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■STANFORD university LIBR 









STANFORD university 


Illustrated Flora 


Northern United States, Canada 



From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the southern Boundary of Virginia, 
and from the atlantic ocean westward to the 10 2d meridian 



Emeritus Professor of Botany in Columbia University, and Director-in-Chief 

OF THE New York Botanical Garden 



President of the Torrey Botanical Club 


Chiefly prepared by Professor Britton, with the assistance of Specialists in 
several Groups; the Figures also drawn under his Supervision 


Vol. I 





Copyright 1896 


Charles Scribner's Sons 

The New Era Printing House, 
Lancaster, Pa. 

Contents of Volume I. 


x. ophioglossacba9 i 

2. osmundacsab 4 

3. Hymbnophytj,ackab 6 

4. schizabackab 7 


1. Typhaceab 

2. Sparganiacbab 

3. Naiadacbab 

4. schbuchzbriacbab 

5. Alismacbab 

6. Valusnbriacbab 

7. Graminbab 

8. Cypbracbab 

9. Aracbab 
la Lbmnacbab 










1. Saururacbae 

2. juglandacbab 

3. Myricacbab 

4. Leitnbriacbab 

5. sai4cacbab 

6. Bbtui^cbab 

7. Fagacbab 






5. poi,ypodiacbab 8 

6. Marsii«bacbab 33 

7. Salviniacbab 34 



Angiospbrmab 61 

9. Lycopodiacbae 
10. Sbi«aginbi«i«acbab 
ii. isobtacbab 



2. Taxacbab 


Monocotyledones 62 

11. Mayacacbab 367 

12. Xyridacbab 368 

13. Eriocaui^acbab 371 

14. brombi.iacbab 374 

15. commbi«inacbab 374 

16. Pontbdbriacbab 379 

17. juncacbab , 381 

18. Mei«anthacbab 399 

19. Ln^iACEAB 410 

Dicotyledones 482 
Choripetalae 482 

8. Ui«MACBAB 523 

9. moracbab 527 
10. Urticacbae 530 
ii. loranthacbab 534 

12. Santai^acbab 536 

13. Aristoi^ochiacbab 537 


21. Smu^cbab 

22. Habmodoracbab 

23. Amaryi«i«idacbab 


25. Iridacbab 

26. Marantacbab 

27. burmanniacbab 

28. Orchidacbab 

14. poi,ygonacbae 

15. Chbnopodiacbab 

16. Amaranth ACBAB 


18. Nyctaginacbab 










1. Adder's Tongue Family i 

2. Royal-fern Family 4 

3. Filmy-fern Family 6 

4. Climbing-fern Family 7 

5. Fern Family 

6. Marsilea Family 

7. Salvinia Family 

i 8. Horsetail Family 



9. Club-moss Family 39 

10. Selaginella Family 44 

11. Quillwort Family 45 




Seeds naked 49 
I. Pine Family— Conifers 49 2. Yew Family 

Seeds enclosed 61 


1. Cat-tail Family 

2. Bur-reed Family 

3. Pond weed Family 

4. Arrow-grass Family 

5. Water-Plantain 


6. Tape-grass Family 

7. Grass Family 

8. Sedge Family 

9. Arum Family 

10. Duck-weed Family 

1. Lizard's-tail Family 

2. Walnut Family 

3. Bayberry Family 

4. Cork-wood Family 

5. Willow Family 

6. Birch Family 

7. Beech Family 

Cotyledon one 62 



Mayaca Family 



Lily Family 




Yklix)w-eyed Grass 






368 , 





PipEWORT Family 

371 ; 


Smilax Family 



Pine- APPLE Family 

374 ' 


Blood wort Family 




Spiderwort Family 

374 ; 


Amaryllis Family 







Yam Family 




379 i 


Iris Family 




Rush Family 

381 , 


Arrow-root Family 







BuRMANNiA Family 






Orchid Family 








Cotyledons two 482 
Petals distinct, or none 482 

8. Elm Family 523 | 

9. Mulberry Family 527 ' 

10. Nettle Family 530 

11. MiSLETOE Family 534 

12. Sandalwood Family 536 

13. Birthwort Family 537 

14. Buckwheat Family 541 

15. Goosefoot Family 569 

16. Amaranth Family 586 

17. Poke-weed Family 593 

18. Four-o'clock Family 594 

19. Carpet-weed Family 597 

Latin Index of Names 
English Index of Names 



THE iiresent work is the first complete Illustrated Flora published in this country. Its 
aim is to illustrate and describe every species, from the Ferns upward, recognized as 
distinct by botanists and growing wild within the area adopted, and to complete the 
work within such moderate limits of size and cost as shall make it accessible to the public 
generally, so that it may serve as an independent handbook of our Northern Flora and as a 
work of general reference, or as an adjunct and supplement to the manuals of systematic 
botany in current use. 

To all botanical students, a complete illustrated manual is of the greatest service; always 
useful, often indispensable. The doubts and difficulties that are apt to attend the best writ- 
ten descriptions will often be instantly solved by figures addressed to the eye. The greatest 
stimulus, moreover, to observation and study, is a clear and intelligible guide; and among 
the aids to botanical enquiry, a complete illustrated handbook is one of the chief. Thou- 
sands of the lovers of plants, on the other hand, who are not botanists and are not familiar 
with botanical terms or the methods of botanical analysis, will find in the illustrations of a 
complete work the readiest means of comparison and identification of the plants that grow 
around them; and through the accompanying descriptions they will at the same time acquire 
a familiarity with botanical language. By these facilities, not only will the study of our na- 
tive plants be stimulated and widened among all classes, but the enjoyment, the knowledge 
and the scientific progress derivable from these studies will be proportionately increased. 

Though most European countries have complete illustrations of the flora of their own 
territory, no similar work has hitherto been attempted here. Our illustrated works, some of 
them of great value, have been either sumptuous and costly monographs, accessible to com- 
paratively few, or confined to special groups of plants, or have been works of a minor and 
miscellaneous character, embracing at most but a few hundred selected species, and from in- 
completmess, therefore, unsuited for general reference. Scarcely one-quarter of the species 
illustrated in the present work have ever been figured before. That no such general work 
has been previously attempted is to be ascribed partly, perhaps, to the imperfect exploration 
of our territory, and the insuflficiency of the collections to enable such a work to be made 
approximately complete; partly to the great number of species required to be figured and 
the consequent difiiculty and cost of the undertaking, and partly to the lack of any apparent 
demand for such a work sufficient to warrant the expense of the enterprise. 

The increased accumulations of material in our largest herbaria, the result of multiplied 
explorations, and the widely extended interest in the study of our native plants, seem now 
to justify the endeavor to supply a complete illustrated work adapted to general use. 

The enterprise, projected by Judge Brown, and maintained and supervised by him 
throughout, has been diligently prosecuted for the past six years. Its execution has been 
mainly the work of Dr. Britton. The text, founded upon a careful examination of living or 
herbarium specimens, has been chiefly prepared by him, with the assistance, however, of 
specialists in a few groups who have contributed the descriptions for certain families as 
stated in the footnotes. The figures also have been drawn by artists under his immediate 
supervision; except those of most of the grasses, drawn by Mr. Holm, under the eye of Prof. 
Scribner; while the work in all its parts has been carefully revised by both authors. The 
keys to the genera and species, based upon a few distinctive characters, will, it is believed, 
greatly facilitate the determinations. 

In preparing a new work of this character, the authors have felt that there should be no 
hesitation in adopting the matured results of the botanical studies of the last half century 
here and in Europe, so as to bring the work fully abreast of the knowledge and scientific 
conceptions of the time, and make it answer present needs. Although this involves changes 
in systematic order, in nomenclature, and in the division of families and genera, such as may 



seem to some to be too radical, no doubt is entertained that time will fully justify these 
changes in the judgment of all, and demonstrate that the permanent advantages to Botanical 
Science will far outweigh any temporary inconveniences, as has been already so fully shown 
in Ornithology and other zoological sciences. 

The work will be completed in three volumes and will be issued as rapidly as it can be 
printed, the text being already written and the figures drawn. 


The area of the work extends from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the io2d Meridian, a 
little beyond that of Gray's Manual, so as to include the whole of the State of Kansas; and 
northward from the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and Kentucky to the north- 
em limits of Labrador and Manitoba. For convenience, the whole of Nebraska has been in- 
cluded, thus permitting the illustration of practically the entire Flora of the northern por- 
tion of the Great Plains. 

The Flora of Canada and the British possessions not being distinguishable by any well 
marked features from that of the adjacent parts of the United States, and not embracing 
more than about 300 additional species, it was deemed best to include this more northern ter- 
ritory, in order to present a manual of the whole Flora of the northeastern part of the con- 
tinent, with the exception of that of Greenland and the Arctic Circle, which is much the 
same on both continents; nearly all the Arctic plants are, however, included, as but very few 
of them are strictly confined to the Arctic 2k)ne. 


Within the above area there are over 4,000 recognized species, more than three times the 
number in Bentham's Illustrated Handbook of the British Flora. To illustrate all these in a 
work of moderate size and cost, only parts of each plant could usually be figured, and these 
mostly below life-size. To exhibit full-page illustrations would have added fourfold to the 
bulk of the work, and the consequent more limited sales would have necessarily increased 
the price in a much greater proportion, and thus have thwarted the primary object, viz., to 
supply a work adapted to general circulation and use. On the other hand, it was found that 
any considerable further reduction of the figures in order to reduce the size of the work, would 
be at the sacrifice of the clearness and usefulness of the illustrations. 

In the general plan adopted and in giving parts only of the larger plants, it has been the 
constant aim to make the reduction of each figure as little below life-size as possible, to select 
the most characteristic parts for illustration and to preserve the natiu*al proportions. In 
these respects, it is believed, the present work will be found to be at least not inferior to that 
above named and often superior. 

The cuts are all from original drawings for this work, either from life or from herba- 
riimi specimens, though reference has constantly been made to published plates and figures. 
All have been first drawn life-size from medium -sized specimens, and afterwards reduced to 
the proportion indicated by the fraction near the bottom of each cut, most of them being 
from ^ to % of medium life-size. By this method the illustrations do not suffer from the 
use of a magnifier, but are improved by it and regain their full expression. 

Enlargements of special parts are added in most of the illustrations in order to show 
more clearly the floral structure, or minute organs, or the smaller flowers. These are in vari- 
ous degrees of enlargement, not deemed necessary to be stated. The figures are uncolored, 
because coloring, except in costly work, obscures the fineness of linear definition and injures 
the cuts for descriptive and educational uses. 

The Classification of Plants. 

The Plant Kingdom is composed of four Subkingdoms, or primary groups: 

1. Thallophyta, the Algae, Fungi and Lichens. 

2. Bryophyta, the Mosses and Moss-allies. 

3. Pteridophyta, the Ferns and Fern-allies. 

4. Spermatophyta, the Seed-bearing plants. 

The subkingdoms are divided into Classes, the Classes into Orders, the Orders into Fam- 
ilies, the Families into Genera, and the Genera into Species, a species being composed of all 
the individuals of a kind capable of continuous successive propagation among themselves, 
and being the only group marked out by nature by such a definite and positive boundary. 


In addition to these main ranks, subordinate ones are sometimes employed, when further 
division is desirable: thus a Class may be separated into Subclasses, as the Class Angio- 
spermae into the Subclasses Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones; Families may be separated 
into Tribes, as in the treatment of Gramineae in the following pages; Genera are often separ- 
ated into Subgenera; and in the case of Species, where certain individuals are found to ex- 
hibit features of structure or aspect differing more or less constantly from the majority of 
the kind, these are set off as Varieties or Subspecies. Often the varieties or subspecies are 
subsequently found to be distinct species. 

The variability of some species, caused by the operation of the forces collectively known 
as the factors of organic evolution, is so great, and the variation being often toward a re- 
lated species, that it is sometimes very difficult to determine whether certain individuals be- 
long to one or to the other, or to a variety of one or the other. This leads to different opin- 
ions. The actual fact, whether of the same species or not, may usually be ascertained by the 
close examination of a large number of specimens, or by growing the forms in question side 
by side, when, if they are the same, their rapid approximation will be manifest; though if 
their natural habitats are in different soils, this latter experiment may not be a satisfactory test. 

The grouping of Species into Genera, and of Genera into Families, though based upon 
natmril characters and relationships, is not governed by any definite rule that can be drawn 
from nature for determining just what characters shall be sufficient to constitute a Genus or 
a Family. These divisions are, therefore, necessarily more or less arbitrary and depend upon 
the judgment of scientific experts, in which natural characters and affinities, as the most im- 
portant and fundamental factors, do not necessarily exclude considerations of scientific con- 
venience. The practice among the most approved authors has accordingly been various. 
Some have made the number of genera and families as few as possible. This results in as- 
sociating under one name species or genera that present marked differences among 
themselves. The present tendency of expert opinion is to separate more freely into 
convenient natural groups, as genera and families, according to similarity of structure, 
habit, form or appearance. While this somewhat increases the number of these divisions, it 
has the distinct advantage of decreasing the size of the groups, and thus materially facilitates 
their study. This view has been taken in this work, following in most instances, but not in 
all, the arrangement adopted by Engler and Prantl in their recent great work, "Natur- 
liche Planzenfamilien,*' * not yet quite completed, in which all known genera are described. 

Systematic Arrangement. 

The Nineteenth Century closes with the almost unanimous scientific judgment that the 
order of nature is an order of evolution and development from the more simple to the more 
complex. In no department of Natural Science is this progressive development more marked 
or more demonstrable than in the vegetable life of the globe. Systematic Arrangement 
should logically follow the natural order; and by this method also, as now generally recog- 
nized, the best results of study and arrangement are obtained. The sequence of Families 
adopted 50 or 75 years ago has become incong^ous with oiu- present knowledge; and it has 
for some time past been gradually superseded by truer scientific arrangements in the later 
works of European authors, f 

The more simple forms are, in general, distinguished from the more complex, ( i ) by fewer 
organs or parts; ( 2 ) by the less perfect adaptation of the organs to the purposes they sub- 
serve; (3) by the relative degree of development of the more important organs; (4) by the 
lesser degree of differentiation of the plant-body or of its organs; (5) by considerations of 
antiquity, as indicated by the geological record; (6) by a consideration of the phenomena of 
embryogeny. Thus, the Pteridophyta, which do not produce seeds and which appeared on 
the earth in Silurian time, are simpler than the Spermatophyta; the Gymnospermae in which 
the ovules are borne on the face of a scale, and which are known from the Devonian period 
onward, are simpler than the Angiospermae, whose ovules are borne in a closed cavity, and 
which are unknown before the Jurassic. 

In the Angiospermae the simpler types are those whose floral structure is nearest the 

* Berlin, 15 volumes, 1890-1896. 

t Engler und Prantl, "Natiirliche Pflanzenfamilien;" Warming, "Systematic Botany, 1895;" 
Vines, "Student's Handbook of Botany, 1895;' Richter, " Plantae Europeae, 1890;" Thom4, " Flora 
von Deutschland, OEsterreich und der Schweiz, 1886-1889:'' Potoni^, "lUiistrirte Flora von Nord- 
und Mittel-Deutschland, 1887;" Schlechtendahl, Langethal und Schenck, " Flora von Deutschland," 
fifth edition by Hallier, 1880-1885. 



structure of the branch or stem from which the flower has been metamorphosed, that is to 
say, in which the parts of the flower (modified leaves) are more nearly separate or distinct 
from each other, the leaves of any stem or branch being normally separated, while those are 
the most complex whose floral parts are most united. These principles are applied to the 
arrangement of the Subclasses Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones independently, tlie 
Monocotyledones being the simpler, as shown by the less degree of differentiation of their 
tissues, though their floral structure is not so very different nor their antiquity much greater, 
so far as present information goes. For these reasons it is considered that Typhaceae, Spar- 
ganiaceae and Naiadaceae are the simplest of the Monocotyledones, and Orchidaceae the most 
complex; Saururaceae the simplest family of Dicotyledones, and Compositae the most complex. 

Inasmuch as evolution has not always been progressive, but some groups, on the contrary, 
have clearly been developed by degradation from more highly organized ones, and other 
groups have been produced by divergence along more than one line from the parent stock, 
no linear consecutive sequence can, at all points, truly represent the actual lines of descent. 

The sequence of families adopted by Engler and Prantl, in " Natiirliche Pflanzenfam- 
ilien *' above referred to, has been closely followed in this book, in the belief that their sys- 
tem is the most complete and philosophical yet presented. The sequence of genera adopted 
by them has for the most part also been accepted, though this sequence \^'ithin the family 
does not attempt to indicate greater or less complexity of organization. 

It was originally intended to present a conspectus of the orders and families included in 
this work in the Introduction, as is indicated upon page 62 of this volume. But as the printing 
proceeded it was deemed better to place this at the end of the third volume. 


The names of genera and species used in this work are in accordance with the Code of 
Nomenclature devised by the Paris Botanical Congress in 1867, as modified by the rules 
adopted by the Botanical Club of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
at the meetings held at Rochester, New York, in August, 1892, and at Madison, Wisconsin, 
in August, 1893. These names were mostly elaborated in the "List of Pteridophyta and 
Spermatophyta growing without Cultivation in Northeastern North America," prepared by 
the Committee of that association and published in 1894 as the fifth volume of Memoirs of 
the Torrey Botanical Club. The synonyms given under each species iii this work include 
the recent current names, and thus avoid any difficulty in identification. 

The necessity for these rules of nomenclature arose from the great confusion that has ex- 
isted through the many different botanical names for the same species or genera. Some 
species have had from 10 to 20 different names, and, worse still, different plants have often 
had the same name. For about 200,000 known species of plants there are not fewer than 
700,000 recorded names. Such a chaotic condition of nomenclature is not only extremely 
unscientific, burdensome and confusing in itself, but the difficulty and uncertainty of identi- 
fication which it causes in the comparative 'study of plants must make it, so long as it con- 
tinues, a serious and constant obstruction in the path of botanical inquiry. 

The need of reform, and of finding some simple and fixed system of stable nomenclature, 
has long been recognized. This was clearly stated in 18 13 by A. P. De Candolle in his Th^orie 
El^mentaire de la Botanique (pp. 228-250), where he declares priority to be the fundamental 
law of nomenclature. Most systematists have acknowledged the validity of this rule. Dr. 
Asa Gray, in his Structural Botany, says (p. 348): "For each plant or group there can be 
only one valid name, and that always the most ancient, if it is tenable; consequently no new 
name should be given to an old plant or group, except for necessity. ' ' 

This principle was applied to Zoology in the " Stricklandian Code," adopted in 1842 as 
Rules of the British Association, and revised in i860 and 1865 by a committee embracing 
the most eminent English authorities, such as Darwin, Henslow, Wallace, Clayton, Balfour, 
Huxley, Bentham and Hooker. In American Zoology the same difficulties were met and 
satisfactorily overcome by a rigid system of rules analogous to those here followed and now 
generally accepted by zoologists and palaeontologists. 

At an International Botanical Congress held at Paris in 1867, in which unfortunately the 
English botanists did not participate, A. DeCandolle presented a system of rules which, with 
modifications, were adopted, and, as above stated, are the foundation of the present rules of 
the botanists of the American Association. These rules were in part adopted also by the In- 
ternational Botanical Congress held at Genoa in 1892, and by the Austro-German botanists at 


their meeting in September, 1894; while in the 9th Edition of the London Catalogue of Brit- 
ish Plants published in 1895, these rules as respects the names of genera are largely followed; 
out of 440 genera in common with ours, all but 18 bear the same names as here given.* 

It cannot be too often repeated that the object of these rules is not to introduce new 
names, but to restore the old and the true ones. The rules of the botanists of the American 
Association, adopted as above, are as follows. A brief explanation of the objects attained 
by them is appended: 

Rui^K I. Priority of publication is to be regarded as the fundamental principle of botani- 
cal nomenclature. 

This has been generally acknowledged in theory as the guiding principle for determining 
which name should be bonie by an animal or plant differently named by different writers. 
Various causes have retarded its application in practice. Its adoption is the only practicable 
way of securing stability to the original names. It has also been generally considered that 
the author who first defines or describes an animal or plant is entitled to the distinction of 
having his own name permanently associated with the name assigned to it; and this is also 
necessary for reasons of accuracy, because in numerous instances different plants have been 
called by the same name. In most cases the synonyms given in this work, with the date of 
publication, indicate the original name and the reason for its restoration under this rule. 

Rule 2. The botanical nomenclature of both genera and species is to begin with the pub- 
lication of the first edition of Linnaeus* *' Species Plantarum " in 1753. 

Some past date must of necessity be taken, in order to fix the limits within which prior- 
ity shall be reckoned. Prior to the publication of *' Species Plantarum" in 1753, the ab- 
sence of any general binomial nomenclature, and the meagre, uncertain and inadequate de- 
scriptions by most prior authors, make any earlier date beset with difficulties. The result of 
much discussion has been to fix that work, with which modern nomenclature substantially 
begins, as the * ' point of departure. ' ' That date received the endorsement of the International 
Botanical Congress at Genoa in 1892, and has since been accepted by most botanists in Amer- 
ica and Europe. Under this rule, no reference is made to names used prior to that work. 

Rule 3. In the transfer of a species to a genus other than the one under which it was 

first published, the original specific name is to be retained. 

From different views of the limits of genera, or from further knowledge of a plant, it 
often happens that it must be transferred to a diflferent genus from that to which it was first 
assigned. Upon such a transfer. Rule 3 requires the original name of the species to be con- 
tinued, and presen-es its stability. Thus, out of the genus Polypodimn of Linnaeus, three 
other groups have been since carved, viz., Dryopteris [Aspidium), C^sippieris SLud Phegop- 
ttris. The Long Beech Fern (p. 19), called Polypodium Phegoptens by Linnaeus, belongs 
"to the generic group named Phegopteris by Fee in 1850. Rule 3 forbids the use of the new 
specific name, polypodioides, given to this plant by F^e, and requires the former specific name 
of Linnaeus to be preserved, and the plant thus becomes Phegopteris PhegopteriSy an acci- 
dental re-duplication that occurs in but few instances in the whole field of nomenclature. 
The Twin-leaf was called Podophyllum diphyllum by Linnaeus in 1753, oxid Jefferson ia binata 
b}' Barton in 1793; Persoon in 1805 restored the Linnaean specific name, making the plant 
Jfffersonia diphylla, the correct binomial under the rule, and the one which the plant has 
borne for nearly one hundred years. 

Rule 4. The original name is to be maintained, whether published as species, subspecies 

or variety. 

Plants and animals are continually described as species which subsequent authors con- 
^u<ie are but varieties, and those first understood as varieties prove by subsequent study to 
oe entitled to specific rank. Rule 4 maintains the first designation as the proper one, and 
avoids much confusion. Examples are numerous: See Figs. 28, 38, 61 et seq. 

^ule 5. The publication of a generic name or a binomial invalidates the use of the same 
name for any subsequently published genus or species, respectively. 

Thus in the case of the Long Beech Fern, above cited, though the specific nzxa^ polypodi- 
oi€i^s is held to have been improperly given to it by Fee, the binomial, Phegopteris polypodia 
oicf^s^ cannot be applied to any different plant; for if the earlier name should for any reason 
^ lost or discarded, the name polypodioides must remain available as the next lawful substi- 
tute, and thus the principle of nomenclature — once a synonym always a synonym. 

This rule operates to maintain one name only for a genus or species, and that, the first 
one applied to it, unless this was properly the name of another, in which case the next oldest 

*For a fuller discussion of this subject see articles by Professor Lester F. Ward, in " Bulletin 
o^ the Torrey Botanical Club," 22: 308-329, from which the above summary is mostly taken; by 
^fessor C. E. Bessey, in "American Naturalist," 29: 666-668; by Professor W. A. Kellerman, in 
' Journal of the Columbus Horticultural Society," 10: 7-10, and in " Botanical Gazette," 20: 468-470; 
^ Professor Conway MacMillan, in "Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley." 17; by Dr. B. L. 
Robinson, in " Botanical Gazette," 20- 97-103, 261-263; by Mr. F. V. Coville, in " Botanical Gazette," 
*>: 162-167, 320-322, 428, 429; by Dr. F. H. Knowlton, in " Botanical Gazette, 21: 82-85. 


is to be used. By mistake or inadvertently the same ifame has frequently been ^ven to sev- 
eral different genera or species, and it has repeatedly occurred that a name believed by the 
author to be a synonym is shown by another to be a valid designation. 

Rule 6. Publication of a genus consists only, ( i ) in the distribution of a printed descrip- 
tion of the genus named; (2) in the publication of the name of the genus and the citation 
of one or more previously published species as examples or types of the genus, with or 
without a diagnosis. 

Rule 7. Publication of a species consists only, ( i ) in the distribution of a printed de- 
scription of the species named; (2) in the publishing of a binomial, \^'ith reference to a pre- 
viously published species as a type. 

Rule 8. Similar generic names are not to be rejected on account of slight differences, 
except in the spelling of the same word. 

Thus Epidendrutn and Epidendron are but different spellings of the same word; only 
one of them can therefore be used; the same of Elodes and Elodea. 

Rule 9. In the case of a species which has been transferred from one genus to another, 
the original author must always be cited in parenthesis, followed by the author of the new 


Thus Dryopteris LonchiUs (L. ) Kuntze (Fig. 26) is so cited, because Linnaeus first gave 
the plant the specific name LonchiteSy while Kuntze first combined that name with the 
accepted genus Dryopteris, 

Rule 10. In determining the name of a genus or species to which two or more names 
have been given by an author in the same volume, or on the same page of a volume, preced- 
ence shall decide.* 

The Latin names of families have mostly been adopted as currently used, without refer- 
ence to priority or terminations, as no rule on that subject has yet been formally adopted by 
botanists. It seems desirable, however, that the scientific names of families should also fol- 
low some uniform system, and as a very large proportion of botanical family names have long 
been formed by the termination aceae affixed to some prominent genus of the group, that 
this rule should be applied to the few remaining families otherwise named. All would thus 
be brought into a harmonious system of nomenclature, as the zoologists have done by the 
adoption of the ending idae for all zoological families. The English common names of fam- 
ilies are similarly adopted from some characteristic genus of the group; as Pink Family, 
Mustard Family, Mint Family, etc. The Carophyllaceae, in the absence of any genus Gary- 
ophyllum^ might thus become Alsinaceae; the Cruciferae, Brassicaceae; the Labiatae, Men- 
thaceae or Lamiaceae. 

English Names of Plants. 

The general desire for some English name to the different plants described has been met 
so far as possible. All names in common use have been inserted, so far as they have come to 
the authors' knowledge, except such as were merely local, or where they were too numerous 
for insertion. An exception has also been made in a few instances where a common name, 
from its false Suggestion, as in the name of Dog's-tooth Violet (p. 420) for Adder 's-tongue, 
is calculated to mislead as to the nature of the plant. Where no previous names in common 
use could be found, the names given are founded on some characteristic circumstance of de- 
scription, habitat, site or author. Names used in England have been freely availed of, but 
the use of the same common name for different plants there and here has occasionally re- 
quired the omission of one or the other. The use of the same name for different plants has 
been rejected, except where there is no such close affinity or resemblance between tliem as is 
likely to cause confusion. 


In botanical names derived from Greek or Latin words, their compounds, or derivatives, 
the accent, according to the ordinary rule, is placed upon the penultimate syllable, if it is long 
in Latin quantity; otherwise, upon the antepenult. Many names, however, have been given to 

* The rules have been closely followed in the publications of The United States National Mu- 
seum; the Divisions of Botany and Forestry of the United States Department of Agrriculture: The 
Missouri Botanical Garden; The Torrey Botanical Club; The l.'niversity of Nebraska; The Botan- 
ical Survey of Nebraska; The Department of Botany of Columbia University; The Geological and 
Natural History Survey of Minnesota; The Botanical Sur\'ey of Indiana, and many other societies 
and institutions. Also in Professor Sargent's "Silvaof North America;" Professor Underwood's 
"Native Ferns and their Allies;" Professor Kellerman's ** Plants of Ohio;" Mr. Newhall's " Shrubs 
of Northeastern America;" and by a large number of other authors in less extensive writings. 


plants in honor of individuals, which, having nothing Latin about them except the terminal 
form, and the pronunciation given to them by botanical authors being diverse, are here ac- 
cented like the names of the persons, so far as euphony will permit. This rule is followed 
because it is believed to agree with the prevailing usage among botanists in ordinary speech; 
because it is in accord with the commemorative object of such names, which ought not to be 
obscured by a forced and unnatural pronunciation; and because the test applied to words 
properly Latin, viz., the usage of the Latin poets, cannot be applied to words of this class. 
We therefore give T6rreyi, Vdseyi, Cdreyi, Jimesii, Alleni, rather than Torr^yi, Vasdyi, 
Car^yi, Jam^sii, AU^ni. 

The acute accent is used to denote the short English sound only; as in bdt, b^t, bid, n6t, 
nM; the grave accent, to denote either of the other English sounds, whether long, broad or 
open; as a in b^le, bill, b^, bdre, \k\xd; e in ^ve, th^re; i in pine, pique, machine; o in ndte, 
mdve; u in pdre, riide. The accent for the short or longer English sound is based upon cur- 
rent English usage, as given in the chief English dictionaries from Walker's to the most re- 
cent, and without reference to the supposed ancient pronunciation. 

Much diversity has been found in botanical works in the accented syllable of many mod- 
ern Latin adjectiv«s ending in -inus, -ina, -inum, derived from Latin words. As these 
adjectives are derived from Latin roots and are regularly formed, their pronunciation should 
properly follow classical analogies. When signifying, or referring to, time, material, or in- 
animate substances, they should, therefore, according to Andrews & Stoddard's rule, have the 
penult usually short, and the accent on the antepenult; as in gossipina, canndbina, secdlina, 
salicina, amygddlina, and other adjectives derived from plant names, like the classic ndrd- 
inus, cyprinus, fdginus. When these adjectives have other significations than those above 
referred to, the penult under the ordinary Latin rule is usually long and accented; as in 
lupulina, leporina, hystricina, like the classic lu^ina, canina. 

The Use of Capital Letters. 

In accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Nomenclature of the 
Botanical Clnb of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, specific or var- 
ietal names derived from persons or places, or used as the genitive of generic names or as 
substantives, are printed with an initial capital letter. There is much difference of opinion 
^ to the desirability of this practice, many botanists, and almost all zoologists, following 
the principle of writing all specific names with a small initial letter. Should this custom pre- 
vail, much information concerning the history and significance of the specific names would 
^lost Thus in the Tulip-tree, Liriodendron Tulipifera^ the specific name Tulipifera was 
the ancient generic name; and the same with Ly thrum Salicaria^ L. Hyssopifolia, L, Vul- 
fffraf^Qy and many other species. In all other forms of writing, personal adjectives such as 
^uilallii, Engelmanni or Torreyi are printed|With capitals. We adhere to the ordinary 
literary usage. 


*rc printed as trinomials, e. g., Rynchospora glomerata paniculatay the contraction var. or 
the Oreek letters a or /3 commonly inserted between the specific and varietal name being 
dispensed with. The comma sometimes placed between the specific or varietal name and 
the name of the author is omitted, in accordance with the opinions of the same committee. 


Cordial acknowledgment for assistance and advice is hereby tendered to Professor Thomas 
^- I*orter, who has continuously, from the inception of the enterprise, cooperated in its exe- 
cution by suggestion, information and the contribution of specimens, and who has read all 
the proofs; to Mr. Eugene P. Bicknell, who has supplied many specimens and read the proof- 
sheets; to Professor Lucien M. Underwood, for the text of the Pteridophyta; to Mr. Frederick 
^- Coville, for the text of the Juncaceae; to Dr. John K. Small, for the text of Polygonaceae 
and Euphorbiaceae, and for assistance and critical notes on many other families; to Mr. Geo. 
^ • Nash, for the text of the Gramineae; to Professor F. Lamson-Scribner, for supervising the 
Swings of Gramineae, and for manuscript notes on many genera and species of that family; 
to Mr. Arthur Rollick, for supervision of the drawings; to Mr. Edmund P. Sheldon, 
forthetext of Lemnaceae; to Mr. Charles E. Smith, for critical examination of the final 
pnxrf-sheets, and to many others who by the contribution of specimens or notes have facili- 
tated the production of the work. 


The text for the families Typhaceae, Sparganiaceae, Naiadaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae, Ara- 
ceae, Eriocaulaceae, Pontederiaceae, Sniilaceae and Orchidaceae, was prepared by the late 
Rev. Thomas Morong, and has been printed with very little change from his manuscript. 


Most of the drawings have been executed by Mr. F. Emil; he has made all the figures of 
the Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, and nearly all of the Monocotyledones, with the exception 
of those of Gramineae, Melanthaceae, Liliaceae and Convallariaceae; also nearly all of the 
apetalous Choripetalae, and a considerable portion of the Sympetalae. Miss Millie Timnier- 
man ( now Mrs. Heinrich Ries ) drew the bulk of the polypetalous Choripetalae, the enlarged 
parts being mostly inserted by Mr. Arthur HoUick; she also did some work on several of the 
sympetalous families. Mr. Joseph Bridgham drew the Melanthaceae, Liliaceae and Conval- 
lariaceae; also the Ericaceae, Primulaceae and several related families. Mr. Theodor Holm 
drew most of the Gramineae. Mr. Hollick has made some drawings and numerous enlarge- 
ments of special parts throughout the work. Miss Marj- Knight and Mr. Rudolph Weber 
have also contributed drawings. 

Symbols Used. 

° is used after figures to indicate feet. 

'' is used after figures to indicate inches. 

'^ is used after figures to indicate lines, or twelfths of an inch. 

r over syllables indicates the accent, and the short English sound of the vowel. 

N over syllables indicates the accent, and the long, broad, open or close English sound. 

New York, August 15th, 1896. 


Subkingdom PTERIDOPHYTA .♦ 


Plants cxjntaining woody and vascular tissues in the stem and producing 
•spores asexually, which, on germination, develop small flat mostly green struc- 
tures called prothallia (gametophyte). On these are borne the sexual repro- 
ductive organs, the female known as archegones, the male as antherids. From 
the fertilization of the oosphere of the archegone by spermatozoids produced in 
the antherids, the asexual phase (sporophyte) of the plants is developed ; this 
phase is represented by an ordinary fern, lycopod or horsetail. 

This subkingdom comprises about 4000 living species, of which more than three-fourths 
are confined to tropical regions. The number of extinct species known probably exceeds 
those living. They appeared on the earth in the early part of the Palaeozoic Era, reached 
their greatest abundance in Carboniferous Time, but have since been mainly replaced by 
plants of higher organization, so that at present they form only about one-fiftieth of the 
total flora. The time of year noted under each species indicates the season at which the 
■spores are mature. 

Family i. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Presl, Pterid. 6. 1836. 

Adder's-tongue Family. 

More or less succulent plants consisting of a stem and leaf growing from a 
fleshy root. Sporanges formed of the interior tissues, naked, borne in a spike 
or panicle and opening at maturity by a transverse slit. Spores copious, yellow. 
Prothallium subterranean, devoid of chlorophyll. 

Three genera, the following represented on both continents ; the third, Helmi nthosiachys is 
tiative of southern Asia. 

Veins reticulate ; sporanges cohering in a distichous spike. i. Ophioglossum. 

Veins free ; sporanges distinct, borne in spikes or panicles. 2. Botrychium. 

I. OPHIOGLOSSUM L. Sp. PI. 1062. 1753. 

I^w plants from a small fleshy rootstock, with slender fleshy roots, the bud for the 
following year formed at the side of the base of the stem. Leaves solitary, borne on the 
*teni, simple in our species. Spike terminal, formed of the two rows of large coalescent 
sporanges. Veins of the leaf reticulate. Spores copious, sulphur-yellow. [Name from 
^e Greek, signifying the tongue of a snake, in allusion to the narrow spike of sporanges.] 

About 10 species of wide geographic distribution. Besides the following, three others are 
lound in the southern United States, one of them extending to California. 

*Text contributed by Professor LuciEN M. Underwood. 



I. Ophioglossum vulgiLtum L. Adder's- 
tongue. (Fig. i.) 


■iilKOlum L. Sp. PI. 1 

Rootstoclc abort, oblique ; stem slender, erect, sin 
pie, glabrous, 2'-ia' high, bearing the sessile thi) 
ovate or elliptic-oblong leaf (sterile segment) near it 
middle; sterile segment i'-3' long, %'-\%' wid« 
rather firm in texture, distinctly reticulated; spiki 
solitary, }i'-\' long, erect, the asis eatending beyoni 
the sporanges into a point. 

In moist meadows and thickets, 
hillsides, Prince Edward Island to Alai 
Jersey, tCcntucby and Arizona. Also 
Africa and .\ustralta. May-Aug, 

sometimes on 
ska. south to 

2. BOTRYCHIUM Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. a : 8. i8oo. 

Flesh; plants with short erect rootstocks, and clustered fleshy roots, the bud for the 
•occeeding year imbedded in the base of the stem. Sterile portion (leaO pinnately orler- 
nately divided or compound, the fertile portion pinnate or tripinnate with sessile distinct 
sporaages in rows on either side of its branches, forming latge panicles in some spedes. 
Veins free. Spores of various shades of yellow. [Greek, in allusion to the grape-like 
clusters of sporanges.] 

Bud for the following year enclosed in the base i 
Vernation wholly straight ; sterile portion si 
Vernation partly inclined in one or both portiuus. 

Buds glabrous ; sterile portion pinnate ; small plants, mature in early si 
Sterile portion alone bent in vernation, its segments fan -shaped. 

Both portions bent 

Bud pilose ; sterile portion 

Vernation wholly inclined, reci 

segments of sterile portion narroi 

,1. B. K 

long-stalked ; larger plants, niature 

the fertile portion ; 

le side of the base of the stem 

portion triangular, sessile. 

5. B. lancfolalum. 
rtion temate and eomponna , 

6. B. l^irgininHWn- 

I. Botrychium simplex E. Hitchcock. 
Little Grape-fern. (Fig. 2.) 
Bo/nrliiuHi simplex E. Hitchcock, Amer. Journ. Sci. : 

Plant 2'-7' high, slender, very variable. Sterile por- 
tion ovate, obovate or oblong, entire, lobed or pinnately 
parted, borne near the base of the stem or higher, some- 
times above the middle; fertile portion a simple or 
slightly compound spike, sometimes reduced to only a 
few sporanges ; spores large for the genus, minutely 
tuberculatc; bud for the following year enclosed in the 
base of the stem ; apex of both fertile and sterile portions 
erect in vernation. 

In moist woods meadows or swamps. Prince Edward 
Island to Maryl-ind. w;st to Wyoming and California. Wsa 
in northern Europe. May-June. 

, Botrychium lanceoUtum ( S. G. Gmel. ) Angs. 
(Fig. b.) 

Lance -leaved Grape- fen i. 

Osmunda lanceiilata S. G. V,rM\. N'uv. CommttiL 

Acad, Petrop. la- 516. 176M. 
Bulrvchinm lancenlalum Angx. Bot. Niitiser, 1854 : 

68: 1854- 

Plant 3'-9' high, somewhat flesh)-. Sterile 
portion closely sessile at the sumniit of the 
stem, i' or more wide, 3-lobed or broadly trian- 
gular and J-pinnatilid, the ultimate aegmenta 
lanceolate, acute, oblique, entire or dentate ; 
midvein continuous, with forking veinlets ; fer- 
tile portion slightly overtopping the sterile, 
short-stalked, 2-3-pinnate ; bu<l for the follow- 
ing year glabrous, enclosed in the base of the 
stem ; fertile portion recurved lis whole length 
with the shorter sterile portion reclined upon it 

In meadows, woodx and swamps. Nova Scotia to 
AUalta, south to New Jersey, Ohio and in the 
Rocky Mountains to Colorado. Also in Europe and 
Asia. June-July, 

6. Botrychium Virginiinum (L,) Sw. Virginia Grape-feni. {Fig. 7.) 

Plant 4'-2° high, the stem slender. Sterile 
portion nearly or quite sessile above the 
middle of the stem, spreading, thin, temate 
with the primary divisions pinnate to 3-ptn- 
nate and the segments i-i-pinnatifid ; ulti- 
mate segments oblong, more or less toothed 
near the apex ; epidermal cells flexnous ; 
fertile portion loug-stalked, 2-3-pinnate ; 
bnd for the following year pilose, enclosed 
in a glabrous cavity at one side of the lower 
part of the stem ; fertile portion recurved its 
whole length, the sterile reclined upon it in 

In rich woods, Nova Scotii 
to British Columbia and Ariii 
rope and Asia. June-July. 

to Florida, west 

Family 2. OSMUNDACEAE R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1 : 161. 1810. 
Royal Fern Family. 
Large ferns with stout often erect rootstock.s, 1-2 pinnate leaves coiled in 
lernation, the veins free, mostly forked, running to the margins of the pin- 
nules or lobes. Sporanges large, globose, with mere traces of an elastic ring of 
cells or none, borne on modified contracted pinnae in the typical genus ; in 
Todea, a genus of the southern hemisphere, in clusters (sori) on the lower sur- 
faces of the pinnules. 

Two living gi 

I iida and Todea. 


I. OSMUNDA L. Sp. PI. 1063. 


Tall swamp ferns, growing in large crowns, with the fertile (spore-bearing) portions 
very much contracted, the short- pedicel led nated sporanges on the margins of their rachis- 
like divisions, which are destitute of chlorophyll. Veins forked, very regular and prom- 
ioent. Sporanges tbio. reticulated, opening bf a longitudinal cleft into two halves, a few 
parallel thickening cells near the apex representing tbe rudimentary transverse ring. Spores 
copious, green. [Prom Osmunder. a name for the god Thor.1 

Six species, mostly of the north temperate z( 
Leaves bi pinnate, fertile at the apex. 
Sterile leaves bipinnatifid. 

Pinnae of sterile leaf with a tuft of tomentu 

Only the following occur in North Am* 
I. O. rcgalis. 
it base ; fertile leaf distinct from sterile. 

I. Osmunda regdlis L. Royal F 

(Fig. 8.) 

Osmunda regalts L. Sp. PI. 1065. I753. 

Rootstock stout, bearing a cluster of si 
tall bipinaate leaves. 3°-6° high, and i°or more 
wide. Sterile pinnae d'-ii' long, 2'-4' wide 
the pinnules oblong-ovate or lanceolate- oblong 
fleaaile or slightly stalked, glabrous, finely ser 
mlate, eapecially near the apex and occasionally 
creuate towards the base wbicb b truncate 
oblique or even cordate ; fertile pinnules linear 
cylindric, panicled at the summit, withering 
and shrivelling with age, greenbh before ma 
turity, but becoming dark brown after the 
spores have fallen. 

In swamps and marshes. New Brunswick to 
Florida, west to the Northwest Territory and M s 
riasippi. Aliw in Mexico, Europe and Asia. As 
ceads to 3000 ft. in Virginia. May-July. 

2. Osmunda cinnamdmea L. Cinnamon Fern. (Fig. 9.) 

Osmunda CI 

a L. Sp. PI. 1066. 1753. 

Rootstock very large, widely creeping, bear- 
ing a circular cluster of sterile leaves with one 
or more fertile ones within. Stipes 1° or more 
long, clothed with ferruginous tomcntum when 
young, glabrous when old; sterile leaves 1"-^° 
long, glabrous when mature, except a small tufl 
of tomenlum at the base of each pinna ; pinnae 
lia ear-lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid into oblong 
obtuse segments ; fertile leaf contracted, bipin- 
nate, soon withering ; sporanges cinnamon-col- 
ored after the copious green spores have been 

In wet places. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south 
to Florida and Mexico. Fomis occur with leaves 
variously intermediate between the fertile and ster- 
ile; some being sterile at the apex, others in the 
middle, others on one side only. Ascends to 5600 ft 
in Virginia. May-June. 


3. Osmunda Claytoni&na L. Clayton's 

Fern. (Fig. 10.) 
Osmunda Clayloniana I,. Sp. PI, 1066, 175,1, 
Osmunda inlertupia Hichi. Fl. Hot. Am, a : 173. 

Rootstoclc stout, beariDg- a circle of a-pinnat- 
ifid Ieaves2''-6''high, 6'-io'wide; sterile pinnae 
without tufts of tomentum at the base, linear* 
lanceolate, deeply cleft into oblong obtuse seg- 
ments some of the leaves contracted in the 
mi Idle and beating 3-5 pairs of fertile pinnate 
pinnae with dense cyhndnc divisions wbicb are 
greenish at first afterwards dark brown finally 
wtthcnng leaveaciothed with tomentum when 
}Oun|^ glabrous «hen mature the fertile onea 
taller than the stenle and finally widely re 

In snampsand mo st sq 1 Newfoundland to M o 
netota <(outh to Nurth Carolina and MisKoun As- 
cends to 5000 ft. in Virginia. Also in India, May- 


Family 3. HYMENOPHYLLACEAE Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. 262. 1826. 
FiLMV-FKRN Family, 
Membranaceous, mostly small ferns with filiform or slender creeping root- 
stocks. Leaves usually mucfi divided. Sporanges sessile on a filiform, usually 
elongated receptacle, siurounded by a transverse ring which opens vertically. 

I. TRICHdMANES L. Sp. PI. 1097. 1753, 

Delicate filmy ferns, the leaves usually much divided. Sporanges flattened, surrounded 

by a broad entire transverse ring opening vertically, sessile on the lower part of the slender 

filiform receptacle. Receptacle surrounded by a tubular or funnel-shaped indusium which 

is trnncate or slightly a.ltpped, [Greek, in allusion to the thin hair-like segments of some 

About 100 species, mostly of tropica! regions. Besides the following, another occu 

I. Trichomanes radlcans Sw. 

Bristle-fern. (Fig. 11.) 

Trichomanes raduatis?.v.: -pl.lTiA. Opc. 3 i 36 

Rootstock filiform, wiry, tomentose, creep 
ing. Stipes (petioles) ascending, 1 j 
long, naked or nearly so ; leaves a'-8' lon^ 
i"-i%' wide, membranaceous, lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, 1-3-pinnatifid ; pinnae 
ovate, obtuse, the upper side of the cuneate 
base parallel with or appressed to the nar 
rowly winged rachis ; scKments toothed or 
cut into hnear divisions ; indusia terminal 
on short lobes, 1-4 on a pinnule, the mouth 
slightly slipped ; receptacle more or less 
ekserted, bristle- like, bearing the sessile 
sporanges mostly near the base. 

On wet rocks, Kentucky to Florida and 4la 
bama. Also in the West Indies, Mexico trop 
ical America, Uurope, Asia and Africa. Summer 


Family 4. SCHIZAEACEAE Reichenb. Consp. 39. 1828. 

Ferns of various habit, with simple or pinnate leaves. Sporanges borne 
in spikes or panicles, ovoid, eessile, provided with an apical ring, opening ^-erti- 
cally by a longitudinal slit. 

Five genera and about 75 species, the following genera represented in the north temperate 
zone, the others tropical in distribution. 

Sporanges in close 3-ranked spikes ; leaves filirorm. 1, Schi:ara, 

Sporanges in ample panicles - pinnules palmate. 3. Lygodium. 

I. SCHIZAEA J. E. Smith, Mem. Acad. Tor. 5 : 419. pi. 19. f. p. 1793. 
Small slender ferns with filiform or linear leaves, the fertile distinct from the sterile, 
Sporanges sessile in close distichous spikes along the single vein of the narrow divisions of 
the fertile leaves, provided with a complete apical ring. [Greek, in allusion to the cleft 
leaves of some species.] 

I. Schizaea pusilla Pursh. Curly-grass. 
(Fig. 12.) 

Schizitra pusilla Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept 657. 1814- 

Sterile leaves linear, very slender and tortuous. 
Fertile leaves longer, 3'-5' high, the fertile por- 
tion terminal, consisting of about 5 pairs of 
crowded pinnae, forming a distichous spike; 
sporanges ovoid or pyriform, sessile in two rows 
along the single vein of the narrow incurved linear 
divinons of the fertile leaf, partially concealed by 
its incurred margins which are hooded at the apex 
and ciliate ; ring apical, the sporanges opening by 
a vertical slit. 

2. LYGODIUM Sw. Schrad. Joum. Bot. 2 : 

Twining or climbing ferns, the lower divisions sterile, variously stalked and lobed, the 
fertile terminal, panicled. Sporanges ovoid, solitary or two together in the axils of imbri- 
cated scale-like indnaia, provided with an apical ring, opening vertically. In^usia fixed by 
their broad bases to short oblique veinlels. [Greek, in allusion to the flexible stipes.] 

Sixteen species, raoatly of tropical distribution, 

I. Lygodium palmitum {Bernh.)Sw, 

Climbing Fern. Hartford Fern, 

(Fig- 13- ) 

Ciiopteris palmata Bemh. Schrad. Joum. Bot. a: 119. 

Lygodium palmalum Sw. Syn. Fil. 154. 1806. 

Rootatock slender, creeping. Stipes slender, 
flexible and twining ; leaves i°-3° long, their short 
altemste branches 2-forkedi each fork bearing a 
nearly orbicular 4-7-lobed pinnule which is more 
or less cordate at the base with a narrow sinus ; 
surfaces naked ; fertile pinnules contracted, sev- 
eral times forked, forming a terminal panicle ; 
sporanges solitary, borne on the alternate veins 
which spring from the flexuous midvein of the 
segments, each covered by a scale-like indusium. 

In moist thickets and open woods, Massachusetts to 
Pennsylvania, south to Florida and Tennessee. As- 
cends to zioo ft. in eastern Pennsylvania. Summer. 


Family 5. POLYPODIACEAE R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. i : 145. 1810. 

Fern Family. 

Fenis of various habit, the rootstocks horizontal, often elongated, or short 
and erect, the leaves simple, pinnate, pinnatifid or decompound, coiled in ver- 
nation. Sporanges borne in clusters (sori ) on the lower side or margins of the 
leaves or their segments, stalked, provided with a vertical ring of cells, open- 
ing transversely. Sori with or without a membranaceous covering (indusium). 
Prothallium green. 

About 70 grenera and yxx) si)ecie8 of very wide g^eogjaphic distribution. The family includes 
by far the greater number of living^ ferns. 

Spore -bearing^ leaves closely rolled together, with necklace -like segments. 

I. OnocUa. 
leaves all flat or their edges only slightly revolute. 

Sori dorsal or marginal, provided with special indusia. 
Sori roundish, indusia less than twice as long as broad. 
Indusium wholly inferior. 

Indusium roundish or stellate. 2. IVoodsia. 

Indusium cup-shaped or somewhat 2-valved. 3. Dicksonia. 

Indusium partly inferior, fixed by a broad base and enclosing the sori like a hood. 

4. Cystopieris, 
Indusium superior, fixed by its centre or sinus. 5. uryopieris. 

Sori linear or oblong ; indusia more than twice as long as broad. 

Sori in chain-like rows parallel to the midribs or rachises. 7. Woodwardia. 

Sori all oblique to the midrib or rachises ; veins free. 

Sori confluent in pairs with an apparently double indusium opening in the middle ;; 

leaf simple. 8. Scolopendrium. 

Sori single on the upper side of a veinlet or rarely crossing it. 

10. AspUnium. 
Sori partly parallel to the midrib, partly oblique; veins united. 9. Campiosorus. 

Sori with marginal indusia formed of the more o\ less altered edge of the leaf. 
Sporanges at the ends of veins, borne on a reflexed portion of the leaf. 

11. Adiantum. 
Sporanges borne on a continuous vein-like receptacle which connects the apices of the-^ '" 

veins. 12. Pier is. 

Sporanges at or near the ends of unconnected veins. 

Leaves of two forms ; stipes pale. 13. Cryptogramma. 

Leaves uniform ; stipes usually dark colored. 

Sori mostly forming a continuous indusium around the segment 

I A. Pellaea. 
Sori minute ; indusium usually interrupted, if continuous the segments small and 
bead-like. 15. Cheilanlhes. 

Sori without indusia. 

Sori linear and marginal. 16. Notholaena. 

Sori roundish or not more than twice as long as broad. 

Stipes articulated to the rootstocks ; leaves in our species pinnatifid. 

17. Poly podium. 
Stipes not articulated to the rootstocks ; leaves in our species 2--3-pinnatifid or temate. 

a Phegopieris. 

I. ONOCLrEA L. Sp. PI. 1062. 1753. 

Coarse ferns with the fertile leaves closely rolled up into necklace4ike or berry like 
segments, and entirely unlike the broad pinnatifid sterile ones. Sori round, borne on the 
back of the veins. Indusium very thin and membranous, hemispheric or hood-shaped, fixed 
at the inferior side of the sorus. Sporanges pedicelled, provided with a dorsal ring, burst- 
ing transversely. Fertile leaves unrolling at maturity, allowing the spores to escape, and 
remaining long after the sterile leaves have been killed by frost. [Name ancient, not 
originally applied to these plants.] 

Three species, natives of cold and temperate regions. Only the following are known to occur 
in North America. 

Fertile leaf bi pinnate ; veins anastomosing. i. O. sensihilis. 

Fertile leaf simply pinnate ; veins free. 2. O. Struihiopteris. 


Onoclea senslbilia L. Sensitive Fern. 

(Fig- M.) 

w/<M scnsibilis L, Sp. PI. 1063. 1753. 

Rootstock rather slender, copiously rootiaj; ; fer- 
tile leaves i°-i^° high, peraistent over winter, 
much contracted, aad with short pinnules rolled 
np into berry-like closed involucres forming a nar- 
row panicle ; sterile leaves I°-4J3° high, broadty 
triangular, deeply pinnatifid, the segments lanceo- 
late-oblong, entire, undulate, or the tower pairs 
sinnate-pinnatifid ; veins freely anastomosing ; low- 
est segments tapering both ways from the middle ; 
veins forming a somewhat regular series of semi- 
elliptic areoles next the midvein and numerous 
smaller areoles between this series and the margin. 

In moist soil, Newfoundland and Ontario to the 
Northwest Territory, south to Florida, Lonisiana and 
Kansas. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Virginia. Various in- 
termediate [onns between the sterile and fertile leaves 
occur. Sensitive to early frosts. Aug. -Nov. 

2 Onoclea Struthi6pteris (If.) HofFm. 

Ostrich Fern. (Fig. 15.) 
Osmunda SIrathiopleris L. Sp. PI. 1066. 175J. 
Onoclea SlralhiopUris Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. J : ii, 


Rootstocic stout, ascending, bearing a circle 
of stenle leaves with one or more fertile ones 
withm Fertile leaves i°-i^°high, simply 
pinnate with necklace-shaped pinnae which are 
formed of the closely revolute margins ; sori 
crowded and confluent; sterile leaves z''-f 
h gh 6 15' wide, broadly lanceolate, pin- 
nate much, the broadest above the middle and 
gradually tapering below, the lower pinnae 
be ng gradually much reduced ; veins pin- 
nate, free and simple ; texture firm ; rootstocks 

In moist thickets, especially alon)t streams. Nova 
Scotia 10 New Jersey, west to British Columbia and 
Illinois. Ascends to 1000 Ft. in Vermont. Also in 
Europe and Asia. July-Oct. 

2. WOODSIA R. Br. Trans. Linn. Soc. 


Small or medittm-sized ferns, growing in rocky places, with i-s-pinnateor pinnatiiid 
leaves and round sori borne on the backs of simply forked free veins. Indusia inferior, 
Uun and often evanescent, roundish or st*llate, either smalt and open or early bursting at 
the top into irregular lobes or segments. Stipes often jointed above the base and separating 
atthe joint. [Name in honor of Joseph Woods, 1776-1864, English architect and botanist.] 
About 15 species, natives of temperate and cold regions. Besides the following, another oc- 
flns in the southwesteni United States, 

Indnsium minute or evanescent, flat, concealed beneath the soms, its margin cleft into slender 
hair-like segmentB. 
Stipes obscurely jointed near the base; cilia of the indusium inflexed over the sporanees. 
reaves with more or less rusty chaff andemeatb. 1. W. Ilz-ensi!. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaf lanceolate, not tapering below; pinnae cordate -ovate, j-y-lobed. 7. IV. alpina. 
I*af linear or linear-oblong, often tapering both ways; pinnae deltoid. 3. IC. glabella. 
Stipes Dot jointed; cilia of the indusium very short, hidden by the sporanges. 

Puberulent; indusium deeply cleft, ending in hairs with cvHndric cells. 4. iV. stoiiilina. 

UavesandE.-^ ■->- f-j.-:— j:..rj_.. - - - - ..- 

ladtuium distinct, e 

I. Woodsia Ilvinsis (L.) R. Br. Rusty Woodsia. <Fig. i6.) 


Rootstock &hort, caespitose. Leaves lanceolate, 4'' 
>' long, pinnate, glahroas above, more or leM covered 
^ wilb maty chair beneath, as are also the slender stipes; 
pinnae crowded, sessile, pinnately parted, the crowded 
segments oblong, obscurely crenate ; stipes jointed 
near the base ; sori borne near the mirfpns of the 
segments, somewhat confluent when old ; indusiani 
minute, concealed beneath the sotus, its margin cleft 
into filiform segments which are inlleied over the 
sporanges and inconspicuous, especially when tbe 
latter have scattered their spores. 

On exposed rocks, Labrador and Greenland to the 
Northwest Terrilory, south to North Carolina and Ken- 
.V\ tucky. Ascends to 5000 ft. in New Hampshire. Also in 
'^^ Europe and Asia. ]une-Aug. 

2. Woodsia alpina (Bolton) S. F. Gray. 
Alpine Woodsia. (Fig. 17.) 

JVnodsia Aj'fierborea R. Br, Trans, Linn, Soc, 11: 17,1, 
H-oodsia alpina S, F, Gray, Nat, Art, Brit. PI, a: 17, 

Rootstock short, caespitose. Leaves narrowly ob- 
long-lanceolale, 3'-6' long, 8"-i3" wide, scarcely 
narrower below the middle ; pinnae cordate-ovate 
or triangular-ovate, pinnatety 5-7-lobed, glabrous 
or very nearly soon both auifaces; stipes jointed 
Dear the base; sori somewhat scattered on the seg- 
ments ; indusium as in the preceding species. 

On moist rocks, Labrador to Alaska, south to Maine. 
northern New York and western Ontario. Ascends to 
4200 ft. in Vermont, July-AuR, 

3. Woodsia glabella R. Br. Smooth 

Woodsia. (Fig. 18). 
H'ondsia glabella R, Br, App, Franklin's Joum, 754, 

RootstQck small, caespitose. Stipes obscurely 
jointed at the base ; leaves linear or narrowly lan- 
ceolate, a'-s' long, 4" 8" wide ; pinnae deltoid to 
ovate, the lower remote, obtuse, crenately lobed, 
olten somewhat smaller than the middle ones, 
glabrous or nearly so ; sori scattered on the seg- 
ments ; indusinm minute, membranous, with 6-10 
radiating segments, covered by the sporanges, its 
filamentous segments only in flexed over them 
when young as in the two preceding species- 

On moist rocks. Labrador to Alaska, south to New 
Hampshire, Vermont, northern New York and the 
north shore of Lake Superior. Also in arctic and 
alpine Europe and Asia. 


4. ^^oodsia scopuUna D. C. Eaton. 
Rocky Mountain Woodsia. (Fig. 19.) 

if'oodsia scopulina D. C. Eaton, Can, Nat. 3: 90. 

Rootstock short, creeping, densely chaffy. Stipes 
3'-4' long, not jointed, puberalent like the ractais 
^Dd lower sarface of the leaf with minute fattened 
liairs and stalked glands ; leaves lanceolate, 6'-i3' 
long, tapering from about the middle to both ends ; 
pinnae numerous, oblong-ovate, pinnatiSd into 
lo-ifi oblong toolbcd segments; indusium hidden 
beneath the sporanges, very deeply cleft into short 
cilia with cylindric cells 

of rocks, northern Minnesota and west- 
Oreffon, south in the Rocky Mountains 
d in the Siena Nevada to Cahfomia. 


5. Woodsia Oregina D. C. Eaton. Oregon Woodsia. (Fig. 20.) 

H'oodsia Oregana D. C, Eaton, Can. Nat. i ; 90. 1865. 

li-'oodiia oblusa var. Lyallii Hook. Syn. Fil. 48. 1868. 
Rootstock short. Stipes and leaves glabrous 
throughout; stipes not jointed, brownish belov; 
leaves a'-io' long, elliptic-lanceolate, the sterile 
shorter than the fertile ; pinnae triangular-oblong, 
obtuse, pinnaliGd ; lower pinnae reduced in size 
and somewhat remote from the others; rachis 
straw-colored ; segments oblong or ovate, dentate 
or crenate, the teeth often refleied and covering 
the submarginal sari ; indusia minute, concealed 
by the sporanges, divided almost to the centre into 
a few beaded hairs 

rocks, northern 


hiffan and Minnesota and 
mbia, south in the Rockv 
n the Sierra Nevada to Cal- 

e. Woodsia obtiisa (Spreng.) Torr. Blunt-lobed Woodsia. (Fig. 21.) 

Polj-Podium nblHirim Spreng. Anleit. ga. 1804. 
Kypopfllis obtusa Ton. Corap. 380. 1824. 
K 'otidsia oblusa Tort. Cat. PI. in Geol. Rep. N. Y. 195. 

Rootstock short, creeping. Stipes not jointed, 

P"le green, 3'-6' long ; leaves broadly lanceolate, 

^'-■S' long, minutely glandular-pubescent, nearly 

i-IHanate ; pinnae rather remote, triangular-ovate, 

or oblong, pinnately parted into obtuse oblong 

crenate-dentatc segments ; veins forked and bear- 
ing the sori on or near the minutely toothed lobes; ^^ -^Uoi 
wdnsium conspicuous, at first enclosing the spor- ^ f j^^ 
*^&^ at length splitting into several jagged lobes, 
•hich ate much wider than those in any of the pre- ^~y~ 

«ding species. .^ 

On rocks, Nova Scotia (according to Macoun) and 
™ine w northern New York, Wisconsin and British 
Colnnbia, south to Geo^a, Alabama, the Indian Ter- 
nlory and Arizona. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Virginia. 
July- Aug, 


3. DICKSONIA L'Her. Sertum Angl. 30. 1788. 

Large feras with 2-3-piaaatifid leaves, and creepinK or erect rootstocks, manjr tropical 
species Brtmrcscent. Sori Bmalt, globular, marginal or lubmarginal. Sporanges boroe in 
an elevated globular receptacle, enclosed in the membranous cup-shaped inferior indusiunt 
which is open at the top and on the outer side adherent to a reflcxed toothlet of the leaf. 
Sporanges pedicelled, provided with a vertical ring which bursts (ran aversely. Veins always 
free. [Name in honor of James Dickson, English nurseryman and botanist, 173S-1832.] 

About 50 species, of wide distribution, the (freater number in tropical America and Polynesia, 

I. Dicksonia punctil6bula (Michx. ) A. Gray Hay scented Fern (Fig 22 ) 

Iftf'hrodiiim /lunclilobuliim Michx. Kl. Bor. Am a 


Rootstock slender, eztensivetj creeping, not 
chaffy. Stipes stout, chaffless, pale green and 
sweet-scented; leaves i''-3'' long, s'-g'wide, ova e 
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, frequently long 
attenuate, usually 3 pinnatifid, thin and delica e 
rachis and under surface minutely glandular and 
pubescent ; sori miaute, each on a recurved too b 
let, usually one at the upper margin of each lobe 
sporanges few; indusium cup-shaped with adelica e 
membranous irregular margin. 

In various situations, most abundant on open hill- 
sides, New Bmnswicli and Ontario to Indiana and Min- 
nesota (according: to Upham). south to Alabama and 
Tennessee. Ascends to 5600 ft. in Vi^inia. Aug. 

4. CYSTOPTERIS Bemh. Schrad. Neues Joum. Bot. i: Part 2, 26. 1806. 

Delicate rock ferns with slender stipes, 2-4-pinn8te leaves, and roundish sori borne on 
the backs of the veins. Indusium membranous, hood-like, attached by a broad base od 
its inner side and partly under the sorus, early opening and somewhat evanescent. Veins 
free, Sporanges pedicelled, provided with a transversely bursting vertical ring. [Greek, 
signifying Bladder-fern, in alluuon to the inflated indusium.] 

Five species, natives of the north temperate zone. 
Leaves ovate -lanceolate or lanceolate, 3-3-pinnate. 

Leaves tmradest at base, lone-taperinB, bearing: bulblcts l)eneath. 

Leaves scarcely broader at base, short -pointed; no bulblets. 
Leaves deltoid-ovate, ,V4-pinnate. 

following known in North America. 

:, C. bulbiftra. 
2. C-fragUU. 

I. Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bemh. 
Bulblet Cystopteris. (Fig. 23.) 

Polypodium butbiferum L. Sp. PI, 1091, 1753- 
Cyitopitris bulbifera Bemh. Schrad. Neues Joum- 
Bot. i: Parts, 26. 1806. 

Rootstock short, copiously rooting. Stipes 4'-6' 
long, light colored; leaves elongated, lanceolate 
from a broad base, i"-!!^" long, 2-3-piiinatifid or 
pinnate ; pinnules crowded, toothed or pinnatifid ; 
rachis wingless, commonly bearing underneath in 
the axils of the pinnae and segments, large fleshy 
bulblets which fall away and propagate the plant; 
indusia short, truncate on the free side, early 
thrown back and withering so that the sori appear 
naked at maturity. 

On wet rocks and in ravines, especially on limestone, 
Quebec to Wisconsin, south to Tennessee and Arkansas. 
Ascends to 3500 ft. in Viipnia. Ju'.y-Aug. 

(Fig. 24.) 

a. Cystoptcris frfigilis (L.) Bemh. Brittle Fern, 

J^lypodium fragile 1,. Sp. PI. 1091. 1753. 
^ystopieris fragilis Bemh. Schrad. Neues 
Joiun. Bot. I : Part S, a?- 1S06. 

Rootstoclc short. Stipca \'-W long ; leaves 
thiD, oblong- lanceolate, odI; sligfatty taper- 
ing below, 4'-io' loag, 3-3-pitinati6d or pin- 
nate ; pinnae lanceolate- ovate, irregularly 
pinnatifid, with a broad central space and 
bluntly or sharply toothed segments decur- 
rent along the margined or winged rachis, 
without bulblets ; indusia nsirow or acute 
at the free end, early withering and exposing 
the son which finally appear naked ; texture 

On rocks and in moist frrassy woods, New- 
foundland to Alaska, south to Geoqna and Ari- 
zona. Also in South and Central America, 
Europe, Asia and New Zealand : almost cosmo- 
politan in distribution. Ascends to jooo ft. in 
New Hampshire. May-July, 

. Cystoptcris montAna (Lam.) Berah. Mountain Cj-stopteris. (Fig. 25.) 
PolyPodium monlanam Lam. Fl. France, i : 


I. Bot, I : Part a. 

Bemh. Schrad. Neut 

Rootstock slender, widely creeping. Stipes 
6'-^' long, slender ; leaves deltoid-ovate, 3-4- 
pinnate, about 6' long and broad, the lowest 
pinnae deltoid -lanceolate and much larger 
than the upper, their inferior pinuules 
I'-iJi'long; segments deeply divided into 
oblong lobes, deeply toothed ; son numer- 
ous ; indusia acute, soon withering, expos' 
ing the son and causing tbeni to appear 
naked at maturity. 

On rocks, Labrador and Quebec to British 
Columbia, south to the north shore of Lake Su- 
perior, and in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado. 
Also in northem Europe and Asia. Aug. 

S. DRYOPTERIS Adans. Fam. PI. a; 20. 


[ASPIDIUM Sw. Schrad. Journ, Bot. a : 4. i3oo.] 
Perns with i-jpinnate or pinnatifid leaves and round sori usually borne on the backs of 
the Teins, the fertile and sterile leaves similar in outline. Indusium flat or Sattish, orbicular 
and peltate or cordate- re ni form, superior, fixed by its sinus or depressed centre. Stipe con- 
tmnous, not jointed with the rootstock. Sporanges abundant, pcdicelled, the vertical ring 
Panting transversely. Veins free in the northern species, uniting occasionally or even freely 
'» Wine of the southern. [Greek, signifying Oak-fern, in allusion to the forest habitat of 
most species.] 

About 350 species, of wide geographic distribution. 
««utinlhe»outhemand westem parts of North America. 
^patated as a distinct genus. {PtHyilichum Koth, 1797.) 


orbicular, e 

:, peltate, fixed by the depresned cen 

Lower pinnae li 

Stipes short ; lower pinnae much reduced. 
Stipes lot^irer ; lower pinnae usually little reduced, 
leaves bi pinnate. 
Indusium cordate -reni form or orbicular, fixed by the ninun. 

Texture thin-membranous : veins simple or once forked ; leaves 
very much reduced, 
little smaller than the middle ones. 
i-Corked ; sort crowded, lo 1 2 to a sc([tncnt. 
Veins simple ; sori larger, distinct. 4-10 to a seinnent. 
Texture firmer, sometimes subcoriaceous : veins forking freely. 
I,eaves 2-pitinatifid or 2- pinnate ; segments not spinuioHc. 
Uaves small, narrowly lanceolate. 
Leaves larger, mostly i W-j" high. 
Indusia large, thinnish and flat. 
Pinnae widest at the base. 
Pinnae widest at the middle. 
Indusia convex, without marginal glands. 

I. ft. Ijtitchitis. 

7. D. acroslichoides. 

S. O. Braunii. 

5. n. Thelypier 


ir the midvei 

. D. Filix-mas. 
s usually w 

leaves i-pinnate or 3-pinnatifid ; segments spinulose -toothed 

Leaves ovale -lanceolate, usually not narrowed below ; scales of stipes usually 

dark centre. 11. D. spinulosa 

Leaves elongated -lanceolate, usually narrowed at the base ; scales of the stipes pale 

brown. 13. D. Boollii. 

I. Dryopteris Lonchltis (L.) Kuntze. 

Polvtiodium Lonchilis L. Sp. PI, 1088. 1753. 
As/ndium LonihilisSvi.StiiTaA.iovTn. Bot. J: jo. 1800. 
Dryopteris Loiickilii Kunue,Re\. Gen. PI. 813. 1891. 
Rootstock short, stout, densely chaffy. Stipes 
I'-S' long, bearing large dark brown scales with ' 
some smaller ones ; leaves rigid, coriaceous, ever- 
green, narrowly lanceolate in outliue, once pinnate; 
piaaae broadly lanceolate-falcate, I'-j'long, acute 
or acuminate at the apex, strongly auricled on the 
upper side at the base and obliquely truncate on 
the lower, densely spinulose-dentate, the lowest 
commonly triangiilar and shorter; sori lar^e, at 
length contiguous, borne nearer the margin than 
the midrib, commonly quite close to the margin ; 
indusium orbicular, entire, fiicd by its depressed 

Holly-fern. fFig. 26.) 

On rocks, t.,abradoT to .\laska, south to Ontario a 
British Columbia, and in the Rocky Mountains 
Utah. Also in northern Europe and Asia. Aug. 

, Dryopteris acrostichoides (Michx.) Kuntze. Christmas Fern. (Fig. 27.) 

Nephrodium acrostichoides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 3 : ^67. 

Rootstock stout, creeping. Stipes 5'-?' long, 
densely chaffy; leaves lanceolate in outline, fi'-i^long, 
3'-5'wide, rigid, evergreen, subcoriaceous, once pin- 
nate ; pinnae linear-lanceolate, somewhat falcate, I'-j' 
long, acutish at the apex, half halberd-shaped at the 
base, bristly with appresscd teeth, the lower little 
smaller, sometimes defiexed ; feriile fronds contracted 
at the summit, bearing the large contiguous sori near 
the middle, which soon cover the whole lower sur- 
face ; indnsium orbicular, entire, fixed by its depressed 
centre, persistent. 

In woods and on hillsides, most abundant in rocky 
places. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to Florida, west 
to Ontario, Wisconsin and Mississippi. Ascends to ^700 
ft. in Maryland. July-Aug. 

Foruis with cut-lobed or incised pinnae are known as 
var. SchweiHilzii ,■ occasional forms are 2-pinnatifid. 


3. Dryopteris Braiinii (Spenner) Underw. Braun's Holly-fern. (Fig. 28.) 

DryopUris aculeata var. Braunii Undern 



RootstOflE stout. Stipes 4'-5' long chaffy with 
both bro&d and narrow brown scales leaves ob- 
long-htnceolate, not coriaceous, 1 pinnate tbe 
rachis chaffy, at least below ; pinnae numerous 
close together, lanceolate or linear lanceolate 
broadest at the base, cut to the midvein into ovate 
or oblong pinnules; middle pinnae 1% 4 long 
the lower gradually shorter ; pinnules truncate and 
nearly rectangular at the base, acute or obtuse 
sharply toothed and beset with long soft hairs and 
scales; son small, mostly nearer the midvein than 
the margin ; indusium orbicular, peltate entire 

Alaska, south to Maine 

In rocky woods. Quebec 
the ii)ounIa.ins of PennayU 
British Columbia. Ascends 

15000 ft 

4. Dryopteris Noveboracinsis (L ) A Gra\ 

New York Fern 
L. Sp. PI. ic 

(Fig. 29.) 


5. Dryopteris Thelifpteris (L.) A. Gray. 

AiTDstichum Tkflypieris h- Sp. PI. 1071. 17S3. 
■^i^irfiainJUc/vfi/fnjSw.Schrad, Joum.Bol.a:40. 1800. 
"ryopitris Thelypieris A. Gray. Man. 630. 1848. 

Rmtstock slender, creeping. Leaves lanceolate 
or oblong-lanceolate, scarcely narrower at the base 
U>U at the middle, I'-aJi" long, 4'-6' wide, short- 
'C'liiiiaate at the apex, membranous, once pin- 
"(te; pinnae linear-lanceolate, short-stalked or 
*°»ile, mostly horizontal, acuminate at the apex, 
■WMly truncate at the base, lyi'-i' long, slightly 
Pubescent beneath, deeply pinnatifid ; segments ob- 
'""gi obtuse or appearing acute fratn the strongly 
leiolate margins ; veins regularly once or twice 
forked; sori crowded, 10-12 to each segment; 
uidiiiia reniform, slightly glandular or glabrous. 

hi marshes and wet woods, rarely in dry soil. New 
"WBwick to Manitoba, south to Florida, Louisiana 
Ud Kansas. Ascends to looo ft. in Vermont. Also in 
Dlrope and Asia. Summer. 

Jhly^dium Novebora 
Aipidiam Noveboract 
Dryopteris Noveboracensis A. Gray, Man. 630. i8jS. 

Rootstock slender, widely creeping. Leaves 
lanceolate, tapering both ways from the middle, 
i°-2° long, 4'-6' wide, membranous, long-acumi- 
nate at the apex, once pinnate ; pinnae lanceolate, 
sessile, long-acuminate, deeply pinnatifid, ciliale 
and finely puhesceot beneath, i}i'-i' long, the 
two or more lower pairs gradually shorter and de- 
flexed, commonly diataut ; segments fiat, oblong, 
obtuse, the basal ones often enlarged ; veins simple 
or those of the basal lobes forked ; sori not con- 
fluent, borne near the margin ; indusium minute, 
reniform, delicate, gland-beating, fixed by its sinus. 

In moist woods and thickets. Newfoundland to On- 
tario and Minnesota, south to North Carolina and 
Arkansas. Ascends to 5000 ft. in Virginia. Sometimes 
' * ' ■ July-Sept. 

Marsh Shield-fern. (Fig. 30.) 


6. Dryopteris simuUta Davenp. Massachasetts Shield-fem. (Fig. 31.) 

Aspidiiim simulalum Davenp, Bot, Gaz.19 : 495. 1894- 
Dryopierii simulala Davenp. Bot. Om, 19 : 497. 1894. 
As synonym. 

Rootatock wide-crecptDg, slender, brownUli ; 
stipes 6'-ao' long, straw-colored, dark brown at 
base, with deciduous scales; leaves %'-x/ long, 
a'-7' wide, oblong-lanceolate, tapering (o fto acn- 
miiiale apei (abruptly tapering in the fertile 1e*0. 
Utile or not at all narrowed at the base; pinnae la- 
10 paiiB, lanceolate, pinnatilid, the segments ob- 
liquely oblong, obtuse, entire, slightly revolate in 
the fertile leaf; snrfaces finely pubescent, especi- 
ally near the midribs; teiture rather thin; veins 
simple, nearly straight ; son rather targe, aomewfaat 
distant, 4-10 to each segment ; indusia finely glan- 
dular at the margins, withering-persistent. 

Dryopteris frUgrans (L.) Schott. 
Fragrant Shield-fem. (Fig. 32.) 

Polypodium fragrans L. Sp. PI. Io8r 
Asfndium fragrans Sw, Schrad, Jot 
Dryopteris fragrans Schott. Gen. F 

I. Bot. 1: 

Rootstock stout, chaffy with brown shining scales 
Stipes 3'-4' long, chaffy ; leaves lanceolate, firm, glan 
duler and aromalic, pinnate or nearly ^.pinnate 
acuminate at apex, narrowed to the base, 3'-i3' long 
pinnae deeply pinnatifid, numerous, lanceolate, acute 
yi'-l%' long; segments oblong, obtuse, dentate or 
nearly entire, nearly covered by the large sori ; in 
dusium thin, nearly orbicular, persistent long after 
the sporanges have matured, its margin ragged and 
sparingly gland- bearing, the sinus narrow. 

On rocks. Labrador to Alaska, south to Maine, Vermont 
the Adirondack Mountains and Wisconsin. Ascends to 
4000 ft. in Vcnnont, Also in Greenland, Europe and Asia. 

Q,^ipv^vfJ'^A\| 8. Dryopteris cristdta (L. ) A. Gray. 

^^^^~viJ[ffV/V>v--j Crested Shield-fem. (Eig. 33.) 


Rootstock stout, creeping, densely chaffy. Stipes 
of the sterile leaves 2'-5' long, those of the fertile 
6'-io' long ; leaves linear-oblong or lanceolate, 
acuminate at the apex, gradually and slightly nar- 
rowed to the base, rather firm, l''-aJ4° long, 4'-6' 
wide, pinnate ; pinaae lanceolate or triangular- 
ovate, acuminate, deeply pinnali&d or the lower 
pinnate, the segments 6-10 pairs, serrate or iucised; 
sori eboal midway between the margin and midrib; 
indusium thin, orbicular-reniform, glabrous. 

In wet woods and swamps, Newfoundland to Mani- 
toba, south to Kentuok;^ and Arkaniias. Ascends to 3700 
ft. in Maryland. Also in Kurope and Asia. ]uly-Ang. 
Dryopteris ciistlta ClintonUuia ID. C. Eaton) I'nderw. Native Ferns. Hd, 4, 115. 1S9]. 
AspidiuM crislaliim var. Clinlonianuni D, C. Eaton in A. Gray, Man, Ed. 5. 665. 1K67. 

Leaves iV, "-4° long, with oblonE-laiiceolate pinnae, which ate broadest at the base and 4' -6' 
lonK ; sefrnient* 8-16 pairs, linear-oblonjt. olHicurely serrate : veins pinnately forking:, bearing the 
sori near llic midvein. Maine and OnUrio to New Jersey. Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. 

• Ill L. Sp. PI. 1090. 175, 
; crisia/um Sw, Schrad. Journ. Bot. ; 
- A. Gray, Man. 631. 184 

9. Dryopteris Goldie&na (Hook.) A. Gray. 

As/iidiuni Goldieanum Hook. Edinb. Philos. Joum. 6: 
Dryopteris Goldtana A. Gray, Man, 631. 184S. 

Rootstock stout, widely creeping, cliB&y. Stipes 
io'-i8' long, chaffy at least below ; leaves broadly 
ovate, rather finn, 1°-^" long, usually 1° or more 
wide, glabrous or nearly so, dark green above, pin- 
nate or nearly a-pinnate; lower pinnae broadly 
lanceolate, widest at about the middle, 6'-9' 
long, I'-a' wide, pinnalely parted into about ao 
pairs of oblong-linear subfalcate segments which 
are serrate with appressed teeth ; sori very near 
the midrib, close together but distinct, large ; in- _._- 
dusium orbicular, fixed by its narrow sinus, glab- ^^ 

Goldie's Fern (Fig. 34.) 

Its, persistent. 

In rich woods, New Brunswick ti: 
a North Carolina and Tennessee, 
n Virginia and to 2500 ft. in Vcrmo: 

Minnenota, south 
1. July-Aug. 

10. Dryopteris margindlis (L. ) A. Gray. Evergreen Wood-fern. (Fig. 35. ) 

Polyfiodium marvinaleL. Sp. PI. 1091. 1753. 
Aspidium marginale Sw. Syn, Fil. 50, 1806, 
Dryopteris marginalis A. Gray, Man, 633. 1848. 

Rootstock stout, ascending, densely chaffy with dark 
brown shiningacales. Stipes 3 '-S' long, chaify below; 
leaves borne in a crown, ovate-obloug or ovate-lanceo- 
tate in outline, subcoriaceous, 6'-3}j° long, pinnate or 
a-pinnate, acuminate at the apex, slightly narrowed at 
the base ; pinnae numerous, lanceolate, nearly sessile, 
glabrous, a'-5' long, the lower broader and shorter 
than the middle ones, the upper pinnatifid, the lower 
pinnately parted into oblong, sometimes slightly fal- 
cate obtuse entire dentate or pinnately lobed pinnules; 
sori distinct, close to the margin, covered by the glab- 
rous indusium which is fixed by its ainns. 

In rocky woods and on banks. Prince Edward Island to 
the Northwest Territory-, <touth to Alabama and Arkansas. 
Ascends to jooo ft. in Vireinia, A hybrid with D. crislala 
is described. Leaves evergreen, July-Aug. 

Dryopteris Filix-Mis (L,) Schott. Male Fern. (Fig. 36.) 


Rootstock stout, ascending or erect, cbaffy. Stipes 
A'-V long, very chaffy below ; leaves broadly oblong 
luceolate, acute, or acuminate at the apex, slightly 
"•Trowed to the ttase, i°-3° long, rather firm half 
^Tetgreen, pinnate or partly i-pinnate ; pinnae lanceo- 
''te, broadest at the base, gradually acuminate to the 
'F**i 3'-6' long, pinnatifid almost to the rach s or 
pinsBtely divided into oblong glabrous lobes or p n 
inlet; pinnules slightly dentate, incised or nearly en 
"K^ lotilarge, borne near the midvein, more numerous 
-on the lower halves of the segments ; indusium firm 
soBvei, glabrous, orbicular-teniform, fixed byits sinus. 

In rocky woods. Labrador to Alaska, south to northern 
Michigan and British Columbia, and in the Rockj Moun 
tuns to Arizona, Also in Greenland, Europe and As a 
uid in the Andes of South America. Aug. The rootstock 
«f Ibis and the preceding species furnish the drug Filix- 
■ui, used as a vermifug^e. 


13. Dryopteris spinuldsa (Retz) Kuntze, Spiiiulose Shield-fern. (Fig. 37.) 

Polyfrndium sfiiaulosum Retz, Fl. Scand, TA. 2, 2, 
Aspidium sfiina/osum Sv/, Scbrad. Jouni. Bat. 1: 
DtyopUris ifiiHulosa Kontze, Rev. Gen. PI. 813. 

Rootstock atont, chaffy. Stipes 6'-i8' Iod^. bearing 
s few pale brown deciduous tcalea; leaves ovate-lan- 
ceolate, i-pinnate, the pinnae oblique to the racbia, 
elongated-triaugular, rather thin, the lower pairs 
broadly triangular, slightly shorter than the middle 
ones i pinnules obliqae to the midrib, connected by a 
very narrow wing, oblong, incised or pinnatifid with 
spinnlose-toothed lobes; indnsium glabrous, orbicnlar- 
reniibim, fixed by its ainna. 

In rich woods, Newfaundtaad to Alaska and WaahinK- 
ton, south to Kentucky and MichiKan. Ascends to 5000 
ft. in Virginia. Also in Europe and Asia. July-Auff. 

I>r7apteri( •plnulisa iateimtdla (Muhl.) Underw. 
Native Ferns, Ed, 4. 116(1893). 
Aspidium inlerntediutn Muhl, ; Willd. Sp. PI. 5: J6». 
Dryopteris iHUrmedia A. Gray, Man. 630. iRfS. 
Aspidiam ipinulosum var, in/ermedium D. C. Bator 

Scales of the stipes (ew. brown with a darker centre ; leaves oblong^^vatc. 1-3-pinnBte, the 
pinnae oblonK-lanceotate. spreading, the lowest unequally triangulBr-ovate ; pinnules crowded, pin- 
nateljr divided ; indusium delicate, beset with stalked glands. Labrador to Alaska, south to North. 
Carolina and Missouri. (?) We have chosen this commonest American form for illustration. 

Diyopteils ipinoUsa dilatAta (Hoffm.) Underw. Native Perns, Ed. 4. 116. 1693. 
Patypodium dilalalum Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. a: 7. 1795. 
Aspidium spinalosiim var. dilalalum Hook. Brit. PI. 444. iSjo. 
Dryopltris dilalala A. Gray, Man. 631. 1848. 

Scales ot the stipe large, brown with a darker centre; leaves broadly ovate or triangrular-ovate, 
commonly 3.pinnate ; pinnules lance olate-oblonB, the lowest often much elongated ; indusium glab- 
rous. Newfoundland to Washington and Alaska, south along the Alleghenjes to North Carolina 
and Tennessee and to Ohio and Nebraska. Also in Europe and Asia. 

Dryopteris Bodttii (Tuckerm ) Underw. Boott's Shield-fern. (Fig. 38.) 
.,4j/tjrfiuinfloo//iiTuckenn. Hoi'ey's Mag. g: 145. 1843. 
Aspidium spinulosum var. Bootlii D. C. Eaton in A. 

Gray Man. Ed. s, 665. 1867. 
Dt~toplerts Bootlii Underw, Native Ferns, Ed. 4, 117. 


Rootstock stout, ascending. Stipes 8'-ii' long, 
covered at least below, with thin pale-brow ti 
scales leaves elongated-obloug or elongated- 
lanceolate in outline, thin, acuminate at the apex, 
slightly narrowed at the base, nearly or quite 
1 pinnate i°-3>i° long, 3'-5' wide ; pinnae lanceo- 
late long acuminate, broadest at the nearly sessile 
base pinnules broadly oblong, very obtuse, the 
lower pinnatifid ; sori distinct, borne about half 
way between the tnidvein and margin ; indusium 
orbicular reniform, minutely glandular. 

In woods, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to south- 
Maryland. Ascends to 
northern Europe and 


em New York, Delaware 
2000 ft. in Vermont. Also 
Asia. July-Sept. 

6. PHEGOPTERIS F^e, Gen. Fil. 242. 1850-52. 

Medium sized or small ferns with i~3-pinnatifid or temate leavesand small round sori borne 
on the backs of the veins below the apex. Stipe not jointed with the rootstock. Indusium 
none. Fertile (spore-bearingj and sterile leaves simitar. Sporangespedicelled, provided with 
a vertical ring, bursting transversely. [Greek, signifying Beech-fern.] 

About lOD species of wide geographic distribution. Besides the following another occurs in 
western North .\nieiica. 
Leaves triangular, i-pinnatiiid ; pinnae sessile, adnate to the winged racbis. 

Leaves longer than broad, usually dark green. 1. P. Phegopteris. 

Leaves as broad as long, or broader, usually light (treen. t. P. ktxagoaopiera. 

Leaves temate, with the three divisions petioled ; rachis wingless. 3, P. Dryopterts. 


I. Phegopteris Pheg6pteris (L.) Underw. Long Beech-fern. (Fig. 39.) 
Polypodium Pkegopieris I,, Sp. PI. [089. 1753. 
f*tgopitrh Potypodioidei'Fie. Gen. Fit. 143. 1850-51. 
Phegopteris Phegoplerii Underw. ; Small, Bull. Torr. 

Clnb, 30 : 463. 1S9J. 

Rootstock slender, creeping, someirhat chaffy at 
least when young. Stipes b'-^ long ; leaves Iriaa- 
gnlar, thin, mostly longer than wide, ^'-c,' long, 3'- 
6' wide, acuminate at the apex, pubesceul, especi- 
ally on the veins beneath ; pinnae lanceolate or 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, sessile, 
broadest above the base, pinnately parted very 
nearly to the racfais into oblong obtuse eatiie seg- 
ments, the lower pair deflexed and standing for- 
ward ; basal segments, at least those of the upper 
pinnae, decnrrent and adnate to the winged rachis \ 
sori small, borne near the margin. 

In moist woods and on hillsides, Newfoundland to 
Alaska, south to the mountains of Virsrinia, and to 
Michigan and Washington. Ascends to 4000 ft. in 
Vermont. Also in Europe and Asia. Aug. 

a, Phegopteris hexagondptera (Michx.) 
F4e. Broad Beech-fern. (Fig. 40.) 

Polypodium liexagonopierum Michi, PI. Bor. Am. 

a- rjt 1803. 
Ple^oplerts bexagonopiera FSe, Gen. Fil. ajj. 


Rootstock Blender, creeping, chafi^, some- 
what fleshy Stipes 8'-i8' long, straw-colored, 
naked leaves triangtilar, as broad as or broader 
than long 7 -11' wide, slightly pubescent and 
often slightly glandular beneath, acaminate at 
the apex uppermost pinnae oblong, obtuse, 
dentate or entire, small, the middle ones lance- . 
olate acuminate, the very large lowest pair 
broadest near the middle, pinnately parted 
nearly to the midvein into linear-oblong obtuse 
segments sori mostly near the margin. 

In dry woods and on hillsides, Quebec to Minne- 
sota, south to Florida and Louisiana. Ascends to 
4000 ft. in North Carolina. Leaves froenuiL Aug. 

3- Phegopteris Drydpteris (L.) F^. 
Oak-fern. (Fig. 41.) 

hlypodium Dryopieris I., Sp. PI. 1093. 1753. 
negaplerii Dryopieris F*e, Gen. FH, 243, 1850-51. 

Rootstock slender, creeping. Stipes slender, 
V-ii' long, chaffy at least near the base ; leaves 
Uiin, broadly triangular, almost glabrous, 4'-S' 
*)&, teniate, the three primary divisions stalked, 
pWnate or partly a-pinnate, the terminal one 
■lightly larger, all spreading more or less at right 
■oglea to the stipe ; pinnnles lanceolate or oblong- 
luceolate, obtuse or subacute, sessile ; segments 
oHong, obtuse, entire or crcnate, close together. 

In moist woods, thickets and awamps, Newfound- 
hud lo Alaska, south to Virginia, Minnesota, Oreeon, 
till in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado. Ascends to 
i4«>fLiDtheCatskillB. Also in Europe and Asia. Aug. 
ntioptdis I>iy6pt«rit Robertlina (HoSm.) Davenp. 

Cat. Davenp. Herb. Suppl. 47- 1883. 
^y/vdium Roberlianum HofFm. Deutsch. Fl. 1795. 
"fgopleris calcarea Fte, Gen. Fil. 343. 1850-51. 

Stipes e'-lo" long, straw-colored when diy ; leaves 6' -8' loiur, mostly erect, s'-t' wide, deltold- 
vnlt, 3.pinnate, the lowest pinnae much the largest, pinnatiud or again pinnate ; upper pinnae 
■nallet, pinnatifid, lobed or entire ; sori numerous. Labrador to Iowa and Idaho. Also in Europe. 



7. WOODWARDIA J. E. Smith, Mem. Acad. Tor. 5: 411. 1793. 

Lartrc aod rather coarse ferns of svamps or wet woods, with piaoate or nearly a-pinnate 
leaves and oblong or linear sori. sunk in cavities of the leaf and arrHnged in chain-like 
rows, parallel to the marginB of the pinnae. Leaves all alike or the pinnae of the fertile 
ones much narrower than those of the sterile. Indusia subcoriaceous, fixed by their outer 
margins to a veinlet and coi'ering the cavity like a tid. Veins more or lew reticulated. 
Sporanges pedicelUd, provided with a vertical ring, bursting transversely. [Name in 
honor ofThotnasJeiikinson Woodward, 1745-1810, English botanist] 

Six speoies, mostly of tlie north temperate zonr. Besides the following, another occurs on the 
Pacific coast of North America. 

Leaves uniform ; veins free between the sori and the marf[in. i. W. fireiiiira. 

Leaves of two kinds ; veins everywhere anostomosing. i. (C areolata. 

I. 'Woodwardia Virginica (L.) J. E.Smith. Virginia Chain-fern. (Fig. 42.) 

n L. ManL l 

Blechnupt I'hgini^ 
Woodu-ardia I 'irx'iiii 

< ]. B. Smith, 


Rootstock long, stout, horizontal, subterra- 
nean or creeping, chaffy. Stipes stout, la'-iS' 
long, nearly or quite naked, dark-colored be- 
low : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute at the 
apex, narrowed at the baae, I'-a" long, 6'-9' 
wide, pinnate ; pinnae linear-lanceolate, nsu- 
ally alternate or some of them opposite, coria- 
ceous, glabrous, acuminate at the apex, ses- 
sile, 3'-6' long, deeply pinnatifid into ovate 
or oblong obtuse segments, their margins 
minutely serrulate ; veins forming a single 
aeries of areolae on either side of the mid- 
vein, the sori borne on the outer curving 
veinlets ; sterile and fertile leaves Hmilar in 

In swamps, often in deep water, Nova Scotia 
to Ontario and MichiKsn. south to Florida. 
Louisiana and Arkansas. Ascends to 1300 ft in 
Pennsylvania. Also in Bermuda. June-July. 

3. Woodwardia areol&ta (L.) Moore. Net-veined Chain-fern. (Fig. 43.) 

Acroslichum areolaliim L. Sp. PI. 1069. 1753. 
iVoodu-ardia aitguslijolia J. E. Smith, Mem. 

Acad. Tor. 5; 411. 1793. 
Woodu-ardia areolala Moore, Index Pilicum, 

xlv. 1857. 

Rootstock slender, widely creeping, 
chafiy. Leaves of two kinds, the fertile 
taller than the sterile and borne on longer 
stipes, i°-3° high, their pinnae much con- 
tracted, narrowly linear, j'-s' long, i"-i" 
wide, distant, their bases connected by a 
very narrow wing to the rachis or quite dis- 
tinct ; sterile leaves deltoid-ovate, membran- 
ous, broadest at the base, or sometimes 
with one or two small pinnae below, the 
apex acuminate, the segments lanceolate 
or oblong- lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
minutely serrulate, sometimes undulate, 
their bases connected by a rather broad 
rachis-wing ; veins forming numerous 

In swamps and moist soil, Maine to Florida, 
Tennessee, Louisiana, and Arkansas: also in 
Michigan . Ascends to 3000 ft in North Caro- 
lina. Aug. -Oct. 

8. SCOLOPENDRIUM Adans. Fam. PI. 1: 


haigc fenis with oblong or strap-ahaped mostly eatire leaves, and linear elongated son 
which are almost it right angles to the midrib and contiguous in pairs, one on the upper 
ride of a vetolet, the other on the lower side of the next contiguous veinlct, thus appearing 
to have a double indtisium opening longitudinally along its middle. Sporanges pedicelled, 
the ring Tcrtical, bunting transversely. [Greek, in allusion to the centipede, Scolopendra.^ 

ily of temperate rcg:ions. Only the following is 

in North 

1. Scolopendrium Scolop^ndrium 

(Iv.)Karst. Hart's- tongue. (Fig. 44.) 

A spUaium Scolopendrium L. Sp, PI. 1079. 1753. 
ScoloPfHdHum vulgare J. E, Smitli, Mem, 

Acad. Tor. 5:421. [791. 
Scolopendrium Seolo/ieadrium Karat, Deutsch, 

Fl, 178, 1880-8.V 

Rootstock short, erect or ascending, cha^ 
with light brown scales. Stipes 3'-6' long, 
fibrillose-chalTj below or sometimes np to 
the base of the leaf; leaves simple, bright 
green, firm, 7'-i8' long, i'-aj4' wide.^cor- 
date at the base, the maigjna entire or un- 
dulate, the lower surface of the midrib some- 
times chaffy; pairs of sori distinct, j"-?" 
long ; conspicuous on the lower surface, the 
sporangcs dark brown at maturity ; veins 
free, usually once forked near the midrib. 

On shaded cliffs of the comiferous limestone, 
Chittcnango Falls and Jamesvilk, N, Y,; near 
South Pittsbuifr, Tenn.; Owen Sound. Ont,, 
New Brunswick and Mexico. Widely distrib- 
uted in Europe, Asia and Africa. Very variable 
in form in the Old World. 

9. CAMPTOSORUS Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 69. 1833, 
Slender ferns with tapering simple entire or undulate leaves, bearing linear or oblong 
■ori several times longer than broad, irregularly scattered on either side of the reticulate 
veins or sometimes crossing them, partly parallel to the midrib and partly oblique to it, the 
outer ones more or less approximate in pairs. Indusium membranous. Sporanges pedi- 
celled, provided with a vertical ring which opens transversely, [Greek, referring to the 
bent or curved son.] 

Two species, the following of eastern North America, the other of northern Asia. 
I. Camptosorus rhizoph^llus (L. ) 
Link, Walking-fern. (Fig. 45.) 

Aipleaiam rhisobhyUa L- Sp. PI. 1078. 17S3. 
Camptosorus rhtiophyllus Link, Hort Berol. i ; 

69- 1833. 

Kootstock short, usually creeping, somewhat 
chaSy, Stipes light green, i'-6' long, tafled, 
ipreoding ; leaves rather thin, lanceolate, sim- 
ple, long-acuminate at the apex, cordate, has- 
tile or rarely narrowed at the base, 4'-9' long, 
(■metimes with a more or less elongated pair 
of basal auricles ; tip of the leaf and sometimes 
"t tip of one or both of the basal auricles root- 
ing and forming a new plant by the ultimate 
withering away of its tissue, bnt commonly 
two or sometimes as many as four plants are 
'*XUid connected ; sori usually numerous, very 
"Kgnlarly scattered on the lower surface. 

"n dry rocks, preferring limestone, Quebec 
"~ 1 Minnesota, south to No-"- " — '■ 



10. ASPLENIUM L. Sp. PI. 1078. 1753. 

Large or small Icms with simple lobed pinnate 3-3-piiitiate or pitmatifid leaves, and 
linear or oblong son oblique to the midribs or rachises. Leare* noiform, or the fer- 
tile somctiniefl different from the sterile. Veins fne in our spede*. Indnsia straight or 
curved, opening towards the midribs when single. Sporange* pediccUed, prorided with an 
elastic ring, bursting transversely. [Ancient Greek name ; some species were snpposed to 
be remedies for diseases of the spleen.] 


.a and thre 

)ri stiaight ot larely slightly curved, attached to the uppei side of ■. vein; leaves mostly sm 
(except in No. 7I. 
Leaves pinnati&d or pinnate below, tapering to a point. 

Stipes blackish below; lobes ronnded or the lowest acuminate. i. A. pitinalifidtit 

Stipes blacVish throughout ; lobes acute or acuminate. 3. A. ebenoidei. 

Leaves once pinnate. 

Pinnae j -u" long, mostly blunt. 

Rachis chestnut-brown or blacliish. 

Pinnae auricled at the upper side ot the base. 

Pinnae opposite, oblonft : rachis dark brown or black. 3. A. parvulvm. 
Pinnae partly alternate, lanceolate ; rachis chestnut .brown. 

4. A. ptalyneuron 

■Pinnae not auricled, partly alternate, partly opposite. 5. A. THchotnane. 

Rachis green ; pinnae not anncled. .---..- 

Pinnae 2' -5' long, acute or acuminate. 

Leaves i-3.pinnatifid. 

Stipes green ; leaves ovate.deltoid ; pinnules fan-shaped, veins flabelh 

Stipes dark at the base, green above. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, broadest near the ba-w. c 

Leaves lanceolate, broadest above the middle. id 

brown throughout, as also the lower part of the rachis. 

7. A. anguslifolititit. 


13. A. Filix-foem 

Asplenium pinnatifiduin Null. Pinnatifid Spleenwort. (Fig. 46.) 

.W Asplenium pinnatifidum NutL Gen. 3 : 35. 

Rootstock short, creeping, branched, 
chaffy. Stipes tufted, polished, blackish be- 
low, green above, a'-s' long, somewhat 
chaffy below, at least when young 1 leaves 
broadly lanceolate in outline, 3'-io' long, 
firm, tapering upward to a long narrow 
point, pinnatifid or the lower parts pinnate ; 
lowest pinnae or occasionally several pairs 
sometimes tapering to a point like that of 
the apex of the leaf; lobes or pinnae rounded 
or the lowest acuminate; sori commonly 
straight or sligbtly curved. 

On rocks. New Jersey and Pennsylvania to 

'' jis, south to Georgia, Alabama and Arkan- 

Ascends to 3000 ft. in North Carolina. The 

■nd of the long tip ot the leaf tioraelimes takes 

in the Walking-fern. July-Oct. 


2. Asplenium ebenoides R. R. Scolt. Scott's Spleenwort. (Fig. 47.) 

Astlenium ebenoides R. R. Scott, louni. Roy. Hort. 

Soc. 87. 1866. 

Rootatock short, cbafij. Stipes blackish through- 
out, tuRed, iJi'-4' long; leases laaceolale in out- 
line, variable in size and length, 3'-9' long, I'-s' 
wide at the base, fiim, tapering into a very long 
narrow acuminate apex, pinnatifid, or commonly 
pinnate belov, the segments or pinnae lanceolate 
irom a brood base, acute or acuminate, irregular in 
length, the lower. sometimes shorter than those 
just above ; aori several on each segment, straight 
orslightly curved; indnsinm narrow, reflexed when 
the sporanges are mature. 

On limestone, Connecticut 1 
"bama. Rare and local except 
ity. Ascends to :4oo ft. in Vii^in 

Indiana, south to Ala- 

the last named local- 

The plant usually 

<n and is suspected of being a hybrid betwec 

3. Asplenium p^rvulum Mart. & Gal. Smal 
Spleenwort. (Fig. 48.) 

Asplenium pan'iilum Mart. & Gal. Hem. Acad. Brux. 15: 
[reprint 6a.] 1S43, 

Rootstock short, creeping, chaffy with black stiff scales. 
Stipes tufted, blackish and shioiag, I'-i' long; leaves 
rather firm, linear-oblong or linear-oblanceolate, s'-io' 
long, $"-13" wide, once pinnate; pinnae 2"-6" long, 
mostly opposite, oblong, obtuse, entire or crennlate, 
auricled on the upper side and nearly sessile, Ihe middle ' 
ones the longest, the lower gradually shorter and re- 
flexed ; rachis dark brown or black ; sori oblong, short, 
borne about midway between the midrib and the mat^gin 
of the pinnae, nearly or quite straight. 

On limestone. Vireinia to Florida, west to Missouri, Texas 
and New Mexico. Ascends to j+00 ft, in Virginia, Also in 
Mexico, June-Oct. 

4. Asplenium platyneOron (I,.) Oakes. 

s h. Sp, PI, 1069. 1753, 
Hoit, Kew. 3: 462, 1789, 
Oakes ; D, C, Eaton, Ferns N, 


AspJenium plalyi 
A. I: 34. 1879, 

Rootstock short Stipes densely tnl\ed, pur- 
plbh-brown and shining, t'-4' long; leaves lin- 
ear, 8'-i5' long, }i'-iyi' wide, firm, once pinnate, 
the rachis chestnut-brown ; pinnae 30-40 pairs, 
lanceolate, subfalcaCe, alternate or partly so, ses- 
sile, crenate, serrate or incised, auricled on the up- 
per side at the base and occasionally also on the 
lower ; lower pinnae gradually smaller and oblong 
or triangular ; sori 8-13 on each side of the midrib 
of the pinnae, becoming crowded at maturity. 

Ebony Spleenwort. (Fig. 49,) 

On rocks and banks, prefeni 
Maine and Ontario to Florida, wesl 
dian Territory, Louisiana and Texi 
ft in North Carolina. July-Sept, 

ig limestone soil, 
to Colotado. the lu- 
), Ascends to 4300 


5. Asplenium TrichdmaneB L. Maiden- 
hair Spleenwort. (Fig. 50.) 
AspUniHin Tricbomanei I,. Sp. PI. lotto. 173,1. 

RootBtock short, Dearly erect, chafly with blackish 
scale*. Stipes densely tufted, commonly tmmeroiu, 
i'~5' long, purplish-brown and shining; leavea linear 
in outline, 3'-8' long, 6"-io" wide, rather rigid, ooce 
pianate, evergreen ; pinnae oval or roundiih -oblong, 
inequilateral, partly opposite, partly alternate, or 
nearly all opposite, cuneate at the base, the point of 
attachment to the dark brown rachia narrow, their 
margins slightly crenate ; sori 3-6 on each side of the 
forking and evanescent midrib, short, narrowed at 
either end ; sporanges dark brown when mature. 

the whole of North Amfrica 

South Africa and the Pacific Isli 

one. throug'hout nearly 
ncept the exlreme north. 

., Also in Europe, Asia, 
nds. July-Sept, 

6. Asplenium viride Huds. Green Spleen- 
wort. (Fig. 51.) 


ride Huds. Fl. AnRl, 385. 

Rootstock stout, creeping, chaffy with brown nerve- 
less scales. Stipes numerous, densely tufted, brown- 
ish below, green above ; leaves linear- lantxolate, 
a'-8' long, 4"-io" wide, once pinnate, pale green, 
soft, herbaceous or almost membranous ; rachis 
green ; pinnae ii-ao pairs, ovate or rhomboid, deeply 
crenate, obtuse, unequal sided, their upper edges nar- 
rowed suddenly at the base, the lower obliquely trun- 
cate; sori oblongand numerous or scattered and fewer. 

On rocks, New Brunswick to British Columbia, south 
to the Green Mountains of Vermont. Also in northern 
Europe and Asia. Summer. 

7. Asplenium angustifdlium Michx. Narrow-leaved Spleenwort. (Fig. 52.) 

Asftleniiim angusli/olium Michi. F!. Bor. Am. J:»6s. 


Rootstock stout, creeping, rootingalong its whole 
length. Stipes growing in a crown, brownish or 
green above, chaSess, 8'-t2' long, sometimes 
slightly scaly toward the base ; leaves lanceolate in 
outline, i°-3° long, once pinnate, glabrous ; pinnae 
ao-30 pairs, linear-lanceolate, or those of the sterile 
leaves lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, obtuse 
or trtincate at the base, a'-s' long, flaccid, the mar- 
gins entire or slightly crenul ate ; fertile leaves com- 
monly taller than the sterile, narrower', their pinnae 
generally much narrower, often falcate \ sori 30-30 
on each side of the midrib, linear, close together, 
the indusia at length concealed by the mature 

Qoist woods and shaded ravines, Quebec to Wis- 
1, south to Virginia and Kentucky, Ascends to 
' -^ ..... .^.Htskills. Aug. 

1700 ft, in the 

8. Asplenium Rikta-muritria L. Wall Rue 
Spleenwort. (Fig. 53.) 

Asplenium Rula-muraria L. Sp. PI. io8i. 1753. 

Rootstock short, ascending. Stipes tufted, naked, 
■lender, green, *'-3' long ; leaves ovate or deltoid- 
ovate in outline, i'-5' long, glabrous, evergreen, 2-3- 
pinnate or pinaatiGd above ; pinnae aud pinnnles 
■talked; pinnnles rhombic or obovate, mostly obtuse, 
dentate or incised, cnneate at the base ; veins flabel- 
late ; son few, linear- oblong, confluent when mature 
and covering nearly the whole pinnule, the indusinm 
membranaceous and delicate. 

On I; 

tone, Vermont to Michigan, south to Alabama 

ri. .Ascends to aioo tt. in Virginia, Also in 
a and northern Africa. July-Sept. 

g. Asplenium montdnum Willd. Mountain 

Spleenwort. (Fig. 54.) 
Asfileaiiim tuoalanuM Willd, Sp. PI. s - 34i- '8ia 

Rootstock abort, chaffy at the summit. Stipes 
tufted, naked, slender, blackish at the base, green 
above, 2'-3' long; leaves ovate-lanceolate in outline, 
acuminate at the apex, rather firm, 1-2-pinnate; lower 
pinnae longest, pinnate or pinnatifid, the lobes or seg- 
ments ovate or oblong; upper pinnae leas divided, 
merely toothed or incised; veins obscnre ; tori linear- 
oblong, short, the lower ones somctimea double, usu- 
ally abundant, often confluent at maturity and con- 
cealing the narrow membranous indusia. 

On dry and moist rocks. Connecticut and New York to 
Georgia, west to Ohio and Arkansas, Ascends lo 4500 ft. 
in North Carolina. June-Aug. 

10. Asplenium font&num (L.) Bernh. 
Rock Spleenwort. (Fig. 55,) 

3'!- 1799- 

Rootstock short, ascending, clothed with narrow 
di^ Kales at the apex. Stipes tufted, i'-3' long, 
■oQewhat blackish at the base especially on the 
■oner side, usually glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, 
'xMdest above the middle, thin, 3-3-pinnate, 3'-6' 
^%, 6"-i}ii' wide, acuminate at the apex, nar- 
^■>*ed to the base ; pinnae 10-15 pairs, the seg- 
^^ta deeply dentate with spinulose teeth; sori 
"^^j I to 4 on each segment, covered with a mem- 
bnnoQs subentire indusinm, rarely conflnent. 



ti. Asplenium Br&dleyi D. C. Eaton. Brad- 
ley's Spleenwort. (Fig. 56. J 

AiPltnium Bradleyi D. C. Eaton, Bull. TolT. Club, 4 : II- 

Rootstock short, chaiFy with brown scales. Stipe* 
tufted, steoder, 3'-3'loDg, cheitnnt-hrown throughout; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblong, acuminate at the 
apex, not narrowed at the base, pinnate with 8-i3 
pairs or ihort-stalked or sessile, oblong-ovate pinnae, 
the lower again pinnatifid or pinnate with oblocg 
obtuse lobes or pinnules, which are toothed at the 
apex, the upper pinnatifid with dentate or aearlj 
entire lobes ; racbis brown ; sori short, borne near the 
midrib, covered with the narrow indusinm until ma- 

12. Asplenium acrosticholdes Sw. Silver>- 
Spleenwort. (Fig. 57.) 

Asplenium acros/u'ioides Sw. Schrad. Joum. Bot. 1 : 54. 

Asplfninni Ihclypieroides Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. a ; 365. 


Rootstock slender, dnuous, creeping. Stipes 8'-ii' 
long, straw- colored, somewhat chaffy below at least 
when young ; leaves lanceolate in outline, i"-}" long, 
6'-ll' wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed 
to the base, pinnate-pi nnatifid ; pinnae linear-lanceo- 
late, sessile, acuminate, deeply pinnatifid into numer- 
ous oblong obtuse or subacute, slightly crenate seg- 
ments ; sori crowded, slightly curved or straight, the 
lower ones often double; in dusium light-colored and 
somewhat shining when young. 

In rich moist woods, Nova Scotia ti 
to Alabama and Kentucky. Ascends to 
Also in eastern Asia. Aug, -Oct. 


_. south 

lofl. in Virginia. 

13. Asplenium Filix-foimina (L.) Berah. Lady-fern. 


AspUnium Filix-fo 

Joum. Bot. 1; Part a 

Bemh. Schrad. Neues 

Rootstock creeping, rather slender for the size of 
the plant. Stipes tufted, 6'-io' long, straw-colored, 
brownish or reddish ; leaves broadly oblong-ovate 
or oblong- lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, i°-3° 
long, i-pinnate ; pinnae lanceolate, acuminate, 
short-stalked or the upper ones sessile, 4'-8' long; 
pinnules oblong-tanceolatc, incised or serrate, their 
lobes or teeth often again toothed, those toward 
the ends of the pinnae confluent by a vei; narrow 
margin to the secondary rachis ; sori short, the 
indnsia straight or variously curved, sometimes 

In woods, thickets, and by n-alls and fences. Nova 
Scotia to Alaska, south to Florida. Louisiana and Ari- 
zona, thus throughout nearly all of North America. 
Ascends to 6ooo ft. iuNoTlh Carolina, and to 9000 ft. in 
Vermont. Also in Europe and Asia. June-Aug. 



II. ADIANTUM L. Sp. PI. 1094. 1753. 

Gracefal fen» of rotk.y hillsides, woods and ravines, with macta divided leaves and short 
marginal sori borne on the under ude of the reflexed and alteied portion of the pinnnle 
which serves as an indusium. Stipes and branches of the leaves very slender or filiform, 
polished and shining. Sporanges borne at the ends of free forking veins, provided with a 
vertical ring which bursts transversely. [Name ancient] 

A ^nua of So or 90 species, mostly of tropical America, Besides the foUowinR another OCCUTi 

I. Adiantum Capillus- Veneris L. Venus-hair Fern. (Fig. 59.) 

Adiantam Capitlus-l'encris L. Sp. PI. 1096. 

Rootstock creeping, rather slender, chaffy 
with light-brown scales. Stipes very slender, 
black, or nearly so and shining, 3'-9' long ; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate in outline, 1 pinnate 
below, simply pinnate above, membranous, 
commonly drooping, 6'-i° long, 4'-ia' wide 
at the baae ; pinnules and upper pinnae 
wedge-obovate or rhomboid, rather long- 
stalked, glabrous, the upper margin rounded 
and more or less incised, crenate or dentate- 
serrate, except where it is recurved to form 
the indusia \ main and secondary rachises 
and stalks of the pinnules black or dark 
brown like the stipe. 

In ravines. Virginia to Florida, west to Mis- 
souri, Utah and California. Ascends to [300 ft. 
1 Kentucky. Also in tropical America, and 

2. Adiantum ped&tum L. Maiden-hair Fern. (Fig. 60.) 

Adianlutn ptdatum L. Sp. PI. 1095. 

Rootstock slender, creeping, chaffy, root- 
ing along its whole length. Stipes 9'-i8' 
long, dark chestnnt.brown, polished and 
shining, dichotomouslj forked at the sum- 
mit ; leaves obliquely orbicular in outline, 
8'- 1 8' broad, membranous, the pinnae 
arising from the upper sides of the two 
branches of tlie stipe, somewhat radiately 
arranged, the larger ones 5'-io' long, I'-a' 
wide \ pinnules oblong, triangular-oblong, 
or the terminal one fan-shaped, short- stalked, 
the lower margin entire and slightly curved, 
the upper mai^n cleft, lobcd or dentate, 
bearing the linear-oblong, often short sori. 

In woods, Nova Scotia to British Columbia, 
south to GeorKia and .\rkan»a<i, in the Rocky 
Mountains to Ttah and to Califomia. Ascends 
to 5000 ft. in Vireinia. Also in Alaska and west- 
ern Asia. July-Sept. 



13. PTERIS L. Sp. PI. 1073. 1753. 

tfarge, mostly coarse feraa, our species growing ia Bunny places, with varioasly divided 
or in some tropical apecies simpte leaves, and marginal linear continuous son which occupy 
a slender or filiform receptacle, connecting the tips of free veins. Indusitim membranousi 
formed of the reflexed margin of the leaf. Sporanges pedicelled, provided with a vertical 
ring which bants transversely. Stipes continuous with the rootstoclc. [Greek name for 
fema, from the fancied resemblance of their leaves to the wings of birds.] 

About ICO species of very wide Keograpbic distribution, mostly of o-snn and tropical r^ons. 
Besides the following, three others occur in the soulheaslcm l.'nited States, 

I. Pterts aquiUna L. Brake. Bracken. 

(Fig. 61.) 

PIff-iiaqiiiliiia L. Sp. PI. lors. '753. 

Rootstock stout, woody, horizontal, subterranean. 
Stipes i''-2'' long, strew colored or brownish; 
[eaves a°-4° long, i°-3° wide, usually glabrous, ter- 
uate, the three branches each a-pinnate ; upper pin- 
nules undivided, the lower more or less pinnatifid. 

In dry or moist sunny places, distributed over nearly 
the whole of North Amcnca, eitccpt the eiltemc north, 
snd over nearly the whole of the Old World. Ascends 
to 5000 ft. in North Carolina. Fonns with pubescent 
lower leaf surfaces occur in southern New York and 
New Jersey. July-Sept. 

PteilBWiuUhi«c«aiUU(I..)Hook. Sp. Fit. 1:196. 1S58. 
Ptcris caiidala I„ Sp. PI. 1075. 1753. 

Pinnules sometimes linear and entire, or with the 
segments less crowded and the terminsl lobe attenuate, 
narrow and entire. In sandy soil, New York lo Florida 
and Texas, and in tropical Amenca. 

13. CRYPTOGRAMMA R. Br. App. Franklin's Joura. 767. 1823. 

Light green, alpine and arctic ferns with leaves of two kinds, the segments of the sterile 
much broader than those of the fertile, the sporauges in oblong or roundish son, which are 
at length confluent and cover the backs of the fertile pinnules. Indusium formed of the 
somewhat altered margin of the pinnule, at first reflexed to the midrib, so that the segments 
appear pod-like, at length opening out flat, Sporanges pedicelled, provided with a vertical 
ring which bursts trousversely, borne at or near the ends of unconnected veins, copious, 
light brown. [Greek, in allusion to the hidden sporanges.] 

Two species, the following of northern North America, the otherof boreal regions of Old World. 

I. Cryptogramma acrosticholdes R. Br. American Rock-brake. (Fig. 62.) 

Cryptoeramnia acrostichoides R. Br. App. 

Franklin's Joum. 767. iSjj. 
Allosorus acroslichoidts Spreng. Syst, 4 : 66. 


Rootstock rather stout, short, chafij. 
Stipes densely lufted, straw- colored, a'-6' 
long, chaffy below, very slender ; leaves 
ovate or ovate- lanceolate in outline, thin, 
glabrous, 2-3-pinnate, the sterile shorter. 
than the fertile, their ultimate segments and 
pinnules crowded, ovate, oblong or obovate, 
obtuse, crenate or slightly incised ; fertile 
leaves with linear or linear-oblong segments 
3"-6" long, i" or less wide, the margins 
involute lo the midrib at first, at maturity 
expanded and exposing the light brown 

Fanning dense patches among rocks, Labra- 
dor and Hudson Bay to Alaska, sooth to U^cs 
Huron and Superior, in the Rocky Mountain ' 
Colorado and to California. " 



14. PELLAEA Link, Fil. Hort. Berol. 59. 1841. 

Rack-lopiag small or medium-sized fema with pinnate or pinnatifid leaves and iatra- 
marginal son borne on the ends of unconnected veins, at length confluent and forming a 
marginal line, Indusium commonly broad and membranons, formed of the reflexed mar- 
gins of fertile segments which are more or less modified and membranous. Fertile and 
sterile leaves similar. Stipes usually dark-colored. Sporanges provided with a vertical 
ring which boista transversely, pedicelled, copious, usually dark brown. [Greek, in allusion 
to the dark-colored stipes. ] 

About 55 species, of wide gcoKraphic distribution. Besides the following, some 12 others oc- 
cur in the western and southwestern parts of North Ametiea. 

Texture of the leaves thin; veins plainly visible. 1. P. SteUert. 

Teature coriaceous : leaves evergreen; veins obscure. 

Leaves pinnate or a-pinnate with large pinnules, *. P. atropurpurca. 

Leaves small, 3-pinnate, the pinnules narrow. 3. P. densa. 

I. Pellaca Stilleri (S. G. Gmel.) Watt. Slender Cliff-brake. (Fig. 63.) 

I Stelleri S. G. Gmel. Nov. Cora. Acad. 
Petrop. II : .sig. pt. 12. /. i. 1768. 
Pteris gracilis Miehx, Fl, Bor. Am. J: 362. 

2. Pellaea atropurpilrea (L.) Link. 

Purple-stemmed CI iff -brake. 

(Fig. 64.) 

Pteris alropurpurea L. Sp. PI. 1076. 1753. 
Prliata atropurparia Link, Fil. Hort. Berol. 

59. 1841. 

Rootatock abort, densely clothed with 
msty slender hair-like scales. Stipes tufted, 
a'-fr" long, dark pnrple or nearly black ; 
leaves coriaceous, lanceolate or ovate-lanceo- 
late in outline, 4'-i3' long, 3'-6' wide, 
simply pinnate or 3-pinnate below ; rachis 
dark-brown or pnrple, glabrons or pubes- 
cent; pinnules and upper pinnae I'-s' long, 
glabrous, 3" or leas wide, short-stalked or 
sesBile ; indnsinm formed of the slightly al- 
tered incurved margin of the pinnules ; veins 
obocnre, commonly twice forked. 

On rocks, preferring limestotie, Ontario to 
the Northwest Territory and British Columbia, 
Bonth to New Jeraey, Georgia, the Indian Teiri- 
tory, Arizona and uoithem Mexico. Ascends to 
33D0 ft' in Vitsinia. Jnne-Sept. 

I, No, 3. 1869^. 

Rootstock slender, creeping, thread-like, 
somewhat scaly. Stipes scattered, a'-j' 
long, straw-colored or pale brown, slightly 
chaffy bplow ; leaves thin- membra nous, ovate 
in outline, a'-s' long, i'-2' wide, a-j-pinnate 
or pinnati&d above, the fertile taller than the 
stertle and with narrower pinnulea and seg- 
ments pinnae lanceolate- deltoid, cut to the 
rachis into a few blunt or subacute slightly 
lobed or entire segments ; indusium broad, 
continuous veins of the fertile leaves mostly 
only one forked, everywhere apparent *nd 

On rocks, prefe 
British Columbia, 
sylvania, Iowa, Wisconsin and in the Rocky 
Mountains to Colorado. Ascends to 2500 ft. in 
Vermont. Also in Asia Aug, -Sept, 


. Pellaea d£nsa (Brack.) Hook. 
Oregon Cliff-brake. (Fig. 65.) 







S. Expl 


densa Hoot 

Sp. Fil 




Rootstock rather aleader, cbaffy with 
blaclcish scales. Stipes densely tufted, 
wiry, slender, light brown, s'-g' long ; 
leaves ovate or triangnlar-oblong in out- 
line, i'-3' long, densely 3-pinnate, the seg- 
ments 3"-6" long, linear, nearly sessile, 
acuminate or mucronate, those of the fer- 
tile leaves tapering at each end, with 
narrowly recurved margins ; apices of the 
rare sterile leaves sharply serrate, these 
otherwise simitar to the fertile ones. 

15. CHEILANTHES Sw. Syn. Fil. 126. 1806. 
Mostly pubescent or tomentose rock-loving and small ferns with much divided leaves, 
the sori terminal on the veins, at first small, ultimately more or leas i::onfluenL Indnsium 
formed of the reflezed margin of the leaf, roundish and diatjuct or more or less conflu- 
ent Sporanges pedicelled, provided with an elastic ring which bursts transversely, often 
much concealed in the scales or tomentum which covers the segments in many species. 
[Greek, in allusion to the lipped indusia of some species.] 

Leaves nearly glabrous, i-pinnate. 

I,eaves hirsute and i^Undular, not tomentose ; indnsie 

Leaves more or leas tomentose ; indusia moHlly continuous. 

Leaves a' -5' long ; stipes slender, at length nearly glabi 

Leaves (>'-i^ long ; stipes stout, densely brown -tome nt< 

I. Cheilanthes Alabamfen8is(Buckl.) Kunze. Alabama Up-fera. (Fig. 66.) 

Cheilaiilhes Alabamensis Kunie, Linnaea, m : 
4- 1847- 

Rootstock creeping, rather stout and 
short, clothed with slender brown scales. 
Stipes black, 3'-?' long, slender, wiry, 
villous at least towards the base with msly 
wool ; leaves lanceolate in outline, glab- 
rous, 2'-io' long, a-pinnate ; pinnae numer- 
ous, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, very 
short-stalked, the lowest usually smaller 
than those above ; pinnules oblong or tri- 
angular-oblong, mostly acuta, often anricu- 
late on the upper side at the base, more or 
less toothed or incised ; indusia pale, mem- 
branous, interrupted by the incising of the 




2. Cheilanthes landsa (Michx.) Watt. Hairy Lip-fern. (Fig. 67.) 

( lanosum Michx. Fl. Bor, Am. l : 37a 


Rootstock short, creeping, covered with pale 
rusty-brown scales. Stipes tufted, wiry, chestnnt- 
brown, 3'-4' long, hirsute ; leaves herbaceous, 
oblong- lanceolate in ontline, Y-9' long, i'-2' wide, 
gradually attennate to the apez, a-pinnate ; pin- 
nules somewhat distant, lanceolate-deltoid, acute, 
deeply pinnatiGd or incised, more or less covered 
ivith almost bristly hairs aad usually somewhat 
glandular, obtuse orsubacnlc ; sori autnerous, cov- 
ered by the infolded ends of the rounded or oblong 

North Carolina. Juty-Sept. 

3. Cheilanthes gr&cilis (F^e) Mett. Slender Lip-fem. (Fig. 68.) 

iVyriopleris gracilis ¥it. Gen. Fil. 150. 1850-51. 
Cheilanlhts lanuginosa Nutt.; Hook. Sp. Fil. 1:99. 

Chtilanthii gracilis Mett. Abh. Senck. Nat GeselL 

3^ [reprint 36]. 1859. 

Rootstock short, covered with narrow brown 
scales lined with black. Stipes densely tnfted, 
slender, about as long as the leaves, at first cov- 
ered with woolly hain, at length nearly glab- 
rous ; leaves ovate-lanceolate in outline, a'-4' 
long, I'-i' wide, 3-pinnate or 3-piuuate with the 
pinnules pinnatifid, the upper surface slightly 
tomentose, the lower densely matted with whit- 
ish-brown woolly hairs; upper pinnae oblong- 
ovate, the lower deltoid, the lowest dbtant ; ul- 
timate segments or lobes minute, the terminal 
ones slightly larger than the others, all roundish 
or obovate and much crowded ; indusium nar- 
row, formed of the inrolled unchanged margin 
of the segments. 

On rocks, Illinois and Minnesota to British 
Columbia, south to Teiaa and Arizona. July-Oct 

, Cheilanthes tomentdsa Link. Woolly 
Lip-fern. (Fig. 69.) 



Link, Hort. Berol. l 

Rootstock stout, short, densely chaffy with slen- 
der light brown scales. Stipes tufted, 4'-8' long, 
rather stout, densely brown-tomentose even when 
matore ; leaves oblong-lanceolate in outline, 3-pin- 
nate, 6'-i8' long, densely tomenCose, especially be- 
neath, with slender brownish -white obscurely artic- 
nlated hairs ; pinnae and pinnules ovate-oblong or 
obloag- lanceolate, the nltimate pinnules about %" 
long, the terminal ones sometimes twice as large as 
Uie others; indosia pale, membranous, continuous. 

On rocks, Virgrinia to Geoisia, west lo Missouri. 
Texas, Arizona and Mexico. Ascends to 1900 ft. 
North Carolina. July-Oct. 



i6. NOTHOLAENA R. Br. Prbdr. Fl. Nov. Hotl. i: 145. 1810. 

Mostly small rock-loviug ferns, with t-3-piDnBte or pinnatifid leave* and marguul 
ronndiab or oblong Bori, which are at fitst distinct bat soon confluent into a narrow baud. 
Indosinm none, but the sporanges are sometimes at first covered by the inflezed mar^n of 
the leaf. Veins free. Sporangea pedicelled, provided with a vertical tranRrcnely buntiDg 
ring. Lower surface of the leaf often covered with a white or yellow waxy powder, or in 
some species with a dense tomentum, [Greek, in allnsion to the woolly lower surfaces.] 

About 40 Hpecies, of wide distribution, most numerous in America. Resides the followinf, 
some ij other? are found in the mountainoua portions of the itouthwestem t'niled States. 

I. Notholaena nivea dealbftta 

(Pursh) Daveiip. Powdery- 

Notholaena. i Fig. 70. ) 

Cheilantlifs dralbala Purah, Fl. Am. Sept. 

6;i. 1814. 
Xolholafiia dralhala Kunze, Amer. Joam. Sci. 

I II. I 

■ -.ii. if^**- 

Kolhi'laena nivea var. dealhala Davenp. Cat 
Dovenp, Herb. Suppl. 44. il**,V 
RootBtock abort, chaffy with narrow 
brown scales. Stipes tufted, wiry, very 
slender, shining, dark brown, I'-^'long; 
leaves triangnlar-ovate in outline, acute, 
broadest at the base, i'-4' long, 3-4-pinnate, 
the rachis black and shining ; pinnae 
ovate, the lower slender- stalked ; nltimate 
pinnules ovate or obovate, obtuse, lobed, 
crcnate or entire, small, scarcely 1" long, 
white and powdery on the lower surface. 

On oalcRreous rocks,, Missouri and Kansas 
to Arizona and Texas, June-Sept. The typ- 
ical foim of the species occurs in the South- 
westem States and in Centia) America. 

17. POLYPODIUM L. Sp. PI. 1082. 1753. 

Pinnate or simple ferns with stipes articulated to the creeping rootstocks, Sori circular, 
dorsal, in one or more rows on either side of the midribs. Indusium none. Sporanges pedi- 
celled, provided with a vertical ring which bursts transversely. Veins variously arranged. 
[Greek, in allusion to the branched rootstocks of some species. ] 

About 350 species, of very wide ge<^Taphic distribution, mostly of tropical remans. Besides 
the following, 5 occur in Flonda, i in Arizona and 3 on the Pacific Coast. 
Lower surface of the leaf Klabrous; plant irreen. 
Lower surface of the leaf densely scaly; plant grayish. 

I. Polypodium vulg^re L. Com- 
mon Polypody. (Fig. 71.) 
Polypodium vulgare L. Sp. PI. 1085. i;53. 

Rootstock slender, widely creeping, dense- 
ly covered with cinnamon -colored scales. 
Stipes light colored, glabrous, a'-6' long; 
leaves ovate-oblong or narrowly oblong in 
outline, subcoriaceoua, evergrecD, glabrous 
on both surfaces, a'-io' long, I'-j' wide, cat 
nearly to the rachis into entire or slightly 
toothed, obtuse or subacute, linear or linear- 
oblong segments ; sori large, borne about 
midway between the midrib and margins of 
the segments \ veins free. 

On rocks or rocky banks, almost throughout 
North America, Asia and Europe. Ascends to 
5600 ft. in Virginia. The leaf varies much in 
serration. Forms with the ends of the segments 
enlarged, somewhat palmately lobed, and the 


PolypodiuRi polyp odio ides (L.) 
A. S. Hitchcock. 
Gray Polypody. (Fig, 72.) 

Polypodium polypodioidfs A. S. Hitchcock, 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Card. 4: 156. 1893. 
Rootstock widely creeping, woody, cov- 
ered with small brown scales. Stipes dease- 
ly scaly, I'-y long; leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late in outline, acute, coriaceous, evergreen, 
I'-fi* long, I'-iJi' wide, cut very nearly or 
quite td the rachis into entire oblong or Xva- 
ear-oblong obtuse segments, glabrous or 
nearly so on the upper snrface, the lower 
densely covered with gray peltate scales 
with darker centres, as are also the rachises; 
veins indistinct, unconnected and usually 
once forked. 

On trees or rarely on rocks, ViiEini 
da, west to Illinois, Missouri and Ti 


Pamily 6. MAHSILEACEAE R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. HoU. i : r66. 1810. 

Perennial herbaceous plants rooting in mud, with slender creeping root- 
stocks and 4-foliolate or filiform leaves. Asexual propagation consisting of 
sporocarps borne on peduncles which rise from the rootslock near the leaf-stalk 
or are consolidated with it, containing both macrospores and microspore.s. The 
macrospores germinate into prothallia which bear mostly archegoiiia, while the 
microspores grow into prothallia beariug the antheridia. 

Two Kenera and some 45 species of wide Ecographic distribution. 

I. MARSILEA L. Sp. PI. 1099. 1753. 
Maiah or aquatic plants, the leaves commonly floating on the surface of shallow water, 
■lender-petioled, 4-foliotate, Peduncles shorter than the petioles, arising from their bases 
or more or leas adnate to them. Sporocarps ovoid or bean-sbaped, composed of two vertical 
Tilves with several transveise cdmpartments (sori) in each valve. [Name in honor of Gio- 
Tanni Marsigli, an Italian botanist, who died about 1S04.] 

About 40 species, widely distributed. Besides the following i or 3 others occur in Teias, 
Sporocarps glabrous and purple when mature. i. Af. quadri/otia 

Spotocarps densely covered with hair-like scales. . — 

I. Marsilea quadrifdlia L. 
European Marsilea. {Fig. 73.) 
Mtnitta quadri/olia L. Sp. PI, 1099. 1753. 

Rootslock slender, buried in the muddy bot- 
toDia of shallow lakes or streams. Petioles us- 
ually slender, a'-s' bigh, or when submerged 
wmetimes elongated to 1° or a". Leaflets mostly 
tuMpilar-obovate, variable in outline, 3"-8" 
long, i"-f/' wide, glabrous or rarely with scat- 
tered hairs when young, the margins entire ; 
^rocarps 3 or rarely 3 on a branching peduncle 
"faich is attached to the petiole at its base, 
<^'cred with short yellowish -brown hairs when 

Along the shores of Bantam Iske. Litchfield Co., 
Conn,, whence it has been introduced into i-arious 
pam of the country, notably into eastern Massacliu- 
»«ll3. Nali\-e of Europe and .\sia. 


2. Marailea vestlta Hook. & Grev. 

Hairy Marsilea. (Fig. 74.) 
Marsilca zrslila Hook. & Crev. Ic. Fil. pi. ijf. 

Afarsilra mucronala .K. Br. Amer. Joum. Sci. 
(n.)3;ss. 1847. 

Rootatock alender, creeping. Petiole* 
■leoder, a'-j' high ; leaflets aimilar to those 
□f the preceding apecies, entire or toothed : 
sporocarpa 3"-\" long, a"-3" wide, with a 
short raphe, a abort and blunt lower tooth 
and an acute and sometimes cttrved upper 
one, densely covered with soft spreading 
narrow hair-like scales or (in the forms 
known as M. mucronala) these short and 
apprcssed or almost wanting; sori 6-ti in 
each valve. 

In wet sand or in shallow ditches, Florida 
to Kannas, Anions and Mexico, north to British 

Family 7. SALVINIACEAE Reichenb. Consp. 30. 1828. 
Salvinia Family. 
Small floating plants with a more or less elongated and sometimes branching 
axis bearing apparently 2-ranked leaves. Sporocarps soft, thin-walled, borne 
2 or more on a common stalk, 1 -celled, with a central often branched receptacle, 
which bears macrosporanges containing a single macrospore or microsporanges 
containing numerous microspores. The macrospores germinate into prothaUia 
which bcM- archegones, the microspores into prothallia which bear antherids. 

The family consists of two Kcnera. 
Lea\'es6"-9" long, a-ranked. on mostly simple stems, i. Salfinia. 

Leaves minute, closely ir 

n pinnatelir branching st 

I. SALVINIA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 15. 1763. 

Floating annual plants with slender stems bearing rather broad 3-ranked leaves- 
Sporocarps globose, depressed. 9'14-sulcatc, membranous, arranged in clusters, i or 3 of 
each cluster containing 10 or more sessile macrosporangea, each containing few macrospores. 
the others containing numerous smaller globose pedicelled microsporanges with very 
numerous microspores. Leaves rather dark green, finely papillose on the upper anrfacc- 
[Name in honor of Antonio Maria Salvini, 1633-17J9, Italian scientist.] 

Abont 13 species of wide distribution. 
J. Salvinia niltans (L. ) Hoffm. 
(Fig- 75-) 

AfarsiUa nalans L, Sp, PI. 1099. 1753. 
Salvinia nalans Hoflm. Deutsch. Fl. Jt 1, 

Leaves oblong, rather thick, obtuse <; 
ate at the apex, rounded or cordate a 
entire, spreading, 6'-i2' long, pinnately veined, 
bright green and papillose above, the lower surface 
densely matted with brown pellucid hairs ; sporo- 
carps 4-8 iu a cluster, the upper ones containing 
about 10 macrosporanges. each containing a few 
macrospores, the remainder containing numerous 
microsporanges each with numerous microspores; 
Diacrosi>ores marked with 3 obtuse lobes which 
meet at the apex. 

Bois BruU Bottoms. Peny Co.; Missouri and near 
Minneapolis. Minn. Introduced into ponds on Staten 
Island. N. Y. Reported by Pursh in 1814 from central 
New York, but his exact sution is unknown. Widely 
n Europe and Asia, 

distribnteii ii 



a. AZOLLA Lam. Encycl. i: 343. 1783. 

Minute moss-like reddish or green floatliig plants, with pinnatelj branched stems covered 
with minute imbricated 3-lobed leaves, and emitting rootlets beneath. Sporocarps of two 
kinds borne in the axils of tbe leaves, the smaller ovoid or acorn-shaped, containing a single 
macrospore at the base and a few corpuscles above it whose character is not fully known, 
the larger globose, producing many pedicelled sporanges, each containing several masses of 
microspores which are often beset with a series of anchor-like processes of unknown func- 
tion. [Greek, signifying killed by drought.] 

Aboutj species of wide fteographicdiEtribution. 

