a N. fem. tSM A mother, eitlier from 
supporting the child in her womb, or af- 
terwards in her arms. Gen. ii. 24* & al. 
freq. Hence, 

III. A mother, in honour or dignify, a prO" 
tectress, governess, instructress, Jud. v. 7. 
Ck>mp. Uu, xlix. 23, andundern^MlV.4. 

IVf A metropolis, or mother^ty. 2 Sam. 
XX. 19, Jer, XV. 8, 

V. The mother of a way, the place where a 
way parts into several. £zek. xxi. 21. 
But this J take to be a Chaldee applica- 
tion of the word. 

VI. As a N. fem. now, plur, nD« and 
moK, A family t race, or paiion, whose 
members are consociated, and mutually 
support each other, occ. Gen. xxv. 16. 
Num. XXV. 15. Plur. masc. o^k occ. 
Ps. cxvii. I. 4 

Chald. MDH The same. Dan', iii. 29. 
Plur. masc. emphat i^DM. Ezra iv. 10. 
Dan. iii. 4. Be al. 

* See Greei and £ti£. Lexicon under BXi 4m>7i 0;. 
C 4 VII. As 

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VII. As a N. fem. now That part of a marCs 
arm which ^//);;or^« him in leaning or 
lolling, a posture much used by the East- 
ern nations on their divans ; or sophas to 
this day. (Comp. under no:).) So the 
Latin cubitus, the lower part of the arm, 
is derived from cubo, to lie, recline. The 
Heb. nD« in Regim. is once used in this 
view, Deut^iii. ii, ti^« noHi after the 
cubit of an (ordinarv} ntan, not of sitch 
a giant as Og there mentioned. Comp. 
Kev. xxi. 17. What was the length 6r a 
cubit in this sense, it is of consequence to 
determine as accurately as may be. Tak- 
ing therefore the average lieight of man- 
kind at five feet eight inches (which, in 
the temperate climates, is, I believe, 
nearly tlie tnith) 1 measured a well-made 
man of that height, and found the Icrwer 
part of his arm from the tip of his elbow 
to the aid of his middle fvger to be 17J 
inches, (which are also very nearly equal 
to the Roman cubit). Such therefore I 
apprehend to be the length of the Heb. 
^c« when used, as it generally is, for 
the cabit-measure, and this wbs what a 
Hebrew cubit was usually estimated by 
learned men, fill Bishop Cumberland in 
1686 published lib Essau on Jewish Mea- 
sures and Weights, This able and Inge- 
nious writer thought he had discovered 
the true quantity of the Hebrew atbii 
in that of the Egyptian, and he brings 
strong evidence to prove this latter to ho 
very, nearly equal to 21^ inches. Assum- 
ing then for the present this hypothesis, 
let us attend to the consequence of it. 
We are informed by the sacred historian, 
X Sam. xvii. 4, and that without any 
variation in the Hebrew codices examuied 
by Dr. Kennicotl, that the height of Gd- 
Hath was six cubits and a span. Now a 
span (4T)t) or the dbtance a middle-sized 
man can measure with his thumb and 
little finger expanded is somewhat less 
than nine inches, Goliath, tiierefore, on 
the present supposition, must have been 
full eleven feet eight inches high, A giant 
indeed ! and such as it is not easy to be- 
lieve ever lived upon earth, notuitlistand- 
ing the marv'cllous stories which have 
been propagated, of giants still much 
taller; which stories (such of them I* 
mean as were not mere lies) have chiefly 
arisenfrom ignorantl^ supposing the bones 

of ^elephants, or other large Hfibnak c^ 
gpd, up in different coontries, to have been 
%o9e of human beines. 1 have above in- 
timated that one of the preoHses from 
which Bp. Cymberlamd drew his eonclu'* 
sion of the Hebrew culdt bemg nearly 
21-fg hidies was, that this iSbit wa9 
the same as the Egyptian, But is it not 
equally reasonable to suppose that the 
cMi which the Htbrew^ used, at least 
among themselves vdien residmg in the 
land of Goshen, was different f^Mn that 
of the Egyptians, and the same as they 
liad brought with them from Canaan? 
This is not a proper place to enter at 
large into the controversy; bat I must 
say that the 'Bishop's reasons for the 
contrary opinion do not seem to me suf- 
ficiently strong to support such a monster 
as Go/m^A must have been, if raeasared by 
a cubit equal to the EgyptioM. Besides, 
froTtk a comparison of Exod. xxxvii. i, lo, 
with Josephus, Ant. lib. iii. cap. 6. § 5, 6, 
it is certain that this Jewish historian, 
who surely was as likely to understand 
tlie length of the Hebrew cubit as any 
.writer of the 1 7th century, — it is cer- 
tain, I say, that Josephus reckons the 
Hebrew or Mosaic cubit to be equal to^ 
two ctfiSxiJt^ai or spans, that is, to some- 
what less than eighteen incites. I state 
it at I yl inches. And on this last esti- 
mation Goliath was not quite nine feel 
six inches high. But even this makes him 
so tall, that I can meet but with very 
few authentic accounts of men who cani 
be compared to him. 

'^ The tallest man that hath been seen in 
our days," says fP/iwy, " was one named' 
Gabara [no (foubt from Arab. *i^i strong'\ 
who, in the days of Claudius, the late 
emperor, was brought out of Arabia : 
he was nine feet nine inches high." 

" Vitellius sent Darius the son of Artaba- 
nus an hostage to Rome with divers pre- 
sents, amongst which there was a man 
seven cubits, or tetifeet two inches high, a 
Jew bom ; he was named Eleazar, and 
was called a giant by reason of his 

* Sec Joneses Physiological Disquisitions, p. 421, 
&c. and comp. EmycU^d, B titan, in GIANT. 

f N»t. Hist. lib. vii. c 16, cited by tVanlty in 
his Wonders of the h'ttle World, p. 44. 

\ Josephus Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 6. (c. 5. § 5. Edit. 
Hudionj cited by WanUy, p. 46. 


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Mawlaj who succeeded J^^us Upsiw as 
profasor of history in the ynivenity of 
Lofdm ^9 99StrtSy that m the year 1583 
he himself saw in Fhmoe a Framing who 
exceeded nise feet in height 

f^ DeHo," says t Cdbif^^ '' i^brms that m 
X STSy he saw at Rokan a native of Pre- 
moni aboTe nine feet high.^ And again^ 
^ In the 'year 1719, near SaUstmry in 
Eii^aad> a humaa Aeleton was iound 
whKh was nine feet four inches bmg:'* 
and for this he qaotes the (French) Ga- 
xette of Oct. 1719, 21 Sept, art firom 

f^ Beamusl saw a man near ten feet, and a 
woman that was JuU ten feet in height" 
These are the most remarkable mstances 
of gigantic stature I have been able to 
col)ect> and may serve to render tiiat of 
Gotiathf as above stated, not incredible. 
The curioiis reader will probably be able 
to- add otheis. 

The Heb. pkir. of HDM is mO» fcm. frecj. 
oec hot the Ohaldee for aihits (plur.) is 
}*oit masc. occ. Ezra vi. 3. Dan. iii. i. 

VUI. As a N. fem. in R^im. noM 

). Coi^irmafyn, or (as&g. transl.) estO' 
biiiknentf % Chron. xxxii. x. Comp. 
% K. XX. 19. 

J. Fhrameu, stMHty, certainty ^ truth. See 
Gtn. xxiv. ny. xlii. 16. Prov. xi. 18. 
Eccles. T^u 10. Isa. xxxix. 8, (where Vi' 
triiiga statns stabil^, a settled or stable 
state) Jer. xiv. 13. 

IX. As a Partide, tSH, denoting the suppo- 
sition on which the trutli of a proposition 
is sustmnedy or the truth and firmness of 
the proposition itself. 

I. If supposing that, Deat. viii. 19. fc al. 
freq. It precedes an aposiopesis or ellij^sis, 
Exod. xxxii. 3a, And now C3« if thou 
•srilt forghe their s'm — ^whcre ive may 
suppry it is well, or do so; and if not, 
Zee. Comp. Dan. iii. 15. Luke xiii. 9, 
and Greek and Eng. Lexicon in ICav L 

a. Since. Ecefc. xxxv. 6. 

3, Aft/tough, though, Dcut. xxx. 4. Job 
XX. 6. Isa. i. 18. Jer. xiv. 7. xv. i. & al. 

4. Affirmative/ 7n truth ycertainli/, IIos. xii. 

• Cosmograpb. Pnrtc I. lib. iii. cap. HjdtecTby 
Leigh in his Analecta Cacsarum Roman, p. *i6*5. 

f Dictionary in (Jianit. 

I Wonders of Nature and Art, vol. ii. p. 268, 
taken, I believe, from Phil. Trafls. No. iJGO. 

It, or i«. Ps. exxxh. ig. That in truth. 
Gen. xxxi. ja. 

5. Of interrogation or doubt. Whether, if 
truly- f Venunne? ©en. xvii. 17. Cant. 
viL 12. When there are two members in 
the question, the former is preceded by 
n, the latter by tsjt, as Gai. xxviL ai. 

6. C3M m swearing dmieth. Thus z Sam. 
xxx. 15, SToear, rt^wn (see ^^m) to 
me by ike Aleim ^>mDn tD», if thou shalt 
put me to death, or pkdge thy interest in 
the Aleim" s favour, if thou shalt kill me, 
i. e. swear tiiat thou wOt not. So i K. 
i. 51. Comp. Ps. cxxxii. 3, 4. 

— tokfn^rr* TI Jehocah livcth, if such or such 
a tiling be done, i. e. Jehovah Hveth to 
witness and avenge it or the like, (see 
Jer. xKi. 5.) if it fc done; or, As sure as 
Jehovah trceth/it sliailfio^ be done, i Sam. 
xiv. 45. xix. 6. & al. freq. Comp. Ezek. 
xiv. 20. 

7. vh tDM If not, in swearing and speaking, 
qffirmeth. As — »?> t3» mm t3te ♦iW m 
I live, saith Jehovah, if it shall not Imp- 
pen, i. e. As sure as I Hve, it shall. Num. 
xiv. a8. Ezek. xvil. 19. Josh. xiv. 9. 
Num. xiv. 3 J. Tsa, v. 9. i K. xx. 23. 

X. This Paitide tz^tt is joined with *t^, *)U^ 

and >D. 
tZ3M *l^ Until, q. d. until iiiis supposition may 

be made. Gen. xxiv. 19, 33. 
tD« im» ^^ Till (the time that). Num. 

xxxii. 17. Gen. xxviii. ij. Isa. vi. 11. 
CD« ^3 I. For or because in truth, or ccr- 

tainly. Lam. v. 22. Prov. xxiii. i8. 

2. But in truth, but certainly. Gen. xxxii. 27. 

1 Sam. xxi. 5. 

3. When in truth, when indeed, Exod. xxii. 
22, or 23. 

Der. Mamma, from tDk« a mother, Lat. 
amo, to love, whence amiable, amour, &c. 

Occurs not as a V. and the ideal mean- 
ing is uncertain; but as a N. with a 
radical, though mutable, n, rrovk' A maid- 
servant, a female sl^ve, a bond-maid. Gen. 
xxi. 10. (Comp.Gal.iv.30.) Lev. XXV. 44. 
& al. freq. That the n is radical in this 
word is evident from its hciiis; constaatiy 
retained in the plural, which is alwa/s 
written mriDK, or nmDW, as Gen. xx. 1 7. 

2 Sam. vi. 20, never niD» or nD« ; and 
that the n is mutable, appears because in 
the sing, when in llegim. it is constantly 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

PH— ^D« 



chan^ into r\, at Geo. xxL u. xxi. 3. 
The Spaniards still retain Jmm, (I sup- 
pose mm the Moors) ioxdnrnd-Bervant, 
a mrse. See Tkamainn. Glooar. Heb. 

T# langvisk, be weak orfe^k^ pine tmay, 
as for want of proper supplies of ivp- 
port or nourUhmmU. occ. Ejsek. xvi. 30. 
But may we not with HoMgani tnaa- 
late, How shall I circumcise thy heart? 
A Greekversion in Montfaucon's Hexapla 
lias fm xa,6apM) — ; with what shall I 
cleanse — ? So Vulg. In quo mundabo'^ f 

V?DH To be extremefy weak, languishing, 
or feeble, tojfail, it is spoken of men, Ps. 
vi. 3. Neh. iv. s.r-of a woman, i Sam. 
ii.5.Jer.xv.9.— of the terraqueous globe, 
Isa, x&iv. 4. — <^ trees, Isa. xxiv. 9. Joel 
L 12.— of oily Joel L 10.-— of walls and 
gates, Jer. xiv. a. Lam. ii. 8. 
Hence 6r. a^Lokos and o/x^Av; weak, 

Denotes steadiness, stability, constancy. 

L To make steady, occ £xod* ,xvii« 12, 
^y)DH IT ^m And his hands were stea- 
died, LXX BfT/^y^^yoA, Yug. transl. 
steady; in which passage, as in many 

, others, observe, that >rr is used imperso 
nally, as it were, with a plural Noun like 
the French, II y a, or Jlu avcnt, and that 
the sing. rr^IDH is joinea with the plural a distrUnUive sense, q. d. Each of 
his hands was steadied. €omp. Ps. xix. 
8, 0. in Heb. Isa. Ix. 4, Thy sons shall 
be brought from far, and thy daughters 
iDDHn ^ hp shall be supported, carried 
at the side. Comp. Isa. Ixvi. 12. So 
Sir John Chardin says, that '^ it is tl^ 
general custom of the East to carry their 
children astride 4ipon the hip with the 
arm round the body/' Bishop Lowth*s 

Cant. vii. i, pVk >T Hands pf steadiness, 
steady, or perhaps constant, persevering 
hands. Comp. Sense III. 

n. As a N. fem. pL m^DH Stays or props 
m buildmg, LXX sryipiyiuva,, Targ. 
H^lpO Thrtsholdsg- which do indeed t(eep 
the door-posts steady, and may be the 
hieaning of the Heb. word, occ t K. 
xviii. 16. 

III. In Niph. To be steady, stable, constant, 
settled, established, confirmed^ Spoken of 
waters constantly flowing^ Isa. xxxiii. 16. 

Jer. XT. i&<— of a house or kingdotn» 
% Sam. vii. 16. i K. xi. 38. Comp. 
% Chnm. XX. so. Isa. vii. 9.— of words, 
Geo. xlii. so.— of a Preset, i Sam. 
iii. ftO.«— of plagues, Deut. xxviii. $9. 
As a N. fem. n^lDM and in Reg. roiOM 
Stability, security. Isa. xxxiii. 6. P». 
xxxvii. 3, (where 1 is understood before 
rr^IDH, insecurity; Symmachus, Ai^ysxa;! 
amtimtally). Also, J set, stated office^ 
I Chron. ix. ai, 26, 31. % Chron. 
xxxi. 15. As a N. fem. n^DM A con- 
slant, stated allowance, occ Neh. xi. 23. 

IV. As a N. pH Steadiness, stability , faitk' 
fulneu., Deut xxxii. ao. Isa. Ixv. 16. 
As a Particle ofqfirmation or consent. It 
is true, be it so. Amen. Deut xxvii. x j. 
Num. v. 22. I K. i. 36. As a partia- 
pial N. pDM Steady, faithfuL occ. Jer. 
ui. 1$, where it is opposed to deserters. 
}DlO Nearly the same See Num. xii. 7. 
Deut. vii; 9. i Sam. iL 3$. xxii. 14* 
Prov. xi, I J. ArNs. fem. T^^D^k Faith' 
fulness, ^fidelity, i Sam^ xxvi. a^. a K. 

xii. 15. n^iDK Nearly the same. See 
Ps. Ixxxix. 25. Isa. lix. 4t Jer. t. i, 3. 
As Particles, n^DM (perhaps 1 being un- 
derstood) In faith, or truth, truly, occ. 
Gen. XX. 12. Josh. vii. 20. With a ser- 
vile C3 final, (see Grammar, § ix. 8, 6.) 
tD^OH Faithfully, trul^. Gen.,xyiii. 13. 
Num. xxii. 37. & al. treq. 

V. It is particularly applied to the constant, 
stated care or attendance of a nurse, or 
nursing-fiitlier, on a child. To tendy take 
care rf, in thb sense occ. £sth. ii. 7; 
where {DM may be considered either as a 
participle beuoni in Kal, or as a N. As 
a participle paoul masc. plur. D^^obl 
Tended, nursed. So LXX, rAyow^LBv^i, 
and Vulg. qui 'iiuiriebantur. occ. Lam. 
IV. J. As a N. \0\^ A nursing' or foster- 

father, occ. Num. xi. 12. Comp. a K. 
X. I, J. Isa. xlix. 23. Fcm^ niOH A 
nurse, occ. Kutb iv. 16. 2 Sam. iv. 4. 
As a N. fem. mo^ A nursitig or foster- 
ing, a being nursed or fostered, occ. Kstli. 
ii. so. Ai a N. poH A nurse-f^hild, a 
darling, occ, frov. yiii. 30. Comp. 
John i. 18. 

VI. It denptes the ttoMUly or steady resting 
of the mind on a persoi^ qjc tiling. So 
as a V. in Hiph. To belifixe,^ trust, rely or 
depend v^. It is ^nerally followed by 
the Particles 1 or i», but i^ot always, freq. 

■ occ. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




occ See Geo. xv. 6. xlr. a6. Exod. 
w. 5. Deut. xxviiL 66. Jud. »« so. 
VIJ. As a N. poM ^trnm, au Egyptian idol; 
weli known to the Greeks by this name. 
Thus Herodotus, lib. ii. cap. 42. *^ Ajct- 
f«ry yap AiyvitTioi xaXgaa-i 'fov ^a. For 
the Egyptians call Jupiter, Amnnm;* so 
jyiodorm Sic, Ub. Lp. 12. ^* Ata, rov 
i-go rivwt Aftjxa;ya wpocrcvyopiw^ov, 
JnpiteTy by some called Ammon;'' and 
flutarck (De Isid. & Osir.tom. ii. p«354. 
edit Xf^dri) observes, that '' many were 
of opiniouy ihov wap Aiywitriois ovof/M 
m SiQ$ sivdu roy AfMty, 6 vro^wyoytss 
'^yMs Aftfuc/ya A^Ojxcy, that among the 
Egyptians the proper name of Jupiter 
was 40NM* of which we ^Greeks) have 
made Amman.'* This idol according to 
Herodotus (as above) was represented 
with the h^d or &ce of a ram, and 
seems to have denoted the Sun, consi- 
dered as earning the northern hemi- 
sphere, and entering ^itp the sign of 
Aries or the Ramt and -so, to adopt the 
expressions of the learned Jfablmski*, 
*^ commencing the gladsome spring, and 
cheridiing that part of the globe, which 
we inhabit, with pew light and new 
heat." (Comp. Lex. under 13 11.) poM 
then considered of flebrew origin, 
though with a dialectical corruption, de- 
potes the dierisMng or fostering iStf^, who 
w^s particuhu-ly worshipped at fhebes 
the t anciently famed metropolis of Up- 
per E^pt, and who had there a most 
inagnihceut temple mentioned by Hero- 
dolus, Diodorus Sic. (whom see as above) 
and by Artapanus in Euscb, Pneparat. 
{Ivang. lib. ix. cap. 27 . Of this temple 
there are remaiumg to this day prodi- 
gious ruins, which extend near half a 
mile in length, and serve to confirm the 
wonderful accounts, which the ancient 
writers, and particularly IHodorus Sic. 
give ^f its grandeur, as may be seen in 
J^oco(Jc€*s and Norden'9 Travels, and in 
SffDary*% Ijeltres sur TEgypte, torn, ii. 
icttre 9. Now fron^ Diodoms we learn 

• " Vtr Isctusimum avspicatury ISf illam orh'tt par' 
pim quam tun thhahittuRUi^ novl luce novoque calore 
rcc'tfat.'* Pantheon -flE^)rpt. lib. ii. cap. 2. % 6. 

f Sec Htmery U. ir. ha. 38 J, and Mad. D'Atier\ 
and lAr. Fopeh note* there. Goguet\ Origin of^, &c. vol. ii p. 138. Eng. edit. Tacit us , AnuaL 
Ijb. ii- cap. OO. 

thsd the same city which the Greeka 
named Thdes, the Egyptians called the^ 
City of Jtmiter, in Gkeek ^otrmXAs ; 
and accordingly we find it mentioned^ 
Nahum iiL 8, by its Egyptian name, 
XM^t^ kO, that is, the katntation of Amun, 
the Egyptian iu» or according to fourteen 
of Dr. Kenmcott's Ck>dices m^, bein^ put 
by a I dialectical variation for the Heb. 
m^. So LXX, Mept^a Af^Lfuiry the por^ 
tionorpessession of Amman . Itiselsewhere 
called absolutely M, but with an implied 
reference, no doubt, to the great Amun, 
supposed there to reside in his temple. 
Thus Jehovah threatening Egypt, Jer. 
xlvi. 25, says, I mn going to visits i. e. iu 
wrath and desolation, too pDM (or ac- 
cording to fifteen of Dr. Kentucott's Co- 
dices, mud) Amun of No, i. e. the idol 
there worshipped. (Comp. Jer. Ii. 44.) 
See Ezek. xxx. 14, 15, 16, and observe 
that in these three verses the city H2, or 
in Dr. Kennicotfs Various Readings uti^. 
No, is thrice mentioned, and that in the 
14th and 1 6th verses the LXX render it 
by AiO(nto\is the City of Jupiter. As for 
the word pon Ezek. xxx. 15, I thmk 
that it is rightly rendered by the LXX 
ro wXrfiog, and by the Vulg. multitudi- 
nem the multitude, as in our translation, . 
and that it refers to the remarkable po- 
pulousness of the ancient No, Diospolis or 
Thebes, to which Homer and Diodoruf 
have bom witness. 
Der. Amen, Lat. and Eiig. Omen, from 
its supposed truth, whence ominous, Lat. 
Amnis a river, which, according to Ho- 
race, lib. 2. epist. ii. lin. 43. 

Labitur et labetur in oinne volubilis xvum, 
. Still glida along, and tvill for roer giide. 

Comp. Isa. xxxiii. 16. Jer. xv. 18. 

I. In Kal, To be strong, vigorous, in body 
or mind. Gen. xxv. 23. 2 Sam. xxii. 18. 
Deut. XX xi. 6, 7, 23. & al. Also, To 
make strong, invigorate. Job iv. 4. Ps*. 
lxxxix.-22. Prov, xxxi. 17. Isa. xxxv. 3. 
It is applied to the active and inconcevc^ • 
ablejorce of the expansion of the heavens, 
the vivida vis ce^li, on which all the 
operations of nature depend. Prov.viii, 28, 
i^DD O^pnm IVDMI, When he (Jehovah) 

t Comp. Fitringa Observ. Sac. lib Leap. 6. § le. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




invigorated He confiicHng ethers above, 
i. e. gave them tbeir expansive and irre- 
sistible force. Toexert one* s strength, Isa. 
xiiv. 14, lb fDfcn And he exerteth him- 
s^ilf, or his strength, among tfie trees of 
the forest, namely, in hewing them down, 
cutting them out, 8cc, Comp. Amos 
ii. 14. Joined with IJib the heart, it de- 
notes vigorous resolution, or obstinacy. See 
Deut. ii. 30. XV. 7. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 13, 
In Hith. To exert oneself, i K. xii. 18. 
a Chron. x, 18 xiii. 7. Also, To he vi- 
gorousfy resolved, *' steadfastly minded^* 
Eng. transhit Ruth i. 18. As Ns. fD« 
Strength, vigour, occ. Job xvii. 9. So 
fem. mrc«. occ. Zech. xii. 5. fD» Strong, 
vigorous. See a Sam. xv. la. Job ix. 
4, 19. Amos ii. 16. As a N. masc. 
plur. in Reg. nrD«D Exertions, occ. Job 
xxxvi. 19. 
H. It seems to denote a strong and lively 
colour, bright bay, or sorrel (approaching 
to red. occ. Zech. vi. 3, 7. At ver. 1. 
the Prophet in vision sees four chariots 
cone out from between two mountains of 
brass. The chariots denote the several 
administrations of God's prvoidence, in 
respect to his church and people, (comp. 
A K. vi. 1 7. Hab. iii. 8.) proceeding 
from his predeterminate and unalterable 
counsels. Ver.2,3, Jn Ihe first chariot were 
red horses, and in the second chariot black 
(or dark, gloomy-coloured) horses, and in 
the third chariot white horses, and in the 
fourth chariot 0>n:i gristed (and) tDnfD« 
bright bay or sorrel horses; the colours 
of the horses respectively alluding to the 
several dispositions, ist, of the kingdom of 
the Babylonians, adly, of tliat of the Per- 
sians, 3 dfly , of 1 hat of Alexander the Grea t, 
and 4thly, of those of the Lagidce and 
Seleucidar, his successors in ^gypt and 
Syria, with regard to God's people, and 
consequently denoting the acveral states 
or conditions of that people under those 
different governments. (See Vitrin^a in 
Apocal. di. vi. 2, 4, 5) It is suflicient 
just to hint how properly the bloody and 
destroying Babylonians are represented by 
the red horses; but as they were now, in 
the time of Zechariali, passed away, they 
are no more mentioned in the; vision, after 
the 1st verse. The condition of the Jewish 
, people under the Persian monarchy was 
rather gloomy and afflicted, than bloody 

and desolate. These, therefore, arc de- 
noted by the dark-coloured horses. The 
kind treatment which the Jews met with 
under the gorelmment of Alexander the 
Great, si^imied by ttxe white horses, ma^ 
be seen m Prideanx, Connect, part 1. 
book 7, towards the end, an. 332, and 
in GntKrie*a General Hist. vol. i. p. 44 1» 
and m Ancient tJmversal Hist. vol. iii. 
p. 26, 2d edit, which kind treatment was 
m a good degree continued to them by 
the rtolemie'sj Alexander's successors in 
Egypt, (seeBp. Newton on Proph. vol. i. 
P- 375> ^^ 8vo.) though not widiout 
some spots of ill'treatntent?ind persecution, 
particularly by Ptolemy, Phiiopator (of 
which see tlie thkd book of the Macca* 
bees, and Prideaux^ Connect, part iL 
book 2, an. 216.) llie Ptolemies, there- 
fore, are properly represented by the^i>- 
led or spotted horses; as the successors of 
Alexander in Si/ria are by the bright bay 
or sorrel ones, i.e. of a coionr approaching 
to red, on account of the persecutions and 
cruelties exercised against the Jews by 
some of those Syro- Macedonian kmgs, 
especially by Antiochus Epiphanes^nd De^ 
metrius Soter (of which see the two first 
books of the Maccabees, and Prideaux, 
Connect, part ii. book 2, an. 1 70, kc. and 
an. 162, &c.) Ver. 6, The black horses, 
which are rri in it, namely m tlie second 
ch?aiot, go forthintothenorthcomtry, The 
Persians go forth towards the countty of 
Babylon, (see Jer. i. 14, 15. iy. 6. vi. i.) 
and the white, Alexander and^is armies, 
go forth after them; and the gristed, Pfo- 
lemy Lagi and his adherents, go forth to- 
ward the south country, i. e. Egypt, (see 
Dan. ii. 5, 9, n , 2 5.) And that the bay 
or sorrel, i. e. the Syro^Macedonians, per- 
formed their commission of walking to 
and fro through the land, of Judea 
namely, may be seen abundantly in their 
history by rrideaux and others, and in 
that of the Maccabees. At ver. 8, the 
angel speaking in the name of God de- 
clares, those who go towards the north 
country, i. e. the black and white horses, 
or the Persians and Macedonians, have 
quieted my spirit in the north country, 
namely, by executing the designs of God 
in the country of Babylon. 

I, To branch out, spread, or difuse as info 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1«— tW3« 



hrancha. It occurs not as a V. in tfiis 
sense, but bence as a N. TOH A bram^h, 
Isa. xvii. 6, g. As a N. plur. masc in 
K^;un. ^^H Branches, Gen. xlix. 21. 
See nWt under !w XVII. 

n. To br€mck out one or ttiore sentences in 
'words, to conceive or form in words, to 
sajfy freq. occ. To speak, Exod. xix. 25. 
2 Sam. xiv. 4. Comp. Gen. iv. 8. xxii. 7. 
In Hiph. To cavs^ to speak, or stipulate^ 
condico. occ. Deut. xxvi. 17, 18. In 
Hitb. To speak of oneself, cry up oneself^ 
boast onesey^, ^'se prsedicare.' Montanus. 
occ. Ys. xciv. 4. Comp. Isa. ki. 6. 
As a N. 'iDfct A wordy speech. Deut. 
xxxii. I. Ps. bLxvii. 9. Isa. xli. 26. Fern. 
moH Nearly tiie same. Deut. xxxii. 2, 
a Sam. xxii. 31. iDttD ^ «x)r(f, a com- 
mand, occ. £stb. i. 1$. ii. 20. ix. 32 
H^ice Arab. £inir> a commander, a chief. 

til. To branch out an opinion, resolution, 
or tbe like in the ndnd, i. e. to conceive, 
form, and dispose tbe distinct parts of it, 
fo imagine, think. £xod. ii. 14. 2 Sam 
xiii. 32. xxi. i6. 

rV. Cbald. As a N. *^SM plur. pDM ^ 2fim6, 
socaUed perbaps from its horns beginning 
to shoot out, occ. Ezra ti. 9, 17. vii« 17. 
The words H'tDH and moM are by the 
Chaldee parapbra^tsused (I suppose frpm 
tbe primary idea of spreading forth) for 
tbe skirt or fringe of a garment. See 
Taigum on Ps. ,cxxxiii« 2. 

As a N. or Particle, ^* from tt«D [rmm] 
/o recede; Time past, lately*' Bate. Yes- 
terday or yesternight, occ. Gen. xix. 34. 
xxxi. 2p, 42. a K. ix. 26. The LXX 
render it tbrougboiit by %6£f of £vd£; 
ye^erday. ** It is appl^ to place. Job 
XXX. 3, says Mr. BatCy mD« Forsaken 
places;*' but it may in that passage rather 
refer to timey yesterday, lately, so LXX 
c%6€f . See Mr. Scott on'tbe text. 

Denotes labour of body and mind. 

I. As a y. I do not find it applied simply to 
the body; but as a N. pM Labour, pains, 
activity. Job xviii. 7. Isa. xl. 29. Hos, 
xii. 3, or 4. It refers particularly to 
procreation. Gen. xlix. 3. Deut xxL 17 
Ps. Ixxviii. 51. cv, 36; 

II. As a N. pK, or ^H, The appellation of 
an object of worship in ^Egypt. Tlie 
LXX bave rendered it. Gen. xli. 45, 50. 

xlvi. 20. Ezek. xxx. 1 7, as the nam« of 
a city, by 'HAwouroXf co^, the city of the 
Sun, where, according to Herodotus, 
bb. ii. cap. <o, and 73, there was an 
annual assembly in honour of the Syn, 
and a temple dedicated to hira. So 
Straho, lib. xvii. p. 805, 'HXioyoroAi^, 
ro iBpw B'xjyvva, rov in\iov, HeliopoUs, 
wliich has the temple of the SunJ* Cyril, 
who was patriarch oi Alexandria m Egypt ^ 
says, that On among the Egyptians meant 
the Sun. S^v Ss eri xa/ avrss 6 *HA<o^. 
Comment in Hos. And it is probable 
that tliis name pH referred to the mcessant 
labour yznd unwearied activity of the WDm 
or solar light, which Homer y II. xviii. lin. 
239, 484, calb 'HfiXiov oxofuavra the un- 
wearied Sun, and which, in the still no- 
bler language of tlie Psalmist, Ps. xix. 
6, 7, rejoiceth as a strong man to run a 
race, SfC. It appears, however, highly 
probable, that m tbe days of Joseph tiii^^ 
title among tlie Egyptians denoted rather 
tlie Sun of righteousness, than the mnteriai 
light: for by the behaviour of Pharaoh to 
Joseph and Jacob, and especially by * Jo- 
seph s care to preserve the land to the 
Priests, Gen. xlvii. 22, 26, it seems evi> 
dent that the true religion prevailed in 
Egypt in bis time; and, it is incredible 
that Joseph would have married the 

. daughter of tbe Priest of p», or }«, had 
that name among the Egyptians then 
denoted only the material light^ wliich 
however, no doubt, they, like all the rest 
of the world, idolized in after times; and 
to which we find a n^l or Temple dedi- 
cated anK>ng the Canaanites under this 
name pH> Josh. vii. 2. Though it should 
be observed that, long after the tune of 
Joseph, we iind the Egyptian midwives 
fearine the Aleim, and acting and blessed 
accordingly, Exod. i. 17 — ai. 

** The situation of the city of HeUopolis, S2i\^ 
\Niebuhr, has been determined with m> 
much exactness by the geographers an- 
cient and modem, that there is no longer 
any doubt on this point. The ruins of it 
are to Be seen very near a village named 
Mattare, on tbe nortb-nortb-«ast, about 

* See Ccoie't Enquiry into the Patriarchal and 
Druidical Religion, p; 21; and jBtyst't Pantheon, 
p. 172, 2d edit. 

f Voyage en Arabic, torn. i. p> 80. Comp. 
Shaw* Travels, p. 306^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




two leagues from Kahira (Cairo), and 
three leagues from Foitai^ or Masr el atik. 
But there is left oothing of it but great 
banks and hillocks^ BlM with little bits 
of marble, granite and potsherds, some 
remains of a sphinx, and an obelisk which 
b still standing, and which the new in- 
habitants perhaps found too heavy to be 

III. As a N. masc. plur. C2^:»n Labours^ 
pttinsJatigves, occ. Ezek. xxiv. 12, where 
the VuJ'5. mnlto labore uitk great labour, 

TV, As a V. in Kal, To labour, grieve, or 
be distj:ess€d in mind, laborare animo. 
occ. Isa. xix. 8, (where the LXX, rsva- 
^ova-i shall groan) Isa. liL 26, where it is 

' applied figuratively to the sates of a city. 
As a Participle or participial N. masc. 
plur. tD^J*i» Mourners, Hos. ix. 4. Comp. 
Deut. xxvi. 14, 1 have not ^aten thereof 
(1. e. of the third gear's tvtfae) >3Mn ih 
my grief or moummg. The Samaritan 
Pentateuch, and three of Dr. Kennicott^s 
Codices read >:i»l, Targ. and Syr. have 
^1«1, LXX tv o^vyrj /x8, and Vulg. in 
luctu meo, in my grief; and to explam 
the text see Lev. xxi. i, ii, and Deut. 
xii. 7, 13, 18. Hos. ix. 4^ As a N. pK 
Grief, affliction, distress. Gen. xxxv. 18. 
Job V. 6. Also, JVhat oceasions grief or 
qffli(^tion, namely, tcickedness, iniquity, 
vanity. Num. xxiii. ai. Job iv. 8. 
xi. 14. Ps. V. 6. vi, 9. Ixvi. 18. Zecli. 
X, 2. Particularly, the wickedness of 
idolatry, as some understand it, i Sam. 
XV. 23; where the Vulg. explains p» 
C3^D")ni by quasi scelus idololatrise. Also, 
An idol itself, Isa. Ixvi: 3. But in both 
these last cited passages ^m mav^ like 
ts^^n in the former of them, ht the 
specific name of an object of wonlrip, 
Aven, or Ann, Comp. Sense IT. 
Prov, xi, 7, And (his) lingering hope ihoQ 
t3^:*)H miserably perish; C3^:^H bemg used 
as it were adverbially, dolorifids modis 
So tyvh^ for wonderfully. Lam. L 9. See 

V. As a Particle of place m, see under m», 
IV. I. 

VI. As a Particle, used m grirf'or affliction, 
n:» Oh! alas! I pray, 2 fc. xx*. 3. Isa. 
xxxviii. 3. Jon. i. 14. iv. 2., Ps, cxvi. 4 
But observe tliat in this last text ibrty- 
six at least of Dr. Kemticott*s Codices 
read H^tt^soat least forty-seveu at ver*i6. 

VIT. Xs a N. fern. W«n A species of trie, 
the fig-tree, q. d. the grief -tree, from the 
roughness or prickliness of the upper side 
of its leaf; a kind of natural sackcloth, 
wliich, after the fall, (Gen. iii. 7,) our 
first parents gurded over the obnoxiou^ 
parts to express tlieir contrition. Whence 
sackcloth about the loins, penitential ^- 
dles, SfC, descended to tneir posterity. 
Comp. under i:n I. and hD III. fireq. 
occ. Irenceus, lib. iii. cap. 37, has long 
ago remarked tliat Adam by the act of 
girding himself viiXh fg-leaces testified 
hb repentance, existentibus if aUi^ foUig 
multis, qua minds corpus ejus vexare po- 
iuissent, when there were many other 
kinds of leaves which might hav^ bcfen 
less disagreeable to hb body; that " he 
made himself a clothing suited to his dis* 
obedience — and that, repressing the lasci- 
vious motions of the fiesh, he put a bridle 
of continence on huuself ana his wife — 
acknowledging tliat he was now worthy 
of such a covering as afforded no delight, 
mordet autem & puugit corpus, but fret* 
ted and pricked the body*' As a N. masc'. 
plur. 0^:Hn Figs, ^fdiether fruit, Jer. 
xxiv. I, 2, & al. — or trees, Amos i\\ 9. 

pM I. In Hith. It is rendered to complain, 
nmrmur, but seems rather from the em* 
pbatic use of the reduplicate f, to denote to 
be exhausted or faint tcith labour or grief. 
occ. Num. xi. i. Lam. iii. 39. On this 
last text comp. Prov. iii. ii. Heb.xO. 5. 

II. Cbald. As a Pron. masc. plur. )^M the 
same as the Heb. Can, They, those. Dan. 
ii. 44. As a Pron. fem. plur. pM, the 
same as the Hcb. (M They, those women. 
Dan. vii. 17. 

p» A negative word, derived frrom pw in 
the sense of labour, vanity, as Vl not, 
from rri^ to wear away, weary, consume; 
and vh not, from iiH? to tire, bring to 
noi^ht. It may be rendered 

I. Not. Oen. xxxvii. 29. In Ps. Ixxiii. 5, 
fifty-eight of Dr. Kennicotfs Codices for 
ID^^n* read 1D3V, 

a. Without. £xod. xxi. 11; 

3. None, mtking, nobody. Exod. viii. 10. 
xxH. 10. Isa. xli. 11. Hag. ii. 4. 

4. te pn Not any things nothing at all. 

Num. xi. 6. 
J. With 3 even as prefixejd, pio WitJun a 

nothing, all but. Ps. Ixxiii. 2. 
From pi may very probaUy b^ derived the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

WR— »3» 



Idandic Jan defect^ Saxon paniaD, to be 
dhnipished, Eng. wan, wane, want^ Lat. 
tanw, whence vain, vanity, vanM. Or. 
tnty and imv to empty. Lkt, inams emp- 
ty, whence Eng. inane, inanity. 
6. PHD From whence? See under n:H IV. 3. 

I. As a Particle. See under MS 

n. Chald. MM A Pronoun of the first per- 
son, the same as the Heb. ^^M /. occ. 
Ezra vi. 2. Dan. ii. 8. n^M The same. 
Ezra vii. ai. Dan. ii. 23^ k al, 


Chald. from Heb. y\^, Fruit, occ. Dan. 
iv. 9, II, 18. 


Denotesthe occurrence or prcsenceof son object 

I. As a V. with a radical rj. To occur, hap 
pen, occ. Ps. xcL 10, Evil shall not njMM 
happen (LXX, vp9atXsv9^ai come) to 
thee. Prov. xii. ai, ^o g^^> (jetton 
(u e. which shall, on the whole, be such) 
nsM» shall happen /o the just. Also in a 
transitive sense. To cause to happen or 
come, occ Exod. xxi. 13, But the Aldm 
ii:m cause to come (LXX, tcapc^a;xev^ 
£^. transl. deliver) to his hand. In 
Hith. with h following. To put oneself, 
as it were, in the way of another in a 
bad sense, to seek a quarrel against him. 
occ. a K. V. 7. As a N. fern. ni»n An 
occurrence, occasion (which, by the b}e, 
from oh, and cado to fall; so what falls 
in one's way) particularly of quarrel, 
occ. Jud. xiv. 4. But in Jer. ii. 24, it 
IB used as a decent word for the libidinous 
instinct or impetus of the female drome- 
dary. As Ns. fern. TP^A and mjMn 
occur together, Isa. xxix. 3. Lam. ii. 5, 
and are usually translated mourning and 
iamentatim, or the like. But as the > in 
these Nouns (substituted for n) shews 
they belong to this root n^, I would 
rather undmtand tlie words (which how- 
ever I do not pretend accurately to dis- 
tinguish) of calamitous events or occur- 
rences (as we generally use the word 
accidents J, such namely as are recounted 
in the verses following the above texts. 
And to strengthen this mtcrpretation, we 
may observe that the Verb is likewise ap- 
plied only to calami tovs occurrences. 

II. As a word which a person applies to 
himself as present, >3m I, a Pronoun of 
the tot persim, fnx{, occ. the >(as usual 

in other instances) being substituted for rr, 
which however appears again in the pa- 
ragogic or emphatical h, which b fr^ 
quentl^ postfixed to the first person fu- 
ture of Verbs. 

Plur. 13M JVe, the final 1 (from root Yl to 
join together) being plural or collective, 
as in IT ^rm (Ezek. i. 8.) mrv together. 
Once, Jer. xlii. 6.^ From 13m, ii forms 
the first person plur. pret. of Verbs; and 
hence the Greek vmi, vw, we two, Lat. 
no;, Ital. noi^ French nous, we. 

IIL As a N. masc. sibg. >iM A ship, or 
fleet of ships, so called from their fitness 
to go or present themselves any where, 
notwithstanding the separation of coun- 
tries by the sea. 1 K. ix. 26. Isa. xxxiii. 
21, & al. freq, Fem. rrjM a ship. Prov. 
XXX. 19. Jon. i. 3, &al. freq. 

IV. As Particles of place, and time. 

i.mM, and (i Sam. x. 14.) ^m Whither, 
where. Gen. xvi. 8. Jos. ii. 5. Ruth ii. 19. 
Isa. X. 3. njMI HiM Hither, and thither. 
I K. ii. 36. 

2. n^M ^^, and (Job viii. a.) ^ ^ Ham 
long? till what time? Exod. xvi. 28. 
Num. xiv. II. Also, Jf^^, at what 
time? Jobxviii. a. 

3. j>M with o prefixed, J>MD From whence? 
Gen. xxix. 4. Num. xi. 13, & al. So 
fHD 2 K. V. »5; but observe Hiat about 
thirty of Dr. Kenmcotf% Codices here 
read f MD. 


I. It is rendered to sigh, groan, or the like; 
but as it does not appear to be used as a 
V. in any other conjugation than Niphai, 
sec Isa. xxiv. 7. Lam. i. 4,, 8. Joel 1. 18, 
& al. I suspect the radical idea to be 
oppression, or the like. So in Niph. To 
be oppressed, as the breath of persons in 
grief, whence proceeds sighing. As a N. 
fem. nniM Oppression, sighing, Ps. vi. 7, 
xxxi. I r, & al. The LXX have almost 
constantly rendered it, as a V. by rsvc*^, 
rsYX^M or it's compounds, and as a N« 
by s'^voi'Yit.og, which words being deri- 
vati^es from rsvo; , strait, narrow, con^ 

fined, come very near the idea of th« 
Heb. here proposed. 
Hence Gr. kvia. Grief, sorrow, and as a 
V. aviau), to pieve, 

II. 1in:M IVe. h is often used as a Pron. 
plur, of the first person, but sec among 
the Pluriliterab. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

p:«— 13K 




I. As a N. with a formative », A plumb- 
line, from n33 to hit, because it tries the 
perpendicularity of a wall or building, 
by hitting the nducial line, or middle of 
the board, occ. Amos vii. 7» 8. 

IL '33« A Pron. of the first person, /, 
from ^i«, /, (which sec under rri« 11.) 
and O emphatic indeed; q. d. I indeed. 
Ego sane. So the Attic Greeks use 
syurys, and the Dorics syuiyii and eyujy- 
ya^ for syuj. freq. occ, 

I. 2 o press, vrge. occ. Esth. i. 8* 

II. Chald. To give trovble, occ. Dan* iv. 6. 

I. To breathe, or ww;^ with the nostrils; 
so to be very angry; because in violent 
ajtger and rage, animals breathe stronger 
and quicker, and discover their fury by 
the snuffing, or snorting of their nostrils, 
Comp. Acts ix. I . It is used absolutely, 
Ps. ii. i2v, & al. and with 1 following, 
I K. viii. 46. Ps. Ixxxv. 6. In Hi^h. 
Nearly the same, q. d. '' To put oneselj 
in a passion. '^ Bate. Deut. i. 37, & al. 

JI. As a N. fern. n^DiW A species of unclean 
bird, probably so named from its angry 
disposition, as the Stork, with which it 
is joined, is called rn^DH from its kind- 
7iess, occ. Lev. xi. 19. Deut. xiv, 18J 
Bochart, vol. iiL 337, &c. takes MBiw 
for a kind of eagle or harvk ; but if this 
were the true meaning of tlie word, I 
tfahik it would have been reckoned with 
one or the other of those species in the 
preceding verses. The LXX render it 
^apa^piQVy or according to the Complu- 
tcnsian edition, yaXa^fiov or ^a\ccv$friOy ; 
but these Greek names are quite as ob- 
scure as tlie Hebrew one. Our English 
translators and some others interpret it 
the heron; and as that bird is remark- 
able for its angry diispodtion, especially 
when hurt or woundedt but m other re- 
spccts greatly resembles the stork, to- 
gether with which it is mentioned both 
in Lev. and Deut. this seems as proba- 
ble an explication as any yet proposed. 

III. Chald. F]J«, from Heb. ?]«, Face, counte- 
nance, occ. Reg. Dan. ii. 46.111. 19. 

I. To moan or groan, for pain or sorro^^ 
Jcr. li. 5a. Ezek. xxiv. 17^ t3T pivkn 
''Moan in silence," Bate; (so Vulg 

Ingemisce tacens) oerfaaps as onK)6ed t9 
the vociferous waitings usual amomg the 
Jews and other Easterns at deaths and 
funeralsj bf which see under }p. Comp. 
ver. 23, and see Josephus*s striking and 
sublime description of the behaviour of 
the besieged Jews when perishing by fii- 
mine, De Bel. lib. v. cap. n, § 3. 
Ovh is ^pr^vog sy raif cvu/pofcuf, ar 
oAo^u^/xo^ Y/, X. T. X. But in the 
midst of their calamities there was no 
availing nor lamentation. Bx^six $£ rr^p 
'stoXiy 'SJB^iBiys ciyy}^ x. r. A. A deep 
silence possessed the city." As a N. femj 
np3M A crying out. Mai. ii. 1 3. Ps. xii. 6. 

ir. As a N, fem. npi», " A kyid of lizard 
or nexvt, so called from its moan or 
doleful cry." Bochart, vol. ii. 1066. oce. 

< Lev. xi. 30. 

Der. Anguish, anxious, Q? Comp. under 

To he infirm, iU, bad, which last word will 
answer most of the applications of the Heb. 

j[. To be bad uith illness or disease, as a 
person, occ. 2 Sam. xii. 15, The Lord 
struck the cldld w:iW^ and it was very 
sick. Eng. Trandat. 
In I Sam. ii. 33, the LXX, for the Heb; 
Cd^u;:h^ according to the received readoig, 

I very remarkably have EN FOM^AIAi 

I avQ^wTTujy by the sword of men. 

II. To be bad, as p disease, hurt, or wound, 
occ. Job xxxiv. 6. (comp. ch-'vi. 4. 
Jer. XV. 18. xxx. 12, 15- Mic.ii. 9. 

III. To be bad or sick with sorrow or grief, 
to be violently grieved, occ. Ps. Ixix. 21. 
As a participial N. Wi^^ Grievous, wofvl. 
occ. Isa. xvii. 11. Jer. xvii. 16. 

IV. As a N. U?J» Bad, i. e. infirm, weak^ 
frail,2& the heart of man.^ occ. Jer.xvii.9. 

where Eng. translat. desperately wicked 
seems very improper^ I do not find that 
the word ever denotes wickedness at all; 

V. As a N. masc. plur* Dni^JW Infirmities. 
occ. X Sam., xvii. 12, And the Man m 
the days of Saul was old, Xoii;:)^ Kn 
|0t into infirmities, '' got into the in- 
hrmities of nature; as we say, got weak 
and mfirm." Thus Mn Bate renders, 
and happily cle^i^ the text. See more 
in his Cnt. Heb. 

VI. As a N. uniK, plur. XD^m^H A^ man^ 
thus called from the injiim, wretched 
state into wliich he fell by sin* Tbis 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


«^QM — n:» 



ikbeHe^rin^ Setfa acknowledged in the 
ttae of bis first-born. Gen. iv. 36. 
Conp. Job ix. %. xv. 14. I^. Yiii. 5. ix. 
«o, ti. I«u li. 7. In Gen. v, i, 2, we 
read, lu the daw that God created man, 
naill m ttie likeness of God made he 
km: male amd female created he them, 
md called their name t3"!M Adam in the 
day when they were created. This name 
iaipoftiiig their being created in the 
Hlame$t ^God, as to holiness, happiness, 
and inmortalhy 3 but by sin man became 
nn^H a wretch, and tliis is the name by 
wliicfa the ipecie$ is most commonly called 
in Scrqptnre. ttn^M sing, b sometimes 
ttsed as a coilective N. Sec Ps. ix. 31. 
bum. $. cni. i^. Job vii. i ; and n2^^M is 
expressly applied to women as well as to 
meD, J<Mh. vrii. 35. 

ont^M or6 £zek. xxiv. ij, is by some 
learned laen interpreted bread ^moum- 
eis, but Csm^M does not signify mourners. 
These are denoted by a diflierent word 
XSrVMk Hos. ix. 4. The expression in 
Eaek. seems to mean bread oj other men, 
*^ Food given by neighbours and irieiids 
at socfa a time/' {Clark)^ as that of a 
wife's death. Comp.Jer.xri. 5, 7. Mar- 
gin aad Heb. and see Uarmer*s Obser- 
vaCioos, ¥01. iL p. 138^ whence it appears 
that Sir Johm Chardin agrees with Clark 
in the interpretation of tD'm^H tznb 
Ecek. xxiv. 1 7. 
mM ChM. nroM 

A Proo. of the second person, from Heb, 
' nn»i, j being inserted as usual in Chaldee 
words. Thou. Dan. ii. 29, 31, 37, 38. 
Pliir. pm« Ye. occ. Dan. ii. 8. 

Oeeofi not as a V. in Hebrew, nor, so 
far as I can find, in any of the dialecti- 
cal languages. But as a N. masc. 
plor. in Reg. *03n Bams, magazines, or 
fare kntes. So Targ. and Syr.nvibl, 
LXX TOfMia and ra^Mttet, Aquila oeifo* 
iipuu, Symmmchis ^o'avpoi, and Vul?. 
ccUarii and borrea. occ. Deut. xxviii. 8. 
Frov. iiL 10. 

pit Scenaderp 

IV gttfifer, gather tj»> tci^MreftPy coflfrft^ 

ipie, cof^ere, retrabere. , 
Lia KaJ, To gather, collect, assemble. Gen. 

vi St. xkIx. S3* ExOd. iii, 16. In Niph. 

To Uffiihered, toUecttd, Qeu« xxix^ 3^ 7» 

Comp. Oen. xxv. 8, 1 7. Num. xx. 24. 
Jud. ii. TO. ^ D'&aMS I^'a. ivii. 1. is 
used ellipUcally for gathered to their 
fathers or people, i. e. gone to 5n«a^ or 
Hades, the separate state, or general re* 
ceptacle, of the departed. See Vitringa 
b Isa. As a N. fern. niQOM Coilcctims. 
So French translat. des recueils, Eccles. 
xii. II. See under ^!3U^ IX. and comp. 
Hafmer's Observations, vol. iv. p. 70, 
&c. In Hith. To gather, assemble them" 
sehes. Deut. xxxiii. 5. 

II. In Kal, 7(9 gather in, as the fruits or 
produce of the land. Exod. xxiii< lo. 
Lev. xxiii. 39. As Ns. rpi^ and r^u^ 
A gathering or ingathering of fruits. Isa. 
xxxii. to. Exod. xxiii. 16. xxxiv. 22. 

in. In Kal, To gather, take or receive to 
oneself, to take in. Deut. xxii. 2. Josh. 
XX. 4. Jud. xix. ij. t Sam. xi. 27. 
Comp. Ps. xxvii. 10. 

IV. In Kal, To gather in, or up, to draw 
back, withdraw, as the feet. Geu. xlix. ^^. 
or hand, i Sam. xiv< tg. 

V. In Hiph. To gather in or up, as the rear 
does an army, daudere agmen. Num. 
X. 25. As a participial N. r\zm The rear 
or rear-guard. Josh. vi. 9, 13. Isa. Hi. 12. 

VI. To withdraw, take awtiy, take qff^. 
Gen. XXX. 23. Ps. Uxxv. 4. Isa. iv. r. 
Ix. 20. (where Bp, Lowth " wane,") 
Joel ii. 10. 

VII. lu Kal, To take of, dcslroj/. Jud, xviii. 
25. I Sam. XV. 6. Jer. viii. 13. £zek« 
xxxiv. 20. Hos. iv. 3. Zeph. i. 2, 3. 

VIII. In Kal, To recover, q. d. to with'* 
draw a man from the leprosy. Occ. 1 K. 
V. 6, 7, I r. 

Schultens in his MS. Orig. Hob. observes, 
that *'the right understanding of this 
passage depends on the custom of ex*- 
pelliug lepers and other infcctioi*.3 per* 
sons from camns or cities, arid reproach* 
fully driving them into solitary places. 
And that when these persons were 
cleansed and re-admitted into cities or 
camps, they were said to be recbllecti, 
gathered again from their leprosy, and 

^ again received into that society frora 
¥rtiich they had been cut off.'^ See Num. 
xil 14. Comp. Gen* xxx. 23. Isa. iv. U 

r|D&&tt As a N. A multitude collected from 
various quarters, a coUuvies of people^ 
a rabble. LXX itkfMHTOf, mixt people. 
occ. Num. XL 4. 

D I>SB. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t:»— ^DM 



Der. Gr. AffTfigf Lat. Aspis. Eng. ^n a$p, 
remarkable tor colled ing or coiling it- 
self up. Also, A hasp, Q? 

*!!:« To confine, restrain, 

I. To conjine, restrauiy bind, as \\\Xh cords, 
chains, or the hke. Gen. xxxix. 20. 
Jiid.%v. 10, 12, 13, 14, & al. lu noH 
Gen. xlix. ix, the 6nal > is a poetical 
addition, as in ^T«a, Exod. xv. 6.* Gen. 
xlvi. 29, naa'lD ")D« To bind^ chariot, 
i. e. to the horses; so the Latins say, 
jungere currum, and simpl)' jungere, as 
^DH is used, I K. xvih. 44. Comp. 
Exod. xiv. 6> where LXX £?f«ge TA 
'APMATA avrov, Comp. under 231. 

II. To set in arraj/, marshal, as an army, 
by appointing and restraini/tg every man 
to his post. I K. XX. 14. 2 Chrou. xiii. 5, 
vhcre it is equivalent to y\)), Comp. 
I Sam. xvii. 2, 

l\\. To confine, oblige, bind, as by a vow 
or oath. Num. xxx. 3, 4, & seq. 

IV. To restrain, or be restrained, as through 
hzx, Isa. xxii. 3. 

V, " To restrain, bind by laws, orders, or 
commands; to lay under restraints, or 
oblige to act so or so. Ps. cv. 22." Bate, 

Vi. Chald. As a N. "irK and cmphat. h^dh 
An obligatory decree, Dan. vi. 7, 8, & al. 

i»H Chald. 

As a N. W and «3?H Wood, occ. Ezra v. 8. 
vi. 4, 1 1. Dan. v. 4, 23. It is a corrup- 

idob. So Vulg. vestimentuB. occ Isa. 
xxx. 22. Comp. Baruch vi. 11, la, 58. 

IV. Chald. As a N. nS3« A pavilian, royal 
or splendid tent. Perhaps it is so called 
from it's being Jiicd by cords. ina« -brw 
The curtains of his pavilion, occ. Dan. 
xi. 45. Bishop Newton very perlipcDtly 
remarks, tliat the word is used io the 
same sense in Jo/m/Aan^sChaldeeTargom 
on Jer. xliii. 10, And he (Nebuchad- 
nezzar) shall sjncad rri^firt his pavilion 
upon them. Dissertations ou Prophecies, 
vol. ii. p. 204, 2d edit. Svo. 

Der. Gr. arfa; to bmd, Lat. op/o, whence 
apt, aptitude, adapt, &c. 

With a radical, but mutable or omitisiblc, n. 

I. ** To heat through, or dress victuals w 
an oven or on coals,** to bake* Gen. xix. 3. 
Exod. xii. 39. Lev. ii. 4. Isa. xliv. 1 j, 19. 
inaiTJ fonnanm and she baked it, i Sam. 
xxviii. 24, the M bemg dropped, as in 
'j'lDn'J for l^rOKrri and ye shall say, 2 Sam. 
xix. 14. But in the former text nine of 
Dr. Kennicott'h Codices read 'inttVT*, and 
in tlie latter seven have •ncwni. As m 
N. nSH plur. tZ)"aH A baker, Gen.xL 1,2, 
& al. D^B» Drest maris, jksh (of the 
sacrifices) drest by Jire, i StBi, L 5. 
As a N. masc. plur. ia Reg. ^ron, Lev. 
vi. 14, or 21, rendered baken pieces^ as 
if from this root, the H being dropped ; 
but see under n^& X. 

tion of tlie Heb. yr, y being substituted 1 II. As a N. nB«, and more frequently TtE^, 

for y as usual m Chaldee, and h for r. 

I. To bind close to the body. occ. Exod. 
xxix. ^. Lev. viii. 7. In this latter pas- 
sage the LXX render it (TyyftTipiyfgr ^c 
bmmd close. So the Viilg. translates it 
in Exod. by constringo, and in Lev. by 

il. As Ns. *11BH and *i&H An ephod. It was a 
kind of short cloak without sleeves, ^re/c(/ 
over all the other garments; for the form 
of the High Priest's^ see Exod. ch. xxviii. 

As a N. fem. in Reg. mew TJie girdle 
of the ephod which bound it close to tlie^ 
body. occ. Exod. xxviii. 8. xxxix. ^ 
Comp. Rev. i. 13. 

•III. As a N. fem. ia Rea. nnB«, J vest* 
tnent or vest^ in which ttey dressed their 

♦ See Lowtb Pi elect, ii.ncte p. 34, edit. Qxzv, 
p^ 42, edit. Gottimg. 

An ep/iah, a measure of capacity equal to 
about seven pilous and a half, or Bear a 
bushel, English ; q. d. The baking mtm- 
sure, so called, ** no doubt, says Oms&tf, 
because this quantity was baked i» a 
common oven.'' The 'LXX have se v eral 
times in the xlv aad xivi chapters of 
Ezekiel rendered it by Dc/t/xa 41 bahimg. 
Lev. V. 1 1, vi. ao. xiat. 36, & tl. frcq. 
HI. As a Particle nQ>« Where, &c See 
among the Plurilitenils. 

IV. As a N. P)H Ueat, oitger, wradt, 
GcD. xxviL 4$. xlix. 6. Deut. ix* 19. 
xxix. 23, & al. 

V. As a N. )^R The nose, phir. O^lAI tke 
nostrils, ^* whence constantly issues a n^ivi 
st«am^ and which ia an^ k qaiHe iof ." 
Bate, See Num. xL aow Isa» iii. »j. 
Prov. xL %%, Job xl. 19, 21, or 34, m6. 
Ps. cxv. 6.Geti.<ii. 7. vii. 22. Gtn. iii. t^* 
\^2b« r\^)2 In the svetU <^ /^ DMtdls. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




wUch is strictly rijs^t and just. Gen. 
xxiv. 47. nOH l>i; C/jpcm her nose. Comp. 
tinder tzjtD. rwiM l=r»Q», or ntlK VB«, 
Gen. six. i. i Sam. xx. 41, & al. freq. 
may be rendered, xvith Ms fiice, but I 
think properly denotes xcith kis nose, to 
tie ground, as the French say, ie nez en 
lerre. And to illustrate the Heb. phrase 
of prostrating oneself mnrt D^Em may 
be eited from * Stewart's Journey to 
Meqmnez, *'We marched towards the 
emperour with our music playing till 
we came within about eighty yards of 
him, when the old monarch alighting 
from his horse, prostrated himself on the 
earth to pray, and continued some mi- 
nutes Tdth his face so close to the earth, 
that, when we came up to him, the dust 
remained upon his nose,'* ^vh Before, in 
the presence of, coram, i Sam. xxv. 23. 
Some have doubted whether n^, when . 
joined with words expressive ol Aea^, (as 
with in* twM hot. Gen. xxx. a, & al, 
freq.; fu^ smoked, Deut. xxix. 20 j 1i?l' 
hinted, ^amed, Ps. ii. la.) strictly de- 
notes the nose or an^er. Either way the 
sense is the same ; smce the nose is really 
heated, and sometimes violently in anger. 
So >)» nn Exod. xi. 8, and r]« p^r\ Deut 
xiii. 18, & al. freq. may be either the 
heat of the nose or of anger-, but I should 
rather prefer the former, because the 
Hebrew language, wbicli, like a striking 

Eicture, generally describes the passions 
y the effects they have ou the bodj/, ex- 
presses anger, or it's absence^ by other 
phrases referring to the nose or nostrils. 
(Comp. Ezek. xxxviii. j8. Isa. Ixv. 5.) 
Thos since these are not only really 
heated in anger, (see 2 Sam. xxii. 16.) 
but also contracted in length or shortened, 
hence tD^fin ysp short of nostrils, Prov. 
xiT. 17, denotes angry, passionate, i. e. 
one who is continually shortening his 
nostrils through anger, and is the oppo- 
site to tDn3« pw hng of nostrils, which 
signifies one who restrains his anger, slow 
to anger, long suffering, and b in this view 
applied not only to man, as Prov. xiv. 29. 
XV. 18. xvi. 52, but, in condescension to 
our capacities, to God likewise, Exod. 
xxxit. 6. Num. xiv. 18. Neh. ix. 17, 
& aj. In tlie same sense r\n yi«n to 

lengthen the nose, is applied' both to man 
and God. See Prov, xix. ii.Isa. xlviB. 9. 
Comp. Jer. xv. t ;. For the explanation 
of the phrases just cited, the reader is 
indebted to the learned Bate, Crit. Heb. 
under ^M. I add, that both the Greek 
and Latin Poets represent the nose as the 
Meat of anger. Thus Theocritus, Idyll, u 
Mn. 18. 

And bitter ataicr in hit note resides. 

Asi opyikof srh He b always passionate f 
says the Scholiast. And Persius, Sat. ▼• 
liu. 91. 

-Ira cadit naso.* 

• In A«»*rrji*« Collection, vol iwiL p. 139. 

From yoor n&tt let ag^er cea«e. 

VI. As a Particle, denoting the heat and 
earnestness of the speaker, J^H Veriltf, 
surely, indeed, yea, omnino. Gen.xviii. 13* 
Lev. xxvi. 16. Num. xvi. 14, & al. freq. 
HenceO ^H literally means, cerfa/n/y^/ui^, 
or therefore, and may be rendered, ac- 
cording to the context, either, how much 
more? or, hoDo much less? Is it certain 
that? as a Sara. iv. 11, fVhen one told 
tne — Saul is dead—l slew him — *D P\tk 
certainly therefore (/ shall slay, or how 
much more, or rather shall I slay?) 
wicked men. — i K. viii. 27, The heavens 
and the heaven of heavens cannot contain 
thee. O ?!«, certainly therefore this house 
(cannot) or, how much less this house? 
Gen. iii. i, >D F]«, Is it certain that God 
said? Ay verily hath God saidf 
O P]« Yea, when. Neh. ix. 18. >3 v\m And 
even that, yea that, Ez^k. xxiii. 40. 

VII, ia« see under na. 
P)Q« To face (or q. d. ^0 nose) on all sides, 

to surround, compass, occ. 2 Sam. xxii. 5* 
Ps. x\iii. 5. xl. 1 3. cxvi. 3. Jon. ii. 6. 


J. To hide, conceal by interposing some opaque 
matter. It occurs not as a V. but we 
may collect this meaniuff of the word 
from Exod. ix. 3 1, 32, ^nd the'flax and 
the barley were smitten, for the barley 
•was in the ear, and the Jia£ was boiled. 
But the wheat and the rye were not 
smitten, for they were n!>^D« hidden, that 
is, concealed or involved in the hose, or 
blade. To the same purpose, LXXo^/t/jWt, 
Vulg. serotina, late, backtuard. Ttiis 
was about the be£iilninjt of' the month 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



p9M— yfiK 

Abih, ^bicfa answers nearly to 6wMafrh, 
O. S. And agreeably lo this Dr. Shaw 
(Trav. p. 406,) speaking of Egjfpt, says, 
*^ Barley and wheat are usually ripe; 
the first about the begintiing, the latter 
at the end of April.*' And again, p. 407, 
<' Now as uhcat and rice (as be takes 
noDD to signify) are of a ihxcer growth 
tban^ax and barley , it usually falls out 
in the beginning of March that the barley 
it in the ear, and tbe^x is boiled when 
the vheat and the rice are no/ as yet 
grown vp, (nVfiK) or begin only to 
spindle." In the plague of hail there- 
fore, the stalks of barley being become 
pretty hard and stiff resbted it's violence, 
and so were broken off; whereas the 
wheatp-stalks l>eing tender and flexible, 
gently yielded to the stroke of the hail, 
and so eluding it's violence preserved the 
wheat in the hose, 
II. As Ns. i»D« and fem. nlrBH Thick dark- 
ness. Job iih 6. Exod. x. as, k al. freq. 
Once tised emphatically in the^&M 
as the Latins say, tenebne> Isa. lix. 9. 
In Job xxviii. 3, ** The stones of (te») 
darkness, and the shadow of death must 
suj^ly mean the metallic ore in the deep 
and (iark parts of the earth/' says Scott, 
^&H9 Nearly the same. Josh. xxiv. 7. 
(comp. £xod. xiv. ao.) Jer. ii. 3 1, where 
two of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. read nl)^D«D, 
and a various readins in the printed 
Hebrew Bible intitlea Jl/iiicAa/A SAdt is 
rt> te»o in two words, Jah^ a land of 

Offdlatuf mundi nebul«, malusque 
Jupiter mritt, 

r&M See under rr^D. 

I. To fail, cease to be. It is supposed to 
be used as a V. Oen. xlvii. 15, 16. 
Ps. Ixxvii. 9. Isa. xvi. 4. xxix. 20; but 
in all those |)assages we may with 
Bate r^er it as a N. a failure y or the 
like, and with him consider the K in 
this word as ser\'ile, and derive it from 
&E) to fail. As a N. OBK End, extremity, 
failings defect, nought, Deut. xxxiii. 1 7. 
Prov. xiv. 28. xxvi. 20. Isa. v. 8. xli. 29. 
xlv. 6. None, no one, Amos \i. lo. Isa. 
xlvi. 9. Uv. 15. As a N. masc. plur. 

' t3>D!>M, £zek. xlvii. 3, rendered in our 
translation Ancles, so Targ. pViD'^p, and 

AquilM, Symmachus and Theodoiion as'pA" 
yoLXwy, and Vulg. usque ad talot^ Per- 
ha|M however we may, with Cocceius, 
better interpret it the extremities or soles 
if the feet, and with him explain r3 
CD'DBH by waters wetting the soles of the 

Ti^ ^C&M1 >jH. This expression occurs Isa. 
xlvii. 8, 10. Zepli. 11. i{, and b not. 
without considerable grammatical diffi- 
culty, as appears from the various me- 
tliods learned men have taken to explain 
it. These may be seen in Vitringa on 
Isa. xhii. 8; but Tympius (on Noldii 
Parlic in CE3M IV. Not. fi.) has, I thmk, 
given a better exposition thau any of 
those proposed in Vitringa, namely. Ego 
(scil. ilia ipsa sum) cujus defect us onr/t^'ii^. 
I (am, by way of eminence) and of me 
(such an one as me) there is henceforth 
a defect or failme. 
II. DOH As a Particle, denotmg defect or 
failure, i. Only. Num. xxiL35. ^^* '3* 
Isa. xlvii. 8. 

2. >^ Cti^ Only that, nevertheless. Num. 
xiii. 29. 

3. ^D DQH Only because, yet because. % San. 
xii. 14. 

^M See under ii^D 

pDH In general. To put aforce upon, const rain, 

I. In Hith. To put aforce upon, or restrain, 
oneself Gen. xliii. 30. xlv. 1. £sth. v. xo, 

II. In Hith. To constrain or force oneself to 
act. occ. I Sam. xiii. 12. 

III. As a N. masc. plur. ts^p'&H Compact^ 
firm, strong. Job xii. 2 1 . In Regim. ^p QH 

is applied to the hones of the Behemoth or 
Hippopotamus, Job xl. 15, or 18, Dis 
smaller bones (are) ytH compact bars ^ 
brass, corresponding with !^d the forged 
bar of iron in the hitter hemistich — to the 
scales of the Leviathan or Crocodile, IHa 
^p^DHn (for so we may divide the words^ 
comp. under nvin) Noble arc the com* 
pact plates (f his shields, (each) beiffg 
shut (as with) a close seal, A Crocodile 
1 8^- feet long, dissected in Siam, an ac* 
count of which was sent to the Royal 
Academy at Paris, *' from the slioulders 
to the extremity of the tail, was covered 
with large scales of a square form dis« 
posed lUe parallel girdles, and fifty- 
two in number; but those near the tall 
were not so thick as the rest. In the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^X»— -ISK 


nw— nx» 

nuddle of each gjirdle tlierc were four 
proluberanceSf which hecame higher as 
they approached the eod of the tail, and 
composed four rows*/' — aud remind 
one, I add, of the Umbos or Batses of 
the ancient shkldk. 

IV. As a N. p>a« A torrtnt. See under pSi. 

Der. Dropping the M, perhaps obsol. Or. 
wrf/uj to Jixy whence vrr^yviiu). Latin 
figo, whence jCr^ &c. Also perliaps Latin 
pangOf pactum; whence compinge, com* 
pact, &c. 

*^aK See onder •» 


L In Kal, and Hiph. Topraf, urge, hasten. 
Gen xix. 13. Exod. v. 13. Josh. x. 13. 

11- To presi upoiiy straiten, confine. Jo«h. 
xvii. ij. 

Deb. Haste^ hasten^ iasty, Comp. under wn. 


I. To place bjf or near oneself, to set apart, 
leep, reserve, occ. Gen. xxvii. 36. Num. 
xi. 17, 25. Eccfes. ii. 10. £zek. xlii. 6. 
Qu? As a N. fcm. nW.-* A reserve, 
something otter and above, occ Ezek. xli. 
8, a full reed of six cuUfs, nVVH and 
(> being understood) a reserve, something 
besides. What this was Ezek. xl. j, 
will inform us, namely, h&to a hand' 
breadth. Each of these cubits was a 
cubit and a hand breadth besides. Thus 
i^ate, Crit. Heb. in nr:« and b^t^. 

n. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. >y^H, Per- 
sons set, or Itept by or near one, select ones, 
occ. Exod. xxiv. 11. Isa. xli." 9, wliere 
thcEng traitsiatiou chit/men, the French, 
les plus excellens the most exccUetU. 

III. Asa Particle ^«, Near, hatdbi/, with. 
Gen. xxxix. 10, 15. xli. 3. Prov. viii. 30, 
& al. fic<(. With D prefixed h)tAD From 
beside, from, » K. iii. ao. xx. s^* Ezek. 
X. 16. 

IV. As a N. masc. plur. b Reg. "^Ww, and 
fem. rx^A The arm-pits^ i. e. the spaces 
comprehended between the upper half of 
the arm and the I>ody, and so called from 
bemg retired parts, and frequently used 
for reserving things to oneself, occ. Jer. 
xxxviii. 12, J^ut these rotten rags wider 
IT mW» thy arm-pits, mder the cords. 
Ezek. xiu. 18, Upon or to all ^ ^Wt< the 
arm-pits, where observe thai n> may be in 
construction with tlie following no'Jp !>D 
ofextry uomanvhoriseth up; and com- 

£roQjii/% Mat. Hiu. Tol. L p. 335. 

pare ver. 30, 2 will tear tlem (the nin^D) 
from (^tD2^nvr)1 your arms. The false 
prophetesses therefore, as well as the 
other women, had these tnr\DO on their 
arms. The LXX and Symmachus, m 
Ezek. xiii. 18, render n^^V^H bv ayxw^a 
X^ip^S ^^^ ^^ ff '^^ o^h 2u*d another 
of the Hexaphir versions by rois jS^^a^io* 
ctv oMTwv their arms. 
From the Heb. JiWh, seems to be de* 
rived the Lat. axilla, of the same import. 

I. To lay vp, to store, or treasure up, 2 K. 
XX. 17. Isa. xxiii. 18, & al. As a N. 
^T\ik A treasury, store-house. Josh. vi. 18. 
Mai. iii. 10, & al. freq. An armoury. Jer. 
1. aj. Fern. plur. nr.V« Treasures. % K. 
xxiv. 13. Comp. Dent, xxviii. 12. Job 
xxxviii* aa. Ps. cxxxv. 7. Jer. x. 13. 
li. 16. Ps. xxxiii. 7. 

II. As a V. from the N. To appoint for a 
treasurer or treasurers, occ Neh. xiii. 1 3. 

Deu. The formative n bemg prefixed, the 
Greek ©Tjo-au^of , Lat. Thesaurus, whence 
French Tresor, and Eng. Treasure, 

Neither p« nor T\pA occur as Verbs in Heb. 
but as a N. Iprt A kind of wild goat, or 
according to the LXX and Vulg. The 
tragelaphus or goat-deer, so named, 
doubtless, in Greek and Latin, from it's 
resemblance to both those species, occ. 
Deut. xiv. 5. 

Schultens, in hb Manuscript Origines 
Hebraico; observes, that the Root \pH 
(ill Castcll ^p« " abhorruit, fastidivit'*) is 
extant in Arabic with the sense of loath- 
ing, abhorring, and coi\jectures that this 
animal might have it's name ob fugaci- 
tatem, from it's shf/ness or running away. 
This conjecture is confirmed by Dr. 
Shaw, who from the LXX add Vulg. 
translation of ypA concludes it means 
some animal resembling both the goat 
and the deer, and such an one he slicws 
there is in the East, known by the name 
of the fshtdll, and in some parts culled 
Icrwee, which, savs he, is the most timo- 
rous species of the goat liind, plunging 
itself, whenever it is pursued, down rucks 
ana precipices, if there be any in it's way. 
See more in 6Atfw's Travels, p. 415, 416, 
and 170. 


I. To fl<m, Thu is the idea of the word, 
D 3 • though 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




though it occurs not as a V. simpiv io 
this sense, but as a N. 1H a rhety ajiood. 
occ. Amos viii. 8. So 

II. As Ns. with a fonpative >, •iM^ and ^^H* 
A river y stream^ or Jivx of water. Geu, 
xli. I, a, i8. Jer. xlvi. 8. Zech. x. ii, 
& al. freq. In £xod. vii. 19, nn* means 
those well-known artificial canals, through 
which the water of the Nile J!owed, or 
was conveyed to the different parts of the 
country of Egypt, So Isa. xix. 6. n«^ 

- *Y\)tD are those canals which the Egj/p- 
tian kings had cut from the Nile for the 
defense of the country. See more in Har- 
fner*% Observations, vol. ii. p. 301, &c. 
Hence perhaps Yar or Yare^ the name 
of a ricer in England, and Jaar^ of one 
in Flanders. 

III. As a Participial N. Tim, The light, so 
called from it*s wonderfuiy/tiuiffy ; for it 
is not only a Jltddj but one of the most 
active and perfect fluids in nature. An 
ingenious * foreign philosopher very re- 
markably asserts, tnat *' there are in 

^nature but three /ru/j/^Mf bodies known, 
and which by their perpetual activity are 
the principles of all motion;! mean, says 
he, li^htffre, and air." Light is indee<l 
one of the conditions of the celestial fluid, 
formed originally by the word or com- 
mand of God, Gen. i. 3, and now conti 
nuing to be formed mechanically by the 
action of the fire, out of the ^mn dark 
or stagnate air. See Gen. i. 4, i8. Isa. 
xlii. 16. xlv, 7. 

Tirt is used for lightning, and so rendered 
bv our translators, Job xxxvii. 3. Comp. 
en. xxxvi. JO, 3».— for the Sun, Job xxxi. 
a6. — for'Jfrf, at least such a degree of 
it as will burn hair, Ezek. v. z, Comp. 
Tsa. xxxi. o. Yet it is distinguished from 
Wik, Isa. xiiv. 16. 

t3^:B 11« The light of the countenance de- 
notes the cheerful agreeable look of per- 
sons who are pleased, in opposition to 
the gloomy forbidding mien of those who 
we displeased. Prov. xvi. 15. Ps. iv. 7. 
xiiv. 4. Job xxix. 24. Comp. Num. 
vi. 25. Ps. xxxi. 17. Eccles. viii. 1. 
80 we commonly speak of joy or pleasure 
lighting vp the countenance, Ilcnce Gr. 
f*;/?«, beauty, 
1^0 doubt "IIM Ur, a city of the Chalde- 

• Abb6 Pluch*^ in Nature Displayed, vol. ir. 

4iaa. l^, p. 157. ^{lith e<ii<, 12m9, . ' 

ans, whence Abraham was brought. Gen, 
XV. 7. Neh. ix. 7, had it's name from the 
light or fire there worshipped. Comp. 
Josh. xxiv. a. Job xxxi. ao — 28. Also 
the Egyptian idol Orus, rov AftoX^Mva 
'EXXijyg; 0K0/i^?8cri, whom the Greeks 
name Apollo,'* says Herodotus II. 144. 
As a N. fem. Pn*iH Light, occ. Ps. cxxxix. 
12. — as impKing joy, prosferiiy, (comp. 
under yi^ V.) occ. Esth. viu. 16. Josepkus 
relating tlie same part of Esther's history, 
Ant. lib. xi. cap. 6, J 13, expresses the 
Heb. rTT»« by a-tx/rrjpioy feyyos salutary, 
or salutiferouSy light. 

As a V. in Kal, with or without the ^j 
To be light, shtne, be enlightened, Isa. Ix. i . 
2 Sam. ii. 32, 1M^ And \l was light to 
them in Hebron, i. c. it grew light by 
the time they got thither. 1 Sam. xiv. 29^ 
Horn my eyes Y\V< shine, the natural efiect 
of the strenp;th and sn[)irits being recruited. 
As a Participle *)1« Shining, Prov. iv. 1 8. 
As a Participle Niph. IIHD Shining, il* 
lustrious, glorious. Ps. Ixxvi. 5. lu Hiph. 
To give light, shine, cause to shine. Gen. 
i. 17. Ps. Ixxvii. 12. Ezek. xliii. 2. Exod. 
xiv. 20, And it (the pillar J was cloud and 
darkness, nWn n« "i«^ and it enlightened 
the night, i. e. the lire appeared in the 
dark cloud, and gave light, Comp. ver. 
24. Num. vi. 25, Jehovah lit 'ifc^* ca^s& 
hisfdce to shine, SoDan. ix. 17. Comp« 
above 0>)Q 11 W. Job xli. 23, or 22, 1>»» 
He causeth a path to shine after him, as 
a ship docs in cutting the waves. 
In Hiph. To kindle or light, as fuel. Xsa. 
xxvii. 11. Comp. Ps. xviii. ,29. MaL u 

As a N. masc. plur. tD>11H Lights, that ia, 
streams or fluxes of' light, as is plain from 
the mention of the solar, lunar, and 
stellar fluxes in the following verses. Ps. 
cxxxvi. 7. 

As a N. 1HD A mean of light, *i«dV \rzm 
Oil for a mean or pabulum ofli^ht, Exod. 
XXV. 6. As a N. "Timo A mean or pabulum 
of light considered as in action, Exod, 
xxvii. 20. XXXV, 8. 'TJKDn n'nio A can^ 
dlestick for the pabulum of light, i. e. to 
support the pure oil which gave the light. 
Exod, XXXV. 14. Num. iv. 9. ^>ry "^1^0 
What giveth light to the eyes (so Summa-* 
chus ^wncrp.os opiaXfjLwy the iiluminatioQ 
of the eyes) rejoiceth the heart, Prov. xv, 
30, Y.HO is also used for a luminary^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




«n ofb, which either forms or r^ec^« the 
ifgkt, and 90 18 io either case an iiueru- 
maiiof light to ns. Gen. i. i6. Comp. 
visr. 14, wd under Wa I. TAou ^<m^ prr- 
pared \srow\ TIMO the luminary, or orb, 
i. e. of the sun, and the stream of tight 
from 'n, which plainly distmguisnes be- 
tween tlie twoi Ps. Ixxiv. 1 6, where 
jiquila excellently (pwri^a. TIH niHO ^D 
AU the h&minaries, ororbs,of Hght will I 
darken ovrr thee. Extk, xxxii. 8, where 
observe that the m«D ai-e mentioned /lis- 
tinctly from >:i3D, u?Dm and m\ the stel- 
lar, solar, and iunSLT/iuses of light in the 
Bumediately preceding verse. . 
As a N. fem. sing, or plur. n"i«D A frame 
of orbs capable cf givingy (i. e. either of 
forming or reflecting, light) or the orbs 
themselves. Gen. i. 14, i6. As a N. 
fem, sing, or plur. ni1«0 A frame of such 
orbs^ ox the orbs, actually giving light 
Gen. i. 15. 

IV. As a N. masc. plur. tD^m. ta^wrr /i« 
and Perfections, mentioned £xod. xxviii. 
50. Lev. viii. 8, as some thines that were 
put into the breast-plate of the High- 
priest. That these ciid in some manner 
or other give prophetical or oracular an- 
swers from Jehaoah is disputed by none, 
who pretend to believe the authority of 
the Scriptures, being evidently proved 
from Num. xxrii. 21. i Sam. xxviii. 6, 
& al. But the two great questions re- 
lating to them are, 

I'iU Of whatybrTii and, substance were these 
Urim and Thumnum? 

irdly. H(jw or m what manner prq)hetic 
answers were delivered by them ? 

—Not to trouble the reader with rabbinical 
dreams, or what seem to me erroneous 
opinions on this subject, I shall endea- 
fiour to clear both these pomts from the 
scriptures themselves. 

Bt. As to theJr^on/i and substance, TX%eem^ 
highly probable that they were no other 
than t^e t-xelte precious stones inserted 
into the high-prieifs breast-plate, (Exod. 
xxviii. 17; &c.) on which were engraven 
tJie names of the twelve tribes of Israel: 

ist. It is written, Exod. xxviii. 29, Aaron 
shall bear the names of the children of Israel 
(namely, tlio^ engraven on the stones; in 
the breast'plate of judgment upon his hearty 

when he goeth info the holy place, for a 
memorial before the Lord continually. And 
to enjoin this the more strongly, tlie same 
thing is expressed, ver. 30, And thou ska It 
put in the breast-plate of judgment the 
\5nmand the Thummim, and' they shall 
be upon Aaron s heart "when he goeth be- 
fore the Lord: and (or so) Aaron shall 
bear the judgment of the children of Israel 
vpon his heart before the Lo)xl continually. 
Who that compares these two verses at- 
tenlively together, but must sec that the 
Urim and Thummim are the substance or 
matter upon which the names were en- 
graven ? 

adly. In tlie description of the high- 
priest's breast-plate, given Exod. xxxix. 8, 
Sc seq. the Urim and Thummim are not 
mentioned, but tlie rows of stones are ; 
and vice rersd in the description Lev. 
viii. 8, the Urim and Thummim are men- 
tioned by name, anil the stones not ; there- 
fore it is probable that the Urfm and 
Thummim and the precious stones are only 
different names for the same thing. 
3dly. If the Urim and Thummim be not 
the same with the precious stones, then 
we must say that Moses, who hath so 
particularly described the most minwe 
things relating to the high-priest's dress, 
Irath given us no description at all of 
tliis most stupendous part of it, which 
seems highly improbable. 
As to the lid question, how, or in what 
manner prophetic answers were delivered 
by Urim and Thummim f It seems deter- 
mined, beyond dispute, that it was by an 
audible voice, as at other times; (Num. 
vii. 89.) for when David consulted Je- 
hovah by the Ephodot' Abiathar, we read 
I Sam. xtiii. 11, Jehovah 1DH said. He 
will come down. So again ver. 12. Comp. 
also I Sam. xxx. 7, 8. % Sam. ii. 1 — 5, 
23, 24. Jud. i. I, 2. XX. 18. Thus then 
it was Jehovah who returned an answer 
by an audible voice, when the priest pre- 
sented himself before him' with the Urim 
and Thummim. 

Who can doubt but the typical hidi* 
priest's appearing continually before Je- 
hovah with the names of the children of 
Israel upon bis heart prefigured the ap« 
pearing of the real High-priest in the pre- 
sence ^ God, as intercessor for ever, in 
behalf of the true Israel, even of all those 
D 4 ■ who 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




luho come vnto God by hmf Who cao 
doubt but tiiat Jehovah'B being someiimei 
(see 1 Sam. xxviii. 6.) pleased to aoswer 
by Urim and Thummini,yft3is^ shadow of 
that spirit of truih and prophecy which 
was to be inherent io Jthctcan iocaroate ? 
See Deut. xxxiii. 8, 

There was a remarkable imitation of this 
sacred ornament among the Egyptians^ 
for we learn from Diodorvs, lib. i. p. 68, 
ed. Rhod. and from Mfian, Var. Hist, 
lib. xiv. cap. 34, that "their chief- 
pricsit, who was also their supreme judge 
u civil matters, wore about bb neck, by 
a * golden chain, an oniawmt (^precious 
9toncs called Truth (AXijfieiflt, the very 
word by which the LXX render O^on 
£xod. xxviii. 30. Lev. viii. 8.) and that 
a cause was not opened till the supreme 
jqdgc had put on this omamtnt/* It 
seems probable that the Egyptians car- 
ried off this, as well as other sacred sym- 
bols, from the dispersion at Battel; for 
it is by no meaps credible that they 
should take it from the JsraelUes after 
the giving of the law. And the supposed 
priority of it to that time will account 
. fpr Moacs first nicking mention of it oc- 
casionally as it were, as of a thing well 
known. Exod. xxviii. 30. And I would 
beg the reader to consider whether a 
more rational account can be given of 
the use of many ornaments of the like 
kind, worn by kings and priests among 
all nations in all ages, than by supposing 
they were originally of divine imtitutioiiy 
yerverted afterwards more or less by 
human imagination. 

V. As a N. fem. sing, in Reg. miHD The 
hole which a serpent makes in the earth, 
q. d. J tight hoie. So Lat. specus, from 
specio to see, occ, Isa. xi. 8. Comp. mn^D 
under ini. 

VI. Though Jluidity or Jiotcinfr be the na- 
tural condition and perfection of isater 

. and light y yet in other things to be Jlovc^ 
i"g9 Jlif'T, or Jeethig, is an imperfection 
and an etil. (see Job xx, 28, and Bate's 
Crit. lleb.) ijence as a V. *)?*, and "V^m 
To curse, i. e. to pronounce Jlux, fictifig, 
or transitory, or to uish to be so See 
Gen. xii, 3. Num, xxii. 6, J2. Jud. v. 

• Comp. Gen. xli. 42 ; and see Gratitis De Vcrit. 
I^elig. Christ, lib. i. cap. 16, oot. Ill ; aii4 l^ 
Chr$ on f xp^, xjtyiii. 50, 

a). ^ To mdce b'ght of, tretti as Hgii 
or vile, i» a word of similar import. These 
two Verbs occur toffetbeT,Exod« xxii. 38, 
V?pT) W? Thou skalt not make light of, 
revile, the Aleim, nor "iwn ciusic the Rtder 
of thy people. As a Particip. Niph. masc. 
plur. c^:h^ Cursed. Mai. ii). 9. As a 
N. fem. TD^o A curse. Deut. xxviii. 20. 
Mai. ii. s, & al. j 

Hence G. Aca a cwse, cl^^uu to curse* 

Vll. As a N. ^^Vk plur. miiHl mi«, and 
JTiH Grass or herbs, from their flux, pe- 
rishing nature, which is ofte\i remarked 
by the inspired writersi occ. I^. xvitL 4.. 
xxvi. 19. 2 K. iv. 39. % Chronl xxxii.sS, 
tW\^^ Xzyr^:) " Flocks at grass."" Bute. 

in« To curse f curse greatly, the doubling of 
the last radical, as usual, heightening the 
meaning, occ. Gen. v. 29. As a Parti- 
cip. paoul. II'IM Cursed, greatly cursed^ 
Gen. iii. 14, 17, & al. freq. As a Par- 
ticip. liiph. masc. plur. 0^i*)HD Causittg 
or oringing the curse or destruction. Num. 
V. 18, 19, aa, 24, a;. 

Dkr. Gr. Aijf), Lat. Aer, Eog. air, aerial. 
Gr. '£lf^a,, hora, Eng. hour. Abo 
year, and it's northern relatives (see 
Lye^s Junius) Lat. aurum, and Fr^ch or, 
gold, from it*s colour^ like the light. 
Lat. aura, in the seuse both of a breeze 
and of splendour, as Viigii, Ma^ vi, 
liu. 204, Aura auri, the splendour or 
glitteiing of gold. Also Gr. U^ tiie 
dawn ; Goth« air, Saxon aep, the saine ; 
whence Eng. Early* Lat. Aurora^ the 

. dawo, from iiw, and ^;? to raise. 

L To lie in nail, or ambush. Deut. xix. 1 r. 
Ps. X. 9, & al. freq. As Ns. n^» A den 
where wild beasts lie in unit, and whence 
they rush upon their prey. Job xxJivii, 8. 
xxxviii. 40. n^iHD An ambush, either the 
place, Jud. ix. 35, or persons, aChfiio. 
xiii. 13. 

IL As a N. fem. Mi^^.H A place of fying in 

J. ln\hcp\uT.'nefssures,cracks,or€iSnksj, 
whereby the air on the surface of the 
earth communicates with that withiu, 
and where it doth, as it were, lie in xpait 
to supply any deficiencies on either side 
that may happen from rarefaction^ or 
&c. Gen, vii. u, 3c al. 2K, vii. 19, 
Jf the Lord zvould make iD^tt^a nu*>H 
window? or holes in th^ b^v^iis,--Is 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




wA, t\m aa infidel meet at the Moiak 
bistMy, Gen* \4i. 1 1 ? Mo«es oeve r men- 
tioBS ts^tz^n rf\T)ik windows or boles in 
the Mveos, but 011I3; X3*attn m^ fis- 
smcs or holes t^otjor the heavens or air. 
Isa. XXIV. 18, speaking id images taken 
from the deluge, C^*ioo twTVA The is- 
sares on high are opeifed, (comp. Gen. 
¥11. II.) and the fomulatUm of the earth 
shake. On high here being opposed to 
the foundatioas of the earth, does not 
mean in the heavens, but in the higher 
parts of the earthy as 01*>0 is used Isa. 
xxxTii. 24. Jer. xlix. t6. Obad. I. 3. 
Habak. ii. 9. 
a. Sing. A hoie^ or opemmg^ whence smoke 
rwthn as from a lurking place, tiosea 
xiii. 3. 

3. Piur* Cracks or holes in walls or rocks, 
such as pigeons harbour in. occ. I^ta. Ix. 8. 

4. Windows, spoken of the holes or openings 
for the eyes. occ. Eccles. xii. 3. See 
SolonioD*s Portraitare of Old Age, by 
Dr. Smntk, p. 81^ & seq. 2d cdir. 

J.« x&v*. 1 1) *' And God shall bring 
dams his pride in^ tn^ltk t3V with the 
sodden ^ripe of his hands." Bp, Lowth 
And this translation agrees with the 
Targiim, LXX, and Svnac versions, and 
espedalty with the Vulg. cum aliisione 
■anuum ejus, and seven of Dr. Kennl 
cott's Codices read ra^ sing. I know 
not however that tDp ever signifies, hjf 
or viih^ of the instrument^ though very 
fiequeotly of concomitanc^. The reader 
therefore will consider for himself whe- 
ther fTD"^ or n2i« may not be refeired 
to root (13^, and the words rendered^ And 
he shall bring down his (Moab*s) pride 
together with the multitude ajf his hands ^ 
I c. nten, or perhaps trophies, Comp. 
nadcr TfV V. 4. 

III. AM'N. rry^vk A locust. Some place the 
word under this root^ because these bi- 
sects suddenly and unexpectedly come 
forth upon countries as from lurking 
places, pluudering and destroying; hut 
since n^iH is u^ as a N. nutsc. and 
consequently the n is radicul, it ought 
U> be referred to root T\T), which see. 

Tu weate. See ExotI, xxviii. 3 a. Jud. xvi. 
13% a K. xxiii. 7, Isa, lix. j, Unw^ 
ITiejr weave the spidcr^s web. As a N. 
Till A vpetfvo-s 4hutik^ i^ vii. 6. Isa. 

xxxviiL I a. Comp. under "v&p. Peiiiaps 
a loom. Jud. xvi. 14. Mr. Harmety in 
the 4th vol. of bis valuable Observations, 
p. ^47,^ aiks, '* if sbuUles are not now 
used m the manuiacturing of liykes, con 
we suppose they were in use in the time 
of Job? Yet our translators suppose this;** 
namely, m Job vii. 6. But there is 
nothing in thb text that limits it to the 
manufacturing of h^kes or blanhtts ; and 
though the mhabitants of Barbary do 
not now use the shuttle in mamdacturing 
these, but conduct every thread of tha 
woof with their fhiga:9, according to 
Dr. Shawt TraveU, p. aa4, yet the 
Doctor in the same page informs us, 
that '^at Algiers mkdi Tunis there are 
looms for velvets, taffitees, and different 
sorts of wrought silks.'' And it is cer- 
tain from Homer y that the shuttle, xtp^ 
x/f , was used m weaving by the ancient 
Greeks. See II. xxii. Un. 440, 448. 
Odyss. V. lin. 61. 

Hence KpOLyy^, the Greek name for a 
spider-, and the fable ^f a Ljfdiiu woman 
named Arachne being metamorphosed 
mto that insect. S&t Ovidj Metam« 
lib* VL fab. 4. FVom the Greek Apax'.-^ 
are plainly derived the Lat. aranea, and 
French araignccy a spider. 
mM with a radical, but mutable, rr. 

I. As a V. To pluck cff^ or crop, as from a 
tree. occ. Ps. Ixxx. 13. Cant. v. i. 

II. As a N. iem. plur. n't^H ^alls ftw 
horses or other beasts, where tliey ^uck 
or crc;/; their food. occ. 2 Chrou/ix. 25. 
nilH The same. occ. i K. iv. a6, or v. <$. 
2 Chroo. xxxii. 28. 

III. As a N. n>* and m« plur. tD«l» and 
n^nw A llony so called " from plucking 
or snatching off hb prey, Qu V* says Mr. 
Bote, or from his remarkably tearing it 

. to pieces ; a circumstance particularly 
noted by the sacred (see Gen. xlhc. 9. 
Deut xxxiii. 22. Ps. vii. 3. xxii. 14. 
Hos. xiii. 8. Mic. v. 7 or 8.) and by the 
heathen writers: 
Tlius Virgil, Mvi. fau z^^, &c, 

ImfutUtt eeu pUma Leo per §vilia tmrianu 
fHuadei emim vMuia/amfsJ manditque trahitque 
MMt pecus, 

The'farmsh*d hlon thus with hunger bold 
Overleaps the fences of the nightly foid. 
And uars the peaceful flocks. • 

Drvd; V. 

Comp, Homer, II. xi. liu. 176. 

'' When 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

inM— nn 


jn»— ©"^M 

** When the hod, navs Bufony Hist. Nat 
torn. viii. p. i%^, leaps ob his prey, he 
gives a spring of ten or fifteen fe*t, falls 
on, seizes it with his fore«paws, la de- 
diire avec ses ongles, tears it with his 
chwsy and aftenvards devours it with his 

riH Chald. See, behold, h. Dan. vii. 2, k ftl. 
It may be either from Hcb. *T^H the fight , 
or by transposition, trom Heb. "JfcO ad 
Pers. pluT. Imper. of HK^i to see. 

^•W As a N. -<^ cedar. See under mn. 

rnH It denotes " to go in a track, and as a 
N. a common road, highway, path^ con- 
stant course, or settled customary way; a 
traveller." Bate. 

I, To go in a track or high-road (as it were). 
occ. Job xxxiv. 8. Comp. Mat. vii. 13. 
As a N. ni« A traveller. Jud. xix. 17. 
a Sam. xti. 4. A way, a track, a path, a 
road. Gen. xlix. 17. Comp. Job xxii. 15. 

- Ps. xvi, 1 1 . -<< way, manner, custom. Gen. 
xviii. 1 1. So plur. mrriH. Jnd.v. 6. Job 
- vi. t8, 19, 9c al. As a N. fem. in Reg. 
nmi* plur. mniH A company of travel- 
lers, a caravan, occ. G«n. xxxvii. 25. 
Isa. xxi. 13. 

It. As a N. fem. nm«, in Reg. nm» A 
customary settled alhrwanee or meal of 
victuals, occ. ft K. xxv. 30. Jer. xl. y 
lii. 34. Prov, XV. 17. See Bate's Crit. 

X)H The idea of the word is Length, long. 

I. fn Kal, To 6f or grow Aw^i as boughs. 
Eaek. xxxi. 5. In Hiph. Yb draw out 
in length, as ropes, Isa. liv. 1. — as the 
tongue, in deriMon, laa. Ivii. 4. — as a 
furrow, Ps. cxxix. 3. i K. viii. 8, 'iD'ii^*^ 
And they (the priests) lengthened out, i. e. 
drew out some way, but not entirely, the 
states (of the Mosaic ark) and the ends 
of the staves appeared oat in the * Holy 
qf Holies (p*l«r7 {o from the ark, says 
a Chron. r. 9 ) *i3 ^ on the front of the 
oYacle, but did not appear without, namely 
in the outer sanctuary. I>r. Prideaux 
(Connect, vol. i. p. 150, ist. edit. 8vo.) 
justly observes that this text, which how- 
ever be does not seem to have clearly 
understood, (comp. Bp. Patrick's note,) 
plainly proves that the staves were put 
through the rings made for tliem, not 
on the sides of the ark, but on the two ends 

• So ttTTp If used for. the Ho!y of Hoiks, Lev. ivi. 
3, 16,17,20, 23, &al. 

^it. For had they b^eft tm the 9iigi of 

the ark lengthways, they would, on their 
being drawn bnt, have reached towards 
the side-wall, and not hove been seen 
from the ark, on the front of ike oradei. 
As a N. T*^ Length or Umg. See Geo. 
vi. i{. xiii. 17. Ezek. xvH. 3. Job xi. 9. 

II. Of time. In Kal, To be knstkened or 
prolonged. Gen. xxvi. 8. Exod. xx. is. 
In Hiph. To lengthen, proto?^. Dent. iv. 
26, 40. xi. 9, & al. Abo, To remain or 
continue a long time. Num. ix. 19, f 2. 
Prov. xxviii. ft. Cemp. Dan. iv. 24, 
or 27. 

Hence Lat. arcto, to drive off or away. 

III. In Hiph. To aehemce, pft^eed, fnrosper. 
Thus used as a Participle, ** Eccles. vii. 16. 
There is a just man that perishes in his 
righteousness, and there is a wickett man 
T^KO who advances, thrives, continues 
getting forward in his wickedness. Eccles. 
viii. 12, Though a sinner do evil a Aim- 
dred times, lb "prtW and prosperity be to 
hi$n:' Bate's Crit. Heb. which by all 
means see. As a N. fem. n51*i« ♦* Pro* 
gress, getting ground, or advancmg. 
a Chron. xxiv. 13. nsniH i»J^^T^ And 
progress, advancing, went on to the 
work." So Neh. iv. i. As a N. fwu. 
n3*)», m Reg. n3":», Progress, getting 

forward, prosperity. Isa. Ivlii. 8. Jer. 
viii. 22, " Why then doth not HDIH the 
recovery of the daughter of my people go 
onf*' ** So also, cb. xxx. 17. xxxiii. 6, 
says Bate, it is not health nor plaister, 
but the progress or getting forward." 

IV. Chald. nn« Expedient, fitting, occ. 
Ezraiv. 14. 

As a N. pD'irt A palace. Sec imder tar:. 
p« See under p 

I. Chald. Low, inferiour. occ. Dan. ii. 39. 
The word is used in the same sense in 
the Targums. See Castell. Lex. Heptag. 

II. Chald. As a N. The earth (Greek Epx) 
either on account of it's inferiour situa* 
tion, (see Ps ciii. 1 1 .) or from Heb. p« 
the same, f being, as usual, changed into 
)). It occurs in tiie emphatic form H^H, 
Dan. ii. 35. Jer. x. 11, & al. 

f The Print therefore which I have givan of 
the Ari on which the Cherubim stood in this re-* 
spect is wrong. But the reader will easily correct 
it by hii'imagijiatfon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1W»— PM 



Occurs not as a V. but as a N. fern. pH 
Tk earth, the dry land. Gen. i. lo, so 
caUed on account of it's readily breaking 
or crumbling to pieces, from f 1 to break 
to pieces^ which see. 

p« Chald. 

Occurs not as a V. but as a N. fern. Hp'lH 
The earth. Once, Jer. x. 1 1 . It is per- 
haps a derivative from p*) to attenuate, as 
pH from p to break to pieces. 

To betroth, espouse. Deut. xx. 7, & al. 
As a N. fem. in Reg. nm^iH Espousals, 
betrothing. Ps. xxi. 3, Thou ha^t not with- 
holden (the execution of) the betrothing of 
his lips, Christ betrothed the church, and 
give himself for it, (see Hos. ii. 19, ao.) 
£ph. v« 2^, & seq. but to enable him to 
complete hu marriage and make the 
church happy with himself, lie was, in 
his human nature, invested with a king- 
dom, with everlasting life, and with 
power tp overcome all his enemies, as 
It follows in the Psalm. 


I. As a N. t^m Fire, the well-known em- 
hlem of wrath. See inter al. Ezek 
xxxvL {. Zeph. iii. 8. freq. occ. May 
not tills word be a derivative from m* 
being, substance, and so, eminently denote 
the substance or matter of the hea veas, i. e. 
subsisting in atoms, without cohesion or 
such like accidents? 

II. tTH b, according to the printed copies, 
usedfortt^ /^^ aSam.xiv. 19. Mic. vi. 10. 
But in Sam. many of Dr. Kenmcotfs Co- 
dices read VPH, and four or six ur^; so in 
Mic. many read w^i^n and one u^^rr. 

in. As a N. nwik, plur. XD^^ AJire^f- 
firing, 0/1 offering made b^Jire, £xod. 
xxix, 18. Lev. iv. 35, & al.freq. 

IV. As a N. mn<, tem. niTH, see uuder rxm*. 

V. Chald. As a N. masc. plur. eniphat. 
M^iTH (perhaps from Heb. tt^ substance, 
sub&tantialness) Foundations, occ. Ezra 
iv. 12. V. 16. and with a sufiix, Ezra vi. 3. 
And hence 

VI. As a N. frm. plur. m Reg. *n*w», or 
(accordmg to more than twenty of Dr 
Kemiicott% Codices) ^nvam, Foundations, 
So Tarj. Mnn^u/fi* and Syr. n^ortnu^, her 
foundations, occ. Jer. 1. 1 ^, where the 
prophet speaking of Babylon uses the 
worn io the Chaldee sense^ Her founda- 

tions are fallen, . her toaUs are ^ure/em 
down. But to this interpretation ft k 
objected, thisX foundations cannot fall; I 
reipiyi foundations in general cannot, bat 
those of the walls of Babylon might. For 
Herodtttus, who had been himself at that 
city, informs us, (lib. i. cap. 178, edit. 
Gale) that it was surrounded, first by m 
deep and wide ditch full of footer, wXs^ 
v^aro$, and then by it s stupendous walls» 
fiflv royal cubits broad, auo two humlred 
hi^ ; that the earth thrown out of tlje 
ditch was made into bricks, with which 
they first lined (Herod, built) both sidea 
of the ditch^ and then built the wf^ ia 
the same manner, shtpMf vrpcota (Xfir 
nijs ra,^p8 roLyst^jsa: hot e pa h, avh r§ 
reixof, r^v avioy rpoiroy. Supposing then 
that the scarp or inmr wall of the dkck 
served for a foundation to the wall of the 
city, (which is highly probable* though 
I do not imd that Herodotus directly as- 
serts it) it is very easy to conceive hew 
such a foundation, orfoundaflons, being 
built in a marshy soil (as was that of 
Babylon) and continually exposed to th« 
undermining power of the water in the 
ditch, and pressed by such a ))rodigioiii 
weight, might give toay, and fall*. 

U^mn 1. As a V. in Kith To be grieved, cut- 
gry, or,a8 it yiext,Jired at oneself, occ. Isa. 
xlvi. 8 ; where the LXX s-Bva,^a,r6 be ye- 
distressed, and Vulg. c<f)ifundaiuini, be yt 
confounded', but Bate, "Be ye onjire^ 
as Luke xxiv. 3a, this new force, vigour^ 
or burning of the heart, being what the 
Verb expresses.*' See more in Crit. Heb« 
So Vitringa **incendimini, be ye inflamed^ 
with ardent zeal namely, for my glory 
and the true religion.'^ Comp. Jer. xx.9. 
P^. xxxix. 4. 

II. As a N. fem. nttmt^, and plur. masc in 
Reg. nz^^tt^H. The latter word is in Isa« 
xvi. 7, rendered by our translators^bicn- 
dations; but since the three following 
verses relate to the vineyards and wine 
with which the country of Moab abound- 
. ed, the reader will consider for himself, 
whether nt^^tt^H may not be best inter- 
preted with Fitringa, of the earthen Jars 
or flagons (namely, such as had been 
baked by fr'e) in, which it is highly 
probable the ancient Moabites, like the 

* See CattfuCi Plam of the City of Babylm in 
hit Dictionary.. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^r»— 'TOH 



* modern Easterns^ kept their wine which 
they had stored up id the fortified city of 
Kir-HaresHk. SoO>:!:i?ntrm»,Hos.hi.i, 
seems to mean jar# or flagons ofwine^ as 
we render it. And if so, rviPW^fem. in 
3 Sam. vi. 19. i Chron. xvi. 3. Cant.ii.j. 
may not improbably denote a smaller jar 
of the same sort, as Vifringa explains it 
Dbr. Lat. Asso, to roast. Eng. ashes. Hence 
also, but immediately from the dialectical 
Hntt^H, the Greeks bad their 'Erioi,, de- 
noting the Jire, and the Romans their 
t Vesta, to whom the vnextinguishedjire, 
kept up by the Vestal virgins, was X con- 
secrated, or rather whose emblem or re- 
j)resentafive the unextinguished fire was; 
for it does not appear that among the 
llomans Vesta had any /^^r^ono/ represen- 
tation ; and Oxidy Fast. lib. vi. 1. 398, 
expressly affirms she had not, 

Bffi^tem nuUam Ve$U ntc IgOIS bahtnt. 

•See more in Speitce's Polymetis, p. 81 , 82. 
Further, 'U(pocts'Of HephaistoSy the Greek 
' name of Vulcan, the God of Fire, may 
be derived either from KHtt^H nwrr the 
Father of Fire, or from ttW 3»n the Fa- 
ther Fire; for Or])heus in his hymns calls 
'Hi^airo; himselif axafuarov mvp unwea- 
riedjire, xocr|u.o<o fji^soof, fot)(^eiov ai^efj^ 
^€g, a part of the world, pure element, fwf 
ap^iavlcv unpolluted light. 
yj^A See under ri*W 

Occurs as a N. once Lev. xxi, 20, and 
is const nied a testicle, but by the context 
seems rather to mean Sfmte sharp biting 
kufHOur, or tetter, from *^W} to bite ; n>1D 
*jtt?» overspread with a tetter, or the like. 
Comp. mn, and Bate*s Crit. Heb in ^2?«. 

Occurs not as a V. but as a N. Vu^.** An oak, 
as appears by a comparison of i Sam. 

- xxxi. 13, with I Chron. x. i*. So Tkeo- 
dotion in Sam. renders it ^rj^. Bate 
refers it to the root bil»2 from the oak's 
casting it's acoins. It occurs also Gen. 
xxi. 33. I Sam. xxii. 6. From this word 
may be derived the name of the famous 
As^lim opened by Romulus between two 

* Sec Flarmer's Observations, vol. i. p. 315. 

t Ovid, Fast. lib. yi. 
N'ac tu aliud Vcatam nisi vivam inteUigt Flammani. 

