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Full text of "The animal kingdom, arranged according to its organization, serving as a foundation for the natural history of animals : and an introduction to comparative anatomy"



CUV 



T 



DOM, 



A 






THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM, 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO ITS ORGANIZATION, 

SERVING Aft A 

FOUNDATION FOR THE 

NATURAL HISTORY OF ANIMALS, 

AND AN 

INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

BY 

BARON CUVIER, 

Great Officer of the Legion of Honour, Counsellor of State, and Member of the Royal Council of 

Public Instruction; One of the Forty of the French Academy; Perpetual Secretary to 

the Academy of Sciences ; Member of the Academies and Royal Societies 

of London, Berlin, Petersburg!!, Stockholm, Turin, Edinburgh, 

Copenhagen, Gottingen, Bavaria, Modena, the Netherlands, 

and Calcutta ; and of the Linnaean Society of London. 

WITH FIGURES DESIGNED AFTER NATURE : 

THE 



BY 

M. LATREILLE, 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, Member of the Institute (Royal Academy of Sciences), and of 
the greater portion of other learned Societies in Europe and America. 

Eranrflatrtr from tfje latent jFrenrt) UPtiitian. 

WITH 

ADDITIONAL NOTES, 

AND 

ILLUSTRATED BY NEARLY 500 ADDITIONAL PLATES. 

IN FOUR VOLUMES. 
VOL. III. 



LONDON. 
G. HENDERSON, 2, OLD BAILEY, LUDGATE-HILL, 

AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS. 
1834. 




LONDON 

I'RINTKD BY J. HENDERSON, 
It, \VATKR-I.AXR, FLEET STRKKT. 



PREFACE*. 



OVERWHELMED with scientific labours, and yielding, perhaps 
too easily, to the impulse of friendship and to my desire to serve him, 
M. Cuvier has confided to me that portion of this work which treats 
of Insects. 

These animals were the objects of his earliest zoological studies, 
and the cause of his connexion with one of the most celebrated pupils 
of Linnaeus, Fabricius, who in his writings gives him frequent assur- 
ance of his high esteem. It was even by various interesting obser- 
vations on several of these animals Journal d'Hist. Nat. that 
M. Cuvier commenced his career in natural history. Entomology, 
in common with all the other branches of Zoology, has derived the 
greatest advantage from his anatomical researches, and the happy 
changes he has effected in the basis of our classification. The internal 
organization of Insects is now better known, and this study is no longer 
neglected as was previously the case. He has placed us on the way 
to the Natural System f , and greatly will the public regret that his 

* This preface is the same which stood at the commencement of the third volume 
of the first edition of this work. Having there confined myself to an exposition of 
the general principles, upon which my arrangement of the animals composing the 
Linnaean class of Insects was effected, and having in the present edition made no 
change in that respect, the same observations are still applicable. Considered, 
however, with regard to the details, or to the secondary and tertiary divisions, that 
is to say, Orders, Families, Genera and Subgenera, this edition will be found to pre- 
sent a remarkable difference. It was impossible to place it on a level with the 
actual state of the science, without modifying several parts of my former system, 
and without considerable additions, which, such has been the progress of Ento- 
mology, are so numerous, that even by filling two volumes instead of one, I have 
been barely enabled to give a very summary view of the multitude of generic divisions 
effectuated within the last ten years, and which are frequently founded on the most 
minute characters. This branch of Zoology has gained much from other and more 
positive sources, those of Anatomy. These observations I was the more impera- 
tively bound to notice, as they formed part of the plan of the illustrious author of 
the " Rgne Animal," and as they serve to confirm the stability of the divisions I 
have established. By a perusal of the general remarks which precede them, the 
reader will be better able to appreciate the motives which have determined these 
changes, and to feel the importance of the addenda that enrich the entomological 
portion of this edition. A simple comparison between it and that of the former 
will show, at a glance, that it has been entirely remoulded, or that it is a new work 
which we now present to the world, rather than a new edition. 

f Tableau Element, de 1'Hist. Nat. des Animaux, and the Lee. d'Anat. Compar. 

a2 



IV PREFACE. 

numerous occupations did not allow him to superintend this portion 
of his treatise on animals. 

Perhaps the desire of associating my name with his in a work like 
this, which, by the multitude of researches on which it rests, and by 
their application, has become a precious literary monument of the 
age, has deceived me, and thrown me into an enterprize beyond my 
powers to accomplish. The responsibility is great, and I have im- 
posed upon myself a task, in which the boldness of the plan is only 
equalled by the difficulty of its execution. To unite within a very 
limited space the most interesting facts in the history of Insects, to 
arrange them with precision and clearness in a natural series, to pour- 
tray with a bold pencil the physiognomy of these animals, trace their 
distinguishing characters with truth and brevity, in a way propor- 
tioned to the successive progress of the science and that of the pupil, 
to indicate useful or noxious species, and those whose mode of life 
interests our curiosity, to point out the best sources from which the 
knowledge of others may be obtained, to restore to Entomology the 
amiable simplicity which it possessed in the days of Linnaeus, Geoffroy, 
and of the early writings of Fabricius, but still to present it as it now 
is, or with all the wealth of observation it has since acquired, yet 
without overloading it; in a word, to conform to the model before 
me, the work of M. Cuvier, is the end I have striven to attain. 

This savant, in his " Tableau Elementaire de 1'Histoire Naturelle 
des Animaux," did not restrict the extent given by Linnaeus to his 
class of Insects; he however made some necessary ameliorations, 
which have since served as the foundation of other systems. He dis- 
tinguishes Insects, in the first place, from other invertebrate animals, 
by much more rigorous characters than those previously employed 
viz., a knotted medullary spinal marrow, and articulated limbs. 
Linnaeus terminates his class of Insects with those which are apterous, 
although most of them, such as the Crustacea and the Araneides, 
with respect to their organization, are the most perfect of their class, 
or are the most closely approximated to the Mollusca. His method, 
in this respect, is then exactly the inverse of the natural system, and, 
by transporting the Crustacea to the head of the class, and by placing 
almost all the Aptera of Linnaeus directly after them, Cuvier rectified 
the method in a point where the series was in direct opposition to the 
scale formed by Nature. 

In his Lemons d'Anatomie Comparee, the class of Insects, from 
which he now separates the Crustacea, is divided into nine orders, 
founded on the nature and functions of the organs of mariducation, 
the presence or absence of wings, their number, consistence, and the 



PREFACE. V 

manner in which they are reticulated. It is in fact a union of the 
system of Fabricius with that of Linnaeus perfected. 

The divisions made by our savant in his first order, that of the 
Gnathaptera, are nearly similar to those I had established in a Memoir 
presented to the Societe Philomatique, April, 1795, and in my Precis 
des Caracteres Generiques des Insectes*. 

M. de Lamarck, whose name is so dear to the friends of natural 
science, has ably profited by these various labours. His systematic 
arrangement of the Linnaean Aptera appears to us to be that which 
approaches nearest to the natural order, and, with some modifications 
of which we are about to speak, is the one we have followed. 

I divide the Insects of Linnaeus, with him, into three classes : the 
Crustacea^ Arachnides and Insecta; but in the essential characters 
which I assign to them, I abstract all the changes experienced by 
these animals, prior to their adult state. This consideration, although 
natural, and previously employed by De Geer in his arrangement of 
the Aptera, is not classical, inasmuch as it supposes the observation 
of the animal in its different ages; it is, besides, liable to many 
exceptions f. 

The situation and form of the branchiae, the manner in which the 
head is united to the thorax, and the organs of manducation, have 
furnished me the means of establishing seven orders in the class of 
the Crustacea, all of which appear to me to be natural. I- terminate 
it, with M. de Lamarck, by the Branchiopoda, which are a sort of 
Crustacea Arachnides. 

In the following class, that of the Arachnides, I only include the 
species which in the system of Lamarck compose the order of his 
Arachnides palpistes, or those which have no antennae. Beyond 
this, the organization of these animals, external as well as internal, 
furnishes us with a simple and rigorous rule that is susceptible of a 
general application. 



* I there divided the Aptera of Linnaeus into seven orders: 1. The SUCTORIA. 
2. The THYSANOURA. 3. The PA KASHA. 4. The ACEPHALA (Arachnides pal- 
piilcs, Lam.) 5. The ENTOMOSTRACA. 6. The CRUSTACEA. 7. The MYRIA- 
PODA. 

f These considerations, however, have not been overlooked, and I have used them 
advantageously in grouping families, and arranging them in a natural order, as may 
be seen by a reference to the historical sketches which precede the exposition of 
those families. I have even been employed on a work respecting the metamorphosis 
nf Insects in general, which has not yet been published (see article "Insectes," Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Ed. 2d), but which I have long been maturing, aud which I have 
communicated to my friends : I have made use of it in the course of my general 
remarks. 



VI PREFACE. 

Their organs of respiration are always internal, receiving air 
through concentrated stigmata, sometimes possessing functions ana- 
logous to those of lungs, and consisting at others of radiated tracheae, 
or such as ramify from their base ; the antennae are wanting, and 
they are usually furnished with eight feet. I divide this class into 
two orders : the Pulmonariee and the Trachearice. 

Two parallel tracheae, extending longitudinally through the body, 
furnished at intervals with centres of branches corresponding to the 
stigmata, and two antennae, characterize the class of Insects. Its 
primary divisions are founded on the three following considerations : 

1. Apterous Insects which either undergo no metamorphoses, or 
but imperfect ones; the three first orders. 

2. Apterous Insects which experience complete transformations; 
the fourth. 

3. Insects having wings which they acquire by metamorphoses, 
either complete or incomplete; the last eight. 

I begin with the Arachnides antennistes of M. de Lamarck, which 
are comprised in this first division, and which form out three first 
orders. The second is composed of the fourth order, and contains 
but a single genus, that of Pulex : it would appear, in some respects, 
to be allied to the Diptera by means of the Hippoboscce; other cha- 
racters, however, and the nature of its metamorphoses, remove this 
genus from that of the Hippobosca?. It is very difficult in some cases 
to distinguish these natural filiations, and when we are fortunate 
enough to discover them, we are frequently compelled to sacrifice 
them to the perspicuity and facility of the system. 

To the known order of winged Insects, I have added that of the 
Stresiptera of Kirby, but under a new denomination viz., that of 
R/u'piptera, as the former appears to me to be founded on a false 
idea. Perhaps we should even suppress this order, according to the 
opinion of Lamarck, and unite it with that of the Diptera. 

For reasons elsewhere developed*, and which I could easily 
strengthen by additional proof, I attach more consequence to cha- 
racters drawn from the aerial locomotive organs of Insects, and to 
the general composition of their body, than to the modifications of 
the parts of the mouth, at least when their structure is essentially 
referable to the same type. Thus 1 do not commence by dividing 
these animals into Grinders and Suckers, but into those which have 
wings and wing-cases, and such as have four or two wings of the 

* Consid. G<?nr. sur 1'ordre des Crust., des Arach., et des Insectes, p. 46. 



PREFACE. Vli 

same consistence. The form and uses of the organs of manducation 
are viewed in a secondary light. My series of Orders relative to the 
winged Insects is, consequently, nearly similar to that of Linnaeus. 

Fabricius, Cuvier, Lamarck, Clairviile and Dumeril, considering 
the difference of the functions of the parts of the mouth of primary 
consequence, have arranged those divisions otherwise. 

In accordance with the plan of M. Cuvier, I have reduced the num- 
ber of families which I established in my previous works, and have 
converted into subgenera the numerous divisions that have been 
made of the genera of Linnaeus, notwithstanding their characters 
may otherwise be very distinct. 

Such also was the intention of Gmelin in his edition of the Systema 
Natures. This method is simple, historical and convenient, as it 
enables the student to proportion his instruction to his age, his capa- 
city, or to the end he has in view. 

All my groups are founded on a comparative examination of all 
the parts of the animals I wish to describe, and on the observation of 
their habits. Most Naturalists stray from the natural system by 
being too exclusive in their considerations. To the facts collected 
by Reaumur, Roesel, De Geer, Bonnet, the Hubers, &c., respecting 
the instinct of Insects, I have added several ascertained by myself, 
some of which were hitherto unknown. M. Cuvier has added to 
them an extract of his anatomical observations* ; he has even devoted 
himself to fresh researches, among which I will mention those whose 
object was the organization of the Limuli, a very singular genus of 
the Crustacea. 

Being necessarily restricted in the description of species, I have 
always selected for that purpose the most interesting and common 
ones, and particularly those mentioned by M. Cuvier in his Tableau 
Elementaire de 1'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux. 

LATREILLE. 



* Those added to the present edition are from Messrs. Lon Dufour, Marcel de 
Serres, Straus, Audouin and Milne Edwards. 



INDEX. 

SYSTEMATICALLY ARRANGED. 



SECOND GREAT DIVISION OF THE ANIMAL KINDGOM. 
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA. 

General Characters of the Division, 1 . 
Division of Mollusca into Classes, 4. 



CLASSES. 



I. CEPHALOPODA. 
II. PTEROPODA. 
III. GASTEROPODA. 



IV. ACEPHALA. 
V. BRACHIOPODA. 

VI. ClRRHOPODA. 



ORDERS, GENERA, AND OTHER DIVISIONS. 

CLASS I. CEPHALOPODA. 

Sepia, 7 

Octopus, 7 

Polypus of Aristotle, 9 
Eledon of Aristotle, 10 
Argonauta, 10 . 
Bellerophon, 11 
Loligo, 11 

Loligopsis, 12 
Loligo proper, 12 
Onychotheuthis, 1 1 
Sepiola, 12 
Choudrosepia, 12 
Sepia proper, 12 
Nautilus, 13 

Spirula, 13 
Nautilus proper, 14 
Lituus, 14 
Belemnites, 15 
Actinocamax, 15 
VOL. HI. b 



INDEX. 

Ammonites, 16 

Ammonites proper, 16 
Planites, 16 
Ceratites, 16 
Orbulites, 16 
Scaphites, 16 
Baculites, 16 
Hamites, 16 
Turrilites, 16 
Camerines, 17 

Siderolithes, 17 

Helicostega, 18 

Helicostega nautiloidea, 18 
Helicostega ammonoida, 18 
Helicostega turbinoida, 18 

Stycostega, 18 

Enallostega, 19 

Agathistega, 19 

Entomostega, 19 

CLASS II. PTEROPODA. 

Clio, 20 
Cymbulia, 20 
Pneumodermon, 20 
Limacina, 20 
Hyalea, 20 
Cleodora, 21 

Cleodora proper, 22 

Creseis, 22 

Cuvieria, 22 

Psyche, 22 

Eurybia, 22 
Pyrgo, 22 

CLASS III. GASTEROPODA. 
ORDEH I. PULMONEA, 27 

Pulmonea Ter restrict. 
Limax, 29 

Li max proper, 29 
Anon, 31 
Lima, 32 
Vaginulus, 32 
Testacella, 33 
Parmacella, 33 
Helix, 33 

Helix proper, 33 
Vitrina, 34 
Bulimus, 34 

Bulimus proper, 34 



INDEX. 

ORDER I. PULMONIA (continued). 

Pupa, 35 
Chondrus, 35 
Succinea, 35 

Clausilia, 36 

Achatina, 36 

Pulmonea Aquatica. 

Onchidium, 37 
Planorbis, 37 
Limnaeus, 38 
Physa, 38 
Scarabaeus, 38 
Auricula, 39 
Conovulus, 39 

ORDER II. NUDIBRANCHIATA, 39 

Doris, 40 
Onchidora, 40 
Plocamoceros, 40 
Polycera, 40 
Tritonia, 41 
Thethys, 41 
Scyllaea, 41 
Glaucus, 42 
Laniogerus, 42 
Eolidia, 42 
Cavolina, 42 
Flabellina, 43 
Tergipes, 43 
Busiris, 43 
Placobranchus, 43 

ORDER III. INFEROBRANCHIATA, 43 

Phyllidia, 44 
Diphyllidia, 44 

ORDER IV. -TECTIBRANCHIATA, 44 

Pleurobranchus, 44 
Pleurobranchsea, 45 
Aplysia, 45 
Dolabella, 46 
Notarchus, 46 
Bursatella, 47 
Akera, 47 

Bullxa, 47 

Bulk, 48 
Alccra proper, 48 
Gastroptcron, 48 
Gastroplax, 49 



INDEX. 



ORDBR V, HETEROPODA, 49 

Petrotrachea, 50 

Carinaria, 50 
Atlanta, 51 
Firola, 51 
Timorienna, 51 
Monophora, 51 

Phylliroe, 52 

ORDER VI. PECTINIBRANCHIATA, 52 

Fam. 1. TROCHOIDA, 53 
Trochus, 53 

Tectarium, 53 
Calcar, 54 
Rotella, 54 
Cantharis, 54 
Infundibulum, 54 
Telescopium, 54 
Trochus, 54 
Solarium, 55 
Evomphalus, 55 
Turbo, 55 

Turbo proper, 55 
Delphinula, 55 
Pleurotoma, 56 
Turritella, 56 
Scalaria, 56 
Cyclostoma, 57 
Valvata, 57 
Paludina, 58 
Littorina, 58 
Monodon, 58 
Phasianella, 59 
Ampullaria, 59 

Lanista, 59 
Helicina, 59 
Ampullina, 59 
Olygira, 59 
Melania, 60 

Rissoa, 60 
Melanopsis, 60 
Pirena, 60 
Actseon, 61 
Pyramidella, 61 
Janthina, 61 
Nerita, 61 

Natica, 62 
Nerida proper, 62 
Velata, 62 
Neritina, 62 
Clithon, 62 



INDJCX. xiii 

ORDER VI. PECTINIBRANCHIATA-rcon/tnu^J. 
Fam. 2. CAPULOIDA, 62 

Capsulas, 63 
Hipponyx, 63 
Crepidula, 63 
Pileolus, 63 
Septaria, 63 
Calyptrae, 64 
Siphonaria, 64 
Sigaretus, 64 
Coriocella, 65 
Cryptostoma, 65 

Fam. 3. BUCCINOIDA, 65 

Conus, 65 
Cypraea, 66 
Ovula, 66 

Ooula proper, 67 
Volva, 67 
Terebellum, 67 
Voluta, 67 

Oliva, 67 
Volvaria, 67 
Voluta proper, 68 

Cymbium, 68 
Voluta, 68 
Marginelia, 68 
Colombella, 68 
Mitra, 69 
Cancellaria, 69 
Buccinum, 69 

Buccinum proper, 69 
Nassa, 70 
Eburna, 70 
Aucillaria, 70 
Dolium, 70 

Dolium proper, 70 
Perdix, 70 
Harpa, 70 
Perpura, 71 

Monoceros, 71 
Sistra, 71 
Ricinula, 71 
Concholepas, 71 
Casis, 71 
Morio, 72 
Tc-rabra, 72 
Cerithium, 72 

Potaraida, 72 
Murex, 73 



xir INDEX. 

ORDER VI. PECTINIBRANCHIATA (continued). 

Murex, 73 

Murex proper, 73 
Brontis, 73 
Typhis, 73 
Chicoracea, 73 
Aquilla, 73 
Lotorium, 73 
Tritonium, 74 
Trophona, 74 
Ranella, 74 

Apolles, 74 
Fusus, 74 

Fusus proper, 74 
Lathira, 74 
Pleurotoma, 74 
Pyrula, 75 

Fulgur, 75 
Fasciolaria, 75 
Turbinella, 75 
Strombus, 75 

Strombus, 75 
Pterocera, 76 
Rostellaria, 76 
Hippocrenes, 76 

ORDER VII. TUBULIBRANCHIAT A, 76 

Vermetus, 76 
Magilus, 77 
Siliquaria, 77 

ORDER VIII. SCUTIBRANCHIATA, 78 

Halyotis, 78 

Halyotis proper, 78 
Pastollse, 78 
Stromatia, 79 

Fissurella, 79 

Emarginula, 79 

ParmophoruB, 79 

ORDER IX. CYCLOBRANCHIATA, 80 

Patella, 80 
Chiton, 80 

CLASS IV. ACEPHALA. 
ORDER I. ACEPHALA TESTACEA,82 
Fam. 1. OSTRACEA, 83 

Ostracita, 83 



INDEX. 

ORDER I. ACEPHALA TESTACEA (continued). 

Rucjista, 83 

Radiolites, 83 

Sphaerulites, 84 

Calccola, 84 

Hippurites, 84 

Batolithes, 84 
Ostrca, 84 

Ostrea proper, 84 

Peloris, 84 

Gryphaea, 85 

Pectens, 85 

Lima, 86 

Pedum, 86 
Hinnita, 86 
Plagiostoma, 87 
Pachytes, 87 
Dianchora, 87 
Podopsis, 87 
Anomia, 87 

Echion, 87 
Placuna, 88 
Spondylus, 88 

Plicatula, 88 
Malleus,88 
Vulsella, 89 
Perna, 89 

Crenatula, 89 

Gervilia, 89 

Jnoceramus, 90 

Castillus, 90 

Pulvinites, 90 
Etheria, 90 
Avicula, 90 

Pintadina?, 90 

Margarita?, 90 
Pinna, 91 

Chimaera, 91 
Area, 91 

Area proper, 92 

Cucullaea, 92 

Pectunculus, 92 

Aximea, 92 

Nucula, 92 
Trigonia, 93 

Fam. 2. MYTILACEA, 93 
Mytilus, 93 

Mytilus proper, 93 

Modiolus, 94 

Lithodomus, 94 



xvi INDEX. 

ORDER J.-ACEPHALA TESTACEA-f conhntitrf), 

Anodontea, 94 

Iridina, 95 

Dipsada, 95 
Ujiio, 95 

Hyria, 95 

Castalia, 95 
Cardita, 96 
Cypricardia, 96 
Coralliophagia, 96 
Venericardia, 96 
Paphia, 96 

Fam. 3. CHAMACEA, 97 

Chama, 97 
Tridacna, 97 

Tridacna proper, 97 

Hippopus, 98 

Chama, 98 

Diceras, 98 

Isocardia, 98 

p am , 4. CARDIACEA, 99 

Cardium, 99 

Hemicardium, 99 

Donax, 99 

Cyclas, 100 

Cyrena, 100 
Cyprina, 100 
Galathsea, 101 

Corbis, 101 

Tellina, 101 

Loripes, 102 

Lucina, 102 

Ungulinsea, 102 

Venus, 102 

Astartse, 103 
Crassinsea, 1 03 
Cytherae, 103 
Capsa, 104 
Petricola, 104 

Corbula, 104 

Mactra, 104 

Mactra proper, 104' 
Lavignons, 105 

Fam. 5, -INCLUSA, 105 
Mya, 105 

Lutraria, 105 
Mya proper, 106 
Anatina, 106 
Solemya, 106 



INDKX. XV11 



O*o* L ACEPHALA TESTACEA ( continued). 
Cyrtodaria, 106 
Panopea, 10? 
Pandora, 107 

Byssomia, 107 

Hiatella, 107 

Sol.-n, 108 

Solen proper, 108 
Sanguinolaria, 108 
Psammobia, 108 
Psammothea, 108 

Pholas, 108 

Teredo, 109 

Fistulana, 109 

Gastrochaena, 1 10 

Teredina, 110 

Clavagella, 1 10 

Aspcrgillum, 110 

ORBER II. ACEPHALA NUDA, 111 
Fam. 1. SEGREGATA, 111 
Salpa, 1 1 1 

Thaliae, 112 
Salpa progper, 113 
Ascidia, 113 

Theyton of Aristotle, 113 

I'atn. 2. AGGREGATA, 114 
Botryllus, 114 
Pyrosoma, 115 
Polyclmum, 115 

Escharae, 116 

CLASS V.~ BRANCHIOPODA, 



116 

Terebratula, 117 

Spirifer, 117 

Thecidea, 117 
Orbicula, 118 

Discinw, 118 

Crania, 118 

CLASS VI. CIRRHOPODA, 

Lepas, 119 
Anatifa, 119 

PolHcipes, 120 

Cineras, 120 

Otion, 120 

Tetralasmis, 120 
Balanus, 120 



XVlll INDEX. 

ORDER II. ACEPHALA NUDA (continued). 
Balanus proper, 120 
Acastae, 121 
Coniae, 121 
Asemae, 121 
Pyrgomse, 121 
Octhosiae, 121 
Creusiue, 121 
Coronulse, 121 
Tubicinellse, 121 
Daidema, 122 

THIRD GREAT DIVISION OF THE ANIMAL KINDGOM. 
ANIMALIA ARTICULATA. 

Distribution of the Articulata into four Classes, 124. 

CLASSES. 

I. ANNELIDES. I III. ARACHNIDES. 

II. CRUSTACEA. | IV. INSECTA. 

CLASS I. ANNELIDES. 
Division of the Annelides into three Orders, 127. 
ORDER I. TUBICOLJE, 128 

Serpula, 128 

Spirorbis, 129 
Sabella, 129 
Terebella, 130 

Phyzeliae, 131 

Idaliae, 131 
Amphitrite, 131 
Syphostoma, 132 
Dentalium, 132 

ORDER II. DORSIBRANCHIATA, 132 

Arenicola, 133 
Amphinome, 133 

Chloeia, 134 

Pleione, 134 

Euphrosine, 134 

Hipponea, 134 
Eunice, 134 

Marphisw, 135 

Lysidice, 135 

Agula, 135 
Nereis, 135 

Nereiphylia, 136 



INDEX. XIX 



ORDER II. DORSlBRANCHIATA (continued). 

Phyllodoce, 136 
Alciopa, 136 
Spio, 136 

Syllis, 136 

Glycera, 137 

Nephthys, 137 
Lumbrinera, 137 

Aricia, 137 

Hesiono, 137 
Ophelina, 138 
Cirrhatulas, 138 
Palmyra, 138 
Aphrodita, 138 

Halithca, 139 

Eumolpc, 139 

Polynoe, 139 

Sigaliones, 139 

Acoetes, 139 
Chaetopterus, 140 

ORDER III. ARBRANCHIAT^E, 140 
Fam. 1. ABRANCHIATE SETIGERE, 141 

Lumbricus, 141 

Lumbricus proper, 141 
Enteriones, 141 
Hypogaeones, 142 
Trophoniae, 142 

Nais, 142 

Clymena, 142 

Fam. 2. ABRANCHIATE ASETIGERJE, 143 

Hirudo, 143 

Sanguisuga, 143 
Haemopsis, 144 
Bdella, 144 
Nephelis, 144 
Trochetia, 144 
Aulastoma, 144 
Branchiobdella, 145 
1 1 ; 'medians, 145 
Albiona, 145 
Branchellion, 145 
Clespine, 146 
Phylline, 146 
Malacobdella, 146 

Gordius, 146 



xr 

ARTICULATA WITH ARTICULATED FEET. 
CLASS II. CRUSTACEA. 

Dirision of Crustacea into Sections and Orders, 153. 

SECTIONS. ORDERS. 

fDecapoda. 
I Stomapoda. 

I. MALACOSTRACA. <> Lc^modipoda. 

I Amphipoda. 
LIsopoda. 

II. ENTOMOSTRACA. { 

SECTION I. MALACOSTRACA. 

a. Eyes placed on a moveable and articulated Pedicle. 
ORDER I. DECAPODA, 156 
Fom. 1. BRACHYURA, 161 
Cancer, 162 

Pinnipedes, 163 
Matuta, 163 
Polybius, 163 
Orythyia, 164 
Podopthalmus, 164 
Pcrtunus, 164 
Platyonichus T 166 
Arcuata, 166 

Cancer proper, 166 , 
Cforodius, 167 
Carpilius, 167 
Xcmtho, 167* 
Pirimela, 167 
Atelecyclus, 168 
Thia, 168 
Mursia,168 
Hepatus, 16$ 
Quadrilatera, 169 
Eriphia, 1 69 
Trapezia, 170 
Pilumnus, 170 
Thelphusa, 170 
Gonoplax, 171 
Macropthalmus, 172 
Gelasimus, 172 
Ocypode, 173 
Mictyris, 1?4 
Pinnotheres, 174 
Uca, 175 

* Those genera which we mention accessorily, either because they are but slightly 
or not at all known to us, or because we unite them with others, are printed i* 
italics. 



INDEX. XXI 

ORDR I. DECAPODA (continued). 

Cardisoma, 175 

Gecarcinus, 175 

Plagusia, 176 

Grapsus, 176 
Orbiculata, 177 

Corystes, 177 

Loucosia, 178 

7*a, 178 
Iphis. 178 

Nursia, 178 

Arcanui, 178 

7/ia, 178 

Persephona, 178 

Myra, 178 

Leucosia, 178 

Phylira, 179 

Ebaiia, 179 
Trigona, 179 

Parthenope, 179 

Lambrus, 180 

Mithrax, 180 

Acanthonyx, 180 

Pisa, 181 

Pericera, 181 

(Viaia, 181 

Micippe, 182 

Stenocionops, 182 

Camposcia, 182 

Halimus, 182 

Hyas, 183 

Libinia, 183 

Doclxa, 183 

Egeria, 183 

Leptopus, 184 

Hymenosoma, 184 

Inachus, 184 

Achee.us, 185 

Stenorhynchus, 185 

Leptopodia, 185 

Pactolus, 185 

Lithodcs, 185 
Cryptopoda, 186 

Calappa, 186 

^Ethra, 187 
Notopoda, 187 

Homola, 187 

Dorippe, 187 

Dromia, 188 

Dynomene, 188 

Ranina, 189 



XXI) 



1NOKX. 



ORDER I. DECAPODA (continued). 
Fam. 2. MACROURA, 189 
Astacus, 190 
Anomala, 190 

Albunea, 191 
Hippa, 191 
Remipes, 192 
Birgus, 192 
Pagurus, 193 
Ccsnobita, 194 
Payurns, 194 
Prophylax, 194 
Locustae, 194 

Scyllarus, 195 
Thenus, 195 
Ibacus, 195 
Palinurus, 196 
Astacini, 196 

Galathea, 197 
Grimotea, 19? 
Munida, 198 
JEglea, 198 
Janira, 198 
Porcellana, 198 
Monolepis, 198 
Megalopus, 199 
Gebia, 199 
Thalassina, 199 
Callianassa, 200 
Axius, 200 
Eryon, 201 
Astacus proper, 20 1 
Nephrops, 201 
Carides, 202 

Peneeus, 203 
Stenopus, 204 
Atya, 204 
Crangon, 204 
Processa, 205 
Hymenocera, 205 
Gnathophyllum, 206 
Pontonia, 206 
Alpheus,206 
Hyppolite, 206 
Autonomera, 206 
Pandalus, 206 
Palsemon, 207 
Sysmata, 208 
Atlianas, 208 
Pasiphaea, 208 
Mysis, 208 



INDEX. xxiii 

ORDER I. DECAPODA ( continued). 
Cryptopus, 209 
Mulcion, 209 

ORDER II. STOMAPODA, 209 
Faro. 1. UNIPRLTATA, 212 
Squilla,212 

Squilla proper, 213 

Gonodactylus, 213 

Coronis, 214 

Krichthus, 214 

Alima, 214 
Faro. 2. BIPKLTATA, 214 

Phyllosoma, 215 
b. Eyes sessile and immoveable. 
ORDIR III. AMPHIPODA, 217 
Gammarus, 217 

Phronima, 218 

Hyperia, 218 

Phrosine, 218 

Dactylocera, 219 

lone, 219 

Orchestia, 220 

Taliprus, 220 

Atylus, 2*20 

Gammarus proper, 220 

Melita, 221 

Msera, 221 

Amphithoe, 221 

Pherusa, 221 

Dexamine, 221 

Lencothoe, 221 

Cerapus, 222 

Podocerus, 222 

Jassa, 222 

Corophium, 222 

Pterygocera, 223 

Apseudes, 223 

Typhis, 223 

Anceus, 224 

Praniza, 224 

Ergine, 224 

ORDER IV. LJEMODIPODA, 224 
Cyamiis, 225 

Leptomera, 225 
Naupredia, 226 
Caprella, 226 
Cyamus proper, 226 



XXIV 



INDEX. 



ORDER V. ISOPODA, 226 

Oniscus, 228 

Bopyrus, 228 
Scrolls, 229 
Cymothoa, 229 
Ichthyophilus, 229 

Nerocila, 229 
Livoneca, 229 

Canolira, 229 

JEga, 230 

Rocinela, 230 

Conilira, 230 

Synodus, 230 

Nelocira, 230 

Eurydice, 230 

Limnoria, 231 
Sphseromides, 231 

Zuzara, 231 

Sphseroma, 232 

Nzesa, 232 

Campecopea, 232 

Cilicsea, 232 

Cymodocea, 232 

Dynamene, 232 

Anthura, 232 
Idoteides, 233 

Idotea, 233 

Stenosoma, 233 

Arcturus, 233 
Asellota, 233 

Asellus, 233 

Oniscoda, 234 

Jsera, 234 
Oniscides, 234 

Tylos, 234 

Ligia, 235 

Philoscia, 235 

Oniscus proper, 235 

Porcellio, 236 

Armadillo, 236 

SECTION II. ENTOMOSTRACA. 

ORDER I.BRANCHIOPODA, 238 

Monoculus, 239 
Lophyropa, 239 
Zoea, 240 
Nebalia,24I 
Condyl ura, 241 
Cyclops, 242 
Cythere, 245 



1NDBX. 

ORDER I.~BRANCHIOPODAr^n^ntt^/, 
Cypris, - 
Sida, 247 
Latona, 247 
Polyphemus, 243 
Daphnin, 248 
LyiicciN. 
Phyl'lopn 

i/imnadi.-i, 254 
Artemin, 25 
liranchipu.-*, 25."> 
Eulimenc. 257 

Apns, 258 

ORDER II. P/ECILOPODA, 2G1 
Frtm. 1. XYPIIOSURA, 261 
Limulus, 262 
Tachypleus, 264 

Fam. 2. SIPHONOSTOMA, 264 
Tribe l.Caliyides, 264 
Argulus, 265 
Caligus, 268 

Caligus proper, 269 

Pterygopoda, 269 

Pandartts, 269 

Dinemoura, 269 

Anthosoma, 269 
Cecrops, 270 

Tribe 2.--Lcrneiformes, 270 
Dichelestium, 270 
Nicothoo, 271 

TltlLOniTES, 273, j 

Agnostus, 274 
Calyraene, 274 
Asaphus, 274 
Ogygia, 274 
Paradoxides, 274 

CLASS II. ARACHNIDE& 
ORDER I. PULMONARI&J, 277 
Fam. 4. ARANEIDBS, 279 

Mygale, 286 

My gale proper, 286 
Cteniza, 281f 
Atypus, 
Kriodon. 

VOL. III. ->|.H 



XXY1 INDEX. 

ORDER I. PULMONARLE (continued}. 
Dysdera, 29 1 
Filistata, 291 
Aranea, 291 

Tubitelae, 29 J 
Clotho,291 
Drassus, 293 
Segestria, 294 
Clubiona, 295 
Aranea proper, 295 
Argyroneta proper, 295 

Inequitelse, 295 
Scytodes, 29G 
Theridion, 296 
Episinus, 296 
Pholcus, 296 

Orbitelse, 297 
Linyphia, 297 
Uloborus, 298 
Tetragnatha, 298 
Epeira, 298 

Laterigradae, 301 
Micrommata, 301 
Senelops, 302 
Philodromus, 303 
Thomisus, 304 
Storena, 305 

Citigradse, 305 
Oxyopes, 305 
Ctenus, 306 
Dolomedes, 306 
Lycosa, 306 
Myrmecia, 307 

Saltigradse, 308 
Tessarops, 308 
Palpimanus, 309 
Eresus, 309 
Salticus, 309 

Fam. 2. PEDIPALPI, 310 

Tarantula, 310 

Phrynus, 311 

- Thelyphonus, 3 1 1 

Scorpio, 311 

ORDER II. TRACHEARI^E, 313 

Fam. 1. PSEUDO-SCORPIONES, 315 
Galeodes, 315 
Chelifer, 315 

. 2. PYCNOGONIDES, 317 

Pycnogonum, 318 



INDEX. XXV11 



ORDER II. TRACHEARIjEfcon/inu^ . 
Phoxichilus, 318 
Nymphon, 318 
Ammothea, 318 

Fam. 1. HOLETRA, 318 
Tribe \.-Phalangita, 318 

Phalangium, 319 
Gonoleptes, 319 
Siro, 320 
Macrocheles, 320 
Trogulus, 320 

Tribe 2. Acarides, 320 
Acarus, 320 

Trombidium, 321 
Erythraeus, 321 
Gamasus, 321 
Cheyletus, 322 
Oribata, 322 
Uropoda, 322 
Acarus proper, 322 
Bdella, 322 
Smaridia, 323 
Ixodes, 323 
Argas, 324 
Eylais, 325 
Hydrachna, 325 
Limnochares, 325 
Caris, 325 
Leptus, 325 
Aclysia, 325 
Atoma, 326 
Ocypete, 326 

CLASS III INSECTA. 
ORDER I. MYRIOPODA, 345 
Fam. 1. CHILOONATHA, 347 

lulus, 349 

Gloraeris, 349 
lulus broper, 949 
Polydesmus, 350 
Pollyxenus, 350 

Fam. 2. CHILOPODA, 350 

Scolopendra, 35 1 

Scutigera, 352 
Lithobius, 352 
Scolopendra proper, 352 



XXV111 

ORDER II. THYSANOUHA, 3.1 :i 
Font. 1. LEPISMEN/E, 353 
Lepiema, 353 

Machilis, 354 
Lepisma proper, 354 

Fam. 2. PODURELLJE, 355 
Podura, 355 

Podura proper, 355 
Smynthurus r 855 

ORDER III. PARASITA, 356 

Pediculus, 356 

Pediculus proper, 35$ 
Hsematopinus, 357 
Ricinus, 357 
Trichodectes, 358 
Gyropus, 358 
Liotheum, 358 
Philopterus, 35 & 
Goniodes, 358 
Triongulw, 358 

ORDER IV. SUCTORIA, 359 

Pulex, 36Q 

ORDER V.COLEOPTERA, 361 

PENTAMERsL 

Fam. 1. CARNIVORA, 363 
Tribe l. Cicindeletce, 365 
Cicindela, 365 

Manticora, 365 
Megacephala, 366 
Oxyclieila, 366 
Euprosopus, 366 
Cicindela proper, 36(* 
Ctenostoma, 367 
Therates, 368 
Colliuris, 368 
Tricondyla, 369 

Tribe Z.Carabici, 369 
Carabus, 369 

Truncatipennes, 369 
Anthia, 370 
Graphiptenis,37(> 
Aptinus, 370 
Biachinus, JJ71 
Corsyra, 372 
Casnonia, 373 



xxx 

ORDER V. COLEOFrERA (continued). 

Leptotmchelus, 373 

Odacantha, 373 

Zuphiom, 373 

Polistichus, 374 

Helluo, 374 

Drypta, 374 

Trichognatha, 3'.") 

Galerita, 375 

Cordistcs, 375 

Ctcnodactyla, 37 G 

Agra, 37(>' 

Cymindis, 376 

Calleida, 376 

Deme trios, 27 G 

Dromiajs, 377 

Lebia, 377 

Plochiouus, 377 

Orthogonlus, 377 

Coptodera, 377 
Bipartiti, 378 

Enceludus, 378 

Siagona, 378 

Carenum, 379 

Pasiraachua, 380 

Acanthosceli?; 380 

Scarites, 380 

OxygnatJms, 38 1 

Oxystomus, 382 

Camptodontus, 382 

Clivina, 382 

Dischirius, 382 

Mirio, 383 

Ozrena, 383 

Ditomus, 383 

Aristus> 383 

Apotomus, 383 
Qiuulrimani, 384 

Acinopus, 384 

Daptus, 385 

Harpalus, 385 

Ophonus, 385 

Stcnolophus, 386 

Acupalpus, 3S6 
Simpliciiuaui, 386 

Xabrus, 387 

Pogonus. 387 

iagoiioilciu>, 388 

Feroiiia, 388 



, 389 



XXX INDEX. 

ORDER V.COLEOPTERArco/iMcrf>. 
Argutor, 389 
Omaseus, 389 
Platysma, 389 
Pterostichus, 389 
Abax, 389 
Steropus, 389 
Percus, 389 
Molops, 390 
Cophosus, 390 
Cheporus, 390 
Myas, 391 
Trigonomota, 381 
Pseudo-morpha, 391 
Cephalotes, 391 
Stomis, 391 
Catascopus, 391 
Colpodes, 392 
Pericalus, 392 
Mormolyce, 392 
Sphodrus, 392 
Ctenipus, 393 
Calathus, 393 
Taphria, 393 

Patellimani, 393 
Dolichus, 394 
Platynus, 394 
Agonum, 394 
Anchomenus, 395 
Callistus, 395 
Oodes, 395 
Chlaenius, 395 
Epomis, 395 
Dinodes, 395 
Lissauchenus, 395 
Rembus, 396 
Dicselus, 396 
Licinus, 396 
Badister, 396 
Pelecium, 397 
Cynthia, 397 
Panagaeus, 397 
Loricera, 398 
Patrobus, 398 

Grandipalpi, 398 
Pamborus, 399 
Cychrus, 399 
Scaphinotus, 899 
Sphaeroderus, 399 
Tefflus, 400 
Procerus, 400 



INDEX. XXXI 



ORDER V.~ COLEOPTERA (continued; . 
Procrustes, 400 
Carabus proper, 400 
Plecte*. 400 
Cechenus, 400 
Calosoma, 402 
Pogonophorus, 403 
Nebria, 403 
Alprcus, 403 
Oinophron, 403 
Klapl.ru*, 404 
Blethisa, 404 
Pelophilus, 404 
Notiophilus, 405 
Subulipalpi, 405 
Bembidium, 405 
Tachypus, 405 
Lopha, 405 
Notaphus, 406 
Peryphus, 406 
Leja, 406 
Trechus, 406 
Blemus, 406 

Tribe 3. Hydrocanthari, 4Q6 
Dytiscus, 406 

Dytiscus proper, 409 
Colymbetes, 410 
Hygrobia, 410 
Hydroporus, 410 
Noterus, 41 1 
Haliplus, 411 
Gyrinus, 411 

Fam. 2. BRACHELYTRA, 413 
Staphylinus, 413 

Fissilabra. 414 
Oxyporus, 414 
Astrapaeus, 415 
Staphylinus proper, 415 
Xantholinus, 415 
PinophUus, 416 
Lathrobium, 416 

Longipalpi,416 
Paedenis, 416 
Procirrus, 4 1 6 
Stilicus, 416 
Evosthetus, 417 
Stenus,417 

Denticrura, 417 
Oxytelus, 417 
Osorius, 417 



INDEX. 

ORDER V.- COLEOPTERA (continued) . 
Zyrophorus, 418 
Prognatlm, 418 
Coprophilus, 418 

Depressa, 418 
Omalium,418 
Lesteva, 418 
Micropeplus, 418 
Protein us, 41!) 
Alcochara, 419 

Microcephala, 419 
Lomcchusa, 419 
Tachinus, 419 
Tachyporus, 420 

. 3. SERRICORNES, 420 

SECTION I. STERNOXI. 

Tribe 1 . Ruprestides, 421 
Buprestis, 421 

Buprestis proper, 422 
Trachys, 423 
Aphanisticus, 423 
Melasis, 423 

Tribe 2.Elaterides, 424 
Elatcr, 424 

Galba, 425 
Eucncmis, 425 
Adelocera, 425 
Lissomus, 4*26 
Chelonarium, 426 
Throscus, 42 G 
Cerophytum, 427 
Cryptostoma, 427 
Nematodes, 427 
Herairhipus, 427 
Stenicera, 427 
Elater proper, 428 
Campylus, 429 
Phyllocerue, 429 

SECTION II. MALACODERMI. 

Tribe 1. Cerbrionites, 429 
Cel'rio, 429 

Physodactyltis, 430 
Cebrio proper, 430 
Anelastes, 430 
Callirhips, -131 



IN'DKX. XXX111 



ORDER V. COLEOPTERA (continued). 
Rhipicera, 431 
Ptilodactyla, 432 
Dascillus, 432 
Elodc8, 432 
^yrtcs, 432 
Nycteus, 432 
Bubrit, 433 

Trib 2.Lampyrides t 433 
Lampyris, 433 

' Lye tis, 433 
Dictyoptera, 434 
Omalisus, 434 



Phengodes, 43fi 
Lampyris proper, 436 
Drilus, 437 
Cochleoctonus, 437 
Telephone, 438 
Silis, 439 
Malthinus, 439 

Tribt &.Mdyrides, 439 
Mrlyris, 439 

Malachius, 439 
Dasytes, 440 
Zygia, 440 
Melyris, 440 
Pelocophorus, 441 
Diglobicerus, 441 

Tribt 4.Clerii, 441 

Clerus, 441 

Cylidrus, 441 
Tilhis, 442 
Priocora, 442 
Axina, 442 
Eurypus, 442 
Thanasimus, 443 
Opilo, 443 
Clerus proper, 443 
Necrobia, 443 
Enoplium, 444 

Trib 5. Ptiniores, 444 
Ptinus, 445 

Ptinus proper, 445 
Gibbium, 445 
Ptilinus,446 
Xyletinus, 446 
Dorcatoma, 446 
A nohiinn, 416 
YOL. 111. 



XXXIV INDEX. 

ORDKR V. COLEOPTERA (continued). 

SECTION III. 
Tribe 1 .Xylotrogi, 447 

Lymexylon, 447 

Atractoeerus, 447 
Hylecaetus, 448 
Lymexylon proper, 448 
Cupes, 448 
Rhysodes, 448 
Fam. 4. CLAVICORNES, 449 

SECTION I. 
Tribe l.Palpatores, 450 
Mastigus, 450 

Mastigus, 450 
Scydmsenus, 450 
Tribe 2. Hister&ides , 451 
Hister, 451 

Hololepta, 45 L 
Hister proper, 452 
Platysoma, 452 
Dendrophilus, 452 
Abreeus, 452 
Onthophilus, 452 

Tribe 3.-Silphales, 453 

Silpha, 453 

Sphaeritcs, 453 
Necrophorus, 454 
Necrodes, 455 
Silpha proper, 455 
Thanatophilus, 456 
Oiceptoma, 456 
Phosphuga, 456 
Necrophilus, 456 
Argyrtes, 457 

Tribe 4. Scaphidites, 457 

Scaphidium, 457 

Scaphidium proper, 457 
Choleva, 458 

Tribe 5. Nitidularice, 458 
Nitidula, 458 

Colobicus, 458 
Thymalus, 459 
Ips, 449 

Nitidula proper, 159 
Cercus, 4 Go 
Bvturus, 400 



INDEX. XXXV 

ORDER V, COLEOPTERA (continued). 
Tribe 6.Engidites> 460 
D<*cne, 460 

Dacnc proper, 460 
Cryptophagus, 461 
Tribe 7. Dermestini, 461 
Dermestes, 461 

Aspidiphorus, 461 
Dermestes proper, 462 
Megatoma, 462 
Limniclms, 462 
Attagenus, 463 
Trogoderma, 463 
Anthrenus, 463 
Globicornis, 463 
Tribe S.Byrrhn, 464 

Byrrhus, 464 

\osodendron, 464 
Byrrhus proper, 464 
Tri nodes, 464 

SECTION^!. 

Tiihe 1. Acanthopoda, 465 
Heterocerus, 466 
Tribe 2.Maorodactyla, 466 
Dryops, 466 

Potamophilus, 466 
Dryops proper, 467 
Elmis, 467 
Macronychus, 467 
Georissus, 467 

Fam. 5. PALPICORNES, 467 
Tribe 1 .Hydrophilii, 468 

Hydrophilus, 468 "* 

Elophorus, 468 
Hydrochus, 468 
Ochthebius, 469 
Hydraena, 469 
Spercheus, 469 
Globaria, 469 
Hydrophilus proper, 470 
Limnebius, 471 
Hydrobius, 471 
Berosus, 472 

Tribe 2. Sph&ridiota, 472 
Sphaeridium, 472 

Cercydion, 472 






INDEX. 

SYSTEMATICALLY ARRANGED. 



IN SECT A 

(CONTINUED). 
ORDER V.COLEOPT ERA (continued). 

Fam. 6. LAMELLICORNES, 1 
Tribe l.Scaraba>ides, 1 
Scarabaeus, 3 

Coprophagi, 3 
Ateuchus , 4 
Pachysoma, 5 
Gymnopleurus, 5 
Sisyphus, 6 
Cercellium, 6 
Coprobius, 6 
Chceridium, G 
Hyboma.) 6 
Eurysternus, 6 
Oniticellus, 7 
Onthophagus, 7 
Onitis, 8 
Phanaeus, 8 
Copris, 8 
Aphodius, 9 
Psammodius, 9 
Euparia, 9 

Arenicoli, 9 

.Ki^alia 10 

Chiron, 10 
Lethrus, 11 
Geotrupes, 11 
Ochodaeus, 12 
Athyreus, 13 
Klephastomus, 13 
Bolbocerus, 13 
Hybosorus, 13 
Acanthocerus, 14 
Trox, 14 
Phoberus, 14 
Cryptodus, 14 
Mfechidiu*. 14 
Xylophili, 15 
Oryctes, U 

VOL. IV. 



X INDEX. 

ORDER V. COLEOPTERA (continued). 
Agacephala, 15 
Orpknus, \ 6 
Scarabseus proper, 1 6 
Phileurus, 17 
Hexodon, 17 
Cyclocephala, 17 
Chrysophora, 18 
Rutela, IS 
Macraspis, 18 
Chasmodia, 18 
Ometis, 19 
Phyllophagi, 19 
Pachypas, 20 
Amblyteres, 20 
Anoplognathus, 20 
Leucothyreus, 21 
Apogonia, 21 
Geniates, 21 
Melolontlia proper, 22 
Rhisotrogus, 23 
Amphimalla, 23 
Ceraspis, 23 
Areodes, 24 
Dasypus, 24 
Serica, 24 
Diphucephala, 24 
Macrodactylus, 24 
Plectris, 25 
Popilia, 25 
Euchlora, 25 
Mimela, 25 
Ariisoptia, 25 
Lepisia, 25 
Dicrania, 26 
Hoplia, 26 
Rl-onocheles, 26 
Anthobri, 26 
Glaphyrus, 27 
Amphicoma, 27 
Antliipna, 27 
Chasmopterus, 28 
Chasme, 28 
JHcheles, 28 
Lepitrix, 28 
Pachycncraus, 28^ 
Anisonyx, 29 
Melitophili, 29 
Trichius, 30 
Platygenia, 31 



INDEX. 

ORDER V. COLEOPTERA (continued). 

Cremastocheilus, 31 
Goliath, 31 
Inca. 31 
Cetonia, 32 
Gymnetis, 32 
Macronota, 32 
Trib 2.Lucanides, 33 
Lucanus, 34 

Sinodendron, 34 
/Ksalus 34 
Lnmprima, .34 
Ryssonotup, 35 
Pholidotus, 35 
Lucanus proper, 35 
Ceruchus, 36 
Platycerus, 36 
Nigidius, 36 
jEgus, 36 
Fiyulus, 36 
Syndesus, 36 
Passalus, 36 

Paxillus, 37 

HETEROMRRA. 

Fam. 1. MELASOMA, 38 
Pimelia, 30 

Pirn el ia proper, 40 
Tr achy derma, 40 
Cryptocheile, 4 1 
Erodius, 41 
Zophosis, 4 1 
Nyctelia, 41 
Hegeter, 42 
Tentyria, 42 
Akis, 42 
Elenophorus, 43 
Eurychora, 43 
Adelostoma, 43 
Tagenia, 44 
Psammetichus, 44 
Scaurus, 44 
Scotobius, 44 
Sepidium, 45 
Trachynotus, 45 
Moluris, 45 
, 46 

Oxura, 46 
Acanthomcra, 46 
Misolampus, 47 



xii INDEX. 

ORDER V. COLEOPTVAl A (continued). 
Blaps proper, 47 
Gonopus, 47 
Heteroscelis, 48 
Machla, 48 
Scotinus, 48 
Asida, 49 
Pedinus, 4.9 
Opatrinus,49 
Dendarus, 49 
Heliophilus, 49 
Eurynotus, 50 
Isocejrus, 50 
Pedinus, Dej., 50 
Blaptinus, 50 
Platyscelis, 50 
Tenebrio, 50 

Cryptichus, 51 
Opatrum, 51 
Corticus, 52 
Orthocerus, 52 
Chiroscelis, 52 
Toxicum, 52 
Boros, 52 
Calcar, 52 
Upis, 53 

Tenebrio proper, 53 
Heterotarsus, 53 

Fain. 3. TAXICORNKS, 53 
Tribe 1 . Diaperiales, 54 
Diaperis, 54 

Phaleria, 54 
Diaperis proper, 55 
Neomida, 55 
Hypophlaeus, 56 
Trachyscelis, 56 
Leiodes, 56 
Tetratoma, 56 
Eledona, 56 
Coxelus, 57 

Tribe 2. Cossypkenes, 57 
Cossyphus y 57 

Cossyphus proper, 57 
Helaeus, 57 
Nilio, 58 

Fam. 3. STENELYTRA, 58 
Tribe 1 Helopii, 58 
Helops, 59 



SECOND 
GREAT DIVISION 



OP THE 



ANIMAL KINGDOM.OO 



ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA.* 

The Mollusca have neither an articulated skeleton nor a vertebral 
canal. Their nervous system is not united into a spinal marrow, but 
merely into a certain number of medullary masses distributed in differ- 

* N.B. Linnaeus united all invertebrate animals without articulated limbs in a 
single class, under the name of VERM ES, dividing them into five orders : the INTES- 
TINA, embracing some of my Annclides and Intestina ; the MOLLUSCA, comprehend- 
ing my Naked Mollusca, my Echinodermata, and part of my Intestina and Zoophytes ; 
the TESTACEA, comprising my A/oWuscaand Annelideswith shells; the LYTHOPHYTA, 
or Stony Corals ; and the ZOOPHYTES, embracing the remainder of the Polypi, some 
of the Intestina and the Infusoria. 

Hfo regard whatever was paid to nature in this arrangement, and Brugie're, 
Encycl. Method., endeavoured to rectify it. He there established six orders of 
worms, viz. the INFURIOSA ; the INTESTINA, including the Annelides ; the MOL- 
LUSCA, uniting several of my Zoophytes to my true Mollusca ; the ECHINODERMATA, 
which only comprised Echinus and Asterias ; the TESTACEA, nearly the same as 
those of Linnaeus ; and the ZOOPHYTES, under which name he included the Corals 
only. This arrangement was merely superior to that of Linnaeus in the more com- 
plete approximation of the Annelides, and by the distinction it effected of a part of 
the Echinodermata. 

I proposed a new arrangement of all the invertebrate animals, founded on their 
internal structure, in a paper read before the Societ d'Histoire Naturelle on the 
loth of May 1795, of which my subsequent labours on this part of natural history 
are the development. 

0^ (a) It is proper to inform our readers that in placing this Division of the 
Animal Kingdom after the Fishes, we have made a correction of the confused 
arrangement which exists in the volumes of the French Original, and by which the 
Mollusca and the Zoophytes were placed in juxta position, whilst the Insects fol- 
1 the latter. Cuvier was under the necessity of yielding to the circumstances 
which imposed upon him the inconvenient plan pursued by him in these volumes ; 
and they arose from his wish to devote the whole of the last two volumes of the 
oridnal to the labours of M. Latreillc, who has supplied the description of the 
I -ts. In his preface to the third volume the author explains his motives, and as 
they have been above substantially stated, we will merely add the remainder of the 
remarks contained in this preface. He states the reasons which delayed the pnblica- 
VOL. III. B 



2 MOLLUSCA. 

ent points of the body, the chief of which, termed the brain, is 
situated transversely on the oesophagus, and envelopes it with a ner- 
vous collar. Their organs of motion and of the sensations have not 
the same uniformity as to number and position, as in the Vertebrata, 
and the irregularity is still more striking in the viscera, particularly 
as respects the position of the heart and respiratory organs, and even 
as regards the structure of the latter ; for some of them respire 
elastic air, and others salt or fresh water. Their external organs, 
however, and those of locomotion, are generally arranged symme- 
trically on the two sides of an axis. 

The circulation of the Mollusca is always double ; that is, their 
pulmonary circulation describes a distinct and perfect circle. This 
function is also always aided by at least one fleshy ventricle, situated 
between the veins of the lungs and the arteries of the body, and not 
as in fishes between the veins of the body and the arteries of the lungs. 
It is then an aortic ventricle. The family of Cephalopoda alone are 
provided besides with a pulmonary ventricle, which is even divided 
into two. The aortic ventricle is also divided in some genera, as in 
Area and Linyula; at others, as in other bivalves, its auricle only is 
divided. 

When there is more than one ventricle they are not joined in a 
single mass, as in the warm-blooded animals, but are frequently 
placed at a considerable distance from each other, and in this case the 
animal may be said to have several hearts. 

The blood of the Mollusca is white or bluish, and it appears to con- 
tain a smaller proportionate quantity of fibrine than that of the 
Vertebrata. There are reasons for believing that their viens fulfil 
the functions of absorbent vessels. 

Their muscles are attached to various points of their skin, forming 
tissues there, which are more or less complex and dense. Their 
motions consist of various contractions varying in their direction, 
which produce inflexions and prolongations together with relaxations 

tion of the third volume for a long time after the appearance of the fourth ; among 
the most prominent of which were the number of changes in the genera, and in the 
distribution of species, he was compelled to make by recent discoveries. He also 
acknowledges his obligations to the works of the late lamanted M. de Lamarck, and 
those of MM.de Blainville, Savigny, Ferussac, Des Heyes, D'Orbigny, Rudolphi, 
Bremser, Otto, Leuckart, Chamisso, Eisenhardt, Rang, Sowerby, Charles Desmou- 
lins, Quoy and Gaymard, Delle Chiaje, Defrance, Deslonchamp, Audouin, Milne 
Edwards, Duge"s, Moquin Tandon, Morren, Ranzani, and other savans whom 
he names in different places. He concludes by regretting that he had not 
received in time certain very recent works, which would have supplied him with 
valuable materials, particularly the Syst. Acaleph., Berlin, 1829, 4to, of M. Esch- 
holtz, and the article Zoophytes of the Diet, des Sc. Nat., of M. de Blainville, which 
was not then published. ENG. Eo. 






MOLLUSOA. 3 

of their different parts, by means of which they creep, swim, and 
seize upon various objects, just as the form of these parts may permit; 
but as the limbs are not supported by articulated and solid levers, 
they cannot perform very rapid advances in progression. 

The irritability of most of them is extremely great, and remains 
for a long time after they are divided. Their skin is naked, very 
sensible, and usually covered with a humour that oozes from its 
pores ; no particular organ of smell has ever been detected in them, 
although they enjoy that sense ; it may possibly reside in the entire 
skin, for it greatly resembles a pituitary membrane. All the Cephala, 
Brachiopoda, Cirrhopoda, and part of the Gasteropoda and Ptero- 
poda, are deprived of eyes ; the Cephalopoda on the contrary have 
them at least as complicated as those of the warm-blooded animals. 
They are the only ones in which the organ of hearing has been 
discovered, and whose brain is enclosed with a particular cartila- 
ginous box. 

Nearly all the Mollusca have a development of the skin which 
covers their body, and which bears more or less resemblance to a 
mantle; it is often however narrowed into a simple disk, or is formed 
into a pipe, or hallowed into a sac, or lastly is extended and divided 
in the form of fins. 

The Naked Mollusca are those in which the mantle is simply 
membranous or fleshy ; most frequently however one or several 
laminae, of a substance more or less hard, is formed in its 
thickness, deposited in layers, and increasing in extent as well 
as in thickness, because the recent layers always overlap the old 
ones. 

When this substance remains concealed in the thickness of the 
mantle, it is still customary to style the animals Naked Mollusca. 
Most generally, however, it becomes so much developed, that the 
contracted animal finds shelter beneath it ; it is then termed a 
shell, and the animal is said to be testaceous ; the epidermis which 
covers it is thin, and sometimes desiccated ;* it is called drapmar- 
in(a). 

The variety in the form, colour, surface, substance and brilliancy 



* Until my labours on the subject were made public, tbe Testacea constituted a 
particular order; but there are so many insensible transitions from the Naked 
Mollusca to the Testacea, and their natural divisions form such groups with each 
other, that this distinction can no longer exist. Besides this, there are several of 
the Testacea which are not Mollusca. 



Q3 (a) This name is given to a woolly texture which covers the outside of 
several univalve shells. ENG. ED. 

B2 



4 MOLLTJSCA. 

of shells, is infinite ; most of them are calcareous ; some are simply 
horny, but they always consist of matters deposited in layers, or 
exuded from the skin under the epidermis, like the mucous covering, 
nails, hairs, horns, scales, and even teeth. The tissue of shells differs 
according as this transudation is deposited either in parallel laminae 
or in crowded vertical filaments. 

All the modes of mastication and deglutition are illustrated in 
the Mollusca; here the stomachs are simple, there they are com- 
plicated, and frequently provided with a peculiar armature; their 
intestines are variously prolonged. They most generally have 
salivary glands, and always a large liver, but neither pancreas 
nor mesentery : several have secretions which are peculiar to 
them. 

They also present examples of all the varieties of the process of 
generation. Several of them possess the faculty of self-impregna- 
tion ; others, although hermaphrodites, require a reciprocal coitus, 
while in many the sexes are separated. The first are viviparous, 
and the others oviparous ; the eggs of the latter are sometimes en- 
veloped with a harder or softer shell, and sometimes with a simple 
viscosity. 

These varieties of the digestive and generative processes are found 
in the same order, and sometimes in the same family. 

The Mollusca in general appear to be animals that are but slightly 
developed, possessed of but little industry, and which are only pre- 
served by their fecundity and their tenacity of life. 

Division of the Mollusca into Six Classes.* 

The general form of the body of the Mqllusca, being in propor- 
tion to the complication of their internal organization, indicates their 
natural division.! 

The body of some resembles a sac open in front, containing the 
branchiae, whence issues a well developed head crowned with long 
and strong fleshy productions, by means of which they crawl, and 
seize various objects. These we term the Cephalopoda. 

That of others is closed ; the appendages of the head are either 
wanting or are extremely reduced; the principal organs of locomotion 
are two wings or membranous fins, situated on the sides of the neck, 

* M. de Blainville has substituted the name of Malacozoaires for that of Mol 
lusca, separating from them the Chitons and CirrMpoda, which he calls Malenlo- 
zoasrcs. 

f The whole of this arrangement of the Mollusca, and most of the secondary 
subdivisions, belong exclusively to me. 



CEPHALOPODA. 5 

and which frequently support the branchial tissue. They constitute 
the Pterupoda. 

Others again crawl by means of a fleshy disk on their belly, some- 
times, though rarely, compressed into a fin, and have almost always a 
distinct head before. We call these the Gasteropoda. 

A fourth class is composed of those in which, the mouth remains 
hidden in the bottom of the mantle, which also encloses the branchiae 
and viscera, and is open either throughout its length, at both ends, or 
at one extremity only. Such are our Acephala. 

A fifth comprises those, which, also inclosed in a mantle and with- 
out an apparent head, have fleshy or membranous arms, furnished 
with cilia of the same nature. We term these Brachiopoda. 

Finally, there are some, which, although similar to the other 
Mollusca in the mantle, branchiae, &c., differ from them in numerous 
horny and articulated limbs, and in, a nervous system more nearly 
allied to that of the Articulata. They will constitute our last class, 
or that of the Cirrhopoda. 



CLASS I. 



CEPHALOPODA.* 

THEIR mantle unites under the body, forming a muscular sac 
which envelopes all the viscera. In several, its sides are extended 
into fleshy fins. The head projects from the opening of the sac; it is 
rounded, furnished with two large eyes, and crowned with longer or 
shorter conical and fleshy arms or feet, capable of being flexed in 
every direction, and extremely vigorous, the surface of which is 
armed with suckers or cup$ (a) which enable them to adhere with great 
tenacity to every body they embrace. These feet are their instru- 
ments of prehension, natation, and walking. They swim with the 
head backwards, and crawl in all directions with the head beneath 
and the body above. 

A fleshy funnel placed at the opening of the sac, before the neck, 
affords a passage to the excretions. 

The Cephalopoda have two branchiae within the sac, one on each 

* M. dc Blainville has changed this name to that of Cephalophora. 

M. de Lamarck at first united my Cephalopoda and Gasteropoda under the* common 
name of Ccphala, but having subsequently increased the number of classes, he 
resumed that of Cephalopoda. 

0^7* (a) The original is ccntouses, which means, literally", qupping glasses. ENG. ED. 



6 MOLLUSCA. 

side, resembling a highly complicated fern leaf ; the great vena cava, 
having arrived between them, divides into two branches, which 
pour their contents into two fleshy ventricles, each of which is 
placed at the base of the branchiae on its own side, and propels the 
blood into it. 

The two branchial veins communicate with a third ventricle, 
situated near the bottom of the sac, which, by means of various 
arteries, distributes the blood to every part of the body. 

Respiration is effected by the water which flows into the sac and 
issues through the funnel. It appears that it can even penetrate into 
two cavities of the peritoneum, traversed by the vena cava in their 
passage to the branchiae, and act upon the venous blood by means of 
a glandular apparatus attached to those veins. 

Between the bases of the feet we find the mouth armed with two 
stout horny jaws, resembling the beak of a parrot. 

Between the two jaws is a tongue bristling with horny points ; the 
oesophagus swells into a crop, and then communicates with a gizzard 
as fleshy as that of a bird, to which succeeds a third membranous and 
spiral stomach, which receives the bile from the two ducts of the very 
large liver. The intestine is simple and short. The rectum termi- 
nates in the funnel. 

These animals are remarkable for a peculiar and intensely black 
excretion, with which they darken the surrounding water when they 
wish to conceal themselves. It is produced by a gland, and retained 
in a sac, variously situated, according to the species. 

Their brain, which is contained in a cartilaginous cavity of the 
head, gives off a cord on each side which produces a large ganglion 
in each orbit, whence are derived innumerable optic filaments ; the 
eye consists of several membranes, and is covered by the skin which 
becomes diaphanous in that particular spot, sometimes forming folds 
which supply the want of eyelids. The ear is merely a slight cavity, 
on each side near the brain, without semicircular canals or an exter- 
nal meatus, where a membranous sac is suspended which contains a 
little stone. 

The skin of these animals, of the Octopi particularly, changes 
colour in places, by spots, with a rapidity which greatly surpasses 
that of the cameleon.* 

The sexes are separated. The ovary of the female is in the bottom 
of the sac : two oviducts take up the ova and pass them out through 



* See Carus, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., XII., part I, p. 320, and Sangiovanni, Ann. 
dts Sc. Nat. XVI, p. 308. 



CEPHALOPODA. 7 

two large glands which envelope them in a viscid matter, and collect 
them into clusters. The testis of the male, placed like the ovary, 
communicates with a vas deferens which terminates in a fleshy penis, 
situated on the left of the anus. A bladder and prostate terminate 
there likewise. There is reason to believe that fecundation is 
effected by sprinkling, as is the case with most fishes. In the spawn- 
ing season the bladder contains a multitude of little filiform bodies, 
which, by means of a peculiar mechanism, are ruptured the moment 
they reach the water, where they move about with great rapidity, 
and diffuse a humour with which they are filled. 

These animals are voracious and cruel ; possessed both of agility 
and numerous modes of seizing their prey, they destroy immense 
quantities of fish and Crustacea. Their flesh is eaten ; their ink is 
employed in painting, and the Indian, or China ink is supposed to be 
made from it.* 

The Cephalopoda comprise but a single order, which is divided 
into genera, according to the nature of the shell. 

Those which have no external shell, according to Linnaeus, formed 
but the single genus, (a) 

SEPIA, Lin.* 
Which is now divided as follows : 

OCTOPUS, Lam. Polypus of the ancients, 
Have but two small conical granules of a horny substance, on the 

* M. Ab. Rtfmusat, however, can find nothing in the authors of China which 
confirms this idea, 
t" M. de Blainville makes an order of them, which he calls the CRYPTODIBRAN- 

CH1TA. 



0^ (a) Of courso this genus in not included is theTestacea, although it is custom- 
ary for certain amateur naturalists to regard the cuttle-fish (sepia officinalis) as a shell- 
fish. In the system of Lamarck, the Cephalopoda constitute the fourth order of his 
Twelfth Class of Invertebrated Animals. He has arranged the genera, (some of 
which are noticed in the present section by Cuvier), in the following manner, for 
which we are indebted to C. Dubois, Esq. 

TWELFTH CLASS. 

MOLLU8CA. 

Order IV.Cephalopodes. 

Character of the order: Mantle of the animal in the form of a sack, containing 
the lower part of the body ; head projecting above the sack, crowned with arms 
not articulated, furnished with suckers, which surround the mouth; two sessile 
eyes ; two corneous mandibles at the mouth ; three hearts ; the sexes separated. 
They live in the sea, floating at large, attaching themselves to marine bodies at 
\\l\\ : others only drag themselves along, by means of their arms, at the bottom of 
the water, or on its banks ; the greater part of these are generally secluded in the 



8 



MOLLUSCA. 



two sides, of the thickness of the back ; the sac, having no fins, re- 
sembles an oval purse ; eight feet, all of which are about equal, very 
large in proportion to the body, and united at the base by a mem- 
brane ; they are employed by the animal in swimming, crawling, 
and seizing its prey. The length and strength of these limbs render 
them fearful weapons, which it twines round animals ; in this way it 
has even destroyed men while bathing. The eyes are small in pro- 
portion, and the skin contracts over them so tightly as to cover them 



hollows of rocks. They are all carnivorous, living on crabs or any other marine 
animals which they are able to catch, the singular position of their arms greatly 
facilitating the necessity they are under of bringing their prey to their mouths, 
where the two strong mandibles enable them to break and crush the hard bodies 
with which some of their food is covered. Some of them are entirely naked ; 
others live in a thin unilocular shell, which envelopes them, and in which they float 
on the surface of the water ; and there are others which have a multilocular shell, 
either completely or partially internal. 

First Division Cephalopodes-polythalames. (Immerges) 

TESTACEOUS Ce'phalopodes Shell multilocular, enveloped completely, or only parti- 
ally enclosed in the posterior part of the animal's body, often closely adhering. 

C Shell multilocular, with 
septa plain and sim- 
ple at the edges, the 
divisions of them not 
exhibiting any su- 
tures on the internal 
thickness of the sub- 
stance: shell straight 
or nearly so ; not in 
a spiral form. The 
greater number of 
these shells are only 



Genus Belemnites. 
.... Orthocera . 
.... Nodosaria . 
.... Hippurites . 
.... Conilites . 



'First Family. Les Orthocres 



Spirolina' '!'.!! \ Sccond 
Lituola ...... J 



Les Lituol&s 



known in 
state. 



a fossil 



" Shell party in a spiral 
form, the whorls se- 
parated or connected 
with each other, the 
last continued in a 
right line. The sep- 
ta are generally tra- 
versed by a syphon, 
which in some spe- 
cies being continued 
in a straight line, 
occasions the last 
one to have from 
three to six perfora- 
tions. The first ge- 
nus is known in a 
recent state only; 
and Pron has as- 
certained that the 
body of the animal 
is contained in the 
last septum only, and 
the shell enveloped 
by its posterior part. 



CEPHALOPODA. 



entirely at the will of the animal. The receptacle of the ink i* seat- 
ed in the liver ; the glands of the oviducta are small. Some of them 

POLYPUS, Aristotle. 
Have two alternate rows of cups along each foot. 

The common species, Sepia octopodia, Lin., with a slightly 



Genus Renulina . 

CristelJaria. 

. . . Orbiculimi . 



Miliola ., 
Gyrogona 
Melouia . 



Rotalia . . . 
Lenticulina. 
Placentula . 



Discorbis . . 
Siderolites . . 
Polystomella 
Vorticialis .. 
Nummulites 
Nautilus 



Third Family. Les Cristac&s. 



Fourth Family. Les Spherules 



| Fifth Family. Les Radicles . . > 



Sixth Family. Les Nautilac&s 



Shell semidiscoid;mul- 
tilocular, with sim- 
ple septa ; the spire 
eccentric. 

"Shell globose, niultilo- 
cular, with simple 
septa, spheroidal or 
oval ; the whorls of 
the spire enveloping, 
or the chambers uni- 
ted in a tunic. 
Shell discoid, multilo- 
cular with simple 
septa, spire central, 
chambers lengthened 
and discoid, extend- 
ingjfrom the centre to 
the circumference. 

f Shell discoid, spire cen- 
trical, cells short, 
and in a spiral line 
not extending from 
the centre to the cir- 
cumference. The 
greater number are 
fossil species. The 
septa, as in the pre- 
ceding genera, sim- 
ple, neither notched 
nor undulated on the 
internal partition of 
the testaceous exte- 
rior. 



i 



Ammonites. "1 

Orbulites I 

Ammonoceras. . f Seventh Family. Les Ammondes < 
Torrilites .... I 
Buculites .... J 



" Shell multilocular ; sep- 
ta sinuous, lobed, 
and cut in their con- 
tour, uniting toge- 
ther against the in- 
ternal partition of 
the shell, and arti- 
culated in sinuous 
sutures divided and 
dentated. Most of 
these are known only 
in a fossil state. 

Second Division. C^phalopode3-monothaJame$.^ Navigators. 

f Shell unilocular, alto- 



10 MOLLUSCA. 

rough skin, arms six times the length of its body, and irnished 
with one hundred and twenty pairs of cups, infests the coasts 
of Europe in summer, and destroys immense numbers of fishes 
and Crustacea. 

The seas of hot climates produce another, Sepia rugosa, 
Bosc. ; Seb., Ill, ii. 2, 3, whose body is rougher ; arms some- 
what longer than the body, furnished with ninety pairs of cups. 
It is from this species that some authors suppose the Indian Ink 
is procured. Others again, 

ELEDON, Aristotle, 
Have but a single row of cups along each foot. 

One of them, the Poulpe musque, Lam., Mem. de la Soc. 
d'Hist. Nat. 4to, pi. ii; Rondelet, 515*, is found in the Mediter- 
ranean, which is remarkable for its musky odour. 

ARGONAUTA, Lin. 

These are Octopi with two rows of cups, the pair of feet which 
are nearest to the back being dilated at the extremity into a 



Third Division. Cephalopodes-sepiares. Pulpy Animals. 

o shell either exter- 
nal or internal ; a so- 
lid body, free, cres- 
ted, or horned, and 

Genus Octopus .... 1 contained in the in- 

.... Loligopsis 

.. .. Loligo . 

.... Sepia . . . 



terior of most of 
these animals. Some 
crawl at the bottom 
of the sea, others 
have the faculty of 
swimming on its 
surface. 

Fifth Order. Les Heteropodes. 