I. Azolla Carolinidna Willd. Carolina 

AzoUa. (Fig. 76.) 
Azolta Caroliaiana Willd. Sp. PI, 5: 54'. 'Sio. 

Plants greenish or reddish, deltoid or triangu- 
lar-ovate in outline, pionately branching, some- 
times covering large surfaces of water. Macro- 
spores minutely granulate, with three accessory 
corpuscles; masses of microspores armed with 
rigid septate processes ; leaves with ovate lobes, 
their color varying somewhat with the amount 
of direct sunlight, the lowernsnally reddish, the 
upper green with a reddish border. 

Floating on still water, Ontario and western New 
York to British Columbia, south to Florida, Ariiona 
md Mexico. Also in South America. Naturalized 
in takes on SUten Island, N. Y. 

Family 8. EQUISETACEAE Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2 : 281. 1803. 
Horsetail Family. 

Rush-like perennial plants, with mostly hollow jointed simple or often much- 
branched grooved stems, provided with a double series of ca\-ities and usually 
with a large central one, the branches verticillate, the nodes provided with dia- 
phragms. Rootstocks subterranean. Leaves reduced to sheaths at the joints, 
the sheaths toothed. Sporanges i -celled, clustered underneath the scales of ter- 
minal cone-like spikes. Spores all of the same size and shape, furnished with 2 
narrow strap-like appendages attached at the midtlle, coiling around the spore 
when moist and spreading, when dr>' and mature, in the form of across (elaters). 
Epidermis impregnated with silica, rough. ProthalliunI on the surface of the 
ground, green, usually dioecious. 

The family consists of the following genus : 

1. EQUISETUM L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753. 
Characters of the family. [Name ancient, signifying horse-tail, in allusion to the copious 
branching of several species.] 

About 15 species, of veiy wide geographic distribution. 
Stems annual ; stomata scattered. 

Stems of two Icindi, the fertile appearing in early spring before the sterile. 

Fertile stems simple, soon withering; sheaths of branches of sterile stems i^toothcd. 

Fertile stems 

Branches compound. 
I all alike; spores m ' 

3. E. syifaliciim. 
, . ■; branches simple or none. 

Sheaths rather loose ; branches usually long ; stems bushy below, attenuate upwards. 
Cential cavity very small ; spilis long, 4. £. fialuslre. 

Centra! cavity about one-half the diameter of stem; spike short. j. E. iiilorali. 
Sheaths appressed ; branches usually short. 6. B. flux-iatitt, 

cms perennial, evergreen ; spikes tipped with a rigid point ; stomata in regular rows. 
Stems tall, usually many-grooved. 

Stems rough and tuberculate, prominently ridged. 

Ridges with i line of tuberdes; ridges of sheath Iricarinate ; stem stont. 

7, E. robust um. 
Ridges of the stem with 2 indistinct lines of tubercles; ridges of sheath obscurely 
4^3mnate; stem slender. 8. B. hyemale. 

Stems not tuberculate ; sheaths enlarged upward. 9. E. laevigalum. 

Stems low, slender, tufted, usually 5-10-gTooved. 

Centt^ cavity small ; sheaths 5- 10- toothed. 10, E. variegalum. 

Central cavi^ none ; sheaths j-toothed. 11. E. sctrfiotdes. 

Equisetum arvinse I,. Field Horsetail. (Fig. 77.) 

Equisetum arvense L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753. 

Stems anonal, provided with acatteicd stomata, the 
fertile appearing in early apring before the sterik. 
Fertile stems 4'-io' high, not branched, soon wither- 
ing. Hgbt brown, thrir loose scarions sheaths miMtl]' 
distant, whitish, ending in about 13 brown acuminate 
teeth ; sterile stems green, rather slender, i'-t" high, 
6-i9-furTowed, with numerous long mostly »mple 
verticillate 4-angled or rarely 3-angled solid branches, 
the sheaths of the branches 4-toothed, the stomata in a 
rows in the furrows ; central cavity one-fifth to one- 
fourth the diameter of the stem. 

Tn sandy soil, especially along roadsides and railways. 
Newfoundland and Greenland to Alaska, south to ViiKinii 
and California. Also in Europe and Asia. Ascends to ai 
least 1500 ft in Virginia. An occasional form in which Iht 
sterile stem bears a terminal spike is known as var. iera 
linuM. Sterile stems sometimes very short and with Ion; 
irostrate or ascending branches. May. 

a. Equisetum pratinse Ehrh. Thicket Horse- 
tail. (Fig. 78.) 

Equisetum pratense WMi. Hanov. M^. 138. 1784. 

Stems annual, 8'-i6' high, with scattered stomata, the 
fertile appearing in spring before the sterile, branched 
when old, only its apex withering, the two becoming 
similar in age ; stems rough, 8-10 ridged with narrow 
furrows and cylindric or cup-sbaped~ sheaths ; braaches 
straight, rather abort, simple, densely whorled, 3-angled 
or rarely 4-5-angled, solid ; sheaths of the stem with 
about 1 1 sbori ovate-lanceolate teeth, those of the branches 
3-tootfaed ; rootstocks solid, acutely angled. 

In'sandy places. Nova Scotia and Rupert River to Minne. 
sota, and Alaska, south to New Jersey and Colorado. Also in 
Europe and Asia, July-Sepl. 

3. Equisetum sylv&ticum L. Wood Horse 

tail. (Fig. 79.) 


II sylvalkiim L. Sp. PI, 1061. 1753- 

Stems Bonuat, provided with scattered stomata, tb 
fertile appearing in early spring before the sterile, at fin 
simple, at length much branched and reaembting th 
sterile, only its naked apex withering. Stems nsuall 
la-furrowed, producing verticillate componnd branche: 
the branchlets curved downward ; sheaths loose, cylii 
dric or campanulate, those of the stem with 8-14 blun 
ish teeth, those of the branches with 4 or 5 teeth, those 1 
the branchlets with 3 divergent teeth ; central cavil 
nearly oue half the diameter of the stem ; branches an 
branchlets solid. 

In moist sandy woods and thickets, Newfoundland >i 
Greenland to .Alaska, nouth to Viisinia and Michigan. All 
iti Europe and Asia, May. 

Equisetum palustre L, Marsh Horsetail. 
(Fig. 80.) 

n paliit 

), PI. 1061. 

[ Strnis anuual, slender, all alike, 10'- 1»' long, very 
*ply 5-9 gfi'o'sd, the grooves sepanitcd by uumaw 
>«gtiish wing-like ridges, tlie centra! canal very 
; sbeaths rather loose, bearing about 8 subu' 
late- Ian ceolale wbilish-margined teeth ; branches sim- 
ple, lew in the whorls, 4-7-angled. always hollow, 
barely sulcate, more abundant below than above, their 
^{beaths mostly s-toothed ; spike ratbcr loo^; 
nindant in the funows. 

5. Equisetum littorslle Kuehl. Shore Horsetail. ( Fig. 

Eiuinflum tilloralf Kuehl. Uchr. PHaiii. Rusa. 
Rtichs.4:9r. iS«, 

Steins annual, very slender, all alike. 8'-i8' 
high, slightly roughened, 6-19-grooved, the 
ridges rounded, the central canal one-half to two- 
Ihirds the diameter ; sheaths sensibly dilated 
above, the uppermost inversely cflmpaniiluie. 
their teeth herbaceous, membranous at the mar- 
gins, narrow, lanceolate : brandies of (wo kinds, 
simple, some 4-angled and hollow, some 3'ttngled 
and solid, the first joint shorter or a trifle longer 
than the sheath of the stem ; spike short with 
aborlivespores, these commonly with noelaters. 

Un sandjr river and lake nborea, Maine and On- 
tario tn New Jersev and Pennsylvania. we<,t to Brit- 
ish Columbia. Afsoin Kurope. Supposed ti> bi; a 
hybrid. Aug. -Sept. 

6. Equisetum fluviatile L. Swamp Horsetail, (Fijj 

^viitlum_fittvi<xliU L. Sp. PI. loSj. 1753, 
I.. Sp. PI. 1063. I75i, 

atiDual. all alike, 2"^^" high, slightly 

IK^o-furrowed, very smooth, usually producing 

irigbt branches alter the spores are Turmed, the 

lata scaltered. Sheaths apprcssed with about 

|B dark brown short acute rigid teeth, air cavities 

inling nudcr -the grooves, small under the 

; central cavity very large ; branches hol- 

iw, slender, smaller hot otherwise much like the 

I, short or elongated ; rootstocks hollow. 

borders at pond:*, Novn 
Vtrarinia. Nebraska ami 

, Equisetum robOstum A. Br. Stout Scouring-rusb. (Fig. 83.) 


stems percDDial, stout, tall, evergreen, 3''-ii° 
li^h, sometimea nearly i' in diameter, zo-4S-fiir- 
rowed, simple or little branched. Ridge* of the 
stem roDghened with a single series of transveiselj' 
obloDg siliceous tnberclea ; sheaths short, cylin- 
dric, appresaed, marked with black girdles at the 
base, and at the bases of the dark cadncous 
teeth ; ridges of the sheath j-carinate ; branches 
whan present occasionally fertile; spikes tipped with 
■ rigid point. 

In wet plBcea. Ohio to I/tuisiana and Mexico west 
to British Columbia and California. Also in Asia 

8. Equisetum hyem&te L. Common 
Scouring-rush. (Fig. 84,) 


m hyemale L. Sp. PI- io6s. 

Stems slender, ratherstiff, evergreen, i°-4° high, 
with the stomata arranged in regular rows, rough, 
8-34 furrowed, the ndges with two indistinct tines 
of tubercles, the central cavity large, from one-half 
to two-thirds the diameter \ sheaths rather long, 
cylindnc, marked with one or two black girdles, 
their ndges obscurely 4-Garinate ; teeth brown, 
membranous, soon deciduous ; spikes pointed ; 
stem rarely producing branches which are nsnally 
short and occasionally fertile ; forms are sometime* 
found with longer sterile branches. 

In wet places and on banks, especially alone rivers 
and lakes, throughout nearly the whole of North 
America, Kurope and Asia. The rough stems of this 
and related species are used for scouriug floors, May- 

, Equisetum laevigdtum A. Br. Smooth 
Scouring-rush. (Fig. 85.) 

.; Engelm. Araer. Joum. 

Stems i^-s" high, simple or little branched, pale 
green, persistent, '14-30-furrawed, the ridges al- 
most smooth. Sheaths elongated and enlarged 
upward, marked with a black girdle at the base of 
the mostly deciduous, white- margined teeth and 
rarely also at their bases ; ridges of the sheath with 
a faint central carina and sometimes with faint 
short lateral ones ; stomata arranged in single 
series; central cavity very large, the wall of the 
stem very thin ; spikes pointed. 

Along streams and rivers, especially in clay soil, 
valley of the Delaware River in New Jersey and tastem 
Pennsylvania to Nortli Carulina and Louisiana, west to 
British Colunibia and the Mexican border. May-June. 


10. Equisetum variegdtum Schleich. 
Variegated Equisetum. (Fig. 86.) 

Eqaiielunt variegalum Schleich. Cat. PI. Helvet. 27. 

Sterna slender, perennial, evergreen, 6'-i8' long, 
roDgh, tuttally simple from a branched base, com- 
monly tnfted, 5-10-forrowed, the stomata borne in 
regular rows. Sheaths campanulate, distinctly 
4.carinate, green, variegated with black above, the 
median fnrrow deep and excurxent to the teeth and 
downward to the ridges of the stem, the teeth 5-10, 
each tipped with a deciduous bristle; central cav* 
ity small, rarelj wanting. 

Labrador and Greenland to Ihe Northwest Territory, 
soath to New Hampshire. «-esteni New York, Nebraska 
and Nevada. .^Iso in Europe and Asia. May-June. 

II. Equisetum scirpoldes Michx, Sedge- 
like Equisetum. (Fig. 87.) 

Eqaiselum scirpoides Michx. Fl. Bor, Am. J : i8i. 1803. 

Stems perennial, evergreen, very slender or filiform, 
3'-6' long, somewhat rough, flexnous and cnrving, 
growing in slender tufts, mostly 6-furrowed with acute 
ridges, simple or branching from near the base. 
Sheaths 3-tDathed, distinctly 4-carinate, the central 
furrow broad, the lateral narrow, the bristly teeth 
father persistent ; central cavity entirely wanting. 

On moist or wet wooded banks. Labrador to Alaska, 
south to PennsyU-ania. Illinois and British Columbia. 
Also in Europe and Asia. May-June. 

Family 9. LYCOPODIACEAE Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 3 : 281. 1803. 
Cldb-moss Family. 

Somewhat moss-like, erect or trailing terrestrial herbs with numerous small 
lanceolate or subulate simple leaves, sometimes oblong or roundish, arranged in 
2-many ranks, the stems often elongated, usually freely branching. Sporanges 
i-j-celled, solitary in the axils of the leaves or on their upper surfaces. Spores 
uniform, minute. Prothallia (as far as known), mostly subterranean, with or 
without chlorophyll, monoecious. 

Four genera and about no species. Besides the following, Psilotum occurs in Florida, the two 
flllief genera only in Australia, 

I. LYCOPODIUM L. Sp. PI. iioo. 1753. 
Perennial plants with evergreen i-uerved leaves arranged in 4-16 ranks. Sporanges 
^■"iaeeoas, flattened, reaiform, i-celled, situated in the axils of ordinary leaves or iu those 
fif tbc upper modified, bract-like ones, which are imbricated in sessile or peduncled 
spkes, opening transversely into 1 valves, usually by a line around the margin. Spores all 
of one kind, copious, sulphur-yellow, readily inflammable from the abundant oil they contain. 
[Gieek, meaning woirs-foot, perhaps in allusion to the branching roots of some species.] 

distribution, the largest occurring in the Andes of South 


cs which are similar to those of the stem. 

: axils oF the upper, mostly S-ranked leaves. 
iigiu; icuvcs unifotm, BBCending;. i, L. Setago. 

what lax. spreading; leaves spreading or deflexed, alternately Innaier and 
^ L.luc- ■ 

ixils of the upper leaves fonninfc terminal spikes; leaves many-ranked. 
riani irniaii; leaves acute, soft, mostly entire. 3, L. iaundatum. 

Plant stoat; leaves narrow, spinulose-pointed, bristle-toothed below the middle. 

4, /,. a/oftruroides. 
Sporanges twine in the axils of yellowish ovate or cordate scale-like leaves, which are very nnlike- 
those of the sterile stems. 
Stems leafy up to the base of the spike or nearly so. 
Spikes erect, closely sessile. 

Sterna erect, tree-like, 5- i. obscuram. 

Stems creeping; with ascending branches. 

-Oitorm, spreading, s-iankcd. 

Leaves of 3 forms, erect- imbncate. 4-ranked. 

short-peduncled; leaves small, apprcssed, 4-t8 

6. /,. 
7- /- ' 

Spik. ... 

Fertile branches with minute leaves so that the spikes appear long-pedunded. 

Leaves uniform, many-ranked; stems terete. 9. L. clavalum 

Leaves of i foims, few-ianked; stems flattened. 

Sterile stems entirely creeping; spikes solitary. 10. L, Carolinii 

Sterile stems with tan-like ascending branches; spikes clustered. 

I. Lycopodium SelJkgo L. Fir Club-moss. (Fig. 88.) 

Lycopodium Selago L. S 

-PI, t 


Stem8'3'-6' high, thick, rigid, erect, a-s times- 
forked, the branches fasttgiate. forming a level- 
topped cluster. Leaves crowded, niiiform, ascend- 
ing elongated-lanceolate, mucronulste, entire or 
sptnulose-denticulate, nerved below, convex above, 
the upper mostlj S-ranked, sterile, those below 
beanng the small sporanges in their axils, those of 
the lower half of the stem again sterile ; plant 
propagated also by bud-like organs which hav« 
a lower pointed bract and 3 or 3 upper flesh]' and 
obovate ones. 

and nofthem New York, on the summits of the b^her 
Alleghenies to Noith Carolina, and to Michigan and 
Washington. Also in Europe and Asia. Autumn. 

Lycopodium lucidulum Michx Shining 

Club moss (Fig 89 ) 

Lycopodit HI I tdulum Michx 

I Bor Am 3 

Stems somewhat lax ascending or spreading thick 
3-3 times forked the branches 6-13 high Leases 
widely spreading or reflexed dark green shining i 
nerved acute mmutelv toothed a senea of longer ones 
alternating with a series of shorter the latter more frc 
qnently beanng the sporanges at a short distance below 
the summit of the stem sporanges of preceding years 
ofleti persistent plant also propagated like the preced 
ing species by gemmae, which fall to the ground and 
become new plants. 

In cold, damp woods. Newfoundland to British Columbia. 
south to Xoith Carolina and Iowa. Ascends to nearly 5700 ft. 
in Virginia. Aug. -Oct, 


/^ 3. Lycopodium inundlktuin L. Bog Club-moss, 

O'r' (Fig. 90.) 

'-^ Lycofiodiuminundaium l..Sp.TUiiai. 1753. 

Plants sma]], I'-s'Iong, with creeping flaccid forking 
brittle sterile sterna cloaelj appreased to the earth. Fer- 
tile stems erect, solitary, i'-6' high, terminated bj a short 
thick spike ; leaves lanceolate or lauceolate-anbolate with 
hyaline margins, those of the spike similar to those below, 
acute, soft, spreading, mostly entire, those of the sterile 
stems curved npward; spikes rarely two together, 9"-i8" 
long, yellowish ; sporanges tranversely oval, splitting 
nearly to the base ; spores large, reticulated. 

In sandy bogs, Newfoundland to western Ontario and Mich- 
igan, south to Florida. AEtcenda to 3Q00 ft. in easlem Pennsyl. 
vania. Also in Europe and Asia. Larger forms with fertile 
stems 5' -7' high and more pointed serrate leaves have been 
separated as vat. Bigelovii. Aug.-Oct. 

4. Lycopodium alopecuroldes L Fox tail 
Club-moss. (Fig 91 ) 

Lycopodium aloptcuroides \, Sp PI 07 753 

Plant stout, densely leafy the ster le branches 
fioccid, recDrved and creep ng sometimes 10 long 
Fertile stems stout, rigid, erect, 6 ao' b gh term u 
Btedbyaspike9'''--i|j''long and mclnding ts leaves 
4"-5" thick ; leaves narrowly I near subulate those of 
the spike similar to those below spinulose pointed 
spreading, conspicuously bnstle toothed below the 
middle, those of the spike with long setaceous tips , 
sporanges transversely oval, splitting to near the base. 

In pine-tiarren swamps. New Jersey to Florida, near the 
co«st, west to Mississippi. Aug.-Oct. 

J. Lycopodium obscOrum L. Ground Pine. {Fig. 92.) 




Stems erect, b'^\2' high, bushy -branched, the 
branches fan-like, the rootatocks subterranean, 
nearly horizontal. Leaves lanceolate-linear, acute, 
entire, 8-ranked on the main stem, those of the 
branches 6-ranked, with the two upper and the two 
lower ranks shorter and appressed, or all alike and 
equally incurved-spreading, densely clothing the 
stems up to the bases of the spikes ; spikes i-io on 
each plant, yi'-i%' loag, composed of many- 
ranked ovate scarious- margined bracts (scale-like 
leaves), each with a transversely oval aporange in 
its axil. 

In moist woods, Newfoundland and labrador to 
Alaska, sonth to the mountains of North Carolina and 
to Indiana. Ascends to 4000 ft. in Virginia. Also in 
Asia, July-Sept. 


6. Lycopodium anndtinum h. Stiff 
Ctub-moss, (Fig. 93.) 

Lycopodium annolinum L. Sp. PI. 1103. 1753. 

Stems much branched, slender, prostrate and 
creeping, rather stiff, i°-4° long, the branches sim- 
ilar, ascending, 5'-S' high, sparingly forked. 
Leaves uniform, spreading, s-ranked, rigid, linear- 
lanceolate, minutely serrulate, nerved below; spikes 
solitary or several at the ends of the branches, ob- 
long-cylindric, i'-^^' long, composed of ovate or 
ovate -cordate, short-acuminate and denticulate 
bracts, each with a sporange in its axil; spores 
smooth or spinulose-reticulated on the basal surface. 

In woods and thickets, commonly in dry soil. I^b- 
tadoT to Alaska, south to New Jersey, West Virf[inia, 
Michigan. Colorado and Washington. Also in Europe 
and Asia, Mountain forms with more rigid painted 
leaves hai'e been separated as var, pungen 

Lycopodium alplnum L. Alpine Club- 
moss. (Fig. 94.) 



» L. Sp. I 

11(4. 1733. 

Stems elongated, creeping, with ascending densely 
clustered crowded dicbotomous branches. Leaves 
4-ranked, erect- imbricate, adnate-decurrent, of two 
forms ; those of the lateral rows lanceolate, falcate, 
acute, carinate, concave within, those of the interme- 
diate rows scarcely one- third as large, lanceolate- sub- 
ulate, the upper and lower rows alike ; spikes solitary 
at the apices of slightly elongated branches, erect, 
closely sessile, the stems leafy to their bases ; bracts 
broadly ovate, acuminate, dentate ; spores reticulated. 

8. Lycopodium sabinaefdlium Willd. 
Cedar-like Club-moss. (Fig. 95.) 

Lycopodium labinac/olium Willd. Sp. PI, 5 ■■ «> 1810. 

Stems elongated, creeping, or more usually sub- 
terraneau vrith short erect dicbotomous clnstered 
ascending branches, 3'-^' long. Leaves 4-ranked, 
small, appressed or slightly curved outward, lan- 
ceolate, mucronate, entire, apparently terete ; 
spikes short-peduncled, solitary, cylindric, with 
cordate acuminate e rose-denticulate or entire 
bracts; sporanges transversely oval or somewhat 
renifonn, deeply splitting. 

D New Jersey and British 





9. Lycopodium claviLtuin L. Running Pine. Club-moss. (Fig, 96.) 

Lycopodium clavatum L. Sp. PI. iioi. 1753. 

Stems eitenaively creeping, i''-4° long with aim!- 
lar short irregular ascending or decumbent denaely 
leaf)' braacbea. Leaves much crowded, manjr-ranked, 
iDCurved, linear-aubulate, bristle-tipped, the lower 
denticalate, the upper nearly eatire and slightly de- 
current on either side ; spikes 1-4 on long S-striate 
peduncles ; bracts membranous, roundish, erose- 
denticulate below, bearing in the axil a transversely 
oval sporange which splits nearly to the base ; spores 
narrowly reticulate. 

In woods. LBbiador Co Alaska, south to North CaroHni^ 
Michigan and WashJngfton. Also in Europe, Asia and 
Central America. The spores of this species, and those 
of L. comJilaHalum, furnish the inflammable powder 
known as I.ycopodium pou'derorvegelable sulphur, used 
in atage effects, Aug. -Oct. 

10. Lycopodium Carolini&num L- Caro- 
lina Club-moss. (Fig. 97,) 

Lycopodium Carolinianum L. Sp. PI. 1104. 1733. 

Sterile stems and their few short branches entirely 
creeping, closely appressed to the earth, i' -y long, 
emitting numerous roots on the lower side. Leaves 
of fertile stems of two forms, the lateral ones broadly 
lanceolate, acute and somewhat oblique, i-nerved, 
widely spreading, in 3 ranks with a shorter, interme- 
diate row appressed on the upper side ; peduncles 
simple, slender, i'-6^ high, clothed with small bract- 
like leaves and bearing a single cyliudric spike ; bracts 
cordate, short-acuminate, mostly entire with trans- 
versely oval aporangea in the upper axils. 

Lycopodium complanatum L. Trail- 
ing Christmas-green. (Fig. 98.) 


mplanaliim L. Sp. PI, 1104. 


Stems extensively creeping, with erect or ascend- 
ing renifonn or fan-shaped branches several times 
forked above, with crowded flattened branchlets. 
Leaves minute, imbricate-appressed. 4-ranked, the 
lateral rows with somewhat spreading tips, the in- 
termediate smaller, narrovi'er aud wholly appressed, 
forming a flat aurface ; peduncle slender, 2'-6' high, 
dichotonious, bearing 2-4 linear-cylindric spikes ; 
bracts broadly ovate, acuminate, the margins pale and 
crose; sporanges transversely oval, deeply splitting. 

In woods and thickets, Newfoundland to Alaska, south 

to North Carolina. Michteanand British Columbia. Also 

'n Europe and Asia. Forms with less distinctly dimor- 

ihouK leaves and narrower, more erect and bushy branches 

been separated as var. Chamatxvpaiissus. 


Family lo. SELAGINELLACEAE Underw. Native Ferns 103. i88r. 
Terrestrial, annual or perennial, moss-like plants with branching stems and 
scale-like leaves, which are many-ranked and uniform, or 4-ranked and of two 
types spreading in two planes. Sporanges 1 -celled, solitarj' in the axils of 
leaves which are so arranged as to form more or less quadrangular spikes, some 
containing 4 macrospores (macrosporangesi, others containing numerous mi- 
crospores (microsporanges), which develop into small prothallia, those from 
the macrospores bearing archegones, those from the microspores antherids. 

The family consists of the following genus : 

1. SELAGINELL.A Beauv. Prodr. Aetheog. loi. 1805. 
Characters of family. [Name diminutive of Selago. an ancient name of aorat LycopotIiufit.'\ 
About 335 species of very wide (ceoffraphic distribution, most abundant and laiKest in ttDpicat 

Stem-leaves all alike, many-ranked. 

Stems compact with rigid leaves- spikes quadrangulBT. i. S. mjitslris. 

Stems slender; leaves lax. spreading; spikesenlarged, scarcely quadrangular. I. 5. sffagtHoidcs, 
Stem-leaves of 3 kinds, 4-ranketl, spreading in 1 planes, 3. 5. a(ius. 

I. Selaginellarupistris (L.) Spring. 

Rock Selaginella. (Fig. 99.) 

Stems deasely tufted, with occooional 
sterile mnnen and sub-pinnate branches, 
i'-3' high, commonly curved when dry. 
Leaves rigid, appresscd- imbricated, l" or 
lesa long, linear or lit) ear-lanceolate, convex 
on the back, more or less cilialcmany-ranked, 
tipped with a distinct transparent awn ; 
spikes sessile at the ends of the stem or 
branches, strongly quadrangular, fi"-ii" 
long, about i"tbick; bracts ovate-lanceo- 
late, acute or acumioale, broader than the- 
leavesof tbe stem ; macrosporangesand mic- 
rosporanges borne in the same spikes, the 
former mote abundant. 

On dry rocks, Ihioughout the northern hem- 
isphere, and in Africa. Ascends In at least 
" 'n Virifinia, Aug. -Oct. 

3. Selaginella sclaginoides (L.) 
Link. Low Selaginella. (Fig. 100.) 

Lycopodiitm selagiiioides L. Sp. PI. iioi. 1753. 
Selaginella spiiiasa Beauv. Prodr. Aetheog. 113, 



nella j, 

aginiiidei ] 

nk, Fil. Hort. Berol. 

Sterile branches prostrate-creepiag, slen- 
der, }4'-a' long, the fertile erect or ascend- 
ing, thicker, i'-3' bigh, simple ; leaves 
lanceolate, acute, lax and spreading, sparsely 
spinulosc-ciliate, \"-i" long ; spilces solitary 
at the ends of the fertile branches, enlarged, 
oblong-linear, subacute, i' or less long, 
^"-2%" thick ; bracts of the spike lax, as- 
cending, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
■trongly ciliate. 

On wet rocks, Ijibradoi to Alaska, south to 
New Hampshire, Michigan and Colorado. Also 
in northern Europe and Asia, Summer, 


Selaginella kpxxs (L.) Spring. Creeping Selagiaella. (Fig. loi.) 

Lyco/todium afiodum L. Sp. PI. i loj. 1753. 
Selaginella apus Spring in Mart. PI. Bras, i : 

Annual, light green, stems prostrate- 
creeping, i'-4' long, much branched, flac- 
cid, angled on the face. Leaves minute, 
membranous, of 1 kinds, 4- ranked, spread- 
ing in a planes ; upper leaves of the loner 
plane spreading, the lower refiexed, ovate, 
acute, serrulate, not distinctly ciliate ; 
leaves of the upper plane ovate, short-cus- 
pidate : spikes 3"-S" long, obscurely quad- 
rangular ; bracts ovate, acute, sometimes 
serrulate, acutely keeled in the upper half ; 
macrosporanges more abundant toward 
the base of the spike. 

In moist shaded places, often among grass, 
Maine and Ontario to the Northwest Terri- 
tory, south to Florida, Louisiana and Teias. 
Ascends to aaoo ft. in Vii^nia. July-Sept. 

Family 11. ISOETACEAE. Underw. Native Ferns, 104. 1881. 
Quill WORT Fauily. 

Aquatic or marsh plants rooting in the mnd, with a short buried 2-Iobed or 
3-lobed trunk (stem) sending out abundant roots and sending up a compact tuft 
of rush-like leaves. Sporanges sessile in the axils of the leaves, some containing 
macrospores (macrosporanges), others microspores (microsporanges); the for- 
mer germinate into prothallia bearing only archegones, the latter into prothallia 
l>earing usually only a single antherid. 

The family consists of the following genus only. 

I. 1s6eTES L. Sp. PI. MOO. 1753. 

Submerged, amphibious or uliginous plants with a cluster of elongated awl-shaped leaves 
rising from a more or less 1-3-lobed fleshy short stem, the leaves with or without peripheral 
bast-bundles, with or without atomata, bearing a small membranous organ (ligule) above 
the base. Sporanges sessile in the excavated bases of the leaves, orbicular or ovoid, the 
sides more or less covered with a fold of the inner side of the leaf-base (velum). The 
■spormnges of the outer leaves usually contain spherical, mostly sculptured macrospores, 
tbose of the inner ones contain minute powdery usually oblong microspores. [Name 
Greek, taken from Pliny, apparently referring to the persistent grteu leaves.] 

About 50 species, widely distributed. Besides the following i are known from the southern 
United States, 7 from the Pacific Coast and 2 from Mexico. On-ing to their aquatic habitat and ap- 
parently local distribution, these plants are popularly little known. The spores mature in summer 

Submerged or rarely emersed in very dry seasons ; leaves quadrangular, without peripheral bast- 
Stomata wanting : macrospores crested. 

Leaves stout, rigid, scarcely tapering. 1. f. lacusliis. 

Leaves slender, tapering. i. /. Tiictermani. 

Stomata present ; macrospores echinate. 3. /. echinosfiora. 

Amphibious or submerged only in earlier stages ; stomata always present on the quadrangular 

Peripheral t>aBt-bundles wanting; velum partial. 

Leaves a'-V long ; macrospores with minute warts. 4. /. saccharata. 

Leaves 4'^' long ; macrospores with jagged crests. 5. /. riparia. 
Peripheral bast-bundles present ; macrospores honeycombed -reticulate. 6, /. Engelmanni. 
Terrestnal ; stomata abundant on the triangular leaven. 

Leaves ij^fo. usually black at the ba-sc. 7. /. melanoboda. 

Leaves 8-13, bright green, paler at the base. 8. /, Butlen. 


I. Isoetes lactistris L. Lake Quillwort. (Fig. 

Isoeles lacuslris L. Sp. PI. lioo. 1753. 

Isoelet maerospora Durieu, Bull. Soc. Bot Pranc« II 
,01. 1864. 

Submergied or rarely above water ia dry Masons , 
leaves 10-25, nsi^> rather thick, scarcely tapeniig, 
dark or olive green, obtasely quadrangular, j'-6' 
long ; stomata none ; peripheral bast-btmdles want- 
ing ; sporange orbicular or broadly elliptic, un 
spotted ; velutn rather narrow ; ligute triangular 
short or somewhat elongated ; macrospores 500- 
Soo/i in diameter, marked all over with distinct or 
somewhat confluent crests, and bearing three con- 
verging ridgea ; microspores 35-46 ^ long, smooth 

Tn i°-5° of water, Labradot to the Northwest Tern 
tory, south to eastern MassachDiwtts and New Jersey 
Also in Europe and Asia. 

2. Isoetes Tuckerm&ni A. Br. Tuckerman's Quillwort. (Fig. 103.) 

Isoelfs Tuciermani A. Br. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 

676. 1867. 

Submerged or rarely partly or wholly emerged 
during very dry seasons; leaves 10-30, very slen- 
der, tapering, olive-green, quadrangular, a'-y 
long, without peripheral bast-bundles, the onter 
recurved ; sporange oblong, mostly white, its upper 
one-third covered by the velum ; macro«pores 440- 
560 /I in diameter, with wavy somewhat parallel 
and branching ridges on the upper half, separated 
by the three converging ridges, the lower covered 
with an irregular network ; microspores 36-33 /i 
long, nearly smooth. 

3. Isoetes echin6spora BraOnii (Diirieu) Engelm. Braun s Quillwort. 
(Fig. 104.) 

Isoetes Braunii Durien, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 11: 101. 

Submerged or in dry seasons emersed, leaves 13- 
95, tapering, soft, reddish-green, 3'-6' long, with- 
out peripheral bast-bundles, bearing stomata only 
toward the tip ; sporange orbicular or broadly 
elliptic, spotted, one-half to three-fourths covered 
with the velum; macrospores 400-500^ in diameter, 
covered with broad spinules which are often 
slightly confluent and incised at the tips ; micro- 
spores 36-30 /I long, smooth. 

Isoatea echindipon robnata Bngeltn. Trans. St. L^uis Acad. 4 

laoataa echindapora Bi>6ttij Bngelm. 

)' lonKi with abundant si 

L. Gray, Man, Ed. 5, 676. 1867. 

Ltaves 11-20, soft, erect, bright green, 4'-s' 'ong. with s. few atomata near their tips; sponmge 
nearly orbicular, with pale spots, two-thirda or more covered by the velum ; macrospores 390-500/' 
in diameter, with longer and more slender simple apinulea ; microspores 16-30^ long. In ponds, 
Middlesex county, Massachusetts, usually submeiged. 

laoetsi echlndapoia mmjcita (Durieu) Bng«li 
Isorles muricala Durieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 11: i 

I. Gray, Man. Ed, 5, 676. 1867. 

flaccid, bright gieen, e'-iV long, bearing fewstomata ; sporange broadly oval, with 
paie-spois, aooui: one-half covered by the velum ; macrospores 400-580/' in diameter, with shorter 
and more confluent, almost crest-like spinules ; microspores 18-31", slightly rough on the edges. 
Sobmeiged in running water in tributaries of Mystic Pond, Middlesex county, Mass. 

4. Isoetes saccharikta Sngelm. Sugary 
Quillwort. (Fig- 105.) 

ItoeUs saccharata Erwelm, in A. Gray, Man Ed. 5, 676. 

Amphibious or uliginous with a flat depressed 
trunk. Leaves io-a>, olive-green, pale at the base, 
spreading, 2'-3' long, quadrangular, beariug au- 
merousstomata; sporange oblong, unspotted, witha 
narrow velum covering only one-fourth or one- 
third of its surface ; peripheral bast bundles want- 
ing; ligule triangular, rather short', macrospores 
400-470 f in diameter, with very minute distinct 
or rarely conflnent warts as if sprinkled with grains 
of sugar; microspores papillose, 34-38/' long. 

g. Isoetes rip&ria Engelm. River- 
bank Quillwort. (Fig. 106.) 

Amphibiona or uliginous, usually emersed 
when mature; leaves 15-30, deep green, rather 
rigid, 4'-8' long, quadrangular, bearing numer- 
ous stomata ; peripheral bast-bundles wanting ; 
ligule rather short, triangular ; sporange mostly 
oblong, distinctly spotted with groups ofbrown 
cells, one-fourth or rarely one-half covered with 
the velum ; macrospores 450-650 ft in diameter, 
marked with distinct or anastomosing jagged 
crests or somewhat Rticnlate on the lower side; 
microspores 36-33 /i long, more or less tubercu- 

Borders of the lower Delaware Kiver to Maine. 



6. Isoetes Engclminni A. Br. Engelmann's Quillwort. fFig. 107. > 
Isoelt! Engelmanni A. Br. Flora, 39: 178. 1446. 

Amphibious, usually partly cmeraed when ma- 
ture. Leaves 15-100, light green, quadraugutar, 
tapering, 9'-io' long, bearing abundant stomata ; 
peripheral bast-bundlea present ; sporaage obloDg 
or linear-oblong, unspotted ; vclnm narrow ; ma- 
crospores 400-510 f in diameter, covered with 
honeycomb-like reticulations ; microspores 34-3S ii 
long, mostly smooth. 

In ponds and ditches, rooting ii 


iMWtM EBgelninni *illda EnKeln). in A, Cray, Man. 

Ed. 5, 677. 1867. 
Leaves 50-200, keeled on the upper side, 18' -35' long ; 
sporanfce linear-oblong, <"-9" long, one-third to two- 
thiids covered by the velum ; macrospores 320-480/' in 
diameter; microspores 2\-'Z]j' long, apinuiose. War- 
riorstnaili, Cornwall and SmithviUe, Fa., and Wilming- 
ton, Del. 

Uoetel EngelnUnni gitclUa Engelin. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5. 677. 1867. 
leaves 8-13, slender, g'-ia" long : bast-bundlea often quite small or only two present : spores as 
in the typical form. SonUiem New England to New Jersey. 

7. Isoetes melan6poda J. Gay. Black-based 
Quillwort. (Fig. ro8.) 

lioftfs vtelanoboda J. Gay, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, tl : 103. 


Terrestrial with a subgloboee deeply 3-Iobed trunk. 
Leaves 15-60, slender, erect, bright green, with a 
blackish shining base, 5'-i8' long, triangular, bear- 
ing stomata throughout, well developed periphery! 
bast-bundles, thick dissepiments and small air cavities 
within; ligule triangular, awt-shapedisporange mostly 
oblong, spotted, with a narrow velum ; polygamous ; 
macrospores 250-400/1 in diameter, with low more or 
less confluent tubercles, often united into worm- 
like wrinkles, or almost smooth ; microspores 33-3EI/1 
long, spinutose. 

8. Isoetes Biitleri Engelm. Butler's Quill- 
wort. (Fig. 109.) 

lioetts Bulleri Engelm. Coult. Bot. Gaz. 3 : 1, 1878. 

Terrestrial from a subglobose trunk. Leaves 8-15, 
bright green, paler at the base, triangular, 3'-?' long, 
bearing numerous stomata, and with well developed 
peripheral bast-bundles, thick dissepiments and "small 
air cavities within; sporange usually oblong, spotted; 
velum very narrow or none ; ligule small, triangular ; 
dioecious; macrospores 500-630/1 in diameter, with 
distinct or confluent tubercles; "microspores 18-34/1 
long, dark brown, papillose." 

and o 




Plants producing seeds which contain an embryo formed of one or more 

:xmdimentary leaves (cotyledons), a stem (hypocotyl, radicle), and a terminal 

t>ud (plumule), or these parts sometimes undifferentiated before germination. 

^Microspores (poUen-grains) are borne in microsporanges (anther-sacs) on the 

-SLpex or side of a modified leaf (filament). The macrosporanges (ovules) are 

l3ome on the face of a flat or inroUed much modified leaf (carpel) and contain 

one macrospore (embryo-sac); this develops the minute female prothallium, 

a.n archegone of which is fertilized by means of a tube (pollen- tube), a portion 

of the male prothallium sprouting from the pollen-grain. 

The Seed-bearing plants form the most numerous group in existence, not less than 120,- 
<ooo species being known. The subkingdom was formerly known as Phanerogamia, or Phae- 
zio^punia and more recently as Anthophyta, this term signifying the presence of flowers, 
^which characterizes most or the g^up. But the consideration that the spore-bearing organs 
of the Pine Family cannot well be regarded as flowers, and the fact that the production of 
^eeds is the most cnmracteristic diflerence between these plants and the Ptendophyta, are 
reasons 'WfaiOh haye IM to the acceptance of the term here adopted. 

There are two classes in the subkingdom, which differ from each other as follows: 

Ovules and seeds borne on the face of a scale; stigmas none. Class i. Gymnospermae. 

Omles and seeds contained in a closed cavity (ovary). Class 2. Angiospermab. 


Ovules (macrosporanges) naked, not enclosed in an ovary, this represented 

"by a scale or apparently wanting. Pollen-grains (microspores) dividing at 

maturity into two or more cells, one of which gives rise to the pollen-tube (male 

prothallium), which directly fertilizes an archegone of the nutritive endosperm 

(female prothallium) in the ovule. 

The G^mnosperms are an ancient group, first known in Silurian time. They became most 
numerous in the Triassic age. They are now represented by not more than 450 species of trees 
and shrubs. 

There are three orders, Coniferales, Cycadales and Gnetales, the first of which is represented in 
our area by the Pine and Yew Families. 

Family i. PINACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst Ed. 2, 313. 1836. 

Pine Famii^y. Conifers. 

Resinous trees or shrubs, mostly with evergreen narrow entire or scale-like 
leaves, the wood uniform in texture, without tracheae, the tracheids marked by 
large depressed disks, the pollen-sacs and ovules borne in separate spikes 
(aments). Perianth none. Stamens several together, subtended by a scale; fila- 
ments more or less united ; pollen-sacs (anthers) 2-several-celled, variously de- 
Wscent ; pollen-grains often provided with two lateral inflated sacs. Ovules 
^th two integuments, orthotropous or amphitropous, borne solitary or several 
together on the surface of a scale, which is subtended by a bract in most gen- 
era. Fruit a cone with numerous, several or few, woody, papery or fleshy 
scales; sometimes berry-like. Seeds wingless or winged. Endosperm fleshy or 
starchy, copious. Embryo straight, slender. Cotyledons 2 or several. 

About 25 genera and 240 species of wide distribution, most abundant in temperate regrions. 

Scales of the cone numerous (except in Larix)\ leaf-buds scaly. 

Cone-acalea woody; leaves needle-shaped, 2-5 in a sheath. i. Pinus. 
Cone-scales thin; leaves linear-filiform, scattered or fascicled, not in sheaths. 

leaves fascicled on very short branchlets, deciduous. 2. Larix. 
I^eaves scattered, persistent. 

Cones pendulous; leaves jointed to short persistent sterigmata. 

I^eaves tetragonal, sessile. 3. Picea. 

I^eaves flat, short-petioled. 4. Tsuga. 

Cones erect; sterigmata inconspicuous or none. 5. Abies. 
Scales of the cone few (3-12); leaf -buds naked. 

Cone-scales spiral, thick; leaves deciduous. 6. Taxodium. 
Cone-scales opposite; leaves persistent. 

Cone oblong, its scales not peltate. 7. Thuja. 

Cone globose, its scales peltate. 8. Chamaecy Paris. 

Fruit fleshy, berry-like, a modified cone. 9. Juniperus. 

1. PINUS L. Sp. PI. looo. 1753. 

Evergreen trees with two kiads of leaves, the primary ones linear or scale-like, dectdu- 
oni, tbe secondar]r ones forming the ordinarj foliage, narrowly linear, arising from the axils 
of the former in fascicles of 3-5 (rarely solitary in some western species), subtended by the 
bnd-scBles, some of which are united to form a sheatb. Staminate aments borne at tbe 
bases of sboots of the season, tbe clastera of stamens spirally arranged, each in the axil of 
a minute scale; filaments very short ; anthera 3-celled, tbe sacs longitudinally dehiacenL 
Ovule-bearing aments solitary or clustered, borne on the twigs of the preceding aeason. com- 
posed of numerous imbricated minute bracts, each with an ovule-beiuing scale in its axil, 
ripening into a large cone, which matures tbe following autumn, its scales elongating and 
becoming woody. Seeds i on the base of each scale, winged above, tbe testa crustaceoua. 
[Name Celtic] 

Leaves 5 in a sheath; cone-scales little thickened at the tip. 
Leaves a-j in a aheath; eone-seales much tbickened at the tip. 
Cones terminal or subterminal. 

Leaves 3 in a sheath; cones iM'-iW long, their scales pointless. 
Leaves 3 in a sheath; cones 4' -10' long;, their scales prickle-tipped. 
Cones light. 6'-ro' long; leaves 10 -16' long. 
Cones very heavy and woody, 4' -6' long; leaves 5' -10' long. 
Cones lateral. 

Cone-scales with neither spine nor prickle; leaves in a's. 
Cone-scales tipped with a spine or pdckle. 
I.eaves some or all of them in I's. 

Cones lii'-lH' long, their scales tipped with prickles. 

Leaves slender, 3' -5' long. 

'. ponderosa. 
'. divaricata. 

Cones 3M'-S' 1' 

■s tipped with very Stout short spines, 

1. Pinus Strdbus I,. White Pine. Weymouth Pine, (Fig. no.) 
Pinus Strobus L. Sp. PI. looi. 1753. 

A large forest tree, reaching a 
height of 175° and a tmnk diameter of 10%", 
tbe bark nearly smooth except when old, the 
branches horizontal, verticillate. Leaves 5 
in a sheath, very slender, pale green and glau- 
cous, 3'-5' long, with a single fibro-vascniar 
bundle, the dorsal side devoid of stomata ; sheath 
loose, deciduous; ovule-bearing aments ter- 
minal, peduDcled ; cones subterminal, droop- 
ing, cylindric, often slightly curved, 4'-6' long, 
about 1' tbick when the scales are closed, re- 
sinous ; scales but slightly thickened at tbe 
apes, obtuse and rounded or nearly truncate, 
without a terminal spine or prickle. 

In woods, often forming dense forests, Newfound- 
land to Manitoba, south along the AUeghenies to 
Georgia and to Illinois and Iowa. Ascends to 4300 
ft. in North Carolina and to 3500 ft. in the Adiron- 
dacks. Wood light brown 01 nearly white, soft, 
compact, one of the most valuable of timbers; 
weight per cubic foot, 84 lbs. June. 


2. Pinus resindsa Ait. Canadian 
Pine. Red Pine. (Fig. in.) 

Pittus reiinosa .KiV Hort. Kew, 3: 367, 1789. 

A tall forest tree, reaching a maximum height 
of abont 150° and a trunk diameter of 5°, the 
the bark reddiah, rather smooth, flaky when 
old. Leaves 2 in each sheath, slender, dark 
green, 4'-6' long, with 2 fibro-vascular bundles ; 
sheaths 6"-t3'" long when joung; staminate 
sments 6"-9" long ; cones subterminal, spread- 
ing, oval-conic, i)i'-a}i'\ong, usually less than 
1' thick vhile the scales are closed ; scales 
thickened at the apex obtuse ronoded and 
detod of spine or pnckle 

In nooda Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to 
UaBsaehnsetts Pennsj Ivan Hand Minnesota. Wood 
compact not strong 1 grht red weight per cubic 
(oo( ID lbs May June 

3 Pinus palustns Mill Long-leaved Pine. Georgia Pine. 

4 Pinus ponderdsa Dougl 

low Pine (Fig 113.) 

Pinas fionderosa Dougl. lAWSOn's Man. 354. 1S36. 

One of the largest North American trees, attaining 
■ mudmnm height of nearly 300° and a trunk diam 
tcr of 15°, bat commonly much smaller. Branches 
widely spreading or somewhat drooping ; bark light 
red, icaly ; leaves in 3*3 (rately some of them in 2 s) 
Mthw stout, s'-io' long, slightly scabrous ; cones 
•obtetminal, very dense and heavy, o void-conic 
4'-*' long, I ^'-3}4' thick ; scales much thickened at 
^^t ipex, the transverse ridge prominent, with a 
tiiugntsr subulate short stout recurved prickle. 

Montana to British Columbia, south to western Ne 
maiU, Texas, Mexico and CHlifomia; the shorter. leaved 
Ostein form which reaches our area has been distin 
Piiibed from the western aavar,TCQ;>u/o™m. Wood hard 
*iDiit[, light red; weight per cubic foot 39 lbs. One of the 
Dox important lumber-trees of the west. April-May 

A large tree, sometimes attaining a height of 100° 
and a trunk diameter of 5°, the bark nearly smooth. 
Leaves in 3'a, slender, dark green, clustered at the 
ends of the branches, much elongated (ity-ie' Itwg), 
with a fibro-vascular bundles; sheaths I'-iX' long; 
buds lonj ; staminate amenta rose-pnrple, a'-jji' long, 
very couspicuoui ; cones terminal, spreading or erect, 
conic-cylindric, 6'-io' long, I'-y thick before the 
scales open ; scales thickened at the apex, which is 
provided with a transverse ridge bearing a short cen- 
tral recurved prickle. 

In sandy, mostly dry soil, often forming eilensive for- 
ests, southern Virginia to Florida and Texas, mostly near 
the coast. Wood hard, strot^, compact, lighl red or 
orange; weight per cubic foot 44 lbs. This tree is the 
chief source of our turpentine, tar, rosin, and their deriva- 
tives. Also known as Sonthem Pine, Yellow Pine, Hard 
Pine and Virginia Pine. March-April. 

Western Yel 


5. Pinus divaric&ta (Ait.) Sudw. Labra- 
dor Pine. Gray Pine. (Fig. 114.) 


:. Hort. Kew. 3: 366L 


A ilender tree, uanally 40° -60° high, but aometime* 
reacbiog 100°, and a Iraok diameter of 3}i°, the 
brmnchesBpTcading, the bark bccomingflaky. Leaves 
in a'a, stout, stiff, more or lew curved, tprcodiag or 
oblique, light green, crowded along the branches, ael- 
dotn over i' long; fibro-vascnlar bundles i; coiio 
cotumoDly verj numeroua. lateral, oblong-conic, usu- 
ally upwardly curved, I'-a' long, 9"-i5" thick when 
mature ; scales thickened at the end, tfae transverse 
ridge a mere line with a miaote central point in place 
of spine or prickle at maturity; young scales spiajr- 

In sandv soil, sametimes forming extensive fnreBts. New Brunswick to Hudson Bay and the 
Northwest Territor;. south to Maine, nonhem New York, northern Illinois and Minnesota. Wood 
soft, weak, compact, light brown; weight per cubic foot 17 lbs. Also called Hudson Bay Pine and 
Northern Scrub Pine. May-June, 

6. Pinus Virginiana Mill. Jersey Pine. 
Scrub Pine. (Fig. 115.) 

Pinai Virginiana Mill, Card. Diet, Ed, 8, No, 9, 1768. 
Pinus inops Ait. Hort, Kew, 3: 367. 1789. 

A slender tree, usually small, but sometimes at- 
taining a height of 110° and a trunk diameter of 3°, 
the old bark dark colored, fiaky, the branches 
spreading or drooping. I.eavesin I'e, dark green, 
rather stout and stiff, spreading when old, \%*~i%' 
long, with 3 fibto-vascular bundles ; young sheaths 
rarely more than a^"long; cones commonly few, 
lateral, recurved when young, spreading when old, 
oblong-conic, iji'-aji' long, their scales somewhat 
thickened at the apex, the low transverse ridge 
with a short central more or less recurved prickle. 

In sandy so 1 Lone Island New York to South Caro- 
lina west to southern Indiana and Kentucky, some- 
times formiog forests Ascends to jjoo ft in Virginia, 
Wood soft weak bnttle light orange; weight per 
cubic foot 33 lbs Apnl May 

7 Pinus echinilta Mill, Yellow Pine. Spruce Pine. (Fig. ii6.) 

Finns rfhinala Mill, Gard, Diet, Ed. 8, No, 11, 1768, 
Pinus tnilis Michx, Fl. Bor. Am, 3: 204, 1803. 

A forest tree, reaching a maximum height of about 
100° and atrunk diameter of 4fi'', the branches spread- 
ing, the old bark rough in plates. Leaves some in 
3's, some in 3's, slender, not stiff, dark green, 3'-s' 
long, spreading when mature ; fibro-vascular bundles 
a ; young sheaths 5"-8" loug ; cones lateral, oblong- 
conic, about a' long, usually less than i' thick when 
the scales are closed ; scales thickened at the apex, 
marked with a prominent transverse ridge and armed 
with a slender small nearly straight early deciduous 

In sandy soil, southern New York to Florida, west to 
Illinois. Kansas and Texas. Wood heavy, strong, orange; 
one of the most valuable timbent; weight per mtiic foot 
38 lbs. Also called Short-leaved Pine and Bull Pine, 


8. Pinuspilngens Michx. f. Table-Mountain Pine. Hickory Pine. (Fig. 117.) 

Finns pungens Michi. f. Hist, Arb. Am. 1: 61. pt. 5. 


A tree with a maximum height of about 60° and 
trunk diameter of aJi", the branches spreadiitg, the 
old rough bark in flakes. Leaves mostly in s's, 
some in 3's, stout and stiff, light green, tyi'-^' 
long, crowded on the twigs ; fibro-vascular bundles 
1; young sheaths 5 "-8" long; conea lateral, usu- 
ally clustered, long-persistent on the branches, 
ovoid, 3ji'-5' long, a'-3' thick while the scales are 
closed, nearly globular when these are expanded ; 
scales very thick and -wixAj, their ends with a large 
elevated transverse ridge, centrally tipped by a slont 
leflexed or spreading spine 2"-af^" long. 

In woods, aometimes forming forests, western New 
leraey and central Pennsylvania to North Carolina and 

Wood soft, weak, brittle, light brown ; weight per 
cabic foot 31 llw. May. 

0. Pinus Tadda L. 

I/)bIolly Pine. Old field Pine (Fig 118.) 
PiBus Taeda L. Sp PI 000 53 

A targe forest tree, reaching under favorable con- 
ditions, a height of 150° and a trunk diameter of 
5°, the branches spreading, the bark thick and 
rugged, flaky in age. Leaves in 3's (rarely some 
of them in I's), slender, not stiff, light green, as- 
cending or at length spreading, 6'-io' long ; fibro- 
vascnlar bundles a; sheaths 8"-ia" long when 
young; cones lateral, spreading, oblong-conic, 3'-5' 
long, I'-IJi' thick before the scales open ; scales 
thickened at the apex, the transverse ridge promi- 
nent, acute, tipped with a central short triangular 
reflexed -spreading spine. 

Delaware to Florida and Texas, mostly near the coast, 
north through the Mississippi Valley to Arkansas. 
Wood not strong. Imttle, coarse-grained, light brown; 
weight ^r cubic foot 34 lbs. Springs up in old 
fields or in clearings. Also called Frankincense Pine. 

10. Pinus rigida Mill. Pitch Pine. Torch Pine 

ftnui rigida Mill. Card. Diet. Ed. S, No. 10. 1768. 

A forest tree reaching a toaximnm height of about 
So° and a trunk diameter of 3°, the branches spread- 
ing, the old bark rough, furrowed, flaky in strips, 
leaves in 3's (very rarely some in 4's), stout and stiff, 
rather dark green. 3'-5' long, spreading when mature ; 
Ebro'vascular bundles 2 ; sheaths. 4"-6''' long when 
Toung; cones lateral, ovoid, I'/i'-j,' long, becoming 
ntatly globular when the scales open, commonly 
Domerons and clustered ; scales thickened at tbe apex, 
Ihe transverse ridge acute, provided with a stout cen- 
M triangular recarved-spreading prickle. 

In dry. sandy or rocky soil, New Brunswiclt to Georgia. 
WM to southern Onlano. Viieinia and Kentucky. 
*»™nda to 3000 ft. in Vit^nia. This forms most of the 
' pine barrens " of Long Island and New Jersey. Wood 
•oft. brittle, coarse-gTained, light red dish -brown; weight 
po cubic foot 33 lbs. Also called Sap Pine and Candte- 
*ood Pine; produces numerous shoots from cut stumps. 



2. LARIX Adans. Fam. PI. 3: 480. 1763. ■ 
Tall tree* with borizontal or asceading branches and small narrowly linear decidnons 
leavM, without iheatba, in fascicleB on abort lateral scaly bud-like branchlets. Ameats 
abort, lateral, monoeciouB, the slaminate from leafless buds; the ovule-bearine bnds com- 
monly leafy at the base and the amenta red. Anther saca a-celled, tbe sacs transversely or 
obliquely dehiscent. Pollen-grains simple. Cones ovoid or cylindric, small, erect, their 
scales thin, spirally arranged, obtuse, persistent. Ovules 3 on the base of each scale, ripen- 
ing into 3 reOexed aomewbat winged seeds. [Name ancient, probably Celtic] 

A1>out 9 upecies, nativca of the north temperate and subarctic lones. Besides the following I 
iithers occur In tbe western parts of North America, 

I. Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch. Ameri- 
can Larch. Tamarack (Fig. 120,) 

Pinus laricina Dn Roi, Obs. Bot. 49. 1771- 
Pinns pendula Ait. Hoft. Kew. 3: 309- 1789- 
ImHx Americana Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. a: Joj. 1803. 
Larix laricina Koch, Dendrol. 1: Part a, 163. 1873. 

A slender tree, attaining a maximum height of 
about 100" anda trunk diameter of 3°, the branches 
spreading, the bark close or at length slightly scaly. 
Leaves pale green, numerous in the fascicles, 5"- 
13" long, about X" wide, deciduous in late autumn; 
fascicles borne on short lateral branchlets about 1" 
long ; cones short-peduncled at the ends of similar 
branchlets, ovoid, obtuse, 6"-8" long, composed of 
about 13 suborbicular thin scales, their margins 
entire or slightly lacerate. 

In Bwampj- woods and about marfpus of lakes. New- 
foundland to the NorthweslTcmtoij". south to New Jer- 
sev, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Minnesota. Wood hard, 
strouK. '"erv durable, resinous, liglit brown: weight per 
cubic ft. J9 lbs. CalledalsuHackmatack March-.^pril. 

3. PICEA Link, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1827 : 179. 1827-1830. 
Evergreen conical trees, with linear short 4-sided leaves spreading in all directions, 
j^oted at the base to short persistent sterigmata, on which they are sessile, falling away in 
drying, the bare twigs appearing c«^•e^ed with low truncate projections. Leaf-bads scaly. 
Stamiuate antents axillary, nearly sessile; antheis 3-cetlcd, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent, 
the connective prolonged into an appendage; pall en -grains compound: ovule-bearing aments, 
terminal, o\-oid or oblong: o\-ules t on the base of each scale, reflexed. ripening into 3 more of 
leu wiogeil seevU, Concso\-aidor oblong, obtuse, pendulous, their s< 
•rranKetl. thin, obtuse, jiersistent. [Name ancienL] 

.\N»ul 14 s)t>s."ie*, natives .if the ni*ith trmprrate and subarctic »l>n^^s, 
,» i>Ihc« iKviit in the niirthwi;»ten> pans of N.irth America. 
T«'i^ anil sterigmata prlabi\iu». iclaacvins: cvncs obli<n|;,ov'ltnUric. 
Twigs j-uhcM-eot. hnmn; vxaies uvoid m oval. 

TwiRs sli'ut^ Icavicj mucT\>natei cvnes persistent. 

TVitts slender; Icmits \-cry atule; ivncs i]ecidui>us. 

I. Picea Canadensis Mill."* B.S.P. 
Wltite Sj^nKV, vFij;, i;i.' 

A^t.i I'.-vjj.^j.-.i Will. ti«nl l>icl. K.l S. X,<, 4 i>^* 

A slender tTt«. attaining * maximum height of 
•Smjj i5v>" act i trunk diameter of ,^-. bot osiul'.y 
much sanatter. TVii^s and $teris°>ata jilabn-ias. 
pa'.e and s-au-^-''^; '.ein** "ishi jrreen, slender, t- - 
S " '.otxR. very aonO' : I'v'oe* cy'.indriv' it obtiOTj;- 
c^'.-.tslrW, p»:e. ;•• -; loag, e -S ihkk beA^e the 
*,'-a'.es opca , »,-a'.<s a'.aKvt Baem^raa*.'e*.»os, Ibeir 
aaatxift* lessial'.T ^wite eoute: hcacw incised. 

MiSBX &,-rtiKrB N<« ^^^A. Mk-hiru the BUck Hdi*. 
M.wtxuaail l&^t»i C••^i^a^i*. W«v«l Sk-A. ■Peak. l>«»t 
w;:v* wvi«!:: 7«t v-al*.- S,x« JJ «>*. A|«Q-Ma5. 


oeroits, spirally 



s the following. 







Picea Mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. Black Spruce. (Fig. 122.) 

Abies Mariana Mill. Gard. Diet Ed. 8, No. 5, 

Pinui nigra Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 370. 1789. 
Abies nigra Desf, Hisl. Arb. a; 580. 1809. 
Pieea nigra Link. Linnaea, 15: 530. 1841. 
Picea Mariana B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 71. 

A slender tree, sometimes 90° high, the 
trunk reaching a diameter of i°-3°, the 
branches spreading, the bark onlj slightly 
Toughened. Twigs stout, pubescent ; ater- 
igtnata pubescent; leaves thickly covering 
the twigs, deep green, stont, straight or 
curved, rarely more than %' long, obtuse or 
merely mucroaate at the apex ; cones oval or 
ovoid, \'-\yi' long, persistent on the twigs 
for two or more seasons, their scales with en- 
tire or merely erose margins. 

Newfoundland to Hudson Bay and the 
Northwest Territory, south to New Jersey, 
alouK the higher AUeghenies to North Caro- 
lina and to Mit^higan aud Minnesota. Wood 
soft, weak, pale red or nearly white ; weight 
per cubic foot 38 lbs. May-June. 

^. Picea riibra (Lamb.) Link. Red 
Sprace. (Fig. 123.) 

PiKUS riibra Lamb. Pinus, 1; 43. pi. iS. 1803. 

Picea rubra Link, Linnaea, 15: 5»I, 1841, 
-PUea nigra var. rubra Engelm. Gard. Chron. 
(II,)JI:334- 1879. 

A slender tree, sometimes reaching a 
height of 100° and a tmnli diameter of 4°, 
the branches spreading, the bark reddish, 
nearly smooth. Twigs slender, sparingly 
pubescent; sterigmata glabrate ; leaves light 
green, slender, straight or sometimes in- 

-corved, very acute at the apex, 5"-8" long; 
cones ovoid or oval, seldom more than 
i' long, deciduous at the end of the first 
season or during the winter, their scales un- 

-dulate, lacerate, or a-lobed. 

higher Alleghi 
Ascends to 4500 ft. in the Adirondacks. Wood 
similar to that of the preceding species. May- 

4. TSUGA Can-. Trait. Conif. 185. 1855. 

Evergreen trees with slender horizontal or drooping branches, flat narrowly linear 
scattered short-petioled leaves, spreading and appearing 2-ranked, jointed to very short 
sterigmata and falling anay in drying. Leaf-buds scaly. Staminale amenta axillary, short 
or snbglobose; anthers a-celled, the sacs transversely dehiscent, the connective slightly pro- 
duced beyond them ; pollen-grains simple. Ovule-bearing amenta terminal, the scales 
about as long as the bracts, each bearing 2 reflexed ovales on its base. Cones small, ovoid 
or oblong, pendulous, their scales scarcely woody, obtuse, persistent Seeds somewhat 
winged. [Name Japanese.] 

About 7 species, the following of eastern North America, 3 in nunhwestem North America, 1 or 


I. Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carr. 
Hemlock. (Fig. 124.) 

Pinus CanadtTtsis L. Sp. PI. Ed. I. 1421. I763. 
Abiei Canadensis Michx. Fl, Bor, Am, J: Mb. 

Tsuga Canadensis Carr. Trait. Conif, 189. 1855. 

A tall forest tree, sometimes ito° bigh, 
tbe trunk reacbiog 4° in diameter, the lower 
braucbes somewbat drooping, the old bark 
flaky in scales. Foliagt dense ; leaves ob- 
tuse, flat, 6"-9" long, less than 1" wide, 
dark green above, pale beneath, the petiole 
less than one-balf aa long as tbe width of 
the blade ; cones oblong, obtuse, as loog as 
or slightly longer than the leaves, tbeir 
scalesEuborbicular.obttiae, minutely lacerate 
or entire, not widely spreading at maturitj. 

Nova Scotia to Minnesota, sonth to Delaware, 
along the Allegheniea to Alabama and to Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin. Ascends to 3000 ft, in the 
Adirondscks. One of the most ornamental of 
eve [greens when youn^. Wood soft, weak, 
brittle, coarse -grained, light brown or nearly 
white; weightpercubicfootae lbs. Bark much 
nsed in tanning. April-May. 

3. Tsuga Carolini&na Engelm. 
Carolina Hemlock. (Fig. 125,) 

Tsuga Caro/iniana Bngelm. Coult Bot. Gaz. 0: 

113. 1881, 
Aiies Caroliniana Chapm. Fl. S. »ates, Ed. 3. 

6so. 1883. 

of about 80° 
lower branches drooping. Leaves narrowly 
linear, obtus^. rather tight green above, 
nearly white beneath, 7"-io" long, the peti- 
ole nearly as long as the width of tbe blade ; 
cones i'-t%' long, the scales finn but 
scarcely woody, oblong, obtuse, widely 
spreading at maturity. 

Southwestern Virginia to South Carolina in 
the Allegheniea, Wood soft. weak, brittle, light 
brown ; weight per cubic foot about 27 lbs. A 
more graceful and beautiful tree than the pre- 

S- ABIES Juss. Gen. 414. 1789. 
Evergreen trees with linear Sat scattered sessile leaves, spreading so as to appear 
3-ranked, but in reality spirally arranged, not jointed to sterigmata, and commonly quite 
persistent in drying, the naked twigs marked by the flat scars of their bases. Stam- 
inate aments axillary; anthers 3-celled, the sacs transversely dehiscent, the connective pro- 
longed into a short knob or point ; pollen-grains compound. Ovule-bearing aments lateral, 
erect ; ovules 2 on the base of each scale, reflexed, the scale shorter than or exceeding the 
thin or papery, mucronate or aristete bract Cones erect, subcylindric or ovoid, tbeir scales 
deciduous from the persistent axis, orbicular or broader, obtuse. [Ancient name of the 

About 10 species, natives of tbe north temperate zone, chieHy in boreal and mountainons- 
regions. Besides the following, some 7 others occur in the western parts of North America and I 
in Mexico. 

I. A. balsatnea. 

3. A. Fraseri. 

I. Abies balsimea (L.) Mill. Balsam Fir. (Fig. 126.) 

». Abies Frftseri (Pursh) Lindl. 
Fraser's Balsam Fir. (Fig. 127.) 


A foreat tree, reaching a tnaximum size 
abont that of the preceding species, the 
imooth bark bearing similar resin "blisten." 
IrfCaves, especially the younger, conspicu- 
ovialy whitened beneath, 5"-io" long, nearly 
i''' wide, emargitiate or some of them ob- 
tuse at the apex ; cones oblong-cylindric or 
ovoid-cylindric, a'-j' high, about i' thick, 
their scales rhomboid, much broader tban 
high, ronnded at the apex, much shorter 
than the papery bracts, which are reflexed, 
their summits emargtnate, serrulate and 

On the high AUcghenies of southwestern Vir- 
PBu, North Carolina and Tennessee. Wood 
■inilar to that of the northern species, but 
WHiU)' lighter in weight. May. 



A slender forest tree attaining a maximum 
height of about 90° and a trunk diameter of 
3°, usually much smaller and on mountain 
tops and in high arctic regions reduced to » 
low shrub. Bark smooth, warty with reMn 
"blisters." Leaves fragrant in drying, less 
than i" wide, 6"-io" long, obtuse, dark 
green above, paler beneath or the youngest 
conspicuously whitened on the lower surface i 
cones cylindric, j'-4' long, 9"-is" thick, 
upright, arranged in rows on the upper side 
of the branches, violet or purplish when 
yonng ; bracts obovate. serrulate, mucronate, 
shorter than the broad rounded scales. 

Newfoundland and Labrador to Hndson Bay 
and the Northwest Territory, south to Massa- 
chusetts, Pennsylvania, along the Alleghenies to 
Viisinia and to Michigan and Minnesota. As- 
cends to 50D0 tt. in the Adirondacks. Wood 
soft and weak, light brown: weight pet cubic 
toot n lbs, Canada balsam is denved from the 
_._! tudationa of the trunk. May-June. 

6. TAXODIUM L. C. Rich. Ann. Mus. Paris, 161 298. rSio. 

Tall trees with horizontal or drooping branches, and alternate spirally arranged sessile 
lumr or scale-like leaves, deciduous in our species, spreading so as to appear 3-ranked, 
'ome of the twigs comiuonly deciduous in autumn. I^eaf-buds naked. Staminate aments 
^^fj Dumerous, globose, in long terminal drooping panicled spikes, appearing before the 
'(■m; anthers 2-5-celled, the sacs 2-valved. Ovule-bearing aments ovoid, in small terminal 
'loalets, their scales few, bractless, each bearing a pair of ovules on its base. Cones globose 
M aetrly so. the scales thick and woody, rhomboid, fitting closely together by their mai- 
Eiu, each marked with a triangular scar at its base. Seeds large, sharply triangular- 
FTtvnidal, [Name Greek, referring to the yew-like leaves.] 

Three known species, the foil 

1 North America, 01 


e Chine 

Taxodium distichum (L.) h. 




Bald C; 





'IHW <//j 

rVAa I 



C, Rich. 


, K: 

A large forest tree, attaioing a tnaximum h«iglti 
of about 150° and a trutik diameter of 14°. llic olJ 
bark flaky in thin strips. T^^aves imrroirly linear. 
flat, thin, s"-io" long, 'A" or less wiilt. rjllieT 
light green, acute, those on some of tlie floweritig 
branches smaller, scale-like ; cones globose ot 
slightly longer than thick, pendent al the ends of 
the branches, very compact, about (' in di«iiietc«- ; 
surfaces of the scales irregularly rugose itbovc Itn 
inversely triangular scar ; seeds 4"-5" long. 

In swamjjsand along rivers, Delaware f]j.«tiWj »" 
siiutheni New Jcrsty | lo Florida, west to Tf la* n"*"*" 
In the MiB»issippi VBllej' re^on tu southrru IndiiO*' 
Missouri and Arkansas, Woodsnfl, nntstronfr, tii'>%*'^^' 
very duiable; wtiglit per cubic fool srllw, Thtro«=»'', 
dtvelop upriKbt cimic "knees " aomelinies 4" liigh »-*' 
1° thick- Maich-April, 

Besides tin; 

7. THUJA L. Sp, PI. 1002. 
E\-crgrecti trees or shrubs with frond-like foliage, the leaves small or minute, scale- 
«]iprcssed, inilirjcated, opposite, 4-ranked, those of the ultimste brattchlets mostly obi 
those uf Bume of the larger twigs acute or subulate. Aments monoecious, both kinds 
niiiial, the stainiiiate globose ; anthers opposite, 3-j-:cIled, the sacs globose. 
Ovule-bearing aments ovoid or oblong, small, their scales opposite, each bearing a (1 
t'i) erect ovules. Cones ovoid or oblong, mostly spreatljag or tecurved, their 
4-IO, coriaceous, opposite, not peltate, dry, spreading when mature. Seeds oblong, 
or narrowly winged or wingless, [Name ancient.^ 

.\bont 1.-5 species, natives of Nutlh America and e 
occurs fconi tdshu find GreKun lo Alaska. 

I. Thuja occidentitlis L. \\'hite Cedar. 
Arlwr Vitac. ( Fir. 1 J9. ) 

7Sm/iI oaiaenltilis U. Sp. V\. looj, i-;^y 

A conical tree, reaching a height of 65° and a 
Irtiiik diameter of 5°, the old l>ark deciduous in 
ragged strips. Scale-like leaves of the ulliuiate 
hraocbMs nearly orbicular, obtuse, i"-iji" 
brvod, the two lateral rows keeled, the two other 
r«wa flat, causing the twigs lo n]>pear much 
DalteDcil ; lea^'«sof the older twigs natrowcr and 
lon}i«r. acute or acuminate; mature conesa"-*" 
long, their scales olilnsc ; seeds brooiUy winged. 

\iag ■bncut inipeUHt 1 li, Nrw 

k Brunim-iek to Jkrii-^ .-uth to 

■Om and to tlUn"i~ n.U i.. 

a (I in tlie Adh. v \ . l.iiitk', 

rualaolb> Stay inn.'" ' ' "" '"■ ' '"^' *^" 

8. CHAMAECYPARIS SpiKh. Mist. Veg. ii: 529. 1842. 

livetSTWU treea. *tmltar to the Tkniat. with mtBOie oppmitc appreased 4>ii 

•mlr-liki: leaves, ut iliuse of ulder twi|r* subulate, and small moaoedoas icmil&al stuei 

Stiimlii.U' «iiieiiN...lii 7'^..,'j,1,iil ibi- t"iLimeiiwb.-,ii,I.;t niil sb^clJ-iJiai.ed. O^-nle^ieail 
01 ■ ■ ■ " .. ', ■jvules. Cones | 


h .VBier 


Southern White Cedar. 

. Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. 

(Fig. 130.) 

Chamaecyparis thyoides B.S.P. Prel. Cat, N. Y, 71. 

A forest tree, reaching a maximum height of 
about 90° and a tmok diameter of i'A.". Leaves of 
the ultimate braochlets ovate, acute, scarcely %" 
wide, those of the lateral tows keeled, those of the 
vertical rows slightly convex, each with a minute 
round discoid marking on the ceutre of the back, 
those of the older twigs narrower and longer, subu- 
late \ cones about 3" in diameter, blue, each of 
their closely fitting scales with a small central 
point; seeds narrowly winged. 

In swamps. Massachusetts to northern New Jersey, 
south to Florida and Misaisaippi, mostly near the coast. 
Wood soft, weak, close-frrained. light t>rown; weight 
per cubic foot ai lbs. April-May. 

9. JUNIPERUS L. Sp. PI. 1038. 1753. 

Evergreen trees or shrubs with opposite or vertidllate, subulate or scale-like, sessile 
leaves, commonly of a kinds, and dioecious or sometimes monoecious, small globose axil- 
lary or terminal aments. I/:af-biids naked. Staminate amenta oblong or ovoid; anthers 
a-6-celled, each sac a-valved. Ovule-bearing aments of a few opposite somewhat fleshy 
scales, or these rarely verticillate in 3's, each bearing a single erect ovule or rarely 1. Cones 
globose, berry-like by the coalescence of the deahy scales, containing 1-6 wingless bony 
seeds. [Name Celtic] 

Leaves all subulate, pnckly pointed, veTticillate; anients axillary. 

Small erect tree or shrub: leaves slender, mostly straight, :. 

Low depressed shrub; leaves stouter, mostly curved. 2. 

Lnves of 3 kinds, scale-like and subulate, mostly opposite; aments terminal. 

I. Juniperus communis L. Juniper. (Fig. 131.) 

hiiptrus communis L. £ 

, PI. lalo, 17S3. 

Alow tree or erect shrub, sometimes attaining a 
height of 35° and a trunk diameter of lo', usually 
•miller, the branches spreading or drooping, the 
birk shreddy. Leaves all subulate, rigid, spreading, 
or tome of the lower reflexed, mostly straight, prickly 
poioted, verticillate in 3's, often with smaller ones fas- 
deled in their axils, 5"-io" long, leas than 1" wide, 
chsDoeled and commonly whitened on the upper sur- 
f»«; aments axillary; berry-like cones sessile or very 
nearly so, dark blue, 3"-4" diameter. 

On dry hills, Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to 
N™ Jersey, Pennayh-ania, Michigan, western Nebraska 
*iio in the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico. Ascends 
Jo w tl. in Pennsylvania. Also in Europe and Asia. 
Tot fmit is used for flavoring gin. April-May. Fruit 

3. Juniperus n&na Willd. Low Juniper. (Fig. 133.) 

Ju»i(Kr«s Sibirita BuriRid. Anlcit. n. 172. 17S". ? 
JUHtbirut nana Willd. Sp. PI, 4: 8u. 1S06. 
JuHiptrus communis vai. alpina Gaud. Fl. Helv. «: 
jol. iHjo. 

A depressed rigid ihnib, seldom over 18' bigb, 
fonning circular patches often 10° in diameter. 
Leaves similar to tho«e of the preceding speclet, 
but stouter, similarly chaatieled and often vhitened 
above, appresaed-asc ending, rather rigid, spiny 
tipped, 4 "-6" long, mostly incurved, densely 
clotbing the twigs, verticitlate in 3's ; amenta axil- 
lary; berry-like cones blue, 4"-5" io diaveter. 

In dry. open places, Labrador to British Columbia. 
south to Massachusetts, New York. Michigran and in the 
Kocky Mountains to Cotoiadn and Utah, Also in 
Europe and Asia. The characteristic growth in a de- 
prcs.sed circular patch gives the plant a very different 
aspect from the true Juniper. Aptil-May. 

3. Juniperus Virgim4na L. Red Cedar. Sa\-in. (Fig. 133,) 
Juniperus Virginiatta L. Sp. PI. 1039. 175,1. 

A tree, reacbing a maximum height of about 
100° and a trunk diameter of 5°, conic when yoang, 
bnt the bimicbes spreading in age so that the out- 
line becomes nearly cylindric Leaves mostly 
opposite, all those of yonng plants end commonly 
some of those on the older twigs of older trees 
subulate, spiny-tipped, i"-i," long, those of the 
mature foliage scale- like, acute or snbacnte, closely 
appressed and imbricated, 4-ranked, causing the 
twigs to appear quadrangular ; aments terminal ; 
berry-like cones light blue, glaucous, about 3" in 
diameter, borne on straight peduncle-like branch- 
lets of less than their own length, i-a-seeded. 

In dry soil. New Brunswick to British Columbia, 
soath to Florida. Texas, northern Mexico and Arizona. 
Also in the West Indies. Ascends to 2100 ft in Vir- 
ginia. Wood soft, not strong, straight-grained, ( 
pact, odorous, red, the sap-wood white; -- = -•-- 

4. Juniperus Sabina L. Shrubby Red 

Cedar. (Fig. 134.) 

Juniperus Sabina L. Sp, PI. 1039. 1753. 
Juniperus Sabina var. procumbcns Pursh, F!. Am. 
Sept. &47. 1814. 

A depressed, usually procumbent shrub, seldom 
more than 4° high. Leaves similar to those of the 
preceding species, those of young plants and the 
older tHigs of older plants subulate, spiny-dppcd, 
those of the mature foliage scale-like, appressed, 
4-ranked, acute or acuminate ; aments terminal ;. 
berry-like cones light blue, somewhat glaucous, 
4"-5" in diameter, borne on recurved peduncle- 
like branchlets of less than their own length, 

On banks. Nova Scotia to British Columbia, sooth to 
Maine, northern New York, Minnesota and Montana. 
KXso in Europe and Asia. April-May. 


Family 2. TAXACBAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed 2, 316. 1S36. 

Trees or shrubs, resin -bearing except Ta.xus. Leaves evergreen or decid- 

,is. linear, or in several exotic genera broad or sometimes fan-shaped, the 

^eu-sacs and ovules borne in separate clusters or solitary. Perianth wauling. 

s much as in the Pinaceae. Oi'ules with either one or two integuments; 

hen two, the outer one fleshy, when only one, its outer part fleshy. Fruit 

Upe-like or rarely a cone. 

i. of wide KCogtDpllic diatribulion, most numerou-i in the southern 
""■ " ' " ' ." - 3„j Japan, with tan -shaped leavea. 

About Ks^nen and 75 species, of wide KcogtDpl. . . . 
aisphcrc. The Mnidcn-hait Tree, Gin»s<' ('Hoha, of Chiiu 
n interestinE member of the smiip, nnw much planted fur 

1. TAXUS L. Sp. PI. 1040. 


Evergreen trees or shrnlK, with spirally arrftngetl short -pctioled linear flat mucrouate 
lvc«, spreading so as to appear i-ranked, aail axilUrj- aud so1iIar%'. sessile or subseasile 
[7 small atneuts; slatniaate ametils consisting of a few scaly bracts and 5-S stamens, their 
itnents united to tbe middle ; anthers 4-6-celled. Ovules solitary, axillary, erect, sub- 
ided by a fleshy, annular disk, which is bracted at the base. Fruit consisting or the Hcshy 
ik which becomes cup-shaped, red. and nearly encloses the bony seed. [Name ancient.] 

Abiml 6 species, natives of the north lemperalc lone. Besides the funowiiiB, nnothet occuis in 
nido. one in Mexico and one on the I'aciiic Coast, 

i, Taxus minor (Michx.) Britton. American Yew. Grotind Hemlock. 
(Fig. 135.) 

Itm-t batraiavai. »ii«»r Michx, Ft. Bor, -^ 
3: MS. l80i. 

US Caiiadensii Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1^56. i> 

■ms minor Britton, 

r. Club, 5: 19- 

A low straggling shrub, seldom over 5° 

;b. Leai'es dark green on both sides, nar- 

'ly linear, mucronate at the apex, nar- 

red at the base, 6"-io" long, nearly 1" 

le, persistent on tbe twigs in drying; tbe 

minate aments globose, i"loQg, usually 

ncrous; ovnles usually few; fruit red and 

pulpy. resiDOUS. oblong, nearly 3'' high, the 

top of tbe seed not covered by the fleshy 


r In woods, Newfoundland to Manitoba, south 
* 'tnKy, in the Alleghenies to ViiKinia, 

.- . Jinnesota and Iowa. Ascends to 15 
B the Adirondacks, April-May, Vcr>* oi 
.-■in from the European Yew, T. bacraUi, 1 
bit. tiic latter becomini; a lartte forest tree, . 
!> (be Oregon Yew. T. brrvi/olia. 


ales (macrosporaiiges) enclosed in a cavity fthe ovar\-) formed by the 

oldiug and uniting of tlie margins of a modified rudimentary leaf (carpel), 

iot several such leaves joined together, in which the seeds are ripened. The 

"eu-grains ( niicraspores) on alighting upon the summit of the carpel ( stigma ) 

itiinate, sending out a pollen-tube which penetrates its tissues and reaching 

1 otnile enters the orifice of the latter nuicropyle), and its tip coming in 



contact with a genn-cell in the embryo-sac, fertilization is effected. In a few 

cases the poUen-tube enters the ovule at the chalaza, not at the micropyle. 

There are two sub-classes, distinguished as follows: 

Cotyledon one ; Btem endogenous. 

Cotyledons two; Btem (with rare ciceptiotiB) eiogenous 

Sub-class i. MosocOTri^MDONMS. 
Embryo of the seed with but a single cotyledon and the first leaves of the 
g^enninating plantlet alternate. Stem competed of a ground-mass of soft tissue 
(parenchyma) in which bundles of wood-cells are irregularly imbedded ; no 
distinction into wood, pith and bark. Leaves usually parallel -veined, mostly 
alternate and entire, commonly sheathing the stem at the base and often with 
no distinction of blade and petiole. Flowers mostly 3-meroiis or 6-merous. 

MonocntyledoDous plants are first definitely known in Triasaic time. They constitute between 
one-fourth and one-third of the living angiospennouB flora. The families are grouped in about 10 
orders (see Introduction). 

Family i. TYPHACEAE J. St Hil. Expos. Fam. i: 60. 1805.* 
Cat-tail Family. 

Marsh or aquatic plants with creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots and glabrous 
erect, terete stems. Leaves linear, flat, ensiform, striate, sheathing at the base. 
Flowers monoecious, densely crowded in terminal spikes, which are subtended 
by spathaceous, usually fugacious bracts, and di^dded at intervals by smaller 
bracts, which are caducous, the staminate spikes uppermost. Perianth of bris- 
tles. Stamens 2-7, the filaments connate. Ovary i, stipitate, 1-2-celIed. CKniles 
anatropous. Styles as many as the cells of the ovary. Mingled among the 
stamens and pistils are bristly hairs, and among the pistillate flowers many sterile 
flowers with clavate tips. Fruit nutlike. Endosperm copious. 

The family comprises only the toUowing; genus: 

I. TYPHA L. Sp. PI. 971. >7H. 

Characters of the family. [Name ancient.] 

About 10 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Besides those here de- 
scribed, another occurs in California, 
Spikes dark brown or black, the pistillate and staminate usually contiguous, the former without 

bracllcts at'gmas spatalate or rhombo'd pollen 4-KTained. i. T. lati/olia. 

Spikes 1 ght b own the p st late and stam nate usually distant, the former with bractlets; stigtnBS 

linear pollen n i mple gra ns 3. T. anguiti/otia. 

I Typha latifdlia L. Broad-leaved Cat- 
tail. (Fig. 136.) 

TyPha lali/olia L. Sp- PI. 971. 1753. 

Stems stoat, 4°-8° high. Leaves 3"-i2" broad; 
sp kes dark brown or black, the staminate and 
p stillate portions usually coatiguotts, each 3'-i2' 
long and often 1' or more in diameter, the pistil- 
late without bractleta; stigmas rhomboid or spatu- 
late pollen-grains in 4's ; fruit furrowed, bursting 
in water ; seeds with a separable outer coat. 

n marshes, throughout North America except the 
reme north. Ascends to 1600 ft, in the Adirondacks 
to 3300 ft, in Virginia. Also in Europe and Asia. 

e July. Fruit, Aug.-Scpt. 

*Text contnbnted by tfa« late Re Thomas Moronc. 


a. Typha angustifdlia L. Narrow-leaved 

Cat-tail. (Fig. 137.) 
Typka anstslifolia L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753. 

Stems slender, s^-io* high. Leaves mostly nar- 
rower than those of the preceding species, a"~-6" 
wide; spikes light brown, the staminate and pistil- 
late portions usually distant, the two together 
sometimes i^' long, the pistillate, when mature, 
3"-8" in diameter, and provided with bractlets ; 
stigmas linear or linear-ohlong ; pollen-grains sim- 
ple; fruit not furrowed, not bursting in water; outer 
coat of the seed not separable. 

Abundant in marshes along the Atlantii: Coast from 
Nova Scotia to Florida and Cuba, but also occurring 
rather rarely inland. Also in Europe and Asia, June- 
July. Fruit, Aug. -Sept. 

Family 2. SPARGANIACEAE Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 13. 1858.* 
BuR-REHD Family. 
Marsh or pond plants with creeping rootstocks and fibrous roots, erect or 
floating simple or branched steins, and linear alternate leaves, sheathing at the 
t>£i£e. Flowers monoecious, densely crowded in globose heads at the upper part 
of the stem and branches, the staminate heads tippermoat, sessile or peduncled. 
Spathes linear, immediately beneath or at a distance below the head. Perianth 
of afew irregular chaffy scales. Stamens commonly 5, their filaments distinct; 
a.nthers oblong or cuneate. Ovary sessile, mostly i-celled. Ovules anatropous. 
E^ruit mostly i -celled, nutlike. Embrj'o nearly straight, in copious endosperm. 

The family comprises only the following gfcnus. 

1. SPARGANIUM L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753. 
Characters of the family. [Greek, referring to the ribbon-like leaves.] 
.Aboutioepeciea.oftempepteandcold regions. Bi 
F'tTiil Kssile. 
Fruit stalked. 

Inflorescence branching. 2. .S. androeladum. 

Inflorescence simple. 

Staminate heads 4-6, pistillate 1-6, 5"-S" in diameter. 3. S. simplex. 

n. — ; — .. 1 — j_ . ^^ pistillate i-j, 2"-5" in diameter. 4. S. minimum. 

Staminate heads 1 
>• Sparganium euryc&rpum Engelm. 

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. in A. Gray, 

Man. Ed. », 430. 1856. 

StemsstoDt, 3°--8° high, branching. Leaves 
^car, flat, slightly keeled beneath, the low- 
*st3°-j'> long, the upper shorter; staminate 
heads numerons ; pistillate beads 3-4 on the 
•twnor branch, sessile or more commonly 
pedancled, hard, compact and io"-t6" in di- 
■oietet when mature ; style i ; stigmas i-a ; 
nntkh sessile, 3"-5" long, obtusely 4-5- 
'i'gkd,aarrowed at the base, the top rounded, 
*«tltiied or depressed, abruptly tipped with 
tlxityle ; scales as long or nearly as long as 
ttiefhiitaud as many as its angles, often with 
'■vjother exterior ones, somewhat spatu- 
lite, the apex rounded, denticulate or eroded. 
lananhesand along streams, Newfoundland 
to ^lish Columbia, south to Viixinia. Mis- 
?™n, Utah and California. Ascends to 2100 ft. 
■1 Virginia. May-Aug, 

Broad-fruited Bur-reed. (Fig. 138.) 


Sparganium andrdcladum (Engelm. ) 
Morong. Branching Bur-reed. (Fig. 139. J 

aHdntcladnm Ennlm. in A. 


Morong, Boll. Torr. Clnb, 1$: 

Sparganium simple.v 

Gray. Man. Ed. 5. 481 

sparganium aadrveladui 

Stem Blender, more or leu branching, it/'a" high. 
Pistillate heads 3-7, sessile or the lowest peduncled, 
axillary or the peduncles and branches axillary; style 
I ; stigma I ( rarely 2 ) ; fruiting beads 6"-i3" in di- 
ameter ; nutlets fusiform, i"-3" long, ij4" thick, 
usually even, often strongly contracted at the middle, 
I tapering ioto tlie style ; scales oblong, as long as the 
i nntlets or shorter, the exterior ones uarrower ; stalk 
j of fmit i" long or more. 

ish Columbia, south tc 

SpaigSDlum sudiAcUdnm fluctnaoa Muroi^, Butt. Toir. 

Club, 15: 7H, ](*»■. 

sparganium simplex Tar. flnitans Engelm. in A. Gray, 

Man, Ed, 5, 481. 1867, tirA Sparganium fluilans Fries. 

Floating in deep water with long slender sterna, and thin leaves \"-iM" wide: infiorescence 

usually sparingly branched; fruiting heads 4"-6" in diameter. In cold ponds, New Bnmswick to 


3. Sparganium simplex Huds. Simple- 
stemmed Bur-reed. i'^'\%. 140.) 

sparganium simplex Huda. PI. AngI, Ed. i, 401. 1788. 

Stem slender, lyi'-i^' high, simple. I,eavea more 

or less triquetrous, 1"-^" wide ; infloieacence io"-S' 

long ; staminate heads 4-6; pistillate a-6, sessile or the 

lowest peduncled ; fruiting heads 5"-8" in diameter : 

nutlets fusiform or narrowly oblong, obtusely angled 

at the apex, more or less contracted in the middle, 

smaller than those of the preceding species and more 

tapering at the summit ; scales denticnlate, about 

<ine-half as long as the nutlets; stigma linear, as long 

as the style or shorter, rarely a ; stalk of fruit about 

I" long. 

Borders of ponds and streams, Newfoundland to British 

Columbia, south to Pennsylvania. Montana and California. 

Ascends to 3500 ft, in the Cotskil! Mountains. ]une-Aug. 
Spaigaalom aimplex angaitifiUiimi (Michi. ) Bngelm. 

sparganium angusli/olium Hichx. Fl. Bor. Am. a: 180. 

Floating in deep water. Leaves very long, W"-lM" wide, their <iheaths often inflated a. . 
base; staminate and pistillate heads 1-4 fruiting heads 3 -7 n, 
diameter. In mountain lakes and •Xov. streams Newfoundland 
to Oregon, south to New York and California 

4, Sparganium minimum Fnes Small Bur 
reed. (Fig 141 ) 
sparganium minimum Fries. Sum. \eg 1. 560. 1846 

Floating, stems very slender, 4'-j° long. Leaves thtn ani 
lax, }i"-3}i" wide ; inflorescence 1' or more long ; stami 
oale heads 1-3 ; pistillate, 1-3, sessile, axillary, supra 
axillary or the lowest on an axillary peduncle ; ripe fruit 
ing heads i"~^" in diameter ; nutlets ovoid, slightly trian 
gnlar, tapering abruptly into the style, i"-j" long, twici 
as long as the denticulate scales ; stigma oval, often oblique 
about as long as the style; stalk of the nutlet %"-yi' 
long, often apparently none. 

In ponds and streams. New Brunswick to Manitoba and Ore 
gon. south to New Jersej-, Michigan and Utah. Alaoinnorth 
em Europe. Dwarf forms, growing out 
occur with stems 3' -6' high. June-Aug, 


Family 3. NAIADACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 366. 1836. 

Immersed aquatic plants with slender, often branching, leafy stems, the 
Heaves flat or filiform, and perfect, monoecious or dioecious spicate axillary 
-or spadiceous flowers. Perianth of 4 segments, or a hyaline envelope, or want- 
ing. Stamens 1-4 or occasionally more, distinct and hypogynous in the per- 
fect flowers, solitar>' or connate in the sterile. Anthers extrorse, 1-2 -celled. 
Ovaries 1-9, mostly distinct, i -celled, mostly i-ovuled. Carpels rarely dehis- 
cent. Seeds straight or curved. Endosperm none. 

About 10 genera and icx) species of wide geographic distribution, most abundant in temperate 
regions. The months noted in the descriptions indicate the fruiting period, 

^''lowers perfect. 

Perianth of 4 distinct seg^ments. i. Potamogeton. 

Perianth none ; flowers naked. 2. Rtippia. 

^lowers monoecious or dioecious. 
Leaves entire. 

Leaves i-nerved, I'-V long, M" or less wide. 3. Zannicheliia. 

Leaves many-nerve<l, i°-$ long, i"-4" wide. 4. Zoslera. 

Leaves spiny-toothed on the margins. 5. Naias. 

I. POTAMOGETON L. Sp. PI. 126. 1753. 

Leaves alternate or the uppermost opposite, often of 2 kinds, submerged and floating, 
^he submerged mostly linear, the floating coriaceous, lanceolate, ovate or oval. Spathes 
-stipular, often ligulate, free or connate with the base of the leaf or petiole, enclosing the 
young buds and usually soon perishing after expanding. Peduncles axillary, usually 
emersed. Flowerssmall, spicate, green or red. Perianth-segments 4, short-clawed (Fig. 154), 
concave, valvate. Stamens 4, inserted on the claws of the perianth-segments. Anthers 
sessile. Ovaries 4, sessile, distinct, i -celled, i-ovuled, attenuated into a short erect or 
recurved style, or with a sessile stigma. Fruit of 4 ovoid or subglobose drupelets, the peri- 
carp usually thin and hard or spong}'. Seeds crustaceous, campylotropous, with an unci- 
nate embryo thickened at the radicular end. [Greek, in allusion to the aquatic habitat.] 

About 65 well-defined species, natives of temperate regions. Besides the following, 3 others 
•occur in the southern parts of North America. 

-Stipules axillary and free from the leaf. 
With floating and submerged leaves. 
Submerged leaves bladeless. 

Nutlets more or less pitted. i. P. natans. 

Nutlets not pitted. 2. P. Oakesianus. 

Submerged leaves with a proper blade. 

Submerged leaves of 2 kinds, lanceolate and oval or oblong. 

Uppermost broadly oval or elliptical, lowest lanceolate. 3. P. ampli/olins. 
Uppermost lanceolate and pellucid, lowest oblong and opaque. 

4. P. pulcher. 
Submei^ed leaves all alike, capillar^' or linear-setaceous. 

I -nerved or nerveless. 25. P. Vaseyi. 

3-nerved. 26. P. lateralis. 

Submerged leaves all alike, linear. 

Nearly the same breadth throughout, obtusely pointed, coarsely cellular-reticulated 

in the middle. 5. P. Nnttallii. 

Broader at base, acute, without cellular-reticulation. 9. P. heterophyllus. 

Submei^ed leaves all alike, lanceolate. 

Uppermost leaves petioled, lowest sessile. 6. P. alpinus. 

All the leaves petioled. 

Floating leaves large, broadly elliptic, rounded or subcordate at base. 

II. P. Ulinoensis. 
Floating leaves narrowly elliptical, tapering at base. 7. P. lonchites. 
Floating leaves mostly' obovate or oblanceolate, tapering at base. 

8. P. Faxoni. 
All the leaves sessile or subsessile. 

Fruit only i line long, obscurely 3-keeled. 10. P. spathulae/ormis. 

Fruit I J^ lines long, distinctly 3-keeled. 12. P. Zizii. 

With submeiiged leaves only. 

Without propagating buds and without glands. 

Leaves with broad blades, mostly lanceolate or ovate, many-ner\'ed. 
Leaves subsessile or short-petioled, mostlj' acute or cuspidate. 

13. P. lucens. 
Leaves semi-amplexicaul, obtuse and cucullate at the apex. 14. P. praelongus. 
Leaves meeting around the stem, very obtuse at the apex, not cucullate. 

15. P. perfoliatus. 
leaves w^ith narrow blades, linear or oblong-linear, several-nerved. 

Leaves oblong-linear, 5-7-nerved, obtuse at the apex. 16. P. Mysticus. 

Leaves narrowly linear, 3-ner\'ed, acute at the apex. 21. P. foliosus. 

Leaves with narrow blades, capillar>' or setaceous, i-nen-ed or ner\'eless. 

17. P. confcrvoides. 

Text contributed by the late Rev. Thomas Morong. 


With propMgiting buds or glands, or both, 
with budR, but sHthout glands. 

Leaves serrulate, i-7-nerved. 

Leaves entire, with i principal and many fine n< 
Commonly with gtandH. out no buds. 

Stems long:-branching from the base; leaves 

Stems simple; leaves strict, revolute, i-s-nerved 
With both buds and glands. 

Glands laiye and translucent; buds rare. 

Glands small, often dull; buds common. 

:, flat, 3-nerved. 


r, S-7-I 

r^'ed oi 

With iMith floating and submerged leaves. 

Submerged pedunclesaalongasthespikes,cl»\-ate, often re( 
Submerged peduncles none, or at most hardly a line long. 
With submerged leaves only. 
Stigma broad and sessile. 
Style Hjjparent; stigma capitate. 

Fruit without keels or obscurely keeled. 
" '■, strongly j-keeled. 



Leaves minutely serrulate, finely many-nervei 

»1. P. Frifsii. 
17. P. pusillus. 
aa. /'. gemmiparus. 

. 19. P. dix'tni/olius. 
JO. P. Spirillus. 

3.. Pfili/oymis. 
i% p. inUrrnpiHS. 

, Potamogeton niitans L. Common Floating Pondweed. (Fig. 142.) 

Pulamogeloii nalans 1.. Sp. PI. IJ6. 175,!. 

Stema 3°-4° loDg, simple or sparingly braocbed. 
Floating leaves thick, the blade ovate, oval or ellip- 
tic, 3'-4' long, I'-i' wide, usually tipped with a 
short abrupt point, rounded or Bubcordete at the 
base, manj-ncrved; submerged leaves reduced to 
pbyllodes or bladeless petioles which commotily 
perish early and are seldom seen at the fruidng 
period; stipules sometimes 4' long, acute, 2-keeled; 
pednaelca as thick as the stem, i'-4' long; spikes 
cylindric, very dense, about 2' long; fruit turgid, 
t"-i%" long, about i^" thick, scarcely keeled, 
narrowly obo%'oid, slightly cur\'ed on the face; 
style broad and facial; outlet hard, more or less 
pitted or impressed on the sides, 2-grooved on the 
back; embryo forming an incomplete circle, the 
apex pointing toward the base. 

In ponds and streams, throughout North America ex- 

1 Oakesiltnus Robbins. 

I. Gray, Man. 

Stems very slender, often much branched from 
below. Floating leaves elliptic, mostly ob- 
tuse, rounded or slightly subcordate at the 
base, I'-j' long, s"-9" wide, u-ao-nerved; 
petioles 3'-£' long; submerged leaves mere cap- 
illary phyllodes, often persistent through the 
flowering season: peduncles i'-3' long, com- 
monly much thicker than the stem, mostly soli- 
tary; spikes cylindric, .I^'-i'long; stipules acute, 
hardly keeled; fruit obo void, about i^" long, i" 
thick, nearly straight 00 the face, 3-keeled, the 
middle keel sharp; style apical or subapical; sides 
of the nutlet not pitted, but sometimes slightly 
impressed; embryo circle incomplete, the apex 
potDtiag toward the base. 

In still water, Anticosti to northern Pennsylva- 
nia and New Jersey. Summer, 


3. Potamogeton amplifdlius Tuckerm. Large-leaved Pondweed, (Fig, 144. ) 

Polamogelon ampli/oliusTac^tTm. Am. Joum. Sci. 
(II.) 6; 225. 1848. 

Stems loDg, simple or occasionally branched. 
Floating leaves oval or ovate, abruptly pointed at 
the apex, Tonnded at the base, a'-4' long, i^'-'' 
wide, many-nerved ; petioles 3'-s' long ; sub- 
merged leaves mostly petioled, large, the upper- 
most often elliptic or oval, 3'-6' long, i'-2>i' 
wide, the lowest lanceolate, often 8' long, with 
about 35 nerves, often with the sides of the blade 
closed and assuming a falcate shape ; stipules 
tapering to a long sharp point, sometimes 4' 
long : peduncles thickened upward. 2'-^' long ; 
spikes cyl in dric, I'-i' long; fmit 3"-2j^"long, 
\)i" thick, turgid, the pericarp hard, obliquely 
obovoid, 3-keeled; face more or less angled; 
style subapical ; embryo slightly incurved. 

In lakes. Ontario to Biitish Columbia, south to 
Connecticut, Kentucky and Nebraska. July-Sept. 

, Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerm. Spotted Pondweed. (Fig, 

Polamo^eloa [talclier Tuckerm. Am. 

145- ) 
Joum. S 

5 Potamogeton Nuttfilhi Cham & Sch 
I Cham & Sch Lmnaea 1 
fin Am Joum 

Polamogelou \ullalli. 

rApl 6/ 25 r"- 
Poanogrt n Uajl 

Sc 45 38 1843. 

Stems slender compressed mostly simple 
'°-4° long Floating lea es opposite elliptic 
"Wctimes obovate obtuse at the apex short 
pttioled i}i 3/i long 4 1 2 wide man 
neired submerged leaves linear 2 ranked 2 7 
looE I 3 wide 5 nened the 2 outer nerves 
xcuIt marginal the space between the 2 inner 
ud the midnb coarsely reticulated stipules 
otilQse, hyaline not keeled peduncles i 5 
long spikes }4 1 long fruit round-obovoid 
'X 2 long 1 lyi thick 3 keeled thesides 
lit and indistinctly impressed style short 
■piol ; embryo coiled one and one-third times. 

In ponds and streams. Nova Scotia to Pennsyl- 
nnia and South Carolina. June-Aug. 

Stems simple, terete, black-spotted, i°-a° 
long. Floating leaves asnally massed at the 
top on short lateral branches, alternate, ovate 
or ronnd-ovate, subcordate, a'-4>i' long,'-g"- 
i'X' wide, many-nerved ; peduncles about as 
thick as the stem, 2'-4' long, spotted ; sub- 
merged leaves of 2 kinds, the uppermost pellu- 
cid, lanceolate, long-acuminate, undulate, 3'-S' 
long, 6"-iS" wide, tapering at the base into a 
short petiole, io-3o.nerved ; the lowest ranch 
thicker, opaque, spatulate, oblong or ovate, on 
petioles V-4' long ; stipules obtuse or acumi- 
nate, 3-carinate; fruit 2"~2jf "long, rj^"thick, 
turgid, tapering into a stout apical style, the 
back sharply 3-keeled ; face angled near the 
middle, with a sinus below ; embryo coiled. 

In ponds and pools, Maine to Geoixia and Mis- 
i July 

Nuttall s Pondweed (Fig 146 ) 


6. Potamogeton alplnus Balbis Northern Pondweed. (Fig. 147.) 
Ihilamogflon alpinus Balbiit, Misc. Bnt. 13. lEk 
Polamogelon ru/escftis Sclirad.; Chani. Adn. 


Plant ofa ruddy tinge, stenn simple or branch- 
ed somewhat compressed. Floetiug leavesspat- 
ulnte or ablanceolate, obtuse, many-nerved, taper- 
ing into petioles I'-s' long; subnier;ged leaves 
semi pellucid, the lowest sessile, the uppermost 
petioled, obloDg-Iioear or linear-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse or rarely acute, narrowed at the base, 3'- 
12' long, 2"-9" wide, 7-17-nerved; stipules 
broad faintly 2-caTinate, obtuse or rarely acute; 
peduncles a'-S' long ; spikes \'-\%' long ; fmit 
obo\oid, lenticular, reddish, iV'long.i" thick, 

0\l ll (/)' ^ \ 1 I 3 keeled, the middle keel sharp, the face arched, 
ft \il\W/ \llW beaked by the short recurved style; apex of 
\>ll//«' wl * "** embrj'o pointing directly to the basal end. 

nIIT -5" Ml In ponds. Nova Scotia to British Columbia. New 

yf ¥ Jersej and California. Also in Kurope. ]uly-Ang. 

7. Potamogeton lonchites Tuckerm. Long-leaved Pondweed. (Fig. 148.) 

PolamogetonJluUaas Hoth, Fl. Germ, i: 71. 1788? 
Polamagclon lonchiirs Tuckerm. Am, Joum, Sci. (II.) 

6: 326. 184S. 

Stem terete, much branched, 3°-6° long. Float- 
ing leaves rather thin, elliptic, pointed at both 
ends, 2'-6' long, 6"-i4" wide, many-nerved, on 
petioles 2'-8' in length; submerged leaves pellucid, 
4'- 1 3' long, a"-i2"wide, rounded at the base or 
tapering into a petiole I'-a,' long; stipules i'-4' 
long, acuminate, acute or obtuse, strongly or 
faintly 2-carinate ; peduncles thickening upward, 
2 '-3' long; spikes cylindric, i '-2' long; fruit about 
2" long, I "-1)4" thick, obliquely obovoid, the face 
nearly straight, the back 3-kecled, the middle keel 
rounded or often with a projecting wing under the 
style, not impressed on the sides; embryo slightly 
incurved, apex pointing slightly inside of the base. 

In pondaand slow streams Ne« Brunsmckto Wash 
ingtoii south to Florida and CBlifomia. Julj-Oct 

Potamogeton lonchites floreboracinsis MoronK Mtm Torr. Club. 3: Part 2. 3a. tS93. 
Floitinc leases thicker 3 5-^ long about 2 m de 20-24 nerved, abruptly pointed or obtuse at 

J __j _ . J ..... , _, --tral New York. 


4 5 and spikes ; 

ULes of i 
8 Potamogeton Pdxoni Morong. 

Faxon s Pondweed. (Fig. 149.) 

P l> I, la I raxoiii Morong, Mem. Torr. Club, 3: 
Part , 1, Sgj, 

Float n^ leaves numerous, mostly obovate or 
oblanceolate blunt-pointed or obtuse at the 
ape-ii narrowed at the base, often strikingly 
like those of P. spathulafformis, 1'-^%' long, 
8 12 wide 13-17-nerved, on petioles 2'-6' 
long submerged leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute 
or sometimes obtuse, 3'-5' long, 6"-i2" wdde, 
5 13 nerved often with an irregular areolation 
on each side of the midrib, borne on petioles 
% 2 in length; peduncles slightly thicker than 
tbestem 2 5 long; spikes dense, I'-a' long; 
fruit not collected. 

a, Ferris- 


g. Potamogeton hetcroph^llus Schreb, Various-leaved Pondweed. 
(Fig. 150.) 

Polamogeloa heUrophyllus Schreb. Spicil. Fl. 
Lips. *[. :;7i. 

FolainogelOH hfltrophyllns \-i 

~ T. Club. 3: P 

Potamoeetoii hetirophytlas 
/a/BiMorong, Mem. Tort. Club, 3; Part 2, 24. 

Stems slender, compressed, much brsuch- 
ed, sometimes 13° long. Floating leaves 
pointed at the apex, rounded or subcordate 
st the base, 8"-4' long, 4"-i4" wide, 10-18- 
nerved, on petioles i'-4' lonx; aubmerged 
leaves pellucid, sessile, linear-la a ceo late, 
icuminate or cuspidate, rather stiff, i'-6,'^' 
long, I "-8" wide, 3-9-nerved, the uppermost 
often petioled ; peduncles often thickened 
upward, I'-y' long, sometimes clustered, 
stipules spreading, obtuse, 8"-ia" long; 
(pikes 9"-i,'i' long; fruit roundish or 
obliquely obovoid, \"-\%" long. fi"-i" 
Ihiclt, indistinctly 3-keeled; style short, ob- 
tuse, apical; apex of the embryo nearly touch- 
ing the base, pointing slightly inside of it. 

K very variable species, occurring in dilTerent forms througrtiout almost all North America ex- 
cept the extreme north. Also in Europe, July-Sept. 

Potamogeton heteraph^Uus gramlnifAliuB (Fries) Morong, Mem. Torr. Club, 3: Part 2. 24. 1S93. 
Fulamostlon pramineus var. gramini/oliiis Fries. Novit. Ed. 2, ^. [S18. 

SubroeTBcd leaves delicate, flaccid, linear, 2'-g' long. i"-3" wide. With the type. 
PDtunog«tonheterophylIusmyriopli^llna(Robbtns) Morone, Mem. Torr. Club, 3: Part 2, 24. 1S93. 
R'lami'geloii gramiiieus var. myiiof-bylliis Robbins in A. Gray, Man. Ed. S, 487- 1867. 

Stems dichotoraoualy btanching, very leafy; submei^ed leaves delicate, atmut 1' long and a" 
•ride, 3-5-nervetl, linear or the upper oblanceolate; floatinK leaves elliptic or lanceolate -oblong; 
rootstock tuberous, Massacliusetla, Rhode Island and Connecticut. 

Potamogeton heterophyllua minimus Kliirong, Mem. Tory. Club. 3; Part 2. 25. 1S93, 
Stems long and almost capillary, the inlemodea 3' -4' long; submeised leaves densely clustered 
on short lateral branches. !i'-i' lone, scarcely W" wide, acuminate, i-nerved; floatii^ leaves K'- 
iK'lonK. 3"-9" wide, lanceolate, oval or ovate, usually clustered at the summit of the stem. Massa- 
cliasetts and New Hampshire. 

10. Potamogeton spathulaef6rmis (Robbins) Morong. Spatulate-leaved 
Pondweed. (Fig. 151.) 

Ftilamogttou gramiiieus var. 1?) spalhulaffurmis 

Robbins in A. Gray, Man. Ed. s, 487. 1867. 
Polamogelou sfialhittar/ormis Morong, Mem, Torr. 

Club, 3: Part 2, 26. 1893. 

Stems many, branched, 2°-3° long. Floating 
leaves obovate or elliptic, abrnptly acute at the 
apex, rather thin, 13-23-nerved, I'-iJi' long, 
6"-i3" wide, borne on Blender petioles ; sub- 
merged leaves pellucid, spatula te-oblong or 
linear-lanceolate, 2'-^' long, 3"-9" wide, 5-13' 
nerved, cuspidate or spinescent, sessile or sub- 
sessile, often reduced to phyllodes with a very 
narrow blade and a long acumination at the 
base and apex ; peduncles often thickening up- 
ward, I'-i'long; stipules obtuse, faintly keeled, 
the apex slightly hooded ; spikes large ; fruit 
about 1" long, roundish or obliquely ovoid, ob- 
scurely 3-keeled, with a curved or slightly 
angled face ; embryo with the apex pointing 
slightly inside of the base. 

In Mystic Pond, Medford, Mass. Also in Europe. 


II. Potamogeton Illinoinsis Morong. 

Illinois Pondweed. (Fig. 152. J 
Pnlamogelnn lUinoensis Morong, CoalL Bot. Gai. 

Stem stout, much branched above. Floating 
leaves opposite, nntneroua, thick, i'sH' 'ongi 
a'-3>i'«''^ep'ns'>y-iierved. oval or broadly ellip- 
tic, short -pointed at the apex, rounded, subcor- 
date or narrowed at the base; petioles l'-4' long; 
submerged leaves numerous, 4'-8' long, I'-i' 
wide, 13-19-nerved, acuminate or the uppermost 
acute, mostly tapering at the liase into a short 
broad flat petiole, rarely reduced to phyllodes; 
stipules 2'-3' long, obtuse, strongly i-carinate; 
peduncles i'-4' long; spikes I'-a' long; fruit 
roundish or obovoid, iJi"-2" long, i"-i^" 
thick, dorsally 3-kecled : style short, blaiiL 
In ponda, Illinois to Iowa and Minnesota. Aug. 
:. Potamogeton Zizii Roth. Ziz's Pondweed. (Fig. 153.) 
a angusli/i'lius Berch. & Presi, Rest. 
ig. 102.. Not DC. 1S05, 
Polamogtion ZizH Roth, Enuni. i: Sji Il:'i7 

Stems slender, branching. Floating 1ea\es 
elliptic, iX'-4' longi 6"-i2" mde many 
nerved ; petioles mostly short submerged 
leaves mostly lanceolate or oblanceotate thtn 
acute ot cuspidate, a'-6' long, 3' -15 ' mde 
7-i7-aer\-ed; stipules f>"-\9." long obtuse 
2-keeled ; peduncles thicker than the stem 
aJi'-6' long; spikes I'-a'long; fruit obliquely 
obovoid, iy'"-2"long, about 1" thick, the face 
dorsally 3-keeled; style short, blunt, facial; apex 
of the embryo pointing directly to the base. 

In lakes and streams, Quebec to Montana, south to 
Floridaand Wyoming. Also in Europe. July-Aug. 
Potamogeton Ziili Hetbyensis (A Benn I Morong. 





i, Ben- 

1, Britten's Joum. I , „ , 

Middle leaves narrow; upper leaies oval, stipules 
long; fruit small. Methy I^ke, Canada. 

13. Potamogeton Weens L. Shining 
Pondweed. (Fig. 154.) 

Polamogeloii liicens L. Sp. PI. ia6. 1753, 

Stem thick, branching 1>elow and often with 
masses of short leafy branches at the summit. 
Leaves all submerged, elliptic, lanceolate ortlie 
uppermost oval, shining, acute or acuminate and 
cuspidate, or rounded at both ends and merely 
mucronnlate. sessile or short-petioled, a>i'-8' 
long, 8"-2o" wide, the tips often serrulate ; 
stipules ['-3' long. 2-carinate. sometimes very 
broad ; peduncles 3'-6' long ; spikes l'— aj^' 
long, cylindric, very thick; fniit about ifi" 
long and i V thick, roundish, the face usoallj 
with a slight inward cur\-e at the base ; apex 
of the embryo pointing transversely inward. 

In pnnds. Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Califor- 
niaand Mexico. Local. Aliio in Europe. Sept-Oct. 
Potamogeton liicans ConnscticatinBis Robbins in A. Gray. Man. Ed, s. 488, 1867, 
Stems flexuous; leaves acuminate; trait larger than that of the type (about a" lone), distinctly 
...._._ d Whftt Plains, N. Y. 

a facial style. 

Olid, Conn., , 


14. Potamogeton prael6ngus Wulf. White stemmed Pondw eed (Fig 
Pntaninzelon praelongus Wulf. in Roem, Arch. 3 

ill. 180S. 

Stems white, flexuous, flattened, much 
branched, growEng in deep water, Eometimea 8° 
long. Leaves all submei^ed, oblong or oblong 
lanceolate, seuii-amplesticaul, bright green, a'- 
i2'lotiK, %'-\yi' wide, with 3-5 main nerves, 
stipules nhite, scarious, obtuse and commonly 
closely embracing the stem ; peduncles 3'-3cr' 
long, erect, straight, about as thick as the stem, 
spikes i'-3' long, thick, cylindric ; fruit dark 
green, obliquely obovoid, 2"-iJ^" long, \yi"- 
1" thick, the back much rounded, often with the 
upper curv-e nearly as high as the style ; the 
middle keel sharp ; style short, obtuse, facial. 


Nova Scotia 

o British Columbia, south toNew Jei 
i and California. Also in Europt 
and July, and usually withdn 

IS beneath tlie water as soon as the fiuit is 

15. Potamogeton perfoliEttus L Clasp- 
ing leaved Pondweed CFig 156 ) 

Po/amogelon per/ohaliisl. Sp PI 126 17^3 

Stems slender, much branched. Leaves all sub- 
merged, orbicular or ovate, sometimes lanceolate, 
I usually obtuse and minutely serrulate at the apex, 
cordate-perfoliate at the base, 5'-i5' long, 3"-ii" 
, wide peduncles il(' long, usually erect or slightly 
spreading; spikes 8"-ia" long, often flowering 
and fruiting under water ; fruit obliquely obovoid, 
-l}i" long, l" thick, obscurely 3-carinate on 
' the back, the face slightly curved outwardly to- 
ward the top, the sides with a shallow indentation 
which runs into the face; style nearly facial; em- 
bryo slightly incurved or with its apex pointiag 
directly toward the base. 

In ponds and streams, Newfoundland to British 
r lumbia. south to Florida and California. Also in 
Europe and Asia. July-Sept. 
. Bennett, Britten's Joum. Bot. *;; 25. 1889. 
a ge/o b rf I al s ax la ce lat j Robb nsin A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 488, 1867. Not Blytt 1861 . 
i,5aves \-\'V long, 4"-8" wide -■•■■■ 
atlhe apex, it-33-nerved. Fruit son 
thick. Lake Champlain to Oregon, s 

16. Potamogeton M^sticus Morong. Mystic 
Pond Pondweed. (Fig. 157.) 

P^lami^e/o/i .Vysliius Morojig;, Coult. Bot. Gaz. 5: 50. 1880 
Whole plant very slender and delicate, stems irregu 
liriy branching above, nearly filiforni, terete, t°-i° long 
I*ave» all submerged, scattered, oblong-Iiccar, I'-i^ 
long, ("-3" wide, 5-7-nerved, obtuse and rarely with 
ainiite sermlations near the apex, abruptly narrowed at 
the base and sessile or partly clasping: stipules obtuse 
•bont 6" long, hyaline and with many fine nerves, mostly 
accidaous, but sometimes persistent and closely sheathing 
the stem ; spikes few, capitate, 4-6-(lowered, borne on 
erect peduncles I'-i' long; immature fruit obovoid, less 
than i" long, about J4" wide, obscurely 3-keeled on the 
tack, slightly beaked by the slender, recurved style. 

I Miacount Pond, Nantucket, 

peifoliAtus Rlchatds&Qii \ 

Robb ns in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5 
the bro:idened amplexicaul b 



.- - - ^ » 

M •v-.'.t.y 

— r.i'.e or 
• ■..:c.-.v::h 

::.;!> scan- 

■ _ ■ • 

.i -:'*. :".-.= lateral 

*viJi. '. wi:h a 

-:-rv^:. The 

.if- u:>. which 

-* .•« k«. •i • 


20. Potamogeton Hillii Morong. Hill's 

Pondweed. (Fig. 161.) 

F»tamngfloii Hillii Morong, CouH. Bot. Gai. 6: ago. 1881. 

Stems sliglitlj compressed, slender, widely branch- 
ing, I'-j" long. Leaves linear, acute or cnapidate, or 
often almost aristate, I'-aJi' long, >4"-iJi" wide, 
3-nerved, the lateral nerves delicate and nearer the 
margins than the midrib; stipules whitish, many- 
nerved, obtuse. 3"-5" long; peduncles about ^' long, 
erect or slightly recurved, more or less clavate; spikes 
capitate. 3-6-fruited; fruit obliquely obovoid, oblnse 
at the base, about a" long, i"-i^" thick, 3-carinate 
on the back., the middle keel sharp and more or less 
undulate, flat on the sides, face slightly arched ; style 
nearly facial, short; embryo coiled. 

forms of the species, the 01 

Michigan. There are 
t-elandular at the base 

r gland lei 

21. Potamogeton folidsus Raf. 

Leafy Pondweed. (Fig. 162.) 

Pulamogelon /olioSHS tiai. TAei. Rep. (II. )S: 

354. 1808. 

Fniamogtlon p 

131. 181 4. 

Sterna flattened, much branched, i°-3 
long. Leaves I'-a' long, %"-i" wide, 
acute, 3-nerved, not glandular at the base; 
stipules white, hyaline, obtuse or some- 
times acute, 6"-io" long; peduncles more 
or less clavate. erect, about %' long; spikes 
about 4-flowered; fruit lenticular or nearly 
orbicular, about 1" in diameter, 3-keeled 
on the back, the middle keel winged, sin- 
uate-dentate, often with projecting shoul- 
ders or teeth at each end, the face strongly 
angled or arcbed, sharp, often with a pro- 
jecting tooth at the base; style apical. 

In ponds and streams. New Brunswick to 
Biitisii Columbia, south to Florida, Xew 
■o and California. July-.4ug. 
Potamogeton foliisua Niagaitosls (Tuckerm. ) Morong, Mem. Torr. Club, 3: Part i, 39. 1893. 
Polamogdoii .V I fl^az-ffi SI J Tuckerm. Am. Joutn. Sci. (ll.)7:3M- '849- 

Uiger. Stems a^-s" long, leaves sometimes over V in length and i ' wide, 3-5-nerved; stipules 
laipr and occasionally acute; spikes S-i2-flowered. liiagara Falls to Michigan and California. 

33. Potamogeton obtusifdlius Mert. & 
Koch. Blunt-leaved Pondweed. (Fig. 163.) 

Iblaniogelon comftressus Wahl, Fl, Suee. i: 107. 1814. 

Not L. 1753. 
Msmugelon obliisi/olius -Mert, Sc Koch, Deutsch. Fl. 

i:8s5. iSsj. 

Slems usually slender, compressed, widely 
linnching, especially above. Leaves linear, 3'-3' 
long, ^"-2" wide, obtuse, often mucroaate, usually 
3-nervedwithabroad midrib, sometimes 5-7. nerved, 
i-£landular at the base, the glands large and trans- 
loMnt; stipules white or acarious. mauy-ner\-ed, ob- 
tUM. 6"-9" long, oftenaslongasor longer than the 
intemodes; peduncles numerous, I'-i^'long, slen- 
der, erect; spikes 3"-4" long, ovoid, 5-8-flowered; 
hiit obliquely obovoid, about iji" long and 1" 
tbick, 3-keeled ; style short, blunt, nearly facial. 

Id still water. Quebec to Pennsylvania, west to Min- 
BOotaand Wyoming. Also in Europe. July-Aug, 


Polamogeton . , - - -, 

fil. 41S. i™. Not r, 
PolamagftoH pustllHS var. 

23. Potamogeton Friisu Ruprecht. Fries' Pondweed. (Fig. 164.) 

I J. E. Smith, Kngl. Bot. 3: 

r Fried, No\Ht. Ed, 3, 

I\>tamogrlntt /^riViri Ruprecht. Beitr. Pfl. Rum. Rrichs, 

FMamogrloH major Morong, SIctii. Tiht. Club. 3; Part 
i.X\. :89.V Hot/'. /tuiO/usvai majhrM.ltK ifjj. 

Sterna ctmipresscd, a°-4'' long, branching. Lcavea 
i}4'-3)i' long, about i" wide, acute, obtuse or cus- 
pidate at the apex, mostly j-Qerved.rarclj 7-Derv«d. 
i-glandular at the baH, the ){1apds small ; stipnies 
white, hyaline, finely nerved, obtnae or acute, 6"- 
11" long: peduncles i'-i,'j' lonj;, often thicker 
than the stem and sometimes thickening upwaid; 
spikes, when developed, interrupted; fruit quite sim- 
ilar to that of P. pusillus, but with a recurved style, 
usually with a Bhatlow pit on tbc sides, and with the 
apex of the embryo painting toward the basal end. 

^^ ff '^ ^-~^^ \S' — ] British Colu HI bis. Alsoin Europe, PropsKating buds 

^■^ '' "-^ occasional. July-Augr. 

34- Potamogeton riitilus Wolfg. Slender Pondweed. (Fig. 165.) 

FolamogclOH ru/ilusV/olfg. :R. IkS. Mant, 3: 361, [817, 

Stems very slender, 8'-j4' long, compressed, sim- 
ple or nearly so. Leaves I'-iJi' long, %"-%" 
wide, acute or acuminate, strict, nearly erect, 3-5- 
nerved, revolute, the nerves prominent beneath, 
often i-glandu1ar at base and bright green ; stipnies 
«cnte,6"-io" long, often longer than the internodes 
and hiding the bases of the leaves above, persistent, 
becoming white and fibrous with age ; peduncles 
6"-i8" long; spikes 3"-s" long, usually dense, but 
sometimes interrupted; fruit obliquely obovoid, 
about 1" long and %" thick, obscurely keeled or 
die back showing only 3 small grooves; apex of 
the drupelet tapering into a short facial nearly 
straight recurved style ; embryo circle not com- 
plete, the apex pointing a little inside of the base. 

Anticosti and James Bay to Michigan and Minnesota, 
Also in Europe, PropsKaling buds usiuHy wanting, 

35. Potamogeton Viseyi Robbins. Vasey's Pondweed. (Fig, 166.) 

f^i/aniojrrli'ii I'asej'i Robbins in A. Gray, Man, Ed, 5, 

■, /a/i/nliHs Morong, Slem, 

Polamns^eltin J 'asm 

Ton. Club. 3: Part 3, 

Stems filiform, widely branching below, and with 
many short lateral branches above, I'-i;^" long, the 
emersed fertile forms iu shallow water, and the more 
common sterile submerged forms in water from 6"- 
8° in depth. Floating leaves on the fertile stems 
only, coriaceous, in [-4 opposite pair?, oval oblong 
or obovate, 4"-5" long, 3"-^" wide, with 5-9 
nerves deeply impressed beneath, tapering at the 
base into petioles 3"-4" long; submerged leaves 
capillary, i'-i|i' long; stipules white, delicate, 
many-nerved, acute or obtuse, a"-3" long ; pedun- 
cles 3"-6" long, thickening in fruit; spikes 3"~y 
long, a-6-fruited ; fruit roundish- obovoid, about i" 
long and nearly as thick, 3-keeled, the middle keel 
rounded, tipped with a straight or recurved style. 

Eastern Ma-ssacliusctts to soullicm Ontario and Ohio. 
The plantisfumishedwithpri'pagative buds. July-.\ug, 


36. Potamogeton lateralis Morong. Opposite-leaved Pondweed. {Fig. 167-) 
I^ilamo^elon laleralis Morong. Coull. Bot. Gaz. 5: 

51. 1880, 

Stems filiform, much branched. Floating 
leaves on sterile shoots only, coriaceous, ellip- 
tic, obtuse, 4"-5" long, i"-a" wide, 5-7- 
nerved, the nerves deeply impressed beneath, 
usually in 1-3 opposite pairs which stand at 
right angles to the stem, on petioles 3"-io" 
long; submerged leaves linear, acute, i'-3' long, 
)i"-^" wide, i-3-neiTed, J-glandular at the 
base, but the glands small and often obsolete; 
stipules small, hyaline, many-nerved, obtuse, 
deciduous ; peduncles and floating leaves lateral, 
with a peculiar appearance, widely spreading 
at maturity, sometimes recurved, thickening in 
fruit, 4"-i5" long; spikes capitate or often in- 
terrupted, 3-4-flowere(l; fruit obliquely obovoid. 
about i" long, lenticular, the back much cun-cd 
and 3-groovcd, the face arched and surmounted 
by the nearly sessile stigma; curve of the em- 
bryo oval, its apex Dearly touching its base. 

In lalte-i and slow streams, eastern Massachusetts to Michigan. Proliferous shoots at the sura- 
mil of the stem and on the upper branches appear late in the season, as the plants are beginning to 
decay. July- Aug. 

27. Potamogeton pusiUus L. Small Pondweed. (Fig. 168.) 

I\ifaniogel,>n fiiiiilliii L. Sp. PI. [27. 1753. 

Stems filiform, branching, 6'~i° long. 
Leaves all submerged, liuear, obtuse and mu- 
cronate or acute at the apex, 2-glaudular at the 
base, i'-3' long, about yi" wide, 1-3-nerved, 
the lateral nerves often obscure; stipules short, 
hyaline, obtuse; peduncles usually 3"-9", or 
rarely 3' long; spikes 3-10-flowered; ftuit ob- 
liquely ellipsoid, about i" long and >i" thick 
curved and 3-grooved on the back or sometimes 
with 3 distinct keels, the face slightly arched, 
beaked by a straight or recurved style; apex of 
the embryo slightly incurved and pointing ob- 
liquely downward. Propagative buds occur in 
greater or less abuadance. 

i. New Btunswieli to 

me, Mem. Torr. Club. 3: Part i. 46- i»9.v 

Potamogeton pusillu 

Ontario. Also in Ruro| 
polyphyllus Morong, Coult. Bot. Oaz. 5: 51. 

tely branching from the base and ' 

... ..^ _ .... lot known to flower, but abundantly pi 

•hich are thickened, hardened and closely invested by imbricated le 

cry leafy throughout: leaves 
ivided witli propagating buds 
.ves. Kaalerii Massachusetts. 

Potamogeton pusillua Sturrockil A.. Bennett in Hook. Stud. PI. Ed. 3, 435. 1884. 
A rare fortn with delfcale bright green pellucid leaves. I'-j' long, obtuse or often apiculi 
tlttapex. less than 1" wide, sometimes s-neri'ed; fruit much smaller than that of the lype. s 
■" ' ■ ~ "" ■ Also in Europe. 

iMktd. Eastern Massachuse 


a8. Potamogeton gemmiparus (Robbins) Morong. 

(Fig. 169.) 

t. {1) gmimiparus Bob- 
Ed. 5, 489, 1867. 

POIamogelon gemmiparus MoronK. Coult. Bot. 
Gaz. 5:5!' 1880. 

Stems filiromi, terete, branching, S'-4° 
long. Leaves capillary, aometitiiea not aa 
wide as the stem, often with no perceptible 
midrib, tapering to ihe finest point, i'-3' 
long, 3-glaadular at the base ; stipules }i'-i' 
long, acute or obtuse, mostly deciduous ; 
spikes interrupted, 3-6-flowered ; peduncles 
filiform or sometimes slightly thickened, 
%'-i' long \ fruit seldom foiined, similar to 
that of P. pusillus, except that it is flatter 
and somewhat impressed on the ndes. 

In ponds, eastern Massachuwtta and Rhode 
Island. It is commonly propagated by its abun- 
dant buds, the leaves and stems are ofttn alike 
in thickness so that the plant seems to consist . 
of threads. Aug. -Sept. 

Capillary Pondweed. 

ag. Potamogeton diversifdiius Raf. Rafinesque's Pondweed. (Fig. 170.) 

Polamogelon kvbridus Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 

101. iSo,i. Not Thuill. 1790, 
Polamogelon diitrsi/olius Raf. Med. Rep. {U. > 
5 : 354- 1808. 

Stems flattened or sometimes terete, much 
branched. Floating leaves coriaceous, the 
largest i' long by ]4' wide, oval or elliptic 
and obtuse, or lanceolate -oblong and acute ; 
petioles generally shorter, but sometimes 
longer than the blades, filiform or dilated ; 
submerged leaves setaceous, seldom over 
}i" wide, i'-3' long ; stipules obtuse or trun- 
cate, 3"-5" long, those of the Boating leaves 
free, those of the submerged leaves some- 
times adnate ; emersed peduncles 3"-7" 
loog ; submerged peduncles 3"-3" long, 
clavate, as long as the spikes; emersed spikes 
3"-5" long, occasionally interrupted ; fruit 
cochleate, rarely over )i" long, 3-keeled, 
the middle keel narrowly winged and usu- 
ally with 7 or 8 knob-like teeth on the mar- 
gin, the lateral keels sharp or rounded ; 
embryo coiled i ii times. 
iska and Texas. June-Sept. 

I, Torr. Club, 3: Part 3. 48. 1893. 

In still water, Maine to Florida, v 

3-prong:ed. Connecticut to eastern Pennsylvania and De 

Potamogeton diversifAlins trlchophyllus Morong, Mem. Torr, Club, 3: part 3, 49. 1893. 
Plant about 6' long, without floating leaves, the submerged leaves as fine as floss silk and 
entirely nerveless. Lake Marcia, New Jersey. 


30. Potamogeton Spirillus Tuckerm, Spiral Pondweed. (Fig. 171.) 
Jblamog'loii Sfiirillus Tuckerm. Am. Journ. Sci. 



Stems compressed, branched, e'-jc/ long, the 
branches often short and recurved. Floating leaves 
oval or elliptic, obtuse, the largest about i' long 
and }i' wide, with 5-13 nerves deeply impressed 
beneath, their petioles often i' long ; submerged 
leaves linear, i}^"-2" long, about }^" wide, mostJy ( 
S-uerved ; alipnles of the upper floating leaves free ; 
those of the submerged leaves adnate to the blade 
or petiole ; spikes above water 3"-5" long, cont 
nons, the lower mostly sessile, capitate and i-io- 
fmited; fruit cochleate, roundish, less than i" 
long, flat and deeply impressed on the sides, 3- 
keeled on ihe back, the middle keel winged and 
sometimes 4-5toothed; style deciduous; embryo 
spiral, about i}4 turns. 

lo ponds and ditches, Nova Scotia and Ontario to 
Minnesota, south to Virginia, Missouri and Nebraska, 

31. Potamogeton filifdrmis Pers. 
form Pondweed. (Tig. 172.) 

Stems liom a running rootatock, slender, 3°-2o° ' 
long, Sliform above, stout and thick towards the 
base. Leaves numerous, a'-ia' long, Ji'"-^" 
wide, i-nerved with a few cross veins ; sheaths 
about 1" long and the free part of the stipule }i' 
long, scarious on the edges ; flowers on long, oflen 
recurved peduncles, 3-i3 in each whorl, the whorls 
%'-!' apart ; fruit l"-l}i" long, slightly less than 
i" wide, the sides even, the back not keeled, the 
face nearly straight or obtusely angled near the 
r quite sessile, remaining on 
d truncate projection. 

:i to western New York 

PotJUDOgetoil filifirmis Hacftunli Morong; Macnun, Cat. Can. PI. 4: 3S. i9S». 

__ Leaves i'-3' long, the largest W or more wide, obtuse, Miff, with a strong midrib and raised 

■or'slightly revolute margins; fruit rarely more than i" long; peduncles only 8"-lo" long; plant 

«!inmonl; with a compact bushy habit. In brackish or salt water lakes, prairie region of Canada. 

3s. Potamogeton pectinitus L. Fennel- 
leaved Pondweed, (Fig. 173-) 
folamogelon peclinaiiis L. Sp. PI. 127. IJ53. 

Stems slender, much branched, I°-3° long, the 
Ixucbes repeatedly forking. Leaves setaceo 
sttenaate to the apen, i-ncrved, i'-6' long, often 
rapillary and nerveless ; stipules half free, }i'- 
long, their sheaths scarious on the margins ; pc- 
dnndes filiform, a'-ia' long, the flowers in verti- 
"l>; fruit obliquely obovoid, with a hard thick 
steli, iji"-a" long, i"-i%" wide, without a mid- 
d'f keel, but with obscure lateral ridges on the 
'■Kt, plump on the sides and curved or occasion- 
•llja little angled on the face ; style straight or 
^^cirved, facial ; embryo apex pointing almost 
directly toward the basal end. 

' In (resh, brackish or salt water. Cape Breton to Brit- 
ish Columbia, south to Florida. Texas and California. 
Abo ro Europe. Juiy-Aug. 

top ; stigma nearly c 

the fruit as a broad ti 

In ponds and latea, 

and Michigan. jVugui 



33. Potamogeton interrfiptus Kitaibel. Interrupted Pondweed. (Fig. 174.) 
Polamogelon inlerruptus Kitaibel in Schultes. OEot. Fl. 

Ed. 1. 338. 1814- 
Polamogelon fiabetlatu! Bab. Man. Bot. Ed. 3, 314. 1851. 

Sterna sriaing from a tunaiug rootatock whicb oftea 
springa from a small tuber, 3"-^" long, brauched, tbe 
branches spreading like a fen. Leaves linear, obtuse 
or acute, 3'-5' long, i"-i%" wide, 3-5-nerved with 
many transverse veins ; narrow, t-nerred leaves occur 
on some plants and these are acuminate, much like 
those of P. pectinaius ; stipules partially adaate to tbe 
leaf-blade, the adnate part %'-\' long, sometimes with 
narrowly scarious margins, tbe free part shorter and 
scarious, obtuse ; peduncles i'-2'long; spikes slightly 
interrupted ; fruit broadly and obliquely obovoid, ob- 
tuse at the base, the largest 1" long and nearly as 
broad, prominently keeled and with rounded lateral 
ridges on tbe back, the face nearly or quite straight ; 
style facial, erect. 

In ponds and streams, Prince Edward Island to northern 
Indiana and Michigan. Also in Europe. August. 

34. Potamogeton Robbinsii Oakes. Robbins' Poiidweed. (Fig. 175.) 

Polamogeton Robbinsii Oakes. Hovey's Mag. 
7:180. 1841. 

Stems stout, widely branching, a°-4'* 
long, from running rootstocks sometimes 
1° long. Leaves linear, 3'-5' long, 3"-y 
wide, acute, finely many-nerved, crowded 
in a ranks, minutely serrulate, auricnlate 
at the point of attachment with the stipule ; 
stipules with the adnate portion and sheath- 
ing base of the leaf about ii' long, the free 
part f^'-i' long, acute, persistent, white, 
membranous, mostly lacerate; peduncles 
i'-3' long, the inflorescence frequently 
much branched and bearing from 5-30 
peduncles; spikes interrupted, X'-i'lo°g. 
flowering under water; fruit obovoid, about 
2" broad and i>i" wide, 3-keeled on the 
back, the middle keel sharp, the lateral 
ones rounded, the face arched, the sides 
with a shallow depression which runs into 
the face below the arch ; style subapical, 
thick, slightly recurved ; apex of the em- 
bryo pointing a little inside tbe basal end. 
In ponds and lakes. New Brunswick to Oregon, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania and 
Michigan. The plant is freely propagated by fragments of the stems which throw out rootlets 
from each joint, but this is the rarest of our species to form fruit. Aug. -Sept. 