\ Sec more in V»stius De Ori^. & Prog. Idol, 
h'b.ii.cap. 65; and in Hyde Relig. Vet, Pers^ cap. 7. 

S roves of oaks § at Ramt. And as Abra* 
am, Gen. xxi. 33, agreeably no doubt 
to tlie mstitutes of the Patriarchal Reli- 
gion, planted an oak m Beersheba, amd 
called on the name of Jehovah the exerlast' 
ing God (comp. Gen* xiiL 8. xviii. i.); 
so we find that oaks were sacred among 
the idolaters also. Ye shall be asAirmed 
of' the oaks which ye have chosen, aays 
Isaiah (ch. i. 39.) to the idolatrous Is- 
raelites. And in Greece we meet, ia 
, very early times, with the famous |l orach 
o^ Jupiter at the oaks of Dodona, Annuig 
the Greeks and Romans we have. Sacra 
Jovi Quercus, the Oak sacred to Ji/pitcr, 
even to a proverb. And in Gaul and 
Britain we find the highest religious re- 
gard paid to the same tree and it's misle- 
toe, under the direction of the % Dtvids, 
i. e. the Offit-Pro|ihets or Priests. Few 
are ignorant that the misUtoe, or •♦ mis- 
soidine, is indeed a very extraordinary 
plant, not to he cultivated m the earth, 
but always growing upon smne odier 
tree, as upon the oak, apple, or &c. 
«*The Druids, says Pliny if, hold nothing 
more sacred than the misletoetiud the tree 
on which it is produced, provided it be 
the oak, '^fliey make choice of groves 
of oaks on tlieir own account, nor de 
they perfi)mi any of their sacred rito 
without the leaves of those trees, so that 
one may sup^[>ose that they are for this 
reason called, by a Greek etymology, 
Druids. And whatever misletoe grois 
on the fHtk (entmver6 <piicquid adnasca* 
tnr illij») they think is sent from heaven, 
and is a sign of God himseirs having 
chosen that tree. This, ho^\ever, b very 
rarely found, but when discovered is 

§ So DtMysius ITatlcarM. lib. ii. Cap. 15, Mil»- 

I II Of which see Ifsmrr Odys». y\v. lin. 327, 9SS, 

Odyss. xix. lin. '256, 297. U. xvi. lin. 233, 4. aod 
; Mr. Pole's Notes on lia. ^83, and 2S8, of im 

translation, and IferoJotus, lib.ii. cap 52 — ^58. 
I % So called from the Cehic Dcrw, Greek Actf, 

an Oakm 

I ♦» The name is froin the Cerman mittel, the 
I same, 5.0 called becau:i€ it it mixed whh anodin' 

tree, and Saxon tan (Danish tiene, Dutch /««\ 
'O twig, •'^'■(f? or sl'oot. See Martinius LepC. 

EtymoL in FiscM, and Junius Et^moL Anglicao. 
I in M1S8ELDEN. 

ft Nat. Hist. lib. xvii. cap. 44. See also Cni- 
1 versal History, vol. xviii. p. 543, 5-16 — 548. jtod 

vol. xir. p. 24, 77. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




treated with great ceremonj.— They call 
it b^ a * name which in their language 
signifies tkc carer of all ills (omnia sa- 
naotein}, and having duly prepared their 
feasts and sacrifices under the tree, they 
briDg to it two white bulls, whose horns 
are then for the iirst tune tied. The 
Priest, drest in a white robe, ascends the 
tree, and loUh a golden pruning-hook cuts 
of the fmletocj which is received in a 
ihite sacum or sheet t* Then they sa- 
crifice toe victims, praying that God 
would bless hi* own gi/t to those on 
whom he has bestowed it/* Is it possible 
for a Christian to read tim account with- 
out thinking of him who was the desire of 
all nations, of the Man whose name was 
tke BRANCH,wbo had indeed no father 
on earth, but came down from heaven ; 
u-as given to heal all our ills, and aOer 
being cut off through the divine counsel, 
was wraijfed in fine lincn^ and laid in the 
sepulchre, for oursakes? I cannot for- 
bear adding, that the misletoe was a sa- 
cred emblem to other Celtic nations, as 
for instance to the ancient inhabitants of 
Italy. The Golden Branch of which Fir- 
g'd speaks so largely in the 6th book of 
Uie £neis, and without which he says 
no one coifld return from the infei'nal re- 
gions (see lin. 126^ &c.) seems an allu- 
sion to the misUtoe, as he himself plainly 
intimates, by comparing it to that plant, 
Kn. 20$, &c. And was not the Cumaan 
Sybil a Celtic Druidess ? 

D»K ' 

I. To be guiltif, liable to punishment or pe- 
nalty, or aduaUy to undergo it, "Itdif- 
ftn from Mion, which is erring or com- 
mitting the crime" Bate. Lev. iv. 13, 
as, 27, k, ai. freq. In Hiph. To treat 
as guilty^ exact the penalty from, Ps. 
V. II. This V. has been cojifounded 
with nott^ to be desolate, Ps. xxxiv. 

* Wf arc told diat the C^ennans to this day 
call the wmUiot of the oak bv the oU name^»- 
thyl, or ntkeyt, that if, good l/eal, and ;iscribe 
ettracM^nary virtues to it. See Univcrtal Hist. 
ToL xix. p. 94. Bat compare MaUet*% Northern 
Amiqaitiefl, vol. iL p. 147. 

f The reader may sec this 'oery extraordinary 
inmtaj repreteoted to the e3rt in a priot designed 
b/ Haywtam, and entitled The Druids, or tb* Co«- 
*€rsi*M •f the BriUns t9 Ghr'utianity% and sold by 
X»aft9m 9aA D9iH*y. 

22 f 23. Isa. xxiv. 6. Ezek. vi. 6. Hos. 
xiii. 16, or xiv. i, but in all these pas- 
sages signifies either to be guilty, or to 
vndergo the penalty of' guilt,. In Niph. 
To be treated as guilty, to suffer the pe- 
nalty of' guilt. Joel 1. 18. Comp. Hos. 
V. 1 5. As a participle or participial N. 
^mn Guilty. Gen. xlii. 21. As a N. 
tstt^ Guilt, guiltiness. Gen. xxvi. 10. 
Ps. kviii. aa. Jer. li. c. Also, Da- 
mage, Num. V. 7, And he shall restore 
"iDtTbt hK hb damage, i. e. the damage 
he hath done, in it*sfull value — and he 
shall give it li» OU^ ^wvb {to him) to 
u'hom the damage (was done,) Also, An 
offering or sacrifice for guilt, a trespass^ or 
guilt-Bering (Lev. v. 6, 7, 16, & al.) 
to which the guilt or penalty was typically 
transferred, as il was really to die great 
trespass-offering Christ Jesus. Comp. 
Ps. Ixix. 6. Isu. iiii. 10. Rom. viii. 3. 
2 Cor. v. »i. Gal. iii. 15. i Pet. ii. 24, 
As a N. fem. rt'smH Guilt, guiltiness. 
Lev. iv. 3. xxii. 16. Ps. l\ix. 6. nott^K 
}noLL^ The guilt or sin of Samaria, Amos 
viii. 14, plainly means the golden calf 
which was set up by Jeroboam, and wor- 
shipped m Dan. Comp. i K, xii. 30. 
Ilos. viii. 5. Dcut. ix. 21. 

II. As a N. in the Chaldee form, MQ^a'M 
Aihinia, the Alcim of tlie menoflJamatJt, 
mentioned 2 K. xvii. 30. The word, if 
uncompounded, should mean the atoner, 
expiator, Tiie Rabbins say the emblem 
was a goat, or of a form compounded of 
a man and a goat, as the Roman Poets 
describe tlie Satyrs and Pan, And in* 
deed it seems probable that this idol was 
of a form in which the goat was preva* 
lent, since that lustful animal seems a 
verv proper, and is indeed a scriptural, 
emblem of a tUfarious a toner, as bearing 
the body (f the sins of the flesh. See Lev. 
iv. 23, 24. ix. 15. X. 16. xvi. 7. 
In the Samgritan venuon iDUm is used 
for the Hi b. ^jth a kuid of goat, Deut. 

. xiv. 5. 
It is known to every one who is ac* 
quaiiited with the mythology oi the 
heathen, how strongly and generally 
they rotahied the tradition of an atone- 
ment or expiation for nn y although th^y 
expected it from a false object, and by 
wrong means. We find it expressed in 
very dear terms among the Romansp.c\Qn 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




10 late as the time o{ Horace, lib. i. ode 2, 

Cut dahit parte* tceltts espiandi 

And whom to expiaU the h§rriigidU 
'Win Jow appoint? 

The answer in the Poet» it, ApoUo Uie 
Mcond person of the heathen Triitit^. 

Occurs not asa V. and for the N. pu^ see 
under mm. 

Oteurs not as a V. but in the Lexicons se- 
veral Nouns are phiced under this sup- 
posed Root. 

L As a N. masc. plur. tsnstTM, and Chald. 
ftum and enphat. H^&u^ are roeutioned 
as a kind eiCot\jurers or Mercians among 
, the Babylonians, They might perhaps 
be so called from tlie Heb. pp'i to breathe, 
on account of tbe divine afflations or in- 
ipiraHons they laid claim to, and which 
perhaps, like the conjuring Priests among 
tbe North American Indians, they pre- 
tended to blow into others. Dan. i. 20. 
ii. 27. iv. 4, & al. 

II. As a N. fem. Tmwvk A quiver. See 
under Tt^W, 

III. As a N. JT^BmH Dung, a dunghill. Sec 
under ntmr* 

I. In Kal, Intransitively, To proceed, go for- 
ward, occ. Pro v. iv. 14. ix. 6. To be sue- 
cestui, prosperous, Ps. xli. 3. 80 P». x. 6, 
To generation and generation, i. e. to se- 
veral generations num (for nm^M) I shall 
woceed> prosper, or, . (taking ^Wi^ for a 
Participie) proceeding, prospering, with- 
out adversity. Also transitively. To cause 
to proceed, to put forward. Pro v. xxiii. 19. 
So Ps. xvii. I \, 13*)um Prosper us now, 
tkty have compassed me, or (Keri) us, 
Comp. ver. 7, 8, o. To help forward^ 
give success to. occ. Isa. i. 17. In Hipb. 
To lead forwards, occ. Isa. iii. ra. ix. 16. 
As a N. ")WtK A step, proceedings progress. 
Job xxiii. II. xxxi. 7. (where it is fem. 
comp. Ps. xxxvii. 31.) Ps. xvii. c, 11. 
• xL J. xliv. 19. Prov. xiv. 15. Hence 
in the form of a N. masc. plur. in Reg. 
nnfH b used to express^fAe continued pro- 
gress or success ot the person or persons 
of whom it is predicted. Ps. i. i . ii. 12^ I 
k aU &tq. But observe it is construedl 

with Pronoun luffixes Kke a Particle, as 
*ptt^ Successful or happy thse, Deut. 
xxxiii. 29. Pis. cxxviii 2 ; rD::ntr» SuO' 
cessfulyou, Isa. xxxii. 20 ; Xf^WA Success* 
ful him, Prov. xiv. 21. xvi. 20; just as 
the Hebrew say inn« After thee, &c. 
and not unlike the Latin compliment we 
have m Plautus Slich. v. 4, 27. Bene le. 
Bene vos. Sec, '^tim, sing, is used in like 
manner Prov. xxix. 18, out eight of Dr. 
Ksnmeott's Codices there read irrnu^M. 

II. In Kal, and Hipb. To esteem, or call 
prosppvus or happy, or perhaps to wish 
success or prosperity to. Gen. xxx. i^ 
Job xxix. II. Ps. Ixxii. 17. MaL lii. 

III. lum A relative word, referring to 
somewhat going before, either expressed 
or understood, and so causing the sen- 
tence to proceed or go forward xniXhoui 
interruption or repetition. 

1. The Pron. relative, Who, which, whom. 
£xod. xiv. 1.9, & al. freq. 

2. The Conjunction, TA«^ Eccles. viii. 12. 

3. For the cause that, or because that. Gen, 
xxxiv. 13. In as much as. Deut. xxx. i6« 
In I Sanu xv. 20, ^TOcm "Ji^« may be 
understood either interrogatively, and 
^U^H rendered that, or because, {Have I 
dune evil) that, or because, I have obeyed 
the voice of (he Lord? Or it may be ple- 
onastic, as the Gr. on is often used. 

4. In the manner that, as. Jer. xxxiii. 22. 
J. At the time that, when. Gen. xxx. 38. 

Lev. iv. 22. 

6. 1 he place t/iat, where. £xod. xxxii. 34. 
It is evident that in the four last usages 
of 'lU^H some words expressive of the cause, 
manner, time, or place must be under* 

7. Whereas. Exod. xiv. 13. 

8. With 3 prefixed, ^U?«D As, according as, 
xahcn, because, as the sense may require. 
See Gen. vii. 9. Exod. xxxii. 19. Num. 
xxvii. 14. 

IV. As a N. fem. mu^ and rmtm (2 K. 
xvii. 16. Comp. Deut. vii. 5.) plur. 
miU^ and tD^iTK. Thb word after the 
LXX and Vulg. bath been generally ren- 
dered a grove, or groves. But in many 
of the Texts below quoted it oertainly 
cannot have this meaning, which how* 
ever I apprehend must be admitted in 
some passages, as Deut. xiL a. You shall 
overthrow their altars, andoreak their 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



n/i«— »ri« 

piHvt, wi bum tDTTWik their * groves 
fnukfat, tmd hew dwm turm^ ^i*»DQ 
tht grovem images of thdr gods; wbere 
obsme that Drmttm is distingimfaed 
botb from their pillars and from the 
grsven tmrnges of their gods. So likevtise 
Dent. vii. 5. Comp. £xod. xxxiv. 13. 
Again Deut. xvi. s 1 , Vs nw^ lb WT\ v6 
fV Tkm skaU not plant to tkyse^A grove 
of any trees natr to the altar of' J^ovak 
thf Akim; for I cannot find that the V. 
^1 it ever applied to the setting vp of an 
klol, but it's proper meaninf; is to plant a 
tree, or the luce. In Jad. vi, ^^, a6, ty, 
ftS, likewise I think muhik may best be 
inteipreted a grove^ though the very 
name itself seems designed as an idola- 
trous confession to tl^ naiurai agents 
worshipped in these groves of their inde^ 
ftcndent powers in causing and promot- 
ing vegetation. But in rar the greater 
number of passages where the word oc- 
curs it stands for an idol or idols^ as Jud. 
iii. 7. I K. xiv. 23. xv. 13. xvi. ^3 
xviii.- 19. 2 K. xvii. 10, 16. xxi. 7. xxiii. 
4, 6, 7. a Chron. xv. z6. xxxiiL 19. Isa. 
xvii. 8. XX7U, 9. It seems to mean the 
Blesser or Blessers^ the authors of present 
and temporal^ and perhaps of future bliss 
and harness, I>oubtless this, like the 
other names of their idols^ was an attri- 
bute of the material heavens; bat from 
the femmine name nnunk there seems to 
be a mixture of a perverted tradition of 
the promise, Gen. iii. 1 5, and from this 
godaess they had perhaps some confused 
expectation of a future saviour aud deli* 
verer. Comp. nybbo under fk». Hence 
the latter heathen had their Fenus and 
her son Cupid, See Lucretius, lib. i. at 
tlie beginning, Selden De Diis Syris^ and 
HutchwsoB's Moses Princip. part ii. p. 504. 
and Trin. of the Gentiles, p. 188. 

• We may obterve that f^/rgtV, with his usual 
accuTMy, represents the CatiaaHithb Dido as h.^^- 
ing her sacred ^yxv/ at Carthage, ^4. i. lin. 445, 

Lucus m vrhtfuit media, LiCTissiMus lunbra,— 
Hk Uwf^litm Jtnum ingens Sldonia Dido 

PmU im tbt ctuhrt »ftbe tovtn there 4to9d, 
**\m brmicky pnde*' a venerable wood; 
Mkhmtm'Didf here with solemn state 
IM J«&o*s tODplt biiild and coasecrate. 

DxroBN, altered. 

V. As a N. "^.irHn Some kind of free so 
called from it's thriving, flourishing, or 
perpetual viridity; perhaps the Box-^ree, 
as the Vulg. renders it in Isaiah, occ. 
Isa. xli. 19. Ix. ij. Eajek. xxvti. 6, — Thjf 
benches have they made of ivory cyiU^wna 
(read as one word) inlaid in b^xjsee 
Targiim Jonafh,) from the isles of "Chit' 
tim, Vulff. de insnlis Italiie, /rom the 
islands oj Italy, which were then fkraoos, 
as they are to this day, for box trees. See 
Bochart, vol. i. 158. and Bate's Crit. Heb, 
On Eaek. xxvii. 6, I concur with Bc^ 
chart, Seheuchser, Lovth, and other 
learned men, that t=;>iti^Hni should be 
considered as one word, though printed 
in all the editions I have seen as two, and 
though in none of Dr. Kennicott's it is 
read as one. Thus mn& ^Bni> Isa. ii. ao, 
tomni ini 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6, tZ3*)l> *3 
Lam. iv. 3, >nv)^ ^d^ Job xxix. si, 
should respectively be read as one word ; 
and indeed in the four latter instances 
these readings are favoured by Dr. Ken* 
nicott's Codices. 

As it is very usual in modem times to 
inlay box, and other hard woods that will 
take a polish, with ivory, 90 from Firgil^ 
JEn. X. lin. 135 — 7, we learn that this 
was an ancient practice^ 

-Qttale per afiem 

Inclusum buxo, a*/ OruiciTerehintka 
Lucet Ebur— 

VI. Chald. Mi^^tTK A wall. See under "itt^. 

«n« Chald. 

The same as Heb. nn«. To come. Ezra v. 16. 
Isa. xxi. 1 2; in which latter passage ob- 
serve that an Edtpniteis the speaker. In 
Aph. 'n^n To bring. Dau. iii. 13. v. 13, 
Comp. under nns^ VIII. 


With a radical, but mutable or omissible, n. 

I. To come, cotne to, come near, approach, 
come speedily, Deut. xxxiii. 2. Job iii. 2j. 
Prov. i. 27. Isa. xli. 25, 8: a!. As a N. 
fem. plur. ni\nH Things coming, things to 
come. occ. Isa. xli. 23. xlv. 11. As a 
N. with a forumtive \ pnH> Access^ «- 
trance, occ. £zek. xl. 15. 

II. As a N. m« plur. n^mw, nm« rftn« 
and nn^ A sign or token, in general any 
thing that shows, or causeth to come into 
the mind any otltor thing, whether past, 
(Num. xvi. 38. xvii. 10.) present, (Jud. 

vi. 17.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




vu * 17.) or fiitiire, (i Stn. sir. to. 
IjMU XX. 3. Eiek. rr. 3.) which might 
Dol otherwise appear: even a fatnrc 
thing is sometimes given as a mgn of a 
thing present or futwe. Exod. iii. 12. 
I Sam. ii* 34. % K. xi«. 29. Isa. vii. 14. 
Jer. xliv. 29, 30. It is frequently ap- 
plied to miracukms ^^P^* ^^ inter al. 
Exod. iv. 8> 9> 17^ al, 30. viii. 23. x. 

Gen. !v. 1$, should be xtnAtxed^Andtke 
Lord gave Cain a sign, (i. e* worked 
aome mirack to convince him) that whth- 
soever found iim ihoM not kill him. 
Coinp. Exod. X. 2» in Heb. 

III. As a N. fern. plur. nnn Emignt, and 
it should seem of the smaller or inferiour 
kind* such ta flags or the like. occ. Num. 
u. 2, where 7:1*1 and DHH are diilerent 
things. Comp. hx^. 

IV* As a N. DM 4^ couUer, which comes 
before the ploughshare in ploughing. So 
P/r'ffjf, ^^Culter vacatur^ pnedensam, prius 
^oam proscindatmr, terram secans^ futu- 
risque adds vestigia praescribens incisurisy 
fuas resitpinus in arando niordeat vomer. 
That is called the conker which cuts the 
stiff ground, before it is broken vp, thus 
oiarkJDg out the future fiirrows to the 
slafitingploughshiire/' Nat. Hist. lib. xviii. 
cap. 18. I Sam. xiii. so. Isa. ii. 4. Joel 
iii. 15, Sf at. 

V. 'n» a Prou. of the first person, denot- 
ing the presence of the person bpeakiiig. 
Me. freq. ocC. For ^riH'D, Isa« xiiv. 24, 
not only the iCen, but twenty of Dr. Ktn- 
nicott'% Codices have ^JnMO» and seventeen 
^tXA ^ in two words, and so it is printed 
in Walton's Polyglott. Comp. LXX 
and Vulg. 

VI. MH or nnn, Thov, a Pronoun of the 
second person, denoting one near or /ire* 
sent, and addressed to him or her, as such. 
fteq. occ. Al^o, Of thee, thine, i K. 
xxi. 19, & al. Plur. rDHi* Ye, freq. occ. 

Vn. nn A Particle denoting neatTiess, ap- 
z. The very substance of a thing, the, the 

xerv f. (Comp. Tip V.) It is prefixed 
to Nouns. The Lexicons tay, that wiwa 
joined with a Verb, it denotes the ao»- 
sative case, if the Verb be aetvve\ see 
Gen. i. i, 9e al. freq. but tbe notm 'M U i ve 
if the Verb be passiie or neuter. Gen. 
xxvii. 4{. Deut xx. 8. Josh. vii. 15* Be 
al. ireq. But in truth it is the dm of 
no particular case, that distiactioD being 
unknown in Hebrew. See Josh. xxii. 17, 
Exek. XXXV. 10. Nuai. x. x. i Sam. 
xvii. 34. 2 Sam. xv. 23. Neh. ix. ip, 34. 
2 K. vL ^. 

This particle is sometimes, in construction 
with Pronoun suifixes, written with a 1 
inserted, niM ; as^niM Thee, i K. xxii. 24. 
£zek. h. 6 ; iniHD From him, 1 K. xxii. 
7, & al. 

2. IVith, to, towards, Exod. i. i. Deut. 
vii. 8. 

3. r\HD From with, from the, Frendi D'oTfc. 
Deut. xviii. 3. Zech. xiv. 17. 

VIII. Cbald. nn^ and HfiM TV come. Esra 
V. 3, 1 6. lufin. HfiD Dan. iii. t. In 
Hipb. changing both the Atephs into 
JodSf >Jn\*i He caused to come, brought » 
Dan. V. 13. Comp. Dan. iii. 13. v. 

Debl. At, with, the, thee, thou. 

• French trantlau. — "an ngaefi»ur mmfrer que 
f&HL tot qui paries avec moi — a sign /• the%u that it 
16 thou who speakest with me." Dkdati, dammi uo 
segno che tu sd desso, tu che parii meco— ^ ve me a 
sign that thou art that veryper8on,thouwho8peak« 
est with me.** And in a note he explains desjo, by ** il 
^ande angelo diOioil quale spe88oappariTa,—4he 
great Angel of God, who often appeared.'* 

f And thus, I think with many very learned men, 
it is to he understood.Gen. iw. 1. where Eve, on the 
birth of her first-bom, says, / havegahem m^ JIM vru 
a mtn, the very, or, even JftrnfJi ; referring to 
the evangelical promise, Geiu iii. I5,rf ih* tredtf 
the vw:an, 'who sbeuld iru'ue tbc serpent* t bead ; 
which promise, however, it is plain, from her mis- 
take, she did not perfectly comprehend, Our Eiig. 
tramlatien here seems indefensible, ist, Becasfe, 
notwithstanding the passages alleged by iVWUivx and 
others, I cannot find any one text where nc deady 
signifies/rww. 2diy, Supposing there were several 
such texts, riN cannot so signify here; because it ia 
as certain a rule as any in the Heb. iangunge, that 
where /'sto Nouns with nK between them immedi- 
ately follow a Verb, the latter Noun is an appoiitioo 
with, or relates to, the same subject as the former, 
especially if the latter Noun be a proper name. See 
inter aL Gen. iv. 2. vi. 10. xxvL 34. Josh. Kxiv. s. 
Ezek. iv. 1. and comp. Isa. viii. 8. Ezek. xzxiv. 23, 
Jer. xvii. 13. Ps. Ixxxiv. 4. 

And I know not of any exception ta the rule 
here given, unless in passages where it is impossi- 
ble to mistake the sense, as, for example. Gen. 
zlii. 4. 2 Sam. xix. 16. Isa. xxviii. 15; and even of 
such instances there are, I believe, very fevr. 
Gtdiet renders Gen. iv. J, *• 1 have acquired a god- 
like man-child." But surely the incommunicable 
name nn* must not be degraded to the aexia^ of 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

prwt— Vi» 


pn-m— nji» 

Denotes strength, both passive and active. 

I. As a N. ^HM Strong, like the hones. Job 
xxsm, 19, IVhm (as 1 is used ch. i. 13.) 
tkt mtuftiiude of his bones (is) strong, i. e. 
m his full streni^h. See Scutt, 

IL As a N. jn^tt Strong, as ti fortress. Num. 
xxiv. 2 1 . — as the foundations (inner part 
of the shell) of' the earth, Mic. vi. 2. 

III. Asa N. fern. l\rMky and with Pronoun 
suffixes ]nHj plur. m^nn and roiiM ^^ «^e- 
4US, hoBi her passive strength, \vhich is 
perhaps greater in proportion to her bulk 
than liiat of any other species of quadru- 
ped*. Num. xxii. 22, 33, 25, k al. 

IV. As.aN.fnM Strong, forcible, violent, 
as a torrent or river. Deut. xxi. 4. 
Ps. buuv. 1 5. Amos v. »4. — as a warlike 
Bation> Jer. v. 15 — as men. Job xii. 19. 
It IB used asaSubstantive, Strength.force, 
Geo. xlix« S4. Exod. xiv.iy. Comp. 
Provk xiii. 15, where observe the parono- 


Chald. As a N. A place, perhaps from th* 
Heb. *)n. Ezra v. 15. vi. j, & al. 

V. CD*:nH m> The month Ethanim, the 
seventh month, nearly answering to Sep* 
tember, O. S. So called •* from the winds 
or rough weather usual at the autumnal 
Equuaox, which are more violent \x\ 
warmer ch'mates.'' Bate, But Qu ? See 
however RusselV% Nat. Hist, of Aleppo, 
p. 1 S4, 163, 186. OCT. I K. viii. 2. 

VI. Chald. As a N. Tinw, and emphat. 
i«in« A furnace. Thb word seems a 
derivative from Heb. tt;H^re, m beug 
changed into n^ as usual. Dan. iit. 1 1 , 19, 
& seq. From thb 'Oriental word the 
celebrated Mount Mtna in Sicili/ ap- 
pears to have had ifs name, imposed 
probably by tlie Phenician navigators. 
(See Bochart*s Chanaan, lib. i. cap. 28.) 
And how justly it was called M:inM or 
M^nH may appear from any of the de- 
scriptions of It; but from none better 
f lian from the noted one of Virgil y iEn. iii. 
Jin. 571 — 582.Iadd,thatF<rg^/,(feorg.i. 
lin- 47 1 , applies Uie very term foniaces, 
furnaces, to the flaming apertures of this 

volcanic mountain, as Lucretius had be- 
fore done, lib. vi. lin. 681. So likewise 
Oti'd, Metam. lib. xv. lin. 340. 
priH See under pDJ. 

• ** L*zne ett peut-etre dc toiis let animaux celui 
qui, relativemeat i ton Tolume, peut porter le plus- 
(rand poids/* JBujfhm, Hiu. Nat. torn. vi. p/ 169< 


Or Words of more than Three Letters, 
beginning with t«. 

to:nb« See under tD:n 

O^ntOiH See under niol 

m:?n:?nrt See under n)?l 


As a N. occ. Gen. xli. 43. The most 
natural method of interpreting t!iis won} 
seems to be by considering it as a com* 
pound of n>* father, and ^^l blessing, 
Joseph H'as very properly honoured with 
this high title, the Father of Blessing, aa 
having ^foreseen, and given counsel to 
prevent, the dreadful consequences of the 
approaching ^mine, and as being m- 
trusted with the dispensation of all po- 
litical blessings by Pharaoh. Corap. 
ch. xlv. 8. But if any one should m 
Gen. xli. 43, prefer the interpretation 
of AquUa and the Vulg. and so render 
tLis word Bow the knee, as our transla- 
tion does, I would not contend with hini. 
T)ns< may be only the Heb. y\yn im- 
perat. Hiph. slightly varied in the pro- 
nunciation, as it afterwards was in Clml- 
dee. See Vitringa Obserrat. Sacr. lib. i. 
cap. 6, § 10, p. 71, 4t{e edit. 

As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. Chargers, 
basons to catch the blood of the sacri- 
fices which was to be sprinkled; from 
i:h to collect, and bio what falls or distils. 
occ. Elzra i. 9, twice.. 

^m^H Cliald. 

As a N. masc. plur. emphat. «nu"i1« A 
name of digpity, Nobles, prefects, or the 
like; from n*iH magnificent, and ^U 
(Chald.) to decree, occ. Dan. iii. 2, ;$. 

Himrt Chald. 

(Perhaps from ^1t* magnificent and nt to 
swell) Magnificently^pmnpously. It is how- 
ever rendered c//%crtf/y. Once,Ezravii. 23. 

As a N. -4 Baric. A coin probably struck 
bv Darius the Mede, and impre&ied witli 
his image. So we sometimes calUan old 
English coin a Jacobus ,^ and a Portuguese 
one a Johannes, respectively from the 
£ image 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C3^3snttyn«— ibD-^n» 50 c:^di3*?«— c^yiJit^rrR 

image and inscription of the king they 
bear. A Doric was equal to about 2 5 shil- 
lings of our money, and is meptioned as 
being of goW in the only two texts wherein 
it occurs, namely, Ezra viii. 27. i Chron. 
xxix. 7 ; and in the latter text we may 
suppose that Ezra, who probably col- 
lected, or at least revised the Chronicles, 
reduces the money used in David's time, 
to tliat which was well known in his 
own. Comp. under |03n, and see Pri" 
deavx^s Connect, vol. i. p. 128, 129, 
1st 8vo edit. Hutchinson s Xenophon. 
Cyropaed. not. p. 255, 8vo edir. and 
Bp. Chandlers Vindication of Defence 

■ of Christianify, vol. i. p. 10. 

*tten» Sec under ife 

»nDn« Chald. 

As a N. fern. Once, Ezra vi. 2. In the 
ad edition of this work, induced by the 
authority of former writers, and particu- 

' larly by what we r«ad Jer. xxxii. 14, I 
explamed the word, from the Hcb. nan, 
to mean an earthen vessel But I now think 
that MichacUs (Supplem. ad Lex. Heb. 
p. 60.) hasgiven good reasons for rejecting 
tilts sense, ist, Because all the ancient 
interpreters take the word for a proper 
name ; adty , because royal edicts arc not 
usually kept in a brittle crock, but in 
a wooden chest; and lastly, because it 
was hardly worth relaUng, that the edict 
was found in a crock af a palace of Media, 
without gixnng the name of that palace. 
The LXX (i\iS. Alexand.) express the 
Chaldee name by Afj^acBcc, but the Vulg« 
by Ecbatanis, with which agree the Apo- 
cryphal Esdras, 1 Esdr vi, 22, and Jo- 
sephus, Aiit. lib. xi. cap. 4, ^ 6. It ap- 
pears then that ^«nDnH is the same as 
Ecbatana, the capital of Media, in which 
was a palace, where it was obvious to 
search for a royal edict. 

It seems a Chaldee or Persian word de- 
noting Vice-Roys y Lieutenants^ or Chief 
GoxernouTs under the King. So the 
LXX generally render it by 'Zarfaipat, 
and the Vulg. by Satrapae. It occurs in 
the form of a Hcb. N. masc. plur. 
Eslh. viii. 9. ix. 3. in Reg. Ezra viii. 36. 
£sth. iii. 1 2. and as a Chaldee N. masc. 
plur. emphat. Dan. iii. 2, 3, &: al. We 
have an account of the original appoint- 
pcnt of these Feruan Vice-Roys, Dan^ 

vi. I, or 2, It pleased Darius to set oter 
the kingaom an hundred and twenty 
W^hTiU'T}^. 'which should be over the tchole 
kingdom. Xenophon (Cyropaed. lib. viii. 
p. 49r. edit. Ilufckimon, 8vo.) mentions 
the same fact, only he ascribes the insti- 
tution of these Xar^'rroLk, as he calls theni, 
to Cyrils; and no doubt Cyrus*s uncle, 
Darius, (called by Xenophon, Cyaxirres) 
did not appoint them without his ne- 
phew's advice and concurrence* Tlie 
word Yar^aieoLi itself seems a corropt 
abbreviation of the Oriental name ; and 
this latter may be derived from the Chal- 
dee or Persian mnw, great or eminent, m 
to go about freely, and CD*:a the presence, 
and so strictly import a great or emtnemt 
man, uho has free access to t/te presence, 
i. e. of the King. Xenophon accordingly 
(p. 493.) tells us, that Cyrus chose the 
lar^atai out of his it^Xcov or friends; 
and the Vulg. renders ^Von >ia'm:7rm 
Ezra viii. 36, by Satrapis qui erimt de 
conspectu regis ; Satraps, who were in the 
hinges sight or presence, Comp. Esth. i. 14* 

As a N. masc. plur. a Persian word lor 
muks, Bochart, vol. ii. 236, deduces it 
from the Persian trnw great, and ^rm?Bt 
a mule, as denoting a large mule, such 
as are produced from mares*, and ob- 
serves that a muULXs still called in Persic 
Asthar, occ. EsiE.viii. 10, 14. 

A Particle compounded of ^«, a Particle of 
asking, and rrQ (which sec) denoting p/irce 

or aspect, 
1, Where, in what place? RutB ii. 19.. 

I Sam. \\\4 22. 
a. Of Vihat aspect or appearance f occ. 

Jud. viii. 18. 
M'lD^ See under n«Q 
u^i:ii»» See under U?ni 

As a N. masc. plur. By comparing 2 Chron. 
ix. 10, II, with r K. X. 11, 12, it^peen* 
to be another name for the follovring 
tD^ioi'K fhya, or tkyint wood, as the ViUg. 
render it, 2 Chron. ix. 10, 11. It may 

• *• L'aoe avec la jxraicnt, says Bujfon^ pro- 
duit tes ^and mukts.** Hist. Nat. torn. v. j^ 1©7, 
And again, torn. xii. p. 229, " II y a deux sortes de* 
mulets; !e premier est ie grand mulgi, qui prpvxent 
de la jonction de I'ane i la jument; )e second est & 
petit mulet, ^0T«junt du chicTal k de Panesse.** 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

aip^»— ca^ac^H 


!?K>nK— ijnjK 

be derived iVom bkk not and t3:i to Jill, 
because it is of so cioae a texture as not to 
imbibe water, nor be affected by the 
net and weather, occ. a Cbron. ii. 7. 

LX. 10, IK 

As a N. masc. plur. A species of Tree or 
zrood, Thiion, thya^ or thi/ine wood. So 
the Vulg. tli^ina. occ. i K. x. 11, 12. 
21i€ophrastus, Hist. Plant, v. 5, says, that 
** the thyon or thy a tree grows near the 
tempJe of Jupiter Ammon, wa^ Aafw<;y* 
(in Africa) and in the Cyrcuaica ; that it 
resembles the cypress tree in it's boughs, 
leaves, stalk, and fruit ; and that it's wood 
never rots,** The Hebrew name there- 
tore may be very naturally deduced from 
b« not and JO to dissohe. It was in 
high esteem among the Heatlien, who 
frequently made of thb wood the doors 
of their temples and the images of their 
gods. See Wetstein's Note on Rev. 
xviii. 12. and Pliny's Nat. Hist. lib. xiii. 
cap. 1 6. Ic must however be observed, 
thut Josephm, Ant. lib. viii. cap, 7, § i, 
calls the fc^JDbfc*,or Cd>di:i7« of Solomon, 
j^v^Mv isBv)aywy pitch or torck^trees, but 
Oiatjons us against supposing that the 
wood of them was like what was known 
in his time by th^t name, for it was, 
says he, ** rather lilce that of the^^-/ree, 
but more white and shining; and he 
expresslv adds, that lie had said thus 
much, tfcit no one might be ignorant of 
the difference, nor of the nature of the 

, torch'tree*/' 

pVh See under CdV« 

Occurs Prov. xxx. 31, ID^ tz:p?« 1701 
And a king against uhnm (there is) no 
rasing up, (Eng. transl.) or, let no one 
rise up. Comp. Prov. xii. 28. 
t IJcuce perhaps the Pheuicians gave the 
name of Alakomenat to a town in Bceotia, 
because it was sacred to OpVw Tibn the 
irremtible Deity, i.e. Minerva, and fa^ 
moufl for an ancient temple dedicated to 
licr. And tlierefore as Strabo, lib. ix. 
4>. 413, informs us, tnough it was small 
and situated in a plain, vet it always 
remained inviolate, out 01 reverence to 

• For thii remark from J^stphus I am indebted 
to Mr. MUhaelU'B excellent Ruufil de (^stions, 
Qu«tion XCI. 

f Ste B^bart, ToL i. 434, 435, Pt>7. 

that goddess. And from this town and 
temple Minerva herself appears to hav« 

had the title of AAaX>co^£yr^/f , as Juno 
was called Af/ftij from being eminently 
worshipped at .irgos. Thus IJomer, II. iv. 
lin. 8, joins ^'H^Tj r h^ysirj xai AAaX- 
KOfjitvYfi^ ASr^vT} The Argian Juno, and 
Alalcomenan Minerva: and the Scholiast 
explains AAaXxoafvr/Tf by *H fv AXa>^ 
xo^vaus, xroAf* rr^g boiumag, rif/.ttjfj^yr^, 
wiio is worshipped at Alalcomemt, a city 
of Baotia, 

It frequently occurs as a pron. plur. of 
the first person. We, I think with 
TympiuSy in his Note on Koldius'^ Par- 
ticles, that it may be considered as a 
compound of n3H to be present, Hin to 
encamp, as soldiers or others, in the same 
initio or company, and the ^ collective 
(see l^H under TyzMk II.), and so denotes 
several persons present together, and of like 
condiiiim m respect of what b the sub- 
ject of the dbcourse. The radical H is 
(as in other instances) dropt, and the 
word written i:nj Oen. xlii« 1 1. Exod. 
xvi.7,8. Num. xxxii. 32. aSam. xvii. la. 
Lam. iii. 42. 

Hi*iQD« Chald. 

It is rendered speedily, forthwith, or the 
like, but perhaps means studiously, dili- 
gently, exactly, from Heb. lao to recount, 
enumerate. So the LXX render it by 
etip^Xws, and the Vulg. by studiose, 
diligenter. Ezra v. 8, & ah 

»i!3M See under hD 

As a N. A Chaldec or Persic word, denot- 
ing tribute ox revenue. Once, £zrai\'. 13. 

ifi^^^k and bw-nn See under iiHnH 

t:i« See under i:*) 

jOi'^rt See under a:i*) 

pi« Chald. 

As Ns. pai« and «r:':», the same as the Heb. 
\0T)\^, Purple, occ. Dan. v. 7, 16, 19. 
a Chron. ii. 7, in which last passage Solo- 
mon, writing to Hiram, king of Tyre, may 
be supposed to ivuke use of what was at 
that time the Tj^/taTiname oi; purple, rather 
than of the pure Hebrew one fOJil^. 

I. As a N. ^ lion of God, from >'^« a lion, 

and i»« God, occ. i Chron. xi. 22. Piinted 

bi^H, a Sam. xxiii. 20; but at least 

twenty-nine of Dr. Kenmcott'% Codici-! 

E a read 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^wjn«— na3iM 

t*ad Vh^h. The Vulfj. in Saw* lenders 
it leones, lions; but in Chron. hath duos 
Ariel, so LXX r^vf ivo Apirj^^ the two 
Ariels. The word set ms to be a title 
given to the Moabit'uh champions on 
account of their courage (as Coeur de 
Lion, lAon's Heart, to our K. Richard I. 
comp. 1 Sam. xvii. lo.) as well as in 
honour of their God, the material bit. So, 
on tlie other hand, the Jewish cham- 
pions are styled oli^K their Arahf 
Isa« xxxiii. 7, (where £ng. transU their 
valiant ones) in honour, I suppose, of the 
true bn. or Lord, The Mahometan 
Arabians and Persians, in like manner, 
called tlieir military heroes, JJons of 

II. The city of Jerttsaiem is called by this 
name ^^H Lion of God, Isa. xxix. 1,2,7. 
Mr. Harmer (Observ. vol. i. p. 2ri, &c. 
whom sec) conjectures that it was thus 
denominated on account of the vast qnan* 
titles oi flesh which were there consumed 
iu their sacred feasts (see Deut. xii. 17, 
jB. xiv. 16.) as well as burnt upon the 
altar; and he ingeniouslv illustrates thb 
thouglit by remarking that the modem 
Persians will have it that the city of 
Sihirnz is thus named from Schhr a lion, 
because it consumes and detours, like a 
lion, all that b brought to it. 

I IT. Arcordb«: to the ^Keri, more than 
forty of Dr, Kcnnicotfs Codices, and the 
LXX and Vnlg. i)«nH occurs Ezek. xliii. 
15, 16, for ^WIH of the common printed 
editions, and is used for the hearth of 
the altar of burnt offerings, which might 

♦ See BocbaH, torn. ii. 716, 717; Harmer'' % 
Ohserv. voL i. p. 212 ^ and Bp. Lnvtb on Isa. 
ixyiii. 7. 

be thus denominated from the vast ^uao- 
titles of flesh consumed on itl Or if wa 
embrace the common printed reading, 
then VmIM may express the mierposimg 
light, and so be an emblematic name of 
the hearth of the altar, as representing 
the divine interposing light in Chmt, 
which seems further intimated by the 
four i^onuwhichascended from it Comp. 
under pp II. 

As a N. The hare; from m» to crop, aiid 
T^ the produce of the ground, tliese ani- 
mals being very remarkable for destroying 
the fruits of the earth, occ. Lev. xi. 6- 
Deut. xiv. 7. Bdchart, who gives tlits 
interpretation of the word, excellently 
defends it, by shewing from history, that 
hares have at different times desolated the 
islands Leros, AstypaUra, and Carpafkus. 
See his Works, vol. ii. 63, and 995. To 
his account, for the sake of the learned 

. reader, I shall add the following lines 
concerning tliese animals from ^rgtus^ 
C)iioget. lib. iii* cited by Johnston, Hist 
Nat de Quadruped, p. ilo, by which it 
appears that they are great devourers of 
almost all kinds of herbs and tegetabla. 

t^ECERPUNT lati tvrgentia gramlna cca^i 
£t eitlmes tegehtm, isfjibras tellure ref9stat 
Herbarum, t5* iento morsus in cori'utjmtni 
A'^rit, atjue ud»s aitomeUnt undiqut iiiret: 
Nee parcuni strmto pcnwritm, out glamdu aterWf 
Ant vicue, ant mili; aui pr^eritfrwmdibut ylmi, 
Pr^ecipue grat4t sylvettria gramiitm mentb^, 
Qu4tq9e colttMt nguas tncuba sysimbria vaJJes^ 
£t vaga t^rpiUa, \:f puUgi nubile gramem 

The Arabs likewise call the Hare l^'ifef. 

^nnon* Sec under inuf 
ViDHM See under Von 

Zl A Particle, abridged from nn hollow 
(as 2 from n3) or from n^l within, as 
O froni fD. 

1. In, of time, place, condition^ Ice. within^ 
anwvg, freq. occ. 

. Prefixed to*Ver!>s hifiiiitivc may fee ittt^ 
dered when, as Num. xxxv. 19. 13 UUQ3 
in Hs lighting vpon him, i.e. wli^ ke 
lighted upon him*, 6t because, a^Chrom 
xvi. ?• 

y To. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



tPKa— n«3 . 

3. To, I Sam. xvi. 3. 

4. AMimt. Num. xxi. 7. 

5. With, together with. £xod. x. 9. Lev. 
i. 16. 

6. Concerning, of. Lev. vi. s. ^ 

7. /wfo. Gen. XXX. 33. 
S. B)f, ^y me€Uts of. £x 
9. ^?cr. Num. xxviii. 26. 

8. Bjf, by means of. Exod. xiv. ai 

10. fbr, on account of. Gen. xxix. 18 
Exod. x. 12. Deut xix. ai. 

11. According to. Num. xiv, 34. 

12. C^jK^, ff^^. I Sam. viii. 1 1. i Chron< 
v. 2. 

15. Of. Gen. ix. 10, 16. Exod. xii. 19. 

L To come or go, strictly from one place 
to another, as Gen. xix. i ; but it is used 
as extensively as come or go in English. 
In Hiph. To cause to come, to bring. 
Gen. ii. 22. * 

rrDM2 for hdm^^, In thy comings or, as 
thou comcsty Gen. x. 19, 30. xiii. 10. 
So ^Wl I Sam. XV. 7. Longinus, De 
Sublim. sect. xxvi. remarks how inter- 
eslini^ (syaycvyi'y^) sucJi a change of per" 
sons IS in description, and how it trans- 
forms you from a hearer to a spectator 
and an actor. The style of Herodotus in 
this respect frequently resembles that of 
the sacred historian. Thus, lib. ii. cap. 29 . 
edit. Gale. Tijv hfMt>M(rai ss rs NstXa 
n pssipov *HHEIS7-X(Zi ettena anro^asy 
• tsapa, ro¥ worau^v hhiieopty IIOIHSEAI 
^iispswv rsra-apOKOvra, — Avris irspof 
trXoiOY «|xfflt^, $vw$S7ca •ijd.spas ITAET- 
2EAI' xcu s^eira. 'lEEAl ig woXiv jxg- 
ya,Xrjy, TTj oofjia fr« MepoTj. Sailing 
through Ibis lake, you will come to the 
stream of the Nile — ^and then landing, 
^01^ uiU travel forty days by the side of 
the river — and ai^erwards gomg on board 
another vessel, you will sail for twelve 
days, and then you mil come to a great 
city called Meroe." 

tznsttm Hn b applied Gen. xxviiL 11, & 
al. in a strictly philosophical sense for the 
solar light's going off, i. e. from one he- 
nihphere to the opposite; so Mir Gen. 
xix. 23. Jsa. xiii. 10. and m Eccles. i. 5, 
& al. joined with \imm are used for the 
solar Hghfs coming out or spreading upon 
that hemispberei ^Mch js turning uito 
the moniin;^. 

Jud. xiv. 18. nnr.nn «i> pion should, I 
)^|ireh€nd» be rendered, B^or^ it (the! 

place or city) came towards^ie solar orff, 
h e. to the meridian 5 Before mid-day, 
or noon. 

As Ns. H130 and MD A going in, en* 
trance. Jud. i^ 24, 2 J. 2 K. xvi. 18. 
a Chmn. xxiii. 15, & al. Also, joined 
with WDm The piace of the solar light's 
going m or of, that part of the heavens 
or earth where it goes off, i. e. the west. 
Deut xi. 30. Josh. i. 4. xxiii*. 4. Zech. 
viii. 7. Hino jouied with n^io within, 
si^ifies without. Isa. xxiii. i, where see 

The tiual M of this root is often dropt^ 
as Ruth iii. 15. 1 Sam. xxv. 8. 2 Sam. 
V. 2. 1 K. xii. r2. xxi#2 1, 29. 2 K. iii. 24. 
Jer. xix. 15. xxxix. 16. Mic. i. 15. But 
in all tliese texts, except Ruth iii. 15, 
and 2 K. iii. 24, a numbef of Dr. Kcn» 
nico/t's Codices supply tlie H, as one does 
in Ruth; and in 2 K. iii. 24, twenty- 
two* for ^y*^ read 1D*1. 

If. Of time, 7b cowe, advance. Isa. vii. 17. 
Amos iv. 2. viii. it, & al. O^^n M3 
literally, Come into days, i. e. advanced 
in age, or years. Gen. xviii. it. xxiv. i, 

III. As a N. fem. HHinn, Revenue, produce, 
increase, income. Num. xviii. 30. Deut. 
xxxiii. 14. Prov. iii. 14. xviii. 20. 

Der. Greek Bacu and Bouvw to go. Lat. via, 
Eng. wayy French tuye, whence voyage, 

I. To open, as we say, open the trenches, 
opm a pit, or the like. It is not used 
ab a V. strictly in this sense, but hence 
as a N. 1«n, plur. ni^iNl A pit or well 
opened in the earth. Gen, xiv. 10, xxi. 30. 
xxvi. i^*^ 18, & al. fieq. 

II. To engrave deeply in makin;^: an in- 
scription on stone. Deut. xxvii. 8. Comj). , 
Hub. ii. a. 

III. To open, declare, to ?nake evident, ap-* 
parent or open by speaking. Deut. i. 5. 

I. In Kal. and Hiph. To stink, as carrion 
or dead animals in a state of putrefac- 
tion, or the like. See Exod. vii. 18, 2 r. 
viii. 14. xvi. 20, 24. P.S. xxxviii. 6. Also 
in Hiph. To make to stink. Eccles. x. i. 
As a N. tr«i A stink, stench, occ. Isa, 
xxxiv. 3. Joel ii. 20. Amos iv.^ 10. 

• See ffarmer*s Obicrv. vol. iv. p. 24^. 

vE| ILAs 

Digitized by' VjOOQIC 




II. At ft N. mnac. phir. CU^Hl occ. Isa. 
V. s, 4. It is renaered l^id grapes, but 
nitlier means some stinking fruit. Hassel- 
quisf, in bis Voya£es, p. 21^9, says, ** he 
18 inclined to believe that the Prophet 
here means the hoary nightshade ^ (so- 
lanum incanum), because it is common 
in £,e:ypt, Palestine, and tiie East, and 
the Arabian name agrees well with it. 
The Arirbs call it Aneb el Dib, i.e. 
Wolf-grapes, The Prophet, adds he, 
could not have found a plant more op- 
posite to the vine than this, for it grows 
much in the vineyards, and is very per- 
nicious to them, wherefore they root it 
out J it likewise resembles a vine by it's 
shrubby* stalk." Thus my Author. 
Mr. Bate, however, in Crit. Heb. ex- 
plains it of grapes that rot vpon the vine; 
so Montavxu, uvas putidas. 

III. As a N. fem. na*sn Some stinking 
ueedj opposed to barley, occ. Jobxxxi. 40 
Is it not the plant of which the preced- 
ing; D^irwn are the fruit? Comp. there- 
fore Sense II. Michuelis, however, (Sup- 
plem. ad Lex. Heb.) though he takes 
notice ot' Has6el(jm6t's opinion concerning 
the tiDnr«2, yet maintains, after CehiuSy 
that both that word and T\w\0, denote 
the Aconite, a poisonous plant, growing 
spontaneously and luxuriantly on sunny 

• hills, such as are used for vineyards. He 
says this interpretation is certain, because, 
as Celsius has observed, u;>n in Arabic 
denotes the Aconite, and he intimates 
that it best suits Job xxxi. 40, where it 
is mentioned as growing instead of barley. 
But the reader will judge for himself. 

IV. As a V. in Niph and Hipb. To stink 
in a figurative sense, to be or become 
loathsome, abominable, 1 Sam. xiii. 4 
xxvii. la, iD^i t2^N::n u^wrin He is be- 
come utterly abominable among, or to his 
people, % Sam. x. 6, Prov. xiii. c. Also 
in Hiph. To came thus to stink, make 
abominable. Gen. xxxiv. 30. Exod.v. 21, 

ni>nD >i^i)i linn n« CDnu»«nn Ye have 
made our smell loathsome,. in the eyes of 
Vharaoh, Is not this expression, though 
at first sight unphilosophical, yet strictly 

♦ And no doubt in it^s/ruit also, ai the Arabic 
jjamc implies; and $0 Bro^ies, Nat. Hist. vol. ri. 
p. 119, obserres that the fruit of the fiella Donna, 
or deadly Nightshade^ is like a GrapCy of a ihioiDg 

black colour, and full of a vingtu juice. 

agreeable to nature ? Is it not a fijs^nre 
taken from the remarkable effect which 
all strong alkaline volatile smells (such, 
for insttance, as that of carrion) have 
on the ci^cs? lo Isa. xxx. 5, two of 
Dr. Komicotfs Codices read ir^nn, and 
six tr^nin uas ashamed. So Viilg. con- 
fusi sunt, u^rc coufoundid. However, 
the common piinlcd reading h^ U^mn 
in the sense of abominating, loathing, be- 
ing disgusted at, (comp. Daui, vi. 15.) 
seems a very good one; especially if it 
be considered that at the time King 
Hosliea sent his embassadors mto Egypt, 
that country was governed by So, called 
by Manetho, Seiechus, and by Herodotus, 
Sethon, and described by the latter his- 
torian, lib. ii. cap. 141, as a very super- 
stitious prince, and particularly inatten- 
tive to military aflairs, and disobliging 
to the soldiery. In Hith. To make one- 
self stinking y loathsome, or abominable, 
I Chron. xix. 6. 
V. Chald. In Kal, with bi> following. To 
abominate, be very much displeased at, 
occ. Dan. vi. 15, where Theodotion 
sXvTiy^iifl was gritved, so Vulg. contris- 
tatus est. As a N. fem. wnunKl Abo- 
minablc, occ. Ezraiv. 12. 

Occurs not as a V. in Kal, but, 

I. As a Participial N. or Participle in 
>Jiph. nui Hollow^ made hollow, occ 
Exod. xxvij. 8. xxxviii. 7. Jerr lii. 21. 

II. It is applied spiritually, Hollow, empty, 
vain, occ. Job xi. la. 

III. As a N. fem. in Reg. r\i:x The sight 
or pupil of the eye, that part of the eye 
whicli appears hollow^ and admits the 
light, occ. Zech. ii. 8, or 12, where 
observe that three of Dr. Kennicotfs Co- 
dices for nnni have mn. 

Occurs not as a V. but as a N. in Meat, 
food. occ. Ezek. xxv. 7, and in compo- 
sition with riD a portion, Dan. i. 5, 8, 13, 
15, j6, in all which texts many of 
Dr. Kennicott's read in words iina. 
Hence, probably, tlie Phrygian Bsxxos 
bread (Herodot. II. 2.) and the Gr. Baycg 
food, which Hesychius explains by yO^trpM, 
SLprov yj ii,aXr^s a piece or fragment of 
bread or paste. And as x>M<rfjM is from 
xXaw to break of, so the LXX in Ezek. 
xxv. 7, render ::i by Aa^ayijv, and 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

TJ— n» 

ss la 

^fvlg. by direptionem, spoils plunder (if 
^idced they read :in, for the Keri, and 
thirteen of Dr. Kennicotfs Codices have 
"Ci').; and to spoil, plucky break off, or the 
like, b perhaps the ideal meauuig of the 
Hebrew word. 

J. As a N. Ti!! J covering of cloth, or the 

Uke. It is used for 
X. Clothes or coverings in general. Gen. 

5"^^- 53 » & al. freq. 
a. jln outer garment, a cloak or robe. Gen. 

xxxix, 12. I Sam. xi\. 24. 

3. 7itf covering or coverlet of a bed. i Sam. 
xix. 15. 

4. ^ cloth'covering for the tabernacle. 
. Num. iv. 6 — 13. 

II. As a N. n:n J cover or c/qaA: of dissi- 
mulation, hi/pocrisif, falsehood, perfidy, 
treachery, occ. Isa. xxiv. 16. Jer. xii. i. 
So iem. plur. nnjl. occ. Zeph. iii. 4. 

III. As a y. m Kal, To use a cloak of dis- 
simulation, hypocrisy, falsehood, or trea- 
chery, to act under such a deceitful cover, 
to deceive. It is used absolutely, i Sam. 
xiv. 33. Job vi. 15, & al. or witli 1 fol- 
lowing, Cxod. xxi. 8. Jud. ix. 23; and 
once with o, Jer. iii. ao. Surely as a 
XLoman acteth treacherously against her 

Jriendrso Noldius, perfide agit contra. 
Habak. ii. j. Yea (as) when 'li: n:n p>n 
Wine deceiveth a man (comp. Prov. 
XX- I.) Cso) he(\\\^ Kmg of Babylon) is 
proud (i. e. he is intoxicated with hb 
power and dominion, comp. Dan. iv. 30) 
and is not at rest. But on thb whole 
word let tJie reader consult Mr. Bate's 
learned exposition in Crit. Ueb. 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
signifies to separate, disjoin, ** separavit, 
dbjunxit." Castcil. 

Hence the Arabs roving in the deserts 
of Asia and Africa, had Sieir appellation 
Beddui, or as the Europeans call them, 
Bedouins, or Bedoucens. 
The LXX have given the idea of the root, 
Lev. xiu. 46, where they render Tii by 
x£^u;pi<rp^v^f, separated, separdte, 

I. As a N. "a 

I. Separate, alone, occ. £xod. xxx. 34, ni 
rtW n^n Each shall be separate by itself, 
a. d. Solus in solo erit. The LXX ren- 
der t|ie words I<ror iTui grai, by which 

I suppose tliey meant the same as the 
Vulg. aequalis ponderis erunt omnia, al 
(of the spices) shall be of equal weight, 
and to this pur[)ose our Englbh, Diodati's 
Italian, and Martins French version. 
But how the Heb. words^ should have 
this import, I know not. They seem 
to signify that each species of spice should 
be separate from, or free from admixture 
with, any other, till compounded ac- 
cording to tlie art of tlie apotliecary, as 
m the next verse ; and to the same art I 
appreliend it was lefl to determine the 
relative quantity, or proportion of each 
a. With b prefixed it is used as a Particle, 
^^b Apart, either absolutely, see Zech. 
xii. 12, 13, or with the pronoun suffixes 
of both numbers and genders, as lllb He 
alone, by hnnsef alone. Gen. ii. 18. p^ll^ 
Thtm (feai.) alone, by themselves. Gen. 
xxi. 28. freq. occ. 

3. 'i^b following with \0 or D, Without, be* 
sides. Jud. viii. 26. £xod. xii. 57. 

4. The Particle D bemg prefixed to *il!?,naVa 
Besides, without. Gen. xlvi. 26. 

II. As a N. ^n Flax, so called from it's 
growing in separate stalks, without 
spreading hito branches. Hence 

Used for the fax or linen of which the 
priest's garments were male. Exod. 
xxviii. 42, & al. freq. The LXX tLrougli- 
out Exod. and Lev. constantly render it 
by \ivso$ wade of linen. Plur. Oni 
Linens, linen gartnents. Ezek. ix, 2, 3, 11, 

III. As a N. masc. plur. oil Branches 
stparating, or shooting off' from tlic stem 
of a tree. Ezek. xvii. 6. xix. 14; from 
which passages it appears to denote tlie 
larger bran cites. 

IV. — Things made of such branches, v^stoveSy 
;w/Iw, or the like. Exod. xxv. 13, 14, 15, 
& al. freq. Applied to the bars of the 
sepulchre, Job xvii. 16, where however 
Scott explains it of tlie sepulchral cells 
branching off from the main subterra- 
neous grot. 

V. — The dist aided limbs of tlie Leviathan, 
as the crocodile b commonly represented 
with his legs sprawling. Job xii. 3, or 12. 
And perhaps applied to those of Moab, 
considered ui^aer the image of a wild 
beast. Isa. xvi. 6. We have heard of the 
pride of Moab and of his anger^ 1^1 p H^ 
* E4 * " • hb 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




bis limbs f streni^h) are not so ; Synrna- 
cfivij »^ arws li ppx^iovs; avre» not so 
kis arms; Vulg. plusquam jforri/yrfo ejus, 
Pfore than Ms stren'gth. So Jer. xlviii. 30, 
I know, saith the Lordy his anger; but not 
so inn his limbs (strength, Vulg. virtus) 
W^ p W? not so (his strength) bath done, 
i. e. bis strength and exertions are not 
answerable to his pride and anger. See 
Mr. Louik on botn texts. 
It does not appear that the word ever 
signifies liars, lies, or boasting. But 

VI. As a N. masc. plur. oni A sort of 
conjurers y who might be thus named from^ 
their affecting retirement and solitude, as 
many impostors, to cover and give credit 
to their lies, both in ancient and modem 
times, have done. Tbe onn are men- 
tioned with their other conjurers, occ. 
Isa. xiiv. 24. Jer. 1. 36. Comp. Hos. 
xi. 6. Hence perhaps Latin votes, a 

VI I. There a»"e several texts in the Lexi- 
cons and Concordances, ranged under 
this root, which seem more properly to 
belong to root n ; as Job xviii. 1 3, The 

frst'born of death shall feed I^Yi}) ns on 
the sufficiency to/* his skin, shall feed on 
the sutBciency of himself, i. e. shall eat 
up his skin and himself. The skin is sar- 
castically mentioned , because it was dread- 
fully affected by Job's disease. te« is in 
like manner construed with the Particle n, 
Job xxi. 3^. y^2 in Job xi. 3, may best 
be rendered, at thy sufficiency or self-suf- 
Jiiiency. And 1 would not be positive 
that THm nn, or according to many of 
Dr. Kennicott's Codices Vwtt^ — Job xvii 
16, does not denote into the depth of 
Hades, as the Vulg. renders it, in pro- 
fundisstmum infemum. 

T?:i To be all alune, quite atone. Hence as 
a Participle Benoni in Kat, Tn^ Quite 
alone. Fs. cii. 8» & al. So n^b Num. 
xxiii. 9. Ps. iv. 9. Mic. vii. 1 4. 

Dbb. Lat. viduusy ivheace widowy &c. 


To feign, or devise of himself alone; for it 
seems relate<l to 12 {io H:in to :in) as is 
intimated i K. xii. s^, fVhick ilVo Mil 
he devised from himself alone. But the 
leri, and at least seventeen of Dr. Ken- 
11^0^8 Codkesy have 1lbD,/rom ilu oira 
kiftrf, ft occors also Neb. vi 8. In 
Anbic the Y. sigBifies /o begin, to pro* 

duet or devise something netc, " iocetjL 
novum protulit aut excogitavit." Castm. 


I. In Kal and Hiph. To divide^ separate, 
distinguish. Gen. i. 4, And the AUim !ni> 
divided between the light and the darkness. 
How? By changing tlie light into dark- 
ness, ana reforming the darkness into 
light alternately, and that by their own 
immediate and supernatural power, as the 
heavenly orbs, and particularly the sun, 
afterwal-ds did (Gen. i. 18.) and now do 
naturally and mechanically. But how do 
these latter divide also between the day 
and the night, as they are ordained to do, 
ver. 14? Plainly by continuing and re- 
gulating the motion of tie earth, which 
began as soon as the Alehn divided be- 
tween the light and the darkness*. Read 
and consider ver. 4, and 5. freq. occ. 
^ Exod. xxvi. 33. Lev. i. 17. x. 10. 
XX. 24. Josh. xvi. 9. In Niph. Te be sc* 
parated. i Chron. xii. 8. Ezraix. i, & ah 
As a N. Vil A part or piece separated. 
occ. Amos iii. is. 

II.' As a N. V>*il 7Vii, a species of metal. 
It's Heb. name seems to be given it, 
either because in refinins it is separated 
from gold and silver, which it otherwise 
spoils ; or because it's parts are the most 
easily separable from eacli other of any me- 
tal, t ^ heat not much grealer than that of 
boiling water being sufficient to fiise it. 
So the Latin name stannum, by which the 
Vulg. renders Vni, seems to be from the 
Gr^ rafcc; tofl&w. occ. Num. xxxi. 22. 
Isa. i. 25. £xek. xxii. 18, 20. xxvii. 12. 
In Num. xxxi. 22 ^ Moses enumerates all 
the six species of metab. t ** Silver, of 
all the metals, suffers most from an ad- 
mixture of tin, a very small quantity serv- 
ing to make that metal as brittle as glass, 
ami ivhat is worse, being very difficultly 
H separated from it ag^kin. The very 

* See this further eiplained in HtOchuum^ 
Moses' Princip. part iL p.3Ul —^9. BmU\ Philo- 
sophkal Principlesof Moses asserted and defended, 
p. 526, &c. and in C^u^tt on the Creation, p. 45, &c. 

}Bo€riMmv€% Chemistry, by DalUwe, vol. i. p. S5. 
Nnv ami ewtpltte Dietiiuiry of Arts, in TiN. 
I ** But «ncc we have learned muntheChemiscs, 
that b]F the Mfaniiture of melted Copper the Tizi 
may he easily disengaged, and carried o^ we may 
collect tbe Sdver pure from the Copper with a 
'-*c'^t deal of ease and little expence^ Boerbss^^ 
kenbToLip. 6S. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

na — pia 


^ro— Dna 

%9pnr of tin Ims the same eflect at tbe 
ndd itself, on silver, gold, and oopper, 
reodering them brittle." Hence we may 
see the propriety of Jehovah's demmcia- 
n'on by the Prophet Isaiah, ch. i. 25 ; 
for having at the sid verK compared 
the Jewbh people to »iivery he declares 
at ver. * 5, J toiU turn my hand upon thee, 
and fmrtly jwrge away thy dross , and re- 
jnore mil*yT^ lliy particles of tin ; where 
JfpiUa, Symrnackus, and Theodotim, xaa-- 
^irepoy ^v, aod Vul^. stannum tuum, ihy 
tin; hat LXX at^ofjiAu^ wicked- ones. This 
deBimciation, however, by a comparison 
of the preceding and following cont^t, 
appears to tignwf that God would, by a 
process of judgment, purify those among 
the Jews who were capable of purification, 
as well as destroy the reprobate and incor- 
rigibie. Comp. Jer. vi. ap, 30. ix. 7. 
Mai. m. 3. £zek. xxii. 18, 20. In 
£id[. xxvii. T2, Tarshisb, i. e. Tartessus 
in Spain, is mentioned as furnishing 'm 
tin, which that it anciently did, the 
reader may see proved by Bochart, vol. i. 
169, from the testimonies of StephanuSy 
Diodorus, and Pliny. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but as a N. pi 
is coDStantly used for a breach, rupture, 
jUsure, chink, (sec a K. xii. 5, Sec.) and 
rmdered accordingly, except in a Chron. 
xxxiv. 10, which should likewise be trans- 
htcA-—The workmen that wrcfught in the 
houu of the hard p*inb for (on account 
of, or at) the breach (ad ntptumj qnd to 
repair the house. Comp. a K. xxii. 5 


From the Heb. ^X^, 1 being, as usual, chan- 
ged inton, Toscatter,disperse. Once^Dan. 
iv. II, or 14. So LXX Suumopttcats, 
and Vtt%. dispeigite. 

Hollow, It occurs not simply in this form, 
but hence, 

J. As a N. VO Hottow, empty, kanng no- 
tkmg ink but airy filed onh vacuo aere 
with empty mr, as Luean calls it, lib* v. 
Im. 94. aec. Gen. L a. Jer. iv. 23. Isa. 
xxxiv. II, And he shaU stretch out upon 
a the Urn cfvr\ry an4 ^^ phmnnets o^mi, 
L e. he sfall, as it were, mark out with 
a fine where it shall be thrown int^ inn 
€t$^used^ unconnected rautf, and with a 
plaoiaset, wh^re instead of it's present 

reguktry massy biulcyngs, it shall hevn m 
mere toid or desolation. Comp. Zech. 
L 16. iv. 9, 10. Lam. ii. 8. a K. xxL j. 

II. As a N. fern, in Reg. ni— f^ ni The 
apparent holiow, or pupil, of the eye. oer. 
Ps. xvii. 8. Lam. ii. 18. Comp. tOU 
under m ill* ^ 

III. As a N. fern. n^r\ and inr Reg. TCOt 
An ark, a hollow vessel, fit for swiauning 
ill the water. It b used onl^ for the 
ark of Noah, Gen. vi viL viii. ix. and 
for that in which the infimt .^ascf wai 
preserved, £xod. ii. 3, $. ** About the 
beginning of the last century, Peter J«s- 
sen, a Dutch merchant, caused a ship to 
be built for him, answering in it's pro* 
portions to those of Noah*a aik, tfm 
length of it being lao feet, the breadth 
of it twenty, and the depth of it twelve. 
At first this was looked upon as no bet- 
ter than^a fanatical vision of this Jansem, 
who was by profession a Mennonist: and 
while it was building, Jansen and hii 
ship were made ail the sport and laugh- 
ter of the seamen, as much as Noah aad 
his ark could be. But afterwards it wai 
found that ships built in tliis fiuthioB 
were, in the time of peace, beyond afl 
others, most commodious for conmiene^ 
because they would hold a third part 
more, without requiring any more 1 
and were found far better runners 
any made before. Accordin^y the 1 
of Navis Noachica b given by: 
to thb sort of vessel.'* Parker's Bihlio- 
theca Bibiica, vol. i. p. a35, 6. 

IV. For n^masc. and n^:i, see under root ra« 

As a N. Red marble, porphyry, or aooie 
kind of beautiful stone. Once, Esth. i 6, 

I. In Kal and Niph. T^ hurry, be precipi* 
tote, or hasty, a Chron. xxxv. ai. Ecdcs. 
V. I. vii. o. Prov. xxviii. aa. In Hiph. 
Transitivdy^ To hurry away, a Chron, 
xxvi. ao. 

In Kal and Hiph. transitively. To hasten^ 
causs to make haste. Esth. ii. 9. As a N. 
fem. nVin A hasting away. Isa. Ixv. aj« 
** Neither shall they generate a short-lived 
race, rhnJp in fthtinatumem, what shall 
soon hasten away. £1^ xarofav fof m 
curse, LXX. They seem to have read 
nbud, Grotius* But Ps. Ixxviii. 33, both 
justifies and explains the word here. And 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




le ctmsumed their days in tamipt &nd 
their years nhrt:i^ ha liastt/' Bp. Lowth. 
The Cbaldve Targum f xplains the wor(f> 
in Isa. by wmo!? plT vh\, and they shali 
9oi ftouiish, or bring vp (offspring) tbi 

Cbald. AsaN. lV»nn fiostc, hurry, occ. 
Eara iv. a.^. As a N. £em. nbnsn. The 
same. occ. Dan. ii. 25. vi. 19. 

II. In Niph. To be agitated, as the bones or 
body in fear. Ps. ^i. 3, 4, 

III. Ill Kal and Hiph. To pnt into a hun-y 
of fear, to put into a cortstertiatian, to nj- 

fnght. Job xxii. 10. xxiii. 16. Ps. ii. 5. 
Jb Niph. To be hurried, terrified. Exod. 
XV. 15. Chald. Inlth. To be affrighted. 
Dan. V. 9. As a N- fem. nbr\l Ter- 
rour, constematiim. Lev. xxvi. 16. Ps. 
IxxviH. S3. 
9SR. Gr. BaAXcw to cast, Eng. a haU, 
perhaps Lalin pelio, to drhe, whence 
impel, dispel, propel, impulse, &c. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but as the 
learned Bochart observes, the word in 
Ethiopic signifies mute, dumb, and in 
Arabic, as a V. to be dumb, or speok iar* 
barously, inarticulately. So Ba/tiCaivo; in 
Greek is to Hip or stammer. Hence 

1. As a N. rronn A beast or brute, desti^ 
iute of speech, or of an articulate vtn'ce, 
'^ito^vyioy dfwvoY a dumb beast, a Pel. 
i. 16. It denotes 

t. Any brute as opposed to man. Ps. 

• xxxvi. 7. 

a. Any terrestrial quadruped, tiviparons and 
ef some size. See Lev. xi. 2 — 7, 29, 30 

J. A tame animal, as opposed to rvt\ a xvild 
Me. Gen. i. 35. Ps. 1. 10. See BocJiart, 
"Vol. ii. 4, & seq. 

JI. As a N. masc. sing, nion!! The Behe- 
moth, q, d. f*c beast or ^tntte by tcay of 
eminence, the most eminent or remarkable 
^brutes, occ. JobxI. 10, or 15. Comp. 
rs. Ixxiii. 2a. Bochart takes the teruii- 
pation ni to a masculine, N. to be Egyp- 
tian, as in ©tt/d, *aa;d, ^a/t€ya;fl, the 
names of Egyptian months. Bat we, 
may observe that ni'ito is likewise con- 
strued as a masculine N. Job xxxviii. 32, 
and in the Heb. Bible, niTQ^, nin>, m>ni 
are names of men. The learned writer 
^ust mentioned, vol. iii. 754, & seq. con 
lends that rrtcm means tlie hippopotamus, 
that is, the sea- or^ more properly speak 

inf» the river-horse, which the ancient 
Greek writers, and the *Froniestine pave- 
ment, describe as an amphibious quadru- 
ped found in the Nile, and which is still 
sometimes met with in Upper Egypt. And 
he has supported hisopiuion with so much 
learning and plausibility, that 1 believe it 
has been generally embraced and acqui- 
esced in by the literati since his time. 
Schultens, however^ in his Commentary 
on Job, argues as strenuously, that tbe 
elephant was the creature inteuded. And 
it must be confessed, that mosi of the cha- 
racters gi^en of the Behemoth will cor- 
• respond also to the elephant. It would far 
exceed the bounds of a Lexicon to state 
and discuss the arguments on each side. 
1 must, therefore, content myself with 
referring to Bochart (as above), to 
Scheuchzers Physica Sacra on Job xi. 
and to Dr. Shaw's Travels, p. 426. in 
support of the claims of the hippopotamus, 
and to Schultens*8 Comment, and Mr. 
Scotfs valuable Translation' and Notes 
on Job, in defense of the elephxint. 1 shall 
however intimate the principal arguments 
of both parties, by explaining, in their 
proper places, the Hebrew words on 
which they are founded ; and >^'ould, 
at present, just beg the reader's atten- 
tion to Ps. Ixxiii. 22, And I (vxis) "liO 
brutioh, and knew not : I uas niDm 
before thee, if n^DHl here be understood 
in the singular number, as in all reason 
it ought, for what man ever called liim- 
^Mbeasts^ — this text will aiford a good 
argument, tllat n*)Dm does not signify 
the elephant, since it would have been 
directly contrary to the Psalmist's pur- 
pose to have denominated himself from 
that sagacious and almost rational ani- 
mal. §^ Buffon, Hist Nat. tom. ix. 
p. 222, 292, &c. lanio. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but as a N. jm 
plur. rt\yni The thvmtb or great toe. Jud. 
i. 7. Thus Aquila renders it by otyr/^ax- 
ruXo;, Exod. xxix. 20; hut tlie LXX 
always i>y oxpov, the top, summit , or ex- 
trenity. The putting of blood and ml 
upon the thund) of tlie right hamd and 
great toe of the rtght foot, Lev. viii, 23. 
' xiv. 14, 17, & al. was typkal of all their 
actions and steps being cleansed by tbe 
•. See£i«w'8 Travels, p. 436, 2d edit. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

nna— pna 


nt3— n 

hkoitf Christ, and sanctified hy die 

oiwntwg of' the Holy Spirit, , 

Ocean not as a V. in Heb. bat in Chaldee 
and Syriac signifies to shine. As a N. 
^1 is once u^ for a kind of leprosy ^ or 
leprous spot on the skin, Lev. xiii. 39, And 
the Priest shall look, and behold the skin 
of their fiesh mnb nin3 mm bright spots 
of an obscure white ; this is prtl breaking 
out on the skin ; he is clean. We are in- 
formed in Nisbuhr's valuable Description 
de P Arable^ p. 119, that one of the spe- 
cies o{ leprosy to which the Arabs are sub- 
ject is by them still called Bohak, but that 
it is neither contagious nor mortal; and in 
the note, p. lao, lai, Forskdl adds, *'The 
Arabs call a sort of leprosy, in which 
some little spots show themselves Iiere and 
there on the body, Bekaq; and it is with- 
out doubt the same as is named pm 
Lev. xiii. They believe it to be so far from 
contagious, that one may lie with the 
person affected without danger." — " On 
the 15th of May 1763, I saw at Mokha 
a Jew who had the leprosy Bohak. Tlie 
spots of it are of unequal sizes; they do 
not appear shining, they are but very little 
raised above the skin, and do not change 
the colour o^ the hair, les taches sont 
d'lm blanc obscur tirant sur le rouge, the 
spots are of an obscure white inclining to 
red.'* As to what Forskdl says, that the 
»pots do not appear shining (luisantes), 
which may seem to contradict Mosc^ 
eaJJmg them n^nn shining spots, it may 
be ot]«erved,that the Jew might probailly 
have had .the Bohak some time, and that 
Moses himself supposes that by the time 
the person affected with it could be 
brought to the Priest, the mm shining 
spots would be t^^2b niriD obscurely white. 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
signifies to shine very much or brightly, 
Sec Castell. 

I. As a participial N. YTT^ Bright, shining, 
Tcsplendent. occ. Job xxxvii. 21, And now 
snen camiot look at that resplendent Hght 
Cwhich is) in tJte ethers, token the wind 
katk pasted and cleansed them. *' That is, 
mclsea the sky b in such a dear dazzling 
state as he had described, ver. 18/' Scott. 
This teit plainly ^ves the idea oi' the 

IL As a N. i^m. mm A kind of kprmm 
mot, so called from it's shining. Lev. xiiL 


L To spoil, plunder, strip. Gen. xxxiv, 27. 

1 Sam. xiv. 36, where observe that the 
n in m:23 is not radical^ but paragogic, 
as m nbni from hi. Gen. xi. 7 ; and that 
this is the only instance where the Verb 
occurs with a final n in the sense oi' spoil- 
ing, freq. ecc. As Ns. tl smd fem. ma 
Spoil, plunder, prey. Num. xiv. 3, 31. 

2 Chron. xiv. 14. 
IL To spoil of honour or credit, to detract 

from, reproach, upbraid. Prov. vi. 30, 
Men inn' vh will not upbraid a tidef, if 
he steal to satiny his appetite when he is 
hungry* So Prov. xxiii. 9, where LXX 
uMx,rs^i(ryi he sneer, and ver. aa. As a 
N. r»n k reproach, object of reproach. 
Gen. xxxviii. 23. Job xii. 21. Ps. xxxL 
19, & al. Fem. nna The same. occ. Neh. 
iii. 36, or iv. 4. 

tn To plunder repeatedly, or entirely, the 
reduplication of the 2d radical denoting, 
as usual, the repetition or completeness of 
the act. Num. xxxi. 9, 3a, 53, & al. 

It seems to be nearly related botli in sound 
and sense to th^ preceding Xl To spoils 
strip, as «in to ir\, hdy to CDif, Thus 
several of the Hexaplar versions render It 
^tyjf/rtatroiv, and Vulg. diripuerunt. occ. 
Isa. xviii, a, 7. The fh^t verse of this 
chapter relates, I think, to Egypt (comp. 
under >T3D). So Vitringa, who renders 
IWl by diripiunt, spoil, refers the expres- 
sion, " whose land the rivers spoil," not 
to the hostile invasion of Sennacherib^ 
but to the Cvshites or Ethiopians who 
had at this time subdued Egypt, and 
from whose country likewise came the 
Gvenchelming Nile, which is here allud- 
ed to. So Targum Jonath. whose Umd 
H^DDi^ the people haxe spoiled. 

nt2 ^ 

With a radical, but mutable or omissible n. 

To despise, contemn, slight. See Gen. 
XXV. 34. Num. XV. 31. a Sam. xii. 9. 
Ps. xxii. a$. aK. Isa. xxxvii. aa, 
in which two last passages ntn may be 
the Particip. Benom fem. in Kal. Isa. 
xlix. 7, W^^ mn^ '^ to him whose person 
it despised.'' Bp. Lomth. Two of E>r. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ina— pt3 



Kamic9if% Codices m the text, and one 
, m tbe margm, read ID detpited, fonsed 
ttc >t2n^ made. Job xIL 24, or 33. As 
to file character here giren of the Mes- 
mhj com^. laa. liii. 5, where be in ex- 
fna^sM to he n\^yde^ued. A&aK. 
fra Cimtempi. occ. Esth. i. 18. 
As a Participle or participial N. of ao 
irre£iilar» mixt form between Niph. and 
Hipn. mno: Ctmiemptible, vile. So LXX 
jfTifutifuev^^ TieodoHon t^ov^fWfLivap, 
Vulg. vile. occ. I Sam; xv. 9. Dr. Ken- 
fncotf% Codices here furnish no various 
reading, except that in one is read rtyto^ 
by transposition. 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Synac 
signifies to strow^ diipene, break to pieces. 
As a N. in Heb. pn Ajia$k of lightning ; 
ao Aquila, hr^if^y Symmachus, Axrtvos 
mrfetit^s, and Vulg. Fulguris coruscaii- 
lis. occ. Ezek. i. 14. The name of a 
place. Jud. i. 4. i Sam. xi. 8. 

To £spene, dissipate, occ. Ps. Ixviii. 51. 
Dan. xi. 24. So LXX Sixcu^il^u', 
Vulg. dissipare. 

To nauseate, retch. So the Chaldee Tar- 
gum mrp hatliedi detested: bot the LXX 
sieutpvoyT% roared, occ. Zech. xi. 8. This 
foot occurs also, accordmg to the textual 
leadbg of moat printed editions, Prov. 
XX. a I, Jn inheritance nbnio detested, 
scandalous, i.e. gamed by scandalous 
arts, at the beginning; but the Keri and 
f!omplatensian edition have here nbn^D 
(which is likewise the reading of twelve 
or moire of Dr. Kenmcott's Codices) has^ 
ienedf gpften hastily ; and this is confirmed 
|»y the Taig:uiai and Syriac HimoD^i, by 
the L}pC eiciat9^tfiiuirtj, hy Symmackus 
and Jheodotian 0ir«^a{o/ybf yij^ and by Vulg. 

' adijuanifestinatuf. 

To try^ prvce^ examine^ particul^irly as me- 
tals. Ps. Ixvi. 10. Zech. xiii. 9, & al. 
fireq. We read. Job xii. 11. xxxiv. 3, 
t|iat \mr] p^D \m the Mr trjeth v?ords or 
articulate sotmd^; and with most exact 
and philosophical truth is this said of 
the organ or hearing, particularly of the 
auditory nerve and membrane, for * '^ this 
* See Ntw md CmmpUte DiOsoMuy rf ArUy Ac. 


membrane in the various degrees of ten- 
sion and relaxation, adapts itseff to the 
several natures and states of sonorous bo- 
dies ; becomhig tense for the reception 
of acute^soonds, and relaxed for the ad- 
mission of grave sounds. lo short, it is 
rendered tense and relaxed in a thousand 
different degrees^ according to the varions 
degrees ofacutencu or gravity in sounds.** 

As a N. \ni and pnn A place or building 
for examining, or spying^ a watch-tower. 
Isa. xxxii. 14. Jer. vi. 27. It is written 
J*na Isa. xxiii. 13. 

Der. Beacon^ beckon. 

In Syriac signifies To view, behold, regard, 
(see Syriac version of Mat vii. 3); and 
in Arabic, To be astonished. Hence 

I. In Hebrew it's primary import seems to 
be. To look at or behold with admiration 
or approbation^ which accounts for it's 
being so frequently followed by the par- 
ticle ^ at, and once, Jobxxxvi. s 1, by V}^ 
yponf. So transitively, or with ^ fol- 
lowing. To choose. Gen. vi. 2. Dent. 
X. 15, & al. fteo. As a participial N. 
1*ni A person chosen or elected, and in 
consequence of such election appointed to an 
office, an elect. % Sam. xxi. 6. Isa* xlii. i, 

n. As a Participle or participial N. "nrtt, 
plur. SDmin:! and onnn, frequently ren- 
dered a young man or young mtn, but the 
word 9^ctly speaking has no relatioa to 
tUnepx age. It properiy denotes a ckake 
mad, such as one would cAoose for his vi- 
gour and activity to perform any work. 
See inter al. 1 Sam. viii. 16. ix. a. z»v. 
2, or 3. xxvi.3. a Sam. vL i. Prov. xx. %g. 
As a N. fem. plur. in Reg. ^nwo lite- 
rally elections; so Montanus yrVTin^ n?"! 
ta diebus electionum tuarum", in the clan's 
of thine elections. Or choice, in thy chmca 
days, m those days of thy 1% which tfaoa 
wouMst choose, as distinguished fi'om the 
coil days of old age, of which thou sbalt 
say, I have na pleasure ^ them, occ* 
Eccles. xii. 1. 

HI. With ^ fbilowmg, Tolo<^at,w regmrtt^ 
with afection^ to laoe, affect, or haoc mm 
affectum for, diligere. Isa.xiv. i,xlviii. to. 
(where see Vitringa) Zech. i. 17. iii. a« 

IV. \n Ecdes, ix. %, the textual reading of 

t See GuftfTt Lexic HapUglotL an^ Aficbadim 
^upplcm. ad Lex. Heb. iro. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

mD3— N33 


loa— bba 

tt9^ editions is ^nv winch seems to yield 
no coosisteiit and satisivctory saise ; but 
tlie Keri here is l^rr shall be ^ or h, joined, 
and so reads the ComphUemitm edition, 
and seven of Dr. Kemicoti's Codices, and 
thus the LXX, by their translation xoi- 
rwvtt commmnicateM, appear to have read. 
And suseording to thb reading the sense 
is eauy and natural. Solomon is com- 
plaining, that, as to the outward occur- 
rences of this life, aU tkuigs kappem alike 
to ail, that there i$ we event to the Hgh" 
team and to the xsitked^^* and after that 
(tliey all alike go) to the dead, and then, 
as to this world, the scene u finally closed ; 
for, ver. 4, to him that b (yet) joined to 
all living there w hope, &c. 

Tovtter or speak rashfy, fholishfy or tmad* 
visedhfj efiutire. occ Lev. v. 4. Num 
XXX. 7, 9. P^. cvi 33. Bnt in all the 
above passages it is followed by a^ntitt^^ 
with the lips; and I suspect that the 
LXX, in constantly rendermg it (except 
only in Num. xxx. 9) by iiarsXXoo or 
^letro^aj, which denotes the separating or 
opening wide of tlie lips* diductionem la- 
biorum, have given the true idea of the 

From this root may perhaps be derived 
tlK Greek harios a stutterer; also the 
proper name of a person who was a stam- 
merer (mentioned by Herodotus, lib. iv. 
cap. 1C5), and of a silly tautological 
Poet alluded to by Ovid, Metam. lib. ii. 
Im. 703. Comp. Greek and Eng. Lex- 
iron, under fiar7oAoy£et^. 

Occurs onh in Prov. xii. tS, and seems 
nearty of the same import as the preced- 
ing MK):). 


L To kang close, cling. It occurs not in Kal; 
but hence in Hipb. with b^ following, to 
cause to cling to, or hang upon, occ. Ps. 
xxii. I O9 — v^ vilD^D causing me to cling 
vpon my mothers breasts, 

iL To trust, rely upon, in wfaidi sense it is 
followed by 1, w, W. freq. occ. It is 
also used absolutely, to trusty be confident, 
atcare,^ object of trust or confidence bcr 

* I coniider tht wordd in the middle df ver. 3. 
{^ta mUo A* btari tf ib* 'tms 0/ men is full of 
««J4 ^^ madnss* u in ibtir hfOrf vtbile thty Uw) 

iag implied. Job vi. 20. Isa. xii. s. As 
a N. njoa Trusty confidence. Isa. xxxii; 17. 
Also adverbially, Confidently, setutely. 
Oen. xxxiv. 25! Deut. xiL 10. Fem. 
nntan Ccnfidence, occ. Isa. xxxL a, 9. 
pniD:i Hope, confidence, occ. £ccles. ix. 4. 
% K. xvih. 19. Isa. xxxvi. 4. nto^o CW- 
fidence, trust. Prov. xxv. 19, 8c al. 
IIL As a N. masc. plur. OTNOIK F^iU or 
plants of the pepo or melon kind, which by 
their tendrils cHng to whatever they caa 
lay hold on, and so support themselves, 
occ. Num. XL $f where LXX ws/fOfOLS^ 
and where perlia|is the word means the 
water-melon i which ^' the Arabians^ ac- 
cording to HasselqutMty Voyages, &c 
P* ^SSj call Batcch. It is cultivated, 
adds he, on the banks of the Nile, in the 
rich ^yey earth, which subsi(|es during 
the inundation. — ^This serves the Egyp- 
tians for meat, drink, and physic* It is 
eaten in abundance during &e seaSoo, 
eiKen by the richer sort of people; bat 
the common people^ on whom Provi- 
dence has bestowed nothing but poveitj 
and patience, scarcely eat any thing hot 
these, and account this the best time of 
the year, as they are obliged to pat 1^ 
with worse Ikre at other seasons. — This 
fruit likewise serves them for drink, tht 
juice refreshing these poor creatures, and 
tliey have less occasion for water than if 
they were to Hve on more substantial food 
in this burning climate.'' This well ex- 
plains the Israelites' regretting the want 
of this fruit in the parched thirsty wil- 

To cease, leave off, occ. Eccles. xii. 3. And 
the grinders cease (grinding, namely) be- 
cause they are few; they can grind no 
longer. Chald. In Kal, To cease, occ 
Ezra iv. 24. In Kal and Aph. To cause 
to cease, occ. Ezra iv. 21, 23. v. 5. vl 8. 

Dbe. a be^l^. Qu ? 

Occurs not as a V. m Hebrew, bnt in 
Cbaldce and S^-riac denotes To conceive 
in the belly or vx)mb ; and in Arabic, To 
hide or be hid. See Castell. 

I. As a N. {Dl The belly of an anunal, male 
or female. Gen. xxv. 23. Jud. iii. 21. 
Job xl. II. It is used Jon. ii. 3, for the 
Hollow or Capacity of Vitwif, hut with a 
reference, no doubt, to. the iish'3 belly, in 

- which 

Digitized "by 




naa— naa 

which the prophet was entombed* It 
of^eo deootes the inmost part, or nind of 
piim. See Job xv. 35. xxxii* i8» 19. 
Prov. xviii. 8. xx. af, $0* xxii. 18. 
' xxvi. 2?. Corop. Ezek. iii. j. Ps. xl. 9, 
and under i^p V. 

II. TAf 6f//^ or ctntral part of a holkm 
pillar. I K. vii. so. 

IIL As a N. masc. plur. 0^:tD3 Nuts, or 
rather, according to Dr. Shaw, (Tra 
▼eJ8» p. 145, note, 2d edit.) Pistachio 
nuts, 80 caUed from their shell shaped 
like the belly, and containing the kernel. 
See this interpretation further proved in 
Bockarf, vol. u 388, &c. occ. Oen. 
xliii. II. 

DsR. To batten, make fat^ or great-bel- 

Connpoimded of the partidc ^ to or on^ and 

? me, to me, or on me, i. e. 

I. Attend to me. Gen. xliii. 20. 

%, Have pity an me. £xod. iv. io> & al. 
X^ See under \1 
r^^ See under ra 

Occurs not as a V. but as a N. appears to 
be the name of some tree or shr%A, occ. 
% Sam. V. 33, 24. I Chron. xiv. 14, 15. 
Ps. Ixxxiv. 7. The LXX in Chron. ren- 
der it affi(fi¥ pear-trees; so Aqtdla in 
a Sam. V. 23, and Vulg. both in Sam. 
^nd Chron. pyrorum. Others translate 
k tbe msilherry^ree, whkh, to illustrate 
Ihepasaai^e in the Psalm, it is pretended, 
jmiws best i^ dry ground ; but I do not 
tmd this circumstance to be true *, and 
should rather think tliat M2n meaos a 
kisd of large shrub, which the Arabs 
ftill likewise call Baca, and which pro- 
bably was so named from it*s distilling 
ai) oaoriferous gum ; for our word M!:! 
•c^ems to be related to the following nD3> 
as WM to nifii, &c. The valley of H3n, 
mentioned Ps. Ixxxiv. 7, (to borrow the 
expressions of Celsius, Hierobot.) appears 
to bet**tf rugged valley, embarrassed 
with bushes.nnd stones, wUcli could nc^ 
be passed tlirough \vithout labour and 
tears; such as we may collect from 

• See Jkfi/.Vr's Gardener's Dictionary, under 

f ** Atpentn & dumis jaxhqw impeditafn vallem, 
|IN» tim Imk9rt l5f Itubrymis traatiri noti totsft^ fya/^t 

Deut.'xxi. 4, were to be ibuod in Jodea.*' 
And 1 add, that a valley of tins kind was 
a strikmg emblem of that x>dle of tkomt 
. and tears through which alt believers 
must pass to Xh% heavenly Jemsalem. 
Comp. Crit. Ueb. It is remarkable that 
in P^. Ixxxiv. the LXX render M31 by 
KAoudjuwcn'o;, Aquila by xAaodju^v ^ 
xoeeping, and Vulg. by lachi^marum of 
tears; these versions may serve to con- 
firm if s relation to ^TD^, but the word 
itself most probably denotes some sknib 
in the Psalm, as well as in the other 
texts of Scripture* 

With a radical, but mutable or omissible ^• 
To ooze, ooTx out as liquor, to distil in 
small quantities. 

U To weep, shed tears. See Gen. xhr. 14. 
Exod. ii. 6. Jer. ix. i. AsaN.*5a fVeep- 
ing, tears. See Ps. cii. 10. As a N. lem. 
rT*33, in Reg. n^22 A weeping, shedding 
of tears, occ. Gen. 1. 4. 

II. Transitively, To xveep for, bewaiL Gen. 
xxiii. 2. Lev. x. 6, & al. 

III. As a N. ^^21 An oozing, occ Job 
xxviii. J J, He (man) binds up, or con*- 

Jines the (subterraneous) streams or rills 
^::::D from oozing; for this b evidently 
part of that description of the miner's 
and nietalluipst's business, which begins 
at the first verse of thb chapter. Or, if 
the D in ^^^D be taken as formative, then 
we may render the text He blinds vp the 
oozmg places o/'M^ streams, which comes 
to tbe same sense. And for further satis- 
faction seeMr.4$co^^*spoeticalParaphnue 
and Notes. 

la general To beforastrd, precede^ to come, 
or go before. 

I. In Kal, To precede or bejirst in birth^ to 
be thejirstiing or firstborn, or consecrated 
as such. occ. Lev. xxvii. 26. As a Par- 
ticip. fem. in Hiph. m^DlO Bringing 
fo9th the int'bom, 80 LXX, tsfwroro- 
K0v<r7}g. occ. Jer. iv. 31. Comp. mB^HO, 
Ps. caliv. 13, under f\h» II. As partio- 
pial Ns. *T!iD:i and ^'22, applied to men, 
First-bom, reckoning from the Father, 
Gen. X. 15. xlvi. 8, 14. xlix. 3. Dcut. 
xxi. 17. I Clu-on. V. I, 2, 3, & al. freq. 

—reckoning from the Mother, £kW« 
xi. 5, where it refers botkto«4he frubar 
and to the mother m the^ane aenlttiee. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




loioed with tsm *^1£)0> cpenuig the womb, 
it relates to tbe motlier. £xod. xnu ^. 
conp. vcr. 15, 15. As a N. tern. Ttr:::i 
Ik-gt-bem, of daughters, primogenita . 9CC. 
Gen. xix. 31, 33, 34, 37. xxix. 26. 
I Sam. xiv. 49. As a N. fem. m::n, 
and in Reg. IDDn Primogenitttre, birth- 
right. See Gen. xliii. 33. xxv. ,31, 32, 
33,34. Among the ancient patriarchal be- 
lievers, the btrih'Hght included not only 
a</otf^por/2onof thefather's estate, which 
was peculiarly denoted by the term mri 
(see I Cbron. v. i, 2, compared with 
Deut. xxi. 17.), but also f re-ew?j/icnce or 
authority over tlic other brethren (see 
Gen. xxvii. 29..xh*x. 5, 4, 8.), because 
with the birth^ght in those times was 
generally connected the progenitorship of' 
the Messiah (see Gen. xlix. 8. i Chron. 
V. 2.) ; on which last account especially 
the apostle might well call Esau a profane 
person for despiung his birth-right^ lieb. 
xii. i6*. 

As a V. from the N. To make the first- 
bom, invest with tfie rights of piimogejii- 
tare, occ Deut. xxi* 16. 
Of beasts, as a N. ^^^2 plur. in Reg. mss, 
A firstling f reckoning fwm the mother, 
Deut. XV. 19. Neh. x. 35. As a N. 
fem. m^ Imtiing. It is plainly used 
as a collective N. deuotiug the first ling- 
fwles, Deut. xii. 6, 17. xiv. 23, (so 
LXX, TA nPXlTOTOKA) and Heb. 
xi. ft8; for comp. Deut. xv. 19. Exod. 
•xiii. 12. Lev. xxvii. 26. So miil Gen. 
iv. 4. 

Thejirit'bom in the holy Ime, reckoning 
from the father, with their ;>ecw//flr rights, 
were evident types of Him, who was to 
be tke first-born among many brethren 
(Rom. viii. 29), and in all things to 
karce the pre-eminence (Col. i. 18). 
And in his sacrificial diaracter, the Mes- 
aiak was represented hy \\\e firstlings of 

* Tht rcadtr may remark that in the Sd edit. I 
have IMC, M I did in the 2d, said any thing aboot 
the PriesUmd't being annexed to tiie birth-rigbu 
My reason for this omission i8,that,on attentive re- 
coniidemtion,! think the texts which I there quoted 
for nich annexation (namely. Num. Hi- 12* viii. 16. 
Exod. xzz. 23. xziv. 5.), insufficient to prov« it ; 
and whoever will peruse the learned yitrii»a% 
Obicrvationes Sacrae, lib. ii. cap. 2 and 3, wiU, I 
Uieve, be of the same opinion. The English 
raader may, for his satisfaction, consult Bishop 
P««radf s Comment oa the several texts. 

clean beasts, wUeh appear from .Ociu 
iv. 4, to have been consecrated ibr sacri- 
fice to God from the original institatioa 
of typical Christianity f , and wliich thus 
served as a continual and strikincr coiu> 
ment on that blessed promise, The seed 
of the WOMAN shall bruise thy (the 
serpent's) Itead; but thou shalt bruise his 
heel. For hince the seed of the xcoman 
only is here mentioned, is not this an in- 
timation, at least, that the future suffer- 
ing Redeemer should be bora of a Virgitif 
And what in nature could be so proper 
a standing type of Him in this fespcct, 
as the firstling of a female animal ago- 
nizing and dying under the knife of the 
prie^, and then consumed by fire ? 
It may be further remarked, that a per- 
version of the true ti-adllion concerning 
the redemption of man by the suffering^ 
and death of the great First-bom was, no 
doubt, one source of the idolaters wcrj^- 
cing their own children, particularly ti^ir 
first-born. See 2 K. iii.'«7. xvi. 3. xxi. 6- 
xxiii. 10. Jer. vii. 31. xix^ 5. Ezek. 
xxiii. 37. Mic. vi. 7. And in countriet 
and ages far distant from those «unlio0ed 
in scnpti4re, we find that '* the Pemmam 
of quality, and those too of mean sort, 
would sacrifice their first-bomto redeem 
their own life, wlien the priest pmaoini' « 
oed that they were mortally sickj," and 
tbat the inhabitants of Florida Kcji&oect 
\W\t first-born, if a male, to the £Imi||. 
And as the King of Moab, when in dis- 
tress, t^ok his first-bom (•ilDZin) son, tkat 
should have reigned in his stead, and of- 
fered him for a burnt-offering (a fe. 
iii. 27), so ** Hacon King of Norofoy 
offered his son in sacrifice to obtain of 
Odin the \ictory over his euerav Hondd, 
Aune king of Sweden devoted to Odim 
the blood of liis nine soas, to 'prevail on 
tbat god to prolong his life. T-he Aa" 

f And thnsthty ^DfttimiediohedflTered in t 
fice by some of tne heathen nations, so late as the 
time of the I'rojan War, and probably loQj^.aftert. 
for from Homer, II. iv. Un. 10.?, 120. IL xxiiu 
lin. 864, 873, it appears to have been the custom 
both of the Mysians and Greeks, on extraordinary 
occasions, to vow even a hecatomb APXaN nparo* 
roiiaN rffrstl'mg lambs to ApoJlo. 

\ More'9 Explanation of Grand Mystery, p. €€» 
y See Ficart'i Ceremonies and Religious Cus- 
toms, &c. where thi^horrid sacritiSee is represented 
to the eye. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




daU Hiitory cftke Varth Ooundi in timi- 
iar exmmples*.'* 

As the Jirst'bom is called the might of his 
fiitbcr, ami the beginning or duef of hit 
ttrength. Gen. xlix. 3, (comp. Deut. 
xxi. ly. Ps. Ixxviii. 51.) so 10 Job 
xvia. i^, mo lini Tht^^st-h^m of death 
figuratively denotes a dreadful and mor- 
tat diseoie-^*^ Death*s efdett born, and 
fiercest of his hrood," as Mr. Scott ex- 
presses it* And as in Job xviii. 13, the 
jint'bom of Death is personified, so is 
Death itseif, Jer. ix. 21; and as b2H 
toting is applied to Death*s fttsi-bom, so 
is rvT) feeding, to death, Ps. xlix. 1 ;. The 
Latin poets iVeqoenUy make Death a 
fermm. See Horat. lib. i. ode 4, lin. 13 ; 
and lib. iii. ode s, lin. 14.. Propert. 
lib. iii. el. 17, lip. 26. BoetL ii. 7. 

II. As a N. masc. plur. csn'iri First' fruits, 
frtdts first ripe, i. e. hrfore others of the 
same kind, lliere were two prmctpal 
kinds oi first- fruits; the one of barley 
(called ni55 rptwn the begbining of the 
Jirst-fruits, £xod. xxiii. 19. xxxiv. 26, 
and yrp TXVnt) the beginning of the har- 
vest. Lev. xxiii. ro. comp. 2 Sam. xxi. 9), 
from which the wave-sheaf wds taken, 
Lev. xxiii. 10, ir; the other of wheat, 
called t3»»n ytp niD!i the frst-fmits of 

» wheat harvest, £xod. xxxiv. 22, of 
which the two vave-loaTes were made, 
Lev. xxiii. 17; the vaxe-shettf repre- 
senting Christ risen from the dead (comp. 
John xii. 14.) as the first-fruits of them 
that slept (see i Cor. xv. 20, 23.); the 
wave- loaves prefiguring the efiusion of 
the first-fruits of the Spirit on the day of 
.Pentecoit, Acts ii. 1 — 4. 
As a V. applied to a tree. To bring forth 
first (i. e. delicatc)/nM7, or, according to 
^orward it*s fruit, and so bring 

Bate, " to for 
it to perfect^ 

fection." occ. £zek. xlviL 12; 
where' Montanus maturabit shall hasten 
or ripen. The correspondent Greek word 
in Rev. xxii. 2^ is ofgahhi^v yielding, 
m. As a N. fem. miD3, plur. nvirn, and 
CD>1123, The first ripe fig, the boccdre, as 
it is still called in the Levant, nearly by 
it's Heb. name. Thas Dr. Shaw, giving 
an account of the fruits in Barbary, 
Trav. p. 144, mentions *' the black and 

* MaUet*9 Northern Antiqnitiet, vol i. p. 134. 
Comp. under *)bo IL and the authors there quoted* I 

white boccirt or earbfig (the laneve 
have in England, and which in Spain b 
called breba, quasi breve, as continuinf 
only a, short time) wbich is produced 
[i. e. ripe] in June; tliough the kemui 
orkermouse, thtfig properly so called, 
which they preserve and make up into 
cakes, is rarely ripe before Angust.*' 
Comp. Jer. xxiv. 2. And on Nab. 
iii. IS, observe from Dr. Shaw, as above, 
that the boccSres drop as soon as tbey are 
ripe, and according to the beautiful allu- 
sion of the Vropbet, fall into the mouth of 
the eater upon being shaken. Further, 
'' It frequently falls out in Barbary (ssjs 
Dr. Shaw, Travels, p. 342.), and wc 
need not doubt of the like m tbis hotter 
climate (of Judiea, namely), that, ac- 
cording to the quality of At precedii^ 
season, some of the more forward and vi« 
gorous trees will now and then yield a 
few ripe figs, m weeks or more before 
the full season,*' i. e. before the middle 
or latter end of June. ' ' Something hke 
thb may be alluded to by the Prophet 
Hosea, ch. ix. 10, when lie says that he 
saw their fathers a* rTTiDn the first ripe 
in the fig-tree at her first time." Such 
figs were reckoned a great dainty. Comp. 
Isa. xxviii. 4, and see Mr. Luwth*s note 
IV. As Ns. 151 and fem. mil A dronms or 
dromedary (which English names, by the 
way, are derived from the Greek ipep^if 
to run J, a race of camels (for it does not 
constitute a distinct species f), '^diiefiy 
remarkable for it's prodigious swiftness 
(the swift dromedary, as the Prophet calls 
it, Jer. ii. a 3.), the Arabs affirming that 
it will run over as much ground in one 
day, as one of their best horses will per- 
form in eight or ten." ^But this seems an 
exaggeration.] '* It difters from the com- 
mon camel, in being of a finer and rounder 
shape, and havuig upon it*s back a lesser 
protuberance." <SAaw's Travels, p. 167, 
where sec more. ^' The dromedary, says 
t Russel, by all I could ever discover, is 
nothing but a high breed of the Arab 
camel. The only distinction observed is, 
that it b of a Ugtfter and handsontf 
make; and instead of the solenm walk 
to which the others are accustomed, it 

f See Brnfim, Hist. Nat. torn. x. p. 1, &c. ISom^ 
I Nat. Wtt. •JAUpp; p. 57. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




l^aces, tmd u generally e^eemed to go as 
Jmr in one day as the others do in three.** 
And this is sufficient to shew the pro- 
prktj of it's Hebrew name. occ. Isa. Ix. 
6. Jer. ii, aj. Coiap. Volney, Voyage en 
Syrie^ torn. ii. p. 314. 


L To mix, mingle, occ. Jud.jdx. 2i,b)T\, 
or, according to the Keri, and twenty- 
four of Dr. Kennicott^s Codices, by^. And 
he raingied for the asses, i. e. he mixtd 
sonse chopped stnrw and barley together 
for their provender, as usual in those 
countries to this day. Corop. bb^ below, 
and see I K. iv. a 8, and Harmef% Ob- 
senrations,vol. i.p. 423, &c. Ps. xcii. 11, 
" *nbl / am (not barely anointed, but) 
mixed with fresh oil. Oil penetrates the 
very bonesi and the person spc^en of 
was to be full, otJiUedfuU with what oil 
represents. The softening benignity of 
holiness and love were to be incorporated 
into his very substance, and his very 
humanity to become, like God, holiness 
and love.** Bale's Crit. Heb. 

IT. To confound^ destroy, as it were, by he- 
terogeneous or discordant mxtures, oOc. 
Gen. xi. 7, ni>aai ^^nc^wewiU confound 
there their talk. Sd ver. 9, Wherefore 
the name of it was called fia^ hyi (i. e. 
in oonfusion) because there Jehovah bhh 
confounded the talk of all the earth. Ob- 
•erve that in ver. 7, the n in nbii is not 
ndical but paragogio. Hence the French 
Babil, babiOer, and £ng. Babble. Lat. 
halbus stammering, balbutio to stammer. 

III. As a N. ^n Bel, a name by which the 
Heathen, and particularly tbe Babyhni-' 
ansy called their arch-idol, the heavens, 
whose different conditions oifire, light, 
and spirit^ (i. e. gross air) are mechani- 
cally mixed with each other, and thereby 
carry on all the operations of nature. 
occ. Isa. xlvi. I. Jer. 1. 2. li. 44. This 
idol is also mentioned Baruch vi. 41 ^ 
and (to say nothing of the apocryphal 
story of Bel and the Dragon) Herodotus, 
lib. i. ca^. 181, expressly calls the Tower 
of Mabel or Babylon, l^0( BHAOT 'I^ov 
tbe Temple of Jupiter Belus or Be/*; ' 

* For a defcxipdon of thii tcnmfe, which was 
mo other than the famoiu Trw* r tyBoM repaared 
and completed, see Prideaux Connect, part i. 
book iL not far from the beginning, and Cmlmtt*% 
Dictionary in Babxl and Bastmi*. 

and Sertius, oti the first book of tJid 
.^Eneis, says, that ** among the Assyrians, 
Saturn and the Sun (i. e. th^ solar light) 
are upon some sacred account both called 
Bel."* The reason of this seems evident^ 
i»l was a general name for the matter of 
the heavetis or celestial mixture, as what 
the Greeks called K^vOf (from pp to 
irradiate), and the Romans Saturn (irom 
•ino to hide, which see), likewise was. 
Thus Orpheus, in his hymn to Lronus Ot 

Thou holdest thi'ough the wide eictended vmii 
The f bands ineffable. 

And still more expressly to our present 

Of ymtif HTtra vtayrd fxten xe^|uie(0-* 
Inhabiting the worid*s every pari''- 

The tame Poet further addresses Cronus, 

Thou aii eoHsuming, all repairing God ! 