BODY free, elongated, swimming horizontally; head distinct; two eyes; the arms 
not in the form of a crown on the summit of the head ; no foot beneath the belly 
or under the throat for the purpose of crawling ; one or more fins, not disposed 
in pairs, or any regular order of distribution. These animals, though allied to 
the C^phalopodes, may be considered as the first vestiges of a series of marine 
animals, intermediate between them and the fishes, they probably are very nume- 
rous and much diversified, but have at present escaped observation, or their exami- 
nation has been neglected. 

f Shell free, elongated; 
animal swimming 
horizontally ; head 
distinct ; two eyes ; 
no arms surmount- 
ing the head in the 
form of a crown ; no 
foot or fins regular - 

u ly destributed. 



Genus Carinaria 

.... Pterotrachea ... 
Phylliroe 



* Add the Poulpe cirrhcaux, Lam., loc. cit., pi. i. f. 2, and, in general, severa' 
new species of the whole genus Sepia, which will shortly be published by M. de 
Fe*russac. 



CEPHALOPODA. 11 

broad membrane. The two cartilaginous granules of the common 
Octopus are wanted, but these mollusca are always found in a very 
thin shell, symmetrically fluted and spirally convoluted, the last whorl 
of which is so large, that it bears some resemblance to a galley of 
which the spine is the poop. The animal makes a consequent use of 
it, and in calm weather whole fleets of them may be observed navi- 
gating the surface of the ocean, employing six of their tentacula as 
oars, and elevating the two membranous ones by way of a sail. If 
the sea becomes rough, or they perceive any danger, the Argonaut 
withdraws all its arms, concentrates itself in its shell, and descends to 
the bottom. The body of the animal does not penetrate to the 
bottom of the spires of the shell, and it appears that it does not 
adhere to it, at least, there is no muscular attachment, a circumstance 
which has induced some authors to believe, that its residence there 
is that of a parasite*, like the Pagurus Bernhardus, for instance. 
As it is always found in the same shell, however, and as no other animal 
is ever seen theref, although it is very common and so formed as to 
show itself frequently on the surface, and as the germ of it is visible 
even in the ovum of the Argonaut}:, this opinion must be considered 
as highly problematical, to say nothing more of it. 

The ancients were well acquainted with this singular animal 

and its manoeuvres. It is their Nautilus and their Pompilus, 

Pliny, IX, c. xxix. 

Several species are known, closely resembling each other both 

in the animal and the shell, which were united by Linnaeus under 

the name of Argonauta argo t or the Paper Nautilus^. 

BELLEROPHON, Montf. 

Certain fossil shells, so called, the animal of which is supposed to 
have been analogous to the Argonauts. They are spirally and sym- 
metrically convoluted, without seyta, but thick, and not fluted ; the 
last whorl proportionably shorter ||. 

LOLIGO, Lam. 

The Calmars have an ensiform lamina of horn in the back in lieu 
of a shell j the sac has two fins, and besides the eight feet promis- 
cuously loaded with litle cups on short pedicles, the head is furnished 
with two much longer arms, provided with cups near the end only, 
which is widened. The animal uses these latter to keep itself im- 
movable, as if at anchor. The receptacle of the colouring matter is 

* It is upon this hypothesis that M. Rafin and others have formed the animal into 
the genus OCYTHOE. 

f All that has been stated to the contrary, even in modern times, is founded upon 
report and conjecture. 

; Poli, test. Ncapol., Ill, p. 10. See, also, Flrussac, Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. 
Nat., II, p. 160, and Ranzani, Mem. di Stor. Nat. dec., 1, p. 85. 

Arg. argo, Favanne, VII, A, 2, A, 3 ; Arg. haustrvm, Delw., ib., A, 5 ; A. 
tuberculata, Shaw, Nat. Misc., 995 :A. naricula, Solander, Fav., VII, A, 7;^. 
Wow, Sol., Fav., VII., A, 6 -,A. Cranchii, Leach, Phil. Trans.. 1817. 

|| Bellorophon tasulites, Montf., Conch. Syst., I. p. 51. See, also, Defrance, 
Ann. des Sc. Nat., I, p. 264. 



12 MOLLUSCA. 

lodged in the liver, and the glands of the oviducts are very large. 
The coalescing eggs are deposited in narrow garlands, and in two 
rows. 

They are now subdivided according to the number and armature 
of the feet and the form of the fins. 

LOLIGOPSIS, Lam. 

Or the Calmarets, should have but eight feet as in Octopus ; they 
are only known, however, by drawings of but little authority*. 

In the true Loligo the long arms are furnished with cups like the 
other tentacula, and the fins are placed near the point of the sac. 
Three species are found in the European seas. 

L.vulgaris; Sepia loligo, L. ; Rondel., 506; Salv. 169. The 
common Calmar. Fins forming a rhomb at the bottom of 
the sac. 

L. sagittata, Lam. ; Seb., Ill, iv. The great Calmar. Fins 
forming a triangle at the bottom of the sac ; arms shorter than 
the body, and loaded with cups for about half their length. 

L. Media; Sep. media, L. ; Rondel, 508. The little Calmar. 
Fins forming an ellipsis at the bottom of the sac, which termi- 
nate in a sharp pointf . 

ONYKIA, Lesueur. ONYCHOTHEUTHIS, Lichtenst. 

Have the long arms furnished with cups terminating in hooks ; 
in other respects the form is the samej. 

SEPIOLA, Cuv. 

Have the rounded fins attached to the sides of the sac and not to its 
point. One species, 

S.vulgaris; S. sepiola, L. ; Rondel., 519, inhabits European 
seas. The sac is short and obtuse, and the fins small and cir- 
cular. It seldom exceeds three inches in length, and its horny 
lamina is as slender and sharp as a stilet. 

CHONDROSEPIA, Leukard. SEPIOTHEUTES, Blainv. 

The whole margin of the sac, on each side, bordered with the fins, 
as in Sepia ; but the shell horny, as in Loligo. 

* See, however, Leachia cyclura, Lesueur, Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil., II, p. 89, and 
Krusenstern, Atlas, pi. Ixxxviii. 

f Add, Lol. Bartramii, Leseuer, Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil., II, vii, 1, 2; Lol. Bart- 
lingii, Id., XCV; Lol. illecebrosa, Id., pi. F, No. 6; L. pelayica, JBosc., Vers., 
I, 1, 2 ; L. Pealii, Lesueur, I, c, viii, 1,2; L. Pavo. Id., XCVI ; L. brevipinna, 
Id., Ib., Ill, x. 

J On. caribcea, Lesueur, Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil., II, ix, 1, 2 ; On. angulata, Id., Ib., 
I, 3 ; On. uncinata, Quoy and Gaym., Voy. Freycin., Zool., pi. vii, f. 66 ; On. 
Bergii, Licht., Isis, 1818, pi. xix; On. Fabricii, Ib., Id.; On. Banksii, Leach, 
App. Tuckey, pi. xviii, f. 2, copied Journ. de Phys., tome LXXXVI, June, f. 4 ; 
On. Smithii, Leach, Ib. f. 3, Journ. de Phys., Ib., 5. 

Chondrosepi loUgiformis f Leukard, App. Ruppel., pi. vi, f. 1. 



CEPHALOPODA. 13 

SEPIA, Lam. 

The Sepise, properly so called, have the two long arms of a Loligo 
and a fleshy fin extending along the whole length of each side of the 
sac. The shell is oval, thick, convex, and composed of numerous and 
parallel calcareous laminae, united by thousands of little hollow 
columns, running perpendicularly from one to the other. This 
structure rendering it friable, causes it to be employed, under the 
of cuttle-bone, for polishing various kinds of work; it is also 
to small birds in aviaries, for the purpose of whetting their 



The ink-pouch of the Sapise is detached from the liver and situated 
more deeply in the abdomen. The glands of the oviducts are enor- 
mous. The eggs are produced attached to each other in branching 
clusters resembling those of grapes, and are commonly termed sea- 
grapes. 

The species most commonly found in the seas of Europe, 
Sepia officinalis, L. ; Rondel., 498, Seb., III., iii, attains the 
length of a foot and more. Its skin is smooth, whitish, and 
dotted with red. 

The Indian Ocean produces another, Sepia tuber ciilata, Lam. 
Soc. d'Hist. Nat., 4to. pi. i, f. 1*. 

NAUTILUS, Lin. 

IN this genus Linnaeus united all spiral, symmetrical and chambered 
shells, that is to say, such as are divided by septa into several cavities ; 
their inhabitants he supposed to be Cephalopoda. One of them, in 
fact, belongs to a Cephalopode that strongly resembles a Sepia, but it 
has shorter arms it forms the genus, 

SPIRULA, Lam. 

In the hind part of the body, which is that of a Sepia, is an inte- 
rior shell, which, although very different from the bone of that animal 
as to figure, differs but little in its formation. A correct idea of the 
latter may be obtained by imagining the successive laminae, instead of 
remaining parallel and approximated, to be concave towards the body, 
more ili.si:int, increasing but little in breadth, and forming an angle 
1'ruveen them, thus producing an elongated cone, spirally convoluted 
in one plane and divided transversely into chambers. Such is the 
shell of the Spirula, which has additional characters consisting of a 
single hollow column that occupies the internal side of each chamber, 
continuing its tube with those of the other chambers to the very 



* Small bodies, armed with a spine are frequently found among Fossils they are 
the extremities of the bones of the Sepia. They constitute the genus BELOPTERA . 
Deshaycs. See my note on this subject, Ann. des Sc. Nat. II, xx, 1, 2. 

There arc some other but petrified Fossils, which appear to be closely allied to 
the above bones. They are the KYNCHOLITHKS of M. Faure Riguet. See Gail* 
lardot, Ann. des Sc. Nat., II, 485, and pi. xxii, and of Orbigny, (b., pi. vi. 



1 4 MOLLUSOA. 

extremity of the shell this column is termed the siphon. The turns 
of the spire do not come into contact. 

But a single species, Nautilus spirula, L. ; List., 550, 2, is 
known. The 

NAUTiLUs,jproper/y so called, 

Has a shell which differs r from the Spirula in the sudden crossing 
of the laminae, and in the last turns of the spire, which not only touch 
the preceding ones but envelope them. The siphon occupies the 
centre of each septum. 

N.pompiliuS) L. ; List. 551, the most common species; it is 
very large, formed internally of a beautiful mother-of-pearl, and 
covered externally with a white crust varied with fawn-coloured 
bands or streaks (a). 

The animal, according to Rumphius, is partly contained within 
the last cell, has the sac, eyes, parrot-beak, and funnel of the 
other Cephalopoda ; but its mouth, instead of having their large 
feet and arms, is surrounded by several circles of numerous 
small tentacula without cups. A ligament arising from the back 
traverses the whole siphon and fastens it there*. It is also 
probable that the epidermis is extended over the outside of the 
shell, though we may presume it is very thin over the parts that 
are coloured. 

Individuals are sometimes found, Naut. powpilius, #, Gmel. ; 
List., 552 ; Ammonie, Montf., 74, in which the last whorl does 
not envelope -and conceal the others, but where all of them, 
though in contact, are exposed, a circumstance which approxi- 
mates them to the Ammonites ; they so closely resemble the 
common species, however, in all the rest of the shell, that it is 
scarcely possible to believe them to be any thing more than a 
variety of it. 

Fossil Nautili are found of a large or moderate size, and 
much more various, as to form, than those now taken in the 
oceanf. 

Chambered shells are also found among fossils, furnished with 
simple septa and a siphon, the body of which, at first arcuated, or 
even spirally convoluted, remains straight in the more recent parts ; 
they are the Lituus of Breyn, in which the whorls are sometimes 
contiguous^, and sometimes distinct the Hortoles of Montfort. 



* The figure of Rumphius is absolutely unintelligible, and it is somewhat asto- 
nishing, that, of the many naturalists who have visited the Indian Ocean, not one has 
ever examined or collected this curious animal, which belongs to so common a shell. 

f Large species, with a sinple siphon: the ANGULITE, Mont., f. 1, 6; the 
AGANIDE, Id., 50; the CANTROPE, Id., 46. 

J Nautilus lituus, Gm. ; Naut. semilituus, Plane., I, x. 



Qf (a) See a very beautiful illustration of a specimen of Nautilus, by Richard 
Owen, Esq. ENG. ED. 



CEPHALOPODA. 15 

In others, the ORTHOCERATITES*, it is altogether straight. It is 
not improbable that the animals belonging to these shells, resem- 
bled that of Nautilus or of the Spirula. The 

BELEMNITES 

Probably belong also to this family, but it is impossible to ascertain 
tin- taut, as they are only found among fossils ; every thing, however, 
proves them to have been internal shells ; thin and double, that is, 
eomposed of two cones united at the base, the inner one much shorter 
than the other, and divided into chambers by parallel septa, which are 
concave on the side next to the base. A siphon extends from the 
summit of tin external cone to that of the internal one, and continues 
tlu nee, sometimes along the margin of the septa and sometimes 
tlm-ugh their centre. The interval between the two testaceous cones 
is filled with a solid substance, in some composed of radiating fibres, 
and in others, of self-involving conical layers, the base of each being 
on the margin of one of the septa of the inner cone. Sometimes we 
only iiud this solid portion, and at another we also find the nuclei of 
the chambers of the inner cone, or what are termed the honeycomb 
cells. Most commonly these nuclei and the chambers themselves 
i ive left no other traces than some projecting circles on the inside of 
the internal cone. In other specimens again we find 'more or fewer 
of the iiiu-lei. and still in piles, but detached from the double conical 
sheath that enveloped them. 

Of all fossils the Belemnites are the most abundant, particularly in 
chalk and compact limestone. f 

M. de Blainville divides them according to the greater or less depth 
to which the internal cone or chambered portion penetrates, or as the 
rdgos of the external cone have a small fissure or not, or as the exter- 
nal surface is marked on one side by a longitudinal furrow, or by two 
or more furrows towards the summit, or finally as that surface is 
smooth and without furrows. 

Bodies very similar to Belemnites, but without a cavity and with 
a rather prominent base, form the genus actinocamax of Miller.(a) It 

Breyn. de Polythal., pi. Hi, iv, v, and vi. ; and Walch, Petrif. of Knorr., Snpp. 
IV, b, iv, d, iv. See also Sage, Journ. de Phys. an. IX, pi. i, under the name of 
uite. 

t The best works on tbis singular genus of Fossils, are the Memoires sur Its 
Belemnites considerees zoologiquement el g&oloyiquemtnt , by M. de Blainville, Paris, 



0^7* fa) Mr. Miller gives the following description of the genus Actinocamax 
which he has established and separated from the Belemnites. 

Gen. Char. A club-shaped Spathose concretion, consisting of two nearly equal, 
idiiuil adhering portions. Apex pointed: base a convex, but obtuse cone. 
Thr \\hole formrdof a series of enveloping fibrous laminae. 

Specific character. Act. verus. A club-shaped Spathose semi-transparent horn 
(olomol ronrrctinn ; base convex, obtuse, conical; apex submamillar. Sides de- 
pressed towards the lower end, showing two longitudinal, towards the apex branch- 
ing, impressions of blood vessels. 

The species was found in the Chalk Strata in Kent, Wiltshire, and Sussex, in the 
strata which contain marine animals, so that Mr. Miller does not hesitate to consider 
it as an inhabitant of the sea. ENG. ED. 



16 MOLLUJSCA. 

is also upon conjectures of a similar nature that reposes the classifi- 
cation of the 

AMMONITES, Brug. 

Or the Cornua-Ammoni, or horns of Ammon*, for they no longer 
exist except among fossils. They are distinguished from the Nautili, 
by their septa, which, instead of being plane or simply concave, are 
angular and sometimes undulated, but most frequently slashed on the 
edge like the leaf of an acanthus. The smallness of their last cell 
seems to indicate that like the spirula they were internal shells. They 
are very abundant in the strata of secondaiy mountains, where they 
are found varying from the size of a lentil to that of a coach wheel. 
Their subdivisions are based upon the variation of their volutes and 
siphons. 

The name of Ammonites Lam., (Simplegades, Montf., 82) is parti- 
cularly restricted to those species in which all the whorls are visible, 
and their siphon near the marginf . 

They have lately been divided into the Ammonites planites, of 
Haan, where the edge of the septa is foliaceous, and into the ceratites 
of Haan, where it is simply angular and undulated. 

Those in which the last whorl envelopes all the others form the 
Orbitutites, Lam., or the Globites, and Goniatites of Haan, or the Pela- 
guses, Montf., 62. in all of which the siphon is situated as in the pre- 
ceding ones. 

The Scaphites Sowerb., are those in which the whorls are conti- 
guous and in the same plane, the last one excepted, which is detached 
and reflexed on itself. ; 

Some, Baculites, Lam., are entirely straight without any spiral por- 
tion whatever. 

Some of them are round , and others compressed. || The last some- 
times have a lateral siphon. 

The first cells of some of them the Hamites Sowerb., are arcuated. 

Finally, those which vary most from the usual form of this family 
are the Tv/rrilites^ Montf., 118, where the whorls, so far from running 

4to, 1827 ; and that of M. J. S. Miller on the same subject in the Geol. Trans., 
second series, vol. II, part I, London, 1826. See also Sage, Journ. de Phys. an. 
IX, and Raspail, Journ. des. Sc. d'Observ., second No. To this genus we refer the 
Paclite Montf., 318; the Thalamule, 322; the Achtlo'ite, 358; the Cetocinc, 
370 ; the Acame, 374; the Belemnite, 382 ; the Hibolite, 386 ; tlie Prorodrague, 
390 ; the Pirgopole, 394, which are the cases of different species. As to the 
Amimone, Id., 326 ; the Callirhoe, 362 ; the Chrisaorc, 378, they appear to be 
mere nuclei or piles of alveoli detached from their cases. 

* So called from the resemblance of their volutes to those of a ram's horn. 

f The various species of Ammonites have long been collected and described, but 
with less care than those of other shells. We may commence studying them in the 
article Ammonite, Ency. Method. Vers. I, 28, and in that of M. de Roissy, in 
Sonini's Buffon, Mollusca, V. 16. See also the Monograph of Haan, entitled 
" Monographic Ammoniteorum et Goniateorum Specimen," Leid. 1325. 

I Sc. obliquus, Sowerb. ; Cuv., Oss. Foss., II, part II, pi. ii, f. 13. 

Baculites vertebrate, Montf. 342 ; Fauj., Mont, de St. Pierre, pi. xxi. 

|| The Tiranitc, Montf., 346; Walch., Petrif., Supp., pi. xii, constitutes the 
genus RHABDITES of Haan, who refers the ICTHYOSARCOUTES of Desmar to it. 



in the same plane, Middenly descend, giving to the shell that form of 
an obelisk which is culled litrreted* 

It is also thought, and from similar considerations, that we should 
ivfrr to the Cephalopoda, and consider as internal shells the 

C\MI KIMS. II rug. Nf.MMii i IKS, Lam. 

Commonly called .\uni/nn/if<'^ A ' um<"<nniHh-<, lenticular stones^c. 
which also are only found among fossils, and present, externally, a 
lenticular figure without any apparent opening, and a >pii 
internally, divided by -."ptu into numerous small chambers, but with- 
out a MpJion. It i.s one of the mo>t universally diffused of all foil>. 
forming, by itself alone, entire chains of calcareous hilU and imni'-n-e 
bodies of building stonef. 

Tlie most common, and tlue which attain the greatest size, form a 
complete disk, and have only a single range of chambers in each 
whorl J. 

Some very >mall species are also found in certain seas||. 

Thr margin of other small species, (the siderolithes,, Lam.,) 
both fossil and living, r.re bristled with points which give them a 

The labours and researches, fruits of an infinite patience, of Bian- 
chi (or Janus Plane us), Soldani, Fichtel, and Moll, Alc,.a*d D'Or- 
bigny. h tinod an astonishing number of these chambered 

sliviU without a siphon, like the Nummulites, that are extremely 
small and frequently microscopical, both in the sea, among the sand, 
fucus, &c. and in a fossil state in the sand formations of variou> 
countries. They vary in a remarkable degree as to their general 
form, the number and relative position of the chambers, &c. In one 
or two species, the only ones whose animals have been observed, there 
appears to be a small oblong body crowned by numerous and red 
tentacula, which, added to the septa of the shell, have caused them to 
be placed immediately after the Cephalopoda, like the genera just 
mentioned, an arrangement, however, which requires to be confirmed 
by more numerous observations before we can consider it as conclusive. 

Such of these species as were known in the time of Linnaeus and 
(imelin were placed by those naturalists among the Nautili. 



de Phys., an. VII. pi. i, f. l. There are some doubts as to the 
MI i.i tin- Mphon. lYrhaps, as M. Adouin observes, what has been taken for 
it, i- tin- roluiiirllnr com idutinn. 

f The stone termed pin-re de Loon is wholly formed of Nummulites. Thr 
pyramids of Egypt are placed upon rocks of this description, which also furnished 
tin- III;UIT".;II- < i the superstructure. See the Memoir of Fortis on the Discolitea iu 

i-tirl df Thnn/, as woll as Lam., Aniin. *ms 

Method, des Cephalopoda. 

; / , I'i.ht., and Moll., VI. a, b, c, d; Naut. Itxficvlaris, 
LI, a !i. To tl. is genus also we refer the LICOPHRE ami 
. 158, ICG, and his ROTALITE, 162, which differs from the ROTA LIES of 
Lainarrk. 

|| .Vuii/i/iw nuliuli's. I'icht. and Moll., VII., a, b, c, d ; Nmtt. Vaunts, lb.. o, 

tpotde, Lam. Fau., Mont, de St. Pierre, pi. xxxiv. 

VOL. III. C 



18 MOLLU8CA. 

M. D'Orbigny, who has exceeded every other person in attention 
to this subject, forms them into an order which he calls Foraminifera, 
on account of the only communication between the cells being by 
means of holes, and divides them into families according to the man- 
ner in which the cells are disposed. 

When the cells are simple and ^spirally arranged, they constitute 
his Helicostegua, which are again subdivided. If the whorls are en- 
veloped, as is particularly the case in the Nummulites, they become 
his Helicostegua nautiloida*. 

If the whorls do not envelope each other, they are the Helicostegua 
ammonoida.\ 

If the whorls are elevated as in most Univalves, they are the 
Helicostegua turbinoida.% 

Simple cells may also be strung upon a single, straight or slightly 
curved axis, constituting the family of the StycosteguaJ 



* These infinitely small beings having but little to do with our plan, we will 
merely cite the names of the genera with a few examples. The Nummulites them- 
selves are compressed in this first division under the name of NUMMU LINES, 
Nautilus pompiloides, Ficht., and Moll., N. incrassatus, Id. 
The SYDEROLINA, the same as Syderolites, Lam. 

CRISTELLARIA, Nautilus cassis, Naut. galea, Id., &c. 

ROBULINA, Nautilus calcar, Naut. vortex, Id. 

SPIROLINA, Spirolinites cylindracea, Lam. Anim., sans verteb. 

PENEROPLA, Nautilus planatus, Ficht. and Moll., &c. 

DENTRITINA, 

POLYSTOMELLA, 

ANOMALINA, 

VERTEBRALINA, 

CASSIDULINA. 
t" M. D'Orbigny divides them into four genera : 

SOLDANIA, 

OPERCULINA, 

PLANORBULINA, 

PLANULINA. 
% These form ten genera : 

TRUNCATULINA, 

GYROIDINA, 

GLOBIGERINA, 

CALCARINA, where is placed, among others, the Nautilus Spengleri, Fich. aud 
Moll. XIV, d., I, and XV. 

ROTALIA, 
ROSALINA, 
'VALVULINA, 
BULIMINA, 
UVIGERINA, 

CLAVUHNA. 

The Stycostegua are divided by M. D'Orbigny into eight genera: the NODO- 
SARIA, which he subdivides into the true NODOSARIA, such as the Nautilus radicu- 
lus, L. ; Naul.jugosus, Montag., Test. Brit., XIV. f. 4 ; and into DENTALINA, 
such as the Nautilus rectos, Montag., I, cit., XIX, f. 4, 7 (the genus REOPHAGA, 
Montf. I, 330) ; into ORTHOERINA, such as the Nadosaria clavulus, Lam., Encycl., 
pi. 466, f. 3 ; and into MUCRONINA. 

FRONDICUARIA, where comes Renulino complanafa, Blainv., Malac. 

LlNGULINA, 
RlMULINA, 



CKPHALOPODA. 



Or they may be arranged in two alternate series, when they be- 
come the Enallostegua*. 

Or a few of them may be collected and united as in a pellet, form- 



ing the AyatMsteyua.\ 
Finally in the Entot 



Finally in tin' Entomostegua\ the cells are not simple as in the other 
families, but are subdivided by transverse septa in such a way that a 
on of the shell exhibit a sort of trellis. 



\ \. INULINA, to which belongs the Nautilus legumen, Gun. Plane., I, f. 7; 
Encycl.,pl. 465, f. 3. 

MARGINULINA, where we find the Nautilus mjihunus, Gm. Soldan., II, xriv. 

PLANULARIA, such as the Nautilus crtpidulus, Pich., and Moll., XIX, g, h, i. 

PAVONINA. 

* M. D'Orbigny has seven genera of Enallostegse : 

BlGBNERJNA, 

TEXTULARIA, 
VULVULINA, 

DlMORPHINA, 
POLYMORPHINA, 

\ "HUM I.IXA, 
Sl-llKROIDINA. 

t The Agathistegua or Milliola of authors, which compose immense banks of 
calcareous stone, in the arrangement of M. D'Orbigny, only form six genera : 
BILOCUMXA, 
SPIROLOCULIXA, 
TRI LOCUM 
ARTICUM 

QUINQUELOCULINA, 

ADELOSINA, 

M. de Blaiiiville assures us that he has ascertained, from observation, that their 
animal has no tentacula : should this be the case, they are at once greatly removed 
from the Cephalopoda. 

J The KntiiHwsti-yua resemble, externally, several of the Helicostegva. M. D'Orb. 
divides them into five genera : 

AMPHISTEGYNA, 

HETEROSTEGYN \. 

ORBICCUN \. 

ALVEOLINA, 

FABULARIA. 

Those who are desirous of penetrating more deeply into the study of this curious 
portion of Conchyliology, on which our limits forbid us to expatiate, but which 
may be useful in the investigation of fossil strata, will find an excellent guide in the 
Table Method, des Ctfphalopodes, inserted by M. D'Orbigny the Ann. des Sc. Nat., 
182G, tome VII, p. y.5 and 245, and may profit by the large models constructed by 
this able observer. 






c 2 



20 MOLLUSCA, 

CLASS II. 

PTEROPODA*. 

The Pteropoda, like the Cephalopoda, swim in the ocean, but they 
can neither fix themselves at all, nor crawl, because they have no 
feet. Their organs of locomotion consist of fins placedlike wings 
on the two sides of the mouth. But few and small species are known, 
all of them hermaphrodites. 

CLIO, Lin. CLIONE, Pall. 

Have the body oblong, membranous, without a mantle ; head formed 
of two rounded lobes, whence originate small tentacula ; two small 
fleshy lips, and a little tongue in front of the mouth ; the fins covered 
with a vascular net-work which acts as branchiae, the anus and genital 
orifice under the right one. Some authors consider them as possess- 
ing eyes. 

The external envelope is far from being filled with the viscera; 
the stomach is wide, the intestine short, and the liver voluminous. 

Clio borealis, L. This species, which is the most celebrated, 
is found in astonishing numbers in the arctic seas, furnishing, by 
its abundance, food for the whales, although each individual is 
hardly an inch longf. 

Brugiere has observed a larger and not less abundant species 
in the Indian Ocean ; it is distinguished by its rose colour, emar 
ginated tail, and the division of the body, by grooves, into six 
lobes, Encycl. Meth., PI. of the Mollusc., pi. fxxv, f. ), 2. 

We must place also here the 

.CYMBULIA, of Per on. 

Which have a cartilaginous or gelatinous envelope resembling a 
galley, or rather a sabot or clog, bristling with small points dis- 
posed in longitudinal rows. The animal has two large wings 
composed of a vascular tissue^ which are its branchiae and fins ; 
between them, on the open side, is a third and smaller lobe with 

* M. de Blainville unites my Pteropoda and my Gasteropoda in a single class, 
which he calls PARACEPHALOPHORA, of which my Pteropoda form n particular 
order, under the name of APOROBRANCHIATA. This order is divided into two 
families ; the Thecosoma, which are furnished with a shell, and the Gi/muosGi/ia which 
are not. 

f The Clio borealis of Pallas (Spicil, X, pi. 1, f. 18, 19), the Clio rehtsa of Fabri- 
cius (Faun. Groen., L., 334), and the Clio lamudna of Phips (Ellis, Zooph., pi. 15, 
f. 9, l, 10), of which Gmelin makes as many different species, appear to be this same 
animal. 



PTEROPODA. 21 

three points. The mouth with two small tentacula is situated be- 

ii tin- wings towards the closed >ide of the shell and above two 

: ! ryes, and the genital aperture, whence issues a small penis in 

t!n shape of a little proboscis. It is so diaphanous, that the heart, 

brain, and viscera can be distinguished through the envelopes*. 

PNEUMODERMON, Cuv. 

I Pneumoderma begin to be a little further removed from the 

. Their body is oval, without a mantle and without a shell ; the 

are attached to the surface, and composed of little laminae, 

arranged in two or three linos so disposed as to form an H on the 

part opposite to the head The fins are small; the mouth which is 

t'nrjushed \\-ith two small lips and two bundles of numerous tentacula, 

terminated by a sucker, has a little lobe or fleshy tantaculum 

beneathf. 

Pneumodermon Peronii, Cuv. Ann. du Mus., IV, pi. 59 ; 
and Peron, Ib., XV, pi. 2. Not more than an inch long. The 
ipeciea known was captured in the Ocean by Peron. 

LlMACINA, CUV. 

The Limaein.np, according to the description of Fabricius, should have 
been closely related to the Pneumoderma ; but their body terminates 
in a spirally convoluted tail, and is lodged in a very thin shell formed 
by one whorl and a half, unbilicated on one side, and flattened on the 
oilier. The animal uses its shell as a boat, and its wings as oars, 
whenever it wishes to navigate the surface of the deep. 

The species known Clio helicina, Phips and Gmel. ; Argonauta 
nrctica, Fab., Faun. Groenl., 387, is almost as common on the 
Arctic seas as the Clio boreaKs, arid is considered as forming 
one of the chief sources of food for the Whale J. 

HYALEA, Lam,, CAVOLINA, Abildg. 

Have two large wings ; no tentacula; a mantle cleft on the sides, 
lodging the branchiae in the bottom of its fissures, and invested by a 
.shell also cleft laterally, the ventral face of which is arched, and the 
dorsal flat and longer than the other; the transverse line which 
unites them behind, is furnished with three sharp dentations. When 
alive, the animal thrusts several appendages, that are more or less 

* Sec Prron, Ann. Mus., XV, pi. iii, f. 10 11. N. B. in the fig. of CymbvKa, 
iri\cii by IHaimille, Malar., XIAI, tlie position of the animal in the shell is directly 
ilir r i !H- true one. Our description is founded upon the recent and re- 

: ol>M-r\ations of M. Laurillanl. 

de Illainville once thought that the fins supported the branchial tissue, and 
that what I have considered as branchisc is another kind of fin. In this case the 
analoiry with the Clios would have been greater ; but ^ince then, (Malacol., p. 483) 
that .- as adopted ray views. 

i not sure that the animal drawn by >Yorc->\. of which de Blainville 
\lviii. bis, f. 5) makes his genus SIMRATELLA, is, as be thinks, the same 
as those of Phips and Fabri< 



225 MOLLUSCA. 

long, through the lateral fissures of its shell ; they are productions of 
the mantle. 

The species most known Anomia tridentata, Forskahl. ; Caro- 
lina natans, Abilgaard ; H. cornea, Lam. ; Cuv., Ann. du 
Mus., IV. pi. 59; and Peron, Ib., XV, pi. 3, f. 13. has a small, 
yellowish, semi-diaphanous shell, found in the Mediterranean 
and the Atlantic Ocean*. 

CLEODORA, Peron. 

The Cleodorse, for which Brown originally created the genus Clio, 
appear to resemble the Hyalese in the simplicity of their wings, and in 
the absence of tentacula between them ; it is also probable that their 
branchiae are concealed in the mantle ; their conical or pyramidal 
shell, however, is not cleft on the sides. M. Ray distinguishes 

CLEODORA, properly so called, with a pyramidal shell, 

CRESEIS, with a conical and elongated shellf, 

CUVIERA, with a cylindrical shell. 

PSYCHE, with a globular shell, and 

EURYBIA, with a hemispherical shell. (J) 

It is thought that we may approximate to the Hyaleae 

PYRGO, 

A very small fossil shell discovered by M. Defrance ; very thin, glo- 
bular, and divided by a very narrow tranverse cleft, except before, 
where it becomes a little widened (a J). 

* Add : Hyal. lanceolata, Lesueur, Bullet., des Sc. June 1813, pi. v, f. 3 ; Hyal. 
inflexa, Ib., f. 4. 

N. B. The Glaucus, Carinaire, and Firolc, referred by Peron to the family of the 
PTEROPODA, belong to the GASTEROPODA ; the Philliroe of the same author also 
probably belongs to it. His Calliariire is a Zoophyte. 

f It is probably near the Creseis, and perhaps even in the same subgenus, accord- 
ing to Messrs Rang and Audouin, that we must place the genus TRIPTERA of 
Messrs Quoy and Gaymard, which is referred by M. de Blainville to the family of the 
Akerae. 

J See the Mm. ; of M. Rang, Ann. des Sc. Nat., Novemb., 1827, and March 1828. 

N. B. Several Pteropoda have been discovered in a fossil state. M. Rang has 
found, near Bourdeaux, Hyalca, Cuvierite, and Cleodorte. See Ann. des Sc. Nat. 
August 1826. The Vaginella of Daudin is a Cresis according to M. Rang; it has, 
in fact, all the characters of the latter. 

{j^ (a) The Pteropodes constitute the first order of Lamarck's twelfth class, and 
his division of this order into genera, is precisely the same as that given in the pre- 
sent work, with the exception of the fossil genus added by Cuvier under the name of 
Pyrgo. The general description of the order by Lamarck is as follows : 

These Mollusca have no feet to crawl with, or arms to assist their motion or seize 
their prey ; they have two opposite and simularly constructed fins adapted to swim- 
ming; their bodies are free and floating. The Pteropodes are swimming Mollusca, 
without the means of affixing themselves to other bodies, floating on the surface of 
the sea and changing their position by means of their two fins or oars, which resem- 
ble two wings placed on each side of the mouth in some and in others on each side 
of the neck. He adds that in the Ayalda the head is so much concealed at the base 
or point at which the fins are united that it appears obsolete, exhibiting consequently 
an alliance between these animals and the Conchiferae (the eleventh class of Mollus- 
cous animals in his system). In the Cymbulia a little lobe which stands forward on 
the posterior part, between the two true wings, has been erroneously regarded as a 
third fin. ENG. ED. 



GASTEROPODA, 



CLASS III. 



GASTEROPODA. 

Gasteropoda constitute a very numerous class of the Mollusca, 
an idea of which is afforded by the Slug. 

They generally crawl upon a fleshy disk, situated under the abdo- 
men, which sometimes however, assumes the shape of a furrow, or 
that of a vertical lamina. The back is furnished with a mantle which 
is more or less extended, takes various forms, and in the greater 
number of genera, produces a shell. Their head placed anteriorly, 
is more or less visible, as it is the more or less involved under the 
mantle ; its tcntacula are very small, they are situated above the 
mouth but do not surround it, varying in number from two to six ; 
sometimes they are wanted ; their function is that of touch, or at 
most that of smell. The eyes are very small in some species, ad- 
horinpr to tin* head, in others to the base, side, or point of the tenta- 
rulum; sometimes they are wanted. The position, structure, and 
nature of their respiratory organs vary, and afford the means of 
dividing them into several families ; they never, however, have more 
than a single aortic heart, that is to say, one placed between the pul- 
monary vein and the aorta. 

The position of the apertures, through which the genital organs; 
and that of the anus project, varies; they are almost always, how- 
ever, on the right side of the body. 

Several are entirely naked; others have merely a concealed shell, 
but most of them are furnished with one that is large enough to re- 
ceive and shelter them. 

The shell is formed in the thickness of the mantle. Some of them 
-ymmetrical and consist of a single piece; others are non-sym- 
metrical, which, in those species where they are very concave, and 
where they continue to grow for a long time, become necessarily 
obliquely spiral. 

If \\ to ourselves an oblique cone, in which other cones, 

always wider in one direction than in the others, arc successively 
ed, it will be easily seen that the convolution of the whole takes 
on the side winch enlarges the least. 

This part, on which the cone is rolled, is termed the columeMa; 
it is sometimes solid, and sometimes hollow. When hollow, its aper- 
tmv is called the umbilicus. 



24 MOLLUSCA. 

The whorls of the shell may either remain in one plane, or incline 
towards the base of the columella. 

In this last case, the preceding whorls rise above eacli other, form- 
ing the spire, which is so much the more acute, as the whorls de- 
scend more rapidly, and the less fliey increase in width. These shells 
with a salient spine, are said to be turbinated. 

When, on the contrary, the whorls remain nearly in the same 
place, and do not envelope each other, the spine is flat, or even con- 
cave. These shells are said to be discoidal. 

When the top of each whorl envelopes the preceding ones, the 
spire is hidden. 

The part through which the animal appears to come out is named 
the aperture. 

When the whorls remain nearly in the same plane, while the animal 
crawls, it has its shell placed vertically, the columella crosswise on 
the hind part of its back, and its head passes under the edge of the 
opening opposite to the columella. 

When the spire is saiient, it inclines from the right side in almost 
every species ; in a very few only does it project from the left when 
they are in motion ; these are said to be reversed. 

It is observed that the heart is always on the side opposite to that 
to which the spire is directed. Thus it is usually on the left, and in 
the reversed on the right. This relation is exactly inverted with re- 
spect of the organs of generation. 

The organs of respiration, which are always situated in the last 
whorl of the shell, receive the ambient element from under its edge, 
sometimes because the mantle is entirely detached from the body 
along this edge, and sometimes because it is perforated there by a 
hole. 

It sometimes happens that the margin of* the mantle is prolonged 
in the form of a canal, in order to allow the animal to seek the am- 
bient element without exposing its head and foot beyond its shell. In 
such a case as this, the shell has also in its margin, near the extremity 
of the columella, opposite that to which the spire inclines, a fissure or 
canal, for the purpose of lodging that of the mantle. The canal, 
consequently, in ordinary species, is on the left ; and in the reversed, 
on the right. 

The animal, however, being very flexible, can vary the direction 
of the shell, and most commonly when there is a fissure or canal, it 
directs the latter forwards, which throws the spine behind, the colu- 
mella to the left, and the opposite margin to the right. It is the 
contrary in the reversed, for which reason their shell is said to be 
contorted to the left. 



GASTEROPODA. 25 

The aperture of the shell, and consequently the last whorl, are 
more or less large, in proportion to the other whorls, as the head or 
foot of the animal, which is constantly protruding from and retracting 
within them, is more or less voluminous oottpftfed to tho mass of the 
fftNMfn which remain fixed in the shell. 

This aperture is wider or narrower in proportion to the greater or 
e of thiekness of these same parts. The aperture of some 
shells is narrow and long this is because the foot is thin, and be- 
> double by being folded in order to enter. 

Most of the aquatic Gasteropoda, with a spiral shell, have an. oper- 
c nt i 'in, a part sometimes horny, sometimes calcareous, attached to the 
nor part of the foot, which closes the shell when its occujnnt is 
withdrawn into it and folded up. 

In others of the Gasteropoda the sexes are separate ; others which 
air hermaphrodite) and some of which possess the faculty of self- 
impregnation, while others require a reciprocal coitus. 

Their organs of digestion vary as much as those of respiration. 

This class is so numerous that we have been compelled to divide it 
into a certain number of orders, which we have founded upon the 
position and form of the branchiae. The 

PuLMONEA 

Respire the natural air in a cavity, the narrow orifice of which they 
open and shut at pleasure. Some of them have no shell, others have 
one which is even very often completely turbinated, but the oper- 
01 him is always wanted. The 

NuDIBRANCHIATA 

8 no shell, and arc furnished with naked branchiae, of various 
forms, on some part of their back. The 

INFEROBRANCHIATA, 

Similar in other respects to the Nudibranchiata, have their branchirp 
in the margin of their mantle. The 

TECTIBRANCHIATA 

Have branchiae on the back and side, cove red by the lamina of the 
mantle, which almost always contains a shell more 01 loped, or 

BOmetimea only enveloped in a recurved margin of the foot. 

".ir orders arc hermaphrodites requiring a reciprocal 
coitus. The 






26 MOLLUSCA, 

HETEROPODA 

Have their branchiae on the hack, where they form a transverse 
range of small panaches, protected, as well as part of the viscera, in 
some species, by a symmetrical shell. They are particularly distin- 
guished, however, by the foot, which is compressed into a thin 
vertical fin, on whose margin is frequently observed a small cup 
(yentouse), the only vestige of the horizontal foot of the rest of the 
class. In the 

PECTINIBRANCHIATA 

The sexes are separated ; the respiratory organs almost always con- 
sist of branchiae, composed of lamellae, united in the form of combs, 
and are concealed in a dorsal cavity, widely open above the head. 

Nearly all of them had a turbinated shell, a mouth sometimes 
entire, sometimes fissured, and at other times furnished with a siphon, 
but most generally susceptible of being more or less perfectly closed 
by an operculum attached to the foot of the animal behind*. The 

TuBULIBRANCHIATA(a) 

Have a shell resembling a more or less irregularly pointed tube, 
which attaches itself to various bodies. Their branchiae consist of a 
single range along the left side of the roof of the branchial cavity. 
The 

SCUTIBRANCHIATA 

Have branchiae similar to those of Pectinibranchiata ; but the sexes 
are united, so that fecundation takes place without a mutual copula- 
tion, as in the Acephala. Their shell is very open, and in several 
forms a non-turbinated shield; the operculum is always wanting. 
The 

CYCLOBRANCHIATA, 

Hermaphrodites, like the Scutibranchiata, have a shell composed of 
one or several pieces, but never turbinated nor with an operculum ; 



* N.B. Sometimes, as in Vermetus, &c., the foot is recurved in such a manner 
that the operculum is before. 



Q^ (a) In the original this order does not occur, but we find further on, that 
when the author comes to take each of these orders into detailed consideration, as it 
will be seen he does in the following pages, the necessity occurred to him of sepa- 
rating from the Pectinibranchia an additional order, to which he gave the name of 
of Tubulibranchia. We have therefore deemed it necessary to insert this order 
with its characters precisely in the order and relation assigned to it by the author. 
ENO. ED. 



GASTEROPODA PULMONEA. 



their branchiae are attached under the margin of their mantle, as in 
the Inferobranchiata(a). 



ORDER I. 
PULMONEA*. 

Tlu- Piilinoiiia arc distinguished from tin* otlu-r Moiluscaby respiring 
tla^tio air tlirouerh a hole opening under the margin of the mantle, 
and which they dilate and contract at will ; and accordingly have no 






* M. de Blainville prefers the term Pulmonobranchiata. 
(n) The Gasteropodes form, in Lamarck's classification, the Second Order 
TWELFTH CLASS. 

MOLLUSCA. 

tinier II. Les Gatttropodes. 

:ii;ils with the body straight, never in a spiral form,, nor enveloped in a shell 
capable of containing the whole of it ; they have beneath the belly a foot or muscular 
dNk, united nearly to the whole length of the body, and serving them to crawl with. 
Some are naked, others are screened by a dorsal shell, not sheathed in the body ; 
and others again, have a shell more or less concealed in their mantle. 
First Section. Les Hydrobranchia. 
ANIMALS only breathing water. 

TThe respiratory organs, in what- 
Genus Glaucus 
.... Eolis 

---- Tritonia ...... First Family. 

.... Scyllaea ...... Les Tritoniens. 

.... Tethys 

.... Doris 



Phyllidhi 
Chitonellus 
Chiton 
Patella 



lus' ' .' ] 1 



Pleurobrancans. 
Umbrella. . . . 

ophora .. ' 
.rinula . . 
Fttturella .... 



>triea 

!ula 



Third Family. 
Les Seraiphyllidiens. 



Fourth Family. 
Les Calyptraciens. 



Fifth Family. 
Bulleens. 



ever part they are situated, 
! are always elevated, either 
;' in filets, laminae, tufts, or 
\ like a comb ; they are placed 
I above the mantle, either on 

the back or on the sides, and 
L not in any particular cavity. 

r Respiratory organs placed be- 
neath the border or edge 
of the mantle, and disposed 
in a longitudinal series round 
the body, or on one side, not 
being placed in any particular 
L cavity. 

{Gills as above, but placed on 
the right side of the body 
only. 

r Respiratory organs placed in a 
cavity appropriated to them 
on the back of the animal, 
I near the neck, projecting 
| cither within the cavity or 
above it. Shell always exter- 
nal and covering the animal, 
L which is without tentaculae. 
Gills placed in a particular ca- 
vity near the posterior part 
of the back, and covered by 
the mantle or by an opercu- 
lary shield. No tentaculae. 



28 



MOLLUSC A. 



branchiae, but a mere net-work of pulmonary vessels which creep 
over the parietes of the respiratory cavity and chiefly on its ceiling. 

Some of them are terrestrial; others are aquatic, but are com- 
pelled to visit the surface from time to time for the purpose of open- 



Genus Onchidium .... 
.... Parmacella. . . . 

.... Limax 

.... Testacellus . . . 
Yitrina 



Seventh Family. 
Les Limaciens. 



f Respiratory organs situated as 

Genus Aplysia 1 Sixth Family. I in the Bullccns, and also 

.... Dolabella . . . . J Les Aplysiens. S covered by a shield ; but this 

L family possesses tentaculce. 

Second Section. Les Pneumobranchiee. 

r Branchiae, or respiratory organs 
rampant, in the form of vas- 
cular net, on the thickness of 
< a particular cavity, the aper- 
ture of which the animal con- 
tracts or dilates at will. 
L They only breathe fresh air. 

Third Order. Les Trachelipodes. 

The bodies of the animals spirally contorted at their posterior part, which is sepa- 
rated from the foot, and always enveloped in a shell ; the foot free, flattened, 
attached to the lower base of the neck or at the anterior part of the body, and useful 
to assist the animal in crawling : a spiral shell covering the body. 

First Section. Les Phytiphages. 
ANIMALS feeding on vegetable substances. 

Trachelipodes without a pro- 
jecting syphon, breathing 
generally by a hole. The 
greater number feed on vege- 
table substances, and are 
furnished with jaws : aper- 
ture of the shells entire, not 
having at the base any dorsal 
notch, or canal; they only 
_ breathe air. Shell spirivalve, 

| , smooth or with striae, the 
right margin often reflected 
outwardly ; smooth and not 
distinctly nacreous. This 
family is terrestrial ; they 
have cylindrical tentaculse, 
with eyes at their summits 



Genus Helix 

.... Carocolla . 

.... Anostoma . 

.... Helicina . . . 

.... Pupa 

Clausilia. . . 

.... Bulimus . . . 

.... Achatina. . . 

.... Succinea. . . 

.... Auricula . . . 

.... Cyclostoma. 



With four tenta- 
culse. 



... I With two tenta- 
... j culse. 



Planorbis 

Physa 

Lyranaea . . 



Second Family. 
Les Lymncens. 



with or without an opercu- 
lum . They all live out of the 

L water. 

f Amphibious Trachelipodes, with 
two tentaculse without eyes 
at their summit; generally 
no operculum, their tentaculac 
flattened ; they inhabit fresh 
water, and rise to breathe the 
air on its surface. Shell spi- 
rivalve, most frequently 
smooth on its external sur- 
face, and having the right 
margin of its aperture always 
sharp, and not reflected. 



GASTEREOPODA PULHONEA. 



29 



ing the orifice of their pectoral cavity in order to respire. They are 

all hermaphrodite. The 

PULMONEA TERRESTRIA 
Have generally four tentacula, ; in two or three only, of a very small 

be lower pair are not to he seen. 
Those whieh possess no apparent shell, form in the Linnaean sys- 

I.-MI the p-im> 

I, i MAX, Lin. 

Which we divide a> follow> : 



t properly so called, Lam. 

Have the body elongated, and the mantle, a dense fleshy disk which 
to the fore pan of the back, merely covering the pulmonary 



Mcluni:i . . . 
.... Melanopsis. 
Pirena . 



itn .. . 

Paludina. . . 
Ampullaria. 



Vavleella 
Neritina. . 
Nerita .. 
Natica . 



Janthiua 



Stomatia . 

i . 

Tonmtclla . . 
lidella 



Third Family. 
Les Mi'-luniens. 



Fourth Family. 
Les P^ristoiniens. 



Fifth Family. 
Les Ne'ritacte. 



Sixth Family. 
Les Janthines. 



Seventh Faiuily. 
Lea Macrostomes. 



Eighth Family. 



rFluviatile Trach&ipodes with 
two tentaculx and nu oper- 
culnm, and only breathintr 
^ water. The shells have t he- 
margin of the aperture dis- 
united, the right side always 
L sharp : with an epidermis. 

r Animal the same as the preced- 
ing family ; shell conoid or 
\subdiscoid; the margins of 
the aperture united. 
TOperculated Trachflipodes, and 
hreathing water only ; some 
inhabit fresh water, others 
j are marine. Shells semi- 
*' globular or a flattened oval, 
\ without a columella, and the 
j left margin of the aperture 
forming a cover half over the 
aperture of the shell, like the 
(_ deck of a boat. 

r Shell marine, its aperture not 
at all closed, floating on the 
surface of the water; breatb- 
J ing water only. The animal 
| has a bladder attached to its 
I foot, by which, when it is 
inflated, the shell is sus- 
L pended. 

Shell not floating, aperture very 
much widened, margin di-- 
united, no columella or oper- 
cuhnu. The animal breath- 
ing water only. 
f Aperture of the shell not \\hU-n- 
I ed, and plaits on the colu- 
\ incllii : the animal breathing 
L water only. 



30 



MOLLUSCA. 



cavity ; in several species it contains a small, flat, and oblong shell, 
or at least a calcareous concretion in place of it. The respiratory 



Vermetus 
Scalaria 
Delphi nula 



ntus ____ ~\ 
"I* ...... ^ 

i u u hi ... I 



Solarium. 
Rotella. . 
Trochus 
Monadonta 
Turbo 
Planaxis 
Phasianella 
Turritella, . 



onta .... v 
is .. 



Ninth Family. 
Les Scalai-iens. 



Tenth Family. 
Les Turbinac^s 



Shell having no plaits on the 

columella, the edges of the 

) aperture united circularly. 

1 Animal a vermicular Tra- 

chlipode, and breathing wa- 

ter only. 

C Shell turretted or conoid, aper- 
ture round or oblong, not 
I widened, having the edges 
^ disunited : they appear fur- 
i nished with an operculum. 
The animal breathes only 
water. 



Second Section. Les Zoophages. 
ANIMALS feeding on animal substances only. 

"Tracht'lipodos with 



Genus Cerithium . . 

.... Pleuromata . 

.... Turbinella . 

.... Cancellaria . 

.... Fasciolaria . 

.... Fusns ...... 

.... Pyrula 



Struthiolaria 
Ranella 

Murex 

Triton .... 




Rostellaria 
Pterocera. . 
Strombus. . 



First Division. ' 
Species without 
any permanent 
varix or thick- 
ened lip on the 
right margin. 

Second Division. 
All the species 
having perma- 
nent varices, or 
a thickened lip 
on the right side. w 



Second Family. 
Les Ail^es. 



project- 
ing or salient syphon, breath- 
ing water only, conveyed to 
the branchiae or gills by that 
syphon ; they feed upon ani- 
mal substances only, are 
marine, without jaws, and 
provided with a retractile 
proboscis. Shell spirivalve, 
inclosing the. animal; the 
aperture either canaliculated 
or notched at the base ; the 
right lip not changing its 
form by age, the canal more 
or less long ; all having oper- 
cula. In the first division of 
this family, the additional 
growth is but slightly marked, 
in the second, it is distin- 
guished by thickened bands 
or varices, which remain on 
the external whorls, except 
in the genus Struthiolaria, 
which has only a thickened 
lip. 

Shell having a canal more or 
less long at the base of the 
aperture, the right side of 
which changes its form with 
age, and becomes wing- 
shaped ; a sinus at the lower 
part of the lip. These shells 
present the remarkable fact 
of being totally different in 
form in an adult state, from 
that in the young ; a fact 
only observable in the G. Cy- 
praea besides this family. 
The operculum of the ani- 
mals of this family is horny, 
long, and straight. 



GASTEROPODA PULMONEA. 



31 



orifice is on tin- ritilit side of this species of shield, and the anus on the 
margin of that orifice. The four tcntacula are protruded and re- 
tracted, evolving themselves like the inverted fingers of a glove, and 
the ii.-ud itself can be partly withdrawn under the disk of the mantle. 
The ovnital organs open under the upper right tentaculum. The 
mouth has only an upper jaw, resembling a dentated cresent, which 
niahies these animals to gnaw fruits and herbs, which they do with 
so much vunicity as to eft'ect considerable injury. The stomach is 
elongated, .simple and membranous 
M. de Ferussac distinguishes 

ARION, Fer., 

In which the respiratory orifice is towards the anterior part of the 
shield, which merely contains a few calcareous granules. Such is 

Limax Rufw, L. (the Red Limax;) Ferussac, Moll. Terr, et 

Fluv., pi. i. and iii. Jt is everywhere to be met with in wet 

ther, and is sometimes entirely black, Ib. II, i, 2. A decoc- 



(u-IIUS 


Cassidaria .... 
Cassis 


-| A ascending canal" 1 
> recurved back- 
J \\ards. 

' 


I 

I 


r Shells having a short canal at 
the base of the opening as- 
cending towards the back, or 
a notch in the form of a semi- 
canal, inclined backward. 




Purpura 




w 


The animals of all this family 


.. . 


Moneceros .... 
Concholepas. . . . 


An oblique notch 


w 

>. 


produce coloring matter, but 
particularly the G. Purpura, 
from which was extracted 






buck 


a 

a 


the celebrated dye of the 








1 


Romans ; it is contained in 










a peculiar reservoir near the 




Terebra 




J 


animal's neck. All of them 








i 


appear to possess an oper- 
culum. 



Columbella 
Mitra .... 
\ oluta .. .. 
Maivinellu 
\ 



Fourth Family. 
Les Columellaires. 



Ovulii . . .. 

a .. 
Hum 

Aiu-illa.... 
Olivu .. . 
C'oiui> . . 



Fifth Family. 
Les Enroul&s. 



No canal at the base of the 
aperture, but a subdorsal 
notch more or less distinct, 
and having plaits on the* 
columella of the shell. The 
Columbellte have a small 
operculum attached to the 
foot of the animal, 
f- Shell without a canal, but hav- 
ing the base of the aperture 
effuse or notched ; the whorls 
it' it* ^pire large, compressed, 
rolled round each other, so 
th.it the last nearly conceals 
all the others, renderinp tin- 
spiral cavity large and nar- 
row, and indicating that the 
iimly of the animal mint In- 
flattened. The two first ge- 
nera of this family have the 
rijrht lip rerun oil inwardly; 
no operculum. 



32 MOLLUSCA. 

tion of this species is sometimes used in France for pulmonary 
disorders*. 

LIMA, Feruss. 

The respiratory opening towards the posterior part of their shell, 
and frequently much larger. Such is 

L. antiijuorum, Feruss., pi. iv and viii, A, f. 1 ; L. maximus, L. ; 
L. sylvaficus, Drap., Moll., IX, x. Frequently spotted or streaked 
with grey ; found in caves and dark forests. 

L. agrestis, L. ; Feruss., pi. v, f. 5 10. Small, without spots ; 
and one of the most abundant and destructive animals. f 

VAGINULUS, Feruss. 

Have a dense mantle without shell, stretching over the whole 
length of the body ; four tentacula, the lower ones slightly forked ; 
the anus at the extreme posterior extremity, between the point of the 
mantle and that of the foot, the same orifice leading to the pulmonary 
cavity situated along the right flank ; orifice of the male organ of 
generation under the right inferior tentaculum, and that of the 
female under tho middle of the right side. These organs, as well as 
those of digestion, are very similar to the same parts in the Slug. 

These Mollusca are found in both Indies, and closely resem- 
ble the common LimacesJ. 

TESTACELLA, Lam. 

Have the respiratory orific and the anus at the posterior extremity; 
the mantle very small, and placed on the same extremity ; it con- 
tains a small oval shell, with an exremely wide aperture and a very 
small spine, which is not one tenth of the length of the body ; other- 
wise these animals resemble the Limaces. 

Test, haliotoidea, Drap. ; Cuv., Ann. du Mus., V, xxvi, 6, 11. 
A common species is found in the southern departments of France; 

* Add : the L. albus, Miill., Feruss., pi. i, f. 3 ; L. hortensis, Id., pi. ii, f. 4 G. 

f* Add : L. alpinus, Feruss., pi. v. a; L. gugates, Drap., pi. ix, f. 1 and 2, c. 
N.B. The PLECTOPHORA, Feruss., would be Limaces, having a sort of small conical 
shell on the end of their tail, and far from the shield ; they are only known, however, 
by drawings of very equivocal authority, Favanne, Zoomorphose, pi. Ixxvi, copied 
Feruss., pi. vi, f. 5, 6, 7. 

M. de BlainvilLe (Malac., p. 464) now doubts the reality of his genus LIMACELLA, 
and rejects his genus VERONJCELLA, Diet, des Sc. Nat. The PHYLOMICHUS and 
EUMELES. Raf., are too imperfectly indicated to be admitted into a work like this. 

Vaginulus Taimaisii, Feruss., pi. viii, A, f. 7 ; and viii, B, 2 3 ; V. altns, Id., 
pi. viii, A, f. 8, and viii, B, f. 6 ; V. Langsdorfii, Id., pi. viii, B, f. 3 and 4 ; '. 
Itirit/n/ns, Id., pi. viii, B, f. 5, 7 ; Onchidinm occidentale, Guilding, Lin. Trans. 

xiv, ix. : 

The genus MEGHIMATIUM of Van Hassel., Bullet. Univere., 1824, Zool. tome 
III, p. 82, should apparently be added to it. 

N.B. The genus VAGINULA differs from ONCHIDIUM, with which M. de Blain- 
ville has united it, Malac., p. 465, detaching from it, at the sume time, the true 
Onrhidiums to form his genus PI;UOXIA. His anatomy of the Vaginula in the Moll. 
Terr, et Fluv. of M. de Ferussnc, pi. viii, C, is very good. 



CASTKROPODA PULMoNEA. 33 

it lives under ground, and feeds chiefly on Lumbrici. M. de F- 
russac has observed, that when accidentally placed in too dry a 
situation, the mantle experiences a singular development, and 
furnishes it with a sort of shelter. 

PARMACELLA, Cuv. 

Have a membranous mantle with loose margins placed on the mid- 
dle of the back, and containing in ite posterior portion an oblong, flat 
shell, the hind part of which exhibits a slight rudiment of a spine ; 
the respiratory orifice and the anus, under the right side of the mid- 
die of the mantle. 

Farm. Olivieri, Cuv. Ann. du Mus., V, xxix, 12 15. The 
first species known ; from Mesopotamia. 

Farm, palliolum* Feruss., pi. vii, A. Inhabits Brazil. Some 
others are found in India. 

In the terrestrial Puhnonea with complete and apparent shells, the 
edges of the aperture in the adult are usually tumid. 

HELIX, Lin. 

To this genus Linnaeus referred all those species in which the aper- 
ture of the shell, somewhat incroached upon by the projection of the 
penultimate whorl, assumes a crescent-like figure. 

When this crescent of the aperture is as wide as it is high, or 
wider, it becomes the 

HELIX, Brug. and Lam. 

Some of them have a globular shell, 

Of this number is the Helix pomatia, L., common in the gar- 
dens and vineyards of France, with a reddish shell marked with 
paler bands, an animal which in some places is considered a deli- 
cious article of food. The Hel. nemoralis, L., is another; whose 
shell is variously and vividly coloured ; in wet seasons it is very 
injurious to espaliers*. There are but few persons who have 
not heard of the curious facts respecting the reproduction of 
their amputated partsf. 

In others the shell is depressed, that is, the spire is flattened^. 

* Add the Hel. glauca, H. citrina; H. rapa ; H. castanca; H. ylolulus; . 
//. lactta; H. arbustontm ; JU.fulva; H. fpistt/lium : H. cincta; H. liyatq; 
H. asptrsa.- H. extcnsa; //. nemarcnsis ; H. fruiicum; H. lucena; H. tit tat a ;-*- 
//. rvsacfa; U. it alia; //. lusitanica: H. aculeata; H. turluntm ; H. cretacta ; 
il. Ay Mtvu; H. tcrrtstris ; //. nicca ; H. hortensis ; H. lucomm; ff. grisea ; 
H. h<rt*as(oma; Jf. pulhi ; //. rmiw/a; //. picta, Gmel, &c. 

f See Spnllanzani, Schceffer, Bonnet, &c. 

; / / / . l.tpicida ; U. cicatricosa ; H. agophtalmus ; H . oculits capri ; H, albella ; 
II. maculata.H. a/jrro. H. Ufripcs.H. vermiculata,H, rt/is ,- H. cara- 
folla . //. curnu militarr;H. ptlli* serpcntis ;H . Gualtetiana ;H. oculis commit- 
II. mnrifi>iella ; H. maculosa; H. naria; H. corrvgata; //. ericctorum ; 
// ntcns;H.costata:H.i*lchella;H. ceUana;H.obtoluta : H- streiyosula ; 
H.rutlinta ; H. cryslallina ; //. ungitlina ; //. rnlrutus ; //. inrolntlus ; //, 

f: // . conw renatonutit, &c. 
OL. 111. U 



34 



MOLLUSC A. 



Some of these have ribs projecting internally*, and there are 
others in which the last whorl is suddenly recurved, (in the adult,) 
assuming an irregular and plaited formf . 

VITRINA, Drap. HELICO-LIMAX, Feruss. 

The Vitrinse are Helices with a very thin flattened shell, without 
an umbilicus ; the aperture large, but its margin not tumid ; the 
body too large to be completely drawn into the shell ; the mantle has 
a double border J, the upper one, which is divided into several lobes, 
extends considerably beyond the shell, and being reflected over it, 
polishes it by friction. 

The known European species inhabit wet places, and are very 
small. Hot climates produce larger ones. 

There are some species of Helix, in which the body can hardly 
enter the shell, although not furnished with this double border, which 
should be approximated to them ||. 

When the crescent of the aperture is higher than it is wide, a 
disposition which always obtains when the spire is oblong or elon- 
gated, it constitutes the 

BULIMUS TERRESTRIS, Brug. 
Which requires a still further subdivision : 

BULIMUS, Lam. 

Margin of the aperture tumid in the adult, but without denta 
tions. 

Hot climates produce large and beautiful species, some of which 
are remarkable for the volume of their ova, the shell of which is of a 
stony hardness ; and others for their left shell. 

Several moderate-sized or small species are found in France, 
one of which, the Helix decollata, Gm.; Chemn., cxxvi, 1254, 
1257, has the singular habit of successively fracturing the whorls 
of the summit of the spire. This is the example referred to, as 
a proof that the muscles of the animal can be detached from 



* Hel. sinuata; //. lucerna; H. lychnuchus ; H. cepa; H. isognomostoma ; 
H. sinuosa ; H . punctata, &c. 

\-Hel. ringens, Chemn., IX, cix, 919, 920, the AXOSTOMA of Lam., or TOMO- 
GERES, Montf. ; an analogous fossil shell is the STROPHOSTOMA, Deshayes. See, 
also, pi. v, vi, vii, viii, of Draparn., with the accompanying descriptions ; the works 
of Sturm and Pfeiffer on the German species, but particularly see the splendid folio 
of M. de F^russac on the " Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles." 

J Termed by M. de Fe'russac " une curiasse et un colirlier." 

Hel. pellucida, Mull, and Geoff. ; Vitrina pellucida, Drap., VIIT, 3437.': 
the Helicarion, Q,uoy and Gaym., Zool. de Freycin., pl.lxvii, 1; Feruss., pi. ix 
f. 14. 

|| Hel. rufa and brevipcs, Feruss., Drap., VIII, 2633. 






GASTEROPODA PUI.MONBA. '>> 

tin- hln-11 ; for at a particular epoch, of all tlur whorls of the spi** 
originally possessed by thi* Bulinius, not u ^in^lc urn- remains*. 

PUPA, Lam. 

Have the summit of the shell very obtuse ; the last whorl, in the 
adult, becoming again narrower than the others, giving it the fornj of 
an ellipsoid, or sometimes almost that of a cylinder ; the surrounding 
margin of the apertute tumid and emarginated on the side next to 
tin- spire by the preceding whorl. Small species, inhabiting wet 
places, among mosses, &c. 

SomctiiiK's there is no dentation f. 

More commonly there is one in that portion of the aperture 
which is closed by the penultimate whorl J. 

It is frequently observed inside of the external edgej). 

CHONDRUS, Cuv. 

Have the aperture, as in the last mentioned Pupre, indebted on the 
side next to the spine by the preceding whorl, and bordered with 
salient himiiue or teeth; but the form is more ovoid, like that of a 
common Bulimus. 

Some of them have teeth on the margin of the aperture . 

Others are furnished with more deeply seated laminae^). 

II ! terminates that series of terrestrial Helices, the adult shells of 
which have a tumid margin round the aperture. 

SUCCINEA, Drop. 

Have the shell oval, and the aperture higher than it is broad, as in 
Bulimus, but larger in proportion, and the margin of the aperture 

Add Helix otalis, Gm., Chemn., IX. .cxix, 1020, 1021 ; H. obloaga, Ib., 
1022, 1023; H. trifusriata, Id., ('XXXI V, 1215 ; H.drxlra, Ib., 1210, 1212; 
,/erntpta, Ib., 1213,1214; Z/., Ib., 1215 ;//., Ib., 1224, 1225; H. per- 
versa, Id., CX and CXI, 928 937 ; H. inversa, Ib., 925, 926 ; H. contrariv, Id., 
CXI, 938, 939; H. lava, Ib., 940 and 949; H. labiosa, Id., CXXXIV, 1234 ; 
#.,Ib., 1232; I/., Ib., 1231 ; H. crttacca, Id., CXXXVI, 1263; H. pudica, Id., 
( \ \ 1 . 1 042 ; H. calrirca, Id., CXXXV, 1226. 

Hrlla auris Malcha, L., Gm., Ib., 1037, 1038, V, Ib., 1041. 

Hitlimtts columba, Brag., Seb., Ill, Ixxi, 61 ; Bui. fasciolatus, Oliv., Voy., pi. 
f. S. For the small species of France, see Draparuaud, Moll. terr. etfluviat., 
|.l. iv, f. 2132. 

f Bulimia labrosus, Oliv., Voy. pi. xxxi, f. 10, A, B ; Pupa edentula, Drap. Ill, 
38, 29 ; Pupa obtusa, Id., 43, 44 ; Bui. fusus, Brag. 

to urn, L., Martini, IV, cliii, 1439; Turbo muscorum, L. (Papa marginata, 
Drnp., Ill, 36, 37, 38) ; Ppa muscontm, Drap., III. C6, 27. (Vertigo cylindrica, 
. ); Pvpa umbilicata, Drap. Ill, 39, 40 ; P. duliolum, Ib., 41,42. 

|| llrl. rrrtigo, Gm., (Pupa vertigo, Drap., Ill, 34, 35) ; Pupa antivertigo, Ib., 
32, 33; Pupa pygm*a, Ib., 30, 31 ; BuKmus ovularis, Oliv., Voy., XVII, 12, 
Vb. 

$ llulimus zebra, <M. f XVII, 10 :Pupa tridens, Drap., Ill, 57; Pupa tariabilis, 
U>., 56, 66. 

t Bulimus amaceus, Drug., <P*pa atena) Drnp., III., 47, 48; P. secale, Ib., 
49, 50 ;- P. frumeiUum, Ib., 51, 52 ; Bulimus similis, Brag. ; P. rinerta, Drap., 
Ib., 53, 54 ; P. polvodon, IV, 1, 2 : Helix quatridtnsJPupa quadr., l>mp.) Ib. 3. 

D 2 



36 MOLLUSCA. 

not tumid ; the side of the columella is almost concave. The shell will 
not receive the entire animal, and it might almost be considered as a 
large-shelled Testacella. Its inferior tentacula are very small, and it 
lives on the plants and shrubs which line the banks of rivulets, a cir- 
cumstance which has caused the genus to be considered as amphi- 
bious*. 

It is necessary to separate from the genus Turbo of Linn, and refer 
to the genus of terrestrial Helices the following : 

CLAUSILIA, Drap. 

The shell is long, slender, and pointed, the last whorl, in the adult, 
narrowed, compressed, slightly detached, and terminated by a com- 
plete aperture with a tumid margin, frequently dentated or furnished 
with laminae. In the contraction of the last whorl we usually find a 
little plate bent into an. S, the use of which to the living animal is 
unknown. 

The species are very small, living in mosses at the foot of 
trees, &c. A great many of them are reversed-)-. 
It is also necessary to separate from the Bulla of Linn, and place 
here 

ACHATINA, Lam. 

In which the aperture of the oval or oblong shell is higher than it is 
broad, as in the Bulimi, but it wants the tumid margin ; the ex- 
tremity of the columella also is truncated, the first indication of the 
emarginations which we shall find in so many marine Gasteropoda. 
These Achatinse are large Helices, which devour trees and shrubs in 
hot countries {. 

Montfort distinguishes those, in the last whorl of which we find a 
callus or peculiar thickening, Liguns, Montf.|| ; this whorl is propor- 
tion ably lower in them than in the others : 

And those in which the extremity of the columella is curved to- 
wards the inside of the aperture, Polyphemus, Montf. ; the last 
whorl is higher, The 

* Succinca amphibia, Drap., IV, 22, 23 (Helix putris, L.) ; S. oblong a, Ib., 24. 
The genera COCHLQHYDRA, F^russ., LUCINA, Oken, TASSADE, Huder, cor- 
respond to the Succinese. M. Delarnark at first styled them AMPHIBULIMI. The 
Amphibulime encapuchonnt, Lam., Ann. du Mus. VI, Iv, l,may also form a Testa- 
cella. 

t Turbo perversus, L., List., 41, 39 ; T. bidens, Gm., Drap., IV. 5, 7 ; T. pa- 
pillaris, Gm., Drap., Ib., 13 ; and the other Clausiliae of Drap., figured on the same 
plate; Bulimus retusus, Oliv., Voy., XVII, 2; Bui. inflatus, Ib., 3; Bui. teres, 
Ib., 6 ; Bui. torticollis, Ib., 4, a, b ; Turbo tridens, L., Chemn., IX, xii, 957 ; 
Clausilia collaris, F^russ., List., 20, 16, 

J Bulla zebra, L. Chemn., IX, ciii. 875, 876; cxviii, 1014 1016; Bulla 
achatina, Ib., 1012, 1013; Bulla purpurea, Ib., 1018; Bulla dominicensis, Id., 
CXVII, 1011: Bulla stercus pulicum, CXX, 1026, 1027; Bulla Jtammea, Id., 
CXIX, 1021 1025; Helix tenera, Gm., Ib., 1028, 1030; Bulimus bicarinatus, 
Brug., List., 37 ;Mtlanie buccino'ide, Oliv., Voy., XVII, 8. 

|| Bulla virginea, L., Chemn., IX, cxvii, 1000, 1003 ; X, clxxiii, 1682 3. 

Bulimus </lans, Brug., Chemn., IX, cxvii, 1009, 1010. 






GASTEROPODA PULMONEA. 37 

PULMONEA AQUATICA, 

Have only two tentacula, as already stated ; they are continually 
compelled to rise to the surface for the purpose of breathing, so 
that they cannot inhabit very deep water; they are usually found 
in fresh water or salt ponds, or at least in the vicinity of the sea- 
coast and of the mouths of rivers. Some of them have no shell, 
such as 

ONCHIDIUM, Buchan*. 

A broad, fleshy mantle, in the form of a shield, overlapping the foot 
at all points, and even covering the head when it contracts. It has 
two long retractile tentacula, and on the mouth an emarginated veil, 
formed of two triangular and depressed lobes. 

The anus and respiratory orifice are under the posterior edge of 
the mantle, where, a little more deeply, we also find the pulmonary 
cavity. Close to them, on the right, opens the female organ of gene- 
ration ; that of the male, on the contrary, is under the right great 
tentaculum, the two openings being united by a furrow, which extends 
along the under part of the whole of the right margin of the mantle. 
These animals, destitute of jaws, have a muscular gizzard, followed 
by two membranous stomachs. Several of them inhabit the sea- 
shore, but in places where the ebb leaves them uncovered, so that 
they can readily breathe the natural airf . 

The acquatic Pulmonea, with complete shells, were also placed by 
Linnaeus in his genera Helix, Bulla and Valuta, from which it has 
been found necessary to separate them. 

In the first were comprised the two following genera, where we 
find the internal edge of the aperture crescent-shaped, as in Helix. 

PLANORBIS, Brug.+ 

The Planorbes had already been distinguished from the Helices by 
Brugieres, and even previously by Guettard, on account of the slight 

ONCHIDIUM, a name given to this genus, because the first species (Onchidium 
typhtf, Buchan., Lin. Soc. Lond., V, 132) was tuberculous; I now know one that 
is smooth, the Onchidium larii/ii/iint, Cuv. t and four or five that are tuberculous: 
Ouch. Peronii, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., V, 6; Onch. Sloanii, Cuv., Sloane, Jam., pi. 

273, 1 and 2 ; Onch. verruculatum, Descr. de 1'Eg., Moll. Caster., pi. ii. f. 3 ; 

Onch. crlticum, Cuv., a small species from the coast of Brittany. 

N. B. M. de Blainville has changed the name of Onchidium into that of PERONI A, 
and applied the former to the Vaginulae. These Peroniae he places among his 
CYCLOBRANCHIATA, but I can see no real difference between their respiratory 
organ and that of the other Pulmonete. 

f See Chamisso, Nov. Act. Mat. Cuv., XI, part I, p. 348, and Van Hassel, 
Bullet. Univers., 1824. Sept., Zool., 83. 

* Hel. vortex; H. cornea . H. spirorbi* , H. polygyra ; H. contorta : H. 
inifi,la . //. alha . //. rimilu. 

See the quotations of Grael., and add, Draparnaud, pi. I, f. 39 51, and pi. ii, 
f. 1 22. 