2. KUPPIA L. Sp. PI. 127. 1753. 

Slender, widely branched aquatics with capillary stems, slender alternate i-nerved 
leaves tapering to an acuminate apei, and with membranous sheatbs. Flowers on a capil- 
lary, epadix-like peduncle, naked, consisting of 2 sessile anthers, each with 2 lai^e sepa- 
rate sacs attached by their backs to the peduncle, having between them several pistillate 
flowers in a sets on opposite sides of the rachis, the whole cluster at first enclosed in the 
sheathing base of the leaf Stigmas sessile, peltate. Fruit a amall, obliquely pointed drupe, 
several in each cluster and pedicetled ; embryo oval, the cotyledonary end inflexed, and 
both that and the hypocotyl immersed. [Name in honor of Heinricfa Bemhard Rupp, a Ger- 
man botanist.] 

In the development of the plants the staminate flowers drop off and the peduncle eloi^ates. 
bearing the pistillate floweis in i clusters at the end, but after fertilization it coils up and the fruit 
is drawn below the surface of the water. 

ShcMhs 3"-4" long; drupes about :" long. 
Sheaths H'-iH' long; drupes iW"-i" long. 


kisb waters all o' 

r the world. The following 

Ruppia maritima L. Mari- 
time Ruppia. (Fig, 176.) 

1. Ruppia occidentEtlis S. Wats. 
Western Ruppia. (Fig. 177.) 

* Macoun. Cat, Can. PI. s^ .171. 

Stems stouter, i^-j' long, the braachiDg Leaves 3'-8' long, their large 
theaths ^'-I^j' long; branches and leaves 
often thiclclj clustered at the nodes, the 
■beatbs overlapping each other ; drupes 
lwf[*''i i^"-2" long, ovoid or pyriform, 
btmie on pedicels about i' long, the pe- 
iaadea bright red when fresh and some- 
liiDw nearly 3° in length. 

In saline ponds, Nebraska to British Co- 


iritimah. Sp. PI. 127. 


Stems often whilisb, 3"-^° long, the 
intemodes irregular, naked, I'-y long. 
Leaves i'-3' long, X" or less wide ; 
sheaths 3"-4" long, with a short free 
tip; peduncles in fruit sometimes 1° 
long; pedicels 4-6 in a cluster, }i'-i)4' 
long ; drupes with a dark hard shell, 
ovoid, about i" long, often oblique or 
gibbons at the base, pointed with the 
long style, but varying much in shape ; 
forms witb very short peduncles and ped- 
icels, and with broad, strongly marked 
sheaths occur. 

Common in brackish or salt water along 
the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North 
America and in saline districts in the in- 
terior. Widely distributed in the Old World 
and in South America. July-Aug, 

3. ZANNICHELLIA L. Sp. PI. 969. 


stems, flowers and leaf-buds all at first enclosed in a hyaline envelope, corresponding to 
the itipule in I^lamogeion. Staminate and pistillate fiowera in the same axil ; the stami- 
Ule solitary, consisting of a single 2-ce11ed anther, borne on a short pedi(»l-like filament ; 
Uw pistillate 2-5. O /ary flask -shaped, tapering into a short style ; stigma broad, hyaline, 
WMwhat cup-shaped, its margins angled or dentate. Fruit a flatfish falcate nutlet, ribbed 
w umetimes toothed on the back. Embryo bent and coiled at the cotyledonary end. [In 
boaorof J. H. Zannkhelli, 1662-1729, Italian physician and botanist.] 

Two or three species of very wide geographic distribution in fresh-water ponds and streams. 


I. Zannichellia paldstriB L. Z3.:d' 
nichellia. (Fig. 178.) 

ZaHtiichfllia fia/ustris L. Sp. PI. 969. i;5j. 

Stems capillaiy, Bpanel; brandied, tl==^ 
rhizome creeping, the roots Gbroas. Leaved 
i'-3' long, X" or leas wide, acute, thin. ^e= 
nerved with a few delicate cross- veins -^ 
spathe-like envelope separate from the leaved 
and fruits at maturity ; fruits 3-6 in a clnstertM 
\"-i" long, sometinics sessile, aometime: -= 
pedicelled, sometimes the whole clnste: ~- 
peduncled ; style perNStent, straight oc ^ 
curved, %"-\" long; plant flowering an£3 
ripening its fruit under water. 

4. NAIAS L. Sp. PI, 1015. 1753. 

Slender, branching aquatics, wholly submerged, with fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, .^ 
alternate or verticillate, sheathing at Che base. Ploweis monoecious or dioecious, axillary, .. 
solitary, sessile or pedicelled. Sterile flower with a double perianth, the exterior one entires 
or 4-hor»ed at Uie apei. the interior one hyaline, adhering to the anther ; stamen sessile or:* 
stalked, i-4-ce11ed. apiculatc or i-lohcd at the summit. Fertile flowers of a single o\iut-^ 

which tapeis into a short style ; stigmas 3-4. subulate. Mature carpel solitary, sessile, ellip 

siod, its pericarp crustaceous. Seed conformed to the pericarp and embryo to the seed, the^ 
raphe distinctly marke<i. [Greek, a watcr-nyniph.] 

About lospecirs. iiccurriuB in fresh water nil o\fr the wurld. The following are the onlyoncs^ 
known in Nuftn .\ititrica: 

Shcathfl ImMidly toundcJ, their niarKins entire or with a few larjre teeth. 
Sheaths namiwly and obliquely rounded, each mar ' -■ - - - - 

Secdf RhininK. with 30-50 niu's of faint r<.-ticul 

o.^j.. ...... _.;.!. .,. „(. ^tronjcly marked retici 

le teeth; leai-es linear. 
■ a. N.fttxilis. 
3. X. Gnadalup 

I. Naias marina L. Large Xaias. 

(I-'ig- 179- ) 

.V,iwj m„ri,ia I., Su. PI, [OIS- [7S,^. 
,V,(/,<1 Hinjor All, Fl I'ed. 1 ; an. iT.t.s. 

Dioecious, Stem Stout, compressed, commonly armed 
with teeth twice as lonj; as their breadth. Leaves op- 
posite or verticillate, 6"- 13" long, about 1" wide, with 
6-10 spine-pointed teeth on each margin and fre- 
quently several along the back ; sheaths with rounded 
lateral e<lges; fruit large, a''-3^4" long, the pericarp 
as well as the seed rugosely reticulated, tipped with a 
long persistent style and 3 thread-like stigmas ; seed 
not shining. 

til lake?, Ceiilral Xew Yi.rk to Florida, west to Cnlifi)r. 

Kin!' and a few o 

the iKick : sliraths with s 

r 3 teeth 

HatM aarlna lecurvita Dudley, CayuKn 
Branches ami leaves reeuri-ed ; Icaies i"-6" l<mg:, narrow, 
and none iin tho hack ; intemodes f^hort. naked, nr with i or 
side. Cayuua Marshes, X. V. 


2. Naias flixilis (Willd.) Rost. & Schmidt. Slender Naias. (Fig. i8o.) 
CauUnia flexitis Willd. Abh Akad. Berlin, as, 
JVai«i_/rfn/(jRost. &Schmidt,Kl.Sed.38j. 18*4. 

Stem slender, forlciag. Jjcaves Hnear, pel- 
Incid, acaminate or abruptly acute, >j'-i' 
^ong, }i"-l" wide, numerous and crowded 
on the upper parts of the branches, with 35-30 
minute teeth on each edge; sheaths obliquely 
rounded with 5-1* teeth on each marKiti ; 
fruit ellipsoid with very thin pericarp, \"-2" 
long, J("-Ji" in diameter ; style long, per- 
sistent ; stigmas short; seed smooth, shin- 
ing, straw-colored, sculptured, though some- 
times quite faintly, with 30-40 rows of nearly 
square or hexagonal reticulations which are 
scarcely seen throngfa the dark pericarp. 

If»i*a Btxilis rott&sta Moronfc, Coult. Bot Gaz. 

3. Naias Guadalup£nsis (Spreng.) 
Morong. Guadaloupe Naias. 

(Fig. i8i.) 

Caulinia Guadalubensiz Spreng. Syst. 1 ; to. 

Naias Guadalupensis Morong, Mem, Torr, Club, 

3 : Part i, 6a 1S93, 

Stem nearly capillary, V-J.'' long, widely 
branched from the base. Leaves numerous, 
6"_g" long, }i"-'/i" wide, acute, opposite or 
in fascicles of a-5, frequently recurved, with 
sbeeths and teeth like those of N.fiexilis bnt 
generally with 40-50 teeth oh each margin of 
the leaf; fruit about l" long; pericarp dark and 
strongly marked by 16-20 rows of hexagonal or 
rectangular reticulations which are transvereely 
oblong ; seed straw-colored, not shining. 

In ponds and lakes, Nebraska to Oregon and 
Texas, east to Florida, Also in tropical America. 

4. Naias gracillima (A. Br.) Morong. Thread-like Naias. (Fig. 182,) 

u Indica var. eracHlima A, Br, : Engelm. in 

Cray, Man. Ed. s, 681. 1867. 

'- graciltima Morong, Mem. Torr. Club, 3; 



Part I, 61. 

Dioecious, stem capillary, 6'-i5' long, much 
'^'inched, the branches alternate. Leaves nu- 
mwoos, opposite or often fascicled in 3's-s's or 
"iMe, setaceous, Ji' s'long, usually with about 
"^miiiate teeth on each margin ; sheaths auri- 
''td, with 6 or 7 teeth on each auricle, the teeth 
^dingnpon setaceous divisions of the sheath ; 
"ignas very short ; fruit oblong-cylindric, Ji" 
long, JC'/ jQ diameter, slightly curved inwardly 
"' straight, the pericarp straw-colored or pur- 
pliih, marked by about 25 rows of irregularly 
oblong i-eticulations ; seed not shining. 


5. ZOSTERA L. Sp. PI. 968. 1753. 
Marine plants with slender rootstocks end branching compressed ateniB. Leaves a- 
ranked, sbeathing at the base, tbe sheaths with inflexed margins. Spadix linear, contained 
in a spathe. Plawera monoecious, arranged alternately in i rows on the spadiz. Staminate 
flower merely an anther attached to the spadix near its apei, i-celled, opening irregularly 
on the ventral aide ; pollen thread-like. Pistillate flower fixed on its back near the middle ; 
ovary i ; style elongated ; stigmas 3, capillary ; mature carpels flask-shaped, membra- 
nous, rupturing irregularly, beaked by the persistent style ; seeds ribbed ; embryo ellipsoid. 
[Greek, referring to the ribbon-like leaves.] 

n Florida and one 

I. Zostera marina L. Eel-grass. Grass-wrack. (Fig. 183.) 

Zoslera marina I, Sp. PI. 968. 1753. 

Leaves ribbon-like, obtuse at the apex, i"- 
6° long, i"-4" wide, with 3-7 principal 
nerves. Spadix i'-ij4' long ; flowers about 
3" long, crowded, usually from 10-30 of each 
kind on tbe spadix ; ovary somewhat vermi- 
form; at antbeais the stigmas are thrust 
through tbe opening of the apathe and drop 
oS^ before the anthers of the same spadix 
open; the anthers at anthesis work themselves 
out of the spathe and discharge the glutinons 
stringy pollen into the water; seeds cylindric, 
strongly about 20-ribbed, about i^" long 
and ^" in diameter, truncate at both ends, 
the ribs showing very clearly on the pericarp. 


Family 4. SCHEUCHZERIACEAE Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. 44. 1858.* 
Arrow-grass Family. 
Marsh herbs with rush-like leaves and small spicate or racemose perfect 
flowers. Perianth 4-6-parted, its segments in two series, persistent or decidu- 
ous. Stamens 3-6. Filaments very short or elongated. Anthers mostly 
2-cened and extrorse. Carpels 3-6, i-2-oviiled, more or less united until ma- 
turity, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds anatropous. Embryo straight. 

Four genera and about lo species of wide geographic distribution. 
Leaves all basal; flowers numerous on naked scaptes, spicate or tacetned. i. Trigtockin. 

Stem leafy; flowers few in a loose raceme. a. Scheuchxtria. 

I. TRIGLOCHIN L. Sp. PI. 338. i753- 
Marsh berbs with basal half-rounded ligulatc leaves with membranous sheaths. Flowers. 
in terminal spikes or racemes on long naked scapes. Perianth-segments 3-6, concave, the 3 
inner ones inserted higher up than the outer. Stamens 3-6 ; anthers i-celled, sessile or 
nearly so, inseried at the base of the perianth -segments and attached by their backs. 
Ovaries 3-6, i-celled, sometimes abortive ; ovules solitary, basal, erect, anatropous. Style 
short or none. Stigmas as many as the ovaries, plumose. Fruit of 3-6 cylindraceoua ob- 
long or obovoid carpels, which are distinct or connate, coriaceous, costate, when ripe sepa- 
rating from the base upward from a persistent central axis, their tips straight or recurved, 
dehiscing by a ventral suture. Seeds erect, cyliodraceous or ovoid-oblong, compressed or 
angular. [Greek, in allusion to the three-pointed frnit of some species.] 

About 9 species, natives of the temperate and subarctic zones of both hemispheres. Only the 
following are known to occur in North America: 

Fruit linear or clavate, tapering to a subulate base. 1. T. pa2ustrii. 

Fruit nearly globose. i. T. striala. 

Carpels 6 ; fruit oblong or ovoid, obtuse at the base. 3. T. marilima. 

•Text contributed by the late Rev. Thomas Morong. 


1. Triglochin palustris L. Marsh Arrow- 
grass. (Fig. 184.) 

Triglochin paluslris L, Sp. PI. 338, 1753. 

Rootstock short, oblique, with slender fagacious 
stolons. Leaves lioear, shorter than the scapes, 5'- 
13' long, tapering to n sharp point ; ligule very short , 
scapes t 01 2, slender, striate, 8'-2o' high ; racemes 
S'-ia'long; pedicels capillary, in fruit erect-appressed 
and aJi"--3Ji" long; perianth -segments 6, greenish 
yellow ; anthers 6, sessile ; pistil of 3 united carpels, 
3-celled, 3-oviiled ; stigmas sessile ; fruit 3"'-3ji" 
long, linear or clavate ; ripe carpels separating from 
the axis and hanging suspended from its apex, the 
axis 3-winged. 
In Ik^s, New Brunswick to Alaslca, south to New York, 

Indiana and Montane 

1. July-Sept, 

Triglochin striata R. & P. Three- 
ribbed Arrow-grass. (Fig. 185.) 

Rootatocks upright or oblique. Scapes i or 3, 
more or less angular, usually not over 10' high; 
leaves slender, slightly fieshy, nearly or quite as 
long as the scapes, Jf'-i" wide; flowers very 
small, light yellow or greenish, in spicate racemes; 
pedicels >i"-i"long, not elongating in fruit; per- 
ianth-segments 3, stamens 3; anthers oval, large; 
pistil of 3 united carpels; fruit sub-globose or some- 
what obovoid, about 1" in diameter, appearing 3- 
winged when dry by the coutracting of the car- 
pels; carpels coriaceous, rounded and 3-ribbed on 
the back; axis broadly 3-winged. 

In saline narshES, Maryland to Florida and Louisi- 
ana. Also in tropical America. June-Sept 

3- Triglochin maritime L> Seaside 
Arrow-grass. (Fig. i86.) 

Triflocliin marilima L Sp. PI. 339. 1753- 
Trigiachiit elala Nutt. Gen. t : 337. 1818. 
Triglochin marilima var. elala A. Gray, Man. Ed, 

», 437. 1853. 

Rootstock without stolons, often subligneons, 
Uic candex thick, mostly covered with the 
deaths of aid leaves. Scape stout, nearly 
lewte, 6'-2° high; leaves half-cylindric, usually 
»boiit i" wide; raceme elongated, often 16' or 
more long ; pedicels decurrent, i"-\)i" long, 
•lislitly longer in fruit ; perianth segiifeiits 6, 
coch subtending a large sessile anther; pistil of 
Siniited carpels; fruit oblong or ovoid, 2ji"-3" 
long, iji"-a" thick, obtuse at the base, with 6 
'cctrved points at the summit; carpels 3- 
*i>gled, flat or slightly grooved on the back, or 
'^dorsal edges cnrving upward and winged, 
Bcpuitingat maturity from the hexagonal axis. 

In utt marehes, along the Atlantic seaboard from Labrador to New Jen 
■lunhes across the continent to Alaska and Catifomia. Also in Europe a; 


a. SCHEUCHZERIA L. Sp. PI. 338. 1753- 
Rush-like bog perennials with creeping rootstocks, sad erect leafy stems, the leave* 
elongated, half-rounded below and flat above, striate, furnished vitb a pore at the apez and 
a membranous ligulate sheath at the base. Flowers small, racemose. Perianth 6-parted, 
regularly a-serial, peisistent. Stamens 6, inserted at the base of the perianth-segments; 
filaments elongated; anthers linear, basifiied, eitrotse. Ovaries 3 or raiely 4-6, distinct or 
connate at the base, i-cellcd, each cell with i or i collateral ovules. Stigmas seaeile, papil- 
lose or slightly fimbriate. Carpels divergent, inflated, coriaceous, 1-2-seeded, follicle-like, 
laterally dehiscent. Seedsstraigbtoralightlycurved, vrithout endosperm. [Name in honor 
of Johann Jacob Scbcnchzer, J67J-1733, Swiss scientist.] 
A inonotypic genua of the north temperate zone. 

I. Scheuchzeria pal6stris L. 
Scheuchzeria. (Fig. 187.) 
Scheuchzeria Jtaiuslris L, Sp, PI. J38. 1753. 

Leaves 4'-i6' long, the uppermost reduced to 
bracts ; stems solitary or several, usually clothed 
at the base with the remains of old leaves, 4'-iq' 
tell; sheaths of the basal leaves often 4' long with 
a ligule ji'long; pedicels 3"-io" long, spreading 
in fruit ; flowers white, few, in a lax raceme ; per- 
ianth-segments membranous, i-nerred, ij^" long, 
the inner ones the narrower; follicles 3"-i" long, 
slightly if at all united at the base : seeds oval, 
brown, 3}i"-s" long with a very hard coat 

In bogs, lAbrador to Hudson Bay and British Co- 
lumbia, south to New Jersey. Pennsylvania, Wiiiconsin 
and California. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer. 

Family 5. ALISMACEAE DC. Fl. Franc. 3: 181. 1805. 
Water-Plantain Family. 
Aquatic or herbs, mostly glabrous, with fibrous roots, scapose stems 
and basal long-petioled sheathing leaves. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate. 
Flowers regular, perfect, monoecious or dioecious, pedicelled, the pedicels ver- 
ticillate and subtended by bracts. Receptacle flat or convex. Sepals 3, per- 
sistent. Petals 3, larger, deciduous, imbricated in the bud. Stamens 6 or 
more ; anthers 2-celled, extrorse or dehiscing by lateral slits. Ovaries numerous 
or rarely few, i-celled, usually with a single ovule in each cell. Carpels be- 
coming achenes in fruit in our species. Seeds uncinate-ctUTred. Embryo horse- 
shoe shaped. Endosperm none. I^tex-tubes are found in all the species, 
according to Micheli. 

About 13 genera and 65 species, of wide distribution in fresh water swamps and streams. 
Carpels in a ring upon a small, flat receptacle, 1. Alisma. 

Carpels crowded in many series upon a laiKe convex receptacle. 
Flowers perfect, staminate or polygamous. 

Pedicels not recurved ; calyi spreading. i. Echinodorus. 

Pedicels recurved in fruit ; catyx appresaed to [he carpels. 3. Lophotocarpas, 

Flowers OTon(*eioua or dioecious. 4. Se^iltaria. 

I. ALISMA L. Sp. PI. 342. 1753- 

Perennial or rarely annual herbs with erect or Aating leaves, the blades several-ribbed, 
the ribs connected by transverse veinlets, or seemingly piunately veined. Scapes short or 
elongated. Inflorescence paniculate or umbellate-paniculate. Flowers small, numerous on 
unequal 3-bracteolate pedicels, the petals white or rose-tinted. Stamens 6 or 9, subperigy- 
nons. Ovaries few or many, borne in one or several whorls on a small flat receptacle, ripen- 
ing into flattened achenes which are a-3-ribbed on the curved back and i~3-ribbed on the sides. 
[Greek, said to be in reference to the occurrence of the typical species in saline situations.] 

About 10 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Only the following are 
known to occur in North America, 

Stamens6, strongly compressed; flowers panicled. 1. A. Manlago-aqualica. 

Stamens 9, turgid; flowers urobelled, 3. A. /enellum. 


Alisma Plant^go-aquitica L. 

Water Plantain. (Fig. i88.) 
SUM Planlago-aquatica L. Sp. PI. 341. 1753. 
«aves ovate, acute at the apex, cordate, 
nded or oarrowed at the tiase, the blades 
cribbed, or wben floating sometimes 
:eolate or even linear ; petioles I'-io* 
g; scapes occasionally 2 from the same 
t, usually solitary, yi"-^" high ; inflores- 
ce a large loose panicle, 6'~15' long; 
icelsverticillatein 3's-io'9, subtended by 
triate acotniaate bracts; petals %"~i" 
% ; styles deciduous, the base remainlngas 
mall point or short beak on the inner 
ve of the achene; stigma small, termiual; 
enes obliquely obovate, nearly i" long, 
iDged in a circle, forming an obtusely 
Dgnlar truncate head. 

a. Alisma tenillum Mart. Dwarf Water Plantaiu. 

(Fig. 189.) 

Alisma lenellum Mart.; R. & S. Syst. 7: 

1600. 1830. - -H 

Echinodorus parvulus EoKelm. in A, 

Gray, Man. Ed. a. 438. 1836. 
Echinodorus ienellus Bucbecau, Abb. 

Nat. Gesell. Bremen, 1: iS. 1869. 

Plant delicate, stolon iferons, I'-s' 
high. Leaves lanceolate or linear- 
lauceolatc, tbc blades acute at both 
ends, 4"-i5" loug, i"-3" wide ; 
petioles longer or shorter than the 
blades, narrowly dilated at the base; 
scapes solitary, often surpassing the 
leaves, commonly Teclined; umbel 
a-8-flowered ; pedicels very unequal, 
often recurved in fruit ; bracts lanceo- 
late, more or less connate at the base; 
flowers white ; stamens 9 ; style much 
shorter than the ovary ; ovaries nu- 
merous ; achenes in several whorls, 
coriaceous, turgid, obovate, not %" 
long, enclosed by the erect persistent 
sepals, the beak short, sharp. 

In mud, Massacbusetts to western On- 
tario and Minnesota, south to Florida, 
Missouri and Texas, April-Au);:. 

a. ECHINODORUS Rich.; Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. 460. 1848. 
Perennial or annual herbs with long-petioled, elliptic, ovate or lanceolate often cordate 
lagittate leaves, 3-9-ribbed and mostly punctate with dots or lines. Scapes often longer 
n the leaves ; inflorescence racemose or paniculate, the flowers veriicillate, each verticil 
h 3 outer bracts and numerous inner bracteotes ; flowers perfect ; sepals 3, distinct, per- 
ent ; petals white, deciduous ; receptacle large, convex or globose ; stamens 11-30 ; ovaries 
nerons; style obliquely apical, persistent; stigma simple; fruit achenes, more or leas 
iprcssed, coriaceous, ribbed and beaked, forming spinose heads. [Greek, in allusion to 
apinose heads of fruit.] 

About 14 species, mostly natives of America, Only the following are known in North America, 
pea reclining or prostrate; style shorter than the ovary; beak of achene short. 1. E. radicans, 
pes erect ; style longer than the ovary; beak of achene long. 3. E. cordi/olius. 


I. Echinodorus radlcans (Nutt.) Kngelm. Creeping Bur-head. (Fig. 190.) 

Sagillaria radicans Nutt. Trans. Am. Pbil. Soc. 

(Il.)s; 159- '833-37. 
Eckinoaorus radicans Engeltn. in A. Gray, 
Man. Ed. 3, 438. 1S56. 

LcBvea coane, ovate, obtuse, cordate, 3'- 
8' long, j}i'-j%' wiie, marked with short 
pellucid lines, Ibe nerves 5-9, conaected by 
netted cross-veins. Petioles sometimes 30' 
long ; scapes creepiag, 2°-4° long, slight! j 
scabrous, often rooting at the nodea ; ' 
oils distant ; bracts linear-lanceolate, a 
inate, dilated kt the base ; pedicels 3-13, un 
equal, I'-i^'long, slenderer filiform; sepal: 
persistent, much shorter than the heads 
petals larger, obovate, about 3" long ; sta- 
mens about 2o ; style shorter than the ovary 
achenea numerous, about a" long, 6-10 
ribbed, with 3-aeveral oval glands on each 
ude and beaks about one- fourth their length 
fruiting heads i" in diameter. 

In 9 

. Illin 

1 Nor 

Florida, west to Missouri and Texas. June-Julj 

2. Echinodorus cordifdlius (I,.) Griseb. Upright Bur-head. (Fig. 191.) 
Alisma cordifotia L. Sp. PI. 343. ;753. 
Echinodorus roslratus Eneelm. in A. Gray, 

Mar. Ed. a, /jjS. i8s6. 
Echinodorus cordi/olius Griseb. Abb. Kon. 

Gescll. Wiss. Gott. 7: 357. 1857. 

Leaves variable in form, often broadly 
ovate, obtuse, cordate at the base, f/-%' long 
and wide, but in smaller plants sometimes 
nearly lanceolate, acute at each end and but 
i'-2'long; petioles angular, striate, I'-io' 
high ; scapes 1 or more, erect, 5'-i6' tall ; 
flowers 3-6 in the verticils ; pedicels H'~}i' 
long, erect after flowering ; bracts linear- 
lauceolate, acuminate, dilated at the base ; 
sepals shorter than the heads ; petals 2"-i" 
long; stamens often 13; styles longer than 
the ovary ; fruiting beads very bur-like, a"-* 
3" in diameter; acbenes about \yi" long, 
narrowly obovateor falcate, 6-8-ribbed; beak 
apical, oblique, about one-half the length of 
the achene. 

In swamps and ditches, Illinois to Florida, 
west to MiiMouri and Texas. Also in tropical 
America. June-July, 

3. LOPHOTOCARPUS T. Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 627. 1888. 

[LOPHIOCARPUS Miquel, Fl. Arch. Ind. i: Part 3. 50. 187a NotTurcz. 1843.] 
Peieunial, bog or aquatic herbs with basal loug-petioled sagittate or cordate leaves, 
simple erect scapes bearing flowers in several verticils of a-3 at the summit, the lower per- 
fect, the upper staminate. Sepals 3, distinct, persistent, erect after flowering and enclosing 
or enwrapping the fruit. Petals white, deciduous. Receptacle strongly convex. Stamens 
9-15, hypogynous, inserted at the base of the receptacle. Filaments flattened. Pistils 
numerous ; ovuLe solitary, erect, anatropous ; style elongated, oblique, persistent. Acbenes 
winged or crested. Embryo horseshoe-shaped. [Greek, signifying crested fruit.] 
About 3 species, the following of eastern North America, the others of tropical America. 

I. Lophotocarpus calyclnus (Kogelm.) J. G. Smith. 

(Fig. 192.) 

Sa^illaria calyciita Kneelm.; Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 

Surv. 311. 1850. 
Lophiocarpus calycinus Micheli in DC. Monog. Phan. 

3:6:. 1881. 
Lopholocarptis calycinus J. G. Smith, Hem. Ton. Club, 5: 

35. 1894. 

Annaal, leaves floating or ascending, entire, has- 
tate or sagittate, the basal lobes spreading, ovate, 
acute or acnminate, the apex acute or obtuse, tbe 
blade varying from I'-S' long, sometimea 13' wide at 
the base. Scape simple, weak, and at length decum- 
bent, mostlj' shorter than the leaves; verticils of 
flowers i-s ; bracts membranous, orbicular or ovate 
and obtuse, or those of staminate flowers lanceolate 
and acute ; fertile pedicels very thick, recurved in 
fruit, equalling or longer than the slender sterile 
ones ; petals 3"-4" long ; stamens hypogynous ; fila- 
ments flattened, papillose, about as loog as the an- 
thers ; achene obovate, i" long, narrowly winged on 
the margins, tipped with a short horizontal triangular 

In Bwamps, New Brunswick to Virginia and Louisiana. 
across the continent to CalifomiB, thus occurring nearly 
tliToughout the United States. Foliage wonderfully van- 
able in form. July-Sept. 

4. SAGITTARIA L. Sp. PI. 993. 1753. 
Perennial aquatic or bog herbs, mostly with tuber-bearing or nodose rootstocks, fibrona 
roots, bisal long petioled nerved leaves, the nerves connected by numerous veinlets, 
and erect, decumbent or floating scapes, or the leaves reduced to bladeless pbyllodia 
(figs. 197, 303). Flowers monoecious or dioecious, borne near the summits of the scapes 
in verticils of 3'B, pedic^Ued, the staminate usually uppermost. Verticils 3-bracted. 
Calyx of 3 persistent sepals, tbose of the pistillate flowers reSezed or spreading in onr 
(pedes. Petals 3, white, deciduous. Stamens usually numerous, inserted on the convex 
receptacle i anthers a-celled, dehiscent by lateral slits; staminate flowers sometimes with 
imperfect ovaries. Pistillate flowers with numerous distinct ovaries, sometimes with imper- 
fect stamens ; ovule solitary ; stigmas small, persistent Acheaes numerous, densely aggre- 
gated in globose or subglobose heads, compressed. Seed erect, curved ; embryo horseshoe- 
ibaped. [Latin, referring to the arrow-shaped leaves of some species.] 
es of tei 

, . icending, not refleied in fruit. 

>lades sagittate. 
Basal lobes one-fourth to one-half the length of the blade. 
Beak oF the achene more than one. fourth its length. 
Beak of the achene erect. 

Fruiting pedicels shorter than the bracts ; leaves broad. 
Fruiting pedicels ton){:er than the bracts ; leaves narrow. 
Beak of the achene horizontal or oblique. 
Beak of the achene less than one-fuuith its length. 

Petioles rather short, curving : bracts long ; bog species. 
Petioles elongated ; bracts short ; aquatic species. 
Basal lobes two-thirds to three-fourths tbe length of the blade. 
Leaves entire, or rarely hastate or cordate. 

Filaments slender, tapering upward ; leaves seemingly pinnately vei 
Filaments glabrous ; bracts connate. 

Filaments cobwebby- pubescent ; bracts mostly distinct. 
Filaments abruptly dilated, pubescent : veins distinct to "'" 
Fruiting heads sessile or very nearly ho. 
Both staminate and pistillate flowers pedicelled. 

Leaves reduced to terete nodose phyllodia, rarely blade -bearing, 

10. .S 
Leaves rigid, blades ellipliclinear, 11, S 

Leaves not fluid ; blades lanceolate or linear. nblime. is. ."T 

Fertile pedicels stout, teflcied in fruit ; lilaments dilated. 
Filaments pubescent ; le-' "-' ' "- "' — '- 

3. S. iattfoiia. 

4, S. ari/olia. 
k. S. cuneala. 

6. S. longiloba. 

Filaments glabrous ; leaves linearlanceolate or reduced to phyllodia. 14. .S, ! 

(, 5. platyphytla. 


I. Sagittaria longirdstra (Michel!) J. G. Smith. 

Loiig-beaked Arrow-head. 
(Fig. 193.) 
Sag ilia ria tagillae/oiia var. long i rostra Mi. 

cheli in DC. MonoK. Phan. 3:60. 1881. 
Sagillaria longirosira J. G. Smith, Hem. Tott. 

Club, s:j6. iB^t, 

Monoecious, glabrous, Kspes erect, raUier 
stout, l>^°-3'' tall. Leaves broad, sagittate, 
4'-i3' long, abrupllj acute at the spex, the 
basal lobes ovate or ovate- laticeolate, acute, 
one-third to one-half the length of the blade ; 
acape usaally longer than the leaves, 6- 
angled below ; bracts triaagnlar-lanceolate. 
acuminate, 7"-i5" long, longer than the- 
fertile pedicels', petab 8"~i4" long; fila- 
ments glabrous ; styles curved, twice as long 
as the ovaries; acbene obovate, about 2"' 
long, winged on both margins, the ventral 
margin entire or undulate, the dorsal eroded, 
its sides with a short crest, its beak stout, 
erect or somewhat recurved. 

In swamps and along ponds. New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania to Alabama. July-Sept 

a, Sagittaria Engclmannidna J. G. Smith. 
Engelmann's Arrow-head. (Fig. 194.) 

Sagillaria variabilis var. (?) gracilis S, Wats, iu A. Gray, 

Uan. Ed. 6, 555. iSSg. Not Engelm. 
Sagillaria Engelmanmana J. G. Smith, Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 

as. 1894- 

Monoecious, glabrous, scape erect or ascending, slen- 
der, 8'-2o' high. Leaves narrow, i}i'-8' long, \"-^" 
wide, acute or obtuse at the apex, the basal lobes nar- 
rowly linear, acuminate, one-third to one-half the length 
of the blade ; scape striate, about as long as the leaves ; 
bracts lanceolate, acute, shorter than the slender fertile 
pedicels, 4"-6" long; flowers 7"-i2" broad; filaments 
glabrous ; style about twice as long as the ovaries ; achene 
obovate, a" long, winged on both margins and with 1-3, 
lateral wing-like crests on each face, the beak short, 
stout, erect, about J^" long. 

3, Sagittaria latifdlia WiUd. Broad-leaved Arrow-head. (Fig. 195.) 

Sagillaria lali/olia Willd. Sp. PI. 4 ; 409. i8c6. 
Sagillaria fariabitis Bnitetm. in A. Gray, Man. 461. 184S. 

Monoecious or someLimcs dioecious, glabrous or nearlT- 
Bo, scape stout or slender, 4'-4° tall, sitnple or branched. 
Leaves exceeding variable in form and siie, sometimes 
linear-lanceolate and acuminate at the apex, sometimes- 
wider than long and obtuse ; basal lobes from X to ^ a» 
long as the blade ; bracts acute, acuminate or obtuse, the 
upper ones somelimes united; (lowers I'-i l4' wide; 
filaments slender, glabrous; achene i"-x" long, broadly 
winged on both margins, its sides even or i-ribbed, the 
beak about one-third its length, horizontal or nearlyso. 

In shallow water, throughout North America, except the 
extreme north, entcnding; to Menico. Variable. July-Sept. 
Sagittaiia latifolia pubiscens (Muhl.)J, G. Smith, Mem. Torr. 

Club, s -. 36. 1894. 
Sagillaria fiubescens MuM. Cat. 86. 1813. 

Whole plant pubescent, varying from merely puberulent to- 
1..1 ._ ,-i_.-_:.._»- — . , Florida and Alabama. 

densely hirsute. Ontario to New Jersey, F 

Sagittaria arifdlia Nutt. Arum-leaved Arrow-head. 

if-ia sagiUae/olia var. minor Pureh, Fl. Am, Sept. 

GlabronB or nearly to, leirMtrial or partially sub- 
merged, scape weak, ascending, S'-x/ long. Leaves 
sagittate, broad, acute at the apex, about as long as the 
Kspe, their margins slightly curved, their basal lobes 
icnte or ocnminate, one-fourth to ooe-lhird the length 
of the blade; petioles usually curving outwardly; 
tiracts lanceolate, acute, usually equalling or longer 
than the fertile pedicels, often reflexed ; filaments 
glabrous; petals z"~5" long; achene cuneate-obovate, 
about i" long, winged on both margins, the sides 
amooth, the beak short, erect. 

<^ebec to Minnesota and British Columbia, south to 
Uichigsn, western Kansas. New Mexico and California. 
Sesembling in foliage the European 5. sagitlatfolia L. , 
but distinguished from that species by its achenes. 

5. Sagittaria cunelkta Sheldon. Floating Arrow-head. (Fig. 197.) 


a Sheldon. Bull. Totr. Club, »: aSj 

Aquatic, submerged, rooting in sand, scape very 
slender, simple, terete, i°-2° long, bearing the 
flowers at the surface of the water. Leaves long- 
petioled, the blade floating, a^ittate, linear-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, i'-A,' long, the basal lobes acumin- 
ate, about one-fourth its length ; phyllodia of two 
kinds, one petiole-like and as long as the leaves, 
the other lantxolate, and clustered at the base of 
the plant : bracts ovate-lanceolate, acute, t"-^" 
long, much shorter than the slender fertile pedi- 
cels ; flowers 5"-8" broad ; achene only y^" long, 
obovate-cuneate, its beak very short, erect. 

In shallow water. Minnesota to Washington and 

Sagittaria longiloba Engelin. Long- 
lobed Arrow-head. (Fig. 198.) 

L Torr. 

Bot. Mex 

noecious, glabrous, scape slender, simple or 
' branched, i°-3° tall. Leaves long-petioled, 
lex acute, the basal lobes linear- lanceolate, 
nate, about three-fourths the length of the 
bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 3"-4" long, 
horter than the very slender fertile pedicels 
are longer than the sterile ones ; stamens 
us, the filaments longer than the anthers', 
iliout i"loug, quadrate-obovate, somewhat 
above thau below, winged on both mar- 
beak exceedingly short. 

low water, Nebraska to Colorado, south to 


Sagittaria ambfgua J. ( 
Kansas Sagittaria. (Fig. 

, Smith. 

Sagillaria ambigua \. G, Smith, Ann. Rep. Ho. Bot 

Gard. li : 4S. pi. 17. 18^. 

Monoecious, glabrous, scape erect or ascending, 
simple or sparingly branched, i°-2° high. Leave* 
lanceolate, entire, long-petioled, acute or acumin- 
ate at both ends, teemingty pinnately veined, re&Ily 
5-7-ncrved, 5'-8' long, equalling or abortcr than 
the scape ; bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 5"-8" 
long, much shorter than the slender fruiting pedi- 
cels, connate at the base, papillose; stamens ao~ 
as; filaments glabrous, longer than the anthers; 
acheue about 1" long, oblong, curved, narrowly 
winged on both margins, its sides smooth and even, 
its beak short, oblique. 

In ponds. Kansas and the Indian Territory. 

8. Sagittaria lancifdlia L. Latice-Ieaved Sagittaria. (Fig. 200.) 

Sagittaria lancifolia L. Amoen. Acad. 5 ; 409. 
Sagillaria /alcala Pnnih, Fl. Am. Sept. 
Sagillaria lancifolia falcc'- '' '" =■—-■'- ■ 
ciut - - -■■ - 


, ... '8m. 
\. Smith, Mem. Ton 
Club, s : 35. 

Monoecious, glabrous, scape rigid, erect, stout 
or rather slender, striate, branched or limple, 
longer than the leaves. Leaves lanceolate or ob- 
long-lanceolate, acnte or acuminate at both ends, 
£nn, entire, the blades 5-9-uerved, S'-t^j" long, 
gradually narrowed into the long petioles, appar- 
ently pinnately veined; flowers numerous, 5"-l3" 
broad; bracts ovate or ovate -lanceolate, usually not 
united at the base, glabrous or nearly so, equalling 
or shorter than the fruiting pedicels ; stamens 
; filaments cobwebby- pubescent, equal- 
r longer than the anthers ; achene narrowly 
-\yi" long, winged on both 
margins, its sides smooth, its beak tapering, oblique. 

In swamps and shallow water, Delaware, to Florida 
and Texas, near the coast. Widely distributed in trop- 
ical America. 

9. Sagittaria rigida Pursh. Sessile-fruiting Arrow-head, (Fig. 201.) 

Sagillaria rigida Purah, Fl. Am. Sept. ,197. 1814. 
Sagillaria ketfrophylla Pursh, Fl, Am. Sept 396. 1814. Not 
Schreb. 181 1. 

Monoecious, glabrous, scape simple, weak, curving, 
ascending or decumbent, shorter than the leaves. Leaves 
very variable, linear, lanceolate, elliptic or broadly ovate, 
acute or obtuse at the apex, entire or with 1 or 3 short or 
slender basal lobes ; bracts ovate, obtuse, 7."-i," long, 
united at the base or sometimes distinct ; heads of fmit 
sessile or very nearly so ; pedicels of the sterile flowers 
yi'-i' long; filaments dilated, mostly longer than the 
anthers, pubescent; achene narrowly obovate, iji"-a" 
long, winged on both margins, crested above, tipped with 
a stout nearly erect beak of about one-fourth its length. 

In swamps and shallow 
New Jersey, Ttnnessee, 
rigid when growing in rui 

r, Quebec to Minnesota, south to 

4ouri nnd Nebraska. Petioles 
i water. Jnly-Sept. 


10. Sagittaria tfirea S. Wats. Slender Sagittaria. (Fig. 202.) 

Sagillaria It 

•iS. Wats, in A. Gray, I 

i. 6, 555. 1890. 

Monoecions, glabrous, icape slender, erect, simple, 
6'-i8' long, bearing only 1-3 verticilsof flowers. Leaves 
nsually reduced to elongated terete nodose phyllodia or 
some of them short and bract-like, one or two of the 
longer ones occasionally bearing a linear blade ; bracts 
ovate, obtuse, about lyi" long, much shorter than tbe 
filiform fmiting pedicels which are longer than tbe ster- 
ile ones; Bowers 6"-8" broad; stamens about 12, their 
dilated filaments pubescent, shorter than the anthers; 
achene broadly obovate, 1" long, the ventral margin 
winged, the dorsal 7-11-crested, the sides bearing several 
crenate crests, the beak short, erect. 

In ponds, Massachusetts to South Carolina. Aug. -Sept. 

II. Sagittaria cristftta Kngelm. Crested Sagittaria. (Fig- 203.) 

; Arthur, Proc, Davenport 

Monoecious, scape slender, erect, i°-a^° high, sim- 
ple, bearing 4 or 5 verticils of flowers at or above the 
surface of the water. Leaves long-petioled, spongy 
and rigid, reduced to slender phyllodia or bearing 
linear- lanceolate or elliptic blades 3'-4' long and 
3"-i3" wide ; bracts acute, j"-4" long, much shorter 
than the slender fertile pedicels ; flowers 8"-io" 
broad; stamens about 14; filaments dilated, pubescent, 
at least at the middle, longer than the anthers; achene 
obliquely obovate, tbe dorsal margin with a brood 
crenate wing, the ventral straight- winged, each side 
bearing 1 crenate crests, the beak short, oblique. 

In shallow water, Iowa and Hinoesota. Fhyllodfa are 
commonly developed from the nodes of the rootstock. 


. Sagittaria graminea Michx. Grass-leaved Sagittaria. (Fig. 204.) 


a Micbx, Fl. Bor. Am. l : Kjp. 1803. 

Monoecious or dioecious, glabrous, scape simple, erect, 
A'-2° tall. Leaves long-petioled, tbe blades linear, lanceo- 
late or elliptic, acute at both ends, j'-6' long, >i"-3" wide, 
3-S-nerved, the nerves distinct to the base, some of them 
occasionally reduced to flattened phyllodia; bracts ovate, 
acnte, i>i"-3" long, much shorter than the slender or fili- 
form fruiting pedicels, connate to the middle or beyond ; 
dowers 4"-6" broad; stamens about iS ; filaments dilated, 
pnbescent, longer than or equalling the anthers ; achene 
obovate, )i"-i" long, slightly wing-crested on the margins 
and ribbed on the sides, the beak, very short. 

Id mnd or shallow water, Newfoundland to Ontario and South 
Dakota, Bouthto Florida and Texas, Barly leaves often puiplish, 


13. Sagittaria platyph^Ila (Engelm.) J- G. Smith. Ovate-leaved Sagitlaria. 

(Fig. 205.) 

Sagillaria graminea var. piatyphylla EnRclm. in A. 

Graj, Man. Ed. 5, 404. 1S67. 
Sagillaria piatyphylla J. U. Smith, Ann. Rep. Ho. 

Bot. Card. : 55 pi. l6. 1894- 

Mouoecions, glabrous, scape eicct, simple, rather 
weak, mostly ihorter than the leayea. Leaves 
rigid, the blades ovate, ovate-Ian ceolate or ovate- 
elliptic, short-acaminate or acute at the apex, 
rounded, gradaally narrowed or rarel; cordate or 
hastate at the base, seemingly pinnately veined, 
i'-6' long ; bracts broadly ovate, acute, connate at 
the base, i"~^" long; flowera 8"-i4" broad; fer- 
tile pedicels stout, divergent in flower, reflexed in 
fruit, ii'-i'/i' long; filaments dilated, pubescent, 
rather longer than the anthers ; acbene obliquely 
obovate, winged on both margins, the doiaal mar- 
gin somewhat crested, the sides with a sharp wing- 
like ridge. 

In swamps and shallow water, southem Missouri to 
Mississippi and Texas, Phyllodia, when present. 

oblong ot oblance 


14. Sagittaria subultkta (L.) Buchenau. Subulate Sagittaria. (Fig. 206.) 

Alisma subulala L. Sp. PI. 343- '753- 
Sagi/taria fiusilla Nutt. Gen. > : 113. 1818. 
Simula ria subulala Buchenau. Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 
3 : 490. 1871. 

Monoecious or rarely dioecious, scape very slen- 
der, i'-d' high, few-flowered, about equalling the 
leaves. Leaves all reduced to rigid phyllodia or 
sometimes bearing linear or linear-lanceolate 
blades, i'-i)i' long; bracts united to the apex or 
becoming partly separated ; flowers 5"'^" broad ; 
fertile pedicels reflexed and much longer than the 
bracts in fruit ; stamens about 8 ; filaments about 
equalling the anthers, dilated, glabrous ; acbenes 
rather less than 1" long, obovate, narrowly winged, 
with 2 or 3 crests on each side, the wings and crests 
sometimes crenate ; beak short 

In tide-water mud, southern New York and Penn- 
sylvania to Florida and Alabama, July-Sept. 

Sagittaria sobnUta Eracilliraa (S. Wats. ) J. G. Smith, Mem. Torr. Club, s : 36. 1894. 
Sagillaria nalans var. {1) gracillima S. Wits, in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 556. 1890. 

SubmeiEed ; leaves i^-a," lone, bladeleaa or bearing small 3-nervcd lanceolate blades, I'-a* 
long:. 3"-4" wide ; scape simple, terete or compressed, about as lone as the leaves ; flowers few, 8"- 
10" broad. Eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Perhaps a distinct species. Fruit not seen. 

Family 6. VALLISNERlXCEAE Dumort. Anal. Fam. 54. 1829. 
Tape-Grass Family. 

Submerged or floating aquatic herbs, the leaves vaiious. Flowers regular^ 
mostly dioecious, appearing from an involucre or spathe of 1-3 bracts or leaves. 
Perianth 3-6-parted, the segments either all petaloid or the 3 outer ones small 
and herbaceous, the tube adherent to the ovary at its base in the pistillate 
flowers. Stamens 3-12, distinct or monadelphous. Anthers 2-celled. Ovary 
i-celled with 3 parietal placentae or 6-9-celled. Styles 3-9, with entire or 
2-cleft stigmas. Ovules anatropous or orthotropous. Fruit ripening under 
water, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, without endosperm. 

About 14 genera and 40 species of wide distribution in warm and temperate regions. Besides- 
the following, another genus, Halofiltila, occurs on ' ' " 

Stem branched ; leaves whoi-led 01 .^^ 

Acanlescent ; stoloniferous ; leaves giass-lilte, elongated, 
Stemstoloniterous ; leaves broad, rounded, cordate, petioled. 

1, Philotria. 

2. Vallisneria. 



1. PMILOTRIA Raf. Am. Month. Mag. a: 175. 1818. 

[EU>DEA Uichr. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 20. 1803. Not Elodes Adaos. 1763.] 

[Udora Nutt. Gen. a: 143. 1818.] 

Stems submerged, elnogated, branchiog, leafy. Leaves opposite or whorled, crowded, 

1-nerved, pellucid, miautely serrulate or entire, Flonera dioecious or polygamous, arising 

from an ovoid or tubular 3-cleft spathe. Perianth 6-parted, at least the 3 inner segments peta- 

loid. Staminate flowers with 9 stamens, the anthers oblong, erect. Ovary i-celled witli 3 

parietal placentae. Stigmas 3, nearly sessile, 3'lobed. Fruit oblong, coriaceous, few-seeded. 

(Name from the Greek, referring to the leaves, which are often whorled in threes.] 

Alwut 8 spei^ies, inhabitants of fresh waterponds and streams intemperate and tropical America. 

I. Phildtria Canadensis (Michx.) Britton. Water-weed. Ditch-moss. 
Water Thyme. (Fig. 207.) 

Phiiolria Ca«orfi-BJif Britton, Science ^^.)a;5. 1895. 

Stems 4'-3° long, according to the depth of water, 
leaves linear or elliptic, acute or obtuse, serralate or 
entire, verticillate in 3's or 4'8 or the lower opposite, 
i"-7" long. ^"-2" wide ; flowers axillary, white, the 
staminate minute, sessile, breaking off at the lime Of 
flowering and rising to the surface where they shed 
their pollen around the pistillate ones ; pistillate 
flowers expanding on the surface of the water which 
they reach by means of the slender calyx-tube which 
varies in length from J'-i°, their spathes 5"-7" long; 
stigmas spreading, papillose or pubescent. 

Nearly throughout North America, eicept the eitreme 
north. Naturalized in Europe. It has been maintained 
that there are four North American species. May-Aug. 

2. VALLISNERIA L. Sp. PI. 1015. 1753- 
Aquatic dioecious submerged perennials, with long grass-lilce floating leaves. Stara- 
la^te flowers with a 3-3-parted spathe on a short scape, numerous, nearly sessile on a conic 
's^ieptacle ; perianth 3-patted ; stamens generally 3 (1-3). Pistillate Sowers on a very long 
fl^^mons or spiral scape, with a tubular, 3-clcfl, i-flowcred spathe ; perianth~tube adnate to 
"*^ ovary, 3-lobed and with 3 small petals ; ovary i-celled with 3 parietal placentae ; stigmas 
3> Kjearly sessile, short, broad. 3-toothed with a minute process just below each sinus ; ovules 
"M^'Mnerons, borne all over the ovary - wall, orthotropo us. Fruit elongated, cylindric, crowned 
^"^^h the perianth. [Named for Antonio Vallisneri, 1661-1730, Italian naturalist.] 

-^\ tnonotypic genus of wide distribution both p. 

"^ IJie Old World and the New. ■"- ' - "^t i' ' '-*' 

1 - Vallisneria spirlllis L. Tape- 
grass. Eel-g[rass. (Fig, 208.) 
''■'*« //iJB^nfl spiralis L. Sp. PI. 1015. 1753. 

I'lant rooting in the mud or sand, sloloti- 
''^lons. Leaves thin, narrowly linear, 5- 
'^f^rved, obtuse, sometimes serrate near the 
*P«x, Ji''-6'' long, 2"-9" wide, the a marginal 
*>«Tves faint; the staminate bud separates from 
*iie scape at the time of flowering and ex- 
pands upon the surface of the water ; pistil- 
^te flowers upon a long thread-like scape, 
the q>athe %'-t' long, enclosing a single 
^hite flower \ ovary as long as the spathe ; 
after receiving the pollen from the staminate 
fldwcrs the scape of the pistillate contracts 
spirally ; ripe fruit 2'-7' long. 

In quiet waters, New Brunswick to Florida, 
Test to Minnesota, Iowa and Texas. The ■'wild 
Ttlery" of Chesapeake Bay, and a favorite food 
of the canvBs.bBck duck. Aug, -Sept. 


3. LIMN6bIUM I,. C. Richard, Mem. Inst. Paris, 33: 66. pi. 8. i8it. 
Aquatic, stoloniferons herbs, the leavea fascicled at the nixJes. petioled, broad, cordate. 
Flowers monoecious, white, arisinfc from sessile or atipiCale, i-teaved, membranous tpattaes. 
Perianth 6'parted, the segtneats pelaloid, the 3 outer oblong-oval, the 3 inner oblong- linear. 
Statninate flowers a-4 in a spathe, loDg'peduncled, the staraeas uoited in a colnmn bearing 
6-11 anthers at different heights, sometimes producing onlj 9-13 staminodla, the filaments 
tipped with abortive anthers. Pistillate flowers seaaile or ahort-peduncled with 3-6 vesti- 
gial stamens ; ovary 6-9-celled with as manj central placentae ; stigmas as many as the 
cells, each i-parted. Fruit a many-seeded berry. [Greek referring to the aqaatic habitat.] 
Three or four species, narives of America. 

I. Umnobium Sp6iigia (Bosc.) L. C. Rich- 
ard. Frog's-bit. (Fig. 209,) 

Hydrocharis Sfiongia Bosc, A*n. Mus. Paris, 9 : 396. pi. 

JO. 1S07. 
Lsmnobium Sfiongia L. C. Richard, Mem. Inst. Paris, 

33:66. pl.S. 1811. 
Hydrocharis cordifolia Nutt. Gen. 1 : 34:. 1818. 
Limnocharis Spongia 1,. C. Richard ; Stead. Nomencl. 

Ed. 2. Part, z, 45. 1841. 

Blades of the leaves orbicular or broftdly ovate, cor- 
date or reniform, faintly 5-7-nerved and cross-veined, 
purplish and spongy beneath , io"-2' broad, on peti- 
oles I'-io' in length. Stolons rooting and sending 
np flowers and leaves at the nodes ; pednnclea of the 
ataminate Sowers 3'-4' long, those of the pistillate 
^-^ flowers stouter, I'-i' long, nodding in fruit. 

In shallow, stagnant water. Lake Ontario, to Florida, 
west to Illinois, Missouri and Lonisiana. JtUy-Aug. 

Family 7. GRAMlifEAE Jiiss. Gen. 28. 1789.* 
Grass Family. 
Annual or perennial herbs, of variou.s habit, rarely shrubs or trees. Culms 
(stems) generally hollow, but occasionally solid, the nodes closed. Leaves 
sheathing, the sheaths usually split to the base on the side opposite the blade; a 
scarious or cartilaginous ring, naked or hairy, rarely wanting, called the ligule, 
is borne at the orifice of the sheath. Inflorescence spicate, racemose or panicu- 
late, consisting of spikelets composed of two to many 2-ranlced imbricated 
bracts, called scales (glumes), the two lowest in the complete spikelet always 
empty, one or both of these sometimes wanting. One or more of the upper scales, 
except sometimes the terminal ones, contains in the axil a flower, which is usually 
enclosed by a bract-like awnless organ called the palet, placed opposite the scale 
and with its back toward the axis (rachilla) of the spikelet, generally a-keeled; 
sometimes the palet is present without the flower, and vice versa. Flowas per- 
fect or staminate, sometimes monoecious or dioecious, subtended by 1-3 minute 
hyaline scales called the lodicules. Stamens 1-6, usually 3. Anthers 2-celled, 
versatile. Ovary i-celled, i-ovuled. Stylesi-3,commonly a and lateral. Stigmas 
hairy or plumose. Fruit a seedlike grain (caryopsis). Endosperm Starchy. 

About 3500 ngecies, widely distributed throughout the world, ip'owing in water and on all kinds 
ofsoil. Those yielding food-RTaitis are called cereals. The species are more 
countries, while the number of individuals is much greater in temperate regie 
le of year noted is that of ripening seed. 

IS of turf. The ti 


flowered, when i-flowered the upper fertile, lower staminate: tachilla arti- 
subtendii^ involucre, and not extending beyond the flow*-' 
Spikelets not flattened laterally. 

Flowering scale and palet hyaline; none of the scales spiny. 

Spikelets monoecious; staminate and pistillate in the same panicle. I. Mavdeae. 
Spikelets perfect, or one staminate or rudimentary, mostly silky. II. ANDROPogOnbab. 
Flowering scale and palet membranous; second scale 3((iny (in ours). Ill, ZOYSIEAE. 
Flowering scale and palet coriaceous or chartaceous; spikelets mostly glabrous, involuciate in. 
Nos. I] and 14; scales 3 or 4. IV. Panicrab. 

Spikelets flattened laterally, i-flowered; scales i. V. Okvzbab. 

*ThiB family has been elaborated with the assistance of Mr, Gbo. V. Nash. 


B. Spikelets i-many-flowered: rachilla generally articulated above the two lower scales (below 
hem in Nos. 32, 40, 48 and 54) ana frequently extending^ beyond the flower in i-flowered spikelets. 

Culms herbaceous. 

Spikelets upon pedicels in panicles, spike-like panicles or racemes, not in rows. 
Spikelets with but i perfect flower, which is terminal except in 37 and part of t^S. 
Empty scales 4 (except in No. 20); palet i-nerved. VI. Phalarideae. 

Empty scales 2; palet 2-nerved. VII. Agrostideae. 

Spikelets with 2 or more perfect flowers (except that one is staminate in Nos. 40 and 
45); upper flower often imperfect. 
Flowering scales generally shorter than the empty lower ones, usually with a bent 

awn on the back. VIII. Aveneae. 

Flowering scales generally longer than the empty lower ones, unawned or with'a 
straight awn from the apex. X. Festuceae. 

Spikelets in two rows, forming a one-sided spike or raceme. IX. Chlorideae. 

Spikelets in two opposite rows, forming an equilateral spike (unilateral in Nardus). 


Culms woody, at least at the base ; tall reeds. XII. Bambuseae. 

Tribe I, Maydkak. 

fertile spikelets imbedded in the joints of the thick rachis. i. Tripsacutn, 

Tribe II. Andropogonkae. 

[oints of the rachis not much thickened nor excavated for the reception of the spikelets. 
Spikelets alike, perfect, one sessile, one pedicelled. 2. Erianthus. 

Spikelets not alike, the sessile perfect, the pedicelled staminate, empty or wanting. 

Inflorescence composed of spike-like silky racemes. 4. Andropogon. 

Inflorescence paniculate; spikelets silky. 

Pedicellea spike let wanting (in our species). 5. Chrysopogon, 

Pedicelled spikelet present and usually staminate. 6. Sorgkutn. 

Joints of the rachis greatly thickened and excavated for the reception of the spikelets. 

3. Manisuris, 

Tribe III. ZoYSiEAE. 

Spikelets in a terminal spike; second scale spiny. 7. Nazia. 

Tribe IV. Paniceab. 

Spilftlets without a subtending involucre of bristles or valves. 
Scales 7^, 

Spikelets all alike in close i -sided spikes. 

Spikelets with a swollen ring-like callus at the base. 10. Eriochloa. 

Spikelets without a callus. 8. Paspalutn. 

Spikelets of two kinds, one borne in loose linear panicles, the other solitary on subterranean 
peduncles and maturing seed. 9. Amphicarpon. 

Scales 4, rarely 3 by suppression of the lowest one. 

Spikelets in 2's or 3's on one side of a long and slender flat or 3-angled rachis ; spikes digi- 
tate or approximate in whorls. 11. Syntherisma. 
Spikelets single^ pedicelled, in panicles or raceme-like sessile and panicled spikes; first 
scale short, third empty or staminate, fourth fertile. 12. Panicutn. 
>i Relets subtended bv an involucre consisting of: 

i-many persistent bristles; spikelets in dense spikes, deciduous. 13. Ixophorus. 

2 spine-bearing valves forming a bur enclosing the spikelets and deciduous with them. 

14. Cenchrus, 

Tribe V. Oryzeab. 

E>i Relets monoecious; tall aquatic glasses. 

Pistillate spikelets ovate, borne at the base of each branch of the panicle. 

15. Zizaniopsis. 
, Pistillate spikelets linear, borne on the upper branches of the panicle. 16. Zizania. 

►piVelcts not monoecious; grasses of swamps or wet grounds. 17. Hotnalocenchrus. 

Tribe VI. Phalarideae. 

Third and fourth scales 

small and empty or rudimentar>', not awned; stamens 3. 18. Phalaris. 

empty, awned upon the back; stamens 2. 19. Anthoxanthum. 

subtending staminate flowers with 3 stamens; fertile flowers with 2 stamens. 

20. Savaslana. 

Tribe VII. Agrostideae. 

I'lowerin^ scale indurated at maturity, of firmer texture than the empty scales, and closely enve- 
loping the grain. 
Rachilla not prolonged beyond the palet. 

Flowering scale with a three-branched awn; stamens mostly 3. 21. Aris/ida. 

Flowering scale with a simple awn. 

Flowering scale narrow; awn persistent. 

Awn tortuous or twisted, stout; callus evident. 22. Stipa. 

Awn straight, verv slender; callus minute. 25. Muhlenbergia. 

Flowering scale broad; awn slender, straight, deciduous; callus obtuse. 

23. Oryzopsis. 
Flowering scale awnless. • 24. Milium. 

Rachilla with a pedicel-like extension beyond the palet: stamens 2. 20. Brachyelytrum. 


Flowering scale hyaline or membranous at maturity; empty scales coarser; gm\n looee. 

Spikelets in a dense spike-like panicle. (Some species of No. 31 may be looked for here. ) 
Spikelets 3" or less long. 

Spikelets readily deciduous at maturity. 

Empty scales not awned. 29. Alopecurus. 

Empty scales awned. 32. Polypogon. 

Spikelets not deciduous; empty scales persistent 

Flowering scales slightly exceeding the empty ones. 27. Helcochloa. 

Flowering scales much shorter than the empty ones. 28. Phleum, 

Spikelets 5" -6" lon^; tall sea.shore grasses. 37. Ammophila. 

Spikelets variously panicled; panicle not spike-like, except in a few species of No. 31. 
Seed loosely enclosed in the pericarp, which opens readily at maturity. 

Empty scales minute; low arctic grass. 30. Phippsia. 

Empty scales not minute; no callus, awns or hairs. 31. Sporobolus. 

Seed adherent to the pericarp. 

Palet i-nerved; stamen i; flower plainly stalked: scales not hairy. 34. Cinna. 
Palet 2-nerved; stamens 3: flow^er not plainly stalked. 

Flowering scale bifid, with a delicate awn on its back; rachilla prolongred into & 

short bristle. 39. Apera. 

Flowering scale entire; rachilla not prolonged into a bristle. 

Callus with a tuft of long hairs at the base (except in species of genus jS). 
Rachilla extended beyond the palet. 36. Calamagrostis, 

Rachilla not extendea beyond the palet. 38. Calamovilfa. 

Callus naked, or with very short hairs. 

Empty scales somewhat shorter than the flowering ones; arctic grass. 

33. Arctagrosiis. 
Empty scales longer than the flowering ones; panicle open; spikelets small. 

35. Agrostis. 

Tribe VIII. Aveneae. 

spikelets deciduous; lower flower perfect, upper staminate, awned* plant velvety. 40. Holcus. 
Spikelets not deciduous; empty scales persistent, flowering ones deciduous. 

Spikelets of 2 perfect flowers; rachilla not prolongfed l^yond the upper one. 41. Aira. 
Spikelets 2-many-flowered ; rachilla prolonged beyond the upper flower. 
Awn of flowering scale upon the back, inserted below the teeth. 
Flowers all perfect, or the upper ones staminate or wanting. 
Spikelets less than 6" long; grain free, unfurrowed. 

Flowering scale finely erose-dentate or 2-lobed. 42. Deschampsia, 

Flowering scale cleft or 2-toothed, with the teeth sometimes produced into 
awns. 43. Trisetutn. 

Spikelets over 6" long; grain furrowed, usually adherent to the scales. 

44. Avena. 
Upper flower perfect, lower staminate, its scale strongly awned. 45. Arrhenaiherufn. 
Awn trom between the lobes or teeth of the flowering scale, generally twisted. 

46. Dantkonia. 

Tribe IX. Chi^orideae. 

Flowers perfect or some of them rudimentary. 

I perfect flower in each spikelet; sometimes 2 in Nos. 53 and 54. 
No empty scales above the flower. 
Spikelets deciduous. 

Rachis produced beyond the upper spikelet; spikelets narrow. 48. Spariina, 
Rachis not so produced; spikelets globose, sometimes 2-flowered. 54. JSeckmannia, 
Spikelets not deciduous; empty scales persistent; low slender grasses. 

Spikes 2-6, slender, digitate, i'-2' long. 47. Cabriola. 

Spikes many along a common axis, 2^-4' long. 52. Scheaonnardus, 

One-several empty scales above the flower. 

Lower empty scales 4; spike solitary, dense. 49. Campulosus. 

Lower empty scales 2. 

Spikes in false whorls or closely approximate ; scales long-awned. 50. Chloris. 
Spikes remote, or the lowest only approximate. 

Spikelets scattered or remote on filiform spikes. 51. Gytnnopogon. 

Spikelets crowded, sometimes 2-flowered. 53. Bouteloua, 

2-3 perfect flowers in each spikelet. 

Spikelets densely crowoed; spikes usually digitate. 

Spikes with terminal spikelets. ^. Eleusine, 

Spikes without terminal spikelets, the rachis extending beyond them into a point 

56. DactylocUniutn, 
Spikelets distinctly alternating; spikes remote. 57. Leptochloa, 

Spikelets dioecious, very unlike; spikes short; low prairie g^ass. 58. Bulbilis. 

Tribe X. Festuceae. 

Rachilla with long hairs enveloping the flowering scale ; tall aquatic grass. 60. Phragmiies. 

Rachilla and flowering scales naked or hairy, hairs much shorter than the scales. 

Stigrmas barbellate; spikelets in clusters of 3-6 in the axils of stiff spinescent leaves. 

59. Munroa. 
Stigrmas plumose; spikelets not in the axils of leaves; inflorescence various. 

Spikelets of two forms, the fertile 1-3-flowered, surrounded by the sterile, consisting of 

many empty pectinate scales. 76. Cynosurus. 

Spikelets all alike. 

Flowering scale 2-3-toothed or pointed, usually 3-nerved; lateral nerves and callus 
(an enlargement of the rachilla just below the flowering scale) generally hairy. 
Spikelets with 3-many fertile flowers. 61. Sieglingia. 

Spikelets 1-3-flowered ; flowering scales keeled ; branches of the diffuse panicle 
long and capillary. 62. Redfi^dia. 


Flowering scale of some other structure. 

Flowering scales 1-3-nerved, all with perfect flowers, or the uppermost with a 
staminate flower only or empty. 
Panicle branches spirally arranged. 

Panicle branches simple, in spike-like racemes. 63. Diplachne. 

Branches of the panicle mostly again divided. 

Spikelets loosely 2-4-flowerea; conical rachilla articulated. 

64. Molinia. 
Spikelets densely 2-70-flowered; rachilla not articulated; ligule or 
throat of sheath bearded. ' 65. Era^roslis. 

Primary branches of the panicle distichous, usually branched again at the base. 
Panicle spike -like or much contracted. 

Second scale broader than the 2 flowering ones. 66. Ealonia. 

Second scale not broader than the 3-7 flowering ones. 67. Koeleria. 
Panicle diffuse, with long slender branches. 68. Catabrosa. 

Flowering scales 3-many-nerved. with 2 or more of the upper scales empty, 
appressed, convolute around each other. 
Stamens 3; upper sterile scales usually club-shaped. 69. Melica. 

Stamens 1-2; sterile scales not club-shaped. 70. Korycarpus, 

Flowering scales 5-many-nerved, each with a perfect flower, or the upper sometimes 
Keel of the palet winged or with a linear appendage. 71. Pleuropogon. 

Keel of the palet not appendaged. 

Scales more or less strongly compressed and keeled. 

Empty basal scales 3-6; spikelets flat, 2-edged. 72. Uniola. 

Empty basal scales 2; spikelets flattened. 

Panicle contracted; spikelets dioecious. 73. Distichlis. 

Panicle open; spikelets perfect. 

Flowering scales herbaceous, awn-pointed; spikelets collected 

in one-sided clusters. 75. Daclylis. 

Flowering scales scarious-maigined; rachis glabrous or with 
webby hairs. 
Spikelets large, cordate. 74. Briza. 

Spikelets mostly smaller, not cordate. 

Empty scales projecting beyond the uppermost flower- 
ing ones; arctic grass. 78. Dupontia. 
Uppermost scales exceeding the empty ones; flowering 
scales 2-10, mostly webby at base. 77. Poa. 
Flowering scales membranous; rachis hirsute with stiff hairs, 
extended into a hairy appendage. 80. Graphephorum. 
Scales rounded on the back, at least below. 

Stigmas placed at or near the apex of the ovary. 

Flowering scales with a basal ring of hairs, prominently 7-nerved, 

toothed at apex; water grass. 79. Scolochloa. 

Flowering scales naked at the base : 

Obtuse or subacute and scarious at the apex, usually toothed. 
Plainly 5-7-nerved ; styles present. 81. Panicularia. 

Obscurely 5-nerved ; no style or awns. 82. Puccinellia. 
Acute, pointed or awned at apex ; not webby. 83. Festuca. 
Stigmas plainly arising below the apex of the ovary; spikelets laxge, 
usually drooping; scales mostly awned. 84. Bromus. 

Tribe XI. HoRDEAE. 

Stigrwia I; spike unilateral j spikelets i-flowered, narrow. 85. Nardus, 

Sti^^mas 2; spike S3rmmetncal. 

Spikelets solitary at the notches of the rachis. 

Flowering scales with their backs turned to the rachis. 86. Lolium. 

Flowering scales with their sides turned to the rachis. 

Spikelets 1-2-flowered in slender articulate spikes. 87. Lepturus. 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered in stout inarticulate spikes. 88. Agropyron, 

Spikelets 2-6 at each joint of the rachis; scales mostly long-awned. 

Spikelets i-flowered or with the rudiment of a second flower. 89. Hordeum. 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

Empty scales a little smaller than the flowering ones. 90. Elymus. 

Empty scales very small or none. 91. Hystrix. 

Tribe XII. Bambuseae. 

Tall canes with large flat spikelets in panicles or racemes. 92. Arundinaria, 

I. TRIPSACUM L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 1261. 1759, 

[DiGiTARiA Heist; Adans. Fam. PL 2: 38. ^1763.] 
Tall perennial grasses with thick rootstocks, rather broad flat leaves and monoecious 
flowers. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, in terminal or axillary, solitary or clustered, elongated 
spikes. Staminate spikelets in 2's at each node of the axis, 2-flowered, consisting of four 
Kales, the two outer coriaceous, the two inner thinner, the palet hyaline; stamens 3. Pis- 
tillate spikelets in excavations at the lower joints of the spike, i-flowered; stigmas exserted; 
style slender. Grain partly enclosed in the excavations of the spikes, covered in front by the 
lioray exterior lower scale. [Name from the Greek, in allusion to the polished outer scales.] 

About 3 species, natives of tropical and temperate America. Besides the following, another 
occtin in the southern United States. 



I. Tripsacum dactyloides 
Grass, (Fig. 210.) 

Coix daclyloidts L. Sp. PI. 973- '753- 
TVi/iocumrfac/y/oirfwL. Sp. PI. Ed. ». 1378. , 
Tnpsacum daclyloidet var. monoilacbyum A. Gray, 

Man. 616. iM. 

Rootstock Ji'-i' thick, calms stout, erect, 4°-8'' 
tall. Leaves smooth aad glabrous, 1° or more 
long, )i'-i^' nide, long-acumioate, truncate or 
snbcordate at the base ; spikea termioal and in the 
upper axils, solitary or 3-3 together, 4'-^' long, 
the lower spikelets pistillate, ths upper staminate 
and very anmerouB ; outer scales of the staminate 
spikelets linear and obluae, 4" long, about i" 
wide, faintly many-nerved ; exterior scale of the 
pistillate spikelets homy, shining, closely appressed 
in fruit. 

In ewampB or alouR streams. Connectii^ut to Florida. 
Texas and Mexico, north to Illinois, Missouri and 
Kansas. Also in South America. One of onr largest 
Krasses, sometimes used tor rodder. ]une-Sept 

ERIANTHUS Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 


Tall generally robust perennial grasses, with thick creeping rootstocks, long Hat leaves, 
and perfect flowers in tenniual panicles. Spikelets generally with a ring of hairs at the 
base, 2 at each node of the jointed rachis, one sessile, the other with a pedicel, generally 
i-flowered. Scales 4, the two outer indurated, the inner hyaline, the fourth bearing a terminal 
straight or contorted awn ; palet small, hyaline ; stamens 3. Grain oblong, free, enclosed in 
the scales. [Greek, referring to the woolly spikelets.] 

il regions of both hemispheres. Besides 

Awn spiral. 1. E. alopectiroides. 
Awn straight. 

Panicle lax; branches long and spreading; basal hairs longer than the outer scale of the 

spikelet. 3, E. saeeharoidts. 

Panicle compact or strict; branches short and erect or appressed; basal hairs equalling or 

shorter than the outer scale of the spikelet. 

Outer scale about aW" long. 3. K. compaclms. 

Outer scale about 4" long. 4. E. brevibarbis. 

I. Erianthus alopecuroides(L.)EIl. Spiral-awned Beard-grass. (Fig. 211.) 

Androfiogon alobecuroides'L. Sp, PI. 1045. 1753. 
Erianlhus alopecuroides Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i : 38. 
1816. In part. 

Culms stout, erect, 6°-io'' tall; nodes naked or 
barbed, the summit and the axis of the panicle 
densely pubescent with appressed long rigid silky 
haiis Sheaths glabrous ; leaves usually glabrous, 
6'-a° long, Ji'-i' wide, acuminate, narrowed and 
sometimes hairy on the upper surface near the 
base ; panicle oblong, 7'-i2' long, a'-3' wide, 
branches spreading, 3'-5' long, slender, loose, in- 
temodes about 2" long; outer scales of the spike- 
let about 3" long, exceeding the pedicel and about 
two thirds as long as the basal hairs, lanceolate, 
acuminate ; inner scales shorter, the awn 6"-3" 
long scabrous, the portion included in the outer 
scales tightly spiral, bent at point of exseition, and 
thence loosely spiral. 

In damp soil, ^orth Carolina to Iienluckj and Missour 
parison with the otigrinal specimens of Linnaeus proves H 
this species. Sept. 

t the n 


Erianthus saccharoides Michx. Plume Grass. (Fig. 212.) 

rJ saccharoides Michz. FI. Bor. Am. I: 


Cnlms robust, erect, 5°--io° toll, barbed bX 
the nodes, the summit and tbe axis of the pan- 
icle densely pnbescent with appressed long 
rigid silky hairs. Sheaths glabrous or spar- 
ingly hairy below, densely pubescent at the 
throat with long more or less spreading 
silky hairs ; leaves scabrous or appressed- 
pubescent, 6'-i° long, ii'-i' wide, long- 
acnmiaate, somewhat narrowed towards the 
hoSe ; panicle lax, broadly oblong, s'-is' 
long, 3'-4' wide, its branches spreading. 1'- 
4' long, slender, internodes about i" long ; 
outer scales of tbe spikelet about 2" long, 
a little exceeding tbe pedicel and about one- 
half as long as the basal hairs lanceolate, 
acuminate inner scales shorter the awn 
ic/'-ii long straight scabrous 

Florida and Louisiana. Also in 

3. Erianthus compfictus Nash. Con- 
tracted Plume -grass. (Fig. 213.) 
Erianthus compactus Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, M; 

419. 1895- 

Culms erect, 4°-8° tall, stout, the nodes 
barbed, the summit and axis of the panicle 
densely pnbescent with appressed long rigid 
silky hairs. Sheaths glabrous, or pubescent at 
the top; leaves scabrous above, sparingly ap- 
pressed-pubescent beneath, 6'-i° long, 3"-6" 
wide, long-acuminate, narrowed toward the 
base ; pauicle narrowly oblong, 4'-6' long, about 
1%' wide; branches erect, I'-a' long; spikelets 
crowded; internodes about \" long; outer scales 
of the spikelet about 2Ji" long, exceeding the 
pedicels and about equalling tbe basal hairs, 
lanceolate, acuminate; inner scales shorter, tbe 
awn 5"-io"long, straight, scabrous. 

In moist soil, New Jersey to North Carolina and 
Tennessee. Aug.-Sept. 

4. Erianthus brevib&rbis Michx. Short- 
bearded Plume-grass. (Fig. 214.) 
Eriaitihus brevibarbis Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. l: 55. 1803. 
Erianlhus saccharoides Michx. aub-Bp. brevibarbis 

Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6: 131. 1SS9. 

Cnlms stont, erect, ^"-5° tall, nodes naked or 
scantily barbed, the summit and axis of the panicle 
anooth or scabrous. Sheaths glabrous ; leaves 
nngh, ij'-i8' long, 3"-5" wide, acuminate ; pan- 
kle linear- oblong, 8'-io' in length, I'-i^'wide, 
bnnches erect, a'-s' long, internodes about i%" 
long; onter scales of the spikelet about 4" long, 
twice tbe length of tbe pedicel and equalling or 
tnice OS long as tbe basal hairs, lanceolate, long- 
icominate; inner scales shorter; awn9'''~i3"Iong, 
straight, scabrous. 

tn moist soil, Vitsinia (according to Watson) tc 
Xorth Carolina and Louisiana. Autumn. 


3. MANISURIS L. Mant. a: 164. 1771. 
[RoTTBOKi.LiA L. f. Dissert, Nova Gram. Gen. 13. 1779-] 
Mostly tall j>erenni«ls, with running rootstocks, narrow flat leaves and cylindrical jointed 
spikes, terminal and from the upper axils. Spikelets in pairs at each node of the excavated 
rachis, onesesaile and perfect, the other with a pedicel and either staminate or empty. Scales 
of the perfect spikelet 4, the outermost thick and coriaceous, covering, together with the 
pedicel of the sterile spikelet, the excavation in the rachis ; second scale chartaceons ; third 
and fourth hyaline, the tatter subtending a palet and perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles 
distinct Grain free. [Greek, in allusion to the tail-like spikes.] 

About 35 species, widely distributed in tropical and temperate 

1. Manisuris rugdsa (Nutt.) Kuntze. 
Wrinkled Manisuris. (Fig. 215.} 

Rollboeltia rugota Nutt. Gen, l: 84. 181B, 
Afanisurii rugosa Kuntie, Rev. Gen, PI, 780, 189I. 
Manisuris rugosa Chapmani Scribn, Mem. Ton. 

Smooth and glabroas, culms erect, 3"-^" tall, 
compressed, much branched above, branches 
spreading. Sheaths compressed; leaves flat, 
acuminate, 6'-*" long, i"-3" wide ; spikes par- 
tially included in the sheath or more or less ex- 
serted, i^'-i^' long; outermost scale of the 
spikelets oblong-ovate to ovate, about 3" long, 
strongly tranavetsely rugose, the wrinkles con- 
tinuous or interrupted. 

4. ANDROPOGON L. Sp. PI. 1045. 1753. 

perennial grasses with usually long narrow leaves, and terminal and axillary spikes, 
Spikelets in pairs at each node of the jointed hairy rachis, one sessile and perfect, the other 
with a pedicel and- either staminate, empty or reduced to a single scale. Perfect spikelet 
consisting of 4 scales, the outermost coriaceous, the second keeled and acute, the two inner 
hyaline, the fourth mare or leas awned and subtending a palet and perfect flower. Stamens 
1-3. Grain free. [Greek, in allusion to the bearded rachis,] 

About 150 species, widely distributed in tropical and temperate reffions. Besides the following, 
some 12 others occur in the southern and western parts of North America. 

Tntemodes of the rachis clavate -thickened: 

Attenuate at basej spikes solitary, distant, 1. A. icofiarius. 

Broad at base; spikes in pairs or dif^itate, oecasionally panicled. 
Hairs as long as the pedicel or lotiser. 

Spikes in pairs; outer scales of sessile spikelet about aW" long, 1. A. argyrarus. 
Spikes 2-j together; outer scales of sessile spikelet about 4" long. 

3, A. Haliii. 
Hairs less than one-half the length of the pedicel. 4, A. furcatus. 

Intemodes of the rachis not clavale-thickened, slender, more or less fle^tuous. 

Spikes protiudintc from the side of the inflated spathe. never on long-exserted peduncles. 
Branches of the culm short, distant, forming a loose elongated inSorescence. 

5, A. firginicui. 
Branches of the culm elongated, forming at summit a compact bushy inflorescence. 

6. A. glomerulus. 
Spikes terminal on finally long. exseited peduncles; spathe narrow; upper sheaths elongated 

and much inflated, imbricated; upper nodes densely bearded, 7, A. Elliollii. 

Intemodes of the rachis much thickened on the raatgins, the intervening portion thin and translu- 
cent; nodes of the culm not bearded, 8, A. Torreyanui. 


I. Andropogon scopdrius Mich: 

Andri'pogoa scopariiim Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 


Broom Beard-grass. 


Culms from a creeping rootstoclt, smooth, 
simple or much branched, a°-4° tall. Sheaths 
smooth or scabrous, sometimes glaucoas; leaves 
6'-i2' long, i"-3" wide, acuminate, scabrous ; 
spikes I'-i' long, loose, solitary, on long-ex- 
serted slender peduncles \ ractais slender, flex- 
uous, joints and pedicels ciliate with long 
spreading hairs; outermost scale of sessile spike- 
let about 3" long, acuminate, scabrous ; awn 
spiral, more or less bent at point of cxsertion, 
5"-6" long, scabrous ; pedicelled spikelet re- 
duced to a single awn-poiuted scale. 

In dry sandy fields, New Bninswict: to Alberta, 
south to Flonda. Louisiana and Texas. Ascends 
to .woo ft. in Geoipa. Specimens determined as 
A. marilimtts Chapni., from Cape May, N. J,, ap- 
pear to be referable to this species. Aug.-Oct. 

Andropogon argyra^u: 

Schultes. Silvery Beard-grass. (Fig. 217.) 

Andropogon argealeus Ell, Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: 148- 

1817. Not DC. 1813. 
Andropogon argyraeus Schultes. Mant. 1: 450. 1834. 
Andropogon Bel'visii Desv. Opusc. 67. iSjI. 

Culms erect, smooth, 3°-4° tall, simple at base, 
generally much branched above. Sheaths some- 
what compressed, glabrous or pubescent ; basal 
leaves 6'-i°; upper a'-8' by 1" wide, acuminate, 
smooth to scabrous above, glabrous or pubescent 
beneath; spikes in pairs, t '-3' long, on more or 
less exserted slender peduncles; joints of the 
rachis and pedicels pubescent with long silky white 
spreading hairs; outermost scale of sessile spike- 
let about 2}i" long, acuminate, scabrous; awn 
loosely spiral, f>"-^" long, scabrous ; pedicelled 
spikelet reduced to a minute lanceolate acuminate 
scabrous scale, which is early deciduous. 

In dry sand; soil, Delaware to Missouri, south to 
Florida and Texas. Culm leaves shorter and broader 
than the basal ones. Sept, 

3. Andropogon 'HMlii Hack. Hall's Beard-grass. (Fig. 218.) 

Andropogon Hallii Hack. Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 89: 

Culms robust from a creeping rootstock, s^-S" tall, 
rimple at base, branched above, smooth, more or less 
glaucous. Sheaths somewhat glaucous; leaves 1° or 
le» long. 3"-4" wide, smooth ; spikes 2-5 together, 
*'-4' long, the lateral ones often included in the 
spatbes; joints of rachis and pedicels pubescent with 
spreading silkj white or yellow hairs of about tbeir 
own length ; outermost scale of sessile spikelet about 
4" long, acuminate, glabrous at base, from sparingly 
to copiously silky-pubescent toward the apex ; awn 
j"-5" long, or sometimes wanting ; pedicelled spike- 
let consisting of 4 scales, the outermost generally 
larger than the corresponding scale of the sessile 
tfnkelet and subtending a palet and thr 

Dry sandy soil, Kansas and Montana to Mexi< 


4. Andropogon furcEltus Muhl. Forked 

Beard-grass. (Fig. 219.) 
Andropogon furcatus Muhl,; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 919. 

1 proi'incialis 
Phan. 5: 441. 
Culms erect, atont, Bmooth and glabrous, 3°-6'' 
tall, simple at bsM, braacbed above. Sheaths 
smooth and glabrons; leaves smooth or rough, f/- 
18' long. a"-7" wide, acuminate ; spikes 3-5, in 
paira or approzimate at the summit, >'-$' long ; 
joints of rachis and pedicels ciliate with short 
hairs ; outermost scale of sessile spikelet 3"-4" 
long, twice the length of the rschis -joints, scab- 
rous ; awn s"-?" long, loosely spirsl ; pedicelled 
spikelet consisting of 4 scales. 

5. Andropogon Virginicus L. Virginia Beard-grass. (Fig. 220.) 

Andropogon Virginictisl,. Sp, PI, 1046, 1753. 
Cinna lateralis Walt. Fl, Car. 59, 1788, 
Andropogon dUsUiflorus Michx, Fl. Bor, Am. i: 

57. "803, 
Andropogon vagtnalus Ell, Bot, S, C, & Ga. l: 

148, 1817, 

Cnlms erect, smooth, 3°-4° tall, simple at 
base, branching above. Sheaths smooth; leaves 
6'-!° long, i"-3" wide, long-acuminate, scab- 
rous on the margins; branches of culm short, 
forming a loose and elongated inflorescence ; 
epikesin pairs, occasionally 3 or 4, about l' long, 
loose, protruding from the sides of the spatbes; 
rachis flexnons, slender, the joints and pedi- 
cels pubescent with long spreading aillty hairs; 
lowest scale of sessile spikelet about 1%" long; 
awn 4"-V' I00S1 straight, scabrous; pedicelled 
spikelet generally wanting, occasionally a rudi- 
mentary scale present. 

In dry or moist fields, Masiiacliu setts to Pennsyl- 

Eind Illin 

Also in Cuba 

Aug, -Sept, 

ind Tenas, 

6. Andropogon glomerE«us( Walt.) B. S. P. Bushy Beard-grass. (Fig. 221.) 

tndrofiogon glon 

i. P. Prel. Cat, N, Y, 67. 

Culms erect i '^°-3° tall, smooth, simple below, 
much branched above, upper nodes of branches 
barbed Sheaths compressed, smooth to strongly 
scabrous glabrous or pubescent ; leaves i"-3" 
wide scabrous long acuminate, the basal two-thirds 
as long as or equallmg the culm, those of the culm 
6'-i8' long branches elongated, forming a com- 
pact terminal inflorescence ; spikes io pairs, about 
1' long loose protruding from the sides of the 
scabrous spathes , rachis flexuoua, the joints and 
pedicels pubescent with long spreading silky hairs ; 
outermost scaleof sessile spikelet about i>j"loag; 
awn 6"-9" long, scabrous ; pedicelled spikelet 
reduced to a single scale or wanting. 

Damp soil, soutliem New York to central Pennsylva- 
ina and Florida, mostly near the coast. Sept, -Oct, 

7. Andropogon Elli6ttii Chapm. Elliott's Beard- 

Andropogon EtlioUii Chaptn, PI. S. Statefl, 5S1. 

Culms erect, i°-3° tall, smooth, »mple or 
sparingly branched above, branches stronglj 
bearded at the upper nodes. Sheaths glabrous 
or loosely villous, the lower narrow, the upper 
elongated, inflated, imbricated; basal leaves 
about one-half as long as tbe culm, smooth, 
\i"~\%" wide, those of the culm filiform or 
oarrowlj linear, a'-io' long, yi"-\" wide; 
in pairs, I'-s' long, loose, finally long-exserted 
on filiform peduncles ; racbis slender, flexuoas, 
its joints and the pedicels pubescent with long 
spreading silky hairs; outermost scale of the 
sessile spikelet iJi"-a"Iong, scabrous on the 
keel; awn 6"-^' long, scabrous; pedicelled 
spikelet a minute scale or wanting. 

a to Florida 

8. Andropogon TorreySnus Steud, Torrey's Beard-grass. (Fig. 223,) 

Andropogon glaucus Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. l; 133, 

1824. Not Mnhl. 1817. 
Andropogon Torreyanus Steud. Nomencl. Ed. 2, 


Andropogon JamesiiToTi . Msrcy's Rep. 302. 1833. 
Andropogon saccharoides vat, Torreyanus Hack, 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 6: 495, i88g. 

Cnlms erect, 1%"-^}^° tall, simple or 
branched, glabrous, the nodes naked. Sheatha 
smooth and glabrous, more or less glaucous ; 
leaves 3'-?' long, ^"-3" wide, long-acuminate, 
smooth and glabrous towards the base, scabrous 
on margins and at the apex, glaucous ; spikes 
l'-i%' long in a terminal long-exserted panicle 
a'-4'' long ; joints of the rachis with a thin 
translucent median line ; outermost scale of ses- 
sile spikelet i^"-i" long, about equalling the 
terminal hairs of the rachis-joints, lanceolate, 
acute, pubescent at baae with long silky haira ; 
awn i"-&" long, spiml, bent, scabrous ; pedi* 
celled spkelet reduced to a single narrow scale. 

In dry soil, Kansas to Arizona and Mexico. 

5. CHRYSOPOGON Trin. Fund. Agrost. 187. 1820. 

Generally tall grasses, ours perennials, with long narrow flat leaves and terminal pani- 
cles. Spikelets in pairs or 3's, one sessile and perfect, the lateral pedicelled, staminate, 
tmpty, or reduced to the pedicel only. Perfect spikelet consisting of 4 scales, the two 
oaler indurated and shining, the inner hyaline, the fourth awned and subtending a palet and 
perfect flower, or the palet sometimes wanting. Stamens 3. Styles distinct; stigmas plu- 
mose. Grain free. [ Greek, referring to the golden-yellow hairs on the spikelets.] 

Abont 30 species, in temperate and tropical countries. 


Chrysopogon avenikceus (Michxj Benth. Indian Grass. 
Aiidi'o/H>goH\avtnareHm Michi. Fl. 

Sorghum nulans A, Gray. Man. 617. 1H4S. 
Snrtrhum ajfnaceiim Chapra, Fl. S. States, 583. 

Bt^nth. Joura. Linn. Sac. 

Culms erect, ^'-S" tall, from creeping root- 
stocks, smooth, the nodes pttbescent. Sheaths 
smooth; lower leaves 1° or more in length, 
l"-8" wide, long-acuminate, scabrous ; panicle 
4'-ia'' long \ branches a'-4' long, slender, erect- 
spreading; spilceletB in pairs, or in 3's at the ends 
of the branches, erect or somewhat spreading ; 
first scale of sessile spikelet 3"-4" long, ocnte, 
pubescent with long hairs ; second scale glab- 
rous; awn s"-io" long, the column very little 
if at all bent ; lateral spikelets reduced to 
plumose pedicels. 

In dry fields, Ontario to Hanitoba, south to 
Rhode laland. Florida and Arizona. Panicle brown- 
ish-yellow. A UK. -Sept. 

Chrysopogon natans (L.) Benth.. distinguished from this species by its longer awn fi3"-i<" 
lot«), supported on a column distinctly bent at about the middle, occurs in Tei 

a to have been recently ft 

6. SORGHUM Pers. Syn. i: 


Annual or perennial grasses with long broad flat leaves and terminal ample panicles. 
Spikelets in pairs at the nodes, or in 3's at the ends of the branches, one sessile and perfect, 
the lateral pedicelled, staminate or empty. Sessile spikelet consisting of 4 scales, the 
outer indurated and shining, obscurely nerved, inner hyaline, the fourth awned and sub- 
tending a small palet and perfect flower, or palet sometimes wanting. Stamens 3. Styles 
distinct. Grain free. [Name Indian.] 

About 13 species, of wide diatribution in tropical and warm-temperate regriona. 

I. Sorghum Halep6nse fL.) Pers. Johnson (Fig. 225.) 

Holcus Haleptnsis L. Sp. PI. 1047. 175,1. 
Andropo£On Halefiensis Brot, Fl. Lusil. i: 8g. 1804, 
Sorghum Halepense Pers, Syn. 


Culms erect, 3''-5' tall, simple or sometimes 
much branched, smooth and glabrous. Sbeatbs 
smooth; leaves 1° or more long, X'-'' wide, 
long-acuminate ; panicle open, from f^'-ij^" 
long, the generally wborled braucbes spreading 
and naked towards the base ; outer scales of ses- 
sile spikelet 2"-y long, ovate-lanceolate, usually 
purplibb, pubescent with long apprcssed hairs; 
awn when present 4"-8" long, more or less bent; 
pedicelled spikelets of 4 scales, the outer two 
about 3" long, membranous, 7-9-nerved, their in- 
rolled margins ciliate, the inner two shorter and 
narrower, hyaline, sometimes with staminate 

In fields and waste places, southern Pennsylvania 
to Missouri, south tu Florida and Texas. Widely dis- 
tributed by cultivation in tropical America. Native 
of southern Europe aud Asia. July-Sept, 



7. NAZIA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 31. 1763. 
[Tragus Hall. Hist Stirp. Helv. a : 303. 1768.] 
[Lappago Schreb. Gen. 55. 1789] 
An annual grass, diffuselj branched, with flat leaves and t-flowered decidaous spikelets, 
cither solitary or in clusters of 3-5 in a terminal spike. Scales of spikclet i or 3, the outer- 
most small or wanting, the second rigid and covered wilb booked prickles, tbe third mem- 
branous, subtending a patet and perfect flower. [Name unexplained.] 
A monotypic g%nu« 

Nazia racemdsa (L.) Kuntze. 
Prickle -grass. (Fig. 226.) 

L. Bp. PI, 1049. 1753. 
Willd. Sd. pi, 1:484. 1708. 
Gen. PI. 780. 


Nazia ractmosa Kui 

Culms I'-n' tall, erect, simple to diffusely 
branched, smooth below, pubescent above. 
Sbeaths smooth and glabrous; leaves i'~3' 
long, l"-i" wide, acuminate, ratlier strongly 
ciliate ; spike i'-4' long, sometimes partially 
included in the somewhat inflated upper 
sbeath ; spikelets i-flowered; first scale very 
small, almost byalioe; second scale coria- 
ceous, iJi"loDg. acute, 5-nerved, eacb nerve 
aimed with a row of hooked prickles ; third 
scale i" long, keeled, sharp-pointed, l- 
nerved, membranous, enclosing a palet of 
like texture and a perfect flower. 

Occasional in ballast and n'aste places about 
the Atlantic seaports. Abundant from Texas to 
Arizona and Meiico. Native of Europe and 

8. PASPALUM L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 


Perennial grasses of various habit, witb geueraUy flat leaves and i-flowered spikelets 
borne in 1-4 rows on i-sided spikes, which are Eingle, in pairs, or panicled. Spikelets oblong 
to ortncular, flat on the inner surface, convex on tbe outer. Scales 3, rarelj- i by the absence 
of the outermost, the outer ones membranous, the inner one indurated and subtending a 
palet and perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles separate ; stigmas plumose. Grain ovoid or 
oblong, free. [An ancient Greek name for some grass, used by Hippocrates.] 

Spiktlets second, with the back of the flon-^rinR scale turned toward the rachis. 

Kachis membranous, dilated, its wings almost encIosinR the spikelets at roaturitj 
Extendi!^ beyond the spikelets, lon)(-aeumtnate; spikelets about H" long. 

Not extending beyond the spikelets, ai 

Rachis not membianous 

Spikelets oval or ell; 

Spikelets glahto 

Spikelets villous 

ir enclosing the spikelets at maturity, 
or somewhat pubescent; spikt 

:. P. membra iiaieum. 

paire or occasionally in 

3, P. disliehum. 

4. P. dilalalum. 

>n maigins; spikes 4-12. 
_^ .. . . orbicular, very obtuse. 

Spikes I, or sometimes 7, on the 1-3 slender peduncles eiserted from the upper sheath; 
spikelets 1" or less long. 
Leaves and sheaths pubescent, the former generally long;, narrow and erect; spike- 
lets about W " long. 5. P. selaceiim. 
Leaves and sheaths glabrous or somewhat pubescent, the former long and broad, 

lax, ciliate; spikelets about i" long. 6. P. ciliatifoHum . 

Leaves and sheaths glabrous, the former short and broad, ciliate on the mai^ns; 
spikelets about Si long. 7. P. longipeduiiculalutn. 

Spikes z or more on the single stout peduncle. 

Spikelets iii"-i 54" long: spikes generally spreading. 8. P. laet'c. 
Spikelets exceeding; iW' in length; spikes generally erect, 

9. P. Floridaniim. 

Spikelets not strictly secund, the back of the flowering scale turned away from the rachis. 

Spikelets less than i" long, oblong, 10. P. compressum, 

Spikelets about 2" loug, broadly lanceolate. 11. P. paspaloidti. 


I. Paspalum mucronitum Muhl. Water Paspalum. (Pig. 227.) 


Paspalutit mucronalum Muhl. Cat. S. iSl,). 
Ciresia Jluilans Ell. BoL S. C. & Ga. i: 109. 
Paspalum fluilans Kuntti, Rev, Gram, i: 24. 

Culms ascending. 6''-3° long, from a floating or 
creeping base, branched. Sheatfas verj loose or in- 
flated, smooth or scabrous, glabrous or pubescent ; 
leaves 3'-ia' long, %'-i' wide, acuminate, scabrous; 
spikes 3O-IO0, ^'-y long, alternate or wborled, 
slender ; racbii flat, ttaio, exceeding the spikelets, 
long-acuminate, scabrous, its margins nearly eo- 
closiug the spikelets ; spikelets in two rowi, 
about >i" long, elliptic, pubescent ; outer scales very 
tbin, a-nerved, the first one usually a little the longer. 

1 Illinois and Miswuri, 

2. Paspalum mcmbran&ceum Walt. Walter's Paspal] 

Paspalum membrauactum Walt. Fl. Car. 75. 1788. 

Not Lam. 1791. 
Paspalum IVallerianum Schultea, Mant. a: 166. 1814. 

Culms erect or ascending, much branched, 
smooth, creeping at the base. Sheaths a little in- 
flated, smooth; leaves iji'-3ji' long, a"-3" 
wide, flat, smooth, acute ; spikes 3-7, alternate, 
about 1' long, the tower ones usually included in 
the upper sheath ; rachis not exceeding the spike- 
lets, flat, thin, i"--i'/i" wide, acute, smooth, 
many-nerred, its incurved margins partly enclos- 
ing the spikelets; spikelets about i"long, crowded 
in a rows, oval, obtuse, smooth; outer scales 5- 
nerved; third scale lenticular, slightly shorter 
than the outer ones. 

3. Paspalum distichum L. Joint-grass. 

(Fig. 229.) 
Paspalum distichum L. Amoeu. Acad. S: 391. 1759. 

Culms erect, 6'-i° tall, extensively creeping at 
base. Sheaths smooth, sometimes ciliate on the 
margins, or sparsely pubescent; leaves flat, \%'- 
5' long, i"-2"wide, acuminate, smooth; spikes 
I'-aJi' long, in pairs, or occasionally with a third, 
exserted; rachis flat, >^"-i" wide, smooth; spike- 
lels iX"-'>i" long, elliptic, somewhat pubescent 
or glabrous, acute, nearly sessile in 1 rows; outer 
scales 3-s-nerved, sligMly exceeding the acute 
third one which is sparingly bearded at the apex. 

Virginia to Missouri 
Ida, Texati and Mexico, 
tral and South America. 

md California, south to Flor- 
AIbo in the West Indies, cen- 
Aug. -Sept. 

4. Paspalum dilatitum Poir. Tall '. 
Jtispalum dilala/um Poir. in lAm. Encycl. $: 35. 1804. 
faspalutn ovalum Nees, Kgtoat, Bras. 43. iSsg. 

Cnlms erect, 3°^° tall, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths compressed, smooth and glabrous; leaves 1° 
or more long, a"-s" wide, long-acuminate, rather 
scabrous on the margins, Hometimea with a tuft of 
hairs at the base; apilcea 4-12, a'-s' long, apreadiug. 
alternate, )('-2' distant ou the main axis ; racbis of 
the spilces narrow, less than i" wide, somewhat llexa- 
gus, scabrous; spikelets about i%" long, in 3 or 4 
rows, acute ; outer scales 5-nerved, the first villous on 
the margins, the second glabrous or sparsely pubescent, 
the third nearly orbicular, minutely punctate-striate. 

5. Paspalum set&ceum Michx. Slender Paspalum. (Pig. 231.) 

Paspalum selaceum Micbx. Fl. Bor. Am, l: 43. 1S03, 

Paspalum pubestens Muhl. Gram. 9a, 1817. 

Culms mostly erect, i"-!" tall, slender, smooth. 
Sheaths and leaves generally very pubescent, the 
latter 3'-8' long, i"-y wide, erect, acuminate; spikes 
iJi'-3Ji' long, more or less curved, generally solitary, 
occasionally 1, on a long-ezserted slender peduncle, 
with usually i or 3 additional shorter peduncles from 
the same upper sheath ; spikelets about JC" long, in 3 
narrow rows, broadly obovate, very obtuse; empty 
scales 3-ncrved, glabrous or pubescent; third scale ob- 
ovate, shining. 

6. Paspalum ciliatifdlium Michx. Ciliate-leaved 

Paspalum ciliali/olium Michx. PI. Bor. Am. i: 44. 

Paspalum dasyphyilutn Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: 105. 


Cnlms erect, i}i''~a}i' tall, smooth. Sheaths 
varying from glabrous to pubescent ; leaves 4'~9' 
'ong, 3"-7" wide acuminate, pubescent or glabrous, 
dliate. the upper one usually broad and cordate at 
bue ; spikes i or a, occasionally 3, 3'-4' long ; 
pednncles 1-3, ezserted from the upper sheath ; 
rachis very narrow, slightly llexuous and triangu- 
hi, scabrous; spikelets i"-i^" long, in 2-4 rows, 
crowded, oval, the first or convex scale sometimes 
tpariogly pubescent, the third scale with a distinct 
depression on the back near the base. 

um. (Fig. 232.) 


Paspalum longipeduncuUtum Le Conte. Long-stalked Paspalum. 
(Fig- 233.) 

/•asfia/um arenarium Schtad.; Schultes, Mant. a: 171. 

Culms Tccliaing or decumbent, I'-tlj" long, smooth, 
leafy at base. Sbeatlis glabrous or ciliate on the mar' 
gins, pilose at the throat ; leaves i'-i%' long, a" -3" 
wide, glabrons 01 a little pilose, acuminate, ciliate on 
the margina and along the mid-nerve ; pedancles i~i 
from the upper sheath ; spikes 1-2, 1'-a^j' long, more 
or less curved ; rochb very narrow, more or less flexn- 
□us ; apikelets about }(" long, nearly globular; outer 
scales 3-nerved, the first one glabrous or sometimes 
sparsely pubescent; third scale slightly exceeding the 

J Florida, Kentucky and 

8. Paspalum laeve Michx. Field Pas- 
palum. (Fig. 234.) 

Paspalum laeve Michi. 1 


Bright green, culms rather stout, erect or ascend- 
ing, i°-3° tall, glabrous. Sheaths compressed, 
glabrous or pubescent; leaves s'-ia' long, 3"-i," 
wide, acuminate, glabrous or pubescent, scabrous 
on the margins; spilces a-6, \%'-i' long, more 
or less spreading, alternate, about i' apart on the 
single stout peduncle, pilose in the axils ; spilcelets 
\%"-'i.%" long, oval to orbicular, close, crowded 
in a rows, glabrous. 

In moiEt fields, Rhode Island to Kentucky and Mis- 
souri, south to Florida and Texas, Ascends to 1700 ft. 
in North Carolina. Aug. -Sept. 

g. Paspalum Ploriddnum Michx. Florida Paspalum. (Fig. 235.) 

Paspalus FloridaiiHS Miohx. Fl. Bor. Am. l: 44. 1803. 

Paspalum macrospernium Flugge, Monog. 17a. 1810. 

Culms stout, erect, 3''-6'' tall, from a creeping root- 
stock, glabrous. Sheaths glabrous, or the lower 
pubescent, sometimes glaucous; leaves $'-15' long, 
j"-?" wide, acuminate, glabrous or pubescent; spikes 
2-5 on the single stout peduncle, a'-s' long, erect or 
ascending, bearded iu the axils ; rachis about 1" wide, 
flat on the back, scabrous on the margins ; spikelets 
i'A"-2" long, broadly oval, glabrons, sometimes 
glaucous, crowded in 2 rows ; outer scales 5-uerved ; 
third scale striate. 

t plac 

} Kentucky, south to Florida 

10. Paspalum comprissum (Sw.) Nees. Flat 

J^ispalum trislarhyuntlAOi.Talbl. Encycl- 1: 176- 

Milinm compressiim Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. i: 183. 

Paspalum plalycaiilon Poir. in T^m. Bncycl. 5: 

.M- 1804. 
Paspalum compressum Nees, in Mart. PI. Bras. 

3; 33. 1829. 

Stolons auinerous, leafj, sometimes a° 
long. Culms d'-i" tall, slender, compressed, 
glabrous ; sheatbs loose ; leaves glabrous, 
ometimes sparsely ciliate, obtnse, those of 
the cnlm j'-4' long, z"-^" wide, those of 
the stolons about i' long, i"-i" wide; 
spikes 2-S, I'-a' long, approximate at the 
summit of the long and slender stalk ; spike- 
lets not crowded nor secund, about i" long, 
acute, the back of the flowering scale turned 
oblong, awaj from the rachis. 

Virginia to Florida and west to Louisiana. 
Widely distributed in tropical America. Proba- 
bly not native in the United States. Aug. -Sept. 

(Fig. 236.) 

Paspalum paspaloides (Michx.) Scribner. Crab-grass Paspalum. 
(Fig. 237.) 

jDigilaria paspaloidrs Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. ; 



1 Kunth, Rev. Giam. 

;. Wats, in A. Gray, Man. 

Paspalum paspaloides Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club, 

S; ^- 1894. 

Culms i^-a^i" tall, erect, from an ei- 
tensively creeping base, slender, glabrous. 
Sheathsand leaves glabrous or pubescent, the 
tatter a'-g' lopg, 3"-6" wide, obtuse ; spikes 
i}i'-3ji' long, in pairs, or sometimes with 
an additional one, near the summit of the 
1-2 slender stalks, which are long-exserted 
from the upper sheath ; rachis flat, about %" 
wide, Scabrous on the margins, the inter- 
nodes about equalling the spikelets in length 1 
spikelets about 2" long, broadly lanceolate, 
acute, not crowded ; outer scales s-nerved, 
glabrous, the back of the third scale turned 
awaj from the rachis. 

Florida, west to 

9. AMPHICARPON Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 175. 1818. 

Erect perennial grasses, with flat leaves and spikelets of two kinds ; one kind borne in 
tcnninal panicles, deciduous without perfecting fruit ; the other solitary, terminating subter- 
nsesi) peduncles, and maturing seed. Scales 3, membranous, the innermost subtending a 
pilet and a perfect flower ; the scales of the subterranean spikelets become indurated and 
enclose the grain. Stamens 3. Stigmas plumose. [Greek, in allusion to the two kinds 

Species 3. inhabiting the southeastern United States, one of them restricted to Florida. 


I. Amphicarpon AmphicJtrpon (Pursh) 
Nash. Amphicarpon. (Fig. 238,) 

.Ifilium amphicarpon Pnnh, FI, Am. Sept. 1:61. pi. 2. 

Milium (ilialum Muhl. Giam. 77. 1817. 
Amphiearpum Purthii Kunth, Rev, Gram. 36. 1829-35. 
Amphicarpon Amphicarpon NmH, Mem. Torr. Club, 

S: 35a. 1894. 

Culms erect, ia'-i8' tall, slender, glabrous. 
Sheaths papillose-hiisnte; ligulc pilo«e ; leaves i'-6' 
long, 3"-6'' wide, erect, Bcaminate, hiTsnte and 
ciliate : panicle linear, 4''-6' long, branches 3-4, erect, 
bearing few apikelels ; spikelets abont a" long, ellip- 
tic ; outer scales 5-nerved. membranous, glabrous ; 
anbterranean spikelets ovoid in fruit, abont 3" long, 
acute, the scales all becoming mnch indurated. 

a Florida near tfae- 


10. ERIOCHLOA H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 1:94. 

[Helopus Trin. Fund. Agrost. 103. i8ao.] 

Perennial grasses with flat leaves, and short-pedicelted spikelets borne in secnnd spikes. 

which form a terminal panicle. Spikelets with au annular callus at the base and articulated 

to the pediceL Scales 3, the two outer membranous, acute, the inner one shorter, indurated 

and subtending a palct and a perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumoae. 

Grain free. [Greek, signifyiug wool-grass.] 

Species about 5, in tropical and temperate counliies. 

I. Eriochloa punctata (L. ) W. Hatnilt. 
Dotted Millet. (Fig. 239.) 

Eriochloa punctata W. Hamilt. Prodr. Ft, Ind. Occ. 5. 


Culms erect or ascending, i°-3° tall, glabrous. 
Sheaths glabrous or sometimes pubescent; ligule a 
fringe of short white hairs ; leaves I'-io" long, 3"- 
3" wide, acuminate, glabrous or pubescent ; spikes 
4-25, I'-a' long, sessile or nearly so ; racbis pubes- 
cent; spikelets about 1" long, ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate ; outer scales pubescent with Hppressed 
silkj hairs, the first a little exceeding the second, 
the third about i" long, rounded at the apex and 
bearing a pubescent awn abont %" long. 

Kansas to Texas and Mexi«). Widely distributed 

II. SYNTHERISMA Walt. Fl. Car. 76. 1788. 

[DiGiTARiA Scop, Fl. Cam. Ed. j, i: 32, 1772. Not Heist. 1763.] 
Annual grasses with flat leaves, and spikelets borne in pairs or sometimes in 3's, in 
secnnd spikes which are digitate or approximate at the summit of the culm. Spikes ofien 
purplish. Scales of the spikelet 4, sometimes 3 by the suppression of the lowest one; the 
fourth or innermost scale chartaceous, subtending a palet of similar texture and a perfect 
flower. Stamens 3. Stigmas plumose. [Greek, crop-making, in allusion to its abundance.] 

About 10 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, 
Rachis flat, broadly winged; spikes narrowly linear, 

Spikelets iy,"-\',i" long; second scale about one-half as long; first n 

Spikelets about i" lung; second scale about as long: first scale wanting, 
Rachis 3-angled, not winged; spikes filiform. 

te, rarely wanting. 

1. S. sanguinalis. 
"arely present. 

2. S, linearis. 

3. S. ftliformis. 


I. Syntherisma sanguin&lis (L.) Nash. Large Crab-grass Finger-grass. 

(Fig. 240.) 
Ftmicum sanguinate L. Sp. PI-S7. 1753' 
Digilaria sangutnatis Scop. Fl. Carn. Ed. a, 1; 53. 

Syntherisma 1. 

421. 1895. 

Culms erect or decumbent, often rooting at tbe 
lower nodes, i''-3° long, smooth. Sheaths glab- 
rous or pubescent ; leaves a'-6' long, a"-4" wide, 
acuminate, glabrous or more or less pubescent : 
spikes 3-10, narrowly linear, 3'-6' long, digitate 
or in approximate whorls at tbe summit of tbe 
culm; racbis flat, winged; spikelets i}i"~i}i" 
long, in pairs, one sessile or nearly so, acute, 
lanceolate; first scale minute, rarely wanting, 
second one-third to one-faalfas long as tbespikelet. 

n all cultivated 

2. Syntherisma Unedris (Krock.) Nash. Small Crab-grass. (Fig. 241.) 
Panicutit tineare Ktock. Fi. Sil. i; 95, 1787. 

\therisma elabra Scbrad. Fl. Germ, i 

Syntherisma glabra 

Paspalum amhiguum DC. Fl. Gall. 113. 

Panicum glabrum Gaud. Afrroat. i: ti. ion. 

Synlheristna linearis Nasb, Bull. Torr. Club, M: 430. 


Culms erect or decumbent, !j°-z° long, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths and leaves glabrous, tbe 
latter i'-3' long, \"-i" wide, acuminate; spikes 
a-4, 3'-4' long, narrowly linear, digitate or ap- 
proximate at the summit of tbe culm ; racbis flat, 
wiaged ; spikelets about \" long, iu pairs, some- 
times in 3'8, one of them sessile or nearly so, el- 
liptic, acute ; first scale rarely present, second and 
third as long as the fourth. 

In cultivated grounds and waste places. Nova Scotia 
to Ontario and Minnesota, south to Florida and Louisi- 
ana. Naturaliied from Europe. July-Sept. 

3- Syntherisma filifdrmis (L.) Nash. Slender Finger-grass. (Fig. 242.) 

Panicum fiii/ormt L. Sp. PI. S7- 'ISi- 
Pasptlum fili/orme Sv. Prodr. aa. 178S. 
Synlherisnui viliosa Walt. Fl. Car. 77, 1788. 

digilaria fili/ormis Muhl. Gram. 131. 1817. 

Synlhen'iiHa filiformts Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, Ji: ^m. 

Cnlms erect, i''-4'' tall, slender, araootb. Sheaths 
WtBOte; leaves i'-8' long, ;4"-3" wide, erect, smooth 
w Ktbrons ; spikes 2-5, filiform, I'-s' long, approxi- 
mUe at tbe summit of tbe culm, erect or nearly so ; 
nchis 3-angled, very slender, not winged ; spikelets 
H"~i" long, elliptic, pubescent, in pairs, occasionally 
in 3's, one sessile or abort -pedicelled; first scale rarely 
pKwnt; second three-fourtfas as long as or equalling 
the third, which is equal in length to the fourth. 


12. PANICUM L. Sp. PI. 55. 1753. 

Annuals or perennials of various habit, foliage and inflorescence. Spikelets i-2-fiow- 
ered, when 2-flowered the lower one staminate only. Scales 4, the 3 lower membranous, 
empty, or the third with a staminate flower, varying in the same species; the inner or fourth 
scale chartaceous, shining, enclosing a palct of similar texture and a perfect flower. Awns 
none, except in Nos. i and 2. Stamens 3. Styles distinct Stigmas plumose. Grain free, 
enclosed in the hardened fruiting scale and palet [Old Latin name for some grass, prob^ 
ably the cultivated Sorghum, referring to its panicle, taken from Pliny.] 

About 300 species, in temperate and tropical regions. The geographic distribution of many of 
our species is not well ascertained. The old English name Panic or Panic-grass, is often applied 
to any of the species. 

Panicle oblong to ovoid; spike-like branches sessile, more or less spreading; spikelets in 2-4 rows, 
secund; third scale, and sometimes the second and first, awn-pointed or awned. 
Sheaths smooth; culms 2°-4° tall; fourth scale ovate, abruptly pointed, i. P. Crus-gaUi. 
Sheaths, at least the lower ones, hirsute; culms 4°-6° tall; fourth scale ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate. 2. P. Walteri. 

Panicle linear, spicate at summit; branches appressed, sessile; third scale merely acute or acuminate. 
Spikelets ovate, acute, about i%" long. 3. P. digitarioides. 

Spikelets oval or obovoid, obtuse, turgid, about i\^" long. 4. P. obtusum. 

Panicle ovoid or oblong* primary branches spreading or ascending, secondary grenerally appressed, 
occasionally divaricate, bearing numerous pointed spikelets not exceeding i]^" m length. 
Palet in the axil of the third scale conspicuous, enlarged, much exceeding the fourth scale; 

spikelets open. 5. P. hians. 

Palet in the axil of the third scale inconspicuous; spikelets closed. 

Spikelets i%" long, curved. 6. P. rosiraium. 

Spikelets less than i K" lon^, straight or but slightly curved. 

Culms stout; lateral panicles numerous; ligrule short, naked or sparsely short-ciliate. 
Spikelets about K" long, acute; secondary branches of mature panicle generally 

appressed. 7. P. agrostidifonm. 

Spikelets about iK" long, acuminate; secondary branches of the mature panicle 
generally s|>reading or divaricate. 8. P. elongalum. 

Culms slender, simple, or occasionally with a single lateral panicle; spikelets about 
i" lonp^, acuminate; ligule short, pilose. 9. P. longi/oHum. 

Branches of the panicle single, in pairs or fascicled, simple or subdivided, naked below; spikelets 
on slender pedicels. 
Basal leaves, or those near the base^ much shorter and broader than the upper culm leaves; 
spikelets turgid, obtuse or acutish; panicle not over 6' in length, generally much smaller. 
Culm leaves broad, cordate and clasping at base. 
Spikelets less than i" long. 

Leaves erect or ascending, 2' -4' long; sheaths g^enerally shorter than the inter- 
nodes. 10. P. sphaerocarpon. 
Leaves widely spreading, 5' -8' long; sheaths longer than the intemodes. 

II. P. microcarpon. 
Spikelets i" or more long. 

Sheaths smooth, glabrous or softly pubescent. 

Nodes strongly barbed; sheaths and leaves generally softly pubescent; spike- 
lets elliptic, 2"-2^" long. 12. P. Porierianum. 
Nodes, at least the upper ones, naked ; sheaths glabrous. 

Spikelets about i long, elliptic. 13. P. commutatum. 

Spikelets iH"-2" long, oval to obovoid; leaves generally ciliate. 

14. P. tnacrocarpon. 
Sheaths papillose-hispid; spikelets about ij<" long; panicle generally much 
included, sometimes long-exserted. 15. P. clandestinum. 

Culm leaves lanceolate, rounded, truncate or subcordate at base, sometimes narrowed. 
Spikelets i5^"-2" long. 

Panicle linear, loose; branches appressed. 16. P.xanihophysufH. 

Panicle ovoid to oblong, compact; bmnches more or less spreading. 

Leaves spreading, \"-6" wide; spikelets obovoid. 17. P. Scribnerianum. 
Leaves erect, less than 2" wide, long-acuminate; spikelets elliptic. 

18. P. tVilcoxianum. 
Spikelets less than i]^" long. 

Culm leaves 1-4, erect; culms mostly simple, never profusely branched late in the 
Sheaths and leaves glabrous. 19. P. boreaU. 

Sheaths and leaves pubescent. ao. P. laxiflorum. 

Culm leaves generally numerous, usually spreading; culms simple early in the 
season, later profusely branched. 
Spikelets about \^" long. 21. P. nitidum. 

Spikelets about i" long. 

Sheaths glabrous. ^ 

Nodes naked, or the lower sometimes sparingly barbed; spikelets about 

i" long. 22. P. dichotomum. 

Nodes barbed; spikelets about K" long. 23. P. barbulatum. 

Sheaths pubescent. 

Primary panicle 3' -6' long; spikelets fully i" long, primary colmlcaves 

4' -7' long. 24. P. viscidum. 

Primary panicle 3' or less long; spikelets hardly i" long: primary cuhn 
leaves less than 4' long. 25. P. puoescens. 

Culm leaves long and very narrow, sometimes involute. 

Leaves elongated, crowded at base, half as long as or equalling the culm; secondary 

panicles borne on short basal branches. aoT P. detauperatum. 

Leaves long and narrow, distributed along the culms, which are proiusel^ branched 

above late in the season. 27. P, angnstijalium. 


isal leaves and those of the eulm the same, generally elongated; spikelets acute or acumf- 

SpikelelB a" lotm or more. 
Sheaths glabrous. 

Panicle usually :" long or more; branches spreading: leaves 1° long or more, flat. 

a8. P. virgalum. 
Panicle 1° long or less; branches erect or appressed; leaves 6'-:° long, involute on 
the ma^na, at least at the apex, thick, glaucous. 19. P. amarum. 

Sheaths papillose -pubescent. 30. J*, miliaceuitt. 



long or less. 

Panicle linear; brand 

Culms stout, jinally decumbent and much branched, with lateral panicles from all the 
upper sheaths. 
Sheaths g'labrous. 31. P. proli/erum. 

Sheaths pubescent. 33, P. capUlarc. 

Culms slender, erect or decumbent, branched only at base. 

Spikelets i"-i %" long, generally single on the ultimate divisions of the panicle- 
Panicle narrow; branches erect, the lower ones about 3' long; axils naked, 
33. P. flexile. 

' i^. P. aulumnate. 
Spikelets less than i long, m pairs. 

Spikelete smooth, ellii^ic, acute. 35- f' minui. 

" ■' elets warty, obovoid, acutinh. 36. P. verrucoium. 

appressed; second scale of spikelet obtuse, gibbous at base. 

37. P. gih^um. 

Panicle at length diffuse; branches 4'-S' long; aiils bearded/ 

I. Panicum Crfis-gfiUi 1,. Barnyard Grass. Cockspur Grass, (i^ig. 243.) 
Faiticum Crtts-galU X,. Sp. PI. 56. 1753. 

Calms 3" -if tall, often braacbing at base 
Sheaths smooth and glabrous ; leaves d'-i" long, 
%'-!' wide, glabrous, smooth or scabrous , panicle 
composed of 5-15 sessile erect or ascending 
branches, or the lover branches spreading or re- 
flexed; spikelets ovate, green or purple denselj' 
crowded in a-4 rows on one side of the racbis 
second and third scales about i^" long, scabrous 
or hispid, the third scale more or leas awned, 
empty, the fonrtb ovate, abrnptly pointed 

In cnltivated and waste places throughout North 
America except the extreme north Widely distnb- 
utedasaweed in all cultivated regions Naturalized 
frcyin Europe. Aug. -Oct. 

Pulciun coloanm L., a southeni species related to 
this, but with awnless scales, has been found in south 
fanlera Virginia, too late for illustration here (Sec 
A.x>pendix. ) 

a. Panicum W^ftlteri Pursh. Salt-marsh 

Cockspur Grass. (Fig. 244.) 
Panicnm hirltltum Walt. Fl, Car. ?». 17B8. Not All. 

PanieutJi H^alleri Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 66. 1814. 
Panicum hispidum Muhl, Gram. 107. 1817. 
Panicum Crus-galli var. hispidum Torr. Fl. N. Y. a: 



Culms 3''-6° tall, robust, smooth. Sheaths, at 
least the lower ones, papillose-hispid ; leaves i" or 
more long, )4'-l' wide, generallj smooth beneath, 
strongly scabrous above ; panicle 6'-iS' long, con- 
sisting of 10-40 ascending or spreading branches; 
spikelets ovate-lanceolate, denselj crowded in 3-4 
rows on one side of the scabrous and hispid racbis, 
brownish purple; second and third scales abont 
1%" long, scabrous and hispid, tipped with up- 
wardly barbed awns, sometimes 10-20 times their 
length; fourth scale ovate-lanceolate, acutniaate. 

In marshes and ditches, principally within the infln- 
ence of salt water, Ontario to Khoae Island, Florid* 
and Louisiana. Aug. -Oct. 

Panicum digitarioldes Carpenter. Narrow Panicum. (Fig. 245.) 

m. Nat. Hiet I 

. States, 573- 'Mo. 

Glabrous, culms erect from a long and stout 
creeping rootstock, 3°-5° tal I , simple, stout, 
smooth. Sheaths Bmooth ; leaves 4'-io' loug. 4"- 
&" wide, long-acuminate ; panicle linear, 6^-12' 
long, its branches i'-3' long, erect ; spikelets about 
i%" long, ovate, acute; first scale about oue-balf as 
long as Ibe spilcelet, acute, 3-nerved; second about 
i" long, 5-nerved and a little exceeded by tbe 
3-nerTed tbird one; tbe fourth 3-nerved, slightly 
shorter than tbe third. 

lu water, Delaware to Florida and Texas. Julj-Aag. 

4. Panicum obtOsum H.B.K. Blunt Panicum. (Fig. 246.) 


n oblusiim H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 


Glabrous, culms erect, i^-a" tall, simple or 
branching at base, smooth. Sheaths smooth ; 
leaves aX'-9' long, \"~i" wide, usually erect, 
long-acuminate; panicle linear, 3'-6'loDg; branches 
%'-iyi' long, appressed; spikelets about ifi" 
long, crowded, oval or obovoid, obtuse, turgid ; 
first scale shorter than tbe rest, obtuse, 5-nerved; 
second, third and fourth scales about equal, the 
second and third 5-uerved, the fourth cbartaceous. 

KanaaH to Arizona. <M)Uth to Texas and Mexico. 

5. Panicum hians Ell. Gaping Panicum. 

(Fig. 247.) 

Panicum divaricalum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am, i; 50. 1803. 
Not L. 1758. 

Panicum meiicarium Michx. Fl. Bot. Am. i: 50. 1803? 

Panicum hians Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: ilS, 1817. 

Glabrous, culms erect, i°-3j^° tall, generally simple, 
sometimes creeping at base, smooth. Leaves 3'-5' long. 
i"-3" wide, acuminate, generally erect; panicle 3'-8' 
long; branches few, generally spreading, tbe longer ones 
often droopinfr, the lower naked below the middle ; spike- 
lets about \" long; fourth scale exceeded by the third 
and its usually empty palet which is much enlarged, 
generally forcing the spikelet wide open. 


6. Panicum rostriktum Muhl. Beaked Panicum. (Fig. 248.) 

il. Gram. 131. 1817. 

Culms erect from a creeping seal j branched root- 
&tock, T^°-5° tall, much branched, cooipreBsed, 
stoat, smooth. Sheaths compressed, glabrous, or 
the lower ones pabescent ; leaves 1° long or more, 
2"-5" wide, acuminate ; ligule very short ; panicles 
pyramidal, 6'-i2' long; axis and asceodiog branches 
scabrous; spikelets T}4" long, crowded, lanceo- 
late, acuminate, curved, longer than the scabrous 
pedicels ; first scale less than one-half as long as 
the spikelet ; second scale about iji" long, curved 
at the apex, scabrous above on the middle nerve; 
third scale usually subtending a small empty palet. 

7. Panicum agrostidifdrme Lam, Agrostis-like Panicum. (Fig- 249. ) 
Panicum agroslidi/orme I^m. Tabl. Encycl. i: 17a. 

Panicum ag-roitoides Trin. Unifl. iia. :8»6. Not 
Muhl. ]Si7. 

Culms erect, i}^°-3° tall, much branched, com- 
pressed, smooth. Sbeaths compressed, glabrous, 
or sometimes hairy at the throat ; ligule very short, 
naked ; leaves 1° long or more, 2"-4" wide, acum- 
inate ; panicles pyramidal, 4'-ia' long, terminating 
the culm and branches ; primary branches of the 
panicle spreading, secondary generally appressed ; 
spikelets ^" long, acute, straight ; fii^t scale 
3-nerved, acute ; second and third scales 5-nerved, 
about twice as long as the first and longer than the 
oval fourth scale, which is slightly stalked; small 
palet of third scale usually empty. 

3 Minnesota, south to Florida 

8. Panicum elong&tum Pursh, Long Panicum. (Fig. 250.) 

iiiVurn I'luiigali 
^Hicum agi 

'id.s Mulil. (In 


Cnlms erect, 3°-5° tall, much branched, stout, 
ntDpressed, smooth. Sheaths smooth and glab- 
rous, compressed ; leaves 1° longer more, 2"-i" 
"ide, acuminate, scabrous ; panicles pyramidal, 
ttnainating the culm and branches, 4'-i2'long; 
primary- branches spreading or ascending, the sec- 
oodiry usually divaricate ; spikelets about t'X" 
long, crowded, acuminate; first scale acute or 
Wiminate, one-third the length of the equal and 
acuminate second and third; fourth scale narrowly 
dliptic, about one-half as long as the third and 
raised on a delicate stalk about X" long- 


g. Panicum longifdiium Torr. Long-leaved Panicuin. (Fig. 251.) 

PanicHiH iongi/olium Torr, Fl. U. S. 149- >8l4> 

Cnlms erect, I'-a" tall, stender, wmple, or occ»- 
•ionally with a ungle lateral panicle, flatteoed, 
smooth and glabrons. Sheaths smooth and glab- 
rous; leaves S'-iz' long. i"-3" wide, scnminate 
into a long, slender point, rough, glabrous ; 
lignle short, pilose; panicles s'-y long; primary 
branches long and slender, spreading, secondary 
very short, appressed, generally bearing 1^3 spike- 
lets; Epikelels i^'longiscnminale; first scale acute 
about one-half as long as the acuminate second 
one ; third scale equalling the second, acuminate, 
one-third longer than the ellipticobtuse fourth one. 

This seeniB to be a well-marked speeicB. Its Blender 
simple veT7 much flattened culms, the long and nar- 
row leaves, and the long slender branches ot the pan- 
icle beariuK the ajiikelcts almast racemose!];, abund- 
antly distinguish it from any otbeis of this group. 
Hoist soil, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Aug.-Sept. 

10. Panicum sphaerocJU-pon Ell. Rouiid-fniited Panicum. (Fig. 252.) 
Panicum ibhaerocayftoH EU. Bot. S. C. & Ga. I; 135. 
, 1817. 

Culms generally erect, simple or somewhat 
branched at base, lo'-s" tall, smooth, or the nodes 
sometimes pubescent. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the intemodes, glabrous, the margins ciliate ; 
leaves a'-4' long, %"-l" wide, acuminate, cordate* 
clasping at base, scabrous above, smooth beneath, 
the matins cartilaginous and minutely serrulate, 
ciliate towards the base; panicle ovoid, 3'-4' long ; 
spiketets less than \" long, nearly spherical or 
somewhat longer than 'thick, obtuse, purple ; 
first scale broadly ovate, obtuse; third and fourth 
scales three to four times as long as the first, aubor- 
bicular, 7-nerved; fourth scale oval, obtuse, %" 
- long; palet of third scale usually empty. 

Dry soil, southern Ontario. New York and Mis- 
souri, to Florida, Texas and Mexico. July-Sept. 

Panicum microcEkrpon Muhl. Small-fruited Panicum. (Fig. 253.) 

Panicum micro 

irpon Muhl. Giam. 1 


Culms generally erect, 1°-'^ tall, simple, smooth. 
Sheaths smooth, glabrous, longer than the inter- 
nodes; lignle noue ; leaves s'-8' long, Ji'-i'wide, 
Ion g-a cumin ate, smooth, cordate-clasping and spar- 
ingly ciliate at the base ; panicle 3'-8' long, ovoid 
to oblong in outline ; branches slender, ascending ; 
spikelets %" long, obovold to nearly spherical, 
numerous ; first scale miuute, second and third 
about equal, 7 -nerved, puberulent, the fourth 
while and shining; palet of third scale usually 

Woods and along thickets, soulhem New York to 
Pennsylvania and Micliigan. south to Florida, I.ouisi- 
aua, Nebraska and Texas. July-Sept. 

12. Panicum Portcri^num Nash. Porter's Panicum. 

Panitum lali/olium Walt. Fl. Car. 73. 1788. Not L. 

niiticum Walleri Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4: 363. 

1816, Not Pursh, i8h. 
Panicum lali/olium var. molle Vasey, Contr. Nat. Herb. 

3: 33. 1892. Not P. molle Sw. 1788. 
Pantcunt Porterianum Nash, Bull. Ton. Club, 31: 41a 


Culms erect, i"-!" tall, simple or somewhat dicbo- 
to m ona l y branched above, the nodes detisely barbed. 
Sheaths ^nerally softly pubescent ; leaves ovate to 
broadly lanceolate, i'-i' long, yi'-\%' wide, cordate- 
ctaspiog at base, acute, usually softly pubescent ; pan- 
icle included or somewhat exsertcd ; branches spread- 
ing or ascending, bearing few elliptic short-pedicelled 
appresaed spikeiets a"-2ji" long; first scale one-third 
to one-half as long as the pubescent and eqnal second 
and third ones ; fourth scale about as long as the third. 

In woods, Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, south to 
Florida and Texas. June-Aug. 

(Fig. 254.) 


Panicum commutlktuni Schultes. 


Variable Panicum. (Fig. 255. ) 

nervosum Muhl. Gram. 116. 1817? Not 


romiRu'a/uffl Schultes, Mant. 1: 341. 1S24. 

Culms erect, I'-i" tall, rather slender, glabnms, 
or pubescent especially at the nodes, simple, finally 
dichotomously branched above. Sheaths glabrous 
or puljerulent, generally eiliate; leaves 3'-4' long, 
X'-i' wide, sparingly eiliate at the base, acute, 
glabrous or puberulent, those of the branches gen- 
erally broader and more crowded than thoae of the 
main stem ; panicle a'-^' long, lax, the branches 
spreading ; spikeiets i"-iX" long, ellipsoid ; first 
scale about one-fourth as long as the spikelet, i- 
nerved ; second and third scales equal, 7-tterved, 
pubescent ; fonrth scale oval, obtuse, apiculate, 
about 1" long; palet of third scale usually empty. 

14. Panicum macrocilrpon Le Conte. 

Ivarge-fniited Panicum. (Fig. 256.) 
ftniVuiB macrocarpon Le Conte; Torr. Cat. 91. 1819. 
Calros 1"-^" tall, erect, simple or somewhat 
bnuched above, smooth; the nodes, at least the 
upper ones, naked. Sheaths smooth and glabrous, 
dliale; leaves 3'-?' long, 9"-i;i' wide, cordate- 
duping at base, acuminate, smooth aod glabrous 
or nearly so on both surfaces, eiliate ; panicle ^'-t/ 
'"igi generally long-exscrted, rarely included, its 
branches more or lessoscending ; spikeiets iji"-a" 
long, turgid, oval to obovoid ; second and third 
•ctles broadly oval, obtuse, 9-nerved, pubescent, 
the fourth oval, rather acute, 1^" loug. 

The more simple culms, glabrous aheaths. let 
BodCB and the turgid spikeiets readily dislingi: 
■pedes from either P. Porterianum or P. cl 
tum. Moist places, Vermont to New Yor 
Jcreey and Pennsylvania. July-Auit. 


15. Panicum clandestinum L. Hispid Panicum. (Fig. 257.) 

I. 17S.V 

\ S. 141. I«24. 

Culms erect or aicending, i>i°-4° tall, rather 
etoat, simple at lint, much braached later In the 
season. Sheaths longer than the interaodes, much 
crowded on the branches, papillose- hispid, especi- 
ally the upper ones; leaves a'-8' long, %'-i\' 
wide, cordate -clasping at baie, acuminate, smooth 
and gtabroas, the margins ciliate at base ; primary 
panicle somelinies long-ezserted; panicles of the 
branches below included in the sheaths, rarely 
slightly exBcrted: spikelets l"-l%" long, ellipsoid; 
first scale about one-third aa long as the spikelet: 
second and third oval, acutish, 9-nerved, the fourth 
oval, obtuse, apiculate, whitish, shining. 

16. Panicum xanth6physum A. Gray. 
Slender Panicum. (Fig, 258.) 

. Lye- N. Y. 3: 

Culms erect, I'-i" tall, simple. Sheaths spar- 
ingly papillose-pubescent; ligule very short; leaves 
3''-6' long, '/^'-}i' wide, rounded at base, long- 
acuminate, erect, smooth and glabrous; panicle 
long-ezserted, linear, i}i'-4' long, its branches ap- 
pressed ; spikelets few, about i%" long, obovoid, 
pubescent or glabrate; first scale about one-half as 
long as the nearly equal obtuse second and third; 
fourth scale indurated and shining, elliptic or oval. 

Dry soil, Maint and Ontario to Manitoba, south to 
New Jersey and Pennsyh'ania. Plant Ug;ht gr^en, 
becoming yellowish in dryinfi:. ]unc-Aug. 

17. Panicum Scribneriinum Nash. Scribner's Panicum. (Fig. 259.) 

turn var. wiHor Scribn. Bull. L'niv. Tenn, 

Not P. capillare var. tninus Muhl. 1817. 

tn icoparmm S. Wata. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 631. 

Not Lara. 1797. 
IB pauciflorum A. Gray, Man. 613. 1848. Not 

m Scibiienaiium Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, M: 411. 

Culms erect. 6'-i° tall, simple or late in the season 
dichotomonsly branched above, sparingly pubescent 
Sheaths strongly papillose-hispid, sometimes glabrate ; 
leaves a'-4' long, 3"-6" wide, rounded or tmnt^te at 
base, acnminale, more or less spreading, smooth above, 
scabrous beneath ; panicles small, the primary one ex- 
serted, ovoid, i}^'-3' long, the secondary ones much 
smaller and more or less included ; branches of the 
primary panicle spreading, 8"-iJi' long, often 
flexuous ; spikelets turgid, obovoid, about i)4" long. 

In dry or moist soil, Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, 
south to Virginia, KanHos and .\nzona. Jnne-AuK. 


i8. Panicum Wilcoxi&num Vasey. Wil- 
cox's Panicura. {Fig, 260.) 

Panicum mioii-ianum Vasey, Bull. U. S. Dept. 
ARric. Bot Div. 8: 3a. 1889. 

Culms erect, 6'-ii>' tall, apanoKly pubescent. 
Sheaths papillose -pnbeacent ; ligule a ring of hairs ; 
leaves i>i'-3' long, less than 3" wide, long-acum- 
inate, strongly pubescent with long hairs ; panicle 
about I Ji' long, oblong to ovoid, compact; branches 
less than i' long, spreading or ascending, fleicaous ; 
spikelets about iX" long, ellipsoid; first scale 
about one-quarter as long as the spikelet ; second 
and third scales about equal, pubescent ; fonrtb 
«CBle about as long as the third, obtuse. 

In dry soil, Nebraska. July-Aug. 