And in truth ^3 or the mixture of the dif* 
ferent conditiom of the heavenly fluid v^ 
what not only continually renews, but 
also destroys all things. Hence the Fable 
of Cronus or Saturn devouring his ovm 
children : And hence perhaps one reason 
of the horrid custom of offering up cAi/- 
dren \p him in sacrifice, which wasprac- 
tised not only by the Carthaginians, but 
by the old Latins, by the Cretans^ and 
in short wherever this Idol was worship- 
ped. See Univ. Hist. vol. xvii. p. %b%f 
& seq. and notes, and below under 

We find by the Palmyrene inscriptions, 
printed at the end of the Abbe Sarthe^ 
iemy's Reflections, SfC. Paris^ 1754> ^^t 
Inn !?:i)> Bel the Caff (see Exod. xxxii.) 
and Via n^D Molech Bel, or Bel the King, 
were worshipped at Palmyra at Tadmor» 

t Whence, by the way, we may tee the reaaoolV 
why SatMrm wa« represented is bound with fetters f 
ana why, of ttooi. For what ^ittds to itronffly at 
the heavenly JIuid t and yet, what so srftf Maxima 
autem cerpera inter sejuncia permanent, cum quodaui 
qua^ vinculo circUmdata coUij^atttur : quod fiicit e» 
naturaqujB per omnem mundum, omnia mente 5c 
rationt conncient, et ad medium rapk, h, convertic 
extrema,** sap BaHh the Stoic, in Cieir$ De Nat. 
Deor. lib. ii. cap. 45. A curions pbilotopbical passage^ 
which I shall leave to the considersttion of the 
learned and intelligent reader. 

F IV, Ai 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


i"?3— lt^3 

IV.- As a N. Vil. See under rv:^. 

V. As a N. masc. b:io Ajiood, deluge, 
LXX, xarax^/jo-fAo;. It is applied only 
to that of Noah, " from it's aoaking or 
mixing with tlie earth quite through the 
fcheli of it i— which was then soaked full 
of water, and dissolved." Bate. This 
notion of a deluge [$ clearly expressed by 
Virgil, ALn, xli. lin. 204, 5, 

SI tellurtm effiindat in undas 

' Dilttvio loitcent 

Should he the earth in -waUrfut^i 

Mix ^lih thefood^'^^ 

' S«e Mr. Catcott*8 excellent Treatise on 
the Deluge, p. 75, 2d edit. 

Ti. As a N. b^t) A mixture or confusion of 
species by bestiality. Lev. xviii. a 3. — or 
of rchition by incest. Lev. xx. 12. 

VII. As a N. hn The mixt globe of earth 
and water, i Sam. ii. 8. 2 Sam. xxii. 16. 
I Cfaron. xvi. 30. Prov. viii. %6, 31, Isa. 
jtxxiv, 1, hlT\ The world, is used like 
pm»/ji£nj in the New Testament (see 
Greek and Eng. Lexicon) for the greater, 
or a considerable, part of the inhabited 
xvorld, as for the Babylonish empire, Isa. 
^iii. II. xiv. 17.— for the Syrian, Isa. 
xxiv. 4. See Vitringa on Isa. 

Vin. Chald. As a N. hi, the same as the 
Heb. nb. The heart, Dan. vi. ij. 

^bl I. To mix very much, to mix together, 
confound, Exod. xxix. 2. Gen. xi. 9. 
Hos.vii. 8, &al. 

IL AN. Wa A mixture or mixt provender 
for cattle, consisting of chopped «f ran? and 
barley mixt together, " Farrago," Virgil, 
Georgic. iii. lin. aoj. occ. Job vii $. 
Isa.. XXX. 24. See Uarmer's Observa- 
tions, &c. vol. i. p. 424. Job xxiv. 6, 
They reap, every one, in a field ^b ^ 
{which is J not their oun ; and thus the 
Chaldee Faraphrast, LXX, and Vulg. 
read it in two words, and translate it ac- 
cordingly. See Mr. Scott, and corap. 
under y^ntt. 

As a N. hb^ti, or, as twenty of Dr. Ken^ 
nicotfi Codices read, Vl^lD, Sotne disorder 
or blemish of the eye, *' a white speck or 
spot, thus odkd because it is mixed with 
the black of the pupi^.'* M. de Caloiio. 
So one of the Hexaplar versions AsuxwpLa, 
Vtdg. Albu^nem, but Aquila [ygox^^^s\ 
a suffuHon, occ. Lev. xxL 20. Comp. 
T&bit ii. io^ or XX. iii. 17. 

«bs ■ - 

I. Chald. firom Heb. rhi. To wemr out, 
consume, occ. Dan. viL 15 \ where TA«u- 
dotion wa^kouuio'u shall abolitk a$ wUkAS^p 
Vulg. conteret shall wear to pieee$. 

As a N. masc. plur. in R^. '¥ph2 Old, 
worn out, pieces namely. 00c. Jer. xxxviiL 
12* If we consider that a Cuskite is here 
the i^ieaker, we shall not be mrprised at 
meeting with a dialectical word, instead 
of the pure Hebrew one ^b:x, which is 
twice used by the Prophet in the imme- 
diately preceding verse. 

II. Chald. As a N. lb Some kind of <n- 
bute or tnx paid to the Kings of Persku 
occ. £zra iv. 13, ao. vii. 34. *' In these 
passages, says Cocceiut» are jblped rruo» 
m, *]bni, which it seems sbocdd be thus 
distinguished : m^ a certain portion of 
goods from the ^!afN^ und ihear prodmce ; 
171 — f^ things consumed by u^e; J?T% a toll 
or custom laid on waye and ^or/«,'* 

In the modem Versions and Lexicooa it is 
rendered to strengthen, contort, refresh, or 
the like. The LXX translate it,' inter al. 
by atyatirau«(yb«i to take one*s rest. Job 
X. ao } by a^a^vvoj to take breath, Vs, 
xxxix. 14, where the Vulg. in like man- 
ner refrigerer be refreshed ; but in Amos 
V. 9, the Vulg. aas subridet smUeth, so 
Aqiuia iMtiiwv smiUng ; and Symma chus, 
in Pft. xxxix. 14, iva ftff&tiwoi that I may 
smile : And thb last I am apt to think is 
nearly the true sense of the Root. Let 
us go through the five only passages 
wbmin it occors. Job tx. a;, / will 
leave or change mjf comUenonce, ni^^i^ 
and laugh, niile, or kx^ cheerfVd. Ch. 
X, 30, Let him remove (his hand) /raa me, 
nyh2V0 that I may smile a littU, hrfore 
I go (whence) I skull not return, &c. 
Ps. xxxix. 14, LttmsdoneTDA^m that 
I may smile. Amos v. a, ^^un Who 
causeth the loaster, or rataer devastation, 
to laugh at strength, ^and (as it follows) 
devastation shall come against thejortrtss. 
Jer. via. 1 8, as a N. fem. with > my Boat- 
fixed, where the Prophet, addressing him- 
self to Sion, or the peq)le of the Jews, 
says, ^n^i^bo (O thou) who laughest or 
grinnest at me,^ pain or sorrow, as thou 
wast wont to do in derision, and sayest, 
my heart is sick within me. Thus &iii/« 
tens (in his Dissertatio FUblag. aia do 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Veri. 3f SaUent. ex Ambig.f. 30, 31.) 
is of opiDion that the word ^n^in^no Ri- 
dibtmda mea, has a double allusion^ both 
to the Utughter of contempt, with which 
th^ used to tzeat the pmlictions of the 
Pkn^het 5 and to the Imtghter of rmseri/, 
the risos sardonicus^ which their calami- 
ties thoaki fbm fhxn them. Comp. 
Tamm on the place. But Dr. Blaytieif 
reoderB the verse, " Sorrow is upon me 
paft my remedying, my heart within me 
jg fiunt." And in the note he says, " I 
taice ^tVTh^D to be an improper junction 
of two words, Wi >!?1D, which are so dis- 
tinguished in four MSS. and one edition 
[meaning of Dr. Kennicotfs collating.] 
Another MS. also reads ^n^ >^nD. The 
first of these words, ^blD, is a negative 
ufftide; and *n>3, or written at full 
length wo; is a Verb of the infinitive 
itKxxl from rmi to heal, with the affix >. 
The LXX and Arabic versions favour 
thk emendation." 
Scott, on Job \x, ay, says, '* Sckultens in 
Mis Chigines Hebrseae has proved, that li'^a 
rignities, in Arabic, to shine out again as. 
the son after it hath been cloud^. It 
also means in the first conjugation illuxit 
Afirora, to shine as the morning ; and in 
the id, Ictitii perfudit, to overspread with 
joy. Comp. Casteli. Lex. Hept." I ap- 
prehend, however, that iaughtng or smil- 
ing is the primary idea of the Hebrew, 
and that thence in Arabic it b transferred 
to shining after gloominess, 


ITV^ith a radical, but mutable or omissible, rr. 

In general. To wear or waste away. 

I. Towearcft bewomovt, as by use. Ap- 
plied to dothes, Deut. viii. 4. — to shoes, 
JDeut xxix. 5.— to sacks. Josh. ix. 4. 
cofnp. ver. 5, 13. — to the earth, Isa. li. 6. 
Isa. Ixv. 32, Mine dect ^hy shall wear 
oat the work of their hands, i. e. they 
shall last not only as long as the houses 
built by them, bnt longer 5 for the pro- 
phet is here speaking of the longevity of 
the dect 

As a particq)ial N. masc. plur. m Reg. 
^b^ Old, worn-out pieces, i, e, of doth, or 
the like, occ Jer. xxxviii. 1 1, twice. 

H. To wear, or be worn out, as the human 
body with age, Oen. xviii. 12. — with a 
disuse. Job jdiL iB, And this man (mean- 
iQg himi^j tee Scott) vf>T diaU waste 

awayi as a rotten thing, comp. ch. vii. 5. 
—with affliction. Lam. iii. 4. (comp. 
2 Sam. X3tii. 46.) Ezek. xxiii. 43, wy? 
C3^lO To her who is old in, or rather, 
worn out with, adulteries. So the Vulg. 
rightly, qua attrita est in adulteriis. 

III. 0£ time. To wear out, spend entirely, 
occ. Job xxi. 13, 'hy They spend their 
days to the last in felicity, 

IV. To wear out, weary or tire by continual 
opposition, occ. Ezra tv. 4, as a Particip* 
masc. plur. Hiph. D^nbno ; for which the 
Keri, the Complutensian edit, and at least 
fifteen of Dr. KennicotVs Codices, have 
CD'VniD terrifying ; but the former read* 
ing seems to make the better sense. 

V. Transitively, To wear away, waste, as 
enemies do. occ. 1 Chron. xvii. 9. 

VI. To waste away, consume, as the human 
body in the grave, occ. Ps. xlix. 15. As 
a N. ^bn Consumption, dissolution, m the 
same view. occ. Isa. xxxviii. 17. 

VII. As a N. fem. rtri'?^ Wasting, consump* 
Hon, occ. Isa. xvii. 14, At evening, then 
behold rxrhl consumption, before morning 
he is no more, i. e. he begins to xoaste in 
the evening, and is gone by morning. 
This passage shews the proper sense of the 
Noun. Plur. iT^nbi Wastings, destruction. 
(inter al.) Job xviii. 1 1, 14. Ps. Ixxiii. 19. 
£zek. xxvi. ai. xxvii. 36. xxviii. 19, in 
which three last passages the LXX have 
WKwH^cL destruction, Vulg. in or ad nihi- 
lum^ or nihil, to nothing, 

VIII. As-aN^^'bnn Dissolution,destruction» 
occ. Isa. X. 25. 

IX. As a N. Via. 

1. The name of the 8th month, nearly , 
answering October O. S. so called firom 
the decan of the vegetable world at that 
season, occ. i K. vi. 38. 

2. Provender, q. d. Consumption, something, 
to consume, occ. Job xl. 15. 

3. The rotten or perishable stump or stem of 
a tree, " Truncus ficulnus." Horat. occ. 
Isa. xliv. 1 9. Hence, a bole, 

X. As a negiitlve Particle hi, derived from 
nbl to wear away, consume, as p« not, 
from pk« labour, 'canity ; and vh not, from 
T\vh to weary, bring to nought. 

I. Not, in nowise, Isa. xxvi. 10. Ps. xlix. 131 

& al. freq. 
3. That not, lest. Ps. x. i8* xxxii. 9. 

XI. As a nM;ative Particle ^i»i. 

I. Witib a Y. Not. Gen. xxxi. ao. 

r a 9. With 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

D^a— Cb 



%. With a N. Without. Job viii. ii. 

^r!} hath sometimes the Particles 1, h, D, l): 

and h^ prefixed or preceding. 
X\h As a Particle ^nbn 
I. Not, Num. xxi. .^ 5. i Sam. xx. 26. 
a. Unless, Gen. xliii. 3. 

3. Bcsi(ks. Num. xi. 6. Hos. xiii. 4. 
This Particle admits b, D, and I'J before it. 

4. t)« 'rf^2 Before a N. i5w^, <afc/?/, Jud. 
vii. 14. Before a V. Utikss, Amosiii. 3,4. 

JDkr. Old Eng. Hale, mischief, destruction, 
(see Junius Etyraol. Anglic.) Mhence 


I. As a V. in Kal, To confine, restrain or 
^Idin, as a horse or muie with a bridle. 
So LXX af^uj, and Vulg. constringo. 
occ. Ps. xxxii. 9. 

II. As a N. fem. rro^bl or masc. s>i>:! (for 
the n may be a Pron. siiHix fem. it's) 
Someuhat whichhinds or restrains, a tether, 

' occ. Job xxvi. 7, i/c hangefh the earth on 
no'bl What can this mean but the 
columns of light and spirit between which 
the .earth is suspended (comp. i Sam. ii. 
8.), and which, like the two reins of a 
bridle, 'hold (if I may be allowed the 
expression) the mighty steed within it's 
<;ircular course ? 

Ovid has preserved the traces of this 
philosophical truth in his description of 
the chaotic state, Metam. lib. i. ad init. 
and one would almost tliink tlie very 
expressions of the Poet were borrowed 
from the sacred writer. 

Nee circumfiiio pendebat in aere tellus. 
"Hot yet im amhteHi air the earth ivoj bun^. 

See r<wit/«De Orig. ^ Prog. Idol. lib. ii 
•cap. J4, tft the end, where you will find 
Lucretius, Ptiny, Lucan, Claudian, and 
JJacrobius, teaching the same doctrine. 
And, by the way, the very I^tin name 
for the earth, Tellus, seems to be derived 
tfrona nbn to hang. And when Ovid, 
in his description of the suspended earth, 
•adds, •^ Ponderibus libr^a suis. Balanced 
by its weights,** may he not be thought 
to intimate the two opposite pressures of 
the celestial fluid by whidi it is kept 
-constantly regular in It's orbit ? 

To scrape, scratch, so LXX xv/^wy, and 
VAjUg, vellicans. It occurs only Amos 

vii. 14, XD'^pm Dins Scraping the sfcth 
more trees or fruit; for the sycomore frait, 
which grows sticking to the trunk of the 
tree, (see under lapw) ** does not rij)en 
till it is rubbed with iron combs, af^er 
which rubbing it ripens in four days.*' 
Thus Theophrastus Hist. lib. iv. cap. ft. 
Tlzrhiv o« SwoLtai av |xij e'triKnchi, aAA' 
B)(^owrsf owyas <ri^r^pOLf i^hxviXfiwnV d^ 
av einxviffh reraprxta verlarai. So 
Pliny Nat. Hist. Hb. xiii, cap. 7, says of 
this fhiit, Scalpendo tanlum ferreis irn- 
guUiuSf alitcr non maturescit. And to 
the same purpose J&tmte on Amos says^ 
that without this management the figs 
are excessively bitter, " Sycomori agreMes 
offer unt Jicus, qua, si non vellicentur, 
amnrissinms ciiiculas faciunt,'* These 
testimonies, together with the authority 
of the LXX and Vulgate version, seem 
suflicient to settle the meaning of this 
word. The reader, who wants further 
satisfaction,, may consult Bochart, vol. ii. 
583, 4; and CaJmets Dictionary^ in 
Sycomork and Fig. But I shaU just 
add, that HasseUfuist, Travels, p. a6i, 
describing the Ficus Sycomorus, or Scrip- 
ture Syconwre, Says, *' It buds the latter 
end of March, and die fhiit ripens in the 
beginning of June j it is woimdfd or cut 
by the inhabitants [of Lower Egypt] at 
tiie time it buds, for without this precau- 
tion, they say, it will not bear fruit,*' 
From the Heb. oio may very probably be 
derived the French blesser to wound. 

I. To swallow, swallow up. See Gren. xli. 7. 
Exod. vii. 12. Num. xvi. 30% Job xx. 1 c. 
As a participial M. ^bl Somewhat sicm^ 
lowed, Jer. Vu 44 j on which text see 
Pridcaui Connect vol. i. p. a42, 1st 
edit. 8vo. Xerxes 7. and Bp. Kcwtati ou 
Proph. vol. i. p. 29 7, .8, 8vo. 
Job vii. 29, Thou dost not let me alome 
V") 'JJi?! ^^ till I can swallow my spittle, 
i. e. for ever so sliort a time. The ^r(tbs 
use a very similar expression ^p^ '3i)bnM, 
Let me swallow my spittle, i. e. give^ me 
sufficient time or respite so to do. See 
SchuUens on the place, and CastelVs 
Lex. in rba, AR. And in this view 
Michaelis (Supplem. ad Lexicon Hcbr.) 
thinks the word is used> though eilipd- 
cally. Num. iv. 20^ They shall mot come 
in to see }:ib:o for a monncnt the holy 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



p— 161 

ikmgi, k$t they die; as if we should say 
/«• a twinkiing, meaning the twinkling 
if an eye. The LXX here have s^ccrriva. 
suddenly. And this is the onfy text wherein 
the word has been supposed to signify to 
coxfety mvotce, and been so rendered by 
the Targ. Syr. Vulg. and from this last, 
by the western ve?macular versions. 

II. 7b rwaUaa up, to remove or destroy as 
entirely as if swauorwed up. See a Sam. 
XX. 19, 20. Job li. 3. viii. 18. Pi. xxi. lo. 
XXXV. 25. Iv. jo.lxix. 16. Eccles. X. 12. 
Isa. iii. la. xxv. 7, 8. Lam. ii. *, 5,8. 
a Sam. xvii. 16, i^ob ^b^'* fU literally, 
Lest there be a swallowing up to the 
King, &C. In Hith. To be swaUowedup, 

• destroyed, vanished, occ. Ps. cvii. 27. 
Ps. Iii. 4, or 6, vbi nan IFords of destruc- 
tion, i. e. destructive xvords. The LXX 
or rather Tkeofiotion*s version is here re- 
markable, ra^fj^ra x.xrairoyria'i/,8 words 
of drowning. 

Der. Belly, in Celtic Bulg, in Welsh 
Boi, tola, boty, Latin Btt^a, a leathern 
b^. Latin BeUua^ 2l great beast or fish ; 
so Balana, a whale. Also' a bolus, a 
hiU&w, to bulge, take in water as a ship. 
S being prefixed, and 1 changed into xv, 

To ravage, fay waste, occ. Isa. xxiv. i. (So 

LXX s^,fjLw<rsi) Nah. ii. x i. 
Der. Bleak, blight. 

Occurs not as a V. buttKe idea is evidently. 
To be high, elevated. 

L As a N. fem. plur. n'JOi High places, 
heights. Spoken of hills or kiUocks. Mic. 
ill. I a. Jer. xxvi. 185 so in Reg. '^110:2, 
Decrt. xxxii. 13. Isa. Iviii. 14. Mic. i. 3. 
2 Sam. i. 19, 25. Also in Reg. ^non. 
Spoken of the high waxes of the sea. Job 
ix. 8. — of the cloud in the Holy of Holies 
«/q/if above the mercy-seat. Isa. xiv. 14. 
Comp. Lev. xvi. 2, and see Vitringa 
on Isa. 

U. And most generally, as a N. fem. Jion 
A high place, or in plur. fem. nioi 
High places, dedicated to reUgiovs wor» 
s^, whether true or &lse, i Sam. ix. 
i«, 15, 14, 25. K.5. Num. xxxiii. $2. 
1 K. xi. 7. 2 K. xxiii. 15, & al. Comp. 
under mn I. The LXX, where they 
do not retain the original word B»|[ta, 
jeoeraliy r^a^der noa and niD3^ when 

denoting places of worship, by i4rf;\ov a 
high place, and J'^Xa A/g;A places. In 
seven passages they translate nian by 
Bojjw^f or Ba;^o<, a A/o^A or lofty altar or 
fl^arff ; and the learned l^itringa on Isa. 
xvi. 12, gives it as his opinion, that this 
is almost always the sense of the word, 
when used for those high places where 
the Israelites sacrificed. In such instan- 

' ces, says he, noi " properly and truly 
denotes an altar built to some height 
which cvLiiuothe ascended hMt by steps,** 
and for proof he cites 2 Chron. xxviii. 25. 
Jer. xxxii. 35, which see; and comp. 
2 K. xvi. 4. And to this sense of lofty 
altars we may refer niDl in those texts, 
which in the* two former editions of this 
work I quoted, after Mr. Hutchinson and 
Bate, for it*s signifying. High ones, i.e. 
the objects of idolatrous worship, the 
heavens or their representatives, namely 
I K. xii. 31. xiii. 32. 2 Chron. xi. iq, 
(priests for the high altars, to wit, for the 
goats, comp. 2 K. xxiii. 8.) Ezek. xvi. 16. 
though in this last text it seems rather 
to mean the nion "TO. the housei or taber^ 
nacles erected nigh the high altars for 
the accommodation of the priests, &c. 
See I K. xii. 31. xiii. 32. 2 K. xxiii. 15- 
xvii. 29. Ezek. xx. 29, And I said to 
them, what (of what use or benefit) is 
the high place whither ye go ? Yet the 
name thereof is called Bamah unto this 
day. Ye call it by the same respected 
name, and resort to it accordingly. 

^^2 See ID under no 


In general to divide, separate, whence as a 
Particle of division or distinction, pi as 
below II. 

I. InKal, applied to the mind. ^ To distin- 
guish, discern, understand, dignoscere, di- 
judicare. Sep i Sam. iii. 8. Fs. cxxxix. 2. 
Jer. xlix. 7. In Niph. To become or ba 
made discerning or discreet. Isa. x. Jj. 
As a Participle Niph. of Participial N. 
p23 Discreet. Gen. xii. 33, 39. In Hiph. 
Nearly tlie same as in Kal. i K. iii. 9, 
ynb.yw) pi pan? That I may discern be- 
tween good and bad. Eng. TVanslat. This 
Text not only leads us to the genuine 
and proper sense of the Verb, but als6 
shews it*s relation to the following Particle 
pn between. The V. is applied also to 
making pots feel, namely the fire, Ps. 
jF 3 Iviii. xo. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Ivni. lo, and to the dUccrnment of Ac 
mental taste^ Job vi. 30. Also in Hiph. 
To cause to discern or understand, to teach. 
P». cxix. 27, 34, & al. In Hiph. with 
b^ following. To regard, or treat, mtk 
distinction, to have a disfingtusking regard 
for, ^lOKpivofjMd. occ. Dan. xi. 37, twice. 
As a N. fern, nm Discernment, discretion, 
understandings Ptov. iv. i. ix. 6, 10. 
Jsa. xxxiii. 19. As a N. f^^n Discretion, 

. discernment, skiU, occ, Hos.ziii. 2. Fern. 
n^un Nearly the same. iSee £xod. xxxi. 3. 
xxxv. 31. I K. vii. 14. Deut. xxxii. 28. 
Job xii. f ft. 

IT. As a Pftrtide, denoting division or dis- 
tinction, ps 

J. Between. Gen. 1. 7. Exod. xi. 7. It is 
remarkable that the Latin writers have 
retained the Hebrew idiom, and some- 
times leigosLX. their Preposition inter, as 
the Hebrews do pi in me texts just cited 
Thus Horace, lib. i. sat 7, lin. 11, 12, 


atque inttr Achillem 

Jfeetora PriamiJm 
IrmfiHt ^wfitmtiu 

And Hb. i. epist 2, lin. l^, 

Inter PeUitlen futirntt, & inter Afriden 

See more instances from the Latin Prose- 
writers, in Dr. Clarke*s Note on Homer, 
n. V. lin. 769. 
8. Between, witMn, intra, of place. Job xxiv. 
II. — oftime, Neh.y. 18. 

3. In the midst, Zech. xiii. 6. 

4. Repeated, it may be rendered. Whether 
— or. Lev. xxvii. la. 

III. As a N. fem. fdur. nivi The parts be- 
tween, the intervals. £zek. x. 2. Hence 
d being understood, it is used as a Particle^ 
/ii the intervals, bettoeen. Gen. xxvi. 28. 
£zek. X. 7. 

IV. As a N. masc. plur. tD''}^ occ. i Sam. 
xrii. 4, tD^jan tJTH q. d. Vir raedietatum, 
or, as Montanus renders it, intermedius, 
# middle man, one who comes between two 
contending parties, as a champion, to de- 
tannine the dispute by single combat. So 
the £ng. translat. a chmnpUm; the Frmch, 
«n homme qui se presentoit entre les deux 
armdes. Comp. ver. 3, 8, 9, 10. The 
LXXj, according to the Alexandrian copy, 
render this expression in i Sam. xvii. 23, 
by Avrip 6 A^uv^ai^g, which is an evi" 
dent cc^Tuption for i f^f^-cuof, or i fu- 

^oof as it stands in the CompliftesUkm 
edition, i. e. the middle man. But ts^l 
may be from rr^i to build, see under 
p^ with the ) doubled. In Kal, To meike 
to discern, to teach, instruct. So LXX 
9reu$sv(rt¥, and Vu^^. docuit. occ. Dcut. 
xxxii. 10. In Hith. p'J^inn To discern 
or consider with oneself, or diUgei^fy. Isa. u 
3, k al. freq. 


With a radical, but mutable or omissible, rr. 

I. In Kal, To build as a house, a city, an 
altar, &c. Deot xx. 5. i K. vi. 2. vii. i. 
Gen. iv. 1 7. viii. 20, & al. freq. Hence 
it is fl|>plied to God's gradually forming 
Adam's rib into a wpman. Gen. H. 22. 
As Ns. pi ^ building, structure, Ezdc. 
adi. 12, twice. Fem. rvn The same. occ. 
Esek. xli. 19. Fem. mio A frame or 
model of a building, occ £idc. xl. 2. 
Fem. rfiin A form, pattern, model, pro- 
perly 0^ a building, and thence applied 
to other things. See Exod. xxv. 9^ 40. 
Deut. iv. 16, 17, 18. As a N. masc. 
plur. O^XJ, I Sam. xvii. 4, tD^3in tnt, 
A man of buildings, i. e. a tall well-buUt 
man, as nnr^ >m3M men of measures means 
large tall men. Num. xiii. 32^ and tTK 
pD a large tall mcrn, 2 Sam. xxi. ao. But 
compare under p IV. 

II. To build again, repair. Isa. Iviii* !%• 

HI. To repair, restore to a former or happier 
state. Job xxii. 33. Jer. xii. 16. xxxi. 4* 
xiii. 10. Mai. iii. 1 5. 

IV. ** To fortify a town or city, i. e. to sur^ 
round it with walls. Josh. vi. 26. i IL; 
xvi. 34, compared with Jud. iii. 13*. 
2 Sam. X. 5. See also i K. xv. 17. 
I Mac. i. 32." MichaeUs in Suppkm. ad 
Lex. Heb. p. 190. Comp. 2 Chron. xi. 
To build up, or increase a fomify bypro^ 

creation of children. Deut. xxv. 9, The 
man vnH n>i nw nia vh'* ^um who mil 
not build up his brother's house or faroilj. 
Comp. Ruth iv. lu So Gen. xvi. •• 
XXX. 3, nioo— man I shall be built up 
by her. LXX •nxyo*oiija'OfA«i IshaUobm 
tain children ; so Vulg. habeam filios. 
VI. As a N. p (and in Num. xxiii. i8. 
^^* 3* 15 > but I do not find *m tkua 
used ex€^ by Balaam, the Meeofota^ 

I. Aitms 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




. »« A MM, who is, fts U were, hwUt ii;p by his 
pareiitB, and bmiUU np or amtinuei hn fa« 
tiler's house or iamily. Gen. iv. 17, 35. 
Comp. Ecclus. xL 19. Plur. O^^l de- 
notes not only tonsy as Gen. v. 4, but 
ckildrem^ without respect to sex, as Gen. 
iiL 16. 

m. A gnrnd^-mm. Gen. xxix. 5. xziu. 5c. 
Abo, A more remote (kscendatU. Exod. 
i. 7, & al. fieq. 

3. Ti^f Jfoio^ or qf*pritig of a beast or 6/r(f. 
Lev. L 5, 14, & al. freq. 

4. Plur, C3^:i Youilu, yomg men. Prov. 
▼iL 7. 

5» >n Afy #oa, used as a compellation of of- 
fedum in speaking to a ffoimger at inje» 
rima-fenoQs Josh. viL 19. i Sam« iii. 6. 
iv. 16. Comp. nM under niM IV. 4. 
6. ta^rAurr >3n &hw ^ ^Ae Akim or God, 
jRfea begotten egain or formed by his 
viord and ^»rt/^ and resembkng their 
iKETenly father in their dispositions and 
actions. Gen. vi. 2, 4, where the believ- 
ing line of Seek are dij^nguished by this 
title ftom the ts^Mn Jim eA« daughters 
of men, i. e. women of the apostate race 
of Cain. Comp. Dent. xiv. i. xxxii. 19. 
Isa. i. a. Wisd. ix. 7. xviii. 13. and Greek 
and Eng Lexicon m 'Tio; VIL 

LjSiiw ^>l seems also to be used 'for those 
Angels who kept their first estate, the 
elect or approved angels ^ as St. Paul calb 
them (1 Tun. v. 21.) Job xxxviii. 7. 
where the scene is the creation of tlie 
world. Comp. Job. i. 6. ii. i ; in which 
two last cited passages the LXX render 
tbe Hebrew words by 61 ayvcXoi rov 
Ssou, the angels of God, as in the former 
by ayythAi pfo my angels. 

7. It relers to thne or age; thus rr^ttf p the 
son of a year memu a year old. Exod. 
xii. 5. Comp. Gen. v. 32. 1 Sam. 
xiiL I. Jon. iv, 10. freq. occ. 

^.— Top^Y, tDnp^:5 Sons or children ef 
the East are men, natives of the East. 
I K. iv. 30. Job i. 3, & al. 

9«r-*To teofper or disposition, Vn (1 A son^ 

. i. e. a man, of courage. 1 Sam. xiv, 52. 
a Chron. xxviii. 6. n?\^ *3n *ow ofvdck» 
edness. % Sam. vii. 10. Comp. i Sam. 
xx. 30. So ^1 ^1 5bfM of BeUal de- 

. ii0le lasAsss, abandoned profligates^ Deut. 
xiti. 14. Jud. xix. 22, & al. Comp. 
under b^A^ among the Pluriliterals. 

10, A» M a fathert sometimes denotes an 

instructor, teacher, see 2 K. ii. 12; so in 
this very chapter tD^M^:i3n >3a the sons of 
the prophets are several times used for the 
disciples w scholars of the prophets, ^TD^M 
M'>n3, as the Targum 'explains it, ver. 3, 
5, 7, 12. Comp. I K. xiii. 11, 12, 23. 
Amos vii. 14. * 

1 1 • Construed with words denoting punish* 
menty p signifies liable to, or uorthy ^. 
m^n \l Kwoia of beating, Deut. xxv. 2, 
mo p A son ^ death, 2 Sam. xii. $, 
mefui persons worthy of stripes or of 

12. Of inanimate things it denotes what 
comes, or is productdtfrom another. Thus 
an arrow is DU^p p the son of a bate. 
Job xli. 20, or of the quiver. Lam. iii. 1 3 ; 
Sparks off re arc »^un ^3S sons of the coal. 
Job V. 7; p:j p The son cj/' the floor is 
fA« com threshed in it, Isa. xxi. 10. 

VIL As a N. fern, nn (q. n:n, i being 
dr(^ped, as in >nti; and t3i*f)m two, from 
n^ fo iterate) plur. Dm. It is applied 
to females in nearly the same senses as 
p to males. 

A daughter. Gen. v. 4. xi. 29, & al. 

2. A grand'daughter. Gen. xxiv. 48. Also, 
a more retnote fctnale descendant, Gen« 
xxvii. 46. xxviii. i, 6. 

3. The female of spring of a bird. Isa* 
xiii. 21. xxxiv. 13. 

4. Plur. ni31 Foii;!^ women. Gen. xxx. 13. 
Prov. xxxi. 29. So the French ^//^x, 
which properiy denotes daughters, is used 
alio for young women, as in the French 
translat. of the last cited texts. 

5. >ra My daughter: a compellation of 
qfection or kindness in speaking to a 
younger or itferiour woman. Ruth iit. 
10, II. 

6. CD*wn m>i Daughters of men, Gen. vi. 
2, 4, denote the women of the apostate 
laoe of Cain. (Comp. under p Vl. 6.) 
And as behevers are there called the sons 
of the, i. e. of the true, Alehn, so an ido- 
latrous woman b staled the doubter of a 
strange God, Mai. li. 11. Coni(>. Num. 
xxi. 29. 

7. Referring to age; thus TOU^ onmm ni 
A daughter of ninety years. Gen. xvii. 17, 
is a vomon ninety years old. So of a beast. 
Lev. xiv. 10. 

8. Applied to places, The daughter of Sioi% 
Qt Jerusalem^ ofl^re, is the dty^ commw 

F 4 nity, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




mty, or $tat€ of Sion, Jerusalem, or Tyre. 
Isa. xxxvii. 2a. Ps. xlv. 13.-^ Comp. 
Ps. cxxxvii. 8, freq. occ. So^D)rni7^tf 
daughter of my (the prophet's) /ww^^/r, 
Isa. xxii. 4. Lam, J. 1 1 , is ^^ Jewish 
people or «/a/tf. ^ 

9. In a different view, Towns or villages 
belonging to a metropolis or mother^dty 
(comp. 0« IV.) are called if s daughters. 
Num. xxi. aj, 32. Josh. xv. 4$. Jud. 
xi. 26. Jer. xlix. 2, & al. 

10. Of disposition, !?i^i?l nn A daughter of 
Belial^ I Sam. i. 16, is an abandoned, 
wicked ivoman, Comp. under fl VI. 9. 
above, and see ^^^^1 among the Piurili- 

VIII. As a N. fem. with a formative H, 
p«, piur. (fem.) tD'^M, 

I. A stone in general, so called either from 
being disposed and iniiit up, as it were, in 
regular strata, within the surface of the 
earth, or from it's being built t^ atom 
upon atom, by the action of the expan- 
sion on the chaotic mass at the original 
formation, and at the reformation of the 
earth after the deluge. Gen.xi. 3.XXXJ.46, 
ic al. ireq. The stone of darkness and qf 
the shadow qf death which man searcheth 
out, Job xxviii. 3, <' must surely mean 
the metallic ore in the deep and dark 
parts of the earth." Scott, 
On Habak. ii. 11, compare Jtmenal^ 
3at.ix.l. 103,4, 

tervi ut Uceanifjumenia hfiutdur, 
£t coHu, et pottes, «t marmora 

p-*-* should trembling lUvct not darv to 

3^attt, dogs and pctu and markU tvall^ -wiU 

s^eak^ Owen* 

%. Ajprecious stone, £xod. xxv. 7, & al. freq 
U^« 'iiH Stones of fire, i. e. precious stones 
that glitter and sparkle with light, like 
fire. So Mr. Pope in his Temple of Fame, 
having admirably described the different 
precious stones that adorned *' proud 
fame^a imperial seat," adds at line 2^4, 

With various coloured light tht pavement 

And aU on Jire appeared the giowing throne. 

occ. Eaek. xxviii. 14, 16. 
5. A ineight, which no doubt was frt- 
queqtly , i|s with us, of stone. Deut xxv. 1 3 . 

'2 >. 11.. xiv. 26,, & al. 
4. A stone imager qn idql of stajKf Jer. 

5. nur. :=}'3^tt Vessels made of stone, sUm^ 
vesselSf-^troughs or — dstems to hold wa» 
ter, £^od. vu. 19. So Exod.i. 16, lichen 
ye deliver the Hebrew women, and see 
them t3^^MT^ b^ by the stoDe-trougfa*; 
in which I suppose the newly-delivered 
women and their infants were waalied, 
as was anciently the practice, and b 
common in some hot countries to this 
day. See Mr. Bate's Note on the place 
in his New Translation. Many or the 
Versions and Lexicons render it seats or 
stools, namely such as are used by women 
in labour ; and Mons. * Goguet says, 
*' there b frequent mention of such se€ts 
for facilitating delivery in physical wri* 
ters f.'' I know not but there may, but 
surely they were hardly made o£stmc,9i 
tD^:!)H expresses. 

6. Stones, '* such as potters mould tbeir 
clay upon.'' Bate, So LXX swt rw¥ Xs^ 
6cov. Jer. xviii. 3, where see Dr. Blaymey's 

7. Applied to haiUstones, Josh. x. 1 1, where 
LJtX reader mVi:! tD^Xm by Xifo^ njj 
vaXa^ij; hailrstonesi Comp. £ccius. 
xivi. 6. Isa. XXX. 30. Job xxxvnu 
a2, 23. 

8. 7n:in pH A plummet, Eng. Marg. stone 
of tin, occ. Zecb. iv.>io. It seems strictly 
to mean a piece of tin-ore (comp. DeuU 
viii. 9.), which b heavier than that of 
any other meta},and so more proper to^ 
a plummet, 


Occurs not as a V. in the Hebrew Bible, but 
in Persic the cognate Root n^n denotes at 
a N. A ^AND, knot, binding, ligature, 
belt, and as a V. To Bli«^, tie, oblige, 
Sec Castell Lexic. Persic, in n^n. 
Asa N. with a formative h, tD^M A bett^ 
girdle. .So LXX (a»^. £xod. xxviii. 4^ 
Lev. viii. 7, 13. Isa. xxii. 21, & al. 

Der. To bind, a band, bandage, band^ bomm 
doge, Sec, Also, Bonnet, 

Dn Chald. 

To rage with anger. Once, Dan. ii. 13^ 
The Chaldee Targum uses it in the same 

To trample upon, tread under foot, Fs« 
xliv. 6. Zech, x. 5. Isa. xiv. 18, 9e al, 

* Origin of LawB, ficp. vol, i. p. 200, note, edit, 
j* Spc Suidat xx) Xo^iiam ^fff^b tOQit ii* p* ^^ t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

TJ&— ^M 



iw[. As Ns« fem. ncnno Isa. xxii. 5, 
ttd ?TD12M, a Chron. xxii. 7, ^ treading 
down, trampihg underfoot, 
V02 with the D doubled, denotes, as usual, 
die repeiition or violence of the action 
See Isa. IxiiL 18. Jer. xii. 10. Ezek. xvi. 

6, 22. 

Dbr. French, bos, haisicr, abaisser-, whence 
Eng. bate, abate, &c. 

Occurs not in Heb. as a V. but the idea 
seems to be. To reject, cast off; for in 
Cfaald. and Syriac the Verb signifies To 
detpue, contemn, or the like. As a N. 
(in Heb.) *iDa An unripe grape, which is 
natuitUy rejected on account of it's ^ur 
acerb taste, occ. Job xv. 33. Isa. xviii. j. 
Jer. xxxi. 29, 30. Ezek. xviii. 2. 

Occun not as a V. in Heb. but in Syriac 
and Arabic si^ifies to remove, be distant, 
and as a Particle in the latter language, 
bekind, after*. 

Hence as an Hebrew Particle, "i^rn al- 
ways exhibits the same notion as the La 
tin post, i^er, behind, and imports the 
back or iin^r termination of a thing, 
but yet distinct from the thing itself, 
vkat being placed behind, or at the back 
of it (it's fore part lookmg tlie contrary 
way), bowuis, separates, and defends it, 
or mtercepts the view thereof. 

}. After, bekind. Gen. vii. x6. Jud.ix. 51; 
in both which passages the LXX render 
ftf0a;9iv tdihout. Comp. Isa. xxxii. 14. 
Lam. ill. 7. Jon. ii. 7. Job i. 20. Prov. 
vi. 16, For Che that goeth) *i)n af^er an 
ukoriih wontan (cometh) to a piece of 
f, Bekind, Gen. xxvi. 8. Comp. i Sam. 
iv. 18. Joel ii. 8, rihwn ni?a% and behind 
the javelin they shall rash and not be cut. 
See Tpnpii Not. r, in Noldii Partic. 

Joel ii. 9, They shall come t=ri\bnn *irn 
behind the windows, which is equivalent 
to our translation, they shall enter in at 
the mndaws. See Tympii Not. y, in 
Noldii Partic. in 4. 
3, For^ q. d. behind for, defence or protec- 

* For the ezplnution of dm <yfficuk word I 
3m obliged to the Notes in the Jgna edition of 
Kcl£gs*s Particles, where the learned reader may 
^nd the seTcral appUcatiooi of it Biore partlcu- 
^Ijr i^ititratr^^ 

tion. Gen. xx. 7. x Sam. vii. 9. EsdU 
xxii. 30, 

4. Behind, without, Jos. ii. 15, And she lei 
them down by a rope nyn withoot the 

, window. So a K. i. a, Ahaziah fell^Vl 
without the lattice or latticed windom 
in his upper chamber, namely into the 

5. With D prefixed 'i^no From behind, be* 
hind, £ng. translat. xpithin. Cant. !?• 
i, 7. 

Der. To bound, limit. Qu? French, Bout^ 
end, extremity. Eng. but, hutment, abut. 

"With a radical, though mutable or omis* 
sible, n. 

To swell, swell up or out, 

L In Niph. To be bulged, swelling, or juf-^ 
ting out, applied to a wall. occ. as « 
Particip.Isa. XXX. 13; where Eng. trans- 
lat. swelling out. But the word may be 
a N.'^ swelling, as Bp. Lowth renders it. 

IL In a Hiph. sense. To cause to swell, or 
bubble, as fire does boiling water, occ 
Isa. Ixiv. I, or 2, 

III. Chal. rm and n^ To seek, ask, re- 
quest. See Dan. ii. 13, 16, 49. vii. 16. 
As a N. "»i^l A request, petition, Dan. 
vi. 8. Fem. nii^n The same, Dan. m, 14. 
Isa. xxi. 12, V)?n p^i^nn tSW, i/" ye will 
enquire, enquire ye — i/*ye £(/o9ttfef ,saith 
the Prophet, will enquire oonceniing the 
cause of your present calamities, and your 
duty in consequence of them, enquire 
ye ; return, or be converted, come. Thus 
Varinga,vihom see. Isaiali addressing the 
Edoniites may \^11 be supposed to us* 
rT)^n in a dialectical sense; as Obadiah 
speaking of the same Edonutes likewise 
does, ver. 6, How are (the things of} 
Esau ^m^m searched out, rummagaif 
v^&YD 'i^^^ (howj igre his hidden tnings 
sought up ! 

^:i>j2 occurs not as a V. m Ais rednpU* 
cate form, but hence as a N. fem. plur, 
with the formative H, n^n^^H Tumours, 
pushes, or pustuUs, like those which are 
filled with putrid matter thrown of from 
the blood m malignant and pestilential 
^vers. So LXX ^Xmrt^s FuHules. 
occ. Exod. ix. 9, 10. In the former verse 
five, and in the latter fbor, of Dr. Ken- 
nicott's Codices read rrO^apiH, as the Sa- 
maritan Pentateuch likewise does in both. 
Heace evidently the Greek Bo^ffo^i ^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^3— DW 



- Ltt and Eng. Bubn, of the same import 
as the Heb« 

i. To kick up, at a pampered wanton heifer, 
occ. Deut. xxxii. 15. SoLXX wrtXaK- 
na'iv, and Vulg. calcitravit. The V. is 
i3sed in the same sense both in Chaldee 
and Svriac. 

II. With 1 Mowing, To kick, ipum at. 
occ. I Sam. ii. 09, where Vulg. calce 

I. To hate or take poutssion of ot authority 
aver a thing. 1 Cbron. iv. %%, Isa. xxvi. 1 3. 
As a partidbial Noun, bp^ *0 ix^^» Be 
ivko hath. Thus 

*Um^ bpX 2 K. i. 8, He who hath hair, 

>)M W, Prov. xxii. a4. Angry. 
moUD hpi, Prov. xxiv*. 8, Having cwi- 
ning or wicked imaginations, a cunning 

moibn b^^. Gen. xxxvii. 19, J master of' 
. dreamSf a dreamer. 
fiWh bp^, Eccles. X. J I, Haviirg a tongue, 
a talker, babbler. 

tDman nm^i^i^n. Gen. xiv. 13, Haxdng 
a covenant with Abraham, confederates 
with him. 

C3*»n "hlltli Gen. xUx. %l. Armed xcith 
arrows, archers. 

nofitt^D bvii Isa. 1. 8, Having a litigious 
cause, or judicial controversy with me, 
*' Mine adcersary," Eng. tianslat. 
hpi, says Glassivs (Philol. Sacr. lib. iii. 
tract I. Can. xxxv. 4.), denotes one who 
is in any manner giren or addicted (de- 
ditum) to a thing, as Prov. xviii. 9, 
rPtWD ivi is one given to waste. Prov. i. 
19, rb)^2 referring to gain, are persons 
given or attached to it. Comp. Prov. iii. 
%j. xvii. 8. 

II. To marry, take possession of a wife, to 
have her, as we say 5 so Greek sx^v. See 
Deut. xxiv. I. xxi. 13. InNiph. To be 
n^arried, taken posseuion qf,^tk wife. Isa. 
kdi. 4. Comp. ch. liv. i. 

HL Aa a N. b))2 B61, or Baal, i. e. the 
Ruler. By this name the Idolaters of 
aereral nations worshipped the #u^ ^re, 
whkh is the most active, and^ a64o sense 
and appearance, the nUing princi^ in 
nature. Sanchomathon (or whoever was 
the author of the Phenician Thaalogy, 
publiahed 'm Greek by PMlo Byblius, and 

me se tved by Eusebius, Prrparat. Evang. 
lib. i. cap. 10.), qpeaking of the Sun 
(HXm) says, Tovro¥ G^sy ii^fiu>y /xovor 
evpe^ov Kupioy, BEEASAMEN xoAavt- 
rtf, 6 tri waoa ^oiwf« KTPIOX OTPA- 
, NOT. This God the Phenicians thought 
to be the only Lord of Heaven, calling 
htm BeeUamen, which in their language 
is Lord of Heat^nS* Plautus in the Funic 
or Carthaginian language writea it Bai* 
somen. Poenulus, Act v. seen. a. Tint 
^l^a as an object of worship meaot the 
solar ^re, appears br it's beix^ distin- 
guished from tzmu^ tne solar light, a K. 
xxiii. 5, and by the eti^lem or idol, 
which was of the beeve kind, aa we are 
expressly informed in Tobit ch. i. 5, 
where we meet with r>» BaaX nj ^^of/LoLkn 
the heifer Baal. AnA in that rem^« 
able contest between EMjah and the 
Prophets of Baal (i K. xviii.), ansnxring 
hy^re (ver. 24.), was to determine the 
superiority of Baal or Jehovah. At 
first, no doubt, the Idolaters worshipped 
Baal in conjunction with Jehovah, but 
afterwards in exclusion of him, aad as 
the absolute and independent Ruler of 
the universe, and of all thii^ therein, 
esteeming with the Phenicians just men- 
tioned the solar jire to be the ONLY 
Lord of Heaven ; not as excluding how- 
ever tlie other material agents (for Baal 
is called Aleim, see i K. xviii. si, 24, 
26, 28.), but as opposed to Jehooah. 
llie idol, Beeve or Bull, was in different 
places represented, as indeed * almost 
all their IdoU were, with difierent insig- 
nia, or in different manners ; and hence 
the various denominations of Mm bpi, 
^1);& V);a, Ike. and such diversified Baals 
seem to be what the Scripture calls in 
theplur. tD^b^n, Baalim. See Jud. ii. 
ii» 13. iii. 7. viii. 33, and ^a/e*s Grit. 
Heb. And thus the Greeks and Romans 
had their several Jupiters or Joves, Ofym» 
pius, Capitoiinus, Feretrius, Latians^ Sec. 
Baal was equivalent to Idolech of the 
Ammonites. Comp. Jer. xix. 5, with 
chap, xxxii. 35, and see Mr. Loviik*s 
Note on the farmer text. It should aeeoi 
therefore that the Idol was repreaented 
not as a mere Beeve or BuU, bot of m 
form compounded of a Beeve and a 

* The Reader may be eadly convinced ^ thk 

by looking into Mofit/au(on% Aau^imi^ EspUm^c. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ifink C«im.1iiidtf ^boll. And as the 
most absurd fkble^ of Heathai antiquity 
have generally some foundation in truth, 
J cttmot help suspecting that the Cretan 
Mm^aur, a monster fktrtly a bull^ and 
ptniUf a «um, and said to have been fed 
mtk hwmanie$h*^ was nearly related to 
the oriental haal and MoUchy who were 
treated with htman sacrifices. 

. As the Carthagimans were descended 
from the FJkmnmUy so Scrvius on ^n. L 
mfomis US, that God was called in the 
Pumc tongue Bali and this word ac- 
cordyngly enters into the composition of 
several names among the Cartkagimansy 
as ^Hanmbal V^l >^^n Baal be gracious 
to me } JsdrsAal ^r n T\t^ Baal kelp kirn ; 
Makarbd, b)M Vtd Hasten, Baal. This 
is BO more than one misht naturally 
eitpect; but it seems not alittle remark- 
ame (hat the Northern nations should 
have retamed the Hebrew word nearly 
in ifsp^hjwtca/ sense. Thus the f Runic 
or Islimdic Baal signifies afre, the Saxon 
Bel, and Bttl-pyji, a burning jnle, a 
pjfre, a bonfire. 

Bei, Biol, or Beml, was the name of the chief 
deity of the ancient Irish, which accord- 
ing to Col. Valiancy, in the Collectanea 
de Rebus Hibemicis, vol. ii. p. 263, & aL 
they derived from the Ptmic. 

I. hklLsS vod^^K^rTo dear off, take chan 
&9ay. Deut. xiiL 5. xxvi. 1 3. i K. xiv. 10. 
xvi 3* xxi. a J. xxii. 46. 2 K. xxiii. 24, 
h al* Hence E^;. hare, and barren. 

U. To dear crnay, comtmne, vaaie, bum vp, 
as fire. Ps. Inxiii. 15, Asthefre^^^in 
conaumeth the wood, Also^ To bum, or 
he hwmty as fire, or inflammable matter. 
Jer. XX. 9. (Comp. Num. xi. i, 3. 
Pk. cvL i8.) Isa. i. 3 1. xxx. 33. xxxiv. ^. 
s Chron. iv. 20. The expression m 
Exod. iit. 2, 3, seems remarkable, Jnd 
he smw and heboid the bush tl^Hl ^j^n 
burned with Jire^-^And Moses said, I 
taU turn aside now and see this great 
s^ht, 'mky the bush ^y* vh is not burnt 
or consumed. See LXX. The Englbh 
phrase we see answers the Hebrew. In 

* See PbtUrth in Th^teo. Ovid^ Metam. lib. viil 
bh. 1 ; and Epiie. Jfereid. X. 

f *< U. Bami est Incendium. A. Sw kd & bsl-fyr 
tit R^fMk Pyra," /grc't Jmm EirmoL AngL in 

75 lya 

Kal and Hipb. Spoken to men, 7# 
bum, cause to bum, kindle, set on fire. 
Lev. vi. 12. Jud. xv. 5, 14. 2 Cluron. 
xxviii. 3. Jer. vii. i8« Ezek. xxxix. 9* 
Nah. ii. 14. Hence Ens. hum. 
On such passages as Exod. iii. 2, 3. 
I>eut. iv. 11, we may observe how 
strongly the traditionary notion of a 
miraculous Ughi on fire being the token 
of a divine presence prevailed among the 
Greeks in tne time of Homers who, after 
relating, Odyss* \h^. lin. 34, that the 
goddess Minerva attended on Ulysses 
with her golden lamp, or rather torch, 
and afforded hiiki a refulgent Ught, 

Xpy<7tcf ATXNON «x»<^» ♦^01 IIEPIkAAAEX 

makes Telemachus cry out to his fiither 
in rapture, 

A oaTip, n (AVya BaVfJM ToT o^BaXfXOiciy opwfxtu' 
E/Mirn; /uiot 'ntyjH fxryafwjt %a\ai Tf fAt^fxai, 
EtXdTiyrci it Mtot, xai xiovi; v^^c •X^^'C 

♦AiNONT* o^ttXfAMc «#•! nrpoz AieOMENOia 

H /btaX« m eEOS {v^ov, U iffawt tvpui r^uau 
What miracle thus dazzles with sur|mse ! 
Distinct in rows the radiant columns rise ! 
The walls, where'er my wondVing sight I turn. 
And roofs amidst a bloKi ofgUry bum I 
Somt visitant •ffun etbareai race 
With his br'tgU presmet deigns the dome t^ 
grace. Popx. 

ni. Applied to anger or the like, To ha 
kindled or bum. £sth. i. 12. Ps. ii. 12. 
Ixxix. J. Ixxxix. 47. Comp. under 
n5« V. 

IV. To clear qf,9a9L beast doth » grazing 
or feeding', to graze or feedy as a beast; 
also, to came to be grazed^ as a field. 
Exod. xxii«4, or j. When or if a mam 
^^y* sliall cause to be eaten a field or a 
vineyard ^^and shall put in riY^rn his beast, 
"y^^i and it shall feed or graze in anothtr^a 
fieldf &c. Comp. Isa. iii 14. HeBoe as 
a N. yv^ A brute animal, a beasi that 
feeds itself witliout knowledge or regard 
to good or evil, or in the language of 
Sallusty ''qua Natura prona et veatri 
obedientia j^nxfY/' Bell. CatiUn. ad Init. 
Gen. xlv. 17. Exod. xxii. 5, & aL Hence, 
perhaps, Eng. a boar, a bear, Gn Bopm 
food, property of brutes, Bpouf wadBpcoaiuf 
tofeti, whence Bpwroyfood, Germ. Brat, 
Dan. brod, and Eng. bread. Also Lat. 
voro, devoro^ &c. whence Eng. tartKiams, 
voradtv, devour , &c« 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^M— Wl 



V. As a N. *ii?n A brutish person, one re 
.stmbli$ig a brute in stupidity and want of 
divine knowledge, Ps. xlix. ii. Ixxiii. 22. 
xciv. 8. Hence as a V. in Niph. To be 
or become brutish or stupid. It is spoken 
either of^men. occ. Jer. x. 8, 14, 21. li. 
17 ; or of cbunsd. occ. Jsa. xix. 1 1. 

Hence Lat. Baro\ blockhead, £ng. A boor, 

To disturb, of right, i Sam. xvi. 14, 15. 
I Chron. xxi. 30, & al. freq. Asa N. 
T\nvi Teirour^ trouble, Jer. viii. 15. 
xiv. 19. As a N. roasc. plur. o^mi^i 
Things terrible, or to be feared. Job vi. 4. 
Ps.lxxxviii. 17. LXX f o?«j5i(r/uooi. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
the reduplicate Y^2 signifies, according 
to Castellt, " Tenui cute & pinguis, seu 
corpore molli fuit>** to be thin-skinned and 
fat, or of a soft body ; and from the things 
to which it is applied in Heb. I guess the 
idea to be softneas, smoothness, or the like, 
in opposition to hardness, ruggedness, &c. 

J. As a N. f1, or fem. nvi S(ft mud or mire, 
occ. Jer. xxxviii. 2a. Job viii. 11. xl. 16, 
or 2 1 . In plur. fem. in Reg^. once written 

* with «, n»vn, £zek. xlvii. 1 1. 

|I. As a N. p::, Btfssits, of which very fine 

■ white garments, like linen, were made. 
Mercer says of it, " In Palafttind nmcens I 
in folUculis, It grows in Palestine in i 
ppds." It is, I apprehend, the same as i 
what we call cotton, which is well known . 
to be the produce pf that and the neigh- 
bouring countries, and is the soft douny 
substance formed in the inside of the 
pods of the shrub, called Gossipium, 
I Chron. xv. 27, k al. See Manners 
-Observations; vol. ii. p 358. Goguefs 
Origin of I>aws, &c, vol. i. p. 127, 8, 
edic. Edinburgh, 

|II. As a N. masc. plur. tD^2 The egyrs of 
birds, and of some other animals, from 
the remai^able smoothness and softness of 
their texture, occ. Deut. xxii. 6. Job 
xxxix. 14. Isa. X. 14. lix. 5* 

mi See unda* )*i I. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but In Arabic 
aignifies. To pe^l of the bark of a tree, or 
.coai* of an onion, or the like. Cprr^. ^Q. 

As ^ N. i^'Vi An onivH, so oaq^ed ftiu^ 

it's several coats or iniegvmenfs . So LKX 
x/Ma|utua. Once in phir. Num. xi. 5, 
" Allium Cepa, Onion ; by the Arabs 
called Basal, That this was one of the 
species of onions for which the Israelites 
longed, we may guess by the quantity 
to this day used in Egypt^ and by their 
goodness there : Whoever has tasted onions 
in Egypt, must allow that none can be 
had better in any part of the universe 1 
here they are sweet, in other coantries 
they are nauseous and strong ; here thej 
are soft, whereas in the North, and other 
parts, they are hard, and the coats so 
compact that they are hard of digestion. 
Hence they cannot in any place be eaten 
with less prejudice, and more satis^tion, 
than in Egypt, — ^They eat them roasted, 
cut into four pieces, with some bits <rf 
roasted meat, which the Turks in Jigypi 
call Keltab, and vdth this dish they are 
so delighted^ that I have heard them wsh 
they might enjoy it in Paradise. They 
likewise make a soup of them in Egypt, 
cutting the onions in small pieces -, this 
I think one of the best dishes I ever ate." 
Hasselqnist's Voyages, p. 2qo. Comp, 
Harmef% Observations; vol. ii. p. 338. 

I. To break, or cut <ff. Job vi. 9. Isa. 
x.\xviii. 12. Joel ii. 8. Comp. Job xxvti. 8. 

II. To Jinish cimip/eteiy, compete, q, d» to 
break off' from a work a/ter ctmpkteiy 

fuishiMg. Isa. X. 12.'' Lam. ii. 17. Zecb. 
iv. g. 

III. The Lexicons have given this Root 
the sense of cocetousness, Prov. xv. af^ 
Jer. vi. 13. Ezek. xxii. 27, & al. bat in 
many of the passages where it is supposed 
to have this sense, it literally signifies 
the breaking or cutting 0/^ pieces of metal, 
as, for instance, of silver ; for in the 
times of Abraham and Moses, and long 
after, they used to weigh their silver, 
(see Gen. xxiii. 16. iLxod. xxii. 17. 
Jer. xxxii. 9, 10.) and, no doubt, to cut 
or clip €0' pieces of it,- to make weight 
in their dealings with each other, as is 
practised by some nations, particularly 

* the Chinese, to this day. * 
But to return— )>Vl i^rin Prov. i. 19. 
XV. 27, is rendered one that is greedy of 

• See Gepfcft Origin of Laws, vol. 1. p. 981 » 
&c. ^t. E^UHburgb, Modern Univ. Hist^ vol. '?iii« 
j>, 246, 8vQ, imd under i>pty UI, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




gtfw, but i^roperiy denol^ one v>Ao cuts, 
«r dipt of, every tcrap of mone^ he 
ponibfy can. So Schultens on Prov. i. 1 9, 
cxplahis the expression, " Lucripetam 
fnijpeni denotat hctc formula d notibne 
pnmaria secandi resecandi, quasi qm vn- 
dpfK exsecant, derodunt, deradunt, qusd 
crameiamfaitnatetdistendaf'/' Adding, 
'* ytl tit tipuua, OLtQ rw xsipsty, wide et 
itipuantjujf codem uiu invaiuit, xsp^aivsiy 
pnqve, et xtp^o^ ex eodem fonte dunana- 
naiy In (his Tiew, I thmk inrn is a eaoet' 
oar man, q. d. a cHpper. Ps. x. 3. Hence, 
IV. As a N. Wl is used for gmn, ad- 
tmtege. Gen. xxxvil a6. Isa. xxxtii. 1 5, 
aad to many of the texts where it is 
vcndered cotetousness^ as Elxod. xviii. 21. 
I &UB. tiil 3. Ps. cxix. .96. Prov. 
xxviiL 16. Jer. xxii, 17. Conip. Isa. 
Wi. 17. Mr. GfWJi, in hb Poetical Farts 
if ike Old Testament, p. 57, translates 
ittd, V. 19. The kings come and fought — 
for hicrc ^ money which they carried not 
f^^— fo hi fnm it, adds he in the note, 
that (hey did not even escape with their 
iiyes." And he remarks that the Vulg. 
gives the words the same turn, Et tamen 
^ul tuUre pnedfintes, and yet they ear- 
ned off no spoil. 

As a V. To make a gain of defraud, as 
apenon. occ. Ezek. xxii. 12. 
Corap. Greek and Eng. Lexicon to New 
Tcitaoient in Ke^fia, and KspSof. 

To k made soft by moistening. So Pag- 
nnu, ** Maceratura est ut emollescat." 
hi Arabic it s^ifies to spit, *' spuit, 
ipatavit," Castdl. 

I. Tobemadesqfi or tender, as the feet by much 
ivalking. occ. Deut. viii. 4. Neh. ix. 21. 

n. As a N. pva Meal moistened with 
voter, paste, or dough unleavened, £xod. 
»"• 34» 39' & aL 

I prefer the above interpretation of the 
Root (o that which is commonly given, 
namely, smelling, and thence dough 
froiait*sf«d2m^; because I apprehend 
the swelling (f dough is occasioned mere- 
ty by the lea:ven or fermenting matter 
mixed wAi it: and the pyi mentioned 
Ezod. xii. is expressly said to be tm- 
leai^Med. Comp. Hos. vii. 4. 

I To restrain, ^tut up. Gen. xi. 6. Job 
<& 3. Comp. Ux. ixiii, 3. 

II. To inchse with a watt, or the Vke, Ibf 
safety, to fortify, Jer. li. 53, & al. fireq. 
As a N. "TYn Store or treasure so secured. 
Job xxii. 24. xxxvi. 19. 

III. To house, gather in, applied to grapes* 
Lev. XXV. 5. Judg. ix. 27, & al. fraq. 
Comp. Jer. vi. 9. As a N. TYl The 
vintage. It implies the housing of grapes^ 
and so the pressing and preparing (tf them 
for use. Lev. xxvi. 5, & al. Hence 
Bassarcus, a tide of Bacchus. 

IV. As a N. fem. mtl and niivn Droughty 
uant of rain, (so the LXX, atpoyia,)^ 
when rain is #iitf up, or restrained trom 
the earthy and consequently the aardi 
also is shut up, and bears no fruit occ, 
Jer. xiv. j . xvii. 8. Comp, Lev. xxvi. 19. 
Deut. xi. 17. xxviiL aj. 1 K. viii. 35. 

Der. a Bazar, a kind of covered mar- 
ket-place among the Eastern natioas, 
somewhat like our Exeter *Change in 
London, but frequently much more ex- 
tensive. Lat. or rathct Ponic, Byrsa^ 
the Burse at Carthage. 


To empty, empty out. 

I. in Kal, To be emptied^ emptied out. occ. 
Nah. u. 10, or 11. So m Niph. occ. 
Isa. xxiv. 3; and in Hupb. 00c. Nah. 
ii. 10, or II. 

II. In Kal, To empty, empty out, exhaust, 
so cauxe to fail, as counsel, occ. Jer. xix. 7. 
In Niph. To be emptied out^ or exhausted, 
to fail, as spirit or understanding, occ. 
Isa. xix. 3. 

ppl To make entirely empty, occ. Ita. 
xxiv. I. Jer. li. 2. Nah. li. %, or 3. 
Hos. 4^ I, in which last text the LXX 
renders |!>pi by enxXtjiAarucra. abounding 
in shoots or branches, Symmackus by tS^* 
u.ayao'a abounding in branches, and Vulg. 
oy fi'ondosayWf of green twigs. And tins 
sense is not only agreeable to Jacob's ort«' 
ginal blessing on Joseph, G«n. xihc. 22. 
(from whom Ephraim and Manasseh, the 
principal of the Israditish tribes, ^nuig» 
comp. Deut. xxxiii. 17.) but may Uke* 
wise well suit the subscK|uent context. Jr* 
rael fxpas) a luxuriant vine, "6 nw* ^,' 
kis fruit was^accordittgiy, or he brought 
forth fruit accordingly: according to the 
multitude ofMsfrmt he hath nuitipHed 
the (idolatrous) akars; according to the 
goodness cf his Umd they have madegoodlff 
pHittrs. On lookiog into Giamu^s Pfai* 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




loloria Sacra, I fisd tliat learned critic 
Beany concurs in this interpretation 
(lib. ▼• tract i, cap. ii, col. 1746, edit. 
Idps, 4to.) '^ Qua TnUione iritis accipienda 
sity H08. X. I, dtscrepanHa est inter scrip- 
turarwH expoiitore$, Simplicissima inter- 
pretatio videtur esse ilk: ppi ^ Vitis 
€¥acuant Israel est, hoc est, instar loxu- 
riantit vitis copiase fert /ritctum, ac si 
semel omnem evacuare fructum veliet, cct' 
terum nan bon^s fert fmcius, . sed malos 
^^Sequitur enim: Fnictum ponit sibi; 
secundum multitudinem fructus sui mul- 
tiplicat allaria, &c. Confer cap. 'uu 7, 9/' 
Cemp. also Mr. LtntliB Note on Hos. 
X. I, and Michaclis Supplem. ad Lex. 
Heb. p. si 2. 

However, since both the simple pi and 
the reduplicate ppi are in every other 
passace of scripture, where they occur, 
used m a bad sense for emptying, failingy 
or the like, I would sulmiit it to the 
reader's judgcniort whether Hos. x. i, 
should not be tendered, Israel (is) an 
emptying or wastin*; vine ('* that casts 
it's fruit," Taylor, ** which casteth it's 
^[rapes,'' Bp. Newcome) ^h mu^ ^Q his 
fruit is acc9rdingly, or he bringcth forth 
fndt accordingly, i. e. he bears no fruit 
but such as b destined to destruction. 
Tbtt this interpretation agrees with the 
preceding context, see cha^. ix. 1 1— 17 

. Ccttp. Nah. ii. », or 3. 

p^pi As a N. ^ bottle, whence liquors 
are emptied: occ. i K. xiv. 3. Jer. 
six. 1, 10. LXX B/X9y, which word is a 
plain derivative from die Heb. pi. 

DjHt. A back or bnck, a large vessef, whence 
bucket. Latin Vuo, vacuus, whence «a- 
cani, vacancy, vacuum, vacuity, evacuate, 
ice. Lat Bacca, the holhw inner part of 
tkt eketkf whence Ft.Boucktiht mouth. 

To separate contiguous or adfoimng parts, to 
deaxm,split, bursty or the like. 

h Itt Kal, Transitively, To cleave, as God, 
by Motes, did the rocks m the wilder* 
Mss. Pi. Ixxviu. 15. Isa. xlviii ai. 
Co«p. Hab. iii. 9. Intransithfely, To 
cleane <Nr bethveHOsundar, astha ground. 
Num* xvi. jx. 

n. l atrms i tive ly, To came to dbare, or 
brook forth, as a aunar does waters in 
the rocks, Job xxviii. xo.-*as God did 
AuBtmas and strewu htha wiMemeis. 

Ps. Ixxiv. I $. In Ni^. To be catod 
to break or burst forth, as waters. lsa« 
xxxv. 6. To be burst or broken itp, as 
the depths at the Ibrmatioa (Gen. i. 9.), 
for the passage of the external waters 
into the central abyss. Prov. iiL so.*- 
as the fountains of the great deep (i. e. 
the passages or outlets from the ccotral 
abyss for q»rings and fountains) were at 
the deluge. Gea. vii. 11. To be bwrut^ as 
a cloud. Job xxvi. 8. — as 8kin4Mitde& 
Job xxxii. 19. Comp. Josh. ix. 4, ij. 
In Hith. 2'o be cleft ot^, as vattcs^ 
Mic. L 4. 

III. Transitively, To split, ckave, as wood. 
Gen.xxi]. 3. 

IV. To divide, as the sea, to separate Ws 
waters so as to afibrd a passage. Eiad. 
xiv. 16. 2 1. Ps. Ixxviii. 13. There b a 
remarkable passage in Diodorus Ssemlusy 
lib. iii. p. 174. relath^ to the dmUng 
of the Red Sea. HoLpa, rais vrXr^erww nor 
roixee^y l;^0ws^ayoif wsLpa^siorod An- 
yog 8% vrpoyovunf s'/wv fvXarhp^mmfw r^r 
frjfi^riy, x. r. X. Among the netgfabour-. 
mg Ichthyophagi is a tradition cos^atmtb^ 
derived from tkeir ancestors, that on the 
happenmg of a great ebb or rdlax of the 
sea, the whole oed of the bay became 
dry, and appeared green, the sea haamg 
retreated nt>m it; and that alter the 
grouad at tlie bottom had been TisiUey 
a great tide eaaie up, and restiwed the 
channel to it's former state." Compaie 
Artapanus^n Account of the laradites 
passmg through the Red Sea, in Gsseb. 
Pr^parat. £vang, lib. ix. cap. %j^ ad in. 

y. To tear in pieces, as a wild beai^ 
2 K. ii. 24. 

VI. To rip up, as pregmmt wanan. a K. 
viii. 13. XV. 16. Hos. xiii. 16, or jdv. 1. 
Amos i. 13. The horrid barbarity of 
ripping vp pregnant toomen has beesi prac- 
tised m Persia f even in our own davs. 
See HaKaay*% Revolutions of F^tsm, 
vol. iv. p. 246, 186. 

VII. To break utfa, as an eaemy'a cai^i, 
country, or city, a Sam. xxiii. 16. 
a Chroa. tii. 17. xxxii. 1. a K. xxw. 4. 

VIII. To katcky as m, i. e. krtmk tkem 
fi>r the exdosioB m tha young. Isa. 
xxxiv. is.lix. $. 

JX. To break forth, as the Imht tfirovf^ 
^rkncss. Isa. Iviii. 8. So LXX fvy^ 
oral, and VuL etampct. 

X. n 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




X. Tekrstf or rvsiforthta^L stormy vmti. 
Eaek. xiii. 1 1 . Also, To cause to rugh 
forth, Esek. xiii. 13. 

Xi. hi ^i. O^pl A breach in a building, 
occ. Amos vL 1 1. ^pl Nearly the same, 
ooc. Isa. xxii. 9. 

XIL As t N. Vp^ A ikelel broken in two, 
u kalf'thekd. occ. Gen. xxiv. a». Exod. 
xxxviiL 069 which see, and comp. bpw IV. 

XIII. As a N. fern, nrpl ^ va%, or 
rather a ccmb or i^t//^ a 6rrtfit between 
mouatains. Gen. xi. z. Deut. viii. 7. 
xi II, & al. freq^r Comp. Ps. dv. 8. 
This is a strictly just and philosophical 
name; for vaiUet were really formed af- 
ter the deluge by the waters in their de- 
scent to the abyss, tearing and breaking 
<aoap the several strata which impeded 
then: course, and which are still con- 
itantly found posited in a horiximtal situ- 
ation in the neighbouring mountams. 
Bat for forther satiataction on this cu- 
rious and highly bteresting subject I 
wkb great pleasure refer to the hite 
leaned Mr. Catcotfs Treatise on the 
Deluge, p. 1C9 of the ist, and p. 247, 
ice, of tiie dd edit, and to the Rev. ^i/- 
liam jQne^% excellent Physiological Dis- 
qoiMont, p. 47a. 

The LXX have generally as a V. rendered 

, it by iincntirhiJMi to look upon, iurxey, 
hok acatratelj/ or diligentfyt and thb seems 
the ideal meaning of the Root. 

L To look, searchy examine, occ. Lev. 
xxviL33, jni y\\o pnpn> vh He shall 
not look or search between good and bad, 
L e. whether it be good or bad. Comp. 
Prov. XX. 25. Chiud. The same. Ezra 
iv. 1 St 19, & al. With b following, To 
look or search for. occ. Lev. xiii. 36. 

U. To look for, seek. Fjtek. xxxiv. 11, 
And I toUl enquire for my flock tD^nnpni 
<Mtf seek fAcm. Ver. la, ni?i n'lpi^ like 
m shepherd's seeking his sheep in the day 

. that he is among his sheep that are scat- 
tered (conp. Ver. 5, 6); so "ipiH will 
I seek my sheep. As a Participle Benoni 
in Kaly ^pu Seeking, or rather ofoetseeing, 
occ. AjBosvii. 14. 

III. To seek, enquire, occ. a K. xvu 15. 
Ps. xxvii. 4. 

IV. As a N. fern, mpn An enquiry, or per- 
haps smimadoersion, notice taken, so LXX 
^Tifrxorij* occ« Lev. xix. 2Q. 

y. As a N. npl The mpming or nrnning^ 
Ught, which springing forth imon the 
earth, surveys and starches out all things. 
Gen. i. j. xliv. 3* So in Luke i. 7l,.il 
is said of the spiritual dajc^spring, or 
dozen of the gospel-day, £ni£KB4'ATO 
^ ANATOAH eg u^I^a^, The day- 
springyrom on Iti^h hath looked upon «f. 
P^irgil, JEjk. viL hn. 148, 

PoiUra cum frimS lustrabat Lampade Terras 

Soon as the foUowing merit turvtfd the earth. 

Comp. En, iv. lin. 6. JEm, viii. Im. 153. 
So ot the Sun, Mn. iv. lin. 607, 

Soi ^ ttrrarum fammu %ptra mmiia lattTM. 

Thou Sun, who virw*tt at mic^ th« woiid 
below. DaTDJEM. 

Homer, m like manner, long before, U. 
iii.lin. 277. 

*||«Xi«C ^\ ^ mrnii* B^OPAII ! 
Thou atUiyrveyhig Sua ! 

VI. As a N. "npi A beece, and coUectively 
beeves, i. e.^ bulls and coxos, or a herd of 
such| so called, uerhaps, from their ^^aruir^ 
eyes, (whence Homer s epithet Boantis w- 
eyed, applied to Juno), and their steady 
look (comp. ^m under ^vr). fteq. occ 
The steady, composed look of tne Beete 
kind is observed by P/a^o, and by him at- 
tributed to Socrates, even when he held 
in his hand the fatal draught, and wai 
looking at the executioner — dtpittp uw^ 
ist, TATPHAON uVoCa<4w^ vpc^ rev 
oLvhpuncw. Phiedon, § 66. p« 311, edit. 
Forster, where see the note. 

Ipa XI A son of the herd, a calf. Gen. xviiL 7, 

Deb. Perhaps Lat. tacca a cow. 


In general To seek. So the LXX usually 
render it by f^rsw, or if s compounds. 

I. To seek, endeavour to find, what is lost 
or missmg. Gen. xxxvii. 15, i6. x Sam. 
X. 2, 14, at. 

II. To seek what was before unknown. 
X Chron. iv. 39. 

III. To seek, reqidre. Gen. xxxi. 39. xliii. 8. 
To require (ttf pi) the blood of mother at 

,afiy one's hand, is, to punish him fw his 
death. 2 Sam. iv. 1 1. Comp. £«ek. iii. 18. 
Prov. xxix. 10. 

IV. To 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




lY. To Ktk, endearmtr ie -obtain. Num. 
xvi. lo. As a N. fern, in Reg. nu^pn 
A i4oHest. E«tlj. V. 3, 7. 

V. With V and an intiiutive Verb follow- 
ing^ To seek to do a thing. Gen. xlii. 39. 
Exod. ii. 15. 

VI. To seek Jehovah, is, to apply to bim 
by acts ot' worship. Exod. xxxiii. 7. 
IJeut. iv. 19. But to seek the face of 
Jehovah f in 2 Sam. xxi. 1^ peculiarly 
denotes to apply to him, by means of 
the High Priest, for an oracular amxccr, 
which was deliverech by Jehovah from 
above the mercy-seat, from between the 
two Cherubim. So Vulg. in Sara, con- 
suluit oraculum Domini, consulted the 
eracle of the Lord. See Exod. xxv. 22. 
Num.vii. 89. 

VII. trw n» tt^pl To seek the life, b to en- 
deaxour to kill. -Exod. iv. 19. i Sam. 
xxiii. I {, S^ al. 

It denote in general, To clear, cleanse, 
purify, or the like. 

I. To clear, cleanse, as com from the chaff, 
occ. in Hiph. Jer. iv. 11. Hence as a 
N. 11 Com so cleansed, Jer. xxiii. 28, 
TFhat has the chaff to do with lin the 
pure com ? freq. occ. 
Hence Latin Far, Com. 
As a N. 11 Clean, Prov. xiv. 4. So 
- LXX xaSapat. 
In Hiph. ^oken of arrows, Jer. li. 11, 
nirr Clean^ or, as the £ng. transl. Make 
bright the anvxDs, Comp. Isa. xlix. 2. 
A« a N. iem. mi Pure, bright, HDHD as 
the solar fUme. Cant. vi. 10. Comp. 
Pis, xix. 9. As a N. ^D The pure, clear, 
bright matter of the heavens, the pure 
ether. Job xxxvir. 1 1 . Comp. under mto. 

From 11 compouncted with y?n /o, shine, 
perhaps French briller^ whence £ng. 
brilliant, brilliancy. 

U. As a N. 11 The clear, open field or 
country^ as opposed to the dwelling and 
cultivation of men. Job xxxix. 4, where 
it Is rendered com ; but the animals 
there mentioned do net thrixe with 
€om^ but with the few shrubs and hardy 
plants growing in the open country or de- 
sert; " in agro," SckuUens. The N. is 
used in the same sense m Chald. with 
the H emphatic postfixed. Mil. Dan. 
ii 38. iv. 9> la, 18^ 20, 22, 39, or 12, 
1J9 ai, dj, 35, 32, That the m is on- 

jihatk appeal, because in almost all tliesl^ 
texts>^ll is joined with tlie emphatic plur# 
W^w, Comp. ^cott on Job xxxix. 4. 
ill. As a N. Ill or 11 plur. fem. mil A 
pit, whence the earth, &c. is cleared 
out. Gen. xxxvii. 20, 22, 24. So « well, 
dungeon, grave, or the like. Lev. x\. 36* 
Deut. vi, 1 1. 2 Chron. xxvi. 10. Exod. 
xii. 29. Ps. vii. 1 6. Jer. xxxviiL 6. & 
al. freq. 

Hence A burrow, to bury, and oM Eng. 
bum, a sprin)^. 

IV. In Kal, To purify ceremonially^ or 
with sacred rites, i Sam. xvii. 8. ill 
Purify for you a man to fight with me^ 
Does not this, exposition heighten the 
spirit of the challenge? So in Niph^ 
Isa. lif. II, lisrr Be ye pure, ye that bear 
the vessels of the Lord. 

V. To purify or be pure, in a spnritual soise. 
a Sam/xxii.^ 27, linn '^l^ oy With 
the pure thou wilt shew thyself pu^. 
Comp. Ps. xviiL 27. As a N. 11 pure, 
purity. Job xi. 4. xxii. 30. Ps. xxiv. 4, 
Comp. 2 Sam. xxii. 21, 2$, 8r al. 

VI. As a Bf . 11 " ^ son or chifd, an wi- 
nocent, a term of affection." Bate. oec. 
Ps. ii. 12. (comp. Acts iv. »7, 30.) 
Prov. xxxi. 2. So fem. mi is applied 
to a daughter. Cant. vi. 8, or 9. 11 i» 
also used for a son in Chaldee. £zni v. i. 
Dan. iii. 25. vii. ij, & al. So in the 
New Testament we have JBar-Jona, Bar* 
Timdus, /^r-Jesus, /iar-nabas. 

Hence Old £ng. a bem or bam, a son, 
and perhaps a brat. 

VII. In Ktfl, To declare, make clear, plam^ 
or manifest. Eccles. iii. 18. ix. i. 

VIII. Asa.N. nni A purifier, purification^ 
or purification sacrifice. Sec Gen. xv. i8» 
Exod. xxiv. 8. Jer. xxxiv. 18. Ps; 1. 5. 
Comp. under n'lD V. It is used as a 
personal title of Christ, the real purifier 
an(J antitype to all the sacrificial ones. 
Isa. xlii. 6. xhx. 8. Zech» ix. ii. Comp. 
Greek and £ng» Lexicon to New Test* 
under Aiadi^xi; II. and llspiiM^apyM. 
Also, Some purifying or cleansing kerb 
or composition. 04x. Jer. ii. 22. MaL iii. a. 
In Jer. the LXX render it by Tloiav or 
Iloav the herb; Jerome ancf Vulg. by 
Herbam Borith, the herb Borith. In 
Mai. the LXX translate o>didd nni by 
Uma 'sjkvvovrwv the herb of the washers; 

F Vidg. by Herba Fullonum, tic kerb of 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Ae fatten. " With respect to the herb 
^Bmth, says Mods. Goguct, I imagine 
hhSal-wortli (Salt-xcortJ, This plant 
is very common in Syria, Judea, Egypt, 
and Arabia. They bum it, and pour 
water upon the ashes. This water be- 
comes impregnate<l with a very strong 
Uxkial salt, proper for taking stains or 
impurities out ofwooiorcloth,*' Origin of 
Laws, &c. vol. i. p. 132, edit. Edinburgh. 
VrofessoT^Iich/telis however (Supplem. ad 
Lex. Heb.p. 230), thinks TV12 means, not 
the kerlf or plant Kali, but the alkaline or 
hxhial salt procured from the ashes of 
that and other plants ; though he owns 
that in Jer. ii. 22, it may also be ren- 
dered soap made of such salt. But in 
Mai. iii. 2, he understands tD^na^D n^n 
of the alkaline salt itself, such as fullers 
indeed use, but which in this passage he 
apprehends b mentioned only in respect 
to it's use in liquefying and purifying me- 
tals (ver. 3), by causing their impurities 
to vitrify, and melt down into Scoriae, 
thus leaving the metal pure. And in like 
manner he interprets 

IX. As a N. 'li, or, according to the 
readmg of thirty-three of Dr. Kennicott's 
Codices, *lia, JJxivial or alkaline salt 
used ui purifying metals. Isa. i. 25, / will 
melt down, as (with) alkaline salt, thy 
dross^ and I "will remove all thy base me- 
tal And every one knows that this salt 
b applied also to purifying other things, 
comp. therefore Job ix. 30. 

X. rra hn Baal Berith, i.e. Baal the 
PirryJfr, mentioned Judg. viii, 33. ix. 4, 
and called abo mn i»H the God, or Lord, 
Berith, Judg. ix. 46. The children of 
Israel are expressly said, Judg. viii. 33, 
to have made Baal Berith their Aleim ; 
whence we may fairly collect, that 
though the ox or hull, the representa- 
tive of tbe^rr, (comp. under Si^n IIL) 
was the prevalent or predommaut figure 
in the idol, yet they did not mean entirely 
to exclude the otlier agents of nature in 
the worship of Baal Berith, any more 
titan Aaron and Jeroboam, in setting up 
the calf as an emblem of Jehovah, in- 
tended absolutely to reject the second and 
thirrl penoos of the uncreated Trinity. 
Both Aaron an4 Jeroboam call their re- 
moective cahes Aleim, and Aaron says^ 
Tbsse nVn are thy Aleim, they which 

have brought (l^i?n plur ) thee out of the 
land of Egypt. See £xod. xxxii. 4. i K. 
xii. 28. and comp. under b:y VI I. 
By this name Baal Berith, the idolaters 
not only denoted the purifying nature 
oi fire (that ro*%f*5y afj^p^fss unsullied 
element, (pxs aiJt^ixvhv unpolluted light, as 
the Orphic hymu to H^atro; calls ^re^ 
but also expressed tlieir expectation of 
the great n^.i or purifier from sin, to 
come from tliis their supreme God. And 
there seems no reason to doubt but to 
thb Baal, as well as others, they burnt 
their softs with fire for burnt -offerings, as 
they are charged by the Prophet Jere- 
miah, ch. xix. 5, (comp. ch. xxxii. ^5) ; 
thus, through a horrid perversion of the 
original revelation of a Redeemer, giving 
their first-born for their transgression, the 
fruit of their bodies for the sin of their 
souls. See Micah vi. 7, and comp. under 
IDn I. and i^o IL Zsj^ KaSa^tr^Of, 
one of the appellations of Jupiter among 
the Greeks*, b a literal translation of 

From thb idol the city of Berytus, now 
Beirut, in Syria, seems to have received 
if s name. 
XL As a N. JT)^l A palace or sumptuout 
building, probably so called from if s glo- 
rious shew. I Chron. xxix. i, 19. Also, 
A metropolis or capital city ; so Montanus, 
Metropoli. Neli.i. i. Eslh.i.2,5.ii.3,5, 
& al. Chald. As a N. fern.' wrr^^l A 
Palace, occ. Ezra vi. 3. 
As a N. fem. plur. nvi^O Palaces or cas- 
tles, occ. 2 Chron. xvii. 12. xxvii. 4. 
From riTl we have the Greek Bxpig a 
palace or castle, wliich b a word often 
used by the LXX, and m that version 
answers to the Heb. rrrn, Dan. viii. 2, 
(and according to some copies, Neh.ii. 8), 
and to the Chald. Hn'n^i Ezra vi.'2. 
And by thb name Baptg, Josephvs 
Aut. XV. cap. u. § 4. informs us, that 
the castle adjoining to the temple of 
Jerusalem was anciently called by the * 
Asmonean Princes who built it, till Ilcrod 
the Great, by whom it was repaired and 
strengthened, named it Antonia, in com- 
pliment to his friend and patron Mark 
Antony, Comp. Tacitus Hbt. lib. v. 
cap. IX. 

• See Potter % Anttquitiet, book il. ch. ^. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 




.m As a V. To cleanse, purify, or ptir^f 
thoroughly, occ. Dan. xi. 3$. Ezck. 
Xx: 38, Win being substituted for 
the last letter; four however of Dr. Ken- 
nicotVn Codices read ^*115) And I will 
thoroughly purge out of you the rebels, 
' In Hith. To shew oneself pure. occ. 
Ps. xviii. aj. Also, To be purified, occ. 
Dan. xii. 10. As a participle or par- 
ticipial N. ^Jlll Furey clean, cleansed. 
Spoken of a 6r/gA^ arrow, Isa. xlix. 2. 
— of nicn purified or sanctified for sacred 
offices, I Cbron. ix. 22. xvi. 41. (comp. 
Isa. lu. I J.) But how the sense of 
purified is applicable to i Chron. vii. 40, 
I see not. I shall just hint that the 
Syridc translator for 0^1*13 seems to have 
read tj^ini, for he renders the word 
Jin^'ili in their generations. — of animals 
clean for food, Neii* v. 18.— of a pure 
religious profession, Zeph. iii. 9. Used 
as an Adverb, Purely or clearly. Job 
xjcxiii. 3. 

•Jill occ. I Kings i^'. 23, or v. 3, ts^liin 
tD'DinH. The Chaldee, Syriac and Vul- 
gate, not to mention the modern ver- 
nacular versions^ with one consent render 
thes^ words fatted fowls. And if this 
translation be admitted, I should think 
that as m*i*i!l clean is applied to sheep^ 
Neh. v. 18, so tD^311 is a general name 
lor clean fowl. But, says Michaelis (Sup- 
plem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 228), **What? 
if you should derive '^lll from the Chal- 
dee «in, Syriac and Arabic [and he 
might have added Hebrew] *i!l denoting 
afield, a desert, all that is without (extra, 
external to) the cities and habitations of 
wen, whence Chald. «1i nvn wild btasts, 
Dan. ii. 38, ^1 nin a wild bull, «^1 Vi:nn 
the wild cock, kc, &c. so that CJnmi 
might signify creatures living in the 
fields, woods, and deserts, which are taken 
by hunting, as opposed to those that are 
<ionifcsticated. And thus the word mi^ht 
both comprehend fowls, (one of which 
is called by the Samaritans nn'in q. d. 
the desert-bird, see Vers* Samar. in Lev. 
xi. 17), and abo wild animals^ such as 
stags and deer. Solomon's table then 
was furnished with all these, and that 
iiot only as nature had offered them to 
the hunter, but ^X'sxy fatted. This ex- 
planation is favoured by the previous 
mention of stags and deer," ana by th^ 

word J^ofjiM^wv at the end of the tom 
in the Complutensian LXX, which tera, 
dt Michaelis observes, perhaps means 

wild animals feeding freely in the desert. 

Denotes Reproduction either of substance or 
form, the creation or accretion of sub- 
stance or matter. 

I. To create, produce into being. Gen, i. i, 
In the beginning the Aleim created the 
heavens and the earth. This cannot re- 
late to form, because, as it follows in the 
next verse, The earth was inn without 
form, or in loose atoms. So ver. 27, The 
Aleim created man in his own image, re- 
fers to the creation of the human soul, 
as well as to the formation of the body ; 
for the image of the Aleim eminently 
consists in righteousness and true holiness^ 
seated in the spirit of the mind. See 
£ph. iv. 24. Col. iii. lO. 

IL To form by accretion or concretion of 
matter. Gen. i. 21, 60 the Aleim formed 
the great aquatic monsters, no doubt of 
pre-exbtent matter; and ver. 27, M*i3 
formed man, male and female, Comp. 
ch. ii. 7. v. 2. Isa. xlv. it. Eccles.xii. 1, 
1^«^11 riM ^1\ Remember thy Creator*. 
•* The plural b employed, says Stockius, 
to shew the plurality of persons in the 
unity of essence, namely the Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit, For these tliree divine 
personsconsulted togetlier concerning the 
creation of man. Gen. i. 26 *." Isa, xTv. 7. 
Forming the light, Mlli concreting the 
darkness, Amos iv. 13, «ni concreting 
the spirit. Ps. cii. 19, M"::23 Oi; a people 
to be produced, or born. Comp. Ezek. 
xxi. 30. xxviii. 13, 15. Josh. xvii. 15, 
nsini And plant, cause to j5row,/or thy^ 
se(f there — ver. 18. For the mountain 
shall be thine, for that is the ^* or tuoorf- 
country (mentioned ver. r5), in»*in and 
thou shalt plant it, and its utmost ex« 
tremities shall be thine, Coinp. uuder 
Sense V. As a N. H^n b rendered fat, 
but rather means plump, grown full in 

* I do not however wish to dissemble that rtrj 
many of Dr. Xefinieoit^t Codices in Ecclet. Xii. 1, 
read iHtQ and many others T»ra without the ^ 
But it is very easy and obvious to account for the 
Jgvub transcribers droppine^ the pturaJ « in their 
copies; though very dimcult to satign a reason 
why any of them should insert it, ualeis they 
found it in their orinnals* 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ma— ma 

fkA, or substance. See Gen. i\L 2, ^. 
Dm. i. 15. As a Participle, or parti- 
cjpiai N. feiii. rrM'ii, or, accordiug to 
tweoty-six of Dr. KennicoifB Codices, 
nuni. Plump, Tcell fed, occ. Hab. i. 16. 
As a V. in Hiph. To make fat, to batten, 
occ. I Sanu ii. 29. 
Hence Gr. B^ioa; to he robust, strong. 

III. To do or perform somewhat wonderful 
end extraordinary, to make, as it were, a 
«wp creation. Num. xvi. 30, But if 
Jebovab my fiK^l create a creation, i. e, 
work in uoprecedented miracle. So 
£xod. xxxiv. 10. Jer. xxxi. 22. 

IV. In Niph. To ^ renewed, in a natural 
wnsc P». dv. 30. In Kal, To renewy 
make anew, in a spiritual sense. Ps. IL 1 2. 
Comp. Isa. Ixf. 17, 18. 

y. To this V. the learned Cocceius assigns 
ike sense of preparing. Josh. xvii. 15, 18. 
Imperat. Hni, Ezek. xxi. 19, or 24, j^nd 
prepare a hand, i. e. a place, at the head 
(ftk vay to the ciYy prepare (it J, Infin. 
Ezek. xxiii. 47, tDMii^^nn fnrTi« vny\, 
and dress or trim (exornabunt, Cocc.) 
ikem with their sscords. " It may be an 
Oxymoron,*' says Cocceius, i. e. " a figure 
in rlietorick, when that which at first 
heuiog seems ridiculous or contradictiovs, 
yet bears very good sense and vsit, as FAu- 
wftxpos fl bttter-sweet, Awpov a^wtf^y, 
^Ivum cadaver/* &c. JJttleton's Dic- 
tionary. For examples of this mode of 
expre^on in Scripture, see Glassius, Phil. 
Sac. lib. V. tract. 2, cap. 7, who in- 
stances in Job xxii. 6. Jer. xxii. 19. 
Acts V. 41 . 2 Cor. viii. 2. i Tim. v. 6. 
Bat to return to Ezek. xxiii. 47, it is 
evident irora a comparison of this verse 
with di. xvL 40, that VCSI in the one 
aiQst, some bow or other, be equivalent 
to prQ ^0 cv^ in pieces in the other text ; 
•nd the prophet having in verses 40, 4 r, 
of the xxiiid chap, mentioned the adulter- 
esKs bavine dressed and prepared them- 
selves for tbeir paramours, seems to have 
dioGen the word M*in at ver. 47, rather 
than one more literally expressive of their 
toievDMi^dtUroying them with their swords. 
Hence perhaps JUit. paro to prepare. 

>1. ChaJd. As a N. H^a The field. See 


I inspect the radical idea of this word to 
he congelatump or tbe like^ for in Arabic 

it is used fbr being cold, particularly m an 
intense degree, also for firmness, stability, 

I. As a N. Til Hail, congealed rain, £xoa. 
ix. 18, & al. freq. Hence once used ts 
a V. To hail. Isa. xxxii. 19. 

II. As a participial N. masc. plur. CD^^l 
Grisled, marked with white spots like hail 
upon black or other colour, occ* Geiu 
xxxi. 10, 12. Zecfa. vi. 3, 6« 

With a radical, though mutable or omisii- 
ble, n. 

** To feed, eat, or take food.'* Bate. occ. 
2 Sam. xii. 17. xiii. 6, 10. In Hiph* 
To cause to eat. occ 2 Sam. iiL 3 5. xiii. 5. 
As a N. nnn Food, victuals, occ. 2 Sam. 
xiii. 5, 7, 10. Also, " Fed,i. e. well fed." 
Bate. occ. Ezek. xxxiv. 20, where three 
of Dr. Kennicott*8 Codices read n«^2, 
comp. ver. 3. As a N. fem. rm^ Food, 
occ. Ps. Ixix. 22. Lam. iv. 10. So the 
LXX render m*m b Ps. by sis t^ Bow[f.a^ 
and in Lam. by eis Bpw<ny for food. 


I. To pass from place to place, to flee, flee 
away. Gen. xvi. 6. xxvii. 43,, ik al. freq. 
In Hiph. To cause to flee, to drive or 
chase away, i Chron. viii. 13. xii. 15* 
As a N. mi A runaway, a fugitive, 
Isa. XV. 5. xliii. 14; wliich latter verse is 
tlius rendered and explained by the 
learned Vitringa (whom see) : Thus saitk 
Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy One of 
Israel; For your sake I have sent to Ba^ 
bylon (i. e. the Medes and Persians under 
Cyrus, comp. ch. xiii. 3), and hcroe made 
all the tD^mi fugitives go doixn (to- 
wards the river Euphrates, or the ve^eb 
lying there, comp. ch. xiii. 10), even 
the Chaldeans (the most valiant of the 
Babylonish soldiers, comp. Jer. v. 13), 
tSMi*! rtJUWl in their pleasure^^foats or 
'barges, in order to make their escape 
from the enem^. ^ ^ 

II. In Kal and Hiph*. To pass or shoot alongf 
as a barthrough rings* occ. Exod. zxvi. 28. 
xxxvi. 33, Hence, as a N. n*11 A bar^ 
which thus passes or shoots along. Exod. 
xxvi. 26, 28. Deut. iii. 5. Jud. XTI. 3, 
& al. freq. Hence, A bar, barrier, 

III. rril tt^nj The straight serpent, occ. 
Job xxvi. 13. Isa. xxvii. i. In Isa. xxvii. i, 
where it is contradistingubhed from vni 
pnbp)^ the tortuous, sinuous, or coiling 
serpent, it seems to denote the crocodile, 

G 2 whose 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




wliose body is remarkably straight, rigid, 
and inflexible, so that he cannot readily 
turn himself in pursuing his prey. In 
Job xxvi. 13, mn tt?n3 may signify any 
sea^mofuter (comp. Amos ix. 3) of a 
' straight mdke, which is tlicre represented 
as sutin by the preceding storm. See 
ScJtulteus 9Dd Scotty and on Isa. xxviL i, 
Vitringa and Bp, lAncth. 

To couch, lie d(ywn, as a beast on it s knees 
torest,accumbo,procumbo; for the LXX 
and Vulg. appear to have given the ideal 
meaning of the Verb in Hiph. Cien. 
xxiv. 1 1, (CD^Djn T^y^ and he caused the 
camels to couch, or kneel) the former 
Tendering it by «jto<jLt<(rg, the latter by 
feeisset accumbere, caused to coach. 

I. To couch, rest, as on the knees, to kneel. 
aChron. vi. 13, VD^l b^ T^n and he 
kneeled on his knees. So Ps. xcv. 6, and 
(Chald.) Dan. vi. 10, or 11, where 
Theodotion aaiMrlwy bending, couching. 
In Hiph. To cause to couch or kneel. Gen. 
xxiv. 1 1, as above. Dr. Shaw, Prefoce 
to Trav. p. xi. describing the manner of 
resting at night during liis travels in the 
eastern deserts, says, ** Our camels -were 
made to kneel down in a circle round 
about us, with their faces looking from 
us, and their respective loin Is or saddles 
placed behind them." Hence as a N. y^:i, 
plur. CD*12, The knee, on which men and 
other animals couch, and which is plainly 
■formed for this purpose. Isa. xlv. 23. 
Jud» vii. 5, & al. Ireq. Comp. Sense IV. 

II. As a N. fem. nD*li A reservoir or pool 
where waters, as it were, couch or lie. 
a Sam. ii. 13. Eccles. ii. 6, & al. freq. 
So I'll which properly signities to lie 
down as a beast^ is in hke manner ap- 
plied to the great abyss of waters within 
the earth, Gen. xlix. 25. Deut. xxxiii. 13. 

III. In Kal and Hiph. To bless, as God 
doth man, or a superiour his inferiour, 
to give, promise, or wish him rest, quiet, 
happiness. Gen. i. 32. ix. i. xii. 3. xiv. 19. 
xlvii. 7. So God yy* blessed the seventh 
day. Gen. ii. 3, ** by sanctifying It, says 
Clark, and appointing it to be a day 
wherein he would bestow the choicest bless- 
ings on his servants in the use of his holy 
ordinances." In Niph. To be blessed. 
occ. Gen. xii. 3. xviii. 18. In Hith. To 
Hess oneself, or be bUssed* Gen. %xxl. 18. 

xxvi. 4. Deut. xxix. 19, & al. AsaN. 
fem. noin A blessing. Gen. xxvii. u. 
Deut. xxxiii. 23, & al. Comp. Joel ii. 14. 

IV. To bless, as man doth God, or an 
inferioiur his superiour, i. c. To bom, m it 
were, the knee to him, and lo ascribe 
one's present or expected rest and hajfi' 
ness to him. Gen. xxiv. 48. a Smi. 
xiv. 22, & al. freq. Comp. Isa. xlv. aj. 
Pliil. ii. 10. As a N. fem. HD^l A blessing, 
i. e. a token of blessing, or of respect, a 
present. Gen. xxxiii. 1 1. Jud. i. 15. i Sim. 
XXV. 27. iK. V. 15, &al. 

V. To salute, wish a blessing to* I Sam. 
xiii. 10. I K. i. 47. viii. 56. a K. iv. ap. 
X. 15. So the Latin saluto, whence Ei«. 
salute, &c. is from the N. salus, heM, 

VI. The Lexicons have absurdly, and con- 
trary to the autliority of the ancient ver- 
sions, given to this Verb the sense of 
cursing in the six followmg passages. 
I K. xxi. 10, 13. Job i. 5, IX. ii. 5, 9- 
As to the two first the LXX render T^^ 
in both by BvXoyecu, and so the Vulg. by 
benedico, to bless. And though Jezebel 
was herself an abominable idolatress, yet 
as the law of Moses still continued in 
force, she seems to have been wkied 
enough to have destroyed Naboth upon 
the false accusation of blessing the heathen 
Aleim and Molech, which subjected him 
to death by Deut. xiii. 6. xvii. a — 7. 
Job's fear, cli. i. 5, was, lest his wm 
should have blessed the false Aleim ; so 
AquilasvXy/Yf(ra,v, and Vulg. bepedixe- 
rint. Ver. 11, should be translated, Jnd 
indeed stretch forth thy hand now, and 
touch all that he hath, «V CH sitrely 
(comp. I K. XX. 23) he hath blessed (T^ 
being used, in a past sense, as «3n ver. 7, 
and nu?r^ ver. 5.) thee to t^ face, i. e. 
hypocritically. LXX and Tfieodotion, 
yjl^TjV Eig wfirwieov 9-5 fyXoyr^o'c* tnthf he 
will bless thee to thy face, V^ulg. nisi in 
lacieni benedixcrit tibi, unless he bath 
blessed thee to thy face. Satan brings the 
same charge of hypocrisy against Job, 
ch. ii. 5, which the LXX, Theodoikm, 
and Vulg. render in the same manner. 
And at ver. 9, his wife says to him'r 
Dost thou yet retain thy uitegi^ity, Ay re- 
gard for the true God, fiDl tDmb« T- 
blessing the Aleim and dying, or eiw t9 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

pna- ain 



Sone learned men faavesupposed that 111 
s^ai/ies to bid farewei to, and thence to 
rmmce, relinquish, and that in several 
of the above cited passages, as in i K. 
xxi. 10, 13. Job J. 5. ii. 9, it might best 
be explained in that sense. But there is 
no proof that y)1 ever properly denotes 
to bid faracel to, much less to renounce. 
In both Gen. xivii. 10^ and 2 Sam. 
xix. 39, which are produced as instances 
of the former signification, there was not 
z common farciLcf , but a patriarchal be- 
iKdidion. " (Conip. Heb. vii. 7.) And 
in aB other passages where the Verb Tin 
is joined with mn> or tD^n^H it con- 
stantly means to bless. See Gen. xxiv. 48. 
iCbron. xxix. 20. Ps. Ixvi. 8. Ixviii. 27. 
ciii. I, 2, 30, 21, 22. 
Der. From ^in the knee, perhaps the 
Gaulish bracca, a part of dress covermg 
tlie knees, and £ng. breeches. 

I. Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but as a 
participial N. masc, plur. tD^D"J*in Rich 
apparel^ Fjig, traiisl. so Montauus vestium 
pretiosarnra, sumptuous vestments. Once, 
£zek. xxvii. 24. 

The Verb in Arabic signifies to twist 
or be t-uUsted closehi together as tineads, 
and thence the Ns. tDna, and CD12D 
in tlat language denote, a thread formed 
by twisting several parts together, also a 
kind of garment made of the sonic sort of 
thread, both for warp and woof It 
seems probable, therefore, that twisting 
closely together, or the like, is the idea of 
the Heb. word. 

II. Chald. As a Particle t=na But truly, but. 
Dan. ii. a8. iv. 12, or 1 5, & al. 

I. To lighten, send forth lightening, occ. 
Ps. cxliv. 6. As a N. p^.l Idghiening, a 

flash. Exod. xix. 16. 2 Sam. xxii. i^, 
& al. freq. The word has the same sense 
in Arabic; whence the miraculous beast, 
who, according to the Mahometan creed, 
carried Mahomet in the twinkling of an 
eye from the neighbourhood of Mecca 
to Jemsalem, had his name Al Borak, 
on account of his moving with the velo- 
city of lightening*. 

II, As a N. pi -4 glitter or glister, Ezek. 
xxi. 10, 15, 28, or 15, 20, 33. Comp. 

* See PriJtemx^ life of Mahomet, p. 55, lit 
l£t.8To. Modem Vniveial Hilt, yoi.1* p. 66t 

Deut. xxxii. 41. So Virgil, iEn. W, 
lin. 580, 

Vaginaque ertpH en tern 
He di aw» his lightening sword. 

Comp. Nah. iii. 3. Hab. iii. u. So 
Homer, 11. x. lin. 153, 4, describing the 
spears of Diomed and his companions. 

TUXf It ^«XX9J 

Aa/x^' wf AITEPOIIH srarfo; A»Of- 

far flashed the!r brazen points. 

Like Jove*8 own light'nini; ^ 

Also, A glittering or bright weapon. Job 
XX. 25. 

III. As a N. fern. np1!l A kind of precious 
stone, a carbuncle. " A precious stone, 
** shining like lightening, or a coal of 
^^fire\J* " Carbunculi a sinuUtudine Ig- 
** nium, appellati" says Pliny, Nat. Hist, 
lib. xxxvii. cap. 7. occ. Exod. xxviii, 17. 
xxxix, 10. Ezek. xxviii. 13. " 

IV. As a N. fp^:2 A kind of thorn, with 
vei*y sharp, pointed prickles, occ. Jud, 
viii. 7, 16. In ver. 7, Aquila sv rons 
r^ar/axa,y^at$, Symmachus sv roif rpito* 
X01S9 Vulg. tribulis. But the LXX, per- 
haps because they could not recollect any 
Greek word to express it, retain the ori- 
ginal name Ba^>ci;v/jx. 

Der. Bright. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. nor do I know 
the ideal meaning of it, but 

I. As a N. tt^na plur. tDni?ina Theflr- or, 
according to Celsius, the cedar'tree. 2 Sam. 
vi. 5. Isa. xli. 19, & al. freq. The LXX 
render it so variously, as to shew they 
knew not what particular soecies of tree 
it meant; the Vulg. generally by abietem 
the fir-tree. Comp. n« under rm. 

II. Plur. tD^tin^n ^ome things made of fir or 
cedar. Spoken of spears, Nafaum ii. 4.— 
of musical instruments, 2 Sam. vi. 5. ** No 
kind of wood (says that learned philoso- 
pher and musician, ^the Rev. William 
Jones, Physiological Disquisitions, p. 294) 
being more elastic than fir, from it's fi* 
brous construction, it is the most proper 
tor musical instruments, and was therefore 
applied to that use by the Hebrews from 
the most remote antiquity. See 2 Sam» 
VI. 5/' 

Der. Brush, Qn ? 

t AsiemUf9 Amiotationt. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

»a— inna 


C2lt^a— ^M 

As a N. masc. plor. tD^m^iS Treen of the 
cj/press kind, so LXX xvirapia-coiy & 
Vulg. cupressiua. Most probably tliey 
arc the same, as PUnv, Nat. Hist. lib. xii. 
cap. 1 7, meutions by the name of bt*uta, 
and which he there describes as being 
like a wide spreading Cf/press with whitish 
branches, and yieldinj^ an agreeable scent 
in burning. Once, Cant. i. 1 7. 


^^J^^S* fiiiy grow Jiaccid, spiritless or in- 
active, be confounded^ flaccescere, con- 
fundi (as the Vulg. often renders it) 
whether through fear, 2 K. xix. a6. 
comp. Jud. iii. 25. — or disappointment, 
Job vi. 20, Psal. xxii. 6.— or modesty, 
ft K. viii, XI. Ezra viii. 22.— or the im- 
portunity of others, a K. ii. 17. — or 
through a sense of guilt, to be ashamed, 
Ezra IX. 6. PsaK xxxv. 4, & al. It is 
once applied figuratively to the non or 
solar Jire. Isa. xxiv. 23. In Hiph. mz^rl 
with the 1 after n, as if from wy*, To 
abash, make ashamed. % Sam. xix. 6. But 
thirty-six of Dr. Ketmicott's Codices here 
want the 1. Also, To act shamefully, 
nur^Dn hath done shamefid/y, according to 
the reading of nine of Dr. Keimicotfs 
Codices. Hos. ii. 5, or 7. \t\ Huph. 
U;^itil To be made ashamed^ abashed, 
Jer. x. 14. Ii. 17, (with i, as well as >, 
inserted according to many of Dr. Ken- 
fficotfs Codices), & al. freq. either in 
Ken/iicott*s printed text, or in his various 
readings. As Ns, fem. rmn^ Abashment y 
shame, Ps. Ixxxix. 46. Ezek. vii. 18. twi 
The same. Job viii. 22, & al. Also, A 
shameful idol, i. e. Baal, or Baal-Pe<ir. 
Jer. xi. 13. IIos. ix. 10. So Jcn/A-baal 
(see Jud. vi. 31, 32.) is called Jervb- 
besheth, 2 Sam. xi. 21. TiWI !Shamc, 
occ. Hos. X. 6. As a N. masc. plur. in 
Reg. '11^:10 The privy parts, pudenda, occ. 
Deut. XXV. II. 