38 MOLLUSCA. 

increase of the whorls of their shell, the convolutions of which arc 
nearly in one plane, and because the aperture is wider than it is high. 
It contains an animal with long, thin, filiform tentacula, at the inner 
base of which are the eyes, and from the margin of whose mantle 
exudes a quantity of a red fluid, which is not, however, its blood. Its 
stomach is muscular and its food vegetable, like that of the Limnsei, 
of which, in all our stagnant waters, it it the faithful companion. The 

LIMN^EUS, Lam* 

Separated from the Bulimi of Brugiere by M. t>elamark, have, like a 
Bulimi, an oblong spire and the aperture higher than it is wide ; but 
the margin, like that of a Succinea, is not reflected, and there is a 
longitudinal fold in the columella, which runs obliquely into the 
cavity. The shell is thick ; the animal has two compressed, broad, 
triangular tentacula, near the base of whose inner edge are the eyes. 
They feed on plants and seeds, and their stomach is- a very muscular 
gizzard, preceded by a crop. Like all the Pulmonea, they are her- 
maphrodites, and the female organ of generation being far from the 
other, they are compelled so to copulate, that the individual which acts 
as a male for one, serves as a female for a third ; long strings of them 
may be observed in this position. 

They inhabit stagnant waters in great numbers ; they also abound 
with the Planorbes in certain layers of marl or calcareous strata, 
which they evidently prove were deposited in fresh waterf. 

PHYSA, Drap. 

The Physae, which were placed without any just motive among the 
Bullae, have a shell very similar to that of a Lymnaea, but without the 
fold in the columella and reflected edge, and very thin. When the 
animal swims or crawls, it covers its shell with the two notched lobes 
of its mantle, and has two long, slender and pointed tentacula, on the 
greatly enlarged internal base of which are the eyes. These are the 
small mollusca of our fountains. 

One of them, Bulla fontincdis, L., which is sinistral, is found 
in France*. 

According to the observations of Van Hasselt, we should place 
here the 

SCARABJEUS, Montf. 

Which has an oval shell, the aperture narrowed by projecting and 
stout dentations on the side next to the columella, as well as towards 



* Hel. slagnalis, L. of which H.fragilis is a variety ; H.palustris ; Htperegra ; 
H. limosa ; //. nuncularin. See Drap., pi. ii, f. 28, 42, and pi. iii. f. 1,7. 

f The mantle of the Limn, glntinosiis, like that of the Physae, is sufficiently ninple 
to envelope its shell. It is the genus AMPHIPEPLEA. Nilson, Moll, sure. 

J The neighbouring specie*, KvU. hypnnrum, L., and Physa acu/a, and Scafurit/inum, 
Drap., require an examination of their animals. Vide, Drap., p. 54, et scq. 



GASTEROPODA NUDIBRANCHIATA. .'J! 

the external margin; this margin is enlarged, and as the animal 
renews it after each semi-whorl, the shell projects most on two oppo- 
site lines, and has a compressed appearance. 

They feed on aquatic plants in the Archipelago of India*. 

The two following genera were among the Volutae. 

AURICULA, Lam. 

Differing from all the preceding aquatic Pulmonea in the columella, 
which is marked with wide and oblique flutings. Their shell is oval 
or oblong, the aperture elevated as in Bulimus, and the margin tumid. 
Several are large ; we are not certain whether they inhabit marshes 
like the Lymnaei, or their borders like the Succineae. 

Auricula myosotis. Drap. Ill, 16, 17; Carychium myosotis, 
Feruss. The only species in France; the animal has but two 
tentacula, and the eyes are at their base ; from the shores of the 
Mediterranean!. 

CONVOVULUS, Lam. MELAMPES, Movtf. 

Projecting folds on the columella, as in the Auriculae, but the margin 
of the aperture is not tumid, and the internal lip is finely striated ; 
the general form of the shell is that of a cone, of which the spire forms 
the base. They inhabit the rivers of the AntillesJ. 



ORDER II. 
NUDIBRANCHIATA||. 

The Nudibranchiata have neither shell nor pulmonary cavity, their 
branchiae being exposed on some part of the back. They all are 
hcrraaphroditical and marine animals, frequently swimming in a re- 
versed position, with the foot on the surface, concave like a boat, and 
using the assistance of the margin of their mantle and then tentacula 
as oars. In the 

* Helix scarabaus, L. 

f Add, Valuta auris Jft&e, L., Martini, II, xliii, 43638; Chemn.,X, cxlix, 
1395, 1396 ; Valuta attrit Juda, L., Martini, II, xliv, 44951 ; Vol. auris Sikru, 
Born., IX, 3 t ; Vol. glabra Mart II. xliii, 447, 448 ; Vol. coffea, Chemn., IX, 
cxxi, 1044. 

I Valuta roinu/a, L., Mart., II, xliii, f. 445, or Bulimits contformis, Drug. ; Bui. 
monile, Brag., Mart. Ib., f. 444 ; Bui. ovulut, Br., Mart., lb., 446. 

|| My four first orders are united by M. de Blainville in what he terms a sub- 
class, designating them by the name of PARACEPHALOPHOKA MONOICA. He 
makes two orders of my Nudibranckiata ; in the first, or the CYCLOBRANCHIATA, 
he places Doris and other analogous genera: in the second, or the POLYBRANCHIATA, 
are Tritonia and the following genera, which he divides into two families, according 
to the presence of two or four tentacula. 



40 MOLLUSCA. 



DORIS*, Cuv. 

Have the anus open on the posterior part of the back, the branchiae 
being arranged in a circle round it, under the form of a little tuft, the 
whole resembling a sort of flower. The mouth is a small proboscis, 
situated under the anterior margin of the mantle, and furnished with 
two little conical tentacula. Two other claviform tentacula arise 
from the anterior superior part of the mantle. The openings of the 
genital organs are approximated under its right margin. The sto- 
mach is membranous. A gland interlaced with the liver excretes a 
peculiar fluid through a hole near the anus. The species are nu- 
merous, and some of them large. They are found in every sea, 
where their ova, resembling gelatinous bands, are diffused over 
stones, sea- weed, &c.f The 

ONCHIDORA, Elainv. 

Only differ from Doris in the separation of the genital organs, the 
orifice of which communicates by a furrow running along the right 
side as in Onchidium.J In the 

I 

PLOCAMOCEROS, Leuck. 

Have all the characters of the Onchidorse, in addition to which the 
anterior margin of their mantle is ornamented with numerous branched 
tentacula||. 

POLYCERA, CtlV. 

Have the branchiae, as in Doris, on the hind part of the body, but 
more simple, and followed by two membranous laminae, which cover 
them in moments of danger ; anterior to the claviform tentacula, 



* A name first applied by Linnteus to an animal of this genus, which, however, he 
characterized badly. It was afterwards extended by Muller and Gmelin to almost 
the whole of the Nudibranchiata, and restored by me to its original signification. 

t Species with an oval mantle projecting beyond the foot : Doris verrucosa, L., 
Cuv., Ann. du Mus., IV, Ixxiii, 4, 5 : Doris aryo, L., Bohatsch, Anim. Mar. V, 
4, 5 ; Doris obvelata, Mull., Zool. Dan., XLVIII, 1, 2; Doris fusca , Id., Ib., 
LXVII, 6, 9 ; Doris stellata, Boram<*, Act. Fless., I, Hi, 4 ; Doris pilosa, Miill., loc. 
cit. LXXXV, 58 ;D. la>vis, Id., Ib., XLVII, 35 ; D. muricata, Id., LXXXV, 
2 4; D. tuberculata, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., IV, Ixxiv, 5 ; D. limbata, Ib., Id., 3 ; 
D. solea, Id., Ib., 1, 2 ; D. scabra, Id., Ib., p. 446 ; D. maculosa, Id., Ib., D. 
tomentosa, Id., Ib. ; D. nodosa, Montag., Lin. Trans., IX, vii, 2 ; D. marginata, 
Lin., Trans., VII, vii, p. 84 ; D. nigricans, Otto., Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., XIII, part 
II, pi. xxvi. f. 1 ; D. gramdiflora, Id., Ib., XXVII, f. 3 ; D. figrina, Sav. Egyp., 
Gasterop., pi. i. p. 3 ; D. concentrisca, Ib., f. 5 ; D. marmorata, Ib., f. 6, &c. 

Prismatic species, where the mantle is almost as narrow as the foot : Doris laccra, 
Cuv., Ann. du Mus., IV, Ixxiii, f. 1 and 2; D, atromarginata, Id., Ib., Ixxiv, 6; 
/>. pustitlosa, Id., Ib., p. 473 ; D. gracilis, Rapp., Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. XIII, part 
II, pi. xxvii, f. 10. See also Van Hassel. Bullet. Univ., 1824, Octob,, Zool., p. 
235. 

J Onchidora Leachii, Blainv., Malac., pi. xlvi, f. 8. 

j| Plocamoceros ocdlatus> Leuck., App. Ruppel., Invert, pi. 5, f. 3. 



GASTEROPODA NUDIBRANCH1ATA. 41 

similar to those in Doris, are four, and sometimes six others, simply 
pointed*. 

TRITONIA, Cuv. 

Have the body, the superior tcntacula and genital organs as in Doris ; 
but the anus and the orifice through which the peculiar liquid is ex- 
creted, are pierced on the right behind the organs of generation ; 
the branchiae, which resemble little trees, are arranged along the sides 
of the back, and the mouth, provided with broad membranous lips, is 
armed inside with two horny and trenchant lateral jaws, which may 
be compared to a pair of sheep-shears. 

Trit. Hombergii, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., I, xxxi, 1, 2, and the 
Journ. de Phys., 1785. October, pi. ii. A large species of a cop- 
per colour, from the coast of France. 

The same locality produces many others which vary greatly 
in size and the form of their branchiae f ; several of them are 
very small J. 

THETHYS, Lin. 

Have all two rows of branchiae resembling branching tufts along the 
back, and a very large membranous and fringed veil on the head, 
which shortens as it curves under the mouth ; this latter is a membra- 
nous proboscis without jaws ; on the base of the veil are two com- 
pressed tentacula, from whose margin projects a small conical point. 
The orifices of the genital organs, of the anus, and of the peculiar 
fluid are situated as in the Tritoniae. The stomach is membranous 
and the intestine very short, 

T. fimbria, L., ; Cuv., Ann. du Mus., XII. xxiv||. Grey 
spotted with white ; a beautiful species from the Mediterranean . 

SCYLL.EA, Lin. 

Have the body compressed ; the foot narrow and marked with a fur- 
row which enables it to clasp the stems of the fuci ; no veil ; the 

* Doris quadrilineata, Mull., Zool., Dan., I, rvii , 46, and better, Ib., cxxxviii, 
5 6; D. cornuta, Ib., cxlv, 1, 2, 3 ; D.ftaca, Lin. Trans., VII, vii. p. 84; 
Polycera lincata, Risso, Hist., Nat., IV, pi. i. f. 5. 

f Sucb are Trit. clegans, Descr., de 1'Eg. Zool., Caster., pi. 2, f. 1 ; Trit. ntbra, 
Lcuck., App., Rupp., Invert., pi. 4, f. 1 ; TV. (jlnuca, Ib., f. 2 ; T. ci/anoliranchiuta, 
Ib., f. 3 ; T. arborescent, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., VI, Ixi, and three others, at least 
closely allied; Doris arbor escens, Strain., Act., Hafn., X, v. 5 ; Doris frondosa, 
Ascan., Act. Dronth., V, v, 2, and Doris cervina, Bomm<S Act., Fless., 1, Hi, 1. 

J Doris coronata, Bomme*, Ib., and Doris pinnatifida, Lin. Trans., VII, vii, which 
Is closely allied to it ; Doris ftmbriata, Mull., Zool. Dan., CXXXVIII, 2, and pro- 
bably Doris clangera, Mull., Ib., XVII, 13. Perhaps the Doris lacera, Zool. 
Dan., CXXXVIII, 3, 4, should also be referred to this genus. 

From S^vwr, a name employed by the ancients to designate the Ascidise ; Lin- 
nnn* applied it to this genus. 

|| The difference observed between the Thelhys fimbriala, Bobatsch., Anim. Mar., 
pi. v, and the Thethys Irporina, Fab., Column., Ag., pi. xxvi, appears to me to be the 
result of a greater or less degree of preservation. 



42 MOLLUSC A. 

mouth resembling a little proboscis ; orifices as in Thethys ; the com- 
pressed tentacula terminated by a cavity, from which issues a little 
uneven point, and two pairs of membranous crests on the back, the in- 
ternal surface of which is furnished with pencils of filaments, which 
JHV the branchiae. The middle of the stomach is invested with a 
fleshy ring, internally armed with horny and trenchant laminae, like 
knivos. 

S. pelagica^ L. ; Guv., Ann. du Mus., VI, Ixi, 1, 3, 4. Com- 
mon on the floating focus of almost every sea. 

GLAUCUS, Forster. 

Have the body elongated, and the orifices of the anus and of the 
genital organs as in the preceding; four very small conical tentacula, 
and on each side three branchiae, each of which is formed of long 
slips arranged like the sticks of a fan, which also aid them in swim- 
ming. They are beautiful little animals, that inhabit the Mediter- 
ranean and the Atlantic, prettily coloured with blue and mother-of- 
pearl ; they swim on their back with great swiftness. Their anato- 
mical structure is very similar to that of the Tritonia, but the species 
are not yet well ascertained*. 

LANIOGERUS, Blainv. 

Have on each side two series, of small and finely pectinated laminae, 
which are the branchiae ; the body shorter and thicker than that of a 
Glaucus, but there are four small similar tentacula.f 

EOLIDIA, CUV. 

Have the form of a small Limax, with four tentacula above, and two 
on the sides of the mouth; the branchiae are composed of laminae, ar- 
ranged like scales, more or less crowded, on each side of the back. 
Found in every seaj. 

CAVOLINA, Brug. 

Have the tentacula of the Eolidiae, with radicating retiform branchiae, 
arranged in transverse rows on the back||. 

* Doris radiata, Gm., Dup., Phil. Trans., LTI1, pi. Hi; Scyltte macree, Bosc., 
Hist, des Vers ; Glaucus atlanticits, Blumenb., fig., Nat. Hist., pi. 48, and Manuel., 
fr. trans., II, p. 22; Cuv., Ann. du Mus. VI, Ixi, ii, Peron, Ann. Mus. XV, 
iii, 9. 

f Laniogerus Elfortii, Blainv., Malac, pi. xlvi, f. 4. 

j Dons papillosa, Zool. Dan., CXLIX, 1 4; Doris bodoensis, Gunner., Act. 
Hafn., X, 170 Doris minima, Forsk., Ic., xxvi, H ; Doris fasiculata, Id., Ib., G; 
Doris branchiate, Zool. Dan. CXLIX, 5 7 ; Doris cxrulea, Lin. Trans., VII, 
vii. 84 ;Eolidia histrix, Otto., Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., IX, xxxviii, 2, &c. 

|| Doris peregrina, Gm., Cavolini, Polyp. Mar., VII, 3 ; Eolidia annulicornis, 
Chumisso, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., XI, part II, pi. xxiv, f. 1 ; Doris longicurnis, Lin. 
Trans., IX, vii, 114. 

N.B. This genus must not be confounded with the Cavolina of Abildgard, which is 
the 



GASTEROPODA IWPEROBRANCHIATA. *O 

FLABELLINA, Cuv. 

The tentacula of the fiolkHae, with radiating rectiform branchiae, 
Mipported by five or six pedicles on each side; they are closely allied 
to the Glauci, and in fact to all tho Nudibranchiata, whose branchiae 
are situated on the sides of the back*. 

TERGIPES, Cuv. 

The form of the Eolidiae, but only two tentacula, with a range of 
cylindrical branchiae on both sides of the back, each of which is ter- 
minated by a little sucker or cup, and which are used by the animal 
t, to walk on its back. The species known are very smallf. 

BUSIRIS, Risso. 

The body oblong, and back convex; two filiform tentacula, and 
behind them, on the nape, two plumiform branchiae};. 

PLACOBRANCHUS, Van Hasselt. 

Two tentacula and as many labial lobes ; the whole back, widened 
by its margin, is covered with numerous radiating striae, which are 
the branchiae. In its ordinary condition the widened borders of the 
mantle are turned up, and cross each other to form an envelope for 
the branchiae, which are thus enclosed, as in a cylindrical case. 
They are small Mollusca, from the Indian Ocean ||. 



ORDER III. 

INFEROBRANCHIATA. 

The Inferobranchiata have nearly the same form and organization 
as are observed in Doris and Tritonia, but their branchiae, instead of 
IMMHU placed on the back, resemble two long series of laminae, situated 
on the two sides of the body, under the projecting margin of the 
mantle. 



* Doris affinis, Cm. Carol., Polyp. Mar., VII, 4. 

f l,imtuc ttryipta, Forsk., XXVI, E, or Doris lacinulata, Gm. ; Doris macu- 
lala, Lin. Trans., VII, Til. 34 ; Doris ptnnala, Bomml, Act. Fless., I, Hi, 3. 

J Busiris grisctts, Risso, Hist. Nat. Mar., IV, pi. i, f. 6. 

|| In the species known (Placobranchus Hassclti, Cnv.), the branchial stria: are 
preen, and the body a brown-grey sprinkled with little ocelli. Van llas^clt., Bui 
let. 1,m <>,t.. 1824, p. 240. Messrs Quoy and Gayraard found It at the 
Fiu-mlly Islands. 



44 JiOLLUSCA. 



PHYLLIDIA, Cuv. 

The mantle naked, usually coriaceous, and without any shell; the 
mouth, a small proboscis, each side of which is furnished with a ten- 
taculum ; two others project from above two small cavities in the 
mantle. The anus is on the hind part of the mantle, and the genital 
orifices forward, under the right side ; the heart near the middle of 
the back; the stomach simple and membranous, and the intestine 
short. 

Several species inhabit the Indian Ocean*. 

DlPHYLLIDIA, Cuv. 

The branchiae similar to those of the Phyllidise, but the posterior 
part of the mantle more pointed ; on each side of the semicircular 
head a pointed tentaculum and a slight tubercle ; the anus on the 
right sidef . 



ORDER IV. 
TECTIBRANCHIATA J. 

Have the branchiae attached along the right side or on the back, 
in the form of leaflets, more or less divided, but not symmetrical ; they 
are more or less covered by the mantle, in the thickness of which a 
small shell is generally contained. They are approximated to the 
Pectinibranchiata by the form of the organs of respiration, and like 
them inhabit the ocean; but they are all hermaphrodites like the 
Nudibranchiata and the Pulmonea. 

PLEUROBARCHUS, Cuv. 

Have the body equally overlapped by the mantle and by the foot, as 
if it were between two shields. In some species a little oval calca- 
reous lamina is contained in the mantle, and a horny one in that of 
others; the mantle is emarginated above the head. The branchiae 

* Phyllidia trilincata, Seb., Ill, i, 16; Cuv., Ann. du Mus., V, xviii, 1; and 
Zool., Voy. Freycin., pi. 87, f. 710; Ph. ocellata, Cuv., Ib. 7; Ph. pustulosa, 
Id. Ib. 8, and some new species. 

f Diphyllidia Bnigmansii, Cuv. ; Diphyll. Uneata, Otto., Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., 
X, vii, or Pleuro-phyllidia, Meckel., Germ. Archiv., VIII, p. 190, pi. ii, delle 
Chinie, Mem., X, 12. 

N.B. The Linguelle of Elfort, Blainv., Malac., pi. xlvii, f. 2, does not appear to 
differ from our first species. 

J M. de Blainville has given to this order the name of MONOPLEUROBRAN- 

CUIATA. 



GASTEROPODA TECTIBRANCHIATA. 45 

are attached along the right side in the furrow, between the mantle 
and the foot, forming a series of pyramids divided into triangular 
laminulae. The mouth in the form of a small proboscis, is sur- 
mounted by an emarginated lip, and by two tubular and cleft 
tentacula ; the genital orifices are before, and the anus behind the 
branchiae. There are four stomachs, the second of which is fleshy 
and sometimes armed with bony appendages, and the third, furnished 
internally with salient longitudinal laminae ; the intestine is short. 

Various species inhabit both the Mediterranean and the At- 
lantic, some of which are large and marked with the most 
beautiful colours*. 

PLEUROBRANCMA, Meckel. PLEUROBRANCHIDIUM, Bl. 

Have the branchiae and genital orifices situated as in Pleurobranchus ; 
but the anus is above the branchiae, the margins of the mantle and 
foot project but little, and on the fore-part of the former are four 
short, distant tentacula, forming a square, which reminds the observer 
of the anterior disk of the Acerae. I can find but one stomach, which 
is merely a dilatation of the canal, with thin parietes. A multifidous 
glandular organ opens behind the genital orifices ; there is no vestige 
of a shell. 

Pleurob. Meckelii, Leve, Diss. de Pleur., 1813f. The only 
species known ; from the Mediterranean. 

APLYSIA, Lin.\. 

Have the margins of the foot turned up into flexible crests, sur- 
rounding the back in all its parts, and even susceptible of being 
reflected over it ; the head supported by a neck more or less long ; 
.two superior tentacula excavated like the ears of a quadruped, with 
two flattened ones on the edge of the lower lip ; the eyes above the 
former. The branchiae are on the back, and consists of highly com- 
plicated leaflets attached to a broad membranous pedicle, covered by 
a small mantle also membranous, in the thickness of which is a flat 

Pleurobranchus Peronii, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., V, xviii 1,2; PI. tubercu- 
latus, Meckel., Anat. Compar., 1, v, 3340; and some new species, such as 
the Pleur. oblongus, Descr. de 1'Eg., Moll. Caster., pi. iii, f. 1 ; Plaur auranliacus, 
Id., Risso., Hist. Nat. Merid. IV, pi. i, f. 8 ; PI. luniceps, Cuv. ; PI. Fonkalii, 
Forsk., pi. x xviii, and Leuckard, App., Ruppel., An. Invert., pi. v; PI. citrinus, 
Ib., f. 1. 

The genus LAMELLARIA, Montag., Lin. Trans., XI, pi. xii, f. 3 and 4, does not 
appear to me to differ in any essential point from Pleurobranchus ; the same obser- 
vation applies to the BKRTHBLLA of Blainv., Malac., pi. xliii, f. 1. The latter is 
distinguished merely because the mantle is not emarginated above the head, as is 
the case in many species of Pleurobranchus. The PI. oblongus would belong to it, 
and even the PI. luniceps. 

t It is the genus Plturobranchidium of Blainv., Malac., pi. xliii, f. 3 ; but not as 
he thinks the Pltvrobranchus tuberculatus of Meckel. 

t Aphuia, which cannot clean itself, a name given by Aristotle to certain 
Zoophytes. Linnaeus erroneously applied it as above. The animals here spoken of 
were well known to the ancients, who styled them Sea-Hares, and attributed to 
them many fabulous properties. 



46 MOLLUSCA. 

and homy shell. The anus opens behind the branchiae, and is 
frequently concealed under the lateral crests ; the vulva is before on 
the right, and the penis projects from under the right tentaculura, 
The seminal fluid is conducted in coitu, from the penis to the vulva 
by a groove, which extends from one to the other. An enormous 
membranous crop leads to a muscular gizzard, armed internally with 
cartilaginous and pyramidal corpuscles, which is followed by a third 
stomach sown with sharp hooks, and by a fourth in the form of 
a caecum. The intestine is voluminous, and the animal feeds on 
fucus. A limpid humour, secreted by a peculiar gland, and which 
in certain species is said to be extremely acrid, is exuded through an 
orifice near the vulva, and from the edges of the mantle oozes an 
abundant liquid of a deep purple colour, with which, when in danger, 
the animal tinges the water for a considerable extent. The ova are 
deposited in a kind of long, interlaced, glairy net work, of extreme 
tenuity. In the seas of Europe we have : 

Apl. fasciata, Poiret ; Rang. Apl., pi. vi, vii. Black; margined 
with lateral red crests : one of the large species. 

Apl. punctata, Cuv.; Ann. du Mus., tome II, p. 287, pi. 1, f. 
2 4 ; Rang, Apl., pi. xviii, f. 2. Lilac, sprinkled with greenish 
points. 

ApL depitans,L.', Bohatsch., Anim.Mar. pi. i andii; Rang., 
pi. xvi. Blackish, with large greyish, clouded spots. 

Several other species are found in distant seas*. 



DOLABELLA, 

The Dolabettae only differ from the Aplysiee in the position of the 
branchiae and their surrounding envelope ; they are at the posterior 
extremity of the body, which resembles a truncated cone. Their 
lateral crest presses closely on their branchial apparatus, merely 
leaving a narrow furrow ; their cell is calcareous. They are found 
in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean.f 

NOTARCHUS, CUV. 

H ave their lateral crests united and covering the back, a longitu- 

* Aplysia brasiliana, Rang, pi. viii, 1, 2, 3 ; A. dactylomela, Id., IX; A. pro- 
tea, Id., X, 1 ; A. sorex, Id., X. 4, 5, 6 ; A. tigrina, Id., XI ; A. maculata, Id. 
XII, 1 5; A. marmorata, Blainv. Journ. de Phys., Janv., 1823, Rang, XII, 6, 7 ; 
A. Keraudrenii, Id., XIII ; A. Lessonii, Id., XIV; A. camelus, Cuv., Ann. du 
Mus., and Rang, XV, 1 ; A. alba, Cuv., Ib., and Rang, XV, 2, 3 ; A. napolitana, 
Id., XV, bis; A. rirescens, Risso, Hist. Nat. Mer., pi. 1,7. It is well, however, 
to observe, that most of the Aplysise having been drawn from specimens preserved in 
spirits, the truth of the specific characters of some of them may be doubted. 

f* Dolabella Rumphii, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., V, xxix, 1 : and Rumph. Thes. 
Amb., pi. x. 6, from the Molluccas, or Aplysia Rumphii, Rang, pi. i ; ApL ecaudata 
Rang, pi. ii ; A. truncata, Id. ; A. teremidi, Id. Ill, 1 ; A. yigas, Id., 111,4 ; 
A.Hassdtii, Id., XXIV, 1. 

J Notarchus gelatinosus, Cuv., to which M. Rang associates the Eursutella Savig- 
niana, Descr. de 1'Eg., ZooL, Caster., pi. ii, f. 1,2, and Rang, ApL, pi. xx, and his 
ApL Pleii, pi. xxi, and some small species. 



GASTEROPODA TKCTIBRANCHIATA. 1 / 

dinal emargination excepted, that leads to the branchiae, which have 
no mantle to cover them, but are otherwise like those of the Aplysiae 
as well as the rest of their organization J. In the^ 

BURSATELLA, BlaiUV . 

The lateral crests are united in front in such a manner as only to leave 
an oval aperture for the transmission of water to the branchiae, which 
are also deprived of a protecting mantle*. 

These two genera, however, probably form but one. 

AKERA, Muller. 

Have their branchiae covered, as in the preceding genera, but their 
tentacula are so shortened, widened, and separated, that they seem to 
be totally wanting, or rather to form a large, fleshy, and nearly rec- 
tangular shield, under which are the eyes. Independently of this, 
the hermaphroditism of these animals, the position of their genital 
organs, the complication and armature of their stomach, and the 
purple liquid effused by several of their species, approximate them to 
the Aplysiae. The shell, of such as have any, is more or less convo- 
luted, but with little obliquity, and is without a projecting spire, 
emargination, or canal ; the columella, projecting convexly, gives a 
crescent-like figure to the aperture, the part opposite to the spire being 
always the broadest and most rounded. 

M. de Lamarck names those in which the shell is concealed in the 
thickness of the mantle, BULL^EA (a). It has but very few whorls, 
and the animal is much too large to be drawn into it. 

Bullaa aperta, Lam.; Bulla apertaand Lobaria quadriloba, 
Gm. ; Phyline quadripartite Ascan. ; Mull., Zool. Dan., JJI, pi. 
ci. ; Blanc., Conch. Mm. Not., pi. xi ; Cuv., Ann. du Mus. t. I, 
pi. xii, 6f. (The Sea Wafer), the animal is whitish, and about 
an inch long ; the fleshy shield, formed by the vestiges of its 
tentacula, the lateral swellings of its foot, and the mantle occu- 
pied by the shell, seem to divide its upper surface into four 
lobes. Its thin, white, semi-diaphanous shell, is nearly all aper- 
ture, and its gizzard is armed with three very thick rhomboidal 

* Bunatetta Lcachii, Blainv.,Malac., pi. xliii, f. 6. 

N.B. Authors hare also approximated to the Aplysiee the Apl. riridis, Montag., 
Lin. Trans., VII, pi. vii, which forms the genus ACTION of Oken, and which is at 
least closely allied to the Elysie timid f, Risso, Hist. Nat. Her., IV, pi. i, f. 3, 4 ; 
as I am not acquainted with the branchiae of either, I cannot class them. 

f The Sonnet, Adans., Senegal, pi. i, f. 1, is a species closely allied to Bullaa; 
but T cannot establish a genus, or even a species, upon so imperfect a document. 

0^7* (a) There are other reasons than those above-mentioned for the measure 
employed by Lamarck. The shell of Bulla Aperta is not only slightly concave, but it 
is very thin and fragile, and partially rolled inwards on itself. Indeed we may adduce 
Lamarck's division of the Linntean genus bulla as a very happy specimen of the vast 
superiority of the natural over the artificial system, for up to the time at which he 
separated it into Bulliaea, Ovula, Physa, Terebellnm, and Achatina, and adding the 
remainder of Bulla to the genera Pysuln, and Bulimus, the Linnaean genus was a 
combination of the most discordant elements. Such as marine, fresh water, and 
land shells. ENO. ED. 



48 MOLLUSCA. 

pieces of bone. It is found in almost every sea, where it lives on 
oozy bottoms. 

M. de Lamarck leaves the name of BULLA*, to those species whose 
shell, merely covered with a slight epidermis, is large enough to 
shelter the animal. It is somewhat more convoluted than in Bullaea. 

BuLla lignaria, L. ; Martini, I, xxi, 194,95; Cuv., Ann. du 
Mus., XVI, 1 ; Pol. Test. Neap., Ill, pi. xlvi. (The Wafer.) The 
oblong shell with its concealed spire and ample aperture, very 
wide anteriorly, resembles a loosely rolled lamina, streaked in 
the direction of its whorls. The stomach of the animal is armed 
with two large semi-oval osseous pieces, and with a small com- 
pressed onef. 

Bulla ampulla. L,; Martini, I, xxii, 20, 204; Cuv., Ann. du 
Mus., XVI, 1. (The Nutmeg). The shell oval, thick, clouded 
with grey and brown ; the stomach furnished with three black, 
very convex, rhomboidal pieces. 

Bulla Hydatis, L, ; Chemn. IX, cxviii, 1019 ; Cuv., Ann. du 
Mus., XVI, I. (The Water Drop.) Shell round, thin, and semi- 
diaphanous ; the last whorl, and consequently the aperture, 
higher than the spire ; three small scutelliform pieces in the 
gizzardj. 

We reserve the name of AKERA, properly so called, DORIDIUM, 
Mech., LOB ARIA, Blainv., for those species which have no shell what- 
ever, or only a vestige of one behind, although their mantle has its 
external form. 

A small species, Bulla carnosa, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., XVI, 1 ; 
Meek., Anat. Compar., II, vii, 1, 3; Blainv. Malac., pi. xlv, f. 
3, is found in the Mediterranean. The only armature of the 
stomach is the mantle ; its fleshy oesophagus is extremely thick. 

A tuberculous species, Doridium Meckelii, Delle Chiaie, Me- 
mor.,pl. x, f. 1 5, inhabits the same sea. The 

GASTROPTERON, Meckel. 

Appear to be Akerse, the margin of whose foot is extended into 
broad wings, used in natation, which they effect on their back. It 
has no shell, nor has the stomach any armature ; a slight fold of skin 
is the only vestige of branchial operculum that is perceptible. 

* The genus Bulla, Lin., not only comprised the Akerez, but also the Auricula, 
Agaiintf, Physa, Ovula and Terebella, animals between which there is much difference. 
Bntgieres commenced the work of reformation by separating the Agatinee and the 
Auriculae, which he united to the Lymnei in the genus Bulimus ; M. de Lamarck 
finished it by creating all the genera we have just named. 

f Gioeni having observed this stomach separate from the animal, mistook it for 
a shell, and made a genus of it, to which he gave his own name (The Tricla of 
Retzius, Char, Brug.). Gioeni even went so far as to describe its pretended habits. 
Draparnaud was the first who perceived this mixture of error and fraud. 

J Add, Bulla naucum ; Bulla physis. Muller describes smaller ones, such as the 
Akera bullata, Zool. Dan., LXXI, or Bulla akera, Gin. 



OASTEROI'olM 11 TBROPODA. 49 

G. Mfr/w/ii : Rosso, Di*s. de Pteropodum Ordinc, Hake, 
J813, f. 1113; and JJlainv. Malacol.. pi. xlv, f. 5; or Clio 

timitti, Delle Chiaie, M.-inor., pi. ii, f. 18. A small animal an 
inch long, and two broad, tin- \vinLf-. being extended. From the 
Mediterranean. 

For the present, and until our anatomical studies are more ex- 
tended, we arc under the neees.sity of placing in tliis order of Tecti- 
bran -Itiat i. \\\\ I even very cloee t> tin- pleurobranchus, the singular 
genus, 

GASTBOPLAXj Jt/fiiiir. ( )M r,i;i :i.i.i>. of Lam. 

'I'll.- animal is a lug.- and circular niollusca, whose foot projects con- 
siderably beyond tin- mantle, and its upper surface is studded with 
tubercles. The viscera are in a round, superior, and central part. 
Tin- mantle is only visibl.- by its slightly projecting and trenchant 
nlges, alon.uf the whole of the front and of the right side. The lamel- 
1 ite.l pyramidal branchiae, like those of the Pleurobranchus, are under 
this slight ni irgin, and behind them is a tubular anus. Under this 
HUM margin and forwards, are two tentacula, longitudinally cleft, as 
in I'leurobranclms, at whose internal base are the eyes; between 
them is a kind of proboscis, which may possibly be the organ of 
ration. There is a large concave space in the anterior margin of 
th toot, the edges of which are susceptible of being drawn up like the 
mouth of a purse, and at the bottom of which is a tubercle, pierced 
by an orifice, which perhaps is the mouth, and surmounted by a 
fringed membrane. The inferior surface of the foot is smooth, and 
serves the animal to crawl on, as in the other Gasteropoda. 

The animal carries a shell which is stony, flat, irregularly rounded, 

thickest in the middle, with trenchant edges, and marked with slightly 

ntiic striae. It was at first thought to be attached to the foot, 

but more recent observation has proved that it is on the mantle, and 

in the usual place*. 



ORDER V. 

HETEROPODA, Lam\. 

The Heteropoda are distinguished from all other mollusca by 

In tin- spri-iim-n from the UritMi Museum described by M. de BlainviUe, 

lluili-t. 1'hil., isp.j. p. 17-, ; 1>\ the name of GA8TROPLAX, the slu-H is, in fact, 

.-.I to tlu- mi. k-r pan i.f tin- foot, ami by what means it is difficult to determine ; 

tin- tiKintli. lm\M-\-r. is so thin, that it M-rms as if it must have been protected by 

; yimml li.is ju-,t brought to France a specimen which hail lost its 

. it ;ipp<;u>, ti-iu-es of the membranes which attached it to the 

mantle can be p , lir whii-ii, no remains of muscles are visible. 

l;u- -lu-ll isaNo found in the Mediterranean; its animal, however, has not yet 

; IMT\;-C|. 

..ily of the HKTEROPODA, which he names NBC- 

MA, and unitt-s tlu m in hi- ordt-r of the NUCLEOBRANC IIIATA with another 
family that !u- calls PTKROIO.)\. an 1 which, of all my Pteropoda, only includes the 
II ' i.c Argonaut* with it, on account of some conjecture, of which 

ignorant. 

rot, in. 



5 MOLLU8CA. 

their foot, which, instead of forming a horizontal disk, is compressed 
into a vertical muscular lamina, which they use as a fin, and on the 
edge of which, in several species, is a dilatation forming a hollow 
cone, that represents the disk of the other orders. Their branchiae, 
composed of plumiforin lobes, arc situated on the hind part of the 
back, dirtvtcd forwards, and immediately in their rear arc the heart 
and a small liver, with part of the viscera and the internal organs of 
generation. Their body, a gelatinous and transparent substance 
lined with a muscular layer, is elongated and usually terminated by a 
compressed tail. There is a muscular mass belonging to the mouth, 
;md a tongue furnished with little hooks ; the oesophagus is very long; 
their stomach thin ; two prominent tubes on the right side of the 
visceral bundle aiford a passage to the fseces, semen or ova. They 
usually swim on their back with the foot upwards*. They have the 
faculty of distending their body by filling it with water, in a way not 
well understood. Forskahl comprised them all in his genus. 

PTEROTRACHEA, Forsk. 
But we have been compelled to subdivide them. 

CARINARIA, Lam.-f 

Have the nucleus formed of the heart, liver, and organs of generation, 
covered by a slender, symmetrical and conical shell, the point of 
which is bent backwards and frequently relieved by a crest, under 
whose anterior edge float the feathers of the branchiae ; two tenta- 
cula on the head, and the eyes behind their base. 

One species, Carinaria cymbium, Lam. ; Peron, Ann. du 

Mus., XV, iii, 15 ; Poli, III, xliv ; Ann. des Sc. Nat,, tome XVI, 

pi. 1 , inhabits the Mediterranean. 

Another, the Carinaria fragilis, Bory Saint- Vincent, Voy. 

aux Isles d'Afr., I, vi, 4 J, is found in the Indian Ocean. 



* This mode of natation induced Peron to think that the natatory lamina A\ as on 
the back, and the heart and branchiae under the belly, and has given rise to many 
errors as respects the place of these animals. A simple inspection of their ner- 
vous system led me to suppose, in my Memoirs on the Mollusca, that they 
were analogous to the Gasteropoda. A more exact anatomical investigation, made 
sines then, with that given by M. Poli in his vol. Ill, fully confirms my supposition. 
The fact is, that there is but little difference between the Heteropoda and the 
Tcctibranchiala, notwithstanding which, M. Laurillard believes their sexes to be 
separated. 

f Forskahl comurised all these animals in his genus PTEROTRACHEA, for which 
name Brugiere substituted that of FIROLA. P6ron having divded the genus, 
appropriated the name of Carinaria to those with a shell, and that of Firohi to the 
others. Rondelet gives the Carinaria, but without its shell. " De Insect. Zooph. 
cap. XX." 

J Add, Carinaria depressa, Rang. Ann. des Sc. Nat., Feb. 1829, p. 136. 



GA8TER01 , KROPODA. 51 

The Argonauta vitrea of authors, Favanne, vii, c, 2; Martini, 1, 
xiii, 163, must be the shell of a large Carinariu, but the animal is not 
yet known. 

ATLANTA, Lesueur *. 

Tin- Atluntae of Lcsueur, according to the recent observations of M. 
Rang, are animals of this onh-r, the >h.-ll of whieh, instead of heing 
well opened like that of a Cariiwriu, has a narrow cavity, spirally 
convoluted on one plane ; its contour is relieved by a thin crest. 

They are extremely small Mollusca from the Indian Ocean, 
in one of which L:imanon thought he had discovered the original 
Cornu Ammonisf Atlanta Peronii and Mlnntu Keraudrenii, 
Lesueur, Journ. dc Phys., Ixxxv, Novemb. 1817; and Rang, 
Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat., tome III, p. 373, and pi. ix. 

FIROLA, Per on. 

The body, tail, foot, branchiae and visceral mass as in the Carinaria, 
but no shell has ever been observed; the snout is elongated into a re- 
curved proboscis, and the eyes are not preceded by tentacula. From 
the (Mid of the tail is frequently observed to proceed a long articu- 
lat< -d iill-'t, which Forskahl took for a Tacnia, and whose nature is not 
yet very clearly ascertained. 

One species, the Peterotrac/tea coronata, Forsk. ; Peron., 
Ann. du Mus., XV, ii, 8, is very common in the Mediterranean, 
and M. Lesueur describes several from the same sea, which he 
considers as different. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., Vol. I, 
p. 3, but which require further comparison}:. 

M. Lesueur distinguishes the Firoloidce, where the body, instead 
rminating in a compressed tail, is abruptly truncated behind the 
visceral bundle, Ib. p. 37. 

To these two, now well known genera, I presume we must add, 
when better understood, the 

TI.MORIENNA, Quoy and Gaym. 

Voy. de Freycln., Zool. pi. Ixxxvii, f. 1, which appears to be a Firola 
divested of its foot and bundle of viscera; and the 

MONOPHORA, Id.\\ 

Voy. de Freycin., Zool. pi. Ixxxvii, f. 4, 5, which has nearly the form 
( V.rinaria, but is without a foot, distinct bundle of viscera, and 
shell. 

W6 must not confound the Atlattta of Lesueur with the Atlas described by him in 
the same place, and which, so confused is his description, I do not know how to 
claw. 

f Voyage de Lapeyronse, IV, p. 134, and pi. f>3, f. 1 4. 

* FlroUt BKrfico. F. ffibtK*a;F. Forskuka; F. Cu>ra, which is the P/m- 
trachea corona/a, Forsk. ; F. Frcdcrica, copied Malacol. llluinv., pi. xlvii, f. 4 ; 
/'. /Vmnw. Add, Ptcrotrachea rvfa, Quoy and Gaym., Voy. dc Freycia., Zool. 

f Ffrotofcte Demarfstia ; Fir. Blammltena ;Fir. rata/a, Less. 
II We must not confound them with the Monophone of M, Bory Saint- Vincent, 
(Voy. aux Isles d'Afr.,) which are Pyrosoma-. 

i2 



52 MOLLUSC A. 

We are not so certain that we should place there the 
PHYLLIROE, Per on., 

An du Mus., XV, pi. ii, f. 1, where the transparent and strongly com- 
pressed body has a snout before, surmounted by two long tentacula 
without eyes, a truncated tail behind, and which allows the heart, 
nervous system, genital organs of both sexes to be seen through the 
integuments. The genital orifices and that of the anus are on the 
right side, and sometimes a tolerably long penis is visible ; I can find 
no other organ of respiration than its thin and vascular skin*. 



ORDER VI. 
PECTINIBRANCHIATAf. 

This order forms, beyond all comparison, the most numerous divi 
sion, inasmuch as it comprises the whole of the spiral univalves, and 
several that are simply conical. Their branchiae, composed of nu- 
merous lamellae or strips laid parallel with each other, like the teeth 
of a comb, are attached on one, two, or three lines, according to the 
genus, to the ceiling of the pulmonary cavity, which occupies . the 
last whorl of a shell, and which has a large opening between the 
edge of the mantle and the body. 

In two genera only, Cyclostoma and Helicina, do we find, instead 
of branchiae, a vascular network, covering the ceiling of a cavity, in 
other respects very similar ; they are the only ones that respire the 
natural air ; all the others respire water. 

All the Pectinibranchiata have two tentacula and two eyes, some- 
times placed on particular pedicles, and a mouth resembling a more 
or less elongated proboscis; the sexes are separated. The penis of 
the male, attached to the right side of the neck, cannot usually be re- 
tracted within the body, but is reflected into the cavity of the branchiae; 
it is sometimes very stout, and the Paludina is the only one which 
can retract it through an orifice perforated in its right tentaculum. 
The rectum and oviduct of the female also creep along the right side 
of the cavity, between them and the branchiae is a peculiar organ 
composed of cells, from which exudes an extremely viscid fluid ; 
this forms a common envelope which contains the ova, and which is 

* These observations are made from individuals presented to me l.y M. Quoy. 
M. de Blainville makes a family of Philliruc, -which he names Pnllosomo, and -which 
is the third of his Ajiorobrunchiula : the others are Hyalse, &c. 

f- M. de Blainville's sub-class Paracephaloplora Divica. 



GASTEROPODA PECTIN1BRANCHIATA. 53 

deposited with them. The figure of this envelope is often very 
complex and singular*. 

Their tongue is armed witli little hooks, and by slow and repeated 
rubbing u'-ts upon the hardest bodies. 

The great"-t difference in these animals consists in the presence or 

t' tin- little canal formed by a prolongation of the edge ot" 

the pulmonary cavity of the left side, and which passes through a 

similar canal or emargination in the shell, to enable the animal to 

it he without leaving its shelter. There is also this distinction 

between the genera some of them have no operculum; the species 

differ from each other by the filaments, fringes, and other ornaments 

of the head, foot, or mantle. 

These Mollusca are arranged in several families according to the 
forms of their shells, which appear to bear a constant relation to that 
of the animal. 

FAMILY I. 

TROCHOIDA, 

Tins family is known by the shell, the aperture of which is entire, 
without an emargination or canal for a siphon of the mantle, as the 
animal has none, and is furnished with an operculum or some organ 
in place of itf. 

TROCHUS, Lin.f 

Have shells, the angular aperture of whose external border ap- 
lies more or less to a perfect quadrangular figure, and in an 
oblique plane, with respect to the axis of the shell, because the 
part of the margin next to the spire projects more than the rest. Most 
of these animals have three filaments on each edge of the mantle, or 
at least some appendages to the sides of the feet. 

( M' tho>e tli ;t have no umbilicus, there are some in which the colu- 
mella, tint lias the form of a concave arch, is continuous with the 
external margin, without any projection. It is the angle and projec- 
tion of this mirgin which distinguishes them from Turbo Tecta- 

, Hi 'II. Molltf. N 



x, see Lister, 881, Baster, Op. Subs., I, vi, l, 2; for 

r,;i-trr. 10. V, 

I- Tin -y an- tin- r<ii::ccihulophora Diuini Asi/>h<>niihnnictniitit of liluiuvillc. 
* (In- _ir;it LT< RUfl (.n.-;itr ,i!y (wiiiustuiiut, Biuiux. 

.:>.., V. d.\.\iii. 171213;- \iv, IJil; 

. 111.. r!\ii. i.-i.tiJ a7: TV. iii6riV//w, II.., 1532 3.' ; TV. M*r, Id., 
rlvx. i -,7{_74; rr. rinensis, lb., 1564 65 ; Turlto payuths, 1.1., dxiii. 1541 
42; Turbo tecti'.m-perricum, Ib., 1543 44. 



54 MOLLUSCA. 

* 

Several are flattened, with a trenchant edge, which has caused them 
to be compared to the rowel of a spur Calcar, Montf.* 

Some again are slightly depressed, orbicular and shining, with a 
semi-round aperture, the columella convex and callous Rotella, Lam.f 

The columella of others is distinguished near the base by a little 
prominence, or vestige of a tooth, similar to that of the Monodontcs, 
from which these Trcchi only differ in the angle of their aperture, 
and the projection of their margin. The aperture is usually about 
as high as it is wide Cantharis, Montf.J 

In some of them, on the contrary, the aperture is much wider than 
it is high, and their convex base approximates them to the Calyp- 
tracea Infundibulum, Montf. 

In others again, where the aperture is also much wider than it is 
high, the columella forms a spiral canal ||. 

Those which have a turreted shell approach Ccrithium Telesco- 
pium, Montf .^ 

Among the umbilicated Trochi, there are some in which there is no 
projection in the columella; most of them are flattened, and have the 
external angle trenchant. Of this number is 

Tr. agylutinans, L. ; Chemn., V, clxxii, 1688, 9. Remarkable 
for the habit of glueing to its shell, and even incorporating 
with it, as fast as it increases in size, various foreign bodies, 
such as little pebbles, fragments of other shells, &c. ; it frequently 
covers its umbilicus with a testaceous plate**. 

The margin of others, however, is rounded, such as 

Tr. cinerarias, L.; Chemn., V. clxxi, 1686. A small species, 
and the most common on the coast of France; greenish, ob- 
liquely streaked with violet. 

Some umbilicated Trochi have a prominence near the bottom of 
the columella ff . 

And, finally, there are others in which it is longitudinally cre- 
nateJJ. The 



* Turbo calcar, L., Chemn., V. clxiv, 1552; T. stellaris, Id., 1553 ; T. aculcatus, 
Id., 1554 57; T. imperialis, Id., 1714. 

f Tr. vestiarius, L., Chemn., V. clxvi, 1601. 

31 J Tr. iris, Chemn., 1522 23; Tr. granatum, Ib., 1634 55; Tr. zyzyphinvs, 
Ib., clxvi, 1592 98; Tr. comts, clxvii, 1610; Tr. mantlatus, clxviii, 1617 18; 
Tr. americanus, clxii, 1534 35; Tr. conulus, Gualt., LXX, M. 

Trochus concavus, Chemn., V, clxxviii, 1620, 21. 

|| Trochus foveolatus, Chemn., V, clxi, 1516 19; Tr. mauritianus, Id., clxiii, 
1547 48 ; Tr.fcnestratus, Ib., 1549 50; Tr. obeliscus, clx, 1510 12. 

Tf Trochus telescopium, Chemn., V, clx, 1507 9. 

** Add, Trochus ludicus, Chemn., V, clxxii, 1697 98; Tr. ImperiuUs, clxxiii, 
1714, and clxxiv, 1715; Tr. solans, Ib., 17011702, and 1716 1717 ; Tr. 
planus, Ib., 1/21, 1722. 

ft TV. virgatus, Chemn., V. clx, 1514 15; TV. nihticus, Chemn., V. clxvii, 
1605 7, clxviii, 1614; Tr. verrnts, Id., clxix, 1625 26; 7V. inftqualis, clxx, 
1636 37 ; Tr. magnus, clxxi, 1656 57 ; Tr. conspersus, Gualt., Ixx. B. ; Tr. 
jujubinuSj clxvii, 1612 13. 

JJ Tr. macutatus, clxviii, 1615 1616; Tr. costatus, clxix, 1634; Tr. riridis, 
clxx, 1644; Tr. radiatus, Ib., 1640 42. 



GASTEROPODA FECTINIBRANCHIATA. $5 

Soi. l.nm. 

I, distinguished from s-.ll other Troehi by a very broad conical 
spire, at tin- base of which is an J wide umbilicus in which 

may be seen the internal e i tin- whorls, marked by a cre- 

C nl*. 

//>//. 



*hrlls resembling a Solarium, but wanting : lions u 

tli.' internal whorls of the nmbili ;-!. The gen** 

I;BO, Lht.$ 

i - with a completely and regularly turbi- 

nated shell, and a perfectly round aperture. Close observation has 
omuaed them to 1 greaily subdivided. In th-- 

TURBO, Lnm. Properly -vo called, 

Have the shell round or oval, and thick ; the aperture completed on 

next to the spire, by the penultimate whorl. The animal 

has two long tontacula, and the. c v yes placed on pedicles at their ex- 

ternal base ; the sides of the foot are provided with membranous 

wings, sometimes simple, at others fringed, and occasionally fur- 

n'lMK' 1 with one or two filaments. It is to some of these that belong 

*hosc petrous and thick opercula observed in cabinets, which were 

loyed in m "li/me uudT the name of Unrjuis odoratu*. 

Som L ' of them, MKLKAC>EII, Montf. are umbilicatcd, and others, 

Ti-iujD, Montf.,|| are not. 

DELPHINULA, Lam. 

1 1 IT the shell thick, as in Turbo, but convoluted in nearly the same 
plan.-; tin- aperture completely formed by the last whorl, and the 
margin not tumid ; the animal similar to that of a Turbo. 

* 2V. perspective, L., < i. nil 96; TV. sfnt, :iint's, Ib. 1699; 

Tc. rarieyutus, Ib., 1708 1709; Tr. infundibuliformis, Ib., 1 70H 17<>7. 

<i\}>h alus ptn tunyuhti'us, Smverb., Min. Conch., I, pi. xlv. f. 2; Ki: nodosvs, 
I I., \i I, t \r. 

.usiitutc^ the- family CRICOSTOMA of Blainville. 

7V/' l.i-t., 640, 30 ; T. argt/rostomits, Chemn., \ ;7.">s 

61; T. mmv/<.' Ib., I 7>2 ; T. rersicolor, List., 576, 29; T. mespilus, 

Clu-nni.. \, dzzvi, i 7 t ^ 43; T. granulahts, Ib., 44 16; T. /i/rfiw, Ib., 48, 

-T. tKattrina, Id., p. 143; T. cinrrfirs, !Vrn.. XII, 2.1. M ulus, 

Chemn.. \, i>. -2:' WiNt, Ib.. > 41. 

|| TII 584, 39; T. cochlus, Ib., 40; T. chiyiostorHW:, 

st., <547, 41 ; T. W, Id., 587, 

46; T. sarmatims, Chemn is. i 7si .- T. rormttvs, Ib., 1 779 

80; T. ,-l\\\iii, 1771, 72 : 7*. w't I . C, 1788 89; T. 

iiii}>t>-i<i:i< t Ih., 17!'(); T. coronatus, Ib., 1791 !3 : T. rmi, ;';.:; '. .-. Id., clxrsi, 
IT'U: /. ' KJW, Ib., 95 9fi; T. "pinosvit, Ib., 1797; 7*. Jjwrrrmw, Ib., 
179S; T. Moltkia*u$, Ib., 991800; T. Speitylfrimus, Ib., 18012; T. ctsta- 
nea, M.. .-l\\\ii, 1807, 1814; T. nrm</<//i'<, !'>.. Isll 12; T. smarufMvt, Ib., 
815 16 ; T. citlGris, Chemn., V. dxxxiv; T. heKdmrs, Bora., XII,93 24. 



56 MOLLU8C.4. 

The most common species, Turbo delphi-nun, L. ; List., 608, 
45, takes its name from the ramous and convoluted spines, 
which have caused it to be compared to a dried fish*. 

PLEUROTOMA, Defr. 

Fossil shells with a round aperture, on the external margin of 
which is a narrow incision which ascends considerably; it is proba- 
ble that it corresponded, like that of the Siliquariae, to some cleft in 
the branchial part of the mantle. 

M. Deshayes already makes upwards of twenty fossil species. 
The SCISSURELUE of M. d'Orbigny are living species of the same. 

TURRITELLA, Lam. 

The same round aperture as in Turbo properly so called, and 
completed, also, by the penultimate whorl; but the shell is thin, and 
is so far from being convoluted in one plane, that its spire is pro- 
longed into an obelisk (turreted). The eyes of the animal are 
placed on the external base of its tentacula ; the foot is smallf. 

They are found in great numbers among fossils ; the PROTO, Defr., 
should be approximated to them. 

SCALARIA, Lam. 

Have the spire, as in Turritella, elongated into a point, and the 
aperture, as in Delphinula, completely formed by the last whorl ; it 
is moreover surrounded by a ridge, which is formed, from space to 
space, as the shell of the animal increases in size, resembling so 
many steps. The tentacula and penis of the animal are long and 
slender. 

One species celebrated for the high price it commands (a), the 
Turbo sea/am, L. ; Chemn., IV, clii, 1426, &c. vulg. Scalata, 
is distinguished by the whorls only coming in contact at the 
points where the ribs unite them, the intervals being open. 

A second species, the Turbo clathrus, L.; List., 588, 50, 51, 
is not marked by this peculiarity ; it is more slender, and very 
common in the Mediterranean. 

Some terrestrial or fresh water subgenera, in which the aperture 
is entire, round, or nearly so, and operculatcd, may be placed here. 
Of this number is the 



* Add, Turbo nodulosus, Chemn., V, clxxiv, 1723 24; T. nn-inutus, Born., 
XIII, 3 4 ; Aryonaula, cornu, Fichtcl and Moll., Test. Micros., I, a, e, or LIP- 
PISTE, Montf. 

f Turbo ;,Hli,'ir,itf. Martini, IV, clii, 1422; T. replicafns, Ib., cli, 1412; List., 
590, 55 ; T. ucutaiiyulus, List., 591, 59 ; T. duplicatus, Martini, IV, cli, 1414 : 
T. eroletvs, List., 591, 58; T. (erebru, Id., 590, 54; T. rariegatus, Martini, IV, 
clii, 1423 ; T. obsolctus, Born., XIII, 7. 

(J3= (a) Tbis is tbe Wentletrap of tbe collectors. We remember seeing one in 
Bullock's Museum, whicb was valued at 200 guineas, and also four specimens were 
sold at one sale, whicb brought from 16 to 20. ENO. ED. 



GASTEROPODA PJJCT1N1BRANCHIATA 



< '\TLO.STO\M. l.'im* 

The Cyclostom;r should he distinguished from all the others be- 
cause they an- terrestrial, as instead of branchiae, the animal has 
merely a vascular network spread over the parietcs of its pectoral 
cavity. In every other resect, however, it resembles the other 
iiniiuals of this family: the respiratory aperture is formed in the 
s;nur way above the head by a great solution of continuity; the 

- an- separated : tin- penis of the male is large, fleshy, and re- 
llected into the pectoral cavity ; the two tentacula are terminated by 
blunt tubercles, and two other tubercles, placed on their external 
base, support the eyes. 

'I'll-- shell is a spiral oval, with complete whorls, transversely and 
finely striated, and its aperture, in the adult, is surrounded with a 
sin ill ridge. It is closed by a small round operculum. Found in 
woods, under moss, stones, &c. 

The most common is the Turbo eleyans, List., 27, 25, about 

six lines in length and of a greyish colour; found under all the 

mos- 

VALVATA. Mull. 

The Valvatae inhabit fresh water; their shell is convoluted in 
almost one plane like that of a Planorbis, but the aperture is round, 
and furnished with an operculum ; the animal, which has two slen- 
der tentacnla. with the eyes at their anterior base, respires by means 
of branchi;e. In a species found in France, 

r///r. cristata, Mull.; Drap., I. 32,33; Gruct-Huysen, Nov. 
Act. Nat. Cur. X, pi. xxxviii, the branchiae, formed like a 
feather, project from under the mantle and float externally, vi- 
brating with the breathing of the animal. On the right side of 
the body is a filament which resembles a third tentaculum. The 
foot is divided, anteriorly, into two hooked lobes. The penis 
of the male is slender, and reflected into the branchial cavity. 
The shell, which is hardly three lines broad, is greyish, flat, 
and umhilicated. Found in stagnant watcrj. 

It is here that we must place the completely aquatic shells, or 
those respiring by branchi;e, which belonged to the old genus HELIX; 
i.e.. those in which the penultimate whorl forms, as in the Helices, 
Lymn;v;i\ See., a depress. -u which gives tin- aperture more or less of 
the figure of a crescent . 

The three fnxt gmera are still closely allied to Turbo. 

* Tin- r//. /,,/,,irf and thr llrliri,n-s form the order of the PULMONKA OPKRCI-- 

I.ATA f'f Iff, cl I-Yni-mio. 

f Add. Tarlm Unri.Hi. I.M., -26, '24 : T. lalxo, List., 25, 23; T. dubitis, Bora., 

Mil. :,, 6; T. /iifoi/iv. Clu-iun., l\. <-\xiii. 107:,. 

WV >hi)ulil (listiniruMi, amonir thr fo--i!s the Cyclostoina mumia of Lain., Biongn., 
Ann. iln Mil-.. \ \ . \\ii, 1. 

* Add. r,ilruta plawrhis, Drap.. I. .u. :i'. ; I'. ;/,,.(/(!, Id., 3638. 
Thr> ntn-titiitc tin- 1 i bIFttOrrOM \ Ulainville. 



58 MOLLUSCA. 



NA, Lam. 



This genus has lately been separated from the CyclostomFP, because 
there is no ridge round the aperture of the shell ; because there is a 
small angle to that aperture as well as to the operculum. arid finally, 
because the animal, being provided with branchia-, inhabits the 
water, like all other genera of this family. It has a very short snout 
and two pointed tcntacula ; eyes at the external base of the latter, but 
on no particular pedicle, arid a small membranous wing on each side 
of the fore part of the body. The anterior edge of the foot is double, 
and the wing of the right side forms a little canal which introduces 
water into the respiratory cavity, the incipient indication of the siphon 
in the following family. 

The common species, Helix rivipara, L. ; Drap., I, 16, whose 
smooth and greenish shell is marked with two or three purple, 
longitudinal bands, and which abounds in stagnant waters, in 
France, produces living young ones : in the spring of the year 
they may be found in the oviduct of the female, in every stage 
of development. Spallanzani assures us that if the young ones 
be taken at the moment of birth and be reared separately, they 
will reproduce without fecundation, like those of the Aphis. 
The males, however, are nearly as common as the females ; they 
have a large penis which protrudes and retracts, as in Helix, 
but through a hole pierced in the right tentaculum, a circum- 
stance which renders that tentaculum apparently larger than 
the other, and which furnishes us with a mode of recognizing 
the male*. 

The Ocean produces some shells whicli only differ from the Palu- 
dinse in being thick. They form the 

LITTORIXA, Feruss., 

Of which the common species, Le Vigneau Turbo littareus, L., 
Chemn. V, clxxxv, 1852, abounds on the coast of France, where it is 
eaten. The shell is round, brown, and longitudinally streaked with 
blackish. The 

MONODON, Lam. 

Only differs from Littorina in having a blunt ami slightly salient 
tooth at the base of the colu.mella, which sometimes has a (so a fine 
notch. The external edge of the aperture is crenulated in several 
species. The animal is more highly ornamented, and is generally 
furnished with three or four filaments, on each side, as long as its 
tentacula, The eyes are planted on particular pedicles at the exter- 
nal base of the tcntacula; the operculum is round and horny. 



* Add, Cyclost. achatinum, Drnp. I, 18; ('. itn^untm, Id., 19, 20, or 
tentaculata, L., &c. ; and the small species of salt-water ponds described by Beu- 
dant, Ann. du Mus., XV, p. 199. 



GASTEROPODA PKCTIN'IBRANCIIIATA. 59 



A small species, the '/Y. >c!in< //-wr///'//?, L. ; Adans., 
XII, 1 ; List., 642, 3:j, :>l. with a brown shell spotted with 

: y abundant on tin- o,ast of France*. 

I'M \-i \\' i ^ /. 

An oblong or ipointed slu-11, similar to that of several Hulimi and 
Lvi! .-rture also higher than it i> widr. and furnished 

with a -tr. njj operculum ; base of the columrlhi sensibly flattened, 
but no umhilu 

ibit the Indian Oivan. ami an- much Anight for by col- 
lecton <>n account of the beauty of their colours. The animal is 
provided with two long tentacula, with eyes placed on two tubercles 
at their external base, and with double lips that are emarginated and 
fringed, as well as the wings, each of which has three filaments f. 

AMPULLARIA, Lam. 

A round, ventricose shell, with a short spire, as in most of the He- 
lices ; the aperture higher than it is wide, and provided with an oper- 
eulum ; the columella umbilicated. 

inhabit the fresh or brackish waters of hot countries. The 
animal has long tentacula, and eyes placed on pedicles at their base. 
In the roof of the respiratory cavity, by the side of a branchial comb, 
according to the observations of Messrs. Quoy and Gaymard, is a 
large pouch, without an issue, that is filled with air, and which may 
usidered as a natatory bladder J. 

The LANISTVE, Montf., are AmpullaricO, with a large, spiral, con- 
voluted umbilicus. 

HELICINA, Lam.\\ 

Judging by the shell, the Helicinae are Ampullarice in which the 
mnrcrin of t lie aperture is reflected^. 

\Vhrn this reflected margin is trenchant, they are the Ampul/ina?, 
Blainv. ; and when it is in an obtuse ridge, the Otygirc?, Say. 



* Add, 7Vr/iiM labeo, Adnns., Seneg., XII, List., 68, 443; Troth. Pharaomus, 
List., 637, 25 ; Tr. rusticus, Chemn., V, clxx, 1645, 46; TV. niyerrimus, Ib. 47 ; 
7V. fiyii^tius, Id., clxxi, 1663, 4; TV. riridjtlus, Ib. 1677; TV. carntus, Ib. 
1682; TV !'<.rn., \'I, ID, 20; Tr. asper, Chemn., Ib., ol\\i, 1582; Tr. 

rift-inns, Knurr.. IX-1., I, x, 7; Tr.gran,' \..'\\. . ,4 55; TV. 

croeu' .11, 12; Turbo atrafux, ('!icuin., V, clxxvi. 1754 55; 

iii, 177, , ^c. 

f /; i/y/iis, Chemn., IX, cxx, 1035, 1036 ; Helix solida, Born., XIII, 

18, 19. 

J llflix r/my)w' -t., 130 ; Bulimus vrrnu, Brag., List., 125, 26. 

Ainpinl.i r.iri.i.''.', Oliv., Vny. CM Tnni., pi. xxxi, f. 7, copied Blainv., Mnlac., 
xxxiv. 

|| Montfort has changed the nauir //.//, i./.- 1 >: ['i'mimlta, but it has not been 
adopted, arid cnn only be quoted as a -ynonymp. 

t The Hcl itriaf,-, Blainv., Malac., xx\ 



60 MOLLUSCA. 

There is one species which is remarkable for a border and stony 
traverse, on the internal face of its operculum *. 

The organs of respiration in these animals arc arranged as in the 
Cyclostoma 1 , and like the latter they can live out of water f. 

MELANIA, Lam. 

A thicker shell ; the aperture, higher than it is wide, enlarges oppo- 
site to the spire ; the columella without plicae or umbilicus ; length of 
the spire veiy various. 

The Mclanisp inhabit rivers, but are not found in France, the ani- 
mal has long tcntacula, the eyes being on their external side, and at 
about the third of their length J. The 

RISSOA, Freminv. ACMEA, Hartm. 

Differs from Mclania, because the two edges of the aperture unite 
above. The 

MELANOPSIS, Firuss., 

Where the form is nearly that of a Melania, differs from it in a 
callus on the columella, and in a vestige of an emargination near the 
bottom of the aperture, which seems to indicate a relation with the 
Terebrsc of Brugieres||. In the 

PIRENA, Lam., 

We not only find this little sinus below, but likewise a second on 
the opposite side^f. 

These two subgenera, as well as the Melanise, inhabit the rivers of 
southern Europe and of all hot countries. 

There are two genera, detached from the Volutse, which, but that 



* The Ilel. ncrilella, List., LXI, 59, copied Blainv., Malac., xxxix, 2. 

f It is from this circumstance that M. de Ferussac has been induced to class 
thi* submenus \\ith that of the Cyclostoince in an order which he names the Pvl- 
manea Oju-rmhtlu. Sec the Monograph of this genus by M. Gray, Zool. Journ., 
\os. ] and 2. 

J Melanif //iia/v (Melanin amantla, Lam.), Chemn., Tab., 134, f. 1218 and 1219 ; 
from the Isle of France and Madagascar. 

Add, Mel. tnmcata, Lam., Encyclop., pi. 458, f. 3, a b ; Mel. coarcltt/a, Id., 
Kitcyclop., pi. 458, f. 5, a b., and a great many fos.sil species, among which are, 
^ffl. semi-phicata, Defr. ; Mel. Cucieri, Desh., Coq. Foss., des environs de Paris, 
tome II, pi. xii, f . 1 , 2 ; Mel. constellafa, Lam. 

M. de Freminville describes seven species in the Nouv. Bullet, des Sc. 
Nat. de la Soc. Phil., 1814, p. 7, and M. Audouin, three, in the Descr. de 1'Eg. ; 
/iiss. Fi-uniiii-illii, Coq., pi. Hi, f. 20; Riss. Desmarustii, Ib., 21 ; Rifs. Orbignii, 
lb., f. '22. 

|| Mchin. Inn-ciiid't'ilcd, Frruss., Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, tome 1, pi. 
vu, f. 1 11, &c. .See Sowerby, No. XXII. 

^j Pir. tcnhntlis, Lam.; List. Tab. 115, f. 10; 7V. Htaihtyascarieitsix, Encycl., 
pi. 458, f. 2, , b, &c. 



GASTEROPODA PECTI.VIBRANCHIATA. Gl 

they arc circulated and have lut two tcntacula, would resemble tli 
Auriculae, that we think may come here, vi/. 

ACTION, Montf.* TORN LTBLLA, Lam. 

Whore the shell is elliptical, the spire hut slightly silient, the aper- 
ture lengthened into a crescent and widened below, and the base of 
the columella marked bygone or two large plicie or oblique callosi- 

: and the 

PVK AMIDELLA, Lam. 

\\'here the spin- is turn-tod, the aperture crescent-like and wide, 
and the base of the columella obliqcly contorted and marked with 
sharp spiral plicae}. 

JANTHINA, Lam. 

The form of the animal separates the Janthinac from all the preced- 
ing genera. Their shell, however, is similar to that of the terres- 
trial Limaces, the columellar margin being also indented, but slightly 
angular at the external edge, and the columella somewhat extended 
beyond the luilf-oval, which, without this prolongation, would he 
formed by that edge. 

The animal has no operculum, but the under surface of its foot is 
furnished with a vesicular organ resembling a bubble of foam, but 
composed of a solid substance, which prevents it from crawling, but 
allows it to float on the surface of the water. The head, a cylindri- 
eal proboscis, terminated by a vertically cleft mouth, and armed with 
little hooks, has a bifurcated tentaculum on each side. 

The common species, Helix Janthina, L,: List., 572, 24, has 
a pretty violet shell, and is very abundant in the Mediterranean. 
\Vhon the animal is touched, it diffuses a thick fluid of a deep 
violet colour that dyes the surrounding water. 

NERITA, Lin. \\ 

The culumella of the Xeritje being in a straight line, renders the 
aperture semicircular or semi-elliptical. This aperture is generally 
larue in comparison with the shell, but is always furnished with an 
iiluin which completely closes it. The spire is almost effaced, 
and the shell semi-globular. 



* Which ni'i-t ,- Mrefalij :i-tiui:iiMied from the Actions of Oken that appear to 

lu- :illiol to tin- li 

f Ynli'ln tonmtilis, and Itfiuciala, L.Martini. II, xliii. 442. 44:5 ; V. M/.'co/fl, 
:m.| V. WiWii/.i, Ib., 440, 441 ; V. Jiammeu, ib., 439; '. flara, Ib. 444 ; T. 
pusiiltt, Ib. 446. 

* Trorhns il<>ll;itus t L. Chemn., V, clxvii, It 63, 1064; B*li nvs ttrdelhm, 
Hn'iir.. I/.-t., S4t, 73. 

This genii.- form-, tin- family of the OXY6TOM*, Blainv. 

!| M.de Blniuville forms his family of the HEMKYOLOSTOM,* , from this geaus. 



62 



3IOLLUSCA. 



NATICA, Lam. 



Neritop with an umbilicated shell; the animal of the species known 
has a large foot, simple tcntacula with the eyes at their base, and a 
horny operculum*. 

NERITA, Lam. PELORONTA, Oken. 

The umbilicus wanting; shell thick, columella dentated, and oper- 
culum stony ; the eyes of the animal on pedicles by the side of the 
tentacula, and a moderate foot f . The 

VELATA, Montf. 

Where the side of the columella is covered with a calcareous, 
thick, and convex layer J, is distinguished from it, but perhaps 
without any good reason ; also the 

NERITINA, Lam. 

Where the shell has no umbilicus and is thin, with a horny oper- 
culum ; the animal is like a true Nerita, and most generally the 
columella is not dentated. It inhabits fresh water. 

A small species, very prettily coloured, abounds in the rivers 
of France ; it is the Nerita fluviatilis, L. ; Chemn., IX, cxxiv, 
188 . 

The columella in others, however, is finely crenulated ||, and of 
this number there are some in which the spire is armed with long 
spines CLITHON, Mont.^ 

FAMILY II. 
CAPULOIDA**. 

Recent researches have convinced us that it is to the Trochoida that 
we must approximate this family, which contains five genera, four of 
which are taken from the Patellae. They all have a widely opened, 
scarcely turbinated, shell, with neither operculum, emargination, nor 
siphon; the animal resembles the other Pectinibranchiata, and has the 
sexes separate. There is but one branchial comb transversely ar- 



* For the species sec the first div. of Gm. and Chemn., V, pi. clxxrvi clxxxix. 

t For the species see the third div. of Gm. and Chemn., V, pi. cxc cxciii, 
and Sowerby, Gen. of Sh., No. XV. 

J Nerita potcrsa, Gm., a large fossil species ; Chemn., IX, cxiv, 975, 976. 

Add, Nerita turrita, Chemn., IX, cxxiv, 1085. 

|| Nerita pulUgera, Chemn., loc. cit., 1878 1879; N. virginea, List., 604, 606. 

^ Nerita corona, Chemn., 1083, 1084. 

** M. de Blainville places most of them among his hermaphroditical, non-symme- 
trical Paracephalophora ; but they all appear to me to be edacious. 



GASTEROPODA PECTJNIBRANCHIATA. 63 



raoged on the roof of the cavity, and its filaments arc frequently very 
long. 

CAPIT.I s, Monlf. PILKOPSIS, Lam. 

A conical shell with a recurved and spiral summit; which has long 

ed it to hi- plan (1 aiming the Pat. II;,- : the l>rauchiae arc in one 

<der the interior margin of the branchial cavity ; the pro- 

l-'iiy, and there is a closely plaited membranous veil under 

the neck: .. of the conical tentacula*. 

HIPPONYX, Defr. 

Would appear from the shell to be a fossil Capulus, very remark - 
. for u bed formed of calcareous matter, on which it 
P, and which probably exuded from the foot of the animal \. 

CREPIDII.A, Lam. 

hell oval, with an obtuse horizontal point, directed obliquely 

backwards and laterally; the aperture forming the base of the shell, 

which is half closed beneath and behind by a horizontal plate. The 

.1 >ae which contains the viscera is on this plate, the foot 

ath, and the head and branchiae forwards. The latter consist of 

a range of long fil;. ; : ached under the anterior margin of the. 

branchial e.ivity. The eyes are at the external base of two conical 

ula J. The genus 

PII.KOLUS, Sower by, 

ars to consist of Crepiduloe, in which the transverse plate occu- 
lialf the aperture; their shell, however, is more like that of a 
Patella . They are only found fossil. 

SEPT\KI\, Fcr. NAVICELLA, Lam. CIMBER, Montf.,8'2. 

The shell resembles a Crepidula, except that the summit is symme- 
trical and laid on the posterior margin, and that the horizontal plate is 
less salient. The animal is also provided with an additional, irre- 
gularly shaped, testaceous plate, horizontally connected with the 
superior surface of the muscular disk of its foot, and covered by the 
.initial sac, which it partially supports. It is probably analogous 
to an OJMK ulum, but does not exercise its functions, being, in a 
measure, situated internally. The animal has long tentacula, at 



Pattlla hungarica. List., 544 32 ; Pat. calyplra, Chemn., X, clxix, 1643 
44 ; Pat. ntifntlu, Gin., List., cxliv, 31. 
f r.itclla cornucopia-, Lain., Knorr., Petrif., II, part ii, pi. 131, f. 3, andBlainv., 



J Pafrlla fornitatat List. 545, 33, 35 ; P. aculcata, Chemn., X, clxviii, 1624 
25 ;/'. r?orrenm, M iUui, I. xi:i, i :;i, i .J2 ; P. solea, Naturf., XVIII, ii, 15; 
ms. Sencg., I, ii, <j ; P.porcellana, List., 545, 34. 

Pit,-,,!,,* plintus, Sowcrli. ; PiU teris, Id., Genera of Shells, No. IX -. A.'. 
tcritaUtes, Dwh., Ann. des Sc. Nat., T, xiu, 3, c, b, c. 



64 MOLLUSCA. 

whose external base arc pedicles which support the eyes. They in- 
habit the rivers of hot countries *. In the 

CALYPTRJBA, Lam. 

We observe a conical shell in the hollow of which is a little lamina 
that projects inwards, resembling the commencement of a columella, 
and that interposes itself between a fold of the abdominal sac. The 
branchiae are composed of a range of numerous filaments, long and 
slender, like hairs. 