19. Panicum bore&le Nash. Northern Panicum. (Fig. a6i.) 

Panicum bortali Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, l 


Culms at first erect and simple, i°-i' tall, later 
decumbent and somewhat branched, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, 
usually smooth, ciliate ; ligule short, ciliate ; leaves 
3'-5' long, %'-%' wide, erect, truncate or rounded 
at the sparsely ciliate base, acuminate ; panicle t'- 
4' long, ovoid, its branches I'-i' long, spreading or 
ascending ; spilcelets \" long, about equalling the 
pedicels, ellipsoid, somewhat pubescent ; first scale 
ovate, obtuse, about one-third as long as the spike- 
let ; second and third scales oblong-ovate, 7-nerved, 
pubescent, equalling the fourth, which is oval, 
acute, and slightly more than }i" long; palet of 
third scale usually empty. 

o New York. 

20. Panicum laxifldrum Lam. Lax-flowered Panicum. (Fig. 262.) 

Panicum laxiflor 

n Lam. Encycl. ^ 

Cnlnu erect, %'-W tall, simple, pubescent or glab- 
ntc; Sheaths shorter tban the interuodes, hirsute; 
leaves t%'-i' long, 2"-5" wide, erect, generally nar- 
rowed at base, long-acuminate, pubescent or glabrate ; 
panicle 3^-4' long, its axis and erect or spreading 
branches sometimes hirsute ; spikelets about \" long, 
tllipacMd or narrowly obovoid, strongly pubescent ; 
first scale minute, i-nerved; second and third about 
equal, 9-nerved, very pubescent, as long as the shining 
obtnse minutely apiculate fourth one ; third scale 
usually with an empty palet. 

Moist soil. ViifHnia to Kentucky, south to Florida. 
Kilo lepoited from much further north. It has been con- 
founded with the precedingr species. June-Aug:. 

Panicum nftidum Lam. Shining Panicura. (Fig. 263.) 

Patiicum nilidum Lam, Bncycl. 4: 748. 1797. 

Culms kt first simple, ii'-iS' tall, later profnselj- 
dichotomously branched, i°-3'' long. Sheatha glab- 
rous to pubcacent ; ligule pilose ; leaves glabrous to 
sparinglj hirante, tmncate or slightly ronoded at base, 
the primary ones I'-j' long, iJ4"-3" wide, erect, 
those of the branches f4'-i' long, i" wide or leas; 
primary panicle long-exserted, i'-a' long, ovoid, 
those of the braocbes smaller and exceeded by the 
leaves; spikelets abont >j" long, obovoid, pubescent, 
usually purple; first scale about one-third as long as 
thespikelel, i-nerved; second and third scales broadly 
oval or orbicular, j-nerved, shining ; fourth scale 
minutely apicnlate, Ji" long. 

Common in dry sandy soil, ii 
States, and probably much 1 

33. Panicum dich6tomum L. Forked Panicum. (Fig. 264.) 


Smooth and glabrous, or the lower nodes barbed, 
culms erect, ji'-i" tall, at 6rst simple, later pro- 
fusely dichotomonsly branched at about the middle. 
Leaves light green, widely spieading, generally 
much narrowed toward the base, the primary 
ones distant, 3'-3' long, t"-%" wide, those of 
the branches i' long or less, yi"-i" wide, some- 
times involute ; primary panicle usually long- 
exserted, I'-j' long: branches lax, spreading, 
bearing few apikelets ; secondary panicles smaller, 
not exceeding the leaves, their branches with very 
few spilcelets ; spikelets about i" long, ellipsoid, 

23. Panicum barbul&tum Michx. Barbed Panicum. (Fig. 265,) 


p barbalaluT 

Michx, Ft. Bor. Am. l; 49. 

Culms at first simple, erect, i°-i° tall, later pro- 
fusely branched for their whole length, 3°-4° long, 
prostrate or leaning, the nodes strongly barbed. 
Leaves smooth and glabrous, generally truncate or 
rounded at the base, the primary ones 3'-5' long, 
about }i' wide, widely spreading, the lower ones 
usually reflexed, those of the branches )i'-i' long, 
i"-3" wide ; primary panicle s'-j' long, exserted, 
ovoid, its branches ascending, rigid ; secondary 
panicles smaller, lax, not exceeding the leaves, the 
branches bearing few spikelets ; spikelets about 
^" long, ellipsoid, purple, glabrous; Gi^t scale 
about one-third as long as the spikelet, acnte. 



94. Panicum viscidum Ell. 

t scoparium Michi. PI. Bor. Am, i; 

am. 1797. 

. viicidum Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i; 1 


Velvety Panicum. (Fig. 266.) 

w- 1803. ^ 
y. {>l. 7. 

Cnlms erect, 3°-4° tall, simple or at length much 
branched above, vtlloas. Sheaths shorter than the 
iatemodes, villous: leaves generally narrowed, some- 
times rounded or truncate at base, softly pubescent, 
thoaeofthecnlm4'-7'long,5"-8" wide, distant, those 
of the branches I'-iJi' long, a"-S" wide, crowded ; 
primary panicle 3'-6' long, ovoid, branches ascending; 
secondary panicles much smaller, not exceeding the 
leaves ; spikelets ovoid to oval, about i%" long, pu- 
bescent ; first scale broadly ovate, about one-fourth . 
long as the spikelet ; second and third scales 
orbicular, 9-nerved, pabescent, the fourth oval, 
late, i" long. 

es nearly / 

35. Panicum puWscens Lam. Hairy Panicum. (Fig. 267.) 

Panicum pubescens I,am. Eucyol. 4: 748. 1797. 
Panicum lanuginosum Bll. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: 113, 1817. 

Culms at first erect and simple, later profusely 
branched and leaning or ascending, glabrous or pu- 
bescent. Sheaths hirsute to villous, often papillose ; 
leaves rounded, truncate or often narrowed at the 
base, pubescent or glabrate, generally more or less 
spreading, those of the culm 2'-^' long, those of the 
branches much shorter; primary panicles less than 3' 
long, ovoid, their branches ascending ; lateral pan- 
icles much smaller, not exceeding the leaves ; spike- 
lets hardly i" long, pubescent. 

In dry soil, co 

a6. Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Starved Panicum. (Fig. 268.) 
m Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 69. 1814. Not 

Paxinttin stricii 

R. Br. 181 a. 

AniCMiR depattperalHm Muhl. Gram. 

Ptnicun involulum Torr. PI. U, S, i: 


Cnhns erect, i" tall or less, simple or branched at 
bsK. Sheaths glabrous to hirsute ; leaves erect, 
elongated, yi"-t" wide, mostly crowded at base and 
*(pialliug or one-half as long a.i the culm, the upper 
nlni leaf often much exceeding the panicle ; primary 
puide generally much exserted from the upper 
•heath, l'-3' long, usually linear, its branches mostly 
met; secondary panicles on very short basal branches 
■ad often concealed by the lower leaves; spikelets 

)ba. south to Plorida 


vj. Panicum angustifdlium Ell. Narrow-leaved Panicum. (Fig. 269.) 


ft BI1. BoL S. C. & Ga. I: IM. ll^lT. 
uw S. Wats in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 
Not Kunth. i»ii. 

6, 633, in part. 

Calma erect, I'-i" tall, glabroui, at first simple, 
later prorowl; branched above. Sheaths glRbrona or 
the baaal ones pubescent, those on the calm shorter 
than the internodes, those on the branches crowded ; 
leaves elongated, i"-3" wide, narrowed to the base, 
firm, g1abrau9, those of the culm distant, those of the 
branchea ahortcr and crowded ; primary paaicle long- 
exserted, t'~y long, its branches ascending or erect ; 
lateral panicles smaller, shorter than the leaves; 
spikelets few, about \H" long, elliptic to obovoid; 
first scale onc-fonrth to one-third as long as the spike- 
let; second and third oval, 9-nerved, pubescent; fourth 
oval, minutely pubescent at the apex. 

Missouri, soDth to Florida 

a8. Panicum virgEktum L. Tall Smooth Panicum. (Fig. 270.) 

Panicum virgalHtn 

>■ PI. sg. 17S3. 

Culms erect from a creeping rootstoclc,' J^-S" tall, 
glabrous. Sheaths smooth and glabrous ; leaves elon- 
gated, 1° or more long, 3"-*" wide, flat, long-acumin- 
ate, narrowed toward the base, glabrous, rough on 
the margins; panicle 6'-ao' long, the lower branches 
4'-io' long, more or less widely spreading or sometimes 
nearly erect; spikelets ovate, acnminate, i"-3}i" 
long; first scale acuminate, about one-half as long as 
the sptkelet, 3-5-nerved ; second scale generally 
longer than the others, 5-7-nerved, the third similar 
and usually subtending a palet and stamiuate flower ; 
fourth scale shining, shorter than the others. 

39. Panicum am&rum Ell. Sea-beach Panicum. (Fig. 271.) 

Panicum amarum Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: lai, 18:7. 

Smooth and glabrous, glaucous, culms arising from 
long branching rootstocks, i°-3° tall, decumbenL 
Sheaths overlapping ; leaves 5'-i° long, 3"-6" wide, 
long-acuminate, thick and leathery, involute on the 
margins, at least toward the apex, the uppermost leaf 
generally exceeding the panicle ; panicle linear, less 
than 1° long, its branches erect ; spikelets a>i"-3" 
long; first, second and third scales acuminate, the first 
one-half to two-thirds as long as the spikelet, the third 
somewhat longer than the second, usually with a palet 
and staminate flower, the fonrth elliptic, about i V long. 

On sea beachen, Connecticut to Florida. Sept.-Nov. 


30. Panicum milidceum L. Millet. 

(Fig. 272.) 

Panicam miiiaceiim L. Sp. PI, 58. 17S3- 

Calms erect or decumbent, rather stout, 1° or more 
tall, glabrons or hirsute- Sheaths papillose- hirsute ■ 
leaves s'-io* long, J^'-i' wide, more or less pubes 
cent; panicle rather dense, 4'- 10' long; branches erect 
or ascending; spilcelets 3"~iyi" tang, acumiaatc 
fiistscalc about tvo-thirdsBS long as thespikelet actim 
inate, 5-7-nerved ; second scale 2"-2yi" long acum 
inate, 13-ncrved, somewhat exceeding the 7-13 nerved 
acuminate third one, which subtends an empty palet 
fomlh scale shorter than the third, becoming indu 
rated, obtuse. 

In wast. 

31. Panicum proliferum Lam. Spreading Panicum. (Fig- 273.) 

Panicum proliferam Lam. Encyel. 4: 7470. 1797. 
Panicum geniculaluin Muhl. Giam. 133, 1317. 

Culms at first erect, i°-3° tall, simple, later de- 
cumbent and geniculate, 4°~6° long, branched at all 
the upper nodes. Sheaths loose, glabrous, some- 
what flattened; ligule ciliate; leaves 6'-2° long, 
2"- to" wide, long-acuminate, scabrous on the mar- 
gins and occasionallj on the nerves; panicle pyra- 
midal, 4'-i6' long, lower branches 3'-6' long, at 
length widely spreading; spiketets i"-tji" long, 
crowded, lanceolate, acute, glabrous, sometime* 
purplish; first scale about ooe-fonrth as long as the 
spikelet, enclosing its base; second and third scalea 
, about equal, acute, 5-7-nerved; fourth scale elliptic, 
I shining, somewhat shorter than or equalling the 

3a. Panicum capill&re L. Witch Grass. 
Tumble-weed. (Ftg. 274-) 
A»t(<;Hin capniare L. Sp. PI. 58. 1753. 

Culma erect or decumbent, i"-!" tall, simple or some- 
times sparingly branched. Sbeatbs papillose-hirsute; 
leaves 6'-!° lon^, 3"-8" wide, raore or less pubescent; 
terminal panicle generally 8'-i4' long, lower branches 
at fimt included in the upper sheath, finally exserted 
and widely spreading, (>'-i& long ; lateral panicles, 
when present, smaller ; spilcelcts i"-!^" long, acu- 
minate ; first scale one-foarlh to one-half as long as 
the spikelet; second and third scales nearly equal, 
vei7 acute, the fourth ii" long. 

In dry soil, common as a weed in cultivated fields, Nova 
Scotia to British Columbia, south to Florida, Nevada and 
Texas. July-Sept. 

Paalcum capilUre GatUagfai Nash. 
Panicvm capillare var. campesire GattinBSr, Tenn. Fl. 94. 1887. Not P. campeslre Neea, 1839. 

Culros rooic slender than in the type; terminal panicle rarely over 6' lonr, the lateral ones vely 
nametoua- Hoist places, New Jersey to Tennessee, Missouri and southward. 


33. Panicum flixile (Gattinger) Scribn. Wiry Panicum. (Fig. 275.) 

rile Gattinger, Tenn. Fl, c 

Panicum flexile SdOia. Bull. Torr. Club, JO:476. 181 

Culms erect, 6'-i8' tall, slender, ainiple 
Bomewbat branrhed at base, bearded at the nod< 
Sheaths papillose-hiraute; leaves 4'-$' long, i"-i 
wide, erect, long-acnminate, more or less pubc 
cent; panicle 4'-^ long, uatrowlj ovoid to oblot 
in outline, its brancbes ascending, the lower on 
a'-3ji'long; 8piteletsiJi"long, muchsborterthi 
the pedicels, acuminate; first scale about one- fouil 
as long as the spikelet ; second and third scali 
about equal, 5-7 nerved; fourth scale elliptic. soiH' 
what shorter than the third. 

MiEsouri. Aug. -Oct. 

ir dry soil, Pennsylva 

Tennessee u 

34. Panicum autumnlkle Bosc. DifFtise Panicum. 

v^.^ Not 

Panicum nudum Walt. Fl. Car. 73. 
Panicum difergens Muhl. Gram. 

H.B.K. 1815. ^ y 

/Vlni'CHinau/ufnna/cBosc;Spreng. SjTst. I^JW. i l8»5. 

Culms erect or decumbent, I'-a" tall, generally 
mnch branched at the base, slender. Sheaths 
shorter than the internodes, the upper glabrous, 
the lower sometimes densely pubescent ; leaves 
iJi'-4' long, i"-3" wide, ascending, acnmioate, 
glabrous ; panicle s'-ia' long, bearded in the axils, 
the lower branches 4'-8' long, at fiist erect with 
the lower portion included in the upper sheath, 
finally exserted and widely spreading at maturity ; 
spilcelets lanceolate, about \%" long, acuminate, 
glabrous or pubescent, on capillary pedicels of 
many times their length ; lirst scale minute ; sec- 
ond and third equal, acute, glabrous 
villous, the fourth lanceolate, \%" long. 

, Panicum minus (Muhl.) Nash. Wood Panicum. (Fig. 277.) 
Panicum capillare vox. minor Huhl. Gram. 114. 1 

Panicum cabillare var. sylvaticum Torr. Fl. 149. 1™ 

Not P. syh-alicum Lam. 1797. 
Panicum liiffusum Fursfa, Fl. Am. Sept. i: 68. i^i 

NotSw. 1788. 
Panicum minus Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, »: 4*1. T89 

Culms erect, or occasionally decumbent, S'-> 
long, slender, somewhat branched at base. Sbcttt 
hirsute ; leaves a'-4' long, i"-3" wide, erect, mw 
or less pubescent ; panicle 4'-^ long, its lo«' 
branches 3'-4' long, spreading or ascendini 
spikelets about ^" long, elliptic, acute, smoott 
borue in pairs at the extremities of the ultim*! 
divi^ons of the panicle; first scale about oae-Uii' 
as long as the equal acute second and third one 
the fourth somewhat shorter than the third. 


36. Panicum verrucdsum Muhl. Warty Panicum. (Fig. 278.) 

n Muhl. Oram. 113. 
1 debile Ell. BoL S. C. & Ga. i: 

Deaf. 1800. 

1J9. 1817. Not 

Culms erect or decumbent, slender, senerally mnch 
brancbed at baee. Sheaths glabrous, much shorter 
than the totmiodea ; ligole abort, ciliate ; leaves z'-7' 
long, i"--4" wide, erect or aaceudini;, glabrous, rough 
on the margins ; panicle 3'-i3' long, its lower 
branches 3'-6' long, naked below, strict and ascend- 
ing, or lax and spreading; spiketets about H" long, 
elliptic, acutish, borne in pairs along the branches, 
the first scale about one-quarter as lo^g as the warty 
second and third, the fourth scale apiculate. 

37. Panicum gibbum Ell. Gibbous Panicum, (Fig. 279,) 

Panicum gibbum Ell. 1 

L S. C. & Ga. I 


Culms erect from a creeping base, 3°-6° tall, 
dichotomouslj branched below. Lower sheaths 
densely hirsute, the upper generally glabrous ; leaves 
3'-7' long, 3"-io" wide, usuallf spreading, more or 
less pubescent ; panicle z'-t)' long, dense and con- 
tracted; branches ^'-i' long, erect; spikelfels i^"- 
3" long, elliptic, somewhat acute; firstscale about one- 
quarter as long as the spikelet ; second scale gibbous 
at base, ii-nerred; third scale abovt equalling the 
second, 7-nerved, empty, the fourth one shorter than 
the second. 

13. IXOPHORUS Schlecht. Linnaea, ii: 420. 1861-2. 
[Sbtaria Beauv. Agiost. 113. tSii. Kot Ach. 1798.] 

Mostly annual grasses with erect culms, flat leaves,theinfiore3cencein spike-like panicles. 
Spikelets i-flowered, or rarely with a second staminate flower, the basal bristles single or in 
clnatera below the articulation of the rachilla, and therefore persistent. Scales of the sptke~ 
let 4, the three outer membranous, the third often subtending a palet and rarely a staminate 
flower ; the inner or fourth scale cbartaceons, subtending a palet of similar texture and a 
perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, elongated. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, 
enclosed in the scales, [Greek, in reference to the viscid spikelets of some species.] 

Species about 10, in temperate and tropical regions. Those occurring in our range are intro- 
dnced from the Old World. 

Bristles downwardly barbed. 
Bristles upwardly baibed. 

Mature fourth scale of spikelet oval in outline, 
transversely rugose. 

Mature fourth acale generally elliptic in outline, 

Spikes i'-3M' long, M' or less thick; spikelets about l" long, always much exceeded by ^ 
the green bristles. 3. /, viridis. 

Spikes 4' -9' long, K'~s' thick; spikelets about iH" long, equalled or exceeded by the 
usually purplish bristles, 4. /. Italicus. 

I, /. i-erlicillalus. 

very convex, almost hemispheric, coarsely 

», /. glaucus. 
only moderately convex, finely transversely 


t. Ixophorus verticill&tus (L.) Nash. Foxtail-grass. (Fig. 280.) 

Panicum verlicUlatum L. Sp. PI. Ed, i, 82. 1762. 
Seiaria Virlicillala Beauv. Agrost. 51. 1812. 
Ckamaeraphis verticillala Porter, Bull. Torr. Clnb, : 

196. 1893. 
Ixophorus i-erlicillalus Nash, Bull. Toir. Club, M; 4: 

Culms erect or decumbent, i"-]" tall, more or I< 
branched. Sheaths glabrous; leaves I'-S' loag, % 
%' wide, scabrous above; spikes a'-i' long; spikeli 
about \" long, equalled or exceeded by the don 
wardly barbed bristles; first scale less than one-half 
long as the spikelet, i-nerved; second and third sea 
5-7-nerTed, equalling the oval fourth one; palet 
third scale empty. 

About dwellings and ii 
Ontario to New Jersey an 
Europe. July-^pt. 

a. Ixophorus gla^cus(L.} Nash. Yellow Foxtail. Pigeon-grass. (Fig. 28 

Panicum glaueum L. Sp, PI. 51^. 1753- 
Seiaria glauca Beauv. Afirost. 51. 1812. 
Chanuuraphis glauca Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 767. 1891. 
Ixophorus glaucus Nasli, Bull. Torr. Club, 2a: 423. 

Culms erect or sometimes decumbent, i''-^" tall, 
more or less branched. Sheaths glabrous; leaves 
3'-6' long, 2"-4" wide; spikes i'-4' long; spikclets 
\ii"-i!4" long, oval, much shorter than the up- 
wardly barbed yellowish brown bristles; first scale 
1-3-nerved, somewhat shorter than the 5-nerved 
second one; third scale 5-nerved, equalling the 
fourth which is coarsely transversely rugose, very 
convex, V-shaped in cross-section, about twice as 
long as the second; palct of third scale usually 

In 1 
out North A 

troublesome weed. Naturalized from Europe, July- 

3. Ixophorus viridis (L.) Nash. Green Foxtail-grass. (Fig. 282.) 
Kitticvm -.iride I,. Sp. PI. Ed. 2, 83. 1763. 
Seiaria viridis Beauv, .^grost. 51. 1812. 
Chamaeraphis viridis Porter, Bull. Torr. Club. » i? 

Ixophorus viridis Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, 3i: 423. iH 

Culms erect or ascending, i^-j" tall, simpl 
or branched. Sheaths glabrous; leaves i'-li/^oDf 
2"-6" wide, usually scabrous above; spikes I'-J 
long; spikelets about i" long, elliptic, muchshorte 
than the green, or sometimes yellowish, upward^ 
barbed bristles; first scale less than one-half as Ion 
as the spikelet, 1-3-nerved; second and third scslt 
5-nerved; fourth scale finely and faintly traaawc*' 
rugose, or pitted, striate, only moderately coDttJ 
equalling or slightly exceeding the second ;p»le'' 
third scale usually empty. 

In waste places and cultivated KToDuds, througl 
out North America except the extreme north, and atlr 
atToublesomeweed. Nalulaliied f torn Bnrope. Jul] 

■ plac 

a except the < 


Ixophorus ItSlicus (I,.) Nasli. Italian Millet. 

(Fig. Z83.) 
mm /laltium L Sp, PI, 56 '7M. 
a ItaJiitt R. St S. Sys(. »: 493. 1817. 
luatraphU llati,a KuilUe, Rev. Cea. PI. ;l». 1S91. 
iomi tlalini! Xasli, Ball, Toir. Club, m: 413, 1895. 

B creel, j'-s' tall. Sheaths smooth or scab- 
1; leaves b'-i" or wore iu length, %'~\%' wide, 
([cnerally scahrons; spikes 4'-9' long, Ja'-a' thick, 
nsnally very compound; spikelets aboul iX" long. 
elliptic ciinalled. or exceeded by the upwardly barbed 
generally purplish bristles; first scale less than one- 
half as long aa the apikelel. i-j-nerved; second and 
third 5~;-nerved; fourth scale equalling or somewhat 
exceeding the second, finely and faintly transverse- 
ragoec, or pitted, striate, only moderately convex; 
palcl of third scale minute or wanting. 

In waste places, Mcaptd from cultivation, Quebec 10 

jGlincHjta. soulli lo Florida and Texa- "- -■■ ■' 

TWorld. Jiily-Sfpl. 

Hntignrinn Grass. 

14. CENCHRUS L. Sp. PI. 1049. 


ir perennial grasses with usually flat leaves. Inflorcsceacc in spikes. Spike- 
laublended by a spiny involucre which is riccidnoat with Iheui at maturity. Scales 4; 
I first hyaline; the second and third membranous, the latler souietiuies having a palct 
fBtaminate flower in its axil; the fourth cliartaccous, subtending a palet of similar slmc- 
^ which encloses a perfect flower, SUuieus 3. Styles united below. Stigmas plumose. 
D free, enclosed in the scales. [Ancient Greek name for some grass, probably Millet.] 

Cenchrus tribuloides L. Bur-grass. 
Hedgeliog-gra-ss. (Fig. 284.) 

hi-us Iribuloides L. Sp. fl, I050. 1753. 
'facknis CaroliniaHHs Walt. l-'l. Car. 75. 1788, 

Culms erect or decumbent from an aimualrDot. 
usually robust. S'-»Ji° long, branching freely. 
Sheaths usually very loose, compressed, smooth; 
leaves iS'-s' long, i"-4" wide, flat or somewhat 
planate, spikes i'-2,'s' long, sometimes par- 
tisllj included in the upper sbeath; involucres 
crowded on the scabrous rachis, j-flowered, glo- 
bose, pubescent except at the base, forming spiny 
burs, the spines stout; spikelets about 3" long. 

<h(ites and in WLiHtc places, Maine and On- 
incaota, south \a Florida, Colorado and 
letimes a noxious wcrd. .\pparently per- 
Stxithcrn Slates, Aug.-SepL 

ZIZANIOPSIS Doell & Asciiers. in Mart. FI. Bras. 1. Pan ;, 12. 

Tall aquatic 
Spikelets l-flowercd, the 1 
bue. Scales a, nearly eqi 
«<eute and bearing au awn. 
t«adilf separable. [Name 
^ni monolypic Bcmit, nf X 

grasses, with long flat leaves and paniculate inQoreacence. 
laminate borne at the top of the branches, the pistillate at tbi- 
a!. membranous, the outer one in the pistillate spikelets broad. 
Stamens 6. Styles united. Grain nearly globose, the pericarp 
iu allusion to the resemblance of this grns^ to Zi:ania.'\ 
iiiiwrale and tropical ilinvrica. 


Zizaniopsis milidcea (Michx.) Doell 
& Aschers. Zizaniopsis. (Fig. 285. J 

Zixania miliacm Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 74. iSoj. 

Culms 4°-i5° tall from a long and creeping root- 
stock, robnat.glBbrous: Sheaths loo«e, glabrous; 
ligule 4"-7" long, thin-inembranons ; leaves i" 
longormoie, ^'-I'wide, smooth, glabrous; panicle 
dense, i°-i>i° lottg, bbttow; branches erect; atam- 
inate«pikelets3"^"long, theouterscale j-nerved, 
the inner 3-nerved, both acnte; pistillate spilcelets 
abont 3" long, the outer scale about equalling the 
inner, bearing an awn! 1 '^-3" long, scabrous, 5- 
nerved; inner scale 3-DerTedi acute.- 

j6. ZIZANIA L. Sp. PI. 991- (i753-) 
A tall aquatic monoecious grass with long flat leaves and an ample panicle. Spikelets 
i-flowered, the pistillate borne on the upper branches of the panicle, the staminate on the 
lower. Scales a, membranous, the outer somewhat longer, acute in the staminate, long- 
awned in the pistillate, spikelets. Stamens 6. Styles nearly distinct Grain linear, 5"-8" 
long. [From an ancient Greek name for Darnel.] 
A monotypic genus of North America and Asia. 

I. Zizania aqu6tica L. Wild Rice. 
Indian Rice, Water Oats, Reed. 

(Fig. 286.) 
Zizania aqualica L. Sp. PI. 99'- '753- 

Culms erect from an annual root, 3°-lo° tall, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths loose, glabrous : 
ligule about %' long, thin -membranous ; leaves 
1° or more long, }i'-i^' wide, more or less 
roughened, especially above, glabrous ; panicle 
I'-i" long, the upper branches erect, the lower 
widely spreading ; staminate spikelets 3"-6" 
long, scales acute or awn-poittted, outer s- 
nerved, the inner 3-nerved ; scales of the linear 
pistillate spikelets 4"-i2" long, the outer one 
5-nerved, with au awn I'-i' long, the inner 
narrower, 3-nerved, awn-pointed. 

17. HOMALOCENCHRUS Mieg.; Hall. Hist. Stirp. Helv. 2: 201. 1768. 

[Leersia Sw. Nov. Gen, &. Sp. ai. 1788. Not Hedw. 1782.] 

Marsh grasses with flat narrow generally rough leaves, and paniculate inflorescence. 
Spikelets i-flowcred, perfect, strongly flattened laterally, and usually more or less imbri- 
cated. Scales z, chartsceous, the outer one broad and strongly conduplicate, the inner 
much narrower. Stamens t-6. Styles short, distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain ovoid, 
free. [Greek, in reference to the supposed resemblauce of these grasses to Millet.] 

About 5 species, natives of temperate and tropical countries. Besides the following, a others 
occur in the nouthcrn United States. 
Spikelets oblong, their width less than one-half their length, 

Spikelets i?i''-iii" long; panicle .branches usually rigid. 

Spikelets 2"-2W" long; panicle-branches generally lax. 
Spikelels'oval, their width more than one-half their len 

t imbricated. 

I. H. Vitxinicus. . 
. . - - a, //. oryioides. 

length, much imbricated. 3. H. ttnliealaris. 


I. Homalocenchnis Virginicus (Willd.) Britton, White Grass. (Fig, 287.) 

r^ersia Virginica Willd. Sp. PI, i: 3»S, 1797. 
Asprtlta Virginica R. & S. Syst. 3: a66. 1817- 
Homalocenchrus Virginicus Britton, Trans. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci. 9: 14. xSS^. 

Culms glabrous, decumbent, 1°-}° loug, much 
branched, slender, smooth. Sheaths usually 
shorter than the internodes; lignle short; leaves 
?'-6' long, i"-8" wide, acute, usually narrowed 
toward the baae, scabrous; terminal panicle finally 
long-exserted, 3'-8' long, its branches generally 
tpieading, nsnally naked below tile middle; lateral 
panicles smaller and usually included; spilceleta 
ili"-iyi"\ons, about >£" wide, oblong, appressed; 
outer scale hispid on the keel and mai^ns; inner 
scale hispid on the keel; s 

2. Homalocenchnis oryzoides (L. ) Poll. Rice Cut-grass. (Fig. 288.) 

Phalaris oryzoides L. Sp, PI. 55. 1753. 
Homalocenchnis oryzoidesVau. Hist. PI. Palat. 1:52. 1776. 
I.eersia orysoides&vi. Fl. Ind. Occ. i; 131. 1797, 

Culms glabrous, decumbent, l°-4° long, much 
branched, rather stout, smooth. Sheaths Sorter 
than the internodes, very rough; ligule very short; 
leaves s'-io* long, a"-5" wide, acute, narrowed to- 
ward the base, scabrous ; terminal panicle s'-g' loug, 
finally loug-exserted, its branches lax, naked at the 
base, at lirst erect, later more or less widely spreading ; 
lateral panicles generally included; spikelete 2"-iJi" 
long, aboDi H" wide, elliptic; scales pubescent, the 
outer one hispid on the keel and on the margins; inner 
scale much narrower, hispid on the keel; t 
anthers yellow. 

In swamps and along streams 
tangled masses, Nova Scotia to wi 
Florida, Kansas and Texas. Also 
of Europe and Asia, Aug, -Sept. 

often forming dense 
ttem Ontario, south to 
in the temperate parts 

3. Homalocenchrus lenticul^is (Michx.) 
Scribn. Catch-fly Grass. {Fig. 289.) 

33. 1894- 

Culms glabrous, erect, j''-4° tall, usually simple, 
smooth. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, scab- 
rons; lignle very short; leaves 4'-i2' long, 4"-io" 
wide, acute, more or less narrowed at the base, scab- 
rt>us; panicle4;^'-9'Iong, finally exserted, its branches 
lax, naked below, at first erect, later spreading; 
spikelets much imbricated, 3"-3j^" long, \"-i^" 
wide, broadly oval; scales smooth or sparingly hispid- 
scabrous, the outer one strongly 3-nerved, hispid on the 
keel and margins, the inner much narrower, strongly 
i-nerved, hispid on the keel ; stamens 3. 



i8. PHALARIS L. Sp. PI. 54. 1753. 
Annual or perennial grasBcs with Rat leaves, the infloreAcence Bpilce-Iike, capitate ot a 
narrow panicle. Spikelets crowded, i-flonered. Scales j, the firat and second about equal 
in teagth, strongly comprMscd laterally, usaatly ving-keeled ; third and fonrth scale* mncli 
smaller or leduced to mere rudiments ; fifth scale subtending a palet similar to itaelf and a 
perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, 
smooth, enclosed in the scales. [Greek, alluding to the shining grain,] 

n Europe. Besides the following, 3 Dthers occur in 

le. I. P. arundiiiatoi. 

IT ^ike<like panicle, 
reduced, rigid, subulate, haiiy. 

a. A Carolhii- 

Spikelets broad; third and fourth scales thin-membranous, broadly lanceolate, glabrous < 
sparingly haiiy. 3. P. Canariensis. 

Spikelets nairow; third and fourth scales much reduced, rigid, subulate, haiiy 

I. Phalaris anindin&cea L. Reed Canarj'-grass. (Fig. 290.) 

PhalaHs arundim 

a L. Sp. PI. 55. 1753, 

Glabrous, culms erect, a°-5° tall, simple, smooth. 
Sheaths shorter than the iutemodes; ligule i"-i" 
long, obtuse, membranous ; leaves 3ji'-io' long, 3"- 
S" wide, acuminate, smooth or scabrous ; panicle 3'- 
8' long, dense, its branches }4'-i}4' long, erect or 
sometimes slightly spreading; spikelets 2j4"-3" 
long; outer scales scabrous, 3-nerved; third and fourth 
scales less than one-half as long as the fifth, subulate, 
rigid, hairy ; filth scale about three-fourths as long as 
the spikelct, cbartaceons, pubescent with long ap- 
pressed silkj hairs, subteuding a palet of similar 
texture and a perfect flower. 

In moist or wet soil, No^-a Scotia to British Columbia, 
south to New Jersey, Kentucky, Kansas and Nevada. 
Also in Europe and Asia July-Aug. The Ribbon-grass 
or Painted-grasa of cultivation, the so-called variety pirla. 
has leaves varie^ted with green and white stripe!- 
derivative of this specie;' — -^ " — ■■'■ 

I, and sometimes escapes 

a. Phalaris Caroliniikna Walt. Carolina Canary-grass. (Fig. 291.) 

phalaris Caroliniana Walt. Fl. Car. 74. 1 
Phalart! tnUrmedia Bosc. ; Poir. in I* 

Suppl. i: 300. 1810, 
Phalaris Americana Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga 1 

Culms i'-^yi" tall, erect ot sometimes decum- 
bent at base, simple or somewhat branched, smooth 
or roughisb, glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the internodes ; Hgule i"-3" long, rounded, 
thin-membranous ; leaves 2'-6' long, a"-5" wide, 
smooth or slightly scabrous ; spike-like panicle i'- 
4' long, dense, its branches about %' long, erect ; 
spikelets 2%" long, the outer scales more or less 
scabrous, 3-nerved, wing-keeled ; third and fourth 
scales less than one-half as long as the fifth, subu- 
late, hairy; fifth scale about two-thirds as long as the 
spikelet, acuminate, pubescent with long appressed 
silky hairs. 


3. Phalaris Canari^nsis L. Canary- 
grass. (Fig. 292.) 
Phalaris Canan'ensis L- Sp. PI. 54. 1753- 

More or less roughened, culms t°-3° tall, 
erect, simple or branched, glnbrons. Sheaths 
shorter thaD the interoodes; llgule about t" 
long, rounded; leaves a'-ia' long, a"-6" wide, 
strongly scabrous; spikes j^'-ij^' long, ovoid or 
oblong; spikeleta 3"-4" long; outer scales gla- 
brous or sparingly pubescent ; third and fourth 
scales about half the length of the fifth, broadly 
lanceolate, thin -membranous, sparingljr hairy; 
fifth scale about two-thirds aa long as the spike- 
let, acute, pubescent with appiessed mlky hairs. 

Outer scales 
The grain ii 

suallj- nearly whiu 

food of Canary birds. 

19. ANTHOXANTHUM L. Sp. PI. 28. 1753. 
Fragrant annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and spike-like panicles. Spike- 
lets i-flowered, narrow, somewhat compressed. Scales 5 ; the two outer acute or produced 
into a short awn, the first shorter than the second; third and fourth scales much shorter. 
3-lobed. awned on the back ; the fifth scale shorter than the others, obtuse. Stamens 2. 
Styles distinct Stigmas elongated, plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scales. [Greek, 
referring to the yellow hue of the spikelets in some species.] 

A genus of 

natives of Europe, 

I. Anthoxanthum odordtum L- 
Sweet Vernal-grass. (Fig. 293.) 

AalhoxanlAum odoraium L. Sp. PI a8. 1753. 

Culms I'-i" tail, erect, simple or bmnched, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the 
internodes ; ligule l"-2" long, acute, membra- 
nous ; leaves ii'-6' long, l"-3" wide, glabrous 
or nearly so ; spike-like panicles i'-^}i' long, 
branches short, erect or ascending; spikelets 4" 
long, crowded; outer scales acnte, glabrous or 
pubescent, the first i-nerved, half as long as the 
second which is 3-ncrved ; the third and fourth 
very hairy, the former with an awn nearly twice 
its length inserted about the middle, the fourth 
scale bearing near the base an awn more than 
twice its length ; fifth scale about two-thirds as 
long as the fourth, obtuse or rounded at the apex, 
and bearing a fertile flower. 

In fielda and meadows throughout nearly the 
whole of North America. Very fragrant in drying. 
Naturaliied from Europe, June-July, 

20. SAVASTANA Schrank, Baier. Fl. i: loo. 1789. 
[HiEROCHLOE J. G. Gmel. Fl. Sib. 1: loi. 1747.] 

Aromatic perennial grasses, with flat leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 
3-fiDwered, the terminal flower perfect, the others staminate. Scales 5; the first and second 
nearly equal, acute, glabrous; the third and fonrth somewhat shorter, obtuse, entire, emar^ 
^te, 3-toothed or 3-lobed, with or without an awn, enclosing a palet and stamens; filth 
icale often produced into a short awn, enclosing a palet and perfect flower. Stamens in 
the itaminate flowers 3, in the perfect 2. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, 
mcloMd in the scales. [Name nnexplained.] 

Abont 6 species, natives of temperate and cold regions. 

Third and fourth scales not awncd 
Entire, culms I'-l" tall. 
Erose-tmncate, culms 6' tall o 

Third and fourth scales awncd. 


I. S. odorala. 
L 1. S. pauciflora. 

3. S. alpina. 

1. Savastana odor&ta (I,.) Scribn. Holy 
Grass. Seneca Grass. (Fig. 294.) 

Holcus odoralus L. Sp. PI. lo^J*. 175,1. 
Hieroihloa borfalis R. & S. Syst. 1 : 513. 1817. 
Savastana odorala Scrilm. Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 34. 18^ 

Glabrous, culma i°-a° tall, erect, sinple, amooth. 
Sheaths smooth ; ligule \"--i" long ; lower leaves 
elongated, 4'-8' long, i"-3" wide, scabrous, the upper 
one* %'-2' long ; panicle a'-4' long, its branches 1'- 
1' long, usually spreHdiog, naked below ; spikelets 
yellowish-brown and purple, j"-3" long; first and 
second scales about equal, glabrous; thtid and fourth 
villous and strongly ciliate, entire, awn-pointed, the 
fifth smaller than the others, villous at the aper. 

Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Wiscon- 
sin and Colorado. Also in northern Europe and Asia. 
June-July. This and other sweet-scented \ — 

the n 

a. Savastana paucifldra (R. Br.) Scribn. 
Arctic Holy Grass. (Fig. 295.) 

Glabrous, culms 6' high or less, erect, simple, amooth. 
Sheaths moslly at the base of the culm, overlapping; 
ligale about %" long; leaves smooth, the basal ones 
I'-a' long, %" wide, involtite at least when dry; culm 
leaves %' long or less, 1" wide, flat; panicle less than i' 
long, contracted ; spiltelets few, \%"-%" \oa%; first and 
second scales \y^"-i" long, smooth and glabrous; thiid 
and fourth shorter, scabrous, erose-truncate, the fifth 
shorter than the others, obtiise, villous at the apex. 

Arctic America. Summer. 

3. Savastana alpina (Sw.) Scribn. Alpine Holy Grass. (Fig. 296.) 

HoUus alpinus Sm.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4:937. :8o6. 
Hitrockloa alpina R, & S, Syst, a: SIS- i8i7- 
Saiiaslana alpina Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 34. 1894. 
Glabrous and smooth, culms 6^-18' tall, erect, 
mmple. Sheaths shorter than the interaodes ; 
ligule less than i" long; lower leaves elongated, 
I 3'-6' long, about i" wide, the upper much shorter, 
1 '/i'~l' long, l"-2" wide; panicle %'-l%' long, 
I contracted, branches short, erect or ascending; oc- 
istonally the panicle is larger with longer and 
spreading branches ; spikelets 3j^"-3>i" long, 
iwded; first and second scales glabrous, 1%"- 
i}i" long ; third and fourth shorter, scabrous, cili- 
ate on the margins, the former bearing an awn 
about i"loug, the latter with a moreor less bent awn 
about 3" long ; fifth scale shorter than the others, 
acute, usually awn-pointed, villous at the apex- 
Greenland to Alaska, south to the high mountains of 
New lingland and New York, Also in northern Burope 
and Asia. July-Aug. 



31. ARISTIDA L. Sp. PI. 82. 1753. 

Grasses varying greatlj' in habit and inflorescence. Leaves narrow, often involute-seta- 
ceous. Spilcelets uaiTOv, i-flowered. Scales 3, narrow, the two outer carinate ; the third 
ridged and convolute, bearing three awus occadonally united at the base, the lateral anus 
rarely wanting or reduced to rudiments. Palet a-ncrved. Stamens 3, Styles distinct. 
Stigmas plumose. Grain free, tightly enclosed in the scale. [Latin, from arista, an awn.] 

About 100 species, in the wanner regions of Ixfth hemispheres. Besides the following, some 
-_ _., 1- .!., _ 1 J . — J parts of North America. The English name Thrte- 


Grass is applied to all the specie; 
lot articulated to the scale nor united al 
Lateral awns usually erect, not more than half a 

...... s long as the horizontal or reflexed, central 

one, generally much shorter or occasionally wanting. 
Third scale, eiclusive of awns, j" long or less. 
Central awn spiral at base, terminal st 
Central awD not spiral at base, terminal 
Third Hcale, exclusive of awns. 4" long 01 

Central awn spiral, lateral awns one-qnarter t 
Central awn not spiral or rarely si 
Lateral awns usually diverging, more than half as long as thi 
one, generally about equalling it. 
First scale exceeding the second. 
Sheaths glabrous. 

Sheaths, at least the lower ones, woolly. 
First scale half as long as the second or equalling it. 

First scale 5-nervea, or occasionally j-nerved at t>ase. , . 

First scale 1. nerved, sometimes with an obscure additional nerve on 1 
Central awn 1 54 -4' long; panicle 4' -6' long, lax, few-flowered. T 
Central awn 1' long or less. 

Culms simple ; panicle strict, 6' -2° long, 1 

Culms branched; panicle somewhat lax, not :" long. n 

Awns articulated lo the scale, more or less united at the base. 

Column of the awns conspicuous, 3" long or more. 1 

Column of the awns inconspicuous, less than 1" long. i: 

I. Aristida dichdtoma Michx. Poverty 
Grass. (Fig. 297.) 

Aristida dicholoma Michx. Fl. Bor, Am, i: 41. iSot. 
Aristida dichotoma var. Curlissii A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 

640. 1890, 

Culms 6'-a° tall, erect, slender, dichotomously 
branched, smooth or roughened. Sheaths much 
shorter than the internodes, loose, smooth and glab- 
rous; lignle very short, ciliate; leaves i'-3'long, less 
than i" wide, involute, acuminate, usually scabrous; 
apike'like racemes or panicles 2'-^' long, slender; 
spikelets about 3" long ; outer scales nearly equal or 
the lower somewhat shorter, usually awn-pointed ; 
third scale shorter than the second, the middle awn 
horizontal, coiled at base, the terminal straight por- 
tion 2"-3"loiig, the lateral awns 1" longor less, erect 

Dry sandy soil, Maine to Ontario, Missouri and Che In- 
Jian Territory, south 10 Crforgia and Texas, Aug. -Sept. 

3. Aristida gracilis Ell. Slender Aristida. 

(Fig. 298.) 
Aristida gracilis EW. Bat, S.C.Si.Qi..i: 142. 1817. 
Aristida gracilis var. debauhcrata A. Gray, Man. Ed. 

5, 618. 1867. 

Glabrous and smooth throughout, culms 6'-3° 
tall, erect, simple or branched. Sbeatbs shorter 
than the internodes ; ligute very short ; leaves l'- 
4' long, \" wide or less, flat, or involute when dry ; 
panicle spike-like, 3'-?' long, slender ; spikelets 
about 3" long ; outer scales equal, or the lower 
somewhat shorter, awn-pointed ; third scale about 
equalling the second, generally mottled, middle 
awn horizontal, the terminal straight portion 3"- 
7" in length, the lateral awns i"-3"loBg, erect. 

Dry soil, Massachusetts to Illinois and Nebraska, 
south to Florida and Texas. Aug. -Sept. 

3. Aristida bastrimea Engelm. Ported Aristida. (Fig. 299.) 

AHsUda basit-amea Engelm.; Vaiwy, Coult. Bat. Gaz. g; 

76. 1884- 

Glabrous and imooth, culms 6'-i8' tall, erect, 
slender, much branched. Sheaths shorter than the 
iatemodea, loosei ligule very short, cilUtc; leaves 1'- 
&* long, about i" wide, involute-setaceous; spike-like 
panicle 3'-s' long; first scale of spikelet half to three- 
quarters as long as the second, which is i"-"}" in 
length, both awn-pointed ; third scale shorter than the 
second; middle awn 6"-9'' long, coiled at base, hori- 
Eontat, lateral awns one-quarter to one-half as long, 
erect or divergent, somewhat spiral at the base. 

f. Aristida ramosissima Engelm. Branched Aristida. (Fig. 300.) 

■■lida ramosissima Eu^liu, ; A, Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 6ig. 


i/iiia ramosissima var. uniarislala A. Gray, Man. Kd. 

Glabrous, culms 6'-2° tall, erect, slender, branched, 
smooth. Sheaths much shorter than the interoodes, 
loose; ligule ver7 short; leaves I'A'-i' loiig. 1" wide 
or less, flat, attenuate into a long point, smooth 
beneath, scabrons above : spikelets few, borne in loose 
spikes from a'-4' in length ; first scale awn-pointed ; 
second scale 8"-io" in lengtb, exceeding the first, 
terminated with an awn i"-3" long ; third scale as 
long as the second; middle awn about i' long, hori- 
zontal or reflexed and forming a hook, the lateral 
awns erect, \"~t" long, rarely wanting. 

Kentucky and Missouri. 

5. Aristida purpurfiscens Poir. Purplish Aristida. (Fig. 301.) 

Poir. in Lam, Encycl. Suppl. 

Aristida purpi 

1:452. 1810. 

Glabrous and smooth, culms i°-z>^° tall, erect, 
simple or sparingly branched at the base. Sheaths 
longer than the inlcrnodes, crowded at the base of 
the culm ; ligule very short ; leaves 4'-8' long, 
about [" wide, flat, or becoming involute in drying, 
attenuate into a long point ; spike-like panicles 
S'-i8' long, strict, or sometimes nodding, its 
branches appressed ; outer scales of spikelet awn- 
pointed, the first longer thau the second ; the third 
scale from two-thirds to three-quarters as long as 
the first, middle awn ij"-i3" long, horizontal, the 
late al awns somewhat shorter, erect or divergent. 


6. Aristida lanlkta Poir. Woolly Aristida, (Fig. 302.) 

a lanala Poit. in Lani. Encycl. Suppl. i: +53 

Arlslida latiosa Muhl. Gram. 174. 1817. 

Calms ^''-i" tall, erect, simple, smooth and glab- 
rous. Sheaths longer than the intemodes, 
crowded at the base of the culm, woolly; ligule 
Tery short, minutely ciliate; leaves 1° long or 
more, about 2" vide, attenuate ID to a long 
slender point, smooth beneath, scabrous above; 
panicle i°-3° long, strict, branches erect or occa- 
sionally somewhat spreading ; outer scales of the 
spikelet awn-pointed, the first S"-7" long, exceed- 
ing the second; third scale slightly shorter than 
the second, middle awn S"-i2" long, usually hori- 
lontal, the lateral awns about two-thirds as long, 
erect or divergent. 

Dry sandy soil, Delaware to Florida, west to Texas. 

7. Aristida olig&ntha Michx. 

Few-flowered Aristida. (Fig. 303.) 
Aristida oUganlka Michi, Fl. Bor. Am. i: 41. 1S03. 

Glabrous, culms I'-a" tall, erect, slender, dichot- 
omoualy branched, smooth or roughish. Sheaths 
exceeding the intemodes, loose ; ligule very short, 
minutely ciliate ; leaves i'-6' long, >i"-i" wide, 
smooth, the larger ones attenuate into a long slen- 
der point ; spilcelets few, borne in a lax apike-like 
raceme or panicle ; first scale 5-nerved, occasion- 
ally 7-nerved at base, acuminate or short-awned, 
equalling or somewhat shorter than the second, 
which bears an awn 3"-^" long; third scale shorter 
than the fiist, awns divergent or spreading, the 
middle one i^'-iji' long, the lateral somewhat 

8. Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Aiistida. (Fig. 304.) 
Arhlida purpurea Nutt. Trans. Ani. Phil. Soc. (II.) 

s- 145. '833-37- 

GlabrouB, culms 8'-i8' tall, erect, slender, sim- 
ple, smooth or rough. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the internodea, smooth or slightly scabrous; 
lignle short, ciliate; leaves i>i'-4' long, }i" wide, 
involute, at least when dry, generally scabrous ; 
spilcelets few in racemes or panicles 
which arc 4'-8' in length; first scale one-nerved or 
sometimes with an obscure additional nerve on 
each side; second scale Y'-q" long, about twice as 
long as the first; third scale equalling or a little 
exceeding the first, awus divergent, the middle one 
l'-Z)i' long, the lateral ones a little shorter or 
of the same length. 

Dry soil. Minnesota to Idaho and British Columbia, 
south to Kansas, Texas and Arizona. Plant purpli 
purplish. July-Sept. 

g. Aristida Btricta Michx. Erect ArLstida. (Fig. 305.) 

isiida striata Uichi. Fl. Bor. Am. i 


Culms 3''-4'' tall, erect, sinple, smooth and glab- 
rous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, siDooth, 
glabrous or pubescent at the spex ; ligule abort ; 
leaves invalute-filifonn, the basal 1° or more in 
length, those of the culm 8'-ii'long, or the upper 
shorter ; panicle spike-like, strict, or the top 
sometimes nodding, €'-2° long, its branches erect ; 
outer scales of the spikelet awn-pointed, the first 
I-nerved or occasiouallj with an obscure additional 
nerve on each side, shorter than the second ; 
third scale equalling the first or a little shorter; mid- 
dle awn 5"-io" long, horizontal' when old. the 
lateral ones shorter, erect or divergent. 

Dry soil, Vinrinia (according to S. Watson), south to 
Florida, July -Sept. 

Aristida disp^rsa Trin. & Rupr. Bushy Aristida. (Fig. 306. ) 

Aristida Americana L. Amoen. Acad. S: 393. 1759? 
Arislida/ascicuIataToTT. Ann. hyt. N. Y. 1:154. '824? 
Aristida disbersa Trin. & Rupr. Hem. Acad. St 
Petersb. (V'l.)S: 119. 1841. 

Glabrous, cultos i^-a" tall, erect, slender, 
braoched, smooth. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
lernodes, ligule abort, ciliate ; leaves a'-6' long, 
1" wide or less, flat, attenuate into a long point, 
smooth or scabrous ; panicle 3'-7' long, at first 
strict, the branches finally more or less spreading ; 
first scale of spikelet i-nerved, or occasionally with 
an obscure addiUonal nerve on each side, shorter 
than the second scale; third scale equalling or longer 
than the second ; awns divergent, the middle one 
4"_8" long, tht lateral ones shorter, 

, New Mexico 

Aristida tuberculdsa Nutt. Sea-beach Aristida. (Fig, 307.) 

■Jida tuberculosa Nutt. Gen. : 


Glabrous, culms b'-i" tall, erect, dichotomously 
branched, smooth. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
ternodes; ligule sh6rt, ciliate; leaves 5'-9' long, 
about i" wide, attenuate into a long slender point, 
amooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 5'-8' long, 
branches slender, ascending; outer scales of the 
spikelet about equal, awned, the third scale 
shorter; awns divergent or reftexed, more or less 
coiled, united at base into a column 3"-6" long 
which is articulated to the scale. 

Sandy soil, especially on sea-beaches, Ma.ssacliusei 
to Minntfiota, south to GciirKia. Also in the interior 
Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Aug, -Sept. 


12. Aristida desmfintha 'Trin. &Rupr. 
Western Aristida. {Fig. 308.) 

Culms i"-]" tell, erect, branched, amootta and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the iuteniodes, 
smooth, glabrous or the lower sometimes pubes- 
cebt ; ligule short ; leaves 6'-ij' long, less than 
i" wide, attenuate into a slender point, smooth 
beneath, scabrous above : panicle about (/ long, 
the branches slender, ascending; outer scales 
of the spikelet about equal, the third one 
shorter ; awns spreading or rejlexed, somewhat 
coiled, united at base into a column less than 
I" long, which is articulated to the scale. 

n Territory and 

22. STIPA L. Sp. PI. 78. 1753. 
Generally tall grasses, the leaves usually convolute, rarely flat, the inflorescence panicu- 
late. Spikelets i-flowered, narrow. Scales 3; the two outer narrow, acute or rarely bearing 
an awn, the third rigid, convolute, with a hairy callus at the base, and bearing a more or leas 
bent awn, which is spiral at the base, and articulated to the scale. Palet j-nerved. Stamens 
3, rarely fewer. Styles short, distinct Stigmas plumose. Grain narrow, free, tightly en- 
closed in the scale. [Greek, in allusion to the tow-lilte plumes of some species.] 

A genus of e 
the following, s 

Outer .-tcales of the spikelet ?"-6" long; 
Obtuse or blunt-pointed, i" in length. 
Acute, 4"-6" in length. 

Awn less than five times the length of the scale. 
Awn mure than seven times the length of the scale. 
Outer scales of the spilielet lo" long — — — 
Base of panicle usually includei 

Panicle exserted from Ihe upper sheath; third scale /'-13" long, bent. 

n the southern and n, 

the upper sheath; third scale 4"-6" lot^; awn slender, 
5. 5. s/rarlea. 

1. Stipa Macodnii Scribn. Macoun's Stipa. (Fig. 309.) 

Culms glabrous, j°-2° tell, erect, simple, slen- 
der, smooth or somewhat scabrous. Sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes ; ligule about l" 
long, obtuse or truncate ; leaves 2'-^' long, 
yi"-l" wide, flat, becoming in volute- setaceous 
in drying, scabrous ; panicle a's' long, con- 
tracted, the branches l'-3' long, erect, naked 
below ; spikelets borne at the ends of the 
branches ; outer scales about i" long, obtuse or 
blunt-pointed, glabrous; third scale somewhat 
shorter, pubescent with long appressed silky 
hairs, callus obtuse; awn 4"-5" long, contorted. 

New Brunswick to the Northwest Territory, south 
. to Maine, New Hampshire. Lake Superior and 
Montana. July. 


2. Stipa viridula Trin. Green Stipa. 
(Fig. 310.) 

Slipa viridula Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petenib. ( VI. ) 1: 39. 

S/i>a j^r/m Hook, Fl. Bor, Am. J; 137. 1840. Not Trin, 

GlabTons, culms i)j''-3° tall, CRCt, aimple, 
•moatli. Sbeatha ibortcr tban the inteniodea; lipile 
i"-3" loDK ; leaves amooth or acabronB, Ihe hasal 
oaes in volute-filiform, one-third toone-belf as longaa 
the culm, those of the culm 3'-9' long, broaderi pao- 
icle spike-like, strict and erect, brauchea appreas«d; 
outer scales of spiltetet 3"-4" long, loDg-acuminate, 
glabiOQS ; third scale shorter, more or leas pubetceat 
with long appteued silky hairs, catlua acute ; awn 
^'-\%' tong, beat, loosely spiral at base. 

Minnesota lo British Columbia, sontb to Kansas. New 
Mexico and California. July-Aug. 

3. Stipa avenicea I,. 

L. Sp- 

Black Oat -grass. (Fig. 311.) 

Slipa ai'inacea l.. op. 1-1. 70. -,.^- 
SUfia barbala Michi. PI, Bor. Am. i: s.1- 1803. 
Sitba yirginica Pcre. Syn, 1805. 
SItpa bicoior Pureh, Fl. Am. Sept. 73. 1814- 

Culms glabrous, i°-2>i° tall, erect or leaning, sim- 
ple, smooth. Sheatbs shorter tban the inteniodes ; 
ligule about i" long, obtuse ; leaves involute-iiti- 
form, smooth beneath, scabrous above, the basal 
one-third lo one-half the length of the culm, those 
of the culm 3'-5' long ; panicle 5'-8' long, loose, 
the branches lax, erect or finally spreading, naked 
below; outer scales of the spikclet 4"-5" long, 
acute, glabrous; tbird scale a little shorter, scabrous 
near the summit, black, pilose at base and with a 
ring of short hairs at the top, otherwise smooth and 
glabrous; callus hard, acute; awn i%'-2%' long, 
bent, loosely spiral below. 

In dry woods, Rhode Island to Florida, mostly near 
the coast. Also in western Ontario and Wisconsin. 

4. Stipa com^ta Trin. & Rupr. Western Stipa. (Fig. 312.) 

Glabrous, culms i^-a" tall, erect, aimple, 
smooth. Sheaths usually longer than the in- 
lernodes, smooth or scabrous, the uppermost 
very long and inflated, enclosing the base of 
the panicle ; ligule i"-3" long, obtnse ; leaves 
smooth or somewhat scabrous, the basal invo- 
lute-filiform, one-quarter to one-balf as long as 
the culm, the culm leavea 3'-6' long, a little 
broader than the basal ones, involute; panicle 
6'-9' long, loose, the branches 3'-5' in length, 
erect- ascending, naked at base ; outer scales of 
the spikelet 9'''-ii" long, glabrous, acuminate 
into an awn 2"-4" in length; third scale 4"-6" 
long, callus acute; awn 4'-8' in length. Blender, 
curled, spiral and pubescent below. 


Stipa spirtea Trin. Porcupine Grass. 
(Fig- 313) 

Calms glabrous, a°-4° tail, erect, simple, smootb. 
Sheaths longer than the inteniodes, smooth or some- 
what scabrotis; ligule \"-i" long, obtuse; leaves 
smooth beneath, scabrous above, the basal one-third 
to one-hair as long as the culm, i"wideorless, uauatlj 
involute, those of the culm 6'-i3' long, about 2 
wide, generally flat, attenuate into a Ioqk slender 
point; panicle finally long-ezserted, 4'-io' in length, 
its branches 3'-6' long, erect, naked below; outer 
scales of spikelet 1 3'''- 18" long, acuminate into a long 
■lender point, glabrous; third scale 7"-i3" long, callus 
acute; ann 4'-8' long, stout, usually twice beat, 
tightly spiral and pubescent below, doubly spiral 
about the middle. 

On prairies, Manitoba to Bridah Columbia, south to Illinois and Kansas. June-July. 

33. ORYZ6pSIS Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 51- i8o3- 
[Urachne Trin. Fund. Agrost. 109. 1818.] 
Usually tufted grasses, with flat or convolnte leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spike- 
lets i-flowered, broad. Scales 3; the two lower about equal, obtuse or acuminate; the third 
icale shorter or a little louger, broad, bearing a terminal awn which is early deciduous, 
Ibe callus at the base of the scale short and obtuse, or a mere scar. Stamens 3. Styles dis- 
tinct Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, tightly enclosed in the convolute scale. 
[Greek, in allusion to the supposed resemblance of these grasses to rice,] 

About 34 species, distributed through temperate and subtropical reKions, rarely extending into 
the tropics. Besides the following, Home 7 others occur in the western parts of North America, 
ipariagly pubescent with short appressed hairs. 

Third scale of the spikclet glabioi 

Spikelet, exclusive of awn, i>t -z long. 

Awn less than 1" long, much shorter than the scale ; outer scale; 

;"-3" ii 

scales about i^" in length. 

Awn 3''-4" long, more than twice as long as the scale ; 

Spikelet. exclusive of awn. 
Culms nearly naked, lei 

length or less, erect. 
Culms leafy to Uie top; panicle 6' -13' long; branches 3' 

fliinl scale of the spikelet densely pubescent with long silky hairs, 5. O- CHSpidata. 

t . Oryzopsis j6ncea (Michx.) B.S.P. Slender Mountain Rice. (Fig. 314.) 

Slipa juncat Michx, Fl. Bor. Am. i: 54. 1803. 
Oryzopsis Canadensis Torr. Fl. N. Y. i: 433- 1843. 
Or}-:opsis juHcea B. S. P. Prel. Cat N. Y. 67. 1888. 

Culms glabrous, 6'-i° tall, erect, slender, simple, 
smootb. Sheaths shorter than the inteniodes, usually 
crowded at the base of the culm; ligule about i"long, 
decurrent; leaves smooth or scabrous, erect, involute, 
the basal about one-half the length of the culm, occa- 
sionally equalling it, filiform, those of the culm i'-4' 
long, the uppermost often very small or reduced to 
the sheath only; panicle t'-iyi' long, the branches 
Ji'-i' in length, erect or ascending, the lower half 
naked; spikclets i%"-i" long, the outer scales about 
equal, glabrous, whitish; third scale about the same 
length or a little longer, pubescent with short ap- 
pressed silky hairs, the awu less than 1" long. 

9, Quebec to 

s, Pernsylv 


2. Oryzopsia micrfintha (Trin. & Rupr.) Thurb. Small-flowered 
Mountain Rice. (Fig. 315.) 

Urachne micraniha Trin. & Rupr. Mem. Acad. St. 

Vttereb. (Vr.)s:i6. i84», 
Orysoptit micraniha Thurb. Proc. PhiU. Acad. iSd*: 
78. .86i 

Cnlms glabrons, i°-3^° tall, erect, Blender, «im- 
plc, smootb. Sheaths shorter than the inteniCMlca; 
lignle about }i" long, truncate ; leaves eiect, scab- 
rous, the basal one- half the length of the culm, leas 
than ^" wide, usually more or less iuvolntc, the 
culm leaves i'-8' long. }i"-\" broad, the larger 
attenuate into a long slender point; panicle 3,'-^ 
long, the branches finall)' spreading, the lower ones 
]'-3' long, naked for about two-thirds their length; 
spikelets i"-iX" long, the outer scales about 
eqnal, acute, glabrous; third scale shorter, glab- 
rous, bearing an awn %"-^" long. 

South Dakota to Nebraska, New Mexico and Arizona. 

3. Oryzopsia asperiraiia Michx. White-grained Mountain Rice. (Fig. 316.) 

Oryiopst! asperifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1:51. 1803. 
Urachne asperi/olia Tna. Unifl. 1:174. '824. 

Culms glabrous, lo'-ao' tall, erect, umple, smooth 
or scabrous. Sheaths I'-a' long, crowded at base; 
ligule very short, truncate ; leaves erect, scabrous, es- 
pecial!]' above, the basal ones elongated, olten equal- 
ling or cxceediug the culm, z"-4" wide, attenuate 
into a long point, the i or 3 culm leaves much reduced, 
leas than }i' long ; pauicle 3'-3' long, contracted, the 
branches i' in length or less, erect ; spikelct, exclusive 
of awn, 3"-4" long; outer scales glabrous, usually 
apiculate, the first somewhat shorter ; third scale 
whitish, equalling the second or a little shorter, spar- 
ingly pubescent, the awn 3ji"-s" long. 

In woods, Nova Scotia to British Columbia. 1 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Mountains to New Mexico. 

a and in the Rocky 

Oryzopsis melanocdrpa Muhl. Black- 
fruited Mountain Rice, (Fig. 317.) 

Glabrous, culms iJi°-3° tall, erect, simple, roughish. 
Sheaths smooth or scabrous, the lower ones usually 
longer, the upper slightly shorter than the tntemodes; 
ligule very short; leaves s'-la' long, i"~y wide, nar- 
rowed toward the base, acuminate at apex into a long 
slender point, scabrous especially above ; panicle 
branched or nearly simple, 3'-ii' long, its branches 
3'-4' long, spreading or ascending, the lower half 
naked ; outer scales of the spikclet about equal, 
3"-4" in length, acute ; third scale shorter, acute, dark 
colored, sparingly pubescent, the awn 8"-ii" long. 


5. OryzopsiB cuspidita (Nutt.) Vasey. Silky Oryzopsis. (Fig. 318.) 
Stipa membranacea Pnrah, Fl. Am. Sepl. 728. 1814. Not 

I Vasej, Grassea S. W. Part a 

L- 17M. 
Oryzopst . 

Dept. Agnc. 63: 
Oryzopsis membr 

pi. JO. .891. 

Culms glabrous, i°-a° tall, erect, rigid. Bimple, 
smooth. Sheaths usually shorter than the interoodes, 
smooth or somewhat rough; ligule i"-3" long, acute; 
leaves 6'-ia' long, less than 1" wide, involute, stiff, 
smooth or somewhat scabrous; panicle 6'-!° long, 
diffuse, generally partially included in the upper 
sheath, its branches widely spreading and many times 
forlced, the ultimate divisions flexnous; outer scales 
of the spikelet 3"-4" in length, long-acumiDate, 
glabrous; third scale about one-half as long, acute, 
densely pubescent with long sillcy erect hairs nearly 
twice its own length, the awn 2"-3" long. 

On prairies, Albeita to Washington, south to Nebraska^ Arizona and Mexico. May-Jnly. 

24. MILIUM L. Sp. PI. 61. 1753. 
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and tenninal lax panicles. Spikelets 1- 
flowered. Scales 3. obtuse, not awned ; the outer about equal ; the third thin-membranous, 
Bt length rigid, glabrous or pubescent ; palet scarcely shorter. Stamens 3. Styles short, 
distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain ovoid or oblong, free, tightly enclosed in the rigid and 
shining scale and palet. [Latin name for Millet.] 

Species 5 or 6, chieflj' in £urope and Asia. 

1. Milium effiisum L. Tall Millet- 
grass. (Fig. 319.) 
Milium effuium L. Sp. PI. 61. 1733. 

Glabrous throughout, culms j'-fi" tall, erect, 
simple, smooth. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
lemodes; ligule iJ^"-3" long, truncate, erose- 
dentate; leaves 3'-9' long, yS" wide, nar- 
rowed toward the base, acuminate, smooth or 
scabrous ; panicle 3'-icr' in length, lax, its 
branches I'-y long, slender, somewhat flezu- 
ous, naked at base and dividing above the 
middle, at length widely spreading ; spikelets 
iX""'^" long ; outer scales equal, smooth or 
scabrous, the third scale shorter, smooth, white. 

In woods, Cape Breton Island and Quebec to 
western Ontario, south to Massachusetts, Pennsyl- 
vania and Michigan. Also in northetii Europe and 
Asia. June-July. 

25. MUHLENBERGIA Schreb. Gen. 44. 1789. 
[Vaseya Thurb. Proc. Acad. Pbila. 1863 : 79. 1863.] 

Mostly perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and paniculate inflorescence. 
ItoMstocks often scaly. Spikelets i-flowered, very rarely 2 flowered. Scales 3, very rarely 
*; Uie oater ones empty, membranous or hyaline, acute and sometimes awned; third 
**!* 3-S-nerved, subtending a palet and perfect flower, obtuse, acute, or very often pro- 
^Ked into a capillary awn; palet 3-keeled, Stamens often 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas 
pluoose. Callus minute. Grain narrow, free, lightly enclosed in the scale. [In honor of 
Htniy Muhlenberg, 1756-1817, North American botanisL] 

Abont £0 species, chiefly natives of America, a few Asiatic, 



Panicle contracted, narrow, gpike-Uke, the short br«ncheB rarely RpreadiiiK. 
Flowering iKsle not awned bnt sometimes awn-pointed. 

Outer scales not awned. about lialf aalonic as the fl owe rini scale, acute, i. .1/. soboli/era. 
Outer scales long-acuminate, awn-pointed or awned. 

Outer scaleii about equal in length to the flowering scale, sharp-pointed, abotit iH" 

long. 1. 3f, Jferifana. 

Outer scales exceeding the flowering scale, geoeisllj twice its length, awned, about 
2Vi" long, 3. ,V. racemosa. 

Flowering scale long-an-ned; awn usually twice the length of the scale, sotnetimea sbolter. 
Outer scales about equalling the flowering scale. 

Basal hairs not more than one-half the length of the flowering scale. 

Spilcelcts consisting of 3 scales and i perfect flower. 4. 31. sylvalUa. 

.._i.. _._. !_..■ 1 . — 1__ .ijg third with a perfect flower, the fourth emptT 

1. *:?""'*•" 

Spikelets consisting of 4 
' awned. 
rs as long aa the flov 

Basal h 

LE scale. 

Outer scales one-half to two-thirds asTong as the flowering scale. 
Outer scales less than one-quarter the length of the flowering scale. 
Lower scale minute, often wanting; flowering scale with an awn 

7. M. I, 


ice its length. 
e. M. diffusa. 

Lower scale about two-thirds aa long as the Kcond; flowering scale with an awn (onr 
times its length or more. 9. M. microsperma. 

Panicle open, its branches long and spreading. 

Culms iW° tall or more; panicle diffuse; leaves elongated, not rigid. 10, M, capillaris. 
Culms 1° tall or less; leaves 2' long or less, rigid. 

Secondary branchesof the panicle single; basal leaves short, numerous, strongly recurted. 

11. M.gracillima. 
Secondary branches of the panicle fascicled; basal leaves few, not recurved. 

la. M. pangens. 

I. Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl. ) Trin. Rock Muhlenbergia. (Fig. 320. ) 


Glabrous, culms 3°-3° tall, erect, slender, simple, 
or apariagly branched above, smooth. Sheaths 
smooth, those of the culm shorter than the inter- 
nodes. those of the branches overlapping and 
crowded; ligule very short, truncate; leaves rough, 
those of the culm 4'-6' long. iW-y wide, those 
of the branches I'-j' long, about i" wide ; panicle 
3'-6' in length, slender, its branches ii'-i' long; 
outer scales about ii" long, half to two-thirds the 
length of the spikelet, equal, or the lower some- 
what shorter, acule, scabrous, especially on the 
keel; third scale scabrous, obtuse, 3-nerved, the 
middle nerve usually eiLCuirent as a short point. 


, Muhlenbergia Mexicana(L.) Trin. Meadow Muhlenbergia. (Fig. 321.) 

Agroslis Mexicans L. Mant. i: 31. 1767. 
Agroilis filiformis Wind, Enura. 95. 1809. 
Muhlenbergia Mexicana Trin. Unifl. 189. 1814. 

Glabrous, culms 2°-4° long, erect, or often prostrate, 
much branched, smooth. Sheaths shorter than the 
interuodes, excepting at the extremities of the 
branches, where they are crowded and overlapping, 
smooth or scabrous ; leaves scabrous, those of the 
culm 4'-6' long, \"-i" wide, the branch leaves 
smaller; panicle 3'-6' long, contracted, its branches 
spike-like, I'-a' long, erect or appressed; spikelets 
ij4"-i>i" long; outer scales somewhat unequal, ex- 
ceeding the flowering one, or slightly shorter, acumin- 
ate or short-awned,scabroi» especially on the keel; 
third scale acuminate, scabrous, particularly toward 

In swampH and borders of fields. New Brunswick to 
western Ontario, south to North Carolina, Tennessee and 
the Indian Territory. Aug. -Sept. 


3. Muhlenbergia racemdsa (Michx.) B.S.P, Marsh Muhlenbergia. 

(Fig. 322.) 
Agroslis racemosa Mit^hx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 53. 1803. 
Muhlenbergia glomcrala Trin. Unifl. 191. 1824. 
Muktenbergia racemosa B.aP. Ptel. Cat. N. Y. 67. 18S8. 

Culms l°-3° tall, erect, usually much branched, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheath smooth, those of 
the culm shorter than the intemodes, those of the 
branches overlapping and often crowded; ligule 
about Ji" long, erose- truncate; leaves a'-s' long, 
i"-3" wide, scabrous; panicle t'-A'A' 'n length, 
usually denae and interrupted, the branches %'- 
1' long, erect or appressed, the spikelets much 
crowded; outer scales of the spilcelet acuminate, 
3"-3" long, including the awn, smooth or sca- 
brous, especially on the keel; third scale one-half 
to two-thirds as long, Bcumiaatc, the strongly 
scabrous midrib excurrent in a short point. 

In wet places, Newfoundland to British Columbia, 
south to New Jersey, Missouri and New Mexico. 
Aug. -Sept. 

4. Muhlenbergia sylv&tica Ton. Wood Muhlenbergia. (Fig. 323.) 

Agroslii diffusa Muhl. Gram. 64. 1S17. Not Host, 1S09. 
Muhlenbergia sytvatica Torr. Fl. U. S. l: 87. 18^4. 

Culms I'-a" tail, erect, branched, smooth or some- 
what scabrous. Sheaths smooth or slightly scabrous, 
those of the culm shorter than the intemodes, those 
of the branches overlapping and often crowded; lignle 
about %" long, erose-truncate; leaves a'-7' long, i"- 
3''' wide, rough; panicle '^'-Y in length, somewhat 
lax, the branches i'-3' long, erect or ascending; outer 
scales of the spilcelet \%"-\^" long, awn-pointed, 
scabrous; third scale equalling or somewhat exceed- 
ing the outer ones, strongly scabrous, attenuate into a 
slender awn 2-4 times its length. 

In moist woods and along streams, New Brunswick to 
Ontario and Minnesota, south to North Carolina, Tennessee 
and the Indian Territory. Aug.-SepL 

S- Muhlenbergia ambigua Torr. Minnesota 
Muhlenbergia. (Fig. 324.) 

Huklenbtrgia ambigua Torr. Nicollet's Rep. :64. 1843. 

GUbrotis, culms 1° tall or lower, erect, branched, 
'ouotli. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; ligule 
•IwM %" long, erose-trnncate; leaves i'-3' long, 
1 '-1" wide, scabrous; panicle i'-3' long, rigid, its 
brsnthes ^'-1' long, dense, appressed; outer scales of 
'^ ipikelet awn-pointed, unequal, the longer about 
'" in length and exceeding the body of the third 
Kale which is scabrous, villous, and attenuate into an 
Mn 3-3 times its length; a fourth narrow awned scale 
B Dearly always present 

Along a lake shore in Minnesota. 


6. Muhlenbergia com^ta (Thurb.) Benth. 

(Fig. 325.) 

Hairy Muhlenbergia. 

I'aseya comata Thurb. Proc. Phila. Acad. 1M3: 79. 1863. 

Muhlenbereia comata Benth.; Vasey, Cat. Grasses U. S. 30. 


Culms i°-2>^° tall, erect, slender, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, smooth or slightly 
scabrous; ligule about y^^' long, truncate, naked or mi- 
nutely ciliate; leaves 2}^'-^^ long, I'^-a^' wide, erect, 
flat, rough; panicle often tinged with purple, 2^-4' in 
length, dense, branches >^'-ij4' Jong, erect; outer scales 
of the spikelet eqtial, or the second a little the longer, 
smooth, scabrous on the keel ; third scale shorter, 
smooth and glabrous, bearing an awn 2-3 times its length, 
the basal hairs silky, erect, fully as long as the scale. 

On prairies; Kansas (?), Colorado to California. Atig.- 

7. Muhlenbergia tenuifldra (Willd.) B.S.P 

(Fig. 326.) 

Agrostis tenuiflora Willd. Sp. PI. i: 364. 1798. 

Agrostis pauciflora Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i: 63. 1814. 

Muhlenbergia Willdenovii Trin. Unifl. 188. 1824. 

Muhlenbergia tenuiflora B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 67. 

Glabrous, culms 2°-3° tall, erect, slender, simple or 
sparingly branched, smooth. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the intemodes; ligule short and truncate; leaves 
2%'-Y long, 1^'-^^^ wide, narrowed toward the base, 
acuminate, scabrous; panicle 5^-9^ long, slender, its 
branches 1^-3 >^^ long, appressed; outer scales of the 
spikelet unequal, half to two-thirds the length of the 
third one, awn -pointed, scabrous; third scale iX''^~ 
\%'^ long, scabrous, bearing an awn 2-4 times its 

In rocky woods, Massachusetts to southern Ontario and 
Minnesota, south to Alabama and Texas. Aug. -Sept. 

Slender Muhlenbergia. 

8. Muhlenbergia diffusa Schreb. Nimble 
Will. Dropseed Grass. (Fig. 327.) 

Muhlenbergia diffusa Schreb. Beschr. Gras. 2: 143. pi. 5/. 

Glabrous, culms i°-3° long, decumbent, or often 
prostrate or creeping and ascending, very slender, dif- 
fusely branched . Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, 
loose; ligule short, fringed: leaves i}i^-^)4^ long, 
^//_2// wide, scabrous; panicle 2^-8' long, slender 
somewhat lax, its branches 1^-2^ long, erect; outer 
scales of the spikelet minute, the lower one often 
wanting; the third scale, exclusive of the awn, about 
1^^ long, strongly scabrous, particularly upon the 
nerves; the awn }i^^-2^^ in length. 

On dry hills and in woods, Maine and southem'Ontario 
to Minnesota, south to Florida, Kansas and. Texas. 
Aug. -Sept. 


9. Muhlenbergia microspirma (DC.) Trin. Small- 
(Fig. 328, 

Trichochloa micrasperma DC. Cat Hort. Monsp. isi. 

AfuhUnbergia micro 
JifvhlenbtTgia debit: 
(VI,) 6; 395. 1841, 

Culms G'-i^i" tall, erect, finally decumbetit or 
somcwfaat prostrate at base, slender, diffnsely 
l>raiiched. Sheaths usually shorter than theintet- 
nodes, loose; ligule }i" long-, truncate, toothed: 
leaves J4'-3H' long, i" wide or less, scabrous; 
panicle 2'-4' in length, slender, open, the branches 
i' long or less, ascending or erect; outer scales of 
the spilcelet uncqnal, obtuse or rounded at apex, 
about one-third the length of the third scale, 
'CThich is iX"-[)^" long exclusive of the awn 
and strongly scabrous ; awn U'-n" in length. 

■ dT« 

o Califomia, south to Men 

10. Muhlenbergia capUl^s (Lam.) Trin. 
(Fig. 329.) 

I,ong-awned Hair-grass, 



Glabrous, culms iJj''-4° tall, erect, simple, 
Bmootb or nearly so. Sheaths smooth, the lower 
short and overlapping, the upper ones much 
longer; ligule about 3" in length; leaves 6'-I° long, 
i"-a" wide, scabrous; panicle y'-i" in length or 
more, diffuse, the capillary branches 4'--8' long, 
at length widely spreading; spikeleta on long hair- 
like pedicels which are clavate-thickened at the 
apex; onter scales unequal, acute or short-awaed, 
slightly scabrous: third scale, exclusive of the 
awD, 2" long, about twice as long as the first 
one, scabrous, the awn 3"-^' 'Q length. 

In dry sandy or rocky soil, Massachusetts to New 

fctsey and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas. 
jiicle uanally light purple. Sept.-Oct. 

II. Muhlenbergia gracillima Torr. Filiform Muhlenbergi 

Muhlenbergia gracillima Torr. Pac. S. R. Kept. 4: 155. 

Gtabrous, cnlms 4'-i4' tall, from a slender creeping 
Tootitock, erect, slender, simple, rigid. Sheaths 
>niooth; ligule i"-a" long, entire and acuminate, or 
"rionsly cleft, with acuminate teeth; leaves I'-i' long, 

iiiolote^etaceouB, smooth or somewhat scabrous, 
"gid, Itae basal numerous, usually strongly recurved, 
lie i~3 culm leaves erect or ascending; panicle 2'-^' . 
alength, open, the branches finally widely spreading, 
' ~3'liiiig, filiform; spiketets about as long as the fili- 
'onn pedicels which ate clavate-thickened at the apex; 
outer scales unequal, usually awn-pointed or short- 
•Wirf, ilightly scabrous; third scale i%"-iyi" long, 
'°<igEithan the onter ones, sometimes twice as long, 
*^"oni; awn i"-3" long. 

to Colorado, south to Texas and 

(Fig. 330.) 



13. Muhlenbergia pungens Thurb. 
Prairie Muhlenbergia. (Fig. 331.) 

ifuA/rnberria fiiittgeni Tharb. Proc. Acad. 

Cnlina 6'-'i3' tall from a creeping root- 
■toclc, erect from a decumbent branching 
base, rigid, minutely pubescent. Sheaths 
overlapping, crowded at tbe base of the 
culm, scabrous; ligale a ring of soft silky 
hairs; leaves I'-i' long, involute-setaceous, 
rigid, scabrous; panicle 3 '-6' in length, open, 
Ihe bnnches 2'-3}i' long, single, distant, 
much divided from near the base, the divi- 
sions apparently fascicled; spikeleta on long 
pedicela, which are clavate-thickened at the 
apex; outer scales, when mature, equalling 
or often shorter than the body of the thiid 
one, scabrous, especially on the keel; third 
scale, when mature, )("-i" long, scab- 
rous, the awn shorter tbau its body. 

26. BRACHYELYTRUM Beauv. Agrost. 39. 1812. 
A tall grass with fiat leaves and a narrow panicle. Spikeleta i-flowcred, narrow, tbe 
nchilU produced beyond the flower and sometinies bearing a minute scale at the summit. 
Scales 3; tbe outer small and inconspicuous, the lower often wanting; the third much 
longer, rigid, s-nerved, acuminate into a long awn; palet scarcely shorter, rigid, sulcale on 
tbe back, a-nerved Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct Stigmas plumose, elongated. 
Grain oblong, free, enclosed in the scale and paleL [Greek, in allnsion to the minute outer 

A monotypic genus of eastern North America. 

I. Brachyel3rtruin er£ctum (Schreb.) Beauv. Bradiyel>trum. (Fig. 332.) 

Schreb. Besch. Gtaa. a; 139. fil. 

!(' A. Gray, 

Muhlenbergia e. 

50- 177»-Q. 
Brachyelylru m . 

Man. Ed. 5, 614. 1007. 

Culms ["-s" tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
or rough, pubescent at and near the nodes. 
Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, scabrous to- 
ward the apes, more or less villous especially at 
the throat; ligule about }i" long, irregularly 
truncate; leaves a'-s' long, 3"-9" wide, acuminate 
at both ends, scabrous; panicle 2'-6' in length, slen- 
der, branches i'-3' long, erect or appressed; outer 
scales of the spikelet unequal, the upper less than 
one-third as long as the flowering scale, the lower 
minute or wanting; third scale, exclusive of the 
the awD, 4ji"-6" long, 5-nerved, scabrous, espec- 
ially on tbe midnerve, the awn erect, 9"-[2" 
long; rachilla produced beyond the flower about 
half the length of the third scale and lying in the 
groove of the palet. 


ind Mis^ 

*, Xewfoundland ti 
ouri. Asctndsto; 



27. HELEOCHLOA Host. Gram, i: 23. pi. 29,30. 1801. 
[CRVPSisLam. Tabl. Encycl. i: 166. 1791. Not A it 1789,] 
Perennial tufted grasicB with flat leaves and spicate or paniculate inflorescence. Spike- 
lets i-flowered. Scales 3; the 3 outer ctapiy, somewhat unequal, membraiions, acute, cili- 
ate-keeled; the third scale Bimitar, a little longer; palet shorter, hyaliiie, 3-aerved. Stamens 
3. Stj'les distinct Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, loosely enclosed in the scale. 
[Greek, signifying meadow-grass.] 

About B species, chiefly natives of the Meditfiranean region, one or two also widely distri- 
buted throug'h middle Europe and Asia. 

1. Heleochtoa schoenoides (I<.) Host. Rush Cat's-tail Grass. (Fig. 333.) 

Phteum schoenoides h- Sp. PI. 60. 17S3. 

Cry fists schoenoides Lata. Tabl. Bncyl. i : 166. fit. 42. 

HeteochloaKhoenoid«s^c^,C,rB;!D..\\3l. 1801. 

Glabrous, culiii34'-i8'tall, erect or sometimes de- 
cumbent at the base, branched, smooth. Sheaths 
abont half the length of the internodes, the upper 
loose, the one immediatelj below the spike in- 
flated and usually partially enclosing it; ligule a 
ring of short hairs; leaves i'-3' long, i"-2" wide, 
flat, acaminate, smooth beneath, scabrous above 1 
spikelets i%" long, the empty scales acute, com- 
pressed, ciliate-keeled, i-nerved, the lower shorter 
than the upper; third scale equalling or longer 
than the second, acute, compressed, ciliate-keeled, 
otherwise glabrous, l-nerved; palet shorter, obtuse. 

28. PHLEUM L. Sp. PI. 59. 1753. 
Annual or perenoial grasses with flat leaves and spicate inflorescence. Spikelets 
I'flowered. Scales 3 ; the 1 outer empty, membranous, compressed, keeled, the apex 
obliquely truacatc, the midnerve produced into an awn; the third scale much shorter, 
broader, hyaline, truncate, deoticulate at the summit; palet narrow, hyaline. Stamens 3. 
Styles distinct, somewhat elongated. Stigmas plumose. Grain ovoid, free, enclosed in the 
scale and paleL [Name Greek, taken from Pliny; originally applied to some very different 

,*bout 10 species, inhabiting the temperate zones of both hemispheres. The followine only 
are natives of North America. The EnRlish name Cal'i.lail Grass is applied to all the species. 
Spikes usually elongated, cylindric; awns less than one-half the length of the onter scales; upper 

sheath not inflated. 1. P. firalense. 

Spikes not elongated, ovoid to oblong and cylindrie; awns abont one-half the length of the onter 
scales; upper sheath inflated. a. P. alpiniim. 

I. Phleum pratinse L. Timothy. Herd's 
Grass. (Fig. 334.) 

3. PI. 59. 1753. 

I^Uum fira. 

Glabrous and smooth or very nearly so throughout, 
culms i°~\° tall, erect, simple. Sheaths usually ex- 
ceeding the internodes, sometimes shorter, the upper 
one long and not inflated, or very slightly so; ligule 
i"-3" long, rounded; leaves s'-g' long, i"-3" wide, 
smooth or scabrous; spike usually elongated, cylindrie, 
lJ4'-7'ia length, 2>i"-4" iu diameter; outer scales of 
the spikelet, exclusive of the awn. I'X" long, ciliate 
on the keel, the awn less than half their length. 


, Phleum alpinum L, Mountain Phleum. (Fig. 335.) 

PkUum alpinum L- Sp. PI. 59- '753- 

Glabrous, culma 6'-iS' tall, tTKCt or sometimes de- 
CumbCDt at the base, simple, smooth. Sheaths often 
much shorter than the intemodes, sometimes longer, 
the upper one nsuallj much inflated; li^rnle about. 
l" long, truncate; leaves smooth beneath, scabronSi 
above, the lower a'-^' long, i"-4" wide; upper leaf 
generally very short, less than i' long; spike short, 
ovoid to oblong and cylindric, ,S'-a'in length, 3"-6"" 
iu diameter: outer scales of the spikelet, exclusive or 
the ann, i}i" long, strongly ciliate on the keel, the 
awn about one-balf their leogtb. 

Labrador to Alaska, south to the mountains of New 
HampshirE, Vermont, Atiiona and California. Also in 
northern Europe and Asia and in Patagonia. Summer. 

39. ALOPECURUS L. Sp. PI. 60. 1753- 

Annual or perennial grasses with erect or decumbent cnlms, usually flat leaves, and api- 
cate inflorescence. Spikelets l-f1owered, flattened; scales 3, the 3 lower empty, acute, some- 
times short-awned, more or less united below, compressed-keeled; keel ciliate or wmewhat 
winged; third scale truncate or obtuse, hyaline, 3-nerved, awned on the back, subtend- 
ing a perfect flower and usnally a palet; palet hyaliue, acnte, sometimes wanting. Stamens 
3. Styles distinct or rarely united at the base. Stigmas elongated, hairy. [Greek, signify- 
ing Pox-tail Grass, in allusion to the spikes.] 

» species, pnn< 

Outer scales of the spikelet u 

ited for c 
itcd for c 

Besides the following, 
le-halF their length, smooth to hispid 

e.quarter their length c 

m the keel, 
A. agreslis. 
less.long-ciliate on the keel. 

>r sparingly pubescent o 

Spike I %' long or less; outer scales villous. 

the lateral nerves. 

3. A. pratensis. 

4. A. aipinus. 

I. Alopecurus agristis L. Slender Foxtail. (Fig. 336.) 


\s agrt 

's L. Sp. PI. Ed. t, 89. 176a, 

Smooth or slightly scabrous, culms i°-a° tal], erect, 
simple. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; ligule 
1" long, truncate; leaves \%'-Y long, i"-3" wide, 
scabrous, especially above; spike i>i'-4' long, 2"-A" 
thick ; outer scales of the spikelet united at the base 
for about half their length, narrowly wiog-keeled, 
2"-3}4" long, the nerves smooth or scabrous, some- 
times hispid below, especially on the keel; third scale 
equalling or slightly exceeding the outer ones, smooth 
and glabrous, the awn inserted near the base, about 
twice its length, bent. 

In waste places and, southern New York and 
New Jersey, Adventive from Europe, Native also of 
Asia. July- Aug. 


2. Alopecurus genicuUtus L. Marsh Foxtail. (Fig. 337.) 

1: 97. 1824. 

Glabroos or verf nearly so, cultna 6'-[8' tall, erect, 
or sometimes decumbent at the base, simple or spar- 
ingly branched, smcotb. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the internodes, loose or somewhat inflated ; lig- 
•ule I }i"-3" long; leaves i'-6' long, %"-t" iride, sca- 
brous, especially above ; spikes i'-3' in length, 1"-^" 
thick; outerscalesof the spikelet slightly united at the 
base, \"-\%" long, obtuse or subacute, smooth, gla- 
brous except on the pubescent lateral nerves and 
-strongly ciliate keel; third scale somewhat shorter, 
obtuse, smooth and glabrous, the awn inserted at or 
below the middle, equalling or exceeding it. 

In wet soil. Newfouudland to British Columbia, south 
«o Florida, Tennessee. Arizona and California. Also in 
Europe and Asia. July-Sept. 

3. Alopecurus prat6nsis L. Meadow Foxtail. (Fig. 338.) 

,4M/?cB»-«j/ra/«<«jL. Sp. PI. 60. I7M- 

Nearly or quite glabrous, ilender, culms i°-i^° tftll, 
erect, simple. Sheaths usually mnch shorter than the 
internodes, loose or somewhat inflated; ligule about 
W long, erose-truncate; leaves iJi'-sJi' long, i"- 
3" wide, scabrous, at least above; spikes i>i'-a>i' in 
length, \"-6" thick; outer scales of the spikelet unit* 
ed at the base for about one-quarter their length, i"~ 
y long, acute, glabrous except the sparingly pubes- 
cent lateral nerves and the strongly ciliate keel; third 
scale slightly shorter, obtuse, smooth and glabrous, 
the awn inserted about quarter way up the scale and 
exceeding it. 

Alopecurus alpinus J. E. Smith. Alpine 
Foxtail. (Fig. 339.) 

4 topta 

IS J. E. Smith, Engl. Bot //. 1126. 1803. 

Cnlma glabrous and smooth or nearly so, 5'-^° tall, 
cx^xt, sometimesdecumbentat the base, simple. Sheaths 
C^nerally shorter than the internodes, loose, often inSated; 
'■&ule i"-a" long, rounded at the apex; leaves i'-?' 
long, i"-i" wide, smooth beneath, slightly scabrous 
*l>CTe; spike I'/i' in length or less, 3"-6" thick; outer 
*cnles of the spikelet united only at the base, 2" long, 
**btiue, villous and ciliate; third scale about equalling the 
*>Qter ones, obtuse, glabrous except at the villous apex, 
**»« awn inserted about one-third the way up, a little ex- 
«*«diag the scale. 

30. PHIPPSIA R. Br. Suppl. App. Parry's Voy. 275. 


A low annual tufted graaa, with flat leaves and spike -like'panicle*. Sptkeleta i-flowered: 
scales 3: the 2 outer etapty, minute, the fint often wanting; the third icale thia-membraii- 
oua, keeled. Palet aomewhat ahorter, 2-keeled. Stamen i, rarely a or 3. Style* short. 
distinct Sttg^aa plumose. Gmin oblong, enclosed in the scale and palet, which resdil)- 
splitand allow it to drop oat. [In honor of John Constantine Phtpps, 1744-1793, Arctic 

A monotypic g:enua of the arctic regions. 

Phippsia filgida (Soland.) R. Br. Phippsia. (Fig. 340.) 

Agroslis algida Solander, iu Phipps' Voy. 1 

Smooth and glabrous throughout, culms I'-j' 
tall, erect, simple; lignle Ji" long; leaves i' in 
length or less, %"-\" wide, obtuse; panicle 
X'-iJ^' in length, contracted; branches X'-Jt" 
long, erect or appiessed; spikelets yi"-^" 
long; outer scales minute, unequal, acutisb, 
the £rst often wanting; third scale broad, i- 
nerved, obtuse, or sab-truncate and somewhat 
erose, the palet about two-thirds as long, broad, 
s-keeled, eroae-truncate, 

31. SPOROBOLUS R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. i; 169. 1810. 
[ViLFA Bcauv. Agrost. i6, i8ii.] 
Perennial or rarely annual grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and open or contracted 
panicles. Spikelets geuerally small, i-flowered, occasionally a-3-flowcred. Scales in the 
i-flowered spikelets 3, membranous; the 3 outer empty, the first somewhat ahorter; the 
third scale equalling or longer than the empty ones; palet 2-nerved. Stamens 3-3. Styles 
very short, distinct Stigmas plumose. Grain free, and often early deciduous. [Greek, 
referring to the deciduous grain.] 

About 80 species, in tropical and temperate regions, very ni 
following, 4 or s others occur in the southern and w— '*-" I'-ii" 

Panicle contracted, spilie-Hlie. 

Spikelets more than i >i" in length. 

Panicle terminal; upper ahealha V long or : 
leaves glabrous or very nearly so. 

Third scale ol the spikelet aeumin 

greatly exceeded by the palet. 
Third scale of the spikelet acutisl 
and equalling or a tittle shorter II 

n United States. 

I America. Besides the 

Panicles terminal and lateral; 
Spikelets i M" long or less. 

Sheaths inflated, the uppermost usually 

li longer than the second and usually 

I. S, asper. 
ise, somewhat exceeding the second 
alet. z. 5. longi/olius. 

3. i'. pilosus. 

4. 5. vaginacflorns. 

ing the base of the panicle. 

5. S. ntgUcius. 
Sheaths not inflated; panicle exserted. 

Branches of the panicle not crowded: third scale acuminate. 

Outer scales of the spikelet obtuse or abruptly acute, less than half as long as the 

third scale; ligulc about i" lon({, acutisli. 6. S. brtvifolivs. 

Outer scales of the spikelet acuminate and awn-pointed, more than half as long as 
the third scale; lignle less than V," lonp, erose-truncate. 7. .S. cuspidalus. 
Branches of the panicle densely crowded; third scale acute. 

Culms decumbent and branched at the base, from a stout horii^outal rootstock^ 

panicle short. 8. S. Vitviniaii. 

Culms erect, simple, tufted; panicle usually elongated. 9. 5. /ndtcui. 


Panicle open, the branchi 
Pedicels equalling or 

Branches of Uie panicle verticiUate! 

Spikelets X long, green. to. S, argulus. 

Spikelet3iii"-iM" long, purple. ii. S. junceus. 

Branniea of the panicle alternate or sometimes anb-verticillate. 
Spikelets about i" long; first scale laneeolatc. 

Sheaths naked or sparing;!; ciliate at the throat; panicle usuall; ezserted. 

Sheaths densely pilose at the throat; base of the panicle generalW included. 

13. S. crypiandrus. 

_^ _,. „. i:j. S. heleroUpis. 

Pedicels at least twice the length of the pikelets; fii^t scale about equalling' the second. 

Spikelets 2"'3K" Iodk; first scale subulate, 

Hce the length of the ntikelet) * 

mple; lea^-es elongatea. 

Culms slender, from an annual root; outer scales about half the length of the spikelet. 

15. S. srrolinut. 
Culms stout, from a horizontal rootstock: outer scales slightly shorter than the spikelet. 

16. 5. compressus. 
Culms decumbent and branched below; leaves short. 17. S. asfieri/olius. 

Sporobolus isper (Michx.) Kunth. Rough Rush-grass. (Fig. 341.) 
Agroslii aspera Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 53. 1803. 
Sporoboltis asper Kunth, Enum. l: 310. :833, 

Cnlma 1"-^° tall, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrons. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; 
ligale a mere ring, less thati %" long, naked; 
leaves 3'-i5' long, i"-i" wide at the base, 
attenuate into a long slender involute tip, 
smooth end glabrous beneath, scabrous above, 
or somewhat hairy at the base; panicle a'-j' in 
length, linear, strict, its branches i'~3' long, ap- 
pressed; spikelets 3"-4" long, the outer scales 
unequal, acute; third scale pubescent at the base, 
much longer than the second and greatly ex- 
ceeded b; the long-acuminate almost awned 

o Florida 

2. Sporobolus longifdlius (Torr. ) Wood. 
(Fig. 34S) 


Culms iji''-3>i° tall, erect, simple or occa- 
sionally branched, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths shorter than the intetnodcs; ligule very 
short, minutely ciliate; leaves 4'-i8' long, 1"- 
3" wide at the base, attenuate into a long slen- 
der involute tip, smooth and glabrous beneath, 
scabrous and hairy at the base above ; panicle 
more or less included in the upper sheath, 3'- 
10' in length, linear, strict, the branches I'-a' 
long, erect; spikelets a"-a>i" long; onter scales 
imeqaal, acutish, glabrous, the lower shorter; 
third scale glabrous, acutish or obtuse, exceed- 
ing the second and equalling or a little shorter 
than the obtnse palet. 

Long-leaved Rush-grass. 

Sporobolus pildsus V'asey. Hairy Rush-grass. (Fig. 343.) 

Sporobolui pilosus Vasej, CoulL Bot. Gai. i*: tS. 1S91. 

Calms \°-iH'' tall, erect, rigid, stoat, smooth and 
glabroas. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, 
crowded and overlappinj; at the base of the calm ; 
liffule very short, minutely ciliate ; leaves 3'-6' long, 
\"-2" wide at base, erect, rigid, attenoate into a slen- 
der iuvolute tip, the lower papillose-hiraute on botb 
sides, the upper usually glabrous beneath, scabrous 
above and somewhat taairy near the base ; panicle 
i'-y in length, included at the base, erect, strict, 
its branches %'-i' long, erect; spikelets aj^" long, 
the outer scales unequal, glabrous, obtuse, the lower 
shorter ; third scale obtuse, glabrous, somewhat ex- 
ceeding the second and equalling or a little longer 
than the obtuse palet. 

Kansas and Missouri. Aug.-SepL 

Sheathed Rush-grass. 

4. Sporobolus vaginaeftdnis (Torr. ) Wood, 

(Fig. 344.) 
Vilfa vaginaeftora Torr. ; A. Graj, Gram, and Cyp. No. 3. 

sporobolus vaeinaeftorus Wood, Classboolc. 775. 1861. 
sporobolus minor Vasey; A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 646, 1890. 

Cnlms 8'-i8' tall, erect, slender, smooth or scabrous. 
Sheaths usually inflated, about half as long as the 
intemodes; ligule very short; leaves i" wide or less, 
smooth and glabrous beneath, scabrous and hairy 
near the base above, attenuate into a slender invo- 
lute point, the lower elongated, the npper i'-3' long, 
setaceous ; panicles ^'-2' in length, the terminal one 
exserted or sometimes partially included, strict, the 
branches }i' long or less, erect, the lateral ones en- 
closed in the sheaths; spikelets i^"-i%" long, the 
onter scales unequal, acuminate, smooth, the lower one 
shorter; third scale scabrous, especially toward the 
apex, about as long as the second and eqaalling or 
slightly exceeded by the very acute palet. 

In dry soil, New York to Illinois and Missouri, south to 
Georgia and Texas. Aug.-Sept, 

5. Sporobolus negl^ctus Small (Fig. 345.) 

sporobolus z^gtHaeftorus Vasey; A. Gray, Man, Ed. 6, 

645. 1890. Not Wood. 186,1. 
Sporobolus negleclus Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, »: 464. 1895. 

Culms 6'-i3' tall, erect from a nsnally decumbent 
base, slender, often much branched, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths about half as long as the intei- 
nodes, inflated ; ligule very short ; leaves i" wide or 
less at the base, smooth and glabrous beneath, sca- 
brous and hairy near the base above, attenuate into a 
slender point, the lower elongated, the upper \'-y 
long, setaceous; terminal panicle I'-aJi' in length, 
usually more or less included in the upper sheath, 
strict; lateral panicles enclosed in the sheaths; spihe- 
lets about i%" long, the onter scales acnte, the lower 
one slightly shorter ; third scale acate, glabrous, a 
little longer than the second and about equalling 
the acute palet. 

In dry suil, Massachusetts to Kentucky and K 
Aug. -Sept. 


6. Sporobolus breviWUus (Nutt.) Scribn. Short-leaved Rush-g 
(Fig. 346.) 

Agroslis brevifoiia Nutt. Gen. i: 44. 1818, 

sporobolus depauperatus Scribn. Bull. Torr. Club, 9; 103. 

In part. i88l. 
sporobolus brtvi/oliuiScnba. Mem. Torr. Club. J: 39, 1895. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 6'-l8' tall, arising from a 
horizontal rootstock, erect, slender, ilecumbent and 
branching at the base. Sheaths much shorter than the 
intemodes ; ligule ■iC"-i" long, acutish ; leaves Ji'-s' 
long, involute-setaceous ; panicle yi'-y in length, usu- 
ally about 1%', linear, its branches X'-Ji' long, erect 
or appressed; spikelets ij("-i>i" long, the outer scales 
unequal, less than half as long as the third, obtuse or 
abruptly acute, scabrous on the keel and at the apex ; 
third scale long-acuminate, sometimes cuspidate, scabrous 
toward the apex. 

7. Sporobolus cuspiditus (Torr.) Wood. 
Prairie Rush-grass. (Fig. 347.) 

Vil/a cuspidala Torr.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. a: Jj8. 1540. 
sporobolus cuspidatus Wood, Bot. & Fl. 385. 1870. 
sporobolus brevifoHus Sctibn. Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 39. 
In part. 1894. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms i"-!' tall, erect, sim- 
ple or somewhat branched. Sheaths shorter than 
the intemodes ; ligule a mere ring, )i" long or less, 
erose-tmncate ; leaves i'-4' long, less than i" wide 
at the base, erect, involute-setaceous, at least when 
dry; panicle if4'-5' iu length, slender, its branches 
X'-i'long, appressed; spikelels iX"-t}i"Umg,the 
outer scales half to three-quaiters as long, acuminate 
or cuspidate, scabrous on the keel; third scale long- 
acuminate and cuspidate, sparingly scabrous. 

8. Sporobolus Vir^nicus (L.) Kunth. Seashore Rush-grass. (Fig. 348,) 

1:67. :835. 

Culms &'-i° tall, erect or sometimes decumbent, 
simple or branched at the base, smooth and glab- 
rons. Sheaths numerous, short, overlappiag and 
crowded at the lower part of the culm, smooth, 
glabrous or sometimes pilose on the margins and 
at the throat; Ijgule a ring of short hairs; leaves 
I'-S' long, 3" wide or less at the base, distichous, 
acnmioate into a long point, involute on the mar- 
gins and at the apex, smooth beneath, scabrous 
above or sometimes sparingly hairy; panicle I'-y 
long, 1"-%" thick, dense and spike-like, usually 
exaerted; spikelets \"-i%" long, the outer scales 
•bout equal, acute, smooth and glabrous; third 
•cale smooth and glabrous, acute, slightly shorter 
than the second and about equalling the obtuse 

On Bandy shores. Virfpnia to Florida, west to Texas 
and Mexico. Also iu Cuba, Aug. -Sept. 


Sporobolus Indicus (L.) R. Br. India Rush-grass. Smut-^ass. 
(Fig. 349.) 

1 810. 

fNov. Holl.i 

GUbroDB and emooth throughout, culms I''-^' 
tftU, «rect, tnfted, simple or rarely spariDgl; 
branched. Sheaths few, long, shorter than the in- 
temodes ; ligule a ring of very ehort hain ; leaves- 
i"-i" wide, attenuate into a long slender point, thft 
lower S'-i" long, the upper Hhorter ; panicle +'-15'" 
in length, ususlly elongated, narrow, spike-like^ 
ipikeleta }i"-t" long, the outer scales unequal, 
about half as long aa the third, obtuse, smooth and. 
glabrous, the lower one shorter and often erase— 
truncate ; third scale acnte, somewhat exceeding; 
the obtuse or acutisb palet. 

In meadows and waste places. VitKinia to Florida., 
west to Arkansas and CBlifomia. Natnraliied from 
tropical regions; very abundant in Central and South 
America. July-Sept. 

10. Sporobolus argiltus (Nees) Kunth. Pointed Dropseed-grass. (Fig. 350. > 



argulus Kunth, Enum. i: irj. 1633. 
Culms 1° tall or less, erect, or somewhat decum- 
bent at the base, simple or sometimes branched, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the 
internodes, their margins sometimes hirsute at the 
top; ligule a ring of short hairs; leaves I'-a' long. 
i"-2" wide at Jhe base, acuminate, smooth and 
glabrous beneath, scabrous and often sparingly hairy 
at the base above: panicle ifi'-3' in length, the 
branches >i'-i' long, verticillate, at first appressed, 
finally widely spreading; spikelets ^" long; outer 
scales smooth and glabrous, the first rounded or 
obttue, one-quarter the length of the acute second 
one; third scale about equalling the second, acute. 

Kansas, the Indian Territory and Colorado, south in 
Texas and Mexico. Also in the West Indies. 


Sporobolus j6nceus (Michx.) Kunth. 
Purple Dropseed-grass. Wire-grass. 

(Fig. 35I-) 

1:5*. 1803. 
1.1:68. 1835. 

Glabrous and smooth throughout, culms i°-3'' tall, 
tufted, erect, slender, simple. Sheaths shorter than 
the internodes ; ligule very short ; leaves filiform or 
setaceous, the basal 6'-i° long, numerous, those of 
the culm few, i'-3' long; panicle 3'-?' in length, 
open, the branches verticillate, the lower I'-a' loi^^ 
widely spreading; spikelets iX"-ifi"i pnrple, the 
outer scales very unequal, the first obtuse or acutish, 
one-fourth to one-third the length of the acnte second 
one ; third scale subacute or blunt, equalling the 
second and the obtuse palet. 


13. Sporobolus airoldes Torr. Hair-grass Dropseed. (Fig. 352.) 

roilii airoidesToti. Ann. Lye. N. Y. i: 151. 1824. 

'robol-us airoides Torr. Pac. R. R. Kept. 7; Part 3, ii. 


^nlins i>^°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gU- 

OS. Sheaths generally shorter than the intemodes, 

letimes sparselj' ciliate at the throat ; ligule very 

Tt ; leaves smooth beneath, scabrous above 

jetimes sparingly hairy near the base, %' 

le at the base, attenuate into a long alender involute 

nt, the basal about one-half as longas the culm, the 

)erculm leaves a'-s'in length; panicle s'-is' long, 

lally exserted, the branches alternate or the upper 

ticillate,, at length widely spreading, the lower 3'- 

long; spikelets j^"-i" long, the scales acute, gla- 

<ua, the outer unequal, the lower one about half as 

g aa the upper; third scale equalling the second 

1 the palet 

■tairies, Nebraska to Calitomia, south to Texas and 

zona. Auf-.-Sept 

, Sporobolus cryptfindrus (Torr.) A. Gray. Sand Dropseed. (Fig. 353.) 

Agroslis cryptandra Torr. Ann. Lye, N. Y. i : 151. 18*4. 
sporobolus crypiandrus A. Gray, Man. 576. 184S. 
Culms i>^°-3>j° tall, erect, «mple or sometiiiies 
I Y «S 7 '■^'ji' branched at the base, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths 

Ok w \ .'.lJF smooth, with a dense pilose ring at the summit, the 

^ j ^ y^^^^^i^ lower short, crowded and overlapping, the upper 

much longer, generally enclosing the base of the pan- 
icle; ligule a ring of short bain; leaves y-6' long, 
\"-i" wide, flat, glabrous beneath, scabrous above, 
long-acuminate; panicle 6'-i& in length, the base gen- 
erally included in the upper sheath, rarely entirely 
exserted, the branches spreading or ascending, alter- 
nate, the lower iJi'-3' long; spikelets i."-i%"loog, 
the scales acute, glabrous, the onter scabrous on tbe 
keel, the lower one-third as long as the upper; third 
scale somewhat longer or shorter than the second. 

indysoil. coast o( New England, along all the Great 

4. Sporobolus heter61epis A. Gray. Northern Dropseed. 

'/a keteroUpis A. Gray, Ann, Lye N. Y. 3: 233. 1835. 
•roiolus heleroUpis A. Gray, Man. 576. 1848. 
'ulms I'-s" tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous, 
iaths sometimes sparingly pilose at tbe summit, the 
rer abort, loose, and overlapping, the upper much 
ngated and tight to the culm; ligule a ring of short 
rs; leaves involute-setaceous, glabrous, tbe margins 
I upper part of the midrib very rough, the basal 
■nt three-fourths the length of the culm, occaaion- 
f equalling it, those of the culm shorter; panicle 
10' in length, its branches erect or ascending, al- 
aate or sub-verticillate, the lower I'/i'-^ii' long; 
kelets 3"-3^" long, the scales smooth and gla- 
loB, the outer anequal, acuminate, the lower snb- 
te, about half the length of the broad second one, 
en awn-poiutcd; third scale obtuse or acute, shorter 
in the second or occasionally equalling it. 
n diy soil, Quebec to Assiniboia, south to Pennsylvania, 
nois and Arkansas. Aug;. -Sept. 

(Kg. 354-) 


15. Sporobolus ser6tinus (Torr.) A. Gray. 
(Pig. 355- > 

Late-flowering Dropseed 

. Fl. V. S, 1:88, 18J4. 
Sfiorobolas serotinus A. Gray, Han. 577. 1843. 

GUbroas and smooth or verj nearly to. cnlii» 
6'-i8' tall, from an aonual root, erect, slender, 
simple. Sheaths short, confined to tbe lower part 
of the culm; li^iilc less than }i" in length, irre- 
gularly truncate; leaves }i" wide or less, slightly 
scabrous above, flat, the basal one-third to half the 
length of the culm, those of the culm i'-a' long: 
panicle 3'-9' in length, the branches capillary, 
erect or ascending, the lower i'-J>i' long; spike- 
lets about ^" long, the ontcr scales subequal, ob- 
tuse, smooth or sometimes sparingly scabrous; 
third scale twice the length of the outer ones, 

In H-et sandy soil, Maine to Michigan, south to New 
Jersey. Sept.-OcTt 

16. Sporobolus comprtssus (Torr.) Kunth. 
(Fig. 356.) 

Flat-stemmed Dropseed. 

Agroslis compresia Torr. Cat. PI. N. Y. 
Sporoboltti compressus Knnth, Enum. i 



Culms t°-2° tall, from a horizontal rootstock, stout, 
simple, much compressed, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths compressed, overlapping, sometimes scabrous 
at the summit; ligule very short; leaves s'-io' long, 
1" wide or less, folded, slightly rough; panicle 4'-i</ 
in length, the branches erect or ascending, the lower 
3'-3' long; spilcelets about }i" long; outer scales sub- 
equal, obtuse or somewhat acute, smooth and gla- 
brona; third scale obtuse and apicnlate, strongly scab- 
rous, slightly exceeding the outer ones. 

17. Sporobolus asperifdlius (Nees & Meyen) Thurber. 
Dropseed. (Fig. 357.) 

fil/a asPeri/olia Neea & Meyen; Trin. Mem. Acad. St. 

Petersb, (VI.) 6:95. 1840. 
Sporobolus asptrifolius Thurber; S. Wats. Bot. Col. 3; 

269. 18S0. 

Culms 6'-i8' tall, erect from a decumbent and 
branched base, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths short, 
crowded and overlapping, the upper usnally enclosing 
the base of the panicle ; ligule %" long, erose-tmn- 
cate; leaves numerous, I'-sJi' long, \"-\%," wide at 
the base, acuminate, strict, often erect. Sat, glabrous, 
smooth beneath, very rough above ; panicle 3'-8' in. 
length, included at the base, rarely entirely exserted, 
the capillary branches spreading or ascending, the 
lower 2'-^' long; spikeleta occasionally 3-3-flowered, 
J^" long; outer scales subequal, acute, glabrous, spar- 
ingly scabrous; third scale obtuse or acute, glabrous, 
somewhat exceeding the second. 

Dry soil, Assiniboia to British Columbia, south to Mis- 
souri, Nebraska, Calitoinia and Mexico. Aug.'Sept. 



32. POLYPOGON Desf. Fl. Atl. i: 66. 1798. 

Mostly annuel grasses, with decnmbent or rarely erect culms, flat leaves and spike-like 
panicles, Spikelets i-flowered; scales 3; the 3 outer empty, each extended into an awn; third 
scale smaller, generally hyaline, ahort-awned from below the apex, subtending a palet and 
perfect flower; palet shorter than the scale. Stamens 1-3. Styles short, distiticL Stigmas 
plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet. [Greek, in sllusiou to the many long 
awns which resemble a beard.] 

About 10 species, widely distributed in temperate and warm regions, rare in the tropics. 

1. Polypogon Monspeliinsis (L.) Desf. Beard-grass. (Fig. 358.) 

Alofiecums Monsfieliemis 1.. Sp. PI. 89. 1753. 
PolyPogott Sfonspeliensii De-sf. Fl, Atl. i: 67, 

Culms 2" tall or less, erect from a usually de- 
cumbent base, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths 
generally shorter than the intemodes, loose, 
sometimes slightly scabrous; ligule iji''-^"" 
long; leaves i>i'-6' long, i>i"-3" wide, sca- 
brous, especially above; panicle i'-4' in length, 
dense and spike-like, the branches yi' in length, 
ascending ; spikelets crowded ; outer scales 
about 1" long, obtuse, slightly bifid, scabrous, 
bearing a more or less bent awn a"-3" long; 
third scale much shorter, erose-truncate, hya- 
line, bearing a delicate awn about X" long, 
inserted below the apex. 

In waste places. New Hampshire to Sonth Caro- 
lina, mostly near the coast. Very abundant in 
western North America, from British Columbia to 
Mexico. Naturalized from Europe. Native also 
of Asia. July-Sept. 

33. ARCTAGRdSTIS Griseb. in Udeb. Fl, Ross. 4: 434. 1853. 

A perennial grass with flat leaves and contracted panicle. Spikelets i-flowered. Scales 
3; the a outer empty, unequal, somewhat acute, membranous; the third scale exceeding 
the second, subtending a palet and perfect flower, obtuse; palet obtuse. 2- nerved. Stamens 
S or 3. Styles distinct, short. Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, enclosed in the scale 
and palet. Seed adherent to the pericarp. [Latin, signifying an arcUc Agroslis-\i)i(^ grass.] 

A monotypic genus of arctic and subarctic regions. 

I. Arctagrostis latifdlia (R. Br.) Griseb. 
Arctagrostis. (Fig. 359.) 

CToipodium latifolium R, Br. Suppl. App. Panys 

Voy. a86. 1814. 
-^ rclagroslis lalifoUa Griseb. in Ledeb, Fl. Ross. 4: 



's decumbent 
us. Sheaths 
■' long, trun- 

Culms 6'-a° tall, erect, or sometim 
*-t the base, simple, smooth and glabr 
^liorter than the intemodes; ligule : 
'^^te; leaves 1'- 7' long, i "-4" wide, 
*^:abrouH; panicle iJi'-8' long, uarrow, its branches 
J^'-a' in leng^tb, ascending or erect; spikelets 
> }i"-3" long; outer scales unequal, acutish, the 
lower about two-thirds to three-fonrths the length 
Of the upper; third scale obtuse, exceeding the 
&ecoDd, hiapid on the keel. 

Also in 

2. Agrostis exarltta Trin. Rough-leaved Bent- 

■ozlise.varala Trin. I'nifl. ao?. 1814. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, or sometimes decumbent 
at the base, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths 
nsuallj shorter than the interDOdea, smooth or 
nmghisb; ligule i"-3ji" long, more or less decur- 
rent; leaves I'-S'long, i"-4" wide, generally erect, 
flat or involute, scabrous; panicle contracted, iji'- 
10' in length, often interrupted or glomerate, the 
branches i^'-3' in length, erect, spikelet-bearing 
to the base; spikelets crowded, \"~3" long, the 
outer scales aubequal, scabrous, especiall7 on the 
keel; third scale from less than one-half to tbree- 
fotuths the length of the second, obtuse or sub- 
acute; palet minute. 

3. Agrostis Elliottiltna Schultes. Elliott's Bent-grass. (Fig. 364.) 

Agroslis arachitoides Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. I; 154. 

1817. NotPoir. »8;o. 
Agroslis Eliioltiana Schultes, Mant. i: xit. 1814. 

Culms s'-r4' tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, 
smooth or slightly scabrous, strongly striate; 
ligule i" long; leaves rough, }i'-i' long, 1" 
wide or less; panicle 2'-$' in length, nsnally 
narrow, sometimes open, the branches slender, 
naked below, erect or ascending, the lower i'-i>4' 
long; spikelets )(" long; outer scales subequal, 
scabrous on the keel, acute; third scale about three- 
quarters as long as the first, erosc-truncate, acute or 
a-toothed, bearing a very finely filiform fleznous 
barbellate awn, 2-4 times its length, inserted just 
below the apex; palet short. 

4. Agrostis canina Iv. Brown Bent-grass. (Fig. 365.) 

anina I,. Sp. PI. 6l. i;S3. 

Culms 1^-3° tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule 
J4"-lJ^"long; leaves l'-3' in length, 1" wideorless, 
scabrous; panicle i'-^' in length, contracted in fruit, 
the branches slender, naked below, ascending or 
spreading in flower, the lower I'-af^' long; spikelets 
i" long, on appressed pedicels, the outer Scales sub- 
equal, acute, strongly scabrous on the keel; third scale 
about two-thirds the length of the first, obtuse, smooth 
and glabrous, bearing a straight or somewhat bent 
dorsal awn 1 "-3" long, inserted just above the middle; 

I meadows. Newfoundland 

ania and Tennessee. Native northward; 

1 Europe southward. A variable species. 

tVa, south to Penn- 

Scribn.; Macouti, Cat. 

5. Agrostis riibra L. Red Bent-grass. (Fig. 366.) 

Agroslts rubra L. Sp. PI. 62. 1753. 
AgroHis rubalris Chaptn. Fl. S. States, 551 

All. 1785. 
Agrostis rubra var. A 

Can. PI. 5: 39t. xSgo, 

Smooth or very nearly so, glabrous, culms 5'-i° tall, 
erect or sometimes decumbent at the base, simple. 
Sheaths usually shorter than the internodes; ligule 1" 
long; leaves a'-4' long, }i"-tji" wide; panicle aj^'- 
S' in length, open, the branches generally widely 
spreading and more or less flexuons, rarely erect, the 
lower i'-a>i' long; spilcelets iX"-i>i" long, the 
outer scales acute, scabrous on the keel; third scale 
shorter than the first, obtuse, bearing a usually bent 
dorsal awn i"-3}i" long, inserted below the middle. 

Sutniaits at the highest mountains of New England, 
New York and North Carolina. The American plant 
maybe specifically different from the European. Summer. 

6. Agrostis per^nnans (Walt.) Tuckerm, Thin-grass. (Fig. 367.) 

Cornucopias perennans Walt. Fl. Car. 74. 1788. 
Agrostis peremians Tuckerra, Am. Joum. Sci. 4S- 44. 

Culms i°-aj^° long from a decumbent or pros- 
trate base, weak, slender, simple or sparingly 
branched above, smooth and glabrous; ligule }i" 
long; leaves a'-6' long, i"-a" wide, lax. scabrous; 
panicle 4'-8' in length, open, the branches I'-a' 
long, widely spreading, the branchlets and pedi- 
cels divergent; spikelets }i"-i" long, the outer 
scales acute, scabrous on the keel; third scale about 
three-quarters tlie length of the first, smooth and 
glabrous, not awned; palet small or wanting. 

In shaded damp places. Quebec and Ontario to Wis- 
consin, south to South Carolina and Tennessee. As- 
cends to 6600 ft. in North Carolina. Panicle usually 
light green, sometimes purplish. July-Sept, 

7. Agrostis hyemaiis (Walt.) B.S.P. Rough Hair-grass. (Fig. 368.) 

Cornucopiae kyematis Walt. Fl. Car. 73. 1788. 
■^.S-rostis scabra Willd. Sp, PI. I; 370. 1798. 
^^S-roslis kyemalisS.S.-P. Prel. Cat. N.Y. 68. 1888. 

dulms I'-i" tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth and 
Kl^fcrous, Sheaths generally shorter than the inter- 
•"o^ts; ligule \"-2" long; leaves a'-s' long, >i"-i>i" 
'^*'^<3e, usually erect, roughish; panicle (/-i" long, usu- 
■^^J-iy purplish, the capillary scabrous branches ascend- 
'*"^E"i sometimes widely spreading, or often drooping, 
*^^ lower s'-fr" long, dividing above the middle, the 
'ins spikelet-bearing at the extremities ; spikelets 
'' long, the outer scales acute, scabrous toward 

~**^ apex and on the keel; third scale t 

^*»gth of the first or equalling it, obtuse, ; 

^liort awn; palet usually very small. 

o-thirds the 
rely bearing 


8. Agrostia altissima (Walt.) Tuckenn. Tall Bent-grass. (Fig. 369,) 

Cornucopiat altissima Walt. Fl. Cat, 74. 1788. 
Agrotlis allissima Tnclcenn. Am, Jouni. Sci. 45: 44. 

PMt a, 

a Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petenb. (VI.) 

Culms 3°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth, tiaually 
stin. Sheaths overlapping, scabrous, the ttpfn 
one elotigated; ligule i"-i"1ong; leaves elongated, 
e*-!' in length, i"-iji" wide, scabrom; panicle 
7'-9' long, the branches ascending or erect, some- 
what scabrous, the lower a'-4' in length, spikelet- 
bearing at the extremitiea; spikelets iV"-iH" 
long, the outer scales acute, scabrous on the keel; 
third scale shorter, obtuse, scabrous, occasionally 
bearing a short awn; palet small or wanting. 

g. Agrostis intermedia Scribn. Upland Bent-grass. (Fig. 370.) 

Culms I'-s" tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths smooth, those at the base of the culm often 
crowded and overlapping; ligule i"-2" long; leaves 
4'-9' long, i"-3" wide, scabrous; panicle 4''-9' in 
length, the branches ifi'-3' long, ascending, dividing 
at or below the middle, the divisions divergent, the 
pedicels appressed; spikelets about 1" long, the outer 
scales acute or acuminate, scabrous on the keel; third 
scale about three-fourths the length of the first, smooth; 
palet small or wanting. 

In dry soil, New York to Tennessee and Missouri. In- 
termediate in aspect between A. allissima and A. peren- 
nans. Aug. -Oct. 

10. Agrostis Ndvae-Angliae Tuckenn. 
New England Bent-grass. (Fig. 371,) 

Agroslis JVovar-Angliae TucVeTm. Hovey'a Mag. p; 

143. April, 1843. 
Agrasl\s alltssima var. Tuckenn. Am. Jouni. Set. 

45: 44. October, :843. 

Culms 8'-i5' tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths longer than the intemodes, gener- 
ally overlapping; hgule l" long; leaves l'-3}4' 
long, 1" wide or less, erect, usually involute, scab- 
rous; panicle 3>i'-7' in length, open, the branches 
spreading or ascending, dividing at or below the. 
middle, the divisions divergent, the pedicels often^ 
S^ appressed; spikelets iii"-i]ii" long, the outer — 
scales acute, strongly scabrous on the keel; thin&- 
scale somewhat shorter, obtuse. 



36. CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 31. 1763. 
[Dhveuxia Clarion; Beauv. Agrost. 43. fii. p. /. 9, 10. rSia.] 
Generally perennial grasses, of various habit, with flat leaves and paniculate infiorescence. 
Spikelets i-flowered, the rachilla usually prolonged beyond the flower and pubescent. 
Scales 3; the 3 outer empty, carinate, membranous; the third scale hyaline, shorter than 
the outer, obtuse, usually copiously long-hajiy at the base, or rarely the hairs scanty or short, 
and besjing a straight, bent or twisted dorsal awn; palet shorter, 2-nerved. Stamens 3. 
SQles short, distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale. Seed adher- 
ent to the pericarp. [Greek, sig^nifytng Reed-grass.] 

A genus of about 130 species, widely distributed throuKhonl temperate and mountainous 
r^ons, and particularly BumcniaB in the Andes. Besides the followinB, Some TO others occur in 
the western parts of Noith America. The Enfrlish name Small-rttd is applied to any of tbe species. 
Panicle open, the branches spreadine or ascending, naually long and lax. 

Spilieleta i" long; outer scales ocute. I. C Macouniana. 

Spikelets i34"~3^^ long; outer scales acute; awn slender. 2. C. Canadensis, 

Spikelets 3"-3" long; outer scales acumioat;; awn stouter. 3. C. Langsdorfii. 

Panicle narrow or contracted, the branches erect, at least in fruit, usually short and strict. 
Basal hairs one-third the length of the scale or less. 

Awn strongly twisted, insetted near the base of the scale; leaves long, 4. C. Porleri. 
Awn not twisted, bent, inserted just below the middle of the scale; leaves short. 

5. C breviseta. 
Basal hairs one-half the length of the scale or more. 

Spikelets iJ4"'3" long; prolongation of the rachilla hairy its whole length. 

LeaveslUt;t)asaIliairBequallingorsomewbatshoTterthantheBcale, 6. C.confinis. 
Leaves involute in drying; basal hairs half as long as the scale. 7. C. negiicla. 
Spikelets }"-i" long; prolongation of tbe rachilla with a terminal tuft of hairs. 

I. Calamagrostis Macouni&na Vasey. 
Macoun's Reed-grass. (Fig. 372,) 

Dcyeuxia Macouniana Vosey, Coult, Bot Gaz, 10: 297. 

Vasey, Contr. U. S. NaL 

Culms i"--^" tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths shorter than the internodes; lignle i" long; 
leaves 3'-?' long, \"-i%" wide, erect, acuminate, 
scabrous; panicle open, 3'-4>i' in length, the branches 

ascending, or sometimes erect, the lower i'-i>i' long, 
naked at the base; spikelets i" long, the outer scales 
acute, scabrous, the first shorter than the second; 
third scale equalling the second, the awn a little ex- 
ceeding it; basal hairs about as long as the scale. 

Manitoba and Asainiboia. Summer. 

a. Calamagrostis Canadensis (Micbx.) Beauv. Blue- joint Grass. 
(Fig. 373-) 
Arvndo Canadensis Michx. Fl. Bor, Am, i: 73. 1803. 
Calanagroslis Canadensis Beauv. Agrost. 15. 1812. 

Culms I'-s" tall, erect, simple, smooth or somewhat 
scabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule 
'■"-3" long; leaves fZ-i" longer more, i "-4" wide, 
">Mgh; panicle 4'-7' in length, open, usually purpUsb, 
"•* branches spreading or ascending, the lower 
'.Ja'— 3' long, naked at the base; spikelets i}i"~ 
long, the outer scales equal or subequal, acute, 
"**'^**S'y scabrous; third scale equalling or slightly 
™orter than the second, scabrous, the awn delicate 
*"*'! equalling the copious basal hairs which are about 
"* long as the scale or some of them shorter. 

%nds to 5000 ft. in the Adirondacks. July-Sept. 


3. Calamagrostis L.angsd6rfii (Link) Trin. Langsdorf' s Reed-grass. 
(Fig. 374.) 


pi. 4. f.'O. 

Culms 3°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth or roughish. 
Sheaths shorter than the internodcs; ligule i"-}" 
long; leaves 4'-! 2' long, a"-4" wide, scabrous; pan- 
icle 3'-6' in length, the. branches ascending or some- 
times erect, the lower I'-a' long, naked at the base: 
spikelets a"-3" long, the outer scales acuminate, 
strongly scabrous; third scale equalling or shortei 
than the second, scabrous, the stout awn as long as 01 
a little exceeding the copious basal hsiis which an 
usually somewhat shorter than the scale. 

Newfoundland to Alaska, south to the mountains oi 
New England and New York, and to Manitoba and Wash- 
ington. Also in northern Europe and Asia. Summer. 

Calamagrostis Pdrteri A, Gray. Porter's Reed-grass. (Fig. 375.) 

magros/is PorUri A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, fl: 79. 


Culms 3°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, slightly scabrous, 
with a villous ring at the summit; ligule i"-a" long; 
leaves 6'-ia' long, a"-4" wide, rough; panicle 4'-8' 
in length, the branches erect, the lower I'-a' long; 
spikelets \"-l%" long, the outer scales strongly sca- 
brous, acute; third scale shorter than or equalling the 
second, obtuse, scabrous, the lateral basal hairs about 
one-third the length of the scale, those at the back 
short or wanting; awn bent, about equalling the scale, 
the lower part twisted. 

a and southern New York. 

5. Calamagrostis brevisSta (A. Gray) Scribn. Pickering's Reed-grass. 
(Fig. 376.) 
Calamagrostis srliralica var. brevisela A. Gray, Man 

582. 1848, 
Catamagroslis Picttringii A, Glay, Man, Ed. a, 547 

Calamagroslis brtvisda Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club, 5 
41. 1891. 

Culms i2'-i8' tall, erect, rigid, simple, scabrom 
below the panicle. Sheaths smooth and glabrous 
the lower overlapping, the upper one elongated; lig 
ule i"-3" long; leaves if^'-4' long, i" wide, erect 
smooth beneath, rough above; panicle 3'-4ji' ii 
length, the branches ascending or erect, the lon'ei 
I'-iyi' long; spikelets i}i"-3" long, purple tinged 
the outer scales acute, scabrous on the keel; thirt 
scale shorter than the second, obtuse, scabrous, th< 
basal hairs very short; awn bent, not twisted 
equalling or slightly exceeding the scale. 

In wet places, Cape Breton Island to New Hamp 
shire and Massachusetts. Occurs in the alpine regioi 
of the White Mountains. Aug.-Sept. 


6. Calamagrostis connnis (Willd. ) Nutt. Bog Reed- 

indo confinis Willd. 

Calamagrostis confinis Nutt. Gen. 


Vttsey, Conlr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 

Culms 1%°-^° tall, erect, simple, smooth or rough. 
Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule about i"\aag; 
leaves 2" wide or less, rough, flat, or involute at the apex, 
the basal often one-half to two-thirds as long as the cuhn, 
the stem leaves I'-ic/ long; panicle contracted, a ^'-9' in 
length, the branches I'-a' long, erect; spilcelets ifi"-2" 
long, the scales somewhat scabrous, the outer acute; third 
scale obtuse, the basal hairs equalling it or three-fourths 
as long; awn more or less bent, from a little shorter to 
slightly longer than the scale. 

In bogs, Vermont, New York > 
couver Island, south in the Kocky 
Aug.-Sept. Specimena of thia ([rasa have been rcfeired 
C. ia^^»iVa(Link|Trin.,but wc have been unable to pro 
"" s of that spedes within our area. 


. Calamagrostis negldcta (Ehrli.) Gaertn, 
Narrow Reed-grass. (Fig. 378.) 

1:94. 1799. 

181 3. 

Glabrous and smooth throughout, cuhns i^°-3j^° 
tall, erect, simple, slender. Sheaths shorter than the 
intemodes; hgule }i" long or less, truncate; leaves 
narrow, involute in drjdng, the basal one-third as long 
as the culm, those of the culm I'-s' long, erect; pan- 
icle contracted, 3^'-4' in length, the branches i' long 
or less, erect; spiketets 2" long, the scales scabrous, 
the outer acute; third scale obtuse, about three-fourtha 
as long as the second and nearly twice the length of 
the basal hairs; awn bent, exceeding the scale. 

Labrador aod Newfoundland to Washington, Also in 

8. Calamagrostis cinnoldes (Muhl.) Scribn. Nuttall's Reed-grass, 
(Fig. 379.) 
^rundo cinnoides Muhl. Gram. 1S7, 1817, 
Calamagrostis Nullalliana Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 190. 

Calamagrostis cinnoides Scribn. Mero, Ton. Club, $: 4a. 

Culms z^S" tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
■'brous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth 
«ir rough, the lower sometimes sparingly hirsute, and 
xarely with a villous ring at the summit; ligule \"-z" 
long: leaves 4'-!'' long or more, 2"-5" wide, attenuate 
into a long point, scabrous, occasionally sparingly 
liirsute; panicle 3'-?' in length, contracted, the 
Iranches erect, the lower I'-a' long; spikelets 3"-4" 
long; scales strongly scabrous, the outer about equal, 
acmninate and awn-pointed; third scale shorter, obtuse, 
the basal hairs one-half to two-thirds its length; awn 
fitout, exceeding or equalling the scale; prolongation of 
the rachilla bearing a terminal tuft of hairs. 

..J Pennaylvanitt, south 
o 3000 fl. in Pennsylv""'" ' '" ' " 

) Georgia. Ascends 



Berol. I: 105. 1S27. 

37. AMM6pHILA Host. Gram. Austr. 4: 34. pi. fi. 1809. 

Tall perennial grasses with flat leaves, convolute above, and dense spike-like panicles. 
Spikelets i-flowered, the rachilla prolonged beyond the flower and hairy. Scales 3, rigid, 
chartaceous, acute, keeled; the i outer empty, the lower i-nerved, the upper 3-nerved:: 
third scale s-nerved, with a ring of short haiis at the base, subtending a chartaceous a-nerved 
palet and a perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, 
loosely enclosed in the scale and palet. [Greek, signifying sand-loving, in allusion to the 
habitat of these grasses.] 

Two species, the follawing widely distributed aloUK the fresh and salt-water sbores of the 
northern hemisphere, the other BuTopean. 

I. Ammophila arenAria (L.) Litik. Sea Sand-reed. Sea Mat-weed. 

Maratn. (Fig. 380.) 

Arundo arenaria L. Sp, PI. 8i. 1753. 
Calamagroslis arenana Roth, PI. Germ. I: _ 
AmiHophila arundinacea Host, Gram, Austr. 
AmalOphila arenaria l,{-^- "~— ■* — ' -■ ■- 

Glabrous, cuhns 3°-4° tall, erect, rigid, stout, 
smooth, arising from a long horizontal branching root- 
stock. Sheaths smooth, the lower short, crowded and 
overlapping, the upper longer; lig^le a mere ring; 
leaves t'-V long or more, rigid, attenuate into a long 
slender involute point, smooth beneath, scabrous 
above; spike -like panicle dense, 4'-i3' in length, 
5"-3" thick, its branches \yi' long or less, appressed; 
spikeleta 5"-6" long, the scales scabrous, about equal 
in length, the third usually with the rudiment of an 
awn just below the apex; basal hairs \"-i" long. 

In sands of the sea coast from New Brunswick to Vir- 
ginia, and inland along the shores of the Great Lakes. 
AJso on the coasts of northern Europe. Ans.-Sept. 

38. CALAMOVILFA Hack. True Grasses, 

Tall grasses with stout horizontal rootstocks, elongated leaves, which are involute at the 
apex, and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets i-flowered, the rachilla not prolonged beyond 
the flower. Scales }, i-nerved, acute, the z outer unequal, empty; third scale longer or shorter 
than the second, with a ring of hairs at the base; palet strongly i-keeled. Stamens 3. 
Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free. Seed adherent to the pericarp. [Greek,^ 
signifying a reed-Uke grass.] 

Three known species, natives of the temperate and subtropical regions of North America. 

Calamovilfa brevipilis (Torr. ) Hack. Short-haired Reed-grass. 

(Fig- 381.) 

- ,, SS». 1848. 

Catamovil/a brevipilis Hack. True Grasses, 113. 1890, 

Glabrous and smooth or very nearly so, cuhns a'^" 
tall, erect, simple. Sheaths shorter than the tnter- 
nodes; ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves 6'-u' 
long, i}i" wide or less, attenuate into a long slender 
involute tip. smooth beneath, slightly scabrous 
above; panicle open, s'-io" in length, the branches as- 
cending, the lower a'-4' long; spikelets i"-i>i" long; 
scales acute, scabrous toward the apex, the outer un- 
equal, the first one-half as long as the second; third 
scale exceeding the second, pubescent on the lower 
half of the keel; basal hairs one-third the length 
of the scale; palet nearly equalling the scale, pubes- 
cent on the lower half of the keel. 



2. Calamovilfa longifdlia (HooIe.) Hack. Long-leaved Reed-grass. 
(Fig- 382.) 

Calamagroslis longi/olia Hook. Fl, Bpr, Am. 3: 

Calamovif/a lottgi/olia Hack. True GiBsses, 113. 

Culms 3°-6° tall, erect, simple, stout, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths crowded and overlap- 
ping, glabrous or rarely pilose; ligule a ring of 
hairs about i" long; leaves S'-i" long or more, 
panicle narrow, often 1° long or more, pale, 
the branches erect or ascending, the lower 4'- 
10' long; spikelets z"-A" long; scales acute, 
smooth, the first shorter than the second; the 
third a little longer «■ slightly shorter than the 
second, and nearly twice the length of the 
copious basal halls; palet slightly shorter than 
the third scale. 

On sandy shores, western Ontario and Manitoba 
to the Rockj Monntsins, soutb to Indiana. Kansas 
and Colorado. July-Sept. 