To this Root may also be referred np:i"^, 
with a slight dialectical variation for 
pmy^, the name pf a ci^ in Egypt, 
Ezek. XXX. 17, which the L^UC render 
by a word evidently corrupted from the 
Hebrew or Egyptian name, '^ovtas'ov, 
so the Vulff. Bubasti; in which city, ac- 
cording to Herodotus, lib. ii. cap. 59, 1 37, 
fras a famous temple to the E^ptian 
irfol Bpv^angy vfhoj says lie, is in Greek 

called Aprsijuig, Now the Grecian A^- 
rsfjus physically denotes the Moon, whose 
emblem, among the Egyptians, was a 
*cat (perhaps from the remarkable in^ 
crease and decrease of the pupil of iCs eye, 
and it*s seeing and being most vigilant 
and active ui the night) ; whence, as ^r- 
xodotus further relates, lib. ii. cap. 67, 
cats, which in Egypt were sacred, were, 
when dead, carried to be interred under 
the sacred roof at Bubastis. A cat, then, 
or a human figure with a cafs head (such 
as may be seen in Montfaucon*s Anti- 
quit^e Explic|i(6e, torn. ii. tab. 126.), was 
most probably the emblem under which 
they worshipped the Moon at this place, 
which might from this idol be called 
nDl"^3 The countenance of the sky or 
shame'faced Goddess, for cats seem r^ 
markable for being so. 

unt^l To flag very mucky loiter, delay, occ. 
Exod. xxxii. 1. Jud. v. 28. In Hith. 
3b flag through shame, be abashed or 
ashamed of oneself, to be quite confounSed^ 
Gen. ii. 2$. 
See Mr. Bates Crit. Heb. on this Root 

Dek. Bashful, abash. 

In general, To concoct, coquerc. 

I. To ripen, as corn by the solar heat. Joel 
iii. or iv. 13. In Hiph. To cause to ripen. 
Gen. xl. 10. 

II. To dress xvithfire, as by roasting, Deat 
xvi. 7. 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. — by boiling, 
I Sam. ii. 13, 15, & al. freq. — or by 
baking, 2 Sam. xiii. 8. As a N. fem. 
plur. nibu^lD Boiling places, places for 
dressing victuals, occ. Ezek. xlvi. 23. 

III. As a Particle, bW2, compounded of 1 
in, W that which, and b for, see under 

Occurs not as a V« m Heb. but in Chaldee 
Omi and tDD2, and in Syriac tDDi sig< 
nify to be sweet, agreeable, or the. like. 
(See Cast ell.) Hence as a N. Otra 
pi. &^DU^:a A spice or aromatic, from if s 
sweet agreeable smell. Exod. xxxv. 8^ 28, 
& al. freq. 

Also, An odoriferous pla^t or^ower. Cant 
iv. 14, 16. V. 13. viii. 14. See Harmer's 

• SetPluiarcb, De laid. & Owr. torn. u. p. S76- 
D. E. edit. XyUndri, where other reasons uso are 
atsign^d ; and PtucbJls Hist, du Ci^> torn. i. p- 1^^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•1W— Dx^a 



Outlines of a Comment on Solomon's 
Soog, p. i6j, 098. 

Perbaps of the same import as DD^ (I^. 
hiii. 18. ier. xii. 10.) To tread, trample. 
Once, Araosv. 11, where ten of Dr. Ken- 
mcorfs Codices read rDDDti;! without thei. 

I. The general ideaof thb word seems to be, 
To spread, spread out, spread abroad. It 
occurs not, however, simply in this sense 
as a V, hut as a N. apphed to the Che- 

' rubs, Eaek. x. 12, X^'WI b^^ and the 
whole extent of them; Vulg. et omne 
cofpas eonim, and their whoU body. So 
£ng. transt 

II. As a V. in Kal and Hiph. To spread, 
spread abroad, as praises, Isa. Ix. 6. — 

' news or tidings, whether bad, as i Sam. 
iv, ly, corop. 2 Sam. i. 20. xviii. 20; 
or more usually good,^i Sam. xxxi. 9. 
3 Sam. iv. 10, & al. fireq. In Psai. 
hviii. 11, nnmiD '* is feminine, and 
points out the xoomen who witli musick, 
and songs, and dancings, celebrated the 
▼ictories of the Israelites over their ene- 
mies, according to tlie custom of tliose 
times, Exod. xv, ao, i Sam. xviii. 6." 
Chandlers Life of K. David, vol. ii. 
p. 65 ♦. It is applied to the glad tidings 
of the gospel, Isa. xl. 9. lii. 7. Ixi. i. 
The LXX generallv render it by tvay- 
hXiXfo. In Hidi-'fut. WlfV It (some^ 
what) will be told, or let somewhat be 
told,^ i. e. there are tidings, occ. 2 Sam. 
XYiii 31. As a N. fern. ri-W^ and mw^ 
News, tidings, % Sam. xviii, 20, 22, 
25, 27, fral. 

III. As a N. "itrn Fksh, that sqft muscular 
sidtstance which is spread over the bones, 
blood-vessels, and nerves of the animal 
body, according to that of Job x. 11, 
Thou hast clotlicd me with skin and flesh. 
It is variously applied. 

I. Flesh of men or animals, strictly so called, 
Oeo.u. 21. Jer. xlx.9. Gen. xli. 2, 3,4. 
—of fishes, Lev. xi. 11. 80 in i Cor. 
»^ 39*20^0, Fleshy b applied to ^Aef, 
SfweOastomen, beasts, and birds. And 
in Heb. "lU^n is also spoken of reptiles. 
See Gen. vii. 14, 15, 16, 21. 

* Comp, GUsiH PhiloL Sacr. lib. iii. tract. 1, 
can. SJ, cot 610, edit. Lifs. 4to. Micba^it in 
X«wtf^ Prackct. p. 56i, edit. Gatit^* Note. 8p. 
U^idl^t Mot^ on Ua. xt 9, 

2. Tlie Heb. N. 'itrn, like the Arabic 1U?:x 
and Ti^^l, appears plainly to denote the 
skin which is spread over the human body, 
and is so rendered by our translators, 
Ps. cii. 6. Comp. Job iv. 15. xix. 20, 
where 11^7 seems to mean the cuticle or 
outer skin, "lu;! the inner, Comp. Job 
X. II. Lam. iv. 8. and see Michaelis, 
Supplem. and Lex. Heb. p. 236, anci 
Anonym, Note on Ps. cii. 6, in Merrick's 

3. Man considered a^ injirm or weak, Jer. 
xvii. 5. 

4. It denotes what is soft and pliable. Ezek. 
xi. 19. xxxvi. 26. 

5. — Wholly carnal or sensual^ given up to 

fleshly appetites and passions. Gen. vi. 3. 
6. — Near relation, consanguinity, Geo. 

xxix. 14. xxxvii. 27. . 
7. — The secret parts, Ezek. xvi. 26«xxiii. 20. 
8. *itt^l Vd All fleshy signifies either all man" 

kind, as Gen. vi. 12, 13; or all animals, 

as Gen. vi. 17, 19. 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but evidently 

denotes capacity , poxcer of receiving or 

containing, room, place. 

I, As a N. ni A Bath, the largest measure 
of capacity next to the Homer, of which it 
was the tenth part. See Ezek. xlv. 11,14. 
It was equal to the Epha, i, e. to seven 
gallons and a half English, and b always 
in Scripture mentioned as a measure of 

II. As a N. masc. plur. p^ni Receptacles, 
places to receive staves or bars. Exod, 
XXV. 27, (where LXX Qi^Kas) xxvi. 29, 
& al. freq. 

III. — In Reg. >M1 Boxes to hold perfumes. 
Isa. iii. 20. Comp. under um^ II. 

IV. As a N. fem. plur. mm q. d. Capa^ 
cities, occ Isa.vii. 19, nnin^^m vallies 
of capacities, capacious vallies; LXX> 
rats ^apay^st mjf x^P^f '^^ vallies of 
the country, 

V. As a N. masc. DO, plur. tD^ra 

1. Capacity. 1 K. xviii. 32. n''!l3 — as 
great as would contain; LXXy x,^pB<ra,if 

2. The in- (or receiving) aide of a place, 
as opposed to the ouUtde. Gea. vi. 14^ 

3. A House ^ q. d. a receptacle, for man, 
freq. occ. 4 den or receptacle for wifd 
hegists, Job xxxix. 6. A nest for birds^ 

G4 ' rsal. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Psal. Ixxxiv. 4. A place in re^rence to 
something it contains, Neh. ii. 3. 

4. A Household or family. Geu. vii. i, & al. 

5. A House, household, estate, suhsiance. i K. 
xiii. 8. Comp. Esth. viii. i^ 2. OiKOg 
and OiKin acre used in the same sense 
in Greek; see Greek and Eng. Lexic. in 
Oixia HI. So LXX in K. oixtt. 

6. A Temple, dedicated^ whether to the true 
God, see 1— or to a false one, Jud. 
xvi. 26, 27, 29, 30. I Sam. v. 2, 5. i K. 
xvi. 32. 2 K. V. 18. X. 14, 21, &al. But 
vfhen in the books of Moses or Joshua 
vfe read of the tv^ or Beth of such or such 
an idol in the land of Canaan, we must 
not imagine that the tv^ implies a house 
or covered building, because it does not 
appear that the Canaanites had any such 
In those early times. Moses, who in 
Deut. Til. 5. xii. 3, is very particular in 
commanding the Israelites to destroy the 
other appendages of tlie Canaanites* ido- 
latry, never mentions their sacred build- 
ingi, nor do we ever read of tliem in the 
book of Joshua. Tlieu: Beths seem to 
have been nothing more than sacred ifi' 
closures, like the Grecian Tsf/^vr}, 

7. Masc. plur. CD^fil Hangings to form a 
receptacle for an idol, canopies, or some 
things of that kind, French translat des 
pavilions, pavilions, 2 K. xxiii. 7. Comp. 
Ezek. xvi. 16, and «blD IV. 

8. As a Particle n^n In, within (comp. 
Sense II, above.) Ezek. i. 27. Comp. 
Prov. viii. 2, where LXX ayac{ji.6(rov in 
the midst y so Vulg. in mediis. 

VI. As a N. jn"*:! A Palace, a large and 
beautiful house, occ. Esth, i. 5, viL 7, 8 
Castell says, some think it a Persic word, 
because it occurs only in this book. 

VII. As a N. nn The pupil of the eye. See 
under na II. 

VIII. As a N. fern, ni, A daughter. See 
under ni3 VII. 

IX. Chald. As a V. To pass the night. 
Once Dan. vi. 18, or 19. It b often 
used in the same sense by the Chal- 
dee Paraphiasts, and in the Syriac lan> 

, >B:uage, 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
signifies, To separate, sever ^ "separavit, 
segregavit^" Ca^teli. And as Nouns in 
that lanjguag«3ix^a and n}nm denote the 

*suc1cer of a palm-tree nato fit /a be ae^ 
parated from its parent tree, and to bear 
fruit for itself, and hence a marriageable 
virgin, who being separated/rom her mo* 
ther may now bear fruit of her ownf. 
And in this latter sense the N* is applied 
in Heb. 
I. As a N. nVini A marriageable virgin. 
** Virgo matura, nubilis, ac Integra ad- 
huc & incorrupta.*' Castell. Comp. Ho- 
bertson, Thesaur. Gen. xxiv. 16. Lev. 
xxi. 14, & al. fi-eci. In Lev. xxL 14, 
nVinn b contradistinguished from a vci- 
dow, a divorced woman, one de/hwered 
(nbbn) and an harlot., Comp. Ezek. 
xliv. 22. In Joel i. 8, it denotes (w €«pottt- 
ed virgin before consummation. Comp. 
Deut. xxii. 23. Job xxxi. i. 
ni^i or mpi b a girl, a young icoman, 
whether married, Deut. xxii. ij, 16, 
20, 21; or unmarried. Gen. xxiv. 16, 

^^> SS* 57' ^^' ^' *• ^^* "• *>35 
nVini (as above) a marriageable virgin; 
nobi^ a maid, a virgin, whether mar- 
riageable or not. See Gen. xxiv. 43. 
Exod. ii. 8* 

On Isa. xxxvii. 22, Viirin^a observes that 
societies and states, when m a regular, or- 
derly, flourishing, free condition, or en- 
joying a respectable and lawful govern- 
ment, are continually in Scripture on 
these very accounts compared to virgins. 
Comp. Lam. i. i $. Jer. xxxi. 21. xlvi. 2 r, 
Isa. xlviL I. On which last text see 
more in Vitringa. 
II. As a N. masc. plur. wVini The signs 
or marks of virginity. Deut. xxii. 14, 
J 5, 17. Also (tD^D^ being understood) 
I>ays or time ofvirgimty, virgin state; so 

• Dr. S^awy Tnivelt, p. 141, speaking of the 
fialm'tree in Bar bar j, says, ** The^ are propagate^ 
chiefly from young tbtets, taken from tne roots of 
full grown trees: which if well transplanted aiid 
taken care of, will yield their fruit in the sixth or 
seventh year; whereas those that are raised imne- 
diately from kernels will not bear till about their tx- 
teenth.** « It is well known," adds the Doctor* 
" that these trees are mtaU VLndfemalcy and tharthe 
fruit [of the female] will be dry and insipid without 
a previous communication with the male.*' p.HS, 
where see more; as also in Scbeucbzrr Phys. Sacr. 
on Exod. XV. 27, and on Job xxix. 18; and in Boj- 
srlfuisi*i Trav. p. 416. The circumstance just men* 
cioned from Dr. Sha%v shews the remarWabU pro- 
priety of the oriental applications of the N. sbTQ. 
f See CasteWi Lex. Heptag. in ^TQ AH and 
Professor Robertson % Ckvis Pentateuchi,No,135<>» 
247^, - 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^yba— Tra 

kwvbe rendered virgUuty. Lev. xxi. 13, 

Litlle doubt, I presume^ will remain in the 
reader's mind, but the common and ob- 
lious interpretation ofDeut. xxii. 1 4 — x 7 , 
is the true one, when he considers the fol- 
lowing account of the marriages of the 
Ar<As^ citcKi from lyArcieux, by Mr. 
Harmer in his Outlines of a New Commen- 
tary on Solomons Song^ p. 11. '' D'Ar- 
Tieux telb us, that the nridegroom and 
bride being brought in ceremony to the 
pfaice of marriage, the men and women 
sit down to table in different huts, where 
tlie marriage feast is celebrated ; that in 
the evening the bride is twice presented 
to the bridegroom ; that the third time 
he carries ber into tlie tent where the 
marriage is to be consummated; and that 
afier the consummation, the bridegroom 
retiuns to his relations and friends (whom 
he had left feasting together) uitA suck a 
proof of the virginity of his bride, as Moses 
supposeik the Jews were wont to preserve 
with care, that in case the honour of their 
daughters should aftei;wards be aspersed, 
Ibe^ ought be freed from the reproach ; 
which being shewn, the bridegroom b 
complimented afresh, and passes the rest 
of the niglit in rejoicing/* See more on 
this subject in Niebuhr's Description de 
r Arabie, p. 31, &c. In the Complete 
System qf^ Geography, vol. ii. p. 19, tlie 
leader may find a similar custom ob- 
served in some towns of Turkey at their 
marriages^ and I have read of the like 
among the Tartars. Dr. Russell, in his 
Nat. Hist, of Aleppo, p. 113, note, says, 
•* The tokens of virginity are expected by 
dl sects in this country, but more inde- 
cently exposed by the Turks than any 
other." Mon&, Savory speaking of the 
marriages of the Egyptians, says, *'Quand 
c*est une fiUe, il faut que les si^s de vir- 
ginite paroissent ; autrement, il (le Mari) 
est en droit de la reavoyer a ses parens, 
& c'est le plus grand deshonneur qui 
peut arriver a une famille/' Lettres sur 
I'E^fpte, torn. iii. p. 38. 
From this Root may be derived the Greek 
BataXsf effeminate, and ^raXi^oiJMi to 
live effemnaiely. 

7o cut in pieces. So Chaldee Tar^. 101)na> 
yhejf ^all pU the^ in pieces, i.e. alive 

*---a dreadful punishment sometimes in- 
flicted by the Babylonians. Once, Ezek. 
xvi. 40. Comp. Dan. ii. 5, and see Mi- 
chaeiis Supplem. ad. Lex. Heb. p. 239, 

I. To divide asunder. Gen. xv. 10. As a 
N. masc. plur. in Reg. ^nnn Parts so di- 
vided, divisions. Jer. xxxiv. 18, 19. *ini 
in Cant il 17, seems rather an appeUa- 
tiye than a proper name, and so ^ro, ^n 
will be Mountains of intersection or crag- 

E'nesB, i. e. intersected, crag^ momtaitts, 
XX, offTf MiXwiiaranf mountains with 

II. Chald. 'iro A Particle, After. Dan. 

u. 39. 
Yu. 6, 7. 

It is also written ^nttl Dan, 


The meaning of this word has been mucb 
disputed, ^md various are the senses 
which ancient and modem interpreteri 
have assigned to it. I embrace uiat of 
the learned Bochart, Hierozoic, P. IL 
lib. V. cap. 5, and so render it as a N. 
PearL This precious substance, whidi 
b naturally bard, white, smooth, and 
glossv, is found in many parts of the 
world, and produced m the shell of the 
pearl-oyster, with which the Persian 
gulph m particular abounds. Perhaps 
the Hebrew name is from *il singular 
and nb smooth, as being the only gem 
naturally smooth and poUshed. Or as 
" all pearls, says The New and Completa 
Dictionary of Arts, &c. are formed of the 
matter of the shell, and consist of a num* 
ber of coats, spread with perfect regularity 
one over another, in the manner off the 
several coats of an onion, or like the se- 
veral strata of the stones found in the 
bladders or stomachs of animals, only 
much thinner," may not the Hebrew 
name Tfn2, according to this account, 
be a derivative from Tin to divide, and 
T]b smooth, a smooth stratum, or the like? 
occ. Gen. ii. la. Num. xi. 7. Comp. 
Exod. xvi. 31. 

A Particle (from b^ not, and ^ wnio)^ 
Withmd, betides, except. Gen. xiv. d4, 
xli. 44, & al. With o prefixed, n5>i»no 
The same. Num. v. 20« sSam. xxii. 32. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^na— ^j^^a 


^a'?^!— CD«0 

As a N. from h^ not, and hir profit. See 
the learned Merrick's Annotation on Fs. 
xviii. 5. 

I. As an abstract N. Unprofitableness, worth- 
lessnesSf xoickedness. See Deut. xili. 13. 
XV. 9. Prov. xix. 28. 1 Sam. i. 16, 
XXV. 25. 3 Sam. xvi. 7. i K. xxi. 13; 
in which three last passages observe that 
n emphatic is prefixed, q. d. the greatest 
or mof t abandoned wickedness, birba in 
^ ^oir of wickedness, £ng. transl. a 
vjicked thing, Ps. ci. 3. xli. 9, A word, 
or matter, of Belial, i. e. a heinous accu- 
sation, is poured out upon him. Vitringa 
on Isa. xiix. 7, explains this expression 
of the'cn'me of treason against the Roman 
emperour, of which the Jews accused 
Jesus Christ before Pilate, John xLx. 
"» 15. 

IL As an Adjective, Worthless, wicked, 
good for nothing, Avpttos, Nequam. Job 
xxxiv. 18. Comp. Nah. ii. i. 

III. In a concrete or collective sense, Worth- 
less, or wicked, men, ft Sam. xxii, 5, 
xxiii. 6. Ps. xviii. c. Nah. i, 11. 

As a N. Iron, a well known metal. The 
name bni may be derived from 1i bright 
(like the solar flame. Cant. vi. 10.), and 
7t3 to fuse, melt with heat, (droppmg the 
J as usual). For it has been observdl by 

* chemical writers, not only that iron 

• *» Jrom ijgrnites long before it fiisei; nor mdtt 
without a violent fife; and this the mott slowly of 
all m9X9^s^* B9erbtuvt*% Chemistry by Sbatu, vol. i. 
p. 93. 

" /rM^— requires the strongest fire of all theme- 

melts slowly even in the most violent 
fire, but also that it ignites, or becomes 
red'hot long before it fuses; and any one 
may observe the excessive brightness of 
iron when red- or rather white-hot, bria 
therefore, t{A, the bright fuser, b a very 
descriptive name for it Num. xxxi. 22^ 
Deut. viii. 9, & al. freq. 
Since iron requires the strongest fire of all 
metals to fuse it, hence there is a peculiar 
propriety in the expression hxMT} Tia A 
furnace for iron, or an iron furnace for 
violent and sharp afflictions. See Deut. 
iv. ao. 1 K. viii, 51. 
bni :331 Chariots (q. d. chariotry) of or 
•with tro;t, probably mean chariots covered 
or plated with iron, so as not easily to be 
broken or cut in pieces, occ. Josh. xvii. 
16, 18. Jud. i. 19. iv. 3, 13. InJud. 
the Vulg. renders the words cnrms falca- 
tos, chariots armed with scythes. But this 
does not seem the natural sense of the 
Heb. neither is there any proof that war- 
chariots of this kind were so early in- 
vented. Cyrus was the first who intro* 
duced them amone the Persians. See 
Xenophon, Cvroptra. lib. vi. p. 324, edit« 
Hutchinson, ovo. and note 4. 

rD:im^ See under tDJ 

1i3ma See under ^ID 

^bm2 See under m 

tals to melt it. — ^It grows red-hot long before it 
melts, and is known to be approaching towards 
that state by it*s becoming nvhittr, and by it's 
/^ri/M^.— Iron exposed to the focus of a great 
burning ^ass, instantly grows red-hot, then turns 
'wbitUb, sparklu and fi^nes, and immediately af- 
ter mdts,"— New and Complete Dictionary of 
Arts, in Iron. 

With a radical, but mutable or omissible, n. 
I. To increase, rise, swell, grow higher and 

higher, as waters, occ. Ezek. xlvii. 5. 

To grofw, as a buU-ruah. occ. Job viii, 1 1 . 

To increase, as affliction, occ. Job x. 16^ 
As a N. pM:i Rising, sweiHn^, as of wa« 
ters. Job xxxviii. x x. Jer, xii. 5. xlix. 19. 
1. 44. It is plain from a comparison of 
I Chron. xii. 15, with Josh. iii. i c. iv^ 19^ 
that the river Jordan (probably nxMn the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




luiehing of the snow on moant libantis) 
hegao, in • iome years at Jeast, to over- 
floir it's banks towards tlie beginning of 
the first month, our March O. S. and 
continued so to do all the time of harvest, 
i e. till the end of May or tlie beginning 
of Junef . Mttundrdl, in his Journal, 
at March 30, thus expresseth himself 
conceraine this river: ** After having 
descended the outermost bank, you go 
about a furlong upon a level strand, be- 
lore you come to the immediate bank of 
the nver. This second bank is so beset 
with bushes and trees, such as tamarisks, 
willows, oleanders, &c. that you can see 
BO water till you have made your way 
through them. In this thicket anciently 
(and the saaie is reported of it to this 
day) several sorts of wild beasts were 
wont to harbour themselves ; whose being 
washed out of the covert by the overflow- 
ings of the river, gave occasion to that al- 
insioD, Jer. xlix. 19, and 1. 44, He shall 
€om€ ttp iikt a lion from the nce/ling (pRl) 
4^ Jordan." Comp. Ecclus. xxiv. 26. Mi- 
chmeUs (Supplem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 241.) 
says, that the signification of the swelling 
of the Jordan is very unsuitable (ineptis- 
iimaj to the Heb. JD^ p«:i in Jer. xii. 5 ; 
yet the Chaldee paraphrast seems to have 
giveo a very natural sense to the end of 
this verse — *' How thinkest thou to do 
with respect to the wild beasts of' the ^Id, 
which (are or appear) on the swelling of 
the Joitlan?" And in tbis exposition the 
Targumist has been followed by Mr. 
Lo-atk, and other commentators. 
In Zech. xi. 3, the second hank or thicJcet 
itself, above mentioned by Maundrell, 
seems to be called fT^^n p«J. 
As a N. fem. Ji"i«:i A rising up, as of 
smoke, Isa. ix. 1 8. Also, A swelling, as 
of the sea, Ps. Ixxxix. 10. 
II. As a N. H*:i plur. m«:i A valley, or 
more properly, a rising ground, or lawn 
^' riung from the bottom to the adjoining 
hill* Num. xxi. 20, And from Bamoti to 
the w:^ in the country of Moah to the top 
of Visgah, u e. they encamped on the 
rising ground — to the y)p of the hill." 
Bate, freq. occ* >JI (without the H) is 
used in the same sense. Deut. xxxiv. 6. 
^osh. XX. 8, & al. freq. As a N. fc^. 

* 5;ee Haniur% ObMrvadoos, voL ii. p. 214. 

plur. nVM:i The same. £zek. vii. i6« 

III. As a V.^Tobe exalted in glory or ho* 
nour. Spoken of Jehovah, occ. Exod. 
XV. I, 21. As a N. p»:i Exaltation, ex- 
cellency, as of God, £xod. xv. 7. Job^ 
xxxvii. 4. Mic. v. 3, or 4, & al. — of the 
people of Israel, Nah. ii, a, or 3. — of the 
land of Canaan, Ps. xlvii. 5. mM:i Nearij 
the same. Ps. xciii. i. Isa. xii. c, 

IV. As a Participle, or partidpial N. rau 
Fraud, vainly elated, or Wt^d up. Job 
xl. 6, 7. Isa. ii. 12. tu 1^ same. Isa. 
xvi. 6. As Ns. pM^ and miu Elatian^ 
pride, haughtiness, I must say with Mr« 
Bate, *' I know not what the difference 
is between these two Nouns.*' They oc- 
cur together, Isa. xvi. 6. Jer. xlviii. 29. 
As a N. mCi (formed as p'^M from rXM) 
Proud, haughty, occ. Ps. cxxiii. 4. So 
LXX iieepvjfavoif, and Vulg. auperbis. 

^ As a N. fem. mHJ Pride, used for a 
proud person or persons, the abstract for 
the concrete. Ps. xxxvi. 12 ; as ntbt Vile- 
ness for vile persons, Ps. xii. 9. Comp, 
pni Jer. 1. 31,3a- 

Der. Greek yaiu to be proud, exult, 
French and Eog. gay, gaiety. Also, per- 
haps, Italian gioia, French joie, Eng. 
joy, &c. 

In general. To vindicate, avenge, rtctrcer, 
retrieve, or deliver, vindicare. 

I. To vindicate, recover, or dehoer, thai to 
which one has kome right, from evil or 
wrons. So LXX, pvo^j^t. Gen. xlviiL i6. 
Exod. vi. 6. 

II. To vindicate or redeem an inheritance, 
to recover it for a price to it's proper 
owner. See Lev. xxv. 24, &c. As a N, 
bn^ A near kinsman, one who by the Mo- 
saic law had a right to redeem an inhe- 
ritance, and also was permitted to X vtn^ 

fThe ancient Greeks *'had no public officer 
charged by the state to look after murderers. The 
relations of the deceased alone bad the right to pur* 
sue revenge. Homer shews it clearly (U. ix. lin. 
628, Ac.) We may add to the testimon^r of this 
great poet that of Pausanias,-who speaks in many 
places of this ancient usage (lib. v. c. 1, p. 376. 
lib. viil. c. 34, p. 669.), an usage that appears to 
have always suosisted in Greece (See Plat, de heg. 
1. ix. p. 930,931, and 933. Demosth. in Aristocrat, 
p. 73^. PoUux, lib. viii. cap. 10, segm. 11 8).** 
Gotruet** Origin of Laws, &c. *pc. 3, book I. art. 8, 
▼oL iL p. 71, edit. Edinlmrgb. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




dicaic or (vcaigc the death of his relation , 
by killing the slayer if he found hun out 
of the cities of refuge, (see Num. xxxv. 
J9, 21, &c.) and so was a type of him 
who was to redeem man from death and 
the grave, to recover for him the eternal 
inheritance, and to avenge kim on Satan, 
his spiritual enemy and murderer. See 
inter al. Job xix. a$. Ps. xix. i $. cvii. 2. 
cxix. 1J4. Isa. XXXV. 9. xliii. i. li. 10. 
lii. 3. ux. 20. Ixiii. 4. Hos. xiii. 14. 
Huickinsons Works, vol. vi. p. 341, &c. 
and Bo/e's^Crit. Heb. m 7tk2. Masc. 
ulur. in R^. ^biu, rendered in our trans- 
lation kmMfolh, I K. xvi. ii. In Ruth 
iL 20, thirty-one of Dr. Kermicolfs Co- 
dices read 1:>HUD, and nine l^^bHUD, with 
the plural >. Comp. Targ. and LXX, 
and Ruth iii. 12. As a N. fem. ni^kO 
JiedentptioH, right of redemption. Lev. 
XXV. »4, 26, 29. Also, Pric€ rf redemp- 
tion. Lev. XXV. 51, 52. Translated, 
kindred. Ezek. xi. 15. tD^n bttJ T/te 
mienger of blood, he who (as above) 
had a right to avenge the blood of his 
relation. Num. xxw. 19, & al. ireq. 
And because the avenger of blood was 
often defiUd with the blood of the slayer, 
or primps because the people were apt 
to regard him as polluted by it, (see 
Gvsset, Comment. Ling. Heb.) hence in 
the latter Hebrew writers. 
in. As a V. To pollute, defile. In Niph. 
1^3 they were polluted with blood. 
Lam. iv. 14. So Isa. lix. 3. Comp. 
Zeph. iii. I. In Kal and Huph. Mai. 
i. 7, Ye (0er blCD polluted bread upon 
wy altar, and ye say, wherein l[\:h)M have 
we polluted theef Comp. ver. 12. Neh 
xiii. 29. In Hith. To defile oneself, occ. 
Dan. i. 8. In Niph. with \0 foliowmg. 
To be put away, or removed from, as pol- 
luted, q. d. To be pollutedfrom, occ. Ezra 
ii. 62. Neh. viL 64. 
IV, To avenge, take vengeance on, occ. 
Job* iii. 5, Let darkness and the shadow of 
death in?«i^ take vengeance on it, LXX 
tiO^a^Oi avn}y seize it, alluding, perhaps, 
to the avenger of bhod^t seizing the of- 
fender. As a N. fem. sing, with a for- 
mative H in Reg. nblOM " Vengeance, 
occ. Isa. Ixiii. 3, Their blood shall be 
sprinkM upon my garments, and (on) all 
my raiment >nbkOM my vengeance, i. e. 
in hduDj^ of it be ahputd be daiibed with 

the slaughter:' Bate. One of Dr. Ken- 
nicotVs MSS. reads tnhuH 1 have pol- 
luted it. See Bp. Lomtks note* 

Occurs not as a V. but the idea is evident 
from the things to which it is applied, 
namely, Gibbosity, protuberance, promi- 
nence, or the like. 

I. As a N. ^^ The back of a man considered 
as raised or hunched up. occ. Ps. cxxix. 3. 
Comp. Dan. vii. 6. Ezek. x. 12, in whidi 
last passage thirty-two, at least, of Dr. 
Kennicotfs Codices read tsrria with the 
plural \ 

II. The base of an altar, *^ Dorsum suttinent 
altare. The back supporting the altar." 
Cocceius, occ. Ezek. xliiL 13. French 
translation, Ce (sein sera) le dos de Vau- 
tel, This (bosom shall be) the back of the 
altar. But does not this seem a forced 
application of the Heb. ^, as denoting a 
back? and shall we not rather 6U|>posc 
that in this text Ezekiel uses ^^ in the 
Chaldee sense, and adopt the Vulgate 
translation, Haec quoque ent fossa attaris. 
This also (i. c. what was formed by the 

- p*n and the border J was the foss of the 

HI. As a N. y\^ plur. XD^'^a, and, io the 
construct used for tlie absolute form, nna 
and ^13 The locust in it's caterpillar state, 
so called, either from ifs shape in gene- 
ral, or irom it's continually hunchhsg out 
it's back, in moving, occ. Isa. xxjuii. 4. 
Amos vii. x. Nali. iii. 17. And to ex- 
plain these passages I obseive^ that it is 
m their caterpillar state that the locusts 
are the most destructive, marching directly 
forward, and in their way eating up 
every thing that is green and juicy ; tha^ 
in and near the Holy Land theyare in 
this state in the month of April, which 
corresponds to the beginning of the spring- 
ing up of the latter growth after the King's 
feedings, xohich were in March; and lastly, 
that m the beginning of June, mp Ora 
in the time of cooling, when the people 
are retired to their cool summer-houses 
or country-seats, the caterpillar-locusts of 
the second brood are settled in ih^Jetuts 
tvr\"^^, whether the parent-locusts bad 
retired to lay their eggs. But for the 
further illustration of uese particulais, 
I must request tlie reader attentive^ to 
peruse Pr* Hhaanf*^ Ttavel^ p. iS;^ 

%d edit« 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




tdedit and compare with Harmer's Ob- 
servations, vol, i. p. 225, &c. and vol. ii 
p. 466, &c. 

IV. As a N. masc. plur. C:>i:i Vaulted or 
fircked rooms, as of the temple, occ. i K 
\i. 9, andcotercd a^^i the arched rooms 
or arches (vault-beams, Eug. raarg.) — 
unth cedar. 

V. As a N. !i^ A tanlfed or arched room, 
such as prostitutes dwelt in, occ, Ezek. 
XVI. 24, 31, 39. So Fornix, a vault, 
(whence Kn^,Jomicafion) is used in the 
Latin writers for a brothel; and the LXX 
render n:i in Ezekiel twice by ttropvs/ov, 
and once by otxtju^ zmpvixoy, and tlie 
Vuig. by hipanar. 

VI. As a N. masc. plur, a*^^,. Jer. xir. 3, 
Arched or vaulted reservoirs of waters, or 
ratiier drc/ie(f or vaulted aqueducts ; those, 
namely, made by king Hezekiab,2 Cbron. 
xxxii. 30, to bring the water of the foun- 
tain of Gilion (which was situated on the 
western side of the city of David, mclin- 
ing to the south*) ntDob vndergroimd, 
straight to the city of David. So the 
author of Ecclus. cli. xlviii. 17, or 19, 
Ezekias fortified his city, xoi eia^youysv 
^S liecciy avrtjs u^wp, (so Complut. and 
MS. Alex.) nPTEE (EN) SlAHPXii 
AKPOTOMON, xa< u/xoJo/Aijcrg xfijya^ 
US v$ara, and brought in xcater into the 
midst thereof, he digged the hard rock 
with iron, and built fountains Jor waters. 
And Tadttts describing the city of Jeru- 
salem, Hist. lib. V. cap. 12, particularly 
mentions " Fons perennis aqua, cavati 
sub tenri montes, Sf piscinae cistemoeque 
serxandis imbribus, A never failing foun- 
tain of water, t/te m&untains scooped, or 
bored through, underground-f [plainly for 
the passage of the water], and pools and 
cistems for preserving the rain." 

VJI. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. ^y The 
bos\es or umbos of shields which project in 
the middle of tliem. occ. Job xv. 26. 

VIII. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. n:, 
Ezek. i. 18, The felloes or rings of the 
wheels, which do not appear to have had 
any naves. And so, 1 K. vii. 33, ^^i arc 
the felloes or rings of the wheels, and 

• Coropi MnmtreU^s Travelf, April 9, vrith 
Sbavt Pjan of Jerusalem, Trzv. p. 277. 

f Not as the pompous Mr. GorJon erroneously 
renders it^ ^ The mountains were all scooped hu 
For what ? 

"nwn the neves. Comp. below under 

IX. As a N. fem. plur. ni:i Fellifes or ftowf- 
^g ^w^* of wheels, occ. Ezek. i. 18. 

X. As a N. fem. plur. niJJ The arched pro* 
minentjlcsk over the eyes, or the e^-brwat 
themselves. So LXX ofpvg, and Vul^. 
superciiia. occ. Lev. xiv. 9. 

XL As a N. masci plur. tD^i Heaps, 
banks, or ridges of earth, occ. 2 K. iii. 16, 
*' Make thisvalleytD^rrn tD^ii ftillof bank^ 
to stop the water from running down the 
valley.'^ Bate. Virgil, Georg. ii. lb. 236, 
uses crassa terga, stiff A<7tib(i. e. of cartli 
ploughed up) for ridgeq, Sotcrga,Geoi^.L 
lin. 97. Job xiii. 12, tDD^na ^ron n3 
** Your sweUing heaps (^orcj swelling 
heaps rf mire. He means their sweWng 
heaps of words; their kigh-Jlowa dis* 
courses, m particular, on the happy con- 
dition of pious and virtuous persons eves 
in the present world.'' Sa>^^»note. Sfidi 
heaps of mire required no ci^ts to de- 
stroy them, they would dissolve and ixk 
of themselves. 

XI L Chald. 1:1 and in the emphatic fbrai 
Hn:i, Nearly the same as Heb. HU, A 
pit or dungeon, used as a den of lions. 
Dan. vi. 7, 12, & al. So LXX Aaxxof, 
and Vulg. lacus. 

XIII. As a N. masc. plur. with a forma- 
tive % tD^i:i* Husbandmen, "who turn op 
the land in rid^ or backs," Bate, occ 
Jer. Hi. 16, and 2 K. xxv. 12, accordii^ 
to the Complutcnsian edit and at least 
forty-seven more of Dr. KenmcotCs Co- 
dices. Also, Lands to be so cultivated* 
occ. Jer. xxxix. 10. Comp. Sense XL 

XIV. As a N. with a formatn'e \. ^12 Qih* 
boMs, hump-backed, occ. Lev. xxi. 20. So 
LXX Kv^ros, and Vulg. gibbus. With 
the 3 doubled, tD^33S3 iTt A mountain of 
gibbosities, i. e. with several protube- 
rances, occ. Ps. Ixviii. 1(5, 175 where 
LXX 000$ rslvpu3it*^vor, a cheese-like hill. 
See the followuig word. But on Ps. 
Ixviii. 16, 17, I add, agreeably to Mr. 
Merrick^s note on this text, that the 
Chald. psi signifies gibbous, ni2^n:i gibbo- 
sitji, summit^ and KD>2:j the eye-brows ; so 
Syr. HVn:! the et/e-brow, summit (see Ca- 
stell, Le\\c,)', that Bochart, (Chanaan, 
lib. i. cap. 42.) in speaking of the 
Montes Uebennct or Cebennce (Les Cc- 
vennesj, which are called by Strabo 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

rtu— »3i 


yaa— naj 

'Tax^s cpsivy^ a motm^ainotts back or ridge, 
SBtys^ Thus Hyi:i in Syriac is the brow of 
ahUy Ixike iv. ?,9; and that the same 
learned writer olMer?es from Camden, 
that the Bntbh word Krvcn signifies the 
ridge of a movntain. So Mr. Richards 
m his Welsh Dictionary, ** Cefn, the 
hack of a man or beast, a pronumtory, or 
kill lying ovt, a ridge of a mountain,-^ 
Hence in all (irohability — the Cetennes 
in France^ Keoin or Chrcin in York- 
shire, and doubtless many other snch 
names in England^ Scotland, and France, 

XV. As a N. fern. nan:t, or, according to 
some printed copies, and many of Dr. 
KemdcoH'% MSS. nrii Cheese. So LXX 
tupw, and Vulg. caseum. occ. Job jC. lo. 
^' Dr. Shaw, iu his account of the Bar- 
hary cheeses, (Travels, p^ i<38), tells us, 
they are small, rarely weighing above two 
or mree pounds, and in shape and size like 
our penny'loaves. One would imagine the 
ancient Jewish (or Eastern) cheeses were 
of the same shape, smce the same word 
signifies an hill, which in Job x. is trans- 
lated cheese. So the LXX translate the 
Ugh hills, Ps. Ixviii. 15, 16, by a word 
tbftt signifies cheese-like hills." Harmer's 
Observations, vol. i. p. 285. 

D£B. Gibbous, &c. 

As a N. ^ pit, ditch, or pool. occ. Isa. 
XXX. 14. Ezek. xlvii. 11. Chald. Hlii. 
See under :ii XII. 


With a radical, fixed and immutable rr. 

1. In Kal, To be high, clecated, tall, lofty. 
Job XXXV. $. X Sam. ix. a. x. 23. In 
Hiph. To exalt, make high, Ezek. xvii. 24. 
ft Chron. xxxiii. 14. MsOj To mount up: 
Job xxxix. 27. *' The eagle is of all 
birds that which mounts to the greatest 
height.'' Buffon, Hist. Nat. des Oiseaux, 
tom. i. p. 11^. As a N. nna High, 
height, Gben. vu. 19. Deut* iii. 5. i Ssun. 
xvi. 7. xvii. 4. Majesty, Job xl. 10. Hm:j 
fem. with the formative M instead of n 
after the Chaldee form. Ezek. xxxi. 5, 
but eight of Dr. Kenmcotfs Codices read 
nnn:!. ni;ijomedwithaWAciUarf,Prov. 
xvi. 5, with mi the breath, Prov. xvi. 18. 
Eccles. vii. 8; with f\iA the nose, Ps. x. 4, 
with tD^Vi^ the eyes, Ps. ci. 5. (comp. 
Ps. xviii. 28.) beautifully describes pride 

and haughtiness, from the twdHng hearts^ 
strongtiD^ quick breathing (see Actsix. i .;, 
contemptuous and high looks (comp. Prov. 
XXX. 13.) of such persons. But see Mr. 
Bate on the word. Hence, 

II. To be elated y haughty, proud. Isa. iii. 16. 
Jer. xiii. 1$. Zeph. iii. if. As a N. 
mi Haughtiness, Jer. xlviii. 29. Fem. 
r\Ti2^ used adverbially, D in, with, being 
understood. Haughtily, proudly, i Sam. 
ii. 3. Comp. Isa. ii. if, 17. But 

III. As there is a good and commendable, 
as well as an evil and blameable elation, 
or elevatim of heart, so lib rria^ his heart 
was lifted up is once used in a good sense, 
for he took courage, grew confident or bold, 
2 Chron. xvii. 6. 

Der. Gibbet. 


As a N. Bald before, fore-head bald. Stf 
LXX Avafakxvhg. occ. Lev. xiii. 41. 
Fem. nnii The bald fore-hand. So LXX 
kvx<foL>jxv\wiui. occ. Lev. xiii. 42, 43, 55. 
But iu the last Text it is spoken of clotii 
or skin, and seems to denote their yore- 
and outer J or right side, 

I. To set up a boundary, to bound, terminate. 
occ. Deut. xix. 14. Josh, xviii. 20. Zecfa. 
ix. 2. In Hiph. To bound, set bounds to. 
occ. Exod. XIX. 12, 23. As a N. b)2Ji or 
blJj A bound, limit, border. Gen, x. 19. 
xxiii. 17, & al. freq. As a N. fem. T^b^l2^ 
m Reg. rh:n, plur. minii and ni>i:i The 
same. See Isa. xxviii. 25. Ps. Ixxir. 17. 
Num..xxxii. 33. Comp. Exod. xxviu. 
14, 22. xxxix. 15. 

II. As a N. Viaj The mark of a boundary^ 
a land-mark. Deut. xix. 14. xxvii. f7. 
Prov. xxii. 28. Fem. plur. m Reg. nbnil 
Land-marks. Job xxiv. 2. 

Der. Gabble, a mixt language, such as is 
spoken on the confines of cbffisrent conn* 
tries; Islandic gabl, a bound, (see Junius 
Etymol. Anglic.) and Eng. gaifd (end of 
a house). 

p:t See under Xi 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but the idea is 
evident from the things to which it b ap- 
plied^ namely, conicabiess of form, though 
not in a mathematical, but In a popular 

I. As a N. fem.jT^:ia fmd in Reg. njri^ A 
mountain or hill, from ifs conical form; 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




£)r as * ao excellent writer has well ob- 
served, " Mountains and hills have gene- 
rally on all sides a regular descent or in- 
dination from their tops, greater or less, 
longer or shorter, and when separately 
eonsidered, and without attending to 
every little incquahty^ may be said to be 
of a conical or pyramidal shape." £xod . 
xvii. g, 10. I Sam. x. i;, Isa. xxxi. 4, 
For Mount Stoft, and nh^^^i it's slope ; 
on which the temple stood. 
U. As a N. ^^ A large drinking vessel, a 
gobUty shaped, I suppose, as sometimes to 
this day, like a truncated cone, occ. Gen. 
Xhv. a, 12, 16, 17. Jer. xxxv. 5; from 
which last text, compared with the for- 
mer, It appears that i^n:i or )?S:> is a lar- 
ger vessel out of which the wine was 
poured into the drinking cups. It answers 
perhaps to the Greek ^prj'njp, as niD3 to 
the xvifsX\a or Ssirata, Thus Homer, 
U. iii. lin. 247, 8, 

-pipi ii KPHTNPA fniir/ov 

Knpf^ liati^t nit xfvcriM KTHEAAA 

Mn. 295, 

Onov ^ix KPHTHPOS a^vv^afxtyt ^EITAEZIIN 

lU. As a N. masc. plur. CD^i?>n:i, and 
tny^^ Tlie bouls of tlie golden candle- 
stick. These are expressed to be tDnpU^D 
shaped like almonds, i. e. approachhig to a 
conical form. occ. Exod. xxv. 3 1, 33, 34. 
xxxvii. 17, 19. 

IV. As a N. fern. plur. nii>n:o The caps 
or bonmts of the Jewish Priests, which, 
when fixed to their heads, had probably 
the fonu of a tnmcated cone. occ. Exod. 
xxviii. 40. xxix. 9. xxxix. 28. Lev. 
viii. 13. 

1. In Kal, To be strong, poxverfuf, to pre- 
rail. Gen. vii. 18, 19, 24,"^ & al. treq. 
In Hiph. Tlie same. occ. Ps. xiii 5. 
Also, To make strong, establish, confirm. 
wc. Dan. ix. 27. In Hilh. construed 
with bi> againsty To strengthen onaelf, 
exert one's strength, occ. Isa. xlii. 13. — 
with bw To strengthen oneself against, to 

• See Mr. CaUott** Treatise on the Delude, 
p. 247, &e.Sd. edit, where the reader may find the 
eridence for the deluge arising from the form and 
Btruccure of mountaim stated with great prcci*ion 
aod force. 

be stout or insolent towards, occ^ Job 
XV. 25. Absolutely, To ttehaie onesdf 
stoutly or insolently, to be insolent, occ. 
Job xxxvL 9. As Ns. in:i and "y\l^y 
Strong, powerful, mighty. Gen. vi, 4. 
X, 8, 9, & al. freq. Fern. milJ Strength, 
might. Eccles. ix. 16. Job xxxix. J9, & 
al. freq. Also, Mastery , victory. Exod. 
xxxii. 18, 
II. As a N. in:) ^ man, as distmguished 
from a woman or child, on account of 
hb superiour sfrettgth, Lat. vir, which ui 
like manner from vis, strength. See in- 
ter al. Deut. xxii. 5. Jer. xliii. 6. Exod. 
xii. 3 7. 1i;i A male child, as distinguislied 
from a female ; so LXX Ap<rev. Job iiL 3. 
Comp. Jer. xxxi. 22. It sometimes, like 
homo in Latin, and man in Eng. denotes 
the species. See Ps. xxxiv. 9. Job iv. 17. 
xiv. 10, 14. Any or every man. Jer. xvii. 

In Joel ii. 8, 1^:1 is applied to locusts, 
wliom the prophet m the verse immedi- 
ately preceding had compared to onni 
mighty men. It is equivalent to un\ cu:ty 
one, each, in the 8th verse. 
The prohibitory law, Deut. xxii. j, seems 
directed against an idolatrous usage, Vi iiich 
from this text appears to be as ancient as 
Moses, and which later writers inform u« 
was to be found among several nations in 
after tunes, and that too attended with 
the most abominable practices. From 
Plutarch f we learn that the ^^yptians 
called the moon the mother of the world, 
and assigned to her fvo-iy ccpcevo^r^Knv, a 
nature both male void female; and Boy set 
says of Diana, Luna or the Moon, that 
** Uie £s:yptians worshipped this deity 
both as male and female, the men sacri- 
ficing to it as Luna, the women as Lu- 
nus, and each sex on these occasions assum- 
ing the dress of the other.'* (But Qu ?) 
** Indeed this goddess was no other than 
the Venus Urania or Calestis of the Assy- 
rians, whose worship and rites the Phc- 
nicians brought into Greece.*' The Assy- 
rian Venus was of both sexes, and accord- 
ingly she was worshipped by her votaries, 
sometinies in the attire of men, some- 
times in that of women, the men and wo^ 
men mutually changing dresses with each 

f De liid. & O^ir. torn. ii. p. 3G8, edit. XyUutdr. 
\ Panthcon> p. 72, VJd edit. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




•ffcr*. MacrobiusfpVitteT observing thnt 
some persons corrupt that line in yirgil 
(JEn. iL tin. 632.) by reading De& Goc/- 
dess, instead of Deo Gorf, meaning Venus, 
and that Acterianus affirms, that in Cql- 
Vfts we should read Poflentemquc Deum 
Vefifrem, Venus that powerful God, turn 
deam, not goddess,** adds, that ** there 
is an image of her in Cyprus witli a 
beard, but in a female dress with a scep- 
tre, and the stature of a man, and they 
think that she is both male and female X. 
jiristophanes calls her A(ppo^iroy. — " Phi- 
hchorus also in his Atthis affirms, that 
she is the moon, and that the men sacrifice 
to her dressed as women, and tJte women 
ms men, because she is thought to be both 
wtale and female WJ*^ 
It is no difficult matter to guess at the 
consequences of these holy masquerades. 
Julius Firmicus, however, De Errore pro- 
fanarum Relig. cap. 4, does not leave us 
to conjecture ; for, speaking of the Assyri- 
ans^ he says, *^ The Assyrians and part of 
the Africans reckon the air the principal 
of the elements, and this they worship 
under an artificial image (imaginatdfigu* 
ratione) and have consecrated it by the 
name of Juno or the Virgin Venus, &c." 
And a little after — " Whom their com- 
pany of priests cannot duly serve unless 
theyeffeminate their countenances,smootli 
their skins, aud disgrace their male sex by 
female ornaments, Videre est in ipsis tempUs 

♦ Univ. Hiit. vol. iv. p. 358, 8vo. and GuihrtVt 
General Hist. vol. ii. p. 34, 5. 

f SatumaL lib. iii. cap. 8. 

t As the Latin of MacrMiu (edit. Hen, Steph, 
Paris, 1585.) is here confused and apparently cor- 
ruptc^d, I shall give Servitis\ Note on F'irgU, Mil ii. 
lin. 632, which is clearer to the same purpose — 
*• £jt iu Cypro simulacbrum barbate [F'eneru sciL] 
^f^ore \Sf veste muliebri, eum uetin ISt naturS vi» 
rili, qwd Af ^iTov weantj cui viri in veste mulie- 
bri, mulieresin virili veste sacrificant. There is in 
Cyprus an image of a bearded Venus, with the 
body and dress of a woman, but with a sceptre 
and the sex of a man, which they call AfpoJiTo; 
llusc. amd to nvtich th* wun sacrifice in m ftmaU dress, 
tbe %Demen in a muuetdi/u one.** 

Amobiust advers* Gent. lib. liL derides the Hea- 
then for praying to deities, without knowing 
whether they were gods or goddesses. " Consuestit in 
freeibns, sive tu Deus, sive tu Dea, dieere.** TertuU 
Hem, ApolOg. cap. 1 6, *^ Lunus et Luna.*' 

I Fbilocborus quoque in Attbide eanJem affirmat esse 
Lunam, & el sacnficium facere viros cum veste 
muli^Mi, mulieres cum virili, quod eadem et mas 
sstifflatur et focmina^ Mncrek ut sup. 

cum publico gemitu, miseranda ludihria, if 
viros muliebria pati, if kanc impuri Sf tm* 
pudici corporis labem gloriosd ostcntationc 
detegere.** Which words, expressive of 
the most abominable impurities, I hope I 
may be excused from tranalatiug. Comp. 
under wnp V. 

n. As a N. Vli A lord, master, chief Geo. 
xxvii. 29, 37. Fcm. !T)^i:i A lady, miS' 
tress, a title of the Queens of Judah. 2 K. 
X. 13. a Chron. xv. 16. Jer. xiiL 18. 
n^^j A mistress. Gen. xvi. 4, 8. Isa* 
xlvii. 5, 7. 

Der. Greek xufg/jvaw, La tin gi/6<rmo, French 
gouvemer, English gubemation, govern, 

trii * 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
signifies to shave of, as hair, '' abrasit 
pilos** Cast ell. 

I. As a N. li;'»3i Hail from it's smoothness, 
as it occurs in the compound N. t2^*nj^ 
used for large hail-stones, as appears by 
theseveral contexts, occ. Ezek.xiii. 1 1,13. 
xxT^viii. 22^ in which last text the LXX 
render it by p^aAa?ij; liail. Comp. Josh. 
jt. II* Job xxxviii. 22, 23. Ps. xviii. 12, 
Isa. XXX. 30. Rev. viii. 7. xvi. 21, 
. tl^niil'k^ seems a plain compoimd of ^ 
lord, aud W*1^ haii^ q. d. grando do- 
minans, and perhaps refers to some 
idolatrous notion they entertained about 
hail. It is certain tliat tlie latter heathen 
attributed the sending of ^7 to their 
Jupiter, and looked upon any remark- 
able showers of it as proofs of hb anger. 
So Horace^ ode ii. lib. i, 

yam satis terris nivis atque dirs 
Grandinis misit Pater, &c. 

Too long, alas! with storms of bail and saow^ 
Jove has cbastis*d the world below. 

Comp. Virgil Mn. iv. lin. 120, 16 r. Xn. 
ix. lin. 669. and Livy, lib. ii. cap. 62. 
and lib. xxvi. cap. 1 1 ; and see J^aubuz 
on Rev. viii. 7. The learned Mr. Spence, 
in his Poly metis, plate 29, fig. 2, gives 
us a medal, on which Jupiter Pluvius, 
or the Rainy, is represented '^ seated on 
the clouds, holdmg up his right hand; 
and pouring a stream of hail and rain 
from it upon the earth, whilst his FuIm«B 
is held down m his left/' 
TI. As a N. W^^ An union or large peart, 
or perhaps crystal, (Greek x^r^cAAop ice) 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

TD— U 



probably so called from if s smoothness or 
resemblance to hail, Ouce, Jobxxviii. i8. 

Ocftrs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
s^fies/o expand, " i . cxpandit," C<w/e//. 

As a N. in Heb. ::» Thejlat expanded roof 
of a house or other building, such as are 
usual in the * East to this day, and 
which were adapted to the various pur- 
poses for which we find them ubcd in 
Scripture. See inter al. Deut. xxii. 8. 
Josh. ii. 6. Jud. xvi. 27. 2 K. xxiii. 12. 
Jer.x;\. 13. Zeph.i. 5. Dan.iv. 26, or 29. 
In GalUec and Judca, as well as at Aleppo, 
they fre(iucntly sleep on the roof^ of their 
houses, and so they appear from i Sara, 
ix. 25, »6, to have done anciently; fOr 
those verses tell as that, after they de- 
scended from the high place, Samuel 
conversed with Saul on the house-top, and 
that at the sprins of the day Samud 
called Saul (on) me house-top, saj/ing. 
Up, that I may send thee aw(n/; and Saul 
arose, i.e. from hb bed on the house-top, 
where he bad lodged all night f. Comp. 
LXX on ver. 25. 
The flat extended roof or top of an altar* 

Exod. r.xx. 3., 
To this root may be referred iiH Agag, 
which appears to be the common name 
of the kings of the Amalekites (as Fha- 
raoh of tlie Egyptians, Abmelek of the 
PiiiJistines) from the comparatively large 
extent of their dominions. See Num. 
xxhf. 7, 20. I Sam. xv. 7, 8, 9. 

I. InKal, " To assault, attacky or rush upon,*' 
Bate, occ Gen. xlix. 19. Ps. xciv. 21. 
Hah. iii. 16. Hence the patriarch Gad 
had his name, Gen. xlix. 19. xxx. 1 1, 
where not only the Xcr/, but seven of Dr. 
Kamicott*s Codices, for n:3 read 'iJiMl A 
troop Cometh, So Targ. Onkelos ij mdh. 

[I. As a N. fem. plur. rr)i:i Banks of a 
river, which are con^nuMy beaten upon 
by it's waters, occ. Josh. iii. 15. iv, 18. 
I Chron. xii. 1 $. Isa. viii. 7. 
There is a ueculiar proprie^> Josh. iii. 1 5. 
iv. 18. I Chron. xii. 15. m mentioning 
all the banks of the Jordan; forlorn 
Maundrelts Journey, March 30^ this 

• See Dr. 8haw'% TravcU, p. 210, «1 1, 2d edit. 
>.itmtmir% Nst. Hitt. of Aleppo, p. 2, 12, 9a 
«d Bishop Z^«vtf^ po Im. x»i. J . 

t to ^mrmtt'% OhMrratioai} ToLL p> 169. 

river appears to have had several. (See 
nnder hh:) I.) And the same propriety 
we may observe in Isa. vfii. 7, where 
there is a manifest allusion to the riv^r 
Euphrates, which in like manner used to 
overflow all it's banks in spring and 
summer, as we learn from the express 
testimonies of Arrian and Amniianus, 
cited by Vitringa, on the text. 
III. As a N. masc. sing. n:i, plur. C3^i, 
and plur. fem. in Reg. wni, A Kid, pro- 
bably so called irom the remarkable 
manner in which they push 9r butt at 
each otlierl This Virgil has observe^, 
Georgic. 2, liti. 530,* 

Tit^tsqut tngrtttmntUtfv . 

Inter te adrertb luctantur comibot hadL 

^Butting nmth mcherxe ior/u 

Tift kids sport wa&ton.- 

Gen. xxxviii. 17. i Sam. x. 3. Cant.i.^. 

— Thou shall not boil n:i a kid in his mother's 
milk, Exod. xxiii. 19. ** Thb law, say 
some, was to teach them to abhor cruelt]^ : 
but I should rather think it was given m 
opposition to an idolatrous custom me^* 
tioned by Dr. Cud-worth, m his discourse 
on the Lord'sSupper, from an old Karaite 
writer, who says, * It was a custom of 
the ancient Heathen, vjhen they had ^a« 
thered in all their fruits, to take a kid, 
and boil it in the dam's milk, and then, 
in a magical way, to go about> and be- 
sprinkle with it all their trees and fields, 
and gardens and orchards, thinkins by 
this means they should make them fruc- 
tify, and bear again more abundantly the 
following year.' And to confirm this 
explanation of the law against boiling a 
kid in iVs mother's milk, it is observable, 
tliat it is both here and in ch. xxxiv. 26, 
joined with the command of bringing the 
first fruits into the house of Jehorah their 
Aleun; and in Deut. xiv. 21, with that 
o^ paying tythe." Editor*s Note oo Bafe't 
New and Literal Translation) Exod. 
xxiii. 19. 

—Hence Lat. iadus^ and Eng. goat au4 

IV. As a N. n:i A species of strongfy artf* 
matic plant, cbriauder (so LXX iLoptw^. 
and Vulg. corigndri)^ from it's prntgent^ 
inciding qualities, oce* Exod. 1^ 31. 
Num. xi. 7. . 

V. As a N. Ta A nerve, tettdon, or sinew,' 

U cosqpesed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


cooposed of ncrroui fibres, 6c^. Oc». 
;cxxii. 32. Job X. ir.xl. 12. Isa.xhnii.4. 
Ezek. xxxvii. 6, 8. This is a very proper 
And pfailosopliica] name for the nerves, 
tvhtcn are continually affected by the im- 
^ jmisei of the nervous Jiuid^ or animal 

. ^W/«y passing tlirough them; \ihich im- 
pulses 00 the one side, perpetually convey 
uhsations of all kinds tirom the external 
organs to the brain, and on the other, 
by the action of the will or mind on 
the origin of tlie nerves at the brain, 
direct the vqluniaiymoi ions of theunimal. 
TDhat <he nerces are the instrttments of 
sensation and volntttaty motion, may be 
proved by demonstrative experiments, and 
h, I thinkf allowed by all; and that thev 
are so, by means of some very subtilt 

Jfuid derived throvgk them to every part 
of the body, has been the op^inion of 
some of the greatest names in philosophy 
and physic. Sir Isaac teuton was, as 
he himself * declares, of opinion, that 
••. all sensation is excited, and the limbs 
of animals moved at pleasure, by the 
vibrations of a rfry snhfile fluid, which 
are propagated through the solid capil- 
laments of the nerves^ from the external 
organs of the senses to the brain, and 
from the brain hrto the muscles." And 
the learned Boerhadte, speaking of this 
fluid, telb us, that f " it is found to ex- 
bale of it's own accord in an instant, 
not to concrete by fire, but enlireiy to 

' vanish into the air;" 'and infers from an 
induction of particulars, " that the parti- 
cles which compose it are the most solid, 

, subtile, active^ simple fkndjluid of all the 
humours of the body." And on the 
whole, after the best considenftioii I have 
biecn able to give this very difficult and 
curious subject, it appears to me that the 

• " jSdjuere jam liceret nonnulU de spiritu quo* 
d*m ftubtilissimo, cujut ^i {5* aethnihut' • Sen* 
Mtio onmM ttedtaiui'f tS^ mtmhrm mmmaliHm ad vo- 
lunSaUm mnvtntur, vUrationiimt iciticet hujut spiritut 
fer solida nervorum capiUamenia ah txierais stnsuum 
0rzanit adurehrvm (5* a eerehro in mwailos fropagatis^* 
Gtholitttn Geftenile iti Principit. 6ee also his 
24th Qtf. at tht end of his Optiu, 

'f ** Sponte quam eifissimi extalart, nfc ad ign'em 

toMttscfrty sed*peHfhu ik tntrds vbire deprebenditur 

f <frUs koe fitfdum ecmpotuntes esst *oJidhstmm4, 

tpuissimas, mobiUssimas, airoplicusimas, flutdis- 

ftimas ommum iumtrum n9stn c^rparu^^ ' Ifl^tltUt. 

Med. % S7^. edit tertlK* 

&8 13 

nercovs fluid or animal spirits are th« 
flnest part of the ani/nal STEAM secreted 
from the blood in the brain, and thence 
detacheii tlirough ever}' fierrc and nervou$ 
flbre of the body; and that the great and 
perpetual waste of this most subtile fluids 
which is always cxhaluig through (lie 
cutaneous ue^^es, and perhaps into the 
various internal cavities of the body, is 
supplied from the large quantity of blood 
continually sent up to the brain for this 
most hnportant purpose : But for further 
satisfaction I must beg leave to refer the 
inquisitive and philosophical reader to 
Boerhaaxe'% account oi the Brain and 
AV/Tfy, in his Medical Institutions^ to 
Ilallers Physiology, Lect. xii. and to 
Hutchinbon\ fiuinau Frame, ch. viii. ix« 
and X. 

VI. As a N. "i:j Gad, ** the name of a god 
among the idolaters." We find a place 
in Canaan called ^J Vi:iD the touer of 
teuiple of Gad, Josh. xv. 37, and another 
in the Valley of Lebanon *\^ byi Baal 
Gad, Josh. xi. 17. xii. 7. xiii. 5. Both 
the meaning of the idol, and the nature 
of the sei^ice performed to him, may be 
explained from Isa. Ixv, 11, 12, Ye arc 
thry — that prepare a tatdc "ilh for Gad, 
and that furnish a drink-qffering Kob to 
Meni; therifore''ty*^D J will allot ^« /o 
the sTTord, and ye shall all bow doxcu 
niDi» to the slaughter; *-* where the allots 
ting answers to Meni, and the slaughter 
to Gad/* and therefore Gad, or Baal 
Gad, denotes the destructive troops (see 
Job XXV. 3.) of the heavens in thunder, 
lightening, storm, tempest, fiery winds, 
and the like; and they worshipped the 
heaxejis uader this attribute, for the same 
reason as the Indians are said to worship 
the devil^ namely, that they miglit not 
hurt them. To this purpose Mr. Baie, 
to \Vhose Crit.Heb. I refer for further sa- 
tisfaction. And lomp. »iO under n:D IX ^ 

VII. Chald. ^: (perhaps from the Heb. U, 
which see) To cut or hew dowti, occ 
Dan* iv. 11, 20, or 14, 23. aifd so the 
Vulg. in both these passages succidile, 
and ThfodotioA in the former £xxo«{^rf, 
but in the latter exriKocrs pluck vp; and 
indeed the Hebrew sense at' attacking^ or 
the like, would very well suit these texts. 

TiJi I; As a V. in Hith. To auauU or aU 
tack oneself. Dent, ziv^ i, Yc4ane the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




cirjd!m ofJekacak your Afeiniy rfr:inn vh 
jfr tkiinot ciit your^ves (says our tnms- 
ltftioo)/»r ^ik c/cff'/; but tbe word is 
Bore i;eii«ral, and indudes uH asaaidU 
Ott Ntek owo persons tfoin immoderAte 
^f/sacb as beating the breasts, tearing 
the hair, hcc, which were comraoaly prac- 
Xhed by the heathen, who had no hope 
of 4 resurrection, (sec U. xix. Jin. 284,5. 
i&i. i?. fin. 673.) particularly by the 
Egyptians {HerodotM ii. 85.) which 
itti«ht aiford a particular reason for tlie 
Mosaic prohibition. Comp. i Thess. 
iv. (3, 14. So the word is used aUo 
Jer. x?i. 6. xli. c. xlvii. 5, On Dcut. 
liv. I, we may observe, that amoii^e? the 
Romaos it was ordained by one of the 
Iwrs of the XII Tables, Mniieres genas 
DC radunto, neve iestum funeris ergo ha^ 
bcKto, Cicero De L^. ii. 23. j which 
proves what the Roman custom was^ pre- 
viously to this law. No doubt the law 
itself WIS immediately borrowed fromtlie 
Athadan f trans/at a de Soloni»y<rrc leg}- 
lm$, says Cicero J of which it seems a li- 
'etil translation* Let not women tear their 
ffca, or make lamentations or dirges at 
fuerals*. Comp. under tD^t2^. 
la I K. xviii. 28, the priests pf Baal 
TTun" oMOMiled thenuehee with kpives 
aod lances, which was mdeed equivalent 
to c}fitiMg themsehes. Nor was this fran- 
tic costom confined to the priests of Baal; 
the Galli, and other devotees of the Syri* 
en Goddess; ra^YOyraa rs rovs anj^^eof xcu 
TUTt vanoitrt vpOfaWr^P^f rwhyrai, cut 
their ann$, and scourge each other's 
kicb, according to Lvcicm DeSyriaDea, 
voL ii« p. 910. edit. Bened. **' Baal's 
pdcsts/'saysDnL<^tnic/t, **jwerewont 
iocatwidJaik themselves with knives and 
baces, I K. xviii. a8. The same thing I 
was practised in the worship of Isis, ac- 
cording to HeroHot¥Sj and of Bellona^ as 
tLanpridius infonas us, to wliich also 

* Pocter*« Attki. booki. p. 164^ Itt «lic. 

t Adrantage and Necessity of the Christian Re- 
velation, pan I ch. 7, p. 170, 8vo edit. 

i iVW fmfe the same thing. The words of H^ro* 
^«w, lib, u» tap. 40, are •• K«of*«w» U «w ^««, 

riinw fls iUttitt tw IfsMr. While the sacn£ces 
are l»inu%, ihey mU beat tbemd^es ; and aft^r they 
WedoaeiiMiMp.theremaiiis of the sacrifices are 
IkOtaaodoy csf^.% 

Lucan refa^, Pbarsal. lib. i; ver. ^6;, 7. 
— Many authors take notice of the so- 
lemnities of Qybele, the mother of th^ 
Gods, whose piiests not onlyemascnlafed 
jthemselves, but in their sacred process 
sions made hideous noises and howHngst 
cutting themselves till th& blood gushed outy 
as they went along." Comp. under msD 
in. and see Le Cierc*$ note on t K. xviii. 
28. As a N. fem. plun rmJ fVomdif 
cuts, occ* Jer. xlviit. 37. 

II. As a N. Titi A party qf invading soU 
diers, or of such as make inroads. See 
2 K. v. 2. xxiv. 2. Ako, *^ An inoasiom 
or inroad. 2 Sam. iii. 22, Joab camu 
T)n:in \ofrom (making) an mroad." Bate* 
2 Ciiron. xxvi. ii. Uxdak had an army 
(of men)— TJlil» «nv ^n> voho went ta 
war for invaiidb, or to make inroads, for 
ti*t;i here may be a Verb mfinitive.. As 
a V. m Hkb. from the sense of the N. 
Til^, To gather or assemble themselven iit 
troops J as invaders. Mic. iv. 14, or v. i. 
Comp. Jen v. 7, where Chaldee Targ. 
pj^^riDD gathering themselves together^ 
from V. i^D. 

III. AsaN. masc. plur. in Reg. ^13 ap- 
pears to denote the particles of light, or 
c^' the celestialjiuidf moving and acting re* 
gularly^ but powerfully . occ. Job xxv. 5* 

IV. As a N. "nn:i seems also used ibr '' the 
surface of the groiuid> which is cooti* 
uually harassed or invaded by the plough, 

ade," &c. Bate; according to that of 

— Tot adunct vulnera aratrl 
Raatrorumque yrro, totoque excrceoi* 

occ. Ps. Ixv* II, mi^iDH D^n^a'Ti rm'Ta 
(as for) it's surj^e, thou dissolvest it with 


'' It denotes any kind of greatness or aug* ' 
mentation in quantity, quality, time, age, 
dignity^ riche9> or the like, as the use of 
it in Scripture shews.'' Marius de Calasio» 
In short it b used in as extensive a sense, 
and applied to as various subjects, as 
the woitl great and if s relatives are in 

I. In Kal, Intransitively^ To uurrfCMf, ^rmv,' 
become great. See Gen* xxi. 8. xxvuj 3. 
xli. 40. In Kal and Hiph. Transitifelyy 
To make great, cause to grow, bring upj^ 
Isa. xliv. 14, Hepknttth an mK ^^ *^ 
Ha rm 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



•na— jna 

rafU ViJi^ caiiies it to grow. In. i. 3, n^Vi:: 
I bftTe brought up children. So Syntmn- 
ckm and Tkeodation i^tb^i^ct, end Vul^. 
emitrWi. Comp. Iia« xlix. 2 1 . Hos. ix. 12, 
tnd Is«. h. 2, or 3, which may be ren- 
dered, Thou hoit multiplied (or *' exalted,'* 
Bate) a nation (wkickj nVi:n ^b thou 
didst not bring up; (so SyrnmachuM tirXyj- 
Bvwat ro §if^f i oux BjLr/aXvyaf) they re- 
jokt vdthioy before tkee. Or if, with the 
Keii, andf at least ten of Dr* Ketmcott's 
Codices, we read ^b^ we may with bbhop 
Loxvtk translate, Thou hast wuitipfied the 
fitf^MWytiioa hast increased theirjoy; tkej/ 
rejoice hrfurt thee. As a N. in: and inii 
Great, ^en. i. 16. xii. 2, U ai. freq. On 

Cant. T. 13, set under V^n IV 
As 1 N. raaso. phir. ts^:i Cones, or co- 
meal ohsten growing bigger and bigger 
from the apex or pomt, like the Ji^ncers 
of our horse-chesnnt. It is spoken of the 
eonicaijioicers which the Jews were com- 
manded to wear on Ihe four quarters of 
their garments, Deut. xxii. 12, and which 
are exprewed by nr^Jtowers, or flower^ 
Uke fringe, Num. xv. 38. ** Thesejiow 
en were a ?ery proper and striktiij^ em 
blem of the eradiation or emission of' light 
(see under yt). What therefore could 
the command to the Jews tor wearing 
then mean, b«t timt they were to cbn- 
ader themseWes as dothed with the sun 
or Ugkt of righieoHsness (see Ish. Ixi. 10. 
MaL iv. 2. Rev. iii. 18. xii. i.), as liav- 
ing put on Christ the divine light (see 
Rom. xii. 14. Gal. iii. 27.)« and that 
therefore they should walk as children of 

§\ht, Eph. V. 8. * ;" or, as it is expressed, 
am. XV. 39, that ye may look itpon it 
<the-iower-like fringe) and remember all 
ike commandments of Jehovah, and do 

sdly, ts&^y \b applied, i K. vil. 17, to 
the cones or clusters of pomein'anates 
(comp. 2 Chron. iii. 16. Jer. Iii. 23.) 
which hiinghi seven imcqunl clusters from 
the inside of the net'Wdrk covering the 
top of the crowns or <*bttpfters placed on 
each of ^ braaen pillars which stood be- 
fore Solomon's temple. No doubt these 
bimdred pomegranates m clusters, toge- 
tlier with the hundred placed in the 
irieshesof the Ktf^-aTor/r^ all of v.'hich hung 

• Cbttp. br^ei and JBnglUh Lexicon inKcaamUt* 

with their grn or flowers feeing the open- 
ing of the crown, were to represent tic 
Jixod stars conhned in their stations by 
the circumferential density of the unWer- 
sal system. See Job ix. 7, and poi un- 
der mi. 

III. As a N. Viia plur. o^hio and mVco 
A tojcer or turret growing uider from 
the top to the bottom. See 2 Cliron. 
xiv. 7. Cant. iv. 4. vii. 4. viii. 10. ind 
Mr. Bate on the word. 
Also, A kind of pulpit (LXX Bij|Euirtj)i 
so caUed from if s form resembhog a 
towtr or turret, Nch. viii. 4. 

IV. In Kal, To magnify, make great, iXtta- 
trious, or considerable. Gen. xii. 2. Josli. 
iii. 7. iv. 14. Also, To eeteem gredl^j 
set much by. 1 Sara. xxvi. 24. hi Hrph. 
To grow srcat or proud, to smell, tri- 
umph, or the like, Ps. xxxviii. 17. Iv. 13. 
Easek. xxxv. 13.; in all which passages 
the LXX render it by p^%Xf>pl^^n'* 
to speak great things, and £iig. Unosbt. 
ui the last by boasted. 

To break, cut, or cast down or of, to der,0' 
lisk. See Deut. vii. 5. Jud. xxi. 6. 1 Sam. 
ii. 31. Isa. xiv. 12. 

In Kal and Hiph. To reproack, revile, bttt- 
pheme, defy. Num. xv. 30. a K. xix,6. 
Pf. xliv. 17, & al. As a N. fern. rm\ 
A reproach, occ. Esek. v. i j. Isa. li. 7. 
Phir. masc. tytn^ Reproaches, occ.te. 
xhii. 28. Zeph. ii. 8. 

To make a fence, fence in, inchee v^i ^ 
fence, i. e. with a wall. As Ns. "Hi and 
fern. mn:i Afettce of stones, a walL Sec 
Ecek. liii. 5. xxii. 30. 1 Sam. xxiv.4. 
On Isa. V. 5, Vitringa observes, that the 
difference in signification between na^tTD 
and ^ii is, that HDliwo denotes the outer 
thorny fence, or hedge g( the vmeyaid, "ill 
the wall of stones surroundmg it (ip I^^ 
maceria, as that word b often applied b> 
the writers on country business) ; andlbat 
tlie chief use of the naiu^ was to keeo 
offnicn,oftbe^ni, beasts, Thisrema* 
is confirmed fit)m Piof . xv. 19. xxif. J'; 
Comp. Harmer^s Observations, wl. " 


p. 452 — 8, and vol. iv. p. 83, &c. 
V. 1^J and the Nouns ^i:i and rmi ««« 
indeed always to refer to a wall ofstoM^' 
See Num. xxu. 24, aj. Ecchi. s« 8. Isa- 

IviiL i^ 

Digitized by 




rm— Tt> 

hra» f2. Lam. iii. 9. Hos. ii. 6.; wbkb 
expiaios Ezek. xiii. 5. xxii. 30. Comp. 
MkhdU Suppletn. ad Lex. Heh. p. 270. 
Asa N. fein. plur. nfn:i, and JT^^ii, joined 
»riffa }«ir, wdUd folds or cofM for sheep. 
Num. xxxii. 16, a4, 36. i Sara. xxiv. 3. 
LXX in Num. firavXiif folds. As a 
N. masc. pliw. 0*T1J Masons,, xcall" 
makers, 2 K. xii. 12. So the LXX ru- 

From this Root the Pkanicians called any 
iudostd place Gaddir, and particularly 
gate this name to their settlement on 
thesoath-western coast of Spain, which 
the Greeks from them called Tahioay 
tfae Romans Gades, and we Cadiz* bee 
Boekarty vol. i. 608, 734. 

Occurs not as a V. in the Hebrew Bible, 
but the idea evidendy is to heap, heap «p, 
as af>pears not only from the rabbmical 
application of it, and from Targum Jo 
nath, applying the N. wrnttrri to heaping 
wp the measure or bushel with com, Lev 
xix.^c, but also from the biblical use of 
the Allowing Hebrew N. 

I. Asa N. Uf^Ji J heap of com m the straw; 
not a slack, for the Easterns used not 
tndcntljr to stack th^ com in the straw, 
to remam for a ccAnsiderable time^ as we 
do, but to carry it together in he^ps, and 
then presently thresh it in the field; and 
they observe the same practice to tiiis 
day. ooc. Exod. xxii. 6. Jud. xv, 5. Job 
▼. 26, As a heap of com comes up (on 
the threshing floor, namely) in it^s season, 
i. e. wlicn fully ripe. Comp. under an 
and TTD. And if the reader wishes to 
form a dear and strong conception of 
what is meant, Exod. xxii. 6. Jud. xv. 5, 
let him consult Harmer's Observations, p. 145, &c. 

H. A heap of stones or earth raised over a 
body interred. So Aquila and Theodo- 
tion ^fiiuna^, and another Hexaplar! 

version loopa. occ. Job xxi. 32, where! 
we may render it by the Latin tumulus, 
or Eng. a ^(mf6. 

translatioiis. Six of Dr. Kennicoi1*s Go- 
dices likewise now read m, as four more 
did origmally ; the transcribers, I appre* 

' hend, substituting the easier woid rtT, 
which also occurs again vi^r. • 1 5^ for the 
more diflicult one m which they did not 
understand. 1 think that m is a Verb 
in the Imperative Mood, and that !nn;i m 
should be rendered. Repair the limit or 
boundary ^ i. e. restore it to iVs former 
state. For hence, as a participial N. may 
be ded uced PTii in the sense ot rettorafiott, . 
Job xxii. 291. Also 

iim To heal entireli/, restore entirely io 
it's former state, to make a complete cure* 
occ. Hos. V. 13, from which pafl8a|re it. 
seems to l>e more than Hd"). The LXX 
render it ^loerrxvaj shall cease. As a N. 
fem. nn: A curatrve medicine, occ. Prov^ 
xvii. 2», rrn:i yio'^ vtU make a good mt* 
dicine (comp. Prov. xxx. 29. Hos. ^. i.), 
LXX, evsKTsiv tffom, causeth to be well, 
French translation, vaut une medecine, is 
as good as a medichie. For >n*a in >JT:i^biO 
Jer. xviii. iS, see under :iVn. 

To stoop, bend downyjards. So LXX fxo* 
\J/fy, ft£xaa\f/fy, oryfxap^ey, andVulg. 
incurvavit se. occ. i K. xviii. 42. 2 K. 
iv. 34, 3 $. The posture of Elijah, 1 K. 
xviii. 42, was, no doubt, devotional^ 
comp. Jam. v. 18, and Macknight there; 
and so w^ that of Elbha, 2 K.iv. 34,35, \ 
comp. I K. xvii. 2 1 ; and a similar pos- 
tqre is sometimes used by the people of 
the Levant in their devotions to this day. 
See Shauis Travels, p. 233, and Hqt" 
mer^s Ob50r\*ations, vol. ii. p. 506. 
i Hence the Gr. yvoo^, curved, round, (so 
Tvpog er,v wy.oio'iy he was rotmrf-shottl- 
dered, Odyss. xix. lin. 246.) Lat. Oyrus^ 
wiicnce Eng. Gyration, S^c. 

Occurs not as a V. but the idea seems to be. 

To form into a mass or body. 


The idea of the word seems to be. To repair, 
nsfore to it*s former state, sanare. occ. 
Ezek. xlvii. 13, vrliere the Chaldee Para- 
phrast and the LXX, either not under- 
^teidittg, or fiiiataking it for nt this, have 
kenfbU^wed by theVuigateaad modem 

As Ns. 1: and mi A body. Prov. x. 1 j. 

Isa. Ii. 23. Job XX. 25. 
IL As a ,N. . Ii -.^ society or a body of men 

associated. Job xxx. ^. 
111. As a N. 'Ill ^ multitude or congregO" 

tion of men associated together, ox formed 

into ofie body, a nation, a people, freq. occ. 

Sec especially Josh. v. 6. Alto in plur. 

tS^Ji, with a ^ as usual for a 1. Nations, 

peoples, occ. Getu-xxv. 23. Pft. Ixxix. 10. 
H 3 Bat 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




. But in both paseaget nuuiy of Dr. Ken- 

. tiicoifs Codices bave on:. 
Ai the propbtt Joel, ch. i. 6, applies the 
t6rm n: a nation to the locusts, and So* 
lomoo calb the ants cr)^ a people, Prov. 
XXX. a6, so Homer, II. ii. liu. 87, has 
£9N£A fj^?^a-Taufy a£^v%wv the nations 
oj ^vvarmii>)^ I'ees, and liu. 469, l^viowv 
ahys^cov kJB^hA ipoM« the nameious 
nations of swarming Jiie$ (coinp. liu. 
458, 9) ; and Orpheus, De Lapid. in Co- 
ratl. Uq. 94, expressly mentions AKPI* 
AOS cLVhzrov E0NO2, an innumerable 
nation of locusts. See more in Bochart, 
torn. ui. 467, 8, and in Scheuchw's 
Physica Sacra on Joel i. 6. 

IV. 4s a N. fem. nnj Jn animal bodj/, 
alive or dead. Gen. xlvii. x8. Jud. xiv.8. 
I Sam. xxxi. io» & al. freq. 

V. Spoken of the mind, As a N. in:! 
Firmness, sturdiness, obstinacy, occ. Job 
xxxlii. 17. Jcr. xiii. 17. See Ba/e's Cri 
tica Heb. 

VI. Chald. U, m:i The body or midst of a 
tbjng. Ezra v. 7. vi, a. Dan. iii. 6. 

* iv. 7, ft al, 


With a 1 radical, fixed and immutable, as 
in inti;, mn, &c. 

I. To labour or pant for breath, to breathe 
with pain and xiiJHculty, as a {>erson in 
great aiHiction and dbtress. occ. Psal. 
ixxxviii. 16; where LXX sv xOTfoig in la^ 
bours, troubles, so Vulff. in laboribus. 
£ng. translate ready to die, 

II. To expire^ breathe out one's breath with 
pmn and difficulty. Gen. vi. 17. vii. 21. 
XXV. 8, 17. XXXV. %q, 6c al. frecj. It 
doth not so strictly express as imply 
^ath, from the obstfuction of breathing 
that accompanies it. So in the three 
last cited passages it precedes no dying, 

' as being something distinct from, and 
previous to, iL 

n , 

J. In Kal, To take off" or aicay. Num. 
xi. 3 1 . Psi Ixxi. 6. So Targ. 'pDO. Comp! 
Ps. xc. 10. I 

II. As a N. U occ. Psy Ixxu". 6. Jt is ren- 
derecl ptoxim grass; but ^ * it is not usual 
in the Eastern countries tp mpw grass, 
but to eat it down, it seems rather to 
ineai^ grass Jhat has been fatcn flowit, 

f Ste ^A<Vs Travdf* p.it39, Sd eifit. 

TbeTargufli here is remarkable, w;in M W 
*M113 )D Grass eaten down by the locmsts. 
As a N. masc. plur. m Reg. nj Feedings^ 
graiitigs, occ. Amos vii. i . There is rea- 
son to think that tlie King's feedings wen 
in the montli of March, which is the only 
time of tlie year that tlie Arabs to thu 
day feed their horses whh grassy. See 
Hartncrs Observations, vol. ii. p. 466. 

III. In Kal, To cut off or axvay; so To 
shear as sheep, occ. Gen. xxxviiL 13. 
Deut. XV. 19. As a N. W ZTx&rXil^ool 
shorn of, a fleece. See Deuf. xviii. 4. 
Job xxxi. ao. Jud. vi. 38. 

IV. To clip short, or poll, as the hair of the 
head. So lAX xeipsiy Vulg. tooderc, , 

. Job i. ao. Jen vii. 49. Michaelis, Su|»- 
plern. ad Lex. Heb. p. a88, remarks that 
this was done in tokea of great grief; 
and cites Cwtius, lib. x. c. 14, (cap. 5, 
edit. Varior.) in proof that iJie Persians 
did the same on the death of Alexander 
the Great according to their custom ps 
^ mourning (coims suo more detonsi^), ai|d 
refers to Ludan (De Sacrific.) that thus 
likewise the Egyptians himented the fu- 
neral of their Apis, and (De Dei Syr.) 
the Syrians, the death of Adonis. 

V. As a N. nn:i Stone that hath been chip-, 
ped, hewn or polishedstone, Exod. xx. a$. 
I K. V. 17, & ai. freq. See Bochart, voL 
iL 480, & beq. 

VI. As a N. with a formative M, n:M J 
lopping or pruning^ " putatio—coliuca*^ 
tio," Castell, whom see. occ Cant. vL 1 1 . 
The LXX and Vulg. render it n^^^. But 
n:M n^J seems rather to mean a garden 
kept in order by lopping or prwningi 
** hortos putatos,*' TrenieUius, 

TT^ To shear; the t being doubled to ex* 
V press the repftition of Uie same action in 

shearing. Cien. xxxi. 19, if al^ freq. 
DfiR* GciiA. Qu ? 

I. To take awQy by violpnce, to plunder, ra- 
vage. Gen. xxi. ^kS- ^^xi. 3 1, & al. freq. 
Corap. Job xxiv, 19, where see Scott. 

II. As a N. iiu The young ^ pigeons^ 
occ. Gen. xv. 9.— »/ eagles, occ Deut. 
xxxii. 1 1 , because expand to rapine, say. 
l^eigh and iJarius^ but as I see not how 
this can be affirmed of eaglets, and as the 
word is in the active ibrm, it rather seemi 
tiiat th^ are botii denoniiiiated iVom 
this foot| because |>otb ftfe remarkably 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•)«— Dta 



ratfHOus, Bockart (vol. iii. 178.) shews' 
from AlberiM and tlie aucients^ that 
eagles^ though they lay several eggs, can 
rarely breed up more than one young 
one*. P/geo/r#f in like manuer, s^nemlly 
hring up no more than two. The word 
^ii therefore is with great propriety 
used in Scripture for tl^e yoaug of these 
two kinds of birds. 
JDrr. Guzzk, Qu? 

Occurs not as a Verb in Hebrew, but hi 
Syriac signities To cut short, in Ethiopic, 
To att down, and in Arabic, To ampu- 
tate, cut off. As a N. CDU A kind of lo- 
cust (says Bothart, vol, iii. 443), which 
are furnished with very sharp teethj and 
gnat^ off not only grass and corn, and 
f be leaves of trees, but even their hark, 
and more tender branches. But Professor 
3Iichae(is\, agreeing with the LXX 
translation xa/tmj, and Vulg. eruca, thinks 
it means the caterpillar, which from tlie 
sharp $ickU with which h's mouth i^ arm- 
cd, and with which it cuts the leaves of 
frees tojpiece$, might well have it's name 
iTom this root, and which, according to 
Joel i, 4, begins it's ravages long before 
the locust, as caterpillars in feet do. occ. 
Amos iv. 9. Joel i. 4, ii, 25. 

Occurs not as a Verb \ii Hebrew, but in 
Arabic signifies To cut, cut off. As a N. 
^a A stump or stock of a tree that hath 
been cut dovsn. occ. Job xiv. 8. Is. xi. i. 
xl. 24. So in Greek roi^i, from r^iuvw to 
cut, is used for the stem or trunk of a 
tree in Homer, 11. i. lin. 235. 

1. To divide, cut of, or in tico. i K. iii. 25, 
26^ Ps. cxxxvi. 13. In Niph. To be cut 
off. Ps. Ixxxviii. 6. Is. liii. 8. As a N. 
fern. plur. n'»':t:D Instruments for cutting, 
axes, or thf; like. occ. 2 Sam. xii. 31. 
mia fi« J land of cutting off, where their 
iniquities slionld, by the atonement, be 
enticelv cut offirom them. Lev. xvi. 22. 
See Batc% Crit. Heb, 

*So Bmfim^ ** JLa (cmtAle ne pond qii€ deux ou troh 
{fTtifs) — mais dans ces aufs il s'cn trouve souvent 
d'infeconds, & il e»t rare de trouver troit aiglons 
dame un nid : ordinaircment, il n*y en a qu*un ou 
Jt^x,** Hist. Nat. des Oiseaux, torn. i. p. 116. 

t Supplement, ad I. ex. Heb. p. 290, compared 
vith R#cueil de Questions^ p. 63. 

IL To cut, or chetD eagerly, with the teeth, 
as persons almost famished. occ« Isa* 
ix. 19, or 20, where see Vitringa, and 
Michaelis Supplem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 292. 

III. In Arabic it sometimes signihes To 
tlavghter, ancK seems thus used in Heb, 
Hab. iii. 17, Though — o/7e (meaning the 
iuvadmg enemy) slaughter thejiockfnm 
tie fold. TJius Michaelis Supplem. ad 
Lex. Heb. p. 292. 

IV. To cut, polish, as a precious stone. It 
occurs not as a V. in this sense, but as a 
N. fem. in Reg. m?i A polish, polishing. 
occ. Lam. iv, 7. 

V. To decree, decide, Lnc. cut short a con- 
troversy, or the hke, as we say. Esth. 
ii. t. Job xxii. 28. Chald. As a N, fem. 
\h Reg. mn A decree, Dan. iv.'i4, %%. 

VI. Cliald. As a N. masc. plur. pu and 
emphat. w'^^p Soothsayers, who pretended 
to foretel future events, by cutting up 
animals and inspecting their entrails. T6 
this puipose Symmachus, in Dan. li. 27, 
renders it ^vrct$ sacrijicers^ and the Vulg. 
excellently tiiroughout, aruspiccs, which 
is a compound of the old word aruga or 
haruga (from Heb. r\y\^n stain) a sacri^ 

fice, victim, and specio to behold: and 
that this me%tiod or divination was ^rac^ 
tised by the Babylonians (as well as by 
the Ci reeks a^d Romans) is certain from 
Ezek. xxi. 21, The King of Babylon-^ 
consulted with Teraphim, he looked ia 
the liver. Comp. under in^ IV. occ. 
Dan. li, 27. iv. 4. v. 7, 11, ^ 

I. In Kal and Hipli. To breajc, hurst, or 
thrust forth, erumpere, exerere. It is ap- 
plied to tlie waters bursting forth from the 
great deep at the deluge. Job xxxviii. 8. 
(cortp. Mic. iv. *io, and under CDID II.) 
Job xl. 18, or 23, lie (the Behemoth) 
•Kill be secure though Jordan "liTB bi\ tm^ 
ru?>h against his mouth. This circumstance 
is applicable both to the elephant and to 
the hippopotamus, but rather more pro- 
perly' to theiatter; for if the former* 
'* will with great composite walk through 
deep and rapid rivers, provided he cai| 
but carry his trunk, through which he 
draws fresh air, above water, and if, not- 
withstandmg his unwieldy bulk, he wiU^ 
where there is depth enough, swim %m 

* Scttrt Note in hit Bottkal TrantUtion of Job. 
H 4 . well 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



b^— in:i 

■ well as any other creature ; it is said 
{but Qu?] that the Hippopotamus can* 
remain several hours under water without 
coming up to breathe f. It is also applied 
to an ambush n/*/M//^/or/^. Jud. xxi.33. 
i— (Cbald. Aph.) to winds rushing foi-th 
on the sea, Tneodotion, wf oo-efaAov, Dan. 
vii. a, as yirgil, JEju i. hn. 89, ^ 

Uni Enrutjue Natus^e rutmt, cnherque proeeUit 

-—to the King of Egypt, under the no- 
tion of a crocodiie, thrusting up himself or 
risng above water. Ezck. xxxii. 2, Thou 
didst emerge m thy rivers, Tranwtively 
Zi a P^irtirip. Be»ioni in Kal, to bring 
Jorik a child out of the womb, Ps. xxii. 
10, where LXX Bajrarxg Vulg. extraxisti, 
thou hastdrazvnjorth'-to thrusting forth, 
or labouring to bring forth, as a woman 
in travail, Mic iv. 10. 
H. AsaN. pm, and fn;i. The belly and 
breasty Le.the under part of the body of 
such reptiles as have no feet, as of the 
serpent, earth-worm, &c. but move along 
by thrusting first the hinder, and then the 
fore part, of their bellies against the 
frouDcl. occ. Gen. iii, 14. Lev. xi. 42. 
Comp. Root jni. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but from the 
application of the N. bn^ in Scripture, 
and from the plain traces of this Root in 
the ^orthtrn languages, the idea seems 
to be to glow, shine, or the like ; for 
•from the Heb, bm appear to be derived 
the Islandic gloa, Saxon 3lopan, Danish 
gloe, and Eng. gloio] as also the Welsh 
gh 2L coal, goleu light, bright, goleuo to 
give light, &c. in Armoric, to dart light- 
ening. From this same Heb. Root may 

• Sec JToZSctV Nat. Hist of the Cape, p. SI, 
BiW«»s Nat. Hitt. voL i. p. &4, and Bocbart, vol. 

' + The Hip69f0iaimu j^oe* to the bottom in three 
fathoms wather; for I hare observed h'm myself, 
»nd have known him stay there more than half an 
6oyr (plus d'une demi-heure) without coining up 
again.' Capt. Cmw»/ in ^i^'s Hist Nat. torn. X. 
p. 91 2, nott (s>. Comp. under pvp I. 

And further to illustrate Job xL 18, or 25, it 
may not be amiss to add from MaundreU^ Travels, 
p. 83, 2d edit that when he visited the river Jor- 
dan, Mareh SO, ** the water was v^ turbid, and 
iM m^ f U rwum against. For it*s breadth it 
might be about twenty yanU over, and in depth it 
fsr nuudti my ht^^ 

also be deduced the predi y^uuvm to \t 
hot, and x^^^^ ^<''« 

I. As a N. mu.>c. i»n;i 4 five coal. Lev. 
xvi. 12. Is.xliv. 19, &al. 

II. In plur. Fiery Meteors, flashes of^fire^ 
lighten ng. occ. 2 Sam. xxii. 9, 13. Ps. 
xviii. 9, 13, Comp. Job xli. 12. 

Ill As a N. fem. n?nj A live coal occ. 
I*^. xlvii. 14. Also figuratively. An aa^ 
Son, who alone could prevent the fami^ 
from being extinguished, occ. % Sun. 
xiv. 7. Comp. I K. XV. 4. 

Der. a coal. Qu? 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb, but in ChaMce 
signifies lo bow doivn, fall dovn Jiai 
or prostrate, ** inclinavit, incurvavit se; 
procidir, piocubuit," Castell, And to this 
Heb. Root is generally referred the N. 
pna or jru The under part of the bod^ of 
prone or prostrate reptiles, occ. Geo. i& 
14. Lev. xi. 42. Comp. under m If. 

The verb jrrjj (with the n softened into n) 
b of)en used m the Syriac verhions of the 
Old and New Testament in the same 
sense as the Chaldee fm. See Mkkadis 
Supplem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 294. 

^i and «^: See under Hh: 11. and rr\l IIL 

^^1 See under ^ii IV. 

Denotes reciprocation or circularity of mO' 
turn, any rotu?tdity of motion or form. 

L Transitively, To roll, as a stone, by/sim- 
ing it round. Gen. xxix. 10. Josh. x. 18. 
I Sam. xiv. 33. In Hith. To roil oneself 
Gen. ix. at, wnn And he rolled himself, 
volutabat se, in the midst of the tent. The 
Translators after the LXX syvp^vooi^, and 
Vulg. est nudatus, have generally render^ 
ed it he uncovered himself, or was wmco^ 
tered, as if the word were from nV:i, but 
that particular is, I appreliend, rather 
implied m the circumstances of the nar- 
ration than expressed bv this Verb; and 
it is observable that the Greek Transia- 
tion published by Ammon in 1 700, from 
the Venetian MS. has skoXiA-^ rolled 

II. Intransitively, To roll, as the earth by 
it's dinmal and annual motion, i Chron. 
xvi. 31. Ps. xcvi. 1 1, in wliich two pas- 
sages, as the hi of the earth is jomed with 
other physical eflects, I see not WBy iC 
may not be understood m a proper sense, 
though in other texts, as Pa. xcvii. i. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Isi. xHx. i3» the fignrative one may be 

preferable. Hence Gr- xvXiw, xyA< tr/xa, 

KuXifSpof, and Eng. Cylindtr. 
IIL To roll tfp, roll togethtr^ as a scroll. 

/sa. xxxiv. 4. As a N. iv!?:i rendered in 

our translation A roll. Isa. viii. i, where 
Aquila translates it by xf ^aXi Ja, Symtna- 
cAus by rBvyo$, LXX by ro^tov, Theodo- 
Hon by hipispwiui, and Vulg. by librum ; 
all which words denote or imply a roll of 
U book. But see under nbi V. As a N. 
fem. niio ^ roll or volume of a book 
Ps. xl. 8. Jer. xxxvi. 2, et seq. It is 
M'ell known that the ancient Jewish books 
did not like ours consist of distinct leaves 
bound together, but were, as the copies 
of the Pentateuch used in the Jewish Sy- 
Aagogues still are, long scrolls of parcb> 
ment, rolled upon two sticlis, with the 
writing distinguished into columns. 
Hence Gr. xuxAoj, and Eng. cycle. 

IV. To roll, as waters. Amos v. 24. So 
Silhu //a/, lib. xvii. lin 18. AmmsprcE' 
opfvolvitur. Headlong the river rolls. 
As a N. masc. plur* in lleg. "b^ Waves, 
Inlhmiy q. d. rollers. Job xxxviii. 1 1. Ps. 
Ixxxix. 10. Isa. xlviii, 18, et al. freq. 
Otid Trist. lib. i. el. a, Un. 19, 

Me mtirmmi ^muii wntts volvuntur aquantm! 
Ah me! what watVy mountains. r*/// I 

As a N. b:i ^ spring of water. Cant, 
iv. la. Comp. Job viii. 17. Plur. fern. 
iTl^ Springs f fountains, Josh.xv. 29. Jud. 
I 15. Henee £ns. A well. 

V. As a N. fem. n5i 2 he bowl of the can- 
dlestick from it's roundish form, and 
springing with oil. Zech. iv. 2, 3. Hence 
intn rh^ The golden bowl, Eccles. xii. 6, 
according to the learned Dr. Stmih (in 
bis King Solomons Portraiture of Old 
-^y P« »9^>> &c.) means particularly and 
eminently that part of the brain in which 
the nervous fluid or animal spirits are 
formed (comp- ^^ under 1:1 V.) and 
which he says is that exquisite membrane 
immediately and closely investing the, 
brain, called by anatomists fia mater, 
and denottioated by Solomon golden, 
on account of it's yeUowish colour, not 
unlike that of gold, but chiefly from it's 
excellency and universal use in preparing 
the nercousjltdd, 

?f. As a N. b"! seems to ^e^te revdu- 
turn, and so continuance of time; occ. 
I)aiL i. 10, t!:3WD According to. Or of, 

your revolution or comHnuance, u«. imdar 
the care of the chief eunuch, or perhaps, 
of your age; as Theodotion tryvijAixa, Vidg. 
coaevis. Hence, perhaps, Eng, wMile, 

VII. In Kal and Hiph. To exult, Icf/p, or 
jump ttp and down, turn this way and 
that for joy. It is a word of gesture, anj 
denotes the outward expression of joy by 
the motions of the body. So the 13JL 
generally render it by ayxOO^achaji^ 
which is nearly of the same import as tbe 
Hebrew word, and seems a derivative 
from it. Prov. xxiii. 24. Isa. Ixv. 19. P«. 
ix. x^, xiii. 5, & al. freq. It is spoken of 
Xh^ joyous motion of the beart, I^. xiii- 6. 
— of tne liver, Ps. xvi. 9.— of the bones;, 
Ps. li. 10. As Ns. ln:i Exultation, leaping 
for joy, Prov. xxiiL 24. V^ and fem. ni'j 
The same, Hos. ix. i. Joel i. 16., Isa* 
Ixv. 18. Hence £n£. g/fe. 

Vni. With the particles ij? upon, or h^ 
to, following, it imports reliance^ trusty 
dependance upon, Ps. xxxvii^. 5. rm:* h^ b\l 
ID'n Devolve thy toay vpon Jthacah, L e. 
commit or trust it to him; Mwitanau 
excellently, devolve. So Prov. xvi. 3. 
(Comi). I Pet. v. 7,) Ps. xxiL 9, i» ^2 
nin^ He trusted to or on Jehu/DoA, LXX 
TiKitiffsy ejri he hoped on, Comp. Mat, 
xxvii. 43, Ueitoi^Bv svi he trusted on, 

IX. As a N. b:i A roundish heap of stones, 
or tlic like, rolled or tumbled toother. 
(Comp. Sense I.) Gen. xxxi. 46, 52. 
2 K. xix. 25, Hosea xii. 12, '^ As com- 
mon as heaps of stones. See Isa. v. 2. 
Palestine wa i a stony country." Bishop 

X. As a N. fem- plur. rf6^ and nVa The 
round or hemispherical tops, convex with- 
out, and concave within, of the chapiters 
or crowns placed on the two brazen pil- 
lars before Solomon's temple. Tliese rwbl 
resembled the top or cross-ring part of a 
ro^l crown, namely that which covers 
the top of the head, in contradistinction 
from the diadem or lio«p part whicb sur- 
rounds it. Comp. mn^ under "^n, ocr. 
I K. vii. 41. 42. 2 Chron. iv. 12, 13. 

XI. As a N. 7:1 « A globular drop of dew, 
occ Job xxxviii. a8. 

XII. As a N. !?:iD A sickle, from it's cir- 
cular form and motion in using, occ. Jn . 
1. 16. Joel iii. t8, or 13. 

bb^i With the last radical doubled cxpres'^ 
tbe doublitfg or repetition of the actioi;. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I. In Kid, To roll actr and crter. Gen. 
xxix, 3, 8. Prov. xxvi. 27. As a Parti- 
ciple Uuph. Rolled cftcr and over, Isa. 
K. 4, 5. In Hith. To roll oneself over 
and over again, to welter^ xvallow. a Sam. 
XX. 13. Also with tJie particle b:) upon 
following. To roll oneself upon, as it were, 
to rusk upon, and so crush or oppress. Gen. 
xliii. 17. Comp. Job xxx. 14, ^s a deso- 
lation I7:i!?:inn they rolled themselves upon 
me, £ng. transl. so Vulg. devoluti sunt. 
As a participial N. masc. plur. tyh'h^ 
Folding, ot rather turning backwards and 

forwards on the same post or centre, occ. 
V K. vi. 34. Comp. Ezek. xli. 23, 24, 
and see Bate*% Crit. Heb. p. 114, col, 1. 

II. As a N'. raasc. plur. Um2 Some things 
of' a circular form. Rings, or according 
to Mr. Bate, Rollers or puUies. occ. Estb. 
i. 6. Also, Bracelets, oce. Cant. v. 14. 
fits hands 2ni >W>J bracelets of gold. Mr. 
J?fl/c justly remarks, " there is no com- 
parison betwixt rings and hands*' And 
Mr. Harmer in his Outhnes of a New 
Commentary on ^lomon's Song, as he 
judiciously refers Cant. vii. 1, 3, 5, to 
the dress of the sponse; so (p. 118) be 
takes ch. v. 14, 15, to relate to the dress 
of the bridegroom, and consequently 
makes — kis hands are gold rings set with 
the beryl'^tqxavzlent to, bracelets are on 
his wrists, set with jewels. •* So D'Hcr- 
Mot, adds he, enaroeradng marks of 
royalty, mentions bracelets, and Ae Araa- 
lekite, who said he slew Saul, brought 
unto David his crown and his braceUt, 
% Sam. i. 10." 

III. As a* N. fem. nWj A border, limit, 
from it's turning or winding, occ. Ezek. 
xlvii. 8. plur. hiWi Circuits, borders, 
confines, limits. Josh, xiii, 2. xxii. 10, u. 
Thus the Le^xicons in general interpret 
the word ; but should it not rather be 
rendered, especially in the two last* cited 
passages, windings, meanders Y 

rV. W:! with S prefixed, i^i?:ja is used as a 
Particle, Because of, by means of one, 
q. d. by his bringing it about. It is ap- 
plied both to persons apd things. Gen. 
xii. 13. Deut. xviii. 12, & al. 

V. As a N. bh> Dmig, ordure. The f(tces 
•eem to be so called from their rowidish 
form. occ. i K. xiy. Jo. Job xx. 7. 
Ezek. iv. 12, 15. Zeph. i. 17. The Text 
iu Ezek* iv. 12, does by do means in- 

tend that the Prophet was to. tat bn^ 
mixed with human ordure, but such as 
was dressed or baked with that abomina- 
ble kind of fuel instead of coiw dung 
(comp. ver. 15), which latter b * usu- 
ally applied to this purpose in the East, 
as indeed it is commonly used for fuel 
by the poor in some parts of E!:[;laiid. 
In Sandys* s Travels, p. 85, I meet with 
a passage which may serve to illustrate 
Ezek. iv. 12 ; for speaking of the coun- 
try-people of Egypt he says, " A people 
breathes not more savage and nasty, 
crusted with dirt, and stinking of smoke 
by reason of the fuel (stercus hominara, 
kuman^dmg) anq their houses whkh 
have no chimnies/* Hence, 

VI. As a N. masc. plur. D^W:i.aDd CJ^j, 
spoken in contempt of idols. Dungy g6d&, 
Mr. J5a^f justly observes, that " this isa 
name of the idols only, and in the mouth 
of those who thought and spoke of them^ 
Hsfltk and dung, accompanying^ it with 
other names of abhorrence." See Lev, 
xxvi. 30. Deut. xxix. it. So in after 
times the Jews changed the name of the 
idol h'd^l'Zebub, The Lord, the cmtser of 
fluidity, to Beel^ubul the Lord of dung. 
See Crreek and Eng. Lexicon, under 

A further and more particular reason of 
this appellation tD^Vp^ might be taken 
from the bestial and obscene form of their 
idob. Ezek. viii, 10, So I went m, mnd 
saw, andjehold, every form of creepiiig 
things and abominable beasts, and all tJ^ 
'^W:^ fl/* the house of Israel, pourtrayed 
upon the wall round about. Comp. Ezek. 
xvi. 36. 

VII. Chald. bh pH, Eng. Marg. Siomet 
of rolling, i. e. Great stonet. occ. Ezra 
V. 8. vi. 4. 

V^b:i With both radicals doubled to denote 
the continued repetition of the action. 

I. In Kal, To roll over and aver agmn. occ, 
Jer. li. 2 J. In Hith. To roll oneself thus. 
occ. Job xxx. 14. 

II. As a N. b2b:i The matter of the hearens 
in continual circulation, or rather Hie 
whirl-wind, turbo, which accompanied 
the storm. Ps. Ixxvii., 19. 

♦ Sec HarmerH Observationi, vol, i. p. 259, &a 
and Lettr^ de ^uelfues Juifs a M. de VoLTAl&E, 
p. 338. Or, LfUers of certain Jcwi U M. de Yd- 
caire, yoI. i. p. 433, &c. 

• Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Xn. Any light thing rolled orer and over 
dgaiti, or -whirled by the wind. Ps. 
ksxtii. 14. Is. xvii. 13, in which latter 
passage our translation renders it a roll' 
ing thing, or thistle-dofwn, Marg. 
IV. A vihetly xchich is formed for rolling or 
tttrning round, Isa. v. 28- x'xviii. 28. Jer. 
zhii. 3. It is also thus rendered, Ezek. 
X. a, 6. But in these latter Texts it 
seems rather to mean the celestial fluid in 
eirculatian (see Sense If.) with which the 
cherubim were surrounded ; ist, because 
there is a different word to express the 
wheels, namely, tirs&lH (see ver. 6, 9, 
10); and 2dly, because this interpreta- 
tion best agrees with the context, with 
which compare Oen. iii. 24/ Ezdk. i, 4. 
' ^ Sum. xxii. 9, 13. P^. xviii. 9, 13, 14. 
^ ELzek. X. 13, At for CirsatH the wheels it 
waM cried to them in my hearing bjh^^n 
Revolution — intimatingthatthose, whom 
the cherubs represented, havmg each a 
wheel— was going to exert his power to 
brbg to pass the great scene here repre- 
cented : Each (cherub) had a wheel, re- 
vohitioo^ administcatjon^ a share in turn-- 
ing things about, which was saying they 
woold 800D or certainly perform the vi- 
ffoo/' Bate. 