In some of them this lamina adheres to the bottom of the cone, 
being itself bent into a portion of a cone or of a tube, and descending 
verticallyf. 

In others it is almost horizontal, and adheres to the sides of the 
cone, which is marked above by a spiral line that establishes some 
relation between their shell and that of a TrochusJ. 

SIPHON ARIA, Soiverby. 

The shell of the Siphonariae, which have been recently separated 
from the Patellae, at the first glance seems very similar to a flattened 
Patella, with radiating sulci; but its margin projects rather more 011 
the right side, and it is excavated beneath by a slight furrow, which 
terminates at this prominence of the margin, to which there is a 
corresponding lateral hole in the mantle, for the introduction of 
water into the branchial cavity placed on the back, that is closed on 
every other point. The respiratory organ consist of a few small 
lamellae, arranged in one transverse line on the roof of that cavity ; 
the tentacula seem to be wanting, the head being merely furnished 
with a narrow veil. 

There are some species, in which even this slight appearance of 
the canal, in the shell, is effaced, resembling in toto that of a Patella, 
except in its summit, which is behind ||. In the 

SIGARETUS, Adans. 

The shell is flattened, its aperture ample and round, and the spire 
very moderate, its whorls rapidly enlarging and seen within, but 
concealed during the life of the animal in the thickness of a fungous 
shield, which projects considerably beyond it, as well as the foot, 
and which is the true mantle. Before this mantle are an cmargina- 



* Patella neritonlea, List., 545 36, and Naturf., XIII, v, 1, 2 ; Pat. borbonica, 
Bory Saint-Vincent, Voy. I, xxxvii, 2 ; and for the animal, Quoy and Gaym., Voy. 
de Freycin., pi. 71, f. 3 6. 

-f- Patella equeslris, L., List., 546 38; Pat. sinensis, Ib., 39 ; Pat. trocJiiformis, 
Martini, I, xiii, 135; Pat,, auricula, Chemn., X, clxviii, 1 628 29 ;Pat. plicafa, 
Nat. Forsch., XVIII, 11, 12 ; Pal.striata, Ib., 13. 

J Patella contorta, Nat. Forsch., IX, iii, 34, VIII, 11 14 ; Pat. depressa, Ib., 
xviii, ii, 11. 

Patella aiplio ; Siphonovia concinnu, Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, No. XXI. ; S. 
erigua, Id., Ib. See Savigny, Descr. de 1'Eg., Zool. Gaster., pi. iii, f. 3, and Coq., 
pi. i, f. 1. Some years ago M. Gray proposed a genus GADINIA, (Philos. Magaz., 
April 1824) which is precisely the same as SIPHONARIA. 

|| Siphonaria t)"istensis t Sowerb., loc. cit. 



'.) 



GASTEROPODA PHCTIN1BRANCHIATA. fiu 

tion and a semi-canal, whi-l. aduct water Into t 

i-hi;il c.ivity, and \vhieh form tli to the following family, but 

of \vhii-!i tlier- an- no impression^ on th" shell. The tentacula are 
eonieal. with tin- e\v.s at their external bas : tin- penis of the male U 
very I 
Some species are found on the coast of France. The 

CORIOCELLA, Blainv., 

Consists of Sigareti, the shell of which is horny, and almost mem- 
branous, like that of the Aplysiee*. 

CRY rn )<T<> MA, Blainv. 

I embling tl.:t of a Sigaretus, with the head an<l abdo- 

men, which it covers, supported by a foot four times its size, cut 
Mjnarc behind, and forming before a fleshy, oblong bundle that con- 
stitutes nearly one half of its mass. The animal has a flat head, two 
ula, a broad branchial pecten on the roof of its dorsal cavity, and 
a penis mi ler the right tentuculum ; but I can fiii:l no cmargination 
in the manllef. 

FAMILY III. 
BUCCINOIDA. 

This Family lias a spiral shell, in the aperture of which, i\ear the 
xtivmity of the columella, is an emargination or a canal for transmit- 
ting the siphon or tube, which is itself but an elongated fold of the 
ie. The greater or less length of the canal, when there is one, 
tip- size of the aperture, and the form of the columella, furnish 
the grounds of its division into genera, which may be variously 
grouped J. 

CONUS. Lin. 

ill '1 from the conical shape of the shell; the spire, either per- 
fectly flat, or bnt sightly salient, forms the base of the cone, tlw 
: the opp< mity; the aperture is narrow, recti- 

linear, or nearly so, extending from one end to the other without 
t or fold, either on its edge or on the columella. The 



* The Coriocolk \LII, f. 1. This animal is not 

of n UrU, a I, V.-.r ii i- ti.iu and flexible. 

i^eum (Cr. L.M-hii, liluinv. Malar., KLII, 

3), we k|V4ptf ( ' L'Uonnii. 

J T ', iHobriinchiiita of Blaimilk 1 . 

M. . Terebella, and the Yvlutce, in a 

9TO iv. 

-traight aperture, r ht- mulcrstood as 

intMiiiiiu' tn approximate them to the preceding family, but only to present them 
. as possessing the uiracters of all those which arc- nirnMu-tl \\ith 

a >i|ihmi. 

VOL. III. F 



66 MOLLUSCA. 

thinness of the animal is proportioned to the narrowness of the 
aperture through which it issues; its tentacula and proboscis ur<- 
highly protractile; the eyes are placed on the outer side of the 
former, and near the point; the operculum situated obliquely on 
the hind-part of the foot, is too narrow and short to close the whole 
of the aperture. 

The shells of this genus, being usually ornamented with the most 
beautiful colours, are very common in cabinets. The seas of Europe 
produce very few *. 

They are distinguished by the flatness or slight projection of the 
spire ; by the whorls being tuberculated or not ; by its being more 
salient and even pointed, and furnished, or not, with turbercles. 

There are some in which the spire is sufficiently salient to give 
them a cylindrical appearance, in which case it may be either smooth 
or tuberculated f . 

The appellation of crowned spire is applied to that which is studded 
with tubercles, 

, Lin. 



The spire projecting but little, and the aperture narrow and extending 
from one extremity to the other ; but the shell, which is protuberant 
in the middle, and almost equally narrowed at both ends, forms an 
oval, and the aperture in the adult animal is transversely wrinkled on 
each side. The mantle is sufficiently ample to fold over and envelope 
the shell, which at a certain age it covers with a layer of another 
colour, so that this difference, added to the form acquired by the 
aperture, may easily cause the adult to be taken for another species. 
The animal has moderate tentacula, with the eyes at their external 
base, and a thin foot without an operculum. 

The colours of these shells, also, are extremely beautiful ; they are 
extremely common in cabinets, though with' very few exceptions they 
all inhabit the seas of tropical countries J. In the 

OVULA, Brug. 

The shell is oval, and the aperture narrow and long, as in Cypra, 
but without plicae on the side next to the columella ; the spire is con- 
cealed, and the two ends of the aperture equally emarginated, or 
equally prolonged in a canal. Linnaeus confounded them with the 
Bullae, from which Brugieres has very properly separated them. The 



* For the species of this beautiful genus see the article and the plates of Brugi^res 
in the Encycl. Method., where they are .extremely well described and figured, 
and the enumeration still more complete than in the Ann. du Mus. XV, by M. de 
Lamarck. 

t Species with a crowned spire : Con. cedonulli, L., a shell much sought for, and 
of which there are many varieties, Encycl. Method., pi. 316, f. 1 ; Con, marmoreus, 
L., Enc., pi. 317, f. 5; Con. arenaius, Brug., Encycl., pi. 320, f. 6, &c. 

Species with a simple spire: Con. lUlmtlus, L., Encycl., pi. 326, f. 1 ; Con. 
tessellatus, Brug. Km-., pi. 326, f. 7 ; Con.rirgo, Brug. Enc. pi. 325, f. 5, &c. 

J For the species see the genus Cyprtra, Gmel., and the figures collected by Bru- 
gieres for the Encyclop., the Gen. of shellsby Sowerby, No. XVII, and particularly 
a Monograph by M. Gray, published in the Zool. Journal, Nos. 2, 3, and 4. 



GASTEROPODA PF.CTINIBRANCH IATA. 67 

:uiiinal has a broad foot, an extended mantle which partly folds over 
the shrll, a moderate and obtuse 8nout, and two long tentacula, on 
which, at about the third of their length, are the eyes. 

Montfort particularly designate, hy the term OVUL^, those in 
which the external margin is transversely sulcated *. 

Those in \\-hich the two extremities of the aperture are prolonged 
into a canal, and in which the external margin is not sulcated, he 
calls NAVBTTES VoLV^f- 

When this external margin is not sulcated, nor the extremities of 
the aperture prolonged, he styles them CALPURN*:}. 

TEREBELLCM, Lam. 

An oblong shell, with a narrow aperture, without plicae or wi inkles, 
and increasing regularly in width to the end opposite the spire, which 
is more or less salient, according to the species . The animal is not 
known. The 

VOLUTA, Lin. 

Varies as to the form of the shell and that of the aperture, but is 
recognised by the emargination without a canal which terminates it, 
and hy the salient and oblique plicae of the columella. From this 
genus Brugieres first separated the 

OLIVA, Bniy. 

So named from the oblong and elliptical shape of the shell, the 

aperture of which is narrow, long and emarginated opposite to the 

spire, which is short; the plicae of the columella are numerous, and 

nible striae ; the whorls are sulciform. These shells are quite as 

beautiful as the Cypraeae||. 

The animal has a large foot, the anterior part of which (before the 
head) is separated by an incision on each side ; its tentacula are 
slender, and the eyes are on their side about the middle of their length. 
The proboscis, siphon and penis are tolerably long; but it has no 
oprrculum. MM. Quoy and Gaymard have observed an appendage 
on its posterior portion, which enters the sulcus of the whorls. 

The remainder of the genus Voluta was afterwards divided into 
five, by M. de Lamarck ^[. The 

VOLVARIA, Lam., 
Closely resembles the Oliva in its oblong or cylindrical form ; but 

Bullawum, L., List., 711, 65, Encyclop., 358, 1. 

t Hulta ro/ra, L., List., 711, 63, Encycl., 357, 3 ; B. Wrorfru, Encycl. 357, 1 ; 
Sowerb., Ib. 

J nulla rfi-rucosa, L., LUt., 712, 67, Encyc., 357, 5. from which we do not sepa- 
rate the ULTIMA, Montf. : or Bulla gibbosa, L., List., 711, 64, Encyc. 357, 4. 

Terebtllum subulatum, Lam., HulUt trrebtlluM, L. List., 736, f. 30, Encyc., 360, 
-cb. conro/u/um, Lam., Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, No. \ I. 

|| OJir. sitbulata, Lam., Encyc., pi. 3fi8, f. 6, a, b\ Vol. hiatula, L. ; Vvl por- 
phyria, Vol. o/iru, and, in general, all the cylindrical VoluUe of Gmel., p. 3438, 

Ct scq. 

1T Exclusive of the Tornatcll* and Pyramidclla already mentioned. 

F 2 



68 MOLLUSCA. 

the aperture is narrow, and its anterior edge ascends to the top of the 
spire, which is excessively short. There is one plicaa?, or several, at 
the foot of the columella. The lustre and whiteness of this shell are 
such, that on some coasts it is used for making necklaces *. A small 
fossil species is found in the vicinity of Paris f. In the true Volutse 
or the 

VOLUTA, Lam. 

The aperture is ample, and the columella marked with large plica?, 
the one furthest from the spire being the largest. The degree of 
projection in the spire varies greatly. 

In some of them, CYMBIUM, Montf. ; CYMBA, Sowerb., the last 
whorl is ventricose ; the animal has a large, thick and fleshy foot, and 
a veil on the head, from the sides of which issue the tentacula. The 
eyes are on this same veil outside of the tentacula. The proboscis is 
tolerably long, and there is an appendage on each side of the base of 
the siphon. They attain a large size, and many of them are extremely 
beautiful J. 

In others, VOLUTA, Montf., the last whorl is conical, becoming 
narrower at the extremity opposite to the spire. The foot of the 
animal is not so large as that of the preceding ones ; their shells are 
frequently remarkable for the beauty of their colours or their ar- 
rangement. 

MARGIN ELLA, Lam. 

Form of the shell, similar to that of a true Voluta ; but the external 
margin of the aperture is tumid ; the emargination is but slightly 
marked. The foot of the animal, according to Adanson, is very 
large, and has no operculum. By turning up the lobes of its mantle 
it partly covers the shell. The eyes are on the external side of the 
base of its tentacula ||. 

M. de Lamarck also distinguishes the COLOMBELLA, in which the 
plica? are numerous, and the varix of the external margin is inflated 
in the middle^}. It appears that the operculum is wanting. 



* Vole, moniiis, L. ; Volv. trilicea, Lam., &c. 

f* Foh'aria bullo'idcs, Lam., Encyc. Method., pi. 384, f. 4. 

I Volv. athiopica, List., 797, 4 ; V. cymbiuin, 796, 3, 800, 7 ; V. olla, 794, 1 ; 
V. Neptuni, 802, 8; V. navicula, 795,2; V. papiliaris, Seb., Ill, Ixiv, 9; 
V. indica, Martini, III, Ixxii, 772, 773 ; genus MELO, Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, No. 
XXVIII ; cymbiola, Chemn., X, cxlviii ; 1385, 1386 ; V. prtvputium, List., 798, 
1 ; V. spectibilis, Davila, I, viii, S. 

Voluta musica, List., 805, 14, 806, 15; V. scaplia, 799, 6; V. vesperfilin, 
807, 16, 808, 17; V. hcebrea, 809, 18; V. vexilliwi, Martini, III, cxx, 1098; 
V.fiavicans, lb., xcv, 922, 923 ; V. undulata, Lam., Ann. du Mus., &e. For the 
other species consult the Memoir of M. Broderip, Zool. Journ., April 1825. 

|[ Voluta (/lobelia, Adans., IV, genus, X, 1 ; Valuta faba, Ib., 2 : Vol. pninum, 
Ib., 3 ; Vol. persicula, Ib., 4, and all pi. xlii, vol. II, of Martini ; Vol. marginuta, 
Born., IX, 5, 6. 

^f Voluta mercatona, List., 824, 43; Vol. rustica. List., 824, 44 ; Vol. nienili- 
caria, and nearly all plate xliv of Martini, vol. II ; Col. strombifonnis .; Vol. labi- 
otn ; Vol. punctata, c., Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, No. IX. 

1 



GASTEROPODA PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 69 

MlTRA, J. 

'] ml in 1 " oblong, with a l<'\v large plica- on tlic columella, the 
;he large j'ire usually pointed and 

elongated. St-vcia! species ;IP> hrilli;iiitly ^potted witli red on a 
whin- ground*. The foot of the animal is small: th<> tcntacula arc 
of a moderate length, with the eyes on the side, near their inferior 
third ; tin* siphon also is of a moderate length, but it frequently pro- 
trudes a proboscis longer than its shell. 

CANCELLARIA, Lam. 

Tln last whorl ventricose; aperture ample and round, the internal 
margin forming a plate on the columella. The spire is salient and 
1 <>ini. -d, and the surface of the shell marked with decussating sulcif- 
The 

BUCCINUM, Lin. I 

Comprises all the shells furni^u <l with an emargination or a short 
canal inflected to the left, and in which the columella is destitute of 

Brugiftfes Eta divided them into the four genera of Buccimim, 
. < Wi\, and Tercbra, part of which have been again subdi- 
'1 by Messrs de Lamarck and Montfort. The 

BUCCINUM, Brug. 

Includes the emarginated shells without any canal, whose general 
form, as well as that of the aperture, is oval. The animals all such 
as are known, are deprived of the veil on the head, but are furnished 
with ;i proboscis, two separated tentacula, on the external side of 
which are the eyes, and a horny operculum. Their siphon extends 
out of the .shell. 

The name of Buccinum is especially applied by M. de Lamarck to 
tin >e in which the columella is convex and naked, and the margin 
without plicae or varix. Their foot is moderate, their proboscis long 
and thick, and their penis, frequently, excessively large.. In the 

Such arc Vol. episcopate, List., 839, 66 ; Vol. papalis, Ib. 67 ; and 840, 68 ; 

Vol. cardinalis, 838, 05. Add, Vol. patriarchal* ; Vul. p?rluaa t 822, 40 ; Vol. 

M:rtini, IV, cxlviii, 1366; Vol. plicaiia, List., 820, 37; Vol. sangui- 

. 82 1, 8; r/. <-//;,/, Martini, IV, cxlviii, 1369, 1370; Vol. acus, Id., 

1493, 1494 ; Vol. scubricula. Id., cxlix, 1388, 1389 ; Vol. maculosa, Ib., 

losa, Ib., 1385; Vul. tpadirea, Id., cl, 1392; V. aurantia, Ib., 

1394 ; /-. jrcussata, 1395; V. tunicula, 1376. 

f roluta eancellata, L., Adans., VIII, 16; Vol. reticulata, 830, 25, &c. Sow- 

Its, No. V. 

J M. de 1 .nkcs a family of his Puracrphalophora Dioica Siphonobranchiata 

nf thi^ creat genus, -which he calls the ENOTOMOSTOMA. 

Burn/mm wntn!(i; >2, 14 ; Bucc. glaciale, L. ; B. anglicum, 

i7; /?. / t,:i, IV. cxxvi, 1213, 1214 ; B. latisrimwn. Id., 

rxxNii. \'2\:>. : JH . ib., 1217 ; B. carinatvm, Thips. Voy., XII, 2; 

Naturf.,.\\ B. strigosum, Gm.,'No. 108, Bonan., Ill, 38 ; 

Martini, IV, cx.v -2 ; B.'slrigosum, Ib. 1183, 1183; 

B. obtvtum, Ib., 11 93 ; B. coro '1.1115,1116. 



70 MOLLUSCA. 

NASSA, Lam. 

The side of the columclla is covered by a more or less broad and 
thick plate, and the emargination is deep, but without a canal. The 
animal resembles that of a true Buccinum, and there arc gradual 
transitions among the shells, from one subgenus to the other*. M. 
IVlaiuaick calls 

EBURNA, Lam., 

Those, which to a smooth shell without a plicated margin, add a 
widely and deeply umbricated columella. The general form of their 
Oicll is closely allied to that of the Olivee. Their animal is unknown f> 

ANCILLARIA, Lam. 

The same smooth shell, and at the lower part of the columella a 
marked lip; there is no umbilicus, neither is the spire sulcated. The 
animal of several species resembles that of the Olivse, the foot being 
still more developed J. The same naturalist calls 

DOLIUM, Lam. 

Those in which projecting ribs, that follow the direction of the 
whorls, render the margin undulated ; the inferior whorl is ample and 
ventricose. Montfort subdivides them into 

DOLIUM, properly so called, where the lower part of the columella 
is twisted, and into 

PERDIX, where it is trenchant.|| 

Their animal has a very large foot, widened before ; a proboscis 
longer than its shell, and slender tcntacula, on the external side of 
which, and near the base, are the eyes ; the head has no veil, nor has 
the foot an operculum. 

HARPA, Lam. 

The Harpse are easily recognized by the projecting, transverse ribs 
on the whorls ; the last of which forms a lip on the margin. The 
shell is beautiful, and the animal has a very large foot, pointed behind, 



* Bucrinum arcularia, List., 970, 24,25; B. pullus, List., 971, 26; B. gib- 
bosulum, List., 972, 27, and 973, 28 ; B. tcssellatuw, List., 975, 30 ; B. fossil e, 
Martini, III, xciv, 912, 914 ; B. mnryinatinn, Id. cxx, 1101, 1102 ; B. reliculn- 
fum, List., 966. 21: B. vulgutiirn, Martini, IV, cxxiv, 162, 166; B. stolatnm, 
Ib., 1167, 1169 ; B. glans, List., 981, 40; B. papilloswn, List., 969, 23 ; B. 
nifiilulum, Martini, IV, cxxv, 1194, 1195. 

f Buccinum ylabratv.m, List., 974, 29; B. spiratum, List., 981, 41 ; B. zey- 
lanicitm, Martini, IV, cxxii, 1119. 

t Ancilluria cinnmnomfa, Lam., Mart., II, pi. 65, f. 731 ; J'olvta ampla, Gm., 
Mart., Ib. f. 722, and the species described by M. dc Lamarek and figured in the 
Encyc. Method., 393. See also the Monograph, No. 36, p. 72, of the Ancillariae by 
M. W. Swainson, Journ. of the Sc. and Arts, No. 36, p. 272. 

Btic. oJeurittm, List., 985, 44, and Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, No. 29 ; B. galea, 
List., 898, 18 ; B. tJolium, List., 899, 19 ; B.fasciatvin, Brug., Mart., Ill, cxviii, 
1011 ; B. pomum, Id., II, xxxvi, 370, 371. 

|| Bucc. pcrdi*, List., 984, 43. 



GASTEROPODA PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 71 

and widened in its anterior portion, which is distinguished by two 
deep emarginations. The eyes are on the sides of the tentacula, and 
near thrirbase. It has neither veil nor operculum*. The 



PURPURA, 

own by its flattened eolmnella, which is trenchant near the end 
opposite to the spire, and which, with the external margin, forms a 
e.inal tin iv. Mink in the shell, but not salient. The Purpurae were 
scattered annum' the Buccina and the Murices of Linna'iis. The ani- 
mal resemhles tint of a true Buceinnmf. 

The genus LICORNE, Montf., MONOCKROS, Lam., consists of shells 
similar to the I'urpnra-, but in which the external edge of the emar- 
gination is furnished with a salient spine];. 

Others, also resembling the Purpura>, in which the columella or 
at least the margin is provided, in the adult, with teeth which narrow 
the aperture, form the SISTRA, Montf., or the RUINULA, Lim. 

CONCHOLEPAS, Lam. 

The general characters of the Purpurae, but the aperture is so 
rinoilB, and tip- *pire so small, that the shell has almost the appear- 
ance of a Capulus, or one of the valves of the Area; a small salient 
tooth is visible on each side of the emargination. The animal re- 
sembles that of a true Buccinnm, with the exception of its foot, which 
beooriDOiff in width and thickness, and that it is attached to the shell 
by a muscle sbaped like a horse-shoe, as in the Capuli; it has a thin. 
narrow, and horny operculum. 

But a single species is known, the Buccinum concholepas, 
Brug. ; Argenv., pi. ii, f. F, D; and Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, 
No. VI. From the coast of Peru. 

OASIS, Brug. 

The shell oval ; aperture oblong or narrow ; the columella covered 

with a plate as in Nassa, and that plate transversely plicated, as well 

as the external margin ; the emargination terminating in a short 

il, that is reflected and pushed back, as it were, to the left: 

varices are frequently observed on it. The animal resembles that of 

A true IJneciimm. but its horny opercnlnm is denticulated, in order 

;>s between the plicae of the external margin. 

* Buccinum harpa, L., and the other species long confounded with it List., 992, 
994; Mart., Ill, r\ix: Bucc. cmfiiti'm, Il>. Messrs. Reynaud, Quoy and 
Cayman I i,.i\.- observed, that, under certain circumstances, the posterior part of the 
foot is spontaneously detached. 

cinum p*r.M . 987, 46, 47 ; B. paluhtm, Id., 989, 49 ; B. f"r- 

mastonta, Id., UB8, 48 ; II. w, 1.1., i)(55, 18, 19 ; .U/r.r fuctu, 

I ".0,50; Mur. ill. ci, y/4, 975; J/nr. mancuiclla., List., 

956, 8, 957, 9 10 ; M , List., 955, 996, 990, 991. 

niimo</on, Gm., Martini, III, Ixix. TI'I ; Bucc. narral, Brug. : 11. 

Seb., III. 1\, ::. >:, \2.- ' mlcus, Gm., No. 43. 



/- MOLLl'!- 

In sonic, the lip of the margin is denticulated externally near the 
e ni a rgi nation*. 

In others it is entiref. Thr 

Moiuo, Montf. CASSIDARIA, Lam. 

Was separated from Cassis by Montfort. The canal curves less 
suddenly, and the whole shell leads directly to certain Murices. The 
animal resembles that of a Buccinum, but its foot is more developed J. 

TERABRA, Brug., 

The aperture, emargi nation and columellaof a true Buccinum; but 
the general form is turriculated, that is to say, the spire is lengthened 
into a point . In the 

CERITHIUM, Brug., 

Very properly separated from the Murex of Linnoms, we observe 
a shell with a turriculated spire ; the aperture is oval, and the canal 
short, but well marked, and reflected to the left or backwards. The 
animal has a veil on its head, and is furnished with two separated 
tentacula, on the side of which are the eyes, and with a round, horny 
operculum. 

Many are found fossil ||. M. Brongniart separates from the Ceri- 
thia the 

POTAMIDA, Brongn. 

Which, with the same form of shell, has a very short and scarcely 
emarginated canal, no sulcus on the upper part of the right margin, 
and the external lip dilated. The Potamidrc inhabit rivers, or, at least, 
their mouths, and fossil specimens are found in strata, which contain 
other fresh-water or land species only^J. The genus 

* Buccinum vibex, Martini, II, xxxv, 364, 365; B. glaucum, Listv, 996, 60; 
B. erinaceous, List., 1015, 73. 

f The Buccinum of the second division of Gmelin, except the B. echinophorum, 
stngosum, No. 26, and tyrrhenum, which are Cassidariee. It must also be recollected, 
that, among the true Cassides, Gmelin appears to have several repetitions. 

* Buccinum caudutum, L., List., 940, 3fi ; B. cch'*iipliorvm, List., 1003, 68; 

B. strigosum, Gm., No. 26, List., 1011, 71, f. ; Bucc. fyrrhenum, Bonam., Ill, 160. 
The -whole of the last subdivision of the Buccina, Gmelin, such as, Buccinum 

maculalum, L., 846, 74; Bucc. crenulatum, L. List., 846, 75; Bucc. dimidiatuni, 
L., List., 843, 71; Bucc. subulatum, L., List., 842, 70, &c. 

M. de Blainville separates from them the genus SUBULA, which he founds on a 
difference in the animal, and moreover on the presence of an operculum. 

|| Murex vertagus, List., 1020, 83; M. aluco, List., 1025, 87; M. annularis, 
Martini, IV, clvii, 1486; M. singulatus, Ib., 1492; M. Terebella, Id., civ, 1458, 
9; M. fuscatus, Gualt., 56, H; M. granulatus, Martini, IV, clvii, 1483; M. 
moluccanus, Ib., 1484, S. &c., with the numerous fossil species described by M. de 
Lamarck, Ann. du Mus. M. Deshayes has separated from the Cerithia, under the 
name of NRVINEA, some small species, where the margin is prolonged into the aper- 
ture, and divides it into three distinct orifices. 

It is also near the Cerithia that we must place several fossil shells, which form 
the genus NERINEA of M. Defrance, and which is distinguished by strongly marked 
plicae on each whorl and on the columella, the centre of which, besides, is hollow 
throughout. Nine species are already ascertained. 

If See Brongn., Ann. du Mus., XV, 367. In this subgenus should be placed the 
Ccrithium atrum, Brug., List., pi. 115, f. 10; Cer. paluslre, f. Ib., 836, f. 62; 

C. muricalum, Ib., 121, f. 17, &c., and among the fossils, the Potamida Lamarkii, 
Brongn., loc. cit. pi. xxii, f. 3. 



OASThRuPODA 1'KCTlNlBlUXCHIATA. 73 

MruiA, /,/;/.* 

Comprises all these shells in which there is a salient and straight 
mini |-. The animal of cac-h suhgcnus is furnished with a proboscis, 
long approximated tentaculaon (be external side of which are the 
i with a horny oj.'erculum ; the veil on the head is wanting ; 
.UK!, the length of the siphon excepted, it otherwise resembles that 
of the Buccina. Brugicrc divides them into genera, which have been 
since subdivided by Messrs. Lamarck and Montfort. The 

MUREX, Drug. 

Includes all those which have a and salient straight canal, with varices 
acrott the whorlsj. 

Lamarck appropriates this name to those in which the varices are 
not contiguous on two opposite lines. 

If their canal be long and slender, and the varices armed with 
. they l-ei'onn- the Murex, properly so called, of Montfort. 

When, with this long canal, the varices are mere knobs, they form 
the Bronti*, Montf. || 

Some of them, which, with a moderate canal, have projecting 
tubes that penetrate into the shell between spiny varices, constitute 
the Typ/as, Montf. [ 

\\heii, instead of spines, the varices are furnished with plicated 
slashed, or divided into branches, they are the Chicoracea, 
Montf.** Their canal is long and moderate, and their foliaceous 
production! vary infinitely in figure and complication. 

\Vhen, with a moderate or short canal, the varices are mere knots, 
find the base is provided with an umbilicus, they form the Aquilla, 
Montf. Several species inhabit the coast of France If. 

If tho umbilicus be wanting, they are his Lolorium\\. 

Finally, when the ranal is short, the spire elevated, and the varices 
le, they are his Tritonium. Their mouth is usually plicated 



* This great genus forms the family SIPIIOXOSTOMA, Blainv. 

v Inch Linnaeus also adiUnl svcnil Purpurtcm which the canal is not salient, 
and all the Cerilhiu in \vhich it is recurved. 

< are knobs with which the animal borders its mouth, at each interruption 
in the growth of ito shell. 

Mures Iribulus, List., 902, 22; Mur. brandaris, List., 900, 20; M 

">1 , 21 ; Aftr. sencgalcnsis, Gm., and the costatus of No. 86, Adans, Se- 
ll Afurw haustellum, List., 903, 23 ; Mur. caudatus, Martini, Conch., Ill, f. 1046, 
. Mur. pi/rum. 

y, Drug., Juurn. d'Hi-t. Nat.. I. xi. .? ; Montfort, 614. 

* Mi"-' 946, 41, and all its varieties-. Martini. Ill, cv, ex, cxi ; 

i ; Mur. siur-.tili*, Martini, c\ii. r\iii. ;:nd several others 
xcd. 

ft . 6.1, H4; Mur. tninei'luf, Martini, III, cir, 

. 20; Mur. mi/iorw, Id., i*i, Vign., 36, 1 5; Mur. pomum, Adans., IX, 22; 
Mur. tlecussatus, ib.. 

t: J/IT. l;tin-i ui, IV, cxxx, 1246 9; Mur. femoral f, Id., cxi, 1039; 

. trimeter, Corn., XI, 1, 2. 



MOLLUSCA. 

transversely on both margins. Very large ones inhabit the seas of 
Europe*. 

The variccs are sometimes numerous, compressed, and almost 
membranous, constituting the Trophona, Montf. f 

At other times, they are compressed, very salient, and but few in 
number}. 

M. de Lamarck separates from all the Murices of Brugiere, the 

RANELLA, Lam., 

Characterized by opposing varices, so that the shell is bordered 
with them on both sides. Their canal is short, and their surface 
studded with mere tubercles ; margins of the aperture plicated. 

The Apolles, Montf., are merely umbilicated Ranellae ||. The 

Fusus, Brug. 

Comprises all shells with a salient and straight canal, which are 
destitute of varices. 

When the spire projects, the columella is without plicae, and the 
margin is entire, they are the Fusus properly so called, Lam., which 
Montfort again subdivides ; when they have no umbilicus, they are 
his Fusus^. The shortest and most ventricose gradually approach 
the form of the Buccina**. When provided with an umbilicus they 
are his Latldra\\. 

The Struthiolarix are distinguished from the true Fusi by a bor- 
der which surrounds their aperture, and which covers the columella. 
The margin of the adult is inflated, which connects them with 
Murexjf. 

When the spire is salient, the columella without plicee, and there is 
a small indentation or well marked emargination of the margin near 
the spine, they are the Pleurotoma, Lam. 

* Mur. tritonis, L., List., 959, 12; Mur. maculosus, Martini, IV, cxxxii, 1257, 
1258; Mur. australis, Lam., Martini, IV, cxxxvi, 1284; Mur. pileare, Martini, 
IV, cxxx, 1243, 48, 49; Mur.argus, Martini, IV, cxxxi, 1255, 1256; Mur. rubi- 
cula, Id., cxxxii, 1259, 1267. 

f Mur. magellanicus, Martini, IV, cxxxix, 1 297. 

J Mur. tripterus, Born., X, 18, 19; Mur. obeliscus, Martini, III, cxi, 1033, 
1037. 

N.B. They are the Mur. bufo, Montf. 574; Mur. rana, List., 995, 28; 
Mur. reticularis, List., 935, 30 ; Mur. uffinis, and the species or varieties of Martini, 
1229, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, and 1269, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76. 

** Murex gyrinus, List., 939, 34. 

f"r Mur. cochlidium, Seb. Ill, Hi, 6; Mur. mono, List., 928, 22; Mur. c ano.lt - 
cutatus, Martini, III, Ixvii, 742, 743; Mur. candidus, Martini, IV, cxliv, 1339; 
Mur. ansatus, Id. Ib., 134o; Mur. lavigatus, Martini, cxli, 1319, 1320; Mur. 
longissimus, Ib., 1344; Mur. undatus, Ib., 1433; Mur. colus, L., List., 917, 
10; Mur. striatulus, Ib., 1351, 1352; Mur. pusio, List., 914, 7; Mur. verru- 
cosus, Ib., 1349, 1350, &c., and the numerous fossil species described by M. de La- 
marck. 

Mur. islandicus, Martini, IV, cxli, 1312, 1313, &c.; Mur. antiquus,!^., cxxxviii, 
1294, and List., 962, 15; Mur. ilr-aprrtus, Martini, 1295. 

Mur, resperfilio, Id., cxlii, 1323, 24. 

HI) Mur. stramineus, Gin., Encyc. Method., 431, 1, a, b ; Strttthiofaria crcnulata, 
Lain. 

fc Mur. bdbilonius, L., List., 917, 11; Mur. j<intnv.x, Martini, IV, 138, and 



GASTEROPODA I'KCTINIRRANCIIIATA. / . 

Tin- f'/iruiu/f/'. in which tin- emargination is wide and reaches 
to the spin-, ;uv al.M> properly dUtinpu 

When the >|iire is hut slightly marked, flattened or rounded, and 
the eolumella is without plic;i>, they are tin- Pi/rula* Lam. Some arc 
umhilieated*, and others notf. 

From these Pynihv, Mi.ntt'ort a^ain separates the species with a 
flattened spin-, internally Mriated near tin- lip, hy tlie name of Ful- 
' . Tlu-y are a sort of Tyruhv with a plicate(l colmnclla, the 
plic;i> being sometimes almost insensible. 

Among these divisions of tl t' Bru<rirre*. the / 

.<. are distinguished hy some oldi(pie and well marked plieie on 
the eolum'-lla, near the origin of the .siphon' 1 . The 

TURBINELLA, Lam., 

Also consists of shells with a straight canal, but without varices, dis- 
tinguishable hy the largo transverse plica; on their columella, which 
extend the whole length of the aperture, and which closely approxi- 
mate them to the conical Volut;i>; they only differ from the latter in 
the elongation of their aperture into a sort of canal ||; the line that 
separate:, them is not easily traced. The genus 

STROMBUS, Lin. 

In- hides those shells with a canal th.it is either straight or inflected 
towards the right, of which the external margin of the aperture di- 
lates with age, but still preserves a sinus near the canal, under which 

the h ad of the animal, when it extends itself. 
In most >f them the sinus is at some distance from the canal. They 
are subdivided by M. de Lamarck into two subgcnera. The 

STROMBUS, Lam. 
In which the margin expands into a wing of more or less extent, 



the immense number of fossil if ribed by Lamarck and other conchy- 

Martini, III, Ixviii, 750, 753; Buccimti* bezoar, Gm., Martini, III, 
K\iii, 754, 755. 

List., 750, 4fi; Murcxficiu, Ib., 741. 

7, 27; Mt'r. C//-IW/IH.S-, List., 908, 28; Afwr. c<i- 

M.utihi. MI. l\vi, 738, 740, and Ixvii, 742, 3; 3/r. spiriting, Martini, 
III. ( \\. 1069; Pirulu canaliculafa, Lam., Montf., 502, which appears to me the 
same as the A/r. carter, Martini, III, ! 

Mur. tuliint. i >10, 911 ; Mur trapezium, List., 93, 2R ; Mur polygo- 

ns, List., 922, 15; Mur. iafumHhvluin, List., 921, 14; .1/ur. striatnhis, Martini, 
Mur. rcrsiriilur, Ib., 1348; Mur. /*r,/.i/i.s Id. c.xlix. 
1384; Mur. coslalus, KmOTT., IVuii., C, n. 7; Mur. lancea, Martini, IV, cxlv, 

|| Mur. scolymus, Martini, IV, cxlii, 1325^ / 'vlutu pyrum, Martini, III, xcv, 916, 
f'oluta crrumici -I'oivtu rhinoceros, Cheinn. X, 150, f. 1407, 

Wa turbindlus, ' 20 ; //. cairitellum, Lbt., 810, U>; / ol. 

*. C'hcinn., XI. |>8, !.. 1 7 1 ;: /<..'. /;/,',.. Cm. 



7'J MOLLUSCA. 

but not digitated. The foot is proportionally small, and the eyes are 
supported by lateral pedicles of the tentacula, thicker than the ten- 
tacula themselves The operculum is horny, long and narrow, and 
placed on a thin tail*. In the 

PTEROCERA, Lam. 

The margin, in the adult, is divided into long and slender cligita- 
tions, varying in number, according to the species. The animal is 
the same as that of the true Strombus f. 

In other Strombi, the sinus of the external margin is contiguous 
to the canal, forming the Rostellaria, Lam. There is usually a 
second canal ascending the spire, formed by the external margin 
and by a continuation of the columella. 

In some of them, the margin is still digitated. Their animal re- 
sembles that of a Murex, but has only a very small operculum]:. 

In others, we merely observe a dentated margin. Their canal is 
long and straight . 

In some again, that margin is entire ; they are the Hippocrenes. 
Montf. II 



ORDER VII. 
TUBULIBRANCHIATA. 

The Tubulibranchiata should be detached from the Pectini- 
branchiata, with which they are very closely allied, because the shell, 
which resembles a more or less irregularly shaped tube, only spiral at 
the commencement, attaches itself to various bodies; they conse- 
quently are deprived of copulating organs, and fecundate themselves. 
In the 

VERMETUS, Adans., 

We remark a tubular shell whose whorls, at an early age, still form 
a kind of spire, but then continue on in a tube more or less irregu- 
larly contorted, or bent like the tubes of a Serpula. This shell usually 
attaches itself by interlacing- with others of the same species, or is 
partly enveloped by Lithophytes : the animal, having no power of 



* Nearly all the Strombi comprised in the second and third division of Gmelin, 
observing, that owing to the various degrees of development acquired by the exter- 
nal margin, there are several repetitions. 

f Strombus lambis, Rondel., 79; Martini, III, Ixxxvi, 855; Sir. chiragra, List., 
870; Sir. millepeda, List., 868, 869; Str. scorpius, List., 867. 

J Strornbiis pes pelecani, L., List., 865, 866. 

Strombus fusus, L., List., 854, 11, 12, 916, 9. 

|| Strombus amplus, Brandcr., Foss., Hant., VI, 76, or Rostellaria macroptera, 
Lam.; Str.fissurclla, Lam., Encycl. Method., p. 411, 3, a, 6, which is not that of 
Martini, IV, clviii, H98, 1499, &c. 



GASTEROPODA PBCTINIBRANCHIATA. 77 

locomotion, is deprived of afoot, properly so called; but the part 
which in ordinary Gasteropoda forms the tail, is here turned under 
it, and extends to beyond the head, where its extremity becomes 
inllatrd and furnished with a thin operculum; when the animal 
withdraws into its shell, it is this mass which closes the entrance; 
it is som. -times seen with various appendages, and in certain species, 
the opcrculum is spiny. The head of the animal is obtuse, and has 
two m.ideiate tent-.icul.i, on the external sides of which, at the base, 
arc th" eyes. The mouth is a vertical orifice, beneath which is a 
filament "on -a"h .side, that his all the appearance of a tentaculum, 
but belonging in reality to the foot. The branchiae form but a single 
range along the left side of the roof of the branchial cavity. The 
right side is occupied by the rectum and the spermatic canal, which 
transmits the ova. There is no penis, the animal fecundating 

The species are numerous, but not very distinct. Linnaeus 
left them among the Serpuhe*. 

Th- Vermili&i also K-ft by M. de Lamarck near the Serpula?, are 
similar to the Verraetif. 

MAGILUS, Montf., 

i Magili have a longitudinally carinated tube, which is at first 
regularly spiral, and then extends itself in a line more or less straight; 
although th.- animal is unknown, it is highly probable that it should 
be placed near the Ver.neti J. The 

SlLIQUARIA, Bl'Ug. 

I! emblea Vermetus in the head, the position of the operculum, and 
in the tubular ;md ii regular shell; but there is a fissure on the whole 

h of this shell which follows its contour, and which corresponds 
to a .similar (left in that part of the mantle which covers the branchial 
cavity. Along the whole side of this cleft is a branchial comb, com- 
posed of numerous, loose and tabular-like lamellae. Linnaeus left 
them with the Serpula-, and till very lately they were considered as 

iging to the class of the Annelidesg. 



* Serpulu lumbricalis, L., Adans., Senegal, XI, 1, and several new species. 
f Strpn><ifri<jtirfr,i, (im., H.rn., Mas., pi. xviii, t. 14. 

' mtf. II, pi. 4:i, and Guettard, Me*ra., Ill, pi. Uxi, f. 6. 
..'"/.I anyuina, L.; Serpulu muricata, lion)., Mu-., XVIII, 16. 

the Siliquarix and the Vcrmilie as neighbours 

of Hi M. ilt- Mliiiuvillf h:i< approximntfJ them to tin- Ymm'ti ; M . An- 

ii.--.iiu has lately obscn'cd and describnl the uniiiiuJ, and to him do we owe \\i 
stated above. 



78 MOLLUSC A. 

ORDER VIII. 

SCUTIBRANCHIATA*. 

The Scutibranchiata comprise a certain number of Gasteropoda, simi- 
lar to the Pectinibranchiata, in the form and position of the branchiae, 
as well as in the general form of the body, but in which the sexes are 
united, in such a way, however, as to allow them to fecundate them- 
selves. Their shells are very open, without an operculum, and most 
of them without the slightest turbination, so that they cover these 
animals, and particularly their branchiae, in the manner of a shield. 
The heart is traversed by the rectum, and receives the blood from 
two auricles, as is the case in the greater number of bivalves. The 

HALYOTIS, Lzw.f 

Is the only genus of this order in which the shell is turbinated ; it is 
distinguished from that kind of shell by the excessive amplitude of 
the aperture, and the flatness and smallness of the spire, which is 
seen from within. This form has caused it to be compared to the 
ear of a quadruped. In the. 

HALYOTIS, Lam., 

Or the true Halyotes, the shell is perforated along the side of the 
columella by a series of holes; when the last hole is not terminated, 
it gives to that part the look of an emargination. The animal is one 
of the most highly ornamented of all the Gasteropoda. A double mem- 
brane, cut into leaves and furnished with a double range of filaments, 
extends, at least in the most common species, round the foot and on 
to the mouth ; outside its long tentacula, are two cylindrical pedicles 
which support the eyes. The mantle is deeply cleft on the right side, 
and the water, which passes through the shell, penetrates through it 
into the branchial cavity ; along its edges we observe three or four 
filaments which the animal can protrude through these holes. The 
mouth is a short proboscis J. 

The Padollce, Montf., have an almost circular shell, in which the 
holes are nearly obliterated, and there is a deep sulcus that follows 
the middle of the whorls, and is marked externally by a salient ridge ; 
Padole briquete, Montf., II, p. 114. 

* M. de Blainville unites this order and the following one (the Chitones ex- 
cepted) in his sub-class of the Paracephalophora Hermaphrodila. 

f The Paracephaloph. Hermuph. Otid., Bluinv. 

J All the Halyotides, Gm., except the imperforata and the perversa. 

This genus, although it has been denied, most certainly has its counterpart 
among the fossils. M. Marcel de Serres has described a species found in the cal- 
careous strata of Montpellier (Hal. Philberti), Ann. des Sc. Nat. tome XII, pi. 
xlv, f. A. 



GASTEROPODA gcCTIBllANCIIlATA. 



STROM ATI A, Lam. 

The shell moiv hollow, the spin- more salient, and the holes want- 
ing ; otherwise resembling that of the Halyotides, which it thus con- 
nects with certain species of Turbo. The animal is much less orna- 
mented thin that of the Halyotidos*. 

In tin- following genera, which are separated from the Patellae, the 
shell is perfectly symmetrical, as well as the position of the heart and 
bram-hia- f. 1" tin- 

Fissi 1:1:1.1. \, Lam., 

\\V perceive a broad fleshy disk under the belly, as in the Patella?, 
a conical shell placed on the middle of the back, but not alw:i\ - 
completely covering it, and perforated at its summit by a small ori- 
fice, which all'ords at once an issue to the firces and a passage to the 
water, required for respiration; this orifice penetrates into the cavity 
of the branchitr, situated on the fore part of the back, and in the 
bottom of which terminates the anus; a cavity otherwise widely 
opened above the head. A branchial comb is symmetrically arranged 
on each side ; the eyes are on the external base of the conical tenta- 
cula, and the sides of the foot are furnished with a range of fila- 
inentsj. 

EMAKGINULA, Lam. 

'1'h i' structure of the Emarginulse is similar to that of a Fissurella, 
except that instead of the hole in the summit, there is a small cleft 
or emargination in the anterior margin of their mantle and shell, 
which also penetrates to the branchial cavity ; the margin of the mantle 
envelopes and covers a great part of that of the shell ; the eyes are 
placed on a tubercle of the external base of the conical tentacula, and 
the margin of the foot is furnishes with a range of filaments . 

P.\ ii. \ropiicmus, Lam. 

A great portion of the shell curved by the reflected margin of the 
mantle, as in the Emargiuujae ; the shell itself oblong, slightly conical, 
and without hole or emargination ; the branchiae and other organs, as 
in the preceding general). 



///i* imitrrfnraia, Gm., Chcmn., X, clxvi, 1600, 1601. 

f They art! tin- I'ARACKPHALORA CKR VI CO-BRANCH I.K BRANCHIFKRA, 

J All the Patella? of the fifth division of Gtnelin, except Pat . Jissura ; among others, 
/'.</. </i-,rr,i, I.M.. .VJ7. i. 2 ; /'. nimbusa, List., 528,4. We have a species in 
u In.-h tlu >h< 11, at least six times the size of the mantle, simply surrounds the hole 
of the summit like a rintr, Fusurtlln unnulafu, Cuv. 

Patella fiswra, L. f List., 543, 28, &c. The PALMARIA, Montf., most he 
allied to this 1:1 ; 

II Patella amlriyu*, Chemn., C \( II, 1918. 

.VII. Funtrelltt, Emarginul<r, and Parmuphori are also found fossil. 



80 MOLLUSCA, 

ORDER IX. 

CYCLOBRANCHIATA *. 

The branchiae of the Cyclobranchiata resemble small lamellae, or 
little pyramids forming a cordon more or less complete under the 
borders of the mantle, very nearly as in the Inferobranchiata, from 
which they are distinguished by the nature of their hermaphroditism ; 
for, like the preceding genus, they have no copulating organ, but fe- 
cundate themselves. Their heart does not embrace the rectum, but 
varies as to situation. But two genera of this order are known, in 
both of which the shell never approaches in the least to the turbi- 
nated form. 

PATELLA, Lin. 

The entire body covered with a shell, formed of a single piece, in the 
form of a broad-based cone ; a cordon of little branchial lamellae 
under the margin of the mantle; the anus and genital orifices some- 
what to the right and above the head, which is furnished with a 
thick and short snout, and two pointed tentacula, on the external base 
of which are the eyes ; the mouth is fleshy, and containing a spiny 
tongue, which inclines backwards, and is reflected deeply in the in- 
terior of the body. The stomach is membranous, and the intestine 
long, thin, and greatly flexed ; the heart is forwards, above the neck, 
and a little to the leftf. 

Some species abound on the coast of France. 

CHITON, Lin. 

A -range of testaceous and symmetrical scales along the back of the 
mantle, but not occupying its whole breadth ; edges of the mantle 



* M. de Blainville, who calls the order in which he places Doris CYCLOBRAN- 
CHIATA, makes an order of the Patellae, and of the three preceding genera, which 
he names CERVICOBRANCHIATA, which he divides into the Retifera and the Branchi- 
fera. The Retifera are the Patelkc, hecause he supposes that they respire through 
the medium of a network in the cavity which is over their head. I have vainly 
sought for it, however, nor could I discover there any other organ of respiration than 
tlic cordon of lamellae which extends round the under part of the margin of the 
mantle. See Anat. of the Patel'a iu my Mrm. on tlic Aiollusca. 

f I separate from the PATKLL/E and arrange among the TROCHOIDA, all the 
animals comprised in the genera, CREPIDULA, NAVICELLA, CALYPTR.EA of M. de 
Lamarck, to which I add the CAPULI ; and his genera FISSURELLA, EMARGINULA, 
and PARMOPHORA, or Patella ambigua, Chcmu., XI, 197, 1918, I place among the 
SCUTIBRANCHIATA. The UMBRELLA, Scittus, Montf., Patella umbrella, Martini 
II, yi, 18, is one of the TKCTIBRANCHIATA. The Pat. anomala, Mull., belongs to 
the BRACHIOPODA and is my genus ORBICVLUP. The other species quoted by Gin. 
remain in the trims Patella. 



GASTEROPODA CYCLOBRANCUIATA. 81 

coriaceous, and furnished either with a naked skin or little scales, 
which give it the appearance of shagreen, or with spines, hairs, or 
setaceous fasciculi. Under these edges, on each side, is a range of 
lamellar, pyramidal branchiae; and before, a membranous veil on 
the mouth supplies the want of tentacula. The anus is under the 
posterior extremity. The heart is situated behind, on the rectum, 
the stomach is membranous, and the intestine very long and greatly 
contorted. The ovary is situated over the other viscera, and appears 
to open on the sides by two oviducts. 

A few small species are found on the coast of France ; very 
large ones abound in the seas of hot climates *. 



CLASS IV. 



ACEPHALA. 

The Acephala have no apparent head ; but a mere mouth concealed 
in the bottom, or between the folds of their mantle. The latter is 
almost always doubled in two, and encloses the body as a book is 
clasped by its cover ; but it frequently happens, that, in consequence 
of the two lobes uniting before, it forms a tube; sometimes it is closed 
at one end, and then it represents a sac. This mantle is generally 
provided with a calcareous bivalve, and sometimes multivalve shell, 
and in two genera only is it reduced to a cartilaginous, or even mem- 
branous nature. The brain is over the mouth, where we also find one 
or two other ganglia. The branchiae usually consist of large lamellae 
covered with vascular meshes, under or between which passes the 
water ; they are more simple, however, in the genera without a shell. 
From these branchiae the blood proceeds to a heart, generally unique, 
which distributes it throughout the system, returning to the pulmo- 
nary art. ry without the aid of another ventricle. 

The mouth is always edentated, and can only receive the molecules 
brought to it by the water: it leads to a first stomach, to which there 
is sometimes added a second ; the length of the intestines is extremely 
various. The bile is thrown by several pores into the stomach, which 
is MUTiMuulrd by the mass of the liver. 

All these animals fecundate themselves, and in several species, the 
young ones, which are innumerable, pass some time in the thickness 

l!u ( UMONKLLI of Lamarck, and all tin- spi-ries of CHITON of authors, 
shonM l>r left in this eenus, of which M. de Hlainvillc has thought proper to make 
a M-parate class, called POLYPLAXIPHORA, supposing that it leads to the Articulated 
Animals. 

VOL. HI O 



82 MOLLUSCA. 

of the branchiae previously to being brought to light *. All the Ace- 
phala are aquatic f. 

ORDER I. 



ACEPHALA TESTACEA. 

Testaceous Acephala, or Acephala with four branchial leaflets J, 
are beyond all comparison the most numerous. All the bivalves, and 
some genera of the multivalves belong to this order. Their body, 
which contains the liver and viscera, is placed between the two lami- 
nae of the mantle ; forwards, and still between these laminae are the 
four branchial leaflets, transversely and regularly striated by the ves- 
sels : the mouth is at one extremity, the anus at the other, and the 
heart towards the back ; the foot, when it exists, is inserted between 
the four branchiae. On the sides of the mouth are four triangular 
leaflets, which are the extremities of the two lips, and serve as tenta- 
cula. The foot is a mere fleshy mass, the motions of which are 
effected by a mechanism analogous to that which acts on the tongue 
of the Mammalia. Its muscles are attached to the bottom of the valves 
of the shell. Other muscles, which sometimes form one mass and 
sometimes two, cross transversely from one valve to the other to keep 
them closed, but when the animal relaxes these muscles, an elastic 
ligament placed behind the hinge opens the valves by its contraction. 

A considerable number of bivalves are provided with what is termed 
a byssus, or a fasciculus of threads more or less loosely connected, 
which issues from the base of the foot, and by which the animal ad- 
heres to various bodies. It uses its foot to direct the threads and to 
agglutinate their extremities ; it even reproduces them when cut, but 
the nature of the production is not thoroughly ascertained. Reaumur 
considered these threads as a secretion, spun and drawn from the 
sulcus of the foot ; Poli thinks they are mere prolongations of tendi- 
nous fibres. 

* Some naturalists are of the opinion that the very minute bivalves, which in cer- 
tain seasons fill the external branchiae of the Anodontes and Mytilus, are not the progeny 
of those Mollusca, but a different and parasitic species. See, on this subject, the 
Dissertation of M. Jacobseu. The difficulty seems to be removed by the observations 
of Sir Ev. Home. 

f M. de Lamarck at first changed my name of Acephala into that of Acephalata. 
M. de Blainville forms a class, which he calls ACEPHALOPHORA, from my Acephala 
and my Bruchioj-ola. 

+ M. de Lamarck, in his last work, has made his class of the CONCHIFERA from 
my Testaceous Acephala; and M. de Blainville has converted the same into his order 
of the ACEPHALOPHORA LAMELLIBRANCHIATA : but it is always the same thing. 



ACBPHALA TE8TACEA. 83 

The shell essentially consists of two pieces, called valves, to which 
in certain genera are added others, connected by a hinge that is 
sometimes simple and sometimes composed of a greater or smaller 
number of teeth and plates, which are received into corresponding 
cavities. 

There is usually a projecting part near the hinge called the sum- 
wit or nates. 

Most of these shells fit closely when the animal approximates them, 
but there are several which exhibit gaping portions either before or 
at the extremities. 

FAMILY I. 



OSTRACEA. 

The mantle is open, without tubes or any particular aperture. 

Tin* foot is either wanting in these Mollusca or is small ; they are 
mostly fixed by the shell or byssus to rocks and other submerged bo- 
dies. Those which are free, seldom move except by acting on the 
water by suddenly closing their valves. 

In the first subdivision there is nothing but a muscular mass reach- 
ing from one valve to the other, as seen by the single impression left 
upon the shell. 

1 1 is thought proper to class with them certain fossil shells, the valves 
of which do not even appear to have been held together by a ligament, 
but which covered each other like a vase and its cover, and were con- 
ntrt.-d by muscles only. They form the genus 

ACARDA, Brug. OSTRACITA, La Peyr., 

Of which M. de Lamarck makes a family that he names RUDISTA. 
Tin- shells are thick, and of a solid or porous tissue. They are now 
divided into the 

RADIOLITES, Lam., 

In which the valves are striated from the centre to the circumfe- 
rence. Tin- our is flat, the other thick, nearly conical and fixed*. 



* The species of BrugiVe, 173, f. l, 23, which forms the genus ACARDA, Lam., 
appears to be nothing more than a double- epiphysis of the vertebra of some ceta- 
ceous animal. The DISCING, Lam., are Orbiculae ; it is also thought that his 
iuld be approximated to them. The JODAMIKS of M. de France or 
HIKOM KITES, Lam., are mere moulds of SPHCSRULITES or at least of the bodies 
always found in their interior, although they do not adapt themselves to their form. 
SeeM. Charles Desmoulins on the Sphrnilitt-. 

o 2 



84 MOLLUSCA. 



SPHJERULITES Lameth., 

Where the valves are roughened hy irregularly raised plates. It 
is also thought we may add the 

CALCEOLA, 

One valve of which is conical but free, and the other flat and even, 
somewhat concave, so that they remind us of a shoe ; and even the 

HIFPURITES, 

Where one valve is conical or cylindrical with two obtuse, longi- 
tudinal ridges on the inside ; the base even appears to be divided into 
several cells by transverse septa*; the other valve fits like a cover. 
The 

BATOLITHES, Montf. 334, 

Are cylindrical and straight Hippurites ; they are frequently found 
greatly elongated. There is much incertitude, however, with respect 
to all these bodies f . 

As to the well known living testaceous Acephala, Linnaeus had 
united in the genus 

OSTREA, Lin., 

All those which have but a small ligament at the hinge, inserted 
into a little depression on each side, and without teeth or projecting 
plates. 

OSTREA, Brug. 

The true Oysters have the ligament as just described, and irregu- 
lar inequivalve and lamellated shells. They adhere to rocks, piles, 
and even to each other, by their most convex valve. 

The animal PELORIS, Poli, is one of the most simple of all the 
bivalves, possessing nothing remarkable but a double fringe round 
the mantle, the lobes of which are only united above the head, near 
the hinge ; but there is no vestige of a foot. 

O. edulis, L. The common oyster is well known to every one. 
Its fecundity is as astonishing as its flavour is delicious. Among 
the neighbouring species we may observe, 

O. cristata, Poli, II, xx, or the little Mediterranean oyster. 
Among the foreign species we have, 

O. parasitica, L. ; Chemn., VIII, Ixxiv, 681. Round and flat ; 
it adheres to the roots of such mangroves and other trees of the 
torrid zone, as the salt-water can reach. 

* See Deshayes, Ann. des Sc. Nat., June, 1825 ; and Ch. Desmoulins, loc. cit. 
Several Hippurites have been described by La Peyrouse under the improper name of 
(...Ihoceratiles. The Cornucopia of Thompson, Journ de Phys. an X, pi. ii, is also 
one of them. 

f The observations of M. Deshayes and Audouin even lead us to believe that, in a 
part of these shells, there were two muscular impressions. 



ACEPHALA TKSTACEA. 85 

O. folium, L. ; Ib., Ixxi, 662, 666. Oval ; the margin plicated 
in zig-zag ; it attaches itself by the indentations in the back of 
its convex valve to the branches of the Gorgonire and other 
Lithophytes*. 

M. de Lamarck separates by the name of- 
GBYPH.EA, Lam., 

Certain oysters, mostly fossil, of the ancient calcareous and schist- 
ous strata, in which the summit of the most convex valve greatly 
projn-ts and curves more or less into a hook, or is partially spiral; 
tin- other valve is frequently concave. The greater number of these 
.shells apjM'ar to have been free ; some of them, however, seem to have 
adhered to other bodies by their hookf. 

G. tricarinata. The only living species known. 

PECTEN, Brag., 

The Pectens, very properly separated from the Oysters by Bru- 
giere, although they have the same kind of hinge, are easily distin- 
guished by their inequivalvc semi-circular shell, almost always regu- 
larly marked with ribs, which radiate from the summit of each 
valve to the edge, and furnished with two angular productions called 
ears, which widen the sides of the hinge. The animal, ARGUS, 
Poli, has but a small oval foot J placed on a cylindrical pedicle be- 
fore a sac-like abdomen that hangs between the branchiae. Some 
species, known by a deep eaiargination under their anterior ear, are 
furnished with a byssus. The others cannot adhere, and even swim 
with rapidity by suddenly closing their valves. The mantle is sur- 
rounded with two ranges of filaments, several of the external ones 
being terminated by a little greenish globule. The mouth has nu- 
merous branched tentacula in place of the four, usual, labial leaflets. 
The shell is frequently tinged with the most lively colours. 

The great species of the French coast, Ostrea maxima, L., 
has convex valves, one whitish, the other reddish, with fourteen 
ribs each, that arc broad and longitudinally striated. The 
animal is eaten. 

We may also remark the Sole of the Indian Ocean, Ostrea so- 
lea, Chemn., VII, Ixi, 595, with extremely thin and almost equal 



* The various species of Oysters, on account of their irregularity, are not easily 
distinguished : tn this genus are referred the Ost. orbicularis ; O. fornicata ; O. 
rinensis; O. Forskahlii; O. rostrata ; O. virginica / 0. cornucopia; O. senega - 
lensis; O. stellata; O. oralis ; O.papyracea, and the Mytilus crista-galli ; .!/. 
hyolis; M.frons, Gmel., and those figured by Brugtere in the Encyc. Method., 
pi. 17!), 188. 

It is almost certain, however, that several of these pretended species are mere 
varieties. 

The Ost. semi-auritu. ' H. i* a young Acicula hi, undo. 

Brug., Encyc. Method., pi. 189. 

J I mproperly styled by Poli the abdominal trachea. 



86 MOLLUSCA. 

valves, one brown, the other white, and internal ribs, fine as 
hairs, approximated two by two*. 

LIMA, Brug. 

The Lima* differ from the Pectens in the superior length of their 
shell in a direction perpendicular to the hinge, the ears of which are 
shorter, and the sides less unequal, thus forming an oblique oval. 
The ribs of most of them are relieved with scales. The valves can- 
not join during the life of the animal, whose mantle is furnished 
with numberless filaments of different lengths without tubercles, and 
more internally, with a large border which closes the opening of the 
shell, and even forms a veil in front. The foot is small and the bys- 
sus trifling. The Limse swim with rapidity by means of their 
valves. 

One species, the Ostrea lima, L. ; Chemn., VII, Ixviii, 651, 
of a fine white, inhabits the Mediterranean. It is eaten f. 

PEDUM, Brug. 

The oblong and oblique shell with small ears, of the Limse ; but 
the valves are unequal, and the one only that is most convex has a 
deep emargination for the byssus. The animal is similar to that of 
a Lima, but its mantle is only furnished with a single range of small, 
slender tentacula. Its byssus is larger. 

But a single species is known; it inhabits the Indian 
Ocean J. 

Certain fossils may be placed here which have the hinge, 
ligament, and central muscle of the Ostreae, Pectines, and Limae, 
but are distinguished by some of the details of the shell. 

HINNITA, Defr. 

The Hinnitse appear to be Ostrese or Limae with small ears, and ad- 
hering, irregular and very thick shells, the convex valve in particular. 
A depression is observed on the hinge for the ligament . 

* Add the ninety-one species of Ostrea, Gmel. ; we must remember, however, 
that some of them are far from established on a solid foundation. For the fossil 
species, consult Sowerby (Mineral Conchology), and Brongniart, App. Cuv., Oss. 
Foss. tome II, Env. de Paris. 

f Add, Ostrea glacialis, Chemn., VII, Ixviii, 652, 653; Ostr. excavata, Ib., 
654 >Ostr. fragilis, Ib., 650 ; Ostr. Mans, Gault., LXXXVIII, FF, G. For the 
fossil species, see Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., VIII, p. 461 ; Brocchi, Conch. Foss., 
and Sowerb., Min. Conch. 

I Ostrea spondyloidea, Gm., Chemn., VIII, Ixxxii, 669, 670. 

Some living species have very lately been referred to the genus HINNITA, 
Defr. M. Gray, Ann. of Phil., August 1826, describes one by the name of Hin- 
nita gigantea; Sowerby, Zool. Journ. IX, p. 67, adds a second by that of H. 
corallina; finally, M. Deshayes refers the Ostrea sinuosa, L., to this genus, and de- 
scribes a fourth living species under the name of Hinnita Defrancii; M. Defrance 
also admits two fossil species, the H. Cortesii, Blainv., Malac., pi. Ixi, f. 1, and the 
H. Dubuissonii. 



ACKl'HALA TKbTACKA. 87 

PLAGIOSTOMA, Sowerb., 

The obli.jue shell of a Lima, flattened on one side; very small ears ; 
tin- valves more convex, striated, without scales, the opening for the 
smaller *. Found in formations anterior to chalk. 

PACHYTKS, Defr. 

Nearly the same form as that of the Pectines; shell regular, with 
smill ears; a flattened transverse space between their summits, 
which in one of the valves is marked by a deep triangular notch, in 
which paed tin- ligament. Found in chalk f. In the 

DIANCHORA, Sowerb., 

The viilvrs are oblique and irregular, one of them adherent and with 
a perforated summit, the other free and with earsj. 

PODOPSIS, Lam. 

ilar striated valves without opercula ; the summit of one of them 
inure salient, truncated and adherent, frequently very thick, and form- 
ing a sort of pedestal to the shell . 

Although multivalve, we should approximate the 
ANOMIA, Brug. 

To the Ostreae. The Anomiae have two thin, unequal, irregular 
valves, the flattest of which is deeply notched on the side of the 
ligament, which is similar to that of the Ostreae. The greater part 
>1 the central muscle traverses this opening to be inserted into a 
third plate that is sometimes stony and sometimes horny, by which 
the animal adheres to foreign bodies, and the remainder of it (the 
muscle) serves to join one valve to the other. The animal, ECJHION, 
Poli, has a small vestige of a foot, similar to that of a Pecteri, which 
slips between the emargination and the plate that closes it, and per- 
haps serves to direct water to the mouth which is close to it ||. 

These shells are found attached to various bodies like the Ostreae. 
They are found in every sea ^f. 

* I'Utyioitoma giyas, Sowerb., Encyc. Method., Test., pi. 238, f. 3 ; PI. Ue- 
rii/nhnn, Parkins., Org. Rein.. Ill, pi. xiii, f. 6 ; and the other species given by 
Sowerby, Min. Conch., pi. 1 13, 114, and 382. 

f Pachiifia sinnnsus, Fr. Sowerb., Cuv., Oss. Foss., II, Env. de Paris, pi. iv, 2, 
A, B, C, and Hlainv., Malar., pi. Iv, f. 2: Path, hoperi, Sowerb., 380. 

J Dianch, striata ; D. lata, Sowerb., Min. Conch., pi. 80. 

Pwiopt. tntncata, Encyc. pi. 188, f. 2, 6, 7 ; Cuv., Oss. Foss. ; Env. de Paris, 

pl. V. f. I, 

N.I'.. M. de Blainville considers these four last genera as more nearly related to 
the Terebratulte. M. Deshayes, on the contrary, Ann. des So. Nat. Dec. 1834, it 
proximate thorn to the Spondyli. 

|| This foot escaped the notice of M. Poli. 

HUM ephippium, Gin.. .!. ctjm ; A. elcctrica ; A. squamula; .1. acu- 
l,-tilit .- .1. siitninnt . .1. / t'nctata ; A. umlulata, und the species added by Ilru- 

.-. Mr'!-... I.. \ M~.. ! TO, , t ieq, . ai (1 |il. I/O, 71. 
The other Anomi* of Gmelin arc Placun<r, TtrcbraitUr, and Hyaler. 



88 MOLLUSCA. 

PLACUNA, Brug. 

A small genus allied to the Anomiae, in which the valves are thin, 
unequal, and frequently irregular, as in the latter, but both entire. 
Two projecting ribs, en chevron, are seen on the inside of one of 
them, near the hinge. 

The animal is not known, but it must resemble that of the Ostrese, 
or that of the Anomiae *. 

SPONDYLUS, Lin. 

A rough and foliaceous shell as in the Ostreae, and frequently spiny ; 
but the hinge is more complex ; besides the cavity for the ligament, 
analogous to that of the Ostreae, there are two teeth to each valve 
that enter into fossae in the opposite one; the two middle teeth be- 
long to the most convex valve, which is usually the left one, and 
which has a projecting heel, flattened as if sawed through behind 
the hinge. The animal, like that of a Pecten, has the borders of its 
mantle furnished with two rows of tentacula, some of the external 
ones being terminated by coloured tubercles ; before the abdomen is 
a vestige of a foot formed like a broad radiated disk on a short pe- 
dicle, and endowed with the faculty of contraction and expansion f. 
From its centre hangs a filament, terminated by an oval mass, the use 
of which is unknown. 

The Spondyli are eaten like oysters. Their shells are frequently 
tinged with the most brilliant colours. They adhere to all sorts of 
bodies J. 

PLICA TULA, Lam. 

The Plicatulae, separated by Lamarck from the Spondyli, have 
nearly the same kind of hinge but no heel, and flat, almost equal, irre- 
gular, plicated and scaly valves, as in many of the Ostreae . 

MALLEUS, Lam. 

A simple pit for the ligament as in the Ostrese, where the Mallei were 
left by Linnaeus, on account of their having the same irregular and 
inequivalvc shell, but distinguished by a notch on the side of this liga- 
ment for the passage of a byssus. 

The most known species, Ostrea malleus, L.; Chemn., VIII, 
Ixx, 655, 656, which ranks among the number of high-priced 
and rare shells, has the two ends of the hinge extended and 
forming something like the head of a hammer, of which the 
valves, elongated in a transverse direction, represent the handle. 
It inhabits the Archipelago of India. 

There are some others, possibly young ones of the same species, in 

* Anomia placenta, Chemn., VIII, Ixxix, 716; An. sella, Ib., 714. See also 
pi. 173 and 174, Encyc. Method., Vers. 

f Called by Poll " the abdominal trachea" in the Spondyli, &c. 

J Spondylus gteckropus, Chemn., VII, xliv, et seq., IX, cxv ; Sp. regius, Id., xlvi, 
471. 

Spond. plicatus, L., Chemn. VII, xlvii, 479, 482; Plicat. efgyptia, Savign., 
Fpyp. Coq. pi. xiv, f. 5. 



ACKPHALA TK8TACKA. 89 

which the hinge is not prolonged. We must be careful not to con- 
found them with the Vulsellae *. 

VULSELLA, Lam. 

A little salient plate inside of the hinge of each side, from one of 
which to the other extends the ligament, otherwise similar to that of 
the Ostreae. By the side of this plate is a notch for the byssus, as in 
the Mallei. The shell is elongated in a direction perpendicular to the 
hinge. 

The most known species inhabit the Indian Ocean f. 

PERNA, Brug. 

Several parallel cavities across the hinge, opposed to each other in the 
two valves, and lodging as many elastic ligaments; the irregular and 
foliaceous shell marked on the anterior side and under the hinge by a 
notch traversed by the byssus. The Pernae were also left by Linnaeus 
among the Ostreae J. 

CRENATULA, Lam. 

The Crenatula?, lately separated from the Pernae, instead of having 
transverse cavities on a broad hinge, are furnished with oval ones on 
the very margin, where they occupy but little of its breadth. The 
l>y-sus seems to be wanting, and they are frequently found among 
sponges . 

It is thought that we may approximate to the Pernae, certain fossil 
shells, in which the hinge is also furnished with cavities more or less 
numerous, that correspond to each other, and thus appear to have fur- 
ni>hed points of attachment to ligaments : thus those of the 

GERVILIA, Defr. 

Have a shell closely resembling that of the Volucellae, but with a 
kind of double hinge, externally with opposed cavities, receiving as 
many ligaments, and internally furnished with very oblique teeth in 
r;u -h valve. Their impressions are found along with Ammonites in 
compact limestone ||. The 



Ostrea tuhella, Chemn., VIII, Ixx, 657, of which the Ostrea anatina, Ib. 658, 
659, is probably a mere accidental variety. 

f Mya tulsella, Chemn., VI, ii, To, 11 ; V. sponffiarum, Lam., Savig., Eg., Coq. 
pi. xiv, f. 2 ; r. Mans, Lam., Sav., Ib., f. 3. 

J Ostrea tsoonomiim, Chemn., VII, lir, 584 ; O. pfrna, Ib., 580 ; O. Itgvmen, 
Ib., 578; O. ephippium, Ib., Iviii, 576 ; O. mytiloidcs, Herm., Nat. fieri., Schr. 

II. ,v 

Ostrea picla, Gm., Chrmn.. \ II. Iviii, 575, or Crenatula phasionoptera, Lam., 
..-. Method., Test., pi. 216, f. 2 ; Crenatula acicularis, Lam., Ann. du Mus, III, 
pl. ii, f. 3, 4 ; Cr. mytiloidts, Id., Ib. f. 1 and 2. See also the great work on Egypt, 
Coq. pl. ii. 

|| Grrritta soleiwMes, Defr., Blainv., Malac., Ixi, 4 ; G. pernoldct, Dcslonchamp*, 
S.H-. Lin. da Calvados, I, 1 16. G. siliqua, Id. Ib., &c. 



90 J1OLLUSCA. 



INOCERAMUS, Sowerb. 

Is remarkable for the elevation and inequality of the valves, the 
summit of which curves in a hook towards the hinge, and which has 
a lamellatcd texture *. 

CASTILLUS, Brong. 

Independently of the depressions for the ligament, the Castilli are 
marked by a conical sulcus, sunk in a lip, which is bent at a right an- 
gle to form one of the margins of the shell. The valves are about 
equal, and of a fibrous texture. They appear to have had a byssus f. 

PULVINITES, Defr. 

A regularly triangular shell, in which the few depressions diverge 
from the summit on the inside. The impression is found in chalk J. 

In the second subdivision of the Ostracea, as well as in almost all 
the bivalves which follow, besides the single transverse muscular mass 
of the preceding genera, there is a fasciculus which is placed before 
the mouth, and extends from one valve to the other. It is apparently 
in this subdivision that we must place the 

ETHERIA, Lam. 

Large inequivalve shells, as irregular as those of the Ostrese, and more 
so ; no teeth to the hinge ; the ligament partly external and partly 
internal. They differ from the Ostreae in having two muscular im- 
pressions. The animal is not seen to produce a byssus , 
They have lately been discovered in the Upper Nile ||. 

AVICULA, Brug. 

An equivalve shell with a rectilinear hinge, frequently extended into 
wings by its extremities, furnished with a narrow and elongated liga- 
ment, and sometimes with small notches near the mouth of the ani- 
mal ; in the anterior side, a little beneath the angle of the side of the 
mouth, is a notch for the byssus. The anterior transverse muscle is 
excessively small. 

The species with less salient ears form the PINTADIN^E, Lam., or 
MARGARITA, Leach. 

The most celebrated, Mytilus margaritiferus, L., Chemn., VIII , 
Ixxx, 717> 721, has nearly a semicircular shell, greenish without, 

*^Inoceramus concentricus, Parkins., Cuv., Oss. Foss., II, pi. vi, f. 11 ; Inocer. 
sulcatus, Id., Ib., f. 12. 

f Catillus Cnvieri, Brong., Cuv., Oss. Foss., II, pi. iv, f. 10. 

J Pulvinitcs Adansonii, Defr., Blainv., Malac., Ixii, bis, 3. 

Etheria elliplica, Lam., Ann. clu Mus. X, pi. xxix, and xxxi ; Elh. fngonula, 
Ib., pi. xxx ; Eth. seminularis, Ib., pi. xxxii, f. 1, 2; Elh. transversa, Ib., f. 
3, 4. 

|| Eth. Caillaudi, Voy. de Caillaud a Mdro<>, II, pi, lxi,-f. 2, 3. 