APERA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 495. 


Annual grasses with narrow fiat leaves, and ample open or contracted panicles. Spikelets 
i-flowered, small, the rachilla prolonged beyond the flower into a bristle. Scales 3; the 
1 outer empty, unequal, thin, membranous, keeled, acute; the third scale a little shorter, 
membranous, bearing a long slender awn inserted just below the shortly 3-tootbed apex; 
palet a little shorter than the scale, a-keeled, a-toothed. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short. 
Stigmas plumose. Grain narrow, free, included in the scale. Seed adherent to the pericarp. 
[Greek, signifying not mutilated, whole or entire; application imcertain.] 

Two species, natives of Europe and western Asia. 

I. Apera Splca-vfcnti (L.) Beauv. Silky Bent-grass. Windlestraw. 
(Fig. 383-) 

Agroslis Spicavenli L. Sp. PI. 61. 17S3. 
Apera SpUa-ftnti Beauv. Agrost. 15:. 1S13. 

Culms i''-2°tan, erect, simple, slender, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths usually longer than the 
intemodes, the upper one generally including 
the base of the panicle; ligule i"-3" long; 
leaves i'-7'long, Ji"-i" wide, .scabroiw; pan- 
icle 3'-9' in length, the branches erect or as- 
cending, capillary, i}i'-3' long; outer scales of 
the spikelet i"-iV" long, acute, smooth and 
shining; thirdscalehairyornearly smooth, bear- 
ing a dorsal scabrous awn 3"-4" long: rudiment 
at the end of the rachilla less than 'X" long. 

In waste places and on ballast, Maine to southern 
New York and Pennsylvania. Adventive from 
Europe. June-July. 

40. HOLCUS L. Sp. PI. 1047. 


Annual or perennial grasses witli flat leaves and spike-like or open panicles. Spikeleti 
deciduous, i-flowered; lower flower perfect, upper staminate. Scales 4; the a lower empty, 
membranous, keeled, the first i-nerved, the second 3-nerved and often short-awned; flower- 
ing scales cbartaceoiu, that of the upper flower bearing a bent awn. Palet narrow, 3-lcecIed. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, enclosed in the scale 
[Greek, taken from Pliny.] 

About S species, natives of the Old World. 

I. Holcus landtus t,. Velvet-grass. 

Meajtow Soft-grass. (Fig. 384.) 
Holcus lanalus I,. Sp. Fl. 104S. 1753. 

Softly and densely pubescent, light green, culms 
I ^°~-3° tall, erect, often decumbent at the base, um- 
ple. Sheaths .ihorter than the internodes; ligule 
yi"-i" long; leaves i''-6' long, 2" -6" wide; spike- 
lets 2" long, the empty scales white-villous, the 
i^per 'awn-pointed; flowering scales i" long, 
smooth, glabrous and shining, the lower sparsely 
ciliate ou the keel, somewhat obtuse, the upper 3- 
toothed and bearing a hooked awn just below the 

In fields, Dieadowa and waste places, Nova Scotia to 
Ontario and Illinois, sonth to North Carolina and 
Tennessee. Also 00 the Pacific Coast. Naturalized 
from Burope. June-Ang. 

41. AIRA L. Sp. PI. 63. 


Mostly annual grasses with narrow leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 
smell, 3-flowered, both flowers perfect. Scales 4; the 2 lower empty, thin-membranoos, 
acute, subequal, persistent; the flowering scales usually contiguous, hyaline, mucronate or 
3-toothed, deciduous, bearing a delicate dorsal awn inserted below the middle; palet a little 
shorter than the scale, hyaline, a-nerved. Stamens 3. Stigmas plumose. Grain enclosed 
in the scale and palet, and often adhering to them. [Greek name for Lolium levtuUntutn.l 

Four or five species, natives of Europe. 

1. Aira caryoph^llea L. Silvery Hair-grass. {Fig. 385.) 

Aira caryopkyllea L. Sp. PI. 66. 


Smooth and glabrous throughout, culms 5'-io' 
tall, erect from an annual root, simple, slender. 
Sheaths mostly basal; ligule \%" long; leaves %'- 
a' long, involute-setaceous; panicle i'-4' in length, 
open, the branches spreading or ascending, the 
lower i' long or less; spikelets \"-l%" long, the 
empty scales acute; flowering scales very acute, 
3-toothed, t" long, bearing an awn iJi"-2" long. 

In fields and waste places, eastern Massachusetts to 
^infinia. Also on the Pacific coast. Local. Natural- 
zed from Europe. Panicle silvery, shining. Hay- 

i. Aira praicox I,. Early Hair-grass. (Fig. 386,) 

r L. Sp. PI. 65. 1753- 

Glabrous and smooth throughout, culma 2'-4' 
tall, erect, from an annual root, simple, rigid. 
Sheaths clothing the whole culm, the upper one 
often enclosing the baseof the panicle; ligule about 
i^"long; leaves i' long or less, involute-setaceous; 
panicle contracted, strict, )i'-i' in length; spike- 
lets about i^i'-'long, the emptj' scales acute; the 
flowering scales acuminate, l-toothed, about i}4" 
long, bearing an awn 1 Ji"-a" long. 

-vania to Virginia. 

43. DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. Agrost. 91. fi/. 18. f. 3. 1812. 

Perennial grasses with flat or involute leaves, and contracted or open panicles. Spilcelets 
a-flowered, both flowers perfect, the hairy rachilla extended beyond the flowers or rarelj 
terminated by a staminate one. Scales 4 (rarely more), the 3 lower empty, keeled, acute, 
membranous, shining, persistent; the flowering scales of about the same texture, deciduous, 
bearing a dorsal awn, the apex toothed. Palet narrow, i-nerved. Stamens3. Styles distinct. 
Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, enclosed in the scale. [In honor of J. C. A. Loiseleur- 
Deslongchamps, 1774-1849, French physician and botanist.] 

Upper flowering scale reaching or extending beyond the apei of the empty scales. 

Flowering scales about iK" long, erose -truncate; leaves flat. i. D. canpitom. 

Flowering scales about 3" long, acute or obtuse; leaves involute. i. D.ftexuosa. 

Empty scales extending much beyond the upper flowering scale. 3. D. alropurpurea. 

Deschampsia caespitdsa (I,.) Beauv. Tufted Hair-grafs. (Fig. 387.) 

Culms i°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths much shorter than the internodes; 
ligule i"-j" long; leaves flat, i"-i>i" wide, 
smooth beneath, strongly scabrous above, the basal 
ones numerous, one-quarter to one-half as long as 
theculm,thoseof the culm 2'-6' long; panicleopen, 
3'-9' in length, the branches widely spreading or 
ascending, often somewhat flexuous, naked at the 
base, the lower a'-j' long; spikelets i^"-3" long; 
flowering scales about \%" long, erose -truncate at 
the apex, the awns somewhat shoKer or a little 
longer, the upper scale reachiiig to or extending 
beyond the apices of the empty ones. 

Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Illi- 
nois, Minnesota and in the Rocky Mountains and 
Sierra Nevada to New Mexico and California, mostly in 
wet soil. Also in Europe and Asia. July-Aug. 


Deachampaia flexu6aa (L.) Trin. Wavy Hair-graas. (Fig. 388.) 

Aira flexuosa L. Sp. PI. 65. 1753. 

Desrhamhsia ftexuosa Tnn. Bull. Acad, Sd, St. 

Petcniti. i; ». i8j6. 

Glabrous throughout, culms i°-3^*' tall, erect, 
slender, simple, smooth. Sheaths much sbocter 
than the intemodes; ligule 1" long or less; 
leaves involute-setaceous, smooth beneath, scab- 
rous above, the basal very numerous, one-fifth 
the length of the culm or less, those of the culm 
I'-y long; panicle open, 3'-8' in length, the 
branches ascending or erect, aometimes widelj' 
speading, naked at the base, flexnous, the lower 
iJi'-5' long; epikelets 2^X"~^%" loiig; flow- 
ering scales about 2" long, acutely toothed at 
the apex; awns bent and twisted, much ex- 
ceeding the scale; upper scale reaching to or 
extending beyond the apices of the empty ones. 

In dry soil, aieenlHiid and Newfoundland to On- 
tario and Hichifcan. south to North Carolina and 
Tennessee. Ascends to 5100 ft. in the Adirondacks. 
Also in Europe. Jnly-Aug, 

3. Deschampsia atropurpdrea (Wahl.) Scheele. Mountain Hair-grass. 

A ira alropM 


■parea Wahl. Fl. lApp. 37. 1812. 
atropurpurea Scheele, Flora, 37: 36. 

Glabrous and smooth or very nearly so, culms 
6'-l8' tall, erect, simple, rigid. Sheaths shorter 
than the internodea; ligule i" long or less, trun- 
cate; leaves i"-a" wide, erect, sometimes slightly 
scabrous above, the basal 2%'-^' long, those of the 
culm shorter; panicle contracted, usually purple or 
purplish, i'-2' in length, the branches erect, or 
sometimes ascending, the lower %'~i%' long; 
spikelets %%" long; flowering scales about 1%" 
long, erose-truncate at the apex; awns bent and 
much longer than the scales; upper scale much 
exceeded by the very acute outer ones. 

On alpine summits o[ New York. New EoKland, 
Montana, Oregon and Washington, north to I^bradur 
and Alaska. Also in Europe. July-Aug. 

43. TRISETUM Pers. Syn. i: 97. 1805. 
Mostly perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaves and spike-like or open panicles. Spike- 
lets a-4-flowered, the flowers all perfect, or the uppermost staminate; rachilla glabrous or 
pilose, extended beyond the flowers. Scales 4-6, membranous, the 2 lower empty, unequal, 
acute, persistent; flowering scales usually shorter than the empty ones, deciduous, i-toothed. 
bearing a dorsal awn below the apex, or the lower one sometimes awnless. Palet narrow, 
hyaline, z-toothed. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, enclosed in 

the scale. [Latin, referring to the three bristles {01 
ering scales in some species,] 

< sharp teeth) of the flow- 

Flowering scales all bearing long dorsal awns. 

Panicle contracted, dense-, flowering scales iW long or less. 

Panicle open, loose; flowering scales zH" long or more. 
I^wer flowering scale not bearing a long dorsal awn, a rudiment 

[, T. subspicatum. 

2. 7". flavetctns. 

3. T. Pennsylvanicum. 


I. Trisetum subspicfttum (L. ) Beauv. Narrow False Oat. (Fig. 390.) 

Aira subspicata L. Syst. Vck. Ed. lo. 673, 1759. 
Ax-ena mollis Michi. Fl. Bot. Am. 1: 7s. 1803. 

Trisrlum subspicatvm Beanv. Ajfrost. 180, iSia. 

Trisetum subspicalum var. molle A. Cray, Man. Ed. a, 
572. 1856. 

Softly pubescent or glabrous, culms (/-2° tall, erect, 
simple. Sheaths usually shorter than the intemodes, 
ligule fi"-i" long; leaves i'-4' long, }i"-3" wide; 
panicle spike-like, 1'-$' in length, often interrupted 
below, its branches lyi' or less long, erect; spikelets 
a-3-flowered, the empty scales hispid on the keel, 
shining, the second about 3%" long, the first shorter; 
flowering scales i"-7}i" long, acuminate, scabrous, 
each bearing a long bent and somewhat twisted awn. 

In rocky places. Labiador to Alaska, south on the moun- 
tains to North Carolina. New Mexico and California. Also 

in Europe and Asia. Aug. -Sept. 

2. Trisetum flaviscens (L.) R. & S. Yellow False Oat. (Fig. 391.) 

Avena fiavtscens L. Sp. PI. 809. i 
Trisetum pralense Pets, Syn. 1: 97. 
Tristlum fiavescens S. & S. Syst. a 


Culms i^'-aji" tall, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, 
more or less pubescent; ligule %" long; leaves i Ji'- 
5' long, I "-3" wide, scabrous, sometimes sparingly 
bairy; panicle open, i'-5' in length, the branches 
ascending or erect, somewhat flexuous, naked be- 
low, the lower i'-3' long; spikelets 3-4-flowered; 
empty scales smooth and glabrous, the second 
acute, 3%" long, the first about half as long, nar- 
rower, acuminate; flowering scales 3j4"-3" long, 
scabrous, bearing a long bent and twisted awn. 

Introduced into Missouri and Kansas. Native of 
Europe and Asia. Panicle yellow, turning dull brown. 

3. Trisetum Pennsylv&nicum (L.) Beauv. 
Marsh False Oat. (Fig. 392.) 

■M^itnaPenmylvanica'L. Sp. PI. 79. 1753. 
--« z/fBO ftaluslris Michi, Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 73. 1803. 
jTr-isttutn Pennsylvanicum Beauv. ; R. &S. Syst 2: 65S. 1817, 
^^^r^selum patuslre Torz. Fl. U. S. 1: Ii6. 1824. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, simple, slender and often 
■^^iab. smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the 
>*»'ternodes, sometimes scabrous; ligule >i" long; leaves 

' — (/ long, i"-'3" wide, rough; panicle a'-S' in length, 
y'^Tlowish, narrow, the branchesascending, the lower I'-a' 
'***ig; spikelets a-flowered; outer scales smooth, shining, 
&»abequal, the second a"-2X" long; flowering scales 
* '-aK" long, scabrous, the lower not long-awned, but a 
*~**dimentary awn sometimes present, the upper with a 
™Ogbent and twisted awn. 

In twatnpa and wet meadows, New York to Illinois, south 
*^ Florida and Louisiana. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Virginia. 
*«ucle sometimes loose and nodding, June-July. 


44. AVENA L. Sp. PI. 79. 1753- 
Annual or perennial grasses, with usually flat leaves and panicled spikeleto. Spikelets 
a-many-flowered, or rarely i-flowered; lower flowers perfect, the upper often staminate or 
imperfect. Scales 4-niany (rarely 3); the 1 lower empty, somewhat unequal, membranous, 
persistent; flowering scales deciduous, rounded on the back, acute, generally bearing a dorsal 
awn, the apex often 3-toothcd. Palet narrow, 3-toothed. Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct. 
Stigmas pliunose. Grain oblong, deeply furrowed, enclosed in the scale and palet, free or 
sometimes adherent to the tatter. [Old Latin name for the Oat.] 

Flowering scales with a 

I. Avena striata Michx. Purple Oat, (Fig. 393.) 

Aztna siriala Michx. PI. Bor. Am. i: 73. 1803. 

Culms I'-j" tall, erect, simple, slender, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the inter- 
nodes, smooth or slightly scabrous; ligule yi" 
long or less; leaves erect, i'-6' long, i"-3" wide, 
smooth beneath, usually scabrous above; panicle 
i%'-S' in length, lax, the branches erect or 
ascending, naked below, the lower i'-2ji' long; 
spikelets 3~6-llowered, the empty scales smooth, 
the second3"-3H"in length, 3-nerved, the first 
two-thirds to three-quarters as long, i-nerved; 
flowering scales 3"-4" long, with a ring of short 
hairs at the base, strongly nerved, scabrous; 
awns as long as the scales or longer. 

a. Avena Smithii Porter. Smith's Oat. (Fig. 394.) 

Avena Smi/hii Porter; A. Gray, Man. Ed. 3, 640. 1867. 
MelUa Smilhii Vasey, Bull. Ton. Club, 15: 294. 1888. 

Culms Jfi°-5° tall, erect, simple, scabrous. Sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes, very rough; ligule 2" 
long; leaves 4'-S' long, 3"-6" wide, scabrous; panicle 
6'-ii' in length, the branches finally spreading; spike- 
lets 3-6-flowered; empty scales smooth, the second 
3"-4" in length, 5-nerved. the first shorter, obscurely 
3-nerved; flowering scales 5" long, naked at the base, 
strongly neryed, scabrous, bearing an awn one-fourth 
to one-half their length. 

NoTtbem Michigan and Isle Royal. Sunimer. 


Danthonia spic4ta (L.) Beauv. Common WUd Oat-grass. (Fig. 397.) 

Avena sfiicala L. Sp. PI. 80, 1753, 

Danlhonia sfiicala Beauv.; R. & S. Sy«, a: 690. 1817. 

Culms i°-j}i° tall, erect, aimple, smooth and gla- 
brous, nearly terete. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
temodes, glabrous or often sparingly pubescent be- 
low; ligule very short; leaves rough, i" wide or 
leas, usually involute, the lower 4'-*' long, the 
upper i'-3' long; inflorescence racemose or pan- 
iculate, i'-3' in length, the pedicels and branches 
erect or ascending; spikelets 5-S-flowered; empty 
scalea 4"-5" long, glabrous; flowering scales 
broadly oblong, sparingly pubescent with appressed 
silky hairs, the teeth about %." long, acute or short- 
pointed, the bent and widely spreading awn closely 
twisted at the base, loosely so above. 

In dry soil. Newfoundland to Quebec and Dakota, 
south to Noith Carolina and Louisians. Ascends to 
3000 ft. in Virginia. July-Sept. 

a. Danthonia comprfcssa Austin. Flattened Wild Oat-grass. (Fig. 398.) 

Danlhonia compressa Austin; Peck, Kept. Reg. N. V. 

State Univ, aa: 54. 1869. 
Danlhonia Alleni Austin, Bull. Ton. Club, 3: zi. 1S73. 

Culms i^°-3° tall, erect, slender, simple, flattened, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the inter- 
nodes; ligule pilose; leaves 1" wide or less, rough, lax, 
the basal from one-third to one-half the length of the 
culm; lower cuha leaves 6'-8' long, the upper 3'-6'; 
panicle open, 2fi'-4' in length, the lower branches 
generally spreading; spikelets 5-10-flowered; empty 
scales 5"-6" long, glabrous; flowering scalea oblong, 
with a ring of short hairs at base, pubescent with ap- 
pressed silky hairs, the awn erect or somewhat bent, 
strongly twisted below, slightly so above, the teeth 
i"-i}i" long, acuminate, awned. 

In woods, Maine and Vermont to North Carolina and 
Tennessee. Ascends to (ora ft. in North Carolina. Jnly- 

3. Danthonia aericea Nutt. Silky Wild Oat-grass. (Fig. 399.) 

Culms I yt'-i" tall, simple, glabrous. Sheaths shorter 
than the intemodes, usually villous; ligule pilose; 
leaves rough and more or less villous, i"-i>i" wide, 
the basal one-quarter to one-half, the length of the 
culm, usually flexuous, those of the culm i'-4' long, 
erect; panicle 3^'-i%' in length, contracted, the 
branches erect or ascending: spikelets 4-10-flowered; 
empty scales •}"-%" long, glabrous; flowering scalet 
oblong, strongly pubescent with long silky hairs, tht 
awn erect or somewhat bent, closely twisted below, 
loosely so above, the teeth \"-\yi" long, acuminate. 

New Jei«ey, soutt 


47. CAPRIOLA Adans. Fam. PI. a: 31. 1763. 
[CvNODON Rich.; Pers. Syn. 1:85. 1805.] 
rerennial grasses with short flat leaves and spii^ate inflorescence, the epilces digitate, 
^ilcelets i-ftonered. secund. Scalra 3; the 3 lower empty, keeled; flowering scale broader, 
mhranoiM. compressed ; palet a little shorter than the scale, hyaline, 2-keeled. Stamens 
Styles distinct. Stigmas short, plumose. Graiii free. [Name mediaeval I.atin for the 
pld goat, that feeds on this gross in waste rocky places.] 

Four known species, iif which three are AuatmliHii. Ihc foUowine widely ilistributrd. 

I. Capriola D&ctylon (L.) Kimtze. 

Bermuda-grass. Scutch-grass. 

Dog's-tooth Gra(«. (Fig. 400, ) 

PaiicHm Daclylon L. Sp. PI, 58. 175.1- 

Cvnodon Datlytim Pers. Syn, i: 85. ifloS' 

Capriola Daelylon Kuutze, Rev. Gen. PI. 764, 1S91. 

Culms 4'-ll' tall, erect, from long creeping and 
branching stolons, smootli and glabrous. Sheaths 
glabrous or somewhat hairy, crowded at the bases 
of the culms and along the stolons; ligule pilose; 
leaves I'-a' long, i"-3" wide, flat, rigid, Bmooth 
beneath, scabrous above; spikes 4-5, Ji'-3' in 
Icngtli, digitate; rachis flat; spikelets 1" long; outer 
scales hispid on the keel, narrow, the first shorter 
than the second, about two-thirds as long as Ilie 
broad and strongly compressed tliird one. 

In fields and waste places, southern New York to 
Pennsylvania and Tennessee, south to Florida and 
Texas. Abundant iu the Southern States. Cullivated 
for pastiite. Naturalized from Europe, July-Sept, 

48. SPARTINA Schreb. Gen. 43. 1789. 
Perennial glabrous grasses, with h>ng horizontal rootstocka, flat or involute leaves, and an 
e-sided spreading or erect alternate spikes. Spikelets i-flowered, narrow, 
eddnoiia, borne in two rows on the rachis, articulated vn\h the very short pedicels below 
le scales. Scales 3; the 3 outer empty, keeled, ver^' unequal; the third subtending a perfect 
wer. keeled, equalling or shorter than the second; palet often longer than its scale, 1- 
rved. Stamens 5. Styles lilifonn. elongated. Stigmas fiUform, papiUose or shortly 
Grain free. [Greek, referring to the cord-like leaves of some species.] 
About 7 species, widely distributed in saline soil, a few in fresh. water nutshcs. 
n scale Bwn-pointed, equalling the third; second lone-awned. t. .S. cj-Hosuroides. 

_ rt scale acute, shorter than the third, usually oue-half as long. 
PirM Kale stron^lv scabrous-hispid on the keel, 

leaves W wide or more, flat. 3. S. /lolyslachya. 

teaves K' wide or less. 

Spikes ascending or erect; leaves narrow, involute; coast plant. 3. .5. patens. 

Spikes appressed; leaves usually Sat at the base; western species. 4. S. gratilis. 

Piral scale smooth on the Vcel or occasionally slightly scabrous. 5. S. siricla. 

Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Willd. 

Tall Marsh-grass. (Fig. 401.) 



>arlima 'o-iosmoidfs Wil 
I Culms i"-^" tall, erect, simple, smooth. Sheaths 
iverlapping, those at the base of the culm 
1; lignle a ring of hairs; leaves 1" long or more. 
'-7" wide, scabrous on the margins, becoming in- 
folittc iti diying, attenuate into a long slender tip; 
IkeG 5-30, a'-5' long, often on peduncles }.i'~i' in 
pBgtli, ascending or erect; rachis rough on the mar- 
; spikelets much imbricated, 6"-7" long; outer 
n-pointed or awned, strongly hispid-scabrous 
■ the keel; third scale as long as the first, tile sca- 
nt midrib terminating just below the emarginate or 
tbei) apex; palet sometimes exceeding tlie scale. 
I-Jn swamps and slreamsor fresh or brackish wnlcr, Nova 
oUa to A^iniboia. New jersey and Texas. Sometimes 
mcona. Called also Freshwater CotU-ffrass. .Aug.-Oct. 

Spartina polyst&chya (Micbx.) KU. Salt Reed-pp-ass. (Pig. 403.) 

Trachynolia polyslachya Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 64- 

Sparlina polyslachya Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ca. t: 95, 1817. 

Culms 4°-9° tall, erect, stout, simple, smooth. 
Sheaths overlapping, those at tlie base of the culm 
crowded; ligulearing of hairs; leaves i" long or more, 
}i'-i' wide, flat, scabrous at least on the margins, at- 
tenuate into a long slender tip; spikes 10-50, ascend- 
ing, often long-ped uncled, 3'-4' in length, the rachis 
rough on the margfins; spikelets much imbricated, 4"- 
5" long, the outer scales acute, strongly scabrous-his- 
pid on the keel, the first half the length of the sec- 
ond; third scale scabrous on the upper part of the 
keel, obtuse, longer than the first and exceeded by 
the palet. 

3. Spartina pitens (Ait.) Muhl. Salt-meadow Grass. (Fig. 403.) 

Daclylis patens Ait. Hort. Kew, i: 104. 1789. 
sparlina patens Mubl. Gram. 55. 18:7. 
spartina juncea EU. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: 94. 1817. 

Culms l°-3° tall, erect, or decumbent at base, 
smooth. Lower sheaths overlapping and crowded; 
ligule a ring of short hairs; leaves Ji'-i" long, i"-2" 
broad, involute, attenuate into a long tip, smooth 
and glabrous beneath; spikes i-io, I'-i' long, usually 
ascending, more or less peduncled, the rachis slightly 
scabrous; spikelets 3"-4" long; outer scales acute, 
scabrous-hispid on the keel, the first usually rather 
less than one-half as long as the second; third scale 
somewhat scabrous on the upper part of the k^I, 
emarginate or 3-tootbed at the apes, longer than the 
first and exceeded by the palet. 

On salt meadows, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to 
Florida, west to Texas. This and Ju-nctts Girardi, the 
"Black Grass," furnish most of the salt meadow hay of 
the AUantic coast. AuK.-Oet 

4. Spartina grficilis Trin. Inland Cord-grass. (Fig. 404.) 

spartina gracilis Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petenb. (VI.) «: 

Culms i^-j" tall, erect, simple, smooth. Sheaths 
overlapping, those at the base of the culm short and 
crowded; ligule a ring of short hairs; leaves i" long or 
less, i"-3" wide, fiat or involute, attenuate into a 
long tip; spikes 4-8, I'-a' long, appressed, more or 
less peduncled; spikelets 3"-4" long; outer scales 
acute, scabrous-hispid on the keel, the first half the 
length of the second; third scale obtitse, slightly 
shorter than the second and about equalling the obtuse 


5- Spartina stricta (Ait.) Roth. Smooth Marsh-grass. (Fig. 405.) 

Daclylis slricla Ait. Hort. Kew. i: 104. 1789, 
spartina slricla Roth, Cat. Bol. 3: 9. 1806. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth. 
Sheaths overlapping, those at the base shorter 
and looser, much crowded; ligule a ring of short 
hairs; leaves 3'-i2' long, a"-4" wide at the 
base, involute, at least when dry; spikes 3-5, 
erect or nearly so, I'-i' long; spiketets 6"-8" 
long, loosely imbricated; empty scales acute or 
acutish, i-nerved, the first shorter than the 
second, which exceeds or equals the third; palet 
longer than the third scale. 

Daclylis marilima Walt. Fl. Car. 77, 1788. 
spartina glabra Muhl. Gram. 54. 1817. 

Culiiistaller,Boinetiines9°big;b, and leaves iDnger; 
spikes more numerous, nsuallj appressed. 

Spartina atricta altemlfl&ra (Lois.) A. Gray, Man. 

Ed. 3, 551. i8s6. 
spartina altemiftora Lois. Fl. Gall. J: 719. 1807, 

Culms 4°-6° tall; spikes slender, appressed, ^-^ long:, the spikelets barely overlapping. 

Very variable. Common, in some one of its forms, along the coast from Maine to Florida and 
'Texas, Also on the coast of Europe. Our plant does not appear to be satisfactorily identified with 
-fclie European. Aug. -Oct. 

49. CAMPULOSUS Desv. BuU. Soc. Philom. a: r8g. 1810. 
[Ctknh™ Panzer, Deutsch. Akad. Muench. 1813: a88. pl. 13. 1814.] 
Tall pungent-tasted grasses, with flat or convolute narrow leaves and a curved spicate in- 
florescence. Spikelets borne pectinately in two rows on one side of the flat curved rachis, 
I -flowered. Lower 4 scales empty, the first very short, hyaline; the second, third, fourth 
and fifth awned on the back, the latter subtending a perfect flower and palet, the uppermost 
sc^es empty. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free, loosely 
«^nclosed in the scale. [Greek, in allusion to the curved spike.] 

Seven known species, tour of them American, the others in the eastern hemisphere. 

■«- Campulosus arom6ticu8 (Walt.) Scribn. Toothache Grass. (Fig. 406.) 

Afgilops aromatica Walt. Fl. Car. 349. 178S. 
CUnium Antericanum Spreng. Syst. 1: 274. 1825. 
Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club, 

Culms 3''-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth or some- 
what scabrous. Sheaths shorter than the inter- 
nodes, rough; ligule i" long, truncate; leaves 
i'-6' long, i"-2" wide, flat or involute, smooth; 
spike terminal, solitary, curved, t'-i,' long, the 
rachis extended into a point; spikelets about 3" 
long; second scale thick and rigid, awn-pointed, 
bearing just above the middle a stout horizontal 
or recurved awn; third, fourth and fifth scales 
membranous, scabrous, awned from below the 
i-toothed apex, the fifth subtending a perfect 
flower, the others empty. 



50. CHL6rIS Sw. Prodr. 25. 1788. 
Mostly perennial graascfl with flat leaves and BpicAte infloiescence, the spikea •olitaiy, 
few, or nnmerous and Tcrticmate or approximate. Spikeleti i-fiowered, arranged in two 
rows on one side of tbe rachis. Scales 4; the 1 lower etnptj, unequal, Iceeled, acnte; third 
and fonrtta oanallj awned, the former subtending a perfect flower; polet folded and i-tceeted. 
Stamens 3. Stjlea distinct Stigmas plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale. [Greek, 
greeoiBh-yellow, referring to the color of the herbage. ] 

About foity species, mostly natives of warm and tropical regions. Besides the following some 
10 others occur In the sonthem United State*. 

I. Chloris verticill&tB Nutt. Prairie 
Chloris. (Fig. 407.) 
Chloris verlicillala NntL Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 
5: 150. 1833-37. 

Culms 6'-iS' tall, erect, or decumbent and root- 
- ing at the lower nodes, smooth, glsbrona. Sheaths 
■: shorter than the intemodea, smooth, or roughish at 
' the summit; ligulearingof short hairs; leaves I'-j,' 
long, \"-i" wide, obtnse, of^en apicnlate, scabrous; 
spikes slender, usually spreading, a'-4)j' long, in 
one or two whorls, or the upper ones approximate; 
spikelets, exclusive of the awns, about \}i" long, 
the first scale about one-half the length of tbe sec- 
ond; tbe third \" long, obtuse, dliate on the 
nerves, especially on the lateral ones, bearing just 
below the apex a scabrous awn about %}^" long; 
fourth scale as long as or shorter than the third:, 
awned near the usually truncate apex. 
On plaiiies, Kansas to Texas. May-Jniy. 

51. GYMNOPbcON Beauv. Agrost. 41. pi. 9- /■ 3- 1812. 

Perennial grasses with flat and usually short rigid leaves, and numerous slender alter- 
nate spikes. Spikelets i-fiowered, almost sessile, the rachilla extended and bearing a small 
scale which is usually awned. Scales 3 or 4; the 3 lower empty, unequal, narrow, acnte; 
third broader, fertile, 3-nerTed, slightly 3-toothed at the apex, bearing an erect awn; the 
fourthempty, small, awned; palet 3-keeled. SlBmens3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. 
Grain linear, free, enclosed in the rigid scale. [Greek, naked-beard, referring to the pro- 
longation of the rachilla.] 

Six known species, all bat one of them natives ot America. 
Spikes bearing; spikelets their whole length; awn longer than flowering scale. I. G. ambifum. 
Spikes bearing spikelets above the middle; awn shorter than flowering scale. a. C. brevtfatiul. 

I. Gymnopogon ambiguus (Micbx.) B.S.P. 

(Fig. 408.) 
Andropogon ambiguus Michx. PI. Bor. Am. i: $8. 


Broad-leaved Gymttopt^on. 


Culms la'-iS' tall, erect, or decumbent at the 
base, simple or sometimes sparingly branched, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths short, glabrous, 
excepting a villous ring at the summit, crowded at 
the base of the culm; ligule very short; leaves i'~ 
4' long, 3"-^' wide, lanceolate, acnte, cordate at 
the base, spreading, smooth or a little scabrous 
above; spikes slender, spikelet-bearing throughout 
their entire length, at first erect, the lower 4'-8' 
long, at length widely spreading; spikelets, exclu- 
sive of awns, 3"-z^" long; £rst scale shorter than 
the second; third scale exceeded by the second, the 
callus at the base hairy, the awn 3"-^" long. 
^" In dry sandy soil, southern New Jetsey to Missouri, 
south to Florida and Texas. Ai%,-Oct. 



2. Gymnopogon brevifdlius Trin. 

Short-leaved Gymnopogon. 

(Fig. 409.) 

Gymnopogon hrevifolius Trin. Unifl. 238. 1824. 

Culms 1^-2° long, from a decumbent base, simple, 
slender, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter 
than the intemodes, sometimes crowded near the 
middle of the culm; ligule very short; leaves 1^-2^ 
long, V-^'^ wide, usually spreading, lanceolate, 
acute, cordate at the base; spikes very slender, 
spikelet-bearing above the middle, the lower 4^- 
6^ long, at first erect, finally widely spreading; 
spikelets, exclusive of the awns, \%^' long; first 
scale shorter than the second; third scale equalling 
or exceeded by the second, short-awned, sparingly 
villous or glabrous, the callus hairy. 

In dry soil. New Jersey to Florida, west to Missis- 
sippi. Aug. -Oct. 

52. SCHEDONNARDUS Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 146. 1855. 

An annual grass with branching culms, narrow leaves and slender spikes arranged along 
a common axis. Spikelets i-flowered, sessile and alternate on the rachis. Scales 3; the 2 
lower empty, narrow, membranous, acuminate; the flowering scale longer, of similar texture; 
palet narrow, shorter. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain linear, free, 
enclosed in the rigid scale. [Greek, in allusion to the resemblance of this grass to the 
genus iViznf«j.] 

A monotjrpic genus of central North America. 

z. Schedonnardus paniculiitus (Nutt.) 
Trelease. Schedonnardus. (Fig. 410.) 

Lebturus paniculatus Nutt. Gen. i: 81. 1818. 
Schedonnardus Texanus Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 146. 

Schedonnardus paniculatus Trelease, Branner & Co- 
ville, Rep. Geol. Surv. Ark. x888: Part 4, 236. 1891. 

Culms 8^-18^ tall, erect, slender, rigid, branch- 
ing at the base, scabrous. Sheaths crowded at the 
base of the culm, compressed, smooth and gla- 
brous; ligule i^^ long, truncate; leaves 1^-2^ long, 
i^^ wide or less, flat, usually erect; spikes numer- 
ous, rigid, widely spreading, alternate, the lower 
2^-4^ long, the axis and branches triangular; spike- 
lets ij^^'-iyi^^ long, sessile and appressed, alter- 
nate; scales hispid on the keel, the second longer 
than the first and exceeded by the acute third one. 

Manitoba and Assiniboia, south to Illinois, Texas 
and New Mexico. July-Sept. 

53. BOUTELOUA Lag. Var. Cienc. y Litter. 2: Part 4, 134. 1805. 

Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute leaves and numerous spikelets in one- 
spikes. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, arranged in two rows on one side of a flat rachis, the 
^"^^^Xiilla extended beyond the base of the flowers, bearing 1-3 awns and 1-3 rudimentary scales. 
*^'^^« lower scales empty, acute, keeled; flowering scale broader, 3-toothed, the teeth awn- 
S^'^^^nted or awned; palet hyaline, entire or 2-toothed. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas 
^^'^xnose. Grain oblong, free. [In honor of Claudius Boutelou, a Spanish botanist] 

About 30 species, particularly numerous in Mexico and in the southwestern United States. 
^t^lkes 1-4, erect or spreadina^; spikelets numerous, pectinately arranged. 

Rachilla bearine the rudimentary scales and awns glabrous; second scale strongly papillose- 
hispid on the keel. i. B. hirsuta. 
Rachilla bearing the rudimentary scales and awns with a tuft of long hairs at the apex; second 
_ . scale scabrous and sparingly long-ciliate on the keel. 2. B. ohgostachya. 
spikes numerous, spreading or reflexed; spikelets few or several, diverging from the rachis. 

3. B. curtipendula. 


Bouteloua hirsilta Lag. Hairy Mesquite-^ass. (Fig. 411.) 

Bouleloua hirsula Lag. Var. Cienc. j Litter, a: Part 4, 

141. 1805, 

Culms 6'-3o' tall, erect, umple or sonietiniea 
Bparinglj brancbed at the base, Btnooth and gla- 
brous. Sbeatbs mostly at the base of the calm, 
the lower short and crowded, the upper longer; lig- 
nle a ring of short hairs; leavesi'-s'long, i"wide 
or less, erect or ascending, flat, scabrons, spar- 
ingly papillose-hirsute near the base, especially on 
the margins; spikes 1-4, yi'-2' long, usually erect 
or ascending, the rachia extending beyond the 
HiukeUts into a conspicuous point; spikelets nu- 
roerona, 3ji"-3" long, pectinately Brranged; fiiat 
scale hyaline, shorter than the membranoua second 
one, which is strongly papilloM-hiisute on the 
keel; third scale pubescent, 3-clert to the middle, the 
nerves terminating in awns; rachilla without a tnft 
of hairs under the rudimentary scales and awos. 
In dry soil, especially on prairies, Illinois to Dakota, Texas and Arizona. Jaly-Sept. 

2. Bouteloua oligostichya (Nutt.) Toir. Grama-grass. Mesquite-g 

(Fig. 412.) 
Alheropogon oligoslackyus Nutt Gen. 1: 78. 1818. 
Bouleloua oiigoslackya Tort.; A. Gray, Man. Ed. 3. 553. 


Culms e'-iS'' tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; llgule a 
ring of short hairs; leaves i'-4' long, i" wide or less, 
involute, at least at the long slender tip, smooth or 
scabrons; spikes 1-3, I'-i' long, often strongly curved, 
the racbis terminating in a short inconspicuous point; 
spikelets numerous, pectinately arranged, about 3" 
long; first scale hyaline, shorter than the membranous 
second one, which is scabrous and sometimes long- 
ciliateon the keel, and sometimes beers a few papillae; 
third scale pubescent, 3-cleft, the nerves terminating in 
awns; rachilla with a tult of long hairs under the rudi- 
mentary scales and awns. 

On prairies, Manitoba to Alberta, south to Wisconsin, 
Texas and Mexico. July-Sept. 

3. Bouteloua curtip6nduIa(Michx.)Torr. Racemed Bouteloua. (Fig, 413.) 

CkloriscurlipendulaVllctii.Ti. Bol. Am. 1:59. '803. 
Bouleloua racemosa Lag. Var. Cienc. y Litter, i: Part 

4, 141. 1805. 
Bouleloua curlipendula Torr. Emory's Bep. 153. 


', 553- 

irlipendula v 

Manitoba, >>outh 

A, Gray, Man. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; ligule 
a ring of short hairs; leaves a'-ia' long, 2" wide 
or less, flat or involute, rough, especially above; 
spikes numerous, 3"-8" long, widely spreading or 
reflezed; spikelets 4-ia, divergent from the racbis, 
3^"-S" long, scales acabrous, especially on the 
keel, the first shorter than or equalling the 
second; the third 3-toothed, the nerves extended 
into short awns; rachilla bearing at the summit a 
small awned scale, or sometimes a larger 3-nerved 
scale, the ner\-e8 extended into awns; anthers 
Vermillion or cinnabar-red. 
I New Jersey, Kentucky, Texas and Mexico. July-Sept. 



54. BECKMANNIA Host, Gram. Austr. 3: 5. pi. 6. 1805. 

A tall erect grass with flat leaves and erect spikes borne in a terminal panicle. Spike* 
lets i-3-ilowered, globose, compressed. Scales 3 or 4; the a lower empty, membranous, sac- 
cate, obtuse or abiuptlj acute; the flowering scal^ narrow, tbia membranous; pale t hyaline, 
3-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles dbtinct Stigmaa plumose. Grain oblong, free, enclosed in 
the scale and palet [In honor ofjohonn Beckmenn, 1739-1811, teacher of Natural History 
at St, Petersburg.] 

A monotypic genus of the north temperate zone. 

I. Beckmannia enicaef6rmis (L.) Host. 
Beckmannia. (Fig. 414.) 

Wats. & Coult. i 

l. Gray, Man. I 

Glabrous, culms iX°-3° tall, erect, simple, 
smooth. Sheaths longer than the intemodes, 
loose; ligule a"-4" long; leaves s'-^" long, i"-\" 
wide, rongh; panicle \'-i& in length, simple or 
compound, the spikes about ^' long; spikelets 
i"-lji" long, 1-2-fiowered, closely imbricated in 
two rows on one side of the rachis; scales smooth, 
the outer saccate, obtuse or abruptly acute; flower- 
ing scales acute, tbe lower generally awa-pointed, 
the upper rarely present 

55. ELEUSINE Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. i: 7. pi. z. 1788. 

Tufted annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and apicate inflorescence, the spike* 
-digitate or close together at the summit of the cnlm. Spikelets several' flowered, sessile, 
closely imbricated in two rows on one side of the rachis, which is not extended beyond them; 
flowers perfect or the upper stamiaate. Scales compressed, keeled; the i lower empty; the 
others subtending flowers, or the upper empty. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plu- 
mose. Grain loosely enclosed in the scale and palet. [From the Greek name of the town 
where Ceres was worshipped.] 

SpecieB 6, natives of the Old World. Besides the following, two others have been found in 
ballast fillings about the eastern seapoits. 

Eleusine Indica (L.) Gaertn. 
grass. Crab-grass. Yard-grass 
(Fig. 415- ) 



e Indict 



Culms f>'--i° tall, tufted, erect, or decumbent at the 
base, smootb and glabrous. Sheaths loose, overlap- 
ping and often short and crowded at the base of the 
culm, glabrous or sometimes sparingly villous; ligule 
very short; leaves 3'-ia' long, i"-3" wide, smooth or 
scabrous; spikes a-io, i'-3' long, whotled or approxi- 
mate at the summit of the culm or one *r two some- 
times distant; spikelets 3-6-flowercd, iji"-a" long; 
scales acute, minutely scabrous on the keel, the first 
I -nerved, the second 3-7-nerved, the others 3-5-nerved. 

In fields, dooiyarda and waste places all over North 
America eicept the extreme north. Naturalized from the 
warmer regions of the Old World. June-Sept. 



56. DACTYLOCTENIUM Willd. Enum. 1029. 1809. 

An annuBl grass with flat leaves and ipicate itifloreacencc, the spikes in pairs or digitate. 
Sinkeleta several- flowered, sessile, closelj imbricated in two rows on one side of the rachia^ 
which is extended bejond them into a sharp point. Scales compressed, Iceelcd, the a lower 
and the uppennoat ones empty, the others subtending flowers. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, 
abort. Stigmas plnmose. Grain free, rugose, loosely enclosed in the scale. [Greek, re- 
ferring to the digttately spreading sjukes.] 

A monot3rpic genua of the warmer parts of the Old World. 

I. Dactyloctenium Aeg^ptium (L.) Willd. Egj-ptlan Grass, (Fig. 416.) 

Cynosurus Aegyptias L. Sp. PI. 71. 1753. 
Eleusine Aegyptia Pers. Syn. i: 87. 1805. 
Dactyloctenium Aegyptiacum Willd. Bnum. 1099. 1809. 

Culms e'-i" long, usually decumbent and extcn- 
sfrely creeping at the base, Sheatha loose, over- 
lapping and often crowded, smooth and glabrons; 
ligule very short; leaves 6' in length or lesa, \"-%" 
wide, smooth or rough, sometimea pnbeaceat, 
ciliate toward the base; spikes in pairs, or 3-5 and 
digitate, >i'-a' long; spikeleta 3-5-flowered; scales 
compressed, scabions on the keel, the second 
awned, the flowering ones broader and pointed. 

In waste places and cultivated g[TOund. southern 
New York, Pennsylvania and Vit^nia to IllinoJB and 
California, sonth to FloHda and Mexico. Widely dis- 
tributed in tropical America. Naturaliied from Asia 
or Africa. July-OcL 


57. LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. Agrost. 71. pi. 15. f. i. 

Usually tall annual grasses, with flat leaves and numerous spikes forming a simple pan- 
icle. Spikelets usually i-many -flowered, flattened, altematiag in two rows on one side of 
the racbis. Scales 4-ciany; the i lower empty, keeled, shorter than the qiikelet; the flower- 
ing scales keeled, 3-nerved. Palet a-nerved. Stsmens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. 
Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet. [Greek, in allusion to the slender spikes.] 

About 13 species, natives of the warmer regions of both hemispheres. Besides the following,. 
3 others occnr in the southern United States. 

Leptochloa mucronftta (Michx. ) 
Ktinth, Northern Leptochloa. 

(Fig- 417-) 

Culms I'-s' tall, erect, branched, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths Eborter than the intemodcs, 
smooth and glabrous; ligule short, lacerate-toothed; 
leaves 3'-8' long, i"-3" wide, scabrous; spikes 
numerous, slender, rigid, spreading or ascending, 
the lower i'-6' long; spikelels usually 3-flowercd, 
about \" long, the empty scales shorter than the 
spikelet, acute, i-nerved, slightly scabrous on the 
keel; flowering scales a-toothed at the apex, 
ciliate on the nerves. 

In diy or moist soil, Virginia to Illinois, Missouri 
and California, south to North Carolina, Lonisiana 
and Mexico. Also in Cuba. July-Sept. 


58. BULBILIS Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 4: 190. 1819. 
[BucBLOB Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad, i: 433. pi. 14. figs. 1-17. 1859.] 
A perennial stoloniferous monoecions or apparently dioecious grass with flat leaves and 
spicate inflorescence. Staminate spikelets borne in two rows on one side of the rachis, the 
spikes at the sammit of the long and ezserted calms. Pistillate spikelets in spike-like 
clasters of 3 or 3, on very short culms, scarcely esserted from the sheath. Stamens 3. 
Styles distinct, long. Stigmas elongated, short-plumose. Grain ovale, free, enclosed in the 
scale. [Name apparently from the sapposed bulb-like base of old plants.] 
A monotypic genus of central North America. 

I. Bulbilis dactyloides (Nutt.) Raf. 
Buffalo Grass. (Fig. 418.) 
itt daclylo 

1:43a. 1859. 
Bulbilis dactyloides Saf.; Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 763, 


Culms bearing stamjnate flowers 4''ia' tall, 
erect, slender, naked above, smooth and gla- 
brotis; those bearing pistillate flowers ^'-3' 
long, mnch exceeded by the leaves; ligule a 
ring of short hairs; leaves i" wide or less, more 
or l«8s papillose-hirsute, those of the staminate 
culms I'-i,' long, erect, those of the stolons and 
pistillate culms i' long or less, spreading; stam- 
inate spikes 3 or 3, approximate; spikelets 3"- 
a}i" long, flattened, 3-3-flowered, the empty 
scales i-nerved, the flowering 3. nerved; pistil- 
late spikelets ovoid, the outer scales indurated. 

On plains and piairiea, Minnesota to Dakota, 
south to Arkansas. Texas and Mexico. A valuable 
fodder grass. June-July. 

59. MUNROA Toir. Pac. R. R. Rept. 4: 158. 1856. 
A low difiitsely branched grass, with flat pungently painted leaves crowded at the nodes 
and the ends of the branches. Spikelets in clusters of 3-6, nearly sessile in the axils of the 
floral leaves, 3-5-flowered, the flowers perfect. Two lower scales empty, lanceolate, acute, 
i-nerved, hyaline; flowering scales larger, 3-aerved; i or 3 empty scales sometimes present 
above the flowering ones; palet hyaline. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, elongated. Stigmas 
Ittrbellate or short-plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet [In honor of 
Ccn. William Monro, English agroatologist.] 

Three known species, the following; of the plains of NorCb America, tbe others South American. 
I. Munroa squarrdsa (Nutt.) Terr. 
Mimro's Grass. (Fig, 419.) 

Cryfisis squarrosa Nntt. Gen. 1: 49. 1818. 
Munroa squarrosa Tort. Pac. R. R. Rept. 4: 158. 


Culms 3'-8' long, tufted, erect, decumbent or 
prostrate, much branched, smooth or rough. 
Sheaths short, crowded at the nodes and ends 
of the branches, smooth, pilose at the base and 
throat, sometimes ciliate on the margins; ligule 
a ring of hairs; leaves l' long or less, 14"-^' 
wide, rigid, spreading, scabrous, pungently- 
pointed; spikelets a-j-flowered, the flowers per- 
fect; empty scales i-nerved, shorter thou the 
flowering scales which are about a^" long, 3- 
toothed, the nerves excurreut as short points 
or awns, tufts of hairs near the middle; palets 



60. PHRAGMITES Trin. Fund. Agrost. 134. 1820. 

Tall peretmial reed-like grasses, with broad flat leaves and ample panicles. Spikelets 3- 
several-Qowered, the fint flower often staminate, the othen perfect; rachilla articalated be- 
tween the flowering acalea, long-piloBe. Two lower scales empty, nnequal, membranous, 
lanceolate, acute, shorter than the apilcelet; the third scale empty or aublending a staminatc 
flower; flowering scales glabrous, nairow, long-acumiiute, much exceeding the short palets. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short Stigmas plumooe. Grain free, loosely enclosed in the 
acale and palet. [Greek, refemng to its hedge-like growth alon^ ilitches] 

Three known species, the following of the noith tem> 
perale zone, one in Asia, the third in South Amerii^a. 

I. Phragmites Phragmites {!,.') Karst. 
Reed. (Fig. 420.) 
Arundo PAragmi/es L. Sp. PI. 8l. :753. 
Phragmilcs communis Tnn. Fund. Agroat. 134. 1820. 
Phfogmiles PhragmilesViaTil. Deutsch. Fl. 379. 1880-83. 
Culms S°-!5° tall, erect, stont, from long horizontal 
rootstocks, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths overlap- 
ping, loose; ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves 
6'-!° long or more, 'A'-i' wide, flat smooth, gla- 
brous; panicle 6'-i° long or more, ample; spikelets 
crowded on the ascending branches; first scale i- 
nerved, half to two-thirds as long as the 3-nerved 
second one; flowering scales $"-6" long, 3-nerved, 1 
long-acuminate, eqtulling the hairs of the rachilla. 

In swampB and wet places nearly throughout the United 
States, extendingnorth to Nova Scotia, Manitoba and Brit- 
ish Colnmbia. Also in Europe and Asia. Rarely ripen- 
inz seed. Aug. -Oct. 

61. SIEGLJNGIA Bernh. Syst. Verz. Pfl. Erf. 40. 
[Triodia R, Br. Ptodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. ■: 18a. 1810.] 
Perennial grasses with narrow leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets a- 
many-flowered, the floweis perfect or the upper staminate. Scales 5-maiiy, rigid, 1-3- 
nerved; the 2 lower empty, shorter than the spikelet, keeled; flowering scales rounded on 
the back, at least at the base, the apex lobcd or toothed, 3-nerved, the nerves pilose, and 
usually excurrent as short points between the lobes or teeth; palet broad, 3-keeled. Stamens 
3. Styles short, distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet 
[Name in honor of Professor Siegling, German botanist] 

About 30 species, widely distributed in temperate recions; a few in tropical America. Besides 
the toUowinE, some to othere occur in the souUiem and western parts of North America. 
Intemodca of the rachilla lees than one-quarter the length of the flowering scales. 

Panicle open, the branches 4'-io' long. !■ .S', seslerioidcs. 

Panicle spike-like, the branches 3' long or less. 

Panicle j'-i*" long; spikelets numerous. 3. .SI tlricla. 

Panicle I'-s' long; spikelets tew. 3. ■S'- dtcumbens. 

Intemodes of the rachilla one-half the length of the flowering scales. 4. 5. purpurea. 

1. Sieglingia seslerioldes (Michx.) Scribn. Tall Red-top. (Fig. 421.) 

Poa seslerioldes Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 68. 1803. 
7>iDrfion(;>»niJ,F.lacq.EcloK.Grani, a:ii. pi. 16, 1814. 
Sieglingia seslerioides Scribn. Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, 5: 

^. 1894. 

Culms J°-5'' tall, erect, somewhat flattened, simple, 
glabrous, often viscid above. Sheaths sometimes vil- 
lous at the summit, the lower short, overlapping and 
crowded, the upper longer, equalling or shorter than 
the internodes; ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves 
a,'-\° long or more, 3"-6" wide, flat, attenuate into a 
long tip, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 6'- 
iS' long, the branches Anally ascending or spreading, 
the lower 4'-io' long, usually (lividing above the mid- 
dle; spikeleta 4-8-flowered, 3"-4" long, purple; joints 
of the rachilla short; empty scoles glabrous, obtuse, 
generally slightly 3-toothed; flowering scales oval, the 
nerves pilose, excurrent as sbort points. 

In fields. New York to Kan&as. south to Florida and 
Texas, July-Sept. 


a. Sieglingia stricta (Nutt.) Kuntze. Narrow Siegltngia, 
Windsoria stn'cla Nutt Ttans. Am, Phil. Soc. (II.) 

S: ity. 1833-17. 
Tnoditt Simla Vaaey, Spec. Kept. U. S. DcpL Agnc. 

63; 35- 188^ 
Siegltngta tincia Kuntee, Rev. Gen. PI. 789. 1S91. 

Culms i^'-^" tall, erect, a little compressed, 
simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter 
than tbe intemodes; ligule a ring of short bain; 
leaves 6'-i° long or more, flat, long-acuminate, 
smooth beneath, scabrous above; spike-like pan- 
icle s'-ii' in length, the branches appressed, the 
lower I'-i' long; spilcelets 4-10-flowered, 1"-^" 
long, the joints of the rachilla very short; lower 
scales nsnally about two-thirds as long as the spike- 
let, rarely extending beyond the flowering scales, 
aCDte, glabrous; flowering scales ovate, the nerves 
pilose for more than half their length, the middle 
and often the lateral ezcnrrent as short points. 

Moist soil, Mississippi to Kansas and Texas. 

3. Sieglingia dec6iiibens (L.) Kuntze. Heather-grass. (Fig, 423.) 

Festuca decumbens I,. Sp. PI. 75. 175J, 
Triodia decumbens Beaav. Agrost. 76. 1813. 
Sieglingia decumbens Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 789. 1S91. 

Culms (i'-i&' tall, erect, often decumbent at the 
base, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes, villous at tbe sammit; 
ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves smooth 
beneath, usually scabrous above, Ji"-i^"wide, 
the basal 3'-6' long, those of the culm i'-3' 
long; panicle I'-a' long, contracted, the branches 
i' long or less, erect: spikelets 3-s-flowered, 3"-5" 
long, the joints of the rachilla very short; lower 
scales equalling the spikelet, acute; flowering scales 
broadly oval, ciliate on the margins below, obtusely 
3-toothed, with two tufts of hair on the callus. 

4. Sieglingia purpi^rea (Walt.) Kuntze. Sand-grass. (Fig. 424.) 

Aira purpurea Walt. Fl. Car. 78. 1 
Trictispi! purpurea A. Gray, Man, ; 
Sieglingia purpurea Kuntie, Rev. t 


1. PI. 789. 

Culms 1°-^" tall, erect, prostrate or decumbent, 
smoothandglabrousor the nodes pubescent. Sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes, rough; ligule a ring of 
short hairs; leaves ^'-i^' long, i" wide 
rigid, scabrous, sometimes sparsely ciliate; panicle 
r-3' in length, the branches rigid, Anally widely 
spreading, the lower JC'-IJ^' long; spikelets a-5- 
flowered, 3>i"-4" long, the joints of the rachilla 
half fts long as the flowering scale; lower scales gla- 
brous; flowering scales oblong, a-lobed at the apex, 
the lobes eroae-tniitcate, the nerves strongly ciliate, 
the middle one ezcurrent as a short point; palets 
long-ciliate on the upper part of the keel. 

In sand, especially on sea beaches, Maine to Texas, 
»nd along the Great Lakes, Also from Nebraska to New 
Utxico. Plant acid. Aug.-Sept. 



6a. REDFIELDIA Vasey, Bull. Torr. Club, 14: iM- 1887. 
A tall perennial grata, with long narrow Imves and an ample panicle. Spikelct* 1-3- 
flowered, the floweis all perfect Empty scales 3, abont equal, shorter than the apikelet, 
i-nervcd; flowering Bcalea mem bra Dona, 3-Derved, with a ring of hain at the ba*e. Palet a- 
nerved, shorter than the scale. StameD* 3, Stjlea long, distinct Stigmas abort, pltimoM. 
Grain oblong, free. [In honor of John H. Redfield, 1815-1895, American natnralisL 

A monotjpic lentu of the western United State*. 

I. RedBeldia flexudsa (Thurb. ) Vasey. 
Redfieldia. (Fig. 425.) 

Grahhtphorum {t^fitxuoium Thnrb. Proc. Acad- 

Phila. 1863: 78. 1861. 
Redfitldia JtexHosa Vaaey, Bnll. Torr. Club, u: 

133- "Bfl?. 

Culms iX°'4° tall, erect from a long horizon- 
tal rootstock, simple, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths smooth, the lower short and overlap- 
ping, often crowded, the upper much longer, 
ligule a ring of short haiis; leaves i°-3° long, 
i"-3" wide, involute; panicle ample and diffuse, 
8'-33' in length, the branches finally widely 
spreading, flexuons, the lower y-V long; apike- 
lets about 3" long, 1-3-flowered, the empty 
scales acute, glabrous; flowering scaica with a 
ring of haira at the base, minutely scabronSr 
twice the length of the empty ones, acute, the 
middle nerve usually cxcurreut as a short point. 

1 Colorado 

63. DIPLAcHNE Beauv. Agrost. 80. pi. 16. f. p. 1812. 
Tufted grasses, with narrow flat leaves and long slender spikes arranged in an open pan- 
icle, or rarely only one terminal spike. Spikelets several -flowered, narrow, sessile or 
•hortly pedicelled, erect Two lower scales empty, membranous, keeled, acnte, unequal; 
flowering scales 1-3-nerved, a-tootbed and mucronate or short-awned between the teeth. 
Palet hyaline, a-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, loosely 
enclosed in the scale and palet. [Greek, referring to the atoothed flowering scales.] 

19 of both hemispheres. Besides the followiuK 
p^Btem parts of North America. 

I. Dtplachne fasciculSiris (Lam.) Beauv. 
(Fig. 426.) 

Festuca/ascicHlarii Law, Tab!. Eucycl. i: 189. 

Dtplachne fascicularis^eaxiv.\^ost. 160. :8l». 

Culms i°-3fi° tall, erect, ascending, orroot- 
ing at the lower nodes, simple or branched, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than 
the internodes, loose, smooth or rough, the 
upper one longer and enclosing the base of 
the panicle; ligule \"-i" long; leaves 3'-i3' 
long, V-y wide, slightly scabrous; panicle 
4'-la' in length, often exceeded by the upper 
leaf, the branches erect or ascending, the 
lower a'-5' long; spikelets 5-10-flowered, 
3"-5" long, short-pedicelled, erect; lower 
scales glabrous, rough on the keel; flow- 
ering scales scabrous, ciliate on the margins 
toward the base, 3-nerved. 

Inbmckish marshes, Rhode Island to Florida 
and Texas. Also from Missouri and Nebraska 
to Mexico, and in the West Indies. AuK.-Oct. 

Salt-meadow Diplachne. 


64. MOLJNIA Schrank, Baier. Fl. i: 100. 1789. 
A perennial tnfted grass, with narrow flat leaves and paniculate inBoracence. Spikelets 
2-4-flowered. Two lower scales emptf, aomewhat obtuse or acute, unequal, shorter than the 
spikeletifloweringscalesmembraDoos, rounded on the back, 3-nerved;palets scarcely shorter 
than thescales, obtuse, 3-keeled. Stameasa. Stjlesshort. Stigmas short, plumose. Grain 
■oblong, free, enclosed in the scale and palet [Kame in honor of Joh. Igaaz Molina, Chilian 
missionary and natniollst.] 

A monotypic g«nns of Europe and Asia. 

I. Molinia coen^lea (L.) Moench. Molinia. 

(Fig. 427.) 

Aira coerulea L. Sp. Fl, 63. 1753. 

Molinia eoerulea Moench, Meth, 183. 1794. 
Culms I'-sJi" tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. 

Sheaths overlapping and confined to the lower part of the 
«nlni, smooth and glabrous; lignle a ring of very short 

hain; leaves 4'-!° long or more, i"-3" wide, erect, acu- 
minate, smooth beneath, slightly scabrous above; panicle 

S'-io* in length, green or purple, the branches usually 
-erect, l'.^' long; spikeleta 2-4-flowered, aJi"-4" long; 
-empty scales acute, nneqnal; flowering scales about a" 

longt 3-i)Crved, obtuse. 

iiingly intioduced o 
Advcntive from Europe. Aug. -Sept 

65. ERAGr6sTIS Beauv. Agrost. 70. //. /#. /. 11. 1812. 
Annual or perennial grasses, rarely dioecious, from a few inches to seversl feet in height, 
the apikelets in contracted or open panicles. Spikelets a-many-fiowered, more or less flat- 
tened. Two lower scales empty, unequal, shorter than the flowering ones, keeled, i-nerved, 
or the second 3-nerved; flowering scales membranous, keeled, 3-nerved; palets shorter than 
thescales, prominently 3-uerved or 3'keeled, usually penistiug on the rachilla after the fruit- 
ingscalehas fallen. Stamens 3 or 3. Styles distinct, short. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, 
loosely enclosed in the scale and palet. [Greek etymologer doubtful, perhaps signifying a 
low grass, or Lov£-grass, an occasional Bnglisb name.] 

A genua of about 100 species, widely distributed thronshoutall warm and temperate countries. 
Beaides the following, some 15 others occur in the southern and western parts of North AmeTica. 
<iilms often decumbent at the base and generally much branched, i Jj" tall or lens. 
Spikelets 3-5-flowered, \"-\%" long. 

Culms branched only at the very base; pedicels and blanches of the panicle long and 

capillary. i. E. capillaris. 

Culms branched above the base; pedicels and branches of the panicle short. 

a. E. Frankii. 
Spikeleta s-maoy-flowe red, iM"-8" long. 
Spikelets y/' wide or less, 

Floweiing acalea thin, uaually bright purplish, the lateral nerves faint or wanting; 

apikelets about W wide. 3, E, pilosa, 

Fhnreiing scales firm, usually dull purple or green, the lateral nerves very prominent; 
spikeleta about H" wide. 4. E. PurshH. 

Spikelets i" wide or more. 

I^wer flowering scales abont Ji" long; spikelets 1" wide. g. E. Bra^roslis. 

Lower flowering scales i"-i3i" long; spikeleta i%"-iii" wide. 6. E. major. 
Cwlma erect or ascending, simple, rigid, iJ4°-4^toll. 
Spikelets not clustered. 

Branches of the open panicle widely spreading, at least when old. 

Spikelets cloaely sessile. 7. E. sesiilispica. 

Spikelets more or less pedicelled. 

Pedicelslong,commonlyatleaatthelengthofthespikelets. 9, E. peclinacta. 
Pedicels commonly much shorter than the apikelets. 

Leaves elongated ; branches of the panicle long and slender; apikelets scattered, 

6-a5-flowered. 10. E. refracla. 

Leaves not elongated; bmnches of the panicle short and stout, rigid, spikelets 
crowded, s-is-floweted, S. E. curlipatietUala. 

Brancliea of the elongated panicle erect or ascending, capillary, somewhat flexuous. 

1 1 , £■. Iriekodet. 
Spikelets clustered on the very short erect or asceudinK branches. 11. E. secundiflora. 

vuhas extensively creeping; flowers dioecious. 13. E. hypnoides. 


. Eragrostis capilliris (L.) Nees. Capillary Eragrostis. (Pig. 428.) 

Paa capillaris L. Sp. PI. 68, 1753. 

Poa tenuis Kll. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: is6. 1817. 

Eragrostis capillarii Nees. Agrost. Biu, gcQ. 1819. 

Calms %'-W tall, erect, ileadeT, spuinglr 
braacbed at the bate, amooth and glabroiu. 
Sheaths short, overlapping and crowded at the base 
of the culm, glabroiu or sparingly bairjr, the npper 
enclosing the base of the panicle; lignte a ring of 
very short hairs; leaves ^'-i</ long, i"-a" wide, 
long-acumiaate, smooth beneath, scahrons above 
and sparingly hirsute near the base; panicle difihsc, 
4'-i5' in length, the branches capillary, spreading 
or ascending, i}i'-s' long: spikelets ovate, 3-4- 
flowered, little flattened, I'^-i^j" long; empty 
scales about equal, acute; flowering acalcs acntc, 
the lower ^" long, the lateral nerves obscure. 

2. Eragrostis Pr&nkii Stcud. Frank's Era- 
grostis. (Fig. 429.) 

Glabrous, culms 6'-i5' tall, tufted, erect, or often 
decumbent at the base, branched, smooth. Sheaths 
loose, shorter than the intemodes; ligule a ring of 
hairs; leaves a'-s' long, i"-a" wide, smooth beneath, 
scabrous above; panicle i'-6' in length, open, the \^^ 
branches ascending, the lower I'-iJi' long; spikelets 
ovate. 3-5-flowered, i"-iji" long; empty scales acute, 
the first shorter than the second; flowering scales 
acute, the lower }(" long, the lateral nerves obscure. 

In moist places, southeastern New York and northern 
New Jersey to Minnesota, south to Mississippi, Lonisiana 
and Kansas. Sept. -Oct. 

3. Eragrostis pildsa (L.) Beauv. Tufted Eragrostis, (Fig. 430.) 

Poapilosa L. Sp. PI. 68. 1753. 

Poa Caroliniana Spreng. Mant. Fl. Hal. 33. 1807? 

Eragrostis pilosa Beauv. Agrost, 163. l8lJ, 

Culms (i'~i?i' tall, tufted, erect, slender, branched, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the in^ 
temodes, smooth, sometimes pilose at the throat; lig- 
ule a ring of abort hairs; leaves I'-s' long, 1" wide 
or less, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 
2'-6' in length, the branches at first erect, finally 
widely spreading, I'-iJi' long, often hairy in the 
axils; spilcelets 5-1 2 -flowered, iJi"-3" long, abont 
>i" wide; lower scales acute, the first one-half as long 
as the second; flowering scales acute, the lower }(" 
long, thin, usually purplish, the lateral nerves faint 
or wanting. 

Waste places or cultivated ground, sautbem New Eng- 
land to Illinois and Kansas, south to Florida and Texas. 
Naturaliied from Europe. Aug, -Sept. 


Eragrostis refr&cta (Miihl.) Scribn. Meadow Eragrostis. (Fig. 437.) 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
«nd glabrous. Sheatbs overlappiag, smooth aad 
glabrous; ligale a ring of short hairs; leaves 5'-i3' 
long, l"-i" wide, smooth beneath, rough above, 
and villous toward the base; panicle S'-ac/ long; 
branches slender, \'-\c/ long, at length widely 
spreading, the axils oflen bearded; spikclets 6-35- 
fiowered, 3^"-6" long, on pedicels shorter than 
themselves: emptj' scales acute, the first somewhat 
shorter than the second; flowering scales very 
acute, %"-x" long, the lateral uerves prominent. 

Eragrostis trichddes (Nutt.) Nash. Hair-like Eragrostis. (Fig. 438.) 
Poa Irichodes Nutt Trans. Am. Phil, Soc. (II, j 5: 146. 

Eragrostis tenuis A. Gray, Man. Ed. i, 564. 1856. 

Not Steud. iSss. no' Po" leHuis Ell. l3i7. 
Eragrostis Irichodes Nash, Ball. Torr. Clnb, M: 465. 


Culms 3°-^" tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths overlftpping, smooth, pilose at the 
throat; ligale a ring of very short hairs; leaves 
6'-a8' loDg, i"-a" wide, smooth beneath, slightly 
scabrous above, attenuate into a long slender 
tip; panicle 9'-i6' in length, narrow and elong- 
ated, the branches erect or ascending, capillary, 
subdividing, somewhat flezuous, 3'-?' long; lower 
axils sometimes bearded; spilcclets usually pale, 
3-10-flowered, a>i"-4ji" long; lower scales very 
acute, about equal; floweringscales acute, the lower 
ones i'4"-i}i" long, their lateral nerves manifesL 

Z3. Eragrostis secundifldra Presl. Clus- 
tered Eragrostis. (Fig. 439.) 

Plcia interrupta Nntt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) Ji 146. 

^^33-37- Not Lam. 1791, 
E r-agroslis. secundiftora Ptesl, Rcl. Haenlt. I: 376. 1830. 
^''tigroslis oxyUpis toTi. Marcy'a Report, 269. 1854. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 6'-3° tall, erect, simple- 
Sheaths shorter than the internodes; llgule a ring of 
hairs; leaves a'-ia' long, i"-2" wide; panicle i^'-6' 
™ length, the branches yi'-i)i' long, erect or ascend- 
^'^8; Bjnlcelets crowded or clustered, sessile or nearly so, 
strongly flattened, 8-4o-flowered, 3"-io" long, i"- 
^H" wide; lower scales acute, about equal; flowering 
stales i}i"-IjC" long, acnte, usually purple-bordered, 
toe lateral nerves prominent. 


i, south to Texas and 


, Eragrostis capiltluis (L.) Nees. Capillary Eragrostis. (Fig. 428.) 

Poa capHiaris L. Sp. PI. 68, 1753. 

Pna tenuis mi. Bot. S. C. & Ga. t: 156. 1817. 

Eragroslis capUlarii Neo, AgToal, Bras, 305. 1819. 

Calms 8'- 1 8' talt, erect, slender, sparingly 
branched at the base, smooth and glabroni. 
Sheaths short, overlapping and crowded at the hue 
of the culm, glabroiu or sparingly hairf , the apper 
enclosing the base of the panicle; ligule a ring of 
very short baire; leaves 3'-io' long, i"-a" wide, 
long-acuminate, smooth beneath, scabroas above 
and sparingly hirsute near the base; panicle difihse, 
4'-iS' in length, the branches capillary, apreading 
or aacendicg, \%'-h' long; apikelets ovate, 3-4- 
flowered, little flattened, \"-\yi" long; empty 
scales about eqnat, acute; flowering scales acute, 
the lower ^" long, the lateral nerves obscure. 

, Eragrostis Frfinkii Steud. Frank's Era- 
grostis. (Fig. 429. ) 


Glabrous, culms (/-\^' tall, tufted, eiect, or often 
decumbent at the base, branched, smooth. Sheaths 
loose, shorter than the intemodes; ligule a ring of 
hairs; leaves a'-s' long, i"-i" wide, smooth beneath, 
scabrous above; panicle i'-6' in length, open, the 
branches ascending, the lower t'-i^' long; spikelets 
ovate, 3-5-flowered, l"-lji" long; empty scales acute, 
the first shorter than the second; flowering scales 
acute, the lower ii" long, the lateral nerves obscure. 

In moist places, southeastern New Votk and uorttaem 
New Jersey to Minnesota, south to Mississippi, Louisiana 
and Kansas. Sept. -Oct. 

3. Eragrostis pildsa (I,.) Beauv. Tufted Eragrostis, (Fig. 430.) 

Fba pilosa L. Sp. PI. 68. 1753. 

Poa Caroliniana Spreng. Mant. Fl. Hal. 33. 1807? 

Eragrostis pHma Beauv. Agrost. 163. 1S13, 

Culms 5'-iS' tall, lufted. erect, slender, liranchcd, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
temodea, smooth, sometimes pilose at the throat; li^ 
ule a ring of short hairs; leaves i'-5' long, 1'' wide 
or less, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 
%'-(/ in length, the branches at first erect, flnallv 
widely spreadiDH, I'-i'A' long, often hairy la U»r 
ailla; spikelcla 5- 13- flowered, iii"-y loag, alnvt 
>i" wid«; lower scales acute, the first oue-liair ■■ iMg 
as the secoDt); flowering scales acute, tbe % 
long, thin, usually purplilli, t^I 
or wonting. 

Waste place* - 
land to HUnolr 
Natmaliied fti 



10. Eragrostis refrficta (Muhl.) Scribn. Meadow Eragrostis. (Fig. 437.) 

Era^roslis refracia Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club, S: 49. 

Culms I'-s" tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths overlapping, smooth and 
glabrons; ligule a nng of short hairs; leaves 5'-i3' 
long, i"-2" wide, smooth beneath, rough above, 
and yi lions toward the base; panicle S'-ao' long; 
branches slender, 4'-io' long, at length nidely 
spreading, the axils often bearded; spikelets 6-23- 
flowered, a^'^-d" long, on pedicels shorter than 
themselves; empty scales acute, the first somewhat 
shorter than the second; flowering scales very 
acute, %"-\" long, the lateral nerves prominent. 

Eragrostis trichddes (Nutt.) Nash. Hair-like Eragrostis. (Fig. 438.) 

Poa Irichodes Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (11.) $; 

EragrosUs lenuti A. Gray, Man. Bd. 2, 564, 

Not Steud. 185s. nor Poa leuuit Ell. 1817. 
Eragrostis trichodts Nash, Bull. Torr. Clnb, al: 


Culms 3°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths overlapping, smooth, pilose at the 
throat; ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves 
6'-28' long, i"-2" wide, smooth beneath, slightly 
scabrous above, attenuate into a long slender 
tip; panicle 9'-36' in length, narrow and elong- 
ated, the branches erect or ascending, capillary, 
subdividing, somewhat flexuoua, 3'-?' long; lower 
axils sometimes bearded; spilcelets usually pale, 
3-10-flowered, l'/i"-^%" long; lower scales very 
acute, about equal; flowering scales acute, the lower 
ones \%"-\^" long, their lateral n' 

In dry sandy si 
south to Tennesse 

la. Eragrostis secundtfldra Presl. Clus- 
tered Eragrostis. (Fig. 439.) 

f^a inlerrupta Nutt. Trans. Atn, Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 146. 

'S.33-37- Not Lam. 1791. 
Sr-as^roslis secundiflora Prcsl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 276. 1830. 
^'^Og-rostis ojcyUpis Toir, Maicy's Report. 169. 1854. 

SiQooth and glabrous, culms f/-'i° tall, erect, simple. 
^"*aths shorter than the internodes; ligule a ring of 
hairs; leaves I'-ii' long, i"-2" wide; panicle iJi'-6' 
J** length, the branches yi'-iyi' long, erect or ascend- 
*'*8; Bpikelets crowded or clustered, sessile or nearly so, 
*trongiy flattened, 8-40-flowered, 3"-io" long, i"- 
*J^'' wide; lower scales acute, about equal; flowering 
*'^ea iji"-lj(" long, acute, usually purple-bordered, 
^ne lateral nerves prominent, 

.« (■ ■ "- 



13. Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. Creeping Eragrostis. (Fig. 440.) 

flHi hypnoides Lam, Tabl. Eucycl. i: 

185. 1791. 
Eragrostis refilans Nets, Agroat Bran. 

514- 1829. 
hragroslis hybnotdii B.S.P. Prrl, Cat. 

N. Y. 69. 1S88. 

Culms i'-i8' long, extensively 
creeping, braactaed, smooth and gla- 
brous, tbe branches erect or ascend- 
ing, i'-6' high. Sheaths shorter 
than tbe intemodes, villous at tbe 
summit; lignle a ring of short bairsi 
leaves i' long or less, >i"-i" wide, 
flat, smooth beneath, rough above; 
apikelets dioecious, 10-35- flowered, 
a"-8"long: lower scales unequal, the 
first one-half to two-thirds as long as 
the second; flowering scales about 
\%" long, tbe lateral nerves promi- 
nent; scales of the pistillate Bowers 
more acute than those of the stami* 

On .tandy or gravelly shoies. Ver- 
mont and Ontftria to Oregon, south to 
Florida and Mexico. Also in the West 
Indies, Aug. -Sept. 

66. EATONIA Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 104. 1819. 

Tufled perennial grasses, with flat or involute leaves aud usually contracted panicles. 

Spikelets 2-3-flowered; the rachilla extended beyond the flowers. Two lower scales empty, 

shorter than the spikelcl, tbe first linear, acute, i-nerved, the second much broader, 

3-nerved, obtuse or rounded at the apex, or sometimes acute, the margins scarious; flowering 

scales narrower, generally obtuse. Falet 
short. Stigmas plumose. Grain free, loosely 
Amos Eaton, 1776-1842, American botanist.] 

A genu!< of 4 ot 5 species, coniined to North A 
Bmptf scales unequal, the first shorter and about 

Second scale obovate, often almost truncate. 

Second scale qblaneeolate, obtuse or abruptly 
Empty scales equal, the lii — --' ' — '' "■-■ 

3-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, 
osed in the scale and palet. [In honor of 

iith as wide as the second. 

I. E. oblasala. 

3. E. Pfnnsylvanictt. 

3. E. nitida. 

third as wide as the second. 

, Eatonia obtusita (Michx.) A. 

Gray. Blunt-scaled Eatonia, 

(Fig. 441.) 

ira oblusala Michx Fl Bor Am t 63 



I oblusala I 

Gray Man Ld : 

Culms \°-i}i'' tall erect simple often 
stout, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter 
than the intemodes usually more or less 
rough, sometimes pubescent 1 gulc yi i 
long; leaves I'-g' long i 4 wide scab 
rous; panicle 2'-6' n length dense and 
generally spikelike, strict the branches i}4 
long or less, erect sp kelets crowded 
l!<"-tj^" long; emptj scales unequal often 
purplish, the first narrow shorter than and 
about one^xth as wide as the obtuse or 
almost truncate second one; flowering scales 
narrow, obtuse, Jf"-l" long. 


Eatonia Pennsylvinica (DC.) A. Gray. 
(Fig. 442.) 

Pennsylvania Eatonia. 

Ealonia Pttinsylvani 

:a DC. Cat Hoit. MoDsp. 
a A, Gray, Man. Ed. a, ss8. 

Usually j^labrouB, culms 1"-^° tall, erect, 
•itnple, slender, smooth. Sheaths shorter than 
the iutemodes; ligule H" long; leaves ^14'-?' 
long, i"-3" wide, rough ; panicle 3'-7' in 
length, contracted, often nodding, lax, its 
braoctaea I'-aJi' long; spikelels i>i"-iji'" 
long, nsually numerous, somewhat crowded 
and appressed to the bnwcbes; eraptj scales 
unequal, the first narrow, shorter than and 
alMut one-sixth as broad as the obtuse or ab- 
ruptly acute second one, which is smooth, or 
somewhat rough on the keel; flowering scales 
narrow, acute, i%" laag. 

In hilly woods or moist 
British Colombia, south tc 
Texas. Jnne-July. 

ir.t-finU Femuylvinli 

ctitly nearly that oF the typical form. 

3. Estonia nitida (Spreng. ) Hash. Slen- 
der Eatonia. (Fig. 443.) 

Aira nilida Spreny. Fl. Hal. Mant. i: 31. 1807. 
Eatnuia Dudlryi Vasey, Coult. Bot. Caz. 11: 116. 

Eatonia nilida Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, 31: jiii. 1895, 

Glabrous, culms i°-a° tall, erect, very slender, 
smooth. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, 
generally pubescent; ligule %" long; leaves %'~y 
long, i" wide or less, often pubescent, the upper- 
most very short; panicle 2'-6' in length, lax, the 
branches spreading at flowering time, afterwards 
erect, i'-a}i' long; spikelets not crowded, 1^" 
long; empty scales smooth, the first about one- 
third as wide as and equalling the second, which 
is obtuse or almost truncate, often apiculate ; 
flowering scales narrow, i"-iV" long, obtuse or 
acutish, smooth. 

67. KOELERIA Pers. Syn. i: 97. 1805. 

I'ufted annual or perennial grasses, with flat or setaceous leaves and mostly spike- 

'^^^ panicles. Spikelets 3-5-flowered. Two lower scales empty, narrow, acute, unequal, 

1^^^' KBTious on the margins; tbe flowering scales 3-5-nerved, Palet hyaline, acute, 

l-Ke«l^ Stamens 3. Styles very short Stigmas plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the 

***e and palet [In honor of Georg Ladwig Koeler, German botanist] 

, About 15 species of wide geographic distribution. The following, which n "-'- " — 

"*"»•, occurs in N^" '■-- 


1. Koeleria cristita (L. ) Pers. Koeleria. 
(Fig- 444-) 

Aira crislala L. Sp. PI. 63. :7S3- 
KoeUria crislala Pert. Syn. i: (ff. 1805. 
Korlrria nilida Nutt. Gen. t: 74. 1818. 
Koeleria crislalavvt. gracilis k. Gr»y, Hbd. 591. 1S42. 
Culms I'-afi" tall, erect, simple, rigid, stDootb, 
ofien pubescent juit below the pBoicle. Sheattu 
often shorter than the intcmodea, smooth or tca- 
broua, sometimes hirsute; lignle ^" long; leaves 
I'-u' long, yi"-iyi" wide, erect, flat or invo- 
lute, smooth or rough, often more or less hinnte; 
panicle \'-Y in length, pale green, nsually con- 
tracted or BpilEc-like, the branches erect or rsrel)' 
ascending, i' long or less; spikelets i-s-flowered, 
2"-3" long, the scales rough, acute, the empty onei 
unequal; flowering scales i%"-i" long, shining. 

In dry sandy soil, especially on prairies, Ontario to 
British Columbia, south to Pennsylvania. Nebraska. 
Texas and Califoraia. Also in Europe and Asia. Very 
variable. July-Sept. 

68. CATABROSA Beauv. Agrost. 97. //. 19. f. 8. 1812. 
A perennial grass, with sod flat leaves and an open panicle. Spikelets usnalljr a-flow- 
ered. Two lower scales emptj, thin -membranous, much shorter than the flowering ones, un- 
equal, rounded or obtuse at the apex; flowering scales membranous, eroae-trnncate. Palet 
barely shorter tban the scale. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. [Greek, in 
allusion to the erose top of the flowering scales.] 

Catabrosa aquMica (L.) Beauv. 
Water Whorl-grass. (Fig. 445.) 

157. i8n. 
Smooth and glabrous, culms4'~3° tall, erect, from 
a creeping base, bright green, flaccid. Sheaths 
usually overlapping, loose; ligule i;i"-2^" long; 
leaves iJi'-S' long, t"-3" wide, flat, obtuse; pan- 
icle \'-%' in length, open, the branches whorled, 
spreading or ascending, very slender, %'-2' long; 
spikelets I J("-'JC" long, the empty scales rounded 
or obtuse, the first about half as long as the second, 
which is crenulate on the margins; flowering scales 
i"-\.%" long, 3-nerved, erose-truncate at the apex. 

south lo Nebia: 
and Asia. 

69. MELICA L. Sp. PI. 66. 1753. 

Perennial grasses, with usually soft flat leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spike- 
lets I -several- flowered, often secund, the rachilla extended beyond the flowera and usnally 
bearing a-3 empty club-shaped or hooded scales, convolute around each other. Two lower — 
scales empty, membranous, 3-5.nerved; flowering scales larger, rounded on the back, 7-13 — 
nerved, sometimes bearing an awn, the margins more or less scarious; palets broad, shorteC 
than the scales, two-keeled. Stamens three. Styles distinct Stigmas plumoM. Grait^ 
free, enclosed in the scale and palet [Name used by Theophrastua for Sorghum; said to b^s 
in allusion to the sweet culms of some species.] 

About 30 sprcies, inhabiting temperate regions. Besides the following, some 15 others occn-*" 
in the Rock; Mountains and on the Pacific Coast. 
Second scale much shorter than the 3-^-Qowered spikelets. 

Spikelets few; branches of the panicle spreading or ascending;. i. M. diffusa. 

Spikelets usually numerous; branches of the panicle erect, a. M. ffartHflorm- 

Second scale nearly equalling the 2-flowered spikelet. 3. M. tHvttta. 


I. McUca difPi^sa Pursh. Tall Melic-grass. (Fig. 446-) 
Melica allissima Walt. Fl. Car. 78. 1788. Not L. 

&(6. 1867- 

Culms i>j°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, 
the lower ofteu overlapping; tignle i"-3" long; 
leaves 4'-?' long, a"-4" wide, rough; pan- 
icle 6}4'S)i' in length, open, the branches 
spreading or ascending, the lower i}4'-3' long; 
spilcelets usuallj numerous, about 3-flowered, 
4ji"-5ji" long, nodding, on slender, more or 
less fiexuotts pubescent pedicels; empty basal 
scales very broad, obtuse or acutish, the first 
shorter than the second, which is generally 
mnch exceeded by the spilcetet; flowering scales 
3ji"-4>i" long, acute or obtuse, scabrous. 

Pennsylvania to Missouri, south to Vii^nia, 
Kentucky and Teias. May-June. 

2. Melica parviRdra (Porter) Scriba. Small Melic-grass. (Fig. 447.) 

Metica mulica var. parviflora Porter; Porter & 

Coulter, Fl. Colo. 149. 1874. 
Melica Porteri Scribn. Proc. Acad. Phila. 1885; 44. 

Pt. I. /. 17, iS. 188s. 
Melica parviflora Sciibn. Mem, Torr. Club, S: 50. 


Ctilms i>i''-a>i' tall, erect, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths short, overlapping, 
more or less rough; ligule 1" long; leaves 
S'-t/ long, \"-i" wide, rough; panicle 5'-?' 
in length, contracted, the branches erect, the 
lower i'-3' long; spikeleta few, 4-5-flowered, 
l,"-(>yi" long, nodding, on somewhat flexuons 
strongly pubescent pedicels; lower scales ob- 
tuse or acutiata, the first shorter than the second, 
which is mnch exceeded by the spikelet; flower- 
ing scales 3ji"-4" long, acutish, scabrous. 

and Colorado to Arizona and 

3. Melica mi^tica Walt. Narrow 
Melic-grass. (Fig. 448.) 

J^tlica mutica Walt. Fl. Car. 78. 17SS. 
3ftHca mulica var. glabra A. Gray, Man. Ed. 3, 
«56. 1867. 

Cttlms i°-3° tall, erect, usually slender, sim- 
ple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths often over- 
lapping, rough; ligule \"-i" long; leaves 
'****g'h, 4'-9' long, i"-5" wide, panicle 3ji'- 
'O.K' in length, narrow, the branches spreading 
or ascending, I'-i' long; spikelets about i-flow- 
""*^> 3Ji"-4>i" 1°°?. nodding, on more or less 
"^'nions pubescent pedicels; empty scales very 
"*'«d, acutish to obtuse, the first shorter than 
"** second, which is nearly aa long as the spike- 
'** Of sometimes equals it; flowering scales 3"- 
4 long, generally very obtuse, scabrous. 
„^n rich soil. Pennsylvania to Wisconsin, south to 

in nch soil. Pennsylw 
"oTidaand Texas. Juti 



70. KORYCARPUS Zea, Act. Matrit. 1806. 
[DiARiNA Raf. Jouni. Bot. 1; 169. 1S09.] 
[DiARRHENA Beauv. Agriist 143. 1812.] 
Erect grasses, with long flat leaves aad narron paniculate or racemose inflorescence. 
Spikelets 3-5-flowered, tbe rachilla readily disarticulating betncen the flowen. Upper scales 
empty, convolnte. Two lower scales empty, the first narrow, 3-nerved, acute, the second 
broader, s-nerved; flowering scales broader than the lower ones, acuminate or mucronate, 
rounded on tbe back, finally coriaceous and shining, 3-acrved. Palet 3. keeled Stamens a, 
rarely i. Styles short, diatinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain beaked, free. [Greek, io allu- 
sion to tbe beaked grain.] 

Two known species, the following: North American, the other Japanese. 

I. Korycarpus di^ndrus (Michx.) Kuiitze. American Korycarpus. 
(Fig. 449.) 

67. fii. 10. 180,1. 

%. pi. 25- / ". 

Ftsluca diandra Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i 
Korycarpus arundinaeiHS Zea, Act. Mi 
Diarrhena Americana Beauv. Agrost. 

Korycarpus diandrus Kuntie, Rev, Gen. PI. 771. 1891. 

Culms J^/i'-i" tall, erect, simple, very rough below the 
panicle. Sheaths overlapping, confined to the lower 
part of the culm, smooth or a little rough at the summit. 
sometimes pubescent; ligule very short; leaves &'-n' 
long, 5"-^" wide, long-acuminate at the apex, usually 
scabrous; panicle often reduced to a raceme, 2'-t%' in 
length, the branches erect, I'-a' long; ipikelets 3-5- 
flowered, 6"-8" long, the lower scales unequal, the first 
shorter than the second, which is much exceeded by the 
spikelet; flowering scales somewhat abruptly acuminate; 
palets shorter than the scales and exceeded by the 
beaked grain. 

In rich woods, Ohio to Kansas, south to Georxia, Tennes- 
see and the Indian Territory. AuR.-Sepi. 

71. PLEUROPOGON R. Br. App. Parrj-'s Voy. 289. 1824. 

Erect grasses with flat leaves and racemose inflorescence. Spikelets 5-14-flowered; 
flowers perfect, or tbe upper staminate. Two lower scales empty, unequal, thin-membran- 
ous, l-nerve<I, or the second imperfectly 3-nerved; flowering scales longer, membranous, 
7-nerved, the middle nerve excurrent as a short point or awn. Palet scarcely shorter than 
the scale, a-keelcd, the keels winged or appendaged. Stamens 3. Styles sbort. Stigmas 
plumose. Grain free, enclosed in tbe scale and palet. [Greek, side-beard, from tbe append- 
ages to the palets.] 

Three known species, the following arctic, the others Califomian. 

I. Pleuropogon Sabinii R. Br. Sabine's 
Pleiiropogoa. (Fig. 450.) 

Pleuropogon Sabinii R. Br. App. Party's Voy. 189. 

Smooth, culms 6' or less tall, erect, simple, 
glabrous. Sheatbs one or two; ligule \" long; 
leaves %'-i' long, erect, glabrous; raceme I'-i' 
in length; spikelets 3-6, 5-8-flowered, about 5" 
long, on spreading or reilexed pedicels \" or 
less in length; lower scales smooth, the first 
acute, shorter than the obtuse second; flowering 
scales oblong, i"-3^" long, erose-truucate at 
i summit, scabrous, the midnerve 
excurrent as a short point; palet 
slightly shorter than the scale, truncate and 
somewhat 3-toothed at the apex, bearing an awn- 
like appendage on each keel near the middle. 

Arctic regions of both the Old World and the 
New, Summer. 



7a. UNIOLA L. Sp. PI. 71. 1753. 

Erect and often t&ll grasses with flat or convolute leaves and paniculate inflorescence. 
Spikelets 3-m any- flowered, flat, 3-edged, the flowers perfect, or the upper ataminate. 
Scales flattened, keeled, sometlnies winged, rigid, usuatlj acute; the lower 3-6 empty, un- 
equal; the flowering scalea many-nerred, the uppermost scales often smaller and empty; 
palets rigid, a-keeled. Stamens 1-3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain com- 
pressed, free, loosely enclosed in the scale and palet [Name diminutive of unus, one, of no 
obvious application.] 

About 8 species, natives of America. Besides the following. 2 others occur in the sDUtheastcm 
I'nited States. 

Spikelets about K' in length; panicle spike-like. 1. C. laxa. 

Spikelets eieeedinK H' in length ; panicle open. 

Panicle lax, the branches pendulous; spikelett on lonK capillary pedicels, a. U. lali/olia. 

Panicle strict, the branches etecl, rigrid; spikelets on short stout pedicels. . 3. U. panUulata. 

I. Uniola 16xa (L.) B.S.P. Slender Spike-grass. (Fig. 451.) 


{ -Hioia B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 69, 18S8. 
Smooth and glabrous, culms i>j°-4° 
tall, erect, simple, slender. Sheaths 
shorter than the internodes; ligule very 
sliort; leaves 5'-i5' long, l"-3" wide, 
usually erect, flat, attenuate into a long 
tip, smooth or slightly rough ; pan- 
icle spike-like, 4'-ia' in length, erect, 
strict, or nodding at the summit, the 
branchea erect, t'-3' long; spikelets 
sbort-stalked or nearly sessile, 3-6- 
flowered. about 3" long; lower scales 
much shorter than the flowering ones, 
'Which are i^"-2" long, acuminate, 
Spreading in fruit; palet arched, about 
t-wo-thirds as long as the scale; stamen i. 

Sandy soil, Long Island to Pennsylvania 
^nd Kentucky, south to Florida and Texas. ■ 
>nostly neat the coast. Ascends to 900 Ft. in 
^?^orth Carolina. Aug. -Sept. 

Uniola latifdlla Michx. 
leaved Spike-grass. (Fig. 452.) 

C'niola lali/olia Miehi. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 70. 

Culms a°-5° tall, erect, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
ternodes; ligule yi" long, lacerate-toothed; 
leaves 4' -9' long, %'-i' wide, flat, narrowed 
into a somewhat rounded, often ciliate base, 
acuminate at the apex, smooth, excepting on 
the margins; panicle lax, S^'-lo' in length, 
its branches filiform and penduloua, the 
lower a'-5' long; spikelets many-flowered, 
oblong to ovate, Ji'-iX' 'oig. OQ long cap- 
illary pendulous pedicels; lower scales much 
smaller than the flowering ones, which are 
4fi"-6" long, ciliate-hispid on the winged 
keel; stamen i. 

In moist places. Pennsylvania to Illinois and 
Kansas, south to Florida and Texas. Ascends 
to 2000 ft. In North Carolina. Aug. -Sept. 

3. Uniola panicuUta L. Sea Oats. (Fig. 453.) 

Uniola fianiculala L. Sp, PI. 71. 1755. 

Glabrous thoroughout, culma 3°-8° tall, 
erect, aimple, smooth. Sheaths often longer 
than the intemodes; ligule a ring of hairs 
about %" long: leaves 1° long or more, aboDt 
X' wide, involute when dt7, attentiate into a 
long slender tip; panicle 9'-!° in length or 
more, the branches erect or ascending, strict, 
rigid, the lower 2%'-^' long; apikclels manj- 
flowered, short-pedjcelled, ovate to oval when 
mature, }i'-i' long; lower scales much shorter 
than the flowering ones, which arc 4"-5" 
long and scabrous on the keels; stamens 3. 

In sands of the seacoast, Viijinia to Florid* 
and west to Texas. Also in the West Indies and 
South America. Spikelets persistent into the 
winter. Oct -Nov. 

73. DISTICHLIS Raf. Joum. Phys. 89: 104. 1819. 
Dioecious graasea, with rigid culms creeping or decumbent at the base, flat ( 
lute leaves and spike-like paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets flattened, more n 
the staminate plants than on the pistillate, 6-i6-flowered; rachilla continuous in the atam- 
iaate spikelets, articulated in the pistillate. Two lower scales empt]', narrow, keeled, acute, 
shorter than the flowering ones; flowering acales broader, many-nerved, acute, rigid; palets. 
a-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles thickened at the base, rather long, distinct. Stigmas 
long-plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and paleL [Greek, signifying two-ranked, 
probably in reference to the spikelets.] 

or alkaline soil; one of thera 

I. Distichlis spicdta (L.) Greene. Marsh Spike- 

Uniota sPicala L. Sp. PI. 71. 1753. 
DislichltS marilima RaJ. Joum. Phys. 89: 104. 1819. 
Uniola slricla Tory. Ann. Lye. N. Y. i: 155. 1814. 
Dislicklit ipicaia Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. J: 415. 

I Scribn. Mem. Torr. 

Glabrous throughout, cnlms 3'-3° tall, erect 
from a horizontal rootstock, or often decumbent at' 
the base. Sheaths overlappiug and ofleti crowded; 
ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves %'-f^ long. 
X"~-i'i wide, flat or involute; panicle dense and 
spike-like, ^'--1%' in length, the branches i' 
long or less, erect; spikelets 6-i6-flowered, 4"-9" 
long, pale green; empty scales acute, the first 1-3- 
nerved, two-tbirds as long as the 3-5-nerved 
second one; flowering scales \%"-i)i" long. 

On salt meadows along the Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Florida, in saline soil Ihroughout the inle- 
rioT, and on the Pacific coast north to British Columbia. 
The main figure is thatof the staminate plant. June- 

(Fig. 454) 



74. BRIZA L. Sp. PL 70. 1753. 

Annual or perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and open or rarely coutracted 
»anicles. Spikelets large/ flattened, tumid, many-flowered, nodding, the flowers perfect, 
tcales thin-membranous, strongly concave, the 2 lower empty, 3-5-nerved, somewhat un- 
tjual; flowering scales imbricated, broader than the empty ones, 5~many-nerved; uppermost 
cales often empty; palets much shorter than the scales, hyaline, 2-keeled or 2-nerved. 
>tamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain usually free, enclosed in the scale 
ind palet. [Greek name for some grain, perhaps rye.] 

About 12 species, natives of the Old World and temperate South America. 

Perennial; ligule }4" long or less, truncate; spikelets 5-12-flowered, 2" -2 54" long. 
Vnnual; ligule i" long or more, acute; spikelets 3-6-flowered, i"-iH" long. 

1. B. media. 

2. B. minor. 

I. Briza mddia L. Quake-grass. Quaking Grass. (Fig. 455.) 

Bri^a media t,. Sp. PI. 70. 1753. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 6^-2^ tall, erect, 
from a perennial root, simple. Sheaths shorter 
than the intemodes; ligule ^^^ long or less, 
truncate; leaves i^-y long, 1^^-2)4^^ wide; pan- 
icle i>i^-5^ in length, the capillary branches 
spreading or ascending, 1^-2 }4' long; spikelets 
2^^-2}^^^ long, orbicular to deltoid-ovate, 5-12- 
flowered; scales scarious-margined, the lower 
ones about i'^ long; flowering scales 1^^- 
1%'^ long, broader than the lower ones, widely 

In fields and waste places, Ontario to Massachu- 
setts and Rhode Island. Naturalized from Europe. 
Native also of Asia. June-July. 

2. Briza minor L. Lesser Quaking 
Grass. (Fig. 456.) 

Briza minor L. Sp. PI. 70. 1753. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 4^-15'' tall, erect 
from an annual root, simple. Sheaths shorter 
than the intemodes; ligule \^'-2/^ long, acute; 
leaves 1^-5' long, \^^-a/^ wide, sometimes sca- 
brous; panicle 2^-5'' in length, open, the capil- 
lary branches spreading or ascending, i''-2>^' 
long; spikelets 3-6-flowered, \^^-\)i'^ long, 
about 2'^ broad, truncate at the base; scales 
scarious-margined, the lower ones about \^' 
long; flowering scales much broader and deeply 
saccate, about }i'' long. 

In ballast and waste places about Camden, N. \. ; 
common in California, and widely distributed in 
tropical America. Adventive or naturalized from 
Enrope. June-Tuly. 


75. DACTYLIS L. Sp. PI. 71- i753- 
A tell perennial gross, with flat leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 3-5-flow- 
ered, short-pedicelled, in dense capitate clusters, the flowers perfect or the upper staminate. 
Two lower scales empty, tbin-membraaous, keeled, unequal, mucronate; flawccing' scales 
larger than the empty ones, rigid, 5-ncrved, Iceeled, the midnerve extended into a point or 
short awn; palets shorter tbau the scales, 3-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles dutincL Stigmas 
plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet. [Name osed by Pliny for some grass 
with finger-like spikes]. 

A monotypic ^nus or Europe and Asia. 

I. Dactylis glomer&ta L. Orchard 
Grass. (Fig. 457.) 

Daclylii glomerala L. Sp. PI. 71. 1753. 

Culms 2°-4° tall, tnfled, erect, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the inter- 
nodes, smooth or rough; ligule i"-i" long; 
leaves 3'-g' long, i"-3" wide, flat, scabrous; 
panicle 3'-8' in length, the branches spreading 
or ascending in flower, erect in fmit, the lower 
I'-i^' long, spikelet- bearing from above or be- 
low the middle; spikelets in dense capitate clus- 
ters, 3-5-flowered; lower scales 1-3-nerved, the 
first shorter than the second; flowering scales 
a"-3" long, rough, pointed or short-awned, 
citiate on the keel. 

In fields and waste places, New Brunswick to 
Manitoba, south to South Carohna and Kansas, 
Naturalized from Europe and (cultivated for fodder. 


76. CYNOStlRUS L. Sp. PI. 72. 1753. 

Annual or perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaves and dense spike-like inflorescence. 
Spikelets of two kinds, in small clusters; lower spikelets of the clusten consisting of nar- 
row empty scales, with a continuous racbilla, the terminal spikelets of 2-4 broader scales, 
with an articulated rachJIla and subtending perfect flowers. Two lower scales in the fertile 
spikelets empty, i-ncrved, the flowering scales broader, i-3-nervcd, pointed or short-awned; 
upper scales narrower, usually empty. Scales of the sterile spikelets pectinate, spreading, 
all empty, linear-subulate, i-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short. Stigmas loosely 
plumose. Grain finally adherent to the palet. [Greek, signifying dog's tail, referring to 
the spike.] 

About 5 species, natives of the Old World. 

I. Cynosurus cristitus L. Dog's-tail 

Grass. (Fig. 458.) 

Cynosurus crislalas I,. Sp. PI. 72. 


Culms i°-2ji° tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; 
ligule J4" long, truncate; leaves i)4'-S' long, J^"-2" 
wide, smooth, glabrous; spike-like panicle 2'-4' in 
length, 2>4"-6" wide, long-cxserted; spikelets ar- 
ranged in clusters, the terminal fertile, the lower 
larger and sterile; scales of the former about ij^" 
long, pointed or short-awned, the scales of the sterile 
spikelels very narrow, pointed, strongly scabrous on 
the keel. 

In fields and waste places, Quebec and Ontario to south- 
ern New York and New Jersey. Adventive from Europe. 
June- Aug. 



77. POAL. Sp. PL 67. 1753. 
Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute leaves and cootracted or open pan- 
icles. Spikelets 3-6-flowered, compressed, the rachilla usually glabrous; flowers perfect, or 
rare1j> dioecious. Scales metnbmnous, keeled; the 2 lower empty, 1-3-nerved; the flower- 
ing scales longer than the empty ones, generally with a tuft of cobwebby hairs at the base, 5- 
nerved, the marginal nerves usually pubescent, often also the dorsal one; paletsa little shorter 
than the scales, i-nerved or a.keeled. Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct Stigmas plumose. 
Grain free, or sometimes adherent to the palet. [Name Greek, for grass or herbage.] 

(;enu9 of about 100 species, widely distributed in alt tempeTatf and cold regions. The Engr- 
"' ' '* — — ^plied ■ ■ -' " * -........• 

:i most of the species. Besides the following »i 

> api 
y> others occur in the western parts of North America. 
Low annual or biennial grasses, the culms 11' tall or less. 

Flowering scales distinctly s-nerved, not webby at the base. 
Flowering scales j-nerved, or obscurely 5-nerved, webby at the base. 
Perennials, mostly with tall culms (Nos, 4-^ low). 

Grasses of far northern or high mountain regions, generally low. 

Leaves short; panicle -branches short, generally widely spreading. 
Leaves longer, gradually narrowed to the apex. 
Spikelets less than 3" long. 

Branches of the panicle erect, smooth, slender, lax. 
Flowering scales glabrous or slightly pubescent. 
Flowering scales strongly pubescent all over. 
Branches widely spreading, flexuous. smooth. 
Branches of the panicle rough, erect or ascending. 


■ flower 


II. P. nemnra/is. 

Lower flowering scale a" long. ._. _ „ 

Spikelets exceeding 3" in length. la. P. glumarii. 

Grasses not delusively of far northern or high mountain regions; culms generally tall. 
Cnlms strongly flattened. 3. F. compiessa. 

Culms terete or but slightly Rattened. 

Panicle lax; branches long, slender, naked halt their length, usually widely spre 
Basal leaves much shorter than the culm. 

Pedicels commonly shorter than the spikelets. 

Flowering scales obscurely nerved; spikelets 1 !j"-i" long. 13. P. ft 
Flowering scales prominently nerved. 
Lateral nerves silky -puber 


^t P^p 
long; flowering scales minutely pubescent below 
- - liguleacute. - *' ■- "■' - 

tely pub 

nailing or n 

Flowering scales rt_ ._ _. - ,-- 

Not webbed at the base, pubescent below. 15. P. auliitnnaiis. 

Webbed at the base, glabrous. 14. P. debilis. 

Flowering scales obtuse or acute, webbed at the base. 

Flowering scales about i5i" long, often pubescent between the nerves 

toward the base, 16. P. iyh'Cslris. 

Flowerinn scales 1 W"-i" long, glabrous between the nerves; 

Obscurely nerved, very acute, midneri'e pubescent toward the base. 

17. P. aliodes. 
Plainly nerved; nerves pilose. 18, P. U'olfii. 

Basal leaves about equalling the culm; culm leaves short. 19. P. brevi/olia. 
Panicle contracted; the branches short, erect or ascending, mostly spikelet-bcaring 
nearly to the base; western species. 

Flowering s< 
Flowering scales 

ery pubescent below between the silky-pubesc 

■ao, P. arida. 
r quite glabrous, 11. P. Bnctieyana. 

I. Poa itnnua L. Anntial Meadow Grass. 

I,ow spear-grass. (Fig. 459. ) 
Poa annua L. Sp. PI. 68. 1753. 

Calms 3'-i° tall, from an annual root, erect or 
decumbent atthebase, somewhat flattened smooth 
Sheaths loose, usually overlapping; ligule about 
l" long; leaves }i'~i' long, H"-'^'A" wide 
•mooth; panicle ii'~\' in length, open, branches 
aprettdiufc. V'~'^' loiS> naked at the base spike 
leta 3-5-flowered, iji"-iji" long; lower scales 
•inootli, the first narrow, acute, i-nerved about 
two thirds as long as the broad aod obtuse 3 
twrvcd second one; flowering scales i\"-\'4" 
long, distinctly 5-nerved, the nerves pilose below 
S and cultivated places nearly throughout 
" \ from Europe Natue 


a. Poa Chepmaniiina Scribn. Chapman's Spear-grass. (Pig. 460.) 

PtM cHslala Cbapm. Fl. S. SUb 

W«lt. 1788. 
Poa Chapmaniana Sciibn. Ball. Torr. Club, 


[86a. Ka 

Cnlma 3'-6' Ull, erect from an aiiDn*l root, 
simple, rigid, imootb and gUbron*. Sheaths 
tight, moaUy at the base of the calm; ligale yi" 
long, truncate; leaves >i'-i' long, >i" wide or leM, 
smooth; panicle I'-a' in length, the branches, 
nsuslly erect, sometimes spreading or ascending, 
%' long or leas, naked at the base; spikelets 3-7- 
flowered, \%"-\%" long; lower scales abont 
equal, 3-uerved, acute; flowering acalcs webbed at 
the base, obtuse, 3-nerved. sometimes with two ad- 
ditional obscure nerves, the prominent ones some- 
timea piloae for three-fourths their length. 

3. Poa comprissa L* Wire-grass. Flat-stemmed 
Blue-grass. (Fig. 461.) 

Aa compressa L. Sp. PI. 69. 175J. 

Pale blnisfa-gieen, glabrons, culms 6^-2° tall, decum- 
bent at the base, from long horizontal roolstoclu, smooth, 
much flattened. Sheaths loose, flattened, shorter than 
the intemodes; ligule )i" long; leaves i'-4' long, abont 
i" wide, smooth beneath, rough above; panicle usu- 
ally contracted, the branches erect or ascending, i' 
long or less, spikelct-bearing nearly to the base; spike- 
lets 3-9-flowered, i>i"-3" long; lower scales acute, 3- 
nerved; flowering scales \"-\%" long, obscnielj 3- 
nerved, the nerves sparingly pubescent toward the 

Waste places and cultivated grounda and woods almost 
tbrouRliont Noith America. Ascends to aioo rt. in Virginia. 
Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia. Varies from 
k and slender to quite stiff. Jnne-Aug. 


4. Poa abbrevidta R. Br. Low Spear- 
grass. (Fig. 462.) 

Poa abbreviala R. Br. Bot. App. Parry's Voy. 987. 181*, 

Culms 6' tall or less, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths and leaves crowded at the base- 
of the culm; ligule >i" long; leaves }i'-\' long, 
}i" wide; panicle contracted, Ji'-i' long, branches- 
very short and erect; spikelets 3-5-flowered, a^" 
long; tower scales acute, smooth and glabrons; 
flowering scales about i^" long, obtnae, strongly 
pubescent all over, the intermediate nerves very- 

Pacific. Summer. 

a from Greenland and Labrador to the 

5- Poa l&xa Haenke. 


Wavy Meadow-grass. 

(Fig. 463.) 

Mountain Spear-grass. 

Foa laxa Haenke, in Jirasek, Beob. Riesengeb. iiS. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 1° tall or less, erect, 
«iniple. Sheaths often overlapping; ligule about 
i" long; leaves I'-j' long, fi"-i" wide, acumi- 
nate; panicle i'-3' in length, the branches usually 
erect, sometimes ascending, i' long or less; spike- 
lets 3-5-flowered, 2"-2}i"long; lower scales usn- 
ally 3-nerved, acute, glabrous, rough on tbe keel 
at its apex; flowering scales iii"--i^" long, ob- 
tuse, 3-ueTTed, or sometimes with an additional 
pair of obscure nerves, the midnerve pilose on tbe 
lower half, rough above, the lateral ones pilose for 
one-third their length. 

Greenland to Alaska, south to the mooDtaina oF New 
EoEland. to Manitoba and in the Rocky Mountains to 
Colorado. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer. 

6. Poa alplna L. Alpine Spear-grass. 
(Fig. 464.) 

Poa alpiHa L. Sp. PI. 67. 


Smooth and glabrous, culms 4'-i8' tall, erect, 
simple. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; lignle 
i" long, truncate; leaves l'-3' long, i"-a" wide, 
abruptly acute; panicle i'-3' in length, the branches 
generally widely spreading, i' long or less; spikelets 
3-5-flowered, 2ii"-^" long; lower scales broad, gla- 
brous, rough on the keel, acute; flowering scales 
about 2" long, obtuse, pilose for half their length, 
pubescent between the nerves toward the base. 

ind Asia. Summer, 

7. Poa cenisia All. Arctic Spear-grass. (Fig. 465.) 

.FOa cenisia All. Auct. Fl. Ped. 40. 17S9. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 4'-i5' tall, erect, slen- 
iler, simple. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; lig- 
tilei" long or less, truncate; leaves i'-4'long, %"-i" 
"wide; panicle i'-4' in length, open, the branches gen- 
erally widely spreading and more or less fiexuous, i'- 
'Ji' long; spikelets 3-5-flowered, i>i"-3ji" long; 
^^wer scales acute or acuminate, i-3-ncrved; flowering 
■cales about a" long, faintly 5-nerved, the nerves short- 
pilose on the lower half, minutely pubescent between 
^^ nerves, somewhat webbed at the base. 

(•reenland and Labrador to Alaska. Also in Bnrope. 

Kentucky Blue-grass. June Grass. (Fig. 466. ) 

Poa />ratensi$ I,. Sp. PI. 67. 1753. 
Paa prafensis var. anguslifolia Knnth, Bnum. 1: 35J. 

Glabrous, culms i°-4° tall, from long ninning 
rootstocke, erect, simple, smooth. Sheaths often 
longer than the intemodesi lignle }^" long or lew, 
tntncatei leave* smooth or rough, >i"-3" wide, 
those of the culm 3'-6' in length, the basal much 
longer* panicle z)j'-S' in length, usual] j pyram- 
idal, the branches spreading or ascending, some- 
times flenoous, i'-3' long, divided and spikelet- 
bcaring above the middle; spilceleta 3-5-&owcred, 
i"-2}i" long, exceeding their pedicels; scales 
acute, the lower unequal, glabrous, rough on 
the keel, the lower i-nerved, the upper 3-nerved; 
flowering scales \}i" long, webbed at the base, 5- 
nerved, the marginal nerves and midnerve silky- 
pubescent below, the intermediate ones naked. 
In meadows, fields and woods, alnioM throughout North America. Widely cultivated for hay 

and pasture. Also in Kurope and Asia. In North A me riea probably indiEenousonlyin the northern 

and mountainous regions. Variable. June- Aug. 

g. Poa pseudopratinsis Scribn, & Ryd. 
Prairie Meadow-grass. (Fig. 467.) 

Culms i°-a^° tall, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than tbe intemodes, 
smooth or slightly rough; ligule 3" long, acute, 
decnrrcnt; leaves i"-3" wide, smooth beneath, a 
little rough above and on tbe margins, those of 
the culm i'-3ji' long, the basal (/-!& in length; 
panicle 2'-5' long, open, the branches spreading 
or ascending, I'-a' long; spikelcts 3-5-flowered, 
3"-4" long, exceeding their pedicels; lower scales 
nearly equal, acute, 3-nerved ; flowering scales 
acutish, about i>i" long, rough above, s-nerved, 
pubescent between the nerves t»elow, the marginal 
nerves and midnerve silky- pubescent about half 
their length. 

Manitoba and Assiniboia to Nebraska and Colorado. 

10. Poa 

triviilis L. Roughish Meadow-grass. (Fig. 468.) 
Poa trivialis L. Sp. PI. 67. 1753. 

Culms I'-s" tall, nsually more or less decumbent 
at the base, simple, smooth or slightly scabrous. 
Sheaths usually shorter than the internodes, rough;, 
ligule a"-3" long, acntish; leaves a '-7' in length, 
i"-2" wide, generally very rough; panicle 4'-6' long, 
open, the branches usually spreading or ascending, 
I '-a' long; spikelets 2- or sometimes 3-flowered, i}j" 
long, exceeding their pedicels; scales acute, theempty 
basal ones rough on the keel, tbe lower i-ncrved, 
shorter than the 3-nerved upper; flowering scales i"- 
^yi" long, webbed at the base, 5-nerved, the mid- 
nerve silky-pubescent below, the lateral nerves 
naked, the intermediate ones prominent 

In I 


II. Poa gladca Vahl. GlaucousSpes 


Vahl, Fl. Dan. pi. 964. 1790. 
I. E. Smith, Eng. BoL pi. 1719. 

Calms 6'-]° tall, erect, simple, rigid, glabrous, 
somewhat glaacons. Sheaths overlapping, confined 
to the lower half of the cnlm; ligule i" long; leaves 
I'-a' long, i" wide or less, smooth beneath, scabrous 
above; panicle I'-i' in length, open, the branches 
erect or ascending, }i'-l}i' long; spikelets 3-4- 
flowered, i}i"-i" long; empty basal scales acute, 
3-nerTed, glabrous, rough on the upper part of the 
keel; flowering scales i^"-i^"long, obtnseoracut- 
ish, rough, not webbed at the base, the lower half of 
the midnerve and marginal nerves silkj-pubescent, 
the intermediate nerves obscure and occasionally 
sparingly pubescent at the base. 

Also in Europe. 

12. Poa nemorEllis L. Wood Meadow-grass. 
Northern Spear-grass. (Fig. 470. ) 

5p. PI. 69. I75i 
I^ia caesia vai. siriclior A. Gray, Man, Ed. 5, 639. :867. 

Culms 6'-3° tall, erect, simple, slender, sometimes 
rigid, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the intemodea; ligule %"-l" long, truncate; 
leaves ('-4' long, i" wide or less, erect, smooth or 
rough; panicle i'-^' in length, open, the branches 
:>r ascending, rarely spreading, I'-a'long; sptke- 
■5-flowered, \%"~-2%" long; lower scales acute 
i-3-nerved; flowering scales obtuse or 
long, faintly s-nerved, somewhat webby 
at base, fhe midnerve and the marginal nerves silky- 
pubescent on the lower half 

Anticosti Island to Britisli Columbia, south to Maine, 
innesota, South Dakota, and in the Rocky Mountains 
Colorado. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer. 

13. Poa flitva L. False Red-top. Fowl Meadow-grass. (Fig. 471.) 
{^■ajiava L. Sp. PI. 68. 175,1- 
f*=»*3 lerolina Ehrh, Beitr. 6: S3. 1791. 

CZulms I'/i's" tall, erect, simple or rarely 

tw~^nched, smooth, glabrous. Sheaths usually 

<u<3tter than the intemodes, smooth and gla- 

'""Ous; ligule i"-2" long; leaves j'-6' long, 

''"''—»" wide, smooth or rough; panicle h'-iy 

' u> length, open, the branches spreading or as- 

cending, a'-s' long, divided and spikelet-bear- 

'™K above the middle; spikelets 3-5-flowercd, 

'^"-j" long, exceeding their pedicels; lower 

'^^es acute, glabrous, rough above on the 

^**1, the lower usually i-nerved, the upper 

S^Ueired; flowering scales obtuse, somewhat 

w«bbj at the base, i"-!'^" long, silky-pubes- 

c^aton the lower half of the marginal nerves 

uid the midnerve, the intermediate nerves ob- 

*We or wanting. 

In swampy places, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Vancouver Island, south tc 
kUinois and NeMaska. Also in Europe aud Asia. July-Aug. 



14. Poa d^bilis Torr. Weak Spear-grass. (Fig. 472.) 

Poa debilis Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 459. 1843. 

Culms i°~2>^° tall, erect, slender, simple, somewhat 
flattened, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths compressed, 
much shorter than the intemodes; ligule yi'^-x'' long; 
leaves \'-^%' long, i^^ wide or less, erect, smooth be- 
neath, rough above; panicle 2^-6^ in length, open, 
often nodding at the top, the branches erect or ascend- 
ing, sometimes spreading, xyi'-^/ ^^^%\ spikelets 2-4- 
flowered, \%''-2f' long, their pedicels longer; empty 
scales unequal, acute, the first i -nerved, shorter than 
the 3-nerved second one; flowering scales \%'' long, 
obtuse, sparingly webbed at the base, 5-nerved, the 
nerves naked. 

In woods, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Ontario 
and Minnesota, south to Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and 
Wisconsin. June-Aug. 

15. Poa autumn^Us Muhl. Flexuous Spear-grass. (Fig. 473.) 

Poa autumnalis Muhl.; Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: 159. 1817.' 
Poa flexuosa Muhl. Gram. 148. 1817. Not J. E. Smith. 

Culms i°-3** tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths usually much shorter than the in- 
temodes; ligule %'' long; leaves i^^ wide or less, 
smooth beneath, rough above, those of the culm i^^- 
6^ long, the basal much longer; panicle 3^-9^ in 
length, the branches long and slender, spikelet-bearing 
at the extremities, 2^-5^ long; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 
lyi''-}/^ long; empty basal scales acute, the first 
i-nerved, narrow, shorter than the broad 3-nerved 
second; flowering scales rounded or retuse at the 
apex, i>i^^-2'^ long, not webbed at the base, pubes- 
cent on the lower part, 5-nerved, the midnerve silky- 
pubescent for three-fourths its length. 

In woods, New Jersey and Pennsylvania to Kentucky, 
south to Florida and Texas. March-May. 

16. Poa sylv6stris A. Gray. Sylvan Spear-grass. (Fig. 474.) 

Poa sylvesiris A. Gray, Man. 596. 1848. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, slender, simple, slightly 
flattened, smooth, glabrous. Sheaths shorter than 
the intemodes; ligule %^^ long or less; leaves smooth 
beneath, rough above, \'^-2f' v^de, those of the— 
culm i>^^-6' in length, the basal much longer; pan — 
icle 3^-7^ in length, the branches spreading or ascend- 
ing, I ^-3^ long, spikelet-bearing at the extremities; 
spikelets 2-4-flowered, i^'-i^' long; empty basal scaler 
acute, the lower i-nerved, the upper longer and 3— 
nerved; flowering scales about iX^' long, webbed at 
the base, obtuse, often pubescent below, 5-nerved, the 
midnerve pubescent nearly its entire length and the 
marginal nerves below the middle. 

In thickets and meadows, New York to Wisconsin, 
south to North Carolina, I^ouisiana and Kansas. 
Branches of the panicle sometimes reflexed when old. 


17. Poa alsddes A. Gray, Grove Meadow-grass. (Fig. 475.) 

I^oa aliodes A. Graj, Man. Ed. a, 56a. 1856, 

Calms 8'-2^° tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths nsaally longer than the inter- 
nodes; li£i)le a" long; leaves usually rough, i"-a" 
wide, those of the culm i'-%' in length, the basal 
longer; panicle i}i'S' in length, the branchea spread- 
ing or ascending, i }4'-y long, spike let-bearing at the 
ends; apikelets 3-3-flowered, about a}i" long; scales 
very acute, the empty basal ones unequal, the lower 
i-nerved, the upper 3-DeTved; flowering scales about 
3" long, webbed at the base, the midnerre pubescent 
near the base, the marginal nerves naked, the inter- 
mediate ones very faint 

18. Poa Wdlfii Scribn. Wolfs Spear-grass. 

(Fig. 476.) 
Poa U^olfii Scribn. Bull. Ton. Club, ai; 228. 1894. 

Culms a°-3'' tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; ligule 
}4" long; leaves i" wide or less, smooth beneath, 
rough above, those of the culm 2'-4' in length, the 
basal mnch longer; panicle 3'-&' in length, lax, its 
branches erect or ascending, flezuous, i}i'-2}i' long; 
spikelets 1-4-flowered, 2}4"-i" long; scales acute, 
the lower unequal, 3-nerved, glabrous, rough on the 
keel, the first shorter than the second; flowering scales 
about 1" long, copiously webbed at the base, s-nerved, 
the marginal and midnerves silky-pubescent for more 
than half their length, the intermediate nerves promi- 
nent, naked. 

Illiuoia. Tennessee and Kansas. 

19. Poa brevifdlia Muhl. Short-leaved Spear-grass, 

'^a btevi/olia Muhl. Gram, 138. 1817. 

Culms I'-i" tall, erect or spreading, slender, 

^*aooth. glabrous. Sheaths often shorter than the 

^^^ternodes; ligule yi"-l}i" long; leaves smooth 

"WOeath, rough above, i"-a" wide, abruptly acute, 

"•^iae of the culm >a'-4' long, the uppermoet 

*^*Iietimes almost wanting; basal leaves usually 

^l^talling or nearly as long as the culm; panicle 

Pi'-^' in length, open, the branches ascending, 

Widely spreading or often reflexed, l}i'-3' long, 

•pikelet-bearing at the ends; spikelets 3-6-flDW- 

*'*^, 3)i"~3)i" long; empty txisal scales unequal, 

•"^te, glabrous, the lower i-uerved, the upper 3- 

nerwd; flowering scales slightly webbed at the 

**■*. 3"-3fi" long, obtuse, 5-nerved, the keel and 

'"At^al nerves sparingly pubescent, the inter- 

^"'diate nerves prominent, naked. 

(Fig. 477-) 


1 Illinois, south to North Carolina and 


Poa 6rida Vasey. Prairie Spear-grass. (Fig. 478.) 

Fba andina Nutt • S. Wati. Bot King's Exp. 3S8. 1871. Not 

Trin. 1836. 
Poa arida Vasey, CotiU. U. S. NaL Herb, i: 170. 1893. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, rigid, «imple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths nstiallj overlapping, stnooth or some- 
what rooghish; ligule \"-t" long, scute; leaves smooth 
beneath, rough above, Ji"-i" wide, flat or folded, pun- 
gently pointed, those of the culm %'-\' long, erect, the 
basal leaves 3'-6' long; panicle contracted, a'-j' in 
length, the branches erect, spikelet-bearing nearlj to the 
base, \%' long or leas; spikelets 4-7-flo*eTed, 2ji""3>i" 
long; lower scales nearly equal, acute, 3-nerved; flower- 
ing scales x%"-i" long, erose-tmncate at apex, strongly 
silky'pubescent 00 the nerves for bslf their length, the 
lower part very pubescent between the nerves; interme- 
diate nerves very obscure. 

On piaitieH, Kansas to Utah, north to British Atncrica. 

ai. Poa Buckleyina Nash. Buckley's Spear- 

Poa UauifoHa Buckle;, Proc. Acad. Phila. IS63: 96. 1S62. 

Not A. Rich. 1851. 
Poa Buckleyaita Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, u; 465- 1895- 

Culms 6'-2° tall, erect, rigid, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sbeaths shorter than the intemodes; lignle 
a"-3" long, acute; leaves i'-t(' long, about i" wide, 
erect, flat, or becoming involute, smooth or rough; 
panicle i'-4' in length, contracted, the branches erect, 
iji' long or less, spikelet-bearing nearly to the base; 
apilcelets a-j-flowered, i"-}," long; scales acute, the 
lower nearly equal, scabrous on the keel; flowering 
scales about %" long, obtuse or acutish, sparingly 
pubescent on the nerves below, sometimes slightly 
hispid toward the base between the nerves. 

Kansas to California, north to British America. Jnly- 

(Fig. 479.) 

33. Poa glumdris Trin. Large-flowered Spear-grass. (Fig. 480. ) 

Poa glumarii Trin. Hem. Acad. St. Peterab. (VI.) i: 379. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 6'-3° tall, erect or as- 
aurgent, simple. Sheaths loose, usually shorter than 
the intemodes; ligule '/i" long, truncate; leaves 
4'-io' long, i"-4" wide; patricle 4'-io' in length, the 
branches erect or ascending, I'-a' long; spikelets 3-5- 
flowered, 4"-6" long; lower scales about equal, acute, 
slighty scabrous on the keel, the first 1-3-iierved, the 
second 3-aerved, rarely 5-nervcd; flowering scales 3"- 
4" long, usually acutish, scabrous, 5-7-ncrved, pubes- 
cent at base and on the lower part of the midnerve and 
lateral nerves, not webbed. 

Island and Nova Scotia to Quebec and Alaska. 


78. DUPONTIA R. Br. Parry's Voy. App. 290. 1824. 

Low grasses, with flat leaves and generally narrow panicles, Spilceleta 3-4-flowered, the 
flowers all perfect. Two lower scales empty, extending beyond the flowering scales, mem- 
branous; flowering scales entire, membranous, with a tuft of hairs at the base. Stamens 3. 
Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. [Name in honor of J. D. Dupont, French botanist.] 

Two arctic species, both circumboreal. 

I. Dupontia Fisheri R. Br. Fisher's 
Dupontia. (Fig. 481.) 

Dubonlia Fisheri R. Br. Parry's Voy. App. »fl. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 5'-I2' tall, erect, 
simple. Sheaths overlapping; ligule i" long or 
less; leaves \'-fi' long, i"-i"wide| flat; panicle 
Dsually contracted, I>i'-3^' long, the branches 
less than i yi' long, erect, or sometimes ascend- 
ing; spitelets few, about i- flowered, 3"-4" long; 
empty basal scales thin, generally acute, the first 
i-nervcd, somewhat shorter than the second, 
which is usually 3-nerved, the lateral nerves 
often vanishing at about the middle; flowering 
scales aJi"-3" long, i-nerved or obscurely 
3-nerved; basal hairs about yi" long. 

79. SCOLOCHLOA Link, Hort. Berol. i: 136. 1827. 

Tall aquatic or marsh grasses, with flat leaves and ample panicles. Spilcelets i-^-Sow- 
ered, the flowers perfect Two lower scales empty, thin-membranous, 3-5-nerved; flowering 
scales rigid, with a tuft of haiis at the base, rounded on the back, 5-7-nerved, some of the 
nerves usually ezcuirent as short points; palets about equalling the scales, a-neirved. Stamens 
3. Styles very short. Stigmas plumose. Grain hairy at the apex. [Greek, referring to the 
rickle-like projecting nerves of the flowering- scales.] 

Species 3, in the north temperate zones of both continents. 

I. Scolochloa festuc&cea (Willd.) 

Link. Fescue Scolochloa. 

(Fig. 482.) 

AruHdo/eslucacta WilM. Enum. i; 126. 1809. 

Scolochloa fcstucacea Link, Hort. Berol. i: 137. 


Graphiphorunt /eslucaceftH A. Gray, Ann. Bot. 
Soc. Can. 1:57. 1861. 

Culms 3°-5° tall, erect, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths often overlapping; ligule i"-t" long; 
leaves 7'-i* long or more, i"-a," wide, flat, sca- 
brous on the margins; panicle S'-ia' in length, 
usually open, the branches ascending, naked at 
the base, the lower %'-\' long; spikelets 3"-4" 
long; empty basal scales acute, the first shorter 
than the second; flowering scales scabrous, 

D Hauitoba and As- 



80. GRAPHEPHORUM Desv. BuU. Soc. Philom. 2: 189. 1810. 

Slender erect grasses, with flat leaves and a usually contracted nodding panicle. Spike- 
lets 2-4-flowered, flattened, the rachilla hirsute and extending beyond the flowers. Two 
lower scales empty, somewhat shorter than the flowering scales, Uiin-membranous, acute, 
keeled; flowering scales membranous, obscurely nerved, entire, sometimes short-awned just 
below the apex. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain glabrous. [Greek, 
pencil-bearing, referring to the tuft of hairs at the end of the rachilla.] 

Two known species, natives of northern North America. Other Mexican srrasses are referred 
to this g^enus by authors. 

I. Graphephorum melicoideum (Michx.) Beauv. Graphephonim. 

(Fig. 483.) 

Atra melicoides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. x: 62. 1805. 

Grabhephorum melicoideum Beauv. Ag^rost. 164. 
pi. 75. /. 8. 1812. 

Dupontia Cooleyi A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 556. 1852. 

Graphephorum melicoides var. major A. Gray, 
Ann. Hot. Soc. Can. i: 57. 1861. 

Culms i°-2>^° tall, erect, simple, rough just 
below the panicle. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the intemodes, smooth, or the lower often 
villous; ligule \'' long or less, truncate; leaves 
i>^^-9' long, \''-2'' wide, long-acuminate, 
rough; panicle 2^-6^ in length, the top usually 
nodding, the branches erect, 1^-2^ long; spike- 
lets 2-4-flowered, 2>^^'-3^' long; scales scabrous 
on the keel, the empty ones tmequal, the first 
I -nerved or obscurely 3-nerved, shorter than the 
3-nerved second; flowering scales 3-5-nerved, 

In wet soil, Anticosti Island to Ontario, south to 
Maine and Michigan. Aug. -Sept 

81. PANICULARIA Fabr. Enum. Hort. Helmst. 373. 1763. 

[Glyceria R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. i: 179. 1810.] 

Mostly perennial grasses, often tall, with flat leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spike- 
lets few-many-flowered, terete or somewhat flattened. Two lower scales empty, obtuse or 
acute, 1-3-nerved; flowering scales membranous, rounded on the back, 5-9-nerved, the 
nerves disappearing in the hyaline apex. Palets scarcely shorter than the scales, rarely 
longer, 2-keeled. Stamens 2 or 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain smooth, en- 
closed in the scale and palet, free, or when dry slightly adhering to the latter. [Latin, 
referring to the panicled spikelets.] 

About 16 species, widely distributed in North America, a few in Europe and Asia. 

Spikelets ovate or oblong, 4" long or less. 

Flowering scales very broad, obscurely or at least not sharply nerved. 
Panicle open, the branches ascending or spreading, often drooping. 
Spikelets 3-5-flowered; lowest flowering scale about i" long. 
Spikelets 5-12-flowered; lowest flowering scale about i J4" long. 
Panicle contracted, the branches erect. 
Flowering scales narrow, sharply and distinctly 7-nerved. 
Panicle elongated, its branches erect or appressed. 

Panicle not elongated, open, its branches spreading or drooping, rarely erect. 
Scales about i" long, obtuse or rounded at the apex. 

Spikelets iM" long or less; branches of the panicle often drooping. 

5. P. netvata. 
Spikelets 2"-3" long; branches of the panicle ascending or spreading. 

6. P, Americana 
Scales 1 5i"-i J^" long, truncate and denticulate at the apex. 7. P, pallida. 

Spikelets linear, 6" long or more. 

Flowering scales i ^"-3" long, obtuse, longer than the obtuse palet. 8. P. Jluilans, 

Flowering scales about 4" long, acute, much shorter than the long-acuminate palet 

9. P. acuiiflora. 

1. P. laxa. 

2. P. Canadensis. 

3. P. obtusa. 

4. P. elongata. 


1. Panicularia t&xa Scribn. Northern Manna-grass. (Fig. 484.) 

J^inii^laria lax-a Sciiba-VM. Ton. C\\lb,tl: s}- iSgf. 

GIvferia laxa Scribn.; Redf. & Rand, Fl. Mt. Desert, 

180. 1S94. 

Culms a°-4'' tall, erect, simple, smooth or slightly 
scabrous. Sheaths overlapping, rough ; ligule 
Ji"-i" long; leaves 8'-i5' long, i"-i," wide, very 
rough; panicle 7'-9' in length, the branches spread- 
ing or ascending, the lower 3'-6' long; spikelets 3- 
5-flowered, about 2" long; empty scales unequal, 
scarious, acute, i-nerved, the first one-half to two- 
thirds the length of the second; flowering scales 
broad, about i" long, twice the length of the second 
scale, obtuse, obscurely 7'nerved. 

IT wet soil, Haine to Pcnnsylva 


2. Panicularia Canadensis (Michx. ) Kuntze. Rattlesnake Grass. 

(Fig. 485.) 

1:366. 1831. 

Panicalaria Canadensis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 783. 1S91. 
Culms a°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth or shghtly 
scabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, those 
at the base of the culm overlapping; ligule 1" long, 
truncate; leaves 6'-!" long or more, i"-\" wide, 
rough; panicle 5fi'-io' in length, the branches 
spreading, ascending or often drooping, lJi'-5' long; 
spikelets 5-ia-flowered, aJi"-4"long, flattened, tur- 
gid; empty scales unequal, acute, i-nerved; flower- 
ing scales, broad, \%"-i" long, obtuse or acutish, 
obscurely 7-nerved. 

In swamps and marshes, Newfoundland and New 
Brunswick to Ontario and Minnesota, south to New Jer- 
sey. Ohio and Kansas. The handsomest species of the 
genus. Ascends to jooa ft. in the Adirondacks. July-Aug. 

3. Panicularia obtOsa (Muhl.) Kuntze. Blunt Manna- 

Ftxtobtusa Muhl. Gram. :47. 1817, 

Glvtiria oblusa Trin. Mem. Acad, St. Petersb. (VI.) 

3«6. 183I. 
Fimicularia obtusa Kuntie, Rev. Gen. PI, 783. 1B91. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. 
Slicaths sometimes rough, strongly striate, the lower 
"▼eiUpping; ligule very short; leaves 6'-I5' long, 2"- 
>," vide, usually stiff, erect or ascending, smooth be- 
aeath, more or less scabrous above; panicle s'-y in 
length, contracted, dense, the branches erect; spikelets 

1-7-flowered, a"-3" long; empty scales acute, scari- 

■>W, I-nerved; flowering scales about i%" long, broad, 

<**<»*, obscurely 7-nerved. 

Io«wam(i8, New Brunswick to New York and central 
"Wnylvania, south to Delaware and Maryland. Ascends 
™ 5300 ft. in the Catakill Mountains. Julj-Aug. 

(Fig. 486.) 


4. Pantcularia etongdta (Torr.) Kuntze. 
Long Manna-grass. (Fig. 487.) 

Poa eltingala Torr Fl, V. S. i: III. 1824. 

Glyceria elongala Trin. Bull. Acad. Sci. St Petcnb. i: 

68. 1836, 
Panicuiaria elongala. KunUe, Rev. Gen. PI. 78J. :89l. 

Culms 3'''3° tal], erect, simple, slender, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths often shorter than the in- 
temodes; ligule V" long; leaves lai, 6'-ia' long, 
i^"-3" wide, long-acuminate, sniootb beneath, 
rough above; panicle elongated, contracted, nar- 
row, usually nodding at the summit, 6^-13' in 
length, the branches erect or appreased, \'~i%' 
long; spikelets 3-4-flowered, i>i"-a" long; emp^ 
scales unequal, acute, i-nerved; flowering scales 
narrow, about I " long, obtuse or acutish, distinctlj 

In wet woods, Newfanndland to Quebec and Minne- 
sota, south to North Carolina and Kentucky. Ascends 
to 4000 ft. in the Adirondacks. Aug. -Sept 


5. Panicuiaria nervdta (Willd.) Kuntze. Nerved Manna- 

Poa ncniata Willd. Sp. P). i: 389. ^^^&. 

Glyceria nirvala Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (VI.) 

1:36s. 183:. 
Panicuiaria nervata Kuntze, Rev, Gen. PI. 783. :89l. 

Culms \°-'^ tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth 
and glabrous. Sheaths often shorter than the in- 
tcTTiodes, usually more or less rough; ligule %" 
long, truncate; leaves 6'-i2' long, 2"-$" wide, 
acute, smooth beneath, rough above; panicle 3^-8' in 
length, open, the branches filiform, spreading, as- 
cending or often drooping, rarely erect, 2'-s' long; 
spikelets 3-7-flowered, i"-ifi" long; empty scales 
obtuse, i-nerved; flowering scales about j^" long, 
obtuse or rounded, with 7 sharp distinct nerves and 
evident furrows between. 

In wet places, NewFoundland to British Columbia, 
south to Klotida and Mexico. Ascends to 4000 ft. in 
Virginia. Panicle often puiple. June-Sept. 

6. Panicuiaria Americina (Torr.) MacM. Reed Meadow-grass. Tall 
Manna-grass. (Fig. 489.) 

Poa agualica var. Americana Totr. Fl. U. S. 
I \\\\\ « «/ y^/ a\ Glyceria grandis S. Wats, in A. Gray, Man. 

\1 ^f> yyA\ Jti:..,:'x- 

ndis S. Wats, i 

Atnericana MacMillan, Met Minn. 81. 