Ecdes, xii. 6, Or *1D the pitcher be broken 
mt the fountain, or ^jVirt the wheel be 
broken at the *i'i^ pit. These words con- 
tain an allusiou to the circulation of the 
blood, and ifs cessation at death. In or- 
der to understand them, it will be neces- 
sary bffie^ to remark, that all the blood 
returned itrom the extremities of the 
Jiuman body by tiie veins, is conveyed 
through the two trunks of the vena cava, 
to the right auricle of the heart, thence 
^o it's right ventricle, from which it is 
dbtribut^ by the pulmonary artery and 
it's branches throughout the lungs, whence 
|l is brought by the four pulmonary veins 
{uniting in the left sinus venosusj to the 
feUaunde of the heart, and thence to it's 
\pfi Vjentricle, whence it b thrown into 
the aqrta^ or great artery j by whose ra 
miiications it is distributed to every part 
0f the body, to he again received b^ the 
yeiitf, at ibeir* inosculations or mser- 

* However,a$ that ^;reat and accurate anatomist, 
^r. Frank NUbcUt, With whose acquaintance and 
friendship I was for many years honoured, used to 
^«ate thit nutter lomewlut dificrcntly, 1 cannot do 

tions into the arteries, and tilrougfa tkut 
smaller veins to be re-conveyed to the 
larger venal branches, and so through the 
rent! cava back agaui to the riglit auricle 
of the heart. See Holler's Pliysiolog. 
lect. iv. § 68, 70, vol- i. p. 60, 61, edk. 

Now tliis bein^ tolerablt understood, 
what seems the most probable meaning of 
the pitcher's being broken at the fowUmm, 
on the approach of death ? Is it not f the 
coUapsion ef the arteries, particularly of 
the aorta, whereby it becomes incapable 
of any longer conveying the blood from 
the l^ ventricle of the heart, from which, 
as from a fountain or spring, it used to foe 
distributed to the whole body, the whole 
earthly house of this tabernacle f And if this 
be admitted, let us consider what is meant 
by the wheel's being broken at the pa, A , 
wheel was used by the ancient^, | as it 
still is in many countries, to draw water 
out of wells or pi/«, and we may observe in 
tlie words of a § learned Anatomist and 
Physician, that in every inspuration of tlie 
lungs *' tlie bronchia or branches of the 
wind-pipe are every way increased both 
in lengtfi and diameter, at the same time 
the puiiAonary blood-vessels, which are 
wrapped up together with the bronchia m 
a covering of die celluhur substance, are 
likewise with them er<tended io length, 
and spread out from smaller into larger 
angles, by which means the circulation is 
rendered easier through titem. While 
this is performing, the vesicular substance 

better than present th« Reader with'a passafineoa 
this subject from Nicbohii Vita by the learned I^r. 
TbomasLaxurenee, the intimate friend of Df. Nlchotts^ 
pag. *i0. " Ex arteriis minimis tanguinem deferen- 
tibus iterconunuum eidempro^cssuro in venamm 
ramos exiltssimosesse dicunt recentio resanatomici 
nullo parenchymate intcrposito. Q\xod paulo se€Wf 
esse NicholMus demomtravit; quandoquidemaiteriar, 
que in tunicas Tenarum sanguinem important, in 
i psas majores vcnas,quibus nut riendisinserriTerant, 
sanguinem suum, funct^ officio, continuo infnn- 

f From this coUaption of the aricries, and tbfsUp^ 
p^lge «/* tb€ cireulation oftht hU»d through the lungt (sea 
the following page in the Text) it4s, that as Hal^ 
Ur observes, Phui0lo^,]fcu iv. § 57, «* after death, 
the veins are found fuller of blood than the arte- 
ries, and that tlie arteries of a dead body com- 
Bonly contain only a small quantity of blood.** 

I See Sh(rw*s Travels, p. 408, and plate in p. 291 ^^ 
and Niehtihr, Voyage en Arabie, torn. i. p. 120. 

§ Hatltr, in £is Fbuielogy, kct. X. $ 1^92, edit. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




or flesb of the langt themselves filled out 
with air, increases those spaces through 
which the capillary blood-vessels of the 

. lungs make their progress, whereby the 
pressure of the vesicles upon each other, 
and upon those vessels adjacent is lessened : 
thus, therefore, the blood will flow with 
greater ease and celerity into and through 
the larger and smaller vessels of the luni^;" 
and thus the lung9 at every inspiration 
receiving Uood from the right ventricle 
of the heart, are like a u?^ff/ drawing 
water out of a jnt *. On tlie other hand, 
" t the effects of expiration are a com- 
pressure of the blood-vessels in the lungs, 
a reduction of the bronchia or branches 
of the wind-pipe into more acate angles, 
a pressure of the reticular small vesaek by 
the weight and contact of the acyacent 
larger vessels ; by which means part of 
the blood, hesitating in the capillary ar- 
teries, is urged forward through the veins 
to the left side of the heart, while at the 
same time that part of the blood is re- 
sisted, which flows in by the artery from 
the right ventncle. In this manner a 
fresh necessity follows for repeating the 
respiration, because the collapsed vessels 
of the lungs resist the blood repeatedly 
expelled from the right ventricle of the 
heart/' B^t on the near approach of 
death, respiration becomes more and 
more diflicult ; the distensive power of the 
lungs dimhiisbes; and the blood being 
impeded in it's passage through them, 
concretes or becomes grumoos; till after 
the last expiration the wheel is broken at 
the pit, the lungs become incapable of 
another inspuration, and so can receive 
no more blood from tlie right ventricle 
of the heart, and consequently the cir- 
culation ceases, and the man dies. 

V. As a N. fern. ni>:b:i The human skuU, 
from it's round or sphetical shape, Jud. 
ix. 53. a K. ix. 35. i Chron. x. to. 
The word is sometimes applied to reckon- 
ing men by the head or poll, as we speak. 
Exod. xvi. 16, An omer rhjhyh a head 
according to the number of your persons ; 
»o £xoa. xxxviii. 26. Num. i. a. Take 

* It must however be observed, that the pulsa- 
tions of the heart and arteries are much more 
frequently repeated than the inspirations and ex- 
pirations of tne lungs. See HMr, § SIO. 

t Ibid. S 897,^8. 

j^ the sum of aU the cangregdtion-^eterf 
male Qrh:h:h by their poll ; so ver. 1 8. 
From this word we have in the New 
Testament the name of Golgotha, which 
is, say the Evangelists, the phce of a skuii: 
In this word the second b is dropt)ed for 
the sake of easier pronunciation » as usual. 
See Greeh and English Lexicon in rOA- 


nh Chald. 

From the Hcb. nh To disewer, reteal. 
occ. Dan. ii. sa, 29, 47. 

As a N. A barber or shacer. Once 10 plm*. 
Esek. V. 1. 

Dbr. GHby Greek yXu^ to scrape, kc. 
Latin glaber, smooth, bald, wittiout hair, 
whence glabrify, smoothness, baldness. 

Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, bat m Cbal- 
dee signifies. To congeal, condense, crust 
over, and as a .N. in that language, the 
bark of a tree, a crust, concretion , ice^ the 
skin^ &c. So in Arabic Iccy a skin or hide, 
to be qfected with the hoar-frost or ice* 
See Castell, Hence, as a N. ^ ^ skin 
or hide. Once Job xvi. i j. 

Dbr. The Latin gelidus (coM), whence 
Eng. gelid, gelidness, geUdity. Welsh 
a£d, hard. &)g. cold, gold, (Qu?) Irom 
it's density and tenacity, dod, dmtd, clad. 


With a radical, though mutable or omissi- 
ble, n. 

L In Kalj Intransitively, To remove or he 
removed, i Sam. iv. ar, a», Tin5 nbi 
The glory is removed or departed from 
Israel. Here, as*nnd is masculine, the 
ii in n^:i must be radical. Isa. xxiv. 11, 
mwn The mirth of the land Tth is gone, 
or departed, a Sam. xv. 19. And do thou 
also uby (masc.) remove to thy fl^ct. 
In Kal and Hiph. Transitively, To re- 
move, carry aivay, »K. xvii. 6, ii,— a« 
did the heathen whom ^ Jehovah rf^:in re- 
moved from before them. ver. a6. The 
nations whom n^m tlurn hast removed 
and placed in the cities of Samaria — 
ver. 33* TheyfrartdJehtrcah, and served 
their own Akim, according #9 4he custom, 
of the nations OWD On« iViH Itt^H whence 
they had removed litem. Job xii. aa^ 
rnpoj^ rh^iD Removing, or turning up 

^ the tower parts or heinis^rj^ (pf the earth 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




mmely) owi qfdarktKst, and bringing out 

to Ike light the shadow of death. 

Cbald. iu Aph. The same. Ena iv. lo. 

T. 12. 

Id Nipb. To be removed. Isa. xxxviii. 12. 
In Hupb. £sth. ii. 6. 
As a N. feiii. nVi:i A trammigration, 
tran^pUuitatioHf or removal/rom one coun^ 
try to another^ Meroixt^ia, Jer. xxix. 16. 
xlviiL 7,11. xlix. 3. Comp. Ezek. xii. 1 1. 
Also, A number of persons or thmgs so re- 
moved. % K. xxiv. 1^, ij. Jer. xxviii. 6. 
xxix. I, 49 & al. freq. As a N. few. 
rth^ Tbe same. See Ezek. xxxiii. 21. 
9 K. XXV. 27. Isa. xIt. 13, & ai. Chald. 
MiT^:i The same. Dan. ii. 2$. v. 13, k al. 
— The ttaaspkntiDg of people or nations 
has been practised by more modem con- 
querors. Thus in the year 796, *' Char- 
lemagne transplanted tbe Saxons from 
their own coanliy, to oblm them to re- 
main fiiithful to him, into difierent parts 
of bis kingdom, either Fianders, or tiie 
country of the Helvetians^ 2rc. Their 
own coantnr was re-peo]^led by the 
Adrites, a Sclavonian nation*." So in 
raudi later times, '* It was the policy 
of Abbas I. (who ascended the throne of 
Versim in tS^s) to transplant the inha 
bitents of conquered places from one 
country to another, witn a view not only 
of preventiiig anv danger from their dis- 
ailertioOy but likewise of de^pulating 
the countries exposed to an enemy f.'' 
n. It is particularly applied to removing 
or turning back garments or coverings. 
Dent. xxii. 30. A man shati not take nis 
father^s^ife, nor nbi^ remove kis father's 
shirty i. e. ^ lie with his father's wife. 
F<»r this b a modest phrase borrowed 
from tbe ancient custom in those coun- 
tries ; where the bridegroom, when he 
brought his bride mto Snechyppa [ii&n] 
as they called it, or bridal chamber, 
spread the shirt of his robe over ker, to 
figaify his right to her and power over 
ber, and that he alone might lawfully 
^ioy her. Ru^ iii. 9. Ezek. xvi. 8." 
Note in Parker's Bibliotbeca Biblica. So 
Deut* xxvii. ao. Jer. xiii. 22, For the 
greatness of thike tniquity y^m lV;i^ are 

• Simmti, Abrcg^ ChroaoL de rHinoire de 
fnnce, torn. L j>. ^• 
f Aiv^y'i Arrolationt of Periia, vol iii. 

thj skirts removed. (Comp* vet. %6.) 
Kah. ui. J, ^'h)m ^rvbx) And I will n- 
move or turn back thy skirts upon thy 
fuce^ and I xdU shew the nations thy 
nakedness. Comp. Isa. xxii. 8. And the 
word for covering or garment being un- 
derstood, Ruth iiL 4, vrh^TiO n^ai And 
thou shalt remove or turn back (hb gar- 
ment namely )^vai hisfoet. Hence 

III. It is a|)plied to the thing to be unco^ 
vered, either by understanding the parti- 
cle ofram (which must often be supplied 
in Hebrew), or rather by a transitioa 
from the covering to the tainir covered t 
and so may be rendered, To trfioooer. 
See Lev. xviii. 6. 8e seqr xx. 1 1, Ar seq.*^ 
pn nM mh, or nimply pM, To uncover the 
ear, is to make a person thoroughly ac- 
quainted with a it^gf aU in^^meats 
to his hearing and understanding it being 
removed. Ruth iv. 4. x Sam. ix. !$« 
XX. ft. xxii. 8. Job xxxiii. 16. xxxvi. to. 
SoC3>^ rvh^ is to uncover or open the 
eyes, either of body or mind. See Num. 
xxii. 31. xxiv. 4. rs. cxix. 18. 

In Niph. To be uncovered. % Sam. vi. 20; 
not that David was here absolutely 
naked, but stripped of his royal robes^ 
and girded voith a linen ephod, ver. 14. 
This Micbal's pride could not bear. 

IV. In Kal, transitively, To discover, re^ 
veal. See Prov. xi. 13. xxv. 9. ha. 
xvi. 3. 'Also, intransitively. To appear. 
Prov. xxvii. 25. In Niph. To be revealed^ 
discovered, appear. Gen. xxxv. 7, Because 
there tDTrbwH vbvk ibiJ the Aleim W£RE 
revealed, or appeared foiiiM. 1 Sam. ii.27. 
Ps. xvHL 16. In Uith. To discover one 
self. Prov, xviii. 2. 

V. As a N. p^:i A mirror. Isa. viii. i ; 
which Bishop Lowth translates. Take aa* 
to thee a large mirror, and write on it 
with a worknuuCs graving tool-^tasd- ia 
his note he remarks, that '< the word p>^i 
is not regularly formed from Vlya to roU^ 
but from nb;» ; as pnSi from mfi, p^i>5 from 
rr^a, p>pi from npi, p^Vi% from nVj^, kc. 
the « sup^ying the place of the radieai 
T\. rh^ signifies to shew, to reveal.** Thus 
far the learned author. And without 
adopting Schroedenu^s mterpretation of 
nio, namely, to render bright, polish, I 
think that p^V^ may, accordmg to the 
analogy of the Heb. language, rather sig- 
nify a mirror, than a ro^ or volume^ti 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




wmnrtfTf snch as we know from Exod. 
xxmvni. 8, (where see Ijc Cierc^s Note, 
ibd edit aod Calmet's Dictionary in 
Looking- Glasses) were anciently 
nade ofpoUshcd brass. But it is evident 
that the mirrors there mentioned were 
small ones; whereas tlie prophet is com- 
manded to take a large mirror — ** iarpe 
enottgli for him to engrave upon it, in 
deci) and lasting characters, an:t^ ID^.fYa 
wUk a workman's grating fool, the pro- 
phecy which he was to deliver.*' Comp. 

VI. As a N. masc. plur. O^rSi, or accord- 
ing to the readmg of the Cowplutensian 
ccOtioo, and of nine of Dr. Ketmicott^^ 
MSS. a^D'bl with the 1 inserted, as in 
the preceding p>b:i, Isa. iii. aj, where the 
Targum accordindy rendeis it nn^no 
Sttd Vulg. specula, mirrors. But the 
LXX explain it by Aia^anj Aeaesjfixct 
Garments that one might see through, of 
the Lacedemonian kind. And we are hi- 
formed by ancient writers that tliose 
worn by the Lacedemonian* maidens 
were so made as to be hijghly indecent, 
and not to answer a principal end of 
clothing. It Vi possible that some of the 
^Jewish ladies, in Isaiah's time, might 
wear dresses of a similar fashion ; but if I 

' mpprehended that CD*i>bi or 0>iV^i sijmi- 
fied any sort of garments, I should ratner 
think that they meant vestments of the 
eobweb kind, a sort oi no-cot crivgs, which 
would not hinder the wearers from ap- 
pearing almost naked ; such as f Menan- 
dercmi ^la^ayeg x^'^^^^^^ ^ transparent 
test, and meutious as tlie dress of a cour- 
tesan; and such as Varro styles vitrcas 
vesies, glassy vestment*; and Jaorace from 
the Island of Coos, where the stuff was 
made, denominates Coan^ lib. i. sat. a, 
lin. 9I9 


-Cols tihlfitne vldenut 

r. ■ ■ — 

-Thro* the Cooh yett 

Too almost tee her naked. 

• EyrifiiUtf cited by Plutarch in ^utMa, torn. i. 
|k 76, edit. Xylandrif describes these girls as being 

Twy<M( Wl« (iays PbUarch) nv tsc^ivixtt; ^inuvo^ 
ai vri^uyr; tvx ^ata an^pttfA.tvm i(aru,^n, a/^' avf- 
mrvveatro xai ovyavfy v/avovv cXcy ly r^ ^ii^tn toy 

t Fragment, p. Sa4» iio.749, e^ Ckrit, 

Tilts Coan stuff was probably a k!pd o^ 
very thin hi/k or gauze. So lidy M, fV. 
Montagve dcsrribiui( her Turkish drcsa, 
says, her swock wa.i of fine white silk 
gauze^ closed at the neck with a diamond 
button, but the shape and colour of the 
bosom toas verif well to be distinguiJ^ed 
through it. Letter 29, voL ii^sp. la, 15 J. 
•But I have said that the Chaldee Targum 
and Vulgate render tz:>rbi or O^vbi mir- 
rors: and Dr. Shaw informs us (Travels, 
p. a4i.), that " in the Levant thcMj are 
still a part of female dress; ibr that the 
Moorish women in Barbary are so fond of 
their oniaments^and particularly of their 
looking-glasses. wlUck they hang upon their 
breasts, ihut th^y will not lay tiiem aside^ 
even when, a tier the drudgery of the day, 
they are obliged to go two or three miles^ 
with a pitdier or a goat's skin^ to fetch 
water.'* And it is certain from Exod. 
xxxviii. 8, that the Israetitisb women used 
to carry their mirrors with them, even to 
their most solemn place of worshi|>, but 
it is by no means equally certain tliat 
they ever wore transparent garments. 
Dbr. Ultimately from this root no doul>t 
it was that || the interpreters of pntdigies 
among the Sicilians were called Galei, or 

To shave, as the hair of the head, beard, kc* 
Lev. xiv. 8, 9. xxi. 5, Num. vi. 9, & al« 
Comp. Isa. vii. ao. Also, To be shaved. 
Jud. xvi. 1 7, aa. Comp. Gen. xli, 14. 
In Hith. To shave oneself, or be shaved. 
Lev. xiii. 33. Num. vi. 19. 

I. To wrap or roll up together, as a cloak or 
bumoose. So Targ. ItHH, LXX ei\y^, 
Vulg. iuvolvit. occ. a K. ii. 8. As a 
participial N. masc. plur. m Reg. '»Dli»i 
J Wrappers, cloaks; so Aguila biXtjUj/imc-i, 
a|id Vtilg iuvolucris. occ. Ezek. xxvii. a4- 

II. As a N. zob^ An embryo, the unformed 
mass, which is, as it were, wr/;^ vp to- 

\ See more to the same purpo«e in Bishop ZnttfA's - 
Note, of whom it is remarkable, that, though he- 
contends for p^a in Isa. viti. I, signifying a t.tirror, 
an interpretation not favoured by any of the an- 
cient versic^ns, yec in his Note on Isa. iii. 23, he 
does not even mention the Targum'sand Vulgate's 
explaining co^:i or cor^ to the same sense. See 
also Sa^kiryy Lettre xiv. p. 151. 

y Interprttts Portentorutn, ^# GaUeoMe ^ ^k»- 
lia nammiimHtur, Ciaro, De Divin. u'J>, . 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




gdhtfj before it gnidiiaUy unfolds into 
the lineunieuts of a man. occ. Ps. 
cxxxix. i6* 
Veh. Latin Glomus, a ball of (bread or yam 
wound found, whence gloittero, conglo- 
mcro, and Eng. glomerate, conglomerate. 
Perhaps^ gloom, glum. Also (m being 
changed into b) Lat. globus, whence 
Eng. globe, globular, &c« 

The modem Lexicons, probably from if s 
resemblance iu ^ound to hi, render it lo 
iftcoke, mix, meddle, intenneddlt, or the 
like: but from the ancient versions it's 
meaaiug seems to be, to deride, scorn, 
tauMt, contend with derision, scorn, or 
taunts. It oecurs also in Hith. and that 
in the three following Texts of Proverbs, 
cb. xvii. 14, The letting out of water (is) 
tht beginning of contention, therefore be- 
fore the dispute ;rb:nn becomes contume- 
lious^ degenerates into derision and con- 
tumely, dismiss it; Targ. Hnp grows hot, 
rages; Yulg. patiatuf eontumeliam, srf- 
ftrs contumely, but refers these words to 
the -person. Ch. xviii. 1, 2'he recluse 
seeks his awts pleasure, or inclination, 
^^:rp be laughs at, or derides every thing 
solid or wise; so Targ. HDYD HzJ^D bl), 
and derides all counsel; Syr. p»oo de- 
riding, Ch. xx. 3, (It is J glory to a man 
to cease from strife, but every fool )?V:in> 
will taunt; Targ. nj05fO derides; Syr. 
p*OQ deriding, mocking. Aquila, £0v- 
CMffhisrau vhU be treated contumeliously ; 
Vulg. niiscentur contumelib, mix with 
contumelies. Comp. Casteli, and Schui- 
tensDe Defect Ling. Heb. § 47, & seq. 

From ^^:i in the sense here given may be 
derived the Greek yeKoM to laugh. 


*' To skine, glister, glisten, (Germ.) blincken. 
Caut.iv. I, IJCX a^£>taAt>f dij(ray. Cant. 
vL 5, LXX avifa^i^av. Which glisten 
(niteiit) from mount Gilead. Chald. \srhy 
bald. iVhat is bald ^lioes, or glistens.'* 
Thus Cocceius in bb Lexicon. And this 
interpretaetion on the whole appears the 
best. For observe tliat the bnde's hair 
is compared not merely to the long curled 
hmr (see Scheuchzer) of the eastern geats, 
but to a fiock of goal» glistetdngfrom 
mount Gilead; in allusion not only to 
it's glossiness, but also to the numerous 
ringlets or tressa into which it was bro« 

* ken, and which adorned the head of Ae 
bride, as the glistening goats did the sides 
and precij>ices of the mountain. Comp. 
Cant. vii. 5^ or 6, and under Tiwp IIL 
The Ro6t occurs oiily in Cant. iv. i . vi, 5. 

Der. Gloss, gbssy, glisten, glister. Also, 
Glass. iM.glisco to wax fat, and glisten. 
Perhaps Lat. glacies, ice, whence glacial, 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but tbe idea 
appears to he, full, copious, abundant, or 
the like, particularly as water, whence 
the Arabic has a root tsj whidi signifies 
to abound, be copious, flow together, as 
water, " multus fuit vel cvasit, peculia- 
Titer aqua in puteo, confluxit.'' CastelL 
Lexic. Heptag. Hence likewise the Sy- 
riac tDDJ to befall, and tlie Greek yefMo, 
'/suLi^^M to be fulL Comp. also D'DU^it 
among tlie Pluriliterals in M. 

L As. a Particle, 0:1 denoting abundance^ 
increase or emphasis. It may be rendered 

I. Over and above, moreover, also, even. 
freq. occ. 

1. Repeated several times it answers to the 
Latm, cdm, twn; tarn, qudm; and mav 
be rendered into English by the words 
both — and; or as well — as. See Gem 
xxiv. 25. Jud. viif. %%. As — fo, Isa. 
Ixvi. 4. Joined with a negative particle. 
Neither — nor. Num. xxiii 25. 

3. tDW2 A compound of 1 in, m for lum 
that, and tD^ even. Inasmuch as etemp 
since even, in eo qu6d etiam, Montanus. 
occ. Gen. vi. 3. 

n. As a N. tD:i^ A pond, a pool, an ahvn* , 
dance or conflux of water. Exod. vii. ro. 
Ps. cvii. 35, & al. U«3i >d:i». Ponds fir 
Hxefish, Vivaria. Isa. xix. 10. 

in. A kind of plant growing about pools, 
and itself abounding in moisture, a reed 
or bulrush, occ. Jer. li. $%; but the 
LXX render it by Sv5^ftar«, collections, 
of water namely, and the Vulg. by stag- 
n^, pools. 

IV. AsaN. fD:i» 

1. A caldron, or great kettle, holding a large 
quantity of water, occ. Job xli. jd, or 20. 

2. A large kind of rush, a bulrush, occ. Isa. 
ix. 14. xix. 15. Iviii. 5. Also, A rope 
made of such rushes. Thus the Greek 
cx9i>0f, which properly signifies a bul- 
rush, is also used for a rope^ And Has* 
selquist ^Voyages» p. 97^) oks^vet, tiiat 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




vt Ac letves of one sort of reed$ which 
grow neur the Nile, the (modern) Egyp- 
tians make rapfs, " They lay them in 
water," says he, '* h'ke hemp, and then 
nak^e good and strong); cables of them, 
which with the bark (inte:»urtentura) of 
the date tree, are almost the only cable 
Ked in the Nile" occ. Job xl. 26, or 
sli. 2. jyilt or canst thou put p:« a rope 
tn Ais nose, i. e. ip a hole bored through 
hh nose, in order to lead him about and 
nanage him? Comp. under rm III. 

T. As a N. nojD see under TOi. 


h To supvp, swallow, occ. m Hiph. Gen. 
' axiv. 1 7, ^3*H>oin Let me sup, give me a 
gup; LXX tarorirov \lz, let me arink. In 
Kal, spoken of the Arabian war-horse, 
occ. Job xxxix. 24, WJth shaking and 
quivering p» «d:i' he swalloweth the 
graundf and believeth not that it is the 
muAd of the trumpet. Shall we in this 
imssage prefer the proper or the figura- 
tive sense of swaUowingf It is not im- 
probable that a high-spirited horse mi^^ht 
Irom eagerness gnaw, and so swallow 
the ground. But is not the raetapho- 
Ileal sense more noble, and better suited 
to the context ? Namely, that while the 
florae stands shaking and quivering, he is 
in fancy swallowing the space l^tween 
biroself and the enemy's troops; and 
when the trumpet sounds, he can scarcely 
'believe it for joy. 

** Tht ground he noaltetvs in his forious heat, 
Hk eager booft the di*tamt cbampain beat.'* 


Bockart Hieror. Part i. p. 144, to illus- 
trate the Heb. expression produces this 
Arabic one, fiHiw wr\thiK CDnnl>H The 
horse devoured thegromidyL e. ran swii^ly 
oivrt^. Com{>. Castell Lex. in tjnh AK. 
And thoogfa it must be owned that Job 
xxzix. 24, hi this view contmns a very 
bold figure, yet even an English poet of 
eminence has applied the same to hunt- 

*" And o'er the lawn , 

fa fancv *tpall9win^ up the tpace between, 

Pour all your apjeed " 

TuoMtoM^t Autumn, lin. 48^ 

II. As a N. «DA The Egyptian reed or pa- 
pyrus^ so called from it's remarkably sup- 
pwg up Ch« water in wbiek it gr (^s, ae- 

cording to that of Job viii. if, Witt the 
HDJ papyrus grow without mud? occ. 
Exod. ii. .3. Job viii. 11, (in both which 
passa<!;es the LXX render it waitvpo^ 
papyrus). Isa. xviii. 2. xxxv. 7. ** Of the 
many travellers into Egypt, Alpinns" 
says" Abh^ IVitickelsMny (Critical Ac- 
count of Herciiluneura, pag. 82.) *' is the 
only one who has given us an exact de- 
scription of this plant. It grows on the 
buitks of the Nile, and in marshy gr6unds, 
Tlic stalk rises to tlie height of six or se- 
ven cubits (besides about two under wa« 
ter). Tiiis stalk is triangular, and termi- 
nates in a crown of small fikimetHs, re- 
sembling hair, which the ancients used 
to compare to a thyrsus. This reed, com- 
monly called the Egyptian reed, was of 
the greatest use to the mhalNtants of the 
country where it grew; the pith con- 
tained in tlie stalk serving tliem for food, 
and the woody part to build vessels with, 
whidi vessels are to be seen On the en- 
graven stones and other monuments of 
Egyptian antiquity. For this purpose 
they made it up, Hke rushes, into bundles, 
and by tying these bundles together, gave 
their vessels the necessary shape and soli- 
dity." *' The ve^els of bulrushes or papy- 
rus that are mentioned both in sacred 
(Isa. xviii. 2.) and profane hbtory (says 
Dr. Shaw, Travels, p. 43 7.) were no 
other than large fabricks of the same 
kind with that of Moses (Exod. iL 3,), 
which, from the late introduction of 
plank, and stronger materials, arc now 
laid aside. Thus Pliny (lib. vi. cap. 16.) 
takes notice of the Naves papyraceas, 
armamentaque Nili, Ships made of papy- 
rus, and the equipments of tlte Nile; and 
(lib. xiii. cap. 1 1.) he observes. Ex ipsi 
quidem panyro navigia texunt. Of the 
papyrus itself they construct sailing-vessels, 
Herodotus and Diodorus have recorded the 
same fact ; and among the poets, Lucam 
(lib. iv. lin. 136.), Conseritur bibula 
Memphitis cymba papyro,*' the Mem- 
phian or Egyptian boat is made of the 
thirsty papyrus; where the epithet W- 
bul& drinking, soaking, thirsty, is partico-* 
larly remarkable, as corresponding witk 
great exactness to the na^re of the phint^ 
and to it's Hebrew name HOJ). 

Occurs not asa V« in Hcb. but in themly^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




bieical Ghaklee signifies, To be contracted, 
aod in this seose the Participle pchil "i^: 
appeals to be used in tlie Chaldee Tar- 
gum 00 Jud. iii. 1 5. XX. 16. 
1. laJ occ. Jud. iii. 10, where it is generally 
Mipposed to (ieoote some measure of length, • 
but what, tb uQcertaio. Some say it is I 
the ikorter cubit, which tliey make equal 
to fifteen inches, or the length of the arm 1 
firoffi the elbow to the begionmg of the 
fingers. But where else is this cubit! 
meutiooed? The LXX and Theodotlon 
render it by trviSafj.r,s a span, which is 
equal to nine inches. But if the sacred 
imtorian meant to express a span, why 
pot employ the term n*lt used elsewhere 
in this sense? But **whaf," says Michae- 
a* (Supplem. ad Lex. Ileb. p. 325.), '* if 
IDJ be no measure at aU» and if the 
words ought to be translated it's length 

facet toward the East (Eng. marg); or 
with their faces looking; toward the FM\t^ 
and shall gathtr the captixity as sandi 
And accordmgly, in tJie \ tirth year after 
tJie taking and destrurtion of Jeru^aiem, 
whilst Nebuchadnezzar was engaged in 
the siege of Ture, some of tlie Chaldeans, 
probably under Nebuznradan, turned 
eastward, 'fell upon the Amimmites, Mo^ 
abites, Edomites, and Arabians, executed 
the predictions of the propiiets Amos> 
Jeremiali, Zephaniah, and Lzekiel upon 
them, and carried many of tbem uito 
captivity* See Amos i. 14, 15. Jer. 
ch* xxvii. xxviii. xlviii. xUx. Zeph. ch. ii. 
Ezek. ch. xxv. Userii Annates, Anno 
ante iEram Christ. 585, and Piidcautn 
Connect, vol. i. p. 89, jst edit* 8vo. 

Anno 564. 

eoQtracted, meaning that the sword was ' Denotes retribution or return* 

dorter than usual ?*' j I. In Kal, To yield or return their flowers 

11. As a N. masc. plur. CDno: Eng. trans- 
lat. Gammadimg, Theodotion TaiJ^fMLhiyi., 
Ewk. xxvii. J I , Probably these were 
the inhabitants of the country about Tri^ 
poH in Syria, formerly called the Ay^ory 
or Elbow of Phenicia, from il*s projecting 
Mto the sea in t hat contracted form. See 
Afe's Syoops. in loc. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
the cognate HDl signifies To appear, and 
* a N. The extant or conspicuous part of 
«^iw^». As a N. fern. In Reg. noJlD. 
Once, Hah. i. 9, where the Targum ren- 
<fci5 Dn>3a nnio by X^^'^t^^ i»apo the op- 
position, or opposed look of their faces; 
Syr. by prpBHi Hitn the look of their 
faces', LXX, by ay^BrriXOra^ xapOiruyKois 
*w«f , opposing with their faces ; Sym- 
f^ckus, by ij wpocro^ii tutv wpocwKvuv av- 
tm, the aspect or direction of their faces; 
MonianuM, by oppositio fkcierum eorum, 
the opposition of their faces-; so Eng. 
nar|in. It should seem therefore that 
the idea of the word is the bcin^ opposed 
or lojIoMg opposite to. And this makes a 
veiy good and true scnse> for thus the 
whole Fersc may be rendered. It (ihe 
nation of the Chaldeans^ vcr. 6.) shall f 
*U comt for rapine^ the opposition of their 

* See B^thmiib Sapi>tem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 331. 

\ Two of Dr. KmMic0if% Codices here tmAi/^ 

•» three more did originally. But comp. n^a vcf. J 5* 

or fruits to the earth, as vegetables do. 
Isa. xviii. 5, For before the harvest, xvheti 
the bud is perfect, and the sour grape ?Da 
nv3 TT^ shall be returnmg (six of Dr. 
Kcnnicotfs read fully ^O J ) the flouer or 
blossom, namely to the ground. The 
LXX have here excellently rendered it 
by s^a,vQrj(rri av0o^ shall shed ifs blossom. 
In like manner ^0:1 is used, Num. xvii. 
8, for Aaron* % rod miraculously yielding 
almonds, and expresses that this fact 
was as really performed by the imme- 
diate power of God, as if the fruit had 
been produced from the earth by the 
natural process of vegetation, aud then 
returned back to it. 
IL To wean a child. When used as a V. 
active in this sense, it is always applied 
either to the mother, as i Sam. i. 23, 24. 
Hos. i. 8, or to the woman. viho suckles 
the child, as i K. xi. 20, who then drop it 
from their breast (as it were), and return 
it to the father. There is in thb histance 
a very evident and striking resemblance 
between the vegetable and.animal world. 
In Niph. To be weaned, as a child. Gen. 
xxi. 8. t Sam. i. 22. 
III. To return, requite, recompense, in what- 
ever manner, wliether evil for evil, good 
for evil, evil for good, or good for good. 
See Gen. 1. 15, 17. (comp. cli. xxxvii. a.) 

\ S^ Josifii/Sf Ant. lib. z. cap. 

9, §7. 

I San; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1 Sam. xxiv. 18. iSam. xix. 36. iCliroD. 
XX. II. Joel Hi. 9. 

Asa N. Vl»:i, andVo: Ret rilmi ion, re- 
compense, requital, whether in a good or 
bad sense. Prov. xix. 17, And he will 
•» repay i!?d:i his recompense to him, Ps. 
xxvni. 4. Isa. hvi. 6. Joel ni. x)r iv. 4, 
& at. Fcm. nbiDi The same, a Sam. 
xix. 36, & al. Stockius inferprets this 
Root in some passaj^cs, si7/fpft/ to do or 
confer good or evil; and Bate says, 
" the word is to yield fruit good or bad, 
the doing i^ood or hurt to others, which 
IS the fruit of our actions; and to make a 
return or retaliate is rather the conse- 
quence than the sense of the word." 
Let us therefore consider the principal 
passages, besides those above cited, which 
are produced for thb supposed simple or 
absolute sense. 
»st, Of the Verb. Ps. xiii. 6, I icill sing 
unto Jehovah *^i^ tei ^3 because he hath 
recompensed or rewarded me. Observe 
the Messiah is the speaker, and comp. 
ps. xviii. 21. So Ps. cxvi. 7. 
Prov. xxxi. \2, innVo:! She mil requite 
him good and not evil, i. e. in return for 
bis love and confidence in her, vcr. 1 1 . 
Isa. Ixiii. 7, According'to all that Jehmah 
hath requited or rewarded us, and the 
great goodness toxcard the house of Israel 
uhich he hath requited to them — vcr. 8, 
for he said, surely they are my people, 
children that will not lie; so he was their 

Ps. vii. it If I have rewarded evil to him 
that was at peace with me, i. e. tVi rctttm 
for his peaceableness. 
Prov. in. 30, Strive not with a man with- 
out cause, rrn li>D: «b CD« s^trely (i. e. if 
thou dost) he returneth thee evil, LXX 
ttijri « EfycitrrfTat Tcaxdv lest he work thee 

Isa. iii. 9, For they iVoi have rewarded 
evil to themselves, they have procured 
their own punishment. Comp. ver. 1 1. 
adly. Of the N. Jud. ix. 16, And have done 
to him V1> Vid:d as the reward of his 
hands, i. e. as Li^ doings deserved, Comp. 
Isa. iii. II. 

2 Chron. xxxii. 2c, Btd llczckiah ren* 
dered not again Y7)^ Vi^^3 according to 
the recompense tu him. Hezekiah's for- 
mer piety had been rewarded by Go»! 
(sc^ ver.' «4. 2 K. xx. 5. xviii, 5 — 7. 

114 •)aa-Y»3 

2 Chron. xxxi. at.) but be made not a 
suitable return for those benefits. 
Ps. ciii. 2, Bless the Lord, O my soul, and 
forget not al^V7^r^^ his recompenses, i. e. 
how he hath rewarded thee ; Christ b 
here the speaker. See above, Ps. xiii. 6, ficc. 
So Ps. cxvi. 1 2, in an irregular (Cbaldak) 
form, \"^Vio;n his recompenses. 

IV. As a N. i'o:! A camel, from the re* 
vengeful temper of that animal, which 
Bochart shews to be so remarkable as 
even to become a proverb among those 
nations who are best-aoqitainted with it s 
jrature. Among other pa.^sage8 from 
ancient writers, he dies from Basil (who 
was himself a native of Cappadocia, who 
travelled into Syria, Egypt, and Libya, 
and was afterwards Bishop of Caesarea 
in Palestine), " To ^f rwy Kafji^tiXtor (xnj- 
a-iKoxov, xai fiapvu^rivi, xai Btapxtf w^og 
ocr/jjy, ri av fji.ifUTfO'a.a^ai rosy ^aAacr7ict7 
$vvairo } But w hat marine animal can 
emulate the Camel* s resentment of m- 
juries, and his steady and unrelenting 
anger t* The reader will be well entei- 
tained by consulting the excellent and 
learned Bochart himself on thb animal, 
vol. ii. 75, &c. Gen. xxiv. 11, & al. 

V. It is probable that the heathen Moabifes 
worsiiipped their arch-idol, the heavens, 
under this attribute of causing a return of 
the fruit of anhnuls and vegetables. For 
biDJ n^a the Temple of Retribution it 
mentioned Jer. xlviii. 23, as a place in 
their territories. 

Der. The Heb. name of a camel has passed 
not only into all the eastern, but into 
the western languages. It was long ago 
rightly observ^ by Farro (De liug. 
Lat. lib. iv.) '• Catnelus suo nomine Sy- 
riaco m Latium venit. The camel came 
into Ijitium with his Syriac u^mt,'* 
Hence also camlet, n stuff tbrmeriy made 
with earners hair. - 

Occurs not in the Hebrew Scriptures as a 
V. but in the Chaldee and Syriac soni- 
fies. To dig, to dig up, &c. Hence* as a 
N. fou A pit. So the LXX Bo9^»f. 
Once, Eccles. x. 8. 

Denotes finishing, making an end of ^ fmiling^ 
and has the same senses both in Ch»Kiee 
and Syriac. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




1. tn a food sense, To perform, finish, ^cr- 
Jectj complete, occ. Ps. Ivii. 3. cxxxvih. 8. 
Cbald. As a N. Vtfi Consuntmatey per* 
feet, complete, occ. E«ra vii. 12, where 
it may be best referred to*i*)D a Stnbc, 
so Vulg. Scribae-^doctissimo, amost learn- 
ed Scribe, 

H. In a bad sense, inttabsitively, To fail, 
(;ome to an end, occ. Ps. xii. 2, (So 
LXX «xA«A9nr«y, and Vulg. defecit.) 
ixxvii. 9. And thus it may be under- 
stood also, Ps. vii. 1 o, Let the wickedness 
bf the mcked come to an end ; or else 
iu a transHive sense. Let evil or mischief 
consume, or put an end to, the wicked. 
The 'Farg. LX^, and Vulg; take it in 
the former view. 

I. As a V. in Kal, folld^t^ed by thfe particles 
hr or 13;3 To protect, defend, Isa. xxxi. 
c. Zecii. ix. r^. xii. 8, v^here LXX 
vupoLTffi^uj to shield, 

n. As a N. p /f garden inclosed with d 
fence, an inclosed garden. So no doubt 
the Eng. * garden b related to the Verb 
guard, frcq. or-". Fcm. n3i and in Rcgi 
rw^ The same. Esth. i. j. Cant. vi. 10, 
& al. freq. 

Gen. ii. 8, Jnd Jehovah Alcim planted p 
a garden eastward in Eden; surely not 
for the purposes of a mere Mahometan 
paradise, but as a school of religious in-: 
struction^o our first parents. Many ar- 
guments might be aaduced in confirma- 
tion of ihb truth. — Such a method of 
teaching, by the emblems of paradise, 
was' suited to the nature of man, who is 
capable of information concerning spiri- 
tual things, by analogy, from outward 
and sensible objects* It was also agree- 
able to the ensuing dispensations of God, 
who in that religion which commenced 
on the Fall, and was in substance rein- 
stituted by Moses, did instruct his peo- 
ple in spiritual truths, or the good things 
to come, by sensible and visible objects, 
rites, and ceremonies ; by the Cherubim, 
Gen. iii. 24 ; by sacrifices, Gen. iv. 4 ; 
(comp. Heb, xi. 4.) by the distinction of 
clean and unclean animals. Gen. vii. 2 ; 
by abstinence from blood. Gen. ix. 4 ; 
by the institution of priests, altars, burnt- 
omrings, drink-oiferuigs, holy washings*" 

• Sec Junius Ecymol. Anglican* in Gaw, Gab.- 
BCK, and UftCHAHo. 

&c. Gen. xiv. 18. (comp.Exod. xxiv.5.) 
Gen. viii. 20. xxii. 13. xxxv. 2j 14. And 
even under the Christian state, much of 
our religious knowledj^e is communicated 
to us partly by the Scriptures referring 
us for ideas of spiritual and heaven I j 
things to the visible works of God's crea- 
tion, to the emblems of paradise^ and to 
the types of the patriarchal and Mosdic 
dispensations; partly by the ordinance of 
the sabbath-day ; and panlv by the twd 
sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's 

' Supper, which are outward and visible 
signs of inward and spiritual benefits. 
it is further manifest, that two of tlie 
trees of paradise, that of life, and that of 
th^ knowledge of good and evil, wer^of^ 
a typical or emblematic nature ; the one^ 
the sacrament of life, Gen. ii. 9. iii. 22; 
the other, of death. Gen. ii. 17. iii* 
17-^iQ. And so after the Fall, the 
rough leaves of the fig-tree were used by 
our first parents as a s^mb«l of contrition , 
Gen. iii. 7. And since in tliat sacred 
garden (Gen. ii. 9.) was also every tree 

' that was pleasant to the sight or good for 
food, surely of the soul of man as well ai« 
of his body, it may safely be inferred, 
that the whole f garden was so coptrived 
by infinite wisdom, as to represent and 
inculcate on the minds of our first pa- 
rents a plan or system of religious truths 
revealed to them by their Creator; espe- 
cially since the paradisiacal emblenis of 
trees, (see Lev. xxiii. 10. Neh. viii. 1 5.) 
pUmts, waters, and the like, are fre-* 
quently applied by the succeeding in- 
spired writers to represent spiritual ob- 

t *' Know,** says Rabbi Shun Bar AiraBam^ 
cited by Mr Hutcbimsou, Heb. Writing, p, 1\, 
from Buxtorf'% Art. Feed. 33, ** Know that in the 
trees, fountains, and other things of the Garden of 
Eden, were the figures of the most curious things 
by which the first Adam saw and understood ///- 
ritual things j even as God hath given to us the formt 
or fio^ures of the tabernacle, of the sanctuary, and 
of ail it's furniture, the candlestick, the table, and 
the altars, for types of intellectual things, and that w« 
might from them understand beav<nly truths (veri- 
tates coelestes). But no doubt those particulanr were 
more plain and clear to Adam in the Garden of Eden 
wherein he dwelt; as he also was more holy , betne 
a creature formed by the hands of God himself, and 
an angel of God. In the trees likewise, a&d foun- 
t«n» or rivers of the garden, be pn^ured admi" 
rable ntystfries (prxfiguravit secreta aamiranda).** 
Comp. Vitringa Obs. Sacr. Ub. iv. cap. 13, § 6. 

1 1 jecti, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Jf cts, and convey spiritual lessons ; and 
that with a simplicity and beauty not to 
be paralleled from any human writer. 
(See inter, al. Isa. xli. i8~20. Iviii. ii. 
Jer. xvii. ;« 8.) To all which may be 
added, that the Garden of Edtn itself is 
by the Prophets alluded to as a place of 
ipii itual knowledge, joy, and happiness, 
(seelsa. Ii. 3. Ezck.xxviii. 12.xxxv1.35.); 
and in the New Testament the name Ila 
peci€i<ros Paradise (which the LXX al- 
most constantly use for p when relating 
to the G^irden of Eden) is applied to the 
intermediate state of happy spirits l)ctween 
death and the resurrection, and even to 
the eternal joys nf heaven. See Luke xxiii. 
43. 2 Cor. xii. 4. Rev. ii. 7. Comp. 
Rev. xxii, i — 3. 

From the Garden of Eden we have the 
true origin of sacred gardens among the 
Idolaters. Thus God, ui Isa. Ixv. 3, 
calleth the apostate Jews a people that 
provoktth me continvally to anger to my 
face, that sacrificeth ni3:in hi gardenn; 
and ch. i. 29, the Prophet had threat- 
ened them, T/iey shall be ashamed of the 
oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall 
be confounded ni2:nrD for the gardens 
zchkh ye have chosen ; and hi Isaiah 
Ixt. 17, are mentioned not only these 
idolatrous gardens, but wc even find an 
allusion to the tree of life, or rather of 
knowledge, both of which were placed in 
the midst of the Garden of Eden, (see 
Gen. ii. 9. iii. 3.) They that sanctify 
themseltes, and punfy themselves bi^ nii::n 
in the gardens behmd oue (tree) in the 
midst, eating swine* s flesh, and the abmi- 
nation and the mouse, shall be consumed 
together, saith the Lord, 
The Gardens of the Ilesperides (>'i-D y^), 
of Abonis, of Flora, were famous among 
the Greeks and Romans. Mr. Spcnce, 
in his Polymetis, p. 251, speaking of the 
last, says, '' This garden of Flora I take 
to have been the Paradise in ihe Roman 
Mytholo«A';" and in a Note upon the, 
j)lace, '* These traditions and traces of 
Paradise among the ancients, must be 
oxpecied to have grown fainter and 
fainter, in every transfusion from one 

Ecople to another. The Romans pro- 
ably derived their notions of it from 
the Greeks, among whom (his idea seems 
to have been shadowed out under the 

116 p 

stories of the gardens of Alcinous. Tfl 
Africa they had the gardens of tJic Hcs- 
perides, and in the East those of Adonis; 
or the Horti Adonis, as PImy calls tlicm. 
The term- Horti Adonides was used by 
the ancients to signify gat dens of pleasure; 
which answers strairoehf to the very nanie 
of Paradise, or Xhe Garden tf Eden, as 
Horti Adonis docs to the Garden of the 
Lord*' See also Mr. 5;?fflr7iitfa'8 Judicioos 
remarks on this passage, in hb Letters o» 
the Septuagint^ p. 127. 
Cant. iv. 12, mo p A garden enclosed 
or locked up is my sister , my bride. These 
words express the satistkction of the 
bridegroom on finding his bride a vir- 
gin, as those, ch. v. i, I have come into 
my garden, my sister, my spouse, denotes 
the consummation of the marriage. Thus 
the ingenious Author of The Outlines of' 
a New Commentary on Solomon^^s Song, 
p. 13 — 17, who shews, that in the East 
they still use, even in their courts of 
justice, very remote images to express the 
commerce of the sexes. He docs not, 
however, produce tl^ very same as arc 
here fouua in the Canticles. But these 
may be supplied from * J Miscellany of 
Eastern Learning, vol. i. p. 12, where 
FeirouZy a Vizir, having divorced bis 
wife Chemsennissa, on suspicion of cri- 
minal conversation with the Sultan, the 
brothers of Chemsennissa applying for 
redress to their judge, " My Lord," said 
tliey, " we had rented to F^irouz a naost 
delightful garden f a terrestrial paradise; 
he took possession of it encompassed uitk 
high walls, and planted with the most 
beautiful trees that bloomed with fiotcers 
and fruit: (Corap. Cant. iv. 12, 13, 14.) 
He has broken down the walls, plucked 
the tender flowers, devoiu'ed Uie fioesl 
fruit (comp. Cant. v. i.), and would 
now restore to us this garden, robbcKi of 
every thing that contributed to render ft 
delicious, when we gave him admissioA 
to it." Feirouz, in his defence, and tilO 
Sultan in his attestation to Chemsennissa's 
innocence, still carry on the same alle- 
gory of the garden, as may be seen in 
my Author. I add another passage from 
Mandelslos Travels, }). 32, Fol. " About 
a league and a half from the city [of 

• Printed for Wiliit and X<rir, London. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


?ia— 333 

Amadobttt in the East Indies] we were 
shewn a sepulchre whMh they caXXBetti 
Chit, that is to say. Thy daughters shame 
iUamertd. There lies interred in it a 
rich merchant, a Moore, named Hajam 
Majom^ who falling in love with his own 
daughter, and desirous to shew some 
pretence for hb incest, went to an eccle- 
siastical judge, and told him in general 
terms ; That he had in his youth taken 
the pleasure to plant a gariden, and to 
dress and order it with great can, so that 
it now brought forth exceUeiit fruits ; that 
bis ueighhours were extremely desirous 
thereof, so that he was every day impor- 
tuned to communicate unto tiiem ; but 
that he could not be persuaded to part 
therewith, aud that it was his design to 
make use of them himself, if the judge 
wotild grant him in writmg a licence to 
do it. The Kasi, who was not able to 
dwe into the wicked intentions of this 
unfortunate man, made answer that there 
was no difficulty in all this, and so un- 
mediately declared as much in writing. 
hajom shewed it to h\s daughter^ and 
finding, nevertheless, that neither his 
own authority, nor the general permis- 
sion of the judge, would make her con- 
sent to hb brutal enjoyments, be ra- 
vished her. She complained to her 
mother, who made so much noise about 
it, that the Kioz ^^ohomet Begeran coming 
to bear thereof ordered him to lose hb 

III. As a N. po An instrument of protection, 
a shield. Jud. v. 8. 2 Sam. i. ar, & al. 
freq. Also, A person protecting, a pro- 
tector, defender, Ps. xlvii. 10. Hos.iv. 18. 
In the former passage the LXX render 
it h KparaiQi the povjerful or mighty, so 
Vulg. fories, and in the latter the Vulg. 
protectores, the protectors, 

IV. 3^ r\^^ A covering, i, e. bavdness, of 
the heart. It seems to answer to xuu}^w<nf 
fy^i xaphcLi the callosity of the heart in 
the New Testament. LXX, iit£pa<nri(r- 
p^Y, Vulg, scutum, Muntanust tegmnen- 
tum. occ. Lam. iii. 65. 

V. As a N. with a formative «, pvk plur. 
m^^M A vessel either surrounded with an 
edge or border (circuipReptus eorond, 
torster) or furnished xiiith a cover, a 
bqfon^ goblet, or the like. occ. Exod. xxiv. 
6. Cant. vii. a, Isa. xxii. 24. 

p:i With the last radical doubled, to ex- 
press the intenseness or completeness of the 
action, To protect entirely, or completely. 
Isa. xxxi. 5. 

I. In Kal, To steal or be stolen. Gen. 
xxxi. 19. xl. I J, & al. freq. Comp. 
Job xxi. 18. xxvii. 20. As a participial 
N. ^3:1 A person stealing, a ihief. Exod. 
xxii. 2, 8. As a particiuial N. lem. n:i3:i 
Somewhat stolen. Exod. xxii. 4. >nnj:} 
What was stolen from me, D from being 
understood ; or is not ^ns^a rather a M. 
fern. plur. in Reg., the stolen of, or in, 
the day J and the stolen in the night? 
Gen. xxxi. 39. 

II. In Hith. To steal away, withdraw 
oneself privately, '' abscondere ftirto fu- 
gam," i^irgil Ma. iv. lin. 357, 8. 2 Sam. 
xix. 3. 

III. lb n« aiJJ To steal the heart. As the 
heaft in Heb. denotes both the affect iotis 
and the understanding, so thb expression 
imports both to ittveigle the affections, 
and to ensnare the understanding, by flat' 
tery and deceit. In 2 Sam« xv. 6, it seems 
chiefly to relate to the affections ; in 
Gen. xxxi. 20, 2y, to the understanding. 
So ver, 27, ^MH ai:in"» and didst cvXch me, 
didst as it were steal me from myself? 
Homer uses an expression very similar to 
the Heb. nb nn n::^ II. xiv. Im. %\y, 

Ilflt^f a^<;, A T* EKAE^I'E NOON tffwui vtt^ ^^vfinlvn* 
Alluring speech, that sttais the wisest mituU, 

IV. In Niph. joined with h». To be spoketi 
secretly, or, as it were, by stealth, occ. 
Job iv. 12. 

Der. Teutonic knappen, to take unexpect* 
edly, Swedish nappa, to seize, Eug. To 
knap, or nab, and perhaps a knave. See 
Junius Etymol. Anglican. 


Occurs not as a V. m the Hebrew Bible^ 
but in Clialdee signifies^ To treasure or 
lay up. As a N. loasc. plur. in Reg. 
^tij Repositories, treasure-houses, treasuries^ 
occ. Esth. iii. 9. iv, 7, Cltests, Ezek^ 
xxvii. 24. 

Chald. As a N. masc. plur. emphat. Hn^:i 
I'he treasures, occ, Ezra v. 17. vi. i. In 
Reg. ^^y The same. occ. Ezra vii. 20. 
The word occurs only in the above pas-^ 
sages of the books of Ezra, Esther, and 
1 3 Ezekicl, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

TOT— ra 


•«3— tW3 

Ezekiel, and therefore is perhaps ntber 
a Chaidee than a Hebrew word. 

Per. Latin * gaza, wlience Eng. Magazine. 
Conip. *)2i:. 

^2 See under in;i, and mu. 

With a radical, bat mutable or omissible, n. 

To law or bellow, as a ball or cow. occ. 
Job vi. 5. 1 Sam. vi. i». This word, as 
^vell as the similar Greek one yoaw to 
moan, seems formed from the etmnd. 

Der. a am, 

!• 7b cast ifmop. Thus it is applied in 
Niph. to a shield, 2 Sam. i. ai ; where 
LXX, wpocw^Biff^ was dashed against 
the grottnd, Vulg. abjectus est vas cast 
feaay (as Horace^ Parmuld non bene re- 
licta) ; — in Kal, to a cow not castmg out 
the male seed. Job xxi. Jo. Thus Mon- 
tonus, and Bochart, vol. ii. 291, His cow 
conceives, and does not b)>y* cast out or 
reject fthe seed) ; or else, shice both the 
Verbs *>li> and >j«* are masculine, tl:r 
text may perhaps be better rendered. 
His bull passeth (the seed) and doth not 
loathe (to gender). See the following 
3ense and Stockius^ and eomp. Ezek. 
xvi. 45. 

}I. To refect with abhorrence or loathing, to 
loathe, Le?. xxvi. 11. Ezek. xvi. 4$. As 
aN. Vj^3 What is loathsome, Jilth. Ezek. 
xvi. 5, ntt«3i b:D::i '^ In thy natural filth." 
Bate's Crit. Heb. 

Dee. a goal, to start Irom, Gr. p^cAij, and 
Eng. gall, from it's nauseousness. AI. o, 
mmiediately from the Greek, cholcr, cho- 

L With a following. To restrain, repress, 
lay a restraint on. It is applied to God's 
m/roimiig the locusts, Mai. iii. 11. — to 
his restraining the red sea from flowing 
in it's channel, Ps. cvi. 9. Comp. Exod. 
xiv. a I. Transitively, — to God's re- 
straining the com from growing, Mai. ii. 
3. Comp. Ps. ix. 6. Ixviii. 31. cxix. ai. 

)I. With n followm^, To rebuke, check, by 
words. Gpn. xxxvii. ip. Ruth ii. 16. As 
Ns. fem. rr^l Reproof, rebuke. Prov. 

• ** Ga»a M a persiam word, and dgaifies r«i&«," 
■ay» Serrhu, in ^n. i. lin. 119. Curtivs says, that 
tlwj Pert'utm give tiii« name to the r9^ treasure, 
•* Pec^miam regiaim, qy<nm gazam Perss vocant.'* 
jJl?. iii. qip. 18. edit. Var. 

xiii. f. Pk. xviS. 16, |c al. freq. irtVlO 
Nearly the same, occ Deut. xxviii. ao. 

I. In Kal, Intransitively, To shake, as the 
earth in an earthquake, occ. Ps. xviti. 8. 
In Hith. The same. occ. a Sam. xxi. S. 
Ps. xviii. 8. 

II. In Kal, To shake, as men with tcmmr. 
occ. Job xxxiv. 20. 

III. In Hith. To shake or totter, as axa 
who have drunk stroqgly iatoxkaikg 
liquor, occ. Jer, xxv. 16 ; where there is 
an allusion to the f intoxicating draught 
which used to be given to malefitctors, 
just before their execution, to take away 
their senses. 

IV. In Hith. To toss thewukea as walcn. 
occ. Jer. V. as. xlvL 7, 8. 

The above cited Texts are aU io vibaik 
the Root occurs^ 

Deh. To gush, a gust (of wind), Saxoa 
^.ift a spirit (which latter word » in 
hke manner firom spiro to breathe, mote, 
as the air), whence gAot/, aghast, g^^tutf^^ 

^ See under ¥\2^ 

\Q2 See under ^3 

lE}^ Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, bat 

(. As a N. *)&:> Some kind of wood, of which 
Noah's ark was built, occ. Geo. ri. 14, 
where Targ. Onkelos renders it omp the 
cedar, but Fuller , Miscell. 1^. iv. cap. $, 
and Bochart, vol. i. aa, maintain it to be 
the cypress : 1 st, From the appeliation ; tor 
if from the Greek name xurapiara^ yoa 
take the termination lo'^sf, nvgoLp and 
y^l will have a near resemblanee to each 
other, adly, Because, as they prove inm 
the ancients, no wood is more darabk 
against rot and worms, sdly, Becattse, is 
Bochart particularly shews, the cypras 
vras veiy fit for ship-buildiog, aoj 
actually used for that purpose wlicie it 
grew in sufficient plenty. Aod lastly^ 
Because it abounded m Assyria, where 
Noah probably built the ark. After all, 
perhaps n&:i may be a general name f(x 
such trees as abound with rcsimomi »- 
Jlammabfe juices, as the cedar, cypress^ 
pine, Jir, &c. for 

II. As a N. niD:i Sulphur, brimstone (q, d. 
brcnnestone or brinnestone, i. c. bstrmag- 
stone). Gen. xix. 34, ^ aL itec{., It is^ I 

t Comp. Gridt and Eng. lexicon ia Kcg«v H 
and s^'xvpi^w 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TTi— aii 

^InMJk, ad ways applied, or alludes^ to that 
meieorws imflammabU matter which God 
rained upoo Sodom and CzODiorrah. The 
LXX every where render it by ^uov sul- 
fkwr^ as it is also called Luke xvii. 29. 

Deb, Gr. Kmeapt^c^g, Lat. ctfpressus, Eng. 


L To sofoum, * *' to dwell any where for a 
time, to live as not at home, to inhabit as 
mot in a settled hatntation,'* to be a stran* 
ger in this sense. Gen. xii. 10. \ix. 9. 
xsxii. 4. Jud. V. I y, And why did Dan 
^M"* dwell i« ships? Ps. V. 5, yn T]^^ ^ 
The evil shall not dwell, or, even sojourn 
with thee — •* with ihte** so Tai^um, 
1D^, LXX iffCL^oixyjcsi croi shall dwell 
with thee, Vulg. juxta te near thee. Isa. 
xi. 6, And the wolf shall *ii dwell, lodge 
occasionally {hospitabitur, Montanus), with 
the lamb. Isa. xxxiii. 14, Who "11:' shall 
dwell Jor us (with or inj tht devouring 
fire y who '^y* sh$iU dwell for vs (with or 
in J the everlasting burnings? As a N. 1:1, 
fern, io Reg. JT^^ A sojourner, stranger^ 
Gen. XV. 13. xxiii. 4. Exod. iit. 22; 
particularly one who sojourned among the 
Israelites, and embraced the true religion, 
a proselyte, in which sense it is sometimes 
opposed to miM a native, one bom in the 
land. See Exod. xii. 19, 48^ 49. xx. 10. 
Ler. xvi. 29. xvii. 8. Hence we may ex- 
plain Isa. liv. ify, Behold DtH 1U> n*i:i 
none shall sojourn or abide (with thee J 
without me; whoever sojoumeth with 
thee shall fall to thee, i. e. none shall en- 
joy the benefit of living with tiic church 
of converted Gentiles without my jiar- 
ticular providence (comp. Acts xvii. 26, 
%y,)y but yet the Heathen in general, 
who have this happiness, shall be con- 
verted. LXX, Ucu nPOSHATTOI DPO- 
SEAETSONTAI cot h* ep^v, xai UA- 
POIKHXOTXI aot,}iai nr» <rs xa7a^u0oy- 
teu. Behold proselytes shall come tq thee 
through me, and shall dwell with thecy 
and shall take refufr^e with thee. As a 
N. fem. plur. m'^i Habitations, dwelling f, 
occ. Jer. xH. 17, CdhidD |Ti"!:i, or ac« 
cording to the Keri, and twenty- eight 
of Dr. Kennicott"% Codices IsnDD— 7//e 
dwellings of Chimham *' which David 
bad given to Chimhara, the son of Bar- 
^i|lai the Gileadite," says the Targum« 
• /0^A/«i*f Diet. 

See 2 Sam. xib 37, 38. It is probabk 
that in the time of Jeremiah, the words 
were become a proper name, as thev arfc 
taken by the LXX. As a N. lljTo A 
dxDelling. So Targ pn^^mo their TVr- 
bcrnacUs. LXX, ma^oimcus ^^Twy, and 
Vulg. habitaculis eorum. 16. As 
a N. masc. plur. in Reg. niao Peregri* 
nations, sojoumings. Oen. xlvii. 9 ; where 
Jacob speaks to Pharaoh of the days of 
the years of his ^vo pilgrimage, and of 
the days of the pilgrimage of his fathers, 
hereby confessing that he was a stranger 
and pilgrim in the earth y for they whm 
My such thwgs declare plainly that they 
seek a country, even a better country, that 
is, an heavenly. See Heb. xi. 13, 14^ 16. 
Comp. Gen. xxiii. 4. Lev. xxv. (t3. 
I Cbron. xxix. 15. Ps. xxxix. 13* 
cxix. 54. 

II. As a N. "j^;, in plur. (sometimes) tana 
and t^^*\^ without tlie 1, A whelp, a cub, 
generally of a lion. Gen. xlix. 9, Eeek. 
xix. 2. Nail. ii. 13; but once of a sea- 
monster, Lam. iv. 3. It seems to denote 
a young one still abiding with its parents 
or dam ; hence "11:1 is plainly spoken of 
as inferiour to ")*2D, Ezek. xix. 3,5. 
From Heb. '^)^^ is perhaps derived, Eng. 
A cur. 

in. Several words importba fear^ are in 
the Lexicons put under this Root, but 
they belong to the Root "^^^ which see. 

IV. This Root is also rendered to collect, 
gather together, but it does not appear 
ever to have this sense. Isa. liv. ' 1 5, 
above explained, is produced as an in- 
stance, and other passages, which will be 
found under n^^Jj. 

y}^ In Hith. To sojourn continually, or for 
a continuance, occ. i K. xvii. 20, where 
the LXX render it by xarot^w, which 
properly denotes a more Jixea and dura* 
lie dwelling than vapotKw, For Jer. 
XXX. 23. Hos. vii. 14. I K. vii. 9, see 
under n^h 

Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, but in Syriac 
signifies to be leprous, in Arabic, to 
be scabby. As a N. y^y A scab, scurf, 
scurvy, occ. Lev. xxi. 20. xxii. 22. Deut. 
xxviii. 27. 

DE&.Vf being prefixed, Scwf, scurvy, scrub. 

J In Hith. To scrape oneself. So the LXX, 
1 4 ^11. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




f inj, Vulp;. raderet. Once, Job ii. 8. The 1 
Cbaldee^Syriac, and Arabic use the word 
in the same sense. 
J) BR, To grafe, French gratter, to scratch, 
scrape. To gride, "the griding sword." 
Miit. Par. Lost, b. vi. I, 329. 

With a radical, but mutable or omissible, n. 

J. To excite, mofve, stir op, as contention. 
Prov. XV. 18. xxviii. »5, where Vulg.;tfr- 
^''aconcitat, stirsvp strife. Prov. xxix. 22, 
where LXX, v/npu vsixosy stir$ vp con- 
tention, Vulg. provocat rixaa, protokcs 
quarrels; aac) in these, as well as in other 
passages, the tinal n in m^^ cannot be 
^rvile, and therefore must be rddical ; 
but Ps. cxi. 3, is a plain instance where 
the n is dropped, and 1 inserted before the 
second radical ', All the day nionbc rwj" 
they will stir up iiars, movebunt helin. 
So Ps. lix. 4, The mighty »i:? m:> stir I 
up (i. e. uarotstrije) against we^ or| 
perhaps in >'iph. are stirred up ; LXX,| 
svahyrQ, and Vulg. irruenuit,/Mrt'f rushed, \ 
Ps. Ivi. 7, ^yhr> n:^} " They secretly \ 
Btir up, i. e. strife," Bate, or are secretly 
stirred up. In Hith. m:ir\r\ To stir up 
oneself, 1. e. to war ov contetition . 2 K. 
, xiv. 10. 2 Chron. xxv. 19. LXX, in 2 K. 
tpiKsiS conteuflest, Vulg. in both texts 
provo< as, proTokest ; nDnbr^b to war is 
expressed Dan. xi. 25. So Deut. ii. 5, 
tDl lliMfl b» Ye shall not stir up jour- 
selves agatust them, Vulg. moveaniini, 
fte moved; nonbo in or to war is ex- 
|)ressed, Dcut, ii. 9, 24, 1 or l> heinsj un- 
derstood. Comp. Jcr. I. 24. As a N. 
feni. sing, in Re^. n^jfi Moving, motion, 
conflict, occ. Ps.xxxix. 11. 
From n^J in tliis sense, may be derived 
tlie French guerre, and Eng. war. 

JI. To faise or draw up,, as fishes in a net. 
ore. Hab. i. 15, where LXX fiAxy(rgy, 
aqd Vulg. traxit, drew. 

Ill To rnwinate^ chew the cud, or strictly 
to stir or raise it up from the rumen or 
first stomach. Deut. xiv. 8, m:i Hb^ And 
raiseth or raising not the cud ; according 
to either traqslation the n in ni:: agreeiiig 
with l^in niasc. must here be radical. 
As a N. nn:» The cud, or food raised up. 
Lev. xi. 3, mj nl»^D Bringing vp the 
cud. frcq. occ. Uiewing the cud is a 
veiy striking and expressive emblem of 
meditating on divine knowledge before ! 

laid up m tbe mind, in order f hat it may 
be the better digested and turned to spi" 
ritual tionribhmcnt ; whence this was one 
distinctive mark of the clean animals. 
Chewing the cud, and meditation, are even 
expressed by the same word in Greek 
and Latin, as well as in English by that 
of rumination *. 

IV. As a N. n-iiD A threskhg-fioor, whence 
corn is agitattd by threshing and uin- 
nowing to separate it from the straw and 
chaff. So the LXX oAcy, and Targ. Km«. 
occ. Hag. ii. 19, or 20. Comp. the fol- 
lowing pi. 

n'j'iiDD Joel i. 17, see under 'liD. 

V. As a N. p:i i^ threshing-floor, f These 
among the ancient Jews were only, as 
they are to this day in the East, rotrnd 
level plats of ground in the open air, where 
the com was trodden out by oxen ; the 
Libycte Arece of Horace, Ode i. lin, xo. 
(Comp. Wi) Thus Gideon's floor, Jud. 
vi. 37, appears to Iwve been in the open 
air; as was likewise that of Araunah the 
Jebusite, 9 Sum. xxiv ; else it would not 
have been a proper place for erecthig an 
altar, and ofieriug sacrifices, ver. 18 — 25, 
comp. 1 Chron. xxi. 25; and in Hos. 
xiii. 3, we read of the chaff which is 
driven by the whirlwind p:D from the 
floor. Comp. Dan. ii. 35. And tliis cir- 
cumstance of the threshing'/looi^s being 
exposed to the agitation of the wind 
seems to be the principal reason of it's 
Hebrew name pi ; which may be fur« 
ther illustrated by the' direction which 
Ilesiod (Operas Dies, lin. 597) gives 
his husbandman to thnsh his corn yjoo^ 
ZTf svxe'ii in a place well exposed to the 
wind. From the above accouut it ap- 
pears that a threshing-floor (rendered in 
our textual translation a toid placed 
might well be near the entrance of the 
gate of Samaria, and that it might afford 
no improper place forilie Kings of Israel 
and Judaii to hear ttie prophets in. See 
1 K. xxii. 10. 2 Chron. xviii. 9. 

VI. As a N. 1: Rubbish of stones, &c. 
stirred and broken o^' from the rocks by 

♦ See more in the Rev, W, Jones'^ excellent 
Zcoio^ia EtJ/ua, p. 16. Printed for Robinson, Pater- 
noster Row. 

f See Sbatvi Travels, p. 139, 2d edit, and 
Goguet*9 Origin of Laws, &c. vol. i. p. 94, cdit- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




nben in searching for gold and silver 
ore. occ. Job xxviii. 4, A torrent breuk- 
ttk forth from the rubbish (comp. under 
pDlV). Isa. xwiuq^ As stones of Twhhhh 
beaten to pieces ; LXX, w$ kovixv Xntryjv 
a##mir/7dust; but in this latter text thirty 
of Dr. Kemticotfs Codices read y}, and 
the Syriac version has iwb^ hme (and so 
oar Eog. translat.>, and lime might per- 
haps be called t:i from the remarkable 
agitation it undergoes when water is 
poured 00 it. And hence may be deduced 

VII. Chald. As a N. emphat. «YJJ The 
plaster made of lime. So Theodotion xo- 
yuLoA, occ. Dan. ti 5, where see Hur- 
mers Observat. vol. i. p. 191, &[c, 

VIII. Asa N. p'ly, and in construction p:. 
The tkrtmt, or more airictiy, the wind- 
pipe, through which the breath is con- 
tinually moving backwards and forwards, 
Ps. V. 10. cxv 7. cxiix. 6. £zek. xvi. 1 1, 
& al. In Jer. ii. 25, for li^;i in the 
printed text thirty-six of Dr. Kennicott's 
Codices read lii^il. . 

IX. To sawy cut with a saw. It occurs 
not simply as a V. in this sense (see be- 

fitHii wood. Tbns the smallest coin 
among the Greeks was called Xwlov 
from KEieloi little, minute ; and our an- 
cestors had in like manner a coin deno* 
mhiated a mite for the same reason, equal 
to about one third of our modern far- 
thing, occ. Exod. XXX. 13. Lev. xxvii. 25. 
Num. iii. 47. xviu. 16. Ezek. xlv. ]3« 
From the Hebrew rru may not impro- 
bably be derived the Gr. ypo a venf 
little, the French Adverb guere, little, 
not much. 

XI. As a N. fem. sine, in Reg. vtwyA A 
small coin or piece of money ; probably 
the same as the Gerak, for both the 
Targum and LXX render it by the 
same word as they do the Hebrew ma. 
Once, 1 Sam. ii. 36. 

11:1 With the last radical doubled, to ex- 
press the intenseness of the action. 

L In Hith. To agitate itself, or be agitated 
violently, occ. Jer. xxx. 33, I'l'Jino *^i;3 
A violent whirlwind; LXX, rps^O[A€ini 
xi'hirling; Vulg. mens rushing. 
Hence Gr. yaf>yaip(A) to vSfrate, palpi" 

low 11^), but hence as a N. mjio, plur. ;II. Jn Hith. To stir np oneself violently, to 

nvuo A saw, from the manner of it's 
action by amtinual agitation, occ. a Sam. 
xii. 31/ I K. vii, 9. i Chron. xx. 3. 
Il^bce perhaps, 
X. As a N. m3 /^ Grrah, the smallest 
weight amonjEC the Hebrews, which .ac- 
cording to Bishop Cumberland was equal 
to 10.95, ^^ ^^"7 nearly 1 1 grains; but 
this calculation ^ems too lai^e, as it 
would raise the weight of the shekbl of 
which it was the 20th part ( E.xod. xxx. 
13, & al.), and of the talent of which 
the shekel was the 3000th part, much 
too high to be reconciled to some pas- 
sages of scripture. Michaelis, Suppleni. 
J>. 367, accordingly reckons the Gerah 
to be equal to 00 more than 4.62, or 
'^^^^y 4t gJi^i^ Bishop Cumberland 
makes it's value in silver to be nearly 
lid. Englbb, but according to Michaelis 
it must be less than tlie half of this. 
A silver penny of his present majesty, 
George HI. weighs nearly 7 grains, and 
consequently the gerah was, according 
to Michaelis, nearly equal to | of a silver 
penny. The gert^h seems to be deno- 
minated from this root as resembling in 
maHaeu the d¥si whi^h a sayj makes 

contention namely, occ. Hos. vii. 14, 
And they did not cry to me with their 
hearts-, when they howled upon their beds 
for corn and wine, ^1 1*11 D> I'l^iun* tliey 
stirred up or exasperated themselves, they 
rebelled agmnst mc. But in this text one 
of Dr. Kennicott^s MSS. and one old 
printed edttiou -now read lTi\3rr», as ano- 
tlter MS. did originally, and one now 
reads iTt:tn\ Those reacungs are favoured 
by the LXX version, em araj ksu qiv^ 
Karefifj^vovro they cut or slashed them- 
selves for corn, (^d wine. So Martitfn 
French translation, lis se d^chiqu6teut 
pour le.froment, et le bon vin, Comp. 
Jer. xli. 5, and ina 1.. under n:i. 

III. To saw, cut with a saw. Comp. above, 
under my IX. It occurs as a Partidp. 
Huph. fem. plur. niliao Sawed, i K; 
vii. 9. 

*^j^:i occurs not as a V. in this reduplicate 
form, but 

I. As a N. fem. plur. in Re^ ^ii^on: The 
throat or neck, or more properly, the parts 
cf the wmid'pipe through wnich the bveatk 
pQSKS fividrepasses. Comp« above fna. occ. 
Prov. i. 9. iii. 3, 22. vi. »r. 

. tl^nce the Gr, Tafyq^toni The tb.roat» 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^na— tna 



«]ntf-'pipe» Tapr/Ofi^w, Lat. gargmizoj 
Ice; mid Eng. gargarum, gargle, 
IF. As a N. niasc. plur. tDnj'^J Berries or 
JntHs left at the top of a brancii, and 
coDseqiiestly (ossed or ogitaUd by the 
vim/, q. d. shaken, occ. Isa. xvii. 6. 

JU To cut 4^. The V. is used in the same 
•eMw io Arabic. It occurs once iu Nipb. 
I^. xxxi. 2)t arcording to the printed 
l€xt, but eighth Dr. Kenmcotfs Codices 
fea<l 'tr.n^. 

II. As a N. ^'ni Ah instrument to cui with, 
cw MP or hatchet, occ. Deut. xix. 5. 
xx» 19. 1 K. vi. 7. Isa. X. 15. 

.Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but hence in 
Arabic the V. is used for being stony ^ full 
mf stontfy aad the N. for a stone \ and 
fi-om the Hebrew Root we likewise liave 
iHot on^7 the Greek xXi}po;> which pro- 
perly denotes Che stone or }tebble used iu 
casting lots^ and the Latin glarea, but 
more plainly the Armoric grautl, and 
Eng. gravel. 
As a N. b^U -<4 /oA, plur. fera. niVili or 

|. The stone or m^rA itself which was cast 
ii;to the urn or vessel, and by the leap- 
ing out of which (when the vessel was 
sfas^en) before another of a similar kind, 
the aiair was decided. See inter al. 
Lev. xvi. 8, ^, 10. Num. xxxiii. 54. 
'Josh. xvi. J. XIX. I, & seq. Prov. xvi. 33 
Isa. xxxiv. 17. Jon. i.7. and comp.GrefA 
and Eng. Lexicon in KA^j^of. 

II. Somewhat determined by lot, an itihe- 
ritetncey portion, Jud. i. 3. Ps. cxxv. 3. 
See Num. xxvi. 55. $6. 

II L From the Arabic hi^, which b in Camus 
explained by a stone^ a place rough uith 
stones^ Schultens on Prov. xix. 19^ thinks 
that the root denotes rough hardness, or 
fo express it in one English word, rugged- 
isess. Hence he interprets the text, Let 
)titm who is rough, or ruj^ed, to wrath t 
L e. of a rough, rugged disposition, easily 
^xa»ptrated to wrath, suffer the puuisfi- 
snentifor &c. Rut to this interpretation 
Alichaeiis, Supplem.' ad Lex ^ Heb. p. 3 53 , 
objects, thiM4he Arabic has not rough- 
ness itifelf' under this root, but only an 
original from whence it might perhaps 
be denominated. He th^rcfomsays that 
the textual reading h*}:^ might om^ more 

easily he avplained, Sors iracandae f«« 
portat damnum vel mulctam, The lot 
of anger gets damage,- I own this inter- 
pretation, especially if we add the fol- 
lowing context, does not appeanto ale 
very easy. Besides, the word for loi in, 
I believe, in every other text of scrtptore 
V)^^ not V\i, except in Jud. i. ^ where 
it is u^ with a suqix, and where twentj- 
seven of Dr. Kenmcott^M Codices now read 
^^1*1 J , as eight more did originally. But I 
am now to observe, thatiu Prov. xix. 19, 
not only the Keri,bvii at least thirty-tkree 
of Dr. Kentikotfs Codices read Vri great, 
that Theodotion has here /x€yaXodu^i.of 
high spirited,. 9aid Vulg. impalieus^impa- 
tknt, and th&t our Eng. translation, A tmam 
o/" great wrath, makes a very good sense. 
Der. Gr. xAijps;, deros, (a loi, by which 
word the LXX generally render (he 
Heb. i^U), whence Eng. vlerk, clerical^ 

The meaning of the word seems to be. To 
bare, make bare or clean frQ^rt somexckai 
before adhering. The S> riac uses it tor 
cutting off"; the Arabic, for taking off or 
away, paring qtf\ particularly for cutting 
or plucking off tlie clusters of dales txoui 
the palm-tree, and so stripping tt, 

I. To make bare or clean a& a bone froiq 
the flesh adhering to it, to pick it^ as we 
say. iKic. Num. xxiv. 8, O'U'' orrnowi 
And shall pick their bones, Zeph. iii. 3^ 
Our English translation of the latter part 
of this verse is ambiguous; but probably 
it was intended to express that those 
wolves were not employed so long as till 
the morrow in gnawing the boues, tor 
that before that time they had devoured 
the prey, flesh, skin, boiws and all, as 
wolves * commonly do. And thb not only 
makes a good sense, but leaves to the 
particle V, denoting time, it's usual sig- 
nification. Comp. Deut. xvi. 4. To this 
sense the LXX paraphrase the words, 
OvK uifeX»vov7o eii tspon, they lefl not ta 
the morning; so Vulg. Nun relinquebtmt 
in mime. Martin's French trausUtioa 
in Zeph. iii. 3, runs thu^^e^ ses gou' 
vemeurs sont des loupt du soir, qui ne 
quittent point les os, pour les ronger au 
matin, — and her governours are. evening 

» See Broeke'% Natural Hist, vol. i. p. 19a 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

«ro— ro 



voiha, who quit not the bones to gnaw 
tbem in the mornioer. Hence 

II. As a N. 01:1 A larger bone, occ. Job 
xl. 13, er 18. Prov. xvii. 22. xxv. 15. 
Gen. xlix. 14. =?"^ *non Aa om of bone, 
a booey, strong 0^5. 

III. Joined with nV^smn The stairs^ i K. 
h. 13, it seems iisecl f»r tbe hare stairs, 
1. e. where there was no canopy, tbrone, 
seat, or the like. The LXX, according 
to the Alexundrian ropy, render the 
words ira rcov ava^aSfucry one of the 
ftairt. So likewise Sifmm^chus, 

IV. To make bare or clean, as the pieces of 
a broken cup from the lees of wine ad- 
hering to them occ. £zek. xxiii. 34. 
Comp. Ps. Ixxv. 8. 

Dbr. The Northern grim and grum. See 
J mm Etymol. Anglican. 

p See under rru V. and VIII. 


To break onscar to pieeeB. oee. Fs. cxix. 20. 
hun, iii. 16. The word is used in the 
nme sense in Syriac and Arabic. See 
CoiteU and MicAaeUs Supplem. ad Lex. 

To subirjct, withkoM. 

I. In Kal, To subtract, abafey diminish, 
Exod. V. 8, 19 xxi. 10. Dent. iv. 2. 
xil 3^. Isa. XV, 2, And every beard 
JWU ^u»:ording to the Complulensian 
wlition, and fourteen of Dr. Kennicott's 
MSS.) Hiniinished, i. e. partly cut off, in 
token of mourning. Jer. xlvih. 37, where 
twenty-three of Dr. Keimicutfs Codices 
have the word fullynini:i, and three have 
now rij^i^, and two others had originally 
Wtt: with a 1. Comp. under fjM 11. In 
Hipb. To be dimhiisked. Exod. v. i r. 

JL To diminish y make small. Job xxxvi. 27. 
ftrjru^ he makelh small the drops oj 
Tsater. As a N. fem. plur. niin:io Nar- 
rtnocd rents, rebatements^ in buildiug. 
occ. I K. vi. 6. 

Til In Kal, To withhold. Job xv. 4, 8. 
xxxvi. 7. In Niph. To be vfUhholden. 
Num. ix. 7. 

IV. In Niph. To be subtracted^ taken away. 
Num. xxvii. 4. xxxvL 3, 4. 

L To wrapf or roll, together, down or away, 
occ. Jud. ▼. 2iy where LXX s^Btrupsv 
drew away. 

p. As a N. rp^ The fi$t clenchpd, or 

wrapt together. So LXX, myfui, mni 

Vuljg. pugnoa. occ Exod. xxi. 18. Isa* 

Iviii. 4. 
III. As a N. fem. plor. in Reg. "^riSnio 

Clods^ concretions of earth, occ. Joel i. 1 7* 
Der. Garby wrap, gripe, grope, grapple^ 

I. In Kal, To expel, drive, or thrust ota, or 
away. Gen. iii. 24. Exod. ii. 17, & iL 
Also, To be drvoen ot ihritst out, Exod. 
xii. 39. It is applied to com/orced o^ 
of the ear. Lev. ii. 14, 16. Eng. transL 
Beaten out. As a V. Infin. in the Chaldee 
form (like niHtl^O Ezek. xvii. 9.), with 
n it postfixed, rmMXi to cast it out^ 
Ezek. xxxvi. 5. 

As a N. fem. plor. in Re^;. *nttra, ren* 
dered by the LXX, Karix^uvas^ioy Da- 
mineering tyranny, and in our tran&la* 
tion^ exactions; but more prop^y in 
the mar/vin, expulsions, as denoting such 
oppressions and cruelties 9S drove thdr 
poor brethren out qf tlieir country. occ» 
Ezek. xlv. 9. Comp. ch. xxXiv. 4, $^ 
6, 21. 

II. To drive, cast, or throw, out or Mp, as 
the troubled waters of the sea do mir^ 
and dirt. occ. Isa. Ivii. 20^ where Theo^ 
dotion Aff'oCaXXsrai casts out. In Niph. 
To be driven out of it's place, as the sea 
in a storm, occ. Isa. Ivii. 20.— as the 
land in an earthqtiake. occ. Amos viii. 8« 
Comp. ch. i. I . 

III. To thrust out, put away, dvooru, as a 
man his wife. Geo., xxi. 10. Lev« xxi. 

IV. As a participial Noun W^'O A suburb 
which is without the city. Lev. xxv« 34, 
& al. freq, 

.V. To put or thrust forth, as vegetables^ 
which efiect is attributed to the lunar, 
as well as to the solar, light. Deut. 
xxxiii. 14, The precious (produce) Wil 
tD^tr? thrust forth by the fluxes of light 
from the moon. And this point of true 
philosophy, namely the edect of the 
lunar light in vegetation, we find ckariy 
preserved in the Orphic Hynui to Ap? 
rsi^iS or the Moon, lin. 14, 

— AFOTZA. KAAOnra x«provf AHO yainf. 
Thou bringestfr^m the eardi the ^wm/{^ fruitf , 

So Horace, lib. iv. ode 6, lio. 30, calls 
the increasing moon, prosperam frugumy 

propitious i^r favourable to the f nuts. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Fnm the Root hi thh view Ceres (the ^ 
being, by an easy and common variation, 
changed into C) appears to have bad her 
B8iiie. Every one knows she was among 
the Romans the Goddess of Husbandry ; 
mod it has been thought by many that 
Virgiif at die beginning of his first 
Oe^^c^ invokes the Moo» under this 

— — Vo% 6 clarissima Mtindi 
• IjOniaa, Ubemiem cmU qtut is OfiHum^ 
liber & alma Ceret ; wstro ti muncrc TnUtn 
Cbcumiam pingHt glm Um mutavit arittA, 
foadaquf ittvenlis Acheloia tirisea't uvis, 

rr rttpteneUnt Lights of Heavn^ who lead 
Tfrroughoutft'svtrymgformsthc circling year, 
Xf&rr ai&d Ceret I by whose gift the earth 
fbr soorns teems with corn, and jovous yields 
For water's tastelewdnuight the gen reus wine. 

And, thongh I apprehend the interpre- 
lAliBii whicn makes Qeres in this passage 
criuivalent to the Moon to be erroneous *, 
yet it may be worth remarking, that 
Jtiftcrobius, S'<itiirnal. lib. i. cap. iS. ob* 
fcrv^i'S that Virgif 9|)eHks thus of Lrbcr 
'wiH Cercsj because he knew the former 
to be the Sttn, the latter the Mootty ^^qui 
pariter, says he, ferfilitatibus gtebae, & 
maturandis frugibus vol nocturno tempe- 
remcnto Tct diurno colore moderantur," 
tehU'h together injfuence the fertility of 
ike soilf and the ripening of the frvits, 
the one J^ her nightly temperament, the 
other by his diurnal lieat. 
And of the opinions of the ancients con- 
cernmg tlie efficiency of the Moon, not 
only on vegetable but on animal life, 
the re3der may see much more in ros- 
sitrs De Orig. ^ -Progr. Idol. lib. ii. 
cap. 1 8, towards the end, and in Ja- 
khnski's Pantheon 7Eg}pt. lib. iii. cap. i. 

1 4. And though sonic of the effects for- 
merly ascri bed to her influence seem ^n- 

• ciful, yet others are too notorious to be 

denied ; and it might well employ the 
' pains and attention of the philosopher 

to investigate the *real influence of the 

moon on sublunary bodies. 
DfiR. Grass. 
Occurs not in the simple form as a V, in 

Hebrew, but in Syriac signifies. To touch, 
feel, search by feelings ^c. For the N. 

tZ^i or m)y, Joli vii. 5, see under m:3 II. 

• 8ee Marty ni Notc on Georgic.*i. lin. 5, 

ttWi To feel for over and over again, grepe 
for. So LXX, ^r,\x(pouti. occ- Isa. liiu lO, 

I. In Arabic significi^ according to Casfell, 
'*Cum labore incubuit rei, I'o He or lean 
Jtaid upon,*' or arcerdii^ to Sckmitens^ 
(MS. Orig. Heb.) "Gravem esse, gravi- 
tate prtmere, pressiusinciimbeFe, Bpidmv, 
To be heavy, to press wiik veigkt, ia He 
heavy npon" Tne V. seems to have the 
same sense in Heb. Job xxxvii. 6, wbicb 
perhaps nwly be b^t interpreted. When 
he says to the snow, fkat (is) the earthy 
^too tDUn^ and makes the rstm heavy, 
y\V. nniDQ r3my\ even makts bea y the 
showers of his strength, *Ot EH 3PI- 
£Hf^o; op,^p^, as Homer c presss it» 
II. V. lin. 9 . Ii is well knoH. that he 
rains in Juaea and theDcighbouriu^c >ud- 
tries are extremely violent and heairy*^ 
Comp. I K. xvftii. 41, 44, 45. C^iat., 
ii. 1 1 . As a particip. fern, paoul Kal. 
nct^^j Ramed upon. occ. E^eek. xxii. a4.. 
So Vulg. coiopluta. As a Participle 
masc. plur. Fliph. tDIDWZD Sending rain, 
occ. Jer. xiv. 22. As a. N. DU^J Heavyi 
ram. Gen. vii. 12. Lev. xxvi. 4. i K. 
xvii, 7, & al. freq. Plur. Cd^du^^ reo-i 
dered in our translation great rai$t, Ezra 
X. 9; and much rain, Ezra x. 13. 

II. Chald. As a N. our: (pei^baps from 
Heb. tffl to feel) A body, a palpable s^dh- 
stance. Dan. iii. 27. iv, 50, & al. R 
occurs in tlie Targums in the same 
sense, in which is alsa used the Striae 
awji and MOQ^u. 


Occurs not as a Verb in Heb. Imt iq 
Arabic is used for cutting, beating, or 
pounding, ' 

I. As a N. n:, plur. n'^Mi A wine^press, a 
large vc6S€l in vihich they wed to "press, 
their grapes by trending, occ. Neb.xiii. 15. 
Isa. Ixiii. 2. Lam. i. 15. Joel iii. 18, or 
iv. 13. In thii last passage it is distin* 
guished from CS^lp'* the rats or lakes 
which received the liquor from the presss 
(comp. uuder^ll V.) ; bqt in Jud. vi. i i, 
.n:) seems to comprehend the whole place 
or building. 
If we may judge from the name Getk^ 

• Sec Harmers Observations, vol. i. p. 5, 3 1 - 
vol. iii. p. 26, 27; vol. ir. p. 354, 5. and HutMirs. 
Nat. Km. oi Aleppo, p. 14B, and following. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



n^n:)— l»3*i 

wn(U€ (niDU^ ra a press /or oii) Mat. 
xxfi. j6, the Jews applied Hi to tlie otV- 
as well as to the wine^prcss. 
II. As a N. n^n:i '* occurs thrice, m the 
8tb, 8i8t, and 84th Psalms, as the title 
or subject matter of them. The word 
r^ulariy, as derived from t^^^ signifies 
vine-pressmg, or ike treading of the uine- 
pnss, i. e. when in the — spiritual me- 
taphor the Redeemer comes to execute 
vcKgeoAce oh the enemy , and bring sal- 
xtttion to his redeemed^ as Isa. Ixiii. 4." 
Bi/c's Crit.Heb. 


Or Words of more than three Letters, be- 
ginning with :i. 

hjUcd, i. e. podded or in pod, LXX tTtspiux- 
nl<iy seeding. Once Exod. ix. 31, >\here 
it is spoken of flax, and ans^vers to 1^2H 
bang in ear of barley, and from ^^ pro- 
tuberant, and nb^ to ascend, it well ex- 
presses the formation oixh^XglobousJruit 
fifpodcmthetop of thestalk of flax, wliich 
succeeds the flower, andcoutauisthe seed. 

*im:i Chald. 

The same as the following llJtJi, t being 
chaogedintol after the Chaldee manner, 
A treasurer, occ. Dan. iii. 2, 3. 

A CbaWee or Persic N. A treasurer, from 
0: to treasure, lay up, (the 3 being drop- 
ped as in the Persic, Greek, and Latin, 
goza) and *)i pure (comp. y^^). occ. 
Ezra i. 8. vii. 21. So Targum on Esth. 
X 3. 

I know not the composition of this word, 

unless perhaps it be from the Heb. ki tf 
roundish mass, and liD)) from iDifUo 
subsist^ stand Jirm^ the i? being dro}>ped 
in the composition, as in ^btDO^ (which 
see) for Pji^i^Oi?. y^thti is, however, cer- 
tainly used in Arabici and is in that 
language applied to a rock, Xq a hard 
man, to camels grov:ing old, to weigkt^ 
a burden, affliction. See Cas/elL 
Job iii. 7, Iaj, kt thai night be liobi a 
rock, i. e. let the darkness of it be com^ • 
creicd to the utmost degree, that it may 
become like a rock, let not T\iT\ a vibra- 
tiou of light cowc in it. See Exod. x. 2 1. 
Wisd. xvii. 5, and comp. under "^If. 
Job xxx. 3, In -xant licbj fQDni and Us 
hard, severe, extreme hunger, literally^ 
in famine of the rock, where nothing wifl 

Isa. xlhc. 21, It is spoken of tlie chordiy 
considered as desolate, bereaved of ckil" 
dren, iniDj»i1 and rocky, i. e. baixeu as 
the rock, non pariehs, not bearing, says 
the Vulg. 

Job XV. 34, For the congregation of the pro- 
fligate (shall be) ^M:hy a rock, i. e^ barren 
and desolate like a rock. So Aquila and 
Theodotion, a,Kapro$ unfruitful; Vulg.ste- 
rilis, 6ffrrc«. Comp. ver. 3 5. F.cclus. xl. 1 5. 
-^unclean roofs (are) stt' aKporofLv IlK- 
TVAY'upon a hard rock, and consequent- 
ly cannot grow. 

The above cited are all the passages 
wherein the word occurs. 


As a N. ^ Treasury, "for the most prff/ojrt 
tilings," saith Marius, from T3: To treu^ 
sure up, and y pure. Once i Chroa, 
xxviii. II, Comp. *)iU. 

njlJ See under mi 

n Chald. 

A IVonoon, answermg to the Ileb. nr This, 
aod corrupted from it by substituting, as 
usual m Clial(}ee, n ibr t, and M for n. 
occ. Dan. iv. ^7- viL B. 

Repeated, (like Heb. m) This md that, 

one and the ot/ter, occ. Dan. v. 6v vii, 3, 
a«i ^ *. 

Tofaint, or fail, through weariness, hunger, 

or terrour. occ. Ps. Ixxxviii. 10. Jer. 

xxxi. IS, 25, As a N. nrjrtT faiiUing 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

rt»n— a»t 


31— ]»-f 

from terrour. occ.'Jobxli. 13, or aa. 
Strength dwellefh on kU necky and faint* 
ing cxnlteth before Aim, i. e. as soon as 
men see him they immediately faint. 
But both the image and the expression 
in Job are wondertully sublime. As a N. 
fl3«T Faintnesi. occ. JDeut. xxviii. 65. 
Dbr. Latin debiUs^ whence debility^ &c. 

I. To be troubled, to be in commotion^ or 
agitation. Hence as a N. fem. n;H1 
Agitation, commotion, as of the sea. Jer. 
xlix. 13. Comp. Isa. Ivii. ao. 

II. To be troubled, disturbed in mind, i Sam. 
ix. 5. Ps. xxxviii. 19. As a N. fem. 
i1i«i Trouble, uneasiness. Pro^. xii. ac. 

III. As a N. ;i«l (from the Heb. y^) Fish, 
occ. Nch. xiii. 16. And perhaps the 
word is here used as the Tyrians pro- 
nounced it. 

With a radical, but omissible, n. 

I. In Kal, To Jiff. occ. Deut. xxviii. 49. 
Jer. xlviii. 40. xlix. aa. Ps. Xviii. 11. 
In the three iformer passages it is applied 
to the^ j/ing of an eagle, in which there 
are two circumstances especially remark- 
able; I St, The rapidity witii which it 
rushes on it's prey (which is noticed in 
Scripture, Hab. i. 8. a Sam. i. 33. 
Lam. iv. 19, & al.) adly, Its peculiar 
manner of fully expanding iCs wings, 
from which the Greek Poets called it 
rayvirlspog, and which is particularly 
mentioned in the two Texts of Jere- 
miah above quoted; so likewise, Ps. 
xviii. 1 1, aopears from the context to 
be intended as a description rather of 
majesty and pomp, than ofsuiftntss; and 
Deut. xxviii. 40, may as well refer to 
the wide spreading as the rapid motion of 
the Jews' enemies. Comp. vcr. 51, 5 a 
mn tfa«n as a V. will si«^»ify, Tofy with 
vings expanded. In Hiph. To cause to 
Jty away, in a figurative sense, occ. a K. 
xvii. a f . But observe, that not only the 
Ktri, but the Complutensian edition, and 
fourteen more of Dr. KennicotCs Codices 
read in this Text rm and drove or thrust, 
Vhich also seems preferable. So LXX, 

fl. As a N. rr»T A kite or glede, so Vulg 
milvus, which is i^emarkabtc im flying, 
or, as it were, saihng m the air, with ex- 
gandcd wng§. Tb«» oar English ^eo^ 

is from the V« to glide. See Jmiui 
Etymol. Anglic, occ. Lev. xi. 14, where 
it is joined with the TiM vulture; aod 
Hasselquist tells us. Travels, p. 194, that 
near Grand Cairo, in £g>pt, the vultures 
'* assemble with the kites every moming 
and evenuiff, there to receive the alms of 
fresh meat left them by the legacies of 
CTeat men." In Lev. xi. 14, six of Dr, 
Kennicoft*s Codices read nH'in. 


J«*i See under p 

*ii<l See under yi 


I. To murmur, mutter, gmmbfe. It occufi 
not as a V. in Kal, but as a Participle 
plur. fem. Hiph. nnno Causing to mut' 
mur or complain. Lev. xxvi. 16, nn^O 
W^i Causing the animal frame to mur- 
mur, groan, or the like. As a N. with t 
formative H, y^tk A causing to murmur ot 
groan, occ. i Sam. ii. 33, '^W^ fi« in«> 
for the causing qf thy frame to groan; 

where Dr- Kcnnicott's Bible furnishes no 
various reading on y^'t^b. Comp. wrw, 
Isa. xxviii. a8, under t:n I. As a N. 
fem, nn and in Reg. nyi A munnuring, 
muttering, an evil report, which is fre- 
quently propagated m a low muttering 
tone. Gen. xxxvii. a. And Joseph Ml* 
brought ny"! onin n» their evil report 
to their father, i. e. the evil report or 
murmurmg that went about of them ; as 
Prov. XXV. 10. inm is the murmuring or 
evil report that goes about of thee. Nmn. 
xiii. 3a, p«rT nai iw^i And they caused 
to go forth a murmuring or evil report 
(concerning) the land-^H among th 
: children of' Israel. Comp. Num. xiv. 


II. As a N. y\*l or yi The bear, q. d. the 
murmurer, grumbler, or growler, from bis 
remaikable grumkUng or growUng, uft' 
daily when hungry or enraged. '*La 
voix de Tours est un grondement, ungros 
murmure, souvent m^le d*un fremi^" 
ment de dents qu'il fait snrtout lors.]je 
on rirrite." Btiffon, Hist. Nat. torn. viii. 
p. 31, lamo. Comp. Isa. lix. 11. This 
gr&wl the Latin writers expressed by gt- 
mitus, because it is a disagreeable imfunt- 
fitlsionnd. So Horace, Epod. xvi. lin. 51, 

iSfiw yetjteriifms circiimgeiBit Umis •^Ue, 
Nor gr9^4s avottsd the fold the cveauig Bm. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



pal— sa-T 

Onl^, Metam. lib. it Im. 483^ &c. of 
(Misto changed into a ski-bear. 

••Fox iracwidaf mmaxquef 
naofMe terroris rauco de gutture fertur,-^ 
AuiAmfme 4Uot gemitu Usiata dolores. 

From her hoarse throat proceeds* horrid Toice, 
And with perpetual grvwl attests her griefs. 

Aed as the Hebrew oairie of thh animal 
is taken from his groicUngy so rarro de- 
duces his Latid name ursus by ap ono- 
matopoeia from tlie noise he makes. *' Ursi 
Lucana origo, tcl, unde ilUy nostri ab ip- 
sius voce." See more in Bodtart, vol, ii. 
809, 810. I Sam. xvii, 34. Prov. xvii. 12, 
& al. frcq. Besides the great, white fee- 
Bear, there are, at least, two other species 
of bears found in the old world ; the one 
black or blackish, peculiar to tlie northern 
ciinates ; tJie other, brown, red, reddisli, 
or fallow, found in the more southern 
prts, particularly in Arabia : tlie for- 
mer of these are by no means carnivorous^ 
bat the latter are so. It is evident there- 
fore that this latter is the species men- 
tioned iu Scripture. See I Sam. xvii. 34. 
a K. ii. 24. Dan. vii. 5. Comp. Buffon, 
Hist. Nat. tora. vvL p. 19, %o, 35. 
It is certain, from the construction of 
% K. ii. 24, that tyT\ plur. with a mas* 
cuUne termination, is there used for she- 
bears; and one m^t suspect that y^ or 
^n sing, signifies likewise a ^^e-bear, in 
a Sara. xvii. 8. Prov. xvii. 12. Hos. 
xiii. 8, because this miimal is eminent 
for her intense affection to her young 
oaes, and dreadfully furious when de- 
prived of them, as many writers have 
observed *, whereas the Ae-bear does not 
appear at all remarkable iu this respect. 
Accordingly the Vulg. in the three last 
cited texts, renders the Heb. word by 
mia, and the LXX in Sara, by a^ycrog. 
But then it must be observed that in all 
these texts, n or ai*7 is construed with 
it2W masc, and therefore must be mascu- 
line also. Sec therefore under Vra^ III. 
^1 In a transitive sense. To cause to 
murmur or mutter repeatedly, occ. Cant, 
vil 9, As good wine CD^iW* >nQtt^ :iy\1 
causing the Ups of those that sleep to mat- 
ter or murmur *'as people do [in dreams} 
or betwixt sleeping and waking; and es}>e- 

• See B9chart^ as above, ScbatchTer Phjrs. Sacr. 
00 2 Sam. xvii. 8. J^m, Hiit. Nat. torn. viii. 
•^ 29. Capt. C%<ii% U& Voya|re, rol. ill. p. S07. 

cially when warm with generous wine.* 
DsR. t Goth, r/tf/n?, Islandic duja^ £1^ 
dof^e, from tlieir murmuring* 

Occurs not as a V. but as a N, «apl 
Strength, So the Targum f^n, and 
LXX t^xvi. Once Deut. xxxiiL 25, 

r^y^ Cbald. 

From the Heb. n2), ) being, as usual, chaa* 
ged hito *7, To sacrifice, occ Ezra vi, 3, 
jTim pnm n in« Tlie place wkereiky 
(were) sacrificing sacrifices. As a N, 
fem. nnaio An attar, occ. Ezra vii. 17. 

in Chald. 

Occurs not as a V. but the idea seems to be» 
To place, of lai/ in rows. For hence, as 
a N. inii, plur. pna A row^ iujfer occ 
Ezra vi. 4. It is used also in Targua 
Jonath. Hos. ii. 16. Ezck. xlvi. 23,, w 
which last cited passage it answers to 
Heb. "^Ito a row. 


Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, but is re- 
tained in Arabic, and signifies. To drtf^ 
^f'y ^Pf tuither. . 

I. As a N. fem. T)hyi, in Reg. n>m A cdce 
or lump of dried Jigs. occ. i Sam. xxx^ 12. 
2 K. XX. 7. Isa. xxxviii. ai. Masc. fdur. 
tz)^b:i'7. occ. I Sam. xxv. 18. i Ciiroa. 
xii. 40. 

II. tz)>n^n n^n is mentioned, Jcr. xlviiu a2» 
as a ciVjf or place in the territories ofMoaib ; 
whence it should seem that they had a 
temple dedicated to the heavens under 
the attribute oi drying or preserving fruiti 
for man's use and benefit;. And this, 
we may observe, would be particularly 
beneficial to the Moabites, whose country 
abounded in excellent grapes. See Isa, 
xvi. 8—10. Jer. xlviii. 26, 32, 33. 

I. To adhere, cleave, cUave together, stitA 
close. Job xxxviii. 38. Prov. xviii. 24. It 
is construed with the Particles bA, b and 
1, in the sense of to, u/Uu — ^with ^H Jer. 
xiii. II. Ezek. iii. 26.— withb Ps. xliv. 26, 
cii. 6, Sc at. freq. — with 1 Gen. ii. 94. 
xxxiv. 3. Deut. iv. 4. x. 20. xiii. ^5. 
a K. V. a;.. As a N. pyi A joint in ar* 
mour. I K. xxii. 34. a Chrou. xviii. 3). 

II. JSoder. occ Isa. xli. 7, where ppn may 

t See Junius Etymol. Anglic. 
i See HuteifUKM^Ttmity oftht OentilMi^p, tO\^ 
& seq. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




be considered either as a V. to soder, or 
rather as a N. soder, and so the sentence 
be rendered, as in the margm qf our 
translation, and by Bishop Ijjuih, saying 
of' the soder, it is good, Comp. Job xh. 
15, or 21. 

III. In Kal and Hiph. To join y ova take. 
Gen. Xxxi. 23. Jud. xx. 42. Comp. 
Gen. xix. 19. 

IV. With nnrt following. To pursue hard 
after. We say in Eliig. To stick close 
to, in the same sense, i Sam. xiv. 22. 
t Chron. x, 2. Jer. xlii. x6. 

I. The primary notion of this Root, I ap- 

5>rehend wth Cocccius to be, To drive j 
ead, bring, agere, ducere ; as it hkewise 
often signifies in Chaldee and Syriac 
Sec Castelf. Ps. xviii. 48, ^,yr) And he 
brought, or drove, the people under me. 
So Montanus, duxit, LXX uiroraja; sub* 
jectmg, and Vulg. subdis puttcst under, 
(In a Sam, xxii. 48, the word for "im^ in 
tile Psalm is TiD subduirtg.) Ps. xlvii. 4, 
where LXX yVfragg, and Vulg. subje- 
' cit, hath subjected^ Mofttanus, ducet shall 
bring. As a N! 'il'i J driving. Isa. 
▼. 17, The lambs shall feed mmD ac- 
cording to their driving, i. e. where they 
are driiaiy or led, Montanus, juxta duc- 
tum suom. Comp. Mic. ii. 13. As a 
N. ^^ID A mldemess, an vncuUivated 
nnd comparatively barren country , chiefly 
used for driving cattle into to feed. See 
£xod% iii. i^ i Sam. xvii. 28. xxv. 21. 
Comp. Luke xv. 4, and under rriM L 
n. As a N. fem. plur. miil Floats or rafts 
of timber, driven along by oars, &c. occ. 
1 K. ▼. 9, or 23. So LXX, S^fi^^a^. 
Comp. a Chron. ii. 15, or 16, where the 
correspondent Heb. word to ni^ll in 
I K. is rn'icEJl rendered likewise by the 
LXX -Lyshyig. 
lli. As a N. inn is used forTAe celestial fluid 
or light, on account of it's activity, whe- 
ther operating with that wilder influence 
which melts the ice, or with that resLstlas 
impetuosity which in lightening bears 
down everything before it. Ps. cxlvii. 1 8, 
He sendeth forth his ice like morsels; tcho 
' can stand before his cold? He sendeth out 
Ais lil, and meltcth them ; he blorxeth with 
\ his Kind, the waters floxc, Hab. iii. 4, 5, 
Ai^ the brightness (am) as tlie li^t — 
. Bff'0rt Aim went ^2^, and rp^. a flashuig 

fire went forth at his feci. See Bat/$ 
Crit. Heb. p. ia6, 7. 