ACKPHALA TBbTACEA. 91 

and ornamented with tin- most beautiful nacre within. The lat- 
ter is employed in the arts, and it is from the extravasation of this 
substance that are produced the oriental or fine pearls, taken by 
the divers at Ceylon, in the Persian Gulf, &c. 

The name of AVICULA is appropriated to such as have more pointed 
ears, and a more oblique shell. The vestige of a tooth, of which 
1 1 aces are visible in the Pintadinae, is observed on the hinge, before 
the ligament. 

One species, Mytilus hirundo, L., Chemn., VIII, Ixxxi, 722 
728, that inhabits the Mediterranean, is remarkable for the 
pointed ears which extend its hinge on each side. Its byssus is 
coarse and stout, resembling a little tree *. 

PINNA, Lin. 

The Pinnae have two equal valves, forming a segment of a circle, or 
iv>eiiilling a half opened-fan, which are closely united by a ligament 
along one of their sides. The animal, the CHIMERA, Poli, is elongated, 
like its shell ; the lips, branchiae, and other parts are in the same 
proportion. The mantle is closed along the side of the ligament ; 
the foot resembles a little conical tongue excavated by a sulcus ; it is 
furnished with a small transverse muscle situated at the acute angle 
formed by the valves, near whic*h is the mouth, and with a very 
large one in their broader portion. By the side of the anus, which 
is behind this large muscle, is a conical appendage, peculiar to the 
genus, susceptible of expansion and elongation, the use of which is 
unknownf. 

The byssus of several species of Pinna is as fine and brilliant as 
silk, and is employed in fabricating the most precious stuffs. Such is 
the 

P. nobilis. L., Chemn. VIII, Ixxxix ; which is moreover re- 
cognized by the valves being roughened with recurved and semi- 
tabular plates. It remains half buried in the sand, and anchored 
by its byssus \. In the 

A RCA, Lin. 

The valves are equal and transverse, that is to say, the hinge occu- 
pies the longest side. It is furnished with a large number of small 
teeth, which interlock with each other, and, as in the subsequent 
genera, with two fasciculi of transverse and nearly equal muscles, in- 

Several species are now made of it. See Lam., An. sans Verteb., VI, part I, 
p. 146, et seq. 

f M. Poli also calls it an abdominal trachea, just as erroneously as he applies the 
same name to the foot of the Peclines, &c. 

I The whole genus Pinna may remain as it is in Gmelin : it is well to remem- 
ber, however, that some of his species may be found to form but one. See also 
Lam., An. sans Vert., VI, part I, p. 130, et seq., and Sowerb., Gen. of Shells, No. 
\\\ I 

M. de Blainville forms his family of the ARC ACE A or POLYODONTES, from the 
genus ARCA. 



92 MOLLUSCA. 

serted into the extremities of the valves, which serve to close them. 
In the 

AHCA, Lam., 

Or the Arose properly so called, the hinge is rectilinear, and the 
shell most elongated in a direction parallel to it. The summits are 
generally convex, and curve over the hinge, but are separated from 
each other. The valves do not close perfectly in the centre, because 
there is a horny plate or tendinous fillet, before the abdomen of the 
animal * that serves for a foot, and by which it adheres to submerged 
bodies. They are found in rocky bottoms near the shore, and are 
usually covered with a hairy epidermis. They are not much esteemed 
for the table. 

Some species are found in the Mediterranean f, and a great 
many fossil, in strata anterior to chalk, particularly in Italy. 

Certain Areas in which the teeth of the two ends of the hinge as- 
sume a longitudinal direction, are distinguished by Lamarck under 
the name of CUCUL.LUEA J. 

We ought also, it is probable, to separate the species with well 
marked ribs, and completely closing and interlocking edges ; for we 
must presume that their animal is not fixed, but rather resembles that 
of a Pec tune ulus . 

We have a still better warrant /or removing the Area tortuosa, 
Chemn., VIII, liii, 524, 525, in its fantastic figure and unequally obli- 
que valves || . 

PECTUNCULUS, Lam. 

The hinge forming a curved line, and the shell lenticular; the valves 
always close completely, and their summits are approximated. The 
animal, AXIMEA, Poll, is furnished with a large compressed foot with 
a double inferior margin which enables it to crawl. They live in 
ooze. Some species are found on the coast of France ^]. 

NUCULA, Lam. 

The Nuculse are Arcae, in which the teeth are arranged on a broken 
line. Their form is elongated, and narrowed near the posterior ex- 
tremity. Their animal is unknown, but is probably not far removed 
from those of the preceding shells **. 

This has long been the place assigned to the 

* The DAPHNE, Poli. 

f Area Noel', Chemn., VII, liii, 529, 531 ; Area barbata, Id., liv, 535, 537 ; 
A. ovata, Ib., 538 ; A. magellanica, Ib., 539; A. reticulata, Ib. 540; A. Candi- 
da, Id., Iv, 542, 544; A. indica, Ib., 543; A. cancetlata, Schrced., Intr., Ill, 
ix, 2. 

J Area cucullata, Chemn., VII, liii, 526, 528 ; Cucullcea crassalina, Lam., Ann. 
du Mus., VI, 338. 

Area antiquata, L. Chemn., VII, Iv, 548, 549 ; A. senilis, Id., Ivi, 554, 556 ; 
A. granosa, Ib., 557 ; A. corbiculata, Ib., 558, 559 ; A. rhombo'idea, Ib., 553 ; 
A . jamaicensis, List., 229, 64. 

|| It forms the genus TRISIS, Oken. 

^ Area pilosa, L., Chemn., VII, Ivii, 565, 566 ; Arc. glycimeris, Ib.. 564 ; A. 
decvssata, Ib., 561 ; A. eequilatera. Id., 562 ; A. undata, Ib., 560 ; A. marmorata, 
Ib., 563; A. peclunculus, Id., Iviii, 568, 569 ; A. pectinata, Ib., 570, 571. 

** Area pellucida, Chemn., VII, liv, 541 ; Area rostrata, L., Id., Iv, 550, 551 ; 
Arc. pella, Ib., 546; Are. nucleus, Id., Iviii, 574. 



ACKPHALA TKSTACKA. 



TKKJONIA, Bntg. 

So remarkable for the hinge, which is furnished with two plates en 
ehrvron, crenulated on both faces, each of which penetrates into two 
cavities, or rather between four plates of the opposite side, similarly 
crenulated on their internal surface. 

The internal impressions on the shell had already warranted the 
supposition that the animal was not provided with long tubes. Messrs. 
Quoy and Gaymard have lately discovered living specimens of this 
genus, and in t'.u-t. its mantle, as in the Arcae, is open and without 
any separate orifice, even for the anus. The foot is large, its anterior 
portion trenchant and like a hook. 

The living Trigoniae resemble the Cardiae in the form of their 
shell, and the ribs which furrow it : its interior is composed of 
nacre *. 

The fossil Trigoniae are different. Their shell is flattened on one 
side, oblique, longest in a direction perpendicular to the hinge, and 
traversed in a contrary direction by series of tubercles f. 

FAMILY II. 



MYTILACEA. 

In the second family of the testaceous Acephala, the mantle is open 
before? but has a distinct aperture for the faeces. 

All these bivalves have a foot, used in crawling, or at least serving 
to draw out, direct and place the byssus. They are commonly known 
under the generic name of Muscles. 

MYTILUS, Lin. 

The true Mytili or Sea- Muscles have a closed shell, with equal, con- 
vex and triangular valves. One of the sides of the acute angle forms 
the hinge, and is furnished with a long, narrow ligament. The head 
of the animal is in the acute angle ; the other side of the shell, which 
is the longest, is the anterior one, and allows the passage of the byssus ; 
it terminates in a rounded angle, and the third side ascends towards 
the hinge, to which it is joined by an obtuse angle ; near this latter is 
tin* .nus, opposite to which tho mantle forms an opening or small 
1 artii-ular tube. The animal CALLITRICHE, Poli, has the edges of its 
mantle provided with branched tentacula near the rounded angle, as 
it is then- tli.it the water enters required for respiration. Before, and 
near the acute angle is a small transverse muscle, and a large one 
behind, near the obtuse angle. Its foot resembles a tongue. 

In the true Mytili the summit is close to the acute angle. 

Some of them are striated and others smooth. 

* The TriyonU namfe, Lam.. Ann. <lu Mas., bivii, 1. 

f Trig, scabra, Encyc. Method., pi. 237, f. 1 ; TV. nodulosa, Ib., 2 ; TV. warn, 
; TV. aspera, Ib. 4. See also Parkins., Or*. Rem., Ill, pi. xii. 



94 MOLLUSCA. 

Myt. edulis, L. This common Muscle is frequently seen sus- 
pended in extended clusters, along the whole coast of France, 
to rocks, piles, &c. &c. It forms a considerable item of food, 
but is dangerous if eaten to excess.* , 

Some of them are found fossilf. In the 

MODIOLUS, Lam. 

Separated from the Mytili by Lamarck, the summit is lower and 
near the third of the hinge. This summit is also more salient and 
rounded, approximating the Modioli more closely to the ordinary form 
of the bivalvesj. We may also separate from the Mytili the 

LlTHODOMUS, CUV., 

In which the shell is oblong, and almost equally rounded at the two 
ends, the summit being close to the anterior extremity. The species 
of this subgenus at first simply attach themselves to stones like 
the common Mytili ; subsequently, however, they perforate and 
excavate them in order to form cells, into which they enter, and 
which they never quit afterwards. Once entered, their byssus ceases 
to grow. 

One of them, the Mytilus lithophagus , L., Chemn., VIII, 
Ixxxii, 729, 730, is very common in the Mediterranean, where 
from its peppery taste it is esteemed as food. 

A second, Modiolo caudigera, Encyc. pi. 221, f. 8, has a very 
hard small appendage at the posterior extremity of each valve, 
which perhaps enables it to excavate its habitatation. 

ANODONTEA, Brug. 
The anterior angle rounded like the posterior, and that next to the 

* Add, Mytilus barbatus, L., Chemn., VIII, Ixxxiv, 749 ; M. angulatus, Ib., 756 ; 
M. bidens, Ib., 742, 745 ; M. afer, Ib.,lxxxiii, 739 741 ; M. smaragdinus, Ib., 
745 ; M. versicolor, Ib., 748 ; M. lineatus, 753 ; M. exustus, Ib., 754 ; M. stria- 
tulus, Ib., 744 ; M. bilocularis, Ib., Ixxxii, 736 ; M. vulgaris, Ib., 732 ; M. sex- 
afilis, Rumph., Mus. xlvi, D ; M.fulgidus, Argenv. xxii, D ; probably the same as 
the Mya perna, Gm., Cbemn., VIII, Ixxxiii, 738 ; M. azureus, Ib., H ; M. muri- 
nus, Ib., K ; M. puniceus, Adans., I, xv, 2 ; M. niger, Ib., 3 ; M. lavigatus, Ib., 
4, &c.: some of these, however, may be mere varieties. 

f* M. Brongniart has formed them into a subgenus by the name of MYTILOIDA, 
Ap. Cuv. Oss. Foss. tome II, pi. iii, f. 4. 

J Mytilus modiolus, Chemn., VIII, Ixxxv, 757 760, and that of Mull., Zool. 
Lan., II, liii, which appears to be another species; M. discors, Chemn., VIII, 
Ixxxiv, 764 768 ; M. testaceous, Knorr., Vergn., IV, v. 4, &c. 

M. Sowerby doubts this fact, which is, however, well attested by M. Poli from 
ocular demonstration Test. Neap., II, p. 215. The pi. xxxii of the same work, fig. 
10, 11, 12, 13, also proves that the animal resembles that of a Mytilus, and not that 
of a Pholas or a Petricola. 

The mode in which the Lithodomi, Pholades, Petricola, and some other bivalves 
perforate stones, has been the subject of much discussion ; some of the disputants 
holding it to be effected by the mechanical action of the valves, and others simply 
by solution. See the Me"m. of M. Flcuriau de Bellcvue, Journ. de Phys., an X, p. 
345 ; Poli, Test. Neap., II, 215, and Edw. Osier, Phil. Trans, part III, 1826, p. 
342. All things considered, the first of these opinions, whatever be the difficulties 
it presents, seems to us to come nearest to the truth. 



ACEPHALA TB8TACKA. 

anus obtuse and almost rectilinear ; the liinge of the thin and mode- 
niti-ly convex shell has no appearance of a tooth whatever, being 
v furnished with .1 ligament which extends along the whole of 
its lni<rtl). r l'he animal, LIMNJUA, Poli, has no byssus; its foot, 
whieh is very large, compressed and quadrangular, enables it to 
eruwl upon the sand or oo/e. The posterior extremity of its mantle 
la pr,vilrd with numerous small tentacula. The Anodontes inhabit 
fivxh water. 

Several species are found in France, one of which Mytitus 
cygneus, L., Chemn., VIII, Ixxxv, 762, is common in ponds, &c., 
with oozy bottoms. Its light and thin shells are used for milk- 
skimmers, but its flesh is not eaten on account of its insipidity*. 

An oblong species, in which the hinge is granulated throughout 
its \vhole length, is distinguished by M. de Lamarck under the name 
of IRIDINAJ ; the hind part of its mantle is somewhat closed J. 

Dr. Leach distinguishes another by that of DIPSADA, where the 
uncles are more decided, and in which there is a vestige of a tooth on 
the liinge. 

UNIO, Brug. 

These Mollusca resemble the Anodontes both in their animal and 
shell, with the exception of their hinge, which is more complex. 
There is a short cavity in the anterior part of the right valve, which 
KH fives a short plate or tooth from the left one, and behind it is a 
h'nir plate which is inserted between two others on the opposite side. 
They also inhabit fresh water, preferring running streams. 

Sometimes the anterior tooth is more or less stout and unequal, 
as in 

My a margaritifera, L. ; Drap., X, 17, 19. A large thick spe- 
cies, the nacre of which is so beautiful that it is employed as 
pearls. Found in France ; as is the 

Unto littoralis, Lam., Drap., X, 20. A smaller and square 
species. 
Sometimes the anterior tooth is laminiform, as in the 

My a pictorum, L. ; Drap., XI, 1, 4. An oblong and thin 
species known to every one . 
Lamarck distinguishes the 

HYRIA, Lam., 

In which the angles are so decided that the shell is nearly trian- 
gular ||. 

* Add, M. anatinus, Chemn., VIII, Ixxxvi, 763 ; M. flutiatilis, List., clvii, 12; 
M.staynalis, Schroed, Fluv., I, 1 ; M. zcllensis, Ib., II, 1 ; M. dubius, Adaus., 
\\ 1 1. Ji ; and the pi. 201, 202, 203, and 205, of the Encyc. Method., Test. 

f Irid. exotica, Encyc. Method., Test., pi. 204 ; Add /rid. nilotica, CaUlaud, 
Voy. aMeW, pi. Ix, f. 11. 

* See Deshayes, M&n. de la Soc. d'HM. Nat. de Paris, 1827, III. p. l, pi. 1. 
Numerous species, remarkable for size or form, inhabit the rivers and lakes of 

the I nitrd States. Messrs. Say and Barnes, who have described them, have estab- 
H-hcd some new subgenera among them. 

I! Ifi/ria ntgosa, Encyc. Method., pi. 247, 2. 



MOLLUSC A. 

CASTALIA, Law., 

Where the slightly codiform shell is striated in radii ; the teeth 
and plates of the hinge are transversely sulcated, which gives them 
some affinity with the Trigoniae *. 

There are certain Marine Mollusca which have a similar animal, 
and about the same kind of hinge, that should be placed near the 
Unios ; the summits of the shell, however, are more convex, and it is 
marked by projecting ribs extending from the summits to the edge. 
They form the 



CARDITA, 

Which are more or less oblong or codiform, the inferior margin, in 
some, gapingj. 

CYPRICARDIA, Lam. 

Carditse, in which the tooth under the summit is divided into two or 
three. Their form is oblong, and their sides unequal . 
M. de Blainville also separates the 

CORALLIOPHAGA, Bldinv., 

Where the shell is thin, and the lateral plate considerably effaced, 
which may cause their approximation to Venus. 

One of them is known which excavates coralline masses to form 
its habitation ||. The 

VENERICARDIA, Lam. 

Only differ from the Carditze, in the circnmstance that the pos- 
terior plate of their hinge is shorter and more transverse, which 
caused their approximation to Venus; their form is almost round. 
Judging from the impressions of its muscles on them, their animal 
must resemble that of the Carditse and Unios.^f 

Both of them approach the Cardia in their general form and the 
direction of their ribs. I suspect that this is also the place for the 

CRASSATELLA, Lam , PAPHIA, Koiss., 
Which has sometimes been approximated to Mactra, and at others 

* Caslalia ambigua, Lam., Blainv., Malac., LXVII, 4. 

f Chama antiquata, Chemn., VI, xlvii, 488 491 ; Ch. trapezia; Ch. semior- 
biculata ; Ch. cordata, Id., 502, 503 ; and among the fossil species, one of the most 
singular, Cardita avicularia, Lam., Ann. du Mus., IX, pi. ix, f. 6, provided it should 
not be separated. 

J Chama caliculata, Chemn., VII, i, 500, 501 ; Cardita crassicosta, Brug., Encyc. 
pi. 234, f. 3. 

Chama oblonga, Gm., Chemn., VII, 1, 504, 505, or Cardita urinata, Encyc., 
pi. 234, f. 2, or Cypricarde de Guinee, Blainv., Malac., LXV, bis, f. 6. 

|| Chama coraliiophaga, Gm., Chemn., X, cbcii, 1673, 1674, or Cardita dactylus, 
Brug., Encyc,, pi. 234, f. 5 ; Coraliiophaga cardito'ides, Blainv., Malac., LXXVI, 3. 

^ Venus imbricata, Chemn., VI, xxx, 314, 315, and the fossil species, Lam., 
Ann. du Mus., VII, and IX, pi. xxxi and xxxii. 



ACKPIIALA TBSTACEA. 97 

tu Venus ; th- hinge has two slightly marked lateral teeth, and two 
very strong middle ones, behind which, extruding to I oth sides, is a 
triangular cavity for an internal ligament. The valves become 
very thick by age, and the impression made by the margin of the 
mantle leads to the belief tliat there are no protractile tubes*. 

FAMILY III. 



CHAMACEA. 

The mantle closed and perforated by three holes, through one 

of which passes the foot ; the second furnishes an entrance and 

exit to the water requisite for respiration, and the third for the 

ivtion of faeces; these two latter are not prolonged into tubes as 

in the subsequent family. It only comprises the genus 

CHAMA, Lin., 

Where the hinge is very analogous to that of a Unio, that is to say. 
the left valve near the summit is provided with a tooth, and further 
back with a salient plate, which are received into corresponding 
fossae of the right valve. This genus has necessarily been divided 
into the 

TRIDACNA, Brug., 

The shell greatly elongated transversely, and equivalve ; the supe- 
rior angle, which answers to the head and summit, very obtuse. 

The animal is very singular, inasmuch as it is not, like most of 
the others, placed in the shell, but is directed, or, as it were, pressed 
out before. The anterior side of the mantle is widely opened for 
the passage of the byssus; a little below the anterior angle is another 
opening which transmits water to the branchiae, and in the middle of 
the inferior side is a third and smaller one which corresponds to 
the anus, so that the posterior angle transmits nothing, and is 
only occupied by a cavity of the mantle open at the third orifice, 
of which we have just spoken. 

There is but a single transverse muscle, corresponding to the 
middle of the margin of the valves. In 

TRIDACNA, Lam., 

Or the Tridacnac properly so called, the front of the shell as well 
as of the in <ntle has a wide opening with notched edges for the trans- 
mission of the byssus, which latter is evidently tendinous, and con- 
tinues uninterruptedly with the muscular fibres. 



* Ven\a pondtrosa, Chemn., VII, Uix, A D, or Crassatella tumuta, Lam., Ann. 
hi MUX-., \ I. 4 OS. 1.; perhaps the Mactra cygnus, Chemn., VI, xxi, 207 ; Vanu 
i!u-nrti;t/,i, Clumn., VI, xxx, 317 319. This genus also comprises many fossil 
species, particularly abundant near Paris. See the work of M. Deshayes. 

VOL. in. H 



98 MOLLUSC A. 

Such is the celebrated and enormous shell of India, the Cha- 
ma giga*, L. ; Chemn., VII, xlix, which is decorated with broad 
ribs relieved by projecting semi-circular scales. Specimens 
have been taken that weighed upwards of three hundred pounds. 
The tendinous byssus which attaches them to the rocks, is so 
thick and stout that the axe is required to sever it. The flesh, 
though tough, is edible. In 

HIPPOPUS, Lam. 

The shell is closed and flattened before as if truncated*. In the 
CHAM A, Brug., 

Or the true Chamae, the shell is irregular, inequivalve, usually 
lamellar and rough, adhering to rocks, corals, &c., like that of an 
Oyster. Its summits arc frequently very salient, unequal, and curled 
up. The internal cavity frequently has the same form without any 
external indication of the fact. The animal, PSILOPUS, Poli, has a 
small foot bent almost like that of man. Its tubes, if it have any, 
are short and disjointed, and the aperture in the mantle, which 
transmits the foot, is not much larger. Some species are found in 
the Mediterranean. 

There are also several that are fossilf. 

DICERAS, Lam., 

Between Diceras and the Chamse there is no essential difference ; 
the. cardinal tooth of the former is very thick and the spiral lines of 
the valves are sufficiently prominent to remind us of two hornsj. 
In the 

ISOCARDIA, Lam., 

We observe a free, regular, and convex shell, with spirally curled 
summits, divided anteriorly. The animal, GLOSSUS, Poli, only 
differs from that of an ordinary Chama in having a larger and more 
oval foot, and because the anterior opening of its mantle begins to 
resume its ordinary proportions. 

A large, smooth, red species, the Chama cor. L. ; Chemn., VII, 
xlviii, 483, inhabits the Mediterranean . 



* Chama Lazarus, Chemn.. VII, li, 507, 509; Ch. gryphcrides, Ib., 510, 513 ; 
Ch. archinella, Id. lii, 522, 523 ; Ch. macrophylla, Ib., 514, 515 ; Ch. foliacea, 
Ib., 531 ; Ch. citrea, Regenf., IV, 44 ; Ch. bicornis, Ib., 516 520. 

f See the Conchiol. Foss. Subap. of Brocchi, and the Coq. Foss. des Env. de 
Paris of M, de Lamarck. 

J Fossil shells from the Jurassic strata. Die arietina, Lam de Saussure, Voy. 
aux Alpes, I, pi. ii, f. 1 4. 

Add Ch. moltkiana, Chemn., VII, xlviii, 484487. 



ACKPHALA TKSTACEA. 

I \MILY IV. 

CARDIACEA. 

The mantle is open before, and there are, besides, two separate 
apertures, one for respiration, the other for the faeces, which are pro- 
longed in tubes, sometimes distinct, and at others united in one single 
mass. There is always a transverse muscle at each extremity, and a 
foot generally used for crawling. It may be considered as a general 
rule, that those which are furnished with long tubes, live in ooze or 
in sand. This mode of organization may be recognized on the shell 
l>y the more or less depressed contour described by the insertion of 
the edges of the mantle previous to its uniting with the impression of 
the posterior transverse muscle*. 

CARDIUM, Lin., 

The Cardia, like many other bivalves, have an equivalve, convex 
shell, with salient summits, curved towards the hinge, which, when 
viewing it sidewise, gives it the figure of a heart ; hence its name of 
Cardium, heart, &c. Ribs, more or less elevated, are regularly dis- 
tributed from the summits to the edges of the valves; but what 
chiefly distinguishes the Cardia, is the hinge, through which, in the 
middle, are two small teeth, and at some distance before and behind 
a projecting tooth or plate. The animal, CERASTES, Poli, has ge- 
nerally an ample aperture in the mantle, a very large foot forming an 
clhou- in the middle and with its point directed forwards, and two 
short or but moderately long tubes. 

Numerous species of Cardia arc found on the coast of France, 
some of which are eaten, such as the 

C. edule, L. ; Chemn., VI, xix, 194. Fawn-coloured or 
whitish with twenty-six transversely plicated ribs. 

Under the name of H EMI CARDIUM, we might separate those species 
in \\-hich the valves are compressed from before backwards, and 
strongly carinated in the middle; for it seems almost certain, that 
a modification of the animal must be a necessary consequence of this 
singular configurationf. 

DONAX, Lin., 
The Donaces have nearly the same kind of hinge as the Cardia, but 



* They form the family of the CONCH ACEA, Blainv. 

t Cardium Cardissa, VI, xiv, 143 146; Card, roseum, Ib., 147 ; Card, mon- 
strusum, Ib. 149, 150; Card, hcniicttrdium, Id., xi, 159 161. 

Tin- other Cardia of Gmelin may remain where they are, the C. gadittinum excepted, 
whirh is a IVctunculus. There are several fossil species described by Messrs. Lamarck' 
Brocchi, and Brongnmrt. 

M 2 



100 MOLLUSCA. 

their shell is of a very different form, being a triangle, of which the 
obtuse angle is at the summit of the valves, and the base at their 
edge, and of which the shortest side is that of the ligament, or the 
posterior side, a rare circumstance in this degree, among bivalves. 
They are generally small, and prettily striated from the summits to 
the edges ; their animal PERONJEA, Poli, is furnished with long tubes 
which are received into a sinus of the mantle. Some of them are 
found on the coast of France*. The 

CYCLAS, Bmg. 

Separated from Venus by -Brugiere, like the Cardia and Donaces, 
has two teeth in the middle of the hinge, and before and behind, two 
salient, and sometimes crenulated plates ; but the shell, as in several 
species of Venus, is more or less rounded, equilateral, and trans- 
versely striated. The animal has moderate tubes. The external 
tint is usually grey or greenish. The Cyclades inhabit fresh water. 

One species, the Tellina cornea, L.; Chemn., VI, xiii, 133, is 
very common on the coast of France j\ M. Lamarck separates 
the 

CTRKNA, Lam. 

Where the shell is thick, slightly triangular and oblique, covered 
with an epidermis, and otherwise distinguished from the Cyclades by 
having three cardinal teeth. The Cyrcnse also inhabit rivers, but 
there are none in France J. 

CYPRINA, Lam. 

Also separated from the Cyclades by Lamarck ; the shell is thick, 
oval, with recurved summits, and three stout teeth ; further back is 



* Donax rugosa, Cliemn., VI, xxv, 250 252 ; D. trunculns. Ib,, xxvi, 253, 
254 ; D. striata, Knorr.. Delic., VI, xxviii, 8 ; D. denticulata, Chemu., I, c. 256, 
257; D. faba, Ib., 266; D. spinosa, Ib., 258. Fossil species are numerous in 
the environs of Paris. See Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., VIII, 139, and Deshayes, 
Coq. foss. des Env. de Paris, I, pi. xvii, xviii. 

The Donax irrcgvlaris, from the Environs of Dax, described by M. Bastorat in 
the Mm. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, t. II, pi. iv, f. 19, A, B, is the type of a 
new genus lately established Bullet, de la Soc. Lin. de Bourdeaux, II, by M. 
Charles Desmoulins, under the name of GRATELUPIA. It is distinguished from the 
Donaces by the presence of several dentiform lamellae which accompany the cardinal 
teeth. 

Several species of Venus, and some Mactree, are mixed with these true Donaces by 
Gmelin. 

f Add Tellina rivalis, Miill., Drap., X, 4, 5; Cyclas fontinalis, Drap., Ib., 
8 12 ; Cycl. caliculata, Ib., 13, T4 ; Tellina lacustris, Gm., Chemn., XIII, 135 ; 
Tell, amnica, Ib., 134; Tell, fluviatilis ; Tell, flutninalis, Chemn., VI, xxx, 
320. 

I Tell, fluminea, Chemn., Ib., 322, 323; Venus coaxans, Id., xxxii, 336, or 
Cyrena ceylanica, Lam., Encyc. Method., pen., pi. 302, f. 4 ; Venus borealis, Id., 
VII, xxxix, 312, 314 ; Cyclas cardiniana, Bosc., Shells., Ill, xviii, 4. Fossil spe- 
cies abound near Paris. See Deshayes, Coq. Foss., I, pi. 18, 1 J 



ACKl'HALA TESTACEA. 101 

a plate, and under the teeth a large cavity, which receives a part of 
the ligament*. 

GALATH^A, Brug. 

The shell triangular ; three teeth on the summit of one valve, and 
two on the other, en chevron ; the lateral plates approximated!. 

But a single speci< -s is known; it inhabits the fresh waters of 
the East Indies. 

here also that must be placed another genus separated from 

WMIIS, the 

COHBIS, Cuv. FIMBRIA, Megerl. 

Marine testaceous Acephah, transversely oblong, which have also 
stout middle teeth, and well marked lateral plates ; their external 
surface is furnished with tr.msverse ribs so regularly crossed by rays, 
that it may be compared to wicker-work. 

The impression of their mantle exhibiting no flexure, their tubes 
must be short f . 

Some of them are fossil. In the 

TELLINA, Lin. 

There are in the middle, one tooth on the left and two teeth on the 
rijrht, frequently forked, at some distance before and behind, on the 
right valve, a plate, which does not penetrate into a cavity of the 
opposite one. There is a slight plica near the posterior extremity of 
the two valves, which renders them unequal in that part, where they 
are somewhat open. 

The animal of the Tellinoe PERoN^A,Poli, like that of the Dona 
ces, has two long tubes for respiration and for the anus, which with- 
draw into the shell, and are concealed in a duplicature of the mantle. 

Their shells are generally transversely striated, and decorated 
with beautiful colours. 

Some of them are oval anil thick. 

Others are oblong and strongly compressed. 

Some again are lenticular, where, instead of a plica, there is fre- 
quently nothing but a slight deviation of the transverse striae ||. 

We might separate certain oblong species which have no lateral 



* Fenus islandica, Chemo., VI, xxxii, 342, Encyc. pi. 301, f . 1 ; a large fossil 
species is found in the hills of Siennois and near Dax, of Bourdeaux. 

f The Egeria, Roiss., or Galalhtta, Brug., Encyc. 249, and Lam., Ann. du Mus., 
V, xxviii, and Venus hermaphrodita, Chemn., VI, xxxi, 327 329 ? or fenus sub- 
. Gm. 

J Venus fimbriata, Chemn., VII, 43, 448. 

See Deshayes, Coq. Foss. des Envir. de Paris, I. xiv; Brongn., Mem. sur le 
.fur. 

II These are the three divisions of Gmelin, but we must abstract from his genus 
IVIIina: 1st. Tell. Kaorni. which is a polished Capsa ; 2d. Tell, inaqniralris, which 
i* the genus Panthra : .id. 7VU. cornea; T. tarustris ; T. amnica ; T. Jluminalu i 
T.futmnea , T./iuiVi/t/w, which are Cycladcs or Cyrenae. 



102 MOLLUSCA. 

teeth*, and others, which, with the hinge 'of the Tellinsp, have, not 
the plica of the posterior extremity they arc the TELLINIDES, 
Lam.f 

It is necessary to distinguish from the Tellinae, the 

LORIPES, Poli, 

In which the middle teeth of the lenticular shell are almost effaced, 
and where there is a simple sulcus for the ligament behind the nates. 
The animal is furnished with a short double tube, and its foot is pro- 
longed into a kind of cylindrical cord. Besides the usual impres- 
sions, we may observe, on the inside of the shell, a line running ob- 
liquely from the print of the anterior muscle, which is very long, 
towards the nates. There is no flexure in the print of the mantle for 
the retractor muscle of the tube J. 

LUCINA, Brug. 

Separated lateral teeth, as in the Cardia, Cyclades, &c., that pene- 
trate between the plates of the other valve ; in the middle are two 
teeth, frequently, but slightly apparent. The shell is orbicular, and 
without any impression of the retractor muscle of the tube ; that of 
the anterior constrictor, however, is very long. Possessing similar 
traits of character with the Loripedes, their animals must be analo- 
gous . 

The living species are much less numerous than those that are 
fossil; the latter are very common in the environs of Paris ||. 

We should approximate to the Lucinae, the UNGULINJEA, which also 
have an orbicular shell and two cardinal teeth ; the lateral ones, how- 
ever, are wanting, and the anterior muscular impression is not so 
long *$. The genus 

VENUS, Lin. 

Comprises many Testacea whose general character consists in the 
teeth and plates of the hinge being approximated under the summit, 
in a single group. They are usually more flattened and elongated, in 
a direction parallel to the hinge, than the Cardia. The ribs, when 
there are any, are almost always parallel to the edges, being directly 
the reverse of their arrangement in the Cardia. 

The ligament frequently leaves an elliptical impression behind the 
summits, which has received the appellation of vulva, and before 



* Tell, hyalina, Chemn., VI, xi, 99 ; Tell vitrea, Ib., 101. 

f Tellinides timorensis, Lam. 

J Tellina laclea. 

Venus pennsylvanica, Chemn, VII, xxxvii, 394 396, xxxix, 408, 409; V. 
cdentula, Id., xl, 427, 429. 

|| Lucina saxorum, Lam., Deshayes, Coq. Foss. des Env. de Paris, I, pi. xv., f. 5, 
6; Luc. grata, Defr. ; Ibid. pi. xvi, f. 5, 6; Luc. concentrica, Lam., Desh., Ib., 
xvi., f. 11,12. 

<! Unyulina transversa, Kara., Sowerb., Gcu. of Shells, No. X, 



ACKPHALA TESTACEA. 103 

.inmits thnv is almost always an oval impression termed 
tli- tuiii* or tunula*. 

Tin- animal is always furnished with two more or less protractile 
tulx-s. MMiietiiw-s united, and with a compressed foot, which enable it 
to crawl. 

M. Lamarck appropriates the name of VENUS to those which have 
three small diverging teeth under the summit. This character is 
particularly well marked in the oblong and slightly convex spe- 
cies f. 

Some of tin-in the ASTARTA, Sowerb., or CRASSINJS, Lam., have 
only two diverging teeth on the hinge, and approach the Crassatellae 
in their thickness and some other characters J. 

Among the cordiform species, that is, those which are shorter and 

have more convex nates, and with more closely approximated teeth, 

\\v >h<uld remark those where the plates or transverse striae terminate 

in crests or tuberosities ||, and those that have longitudinal ribs and 

s elevated behind. 

\\V subsequently and gradually come to the CYTHEREJE, Lam., 
which have a fourth tooth on the right valve, projecting under the 
la nu la, and received into a corresponding cavity in the right one. 

Some of them have an elliptical and elongated form U ; others are 
convex**, and it is among these latter that we must place a cele- 
Imited species (Venus Dione, L., Chemn., VI, 27, 271), from whose 
form originated the application of the name Venus to the genus. 
Its transverse plates terminate behind in salient and pointed spines. 

There are some species of an orbicular form, and with slightly 
hooked summits, in which the impression of the retractor of the tubes 
terms a large and almost rectilinear triangle ff. 

When their animals are better known, we shall most jrobably 
have to separate from the Cythereae, 

1. Those species of a compressed lenticular form, in which the 
nates are united into a single point. The fold of the contour of the 
mantle is wanting, and shows that their tubes are not protractile JJ : 

2. Those of a convexly orbicular form, in which the fold is not 



* These fantastic appellations of vulva and onus, have probably caused the 
i \trrinit\ of the shell, which corresponds to the true anus of the animal, to be 
-tyli-d the anterior, and that where the mouth is situated, the posterior. We have 
restored to these extremities their true denominations. We must recollect that the 
ligament is always on the posterior side of the summit-. 

f / VJIIM lilterata, Chemn., VII, xli ; F. rotunda, Ib., xlii, 441 ; V. lextilis, Ib., 
442 ; V. decussata, xliii, 456 ; &c. 

J Venus scotica, Hans Lerin, VIII, tab. 2, f. 3 ; Crassina danmoniensis, Lam. ; 
and among the fossil species, Ast. lucida, Sower., Min. Conch., II, pi. 137, f. 1 ; 
I '. Osmalii, Lajonkere, Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, I, tab. 6, f. 1. 

Venus dysera, Chemn., VI, 27, 299 ; Ven. plicata, Encyc. pi. 275, 3, a, b , 
Ven frcbisulica, Ib., f, 4, 5, 6. 

|| IVuNt puerpera, Encyc., 278 ; Ven. corbu, Lam., Encyc. pi. 276, f. 4. 

f Venus gigantea, Encyc., 28,3; Ven. chione, Cbcinn., VI, 32, 343; Ven. 
i',.,347; Vem. maculnf- . ,15. 

Ven. meretrir , / ctulrtnsis. 

ft Venus exoleta, Chemn., VII, 38, 404 the gcuus OABICULUS, Megeile. 

H I'm. scriplu, Chemn., VII. to, 422. 



104 MOLLUSC A. 

only wanting, but where, as in the Lucinae, the impression of the 
anterior muscle is very long * ; 

3. The thick species with radiated ribs, in which the fold is also 
wanting, and which connect the genus Venus with that of the 
Venericardia f. In the 

CAPSA, Brwj. 

Already separated from the former, there are two teeth on the 

hinge on one side, and a single, but bifid one, on the other ; the 

lunula is wanting, the shell convex, and the fold, indicative of the 
retractor of the foot, considerable J. 

PETRICOLA, Lam. 

Also separated from the same genus ; the Petricolse. on each side, 
have two or three very distinct teeth on the hinge, one of which is 
forked. The shell is more or less cordiform, but as they inhabit 
the interior of stones, it sometimes becomes every irregular. Judg- 
ing from the marginal impressions of their mantle, their tubes must 
be very large . 

CORBULA, Brug. 

Similar in form to the triangular Cytherese, or cordate ; but a single 
stout tooth in the middle of each valve, corresponding to the side of 
its antagonist. The lagiment is internal ; the tubes must be short, 
and the valves but rarely equal ||. 

The fossil species are much more numerous than the living 
ones^f. 

Some of them live in the interior of stones**. 

MACTRA, Lin. 

The Mactrse are distinguished from the other Testacea of this family 
by their ligament being internal, and lodged throughout in a trian- 
gular depression, as in the oyste'rs ; they all have a compressed foot 
fitted for crawling. In the 

MACTRA, Lam., 

Or the Mactrse properly so called, the ligament is accompanied 
to the left valve, before and behind, by a projecting plate which is 
received between two others on the right one. Close to the ligament, 



* Fen. tigrina, Chemn., VII, 37, ?90 ; Fen. punctata, Ib. 397. 

t Fen. pectinata, Chemn., VII, 39, 419 the genus ARTHEMIS, Oken. 

J Yen. deflorata, Chemn., IV, ix, 79 82. 

Ven. lapicida, Chemn., X, 172, 1664, and the RUFELLARIA of M. Fleriau de 
Bellevue ; Ven. perforans, Montag., Test. Brit. pi. iii, f. 6 ; Donax irus ? 
Chemn., VII ; xxvi, 270. 

|| See Encyc. Method., Vers, pi. 230, f. 1, 4, 5, 6. 

*[ Corbula gallica ; G. complanata ; G. ombonella, Desh., Coq. Foss., des Env. 
dc Paris, t. I, pi. 7, 8, 9. 

** Venus monstrosa, Chemn., VII, 42, 445446. 



ACKl'HALA TE8TACEA. 105 

the lunulf, is a little plate en chevron. The tubes an- united 
and short *. 

Some of them are found on the coast of France. 

In the LA VIGNONS, the lateral plates are almost effaced, but a single 
small tooth is observable near the internal ligament ; there is also a 
second and internal ligament. The posterior side of the shell is 
the shortest; the valves are somewhat open, and the tubes are sepa- 
rate and very long, as in the Tellinae. 

There is one found on our coast, My a hispanica, Chemn. VI, 
iii, 21, which lives in the ooze at the depth of several inches f. 

FAMILY V. 



INCLUSA J. 

The mantle open at the anterior extremity, or near the middle 
only, for the passage of the foot, and extended from the other end 
into a double tube, which projects from the shell, whose extremities 
are always gaping. Nearly all of them live buried in sand, stones, 
ooze, or wood. Those of the genus 

MYA, Lin. 

Have but two valves to their oblong shell, the hinge of which varies. 
'I' In* double tube forms a fleshy cylinder, and the foot is compressed. 
The different forms of the hinge have furnished Messrs. Daudin, La- 
marck, &c., with the following subdivisions , in the first three of 
which the ligament is internal. 

LUTRARIA, Lam., 

The Lutrariue, like the Mactrae, have a ligament inserted into a 
large triangular cavity of each valve, and before that cavity a small 



* After abstracting the Lariynones and Lutraria, the genus MACTRA of Gmelin 
any remain as it is ; the species, however, are far from being well distinguished. 
Add, 3fyrt austrulis, Chemn., VI, iii. 19, 20. 

The ERYCIN.E, Lam., are neighbours of the Mactra, and are but badly charac- 
terized. See Ann. du Mus., IX, xxxi, and Deshayes, Coq. Foss., I, vi ; part of 
them, perhaps, belong to the Crassatellee. The ANPHIDESMJR. Lam., or LIGUL^E, 
Mimtag., appear to approach the Mactrae, but they are too imperfectly known to 
have any distinctive character assigned to them. 

t Improperly called by Gmelin Mactra piperata. 

Add, Mactra papyracca, Chemn., VI, xxiii, 231 ; Mact. complanata, Id., xxiv, 238 ; 
Afya Hicobarica, Id., iii, 17, 18. 

t M. do Hlainville makes two families of this one, his PVLORIDEA and ADESMA- 
CEA. The last includes Pholtts, Teredo, and Fistulana; the first, all the others, and 
even Asperyillum. There are numerous genera established in this family too slightly 
characterized to permit us to adopt them. 

$ N.B. Half the Myac of Gmelin neither belong to this genus, nor even to this 
family, hut to Vulsella, Unio, Mactra, *cc. 



106 MOLLUSCA. 

tooth en chevron ; but the lateral plates are wanting ; the gap of the 
valves is very wide, particularly at the posterior extremity, through 
which passes the thick, double, fleshy, respiratory and anal tube, a 
disposition which attaches them to this family. The foot, which 
issues at the opposite end, is small and compressed. 

Some of them are found in the sand at the mouths of rivers in 
France *. In the 

MYA, Lam., 

Or the Mya properly so called, one valve is furnished with a plate 
which projects into the other, and this latter with a cavity. The liga- 
ment stretches from this cavity to that plate. 

Some species are found in the sand along the coast of 
France f. 

ANATINA, Lam. 

The Anatinse of Lamarck should be approximated to the preceding 
Mya\ Each of their valves has a small projecting plate inside with 
the ligament extending from one to the other. 

One oblong and excessively thin species is known, the valves 
of which are supported by an internal ridge J ; and another of a 
squarer form without the ridge . In the 

SOLEMYA, Lam. 

The ligament is seen on the outside of the shell, part of it remaining 
attached to a horizontal internal cuilleron on each valve. There is 
no other cardinal tooth, and a thick epidermis projects beyond the 
edges of the shell. 

One species, the Tellina togata, Poll, II, xv, 20, is found in the 
Mediterranean ||. 

GLYCYMERIS, Lam. CYRTODABIA, Daud. 

Neither teeth, plates, nor cavities on the hinge, but a simple callous 
enlargement, behind which is an external ligament. The animal re- 
sembles that of the Myae. 

The most common species Mya siliqua > L.; Chcmn. XI, 193, 
f. 194, is from the Arctic Ocean. 



* Mactra lutraria, List., 415, 259 ; Chemn., VI, xxiv, 240, 241 ; Mya oblonga, 
Id., Ib., ii, 12 ; Acosta, Brit. Conch., XVII, 4 ; Gualt., 90, A, fig. min. 

f Mya truncata, L., Chemn., VI, i, 1, 2; M. arenaria, Ib., 3, 4. 

J Solen anatinus, Chemn., VI, vi, 46 48. 

Encyc., 230, 6, under the name of Corbitlc ; An. hispidula, Cuv., An. sans vert., 
Egyp. Coq. pi. vii. f. 8. I suspect that the Rui'icoL.E of F. de Bcllcvue (Voy. 
Roissy, VI, 440) must appfoach this subgenus. They live in the interior of stones, 
like the Petricoltf, Phulades, &c. 

|| New-Holland furnishes a second species, the Sol. auslrulis, Lam. 



ACEPHALA TESTACEA. 10? 

PANOPEA, Mesnard* Lagr. 

A stout tooth, anterior to the callous enlargement of the preceding 

submenus, and immediately under tin- Mimmit, which <l<vu>sit<^ ;i 
similar one on the opposite valve, a character which approximate the 
Panopeae to the Solens. A large species is found in the hills at the 
foot of the Appenines in so high a state of preservation, that it has 
heen iiii>tak'ii for a recent sea-shell *. 

Tlit-rc is another fossil species, which may perhaps be separated 
I'rum it. tliat is completely closed at its anterior extremity f. 

After these various modifications of the Myae, we may place the 

PANDORA, Bruy. 

In which one valve is much flatter than the other ; the internal 
ligament is placed transversely, accompanied in front by a projecting 
tooth of the flattened valve. The posterior side of the shell is elon- 
gated. The animal withdraws more completely into its shell than 
the preceding ones, and its valves shut more closely its habits how- 
ever are the same. 

But a single species is well known ; it inhabits the seas of 
Europe J. 

Here also we find a group of some small and singular genera, 
such as 

BYSSOMIA, Cuv. 

Where the oblong shell, which has no marked tooth, has the opening 
tor the foot at about the middle of its edge and opposite the summits. 
The Byssomiae also penetrate into stone, corals, &c. 

A species which is provided with a byssus, abounds in the 
Arctic Ocean . 

HIATELLA, Daud. 

The shell gaping, to allow the passage of the foot, near the middle 
of its edges ; but the tooth of the hinge is better marked than in the 
pp-ivding genus. Ranges of salient spines are frequently observed 
on the hind part of the shell. They are found in sand, among Zoo- 
phytes, &c. 

The North Sea produces a small species ||. 



* Myti ijlyrimeris, L., Chemn., VI, iii. A neighbouring, but shorter species in- 

iie Mediterranean. Another fossil species is found near Bourdeaux. 
f l\ini>f <le Faujas, Mesnard, Lagr. Ann. du Mus., IX, xii. 

Urn- -houlil be the place of the SAXICAVA of M. F. de Bellevtie, small Testacea 
u l.ich perforate stones. See Rois., VI, 44 1 . 

tlcis, Cheran., VI, xi, 106, and for the animal, Poli, II, xv, 7. 
Mytilus pholadis, Mail., Zool., Dan., Ixxxvii, l, 2, 3, or Mya byssifera, Fabr., 

|| Solen minutus, L., Cbcmn., VI, vi, 51, 52, or Mya arclica, Fabr., Grcrnl., which 
in tn he the same as the Iliat. & unefcnte, Bosc, Coq. Ill, xxi, 1 ; the lliat. 
to, lil., Ih.. 2. 



108 MOLLUSC A. 

SOLEN, Lin. 

The shell only bivalve, oblong or elongated, but the hinge always 
furnished with salient and well marked teeth, and the ligament ex- 
ternal. In the 

SOLEN, Cuv., 

Or the Solens properly so called, the shell is cylindrically elon- 
gated, and has two or three teeth in each valve near the anterior 
extremity, where the foot issues, The latter is conical, and enables 
the animal to bury itself in the sand, which it excavates with con- 
siderable rapidity on the approach of danger. 

Several species are found along the coast of France *. 

We might distinguish those species in which the teeth approxi- 
mate to the middle; some of them still have a long arid narrow 
shell f. 

In others it is wider and shorter ; their foot is extremely thick. 
Two of the latter inhabit the Mediterranean J. In 

SANGUINOLARIA, Lam., 

The hinge is nearly the same as in the wide Solens, and has two 
teeth in the middle of each valve ; but the two latter, which are oval, 
are much closer at the two extremities, where they merely gape, like 
certain Mactrae . 

PSAMMOBIA, Lam. 

The Psammobiee differs from the Sanguinolariae, in having but a 
single tooth in the middle of one valve, which penetrates between 
two on the opposite one.|| 

PSAMMOTHEA, Lam. 

But a single tooth to each valve ; otherwise resembling the Psam- 
mobheH. 

PHOLAS, Lin. 

The Pholades have two broad valves, convex towards the mouth, 



* Solcn ragina, Chcmn., VI, iv, 26 28 ; S. siliqua, Ib., 29 ; S. cnsis, Ib., 30; 
S. mavimus, Ib., v, 35 ; S. cultdlus, Ib., 37. 

f Solcn leyumen, Chemn., VI, v, 32, 34. 

J Solen striyilatus, Chemn., VI, vi, 41, 43; S. radiatus, Id., v, 3840; S. 
minimus, Ib., 31 ; S. coarctatus, vi, 45 ; S. vcspertinus, Id., vii, 60. These two 
divisions have become the genus SOLECURTE of M. de Blainville. 

Solen sanguinolentus, Chemn., VI, vii, 56; S. roseus, Ib., 55. 

|| Tellini (/art, L., Poli, 15, 23; Solen vespertinus, Chemn., VI, 7, 59; 
Psammobia maculosa, Lam., Egypt., Coq. pi. 8, f. 1 ; Psamm. elonyaiu, Lam., 
Egypt., pi. 8, f. 2. 

^j Psammothea violacea, Lam., &c. 

N. B. These two genera arc united in one by M. de Blainville, culled PSAMMOCOJLA. 
On the whole, they differ but very slightly from the Sangninolariae. Great care is 
requisite in studying the shell, as the teeth are generally broken. 



ACBPHALA TE8TACBA. 109 

narrow and elongated on the opposite side, and leaving a large ob- 
lique opening at each extremity ; their hinge, like that of a true Mya, 
is furnished with a plate projecting from one valve into the other, 
and with an internal ligament running from that plate into a cor- 
responding cavity. Their mantle is reflected externally upon the 
hinge, where it sometimes contains two or three supernumerary 
calcareous bodies. The foot issues through the aperture on the side 
next to the mouth, where it is widest, and from the opposite one 
jn-ojrct tin- two tubes, which are united and susceptible of inflation 
in every direction. 

The Pholades inhabit canals which they excavate, some in ooze 
and others in stone, like the Lithodomi, Petricolae, &c. They are 
much sought for on account of their agreeable flavour. 

Several species are found on the coast of France : such is the 
Deal commun ; Pholas dactylus, L. ; Chemn., VIII, ci, 859 *. 

TEREDO, Lin. 

The mantle extended in a tube much longer than the two small, 
rhomboidal valves, and terminated by two short tubes, the base of 
which is furnished on each side with a stony and moveable kind of 
ojM-rculum or palette. These Acephala, while quite young, pene- 
trate and establish their habitations in submerged pieces of wood, 
such as piles, ships' bottoms, &c., perforating and destroying them in 
every direction. It is thought, that in order to penetrate as fast as 
it increases in size, the Pholas excavates the wood by means of its 
valves; but the tubes remain near the opening by which its entrance 
was effected, and through which, by the aid of its palette, it receives 
water and aliment. The gallery it inhabits is lined with a calcareous 
r i list which exudes from its body, and which forms a second kind of 
tubular shrll for it. It is a noxious and destructive animal in the 
sea ports of Europe. 

Teredo navalis L. This species, which is the most common, 
and is said to have been introduced into Europe from the torrid 
zone, lias more than once threatened Holland with ruin by the 
destruction of its dikes. It is upwaads of six inches in length, 
and has simple palettes. 

Larger species inhabit hot countries, whose palettes are articu- 
lated and ciliate. They should be remarked for their analogy to the 
Cirrhopoda. Such is the Teredo palmulatus , Lam., Adans., Ac. des 
Sc., 17on.pl. 9, f. 12. 

FISTULANA, Drug. 

irated from Teredo; the external tube is entirely closed at its 
larger end, and is more or less like a bottle or club. The Fistulanae 
are sometimes found buried in submerged fragments of wood, or in 



Add, Pholas orient alls, Ib., 860, which is, perhaps, a mere variety of dactylus; 
Phol. (W,i/.. Ib., 863; Phol. crispata, Id., rii., 4 H72, 874 ; Phol. pusilla, Ib., 867, 
871 ; Phol. stritifa, Ib., 864, 866. 



110 MOLLUSCA. 

fruits, and the nnimal, like that of a Teredo, has two small valves, 
and as many palettes. Recent specimens are only obtained from 
the Indian Ocean, but they are found fossil in Europe*. We should 
approximate to them the 

GASTROCHJENA, Spengler. 

Where the shells are deprived of teeth, and their edges being wide 
apart anteriorly, leave a large oblique opening opposite to which 
there is a small hole in the mantle for a passage of the foot. The 
double tube, which can be retracted completely within the shell, is 
susceptible of Icing greatly elongated. It appears that they are cer- 
tainly furnished with a calcareous tube f . 

In some of them, as in the Mytili, the summits are at the anterior 
angle f; in others they are placed near the middle . 

They inhabit the interior of Madrepores, which they perforate. 

Two genera of Acephala furnished with tubes, have been detected 
among fossils, but the first of them, the 

TEREDINA, Lam., 

Has a little cuilleron on the inside of each of its valves, and a small, 
free, shield-shaped piece on the hinge ||. In the second, 

CLAVAGELLA, Lam., 

One of the valves is clasped by the tube, leaving the other, however, 
freelf. 

A single living species is found in the Madrepores of the 
Sicilian seas, which has been described by M. Audouin. 

Some naturalists think we should also place in this family 
the 

ASPERGILLUM, Lam., 

The shell of which is formed of an elongated conical tube, closed at 
its widest extremity by a disk perforated with numerous small tu- 
bular holes ; the little tubes of the outer range being longest, form a 
kind of corolla round it. The reason for approximating them to 



* Teredoclava, Gmel., Spengl., Naturfosch., XIII, 1 and 2, copied Encyc. Method., 
Vers., pi. clxvii, f. 6 16. It is the Fistulana gregata, Lam.; Teredo utriculus, 
Gin., Naturf., X, i, 10; probably the same as the Fistulana lagenula, Lam., Encyc. 
Method., I, c, f. 23 ; Fistulana clava, Lam., Ib., 17, 22. 

It is probable that the Pholas teredula, Pall., Nov. Act. Petrop., II, vi, 25 is also 
a Fistulana. 

f This tube has been observed by Messrs. Turton, Deshayes, and Audouin. 

I Pholas hians, Chemn. X, clxxii, 1678, 1679. 

Id., 1681, a very different species from the preceding, not properly distinguished 
by Chemnitz. 

|| Teredina personata, Lam., and Desh., Foss. de Par. I, pi. i, f. 23, 28. 

f Cl. echinata, Lam., Ann. du Mus., XII, xlii, 19, Cl. coronata, Desh., Foss., I, v. 
15, 16. 



ACEPHALA NUUA. Ill 

the Acephah with tube* is found in tin- fact that tin TO is a double 
projection on OIK- jmrt of the cone, which really n- cnihlr.s tin- two 
valves of the Ac.-jiliala. The aflinity l> t\vrm these little tubes and 
those which envelope the tentacula of certain Tcrebella, formerly 
canned this animal to be ret'envd to tin- .\nm-li . 



The speeie* most known, Asper. javanum, Mart., Conch.. 1 
jl. 1, f 7, is seven or eight inches in length*. 



ORDER II. 

ACEPHALA NUDA f. 

The naked Acephala (a) are not numerous, and are sufficiently 
removed from the ordinary Acephala, to form a distinct class, were 
such a division considered requisite. Their branchiae assume varimi> 
fon UN. I nt are never divided into four leaflets; the shell is replaced 
by a cartilaginous substance which is sometimes so thin that it is as 
llexible as a membrane. We divide them into two families. 

FAMILY I. 



SEGREGATA(6). 

This family comprises those genera in which the individuals 
that compose them are insulated and without any mutual organic 
connection, although frequently living in society. In the 

HIPHORA, Brug. THALIA, Drown. SALPA, and DAGYSA, 

Umclin, 

The mantle and its cartilaginous envelope are oval or cylindrical, and 
open at the two extremities. Near the anus, the opening is trans- 
verse, wide, and furnished with a valve which permits the entrance 
of water, but not its exit ; near the mouth, it is simply tubular. Mus- 



* Add the Arrosoir a manchettes, Savig., Egyp. Coq. pi. xiv, f. 9. 

t since called by M. De Blainville ACEPHALUPHORA HETKUOBRANCHIATA. As 
to Lamarck, he makes a separate class of them, which he calls the TUNICATA, and 
\\liidi he places between his Radiata and his Permes ; but these animals having a 
bruin, nerves, a heart, vessels, liver, &c. this arrangement is inadmissible. 



0^ (a) Or the Acephalcs sans coquillfs of our author. ENO. ED. 

(I) As this family has received no name from our author, we have been com- 
pelled iu conformity with the plan adopted from the commencement of the work, 
t<> n imdy the omission, for such we consider it, by the above word ; in the selection 
of uhuh we have been governed by that which the Baron himself affixes to the 
second family, or hi- Ayyreyh. ENO. ED. 



112 



MOLLUSCA. 



cular bands embrace the mantle and contract the body. The animal 
moves by taking in water at the posterior aperture, and forcing it out 
through that near the mouth, so that it is always propelled backwards, 
a circumstance which has led some naturalists into error by causing 
them to mistake the posterior opening for the true mouth*. It 
usually swims on its back. The branchiae form a single tube or 
riband, furnished with regular vessels, placed obliquely in the middle 
of the tubular cavity pf the mantle, in such a manner that it is con- 
stantly bathed by the water as it traverses that cavity f. The heart, 
viscera, and liver are wound up near the mouth and towards the 
back ; but the position of the ovary varies. The mantle and its en- 
velope when exposed to the sun exhibit the colours of the rainbow, 
and are so diaphanous, that the whole structure of the animal can be 
seen through them : in many they are furnished with perforated 
tubercles. The animal has been seen to come out from its envelope 
without appearing to suffer pain. The most curious circumstance 
respecting them, is their remaining united for a long time, just as 
they were in the ovary, and thus swimming in long chains where the 
individuals are disposed in different ways, but each species always 
according to the same order. 

M. de Chamisso assures us, that he has verified a still more sin- 
gular fact relative to these animals ; it is, that the individuals which 
have thus issued from a multiplex ovary, are not furnished with a 
similar one, but produce insulated young ones of various forms, which 
have an ovary like that which produced their parent, so that there is, 
alternately, a generation of a few insulated individuals, and another 
of numerous and aggregate ones, and that these two alternating 
generations do not resemble each other J. 

It is very certain that in some species little individuals have been 
observed adhering to the interior of large ones, by a peculiar kind of 
sucker, which were different in form from those that contained 
them. 

These animals are very abundant in the Mediterranean and the 
warmer portions of the ocean, and are frequently phosphorescent. 

The THALLE, Brown, have a small crest or vertical fin near the 
posterior extremity of the back ||. 

* This has also happened to M. de Chamisso, in his Dissert, de Salpis, Berl., 
1819, and to others after him, but it is evident that there is no good reason for 
changing the denomination of parts in an animal merely because it swims on its 
back, with the head behind. It is thus that naturalists have been led into error 
with respect to the organization of the Pterotracheata, which always swim on their 
back, a mode of natation common to numberless Gasteropoda both testaceous and 
naked. 

f Some authors assert that this tube is perforated at both ends, and that the 
water traverses it ; I have endeavoured to convince myself of the truth of this 
assertion, but in vain. 

J Chamisso, loc. cit., I. p. 4. 

See my Mem. sur les Biphores, f. II. 

|| Holothuria Thalia, Gm., Brown's Jam., xliii, 3; H. caudata, lb., 4; H. 
denudata, Encyc. Method., Vers., Ixxxviii ; Salpa critata, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., IV, 
Ixviii, 1, figured under the name of Dagysa by Home, Lect. on Compar. Anat. II, 
Ixiii ; Salpa pinnata, Forsk., xxv, B. 



ACEPHALA NUDA. 113 

Of the SALP, properly so called, some have a gelatinous dark co- 
lour. <! plate, in tin- Mibstance of the mantle and above the visceral 
\vhich may be the vestige of a shell*. 

In others it is a simple prominence, of the same nature as the rest 
of the mantle, but thicker f. 

Others again have neither plate nor prominence, but their mantle 
is extended by joints, and of these 

Some have a point at each extremity J. 

Others have two at the extremity nearest the mouth , and even 
three or more ||. 

Some have but a single one at this same extremity ^. 

The greater number is simply oval or cylindrical**. In the 

ASCIDIA, Lin. THEVTON of the Ancients, 

The mantle and its cartilaginous envelope, which is frequently very 
thick, resemble sacs everywhere closed, except at two orifices, which 
corivspond to the two tubes, of several bivalves, one serving to admit 
water and the other affording a passage to the faeces. The branchiae 
form a large sac, at the bottom of which nre the mouth and the vis- 
ceral mass. The envelope is much larger than the mouth, which is 
filirous and vascular, and on which, between the two tubes, is one of 
the ganglions. These animals attach themselves to rocks and other 
bodies, and are deprived of all power of locomotion ; the chief sign 
of vitality which they exhibit, consists in the absorption and evacu- 
ation of water through one of their orifices ; when alarmed they eject 
it to a considerable distance. They abound in every sea, and some of 
them are eaten \ \ . 



Salpa scvtigera, Cuv. Ann. du Mus., IV, Ixviii, 4, 5, probably the same as the 
Salpa gibba, Bosc., Vers, II, xx, v. 

f Salpa Tiltsii, Cuv., loc. cit. 3 ; S. punctata, Forsk., xxv, C. ; S. pelagica, 
BOM., loc. cit., 4; 5. infundibulifurmis, Quoy and Gaym., Voy. de Freycin., 
Zool. 74, f. 13. 

J Salpa maxima, Forsk., xxxv, A ; S. fusiformis, Cuv., loc. cit., 10, perhaps 
the same as Forsk., xxxvi ; 5. mucronata, Ib., D ; S. aspera, Chamisso, f. iv ; 
S. mncinata, Id., f. v, G, H, I. Bat, according to the author, it is the aggregate 
generation of a species, of which the other generatian is cylindrical. 

Salpa dtmocratica, Forsk., xxxvi; S. longicauda, Quoy and Gaym., loc. cit., 

f. 8 ; S. constata, Ib., f. 2. 

|| Salpa tricuspis. Ib., f. 6 ; 5. spinosa, Otto., Nov. Ac. Nat. Cur., t. pi. xlii, 
f. 1. 

<; Ilolothuriazonaria, Gm., Pall., Spic., X, i, 17 ; Thalia lingulata, Blumenb., 
Abb.. 

** Salpa octofora, Cuv., loc. cit., 7 ; perhaps the same as the small Dagystr, 

Home, loc. dt, Kxiii, 1 : S. qfricana, Forsk., xxxvi, C; S.fasciata, Ib., D; 

Ib., A ; perhaps the same as the S. gibba, Bosc., loc. cit., 1, 2, 3 ; 

S. polycratica, Ib., F ; S. cylindrica, Cuv., loc. cit., 8 and 9; Dagysa sfnimose, 

..-, I, c., Ixxi, I ; S.ftrruginea, Chamiss., X: S. c&rulfscens, Id., ix ; 5. ca- 

jfind/a, Id., vii, and several others. 

ft The whole genus ASCIDIA, Gm., to which must be added the Asc. gelatinoaa, 

Zool. DJUI. xliii ; .-I* '. lynfmrmu, Ib., clvi \-Salpa />to, Forsk., xliii, C -,Ascidia 

<ma, Redi, Opusc.. III. I'!., App., VII, the same as the Asc. sulcata, Coque- 

Hullet. des So. Avril, 1797, I, 1 ; Asc. glandiforaus, Coqueb., Ib. N.B. 

VOL. in. I 



114 MOLLUSCA. 

Some species are remarkable for the long pedicle which supports 
them*. 

FAMILY II. 



AGGREGATA. 

The second family consists of animals more or less analogous 
to the Ascidiae, but united in a common mass, so that they 
seem to communicate- organically with each other, and in this re- 
spect to connect the Mollusca with the Zoophytes ; but independently 
of their peculiar organization, these animals, according to the observa- 
tions of Messrs. Audouin and Milne Edwards, at first live and swim 
separately, only becoming united at a certain subsequent period, a 
fact which is in direct opposition to this opinion. 

Their branchiae, as in the Ascidise, form a large sac, traversed by 
the aliment before it arrives at the mouth ; their principal ganglion 
is also situated between the mouth and the arms; a nearly similar 
disposition obtains with respect to the viscera and ovary f . 

Notwithstanding this, some of them, like the Biphora, have an 
opening at each extremity. Such is the 

BOTRYLLUS, Gcert., 

Of an oval form, fixed on various bodies, and united by tens or- 
twelves, like the rays of a star. The brianchial orifices are at the 

'ITie Astidia canina, Mull., Zool. Dan., Iv, Asc. inlestinalis, Bohatsch, X, 4, and 
perhaps even the Asc. patula, Mull., Ixv, and A. corrugata, Id., Ixxix, 2, appear to 
form but one species. There are also some interversions of synonymes, and the 
species, generally, are far from being well ascertained. 

M. de Savigny has endeavoured to subdivide the Ascidise, Mem. sur les Anim. 
sans, vert., part II, 1816, into several subgenera, such as, 

1st. The CYNTHI^E, whose body is sessile, and branchial sac longitudinally pli- 
cated ; their envelope is coriaceous ; 

2d. The PHALLUSi^,which differ from the Cynthiae in the branchial sac, which is 
not plicated ; their envelope is gelatinous ; 

3d. The CLAVELLIN^E, whose branchial sac is without plicae, and does not pene- 
trate to the bottom of the envelope, and whose body is supported by a pedicle ; their 
envelope is gelatinous ; 

4th. The BOLTENIA, whose body is pediculate, and the envelope coriaceous. 

He also takes into consideration the number and form of the tentacula which 
internally surrouud the branchial orifice, but these characters, which are partly 
anatomical, cannot be applied with certainty to a great number of species. 

M. Maclcay (Lin. Trans., XIV, part III) establishes two more, CYSTINGIA and 
DEXDRODOA, founded on similar characters. 

* Ascidia pedunculata, Edw., 356 ; and Asc. clavata, or Vorticdla Boltenii, Gm. 

f. It is to M. de Savigny that we are indebted for our recent knowledge of the 
singular organization of the whole of this family, formerly confounded with the 
Zoophytes, properly so called. At the same time, Messrs. Desmarets and Lesueur, 
made known the particular structure of the BotryUi and Pyrosomte. See the ex- 
cellent work of M. Savigny in his Mem. sur les anim. sans, verteb,, part II, fasc. T. 



I'll M,\ XUDA. 115 

external rxtrrniitie.sof tin-,.- r.iy>, and the anus terminates in a com- 
mon tavity, which is in the centre of the star. If an orifice be irri- 
tated, Imt a single animal contracts ; if the centre be touched they all 
contract. These very small animals attach themselves to certain 
Ascidiae, Fuci,&c*. 

In some particular species, three or four stars appeared to be pih-d 
one on the other f. 

PYROSOMA, Peron. 

The Pyrosomie unite in great numbers, forming a large hollow 
cylinder, open at one end and closed at the other, which swims in 
the ocean by the alternate contraction and dilatation of the individual 
animals which compose it. The latter terminate in a ppint on the 
exterior, so that the whole external surface of the tube is bristled 
with them; the branchial orifices are pierced near these points, and 
the anus debouches in the internal cavity of the cylinder. A 
l'\ T< .Miinii may thus be compared to a great number of stars of Bo- 
trylli .->trung together, the whole of which is moveable J. 

Tin- Mediterranean, and the Ocean, produce large species, the 
animals of which are arranged with but little regularity. They 
xhibit a phosphorescent appearance during the night . 

A smaller species is also known ||, where the animals are 
arranged in very regular rings. 

The remainder of these aggregated Mollusca, like the ordinary 
A idiae, have the anus and branchial orifice approximated to the 
same etremity, The species known are all fixed, and till now they 
have been confounded with the Alcyonia. The visceral bundle of 
:u-h individual is more or less extended into the common cartilaginous 
or gelatinous mass, more or less narrowed or dilated in certain points ; 
but each orifice always forms a little six-rayed star on the surface. 
We unite tin-in all under the name of 



Some of them are extended over bodies like fleshy crests **. 

See Desmarets and Lesueur, Bullet, des Sc. May 1815 ; Botryllus stellatus, 
Gfert //"ilium Srhlusseri, Gm., Pall., Spic. Zool., X, iv, 15. 

f ttotryllus conglomerate, Geert., or Alcyonium conglomeration, Gm.; Pall., Spic. 
Zool. X, iv, 6. 

J See Dcsmnrcts and Lcsueur, loc. cit. 

.f the Polyclina and Aplidiaof Savigny. 

|| Pyrotoinn ttflauticum, Pron., Ann. du Mus., IV, Ixxii ; Pyrosoma gigas, 
Detnar., and Lesueur, Bullet, des Sc. June 1815, pi. v, f. 2. 

f The Pyrotomedttgant, Lesueur, Bullet, des Sc., June 1815, pi. v, f. Q. 

** It is from the number of strangulations, that is to say, the greater or less 
Reparation of the branchite, stomach, and ovary, that M.de Savigny has formed his Po- 

IM I IM M. Ai-l.lDIUM, DlDBMMUM, EUCJSLIUM, DlAZONA, SlGILLINA, &C. uhiili, 

in our opinion, need not be retained. Here, also, should come the Alcyonium ficvs, 
tin Distomus rariolosus, Gaertn., or Alcyonium ascidioMfs, Gm., Pall., Sj.i,-. 
Zool., X, IV, 7. *. 



116 MOLLUSC A. 

Others project in a conical or globular mass*, 

Or expand into a disk comparable to that of a flower or of an 
Actinia f, or are elongated into cylindrical branches supported by 
slender pedicles, &c. J or, form parallel cylinders . 

Recent observations even seem to show that the ESCHARS, hitherto 
placed among the POLYPI, belong to this family of the Mollusca|| . 



CLASS V. 



BRACHIOPODA f . 

The Mollusca Brachiopoda, like the Acephala, have a bilobed 
mantle which is always open. Instead of feet they are provided with 
two fleshy arms furnished with numerous filaments, which they can 
protrude from, and draw into the shell. The mouth is between the 
base of the arms. Neither their organs of generation, nor their ner- 
vous system are well known. 

All the Brachiopoda are invested with bibalve shells, fixed and 
immoveable. But three genera are known. 

LINGULA, Brug. 

Two equal, flat, oblong valves, the summits of which are at the ex- 
tremity of one of the narrow sides, gaping at the other end, and 
attached between the two summits to a fleshy pedicle, which suspends 
them to the rocks ; the arms become spirally convoluted previously 
to entering the shell. It appears that the branchiae consist of small 
leaflets, disposed around the internal face of each lobe of the mantle. 

But a single species Lingula anatina, Cuv., Ann. du Mus., 
I, vi, Seb., Ill, xvi, 4, is known. It inhabits the Indian Ocean, 
and has thin, horny and greenish valves**. 



* The Euccelium, Savig. ; the Distomi are arranged in the same manner. 

f The genus Diazona, Sav., consisting of a large and beautiful purple species 
discovered near Ivice by M. Delaroche. 

J The genus Sigillina, Sav., -whose cylindrical branches are frequently a foot long, 
and the animals, slender as threads, but three or four inches. 

The genus Synocium, Lam. 

|| Messrs. Audouin and Milne Edwards on the one hand, and M. de Blainville on 
the other, have lately verified this fact, which the observations of Spallanzani pre- 
viously seemed to announce. 

*!{ M. de Blainville has given to my BRACHIOPODA, the name of PALLIOBRAN- 
CHIATA, and makes an order of them in his class of the ACEPHALOPHORA. 

** Linnaeus, who knew but one of the valves, called it Patella unguis. Solander 
and Chemnitz, who were aware of its having two, called it, one, the Mytilus lingua, 
and the other, Pinna unguis. Brugires knew its pedicle, and consequently made 
a genus of it by the name of LINGULA, Encyc. Method., Vers, pi. 250. It is 
singular that before us, no one had remarked that it is well figured with its 
pedicle by Seba, loc. cit. 



BRACH10PODA. 11? 



TKKKBRATULA, Brag. 

Two unequal valves united by a hinge; the summit of one, more 
salient than the other, is perforated to permit the passage of a fleshy 
pedicle which attaches the shell to rocks, madrepores, other shells, &c. 
Internally, a small bony i>i < . t.f frame-work is observed, that is some- 
times very complex, composed <-f two branches which articulate with 
the unperforated valve, and that support two arms edged all round 
with a lung close fringe, between which, on the side next to the large 
valve, is a third, simply membranous and much longer appendage, 
usually spirally convoluted, and edged, like the arms, with a fine and 
close fringe, the mouth is a small vertical fissure between these 
three large appendages. The principal part of the body, situated 
near the hinge, contains the numerous muscles which reach from one 
valve to the other, and between them are the viscera, which occupy 
but little space. The ovaries appear to be two ramified productions, 
adhering to the parietes of each valve. I have not yet been able to 
ascertain exactly the positon of the branchiae. 

Numberless Terebratukc are found fossil or petrified, in certain 
udary strata of ancient formations*. The living species are less 
numerous f. 

The shell of some is transversely broader or longer, in a direction 
perpendicular to the hinge, with an entire or emarginated contour, 
with two or several lobes; some of them are even triangular; the sur- 
face is smooth, sulcated in radii, or veined ; they are thick or thin, and 
even diaphanous. In several of them, in lieu of the hole in the 
summit of the thin valve, there is a notch, and this notch is sometimes 
partly formed by two accessory pieces, &c. It is probable that when 
T known, their animals will present generic differences. Already 
in the 

SPIRJFKR, Sowerby, 

Two large cones have been recognized, formed of a spiral thread, 
which appear to have supported the animalj, In 

THECIDEA, Def., 

The pedicle seems to have been incorporated with the small 
valve . 



M. Defrance distinguishes upwards of two hundred. 

t Anomin scobinata, Gualt., 96, A; An. aurila, Id., Ib., B; An. retusa ; Am. 
trunrata, C'lu-imi., \ "1 1 1, Ixxsii, 7 1 1 ; An. capensis, Ib., 703; An. pubescent, Id., 
l\\\iii, 702; An. detruncala, Ib., 705; An. sanyvinolenla, Ib., 706; An. vitrea, 
lh., 7<>7, 709; An. dorsata, Ib., 71<>. 711 ; An. psittacea, Ib. 713; An cranium, &c. 

For the fov.il tprcies, see Encyc. Method. Vers, pi. 239 246. 

J For this genus see Sowcrb., Min. Conch, and the article Spin/ere of M. De- 
france, Diet, des Sc. Nat. t. L. 

ThcrM'.i mniitcn;,,,. iiist. Nat. de la Fr. Merid., IV, f, 183; Th. 

! ;j. Mont. St IVrrr, pi. xxvii, f. 8. Further, and more prect.-e ob>< 
t inns are requisite, to enable us to class the MAGAS of Sowerby, the STRIGOCE- 
PHALA of Defrance, and some other neighbouring group . 



118 MOLLUSCA. 

OKBICULA, Cuv. 