Culms 3''-5° tall, erect, stout, simple, smootb 
and glabrous. Sheaths loose, smooth, or some- 
times rough; ligule \"-2" long, truncate; leaves 
y'-i" long or more, 3"-8" wide, usually smooth 
beneath, rough above; panicle ^-is' in length, 
its branches spreading, ascending or rarely erect, 
4'-8' long; spikelets 4-7-flowered, i"-'^" long; 
empty scales acute, r-nerved; flowering scales about 
i" long, obtuse or rounded at the apex, sharply 
and distinctly 7-nerved, the furrows between the 
nerves evident. 

vet soil, New Brunswick to Alaska, south -- _. 

;, Ncbtaska, Colorado and Nevada, Ascends 
I. in Pennsylvania, June-Aug. 




7. Panicularia pallida (Torr.) Kuntze. Pale Manna-grass. (Fig. 490.) 

Windsoria Pallida Ton, Cat. N. Y, 91. 18:9. 
airceria pallida Trin. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petereb. i: 

6S. 1S36. 
I^nicularia pallida Kuatxe, Rev. Gen. P\.7S3. 1891, 

Pale green, culms 1°-^° long, aasurgent, simple, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths loose, shorter than 
the intemodes; ligule 2"-3" long, acute; leaves 
j'-fr* long, i"-j" wide, smooth beneath, rough 
above; panicle iji'-?' in length, the branches 
spreading, ascending or rarely erect, often flexu- 
ous. I'-i' long; spikelets 4-S-flowered, !5i"-3>i" 
long; empty scales unequal, the first i-nerved, ob- 
tuse, shorter than the 3-nerved and truncate sec- 
ond; flowering scales i;4"~iyi" long, truncate 
and denticulate at the apex, sharply and distinctly 
;-nerved, with plain furrows between the nerves. 

In shallow water, New Bruuswick to Ontario, south 
to Virginia, Tennessee and Indiana. Aacends to 3000 
ft. in Pennsylvania. Ju1y-Ai^. 

■8. Panicularia flilitans (L.) Kuntze. Floating Manna-grass. (Fig. 491.) 

Hull. 1:179. iBlo. 
n. PI. 782. i8qi. 

Ffsluca fluiians I,. Sp. PI. 75. 17 
Glyccriajlaitans R. Br. Prodr, Fl. t 
Panicularia Jluilans-K.Mn\zt:, Rev, 

Culms a^-s" long, flattened, erect or decumbent, 
usually stout, simple, smooth and glabrous, often root- 
ing from the lower nodes. Sheaths loose, generally 
overlapping, smooth or rough; ligule 2"-i" long; 
leaves s'-i" long or more, j"-6" wide, scabrous, 
often floating; panicle g'-ifi" long, the branches, at 
least the lower ones, at first appressed, later ascend- 
ing, and 3'-6' long; spikelets linear, 7-13-flowered, 
4"-ia" long; empty scales unequal, i-nerved, the 
lower acute or obtuse, the upper obtuse or truncate; 
flowering scales iK"~3" long, oblong, obtuse or 
truncate, more or less scabrous, sharply 7-nerved. 

In wet places 1 
Columbia, south 

California, Also 

r in water, Newfoundland to British 

New Jersey, Kentucky, Iowa and 

1 Europe. July-Sept. 

<>. Panicularia acutifldra (Torr.) Kuntze. 
Sharp-scaled Manna-grass. (Fig. 492.) 

Olyceria acaliflora Torr. Fl. U, S, 1: ia(. 1834. 
Panicularia acatifiora Kuntze, Rev. Gen, PI. 783. 1891. 

Culms I "-2° tall, flattened, erect from a decumbent 
'x'K, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths loose, 
ii*n«a31y a little exceeding the internodes, smooth 
"d glabrous; ligule 2" long, truncate; leaves 3'-6' 
"S. 3"-y' wide, smooth beneath, rough above ; 
Panicle y-ia' in length, the branches erect or ap- 
Pf^ssed, 2'-4' long; spikelets linear, 5~i2-flowered, i'- 
'tf' long; empty scales acute, smooth; flowering 
**lea abcmt 4" long, lanceolate, acute, scabrous, «- 
***4«d by the long-actmiinate palets. 




82. PUCCINELLIA Pari. Fl. Ital. i: 366. 1848. 
Feretinial grasses, with flat or involute leaves and contracted or open panicleB. Spike- 
lets s-several-flowered. Lower scales empty, obtuse or acDte, unequal; flowering scales ob- 
tuse or acute, rounded on the back, 5-nerved, the nerves vety obscure or almost wanting. 
Palet about equalling the scale. Stamens 3. Stjles wanting. Stigmas sessile, simply plu- 
mose. Grain compressed, usually adhering to the palet. [Name in honor of Benedetto 
Puccinelli, Italian botanist.] 

About 14 species, in all temperate regions. 
Panicle open, its t)ranches spreading or oscendiOK, larely erect, 

I.ower flowenng- scales I ^"-3" long; plant stoloniferous. i. P. marilima. 

l:,ower flowering scales i^J" long ot less; plants not stoloniferous. 

Second emplj; scale less than half the length of the flowering scales, btoad, obtuse or 

truncate; spikelets crowded, i. P. distani. 

Second empty scale more than half the length of the flowering scales, narrow, obtuse or 
acute; spikelets not crowded. 3. P. a' "' " 

Panicle contracted, it" "^ " ' " " "' " "' -■ -..-.. 

a branches erect, rarely ascending; northern species. 

4. P. aitguslala. 

I. Puccineltia maritima (Huds. ) 
Pari. Goose-grass. Sea Spear- 
grass. (Fig. 493.) 

Foa maritima Huds, Fl, Angl. «■ 176*. 
Glyceria marilima M. & K. Deutach. Fl. I: 

S88. 1883. 
Pucctitellia marilima Pail. Flltal. 1:370. 1S48. 

Stoloniferous, smooth, glabrous, culms 
6'-3° tall, erect, or decumbent at the base, 
simple. Sheaths usually exceeding the in- 
temodes; ligule %"-'i" long; leaves %'-$' 
long, \" wide or less, flat to involute; pan- 
icle 3'-6' in length, open, the branches as- 
cending, or rarely erect, \'-i' long; spikelets 
3-10-flowered, 3"-6" long; empty scales un- 
equal, the first usually i-nerved, the second 
3-nerved; flowering scales iji"-a" long, 
broad, obtuse 1 

In salt mara 

t maiahea and on sea beaches. Nova 
> Rhode Island. Also on the Pacilic 
id on the coasts of Europe and Asia. 

2. Puccinellia distans (L.) Pari. Spreading Meadow-grass. (Fig. 494.) 

t^a distani L. Mant. 33. 1767. 
Glyceria distans Wahl. Fl. Ups. 36. iSao. 
Puccinellia dis/aas Part. Fl. Ilal. I: 367. 1848. 
Culms i°-2'' tall, erect, or sometimes de- 
cumbent at the base, tufted, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths often shorter than the inter- 
nodes, smooth and glabrous; Hgule Ji"-!"" 
long; leaves }<'-6' long, i"-2" wide, flat or 
folded, usually stiff and erect, smooth be- 
neath; panicle 2'-7' in length, open, rarely 
contracted, the branches spreading or ascend- 
ing, whorled, the lower i'-4ji' long, some- 
times reflexed; spikelets crowded, 3-6-flow- 
ered, i;i"-2fi" long; empty scales obtuse 
or acute, i-nerved, the second exceeding the 
Arst and less than half the length of the ob- 
scurely nerved and obtuse flowering scales, 
which are ^"-l" long. 

On salt meadows, sea beaches and in waste 
places, Nova Scotia to New Jersey. Probably 
naturalized from Europe. July-Ang. 

3. Pucctnellia airoidea (Nutt.) Wats. & Coull. 

(Fig- 495- ) 
J\>a airoides Nutt. Gen. 1: 68. 1818. 
■ fltniciilaria dislans airoidesScribn. Mem. Ton. Club, 
S: H- 1894. 
Puccittellia airoides Wats. & Coult. in A. Gray, Man. 
Ed. 6, 668. 1890. 

Culms i''-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths usually longerthan the intemodes; 
ligule i"long; leaves I'-d' long, i>4" wide or less, 
fiat or involute, usually erect, smooth beneath, 
rough above; panicle open, its branches slender, 
spreading or ascending, rarely erect, the lower 
»'-3fi' long and often reflexed; spikelets scattered, 
1-7-flowered, iJi"-3" long; empty scales unequal, 
the first acute, i-nerved, the second obtuse or 
acute, 3-nerved, more than half the length of the 
obtuse flowering scales, which are i"-i%" long. 

Slender Meadow-grass. 

4. Puccinellia angustftta (R. Br.) Nash. 
Arctic Meadow-grass. (Fig. 496.) 

Fvcctnellia marilima var. minor S. Wats, in A. 

Gray, Man. Bd. 6, 668. 1890. 
Puccinellia anguslala Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, M: 

5"- 1895- 

Smooth and glabrous, culms 4''-i3'' tall, erect, 
simple. Sheaths usually overlapping; ligule 1" 
long; leaves yi'-iyi' long, i" wide or less; pan- 
icle I'-a' in length, contracted, the branches 
short and erect or appressed; spikelets 3-7-flow- 
ered,3"-4"long; empty scales obtuse or rounded 
at the apex, the first l-nerved, the second 3- 
nerved; floweringscalesiX'''-i>j''' long, usually 
purplish, rounded at the apex. 

83. FESTUCA L. Sp. PI. 73. 1753. 
Uostly tufted perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and paniculate inflores- 
•^nce. Spikelets 2-several-flowered. Two lower scales empty, more or less unequal, acute, 
keeled; flowering scales membranous, narrow, rounded on the back, 5-nerved, usually acute, 
and generally awned at the apex. Palet scarcely shorter ttmn the scale. Stamens 1-3. 
Styles very short, distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain glabrous, elongated, often adherent to 
the scale or palet. [Latin, stalk or straw.] 

A genus of about 80 species, widely distributed, particularly numerous in temperate regions. 
«»dea the following, some 15 others occur in the western parts of North America. 
I«»ves 1" wide or less. 

Annuals; flowering Beaks awned. 

First scale more than half as long as the second; awn short. i. F. octofiora. 

First scale less than halt as long as the second; awn long. a. F. Myaros. 

Fetenuials; flowering scales short-awned or bristle-pointed. 
Basal leaves Glifonn 01 setaceous, 'A" wide. 

Cnlms from a rootstock or with stolons. 3. F. rubra. 

Culms densely tufted, no rootstocks. 4. F. ozrina. 

Basal leaves flat, about i" wide, becoming involute in drying. 5. F. scabrella. 

«»»w 3" wide or more, flat. 

Flowering scales unawned or short-awned. 

Flowering scales 2!<"-3M" long; spikelets 5-10-flowered. 6. F. eta/ior. 

Flowering scales i" long or less; spiltelets 3-6-flowered. 

Spikelets very broad; branclies of the panicle spikelet-bearing from the middle or 

oelow; flowering scales obtuse. 7. F. Shorlii, 

SpikeletBlanceolHte;brancheaelongated;apikeletsatends;acalesBcute, 8. F. nulani, 
novering scales long-awned. 9. F. giganlea. 

Festuca octofldra Walt. Slender Fescue-grass. (Fig. 497.) 
Fesluca ocloflora Walt. Fl. Car. 8i. 1788. 
Festuca lenella WiUd. Enain. l: 113. 1S09. 

Culms 4'-i8' tall, erect, from an annoal root, 
slender, rigid, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths 
usually shorter than the intemodea; ligule veiy 
short; leaves 1 K'~3' long, involute, bristle-fonn; 
raceme or simple panicle often one-sided, i'-6' 10 
length, contracted, its branches erect, or rarely as- 
cending; spikelets 6-13-flowered, 3"-5" long; empty 
scales acute, smooth, the firat i-nerved, more thsB 
half the length of the 3-nerved second one; flowering 
scales, exclusive of awns, i^"-2}i" long, usually 
very scabrous, acuminate into an awn nearly as long 
as the body or shorter, or sometimes awnless; 

2. Festuca Myuros L. Rat's-tail Fescue-) 

Fesluca Afyuros L. Sp. PI. 74. 1753- 

Smooth, glabrous, culms i°-i° tall, erect from an 
annual root, slender, simple. Sheaths often shorter 
than the intemodes, the upper sometimes enclosing 
the base of the panicle; ligule Ji" long, truncate; 
leaves x'-^' long, subulate, involute, erect; panicle 
usually one-sided, 4'-ia' in length, contracted, some- 
times curved, its branches appressed; spikelets 3-6- 
flowered; empty scales very unequal, acute, smooth, 
the first i-nerved, less than half as long as the 5-nerved 
second one; flowering scales, exclusive of the awns, 
3"-3" long, narrow, scabrous, acuminate into an awn 
much longer than the body; stamen i. 

In waste places and fields, eastern Massachusetts to New 
JefTiey and Florida. Also on the Pacific coast. Natural- 
ized from Europe. June-July. 

(Fig. 498.) 

3. Festuca rObra L. Red Fescue-grass. (Fig. 499.) 

Fesluca rubra L. Sp. PI. 74- '753- 

Culmsi Ji°-2;i'' tall, from running rootstoclcs, erect, 
simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter 
than the internodes; ligule very short, truncate; basal 
leaves involute-filiform, 3 '-6' long; culm leaves 
shorter, erect, flat or involute in drying, minutely pu- 
bescent above; panicle a'-s' in length, sometimes red, 
open at flowering time, contracted in fruit; spikelets 
3-10-flowered, 4"-6" long; lower scales acute:, un- 
equal, the first I-nerved, shorter than the 3-nerved 
second; flowering scales about 3" long, obscurely 5- 
nerved, sometimes scabrous, bearing awns of less 
than their own length. 

I..abrador to Alaska, south, enpecially on the mountains, 
to Tennessee and Colorado, Also in Europe and Asia. 

(Fig. 500.) 

4. Festuca ovlna L. Sheep's Fescue-grass. 

Fesluca ovina I.. Sp. PI. 73. 17S). 

Smooth, glabrous, culms 6'-i4' tall, erect, tufted, 
slender, rigid, simple; no rootstoc^. Sheaths usually 
crowded at the base of the culm; ligule auriculate, 
short; leaves filiform or setaceous, those of the culm 
few, i'-3' long, erect, the basal ones numerous; pan- 
icle I Ji'-3' long, often one-sided, narrow, its branches 
short, usually erect or appressed; spikelets 3-5- 
flowered; empty scales unequal, acute, the first i- 
nerved, the second 3-nerved; flowering scales i J4"-a" 
long, smooth, acute, usually short .awned. 

In lietds and waste places, I^btador to British Colum- 
bia, south to New Jersey, Colorado and California, Vari- 
able. Probably indigenous northward, but mostly natu- 
ralized from Europe. Native also of Asia. The subarctic 
and Rocky Mountain var. brevi/oHa S. Watson, may be a 
distinct species. June-July. 

The so-called var. vivipa,ra, a state of this grass with the 
!icales wholly or partly tianafonncd into Btnall leaves, is 
found on the mountains of New England and in arctic 

Psataca oviaa duriuicnla (L.) Hack. Monog. Fest. Europ, 89. 1S82. 
Festuca durittscula L. Sp. PI. 74. 1753- 

Culms taller and stouter, the panicle usually more open and the Bowiering scalea about 3" long. 
Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains, south to Virginia and Colorado. NaturnlinA from Europe. 

5. Festuca scabrtUa Torr. Rough Fes- 
cue-grass. (Fig. 501.) 

Culms I'-s" tall, erect, simple, usually rough, 
below the panicle. Sheaths overlapping, smooth; 
ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves rough, i" 
wide or less, those of the culm J'-3' long, erect, the 
basal flat, much longer and readily deciduotis from 
the sheaths, involute in drying; panicle 3'-4' in 
length, opien, its branches ascending or the lower 
widely spreading; spikelets 3-5-flowered, about 4" 
long; empty scales scarious, unequal, smooth, the 
first i-nerved, the second longer, 3-nerved; flower- 
ing scales about 3" long, scabrous, often bearing a 
short awn i" long or less. 

Festuca elitior L. Tall or Meadow 
Fescue-grass. (Fig! 502,) 


r. prai. 

L. Gray, Man. ] 

■ 3.634. 

Culms a'-s' tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
Iwoua. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule 
very short; leaves 4'-i5' long, a"-4" wide, flat, 
smooth beneath, more or less rough above; panicle 
*'— 14' in length, often nodding at the top, simple to 
very compound, the branches ascending or erect. 2'- 
V long; spikelets 5-9-llowered, 4fi"-6" long; empty 
scales acute, the first i-j-nerved, the second 3-5- 
nerved;floweringscales acute or short-pointed, smooth 
*°* glabrous, 2>i"-3" long, indistinctly 5-nerved. 

In fields and waste places, Nova Scotia to Ontario, 
'?J'"itoNorthCarolina,Tennea.secand Kansas. Natur- 
v)?*" from Europe and cultivated for hay. Variable. 

Festuca Sh6rtii Kuntk. Short's Fescue-grass. (Fig. 503,) 

Fesluea Shorlii Kunth; Wood, Closa-book, 7^. iH 
Fesluca nutans var. fialuiln't Wood, Bot. &F1. 39^ 


Culms 3°'-4° tall, erect, Bunple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths much shorter than the intemodes; 
Itgule very short; leaves j'-k/ long, l"-3" wide, flat, 
smooth beneath, rough above; panicle 3^-7' in length, 
open, the branches spreading or ascending, rarely 
erect, spikelet-bearing /rora the middle or below, the 
lower l}i'-i}i' long; spikelets broadly obovate, when 
matnre, 3-6 flowered, 3}4"-y' long; empty scales 
acute, unequal, scabrous on the nerves, the first i- 
3-nerved, the second 3-nerved; flowering scales about 
a" long, smooth, obtuse or acutish, faintly nerved. 

In woods and thickets. Pennsylvania (accordioK to 
Porter) and Illinois to Kansaa. soutb to MiBSiuippi and 
TeiHS. July-Aug. 

8. Festuca nutans Willd. Nodding Fescue-grass. (Fig. 504.) 

Ftsluca nu/ani Willd, Bnum, i: 116. 1809. 

Culms j'-j" tall, erect, simple, slender, glabrous 
or sometimes pubescent Sheaths much shorter 
than the internodes, glabrona or pubescent; Ugule 
very short; nodes black; leaves 4'-i2' long, a"-3" 
wide, rather dark green, flat, smooth beneath, 
rough above; panicle 4'-9' in length, its branches 
at firet erect, the lower 3}^'-i' long, finally spread- 
ing and nodding, spikelet-bearing only at the ends; 
spikelets lanceolate, 3-5-flowered, aJi"-3" long; 
empty scales acute, scabrous on the keel, the 
the first i-nerved, shorter than the 3-nerved second; 
flowering scales about 2" long, smooth, acute, very 
faintly nerved. 

In rocky woods. Nova Scotia to Ontario and Ne- 
braska, south to Florida and Texas. Ascends to tjoo . 
ft. in Vii^inia, June-Aug. 

9. Festuca gigantea (I,.) Vill. Great Fescue- 
grass. (Fig. 505.) 

Brontus giganleus L. Sp, PI. 77. 17SJ. 

Festvca gigantea Vill. Hist. PI. Daupn. a: no. 1787. 

Culms a''-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabtvns. 
Sheaths usually overlapping; ligule \" long; leaves 5'-- 
1° long or more, bright green, 2"-6" wide, Sat, rough; 
panicle 7'-ia' in length, loose, narrow, the branches 
erect or ascending, the lower 1'-^' long; spikelets 3-7- 
flowered; empty scales acuminate, smooth and glabroos, 
the first 1-3-nerved, shorter than the 3-5-nerved second^ 
flowering scales, exclusive of awns, about 3" long, 
faintly 5-nerved, slightly scabrous, minutely a-toothed 
at the apex, bearing an awn 6"-8" long. 


84. BROMUS L. Sp. PL 76. 


Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and terminal panicles, the pedicels thick- 
«tied at the summit. Sheaths sometimes not split. Spiltelets few-many-Bowered. Two 
lower scales empty, unequal, acute; flowering scales rounded on the back, or sometimea 
<Kniii}ressed-keeled, 5-9-neTved, the apex usually 3-toothed, generally bearing an awn just 
1>elow the summit; palet shoiter than the scale, s-keeled. Stamens usually 3. Stigmas ses- 
sile, plmnose, inserted below a hairy cushion-like appendage at the top of the ovary. Grain 
.adherent to the palet. [Greek name for a kind of oats.] 

l^wer empty scale l-nerved, the upper j-nerved. 
1^11 pcTennials, 3°-^ hifrh. 

Sheathe glabrous or softly pubescent, the lower sometimes 9parinB:1y hirsute. 

leaves a"-6" wide; culms stoutish; branches of the panicle more or less Bpreadingr oi 


spikelets droopinf 

ilcnder; blanches of the panicle erect. 

3. B. asper. 

Spikelets numerous, on slender n 

d unilateral pedicels; flowering scales 4"-6" long. 

Spikelets few, thepedicelsuotunilateral; floweringscales6"-S" long. 5. B. sierilis, 
Lower emiity scale 3-nervcd, the upper s-9-nerveifl (3-nerved in No. 6), 
Flowering scales rounded on the back, at least below. 
Flowering scales awned. 

Flowering scales pubescent. 

Pubescence dense, consisting of long silky hairs. 

Sceondempty scale 3-nerved; flowering scales 5"-6" long. 6. B. Porteri. 
Second empty scale j-7.nerved; flowenng scales about 4^' long. 

S. B. Kalmii. 
. B. hordeaceus. 
Flowering scales glabrous or minutely roughened. 
Awns straight. 

Nerves of the turgid flowering scales obscure; palet about equalling the scale, 

which is 3"-4" long. o. B. secali'nui. 

Nerves of the flowering scale prominent; palet considerably shorter than the 
scale, which is 4"-5''^loag. 10. B. racemosus. 

Awns strongly bent near the base, divergent. 11. B. squarrosui. 

Flowering scales not awned, nearly es broad as long. 12. B. brizae/brvtis. 

Flowering scales compressed-keeled. 

Flowering scales pobescent; awn 2"-3" long. 13. B. breviarislalus. 

Flowering scales minutely roughened; awn less than i" long, or none. 

14. B. unioloides. 

1. Bromus cili&tus L, Fringed Brome-giass. Wood 

Culms a°-4° tall, erect, simple, glabrous or 
pubescent. Sheaths often shorter than the 
intemodes, smooth or rough, often softly 
pubescent, or the lower sometimes sparingly 
hirsute; ligule very short; leaves 4'-ia' long, 
2"-6" wide, smooth beneath, scabrous and 
often pubescent above; panicle open, 4'-io' 
in length, its branches lax, widely spread- 
ing or often drooping; spikelets 5-10-flow- 
ercd, i' long or less; empty scales very acute, 
glabrous, rough on the keel, the first I- 
nerved, the second longer, 3-nerved; flower- 
ing scales 4"-6" long, obtuse or acute, 5-7- 
nerved, appressed -pubescent on the margins 
or over the entire surface; awn J"-4" long. 

In woods and thickets, Newfoundland to 
Manitoba and British Columbia, south to Florida 
and Texas. Variable. The form known as var. 
fUTgans^B. piibescens'iioh\.)w\\\i the flowei 

(Fig. 506.) 


scales pubescent all over, i 


3. Bromus er£ctus Huds. Upright Brome-grass. (Fig. 507.) 

Iirom«s ereclus Huda. Fl. Angl. 39. 176». 

Culms a°-3° tall, erect, simple, slender, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, smooth 
and glabrous, or slightly pubescent; ligule Ji" long, 
erose-truncate; leaves sparingly pubescent, i"-3" 
wide, those of the culm 4'-8' long, the basal about 
1° long, very narrow; panicle 3'-?' in length, the 
branches erect or ascending, the lower i'-3' long; 
spikelets ,S'-i>i' long, sometimes pnrplisb, 5-to- 
flowered; empty scales acuminate, the first l-nerved, 
the second longer, j-nerved; flowering scetes 5"-6" 
long, acuminate, very rough-pubescent, 5-nerved, the 
intermediate nerves faint; awn 3"-3" long. 

3. Bromus fisper Mutt. Hairy Brome- 
grass. (Fig. 508.) 

Bromu! as/>er Muir. Prodr. Stirp. Goett. 4 


Culms 3°-6° tall, erect, simple, rough. Sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes, strongly retrorse-hirsute, 
especially the lower; ligule iji" long; leaves S'-i" 
long or more, 3"-6" wide, rough or often hirsute, 
panicle 6'-I2' in length, open, the branches usually 
drooping; spilcelets 5-10-flowered I'-iJi' long, empty 
scales acute, scabrous on the nerves, the first i-nerved, 
the second longer, 3-nerved', flowering scales about 6" 
long, acute, hispid near the mai;gins and on the lower 
part of the keel; awn 3"-4" long. 

4. Bromus tectdrum L.I Downy Brome-grass. (Fig. 509.) 

L- Sp. PI. 77- I7S3. 

Culms e'-s" tall, erect from an annual root, simple, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually longer than 
the intemodes, at least the lower ones softly pubes- 
cent; ligule \"-l" long; leaves I'-af long, i"-2" 
wide, softly pubescent; panicle t'-f/ in length, c^>eu, 
the branches slender and drooping, somewhat one- 
sided; spikelets numerous, 5-S-flowered, on capillary 
recurved slender pedicels; empty scales acuminate, 
usually rough or hirsute, the first i-nerved, the sec- 
ond longer, 3-nerved; flowering scales 4"-6" long, 
acuminate, 7-nerved, usually rough or hirsute; awn 
6"-8" long, 

In fields and waste places, Rhode Island to Ontario, 
south to Maryland and Ohio, Naturalized from Europe. 
Sometimes a troublesome weed. May-July. 


5. Bromus st^rilis L. Barren Brome-grass. (Fig, 510.) 

Bromus sUrilU L. Sp. PI. 77. 1753, 

Culms \°-2° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths usually shorter than the intentodes, 
smooth or rough, the lower sometimes pubescent; 
Ugule i" long; leaves 3'-9' long, i"-3" wide, us- 
ually more or less pubescent; panicle s'-io' in 
length, the branches ascending or often widely 
spreading, not one-sided, stiff; spikelets few, 5-10- 
flowered, spreading or pendulous; empty scales 
acuminate, glabrous, Ihe first i-nerved, the second 
longer, 3-nerved; flowering scales 6"-8" long, acu- 
minate, 7-nerved, scabrous on the nerves, the awn 
7"-ii" long. 

In waste places and ballast, eastern Massachnsetts to 
PennsylvaniaandOhio. Locally naturalized or adven- 
tive from Europe. Native also of Asia. June-July. 

6. Bromus Pdrteri (Coulter) Nash. Porter's Chess. (Fig. 511.) 

Bromus Kalmii var. Porleri Coulter, Man. Bot. Rocky 

Mt. Rerion, 435. 1885. 
Bromus Porteri Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, aa; 511. 1895. 

Culms I Ji^-a" tail, erect, simple, pubescent below 
the nodes. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, 
glabrous or sometimes softly pubescent; ligule %" 
long, truncate; leaves i"-3" wide, rough, those of 
the culm 4'-9' long, the basal narrow and about 
one-half of the length of the culm; panicle 3'-6' in 
length, its branches drooping and flexuous, at least 
when old, the nodes of the axis pubescent; spikelets 
5-10-Bowered, 9"-i5" long, on slender flexaons 
pedicels; empty scales pubescent, the fiiat narrower 
than the second, both 3-nerved; flowering scales 
5"-6" long, obtuse, 5-7-nerved, densely pubescent 
with long silky hairs ; awn i"- a" long. 

7. Bromus Kdlmii A. Gray. Kalm's 
Chess. (Fig. 512.) 

Bromus purgans I,. Sp. PI. 76. 1753? 
Bromus Kalmii A. Gray, Man. 600. 1646. 

Culms iJi''-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, more or 
less pubescent; ligule very short; leaves 3)i'-7' long, 
i"-4" wide, sparingly pubescent; panicle a'-6' in 
length, open, its branches usually fiexuous; spikelets 
6-Io-flowered, 6"-ia" long, on slender flexuous pedi- 
cels; empty scales pubescent, the first narrow, acute, 
3-nerved, the second longer, broad, obttise or mucro- 
natc, 5-7-nerved; flowering scales about 4" long, 7-9- 
nerved, densely silky pubescent, the awn i"-i>i" in 

8. Bromus hordeiceus L. Soft Chess. (Fig. 513.) 

Bromus hordeaceus L. Sp, PI, 77. 1753. 
Bromus mollis L. Sp, PI. Ed. i, iii. 1761. 

Culms 8'-3° tall, erect, often slender, nstiall]'' pubes- 
cent below the panicle. Sheaths shorter than the iti' 
temodea, mostly pubescent; Itgfule %" long; leaves 
i'-7' long, i"-3"wide, pubescent; panicle generally 
contracted, its branches erect or ascending, I'-a' long; 
spikelets appressed-pubescent, on short pedicels; 
empty scales acute, the first 3-neTved, the second 
longer, 5-7-nerved; flowering scales broad, obtuse, 
3K"-4f4" long. 7-9-''erTed, bearing an awn 3"-4" in 
length between the obtuse or acute teeth. 

> Viiginii. 

g. Bromus sec&linus L. Cheat. Chess. 

Bromus secalinus L- Sp. PI. 76. 1753. 

Culms i°-3° tall, erect, ^mple, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths usually shorter than the intemodes, generally 
glabrous; ligule Ji" long, erose; leaves 2'-9' long, 1"- 
3" wide, smooth or rough, sometimes hairy; panicle 2'- 
&' in length, open, its branches ascending or drooping; 
spikelets turgid, glabrous, erect or somewhat pendulous, 
6-io-flowered; empty scales scabrous toward the apex, 
the first 3-nerved, acute, the second longer and broader, 
7-nerved, obtuse; flowering scales 3"-4" long, broad, 
turgid, obtuse, rough toward the apex, the nerves ob- 
scure awnless, or bearing a straight awn 4" long or less 
between the obtuse short teeth; palet about equalling 
the scale. 

In fields and waste places almost thioughout temperate 
North America, often a pernicious weed in grain fields. 
Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia. june-AuK. 

10. Bromus racemdsus L. Upright Chess. Smooth Brome-grass. 
(Kg. 5'5.) 
Bromus racemosus L, Sp, PI. Ed. 3, 114. 176a. 

Culms i"-'^" tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous, or sparingly pubescent below the panicle. 
Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, glabrous or 
pubescent; ligule i"long; leaves i '-9' Wg, Ji"-4" 
wide, pubescent; panicle I'-io' in length, the 
branches erect or ascending, the lower sometimes 
3ji' long; spikelets erect, 5-ii-flowered; empty 
scales acute, the first 3-nerved, the second longer 
and broader, 5-9-nerved; flowering scales broad, 
i%"-^}^" long, obtuse, smooth and shining, the 
nerves prominent; awn straight, 3"-4" in length; 
palet considerably shorter than the scale. 

In fields and waste plawH all over the eastern United 
States and British America; also on the Pacific Coast. 
Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia. June- 


II. Bromus squarrdsus L. Com 

Brome. (Fig, 516.) 
Bromus iguarroius L- Sp. PI. 76. 1753. 

Calms 8'-i8' tall, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes, 
softly pubescent; lignle }i" long; leaves I'-s' 
long, i"-a" wide, softly pubescent; panicle a'~6' 
in length, open, the branches ascending or 
^trooping, often flexuous; apikelets nodding, 6- 
la-flowered, on slender pedicels; empty scales 
obtose or acntish, the first s-nerred, the second 
longer, 7-9-ncrved; flowering scales 4^"-5Ji" 
long, obtuse, shining, minutely scabrous; awn 
inserted below the apex, aboDt as long as the 
scale, bent at the base and divergent. 

In ballast and w 
ports. Furtive o. 

12. Bromus brizaef6rmis Fisch. & Mey. Quakegrass Brome. (Fig. 517.) 

Culms 8'-3° tall, erect, simple, often slender, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the 
intemodes, the lower pubescent with soft villous 
hairs; ligule i" long, erose-tmncate; leaves l'-^' 
long, i"-3" wide, pubescent; panicle Iji'-S' in 
length, open, the branches ascending or often 
drooping, flexuous; spikelets few, >j'-~i' long, 
laterally much compressed; empty scales very ob- 
tuse, often purplish, glabrous or minutely pubes* 
cent, the first j-s-nerved, the second larger, 5-9- 
uervcd; flowering scales 3"-4" long, very broad, 
obtuse, 9>nerved, shining, glabrous or sometimes 
minutely pubescent, unawned. 

Sparingly introduced into Pennsylvania: also from 
Montana to California. Native of northern Europe and 
Asia. July-Aug, 

13. Bromus breviaristiltus (Hook.) Buckl. Short-awned Chess. (Fig.518.) 

Ceralockloa breviarislala Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. a: 253. 

Bromus brtviarislalui Buckl. Proc. Acad. Phila. iSOl: 98. 


Culms l°-4° tall, erect, simple, smooth or rough, 
sometimes pubescent below the panicle. Sheaths pu- 
bescent, at least the lower ones, which are often over- 
lapping; ligule i" long, truncate; leaves 6'-i° lo 
more, 3"-(/' wide, rough and often pubescent; pan- 
icle 4'-i5' in length, its branches erect or ascending, 
the lower a'-6' long; spilcelets 5-io-flowered; empty 
scales acute, pubescent, the first 3-5-Derved, the 
ond longer, 5-9-nerved; flowering scales compressed, 
keeled, 6"-7" long, acute, 7-9-nerved, appressed- 
pnbescent; awn a"-3" long. 


14. Bromus unioloides (Willd.) H.B.K. Schrader's Bronie-grass. 
Southern Chess. (Fig. 519.) 

Fes/ui-a tiiiwloidei'WUld. Hort. Betol. i: 3. fiij- 

Sromus unioloides H.B.K. Nov. Gen. I: ISI. 

Bromus Schraderi Kunth, Bnnm. I; 416. 1833. 

Culms 6'-3° tall, etect, simple, amooth and 
glabrons. Sheaths usually shorter than thein- 
temodes, the lower often overlapping, smooth 
or rouRh, and glabtons or frequently pubes- 
cent; Ugule \"-i" long; leaves 3'-i3' long, 1"- 
4" wide, usually rou^^h, at least above; panicle 
I'-io' in length, (he branches erect or ascend- 
ing, or the lonerbranchesof the larger panicles 
widely spreading; spikelets much comprcMed, 
6-iO'flowered; empty scales acute, the first 3-5- 
nerved, the second longer, 5-9-nerved; flower- 
ing scales 6"-8" long, very acute, minutely 
scabrous, bearing on awn less than l" long or 

Kansas (?) to the Indian Territory, Texas and 
Mexico. Widely distributed in South America. 

85. NARDUS L. Sp. PI. 53- 


A low perennial tnfted grass, with setaceous rigid leaves and a terminal one-sided slender 
Bpike. Spikelets i-floweied, narrow, sessile and single in each notch of the rachia. Scales 
a, the lower empty, adnate to the rachis, or almost wanting, the upper flower-bearing, nar- 
row, with involute and hyaline margins; palet narrow, i-nerved. Stamens 3. Style elon- 
gated, undivided. Stigma elongated, short-papillose. Grain linear, glabrous, enclosed ta 
the scale, usually free. [Name Greek, of uncertain application.] 

A monotypie genus of the Old World. 

I. Nardus stricta L. Wirebent. Mat-grass, Nard. (Fig. 520.) 

Nardus sirkta L. Sp. PI. 53- '753- 

Culms s'-is' tall, erect, simple, rigid, 
rougbish. Sheaths usually at the base of the 
culm; ligiile %" long, rounded; leaves seta- 
ceous, stiff, rough, the i or a culm leaves 
about l' long, erect, the basal ones numer- 
otis, a'-5' long; spike I'-j' in length, strict; 
spikelets i-flowered, 3"-4" long, arranged 
alternately in 1 rows on one side of the erect 
alender rachis, often purplish; lower scale 
empty, very short, adnate to the rachis, 
sometimes almost wanting; flowering scale 
3"-4" long, scabrous, long-acuminate or 
short-awn ed. 



pikeleta sevrral- 

L. temulentutn 

85. LOLIUM L. Sp. PI. 83. 1753. 

Annual or perennial grasscB, with flat leaves and terminal spikes 
flowered, solitary, sessile and alternate in the notches of the DSnallj continuous rachis, com- 
pressed, the edge of the spikelet (backs of the scales) turned toward the rachis. Scales 
rigid; lower scale empty in the lateral spikclets, and the a lower empty in the terminal; 
flowering scales rounded on the back, 5-7-Derved; palets 3-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles dis- 
tinct, very short. Stigmas 3, plumose. Grain adhereot to the palet. [Latin name for Darnel.] 

About 6 species, natives of the Old World. 
Empty scale shorter than the spikelet, I, L. ptren 
Empty scale equalling or eitendinK beyond the flowering scales. - ' ' ' 

1. Lolium per6nne L. Ray-grass, 

Rye-grass. (Fig. 521.) 
Lolium perennel,. Sp. PI. 83. 1753. 

Smooth and glabrous, culms f-i^i" tall, 
erect, simple. Sheaths shorter than the in- 
temodes; ligule very short; leaves 2'-5'Iocg, 
i"-a" wide; spike 3'-8' in length; spiltelets 
5-10-flowered, 4"-6" long, the empty scale 
shorter than the spikelet, strongly nerved; 
flowering scales a "-3" long, obscurely 
nerved, acuminate or awned, the awn some- 
times nearly as long as the body of the scale. 

In waste places and cultivated grounds almost 
throughout the northern United States and 
Eoutbem British America. Natuiallzed from 

2. Lolium temulintum L. Darnel. 
Ivray. (Fig. 522.) 

Lolium lemidenlunt L. Sp. PI. 83. r753. 

Glabrous, culms 3°-^" tall, erect, simple, smooth. 
Sheaths overlapping; ligule \" long or less; leaves 
4'-io' in length, i"~i" wide, smooth beneath, 
rough above; spike ^'-12' in length; spikelets 4-8- 
flowered, s'^-g" lotig, the strongly nerved empty 
scale equalling or extending beyond the obscurely 
nerved flowering scales, which are awned or awn- 

In waste places and cultivated grounds, locally natur- 
alized or adventive from Europe, New Brunswick to 
Michigan and Georgia. Abnndant on the Pacific Coast. 
Locally a troublesome weed. June-Ai^;. 

87. LEPTURUS R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. i: 207. 1810. 
Usually low annual grasses, with narrow leaves and strict or curved elongated slender 
*t*ikes. Spikelets 1-3-flowered, sessile and single in alternate notches of the jointed rachis. 
"■** pty scales 3, raiely i, narrow, rigid, acute, 5-nerved; flowering scales much shorter, hya- 
^**^, keeled, one side turned to the rachis. Palets hyaline, 3-nerved. Stamens 3, or fewer. 
^yles short, distinct. Stigmas a, plumose. Grain narrow, glabrous, free, enclosed in the 
~~ " [Greek, referring to the nattow spikes.] 
)ecies 5 or 6, natives of the Old World. 


I. Lepturus filifdrmis (Roth) Trin. 
Slender Hardgrass. (Fig. 523.) 

RollbotUiafili/ormii Roth, Catal. l: ai. 1797. 

Ltpturus fili/ormis Trin. Fond. Agrost. iij. 


Cnlms 3'- 1 a' long, decnmbent, much 
branched, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths 
loose, shorter than the intemodes; ligale ii" 
long, anricniate; leaves Ji'-j'loDg, 1" wide 
or less, usually involute, smooth beneath, 
rough above; spikes i'-6' in length, slender, 
strict or curved; spikelets a"-a^" long; 
empty scales acute; flowering scales about 
ij^" long, i-nerved. 

In waste places, sonthem Pennsylvania to 
VirBinia, near or along- the coast. Adventive 
from Europe. Snmmei. 

88. AGROPYRON J. Gaertn. Nov. Comm. Petrop. 14= Part i, 539. 1770. 

Annual or perennial grasses, with flat or involute leaves and terminal spikes. Spikelet* 
S-many-flowered, sessile, single and alternate at each notch of the usually continuous rachis, 
thesideof the apilcelet turned toward tberachia Two lower scales empty; flowering scales 
rigid, rounded on the back, 5-7-nerved, naually acute or awned at the apex; paleta a-kealed, 
the keels often ciliate. Staujeos 3. Styles very short, diatinct Stigmas plumoae. Grain 
pubescent at the apex, usually adherent to the paleL [Greek, referring to the growth of 
these grasses in wheat fields.] 

About 3a species, in all temperate regions. Beaidea the following, s 
western parts of North America. 
Plants with running rootstocks. 

Flowering scales glabrous. 

Flowering scales villoua. 
Plants without running rootatoclcs. 

Flowering scale tcRninating in an an^ shorter than its bodr. 
Spikes short and bioad; empty scales broad, 5-7-nerved. 
Spikes long and slender; empty scales narrow, ^-5-nerv 

e s others occur ii 

Flowering scale terminating 

longer than its body. 

5. A. violaceutn. 

4. A. teturiLia. 

5. A.i ■ 

Agropyron ripens (I,. ) Beauv. Couch- 
grass. Quitch-grass. (Fig. 524.) 



Cttlms i''^" tail, from a long jointed rtmning root- 
stock. Sheaths usually shorter than the intemodes, 
smooth and glabrous; ligule very short; leaves 3'-i3' 
long, i"-5" wide, smooth beneath, rough above; 
spike a'-S' in length, strict; spikelets 3-7-flowetcd; 
empty scales strongly 5-7-nerved, usually acute or 
awn-pointed, sometimes obtuse; fiowering scales 
smooth and glabrous, acute or short-awned at the 

In fields and waste places, almost throughout Kottb 
America except the extreme north. Natuialiied from 
Europe and often a troublesome weed. Very variable. 

Native also of Asia. July-Sept. 

Agropyroa ripens glancom (Desf.l Scribn, Mem. Torr. Club, $: 57. 1S94. 
Trilicum glaucum Desf. Tabl. Bot. Mus. 16. 1804. 
Agropyrum glaucum R. & S. Syst. i; 75a. 1817. 

Larger and stouter, pale gteen 01 glaucous; spikelets s-is-flowered, the empty scales long- 

""' . . -«j '*Y..«:*«*>^ *.. Ai.^..!... ......tu *fy Missouri, Texas and Ariiona. Reported 


, Agropyron da8y8t4chyum (Hook.) Vasey. Northern Wbeat-g 
(Fig. 525.) 

Glaucous, culmi i''-3'' tall, erect, from long running 
rootatocka, simple, smooth and glabrous; sheaths 
shorter than the intemodes; ligule very short; leaves 
j'-9' long, i"-3" wide, flat, or becomiDg involute in 
drying, smooth beneath, rough above; spike 3}i'-7' in 
length; spikelets 4-S-flowered; empty scales 3-5-nerved, 
lanceolate, acuminate or short-awned, y-4)i" long; 
flowering scales broadly lanceolate, 5-nerved, 4>i"-6" 
long, acute or sbort-awncd, densely villons. 

3. Agropyron vioUceum (Honiem.) Vasey. Purplish Wheat-grass, 
(Fig. 526.) 

Trilicum violaceam Homem. Fl. Dan. pt. 2044. 183a, 
Agropyrum violaceum Vasey, Spec. Rept. U. S. Dept. Agric. 
6j: 45. 1833. 

Culms 6'-2° tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths usually shorter than the intemodes; ligule very 
short; leaves a'-6' long. i"-3" wide, flat or involute, 
rough or sometimes smooth beneath; spike i'~4' in 
length, occasionally longer, j"-3" broad; spikelets 3-6- 
flowered; empty scales broad, usually purplish, scarious 
on the matgins, 5-7.nerved, 4"-6" long, acute or acum- 
inate, sometimes awn-pointed, rarely loug-awned; flow- 
ering scales often purplish, 5-7-nerved, scarious on the 
margins, 4"-6" long, acuminate or short-awned, the awn 
rarely as long as the body. 

Quebec tr 
the '- 

4. Agropyron tinerum Vasey. Slender Wheat-grass. (Fig. 527.) 

Glabrous, colms a°-3'* tall, erect, simple, often 
slender, smooth. Sheaths usually shorter than 
the intemodes, glabrous; ligule very short; ■ 
leaves 3'-io' long, i"-3" wide, flat or involute, 
rough; spike 3'-?' in length, usually narrow 
and slender; spikelets 3-5-flowered; empty 
scales \"-(/' long, acuminate or short-awned, 
3-5-nerved, scarious on the margins; flowering 
scales 5"-6" long, s-nervcd, awn-pointed or 
short-awned, scarious on the margins, often 
rough toward the apex. 

In dry Boil. Manitoba and Minnesota to Sritiah 
Columbia, south to Nebraska, Colorado and Cali- 
fornia. Repotted from the Northeast Temtoiy. 
July- Aug. 


$. Agropyron canlnum (L.) R. & S. 

Awned Wheat-grass. Fibrous-nxjted 
(Fig. 528.) 

Triticum caninutn L. Sp. PI. 86. 1733. 
Agropynim caniitum R. & S. Syst. 1: 756. 1817. 
Agropyrum unilaleraU CBSsidy, Bull. Colo. Agric. 

Exp. Sta. 1 


Culms i°-3° tall, erect, simple, amooth and gla- 
broua. SheattaB usually shorter than tfae inter- 
nodea, smooth, the lower sometimes pul>eKeDt: 
lignle short; leaves s'-g' long, i"-3" wide, smooth 
beaeath, rough above; spike 3'-8' in length, 
Bometimea one-sided, often nodding at the top; 
spikelets 3-6 flowered; empty scales 4)4"-6" long; 
3-5-nerved, acaminate, awn-pointed or bearing an 
awn i"-i" long; flowering scales 4"~5" long, nsn- 
ally scabrous toward the apex, acaminate into an 
awn sometimes twice their own length. 

New Bmnswiclc to British Columbia, south to North 
CaroliiiH. Tennessee and Colorado. AIik> in Eucopc 
and Asia. Native northward: southward locally natu- 
ralized from Europe, July-Aog. 

89. HORDEUM L. Sp. PI. 84. 1753. 

Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and terminal cylindric spikes. Spikelets 
I-flowered, usually in 3's at each joint of the rachis, the lateral generally abort-stalked and 
impeifect; rachilla produced beyond the Qowcr, the loner empty scales often reduced to 
awns (tnd forming an apparent involucre aronnd the spikelets. Empty scales rigid; fiowcT' 
ing scales rounded on the back, 5-nerved at the apex, awned; palet scarcely shorter than the 
scale, a-keeled. Stamens 3, Styles very ahori, distinct. Grain usually adherent to the 
scale, hairy at the summit. [Latin name for Barley.] 

About 16 species, widely distributed it; I>oth hemispheres. 

All the empty scales of each cluster bristle-like. 
Four of the empty scales of each cluster dilated above the base. 
Awn of the flowerinf^ scale i' loi^; or more. 
Flowering scales, exclusive of awns, about 6" long. 

1. M. nodosum. 
a. H.pusillam. 
3. H.jubalum. 

Hordeum nod6sum I,. Meadow Barley (Fig 529.) 

Hordeam nodosum L. Sp. PI. Ed. i, 
//ordeiim pra/ense Hads. Fl. Angl. 1 

Culms S'-i" tall, erect, or sometimes decimibent, 
simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter 
than the intemodes; ligule X" '<"iSi truncate; 
leaves iJ^'-5' long, i"s" wide, flat, rough; spike 
i'-3>j'in1cngth;spikelets usually in 3's, thecentral 
one containing a palet and perfect flower, the lateral 
enclosing a staminate or rudimentary flower, or a 
palet only; empty scales of each cluster awn-tike; 
flowering scale of the central spikelet $"-4" long 
exclusive of the awn, which is y~6" long, the cor- 
responding scale in the lateral spikelets much 
smaller and shori-slalked. 


3. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Bar- 
ley. (Fig. 530.) 
Hordeum pusillum Nolt. Gen. i; 87. 1818. 

Culms 4'-i5' tall, erect, or decnmbetit at the 
base, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths loose, usually 
sboiter than the iutemodes, smooth and glabrous, 
the upper ofteu enclosing the base of the spike; 
ligule very short; leaves X'~3' long, J^"-l" wide, 
erect, smooth beneath, rough above; spike i'-3' 
in length; spikelets usually in 3's, the central one 
coutaiuing a palet and perfect flower, the lateral 
imperfect; scales awned, the empty ones scabrous, 
those of the central spikelet and the lower ones of 
the lateral spikelets dilated above the base; flower- 
ing scale smooth, that of the central spikelet 3"- 
4" long, short-awued, the corresponding scale In 
the lateral spikelets smaller and very short-stalked. 

In dry soil. Ontario to British Columbia, south to 
'^'.'■•askB, Arkansas, Texas and Catifomia; also spar- 
■ " ■ " it from Flor- 

3. Hordeum jubEktum L- Squirrel-tail Grass. (Fig. 531.) 

Hordeum jtibalum L. Sp. PI. 85. 1753, 

Culms io'-2j4° tall, erect, simple, usually 
slender, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually 
shorter than the internodes, generally loose, smooth 
and glabrous; ligule }i" long or less; leaves 1'-$' 
long, i"-3"wide, erect, rough; spike j'-4'ia length; 
spikelets usually in 3's, the central one containing 
a palet and perfect flower, the lateral imperfect; 
empty scales consisting of slender rough awna 1'- 
2yi' long; flowering scale of the central spikelet 
3"-4" long, scabrous at the apex, bearing a slender 
rongh awn i'-3>j'long; the corresponding scale in 
the lateral spikelets shorl-awned, about 3" long in- 
cluding its pedicel, sometimesreduccdtoa rudiment. 
In dry soil, Ontario to Alaska, sooth to Kansas, 
Colorado and California. Naturalized in the east from 
Labrador and Quebec to New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
July- Aug. 

4. Hordeum murlnum L. Wall Barley. (Fig. 532.) 

hordeum tnuriaum L. Sp. PI. 85. 1753, 

Culms e'-a" tall, erect, or decumbent at the base, 
smooth and glabrous. Sheaths loose, shorter than 
the internodes on the long culms, overlapping on the 
abort ones, the uppermost often inflated and enclosing 
ttie base of the spike; ligule very short; leaves 1 
long, i"-3" wide, rough; spikes a'-4' in length; 
spikelets usually in 3's: scales awned, the empt; 
-^wn-like, scabrous, those of the central spikelet 
broader and ciliate on the margins, bearing awns 9"- 
* a" long, those of the lateral spikelets similar, with 
■*Jie exception of the second scale, which is not ciliate; 
lowering scales scabrous at the apex, bearing an awn 
^'bout 1' long, those of the lateral spikelets about S'' 
Icng, the corresponding scale in the central spikelet ] 
Somewhat smaller. 

On ballast and sparingly in waste places, southern New 

.. J , "-ofrora ArizonaloCalifomia. 




90. ELYMUS L. Sp. PI. 83. 1753. 
Tall grasses, with nsnaltj flat leave* sad dcDse terminal spike*. SpikeleU a-aerenl- 
flowered, (rarelj i-flowered) sessile, usually in pain, occasionally in 3'! or more, in altcT' 
nate notches of the continaoQS or jointed rachis, the emptj scales forming an apparent invo- 
lucre to the cluster. Two lower scales empty, narrow, acute or awned, entire or r«rely cleft; 
flowering scales shorter, rounded on the back, 5-nerved, usoall}' bearing an awn. Palet • 
little shorter than the scale, i-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles very short, distinct Stigmas 
plumose. Grain sparsely hairy at the summit, adherent to the paleL [Greek, to roll up, 
referring to the involute palet.] 

About 30 Bpeciei, natives of temperate regions. Besides the following, some 10 others occurin 
the western parts of North America. 

Joints of the rachia tardily Beparating at maturity* awns ascending or none. 
Plowetinft scales conspicaously awned (rarely awnless in No. 3). 
Spikeleta diveryent from the rachis of the broad spike. 

Empty scales awl-shaped; spikes slender. i. E. tirialui. 

Empty scales not awl-shaped; spikes stout. 

Empty scales lanceolate, s-7-ncrved; awn short; spjki 
Empty scales narrowly lanceolt " 
spike usually nodding. 
Spikelets appressed to the raebiB of the narrow spike. 

Empty scales narrowly lanceolate, acuminate or awn-pointed. 4. E. g-laucus. 

Emp^ scales awl-shaped, bearing awns equalling or exceeding thcit length. 

5. E. Ufacounii. 
Flowering scales unawned or awn-pointed. 

Flowering scales glabrous, 6. E. condentalut, 

Plowerii^ scales villous. 7. E. arenaritts. 

Joints of the rachis early separating; awns widely diverging. 8. E. ttymoides. 

:. Elymus striitus Willd. Slender Wild 
Rye. (Fig. 533.) 

5. E. Canadensis. 

ij Willd. Sp. PI. 1 


Elymus Virginicus L. 
'.Ivtnus Virgiiiic 
'fymus Virginic 

Culms a°-3° tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth, gla- 
brous. Sheaths usually shorter than the inteniodes, 
glabrous or hirsute; ligule very short; leaves $'-Y 
long, a"-5" wide, smooth or slightly rough beneath, 
pubescent above; spike a}i'-i}4' in length, broad, 
slender, dense; spikelets divergent from the rachis, 1-3- 
ilowered; empty scales awl-shaped, 9"-ia" long, in- 
cluding the slender rough awn, 1-3-nerved, the nerves, 
and often the whole scale, rough, hiapid or hirsute- 
flowering scales about 3" long, smooth, scabrotis or 
hispid, bearing a slender rough awn &"-t$" in length. 

Terrell-grass. Virginia Wild Rye. (Fig- 534.)^ 


a: ass- 1040- 

Culms 2° -3° tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
brous. Sheaths usually shorter than the intemodes, 
often overlapping on the lower part of the culm, 
smooth, sometimes pubescent, the uppermost often 
inflaled and enclosing the peduncle and the base of 
the spike; ligule very short; leaves 5'-i4' long, 
a"-8" wide, rough; spike a'-7' in length, broad, 
stout, upright; sjukelets divergent from the rachis, 
3-3-floweied; empty scales thick and rigid, lanceo- 
late, 8"-l3" long, including the short awn, 5-7- 
nerved; flowering scales 3"-4" long, smooth, rarely 
sparingly scabrous, bearing a rough awn 3"-^" in 
length, or rarely awnless. 

In moist soil, especially along streams, Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick to Manitotra, south to Florida and 
Texas. Ascends tosoooft. in North Carolina. July- Aug. 


3. Elymus Canadensis L. Nodding Wild Rye. (Fig. 535,) 

■us Canadensis L. Sp. PI. 83. 1733. 

us glauci/olius y/iWA. Enotn. i: iji. 1809. 

us Canadensis var. glaucifolius Torr. Fl. U. S. 1: 

. iS^. 

Ims a^j'-s" tall, erect, simple, smooth and gla- 
. Sheaths usualljr overlapping; ligale very 
; leaves 4'-!° long or more, a"-io" wide. 
I, sometimes glaucous; spike 4'— la' in length, 
!, stout, often nodding, its peduncle much ex- 
1; spilcelets divergent from the rachia, 3-5- 
red; empty scales narrowly lanceolate or awl- 
■A, rigid, 3-5-nerved, 8"-i6" long, including the 
blender rough awns; flowering scales 4"-7" long, 
y smooth to hirsute, bearing a slender scabrous 
:ht or divergent awn io"-a5" in length. 

riser banks, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Al- 
south to Ceoreia, Texas and New Mexico. Ascends 
O ft. in ViiBinia. July-Aug. 

4. Elymua giaiicus Buckl. Smooth Wild Rye. (Fig. 536.) 

Elymus glaucus Buclcl. Proc. Acad. Phila. lasa: 99. 1S63. 
Elymus Americanus V.&S.; Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 4: 

ats. 1888. 

Wats. & Coult. in A. 

Culms 3"-$" tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrona. 
Sheaths often shorter than the interaodca, usually 
glabrous, rarely pubescent; ligule i" long or less; 
leaves 4'-ia' long, 3"-8" wide, smooth beneath, 
sometimes rough above; spike 3'-^' in length, nar- 
row, alender; spikeleta appreased to the rachis, 3-6- 
flowered; empty scales narrowly lanceolate, 4"-6" 
long, acuminate or awn-pointed, rigid, 3-'5-nerved; 
flowering scales smooth or aligbtly rough, 5"-6" long, 
bearing a alender straight rough awn 6"-^' in lenEth. 

Slymus Macoilnii Vasey. Macoun's Wild 

Rye. (Fig. 537.) 
us Macou nit Vasey, Bull. Torr, Club, 13; uq. :886. 
Ims i°-3'' tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabroua. 
'.hs shorter than the intemodes; ligule very short, 
ate; leaves 3'-6' long, l"-afi" wide, rough, es- 
lly above; spike 2'-$' in length, narrow, slender, 

somewhat flexuous; spikelets eppressed to the 
i, single at each node, or the lower sometimes in 

1-3-flowered; empty scales (occasionally 3) awl- 
ad, 3-nerved, rough, 3"-4" long, bearing a slender 
;ht rough awn, i"-S" in length; flowering scales 
-5" long, rough toward the apex, beaiing a slender 
;ht awn 3"-5" long. 

to Nebraska and 


6. Elymus condens&tus Presl. Smooth Lyme-grass. (Fig. 538.) 


1 Pnt\, Beliq. Hsenk. i: 265, 1830. 

Culms 3°-io° UIl, erect, simple, smooth »tid gla- 
brons. Sbeaths smooth and glabroos, the upper ones 
■borter than the intemodcB; ligale 3"-i" long, tmn- 
cale; leaves b'-t' long or more, 3"-i2" wide, ica- 
broua, at least above; spike 4'-i5' in length, luuall; 
•tout, strict, often interrupted below, sometimes com- 
pound at the base; spikelets 3-6-flowered, a-seveial at 
each node of the rachis; emptj scales awl-shaped, 
4>j"-6" long, i-nerved, usually rough; flowering 
scales 4"-s" loug, generally awn-pointed, nsually 
rongb. sometimes smooth. 

In wet saline situations. Alberta to British Colninbia, 
south to northweateni Nebraska, Aniuna and California. 

7. Elymus arenirius L. Downy Lyme- 
grass. Sea Lyme-grass. (Fig. 539.) 
Elymus arcnarius L, Sp, PI, 83, 1753. 

Culms i^^-S" tall, erect, simple, usuallj softly pu- 
bescent at the summit. Sheaths smooth and glabrous, 
often glaucous, those at the base overlapping, the 
upper shorter than the ioteruodes; ligule very short; 
leaves 3'-!° long or more, iJi"-5" wide, flat, or 
becoming involute, smooth beneath, rough above; 
spike y-i<y in length, usually strict; spikelets 3-6- 
flowered, frequently glaucous; empty scales 8"-i4" 
^ug, 3-s-ncrved, acuminate, more or less villous; 
flowering scales 8"-io" long, acute or awn-pointed, 
5-7- nerved, usually very villous. 

On shores. Greenland and Labrador to the Northwest 
Territory and Alaska, south to Maine, Lake Superior and 
Wa.shineton. Also in Burope and Asia. Sommer. 

8. Elymus elymoldes (Raf,)Swezey. I>ng-bristled Wild Rye. (Fig, 540.) 

Silanion tlytnoidet Raf. Joum. Phys. 89: ;o3. 1B19. 
Elymus Silanion Schultes, Mant. i: 416. 'SH; 
Elymus elymoidei Swezey, Neb. Fl. PI. ig. 1B91. 

Culms 6'-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth, glabrous. 
Sheaths smooth or rough, sometimes hirsute, usu- 
ally overlapping, the upper one often inflated and 
enclosing the base of the spike; lignle short; 
leaves i'-;' long, )i"-2" wide, often stiff and 
erect, usually rough, sometimes hiniute, flat or 
involute; spike 3 '-6' in length; spikelets 1-5 -flow- 
ered; empty scales entire or divided, often to the 
base, the divisions awl-shaped and bearing long 
unequal slender awns, ['-3;^' in length; flowering 
scales 3"-5" long, s-ncrved, scabrous, at least to- 
ward the apex, bearing a long slender divergent 
awn J'-i'A' in length, the apex of the scale some- 
times 3-toothed, the teeth often produced. into short 
awns; joints of the rachis separating at maturity. 
lUth to Kansaa, Teias, Arizona and California. July-Ang. 



91. HYSTRIX Moench, Meth. 294. 1794. 
[ Asp R ELLA Willd. Ennm. 132. 1809. Not Schreb, 1789.] 
[GvHNOSTiCHUMScbreb. Bescbr. Gres. a: 137- pi- 47- 1810.] 
Vsually tall grasses, with flat leaves and terminal spikes. Spikelets a-several-flowered, 
in pairs, Tarelf in 3's, at eacb node of tbe rachis. Empty scales wanting, or sometimes ap- 
pearing as mere rudiments; flowering scales nairow, conTolute, rigid, rounded on the back, 
3-uerved above, terminating in an awn; palet scarcely shorter than tbe scale, a-keeled. 
Stamens 3. Styles very sbort, distinct. Stigmas plamosc. Grain oblong, adhering to the 
palet when dry. [Greek name of the Porcupine, referring to the long awns.] 

Four known aijeeics, the following and aCt" 
fomian one occurring in North America. 

. Hystrix H^strlx (L.) Millsp. 
Bottle-brush Grass. (Fig. 541.) 


rj Hystri 

L. Sp. PI. I 

3. :i4. 


._,. pt.47- —- 
Hyslrix HyslHx Mitlsp. Fl. W. Va. 474. 1892. 

Cnlina 3°--4° tall, erect, simple, smooth and 
glabrons. Sheatbs usually shorter than tbe in- 
temodes; lignle very sborl; leaves iii'-q' long, 
y-ft" wide, smooth beneath, rough aboTe; 
spike 3'-7' in length, spikelets at length widely 
spreading, 4"-6" long, exclusive of the awns; 
empty scales awn-like, usually present in the 
lowest apikelet; flowering scales 4"-6" long, 
acuminate into an awn about i' in length. 

In rocly wooda. New Brunswick to Ontario, 
south to Georgfia. Illinois and Minnesota. Ascends 
to iioo ft. in Virginia, Spikelets very easily de- 
tached, even when young, Jane-July. 

ga. ARUNDINARIA Mkhx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 73. 1803. 
Arborescent or shrubby grasses, with simple or branched culms and flat short-petioled 
leaves which are articulated with the sheath. Spikelets home in panicles or racemes, 
i-many-flowered, large, compressed. Empty scales i or 2, the first sometimes wanting; 
flowering scales longer, not keeled, many nerved; palets scarcely shorter than the scales, 
prominently 2-keeled. Lodicnles 3. Stamens 3. Styles 2 or 3. Stigmas plumose. Grain 
/niTOwed, free, enclosed in tbe scale and palet. [Vrajn Arundo, the Latin name of tbe Reed.] 
About 24 species, natives of Asia and America. Two are found in the southern United States. 

1. Arundinaria tfecta (Walt.) Muhl. 
Scutch Cane. Small Cane. (Fig. 542.) 

Arundn lecla Walt. Fl. Car. 81. 1788. 
Arttndinaria tecia Muhl. Gram. 191, 1817. 
Arundinaria macrosperma var. suffrHlicosa 

Mnnro, Trans. Linn. Soc. 36: 15. !»«. 

Culms 3''-i5'' tall, erect, shrubby, branch- 
ing at tbe summit, smooth and glabrous. 
Sheaths longer than the intemodes, smooth or 
rough, ciliate on tbe margins; ligule bristly; 
leaves lanceolate, iffi'S' long, 4"-ia" wide, 
flat, more or less pubescent beneath, glabrous 
above; racemes terminal, or on short leafless 
culms; spikelets 7- 10- flowered, I'-iJi' long, on 
pedicels i' in length or less, which are some- 
times pubescent; empty scales unequal, the first 
usually very small, sometimes wanting; flower- 
ing. scales 6"-io" long, acute or acuminate, 
smooth, scabrous or pubescent. 


Family 8. CYPERACEAE J. St Hil. Expos. Fam. i: 62. 1805. 

Sbdgb Family. 

Grass-like or rush-like herbs. Stems (culms) slender, solid (rarely hollow), 
triangular, quadrangular, terete or flattened. Roots fibrous (many species per- 
ennial by long rootstocks). Leaves narrow, with closed sheaths. Flowers per- 
fect or imperfect, arranged in spikelets, one (rarely 2) in the axil of each scale 
(glume, bract), the spikelets solitary or clustered, i -many-flowered. Scales 2- 
ranked or spirally imbricated, persistent or deciduous. Perianth hypogynous, 
composed of bristles, or interior scales, rarely calyx-like, or entirely wanting. 
Stamens 1-3, rarely more. Filaments slender or filiform. Anthers 2-celled. 
Ovary i -celled, sessile or stipitate. Ovule i, anatropous, erect. Style 2-3- 
cleft or rarely simple or minutely 2-toothed. Fruit a lenticular plano-convex 
or trigonous achene. Endosperm mealy. Embryo minute. 

About 65 genera and 3000 species, of very wide geographic distribution. The dates given be- 
low indicate the time of perfecting fruit. 

Flowers of the spikelets all, or at least one of them, perfect; spikelets all similar. 
Scales of the spikelets 3-ranked. 

Perianth none; spikelets in solitary or umbelled terminal heads. 

Spikelets with 2-several perfect flowers; scales several to numerous, i. Cy perns. 
Spikelets with but i perfect flower; scales 2-4. 2. Kyllinga. 

Perianth of 6-9 bristles; inflorescence axillary. 3. uulichium. 

Scales of the spikelets spirally imbricated all around. 
Spikelets with several to many perfect flowers. 

Base of the style swollen, persistent as a tubercle on the achene. 

leaves reduced to basal sheaths; bristles usually present; spikelet solitary. 

4, Eleocharis. 
Culm leafy; bristles none; spikelets i-numerous. 

Spikelets capitate, involucrate. 5. Dichromena. 

Spikelets umbellate or cymose. 

Spikelets in terminal and axillary compound cymes; most of the style per- 
sistent. 6. Psilocarya. 
* Spikelets in a terminal umbel , base of style persistent. 7. Stenophyllus, 
Base of the style enlarged or narrow, deciduous. 

Flowers with no broad sepals nor interior perianth-scales. 

Style swollen at the base; bristles none. 8. FimbHstylis. 

Style not swollen at the base ; bristles usually present. 

Spikelets solitary-many; bristles 1-6, rarely none. 9. Scirpus. 

Spikelets solitary or few; bristles 6-many, soft, smooth, very lotk^^ slender, 
much exserted. 10. Ertophorum. 

Flowers with a perianth of 3 stalked sepals or of i or 2 interior hyaline scales. 
Perianth of 3 broad stalked sepals, usually alternating with as many bristles. 

II. Fuirena. 
Perianth of i or 2 hyaline scales (sepals?); bristles none. 

Perianth of a single minute posterior scale. 12. Hemicarpha. 

Perianth of 2 scales, convolute around the ovary. 13. Lipocarpha. 

Spikelets 1-4-flowered, some of the flowers imperfect. 

Style, or its base, persistent as a tubercle on the achene. 14. Rynchospora. 

Style wholly deciauous. 15. Cladiunt. 

Flowers all monoecious or dioecious, usually borne in separate small spikelets. 
Achene not enclosed in a utricle (perigynium). 

Spikelets clustered or solitary, not in a terminal spike; achene bony. 16. Scleria. 
Spikelets forming a terminal spike ; arctic genera. 

Scales 2-flowered, androgynous. 17. Elyna. 

Scales I -flowered, monoecious. 10. Kobresia. 

Achene enclosed in a utricle (perigynium). 

Axis of the pistillate flower conspicuous, subulate, often exserted beyond the perig^ynium. 

19. uncinia. 
Axis of the pistillate flower rudimentary or none, not exserted. 20. Carex. 

I. CYPERUS L. Sp. PI. 44. 1753. 

Annual or perennial sedges. Culms in our species simple, triangular, leafy near the 
base, and with i or more leaves at the summit, forming an involucre to the simple or com- 
pound, umbellate or capitate inflorescence. Rays of the umbel sheathed at the base, 
usually very unequal, one or more of the heads or spikes commonly sessile. Spikelets flat 
or subterete, composed of few or many scales, the scales falling away from the wingless or 
winged rachis as they mature (nos. 1-19), or persistent and the spikelets falling away 
from the axis of the head or spike with the scales attached (nos. 20-32). Scales concave, 
conduplicate or keeled, 2-ranked, all flower-bearing or the lower ones empty. Flowers per- 
fect Perianth none. Stamens 1-3. Style 2-3-cleft, deciduous from the summit of the 
lenticular or 3-angled achene. [Ancient Greek name for these sedges.] 

About 650 species, of wide distribution in tropical and temperate regions. Besides the follow- 
ing, some 40 others occur in the southern United States. The English names Galingale and Sweet 
Rush are sometimes applied to all the species. 


Style i-cleft; achene lenticalar, not j'Sng'led: scales falling from the rachis; spikelets HaL 
Acheiie one-half aa long bb the scale; umbel nearly orqaite simple. 

Spikelets yellow; superficial cells of the achene oblong. i. C.flavtSU 

Spikeiets green or brawn; saperficial cells of the achene quadrate. 
Scales obtuse or obtnsish, apptessed. 

Scales membranous, dull; style much exserted. a. C. diandr 

Scales HubcoriaceoQB, shining; style scarcely exserted. 3. C. rivulai 

Scales acute, somewhat spreading at maturity. 

Achene narrowly obovatej apikelets J4'-l M' long. 
Achene linear-oblong; spikeleta 3"-q" long. 
Achene nearly as long as the scale; umbel sometimes much compound. 
Style 3-clett; a.chene 3-Bngled. 

4. C. Nullallii. '^ 

5. C. microdonlus. 

6. CjTe ■ 

S^es falling away from the persistent mchis of the flattened spikeiets, 

'VingB or the lachis, it present, permanently adnate to it. 
Scales tipped with recurved awns; low annual, i'-6' tall. 

7. C. <njta 

Scales acute or obtuse. 

Wings of the rachis nc 

Stamens 3; spikeli. .. _ „, . 

Annual; culms smooth, a'-io' long. ~ 8. C. compressut. 

Perennial; culms rough, i''-ay° tall. 9. C. Schwiinitzii. (. 

Stamen 1; spikeiets ovate, a"-4" long. 

Tall perennial; achene linear; scales acutish. 10, C. pseudovigetui. 

Low annual; achene oblong; scale-tips recurved. 11. C. acaminalus. c 
Wings of the rachis distinct. 

Low annual, adventive from Europe; scales brown. la. C.fuscui. 

Tall indigenous perennials (no. 13 sometimes annual?). 

Lower leaves reduced to pointed sheatbs, 13. C. Haspan. 

Leaves ail elongated-linear. 

Scales mucronate. reddish brown or green. 14. C. denlalus. 

Scales acute or obtuse, not roucronate. 

Scales wholly or partly purple-brown; achene linear. 

Scales tightly appressed, 15. C. rotundui. 

Tips of the scales free. 16. C Hallii. 

Scales atraw-colored; achene obovoid. 17. C. esculenlus. 

Wings of the rachis separating from it as interior scales; annuals. 

': g;^r 

Scales rigid, yellow. , . _ , 

Scales distant; achene linear-oblong. 33, C EngelmK 

Perennial by hard, tuber-like basal corms; Spikeiets more or less flattened, 
Achene narrowly linear-oblong, 3-4 times as long as thick. 

Spikeiets flat, several-many- flowered. 23. C. slrigosas. 
Spikeiets aubtcretc, few-flowered. 

Spikeiets 6" -ii" long, loosely spicate; lower reflexed. 34. C. refractus. 
Spikeleta iM"-6" long, densely capitate or spieate. 

Spikeiets all reflexed; culms rough. 15. C. retro/raclut. 
Spikeleta spreading or only the lower refleied; cnlros smootli. 
Heads oblong or cylindrio. 

Spikeiets 3"-5 long, the lower reflexed. s6, C. Ijtncasti 

Spikeletsiji-i" long, the lowerapreading. 27. C. cytindricut. 

Heads globose. 38. C. otmSaris. 
Achene oblong or obovoid, about twice as long as thick. 
Rachis wingless or very narrowly winged. 

Scales pale green, membranous, dull. 39. C.filicutmis. 

Scales chestnut -brown, firm, shining. 30. C. Houghloni. 
Rschis-wings membranous, broad. 

Scales firm, not appressed; spikeiets loosely capitate. 31. C. Gra^i. 
Sca]esthin,closelyappressed;spikeletsdenaely capitate, 33, C. echxnatus. 

I. Cyperus flav£scens L. Yellow 
Cyperus. (Fig. 543.) 

■CyperutJIavesceni L Sp. PI. 46. 1753- 

Aannal, culma very slender, tufted, leafy below, 
3'-i3' tall, mostly lotiger than the leaves. Leaves 
*'''-i>i" wide, smooth, the longer usually exceed- 
ing the inflorescence; clusters terminal and sessile 
Ox on 1-4 short rays; spikeiets in 3's-6'b, linear, 
Subacute, yellow, many- flowered, flat, i,"-^' long, 
* Ji"-2" broad; acales ovate, obtuse, i-nerved, ap- 
X>Tessed, twice as long as the orbicular-obovate 
-^^ack obtuse lenticnlar shining achene; stamens 3; 
Vtyle deeply 3-cleft, its branches slightly exserted; 
v-QperScial cells of the acbeae oblong. 

In marshy gronnd, Maine to Michigan, Florida and 
Mexico. Also in the Old World. Ai«,-Oct. 

Cyperu^ difindrus Torr. Low Cypenis. (Fig. 544. ) 

CyPtrus diandrui Ton. Cat. PI. N. Y. 90. 1819. 

\t Britton. Bull. Ton. Club, 

Annaal, cnlms tufted, slender, a'-ij' tall. Leaves 
abont i" wide, thooe of the involacre usaally 3, 
the longer much exceeding the spikeleta; clnsters 
sessile and terminal, or at the ends of I~3 raj's: 
spilcelets 4"-9" long, linear-oblong, acute, flat, 
mauy-floweTed; scales ovate, green, brown, or 
with brown margins, obtuse, i-nerved, appressed, 
membranous, dull; stamens 2 or 3; stjle 3-cleft, 
its branches much eiserted; achcne lenticular, 
oblong, suba(?ute, gray, not shining, one-half as 
long as the scale, its superficial cells quadrate, 
about as long as wide. 

Tn marshy places New Brunswick to Minnesota, 
south to South Carolina and Kansas. Aug, -Oct. 

The var. elongalus is only a form with longer spike- 
lets, found in soothem New York and New Jersey. 

3. Cyperus rivul&ris Kuuth. Shining 
Cyperus. (Fig. 545.) 

Cyperus rivularis Kunth, Enum. a: 6. 1837. 

. (?) c. 
Not C 

Similar to the preceding species, culms slender, 
lulled, 4'-i5' tall. Umbel usually simple; spikelets 
linear or linear- oblong, acutish, 4"-io" long; scales 
green or dark brown or with brown margins, 
appressed, firm, subcoriaceous, shining, obtuse; 
stamens mostly 3; style 3-cleft, scarcely exserted; 
achene oblong or oblong-obovate, lenticular, some- 
what pointed, dull, its superficial cells quadrate. 

In wet noil, especially along streams and ponds. 
Maine to southern Ontario and Michigan, south to 
Virginia and Missouri. Aog.-Oct. 

Cyperus NuttaUii Eddy. Nuttall's Cyperus. (Fig. 546.) 

Cyperus jVu/lailii Eddy; Spreng. Neue Entd. l: 24a 

Annual, culms slender, tufted, 4^-18' tall, equal- 
ling or often longer than the leaves. Leaves of the 
involucre 3-5, spreading, the larger often 5' long; 
umbel simple or slightly compound, 3-7-rByed; 
spikelets rather loosely clustered, linear, very acute, 
flat, spreading, J^'-ifi' long, l"-lji" wide; scales 
yellowish-brown with a green keel, obloag, acute, 
rather loosely spreading at maturity; stamens 3; 
style 3-clcft, its branches somewhat ex serted; achene 
lenticular, narrowly obovate, obtuse or truncate, 
dull, light brown, one-third to one-half as long as 
the scale, its superficial cells quadrate. 

Salt marshes, Maine to Mis 

sippi. Aug. -Oct. 


5. Cyperus microd6ntu8 Torr. Coast Cyperus. (Fig. 547.) 

Cyfifrui nticrodonlus Torr. Ann, Lye. N. Y. 3: 355. 

Annual, similar to tbe preceding species, culms 
very slender, tufted, sometimes io' high, usually 
lower. Leaves about 1" wide, those of the invo- 
lucre much elongated; umbel commoaly simple, 
aessite, capitate, or i-6-rajed; spikelets linear, 
acut*, 3"-^" long, less than i" wide, yellowish- 
btown; scales ovate, acute, thin, appressed when 
young, spreading at maturity; stamens i; style 3- 
cleft, its brancbea much exaerted ; achene lenticular, 
linear-oblong, short-pointed, light brown, one-half 
as long as the scale, its superficial cells quadrate. 

6. Cyperus flaiicomus Michx. Elegant Cyperus. (Fig. 548.) 


Michx. PI. Bor. Am. i: 27. 1S03. 

Annual, culms stout or slender, I'-s" tall, leafy 
below. Leaves smooth, or rough-margined, 2"-^" 
wide, those of the involucre 3-8, the longer ones 
much exceeding the inilorescetice; umbels few- 
several- rayed, often compound; primary rays Ji'- 
3,4' long; spikeletH numerous, usually densely clus- 
tered, linear, acute, 4"-io" long, i"-iyi" wide, 
flat, many' flowered, spreading; scales oblong, ob- 
tuse, thin, dall, yellowish-brown, scarious-mar- 
gined, faintly 3-nerved; stamens 3; style 3-cleft, 
little exseited; acbenes obovate, lenticular, black, 
mucronate, not shining, nearly as long as the 
scales and often persistent on the racbis after these 
have fallen away. 


o Florida and 

7. Cyperus inflixus Muhl. Awned Cyperus. (Fig. 549.) 

is Muhl. Gram. 16. 


a. 35: Soo, in part. 1868. 

Annual, culms slender 01 almost filiform, tufted, i'-* 
& tall, about equalled by the leaves. Leaves i" wide 
orless, those of the involucre 3-3, exceeding the nmbel; 
umbel sessile, capitate, or t-3.rayed; spikelets linear- 
oblong, 6-10- flowered, 3"-3" long; scales light brown, 
lanceolate, rather firm, strongly several -nerved, taper 
ing into a long, recurved awn, falling from the rschis 
at maturity; stamen i; style 3<left; rachis narrowly 
winged, the wings persistent; achene 3-angled, brown 
dall, narrowly obovoid or oblong, obtuse, ntucronulate 

In wet, sandy soil, Vermont to the Northwest Temtorj 
ind Oregon, south to Florida, Texas, California and 
Hexico. PiBgrant in drying. July-Sepl. 

Cyperus comprtssuB L. Flat Cyperus. (Fig. 550.) 


n L. Sp. PL 4fi. 1753. 

AqdubI, tolled, ctilnu alendcr, erect or reclining, 
smooth, s'-io' long. LcBvea light gieen, about i" 
wide, thoaeof theinvolncie 3-3, the longer exceeding 
the epikelets; nmbel capitate or with a-3 short rays; 
spikelets nBironly lanceolate, acnte, i,"-\of' long, 
\%"-%" wide, very fl«t, many-flowered ; scales 
light green with a yellow band on each side, orate, 
acnminate, Srm, Icecled, sevctal-nerved, falling away 
from the narrowly-winged lachis at matnrity; stamen* 
3; style 3-cleft; achene sharply 3-angled, Oboroid, ob- 
tuse, dull, brown, about one-third as long as the 

In fields, Maiyland to Florida, west to Hitsonri and 
Texas. Also in tropical America and in the warmei 
parts of AuB and Africa. Aug. -Oct. 

9. Cyperus Schweinltzii Ton. Schweimtz's Cyperus. (Fig. 551,) 
CyPerus Schuieinilxii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 976. 


Perennial by the thickened conn-like bases of the 
cnlms, tufted, culms rather slender, rough, at least 
above, I'-a^j" tall, about equalled by the light 
green leaves. Leaves i"-i}i" wide, roagh-mar- 
gined, those of the involucre 3-7, erect, the longer 
exceeding the inflorescence; umbel simple, ^-^ 
rayed, the rays erect, sometimes 4' long; spikelets 
flat, in rather loose ovoid spikes, which are sessile 
snd at the ends of the rays, linear-oblong, 6-ia- 
flowered, 4"-8" long; scales convex, light green, 
ovate, acute or acuminate, 9-13-nerYed, falling 
away from the rachis at maturity; stamens 3; style 
3-cleft; achene sharply 3-angled, oblong, brown, 
acnte at each end, nearly as long as the scale, its 
superficial cells quadrate. 

In sandy soil, especially along lakes and streams, 
western New York and southern Ontario to the North- 
west Territory, Minnesota and Kansas. Aug. -Oct. 

10. Cyperus pseudovigetus Steud. Marsh Cyperus. (Fig. 552.) 

Cyperus pseudovrgeltts Stetxi. Syn. PI. Cyp. 04. 1855. 
CyPerus caUaraltis Nees; S. Wats, in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 

6, 57a 1890. 

Perennial by thickened tuber-like joints of the 
rootstocks, culm rather stout, i°--4° high, often 
equalled by the leaves. Leaves iji"-a" wide, 
smooth, nodulose, the midvein prominent; leaves of 
the involucre 4-6, spreading, the longer much ex- 
ceeding the inflorescence; umbel several-rayed, com- 
pound, the primary rays often 4' long; spikelets 
ovate, flat, many-flowered, light green, densely capi- 
tate, a"-3" long; scales keeled, condnplicate, i- 
nerved, curved, acute, longer than tbe linear 
3-angled slightly stalked achene ; stamen t ; style 

o Florida, west t< 


11. Cypenis acuminfttus Torr. & Hook. 

Short-pointed Cypems. (Fig;. 553.) 

Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. Aon. Lye. N, Y. 3; 
435- 1836. 

Anaual, culms very slender, tufted, 3'-i5' tall, 
longer than or equalling the leaves. Leaves light 
green, usually less than i" wide, those of the iavo- 
Incre much elongated; umbel 1-4-rayed, simple; rays 
short; apikelets flat, ovate-oblong, obtuse, i"-l^" 
long, manj-fiowered, densely capitate; scales oblong, 
pale green, 3-nerved, coarsely cellular, con duplicate, 
with a short sharp more or less recurved tip; stamen 
t; style 3-cleft; achene sharply 3-angled, gray, ob- 
long, narrowed at each end, aboul: one-half as long 
as the scale. 

13. Cyperus fAscus L. Brown Cypems. (Fig. 554.) 
CyPems/mcus L- Sp. PI. 46. 1733. 

Annual, culma alender, tufted, 6^-15' high, longer 
than or equalled by the leaves. Leaves rather dark 
green, about 1" wide, those of the involucre 4-6, 
the longer much exceeding the inflorescence; um- 
bel several -rayed, somewhat compound, the rays 
short; spikelets linear, t"-y" long, less than i" 
wide, many-flowered, acute; scales ovate, subacute, 
becoming dark brown or remaining greenish on 
the keel, faintly about 3-nerved on the back, sepa- 
rating from the narrowly winged rachis as they 
mature; stamens 2 or 3; styles-cleft; achenesharply 
3-angled, oblong, pointed at each end, nearly as 
long as the scale. 

Revere Beach. Mass., and New London, Conn. Ad- 
ventlve or fugitive from Europe. Also in ballast about 
the eastern seaports. Jnl}'-Sept. 

13. Cyperua Hfispan L. Sheathed Cypenis. 
Cypenu HasfiaH L. Sp. PI. 45. 1753. 

Perennial by short rootstocks (sometimes an- 
nual ?), roots fibrous, culms slender, weak, tufted, 
lO-j" high. Lower leaves reduced to meinbranr 
ons acuminate sheaths, those of the involucre 
about a, osnallyless than i" wide, commonly little 
exceeding or shorter than the inflorescence; umbel 
several-rayed, simple or compound, the longer 
rays I'-a' long; spikelets few, capitate, linear, 
acute, many-flowered, i"-(/' long, about }i" 
wide; scales oblong or oblong-lanceolate, reddish- 
brown, acute, mncronulate, keeled, 3-nerved; 
rachis narrowly winged; stamens 3; style 3-clelt, 
scarcely esserted; achene 3-angled, broadly oh- 
ovoid, obtose, nearly white, very much shorter 
than the scale. 

In swamps, Virginia to Florida and Texas, mostly 
near the coast. Also in tropical America and in the 
wanner parts of Europe, Asia and Australia. July- 

(Fig- 555-) 

14. Cyperus dentAtus Torr. Toothed Cyperus. (Fig. 556,) 
CyPerusdeHlalusloTT. Fl. U, S. 1: 61, 1824. 

Perennial by scaly rootttocka which •ometlmcs 
bear unall tubers, calms rather stiff; 8'-3o' tall, 
longer than or equalled by the leaves. Leaves 
keeled, i"-3" wide, those of the involucre 3-4, 
one or two of them usually ezceediug the inflores- 
cence; umbel several-rayed, somewhat compound; 
longer rays 1^-3' long; spikelets linear, very flat, 
many-flowered, mostly blunt, 5"-io" long, nearly 
a" wide; scales light reddiib-brown, ovate-lanceo- 
late, thin, keeled, s-7-aerved, mncronate, separa- 
ting from the rachis when mature, their tips 
spreading, causing the spikelet to appear toothed; 
Btamens 3; style 3-cIeft, the branches ezserted; 
Bcheue 3-angled, obtuse, mucronate, light brown, 
much shorter than the scale. 

In sandy swamps and 
northern New York, Boutb 
Carolina. Scales often u 
leaves. Aug. -Oct. 

on river shores, Maine to 
to West ViiKiniB and South 
lodified intp tufts of small 

Cyperus rot6adus L. 



Cyptrus rolundus L. Sp. PI. 45. _,„^ 

Cyfierus Hydra Michi. V\. Bor. Am. i: »7. 1S03. 

Perennial by scaly tuber-bearing rootstocka, 
culm rather stoat, S'-x/ high, nsually longer than 
the leaves. Leaves iJ^'-3' wide, those of the invo- 
lucre 3-5, the longer equalling or exceeding the in- 
florescence; umbel compound or nearly simple, 3- 
S-rayed, the longer rays 3^-4^' long; spikelets 
linear, closely clustered, few in each cluster, acute, 
4"-io" long, i"-iji" wide; scales dark purple- 
brown or with green margins and centre, ovate, 
acute, closely appressed when mature about 3- 
nerved on the keel stamens 3 style 3-cleft, its 
branches ezserted achene 3 angled about one-half 
aa long as the scale 

In Gelds VitEinia to Ptonda west to Kansas and 
Texas Adventive in ot about ballast deposits at the 
eastern "eaports. Also m tropical America and widel; 
distributed in the Old World ]u)j-Sept 

(Fig. 557-) 

16. Cyperus HAIlii Britton. Hall's 
Cyperus. (Fig. 558.) 

Cyperus Hallii Britton, Bull. Torr. Club, 13; 211. 


Perennial by scaly rootstocka, cnim rather stout, 
3''-3° tall, about equalled by the leaves. Basal 
leaves a"-3" wide; involucral leaves 3-6, the longer 
very much exceeding the inflorescence; nmbel 
compound, its longer rays 3'-4' long, the' raylets 
sometimes \' long; spikelets numerous, loosely 
clustered, linear, 7-15-flowered, s"-8" long, 1"- 
I ^ " wide; jnvolucels setaceous; scales ovate, acute, 
strongly 7-9-nerved, dark reddish-brown or with 
lighter margins, tbeir tips not appressed; stameni 
3; style 3-clefl, its branches much exserted; acbene 
linear-oblong, 3-angled, about one-half as long as 
the scale. 

Kansas and the Indian Territory to Texas. July- 

17. Cyperus escul^ntus L. Yellow Nut-grass, (Fig. 559.) 

1753- „ 
2.1. 1817. 

Perennial by scaly horizontal tuber-beBring root- 
stocks, culm usually stout, i^-afi" tall, commoiily 
shorter than the leaves. Leaves light green, 3"-4" 
wide, the tnidvein prominent; those of the in- 
volucre 3-6, the longer much exceeding the in- 
florescence; ambel 4--io-rayed, often compound; 
spilcelets numerous in loose spikes, stran-color or 
yellowish-biown, flat, spreading, 6"-ij" long, 
i}j"wide, many-flowered; scales ovate-oblong, sub- 
acute, 3-3- nerved; rachis narrowly winged; stamens 
3; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid, obtuse, j-angled. 

In moist fields. New Biunswick to Minnesota, sontb 
to Florida and Texas. Also on the Pacific Coast from 
California to Alaska, in tropica! America, and widely 
distributed in tlie Old World. Sometimes a tlouble- 
some weed. Aug:. -Oct. 

Cypemi escnltntaa anenstlBpicltus Britton, Bnll, Torr. 
Club, 13:311. 1886. 
Spikelets very slender, i" wide or less. Massachusetts to South Carolina and Mis! 

18. Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. Red-rooted Cyperus, (Fig, 560,) 
CyPerus erythrorhiios Muhl. Gram. ao. 1817. 

Annual, culms tufted, stout or slender, 3'-a° tall. 
Leaves i}ii"-^" wide, rough-margined, the lower 
longer than or equalling the culm, those of the in- 
volucre 3-7, some of them 3-5 times as long as the 
inflorescence; umbel mostly compound, several- 
rayed; spikelets linear, subacute, 3"-io" long, leas 
than i" wide, compressed, many-flowered, clus- 
tered in oblong, nearly or quite sessile spikes; 
scales bright chestnut brown, oblong-lanceolate, 
mncronulate, appressed, separating from the rachis 
at maturity, the membranous wings of the rachis 
separating as a pair of hyaline interior scales; sta- 
mens 3; style 3-cleft; achene sharply 3-angled, ob- 
long, pointed at both ends, pale, one-half as long 
as the scale. 

In wet soil, especially along streams, southern On- 
tario to Hassachusetts and Florida, west to Missouri, 
Kansas, Texas and California. Aug.-Oct. 
pomilDS Bngelm. is a low form, not worthy of varietal rank. 

Cypsma aiytbriiiUioa vi 

19. Cyperus Hdlei Torr, Hale's Cyperus. 

(Fig. 561.) 
Cyierus Haiti Torr.; Britton, Bnll. Totr. Ctnb, 13: 
313. 1886. 

Annual, culm stoat, 3°-^" tall, about equalled 
by the leaves. Leaves 3"-4" wide, very rough- 
margined, those of the involucre 5-8, much elong- 
ated; umbel compound, several -rayed; spikes cy- 
lindiic, sessile or very nearly so, exceedingly dense, 
X'-i' long; spikelets very numerous, linear, 1%"- 
iyi" long, yi" wide, spreading; scales brown, 
keeled, indistinctly s-nerved, oblong, mucronn- 
late, separating from the rachis at maturity, the 
wings of the tachis separating as a pair of hyaline 
scales, as in the preceding species; stamens 3; 
style 3-cleft; achene 3-angled, minute. 

In swamps, sonthem Missouri to Tennessee, Louisi- 
ana and Florida, July-^pt. 


20. CypeniB specidsus Vahl. Michaux's Cypenis. (Fig. 562.) 

CyPerus sbeciosiis\ab.\, Bnotn. a; 364. 1806. 
Cyperut Michauxianui Schultes, Mant 3: 

12J. 1814. 

Annaal, calma stout or slender, usual!; 
tufted, s'-a" tall, reddish towaid the 
base. Leaves rough -margined, i^"~^%" 
wide, shorter thau or equalling the culm, 
tlie midTein prominent; leaves of the !□- 
Tolocre much ezceeditig the umbel; um- 
bel compound ornearly simple, 3-7-rayed, 
the primary rays i'-3>i' long; iavolucela 
narron; spilcelets subterete, very nar- 
rowly linear, loosely ot densely clustered, 
4"-i3" long, less than i" thick, 10-30. 
flowered, falling away from the axis at 
matarity; scales dull bronn, thin, ap- 
pressed, densely imbricated, ovate, ob- 
tuse, faintly 3-5-D«rTed on the back; 
rachis-wings broad, clasping the achene, 
persistent; stamens 3; style 3-cIeft, slight- 
ly exserted; achene pale, 3-angled, about 
one-half as long as the scale, its super- 
ficial celk nearly quadrate. 

In marshes, Rhode Island to Ohio and Minnesota, 

Florida, Texas and California. 

)n, Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 61. 

Cyperua speciftaul femisiniiceiiB (Boet^kl.) B 
Cyperus/trrugintsceni Boeckl. Linnaca, 36: 396. 1869-70. 

Scales spreading or slightly recurved, reddish. Missouri to Texas and Neir Mexico. 

Cypems spcdisns pirvas (Boeckt.) Britton, Bull. Torr. Club, 13: 214. 1S86. 
CyperUi parvus Boeckl. Ijnnaea, 36: 397. 1869-70. 

Culm i'-3' high; umbel very simple, generally of but a single cluster of short splkelets. Mis- 
souri to Hew Mexico. 

Cyperus f^rox Vahl. Coarse Cypenis. (Fig. 563.) 

Cypems/erox Vahl, Enum. a: 357. 1806. 

Annual, closely related to the preced- 
ing species, but with snutoth-mai^ned, 
shorter and broader leaves, those of the 
involucre sometimes but little exceeding 
the inflorescence. Umbel simple or some- 
what compound, often compact, the rays 
.mostly short; spikelets linear, snbterete, 
Io-20-flowered, S"-i3" long, about i" 
thick, falling away from the axis at 
maturity; scales ovate-oblong, apptesscd, 
imbricated, obtuse, rather firm, green and 
7-9 nerved on the back, yellowish on the 
sides; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; rachis 
broadly winged; achene 3-angted, nar- 
rowly obovoid, obtuse. 

In wet soil, Missouri to CHlifomia and 
widely distributed in tropical America. 


32. Cyperus Engelm&nni Steud. Kng:eli 

CyPervi Engelmanni Steud. Syn. PI. Cyp- 47- i8S5- 

Annual, culms slender, V-i^" tall. Leaves 
elongated, a"-3" wide, flaccid, roughish on the 
margitis, those of tbe involucre 4-6, the longer 
exceeding the umbel; umbel often compound, the 
rajrlets very short; spikelets oflen densely crowded, 
very narrowly linear, subterete, 6"-i2" long, 
5-15-Aowered ; rachis narrowly winged ; scales 
gieenish-brown, oblong, obtuy, thin, faintly 3-5- 
nerved on the back, distant, the successive ones 
on each side of tbe spikelet separated by a space 
of about one-half their length; stamens 3; style 
3-cleft; actaene linear-oblong, 3-aDgIed, two-thirds 
u long as the scale. 

5 Cyperus. (Fig. 564.) 

33. Cyperus strigdsus L. Straw-colored Cyperus. (Fig. 565.) 
Cyperut slrigoius L. Sp. PI. 47. 1753. 

Perennial by basal tuber-like corms, cnlm 
rather stont, i°-3° tall. Leaves somewhat 
rough -margined, a"-3" wide, the longer 
ones of the involucre much exceeding the 
umbel; umbel several. rayed, compound or 
nearly simple, some of the primary rays 
oflen ^'-t' long, their sheaths terminating in 
3 bristles; involucels setaceous; heads ob- 
long or ovoid; spikelets flat, linear, a,"-<i" 
long, \" wide or less, 7- 15- flowered, sepa- 
rating from the axis at matnrity; scales 
straw-colored, oblong-lanceolate, subacule, 
strongly aeveial-nerved, appressed or at 
length somewhat spreading; stamens 3; 
style 3-clefl; acbene linear'Oblong, 3-aDgled, 
acute, about one-third as long as the scale. 

In moist meadows, bwuddb or along streams, 
Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, aontli to Flor- 
ida and Texas. Aug. -Oct. 

AiDonfE the numerous forms of this species 
the following may be defined as varieties: 

Cypema Btrigbans capititna Boeckl. Linnaea, 36: 347. 
>; spikelets 4"-7" long, densely capitate in 


nbglobose beads. Range 

Cypems atijg&aas compdsltns Brittou, Bull. Torr. Club, 13: : 

Cyperus strig 
Umbel componnd; spikelets S' 

■na robiatlar Kuntb, Enum. 1 
la" long, lo-ij-flowered. Ra 


34. Cypenis refr4ctua Engelm. Reflexed Cypems. (Fig. 566.) 

Perennial by tuber-like conns, culm stoat, 
smooth, i'*-3° tall. I,eBTea 3^^"-^" wide, longfa- 
margiued, elongated; umbel 6-ii-T*yt6, nsnall]' 
componnd, the longer rays sometimes 6' long, 
their sheaths terminating in i or 3 short teeth; in- 
volucels setaceous; raylets filiform; spilcelcta very 
narrowly linear, loosely spicate, acute, fiattish, 
5"-ij" long, )i" thick, 3-6-flowered, the npper 
spreading, the lower reflexed; scales yellowish- 
gieen, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, closely appressed, 
9-ii-nerved, thin; stamens 3; style 3-cleft, its 
branches much exserted; achene narrowly linesr, 
obtuse, apicutate, about 5 times as long as thick, 
and one-half as long as the scale. 

Cypems retrofrictus (L.) Tort. Rough Cyperas. (Fig. 567.) 


Perennial by tuber-tike corms, culm slender, 
rough-pnberulent, at least above, mostly longer than 
the pnberulent leaves, I'-i" tall. Leaves i Ji'^-a^" 
wide, those of the involucre 4-7, the longer not 
greatly exceeding the umbel, sometimes shorter; um- 
bel simple ; rays very slender, nearly erect, or spiead- 
ing, t'-f/ long, their sheaths 3-toothed; heads ob- 
long or obovoid; spikelets linear- subulate, y-6" 
long, about }i" thick, 1-3-flowered, all soon strongly 
reflexed, separstiug from the axis at maturity; flow- 
ering scales lanceolate, acute, the upper one snbn- 
late, all strongly several-nerved; stamens 3; style 
3-clefl; achene linear, 3-angled, obtuse, apiculate, 
two-thirds as long as the scale. 

26. Cyperus Lancastriinsis Porter. Lancaster Cyperus. (Fig. 568.) 

Cyperas Lancaslriensis Porter; A. Cray, Man. Ed. 5, 
555- "867. 

Perennial by ovoid or oblong corms, culm slender, 
smooth, mostly longer than the leaves, i''-a^° tall. 
Leaves a"-3" wide, those of the involucre 4-7, the 
longer much exceeding the inflorescence; umbel 
simple, s-9-rayed, the longer rays i'-4' long, their 
sheaths nearly truncate; heads oval, obtuse, >j'-i' 
long; spikelets densely clustered, Vs" long, linear, 
subterete, a-4-flowered, the lower reflexed, the mid- 
dle ones spreading, all separating from the axis at 
maturity; scales green, strongly several-nerved, the 
flowering ones lanceolate, subacute; stamens 3; 
style 3-cleft; achene linear, obtuse, apiculate, 2-3 
times as long as thick, two-thirds as long as the 


37. CyperuB cyKndrica* (EH.) Britton. Pine-barren Cyperus, (Fig. 569.) 

lU. Torr. Clab, 13: ; 

Cy bents Torreyi 1 


Perentiial hy small bard corma, calms sleader, 
wnooth, usubIIj tufted, 4'-l8' tall, longer tban the 
lesTCB. Leaves smooth, i"-i^" wide, the longer 
ones of the involucre much exceeding the umbel; 
umbel simple, sevenl-rayed, the rajs short, or tbe 
longer I'-i^' long, tfae sheaths 3-tootfaed; beads 
▼ery dense, cylindric, %'-^' long, 1"-^" in di- 
ameter; spikeleta \%"--i" long, flattiah, 1-3-flow- 
ered, spreading or the lower reflezed; scales greea, 
oblong; rachis wiuged; stamens 3; style 3-clefl; 
achene linear-oblong, 3-angled, aplcalate, slightly 
more than one-half as long aa the scale. 

IQ aaady pine bamns and on the sea shore, southern 
New York to Florida, west to Texas, mostly near the 
coast. July-Sept 

a8. Cyperus ovulitris (Michx.) Torr. Globose Cypenis. (Fig, 570,) 

Perennial by hard tnber-like conns, stem usnally 
strict, smooth, S'-ajj" tall, longer than the leaves. 
Leaves smooth,. 2"'-3" wide, the longer ones of the 
involncre mnch exceeding the umbel; umbel umple, 
few-rayed, the rajs rarelj more than lyi' long; 
sheath of the rays truncate qr slightly toothed ; heads 
globose or sometimes a little longer than thick, 4"- 
Y' in diameter, very dense, the spikelets radiating 
in all directions; spikeleta 1"--^%" long, nsually 3- 
flowered, separating from the axis and leaving a scar 
at maturity; rachis winged; scales ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, gieen, strongly sev- 
eral-nerved; stamens 3; stjle 3-cleft; achene linear- 
oblong, 3'BDgIed, 3-3 times as long as thick. 

29. Cyperus fiUcfilmis Vahl. Slender Cyperus. (Fig. 571,) 
Cyperus Jilicutntis Vahl, Bnum a: 338. 1806. 

Perennial hj hard oblong comjs, culm smooth, 
slender or almost filiform, ascending or reclined, 
f/-\%' long, nsuallj longer than the rongh-mar- 
j:iDed leaves. Leaves \"-i" wide, keeled, those 
of the ipvolncre, orsomeof tbem, much exceeding 
the inflorescence; spikelets densely clustered in 
1-7 globose heads, linear, acute, 5-ii-flowered, sub- 
terete or compressed, a^"-6" loug, i" wide or 
less, tardily falling away from the axis at maturity; 
rachis wingless; scales ovale, acute or obtuse, pale 
.green, strongly 7-11-nerved, appressed; stamens 3; 
style 3-clefl; achene oblong or obovoid, 3-aDgled, 
obtuse, aiMCutate, dull gray, two-thirds as long as 
the scale, about twice as long as thick. 

In dry Gelds and on hills, Rhode Island to Ontario 
.and Minnesota, south to Florida, Kauaas, Texas and 
nofthem Mexico. June-Aug. 


30. Cypenis Hodghtoni Torr. Houghton's Cyperos, (Fig. 572.) 

Cybertts Hoaghloni ToTT. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: i77- 

Perennial by tnber-like conns, cnhna TCry 
slender, smooth, erect, x^-t" talL Leaves stuMtcr 
than the culm, i" wide or less, smooth, those of 
involucre 3-5, the longer moch exceeding the nm- 
bel; nmbel simple, 1-5-nyed, the rajrs mostlj 
short, their sheaths a-toothed; spikelets looael? 
capitate, linear, compressed, acute, ^"~&" long, 
about 1" wide, iI-15-flowered, falling away from 
the axis when matnrei scales chestnut brown, firm, 
somewhat spreading, shining, oblong, obtuse, 
truncate 01 apiculate, strongly about it-nerved; 
rachis very narrowly winged; stamens 3; style 
3-cleft; achene broadly oblong, less then twice as 
long as thick, 3.angled, brown, apicnlate, nearly 
as long as the scale. 

In sandy soil, Uassachnsetts to Minnesota, Kanaas 
and Oregon. Jnly-Aug. 

31. Cypenis Qtkyi Torr. Gray's 

Cypenis. (Fig. 573.) 

Cyfierus Grayi Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y, 3: a68. 1836. 

Perennial by thick hard oblong or ovoid conns, 
culms tafted, ascending or reclined, stiff, smooth, 
very slender, f/~K/ long. Leaves shorter then 
the culm, bright green, i" wide or less, those of 
the involucre 4-S, the longer somewhat exceeding 
the umbel; umbel 4-10-TByed, simple, the longer 
rays 3'-^' long; sheaths of the rays truncate or 
nearly so; spikelets aJi"-5"long, loosely capitate, 
compressed, linear, rigid, spreading; scales green, 
ovate, obtnsc or subacute, strongly 13-15-nerved, 
rather widely spreading when old; joints of the 
rachis broadly winged; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; 
achene oblong or obloug-obovoid, obtuse, apicu- 
late. abont two-thirds as long as the scale. 

In sands of the sea shore and in pine barrens, Massa- 
chusetts to Florida. July-Sept. 

32. Cypenis echindtus (Ell.) Wood. Baldwin's Cypertis. (Fig. 574.) 

Mariscus eckinalus Ell. Bot. S. C. & Gs. l; 75. 61, j. 

/. 1. 1816. 
Cypfnis Baldu'iniiToTT. Ann. Lvc. N. Y. 3:370. 183S. 
Cyfierus tchinalus Wood, Class-book, 73*. 1863. 

Perennisl by tuber-like corms, culm slender, 
smooth, erect, mostly longer than the leaves. 
Leaves pale green, ij4"-i" wide, those of the in- 
volucre 5-10, the longer usually much exceeding 
the umbel; umbel simple, 6-13-rayedi the rays fili- 
form, their sheaths short, macronate; spikelets 2"- 
3" long, linear, flat, densely or loosely capitate in 
globose heads; scales thin, psie green, appt«saed, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute. 9-13-nerved, with narrow 
scarious margins; joints of the rachis broadly 
winged; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene oblong- 
obovoid, obtuse, one-half aa long as the scale, about 
twice as long as thick. 

In dry soil 
North Carol IT 
July- Aug. 



3. KYLLINGA Rottb. Descr. & Ic. 12. pi. 4. f. j, 4. 1773. 
Annual or perennial sedges, with sleader triangalar culms, leafjr b«low, and with 3 or 
more leaves at the snmtnit forming an involncre to the strictlj seeaile, simple or compound 
dense 'head of spikeleta. Spikelets numerons, compressed, falling awa^ from the axis of 
the head at matnritj, consisting of only 3 or 4 scalei, the i or a lower ones small andemptj, 
the middle one fertile, the upper emptj or staminate. Jointa of the rachis wingless or nar- 
rowly winged. Scales a-ranked, keeled. Perianth none. Stamens 1-3. Style 2-3-cleft, 
deddaons from the summit of the achene. Achene lenticular or 3-angled. [In honor of 
Peter KjUing, a Danish botanist of the seventeenth centurj.] 

About 10 species, natives of tropical and temperate regfions. Besides the following, a others 
--- - "n the southern United States. 

Kyllinga p^mila Michx. Low 
Kyllinga. (Fig. 575.) 

:. F1. Bor. Am. l: 3&. 

Annual, culms densely tnfted, filiform, 
erect or reclined, a'-is' long, mostly longer 
than the leaves. Leaves light green, raugh- 
ish on the margins, usually leas than 1" 
wide, those of the involucre 3-5, elongated, 
spreading or reflexed; head oblong or ovoid- 
oblong, 3"-4" long, simple or commonly 
with I or 3 smaller ones at the base; spike- 
lets about i>j" long, flat, i-flowered, the 3 
empty lower scales more or less persiseut on 
the rachis after the fall of the rest of the 
spikelet; scales ovate, acuminate or acute, 
thin, about 7-nerved; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; 
achene lenticnlar, obtnse. 

In moist or wet soil. Virginia to Florida, west 
to Illinois, Missouri, Texas and Mexico. Ang.- 

3. DULl'CHIUM L. C. Richard; Pers. Syn. i: 65. 1805. 
A tall perennial aedge, with terete hollow jointed cnlms, leafy to the top, the lower 
leaves reduced to sheaths. Spikes axillary, pednncled, simple or compound. Spikelets 
i-ranked, flat, linear, falling away from the axis at maturity (?) many-flowered. Scales 
i-ranked, carinate, condnplicate, decurrent on the joint below. Flowers perfect Perianth 
of 6-9 retrorsely barbed bristles. Stamens 3. Style a-cleft at the summit, persistent as a 
beak on the summit of the achene. Achene linear-ohlong. [Name said to be from Dulci- 
chimum, a Latin name for some sedge.] 

A monolTpic Kenua of eastern Noith America. 
I. Dulichium arundinilceum (L.) 

Britton. Dtilichium. (Fig, 576,) 
Cypfrui amndinaceus L. Sp. PI. 44. 175,1. 
CyPerus ipathacetis L. Syst, Ed. 12, 3:735. '7*7' 
Dulichittjit spalhadu-m Pen. Syn. ^'.^i- 1S05. 
Dulichium arundiaaeeum Bntton, Bull. Torr. 

Club, 31:39. i^' 

Culm stout, i°-3° tall, erect Leaves num- 
erous, flat, i'-3' long, 3'''-4" wide, spreading 
or aae en d iu g, the lower sheaths bladeless, 
brown toward their summits. Spikes shorter 
than or the uppermost exceeding the leaves; pe- 
duncles 3"-ia" long; spikelets narrowly linear, 
spreading, 6"''i3" long, about i" wide, 6-13- , 
floweied; scales lanceolate, acuminate, strongly ' 
several-nerved, appressed, brownish ; bristles of 
the perianth rigid, longer than the achene; 
atyle long-exserted, persistent. 

In wet places, Nova Scotia to Ontario and Min- 
nesota, ftonth to Florida and Texas. Augr.-Oct. 



4. ELe6cHARIS R. Br. Prodr. FI. Nov. HoU. i: 224. 1810. 
Annaal or perennial sedges. Cnlma simple, triaagnlar, quadnngiilar, terete, flattened or 
grooved, the leaTea reduced to sheaths or the lowest very rarely blade-bearing. Spikeleta 
solitary, termiiial, erect, several-maiiy-flowered, not lubtended by an involucre. Scales con- 
cave, spirally imbricated all around. Perianth of i-ii bristles, usually retroraely barbed, 
wanting iu some species. Stamens 3-3. Style 3-cleft and achene lenticular (w bicoovei, or 
3-cleft aud acbene 3-angled, but sometimes with very obtuse angles and appearing turgid. 
Base of the style persistent on the summit of the achene, forming a terminal tubercle. 
[Greek, lefening to the growth of most of the species in marshy ground.] 

About 100 npecies, widely distributed. Besides the following, some 15 others occur in the 
Bouthera and western parts of North America. 
Spikelet scarcely or not at all thicker than the mlm. 
Culm Btont; spikelet maay-Howered. 

Culm terete, nodose. I. S. inltrtlintla. 

Culm guadran^pilar, continuous. a. E. ntutala. 

Culm slender, triangular, continuous; spikelet few-flowered, subulate. 3. E. Sobbitttii. 
SpikeleC manifestly thicker than the culm. 

Style mostly a-cleft; achene lenticular or biconvex. 

Upper sheath scarious, hyaline; plants perennial by slender rootatocks. 

Scales pale green or nearly white; achene H" long. ^. B. ochreala. 

Scales dark reddish-brown; achene M" long. 5. E. olivacea. 

Upper sheath truncate, oblique or toothed, not scarious. 
Annual, with fibrous roots. 
Achene jet black. 

Culms i'-3' tall; achene H" long; bristles X-\. 
Cnlms3'-io' tall; achene H" long; bristles 3-8. 
Achene pale brown. 

.iw.i.. ij ^r oblong; tubercle deltoid, «—••- 

•. Ik'.paTu 

Spikelet O' 

11. £. ttcieularis. 

II. E. Wolfii. 

13. E. torlilis. 

>r larger than the achene. 14. E. luberctiloia. 

15. E. micnxarpa. 

Style 3-cleft; achene 3-angled or turgid. 
Achene reticulated or cancellate, 

Spikelet compressed; culm filiform. 
Spikelet terete; culm slender. 

Achene transversely cancellate; bristles none. 
Achene reticnlated; bristles present, stout. 
Tubercle conic, smaller than the achene. 
Tubercle cap-like, as large as 01 
Achene smooth or papillose. 

Achene smooth, white; culms capillary. 
Acbene papillose or smooth, brown, black or yellow. 
Tubercle depressed or short-conic. 
Achene smooth. 

Tubercle Sat, covering the top of the black achene. t6. E. melanocarfia. 
Tubercle ovoid-conic, acute, contracted at the base. 17. E, albida. 
Achene papillose. 

Achene 3-ribbed on the angles. 18. E. Iricostala. 

Achene obtuse-angled, not ribbed. 

Culm filiform; scales obtuse. 19. E. lenuis. 

Cnlm fiat; scales acute. so. E. acutninala. 

Tubercle subulate or narrowly pyramidal. 

Culms filiform, wiry, densely tufted, 4' -10' long. 31. £. inlermatia. 

Culms flattened, slender, 1°-*° long. la. E. rosUtlala. 

I. Eleocharisinter8tincta(Vahl)R. &S. Knotted Spike-rush. (Fig. 577.) 
Seirfius inlersliiiclut Vahl, Bnnm. 3: m. 1S06. 
Scirptts equiseloides EU. Bot S. C. & (^ i: 79. 1816. 
Eteockarts interslincta R. & S. Syst. 1: 148. 1S17. 
Eleochari! efuiseloides Torr. Ann. Lye 3: 396. 1836. 
Perennial by stout rootstooks, culms terete, hol- 
low, nodose, papillose, i>i°-3° tall, the sterile ones 
sharp-pointed. Sheaths oblique, membranons, 
I brown or green, the lower sometimes bearing short 
blades; spikelet terete, cylindric, many-flowered, 
subacute, i'-i)i' long, 3" in diameter, not thicker 
than the culm; scales ovate, orbicular or obovate, 
obtnae or the upper acute, narrowly scarious-maT' 
gined, faintly many-nerved, persistent; bristles 
about 6, rigid, retrorselj barbed, as long as the body 
of the acbene or shorter; stamens 3; style 3-cIelt, 
exserted; acbene obovoid, brown, shining, with 
minute transverse ridges, convex on one aide, very 
obtusely angled on the other, 3 or 3 times aa long 
as the conic acute black broad-based tubercle. 
water, Massachnsetts to Michigan, the West Indies and Mexico. July-Sept. 



3. Eleocharia mutUta (L.) R- &S. Quadrangular Spike-nish. (Fig. 578.) 
Seirpui mulatui L. Am. Acad. 5: 391. 1760. 
Scir^us quadrangulalus Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. i; 30. 

Eteockaris quadrangulala R. & S. Syst. »; 155. 1817. 
eieocfiaris mulala R. & S. Syst. 3: 155. 1817. 

Perennial hy stout rootatocks, culms sharply 4- 
angled, stout, not nodose, papillose, 2^-^° talL 
Sheaths pniplish-brown or green, raembranons, 
sometimea bearing short blades; spikelet terete, 
acnte. cylindric, I'-z' long, 2" in diameter, many- 
flowered, about as thick as the culm; scales coria- 
ceous, broadlyovateorobavate, obtuse or the upper 
subacute, scarious-margined and sometimes with a 
narrow brown band within the margins, faintly 
manj-nerred, persistent; bristles about 6, rigid, re- 
trorsely barbed, about as long as the achene; sta- 
mens 3; style 3-cle(t; achene obovoid, biconvex or 
slightly sngled on the back, minutely cancelUte, 
about twice as long as the conic acute tubercle, 
which is truncate or contracted at the base. 

ip9, northern New Jersey to Michi^n, south to Alabama, MJssonri, 
n the West Indies and South America. July-Sept. 

3. Eleocharis Robbinsii Oakes. Robbins' 
Spike-nish. (Fig. 579.) 
EUockaris Xobbinsii Oaket, Hovey'sMag. 7: 17S. 1841. 

Perennial by slender rootstocks, culms slender, 3- 
angted, cinitinuous, 6'-a° long, somethnes producing 
numerous filiform flaccid sterile branches from the base. 
Sbeaths appreased, obliqnely truncate; spikelet subulate, 
few-floweied, not thicker than the culm, f/'-inf' long, 
\" in diameter; scales lanceolate or oblong-lanccolate, 
obtuse or snbacnte, strongly concave, faintly several- 
nerved, persistently clasping the racbis, narrowly scari- 
ous-margined; style 3-cleft; bristles 6, equalling the 
achene and tubercle, retrorsely barbed; achene obovoid, 
light brawn, biconvex or very obtusely angled on the 
back, somewhat longer than the conic-subulate flattened 
tubercle, which has a raised ring around its base. 

o Michigan, south to 

4. Eleocharis ochreilta (Nees) Steud. Pale Spike-ni^. 
EUt^enus oehrealus Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras, a: Part i, 

t02. 1841. 

Eleoeharis ochreala Steud. Syn. PI. Cyp. 79. 1855. 

Perennial by very slender rootstocks, culms very 
slender, 01 filiform, erect, pale green, 3-angled, a'-to^ 
talL Upper sheath with a white, hyali 
limb; spikelet oblong or ovoid, subacute, 
thick as the culm, about i" long, iX" in diameter, 
several-flowered; scales pale green, ablong-tanceolate, 
obtuse or the upper acute,, thin, .hyaline with a faint 
nidvein; style 3-cIeft; bristles about 6, slender, le- 
trorsely barbed, somewhat longer than the achene; 
achene %" long, lenticular, obovate, smooth, brown, 
3-4 times aa long as the conic acute tubercle, which 
is often constricted at the base. 

In wet soil, southeni 
sippi. Also in Wyomi 
America. Aug.-Sept. 

(Fig. 580.) 


5. Eleocharia oHvAcea ToTT. Bright green Spike-rush. (Fig. 581.) 

EUocharis oHvacta TofT. Ann. Lye. N. V. 3: joa 1836. 

Peienoial b; mnnitig raotatocka, often tnfted and 
matted, cdIuh very Blender, bright green, erect or re- 
clining, flattened, i'-4' long. Upper abeath with a 
white hyaline limb; apikelet ovoid, »cnte or ot 
macb thicker than the cnlm, Beveral-manr-SowcTed, 
aboat a" long, l" in diameter; acalca ovate, thin, 
acute, reddish -brown, with a green midvein and 
row, scarioua margins; stamens 3; style 3-cle[t; bris- 
tles 6-S, slender, retrorsely barbed, longer than the 
achene and tubercle; achene obovoid, similar to that 
of the preceding species but twice as large, 3-4 times 
the length of the conic acute tnbercle. 

In wet soil, Maine to southern Ontario and Pennsylva- 
nia, south to South Carolina, mostly near the coast 

6. Eleocharis atropurptlrea (Retz) Kunth. Purple Spike-rush. (Pig. 583.) 

Seirpus alropurpureus Retz, Obs. 5: 14. 
Eleocharis alropurpurea Kunth, Enum, a 


Annual, roots fibrous, culma tufted, very slender, 
I'-j^'high. Upper sheath i-toothed; spikelet ovoid, 
tnany-flowered, subacute, i>^"-3" long, \" in diam- 
eter or less; scales minnte, ovate-oblong, obtuse or 
the upper acute, persistent, purple-brown with green 
midvein and verjr narrow scarious marj^ns; stamens 
1 or 3; style i-3-cleft; bristles 2-4, fragile, white, 
minutely downwardly hispid, about as long as the 
achene; achene Jet black, shining, 3^" long, smooth, 
lenticular; tubercle conic, minute, depressed but 
rather acute, constricted at the base- 
In moist soil, Nebraska and eastern Colorado to Central 
America, east to Florida; widely distiibnted in tropical 
America. July-Sept. 

7. Eleocharis capitUta (L.) R. Br. Capitate Spike-nish. (Fig. 583.) 


Annual, roots fibrous, culms densely Infted, nesrly 
terete, almost filiform, rather stiff, I'-to' talL Upper 
■heath t-toothed; spikeletoToid, obtuse, much thicker 
then the culm, \}i"-2%" \t>ag, i"-iji"thick, many- 
flowered; scales broadly ovate, obtuse, firm, pole or 
dark brown with a greenish midvein, narrowly acari- 
ous-margined, persistent; stamens mostly 3; style s- 
cleft; bristles 5-8, slender, downwardly hispid, at 
long as the achene; achene obovate, jet black, 
smooth, shining, nearly }i" long; tubercle depressed, 
apiculate, constricted at the base, very much shorter 
than the achene. 

In moist soil, Maryland to Florida, west to Indiana and 
Texas. Widely distnbuted in tropical tesions. July-Sept 


8. Eleocharia ovAta (Roth) R. & S. Ovoid Spike-nish. (Fig. 584.) 
Seirfiui czratus Rath, Catal. Bot. l: 5. 1797. 
Eleocharis ovala R. & S. Syat. 1: 15a. 1817. 

Aatinal, roots fibrous, culms totted, slender or 
filiform, rather deep green, nearly terete, mostly 
erect, j'-l6'tall. Upper sheath i-toothed; splkc- 
let ovoid or oblong, obtuse, many-flowered, 2"-$" 
long, \."-iyi" in diameter; scales thin, oblong-or- 
bicnlAT, very obtuse, brown with a green midvein 
and scanousmargiDSi bristles 6-8 (sometimes fewer 
or wanting), decidnous, usually longer than the 
acbene; stamens a or 3; style a-3-cletl; achene pale 
brown, shining, lenticular, oborate-oblong, smooth, 
%" long or more; tubercle deltoid, acute, com- 
pressed, scarcely constricted at the base, about 
one-fourth as long as the achene and nairower- 

Iti wet soil. New Brunswick to Ontario and British 
Cotumbia, south to Florida. Oregon, Nebraska and 
Texas. Also in Europe. Variable. July-Sept. 

g. Eleocharis Engelminni Steud. Sngelmann's Spike-rush. (Fig. 5S5.) 

Eleocharis EngelmanniStcMA.Syn.'P\.Cjf.T<i. 1855. 
Eltocharis ovala vai, Engelmanni Britton, Joum. N. 

Y. Micros. Soc. 5: 103. 1889. 

Annual, similar to the preceding species, but 
culms commonly taller, sometimes 18' high. Up- 
per sheath obliquely truncate or i-toothed; spike- 
let oblong-cylindric or oyoid-cylindric, obtuse oc 
subacute, 3"-8" long, i"-i)i" in diameter, many- 
fiowered; scales pale brown with a green midvein 
and narrow scarions margins, ovate, obtuae, de- 
ciduous; style a-cleft; bristles about 6, not longer 
than the achene; achene broadly obovate, brown, 
smooth, lenticular; tubercle broad, low, covering 
the top of the achene, leas than one-fourth its 

In wet soil, Massachusetts to southeru New Jersey, 
west to Indiana, Atkau&iia, Teias and California. 

10. Eleocharis pallistris (L.) R. & S. Creeping Spike-rush. (Fig. 586.) 
Scirpus fialuslris L. Sp. PI. 47. 1753, 
Eleocharis paltislris R. & S. Syst. a: 151. 1S17, 
Eleocharis paluslris var. vigens Bailev; Britton. Joum. 
N. Y. Micros. Soc. 5: 104. 1889. 

Perennial by horizontal rootstocks, culms stout, 
terete or somewhat compressed, striate, i°-5° tall. 
Basal sheaths brown , rarely bearing a short blade, the 
upper one obliquely truncate; spikelet ovoid-cylin- 
dric, 3"-ia" long. iyi"-i" in diameter, many-flow- 
ered, thicker than the culm; scales ovate-oblong or 
ovate-lanceolate, purplish- brown with scarious mar- 
gin and a green midvein, or pale green all over; bris- 
tles usually 4, slender, retrorsely barbed, longer than 
the achene and tubercle, sometimes waoting; sta- 
mens 3-3; style a-3-cIefl; achene lenticular, smooth, 
ycUow, over Ji" long; tubercle conic -triangular, 
constricted at the base, flattened, one-fourth to one- 
half as long as the achene. 


Bl*ocb«if* paldattia tUttttittUM (Wiltd.) A. Gray, Hui. Ed. s, 5^ 
Scir/ius gtauceiceni Willd. Enum, 76. 1809. 

Culms Blender 

tubercle narrower. In wet 

Perhaps a distinct speciEB. 

The so-called variety ct 

Eleochaii* paI6ttila Witmnl Clarke, Britten's Joum. Bot. 15: 36S. TS87. 
Eleocharis Watsoni Bab. Ann. Nat. Hist. (II.) 5: 10. 1851. 

I^brador and Prince Edward 

a form without bristles. 

II. Eleocharis acictilAris (L.) R. & S. Needle Spike-rush. (Fig. 587.) 

a: 154- 1817. 
FercDtiial by filiform atolonaor rootatocki, 
culms ttafted, finely filifoim or Bctaceons, 
obscurely 4-at)g1ed and grooved, weak, erect 
or reclinitifr, 3'-8' long. Staeattas trnDcate; 
Apikelet compressed, narrowly ovate or liu- 
ear-oblong, acnte, broader tban the cnlm, 3- 
10-flowered, i>i"-3" long, ^"wide; scales 
oblong, obtuse or the upper subacnte, thio, 
pale green, usually with a narrow brown 
band on each aide of the midvein, deciduous, 
many of them commonlj sterile; bristles 3- 
4, fragile, fugacious, shorter tban the achene; 
Btaraeua 3; style 3-clefl; achene oboToid- 
oblong, pale, obscurely 3-angled with a rib 
on each angle sod 6-^ lower intermediate 
ribs connected by fine ridges; tabercle conic, 
acute, one-fourth as long as the achene. 

In wet soil, throngfaont North America, ex- 
cept the extreme north. Also in Europe and 
* — " '■ — t entirely sterile. Jnly-SepL 

Asia. Sometim 

la. Eleocharis Wdlfii A. Gray. Wolf's 
Spike-rash. (Fig. 588.) 

Scirpus Wotfii A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 10: 77. 1874. 
Ettocharii Wolfii A. Gray; Britton, Joum. N. Y. 
Micros. Soc. 5: loj. 1S89. 

Perennial by short rootstocks, culms very slen- 
der, erect, flattened and a-edged, 8'-i8' tall. Upper 
sheath oblique, scarious, hyaline -tipped; spikelet 
oblong or ovoid-oblong, terete, acute, thicker than 
the culm, j"-3" long, nearly i" in diameter; 
scales ovate, obtuse or the upper acute, thin, pale 
green with purplish -brown bands, tardily decidu- 
ous; bristles none (or perhaps early decidnoos); 
style 3-clefl; achene obovoid, obscurely 3-aagled, 
longitudinally 9-ribbed, the ribs transversely con- 
nected by minute ridges; tubercle depressed-conic, 
much shorter than the achene. 

In wet meadows, Illinois and Iowa. June-Aug. 


13. Eleocharis t6rtilis (Link) Schultes. 
Seirfiui lorlilis Link, Jahrb. 3: 78. iSao. 
Eleocharis lorlilis Schultes, Hant. 1: 93. 1824. 

AnDDal, roots fibrous, calms tnfled, filiform, sharpljr 
3-aiigled, pale green, erect or recliaing, twisting when 
old, l°-l^° long. Sheaths obliquely truncate, i- 
tootbed; spikelet ovoid or oblong, subacute, several- 
flowered, %"-%" long, about i" thick, much thicker 
tban the culm; scales firm, pale, ovate, mostly obtase; 
bristles 4-6, rigid, retrorsely barbed, about equalling 
the achetie and tubercle; stamens 3; style s-cleft; 
achene obovoid, obscurely 3-aDgled, strongly reticu- 
lated, longitudinally about i8-ribbed; tubercle cap-like 
or conic, truncate at the base, one-fonrth to one-half 
as long as the achene. 

I Florida and Texas, near the 

Twisted Spike-rush. (Fig. 589. > 

14. Eleocharis tuberculdsa (Michx.) R. &. S. Large-tubercled Spike-rush, 
(Fig. 590.) 
Scirpus tubfrcatoius Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i; 30. 1803. 
Eleocharis luierculoia R, & S. Syst. a: :5». 1817. 

Anunal, culms tufted, slightly compressed, very 
slender, rather stiff, striate, bright green, 8'-3° tall. 
Upper sheath obliquely truncate or i-toothed; spike- 
let OToid, obtuse or subacute, many-flowered, 3"-6" 
long, nearly i" in diameter; scales broadly ovate, ob- 
tuse, pale greenish-brown with a darker midvein, 
broadly scarious-margined, firm, tardily deciduous;, 
bristles 6, rigid, downwardly or rarely upwardly 
barbed, about aa long as the achene and tnbercle; 
stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid, pale, trigon- 
ous, strongly reticulated, longitudinally abont 18- 
ribbed; tutjercle cap-like or conic, nearly or quite as 
large as the achene. 

Florida and Texas, near 

Eleocharis ■ 

Eleocharis Torreyana Boeckl. Linnaea, jfi: 440. 

15. Eleocharis microcftrpa Torr. Small-fruited Spike-rush. 

arpa Ton. Ann. Lye. N. V. 3; 311. 
Annual, calms finely filiform, densely tufted, some- 
what 4-«ided, erect or reclining, often proliferous by 
developing secondary culms in the axils of the spike- 
Irt, sometimea rooting at the sammit, I'S' long. 
Upper sheath obliquely truncate; spikelet oblong, 
subacute, terete or nearly so, much thicker tban the 
cnlm, many-flowered, i}i"-3}i" long; scales ovate, 
acute, brownish-red with a green midvein and lighter 
margins, early deciduous except the lowest which is 
commonly larger than the others, persistent and 
bract-like; bristles 3-6, slender, shorter than or 
equalling theachene; Btamen33; style 3-cleft; achene 
white, 3-angled, obovoid, smooth, minute; tubercle 
conic-pyramidal, much shorter tban the achene. 

In wet Kandy soil, southern New Jersey to Florida and Texas, mostly 

(Fig. 591.) 


i6. Eleocharis melanociirpa Torr. Black-fruited Spike-rush. (Fig. 593.) 

EleocAarii melanoearfia Tan. Atm. Lye. N. Y. 3: 311. 


PerettoUl by short rooUtocks, culnu flattened, striate, 
tuflcd, slender, erect, wiry, leZ-x/ taU, Upper sfaeatb 
truncate, l-toothed; spikelet oblong or cyllndric-oblong, 
obtuse, 3"-6" long, i}4"-i" in diameter, many-flow- 
ered, thicker than tbecnlm; scales ovate, obtuse, brown, 
with a lighter midveio aud scarious margins; bristles 3- 
4, fragile, downwardly hispid, eqoalling or longer than 
the acbene, fugacious or perhaps sometime* wanting; 
stamens 3; style 3-cle(t; acbene 3-Bngled, obpyramidal, 
black, smooth, its superficial cells nearly quadrate; tu- 
bercle depressed, covering the summit of tbe achene, 
light brown, pointed in the middle. 

In wet MUidy * 
Island to Ploriiu, n 

17. Eleocharis illbida Torr. White Spike-rush. (Fig. 593.) 

Eleocharis albida Tory. Ann. I^c. N. Y. 3; 304. :B36. 

Annual, roots fibrous, culms very slender, tufted, 
nearly terete, striate, erect, 4'-8' tall. Upper sheath 
very oblique and toothed on one side; spikelet ovcnd- 
gloibose or oblong, obtuse, a"-4" long, i^"-3" in 
diameter, many-flowered, thicker tban the culm; 
scales pale green or nearly white, rather firm, ovate, 
obtuse, decidnons; bristles about 6, downwardly 
barbed, persistent, as long as the achene; stamens 3; 
style j-clefl; achene broadly obovoid, nearly black 
when ripe, 3-augled, smooUi; tubercle ovoid-conic, 
contracted or truncate at the base, about one-fonrth 
as long as the achene. 

18. Eleocharis tricostflta Torr. Three-ribbed Spike-rush. (Fig. 594.) 

Eleocharis Iricoslala Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y..3; 310. 1836. 

Perennial by short rootstocks, cnlms very alendet, 
erect, compressed, striate, i°-3° tall. Upper sheath 
obliquely truncate, toothed on one side; spikelet ob- 
long, becoming oblong-cylindric, obtuse, many-flow- 
ered, $"-^" long, i"~\%" in diameter; scales ovate, 
thin, deciduous, obtuse, brown with a gieen midvein 
and scarious margins; bristles none; stamens 3; style 
3-cleft; acbene obovoid, 3-angled, brown, dull, papil- 
lose, strongly ribbed on each of its angles; tubercle 
conic, acute, light brown, constricted at the base, 
minute, very much shorter than the achene. 

In wet 

1, southern New York to Florida. Jnly-Sept 

19. Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schultes. Slender Spike-rush. 


Peieunial by rootstocks, calms tufted, filifonn, 
mostly erect, 4-aDgled with concave sides, 8'-i6' tall. 
Upper sfaeatb obliquely truncate, toothed on one 
-aide; spilcelet narrowly oblong, mostly acute, many- 
flowered, thicker than the culm, 3"-s" long, about 
i" in diameter; scales thin, obovate or ovate-oblong, 
obtuse, the midvein greenish, the margins scarious; 
bristles a-4, shorter than the achene, fugacious or 
wanting; achene obovoid, obtusely 3-aDgled, yellow- 
ish-brown, papillose; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; tubercle 

In wet soil. Cape Breton Island to Ontario and Mani- 
tot>a, south to Ploridaand Texas. The achenes are more 
or less peraistent on the rachis of the spikclet after the 
tall of the scales. May-Jnly. 

20. Eleocharis acumin&ta (Muhl.) Nees. Flat-stemmed Spike-rush. 

(Fig. 596.) 

Scirpui acuminal 
Eltocha ris camp re 
Eleockaris acumii 

[ Huh). Gram. 37. 1817. 

a Snlliv. K-m. Joum, Sci. 4^: Jo. 

■la Nees, Linnaea, 9: 194. 1835- 


Perennial by stout rootstocks, similar to the pre- 
ceding species but stouter, culms flattened, striate, 
Blender but rather stiff, tufled, 8'-3° tall. Upper 
sheath truncate, sometimes slightly i-toothed; spike- 
let ovoid or oblong, obtuse, thicker than the culm, 
many-flowered, 3"-6" long; scales oblong or ovate- 
lanceolate, acute or the lower obtusish, purple-brown 
with a greenish midvein and hyaline white margins, 
deciduous; bristles 1-5, shorter tban or equalling the 
achene, fugacious, or wanting; stamens3; styles-cleft, 
exserted; achene obovoid, very obtusely 3-Bngled, 
tight yellowish brown, papillose, much longer than 
the depiessed-couic acute tubercle. 

In wet soil, Anticosti to 
Louisiana and Missouri, 
rachis as in E. lenuis. Ju 

Manitoba, south to Geoigia, 
Achenes persistent on tbe 

21. Eleocharis intermedia (Muhl.) Schultes. Matted Spike-rush. (Fig. 597.) 



Annual, roots fibrous, culms filiform, densely 
tufted, diffusely reclining or ascending, usually 
matted, grooved, 4'-ii' long. Upper sheath ob- 
liquely truncate, toothed on one side ; spikelet 
ovoid-oblong, acute, 8-ao-flowered, thicker than 
the culm; scales oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or the 
upper subacute, light purple-brown with a green 
midvein, tardily deciduous or tbe lower one per- 
sistent; bristles persistent, downwardly barbed, 
longer than the achene and tubercle; stamens 3; 
style 3-cleft; achene 3-angled, obovoid, light brown, 
finely reticulated; tubercle conic- subulate, very 
acute, slightly constricted at the base, one-fourth 
to one-half as long as the achene. 


22. Eleocharis rostelldta Torr. Beaked Spilce-nish. (Fig. 598. ) 

St:irpus roslellalustoTT. Ann. Lye. N. V. 3: ji8. 1836. 
Eleocharis roslellala Toit, F1. N. V. 3: 347. 1843. 

Perennial by a shott caiidex, culms alender, 
wiry, the fertile erect or aacendio);, the Bterile 
reclining and rooting at the summit, grooved, 
1°-^" long. Upper sheath tmncate; spikelet 
oblong, narrowed at both ends, thicker then 
the culm, lo-ao-flowered, 3"-6" long, about 
1" in diameter; scales ovate, obtuse or the 
upper acute, green with a somewhat darker mid- 
vein, their margins sligbtl; scarions; bristles 
4-8, retrorsely barbed, longer than the achenc and 
tubercle; stamens 3; style 3-cleA; acbene oblong- 
otMVoidi obtusely 3^ngled, its surface finely re- 
ticulated; tubercle conic-subulate, about one-half 
as long as the achene or shorter, capping its sum- 
mit, partly or entirely falling away at maturity. 

In nuushes 
New Vork t( 
Texas, Mexic 

ind wet meadowa, Vermont and western 
British Columbia, south to Florida. 
Bud California. Also in Cuba. Aoc-- 

5. DICHROMENA Mtchx. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 37. 1803. 
Leafy-stemmed sedges, perennial by rootstocks, the spikelels crowded in a terminal head 
iovolucrate by the upper leaves, which are often white at the baae. Spikelels compressed, 
Beveral-many-flowered: Scales spirally imbricated all around, several of them with imper- 
fect flowers, or empty. Perianth none. Stamens 3. Style 2-cleft, its branches subulate. 
Achene lenticular, transversely rugose, crowned with the broad persistent base of the style 
(tubercle). [Greek, alluding to the two-colored involucral leaves.] 

About S species, natives of America. Besides the following, another occurs in the aouthwest- 
eni United Stales. 1. D. colorala. 

\; tubercle decurrent on the edges of the achene. 

a. D. lali/olia. 