IV. As a N. fem. nmn, plur. ^D'^y^, A bee, 
from the * admirable order and conduct 
by which they are led in their various 
works, of which see Virgil Georcic. iv. 
at the beginning; Nature Displayed, 
vol. i. p. 94, 106; and comp. under 
Tj> IV. occ. Deut. i. 44. Jud. xiv. 8. 
Ps. cxviii. la. Isa. vii. 18. With tsa, 
vii. J 8, 19, may be compared Hmner'% 
simile descriptive of the multitude of the 
Grecian forces pouring from the ships 
and teuts, II. ii. liu. 87, 

*Ai fxtf T'n$a dxtf nrfvomnreti, «i St rt aidi 
Ai from some rocky cleft the shepherd sect,' 
Cliu'^riiij^ in heaps on heaps the driving bees, 
Holling and bUck*nti)g, swaroit succeedixig 

With dteper murmufs and mdtt hoarse alarms; 
Dusky thejr spread, a tlose Embodied crowd. 
And o*er-tne vale descends the living ek>ud. 
So, from the tents and ships, Ac 


V. And most generally, To bring forward^ 
produce, or ulfer one's sentiments or com- 
ceptions in aiticuiate Muuds, to speak, b^ 
is, to utter articulate sounds; *im, to dis- 
course, speak rationally or inteWgibty^ by 
articulate sounds. Geo. viii. 1 5, &al.freq. 
In Niph. ''^aii To speak together, as 
tonbi tofght together. Mai. iii. 13 or 15, 
16 or 18. Ps. cxix. aj. Ezek. xxxiii. 30." 
Cocceius. As a N. ^21 A -word or speech, 
I Sam. ix. ai. Also, A things any thing 
which can be imagined and sjwken, a mat^ 
ter. Exod. v. 1 1. Gen. xix. 8. Deut. ii. 7, 
& al. frcq. A rate. Exod. xvi. 4. 1 K. 
X. 25. -)iT b}> Upon the matter of, on ac* 
count of, because of. Qen. xii. 17. Num. 
xxv. 18. Ps, xiv. 5. As a N. fem. in 
Rm;. nr,:n A matter, affuk, business. Job 
V. 8. Ps. ex. 4, p-Y '^zbo ^mm ^'j j4c^ 
cording to the matters (viz. that are re- 

,cordcd) of Melchiscdec. See this ex- 

Apia Hdraui TTTQ-t, Cbaidaice irQI Sih, 
htr a mrakUi dudu & ordine: — ^Politicum enhm 
tit Uc AtimaUultim, rega bmUtu l^f p^tdos, to* »r- 

hcs \:f ^ ^ 

:omulendi^ Aristoteles, ^li.inus, & Strifieres Geo- 
pom'ctt-r; ut t Romanis, V^rro, Virgilius, Ph'niUs; 
^ /x Arabibus, Damir, 9i Alkaxuinins; qit9rmm 
scrinia in ar^tuMcmio tarn trito mibi KompUure mon ^«- 
v^/." Botiarty vol. ill. 50*2. Comp. Sbaietbearct 

K. Henij V. act i. scene 2, towards the miAile. 

* plained 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




plained by St. Paul, Heb. vii. 1—3. The 
LXX, who render ^nilT b:) by xara 
tariff according to the order, have pre- 
served the sense, though not the exact 
idea, tni^ b^ On account of, to the eiid 
that, Eccles. vii. 14. viii. 2, & al. 
VI. mrr ^m The rvordofthe Lord, a title of 
Christ, tiie true Light ; (coinp. Sense III.) 
. for no man knoueth the Father save the 
Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will 
: reveal him. Mat. xi.*!/. Comp. John 
\ i. i8« See Gen. xv. J, 4, 5. i Sam. iii. 
\ 7, 21. XV. 10* I K. xiii. 9, 17. xix. 9. 
Ps. cvii. 20, & al. Comp. John i. 1. 
I John V. 7. Rev. xix. 13, and Greek 
and Eng, Lexicon in Aoyoj XVI. 
nr. As a N. "y*Ti The oracle, or speaking 
place, loquutoriuni, that pai^of the tem- 
ple from ivhence Jehovah spake and is- 
sued bb orders and directions, otherwise 
called the Holy of Holies, i K. vi. 5, 23, 
& al. freq. Comp. Num. vii. 89. For 
*i2n> in I K. vi. 16, at least fifty of Dr. 
Kennicott's Codices read yyh 

VIII. As a N. ")yi The plague or pestilence, 
which eminently carries men off", or drives 
them to their graves. £xod. v. 3, & al. 
freq. The IJCX have nearly given the 
idea, Jer. xxxii. 36, by rendering it dieo- 
roAij, a sending off or away; so Baruch, 
eh. ii. 25, uses airor^Xt) for the plague. 
In Hos. xiii. 14, very many of Dr. Ken- 
mcott's Codices read Till thy plague, sm- 
gular. It Js once used as a Verb, To 
smite, like the plague, which destroys ge- 
nerally, but not universally, 2 Chron. 
xxii. 10, ^iini and she smote all the 
9etd royal, and Joash among the rest, but 
be escaped death by means of Jehoshabe- 
ath, and her husband Jchoiada, ver. 1 1 *. 

IX. As a N. 'in A murrain, of cattle, occ. 
£xod. ix. 3, 15. 

Der. By transposition, Gothic dteiban, 
Saxon bpipan, and £ng. drive, &c. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Syriac 
Din signifies to conglutinate, glue, or join 
together, " conglutinavit, coi\junxit, ut 
folia fblib assuuntur.'* Casteil. And tliis 
«ccni8 nearly the idea of the Hebrew ; foi 

I, As a N, mTi Honey, which, like other 
lich sweet juices, is apt to adhere in 

^SteBartiA'^ Criiica Sacra examined, p. 148,&c. 

lumps or bunches as it were. Gen. xliii. 1 1. 
f Jud. xiv. 8, 9, 18, & al. freq. 
II. As a N. fem Dim The bunch of flesh, 
or rather of fat and hair, on a camel's 
back. So Targ. n.-niton, Vulg. gibbum. 
occ. Isa. XXX. 6. " The bunches are not 
formed by the rising of the spine of the 
back, but consist of while fat almost like 
suet." Brooked Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 112. 
Buffon says, "These bunches arc not 
boney; they consist only of a fat tleshy ■ 
substance, nearly of the same consistence 
as a cow's udder." And this able natu- 
ralist is inclined to consider them as be- 
ing originally acciden^l deformities oc- 
casioned by pressure, and the continual 
labour to which these animals have been 
from very early ti.'ues condemned. Hist. 
Nat. tom. X. p. 25—29. 

I. To multiply or increase exceedingly, occ. 
Gen. xlviii. 16, where LXX mKr^hySsiyj' 
o'ay may thry be rtiultipHid, 

n. As a N. yi, and fern, mi Fish, from 
Xh^xr great increatte. So Chald. pi a fish, 
from Heb. p to propagate, Lat. piscis, 
and Eng.Jw^, from Heh. riTD to spread. 
The X Abb^ Pluche shews froiu LcuKeU" 
hoek, that a single cod, though not of the 
largest size, contained nine millions, three 
hundred and forty -four thousand eggs; 
and observes, that though a common 

' carp is far from having such a number 
of eggs, yet the quantity of them is so 
amazing, even at the first glance, that 
it contributes very much to justify the 
above calculation. Gen. i. 26. ix. 2. 
Exod. vii. 18. Jon. ii. i, 2. & al. freq. || 

As a V. in (of the same form as tD^u^, 
pn, &c.) Tofsh, occ. Jer. xvi. 16. As 
a Participle or partiripial N. niasc. plur. 
tDLUn Fishers, occ. Jer. xvi. 16. £;?ek. 
xlvii. 10. o>;n The same. occ. Isa. 

f See Hartrur't Observations, vol. i. p. 304, &c. 

\ Nature Displayed, vol. i.*p. 230, 331, 12mo. 

jl In the 57th vol. of the PkUoso^hhal Ttoiuac 
t'ons^ for the year n67, Art. SO, is a comparative 
Table of the number of eggs in the spawn of seve- 
ral kinds of fishes, which seems to have been made 
mxh great care and pains by Mr. Thames. Harmer, 
and will hardly fail of convincirtg the reader of the 
dmzz.\r\g fecundity of the aquatic tribes. This Ta- 
ble may be found also in the Critual Jlevinv for 
August 17b'8. 

K xix. 8. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




xix. 8. As a N. fern. n:i*i Joshing, 
occ. Amos iv. 2. 

III. As* a N fiT Corn of all sorts, so named 
from it's great increase. Gen, xxvii. 38, 
& al. fVeq. Comp. Mat. xiii. 23. 

IV. As a N. fi:n Vagon, the Jitim of the 
Philistines, mentioned Jud. xvi. 23 . i Sam. 
V, & al. This Ha me denotes the increas- 
ivg or productive power of the material 
heavens, both in the earth and in the sea, 
of which attribute perhaps corn ^m\Jish, 
from their great fruit fulness, were tlic 
emblems. ^'Aaywv^ os sn '^nouvy Da- 
gon^ that is, the Corn-giver,*' says Sancho- 
niathon in Philo-Byblius, From 1 Sam. 
v. 4, (see Euj^. Aarg.) it seems that this 
idol resemblca a Jish in the lower part, 
with a human head and hands; and it 
appears plain from the prohibitions, 
£xod. XX. 4, Deut. iv. 18, and from a 
place being called \\yi tv^i the temple of 
Dagon, Josh. xv. 41, that the Idolaters 
in those parts had anciently some fshi/ 
Idols, as it is certain they had in later 
times; and ** Sir John Chardin twice 
mentions ^*^M reputed to be sacred at 
this day in the East*." " Piscem Si/ri 
Tenerantury The Syrians worship a Jish,*' 
says Cotta in Gcero de Nat. Dfeor. iii 
cap. 1 5. Though perhaps it may be best 
with f Selden to refer this assertion to 
the Syrian, and Phenician Idol Atergatis, 
by the Greeks corruptly called X Vtrcelo,, 
which had the upper part hke a woman, 
the lower likt 'dfish ; as Lucian, w ho says 
lie was an e}e- witness, informs us (De 
Dea Syr. tom. ii. p. 884, edit. Bened.) 
** AsfKshvs oe Bth$ sv ^OiviKT} s'jr^r^tray^r^v , 
^Br^^a, ffvov i^fjuasTj y.£v yuvr/ ro $e ixo- 
<rov SK iJ.y)pwy e$ a>cco'j$ wotx;, i%5;/0^ 
ovp-^ airoleiy&'^ai. luPhenicia I saw the 
image of Dtrce/o, {otAtergntis) ; a strange 
light truly ! For she had the half of a 
woman, but from the tliighs downward a 

fishes tail." Diodorus Siculus, lib. ii. de- 
scribing the same Idol as represcnied at 
Ascalon says, "To /xev 'ujpotru^Ttov syji 
yi^vxix^^, ro h aXko trcvfj.a. may ix^vo^. 

* Harmfr^s ObservatioQS, voL iii. p. 58, where 
ficc more. 

f De Dili Syrit Sjrntag. ii. cap. 8, p. 197. 

J Soi'/my, Nat. Hist. lib. v. 'cap. i23, speaking 
of Hiera^ulii in Siftia, *^ 3i procPgioja Atergati,, 
Grsecis tfzf/<w Derceto dicta, colitur. At that pla«'e is 
worship cd the moiwtrou* 4^rg(U'u^b^ tU Qr««ksy 
called Dtrtito.^* 

It hath the face of a woman, but all the 
rest of the body ^fshes,** No doubt it 
was from some account of this Idol that 
Horace took that thought in his Art of 
Puelry^ lin. 5, 4, 

'Ut turpiter at rum 

Dftiuat in piscem muVxer /(jruiosa supfrne. 
A handcome \vcmaH with ^^fshes tail. 


A Temple of Atergatis, at Camion, in 
the laud of Gilead, is mentioned, 2 Mac* 
xii. a6. 

The name Atcrgath seems to be derived 
from Heb. "Tiw illustrious, excellent (wliich 
in like manner enters into the composi- 
tion of li'D'lIM 2 K. xvii. 31.), and :n, or 
r^yi a fish, or as a V. to increase exceed^ 
ingly, an J so, like the name Dagon, it 
may refer both to iha form of the Idol, 
and to the grand attribute of fecundity to 
which the worship of it related : on which 
latter account also the more modem Ido- 
laters represented it rather with the half 
of a -woman than of a man. Comp. 
CD^u; under mu^. The same Idol at Asca- 
lon \\\\ou\ Diodorus Siculus calls Derceto 
or Atergatis, Herodotus (lib. i.cap. 105*) 
denominates the celestial Aphrodite, or 
Venus: and nearly related to the eastern 
Atergatis is also the Venus Marina of the 
Romans, or Ava,$vci/.eyy} of the Greeks. 
Venus is the || productive pouer of JVrt- 
ture or of the Heavais. And the Venus 
Marina is represented as just risen from 
the sea, sometimes with a dolphin at her 
feet, sometimes sitting' on a shell, held up 
by two tritons, i. e. Sea -Gods, or -Mou- 

H So Lucretius De Rer. Nat. lib. i. lin. 2 — S, 

Alma Venn* 

Quae rrare navlj^cmm, quae terras frugiferentt* 
Concelcbras; per te quoniam genus oniDe axu- 

Concipitur, que exortum lumina sob's. 

* B^fst f^c-rws ! Thou thf sea and fruitful earth 
Fet^pltst <.nnain ; /• Thee tvhattver lives 
It's icing o-jcts, and that it seer the sun. 

In which h'nes one would almost thiiik that Lvcrf 
Hushed his eye on the following; very similar pas- 
sage of the Orphic Hymn to Aphrod'te, or Venus : 

TlctyTa yet^ rx atOiy i^iv— 7iWrtf ^t Ta warrtt 

Ev CTovTiv T«, ^v9u} rt. 

From thee are all thi"gs-^^l things thou producest 
IVhich are in heaven, or in the fertile earth, 
Or mth^ sta, or is thtgrtat alftfss» 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




l»€»Si half men and hfifffish. A Jkh, 
Jiowcver, is in both exiiibitioiis a part of 
the ima^ry. See Sptnccs Potymctis, 
Di^l. xiv. p. 220. 

/ sliall only add, that the Tcmpfe of Da- 
gon at jizatus, in which tfic Ark of God 
was placed, was burnt by Jonathan^ the 
brother of Judas Maccabeus, i Mac. x. 
83, -^4 5 and iot furtb^r sattsfuction con- 
cerning this Idol, I with j^at |>leasure 
refer to Mr. IlutchinsorCs 'i'rimty of the 
Gentiles, p. 49a, &c. to Bat'e^ Crit. 
Heb. in tlie Avord pin, and to liis Note 
on I Sam. v. 4, in his Translation of the 
Pentateuch, &c. 
Der. J dog, from tliclr prolific nature, 
called in Greek xva^y for the same rea- 
son. A dug, -Qu? Also dag, a North- 
country word for dew, froai it's remark- 
able power in vegetation, wiiich is often 
observed in the sacred writers. So Ifo- 
tncr, Odyss. xiii. lin. 245* calls it Tf^a- 
kuia re g^orrj The vegetative dew. From 
dag we have the V. To dag, the N. dag- 
lock , also, (0 daggle, Qu ? 

'fhe Lexicons and Translations render this 
word as a N. (in which form it oOen 
occurs) A standard, or banner; as a V. 
(once Ps. XX. 6.) To set up a banner; as 
a Particip. paoul inin Vexillatus, one dis- 
ihiguished by a banner, the chief est ; as a 
Participle Niph. Bannered, or with ban- 
ners. But iHiat is the ideal meaning of 
the Root? Harmer, Observations, vol. i. 
p. 472, &c. sliews from Pitts and Po- 
cocke, that as in Arabia, and the neicrfi- 
bouring countries, on account of the in- 
tense heat of the sun by day, tliey gene* I 
rally choose to travel by night, so to pre- 
vent confusion in their large caravans, 
particularly in the annnal one to Mecca, 
each co//or or conT]>any, of which the ca- 
ravan consists, has it's distinct portable 
beacon, which is carrie(r on the top of a 
pole, and c<>nsktsx)f several fights; whidi, 
says Pitts, '* arc somewliat like iron stoves, 
mto which they |>nt short dry wood, wliich 
sdme of the camels me loaded- With.— 
Ever^ cottar hath one of tliese piftlcs l»e- 
longhig to if, «>me of which have ten, 
sonie twelve, of tliese lights, on their 
tops, more or less; and they are likewise 
of different figures as well as numbers; 
one perfanpy evai^woy (ike » gsrte; an- 

other triangular, or like mi !? of M, kc. 
so that ewry one knows by tliem his re- 
S|>ective cottor, Tiiey are carried in Hie 
front, aiKl set up in the pi»ro where Hie 
caravan is to jiltch, before that comes up, 
at some distance from one another. They 
are also carried In dav, not lighted ; but 
yet by the figure* anA number of them 
the itagges (or Pilgrims) are directed to 
what cottor thev belong, as soldiers by 
their colonrs, where to rendezvous ; anSt 
without such directions it would be im- 
possible to avoid confbsfon in such a vast 
number of people." ** As travelling then 
• fVi the night must be, generally speak- 
ing, most desirable t6 a great multitude 
in that desert, we may believe a compas- 
sionate God, for the most part, directed 
Israel to move in the night. And in con- 
sequence must we not rather suppose the 
standards of the — ^Tribes were moveable 
beacons, like those of ttie Mecca Pilgrims, 
than flags, of any thing of that kimt?" 
From these particulars, compare<l with 
the use of tlie worri in the Book of Cfm- 
ticles (of which presently) my Author 
collects, that the Root i^ii'signines, to en-^ 
lighten, dazzle, glister, or the like; atid 
to confiinn his interpretation it may be 
worth ob^ervhig, that in Arabic it sigoi-^ 
lies to barn, also to cover wifh gold or sil- 
ver, in such a manner that fhe fhiitg Co- 
tered appears to bf gold or silver ; and as 
a N. with Elif inserted, h<:n Gold, also 
the glittering of a sword. See Cast ell. 
Hc\Kc Eng. daztfe, the > bemg pronounced 
sort like the Arabic GJim, 

I. Tlien, As a N. V:i*t A laminotts standard 
or jtottah/e beacon, resembling those above 
descrilied. The fbnr Tribes of Judah, 
Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan, who en- 
caHii>ed on the Elast, South, West, and 
North, of the Tabernacle respectively, 
had each of them one of these luminousl 
standards. See Num. ii. throngliont. As 
a V. Ps. XX. 6, fn the name of oitr Go^ 
b:i"r: we will set up Our standcm)?. 

II. As a N. hyi A light or lamp, such* as 
was carried before the new-manried cou- 
ple on the evening of theii^ wedding. 

• It should be observed, howeVei', that the /«//«/« 
hfot oftlft sun by day must have been considerably 
moderated to the Israelites by the elomi %ubkh was 
tprcjd o^j:i them for a covering in the dftV-time. Ps. 
CV. ^. Conip. Num. X. 34. xiv. li. wisd. xix. 7. 

K a (Comp, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

TT— '1^1 



{Corop. Mat. xxv. i — la.) bcc. Cant, 
ii. 4, He brought me to the banqueting 
house (Heb. house of tvine) ''b^ >b:ni and 
his lamp orer, or for, me was !ote. As 
a Particip. paoul. occ. Cant. v. lo, My 
beloved is white and ruddy, nbllD b^yi 
lighted with ten thousand (lamps) or daz- 
zling^ as a gaudy bridegroom surrounded 
with ten thousand lamps. As a Participle 
Niph. fem. plur. occ. Cant. vi. 4, 10, 
where the bride is said to be no^» terri- 
ble, or rather dazzling mV^liS as rromen 
shone upon, i. e. by the nuptial lamps, 
the splendour of which would no doubt 
be strongly reflected by their rich attire 
and jewcds worn on such an occasion. 

To sit on eggs, or young ones, as a bird, to 
worm, foster, cherish them (as it is like- 
wise used in the Chaldee Targnm on Job 
xxxix. 14, for the Heb. tan to xoarm). 
occ. Jer. xvii. 11, where Vulg. fovit, 
warmed, cherishcd.^^^s a serpent, occ. 
Isa. xxxiv. 15, Avhere Vulg. fovit. There 
the darting sef pent nestles or makes it's nest, 
nWa m:iTi nrpni toboni and lays (it's 
eggs), and hatches, and sits on, or fosters 
(ihem, or it*s young) with it*s shadow or 
shelter, j^ristotle. Hist. Anim. lib. v. ad 
fin. has a very similar passage concerning 
serpents, '* Q^ohwiCiv s^oj' orav $s rsxyi, 
BIS T^J' yij*' sirwaKei' Bx.XBit£Jai $e xa* 
ravla rw orspuj slet. They lay eggs, 
and when they have laid tliem, they sit 
on, or foster them in the ground, and 
these are hatched the fallowing year." 
Here woronsiv answers to tobu in Isa. 
izwa^s^y to ^T^, and gxAstrgiv to rpl. 
Comp. Pliny, lib. x. cap. 62. And see 
more in Bochart, vol. iii. p. 415, and in 
Scheuchzer Pfays. Sacr. on Isa. xxiv. 15. 


Occurs not as a V. (see iii under n^) but 

I. As a N. masc. plur. t=:>Ti The breasts or 
paps of a woman. Ezek. xxiii. 3, 8, 2r. 

II. As a N. ^1 Some vessel of a roundish, 
protuberant fonn, resembling a woman's 

1, A pot or caldron, occ. i Sam. li. 14. Job 
xli. 1 1, ft Chron. xxxv. 13. 

2. A basket, occ, 2 K, x. 7. Jcr. xxiv. ft. 
Ps. Ixxsi. 7, where it seems to mean, as 
Mr. Green has observed in his Note on 
this text, a basket, namely, says he, the 
bbouiei's basket, which wiis piobubly 

employed in carrying bricks. And thus 
the LkX Kof If w and Vulg. copAino, and 
Symmachus translates the sentence, 'At 
X^^P^S *w''« M^ivsaiCr^XXayi^a-av HUhands 
were freed from the basket, and Jerome 
to the same pui|M>se, Manus ejus a cO' 
phino recesserunt. Diodati in his Italian 
translation renders it, ** le sue mani si son 
dipartite daUe corbe, his hands xcere re- 
moved from the baskets, i. e^ says be in a 
note, du portar la terra da far matfoni^ 
from carrying earth to make bricks, 
Exod.i. 14." And baskets might pro- 
bably be employed both in carrying the 
earth of which the bricks were made, and 
also the bricks themselves. 

III. As a N. tDm Loves, pleasures of lave^ 
Prov. vii. 18. Ezek. xvi. 8. xxiii. 17. 
In several passages- the word may be 
translated either breasts or loves, and ac- 
cordingly b diiferently rendered by dif- 
ferent translators, as in Prov. v. 19. 
Cant. i. a. 

IV. As a N. nn A lorer, a beloved one. Isa. 
V. 1. Cant. i. 13. iv. 16. It occurs above 
thirty times in this Book of Canticles, as 
the title of the beloved one, i. e. of Solo- 
mon as a type of Christ, who is himself 
called *im The belaoed one, Jer. xxx. 9. 
I'Lzek. xxxiv. 23. xxxvii. 24, a 5. Hos. 
iii. 5. Amos ix. 11. Zech. xii. 8; and 
whom I^T David, the King and Prophet 
of Israel, typified, in his originally mean 
ap^Warance, in hi) eminent qualilicatioas, 
in his various persecutions, in his exal- 
tation, in his victories and conquests, and 
even iu his taking to wife the * adulte- 
rous woman, and thereby bringing guilt 
upon himself. See Isa. liii. 6. 2 Cor. 
V. 21. 

V. As a N. 'm and *n An uncle, i Sam. 
x. 14. Lev. XXV. 49, & al. freq. Abo, 
An uncle's son, a cousin- gennan, Comp. 
Jer. xxxii. 8, with vcr. 12$ where ibe 
Vulg. renders >Ti by patruelis mei, my 
paternal cousin; and in Amos vi. 10, for 
I'm the Tarffum has n'^y^p his near tr-^ 
lotion, so Vulg. propinquus ejus, and 
LXX 04 oixsioi avlojv. As a N. fem. 
rm and in Reg. mi An aunt, whether 
a fathers sister, Exod. vi. 20. Comp. 
ch. ii. 2. Num. xxvi. 39; or an uncle's 
Wife, Lev. xviii. 14. It is evident these 

* See Um. 1. 3, and ch. iiL throughout. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




names of relation are taken from affec- 
tionate lave. 
Vi. With a formative ^ prefixed Ti\ hence 
as a N. fem. sing. niTP j4 /ore, i. e. an 
ofy'ect of love^ a dearly beloved one. occ. 
Jer. xij. 7. As a N. with a participial > 
inserted nn> Belovedy well bekwed, ami- 
able. Dent xxxiii. 12. Isa. v. i. Ps. 
Ixxxiv. a, & al. nTT T^ A song oflwe, 
Ps. xlv. I. 
Der. Hence the Tyrian Dido, otherwise 
caUed Elisa {v(i>hi) i. e. delip;htful, had 
her name. Hence also Welsh diden, a 
nipple, Eug. diddy, Gr. rirdo^, a breast, 
TtJi;, ri^T^joj, a nurse, &c. Eng. teat. Also, 
perhaps, Webh Tdd, a father, and Eng. 
dad, daddy. 

Occun not as a V. but the Root seems 
nearly related to the preceding tt, as 
«n to tl, for 

I. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. '►M^ni occ. 
Jer. xxiv. i, for baskets of a round protu- 
berant form, which in the next verse are 
called *m without the M. 

H. As a N. masc. plur. CD^*nn Mandrakes, 
both plant and fruit. So all the ancient 
versions, and amongst them the LXX, 
MxvBoAyopsu and fji,v}Xx i/^xv^payopov, 
and Onkelos *m"^a\ occ. Gen. xxx. 14, 
15, 16. Cant. vii. 13, or 14. From the 
former passage we may collect, that the 
fruit ^vas ripe in wheat-harvest. And 
thus Hassdquist^ Veyages, p. i6d, speak- 
in| of Nazareth in Galilee, says, " What 
I found most remarkable at this village 
was the great number* of Mandrakes, 
which grew m a vale below it. I had 
not tlie pleasure to seje this plant m blos- 
som, the fruit now (May the 5th, O. S.) 
hanging ripe to the stem, which lay wi- 
thered on the ground. — From the season 
in which this Mandrake blossoms and ri- 
pens fruit, oue might form a conjecture 
that it was Rachael's Dudaim. These 
utre brought her in the . tcheat-harcest, 
which in Galilee is in the tmmih of May 
about this time, and the Mandrake was 
now in fruit." From Cant. vii. 13, it 
appears that the tD^»T)T yielded a re* 
markabU smell at the same tim^as the 
vines and pomegranates flowered, which 
in Judea is * about the end of April, or 

* Se^ Oatlimes rf a New Commentary en Solomons 
S«f , p. 147; &c. 

beginning of May. And therefore I 
should refer this circumstance of their 
smefl to the frvit rather than to the /?ozwr, 
especially as Brookes, who has given a 
particular description, and a print, of this 
plant (Nat Hist. vol. vi. p. 253, 4.), 
expressly observes that the fruit has a 
strong nauseous smell f, though he says 
nothing about the scent of the flower. 
And this circumstance will m some mea- 
sure account for what Hassclquist (in the 
place above cited) remarks, thatthe Arabs 
at Nazareth call it by a name which sig- 
nifies in their language tlie Devil's vic- 
tuals. So the Samaritan Chief Priest 
told Maundrell (Travels, IVlcirch 24), 
that *' the Mandrakes were plants of a 
large leaf, bearing a certain sort of fruit, 
in shape resembling an apple, growing 
ripe in harvest, but of an ill savour, and 
not wholesome. But then he added, that 
the virtue of them was to help conception, 
being laid under the genial bed; and 
that the women were often wont so to 
apply it, at this day, out of an opinion 
of if s prolifick virtue. ' ' Michael, therefore, 
could not want them either for food or 
fragrancy; and from the whole tenour 
of the narration, Gen. xxx. compared 
with ch. xxix. 32, 33, 34, it appears that 
both she and Leah had some such notion, 
as the Samaritan Chief Priest entertained, 
of their ge/?2a/ virtue. And does not the 
Jewish Queen's mention of them in Cant, 
vii. 13, intimate somewhat of the same 
kind, and shew that the same opinion 
prevailed among the Jews m the time of 
Solomon? (See Outlines, p. 339.) Nor 
was this opinion confined to the Jews ; 
the Greeks and Romans had the same 
notion of Mandrakes. They gave lo the 
fruit the name of the Apple of Iajvc, and 
to Venus that of Mandragoritis. The ~ 
Emperour Julian, in his Epistle to Ca- 
Uxenes, says, that he drinks tlie juice of 
Mandrakes to excite amorous inclinations, 

f On account of the fetid sm^/i of the ManJrahs^ 
whether fruit or flower, or both, I apprehend they 
had their Chaldec and Syriac name* ^rrna* and wma* 
from Chald. aad Syr. nrnaa he-goat. But Abbe Mw 
riti, in Travels, vol. ili. says, that "in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jerusalem he met with many of these 
plants; and that the g^reater part of those which he 
saw were covered with a ripe fruit of the size and 
colour of small red apples, exceediiigly ruddy, and 
of a most agretabU odour, 

K3 (Se« 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

nrr— nn-T 



(Sec Calmet^s Dictionary.) Aiui before 
Jiini, Dioscorides, lib. iv. cap. 76, bad ob- 
served of it, *' ^OK£l ij fl^a iflhl^CVV tlVOLl 

xtroiYfTiXTj, The Root ii supposed to be 
used in Philtres or Love- Potions,'' On 
the whole there seems little doubt Jbut 

gvor,^ siclncss. Ps. xli. 4.- As a N. inasc. 
plur. in He;:. '^"1:2 Sicknesses. Deut. vii. 15. 
II. It is paiticuLirly used for the female 
periodical sic/uicss. Lev. xli. a. xv. s$, 
3c '.il. 
Ilcnce Gr. ^vr) unhappiuess^ g"ef- 

this plant had a proxocatixe quality, a^id | nm 

therefore its Hebrew naiiie ZDMniT way jWitfi a radical, but mutable or omissible, n. 

be properly deduced from X=i''^'^ pleasures I. In Kal and Piiph. To drive, wrpely push. 

of hve, as under the tirst Sense Ci<"m 
baskitSj from Tn. 

nm Chald. 

The same as the Heb. iMT, Gold, Ezra 
vii. 45. Dan. ii. 32, & al. frcq. 

As a Participle or participial N. fern. 
rrnmD Golden, i. e. decked or ahoundi/fg 
uith gold. ore. l^a. xiv. 4. The Pro- 
phet, introduciiig the Jews singing their 
song of triuj! ph after their rcluni from 

drive down, or axvai/, thrust forth or 
do'dn, Ps. xxxv. 5. cxviii. 13. ex), 5* 
Jer. Ii. 34, & al. freq. In Kal, passively, 
To he driven, or thrust down, occ. Ps. 
xxxii, 13. As a N. Tn A fall or stuM- 
Oling,' occasioned by being impclUd or 
thrui^t. Ps. Ivi. i4.'^cxvi. 8. As a N. 
feni. nn'TD A push or impulse that makes 
one fall, ruin, Impnlsus ad ruinam. occ, 
Prov. xxvi. 28, Comp. Root nni. 

Babylon, very properly and beantitully , II. In lliph. To dispel, purge awajf, as 
uses a Chaldce word, and probably thej blood. Iva. iv. 4. 

verj' sapie as the Bab}lonians applied to 
their superb and opulent capital. Comj). 
Rev. xviii. i6, 


The V. in Arabic signifies, To come upon 
suddcnlj/ or unexpectedly, to oxeruhthn, 
as destruction, the night, ice. SccCVa/c//. 
It occurs once in Hebrew, Jer. xiv. g, as 
a Participle Niph. and may be rendered, 
overwhelmed, astonied, or stupcjicd. LXX, 
vtvwv asleep f 

Hence perhaps the Greek a^Y,iJLoysuj to be 
depressed or qlrnoat overwhelmed with 

J. To prance, spring, or bounds as a horse. 

occ. Nab. iii. ^. As a N. fern. plur. 

niin*i Prancings, or rather scamperings ; 
> for it relates to the horses of the Cana- 

anitcs scampering away in Jlight*. occ. 

Jud. V. 2a, twice. 
II. As a N. imn Some species of free; 

probably so called from the springiness or 

eladiciti/ of it's wood. occ. Isa. xli. 19. 

Ix. 13. 
Di:r. Veer, from their bounding. Qu ? 

With a radical immutable"), but a muta- 
ble, though radical, n. 

J. To languish, be faint. As a Parlicip. or 
participial N. nn. Faint, languishing, 
JLam. 1. 13. V. 17. As a N. m Lan- 

* Sc« Grcen'% Poetical VssU of the Old Tcrta- 
ment, p. 65. 

III. To thntst or plunge into water, occ. 
aChron. iv. 6. Ezek. xJ. 38. It does 
not strictly express though it implies 
washing, which is denoted by another 
word, ym. See Exod. xxix. 17. Lev, 
i. 9, 13. 

IV. As a N. jm rendered MiUtf,'d kind of 
plant, so called perhaps from it's thrust- 
ing forth such a quantity of grains. Thus 
in Latin it is called Milium, ** gvasi sciL 
raille grana ferat unus culmus, as if one 
stalk bore a thousojid grains f." oce. 
Ezek. iv. 9. No doubt, }m means the 
same kind of ^rain as what is how called 
in tlie East Durra, which, accordiag to 
Niebuhr t, is a kind of mllct (sortc de 
millet), and when made into bad bread 
with camel's milk, oil, butter, or grease, 
is almost the only food which is eaten by 
the common people in Arabia Felix. ** I 
found it so disagreeable, says my author, 
that I should willingly have preferred to 
it plaiu barley bread,*' which remark 
tei»ds to illustrate Ezek. iv. 9. Durra is 
also used in Palestine and Syria, and it is 
generally agreed that "i^ yield* nwcA 
more than any other kind of grain-^ie 
Durra rend l>eaucoup plus que tous les 
antra's grains." 

'. Ciiald. As a N. plur. pm rnstrumaiU 

f See Mart'mn Lexicon Etymol og. in MUmm. 
I Dctcription 4£ I'.Af abi£, p. 4^, i S5, 1 36, where 

?c more. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



qfmusick played onhy impvlse, occ. Dan. 

vi. i8,or 19. 
From the Heb. Vm, To fear. Dan. v. 19. 

Ju Apbel, To affright /DzTi. iv. a. As a 

})articipial N. l^^rn Terrible, frightful, 

Dan. ii. 31, & al. 
fTTT See under nm 

In Kal, To nrge, impels hasten. So as a Parti- 
ciple paoul niasc. pirn*. t=)*i3irn Hasrened. 
occ. Esth. iii. 15. viii. 14. In Nipli. To 
he urged, /taslened, occ. 2 Chron. xxvi.20. 
Esth. VI. 12. As a N. fern. plur. n&mo 
Precipices, i. e. destruction ^ so LXX, xa- 
rxphpavy Vulg. interitu. occ. Ps. cxl. i». 

Deb. Dcep.Q^} 


'/b thrust, press iq)on,disfress.occ. Jiid. ii, 1 8. 
(where LXX, fx9Xi?oyra;y distressing) 
Joel ii. 8. Hence Gr. J<a;xa; ^0 pursue, 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but 

I. As a N. denotes enough, sufficiency^ 
pkttty, and is spoken either of quantity 
or rapacity. 

1. Of qoautity, number, or degree. Exod. 
xxxvi. 5, The people bring much ^D more 
than enough for the senice of the work. 
Lev. V. 7, If his hand cannot attain ^ 
Tnif the sufficiency of a lamb, i. e. enough 
to procure or purcnase it. Dent. xv. 8, 
i')DnD n Sufficient/or his need, 5, 
And they came ^*i5 according to the plenty 
of locusts, i. e. as numerous as the locusts 
tor muhitade. i Sam. i. 7, nn^i; niD 
According to the frequency of her going 
vp, i. e. as o^en as she went up. Comp. 
ch. vii. 16. xviii. 30. i K. xiv. 28. Jer. 
\\\\. 20. So 2 K. iv. 8, r\1>^ n^D As oft 
as he passed by, say our translators rightly. 
2 Chron. xxiv. 5, n3t2^ 'no According to 
the frequency of the year, i. e. as oft as 
the year comes round, Corap. Isa. Ixvi. 23. 
a Chron. xxx. 5, IJad not sanctified them^ 
sches ^lo!? sufficiently, for n Trch accord- 
ing to what (was) sufficient, (the n being 
dfopt in no, as in HTD What is that? 
Exod. iv. a. CDD^o What to youf i. e. 
what mean ye? Isa. iii. 15.) Esth. i. 18, 
^21 Even according to the sufficiency of 
contempt and anger, i. e. witli which the 
Queea answered. Neh. v. 8, 113 n3, 
lifeenilly , according to the sulHciency (that 
was) f/i us^ \. e. as out tran^ation rightly 

explains -it, after (according to) our abi- 
lity. Job xxxix. 25, 'li:^ m " When 
the trumpet soumleth amain." Mr. Heath. 
Jer. XX. 8, im^*»D O For as often as I 

With <he Pronoun suffixes, Prov. xxv, 16, 
yi Thy sufficiency, tchat is sitfficient/or 
thee, Exod. xxxvi. 7, on Sufficient /or 

On Job xi. 3. xvii. r6. xviii. 13, see 
under tl Vll. 

2. Of cayjacity. Mai. iii. 10, n *!?!i ^i> Ti// 
not enough, i. e. as oar translation rightly 
paraphrases it, tilljhere shall not be room 
enough to receive it. Lev. xxv. 26. ''13 
inb^j According to the capacity of his 
redemptiott, i. e. according to what it will 
take or require. So Deut. xxv. 2, nD 
iwun According to the capacity of his 
fault, or to what it requh-es, Nah. ii. 13, 
The lion did tear in pieces vnili >*7l for the 
capacity or deiiiand of his uhcfps, i. e. 
as our translation, enough /or his uhclps. 

. Jer. Ii. 58, 'Jhus saith Jehovah of Hosts, 
the broad walls of liahyhn shall be utterly 
broken dowfi, and ha' high gates shall be 
burned U^s^n with fire, so that the peoples 
(i. c. who built Bal)ylon and it's stu- 
pendous appurtenances) hare laboured 
p^l ^12 for the capacity (supply) of empti- 
ness or vacuity, and the nations U?« >*7:3 ;br 
the supply of fire (comp. vor. 2$), iBi?^ 
and hate wearied themselves ; lliat is, 
devastation and fire 5fiall devour all iheh: 
labours. To this purpose the Tar^am, 
Vulgate, and Martin's French trausia-!- 
tion, which see. Comp. Hab. ii. 13. 
Hence the Latin Dis, rir!i; and from 
this Hoot the Celts seem to have had 
their " * De, Di, Te, or Dia, the only 
appellation by which God is known to 
those who speak the Galic of Britain and 
Ireland." And so the Gauls, in f Ca;sar*s 
time, asserted t hat they were all descended 
from father Di or 'Dis, ab Dite patre. 
And it may be amusing to remark, that 
in vulgar French the ancient Gaulish 
name of God, Dior Da, is still preserved, 
as in these forms of denying, Nenni- 
di, nenni-da ; and of affirmhig, Par-c?/, 
From Heb. ^*7 tlie Greeks 4ikewise de- 

» Miuphcrson*s Introduction to the History of 
Great Britain and Ireland, 
f CommenrAT. lib. vi. cap. 16. 

K 4 rived 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HDl— T' 

rived their Ai;, Gen. A»o^, Uc. (whence 
Lat. Df^, diuny divus) the name of their 
supposed all-iuffident God the Air or 
Heavens, who %\v^%^enty to men. See 
the Orphic and Callmachus's Hymns to 
Jupiter, at the end. Hence, also^ the God- 
dess Aijcu, or (compounded with MrjTtjp 
Mother) Atj/jmjttjj, answeriitg to the Ro- 
mau Ceres, i. e. the vegetative power 
of nature^ or the firtile eartli. The 
Ori>hic Hymn accordingly calls her no- 
only '^'rrff,(xix seminal^ cujpiri heap^gh^ 
itig, iihwxiaL dtUghting in the barn-Jioor, 
yM^%(x^t affording the green fruits, but 
aL-o l\aiJitj.rjr€ipoL Mother of at I, oXtio- 
$ujn . wkovr<,$orsipa giver of ajiuence and 
riches^ mayh^OTSipx all giving, 
II. Ciialt. n 

1. The relative Pronoun of both Genders 
and Numbers, answeriig to the Heb. 
^trw. Who, which, Ezra iv. lo, 18, 24, 
& a I. freq. 

2. A P^irtitle, That. Ezra iv. 12, 16, & al, 
freq. n p F>om (the time) that, Ezra 
iv. 23. n -y 77./ {the time) 'that. Dan. 
ii. 9. iv, 22, or 25, 

3. For^ on account of, Dan. ii. 20. 

4. For, because, because that, Dan, ii. 37. 

5. A Pariicie, Of as Je in Latin and French. 
Ezra V. 2. Dan. ii. 32, & al. freq. 

Occurs not as a V. but the idea seems to be 

blackmss, or darkness of colour. 
1. As a N. r,n plu» fern, nin Tltc black vul- 
ture, occ. Deut. xiv, 13. Jsa. xxxiv. 15. 
Buchart (vol. iii. 195 — 7.) ob*er\es, that 
the Latin writers sjieak of an atervultur, 
black vuifme^, and sometimes cull this 
species aI)holuteIy nigras aves, blackbirds; 
and that the Hebrew word cannot sig- 
nify the kite or gledc, because these birds 
are not greirarious as the vultures are, 
and as tlie iivi are represented to be in 

ll. As a N. VI Ink, from it's blackness, so 
Vulg. atramento, which is in like manner 
from ater, black, occ. Jer. xxxvi. 18. 
We have the plain traces of this Root 
not only in the Chald. and Syr. «Wi 
Ink, and in the Syr. M1>^ the Devil, but 
also in the f Welsh and Armoric du, 

• 60 Bufon, Hift. Nat. des Oiaeauz, torn 
p. 22 1 . 2, I 'imo, says, " The grra: vttlture is much 
rather itUci, than ash-coloured.* 

black, dark; du, ink; duawg, black, 
blackish; duo, to tcax black, also to 
blacken, darken; duedd, blackness, &c. 

IT Cbuld. 

Pronoun, This, that, Ezra iv. 13. v. 16, 
& al. p"i The same. occ. Dan. ii. 34. 
vii. ao, 21. 


f . To break, break down, crush. Job xxii. 9. 
Isa. xix. 10. Job iv. 19. vi. 9. Lam. 
iii. 34. Comp. Isa. iii. 15. 

II. To crush, humble, oppiess. Job v. 4. 
xix. 2. Ps. xxxiv. 19, & ul. frt'q. As a 
N. W^T Humiliation. So LXX, ras'fii- 
Fcyciv occ. Ps. xc. 3. Thus St. Paul 
speaks, Phil. iii. 21, of ro o-cu^oa -nj^ 
roLKeiyojviu.^ tj/xwv the bodif ^f our humi- 
liatiou, our vile body, which is brought 
down to thcf grave, and sown in dishonour. 
Michaelis, Supp ad Lex. Heb. p. 441, 
Siiys, that the N. H^l in Arabic signifies 
dust. If we might with him suppose it to 
have the same sense in Hebrew, it must 
be admitted that tlxis would excellently 
suit Ps. xc. 3, 4 ompared with Gen. iii. 19. 
Ps. civ. 29. cxivi. 4. 

The LXX frequently render this Verb 
by raiteiv:,u3 to humble. 

With a radical, but mutable or omissible, rr. 

I. To beat, or brat/, as in a mortar. Num. 
xi. 8. As a N. nno A mortar. Num. 
xi. 8. 

II. To breaks as bones. Ps. Ii. 10. 

HI. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. ^D*i Waves 
that beat against the shore or each other, 
and so are broken, breakers. So LXX, 
according to Aldus'^ and the Complu- 
tension eait. eitirpi^eis. occ. Ps. xciii. 3. 

IV. To bruise or be bruised. Hence as a 
Participle or participial N. n3l One 
bruised, occ. Deut. xxiii. i, or 2. Or else 
the two words HDT i)tva may be rendered 
wounded or l^urt by bruising, or (if with 
some editions and many of Dr. Kenmi* 
cott's Codices we read «3l) by crusk^ 
ing (so Aquila, r^aufjiarias sittrpif/^fjMj) 
namely the ti stes, as the LXX interpret 
the expression in one word, (BXa.hias, 

derivations mijrht, perhaps, be added the Eng. To 
Jie, in the sense botti of ti»geing with some colour, 
and of ceasing to live. Triat death is a state of 
darlnat needs no proof, and that it is described as 

iiicr olmcK,^KXAT\ asn-coioureo. such both by .the sacred and profane writers, is 

f See Richards\ Welsh Dictionary. To the above 1 too well known to be insisted on. 

*' Eimuchuf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•on— «p7 




" Eonachus cui testes sunt contusiJ' He- 

V. To beat dovm^ aJUit, Ph. xliv. 20. x. 10; 
ffliere there are l\\ o readings nDTt, sup- 
ported hy llie common piintcd text, and 
njT, by the Keri^ and at least twenty of 
Dr. Kennicoft's C<»di<^es, and among them 
by the Ciwip/uicnsian edition. If we em- 
brace llie latter rending, we may trans- 
late, He will afflict^ he toUl depress; if 
the former, Jnd he will depress the af- 
flicted. So Jerome in Complut, Lt. eon- 
fractum subjiciet eum. In Hiph. The 
fiame. occ. Job xl. 7, or 12. In Niph. To 
be thus broken, qfflicfed, Ps. xxxviii. 9. 
li. 19, j1 broken and n2*T3 contrite heart. 
So as a participial N. *p One contrite or 
afflicted, Ps. ix. 10. x. 18, & al. 

VJ. As a N. raasc. plur. in lle^'m. ^31 
bndsiffgs, as of the tongue, calumnies, 
sJatidfrs, Pfov. xxvi. 28. *^ Afa/se tungue 
V21 «iu^^ shall hate or have reason to hate 
it's own bruising, i. e. ill-language; such 
things come home to people;" (Bate,) 
as it follows in the Te^t, and a flattering 
mouth icorkclh ruin. 

Occurs not as a V. but as a N. fem. na^Dn 
The npupa, haopocy or hoop, a very beau- 
tiful, but most unclean and filthy, species 
of birds, which is however sometimes 
eaten. So the LXX, E'jro\|/, and Vulg. 
Upupa. occ. Lev. xi. 19. Deut. xiv. 18. 
And for a more particular account of 
tins Wrd I refer the reader to Bochart, 
vol. iii. 343 — 9, and to Brookes Nat. 
Hist. vol. ii. p. 123, 4; only observmg 
that it may have it's Hebrew name, as 
it plainly has it's Latin and English one, 
irom the itoMe or cry it makes, which is 
very remarkable, and may be heard a 
great way. Comp. under H^p HI. 

•Oi Cbald. 

From the Heb*n:}l To remernber, also a 
maU^ which see. 

I. To remember. It occurs not however as 
a V. in the Bible, though frequently in 
the Targums, but as a N. masc. entphat. 
(se« Chaklee Grammar, sect. iii. 14.) 
Mi'S^Sn The memorial, record, occ. Ezra 
vL a. Masc. plor. emphat. «»r.D^ The 
records, iKC, Ezra iv. 15. 
n. As a N. masc. phir. p31 Kams, male 
sheep, occ. Ezra vi. 9, 17. vii, 17. The 
Tar^ms use this plural N. in the same 

sense, as well as tlie angular *^i and 
'JiDT for a male in general. 

To leap, bound, occ. 2 Sam. xxii. 30. Ps. 
xviii. 30. Cant. ii. 8. Isa. xxxv. 6. Zeph- 
i. 9. FAery one that leapeth over the 
threshold; and so insolently ctiteretli aia- 
othtr's house on horseback; a «?peries of 
violence still practised in the East both 
by the A tabs and the Persians, and to 
which Solomon seems to allude, Pro7« 
xvii. 19, as being usual in his time. See 
Harmer*» Observations, vol. i. p. 96. 

With a radical, but mutable or omissible, 77. 

I. To draw, draw outy as water. Exod. 
ii. 16, 19. Prov. XX. 5. As a N. ^Vi A 
restel to draw uatcr with, a bucket.. 
Num. xxiv. 7. Isa. xl. 15. 

II. To exhaust, be exhausted, as other things. 
Jud. vi. 6. Isa. xvii. 4. As a N. Vr One 
who is exhausted, whose wealth or sub- 
stance is exhausted, poor. Lev. xiv. 21, 
& al. freq. As a N. feni. n!?T and m^i 
I'he poorest, lowest sort, of people. 2 K. 
xxiv. 14. Jer. xl. 7. Iii. 15, 16. As a 
N. bl I jean, thin. So Vulg. attenuaris 
macie. 2 Sara. xiii. 4. Fem. plur. min 
Poor, lean, of caflle. Gen. xli. 19. As a 
N. fem. rm Pining sickness, occ. Isa. 
xxxviii. 12. 

III. As a N. fem. plur. m^W Branches 
which draw sap and nourishment from 
tlie stock. Jer. xi. 16. Ezek. xvii. 6, & al. 

IV. As a N. fern, ribn The hair, which 
draws it*s pro|>er nutritious juice from 
the body, as branches sap from the tree, 
occ. Cant. vii. 5. 

V. As a N. 5>1 A door, ** which, however 
thick, is, comparatively with the posts 
broad and thin/' Bate. occ. Ps. cxii. 3, 
Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth ; 
keep hi bi? the door of my lips. Comp. 
Mic. vii. 5. Fem. nin plur. tz^nVr, and 
rtrfn (formed as CD»nDttr and nintir^ 
from n2tl^ c lip) A door, gate, or leaf of 
a door or gate. Cien. xix. b, 9, 10. Prov. 
xxvi. 14. Deut. iii. 5. Jud. iii. 23. i K, 
vi. 31, 32, 34. Ezek. xli. 24. The lid of 
a chest. 2 K. xii. 9, or 10. 
Via ^nin The doors of his face, i.e. his 
vnde opening jaws, xao-jx* q$o>1cvv. Job 
xli. 5, or 14. " The crocodile, says Has- 
selquist. Travels, p. 43 7, can open his 
jaws extremely wide,*' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




CD>Dt2^ >n>1 The doors of heaven, *' as of pfxi 

a store-house/' says Bate; but since 
C^tt^n mn*l» f^c xciftdows of the hea^ 
vens mean the cracks or ^s^ures in tlic 
sliell of earth by which tlic air on the 
surface comniuuicutes with that within, 
may not tiD'^DU^ vbl mther denote t/ic 
matter xvhichy in some weasure, ciosrd those 
cn^cks or passages of the airV occ. Ps. 
Ixxviii. 23. 
VI. Tern. plur. ninbi rendered I^avcsy as 
of a book, Jer. xxxvi. 23 ; but it pro- 
perly means the columns of writing, into 
which their ancient vohimes or scrolls 
were distinguished. (Comp. under bz 
III.) They were, however, so called from 
tlleir oblong-square form resembling that 
of a door. 

Hence, perhaps, the Gr. AsXri; a book, 
Vrt 'To be entirely exhausted, Isa. xix. 6, 
&al. . 

The Lexicons fijive this Root n^i the 
meaning of exaltation^ which it i>ever 
signifies; I shall cite the three texts 
where it is supposed to have this sense. 
Ps. XXX. 2, J uill extol thee J Ijord, 
because ^LT^n thou hast drawn me out; 
LXX, vitsKoL^sg, and Vulg. suscepisti, 
thou hast taken me up, or received me; 
comp. ver. 4. Prov. xxvi. 7, ** 'J'he legs 
of the lame vhi are weak, slender, wasted, 
so is a proverb in the mouth of fools. It 
}oseth it's beauty and force by being 
injudiciously, improperly, or untimely, 
applied." Bate, Si^mmachuSy E^fXiTTov 

S'oiuiri — The legs fail from the lame, and 
a parable in the mouth — Corap. Eccliis. 
XX. 20. Isa. xxxviii. 14, Mine eyes ^1n 
fail, says our translation; LXX iffA*- 
*av; Vulg. attenuati sunt, arc zcoAfed, 
which lattc. seems the true meauing. 
Comp. above, Sense II. 
pER. Dully a dolt, todallif, to deal, a dole; 
a dale, a delh Ijdt, doleo, to grieve, 
whence Eng. dolour, dolorous j Or. ^ijXfct;, 
Lat. deleo to destroy, whence Eng. delete, 

To trouble or disturb waters, as by tram- 
pling in them. occ. Ezek. xxxii. %, 13. 
So LXX, BTOLpxa-asg, and VuJg. con- 
turbabas, thou didst disturb. Tije word 
has the same sense both in Chaldce and 
S> riac. 

I. To drop, diitil, as the eye doth tears, occ. 
Job xvi. 20. As a N*. »^bn A dropping. 
occ. Prov. xix. 13. xxvii. 1 5. 

II. To moulder or waste away, decay gra- 
dual ft/, as the body by grief, occ. Ps. 
cxix. 28. 

III. 'To drop dozen picce-mcaf, as a house, 
occ. Eccles. X. 18, In Plant ns's Mos- 
tellaria, the moral lesson conveyed in the 
above text is expaitded and inforced in a 
most entertaining manner. Act i. scene 2 ; 
wliere Philvlacies, a young man, fe in- 
troduced descanting on iiimself and the 
condition to which his irregularities had 
reduced him mider tl>e comparison of a 
house originally well built and beautiful^ 
but suffered gradually to decay and grow 
more and more niinous by the idleness 
and negligence of it's kilmbitants. The 
passage is too long to be cited here. Mr. 
Merrick has anticipated me in producing 
part of it in his Annotation on Ps. 
xxviii. 5. And the reader may find it 
more at large, iu the Critical Review for 
February 1773, p. 89, with Mr. IVarrteri 
excellent translation. 

Der. Drop, drip, &c. dribbfe. 

The idea is, I apprehend^ to be taken from 
the action ^ fire, which is continaally 
pressing pffon^ an<l, as it were, pursuing 
the fuel on which it fecfls. 

I. To press' eagerly upon, as tire. occ. Obad. 
ver. 18. Dan. vii. 9. In Hiph. To kindle, 
light up, as fire. occ. Ezek. xxiv. lo. 
Comp. Isa. v. 1 1. 

II. As a <N. fern. npH Sonne inflamma^ 
tory disorder, an infiummation, occ. Deut. 
xxviii. 32. 

III. To pursue eagerly and ardently, q. d. 
to built after, occ. Gen. xxxi. 36, 
(where Vulg. exardere post—/© f>um 
after,) i Sam. xvii. 53. Ps. x. 2. fjani. 
iv. 19. As a N. mas>c. plur. tD^pVi Ar* 
dent pursuers, eager persecutors, occ. Psu 
vii. 14. 

IV. The word seems to be once used m a 
middle sense. Prov. xxvi. 23, Drossy sil- 
ver spread orer, or overiaying, a potsherd, 
(so are) warm Ups (i. e. lips making 
uann and eager professions) and a bad 
deceitful heart, A most just and beau- 

- tiful comparison ! . 
nn See under rhr\ - 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




W itb a radical, but mutable or ooiissih]e, n. 
The general idea of this ditikult aiid ex- 
ten:Jve Root seems to be Equable, even, 
Jevel^ umform, conft/rm, aequare, exx- 
cfuare, cojifonuare. Sj/mmachus appears 
to have giveo nearly the ideal meaning 
of it, Ps. Ixxxix. 7, where he renders it 
B^i^oLfrit shall equal. So it is several 
times joined with nw smooth^ equiva- 
lent, as a word of similar, but more in- 
tense, signiftcatiou. See Isa. xl. a 5. 
xlvi. 5. Fs. cxxxi. 2, 

J. la Kal^ To make equable or equal, to 
put on a level, eampare, Isa. xlvi. 5. 
riD^:i ^ik^D/Tj )wrr\ ^jvonn ••d? To ukom 
ir///j^c^ equal me, or make me equivalent, 
or Lken me that %ve may be equal or con- 
form ? So ch. xl. 25, To 'whom "iJVDnn 
ma^fc^l will ye equal me, that I may be 
equivalait? Also in Kal, To be equal, 
be on a footing, level with, Ps. Ixxxix. 7. 
rii. 7. Isa. xiv, 14, & al, freq. As 41 N. 
fern. JTiDT J $imilitudc, likeness^ whose 
parts are equable and eonform to it's ar- 
f helype, Ezek. 1.5, lo, 13, 16. Gen. i, 26. 
Let us make man "liobva in our 
form or iwffgCj according to our likeness. 
trryi is mere tbim obv ; this expresses 
tlic gcner.tljorm or delineation — that, the 
conjormity or resemblance of the parts, 
both of body and soul, if I may l>e al- 
lowed the expression. Comp. under 
civ. As a N. '•D^ or pn^ A likeness, 
f»cc. Pd. xvii. 12; where thirty of Dr. 
Kentticotfs C<idices read liVDI; but \i 
we embrace the printed reading, iroi 
may be a Verb, they are like, as the 
LXX, Vulg. and Syr. understood it. 

II. To form, a lihaiesfi, image, or idea of a 
thing in the mind, to form in the mind the 
particulars of apian or design distinctly and 
minutefy, iuformare. Num. xxxiii. 56. 
Jud. XX. 5. 2 Sam. xxi. 5. Isa. x. 7, & al. 
So LXX in Num. hsyyimmv, ' Comp. Ps. 
xUiii. 10. 

JII. As a N. tDT The blood of men or ani- 
mals, which in the course of it*s circu- 
lation is, by the animal economy, won- 
derfully assimilated or conformed to all 
tlie various constituent parts of tin; body 
\^hich want supply or nourishment, frcq. 
occ. Plur. O^DI q. d. Blo^jds, i. e. parts 
of Uib assimilating mass. Gen. iv. 9, & aL 
Ireq. See Deut. x«. 19. Pa. li. j6, 

lD^23i> tDT The blood of grapes ^ L e. their 
juice resembling blood, and niy^stically 
consecrated under the Mosaic as well as 
Christian di!>j)cnsation^ to rej)rrbent thai 
blood which ckanscth ita from all sin, occ. 
Cien. xlix. 11. Deut. .\x\ii. 14. Comp. 
Ecclus. xxxix. 26, or 31. 1. 15. 
The eating of blood was forbidden to 
Noah and his descendants, and after- 
wards to the Israelilcs, for two reasons : 
1st, To prevent cruelly and murder. 
'J his reason is plainly intimated, Gen. 
ix. 4, 5, 6. Comp. l>ev, xvii. 1 1, 14., 
Deut. xii. 2.^. Aud as before t1)e Flood 
the earth was filled with violence, i. e, 
rapine and murder, (>on. vi. 11, so it is 
probable they were guilty of some iiorriil 
abuses in relation to blood, such perhnm 
as drinking the blood of living animaH 
and even of men. A strong tiaditiou of 
the causes which brought oivtlre Deluge, 
particularly of the * violence and cruelty 
of the antediluvians, remained anH>n^ 
the HeatJien to the, time o( Christ, and 
is clearly preserved in Ovid's Fable of 
the Giants' Kebellion, of Lycaun, and of 
Deucalion's Flood. Mctam. hb. i. tab. \u 
vii. viii. 

I'he 2d and principal reason for prohi- 
biting the eating of blood, was to be m 
constant moujorial to men that their livc^ 
were forfeited to divine justice, aud that 
without shedding the. blood of the Great 
Aloner there was no rcmismu. See Ler, 
xvii. 10 — 14. 

David, in a Sam. xxiii. 17, would not 
drink the water which men had fetched 
for him at the hazard of tlicir lives, but 
poured it oiU unto Jehovah, for he said, 
(should I drink, i Chron. xi. 19.) the 
blood of these mcn^ Thereby acknow- 
ledging himself unworthy for whom men 
should lay down tlieir lives, but that the^c 
were to be given up for Jehovah only. 
Is tin's the idea of our warlike ChrMun 
Kings ? 

IV^ It denotes equability or conformity of 
order or fitness. Ps. l\v. 2, n^nn noS "ji 
Praise (is) tittmg for t/ne. So LXX, 
wpBitUy and Vulg- decet, beconwth, 

V. It siguiiies an equability of situation, and 

• III 

la propao:f> 

ConUmtrix super am, saevaque avidissima cxlis 
£t vioienta t'uit: scircs o sanguine naius. 

Ovidt Metam. lib. i. isX). vi. ad fia. 
the IK c 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




tircnce quietness, rest, stillness. Thus it 
is most properly and beautifully applied^ 
Josh. X. 12, Sun {solar light) Crn be 
thou or remain equable, even, level vjwn 
Gibeom. The sun was how setting to 
Gibeon, and consequently Gibeon was 
m the circle of intersection or division 
between the light and darkness. Now 
liad thib circle of intersection continued 
to shil> further westward, or, more philo- 
SDpbieaHy speaking, had the solar light, 
at the ereiiing edge of tlie earth, given 
way, »s usual, to the spirit or gross air *, 
the notion of the earth must have con- 
timted. But by the solar light's being 
arrested, and conimanded to remain equa- 
ble or UxqI upon Gibeon, it became, as 
it were, a wall of adamant against the 
inrushing of the spirit, consequently the 
motion of tlic earth was stopped, and 
the. circle of intersection between hght 
xnd darkness remained exactly where it 
was, or, in other words, as at ver. 13, 
ilte solitr light stayed (CD^DU^n *jrn3) in 
ikt horizon or exi remit 1/ o/' the heavens, 
mnii httsted not to go ojf as it was just 
about to do, and that, ybr a uhole day. 
On Josh. X. I J, we may observe that the 
Heb. DV is expressed in Ecclus. xlvi. 5, 
accorfliiig to the Alexandrian MS. by 
greiro^Kriy) was stopfted. Ov^i sv %ei^« 
avrtf ENEHOAlSeH 6 'HX«o^> xat MIA 
mot the Sum stopffed by his (Joshuas) 
means, and one day made equal to tuo i 
Tq he quiet, still, composed. See Exod. 
XV. 16. Job XXX. 27. Ps. XXXV. I 5. Jer. 
xiv. 17. Lam. ii. 18. iii. 49, My eye 
trickhth down no"!n hVj and resteth or 
ceaseth not, where observe, that the tinal 
*% is clearly radical. From the pas^age*^ 
just cited it appem*s, that the word has 
DO peculiar relation to silence of the voice 
Jrom speaking, though it is sometimes 
applied to that as to any other kind of 
composcdncss, quii tness, or stillness, Ps. 
x\x. 13. Also in Kal, To reduce to 
stillness Or siletice, (Qu?) Saady, Hos. 
iv. 5; so Vulg. tacerc feci. In Hiph. 
The same. Jer. \iii. 14. In Niph. To be 
reduced to quietness, inactivity, or silence, 
Ps. xxxi. 18. Jer. xlix. 26. As Ns. fiDin 
Stillness, inactivity, silence, Ps. xciv. 17. 

• Sec the learned Mr. Spenrman\ Enquiry after 
Philosophy and Theology, ch. 4. 

ex v. 17. rrDll Stillness, silence, ces» 
sation, Ps. xxii. 3. ^OT Rest, inactivity, 
silence, occ. Ps. Ixxxiii. a. Isa. Ixii. 6, 7. 
xxxviii. 10, ny >Dia /» the silencing of 
my days, in my days or life being reduced 
to silence or inactivity, i. c. to death, 
Comp. Ps. xciv. 17. cxv. 17, above. 
Ezek. xix. 10, Thy mother, i. e. the 
kingdom or people of Judah, ^Dil iu 
thy bein^ put to silence, i. e. in Jehoia- 
kirn's bemg taken and killed, and cast 
out with tlie burial of an ass by the king 
of Babylon (comp. the immediately pre- 
eedmg verse, and % Chron. xxxvi. 6. 
Jer. xxii. 18, 19. xxxvi. 30.) Thy mother, 
in thy being put to silence, (was) like a 
Tine, fruitful, and full of branches, by 
reason of many waters, &c. i. e. in the 
kingdom of Judah and house of David 
there remained many princes, as Jehoia- 
chin and his seven sous, &c. an() Zede- 
kiah and his sons. See 1 Chron. iii. J 7, 
&rc. % K. xxiv. 6, 17. xxv. 7. 

VI. It is frequently rendered to cut drrwn, 
cut off or dcstrtyy. In sevoral of the pas- 
sages tlms rendered it maybe best trans- 
lated to reduce to stillness, or the like, as 
in Jer. xlix. 26. 1. 30. Hos. iv. 6. x. 15. 
Chad. ver. 5. But where it is applied 
to towns or chies, as in Isa. xv. i. 
xlvii. 5. Ezek. xxvii. 32, it may perhaps 
be most properly referred to the general 
idea o^ equability, level, in the sense of 
levrlling, laying level with the ground, 
t^af i?6<v, aequare solo. 

VJI. As a N. with a formative », I3i» 
Man, the appellative name of the human 
nature, because created r^10^n in the likc^ 
wfwof God, Gen. v.. i, 2. The most usual 
derivation of this won!, I am aware, is 
from nJDlk* Vegetable earth or mould, be- 
cause Man was formed of the \o ^Dp 
n?D*T«n dust oHh% ground, Gen. ii. 7. But 
the judicious reader cannot help seeing, 
that Gen. v. i, 2, speaks much more 
plainly for the derivation I have given 
than Gen. ii. 7, for the other. Comp. 
I Cor. XV. 45, 47, with a Cor. iv. 4. 
Col. i. 15. Ill Num. xxxi. 31;, tD*iw is 
remarkably applied to the female sex. 
ID^min p OlH irB51 And the human per^ 
sons of the women. Comp. Gen. i. 27. 
V. 2. OTH is also the proper name of 
the first man, Adam, Of this name I 
meet with no trace in tha Greek and 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



P— yoT 

Roman Mythology, unless in tliat ofAd- 
metusj who was so beloved by Apollo, the 
son of Jnpiter, that the god having befin 
banished from heaven commenced herds 
man and kept hb flock for him. The 
story is told in different manners, but 
seems to contain an obscure and confused 
allusion to the character of the Son of 
Ood, who for the love he had to human 
nature was to come down from heaven 
and be the shepherd of ajhck belonging. 
to that nature. See Dodd'h Note on lin. 
70, of his translation of CaUimachus^s 
Hymn to Apollo. 

VUL As a ^f. fern. TV:i1^ Vegetable earth 
or mould, which joined with moisture is^ 
by the action of the light, so wonderfully 
ojuimilated to all kinds of vegetables, and 
their various par ts^ and even secondarily 
to the bodies of animals and men. Gen. 
ii. 5,6, g. iii. 1 7, & al. freq. 
troi To make entirely equable, cotnposed 
or quiet, occ. Lam. iii. 26. Ps. cxxxi. 2, 
Surely ^noD^TI ^r\'*'\m I hare softtked, and 
entirely compo^d my souL As a Parti- 
ciple tDon Emtircly still, inactive^ inert, 
or silent, occ. Hah. ii. 19. CSDil seems 
to be osed adverbially^ with a formative 
O final. Quietly, occ. Isa. xlvii. 5. 
Ai a N. fem. rram Great quietnets, 01 
stillness, or rather equability, occ. Job 
iv. 16. Ps. cvii. 29. I K. xix. 12. But 
in all these texts the LXX rendered it 
by Aypa a gentle breeze^ which might be 
well 90 called from it's equability. And 
it must be confessed that this sense, which 
is given by Cocceius and approved by 
Michaelis, excellently suits every one of 
the passages. The Vul^. constantly ren- 
der it by aura, aura lenis or tenuis. To 
illustrate Ps. cvii. 29, Michaelis cites that 
<rf VirgUf JE^. v. lin. 844. Mqxuiidd spi- 
rant auras. 

Deb. To dam, dumb, dim, the Dutch dom 
stupid, and £ng. dump, dumpish. Also 
Greek iap^auf, and Lat. domo, to sub- 
due, whence dominus a master, and £ng. 
dmninion, domination; also to tame. 

pi * 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but the idea 
seems to be like that of the old Latin ta- 
fnino, which may be a derivative from it, 
to pollute, defile, hence, 

L As a N. xcn Dung. 2 K. ix. 37. Ps. 
Jxxxiii. 1 u Jer. viii. 2, ^ al. 

II. As a N. fem. n^Dls.occ. Isa. xxr. iol 
See under pn II. 

To ooze out, 

I. 7b xoeep, shed tears, Jer. xili. 17. Asa 
N. fem. nj?o*T J tear, or collectively f^urs^ 
Jer. ix. I. 

II. As a N. xnDl lAqvor, which oozw from 
the press, as wine, oil. £xod« xxii. 29. 
Comp. Deut. xviii« 4. 


I. In Kal and Hiph. To direct, rulc^juigt^ 
Gen. xlix. 16. Jer. v. 28. Gen. vi j. 
My spirit shall not tdways tD^Hl fil* 
judge, rule, among men. la Nipk. T^ 
strive, plead, as in judgement. 2SaHi. xnu 
o, or 10. In Hiph. To contend, as it 
.lodgement. Eccles. vi. 10. Conpu Isa. 
iii. 13. As a N. p A judge, i Sam. 
xxiv. 16. Also, A judicial cause or 
contention, Deut. xvii. 8, & aL As a 
N. XnD A strife, dispute, contention^ P«. 
Ixxx. 7. Prov. xxii. 10, & al. 

II. As a N. fem. n:'iD A province or pre- 
fecture, the district of one chief judge or 
tnagistrate, 1 K. xx. 14, & al.* freq. 
Comp. Gen. xlix. 16. Zech. iii. 7. 

III. As a N. with a formative «, pi« or J*7» 
A ruler, directcr, lord, spoken of God or 
man. Gen. xlv. 8, 9. Exod. xxiii. 17, Sr 
al. freq. As a N. with a formative «, 
and * botli^^^'iM The same. Gen. xxxix. 20. 
xlii. 30, 33. £xod. xxi. 4, 6. i K. xvL 24. 
As the Jews had a superstition of not ut- 
tering the incommunicable nameof Grod» 
rnn% but of using ^yin instead of it, so we 
iind that, frequently where the commoo 
printed copies read ^^1M, many of Dr. 
Kennicotfs Codices have miT. Sec his 
Various Readings on Dan. ix. 3, 8, 9, 

Hence the idol Adonis had his name ; of 
whom see under ion. 

IV.. As a N. masc. plur. O^iiw Bases or 
sockets which direct and reguldte the po- 
sition of the other parts of an editice. 
£xod. xxvi. 19, 21, ic al. freq. Con^p. 
Job XXX viii. 6. Once, sing. Exod, 
xxxviii. 27. 

V. Chald. pii^ Then. See p».^ 

Der. Din, dun, dan, master; Old Eng. to 
c/cme, judge, whence doofn, deem, deemster, 
a judge; Saxon ^encean (Ciu?) whence 
Eng. to think. Perhaps l^t. danmo, con- 
dcmno, whence Eng. da7nn,^ condemn, &c. 

Digitized by VjOQQIC 

n— in 


•jpi— pn 

Occurs not as H V, but as a N. i2n Wax, 
Hius the LXX throughout Kijpo^, aiul 
Vul«;. Cera ; so there is uo room to doubt 
but thb is tlie true meaning of the word ; 
aud the radical idea of the Hoot si'cms to 
be sojif yielding f melting,or\hc bke, wliich 
properties are iM>t only well known to be- 
long to uax, br.t arc also intimaled in aii 
the passages of Scripture wherein the N. 
:jn occurs. Thb interpretation is con* 
finned by tlie Verb's being used in Etbi- 
opic for fear ingf beittg terrifiedy &c. for 
Ml lerrour the heart and body arc (as it 
were) dissolved. Comp. under DD and 
DDD. It may also be wortli remarking, 
tb«t the Eng. N. wax is deduced by some 
Etymologists from the &axon pace, pliant, 
wojt, yielding. See Jumus'n Etymolog. 
Anglican, in WAX. occ. Ps. xxii. 15. 
(where see Menick^s Annot.) Ixviii, 3. 
xcvii. s- Mic. i. 4. 

nn Chald. 

As a Pronoun, This. Ezra v. 3, 4, & al. 
freq. With 5 Like, as, pretixed, n:n2 
Sue/it ill us, q. d. as, or like, litis. Dan. 
ii. 10. iii. 29. Jer. x. ii. 

•* To go or Iwrn out as fire, a lamp or can- 
dle when tlie matter tails." Ps. cxviii. 12. 
Prov. xiii. 9. Isa*. xliii. 17, & al. *' It 
diii'ers from niD, which is to extinguish 
or put out a light [or tire] and it is a|>- 
plied to streams [or torrents] Xhviidryup 
in hot weather. Job vi. 1 7, When it is hot 
they i:>ini are consumed [or fail] out of 
t/teir place/' Bate. 

rp See under r^ii 

It signifies in general , To knock, knock against, 
strike, and may perhaps be a word tbrmcd 
from tlie is^ouud. 

I. To knock, as at a door. It occurs as 
a Participle Benom in Kal, Cant. v. a; 
as a Participle masc. plur. in llitli. 
Jud. xix. 22, c^pDlAD Knocking them- 
selves, or violently pushing against the 

Ih To bent foruard, drive forward hy beat- 
ing, occ. (ien. xxxiii. 13, 

To leap, spring, bound, exult. Once, Job 
xli. 13, or 22. In Cbaldec it is used for 
exulting or leaping for jby. And the Sy- 
riac version of the New Testiuncnt uftcs 

this V. for tbe Greek (fKip^av to leap t 
leap for joy, Luice i. 41, 44. vi. 23. 
Deh. Hy inserting n, Dutch danssen. Da* 
nibh dantzey Freudi danscr, Eiig. dance. 

I. In Kal, To beat, or be beaten smdl, as 
dust. Isa. xH. 15. Exod. xxxii. »a. 
Deut. ix. 2K In Hi|)h. To beat small. 
% Sam. xxii. 43, & al. As a N. pi 
Small, minute. Exod. xvi. 14, & al. ^ 
dwarf. Lev, xxi. 20. Fern* pUir. nipT 
Thin, slender, of cattle or com. Gen. xli- 
3, 4, 6, 7, & al. 

II. To thresh, thresh out, as bread com; and 
in Iluph. To be threshed out. occ. l;fii. 
xxviii. a8. Comp. ch. xli. 15. 

III. As a N. pn A fort for battering en^ 
gines, a battery ; or rather> as the He- 
brew word is smgular, a -wall (^ circuni'^ 
xallation, on which Uieir ^//cri>g en- 
gines, such as the catapultae and bafiistfe^ 
were placed, occ. 2 K. :ixv. i, Jer. Iii, 4. 
Ezek. iv. 2. xvii. 17. xxi. 2a, or 27. 
xx\i. 8. To confirm this mtcrpretation, 
observe that pn isalwaysjoiaed with n33 
to build, that m 2 K. xxv. i. Jer. Iii. 4, 
it is mentioned as built 1^10 round about 
the city besieged, and tliat in the former 
of thcic texts the LXX render it dearly 
by 'sjspirn'/jig a surrounding uatl. And 
to illustraie this subject, comp. Luke 
xix. 43. Joscphus, De Bel. lib. v. cap, 12, 
§1,0., and see Greek and Eng. Lexicon 
in Xapa^ II. and Michaclis Supplem^ ad 
Lex. Hcb. p. 440. 

Hence may be derived Greek reip^o^ a 
1^ all, French digue a bank, and Eng. chkc. 
IV'. As a N. \n A thin, slender cloth or co^ 
vering, Isa. xl. 22. (comp. Ps. civ. 2.) ; 
or it may mean, more agreeably to tlic 
leading idea, sinall dust, or the like, as it 
is used ver. 15. See B</rc*s Crit. Ilcb. 
Jerotne on Isa. xl. 15, observes, " T!i« 
Hebrews say that by this w ord is signified 
the Jincit dust (tcnuissimum pulvereni), 
which is by tlic wind often carried into 
the mouth, and is rather felt than seen* 
The sinallest and almost invisible |>arti- 
cles of dust are, then, called by this nanio, 
such perliaps as Democritus, with his fol- 
lower Epicuras, denominates atoms.'* Bi- 
shop Lowth transtetes p^ in Isa. xl. 1 j, 
an atom. 

To stab, pierce, as with a sword or spear. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Knm. XXV. 8* i Sam. xx&i. 4, & aK As 
a N, fcnii. plur. nrpiD Stabs, piercings, 
Prov. xii. 18. 
Deh. Dagger, dirk. 

With a 1 frequently inserted, y\X 
In Arabic nn signities To cncomprme, go 
round, go about, and as a N. j^ round, a 
cotMpoAS, a circuit. See CastelL And 
ibis seems tbe general notion of the He- 
brew, Root. 

L To go round, go about, dweU intimately. 
occ. Ps. Ixxxiv. 1 1, where it is opposed 
to ^tmarr being at the porch or door, and 
so fiigniiies to go round and round every 
port, ouMua obir« penetralia, intimum 

II. As a N. masc. plur. tan^nn Isa. xlv. 2, 
The cr%0oked, tortuous, round-about ways. 
So Montanus tortuosa. 

HI. As a N. 'in. 

1. Some round thing, a round ball, ** that 
moves easily any Kuy." Bate. So Vulg. 
pyaoi. Issa. xAii. i8« 

%i A round or roundish heap, occ. Ezek. 
xxiv. 5 ; but ni^T here seems a Verb Im- 
perar. Heap, heap vp ; so Vulg. coropone 
fmes,form heaps. The bones nMntiooed 
in this verse were not to be burnt, but 
seethed or stewed under the flesh. Comp. 
ver. 4. As for what is said vcr. 10, let 
the bones be burnt, that plainly does not 
mean, let them be btimt to heat the pot, 
for this by the same verse was done by 
tBOod; but let the pot be made so hot 
that the bones, which were put into it, 
may be violently heated^ or burned. For 
the further illustration of this subject, see 
Harmers Observations^ voL iii. p. 1 52. 

^ J circle or circular disposition of an army. 
Vulg. spbaerani. ^1*13 ^n>3rr, LXX xu- 
x>40€rw, I xdll surround, occ. Isa.xxix. 3. 
Comp. KvyO^ittYoy and 'srspiKVUAifv, I^ke 
xxi, 20. xix. 43, and see Bochart, yo\. iii. 

IV. As a N. fem. rmtD, in Reg. rUTa A- 
round or roundish pile for fire, a pyre, so 
Vulg. in Ezek, pyram. occ. £zek. xxiv. 9, 
Isa. XXX. 33. 

V. Id AralHc the- Root is applied in the 
Noons 'ii^n and m^ll to a circular xiU 
lagc of tents, sucli,as the Scenite or Be- 
dowcen Arabs still live in, "Tentoriornm- 
orbicularis victis pagusve, quales Scenitar 
habit are solent^'' GoUus in CaiteWs Lex. 

So Dr. Shaw (Pref. to Travels, p. viii.) 
'* A collection of taits pitched usually in a 
cifxle — is called a Dauwar/* And as it 
is probable tliat the Hebrew patriarchs, 
who lived in t^nts, encamped in like man*- 
ner, we may hence see the rca^n of 'irt 
coming to signify a generation of men <f 
similar manners or living at the same 
time. See Vs. x-xii. 3 1 . xxiv. 6. Ixxiii. 1 5, 
Prov. XXX. II, la, 13, 14. Gen. vii. t* 
Num. xxxii. 13, .Fob viii. 8. Plur. masc. 
tD^^I^T. occ. Ps. Ixxii. 5. -^ii. 24. Ecdes, 
i. 4. Isa. li. 8. Plur. fem. niTf, and in 
Reg. >mn. freq, occ. Gen. vi. 9, Noak 
was upright VT^yi^ in A/« generations, i. e.^ 
both in those before (comp. Gen. vii. i.), 
liowever wicked, and in those after tlie 
flood. Isa. xxxviii, 1 2, ^n My generation 
(i. e. the |>eople of my generation) is de^ 
parted and removed from tne as a shejh- 
herd's tent, which is soon shifted to a dif^ 
ferent place for the conveniency of pas- 
turage. Isa. liii. 8, r.n His generation^ 
i. e. the men of his generation^ their ob- 
stinate infidelity, wickedness, and ^ruelt}^ 
Comp, r\nm under rrj^, 

Vr. Chald. 1^ or *^T7 To inhabit, dwell, occ. 
Dan. iv. 9, 18. It is written witfi an H 
inserted, as a Participle, or parHcipial 
N. masc. plur. \*^W^, and in Reg. nwT 
Inhabiting or inludfit ants. occ. Da at ii. 38. 
iiL 3 r. iv. 32. vi. 25. As a N* T10 An 
habitation, dwclHng, occ. Dan« ii» i r. 
iv. 22, 29. V. 21. 

Vn. ChaW. nn A pearl, so called fnm it*s 
round or globular farm, occ. Estb: i. 6. 
See Bochart* s excelient vindication of thb 
interpretation, vol. iii. p. 708, & seq. and 
Soheuckxer's Pliys. Sacr. on the text. 

T)"i Occurs not as a V. in this reduplicate 
form, but 

I. As a N. lYn Freedom, liberty, power to 
go tf^M/ where oneplcascs. Lev. xxv. 10. 
Isa. Ixi. I, &aK 

II. As a N. WT A species of dove. Thus 
theTargum renders it wriDttf, LXX r^o* * 
ywv, and Vulg. turtur a turtle. It pro- 
bably means the mid pigeon as diith;* 
guisfaed from the tame, so called from 
it's wandering freely in the fields. See 
Bochart, voi, in. 52. occ. Pd. Ixxxiv. 4, 
Prov. xxvi. 2. The ibrmer passage may 
be thus explained. Even (as) the sparroto 

Jindeth Iter house, and the dove her nest 
where she hath laid her young, (so should 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



•jm— K^T 

IJtni) thine alt art, Jeki/cah ofttosts,lU, W*i ID rendered Pure myrrh, oce. 

sty King, and my God. According to | 
wliich expoMtioD David illustrates his 
Teheroent longing after the sacred taber- 
nacle, and God*s public woi^ip (whence 
he bad been driven, perhaps cluring Ab- 
salom's rebellion), by the ro^yij of birds, 
and by that joy and delight with which 
they return to their brood after they have 
been absent from them. As for the com- 
mon interpretation of this Text, which, 
however. Bate embraces, I must observe, 
that though we should, contrary to the 
authority of the ancient versions, admit 
that "ym signifies a swallow, yet it is ut- 
terly incredible that any bird should biuld 
it's nest on the altan of Jehovah. (And 
N. B. the Hebrew word wnitD ver. 4, 
must be plural.) I presume this will be 
readily allowed as to the small Altar of 
Incense, which was placed under cover 
in the taberuade before the vail of the 
Holy of Holies; and even witli regard 
to the Altar of Burnt-offerings, there a 
bird must have been continually disturb- 
ed by the necessary ministrations of the 
Priests, about the numerous sacritices of- 
fered on it. Nor can we suppose that 
the Priestsmrould suffer the altars of Qod 

Exod. XXX. 23. <* The best myrrh is that 
which \s /liable and clear ; and it's cnflji- 
hHng, or rolling under the fingers, as any 
thing round does, seems to be well ex- 
pressed by "iW." Bate. 
1Ti*i As a N. A thistle, so named from 
it's round form, and being indrcled on all 
sides with prickles, or from it's seeds being 
incirckd with a downy sphere, on which 
it easily rolls along or files with the wind, 
and that to a great distance. See Bat€*s 
Crit. Heb. occ. Gen, iii. 18. Hos. x. 8. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heh. but in Arabic 
signifies to repel, and this seems nearly 
tlie idea of the Hebrew; for as a N. 
pw^n Refection, abhorrence, conte^npt, occ. 
Isa. Ixvi. 24. Dan. xii. 2. 


Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, but the idea 
seems. To be sharp, acute, as the V. signi- 
fies in Arabic. Hence as a N. }n*Yi The 
iron part, point or prickle of a goad; the 
whole instrument betngcalled^Toi^D, which 
see under lob. occ. i Sam. xiii. 21. £c- 
cles. xii. 1 1 . The Greek ipsifavop a sickk, 
by which the LXX render ]2rt in Sam. 
may perhaps be a derivative from it. 

to be defiled by such guests, had they ^^1 

been ever so much disposed to take up Occursnotasa V. inHeb.butinSyriacsig 

their abode there. See Noldius Partic. 
Heb. in HH 24. Accusat. and Annot. 650. 
It must however be confessed that the ex- 
planation above proposed from Noldius 
seems unusually and harslily elliptical, 
and that the most natural interpretation 
of the Hebrew would be by considering 
']>ninnto riH as put in apposition with 
the preceding n^n and \p*i if witli Bo- 
chart and Merrick (whom see) we might 
xinderstand the altars as used by a raeto 
nymy for the temple^ about which it is 
highly probable some sparrows, and even 
dffces, might build. Russel, Nat. Hbt. of 
Aleppo, p. 65, mentions '* a brown co- 
loured dove, which builds in the win- 
doiM, &c. of the city." It is evident that 
the beginning of this Psalm is conceived 
with great pathos. And may we not say 
that Uie Psalmist's mind being at the 4th 
verse chiefly intent on the holy altars, he 
mentions them instead of the temple? 

• See note on mx VII. 

nifies. To proceed gradually, and in Ara- 
bic the same, also to ascends As a N. 
fem. T\yrvQ A steep place; a precipice, a 
hfiy cliff, occ. Ezck. xxxviii. 20. Cant. 
ii. 14; where Solomon, «' having in the 
soft language of afiection called the Jew- 
ish Queen his </ovf , nothing was more 
natural to an oriental imagination than 
the immediate comparing her then resi- 
dence [a lofty palace of stone] to the rocky 
cliffs in which their doves were wont to 
builds" Harmer^ Outlines, p. 255^ where 
see more. 

To go, come or putfoncards, to proceed or 
it retch out, or forth, 

I. Togo along, come, proceed. Num. xxiv. 1 7, 
A star yn comelli, proceedeth,/ro/w Ja- 
cob. In Hiph. To cause to go or proceed* 
Ps. XXV. 5. cvii. 7. Prov. iv. ii. Isa. 
xiii. 16, & al. 

II. As a N. TH 

I. A way, path, or road. Exod. xiii. 18. 
I Num. XX. 17. Job. xii. 24. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




t. A wmf, jammeyy proceakng. Gen. xm. 
4S. Jttd. kviii. 5, 6. 

3. J 9^ Journey, distance. Gen. xxx. 36. 
I K. xix. 7. 

4. -^ttwjf, custom, manner. Gen. xix. 51. 
*^- 35- P«- xlix. 14. Isa. viii. 11, 

5. It fineq^Liently refers to the way in ivhich 
Bien ahoiild ^, i e. the manner in which 
they shoidd tct according to the revetded 
will of God. See £xod. xxxii. 8. Deut 
ix. i«, 16. xi. 28. Pa. V. 9. 

6. It denotes the manner of God's acting 
or proceeding, Deut. xxxii. 4. a Sam. 
xxn. 31. P$. xviii. 31, & al. Also to 
worh or actions ihemsetces, Prov. viii. 22, 
Jekacak possessed me the beginning of his 
way, i. e. of his work of creation. Job 
xL 14^ or 19, Behemoth^Vk >D1*7 tvWiV^ 
tke chief cf the ways or works of God, he. 
one of tm most remarkable quadrupeds 
he bath made. 

7. yn k sometimes used as a PartirJe. 

I* Straightway, immediately, Ps. ii. i%, 
a. /« a manner, as it xt«'e. 1 Sam. xxi. 5. 
UL To go along, waik or tread, as men' 
Dc«t i. 36. xi. 24, On w/nch the sole of 
5fo«r/«* TTin shall tread. AsaN. Ti*iD 
A tread or treading. LXX, Bma. occ. 
Deut H. 5. So Michaelis explains '^yi 
^TOJ^ Job xxiii. ID, by vest^m in quo sto, 
the footing or- tread in which I stand, 
Hcb. hterally, of my standing. 

IV. Togo upon, tread down. Jud. v. ai, 
My body or person >5^in hath trodden 
down strength. Comp. Jud. xx, 43. Ps. 
xci. 13, Job ix. 8. 

V. Togo or treed upon, as grapes or olives, 
Mdso press oat their juices. Jnd. ix. a;. 
I«. XTi. 10. Neh. xiii. 15. Micah vi. 15. 
Coap. laa. IxBt. a, 3. Jer. xxv. 30. Lam. 
i* 1 $, where it is ^plied to a wme-press. 
As a N. TT» A treading, as of vmeyards. 
Job xxiv. 18. Comp. ver. i r. 

In the East they still tread tlieir grapes 
after the ancient manner. *' August aoth, 
1765, The vintage [near Smyrna] was 
BOW begoa—the juiee [of the grapes] 
was expressed for wme, a man witii feet 
and legs biun treading the fruit m a kind 
of eislem, with a hole or vent near the 
boOom, and a vessel beneath to receive 
the liqvor." ChamUefs Travels in Greece, 

vL In Hipfa. To tread or cause to be trod* 
dm, as a tbreshiDg-ftodr, i. e. to cause 

beeves to go vpon it, and so thresh out 
the com. Jer. IL 33. Comp. p:i under 
ma V. and irrr. 

VII. Of a bow. To hold or stretch forth as 
preparing to shoot, i Chron. v. 18. Pa* 
vii. 13. Isa. V. aS. Jer. I. 14. li. 3. 
Comp. Jer. ix. 3, where Vulg. extende- 
runt. In several of which passages the 
LXX render it by raivcu to extend, hold 
forth. So of fumms. To stretch forth. Ps. 
Iviii. 8. Ixiv. 4. 

Der. Gr^ek r^s^siv to run ; Eng. to trudge; 
also track, trace* 

Qyi ' 

Qccurs not as a V. but hence as a N. t=m*l 
The south. It seems a compound from 
Yi or -rn /a go about, and oin high ; per- 
haps because the Sun, or solar orb, in 
his apparent diurnal circuity seems to all 
the inhabitants of the earth on the north 
of the torrid zone to ascend to the great- 
est height when he is in the meridian of 
full south; agreeably to that expression 
in Jud. viii. 13, cnm ribpDbD the solar 
orb being on high. Job xxxvii. 17. Bcdes. 
i. 6. xi. 3, & al. freq. 
Deut. xxxiii. a3, as translated, Possess 
thou (i.e. Naphtah) tlie west and the 
souths seems irreconcileable with truth 
and ikct ; for the possessions of th» tribe 
were so far fi^m bcmg on the south of 
the Holy Land, that they were the most 
northerly of all, and the tribes of Ashcr 
and Zebulon were situated more westerly 
tlian this. The con&sion has arisen from 
rendering Cd> the west, instead of giving 
k it*s proper meaning, the sea, as both 
the LXX and Vulg. have done. And 
the sea here intended w, no doubt, the 
sea of Chinnereth, as it is called Josh, 
xii. 3, which in the New Testament itf 
denominated the lake ^ Oexnesartth, 
Luke V. I, or tltz sea qf GoMee, or of Ti^ 
berias, Jofasvi. i. And it is true that 
the tribe of Naphtali possessed the great- 
er share of tl^ sea, i. e» all the western 
coast from north to south*. And the 
prophet Isaiah, speaking of the Land of 
NaphtaHy ch. viii. a3, or ix. i, describes 
kjHB situated tzfTt ynbytkeway<f the 
sea. Comp. Mat iv. 13 — 15, and see 
VUringa on Isa. viii. a3. The Chaldee 
Targum m Dent, xxxiii. 33, is remark- 
able, and con&rns the above interprcta- 

• See Dt fIxi/iTertx Sanctae Tab\i]a. 
L tion, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




tion, m^^ KOIITI IDiri CD* a^))D, On the 
xoe^ of tbe sea of Genesar, and on the 
south he shall possess. The tea of Galilee 
\s, ID like manner, called 'T^wp Ttvimio'ap 
the water of Gennesar, i Mac. xi. 67, 
and *H Xifji^vf^ rsyyj^arap the lake of Gen- 
nesar, by Josephys, De Bell. lib. iii. 
cap. 9, § 7» 8, wlio there elegantly de- 
scribe the emmenifertilitif of the coon- 
tiy. MtchaelU (Suiiplem. ad Lex. Heb. 
p. 476.) takes trl^in for the proper name 
of a country to the south of the sea of 
Galilee, othemiise called m^3 ^^3, Josh, 
xi. 2. 

)m Chald. 

As a N. from the Heb. int, The arm. Dan. 
ii. 32, & al. r)*i» (Heb. ini«) The 
«une. Ezra iv. 23. 

Der. Draw, throw. 

To inquire, or require. 

h^Tb inquire, make inqviry, ask. Dent, 
xiii. 14. xvii. 4. xix. 18. ttnmi> Ezra 
X. x6, Michaelis thinks an evident erra- 
tum in the writing for \irmbt occasioned 
by the frequent occurrence of the name 
tinm Darius in this book. One of Dr. 
Kennkott'B MSS. omits tlie >. 

II. To inquire of, connUt, either transitively, 
Gen. XXV. 22. Exod. xviii. 15, Ezek. 
XX. I ; or with the Particles a or bvk fol- 
lowing. I Sara, xxviii. 7. 2 K. i. 2, 3. 
Deut. xviii. 11. Isa. viii. 19. xi. 10. As 
aN. milD A written story or memoir 
.which may be consulted. % Chron. xiii. ft2. 
xxiv. 27. 

in. With b following. To inquire for or af- 
ter. Deut xii. 30. 2 Sam. xi. 3. 

IV. To inquire j^cr, regard, care for, Deut. 
xi. 12. Job ill. 4. 

V. To be Concerned, or careful for ^ to seek. 
See Deut. xxiii. 7. Esth. x. 3. Jer. 
xxix. 13. Ps. xxxviii. 13. 

VI. To inquire (^er, make inquisition fw, 
retire. Gen. ix. 5. xiii. 22. Deut 
xViii. 19. Mic. vL 8. Ezek* xxxiv. 10. 

Hence the oriental Dervise or Dervick ul- 
timately had his name. ** Tbe word," 
says the Encychip<tdia Briton, " is origi- 
nally Persian, signifying a beggar, or per- 
son who has noUiing.'' 

Hence also perhaps was named the Bri- 
tish Goddess of Vengeance, Andraste^ or 

. Adrattia^ whom Queen Booc/fcea (accord- 
ing to Dio in Ncrone) invoked before her 

engagement with the Romans. ^^ Aipa' 

riCLt ij Nfpo-if • Adrastta b the same » 
Jfemesis, 1. e. tbe Goddess of Reta^,' 

says Hesychius. 


In Kal and Hipli. To thresh, beat or siat- 
terio pieces^ as the ears of com and stiav 
til threshing, which was anciently per- 
formed either by the feet of cattle, tee 
Deut XXV. 4. Jer. I. 1 1. Hos. x. 1 1 ; or 
by thresliintf instruments called ffri, 
:iniD, and n7^j^» which see uoder^tkir 
respective roots. See also Isa. xxvm. 27. 
Amos i. 3 ; and eomp. i Chron. xxi so. 
with ver. 23/ In Jer. I. ii, are tRo 
readings, Mtn supported by the Campla- 
tensian, Forster\ Vander IfoogW^j wi 
Kennicott's editions, by the LXX verm 
ev fiorayyt in the grass, and Volg. super 
lierbam;'and nun, by JFaltom^s and otber 
modem pnnted editions, and hj tvestv- 
eight of Dr. ICemiico^rs Codices. Ekbs 
reading fumbhes a good sense. Asts 
the latter, comp. Hos. x. 1 1« 
un^M which we have Isa. xxviiL 28, sad 
that without any various reading iv- 
nished byDr.Jteffitico^/,may be either m 
infinitive of an unusual form, or rather t 
N. formed with H prefixed. Comp. TH 
I Sam. ii. 33, under 11 1. 
In Niph. To be threshed, occ. Isa. xxr. 10, 

In Huph. To be threshed, 00c. la. 
xxviii. 2 7. 

As a N. tin A threshing. Lev. xxvi 5. 
Deut. XXV. 4. A^ a N. fern.- in Reg. 
nuriD A threshing. Isa. xxi. lOw Homer 
lias described the method of tireskms 
coim by the feet of oxen as practised m kv 
time and country, II. xx. ^n. 495, Ace. 

, At with autumnal harvetti coTer*d o*er. 
And thick bestrown, lies Ceres* sacted ioor. 
When round and round, with neTer wmxj'i 

The irsm^lmg steert huit mt di* muxuahe^ 
grain. Fore 

The ancient ^ra6»^ Syrians, Egypikm^ 
and Romans, threshed their Cf»rm in tk 
same manner* by the feet of cattle, a 
may be seen in Bochart, vol. ~ii. 50ft, 
&c. 311, &c^ And " these iBatioBs,* 

• Comp. WditeiiCt Note on 1 Cor. uc. 9l 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


'147 t»**— »r» 

Itfi Dr. Shim*^ speakidg 6f the Arabs 
m Moon id Barhaty^ *' continue to tread 
. oif the^ com after the primitive custoih 
«)f the East. Instead of beeves they fre- 
quently make use of mules and horses^ by 
lyin^ in like manner, by the neck, three 
or four of them together, and whipping 
them afterwards round about the ned- 
ders (as they call the thresMn^-jloors^ tlie 
I%ca Atge of Horace) y where the 
sheaves be open and expanded, in the 
same manner as they are placed and pre- 
pared with us for threshing. This indeed 
IS a much quicker way than ours, though 
less cleanly. For as it is performed in 
the open air, Hos. xiii. 3, upon any 
round level plat of ground, dawbed over 
with cow's VlttBg, to prevent as much as 
fKMsible the earth, sand, or gravel, from 
risiog, a mat quantity' of them all, not- 
widistanding this precaution, must una- 
Voidahly be taken up with the min : at 
the same tine the straw^ whidi is their 
ool^ fbdder, is hereby shattered to pieces : 
a arcnmstance very pertinently alluded 
to, a K. xiii. 7, where the king of Syria 
is said to have made the Israelites like 
the dost (ttni>) by threshing.*' KoWen 
makes the same observations upon the 
Uke method of treading out com by the 
feet of horses, which is practised likewise 
to this day among the aottaitot Nations 
at the Cape of Good Hopef. 

II. To thresh, beat to pieces, Isa. xli. 15. 
Jobxxxix. 15; where LXX, xaraitwrvi' 
csiySkUl tread vpon, Comp. Dan. vii. 33. 

III. To tear to pieces^ i, e. with thorns, as 
the ears of com and straw by the thresh- 
ing wheel. Jud/viiL 7. Comp. Isa. 
XXV. 10. 

Obb. To dash, dusti 

Hence also the name of the Roman idol 
t Dis, by which they meant || the earth, 
whence, according to th&r physical theo- 
logy, ail things sprmg, and whither they 
all return* Comp. Gen. iii. 19. £cclus. 
xl. ti« xli. lo. 
From the Heb. ttn ma^ also be deduced 

• TiaveU, p. 138, 189, 8d edit 

+ HaL Hist, of the Cape, p. 73, 4. 

tSee ^«r/ucr De Orig. & Progr. Idol lib. ii. 
»p. eO, 0S. 

I So Cicen, ** Terrena auiem via omnit atque 
man Did Fttri dt£catants qui Dives f ttt npud 
^«en ■XtfVMrr, quia ct reddant omnia in Terras, 
n oriantur ^ Terns." De Nat. Bcor. lib. il cap.S^ 

the Djscty who were '^ inferiour godde 
(of our Saxon ancestors), the messengers 
of the great Woden^ whose province it 
was to convey the souls or such as died 
in battle to his abode called Val-Hall^ 
that is, the Hall of Slaughter, where they 
were to drink with bun and their other 
^ods cerccisia, a kind of malt liquor (ale) 
m the skulls of their slaughtered enemies* 
On the contrary, those who died a natu- 
ral death were by the same Dysce con<* 
veyed to Hela, the goddess of if e^, where 
they were tormented with hunger and 
thirst, and all kinds of evils." Thus ihe 
Authors of the Universal History, vdt.xix* 
p. 1^8, 8vo. " Of these goddesses/* say 
the same learned writers, in anote, '^ men-^ 
tion is made in an ancient Danish mo^ 
nument,^^ front which they cite some lines, 
containing so curious a specimen of the 
theology of our heathen ancestors, that I 
am persuaded the reader will not be dis- 
pleaised at seeing the English transladoa 
of them in thb place. They are the con- 
clusion of a wounded warrior^sdyingsong}* 

<* With the dead I long to bcf; 
Now the % Dym beckon nfe, 
Whom great H^oden from his hall 
Sent, and ordcr'd me to calL 
In the Asa*t lofty house 
1 shall sit and ale carouse. 
Hours of life'aiready fly* 
Let me laugh, and uughiog die** 

From these Dysce, or from DutU, a kind 
of demons among the Gauls, we still re* 
tain the word D^iue for the Devil. 


To spring, sprout forth^ germinate. occ.Oen* 
i. I J. Joel ii. ft2. The pleasant spots of the 
wilderness, '»«un spring. Asa N. WiTi 
What springs fiom the earth, grass. Deut* 
xxxii. 2. Ps. xxxviL 2, 8c ai, freq. 


I suspect that the radical idea of this very 
ditticult word is, to Jill or piump vp, to 
make plump, gross, or the like. 80 the 
LXX render it, mter ai. by syLit^ios, 

I. In Kal, To Jill up, make fat, as the bones 
with marrow, occ. Prov. xv. 30. Also 
Intransitively, To become or gr&w plump, 
or fat. Dent. xxxi. ao. Prov. xi. 25, & al. 

$ The whole of which may be found in Ftms 
Piecu 0/ Runic P^tj, p. 87, &C. piwt«d flftr 
Dislrv, Pall-MaU. 

f Runic, Dyir^ 

La la 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




In Huph. spoken figuratii^ly of t sword, 
To be made fat, occ. IsA. xxxiv. 6. As 
ft participial* N. fun Pkmp,fat. occ. Ps. 
Xcii. t $. Isa. XXX. a^, where it is ap- 
plied to bread-corn. Ps. xxii. 30, to 
fiK '5tm mnjr be rendered,* with Mr. 
Fenwick^ Bishop Lowtk (ill Mtrrick's 
Annotations), and Dr. i/ornf, .^// who 
are fattened^ ted or sustained by or from 
tlie earth, i. e. all mankind. So Homer, 
II. vi. lin. 142, 

- ■ BfOTitff, ti afttfm XflfTOir ii¥0"iT. 
Mortals, who/rr/aw earthly fruilu 

And Horace y lib. ii. ode 14, lin. 9, ro, 


Quicunque terras munere vescimur. 

All tuCf tvbo on earth* i hountjfeed. 

As a N. fan Tat^ oil, or that unchnm 
oleagitious Matter uhich plnmps vp the 
substance, whether of animals, see Job 
xxxvi. 16. Ps. xxxvi. 9, Ixiii. 6.— or of 
vegetables, Jud. ix. 9 ; and which is in 
part furnished by the clouds in rain, dew, 
kc. See Ps. Ixv. 12, and conip. Isa. 
XXX. 33. '^ What can be the inexhaust- 
ible source, asks the ingenious Abb6 
Fluche, whence we receive again those 
oilSf which to us seem annihilated by 
waste? God, together witli water and 
salt, has, from the begimiing, poured 
into tlie hollow of the sea, a measure of 
oil or bUumen^ which he has proportioned 
to the wants of the whole globe. Fire 
and air incessantly raise from thence a 
certain quantity of water, of light salts 
and minute lilaments of ot7. Thqnce the 
rains, fountains, rivers, vegetations, i^u- 
tritions, savours, odours, and all the pro- 
perties of flowers, fruits, barks, roots, 
and woods. This oil, unperceived in rain- 
water, again collects in |>lants it's atte- 
nuated particles. It acquires quite dif- 
' fcrent forms and qualities, from it's union 
with the water, the earth, the several 
«alts, and the principles of all kinds.'' 
Nature Displayed, vol. iv. p. 1 38, Eng- 
lish edition, lamo. Compare vol. iii. 
p. 206. And the learned Dr. Hunter^ iji 
bis note on Evefyn*s Sylva, concerning 
the food and nutriment of plants, says, 
•• From a number of expemnents accu- 
rately conducted, I am led to believe 
that all vegetables^ from the hyssop upon 

the wall to^ the cedar of libantts, rtcM€ 
the¥r frincifol mjuriskmentfrem oily par^ 
ticlee, incorporaled with water by aMans 
of an alkaline salt, or absorbent ewrtli. — 
It BMy be asked, whence do natural sails 
receive their oily particles? I answer, 
the air supplies them. During the summer 
months, the air is foil of putrid cxltala' 
tions, arising from the steam ef dung* 
failli, the perspiralioB of animals, and 
smoke. Every shoucr brings dotcn these 
oleaginous particks for the nourishment of 
plants" See more m the author himself, 
and in Annual Register for 17779 Mat. 
Hist. p. 94. 

Naturalists art, I think, agreed, froHi a 
maltiplicity of experiments, that oil, or 
on unctuous substance^ whether animal^ 
vegetable, or mineral, is the true and pro- 
per fuel or pabulum offre, L c. not what 
is itself turned into die very substance of 
elementary fire (as air is), hut what im- 
mediately supports it in the actiea of 
flambig and burning, and by so doing b 
itself dissipated, or vanishes in the air; 
and that oU the more pure it is from 
other matter, the less faeces it, in bum- 
hig, leaves behind it; and further, tliat 
oil, or an unctuous matter, b what eonglu- 
tinates the parts of vegetables aAid uni- 
reals, or keepa them in a state of coAe« 
sion*, Hence« 

II. As a V. formed from the N. b«t in an 
opposite or privative sense, (like the vcrb^ 
lit, C30D, aab, tDYjr, f\^», unar,) To take 
aviay the 0ily parts of an animal body by 

fii*e, to consume it to ashes, occ. Ps. xx. 4^ 
where £ng. matigin, turn to oshes^ so 
Montanus, incineret; Martin'M French 
translation, reduise en cendrci Diodmtis 
Italian, ritluca in centYe, Comp. LeiT. 
ix. a4. Jud. vi« 21. i Chron. xxL 06. 
ai'hrou. vii. i, 3. i K. xviil. 58, and 
see Hochart, vol. ii. )6o, ^61, 539. As m 
N. (un The ashes of animals thus con^ 
sumcd. Lev. vi. .9, 4, or 10, 11. Ji-r. 
xxxi. 40, & al. Hence as a V. To clear 
from asheSf q. d. to ash, Exod. xxvii. 3. 
Num. iv. 13. 

III. As a N. xan, or, according to JFaltom's 

• See B^erhaavei Chemittry, vol. i. |^ 16S*- 
908. vol ii. pw 19, &c edit. HaUovt, and ▼•!. i. 
p» SOO— 3d«. voL ii. p. 18, ftc. edit. SSmtv. And 
comp. tkt lasmed Mi* J§m**% Physiolospcal I>i»» 
quiMiioat, p. IS6, ftc 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



nnni— Km 

ccbion, and at least twenty-two of Dr, 
Kemncoii*§ Codices, ptm, A species of 
dam arnnuH. The LXX render it IIu- 
yof/ow, i. e. tlie wkite-buttocks (fiom 
fwyiy the buttocks, and ocpyo^ white) ; 
and ** such/' sa^ Dr. Show, *' is the Lid- 
wue (as the Africans call it), ivliich is 
«haped exactly like tbe common AntiUipe, 
with which it agrees in colour and in the 
£nbion of it*s horas^ only that \n the 
JJdmee they are of twice the length, as 
the ammal Uself is of twice tie bigneu" 
And silica neither the AnUbjte, nor con- 
sequently, according to the above de^ 
sct^ptios, tbe Lidmee^ is of an f<ik», hvA 
of a brown or fallow colour, I would ra- 
ther deduce it*s name fU^ from the bulk 
and grossnessy than (as Bochart does) 
from the supposed ashen colour of tlie ani^ 
maL occ Deut. xiv. 5. See Bochart , 
?ol. ii. 90a, 903. Dr. Shaw's Travels, 
f. 416, and Mkhaelis Becueil 4e Ques- 
tions, Qu. 8;« 


The idea of the word probably i^^ To op- 
ffouUf 4etfOkc€i and hence perhaps may 
he derjveo theGreek twrlw to appoint ^ gr- 
data, m teems used as a Particq^U, Dent, 
xxxiii. a. At his right hand a ^rt m yn^s 
placed (stood) ^ him. Hah. iii. 4, seems 
a veiy parallel text, 4nd the brightness 
vas as the light, \b \xno ts^np resplen- 
dent beams (were) at his hand. See 
BeAe\ Integrity of the printed Heb. Text, 
Ac p. 76. Tlie Heb. yob m um •i:>o>o 
is rmdefed by the LXX Ex ^£^0^^ a^u 
ArrEAOl fber" aura, At his right hand 
angels tvitk him. So vrf? um the flaming 
pre is called V/rWD his (Jehovah's) atttn- 
dantSt P>- ^* 4* ^^ B^^ >^ however 
he di»eiiibled« that many of Dr. Kefm- 
fotVs Hebrew Codices in Deut, xxxiii. t, 
IIBad;riyM io one word^ so three of tbe 

Samaritan ni^M, and two miu^M. Tliis 
word means effusions, and might be 
thought to refer to those showers wliich 
accompanied the eartliquakes, when Je- 
hovah marched with his people. See 
Judg. V. 4. But it does not appear that 
nilU^rt ever signifies ruin or showers. And 
if it did^ would not Jehovah's being at- 
tended hyjire as his servants be a much 
more noble idea, than the heavens or 
clouds droppuig down water at his |}re- 
sencc ? Aoa observe that he is just before 
said to have skined forth from mount 

As a N. fn An apvointment, statute, law. 
Ezra viii. 36. Estn. i. 8, 13, 15, 19, & al. 

II. Chald. Tn, and emphat. Kim A decree, 
a law. Dan. ii. 9, 15, 15. vi. 5, Ezra 
vii. 12, & al. 

»«nn Chald. 