The Orbiculae liave two unequal valves, one of^ which, that is round 
and conical, when viewed by itself, resembles the shell of a Pa- 
tella; the other is flat and fixed to a rock. The arms of the animal, 
Criopus, Poli, are ciliated and spirally recurved like that of the 
Lingulse. 

The seas of Europe produce a small species, Patella anomala, 
Mull., Zool. Dan. V, 26; Anomia'turbinata, Poli, XXX, 15; 
Bret. Sowerb., Lin. Trans., XIII, pi. xxvi, f. 1. 

The DISCING, Lam., are Orbiculae, the inferior valve of which is 
marked by a fissure. The 

CRANIA, Bruy. 

Should be approximated to the Orbiculae. The arms of the animal 
arc also ciliated, but the shells have deep and round internal muscu- 
lar impressions, that have caused it to be compared to the figure of 
a skull. 

One of them inhabits European seas ; Anomia craniolaris, L. ; 
or Crania personata, Bret. Sowerb., Lin. Trans., XIII, pi. xxv, 
f. 3. Several are fossil ; such as the Cran. antiqua, and the 
others of which M. Hceninghaus has given an excellent Mono- 
graph. 



CLASS VI. 



CIRRHOPODA *. 



[LEPAS and TRITON, 

The Cirrhopoda, in several points of view, are intermediate between 
this division and that of the Articulata. Enveloped by a mantle, and 
testaceous pieces which frequently resemble those seen in several of 
the Acephala, their mouths are furnished with lateral jaws, and the 
abdomen with filaments named cirri, arranged in pairs, composed of 
a multitude of little ciliated articulations, and corresponding to a sort 
of feet or fins similar to those observed under the tail of several of the 
Crustacea. Their heart is situated in the dorsal region, and the 
branchiae on the sides ; the nervous system forms a series of ganglions 



* M. De Lamarck has changed this name into CIRRIPEDA, making it a class. 
M. de Blainville also makes a class of them, but he changes the name to NKMATO- 
PODA, and places them with the Chitones, in what he calls his type of the MALEN- 

TOZARIA. 



CIKKHOI'ODA. 

on the lower part of the abdomen. These cirri, however, may be 
considered as analogous to the articulated appendages of certain 
ies of Teredo, while the ganglions in some respects are mere 
re] K-titions of the posterior ganglion of the bivalves. The position 
of these animals in the shell is such, that the mouth is at the bottom 
and the cirri near the orifice. Between the last two cirri is a long 
ll 'shy tube, that has sometimes, but erroneously, been takon for their 
proboscis, and at the base of which, near the back, is the opening of 
the amis. Internally, we observe a stomach inflated by a multitude 
of small cavities in its parietes, which appear to fulfil the functions 
of a liver, a simple intestine, a double ovary, and a double serpentine 
oviduct, whose walls produce the prolific fluid, and which, prolonged 
in the fleshy tube, open at its extremity. These animals are always 
fixed. Linnaeus comprised them all in one genus LEPAS, which 
Brugieres divided into two, that have in their turn been subdivided *. 

ANATIFA, Bru<r. 

A compressed m.mtle, open on one side and suspended to a fleshy 
tube, varying greatly as to the number of testaceous pieces with 
which it is furnished ; twelve pair of cirri, six on each side, those 
nearest to the mouth being the thickest and shortest. The branchiae 
are elongated pyramidal appendages, that adhere to the external base 
of the whole of the cirri, or of part of them. 

The two principal valves, of the most numerous species (PENTA- 
LASMIS, Leach,) resemble those of a Mytilus; two others seem to 
complete a part of the edge of the Mytilus opposite to the summit, 
and a fifth azygous one unites the posterior edge to that of the oppo- 
site valve ; these five pieces cover the whole of the mantle. From 
the usual place of the ligament arises the fleshy pedicle ; a strong 
transverse muscle unites the two first valves near their summit; the 
mouth of the animal is concealed behind it, and the posterior extre- 
mity of its body, with all the little articulated feet, is a little beyond 
it, between the four first valves. 

The most common species of the European seas, Lepas ana- 
ra, L., owes its specific appellation to the fable which repre- 
sents it as producing the Bernacles and Macreuscs, a story 
founded mi the rude resemblance that has been observed to exist 
Ix-uveen the pieces of this shell, and a bird. The Anatifae ad In re 
to rocks, piles, keels of vessels, &c. f We may distinguish 
from them 



I his name of Lepas formerly belonged to the Patella, Linnaeus, 
that some of these Cirrhopoda cxi-tnl \\hidi had no shells, gave them the name of 
Triton : hut th. i uons is not confirmed, and we are to conclude 

mi-nix au tiu .miiuiil of an Anatifa ton\ turn it- shell. 
/ ,..w ansertfeta, Chemn., VFII, r. s.,ti ; Anat. dentata, Brug.. 
M th.'.l pi. 166, f. 6, or Ptntalasiuisfalcala, Leach, Edinb. Encyc. 



120 MOLLUSC A, 

POLLICIPES, Leach, 

Where, besides the five principal valves, there are several small 
ones near the pedicle *, some of which, in certain species, are nearly 
as large as the former f ; frequently there is an azygous valve, oppo- 
site to the ordinary one of the same description. In the 

CINERAS, Leach) 

The cartilaginous mantle contains but five small valves, which do 
not occupy the whole of its extent J. In the 

OTION, Leach, 

The cartilaginous mantle contains but two very small valves, with 
three little grains which hardly merit that name, and has two tubular 
auriform appendages . 

TETRALASMIS, Cuv. 

But four valves, which surround the aperture ; two of them longer 
than the others. The animal is partly confined within the pedicle, 
which is large, and covered with hair. They are a kind of tubeless 
Balani ||. 

BALANUS, Brug. 

The principal part of the shell of the Balani consists of a testaceous 
tube attached to various bodies, the aperture of which is more or less 
closed by two or four valves. This tube is formed of various pieces, 
which appear to be detached, and separated in proportion as the 
growth of the animal requires it. The branchiae, mouth, articulated 
tentacula, and the anal tube, differ but little from those of the Ana- 
tifae. In 

BALANUS 
Properly so called, the tubular portion is a truncated cone formed 

* Lepas pollicipes, L., or Poll, cornucopia, Leach; Encyc. Method., pi. 226, f. 10, 
1 1 ; Pott, villosus, Leach, Edinb. Encyc. 

f Lepas mitella, Chemn., VIII, 849, 850, Encyc. Method., pi. 266, f, 9, or 
Polylepe couronne, Blainv., Malac. -,Poll. scalpellum, Cbemn., VIII, p. 294, or 
Polylepe vulgaire, Blainv., Malac., Ixxxiv, f. 4. It is the genus SCALPELLUM, 
Leach, loc. cit. 

J Cineras vittata, Leach, Edinb. Encyc., or Lepas concern, Poli, vi, 20, or Gym- 
nolepas Cranchii, Blainv., Malac., Ixxxiv, 2. 

Otion Cuvieri, Leach, or Lepas leporina, Poli, 1, vi, 21, or Lepas aurila, 
Chemn., VIII, pi. c. f. 857, 858, M. de Blainville unites Cineras and Otion in his 
genus GYMNOLEPA. 

|| Tetral. hirsutus, Cuv., Moll. Auatif., f. 14. 

N. B. The LITHOTRIAS of Sowerby, converted by Blainville into LITHOLKPA, 
may be, as is conjectured by Rang, merely an Anatifa accidentally fixed in a hole 
excavated by some bivalve. 

The ALEPAS, Rang, should be Anatifse, whose cartilaginous mantle is without any 
shell whatever ; I have never seen them. At all events, they must not be con- 
founded with the Triton of Linnaeus, which was the animal of an Anatifa separated 
from its mantle and shell. 



CLRRHOPODA. 121 

of six projecting pieces, separated by as many depressed ones, three of 
which are narrower than the others. Their base is usually formed of 
a calcareous lamina, and fixed to various bodies. The four valves of 
their operculum close the orifice exactly. 

The rocks, shells, &c., on the coast of Europe, are, in a man- 
ner, covered with a species of Balanus, the Lepas balanus, L., 
Chemn., VIII, xcvii, 826*. Naturalists have separated from it 

The ACAST*:, Leach, whose base is irregular, convex towards the 
exterior, and which does not become fixed ; most of them are found 
in sponge f , 

The CoNifi, Blainv., the tube of which has but four salient pieces J, 

The ASBM^B, Ranzani, where the tube has no decidedly salient 
pieces , 

The PYRGOM/E, Savigny, whose tubular position, forming a strongly 
depressed cone, has but a very small orifice, almost like the shell of 
a Fissurella ||, 

The OCTHOSLE, Ranzani, which have but three salient pieces in the 
tube, and only two valves to the operculum ^J, 

The CREUSLE, Leach, with four sahent pieces, and two valves to 
the operculum **. 

M. de Limarck, under the name of CORONULJE, separates the very 
wide species, where the parietes of the cone are occupied, by cells so 
large, that they resemble chambers ff; and under that of 

TUBICINELL*;, those in which the tubular portion is elevated, 
narrower near the base, and divided into annuli, which mark its 
growth \\. 

There are some species of these last two subgenera, which affix 
themselves to the skin of the Balsenae, and even penetrate into their 
blubber. 

To the preceding subgenera must be added the 



* Add, Lepat balanoides, Chemn., VIII, xcvii, 821825 ; L. tintinnabulum. Ib, 
828 831 ; L, minor, Ib. 827; L. porosa, Id., xcviii, 836 ; L. verruca, Ib., 
840, 841 ; L. angusta, Ib., 835 ; L. elongata, Ib., 838; L. patellaris, Ib., 839 ; 
L. spinosa, Ib., 840 ; L. violacea, Id., xcix, 842 ; L. iulipa, Ascan. Icon., X ; 
, imlrica, Gronov., Zooph., XIX, 3, 4 ; L. cariosa, Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop., 
II, \i. 'Jl, A. 15. 

t Acatta Monlugui, Leach, Edinb. Encyc., copied Blainv., Malar., Ixxxv, 3 ; 
Lepas spongiles, Poli, I, vi, 6. 

I Coma radiata, Blainv., Malac., Ixxxv, 5. . 

Lepm porosus, Gra., Chemn., VIII, xcviii, 836, 837, Encyc. Method., pi. 165, 
f. 9, 10. 

II Pyrgoma cancellatu, Leach, loc. cit., copied Blainv., Malac. Ixxxv, 5. 
^ Lepat Stratum, Mull., Zool. Dan., Ill, xriv, 14. 

* Crcusia spinulosa, Leach, loc. cit., copied Blainv., Malac., Ixxxv, 6. 
ft Ltpas halffnaru, L., Chemn., VIII, xcix, 845, 846; L. testudinaritu, Ib., 
R47, 848, which attaches itself to the shell of Tortoises. 
: ! The Tubtrinclla, Lam., Ann. du Mus., I, xxx, 1, 2. 



122 MOLLUSCA. 



DAIDEMA, Ranz. 

Where the tubular portion is almost spherical, and which has but 
two small valves almost hidden in the membrane which closes the 
operculum. The opercular valves would not effectually closes the 
orifice without the membrane which unites them. 

They also live on the Balaenae, and Otiones are frequently observed 
attached to their surface *. 



* Lepas diadema, Chemn., VIII, xcix, 843, 844. 



THIRD 
GREAT DIVISION 

OF THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. 



ANIMALIA ARTICULATA. 

THIS third general form is as well characterised as that of the Verte- 
brata ; the skeleton is not internal as in the latter, neither is it anni 
h i laird as in the Mollusca. The articulated rings which encircle the 
body, and frequently the limbs, supply the place of it, and as they are 
usually hard, they furnish to the powers of motion all requisite points of 
support, so that here, as among the Vertebrata, we find the walk, the 
run, the leap, natation and flight. Those families only are restricted 
to reptation which are either deprived of feet, or in which the articu- 
lations arc membranous and soft. This external position of the hard 
parts, and the internal one of the muscles, reduce each articulation to 
tin- form of a sheath, and allow it but two kinds of motion. When 
connected with the neighbouring parts by a firm joint, as happens in 
tin- limbs, it is fixed there by two points, and can only move by gyn- 
dvmus, that is, in one single plane, a disposition which requires a 
i t<T number of joints to produce a same variety of motion. A 
greater loss of muscular power is also the result, and consequently 
more general weakness in each animal, in proportion to its size. 

But the parts which compose the body are not always articulated in 
this way ; most generally they are only united by flexible membranes, 
or tli \ tit into each other, and then their motions are more various, 
Imt have not the same force. 

The system of organs in which the Articulata resemble each other 
tli.- most, is that of the nerves. 

Th. MI brain, which is placed on the esophagus, and furnishes nerves 
to the parts adhriinp to tln> hrad, i.-. very small. Two cords which 
embrace thr esophagus are extended along the abdomen, and united 



124 ARTICULATA. 

at certain distances by double knots or ganglia, whence arise the 
nerves of the body and limbs. Each of these ganglia seems to fulfil 
the functions of a brain to the surrounding parts, arid to preserve 
their sensibility for a certain length of time, when the animal has 
been divided. If to this we add, that the jaws of these animals, 
when they have any, are always lateral and move from without, in- 
wardly, and not from above, downwards, and that no distinct organ of 
smell has hitherto been discovered in them, we shall have expressed 
all that can be said of them in general. The existence, however, of 
the organs of hearing, and the existence, number and form of those of 
sight, the product and mode of generation*, the kind of respiration, 
the existence of the organs of circulation, and even the colour of the 
blood present great differences, which must be noticed in the various 
subdivisions. 

Distribution of the Articulata into four Classes. 

The Articulata, whose mutual relations are as varied as numerous, 
present however four principal forms, either internal or external. 

The ANNELIDES, Lam., or RED-BLOODED WORMS, Cuv., constitute 
the first. Their blood, which is generally red, like that of the 
Vertebrata, circulates in a double and closed system of arteries and 
veins, sometimes furnished with one or several visible hearts or fleshy 
ventricles. Respiration is performed in organs which are sometimes 
developed externally, and at others remain on the surface of the 
skin or dip into its interior. Their body, more or less elongated, is 
always divided into numerous rings, the first of which, called the 
head, scarcely differs from the rest, except in the presence of the 
month and the principal organs of the senses. The branchiae of 
several are uniformly distributed along their body or in its middle ; 
in others, which are generally those that inhabit tubes, they are all 
placed anteriorly. They never have articulated feet, but most of 
them, in lieu thereof, are furnished with setae or fasciculi of stiff and 
movable hairs. They are mostly hermaphrodites, and some of them 
require a reciprocal coitus. The organs of their mouth sometimes 
consist in jaws, more or less strong, and at others of a simple tube, 
those of the external senses in fleshy, and sometimes articulated ten- 
tacula, and in certain blackish points, considered as eyes, but which 
do not exist in all the species. 



* M. Harold has made a remarkable discovery on this subject, viz. that in the 
ovumof the Crustacea and Arachnides, the vitellus communicates with the interior 
by the back. See his Dissert, on the ovum of Spiders, Marburg, 1824, and that of 
M. Rathke on that of the Astaci, Leipsic, 1829. 



ARTICULATA. 125 

Th<- CRUSTACEA constitute the second form or class of articulated 
animals. They are provided with articulated and more or less com- 
plexed limbs, attached to the sides of the body. Their blood is 
white : it circulates by means cf a fleshy ventricle placed in the 
back, which receives it from the branchiae, situated on the sides of 
the body, or under its posterior portion, and to which it returns by a 
ventral and sometimes double canal. In the last or lower species, 
the heart or dorsal ventricle is itself extended into a tube. They all 
have antennae or articulated filaments, inserted in the fore-part of the 
head, usually four in number, several transverse jaws, and two com- 
pound eyes. A distinct ear is only to be found in some species. 

The ARACHNIDES form the third class of the Articulata. Their 
head and thorax, as in many of the Crustacea, are united in one 
single piece, furnished, on each side, with articulated limbs ; but their 
principal viscera are enclosed in an abdomen connected to the 
posterior portion of that thorax. Their mouth is armed with jaws, 
and their head furnished with simple eyes, that vary as to number, 
but the antennae are always wanting. Their circulation is effected 
by a dorsal vessel, which gives off arterial branches, and receives 
venous ones from them ; but their mode of respiration varies, some of 
them still having true pulmonary organs, which open on the sides of 
the abdomen, while others, receive air by tracheae, like Insects. In 
both of them, however, we observe lateral openings or true stig- 
mata. 

The INSECTA constitute the fourth class of the Articulata, and the 
most numerous of all the animal kingdom. With the exception of 
some genera, the Myriapoda, in which the body is divided into nu- 
merous and nearly equal parts, it is always divided into three portions : 
tlu- head, furnished with the antennae, eyes and mouth; the thorax, 
to which are appended the feet and wings, when they exist ; and the 
abdomen, which is suspended behind the thorax and contains the 
principal viscera. Those which have wings, only receive them at a 
certain age, and frequently pass through two more or less different 
forms before they assume that of the winged insect. In all their 
states they respire by tracheae; that is, by elastic vessels which receive 
air through stigmata pierced on their sides, and distribute it by 
infinite ramifications to every part of the body. A vestige of a heart 
only is perceptible, consisting of a dorsal vessel, which experiences an 
alternate contraction and dilatation, but to which, no branch has ever 
been discovered, so that we are forced to believe that nutrition is 
effected in this class of animals by imbibition. It is, probably, this sort 
of nutrition which necessitated tho kind of respiration proper to In- 



126 ANNELIDKS. 

sects; for as the nutritive fluid is not contained in vessels*, and 
could not be directed towards pulmonary organs in search of air, it 
was requisite that this air should be diffused throughout the body to 
reach the fluid. This is also the reason why insects have no secretory 
glands, but are provided with mere spongy vessels, which, by the 
extent of their surface, appear to absorb the peculiar juices they are 
to produce, from the mass of the nutritive fluid f. 

Insects vary infinitely as to the form of the organs of the mouth, 
and those of digestion, as well as in their industry and mode of life ; 
the sexes are always separated. 

The Crustacea and Arachnides were long united with the Insecta, 
under one common name, and resemble them in many points of their 
external form, in the disposition of their organs of motion, and of 
the sensations, and even in those of manducation. 



CLASS I. 



ANNELIDES+. 

The Annelides are the only invertebrate animals that have 
red blood. It circulates in a double system of complicated 
vessels . 

Their nervous system consists in a double knotted cord, like that 
of insects. 

Their body is soft, more or less elongated, and divided into a, fre- 
quently, considerable number of segments, or at least of transverse 
plicae. 

They nearly all inhabit the water the Lumbrici or Earth- worms 
excepted ; several penetrate into holes at the bottom, or construct 



* M. Cams has observed regular movements in the fluid which fills the hodies of 
certain larvse of Insects ; but this movement does not take place in a system of 
closed vessels, as in the superior animals. See his treatise entitled " Discovery of a 
simple circulation oftheblood, &c." in German, Leipsic, 1827, 4to. 

f* On this subject see my Memoir on the nutrition of Insects, printed 1 799. 
Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris. Baudouin, an vii, 4to, p, 32. 

J I established this class, distinguishing it by the colour of its blood and other 
attributes, in a Memoir read before the Institute in 1802. See Bullet, des Sc.. 
Mesidor, an X, where I described the organs of the circulation. 

M. Lamarck has adopted and named it, Annelides. Brugieres previously united 
it to the order of the intestinal worms, and before him, Linnaeus placed pail of these 
animals among the Mollusca, and the rest among the Intestini. 

$ It has been asserted that the Blood of the Aphrcditae is not red. I think I 
have observed the contrary in the Aphrrnlita sqttarnafa. 



ANNELIDKS. 127 

tubes tin-re with the ooze or other matters, or even exude a calcareous 
substance, which env-lnp.- them with a sort of tubular shell. 

Division of the Annelides into three Orders. 

This class, which contains but few species, presents a sufficient 
basis of division in its organs of respiration. 

The branchiae of some resemble tufts or arbusculae, attached to the 
head or anterior part of the body: they, nearly all, inhabits tubes. 
We will call them the TUBICOLJS. 

Those of othere resemble trees, tufts, laminae or tubercles in 
\\hic-h vessels ramify, and are placed on the middle of the body: 
most of them inhabit mud or swim in the ocean, the smaller portion 
being furnished with tubes. We name them the DORSIBRANCHIATJE. 

Others again have no apparent branchiae, and respire, either by 
the surface of the skin, or as some authors opine, by the internal 
cavities. Most of them live free in mud or water ; some of them 
only, in humid earth. They are the ABRANCHIATE. 

The genera of the first two orders are all furnished with stiff setae, 
of a metallic colour, that issue from their sides, sometimes simply, 
and at others in fasciculi, which serve in lieu of feet; but there are 
some peneru in the third order which are deprived of that support*. 

The special attention paid by M. Savigny to these feet or organs 
of locomotion, has resulted in the distinction of the following parts : 
1 . The foot itself, or the tubercle which supports the setae ; some- 
times there is but one to each ring, and at others there are two, one 
above the other, styled a simple or double oar. 2. The setae, which 
compose a fasiculus for each oar, and which vary greatly in form and 
consistence, sometimes constituting true spines, and at others, fine and 
tlexihle hairs, frequently dentated, barbed, &c.f 3. The cirri or 
nY>hy filaments adhering to the foot, either above or beneath. 

The head of the Annelides of the two first orders is generally fur- 
nished with tentacula or filaments, to which, notwithstanding their 
fleshy nature, some modern naturalists give the name of Antennae ; 
and several genera of the second and third, are marked with black and 
shining joints, usually considered as eyes. The organization of their 
mouth varies greatly. 

M. Savigny has proposed a division of the Annelides, to be founded on the 
presence or absence of these locomotory setae ; those in which they are wanting 
being reduced to Leeches. M. de Blainville, who has adopted this idea, forms his 
class of the ENTOMOZOARI.C CHBTOPODRS with the Annelides that have sette, and 
Uirvt of the ENTOMOZOARKC APODIB with those which have none, but in mixing 
many of the Intcstini with the Apodes, he has done what M. S. did not do. 

t See on this subject, the Mem. of M. Savigny on the invertebrate animals, and 
those of Messrs. Audouin and M. Edwards on the Annelida. 



128 ANN ELIDES. 

ORDER I. 



TUBICOLJE * 

Some of the Tubicolse form a calcareous, homogeneous tube, proba- 
bly the result of transudation, like the shell of the Mollusca, with 
which however they have no muscular adhesion ; others construct one 
by agglutinating grains of sand, fragments of shells and particles of 
mud, by means of a membrane, also unquestionably transuded; the tube 
of others again is entirely membranous or horny. To the first belongs 
the genus 

SERPULA, Lin . 

The calcareous tubes of the Serpulae twine round and cover stones, 
shells, and all submarine bodies. The section of these tubes is some- 
times round, and sometimes angular, according to the species. 

The body of the animal is composed of numerous segments ; its 
anterior portion is spread into a disk, armed on each side with seve- 
ral bundles of coarse hairs, and on each side of its mouth is a tuft 
of branchiae, shaped like a fan, and usually tinged with bright 
colours. At the base of each tuft is a fleshy filament, one of which, 
either on the right or left, indifferently, is always elongated, and 
dilated at its extremity into a variously formed disk, which serves a 
an operculum, and seals up the orifice of the tube when the animal 
has withdrawn into it f . 

Serp. contortuplicatal, Ell., Corall., XXXVIII, 2. The most 
common species ; its tubes are round, three lines in diameter, 
and twisted. The operculum is infundibuliforum, and the bran- 
chiae are frequently of a beautiful red colour, or variegated with 
yellow, violet, &c. Vases or other objects thrown into the sea 
are soon covered by its tubes. 

Serp. vermicular is, Gm. i Mull., Zool. Dan., LXXXVI, 7, 9, 
&c. A smaller species, with a claviform operculum, armed 
with two or three small points. The branchiae are sometimes 
blue. No spectacle is more beautiful than that of a group of 
these Serpulae when well expanded. They are found on the 
coast of France. 



* M. Savigny adds the Arenicola to this order, and changes its name to SER- 
PULACEA ; M. Lamarck, adopting his plan, converts the SERPULACEAinto SEDEN- 
TARIA. The genera of my TuUcolee form the family of the AMPHITRITES, Savigny, 
and those of the AMPHITRIT^EA and SERPULACEA, Lamarck. They form the order 
ENTOMOZOARIA CHETOPODA HETEROCRISINA, Blainville, who, in defiance of his 
own definition, places there SPIO and POLYDORUS. 

f The disk of the common Serpula heing funnel-shaped, has induced naturalists 
to consider it as a proboscis, hut it is not perforated, and in all the other species it 
is more or less claviform. 

J It is the same animal as the Atnphitriie penicillus, Cm'., or Pi-oloscidea, Brug., 
or Probosciplectanos, Fab. Column. Aquat., c, xi, p. 22. 



TUBICOJJE. 129 

In others the operculum is flat and bristled with more numerous 
points*. One of them is the 

Serp. yiganlea, Pall., Miscel., X, 2, 10. It is always found 
among the Madrej>ores, which frequently surround its tube; tho 
branchiae become spirally convoluted when they enter the latter, 
and its opercnlum is armed with two small branching horns, re- 
sembling the antlers of a decrf. M. Lamarck distinguishes the 

SPIRORBIS, Lam., 

Where the branchial filaments are much less numerous three or 
four on each side ; the tube is regularly spiral, and the animal usually 
very small J. 

SABELLA, Cut. 

The same kind of body, and similar flabelliform branchiae, as the 
Serpulae ; but the two fleshy filaments adhering to these branchiae 
both terminate in a point, and without forming an operculum ; some- 
time they are even wanting. The tube of the Sabellae is most com- 
monly composed of granules of clay or mud, and is rarely calcareous. 
The species known are large, and their fan-like branchiae remark- 
able for tin i i delicacy and brilliancy. 

Some of them, like the Serpulae, have a membranous disk on ther 
ant-M ior part of the back, through which pass the first pairs of the 
bundles of setae; their pectiniform branchiae are spirally contorted, 
and their tentacula reduced to slight folds ||. 

Sab.protula, Cuv. ; Protula Rudolphii, Risso. A large and 
splendid species inhabiting the Mediterranean. Its tube is 
calcareous, like that of the Serpulae, its branchiae orange- 
coloured, &c.^[ 

They are the GALEOLARI.E, Lam. A single operculum is seen, Berl., Schr., 
i, 6. 

f The same as the Ttrebella bicornis, Abildg., Berl. Schr., IX. iii, 4 ; Seb., Ill, 
xvi, 7, and as the Actinia, or Animul-Jioicer, Home, Lect. on Comp. Anatom., II, 
pi. 1. M. Savigny established his subdivision of the SERPUL.* CYMOSPIR.C, of 
which M. dt- Hluinville has since made a genus, upon this spiral convolution of the 
branchiae. 

Add, Terebdla sttlluta, Cm., Abildg., loc. cit. f. 5, remarkable for its operculum, 
which is composed of three plates strung together. 

..'.'MHI, Tall., Nov. Act. Petrop., V, pi. v, f. 21; Serp. spirorbif, 
Mull., Zuol. Dan. Ill.lxxxvi, 16. 

'i >:i the works of Linnaeus and Gmclin, designates various animals, 

\\ith factitious, an/1 not transuded, tubes; we restrict its application to those which 
resemble each other in their peculiar characters. M. Savigny employs it in the latter 
way, our first dh id, which he places among his Serpulte. Our Sabelke 

are the AMPHITKITRH of Lamarck. 

|| Th'n dM'Snn u irft 1>y M. Savigny among the Serpulse, and constitutes his 
SKRPULA SPIRAMKLLJC, of which M.de Blainville has since made his genus SPIRA- 

MELLA. 

5 Thet-v this mnirnificent species, and the calcareous nature of its 

tube, arc incontestable, notwithstanding the doubt expressed in the Diet, des Sc., 

Nat., LVII, p. 443, note. The SaMla bispiralu,Amphi(ritc rolufucornis, Lin. 

differs but slightly from it. I dare not assert it is the same as 

I. ndx, i, erroneously cited by Pallas and Gmelin under Serpvla giyantea, 

for that figure shows no disk. 

VOL. in. K 



130 ANNELIDES. 

Others have no membranous disk anteriorly ; their two pectiniform 
branchiae are equal and spiral*. 

There are sometimes two ranges of filaments on each comb f. 

In others again, only one of the two combs is thus formed ; the 
other, which is smaller, enveloping the base of the first, Sabella 
unispira, Cuv.; Spirographis Spallanzanii, Viviani,. Phosph. Mar., pi. 
iv, vj. 

There are some whose branchiae merely form a simple funnel 
round the mouth ; their filaments, however, are numerous, crowded, 
and strongly ciliated on the internal surface . Their silky feet are 
almost imperceptible. 

Finally, others have been described which have but six filaments, 
arranged in a stellate form ||. 

TEREBELLA, Cuv. U 

The Terebellae, like most of the Sabellse, inhabit an artificial tube, 
but it is composed of grains of sand, and fragments of shells ; their 
body, moreover, has fewer rings, and their head is otherwise deco- 
rated. Numerous filiform and extremely extensible tentacula sur- 
round their mouth; their branchiae, placed on the neck, are notinfun- 
dibuliform, but resemble arbusculae. 

Several species are found on the coast of France, long con- 
founded under the name of Terebella conchilega, Gm., Pall., 
Miscel., IX, 14 22, most of which are remarkable for tubes 
formed of large fragments of shells, the edges of their opening 
being prolonged into several little branches, composed of simi- 
lar materials, and containing the tentacula. 

In the greater number there are three pairs of branchiae, which, 
in those where the tube is branched, issue through a peculiar hole 
formed for that purpose**. 



* The simple SABELLA of Savigny, Amphitrite reniformis, Mull., Ver., XVI, 
or Tubularia penicillus, Id., Zool., Ixxxix, 1, 2, or Terebella reniformis, Gm. ; 
Amph. infundibulum, Montag., Lin. Trans., IX, viii ; Amph. vesiculosa, Id. Ib., 
XI, v. 

f The SABELLA ASTART.E, Savig., such as the Sabella grandis, Cuv., or Indica, 
av . ; _ -rfcu?aria magnified, Shaw, Lin. Trans., V, ix. 

J The SABELLA SPIROGRAPHIC.E, Savigny. 

N.B. On account of the imperfection of the figure of Ellis, Coral., pi. xxxiii, I do 
not know to which of these subdivisions we should refer the Amphitrite ventilabrum, 
Gm. or Sabella penicillus, L., Ed. XII. 

Sab. villosa, Cuv., a new species. 

|| Tubularia Fabricia, Gm., Fabr., Faun. Groenl., p. 450 the genus FABRICIA, 
Blainv. 

^[ Linnaeus, in his twelfth edition, had thus named an animal described by 
Koehler, and which might have belonged to this genus because it was thought to 
perforate stones. Lamarck has employed the same name An. sans vert., p. 324, 
for a Nereis and for a Spio. The Terebellce, Gm., comprehend Amphinonuz, Nereides, 
Serpula, &c. Messrs. Savigny, Montag., Lamarck, and Blainville, employ this 
name as above, which was proposed by me, Diet, des Sc. Nat., II, p. 79. 

** They are the simple TEREBELLAE of Savigny ; such as, Tereb. medusa, Sav., Eg., 
Annel., T,f. 3; Ter. cirrhata, Gm., Mull., Ver., XV; Ter. gigantea, Montag., 



TUBICOLJJ. 131 



AMPHITRITE, Cuv. 9 * 

The Amphitrites arc easily recognized by the golden coloured setae, 
arranged Eke a crown, or the teeth of a comb, in one or two rows, 
on the anterior part of their head, where they probably serve as a 
means of defence, or perhaps enable the animal to crawl, or to col- 
lect the materials of its tube. Numerous tentacula encircle the 
mouth, and on each side of the fore part of the back arc nectiniform 
branchiae. 

Some of them construct light tubee of a regularly conical figure, 
which they carry about with them. Their gilded setae form two 
combs, whose teeth incline downwards. Their capacious and fre- 
quently flexed intestine is usually filled with sand f. Such is the 

Amph. auricoma belyica, Gm. ; Pall., Miscel., IX, 3 5. Its 
tube is t\vo inches long, and formed of variously coloured round 
granules J. 

Amph. auricoma capensis, Pall., Miscel., IX, i, 2. From the 
South Seas ; its thin and polished tube appears to be transversely 
fibrous, and formed of some dessicated, soft, and stringy sub- 
stance. It is a larger species . 

There are others which inhabit artificial tubes fixed to various 
bodies. Their gilded setae form several concentric crowns on their 
head, from which results an operculum that seals up their tube when 
they contract, but the two parts of which can separate. Each foot 
is furnished with a cirrus. The body is terminated behind in a 



Lio. Trans., XII, 11 ; T. nebuJoaa, Id. Ib., 12, 2; T. constrictor, Id. Ib., 13, 1 ; 
T. vtnusta, Ib., 2 ; he also calls one of them T. cirrhata, Ib., XII, 1 ; but which 
does not appear to be the same as that of M tiller. Add T. varialrilis, Risso, &c. 

N.B. M. Savigny makes two other divisions 'of Terebellse, the T. PHYZELL*, 
which have but two pairs of branchiae, and the T. IDALIJE, that have but one pair. 
Among the latter -would come the Amphitrite cristata, Miill., Zool. Dan., Ixxi, 1,4; 
Amph. tentricosa, Bosc., Ver., I, vi, 4 6. 

* This genus, as it stands in Mailer, Brugires, Gmelin, and Lamarck, also in- 
elude* some TerebellaE and SabelUe. In 1824, Diet, des Sc. Nat. II, p. 78, I reduced 
it to its actual limits ; since then, M. Lamarck has changed my divisions into 
genera, his PECTINARI^E and SABELLARI., termed APUICTENJJ and HERMELL.E 
by Savigny. The AMPUITRITES of Lamarck are my SABELL^E. M. Savigny, on 
the contrary, makes it the name of a family. 

f They are the PECTINARI^B, Lam. ; APHICTBN<E, Savig. ; CHRvgoooNTKS, 
Oken ; and the CI&TEN.-E of Leach. This perpetual changing of names and in 
this particular case there was not even the pretext of a change of limits in the group 
will finally end in rendering nomenclature a much more difficult study than that of 
facts. 

J The same as the Sabclla btlyica, Gm., Klein., tab. I, 5, Ecbinod., xxxiii, A, B, 
and as the Amph. auricoma, Mull., Zool. Dan. xxvi, of which Brugtfres has made his 
Amphitrite dork. 

The same M the SaUUa ckrytodon, Gm., Berg., Stock. Mem., 1765, IX, 1, 3 ; 
as the Sabtlla capcnsis, Id., Stat., Mull., Nat. Syst., VI, xlx, 67, wkich is a mere 
copy of Bergius ; as the Sabclla wtdtco, Abildgaart, Berl. Schr., IX, iv. See also 
Mart. Slabber, Fless. Mem., I, U, 13. 



132 ANNELIDES. 

tube bent towards the head, which doubtless affords an issue to the 
faeces. I have found a muscular gizzard in them*. 

Such is the species found along the coast of France, the Sa- 
bella alveolata, Gm. ; Tubipora arenosa, L. ; Ed. XII, Coral., 
XXXVI. Its tubes, united in one compact mass, have their 
orifices regularly arranged like the cells of a honey-comb f. 

Another, the 

Amph. ostrearia, Cuv., establishes its tubes on the shells of 
Oysters, and it is said greatly hinders their propagation. 

It is to this order I suspect that we must refer the 

SYPHOSTOMA, Olto, 

Where, on the superior part of each articulation, is inserted a fasci- 
culus of fine setae, a*id on the inferior a simple seta, and on the ante- 
rior extremity two fasciculi of strong golden coloured setae. Under 
these setaceous appendages is the mouth, preceded by a sucker sur- 
rounded by numerous soft filaments, which may veiy possibly be 
branchiae, and accompanied by two fleshy tentacula. The knotted 
medullary cord is seen through the skin. They live buried in mud J. 
Hitherto, the genus 

DENTALIUM, Lin. 9 

Has always been placed in this vicinity. The shell is an elongated, 
arcuated cone, open at both ends, and has been compared to the tusk 
of an elephant in miniature. The recent observations of M. Savigny, 
and those of M. Deshayes especially , have, however, rendered this 
classification extremely doubtful. 

The animal of the Dentalia, has neither any sensible articulation, 
or lateral setae, but is furnished anteriorly with a membranous 
tube, inside of which is a sort of foot, or fleshy and conical opercu- 
lum, which closes its orifice. On the base of this foot is a small 
flattened head, and plumose branchiae are observed on the nape. If 
the operculum recall to our minds the foot of the Vermeti and Sili- 
quariae, which have been placed among the Mollusca, the branchiae 
strongly remind us of those of the Amphitrites and Terebellae. 
Ulterior observations upon their anatomy, and principally upon that 
of their nervous and vascular system, will resolve this problem. 



* The SABELLARI^E, Lam. ; the HERMELL.E, Savigny. 

f This is perhaps the place for the Amphitrite plumosa of Fab., Faun. Groenl., 
p. 288, and Mull., Zool. Dan., xc ; but their descriptions are so obscure, and agree 
so little with each other, that I dare not attempt to assign it. It forms the genus 
PHERUSA, Blainville. 

J Siphostoma diplochaito$, Otto ; Siph. vncinata, Aud. and Edw., Litt., de la Fr., 
Annel., pi. ix, f. 1. 

Monograph of the genus DENTAHUM, Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, 
t. II, p. 321. 



DOR8IBRANCHIATJB. 133 

The shell of some of them is angular *, or longitudinally striated f. 
That of others is round J. 



ORDER II. 



DORSIBRANCHIATJE. 

The organs of the Dorsibranchiatae, and the branchiae in parti- 
cular, are equally distributed along the whole of the body, or at least 
of its middle portion. 

At the head of the order we will place those genera in which the 
rgans are most completely developed. 

ARENICOLA, Lam. 

Branchiae, resembling small trees, on the rings of the middle part 
of the body only : the mouth, a fleshy and more or less dilatable pro- 
boscis; and have neither teeth, tentacula nor eyes, visible. The posterior 
extremity not only wants the branchiae, but the setaceous fasciculi 
with which the rest of the body is furnished; the cirri totally de- 
ficient. 

Aren. piscatorum, Lam.; Lumbricus marinm, L. ; Pall. Nov. 
Act. Petrop., ii, 1, 19 29. Very common in the sand on the 
sea-shore, where it is disinterred by the fishermen, who use it as 
bait. It is about a foot long, of a reddish colour, and diffuses 
an abundant yellowish liquid when touched. It has thirteen 
pairs of branchiae ||. 

AMPHINOME, Brng.^l 

A pair of more or less complex, tufted or plumose branchiae on each 
ring of the body, and to each of the feet two fasciculi of separate 
setae, and two cirri ; no jaws to the proboscis. The Amphinomes 
are divided by M. Savigny into 



Dent, tlfphantium, Martini, I, 1, 5, A; Dtnt. aprinum, Ib., 4, A ; D. stria- 

Ib.. 5. II : I), nrcuatum, Gualt., X, G ; D. sexangulum. 
f Dent, dentalis, llumpf., Mus., xli, 6; D. fasciutum, Martini, Conch., I, 1, 3, 
B; D. rectum, Gualt., X, H, &c. 
t Dent, entalu, Martini, I, i, 2, &c. 

M. Savigny has made a family of this genus by the name of THELETHUSA, 
which has been adopted by his successors. 

|| Add, Arenicola clacata, Rauzani, dec. I, p. 6, pi. i, f. 1, should it prove to be a 
distinct species. 

51 This genus has very properly been withdrawn by BruguVes, from the APHRODITES 
illas and the TKRKBELI..K of Graclin. It forms the type of M. Savigny's 
family of the AMI-HINOM.*, also adopted by his successors. 



134 



ANNELIDES. 



CHLOEIA, Sav., 

Where the head is furnished with five tentacula, and the branchiae 
resembles a tripinnate leaf. 

The Indian Ocean produces one of them, the Amphinome che- 
vellue, Brug. ; Terebella flava, Gm. ; Pall., Miscell. VIII, 7 
1 1 , very remarkable for its long bundles of lemon-coloured setae, 
and the beautiful purple plumes of its branchiae. Its form is 
broad and depressed, and it has a vertical crest on the snout. 
And into the 

PLEIONE, Sav. AMPHINOME, Blainv., 

Where, with the same tentacula, the branchiae are tufted. The 
Pleiones are also from the Indian Ocean, and some of them are very 
large *. To these he adds the 

EUPHROSINE, Sav,.\ 

Where the head has but a single tentaculum, and the tree-like 
branchiae are very complex and greatly developed. To this sub- 
genus, Messrs. Audouin and Edwards approximate the 

HIPPONOE, 

Which has no caruncle, and but a single bundle of setae, and a 
single cirrus to each foot. 

Hip. Gaudichaudii, Ann. des Sc. Nat. t. XVIII, pi. vi. A 
species from Port Jackson. In the 

EUNICE^ Cuv.% 

The branchiae are also plumose, but the proboscis is well armed with 
three pair of differently formed horny jaws ; each foot is furnished 
with two cirri and a bundle of setae, there are five tentacula above 
the mouth and two on the nape. In some species only, we find 
two small eyes. 

Eun. gigantea, Cuv. The largest of the known Annelides, 
being upwards of four feet in length. From the sea of the An- 
tilles. 

Several smaller species are found on the coast of France . 



* Terebella carunculata, Gm., Amph. car., Pall., Miscell., VIII, 12, 13; Ter. 
rostrata, 14 18; Ter. complanata, Ib., 19 26; Pleione alcyonia, Sav., Eg., 
Annel., II, f. 3. 

f Euphrosine laureata, Id. Ib., f. 1 ; E. mirtosa, Id., Ib., 2. 

N.B. The genus ARISTENIA, Sav., Eg., Annel., pi. ii, f. 4, should also come 
near the Amphinomes ; but it is only established on a mutilated specimen. 

% Eunice, the name of a Nereis in Apollodorus. M. Savigny makes it the name 
of a family, and calls the genus Leodice. M. de Blainville has changed these names, 
first to Branchionereis, and then to Nereidon. 

Nereis norvegica, Gm., Mull., Zool. Dan., I, xxix, 1; N. pinnata, Ib., 2; 
N. cuprca, Bosc., Ver. I, v, 1; Leodice gallica, and L. hispanica, Savig. Add 
Leod. axtennata, Sav., Annel., V, 1 ; Eunice Icllii, Aud., and Edw., Litt., de la 
Fr., Annel., pi. iii, f. 1 4 ; EUH. harassii, Ib.,f. v, 11. 



DOBSIBRANCHIAT^E. 135 

By the name of MARPHIS*, M. Savigny distinguishes those spe- 
cies, otherwise very similar, in which the two tentacula on the nape 
are wanting; their upper cirrus is very short*. 

A species at least closely allied to them, N. tubicola, Mull., 
Zool. Dau M J, xviii, 15, inhabits a horny tubef. 

After these genera with complex branchiae, we may place those 
when- they are reduced to simple laminae or slight tubercles, or in 
which they are even replaced by cirri. 

Some of them are still allied to the Eunices, by the strong arma- 
ture of their proboscis, and their azygous antennae. Such is the 

LVSIDICE, Sav. 

Where, with jaws similar to those of the Eunices, and even more 
numerous and frequently azygous, the only branchiae consist of three 
tentacula and the cirri f . 

AGLAURA, Sav* 

The jaws of the Aglaurse are also numerous and azygous, con- 
sisting of seven, nine, &c. ; but their tentacula are either wanting or 
completely concealed ; their branchiae are also reduced to cirri . 

NEREIS, Cuv. LYCORIS, Sav. 

The true Nereides have an even number of tentacula, attached to 
the sides of the base of the head, and a little further forwards, two 
others that are biarticulate, between which are two simple ones. 
Their branchiae consist of small laminae between which is spread a 
network of vessels ; each foot is also furnished with two tubercles, 
two fasciculi of setae, one cirrus above, and another beneath. 

Several species inhabit the coast of France ||. 
In the vicinity of these Nereides are grouped several genera in 



* Nereis sanguined, Montag., Lin. Traas., XI, pi. 3. 

t After the Eunices probably should come the Nereis crassa, Miiil., Ver., pi. xii, 
which, without having seen it, M. de Blainville proposes to refer to the genus 
ETEOXE, Sav., although the branchiae of the latter are very different. 

* Lysidice Valentino, Sav.; L. Olyinjriu, Id. ; L. galatina, Id., Eg., Annel., 
p. 53. 

I unite the AGI.AUR.* and (EXQXES, Sav., and even certain species without 
tentacula, left among the Lysidices by Messrs. Audouin and Edwards ; Aglaura ful- 
gida, Eg. Annel., V, 2 ; (Enone lucida, Ib., f. 3. 

|| Nereis verricotor, Gm., Mttll., Wunn., VI ; N.fimMata, Id., viii, 13 ; N. 
prlayic.t. M., vii, 1 3; Terebella rubra, Gm., Bomml, Mein. de Fless., VI, 357, 
f. 4, A, B\Lyeoristryyptia t Eg., Annel., pi. iv, f. 1 ; Lycoris uu;iiui, Id. Ib. f. 2; 
Nereis tame0Mdrtu, Aud., and Edw., Littor. de la Fr., Annel., pi. iv, f. 17 ;- 
Ner. pulsataria, Ib., f. 813. 

N.B. The Nereit remicosa, MW1., Ver., pi. vii, and incisa, Ott., Fabr., Soc. Hist. 
Nat. Cope n hag., V, part I, pi. iv, f. 1 3, seem to have the head of a Lycoris, but 
with long filaments in place of branchiae : they require examination. 



136 ANNELIDES. 

which the body is also slender, and the branchiae are reduced to sim- 
ple laminae, or even simple filaments or tubercles. The jaws or ten- 
tacula are wanting in some of them. 

PHYLLODOCE, Sav. NEREIPHYLLA, Blainv. 

The Phyllodoces, like the true Nereides, have an even number of 
tentacula on the sides of the head, and four or five small additional 
ones before. They are furnished with eyes ; their large proboscis, 
which is studded with a circle of very short fleshy tubercles, presents 
no jaws, and, what particularly distinguishes them, their branchiae 
resemble broad leaves, arranged in a single row on each side of the 
body, and overlapping each other ; finely ramified vessels are distri- 
buted over them *. 

ALCIOPA, And. and M. Edw. 

The mouth and tentacula nearly similar to those of the Phyllodoces ; 
but the feet, independently of the tubercle which supports the setae 
and the two foliaceous cirri or branchiae, are furnished with two 
branchial tubercles which occupy their superior and inferior edges f. 

SPIO, Fab. and Gm. 

The body slender ; two very long tentacula which have the appear- 
ance of antennae ; eyes in the head and on each side of every segment 
of the body; branchiae in the form of a simple filament. They are 
small worms from the Arctic Ocean, and inhabit membranous tubes J. 

SYLLIS, Sav. 

An odd number of tentacula, articulated like the beads of a rosary, 
as well as the superior cirri of the feet, which are simple and have 



* Nereis lamellifera atlantica, Pall., Nov. Act. Petrop., II, pi. v, f. 11 18, per- 
haps the same as the Nereiphylle cle Pareto, Blainv., Diet, des Sc. Nat. ; N. flava, 
Ott., Fabr., Soc. Hist. Nat. Copenhag., V, part I, pi. iv, f. 8 10. 

N. B. The N. viridis, Mull., Ver., pi. xi, of which, without having seen it, M. 
Savigny proposes to make the genus EULALIA, and the two EUNOMI^S, Risso, Eu- 
rop. Merid., IV, p. 420, also appear to me to be Phyllodoces ; perhaps we should 
also so consider the Nereis pinnigera, Montag., Lin. Trans., IX, vi, 3 ; and the 
Nereis stcllifera, Mull., Zool. Dan., pi. Ixii, f. 1, of which, without having seen it, 
Savigny proposes to make a genus by the name of LEPIDIA ; and the N. longa, 
Ott., Fabr., placed by Savig. with the JV. flam in his genus ETEONE : All these 
Annelides require to be carefully examined according to the detailed method of M. 
Savigny. 

We must not confound these Phyllodoces of Savigny with th6se of Ranzani, which 
are allied to the Aphrodite, and particularly to the Polynoes. 

-f- Alciopa Reynmtdii, Aud., and Edw., from the Atlantic Ocean. The pretended 
Nais Rathke, Soc. Hist. Nat. Copen., V, part I, pi. iii, f. 15, may very possibly be 
an AJciopa. 

+ Spio seticomis, Ott., Fabr., Berl., Schr., VI, v, 1, 7 ; Spio filicornis, Ib., 8 
12. The POLYDOR.B, Bosc., Vcr. I, v, 7, appear to me to belong to this genus. 
Spio, the name of a Nereid. 



DOMIBRANCHIATJB. 

but a single bundle of setae. It appears that there is some variety re- 
lative to the existence of the jaws *. 

GLYCERA, Sav. 

The Glycera? are recognized by their head, which is a fleshy and 
conical point resembling a small horn, and divided at the summit 
into four scarcely visible tentacula. The proboscis of some still pre- 
sents jaws, in others, they are said to be imperceptible f. 

NEPHTHYS, Cuv. 

The proboscis of the Phyllodoces but no tentacula ; two bundles 
of widely separated setae on each foot, between which is a cirrus J. 

LUMBRINERA, BlctinV. 

The tentacula wanting ; big a single small forked tubercle, from 
which issues a little bundle of setae, on each articulation of the elon- 
gated body. If there be any external organ of respiration, it can only 
consist of an upper lobe of this tubercle . 

ARICIA, Sav. 

The teeth and tentacula wanting ; two ranges of lamellated cirri on 
the back of the elongated body ; anterior feet furnished with notched 
crests not found on the others ||. 

Several species of these genera are found on the Atlantic 
coast of France. 

HESIONE, Lam, 

A short thick body composed of but few and feebly marked rings ; 
a very long cirrus, that probably exercises the functions of branchiae, 

Syllis monilaris, Sav., Eg., Annel., IV, f. 3, copied Diet, des Sc. Nat. 
N. B. The Nereis armillaris, Mftll., Ver., pi. ix, of which, without having seen it, M. 
Savigny proposes to make the genus LYCASTIS, has tentacula and cirri formed like 
a rosary as in Syllis, but the tentacula are represented as being iu even numbers. It 
should be examined. 

f Nereis alba, Miill., Zool. Dan., Ixxii, 6, 7 ; Glyc. Meckelii, Aud., and Edw., 
Littor. de la Fr., Annel., pi. vi, f. 1. 

J NephthysHombergii,C\iv., Diet, des Sc. Nat. 

Nereis ebranchiata, Pall. Nov. Act. Petrop., II, pi. vi, f. 2; Lontbrinere 
brilliant, Hlainv., pi. of the Diet, des Sc. Nat. ; Lumbriats fragilis, Mull., Zool. 
Dan., pi. xxii, of which, but with hesitation, M. De Blainville makes his genus 

SCOLETOMA. 

N.B. The SCOLOLKPES, lllainv., which are only known by the fig. of Abildga- 
ardt (Lumbricus squamatus, Zool. Dan., IV, civ, 1 5,) have a very slender body 
with numerous rings, each furnished with a branchial cirrus and two bundles of 
setae, the inferior of which seems to proceed from a fold of the skin compressed like 
a scale ; their head has neither jaws nor tentacula. 

|| Aricia Curieri, Aud., and Edw., Litt., de la Fr., Annel., pi. vii, f. 5 13. 

The LumltricHs armiyer, Mull., Zool. Dan., pi. xxii, f. 4 and 5, of which, without 
having seen it, M. de Ulainville proposes to form a genus by the name of SCOLOPLE, 
appears to want both teeth and tentacula, and to have simple small bundles of short 
ettt on its first segments, and a bind wart, a small seta, and a long pointed bran- 
chial lamina on the others. 



138 ANNELIDES. 

on the top of each foot, and has another beneath, with a bundle of 
setae ; a large proboscis with neither tentacula nor jaws. 

Several species are found in the Mediterranean *. 

OPHELINA, Sav. 

The body thick and short, with feebly marked rings and scarcely 
visible setae; long cirri in lieu of branchiae on two thirds of its length; 
palate of the mouth with a dentated crest ; the lips surrounded with 
tentacula, of which the two superior are the largest f. 

CIRRHATULUS, Lam. 

The branchise consisting of a very long filament ; two small bundles 
of setae to each of the articulations of the body, which are numerous 
and compact : a series of long filaments round the nape. The slightly 
marked head lias neither tentacula nor jaws J. 

PALMYRA, Sav. 

The Palmyras are recognized by their superior fasciculi, the setse of 
which are large, flattened, flabelliform, and glisten like highly po- 
lished gold ; their inferior fasiculi are small ; their cirri and bran- 
chiae feebly marked. They have an elongated body, two extended 
tentacula, and three very small ones. 

Palm, aurifera, Sav. The only species known ; it is from 
one to two inches in length, and is found at the Jgle of France. 

APHRODITA, Lin. 

This genus is easily known by the two longitudinal ranges of broad 
membranous scales that cover the back, to which, through a very 
groundless assimilation, the name of elytra has been given, and 
under which, their branchiae, in the form of fleshy crests, are con- 
cealed. 

Their body is usually flattened, and shorter and broader than in 
the other Annelides. Their extremely thick and muscular esopha- 
gus is susceptible of being protruded like a proboscis; their intestine 
is unequal, and furnished on each side with numerous branched 
caeca, the extremities of which are fixed between the bases of the 
setaceous fasiculi, which serve as feet. M. Savigny distinguishes 
from them the 



* Hesione splendida, Sav., Eg., Annel., pi. iii,f. 3 ; H.f estiva, Id. Ib., p. 41 ; 
H.pantherina, Risso, Eur. Merid., IV, p. 418. 

f This is probably the place for the Nereis p)~ismatica, and bifrons, Fabr., Soc. 
Hist. Nat. Copen. V, part 1, pi. iv, p. 17 23. 

I Lumbricus cirrhatus, Ott., Fabr., Faun. Groenl., f. 5, from which the Tere- 
bella tentaculata, Montag., Lin. Trans., IX, and the Cirrhinere filigere, Blainv., 
pi., of the Diet, des Sc. Nat., N, do not appear to differ as to the genus ; Citrh. 
Lamarkii, Aud., and Edw., Litt., de la Fr., Annel., pi. vii. f. 



DOUeiBHANCHIAT.e. * 139 



HALITHBA, Sav. 

Where there are three tentacula, a small crest between two of 
them, and where the jaws are wanting. 

A species is found on the coast of France, which, with re- 
spect to its colouring, is one of the most splendid of all ani- 
mals the Aphrodita aculeata, L. Pall., Misc., VII, 1 13. It 
is oval, from six to eight inches in length, and from two to 
three in breadth. The scales on its back are covered and con- 
cealed by a sort of stuff resembling tow, which arises from the 
sides. From the latter also spring groups of stout spines, which 
partly transfix the tow, and fasciculi of flexuous setae of a splen- 
did golden colour, whose changeable tints rival those of the 
rainbow. They are not inferior in beauty to the plumage of the 
humming-bird, or to the lustre of the richest gems. Further 
down is a tubercle from which arise three groups of spines, of 
as many different diameters, and finally, a fleshy cone. There 
are forty of these tubercles on each side, and between the two 
first are two small fleshy tentacula. There are fifteen pairs of 
wide, and sometimes inflated scales on the back, and fifteen 
small branchial crests on each side. 

Some of these Halitheae have none of this tow-like material on the 
back*: one species Aphr. hystrix, Sav.f, is found in the seas of 
Europe. A second subdivision of the Aphroditae is that of the 

POLYNOE, Sav. EUMOLPE, Oken. 

Where there is none of this tow on the back ; they have five ten- 
tacula, and their proboscis is furnished with strong and horny jaws. 

Several small species are found on the coast of France J. 

The SIGALIONES, Aud. and Edw., have a much more elongated 
form, than the other Aphroditae ; each foot is furnished with cirri . 

The ACOETES, Aud. and Edw., are provided with cirri which 
alternate with the elytra || ; their jaws are stronger and more deeply 
dentated. 



* They are the HaUthtts hermionsj>t Savigny, of which M. de Blainvffle has 
made his gmnu HERMIONK. 

f Littoral de la France, Annel., pi. i, f. 19. 

* Aphr.sqwmata, Pall., Misc., Zool., VII, 14; Littor., de la FT., Annel., pi. i, 
f. 10 16. -Polyn. fcerw, And., and Edw., Ib., pi. ii. f. 1118 ; Aphr. punctata, 
Mull., Ver., XIII ; Aphr. cirrkota, Pall., Misc. Zool., VIII, 3 6; Aphr. lepidota, 
Id., Ib., 1, 2 ; Aphr. clara, Montag., Lin. Traus., IX, vii, which is at least closely 
allied to the Aphr.plata, MOIL, Ver., XIX -,Polynoe impatient, Sav., Eg., Annel., 
pi. 3, f. 2 \-Poly. mnnca/0, Id., Ib., f. 1. . 

| SigaKon Matkild*, Aud., and Edw., Littor. de la France, Annel. 
|| Acoelcs Pled, And., and Edw., Collect, of the Museum. 



140 ANNELIDES. 

A large species is found at the Antilles which inhabits a tube 
of the consistence of leather *. 

This is the only situation we can assign to a new and very singu- 
lar genus which I call 

ClLETOPTERUS, CllV. 

The mouth has neither jaws nor proboscis, and is furnished above 
with a lip, to which are attached two tentacula. Next comes a disk 
with nine pairs of feet, followed by a pair of long silky fasciculi re- 
sembling wings. The lamellated branchiae are rather beneath the 
body than above it, and extends along its middle. 

Ch&topterus pergamentaceus, Cuv. This species, which is 
found at the Antilles, is from eight to ten inches in length, and 
inhabits a tube resembling parchment f . 



ORDER III. 



ABRANCHIATE. 

The Abranchiatse have no apparent external organ of respiration 
whatever, and appear to respire, some, like the Lumbrici, by the en- 
tire surface of the skin, and others, like the Hirudines, by internal 
cavities. They have a closed circulating system, usually filled with 
red blood, and, like all the Annelides, a knotted nervous cordj. 
Some are also provided with setae, which enable them to crawl, and 
others are deprived of them. This has caused their division into two 
families. 



* N.B. The Phyllodoce maxillosa of Ranzani, called POLYODONTE by Reinieri, 
and Eumolpe maxima by Oken, seems to be closely allied to the ACOETES ; its pro- 
boscis and jaws are the same, and neither of the genera has, perhaps, been described 
from perfect specimens. 

There remain various Annelides so imperfectly described, that we are unable to 
characterize them well; such are the Nereis c<sca, Fabr., Soc. Hist. Nat. Copen. 
parti, pi. iv, f. 24 28; N. longa, Id., Ib., f. 11 13; N. aphrodito'ides, Ib., 
4 75 Ib., 11 13; Branchiartus quadmngulatus, Montag. Lin. Trans., XII, pi. 
xiv, f. 5 ; Diplotes hyalina, Id., Ib., f. 6 and 7 ; and the pretended Hirudo bran- 
rhiata, Archib. Menzies, Lin. Trans. I, pi. xvii, f. 3. I have also omitted the 
MYRIAN.E and two or three other genera of M. Savigny, on account of my having 
had no opportunity to re-examine them. 

f It will be more minutely described by Messrs. Aud., and Cuv., in the Annales 
des Sciences Naturelles. 

J For the anatomy and physiology of the abranchiate Annelides, see the Memoir 
of M. Ant. Duges, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Sept. 1828. 



ABRANCHIATE. 

FAMILY I. 

ABttANCHIATiE SETIGER^. 

This first family comprises the Lumbrici and Naidea of Linnaeus. 

LUMBRICUS, Lin. 

The Earth-worms, as they are commonly called, characterized by a 
long cylindrical body, divided by rugae into a great number of 
rings, ami !> an < d. ntated mouth, necessarily required to be sub- 
divided. 

LUMBKICCS, CUV. 

Eyes, tentacula, branchiae and cirri, all wanting; a tubercle or visible 
enlargement, particularly sensible in the nuptial season, serves to 
attach the two sexes to each other in coitu. The intestine is straight 
and rugose, and in the anterior part of the bocty we observe some 
whitish glands which appear to be concerned in the process of gene- 
ration. The Lumbrici are certainly hermaphrodites, but it is possi- 
ble that their coalescing may serve to excite them to the act of self- 
impregnation. According to the observations of M. Montegre, the 
ova descend between the intestine and the external envelope, to the 
circumference of the rectum, where they are hatched. The young 
ones issue, living, from the anus. M. Leon Dufour, on the contrary, 
affirms that their ova resemble those of the Leech. The nervous 
cord it nothing more than a crowded suite of numerous little 
ganglia*. 

M. Savigny subdivides them again. 

His ENTERIONBS have four pairs of small setae, eight in all, under 
each ring. 

Every one knows the Common Earth-worm Lvmdrtcus ter- 
strisi L. with a reddish body, that attains nearly a foot in 
length, and which is composed of upwards of one hundred and 
twenty rings. The tubercle is near the anterior third. Under 
the sixteenth ring are two pores, the use of which is unknown. 

This animal traverses the soil in every direction, and swallows 
a quantity of earth. It also eats roots, ligneous fibres, animal 
fragments, &c. In the month of June it rises to the surface 
during the night, to seek for a companion in the proce^> <>\ 
copulation f. 

* Conf. Montfegre, Mem. du Mus., I, p. 242, pi. xii, and Leon Dufour, Ann. des 
Sc. Nat. V, p. 17, and XIV. p. 216, ami pi. xii, H, f. l 4. 

See also the treatise of Morrcn, De Lumbrici Terrestris Hisforia Nalurali nee non 
AnaioMica, Onus., 1899, 4 to. 

f What is here stated is common to many species, first ascertained by M. Sa- 
vigny. He has distinguished twenty of them. See my Analyse des Travaux do 
1'Acad. des Sc., 1821. M. Dugta distinguishes six, but does not refer thtin exactly 
to those of M. Savigny. 

N. 11. Miiller and Fabricius speak of Lumbrici with two setae to eath ring, of 
which s.-uk'iiy proposes to make his genus CLITBLLIO, (Lumbricus min, tits, Fub., 
Faun., Gra-nl., f. 4), and of others with four and six setae ; but tl.eir discriptiuus 
require to be confirmed and completed ere their species can be classed. 



142 ANNELIDES. 

His Hypogceones have, besides, an azygous seta on the back of 
each ring. 

The only species known is from America*. 

Messrs. Audouin and M. Edwards also distinguish the Trophonia, 
which have four bundles of short setae on each ring, and on the an- 
terior extremity a great number of long and brilliant setae which 
surround the mouth f. 

NAIS, Lin. 

The Naides have an elongated body, the rings of which are less dis- 
tinct than in the Lumbrici. They inhabit holes made by them in the 
ooze, from which one half of their body projects and is constantly in 
motion. Black points are observed on the head of some of them, 
which may be taken for eyes. They are small worms, whose power 
of reproduction is as astonishing as that of the Hydrse. Several 
species are found in the rivers, &c. of France. 

Some of them have long setae J. 

And sometimes a long proboscis before . 

Or several small tentacula at the posterior extremity ||. 

Others have very short setae ^f. 

Certain Annelides, hitherto referred to the Lumbrici, which con- 
struct tubes of clay, &c., in which they live, might be approximated 
to this genus **. 

CLYMENA, Sav. 

The Clymense also appear to belong to this family. Their thick 
body has but few rings, which are mostly furnished with stout setae ; 
a little higher, and near the back, is a bundle of finer ones. There 
are neither tentacula nor appendages to the head. Their posterior 
extremity is truncated and radiated. They inhabit tubes ff- 



* Hypogceon Urtum, Sav., Eg., Annel., p. 104. 

f Trophoniu barbata, Aud., and Edw., Littor., de la France, Annel., pi. x, f. 
1315. 

Nats elingws, Mull., Wurm., II ; N. littoralis, Id., Zool., Dan., Ixxx. 

Nats proboscidea, Id., Wurm., I, 1 4, of which Lamarck makes his genus 
STYLARIA. 

tl Nats digilata, Gm., cteca, Mull., Ib., V, the genus PROTO, Oken. 

^ Nais vermicularis, Gm., Uses., Ill, xciii, 1 7; N. serpentina, Id., xciii, 
Mull., IV, 2 4 ; Lumbricus turbifex, Gm., Bonnet., Vers d'eau douce, III, 9, 10, 
Mull., Zool. Dan., Ixxxiv ; Lumbricus Uneatus, Mull., Wurm., Ill, 45. 

** Lumbricus tubicola, Mull., Zool. Dan., Ixxv ; Lumb. sabellaris, Ib., civ, 5. 
M. Lamarck unites them with the Na'is tubifex, and makes it his genus TUBIFEX ; 
it requires, however, a new examination. 

ff Clymena amphistonia, Sav., Eg., Annel., pi i, f. ; Cl. lumbricalis, Ott. Fabr., 
Aud. and Edw., Litt., de la France, Annel., pi. x, f. 1 6 ; Cl. Ebiensis, Aud., and 
Edw., Ib., f. 812. 



ABRANCHIATE. 143 

FAMILY II. 

ABRANCHIATE ASETIGEIUE. 
The second family consists of two great genera, both of which are 

aquatic. 

HIRLDO, Lin. 

Leec an oblong, sometimes depressed, transversely plicated 

body; the mouth is encircled by a lip, and the posterior extremity 
furnished with a flattened disk, both of which are well adapted for 
adhering to bodies by a sort of suction, and are the principal organs 
of locomotion possessed by these animals; for after extending itself, 
the Leech fixes its anterior extremity and approximates the other, 
which in its turn adheres to allow the former to be carried forward. 
In several we observe on the under part of the body two series of 
pores, the orifices of as many small internal pouches, considered by 
some naturalists as organs of respiration, although they are usually 
filled with a mucous fluid. The intestinal canal is straight, inflated 
from space to space, for two-thirds of its length, where there are two 
caeca. The blood swallowed is preserved there, red and unchanged, 
for several weeks. 

The ganglions of the nervous cord are much more separate than in 
the Lumbrici. 

The Hirudines are hermaphrodites. A large penis projects from 
under the anterior third of the body, and the valve is a little further 
behind. 

Several of them form their eggs into a cocoon, and envelope them 
with a fibrous excretion *. 

They have been subdivided from characters principally drawn 
from the organs of their mouth. In the 

SANGUISUGA, Sav.] 

Or the Leech properly so called, the superior lip of the anterior 
cup or sucker is divided into several segments ; the aperture is trans- 
verse and contains three jaws, each edge of which is armed with two 
rows of very fine teeth, which enables them to penetrate through the 
skin without causing a dangerous wound. It is marked with ten 
small points, considered as eyes. 

We all know the medicinal or common Leech Hirudo me- 
dicinalit, L., that usefni instrument for the local abstraction of 

See Mtmoires pour servir a VHitt. Nat. dt$ Sangves, by P. Thomas ; a Memoir 
of Spiz, Acad. Bav., 1813 ; and a third of M. Catena, Aead. Turin., t. XXV ; but 
especially the Sysfcmc des AnnMidcs, Savigny, and the Monographic des Hirudines, 
Moquin-Tandon, Montpellier, 1 836, 4to. See also Esssai d'unc Monographic de la 
ftmflh de* Hirudines, extracted from the Diet, des Sc. Nat. by M. de Blainv., 
Paris, 1827, 8vo., and the article SANGSUE of the same work, by Andouin. 

f M. de Blainville changes this name into JATROBELLA. For the various medi- 
cinal Leeches, see the fig. of Messrs. Carena, Acad. Turin., t. XXV, pi. xi, and Mo- 
quin-Tandon pl.y. 



141 ANNELIDES. 

blood. It is usually blackish, with yellowish streaks above, 
and yellowish with black spots beneath. It is found in all stag- 
nant waters. The 



, Sav.* 

Differs from the preceding in the teeth of its jaws, which are few 
and obtuse. 

Hffinop. sanguisorba, Sav. ; Hirudo sanguisuga, L., Moq. 
Tand., pi. iv, f. 1 ; Car., pi. xi, f. 7 (The Horse Leach). Much 
larger, and entirely greenish-black. It is said to cause danger- 
ous wounds f . In the 

BDELLA, Sav.+ 
There are but eight eyes, and the jaws are completely edentated. 

Bd. nilotica. Eg. AnneL, pi. v,f. 4. Inhabits the Nile. In 
the 

NEPHELIS, Sav. 

There are also but eight eyes ; the interior of the mouth has but 
three folds of skin. Several small species are found in the stagnant 
waters of France ; it is thought proper to distinguish from them the 

TROCHETIA, Dutroch ||. 

Which only differs from them in an inflation at the spot where the 
genital organs are placed. 

One species is found in France Geobdella trochetii, Blainv., 
Diet, des Sc. Nat., Hirud., pi. IV, f. 6, which frequently leaves 
the water in pursuit of Lumbrici. 

M. Moquin-Tandon, under the name of AULASTOMA, even de- 
scribes a subgenus, where the mouth is merely furnished with 
numerous longitudinal plicse Aulast. nigrescent, Moq. Tand., pi. 
vi, f. 4. 



* This name is changed by M. de Blainville to HYPOBDELLJE. 

f* There is a singular diversity of opinion with respect to the faculty of drawing 
blood possessed by this animal. Linnams says that nine of them will kill a horse. 
Messrs. Huzard and Pelletier, on the contrary, in a Memoir, ad hoc, presented to 
the Institute, and inserted in the Journal de Pharmacie, March 1825, assert that 
it attacks no vertebrated animal. M. de Blainville thinks this is owing to its having 
been confounded with a neighbouring species, the Sangsue noire, which he makes 
the type of a genus called PSEUDOBDELLA, the jaws of which are mere folds of skin 
without any teeth. I think this fact worthy of examination. Both species devour 
the Lumbrici with avidity. 

J M. Moquin-Tandou changes this name to LIMNATIS. 

M. de Bluinville calls them ERPOBDELL^E. Oken had previously named them 
HICLLUO. Such are : Hir. tulyaris, L., or //. ocfoculufa, Bergm., Stock., Mem., 
1 757, pi. vi, f. 5 8; N. atotnaria, Careu., L., C, pi. xii. See also pi. vi of Moquin- 
Tandon. 

|] M. de Blainyille changes this name to GEOBDELLA. 



ABRANCHIATE. 146 

Immediately after the Nephelides come the BRANCHIOBDELLA, 
Odier, remarkable for their two jaws and the absence of eyes. 

One species is known which lives on the branchiae of the 
Astaci *. 

In all these subdivisions the anterior sucker is but slightly sepa- 
rated from the body; in the two following ones it is clearly distin- 
guished from it by a strangulation, is composed of a single segment, 
and has a transverse orifice. In the 

KBHOCHARIS, Sav.\ 

In addition to this conformation, there are eight eyes, a slender 
body, and but slightly distinct rings. The jaws are salient, and 
scarcely visible points. The Haemochares do not swim, but walk 
like the caterpillars called Geometrae, and adhere particularly to 
fishes. 

One species, Hirudo piscium,L.', Reese), III, xxxii, is fre- 
quently observed on the Cyprini J. The 

ALBIONA, Sav. 

Differs from the preceding subgenera in the body, which is studded 
with tubercles, and in having six eyes. The Albionae inhabit the 
Ocean. 

Alb. muricata ; Hirudo muricata, L. A veiy abundant spe- 
cies in the seas of Europe ; it is covered with small tubercles ||. 

There is a parasitic animal that lives on the Torpedo called BRAN- 
CHELLiONl], which closely resembles a leech in its two cups, depressed 
body, and transverse plicae. Its anterior cup, which appears to have 
a very small mouth in the posterior margin, is placed on a narrowed 
portion resembling a neck, at the root of which is a small hole for the 
organs of generation ; there appears to be another behind. The 
lateral edges of its plicae, which are compressed and salient, have 
been considered as branchiae, but I can find no vessels there ; its epi- 
dermis is ample, and the envelope like a very loose sac **. We also 
commonly place among the Leeches the 



* BranchiobdtUa A*taci t Od., M#m. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, 1. 1, pi. iv. 

f M. de Blainville, who had named them PISCICOL.*, a name adopted by La- 
marck, has again changed it to ICTHYOBDELLA. 

t Add, Piscicola crphahta, Caren., pi. xii, f. 19, and Moq. Tand., pi. vii, f. 2; 
Piseic. tenelata, Moq. Tand., f. 3. 

The PONTOBDELL.*, Leach and Blainv. 

H Add, Pontobdella areolata ; Pont, rernicata ; Pont, spinulosa, Leach, Zool. 
MlBcel., Ixiii, Ixiv, Ixv ; Hinnto rittatu, Chamiss., and Eisenhardt, Nov. Act. Nat. 
Cur.,t. X, pi. xxiY, f. 4. 

5 The POLYDORA, Oken; BRANCHIOHDELLION, Rudolphi ; and the BRANCHIOB- 
\. Illninv. 

It is the BrttHckettion torpcdinis, Sav., but it mustnot be associated with the 
iptdea fonnd on the Tortoise (fft'r branchiata, Menzies, Lin. Trans., I, xviii, 3), 
which really appears to have branchiae that resemble a branch of feathers, and 
which it is requisite again to examine. 

VOL. in. L 



146 ANNELIDES. 

CLESPINE, Sav. GLOSSOPORA, Johns*. 

The Clespincs have a widened body, a posterior cup only, and a 
probosciform mouth without a sucker ; some of them, however, may 
be found to belong to the family of the Planariye f . I consider them 
more closely allied to the Pkylline, Oken J, and to the Malacobdellce^ 
Blainv. , which also have broad bodies, and are deprived of a pro- 
boscis and anterior sucker. They are parasitic animals. 

GORDIUS, Lin. 

The body resembling a thread, the only mark of the articulations 
being slight, transverse plicae ; it has neither feet, branchiae, nor ten- 
tacula. Internally, however, a nervous system is perceptible in a 
knotted cord. Perhaps it will be necessary in the end to place them 
among the cavitary Intestina, like the Nemertes. 

They live in fresh water, in the mud, and in inundated grounds 
which they perforate in every direction. 

The different species are not yet well distinguished ; the most 
common Gordius aquations, L., is several inches in length, 
almost as fine as a hair, and brown, with blackish extremities. 



* The GLOSSOBDELL^E, Blainv. 

\-Hirudo complanata, L., or sexoculata, Bergm., Stock. Mem., 1757, pi. vi, f. 
12 14; Hir. trioculata, Ib., f. 9 11 ; Hir. hyalina, L., Gm., Trembley, Polyp., 
pi. vii, f. 7 ; Clespine paludo&a, Moq. Tand., pi. iv, f. 3, &c. 

J EPIBDELLJE, Blainv. ; Hir. hippoylossi, Mull., Zool. Dan., liv. 1 4. 

Hir. grossa, Mull., Zool. Dan., xxi. 






THIRD 
GREAT DIVISION 

OP THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

(CONTINUED.) 