I. Dichromena colortlta (I,.) A. S. Hitchcock. Narrow-leaved Dichromena. 

(Fig- 599) 
Schoenus coioralus L. Sp. PI. 43. 1753. 
Dichromena Icucocuphala Michx. Fl. Bor. .Am. 


.. S. Hitchc. Ann. Rep. 

Glabrous, culm slender, erect, rather 
sharply triangular, i°-a° tall. Leaves dis- 
tant, narrowly linear, about \" wide, much 
shorter than the culm, those of the involucre 
4-6, reRexed when mature, yellowish white 
at the base; head globose, 6"-io" in diame- 
ter; spikelets narrowly oblong, acute; scales 
membranous, lanceolate, nearly white, l- 
nerved, subacute at the apex; achene ob- 
ovate, brown, papillose or wrinkled traus- 
versely, nearly truncate at the summit, com- 
pressed, covered by the tubercle which is not 
decnrrent on its edges. 

In moiflt sandy soil, pine-barrens of New 
Jersey to Florida and Tcxaa. Also in tropical 

* '■— June-Sept. 


Dichromena latifdlia Baldw. Broad-leaved Dichromena. (Fig. 600. ) 

a lali/olia Baldw, ; Ell. Bot. S. C. & 

Ca. 1:90. 

Similar to the preceding species but tbe 
ctilm stouter, obtnsely triangular or oearlj' 
terete, the leaves lanceoiate or linear-lance- 
olate, tapering gradually to a long-BCumi- 
□ate apcz from a broad baae, I )i "-4" wide, 
sometimes overtopping the culm, but the 
lowest much shorter, those of tbe involucre 
7-10, strongly reflexed when old. Head 
globose, 6"-9" in diameter; apikelets ob- 
long, subacute; scales ovate-lanceolate, 
nearly white, rather obtuse; achenc nearly 
ortucutar in antline, pale brown, faintly 
wrinkled transTersely and longitudinally, 
so as to appear reticulated; tubercle decur- 
rent on the margins of tbe achcne. 


a Florida and 

6. PSILOCARYA Ton". Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3; 

Annual sedges, with fibrous roots, slender leafy stems and ovoid or oblong, many-flow- 
ered terete spikelets in terminal and axillary, mostly compound umbels, the rays and rajlets 
bracted at the base. Scales of the spikelets spirall; imbricated all around, all fertile, 
deciduous. Flowers perfect Perianth none. Stamens i or i. Style i-cleft, enlarged at 
the base. Achene lenticular or biconvex, smooth or transversely wrinkled, capped by the 
persistent base of the style (tubercle), or nearly the vrbolc style persistent as a beak. 
[Greek, referring to the absence of perianth-bristles.] 

Psilocarya nitens (Vahl) Wood. Short-beaked Bald-rush. (Fig. 601.) 

Psilotarya niUnS V, 


Glabrous, culms tufted, slightly angled, 3'- 
15' tall. Leavesnarrowly linear, about i"wide, 
smooth, sometimes overtopping the culm, 
sheathing at the base, the midvein prominent; 
umbels mostly loose; apikelets ovoid, 2"-3" 
long, rather less than i" in diameter; scales 
brown, broadly ovate, tbin, i-nerved, obtuse, 
acute or apiculate; achene lenticular, nearly 
orbicular, light brown, strongly wrinkled trans- 
versely; tubercle shorter than the achene, sub- 
acute, 3-lobed at the base. 


2. Psilocarya scirpoides Tonr. Long-beaked Bald-nish. (Fig. 602.) 

P^ilocarya scirpoidestan. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 3611 

"^ Similar to the precediog Bpecies and perhaps 
not specifically distioct. Umbels commonly 
more aumerous; spikeleU oblong or oroid-ob- 
long; achene nearly orbicular in outline, bicon- 
vex-, not as ilat aa that of P. ntUns, dark brown, 
faintly tranaversel; wrinkled or smooth, some- 
times longitudinally striate, slightly contracted 
at the base into a short stipe; tubercle snbulate, 
as long asor sometimes longer then the achene, 
its base decuirent on the edges. 

I, eaatetn Massachusetts and Rhode 

Island. July-Sept. 

7. STENOPHYLLUS Raf. Neog. 4. 1825. 
Mostly annual sedges, with slender erect calms, leafy below, the leaves narrowly linear 
or filiform, with citiate or pubescent sheaths. Spikelets umbellate, capitate or solitary, sub- 
tended by a I -several-leaved involucre, their scales spirally imbricated all around, mostly 
deciduous. Flowers perfect Perianth none. Stamens a or 3. Style 2-3-clen, glabrous, 
its base much swollen and peisistent as a tubercle on the achene aa in Eleocharh. Achene 
3-angled, turgid or lenticular. [Greek, referring to the narrow leaves.] 

\. genus of Si 

c 30 species, r 

n the southern United States, 

!S of temperate and warm regions. Besides the following, 

I. Stenophyllus capUlfLris (L.) Britton. Hair-like Stenophyllus. 
(Fig. 603.) 
Slirpiis capillaris L. Sp. PI. 49. 1753. 
Fimbriilylis capillaris A. Gray, Man, 530. 

5/«<o^Sj'«ujco^i7;anjBritton, Bull. Torr. Club, 
11. 30. i8cM- 

Annual, roots fibrous, culms filiform, 
densely tufted, erect, grooved, smooth, I'-io' 
tall. Leavea filiform, roughiah, much shorter 
than the culm, their sheaths more or less 
pubescent with long haira; involucral leaves 
1-3, setaceous, shorter than, or one of them 
exceeding the inflorescence; spikelets nar- 
rowly oblong, somewhat 4-sided, a^"-4" 
long, less than i" thick, several in a termi- 
nal simple or sometimes compound umbel, 
or in depauperate forms solitary; scales ob- 
long, obtuse or emarginate, puberulent, dark 
brown with a green keel; stamens a; style 3- 
clefl; achene yellow-brown, narrowed at the 
base, very obtuse or truncate at the summit, 
%" loug, 3-angled, transversely wrinkled; 
tubercle minnte, depressed. 

In ctr7 or moist soil, throughout North Amer- 
ica except the extreme north. Also in tropical 
America. July-Sept. 



8. PIMBRISTYLIS Vahl, Enum. 2: 285. 1806. 
Aauual^ or pcreaaial Bcdges. Culms leafy below. Spilcelets umbellate or capitate, 
erete, several to manj-Aowered, subtended bja i -many -leaved involucre, their scales spiral! j 
[nbricaled all around, mostly deciduous, all fertile. Perianth none. Stamens t-3. Stjle 
-3-clefl, pubescent or glabrous, its base much enlarged, falliug awav from the summit of 
he achene at maturity. Achene lenticular, biconvex, or 3-atigled, reticulated, cancellate, or 
ongitudinalty ribbed or striate in onr species. [Greek, in allusion to the fringed style of 

A large genus, the species widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Besides the 
oUowii^, some 4 others occur in the eoutheni and western parts of North America, 
ftyle 3-cleft^ achene lenticular 01 

Culms 8-3° tall; spikelets umt>eltate; style mostly pubescent. 
Perennial; leaves involute. 

Scales coriaceouB, shining, glabrous. 
Scales membranous, dull, puberulent. 
Annual; roots fibrous; leaves flat. 
Culms i'~4' tall, very slender: spikelets capitate; style glabrous IkIow. 
Ityle 3-clcft; acheae j-angled. 

: spadui 

%. F. taxa. 
4. F. Vahlii. 

I. Fimbristylis spadicca (L.) Vahl. Stiff Fimbristylis. (Fig. 604.) 

r sfiadia 


'ahl, Enum. : 
thickened base, glabrous, 

Perennial by 
ulms stiff, slender, 3-angledi wiry, I'-i" tall, 
iBually longer than the strongly involute rigid 
eaTCS. Leaves about i" vide when unrolled, 
heir sheaths dark brown; leaves of the involu- 
re 3-6, erect, the longer sometimes exceeding 
he nsnally componnd umbel; umbel several- 
ayed, the rays neatly erect, 3'-6' long; cen- 
ral spikelets of the umbels and umbellets sea- 
ile, the others pedicelled; spikelets ovoid or 
■Toid-cylindric, acute, 2^"-6" long, about 1" 
a diameter; scales oval, obovate, or orbicular, 
ibtuae or subacute, coriaceous, glabrous, shin- 
ug, dark brown withagreen midvein; stamens 
-; style 3-cleft; achene lenticular, obovate, 
irown, reticulated. 

In marshes and shallow water, Virginia to Flor- 
da, near the coast. Widely distributed in tropical 
tmerica. ^ly-Sept. 

I. Fimbristylis castSnea (Michx.) Vahl. Marsh Fimbristylis. (Fig. 605.) 
Scirfius caslaneui ilichx. PI, Bor. Am, 1:31. 1803. 
Fimbrislylis cas/anea Vahl, Enum, i: 39*, 1806- 
Fimbrislylis spadicea var. cailanea A. Gray, Man, 
Ed, 5, 566, 1867. 

Perennial by a thick base, culms slender, 3- 
angled, 8''-l° tall, usually exceeding the leaves. 
Leaves involute, less than 1" wide when un- 
rolled, their sheaths greeu and more or less 
pubescent; leaves of the involncre a-4, short; 
umbel simple or compound, the rays }i'-2' 
long; central spikelets sessile; spikelets oblong, 
obtuse or subacute, 3"-5" long, i"-i%" in 
diameter; scales thin, brown with a lighter 
midvein, broadly oblong or nearly orbicular, 
dull, puberuleut, obtuse or mucronate; stamens 
3-^3: style 3-cle(t; achene obovate or oblong, 
biconvex, pale brown, longitndinBll]r striate 
and reticulated. 

On salt meadows, southern New York to Florida 
and Louisiana, Also in wet soil in the interior 
from Michigan and Illinois to Kansas and Texas, 
and in tropical America. July-Sept. 

3.LiFimbristyli8 Uxi VahQ 


4. Fimbriatylis VihUi (Lam. ) Link. 

Weak Fimbristylis. (Fig. 606,) 
Fitnbrislylis laxa Vahl. Rtmrn. >: 992. 1806. 
J-'imbn'ifylii ffaidwiHiana Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 

344- 1836, 

Annual, roots fibrous, culms aleuder, flattened, 
striate, densely tufted, erect or ascending, a'~i$' 
long, uiualty longer thsn the leaves. Leaves flat, 
about }4" wide, glabrous or sparingly dilate, pale 
greei] and appearing glaucous, those of the involu- 
cre 3-5, one of them often exceeding the nmbel-, 
umbel simple or slightly compound, the central 
spikelet sessile; apikelets ovoid or ovoid-oblong, 
3"-6" long, about I " in diameter; scales ovate, thin, 
pale greenish-brown, subacute or mucronulate; sta- 
men i; style 3-c1eft, pubescent; achene biconvex, 
obovoid, light brown, longitudinally ribbed, the ribs 
tubercled and connected by very fine croas-lines. 

In moist soil, southern Pennsylvania to Florida, 
west to Illinois, Missouri and Texas. Also in tropical 

Vahl's Fimbristylis. (Fig. 607.) 


i: 187. 

Fimbrislytis congests Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3; 345. 

Annual, culms very slender, densely tufted, 
compressed, striate, erect or ascending, i'-4' 
high, longer than or equalling the leaves. 
Leaves setaceous or almost filiform, rough, 
those of the involucre 3-5, erect, much exceed- 
ing the simple capitate cluster of 3-8 Hpikelets; 
spikelets oblong-cylindric, obtuse, o."-i," long, 
about J4" thick, many-flowered; scales lanceo- 
late, pale greenish-brown, acuminate; stamen 
i; style 3-cleft, glabrous below; acheue minute, 
biconvex, yellowish -white, cancellate by longi- 
tndinal and transverse ridges. 

In moist soil, Missouri to 
a and Florida. Also 
n aeaporta. July-Oct. 

5. Fimbristylis autunm^lis (L. ) R. & S. Slender Fimbristylis. (Fig. 608.) 
Sctrpus autvtnnalis L. Mant. 3: 180. 1771. 
Fimbristylis aulumnatis R, & S. Syst. J: 97. 1817. 

Annual, roots fibrous, cnl ms very sleuder, densely 
tufted, flat, roughish on the edges or smooth, erect, 
ascending or spreading, s'-is' long, usually much 
exceeding the leaves. Leaves narrowly linear, flat, 
}4"~i" wide, long-acuminate, glabrous, those of 
the involucre 3-3, usually all shorter than the um- 
bel; umbel compound or decompound, the primary 
rays X'~*X' '"ngf ^'^ secondary filiform; spike- 
lets linear-oblong, acute, 2"-5" long, J^" thick 
or less, several-many flowered; scales ovate-lanceo- 
late, subacute, strongly mucronate, greenish-brown, 
the midvein prominent; stamens 1-3; style 3-cleft; 
achene obovoid, nearly white, 3-angled with a ridge 
on each angle, very finely reticulated and some- 
times roughened. 

In moist soil, Maine to Michigan, south to Florida 
and Louisiana. Also in tropical America. June-Sept, 


9. SCIRPUS L. Sp. PI. 47. 1753. 

Annual or perennial very small or very large sedges, with leafy culms or the leaves re- 
duced to basal sheaths. Spikelets terete or somewhat flattened, solitary, capitate, spicate or 
umbellate, subtended by a i-several-leaved involucre or the involucre wanting in some 
species. Scales spirally imbricated all around, usually all fertile, the 1-3 lower sometimes 
empty. Flowers perfect. Perianth of 1-6, slender or rigid, short or elongated, barbed, 
pubescent or smooth bristles, or none in some species. Stamens 2-3. Style 2-3-cleft, not 
swollen at the base, wholly deciduous from the achene, or its base persistent as a subulate 
tip. Achene triangular, lenticular or plano-convex. [Latin name of the Bulrush, said to 
be from sirs, the Celtic word for rushes.] 

About 200 species of very wide geographic distribution. Besides the following, some 6 others 
occur in the southern and western parts of North America. 

Spikelet solitary, terminal, bractless or subtended by a single bract or short leaf. 
No involucral bract. 

Culms i'-2' hi^h; achene smooth; plant of saline soil. i. 5*. nanus. 

Culms V-io' high; achene reticulated; plant of fresh- water marshes. 2. S. pauciflorus, 
Involucral bract present, erect. 

Bract shorter than or but little exceeding the spikelet; plants not aquatic. 

Culm terete; leaf of upper sheath subulate; bristles smooth. 3. S. caespitosus. 

Culms triangular; leaf of upper sheath linear; bristles upwardly barbed. 

Leaves shorter than the culm; scales acute. 4. S. Clinioni. 

Leaves about as long as the culm; scales cuspidate. 5. 5. planifolius. 

Bract at least twice as long as the spikelet; plant aquatic. 6. ^. subterminalis. 

Spikelets normally more than i, usually several or numerous, often appearing lateral; involucral 
bract only i. 
Spikelets few, 1-12, appearing lateral. 

Culms not sharply 3-angled; achene plano-convex; annuals. 

Achene strongly transversely rugose. 7. S. Haiti i. 

Achene smooth or verv slightly roughened. 

Bristles downwardly barbed, about equalling the achene. 8. S. debilis. 

Bristles minute or wanting. 9. S. Smiihii. 

Culms sharply 3-angled; plants perennial by rootstocks, 

Achene plano-convex; bristles shorter than or equallinf? the achene. 

Spikelets acute, much overtopped by the slender involucral leaf; scales awned. 

10. S. Americanus, 
Spikelets obtuse; involucral leaf short, stout; scales mucronulate. 

11. 5". Olneyi. 
Achene 3-aneled, ridged on the back. 

Bristles longer than the achenej involucral leaf erect. 12. 5". Torreyi. 

Bristles as long as the achene; involucral leaf abruptly bent. 13. S. ntucronaius. 
Spikelets several or numerous, umbelled; tall sedges. 

Culm sharply triangular, equalled by the long leaves. 14. 5. cylindricus. 

Culm terete; leaves reduced to sheaths. 

Bristles downwardly barbed; achene gray, abruptly mucronate. 15. S. lacustris. 
Bristles short-plumose below; achene nearly white, narrowed above. 

16. S. Californicus, 
Spikelets several, spicate. 17. 5. ru/us. 

Spikelets several, capitate or umbellate, large; involucral leaves 2 or more. 
Achene lenticular or plano-convex; snikelets capitate. 

Capitate cluster simple; achene ooovate -oblong, pale brown. 18. S. campestris. 

Capitate cluster often compound; achene orbicular-obovate, dark brown. 

19. 5. robusius. 
Achene sharply 3-angled; spikelets umbellate. 20. S. fluviaiilis. 

Spikelet^ verv numerous in compound umbels or umbelled heads, small; involucral leaves sev- 
eral; tall sedges. 
Bristles downwardly barbed; spikelets in umbelled heads. 
Spikelets ovoid or oblong, i J^"-25i" long. 

Bristles equalling or slightly exceeding the achene; leaves 3"-8" wide. 
Style 3-cleft; achene 3-angled; bristles 6. 

Spikelets y% in each head; bristles barbed throughout; scales obtuse. 

21. 5. sylvalicus. 
Spikelets 8-20 in each head; bristles not barbed below; scales acute. 

22. S, atrovirens. 
Style 2-cleft; achene plano-convex; bristles 4. 23. S. microcarpus. 

Bristles fiexuous, twice as long as the achene; leaves 2" -3" wide. 24. 5. polyphyllus, 

Spikelets cylindric, 3" -5" long. 25. S. Peckii. 
Bristles smooth or slightly pubescent; umbel mostly decompound. 
Bristles shorter than or scarcely exceeding the scales. 

Bristles about as long as the achene; scales subacute. 26. S. divaricalus. 

Bristles much longer than the achene; scales mucronate. 27. 5. lineatus. 

Bristles much exserted beyond the scales when mature. 28. 5. cyperinus, • 


Scirpus nllnus Spreng. Dwarf Club-rush. (Fig, 609.) 

Scirpus nanus Spnng, Pug. i: 4. 1815. 

EUockaris pygmaea Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 313. 1836- 

Annual, roota fibrous, culms fiUfonu, flattened, 
grooved, tufted, erect or Bsceudiug, I'-3' bigb, 
beartog a scarious bladeless sheath near the base. 
Spilulet solitaiy, termiual, ovoid-ob]oDg, ratber 
acute, 3-8-flowered, \"-\.%" long, not subtended 
by a bract; scales ovate or lanceolate, pale green, 
the lower obtuse, tbe upper subacute; bristle»about 
6, dowDvardly barbed, longer than the achene; 
atamena 3; style 3-cle(l; achene oblong, 3-atigled, 
pale, pointed at each end, amooth. 

Muddy places in salt marshes. Cape Breton Island 
to PloTida and Texas, and about salt springs in New 
York and Michiiran. Also on the Pacific Coast of 
North America tmdon the coants or Europe. July-Sept. 

Scirpus paucifldrus Lightf. Few-flowered Club-nish. (Fig. 610.) 

Scirpus pauciftot 
Eleocharis paucij 

1 Lightf. Fl. Scot 1078. 
'rtij Link, Hott. Berol. : 

284. l827. 

Perennial by filiform rootstocks, culms very slender, 
little tufted, 3-angIed, grooved, leafless, 3'-io' tall, the 
upper sheath truncate. Spikelet temtinat, solitary, not 
subtended by an involucral bract, oblong, compressed, 
4-10-flowered, 1"-}," long, nearly 1" wide; scales 
brown with lighter margins and midvein, lanceolate, 
acuminate; bristles 2-6, hispid, as long as the achene or 
longer; stamens 3; style 3-clefl; achene obovoid-oblong, 
gray, ratber abruptly beaked, its surface liuely re- 

In wet soil, Anticosti and Ontario to western New York, 
Minnesota and British Columbia, south in the Rocky Moun- 
tains to Colorado, and in the SieriH Nevada. Also in 
northern Euope. Juty-Oct. 

3. Scirpus caespitdsus L. Tufted Club-rush. (Fig. 611,) 

Scirpus caespitosus L. Sp. PI. 48. 1753. 

Perennial, culms smooth, terete, densely tufted, 
light green, erect or ascending, almost filiform, wiry, 
4'~ii' long. Basal sheaths numerous, membran- 
ous, imbricated, acirniinate, the upper one bearing a 
short very narrow blade; spikeletsolitary, terminal, 
few-flowered, ovoid-oblong, about 3" long, sub- 
tended by a subulate involucral leaf of about 
its own length; scales yellowish-brown, ovate, 
obtuse or subacute, deciduous; bristles 6, smooth, 
longer than the achene; stamens 3; style j-clett; 
achene oblong, smooth, 3-angled, brown, acute. 

In boga and on moist racks, Greenland to Alaska. 
south to the mountains of New England, the Adiron- 
dacks, weatem New York, Illinois, Minnesota and 
British Columbia, in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, 
and on tbe higher summits of the southern AUeghe- 
nies. Also in Europe and Asia, June-Aug. 


4. Scirpus Clintoni A. Gray. Clinton's Club-rush. (Fig. 612.) 

Scirius Clinloni A. Gray, Am. Joum. Sci. (IDaSisgo. 

Ferennial, culms tufted, trian^lar, very slender, 
erect, 4'-i5' tall, roughisb on the angles. Lower 
sbeaths imbricated, one or more of them bearing short 
subulate blades, the upper one bearing a flat, narrowly 
linear blade shorter than the culm; spikelet solitary, 
terminal, ovoid, few-flowered, iJi"-2" long, sub- 
tended by a subulate involucral bract of less than its 
own length or somewhat longer; scales ovate, pale 
brown, acute; bristles 3-6, filiform, upwardly barbed, 
as long as the achene or longer; style 3-cleft; achene 
oblong, brown, sharply 3-HngIed, smooth, obtuse. 

In dry fields and thickets. New Brunswick to western 
New York and Michigan, sonth to North Carolina. Local. 

5. Scirpus planifdlius Muhl. Wood Club-rush. (Fig. 613.) 
Scirpus piani/oli«syi\AA. Gram. 31. 1817. 

Perennial, culms triangular, slender, tufted, rather 
weak, roughish on the angles, 6'-i5' tall. Lower 
sheaths bearing short subulate blades, the upper with 
a flat narrowly linear rough-margined leaf about as 
long as the culm; pikelet solitary, terminal, ovoid- 
oblong, acute, several-flowered, subtended by a short 
involucral bract; scales ovate-lanceolate, yellowish- 
brown with a green midvein, which is extended be- 
yond the acute apex into a sharp cusp; bristles 4-6, 
upwardly barbed, about equalling the achene; stamens 
3; style 3-cIeft, pubescent; achene oblong, 3-angIed; 
smooth, light brown, rather obtuse. 

6. Scirpus subterminftlis Torr. Water Club-rush, 
Scirpus sublerminalis Torr. Fl. U. S. 1 : 47. 1814. 

Perennial (?), aquatic, culms slender, terete, nodu- 
lose, i°-3ji" long. Leaves slender, channeled, fZ-i" 
long, V'-JC" wide; spikelet solitary, terminal, ob- 
loug-cylindric, narrowed at each end, several-flow- 
(led, 3"-s" long, subtended by a subulate erect invo- 
Inoal leaf >j'-i' long, thus appearing lateral; scales 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, membranous, light brown 
with a green midvein; bristles about 6, downwardly 
barbed, as long as the achene or shorter; stamens 3; 
ityle 3-cleft to about the middle; achene obovoid, 3- 
angled, dark brown, smooth, rather more than i" 
long, obtuse, abruptly beaked by the slender base of 
the style. 

iaglaa, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan. 
The so-called variety terrestris is an emeised form with 
erect culms and shortct -ipikelets, July-Aug. 

(Fig. 614.) 


7. Scirpua H411ii A. Gray. Hall's Club-rush. (Fig. 615.) 

Scirpus Hallii A. Gray. Man. Kd. i. Add. 1863. 
Scirpus lupiHus var. HalHi A, Gray, Man. Hd. S, SSj. 

Annual, culms very slender, smooth, tufted, ob- 
tusely triangular, erect, striate, s'~li' tall. Lower 
sheaths oblique, and acuminate or mucronateou one 
side, the upper one commonly bearing a filiform 
blade %'-t%' \oag\ spiltelets capitate in clusters of 
1-7, oblong-cylindric, obtuse, many -flowered, 3"- 
6" long, about 1" thick, appearing lateral by the 
extension of the solitary involucral leaf which is 
i'-4' long; scales o\'ate-lanceolate, light greenish 
brown, acuminate, Iceeled, cu^idate by the ex- 
current tip of the mid vein; bristles wanting; 
stamens mostly 2; acbene obovate-orbicular or 
slightly broader than high, black., plano-convex, 
mucronulate strongly wrinkled transversely, about 
^" in diameter. 

8, Scirpua dibilis Pursh. Weak-stalked Club-rush. (Fig. 616.) 
Scirpus debilii Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 55. 1614. 

Annual, smooth, culms slender, terete or nearly 
so, tufted, erect or ascending, 6'-2° high. Sheaths 
obliquely truncate, the upper one rarely bearing a 
short subulate blade; spikelets capitate in clusters 
of 1-12, ovoid-oblong, subacute, many -flowered, 
appearing lateral, the solitary involucral leaf nar- 
rowly linear, ifi'-4' long, erect or divergent; 
scales light yellowisb-brovm with a green midvein, 
broadly ovate, obtuse or acute; bristles 4-6, 
downwardly barbed, somewhat unequal and about 
as long as the achene; stamens 3-3; style i-cleft or 
rarely 3-cleft; achene plano-conves, broadly ob- 
ovate or orbicular, smooth or slightly roughened, 
dark brown, shining, obtuse, mucronulate. 


9. Scirpus ymlthii A, Gray. Smith's 
Club-rush. (Fig. 617.) 

Scirpus Smilbii A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5. 563. 1867. 

Annual, similar to the preceding species, but the 
culms usually lower and more slender or nearly fili- 
form, 3'-ij' tall, the sheatbs oblique and acmni- 
nate or the upper one bearing a subulate blade. 
Spikelets 1-4, in an apparently lateral duster, 
ovoid, acute, 3"-3" long, the involucral leaf very 
narrow, elongated, erect; scales oblong, obtuse, 
mucronulate, pale brown with a narrow, green mid- 
vein; bristles usually wanting, sometimes 1-3, and 
very much shorter than the achene; style a-deft; 
achene plano-convex, obovale or orbicular, brown, 
rather dull, smooth or minutely roughened, obtuse, 

Id wet muddy places. Vermont to Minnesota, sontb 
to Delaware, Pennayli-ania and Hichipin. P^rhap* 
only a form of the preceding. July-Sept 


10. Scirpus Americftnus Pers. Three-square. Chair- maker's Rush. 
(Fig. 6i8.) 
Scirpui Americaniii Pere. Syti. t: 68. i8os. 
Scirfius pHHgeni Vahl. Enum, i: 155. 1806. 

Perennial by long rootstocks, ouhns sharply tri- 
angalar with concave sides or one of the sides 
nearly flat, erect, stiff, 1°-^° tall. Leaves 1-3, 
narrowly linear, keeled, shorter than the culm; 
spikelets oblong-ovoid, acute, 4"-6" long, capitate 
in clusters of 1-7, appearing as if lateral; in\'Olucral 
leaf solitary, slender. iK'-4' long; scales broadly 
ovate, brown, often emarginate or sharply a-cleft 
at the apcK, the midvein extended into a subulate 
awn sometimes i" long, the margins scarious, 
ciliolate or glabrous; bristles a-6, downwardly 
tiarbed, shorter than or equalling the achene; 
stamens 3; style usually a-cleft; achene obovate, 
plano-convex, smooth, dark brown, mucronate. 

In fresh water and brackish swamps throughout 
North America. Also in Chile. June-Sept, 

Sdrpn* Ameiidjini loiiEllpicltui Britton. Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. tt: 78. 1892. 
Spikelets linear-cylindric, s"-ii" long; bristles as long: as the broadly obovate achene. 

or Lake Ontatio; Colorado and New Mexi 

II. Scirpus Olneyi A. Gray. Olney's 
Bulrush. (Fig. 619,) 

Scirftuj Olneyi A, Gray, Bost. Joum. Nat. Hist. J: 238. 


Similar to the preceeding species, perennial by long 
stout rootstocks, culms stout, sharply 3-angled with 
concave sides, 2°-7° tall. Leaves 1-3, I'-j' long, 
or sheaths sometimes leafless; spikelets capitate in 
dense clusters of 5-13, oblong or ovoid-oblong, ob- 
tuse, J^"-4" long, the sohtary involucral leaf short, 
stout, erect, yi'-i'X* \oa%\ scales oval or orbicular, 
dark brown with a gre«n midvein, emarginate or mu- 
CTonulate, glabrous; bristles usually 6, slightly shorter 
than or equalling the achene, downwardly barbed; 
stamens a-3; style 3-cleft; achene obovate, plano- 

In salt marshes, Rhode Island to Florida, Texas, 
Mexico and Califomia, extending north alot^ the Pacific 
Coast to Oregon. Also in Arkansas. June-Sept. 

12. Scirpus T6rreyi OIney. Torrey's 
Bulrush. (Fig. 620.) 

S^ir/ius Torreyi Olney, Proc. Providence Prank. Soc. 

l;3»- i847-' 

Perennial by short or slender rootstocks, culms 
sharply 3.ang]ed, rather slender, nodulose, 3°-^° 
tall. Leaves narrowly linear, elongated, nodulose, 
light green, sometimes overtopping the culm; 
spikelets 1-4, in an apparently lateral capitate clus- 
ter, oblong, narrowed at each end, ^"-V long; 
involucral leaf a '-6' long, erect; scales ovate 
or lanceolate, shining, chestnut-brown, glabrous, 
obtuse or the upper acute, mucronulate; bristles 
about 6, downwardly barbed, longer than the 
achene; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid, 
smooth, shining, light brown, 3-angled, one of its 
sides broader and flatter than the others. 


13. ScirpuB mucron&tus L. Bog Bulrush. 
(Fig. 621.) 

Scirpus mucronalus L. Sp. PI. 50- 1753- 

Perennial, culms stout, somewhat tufted, shaiply 
3-ai)gled, smooth, 1°-^'' tftll^ Spikelets s-ia in a 
cspitate cluster, oblong, obtuse, many-flowered, 
4"-9" long, rather more than j" in diameter, sub' 
tended by the solitaty linear abruptly spreading in- 
volucral leaf; scales broadly ovate, obtuse, light 
brown with a narrow green midvein, mucronate; 
bristles 6, stout, rigid, downwardly barbed, as long 
astheachene; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; acheneob- 
ovoid, smooth, shining, dark brown, s-angled, two 
of the sides narrower and more convex than the 

In a swamp in Delaware county. Pennsylvania. 
I^bably adventive or fiwilive from Bnrope. Widely 

distributed in the Old World. 
14. Scirpus cylindricus (Torr.) Britton. Canby's Bulrush. 
Scirpus marilimus vat. cylindricus Totr. 
Lye. N. Y. x: 3*5. 1836. 

■"-■-'■- •-•lotepti C- 

-- JiA 

aSg. 1S64. 
Scirpui cylindricusBTiVtoa.'tnjit. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 



Perennial by stout rootstocks, culm stout, 
sharply 3-atigled above, 3°-6' high, the linear 
nodulose keeled and channeled dark green 
leaves nearly or quite as long. Involucral leaf 
solitary, 4'-io' long, erect; spikelets in an appa- 
rently lateral simple or compound umbel, droop- 
ing, oblong-cylindric, acutish, 6"-io" long; 
primary rays of the umbel i'-4' long, bracted 
I^ I or more subulate- linear leaves; scales ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate, pale brown with scarious 
margins, acute, mucronulate; bristles 6, stout, 
rigid, about as long as the achene, serrate; sta- 
mens 3; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid, 3-angled, 
1ig >it brown, smooth, abruptly subulate-pointed. 

Itt ponds and swamps, Maryland to Florida and Louisiana, mostly near the coast. July-Sept. 

15. Scirpus lac6striB L. Great Bulrush. Mat-rush. (Fig. 623.) 

Scirpus lacuslris L. Sp. PI. 48. 1753. 
Scirpus validus Vah\, Enum, i; 368. lSa6. 

Perennial by stout rootstoclcs, culm stout, terete, 
smooth, erect, 3°-^" tall, sometimes nearly i' in di- 
ameter, sheathed below, the upper sheath occasion- 
ally extended into a short leaf. Involucral leaf soli- 
tary, erect, shorter than the umbel, appearing as if 
continuing the culm; umbel compound, appearing 
lateral, its primary rays slender, spreading, i'-4' 
long, bracts linear-lanceolate, scarious; spikelets ob- 
long-conic, becoming oblong-cyhndric, sessile or some 
of them peduncled, in capitate clusters of 1-5, obtttse 
or acute, 2>i"-8" long, iX"-a" in diameter; scales 
ovate or oblong, with a rather strong midvein which 
is sometimes excurrent into a short tip; bristles 4-6, 
downwardly barbed, equalling or longer ttuin the 
achene ; stamens 3 ; style 3-cleft; achene plano-con- 
vex, obovate, gray, abruptly mucronate, dull. 
In ponds and swamps, throughout North America, Also in the Old World. Junc-Sept 


i6. Scirpus Calif6rnicus (C- A. Meyer) Britton. California Bulrush, 
(Fig. 624.) 
Etylrospermvm Cali/ornicum C. A. Meyer, Mem, 

Acad. St Peterab. (V.) i:aol. pi.). 183I. 
Scirpus Talora Kutith, Bnum. l: 166. 1S37. 
Scirfias Cali/omicus Britton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 

11:79- '89». 

Perennial, similar to the preceding species, tlie 
leaves reduced, to basal sheaths. Involucral leaf 
very short, stoutly subulate, umbel compound; 
spikelets i"-S" long, acute, peduncled or some of 
them sessile; scales brown, ovate, awn-pointed by 
the excnrrent midvein; bristles shorter than or 
equalling the achene. short-plumose below; sta- 
mens 2-3; style 2-cleft; achene obovate, plano-con- 
vex, nearly white, narrowed above into a short 
point, contracted at the base, its surface finely cel- 

In swamps, Florida to Louisiana, New Mexico and 
California, and widely distributed in tropical America. 
Not certainly known within our area. June-Aug. 

Scirpus ri^fus (Huds.) Schrad. Red Clubrush. (Fig. 625.) 


Perennial by slender rootstoctcs, culms tufted, 
smooth, slender, erect, somewhat compressed, 3'- 
15' tall. Leaves half-terete, smooth, shorter than 
the culm, channeled. Ji'-3' long, less than l' 
wide, the lowest reduced to bladeless sheaths; 
spikelets red-brown, few-flowered, narrowly ovoid- 
oblong, subacute, about 3" long, erect in a termi- 
nal i-ranted spike Ji'-i' long; involucral leaf soli- 
tary, erect, narrowly linear, equalling or longer 
than the spike; scales lanceolate, acute, i-nerved; 
bristles 3^, upwardly barbed, shorter than the 
achene, deciduous; stamens 3; style a-cleft; achene 
oblong, pointed at both ends, light brown, piano- 
convex or slightly angled in front, I^"-3"IoDg. 

In marshes. New Brunswick and Quebec to the North- 
west Territory. Also in northern Europe. Summer. 

18. Scirpus campiatris Britton. Prairie Bulrush. (Fig. 626.) 

Perennial by slender rootstocks, culm slender, 
smooth, sharply triangular, i°-l° tall. Leaves 
usually pale green, smooth, shorter than or over- 
topping the cntm, i"~i" wide, those of the invo- 
lucre a or 3, the longer much exceeding the inflor- 
escence; spikelets 3-10 in a dense terminal simple 
head, oblong-cylindric, mostly acute, 8"-ia" long, 
iji''^" in diameter; scales ovate, membranous, 
pnberulent or glabrous, pale brown, j-toothed at 
the apex, the midvein excurrent into an ascending 
or spreading awn about i" long; bristles 1-3. much 
shorter than the achene or none; style 2-cleft 
(sometimes 3-cleft?); achene lenticular, obovate or 
oblong-ovate, mucronnlate, yellow-brown, its sur- 
face strongly cellular-reticulated. 

On wet prairies and plains. Manitoba and Minnesota 
to Net>raska, Kansas and Mexico, west to Nevada. 



19. Scirpus roblistus Pursh. Salt Marsh Bulrush. 
Stirpus robuslus Panib, Fl. Ai 

(Fig. 627.) 
n. Sept 56. 1814. 
scirpus tnaniimus w, macroslachyus Uichi, Fl. 
Bor. Am. I: 33. 1803. Not .?. macroslachyus Lata. 
Perennial by large rootatockt, cnlm Btont, stilT. 
abarplj' 3-angled with flBt sidei, unooth, a"-;" 
tall. Leaves eqaalling or overtopping the cnlm. 
dark green, smooth, 2}i"-s" wide, the tnidveia 
prouiuent; involucral leaves 2-4, elongated, erect, 
similar to those of the calm, oClen 1' long; spike- 
lets ovoiil-oblong, obtuse or subacute, Btont, 8"-i3" 
long, 4"-5" in diameter, 6-20 together in a dense 
often compound terminal cluster; scalea ovate, 
brown, pnbemlent, thin, lacerate or a-toothed at 
the apex, the midvein excarrent into an, at length, 
reflezed awn iH"~>H" long; bristles 1-6, fragile, 
shorter than the achene or none; Btameiu 3; style 
3'Clen; acbene compressed, very flat on the face, 
couvex or with low ridge on the back, obovate- 
OTbicuIar, dark brown, shining, i%" long. 
In salt maisbes, Nova Scotia to Texas. July-Oct. 
20. Scirpus fluvifitUis (Torr. ) A. Gray. River Bulrush. (Fig. 628.) 
Scirpus marilimtts var. fluvialilis Torr. Ann. Lye. N. 

Y. 3; 324- 1836. 
Scirpus Jfuziiatilis A. Gray, Man. 527. 1848. 

Perennial by large rootstocks, culm stout, smooth, 
sharply triangular with nearly flat sides, 3°-6° tall. 
Leaves 4"-8" wide, smooth, equalling or overtopping 
the culm, attenuate to a very long tip, the midvein 
prominent; those of the involucre 3-5, erect or spread- 
ing, some of them j'-io' long; spikelets in a terminal 
nmbel, solitary, or 1-3 together at the ends of its long 
spreading or drooping rays, or the central spikelets 
•essile, oblong-cylindric, acute, 8"-ia" long, about 
3ji" in diameter; scales ovale, scarioua, puberulent, ' 
the midvein czcurrent into a curved awn iJi"-2" 
long; bristles 6, rigid, downwardly barbed, about as 
long as the achene; style 3-cle(l; achene sharply 
3-angled, obovoid, ratber dull, short-pointed, i" long. 
In shallow water along lakes and streams, Quebec to 
Hinnesota, New Jersey, Illinois and Kansas. June-Sept. 

21. Scirpus sylv&ticus L. Wood Bulrush. (Fig, 629.) 

Scirfius sylvaiicus'L. Sp, PI, 51. 1753. 

Perennial by long rootstocks, culm friangnlai. 
stout, smooth, 4''-6'' tall, orten overtopped by the 
upper leaves. Leaves flat, 5"-8" vride, rough on 
the margins, more or less rugulose, the midvein 
prominent, those of the involucre 5-8, the larger 
similar to those of the culm and o(len I'^long or 
more; umbel terminal, very large, sometimes 8' 
broad, about 3 times compound, the spikelets ovoid 
or ovoid-oblong, mostly acute, i^"-aji" long, 
borne in capitate clusters of i-S at the ends of the 
raylets; bractlets of the involucels small, scarious. 
linear or lanceolate; scales ovate-oblong, <d)tnse, 
brown with a green centre; bristles 6, downwardly 
barbed, slightly exceeding the achene; stamens 3; 
style 3-clefl ; achene oblong, 3-angled, obtnse, 
nearly nhite. mucronulate, not shining. 

In swamptt, Massachusetts to North Carolina. Also 
in Europe. June-Aug. 


)2. Scirpus atr6virens Miihl. Dark green Bulrush 

i alTovirens Mohl. Grain. 43. 1817. 

anlal by slender rootstocks, culms triangu- 

ther slender, leafy, 2"-^" high. Leaves 

ted, nodulose, rough on the margins, dark 

%"-fi" wide, one or two of them usually ex- 

\ the in florescence; umbel i-a-compound or 

; spikelets ovoid-obloag, acute, densely capi- 

6's-2o'a at the ends oF the rays or rayleta; 
«ls Ehort; scales greenish -brown, oblong, 
the midvein excarrent; bristles usually 6, 
ardly barbed above, naked below, about as 
. the achene; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene 
-ohovoid. 3-angled, pale brown, dull. 
Famps, Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Geor- 

Louiaiana. June-Aug. 

atT^Tiieiii pillldna Bcitton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. 

Sci. 9: 14. 1889. 
E plant pale green; scales awned; spikelets ob- 
lindric, very numerous in the capitate cluster), 
ota to the Nortliwest Territory and Colorado. 

CFig. 630.) 

23. Scirpus microcftrpus Presl. . Small- 
fruited Bulrush. (Fig. 631.) 
Srirpus microcarfius Presl, Rel. Haenk, i: :95. 1828. 
Scirpus sylvalicus var. digynus Boeckl. Linnaea, jli: 
. 717. 1870. 

Fereanial, the culms i°-$'' tall, often stout, 
overtopped by the rough-margined leaves. Longer 
leaves of theiuvolucre usually exceeding the inflor- 
eacencei spikelets ovoid-oblong, acute, i)i"-i" 
lonSi 3~3S together iti capitate clusters at the ends 
of the usually spreading raylets; acalea brown with 
a green midvein, blunt or subacutei bristles 4, 
barbed downwardly nearly or quite to the base, 
somewhat longer than the achene; stamens a; style 
z-cleft; achene oblong-obovate, nearly white, plano- 
convex or with a low ridge on the back, pointed. 

In swamps and wet woods, Nova Scotia to Quebec 
end Alaska, south to New Hampshire, noithem New 
York, Minnesota, Nevada and (^ifomia. July-Sept. 

34. Scirpus polyph^lli 
t fiolyphyllusVa.W, Enum. a: 274. i8a6. 
nnial by slender rootstocks, cnlms slender, 
? triangular, iJi''-4° tall, very leafy, the 

2"-3" wide, exactly 3-ranked, inconspicu- 
lodulose, rough -margined, the upper rarely 
iping the culm; leaves of the involucre 3-6, 
iger commonly somewhat exceeding the in- 
;nce; nmbel more or less compound; spike- 
oid, about i%" long, capitate in 3's-io's at 
Is of the raylets; scales ovate, bright brown, 

obtuse, mucronulate; bristles 6, fiexuous or 
lent, downwardly larbed above the middle, 
IS long as the achene; stamens 3; style 3- 
ichene obovoid, 3-angted with a broad face 
rrower sides, short-pointed, dull, 
jamps, wet woods and meadows, Massachusetts 
lesota, south to Alabama and Arkansas. Some 
.calea of the spikelets occasionally develop into 

Vahl. Leafy Bulrush. (Fig. 632.) 


25. Scirpus Pickii Britton. Peck's Bul- 
rush. (Fig. 633.) 
Scirpus Peckii Britton, Trans. N, Y. Acad. Sci. 11; 83. 


Perennial by rootstocVs. cnlnu atender, triui- 
giilar, 1%"-},%'' lall, leafy. Leaves elongated, 
3"-5" wide, rough-margined, the upper overtop- 
ping tbe culm, those of the involucre s-Ji the 
longer of them exceeding the inflorcacence; umbel 
t-3-coropound, large; spikcleta cylindiic, obtusish, 
3"-5" long, in capitate clusterfl of i-io at the end* 
of the raylets or some of them distinctly pedtio- 
cled; scales dark brown, keeled, mucronate, falling 
early; bristles 4-6, downwardly barbed from be- 
low the middle to the summit, longer than the 
achene; style 3-cleft; achene 3-angled, )i" long, 
oblong, narrowed at each end, slender-beaked. 

In swamps, Connecticnl and New York. July-Sept. 

36. Scirpus divaricfktus Ell. Spreading Bulrush. (Fig. 634.) 

5i:iV*HJ(iittir(Vo/uj Ell. Bot. S. C. &Ga, i:8S. pi. 2. 

f. 4. 1816. 

Perennial (?}. Roots fibrous, culms obtusely 
triangular, smooth, rather slender, 3^°-4° tall. 
Leaves 2"-4" wide, rough -margined, the upper 
and those of the involucre not exceeding the in- 
florescence; umbel decompound, the primary rays 
very slender, sometimes 6' long, widely spreading 
or drooping; raylets filiform; involncels setaceous; 
spikelets mostly solitary at the ends of the raylets, 
sessile or peduncled, linear-oblong, obtuse, 3"-6" 
long, %" thick; scales ovate, greenish -brown, sub- 
acute or obtuse, with a prominent midvein and 
scarious margins; bristles 6, Sexuons, longer than 
the achene, somewhat pubescent, not barbed, 
shorter than the scales; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; 
achene sharply 3-angled, oblong, narrowed at both 
ends, apiculate, nearly white, not shining. 

In swamps, Kentucky to Missouri, south to Florida and Louisiana. The spikelets sometitnes 
partially develop into tufts of leaves. June-Aug. 

27. Scirpus lineatus Michx. Reddish Bulrush. (Fig. 635.) 

Scirpus tinealus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 33. 1803. 

Perennial by stout rootstocks, culms rather 
slender, triangular, erect, i°-3° high, leafy, the 
upper leaves and those of the involucre not exceed- 
ing the inflorescence. Leaves i"-4" wide, light 
green, flat, rough-margined; umbels terminal and 
commonly also axillsiy, decompound, the rays 
very slender, becoming pendulous ; spikelets mosUj 
solitary at the ends of the slender raylets, oblong, 
obtuse, 3"-5" long, about i"in diameter; scales 
ovate or oblong, reddish-brown with a green mid- 
vein, their tips slightly spreading; bristles 6, 
weak, smooth, entangled, much longer tlutn the 
achene, equalling the scales or slightly protruded 
beyond them at maturity; stamens 3; style 3-cleft ; 
achene oblong or oblong-obovoid, pale brown, nar- 
rowed at both ends, 3-angled, short-beaked. 

In SK-araps and net meadows, Ontario to Gcoi]|fis, 
west to Oregon and Tenas. June-Sept. 


a, 50I- 

28. Scirpus cypirinus (L.) Kunth. Wool-grass. (Fig. 636.) 
™ « cype 

Eriohborum cyperimim L. Sp. PI- Ed. 
Scirpus cypertnusYJixaxy\. Enum. 3:171. 
Scirpus Eriophorum var. cyperinus A. Cray, Man. 


Perennial by stout rootstocks, culms stout or slen- 
der, smooth, obtusely triangular or nearly terete, 
•tiff, leafy, 2°-6'' tall. Leaves elongated, 3"-3" wide 
rough-margined, the upper often overtopping tbe 
culm, those of tbe involucre 3-6, tbe longer much ex 
ceeding tbe inHorescence; umbel terminal, com 
pound, tbe rays at length somewhat drooping; spiLc 
lets OToid-oblong, obtuse, \%"-i%" long, in capitate 
clusters of 3-15 at the endsof the rajlets; scales ovate 
or lanceolate, acute or subacute ; bristles6, entaugled, 
smooth, much longer than tbe ochene, much eioerted 
beyond the scales and grayish-brown at maturity; 
stamens 3; style 3-cIeft; achene 3-angled, oblong, 
slender-beaked, nearly white. 

In swamps, Newfoundland to Ontario, Viisinia and 

1, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1 

Kenlucky. Aug. -Sept. 

Scirpus cyptrlnua Eii6phonim (Micbx. ) Biil 
Scirpus Eriophorum Michi. Fl. Bor. Am. i: 31. iSov 
Eriophorttm cyperinum var. laxum Wats. & Coult. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, sSa. 1899. 

Spikelets moHtly peduncled. Range of the type, but extending to Florida and Louisiana. 

10. ERIOPHORUM L. Sp. PI. 52. 1753. 
Bog sedges, perennial by rootstocks, tbe culms erect, triangular or nearly terete, the 
leaves linear, or i or 3 of the upper ones reduced to bladeless sheaths. Spikelets terminal, 
solitary, capitate or umbelled, subtended by a I -several-leaved involucre, or naked. Scales 
spirally imbricated, usually alt fertile. Flowers perfect. Perianth of 6 or numerous filiform 
smooth soft bristles, which are white or brown, straight or crisped, and eiserted much 
beyond the scales at maturity. Stamens 1-3. Style 3-cleft. Achene 3-angled. oblong, ellip- 
soid or obovoid. [Greek, signifying wool-bearing, referring to the soft bristles.] 

About 10 species, in the northern hemisphere. Besides the following, one occurs in Alaska. 
Spikelet solitary; tnvolucral leaf short or none. 

Bristles only 6. white, crisped, very long. 1. E. alpinum. 

Bristles numerous, straight or slightly crisped. 
Bristles bright white. 

Culm with 1 inflated bladeless sheaths; achene obovoid, obtuse. 2. E. vagiiialum. 
Only the upper sheath bladeless, or all blade-bearing; achene linear-oblong, acute. 

3. E. Scheuchzcri, 
Bristles reddish -brown. 4. E. ruis/rolum. 

Spikelets several, umbellate or capitate; involucre 1-4-leaved. 

Achene obovoid, obtuse; spikelets umbellate. 5, E, polyslaefiYOti. 

Achene linear-oblong, acute: spikelets capitate or some of them peduncled. 

Leaves channeled; bristles 4-6 times as long as the scale, bright white. 6. E.gradle. 
leaves flat; bristles 3 times as longr as the scale. In-own (rarely white). 7. E.Virginicum. 

1. Eriophorum alpinum I,, Alpine Cotton-grass. (Fig. 637.) 
Eriophorum alpinum L- Sp- PI. 53. '753. 

Perennial by shori rootstocks, sending up numer- 
ous filiform triangular roughish culms, 6'-io' high. 
Leaves subulate, 3"-io" long, triangular, chan- 
neled, borne very neat the base of the culm, the 
lower sheaths often scarious and bladeless; spikelet 
solitary, terminal, small, erect; involucral bract sub- 
ulate, mostly shorter tban the spikelet, sometimes 
wanting; young spikelet ovoid-oblong, subacute; 
scales oblong lanceolate, ycllowista-brown, firm, ob- 
e or subacute, the midvein slender; bristles 6, 
white, crisped, 4-7 times as long as the scale; achene 
narrowly abovoid-oblong, brown, apiculate, dull. 

In bogs and on high mountains, Newfoundland to 
Hudson Bay and the Northwest Territory, south to Ver- 
mont, northern New York and Minnesota, Also in 
Europe and Asia. Summer. 

Eriophorum vaginJttum L. Sheathed Cotton-grass. (Fig. 638.) 

JiriofiJiorum vaginalam L Sp. PI. 53. 


Cultnt tufted, stiff, obtusely triangaUr, smooth, 
slender, 8''i6' tall, leafless, except at the base, 
bearing two distant inflated sheaths, the upper one 
usually above the middle. Leaves stiff, filifortn, 
triaugular, channeled, slightly rough, shorter than 
or sometiines overtoppiDg the culm; involacral 
leaf wanting; spikelet solitary, ovoid, erect; scales 
ovate-Ian eeol ate or the lowest lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, purple-brown, thin; briitles uunicrous, white, 
straight, glossy, 4-5 times as long as the scale; an- 
thera linear; acbene obovoid, obtuse, brown, dull, 
minutely apiculate. 

In bo(ca, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to Mas- 
sachusetts, Pennsylvania and Minnesota. Also in 
northern Europe and Asia. ]un«-Aiw. 

3. Eriophorum Scheuchzeri Hoppe. Scheuchzer's Cotton-grass, (Fig, 639.) 

Eriophorum Scheuchzeri Hoppe, Taschenb, i8oot 1(4. 

Eriopboram cabilalum Host, Grain. Ausl. i: 30. W. tf. 


Similar to the preceding species but the sheaths all 
blade-bearing or only the upper one bladeless, culms 
slender, smooth, nearly terete, io'-2o' tall. Leaves 
filiform, channeled, usually much shorter than the 
cnlm; spikelet solitary, tcrmiual, erect; involucre 
none; scales ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, pur- 
ple-brown, membranous; bristles numerous, white 
or slightly yellowish, weak, nearly straight, 4-5, 
times as long as the scale; " anthers cord ate- ovate;" 
acheue narrowly oblong, acute, brown, dull, subu- 

4. Eriophorum russ&olum Fries, Russet Cotton-grass. (Fig. 640,) 

'Hsseo/um Fries, Novil. Mant. 3: 67. 

Culms solitary or little tufted, triangular, erect, 
smooth, 8'-iS' tall, much longer than the leaves. 
Upper sheath inflated, bladetess, mucronate, rarely 
with a short subulate blade, usually borne below the 
middle of the culm; leaves filiform, triangalar-chsn- 
neled, mucronate, t'-^' long; spikelet solitary, erect; 
involucre none; scales ovate- lanceolate, acuminate, 
thin, purplish-brown with nearly white margins; 
bristles numerous, bright reddish-brown, 3-5 times 
as long as the scale; achene oblong, narrowed at each 
end, apiculate. 

Scarcely differa from the preceding species except in 
the color of the bristles and the shorter-pointed achene. 
In bogs, Newfoundland to (Jucliec. June-Aiv. 

j. Eriophorutn polystilchyon I,. Tall Cotton grass (Fig. 641.) 


Culm atiff, smooth, obtusely triangnlar above 
nearly terete below, 1%°-^" tall, all the sheaths blade 
bearing. Leaves flat, roughish- margined r "^"-4 
wide, tapering to a triangular channeled rigid poiat 
the upper shorter than or rarely overtopping the 
culm, those of the involucre 2-4, the longer commonly 
equalling or exceeding the inBorescence splkelcts 
3~i], ovoid, or oblong, drooping, in a terminal simple 
or more or less compound umbel; rays filiform smooth 
or rough; scales ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate 
puiple-green or brown; bristles numerous bngbt 
white, about \' long, 4-5 times as long as the scale 
achene obovoid, obtuse, light brown. 

In bi^s, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey 
Georgia and Nebraska. Also in Earope and As a. June 

6. Eriophorum gricile Koch. Slender Cotton-grass. (Fig. 642.) 

Erii'Phorum gracile Koch; Roth, Catal. Bot. i: 

Eriophorum Iriquelrum Hoppe, Tasehen 

Culm slender, obtusely triangular, rough on the 
angles, I'-a" tall, the sheaths all blade-bearing. 
Leaves narrowly linear, \" wide or less, triangalar- 
channeled, rough-margined, the upper not overtop- 
ping the culm; involucral leaf commonly only t, 
stiff, erect; spikelets 3-8, capitate or subumbellate, 
the longer, peduncled ones drooping; scales ovate or 
oblong, obtuse or subacute, greenish brown, the mid- 
vein rather strong, often with a weaker nerve on 
each side; bristles numerous, bright white, 8"-i2" 
long, 4 6 times as long as the scale;- achene linear- 
oblong, acute, pointed. 

In bogs, Newfoundland to Hudson Bay and Alaska, 
Miuth to New Jersey. Pennsylvania and Missouri. Also 
in Europe and Asia. June-Sept. 

7. Eriophorum Virginicum L. Virginia 
Cotton-grass. (Fig. 643.) 

Eriophorum Virginicxttn L. Sp. PI. 53. 1753. 

Culm stiff, rather slender, obtusely triangular 
above, terete below, smooth, \%''-i^ tall, rather 
leafy. Leaves narrowly linear, flat, i"-2%" wide, 
rongh- margined, somewhat channeled toward the 
apex, the upper often overtopping the culm, those 
of the involucre 2-4, spreading or dcflexed, i'-6' 
long, I or a of them much longer than the spikelets; 
spikelets several or numerous in a dense terminal 
capitate cluster usually broader than high, erect or 
the outer ones spreading; scales ovate, acute, brown 
with a green centre, about s^nerved; bristles numer- 
ons, dingy brown, about 3 times as long as the scale; 
achene linear-oblong, acute, apiculate, light brown. 
In bogs, Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Florida 
and Nebraska. June-Sept. 

Eriophorum VlrgliUcnm Ubnm A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 566. 
Bristles white. Northern New York. 



II. PUIRENA Rottb. Descr. & Ic. 70. pi. 19. f. 3. 1773. 

Perennial sedges, with leafy triangular culms (in a southern species the leaves reduced 
to inflated sheaths), and many-flowered terete spikelets in terminal and axillary cluateia, or 
larely solitary. Scales spirally imbricated all around, awned, the t or a lower commonly 
empty. Flowers perfect. Perianth of 3 ovate oblong or cordate- ovate, stalked, often awned 
sepals, usually alternating with as many downwardly barbed bristles. Stamens 3. Style 3- 
cleft, not swollen at the base, deciduous. Achene stalked or nearly sessile, sharply 3-angled, 
acute or mucronate, smooth. (In honor of Georg Puiren, 1581-162S, Danish physician.) 

About 30 specicB, natives of warm. tern peiate and trnpical regions. Besides 

□ United States. 
Sepals awned from the apex or awtiless. 
Sepals awned on the baclc below the apex 


Fuirena squarrdsa Michx. Squarrose Fturena. (Fig. 644.) 

Fuirena squarrosa Micbi. Fl. Bor. Am. i; 37. 

Fuirena squarrosa var. fiumila TorT. Fl. V S. 

1:68. .834. 

Rootatock short, stoat, tomelimes tnber- 
bearing; cnlms tufted, glabrous or nearly 
90, i'-2° tall. Leaves flat, nearly or quite 
glabrous of the lower sheaths pubescent; 
spikelets sessile and i-io together in ter- 
minal and usaaliy - also lateral capitate 
clusters, ovoid or ovoid-oblong, acute or 
obtuse, 3"-6" long, about ijii" in dia- 
meter; scales ovate or oblong, brown, 
pubescent, mostly obtuse, 3-nerved, tipped 
with a stout spreading or recurved awn of 
nearly their own length; sepals oblong, 
long-stalked, usually narrowed at botli 
ends, tapering into a slender terminal 
downwardly barbed or sometimes smooth 
awn; bristles mostly longer than the 
acbcnc, sometimes as long as the sepals. 

In wet meadows and marBhen. Massachusetts 
to Florida aiid I.oui.iiana. neat the coast. Also 
in Michigan and Nebraska. July-Sept. 
Fuirena squanoBa hispida 1 Etl. ) Chapm. Fl. S. States. 514- [?6o. 
Iiispida EU. I 

Sheaths and leaves hiniute; t 
achene; plant usually taller. Nei 

s crt'atc, cordate at the base 
I the apex; bristles usualW 
irk to Florida, west to Alabai 

ir abruptly narrowed into the 
horter than or equalling the 
la and Texa,s, Perhaps a dis- 

Fuirena simplex Vahl. Western 
Fuireua. (Fig. 645.) 



rit/ulala 1 

Similar to the preceding species, root- 
stock short, thick; culms slender, 5'-z° tall, 
glabrous. Leaves flat, glabrous or ciliate; 
scales tipped with a spreading or refleied 
awn; sepals ovate-oblong, obtuse and usually 
notched at the apex, obtuse, truncate or sub- 
conlate at the base, longer or shorter than 
their stalks, awned on the back from below 
the apex, the awn varying in length, smooth 
or downwardly barbed; bristles retrorsely 
hispid, equalling or exceeding the sessile or 
short-stalked achene. 


In n 


oil, Kansas t 

Texas and Mexi 



12. HEMICARPHA Nees & Arii. Edinb. New Phil. Jouni. 17: 263. 1834. 

Low tufted mostlj annual sedges, wilb erect or spreading, almost fiUronn culms and 
leaves, and terete small terminal capitate or solitary spikelels subtended by a i-j-lcaved in- 
volucre. Scales spirally imbricated all aroaiid, deciduous, all subtending perfect flowers. 
Periantb of a single byatiue sepal (bract ?) between tbe flower and the rachis of the spike- 
let; bristles none. Stamens 1--3, Style 3-cleft. deciduous, not swollen at the base. Achenc 
oblong, targid or lenticular. (Greek, in allusion to the single sepal.) 

About 3 species, natives or [emperate and tropical regions. Besides the following, another 
occurs in the .'•outhwestem United States, The genus differs froui Sdrpiis. with which it is united 
by some authors, mainly in the presence of the perianth -scale, 

I. Hemicarpha micr^ntha (Vahl) 
Britton. Hemicarpha, (Fig. 646.) 

, Enum, J:2S4, 1806. 
a Nees. in Mart, Fl, Bras, 

•Iha Britton, Bull, Torr, Club, 

Jfemicar/ika subsgiiai 

j: Part I. 61, i8i2, 

15: lot. li™. 

Annual, glabrous, culms densely tufted, com- 
pressed, grooved, diffuse or ascending, l'-5' 
loDg, mostly longer than the setaceous smooth 
leaves. Spikelets ovoid, many-flowered, ob- 
tuse, about 1" long, capitate in i's-4's or soli- 
tary; involucral leaves or one of them usually 
much exceeding the spikelels; scales brown, 
obovatc, with a short blunt spreading or re- 
curved point; sepal inconspicuous; stamen i; 
achene obovate-oblong, obtuse, niucronulate, 
little compressed, light brown, its surface min- 
utely cellular-reliculated. 

In moist, aandv soil, Rhode Island to Pennsylva- 
nia, Florida, Texas and Mexico. Juty-Sept, 
Hemicaipha micrintba aristuIAta Coville. Bull, 

Torr, Club, 11:36. 189^, 

Scales pale, cuneate-obovate, tapenng into squar- 

roseawnsabouttheir own length, Kansas to Texas. 

13. LIPOCARPHA R. Br. App. Tiickey Exp. Congo, 459. 1818. 

Low annual sedges, with slender tufted culms leafy at tbe base, and terete many-flow- 
ered spikelels in a terminal head, subtended by a 1 -several- leaved involucre. Scales firm, 
spirally imbricated all around, all fertile or several of the lower ones empty, at length de- 
ciduous. Flowers perfect. Perianth of two small sepals (bracts?) one on each side of the 
flower; bristles none. Stamens 1-2. Style 3-3-cleft, deciduous, its base not swollen. 
Achene plano-convex or 3-angtcd. (Greek, alluding to tbe thick sepals in some species.) 

About 7 species, widely distributed in warm and tropical regions, 

I. Lipocarphainaculilta(Michx.)Torr. 

American Lipocarpha. (Fig. 647.) 
Kyllingia maculala Michx. Fl, Bor. Am. i: v). 

Lipocarpha maculala Torr, Ann, I.yc, N, Y. 3: j88. 


Annual, glabrous, roots fibrous, culms tufted, 
grooved, compressed, smooth, longer than the 
narrowly Huear somewhat channeled leaves, 3'- 
10' tall. Leaves of the involucre 3-4, the larger 
I'-S'long; spikelets ovoid-oblong, obtuse, 2jj"- 
3" long, i" in diameter, 2-6 together in a termi- 
nal capitate cluster; scales rhombic or lanceo- 
late, acute at the apei, curved, the sides nearly 
white, or flecked with reddish-brown spots, the 
midvein green; exterior sepal convolute around 
the achene, nerved, hyaline; stamen t; achene 
oblong, yellowish, contracted at the base. 

In wet or moist soil, ea-stem Virginia to Florida. 
Also near Philadelphia, where it is prol>ably adven- 
tive, July-Sept, 


14. RYNCHOSPORA Vahl, Enum. 2: 229. 1806. 

Leafy sedges, mostty perennial by rootstocks, with erect j-angled or terete culms, nar- 
row flat or involute leaves, and ovoid oblong or fusiform, variously clustered spikelets. 
Scales thin, i-nerved, imbricated all around, usually mucronate by the cxcurrenl midvein, 
the lower empty. L'ppcr flowers imperfect, the lower perfect. Perianth of l-3o (mostly 6) 
upwardly or downwardly barbed or scabrous bristles, wanting in some species (no. 3). Sta- 
mens commonly 3. Style 2-clefl, 2-toothed or rarely eutire, Acbene lenticular or swollen, 
not 3-angled, smooth or transversely wrinlcled, capped by the persistent base of the style 
(tubercle), or in some species by the whole style. [Greek, referring to the beak-like tubercle.] 

n reg:ion9. Besides 

Hstles IT 
Bristles plumose. 

Bristles downwardly barbed or rarely smooth. 
Scales white arnearly so; bristles 9-15. 
Scales brown; bristles 6. 

Leaves filifonu; achene oblong. 

Leaves narrowly linear, flat; achene obovate. 

Bristles equalling the achene; tubercle one-halF as longor less. 6. R. Knirskemii. 

Bristles reaching or exceeding; the end of the tubercle, which is as long as the acbene. 

Spikelets few-several in numerous rather loose clusters. 7. K. glomrrala. 

Spikelets very numerous in 2-6 very dense globose heads. 8. R. axillaris. 

Bristles upwardly barbed, 

Spikelets very numerous in i-d very dense globose heads. 
Spikelets few-several in rather loose clusters, 
Achene smooth. 

Leaves setaceous ; achene obovate. shining. 
Leaves narrowly linear, flat; achene broadly oval, dull. 
Achene transversely wrinkled. 

Spikelets ovoid, in erect cymose clusters; achene longer than the bristles. 
LeavesSat; spikelets nearly or quite sessile. 11. ff. o^'n'Uii- 

Leaves involute; spikelets distinctly pedicelled. 11. R. Torrryana. 

Spikelets spindle-shaped, in drooping panicles; achene shorter than the bristles. 

13. R. intxpan^a. 

4. R. alba. 

5. R. capillacea. 

\. R. axillaris. 

9. R./us. 

Rynchospora comiculitta (Lam.) A. Gray. Homed Rush. (Fig. 648.) 

Schoen uscornici 
Rhyachosfiora ci 
205. 1835. 

Culm obtusely triangular, stout or rather slender, 
smooth, ^"-1° tall, I,eavcs flat, broadly linear, 
6'-i8' long, 3"-8" wide, rough -mai^ned; nmbels 
terminal and axillary, sometimes 1° broad, usually 
compound; spikelets spindle-shaped, 4"-6" long 
in flower, capitate at the ends of the rays and ray- 
lets; primary rays slender, sometimes (/ long; 
scales lanceolate, thin, acute, light brown; bristles 
about 6. subulate or filiform, rigid, upwardly 
scabrous, shorter than, equalling or exceed- 
ing the achene; style subulate, entire or min- 
utely 2-toothed at the apex, 2-4 times longer 
than the achene, upwardly scabrous, Ji'-i' long, 
persistent and much exserled beyond the scales 
when mature; achene obovate. flat on both sides, 
i" long, dark brown, smooth, its surface minutely 

o Ohio. Mis- 

Rhynehospora eomlcDUta macrostithya ITorr. I Britton, Trans. N. V. Acad. Sci. 11 
Rhynchos/xira niacrosladira Torr. Ann, I.yc. N. Y. 3: ro6. 1835. 

Bristles about twice as long as the achene. Range of the type, but extending ni 
chusetts and Rhode Island, 


2. Rynchospora pallida M. A. Curtis. Pale Beaked-rush. (Fig. 649.) 

Shynckospora pallida M, A. Curtis. Am. Joum. Sci. (It. ) 



RooUtocka slender, culms sharply triangular, 1^4"- 
2>i° tall. Leavca >i"-i" wide, flatlisb, nearly 
smootb, the lowest reduced to many- nerved lanceo- 
late acuminate scales; spikclets numerous, spindle- 
shaped, narrow, 3"--^" long, aggregated in a com- 
pound convex terminal head, or occasionally also in 
a lili form-stalked cluster from the upper axil; upper- 
most leaves subulate, little exceeding the spikelets; 
scales pale greenish brown, lanceolate, acuminate: 
bristles minute and early deciduous, or wanting; 
style 2 -cleft; acbene lenticular, obovate-oblong, 
smooth, brown, somewhat shining, }i" long, tipped 
by a short tubercle. 

3. Rynchospora oligfintha A. Gray. Few-flowered Beaked-rush. (Fig. 650.) 

Rkynchosfiora oligatUha A, Gray, Ann. l,ye. N. Y. 3: 

112- i835- 

Sootstocks short, culms tufted, almost thread-like, 
leafy only toward the base, 6'-i6' tall. Leaves filt- 
fonn, resembling and shorter than the culm or some- 
times equalling it; spikelets 1-4, terminal, narrowly 
oblong, acute, ^"-A" long, sessile or pednncled, sub- 
tended by I or 3 filiform bracts; scales ovate, pale 
brown, acute, cusoidate; bristles usually 6, deusely 
plumose below the middle, upwardly scabrous above, 
equalling or shorter than the achene; style 2-cleft; 
Hchene obo void- oblong, obtuse, turgid-lenticular, 
pele brown, dull, transversely wrinkled; tubercle 
niih a flat depressed border and a flattened conic 
acute central projection about one-fifth as long as 

4. Rynchospora alba (L. ) Vahl. White Beaked-rush 

; 2J6. 1806. 

Pale green, rootstocks short, culms slender ot 
almost filiform, glabrous, 6'-3o' tall. Leaves bris- 
tle-like, )i"-}i" wide, shorter than the culm, the 
lower very short; spikelets several or numerous, in 
r-4 dense corymbose terminal and axillary clusters, 
narrowly oblong, acute at both ends, 2"-3" long; 
scales ovate or ovate-lanceolate, white, acute; bris- 
tles 9-15, downwardly barbed, slender, about as 
long as the acbene and tubercle; style 3-cIefl; 
achene obovate-oblong, smooth, pale brown, lentic- 
ular; tubercle triangular-subulate, flat, one-half as 
long as the aclieue. 

tn bogs, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to Florida< 
Xenlucby. Minnesota and Oreeon, Also in northern 
Europe and Asia. June-Aug. 

lorida and Texas, 

Rynchospora capillilcea Torr. Capillary Beaked-rush. (Fig. 652.) 

Rhyncliospora capUlacea Torr. Comp, 41. i8i6. 

Culms fill form, tufted, glabrous, 6'-3o' tall. 
Leaves filiform, less than %" wide, much shorter 
than the culm, the lower very short; spikelcts few, 
in i~3 terminal aud axillary loose cluiten, oblong, 
acnte at both ends, 3"- 3" long; scales ovate oblong, 
chestnut-brown, keeled, mucronate; bristles 6, slen- 
der, downwardly barbed, about equalling or becom- 
ing longer than the achene and tubercle; achenc 
narrowly oblong, short-stallccd, light brown, mi- 
nutely wrinkled, lenticular; style 3-cleft; tubercle 
compressed, triangular-aubulate, dark brown, about 
one-balf as long as the achene. 

In bogs, Vermont and Ontario to Minnesota, south 

to New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan. July-.^UK. 

Rynchoipoia capilliu«a lacTiaMa E. ]. Mill, Ani. N'at. 

10: 370, 1S76. 

Bristles smooth. Northem Indiana ai 

d Michigan. 

6. Rynchospora KniesWrnii Carey. Knies- 
kem's Beaked-rush. (Fig. 653, ) 

Rhyncliospora A'ni>j*,(rn ill Carey, Am. Joum. Sci. [II. J 

4: 25. 1847. 

Culms slender, tufted, smooth, 8'-i8' tall. Leaves 
narrowly linear, flat, about ^" wide, much shorter 
than the culm; apikelets numerous, in several distant 
compact clusters, ohlong, acute, about i" long; 
•cales chestnut-brown, ovale; bristles 6, downwardly 
barbed, equalling the achene; achene obovate, lenticu- 
lar, brown, minutely wrinkled; style 2-cleft; tubercle 
triangular-subulate, pale, one-half as long as the 
achene or less and slightly decurrent on its edges. 

Pine barrens, New jersey to Virginia. July-Aug. 

7. Rynchospora glomertWa (L.) Vahl, 
Clustered Beaked-rush. (Fig. 654.) 

SchoenJ»^ivmetalus I,. Sp. PI. 44. 1753. 

Hyiihospora glomerala Vahl, Enum. 3: 134. 1806. 

Rootstocks slender, cultus smooth, triangular, 

slender or rather stont, i''-3° high. Leaves 

Aat, i"-3" wide, rough. margined, shorter than 

the culm; spikelets several or numerous, in 3-7 

corymbose-capitate axillary rather loose clusters, 

oblong, narrowed at both ends, tJ^"-2"IoDg; 

scales lanceolate, rich dark brown; bristles 6, 

^/ // / I \ ^?t\ W downwardly barbed, longerthauoreqnallingthe 

W // / I \ Willi achene and tubercle; achene obovate, lenticular, 

smooth, dark brown; tubercle subulate, about 

as long as the achene. 

In moist soil, Maine to Ontario and Michigan, 
south to Florida and Tcias, July-Sept. 
RynebospoTa glomraita paoitnUta (A.lGray) Chapm. Ft. S. States, .S28. 1860. 
JUtynchospoi a paiiiciilala A. Clray, Ann, Lye. N. Y, 3: ?IJ. i8,«. 

Culm stouter, sometimes iW tall; leaves usually wider; spikelets very numerous in compound 
clusters. Maryland to Florida and Louisiana, 

Rynclioap«ra elomcTita minor Britton, Trans. N. V. Acad. Sci. 1 


wide or less; clusters 3 or 3, small, with 3-10 spike. 

■ery slender, 5^-10' tall ; leaves H 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 
Ryschoapora glomerita diiciitiens Clarke; Itritton. Trans. N. V. Acad. Sci. i 
Iristles smooth, or barlKd at^the apex only. New jersey to North Carolina. 


Rynchospora axillaris (Lam ) Bnt 
:on. Capitate Beaked-rush. (Fig 655 ) 

s Britton, Bull. Ton Club 

^'"3; 21M. ' 
15: 104. iSbo. 

Culms stout, 3-aiiglerl, a°~4° tall Leaves 
it, keeled, i"-i%" wide; spikelets spindle 
aped, aji"-3" long, exceedingly numerous 
several short- peduncled 3x111817 and terminal 
ry dense globose heads sometimes 10 ' in dl 
ncter; scales darlc brown, ovate-oblong, acute, 
istles usually 6, longer than or equalling the 
hene and tubercle, dowawardly or upwardly 
rbed; achene broadly obovate, brown, smooth, 
uticular; tubercle subulate, about as long as 
e achene, somewhat decurrent on its edges. 

In swampa, I.onf( Island tii Florida and I/>uisi- 
a, near the coast. July-Sepl. 

RjnichaBpora axilUris mlctocepbala Britlon, Trans. N. Y, Acad. Sci. 11:89, '^'' 
Heads only 4" -5" in diameter; spikelets \'A" long; achene one-half as lame as that of the type, 
ew Jcisey to Florida and Louisiana. 

9. Rynchospora ffiaca (L.) R. &S. Brown 
Beaked-rush, (Fig. 656.) 




Rootstocks short, culms slender, 3-angled, smooth, 
tufted. 6'-i8' tall. Leaves setaceous, channeled, 
scarcely Ji" wide, much shorter than the culm; 
spikelets spindle-shaped, acute, about 2>i" long, 
several, or rather numerous, in 1-4 loose clusters; 
scales oblong-lanceolate, brown, shining, concave; 
bristles 6, upwardly barbed, often unequal, the longer 
ones usually exceeding the achene and tubercle; 
achene narrowly obovate. tursid-lenticDlar, smooth, 
shining; tubercle triangular-subulate, nearly as long 
as the achene, its margins serrulateor nearly smooth. 

In bogs. New Brutiswick to Delaware, west along the 
St. Lawrence and Great I^kes to Michigan. Also in 
Europe. July- Aug. 

10. Rynchospora gracil6nta A. Gray. 

Slender Beaked-riish. (Kig. 657.) 

'hyndiospora graciUnla A. firay. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 



Culms very slender or filiform, smooth, obtusely 
iangular, i^-a" tall. leaves flat or becoming invo- 
ite in drying, rather less than \" wide, elongated 
at shorter than the culm; spikelets narrowly ovoid. 
:ute, 2" long, few. in 1-4 loose clusters, the lower 
lusters borne on filiform stalks; scales ovate, brown, 
lucronate; bristles 6. upwardly barbed, equalling the 
:hene and tubercle; achene broadly oval or neatly 
rbicular, dark brown, lenticular, dull, smooth; tu. 
ercle narrowly subulate, fiat, widened at the base. 
ale, about as long as the achene. 

Rynchospora cymdsa EU. Grass-like Beaked-rush. (Fig. 658.) 

Rhvnchoipora cymosa VAX. Hot. S. C. & Ga. i:.^. 1816. 
Schoenus cymosus Muhl. tiram. 8. 1S17. 

Lifibt green, culms tufted, sharply 3-aDgled, 
smooth. i°-j° tall. Leaves flat, narrowly liuear, 
jip'ass-like, \%"-i" wide or (he basal ones broader, 
the uppermost sometimes overtopping the culm^ 
spilcelets ovoid -oblong, acute, i^"Iong, sessile or 
□early so, capitate in 3's-7's oo the ultiinale 
branches of the axillary and terminal clusters; 
bracts setaceous; scales dark brown, broadly ovate 
or suborbiculsr; bristles 6, upwardly barbed, 
shorter than the achene; achene broadly obovate 
or oblong, lenticnlar, transversely wrinkled: style 
3-c1eft: tubercle conic, onc-fonrth to one-third as 
long as the acheue. 

In moist soil, Ncwleraey to Kentucky and Missouri, 
sonth to Florida and Te— — ■ ■ - " ■ 

13. Rynchospora Torrey4na A. 

Gray, Torrey's Beaked-rush. 

(Fig. 659.) 

Rkyncbotpora Torreyana A. Gray, Ann. I.yc. 
N. Y. 3: 197. 1835. 

Culms terete or obscurely 3-aog1ed, smooth, 
slender, ^yi"-^ tall. Leaves involute, the 
lower lji"-2"wide at the base and elong- 
ated, the upper hristle-like, distant; spike- 
lets ovoid, \)i" long, peduncled, numerous, 
in 1-4 loose distant clusters; scales brown, 
ovate, mucronate; bristles 6, upwardly 
barbed, shorter than tbc oblong-obovatc 
transversely wrinkled lenticular achene; 
style 2-cleft; tubercle flat, conic, one-fourtli 
to one-third as long as the achene. 

In wet pine iMtrcns, New Jersey to South 
Carolina. July- Aug. 

13. Rynchospora tnexp&nsa 
(Michx.) Vahl. Nodding Beaked- 
rush. (Fig. 660.) 
Schoenas inexpansus Michx. PI. Bor, Atn. i: 35 

Khynckospora i 


1 Vahl, Enum. : 

Roots tocks slender, culms tufted, smooth, 
slender, s-angled, 3° -3° tall. Leavessmooth, 
i" wide or less, flat, the lower elongated, 
the upper brbtle-like, remote; spikelets 
spindle-shaped, acute at both ends, about 3" 
long, numerous, in 1-4 narrow finally droop- 
ing panicles; scales brown, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate; bristles 6, upwardly hispid, very slen- 
der, about twice as long as the achene; 
achene narrowly oblong, transversely wrin- 
kled; style 1 cleft; tubercle flat, triangular- 
subulate, one-halfas long as the achene. 

Moist soil, Virginia to I.,ouisiana. June-Aug. 


38 1 

15. CLADIUM P. Br. Civ. & Nat. Hist. Jam. 114. 1756. 

Perennial teafy sedges, similar to the Rynchosporas, the spikelets oblong or fusiform, 
few-flowered, variously clustered. Scales imbricated all nround, the lower empty, the mid- 
dle ones mostly subtending imperfect flowers, the upper usually fciEile. Perianth none. 
Stamens 2 or sometimes 3. Style 2-3-cleFt, deciduous from the summit of the aehene, its 
branches sometimes i-3-parIed. Achene ovoid or globose, smooth or longitudinally striate. 
Tubercle none. [Greek, referring to the branched inflorescence of some species.] 

About 30 species, natives of trapical and temperate regions. Besides Ihe following, another oc- 
curs in the southern United States and one in Califom ' 

I. Cladium manscoldes (Muhl.) Torr. <,; 

Twig-rush. (Fig. 661.) 
Schoenus mariscoidt! Muhl. Gram. 4. 1817. 
Cladium mariscoidesToTr. Ann. Lye. N. V. 3: 37^. 1836. 

Culm slender, erect, rather stiff, obscurely 3-aDg1cd 
smooth, ifi''-3'' tall. Leavesabout 1" wide, concave 
with a long compressed tip, nearly smooth; umbels 
2 or 3, compound, the i or z axillary, slender stalked 
spikelets oblong, narrowed at both ends, acute, 3}4 
long, capitate in 3's-io's on the raylets; scales chest 
nut-brown, ovate or ovate -Ian ceo I ate, acute, the mid 
vein slightly escurrent; upper scale subtending a 
perfect flower with 2 stamens and a Aliform 3-cleft 
style, the neict lower one with z stamens and an ab 
ortive ovary; achene ovoid, scute, finely longitudi 
nally striate, about i" long. 

In marshes, Nova Scotia to Ontario and Minnesota, 
south to Florida and Iowa. July-Scpt. 

16. SCL.ERIA Berg, Koiigl. Acad. Sv. Handl. 26: 142. p/. 4., 5. 1765. 
Leafy sedges, mostly perennial by rootslocks, the spikelets small, clustered in terminal, 
or terminal and axillary fascicles, or sometimes interruptedly spicatc. Flowers monoecious, 
the staminate and pistillate spikelets separated or borne in the same clusters. Fertile spike- 
lets i-flowered. Staminate spikelets many-flowered. Scales imbricated all around, 
[-3 lower and sometimes also the upper ones of the fertile spikelets empty. Perianth d 
Style 3-clefl, slender or sometimes swollen at the base, decidnous. Ovary supported 
disk (hypogynium), or this wanting. Stamens 1-3. Achene globose or ovoid, obtuse, i 
taceons or bony, white in our species. [Greek, in allusion to the hard frait.] 

About 100 species, natives of tropical and temperate regions. Besides the following, so 
othcTH occur in the southern t'nited States. 

Spikelets in terminal, or terminal and lateral clusters; achene supported on a hypogynium. 
Achene smooth. 

Hypogynium supporting 8 or 9 small tubercles under the achene. 
Hypogynium covered with a rough white crust, 
Achene reticulated or irrepularty n^ose. 

Culms erect or ascending; achene reticulated; leaves i"-i M" widi 
Culms spreading; achene irregularly rugose; leaves 3"-4" wide. 


!. S. IngluH 

Spikelets i 

3. S~ rriicularis. 

4. S. Torreyana. 

5. S. pauctfiora. 

6. S, vtrliciUala. 

iterruptedly glome rate -spicate; no hypogynium, 

I. Scleria oligintha Michx. Few-flowered 
Nut-rush. (Fig. 662.) 

ScUria oliganlha Michx, Fl. Bor. Am. i: 167. 1B03. 

Rootstocks thick, hard, clustered. Culms slender, 
erect, sharply 3-angled, nearly smooth, Ij4°-2ji° 
tall, the angles somewhat winged. leaves smooth or 
slightly rough at the apex, a"-3" wide, the lower 
short, acute, the upper elongated; clusters terminal, 
usually also 1 or a aiillary, and filiform-stalked; 
bracts slightly ciliate or glabrous; achene ovoid, ob- 
tuse but sometimes pointed, bright white, smooth, 
shining: hypogynium a narrow obtusely triangular 
border supporting 8 or 9 small tubercles under the 

In moist soil, ViTginia to Florida and Teias, near the 
coast, June-Aug, 

2. Scleria triglomerita Michx. Tall Nut -rush. (Fig. 663. ) 

Stlrria Iriglomciala Michx. I-l, Bor. .^m, i: 168. ii*ii,v 
Root Stocks hard, short, clustered, culms 3- 
angled, slender or rather stout, erect or ascending, 
rough or nearly smooth on the angles, 1 Ji°-3° (all. 
Leaves flat, smooth or slightly rough -margined, 
glabrous or nearly so, s}i"-3}4" wide, the lower 
short, acute, the upper tapering to a long tip, rarely 
exceeding the culm; flower-clusters terminal, and 
usually also 1 or 2 smaller ones from the axils; 
bracts glabrous or slightly ciliate; achene ovoid or 
ovoid globose, obtuse but somewhat pointed, bony, 
obscurely 3-Bngled, smooth, bright white, shining. 
about l" high, supported on a low obtusely trian- 
gular, papillose-crustaceous hypogynium. 

In meadows and thickeU, Vermont to Wisconsin. 
south to Florida and Texas. July-Stpt. 

Sclaria triglomerata minar Britton. 

■i Ell. 

I X. Y. 

hair as 

3. Scleria reticulSu'is Michx. Reticulated 

Nut -rush. (Fig. 664.) 

Scleria relieularis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i: :67, tSoj. 

Rootstocks small, culms very slender, erect, 3- 
anglcd, i^-iji" tall. Leaves narrowly linear, smooth, 
glabrous or uearly so, i"-i>i" wide, not overtopping 
the culm; spiketels in a terminal cluster and 1-3 re- 
mote short-stalked axillary rather loose oues; bracts 
glabrous; acliene globose, crustaceous. dull white 
when mature, reticulated by longitudinal and trans- 
verse ridges, X" i° diameter, glabrous; hypogynium 
3-lobed, its lobes appressed to the base of the achene. 

In moist meadows, eastern Ma-ssachusetts to Florida, 
west to Missouri. Also in Cuba. July-Sept. 
Scleria leticularii pubfacens Britton, Ann, N. V, .^cad, Sci. 
3: 23J. 1885- 

Rcticulalions on the achene putiescenl; lateral clusters 
usually longer stalked. New Jersey to Florida and Cuba. 

Scleria retlcularia obseura Britton, .\nn, N. Y. Acad. Sci. 3: 23J. 1885. 

Heliculations very obscure, the top of the achene almost smooth. Rhode Island to North Carolina. 
4. Scleria Torrey^na Walp. Torrey's Nut-rush. (Fig, 665,) 

Scleria Torrevana Walp. Ann. 3: 6g6. iS5a-,<i3. 
Scleria laxa Torr. Ann. Lye. N. V. 3; 3715. 1836. Not 
R. Br. "- 

Culms weak but rather thick, spreading or dif- 
fuse, 3-angled, nearly or quite smooth, \°-i%° long. 
Leaves linear, nearly flat, smooth, glabrous, lJi"-4" 
wide, not exceeding the culm; spikelels in a loose 
terminal cluster, and 1-3 filiform -stalked smaller ax- 
illary ones; bracts glabrous; achene globose, some- 
what pointed, nearly i" in diameter, irregularly ru- 
gose with low ridges somewhat spirally arranged, the 
ridges usually pubescent, and connected by shorter 
longitudinal ones, the surface thus indistinctly reticu- 
lated; hypogynium 3-Iobed, the lotws appt«ssed to 
the base of the achene. 

In moist soil, southern New Jersey to Florida, Texas 
and Mexico. Also in Cuba. Forms of this species with 
obscurely reticulate achenes and narrow leaves are with 
difficulty separated froni Uic preceding. June-Aug. 

5. Scleria paucifldra Muhl. Papillose Nut-rush. (Fig. 666.) 

Sfli-Ha poHciflora Muhl, ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 318. 1805. 

Rootstocks thick, hard, clustered, culms slender 
rather stiff, erect, usually tufted, glabrous or 
sparingly pubescent, 3-angled, g'-a" tall. Leaves 
very narrowly linear, erect, less than i" nide, the 
lower short, the upper elongated and often over 
topping the culm, their sheaths often densely pu 
beratent; spikelets in a amall terminal cluster and 
sometimes also in 1 or 3 axillary short-stalked 
ones; bracts ciliale or glabrous; achene oblong or 
globular, ^" in diameter or rather more, cnista 
ceons, papillose, the lower papillae elongated and 
rellexcd; hypogynium a narrow obtusely triangu 
lar border supporting 6 very small tubercles some 
what approximate in pairs. 

6. Scleria verticilldta Muhl. Low Nut-rush. (Fig. 667) 

SiUria verlirillala Mulil.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4^ 3'?. 

Hrpoporiim verlieillalum Nees, I.innaea, 9; 303. 

Annual (?) roots fibrous, culms very slender 
or filiform, 3-angled, smooth or nearly so, erect, 
4'-!° tall. Leaves very narrowly linear, %"- 
Yt" wide, erect, shorter than the culm, the 
lower very short; shealhs sometimes pubescent; 
spikelets in several separated clusters, the in- 
florescence simple or sparingly branched; 
bracts bristle-like; scales glabrous; achene glo- 
bose, %" in diameter, cnistaceous, nsually 
tipped with the base of the style, marked by 
sharp distinct transverse ridges, or somewhat 
reticniated by additional longitudinal ridges ; 
hypogynium none. 

In nioist meadows, eastern Massachusetts to On- 
tario and Michiffan, south to Florida, Teias and 
Mi^xico, and in the West Indies. Plant, especially 
the roots, fragrant in drying. July-Sept. 

17. ELYNA Schrad. Fl. Germ, i: 155. 1806. 

Low tufted arctic and mountain sedges, with erect slender mostly leafless culms, the 
narrowly linear leaves clustered at the base, and small 2-flowered spikelets in a narrow ter- 
minal cylindric spike. Scales of the spikelet 3 or 4, distinct, usually only one of them 
flower-bearing; the staminate flower of 3 stamens, the pistillate of a single pistil. Bristles 
or perianth wanting. Style slender, 3-cleft, not jointed to the oblong ovary. Achene 
obtusely 3-angled, sessile. [Greek, signifying covering, perhaps in allusion to the overlap- 
ping scales.] 

and alpine regions of the northern 

Elyna Bellirdi (All.) C. Koch. Arctic Elyna. (Fig. 668.) 

Care.f lifllaydi All. Ft. Ped. J: 264. pi. 91. 
Kobresia scirpina WilM. Sp. PI. 4: 305. if 
Klyna spicala Schrad. Fl, Genu, i: 155. 18 
Elyna Bellardi C. Koch, Linnaea, 3i: 616. 

Densely tuned, culms very slender, 4'-i8' tall, 
longer tfaan the very narrow leave*. Old sheaths 
librittOBc, brown; tnargins of the leaves more or 
less revolutc; spike subtended by a short bract, or 
bractless, densely flowered or sometimes inter- 
rupted below, 8"-i5" long. \%"-2" in dism- 
eter; achenes rather less than t" long, yi" thiclc. 

In a 

18. KOBRESIA Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 205- 


Slender arctic and mountain sedges, with erect culms leafy below, and few-several- 
flowered spikelets clustered in a terminal spike. Scales of the spikelets i-fiowered, the 
lower usually pistillate, and the upper staminate. Stamens 3. Feriantfa-bristles or peri- 
gynium wanting. Ovary oblong, narrowed into a short style; stigmas j, linear. Achene 
obtusely 3-angled, sessile. [Name in honor of Von Kobres, a naturalist of Augsburg.] 

ividel; distributed in arctic and mountainous regions, 

I. Kobresia bipartita (All.) Britton. 
Arctic Kobresia. (Fig. 669, J 

Carex biparlila AH. Fl, Ped. a: 265. pi. Sg. /. $■ 1785. 
Kobresia caricina Willd. Sp. PI. 4: ao6. 1805. 
Kobresia biparlila Britton, Mem. Torr. Club, 3; 101. 

Culms solitary or tufted, smooth or very nearly 
ao, 4'-i2' tall. Ix:aves about %" wide, infolded at 
least in drying, usually shorter than (he culm, the 
old sheaths becoming fibrillose; spike 1' long or 
less, composed of several or numerous linear ap- 
pressed or ascending spikelets; scales somewhat 
serrulate on the keel, rather more than ^" long; 
mature achenes slightly longer than the scales. 


19. UNCINIA Pers. Syn. 2: 534. 

Culms erect, leafy, or the leaves all basal. Spike simple, erect, terminal, the scales im- 
bricated, i-flowered, the lower pistillate, the upper Btaminale. Scales ovate or oblong, con- 
cave, not keeled, obtuse or the lower ttcute. Stamens 3, rarely i or 3. Pistil enclosed in a 
utricle (perigynium), borne at the base of a slender axis, which is usually exserted beyond 
the orifice of the perigyniutn, at least in fruit, and sometimes booked. Stigmas mostly 3. 
Achene 3-angted. [Latin, referring to the hooked projecting axis of the southern species.] 

About 30 species, atl but the following natives of the southern 
fers from Carex only in the elongation of the subulate axis wiUiin 
southern hemisphere are very different in habit. 

. Uncinia microgldchin (Wahl.) Spreng, Northern Uncinia, 

'arer microftocfiiii Wahl. Kongl. Acad. Handl. (11.) 

M- '40. 1803. 
'arex oUgaHlha Boott, III. 174. pi. 5S9. 1867. 
Uncinia microglochin Spreng. Syst. 3; S30. 1R36. 

Perennial by short stolons, culms very slender, 
■eak, 4'-ii' long. Leaves %"-\" wide, much 
Sorter than the culm; spike 4"-8" long, usually 
iatillale for more tban one-half its length; scales 
bloug-laticeolate, t-nerved, deciduous; pedgynia 
cry narrowly lanceolate, 3"-4" long, less than 
,"" thick, strongly rcflesed in fruit; achene ob- 
>ng, obtusely 3-angied, much shorter tliaa the 
erigyninm; axis of the pistillate flower bristle- 
ke, long-exserted beyond the orifice of the peri- 

Greenland to Jarae 

sia and at the Strait of Magellan. Plant with the 
ipcct of Can X patui flora. Summer. 

20. CAREX L. Sp. PI. 972. 

Grass-like sedges, perennial by rootstocks. Culms mostly 3-aDgled. Leaves 3-raDked, 
le upper elongated or very short (bracts ) and subteoding the spikes of flowei«, or wanting, 
'lowers monoecious or dioecious, solitary in the axils of bracts (scales). Spikes either wholly 
istillate, wholly staminate, or bearing both staminatc and pistillate flowers (androgynous), 
erianth none Staminate flowers of 3 stamens, the filaments filiform. Pistillate flowers 
f a single pistil wiih a style and i or j stigmas, borne on a very short aiis in the axil of a 
ic-like bractlet or second bract called the perigynlum (utricle), which completely encloses 
tie achene. Acheue 3-angted, lenticular or plano-convex. 

A vast ^eiius, of more than 1000 species, widely distributed, most abundant in the temperate 
mes. Besides [he followinR about an equal number occur in the western and southetn parts of 
forth America. Specimens can only be satisfactorily determined when nearly or quite mature. 
■he genus is divided into the two subgenera, EUCAREX (nos. 1-147) and Vignka (nos. 143-205). 

I. Staminate flowers numeiouB, in one or more terminal splkss, which are BometlmeB pUtillate at 
be base or Biunmit ; or the spike solitary and the staminate flowers uppermost or basal, rarely djoe- 
louB ; Btlgmas mostly 3 and the achene 3-angled or Bwollen (atlgmaa i and the acheoe lenticular 
r compressed in nos. i3-id ; 49-59; 67-71); pistillate spikes stalked or sessile, the lower ci 
talked. Nos. 1-143. EUCAREX. 



(a) Perigynia membranous or pafiery. Nos. 1-31. 

ihove; perigynia strongly refleied, subulate. PaUcI- 

I, C. paucifiora. 
ppennost; it solitary, staminate at the base. (See no. 


Spike solitary, few- 

t Teeth of the pcrigynium-beak slender, short or none; not stiff m 
J Teeth of the perigynium-bcak lanceolate 
■istillate spikes ovoid or globose, few-many -flowered. 
Perigyni a subulate, refleied when mature. 
Perigynia conic or ovuid, nut reflexed. 

Plants yellow or yellowish; perigynia li 

I.eaves 1" -3' wide; staminate spikes sessile. 
Leaves 3"-6" wide; staminate spike mostly stalked. 
Plants green; perigynia much inflated; staminate spike stalki 

3 ths beak. Nos. 3-3S 
: awned. Nos. a-»4. 

>r subulate. 


Leaves 2-3" wide; heads loosely (lowered. 
Leave ' ' ' " 

'istillate spikes oblong; or cylindric, densely many-flowered. 
Pistillate spikes oblong; achene longer than thick. 

Perigynia strongly sevetai-nerved, shining; leaves i"-a" wide. 

Perigynia many-nerved, dull; leaves 3"-5 wide. 
Pistillate spikes cylindric; achene not longer than thick. 

Perigynia yellowish, tapering into a beak twice as loiw as the body. 

Perigynia greenish-brawn. aWptly narrowed into a beak a-3 times a 

9. C.lubuliform, 
long as the body. 
10. C. grandis. 


Xt Teeth of tlie perig^niumbeak short or almost wanting^ (long: in no. 17) nos. 11-24. Vesicariab. 

Spikes small, i' long: or less, oblong or subgflobose; stigrmas often 2. 
Spikes gfreen or gr^eenisn yellow. 

leaves involute ; perigrynia ovoid; pistillate spikes few-several-flowered. 11. C.o/ij^osprrma, 
leaves flat; perig^ynia oblong-elliptic; pistillate spikes many-flowered. 12. C. Raeana. 
Spikes dark brown or purple; arctic species, 
leaves flat. 

Perigynia little inflated, papery. 

Beak of perigynium nearly or quite entire. 13. C. miliaris. 

Beak of peri^nium sharply and minutely 2-toothed. 14. C. saxatilis. 

Perig:ynia much inflated, very frag^ile. 15. L\ membranopacla. 

Leaves involute when dry. 16. C. ambusta. 

Spikes large, i'-6' long, cylindric or oblong-cylindric; stigmas \. 

Scales acute, acuminate or smooth-awned, or the lower sligntly roughened. 
Perigynia ascending or spreading, not reflexed. 

Spikes narrowly cylindric. i --6' long, 3"-4" thick. 

Leaves 2"-6" wide; culm stout. 17. C. ulriculata. 

Leaves i"-2H'" wide; culm slender. 18. C. monile. 

Spikes cylindric or oblong cylindric, i'-2' long, 6" thick. 

Scales smooth-awned. 19. C. Tuckertnani ^ 

Scales acute, acuminate or the upper obtuse. ao. C. bullata. 

Perigynia, at least the lower ones, reflexea when mature. 

Spikes all clustered at the summit or the lower i or 2 separated ; perig3rnia all reflexecj 

when old. 21. C. retrorsa. 

Spikes scattered; only the lower perigynia reflexed. 22. C. Hartii. 

Scales taperinfj^ into rough awns, or subulate and scabrous. 

Spikes cylindric, about 6" thick; perigjmia tapering into the beak. 23. C. lurida. 
Spikes narrowly cylindric, 3"-4" thick; perigynia abruptly narrowed into the beak. 

24. C. Baileyi. 

tt Teeth of the perigynium-beak stifi"; setaceous or awned. Nos. 25-28. Pseudocyperak. 

Spikes all erect or ascending. 25. C. Schweinitzii. 

Spikes, at least the lower ones, slender-stalked and drooping. 

Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric, 54 '-2' long; perigr3rnia ascending. 26. C. hysiricina. 
Pistillate spikes narrowly cylindric, i'-2H' long; perigynia reflexed. 

Teeth of the beak erect or little spreading. 27. C. Pseudo-cypenn. 

Teeth of the beak recurved-spreading. 28. C. comosa. 

** Perigynia obovoid, very abruptly contracted into the beak; spikes exceedingly dense. Nos. 29- 

31. Squarrosae. 

Scales linear-subulate, longer than the perig^ynia. 29. C. Prankii. 

Scales lanceolate, about one-half as long as the perigynia. 

Spikes 1-3, subglobose or oval, staminate below; achene linear-oblong. 30. C. squarrosa. 

Spikes 2-6, oblong-cylindric, usually staminate at both ends; achene ovoid. 31. C. typhi tioides. 

{h) Peiigynia fir'niy hard or leathery. Nos. 32-35. Pali'DOSAE. 

Leaves bright green, not glaucous; teeth of the perijmiium-beak slender, conspicuous. 

Scales lanceolate, acute or acuminate; leaves glabrous. 32. C. trichocarpa. 

Scales ovate-lanceolate, rough-aw^ned ; leaves often pubescent. 33. C. arista ta. 

Leaves pale green, glaucous; teeth of the perigynium-beak short. 

Pistillate spike.s about 4" thick; teeth of the perigynium-beak manifest. 34. C. riparia. 

Pistillate spikes about 2" thick; teeth of the perigynium-beak minute. 35. C. acutiformis, 

B. Perigynia short-beaked or beakles.s, little or not at all inflated. b"-2f^" 


(a) Spikes 2 or more, the staminate one alzcays uppermost, sometimes partly pistillate. (No. 140 

may be looked for here). Nos. 36-132. 

1, Pistillate spike or spikes many -flowered, mostly i' long or more (or shorter in nos. 44, 48, 53-55, 
61, 63-65, 73, 75, 76, 85, 89-92), linear, narrowly cylindric or oblong. Nos. 36-92. 

* Perigynia with a straight short beak (long-beaked in no. 43 ; nearly beaklesa in no. 36), firm or leathery 
in texture ; pistillate spikes erect (or nodding in no. 37); stigmas 3. Nos. 36-43. 

Uppermost spike staminate from the base to about the middle. Shortianae. 36. C. Shortiana. 
Upper one or more spikes entirely staminate. or occasionally' pistillate at the base. 

Perig>'nia; beak very short, nearly or quite entire. Anomalae. 37. C. scab rata. 
Perigrynia pube.scent (sometimes glabrous in no. 39), the beak sharplj^ 2-to^thed. Hirtae. 
Staminate spike or spikes sessile or nearly so. 38. C. vestita. 

Staminate spike or spikes distinctly stalked. 
Leaves glabrous; native species. 

leaves flat or their margins slightly revolute. 

Scales only half as long as the perigynia; southern coast species. 

39. C. Walteriana. 
Scales equalling or but slightly shorter than the perigj'nia; northern species. 

Leaves 2"-3^2" wide; pengynia iW thick, Uie ner\'es prominent, 

40. C. Houghtonii. 
Leaves i"-2" wide; perig>tiia i" thick, the nerves obscured by the dense 

pubescence. 41. C. lanuginosa. 

leaves strongly involute. 1" wide or less. 42. C. filiformis. 

Leaves or their sheaths pubescent; introduced species; beak long, 43. C. hirta. 


^* Perigynia beakless or very short-beaked (see no. 36)1 and with orifices nearly or quite entire, thin 

in texture* not Inflated, closely investing the achene; pistillate spikes erect or 

drooping, often brown or purple ; stigmas often a. Nos. 44-72. 

"t Pistillate spikes erect or somewhat spreadin^^ (drooping when mature in no. 45). Nos. 44-58. 

Terminal spike staminate below, pistillate above (rarely all staminate in no. 47); stigmas 3. 
Scales shorter thap or equalling the perig^nia; arctic and alpine species. 
Orifice of the perigynium minutely 2-toothed; scales obtuse or acutish. 

Pistillate spikes 2"-5" long, erect. 44. C. alpina. 

Pistillate spikes 4"-i2" long, drooping when old. 45. C. atratt/ormis. 

Orifice of the perigynium entire; scales acute or awned. 

Perigynium ovate, the style usually protruding. 46. C. sh'losa. 

Perigynium obovate, the style not protruding. 47. C. Parryana. 

Scales manifestly longer than the perigynia; bog species. 48. C. fusca. 

Terminal spike staminate throughout (occasionally pistillate at the top in no. 53); stigmas 2. 
rarely 3 in No. 55. Rigidak. 
Lower sheaths becoming very fibrillose; tufted bog species. 49. C. striata. 

Lower sheaths not at all fibrillose, or slightly so. 

Scales shorter than or equalling the periffynia (or longer in no. 50). 
Culms i°-2H° tall; scales acute or acuminate. 

Pistillate spikes linear-cylindric. 50. C. Havdeni. 

Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric. 51. C. Nehraskensis. 

Culms 8' -4° tall; scales obtuse or the lower acute. 
Scales green. 

Leaves 2" -3" wide; pistillate spikes 2" -3" thick; perigynia nerveless. 

^2. C. aquatilis. 
Leaves i" wide; pistillate spikes i"-2" thick; perigynia faintly few-nerved. 

53. C lenticularis. 
Scales purple or brown. 

Scales shorter than the perigynia; marsh and meadow species. 

54. C. Goodenovii. 
Scales equalling or longer than the perigynia; arctic and alpine species. 

55. C. Bigelovii. 
Culms only i'-7' tall; arctic species. 50. C. suospathacea . 

Scales distinctly longer than the perigf^rnia; northern salt marsh species. 

Basal leaves i ' ' wide or less ; scales little longer than the perig^ynia. 57. C. salina. 
Basal leaves i"-3" wide; scales much longer than the perig^ynia. 50. C. cuspidata. 

1 1 Pistillate spikes drooping, mostly on slender or filiform stalks (erect in nos. 66 and 71 . ) Nos. 59-72 

Culms slender; pistillate spikes V^-2%' long; stig^mas 3 (2 in no. 59). 

Pistillate spikes linear; scales shorter than the pengrynia. Prasinae. 

Perigrynia twisted toward the top; scales purple -brown. 59. C torta. 

Perigynia straight; scales green. 60. C. prasina. 

Pistillate spikes oblong, globose or cylindric; scales equalling the perigynia or longer. 

Bracts manifestly sheathing; arctic species. Ferrugineae. 61. C. misandra. 

Bracts sheathless; scales mostly dark. Pendulinab. 

Pistillate spikes narrowly cylindric; southern coast species. 62. C. littoralis. 

Pistillate spikes oblong or globose j northern species. 
Scales not longer than the pengynia. 

Pistillate spikes 3"-6" long, few-flowered; scales obtuse. 63. C. rariflora. 
Pistillate spikes 5" -10" long, several-flowered; scales acute. 

64. C. limosa. 
Scales distinctly longer than the perigynia. 

Perigynia oval or suborbicular. 65. C. Magellanica. 

Perigynia elliptic-lanceolate. 66. C. poaocarpa. 

Culms tall, usually stout; pistillate spikes i'-4' long; scales 1-8 times as long as the perigynia; 
stigmas 2 (or 3 in nos. 70 and 71). Cryptocarpae. 
Perigynia smooth. 

Scales purple -brown; arctic species. 67. C. cryptocarpa. 

Scales ^reen; plants not arctic. 

Peng^ynia nerveless or faintly nerved, much shorter than the scales. 

Perigynia nearly orbicular, biconvex. 68. C marititna. 

Perigynia obovoid, obtuse. 69. C. crinita. 

Perigynia oblong or elliptic, acute. 70. C. gynandra. 

Perigjmia strongly several-nerved, about equalling tlie scales. 71. C. macrokolea. 

Perigynia gfranular or papillose. 72. C. glauca. 

if.if.if. Perigynia tapering to a distinct beak (nearly or quite beakless in nos 73-77), naembranous in 

texture (firna in no. 88), inflated or loosely investing the achene; pistillate spikes 

mostly drooping, often narrowly linear. Nos. 73-92. 

i" Terminal spike staminate below, pistillate above; beak of the perigynium short or none. Nos. 

X spikes all erect or nearly so. Virescentes. 

Perigynium densely pubescent. 

Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric, 4"-io" long; perigynia oval or ovoid, few-nerved. 

73. C. virescens. 
Pistillate spikes narrowly cylindric, 6"-i8" long; perigynia oblong, strongly several-nerved. 

74. C, costellata. 
Perigynium nearly glabrous, at least when mature. 

Spikes 2>4"-3J4 ' thick; perigynia imbricated, flattened; top of the achene not bent. 

75. C, triceps. 
Spikes 2" thick; perigynia not imbricated, swollen; top of the achene bent, or tipped with a 

bent style. 76. C. Caroliniana, 



t X Pistillate spikes drooping or spreading (erect or little spreading in no. 78). Gracillimak, 

Perigynia i"-2" long, slightly swollen; spikes linear or linear-cylindric. 

Plant glabrous; perigynia obtuse. 77. C. gracillima. 
Sheaths pubescent; perig>'nia pointed at both ends. 

Perigynia i" long; spikes erect or somewhat spreading. 78. C. arstiz'alis. 

Perigynia 2" long; spikes drooping, at least when old. 79. C. oxylepis. 
Perigynia 2 -2j^" long, manifestly swollen; spikes oblong or oblong-cylindric. 

Perigynia faintly few-nerved; scales ovate, acute or short-awned. 80. C. formosa. 

Perigrynia strongly many-nerved; scales lanceolate, long-awned. 81. C. Dai'isii. 

1 1 Terminal spike entirely staminate, or sometimes pistillate at the base. Nos. 82-92. ( See no. 140. ) 

Perigynia manifestly beaked, nerved or nerveless; pistillate spikes drooping, at least when old. 
Beak of the pengynium cylindric or subulate. 1-2 times as long as the Ixidy. Sylvaticak. 
Perigynia broadly oval, smooth, spreading. 82. C. lon^irostri^. 

Perigynia narrowly conic, tuberculate -hispid, appressed. 83. C Assiniboinensis. 

Beak of tne perigynium not more than one-half as long as the body. 

Leaves pubescent. Flexiles. 84. C. castanea. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Pistillate spikes narrowly oblong, 2" -6" long; perigynium 1" long; arctic and alpine 

species. Capillares. 85. C. capillaris. 

Pistillate spikes linear, i'-3' long; perigynium 2" -3" long. Debiles. 
Perigynia membranous, few-nervea; pistillate spikes slender. 

Leaves 2%."-^* wide; scales two-thirds as long as the perigynia. 

8(5. C. arc tat a. 
Leaves i"-2K'-' w^ide; scales one-half as long as the perigynia. 

87. C. tenuis. 
Perigynia coriaceous, strongly many-nerved; pistillate spikes thicker. 

88. C. oblita. 
Perigynia beakless or minutely beaked, finely many-striate; spikes erect or nearly so. Griseae. 

Leaves slightly or not at all glaucous. 

Perigynia little longer or shorter than the scales. 

Pistillate spikes dense, usually many-flowered; leaves 2" -3" wide, spreading, soft. 

89. C. gnsea. 
Pistillate spikes loosely several -flowered; leaves i"-2" wide, mostly erect and rig^d. 

90. C. ampkibola. 
Perigynia 2-3 times longer than the scales. 91. C.flaccosperma. 

Plant very glaucous all over. 92. C. glaucodea. 

2. Pistillate spikes small, few-many-flowered, mostly 3"-i2" long (sometimes longer in nos. io3f 
104, 116). Nos. 93-132. (See also nos. 44, 48, 53-55i 61, 63-65, 68, 73, 75, 80, 84, 85 and 89-92. ) 

* Perigynia glabrous. Nos. 93-120. (See no. 123.) 

t Pistillate spikes many-flowered, M'-\' long, usually dense. Nos. 93-99. 

Pistillate spikes scattered, distant, long-stalked or the 2 upper ones close together and nearly ses- 
sile. Granulares. 
Bracts elongated, mostly overtopping the spikes; perig>'nia strongly many-nerved. 

93- C. granularis. 
Bracts short, rarely overtoppingthe spikes; perigynia obscurely few-nerved. 94. C. Craivei. 
Pistillate spikes close together and nearly sessile at the summit of the culm, or the lowest distant 
and stalked. 
Beak of the perigynium stout, 2-toothed ; plants glabrous. Extensae. 

Ivcaves strongly involute; perigynia brown, the beak shorter than the body. 

95. C. e.trtensa. 
leaves flat, i"-2^" wide; perigynia yellow when mature, 2" -3" long, the beak about as^ 

long as the body. 96. C. flava. 

Leaves flat, i" wide or less; perigynia dark green, i" long, the beak one -half as long as the 
body. 97. C. inridula. 

Beak of the perigynium short, entire or none; leaves, or their sheaths, more or less pubescent. 
Perigynia faintly few-nerved, beakless. 98. C pallescens. 

PerigjTiia strongly many-nerved, cylindric-beaked. 99. C. ahbrei'iata. 

tt Pistillate spikes few-several-flowered, often loose. Nos. 100-120; 136-138. 

X Scales of the spike normal, not elongated and leaf -like. Nos. 100-120. 

\ Leaves i"-i8" wide; bracts leafy, usually large. Nos. 100-119. 

O Perigynia green (yellow or purple in no. 116). Nos. 100-117. 

Perig>'nia finely many-striate. Oligocarpae. 
Sheaths glabrous. 

Perigynia narrowed at both ends, beakless. 100. C. conoidea. 

Perigynia with a short entire beak. loi. C. oli^ocarpa. 

Sheaths pubescent. 102. C Hitchcockiana. 

Perigynia wnth few or many, mostly strong nerves. Lax i florae. 
Plants not at all glaucous, or very slightly so. 
Beak of the perigynium straight^ slender. 

Culms slender, spreading; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, stalked, spreading. 

103. C. altocaulis. 
Culms stout, erect; pistillate spikes i or 2, erect. 104. C. polymorpha. 

Beak of the pengynium bent, short or none. 
Leaves mostly narrow, i"-6" wide. 
Scales, at least the upper, obtuse. 

Bracts elongated; spikes loosely flowered; culms slender. 105. C. tetanica. 
Bracts short; spikes densely flowered; culms stout. 100. C. Meadii. 



Scales acute, cuspidate, acuminate, or awned. 
Perigynia obtusely 3-ang:led. 

Perigynia obovoid. i%"-iW long. 
Perigynia oblong, narrow, about 2" long. 
Perigynia sharply 3-angled. 

Spikes drooping or spreading; leaves i"-2" wide, or wider in the variety 

109. t\ dij^i talis 
Spikes erect: leaves 3" -6" wide. 
Leaves broad, 6"-i8" wide. 

Bracts leafy, the upi>er usually overtopping the spikes. 
Bracts mostly reduced to purple leafless sheaths. 
Plants distinctly glaucous. 

Pistillate spikes drooping on hair-like stalks. 
Pistillate spikes erect. 

Basal leaves much longer than the culm. 
Basal leaves shorter than the culm or equalling it. 
Leaves 6" -12" wide, 
leaves i"-2" wide. 

Scales acute; perigrynia yellow, purple or mottled. 116. 

Scales obtuse, or the lower acute; perigynia pale green. 117. 

1 07. C. laxifiora. 

108. C. styloflexa. 

no. C. Careyana. 

111. C. Alhursina. 

112. C. plantaginea . 

113. C. laxicnlmis. 

114. C. piychocarpa. 
C. piatyphylla. 


C. panicca. 
C. lii'ida. 

00 Perigynia white, yellow or becoming brown. 

Perigynia beakless. 

Perigynia with a short cylindric beak; arctic species. 



\ 'i Leaves and culms almost capillary; bracts reduced to bladeless sheaths. 

C. a urea. 

119. C. hi color. 


120. C. setifolia. 
X X Scales of the spikes leaf-like, elongated. Phyllostachvae. 

Lower scales 1" wide or less, not concealing the perigynia. 
Body of the perigynium oblong; beak flattened. 
Body of the perigprnium globose; beak subulate. 

136. C. Willdenovii. 
137- ^- Jamesii. 
138. C. durifolia. 

Lower scales i"-2" wide, concealing the perigynia. 

^^ Perigynia more or less pubescent (becoming glabrous in no. xa3)« Nos. 121-132. 
Culm-leaves present, often short; bracts mainly reduced to bladeless purplish sheaths. Pedun- 


Staminate spike short-stalked or sessile. 

Perigrynia about twice as long as the scales. 121. C. concinna. 

Perigynia not longer than the scales. 122. C. Richardson i. 

Staminate spike long-stalked, commonly with some pistillate flowers at its base. 

123. C. pediinculata. 
leaves all basal; bracts short or long, not sheathing. 

Neither the culm nor the leaves pubescent; perigynia rounded. Montanae. 

Plant not stoloniferous. 124. C. pedicellata. 

Plants stoloniferous, the stolons sometimes short. 
Culms, or some of them, longer than the leaves. 
Scales smooth or very nearly so. 

Staminate spike conspicuous. 3"-q" long. 
Staminate spike stout, W-in" thick. 

Plant dark green; staminate spike very prominent; perigrynia broadly 
oval. 125. C. Pe n nsy Irani ca. 

Plant light green; staminate spike shorter; perigrynia oblong. 

126. C. varia. 
Staminate spike verjr slender, not over %" thick. 127. C. Novae- Angliae, 
Staminate spike inconspicuous, rarely over 2" long (longer in the variety. ) 

28. C. deflexa. 
Scales, at least the lower, rough-awned. 
Culms, or most of them, much shorter than the leaves. 

Scales light green with purple margins; perigrynia oblong. 130. 
Scales green with lighter scarious margins; perigrsmia oval. 
Plant pubescent all over; perigynia sharply 3-angled. Triquetrae. 

(b) spike solitary {except in no, 140), sometimes dioecious. 



Leaves i'-2' wide, thick, spreading. 
Uaves H"-3" wide. 

Staminate and pistillate spikes on different culms. Scirpinae. 

Leaves longer than the culm; perip^ynia obovoid; southern species. 
Leaves shorter than the culm; pengrjmia oval; northern species. 
Staminate and pistillate flowers in the same spike. 

Scales of the spike leaf-like, elongated. Phyllostachvae. 
Lower scales 1" wide or less, not enclosing the perigynia. 
Body of the perigynium oblong, its beak flattened. 
Body of the i>erigynium globose, its beak subulate. 
Lower scales i"-254'' wide, enclosing the perigrynia. 
Scales of the spike short, normal. 

Leaves W -i" wide; arctic and western species. Rupestres. 
Spike solitanr, androgynous; perigynium-beak stout, long. 
Spikes 2-^, the staminate uppermost; perigynium-beak short 
Leaves yi" wide or less. 

Perigynia obtuse, beakless; swamp species. Leptocephalae. 

Perigrynia obovoid-oval, beaked; prairie species. Filifoliab, 

29. C praecox. 

C. nigromarginata, 

31. C. umbellata. 

32. C. pubescens. 

33. C. Fraseri, 

34. C. pi eta. 

35. C. scirpoidea. 

36. C. Willdenovii, 
C. Jamesii. 
C. durifolia. 


39. C. rupestris. 

40. C. supina. 

41. C. leptalea. 


42. C. filifolia. 


n. Staminate flowers few, at the summita or tMttes of the always sessile spikes, or sometimes 
forming whole spikes, or variously intermixed with the pistillate; stigmas always 3; achene lenti- 
cular, compressed, ellipsoid or plano-convex. Nos. 143-205. YIGHEA. 

I. Staminate flowers at the summits of the spikes. Nos. 143-173. 
(a) spike solitary, terminal, mostly broivn^ plants often dioecious. Nos. 143-146. Dioicae. 

Perigynia nerveless, or faintly few-nerved. 

Perigynia with a short nearly entire beak. 143. C. capilata. 

Perijf3mia beakless, the orifice 2-toothed. 144. C. nardina. 
Perigynia strongly several-nerved on the outer face. 

Beak of the perigynium very ^ort. 145. C. Redowskyana. 

Beak slender, rough, about half as long as the body of the perigynium. 146. C, exilis. 

(b) spikes several or many, clustered, separated or sometimes panicled. Nos. 147-151. 

^ Spikes densely aggregated into a globose or ovoid head, often appearing like a solitary terminal spike. 

Scales ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, not awned. Foetidae. 

Perigynia strongly many-nerved. 147. C. chordorhiza. 

Perigrynia faintly several-nerved. 

Culms and leaves usually curved; scales shorter than the perigynia. 148. C. incurva. 
Culms mostly straight, erect; scales equalling the perigynia. 149. C. stenophylla. 

Scales lanceolate, awned, or long-acuminate. Arenariae. 

Scales 2-4 times longer than the perigynia; western species. 150, C. Douglasii. 

Scales about equalling the perigynia; introduced sea-coast species. 151. C. arenaria. 

*^ Clusters of spikes looser, often compound or the spikes distinctly separated (more or less 

'aggregated in nos. 170-173). Nos. 152-173. 

t Spikes yellowish or brown at maturity, often in compound or panicled clusters. Nos. 152-163. 

Perigynia strongly several-nerved, especially on the outer face. Nos. 152-154. Vulpinae. 

Beak of the perigrynium shorter tnan the body. 152. C. conjuncta. 

Beak of the perigynium equalling or longer than the body. 

Spikes crowded in an oblong cluster; beak 1-2 lengths of the body. 153. C. slipata. 
Spikes in a large branching cluster; beak 3-4 lengths of the body. 154. C Crus-corvi. 
Perigynia nerveless or faintly nerved. Nos. 155-103. Multiflorae. 

Spikes very numerous in a branched decompound cluster, small. 155. C decontposita. 

Spikes several or many in an oblong or narrow, simple or somewhat compound cluster. 
Leaves i" wide or less. 

Beak of the perigynium shorter than the body; western species. 156. C, marcida. 
Beak as lon^ as the body; northern marsh species. 157. C. teretiuscula. 

Leaves i"-3" wide. 

Scales acuminate, cuspidate or awned. 
Perig3mia 1% -2Y1' long. 

Perigynia ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the beak about as long as the body. 

158. C. alopecoidca . 
Perigynia broadly ovate or orbicular, the beak about one-third as long as" the 
body. 159. C. gravida. 

Perigynia \W long or less. 

Leaves as long as the culm or longer. 160. C vulpinoidea. 

Leaves shorter than the culm. 

Perigynia ovate-elliptic, the base narrowed. 161. C. xanthocarpa. 

Perigynia lanceolate, the base truncate. 162. C. setacea. 

Scales blunt, scariou.s- tipped. 163. C. Sartzrellii. 

i"t Spikes green or greenish when mature, aggregated or separated, in simple clusters. Nos. 164- 


Perigynia ellipsoid, nearly terete; spikes 1-5-flowered, widely separated, or the upper close together. 

164. C. tenella. 
Perigynia lanceolate, ovate or roundish, compressed or plano-convex; spikes several-many-flowered. 
Spikes separated or the upper close together; perigynia mostly radiating, or reflexed. 
Leaves %"-iW wide. 

Beak of the perigynium one-third to one-half as long as the body; native woodland 
Peng^nia ovate-lanceolate, \"-iW long. 

Perigynia stellately radiating. 165. C. rosea. 

Perigynia reflexed when mature. 166. C. retroflexa. 

Perigynia narrowly lanceolate, iH"-2" long. 167. C. Texensis. 

Beak of the perigynium more than half as long as the body; introduced field species. 

168. C. murtcata. 
Leaves 2 >^" -4 J4" wide. 169. C. sparganioidcs. 

Spikes all aggregated or the lower separated ; perigynia spreading or ascending. 

Leaves thin, lax, 2" -4" wide; perigynia about 2" long. 170. C. cephaloidea. 

Leaves stiff er, Vt"-2*' wide. 

Perigynia i" long or less, nerveless or faintly few-nerved. 

Leaves I "-2 wide; peri^rynia ovate. 171. C. cephalophora. 

Leaves K"-i" wide ; perigynia orbicular-ovate ; southern. 172. C Leai^enworthii. 
Perigynia ij-i" long, strongly nerved (except in var. Xalapensis). 

173. C. Muhlenbergii. 


2. Staminate flowers variously mingled with the pistillate in the spikes or 


Perigynia radiately spreading or reflexed. 174. C. sterilis. 
Perigynia erect or appressed. 

Perijfynia wingless, the inner face flat. 187. C bromoides. 

Perig^nia winged, the inner face concave. 190. C. siccata. 

3. Staminate flowers at the bases of the spikes. Nos. 174-205. 

(a) Perigynia udlhout a marginal wing. Nos. 174-187. Elongatae. 

Perigynia radiately spreading, or reflexed when old. 

Perigynia distinctly nerved on both faces, the beak rough. 

Perigynia lanceolate; beak more than half as long as the body. 174. C. sterilis. 

Perijifynia ovate; beak about one-third as long as the body, abrupt. 175. C. Atlantica. 
Perigynia faintly nerved on the outer face, nerveless or nearly so on the inner; beak smoothish. 

176. C. inieHor. 
Perigrynia ascending, appressed or somewhat spreading when old, not radiating. 
Perigrynia ovate, oval, oblong or elliptic. 

Bracts short, scale-like or none, the lowest occasionally longer than its spike. 
Spikes distinctly separated or the upper close together. 

Heads silvery green or nearly white. 177. C. canescens. 

Heads brown or brownish. 

Spikes few-flowered, 2^-3" long; perigynia less than i" long, the beak manifest. 

178. C hrunnescens. 
Spikes dense, many-flowered; perigynia about 1" long, the beak very short. 

179. C. Norvegica. 
Spikes densely clustered at the top of the culm, or the lower separated. 

Spikes green or greenish brown. 

Spikes several in an ovoid cluster; perigynia ovate, rough-beaked. 

180. C. arcta. 
Spikes only 2-4; perigynia elliptic, beakless. 181. C. tenuijlora. 

Spikes dark brown; arctic species. 
Culms slender, stiff, erect. 

leaves involute; scales about equalling the perigynia. 182. C. Heleonastes. 
leaves flat; scales shorter than the perig^jmia. 183. C. lagopina. 

Culms weak, spreading or reclining. 184. C. glareosa. 

Bracts bristle-form, much elongated, much exceeding the 2-4 oblong nerved perigynia. 

185. C. trisperma. 
Perigrynia lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate. 

Perigynia nerveless; spikes oblong or subglobose. 186. C. Deweyana. 

Perigjmia strongly several-nerved; spikes narrowly oblong-cylindric. 187. C. bromoides. 

(b) Perigynia with a narrow or broad marginal wing. Nos. 188-205. O vales. 

Perigynia lanceolate or ovate -lanceolate, 2-5 times as long as wide. 

Top of the culm nodding; arctic and northwestern species. 188. C. pratensis. 

Culms strictly erect, mostly stiff. 

Perigynia nerveless, broadly winged; northwestern species. 189. C. xerantica. 

Perigynia several-nerved on both faces. 

Perigrynia broadly winged; staminate flowers intermixed with the pistillate. 

190. C siccata. 
Perigrynia narrowly winged; staminate flowers all basal. 

Spikes Vt'-\' long; perigynia about 4" long. 191. C. Muskingumensis. 

Spikes 2"-8" long; perigynia 2"-3'' long. 

Spikes oblong or oval; perigynia ascending or erect. 

Spikes green-brown, blunt. 192. C. tribuloides. 

Spikes bright brown, pointed; perigjrnia lanceolate. 193. C. scoparia. 
Spikes rather dark brown, blunt; perigrynia ovate-lanceolate. 

194. C. leporina. 
Spikes subglobose ; perig3mia spreading, at least when old. 195. C. cristatella. 
Perigynia ovate, not more than twice as long as wide (longer in some forms of no. 198. ) 
Perigrynia narrowly winged above; heads grreenish brown. 196. C. adusla. 

Perigynia broadly wing-margined. 
Perigrynia spreading or ascending. 

Spikes silvery grreen. 197. C. foenea. 

Spikes yellowish brown or greenish. 198. C. siramiriea. 

Perigynia erect or appressed. 

Heads silvery green or nearly white; sea-beach species. 199. C. silicea. 

Heads brown-green; meadow or marsh species. 200. C. tenera. 

Perigynia orbicular, very broadly ovate or somewhat obovate, sometimes wider than long. 
Heads ^cen-brown. 

Perigynia spreading or ascending; achene sessile. 201. C. feslucacea. 

Perijfytria erect, 2"-2j4" broad; achene short-stalked. 202. C. alaia. 

Heads silvery green, yellowish or whitish. 

Perigrjmium-wing firm; achene sessile. . 203. C. albolutescens. 

Perigynium-wing membranous; achene stalked. 204. C. Bicknellii. 

Perigynia narrowly linear-lanceolate, tapering into a subulate beak 2-3 times as long as the body. 
Cyperoideae. 205. C. sychnoeephala. 


Carex paucifldra Lightf. Few-flowered 
Sedge. (Fig. 671.) 

Lart.v Pauciflora Ughtf. Fl. Scot 543- />'■ 6- "777- 

Glabrous, culms erect or assurgent, very sleader, 
S'-a" high. Leaves very narrow, shorter than the 
cultn, the lowest reduced to toothed sheaths; spike 
solitary, androgynous, the staminate and pistillate 
flowers each 2-5, the staminate uppermost; peri- 
gynium green, narrow, scarcely inflated, 3"-4" 
long, about %" in diameter, several -nerved, taper- 
ing from below the middle into a slender or almost 
subnlate beak, strongly reflexed and readily de- 
tachable when mature, 3-3 times longer than the 
deciduous lanceolate or ovate scale; stigmas 3. 
In \xtgt, Newfoundland to Alaaks, south to Massi- 

3. Carex Collinsii Nutt. Collins' Sedge. (Fig. 672.) 
Carex subulala Michi. PI. Bor, Am, 1: 173- '803- 1 

Gmel. 1 791. 
Care.r Collinsii Nutt. Gen. 3: aoj. 1818. 
Carei Michauxii Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. to: 373. 1S16. 

Not Schwein, 1824, 

Glabrous, culms very slender, erect or reclining, 6'-a° 
long. leaves narrow, the broadest about 2}i" wide, the 
uppermost not exceeding the culm; staminate spike ter- 
minal, stalked; pistillate spikes 2-4, distant, 2-8-flowered, 
short-stalked, or the stalk of the lowest sometimes i}j' 
long; bracts similar to the upper leaves, elongated; peri- 
gynium light green, scarcely inflated, subulate, 5"-7" 
long, tapering from below the middle into an almost fili- 
form beak, faintly many-nerved, strongly reflexed when 
mature, about 3 times as long as the hyaline lanceolate- 
acuminate persistent scale, its teeth reflexed at maturity; 
stigmas 3. 

In bogs, Rhode Island to eastem PeunaylvaniB, south to 
South Carolina and Geoi);ia, Ascends to 1000 ft. in Pennsyl- 
vania. Attributed to Canada by Michaux, June-Aus- 

3. Carex abdcta Bailey. Yellowish Sedge. (Fig. 673.) 

Carex rotlrata Michi. Fl. Bor. Am, a: 173. 1803. Not 

Stokes, 17S7. 
Carex xanlhophyia Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. 14: 353- / S7- 

5.''. 1838. NotWahl. iBoi. 
Carex Michauxiana Boeclii. Linnaea, 40: 336. 1877. Not 

f. ^(Vfcia^ii Schwein. i8i+. 
Carex abacia Bailey, Bull. Ton. Club, »o: 427. 1893. 

Glabrous, whole plant yellowish, culm erect or slightly 
Hssmgent at the base, rather stiff, slender, i°-3° high. 
I,eaves narrow, the broadest about i" wide, the upper- 
most often exceeding the culm; staminate spike termi- 
nal, closely sessile; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, several-flow- 
ered, the upper sessile or very nearly so and closely 
approximated, the lowest, when present, remote and 
borne on a stalk }i'-2' long; bracts similar to the leaves, 
usually erect and overtopping the culm; perigynia slen- 
der, narrow, scarcely inflated, erect or spreading, taper- 
ing into a subulate 2-toothed beak, S"-7" long, less 
than i" thick at the base, rather strongly many-nerved, 
about twice as long as the lanceolate or ovate, acute or 
acuminate scale; stigmas 3. 
In bogs and wet meadows, Newfoundland to New Hampshire, New York and Pennsyh-Bnia. 
tst to Michigan. Ascends to 5000 ft, in New Hampshire. Also in Japan. Jnly-Sept. 

4. Carex follicuUta I,. Long Sedge. (Fig. 674.) 

Cattx/olticatala L. Sp. PI. 978. 1753- 

Glabrous, light green or yellowish, culm stout or slen- 
der, erect or reclining, i>i°-3° long. Leaves broad and 
elongated, sometimes overtopping the culm, often %' 
wide; stamicate spike stalked or nearly sessile; pistillate 
spikes 3-4, usually distant, all except the uppermost slen- 
der-stalked, several-many -flowered, the lower often nod- 
ding on a stalk z'-3' long; bracts commonly overtopping 
the spikes; perigynia ovoid, somewhat inflated, ascending 
or spreading, green, ratber prominently many-veined, 
^"-8" long, i" or a trifle more in diameter near the base, 
tapering from below the middle into a slender i-toothed 
beak, one-third to one-half longer than the awned broadly 
scarious-margined persistent scale; teeth of the peri- 
gynium nearly erect; stigmas 3. 

In swampa and wtt woods, Newfoundland to Maryland, 
n-est to Michigan and West Virginia. May-Sept. 

5. Carex intumiscens Rudge. Bladder Sedge. (Fig. 675.) 

Carex inlumesans Rudge, Trans. Linn. Soc. 7: 97. 
PI.9. f.3 1804. 

Glabrous, culms slender, commonly tufted, erect 
or slightly reclined, iji'-s" high. Leaves elon- 
gated, dark green, shorter than or sometimes equal- 
ling the culm, roughish. i>i"-3" wide; bracts simi- 
lar, overtopping the culm ; staminate spike narrow, 
mostly long-stalked ; pistillate spikes 1 ( 1-3 ) ses- 
sile or very short-stalked, globose or ovoid: peri- 
gynia 1-30, spreading or the upper erect, 6"-io" 
long, much inflated, about 3" in diameter above 
the base, many-nerved, tapering from below the 
middle into a subulate z-toothed beak, the teeth 
somewhat spreading at maturity; scales narrowly 
lanceolate, acuminate or aristate, about one-half as 
long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swamps, bogs and wet woods, Newfoundland to 
Manitoba, south to Florida and Louisiana. May-Oct. 
FenuUdi Bailey, Bull. Tott. Club, 3o: 418. 1S93. 
Perigynia narrower, 1-5 in each spike, all erect or slightly spreading. Maine to New York. 

6. Carex Asa-Grftyi Bailey. Gray'sSedge. (Fig. 676.) 
-Ca'v.i- ittlumescens yar. globularii A. Gray, Ann. Lye. 

N. V, 3; 236. '834- Not C. giobularis L. 1753. 
Care.r Grayi Carey, Am. Joum. Sci. (11.) 4: ", 1847. 

Not C. Grayana Dewey. 1834. 
Cartx Asa-Grayi Bailey, Bull.Torr. Club, 30: 4*7. 1B03. 
iafr.i- Asa-Grayi hispidula Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club, 

ao: 427. 1893. 

Glabrous, culms stout, erect or slightly assur- 
gent at the base, a''-3° tall. Leaves elongated, 
dark green, 3"-4Ji" wide, the upper commonly 
overtopping the culm; bracts similar to the upper 
leaves, usually much overtopping the culm; stami- 
nate spike mostly long-stalked ; pistillate spikes I or 
3, globose, dense, about 1' in diameter; perigynia 
10-30, ovoid, glabrous or pubescent, much inflated, 
many-nerved, about 4" in diameter above the base, 
tapering to a sharp 2-toothed beak; scales ovate or 
lanceolate, acuminate or cuspidate, scarious. about 
one-third as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swampsand wet meadows, Vermont to Michigan. 
«OUth to Geotxia and Missouri, June-Sept. 


7. Carex Louisiiinica Bailey. Louisiana 

Sedge. (Fig. 677. ) 

Caif.f Haiti Carey; Cbapm. Fl, S. States. 541. i860. 

Not Iiewey, 1846. 
C. iOBifianiVa Bailey, BuU.Torr. Club, jo; 418, 189.1. 

Culms slender, erect, smooth or very nearly »o, i^-a* 
tall. Leaves \"~2" wide, roughish, the upper over- 
' topping the spikes; bracts similar to the upper leaves, 
rough; pistillate spikes 1-3, oblong, about i' long, 8"- 
I 10" thick, erect, the lower slender-stalked, the upper 
nearly sessile; staminate spike solitarj-, long-stalked; 
perigynia ovoid, much inflated, smooth, strongly sev- 
eral-nen'ed, shining when mature, $"-(>" long, about 
lyi" in diameter at the rounded base, tapering gradu- 
ally into the long 3-toothed beak, the small teeth 
slightly spreading; scales oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, about one-half as long as the perigynia ; stignia.1 3. 

Swamps, Missouri to Texas and Florida. June-Aug. 

8. Carex lupulina Muhl. Hop Sedge. (Fig. 678.) 

Cartx gigaalea Sudge, Trans. I.inn. Soc. 7: 99. pi. 10. 



Glabrous, culms stout, erect or reclining, l''-4'' 
tall. Leaves elongated, nodulose, i^"-6" wide, 
the upper ones and the similar bracts much over- 
topping the culm; staminate spike solitary or rarely 
several, nearly sessile or slender-ped uncled, rather 
stout; pistillate spikes a-5, densely many-flowered, 
sessile or the lower slender-stalked, oblong, ifi'- 
iJ4' long, often i' in diameter; perigynia ascending 
or spreading, often short-stalked, much inflated, 
many-nerved, 6"-9" long, about i%" in diameter 
just above the base, tapering from much below the 
middle into a subulate 2-toothed beak ; achene longer 
than thick; scales lanceolate, acuminate or aristate, 
one-third as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swamps and ditches. Hudson Bay to western 
Ontario, Florida and Texas. June-Aug. 

Carei lapaUua Billa-viila (Dewey) Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, I; 11. 1889. 
Carex Btlla-villa Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. (II.) 41: 229. 1866. 

Culm slender; pistillate spikes remote, slender-stalked, sometimes staminate at the summil. 
the perigynia widely spreading at maturity, the staminate spike sometimes branched and with 1 or 
3 perigynia at its ba^. Eastern New York to southern Ontario. 