As a N. fem. nvKn^ or Hwm (from Heb. 
«u;*l) Grass. So LXX x^otj, and Vulg. 
herbisy occ. Dan. iv. 12, 20, or 15^ 23^ 


Or Words of more tlian three Letters, be* 
ginning with *i. 

pYT See under ;in 

As a N. poDl-r or ID3")1 A drakmon, or <fa- 
ric, a rersian coin of gold, in value about 
twenty-five shillings; the same as tlie 
p'".^H, which sec. ft is always mentioned 
as being of gold, occ. Ezra ii, 69. Neh. 

vil 70. 7«» 7^' 

inm Chald, 

From m a statute, and ni to declare, make 
plain. As a N. masc. plur. emphat, 
H^^m rendered Counsellors, whose busi- 
ness it seems to have beeu to declare and 
explain the law. occ. Pan, iii, 2, 3^ 


n A Far* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




r? A Particle. 

I, Prefixed to a Noun it is empbatical, aod 
may be rendered The or thii. It answers 
to the Greek i, ij, ro, and is a plain 
abbreviation of the Pron. mn or wn 
Gen. i. i, 2. xxiv, 50, Exod. ix, a; 
DeutJ. 39, &al.freq, 

^. Prefixed to a N. it is vocative or pa- 
thetic. Deut. xxxii. i, Hearken, O^mn 
keavenf, and I will 9peak; and hear, 
t^KM Dearth, eomp. Cant. vL i, i K. 
xvi.a6. a K. ix,5. 

3. Prefixed tp Participles or participial Ns. 
it is equivalent to the relative Pronom 
and the Verb, Thus my)n Which creepeth^ 
Gen. i. 26. Sotm He xpho keepeth, i f v- 
Aao-o-a/y, P». o^vi. 6. 

4. Prefixed to several Partides it denotes 
That phi(:hy what. 1 Sam. ix, 94, nrt^yn 
that which, what (was J itpon it. i K, 
XX. 33, IJDDrr what (c(wiejfrom him, 

5. The relative xoho, which, whether cor- 
responding to the Latin Nomipative or 
Accusative case to the Verb, Ezra x. 
14, ijy—the men 15>mnn who (qui) had 
taken (literally caused to dwell) /oro^ 
mves. (Comp.^dbrVl Josh, x. 24.) Ezra 
loii. 25,— Mf offering to the house of God 
T>Dn "tonnr? which (quam) the king, 
SfC. offered, Comp. 1 Chron. xxvi. 28. 
2 Chron. xxix. 36. 

6. Prefixed, it expresses a question or dpubt, 
Whatf what not? whether f Gen. iv. 9. 
xxvii. 21,38, I Sam, ii. 1^7. Jer, xxxi. 20, 
ic al. freq. * In thissense it seems amere 
Interjection, and to be intended to ex- 
press a quick aspiration or breathings as 
of a man desinng tp know the answer 
sought for; as we say in Eng. Ha! 

y. Ppstfixed to words of time and jrfacc, it 
sijpfies 7b, tcnpards, Gep, xii. 10, Expd. 
xiii. 10, ^ al. fi'eq. 

^ " ." h^terrogadrum mera est interjectip, /<» 
tendentiaiB animi m rupoiuUmem qtnuitam tinifioMHs 
WUiehtUi, iw 0pint^9 €itU4imc frotptiw,** 

A demonstrative Particle, Behold, to, set, 

see here, hah! occ. Gen, xlvii. 23. £zek« 


Chald. The same. Dan. il 43, iii. 25. 
Aha! Lat. Evax! a Particle^ or naturat 

exclamation, used 
I. In rejoicinsor exulting. Job xxxix. 25. 

Isa. xliv. 16. 
%, In insulting. Ezek. xxv, 3, xxxvL %, Ps. 

XXXV. 21, 2{. 

I suspect the idea of thbRoot is dusk^, dark^ 
coloured J black. It occurs not however 
as a V. but we meet with the traces of 
it in the two following Nouns. 

I. As a N. masc. plur. b^injo^ Elephants 
teeth. So Targum inn }tt^, LXX ^hrreov 
skefAvnvwv, and Vnlg. dentes elephan- 
torum, and ebur, vcory. It seems a com- 
pound ofjma tooth, and CS'irr elephants, 
so named perhaps from tlieir dusky or 
black colour. Buffon (Hist. Nat. tom. ix» 
p. aji, i^mo.) says, •« that the ordinary 
colour of the elephant is ash-coUmred 
grey or blackish f But then he adds in a 
note, ** Some persons who have resided a 
long time at Pondicberi assert that there 
never were any but black elephants^ at 
least in that part of India : it is true, say 
they, that, if one lets them go fqr some 
time without washing, the dust, which 
sticks to their oily hide, which is entirely 
free from hair, makes them appear of a 
dirty grey; but when they come out of 
the water, they are as black as jet (noirs 
comme du jai). / belieoe indeed that 
black is the natural colour of elephants," 
And thus the f Arabs call the elephani 
alikhaban, from their Verb :ir\p (kahiba) 
to be brown, dark coloured, on account of* 
his colour, and I would not be positive 
that the Arabic V. :irvp itself was not a 

t See ^«a6«^, vol. ii. 947, aid C«i#<tf Lex. under 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



nan— pn 

coiTaption of the Heb. nn. occ. i K. 
x.f2. ftChroiuiz. ai. 
Fnm nn the name of the elephant, per- 
haps the Latin ebur, French ivoire, and 
En^. ivory. So the Greeks call ivory 
EXi^Sj ^^^^ the name of ^e animal. 

IL As a N. masc. plur. ts'mrr, or, accord- 
mg to twenty-three of Dr. KenmcoCt*s 
Codkes, tyy^n Ebony wood^ so Symnut" 
chu E^svwf^f and Vulg. hebeninos, 
thus named perhaps from ifs dark or 
black colour. But mdependently on this 
(I confess dubious) derivation/ this iu- 
teipretadon is rendered highly probable, 
hy the similarity of the Hebrew to the 
Greek and Latin names, which seem to 
be formed from it by D3lirr being joined 
with ivory {fw)^ as somewhat of a like 
Und, which it may well be reckoned, 
siooe it is found ip the same places, is, 
like that, of great value, and remarkable 
for it's ^ossy blackness, as that for it's 
pore whiteness: To which may be added, 
thatts^lin is plural like other names 
of wood m Heb. as onottr, C3>di:1)M, 
D^JHoVm, &ۥ See more in Boc/tart, vol 
iii. 140, & seq. and in Scheuchzer Phys. 
Sacra on Eaek. Once Ezek. xxvii. 15. 

III. in ComCf come give. See under liT. 

1. The idea of the word seems to be, to 
emit a vapour, exhale, evaporate. The 
N. Vnrr is plainly used in this sense by 
the Chaldee Paraphrast on Ps. xc. 9, We 
faiish the years of our life like «D1Q fan 
l^r\D1 the exhalation or vapour of' the 
mouth m winter. And Symmachus renders 
the V. "tfann !jh by Mij ymcis Ariug Do 
not become a vapour, Ps. Ixii. 1 1 ; and 
io this sense the N. appears to be used 
tirice in the immediately preceding verse, 
Surebf the ions of mm areb'yy a vapour— 
to oKtnd in a balanee (they are J altoge" 
tker (readier J than a vapour. So Ps. 
cxiiv. 4, Man ($ like a vapour ; his days 
pass aannf Uke a shadow, (Comp. Jam. 
iv. 14.) Prov. xxi. 6, ^'he getting of trea- 

* "In Montfanconil qmdem HexaplM Origeni- 
9SUS niha] de Sjnnmacho notatum est : at ex Theo- 
doreto disco, eum de Hebeao cogitawe. Ta xtfitra, 
inqiut ad h. 1. 2v|bifu«xo; i^iw; lif/txuvivctv, «f ' u»» 
ta iCm» %m>^fA,na yi? itcu— Ergo Hebeni nomen in 
hoc versu apud Symmachum legit, sed mal^ ad 
mrp rctulttr MkbaelU Not. ad Geograph. Heb. 
Exter. Part i. p. £06. 

tmres hy a lying tongue (Is thr getting of) 
>p3 fan a flitting vapour by those who 
seek death. Isa. Ivii. 1 3, The wind shall 
carry them all away, fan a vapour shall 
take them tgf. Isa. xxx. 7, " For Egypt 
is a mere vapour." Bishop Lowth, 1 he 
Hexaplar versions very frequently render 
the N. fan by Arjtti^, or Ar/Ao^, a va- 
pour. So Symmachm and Theodotion in P*. 
Ixii. 10 ; Symmachus in Ps. xxxix. 6 ; 
Aquila in Ps. Ixxviii. 33. Aquila, Stfm* 
machus, and Theodotion, in £ccles. i. 14. 
Theodotion in Pro v. xxi. 6, renders fan 
►fT5 by ar/ubOf fepoiMvo^t a tossed vapour ; 
Aquila m Eccles. i. », CD^^nn fan by 
ArifAg arfM^wvy and Symmaehus by arfi^s 
arfuwv, a vapour of vapours, 

n. As a N. fan Vanity^ entptiness,a being 
destitute of real substantial good, or tridh. 
Job vii. 16. Ps. xciv. 11. Ecdes. i. 2. 
ir. 7, Sc al. freq. Also, A vain idol, 
which according to St. Paul, i Cor. 
viii. 4, is nothing in the world, i. e. f no- 
thing of that which if s fond worship- 
pers imagine of it. Deut. xxxii. 21. 
I K. xvi. 13, a6. 2K. xvii. 1$. Jer. 
xvi. 19, & al. Comp. Ps. xxxi. 6. Jon. 
ii. 8, or 9. Acts xiv. 15. As a Particle, 
In vain. Job ix. 29. Ps. xxxix. 7. As 
a y. in Ral, To become vain in discourse 
or mind, i. e. to speak foolishly, or judge 
falsely, and love what is vain and worth- 
less, oec. Job xxvii. 12. 2 K. xvii. 15. 
Jer. ii. 5. (comp. Rom. i. 21.) In Hipb. 
To make vain in tliis sense, i. e. credulous 
of, or loving, what is vain or fiilse. occ. 
Jer. xxiii. 16. 

pn See under an 


The Verb in Arabic signifies to cut, cut 
off, *' resecuit, amputavit," Castell; and 
nearly in this sense, 1 thmk with Coc-^ 
cnus (whom see), it is used in the only 
passage of the Hebrew Scriptures where 
It occurs, Isa. xlvii. 13,. Let t/iem now 
stand up and save thee "Ti^Ti (who) cut or 
divide the heavens, gating at the stars* 
Thus the relative ^WA bemg understood, 
as usual, i*on will be exactly anony- 
mous with the masoretical Keri n^n; 
which reading however is supported by 
at least fifteen of Dr. iCcffmco^i'sCodices, 
and ten others now read mm. The cut* 

f See Greek and Eng. I^cqn under Et^XMlU. 
L 4 ting 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



mn— pn 

ting or dividing of the heaum^ heft omd- 
tioaed* seems to refer to the usual imic- 
tice oi the heathen astrologers in d^ud- 
111^ them into parts or houses (as they 
f^it called), for the more distinct con- 
lemplatioD of the sitiiations and coniigii- 
rations of the stars and planets, whence 
they pretended to collect the will of their 
God, the Heavens, and to foretel future 
events. Is it not amaaing to consider 
how long thb pagan trumpery continued 
among Christians? The lAX and Vulg. 
have given the sense, though not the pre- 
cise idea of the words, the former ren- 
dering them by Ar/^Aoyoi roo wpotyou 
Astrdogtr9 of keavmy the latter, by Au- 
gures cceli, Augurs rf heaven, 


With a final rr, radical, but mutable or 

J» To bring, or cany forth, or awai/. % Sam. 
XX. 13. (where mn seems a V. in Kal, 
as rendered m Targ. and Syr.) Prov. 
XXV. 4> S- • 

Hence Gr. ar/w to brings carry y -^s^f/Lou 
to lead, &c. 

JI^ To bring forth, or utter words, or a 
voice* Job xxvii. 4, Isa. lix. 3, 13. Ps. 
XXXV. 38. Comp. Ps. xxxvii. 30. Asa 
N. nin A discourse, tale. So Jerome, Ser-^ 
monem, £ng. Translat. a tale that is 
told. occ. Ps* xc. 9. Hence 

I|I. To roar, or rather growl, as a lion over 
his prey. Isa. xxxi. 4, where see Mr. 
Lowth ajad Bochart, vol. ii. 731. Comp 
Job xxxvii. 2, where the N. run is ap- 
plied to the muttering of thunder preced- 
ing the storm. See Scott. To coo, mourn, 
i>r moan, as a dove. Isa. xxxviii. 14. 
iix. XI. In Kal and Hiph. To murmur, 
mutter, moan, . a» men. Isa. viii. 19. 
xvi. 7. Jer. xlviii. 31. As a N. n^ii A 
funaming or moaning, £zek. ii. 10. As 
a N. p^jri A murmuring or mv tiering. 
Lam. iii. 62. In Ps. xcii. 4, p^jn seems 
by the context to denote some musical 
instrument, probably so called from it's 
murmuring sound. 

IV. To 'bring forth or propose any thing in 
the nind ^r meditation and eontem- 
ptatipq. Prov. xxiv. 2. Isa. xxxiii. 18. 
4^ a Participle n:in Meditating, '* with 
due deliberation," Bishop Loath, occ. 
Isa. xxvii. 8i where LXX, ry rj(r6a 
^krritff thou ^^t mditati^^ Vulg. 

meditatus est, he hath met^aied. Comp. 
under HMD. 

V. With n following, it seems to agiiify 
such a study and intention «f mind as 
o£len bursteth out into voice, losfa. i. 8, 
U n':in Thou shalt meditate in it, tkou 
sbalt study it with svch application of 
thought, that thou shah tatk or mnUter 
to thyself concerning it. So Ps. i. %, & al. 
As a N. pun Meditation. Ps. xix. 15. 
Comp. Ps. ix. 17. 

^Xn Occurs not as a V. in this red^plicata 
form, but hence as a N. ^un Intense me- 
ditation, earnest contemplation, occ Ps. 
V. 2. xxxix. 4. In which latter text the 
,LXX render it by f^aAfftif meditatum* So 
Vulg. meditatione. 


r^^^irif Once Esek. xlii. 12. It n vaiionsly 
mterpreted, Directly^ straight forward, 
elegant, decent. The Vulg, renders it, se- 
paratum, and so seems to have under- 
stood it as a participial N. from (Ji ^o 
protect, defend, with n emphatic pre- 
fixed, which version seems to deserve 


With a final n, radical^ but mutable or 

This Root seems nearly related to Ttv (which 
see) as i^nto i^, tDn to tp\ 

I. To send, thrust, or dart forth, liber^ emit* 
tere. So LXX, sf^i^ocku, and VulglmitteL 
occ. Isa. xi. 8. As a N. Tin refers to the 
shooting forth, either of the branches. or 
fruit of the olive-tree. Hos, xiv. 6, or 7 ; 
where LXX, xaroKSLfitos fruitful, Comp. 
Ecclus. 1. 10. 

II. As a N.'iin The darting forth, oxflash- 
ing of light. Hab. iii. 3. Comp. Job 
xl. J, or 10. Ps. civ. I, Ic al. Hence 

III. Gioryf majesty, honour. Num. xxvii, ^o. 
I Chron. xxix. 25. Dan. x. 8« xi. 3 1 • 
It b written without the 1, Jer. xxii. iS. 
As a V. with a 1 inserted. To glorify, 
honour, pt^aise, occ. Neh. xi. 1 7. Ps. 

* xxvni. 7. xlv. 18. But the verbs in these 
passages should rather be referred to the 
Hiph. of n^ which see. Comp. Ps» cvik i , 
where thirty-seven of Dr. Kemucot^ 
Codices read iTin. As a N. fem. rrtfi 
Glory. Jer. xxii. 18, where observe that 
eight of Dr. Kennicoit\ Codices read 
min, and seven iTin, and two more ia 
the margin. 

?V. Of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




IV. Of sound. As a N. ^n -^ loud, 
krifky vekemeni noise. Isa. xxx. 30. Job 
xxxix. %o. YVia Tin The vehemence (or 
Tefaement noise) of his snorting (is J ter^ 
fibk. See Bockartj vol. u. la), &: seq. 
Ja this sense also the word is written 
without the 1, Ezek. vii. 7, The day of 
trwble k near, and not tf^Ti the (jojful) 
sounding or echo of the mountains* 

Tin Occurs not as a Verb, bat hence as 
a N. Tm Loud shouting, either as of 
men treadin» grapes, Isa. xvi. to. Jer. 
XXV. 30. — or of soldiers encouwgbg one 
another to battle or plunder, 14. 
And in this latter view the learned Ft- 
tringa understands the word in Isa. xvi. 9^ 
for upon thy sunrnter-fruUs, and upon thy 
harvest bB^ TTH the shout (i. e. of phui- 
denng and destroying enemies) is fallen. 
This wterpretation he eitcellently con- 
firms from Jer. xlviii. 32, in which pa- 
raUd text that prophet uses Tm^ the 
spoiler, for TTTT. Vitringa adds, ** Vitiu'm 
nuUun est in lectione, sed interpretatur 
Propbeta posterior, quod prior videri 
posBt panlo obscurius expressisse. There 
is MO JauU im tie reading, but the latttr 
Prophet explains %hai the former wight 
mem to have expressed with some degree of 
obscurity/' Which remark J would de- 
sire the reader attentively to con^are 
with Bishop Lawth^s note, charging the 
text in Isa. xvi. 9, with troo. great mis- 
tubes, and then decide for himself. 

Jereouab, in chap, xlviii. 33, alkdes to 
bsth senses, of the N. Ti>r7. rvn I^T nb 
rm W? rvn There shall be no treading 

^ (with) ftboulnig, the sho<|tiog (shall be J 
BO shoHting, i. e. not such as the Moab- 
iteft bad been accustomed to, and took 
deligfat m, not the cheerful shouting 
(f the grape-tieaders, but the dreadful 
shouting of military spoilers^ When 1 
coosider how * very frequently the par* 
Mt 1 in, vith, is to be supplied before 
Noons in the Hebrew Scriptures, I can- 
not belp wishing that the learned Bishop 
had not so positively asserted, that, ^* in- 
stead #f the fint Tm theshoid, we ought 
ffndoubtetUy to read as here, [i. e. in Isa, 
m. 10,] TTin the treader/' The above- 
ritad an all the texts m which ni>n 
TO See under nan 

* 8ee ffdOi Partic, Heb. in 3 37, 

I, As a N. A footstool, or rest for tlu* feet. 
Isa. Ixvi. I, & al. Comp. Isa. Ix. j 5. It 
occurs not ax a V. but as a N. is alwa^'s 
joined with 'hy) the feet. The LXX have 
rendered it, i Chron. xxviiL %, by ro(ris 
a stand, rest; and Lain. ii. i, by roiro; 
6y isyj^'OM hi ftro^f J, the place u'here his 
feet stood. Why then may not n in tliis 
word be servile, or emphatic, and tD^ a 
Noun from the Root HDl to be quiet, 
still, rest, which see? As I could not 
concur with the learned Bishop Lomih in 
his critidsras on the passages cited under 
the last word, it is with particular plea- 
sure that I refer the reader to an excel- 
lent Note of his on Isa. lii. 2, for the 
illustration of this. Comp. also Homer ^ 
Odyss. i. lin. 130, i, and Dammi, Lexi- 
con Nov. (jtwc. in Gcovof and Bpnivvs, 

P-97a»973. ^ . . 

IL Chald. as a V. tDnn To ait tn pieces: 
So the Targum in i K. xviii. 33, & al. 
Hence as a N. masc. plur. J*lSin Pieces. 
occ. Dan. iL 5. iii. 19. Tlie word b u^d 
in the same sense in Syriac. 

Occurs n«t as a V. but as a N. The myrtle 
tree; in which sense it is used also ha 
Arabic accordmg to the dialect oi' Arabia 
Felix. (See CasteilJ Isa. xli 19. Zech. 
1,8, deal. The ideal meanmff of the word 
is uncertain. I shall just hmt that the 
Greek 'H^u; (hcdiis) signifies stoe^; that 
Uie myrtle is very remarkable for the 
fragrancy or sweetness of it's leaves as 
well as of it's dowers, and that pro- 
bably for this reason it had it's Greek 
and Latin name 'Mvprog and Myrtus, 
from fMpoy (myroii) perfume, sweet oint-^ 

Hence, no doubt, as a N. fern, rjtntl 
Hadassah, the original Jewish name of 
Esther, occ. Esth. ii. 7. The Note of the 
Clialdee Targum in this passage stems 
remarkable, ** They callecl her ncnn be- 
cause she was just, and the just are those 
that are compared mdh!^ to myrtle,** 

1. To thrust, push. Nun. xxxv. 20. Ezek. 

xxxiv. 21. 
IL To expel, east out by force. Deut, vi. 19. 

Josh, xxiii. 5. Comp. f^^. 

I. To itdontf decorate^ deck. Isa« Ixiii. f . 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



As a N. Iirr Ornament, beautif. Prov. 
XX. 39. Comp. Deut. xxxiii. 17. As a 
N. fem, in Reg. tnrtn Honour, beauty, 
glory. Prov. xiv. a8. unprmn The beauty 
or glory of hoiineas, plainly denotes the 
glorious sanctuary of the tabernacle or 
temple of God, with the spieMthd orna- 
ments of the things and persons belong- 
ing to it, all of which typified the still 
more glorious things to come. 1 Chron. 
xvi. 29. (comp. ver. 27.) Ps. xxix. * 2, 
xcvi. • 9. (comp. ver. 6, 8.) But in 
a Chrpn. xx. ai, unp riTm^ seems to 
import according to the temple service, 
i. e. by alternate or responsive singing. 
Comp/ Ezra iiL ii. Ps. cxxxvi. through- 

II. To honour, reverence, respect, Exod. 
xxiii. 3. Lev. xix. 15, 3a. In Hith. To 
honour wesey, take honour to oneself, Prov, 
XXV. 6. As a N. l*in Honour, glory. Ps. 
cxlix. 9. Prov. xiv. a8, & al. Isa. xlv. 2, 
•jttnw tDnnrr. The Vulg. renders it glo- 
riosos terne humiliabo, I tnli humble the 
gloriotts of the earth. But ^W^ doth not 
signify to humble, and so the n in tD^nil 
will be best considered as a servile. See 
under yi II. 

The words mn and Tin arc often joined 
in Scripture, as i Chron. xvi. ay. Job 
xL g. Ps. viii. 6. dv. i, & al^ where "nrr 
seems to denote the splendour or glory it- 
self, inn the ommnent, beauty, or majesty 
resulting from that glory. Tin f^ na 
Ti^c /rwY cf the beautiful tree. Lev. 
xxiii. 40. The Targum ex^ains it by 
pr\rm vohm ^t) the fruit of the dtron 
trees. Comp* Joeephus Ant. lib. xiii. 

stul make use of the fruit of this tree 
yearly at the Feast of Tabernacles; and 
notwithstanding what Mr. Bate has said 
under this word, I cannot think that, 
nt) Fndt, is equivalent to n&^ Boughs, 
Lev. xxiii. 40, or to >b^ Branches, Neh, 
viii. 15. 

I. A natural exclamation of grief, Ah ! 
occ. Ezek. XXX.. a. oA rrn ^A .' or Alas 
to the day I Alack^a-day ! 

II. With M prefixed rrnM Nearly the same, 
but more intense, Ah I Ah! Josh. vii. 7, 
&al. freq. 

* See msrgiQ of SB||;liali traoilatioo. 

A natural exchauitioa in laaentk^Oi/ 
XI Ueu! occ Amos v. i6. 

it denotes pfriMSAi^ eaistenee or ssftftitatt. 
I. As a V. To ^ a6»dlr> rcigii i, 00c 

Eccles. xi.j. 
IL Chald. the sane as Heb. mn To k 

Dan. ii. ao, a8. viL aj, & al. 

III. As a N. M>n one of the divine bmo. 
ife s;^ hath permanent exUfemee, tk> 
exiits eminenily. **" The Hebrew md 
Hd [MinJ He, says Mr. Lowtk m io. 
xiv. aa, is often equivalent to the tru 
and eternal God. See Dent. xxxb. 3^ 
Isa.xliii. 10, ij. xlviii. la, and e^ 
daily Ps. dl a7^ where the expmBOBi 
the same with that of the text, Atte Ek 
[Min nnH] Thou art He; our £1^ 
reads, Thouart the same. The wonlso* 
press the eternal and unchangeable mtm 
of God. There is another text where ie 
word is plainly taken in this sense, 2 L 
ii. 14, fvhere is the Lord God ^ ES^, 
Aph H<^, [Min ^] even Hef for so tk 
wordsshould be translated. Those tnK- 
lations which join that expresaioe to tk 
following sentence, as our En^uk <iso» 
put a manifest force upon the Spin.* 
Comp. a Sam. vii. aS. Ps. zMv. $. NeL 
ix. 6, 7. Hos. vi. I. Isa. Ii. i. Seelfcr- 
beloC% Bibliotheque Orientaie4i HOI. 

IV. A permanent being, one wko abmtt, 1 
person. Esth. vii. 5, IVho is tits Mtn k 
orperKNi, and where is this inrrpcfnt? 
Coini>» Job iv. 7. xviL 3. sM. i, sr u. 
Isa. 1. 9. Hence 

V. And most generally^ inn is used sstk 
Pron. third person sing, of the cobba 
gender. He, she, it, (though usoalljrai^ 
culine). See Gen. ii. it. in. 15. 
For if 8 use as a feminhief see Gea. ii. a 
XX. a, la. Lev. ch. xiii. 

VL As a Pron. demonstrative, That, Gt% 
ii. 19. xix. 3$. Eoek. xxxiii. 8. '*Tta 
who understand the genius of the B<- 
brew Language, says the learned Ul 
Baruk t, know that whoi the pm 
personal mn precedes a N* as in ovist 
(a Sam. xxiii. 8), it senrcs to dc«^ 
the peculiarity of ekaracter^ citlicr ^ 
fame or renown, or for good <v ^ 
actions. As, Exod. vL %6, aj, MffQtf^ 

t Critie€ 3urs eumifed, p. 299* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


rrn— ^*flH 



prm Tkae are that Moies and Aaron: 
iCbr.nni. 6, onriwrmtii'irm inn 
This it that Benaiah vho xoas mighty 
amoMg tke tkirtv; % Cbron. xxviiL fts, 
trmVoriMm fkUis that King Ahaz; 
and many others." Comp. Dan. v. 13. 
/I/. Chald. wn and mn To he, Dan. vi. 3, 
10, or 4, 1 1 . m a6» or 39, & al. ireq. 
^ER. Saxon Him, Scotch whay and Eng. 
«io, as Mm may be often rendered* 
n See under nrr 

i^ith a radical and immutable 1, and a ra- 
dical bat muti^le n final, 
^ith Schitens I apprehend that the 
primary sense of this Root is, To fall 
down, inbtide, settk, sidere, subsidere, 
whence are derived if s two secondary 
senses of stA$i$Hng, being, w continuing, 
and of depremng, oppresiing, or aver^ 
whelming. Hence likewise the Greek 
iw to mt or 9et, and tw to be. In Job 
xxxvii. 6, at leait fourteen of Dr. Ken- 
nicolfs Codices read mrr^ and here the 
Vu%. has desoendat, let it descend, which 
agrees with the primary sense Schultens 
assigns to mrr. 

As ^ V. To be, subsist, continue, occ. 
Gen. xxm 29. Neh.-vi. 6. Ecdes. ii. 32.; 
in which passages the word is evidently 
used in an emphatical sense. As for 
iTiri £xod. ix. 3, it seems to be the Par- 
ticiple fern. Benoni in Kal, from the 
Root rrn (which see), so >in Isa. xvi, 4, 
the Imperat. second person masc, smg. 
from the same Root, the final n being 
dropped as usual. 

As a N. with a formative ], pn Means 
(^subsistence, substance, riches. Ps. cxii. 3 . 
Prov. i. 13, & al. freq, 
1. As a N. mm Jehovah, the peculiar 
and ivcpmmunicablje name of the Divine 
Essence (see Isa. xlii. 8. Hos. xii. 4, j) 
mbsisting in a Plurality, i e, a Trinity 
>f Persons. See DeutI vi. 4. xxviii. 58, 
ind comp. under t3>n^. If the initial > 
u mm, as in some proper names pmr 
(saac, npjT Jacob, &c. be only formative, 
he word will denote He who vs or sub- 
sists, i. e. eminently and in a manner 
operiour to all other behigs; but after 
cpeated and attentive consideration, I 
htnk Mr. Hmtchinson * is right in mak- 

^ ^toie•* Sine Princip. pag. ^ 

ing this divme name a compound of m 
The Essence, and tlie Participle mrr exists 
ing, subsisting, i. e. of and from itself, or, 
to use hb owp words, ^' existing by some 
virtue, power, or action, neccssaruy and 
voluntarily in itself; supporting or sus- 
taining if 8 own existence personally (L e. 
itself) in manner, in virtue, in power, 
in strength, in action, in wisdom.'' ** So, 
as another learned writer f observes, /e- 
hovah is the Being hecessarify existing of 
and from himself, xdth all actual Per^ 
fection originally in his Essence.*' St. John 
expresses it in Greek by 6 (tnf,xou 6 r^y, 
X.XI 6 f^oft£yo^. He who is, and which 
was, and who is io come, R<^. i. 4, 8. 
xi. 1 7. Comp. ch. iv. 8, and see Greek 
and English Lexico;i in Hv. The LXX 
generally translate it b^ Kvpio^, which 
considered as a derivative from the V. 
Kvpuj To be, exist, subsist, nMy be thought 
no bad version J, But the Greek trans- 
lator, lately published from the Venetian 
MS. by Ammon, has coined a still more 
expresme word, by which I think he con- 
stantly renders mrp, namely 'O ONT12- 
THS, q. d. 'O ONTXIS aN, He who 
really is, The Being really existing. 
It would be almost endless to quote all 
the passages of Scripture, wherein the 
name mn^ is applied to Christ; let those 
therefore who own the Scriptures as tiie 
rule of faith, and' yet doubt His Essen^ 
tial Deity, only compare, in the original 
Scriptures, Isa. vi. 1 — 5, with Jehu 
xii. 41 ; Isa. xlv. 24, 25, and Jcr. xxiii. 
5, 6, with Acts xiii.3^, I Cor. i. 30, 31, 
vi. 11; Isa. xl. 3, with Mat. iii. 1 — 3, 
Mark i. 3, Luke iii. 3, 4, John i. 23; 
Mai. iii. i, with Mark i. 2, v* Isa. 
xliv. 6, with Rev. i. 17, 18; Joelii. 32, 
or iii. 5, with Rom. x. 13 ; and I tiiink 
they cannot miss of a scriptural demon- 
stration, that Jesus \s Jehovah, 
That this divine name mm was well 
known to the heathen, there can be no 
doubt. Diodorus Siculus, lib. i. speaking 
of those who attributed the framing of 
. their laws to the Gods, says, '* Ucc^x 
roig lovlcuoi$ Muj<ry,v Is-ooova-i rov lAXi 
sviKOLXoviuvoy 0eov — Among the Jews 

f SfiearmoMS Koq^uiry after Philocophj and 
Theology, p. 338, edit. Edinburgh. 

\ See Bp. Pearson OH the Creed, art. ii. OUR 
LORD, note, p. 163, edk. fol 1^$^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



rm— mvt 

they leport that Mo$e9 did tlm to tlie 
God called /no/' Varro, ctted by St. 
Austin, says, Deum JudflMmim esse Jo- 
vem, that Jove was tbe God of the Jevfs ; 
and from mrp the Etruacans seem plainly 
to have had their Juve or Jove^ and the 
Romans their * Javis or Jwis^pater, i. e. 
Father Jove, afWwards corrupted into 
Jupiter. And that the idolaters of several 
nations, Phoenicians, Greeks, Etruscans, 
Latins, and Romans, gave tlie incom- 
municable name mm with some dia- 
lectical variation to their false Gods, may 
be seen in an excdlent Note ki the Ati- 
ciait Universal History, vol. xviL p. 474, 
&:c. t i add, that irom this same divine 
name the Greeks had their exclamation 
' of grief lou, as lou, loo Aupjyf, and the 
Romans theirs of triumph, lo, lo, Tri- 
umphe ! both of which were originally 
adaresscs to Jeh&vah, 

TV, As a N. fern, mrr An oppressing or de- 
pressing calamity, a griexxms dgUctian, Isa. 
xlvii. II, mn 1^)^ teni And affliction 
^haUfall upon tkeej so LXX, raXaiituj- 
pia. Ezek. vii. a6. In Reg. iifin. Prov, 
xvii. 4. xix. i^. So Job vi, a. xxx. 13, 
according to the Keri, and many of Dr. 
Kennicotfs Codices wn. In plur. min 
Job vi. 30. 

V. AN. fem. nvi, plur. ^min Oppres* 
sion, oppressivenas. See Ps* xxxviii. 13. 
lii. 9. xciv. 20. Prov. x. 3. xi. 6. Mic. 
vii. 3. The LXX render it by Ainua 
Injustice, Ps. lii. 4, Iv. la, in which last 
text Symmackus explains it by Es^tia 
Insulting injury or tnjuriousness. 

VLChald.mrr. SeewnVIL 

I. A particle of exdaimiBg or encourag- 
ing. Ah! Ho! Lat. Hui! Isa. Iv. i. 

V Zech. ii. 6. Comp. Isa. xvii. la. 

II. Of grieving or threatening, Ok ! ak I 
Isa. ]. 4, 24, I K. xiii* 30. Jer. xxii. i8- 
Woy Isa. V. 8. Jer. 1. 27. Mic. ii. i, & al. 

* J0VI8 is used by JSmtuui as the Nominative 
Case. I0V19 CusTos, is an inscriptitxi on an an- 
cient^ i;nedal; J9vis being in the Nominative ac- 
cording to the ancient form. See Montfeucon An- 
tiquite Rxpliqu^, torn. i. p. 34, pL 9. So Ainstuorib 
in his Dictionary observes, that Jovis Gustos is 
a common inscription on ancient medals. 

t The reader may also consult Fossiiu De Ori^. 
IdoL lib. ii cap. M; Jenkin on the Christian 'Reli- 
gion, voL i. p. 97 ; F*rhei\ Tracts, vol. i. 176, &c. 
Lelani on Christian Revelation, parti, cap. 19. 
vol. i. p. 408, ^To. note, and p. 109. 

Occurs not as a Verb in Heb. bitf as a 
Participle or partidpiai N. maic. pbir. 
tsnn Sleeping, sleepy ^ drau>xy, so Targ. 
^D^^ ; or pei^^M, if we refer tbe word 
directly to the watchmea> Rmng, think' 
ing or speaking ddirum^, delira^es ; iot 
from this Heb. Root tbi^ Arabs appear to 
have bad tbeir «irr (with a dbo/; tobede^ 
lirium, tp rave, sveak deliriauMly from a 
distemner, &c. " deliravit^ ex morbo ab- 
surda iocutus fuit, mentis inops," Castell; 
and to thb piirpose AquHa and Tkeodo^ 
tion render the Hebrew tytn by foyro* 
^o/^f vM fdnsying^ and Vulg» by vana vi* 
ilkentes seeing vain t kings; and Cocceuts 
not improlMd>ly suggests, that in Oti 
there is a literal allusioa to the Hebrew 
tsnn seers. Paronomasias are nsval in 
Isaiah. Comp. di. v. 7. x. 50. xxiv. 17. 
Ixi. 3. hcv. 11, IS. The IXX tranafartion 
of tSTii by evinrriaCoji^fyoi dreaming, hi 
applicable either to the watchmen or the 
dogs ; for the dreaming of dogs is common 
to common observation, waA was long 
ago ele^tly described by iMortHMS^ 
lib. iv. Im. 988, &c. 

F'enantvmque cants m mtOi tttft jtihtf 
JacUtMt crura Umcm stAko, ftc. 

Once, Isa. hri. 10. 

A Particle of lamentation, Hey! hn! Lat 
Hei! Once, Ezek. ii. jo. Used as a N. 
like «1M and ^311, Prov. xxiiL 19. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but is nearly 
related to Mirr to subsist^ he. Hence irrr 
imports or refers to a being or person, and 
is used as a Pronoun of ikt third person 
fem. sing. Hhe, ii. freq. ooc. 


With a final n radicid, but mutable or orab->- 

It seems nearly related to mrr To subside, 
subsist, eanst, be, which see, bat is much 
more frequently used. 

I. To be, exist. Gen. vi. 4, 

II. To be, as denoting the state or conditioit 
of being. Gen, i. 3, 3, 6. xxviii. 14, ft al, 

III. To he, to happen, come to pass, or mto 
being. Gen. iv. 8. vi. i, 8r al. freq. 

IV. To be reckoned or reputed, i K. L *t. 
V. . To be, subsist, remain, continue. G^i^ 

xxvii, 33* Rttthi, :^« Ps. ^uaviL 18. 

VI, With 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ban— 1VT 

Vt. VTith V and a Noun fiJlowiag, it de- 
notes some change of condkioDy state, or 
<|ittlity. To be^ become. Gen. ii. 7, 94. 
xm, 4. £xod. iv« 4^ & al. freq. 

\ll. With i> and a V. infinitive, be&ides it's 
more obTioos construction, it somednes 
denotes custom or necessity. Josh. ii. 5, 
•nUDV njwn ^m When the gate was to 
be thut. 

\\\L In Niph. To be brought into a state 
of' boMgy to become, to be done, made or 
accowpUshed. See Dei^t. iv. 3 a. xxvii. 9. 
Pcov. xiii. 19. 

DC. In Niph. To be continued (Conp. 
above, Sense V.) or perhaps, To be heavy 
(Coop, under rnn). occ. Dan. ii. i, And 
kii tkep rh^ rui'm continued, or was 
heavy ypoit him, Comp. Gen. ii. di. 
XV. Id. Dan. x. 9. 

X. To be oppressed, depressed^ afiicted. occ. 
Dan. viii. 27. Vulg. langui, / /o/i^nit^ec/. 

, Conp. mn Sense lY. and the textual 
readmg of Job vi 2. xxx. 13, where tlie 
N» in Reg. irrr nay mean a gnevous, 
0ppr€ssiv e eaUmty, But observe that in 

t Job vi. 2, not oiUy tlie Keri, but many 
alsoof Dr. Kenmeotfs Codices read^iim^i. 
So in Job XXX. 13, >nin^. 

XL As a N. vrith a formative % n> (as if by 
abbimation for mr or ^tv) Ope of the 
divine names, J AH, the Essence, He who 
i5,simply,ab9olutely , and independently, 
'O ON. The relation between rv and 
the V. 7vr\ is intimated to us the iirst 
time rr is u|ed in Scripture, Exod. xv. 2, 
If jr strength and my song (is) n^ Jah, ^rr^ 
and he is become fo me salvation. See Ps, 
Ixvin. 5. Ixxxix. 9. Iciv. 7. cxv. 17, 18. 
cxviii. 17. . 

rr is several times joined with the name 
•DTP, SO we may be sure tliat it is not, a^ 
ioaM have supposed, a mere abbreviation 
of tbat word. See Isa. xii. 2, xxvL 4. 
Oar bkased Lord solemnly claims to him- 
self what is intended in this divine name 
TV, John viii. 58, Before Abraham was 
(ymtrSoi was born) ETCl EiMl, I AM, 
Dot I was, but Ern ElMI, I .\IVI, phunly 
joliflttting his divine eternal, existence, 
(Coapb ha^ nini. i j.) And the Jews ap- 
pear to have virell understood him, Jor 
tJken took they up stones toeast at him,zs9, 
blaspbcner. Corap. Col. i. 16, 17, where 
the Aposde Paul, after asserting tliat all 
-ikings that are in heaven^ and that are in 

tarth, visible and invisible, tcere created 
(wwifflw) by and for Christ, adds. And 
HE IS (ATT02 EXTI, not ijr tbos) 
before all things, and by him all things 
<rv¥6sy}Ks have subsisted, and still s^disist. 
From this divine name n> the ancient 
Greeks had their Ivj, I19; in their invoca- 
tions of the gods, partictilarly of Apollo, 
i. e. The Light. And hence ^i (written 
af^er the oriental manner from right to 
ki%), afterwards £1, was inscribed over 
the great door of the Temple of Apollo 
9t Delphi'*. 
XII. iTHH / will be. An appellation which 
God gives to himself, Exod. iii. 14, and 
which^ by the foUowing verse, is plainly 
equivalent to Jehovah me Aldm of Abra- 
ham, &c. and so refers to the blessing and 
redemption by the promised seed, i. e. 
Christ Jesus. Comp. Hos. xii. 4, s> ^^ 

A Particle, Hawf occ. 1 Chron. xiii. 1%, 
Dan. X. 1 7. It is synonymous with yn 
Comp. I Chron. xiii. 12, with 2 Sam. 
vi. 9. 

in Chald. 

The same as the Heb. ^Vrr, To go^ come. 
occ. Ezra v. 5. vi. 5. vii. 13. 
Hence Gr. txm and ixct; to come. 

Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, but I sus- 
pect the idea of the word to be, Large, 
roomw, spadovs; for the Arabic nsea 
words, probably from this Root, m tlie 
sense of being great, lofty, and applies 
them to any thing of large bulk. See 
CasteWs Heptaglot Lexicon, under hyn, 

I. As a N. masc. sin^. to>n The middle 
and largest part ot the Temple of the 
Lord,the Sanctuary, as distinguished from 
the pcHTch, and from the Holy of Holies. 
See 1 K. vi. j. vii. 50. It is also used 
for the sanctuary of &e tabernacle. 1 Sam. 
i. 9. iii. 3.— for the tabernacle or temple 
ofQod, taken in tlieir whole extent. P^. 
xlviii. 10. IxviiL 30. Isa. xliv. a8.—-for 
the idolatrous temple at Bethel. Amos 
viii. 5. Comp. cb. vii. 13. Hos. viii. 14. 
X. S, 6. 

II. A large spadous house, a palact, i K. 
xxi. X. 2 K. XX. 18. Dan. hr. 26. 

• See Dukefisont Delphi Phcenicizantes, cap. x. 
Plutarcb, torn. ii. p. 392, edit. Xyiaudri; Eujei. 
Pnsp. £van?. lib. zi. cap. 11. 

III. It 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Itl. It is applied to that high and hofy 
place (Isa. Ivii. i J.), where Jehovah pf- 
euhari^ dweUeth, ?s. xi. 4. xviii. 7. Hah. 
ii. so. otherwise called tfte holy hea- 
vens, or keavem$ of hoUneu, Ps* xx. 6, 
and Jehoyah*8 dwelling or resting place^ 
1 K. viii. 30, 39. 43, 49. 
WHO Prom hid rewp/e, Ps. xviii. 7. Mr. 

^ Merrick^ m his Annotation on this text, 
observes, that this expression is applied to 
Jteaven by heathen authors, from whose 
writini^ the following passages are cited 
by De la Cerda in his Commentary on 
Virgil ^ Georgic. ni. p. 389, 

'Cmti i»itraiia Templa. 

LucEET. lib. i. 

Qfii templa Ctdt suwuma sohHu coHcutH, 



80 also Ennius, quoted by Delrio, 
Seneca's Here. Fur. p. 217, 

Comtremuii templum m^mm Jovu aliHwuuUis, 


Quanquam muka mamis adetrli atrulm tempUl 
Tendebam Ucrymatu " 

To the above cited it were ea^ to add 
other passages, especially from Lucretius, 
who seems fond of this application of the 
word templum, 

rV. "jt^^j^rr The ivory palaces, mentioned 
Ps. xlv. 9, mav mean either palaces richly 
adorned or inlaid with ivory (comp. un- 
der n^u^ V.) whence the nuptial robes 
were taken; or else, the ivory caskets or 
vessels where the perfumes were kept, 
thus denominated because made in the 
form of a palace, as the silver Nadi of 
Diana, mentioned Acts xix. 24, were 

' in the form of her temple at Ephesus. 
(See Mr. Merrick's Annotation on Ps.) 
Many persons, as well as myself, no doubt 
have seen ivory models of the Chinese po- 
godas or temples. And oar marginal 
translation in Cant. v. 1 3, renders mVliiD 
ta^npo Towers efpetfumes, wliich Har- 
mer. Outlines^ p. 16$, note, says may 
mean vases in which odoriferous waters 
or other rich perfumes were kept. But 
it may be justly doubted whether ^iViJiO 
should Dot ndher be considered as a 
Participle fem. plur. Hiph. agreeing with 
th^ preceding N. ruin^, and rendered ac- 
coraiogly, causing to grow, springing witltj 

pcdrfumes. So LXX, foBtrdt. Cora(^« tsis 
xliv. 14^ Nam* vi, 5. 

With an initial rr, radical, but omissible, or 
sometimes dropt, as plainly appears firoth 
Gen. xxxvii. 33, 33. xxxviii. 25, a6- , 
xlii. 7, 8. Deut. i. 17. 

I. In Kal and Hiph. To know again, call 
to mind, recollect, acknowledge, own, a^- 
noscere. Gen. xxvii. 23. xxxi, 32. xxxvii« 
33, 33. xxxviii. 25. xlii. 8. Deut xxi. 17. 
Ruth ii. 10, 19. Ps. cxiii. 5, & al. freq. 
Hos. iii. 2, 'h m^tn And I owned, or ac- 
knowledged her mine by Jifteen pieces of 
silver, &c. Comp. Ruth ii. 10, 19. Ho- 
sea paid to the adulteress the silver and 
the narley for her dowry as his wife; 
(comp. under ^rro HI. ) and this was in 
effisct hiring or buying her, and may ac- 
count for the LXX interpretmg TtOH 
by s(ji,io-dcaa'dL(Miy I hired (her), and for our 
translators rendering it, / bought her. In 
Niph. (with the rr retained) Job xix. 3, 
Ye are not ashamed "h lisnn (though) ye 
are known to me, (so Targ. ^ prnbrwn*) 
i. e. ye do not blush at ^our undeserved 
reproaches and insinuations of my wick- 
eoness, notwithstanding vour acquaint^ 
once and pretended friendship with me. 
Comp. Job vi. 14, &c. In Job ii. 12, 
eleven of Dr. Kennicott's Codices read 
im^^Drr. In Niph. Xwith the n omitted) 
To be known. Lam. iv. 8. So LXX eitt" 
yy(vsr6ricray, Vulg. cogniti sunt As a par- 
ticipial N. (the rr dropt) ^^n A person 
known to one, an acquaintance, occ 2 K. 

xii. 5» 7* 

II. As a N. fem. in Reg. trS2r\ Acknow^ 
ledgementf so Vulg. Agnitio. occ. Isa. 
iii. 9, The acknowledgement of thdr faces 
witnesseth against them, i. e. Their coun- 
tenances betray their ^:ilt To thb pur- 
pose the Targum, which see. 

III. With tS'SQ the face fbllowmff, To 
respect persons, to own or regard the per* 
sons of men on account of some external 
advantages. Deut i. 1 7. Prov. xxiv. 25. 
xxviii. 2r. In Niph. '^D^ To be thus re^ 
spected. Job xxxiv. 19 ; where t3^ is to 
be supplied from the preceding sentenee. 

* See CastfU, Lexic under ^or Cuau The word 
is in the conjugation fsbtbap^U, the V. being formed 
from the participial N. rm One inown, am «p- 
quaittunct* Set ClmUti Grunmsr, tect« 1^ ISy IS. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





I. To maotqidckhf^ viokiUly or irrtguktrl^f. 
So the LXX have rendered the redupli- 
cate Vin (inter al«) by aya?Jdcu>iMU to 
exBit, vofo^fOfACu to move or itagger 
aboutf trBftfptfw to disturb^ ouXeuojxai (o 
be moroed, tossed. In this primary sense, 
however^ it occurs not in the simple form 
bn, but see below under b^n 1. 

IL To exult, toss oneself about through pride 

. and insolence, se jactare. In tms sense 
it may be understood, Ps. Ixxv. 5. 

III. To muve briskly, irradiate, gUster, shine, 
as die hghtor aluminous body doth. occ. 
Job XJXL 26. xli. 9. In Hipb. To cause 
to irradiate or shine. Job xxix. 3. Isa. 
xiiL 10. As a N. fern. plur. nbnn Era*- 
diatitmsy shiningsforth^ LXX, Aaj^ous, Glo- 
ries. Elxod. XV. 1 1. Comp* Exod. xiv. 24. 
Hab. iii. 3. * And from this sense of 
the word may perhaps be best deduced 
the meanmg of the Hebrew title of the 
book of Psalms (as we call it), vis. "i&D 
abnn Le. the book of the shinings forth , 

, crudialions, manifestations or displays — 
namely of divine wisdom and love exhi- 
bited in God's dealing witli hb diosen 
people, or with particular persons, as 
Jigmresfor the time beings of what should 
be SKCompliahed either in the person of 
Christ, or in his mystical body, the 

IV. From the glorious appearance and ef- 
fects of the irradiation of light in ttie 
laaterial world, many words which in 
then- primary sense are descriptive of light 
and it's operations, do hi all languages 
denote g/o;^, praise, or the like, and thus 
in Heb. as a N. fern, nbnn Praise, glory, 
Neh. xii. 46. Ps. xxxiii. i. xl. 4, & al. 
fieq. In several passages, however, where 
the N. is thus rendered, the primaiy 
aoKe of irradiation \s evidently prefer- 
able; as in Ps. xxii. 4, Thou art holy. O 
thou icho inhabitest or didst inhabit mnty 
0/ Israel; not praises surely, they cannot 
be inhabited : but the word here refers 
to thit glorious many estatitms of Jehovah, 
tar his people Israel, in light and^re, as 
mt Sinai, Exod. xix. 18. Deut. iv. 11; 
■ JM the pillar of cloud and^re through 
tbe wilderness, Exod. xiii. ao, 21. Num. 
ix. 15, &C. — and especially as the God- 
i^Bift appeared 10 Glory over the Cheru- 

^^P€€ the Preface to Mr. i^Hnvffil't pMlter,p. U. 

bim. See Lev. xvi. z. Eaek. I 26, 27, ^. 
So Hab. iii. 5, His glory covered the hea- 
vens, and the earth was full of inbnn his 
splendour. I add, Job iv. 18, ^^ or hath 
placed irradiation in his agents, &c« as 
their owu, or independent on bim — it is 
/fr# Glory, not thehrs." Bate. 
bbrr, The reduplication of tbe second ra- 
dical denoting, as usual, the repetition or 
inteuseness of the action ; 

I. In Hith. it b rendered to be madyfooUsk, 
to rage, or the like, but is properiy a 
word of motion or gesture ; To move, or b^ 
moved violently or tumultuousfy, to tunml" 
tuate, occ. Nah. ii. 5, The chariots move 
tumultuously (Eng. Transl. rage) in the 
streets, Vulg. conturbati sunt. Jer. li. 7, 
The nations have drunken of her wine, 
therefore the nations are moved or shaken* 
reel, stagger; so LXX icoLXMv^T^c'a.y, and 
Vulg. commotae sunt, i Sam. xxL 13^ 
He staggered about in their hands; so 
LXX vapspe^sh, Vulg. collabebcUur 
stumbled. C^mp. Jer. xxv. 16. xlvi. 9. 
So in Kal, it b rendered to make mad or 
foolish, but properly signifies to agitate, 
disturb, distract, to make to stagger, reel, 
or move about like fools or mad*men« 
Job xii. 17. Isa. xliv. 25. Ecclcs. vii. 7; 
where LXX msps^^n agitates, Symma- 
chus ^opv^u disturbs, distracts. As a N* 
masc. plur. O^^n Merriments, revels 
Imgs, such as dancings with singing, mu^ 
sick, &c orgies, occ. Jud. ix. a 7, where 
Targum p:i:in dances, LX!^, according to 
the Alexandrian copy, %o/98; dances, Vul^. 
cantantium choris dances rf singers* It 
was evidentlv a kind of Bacchanalian 
feast. As a N. fem. plur. mbinn ^gt- 
tations, tumults. Eccles. ix. 3.x. 13. (So 
LXX m both passages vspifepeia, and 
Symmachus, in the latter, ^opv^o^, but in 
the former avdahM insolence. See the 
following Sense.) Also, Extravagancies, 
pranks, Jfrolicks, mad tricks, as we call 
them. Eccles. i. 1 7. ii. u. vii. 26. LXX 
wsptfopA. See Bate. 

II. In Kal and Hith. To toss oneself, to ex- 
ult through pride and insolence or joy, 
jactare se, to boast. Ps. x. 3. xliv. 9. 
xlix. 7. Isa. xli. 16. Jer. xlix. 4. So 
the LXX render it in the two last pas- 
sages bv a/aXAiao^ to exult. As a 
Participle or participial N. masc. plur. 
CD'l»l?.in Insolent, arrogant persons, boast- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




ft$. IN. V. 6« Ixxiii. 3. Ixxv. 5. So the 
Targnm in these three passages pi^HD 
Deriders^ scomers. Ps. cii. 9, »n ^^1^0 
Thoie thai are insolent, or boast them 
selves ^mtut me; where observe, that 
'VbirTD is used in tlie construct, for the 
absolute, form, and that the Targum 
renders it by ''2XlhryD Scomers. 

HI. To irradiate briskly^ shine brightly. It 
occurs not in this sense as a Verb in the 
re<lu|>]icate fomu but hence as a N. Vrn 
The bright irradiator^ a title given to, 
and perhaps assumed by, the King of 
Babylon. By being joined with nnm p 
Son of the mornings it seems in it's pri- 
mary, sense to denote the pfanet Venus, as 
we call it, while tending from it's lower 
to if s upper conjunction witfi the Sun, 
when consequently it appears to the west- 
ward of him in the Zodiac, and so is vi- 
sible in the morning before sun rise, and 
ushers in tlie day. So LXX Kaifffopos, 6 
vf^i oLvar&XXwv, and Vulg. Lucifer, qui 
mane oriebaris, Lucifer^ uho didst arise 
in the mwrning, W»T» then is generally 
thought to denote. The morning^tar^ 
from it's vkid splendour; and this in- 
terpretation is in some measure con- 
firmed by ver. 13. iWicAoc/w however, 
Supplem« ad Lex. Heb. p. 539, disap- 
proves of it, 

1. Because none of tlie Eastern nations take 
tlie name of Venus from tlie Root hhln, 
though the Arabs do that of tlie Moon.- 

a. hh^n IS in it's form more hke to the V. 
Vm haul, than to a N. and accordingly 
the Syriac translation renders it }h''» howl, 
and even Jerome 00 tlie place observes, 
that it literally means howl. 

3. Venns, the mommg-star, who on acco«mt 
of her beauty was by most oatious rec- 
kontd feminine, should rather have been 
called ni daughter, than p son^ of the 

4. If the mornittg-star had been menat, it 
would have been more proper to ssxy thou 
hast grown pale as the stars do on the 
^>proach of the Sun, and last of all the 
morimig'Star : hvXhj no vsttna, thou hast 

falknfrom, heaven, smce that, star is never 
so much elevated above the horizon, that 
it has far to fall. 

" Therefore," says Michaelis, " I trans- 
late. Howl, Son of the morning, i.-e. 
thou star of the first magnitode." But 

comp. Rev. xxii. 16, and VUringa in Isiu 
occ Isa. xiv. 12. 
IV. And most generally, la Kal and Hiph« 
To give lustre, to make illustrious or glo- 
rious, to glorify, praise very much, or tlie 
like. (Ounp. above under bn iV.) G^^ 
xii. 15. Jttd. xvi. 24. I Chron. xvi. 4. 
Ps. Ixxviii 63 , Ami their maidens iblnn vh 
were not given to marriage, says our 
translation, but in the margin, praised ;i 
though, since die V. b not in Niphal, 
the text might be still more literally ren- 
dered. And their maidens they did noi 
praise. And ibinn may refer either to 
the nuptial songs in commeudatioH of the 
bride, of which we have an example in 
the Canticles, particularly in the seven 
ftrst verses of ch. iv. (on which see Mrs* 
Francises excellent Poetical TranslatiouJ, 
or to the Epithakumums, . reciting the 
praises of the Bew-married pair, of which 
perhaps the forty-fiflh Psalm nay be 
produced as an instance. The Targum 
has pn:intt^ m^ xoet'e not praised; Mon^ 
tonus, non epitkalamio celcbrats sunt, 
were not celebrated by an epithaUmdum^ 
So Buchanan, 

-^OM connubialia festts 

Carmina sunt caotau tons. 

Comp. Theocritus, Idyll, xviii. 
As a N. masc. phir. trrbibn Pnmes. occr 
Lev. xix. 24. 

iT ^bbn Praise ye Jah, Eng. marg. Hal^ 
lelujah, and so the LXX throagbout, 
leaving it untranslated, AXAijAawc. It 
occurs very frequently at tlie begmmng 
and end of the Psalms. And from this 
solemn form of praise to Godj which, bo 
doubt, was far prior to the thne of David, 
the ancient Greeks phiinh had their simi- 
lar acclamation EXjbXsvIj}, widi which 
they both began and ended thetr Fcetma 
or Hymns in honour of Apollo, i. e. Tkc 

V. As a N. masc plur. tsh^^ rendered in 
our Transition Bushes, and is the mar- 
gin, more agreeably to the sense of }^ 
commendable Trees*, but see under irD« 
occ. Isa. y'a. 19. 

Dbr. Greek AAXo/mci to leap, 'EAi^, and 
*£iAi9 the splendour of the Son, *HAf9^ 
the Sun. Eng. Hailt in salutiagy aad 
perhaps hallm^ holy^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




L To nmvoe or cast to a dktmce or fnr ^ff. 
It oecurs not as a V. but us a Partidpte 

. N^b. fem, miiTrv^ occ. Mic. iv. 7, where 
the LXX 6Liru)a'afvvjy rrjecfra, Targ. 
mim dtMperMml. 'Vhe word is evidentJy 
panUel to nm: tkritsi out, m the pre- 
cedioi^ verse. And hence the Gr. «A.dta;, 
and tXaoyoo to drive, 

IL As a Farfkle, rtnbn 

I. Of Place, I/b a dutance, ieyondj further. 
GeD. xix. 9. Num. xyi. 37. x Sam. x. 3. 
So with o prefixed and ^ tbilowing, rrH^HO 
Beifoitd, q. d. o^ beyottd. Gen. xxxt. 2 1, 
Amos V. 27. 

s. Of Time, Ofiwm-ds, keaceforwards, thenoe- 
forth. Lev. xxii. 27. Numb. xv. 23. So 
Isa. xviii. a, 7, •'wbm «^n fO From «V'* 
(being) or />om f^^/4e rim<r it had a) be* 
vig^ and thcncetbrwards. Comp. Easek. 
xxxix. 22, 

thn See under bn ' 

With an initial rr, radical, but omissible, 
as is evident from Gen. xxvi. ij* Jud, 
iv. 24. 

1. It properly denotes local motion. 
In Kal, To go in whatever manner, go 
fncay, go (0\ go along^ go forwards, pro^ 
reedf maik. it is a very general word, 
and applied to tilings both animate and 
ioanimate. See (inter ol.) Gen. iL 14. 
iii. 14. viii. 3, 5. xiii. 17. Exod. ix. 23. 

. Job xxxi. 26. Ps. Ixxviii. 39. civ. 26. 
c?.4i. Jon*i. 11,13. In Niph. 7b/ie 
gone^gone of. occ. Ps. cht. aj. Comp. 
Job xir. 20. Jn Hith. To go^ vaUc^ 
Mulk ^mttt, i\, d. tp jvalk oneself' atmut^ 
as die French saj, se promener. Gt:n. 
iii. 8. Exod. xxi. 19. As a N. mH«u!. 
plor. in Reg. O^bn Paths, steps, occ. Job 
xxix. 6. As a N. fern. plur. mrVn Go- 
ffigs, vay*. Ps. Ixviii. 25. Nali. ii. 6. 
If al. Also, Companies of irsn?etlcrs, va- 
ratOMS. Job vL 19. 

U, Both in Kal and Hith. it oenntes fycha-- 
mar, manner of life, conxer^aUwy parti- 
cularly with regard to religion. Sec i K. 
iii. 6, 14. vL 12. viii. 23. Gen. v. 22. 
vi. 9. xvii. I. jixiv. 40, xlviii. i j. 

m. In Kal, placed before another V. eft 
Biiticiple preceded by 1, it imports the 
eontmiance or increase of tlie art ion ex- 
pressed by such V. or Participle, a^ Gen. 
xxfi. i3,Vui yhn lVl And he vrttt go- 

• idg forward and increagi/^, i. e. be went 
on increasing continually, Comp. Esth. 
ix. 4. Exod. xix. 19, ^nd the sound of 
the trumpet was ptm ^Virt going on and 
strengthening, j. e. growing continually 
gtronger^ Jon. i. i r, « 3 . For the sea (was) 
T^dI iVirr ^oing on «/wf ^gffgy i. c. 

' increasing in rage, or as our margin, 
growing more ami more tempesttsons. So 
Prov. iv. 18. &aK fifeq. 

IV. Chald. In Apli. Vo walk, «cc. Dan. 
iii. 2 J. iv. 26, or 29, 34, or 37. As a 
N. l^n /^ toll or cwf^m laid on ways or 
ports^ like what the Turks call Qaphar. 
occ. Ezra iv« 1 3, 20. vii. a4. 

Dbr. Walk, Perhaps Lat. velox^ swift; 
whence Eag. todocitjf. 

I. To beat, smite, strike npon, as with a ham- 
mer, Jud. V. 26. Isa. xli. 7. As a N. 
fem. sing. rro^TV ji hammer, occ. Jud* 
V. 26. 

If. To beat, smite, in a more general sense. 
Prov. xxiii. 35. As a N. fern. phir. 
mtD^i^D strokes^ blows. Prov. xviii. 6. 
xix. 29. 

in. To break, knock, or to be broken or 
knocked to pieces by beating. Jud* v. 22. 
Ps. Ixxiv. 6. 

IV. To knock or beat doncn. 1 Sam. xiv. 16. 
A))plied to wine, Isa. xxvin. 1, p "lafsbn 
knocked down with vine, i. e. dtad 
drunk. And in this view Cocceivs un- 
derstands isa. xvi. 8, The vine of Sib' 
mah — whose excellent shoots for ptatffsj 
^oijn have knocked do^n the tord/e of the 
heathht. To illustrate tlie expressions in 
Isa. xvi. 8. xxviiL 1, we Baay obsene 
from Schultens on Prov. xx. 1; that Ku- 
bnlus in Athencens say*, ^ that '" Wine 
vit^^nuXitfii r»; tywrAncoTtt^ trips'^ those 
who have drunk it;" that Justin, lib. i. 
cap. 8, calls the drunken Scythians saii- 
cios wounded; on which passage Ber- 
fwcerds in his Note cites from Justin, 
lib. xxiv. cap. 8, merv sattcios wowilcd 
by wine — from Tibullvs i. e. ))er<^iAsus 
tempora Barcho licad strickm by Bacchus, 
by tlii! Greeks styled 'OivoirXT;^ wina* 
stricken — and iVom PlaatUs, Cuilfai iii. 
9, 6, iff percussit ^-orc U^<^^> 'j^li stric^ 
leu liiihself wilTi the, dainty of i/accUuSj 
i. e. hatli got drunk. '"]' 

V. lo amte xvith the tongue^ cither ul tlie 
seitv ot' nproving, Ps. cxii. 5,'*^-cfr irf" 

M qlfiicting. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




afflicting f shocking^ Ps. Ixxiii. lo, Tkere- 
Jorc^ on accountot the audacious speeches 

of the proud before meotioned — Tkerc" 
fore his (GotTa) pfopie return afflicted, 

and abundant waters (tears) are wrung 
from them,' Observe that in this ver}' 

dithcult text the Keri and thirty-three of 
. Dr. Kennicott's Codices read 2)ttr, and 

thirty-five of them C3lbn which is dearly 
passive, as the printed readin|( tDbti 
alight also be. Comp. under nyo I. and 

VI. As a Particle of Place, O^rr Here, hi- 
ther^ where the £oot stjikes, or treads, 
^comp. under bxi) Gen. xvi. 13. Exod. 
lu. $. Jud. xviii. 3. 

With 1i? to, vnto, fjfecedinff, tobn 1)) Hi- 
therto, 2 Sam. vii. 18. I Cnron. xvii. 16. 

VII. As a N. tDbrv Some kind of predotis 

• stone, probably the diamond, so called 
from it's extraordinary hardness, by which 
like a hammer it will beat to pieces any of 
the other sorts of stones. Thus the Greeks 
called it A^atx^^, from a not and ^OfMuc; 
to subdue, oh account of it's supposed in- 
vincibie hardness. Accordingly * Pliny 
says that diamonds <* are found to resist a 
stroke on the anvil to aiuch a degree that 
the iron itself gives way^ and tlie anvils 
are shattered to pieees/' But Monsieur 
Go^e/f treats this account as fabulans, 
and says, that '' the hardness of our (mo- 
dern) diamonds is not so great, but they 
will be broken by the hammer as often as 
yon will put them to the proof;" and 
that '' they are brolien and even bruised 
▼ei^ easily." It is sufficient, however, to 
justify the propriety of the Heb. name, 
that diamomds are much harder than other 
precious stones, and in thb fact I think 
all are agreed, occ. Exod. xxviii. 18. 
xxxix. iz. Eiek. xxviii. 13. 


With a radical, but mutable or omissible, n 

final. That this n b radical appears firom 

Prov. xx« I. Jer. vi. 23. xlviii. ^. I. 43; 
- but it is often dropped. 

It denotes nmititude, tumult, twrbukncy, 
!• As a Pron. of the third perM>n plural 

non and tsn They, tkem. Gen. iiL;. 

* iMcuHUt U (Adamantet) tUprthnivmtur ita 
^enMxentes ictum, ut ferrum utrtnque dissuUet, in- 
cudfsque iptsdissiliant. Nat. Hi^c. lib. nxvi. cap.4. 

f (Mgm rfLa-mt, AH*, Ac voL ii. p. J31, edit 

vi. 4» vii. 14. xliv. 3, & al freq. It ii 
eenerally bkuc. but is sometimes uaed 
teounine, as Num. xxvii. 7. Jud. xix. 24* 
Josh. xvii. 4. Ruth i. 19. % Sam. xx. 5. 
Jer. V. lo. Comp. Job xxxix. 4. 
Uen^e the Pron. sufiix on and C3 Tkemy 
their, generally masc. but aomeliniet fern, 
as in hBi. iii. 16. Ezek. xxiii. 45; and 
hence also a* and Q the temdnalion 
plural, which b likewise general^ ma^ 
but somedmes fern, as in tD^i IVomen^ 
tD^bo^ She^camels, Gen. xxxii. 15, 5cc. 
See Grammar, sect. iv. 13. 
Chald. ion masc. Them, Ezra iv. 10, 3.3, 
& al. So pon Dan. ii. 34, 35, & al. 

II. As a V. ill Kal, To tumultuate^ be /arr« 
bulcMt, as the sea, Isa. xvii. 1 2. ^er. vt. 23. 

. -*or waters, Jer. v. 22. U. 55. — w tba 
heart, Jer. iv. ig.-^as the bowels,^ Jer. 
xxxl. ao.-^as the animal frame in gene- 
ral, Ps. xlii, 6. — as v. ine, Zech. ix. 15. 
Comp. Prov. xx. i. 

III. To tumultuate, be in a tumult or uproar, 
as men. Ps. xxxht. 7. xlvi. 7. Ixxxiii. 3. 
— as a city, i. e. the int^bitants of it, 
Ruth i. 19. 1 K. i. 41, 4j. Also, To put 
into a tumult, disturb, discomfit. Exod. 
xiv. ^4. xxiii. 27. Also, to destroy with 
tumult and disturbance, exturbarc. Deut. 
ii. I J. As a N. fem. noino Disturbance, 
confusion. Deut. vii. 23. xxv^i. 20. 
2 Chroii. XV. 5. 

IV. The V. is applied to confused^ tumultu- 
ous, or inarticulate noises, as to the re- 
soutiding of the earth from men's shout- 
ing, f Sam. iv. 5. — to the howling of a 
dog, Ps. lix. 7, 15. — to the groveling of 
bears, Isa. lix. 11. — to the moaning of 
doves, Ezek. vii. 16. As a Participle, or 
participial N. fem. JTOin and troniV^oijy, 
clamorous, riotous, Prov. ix. 13, vii. 11. 
As a N. fem. in Reg. tVDn Tumultuous 
noise, occ. Isa. xiv. 11, Plur. hvon Tu- 
multuous assemblies or meetings, so Vulg. 
turbarum, Prov. i. 21. 

V. As a N. masc. pon and sometimes, in 
the construct form, fon, as E^ek. v. 7^ 
xxix. 19. Comp. nnon, Ezek. xxxix. 16. 

I. A multitude, abundance. Gen. xvii. 4. 
Jud. iv. 7. I K. xviii. 41. 

a. Tumultuous motion. Isa..lxiii« 1$. 

3. Tumultuous noise. Amos v. 23. Ps. Ixv. 8; 
where Mr. Merrick remarks, " The idea 
of composing the rage of the sea is also 
connected with, that of stilling the tumult 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

nnn— ten 



of the people by Firgii^ ^n;i. 1 5a — 1 58. 
Wc reUtti mugno^ &c." 
VI. As a N. hm. CDinn, plur. moinn, 
TXi:2inn aiid DDnn. 

2. A confused multitude of atoms or ele- 
mentary particles of matter, withoat co- 
hesion or coiuiectio»9 A turtUd mats, a 

Non bene joDctamn discordia semioa renmi. 

Gen. i. 2. 

a^ A mass, bodjf, 6x mnUitude of Vftters^ 
from tbeiT Jiuiditi/, aud ordinary tumid- 
tuotts motion. See Exod. xv. 5, 8. Dcut. 
▼iii. 7. Ps. xlii 8. Ixxi. 20. 

3. The abyss or dee}> by way of eminence, 
called nni CDinn /ii* great deep, Cen. 
I'ii. II. Isa. li. 10. Amos viL 4; /^i^ 
ww/ 6<w/y ^* waters which is in the hoi'- 
law sphere or womb of the earth, whence 
it was brought forth at the universal de- 
luge. Gen. viii. a. xlix. %^, Ps. civ. 6, 
ic al. laa. IL zo. Art not thou it that dried 
UD the sea, nn^ xp\r\r\ ^d the waters of 
the greal deepi i. e« of that sea whose 
waters 4xunnwjfiicated witli the greHt 
deep. Thb circumstance greatly heigh- 
tens the luiracle, 

tTDM As a V. in the reduplicate form, 
L To put into a great tumult , disturb or <lis- 
comfit exceedingly, 2 Chrou. xv. 6. Jer. 

'*- 34- 
il. To agitate very much. Isa. xxviii. 28. 

As Ns. fcni. with rr eniphat. rvoTi, and 
nViDH, see under bo. 

t^n See under non V. 


lu Arabic it signifies, To impel, also I9 break, 
destroy; but it occurs not as a Verb in 
Hebrew, unless perhaps Ps. xlvi. 3, ":>Dn3 
pM in the earth'% being broken, disrupted 
(as at the deluge) and, 2a it follows m 
the Text, in the mountains being dissolved 
in the midst of the sea. 
As a N. fem. plur. ni^iono Once, Ps. 
cxl. II. It is rendered deqt pitt (so ^^- 
machus and Theodotion fioivvi^f, and Je- 
rome, foveas pits), but seems properly 
to mean the breaches or disruvfions o£ tlic 
earth* as in an earthquake; for the whole 
verse is an evident allusion to tbe pu- 
nibhmeut of Korah, Dathan, and Abi- 
ram, and of tbe two hundred and fifty 

man who burnt incense, Num« xvi. 
Der. Hammer, Qu? 

With a radical, but omissible, n final. 

I. In iliph. !/o ^ rea(fy, or present, to pre^ 
sent oatseff. occ. Deut. i. 41. 

n. As a Pron. of the third person plur. n^n 
and tn These or those, as if one pointed io 
persons or things /E^/e^ira/, Tliey. freq. occ. 
It is geberallv used fern, hot sometimes 
masc as Ruth i. 13, twice; if these are 
not rather to be considered as Moabitish 
variations from the Hebrew. Henee p 
and J postfixed, Them, their, fem. 

III. n^n and p, As a Particle denoting the 
;)r«e«ctfof an object, 5ee,/o, behold; hence 
Latin £n. Cren. i. 29. iii. 22, & al. freq. 

IV. r^yn A Particte of Place, Hifher, Gen. 
xlv. 8. Thither, % Sam. iv, 6. nam n:n 
Hither and thither, a K. ii. 8. 

V. As a N. pn A hin, a measure of liquids. 

1 do not find that the Scripture furnishes 
sufficient data to determine it's capacity. 
Josephus however (Ant fib. iii. cap. 8. 
§ J. and cap. 9. § 4.) repeatedly tells us 
it was eciual to two attic choas, i. e. six 
quarts, or one gallon and a half Eng- 
lish. The hin was perhaps thus denomi- 
nated among the Hebrews because em- 
ployed in presenting the liquids used in 
the scnice of God. Exod. , xxix. 40. 
XXX. 24, & al. freq. 

VI. Chald. As a Particle, |n, corrupted 
perha|>s like tlie Greek av, exv, r)y, trom 
the Heb. tDtk. 

1. Jf. Dan. il 5. 

2. triuther. Ezra v. if. . 

2 . Repeated, Whethr — or. Ezra vii. 26. 


A natural Interjection enjoining silence, or 
stillness, like the English Hist ! hush I aud 
Lat. St ! Jud. iii. 1 9. Hab. ii. 20, & aL 
Henice as a V. To be silent, keep silence. 
Neb. viiL 11. In lliph. sense, To m^ike 
silent, to still, to hush. Num. xiii. 30. 
Adverbially, 1 being understood, on 
Amos viiL 3, Jn silence, silently. 

Der. Hush I hist I Qu? 


I. To turn or change the condition, form, 
state,situation, o: (% ume of a thing. E\od. 
vii, 15, 17. I K. xxii. 34. Ezek. iv. 8. 

2 K. v. 26. In liith. To turn upon itself, 
or over and oxer. Gen. iii. 24. (Comp. 

Mi Ezek. 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 

mrr— nsn 



E«ek. i. 4, nnp^no) Jad. ▼li. xj. As a, 

N. nfiti The irvoerse^ the contrary, Ezck. 

xvi. 34, twice. 
II, To overturn, itibvert. Gen. xix* ix, 

as, 29. 
IH. To;>fnpfrf. Jcr.xxiii. 36. As a N. fern. 

plur. miDBnn Perverscness, distortimy or 

change from the right, Deut. xxxii. ao. 

Prov. ii. i». ^ 

IV. As a N. fem. JiSBrrD A sort of *^oc^*, 

by whidi the limbs were distorted into 

uneasy postures, occ. 2 Chron. xvi. 10. 

Jer. XX. a, 3. xxix. a6. 
TUSWT To be irregular, untteadj/y turning 

this way and that, continually tarying. 

occ. Prov. xxi. 6. Comp. Jam. i. 8. 
Der. Hatock, 
isn See under ID 
Probably some kind of warlike chariot, such 

perhaps as were amtecf with scythes. Once 

£^k. xxiii. 24. 

To kill, m gdheral, whether man; beast, or 

Slant. See Gen. iv. 8, 14. Lev. xx. 15. 
's. Ixxviii. 47.. As a N. nn A killings 
slttughter. Isa. xxx. 25. Prov. xxiv. 11. 
Fem. nw Nearly the same. Jer. xiL 3. 
Zech. xi. 4. 

Hence the old Lat. Harvga {nyy^ri) a 
sacrifice, a victim. Comp. under "^n VI. 


With a radical, (see Ps. vii. 1 5 . Job xv. 35.) 
but mutable or omissible, n final. 

1. To protuberafe, stoelly be tumid, or ele- 
vated, to rise in height. 
Jt occurs not as a V. simply in this sense, 
but hence as a N. 'in ^4 mountain^ a pro* 
tuberatice, rising, or elevation of the earth. 
Gen. vii. 19, & al. freq. It is once writ- 
ten with a 1 Gen. xlix. 26, The blessings 
of thy father have prevailed above the 
blessings *ij? ^)n of the dural>le moun- 
tains, fabovej t=)Vi)> TOiJ ni«n the de- 
sirable things of the everlasting hills, which 
were to be bestowed on Joseph, accord- 
ing to Deut«xtxin. X5. The principal 
d&culty of th» passase lies in the words 
niHn *i)> n'»n, on which we may observe, 
ist, that though nin is in our traxislation 
rendered progenitors^ yet that the V. mn 
, when applied in an active sense to natu- 
ral generation, is in all other places of 
Scripture spoken of females only, adly, 
tiiat though *iin with 1 inserted is .not 

elsewhere (as I can find) used for a moun- 
tain, yet the LXX version lias here offcer 
ftonjxwy durable mountains. 3dly, that 
the Samaritan Pentateuch here reads Ti 
without the 1 ; and so likewise do eight 
of Dr. jBr«fwcoffsHcbrew Codices. 4thly» 
that as ^ nUT (of llie printed text) are 
here joined with tsVij^ MiMa, so 13? mn 
durable mountains are in like maimer 
joined with gV)5^ nm Hab. id. 6. 
Lastly, with regard to rti»n, remark, 
that as it seems to answer to "ijo in Dent. 
xxxiii. 1 5, it mav most properly be trans- 
lated desirable things, from the* V. TDHk to 
desire, and that the LXX accordingly 
render it by viX^ieuf blessings, and the 
Vulg. by desidcrium desire. 
Hag. i. 8, Go up to the mountain, and 
bring timber, aiid build the house. The 
Jews had a grant from C^rM* of cedar 
trees from the mountain oj Lebanon, for 
the building of the temple. See Ezra 
Hi. 7. vi. 3,4. 

As to the rite of sacrificing on mountains 
and hills so frequently mentioned or al- 
luded to in Scripture, as in Isa. Ixv. 7. 
Ezek. xviii. 6. xx. 27, 28. Hos. iv. 13. 
Isa. Ivii. 7. Jer. iii. 6, Vitringa on Isa, 
Ixv. 7, seems justly to refer it to the com- 
mon superstition of the eastern countries, 
of which we have some very early in- 
stances in the History of Balaam, Num. 
xxii. 41. xxiii. 14, 28; and Herodotus, 
lib. i. cap. 131, informs us concerning 
the Persians, *0t h vofw^ucr* Ail fx^sv, ft* 
v^Xolala rcov spewv ava^aivovlef, J^y- 
cias Bp^iiv, rov xuxAov mavla r» BpAvs 
Aia, yaXeovle^, It is their custom to 
ascend the highest mountains, and there 
sacrifice to Jove, by whom they mean 
the whole circumference of the heaven." 
So Mithridates, afrer he had defeated 
Murena the Roman general (according 
to Appian Dc Bell. Mithrid. pars i. 
p. 362.), fdus rw s'poLTiw All warpiov 
bvciav €Ki opus u4^A«, •MpvftfV fui^ova 
aXXfjv aieo ^vXujv eiri'fiQsi^, sacrificed to 
Jove the warlike, according to the custom 
of his country, on a high mountain, on 
which he had raised another ih7/oc& of 
wood." And in still later times we find 
the Apostate JuHan sacrificing to Jove 
" on mount Casius, remarkable for. it's 
shady groves, and slender but towering 
summit, whence at the second cock-crow- 

^ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




ing might be first seen the liahig of the 


Heoce Greek o^o/ a mountain, 

II. As a V. Id Kal,, Tg be big with child, 
great with youngs pregnant, as feoiales. 
it includes the whole state of preipianc^ 
from conception to delivery, which is 

4hns denonunated from it s most obvious 
and remarkable symptom. Gen. iv. i. 
^vi« 4» 5* I Chron. iv. 17, & aL (Vcq. 
Comp. I Sam. iv. 19. Isa. xxvi. 17. mn 
b once used passhrely for vhu conceived^, 
but that in a passage where an f inteose 
.pathos see^s to negkct the regularity of 
language, Job iiL 3 ; on which verse Mr. 
Scott (whom see) justly observes that 
" the night of his birth, of which Joh is 
spealdng, discovered that his mother had 
bcem pregnant with a son." Comp. Jer, 
xx« 1$. As a N. fem. mny pi. nm and 
rsvf^Tiy Big with child, pregnant. Gen. 
xvi. II. Amosi. 13. Hos. xiii. 16. or 
xiv. I. As a N. pn -<4 being 6/g, preg- 
nanof. occ Gen. iH. 16; where it unplies 
all the pains and inconveniences of preg- 
nancy* \tnn Nearly the same, occ* R4ith 
iv. 13. Hos. ix. II. 

III. In a mental sense, To teem, or be big, 
with, as ^e also speak* Job xv. 35. Pi. 
viL 15. Isa. lis^ 4, 13, 

IV. As a N. with two formative Yods, l^rp 
Looking big, haughty, prtmd. LXX, aXjo,- 
^wy arrogant, occ. Prov. xxi. 34. Hab, 

m ocairs not as a V. ui this reduplicate 
form, but as a N. 'r\'n A high, or conti-' 
nued mountain. Gen. xiv. 6, & al. freq 

%Tjn Chald. As a N. masc. plur. prt\T^ 
Conceptions^ thoughts, which the mind or. 
heart is, as it were, big with. Comp. 
Sense III. of mn above, occ. Dan. iv. a, 
or 5y where Viilg. Cogitationes, Thoughts, 

Occurs not as a V. m Heb. but m Arabic 
signifies, and that too, according to what 
appears if s primary sense, To cut into Ut- 
tie pieces, '* conddit in parvas partes/' 
Castell. Hence as a N. pom seems to 
denote, A butchery, or shambles where 
meat is so cut. Once Amos iv. 3; where 

« — 4ii monte Catio mmoros^ tC tenui ambitu in 
mUime porrecto, un^ tettmMs gailitmiii vuf^ur 
frtm stUg sMortms** ArnmioM, MarceUin, lib. xxii 
cap. 14. 

t See Bishop LrotilP% XIV, Pndect De Sacra 
Pdeu Hebrtforum. 

the prophet threatening the insolent lux- 
urious women of Israel under the simili- 
tude of wanton reflectory heifers, says, 
naisinn niDDiwn Yh shaU be thrown^ or 
ye shall throw yourselves into the sham- 
bles. It is evident that the n in ptnrt 
is radical, because here preceded by a rr 
Servile. For the above inteipretation I 
am indebted to Schultens's Manuscript 
Origiues llebraiae. 

I. To break through, break in. Exod. xix. 

II. To break d^rnn^ destroy, demolish. Exod. ~ 
xxiii. 34. Jud. vL 25. Spoken of the 
teeth of serpents, wliich '' those who 
know how to tame them by their charms 
are wont commonly to break out J.'' Ps. 
Iviii. 7. As a N. fem. in Reg. riD'irr, 
plur. moirr Destruction, ruin. occ. Isa* 
xlix. 19. Amos ix. 11. As a N. D*in 
Destruction, occ. Isa. xix. 18, where 
however twelve of Dr. Kennicotfs Co- 
dices now read JOTinn of the sun, as four 
more did originally. But concerning this 
famous text, and the true reading of it, 
I must couteut mvself with referring to 
Vitringa on the place, to Prideaux Con- 
nect. Part II. book iv. anno 149, to Dr. 
Henry Owen's Encjuiiy into the present 
State of Seutuagint version, p. 4i» &c. 
and to Or. Katnicott*s Dissertat GeneraL 
p. 10, § 21. 

Dbr. Harass, crush, craze. Qu? 


With a radical n final, supplied by \ 

In Kal, transitively, To hasten, bring with 
haste, occ. Isa. xxi. 14. Intransitivdy, To 
hasten, rush. occ. Jer. xii. 9 ; where Vul^« 
properate, hasten yc. Hence is a V. m 
the reduplicate form, 

nnn, with bv vpon following. To rush 
violently upon, assault, occ. Ps. Ixii. 4, 
How long u^»n hv innirrn will ye as^ult, 
or rush upon a man ? so LXX stinis^i ; 
set upon? rush upont and Vulg. irruitis? 
Observe that six of Dr. Kennicotfs Co- 
dices read \r\T\nr\ without (he 1 inierttd. 

To mock, banter, trifle. It is nsed eitfaer 
absolutely, as Exod. viii. i»$, or 29; or 
with 1 or^^M foUowm^, To mock at, ilksde, 
play upon. Gen. xxxi. 7. 1 K. xviii. aj. 

t ChsrJin in Harmtr*% Ohttrvationiy voL ii, 
p. f2S, whom tee. 

Mj leal. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Kii'^n— 3u-fan 


"^^nrr— KM^orr 

8: al. As a N. fern. plur. rthnrrD 11- 
lusiom, dthisiont, occ. Isa. xxx. lO. 
Hence tbe Greeks appear plainly to have 
had their v^Xbuu to trifle^ play thcfouh and 
the N. udXo^ a triJHitg, fooling, 


Or Words of oiore than tlirec Letters, bc- 

gmning with n. 

y7\ir\ See under nrp 

^mn Chald. 

As a N. niasc.'phir. emphat. H^iirr and in 
Reg. 'imrr. occ. Dan. iii. 24, 27. iv. 33 
or 36. vi. 7 or 8. Theodotion in Dan. 
iii. 24, renders it by MEytratriv Great 
men; hi ver. ^7, by Avvas-ou^ so the 
Vulg. by Optimates, Potentes, Principal 
men. It may be derived from *nn or in 
g/ory, honour, and 'im ^0 ^/jeaA:, whence 
perhaps our translators rendered it amn- 
sfUors; or from *in and inn to lead; so 
Montanus translates it Dlictores Leaders, 

>n>n Sec under nHH VIII. 

Occurs, accorduig to the common printed* 
text. Josh. X. 24 ; and m the second edi- 
tion of this work I considered it as an 
Hebrew Verb, irregularly formed with a 
final M, and produced Minn Isa. xxviiL 12, 
tx\m^ Jer. X. 5» and H^rr £xefc. i 14^ as 

examples of siiinlar forms. But 6tM 
the various readings in Dr. Kenniaitfi 
Bible I have since had the satisiactioD ^ 
learning that in Josh. x. 24^ no ^cwc 
then thirty six MSS. and tb« most^ w- 
cient printed edition of the whole Hri». 
Bible (marked 260) arewitlioutfbexit 
the end of Hir^rm; that in Isa. xxvia. 12. 
the printed editidn last mentioned &i 
ninety-five MSS. read 12M; aixi tiiai m 
Jer. x. 5, eij:ht MSS. and three prkwl 
editions in their various readings Ime 
1Ht2^:^ : and as to wn, Ezek. i i^ 
though none of the Doctor's Codies 
there read "nn, yet since the LXX (Jlf^ 
ahdr, and Complut.J and TJkeodotiot ra- 
der tlic word by trpex^^ fan, ^in scob 
to be the true reading, and Min an Jrtr- 
bic spelling of the Vecb, as m the pn^ 
ceding instances. But however ths be. 
little doubt can remain, but thatnrVtrs 
the true reading in Josh. x. 24, and tte 
it should be translated whovoif, Om^ 
under rt 5. 
«3a>or7 See under i:d 

The Mountain or Mount of God , from T^ ? 
mouniainy and bn God. A nanw ^r tk 
heartli of the altar m E/^kieL Oaf 
under hvn» HI. Onee, Ezek. xiiiL 15. 





Occurs not as a V. but the idea appears to 
be. To connect. Join or link together. The 
Arabic V. ^1 signities To marry a wife, 
*^ Uxorem duxit/' Castell. 

I. As a M. masc. plur. tDm Hooks which 
connected the curtains or veils of the Ta- 
bernacle to the pillars. £xod. xxvL 32. 
xxxviii. 28, & al. treq. 

IL 1 A connective Particle. The 
or nature of which connection b to W 
collected from the series of the disononc 
Ifs principal uses are as follow : 

1. And, Gen. i. i. 

2. Also, Lev. vii. 16. Amos iv. 10^ £t al. 

3. With, together with, i Sam. xiv. 18. 
4.0/-. Gen. xli. 44. £xod..xx. 17. xii. 

17, 18. Num. xxii. 26. Deut. iiL H- 
2 Sam. iii. io. x K/xviii» lo, & aL frt^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



n^n— am 

5. Birf, bid jfct. Ps. xlhr. 1 8. Zeph. i. 13. 

6. Ex^eticaly Exen, to wit. i Sam. xxviiL 3. 
Zeco. ix, 9. Mai. iii. i. Prov. xh 3. 

7. Exegetkal, 7V/a^, dri. Gen. xlviL 6. 

8. Eventual, So that. Isa. liii. 2. 
^.Beanue. Gen. xx. 3. xxii. 12. Isa. 

xxxix. I. 

10. l]l9L\xve,Therefore, Gen. xxix. 15. Eiek. 
xviiL 3a. 

11. Ti^o/, /o the end tliat. Gen. iii. 22. 
Exod. vi. II. TiL 1 6. xxx. 16. Num. 
xxiii. 19. 

la. If'i&cff, t/I Gen. xlvii. 30. i Sam. xii. 12. 
Proy. iii. 28. 

13. In comparisont, Ai Job v. 7. So, Isa. 
liu. 7. 

14. Although. Gen. xviiL 27. Ezek. xiv. 17. 
i^. Then, Gen. iii. 5., Eccles. iv. 7. 

16. AAer a native or prohibitive Particle, 
Jmd not, nory neither, £xod. xx. 4, 17. 
Norn. xvL 14. Lev. ,xis. 12. Deut. 
xxxiii. 6. Prov. xxx. 3,^ al. freq. And 
thbrfry common use of the particle ^ clears 
the sense of /TTDm, i K. ii, 9. Let the 
reader attentively consider in the origi- 
nal Hebrew the 8th and 9th verees, and 
he will dearly perceive that the middle 
of the 9th, from O to ^b inclusive, must 
be understood parenthetically. And now 
^np^n bndonot hold him (Shimei) guilt* 
(esi, (for thou art a wise man, and knowest 
uhat thou ihouldcit do unto him) T\Ti\TX\ 
neither bring down his gny hairs vnth 
blood to the grave; i. e. plainly for his 
fast offenses against David. Accordingly 
Solomon held him not guiltless, by con- 
fining him to Jerusalem under pain of 
death; and when he violated this condi- 
tion, to which he himself had expressly 
assented and suom, Solomon for this fresh 
offense, as a wise man, caused him to 
die ; aud so Jehbvah eventually returned 
Sbimei's wickedness agaiust Dand on his 
own head. See ver. 35 — 46; and comp. 
in the Heb. Deut. vii. 25. 2 Sam. i. 2 r. 
Ps. xxvL 9. Prov. vi. 4. Ps. cxliii. 7, 
but ^ecmiy Deut. xxxiii. 6, where tlie 
1 prefixed to V, ^n^ signifies and not, nei- 
ther, referring to tlie preceding bw, ju«t 
as in I K. ii. 9; and tliis interpretation 
fiilly explains the text, and acquits David 
of the charge of cruelty and treachery in 
his conduct req;>ecting Shimei*. 

* Comp. Oentltman^MagmKhu for April 1739, 
^. 190. Aad since wrluBg tha above, I find the 

17. For the use of 1 concerske (as it is 
called) prefixed ^o the future and preter. 
of Verbs, see Grammar, sect, viii.rule 25, 
and 28. 

If the Particle 1 be -applied in any other 
manner not here noted, an attentive 
reader will hardly be at a loss for it's 

Dbr. Perhaps Latin vieo to bind with 
twigs, tie up. Saxon £p marriage, and 
£ng. woo; and in composition Sax. £p, 
Efbrice, marriage-breaking, adultery. 

nni Faheby 

The name of a place near the river ^ ' / i j:i, 
occ. Num. xxi. 14. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. nor is it founu 
as n Root in the common Lexicons. 
Schultem however in his Manuscript 
Originet Hebraiat places it as a Root, 
and observes that the Verb in Arabic 
signifies, to be laden, carry a burden^ 
'* bajttlaVit, portavit onus/' and meta- 
phorically to be wicked, or as it were, 
laden with crimes. (The Apostle has & 
similar expression, narwpiVfuva daapri' 
ai(, laden with sins, 2 Tun. iii. 6.) My 
author further remarks, that Solomon haa 
used nn utm in a most elegant, though on 
the common interpretation a most ob- 
scure passage, Prov. xxi. 8, for a man 
laden with guilt and crimes; and that 
when it is said *^ the w^y of nn 'OBf^)^ is 
lQ3QrT unsteady or ^ntinually varying,** 
there is a most beautiful allusion to a 
beast who is so o^er-burthaied that he 
cannot keep in the straight road, but is 
continually tottering and staggering, now 
to the right hand, now to the left. Comp. 
SchuUtns on Prov. xxi. 8. 

From the Arabic Root *in is derived im 
fVazir or l^'azir, which now denotes the 
hrst minister under the eastern monarchs,^ 
who sustains the weight of empire for his 
master, his Visier, as we corruptly pro- 
nounce the word. See Herbelot'% fiiblio- 
th^que Orientale in Vazik. 

Occurs not as a V. but b nearly related to, 
if indeed it may not be re^uxied as the 
same root with, lb* to breed young (whicb 
see); the 1 being used for >.at the begin- 

tnterpretation of 1 K. ii. 9, here proposed, farther 
conbrmed by Dr. KefinUot, in hit Rmarkt m ScUei 

M 4, ning 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




mng of this N, as it ofttn is after a ser- 
\ile in the Hiphil fonns of Verbs which 
have » for ti.eir fiivt radical. As a T<. 
nVl A child^ occ. Gen. xi. 30. and (ac- 

cording te the reading of the easferv 
Jews, ihe quarto Planfim'an and Cow- 
piutrus'wn editions, and more than forty 
^t'Dr^KeMmcstt's Codices) ^Saiu. vi. %j. 

\ • 




Occtm not as a V*. in Hebrew^ but in Ara« 
bic the Root written with their Dhsai, or 
lisping % and plainly derived from the 
Heb. nw, denotes not only a uolJ\ but 
ako impetuosity^ to hastenr fncfoe foticard 
vith swifintssr ** festinavit in iucessu,'' 
Casieil;. and the Arabic Ml, with the 
Daly si|;Difie8 to be dUigenty earnetty and 
as a N. a driving forward^ particularly 
with vehemence: And even nHf itself does 
in that language import haste, being ap- 
plied to carri/itig a burden hdstifjfy driv- 
ing fortmrd a cifnel, drinking xoith a 
great and eager (hanght^ See Casteil. 
As a N. :iHl A woljj a well-known beast 
ef prey, probably so called from the im- 
fetuoski/OTSKiftness of his motion; whence, 
as Bodtart, vol. ii. 8a j, observes, one 
sort of tliem is called ro^vrrip the darter, 
another xtpKos the hawk; the one is said 
to- have ^oa KcvKa swift limbs, the ^tlier 
isy according to Oppian^ 

•^aanrtcat d'owTf^of wxa AvtMffi- 

Of wolves far 4wiftui. 

But this impetuosity appears most remark- 
ably when the animal is enraged with 
hunger. For ** the wolf, when he is ra- 
venous and starved, runs about like a 
creature distracted, and pays no regard 
to hb natural sagacity: but he is in this 
case desperate ; it is in the hard weather 
in winter that he is in this coiidition, 
and he tbea howls as he tms^ and terri- 

3?— -yKr 

fie» every creature,'* says Mr. JWatson m 
his Atuiuat World display (^d^ p. 71.. T<r 
which we may add that of homer, II. xvL 

As xmIvcj on lambs or kids impauous nub — 

And here it may not be amiss to remark, 
that the Arabic n«l (with dhal) further 
signifies to tervify, or be terrified^ fpy a 
uolf. To the Arabic derivatives from 
the Heb. 2Ht above given, we may add 
the Syriac hzmtt and Chaldee >iin or 
wolf. Gen. xlix. 27, Aral, freq, 

WTChald. See under rJv 

r\m See under PR 

I. To gush, spiking or issue out, spoken of the 
liquid issuing, as of water trom a rock* 
P8. Ixxviii. 20. cv. 41. I^. xlviii. an. 

IK To spring with, s))oken of that whence 
the liquid issues, as sf a land sptinging^ 
with milk and honev. Exod. iii. S, fif at. 
frcq. — of a man labouring under a go^ 
norrhffa. See Lev. xv. » — 15. So the 
LXX render atn by oyovop^tjs no fewer 
than nine times in this chai>ter. The 
Vulg. likewise has at ver. 2, Vir qui pa* 
titur fiuxum seminis, so ver. 32, and at 
ver. 19, renders l^iro a fluxu seminis sui. 
See Bishop Patrick's Commentary, and 
Scheuchzer*s Phys. Sacr. on Lev. xv. 
Astruc de Morb. Vener. lib. i. cap. 4» 
§ 2, p. 24^ and MichaeUs Supplem.. acf 
Lex» Ueb* p. 594««-H)f a woman havii% 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




10 issue of blood. Lev. w, tp-^-so* As 
a N. aiT An issuCy i. e. ajhtx of humour 
in a goHorrhaa, Lev. xv. 2, 3, 19, & al. 

in. To Jiaw outy jrine or waste awayt as 
meo for want of nourishment, occ. Lam. 
iv. 9. So Vulg. eitabuerunt, LXX 
sito^evB^i^oLw went of, i.e. failed, pined 
away. Ousset however has proposed a 
new interpretatiop of this verse^ which I 
shall submit to the reader. Tkey that are 
kilied by the sword are better than they 
that are kitied by hunger, Onu^ because 
those (i. e.*the former) being pierced^ flow 
out or yield a flux (of blood or humours 
furnished) by the produce of thejieldy not 
being exiuiusted and dried up by famine 
as tl^ others are. 

IV. As a N. with a formative M, nitM Hys^ 
sopf <Mr some herb of that kind so named 
^m it's detersive and cleansing qualities, 
whence it was used in sprinklhig the blood 
of the paschal lamb, Exod. xii. 22. — ^in 
deansmg the leprosy, Lev« xiv. 4, 6, 
51, js. — in composing tlic water of puri- 
Ikation, Num. xix. 6.*-and sprinkling it, 
ver. 18. It was a type of the purifying 
virtue of the bitter sufferings of dbrist 
And it is plam from Ps» \u ^ that the 
Psalmist understood it's import*. 

FfOffl Heb. yn\^ are plainly derived the 
Or. T<rax¥tos, Lat. Hyssopus, and £n^, 
Hymopy a name retained with little var^ 
atioo in all the western languages. 

3^? ocedrs not as a Y. in this reduplkate 
fonn, but 

L As a N. a"«lT Afiy hi general, " perhaps 
so named from their gushing out of holes 
in the ground, wood, Arc. where they are 
bred firom the egg, and thence mue, when 
come to life, as water bubbles from a 
hole.*' Bate, occ. Eccles. x. x. Isa. vii* b8, 
where see Vitringa. 

JI. !ini bl^y BaatZebuby the Akim of the 
Philistines of Ekron, mentioned a K. i. 
a, 3, 6, 16. He appears by that history 
to have been one ot their medical idob; 
and as bn denotes the Sun, so the attri- 
bute nini seems to import his power in 
causing water to gush out of the earth,, 
and in proBir>thi^ the fluidity and dut 
discharge of the juices and blood in ve* 
getables, animab^ and men^ and thereby 
continuing or restoring theik' health and 
%igour. And 2aJUf», from the manner of 

* S(»Sdaieb&sr*& Phjsic^ Sacra on Exod. m 22, 

their issuing from their holes^ were no hn^ 
proper emblems of fluids gushing forth; 
hence the epithet 31!lT makes it probable 
that a fly was part of the imagery of the 
Baal at £kron, or that a fly accompa- 
nied the Lull or other ima/2:e, as we see 
in many instances product by Montfau- 
eon; especially since the LXX, who cer- 
tainly knew much better than we, at this 
distance of time^ canprctend to do, what 
were the emblematic gods of the Heathen, 
have constantly rendered y\yi b^^ by 
BAAA MTIAN, Baal th€ ¥ly. And 
however strange the worship of ^ch a 
deitv may appear to us, yet a most re- 
markable instance of a similar idolatry it 
said to be practised among the Hotten- 
tots even to our days. For (if Kolbtn is 
to be believed) these people '' adore as a 
bemgn, deity, a certain i«jfc^^ peculiar, it 
b said, to the Hottentot countries. Tliis 
animal is of the dimension of a child't 
little finger; the back b green, and the 
belly speckled with white and red. It b 
provided with two wings, and on it's 
Lead witH t ^^^ horns. To thb little 
winged deitv, whenever they set eyes on 
it, they render the highest tokens ofvene^ 
ration; and if it honours a Arraa/ (a vil« 
lage) with a vbit, the inhabitants assem- 
ble about it in transports ofdetotiony as if 
the Lord of the universe was come 
among thenr. They sing and dance round 
it wlnlc it stays, troop after troop, throw« 
ing to it the powder oiBaChuy with which 
they cover at the sane time the whole 
area of the kraaly the tops of tlieir cot- 
tages; and every thing without doors. 
They km two flat sheep, as a thank-offer- 
ing for this high honour. It is impossi- 
ble todrive out of a Hottentof shem,th^t 
the arrival of thb insect to a kraal brmg» 
fofvour and prosperity to the inbulH- 

t Coiap. below under qt and pp. 

I The abovcaccount U transcribed frenrthe Com^ 
pleU Systrm of Ciiogra^hyy vol. ii. p. 49*2, the COIQ- 
pilert of w'faich hm very faithfully extracted it 
from JtWi^s Present Slate •£ the Cape of Ooo^ 
Hope, in the 1 st vok of which work, p. 99, Sec £ng.. 
edit, the-reader may be entertained with fuller nar- 
rative of the worship of (I had almost said) Boat 
Zehuh among the HiottenMs. But fmdtngthat the au« 
thenticity of XWftm'taccount of this people ha^been 
of latt jrears' severely arraigned hj succeeding tm- 
vellers, I must leave it to the Intelligent reader him- 
self to detecmine what degreeof credit iiduetohiro. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•n— iDt 



To mtdom, and as a N. *1!iT A dowry ^ por 
turn. 0CC4 Gen. xxx. 20. So LXX^c 
Sw^M — ^(vftoy, and Vulg. dotavit — 


To dc^ in geoaral. s K. xxiii. 20. Ezek 
xxxix, 17^ 19. Sometimes for food, as 
1 Sam. xxviii. »4* i K. xlx. 21 ; but most 
Irequently for Mcrificcy (jen. xxxi. 54. 
xlvi. 1 » Sc al. freq ; so it may be rendered 
ta sacnfice. As a N. nat, pi. tsTiat, and 
once (Hoc. iv. 19.) fem. nn^t, A sacri- 
Jice^ viciim, the creature slain. Gen. 
xxxi. 54. Exdd. xviii. 1^, & al. fireq. 
roio pi. fin^tD An altar, a place or in- 
alroment far sacrifice. Gen. viii. ao. Num. 
xxiii. I, k al; freq. On £xod. xxi. 14, 
see under pp II. 

To dweU, dxoell or cohabit with. So Aqmla, 
ryyoixijflrfi. occ. Gen. xxx. 20. As a N. 
ill aud inil -<4 habitation, dwelling, occ. 
1 K. viii. 13. 2 Cliron. vi. 2. Isa. 
Lxiii. 15. Hab. iii. 11. ba)D Nearly the 
same. occ. Ps. xli^. 15. 

Der. Isl. Duella, and £ug. Dwell. Qu^ 

pt Chald. 

!<b buy, redeem. It often occurs in the 
Turguuis in tlib sense, but in the Scrip- 
ture we meet with it only Dan. ii. 8. 
where it is applied to time, iiod denotes 
to gain, protroit it. Theodotion renders it 
t^7.yopstXir& ye redeem. Conip. Eph. 
T. J 6. Col. iv. 5, and Greek aud English 
Lexicon in E^aryopa^uj II. 

Occurs not as a V. in Hebrew, but in 
Cliaklee, .Syriac and Arabic signifies to 
Join, conjoin, connect, consociate. See Cas- 
tell in ;nr. Hence the Greek l^uyu:, ?eu- 
y/uw, and Latin jungo in tlie same sense. 
As a N. ii The outer skin or husk nf a 
grape> inclosing and connecting it's parts. 
Once Num. vi. 4. 

Der. With n empliatic, Husk. Qu? 


I. To sxvell^ be tumid. Hence as a N. pTT 

* Hvxiling, tunUd; so Montanus tumtdae. 

• Ps. cxxiv. 5. 

II. To boil, cause liquor to swell or rise in 
boiling, -occ. Gen. xxv. 29., As a N, 
YD Pottage or broth, made by boiling. 
Gen. xxv. 29. & al. 

XII. In Kal and Hipb. To swcll^ as a man 

witli pride. Exod. xviij. ii. xxi, 14. 
Nell. IX. 10. As Nouns ni Proud, pre- 
sumptuous. Ps. xix. 14; where Xiz^ynp^ 
Transgresdons, may be properly supplied 
from i?U^Q at the end of the verse. Ps. 
cxix. 21, & al. piT Pride, presumption, ar- 
rogance. Deut. xvii. 12, & al. Comp. 
Jer. I. 31, X2. The LXX often render 
thf Verb by iKBfi^^owtvw — vsu), to be 
elated, haughty, and the Nouns by uictpy^- 
^bofla, elation^ virepri<payo$ elated, haughty. 
Der. Isl. Sieda, Saxon seodan, and Eng. 
sod, sodden, seethe, suds. 

I. rt) A particle used 

1. As a demonstrative Pron. teferring to 
some person or thing considered as near 
or present. This, this here. Gen. ▼. 29. 
xxviii. 17, & al, freq. Like sro^ in 
Greek (see Acts x. 36.), and Hie in La- 
tin, it som^mes imports eminence, dis* 
tinction, pre-eminence. Ps. xxiv. 8, lO, 
Isa. xxv. 9. Hie vir, hie est — says Virgil 
of Augustus Casar, ^n. vi. iin. 791. nt 
is joined with plural as well as singular 
words. SeeGen. xxxi. 41. Nunuxiv.22. 
Jud. xyi. 15. £sth. iv. 11. 

2. A certain one, quidam ; , or^ such an one, 
talis. See Gen. xxxix. 11. Deut. v. 26. 

3. Here, in this place, 1 Chron. xxii. i. 

4. Hither, this way. Num. xiiL 1 7. 

5. Repeated, nt and ni This and that, one 
ana another, this and another, £^od. 
xiv. 20. I K. xxii. 20. Isa. vi. 3. 

6. It is used as a relative. Which, who. Ps. 
civ. 8, 26, & al. and tliat piurally. Job 
xix. 19. 

n. nt^t (q. nni, the H being substituted for 
then Qu?) 

1. A demonstrative Pron. fern. This, this 
here. Ruth i. 19. 2 Sam. xiii. 17, & al. 
freq. MNI fern, as well as nt masc. is con- 
structed with plural Nouns. See Deut 
vi. I, 2j. Aud in the common printed 
text of Jer. xxvi. 6, we meet with nn«n 
fern, for which however the Keri, and 
tlurty-eight of Dr. Kennicotfs Codices 
read n«m. 

2. Repeated. This and that, one and the 
other. I K. iii. 23. Comp. ver. 22. 26. 

III. 1T 

1. A demonstrative Pron., (formed from m 
as ID from no Qu?) This, this hcr-e. 
Isa. xliii. 21, Hos. vii. 16. Hab. i. i r. 

2. It is used as a relative, and that to both 

^ genders 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



'— C3nt 

gfoders and numbers. See Ps. ix, i6. 

1. i. xvii. 9. 

Corop. below under rriT 


Occurs not as a V. in Hel). but the idral 
meaning seems to l>€ dear, br'i^ht, re- 
splendent, Comp. irjtf, to which tiiis 
root appears to be nearly related both in 
sense and sound> as im to 'inv which 
also see. 

I. As t N. im Cleary hright weather, occ. 
Job xxxvii. 2a; where Elihu amplify- 
ing the majestic appearances of the Al- 
mighty, when he clotheth himself with 
light, 'Uke as with a garment, observes, 
ver. ai. And now (when there is no- 
thing supernatural) men cannot look upon 
ks rcsplendtnt light in the /teavens (or 
amfUcting ethers) whai the wind passeth 
andckaretk them, (comp.Exod. xxiv. 10.) 
ver. 24. (when) nm clew or bright wea- 
ther Cometh from the North, or * North- 
wind: with or upon God (is J terrible or 
terribly-dazzHng majesty. 

II. It seems once, Zech. iv. 12, to denote 
pitre, limpid oil, which is otherwise called 
vrr from "imr to be clear, shine, which 

III. And most generally Gold, which is 
the purest and most resplendent of all 
metals. '* Of all bodies, says t ^oer- 
haace, gold is the mo6t simple or homo- 
geneous:' And every one can bear wit- 
ness to it's resplendency, which moreover 
is not liable to rust like that of otlier 
metals, freq. occ. 