CRUSTACEA,, ARACHNIDES, AND INSECTA 



THKSE last three f classes of the Articulata, which were united by 
Liuii;i'us under the general name of Insecta, are distinguished by at 
least six \ articulated feet. Each articulation is tubular, and contains 
the muscles of the succeeding one, which always moves by gyngly- 
inus, that is, in but one direction. 

The first articulation, which attaches the foot to the body, and 
which is composed of two pieces, is called the coara, or hip; the 
following one, which is, usually, nearly in a horizontal position, the 



* For the sake of brevity, I have designated them by the term Condylopes. This 
series of articulations, of which their body is composed, has been compared by some 
Naturalists to a skeleton, or the vertebral column. But the use of this denomination 
is so much the more fallacious, in as much as these articulations or pretended ver- 
tebrae arc mere portions of thickened skin, and as this skin is continuous, simply 
being thinner, and almost membranous at intervals or at the joints. A general 
character, which serves to distinguish these animals from all other Invertebrata, 
consists in their cxuriulrility, or habit of changing their skin. The situation of the 
encephalon, pharynx, and eyes, as in the more elevated animals, establishes the 
limits of the back and abdomen, and of their respective appendages. 

t Dr. Leach forms a separate class of the Myriapoda. The Arachnides Tra- 
chearire, considered anatomically, might also constitute another, but they are so 
closely allied to the Pulmonariae in so many other particulars, that we have not 
thought proper to separate them. 

t Uexopoda. Those which have more than six, are termed by Savigny the 
Spiriopoda. I designate them more precisely by the appellation of llyptrhexapoda, 
(more than six feet). 

In many of the Crustacea the second portion of the coxa seems to form part 
of the thighs. The tibia, as in the Arachnides, is divided into two joints. 

L 2 



148 CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDES, INSECTA. 

femur ', or thigh ; and the third, generally vertical, the tibia or leg. 
To these ensues a suite of small ones which touch the ground, 
forming the true foot, or what is denominated the tarsus. 

The hardness of the calcareous or horny * envelope of the greater 
number of these animals, is owing to that of the excretion, which 
is interposed between the dennis and epidermis, or what is termed 
in man the mucous tissue. This excretion also contains the brilliant 
and varied colours with which they are so often decorated. 

They are always furnished with eyes, which are of two kinds ; 
simple or smooth eyesf, which resemble a very minute lens, gene- 
rally three in number, and arranged in a triangle on the summit of 
the head ; and compound eyes, where the surface is divided into an 
infinitude of different lenses called facets, to each of which there is 
a corresponding filament of the optic nerve. These two kinds may 
be either united or separated, according to the genera. Whether 
their functions be essentially different in those cases where they are 
found to exist simultaneously, is a problem that remains to be solved ; 
but vision is effected in both of them by means differing widely 
from those which produce it in the eye of the Vertebrata J. Other 
organs which for the first time are here presented to us, and which 
are found in two of these classes, the Crustacea and the Insecta, 
the antenna, are articulated filaments varying greatly in form, and 
frequently according to the sex, attached to the head, appearing to be 
peculiarly devoted to a delicate sense of touch, and perhaps to some 
other kind of sensation of which we have no idea, but which may 
refer to the state of the atmosphere. 

These animals enjoy the sense of smell and that of hearing. Some 
authors place the seat of the first in the antennae |J, others, M. Dumeril 

* According to M. Aug. Odicr, Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat., 1823, t. I, p. 29 
et seq., the substance of this envelope is of a peculiar nature, which he calls Chitine. 
He states that the phosphate of lime forms the great mass of all the salts contained 
in the teguments of Insects, while that in the shell of the Crustacea is but trifling, 
though it abounds in the carbonate, which is not found in the preceding animals. 
Other observations, those of M. Straus in particular, demonstrate that the teguments 
here replace the skin of the Vertebrata, or that they do not form a true skeleton. 
Those of M. Odier also militate against all the analogies attempted upon this 
subject. 

f Occelli stemmata. 

$ See the Memoir of Marcel de Serres on the simple and compound eyes of 
Insects, Montpellier, 1815, 8vo. Also the observations of M. de Blainville on the 
eyes of the Crustacea, Bullet, de la Soc. Pldlomutique. We shall return to this 
subject at another period. 

And even in the Arachnides, but under different forms, and with different func- 
tions. 

|| As regards insects, and when they are claviform, or terminate in a club more 
or less developed, or furnished with numerous hairs. According to M. Robineau, 
Desvoidy, the intermediate antennte of the Crustacea Decapoda are the olfactory 



CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDES, INSECTA. H9 

Distance, in the orifices of the tracheae, and Marcel de Serres,&c. 
in the palpi ; neither of these opinions, however, are corroborated by 
positive and conclusive facts. A> t< the second, it is only in the 
Crustacea Decapoda, and some few of the Orthoptera, that we can 
find a visible ear. 

The mouth of these animals presents a great analogy, which, 
according to Savigny*, and at least with respect to the Hexapoda, 
extends to those which can only feed by the suction of liquid 
aliment. 

Those called Tritores or Grinders (broyeurs), on account of their 
having jaws fitted for triturating their food, always present them in 
lateral pairs, placed one before the other; the anterior pair are 
.-ially called mandibles ; the pieces which cover them before and 
In-hind are named labia^, and the front one, in particular, labrum. 
The palpi are articulated filaments attached to the jaws or to the 
lower lip, 'and appear to be employed by the animal in recognizing 
its food. The form of these various organs determines the nature 
of the regimen with as much precision as the teeth of quadrupeds. 
The //r/u/a, or tongue, commonly adheres to the lower lip J. Some- 
times, in the Apes and other Hymenopterous insects, it is consider- 



organ, Bullet. <les Sc. Nat. ; but he adduces no one direct experiment in proof of his 
opinion. It would, if this were so, seem probable that in the highly carnivo- 
rous Crustacea, such as the Gecarcini and others, we should find this organ in a com- 
paratively greater state of development, whereas the fact is directly the reverse. His 
ideas respecting the external composition of the Crustacea Decapoda suppose the 
existence of a skeleton. He should have commenced, however, by establishing the 
connexion of these animals with the Fishes, and not by admitting, as a positive fact, 
what is at least a matter of doubt. 

* Memoirc sur les animaux sans vtrtebres. The original idea was thrown out, but 
undeveloped, in ray Hist. Gen.des Inscctcs. 

t We here more particularly alude to insects with six feet, or to the Hexapoda. 

J Or rather labiuin, since the other is termed labrvm. It is protected, before, by 
a horny production formed by a cutaneous prolongation, and articulated at the base 
.m inferior portion of the head called the mcntum or chin. Its palpi, always two 
in number, nrc distinguished from those of the maxillae by the epithet labial. When 
tter amount to four they are designated as external and internal ; they are con- 
sidered as a modification of the external and terminal division of the maxillae. This 
production, \\hieh, In his Ulonates or the Orthoptera, Fabricius termed the Galta, is 
still the same maxillary division, but more dilated, arched, and fitted to cover the 
internal division which, here, on account of its scnly consistence and of its teeth, 
resembles a mandible. In the last insects, and particularly in the Libellulae, the 
interior of the huccal cavity presents a soft or vesicular body, distinct from the lip, 
and which, compared to the Crustacea, appears to be the true tongue labivm, Fab. 
This part is perhaps represented by those lateral divisions of the ligula termed para- 
gloss*. (9ee the Coleoptcra Camivora, Hydrophili, Staphylini, the two pencil- 
shaped pieces that terminate the lip of the Lucani Apiariw, &c.) The above- 
mentioned Insects, the Orthoptera and the Libcllulne of Linnreus, evidently demon- 
strate that this membranous and terminal portion of the inferior lip, which projects 
more or less bet , i, j-.r.d i< particularly elongated in several of the Hyme- 

noptcra, is very distinct from that internal caruncle which I consider the tongue 



150 CRUSTACEA, ARACHN1DES, INSECTA. 

ably elongated, as are also the jaws, forming a sort of false proboscis 
(promuscis) at the base of which is the pharynx, and frequently 
covered by a sort of sub-labrum, styled by M. Savigny the cpipha- 
rynx *. At other times, in the Hemiptera and Diptera, the mandibles 
and maxilke are replaced by scaly pieces in the form of setae, which 
are received in an elongated tubular sheath, that is either cylindrical 
and articulated, or formed with more or less of an elbow, and termi- 
nated by a kind of lips. In this case they constitute a true proboscis. 
In others that also live by suction, the Lepidoptera, the maxilla 
alone are greatly elongated and united, producing a tubular setiform 
body, resembling a long, slender, and spiral tongue (or the spiri- 
trompe, Lat.) ; the remaining parts of the mouth are considerably 
reduced. Sometimes again, as in many of the Crustacea, the anterior 
feet approach the maxillae, assume their form, and exercise part of 
their functions the latter are then said to be multiplied. It may 
even happen that the true maxillae become so much reduced, that 
the maxillary feet supply their place in toto. Whatever bo the 
modifications of these parts, however, they can always be recognized 
and referred to a general type f . 



properly so called ; notwithstanding this, nearly all Entomologists designate this 
external extremity of the lip by the name of ligula or lanyudte. To say, however, 
that the tongue properly so called, is usually so intimately connected with the lip 
that at the first glance they seem to be confounded, is correct. The pharynx is situ- 
ated in the middle of the anterior face of this lip a little above its root, and in the 
Coleoptera provided with paraglossse, at their point of union. In order to under- 
stand well the primitive composition of the under lip, it must be studied in the larvae, 
and chiefly in those of the Aquatic Carnivorous Coleoptera. See General Obser- 
vations on Insects. 

* There is a membranous production beneath the labrum, in many Coleoptera, 
which appears to me to be analogous to the epipharynx. The latruin is to it, what 
the incutum is to the labium. 

f It is only by a comparative and gradual study of the mouth of the Crustacea, 
that we can acquire correct and exact ideas respecting the various transformations 
of these parts, and the means (f establishing, if not a certain, at least a probable 
general concordance between these various organs in the three classes. The man- 
dibles, maxillae, and the labium, are in fact, a sort of feet appropriated to the masti- 
catory or buccal functions, but susceptible of being so modified as to become organs 
of locomotion. This principle even extends to the antennae, or at least to the two 
intermediate ones of the Crustacea. By adopting it, we are enabled to reduce the 
composition of these organs to one general type, and we shall hereafter sec that, in 
this respect, neither the Arachnides nor Myriapoda present any anomaly. 



CRUSTACEA. 151 

CLASS I. 

CRUSTACEA. 

The Crustacea are articulated animals, with articulated feet, re- 
spiring by means of branchia', protected in some by the borders of 
a shell, and external in others, but which are not inclosed in special 
cavities of the body, and which receive air from openings in the sur- 
face of the skin. Their circulation is double, and analogous to that 
of the Mollusca. The blood is transmitted from the heart, which is 
]>laeed on the back, to the different parts of the body, whence it is 
sent to the branchiae, and thence back again to the heart*. These 
brain :hia\ sometimes situated at the base of the feet, or even on 
tin-in, at others on the inferior appendages of the abdomen, either 
Ion n pyramids composed of lamince in piles, or bristled with setae or 
tufted filaments of simple ones, and even appear in some cases to 
consist wholly of hairs. 

Some of the Zootomists, Baron Cuvier in particular, had already 
made known to us the nervous system of various Crustacea of differ- 
ent orders. The same subject has lately been thoroughly examined 
by Messrs. Victor Audouin and Milne Edwards in their third Memoir 
on the Anatomy and Physiology of these animals Ann. des Sc. Nat. 
XIV, 77, and all that is now wanting to complete their researches, 
is the publication of those made by M. Straus on the Branchiopoda 
and the Limuli in particular, which they have not noticed. 

44 The nervous system of the Crustacea submitted to our observa- 
tion, say they, presents itself in two very different aspects, which 
constitute the two extremes of the modifications visible in that class. 
Sometimes, as in the Talitrus, this apparatus is constituted by nu- 
merous similar nervous inflations, arranged in pairs, and united by 
cords of communication in such a way as to form two ganglionic 
chains. M-paratrd from each other, and extending throughout the 
length of the animal. At others, on the contrary, it is solely com- 
1 of two ganglions or knotty enlargements, dissimilar in form, 
volume, and arrangement, but always simple and azygous, and 
situated, one in the head and the other in the thorax. Such is the 
case in the Maia. 

44 These two modes of organization, at the first glance, certainly 
seem essentially different, and if the study of the nervous system of 

* See the order Decapod*. 



152 CRUSTACEA. 

the Crustacea were limited to these two animals, it would be ex- 
tremely difficult to recognize the analogy between the central nervous 
mass in the thorax of the Maia, and the two gauglionic chains which 
occupy the same region of the body in the Talitrus. But if we re- 
member the various facts detailed in this memoir, we necessarily 
arrive at this remarkable result." 

They were led to it by the exact and careful study of the nervous 
system of various intermediate Crustacea, forming so many links of 
the series, such as the Cymothoae*, the Phyllosomoe f , AstacusJ, 
Palaemon, and Palinurus. They have also supported their positions 
by the observations of Cuvier, and those of M. Treviranus. The 
consequence deduced by them is, that notwithstanding this difference, 
the nervous system of the Crustacea is formed of the same elements, 
which, insulated in some and uniformly distributed throughout the 
length of the body, present in others, various degrees of centraliza- 
tion, at first from without inwardly, and then in a longitudinal 
direction ; and that finally, this approximation in all directions is 
carried to its extreme point, when it is reduced to a single nucleus in 
the thorax as in Cancer, properly so called, or the Brachyura. Of 
all the Decapoda Macroura examined by Messrs. Audouin and Ed- 
wards, the Palinurus was found to have the venous system most cen- 
tralized ; and in fact, that animal in our system is but little removed 
from the Brachyura. But this should not be the case with Palacmon 
and the Astacini, for according to them the former approximates more 
closely in this respect to Palinurus than the latter, while in our ar- 
rangement the second precede the first, a disposition which appears 
to us to be founded on several very natural characters. 

The Crustacea are apterous or deprived of wings, furnished with 
compound eyes, though rarely with simple ones, and usually with 
four antennae. They have mostly the Psecilopoda excepted three 
pairs of jaws, the two superior ones, designated by the name of man- 
dibles, included; as many foot-jaws , the last four of which, how- 
ever, in a great many instances, became true feet ; and ten feet pro- 
perly so called, all terminated by a single small nail. When the last 

* Isopoda. 

t Stomapoda. 

J For this subgenus and the two following subgenera, see the Decapcda 
"Macroura. 

Auxiliary jaws, as they are termed by M. Savigny, at least when speaking 
of the Crustacea Decapoda. As the two superior ones, in the Amphipoda and 
Isopoda, form a sort of lip, he there calls them the auxiliary lip. He distinguishes 
the jaws in Phalangium, a genus of Arachnides, as principal jaws ; those which are 
attached to the palpi false palpi, according to him; and as supernumerary jaics, 
those which are attached to the first four feet. Those parts of the same animals 
which have been considered as mandibles, are his mandibules succtdants. He admits 
of two auxiliary lips in the Scolopendrae. 



rni.'sTACKA. 



153 



two pairs of foot-jaws exercise the same functions, the number of 
fret is increased to fourteen. The mouth, as in insects, presents a 
labrum and a ligula, but no lower lip properly so called, or com- 
parable to that of the latter; the third pair of foot-jaws, or the first, 
closes the mouth externally, and replaces that part. 

The sexual organs, at least those of the males, are always double, 
and situated on the breast or at the inferior origin of that posterior 
and abdominal portion of the body commonly called the tail, and 
T posteriorly. Their envelope is usually solid, and more or less 
calcareous. They change their skin several times, and generally 
preserve their primitive form and natural activity. They are mostly 
carnivorous and aquatic, and live several years. They do not attain 
their adult state until after casting their skin a certain number of 
times. With the exception of a few in which these changes some- 
what influence their primitive form and modify or augment their 
locomotive organs, they are at birth, size apart, such as they are 
always to remain. 

Division of the Crustacea into Orders. 

The situation and form of the branchiae, the mode in which the 
head is articulated with the trunk*, the mobility or fixedness of the 
eyes f, the organs of manducation, and the teguments, constitute the 
basis of our divisions, and give rise to the following orders J. 

We divide this class into two sections, the MALACOSTRACA, and the 
ENTOMOSTRACA . 

The first are usually furnished with very solid teguments, of a cal- 
careous nature, and with ten or fourteen feet ||, generally unguicu- 
lated. The mouth, situated in the ordinary place, is composed of a 
la!) rum, tongue, two mandibles (frequently furnished with palpi), 

With respect to this term, and that of thorax, which are frequently employed in 
an arbitrary manner, see our general observations on the class of Insects. 

f These organs nrt- either pediculnted and movable, or sessile and fixed. It is 
from this character that Lamarck has divided the Crustacea into two great sections, 
the Pedioclfs aud the Sessiliodfs ; for which denominations, but restricting its 
application to the Malacostraca, Doctor Leach has substituted those of Podop- 
thalma and Edriopthalma. Gronovius was the first who had recourse to this dis- 
tinction. 

t Although we possess but few observations on the nervous system of the 
Crustacea, all those which have been made support the truth of our divisions. 

They might be still further divided iuto the Dtntata and the Edentala, accord- 
ing to the pretence or absence of the mandibles. Jurine, jun., has nlrcndy proposed 
these divisions iu at Mcmoire sur 1'Argulc foli 

)| The four anterior, when there are fourteen, arc formed by the last four posterior 
foot -jaws. In the Decapoda, the six foot -jaws belong to the muth, end perform the 



154 CRUSTACEA. 

and two pairs of maxillae covered by the foot-jaws. In a great num- 
ber each eye is placed on an articulated and movable pedicle, and the 
branchiae are concealed under the lateral margins of the upper or 
lower shell ; in the others they are usually placed under the post- 
abdomen. This section consists of five orders : the DECAPODA, 
STOMAPODA, LJEMODIPODA, AMPHIPODA, and the ISOPODA. The 
four first embrace the genus CANCER of Linnseus, and the last 
his ONISCUS. 

The second, the Entomostraca, or "Insects with shells" of M tiller, 
is formed of the genus MONOCULUS, Lin. Here the teguments are 
horny and very thin, while a shell, resembling a buckler, composed 
of from one to two pieces, covers or incloses the body of the greater 
number. The eyes arc almost always sessile, and frequently there is 
but one. The feet, the number of which varies, are mostly fitted for 
natation, and without a terminal tail. Some of them, having an 
anterior mouth composed of a labrum, two mandibles rarely fur- 
nished with palpi, a tongue, and one, or at most two pairs of jaws, of 
which the external ones are naked or are not covered by the foot-jaws, 
approximate to the preceding Crustacea. In the other Entomostraca, 
which seem to appproach the Arachnides in several particulars, the 
organs of manducatiori are sometimes simply formed by the coxae of 
the feet, projecting and arranged like lobes bristling with small spines 
round a large central pharynx. At others, they either compose a 
little siphon or beak, used for suction, as in several Arachnides arid 
Insects, or they are wholly (or nearly so) invisible externally, either 
because the siphon is internal, or because the suction is produced in 
the manner of a cup. 

The Entomostraca are thus dentated or edentated. The first will 
form our order of the BRANCHIOPODA *, and the second that of the 
P^CILOPODA, which, in the first edition of this work, were a mere 
section of the preceding order. 

The singular fossils called TRILOBITES, of which M. Brongniart 
has given an excellent Monograph, being considered by him, as well 
as by many other naturalists, as Crustacea allied to the Entomos- 
traca, we will briefly speak of them after we have done with the 
latter. 

* In my work entitled Families Nat. du Regne Animal, the Entomostraca are 
divided into four orders : the LOPHYBOPODA, PHYLLOPODA, XIPHOSURA, and the 

SlPHONOSTOMA. 



CRUSTACEA. 155 

FIRST GENERAL DIVISION. 

MALACOSTRACA. 

i 

The Malacostraca naturally divide themselves into those whose eyes 
are placed on a movable pedicle, and those in which they are sessile 
and fixed. 

a. Ryes placed on a movable and articulated pedicle. 

Eyes* placed on a movable pedislc composed of two articulations, 
ami received into fossulae, distinguish the Decapoda and Stomapoda 
from all the others. Anatomically considered, they appear to be still 
further removed from them, Lepons d'Anat. Compar., Cuv.; Ann. 
des Sc. Nat., t. XI, inasmuch as they are the only ones that present 
MIIUM^ in which the venous blood is collected previous to its trans- 
mission to the braiu-liiii 1 on its return to the heart. 

The Decapoda and Stomapoda resemble each other in several cha- 
racters common to both. A large plate, called a shell, covers a 
itcr or less extent of the anterior portion of their body. They ail 
have four antennae f, the middle ones of which are terminated by two 
or three filaments; two mandibles, each of which, at its base, bears a 
palpus that is divided into three joints, and usually laid on it; a bilo- 
bate tongue; two pairs of jaws; six foot-jaws, the four posterior of 
which, in some, are transformed into claws; and ten feet, or fourteen, 
in those where the four foot-jaws have that form. 

In the greater number the branchiae, of which there are seven* 

an- concealed under the lateral margin of the shell: the two 

anterior pairs are situated at the origin of the four last foot-jaws, and 

the others at that of the feet properly so called. In the other Crus- 



;ntl the cornea, according to Blainville, is a choroides perforated with nume- 
then a true crystalline, resting on a nervous ganglion, and divided into 
amiiltitndr of little fasciculi. 

i:uist distinguish the peduncle stipes, and the stem caulisfuniculis. The 
rlc is thicker, jlimhirul, and cmnpo&cd of three joints, a number which seems 
prculiur to thf-e organs in their imperfect or rudimentary state. The stem is seta- 
ceous, and divided Into a variable number of very small joints. That of the exter- 
nal antenna: is simple, but that of the interior ones, consists of at least two filament?, 
and in several of the Decapoda Macroura, of three. Passing gradually from these 
latter to the Brachyura, the antennae become shortened, so that, in several of the 
Quadrilatera, the lateral ones, at least, are very small. In this case the two termi- 
nal divisions of the Intermediate ones form a sort of bifurcated forceps, or unequal 
and articulated fingers. 



156 CRUSTACEA. 

tacea they arc annexed, in the shape of tufts, to five pairs of paddles 
(feet) placed under the post-abdomen. The under part of this pos- 
terior portion of the body is similarly furnished, in the others, with 
four or five pairs of bifid appendages. 



ORDER I. 



DECAPODA. 

The head, in the Decapoda, is closely joined to the thorax, and 
covered with it by a shell, entirely continuous, but that most fre- 
quently exhibits deep lines dividing it into various regions which 
indicates the places occupied by the principal external organs*. The 
mode of their circulation presents characters which distinguish them 
from the other Crustacea. The circumscribed heart f , of an oval 
form and with muscular parieties, gives organs to six trunks of 
vessels, three of which are anterior, two inferior, and the sixth pos- 
terior. Of the three anterior arteries," the median the ophthalmic 
is distributed almost exclusively to the eyes ; the two others the 
antennaries spread over the shell, the muscles of the stomach, a 
portion of the viscera and the antennae ; the two inferior ones the 
hepatics transmit blood to the liver ; the last -the sternal is the 
most voluminous of the three, and arises from the posterior part of 
the body, sometimes on the right side and at others on the left ; its 
chief course is to the abdomen, and to the organs of locomotion. 
It gives origin to a great number of large vessels, among which we 
should particularly observe the one called by M. Audouin and Ed- 
wards the superior abdominal, because it arises from the posterior 
part of that artery, at a short distance before the articulation of the 
thorax with the abdomen, vulgarly termed the tail, and because it 
con dips into the abdomen tail where it divides into twolarge 


* M. Desmarest, in his Histoire Naturelle des Cmstaccs Fossiles, and in his Con- 
siderations Generates sur la Classe des Crustaces, has presented us, in relation to this 
point, with an ingenious nomenclature, based on the concordance of the portions of 
the external surface of the shell with the organs they cover. But, iu addition to the 
fact that the shell of several Decapoda presents no impressions, or has them nearly 
obliterated, these denominations may be replaced by others more simple, more fami- 
liar, and relating to these same organs ; as the middle or centre, the anterior and 
posterior extremities, the sides, &c. : it appears useless to increase our nomenclature 
in this case. 

f These observations are extracted from the excellent memoir of Messrs. Audouin 
and Edwards, published in the Ami. d'Hist. Nat., t. XI, 283 314, and 352 393. 
See also the Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., where M. Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire has 
inserted the results of his curious researches on the solids, and on the circulation of 
the Lobster. 



DECAPOD A. 157 

branches, running backwards, becoming gradually smaller and ter- 
minating at the anus. The blood which has nourished these various 
organs, and thus become venous, collects from all quarters into two 
large sinuses*, one on each side and above the feet, and formed of 
venous sacs united in a longitudinal series, or like a chain. It is 
thrown into an external vessel efferent of the branchiae, where it 
is renewed and becomes arterial ; thence proceeds into an internal 
vessel afferent ; and finally seeks the heart through canals 
branchio-cardiac laid beneath the arch of the flanks. All the 
canals of a side unite in one large trunk, and open into the 
lateral and corresponding part of the heart by a single orifice, the 
folds of which form a double valve that opens to allow the transit of 
the blood from the branchiae to this viscus, but prevents a retrograde 
motion hy closing. Examined internally, the heart exhibits numerous 
fasciculi and muscular fibres, variously intercrossed and forming se- 
veral sin ill chambers before the orifices of the arteries. These 
chambers arc so many small auricles, which communicate freely 
with each other when it dilates, but appear to form a similar number 
of little cells for each vessel when it contracts, their capacity being 
proportioned to the quantity of blood in their peculiar vessels. These 
vessels debouche in the interior of the heart by eight openings, the 
two lateral valvular ones above mentioned included. Such, with 
tin- exception of some modifications f, is the general system of the 
circulation in the Decapoda. 

The superior face of the brainj is divided into four lobes, each of 

These learned naturalists compare them to the two lateral hearts of the Cepha- 
lopoda, and the analogy has been admitted by Barou Cuvier in his general report on 
tin- transactions of the Acad. Roy. des. Sc., for 1827 ; but the idea had been com- 
municated by me to M. Audouiu, and was a necessary consequence of my theory 
of the circulation of the blood in the Crustacea, published in a note of my Esquissc 
Distribution Generate du Regne Animal, p. 5. As the writers alluded to have 
taken no notice of what I have stated in this particular, both in the pamphlet quoted, 
and in my work on the " Families of the Animal Kingdom," I beg leave to produce 
that note. ' I submit the following opinion to the judgment of Zootomists, and of 
ivier In partU'iilar, viz. that in those of the Vertebrata possessed of a circula- 
tion, the organ called heart represents, in its functions, a left ventricle, the arterial 
and dursal trunk of Fishc.s and of the larvae of the Batrachians ; that one or two 
urtcrii."<. which in tlir Cephalopoda have the form of hearts, replace the right ven- 
1 he focus of the circulation, highly concentrated in the first of the Verte- 
brata, thu* becomes gradually \ve.iker, so that finally there is no circulation whatever, 
.lorsal vessel of Insects would then be the mere rudiment of the heart of the 
Mollusc* and Crustacea." I will udd, that twenty-five years ago, in my Hist. Nat. 
des Crust, et des Insectcs, I rectified the error of Rcesel respecting the nervous cord of 
the spinal marrow, which had been tukcn for a vessel. 

f See general observations on the family of the Macroura. 

j These observations are extracted from the Lefons d' Anatomic Comport* of Baron 
Cuvier. For other details and particular facts, see the Memoir of Messrs. Audouiu 
and M. Edwards, loc. cit. 



158 



CRUSTACEA. 



the two middle ones furnishing from its anterior margin an optic 
nerve that plunges directly into the pedicle of the eye and there 
divides into numerous filaments, each of which is destined to a facet 
in the cornea of that organ. The inferior face of the brain produces 
four nerves, which belong to the antennae, and that also give off 
some twigs to the neighbouring parts. Two nervous and very long 
cords, embracing the esophagus laterally and uniting beneath it, arise 
from its posterior margin. There, as in the Brachyura, this union 
only takes place in the middle of the thorax, the medulla then as- 
suming the form of a ring whose proportions are eight times larger 
than those of the brain : six nerves on each side arise from this ring ; 
the anterior ones belong to the parts of the mouth, and the five others 
to the five feet of the same side. From the posterior margin arises 
another nerve which runs to the tail, without producing any sensible 
ganglion, and that apparently represents the ordinary nervous cord. 
Here, as in the Macroura, each of the two nervous cords, previous 
to uniting beneath the esophagus, and at about the middle of its 
length, gives off a thick nerve for the use of the mandibles and their 
muscles. United, they form a first sub-cervical ganglion, that 
distributes neves to the maxillae and the foot-jaws;* they afterwards 
continue approximated throughout their length, presenting eleven 
successive ganglions, each of the five first furnishing nerves to as 
many pairs of feet, and the remaining six those of the tail ; that of 
the Pagurus has some ganglions less, thus appearing to form the 
passage from the Brachyura to the Macroura. M. Serres thinks that 
he has recognised in these Decapoda, vestiges of the great sym- 
pathetic f. 

The lateral margin of the shell is bent under, to cover and pro- 
tect the branchiae, leaving an opening anteriorly for the passage of 
water. Sometimes, see Dorippe the posterior and inferior extre- 
mity of the thorax has two peculiar apertures for that purpose. The 
branchiae are situated at the origin of the last four foot-jaws and 
feet; the four anterior ones have less extent. The six foot-jaws are 



* According to M. Straus, the anterior division of the body of the Limuli, that 
which is covered by a semi-lunar buckler, presents, besides the brain, no other 
ganglion but this, whence we may infer that the inferior organs of locomotion 
correspond to the parts of the mouth in the Decapoda, Stomapoda, and even in the 
Arachnides, and that those of the other division of the body, or of the second uckler, 
are analogous to the feet of the same Decapoda. 

f Messrs. Audouin and Edwards have observed in the Maia and in the Palinurus 
a nerve analogous to the one called Lyonet, in his Anatomic de la Chenille du Saule, 
4< recurrent." The discovery of the other gastric nerves is also due to them. 



DECAPODA. 

all of a different form, are applied to the mouth, and divided into two 
branches, the exterior of which resembles a small antenna, formed of 
a pedicle, and a setaceous and pluri-articulate stem it has been com- 
pared to a whip, palpus jlagelliformis *. The two anterior feet, and 
sometimes the two or four following ones, are in the form of claws. 
The penultimate joint is dilated, compressed, and in the form of a 
hand ; its inferior extremity is lengthened into a conical point, repre- 
senting a sort of finger, opposed to another formed by the last joint, or 
the tarsus proper. This onef is moveable, and has received the name 
of thumb -pollex ; the other is fixed, and considered as the index 
index. These two fingers are also called mordaces. The last is 
sometimes very short, and has the form of a simple tooth ; in this 
case tin- other is bent underneath. The hand with the fingers con- 
stitutes our forceps properly so called. The preceding, or antepenul- 
timate joint is termed carpus. 

The respective proportions and the direction of the organs of 
locomotion are such, that these animals can walk sideways or back- 
wards. 

With the exception of the rectum, which opens at the end of the 
tailj, all the viscera are contained in the thorax, so that this portion 
of the body represents the thorax and the greater part of the abdomen 
of insects. The stomach, supported by a cartilaginous skeleton, is 
in i ued internally with five bony and notched appendages, which com- 
pletes the tritunition of the aliment. In it, in the moulting season, 
whirl i arrives near the end of the spring, we observe two calcareous 
bodies, round on one side and flat on the other, commonly called 
crabs 9 eyes, that disappear after the change is completed, thereby 
inducing us to believe that they furnish the material for the renewal 
of the shell. The liver consists of two large clusters of blind vessels, 
filled with a bilious humour, which they pour into the intestine, near 
the pylorus. The alimentary canal is short and straight. The flanks 
nt a range of holes situated immediately at the insertion of the 
branchiae, but which can only be seen by removing those organs. The 
under shell, viewed internally, at least in several large species exhi- 



* There it a long, tendinous and hairy lamina at its base. 

|- Tlu h;m.l in ing placed on 10 finger is uppermost. 

; This suit of segments which, in the Crustacea of the first orders, imme- 
diately succeed those to which the five last pairs of feet are attached, compose what 
I have UTuu-'l the posl-abihincn. The appellation of tail usually affixed to it, and 
\\lmh, in onU-r to accommodate ourselves to common parlance, we have retained 
Is very improper ; it can only apply to the posterior terminal appendages of the 
bopy which extend considerably beyond it. See my Fam. Nat, du Regue Anim., 
p. 265, et seq. 



160 CRUSTACEA. 

bits transverse colls formed by crustaceous laminae, and separated in 
their middle by a longitudinal range of the same nature. 

The sexual organs of the male are situated near the origin of the 
two posterior feet. Two articulated pieces, of a solid consistence, 
and resembling horns, stylets, or setaceous antennae, placed at the 
junction of the tail with the thorax and replacing the first pair of 
subcaudal appendages, are regarded as the male organs of copulation, 
or at least as their sheaths. But, according to our observations on 
various Decapoda, each of them consists of a little membranous body, 
sometimes setaceous, and at others filiform or cylindrical, that pro- 
jects from a hole situated at the articulation of the hip of the two 
posterior feet, with the lower shell. The two vulvae are placed on 
this piece, between those of the third pair, or on their first joint, a 
disposition depending on the widening and narrowing of the lower 
shell. Copulation takes place, venire a venire. These animals grow 
but slowly, and live a long time. It is among them that we find the 
largest and most useful species, but their flesh is not easily digested. 
The body of some Palinuri attains the length of a metre. Their 
claws are efficacious weapons, and have such power in large indivi- 
duals, that they have been seen to seize a goat, and drag it from the 
shore. They usually inhabit water, but do not instantly perish when 
deprived of it; some species even pass a part of their lives on land, 
only visiting the water in the nuptial season, and for the purpose of 
depositing their spawn. Even they are compelled to fix their domicile 
either in burrows, or in cool, damp places. The Decapoda are vora- 
cious and carnivorous. Certain species even penetrate into ceme- 
tries, and devour the dead. Their limbs are regenerated with sur- 
prising promptitude, but it is requisite that the fracture be at the 
junction of the articulations, and when accident determines it other- 
wise, they know how to apply a remedy. When they wish to change 
their skin, they seek a retired and solitary spot, in order to be shel- 
tered from their enemies, and to remain at rest. When the change 
is effected, their body is soft, and has a more exquisite flavour. A 
chemical analysis of the old shell proves it to be formed of the car- 
bonate and phosphate of lime, united in different portions with gela- 
tine. On these proportions depends the solidity of the shell : it is 
much less thick and flexible in the latter genera of this order, and 
further on, it becomes almost membranous. M. de Blainville has 
observed that the shell of the Palinurus is composed of four superin- 
cumbent layers, the superior and two inferior of which are mem- 
branous ; the calcareous matter is interposed between them, forming 
the fourth. Exposed to heat, the epidermis becomes of a more or 



DBCAPODA. 

vivid rrd, the colouring principle being decomposed by boiling 
w.iter ; other combinations of this principle produce, in some spec 
a very agreeable mixture of colours, that frequently border on blue 
or green. 

The greater number of fossil Crustacea hitherto discovered belongs 
to the order of the Decapoda. Among those of Europe, the oldest 
approach to species now living in the vicinity of the tropics; the others, 
or more modern ones, are closely allied with the living species of 
Europe. The fossil Crustacea of the tropical regions, however, appear 
to me to hoar the closest similitude to several of those now found 
then- in a living state, a fact of much interest to the geologist, should 
the study of the fossil shells of those countries, collected from the 
deepest strata, furnish a similar result. 

FAMILY I.* 



BRACHYURA. KLEISTAGNATHA, Fait. 

Tail shorter than the trunk, without appendages or fins at the 
extremity, and doubled under, in a state of rest, when it is received in 
a fossula on the chest. Triangular in the males, and only furnished 
at ba>e with four or two appendages, in the form of horns, the supe- 
rior of which are the largest, it 1 ccomes widened, and convex in the 
tt'inalesf, presenting beneath four pairs of double hairy filaments J, 
.ned to support the ova, and analogous to the sub-caudal natatory 
t. t of the Macroura, and others. 

The vulvae are two holes situated under the pectus, between the 

third pair of feet. The antennae are small : each of the intermediate 

j, usually lodged in a fossula under the anterior edge of the shell, 



* The sections thus named are based on an ensemble of important anatomical 
characters, and Generally correspond to the Lianaean penera, and sometimes also to 
li>hrd by Fubriciu> in his rarlirr work*. These families are more cxtcn- 
ti n-ive than the sections thus named in my other writings : but if they be con- 
-i<l. rt.l UN fir-t ilhUinns of orders, nnd if what I ha\c termed tribes be considered as 
families it \vill br seen that the method is essentially the same. There is, then, the 
opinions of others to the contrary notwithstanding, no real discrepance in this 
respect. On thr same prnriple, the snhirriiera, uith the exception of some whose 
character* are too minute or too slightly marked, will become genera in a more 
detailed and special system. 

f The apparent number of segments, which is usually seven, sometimes also \aries 
according to the sex ; it is less in th females. Dr. Leach has made great use of 
this consideration, which appears to us of but little importance, and opposed to the 
nil order. 

t Several of thene filaments cxht in the male?, but in a rudimen'al <taf. 
VOL. in. M 



162 CKU.STACEA. 

terminates in two very short filaments. The ocular pedicles are 
generally longer than those of the Decapoda Macroura. The auri- 
cular tube is almost always stony. The first pair of feet terminate in 
a forceps or claw. The branchiae are disposed on a single range, in 
the form of pyramidal ligulae, composed of a multitude of leaflets 
piled one on another, in a direction parallel to their axis. The foot- 
jaws are generally shorter and broader than in the other Decapoda, 
the two external ones forming a sort of lip *. Their nervous system 
also differs from that of the Macroura f . 

This family, as in several of the systems anterior to the distribution 
of these animals by Daldorf, might constitute but one genus, that of 

CANCER, Lin. 

In the greater number, all the feet are attached to the sides of the 
pectus, and are always exposed ; this is the case in the first five sec- 
tions. The first, or that of the Pinnipedes\, to this character, adds 
that of having the last feet, at least, terminated by a very flat or fin- 
like joint that is oval or orbicular and broader than the same joint 
of the preceding feet, even when they also are shaped like a fin. 
They seldom frequent the coast, and are generally found in the high 
seas. With the exception, of the Orithyiae, we observe but five dis- 
tinctly marked segments in the tail of the males, while that of the 


* Those of the Macroura are longer and narrower. It is on this difference that 
Fabricius established his order of the Exochnata. 

f See general observations on the Decapoda. 

J This systematic arrangement of the Brachyura is artificial, or but little 
natural in some respects ; in consequence of which, we have somewhat altered it 
in our Families Naturelles du Kegne Animal. The Q.UADRILATERA compose our 
first tribe, at the head of which are the Ocypoda and other Land-Crabs, ending with 
the River-Crabs, or the Telphusee. The ARCUTA form the second. That of the 
CRYPTOPODA appearing to us more closely allied to the preceding one than the 
TRIANGULARIA, will immediately follow, and be the third, and not the fourth, as 
in this method. Immediately after the Areuata we will place those genera whose 
elaws are in the form of a crest, whose lateral antennae are always very short, and 
the third articulation of whose foot-jaws is triangular, and frequently entire, or 
without any emargination ; such are the Hepati, Matuta, Ovithyia, and Mursice. 

Brachyura approaching the latter in the form of the same articulation, but 
whose claws differ, and where the lateral antennee are salient, advanced, and fre- 
quently hairy, such as the Thite, Pirimela, and Atelecyeli, will immediately precede 
these latter subgenera. As the Telphusae seem to be connected with the Eriphiae 
and the Pilumni, and as from these we naturally pass to Cancer properly so called, 
or the Cancer, Fab., it follows that the Portuni and other natatory Areuata should 
be at the head of this tribe. Then follow the ORBICULARIA, the TRIANGULARIA, 
and the NOTOPODA. But of these the Dromice and the Dorippes should be placed 
higher in the scale. The Homolce, Lithodes, and Ranince, appear to me to be of all 
the Brachyura, those which are most closely allied to the Macroura. The external 
foot-jaws of the Homolae and of the Lithodes greatly resemble those of the Macroura 
by their length and projection. 

Although we have divided the Decapoda into two genera only, in order to con- 
form to modern systems, and to diminish the number of subgenera, our sections may 
be converted into tribes, corresponding to as many subgenera, to be afterwards 
divided into various subgeneric sections. 



DECAPOD A. 163 

female present! seven, \\Vwill begin with those in which all the 

feet, except the elaws, are natatory. 

MATUTA, Fabr. 

The Matuta 1 have an almost orbicular shell armed on each side 
with a v TV stout tooth in the form of a spine; the superior edge 
of the hands dentated like a crest, and their external face studded 
with pointed tuhercles; the third joint of the external foot-jaws, 
without any apparent emargination, terminates in a point, so that 
it form*, with the preceding joint, an elongated and almost right- 
angled triangle. Tho external antennae are very small, and the 
ocular pedicles slightly arcuated. 

De Geer mentions a species Cancer latipes, which he says is 
from the American seas, and has its front terminated by a 
straight and entire margin. All those we have seen, how- 
rver*, were brought from the East, and the middle of that 
margin always presents a bidentated or emarginated projection. 

The 

POLYBIUS, Leach, 

Is allied to the Portuni, but the shell is proportionably narrower 
and more rounded ; the sides are merely furnished with ordinary 
teeth. The third -joint of the external foot-jaws is obtuse and emar- 
gii luted. The eyes are much thicker than their pedicles, and glo- 
bular. 

But a single species is as yet known f; it was found on the 
coast of Devonshire, and has also been observed by M. D'Or- 
bigny on the sea-coast of the western departments of France J> 

In all the following swimmers, the two posterior feet only are 
formed like fins . 

We may first separate those whose shell is almost ovoid and trans- 
versely truncated before, and where the tail of the males (the only 
> x known) consists of seven distinct segments. Such is the 

ORYTHYIA, Fabr. 

The only species known, Orith. mammillari*, Fabr., Cancer 
bimnciilnfiK, Herbst., XVIII, 101, is found in the sea of China, 
or at least forms a part of the collections of Insects sold by its 
inhabitants to foreigners. The ocular pedicles are longer in 
than those of the Portuni. 



* M. rir/or, Fab. ; Herbst., VI, 44. M. planipes, Fab. ; Herbst., xlviii, 6 ; M. 
lunar, SooL Mi-rell., cxxvii, 35, Mir. ;M. Peronii, Ib., tab., cad., 

1 2. Perhaps \re should refer the fossil species called by M. Desmarest, Fortune 
tfHtricart, Hist. Nat. des Crust., Foss. V, 5, to this genus, or the MURSIA, 
Leach. 

f Polybiu* Henslowtt, Leach, Malar. Hrit., IX, B. 

J The tarsi of the intermediate feet of the Portumni, Leach, are almost com- 
pressed into a fin; they might be placed after the Polybii. 

Always wider and more oval than the preceding tarsi. 

M 2 



164 CRUSTACEA. 

The shell of the last swimmers is much wider before than behind, 
forming either the segment of a circle narrowed towards the tail 
and truncated, or a trapezium, or is almost in the shape of a heart. 
Its greatest transverse diameter generally surpasses the opposite one. 
There are but five segments in the tail of the males, instead of the 
seven found in that of the females, the number usually peculiar to 
the tail of the Decapoda ; the third and the two following ones are 
confounded or form but one ; frequently, however, traces of them are 
discovered, at least on the sides. 

We will first separate those whose eyes are supported by very long 
and slender pedicles, arising from the middle of the anterior margin 
of the shell, extending to its lateral angles, and received into a 
groove run under the edge. Such is the 

PODOPHTHALMUS, La?7l., 

Where the shell forms a transverse trapezium, wider and straight 
before with a long spiniform tooth behind the ocular cavities. The 
claws are elongated, spiny, and similar to those of most of the species 
of the genus LUPA, Leach. 

The only living species known * inhabits the coasts of the Isle 
of France, and those of the neighbouring seas. 

The valuable cabinet of one of the most learned fossil con- 
chylidogists of Europe, contains au internal cast of a fossil 
Podophthalmus, to which M. Desmarest has affixed the name 
of its possessor, M. de France f . 

The ocular pedicles of the other Crustacea, belonging to this sec- 
tion, are short, occupy but a very small portion of the transverse 
diameter of the shell, are placed in oval cavities, and resemble, gene- 
rally, those of the ordinary Crabs with which these swimmers are 
almost insensibly connected. They may all be united in one single 
subgenus, that of 

PORTUNUS, Fab. 

Certain species J peculiar to the Indian Ocean, such as the Admete, 
Herbst., LVII, 1, are distinguished from all the following ones by 
their shell, which is of a transversely quadrilateral form, narrowed 
posteriorly, and whose ocular cavities occupy its anterior lateral 
angles ; the eyes are thus separated by an interval almost equal to 
the greatest width of the shell. The insertion of the lateral antennae 
is at a considerable distance from these cavities. 

Other species, whose shell forms the segment of a circle, poste- 
riorly truncated and widest in the middle are remarkable for the 
length of their claws, which is at least double that of the shell. 
Each side presents nine teeth, the posterior largest and spiniform. 
The tail of the males is frequently very different from that of the 
females. 

* Podophthalmus spinosus, Latr., Gener. Crust, et Insect., I, 1, and II, l ; Leach, 
Zool., Miscell. cxlviii ; Portunis vigil, Fab. 
f Hist. Nat. des Crust. Foss., V, 6, 7, 8. 
J Genus THALAMITA, Lat. 



DECAPODA. 165 

These Portuni constitute the genus, Lupa, Leach, and are mostly 
of a large size and foreign to Europe. One species, however, i* 
found in thf Mediterranean*. 

A third division will consist of species analogous to the last in the 
form of their shell, l>ut whose lateral teeth, usually five in number, 
are nearly equal, or where, at least, the posterior tooth differs but 
slightly from the preceding ones ; the length of the claws does not 
much exceed that of the shell. 

Those which have from six to nine teeth on each side are 
exotic. The Portunu< ti-.m^ncbaricus, Fabr., Herbst., Cane., 
XXXVIII, 3, is the only one known that has nine equal teeth 
on each lateral edge ; it is large, and is much esteemed as food. 
We suspect the P. leucodonte, Desmar., Hist. Nat. des Crust. 
Foss., VI, 1 3, is the same species in a fossil state; it is also 
from India. 

The following species, all from European seasf, have five teeth 
MI each lateral edge of the shell. 

P. puber, Fab.; Cancer puber, L. ; Penn. Brit. Zool., IV, 
iv, 8 ; Herbst., VII, 59 ; Leach, Malac. Brit.. VI. Covered with 
a yellowish down ; eight small teeth between the eyes, the two 
middle ones longest, obtuse and divergent; claws sulcated, 
armed with a stout dentated tooth on the inner side of the 
carpus, and from one joint to the following one or the hand ; 
fingers blackish. 

This species is usually called in France, where its flesh is 
considered a delicacy, rEtrille. 

P. corrugatus ; Cancer corrugatus, Penn. Brit. Zool., IV, 
11. v, 9; Leach, Malac. Brit., VII, 1, 2. The shell rugose, 
covered with a yellowish down, and furnished with three equal, 
and almost lobuliform teeth in front ; the three posterior teeth 
of the lateral margins very sharp and spiniform. 

P. mcenas ; Cancer mcenas, L., and Fab. This common 
>l> rios of the French coast, called Crabe enrage, appears to me 
to belong to the Portuni, rather than to the Crabs properly so 
called ; its posterior fins are only somewhat narrower. Such 
was the first opinion of Dr. Leach, who subsequently made a 

Portuma Dufurii t Latr., Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ed. II. This species 
figured in the Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nut. closely approaches the Cancer haslutus, 
I. in., which he says is found in the Adriatic. The following are to be referred to the 
same division : Cancer pelagicwt, Herbst., Iviii, 55, C. forceps, Id., Iv, 4 ; Leach, 
Zool., Miscell., liv ; C. sanguinolenlus, Herbst., VIII, 56, 57; C. cedonulli, Id., 
xxxix ; C. relicvlatus, Ib., 1 ; C. hattattu, Ib. Iv, 1 ; C. menestho, Ib., 3 ; C- 
ponlicus, I 

t For the Mediterranean species see Petagna, Risso and Olivi ; for those on the 
western coast of France and the British seas, the Catalogue Methodiqw des Crustaces 
du department du Calvados, by Brebisson, and especially the excellent work of 
Dr. Leach, Malacostraca Podnphfh^lmia liritannitr. M. Desmarest has well developed 
the -\ author in his Considerations Generates sur les Crustaces, an extremely 

useful book to th.i uho umke this brunch of Zoology their study. See also our 
article Fortune, Encyc. Mcthotlujuc. 



166 CRUSTACEA. 

peculiar genus for it called Carcinus, (Malac. Brit., XII, tab. v)' 
It also has five teeth on each side, and a similar number in front' 
the internal oculars included. The top of the shell is glabrous' 
finely shagreened, with deeply impressed lines. The tarsi are 
striate ; the upper edge of the hand is so compressed as to form 
a rounded ridge, terminated by a small tooth; a second but 
stronger one is observed on the inner side of the preceding joints ; 
fingers striate, and almost equally dentated, with a blackish tip. 

A fossil species is found in the marly limestone of Monte - 
Bolca, which, according to Desmarest, Hist. Nat. des Crust. 
Foss., p. 125, is closely related to the mcenas. 

In the Portunus Rondeletii, Risso, there are no teeth in 
front. The one he calls longipes, presents the same character, 
but its feet are longer in proportion than those of other ana- 
logous species. 
We will form a fourth division with the subgenus. 

PLATYONICHUS, Lat. 

Which name has replaced that of Portumnus, Leach, on account 
of the too great similarity between the latter and the word Portunus 
already adopted. Here the shell is at least as long as it is broad, and 
almost cordate. All the tarsi of the feet, the claws excepted, termi- 
nate in a small, semi-elliptical, elongated and pointed lamina; the 
index is strongly compressed. 

This division also comprises but a single species, the Cancer 
latipes, Plancus, De Conchis minus notis III, 7> B, C, and 
which has also been figured by Leach Malac. Brit., IV. There 
are three front teeth, and on each lateral edge five*. 

From the swimmers we pass to those whose feet all terminate in a 
point, or conical and sometimes compressed tarsus, but never form- 
ing a fin properly so called. Those of them whose shell is tapering, 
forming the arc of a circle before, and narrowed and truncated be- 
hind, in which the claws of both sexes are alike, where the number 
of the caudal segments is the same as in the Portuni, and which, 
with the exception of the tarsi, almost completely resemble them, 
will constitute our second section, that of the Arcuata. In the 

CANCER, Fabr. 

Or the Crab properly so called, the third joint of the external 
foot-jaws is emarginated or marked with a sinus near the internal 
and almost square extremity. The antennae scarcely extending be- 
yond the front and composed of but few articulations, are flexed and 
glabrous, or but slightly hairy. The hands are .rounded and have no 
appearance of a crest on the upper edge. 

The radical joint of the external antennae is, in some, much larger 
than the following ones, and resembles a laminae ; terminated by a 
salient and advanced tooth, closing inferiorly the internal corner of 

* See the article Platyonique, Encyf. Methodique. 



UKCAPODA. 167 

the ocular cavities. The fossuhc of the middle or internal antennae 
are nearly longitudinal. Such is the 

C. pagurus, L. ; Crabe poupart, &c. ; Herbst., IX, 59. Shell 
reddish, wide, plane, almost smooth above, with nine festoons in 
each lateral margin, and three teeth in front. Its claws are 
large, smooth, with black fingers studded internally with blunt 
tubercles. It is sometimes a foot wide, and weighs five pounds. 
Common on the Atlantic coast of France, but less abundant in 
the Mediterranean. Its flesh is esteemed. Dr. Leach separates 
it gencrically from the other Crabs : Malac. Brit., XVII, x. 

In the others, the lower joints of the Antennae are cylindrical; al- 
though somewhat larger, the first does not differ from the following 
ones in form or proportion, and does not extend beyond the internal 
j-an t h us of the ocular fossulae ; those of the intermediate antennae are 
prolonged in a direction rather parallel to the breadth of the shell 
than to its length. 

There are some of them C. ll-dentatus. Fab., in which the ex- 
tremity of the fingers are excavated like the bowl of a spoon: they 
to rm the Clorodius^ Leach. Several species, where they terminate 
in a point, are remarkable for the arcuation of the edges of the shell 
which terminate posteriorly by a fold and overlapping projection, 
in the manner of an angle. Those with a tridentated front, and 
whose shell only presents that projection or posterior tooth, com- 
pose his genus Carpilius. The species of this subdivision, C. co- 
rtillinu^ F. ; C. mauciUatus, Id., are marked with round blood- 
v oloured spots. They more particularly inhabit the Indian Ocean. 
Many fossil Crabs appear to me to belong to this subdivision. 

The Xantho, of the same, some of which, Xanth. floridus. Leach, 
Malac. Brit., XI; Cancer pores s a, Oliv., Zool. Adriat., II, 3, in- 
habit the coast of France, have their antennae inserted in the internal 
canthus of the ocular fossilise, and not in the outer one, as in those 
just mentioned. 

Other considerations would authorise us to augment the number 
of these divisions, but our limits require us merely to indicate the 
principal HUM. 

The * Crabe vulyaire de nos cdtes" of the first edition of this work, 
has in this one been placed among the Portuni. P. mcenas. 

PIRIMELA, Leach. 

These Crustacea completely resemble Crabs, but their external 
antennae extend considerably beyond the front, and their stem, longer 

than th-ir pedicle, consist of numerous joints. The fossulae of the 
intermediaries, as in the C.paguru^&Tc rather longitudinal than 
transversal. 

But a single spci -i. > is known, the P. denticulata, Loach, 

Malac. Brit., VI 11 : it is found in the British channel and in the 
M- diterramMii. Perhaps \ve should refer to this species, th.- 
i described by Dcsinarest under the name O f Atelecycle ru- 
r iii the Hist. Nat.de r nis t. Fi*s.. IX, 9. 



168 CRUSTACEA. 

ATELECYCLUS, Leach *. 

Fossuhe of the intermediate antennae longitudinal ; lateral antenna 
elongated, salient and composed of many joints, but very hairy as 
well as the claws; the latter strong, and with compressed hands. 
The third joint of the foot-jaws sensibly narrowed above, resembling 
an obtuse or rounded tooth ; conical tarsi, and the ocular pedicles 
of the ordinary size. The tail is longer than in the preceding Crus- 
tacea. 

Two species have been described f. One from the coast of 
England, of a sub-orbicular form, and the other from that of 
France, Mediterranean, as well as Oceanic. The 

THIA, Leach, 

Approaches Atelecyclus in the lateral antennae, in the direction of 
the fossulse, in which the intermediaries are placed, in the form of 
the third joint of the external foot-jaws, and in the sub-orbicular 
shell ; but the eyes, together with the pedicles, are extremely small 
and scarcely salient. The tarsi are strongly compressed and sub- 
elliptical. The front is arcuated, rounded, and without any marked 
dentations. The pectoral space between the feet is very narrow, 
and of the same breadth throughout. The claws are much weaker in 
proportion. The shell is smooth, and in some respects the Thiee 
approach the Leucosicz and the Corystes. 

The type J of this subgenus, whose habitation was unknown, 
has been discovered by Milne Edwards in the sandy shores of 
the Mediterranean, near Naples. Risso Journ. de Phys., 1822, 
p. 251, described a second, dedicated to M. de Blainville , which 
he found in the river at Nice. The 

MURSIA, Leach . 

Of which but a single species is known, and which is peculiar to 
that part of the Ocean which bounds the southern extremity of 
Africa, approaches the Matutse and several Portuni, in the long spine 
with which each side of the shell is armed posteriorly; it also 
approximates to the true Crabs in the form of the shell, and of the 
external foot-jaws, with this difference, that their third joint forms 
an elongated square, narrowed and obliquely truncated at its supe- 
rior extremity ; but, as in the Calappae and Hepati, the hands are 
strongly compressed above, having a sharp and dentated edge, re- 
sembling a crest || . 

HEPATUS, Latr. 

The Hepati have a considerable affinity with the true Crabs in the 

* We had, at first, placed this subgenus, as well as the following one, among the 
Orbiculari a. 

f See Consid. Gnr. sfurla Classe des Crust., Desmar., p. 88, 89. 

J Thia polita, Leach, Zool, Miscell. ciii. 

This name must be changed to avoid confounding the division with that of 
Nursia, another subgenus. 

H Desmarest, Consid. Gtner., &c., IX, 3. 



DECAPOD!. loH 

\viilene<l form of their shell, and the shortness of their lateral antennae, 
t|>].ioaching the Mursiae and Calappe in their compressed hands, the 
upper eiljje of which resembles a crest ; but the third joint of their 
external foot-jaws form an elongated, narrowband pointed triangle, 
without any apparent eroargi nation, a character also observed in the 
Matutre and Leucosiae. 

The species * which served as the type of this division was 
confounded by Fabricius with the Calapp. It it as large as an 
nnliniiry Pagarus. The shell is yellowish, dotted with red, and 
tin- Margin! finely and unequally crenulated. The eyes are 
small and approximated, and the feet are traversed by red 
bands. Although the tail of the male has but five complete seg- 
ments, the traces of two others may still be discovered on the 
sides. This species is common at the Antilles. 

In our third section, or that of the QUADRILATERA, the shell is 
nearly square or heart-shaped, the front generally prolonged, in- 
flected or much inclined, and forming a sort of clypeus. There 
are seven segments, distinctly marked across their whole breadth, 
in the tail of both sexes. The antennae are usually very short. 
The eyes of most of them are fixed on long or stout pedicles. 
Several live habitually on land, inhabiting holes excavated by them- 
s.-lves ; others frequent fresh-water streams. They move with great 
swiftness f . 

A first division will comprise those in which the fourth joint of 
the external foot-jaws is inserted at the superior internal extremity of 
the preceding one, either in a short, truncated projection, or in a si- 
nus of the inner margin. They approach nearest to the Crabs proper. 

The shell of some is nearly square, or a trapezium, but not trans- 
verse, or almost in the form of a truncated heart. The ocular pedi- 
cles are short, and inserted either near the lateral and anterior angles 
of the shell, or more internally, but always at a considerable distance 
from the middle of the front. Here comes the 

ERIPHIA, Lat. 

Where the lateral antennae are inserted between the ocular cavi- 
ties and the median antennae ; the nearly cordiform shell is truncated 
iorly, and the eyes are removed from its anterior angles. 

The coast of France furnishes a species Cancer spinifrons, 
Fab.; Herbst., XI, 65 ; Desmar., Consider., XIV, 1, which is 
the Pagurus of Aldrovandus. The sides of its shell are fur- 
nished with five teeth, the second and third bifid. The front 
and claws are spiny; the fingers black. 



fatciatvs, Latr. ; Desmar., Consider., IX, 2 -,Calappa anyvstata 
Fabr. ; Cancer princcps, Bosc. ; Herbst., xxxvii, 2. See also his Cancer arma<Ulh,*, 

', 43. 

t 1 consider them, with rt-jx.t to their habits and some of the ch a radii- <>t 
tluir organization, as being the furthest removed from the other Dccapoda ; they 
should be placed at one of the extremities of that order. 



170 



CRUSTACEA. 



TRAPEZIA, Lat. 

The Trapezite resemble the Eriphiae in the insertion of their lateral 
antennae, but their shell is nearly square, depressed, and smooth ; the 
eyes are placed at its anterior angles, and the claws, in comparison 
with the other feet, very large. 

All the species are exotic *, and inhabit Eastern Seas. The 
PILUMNUS, Leach, 

Differs from the two preceding subgenera, in the insertion of the 
lateral antennae at the internal extremity of the ocular cavities, 
above the origin of the pedicles of the eyes. The Pilumni, as to the 
form of the shell, approach nearer to the Crustacea of the second 
section, than the other Quadrilatera, and in this respect stand some- 
what ambiguously between the two. As in most of the Arcuata the 
third joint of their foot-jaw is nearly square or pentagonal. The 
lateral antennae are longer than the ocular pedicles, and have a seta- 
ceous stem, longer than the peduncle, and composed of numerous 
small joints. The tarsi are simply pilose f. 

- 

THELPHUSA, Lat. { 

The lateral atennae situated as in the Pilumni, but shorter than 
the ocular pedicles, composed of but few joints, and with a cylin- 
drico-conical stem, hardly longer than its peduncle. The shell is 
almost shaped like a truncated heart, and the tarsi are furnished with 
spinous or dentated ridges. 

Several species are known, all of which inhabit fresh water, 
but capable, as it would appear, of living at a distance from it 
for a considerable time. One of them, mentioned by the an 
cients, is found in the south of Europe, the Levant, and in 
Egypt ; it is the Crabe fluviatile, of Belon, Rondelet, and Ges- 
ner . It is very common in several brooks and various lakes 
of the craters of the south of Italy ; its effigy is observable on 
different antique Grecian medals, particularly on those of Sicily. 
The shell is about two inches in each diameter. It is greyish or 
yellowish, as the animal is living or dead, mostly smooth, with 
little incised rugae and asperities on the anterior sides. The 
front is transversal, inclined, reflected, and edentated. The 
claws are rough, with a reddish spot at the extremity of the 
fingers, which are long, conical, and unequally dentated. The 
Greek monks eat it raw, and during Lent it forms one of the 
articles of diet used by the Italians. 

* Cancer cymodoce, Herbst., li, 5 ; C. rufo-punctatuSj Id., xlvii, 6 ; C. glaber- 
rimus, Id., xx, 115. See the article Traptzie, Encyc. Methodique. 

f See the article Pilumne, Encyc. Method., and Desmarest, op. cit. p. 111. 

J The Pofamophiles of the first edition of this work. That name having been 
already applied to a genus of Coleopterous Insects, I have substituted the present 
one. See this word in the second edition of the Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. They 
are the Potnmobife, Leach, Potamon, Savigny. 

See Olivier Voy., en Egypte, pi. xxx, 2; and the plates of Nat. Hist., in thr 
great work on that country. 



DKCAl'Ol'A. 171 

Two naturalists, travellers of the, government, prematurely taken 
from tli" M'iences, Delande and Leschenault-do-Latour. discovered 
two other ope ifl was collected by the first in his travels to 

the south of Africa, and the other by the second in the mountains of 
Ceylon. 

Tin- Cancer senex of Fabricius (Herbst., XL, 5), should, in my 
opinion, be referred to the same subgenus. It inhabits the East 
I., .lies. 

A species peculiar to America, the Thelphusa serrata, Herbst., 
X, ii, is iro|K>rtionably wider and flatter than the others, pre- 
inu certain characters which seem to indicate a particular 
division *. 

Other Quadrilatcra having, like the preceding ones, the fourth 
joint of thr external foot-jaws inserted in the external extremity of 
the previous joint, differ from them in the trapezoidal, transverse and 
widened form of the fore-part of the shell, as well as in their ocular 
pedicles, which, like those of the Podophthalmi, are long and slender, 
extending to the anterior angles, and inserted near the middle of the 
front. Tin- claws of the males are long and cylindrical : such is the 

GONOPLAX, Leach. 

Two species of which are found in European seas ; one of them, 
however, may possibly be a mere variety of the other. 

The first Cancer angulatus, L. ; Herbst., I, 13; Leach, Ma- 
lac. Brit., XIII, has the anterior angles of its shell prolonged 
into a point, and a second, but smaller spine behind. Two 
others are observed on the claws of the males, one on the joint 
called the arm, and the other on the internal side of the carpus ; 
the hands are elongated, and somewhat narrowed at base ; ano- 
ther tooth is found on the superior extremity of the thighs of the 
other feet. The body is reddish. It inhabits the western coast 
of France, and that of England. 

In the second Cancer rhomboides, L., the shell presents no 
other spines than those formed by the prolongation of the ante- 
rior angles. The body is smaller, and of a reddish- white or 
llesh colour. From the rocky localities of the Mediterranean f. 

In the second division of the Quadrilatcra, the fourth joint of the 

mil foot jaws, or those which cover the other parts of the mouth 
below. U iii>erted in the middle of the extremity of the preceding 
joint, or more outwardly. 

-ee also the subgenua OCYPODE. I have made a new one called TRICHODAC- 
i M rs, with a fresh. water species from Brazil, analogous to the preceding ones, 
hut with :m almost square slull, tin- thinl joint of the rxtrrnal foot -jaws forming an 
elongated triangle hooked at the mil. ami thrtir-i covrrnl \\itli a dose do\\n. 

The Gratptu tnselatus, of the (.1. (m-v, 2) of Nat. IIM.. l.m-y. Mrth...!.. i- uNo 
Mi i i v, but one of too littli imjmitauce to be treated of 

,1 in i \\.-ik hkt ' 

article Rhombillr, Encyc. Mcthodiquc. 



CRUSTACEA. 

Sometimes the shell is trapezoidal or ovoid, or is shaped like a heart 
truncated posteriorly. The ocular pedicles, inserted at a short dis- 
tance from the middle of its anterior margin, extend to its anterior 
angles, or even beyond them. 

Commencing with those whose shell is transversely quadrilateral, 
widened before and narrowed behind, or which has the form of an 
egg, we first observe the 

MACROPHTHALMUS, Lat. 

Where the shell, as in the Gonoplaces, is trapezoidal, and the claws 
are long and narrow; the ocular pedicles are slender, elongated, and 
lodged in a groove under the anterior margin of the shell. The 
first joint of the intermediate antennae is rather transverse than lon- 
gitudinal, and the two which terminate them are very distinct and 
of a mean size. The external foot-jaws are approximated inferiorly 
at their inner edge, leaving no interval between them, and their third 
joint is transverse. 

They* inhabit the Eastern Ocean, and the seas of New Holland. 

The following, which constitute the subgenera Gelasimus^ Ocy- 
pode, and Mictyris, inhabit burrows, are remarkable for the celerity of 
their course, and have the fourth pair of feet, and next to them, the 
third, longer than the others. The intermediate antennae are exces- 
sively small, and hardly bifid, at their extremity; the[radical joint is 
nearly longitudinal. They are peculiar to hot climates. 

Here the shell is solid, of a quadrilateral or trapezoidal form, widest 
before. 

GELASIMUS, Lat. UCA, Leach. 

Eyes terminating their pedicles like a small head ; third joint of 
the external foot-jaws forming a transverse square ; last segment of 
the tail of the males almost semi-circular, that of the females nearly 
orbicular. 

The lateral antennae are longer, and more slender in proportion, than 
those of the Ocypodes. One of the claws, now the right, and then 
the left, varying in individuals of the same species, is much larger than 
the other ; the fingers of the small one are frequently shaped like a 
spoon or spatula. The animal closes the entrance of its burrow, 
which it excavates in the vicinity of the sea-shore, or in marshy 
places, with its large claw. These burrows are cylindrical, oblique, 
very deep, and placed close to each other, but are usually inhabited 
by a single individual. Their habit of holding the large claw in an 
upright position before the body, as if making an appellative gesture, 
has obtained for them the name of Calling- Crabs (Cancer vocans). 
One species, observed by Bosc., in South Carolina, passes the three 

* Gonoplax transversus, Latr., Encyc. Method., Hist. Nat., ccxcvii, 2 ; Cancer 
brevis, Herbst., Ix, 4. The Gonoplace de Latreille, a fossil species described by 
Desmarest, Hist. Nat. des Crust. Foss., IX, 1 4, and perhaps also his G. incise, 
IX, 5, 6, may be a Macrophthalmus ; generally speaking, however, his fossil Gono- 
places are Gelasimi. The species he calls Gelasimc luisante, VIII, 7, 8, does not 
appear to differ from the living one which I have called the maracoani, Encyc. Method., 
Ib., ccxcvi, J. 



DKCAPOnA. 173 

winter months in its retreat \vithuut leaving it, and only visits the 
B08 \vh-n about to spawn*. 

OCYPODE, Fabr. 

Eyes extending into the greater part of the length of their pedicles, 
or claviform ; third joint of the external foot-jaws forming a long 
square; tail of the males very narrow, and the last joint an elongated 
triangle ; that of the females is oval. 

The claws are nearly similar, strong, but short, and the forceps 
shaped like a reversed In-art. Agreeably to the indication afforded 
by their generic name, these Crustacea run with great swiftness, 
\vhieh indeed is such, that a horse can scarcely overtake them, whence 
the name of Eques, given to them by the older naturalists. They 
an now sometimes termed Land-Crabs, and occasionally, naturalists 
have confounded them with the Gecarcini, under the general deno- 
mination of Tourlouroux. The Ocypodes, during the day, remain in 
the boles or burrows they have excavated in the sand, near the sea- 
shore, and quit them after sun- set. 

Ocyph. eques ; Cancer cursor, L. ; Cancer eques, Bel.; 
Ocyph. ippeus, Oliv., Voy. dans 1'Emp. Ottom., II, xxx, 1. Dis- 
tinguished from all the others by the bundle of hairs, which ter- 
minate the ocular pedicles. It inhabits the coast of Syria, that of 
Africa bordering on the Mediterranean, and is even found at 
Cape de Verd. In the 

Ocyp. cerathophthalmus ; Cancer cerathopt., Pall., Spic. Zool., 
fasc. IX, v, 2 8, the superior extremity of these pedicles ex- 
tends beyond the eyes for more than a third of their whole 
length, in a conical and simple point. The forceps are codiform, 
very rough, and their cutting edge dentated. From the East 
Indi 

In others the pedicles are terminated by the eyes forming a sort of 
club. Some from the eastern continent, and all those of the western 
world, are thus formed ; but the latter possess a peculiar character, 
which indicates more acquatic habits, or that they swim with more 
facility; their feet are smoother, flatter, and furnished with a fringe of 
hairs. Such is the 0. blanc, Bosc. Hist. Nat. des Crust , I, 1. The 
( 'nnniru of Marcgrave belongs to this divisionf. 

In classing the collection of the Museum cl'Histoire Naturelle. W 

placed among the Ocypodes, under the specific name of quadridmtata, 

Mistaccous animal, which appears to us to bear a close resemblance 



See the article Gtlasimt, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ed. II, and the same article 
in the work of Dcsmarest on animals of that class. The Crabs, cietic-etc, cietie- 
jNUMMta, of Marcgrave, appear to me synonymous with the Gclasimus pugilator. 
According to the obssrvations of M. Marion, communicated to the Acad. Roy. des 
de Blainville. this im ,,uality of the forceps is peculiar to the males, at 
least such was the rase in all the numerous specimens examined by him in his voyage 
t th< Kast Indies. 

t For the Ocypodes of the Western Continent, see the observations of M. Say, 
Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila.l. His Ocyp. reticulatus is a Grapsus. Consult, also, the 
artidc Ocyporff, Nouv. Diet. d'HM N;it., and the work of M. Desmarrst. 



174 CRUSTACEA. 

to the Gtcarcin trois-epines, Desmar., a fossil species, Hist. Nat. 
des Crust. Foss,, VIII, 10 ; he suspects it may belong to the genus 
Thelphusa. 

Here, at least in the females, the shell is very thin, membranous, 
and flexible, and the body almost round or subovoid. The ocular 
pedicles are sensibly shorter than in the preceding subgenera. First 
comes the 

MICTYRJS, Lat. 

Where the body is subovoid, highly inflated, narrower, and more 
obtuse before, and truncated posteriorly; the clypeus considerably 
diminished, and its extremity narrowed into a point. The claws form 
an elbow at the junction of the third and fourth joint, the latter of 
which is almost as large as the hand ; the other feet are long, with 
angular tarsi. To these essential characters we will add, that the 
ocular pedicles are curved, and crowned with globular eyes ; that the 
external foot-jaws are very ample, and their internal edge hairy, the 
second joint being very large, and the following one almost semi- 
circular. 

Two species are known : one is found m the Australasian 
Ocean *, and the other in Egypt f, where it was observed by M. 
Savigny. Immediately after these come the 

PINNOTHERES, Lat. 

Very small Crustacea, which during a part of the year, in Novem- 
ber particularly, inhabit various bivalve shells, chiefly the Mytili and 
Pinnae. The shell of the females is sub-orbicular, very thin and soft, 
while that of the males is solid, almost globular and somewhat nar- 
rowed into a point before. The feet are of a middling length, and 
the claws straight and formed as usual. The external foot-jaws pre- 
sent but three distinct joints, the first large, transversal, and arcuated, 
and the second furnished at its internal base with a small appendage. 
The tail of the female is very ample, and covers the whole under part 
of the body. 

The ancients believed that they resided with the Mollusca, in whose 
shells they are found, on friendly terms, warning them of danger and 
seeking food for them. The inhabitants of certain districts, at the 
present day, attribute to their presence the unwholesome qualities 
sometimes manifested in the Mytili +. 

We now arrive at Crustacea, which, although analogous to those 
just mentioned in the insertion of their ocular pedicles, are removed 
from them in respect to their shell. It is heart-shaped, and trunca- 
ted posteriorly, elevated, dilated and rounded on the sides near the 
anterior angles. The ocular pedicles are shorter than those of the 

* Lat., Gener. Crust, et Insect., I, 40 ; Encyc., Method., Atlas d'Hist. Nat. 
ccxcvii, 3 ; Desmar., Consider., XI, 2. This subgenus, and that of the Pinnotheres, 
in the first edition of this work, constituted part of the Orbicularia ; but in their 
natural order they approach the Ocypodes, Gecarcini, &c. 

f PI. d'Hist. Nat., of the great work on Egypt. 

J For species see Leach, Malar. Podoph. Britt., and Desmar., Consider. 
sur les Crust., 116. 



175 

preceding subgenera. and do not quite extend to the lateral extre- 
mities <!' tin- shell. The intermediate aiii-nn:c arc always terminated 
l>v t\\-o very distinct divisions. The inhabitants of the French 
colonies designate them by various appellations, such as Tourlouroux, 
Crabes-peini<, Cntln-* de terre, and Crabes vio/rts, which may apply 
to different species, or to varieties from age ; no observations worthy 
of credence have as yet settled this point of nomenclature. These 
animals more particularly inhabit intertropical countries and those 
which adjoin them. Their habits are a constant source of interest to 
travellers, but by abstracting from their accounts all improbable and 
doubtful facts, their history will be as follows. The greater portion 
of their life is passed on land, where they secrete themselves in holes, 
from which they never issue but at night. Some inhabit cemeteries. 
Once in the year, about the spawning season, they collect in immense 
bands and pursue a direct course to the sea, heedless of all obstacles ; 
after depositing their ova, they return much enfeebled. It is said 
that they seal up the mouth of their burrow during the time they are 
casting their shell. When this is effected, and while yet soft, they are 
called Boursiers, and their flesh is much esteemed, although some- 
times poisonous This quality is attributed to the fruit of the man- 
ehineel, which they are supposed, falsely perhaps, to have eaten. In 
some of them, such as the 

UCA, LaL, 

The size of the feet, commencing with those of the second pair, 
pn>uivvsiv>ly diminishes; they are extremely pilose, and the tarsi 
simply sulcated without any remarkable spines or dentations. 