• ^ '--" — '"^ " ■ - =- described by Professor Dudley (Cayuga Fl. 119. 1886). 

9. Carex lupulifdrmis Sartwell. Hop-like 

Sedge. (Fig. 679.) 
Carex lupuHna var. polyslacbya Schw. & Torr. Ann, 

Lye. i: 337. 1815. Not C. polvslachya Sw, 
Carex lufuli/ormis &3.nv/.\ Dewey. Am. Joum. Sci. {II. ^ 

p: ag. 1850. 

Glabrous, culm stout, erect, i ^"-3° tall. Leaves and 
bracts similar to those of the preceding species, much 
elongated; staminate spike solitary, stalked or neatly 
sessile, sometimes 4' long; pistillate spikes 3-6, stalked 
or the upper sessile, densely many-flowered, 2'-3' long, 
6"-io" in diameter, often staminate at the top; peri- 
gynia yellowish, at first appressed, later ascending, ses- 
sile, much inflated, several-nerved, $"-%" long, about 
i" in diameter above the base, tapering froin below the 
middle to a subulate 3-toothed beak ; achene as long as 
thick, its angles mamillate; scales lanceolate, awned. 
shorter than or equalling the perigynia. 

Sivinips, Rhode Island to Del. and Minnesota. June-Aug. 

10. Carex grdndis Bailey. Large Sedge. (Fig, 680.) 


ire.r giganlea Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci, ii 

Not Kn^^, 1804. 

grandis Bailey. Mem. Torr. Club, ] 


Glabrous, culms slender, erect or reclining, a''-3° 
high. Leaves rather dark green, elongated, 4"-6" 
n-ide, the uppermost sometimes surpassing the 
cului; bracts similar to the leaves, much overtop- 
ping the culm; staminate spike sessile or pedun- 
cled, sometimes bearing perigynia at its base; pis- 
tillate spikes 3-5, all stalked or the upper sessile, 
eylindric, i'-3' long, sometimes stamirate at the 
summit; perigynia much swollen at the base, and 
about 3" in diameter, 5"--6" long, many-nerved, 
spreading at maturity, 3-4 times as long as the sca- 
riouslanceolate acuminate or aristate scale, abruptly 
contracted into a subulate a-toothed beak 3-3 times 
as long as the inflated portion; stigmas 3. 

Carex oligospfcrma Michx. Few-seeded Sedge. (Fig. 681.) 

Carer oligosperma Michx. Fl. Bor. Am, 1: 174. 1803. 
Glabrous, culms very slender, erect, rather stiff, 

1 J^''-3° tall. Leaves about i Ji" wide, not exceed- 
ing the culm, involute when old; bracts similar, 
overtoppingtheculm;stflminatesptkestalked, nar- 
rowly linear; pistillate spikes I or 3, globose or ob- 
long, 5"-io" long, sessile or tie lower short- 
stalked, few-several-flowered, the upper some- 
times reduced to I or z perigynia and with a 
staminate summit; perigynia ovoid; erect, in- 
flated, strongly few-nerved, yellowish green, a"- 
jji" long, about I V m diameter, tapering from 
the middle into a minutely 2-toothed beak; scales 
acute or mucronate, shorter than the perigynia; 
stigmas 3. 

In bogs, Labrador to the Northwest Territory, south 
to Massachusetts, Penn^lvania and Michigan. June- 
Sept. Ascends to 4000 (t. in the Adirondaclcs. 

13. Carex Raeilna Boatt. Rae's Sedge. (Fig. 682.) 

Carer miliaris var. aiirea Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, 

1137. 1889. Not C- aK»-M Nutt. 1818. 
Carex PuUa A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5,60a. 1867. Not 

Gooden. 1797. 
Carex Raeana Boott; Richards. Arct. Eip. i: 344. 


Culm stouter than that of C. miiiaris, very 
rough above, iJi''-3° tall. Leaves i"-i^" wide, 
flat, shorter than the culm, nodulose, somewhat 
scabrous on the margins, the lower bracts narrower, 
about equalling the culm; staminate spikes 1-4, 
slender-stalked; pistillate spikes 1-3, erect, eylin- 
dric or oblong, 6"-ii" long, sessile or the lower 
short-stalked; perigynia oblong-elliptic, yellowish- 
green, few-nerved, acute, narrowed into a rather 
conspicuous 3-toothed beak; scales lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, yellowish or brown -mar;gined, 
slightly shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 2 or 3. 

On lake and river shores, northern Maine to lAb- 
rador. Summer. 


Carex miliilris Michx. Northeastern Sedge. (Fig. 683.) 


1: 3b- lUSQ. t 

Glabrous, culm very slender, erect, roughish 
above, i°-3° tall. Leaves flat, about 1" wide, 
elongated, nodulose, the upper about equalling the 
culm; bracts siniilar to the leaves, often overtop- 
ping the culm; staminate spikes I or l, stalked. 
narrowly linear; pistillate spikes i-j, oblong or 
linear-oblong, many-flowered, 4"-i' long, the op- 
pet sessile, the lowest, when three, stalked; peri- 
gynia inflated, ovoid, faintly few-nerved, 1"- 
I>{" long, dark brown or brown-tipped, tapering 
into a short, nearly entire beak, slightly longer 
than the ovate or ovate-lanceolate, wholly or 
partly brown, obtuse or acute scale; stigmas 2. 

14. Carex saxfitilia L. Russet Sedge. 
(Fig. 684.) 


c. 3: 78- 


Glabrous, culms erect, slender, y-ii' tall. 
Leaves flat, i"-i Ji" broad, the upper not overtop- 
ping the culm; bracts short; staminate spike soli- 
tary, short-stalked; pistillate spikes 1-4, all stalked 
or the upper nearly or quite ses-sile, oblong, densely 
many-flowered; perigynia dark puiple-brown, as- 
cending, ovoid, shghtly inflated, nerveless or very 
faintly few-nerved, tipped with a short minutely 3- 
toothed beak; scales oblong, subacute, greenish 
purple, about as long as the perigynia; stignias 
usually 3. 

15. Carex membranop&cta Bailey. 

Fragile Sedge. (Fig. 685.) 
Ross' Voy. App. c 

re.v compacla R. Br. in 

[819. Not Krock. 1S14. 

rex tnembranacea Hook. Parry's ad Voy. App. 406. 

825. Not Hoppe. 

membranoPacia Bailey, Bull, Ton. Club, 30; 


Similar t 
-18' high. 

C. saxaiilis but stouter and taller. 
Leaves flat, not exceeding the culm, 
wide; bracts short, the lower commonly 
longer than its spike, the upper subulate; ataminate 
spikes 1-3, short -stalked ; pistillate spikes 1-3 (com- 
monly 3), sessile or the lower short-pednncled, 
narrowly oblong, obtuse, densely many-flowered, 
about i' long and 4" in diameter; perigynia spread- 
ing, brown-purple, ovoid, fragile, much inflated, 
about l}i" long, tipped with a short nearly entire 
beak, little nerved, about as long as the ovate-ob- 
long greenish -purple or white-margined acales. 

America to Kamptchatka- 


i6. Carex ambfista Boott. Blackened Sedge. (Fig. 686.) 

■.!■ ambusla Bootl. 111. 64. pl. '??. 1858. 

milar to C. saxatilis, culms slender, erect, 8'- 

jbW, nearly or quite smooth. Leaves nearly or 

s smooth, elongated, mostly less than l" wide, 

lute in drying, nearly erect, shorter than the 

I; bracts similar to the upper leaves, sometimes 

tiling or overtopping the culm; statninate spike 

ary, stalked; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, oblong, 

t, obtuse, densely many -flowered, slender- 

ted or the upper nearly sessile, 6"-9" long, 

it i%" in diameter; perigynia oblong-lanceo- 
I Ji" long, rather more than Ji" wide, spread- 
er ascending, biconvex, smooth, firm, not at all 

ted, dull, faintly few-nerved at the base, green 

w, dark brown at the summit, tapering into a 

t minutely 3-toothed beak; scales lanceolate, 

. brown, as long as the perigynia; stigmas 1. 

.brador, British Colombia to Alaska. Summer. 

17. Carex utriculita Boott. Bottle Sedge. (Fig. 687.) 

Carex ulriculata Boott; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. a: jai. 

Cartx- ulriculata V8r, minor Boott, loc, cit. :84Q. 

Glabrous, culms stout, erect, t.''-\'' tall. Leaves 
elongated, nodulose, the upper mostly exceeding 
the culm, 2"-6" wide, the tnidveiu prominent; 
bracts overtopping the culm; stamiiiate spikes a-4, 
linear, stalked, the lower occasionally pistillate at 
the top and usually subtended by a very slender 
bract; pistillate spikes 3 or 4, nearly erect, cylin- 
dric, densely many-Bowered or sometimes looser 
near the base, j'-6' long, the lower short-stalked, 
the upper sessile, sometimes ataminate at the sum- 
mit; perigynia spreading when old, ovoid, light 
green, somewhat inflated, few-nerved, i"-aji" 
long, narrowed into a sharp 3-tootbed beak; scales 
lanceolate, the lower ewned and slightly longer 
than the perigynia, the upper acute; stigmas 3. 

Mantles, Anticosti to British Columbia, Delaware, 
Ohio, Minnesota, Nevada and CaliTomia. June-Sept. 

18. Carex monile Tuckerm. Necklace Sedge. (Fig. 688.) 

-J- moniie Tuckerm, Enum, Meth. x. 1843. 

■X Olneyi Boott, 111. 15. pl. 41. :85s. 

abrous, culm slender, erect or reclining, l>i''-3'' 
Leaves elongated, rather light green, iX"-aJ4" 

:, sometimes exceeding the culm, little or not at 

lodulose; bracts similar, often overtopping the 

1; staminate spikes 1-4, usually z or 3, slender- 

;ed, commonly subtended by short bracts; pistil- 
spikes 1-3, erect-spreading, cylindric, l'-3' long, 

it 4" in diameter, many- flowered, rather loose at 

irity, the upper sessile, the lower one, when 3, 

ler-stalked and usually remote; perigynia yellow- 
green, ascending or spreading, ovoid, inflated, 

it iji" long, rather strongly 8-io-nerved, tapering 

a sharp a-toothed beak; scales lanceolate, acumi- 
or awned, shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 
marshes and wet meadows, Nova Scotia to British 

mbia, south to New Jersey, Missouri, in the Kocky 

ntains to Colorado, and to Calitomia. Juue-Aug. 

stalks, found 


89. A fonn with the tcnuinal Apike 
ikes very small and loosely (lowered, usually on very long 
Concord River, Mass.. has uot Hince been collected. 

19. Carex Tuckerm&ni Dewey, Tuck- 
erman's Sedge. (Fig. 689.) 

C. Tuciemiatti Dwey. Am. Jaam.Sci. 09.^. iS+S- 
Glabrous, culm ver}' slender, usually roughish 
above, erector reclining, J°-3^° long. Leaves 
and bracts much elongated, commonly much 
overtopping the culm, i>i"-2ji" wide, some- 
times sparingly nodulose; staminate spikes 3 or 
3; pistillate spikes stout, cylindric, i'-2' long. 
about }i' in diameter; the upper sessile or nearly 
so, the loner stalked and usually spreading; 
perigynia verj- much inflated, yellowish-green, 
ovoid, prominently few.ner\'ed. ascending. 
abruptly contracted into a subulate 3-toothed 
beak; scales lanceolate, sniooth-awned. about 
half as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In bogaand meadows. New Brunswick to Ontario, 
Sew Jersey, Michigan and Minnesota. June-Aug. 

ao. Carex buUilta Schk. Btittoii Sedge. 

(Fig. 690.) 

Caret bnltala Schk. Kiedg. Nachtr. 85. /. 166. 1806. 

Clabrotis, culms very slender, erect, i°-i}i° high, roi^h- 
ish above. Leaves and bracts very narrow and elongated, 
rather stiff, commonly overtopping the culm, rarely more 
than 2" wide, rough-margined, sparingly nodulose; stamin- 
ate spikes mostly 3, long stalked; pistillate spikes 1-3, usually 
3, light green, varying from almost sessile to long-stalked 
and spreading, many-flowered, oblong or oblong-cylindric, 
I'-iJi' long, 4ji"-6" in diameter; perigynia much inflated, 
ovoid, 3fi"-3" long, spreading when mature, tapering into 
B. subulate rough 3-toothed beak, shining, strongly nerved, 
3-3 times longer than the lanceolate acuminate or acute 
scale, or the uppermost scales obtuse; stigmas 3. . 

In swampB, Massachusetts to North Carolina. June-Aug. 

21. Carex retr6rsa Schwein. Retrorse Sedge. (Fig. 691.) 

Care.i- rrlrorsa Schwein. Ann. Ljp. N. 

Glabrous, culm stout, erect, smooth or slightly 
rough above, i''-3>i° tall. I,eaves elongated, 
thin, rough-margined, sparingly nodulose, 2%"- 
3>i" wide, the upper commonly exceeding the 
cultn, the bracts similar, usually much overtop- 
ping the culm; staminate spikes 1-3, short- 
stalked; pistillate spikes 3-6, ascending or 
spreading, all close together at the summit and 
sessile or very nearly so or the lowest distant 
and stalked, cylindric, densely many-flowered, 
i'-3' long, about Ji' in diameter; perigynia 
ovoid, membranous, strongly few-nerved, yel- 
lowish green, about 3" long, reflexed at ma- 
turity, tapering into a subulate 3-toothed beak; 
scales lanceolate, acute, smooth, one-third to 
one-half as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

I to Manitoba, .louth t( 
■cording to Bailey). 


22. Carex H&rtii Dewey. Hart Wright's 
Sedge. (Fig. 692.) 

far^r //flr/ii Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 4': "«■ "866. 

Glabrous, culms slender, nearly smooth ifi^-J^i" long. 
Leaves elongated, rough on the margins and lower side of 
the midvein, 2"-j" wide, the upper and the similar bracts j 
much overtopping the culm; staminate spikes 1 or 3, " 
lower sometimes pistillate at the base, borne on a stallc I 
j4'-i' long; pistillate spikes 2-4, scattered, rather loosely V 
many-flowered, the upper sessile, the lower stender- 
stalked, I '-a' long, about J^' thick, all erect or ascending; 
perigjnia inflated, ovoid-conic, spreading or the lower 
slightly reflexed, prominently few-nerved, about 3" long^ 
gradually tapering intothe long 3-toothed beak, a-j times as 
long as the lanceolate acute or acuminate scale; stigmas 3. 

In marshes, Ontario and New York to MichiKan. Appa- 
rently intergrades with the preceding species. Jane-Ang. 

23. Carex Iflrida Wahl. Sallow Sedge. 

(Fig. 693.) 
C, lurida Wahl. Kongl. Acad. Handl. (11.) 14: 153. 1803. 
Carex Unlaculala Muhl, ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4.- a66. 1805. 

Glabrous, culm slender, erect, smooth or slightly 
scabrous above, i>4°-3° tall. Leaves elongated, rough, 
rarely more than 2" wide, the upper and the similar 
bracts usually much overtopping the culm; staminate 
spike usually solitary, short-stalked, elongated; pistil- 
late spikes, 1-4. cylindric, densely many-flowered, i'- 
2' long, about }i' in diameter, the upper sessile, the 
lower peduncled and spreading or drooping; peri- 
gynia inflated, ovoid, tapering into a long subulate 
beak, ascending or the lower spreading, 4" long, thin, 
yellowish green, rather conspicuously nerved, longer 
than the rough-awned scale; stigmas 3, 

In swamps and wet meadows. Nova Scotia to Minne- 
sota, Florida and Texas. June-Oct. 

C. lenlacvlala alitor Boott, is a hybrid with C. lufiulina. 
Caiez Inilda lUccida Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, i: 73. 1889. 
Pistillate spikes M'-i' long, brown, all sessile or very nearly bo, clnatered at the summit, rather 
more loosely flowered. Northern New York to North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Canz lurida pirvnla ( Paine j Bailey, Bull. Torr. C]ub, 10: 418. 1893. 

1. Oneida, 1 


.... , ■' ""'y ' <"' ^' scarcely more than !• 

sile or veiy nearly so; perigynia 3" long. New Hampshire to Penns' 
Canz luijda azuudani Bailey. 
Culms lonKatid spreading; pistillate spikes iH'-iH' long, on very lon^ stalks; scales subulate, 
the lower often much longer than the perigynia. Occasiotjal with the typical form. 

34. Carex B&ileyi Britton. Bailey's Sedge, ,-— — — -^^^^ 

(Fig. 694.) 
Carfx Unlaculala var. gracilis Boott, III. 94. i860. Not 

C. gracilis, R. Br. iSlo. 
Cartx Baileyi Britton, Bull. Torr. Club, Mt 120. 1895. 

Glabrous, culms erect or reclining, very slender, mi- 
nutely scabrous above, i°-a° long. Leaves roughish, 
elongated, iJi"-2" wide, the upper and the similar 
bracts exceeding the culm; staminate spike solitary, 
short-peduncled; pistillate spikes 1-3, narrowly cylin- 
dric, very densely many-flowered, all erect or ascend- 
ing, 9"-2' long, about 4" in diameter, the upper ses- 
sile, the lower mote or less stalked; perigynia inflated, 
ovoid, 3ji"-3" long, ascending, abruptly contracted 
into the subulate 3-toothed beak, prominently several- 
nerved, the lower about equalling, the upper longerthan 
the linear-subulate ciliate-scabrous scale; stigmas 3, 

&ogs, Vermont to Virginia and Tennessee. Jnne-Aug. 


35. Carex Schwreinitzii Dewey. Schweinitz's Sedge. (.Fig. 695. J 
riBiYiii Dewey; Schwein. Ann. I,yc 


(tiabrous, light green, culm erect, roughish 
above, I^-iJi" tall. Leaves elongated, a,4"-4" 
wide, the basal ones and the similar bracts com- 
monly overtopping the calm, those of the culm 
mostly shorter; staminate spike solitary or some- 
times I, often pistillate at the base or in the mid- 
dle; pistillate spikes 3-5, ascending, linear-cylin- 
dric, not very densely flowered, IJi'-3' long, 
about 4" thick, the upper usually sessile, the lower 
stalked; perigynie thin, somewhat inflated, ovoid- 
conic or oblong, tapering into the subulate, 1- 
toothed beak, about z>j" long and i" in diameter. 
ascending, rather prominently few-nerved, equal- 
ling or the upper longer than the lanceolate or 
linear, usually ciliate-scabrous scale; stigmas 3. 

Porcupine Sedge. (Fig. 696.) 

a6. Carex hystriclna Mtihl. 

Carfx Ayilricina Muhl. ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 383. 1805. 

Glabrous, light green, culms slender, erect or reclining, 
somewhat rough above, i"-?" tall. Leaves elongated, 
minutely scabrous, i}i"-2}i" wide, the upper and the 
similaibractsovertopping the culm; staniinatespikeslen- 
der-stalked, sometimes pistillate at the summit; pistil- 
late spikes 1-4, oblong-cylindric, densely many-flowered, 
>i'-iji' long, about 4,S" in diameter, the upper sessile 
or nearly so, the lower slender-stalked and drooping; 
peiigynia ascending, somewhat inflated, ovoid <onic, 
*J^"-3" long, strongly many-nerved, tapering into the 
subulate a-toothed beak, equalling or the upper longer 
than the narrow rough scales; stigmas 3. 

In swamps and law meadows. Nova Scotia to the North- 
west Territory, south to Geor^a and Nebraska. June-Aug;. 
Carex byitrjdna Dndlayi Bniley. Mem. Tofx. Club, I: 54. 

long:; leaves i 

ia and Michigan. 
Carex Pseiido-Cypirus L. Cyperus-like Sedge. (Fig. 697.) Pseudo-CyPfrus L. Sp. PI. 978. 1753. 

Glabrous, culms rather stout, rough on the sharp 
angles, at least above, i,"-'^ high. Leaves elon- 
gated, rough on the margins, nodulose, 2%"-f," 
wide, the upper and the similar bracts overtopping 
the culm; staminate spike short-stalked; pistillate 
spikes 3-5, linear-cylindric, densely many-flowered, 
all slender-stalked and spreading or droc^ing, i'- 
a>i' long, 3"-4" in diameter, the stalk of the low- 
est one sometimes 1' long; perigynia light green. 
.slightly inflated, conic, prominently many-ribbed, 
somewhat flattened, at length reflezed, tapering 
into a short 2-tootbed beak, the short teeth slightly 
spreading; scales linear with a broad base, ciliate- 
scabrous, about equalling the perigynia; stigmas 3. 



Carex comdsa Boott. 

Bristly Sedge 

(Fig. 698.) 


r comosa Boolt, Traas. I.inn. 
1- Pscudo-Cyperus var, como 

3oc. 3o;i.7. 1846. 
ta W. Boott, in S 

Similar to the preceding species, culms com m only 
stouter, the leaves sometimes %' wide. Staminate 
spike short-stalked, sometimes pistillate at the 
summit; pistillate spikes a-6, usually 3-5, stalked 
or the uppermost nearly sessile, all spreading or 
drooping, stouter and bristly, about '/,' in diameter; 
perigynia more slender, little inflated, strongly re- 
flexed when mature, tapering into a slender, prom- 
inently 2-toothed beak, the teeth subulate and 
recuired-spreading; scales mostly shorter than 
the perigynia, very rough; stigmas 3. 

In 3 

; bolder 

Scotia to southern Ontario and Washington, south to 
GeoTKia. Iiouisiana and California. May-Ocl. 

29. Carex Frfinkii Kuiith. Frank'sSedge. (Fig. 699.) 

I' Frankii Kunth. Bnum. 
Cartx slenolebis Tory. Ann. I,yc, N. Y, 3; 



Glabrous much tufted, culms stout, smooth, 
erect %erj leafy i°-3ji° tall. Leaves elongated, 
roughish JJi"-4" wide, the upper ones and the 
similar bracts commonly overtopping the culm; 
staminate spike stalked, sometimes pistillate at the 
summit pistillate spikes 3-6, exceedingly dense, 
c^lInd^c erect Ji'-iji' long, about 4" in diam- 
eter the upper nearly or quite sessile, the lower 
slender stalked perigynia green, slightly inflated, 
about l" in diameter, few-nerved, obovoid with a 
depressed summit from which arises the subulate 
z-tootbed beak; scales linear-subulate, longer than 
the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

swamps and wet meadows, eastern Pennsyl 
istem Viisinia and Georgia, west to Illinois, 
i, Louisiana and Texas. June-Sept. 


30. Carex squarrdsa L. Sqtiarrose Sedge. (Fig. 700,) 

Carex Ofnarrosa L. Sp. PI. 973, 1753. 

Glabrous, culms slender, erect or reclining, rough 
above on the angles, 3°-3° tall. Leaves elongated, 
rarely more than 3" wide, rough-margined, the 
bracts similar and somewhat overtopping the culm; 
spikes 1-3, erect, stalked, oblong or globose, ex- 
ceedingly dense, rarely over t' long, 6"-io" in 
diameter, the upper one club-shaped, staminate at 
the base or sometimes for one-half its length or 
more; perigynia yellowish green, becoming tawny, 
spreading or the lowest reflexed, somewhat inflated 
but firm, obovoid. l"-l>i" in diameter, few-nerved, 
abruptly narrowed into the subulate minutely 3- 
toothed beak, twice as long as the scarious lanceo- 
late acuminate or awn-tipped scale; achene linear- 
oblong, tapering into the stout style; stigmas 3. 

In swamps and bogs, Connecticut to Indiana. Hichi- 

iran and Nebraska, south 

Arkansas. June-Sept. 

Geor^a, I^uisiana and 

Carcx typhinoides Sdiweiii. Cat-tail Sedge, tl'ig. 701. J 

Sci, 1 

: 316. iS]6. 

Simitar to tile preceding species, but i 
green, the leaves much broader, oftru 4"-S''fl 
Ilie siiuilor bracts much overtopping tht ( 
spikes 2-*, cylindrie, very dense. I'-iti" li 
7" in diameter, often stnminiite at both e 
terminal one commonly tapering to a cm 
mit; basal staminate flowers much leaA a 
than in C. sguarrosa ; pengynia dull stn 
obovoid, ascending or the lowest spreading fl 
flexed, inflated, abruptly contracted into tlie sb 
3 -toothed beak, whicli is often upwardly bent; I 
oblong -lanceolate, obtusisli; achene ovold-ell 
sharply j-aogled with concave sides, I ' 
the subulate straight style. 

Carex tnchocarpa Muhl. 

irpa Mulil.; Willd. Sp. I 

swamps. Quebec to Virginiii, Louisisna >i 
. July- Aug. 

Hair>'-frtiited Sedge. (Fig. 702.) I 

iiay. Man, Bd 5, 
Carfr laevhuniea Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. 14: 47. 1357. 

Culm usually stout and tall, smooth lielow, very 
rough above. Leaves elongated, glabrous, tough- 
margined, a"-3" wide, the upper ones and tlie similar 
bracts commonly overtopping the culm; staintnatje 
spikes 1-6, long-stalked; pistillate spikes cylindrie, 
densely flowered except nt the base, i'-4' long, 5"-8'' 
in diameter, tlie upper sessile or nearly so and erect, 
the lower slender-stalked and sometimes spreading or 
drooping; perigynia ovoid-conic, pubescent or gla- 
brous, prominently many-ribbed, 4"-5"long, i"-i,'^" 
in diameter, tapering gradually into the stout con- 
spicuously 2-toothed beak, the teeth somewhat spread- 
ing; scale hyaline, acute or acuminate, one-half as long 
as the perigynia or longer; stigmas 3, 

In matshes and wet meadows, Quebec lo Micliigaii, 
south to Cieorfna, Missouri and Kansas. June-Aug. 

33, Carex aristdta R 

. Br. Awned Sedge. (Fig, 70.V) 

Car/x arislata R Bi. Frank. Joum. 7,^1. iSjj 
Carer trichoearpa var. arisMla BMley. CnoD- Bnt 

Gaz. 10: rn. iSSs- 

Culms stout erect, smooth or rougliish il>AT. 
sharp-angled. i°-5° tall. Leaves elongnled. iH"~ 
S'' wide, more or less scabrous, often piilnsctoi 
beneath and on the sbeaths; brftcts similar, I*' 
lower often overtopping the cnliu; staminate ifiib'^ 
as in the preceding species; pisttUate spikn J-j. 
remote, cylindrie, sessile or the lower short-><aJk(^ 
loosely flowered at the liase, dense jT«it, I'-i' 

long, sometimes S" in diameter; penv^; 

ing, conic, glabrous, consplouoush -n 
4"-6" long, gradually lapering int-.' r. 
onsly 3-tootlied beak, the teeth divk 
■iblong'lanceolate, rough-«w-neil, thiu-n; 
one-hol/ to two-thirds us Urag as the pcrigyni 

In b(^. Ontario 10 the Northwest 1 

Yorl:, Mk' 


River-bank Sedge. (Fig. 704.) 

34. Carex ripHria Curtis. 
Carex riparia Curtis, PI. Lond. ^•. pi. 60. 1811. 

Glabrous, pale green, culms stout or rather slender, 
smooth, or somewhat rougli above, erect, 1"-'^%" tall. 
Leaves elongated, sometimes nodulose, slightly sca- 
brous, somewhat glaucous, j/'-h" wide, about equal- 
ling the culm; lower bract similar to the leaves, the 
tipper mostly narrower and shorter; staminate spikes 
1-5; pistillate spiltea 2-5, cylindric, iX'-4' long, about 
4" in diameter, the upper erect, sessile or nearly so, 
the lower more or less stalked and sometimes spread- 
ing or drooping; perigynia narrowly ovoid, firm, 
scarcely inflated, ascending, tapering gradually into a 
short ^.toothed beak, the teeth divergent; scales 
lanceolate or oblanceolate, long-aristate or acute, the 
lower longer, the upper equalling or shorter than the 
perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swamps, Newfoundland to Jamea' Bay and Manitoba, 
south to Kotida, Louisiana, Texas and Idaho. Also in 
Europe. May-At^;. 

Carex acutifdrmis Ehrh. Swamp Sedge. (Fig. 705.) 

I, Trans. Linn. 

Cnlms stout, erect, sharp-angled, 3°~3° tall, 
smooth below, often rough above. Leaves 3%"- 
6" wide, flat, pale green, equalling or sometimes 
exceeding the culm; lower bracts similar to the 
leaves, the upper short and narrow; staminate 
spikes i'3, stalked; pistillate spikes 3-j, nar- 
rowly linear-cylindric,i ^'-3' long, a"-a>i" thick, 
the upper sessile or nearly so and erect, the others 
slender-stalked, spreading or drooping; perigynia 
ovoid, i>i" long, not inflated, strongly many- 
nerved, tapering into a very short and minutely 
3-toothedbeak; scalesawn-tipped, longerthanthe 
perigynia or the upper eqaaUing them; stigmas 3. 

36. Carex Shorti&na Dewey. 

iflrcrSAor/ioBQ Dewey, Am. Joum.Sci. 30:60. i 

Glabrous, culms rather slender, erect, rough 
above, i°-3° tall, usually overtopped by the upper 
leaves. Leaves elongated, rough isb, 3"-jJi" 
wide; bracts short, narrow, rarely much eicceed- 
ing the spikes; spikes 3-7, linear-cylindric, densely 
many' flowered, J^'-ifi' long, ij^"-i" in diam- 
eter, erect, the lower stalked, the uppermost 
staminate below for about one-half its length; 
perigynia dark brown at maturity, compressed, a- 
edged, orbicular or obovate, nerveless, slightly 
wrinkled, abruptly and minutely beaked, equal- 
ling or shorter than the scales, which are hyaline, 
scarious-margined, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 
ocnte or obtuse and persistent; orifice of the pcri- 
gyutnm entire or very nearly so; stigmas 3. 

In moist meadows and thickets, Pennsylvania to 
Viif^nia and Tennessee, west to Illinois. Missouri 
and the Indian Territory. May-July. 

Short's Sedge. (Fig. 706.) 

long, 2.^"-4" 
brown, ovoid, 
nerved, papillos 

scabrata Schwein. Rough Sedge. (Fig. 707. ) 

Carei scabrala Schwein, Afln. I.jC. N. V. I 

Glabroiw, culms slender, erect t 

rough above, leafy, l''-3^ lomj. LeavM | 

itiui:!i elongaled, iJi"-7'' wide, the bcac^ 

id usually exCMdlQ 

spike slitirt-stslkeil: 

t. tlie upper short-stalki 

spreading or droopitlj 
densely many-Do wered, j 

diameter; pcrigynia 

somewliat inflated, stroDS^ 
t, tipped with H short rouj;h 
itely z-toothed or entire beak; scales laocco- 
late, acute orshort-awDed,praQiincDtly I- 
shorter than the perigynia; stigmns 3. 

In moiHt woods and thickets. New Hal 
and Ontario to MicliiRaii, South Citrulina a 
nessee. Ascends I04M0 fl. i 

38. Carex vesUia Willd. Velvet Sedge. 
(Fig. 708.) 

Carex vtUHa Willd. Sp. PI. 4: i6j. 1805. 

Culms Strict and slender, erect orreclining, iji'-jji" 
tall, rougli aliove. Leaves distant, i',i"-i',i" wide, 
not overtopping the culm; bracts similar, but nar- 
rower, short, rough-ciliate 011 the margins; staminatc 
spike solitary, rarely i, almost sessile; pistillate spikes 
i-S, oblong, 5"-io" long, 3"-4" in diameter, erect, 
conimonSy stsminate at the summit, sessile or the 
lower very short -stalked; perigynia ovoid, ascending 
or the lower spreading, densely pubescent, less than 
i" in diaiaeter, prominently few-ribbed, tapering 
gradually into a short conic j-toothed whitish beak, 
slightly shorter than or equalling the ovate acute 
membranous scales; stigmas ;. 

In sandy woodfi, Massachusetts to eastern New York 
and Pennsylvania, south to GenrKin. June-July. 

39. Carex 'Walteri^na Bailey. Waller's Sedge. (Fig. 709.) 

Cam striata Kltchx. Fl. Bor, Am. a: 174. iBoi ■*■"' 

Gilib. 1 791. 
Care.v tyallcriana Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club. »: <» rSoj 
Cam WaZ/ffiVinovM. ftfcni Bailey. Dull. Torr ClnU» 

«9. 1893- 

CuluiB slender, strict, erect, usually roujh *>»^' 
i°-i.K° tall. Leaves narrow and elomgatcj, nao*"" 
or roughish, i"-3" wide, nodulose, not overtORi'''! 
the culm; lowest bract similar, very long, the upp" 
smaller and often almost filiform; ttaaiinntc spito 
2-5, long-stalked; pislitlnte spikes i art, when ) '^' 
lower remote from the upper, sessile or very iliort' 
stalked, oblong-cyliudric, erect. I'-iyi' luii;;, o'""'' 
4" in diameter, rather loosely ■ 
gyuia ovoid, purple-brown, mauy-netvtii 
flated, ascendiug, glabrous, or partly 01 i> 
cent, t .■^"in diameter, tapering into a sli<<r' 
beak, the teeth short; scales «rale, acute, shon-u*.^!' 
or obtuse, inemhranous, one^holf the Iraglll e( >k> 
perigynia: stigmas j. 
\! Jersey to Flnrida, near llie coasl. May-jBly. 


40. Carex Houghtdnii Torr. Houghton's Sedge. (Fig. 710.) 
Carer Houghlonii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3; 413. 1836. 
CnlmB rather etont, rough above, erect, i°~3}j° 
tall, exceeding the leaves. Leaves and lovest 
bract 3"-3ji" wide, rough, their margins more or 
less revolute; upper bracts much shorter; stami' 
nate apikea 1-3, stalked, sometimes pislillate at the 
baae; pistillate spikes 1 or 3, obloDg-cylindric, yi'- 
i>i' long, 3"-4" in diameter, erect, rather loosely 
sereral^many-flowered, the upper se«»le, the lower 
stalked; perigynia broadly ovoid, lyi" in diam- 
eter, light green, ascending, densely pubescent, 
prominently manj-dbbed. naiioned into a short 
conapicnously 3-toothed beak; scales lanceolate, 
short-avned, hyaline-margined, strongly i-nerved, 
somewhat shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In sandy ot rticky aoil, Nova Scotia to the Northwest 
Teiriloiy, south to Maine, Ontario, Michigan and Min- 
nesota. June-Sept. 

41. Carex lanuginosa Michx. Woolly Sedge. (Fig. 711.) 


I B.S.P. Prel. Cat, N. Y. 

Culm slender, but usually rather stouter than that 
of C. filiformUy sharp-angled and rough above. 
Leaves and lower bracts elongated, flat, not involute, 
i"-a" wide, more or less nodulose, sometimes over- 
topping the culm; staminate spikes t-3, loDg-stalked, 
sometimes pistillate at the base; pistillate spikes 1-3 
usually distant, sessile or the lower slender-stalked, 
cylindric, i^'-i%" long, 2)^"-'^" in diameter; peri- 
gynia like those of C.filiformis; but rather broader; 
scales acuminate or aristate. 

ps and wet meadow 

■o and California. June-Au^. 

42. Carex filifdrmis L. Slender Sedge. (Fig. 

Carer Jili/ormis L Sp. PI. 976. 1753. , 

Calms very slender, erect or reclining, rather 
stiff, smooth, obtusely angled, 3°-3° long. Leaves 
very narrow, involute, about i" wide, rough on the 
inrolled margins, not overtopping the culm; lower 
bract similar, often equalling the culm; upper bracts 
filiform; staminate spikes 1-3, commonly 3, stalked ; 
pistillate spikes 1-3, cylindric, 9"-i5" long, about 
3" in diameter, erect, sessile or the lower distant 
and short- pednncled; perigynia green, ascending 
oval, densely pubescent, faintly nerved, about i" 
in diameter, tapering into a short a-toothed beak 
scales ovate, membranous, sometimes purplish 
acute or short-awned, shorter than or equalling 
the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In wet meadows and swamps. Newfoundland to 
British Columbia, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania 
Michigan and Minnesota. Ascends to aooo fi in the 
Adirondacks. Also in Europe. June-Aug. 

Carex hirta L. Hairy Sedge. (Fig. 713. j 
Carex hirta I,. Sp. PI. 975. 17SJ, 

Rootstocks extensiTCly creeping, cnlnu rather 
sleader, erect, nearly smooth, 6'-i° tall. Leave* flat, 
pubescent, especially on the sheaths, rough, l>j"- 
i%" wide, the basal ones much eloDgatcd, often ex- 
ceeding the culm, the upper and the similar btacti 
shorter; stamiuale spikes 3 or 3, stalked; pistillate 
spikes 2 or 3, remote, erect, oblong-cylindric, 9"-i8" 
long, aboat 3" in diameter, rather loosely many- 
flowered; peHgynia ovoid-oblong, green, ascending, 
densely pubescent, 1" in diameter, 3" long, few- 
nbbed, tapering into a stont prominently s-toothed 
beak, teeth onen as long as the beak; scales mem- 
branous, lanceolate, aristate, 3-nerved, somewhat 
shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In fields and wa 
New York and Pen 
from Europe. Jnne-Sept. 

44. Carex alpina Sw. Alpine Sedge. (Fig. 714.) 


Cnlms slender, erect, rough above, leafy only 
below the middle, tZ-i" talL Leaves roughish, 
%"-l%" wide, shorter than or rarely equalling 
the culm; spikes 3-4 (commonly 3), clustered at 
the summit, the terminal i or 3 staminate below, 
oblong or globose, a"-5" long, sessile or the 
lower peduncled; perigynia oval, orbicular or 
obovotd, light green, about i" long, tipped with 
a very short and minutely j-toothed beak, nerve- 
less or vrith a few very faint nerves, equalling or 
slightly shorter than the ovate black or purple- 
hronn obtuse or acutish scales; stigmas 3. 

In rocky places, Quebec to James' Bay and Atha- 
basca, western Ontario and Isle Royale, Lake Super* 
ior, south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, Also 
in Europe. Summer. 

45. Carex atratifdrmia Britton. 

Not Bum 
Carix atrala var. ovala Boott, 111. 114. 186a. 
Carer alrali/ormis Britton, Bull. Torr. Club, M: aw. 1895. 

Glabrous, culms slender, erect, sharp-angled, rough 
above, 8'-i° tall, usually leafy only below. Leaves 
smooth or roughish, \"-%" wide, rarely over 6' long, 
much shorter than the culm; spikes 3-5, dense, ob- 
long or oblong-cylindric, 4"-i2" long, abotit aji" in 
diameter, the terminal one usually staminate at the 
base and sessile, or nearly so, the others slender 
stalked, drooping when mature; lower bracts ^'■'\%' 
long, very narrow, the upper ones subulate; per^ynii 
flattened, ovate or nearly orbicular, puncticniate, as- 
cending, about i" long, tipped with a very short, 
3-toothcd beak; scales black or reddish-brown, ob- 
long, obtuse or subacute, slightly narrower than the 
perigynia and about equalling them; stigmas 3. 

Newfoundland to the mountains of New England, w 
to the Northwest Territory. "^ 

Black Sedge. (Fig, 715.) 
a Rudcre, Trans. Linn. Soc. 7: g6. pi. 9. 



46. Carex styldsa C. A. Meyer. Variegated Sedge. (Fig. 716.) 

Carer styl//s. 
Div. Sav. I 

Culms sleuder erect i°-iji tall rough and 
leafless above. Leavi^a i)i 'wide afaorter Ihan or 
sometimes equalling the culm staminate spiLe 
solitary, nearly sessile often pistillate for one half 
its length or more pistillate spikes i or 3 oblong 
cylindric, erect 4' -fr" long about iji ' in diam 
eter, the lowest slendei-stalked and subtended by 
a II near. subulate bract pengynia ovate slightly 
inflated, brown minutely granulate all over less 
thaa i" long, nerveless and bcakless the on6ce 
entire and closed by tbe usually protruding atjle 
scales black with white \ems, obtusiah, shorter 
than the pengynia; stigmas 3. 

I.abrador and Greenland to Alaska. Summer, 

47. Carex ParryHna Dewey, Parry's Sedge. (Fig. 717.) 

Career Parryana Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. rj: 139. 

Glabrous, culms very slender, smooth, erect, stiff, 
S 30^ tall, leafless above. Leaves about 1" vide, 
much shorter than tbe culm, their margins some- 
what involute; spikea 1-4, dense, erect, liaear-cyl- 
indnc 5 -la" long, i}i" in diameter, the upper 
sessile and staminate below or throughout, the low- 
est stalked and subtended bj an almost filiform 
bract pengynia plano-convex, obovate, pale, less 
than 1 long, minutely papillose, faintly few- 
nerved ^ery minutely beaked, tbe orilice entii«; 
scales ovate, acute or mucronulate, dark brown 
with 1 ghter margins, about as long as the pen- 
gynia stigmas 3. 

Carex fusca All 

Brown Sedge. 

(Fig. 718.) 

Carf.t/us<^a All Fl Ped j 369 l 85 
Carex BuibaumiiWaM Kongl \el Acad Handl (II ) 
14: '6j. 1803. 

Glabrous, culms slender, stiff, erect, sharp-angled, 
rougb above, i°-3'' tall. Leaves rough, erect, \"-2" 
wide, shorter than or sometimes equalling or exceed- 
ing the culm; spikes 1-4, oblong or cylindric, erect, ell 
sessile and close together or the lowest sometimes 
distant and very short-stalked, 4"-i8" long, about 
\" in diameter when mature, the terminal one stam- 
inate at tbe base or rarely throughout; pengynia el- 
liptic or somewhat obovate, flat, ascending, \" long, 
very light green, faintly few-nerved, beakless, tbe 
apex minutely i-toothcd; scales ovate, awn-Iippcd, 
black or dark brown with a green midvein, longer 
ttaoD the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

Id boga, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to Georgin. 
Kentucky, Utah and California. Also in Europe. Hay- 


49. Carex stricta Lam. Tussock Sedge. (Fig, 719.) 

Carex i/ricta Lam. Encycl. 3: 387. 1789. 

Glabrous, rather dark green, cnlms slender, stiff, etect, 
□auallj' in dense clumps, sharply 3-augled, rougb above, 
i}j°--4° tall. Leaves loa^, rarely overtopping thecDlm, 
very rough on the margins, i"-x" wide, their sheathi 
becoming prominently Sbrilloae; lower bract ^milar, 
aometimes equalling the culm; staminate spikes solitaij 
or sometimes 3, stalked; pistillate spikes 3-5, tinear-cjl- 
indric, often stamtnete at the top, verydensely flowered, 
or loose at the base. >i'-a' long, about a" thick, eted 
or somewhat spreading, all sessile or the lower stalked; 
perigynia ovate- elliptic, ascending, acute, faintly fev' 
nerved, 1" long or less, minutely beaked, the oriBce en- 
tire or nearly so; scales brown-purple with green margins 
and mid vein, oblong or lanceolate, appressed; stigmas 2. 
In swampa, Newfoundland to Ontario, south to Geonna 
and Teias. Hybridizes with C. filiformis. July-ScpL 
Carei stricta anpiatlta (Boott) Biiley in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 60a, 1S90. 

la.te, acute, often longer than the peri- 

■ aneus 

a Boott; Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Pistillate spikes longer, i'-4' long, erect; sea 
gynia. Range apparently nearly that of the type. 

Caiez stricta lerocirpa (S. H, Wright) Britton, Bull. Torr. Club, u: 323. 1895. 
Carix xerocarpa S. H. WriRht, Am. tourn. Sei. ( II. ) 4a: 334. 1866. 

Pistillate spikes almost filiform, about :" in diameter, erect. New York to Illinois. 
50. Carex Hitydeni Dewey. Hayden's Sedge. (Fig. 720.) 

Carex aperta Carey in A. Gray, Man. 547. 1848. Not 

Boott, 1S40. 
C Haydent Dewey, Am. Joum, (II.) 18: 103. 1854. 
C. stricta var. decora Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 13: 85. 1888. 

Glabrous, similar to C. stricta but smaller, culm 
slender, tough above, seldom over 1° high. Leaves 
i"-if^"wide, rough-margined, shorter than or some- 
times a little overtopping the culm, their sheaths 
slightly or not at all fibrillose; lower bract foHaceous, 
about equalling the culm; pistillate spikes linear-cy- 
lindric, 6"-r5" long, about 1" in diameter, erect or 
somewhat spreading, all sessile or nearly so, some- 
times with a few staminate flowers at the summit; 
perigynia orbicular, obtuse, about >i" broad, faintly 
3-4- nerved, minutely beaked, the orifice entire; 
scales lanceolate, purplish, spreading, very acute, 
about twice as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3, 

Swamps, New Bninswitk to Rliode Island and Nebraska. 

51. Carex Ncbraskfcnsis Dewey. Nebraska Sedge. (Fig. 721.) 

Carex Xebraskemis Dewey Am. Joum. Sci. (IM* 

102. .854. 

Glabrous, culms rather stout, erect, sharp-angled, 
smooth, or rough above, i°-2H° tall. Leaves palf 
green, i'/^"-!'/^" wide, rough-margined, not ex- 
ceeding the culm, their sheaths more or less nodo- 
lose lower bract foliaccous, sometimes equaUiog 
the cula the upper much shorter and narroaer, 
stam nate sp kes commonly 2, stalked; pislilWe 
sp kes 3 4 dense oblong-cylindric, erect, 9"-ii" 
long about ■^ u diameter, sessile or the loitei 
si ort stalked perigynia ascending, elliptic or 
somewl at obovate, prominently scvcral-rilibti 
when malu e short-beaked, the beak 3-tooth(d; 
scales o ate or lanceolate, acute or mucronifi 
brOK n with a green midvein or g^en all over, tli* 
upper shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

Nebraska lo Oregon and New Mciico. May-AOJ. 

52. Carex aqudtilis Wahl. Water Sedgi 

atilii Wiilil. Kongl. Vel. Acad. Hund!. ( II. I 14: 
I ClabroiiB, kIsucoiis and pale green, culms rather 
Mit, erect, sbarp'flngled above, smooth or nearly so, 
Leaves elongated, sonietimes oqiinlliiiR 
C culm, a"-.l,"i" wide, IheirsheatJia nodulose; bracla 
ar to tbe lenves, the lower much overtopping the 
1; Gtaoiinatc spikes 1-3, stalked; pistillate spikes 
rowly liaear-cylindric, often staiDiUBte at the sum- 
tit, erector slightly spreading, I'-jj^'long, j"-3"in 
btmeter, scs»lc and dense, or the lower narrowed 
axtA loosely flowered at Ihe base and short-stalked; 
perigynia elliptic, green, nerveless, minutely beaked, 
tbe oriBce entire; scales oblaug, shorter than or equal- 
ling the pcHgynia and much narrower; stigmas i. 
n swamps and alonx slreimi^, Newfoundland to Alaska, 
.ilh to Massacliuselts, Pennsvlvanitt, Ohio. Minnesota 
d British Columbia. Also in Europe, June-Aug. 
A hybrid between thia species and C. stricia is described by Professor 1,. H, liailey, 

53. Carex lenticulSris Michx. Lenticular Sedge. (Fig. 723.) 

Ciiie.v IrnlUularis Midix. Fl. Hot. Am. ); 17a. 180,1. 
Glabrous, pale green, calms very slender, cteM, 
sharp-angled, slightly rough above, i°-3° tall. 
Leaves elongated, rarely over i" wide, shorter 
than or rarely overtopping the culm, slightly 
rough -margined, their sheaths not fibrillose; lower 
bracts similar to the leaves, usually much overtop- 
ping the spikes; staninate spikes solitary or rarely 
2, sessile or short-stalked, often pistillate above; 
pistillate spikes 1-5, clustered at the summit or 
the lower distant, sessile or the lower short-stalked, 
erect, lincar-cylindric, 4"-!' long, 1,1^"-?" iu di- 
ameter; pengynia ovate or elliptic, acute, minutely 
granulate, faintly few-nerved, appressed, lipped 
with a minute entire beak; scales green, appressed, 
shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 1. 

On shores, Labrador lo llie Northweat Territory, 
soutli lo Mninc. Vermont. Onlariu and Minnesota. AJ- 
cends ti> 4500 ft. iu the White Mouutnins, June-Aug. 

Carex Goodenovii J. Gay. Goodenough's Sedge, (Fig. 724.) 

■.espil.'Sa (rijoden. Tiana. Linn. Soc. J: 195. (•!. 
ot. Not I„ 175J. 
._. . iOTil.Gay,Ano.Sci.?Iat.[n.)ii:i9i. 1839. 
r vulgarii K. Fries, Hant. 3: t^. 1S42. 
r r^da %-ar. slrUti/ormis Bailey, Britten's 
TO, Bot. iS: 173. 1S90, 

B, culms stiff, erect, sharp-angled, smooth 
■ sometimes rough above, i^-j" tall. Leaves 
iDngaled. smooth or nearly so, glaucous, 1"-]" 
Me, uot exceeding the cuini, their sheaths not 
irillaae; lower bracts usually foliaceous, sonie- 
s equalling the culm; statninate spike sessile 
I; pistillate spikes j-4, all sessile or nearly 
I, erect, deusely many-Qowered, narrowly cylin- 
ic, a"-a>i" in diameter, 5"-ia" long; pcrigynia 
3, broadly oval or ovate, faintly few-nerved, 
, appressed, less than i" long, minutely 
beaked, the orifice nearly entire; scales purple- 
brown to black with a green midvciu, very obtuse, 
tborterUian the perigyuia; stigmas 2. 
. In wtl Eiciunds, Newfoundland to Maaaachnsclts and Pennsylvania. 

55. Carex Bigeldvii Torr. Bigelow's Sedge. (Fig. 725.) 

Carex Bigelovii Tory.; Schwein. Ann. Lye. 

67. :8t4. 

'- .867. 

Glabrous and stnooUi tbroughont or very nearly 
BO, culms •harp-angled, erect, 8'-i8' tall. Leaves 
iyi"-t" wide, not exceeding the culm, the lower 
biBCts similar, but shorter; sheaths slightlj or not 
fibnilose; staminate spilce stalked, sometimes pis- 
tillate at the base, pistillate spikes 3-4, linear- 
cylindric, loosely flowered at Ihe base, dense above, 
6"-ia" long, iji"-i" thick, the upper sessile, 
the lower often slender-stalked; perigynia oval, 
ascending, about i" long, very faintly nerved, 
scarcely beaked, the ori£ce entire; scales parple- 
browu with a narrow green midvein and often 
with green margins, obtuse or the lower acute, 
equalling or a little exceeding the perigynia; 
stigmas a, rarely 3. 

o the higher mountains of northern New Bngland and New York. 

56. Carex subspath&cea Wonnsk. 
Hoppner's Sedge. (Fig. 726.) 

Carex sabspatkacea Wonnak. Fl. Dan. o: 4. pi. isj"- 

Carex HoPPneri Boott; Hook, V\. Bor. Am. a: 219. pi. 

310. 1840. 

Glabrous, culm stiff, smooth, i'-;' toU. Leaves 
rigid, smooth, about i" wide, often overtopping 
the culm; lower bracts foliaceous; staminate spike 
solitary, stalked; pistillate spikes 1-3, erect, sessile 
or very short-stalked, 3"-6" long, about iJi" in 
diameter; perigynia oval or ovoid, very short 
beaked, pale green, faintly few-nerved, about i" 
long; scales ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute, 
shorter than or equalling the perigynia; stigmas 2. 

Greenland to Hudson Bay. Summer. 

Carex saUna Wahl. Salt-marsh Sedge. (Fig. 727.) 

at: 16s. 

Glabrons, culm slender, smooth, erect, 6'-iS' 
tall. Leaves very narrowly linear, Ji"-i" wide, 
sometimes overtopping the culm, the lower bract 
similar; staminate spikes i or z, stalked; pistillate 
spikes 1-3, slender-stalked or the upper sessile, 
erect, loosely few -several-flowered, Ji'— i' long, 
i^"-a" thick; perigynia ovate-elliptic, pale, 
faintly few-nerved, ascending, ij4" long, tapering 
into a very short entire beak; scales ovate, brown 
with a green midvein, acute or cuspidate, some- 
what longer than the perigynia; stigmas 2. 


58. Carex cuspidUta Wahl. Cuspidate Sedge. (Fig. 728.) 
Caret casbidala Wahl. KonEl. Vet. Acad. Handl. ( 11, 1 5ii \ 

14:164. 1803. *^^ ^ 

Carer lalina var. cusfiida/a Wahl, Fl. I^pp. »46. 


Glabrous, culms rather stout, smooth or rough 
above, erect, i''-2^° tall. Basal leaves often 
equalling the culm, i^"-3" vide, smooth, their 
sheaths more or less nodulose; leaves of the culm 
shorter, similar to the lower bracts, which usually 
overtop the spikes; staminate spikes 1-3, stalked; 
pistillate spikes 1-4, narrowly cyliadric, often stami- 
nate at the summit, erect, the upper often sessile, 
the lower stalked; perigjuia elliptic, green, 3-4. 
nerved, with a very short entire beak; scales 
lanceolate, pale, acuminate or abruptly contracted 
into a serrate awn, much longer than the perigynia; 

In marshes, l^abiador to the coast of Massachusetts. 
Al»o in Europe. Summer. 

59. Carex t6rta Boott. Twisted Sedge. (Fig. 739.) 

Ca rei- ioria Boott; Tnckerm. Enum. Meth. 11. 1843. 
Glabrous, rather light green, cnlm very slender, 
erect or recliuiug. smooth or slightly scabrous 
above, i!4''-3'' long. Leaves about 1" wide, the 
basal shorter than or equalling the culm, those 
of the culm very short; sheaths not fibrillose; 
lower t>ract commonly foliaceous; staminate 
spikes 1-3, stalked; pistillate spikes 3'5, all but 
the upper spreading or drooping, linear, i'^y 
long, abont 2" in diameter, sometimes com- 
pound, often loosely flowered toward tbe base; 
perigynia oblong or narrowly ovate, green, nerve- 
less, narrowed and more or less twisted above, 
i"-iji" long; scales ovate, obtuse or subacute, 
purple-brown with a green midvein, shorter and 
mostly narrower than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In marshes and wet thickets. Maine and Vermont 
to North Carolina and Missouri. Ascends to 3600 ft. 
in Virginia. June-Juljr. 
60. Carex prSsina Wahl. Drooping Sedge. (Fig, 730.) 
^^are-i- firasina Wahl. Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II.) M- 
<^arf.i-in(7ia<:ftiMuhl.;Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 290. 1805. 

Glabrous, rather light green, culm slender, smooth 
^=kr nearly so, reclining, sharply 3-engled, i^-aji" 
*-^Dng, Leaves shorter than or equalling tbe culm, 
flaccid, roughish, iJ^"-aX" "i^*; lower bract simi- 
*-^r, commonly overtopping the spikes; staminate 
*pike solitary, short-stalked, often pistillate at the 
^iimmit; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, narrowly linear-cylin - 
4ric, drooping, the lower filiform -stalked, tbe upper 
Sometimes nearly sessile, i'-2j4' long, 3" in diam- 
eter, rather loosely many-flowered; perigynia light 
^reen, lanceolate, very obscurely nerved, tapering 
into a slender tninntely 2-toothed beak; scales ovate, 
%cute, acuminate, or sboK-awned, pale green, shorter 
than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In meadows and moist thickets, Vermont and Ontario 
to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, south in the Allegha- 
nies to Georgia. Ascends to 4TO0 ft. in Vii^nia, May- 


Carex mis&ndra R. Br. Short-leaved Sedge, (Fig, 731.) 

Glabrous and smooth, culms very slender, eiccl, 
i'-i5' tall. Leaves i"-iji" wide, clnsteied at the 
base, usnailj' maclf shorter than the culm, seldom 
over 1^' long ; bracts narrowly linear, sheathing, not 
overtoppiDg the spikes; terminal spilceoilen partially 
pbtillate at base or summit, slender-stalked; pis- 
tillate spikes I or 3, filiform-stalked, 3"-7" long, 
about 2" thick, rather few-flowered, drooping; peri- 
gynia narrowly lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, 
narrowed at the base, i>i" long, ascending, dark 
brown, denticulate above; scales oval, obtuse, purplt- 
black with narrow white margins, somewhat shorter 
than the perigynia; stigmas a or 3. 

Throughout arctic America, extending sonth in the 
Rocky Mountains to the higher summits of Colorado. 
Also m arctic Butope and Asia. Summer. 

62. Carex littorHlis Schwein. Barratt's Sedge. (Fig. 732.) 

Carex lilloralis Schwcin. Ann. Lye. N. Y. I: 70, 1834, 
Cartx Barrallii Schwein. & TotT. Ann. Lyc. N. Y. »: 

.}6i. 1835. 

Glabrous, pale green and somewhat glaucous, 
culma erect, slender, smooth, I'-a' tall, leafless 
above. Leaves \%"-%" wide, smooth, usually 
much shorter than the culm, the lower sheaths 
fibrillose; bracts not sheathing, the lower usually 
short and narrow, sometimes etongaled and over- 
topping the culm; staminate spikes 1-3, usually 
rather long-stalked; pistillate spikes 2-4, drooping 
or the upper asceuding, slender-stalked, lincar- 
cylindric, %'~i' long, 3" in diameter, mostly 
staminate at the summit; perigynia oblong, green, 
faintly few-nerved, \"~\%" long, tipped with a 
minute entire beak; scales brown- purple with 
lighter margins, obtuse, equalling or shorter than 
the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

iland and 

63. Carex rarifldra J. E. Smith. -flowered Alpine Sedge. (Fig. 733.) 

Carex rariflora J. E. Smith, Engl. Bot. pi. 2Si6. iSi.V 
Glabrous, culms very slender, rather stiff, erecl, 
4'-i2' tall, smooth, or roughish above. Leaves i" 
wide or less, shorter than the culm, the lower vtry 
short; bracts subulate, purple at the base; stamiDalc 
spike solitary, long-stalked, sometimes with s fc 
pistillate flowers at the base; pistillate spites lori, 
narrowly oblong, few-flowered 3"-6" long. 3" in di- 
ameter, nodding on filiform stalks; perigynia {"''i 
oblong, acute at each end, \%" long, i^" wide, mi- 
nutely beaked, few-nerved, the orifice entire; scil» 
oval, purple-brown with a greenish midvein, oblmt 
or mucronate. equalling or a little longer tbap 1" 
perigynia; stigmas 3, 

In A-eC places, Greenland and I^biadorto Hudson Ray. 
south to Mt. Katahdln. Maine, and 10 northern Uix"* 
sota. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer. 


64. Carex limdsa L. Mud Sedge. 
(Fig- 734.) 

Cartx limosa L, Sp. PI. 977. 1753- 

GlabrouB, rether light greeii, cnlms slender, 
rongta above, erect, itZ-j" tall. Leaves i" wide or 
less, shorter tban the culm, the midvein promi- 
nent, the margins somewhat involnte in drying; 
bracts linear-filiform, the lower Ji'-ifi' long; 
staminate spike solitary, long-stalked; pbtillate 
spikes I or 2, filiform-stalked and drooping, ob- 
long, g"-io" long, about 3" thick; perigjnia pale, 
oval, narrowed at both ends, \%" long, ascending, 
tipped with a minute entire beak, several -nerved, 
about as long as the oval green or purplish-brown 
cuspidate or acute scale; stigmas 3. 

In bogs, Labrador to the Northwest Tenitofy, sonth 
to Maine. New Jersey, Ohio, Minnesota and Idaho. 
Ascends to 4000 ft. in the White Mountains. Also in 
Europe. Summer. 

65. Carex Magell&nica Lam. Magellan Sedge. (Fig. 735.) 

Glabrous, culms slender, smooth or nearly so, 
erect or reclining, 6'-2° tall. Leaves flat, i"-3" 
wide, somewhat rough on the margins, commonly 
shorter than the culm, the lower bract similar and 
nsually overtopping the spikes; staminate spike 
solitary, or rarely a, often partially pistillate; pis- 
tillate spikes 1-3, oblong, fiti form-stalked and 
drooping, 4"^" long, about 3" in diameter; peri- 
gynla bicon vex, oval, pale, minutely granulate-pa- 
pillose, oval or suborbicular, few-nerved, l"-lji" 
long, tipped with a very minute beak, the orifice 
entire; scales lanceolate, long-acuminateorawned, 
dark green or pnrpUsh-brown, i>j-3 times as long 
as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In bo^, Newfoundland and Labrador to Manitota, 
south to Maine, Pennsylvania and Michigfan, Alaoin 
the Uinta Mountains, Utah, in Europe, and in south- 
em South America. Ascends to 4600 ft. inthe Adiroa- 
dacts. Summer.. 

66. Carex podocdrpa R. Br. Long-awned Arctic Sedge. (Fig. 736.) 
'/n R. Br. Frank. Journ. App. Ed. 2, 31 



Glabrous, culms very slender, erect or reclining, 
3X)ugh above, xtZ-i" long. Leaves a little rough 
■ovt the margins, i)i"-i" wide, shorter than the 
•culm, the lowest reduced to short sheaths; lower 
"bract similar to the upper leaves, the upper much 
shorter and narrower; staminate spikes 1 or 3, 
stalked; pistillate spikes 3-4, cylicdric, dense, 
many -flowered, Ji'-i>i' long, 3" in diameter, 
stalked or sessile, the lower often nodding; peri- 
gynia elliptic-lanceolate, flat, about aj^" long, 
acute at both ends, appressed, faintly nerved, the 
orifice entire; scales purple-black, ovate, acuminqte, 
longer than the perigynia, the midvein produced 
into a subnlate ann 1"^" long; stigmas 2 or 3. 
Arctic America. Closely related to C. alro/usca 


67. Carex ciyptocftrpa C. A. Meyer. 

Hid den -fruited Sedge. (Fig. 737.) 

Caret- cryplocarpa C. A. Mejier, Mem. Acad Sl 

Pctersb. 1: 3)6. pi. 14- 18J5-3I, 

Glabroas, culm stout, erect, sharply 3-aiigled, 

rough above, iJ4°-3° tall. Leaves smooth, i"-i" 

wide, the basal shorter than or equalling the culm, 

the upper ones and the lower bract shorter; stami- 

nate spikes 3-4, stalked; pislillate spikes 3-5, all 

filiform -stalked and drooping, densely flowered, \'- 

3' long, 3"-4" in diameter; perigjnia oblong or 

oval, green, faintly several- nerved, lyi" long, 

tipped with a very short entire beak: scales puiple- 

browD, ascending, lanceolate, acuminate, 3 or 3 

times longer than the perigynia; stigmas 2. 

Arctic America from Greenland lo Alaska. Summer, 

Carel cryptoeirpa Tarlegita (Drejer) Britton, Mem. 

Torr. Club, 5: 76. 1894. 

Cam- fiiipendula var. varttgala Dtejer, Rev. CriL 

Car. 46. 1841. 

Lower than the tj'pe, seldom over i°tall; pistillate spikes about 7. ovoid or short oblong, 6"-q" 
loDg; scales ovate -lanceolate, acute, little lander tlian the perJKynia. Range o[ the species. 
68. Carex maritima Muller. Seaside Sedge. (Fig. 738.) 

C. marilima Muller, Fl. Dan. 4: ii: 6. pi. 703. \Tn. 

Glabrous, light green, culms slender, or rather 
stont, erect, sharply 3-angled, smooth, or roughisb 
above, i^-aji" tall. Leaves i"-3" wide, roughish 
on the margins and midvein, rarely overtopping 
the culm, the loner bracts similar; starainate spikes 
1-3, slender-stalked, often pistillate at the base; 
pistillate spikes 3-4, cylindric, often staminate at 
the summit, densely many-flowered, i'-3' long, 
4"-6" thick, drooping on fitirorm stalks; perigynia 
oval or nearly orbicular, ascending, pale, biconvex, 
rather less than i" long, nerveless or with a few 
faint nerves, tipped with a very short and nearly 
or quite entire beak; scales ascending, green, lin- 
ear-subulate, ctliate-scabrous, 3-8 times as long as 
the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In salt meadows. Newfoundland and I^brador to 
Massachusetts. Also in Europe. June-Aug. 

69. Carex crinita Lam. Fringed 
Sedge. (Fig. 739.) 
Cartx crinila Lam. Encycl. 3: ya. 1789, 

Glabrous, culms stout, 3-angled, rough or very 
nearly smooth, erect or somewhat recurving, 3°- 
5° tall. Leaves fiat, rough-margined. 3"-5" wide, 
the upper sometimes overtopping the culm, the 
lowest very short and sheathing; ataminate spikes 
I or 3, stalked, often pistillate at the base or in 
the middle; pistillate spikes 3-5, narrowly cylin- 
dric. densely many-flowered, i'-4ji4' long, 3"-4" 
in diameter, all stalked, drooping and commonly 
secund; perigynia obovoid, obtuse, about l" long- 
and nearly as thick, nerveless, abruptly tipped by- 
the very short entire beak; scales green, subulate, 
ciliate-scabrous, spreading, 3-6 times as long b» 
the perigynia; stigmas i. 
1 Ontario lo Florida and Texas. June-Aug. 


is described by F 

f. L. H. Bailey. 

t Ton. Ann. 


Carel ciinlta minor Boott. 111. iS. iSsS. 
ilms slender, lo'-io' tall; leaves i)4"-iW" wide; piatillate spikes i 
slightly drooping; perigynia little more than H in diameter. 

70. Carcx gyniindra Schwein. Nodding Sedge. (Fig. 740.) 

■ gynandra Schwein, Ann. I.yc. N. Y. i 
crinila var. gynandra f ' 

.N. Y. 1:360. iBa.'i. 

lilar to the preceding species, cntms stout, 

tall. Leaves 3"-6" wide, glabrous or their 
IB oflcD Snely pubescent; pistillate spikes 
long, narrowly cylindric, stalked, drooping; 
?nia oblong or elliptic, faintly few-nerved or 
less, compressed, not at all or slightly in- 
, i%"-n" long, and about one-half as broad, 

n); gradually to an acute entire orifice; scales 
ite, rough, ascending, 2-4 times as long as the 
^nia; stigmas 3, rarely 3. 

iwamps, Nova Scotia (accordine to Macoiin) to 
'm New York, Florida and Louisiana. Ascends 
I ft. in New Hampshire. June-Aug. 
Caiez gynindra F6rteii (Olney] Britton. 

■ Porliri Olney, Car. Bor. Am. ii. 1871. 
iller, bearing the same relation to the species 
sinOT does to C- crinila. Maine. 

I. Carex macrokdlea Steud. Southern 

Glaucous Sedge. (Fig, 741.) 
'ex macrokoUa Stend. Syn. PI. Cyp. Mt. 1855. 
, Carex verrucosa Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. a: 555. 1824. Not 
Muhl. 1817. 

Glabrous, light green and glancons, culms stout, 
erect, slightly rough on the angles above, 3°-4° tall. 
Leaves flat or in drying somewhat involute, rough, 
i>i"-3" wide, often equalling the culm, tapering to a 
very long narrow tip, the lower bracts similar, shorter; 
staminate spikes 1 or 3, short-stalked, often pistillate 
at the summit; pistillate spikes 3-8, cylindric, dense, 
I'-z' long, erect, sessile or the lower stalked; peri- 
gynia dark brown, broadly ovoid, 3-angled, 1.%" long, 
usually several-nerved, abruptly contracted into a 
sharp beak about one-fourth aslongas tbebody; scales 
oblong, scarions -margined, rough-awned, as long as 
the perigynia or longer; atigmas 1 
In swamps, Missonri to Floridaani 
72. Carex glaOca Scop. Glaucous Sedge. (Fig. 74.2.) 
glauea Scop. Fl. Cam. Ed. 2, i: 223. 1772. 
brous,palegreen and glaucous, culms slender, 
smooth or roughish above, i°-2° tall, the 
ocks long and stout. Leaves shorter than or 
ling the culm, smooth or nearly so, about 2" 
lower bract similar to the leaves, but nar- 
; staminatespikesmostly 3, stalked; pistillate 
i 3 or 3, ascending or at length drooping, 
;t-stalked, linear-cylindric, i'-2' long, 3" 
densely many-flowered, commonly staminate 
: summit; perigyiija brown, ellipsoid, faintly 
erved, or nerveless, minutely granulate or 
ose, nearly i" long, minutely beaked, the 
; entire; scales ovate or lanceolate, brown 
a green midvein, acute or obtusish, about as 
IS the perigynia; stigmas 1. 

neadows, Nova Scotia and Ontario. Adventive 
Europe. June-Aug. 



73. Carex virescens Muhl. Dnwny 
Sedge. (Fig, 743.) 

Caret i;-ma:ni UuM.-.Wim. Sp. PI-4. »S1. '* 
Culms very slender, enect or soiiiewliBt r 
rough nbove. 6'-r8' tall, I>uvcb light gree 
ceut, especially od the sheaths; spikes 1-5, veryfl 
staikeiH. erect or nearly so, oblong -cyl ill dric, i 
many- flowered. 4''-io" long, about i>{' 
the terminal one staininate below; perigynia J 
broadly oval or ovoid, rather le*s than i 
cendiug. densely pubescent, few-uerved, green,'] 
less, the orifice entire; scales oblong-ovale, cuM 
by the excurrent midvein, scarious-margined, d 
shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In dry wonds and thickets. Maine niid OnCuio to ^ 
gati. south to North Carolina and Missonti. 
JO.XI ft. ill Pciin sylvan in. June-July. 

74. Carex costclUta Brittoii. Ribbed Sedge. (Fig. 744.) 

Not Presl. 1 

■a Sehwi 

I Y, 1 


ilala Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci 

C. coslellata Brittou, Bull. Ton. Club, si: aij, 1S95. 
Similar to the preceding species, but taller and 
more spreading; calms slender. i^-aW loog. 
Leaves \j4"-i" wide, pubescent, especially on 
the sheaths, shorter than the culm, the upper one 
and the similar lower bract sometimes overtop- 
ping the spikes; spikes 3-5, narrowly cylindric, 
many- flowered, rather loose, Ji'-l ^4' long, l]4" 
in diameter, erect or slightly spreading, the termi- 
nal one staminate below, the lower one commonly 
filifomi-atalked; perigynia oblong, densely pu- 
bescent, narrowed at each end, strongly several- 
ribbed, i" long, rather more than yi" thick, 
beakless, the orifice entire; scales ovate, scarious. 
margined, acuminate or cuspidate, shorter than 
the perigynia; stigmas 3, 

In wdvds, Maint and Ontario lu North Carolina, u 

75. Carex triceps Michx. Hirsute Sedgi 


(Kg- 745.) 

IrUrps Michi. Fl, Bor. Am. »: 17a tl 
hirsula Willd. Sp. PL 4^ aji ttoS 
liieepi var. hirsula Bailey. Mem. Turr. C 



Light green, culms slender, rongta sbavivfl 
or reclining, 6'-3j4° long. 1 
pubescent, at least on the sheaths, shorter ll 
culm, the lower bract similar; states 
or oblong- cylindric, dense, erect, ses 

nearly so, ys" long, s,S"-3.'4" '-- in 

usually clustered at the saiiimJt, the (crmtiii] vet-" 
stamiuale at the base; perigynia oral or ohnToid, 
flattened, not inflated, green or gireniih-tramv^fl 
few-nerved, imbricated, usually j 
voung, when mature }4"~t'' long, beaklea 
orifice minutely notched 01 entire; 
scarious-margined, ciupidatcorsborl-a 
shorter Ihau the perigynifl; adtencclUpltr' 
its summit not beat; stigmas 3. 

~ii and MtchlKan. 


Carex Carolinidna Schwein. Carolina 
Sedge. (Fig. 746.) 
|k^-»- CarotiniaHa Schwein. Ano. Lye. i: 67. 18*4, 

rSMilAii Porter; Oliicy. Cdr, Bar. Am. i. namo 
ionly, iSji. NolTaoBcli, ifel, 

icffiivaT Smit/iii Bailey, BoL Gai. 13: 38. 1888 
( Cnltns rety slender, erect, roueh abuve, ["-ajs" 
I,eaves i"-iji" wide, rather datk green, 
labroua except ou the sfaealhs, the upper and the 
■nilai but narrower bracts usually much overtop- 
l the spikes; spikes 1-4. oblong, dense, sessile 
r nearly so, i"-6" long, 2" in diaaieler; erect, 
nnsteredat the summit, the upper one stamiuatc at 
the base; perigj^nia subglobose or obovoid, swollen, 
□ot imbricated, about H" ia diameter, nerveless 
or faintly ucrvcd, brown, beakless, glabrous at least 
~ s, the orifice entire; scales brnwii, ovale, 

incronate; achene pyriform, bent nl the summit 
t tipped with the bent style. 
'n meadows. New Jersey unrl Pennsylvania tti North CHtdiuM uiid ArkanSBs, May-July. 

77. Carex gracillima Schwein, Graceftil Sedge. {Pig. 747.) 

Cart.rgraritliiaa Scliwein, Ann. Ljrc. N. Y, l;66. lS>4. 
Carrx gracillima viir. humilis Bailey, Mem, Torr. 
Club, 1:71. 1S89. 

Glabrous, culms slender, erect or spreading, 
rougbisli above. (°-3° long. Leaves dark green, 
ifi"-3" wide, shorter than the culm, the basal 
s wider tlian the upper; lower bract foliaccous, 
■s overtopping the spikes; spikes 3-5, nar 
rowly cylindtic, usually densely flowered except «' 
the base, i'-J>i' long, about 1" thick or some 
times much smaller, filiform-stalked and drooping, 
the upper one partly or wholly ataminate 
gynla ovoid-oblong, obtuse, slightly swollen, few- 
rved, glabrous. 1" long; scales thin, ovate-ob- 
long, very obtuse or the lower cuspidate, pale, 
scarioua-margined, one-half as long as the peri- 
gjnia; stigmas 3. 

In moist woods and meadows, Nova Scotia to Mani- 
tolw. North Carolina. Ohio and Micbisan. May-July. 
■libi-d a hvbrid with C. hirsula. occurring at Phillipstown, N. Y. 
i a hybrid nf Ibis species with C. puliesani, 

78. Carex aestivalis M. A. Curtis, Summer Sedge. (Fig, 748.) 

erector nearly st 

-4i: *. iitiJ, 

Culnia very slender 

nootb, or roughish 

«ves flat, i"-iy" wide, elongated but usually 

T than the culm, their sheaths usually pubes 

■t. th« blades sometimes slightly so; lower bracts 

•!«■>• I«r to tile leaves but nanowcr; spikes 3-5, nar- 

'^'^*'J3" linear, erect or somewhat spreading, I'-l' 

'**•«'. about iji" thick, loosely many-flowered or 

Upper ones dense, the terminal one staminate at 

» base or also at the summit; perigynia oblong, 

"ted at both ends, 3-sided, glabrous, few-nerved, 

long, ,^" thick, beakless, the orifice entire; 

e-oblong, obtuse, or the lower cuspidate 

p •'l»on-awned, green, thin, one-hairas long as the 

"^^Byala or more; atiguias 3. 

» tuonnlain woods, Massachusetts and northern 
" Vork to GeorRin. June-Augr. 


Carex ox^lepis Torr. & Hook. Sharp-scaled Sedge. (Fig. 749.) 

Cartx oxyltftistoTT. & Hook. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3:409. 

Culms slender, smooth, erect, l^-a" talL Xfxm 
flat, i^"-3" wide, pubescent, especially on the 
sheaths, shorter than or equalling the culm, the 
lower bract similar but narrower; spikes 4 or j, 
linear- cylindric, I'-a' long, about t" in diameter, 
rather densely many-flowered, filiform^stalked and 
at maturity spreading or drooping, the tenninal 
one staminate at the base or sometimes whoU; 
■taminate; perigynia oblong, sharply 3-atigled, 
pointed at both ends, slightly swollen, 1" long, 
less than i" thick, several-nerved, the orifice en. 
tire; scales ovate-lanceolate with broad white scar- 
ious margins, short-awned, about one-third shoiter 
than the perigynia, the awn acabrous; stigmas 3. 

Handsome Sedge. 


80. Carex fornidsa Dewey. 

Carex /ormosa Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. S: 98. 

Culms slender, smooth, erect, i"-!^" tall. Leaves 
flat, pubescent, especially on the sheaths, the basal 
a"-3" wide, often as long as the culm; lower bract 
similar to the shorter culm-leaves; spikes 3-5, oblong- 
cylindric, dense, Ji'-i^'long, nearly 3" in diameter, 
filiform-stalked, spreading or drooping, the lower 
distant, the upper one staminate at the base; peri- 
gynia ovoid, glabrous, ascending, swollen, faintly 
few-nerved. 2" long, i" thick, tipped with a very 
short and slightly notched beak; scales lanceolate or 
ovate, green, with scarions margins, acute, cuspidate 
or the lower short-awned, shorter than the perigynia 
or the lower equalling them; stigmas 3. 

Carex Davisii Schwein. & Torr, Davis' Sedge. (Fig. 751.) 
L. & Torr. Ann. Lye. X V 

.126. i8as. 


Carex Torrej 

Similar to the preceding species, culms slontn. 
iJi'-S" tall.' Leaves 1;^ "-3" wide, flat, pubesceutn 
especially on the sheaths, the basal ones often «* 
long as the culm ; lower bract foHaceous, conuaoniy 
overtopping the spikes; spikes 3-5, elnslered ne**" 
the summit or the lower one distant, dense. %''' 
I'/i' long, 3" in diameter, all fi li form-stalked and »*■ 
lengthspreadingor drooping, the terminal onestait*'' 
inate at the base; perigynia ovoid, much swollec* - 
glabrous, strongly several -nerved, i"-2}i" lon^' 
rather more than i" thick, tipped with a vtr'5' 
short but conspicuously 3-toothed beak; scales laK^"-" 
ceolate or oval, long-awned, spreading, eqnailic** 
or longer than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In moist thickets and meadows, MassachusetU,^** 
New York and Minnesota, south to Geotgia. Kenwc™^^ 
'"'" """ ■ ------i Territory. May-July. 

and the 1 

8a. Carex longir6stris Torr. Long-beaked Sedge. (Fig. 752.) 

Carex longirozlris Ton.; Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. i: 
71. 1824. 

Glabrous, light green, culms very sleoder, rough- 
ish above, erect or reclining, lo'-s" long. Leaves 
flat, sligbtl; scabrous, j"-i>i" wide, uBually not ex- 
ceeding the culm, the bracts Bimilar, shorter, some- 
times overtopping the Epikes; slaminate spikes 1-3, 
slender-stalked, rarclj pistillate at the base; pistillate 
spikes 1-4, oblong-cvlindric, loosely flowered, Ji'-i' 
long, 3"-4" in diameter, all filiform-stalked andnod- 
dingor the upper one nearly sessile; perigynia broadly 
oval, spreading, smooth, slightly inflated, pale, 
strongly i-nerved on each side, the body about i" 
long, contracted into a very slender beak of nearly 
twice its length; scales lanceolate, spreading, long- 
acnminate, scarious-margined, %"-^" long; stigmas 3. 

On banks and in moist thickets. New Brunswick to 

Ontario and the Northwest Territory, south to Massachu- 

setta, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Nebraska. June-Sept. 

Carex longirostris minor Boott, seems to be but a ( 

arf f onu of the species. 

83. Carex Assiniboininsis W. Boott. 
Assiniboia Sedge. (Fig. 753.) 

Carex Assiniboinensis V/. Boott, Coult. Bot. Gsz. pioi. 


Glabrous and nearly smooth, culms filiform, re- 
clining, 3°-3^° long, longer than the leaves. 
Leaves and bracts 1" or less wide, the lower re- 
duced to short purplish sbeaths; ataminate spike 
long-stalked; pistillate spikes 3 or 3, distant, loosely 
few-flowered, 7"-i5" long, drooping on filiform 
stalks; the flowers alternate; perigynia very nar- 
rowly conic, appressed, obtusely 3-angled, subulate- 
beaked, above 3''' long and i" thick above the base, 
densely tuberculate-bispid, narrowed into a short 
stalk; scales lanceolate, ecarious-margined, awued, 
about the length of the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

soit, northern Minnesota and Manitoba. 

84. Carex caatSnea Wahl. Chestnut Sedge. (Fig. 754.) 

a Wahl. Kon|;l. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II. 

■ '55- 1803- 
xflextlts Ri 

.udge, Trans. Linn. Soc, 71 qS. pi. 10. 

Culms slender or iilirorm, nearly erect, rough 
■^*bove, i''-3° tall. Leaves ifi"-3ji" wide, pnbes- 
'^::::ent, shorter than the culm; bracts linear-filifonn, 
_3^'-i^' long; ataminate spike stalked; pistillate 
^Spikes 1-4, oblong or oblong-cylindric, rather 
loosely flowered, >i'-i' long, about 3" thick, 
^:3TOoping on filiform stalks, sometimes close to- 
.^^tber at the summit; perigynia glabrous, pale 
^DTown, ascending, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3- 
-^^ngled, few-nerved, tapering gradually into a 3- 
~^ootbed beak one-half as long as the body, scales 
"^-bin, ovste or ovate-lanceolate, acute or cuspidate, 
A»cerateorentire, rather shorter than the perigynia; 
Stigmas 3. 

In dry thickela and on bants, Newfoundland to 
■^Ilonneclicut, westto Minnesota. June-July. 

iv«a )j^^H 

85. Carex capillaris L. Hair-like Sedge 

(Fig- 755-1 

Corr-v papillaris U Sp. PI, 977- 1753- 

Glabrous, culms sleoder or Bliform, 
rougbisb above, erect, 3'-i4' tall. Leaves JjtI 
wide, much shorter than the culm, flat o 
iuvolute in drying, roughisb; lower liract similar, tht 
upper much cairower, all sheathing; spikes ell fiU- 
form-stallced, the lenDinal oue slaminate; pistilUte 
spikes 1-3, narrowlj- oblong, 2"-6" long, l" thick, 
nodding. i-i3-flowered; perigjnxa oMoug, 3-aiigled, 
light green, almost nerveless, about 1" long, ratblT 
less Ihau 'i " thick, tbe slender beak about o 
BS long as the body- scales oval, si 
shoiter than tbe perigynta; stigmas 

Greenland to Alaska, Maine, the 
northem New Yolk, Michigan, and ir 
Isins to Colniado and Utah, Alsi> in Europe >' 
86, Carex arctdta Boott. Drooping Wood 
Sedge. (Fig. 756.) 

Cat-e^ arclala Boott: Hook. Fl, Hor. Am, i: 137. 1S40. 

Glabrous, culms slender, erect or reclining, i°-2,4^ 
long, roughish above. Leaves flat, roughish-mar- 
gined, much shorter than the culm, the basal ones 
3"-5" wide; Btaminate spike solitary, short-stalked; 
pistillate spilies 2-5, liuear, i'-3' long, i>i" thick. 
loosely many -flowered, erect, ascending, or at length 
drooping and filiform-stalked, the lower one usually 
remote; perigynia oblong, or thickest below the mid- 
dle, rather strongly few-nerved, narrowed at each 
end. about a" long, less than t" thick, 3-angled, 
tapering into a short 2-loothed beak; scales ovate, 
cuspidate or short-awned, about one-third shorter 
than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In dry woods and thickets, New Brunswick to Miune- 
sota, south to Pcnnsyh-ania and Michigan. May-June. 

Caraz Eniiskemi Dewey, is probably a hybrid with C. i 
Csrei arctats FAzani Bailey, Coutt Bot 

Spikca nearly erect, 1-4 of them clustered near the suiil^... . , , 

very *hort; perigynia •i'-'i'n" long. (Juebec to New Hampshire, Minnesota Mnd Micl 

87. Carex tfcnuia Ritdge. Slender-stalked Sedge. (Fig. 757.) 
Carfx tenuis Radge, Trans. Linn. Soc, 7: 97. */. « 
Carer debilis Boott. Ill, pi. m. 18G0, Not Mie* 
C. debilii vvx. ^urffrtBailej, Mem.Tiitt. Oub, i; J|. i"^ 
Culms slender, rough above, erect or commonly «- 
dining, 4'-3° long. Leaves shorter than the culnor 
equalling it, light green, i»i"-*!i" wide; lower bndJ 
similar to the culm-leaves, sometimes oTcrtnppin)! Ilic 
spikes; stamitiatc spike short-stalked; pislillaU tpikcs 
2-5. linear, i'-^' long, i,4" thick. filiform-stallc«l 
and spreading or drooping; perigynia spindle-sbipd, 
glabrous or puberulent, faintly few-nerved, ohtindr 
3-angled, 3" long, less than 1" thick, tiperinglnl"' 
short j-toothed beak; scales ovale or obloog, U 
cuspidate or obtuse, scsrious-miirgined, c 
long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

lu woods, Newfoundland to Michigan. VIW 
mounlains of North Carolina and Kmtacky. U. 
A hybrid with C. %'ireutnt occuih at Scvkk \ 
Carex tinnia Interjicta (Bailey) Brittnn, 
, iHlerjecIa Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club, ao: 418, i8gj. 
Fistillate spikes very slender, often compound at the base, erect or nca(ly so, IHItor 
very loosely flowered, the perigynia alternate, only about 3" lon)[. New York v'" 


erictlor Bricton. 

Club, i: 34. 1889. Not C. sirUlior Dewe^. 1846. 

. erect; leaves about a" wide; pistillate spikes erect 

long, one-third longer than the scales. White Mountains. 

• taller and stouter than the typt 
Illy spreading; perigyniaaii k 

88. Carex obHta Steud. Dark green Sedge. (Fig. 758.) 

I/O steud. SjTi. PI, Cyp. 331. 1B55. 

bra Boolt, III, «. 1660. 

ui/<i var. minor Boeckl. Linnaea, 41: 3,<t5. 1876. 

IS, culms slender, erect or reclioing, sharply 
smooth or very nearly so, i''-3'' long. 

'-a)j" wide, shorter than the culm, slightly 

irer bract similar to the ctilm-leaves but uar- 

metimea overtopping the spikes; staminate 

itary, filiform-stalked, sometimes partially 
pistillate spikes 3-3, narrowly cylindric, i'- 

about 2^" thick, loosely flowered, slender- 

le upper mostly close together and spreading 

ing, the lower distant, drooping; perigynia 

^n, 3-aagled, glabrous, 3" long, less than 1" 

ending, rather strongly many-nerved, taper- 

a short 3-toothed beak; scales obtuse, about 

the length of the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

-B, central New York and Pennsylvania to New Jersey and North Carolina. June-Ang. 
8g. Carex grisea Wahl. Gray Sedge. (Fig. 759.) 

Carfi- gHsea Wahl. Eongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II.) 
H: iSt- 1803. 

Glabrous, culms rather stout, erect or somewhat 
spreading, smooth or nearly so throogbont, i°^)j° 
long. Leaves light green and sometimes slightly 
glaucous, flat, a"-3;j" wide, the basal shorter tban 
or equalling the culm; bracts aimilar to the leaves, 
spreading, much overtopping the spikes; staminate 
spikes solitary, sessile; pistillate spikes 3-5, dense, 
oblong, several-many-flowered, 4"-ia"long, about 
2" thick, the upper usually aessile and close to- 
gether, the lower slender' stalked and distant; peri- 
gynia oblong, a}i" long, 1" thick, nearly terete or 
irregularly angled by overlapping, subacute but 
beaklesa, finely many-atiiate, longer or the lower 
equalling or shorter than the ovate scarious-mar- 
gined cuspidate or awned scales; stigmas 3. 

In woods and thickets, Maine to Ontario and Minne- 
sota, south to North Carolina and Kansas. May-July. 

Carex amphibola Steud. Narrow-leaved Sedge. (Fig. 760.) 
fihibola Steud. Syn. PI. Cyp. au- '855. 
isea var. aaguili/otia Boott, 111. 34. ifoS. 
isea var. (?) rigtda Bailey, Mem. Torr, Club, i: 

os, culms very slender, aligbtly scabrous 
xl, or spreading, i°-a° long. Leaves i"- 
mostly erect and somewhat rigid, the basal 
lan the culm; bracts similar to the upper 
rect, not over i" wide, overtopping the 
laminate spike solitary, short; pistillate 
4, erect, ^'-1' long, less than 3" thick, 
vera! -flowered, the upper sessile, the lower 
.liform stalks; perigynia oblong or obovoid, 
uted but beak less, 3- angled, many-striate, 

less z-ranked, 2" long, about 1" thick, 
an or the lower equalling the 1 

awned spreading scales; stigmas 3. 
ioil, New Jersey and Pennsylvania to Ohio i 
south to Florida and Texas. April-June. 

arex flaccospcrma Dewey. Thin-fmited Sedge. (Fig. 76'')J 

itTi- laHfiora var. i ?) mulidtXan. Ann. I 
3: JI4_ iSjfi. Not C. mutiira R, Br. iBaj 
■im /iacraiperma Vcvey. Am. Jounu Sd. ( 
lis- 'M 


Similar lo Carrx grisea and C. glatt 
slijjlilly glaucous, raUier deep k'^^i- puIius crefl, 
I'-a' tall. Leaves thin aoJ flat, tbc basal onw 
3"-6" wiJe, shorter than or equalllDg the cahn; 
tbc hracls leafy, much overtopping the spikes; 
staniinate spike acssiie or nearly ao; pistillate 
spikes i-j, obloDC, erect, the lower slender-stalked; 
pcrigynia ohiong, j-atigled, striate-nerved, sob- 
acute, i%" long; scales broadly ovale, green, nol 
at all or very slightly scarious-margined, aculc, 
cuspidate or the uppec obtuse, 2-,j times shortct 
lUau the perigynia; stigmas 3, 

> North C 

92. Carex glaucddca Tuckenii. Glauces- 

ceiit Sedge, (Fig. 762.) 
Carex griaa var. niulica Carey in A. (Iray, Man. jsa, 

184S. Not C. mulUa R, Br- 1833. 
Cart.x glauiodta Tuckctni.; OIney. Proc. Am, .\cad. 7: 

395- 1868. 

Similar in habit lo Care.r grhfa, but pale and very 
glancoDs all over, culms smooth, erect or spreading, 
6'-i8' long. Leaves a"-4" wide, the basal shorter 
than or equalliag the culm; brads foliaceous, over- 
topping the spikes; stamiuate spike sessile; pistillate 
spikes 3-5, erect, densely several-many Qowcred, the 
lower slender-stalked; perigyoia oblong, mauy-striate, 
i)i"-2" long, sub-acute, beaktcss, mostly nearly 
twice as long as the ovate scarioiaa-margined acute 
cuspidate or short-awncd scales; stigmas 3, 

In open Gelds and meaduwii, Massachusetts ta Pcunsyl- 
vania, Illinois, Virsrinia and Arkansas. May-July, 

Carex granuliris Mulil. Meadow Sedge. (.Fig. 763,) 

Glabrous, light green and slightly glaucous, cslnf 
slender, erect or spreading, smooth or nearly so. *"- 
t%° long. Leaves flat, mughish or smooth. i)i"'.!" 
wide, the basal shorter than the culm; bracts mhuI" 
to the culm-leaves and usually much exendiag t^' 
spikes; staminatc spike solitary, sessile 01 tb«l- 
sUlked; pistillate spikes 3-5, distant or llit npp^ 
two Lontiguous, erect or slightly spreadiuK. narTD'h 
oblong or cylindric. Ii'-i,li' loug. »" ihick, Jcwd? 
many.flowered, slender- stalked or Ihe uppM v^ 
pengyuia ovoid, btiiwn, somewhat swollen, •tTOiijIj 
uiany-ncrved, ascending, abuot 1" long, tipprdw''* 
a short, usually entire, bent or nearly ^ti ■ '-'1! ''""' 
scales ovate, thin, acute or cuspidate, ^ll ■■! 
sometimes equalling the perlgynia; stii:ii 

In moist meadows, New BruuiWick u. ■ ■-' 
Manitoba, south to Florida mid I.iniisiaiiH MjT-jmr 
granaUili ShilTHl Brillon, 

" 1, Not C. HaM. Dewey. 1846. 

ins; perigynia about one-lulf tile siw of tlw lj|»'> '" 

sylvania to Wisconsin aixl Viixtoll- 


94. Carex Criiwei Dewey. Crawe's 
Sedge. (Fig. 764.) 

Car,:r Craicffi Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. {iS.) 3:346. 1846. 
Carex keleroslachya Torr. Am. Journ. Sci. (11.) a; 248. 


Glabrous, culms low, stiff, erect, 3'-i5' lall. 
Leaves rathei stiff, flat, i"-2" wide, erector nearly so, 
shorter than the culm, the bracU similar, rarely over- 
topping the spikes; staminate spikes 1-3, long-stalked; 
[Ustillate spikes 1-4, distant, cylindric. erect, %'-\' 
long, a"-3" tbick, densely many- flowered, stalked or 
the upper sessile, the lowest often bome near the base 
of the culm; perigynia ovoid, ascending, nerved, us- 
ually minutely resinous dotted, i"-i X" 'ong- taper- 
ing into a very short entire beak; scales obovate or 
oval, tbin, acute or cuspidate, shorter than the peri- 
gynia; stigmas 3. 

It meadows and on banks, Quebec to Manitoba, 

south to Pennsylva 

a and Tennessee. 



Carex extinsa Gooden. Long-bracted 
Sedge. (Fig. 765.) 
Carex exlensa Gooden. Trans. Linn. Soc. 3: 17s 1794. 
Glabrous, bright green, culms stiff, erect, lo'-a" 
tall. Leaves i"-a" wide, strongly involute, erect, 
shorter than the culm, the lower bract umiJar, much 
exceeding the spikes, the upper ahorter, sometimes 
deflexed; staminate spike sessile, rarely pistillate at 
the base; pistillate spikes 1-3, erect, sessile and close 
together or the lowest short-stalked and distant, ob- 
long, densely many-flowered, 5"-8" long, about 3" 
thick; perigynia ovoid or ovoid-oblong, brown, i}i" 
long, narrowed at the base, slightly swollen, strongly 
many'ribbed, tapering into a short stout a-tootbed 
beak; scales ovate, acute, brown with a greenish 
midvein, shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 


96. Carex Ddva I^. 

oLSp. PI. 975_ 

Yellow Sedge. (Fig. 766.) 

s Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club 1 

Glabrous yellow-green, culms very slender but atifl 
and erect, smooth or nearly so, I'-z" tall. Leaves 
l"-3^" wide, flat, the radical shorter than or some 
times exceeding the culm, the lower bract elongated 
spreading or ascending; staminate spike solitary 
stalked or sessile; pistillate spikes 1-4, oblong or glo- 
bose-oblong, erect, sessile and close together or the 
lower one distant and sbort-stalked, densely flowered 
j"-6" long, about 3" thick; perigynia narrowly ovoid 
yellow, and spreading or deflexed when mature, 2 
3" long, strongly several-nerved, the subulate 3 
toothed beak about as long as the body; scales lanceo 
late or oval, acute or subacute, shorter and narrower 
than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swamps and wet iiieadowB,Newfoundland to the Northwest Territory south 


Carex viridula Michx. Green Sedge. (Fig. 767.) 

Carex viridula Michx. Fl, Bor. Am. a: 170. iSot. 
Carexflava vw. viridula Bailer, Mem. Tott. Club, l: ti. 

Glabrous, bright green, culms slender, mnoath, erect, 
4^-15' tall, often exceeded bj the erect narrow bual 
leaves. leaves \" or less wide, the br«ct« aimilftr tu- 
uallj strictly erect and mnch overtopping the vpCkfA; 
■taminate spike senile, sometime* pistillate at the top; 
pistillate spikes a-5, all close together and sessile or the 
lower distant and short-stalked, oblong- cfllndric or ob- 
long, a"-f>" long, 3" or less in diameter; perigynia 
ovoid-oblong, \" or less long, strongly few-nerved, nar- 
rowed at the base, tapering into a 3-toothed beak about 
one-half as long as the body; scales orate, shorter than 
the perigynia and about as wide; atigmas 3. 

In bogs and on wet rocks, MewToDiidlaiid to Hndson Bay 
and the Northwest Territory, south to Uaine. PennaylvanJa, 
Minnesota, Utah and Waalnpgton. Summer. 

Canz f&lvB Gooden., a Bped«s of this group, wbb found many years ago A Tewksbury, Mass., 
evidently a waif from Europe, and is reported from Newfoundland. 

Carex distant L-, a related species, has been collected on ballast at Philadelphia. 

Pale Sedge. (Fig. 768.) 

98. Carex palliscens L. 
Carex patlescens L, Sp. PI. 977- '753- 

Ught green, culms slender, erect, rough above, 
4'-ao' t«V. Leaves flat, i"-i^" wide, pubescent at 
least on the sheaths, shorter thau the cnlm; lower 
bract similar to the culm-leaves, erect or nearly so 
and exceeding the spikes; staminate spikes solitary, 
stalked; pistillate spikes 3-4, oblong, erect or some- 
what spending, slender stalked or th e upper one ses- 
sile, densely many- flowered, A"s" long, a"- 
aji" in diameter usually clustered; perigynia short- 
oblong, pale, i" long, }i" thick, obtuse, thin, faintly 
few-nerved, beakless, the orifice entire; scales ovate, 
membranous, cuspidate or short-awned, equalling or 
the upper shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 
In fields and meadows. Nova Scotia to western On- 
' 3, south to Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Illinois and 
Ascends to 3500 ft in Vermont. Also in 

Carex abbreviita Prescott, Torrey's Sedge. (Fig. 769-) 

..r T'orro'i'Tuckerni. Enom. Meth. 3- ,j. .. 

C. Torreyana Scbwein. 1824. 
Carex abbreviala Prescott; Boott, Trans. Linn. Sa 

Pale green, culms slender, rather sti£r, erect, l<» 
n/ tall, finely ciliatc-pabescent Leaves abont C 
wide, erect, elongated but shorter than the culr 
finely and usually densely pubescent; lower bras 
^'-3' long, spreading or ascending, pnb< 
staminate spike solitary, shoit-s talked; pisi 
spikes 1-3, short oblong, dense, i"-%" long, al 
3" thick, sessile or the lower one short slalke 
erect, clustered; perigynia broadly oblong or (zz= 
ovoid, glabrous, about i" long and more than ^^^S 
thick, strongly many, nerved, obtuse, abmp"'^ 
tipped by a short cylindric beak, scales cn^':3 
date, shorter than the perigynia; stigmaa 3. 

> the Northweit Territc^ ^ 
IS to Colorado. JUne-Jt^ ' 



100. Carex conoldea Schk. Field Sedge. 

(Fig. 770.) 

Carex conoidea Scbk, Riedgr. Nachtr 67. / 168. 1806. 

Glabrous, culms slettder, ratber stiff, erect, 8'-i8' 
tall. Leaves i"-iji" wide, the basal Bometimes 
equalling the culm; loner bracts similar to the coltn- 
leaves, sometimes oyertopping the spikes; staminate 
Spike long-stalked; pistillate spikes 1-3, distant, erect, 
oblong or oblong-cylindric, 5"-i3" long, 2ji" thick, 
not deiisel]' flowered, the upper nearly sessile, the ' 
lower slender- stalked; periKjiiia oblong, obtusely 3- 
ODgled, narrowed to eat^i end, acute, finely many- 
striate, beaklest, i"'\}i" long, about }i" thick, the 
orifice entire;scalea broadly ovate, scarions -margined, 
abmptly contracted into a rough awn, the lower 
longer tban the perigynia, the upper shorter than or 
equalling them; stigmas 3. 

In meadows, Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Rhode 
Island, New Jersey, Ohio and Illinois. Maj-June. 

101. Carex oligocltfpa Schk. Few-fruited Sedge. (Fig. 771.) 

Carex oligocarpa Schk. Siedg-. Nachtr, 58. /. 170. 


Glabrous, culms very slender or almost filifonn, 
spreading or reclining, ronghish, S'-iS' long. 
Leaves about i" wide, spreading, soft, the basal 
shorter than or equalling the culm, the bracts simi- 
lar, tisually exceeding the spikes; staminate spike 
solitary, long-stalked or nearly scBsile; pistiltate 
spikes 2-4, erect or nearly so, distant, loosely few- 
flowered, 4"-8" long, less than 3" thick, erect, the 
lower filiform-stalked, the upper sessile; perigynia 
oblong, firm, pale, finely many-striate, ascending, 
i"-iX" long, abruptly narrowed into a short 
straight or oblique entire beak; scales ovate, tipped 
with a rough spreading awn, longer than or equal- 
ling the perigynia; stigmaa 3. 

In dry woods aud thickets, Ve 
Michigwi, south to New Jersey, 
tucky and MisBonri. May-Juty. 

loa. Carex Hitchcocki4na Dewey. Hitchcock's Sedge. (FJg. 772. ) 

Carex Hilchcockiana Dewey, Am. Toum. Sci. lO; ari. 

Culms slender, erect, somewhat rough, i"-!" tall. 
Leaves iJi"-3" wide, the basal mostly shorter tban 
the culm, the upper and similar bracts much over- 
topping the spikes, their sheaths pubescent, their 
blades somewhat so; staminate spike stalked or 
nearly sessile; pistillate spikes 3-4, loosely few- 
flowered, erect, rather distant, stalked or the upper 
•essile; perigynia ovoid, obtusely 3-angled, finely 
many-etriate, ascending, \yi" long, nearly x" 
thick, tipped with a short stout oblique entire 
beak; scales ovate or ovate- lanceolate, scarious- 
margined, rough-awned, longer than or equalling 
the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In woods and thickets. Vcnnont and Ontario to 
Michigan, south to New Jersey, West Virginia. Een- 
ttfcky and Missouri, May-July. 


103. Carex altocaulis (Dewey) Britton. Sheathed Sedge. (Fig- 773.. 
Oiitx- ^raginala var. alloeaulii Dewty, Am. J< 

III);. :S66, 
CarevSallHemis Bailey. Mem. Tiirr. Club, I; *. 

Glabrous, light green but not glattcaus, culms ^ 
slendtr, weak, spreai^ing or recliuiag, i 
Leaves iyi"-i" wide, shorter than the culm, thefl 
per ones and the bracts usually very short; : 
spike long-stalked; pistillate spikes 1 or 3. distl 
slendet-stalkeil, ascending, spreading or recurved, | 
than i' long, loosely several -flowered, their • 
partly enclosed by the long shealhs; perigynia I 
'""gi 3-'"'g'ed, narrowed at tile base, faintly t 
nerved z" lon;^, nearly l" thick, tipped with H 
altoul one-fourth the length of the body, the e 
3'toDtbed. oblique; scales oval or ovale- la nceoSI 
acute or the upper obtuse, shorter than or the IM 
equalling the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swamp", Quebec and Vermont to Ontario, New » 
and Minnesota. -Siiiiimer 

104. Carex polymdrpha Muhl. Var 
Carex polyniitrplia Mulil. Gram. j.jt). 1817 

Glabrous, rather dark jjrceu, culms stiff, strictly 
erect, smooth or nearly so, i"-?" tall. Leaves flat, 
lji"-a" wide, nearly erect, the basal sometimes as 
long as the culm, the others much shorter; bracts 
nsually little longer than the pistillate spike; slani- 
ioate spikes i or 3, long-stalked; pistillate spikes 
commonly solitary, sometimes i, erect, short-stalked 
or sessile, densely mauy-Sowcrcd or sometimes looser 
at the base, I'-i.S' long and 4" thick, occasionally 
staminate at the siimniit; perigynia ovoid-oblong. 
obscurely 3-angled, fully 2" long and i" in diameter, 
the beak more than one-half as long as the body, the 
orifice oblique; scales red-brown, obtuse or the lower 
acute, somewhat shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3, 

In swamps or wet meadows, Massachusetts to northern 
' " J", Boutb to North Carolina. Local- Ascends 
m IVnnsj'lvHiiia. June-AuB, 

105. Carex tetdnica Schk. Wood 


ible Sedge. I Fig. 774. ) 

New Jer 

fl-ig. 775-t 

Jgr NacLlr, 6S fig^ «V. Ji-S^' 
K liailey, Mem. T.irc, Cltll=^" 

Light green and glabrous, culms slender, 
or nearly so, rough above, I'-i" tall. Leaves Hifl 
I"-j" wide, the basal about equalling the cnlnM 
bracts narrow, elongaled, sometimes ovcrtoppiuj 
the apikes; stamiuate spike stalked, the stall 
sometimes 3' long; pistillate spikes J or 3, ctecS 
distant, narrowed at the base, loosely or corapnell' 
several -many-flowered, 1' long or less, or the lowc:' 
fili form -stalked and drooping; perigyuta otilonjg 
green, prominently many-nerved, about \%" looS 
less than i" thick, oblique, the snnmiit ciuve« 
outwardly and tapering to an etitire orifice, bealM 
less: scales ovate-oblong, obtuse or tbe laircr mc 
cronate, shorter than the perigynia or tbe Ipw^ 
equalling them; stigmas 3. 

In meadows and wet woods, Oatafia lo 
Nortti Carolina and Louisiana, June-July. 


io6. Carex M£adii Dewey. Mead's Sedge, (Fig. 776.) 


. Carttri Porter, Proc, Acad. Pliila. 
:. Canbyi Porter, Proc. Acad. Phila. 

i8»7: 76. 1887. 
Carex tetanica v 

i8»7: 76. 1S87, 

Similar to the preceding species, culm stouter, 
Tcrj rough above, ii'-iS' tall. Basal leaves usually 
shorter than the culm; bracts short, not ovcrtoppiug 
the spikes; stamiuate spike long-stalked; pistillate 
spikes 1-3, sometimes staminale at the summit, occa- 
sionally compound at the base, oblong-cylindric, 
densely flowered^ yi'-\' long, about 3" in diameter, 
erect, stalked or the upper one sessile; perigynia 
broadly oblong, prominently many-nerved, green, 
\%" long, about i" in diameter, tipped with a mi- 
nute slightly bent beak; scales ovale, green with 
purple-brown margins, acute, mucronate or the upper 
obtuse, the upper short, the lower sometimea exceed- 
ing the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In swamps and wet meadows, Rhode Island to Pennsylvania and Georgia, west to Michigan, 
Aasiniboia. Nebraska and Arkansas. The lowest Bpike ia sometimes home on a very longr stalk 
arising from the axil of one of the basal leaves. May-July. 

107, Carex laxifldra Lam. I,oose-flowered Sedge. (Fig. 777.) 
Carex laxifiora Lam, Encycl. 3: 393. 1789. 

Glabrous, rather pale green, culms erect or reclin- 
ing, slender, roughish above, k'-i" long. leaves 
iJ4"-3"wide, soft, the basal moatly shorter than the 
culm, the bracts similar to the culm-leavea sometimes 
overtopping the spikes; staminate spike usually 
stalked; pistillate spikes 1-4, distant, linear-cylindric, 
loosely several-many-flowered, %'-\' long, i>i"-3" 
thick, all slender-stalked and spreading or drooping 
or the upper one erect and sessile; perigynia ascend- 
ing, obovoid, more or less oblique, \.%"-i}i" long, 
rather more than yi" thick, narrowed at the base, 
strongly many-nerved, tapering into a short stont 
outwardly bent entire beak; scales ovate with broad 
white scarious matstns, acute, cnspidate or awned, 
|\ ffi shorter than or exceeding the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

P) ll 11 lu meadows and thit^kets, Maine and Ontario to Min- 

\/ \\\ nesola, south to Florida, Alabama and the Indian Terri- 

'' "' tory. Ascends to 5000 ft. in VitEinia. May-July. 

Carez laxiflAra bUnda (Dewey) Boott, III. 37. 1S58. 


1. Sci. 1 


^ — 'arex taxiflora vai' slrialiila Carey in A. Gray, Man 

, Pistillate spikes cylindric, mostly densely flowered, the upper seas 

j-"a.guous to the usually sessile staminote one, the lower slender-stalked. 
*^*.aps distinct, 

Carex laiiflAra vitlani Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, i: 33. 1889. 
Stouter and taller than the preceding; leaves 3%"-^%" wide; pistillate spikes sometinies I M' 
'^angand aSi" thick, dense, often compound at the base, the upper sessile or sfiort-stalked and con- 
^^Kuous to the sessile staminate one, the lower long-stalked. New Hampshire to southern New 
^*^ork and Missouri. Range undetermined. 

Carez laxiflAra patnlifAlia (Dewey) Carey in A. Gray, Man. Ed, a, 514. 1856, 
•i— arKjr anceps var. palali/oiia Dewey. Wood's Bot. 413. 1845. 

Glaucous or pale green ; basal leaves 2'A"-\bi" wide; staminate spike usually stalked; pistillate 
^yike 1' long or more, looseljr flowered, scattered; perigynia oblong or ellipsoid, the beak nearly 
^■^raight. Halifax, Nova Scotia (according to Macoun), Massachusetts to Michigan, south to Vir- 

la and Tennessee. 

Caiex laxiflAra dJvaridta Bailey, I 
Perigynia laiser I" 
Washington, D. C. 

1:33. 1889. 

one-half as long as the body. 


io8. Carcx styloflexa Bucklev. 
Sedge. (Fig. 778.) ' 
Cartr Uyloflrxa Buckley, Am. Jotim. Sci. 4&. I 
CartA- laxtflora var. ityloflexa Bootl, UI. 37- 

GlabrouB, culms leaning, slender, sniooUi. 1 
Leaves i%''-i" wide, flat, shorter than the cnlm; 
bracts short, rarely exceeding the spikes; ilaminitc 
Bpike solitaiy, usually long-stalked but sometima 
nearly sessile; pistillate spikes 1-4. distant, IookIt 
few-severat- flowered, less than 9" long, the lown 
drooping on filiform stalks; perigyn is obloag, trian- 
gular, ni any -nerved, about 2" long, 1" thick, some- 
what oblique, tapering gradually to both ends anil 
thus slender-beaked; scales ovate or ovate- Ian ceolate, 
RCarious-margined, acute, cuspidate or shorl-awned, 
shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In woods and thickets, southern New V 
sylvania to Florida. Louisiana and Texas. Sfajr-n 
lOQ. Carex digitalis Willd. Slender Wood Sedge. (Fig. 779.) * 
Carex digitalis Willd. Sp. PI. 4- 29B. iSos, 

Glabrous, bright green, not at all glaucous, culms 
slender or almost tilifonn, nearly or quite smooth, us- 
ually reclining, 4'-i8' long. Leaves flat, i"-a" wide, 
the basal sometimes exceeding the culm, the upper 
ones and the bracts similar but shorter, the latter coni- 
monly overtopping the spikes; staminate spike 
stalked; pistillate spikes 1-4, linear, loosely alter- 
aatcly flowered, ^'-1' long, the upper one sessile or 
nearly so, the others filiform-stalked and widely 
spreading or drooping; perigynia oblong, sharply 
triangular, many-nerved, brown when ripe, aanowed 
at both ends, i" long, more than )^" thick, the very 
short beak slightly oblique; scales lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, scarious- margined, acute, acuminate or 
short^awned, shorter than or the lower about equal- 
ling the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In woods and thickets, Maine and southern (^tario to Minneiiota, s 
Ascends to 3000 ft. in Virginia. May-July. 

Carex digltiUH copulAu Bniley, Mem. Toir. Club, i: 1 
I^arger in cveiy way. cnlnis sonietiniea 2° long, reclining; leaves »|^ -4" 
shorter and denser; perigynia larEsr, Michigan and southern Ontario. 

iio. Carex Carcykna Toir. Carey's Sedge, f Fig. 780.) 

Carix Careyana Torr.; Dewey, Am. Ji-um-Sci 3» 
60, / SS. iBj6. 

Glabrous, bright green, culms alend«, w** 
or somewhat reclining, smooth or ncMly », l'- 
2° tall. Basal leaves flat, j,"-f>" wid^ »»fl" 
ehorler than the culm; bracts lineai-UoceohU 
with very long sheaths, the blades I'-j' MHi 
staminate spike usually large, laDg«taIl:'^ 
pistillate spikes 1-3 (cotnmonly i). erect, lootflT 
few-several- flowered, less than I' long. ''" 
upper sessile or sborl-stalkcd, the lower 00 * 
long filiform stalk; perigynia ovoiil-ohlnai!, 
very sharply 3-angled, many-ncrred, full,' "^ 
long and over 1" thick, brawn, Ih* abort b»lt 
slightly oblique, entire; scale* orate with wluH 
hyaline margins, cuspidate or awned. (UwW 
than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In woods. New linslond laccoidinc \» ■ 
New York to Micliljfnii and Viraini*. '* — ' 

pistillal* *pi^ 


Carex Albursina Sheldon. White Bear Sedge. (Fig. 781.) 

■89 J. 

I Sheldon, Bull. Tott. Club, 3 

Glabrous, ratber deep grreen, cnhtts stout. Dearly 
sauKjth, flattened, usually spreading, 8'-2° long. 
Basal leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, shorter than the culm, J^'-i^' wide; bmcts 
similar to the naironer calm-leaves, the upper over- 
topping the spikes; ataminate spikes sessile or nearly 
ao; pistillate spikes 3-4, distant and narrowly linear, 
stalked or the upper sessile and close together, ^'- 
iV' long, very looeely flowered; perigynia obovoid, 
obtusely 3-angled, strongly many-nerved, 2" long, 
i" thick, tipped with a very short bent entire beak; 
scales ovate-oblong, scarious-margined, obtuse or the 
lower acute, shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In woods, MassBchusettB to New York, Ohio and Min- 
nesota, south to Virginia and Michigan. Ascends 

113. Carex ptantaginea Lam. Plantain- 
leaved Sedge. (Fig. 782. ) 

Carex planlaginea Lam. Bncycl. 3: 391. 17S9. 

Glabrous, rather dark green, culms alender, erect 
or reclining, 6'-*° long. Leaves >i'-i' wide, shorter 
than or equalling the culm, persistent throngh tlie 
winter and until the new culms develop in the fol- 
lowing spring; bracts short, usually with purple or 
pnrplish clasping sheaths; staminate spike long- 
stalked, purple; pistillate spikes 3 or 4, erect, all 
slender-stalked, 1' or leas long, loosely flowered, the 
stalks of the upper one* encloeed in the sheaths; 
perigynia oblong, outwardly curved, many-nerved, 
iji" long, about \" thick, longer than or equalling 
the ovate cuspidate scales; stigmas 3. 

In woods. New Brunswick and Ontario to Manitoba, 

Carex laxiculmia Schwein. Spreading Sedge. (Fig. 783.) 

Glabrous, blue-green and glaucous, culms filiform, 
smooth or very nearly so, ascending or difliiae, 6'-3° 
long. Basal leaves elongated, S"^5" wide, often 
longer than the culms; bracts similar to the narrower 
«ulm-leBves, usually short; staminate spike long- 
stalked; putillate spikes 2-4, oblong, loosely few- 
dowered, 3"-6" long, about 2" thick, dmoping on 
long hair-like stalks or the upper short-stalked and 
«iect; perigynia ovoid, oblong, sharply 3-angled, 
many-nerved, about i" long and rather more than 
^" thick, narrowed at both ends, scarcely beaked, 
longer than the ovate green cuspidate or short-awned 
scales; stigmas 3. 

Id woods and thickets, southern Ontario to Michigan, 
south to Rhode Island and Virginia. Ascends lo 5600 ft. 
in Vii^nia. May-June. 


114. Carex ptychocdrpa Steud. Thicket 

Sedge. (Fig. 784.) 
Carex piyehocaipa Steud. Syn. PI. Cjrp. 3^ 1855. 

Glabrous, pale gieen Btid glancoiu, cultnt erect, 
very alender, smooth, only 3'-6' tall. Leave* flat, 
the basal 2"-^" wide, much longer than the culm; 
bracts foliaceoas, usuallj' overtoppiDg the si»kcs: 
slamiiiate spike small, sessile; pistiHate spikes 3 or 
3, sessile and close together at the anminit or the 
lower one slender-stalked and nearly basal, all 
erect, loosely few-Sonered, 4"-^" long; perigyoia 
obloug, pale, 3-aiigled, rather strongly nany- 
nerved, i" long, rather more than %" thick, 
pointed at both ends, minntely straight-beaked, 
the orifice entire: scales ovate, thin, obtuse, about 
one-half as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In moiatwoods and thickets, Ktassachnsetts and New 
Jersey to Florida and Louisiana. Jane-Sept. 

15. Carex platyph^Ua Carey. 

iclm, Fl. .Bor. Am. »: 

Broad-leaved Sedge. (Fig. 785. ) 

Carex filanlagin 

1803. Not lim, _,_,. 
Carex plalypkylta Carey, Am. Ji 


1. Sci. (II.) 4:23. 

Glabrous, pale green and glancons, cnlms slen- 
der, spreading or reclining, 4'-I5' long. Leaves 
flat and broad, >j'-[' wide, shorter than the culm; 
bracts linear-lanceolate with long clasping sheaths, 
\"-i%" wide, not overtopping the spikes, usually 
less than 3' long; statntnate spike stalked; pistil- 
late spikes 3-4, dbtant, erect, all slender-stalked 
or the upper one nearly sessile, loosely several- 
flowered, s"-'io" long, their stalks commonly en- 
closed in the sheaths, perigynia oblong, 3-angled, 
many-nerved, slightly bent at the narrowed sum- 
mit, \"-\%" long, rather more than >i" thick, 
equalling or somewhat longer than the ovate-ob- 
long acute cuspidate or shoit-awned scales; 
stigmas 3. 

In woods and thickets, Quebec and Ontario to Michigan, south 
to 3500 ft. in Virginia. May-June. 

> Virginia and Illinois. Ascends 

116. Carex panicea L. 

Grass-like Sedge. Carnation-grass. (Fig. 786.) 
Carex panicea L- Sp. PI. 977. 175.1. 

Glabrous, pale blubh green and glancoos, cnlms 
slender, smooth, erect, stiff, i°-3° tall, licaves flat, 
l"-a" wide, the basal ones shorter than or equalling 
the culm, those of the culm and the bracts much shorter 
and narrower; staminate spikes I or 3, stalked; pistil- 
late spikes 3 or 3, distant, filiromi-stalked or the upper 
nearly sessile, erect, i' or less long, about ^H" thick, 
rather loosely scveral-many-flowered, the upper some- 
times staminate at the summit; perigynia oval, about 
1 Ji" long and nearly i" in diameter, slightly swollen 
and obscurely 3-angled, yellow, purple or mottled, 
faintly few-nerved, tipped with a very short entire 
somewhat oblique beak; scales ovate, acute, purple or 
purple- margined, shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 


117. Carex livida (Wahl.) Willd. Livid Sedge. (Fig. 787.) 
Carrx limosa var. livida Wahl. Kongl. Vet Ac&d. 

Handl. (II.) M: 163. 1S03. 
Carfjr livida Willd. Sp. PI. 4: ^5- iSoj, 

GlabrouH, pale green and very glaucous, culms 
slender, Btrictlj erect, Bmooth, i°-i^°tall. Leaves 
1"-]" wide, the basal shorter than or sometimes 
about equalling the culm, involute in drying; bracts 
narrow, usually short; staminate spike solitary, 
sbort-stallced; pistillate spikes 1-3, 5"-i2" long, 
about 3" thick, erect and clustered at the summit 
of the culm, narrowly cylindric, densely several- 
flowered or looser at the base, the third, when pres- 
ent, distant or sometimes nearly basal, stalked; 
perigynia oblong, very pale, nearly 2" long, less 
than i" thick, finely nerved, straight, beakless, 
narrowed to an entire orifice; scales ovate, obtuse 
or the lower subacute, rather shorter than the 
perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In boes, Labrador and Hudson Bay to Alaska, south 
to Connecticut, the pine barrens of New Jersey, central 
New York and Michii^n. Also in Europe. Summer. 

118. Carex aflrea Nutt. Golden-fruited Sedge. (Fig. 788.) 
Carejr auiea Nutt. Gen. l: 305. 1618. 

Glabrous, light green, culms very slender, erect or 
reclining, a'-i5' long, Leavesflat, i"-iji"wide,the 
basal equalling or exceeding the culm; bracts similar 
to the calm-leaves, commonly much overtopping the 
, spikes; terminal spike sbort-stalked, staminate or an- 
drogynous; pistillate spikes 3-4, oblong or liaear-ob-' 
long, erect and clustered near the summit orthe lower 
one distant, filiform- stalked, loosely or compactly 
few-flowered, 3"-io" long, about iji" thick; perigy- 
nia obovoid or subglobose, white or nearly white when 
young, becoming fleshy, yellow or brown and about 
i"in diameter when mature, many-nerved, beakless, 
the orifice entire; scales ovate, membranous acute, 
blunt, cuspidate or short-awned, shorter than or the 
lower exceeding the perigynia; stigmas mostly 3. 

In wet meadows, springs and on wet rocks, New- 
foundland to the Northwest Territory and British Co- 
lumbia, south to Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Michi- 
gan, Utah and W ' ' ' 

119. Carex bicolor All. Parti-colored 
Sedge. (Fig. 789.) 

Care.i- bicolor AW. Fl. Fed. i: 267, 1785. 

Similar to the preceding species, but somewhat 
glaacans; culms slender, erect, I'-iS' tall. Basal 
leaves i"-3"wide, shorter than or equalling the 
culm; spikes 3-4, mostly clastered at the summit 
of the culm, dense, the terminal one partially stam- 
inate; perigynia oblong, white, compressed, few- 
nerved, less than i" long, not fleshy at maturity, 
abruptly tipped with a very short entire nearly 
cyliodric beak; scales brown-purple with white 
midvein and mai^ns, oval, obtuse or acute, shorter 
than the perigynia. 

o Boott). Also 


130. Carex setifdlia (Dewey) Britton. Bristle-leaved Sedge. (Fig. 790.) 

Carix alba var. seli/otia Dewey, Am. Joani. ScJ. I>: 316. 

Carex ebumea Boott.; Hook. Fi. Bor, Atd. I; S36, pi.ns- 

Glabrous, pale green, cultna filifonn, nnooth, weak, 
4'- [5' long. Leave* filiform, ahoiter than the calm, 
IcM than %" wide; bracts redaced to bladeless, 
sheaths i"-i" long; stamiaate spikes solitary, ses- 
sile or verj nearlr so, ^"-A" long; pistillate spikes 
a-4, erect, stender-stftlked, i"-\" long, rather lew 
than i" thick, loosely few-flowered, the upper com- 
monly overtopping the staminate, the lower one 
sometimes distant; perigyuia oblong, painted at 
both ends, 3-angled, \" long, }i" or less thick, 
polished and nearly black when mature, very faintly 
few-nerved, tapering into a short entire beak; scales 
ovate, obtuse or the lower acute, thin, hyaline, 
shorter than the perigynia; stigmaa 3. 

le rocks. New Brunswick to the Northwest Ter- 

lai. Carex concinna R. Br. Low Nortb- 
eni Sedge. (Fig. 791.) 

Carex concinna R. Br. Prank. Joum, 763. 1833. 

Culms filiform, amooth, »'-V tall. Leaves about 
\" wide, flat, pale gi«en, much shorter than the 
cnlm; bracts reduced to green bladeless sheatha or 
the lower one with an erect subulate blade 3"-6" 
long; staminate spike solitaiy, sessile; pistillate 
spikes 1-3, sessile and clustered or the lower one 
somewhat distant and sbort-stolked, erect, 3"-^" 
long, about 1" thick, compactly few-flowered; peri- 
gynia oblong-ovoid, 3-aagled, pubescent, short- 
beaked, few-nerved, about twice as long as the ovate 
obtnse or subacute green or purplish scales; stigmas 3. 

ices, Quebec and Ontario to British Colutn- 

12a. Carex Richardsdni R. Br. Richardson's Sedge. (Fig. 793.) 
Carex Richardsoni R. Br. Frankl, Jonm. 751. iSi}. 

Culms slender, rough, erect, n'-n' tall. Leaves 
flat, about i" wide, the basal shorter than or some- 
times equalling the cnlms, those of the cnlm very 
short; bracts bladeless, sheathing, J<'-i'long,naaally 
brown-purple with a white hyaline acute BUnuiiit; 
staminate spike solitary, short-stalked; piatillate 
spikes I or 1, erect, narrowly cytindric. short^talked, 
\"-^' long, compactly several-flowered, dose to- 
gether, their stalks partly or wholly enclosed in the 
sheaths; perigynia obovoid, pubescent, about i" long, 
minutely beaked; scales mostly longer than the peri- 
gynia, ovate, obtuse or subacute, purple, conspicu- 
ously white-margined; stigmas 3, 

HichigBn and South Dakota. Summer. 



133. Carex pedunculAta Muhl. Long-stalked Sedge (Pig 793 ) 
Carer /KduHculafa Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 333. 1S05. 
Densely matted, rather bright green, culms very 
slender, roDghlsh above, diffuse or reclining, 3'-lo' 
long. Leaves flat, i"-t}i" wide, the basal com- 
moDly longer than the culms; sheaths green, the 
tipper almost bladelesa, the lower with short leaf-like 
blades; staminate spike long-stalked, usually with 
some pistillate flowers at its base; pbtillate spilcea 3- 
6, 3"-6" long, few-flowered, filiform-stalked and 
spreading or drooping, scattered, commonly borne 
at every node, some of them appearing basal; peri- 
gynia obovoid, sharply 3-angled, paberulent or be- 
comitig glabrous, a" long, pale green, nerveless, 
narrowed below into a stipe, tipped with a minute 
snd somewhat oblique entire beak; scales green or 
purplish, ovate, abruptly cuspidate or the lower sub- 
nlate-awned, equalling or the lower considerahly 
exceeding the perigynia; atigmas 3. 

lDdiywoods,Anticastito Manitobo. south to Virginia, Pennsylvaniaand Minnesota. May-July. 
124. Carex pedicell&ta (Dewey) Britton. Fibrous-rooted Sedge. (Fig. 794.) 

Carex varia Dewey. Am. Jonm. Sci. 11: loa. 1826. Not 

Muhl. 1605. 
C. wina var, iffrfirc/Zn/a Dewey, Am. Joura. Sci. Ii:i6a. 1816. 
Carex communis Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, l; 41. 1889. 
Carex pedicellata Britton, Mem. Torr. Club, 5; 87. 1&^ 

Light green, not stoloniferous, fibrous-rooted, culms 
slender, roughish above, erect or recltniag, (s'--x/ long. 
Leaves i"-a" wide, shorter than the culms; lower bract 
narrowly linear or subulate, j('-i'long; staminate spike 
short-stalked, \"-\i" long; pistillate spikes a-4, short- 
oblong, few-flowered, seadle and usually separated, or 
the lowest short-stalked; perigynia oval or obloug, 
' rather less than \" long and a little more than %" in 
diameter, pale, pubescent, slightly i-ribbed on each 
side, tipped with a subulate a-toothed beak one-fourth 
the length of the body; scales green, ovate, acute, about 
equalling the perigynia; atigmas 3. 

In dry soil, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, Georgia, Ohio and 
Mlchiean, AscendB to 5700 ft. in Virginia, May-July, 
z pedlcelUt* Wbeilni (Bailey) Britton, Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 88. 1894. 
Carex eommuras var. Wkeeleri Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, i; 41. 1889. 

UsDBllylowerthan the Bpeciesand the leaves much shorter than the cnlm; staminate spike only 
3"-3" long; piatillate spikes closer together. Nova Scotia to Connecticut and Michigan. 

185. Carex Pennsylvfinica Lam. Pennsylvania Sedge. (Fig. 795.) 
Carex Penn^lvaniea Lam. Encyd. 3: 388. 1789. 

Darkordall green, stolon iferoua, culms slender, erect, 
smooth or roughish, 6^-15' tall. Leaves ^"-i>f wide, 
the basal shorter than or sometimes exceeding the cnlm, 
the old sheaths persistent and fibrillose; lower bract sub- 
ulate or scale-like, rarely over %' long; staminate spike 
aeaaile or very ahort-stalked, Ji'-i' long; pistillate 
spikes i~3, short-oblong, few-flowered, sessile, contigu- 
ous or the lower somewhat distant; perigynia broadly 
oval, about i" long and more than yi" in diameter, pu- 
bescent, i-ribbed on each side, narrowed at the base, 
tipped with a a-toothed beak about one-fourth the length 
of the body; scales ovate, purplish, acute or cuspidate, 
equalling or a little longer than the perigynia; atigmas 3, 

In dry soil. New Brunswick to Manitoba and the North- 
west Territory, south to North Carolina. Tennessee and Kan- 
sas. Ascends to 5000 ft. in North Carolina. May-June. 

36. Carex vltria Muht. 


toba. south tc 

127. Carex Ndvae-Angliae Schweiu. 
New England Sedge. (Fig. 797.) 

C. Novae-AngiiaeSiAi-<Ke\a. Ann. Lye. N. Y, i: 67. 1814. 
Rather dark green, stoloniferoos, culms fiilifortn, 
erect or reclining, 4'-8' long. leaves about yi" 
wide, soft, eloagated, often exceeding the culms; 
staminate spike sbort-stalked, very narrow or almoat 
filiform, s'^-S" long; pistillate spikes 1-4, distant, 
snbglobose, few-flowered, sessile or the lower short- 
stalked; lower bract fillfonn, short or aotnetimes 
overtopping the spikes; perigynia narrowly obovoid 
or oblong, 1" long, j4" thick, pubescent, tipped by 
a stibulate a-toothcd beak about one-fourth the length 
of the body: scales ovate, greenish -brown, acute or 
cuspidate; stigmas 3 or 3. 

^t shaded places. New Brunswick to Maine, 


Emmons' Sedge. (Fig. 796.) 
- varia Muhl.; Wahl. Knngl. Vet. Acad. Handl. 

(II.Il4:iS9. 1803. 
C. Emtnonsii Dewey; Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 411. i8»6. 
C. variavar. coliirala Bailey, Mem, TofT, Club, 1:41. 1889. 

Rather bright green, stolouiferons, culms filifomi, 
erect or somewhat spreading, rougbish above, 6'-i8' 
long. Leaves elongated, >i"-iy' wide, ncftrly al- 
ways shorter than the culms; lower bract icale-likeor 
subulate, rarely 1' long; staminate spike z"-4" long, 
sessile, sometimes scarcely overtopping the upper pis- 
tillate one, but usually rather prominent; pistillate 
spikes a-4, mostly close together, a"-3" long, few- 
flowered; perigynia- oblong, pubescent, about i" long 
yi" thick, narrowed at the base, tipped with a subu- 
late miuutely 3-tootbed beak commonly one-half the 
length of the body; scales ovate, green or purplish- 
brown, acute, about as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

n dty soil, Noi 

chusetla and northern New York. 

128. Carex deflixa Homem. 

Northern Sedge. (Fig. 798.) 

r. Club. 1 
:k, Ann. Rep. N, Y, SUte Mua 

Care.e Pcctii Howe; 
Nat. Hist. 47: 166. 

Aspect of smaller forms of the preceding species; 
culms filiform, erect or spreading, I'-ij' long, shorter 
than or exceeding the narrow bright green leaves. 
Bracts subulate or very narrowly linear, ^'-i' long; 
staminate spike sessile, i"-'^" long, sometimes ob- 
lique, inconspicuous; pistillate spikea t-4, 3"^4" 
long, oblong, few-flowered, the upper sessile, the 
loner slender- stalked and somewhat separated, com- 
monly also I or 2 nearly basal filiform-stalked spikes 
from the lowest sheaths; perigynia oblong, much 
narrowed at the base, pubescent, i" or less long, 
tipped with a flat i-toothed beak about one-fourth 
the length of the body; scales ovate or ovate-lanceo- 
late, green, acute or cuspidate; stigmas 3 or 3. 
Ontario. Maine, Vermont and Pennsylvania, mostly at hiKh 
Howe (C albicans Willd., an older name) may be distinct 
Carex delUxs Parwillil Britton. 
/ar. media Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club, i: 43. 1889. Not C. media R. Br. 1823. 
ted; culms stiff, erect, 6'-i5' tall, commonly much longer than the leaves; stam- 


inatt spike conspicuous, j"-s" long;, sessile or short-stalked; pistillate spikes t or j. scattered, the 
lower slender-stalked and subtended by a foliaceoua bract which often overtops the culm; peri- 
Syniai"-iM" long. Northern Michigan to British Colunibia and Oregon, south in the Rocky 
Mountains (o Colorado. Perhaps a distinct species. 

I2g. Carex pradcox Ja<;q. Vernal Sedge, (Fig. 799.) 
Ca re.v praecox Jacq. Fl. Austr, 5: 23, fil. 446, 1778. 

Dark green, stoloniferoua, culms very slender, erect 
or reclining, smooth, 3'-i3' long. Leaves ii"-l'/i" 
wide, almost always much shorter than the culm; 
lower bract subulate, %'-l' long; staminate spike 
sessile or very ahort-stalked, usually large aad con- 
spicuous; pistillate spikes i'-3, all close together at 
the summit, oblong, several -flowered, 3"-6" long, 
about 3ji" in diameter, sessile or the lower sliort- 
stalked, sometimes pistillate at the summit; peri- 
gynia oblong or obovoid, sharply 3-angIed, pubescent, 
brown, about i" long; tipped with a very minute 
beak; scales ovate, purple-brown with a lighter mid- 
vein, acute, cuspidate or the lower rough-awned, 
about equalling the perigyvia; stigmaa 3. 

130. Carex nlgro-margindta Schwein. 
Black-edged Sedge. (Fig. 800.) 

C.Hfg'TO-iwari'ijia/aSchwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. r;68. 1824. 
Bright green, strongly stolon iferous, culms fili- 
form, erect or spreading, 3'-8' long. Leaves i"-i" 
wide, very much longer than the culms, rather stiff, 
often II' or more loijg; bracts very short and snbu- 
: or wanting; staminate spike sessile, incouspicn- 
i"_j" long, purple; pistillate spikes 1-3, few- 
I ilowered, sessile at the base of the atamioate, about 
I 3" long; perigynia oblong, narrowed at the base into 
lort stipe, pubescent or nearly glabrous, l"-iji" 
long, about }i" thick, i-ribbed on each side, tipped 
] with a cylindric-subulate s-toothed beak one-third to 
e halfas long the body; scales ovate, acute or cuspi- 
I date, green with purple margins or variegated, rather 
longer than the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

Drj- soil. New York to North Carolina. May-July. 
131. Carex umbelliLta Schk. Umbel like Sedge (Fig 801 1 

^are.r umbtllala Schk. Siedgr. Nachtr. 75./ 171. 1806. 
Carex umbtllala var. I'icina Dewey, Am. Joum. Sci. 11; 

J17. pi. D. /. 13. 1816. 

Rather light green, closely tufted and matted, sto- 
loniferous, culms filiform, very nearly smooth, i'-6' 
long, erect or reclining. Leaves %"-\yi" wide, usu- 
ally much exceeding the culm, sometimes 1° long, 
the old sheaths fibrillose; staminate spike solitary, 
terminal, )i' or less long, commonly conspicuous; 
pistillate spikes 1-3, all filiform-stalked from the basal, 
sheaths or I or 3 of them sessile or very nearly so at 
the base of the staminate, ovoid-oblong, several-flow- 
ered, j"-4" long; perigynia oval, finely pubescent, 
pole, obtusely 3-angled, the body rather less than i" 
long, tipped with a subulate a-toothed beak of nearly 
its length; scales ovate-lanceolate, acuminate or short- 
anned, about as long^aa the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

Dry soil. Nova Scotia to the Northwest Territory, New 
Jersey, the Indian Territory and OreRon, May-July. 

132. Carex pubiscens Muhl. Pubescent Sedge. (Fig. 802.) 

Cam pubfsrtHs Muhl,; Wind. Sp. PI. 4: "f". "805. 

Pubescent all over, bright grcFii, stoloniferous, 
culms slender, usaally reclmiag, i°-i° long. 
Leaves flat, sofl, elongated, shorter or longer than 
culm, 2"~T,}4" wide; loner bracts \'-y long, oc- 
casionally overtopping the spilces; staminate spike 
sessile or nearly so, sometimes with pistillate 
flowers at its base; pistillate spilces 3-4. oblong- 
cyliodric, rather loosely screral-many- flowered, 
erect, 4"-io" long, 3"-2yi" thick, the upper ses- 
sile, the lower somewhat separated and short- 
stallced; perigynia sharply 3-augled, obovoid, nar- 
rowed to a stipc-lilfc base, densely pubescent, and, 
iucludiug the subulate straight minutely a-tootbed 
beak, abont 3" long; scales o\-ate, scarious-tnar- 
gined, rough-awned or cuspidate, abont as loDg as 
the perigynia; stigmas 3. 

In woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to North Dakota 
New Jersey, Kentucky and Missouri. Jnne-Aog. 

133. Carex FrJtseri Aiidr. Fraser's Sedge. (Fig. 803.) 

Carex Fraieri Ka&s. Bot. Rep. pi. 6jg. iSi;. 
Carex Frauriana Sims, Bot. Mag. pi. IJ91. 1811. 

Glabrous, culms sniootli, slender, reclining, 10'- 
18' long. Baaal leaves 8'-i5' long, i'-^' wide, per- 
fectly flat, firm, spreading, finely many-nerved with 
no midvein, obtuse or subacute at the apex, their 
margins usually finely crumpled in drying; culm 
leaves reduced to clasping basal sheaths; spike soli- 
tary, bractless, terminal, androgynous, Ji'-i' long, 
staminate above, pistillate below, the pistillate por- 
tion dense, about ^' in diamete