TTic relation between the 1st and 3d senses 
above assigned to 3m may be further il- 
lustrated by remarking that the LXX 
render thfe word in Job xxxvii. 2a, by 
Nf^ ^(jpocatiysVla Gold-coloured clouds; 
tint an old Greek tragedian quoted by 
J Grotivs, speaks of Xpvtrcoiros A^irjp the 
gilded Ether; tbat Vafro dted in Leigh's 
Crit. Sacr. uses the phrase aurescit Aer 
the Air is gilded; that the name 
for gold Aurum, and the N. /iura, which 
is itted for it's splendour or glistering §, 

• So Homer,n, XV. Un. 171. AiePHrENEOS BO- 
^EAO. Comp. Ptqv. xxv.23; and Me the Rev. and 
truly learned n^Hliam 39ms% physiological Disqui- 
ndoDt, p. 576, 7. 

f Chemistry by Dallowe, vol. i. p. 21. 

\ De Verit. Relig. Christian, lib. i. cap. 2% 
note il. 

§ See Vif^giliEn. vi. Uq. m 

seem plain derivatives from the Heb. ^Tl^ 
the light, ahd that the poets abound with 
passajjes comparing the stAar orb or Ugkt 
to nukl. 

Tims I'lnrj/^ Georir. i. \'u\. 232, calls the 
Sun aureus, or iiolden; ynd Milton V^lt, 
Lost, hook iii. line. 572. mentions 

The ^olJin sun in splendour likcst Hcaven* 

TftomsoHy in his description of a Summer's 
morning, introduces 

the mountain's brow 

lUum'dy'witbJluid gold. 

Summer, lio. $3, 4. 

In his Autumn, lin. 27, 

■ a serener bloc, 
Wiib golden light enlivened, wide investt 
The happy world 

And lin. 37, 

-The sudden not. 

By fits eSiiXgeat, gilds tb* iUumtHii &tld, 
Mickle*9 Lusia<i|j book i. ^ 
The Sun comes forth enthroa'd in htminggM 

So in the Grecian Mythology every thing 
belongmg to Apollo, or the Idol of the 
Sun, was of Gold. Thus Callimachus, 
IIyj|pn to Apollo, lin. 32, &c. 

X^vctet rm* vpy^Xurn toc* r.ivnv. »it' Driiropirjf, 

*H Tl Xl»3«|. TO T* aifX/bUS CO AXXTiW If TI ^IT^* 

X^ffta %eu Ttt jffiith' vro'kv%fvn*i y*^ AiroXXmr. 
A golden robe invests the glorious god. 
Hit shining feet -with golden sandals shod: 
Gold sure his harp, his quiver and his bow— > 



In Chaldce it signifies To pollute, d^» and 
in this sense I apprehend it should be 
construed Job xxxiii. 20, the only passage 
where it occurs in Scripture; inonn 
OnV in>n And his life pollutes to him 
(1 for ^h, see under nbj? II.) breads It 
is a very strons expression, as if the nnall 
remains of life and sense, which he yet 
had, served no other purpose tlian to 
make even bread nauseous to him. ^ 

I. To shine, be clear, bright or pelluci4, as 
the firmament, or aerial expanse, whes 
thoroughly penetrated in every point, as 
. it were, by the light, occ. Dan. xii. 3 ; 
where LXX. and Theodeiioti Xai^^8<nv 
ar^i ^OLii.Trporyjs, shall shine as the splen- 
dour. Comp. Mat. xiii* 43* As a N« 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



m— tt 

Vit BHgktnas, irmtpcartncy as of the air 
or heav<9}8 thus illuminated, occ. Dan. 
xii. 3. Ezek. viii. a, where Theodotion 
Au^as of the ether. Comp. Exod. xxiv. 10. 

II. hi a mental sense, In Hiph. To en- 
iighteUf instruct clearly, make a person 
clear in a thing, as we say, or give him 
e strong light into it, furril^tiv* Exod. 
xviii. 20. Lev. xv. 31. 2 K. vi. 10, & al. 
In Niph. To be enlightened, clearly in- 
»t meted. IN. xix. la. (where Montanus, 
iilustratur is enlightened, comp. ver. 9 } 
Ezek. iii. 21, & al. 'Jo take warmng, 
EKck. xxxiii. 4, ^. 

III. Cbald. As a Participle, or Participial 
N. masc. plur. p^m Heedful, cautions. 
occ* Ezraiv. 22. 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but in Arabic 
nr si^ifies to verge^ tend or incline tO' 
wards a certam pohit, " vergebat, ten- 
debat eb, petebat illud." And the deri 
vative N. TV^hx means an angle comer 
(i. e. the inclinatittn of two lines, planes, 

« or &c. to each other) whence the V. b 
msed in the derivative senses ofthnistifig 
into comers, hiding, laying up, dec. See 

1. As a N. fem. plur. hi Reg. n^T Jingles, 
comers of a buildmg or the like. occ. 
Ps. cxliv. 12. (That) our daughters 
(may be) nnD or, according to the fuller 
reading of the Complutensian edition, 
and more than sixty of Dr. Kennicott's 
Codices, n^'ID, like angles or corners 
^yn r\*nn mntono carved (after) the 
likeness (of those) of a palace. The pas 
sage is elliptical like many others in the 
F^^mSy but the sense proposed seems 
clear and good. (Comp. Ps. cxviii. 22.) 
Zech. ix. 15, They shall be Jiiled like 
bowls (and shall be) n^O as the comers 
(^ the altars, i. e. they shall be '' satis- 
lied with this slaughter of their enemies 
as the bowls (pID) of the sanctuary aud 
corners of the altar were with blood of 
facrilices." Clark, Observe that in this 

Kt of Zech. thirty of Dr. Kcnnicotfs 
dices now read fiiUy rm\^, as four 
more did originally. 

To confirm the sense here assigned to the 
Heb. mt let it be remarked that the 
word is often used by the Chiklee pam- 
phrasts in the same sense. See inttr al. 
Targum^oDExek.xlvi. ai. Jer. xxxi 28. 

II. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. 'f^to Si^'C'* 
houses, where things are hidden or laid vp. 
occ. Ps. cxliv. 1.3. So LXX, ray^ia,^ 
Vulg. promptuaria, and Targ. Mnncnn. 

III. II m and rm This, this here. Pro- 
nouns demonstrative, which have been 
already explained under rrT; I would not 
however be positive but they miglit be 
properly placed under this root as de- 
noting the tendency of our own, or the 
directing of another's mhui to a certain 


Occurs not as a V. in the Bible, but iff 
ideal meaning evidently is, to move, moroc 
to and fro, or the like. .Tliis appears - 
not only from the Thalmudists using it in 
this sense, and from the plain traces of 
this meaning in the Chald. tMt and Htm 
A branch moved or shakeii with the icutd 
(Targ. on Job xiv. 9, &•«!.) and in the 
Arabic km« to move m maoeahk, 5rc. 
but also from the ^criptiinl appiicatioa 
of the following derivativt^Nouns. 

I. As a N. rr An animal nuwing.oT endued 
with motion, " Whatevetn )moveth, way ra 
xiysfuvoy," Coccews; . Kicif^cXois q. xivcu- 
$akoy, from lavstcrdailbmff^, maveitse^. 
See Bochart, vol. ii. *979; Symmachus, 
Zwa animals, occ. Pa. k n. Ixxx. 14. 

II. As a N. n Motion, coil^nltltim, vibratory 
motion. The LXX, by taintiering it sico^ 
entrance, have in somem^asure preserved 
it's meanmg; but it.i^ 4i much stronger 
and more expressive* wcHrd, and beauti- 
fully paints tiie continued agitation or 
bustle of a crowded mukitude paasmg be- 
fore the eves, occ. Is^4x^i. II. That ye 
may be ielighted vm ^ith the bustle 
ilTjaD of her multitudes/or — behold I will 
cause to tend to her "y^'D the multitude- 
of the nations as an.oxxrflomng torreni. 
Comp. cIk Ix. ;. 

III. As a N. fem. TtWi^A door pott on 
which the door turns or is mt/cai to and 

fro, the D denoting ihe place, nwan or 
instrument of action* Exod. 2uu. 6, & al. 
ftreq. . c 

m • ^. 

In Arabic signifies, t^To impel, a. Torfrt" 
move from its plaeb. See Michaelis Sop* 
plem. and Castell. tn Hie Heb. Bible it 
occurs only, Exod, xxviU. 28. xxxix. 21 ; 
ui the former of wjiich texts the LXX 
render it x^x^^rak be loosed, another 
. :^ii Greek 

Digitizea by VjOOQIC 

n— ^m 


Gredi Teruon, cctrocitcunig thou shali 
witkdretWy and Vulg. separari to be se- 


J. To shilk, withftraw, or fiule (Me$e^tkrmgh 
featy or sikarHe. occ. Job xxxii. 6. And ; 
that this is the sense of the root is con- 
firmed by the use of the Arabic bnr to 
tcitkdraw, decline^ depart ^ and of Arab. 
bm to go into a hole or den of tie earthy 
to betake or withdraw oneself to the side 
of the tent J to hide oneself or lie hid. See 

II. As a N. masc. plor. *^ Am/ skuiking 
creatures that hide themselves in holes, 
such as serpents and worms.*' Taylors 
Concordance, occ. Deut. xxxii« 34. Mic. 
vii. 17. 

III. nl»mn p» The stone or rock ofZoheleth. 
occ. I K. i. 9. ** Possibly named, says 

' Mr. Bate^ from t}ie fright that seized 
them on hearing Solomon was anointed." 
Comp* ver. 49, $o. 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb, nor (so far as I 
can find) in the eastern dialectical lan- 
guages; but the idea is, To be bright , 
splendid, Sec. and hence the Greek Z^w 
to be fervid, hot. 

I. As a N. in Cbald. in Brightness, splen- 
dour, Dan, ii. 51. 

II. Chald. Tie grace, liveliness, or beauty 
of the countenance. Dan. v. 6, g, & al. 

III. As a N. It or in Zif the nanie of the 
second month, nearly answering to our 
Jpril, so called because at that time of 
the year the )»olar light in Judea and 
the ne^hbouring countries becomes very 
br^ht and strong. For the same reason, 
that month b likewise called ia Chald 
•nt fi-om T1« to shine, as by Jonathan 
Ben Uziel on Num. i. 1. occ. 1 K. 
Ti« I, 27. In both which texts the com- 
mon printed editions have 11, but pointed 
with a short Hhiric or ^ under the t, which 
seems to refer to another reading : ac- 
cordingly no fewer timn thuty-tliree of 
Dr. A«i/?ico//*s MSS. and two ancient 
printed editions have in with the % in 
the former verse, as the same two edi- 
tions and twelve MSS. have likewise m 
the latter. 

IV. As a N. generally masc. but fern. Isa. 
xviL 6, rm plur. O'nn The olive tree 
and -firuit, q. d, the Splendour-txct andj 

-fruit, so called perhaps ^-om producing 
oil, which supports the action of fire in 
light and splendour. See Exod. xxvii. 20, 
I^v. xxiv. a. Comp. nmr under *imr. 
In like manner, I apprehend^ the Greek 
£\xia and £?<cuov, the Latin olea, olivity 
olaim^ the French olive, olivier, and huite^ 
aad the Elnglish oil and olive, are all ulti- 
mately derived from the Hebrew bn /« 
shine, (See Martinii Lexicon Etymol. in 
Olea.) Gen. viii. 11. Jud. ix. 8. Exod. 
xxvii 20. Mic. vi. 15, & at. freq. If it 
should be objected that m masc, cannot 
be formed with a semle n, I would pro- 
duce rrn Ezek. xliii. j 3, mm Ezek. L 16- 
X. 10, numj Ezek. i. 7. Dan. x. 6. 1 K. 
vii« 45, as similar instances. 
The olive-tree, from the effect of it's oi7 
in suppling, relaxing, and preventing or 
mitigating pain, seems to have been, 
fi-om the beginning, an emblem of tlie 
benignity of the divine nature; and par- 
ticularly, after the fell, to have repre- 
sented tjae goodness and placability of God 
through Christ, and the blessed influences 
of the Holy Snirit, in ntollifying and herd- 
ing our disorderecl nature, and in destroy- 
ing or expelHiig from it the poison of tfie 
old (spiritual) scqient, even as oil-olne 
does that of the natural serpent or vij>er. 
Hence we see a peculiar propriety in the 
olive-leaf or branch being chosen by di- 
vine Providence as a sign to Noah of the 
abatement of the deluge. Gen. viii. 1 1 ; 
we may also account for olive-branches 
. being ordered as one of the materials of 
the booths at the feast of tabernacles* 
Nell. viii. I s ; and whence tliey became 
the emblems of peace, to various and 
distant nations. See Virgil IEm, vii. 
lin. 1 54. viii. Im. 116. xi. lin. 10 1. 
Livy, lib. xxxix. cap. 16, and lib. xiv. 
cap. 25. So Statins Theb. Ub, xii. men« 

— Supplicis arbor OHvk; 

Tit supfUant Oiivc-iree, 

And our late eminent navigators found 
that green branches carried in the hands, 
or stuck in tlie ground, were the emblems 
oi peace universally employed and under- 
stood by all the islanders even in the 
South-Seas. See Capt. Cooks Voyages, 
passim, and consult Hutchinson*^ Data^ 
part i. p. 109, &c. and CatcotVs Trea- 
tise on the Deluge, p. 94, ad edit. note. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




With a radical, but mutable or omissible, n. 

!• As a V. iu Kal, To be clear y clean, pellu- 
cid, in a natural sense, as the Leavens, 
Job XV. 15; or stars. Job xxv. {. As a 
N. ^\ Clear y clean, pellucid. It is ap- 
plied to deary transparent oil, Exod. 
xxvii. 20; to oiibanumor frankincense, 
which, when pure, is whitish, and nearly 
transparent, Exod. xxv. 34; tb the Na- 
za rites compared witli snow, Lam. iV. 7. 

II. To be clear, clean, pure, in a moral or 
spiritual sense. Job xv. 14, xxv. 4. Ps. 
li. 6. Comp. Isa. i. 16. Also, transitively, 
To cleanse, purify, make clean. Ps, li. 6. 
Ixxiii, 1 3. Prov. xx. 9. Also (used as 
*lMtD, HDtD, &c.) To esteem or pronounce 
clean or pure. Mica vi. 1 1. As a N. *]l 
Clean, pure. Job vi. 8. xxxiii. 9, & al. 

III. Chald. As a N. 131 Purity, innocence. 
occ. Dan. vi. 23. 

•JST I. As a y. in Hiph. To cleanse^ Verify. 
occ Jol^ ix. 30; where 1 (as usual) sup- 
plies the place of the final *]. 

II. At a N. n^!}1Dt Glass from it's clearness 
or transparency. So LXX JoAo^, Vulg 
vitnim, and Syriac Kn*:*!:!. occ. Job 
xxviii. 17; where it is mentioned with 
gold, ana otlier things of great value ; 
and no wonder, since however common 
and cheap glass ^ now is among us, yet 
it is very conceivable that in the age and 
country of Job, this beautifbl artiiicial 
crystal was very scarce, and of conse- 
quence highly precious. See Scbeuchzcr 
Phys. Sacr. in Job, and Michaelis Sup- 
plem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 613. 

This Root has two senses assigned it in the 
Lexicons; ist, To rcmanber, make men- 
tion of: id\y. The male sex, eitlier as 
prescning the memory of the name or 
family, (see 2 Sam. xviii. t8.) or as 
** most cdebrutid, mentioned o^ talked 
of." Bate. I suspect however the radi- 
cal idea of the word to he strength, vigour 
or the like, whence the Arabs use the 
V. 131 for the thriving of a child, as we 
call it, and 131 witli their dhsal or lisp- 
ing^ (which often answers to the Heb. t) 
net only for the male sex, remember- 
ing, retaining in metnory, hut also for 
cojtsolidating the earth, and as a N. for 
hard iron or steel, and for the thicker and 
stronger herbs. Sec Castcll. 

Is not 13r p, Jer. xx. 15, a sfont, 
tnascuiine sonf A son must have been 
a mak, but he might not have been a 
stout one. Comp. *T10N ALPENA, Rev. 
xii, J. 

I. As a N. 131 A male, wITeth^ of man, 
beast, or bird, from his greater strength 
and vigour of body, and in man perhaps 
of * mind (I mean as dependent on the 
body) in comparison with the female. 
Thus Milton^ in hb comparative descrijjh 
tion of Adam and Eve, Par. Lost, book vf, 
liu. 297, 8. 

For tomUmpldHw he, and valmw form'd; 
For softnets the, and tweet attractive grace. 

Sec t Pet iiL 7, and comp. Bp. F&rf- 
V)ood% Works, fol. p. 260. Gen. i. 37, 
vi. 19. vii. 3, 9, & af. freq. 
As a collective N. 113t The wale sex, the 
males, occ. Exod. xxiii. 17. xxxtv. 23* 
Deut. xvi. 16. XX. 13. 
It may be worth adding, that the Greek 
Apayjv (by which or it's derivatives the 
LXX and other Greek veisions con- 
stantly render the Heb. 13t when used 
in this sense) seems to be derived from 
the Heb. P"i5? Violent, fordbU; and a^oTjy 
itself is not only used for the male sex, 
but sometimes denotes stout, strong, ta- 
liant, as the French mdle lUiewise fre- 
quently doth. 

II. It signifies strength or vigour of mind 
and memory, and in this view is opposed 
to nw (See Gen^ xl. 23. Deut. ix. 7. 
I Sam. i. II.) whose primary sense seems 
to be, to relax, fail. 

As a V. in Kal, To retain in memory, to 
remember. Gen. viii. i. xl. 14, & al. 
freq. In Hiph. To cause to remember, or 
be remembered, to make mention of, com- 
memorate. Gen. xl. 14. Exod. xx. 24. 
xxiii. 13. Num. v. 15. Isa. xii. 4. 
xxvi. 13, & al. fre<i. As Nouns 13T 
Memory^ mention. Exod. xKn. 14. Deut 
xxxii. 26, Ps. vi. 6. Also, 4 memoriid, 
title to be mentioned by. Exod. iii. i;« 
Jl13t and p31. Memory, memorial, record, 
monument. See Eccles. i. 11. ii* 16. 
Exod. xvii. 14. xxviii. 12. Esth. vi. i, 
An external obfect of rdigious worship, 
an idol. Isa« Ivii. 8, where see Vitringa. 

* Even the galknt 0«/V could tay, 

Sortitti ingcntiim susfkor cm viris. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Ten. tt\ymy A memorial. It is applied 
onij to that part of the ofTcring which was 
to be burnt upon the altar as a memorial 
of the whole, occ. Lev. ii. 2, 9, 16. v. 12. 
W. tc. xxiv. 7. Num. v. 26. Hence 
Im. Ixvi. 3, n3ni> I^dtd Making a me- 
morial with frankincenae, is the same as 
fuming it; and in Hos. xiv. 8, the N. 
•j^t is used for scent, odour; LXX, otrapa* 
cutj '* for (says Vitringa on Isa^) oclori- 
fenws substances, especially vih&x fumed, 
excite a sense of their presence." But 
£xod» xxxiv. 19, Whatever openeth the 
vxjmb (is) mine, and from all thj/ cattle 
*Utn thou shalt make a meiDorial with 
the^rstlhg of the ox and of the sheep, A 
memorial of what or whom ? Back^ards^ 
of their deliverance from Egypt, when 
Jehovah slew the First-bom of Egypt, 
both of man and beast (comp« £xo<). 
xiii. 14, 15.); forwards, of tlial much 
more important deliverance by the seed 
of the woman, the Great First-born, in 
the 6ith of whom Abd oftered iheifrst- 
lings of his flock soon after the Fall, 
Gen. IV. 4. Corop. Heb. xi. 4, and un- 
der i^n I. 

As a Participial N. "i^Dlo Ah historiogra- 
pher. He appears to have been a stated 
otficer to the Jewish kings. See a Sara, 
viii. 16. I Kmgs iv. 3. 2 Kings xviii. 18. 
a Chron. xxxiv. 8. 

Schullens * in his MS. Origines Hebraica 
seems to have assigned the true meaning 
of this Root, namely loose, lax, prqfuse 
from laxity. 

I. To let go, or loosen, with profvsion, as 
money Irom a purse, occ. Isa. xlvi. 6; 
where £ng. Translat. lavish. 

H. To be loose, irregularly active in one's 
goings, to go irregularly this way and 
that, " to gad about'* (Eng. Transl.) occ 
Jer. ii, 36. 

HI- In Hiph. To be, as it were, lavish or 
prodigal of, to set no store by, to esteem 
vile, contemn, "dcqpi.c" (Eng* Translat.) 
vilipendere. occ. Lam, i. H, As a N. 
fern. sing, frht yileness,Viorthlessuess, occ. 
P^ xii. 9 ; where it is put for vile, worth- 
iess persons (so Aquila svuvi(r(f.e¥Ct and 
Spnmachus 9ute?<ti$), as mw Pride, for 
proud men, Ps. xxxvi. 1%, 

IV. A« Particles rhh nVj), and ^nblt Be- 
sidet, except. % Sam. vii« %%. Ruth iv, 4. 

Deut. i. 36, The two former words majr 
be considered as Nouns fem. fm%, and 
the last, as a N. fem. plur. in Heg. from 
ninT a letting go, neglect, contempt; as 
Q, K. xxiv. 14, There was no one kft, 
Thw except q« d. in letting go, in neglect 
of (n beiii^ understood, as it frequently 
is^ especially before Nouns feminine used 
adverbially) the meanest people of the land, 
i. e. if one lets gn, neglects oromits the 
meanest people of the land, theie was no 
one left *. 
bbi Occurs not as a V. but 

I. As a Participial N. in an active sense^ 
bVn Profuse, prodigal, occ. Deut. xxi. ao. 
Prov. xxiii. 21. xxviii. 7. xxiii. ao, 'hbxi 
lob *)t2;i Among the prodigal wasters of 

flesh upon themselccs, i. e, gluttonous 
eaters of flesh ; and indeed in all tlia 
passages just cited, as well as m Xim, it 
seems to have a particular reference to 
gluttonous eatings 

II. lu a passive sense. Vile, worthless, occ 
Jer. XV. 19. Lam. L 11. 

^\ Occurs not aa a V. in this reduph'cate 
form, but as a N. masc. plur. o^^ 
The loose, dnnglitrg shoots of the viwe. 
occ. Isa. xviii. 5. This application clears 
the idea of the Root. 


Occurs not as a V. in Hcb. but tlie idea of 
the word is curvature, crookedness of form ^ 
as will appear presently. As a N. witli 
a formative D, :iVlD, plur. fera. ni:iMD 
and nji»lD A flesh hook for takinj; meat 
out of a boilmg j>ot, or for ministciiiify at 
the altar of burut-offerhigs ; (so LXX, 
Kp£ayf>a) thus named in Hcb. from 
it's cune 'or crooked shape, i Sam. if. 
13, 14. I Chron. xxviii.- 17. Exod. 
xxxviiL 3, & al. 

Bochart, vol. i. C24, has discovered the 
plain traces of this Hebrew word in the 
ancient name of Messanu (now Messina) 
in Sicily^ an island long frequented, and 
ij) part possessed by the Phenicians. * * Thu* 
cydidcs, lib. vi. Oyop^a Se ro p^y ^cMt09 
ZayxXyj rp^ uifo rujv Tixs\wv xk/fieia-a, 
or I $ps7fOLvost$6$ ro yjM^iov rr^v iSsav ari, 
ro h Speitayov 61 Xt^sKoi Zar/uXov xa* 
Atftf-/. The original appellation of this 
city (Messana) was Zancle, being so 
named by the Sicilians, because the place 

♦See TympiusH Notes on AV<tfw*» Particlci 
under jtnr ecUt. JtM 179^. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



*fflrt — \ot 

in form resembled a sickle^ whicb they 
call Zanclon," Whence Nicawicr in Stt- 
phanvs, s(>eakiDg of SicUt/, book x. 

Though ZaiuU siekU^baffd had been emmmaCA. 

And Ovid m book iv. of his Fasd, 

<2ir/f»r i(p»f curvs noauna iaXcn UUti 
The place that** from the crooked sUkU named, 

Strabo has nothing about the nckhy he 
only says Zanclion signifies crooked. His 
words (vol. i. p. 410, edit. AmsteL) are 
these: ZayxXyj tirporipcy xaXtf|>j, Siac 
TTjv oTcoXionjra rufv roirtvv, ZayxXiov yocp 
sxaXeiro ro oTtoAiov.— Formerly called 
Zande firom the curvature of the neigh- 
bouring country, for Zanclion means 
curve or crooked/^ i, e. wxpoL ro/f «c«j, 
among the inhabitants of that j^lace, as 
Eustathius has rightly added, citing this 
very passage on the idth of the Odyssey. 
ZancU then properly signifies curvt or 
crooked. And it is in vain to pretend 
this is a Sicilian word, since it is the 
Punic (or Fhcnician) MiVt by tninsnosing 
the letters g and /. Whence y^Q in 
Hebrew is x^eaty^a, a Jlesh hook, a hook 
to draw meal out of a kettle with. Hence 
in Exod. xxvii. 3, for vn:iroi Onkeios 
hith rm^'itJYi which the Jews explain by 
J^aia nv^p^m Crooked hoitks to lay hold 
on meat in the pot — ^Tlie Hcb. i^TO hook 
then is so called from it's crooked or curve 
form, as the Arabic jmM [and i«^D] a 
hook to fasten a door/' 0n the whole 
therefore, the ideal meaning of the Heb. 
^ seems to be atrcafure or crookedness^ 
and accordingly the Vulg. has fitren the 
idea of the word, Exod. xxxviii. 3, by 
rendering it uncinos hooks, from imcus 
aooked; and hence may not improbably 
be deduced the Greek oTtoXio; crooked^ 
cx2X7;vo; oblique; also Saxon f icol and 
£ng. sickle, 

JiM See under h\ 


To devise, imagine, think. It is used in a 
^ood sense, as Ps. xvii. 3, but generally 
in a bad one, as Gen. xi. 6. As a N. 
fern. rrDI (applied to man) A nicked 
imagination or device. Lev. xx. 14. Jud. 
XX. 6, plur. JtlDt Devices, schemes, in a 
middle or indifferent sense. Job xvii. 1 1. 
As a N. fein. nptD Tkoufht, considers 

Hon, diseretitm, m a good sense, Prov.i4. 
ill. 21. v. 2. Detice, machination, coji- 
trivance, m a bad one, Job xxi. %j. Ps. 
xxi. 12. Prov. xii. 2. xxi v. 8. 

C3t)T To i/cmf or conwkt Jhorougkly, pur^ 
pose stedfastljf, both in a good and bad 
sense. See Dent. xix. 19. Ps. xxxi. 14* 
Zech. i. 6. viii. 14, 15. Prov. xxxi 16, 

DbA. I'o seem^ seemly, &c Qu? 


f . To ofpomt, constitute^ occ. as a Part* 
Huph. £nra x. 14. Neh. x. 3$. xifi. 31. 
As a N. }Ot An appointed time, ooc. Neh. 
ii. 6« Esth. ix. 27, 31. Eccles^iii. i. 

IF. Chald. In Aph. fotn To prepare, or 
perliajps to devise, from Heb. t^n. occ. 
Dan. ii. 9, where many of Dr. Ketmi^ 
cotfs Codices read pn^rmn in Ith. As 
2iV, \G\ A set or appointed timCy Dan. 
iL 16, & al. 

Dbr. Tosummom, Qitf 

I. To cut qff. It occurs not as a V. sunply 
in this sense; but lience as a N. fern. 
miDT, in Reg. or phir. mm A cutting, 
a branch or twig cut off, Mum. xiii. 23. 
Isa. xvii. 10. Ezek. xv. 2. viii. 1 7, tDmiw 
tDD« bK miDtn MH. To omit the strange 
and even filthy interpretations given of 
these words by the Jews, for which I 
refer to Michaelis Supplem. ad Lex. Heb. 
p. 630, &c. I observe af^er him that the 
Vulgate translation of them is the most 
^ithful and literal, ** adplicant ramwn 
ad nares suas they applu the branch to 
their nostrils/' [I should rather say nose] 
which the translator Jerome explains by 
'* a branch of the palm-tree with which 
they adored the idols." Why Jerome spe- 
cified the palm branch does not appear. 
But the text seems plainly to allnde to 
the Magianjire'-worshippers, who, Strt^ 
tells us, lib. XV. when they were praying 
before the sacred fire held a little bunch 
of twigs in tlieir hand. Dr. Hyde, Hist. 
Relig. Vet. Pers. lib. i. cap. 27, gives a 
more particular accomit of this Magitm 
rile, and at p. 369, ist edit, presents us 
with a print of a Mage or Priest stand- 
ing before XYitfire^dtar, and holding the 
twigs in his ieft hand. The idolaters 
mentioned Eiek. viii. 16, 17, had their 
backs turned toward tlie temple of Je« 
hovah, and worshipped the sun toward 
the East, and hi while thus worship- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



a^T— ^ 

fin^, fkty put the iNrancfa (or twig) to 
ikeir nose. 

In Gen. xliii. 1 1, mot seems used for 
Jntits, what is gathered or cut ^from tJie 
land : so LXX xapifujy, Vulg. tructibii£^ 

II. In Kal, 7<b pnmc, cut <0^ irregular or 
useless branches. 6€c. Lev. xxv. 3,4. lu 
Niph. To be fruneii, occ Isa* v. 6. As 
a N. fern, iTJDtD Jn instrmnetit of piutt- 
ingy a pruning hook, Isa. ii. 4, 8r al. 

HI. As a N. tiem. plur. miOTo Sauffers, 
occ. 1 K. vii. 50. a K. lui. 14. 2 Chron. 
hr. 22. Jer. lii. 18. 

IV. To sing, or «^/fr harmomouabf, as a 
ftaln or the like * pruned^ as it were, 

from all irregular and discordant souHtLs. 
Jud. ▼. 3. Ps.xlvii. 7, Ixxi. 22, & al. freq. 
As a K. iiiasc TlDIO, Ps. iil i. & al. freq.! Ps. btxxi. 3, moi Exod. xv- 2. 
A Psalm or Hymn, from it's regular coip- 
position as to words and musick. As a 
N. masc. 1^? in Isa. xxv. 5, may be 
rendered either Branch, Propa^, Poste- 
rity, or Stngingjoypttl noise^ ** triumph/' 
Bishop Lcm^^; but in Cant. ii. 12, it 
aeems plainly to denote the harmonious 
ringing of birds. Comp. LXX, Syr. and 

V, Chci<Lasa N. fern, H^O! Musick. occ. 
Dan. iii $, 7, 10, 15. Masc. plur. em- 
phat. Knoi The singers, occ. Ezra vii. 24. 

%^i. As a N. IDT A species of clean animals, 
occ. Deut. xiv. 5. The LXX render it 
iCajbtijXorrur^aAiv, and Vul^. Camelopar- 
cblum, the Camelopardal ; so the Arabic, 
Zirafi. But this animal is a native of 
the torrid ax>iie, of Nubia, and Abys- 
•iiiiaf, is rarely seen «ven in £g:ypt, 
and, if at all known in Palestine, could 
never have there been an article of food, 
and therefore we camiot «uppo9e that a 
yfist, legislator would expressly permit 
tlie eatbij? of It. Accordingly Bochart 
(vol. ii. 908, 909.) rejects the camelo* 
pardal, and substitutes for it the rupi' 
capra or chamois goat. But objections 

* So tb« hat- Carmen a iSW or Poem may be 
from the Heb. Dro /« fruxf, and the Greek MtXo; 
of the same import, from bo to eyt of. Conip. Bp. 
Lavrth*§ Prelim. Dissert to Isaiah, p. 50. 

f *• Z« Gtrafe OU /r Camiflofardatu'^-hahite en 
Afrique, Sl sor-tout en Ethiopie, & ne s'est jamais 
repamki au-deli des Tropi<^ues duns les climats 
tcmperes de l*ancien continent.'* Sufon, Hist, 
>iat. torn. viii. p. 137. 

of a siinOar kind hold agamst this aai- 
roal likewise. ** The Alps, the Pyren- 
n^es, the mountains of Greece and of 
the islands in the Archi|>ela^o, are al- 
most tbe only places where the chamois 
are found," {Uuffon, Nat. Hibt. toni. x. 
p. 308.) and it* does not appear that 
they are to be met with in Palestine or 
tlie neighbouring countries. ** TJiey fear 
ilie heat, says buffon^ and inhabit only 
tlie regions of snow and ice." What 
then is "loi? Till we have more lif^ht^ 
I think we must content ourselves with 
saving that noi probably is an animal 
ot tlie ^oar kind, so called from it s re- 
markablv browsing on the shoots and 
twigs- of tnees. Conip. Alichaelis Sup* 
plem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 6^7. '' Is it 
true, asks MkbaeUs (Recueil de Ques- 
tions, p. 148), that the Jacknmr {Tjon^ 
which he makes a species of auteiope"] 
saws, so to speak, the branches of trees 
and bushes with his horns?*' 


L To prepare, provide. It occurs not as a 
V. in Heb. but as a Particip. Huph. 
masc. plur. spoken of stallions, C3 ODD 
prepared, ready. To this purpose the 
LXX, 0ijXuftayg<^ ^oging xviih Inst; 
tliough tliis word may also be designed to 
answer the Heb. tDOiro. occ. Jer. v. 8. 

II. As a N. ft Preparation, praviiiott, store, 
as of foocL. occ Ps. cxliv. 13. tD^:T 
CS'HpID Compound aroraalic prepara- 
tions, occ. aChron^xvi. 14. 

in. As a N. fttD Pr&oision of victual •r 
other thi^igs. occ. Gen. xlv. 23.2 Chron. 
xi. aj. 

IV. Chald. As a V. in Ith. To he pro- 
mled for, nourished, fed. occ. Dan. iv. 9. 
So LXX, sTpsffsro, Vulg. vescebatur. 
As a N. piD Provision, food. occ. Dan. 
iv. 18. 

V^ Chald. As a N. masc. plur. in Reg. 
>il Kinds, q. d. Preparations^ occ. Dau. 
iii. $, 7»J'o>i$-. 

L'As a N. it denotes the extremity or hind* 
moit part of a thmg, as the taii of a ser- 
pent, Exod. iv. 4; or other animal, Jud. 
. XV. 4. Job xl. la, or 17. — the end of a 
iire- brand almost extingubhed, Isa. vii. 4. 
Hence as a V. in a privative sense, 'Jo 
cut of the extremity or hindmost part. 
I occ. Deut. XXV* iS. Josh. x. lo. lu Job 
N xi. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




x\, I a, or 17. SckttUeni, in order to sup- 
port bis hypothesis of the behemoth in 
Job being the elephant^ unreasonably (I 
had aliDOst said absurdly), because in 
opposition to the scriptural usage of the 
word, interprets 23t to mean the ele- 
phjjiit's pfoboscis or trunk, Mr. Scott ^ 
m suppc»rt of the same hypothesis, with 
Dot. much more reason, explains it of 
tlie elephant's penU. But this latter is 
by no means proportionate to the bulk 
of his body. ** Naturalbts and travellers, 
says * Bujoriy agree in assuring us that 
it is neither larger nor longer than a 
horse's." But if nM be suffered to retain 
it's usual meaning in Job xl. 17, that 
text will plead strongly for the hippopo 
tamus, and not the elephant's, being the 
behemoth. For the tail of the latter is 
small, wrak, and inconsiderable, like a 
fiog*s. Biiffon says f, " It is but two 
feet and a half, or three feet long, and 
assez mcnue, pretty slender/' But of the 
hippopotamus he observes t, from Ze- 
rcnghi, " His tail is not like that of a 
hog, but rather like a tortoise's, only that 
it is incomparably thicker, incomparable- 
ment plus grossc." He § adds, " the 
length of the tail is eleven inches four 
lines. (Frencli.) The circumference of 
the tail at if s origin is a little more than 
a foot, at it's eiw two inches ten lines/' 
N. B. The French foot is equal to one 
foot nine lines English; and these di- 
mensions were taken from the female, 
which is one third less than the male 
h'ppopotamus, Scheuchzer (Phys. Sacr. 
on Job) says, the tail of the hippopotamus 
is, <* though short, y«t thick, and may 
be compared to the cedar for it's taper- 
ing, yea conical shape, it's smoothness, 
thickness, strength and rigidity." 

II. As a N. it imports meanness inferiority 
or subjection. Sec Peut, xxviii/ 13, 44. 
Isa. ix. 14, 15. 

Dbr. Snub. 

^ith a radical, fsee Dent. xxxi. 16.) but 

mutable or omissible, rr finah 
The primary idea seems to be, To entom* 

pass, incirckf infold^ enclosty or the like. 

* Hist. Nat. torn. iz. p. S78, French edit. 18mo. 
t Tom. ix. p. 881, *^. 
t Tom. X. p. > 92. 
S Ibid p. 196,7. 

It occurs n«t however as a Verb simiilj 
in this sense, but- hence the Greeks 
plamly had their Zur^, a lone, girdle, 
and the V. iumfvco, fyfwvfu to gird, gird 

I. As a N. with a fonaative M, pM, A belt,' 
or girdle, occ. Deut. xxiii. 14, And thou 
shah have nn> a small paddle (or stake 
resembUng those of a tent, conip. "irr) 
'|:)m hv in thy girdle; so the LXX, fVi 
rrii tfi^i 0^, Vuig. in balteo, and Man- 
taims, super zonam tuam. It is well 
known that the eastern nations to this 
day make use of their girdles for carryJ 
bg their dagger, handkerchief, and other 
implements If. 

II. As a N. fem. plur. niM Drfendve armour 
eftcompassing or surromuUng the body. 
Montanus translates it zonas girdles; but 
it seems of more extensive sigoitication, 
and is accordingly rendered in the Chal- 
dee Targum by Htin^iD Armour, in which 
sense pi or H^l is often used in the Tar- 
ipms. occ. I K. xxii. 38. It is evident 
from ver. 34, that Ahab went defensively 
armed into the battle, and therefore there 
b a peculiar emphasis in observii^ that 
tlie very armour in wl^ich no doubt he 
trusted, became one mean of iiilfiiling 
Elijah's prophecy, ch. xxi. 19. 

III. It denotes unlawful embraces betweeA 
persons of different sexes. To commit 
whoredom. It is spoken as well of 
men, Num. xxv. i, as of women, Gen* 
xxxviii. 24; of single persons, Lev. 
xix. 29. xxi. 9. Deut. xxii. ai, as. of 
married, Amos vii. i 7. Hos. i. a, comp. 
ch. iii. I. It also frequently denotes to 
commit spiritual u boredom or idolatry, 
and is spoken as well of the Gentiles, 
Exod. xxxiv. 15, J 6, as of the people of 
God, Lev. xvh. 7. xx,- 5. Isa. i. ai. 
Jer. iii. 6. Ezek. xxiii. 3, 19. (Comp. 
Isa. Ivii. 3,) and is once applied to tlie 
consulting of such as huve familiar spirits, 
or of mzards. Lev. xx. 6. As a N- 
fem. Hill or mt A Harht, a whore, 
whether in a natural, Gen. xxxiv. 31. 
Lev. xxi. 7 ; or in a spiritual sense, Isa. 

I Hence also perhapt the name for Jufiter, z<iv 
or Zav, at importing the whole Ciratmfermct of the 

f Sec 5A^ii;*tTra1reli, p. 227, 2d edit. Harm€f^% 
Observations, vol. ii. p. 460. and ComfUU SyAem 
^ Gt9grafby, vol. ii. p. 21. 

i, ax. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Gjn— T)?t 

i »^« xxiii. 16. Ezek. xvi. 31. Nah. 
IB. 4. Some pretend that in Josh. ii. i, 
and other p^ssa^cs, where RaJi^f Is spoken 
of, the word should beinterf>reted a bqst' 
4«s, or taxerner; but the LXX in aJi those 
pasfioges vender k Hopy^ and tJie Vul- 
gate^ Meretrix, a Imrlot ; aud m h'ke 
niiuiiier Rahab b called IIo.^ by St. 
Paul, Heb. xi. 31, and b> St. Jama, 
fib. ii. a^ Aad iodeed nothing wore 
Biay be intended by tlie epitiiet iiar/ot, 
but that«he hAdformrrly been so. Coinp 
Mat X. 3. xxvi. 6. and Glas^ii Philoiogia 
Sacra, hl>. lit tract, s. can. 3. 
As a N. fem. mil Fornication, act of 
vharedffm. H05. iv. n. vi. jo. As a N. 
fem. ro'im Whoredom. Ezek. xxih. 8. 

p) As a N. masc plur. ID'iOt R^eaUd 
%korcdowu. Uos, i. 2, & aL 


L la Kal, and Hiph. To cast ofy cast or re- 
move to a distance. Lam. ii. 7. i Chrou. 
xxviii.'g. 2 Chron. xi. 14. Hos. viii. 3^ 5. 

U. It seems to be once appUed to streets 
/aikng or drying up, occ. Isa. xix. 6; 
where threatening Egypt in figurative 
language, he says nnni irp::«ni and the 
(several) streams (of the Nile) shall fail; 
90 LXX, gjcAsi^tfo-iy, and \\i\y:,* deficient. 
Where qbserve, tiiat the W is of an irre- 
gular ibn«^ havio/^, if it be an uuconi- 
pounded word, both the Ileb.andChal- 
dee characteristic of Hiphil, and is per- 
haps used as the Egyptians pronounced 
it. But may not "trriJHn be a word com- 
pounded of i*i:h^o heat and mt, and so ex- 
press to be cast qffy or fail, through heat ^ 

D£R. 4Hatch^ sneakj snack. 

To spring or leap forth. Once Deut. xxxiii. 
aa So LXX. Vat. «xiry/yy«rai, Alexand. 
t>t/sri$r^<ru. In Syriac it signifies to cast, 

In general. To nurce^ agitate* 

I. In a Niph. sense, To l>€ agitated, a$ 
fiom awe and respect, occ. £sth. v. 9^ 
So Synac ir^nnn " commotiun esse/' 
WaUan. As a participial passive N. fem. 
rw .in agitation, what is agitated^ Deut. 
xxviii. 2 j, And thou shall he mm!' for 
an agitation, i. e. agitated^ to all the 
h'ng(hms of the earth. So Ezek. xxiii. 46. 
As a participial N. fem. active, n^ 
Ju agitation, what doth agitate, trouble, , 

I vexation, commotion, occ. Isa. xxviii. 19. 
j a Chiou. xxi\. 8. Jer. xv. 4. xxiv. 9. 
: xxix. 18; but in the four last texts, ilie 
Keri,^ and mauv of Dr. Ke/micutt's Co- 
I dices read Tim^, as in Deut. xxviii. i^, 
I Either reading makes very j^ood stnse. 

IL Chald. As a Participle Benoiii nxasr. 
j plur. p;?«t Tranbling, as from awe. occ. 
Dan. V. 19. vi. 26, or a;* 

UL TV tremble, shake y as through weak- 
I ness. occ. Eccles. xii. 3. 

IV. As a N. fem. ru^l Sweat, forcful out of 
the body by motion or agitation, occ. 
Gen. iii. 19. 

V. As a N. )>x* The same. So the Vulg, 
Sudore. occ. Ezek. xliv. 18. 

^W To put into a violent motion or ogita* 
tion. occ. Hab. ii. 7 ; where Vioda/iy che 
ti scrolleranno, who shaU agitate thee. 

Deb. Cr. vtiM and o-euo; to move, agitate^ 
Jlng. To sway, mov^ with ease, swig^ 
swagf swing, sweat. Dutch zee, Dan. 
socj^ Eng. sea, &c 

In Niph. Tq b^ ((bridged, shortened, cut 
short. So Vulg. breviabuntur. Once Job 
xvii. I, The Arabk: Nouns "jlDrt and 
'Di;m, evidently derived from tliis root, 
signify shof t. See Castell and Michaelis. 


Tiiis root is variously rendered, To be in^ 
dignant, rogc, detest, defy^ abhor, and 
the like. It is jouied with n^p to curse. 
Num. xxiii. 7, 8. Prov.-xxiv. 14; and 
apposed to ilD^ll Blessing in the next 
verse. It is also joined with several other 
words expressive of a?iger or irouUc, Ps. 
Ixxviii. 49. But still I must confess my* 
self unable to come at it's radical mi- 
port merely iVom the scriptural usage of 
It as a Heb. word. Schulta^, however, 
in his Comment on Prov. xxiv. 24, and 
in his MS. Origines Hibraicce, seems 
to have assigned tlie true idea of it, from 
the Arabic, in which language he in- 
forms us that t3^{ denotes ** * Spumam 
agitare per os, despumare," to work the 
spittle ox froth about one*s mouthy to froth 
ox foam at moMf A— thence to foam out, as 
it were, in speaking, to speak with heat 
and severity, like a person foaming with 
anger, and lastly, to utter or foam out 
hard speeches or curses." It is used a^ a 

• " Spumam per Buccas hue illuc movit. 2, oyt 

Iratus in sermooe, leu cum iralocutus fuit." CujtJL 

N» V. hi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

;^ST— «cn 



V. in Hebrew, but more frequently as a 
N. and after what has been said, it will 
be sutHcient to take particular notice of 
only two or three passages. Prov. xxv. 23, 
as a Participle in Niph. The north-wind 
di^solieth or disnpaUtli rain ; so tD^iD 
is^D^t: a foaming countenance, (or a 
countenance which shews we are ready 
to foam with anger) a sly or slanderous 
toiigve, l^>a. XXX. 27, His lips are full 
of Di^t foam. Hos. vii. 16, tDrtO Fur 
the foam (Eng. Translat. rage) oj their 

i. To be troubled, disordered, agitated, as 
the sea by a storm. It occurs not as a 
V. simply in thb sense, but hence a?» a 
N. ^n Ai^itation^ as of the sea. occ. Jon. 
L 15. So LXX, SaXa Agitation, 

Jl. 'Jo be troubU'd, agitatui, as the heart 
ncitli vveasiness or discontent, to fret, occ. 
prov. xix. 5. As a Participle or par- 
ticipial N. Pji^t Troubled, fretful, uneasy. 
occ. (ien. xl. 6 Dan. i. lo, 

\\\, To be di^rompo^sed jcft agitated mth 
anger, to he wrQth or angry, occ. a Chron. 
xxvi. iq As a Participle or participial 
N. Tp\ Discomposed, uroth, i K. xx. 43. 
xxi. 4. As a N. Pp?1 Wrath, occ. 2 Chron. 
xvi. 10. xxviii. 9. Mica vii. 9. But in 
ls». xxK. 30, F|M ^ni should be ren- 
dettid, with the agitation or violence of 
htat or anger. Comp. under nCH IV, 


l.^T^cry out, cry aloud. Exod. ij. 23, Jud. 

iii. 9, & al. freq. As a N. fern. r\^^^ A 

cry, clamour, vociferation. Gen. xviii, ao. 

Isa. Ixv. 19, & al. 
n. In Kal, and lliph. To call together by 

proclamation, tq convoke. Jud. iv. 10, 13. 

a Sam. xx. j. In Nipli. To be thus called, 

or gathered, together, i Saip. xiv, 20, ft: 

al. Comp. px^. 

To be 9mall, little, *lt pecan not as a Verb 
hi tlie Hebrew Bible, but hence as a N 
TVt Small, little, occ. Isa. xxviii. 10, 13 
(Chald.) Dan. vu. 8. Adverbially, Of 
time, A little time, a Uttk while, occ. 
Job XX xvi. 2. Isa. xxix. 17. As a N. 
*i^)D A small quantity, small, little, occ. 
Isa. xvi. 14. xxiv. 6. Of fime, occ. 
|sa. x. 25. 

As a N. Pitch, (to the LXX. and Vulg.) 

or rather a kind of Bitumen; for it t 
a natural, not an artificial, substance. 
The radical idea is uncertain ; but it 
seems probable that this word in sense 
as well as in sound is nearly related to 
riQV to overlay (as ^m to "inv , p})^ to p^, 
I^T to *^jnr), and that pitch or bitumeti 
hath it's Hebrew name nfit from it's fit- 
ness to overlay, anS so fill up the small 
holes o^ chinks oi other matter. 11)€ 
final T\ in n&t may be formative and 
servile, and from the Chaldee na^e for 
jntch, HE3!, used in Targ. Isa. xxxiv. 9, 
it should seem that it is so. occ. £xod. 
ii. 3. Isa. xxxiv. 9. 
Der. By transposition Greek lUvera., Lat. 
Fix, Eng. Fitch. 

To strain of, 9nd so separate from the grosser 
or heterogeneous parts. 

I. To fuse, purify by fusion cr melting, as 
metals, occ. job xxviii. i, And a place 

for the gold (not xphcre, but which) ^pr^ 
they fine. 

II. In Niph. To be strained fff, and dis^ 
solved as it were, in the air, as water for 
rain. occ. Job xxxvi. 27, Verily he era- 
porattth the drops of water, r»b ©O ^p\* 
(which) are strained off (tbi) the ruin of 
his vapour, xvhich the heavens Itt jail 
(and) drop upon man abundantly y 1. e. 
The Almighty, by the divinely-consti- 
tuted chemistry of nature, gradually dis-* 
solves in the air, that water which is 
on the surface of the eartli and sea, at 
the same time purifying it from saline* 
earthy, mineral, and other heterogeneous 
matures ; and this he does tor the pur- 
pose of supplying vapour tor rain, which 
the heavens afierwardtf dbtil on man 
abundantly. See Scoffs note. 

III. As a N. masc. plur. t3>pl Manacles oir 
fetters made of cast iron or copper, occ. 
Job xxxvi. 8. Ps. cxlix. 8. Isa. xlv. 14. 
Nah. iii. 10. b^plM (with a formative h) 
The same. occ. Jer. xl. i, 4. 

IV. As a N. masc. plur. C3>pt rendered 
fire-brands, but rather means, as in the 

margin of our Translation, flames, or 
ignited matter, matter in a state of fusion, 
or divided into the smallest particles by 
fire. occ. Prov. xxvi. x8. So as a N. 
fem. plur. nip^l is translated sparks,, but 
rather denotes flames, as the LXX ren- 
der it, f Aova, and Vulg. Flammis. occ. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




tsa* 1. 1 1 ; where, though t cannot con- 
car with Vitringa that nipn denotes twigs 
(malleolos) for fuel or burning, yet he 
seems right in referring this verse to those 
turbulent and factious Jews, who after 
our Lord's death kindled, against the 
Roman government, that fire, and sur- 
rounded themselves with those flames of 
sedition add rebellion, which at length 
consumed their city and nation. Comp. 
Bbhop Lonoth, 

ppl I. To strain offthorovgldy^ and so refine 
as wine from it's lees. It occurs as a Par- 
ticiple masc. plur. Huph. Isa. x\v. 6. 
* In the East they keep their wine in 
jugs, from which they have no method 
of drawing it off fine 5 it is therefore 
commonly somewhat thick and turbid 
by the lees with which it is mixed : to 
remedy this inconvenience ihey filtrate 
or strain it through a cloth. Aud to this 
custom, as prevailing in his time, the 
prophet here plainly Eludes. This expo- 
sition is further confirmed by the men- 
tion of Oiyov $i6?^criieyov filtered wine in 
the LXX Version of Amos vi. 6. 

II. To/use thoroughly, thoroughly purify by 
fusing, as gold. occ. Mai. iii. 3 ; where 

, yf£</i«e. As a participle Huph. 
ppTO will fused, purified, ox refined, as 
gold. occ. I Chron. xxviii. 18. xxix. 4. 
Ps. xii. 7. 

I. In Kal. To be old, grown old. Gen.' xviii. 
13, 13. Josh. xiii. I, & al. frcq. In 
Hiph. The same, occ Prov. xxii. 6. 
Spoken of the root of a tree. occ. Job 
xiv. 8. As Ns. fpt Old, an old man. 
Gen. xviii. 11. xix. 4. Also, OW age, 
Gen. xlviii. 10. So fern, mpt Old age, 

. Ps. Ixxi. 9. Isa. xlvi. 4. As a N, masc. 
phir. tD>3|?T Elders in age or authority, 
q. d. Eldermen or Aldermen. See Gen, 
I. 7. Exod. iii. 16. Lev. iv. ij. Deut. 
xix. 19. I Sam. iv. 3. 2 Sam. xix. 11. 
Jnd. xi. 5. Num. xxii. 7. i Sam. xi. 3. 
% K. xxiii. 1, and comp. Ortek and Eng, 
Lexicon in Suys ^piov. Also tzno^ being 
understood (as with o^ni-and Csn^iV^ 
whkh see) t3>);7l signifies days or time of 
old age. Gen. xxxvii. 3. xliv. 20, & al. 
\pt however, I apprehend, is not pro- 
perly a word of time, (for it is joined 

• See Harmcri OlMervatioM, vol i. p. S78, &c 

with tD>D^^ CD^n advanced in days^ or 
yearSf Gen. xviii. 11, & al. with jjnuf 
t3*0> full of, or satisfied ziith, days, 
I Chron* xxiii. i, and the like) buJ re- 
lates to thence/ wliich asre \rA> on the 
body. It is opposed to ^):3# which :e* 
notes the sprightliness, agility or acfivify 
of youth; and in Arabic is u^cd for f c«ir- 
ryitig a burden, or taking it up in order 
to carry it; aud though n;|?T i** l€S> Uian 
tiyv^ Decaying age, see PsAwi. 18. i Sam. 
xii< 2. Isa« xlvi. 4, aud ]p> <ieFiote.s a man 
younger than one tD^D' i^b^fuU of days, 
Jer. vi. II, or than uni^ one xvho is de* 
crepit, % Chrou. xxxvi. 17; yet I 1 liink it 
signifies one who is gravis auuls J heavy 
uith years, and refers to that weight and 
inactivity which generally creeps upon 
men as they grow old, when^ as Horace 
has remarked, Art Poet. liu. 171, 

Res omnet gelid^ tlmid^que ministramt, 

and are heavy and indolent both in body 
and mind. Thus the sacred historian^ 
I Sam. iv. 18, remarks of £li tlie high 
priest, that he was ni51 fpl old attd heavy, 
and Sophocles, (£dip. Tyraii. lin. 16, 17, 
mentions trvv wy^pa ^apu$ 'hptif the 
priests heavy with age, 
from f pt m this view may be derived the 
Latin segnis s|ow, heavy. Hence also 
Gothic sineigs ||, and Latin senex, an old 
man, whence senatus, senator, and £ng. 
senate, senator, &c. 
II. As ^ N. fpt The beard, probably so 
called because h grows old toi^ther witli 
the man, not naturally falling off, or 
changing as niQ^no the hairs of the head 
do (see under F|i>n), and moreover, as 
age advances, becomes longer and hea^ 
vier. Lev. xiii. 19, & al. freq. It is 
applied to the beard of a lion, i Sam. 
xvii. 35. It is well known that from 
tile most ancient times, the eastern na- 
tions have worn their beards, which are 
very highly vahied by them. Tljis will 
account for several practices which we 
meet with in Scripture. In 2 Sam. 
XX. 9, Joab took Amasa by the beard 
with his right hand to kiss him, " When 
two particular friends or relations [among 

f ** Portavit, portandura sostulit, imposuitque 
onui." Castelt, 

^ As Livy, lib. ix. cap. 3, and Hortut, Sat. :• 
lib. 1, lin. 4, express ic 

U SeeJarmtt/Etymolog. Anglican, in I^E ST. 
N3 tht 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ffic Moots in "Morocco! in«?t, A*y ta- 
xioiisly embrace, and kia each other's 
faces and ^fjrd» for a few minutes——" 
Encychp^d, Britan, in Morocco, No. 
43, ad fin. We tind traces of the same 
custom ^ong the ancient Greeks. A^ec- 
ably to which, when Thetis b suppli- 
cating Jupiter in Horner^ IL i. lin. 501, 
slie takes him by the chin or beard with 
her rij>ht hand. 

-One haad she placea 

I-eneath his i 


Comp. n. viii. lin, .^71. 

And when the spy Dolon in II. x. Im. 454, 

was detected by Dlomed^-^ 

O txrt i/uiiXXi yntiw ^iipt v«x.<i7 

A4'a/xfV9( Xxao-fodM' 

-The wretch prepar'd 

With humble bkodishineot to strokebis heard. 


VUny mentions it as, a general custom of 
tlic ancient Greeks to touch the chins of 
those whom they supplicated. Nat. Hist, 
lib. xi. cap. 3 $. On the other hand, it 
was an eastern castom to shave, cttt or 
pluck the beard in violent grief. See 
Isa. XV. a. Jer. xlL 5, xlviii. 37. Ezra 
ix. 3. So from Herodotus, lib. ii. cap. 36, 
edit. Gale, we may (though the expres- 
sions are somewhat obscure) collect, that 
all nations, except the Egyptians, did 
the like. And in later times, Suetonius 
in Caligula, cap. 5, relates, tliat on the 
news of Germanicus*s death, regulos quos- 
dam barbam posuisse — ad indicium gra- 
VL^simi luctus. Some of the (foreign) 
princes cut of their beards — in token of 
the deepest affliction. 

And on 2 Sam. x. 4. 1 Chron. xix. 5, 
we may observe that to this day in the j 
East cutting off a man's beard is oiie of; 
the most itijumous and of routing puniJih' ' 


h To compress, squeeze, occ. Jod. vi. ^S, 
(LXX s^tecfTt, or arsvucn ke squeemi 
out) Job xxxix. 15, (Vulg. cooculcrt, 
crush by treading) Is«. Iix. 5. i. 6; speak- 
ing of wounds, i^^T itV they have not been 
closed, says our English transtatmi. But 
as the Verb is in Kal, way not the won^ 
rather be rendered, they iave noi clcsd^ 
And in Isa. ttx. 5, rrnt may be a parti- 
cipial N. fern, active, A s^^teezing ot 
squeeze, rmim And the squeeze crwikA 
out a viper. As a N. TitD The sgveeziM§ 
or compressing of a woood. 00c. Jer. 
XXX. 13, where Vulg. ad alUgandon tt 
bind up. It has also been suppcsed ii 
Hos. V. 13, to signify a wound IroBiifft 
being bound up, but this circuinstaBce 
does not seem to suit the context. Sec 
therefore under *irn. 

II. As a N. TIUD A trap or gin whidi con- 
presses, squeezes, or crushes what is cai^l 
in it. occ. Obad. i. 7, The men that wrr 
at peace with thee have deceived tket, 
(tbcy who ate) thy bread yrmn TFiie ir^ 
haxe laid (not a wound surely, but) t 
gin or trap under thee. Nearly to tli 

. effect the LXX svs^px and Vidg. insl- 

ments that can be intlicted on him 

JIarmers Observations, vol. ii. p, 

. Ihmway's Travels, vol. i. p. agS, 9 

Bisliop Lowih\ Note on 1». vii. 20. 




III. As a N. roasc. plur. tyn^o occ. W» 
XXX vii. 9, From the dart thick d^Bi 
Cometh the it arm, and frwm tomro Coii. 
What can these :i:no (if referred totfci> 
root) be, but the grains or wonaes ^ m 
which in the winter, to use the words of 
an eminently learned- writer *, ^ beiog 
too large to pervade the pores, and t4» 
thin mixed fluids, and so keep tbemn 
motion, do, by means of tlieir size, mm- 
prtss and^x them, and so produce cold 
and frost? (Comp. ver. 10.) When froat 
is excessive, these grains wBl be diivn 
in with such violence as to q>lit asd tear 
asunder trees, and parts of rocks, stooci. 
&c. (instances whereof we bad in tk 
Great Frost 1740-K) f and also lorrt 
the fingers, toes, dec. of fiersoos exposri 
long to it's violence.^* The Greek wiitcn 
frequently apply umuv, ccroxcusir, n 
MftiMK; as the Latin ones do their were. 

set upright, erect, occ. Ps. cxlv. 14, 
cxlvi. 8. So LXX avt^ii^, Vulg. engit. 
Chald. The same. occ. Ezra vi. 1 1 ; where 

LXX cpdor^yoi^ Vulg. erigatur. The ^^et^^eet, p. 20. 

TarcuOM use It in the same sense. Sec ^ see Gentleman^s Magazine for January 17^ 

Castctt. I p. 35, and for March 1743, p. 144. 

I * int. Si 

[r. Speojtmm 
'/ 1Vorks,m 

in hit SwppUmetd U J^€r. An 
printed for IV. JFtJm, Pcterboroogk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



mr— »•)? 

, ttdkttreire, burning, icorcJuiig^ to theef- 
&cts of intense cold; tor instances see 

. Jfuuu^% Etymol. Anglican, in TiKgle. 
I add from Arrian Epictet. lib. iv. cap. 8, 
towards the end, AIIOKATSEI « o 
^UfLtnv, *'The winter will /larcA you/' and 

. from Xenap^on, Cyri Exped. lib. iv. 
p. 291, edit. Hutch. 8vo, Ayep/>s fiop^x^ 
srotrriog iitysi vrxyravxcriv AIIOKAI- 
XIN, xai mrfyvv^ res avSpunregf where 
Hutchinson cites from TheophraH. Hist. 
Plant, lib. iv. cap. 1 7, saying of a cold 
%Mnd, aicoKCUBiy tol hv^poi^ xou arws ava 
flTMfir, xai ^r^poL wg, »^' up* iJXia xai %^o- 
V8 vrokXs ysvoir* ay. Plini/, Nat. Hist, 
lib. xvii. cap. 24, writes that trees 
*' aduri qyoquc fervore, aut flatu irigi- 
dore/' Comp. Xenoph, Cyri Exped. lib. 
▼"• P- S3*f & Davim Not. 4, Li Ciceroft. 16. Soin £ug. Milton, 
Par. Lost, t>ook ii. lin. 294, 5, 

- the parching air 

Bvmtfrwrey and cold performs tb* tffe^ offre* 

Ecdus. xliii. 20, 21, When the cold 
north-wind blowcth — xarafo^yerai it de- 
Toureth the mountains, and bkmajcei bum- 
eth the wilderness, and devoureth the grass, 
(is nrvp as fire. This has a considerable 
resemblance to VirgiV^ 

■ B orcae penetrabile frigus adurat. 

Gcorg. i, lin. 93, 

For miTD, Job xxxviii. 3a, see under "iio. 
T)T occurs not as a V. in this reduplicate 
form, but hence as a N. TD Compressed, 
strait, narrow, occ. Piov. xxx. 31 ; where 
Qf^no l^nt, Strait or narrow in the loins 
(Acdnctus lumbisy MontanusJ appears a 
very good periphrasis for a greyhound. 
Bochart, who embraces this interpreta- 
tion, to confirm it, cites Gratius*s cor- 
responding description of the same kind 
of dog, 

i sucdngunt Ilia reDtris, 

And Ovid's 

Mi fubftricU gerem SUifonim Ilia Ladmu 

Comp. Shaw's Traveb, p. 437. 
' Their greyhounds,** says Dr. RusseU, in 
hisNatnrai Histoiy of Aleppo, page 61, 
*• are of a very light, slender make, and 
pemarkMifJleet." It is probable they had 
the same breed m Judea, 

Occurs not as a V. in Heb. but as aN. 
HlJ Nauseous, loathsome. So Vulj;. Nau- 
seam, and to tlie like eflect the LXX 
XoXspay, occ. Num. xi. 20. This iuter- 
pretatioo is confirmed by tiie Syriac use 
of the Verb H^,i in Ethp. uainely. To be 
despised, ** Contemptus est." La^tcU un- 
der WX. 

It seems nearly related to n^.y to bum, 
scorch, as int to anv, mi to inv, pi?t to 
pXit, IT to ^TT, which see and compare. 
Once Job vi. 17 ; spoken of the * tor- 
rents in Arabia, which, tltough swollen 
and impetuous in winter, dry up iu sum- 
mer, li'hat time in^»^ they wax warm, 
they vanish ; ^DVil when* it is hot, they 
are consumed out of their place. Thus our 
translators, according to >%hobe iuterpre- 
tation ^T\V iu tlie former hemistich ex- 
cellently answers to IDHl in the latter, 
agreeably to the usual st^le of the book 
of Job ; and this is a strong proof of the 
justness of their version. 


With a radical, (see £2ek. v. 2. Ruth iii. 2* 
Prov. XX. 8, 26. Jer. xxxi. io.) but mu- 
tabte or omissible, n. 

I. In Kal. To scatter, disperse, Exod. 
xxxii. 20. Lev, xxvi, 33. Num. xvi, 37. 
Job xviii. 15. 

II. To cast away, as somewhat filthy. Isa. 

xxx. 22. 

III. To scatter, spread, diffuse, as know- 
ledge. Prov. XV. 7. 

IV. To spread, spread abroad, as a net. 
Prov, L 17, — as dung, Mai. ii, 3. 

V. In Hiph. To disperse, dissipate. Prov* 
XX. 8. 

VI. To scatter or disperse, as com before the 
wind in order to winnow it, in this sense 
to winnow. See Isa. xU. 16. Jer. xv. 7. 
xhx, 32, 36. li. 2.. Prov, xx. a6, A wise 
king rntD winuoweth the wicked, ^o 
UUC Xixp^tjfrwp a winnower, 

«* We shall be wiiwowV with so rough a wind." 


Comp. the foUowmg sense. 
As a N. mto A shacel, which scatters com 
for tcinnowing. occ. Isa. xxx. 24. Jer. 
XV, 7. In the former text mto is clearly 

• Sec Utvth, De Sacra Pocsi Heb. Prxlect. XIL 
p. 245, and 249, edit. Gcttinv, 

f lid part Henry IV< act it. tcese 1, at the end. 
K 4 dibtin- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC_ 





diblinguished from nftl, which, if the 
name of an instrument, (but comp. un- 
der m IX.) must be the fan or winnow- 
ing sheet ; and that text shews the true 
sense both of the V. mt and of the N, 
and tiiHt the latter denotes the same 
as the Greek txnvov, i. e. an instrument 
H'ilh which tliey threw up against the 
wind, and scattered the corn after being 
tlineshed, in order to 8e))arate it from tiie 
chaff and cleanse iU Comp. Greek and 
Eng. Lexicon under Ilruor, 

VII. 'Jo examine thoroughiy, as tlie V. ven- 
tilo is used in Latin, and $ijl in English, 
occ. 1*8. cxxxix, 3 ; where LXX e^ix^i- 
a<ras, and Vuig. iuvestig^ti thou hast 
traced out. 

VIII. As a N. ^T Strange, foreign, a stran- 
ger who had been, as it were, scattered at 
a distance, or cast away from others. For 
it's various apphcations see Exod. xxix 
33. XXX. 9. Lev. X. r. Num. iii. 10. xvi. 
40. 1 K. iii« 18. Job xix. a;. Hence as 
a V. To be strange, estranged, aiieuated, 
occ. Job xix. 13, 17. Ps. Tviii. 4, Ixxviii. 
30. As a Participle Hujph.iDD Estranged, 
a stranger, occ. Ps. Ixix. 9. 

IX* As a N. *il A rim, or cro^n. It is used 
only for those rims or crowns of gold 
which were made rotmd the ark of the 
covenant, the table of shew-bread, and 
the altar of incense, (see Exod. xxv. 
ii,»4. XXX. 3.) and which were pro- 
bably so called from tlieir diverging rays 
of gold, proclaiming in hieroglyphical 
language, that each of these divinely in 
stituted emblems represented the Eternal 
Light y considered under different charac 
tt^rs, even the Sun of Wgkteousness, who 
would in due time difuse his all-healing 
rays throughout the world. 

X. As a N. nil 

I* The hand, considered as spread out or 
expanded, occ. Isa. xl. 12, where it is 
spoken dv^pwirvxa^ias of God. 

2. A span, as much as a man can measure 
with hb band expanded from tlie thumb 
to the little finger, about nine inches, or 
bulf a cubit. The LXX have constantly 
rendered mi bv cnriJatftij a span, and tJiat 
it is equal to naif a cubit appears from 
comparing Ezek. xliii. 13, with ver. 17. 
Comp. under tzj« VII. But observe, 
that as Ezekiel reckons by the larger 
cubit, cdntaining ft cubit and a hand's 

breadth, i. e. about tfrenty-one incbcVf 
so the half-cubit or S|)an must be rec- 
koned at about ten inches and a half, 
occ. Exod. xxviii. 16. xxxix: 9. 1 Sanu 
xvii. 4. Ezek. xliii. 13; in which last 
passage observe it is joined with ^ruf 
masculine; as nMT\ likewise is Ezek. i. 16. 
X. 10. So ntimj is construed as a www- 
culine N. Ezek. i. 7. Dao. x. 6. i K. 
vii. 45. And these seem instances of 
masculine Nouns formed with a servile n. 
Comp. undernlV. 
Hence perhaps Eng. strut, astrut. 

Til To sneeze, to disperse the air from the 
nose with vehemence, occ. 2 K. iv. 35. 
But T^ir may in this view be reterred to 
II or T>l to compress, Vulg. oscitavit, 


I, To be di fused, to spread, or spread itself ^ 
<* diffudit se," (Marius) as the leprosy on 
Uzziah's forehead, occ. 2 Chron.xxvi. 19. 
Job ix, 7, Commanding U^rh the solar 
orb, mr tk)f\ and it is not diffused or dissi* 
pated, as all other fuel we are acquainted 
with is. And is not this truly wonder- 
ful, that notwithstanding the intense and 
inconceivable heat of the solar orb, it 
should continue burning for thousands 
of years without any waste or diminu^ 
<ion 9 But HE spake the word and it was 
done, HE commmded and it stood fast. 

II. To be difused, to spread, as the mom or 
solar light, on a iiice of the earth or on 
it's inhabi^dnts. So Gen. xxxii. 51, or 32, 
And the solar light ^b TTIT* rose, i. c. was 
diffused, upon him. Exod. xxii. 3, If the 
solar light vh^'Jimi be diffused upon him. 
Comp. a K. iii. 22. So of 'IW the lights 
2 Sam. xxiii. 4. Ps. cxii. 4; and of the 
WDm Light or Sun of Righteousness, Mai, 
iv. 2 ; and of Chnst the Glory of the 
Lord, Isa. xli. 2, 25. Comp. Deut. 
XXX iii. 2. 

Tiie ancient Greek poets use the same* 


Thus Homer, II. viii. lin. ij 

HftS jurt xfo*<Kr«rXo; EKI ANATO vsatrtci Ell* ataVy 
The saffron morn was sprtMcl upon the earth. 

And Mimnennus, Tlspi fiis, 

"Oaoy T* Eni yn» KIANATAI 'HEAIOS, 

As whilst the sun is sfrtad upon the earth. 

Comp. Greek and Eng, Lexicon under 


' As 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

jnt— tDtT 


ns)p^— p'^t 

As Ns. mt A being diffused, a d^g^on, 
8$ of the light, occ. Isa. Ix. 3. rr.tD 
Tie 9im-rmng, orient or «Mf , where the 
ttm or «o/ar Ught is first ^reat/ upon the 
earth* Ps. ciii. la, & al. freq. Comp. 
Num. xxi. ir. Deut. iv. 47, in which 
and many other places wvm the solar 
light is expressed. 

III. As a N. mm /I native tree diffusing it's 
shoots and branches, ore. Ps. xxxvii. 35. 
Jerome mdigena a native tree. Comp. 

rV. As a N. mm A natite^ as opposed to 
*)J a sqjournery One who has taken root 
as It were, in the country where he lives, 
and is spreading abroad uis branches. 
E&od. xii. 19, & al. freq. 

Deh. Saxon j*tfiecan^ and Eng. To stretch. 


To four, pour forth, pour over, occ. Ps. 
Ixxvii. 18, the clouds IDI? pour fortli 
waters. Ps. xc. 5, tDHOlt Thou over- 
whebaest them as a flood. As a N. ts^l 
-A storm, as of rain or hail. Isa. xxv. 4. 
xxviii. 2. An inundation, flood, torrent. 
Job xxnr. 8. Hab. iii. 10, The inunda- 
tiou, or overflowing of the waters passed 
away, Comp. Josh. iii. 15, 16. Isa. 
xxviii. 2. Abo, A copious flux, or isst/e, 
£zek. xxiii. 20. As a N. ont An in- 
vndation, (Qur) Isa. i. 7, at the end of 
the verse, where see Bp. Loxvth's Note, 
to which I sidd that M. de Calasio re- 
markably puts tliis text under tlie Root 
tDnt am! renders the word, inundationts. 
But whether the true readiog of it be 

. tant or cnr it may with the precedmg 
on serve as an instance of Isaiah's fa- 
vourite figure, Paronomasia. 

Deb. Storm, stream, swarm. 


To spread abroad. It occurs not as a V. 
simply in this sense, but tlib appears to 
be ihe leading idea from the tilings to 
which the word is applied in Hebrew ; 
and in thf" Syriac version of Jam. L 1, it 
signifies to spread abroad, disperse. 

!• As a N. ^.T Tiie seed of vegetables, ani- 
mals or meq, bv which tlie species are 
spread abroad and multiplied. Gen. i. 1 1. 
iv. 25. vii. 3, & al. freq. Hence used 
for children, ofl^*pring, or poster it t^. Gen. 
IX. 9. xii. 7. Lev. XX. 2, & al. freq* 
As a V. ui Kal. To sow. It may eitbf»r 
. bt coxi5idcrcd as a V. formed from the N . 

or as applied in an appropfiated sense for 
spreading abroad or dispersing seed, or the 
like i for it b once used for planting cut- 
tiogs or shoots, Isa. xvii. 10. It is spoken 
either of tlie seed, Gen. xxvi. ia« 
£xod. xxiii. 16.— -or of the land, £xod« 
xxiii. 10. Lev. xix. 19. In Niph. To be 
sown, as seed, Lev, xi. 37.— orasland^ 
£j!ek. xxxvi. 9. Applied to a woman. 
Num. V. 28. In Niph. To form, yield 
or produce seed, as vegetables, occ. Gen. 
i. 1 1, 12. — as a woman, occ. Lev. xii. 2. 
As a N. )nt Time of sofwing, seed-time. 
Gen. viii. 22. I^v. xxn., 5. As Ns. 
masc. pi. CD^jnt Things sorwn, vegetables^ 
pulse, occ. Dan. i. 12. ts^^^t The same. 
occ. Dan. i. t6. 

II. As Ns. fem. in'it and jnt, PI. tMnt and 
ni^! The arm, which is capable of being 
spread abroad, or extended trom the body. 
It is very frequently joined with rrto^ to 
stretch out, Exod. vi. 6. Deut iv. 34. 
V. 15. vii. 10, & al. freq. It is very 
often,, at in the tet cited texts, aaeribwi 
av^pwtoifa&Ms to God. As Ns. with a 
formative m, rilTM and )^im The same, 
occ. Jer. xxxii. 21. Job xxxi. 22. Hence 

III. As a N. fem. nt The shoulder or 
fore-leg of a beast. Num. vi. 19. Deut. 

xviii. 3. 
Dbb. Gr. r^ooi old Lat. strao, (whence 
straxfi, stratum, stragulum, &c.) and £Dg. 
straw or strew. 

I. To sprinkle, Asperse m small masses* 
Spoken of liquids, Exod. xxiv. 6. Ezek. 
xxxvi. 25. — of solids, Exod. ix. 8, 10. 
Job ii. xii. Ezek. x. 2. As a N. pro 
A vessel used in sprinkling, a sprinkling 
vessel, a bason, bowl, or &c. Exod. 
xxvii. 3. & al. freq. 

II. To appear here and there, as if sprinkled* 
occ. Hos. vii. 9. 

Dkr. Streak. Qu.> 
nil See under mt X. 


Or Words of more than three Letters, be- 
ginning with T. 

As a N. fem. nt)i)Vr plur. niB))^ A scorch^ 
ing, blasting wind. Michaelis on lA)wth'9 
Prxlect. not. 41, p. i6R^edit. Gotting* 
explains nifij^il Ps, xi. 6, of that pestiletf- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Hst deitrueinx wind wtU known to the 
caatera natioost and by the Arabs called 
Smiim; and he observes, that the Syriac 
translator, in rendering the Heb. words by 
MiTinoi ikrm windof'destntction, appears 
to have understood their true sense. This 
meaning seems also veiy applicable to 
Lam. V. lo. (which see under iDd II.) 
Aiid in Fs. cxix. $3> the only remaining 
text where the word occurs, it is plainly 
used m a figurative sense for themoit hor- 
rid mental distress. But what is the dc- 
rivatiou of the compound term rttU^bt? 
perhaps from ^b\ (Arab.) to be corrupt, 
• as a wound ('* corruptum fuit, pravo uo- 
do se habuit vulnus," CasUU,) and f\)f to 
vibrait, flutter *, ** It sometimes hap- 

* The reader maj find other conjectures con- 
cemiB^ the deriTation of thit -word in Miebmeiis 
Stq^fOem. ad Lex. Heb. p. 6^, 4. 

says Niebukr, speaking of the 
Smiim (Descript de TAraoie, p. 8i.) 
'* that during an excessive heat there 
.coflMS a brtath ^ mr still more burmng 
(un soufle d'air encore plus brulani), and 
that then both men and beasts being al- 
ready overpowered and taint, this small 
increase ot heat eutirely deprives them 
ot* respiradon." For an account of the 
other effects of tliis destructive putryj/ing 
wind» and for jthe confirmation of the 
derivation here proposed of ruo^t see 
under rvw L 

As a N. (from mt to scatter^ spread^ and 
nci nearly related to nsir to overflow. 
Comp. under n&t) yf watering by drops^ 
m dripping soaking rain. Once Ps. Ixxii. 6. 
where Targ. {'tto:i distilling, dropping. 
So LXX ra^ao-su, and Vulg* stiUaiotia. 

Kan— 5n 


Occurs not as a V. in Kal, but the idea evi- 
dently is. To be bounds obUged, to pay- 
ment or punishment. It is oilen used in 
tliese senses both in Chaldee and Syriac 
As a Participial N. 2in A person bound 
to payment, a debtor; so LXX of «Af v7o;, 
and Vulg. debitori. occ. Ezck. xviii. 7. 
As a V, in Hipli. n>n (droppmg the for- 
mative n as in pi, tyiO, &c.)^ To make 
bound or obliged to punishment, occ. Dan. 
i. 10, i?Db ^um^ n« IDDIW And ye shall 
make my head answerable to the king. 


To hide, conceal. In Niph. To be hid, con- 
cealed. Josh. x. 16, 17, 27, fral^freq. 
With b and a V. Infin. fblbwing. To be 
concealed in doing a thmg, to do it secretly. 
Gen, xxxi. 27. In Hiph. To hide, shel- 
(eji. Josh. vL J7i 25. Isa. xlix. 2. In 


Hftb. To hide oneself, take shelter. Gen. 
iu. 8. X Sam. xiv. 1 1 . As a N. Hino A 
hiding place, occ. i Sam. xxiiL 23. 2sa. 
xxxii. 2. 

With a radical, but mutaMe or omissible^ n. 
It seems nearly related to the preceding 
Hiin^ as 7w:i to Htoa, ntiT] to M&n &c 
Comp. I K. xxii. 2$, with 2 Chron. 
xviii. 24. And it should be observed^ 
that in Josh. ii. 16. i K. xxii. 25. » K. 
vii. 12. Jer. xlix. 10, many of Dr. Ken^ 
meow's Codices read the Verb with the M, 

I. In Kal, To hide, hide oneself, occ. Isa. 
xxvi. 20 ; where observe, that >m seems 
to be not feminine but mascvHne, * being 
substituted for n as usual 4n other Inflec- 
tions of Verbs with n final. In Niph. To 
be hidden, occ. Josh. ii. 16. 1 K. xxn. 2C. 
2 K. viL la. Jer. xlk. 4g« As a N. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

bnrr— ann 



ppn A kiding place, covert, occ* Hab 

" iti. 4 ; where it seems to denote the cloud 
m which the divine glory appeared. See 
Baf(^% Crit. Heb. 

JI. As a N. in A hidden, or secret place, 
tie bosom, in which sense the word is of- 
ten used in the Samaritan version. So 
Vulg. smu, and Targ. fp)f occ. Job xxxi. 
33* If t covered my transgressions, as 
Adam, by hiding my inhjuities >nm in my 

• bosom. It does not, liowever, appear 
irom the sacred history in Gen. iii. tiiat 
Adam did this. And we must remember 
that in tiiis book neither Job nor his 
friends spake by inspiration, and there- 
fore might be, and, no doubt, often were 
mtstakoi. See Job xxxviii. i. xl. 2, 4, 
5. xlii. 3, 6, 7. 

m. As a N. nnn, see Root nin, 

^in To hide or cherish in the bosom, to che- 
rish, in which sense, according to Ma- 
rius de Calasio, it is used likewise in 
Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. Comp. Cos- 
fell, Lexic. in ^in. occ. Deut. xxxiiL 3. 
Surely istl he hath cherished, (Vulg. 
dilexit, he hnth Inved) the peoples, i. e. 
the tribes of Israel. Comp. under tD^. 


To thresh, or beat with a stick or staff, as 
com or fruit trees, occ. Deut. xxiv. 20. 
Jod. vi. II. Ruth ii. 17. Isa. xxvii. 12. 
xxviii. 27 ; from which last passage the 
idea b evident. It is used in the same 
sense both in Syriac and Arabic. See 
Casfell, and Michaelis. And the LXX 
render it by ha^^itfu to thresh with a rod 
or stick, Judg. vi. 11. Ruth ii. 17. So 
by ^tdw rtyaa-cuji Isa. xxviii. 27. 

From this Root, by dropping the aspirate 
n, may perhaps be derived the Latin 
batvoy Saxon bearan, Welsh baeddu, 
French battre, Italian battere, Spanish 
bafir; all of which Junius (Etymol. An- 
glic, in BEATE) well observes seem to 
be from some common origin. Hence 
9IS0 the £ng. to beat, a bat (to strike 
with), battle, batter, battery, &c. beetle, 
a heavy maUet. 


To bind,tye, connect. Confine, or passively to 
be bomd, 8cc. It occurs not, however, as 
a V. simply in any of these senses, but 

I. As a N. ?an 

I, A cord, or rope by which tilings are 
bomvdf &ۥ Josh. iL 15. Jer. xxxviii. 6, 

& al. fteq. hi^ b^n The cord xf the 
, yoke, what binds it to the neck. Isa. 
X. 27, 

Josephus, Ant. Kb. viii. cap. 14, § 4, 
relating the history of 1 K. xx. 30, 3I9 
says, *0t h 9'satKSs evhcxfisvoi %cu <r;^oi- 
vta rai^ KSfaXmis wspt^sfMyoi, arcc;; yap 
ro ma^xiov Diertvoy 61 ^vooi, x. r. X. but 
they being clothed in sackcloth, and hav^ 
ing put cords about their heads, for such 
was tie mcimt mode of suppUcatioi^ 
among the Syrians, &c. — We meet with 
something like this among the Babyh* 
nians, in the female suppliants al the 
temple of Mylitta; for these also used to 
be crowned with cords. Comp. under 
Hence Eng. cable. 

2. The roping of a ship, though rendered 
mast. Prov. xxiii. 34, As he thai ketk 
^n m«i2 at the top of the roping, i. e. 
where it is fastened to the mast. So 
perhaps Jon. i. 6, b^nn T\ the master rf 
the roping^ i. e. the officer who imme- 
diately presided over the management 
of the ropesy and the navigating of the 
ship. Plur. in Reg. >^nn Ropes, tackHngs. 
occ. Isa. xxxiii. 2.^. 

3. Plur. in Reg. liope^men, sailors employed 
, in handliftg the ropes. £zek. xxvii. 8, 27,. 

& al. In the last cited passage "h^n are 
distinguished from ^ni^D 1. e. I suppose, 
the ordinary or inferiour seamen. 

4. A tract or portion of land which used to 
be measured by a rope or cord, as it is 
with us by a chain. (So Zech. ii. i, or 5, 
rtiD b:ir\ a cord of measuring, a measure 
ing cord) Deut. iii. 4, xxxii. 9. Comp. 
Ps. xvi. 6. (where see Dr. Hammonds 
and Mr. Merrick's note) Ps. Ixxviii. 55. 
Amos vii. 17. Mica ii. 5. 2 Sam. viii. 2. 
*< And he measured two ///ie«— Repeat, 
from the foregoing word, ten a line, to 
put to death, and the fulness of a line to 
keep alive. And this supplement is na- 
tural and agreeable to the language. 
Many instances may be produced of this 
nature. Thus Ps. cxxxiii. 3. • ex. 3. 
cxii. 8. — He measured them by line, u e. 
he divided the country of the Moabites 
into several parts, that he might the bet- 
ter know what towns it was most proper 
to demolish — and to extirpate the inha- 
bitants of them. Let me just add, that 
the ].lenitud$ or fulness of the line seems 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




to denote a very large tract of the coun- 
try; and might be larger, for any thing 
our author can tell, than that where the 
inhabitants were ordered to be put to 
death." Dr. Chandier's Review of the 
History of the Man after God'a own 
Heart, p. 1 79, notes, where see more. 

5. ^ rope^ or card set for a snare, laqucus. 
Job xviii. 10. Tlie 'fen Snares or ioUs 
of death or the grave, Ps. xviii. 6. 2 Sam. 
\%n. 6, 8c al. allude to tbe ancient man- 
ner of hunting, which is still practised in 
some countries, and was performed b^ 
** surrounding a considerable tract of 
^ound by a circle of nets (comp. Ps/ 
exi. 6.)> and afterwards contracting the 
circle by degrees, till they had forced all 
the beasts <^ that quarter together into 
a narrow compass; and then it was 
that the slaughter began. Tiiis manner 
of hunting was used in Italy of old, as 
well as all over tbe eastern parts of the 
world * ; and it was from this custom 
that the poets sometimes represent Death 
as surrounding p/>rsons tvith her nets, and 
as tncontpassing them on every side. Thus 
Statins, lib. v. sylv. 1, lin. i$6, 

f* Furvn miserum circum undique Lethi 
Vallavere plagae." 

Spencers Polymetis Dial. ivi. p. 26%, 3 
So HoracCy lib. iii. ode 24, lin. 8, uses 
the expression Laqueis mortis toils or 
nets of death. 

6. The silver core/, Eccles. xii. 6, denotes the 
whole spinal marrow from if s coming 
out of the skull, with all it's nervous 
tranches; that cord, composed of many 
fibres, which regulates the motions of 
^very part of the body, and which is 
properly denominated stiver^ on account 
of it*8 retired situation, it's excellency, 
and especially of it's respondent white- 
ness, like jthat of silver. See more in So- 
lomon's Portraiture of Old Age^ by Dr. 
Smith^p. 178, &c. 

7. A string of persons folloTDtng one another. 
occ. I Sain. x. $, 10. 

ILTo be bound J confined, straitened, occ. 
Job xvii. I, Mjf breath rh^Ti is confined, 
straitened, oppressed ( Vulg. attenuatur) ; 

* Comp. yirgU JEn. iv. lin. 121, 131. And for 
an entertaining and instructive account of this 
mode of huntinj^, as practised by the modern east- 
ern nations^ tee ^'.^aw'sTravtlt, p. ^35. 

my days are extinct, the sepulchral dtlt$ 
(are ready) for me; for in the elephantia- 
sis. Job's distemper, '< Death b usually 
caused by a viyfent suffocation.'^ So Arte- 
teas.'* Michaelis* Recueil dc Questions, 
p. 75. Asa N. fen A gird, or girding 
pain, Tormen. Job xxi. 1 7 ; particularly 
as of a woman in travail. Isa. xiii. 8. 
xxvi. 17. Ixvi. 7, ^n Throes, pangs, 9ie 
used for the young which occasion them. 
occ. Jobxxxix. 3 ; where the LXX ren-' 
der it by il$ivasy which is applied in the 
same manner by the profane Greek writ- 
ers. Thus in the Orphic llynm to Senu^le, 
lin. 4, 

'fl fxcyaXac (lillNAZ EAA2XATO tat/afvw ttvyi% 
Cast forth ber sorrezvs in tbe fiery b'iaze. 

And Callimachus in his Hymn to Delos, 
lin. lao. 

The lioness casts forth her savage /ongY. 

As a V. To ^, as it were, in labour or 
traraily with wickedness. Ps. vii. 15. 

III. To bind or oblige another to oneself 5y 
a pledge, to take a pledge from. Job 
xxii. 6, For ^tth fenn thou hast bound 
by a pledge, or taken a pletlgc from, thy 
brethren for nothing. Also, To take for 
a pledge. Job xxiv. 3. Exod. xxii. %6. 
Deut. xxiv. 6, 17. But Cant. viii. j. 
should be rendered, I raised thee up under 
the citron tree ; there thy mother *\rhin 
received a pledge for thee ; there she re- 
ceived a pledge that bare thee. To this 
purpose Mr. Harmer, in the Outlines of 
a New Commentary on Solomon*s Song, 
P- 35U a, who very justly observes, that 
the *' common translation of this verse 
cannot be right ; the eastern people, says 
he (p. 3 JO), eat, drink, and sleep under 
trees, but they do not bring forth their 
children there. — And if such a circum- 
stance had happened, to what purpose is 
it mentioned here?" As a N. ^nn, and 
fem. in Reg. rhiT} (£2;ek. xviii. 7*) A 
pledge by which one is bound to another, 
a real bond. £zek. xviii 12, i6« xxxiii. f $• 

IV. Srace taking any tiling upon pledge is 
taking the propriety of it from the former 
owner for a time, and if there be not king 
to redeem it, for ever; hence l^nnisin 
some connections equivalent to takisg 
(tway, seizing ttpon, spoiling^ ot tbe like. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Ecdes. V. 5, or 6. Tsa. xiii. 5. liv. 16. 
xxxii. 7, tD^ii? bnnb to seize upon t/te 
jmr, take away their property, the Verb 
being ajipUed not only to the thing, but 
to the person, in this as well as in the 
preceding sense. Or should we not ra- 
ther translate, ^ith Bishop Lvwth^ to en- 
tangle the hitmble witk l^ng words f 
Cant. ii. 1 <>, The little foxes ox jackaUs 
^'rro CD^?2no, (not who spoil the vine- 
yards 6y eatwg the grapes^ for the scene 
of this book of Canticles is in tlie spring, 
several montlnt be tore the grapes are ripe 
inJudea, but) uho seize upon the vine- 
Yards, as if they were taken in pledge, 
by surroundiuv them in the night in 
great nuinben>, and with their disagree- 
able bowlines disturbing the owners, as 
the^ animals do in that country to this 
day See RusseIN Nat. Hist, of' Aleppo, 
p. 60, and Hanner's Outlines, ic. 
p. aq6, &c. 

V. Tobe btnind or obliged to punishment, 
Prov. xiii. 13, He that despiseth the word 
"h hixv shall be bound to it, shall become 
dfnoxious to punishment on that account. 
Viii:;^. Ipse se in futurum obligat, he 
obliges or binds himself /of the future. 
Neh. i. 7, ^^ libnn 5an IVe are strongly 
bound to thee, i. e. liable to severe pumsh- 
meiU from thee. So Mic. ii. 10, i»nnn 
pci ^2rn Jt is bound even with a griev- 
ous bond; or> // is bound, and the bond 
is grievous. Job xxxiv. ^i, Is it to be said 
(cHnp. ver. 18.) to God, I have suffered 
5an« H^ (what) I was not obliged to, or, 
did not deserve ? 

n. As a N. fem. in Reg. nVinnn A well- 
connected design, a counsel wisely con- 
certed, occ. Job xxxvii. la. So in plur. 
iTiiann occ. Prov. i. j. xi. 14. xii. 5. 
XX. iB. xxiv. 6. 

ni. As £or the meaning of destroying, cor^ 
rupting, or spoiling, whieh the Lexicons 
and translators have given to thb Heb. 
word, I th^u^L it should be expunged. 
The texts where it has been supposed to 
have this agniiication are noted under 
the preceding senses. 

nu. Cbald. As a v. it is rendered to 
destroy, hurt, and the Nouns^ hurt, da^ 
mage. But it seems to be applied nearly 
in the same view as the Hebrew hin in 
Sense IV. above. Dan. vi. 22, or 23, And 
(the lions) »i'\i>^n vh have not^ seized me, 

It occurs also as a V. Ezra vi. 12. Dan. 
iv. 20 or 23. ii. 44. vi. 26 or 27. vii. 14. 
As Ns. byti A seizing, as of fire on per- 
sons, occ. Dan. iii. 2^.^-of lions, occ 
Dan. vi. 25. M^sn A seizing, incroack- 
ment, occ. Ezra vi. 12. n^in Nearly 
the same. Dan. vi. 22 or 23. 

I. To fold together, as the hands or anm. 
occ. Eccles. iv. j. As a N. pin Afdd" 
ing, as of the hands or anus. occ. Prov. 
vi. 10. xxiv. 33. 

II. To infold, embrace, in love and afiectioo. 
Gen. xxix. 13. 2 K.iv. 16^ &aL Comp. 
Prov. iv. 8. 

lU. To embrace, lay hold on, occ. Job 
xxiv. 8, They embrace or cling to the rock 
for want of' shelter. Lam. iv. J, Those 
that were brought up in, or nursed om^ 
scarlet embrace dunghills, i. e. are glad 
to lodge m those v^^tched hovek where 
the people of the East lay up their ^com 
dung, and other excrementitious suimtanceM 
for fiieL 

I. To conjoin, join or ft together; as tht 
curtains of the tabernacle, &:c. See 
Exod. xxvi. 3 — II. xxxvi. 10 — 18. As 
Ns. fem. mnn A joining, coupling, Exod. 
xxvi. 4, & al. rrinno Nearly the same, 
or place of joining, Exod. xxvi. 4, 5, 

II. In Kal, To join, consociate, as friends or 
allies. Gen. xiv. 3. Jud. xx. 1 1. 2 Cliron. 
XX. 36. In Hith. and Cbald. 1th. To 

join, associate oneself, aChron.xx. 35,37. 
As a participial N. nan An associate^ 
companion, friend, Ps. cxix. 63, &al. In 
plur. it seems to denote the associated 
merchants, or merchants-companions, who 
belonged to the same caravan. Job xl. 25, 
or xli. 6. Prov. xxi. 9. xxv. 24, (It is) 
better to dwell in a corner of the house^ 
top than (with) a brawling woman n»ll 
'im in a wide house, say our transla- 
tors, placing in the margin, an house of 
society. For the illustration of tlie for- 
mer part of these texts, see Harmer*9 Ob- 
servations, vol. i. p. 172. On the latter 
part I observe, that the LXX render the 
Heb. *)an noi by ev qikw koivw, so Vulg. 
by in domo communi, in a common house^ 
i. e. in a house common, or shared out, to 

* See^<rrir^*f Ob8ervationi|VoLi.p.856. 


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•CTcral ftmilks. For *^ the genera] nc- 
tliod ot* building," says Dr. Shaw (Tra- 
vels, p. ao;, 8.)9 '' both in Barbary and 
the Levant, seems to havt continued the 
same from the earliest ages, down to this 
time, without the lei^st alteration or im- 
provement. Large doors, spacious cham- 
bers, &c.-*The court is tor the most part 
surrounded with a cloyster, over which, 
when the house has one or more stories, 
there m a gal&ery erected. — From tlie 
cloysters or galleries we are conducted 
into Urge tpiacious chambers of the same 
lengtli with the court, but seldom or ne- 
ver communicating witli one another. 
One of them frequently serves a whole 

.family ; particularly iihefi a father in- 
dulgeskis married children to- live with him; 
or when several persons join t» the rent of 
the same house.** Here then we have a 
^^ti MO, i. e. a house common to several 

familitSt and of course roomy or spacious. 

III. In Hipli. To join or tack sentences or 
words together, pec. Job xvi. 4, i could 
tack together C<^ldJ sayings against you; 
alluding to the speech of Eliphaz^ who 
in the preceding chapter had urged such 
sayings against Job. See Scott's Poetical 
Translation. And this text may throw 
light on the following application of the 

IV. To join words together for the purposes 
qfincantationy to use spells or inchantinents. 
And as a N. ^un An iitchantment, occ. 
Deut. xviii. 1 1 . (wliere Targum \o^ J loi 
a muttererqfaspell, or charm, LXX ^ao- 
fucKo; eittei^ajy siraoi^ a sotxerer singing 
a spell ox charm) Ps. Iviii. 6. (where Targ. 
jto^ ^ito*), Symmachus frar^^ a charmer J 
Isa. xlvii. 9, 12. (where LXX etraoi^ujy 
spelk, chartns). The notion of perform- 
ing wonderfiil or miraculous feats by 
charms or spells has prevailed anions: all 
the nations of the world. >iio doubt, the 
or%in of so odd, though universal^ an 
opinion^ was the real miracles performed 

-^ the word of the prophets of the Al- 
mighty, whom the devil would needs ape 
in this as in other instances. Isaiah, 
eh. viii* 19, expressly mentions wiz/sards 
that peep and that mutter ; pretending 
doubtless by such peeping and muttering 
to procure tkt assistance of the power of 
the air, or of the prince of it ; but all 
such pretenaiona» woether true or false, 

were not only a forsaking of God, but a 
setting up of his creatures against him, 
and therefore were expressly forbidden 
to his people, and that under pain of 
death. (SeeExod. xxii. 18. Lev. xx. 27.) 
But besides these highly criminal incan- 
tations, it appears from Ps. Iviii. 6, and 
other passages, that they had a metliod 
(as some of the Easterns still have) of 
charming serpents by sounds, so as to ren- 
der them 'tractable and harmless. But of 
this see more under O^n^, and comp. 
Bate's CriU Heb. in^nn. To tlirow light 
on the expression onnn 'liin, Ps.lviii.6. 
wbicli 1 know not how better to translate 
than by the chanter of incantations or 
charms, I would observe that tlie ancients 
expressly ascribe the incantation of ^r- 
pente to the human voice. Thus in Apol^ 
ionius Rhodius, Medea is said to have 
soothefl the monstrous serpent or dragon 
which guarded the golden fleece, with 
her sweet voice, 

'HIuv ENOIIHt ^fX^ou rifu; 

Lib. iv. lin. 147. 

And the laying of that dragon to sleep is 
by Ovid, Metam. lib. vii. lin. 153». 5, 
ascribed to the words uttered by Jason^ 

Ytthzquetfr dixH pUutdes faclentia tmnnosf^m 

So Virgil attributes the like effects on ser- 
pents to the soag^ as well as to the touch 
of the inchanter, JEn. vii. lin. 753, &c. 

Viperen ^eneri^ etgra'viter spirantttus Hydris^ 
Spargcre qui somnos cantuque manuque sotehat^ 
Mukebatque iras, l^ morttu arte levaktt* 

V. As a N. fern. JtTiin A contusion^ bruise, 
by which a number of the small vessels 
are broken, and the blood and humours 
tliey contained are collected together, but 
not discharge. Exod. xxi. 25. Prov. 
XX. 30. 

'^y^^^^ Occurs not as a V. in this redupli- 
cate form, but as a N. fem. plur. in 
Reg. ^nininn The black q)ots of the leo- 
pardy so called from their resemblance 
to contusions or bruises on the huqiian 
body, oca Jen xiii. 23. 

I. To bind round or about, as with ropes. 
£z^. xxvii^ 24, 

II. In I^, To bindj^ as ornaments about 


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tin \mA. Exod. xiix. 9. Let. viii, t$, 
€oii{». Eeek. xvi. 10. Jon. ii. 6. Job 
xl. 8, or 1 3, Wnd thdrjacu in the secret 
fiofx or 9epnichre, It seeios an allusion 
to the dotiis bouf^ abQttt the faoes of the 
dead. Comp. John xi. 44. xx. 7. 
in. Id Kal, To gird or saddle a beast to 
ride 00. So LXX, trequendy tfriffeLrlu. 
Gen. xxii. 3 Jud. xix. 10. Tbere is 
BO ground for supposing tiiat the ancient 
eastern saddles were like our modern 
ones, and tiirtiisbed wilh stirrups, ^c. 
Such were not known to the Greeks and 
Romans till many ages after the He- 
brew Judges. *' Let us remark, says 
the learned and inquisitive Goguet^ that 
mo nathn of tuitiquity knew the use of 
either saddUs or stirrups.*' Origin of 
Laws, vol. iii. p. 172, English edit. 
And even in our own times the Swedbh 
traveller Hasselquisi, when at Alexandria 
in Egypt y says, '' I pro<rared an equi- 
page which I had never used before. It 
was an ass with an At^bi^n saddle, which 
eonsliited only of a cushion <hi which I 
could sit, aud a liandsome bridle.'^ Tra- 
vels p. 52. Bui even the ctc^^icm seems 
an improvement upon the ancient east- 
em saddles., which were probably no- 
thing more than a kind o^' rug girded to 
the beast. 

IV. In Kal, To bind or he bound up^ as 
wounds, Isa. i. 6; or broken limbs, 
Ezek. XXX. 21. xxxiv. 4. But in this 
view it is commonly applied figuratively 
to ccw^rrtwo- (he aiiiicted, as Job v. 18. 
Ps. cxlvii. 3. Isa. Ixi. i ; or to repairing 
what was destroyed in a kint;dom or state, 
as Isa. XXX. 26. Comp. Isa. iii. 7. 

V. In Kal, To bind, or oblige by laws or 
guTerumenty to govern. Job xxxiv. 17, 
IFhat? shall he who hateth right (as 
Job in his impatience had supposed God 
to do) govern ? And will thou condemn 
him who is tmincntly just f That is, 
Shall not the Judge of all the tartk do 
right ? 


Occun not as a V. in Heb. but as a N. 
masc. plur. tDTtin Flat plates or sUces, 
(Eng. marg.) occ. 1 Chron. ix.-3i. So 
fem. nnno The same, a fiat plate of 
metal. That this is the true sense of the 
words, appears from Ezek. iv. 3, Take 
mto thee n:}no a flat pfaOt or slice (£og. 

natg«) <if iron, and set ii for a wall of 
iron, &c. it occurs also, Lev. ii. c. 
vi. $1. vii. 9. r Ciiron. xxiii. 39; in 
all which passages, though our traiula- 
tion renders it a pan, it seems rather 
to denote such a plate of metal as the 
Arabs * still use to bahe theur cakes of 
bread on. And this interpretation is 
confirmed by the sense of the Verb in 
Arabic, which Schultens (MS. Orig. 
Heb.) says is properiy« pl^gps, com- 
planatus fuit, to be fiat, plain, otfiaJttcd, 
which I take to be also the tadUal idea 
of the Heb. word, 


It denotes circularity ef motion wform^ 

I. To move or reel round, like a drunken 
man. occ. Ps., evii. a 7. So Montanus, 
iverunt in orbem, they went round. As 
a N. iin or :in A circle, orbit or sphere* 
occ. isa. xl. aft, IVho sitteth upon, or 
rather aU^ y^t^n y\n the curcuit, or 
orbit of the earth, and ail the inhabitants 
thereof are as grasskbppers. This text 
seems to relate to the circular rcvobttion 
of the earth in it*s orbit. Job X3^ 14, 
He walketh fvponj tD^rsm X\n the circuit 
or circular cu-cumference of the heavens. 
This shews that Eliphax thought the 
heavens were of a circular or spherical 
form. And so likewise thought the Son 
of Sirach, Ecclus. xxiv. 5, FTPON OT- 
PANOT sw^Xwa^a. [i^omi I alone (says 
Wisdom) compassed the circuit of hea« 
ven. Job xxvi. 10, Jin pn He hath de* 
scribed a sphere over the face of the 
waters. Prov. viii. 27, Ain ipni When 
he described a sphere over the face of the 
deep. These two last texts mutually 
illustrate each other, and plainly relate 
to the formation of the spherical shell 
of earth over the central abyss or great 

II. As a N. fem. n:i)no An instrument to 
mark out circles, a compass X)r pair of com" 
passes, occ. Isa. xUv. 13. 

lit. The word is applied to the celebration 
of religiotfs^ feasts, whether m honour of 

• See Harmer% Observ.itiofis, vol. i. p. 232, &c. 
To what that sentible writer hat produced, I add 
the testimony of Nithttbr, Description dc TArabtc^ 
p. 46: Let^ Arabet dv Dettrt se Mtvent d'une 
Plmfue duFer pour cuire leun paint ou gateaux. So 
in his Voyage, torn. i. p. 168, Apr^ que let Arabet 
ont Sormi un grand |at«au plat a* pS(e> ilf le 

cuitent tur ua^ to^iS^ t^Ufut dt JPgr* 


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ibe trn«God; or of Idols, as t K.ifi.^; 
and in die reduplicate form it piainly de- 
notes dancing romtd in circles, i Sam. 
XXX. 1 6. It 18 moreover certain irom 
Judg. xxi* 19, 21. a Sam. vi. 14, 16. 
I CliroD. XV. 29, that reUgiaus dances 
were used in the worsbip of the true 
God ; and it is well known how emi- 
nent a part they made of the religious 
rites of the * ancient Heathen, as they 
do of^he t modem to this day; and 
there can be little doubt but that (as 
I Hutchinson has well obseinred) the an- 
cient idolaters did by these dances intend 
to attribute the progressive rotations of 
the tartk and ^ pldhets in their circular 
orbits to the independent power of their 
God, the Heavens ; and that the per- 
formance of this service by believers was 
designed to reclaim those motions to Je* 
liov^, as tlie original audior of them. 
Thus lar all is clear: But whether the 
several sacred /easts were denominated 
3n from the circular dances which con- 
stituted so remarkable a part of the ser- 
vices performed on them, as Mr. Hut* 
chinson || thought ; or whether the term 

* From whence the Mahometaa Dervises also 
derive their artuUUory or rotatwy damcuy of which 
8ee the excellent Observations on ibe Religion, &C. 
of the Turks, p. 42, 43, note, 2d edit. 
. f For instances see Pitart's Ceremonies and 
Religious Customs of all Nations, vol. tii. p. 87, 88, 
lao, 160, 177, 234, English edit. fol. 
I Moses* Principia, part ii. p. «59, & aL 
§ There is a very remarkable passage to our pre- 
sent purpose in Lueian Ui^i O;yy\ctioi,vo\. i. p. 913, 
edit. BeneJ. where he tayt to his friend—** First of 
all you seem to me to be ignorant that this business 
of dancing is not novel, nor an a£^r of yesterday, 
which began in the days of our fathers or grand- 
fathers; but they who have given the truest ac- 
count of the oHein of dancing will tell you, that it 
had it*s rise wich the first beginning of all things, 
and was coeval with that ancient God Lovk. 'h y*n 
y^opfitt Tuiv a^{^,XAi H exfO( tm; a'vAavfif iwv xffhavQwv 
flV^TXoxnf xflw tvfi^BfXo; aty7xv jtojvivnot, luu ivraxTo; 
a^/uiovt« Tnf WfauTtyow ofyna-iw; inyiJMta t^i. For the 
tboral revolution of the stars, and the eomplicaied motion 
mf the pianHs amo/^ the fxed start, and thtir regular 
^onunmnion with *acb other, and taelh^dtred harmony, 
are instances of tbe primmvcd dancing.** Comp. Mil- 
ion's Par. Lost, book iii. 1. 579< Sc v,l 620, &c. 
Mons. f^olmey thinks that the sacred donee of the 
Mahometan Dervhes is intended to imitate the mo- 
tions of the ttars^-" ia danse des Dervkhes, dont ks 
tourmyements ont pour objet d'imiter les mi/vementi 
des Astres.** Voyage en Syrie, torn, ii, p. 403, note 
il See hit Introductioa to Moses' Sine Princip. 
p. 244, ... 

in only refers to the periodical rrfiinf rf 

the reitgioits solemnity^ and ^' mem 

only, as Bate (Crit. Heb.) expresses it 

the day returning at its round" I woflid 

wish the attentive reader to deloHBe 

for himself: Either way the naoK in is 

significant and proper, and is fteqnestij 

used for the festival itMlf, and a fern 

times for the festival victim, or ammsis 

sacrificed at the festival^ £xod. xxiiL 18. 

Ps. cxviii. 27. Mai. ii. 3, where Bishof 

Newcome, ** solemn sacrifices.*' AsaV. 

Either, To celebrate a periodical /estkd 

or feast, the sense of the V. being tabes 

from the N. according to Bate ; or, TV 

dance round in circies, to celebrate afestt 

^with such dances. See inter aL ^od. 

y. I. xii. 14. Montanus generaUj leodec 

tiie V. in this yk%v bv tripudio to i ' 

and the N. by tripudimn a T 

IV. As a N. raasc. plur. in R^. (J 

like nno i Chron. xix. 4, from no) ^cn 

Crachs or fissures in , a rock, for the o>- 

culation of the air into, and of ^V""^ 

and water out of, the abyss. 00c. Cat 

ii. 14. Jer. xlix. 16. Obad. ver. 3. The 

Vulg. render it by cavemis corrrv, 

fbraminibus iio/e9, and sdssurisjEisvtf; 

the LXX m the two latter paanges bj 

VfWjEMiAia, and omj a hole, 

^^n lo dance round and round m circiBr. 

occ. I Sam. xxx. 16. Ps. xiii. 5. Coop. 

3 San. vL 14, 16. 


Occurs not as a V. in Heb. bu