The only species known Cancer uca, L., Herbst., VI, 38, 
inhabits the marshes of Guiana and of Brazil. 
In others, the third and fourth pair of feet are longer than the 
second and fifth ; the tarsi are marked with dentated or very spinous 
ridges. They form two subgenera. 

CARDISOMA, Lat. 

The four antennae and all the joints of the external foot-jaws 
exposed; the three first joints of these same foot-jaws straight; 
the third shorter than the second, emarginated superiorly and nearly 
cordiform; the first of the lateral antennae almost similar and broad. 

They are called Crabes blancs at the Antilles, though sometimes 
they have a yellow shell striped with red *. 

GECARCINUS, Leach. 

The four antennae covered by the clypeus; second and third joint 5 
of the external foot-jaws, large, flattened, arcuated, and leaving a Space 
between their inner sides, the last one forming a curvilinear triangle, 
obtuse at the- summit: it reaches to the clypeus, and covers the three 
following ones, or the fourth, fifth, and sixth. 

Cancer cordatiu, L.; Cancer carntfcx, Herbst., XLI, l IV, 37 ; C. g*a*- 
h*mi, Marcgrave. The tarsi have four ridgea ; there are two additional ones in the 

Gecarcim. 



CRUSTACEA. 

The most common species Cancer ruricola, L., Herbst., Ill, 
36, when young, IV, xx, 116; xlix, 1, is of a more or less lively 
blood -red colour, more or less extended, and sometimes spotted 
with yellow with a deeply marked impression of the letter H. 
It is the Crabe violet, and Crabe peint of travellers ; the name 
of Tourlourou appears to me to be more peculiarly applied to this 
species *. 

Sometimes the shell is nearly square, subisometrical or not, broader 
than it is long, flattened, and the front turned down for nearly the 
whole of its width. The ocular pedicles are short and inserted at the 
anterior lateral angles. The two ordinary divisions of the interme- 
diate antennae are very distinct. The inner sides of the exterior foot- 
jaws are separated, leaving an angular space between them; their 
third joint is almost as long as it is broad. The claws are short and 
thick, and the other feet very flat; the fourth pair, and then the third, 
are longer than the others ; tarsi spinous. 

PLAGUSIA, Lai. 

The mediate antenese lodged in two longitudinal and oblique fissures 
traversing the whole thickness of the middle of the clypeus f . They 
are inferior or covered by this part in 

GRAPSUS, Lam. 

Where the shell is somewhat wider before than behind, or at least 
not narrower, while in the Plagusise it widens from before back- 
wards. 

The Grapsi are found throughout all parts of the globe, but are 
more particularly abundant in the vicinity of the tropics. They are 
not seen in Europe beyond 50 deg. of latitude. If I mistake not they 
are called Ceriques at Martinique. Marcgrave has figured some 
Brazilian species by the name of Aratu, Aratu-pinima ( Grapsus 
cruentatus, Lat.) and Carava-una. At Cayenne they are called 
Ragabeumba, or soldier. 

These animals conceal themselves during the day under stones, 
&c., at the bottom of the sea. I have been informed that some of them 
even climb up the trees on its shores and hide beneath their bark. 
The broad and flattened form of their body and feet enables them to 
support themselves for a moment on the surface of the water ; they 
always walk sideways, sometimes to the right, and it others to the 
left. Certain species inhabit rivers within the bounds of tide water, 

* See the article Tourlourou in the Encyc. Methodique. Messrs. Andouin and 
Edwards have lately communicated to the Acad. Roy. des Sc., some very curious 
remarks upon an organ peculiar to these animals, which form a sort of reservoir 
capable of containing a certain quantity of water, and placed immediately above 
the branchiae. This accounts for the unusual convexity of the anterior sides of their 
thorax. 

f P. depressa, Lat. ; Herbst., Ill, 35 ; P. clavimana, Lat., Herbst., lix, 3 ; 
Desmar., Consider., XIV, 2. The tail appears to me to consist bat of four distinct 
segments. The third, however, presents one or two deep and transverse lines. In 
the Grapsi there are seven segments, the third of which has an angular dilatation on 
each side of its base. 



DECAPODA. 177 

but most frequently live on their banks or on land. They assemble 
in great numbers, and when any one appears among them, they hurry 
to thi- water with a tremendous noise, caused by striking one claw 
against the other. Their habits are similar to those of other carni- 
vorous Crustacea *. 

G. wzrmt, Lat. ; Cancer mar// Fab. ; Oliv., Zool, 

Adr., II, 1 ; Cancre madre, Rondel. ; Herl.st.. XX, 114. Size 
middling; nearly square, hardly broader than long ; yellowish or 
livid; greatly elongated above, and marked with numerous fine 
lines and points of a reddish brown ; four flattened projections 
arranged transversely at the base of the clypeus, and three teeth 
at the anterior extremity of each lateral edge. The tarsi are 
spiny. Tin- 

G. porte-pinceau; Cuv. Regne Anim., IV, xii,l; Rumph., 
Mus. X, 2; Desmar., Consider., XV, 1, is remarkable for the 
numerous long and blackish hairs with which the superior sur- 
faces of the fingers are furnished. The tarsi are without spines, 
a character exclusively peculiar to this species. It is found in the 
East Indies f. 

In our fourth section or the ORBICULATA J, the shell is either sub- 
globular, rhomboidal, or ovoid, and always very solid; the ocular pe- 
dicles are always short or but slightly elongated ; the claws of un- 
equal size according to the sex, those of the males being largest ; there 
are never seven complete segments in the tail; the buccal cavity 
grows gradually narrower towards its superior extremity, and the 
third joint of the external foot-jaws always forms an elongated 
triangle. The posterior feet resemble the preceding ones, and neither 
of the latter is ever very long. In the 

CORYSTES, Latr., 

The shell is an ovoidal oblong, and crustaceous ; the lateral antennae 
are long, projecting and ciliated ; ocular pedicles of a mean size and 
separated; third joint of the external foot-jaws longer than the pre- 
ng one, with a visible emargination for the insertion of the next. 
The tail is composed of seven segments, the two middle ones oblite- 
rated in the males. 

A species Cancer personatus, Herbst, XII, 71, 72; Leach, 
Malac. Brit., VI, 1, is known on the coast of France. The 
lateral edge of its shell is marked with three notches on each 
side. 

A second was brought from the Cape of Good Hope by the 
late Delalande. 



See Bow, Hist. Nat. des Crust. 

the Article Platpuit, Encyc. Method., and the Histoire des Animaux sans 
vert^bres of Deltimarck, genus Grapsr. 

J The Orythite and the Dorippes, in a natural series, would, in my opinion, belong 
to this section, and lead to the Corystes ; their shell is a truncated ovoid. 

VOL, in. N 



178 CRUSTACEA, 



LEUCOSIA, Fab. 

Form of the shell varying, but generally ovoid or almost globular, 
and always very hard and stony; lateral antennae and eyes very small ; 
eyes approximated. The third joint of the external foot-jaws is 
smaller than the second, and without any apparent internal sinus ; 
these parts are contiguous inferiorly along the internal edge, and form 
an elongated triangle, the extremity of which is received into two 
upper cells of the buccal cavity. The tail, which is ample and subor- 
bicular in the females, usually consists of from four to five segments, 
but never seven, 

Doctor Leach * has separated this genus of Fabricius into several 
genera, which, however, we will consider as simple divisions. 

Those species which have a transversal shell, with the middle of its 
sides greatly prolonged or dilated, so as to resemble a cone or cylinder, 
forms his genus Ixa f . 

Those which have a rhomboidal shell with seven conical points, re- 
sembling spines on each side, compose that of Iphis. 

If the shell still has the rhomboidal figure, but merely presents 
angles or sinuses on the sides, it becomes his genus Nursia. 

If these lateral edges are smooth, we have his Ebalia. 

The Leucosise with an ovoid or nearly globular shell, and other- 
wise distinguished from several of the preceding by the claws being 
always longer than the body, and thicker than the other feet, and by 
the tarsi being sensibly striate, may be divided thus : 

In some the front projects, or at least is not surpassed by the supe- 
rior extremity of the buccal cavity. The outer branch of the external 
foot-jaws is elongated, and almost linear. 

Here the claws are slender, the hands cylindrical, and the fingers 
long. 

Sometimes the shell is nearly globular, and either very spiny, as in 
the genus Arcania, or smooth as in ILIA. 

At others, the shell is suborbicular and depressed, as in the genus 
Persephona, or ovoid as in Myra. 

There the claws are thick, with ovoid hands and short fingers. 

They constitute the true Leucosice of that naturalist. 

In the others, the superior extremity of the buccal cavity outreaches 
the front. The outer branch of the external foot-jaws is short, and 
arcuated ; the shell rounded and depressed. This last division com- 
prises his genus Phylira. 

Other considerations, founded on the proportions of the feet and the 
form of the external foot-jaws, strengthen these characters. 

The Leucosie noyau; Ilia nucleus, Leach ; Cancer nucleus* 
Lin., Herbst., XI, 14, is common in the Mediterranean; its shell 
is globular, granulated on the sides and posteriorly ; the front is 



Leach Zool. Misc. Ill; Desmar., Consid. 
Leucosia cylindrus, Fabr., Herbst., II, 29 31. 



DECAPODA. 179 

notched; two teeth on tin; interior margin, and two others 
widely separated on each lateral muscle ; the posterior largest 
and fphuform, and situated above the origin of the posterior 
feet, 

Tin- sea coast of the wot em department* of France produces 
some other species, which belong to the genus Ebalia, Leach *. 
All the remaining ones arc l'n*m India and America. 

Some fossil Leucosiro are found in the East Indies. Three 
species have b . n d-M-iil-d by M. Desman st. two of which, 
according to him, are true Leucosice, Leach, and which are 
now living in tin- same countries, and peculiar to them. 

Our fifth section, that of the TRIGONA, is composed of those species 
whre shrll i> usually triangular or subovoid, nurrowed before into a 
point or kind of beak, generally uneven and rough, with lateral eyeg, 
The interval comprised between the antennae and the buccal cavity 
i* ahvay* nearly square, as long, or almost as long, as broad. The 
(laws, ut least those of the males, are always large and elongated. 
'!' he following feet are very long in a great number, and sometimes 
the two last even differ in form from the preceding ones. The third 
joint of the external foot-jaws is always nearly square or hexagonal, 
in those at least whose feet are of the ordinary length. 

Tin- apparent number of the caudal segments varies. In both 
sexes of several it is seven ; in others, however, the males at least, it 
is less. 

Several of these Crustacea are designated by the vulgar appellation 
of Araignees de mer or Sea-spiders. 

Although the species of this tribe are very numerous, but two 
have as yet been discovered except in a fossil state, one of which at 
least Maia squinado exists at the present day in a living state, and 
in the same localities f . 

A first division will comprehend those whose second and following 
feet are similar, and which diminish progressively in size. 

From the latter we will form a first group of all those where the 

tail, either in both sexes, or in the females alone, is composed of seven 

nents. The third joint of the external foot-jaws is almost 

always square, and truncated or notched at the superior internal 

angle. 

large claws, particularly so when compared with the other 
\\-hieh are extremely short, directed horizontally and perpendi- 
cularly to the axis of the body, as far as the carpus or joint immedi- 
ding the hand, then reflected anteriorly on themselves with 
the linger- ..Ulenly forming an angle ; very short ocular pedi- 

g but little, if at all, from their oavi -tony and 

unexvii or -piny shell, designate the 

PARTHEXOPK, Fab. 
lateral antennw of some are very short, not exceeding the 

Malar. Brit., 

f Se Desuuur,, Hist. Nat. de Crust. POM. 



180 CRUSTACEA. 

length of the eyes ; the first joint is entirely situated under the ocular 
cavities. 

If there are seven segments in the tail of both sexes, we have the 
genus Parthenopc properly so called * of Leach. 

If that of the males presents but five, it is his genus Lambrus f- 

The lateral antennae of the others are sensibly longer than the eyes ; 
their first joint extends to the superior internal extremity of the 
cavities peculiar to these latter organs, and appears to be confound- 
ed with the shell. The post-abdomen is always composed of seven 
segments. The claws of the females are much shorter than those of 
the opposite sex. The same naturalist distinguishes these Crustacea 
generically by the name of Eurynoma. But a single species is known 
which inhabits the English and French coasts {. 

All the other Parthenopes, one excepted, are from the Indian 
Ocean. 

In the following ones, the claws always project, and their length, at 
most, is double that of the body ; their fingers are not suddenly bent 
into an angle ||. 

Here the length of the longest feet the second barely exceeds 
that of the shell from the eyes to the origin of the tail. The under 
part of the tarsi is usually either dentated or spiny, or furnished with 
a ciliated fringe terminated like a club. 

We will commence with those whose ocular pedicles are very short, 
or of a mean length, susceptible of being entirely retracted within 
their cavities, and whose claws, at least in the males, are considerably 
thicker than the other feet. 

MITHRAX, Leach. 

Robust claws ; ends of the fingers like the bowl of a spoon ; stem 
of the lateral antennae sensibly shorter than the pedicle ; the tail 
composed of seven segments in both sexes. 

All the known species are from the American seas If. 
i 

ACANTHONYX, Latr. 

A tooth or spiniform projection on the inferior side of the tibiae ; 
under part of the tarsi pilose, and as if pectinated ; superior surface 

* Parthen. horrida,Fab.; Rumph., Mus., IX, 1 ; Seba, III, xix, 16, 17 ; Herbst , 
XIV, 88. 

f Panth. lonyimana, Fab.; Rumph., Mus., VIII ; P.giraffa, Fab.; Herbst., 
XIX, 108, 109; P. lar, Fab. ; P. minis, Latr. ; Cancer contrarius, Herbst., Ix, 
3; P.macrochelcs, Lat., Herbst., XIX, 107; Cancel' longimamts, L., fern., P. 
trigonomana, Lat. ; Cancer prensor, Herbst., xli, 3. 

J Cancer asper, Peon., Brit. Zool., IV ; Eurynoma aspera, Leach, Malac. Brit., 
XVII. 

Parthenope angulifrons, Latr.,Encyc. Method. ; Cancer longimamts, Olivi. 

|| The first joint of the lateral antennae appearing to form part of the shell, has 
been mistaken by several naturalists, the second having been considered by them 
as the first. 

^f Mithrax spinicinctus, Latr.; Desmar., Consid., p. 150; Cancer, hixpidus, 
Herbst., XVIII, 100 ; Cancer acukatus, Herbst., XIX, 104 ; C. spinipes, ejusd., 
XVII, 94. The laclnts hircvs, Fab., is perhaps a congener. 



DECAPOD!. 181 

of the shell smooth. The tale of the males presents, at most, but 
MX eomplrtr segments*. 

PISA, Leach. 

Claws of amean size, with pointed fingers ; tibia; without any spine 

beneath, and the tail composed of seven segments in both sexes. 

As in the preceding subgenera, the lateral antennae are inserted at 

an equal distance from th that n-c' iv< thr intermediate 

. and from the ocular cavities, or rather nearer to the latter. 

Tin M-, as in the u da ,Leach f, have two ranges of den- 

tations on the under part of tin- tarsi. Those have but a single row 
of dentations, or a simple fringe of thick claviform cilia, under the 
same joint. The latter constitute the genus Lissa of that author J. 

Among those which have a range of dentations, the feet some- 
tim.'s gradually diminish in length, as happens in his Pisa, pro- 
perly M> called, and at others, the third ones, in the males, become 
abruptly shorter than those which precede them, as in his C/tori- 
nus\\. 

PERICERA, Lair. 

The Pericerae, though approaching the Pisae in the form and pro- 
portions of the claws, and the number of their caudal segments, are 
removed from them, as well as from the other anterior subgenera, 
hy the insertion of their lateral antenn* under the snout, and their 
approximation to the fossuloe lodging the intermediate ones, being 
closer than to those which receive the ocular pedicles If. 

In the two following subgenera the ocular pedicles are short or 
moderate, as well as in the preceding ones. But the claws, even 
tho>- of the males, are hardly thicker than the following feet. The 
tail always consists of seven segments. In the 

MAIA, Leach, 

The second joint of the lateral antennae seems to arise from the 
internal e.mtlius of the ocular fossae. The hand and the joint which 
precedes it are nearly of the same length. The shell is ovoid. 

Tli is subgenus established by Lamarck, and originally consisting 
of a great number of species, comprises, at present, according to 
the method of Dr. Leach, but one, the Cancer squinado, Herbst, XIV, 



Mow ylabra, Collect. <lu Mas. d'Hist. Nat.; Alaia lunulata, Risso, I, 4; 
Libiniu lunulata, Desmar. 
t Pitaourita, Latr., Encyc. Method. P. monoceriu, Ib. 

Latr., Encyc. Method.; Desman, Consul. 

$ Pita xypkiat, Latr., II). : I-JUM!., Ib. P. aries\P. barbicornis ; P. corni* 
P. ttyXiP.bicontuta.P, triipinosa .- P. amutta. Leach, Malac. Brit., 

Cancer musconu / Lin.; P. tctraodon, Lcacb, Ib. xx. 
|| Pisa heros, Litr.. Kn.-yc. Method. 
j Main ttwnu, Lam. ; Cancer cv> \ !>st., lis, 6. 

N.H. The genus Amathia of M. P. Roux, Hist, dcs Crust, de l;i Mo<lite>rr., &c. f 
I , does not differ from my Peru-era it even appears to me to have the same 
type. The Lithojrrapbic plates which accompany this work are distinctly and 
faithfully executed. 



182 CRUSTACEA. 

884, 5, Ivi; Inachus cornutus, Fab. It is very common on the coast 
of France and in the Mediterranean, where it is called Araignee de 
mer. It is one of the largest of the European Crustacea, and the 
Maia of the ancient Greeks, figured on some of their coins. They 
attributed great wisdom to it, and considered it as sensible to the 
charms of music. 

MICIPPE, Leach. 

The first joint of the lateral antennae curved, dilated at its supe- 
rior extremity into a transverse and oblique blade, closing the ocular 
fossae; the ensuing joint inserted under its superior margin. The 
shell, viewed from above, appears widely truncated before; its an- 
terior extremity is inclined, and terminates in a sort of clypeus or 
dentated rostrum*. The 

STENOCIONOPS, Leach, 

Is distinguished from all other subgenera of this tribe by long and 
slender ocular pedicles which protrude from their fossulae f 

There the under surface of the feet presents neither ranges of den- 
tations nor claviform cilia. Those of the first pairs, at least, are one 
half longer than the shell, and frequently much longer. The body 
is usually more abbreviated than in the preceding subgenera, being 
either nearly globular, or formed like a shortened egg. 

A species of this tribe, Maia retuja, Coll. du Jard. du Roi, 
whose shell is woolly and forms a truncated ovoid, or is obtuse 
anteriorly ; whose strongly curved elongated ocular pedicles are 
received into fossulse situated under the lateral margin of the 
shell ; whose carpus is elongated as in Maia ; presents another 
character which exclusively distinguishes it, viz. the length of 
the feet seems to augment progressively from the second pair on- 
wards, or at least to differ but little. It is the type of the genus 

CAMPOSCIA, Leach. 

In the others, as usual, the length of the feet progressively di- 
minishes from the second pair to the last. 

In some of them, the ocular pedicles, although much shorter than 
in the Stenocionops, are always salient, and the third joint of the 
pedicle of their lateral antennse is as long, or even larger, than the 
preceding one, the antennae themselves terminating in a long seta- 
ceous stem. The approach the Micippes ; such is the 

HALIMUS, Lati\\ 
In those which constitute the two following sub-genera, the ocular 

* Cancer cristatus, L. ; Humph., Mus., VIII, 1, the male. Cancer phylira, 
Herbst. Iviii, 4 ; Desmar. Consider., XX, 2. 

f- Cancer cervicornis, Herbst., Iviii, 2, from the Isle of France. M. Desmarest 
was mistaken in citing, as the type, Consid. Gen. sur les Crust., p. 153, the 
Maia taunts, Lamarck. 

J Two species, one of which appears to be allied to the Cancer superciliosus, 
L. ; Herbst, XIV, 89. 



DECAPODA. 183 

pedicles are susceptible of being entirely retracted within their fos- 
sulae, and are protected posteriorly by a dentiform projection, or 
angle, of tin- literal edges of the shell. The second joint of the pe- 
duncle of the lateral antenna' is much larger than the following one ; 
they are terminated by a very short stem resembling an elongated 
sty let. 

>, Leach. 

Lateral edges of the shell dilated behind the ocular cavities, which 
large and oval ; external side of the second joint of the lateral 
antennae compressed and carinated; ocular pedicles, when erected, 
entirely exposed. The body is sub -ovoid*. In the 

LIBINIA, Leach, 

The ocular fossuhe arc very small and nearly orbicular, and the 
ocular pedicles are very short, and but very slightly exertile. The 
ud joint of the lateral antennae is cylindrical, and uot compressed, 
or hut vi iy ^lightly so. The body is nearly globular, or triangular. 

We will unite the Doclcea and the Egeria of Leach to his Li- 
BINLE. 

In his Libiniae, properly so called f, the claws of the males are 
thicker than the two following feet, and almost as long. The length 
of the longest does not exceed twice that of the shell. 

The claws ,,t tin* male DoclaeaJ are much shorter than the two 
following feet. The length of the latter is hardly more than once 
and a half that of the shell, which is nearly globular and always co- 
vered with a brown or blackish down. 

In the Egerhe the claws are filiform, and the hands much elon- 
gated and almost linear. The following feet are five or six times 
longer than the shell. The body is triangular. 

Having reviewed all the sub-genera of this tribe in which the feet 
subsequent to the claws are of a similar form, and in which the tail, 
of the females at least, and most generally in both sexes, is composed 
of seven complete joints or segments, we now pass to those in which 
of more than six. The feet are usually long and 
filiform, as in the last sub-genera. With the exception of the Lep- 
topi, these Crustacea are almost removed from the preceding by the 
of the third joint of the external foot-jaws. It is proportionally 
mil-rower, and contracted at base, and the ensuing joint appears to 
hi- inserted at the middle of its superior margin, or more externally. 
The following sub-genus differs from those which succeed to it, in 
the tail of the males, where we only find three segments. The form 
of the third joint of the external foot-jaws appears to me the same as 
in the preceding MI' 



* Cancer amnrwt, L.; Leach, Malac. Brit., XXI, A; Herbst., XVII. 69 ; 
Hyat toarctata, Leach, Ib., xxi, H. 

t Libinia canalic*lata, AiM.I. Nat. Sc. Philud. vol. I, p. 77, iv, 1; 

L. fmarginata, Leach, Zool. Misc., cviii. 

I Doclaa Rissonnii, Leach, Zool. Misc. Ixxiv. The Inaehws oris and the T. 
*f*n<ft, Fab., should be referred to it. 

* yertM4*ca, Leach, Zool. Misc., Ixiii; l*ach*s tpintfer, Fab. 



184 CRUSTACEA. 

LEPTOPUS, Lam. 

Tail of the females composed of but five segments; the body con- 
vex and feet very long. 

But a single species is known which is part of the collection of the 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, where it is called Maia longipes. 
Doctor Leach proposed to designate this genus by the name of Ste- 
nopus, a denomination we have not adopted, inasmuch as it is al- 
ready appropriated to another. That of Leptopus, Lam., is composed 
of several species, which, the above mentioned one excepted, accord- 
ing to the characters here given, must be excluded from it. 

If we except some species of Hymenosomae in which the tail pre- 
sents but four, or at most five, distinct segments, that part of the 
body consists of six in all the following sub-genera, either in both 
sexes, or in the males. The third joint of the external foot-jaws is 
sometimes in the form of an inverted triangle, or of a posteriorly 
narrowed oval, and sometimes in that of a heart. The ensuing joint 
is inserted in the middle of its superior margin, or rather more out- 
wards than inwards. 

Some of them, such as the three following sub-genera, approach 
those of which we have just spoken by the almost isometrical, or at 
least transversal form of the epistoma. The base of the intermediate 
antennae is but a short distance from the superior margin of the 
buccal cavity. 

One of these sub-genera is distinguished from the others by the 
flatness of the shell, and by the superior extremity of the first joint 
(free in several) of the lateral antennae, which does not extend be- 
yond that of the ocular pedicles. Such is the. 

HYMENOSOMA, Leach. 

The shell is triangular or orbicular *. The species are generally 
small and peculiar to the Indian Ocean and coast of Australia. The 
number of caudal segments varies, but never extends beyond six. 

In the two following sub-genera, the shell is more or less convex, 
always triangular and terminated before in a rostrum. The first 
joint of the lateral antennae, always fixed, forms a ridge or salient 
line between the fossulae of the intermediate antennae and that of the 
eyes, and which is prolonged beyond the end of the ocular pedicles. 
In the 

INACHUS, Fab., 

The tail is always composed of six segments; all the tarsi are 
nearly straight, or but slightly arcuated ; the ocular pedicles are 
smooth, susceptible of being concealed within their fossulse, and 
there is a tooth or spine, at least in the males, at the posterior extremity 
of the latter cavities. Doctor Leach has considerably reduced the 
original extent of this group f . 

* JJymenosoma orbicularis, Desmar., Consid., xxvi, 1. 

t Cancer dodecos ? L. ; Inachus scorpio, Fab. ; Inachus Dorsettensis, Leach, Ma- 
lac. Brit., xxii, A ; Inachus phalanyium, Fab. ; Inachus dorynchus, Leach, Ib., 



DKCAI'ODA. 



185 



ACILEUS, Leach. 

Six segments in the tail, but the four posterior tarsi are arcuated 
or falciform ; the ocular pedicles are always salient and present a 
tubercle ant.-riorly *. 

Next conic those in which the epistoma is longer than it is broad, 
shaped like an elongated triangle truncated at the apex, and in which 
the origin of the mediate antennae is separated by a considerable 
space from the superior margin of the buccal cavity. The ocular 
pedicles are always salient when the head is triangular and termi- 
nated in a point more or less bifid or entire. 

STENORHYNCHUS, Lam. MACROPODIA, Leach. 

Six caudal segments in both sexes ; anterior extremity of the shell 
bifid f. 

LKPTOPODIA, Leach. 

segments in the tail of the male ; one more in that of the fe- 
male. The shell is prolonged anteriorly into a long, entire, and 
(lentated point J. 

The latter Trigona differ from the preceding in the dissimilitude of 
their interior feet. 

PACTOLUS, Leach. 

The four or six anterior feet simple, or without forceps. The in- 
ternal extremity of the penultimate joint of the four posterior ones 
is prolonged into a tooth, forming with the last joint a forceps or 
didactyle hand. The form of the shell is that of the Leptopodise, and 
the tail presents the same number of segments : but the feet are 
much shorter ; those of the third pair were wanting in the individual 
which served as the type of this section . 

LITHODES, LaL 

The Lithodes, as to the form of the first eight pairs of feet, re- 
semble the other Trigona; their length, however, seems progressively 
to increase from the second to the fourth, but the two last are very 
small, licnt. but ^lightly visible, beardless, and apparently useless. 
Tin- tail is membranous with three crustaceous and transverse spaces 
on the sides, and another on the end, representing the segmcntary 
divisions. The eyes are approximated inferiorly. The external 
foot-jaws are elongated and salient, and the shell is triangular, ex- 



7, 8; Inachus Ifptoriitchits, ejusd., Ib., x.\ '.rtribulus, L. ? Near 

the luachi comes a new genus lately established by M. Guerin, called Eurypode, 
minutely described nnd can-fully figured, Mem. du Mus. ;. XVI. It ap- 

proaches that of Inachus, but the ocular pedicles arc always salieut; the post-abdo- 
men is composed of seven completely separate segments in both sexes, and the 
penultimate joiat of the feet, or the metarsus, is inferiorly dilated and compressed. 

* Acfufttf Crmchii, Leach, Malac. Brit., x\ 

f Macropodia tenuirostri*, Leach, Malac. Brit., xxiii, 15? Inachus longirostrii t 
Fab. ; .l/./m./j. /./i,i/i,/ M | HI , Lcnch, Ib., xxiii, 6. 

I Inachus sagittariiu, Fab. ; Leach, Zool. Misc., Ixvii. 

Factors Bosdi, Lench, Zool. Misc., Ixviii. 



186 CRUSTACEA. 

tremely spinous, and terminated anteriorly by a dentated point. These 
Crustacea are peculiar to the Arctic Seas *. 

Our sixth section, that of the CRYPTOPODA f consists of Brachyura 
remarkable for a vaulted projection of the posterior extremities of their 
shell, under which their feet, the two anterior or the claws excepted, 
can be completely retracted and concealed. The shell is nearly semi- 
circular or triangular. The superior edge of the forceps is more or 
less elevated and notched in the manner of a crest. In those species 
where they are largest, they cover the anterior part of their body, 
and hence the name of Coq de mer (Sea Cock), and Crabe honteux 
(Bashful Crab), which have been given to some of them. One sub- 
genus of this section, that of JEthra being closely allied by other cha- 
racters with the Parthenopes of Fabricius, the first sub-genus of the 
preceding section, it follows, in a natural order, the Cryptopoda should 
be placed between the Orbiculata and the Trigona. 

CALAPPA, Fabr. 

An extremely convex shell ; the forceps triangular, strongly com- 
pressed, dentated superiorly like a crest, and perpendicularly cover- 
ing the anterior part of the body, during the contraction of the feet. 
The third joint of the external foot-jaws is terminated like a hook, 
and the superior extremity of the buccal cavity is contracted and 
divided longitudinally into two cells by a septum. 

In most of them, the two posterior and lateral dilatations of the 
shell are incised and dentated. 

One species, the Calappe migrane, Cancer granulatus, L. ; 
Calappa granulata, Fab.; Herbst., XIII, 75, 76, vulgarly styled 
Coq de mer and Crabe honteux, is found in the Mediterranean. 
The shell is reddish arid marked with two deep sulci, and un- 
equal tubercles of a carmine red. That portion of the lateral 
margin which precedes the posterior dilatations, is at first nearly 
entire, and terminates by four very short teeth, the two first 
being most strongly marked ; those of the edges of the dilatations 
are large, and six in number, two on the posterior margin, and 
the others lateral. There are two others on the front. The 
forceps are also furnished with red tubercles, ^and their crest is 
formed by seven teeth, the superior of which are acute J. 



* Cancer inaja, L. ; Parfhenope maja, Fab.; Indchv.s maja, Id.; Lithodes arc- 
tica, Leach, Malac. Brit., xxiv. See also the Maja camptschoisis, Tiles., Mem. 
Acad. St. Petersb. 1812, V, VI. 

f Several of the Arcuata, such as the Hepati, Mursia;, Matutac, among the 
swimmer*, luive a crested forceps, and seem to be naturally allied to the Crypto- 
poda, so that this section should be placed higher in the scale. The same observa- 
tion applies to the last one, or that of the Notopoda, for some of them approach the 
Arcuata, and others the Orbiculata and the Trigona. 

J In thi-< division come the following species of Fabricius: C. tuberculata, 
Herbst., XIII, 78; Iviii, 1 ? C. lophos, Herbst., XIII, 77; C. cristatus, Herbst.; 
xl, 3; C. ,iiii,:ii!,,;ifiis, Herbst., xl, 2. The Gtiuju (t/H'ra, Pi.son and Marcgr., 
should probably be referred to this species, and, according to the citation of Barre, 
is the Crabe des palttuviers of the colonists of Cayenne. The Cancer hepaticus of 
Linnaeus is also a Calappa. 



DECAPODA. 187 

The others, such as the C. voute Cancer calappa, L. ; Ca- 
lappa fornicata, Fab. ; Herbst., XII, 73, 74, have the marginal 
dilatations of the shell entire. This species inhabits the seas in the 
vicinity of Australia and the Moluccas. 

./ETHRA, Leach. 

The ^thrae differ from the Calappae in their very flat shell, in their 
which are not raised perpendicularly, and which do not 
overshadow the forepart of their body, and in the almost square form 
of the third joint of tin- external foot-jaws. 

Sometimes* the shell is a transversal oval, and at othersf forms 
a short and v.-ry wide triangle laterally .dilated and rounded. The 
claws are but slightly elongated, and are tolerably thick; here they 
arc longer, angular, and remind us, as does also the form of the shell, 
of the I'arthenopes. These latter species might constitute a separate 
subgenus. 

Finally, our last and seventh division, that of the NOTOPODA, con- 
sists of Brachyura, whose last four or two feet are inserted above 
th- level of the others, or which appear to be dorsal and look upwards. 
In those whore they terminate by a sharp hook, they are usually 
employed by the animal in seizing various bodies, such as shells, 
Alcyonii, &c., with which it covers itself. The tail consists of seven 
segments in both sexes. 

The tail of some of them, as in other Brachyura, is folded under, 
and their feet terminate in a sharp hook and are not fitted for 
natation. 

Here the shell is nearly square, and terminates anteriorly in an 
advancing and dentated point, or it is sub-ovoid or truncated before. 
In the 

HOMOLA, Leachy 

The eyes are supported by long pedicles closely approximated at 
the base, and inserted under the middle of the front. The two posterior 
feet are alone turned up. The claws are larger in the males than in 
the females. 

The shell is extremely spinous, with a dentated projection on the 
middle of the front. The superior foot-jaws are elongated and 
nt. 

These Crustacea inhabit the Mediterranean, and were designated 
by Aldrovaiidus under the name of Hippocarcini; they are the Thel- 
Rafinesque. Some of the species attain a great size J. 

DORIPPE, Fab. 

widely separated and placed at the anterior and lateral 
angles of the shell ; the four posterior feet turned up ; the claws short 

* Aithra depressa, Lam., Hist, des Anim. sans Verteb. ; Cancer scrvposus, L. ; 
Cancer pohjno me, Herbst., liil, 4, 5; Desmar., Consid., X, 2. 

f I'urtHrnope fornicata, \ 

; llnmnla tpinifrons, Leach, Zool. Misc., Ixxxriii ; Cancer spinifrons, Fab. See 
the article HOMOLB, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Ed. II, and Desmar., Consider., 
\\lll, 1. The Dorippc CunVri, Risso, belongs to this subgenus. 



188 CRUSTACEA. 

in both sexes ; the shell ovoid, widely truncated, without any projec- 
tion like a rostrum, and flattened. 

As remarked by Desmarest, we may observe on each side and 
above the origin of the claws, an oblique fissure resembling a button- 
hole, longitudinally intersected by a diaphragm, ciliated, like itself, 
on the margin that communicates with the branchiae, and affording 
an issue to the water that bathes them. 

Three species are found in the Mediterranean* ; the others 
inhabit Oriental seas, and one of them D. quadridens, Fabr., 
Herbst., X, 70, is also obtained there in a fossil state. 
There, the shell is sometimes nearly orbicular, or globular, and 
sometimes arcuated anteriorly and narrowed posteriorly, and dentated 
or spinous on the sides. The eyes are situated near the middle of the 
front, and placed on short pedicles. 

DROMIA, Fab. 

The four posterior feet inserted in the back, and terminated by a 
double hook ; the shell suborbicular or nearly globular, convex and 
woolly, or very hairy. 

With their hind feet they seize upon Alcyonii, shells, and other 
bodies, beneath which they shelter themselves, transporting them 
wherever they go. 

The most common species, Cancer dormia, L. Rumph., 
Mus., XI, 1 ; Herbst., XVIII, 103, is found in every sea, that of 
the North excepted, It is covered with a brown down, and has 
five teeth on each lateral margin and three in front. The fingers 
are stout, deeply dentated on the two edges, and partly rose- 
coloured. Some authors say that it is venomous. 

The Death's Head, Cancer caput mortuum, L. ; Dormia 
clypeata, Act. Hafn., 1802, is smaller, more convex, almost 
globular, with three teeth on each side in its anterior margin, 
and has a short front, emarginate in the middle and laterally 
sinuous. It is found on the coast of Barbary f . 

DYNOMENE, Lat. 

The two posterior feet much smaller than the others, alone dorsal, 
and apparently unarmed ; the shell widened, and nearly resembling 
a reversed heart truncated posteriorly, like that of the last Quadri- 
latera, and simply pubescent. The ocular pedicles are longer than 
those of the Dromiae. 

But a single species, the Dynomene hispide, Desmar., Consid., 
XVIII, 2, is known ; it is found at the Isle of France. 

Th<> last Notopoda differ from the preceding in the feet, all of 
which except the claws, terminate in a fin, and from all the Brachy- 
ura in the extension of their tail. Such is the 

* Dorippe lanata ; Cancer lanatus, L. ; Uesmar., Consider., XVII, 2; D. 
affinis, Id.; Herbst., XI, 67; Cancer inascarone, Herbst., XI, 68. 

f For the other species see Desmar., Consid. Gen. sur la Classe ties Crust., 
p. 136, et seq. 



DECAPODA. 189 

RANINA, Lam., 

In which the elongated shell is gradually narrowed from before 

backwards, and usually resembles a reversed triangle with a den- 

i base. The ocular pedicles are extended, and the lateral an- 

teini;r long and projecting. The external foot-jaws are similarly 

lengthened and riarro\v, and the extremity of the third joint is com- 

pressed into a point. All the feet are closely approximated, or 

almost contiguous at their origin, and from the fourth -. -ml 

towards the l>ack; the two last, however, are alone on it. The for- 

;ire r impressed, have the figure of a reversed triangle, and are 

denuued ; tin- fingers are suddenly flexed. 

Th'-M Cnist:i.-.-ji are closely allied to tin- Allmneae of Fabricius, 
ihe fcrri Mih-uvniis of the t\)llowing family, and thus form the passage 
from the Brachyura to the Macroura. From the approximation of 
the feet it is even probable that the genital orifices of the female are 
situated ;i> iu the Macroura. According to Rumphius, they not 
only le:ive the water, but even climb to the tops of houses; from the 
form of their feet, however, this appears impossible, or at least very 
improbable. 

A fossil species was described by Aldrovandus, which the 
Abbe Ranzani and M. Desmarest have since made better 
known *. 

FAMILY II. 



MACROURA. EXOCHNATA, Fab. 

In the Decapoda Macroura, the end of the tail is provided with 
appendagesf which most frequently form a fin on each side ; the tail 
itself is at least as long as the body, extended, exposed and simply 

* Rttninu Aldrorundi, Knnz., Mem. di Stor. Nat. ; Desmar., Hist. Nat. des 
Crust. Foss., VI, xi, 1. The fig. x, 5, 6, appears to us to belong to a Hippa 
rather than to a Ranina ; Ranina strrata, Lam. ; Cancer raninus, L; Albunea scabra, 
Fab.; Rumph., Mus., VIT, T. V. ; Ranina dorsipes, Lam.; Albunea dorsipes, Fab.; 
Humph., Mus., X, 3; Desmar., Consider., XIX, 2. 

The genus Sy met his, Fab., is unknown to us, but we presume it is allied to the 
Rnminte, or the first subgcnera of the subsequent family. 

t These appendages consist of three pieces, one of which serves as a base or 
> to the others, and is articulated with the penultimate segment; the latter, 
in conjunction with them, usually forms a fan-like fin; but in the last subgenera of 
this family these appendages are replaced by setaceous filaments. The false feet 
under the tail are similar in their -tnu-tmv to these natatory appendages. In the 
first subtrencra they frequently do not exceed three or four pairs, and are smaller, 
or even null in the males, the two anterior ones always excepted ; the Pagura, as 
it appears to me, only hare them on one side: the terminal pieces are often un- 
equal. In the succeeding ones, however, these feet are longer, and always form 
five pairs, the ova attached to them ; and they are used by the animal in swimming. 
We observe that in the Macroura, where they are fewer in number, or less de- 
veloped as in thoe which we term the AnamaJu, the peduncle of the intermediate 
antennae is longer in proportion than in the others, and that the two or four last 
four feet are smaller. These Crustacea, in some respects, seem also allied to the 
Brachyura. 



190 CRUSTACEA. 

curved towards its posterior extremity, Its under surface usually 
presents in both sexes five pairs of false feet, each terminated by two 
laminae, or as many filaments. This tail is always composed 
of seven distinct segments. The genital orifices of the females 
are on the first joint of the third pair of feet. The branchise are 
formed of vesicular, bearded and hairy pyramids, arranged in several 
of them either in two rows, or in separate fasciculi. The antennae 
are generally elongated and salient. The ocular pedicles are usually 
short. The external foot-jaws are mostly narrow and elongated, 
resembling palpi, and do not wholly cover the other parts of the 
mouth. The shell is narrower and more elongated than that of the 
Brachyura, and usually terminates by a point in the middle of the 
front. 

For more minute details we refer the reader to the precited memoir 
of Messrs. Audouin and Edwards. These gentlemen have observed 
a character in the Lobster, Astacus marinus, Fab. which, if it 
applied to the other Macroura, would be decisive ; it is, that besides 
the two venous sinuses of which we have spoken in our general 
observations upon the order, there is a third, situated in the sternal 
canal between the two preceding ones, and extending from one end of 
the thorax to the other. This curious arrangement, according to 
them, establishes a connexion between the venous system of the 
Macroura, and that of the Stomapoda. 

The Macroura never quit the water, and, with the exception of a 
small number, are all marine Crustacea. 

In imitation of Dee Geer and Gronovius, we will arrange them 
in a single genus *, that of ASTACUS, which we divide in the following 
manner : 

Some, by the proportions, figure, and uses of their feet, of which 
the first, or at least the second pair, are in the form of claws, and by 
the subcaudal situation of their ova, evidently approach the preceding 
Crustacea, and approximate still more closely to those commonly 
known by the names of Craw-fish^ Lobster, and Shrimp. 

The feet of the others are very slender, and are furnished with an 
exterior and elongated appendage or branch, which seems to double 
their number. They are exclusively adapted for natation, and none 
of them terminates in a forceps. The ova are situated between them, 
and not under the tail. 

We will subdivide the former into four sections; the ANOMALA, the 
LOCUSTJE, the ASTACINA, and. the CARIDES. 

The latter will compose the fifth and last sections of this family, 
and of the Decapoda, or that of the SCHIZOPODA. 

In the first, or the Anomala, the two or four last feet are always 

* The sections which \ve are about to describe might form so many generic divi- 
sions, having for their basis the genera of Fabricius. 



DKCAPODA. 

much smaller than the preceding ones. The under part of the tail is 
never furnished with more than four pair of appendages or false 
*. The lateral fins of the end of the tail, or the pieces which 
K pr< >,i it them, are thrown on the side and do not form with the 
la>t segment a flabelliform fin. 

The ocular pedicles are generally longer than those of the Ma- 
croura belonging to the following sections. 

Here (the Hippides, Latr.), all the superior teguments are solid. 
The two anterior t. <-t sometimes terminated in a monodactyle hand, 
or our without a finger, in the manner of a palette, and sometimes 
in a point; the >ix or four following ones end in a fin; the two last 
aiv lilitonu. ivilrxnl, ami Mtuatrd at the inferior origin of the tail. 
The latt-T l.reomr* suddenly narrowed immediately after the first 
segment, which is short and broad ; the last is in the form of an 
elongated triangle, and the lateral appendages of the penultimate in 
that of curved fins. There are four pairs of sub-caudal appendages, 
composed of a very slender and filiform stem. The antennae are very 
pilose or strongly ciliated ; the lateral first incline to the intermediate, 
and are then arcuated or contorted outwards. 

ALBUNEA, Fabr. 

The two anterior feet, terminated by a very compressed triangular, 
monodactyle hand ; the last joint of the following ones falciform. 
The lateral antennae are short, and the intermediate ones are termi- 
nated by a single long and setaceous filament. The ocular pedicles 
occupy the midille ol' the front, and form, together, a sort of flat trian- 
gular snout, with the external sides arcuated. The shell is almost 
plane, and nearly square; the posterior angles are rounded, and their 
anterior margin finely dentated. 

The only well known species, Cancer symnista, L,; Albunea 
symnista, Fabr.. Herbst., XXII, 2 ; Desmar., Consider., xxix., 3, 
inhabits the Indian Ocean f , 

If the Cancar carubui of Linnaeus belong to the same subgenus, a 
species would be found in the Mediterranean. 

HIPPA, Fab. EMERITA, Gronov. 

The two anterior feet terminated by a strongly compressed, 
nearly ovoid and adactyle hand : the lateral antennae much shorter 
than the intermediate, and contorted ; the latter terminated by two 
short, obtuse filaments placed ono on the other; the ocular pedicles 
long and filiform, and the third joint of the foot-jaws very large and 

With the exception of the two that are anterior, these appendages in the males 
re mere rudiments, or arc even wanting, a character common' to the Galathea 
Scyllari, and Paliuuri. We should also observe that in these three subgenera the 
caudal fins are thinner or almost membranous at their posterior extremity. In this 
section, as well as in the Galatheae, the thoracic portion to which the two posterior 
feet are attached forms a sort of petiole, so that these feet seem to be annexed to 
the tafl. 

t M . Desmarest hesitatingly places the genus Posydon of Fabricius, who speaks 

of two species, near the Albune* ; but according to the latter the anterior antennae 

are bifid, a character which does not belong to the Albuneae. Owing to the imper- 

manner in which he describes this genus, we are not able to recognize it, or to 

appreciate its affii- 



192 



CRUSTACEA. 



laminiform, emarginated at the end and covering the ensuing joints. 
The shell is nearly ovoid, convex, and truncated at both ends. 

The last joint of the second feet and of the two following pairs is 
triangular, but approaching, in the latter at least, to the form of a 
rivscent; the two last of the fourth pair are turned up, and laid on 
the two preceding ones; the first segment of the tail is marked with 
two impressed and transverse lines *. 

REMIPES, Lat. 

The two anterior feet elongated, the last joint conical, compressed, 
and hairy ; the four antennae closely approximated, very short, and 
nearly of an equal length, the intermediate ones terminated by two 
filaments ; ocular pedicles extremely short and cylindrical ; external 
foot-jaws in the form of small claws, thinned and arcuated at the end, 
and terminated by a stout hook. The shell is shaped like that of the 
Hippre. 

The last joint of the second and third feet forms a triangular blade, 
with an emargination in its external side; the same joint of the 
fourth is triangular, narrow, and elongated. As in the Hippse, the 
first caudal segment presents two impressed and transverse lines. 

Two species are known ; one from the Australian Sea f, and 
the other from the Antilles, and the coast of Brazil. 

There (the Pagurii, Latr.), the teguments are somewhat crus- 
taceous, and the tail is most commonly soft, contorted, and in the 
form of a sac. The two anterior feet terminated in a didactyle hand, 
the four following ones in a point, and the four posterior, which are 
shorter, in a sort of forceps or little didactyle hand. The first joint 
of the peduncle of the lateral antennae presents a pointed or spiniform 
appendage or projection. 

These Crustacea, termed Carcinion by the Greeks, and Cancelli 
by the Latins, usually inhabit empty univalve shells. Their tail, that 
of the Birgi excepted, presents but three false feet, (in the females 
only), situated on one of the sides, each of which is divided into two 
filiform and hairy branches. The three last segments are suddenly 
narrowed. In some of them, such as the 

BIRGUS, Leach) 

The tail is tolerably solid, suborbicular, and is furnished beneath 
with two rows of laminiform appendages. The fourth feet are but a 
little smaller than the two preceding ones ; the two last are folded and 
concealed, their extremities being received into a depression at the 
bottom of the thorax ; the fingers at the extremity, as well as those 
of the penultimate pair, are hairy or spinous. The claws excepted, 
all the feet are visibly separated at their origin. The thorax has 
the figure of a reversed heart, and is pointed anteriorly. 

* Hippu adacfyla, Fab. ; H. emeritus. Id. ; Cancer emeritus, L. ; Emerita, Gro- 
nov., Zoop., xvii, 8, 9; Herbst., xxii, 3 ; Desmar., Consider., xxix, 2, in the seas 
of both Indies. 

f Remipes testudinarius, Latr. ; Desmar., Consul., xxix, 1 ; Cuv., Rgne Animal, 
IV, xii, 2. 



DECAPODA. 193 

It appears that from their size, tin- form (>f their tail, and the 
'I consistence of their iis, the Birgi are unable to 

shelter theniM-lvcs in .shells. They must retreat to holes, or fissures 
ia the rocks. 

The best known species, Cancer latro, L., Herbst. XXIV ; 
Rumph., Mus., IV; Seba, Thes., III, xxi, 1, 2, according to the 
I ii linns, feeds on cocoa-nuts, which it obtains during its nocturnal 
excursions for that purpose *. In the others, or the 

PAQURUS, Fab. t 

The last four feet are much shorter than the preceding ones, and 
the forceps are covered with granules. The tail is soft, long, cylin- 
ilrie;il, narrowed near the extremity, and has usually but a single row 
(f filiform oviperous appendages. The thorax is ovoid or oblong. 

With the exception of some species domiciliated in sponges, Ser- 
juil;r and Alcyouii, they all inhabit univalve shells, whose aperture 
they close with their anterior claws, and most frequently with one of 
their tinkers, which is usually larger than the other. It is asserted 
that the female spawns twice or thrice in the year. 

Some species, C^ENOBITA, Latr. ; distinguished from the others by 
their projecting antennae, of which the mediate are nearly as long as 
the external or lateral, and are furnished with elongated filaments, 
who>e thorax is ovoido-conical, narrow, elongated, strongly com- 
j-ressed on the side, with the anterior cephalic portion shaped like 
a heart, establish their domicile in terrestrial shells on rocks near 
the sea, whence at the approach of danger, they roll down with 

them f. 

The true Paguri PAQURUS, Latr., on the contrary, have the me- 
diate untt nn:- curved, much shorter than the lateral ones, with the 
two filaments -hoit. the superior forming an elongated or subulated 
eone ; the anterior division of the thorax is square, or fonnsa reversed 
and curvilinear triangle. They inhabit marine shells. 

The Hermit, Cancer Bernhardus, L., Herbst., XXII, 6 ; Pa- 
minis strebl&nyx. Leach, Malac. Brit., XXVI, 1 4, is of a 
mean size. Its two claws are bristled with spines, with the 
fore. : in the shape of a heart, the right one being the 

largest. The last joints of the ensuing feet are also spinous. It 
i-s \-i : -y e. .siiiion in European seas. A second but fossil species, 
the Pagure de Faujas^ Desmar., Hist. Nat. des Crust. Foss., 
XL ...sely allied to it. 

A third species, the Pagurus angulatus, Risso, Crust, de Nice, 
I, 8; Desmar., Consider.. XXX, 1, is remarkable for its forceps, 



* Pagttria laticauda, Cuv. K ... IV, xii, 2; Desmar., Consider, p. 

180, from the Isle of France. Very curious facts relating to the anatomy of the 
'ling species have been published by M. Geoffrey Saint- Hilairc, from which 
however we do not draw similar r 

f Paffurus clypeat**, Fab.; Herbat., xii, 2. 

in. O 



194 CRUSTACEA. 

which are strongly sulcated with longitudinal ridges. The right 
one is the largest *. 

A fourth from the same sea is removed from the preceding by 
several characters, and merits the distinction of forming a separate 
subgenus, the PROPHYLAX, Latr. The tail, with the exception of the 
superior surface of the three last segments, instead of being soft 
and arcuated, and having but a single range of oviferous filaments, is 
covered with a coriaceous tegument, is straight, and is only curved 
beneath at its extremity ; its inferior surface presents a groove and 
two rows of false feet. The body also is linear, and the two lateral 
appendages of the end of the tail are almost equal, the larger divi- 
sion being foliaceous and ciliated. The last four feet are slightly 
granulated at their extremity, and appear to be terminated by a sin- 
gle finger, or at least are not distinctly bifid. Perhaps we should 
refer to this division those Paguri which inhabit the Serpulse, and 
Alcyonii, such as the Pagurus tubularius, Fab. 

In all the following Macroura, the two posterior feet at most are 
smaller than the preceding ones. Most generally the sub-caudal 
false feet form five pairs, The teguments are always crustaceous. 
The lateral fins of the penultimate segment of the tail, and its last, 
form a common one arranged like a fan. 

The two subsequent sections possess a common character, which 
separates them from the fourth or that of the Carides. The antennee 
are inserted at the same height, or on a level ; the peduncle of the 
lateral ones, when accompanied by a scale, is never entirely covered 
by it. There are frequently but four pairs of sub-caudal false feet. 
The two mediate antennee are always terminated by two filaments 
only, usually shorter than their peduncle, or scarcely any longer. 
The external leaflet of the natatory appendages of the penultimate 
segment of the tail is never divided by transverse suture. 

In our second section, or the LOCUSTS, so called from the name 
Locusta given by the Latins to the most remarkable Crustacea, of 
this division, and from which is derived that of Lanyouste, applied to 
them in France, there are never more than four pairs of false feet. 
The posterior extremity of the fin that terminates the tail is always 
nearly membranous, or less solid than the rest. The peduncle of 
the mediate antennae is always longer than the two terminal filaments, 
and more or less bent or geniculate ; the lateral ones are never fur- 
nished with scales ; sometimes they are reduced to a single peduncle 
which is dilated, very flat, and in the form of a crest : sometimes they 
are large and long, terminating in a point and bristled with spines. 
All the feet are nearly similar and end in a point ; the two first are 
merely somewhat larger ; their penultimate joint and that of the two 
last are at most unidentated, but without forming with the last a per- 

* For the other species see the article Pagure, Encyc. Method. ; the Atlas 
d'Hist. Nat., of the same work; Desmarest, Consider. Gener. sur la Classe des 
Crust. ; the plates of the Voy. de Freycinet. We should observe that in the figure 
of the Cancer megistos, Herhst., LXI, 1, the tail is false; this arises from the fact 
that the tail was wanting in the individual from which the drawing was made, the 
artist supplying it by copying the fin-tail of an ordinary Macroura. 



DECAPODA. 195 

fectly didactyle hand. The pectoral space included between the feet 
i> triangular; the thorax is almost square or sub-cylindrical, and with- 
out any frontal prolongation or rostrum. 

SCYLLARUS, Fab. 

The Scyllari, <-r Sea- Grasshoppers as they are called, present a very 
usual character in tin- form of their lateral antenna?; the stem is 
wanting arid the joints of the peduncle, very much dilated trans- 
ely, form a large, flattened, horizontal crest more or less den- 
dated. 

The external branch of the sub-caudal appendages is terminated 
by a leaflet; but the internal one, in some of the males, is a mere 
tooth. 

Doctor Loach has established three genera of them, founded on 
the proportions and form of the thorax, the position of the eyes, and 
some other parts. They are, 

1 . ScYLLARt's, when; the thorax is as long as it is broad or longer, 
and without any laternal incisure, the eyes always situated near it> 
anterior angles; the penultimate joint of the two posterior feet uni- 
dentated in the females. They excavate holes in the clayey soil near 
the shore, which serve them for habitations. 

In one of them the Scyllare ours ; Cancer arctus, L. ; Cigale 
de mer, Rondel., liv. XIII, chap, VI; Herbst., XXX, 6, the external 
or lateral antennae are much dentated. The thorax is marked with 
three longitudinal and dentated ridges, and the superior surface 
of the tail sculptured, but its lateral margin not crenulated. 

The other, Scyllarusaquinoxialis, Fab.; Scyllarus orientalis, 
Risso; Squille large, or the Orchetta, Rondel. ; Gesn., Hist.des 
Anim., Ill, p. 1097, is large, shagreened, and without ridges. 
The i re>ts are edentated, and the margin of the segments of the 
tail crenulated. Its flesh is highly esteemed, and the ova are of 
a vivid red. 

2. THENUS, where the fore part of the thorax is broader than it is 
long, each Literal margin deeply incised, and the eyes are placed at 
its anterior angles*. 

:J. IBACUS, only differing from Thenus in the position of the eyes, 
which are approximated to the origin of the intermediate antennae. 

i Australian species, Ibacus Pronii, Leach, Zool. Miscel., 
CXIX; Desmar., Consid., XXX, 12, the exterior lateral margin 
of the third joint of the external foot-jaws is transversely striated, 
and notched in the manner of a crest f. In the 



* Thtnu* iuf/jnu, Leach; Scyllarus oritnialis, Fab.; Rumph., Mas., II, D. ; 
. \\\. 1; Kncyc., All. d'HUt. Nat., CCCXIV ; Desmar., Consid., 

\\\l. i. 

f Add Scyllarus anlarctitus ; Fabr., Herbst., JOi, 2 ; Rumph., Mm., II, D. See 
the article Scyllart, Encyc. Me'thodique. 

o2 



196 CRUSTACEA. 

PALINURUS, Fab. 

The lateral antennas are large, setaceous, and bristled with 
spines. 

Of these Crustacea, called Carabos by the Greeks, and Locusta by 
the Latins, and on which Aristotle made several important observa- 
tions, some attain a length of nearly two metres, the antennae in- 
cluded. The species found in European seas remain in deep water 
during- the winter, and only visit the coast on the return of spring. 
Rocky localities are its favourite haunts. It subsequently deposits 
its ova, which arc of a beautiful red colour, whence their name of 
Coral. At this period more males are taken than females, while 
after the spawning season the latter are most abundant. According 
to Risso a second copulation, followed by another production of ova, 
takes place in the month of August. The Palinuri are disseminated 
throughout all the seas of the temperate and intertropical zones, but 
are particularly abundant in the latter. Their shell is rough, covered 
with prickles, and armed in front with stout, projecting, and more 
or less numerous spines or teeth. Its colour, as also that of the tail, 
consists of an agreeable mixture of red, green, and yellow. The tail 
frequently presents transverse bands or spots, sometimes ocellated, 
arranged in regular series. Their flesh, that of the females particu- 
larly, before and after the spawning season, is highly esteemed. 

In the species taken on the coast of France, and probably in others, 
the extremity of the penultimate joint of the two posterior feet of 
the female is provided with a tooth or spur peculiar to the sex. The 
same observation applies to the Scyllari. 

Palinurm quadricorms, Fab.; Astacus elephas, Herbst., xxix, 
1 ; Leach, Malac. Brit., xxx, or the Langouste commune of the 
French, is sometimes half a metre in length, and when loaded 
with ova weighs from twelve to fourteen pounds. The shell is 
spinous and downy, with two stout teeth notched beneath be- 
fore the eyes. The superior surface of the body is of a greenish 
or reddish brown; the tail is spotted and dotted with yellowish, 
and its segments are marked by a transverse sulcus interrupted 
in the middle, its lateral edges forming a dentated angle. The 
feet are picked in with red and yellowish. It inhabits the coasts 
of France, that of the Mediterranean in particular. It is found 
fossil in Italy *. 

The third section, that of the AST ACINI, Latr., is distinguished 
from the preceding by the form of the two anterior feet, and fre- 

* M. Desmarest, Hist. Nat. des Crust. Foss., p. 132, speaks of two other fossil 
species, the second of which, however, may probably belong to the subgerms As- 
taceous properly so called, and approach the A. nortcfgicus of Fabricius. 

For the other living species, see Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., t. Ill, p. 391, et seq. ; 
the article Palinure, Encyc. Method., and its Atlas d'Hist. Nat. ; that of Langouste, 
Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ed. II, and the same in the work of Desmarest on the 
Crustacea. As respects the nervous system of the species that inhabits the French 
coast, see Audouin and Edwards, op. cit. ; according to them, all the thoracic gan- 
glions are as if soldered together, end to end. 



DECAPODA. 197 

quently by that of the two following pail's, which terminate in a 
ith two blades, or a didactyle hand. In some, the last two, 
or tour, are much smaller than those which precede them, therein 
approaching the Anomala; hut the fan-like fin of the extremity of 
their tail and other characters remove them from that section. The 
thorax is narrow anteriorly, and tin* front projects in a pointed snout 
or rostrum. 

Some of thorn, Gala'hadete, Leach, as well as the preceding Ma- 
croura. ha\v tour pairs of lal-r fret ; tin* mediate antennae flexed like 
an* dhow, with the t\vo filamen nting the stem, are mani- 

festly shorter than their peduncle. That of the lateral antennas is 
iie\vr provided with a lamina in the form of a scale. The two ante- 
rior fret all-lie terminate in a didactyle hand, which is frequently much 
flattened. The last segment of the tail is bilobate, at least in most of 
them. 

At the head of this division come those whose * posterior feet are 
much smaller and thinner than the preceding ones ; they are filiform, 
hent up. and useless in locomotion. In the 

GALATHEA, Fab. 

The tail is extended, the thorax nearly ovoid or oblong, the medi- 
ate antennae salient, and the forceps elongated. The superior surface 
of the body is I'.s'.rilly deeply incised or striatc, spinous and ciliate. 
The most remarkable species of the European seas are the 

Galathca rugosa, Fab.; Leo, Rondel., Hist. dcs. Poiss., p. 390 ; 
IVnn. Brit. Zool., IV, xiii ; Leach, Maine. Brit., XXIX, the 
rl.iws of which are long and cylindrical, the mandibles eden- 
tate, and that lias three long spines in the middle of the front, 
directed forwards, and ten similar and equally projecting ones 

the tail, six on the second segment, and four on the following 
"' t- 

Galatkea strigosa ; Cancer strigosus, L. ; Herbst., XXVI, 2 ; 

n. Brit. Zool. IV, xiv; Leach, Malac. Brit., XXVIII, B. 

Similar, as respects the mandibles, to the preceding species, but 

having' a projection in front, or a rostrum, with four teeth on 

ii side, and an eighth at the end; the claws are large, but 

neither very long nor linear, and very spinous, as is a great 

pirt of the following feet. This last character distinguishes it 

from a third species, also found in European seas, the Galathea 

.. M.ihu-. Brit., XXVIII, B. 

Thi> learned entomologist has made a peculiar genus, GRIMOTEA, 
of the Galathea gregaria of Fahricius, The second joint of the in- 
termcdiatean; \>\\i\ .itrs in a club, and the three h;>t external 



* According to a verbid communication from Doctor Leach, in the (ialatkca 
amj'l not only the two posterior feet which are smaller, but the 

Kite likewise. This species would theu form a separate genus. 
f This species forms the uc \, Leach. See Desmar., Consider., page 

191. The lutter is mistaken however in attributing to the former the credit of 
n s been the first to discover the identity of this species with the livn of ROD- 
dclct. See my Hist, Gener. des Crust, etdcs Insectes., t. VI, p. 198. 



198 CRUSTACEA. 

foot-jaws are foliaceous. It is of a red colour, and was discovered by 
Sir Joseph Banks in his voyage round the world. It collected in 
such immense numbers that the Ocean seemed to be of one blood-red 
colour. 

The Mglea, Id., is only distinguished from the preceding genus, 
and from Galathea, by the dentation of the mandibles, by the second 
joint of the external foot-jaws being shorter than the first, and by the. 
surface of the body being generally smooth *. 

That which Risso first named CALYPSO, and subsequently JANIRA, 
in the opinion of Desmarest, Consider., p. 192, does not differ from 
Galathea. 

PORCELLANA, Lam. 

The Porcellanae form a singular exception among the Macroura, 
with respect to their tail, which is doubled under as in the Brachyura. 
They are otherwise removed from the Galatheue by the more ab- 
breviated, suborbic-ular, or almost square form of their thorax ; by 
the mediate antennae, which are sunk in their fossulye, by their tri- 
angular forceps ; and finally, by the internal dilatation of the inferior 
joints of their external foot-jaws. Their body is very flat. 

They are small, slowly-moving Crustacea, found in every sea, 
and conceal themselves under stones near the shore. 

Doctor Leach has formed a genus with certain species hexapus 
Latr., longicornis, Id., Bluteli, Risso, Crust., I, 7, &c., which he 
calls PISIDIA. According to Desmarest, however, it does not differ 
in any appreciable character. 

Some of them are remarkable for their extremely large and pilose 
or ciliated forceps. Such are, 1. The Porcellane larges pinces ; Can- 
cer plalycheles, Pcnn., Brit. Zool., IV, vi, 12; Herbst., XLVII, 2, 
where only the external margin of the forceps is pilose and the nearly 
naked thorax is rounded; it is found on the rocks in the seas of 
Europe. 2. The P. hirta, Lam., the whole superior surface of 
whose forceps and thorax is pilose, and where the latter is nearly 
oval and becomes thinner anteriorly. It was brought from King's 
Island by Messrs, Peron and Lesueur. 

The forceps of the others are glabrous. Such is the Cancer hex- 
apus, L. ; Herbst. XLVII, 4. The thorax is marked with short, 
transverse, and slightly ciliated lines : the front trifid, with its middle 
tooth finally notched. The claws are covered with little blood-red 
scales and granules, the fingers separated and without internal den- 
tations. It inhabits European seas f . 

The genus MONOLEPIS , Say, Journ. of the Acad. of Nat. Sc. of 
Philad., I, 155; Desmar., Consid., p. 199 and 200, appears to con- 
stitute the passage from the Porcellanye to the Megalopes. It ap- 
proaches the first in the two posterior feet, and in the direction of the 
tail. But this tail lias but six segments, and the eyes are very large 



* JEglee lisse, Desmar., Consider., xxxiii, 2 ; Latr., Encyclop. Method., Atl., 
d'Hist. Nat. cccviii, 2. 

f See the article PorceUune, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nut., Ed. 7 II. ; and Desmar., 
Consid. sur les Crust., p. 192 199. 



DBCAPODA. 199 

as in the second. It would also appear that the lateral fins of the end 
dt' the tail resemble those of the latter. 

Tin- remaining ( rustaceaof the same division differ from the pre- 
r. -ding in their posterior feet, which are similar to their preceding 
ones in form, proportion and uses, or equally ambulatory. They are 
also removed from them by the greater thickness and height of the 
body, the >h.rtne>s of the lateral antennae, the smallness of the claws, 
. and lateral fins of the tail, which are composed of a 
single lamina. This tail is extended, narrow, and simply bent under 
near its extremity. 

MBOALOPUS, Leach. MACROPA, Latr., Encyc. 

Four species arc known, three of which inhabit European seas, and 
the fourth the Indian Ocean *, whence it was sent to Paris by the late 
M. I. ilt and Messrs. Quoy and Gaymard. 

lit our second division of the Astacini, Latr., will be comprised 
those which have live p.iirs of false feet, the mediate antennae 
straight or nearly so, salient, projecting, and terminated by two fila- 
ments as long as their peduncle, or longer ; and which, a single sub- 
genu d Gebk have the four or six anterior feet termi- 

nated by a didactyle hand. 

'I'h -ir tail i> always extended; their two posterior feet are never 
more slender than the preceding ones, nor folded. The peduncle of 
the lateral antennae is frequently accompanied by a scale. 

Some of them, as well as others of the ensuing section, inhabit 
fresh water. 

Those in which the first four feet, at most, terminate in two fingers, 
whose lateral antennae never have a scale at the base, and where 
the external leaflet of the lateral fins of the end of the tail, presents no 
suture, will form a first subdivision. Most of their feet 
are ciliated or pilose. They inhabit salt-water, and conceal themselves 
in holes which they excavate in the sand. 

Sometimes the index or immoveable finger, formed by a projection 
of the penultimate joint of the claws, is very evidently shorter than 
the thumb or moveable finger, merely constituting a simple tooth. 
The 

GEBIA, Leach, 

[roaches the preceding sub-genera in the two anterior feet, 
which are alone didactyle. The leaflets of the lateral fins of the end 
of the tail widen from the base to their extremity, and are marked 
with longitudinal ridges. The intermediate piece or the last segment 
<>t tii. tail is nearly squa 

THALASSINA, Lat. 

The four anterior feet terminated by two fingers ; leaflets of the 
lateral fins of the end of the tail narrow, elongated, and without 

!>cnn species, aee Dcsmar., t'onsid.. p. 200 202, and pi. xxxiv, 2 
of the same work. 

f Thalastina /i/wro/w, Risso, Crust., 111,2 ; Uebia stcllata, Leach, Malac. Brit., 
i 1>. See Desmar., Consid,, p. 203, 304. 



200 CRUSTACEA. 

ridges ; the last caudal segment or intermediate portion forming an 
elongated triangle *. 

Sometimes the four anterior feet, or the two first arid one of the 
second f are terminated by two elongated fingers, forming a complete 
forceps. 

The two anterior claws are the largest ; the lateral leaflets of the 
fin terminating the tail, are in the form of a reversed triangle, or 
widest at the posterior magin ; the intermediary, on the contrary, is 
narrowed from base to apex, and terminates in a point. 

CALLIANASSA, Leach. 

The claws of the Callianassse are very unequal, both as to form and 
proportion ; the carpus of the largest of the two anterior ones is trans- 
versal, and forms a common body with the forceps ; the same joint of 
the other claw is elongated ; the two posterior feet are almost didactyle. 
The external leaflet of the lateral fins at the end of the tail is larger 
than the internal, and has a ridge; the latter is smooth. 

The ocular pedicles are squamiform, and the cornea is situated 
near the middle of their external margin. The filaments of the 
mediate antennae are not longer than their peduncle. 

Callianassa subterranea, Leach, Malac. Brit., XXXII, is the 
only known species. It is found on the coasts of France and 
England. The 

Axius, Leach, 

Differs from Callianassa in the claws, which are nearly equal, and 
in the carpus, which does not form part of the forceps ; the posterior 
feet are similar to the preceding ones, The leaflets of the lateral 
fins are nearly equal in size, and have each a longitudinal ridge. 
The filaments of the mediate antennae are evidently longer than their 
peduncle. The 

Axius stirhynchus. Leach, Malac. Brit., XXXIII, is found 
on the coast of England, and on that of the western departments 
of France, where it was observed by M. d'Orbigny, sen., a cor- 
responding member of the Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 

Our second and last subdivision consists of Crustacea whose six 
anterior feet form as many claws, terminating in a perfectly didac- 
tyle forceps, a character which distinguishes them from all the pre- 
ceding Decapoda, and one which approximates them to the first of 
the ensuing section ; but here the claws of the third pair are the 
largest, whereas there, it is the two first, besides which they are much 
thicker. The peduncle of the lateral antennae is accompanied by a 
scale or spine. The external leaflet of the lateral fins at the end of 
the tail, in all the living species, is divided in two by a transverse 
suturej In the 

* Thalassina scorpionides, Lat. ; Cancer anomalus, Herbst., LXII ; Leach, Zool., 
Miscel., CXXX ; Desmur., Consid., XXXVI. 

f The left claw of the second pair seems to be monodactyle in the Callianassae, 
and the penultimate joint dilated into a palette. 

t This character is common to the following section, so that by it we might 
divide the Macroura, the Schizopoda excepted, into two great divisions. 



DEC A POD A. 



201 



ERYON, Desmar.^ 



All tin- leaflets of the caudal fin arc narrowed at their extremity 
and tenninat" in a point; tlie external one presents no transverse 
Miture. The two filaments of the mediate antennae are very short, 
ami hardly longer than their peduncle. The sides of the shell are 
dei-ply emarginatt-d. 

The forceps of the two anterior claws are narrow and elongated. 

This subgenus was established by Desmarest on a fossil species, 
I, Hist. Nat. des Crust. FOSH., X, 4; Consid., XXXIV, 
3, found in a lithographic, calcareous stone from Pappenheim and 
Aichtedt in the margravate of Anspach. 

ASTACUS, Gronov.^ Fab. 

Leaflets of the lateral fins at the end of the tail widened and 
rounded at their extremity; the external one divided transversely by 
a suture, and the posterior extremity of the mediate obtuse, or rounded. 
Tin- two li laments of the mediate antennae are much longer than 
their peduncle. The sides of the shell are entire, or not incised. 

In >ome, all inhabiting salt water, the last segment of the tail, or 
tint which occupies the middle of the terminal fin, presents no trans- 
verse suture. 

Those whose lateral antennae have a large scale on their peduncle, 
whose eyes are very large and reniform, and the forceps of whose 
two anterior claws are narrow, elongated, prismatic, and equal, 
form the genus NEPHROPS of Leach, the type of which is the Cancer 
norwegicut, L. ; de Geer, Insect., VII, XXI; Herbst., XXVI, 3; 
I , ich, Malac. Brit., XXVI. The two anterior claws are furnished 
with dent.ited spines and ridges, and the superior surface of the tail is 
sculptured. It is found in the seas of the north of Europe, and in the 
Mediterranean. 

Tli<iM in which the peduncle of the lateral antennae presents no- 
thing but two short projections in the form of teeth or spines, whose 
eyes are neither large nor reniform, and whose forceps are more or 
less oval, compose, with the fresh water species, the genus Aflacus, 
properly so called, of the same author. 

Aitacus ma/imty, Fab.; Cancer (jammarus, L. ; Herbst., 
XXV; IVnn., llrit. Xo..l.,V.x. 21; (the Common Lobster). The 
point or rostrum of the anterior extremity of the shell h;ts three 
teeth on each >ide, and another double one at its base. The an- 
terior (laws are very large and unequal ; the largest finger of the 
forceps is oval, with great molar teeth, the other is elongated, 
and Ins num-TiMi- Mnall ones. Old individuals are sometimes 
more than half a metre in length. Its flesh is highly esteemed. 
It is found in the European Ocean, in the Mediterranean, an I 
even on th- coasts of North America. Its internal 

structure has been carefully studied by Messrs. Victor And 
and Mi yds. 

In the fresh wat >r species, which otherwise resemble the preced- 
ing in their antenna, eyes, and form of the claws, the last be^nvnt of 



202 CRUSTACEA. 

the tail, or the middle one of its terminal fin, is transversely divided 
by a suture. The 

Astacus communis ; Cancer astacus, L. ; Roesel, Insect., Ill, 
liv, vii. The Craw-Fish 1ms its anterior forceps granulated, and 
the inner edges finely dentated. There is a tooth on each side 
of the snout, and two at its base ; the lateral edges of the seg- 
ments of the tail form an acute angle. Its colour, which is 
usually a greenish brown, is sometimes altered by accidental 
circumstances. 

This species, which inhabits the fresh waters of Europe, has 
been more particularly studied, both as respects its anatomy 
and habits, and the faculty enjoyed by the Crustacea of regene- 
rating their antennae and feet when they are either mutilated or 
destroyed. When about to cast its shell, two stony concretions 
are found in the stomach, formerly much used in medical prac- 
tice as an absorbent, but now replaced by the carbonate of mag- 
nesia. It conceals itself in holes, or under stones, never quitting 
its retreat except to search for food, which consists of small 
Mollusca and Fishes, and the larvoe of Insects. It also feeds on 
putrid flesh, the carcases of quadrupeds, for instance, which 
are placed as a bait for them in nets, or in the centre of fagots 
of wood. They are also taken in their holes by the light of 
torches. It changes its shell towards the end of spring. Two 
months after coition, which takes place ventribus junctis, the 
female produces her ova, which are at first collected in masses, 
and glued to the false feet, by means of a viscid humour. They 
are of a reddish brown colour, and enlarge before they are 
hatched. The young Astaci, at first extremely soft and precisely 
like their parent, shelter themselves under her tail, and remain 
there several days, until their bodies acquire a certain degree of 
solidity. 

The term of existence assigned to the Astaci seems to be 
twenty years and upwards, their size augmenting in proportion 
to their age. Those are preferred for the table which inhabit 
running streams of fresh water. A parasitic animal belonging 
to the Anneli:les 5s found on their branchiae, long ago observed 
by Roesel, but imperfectly known until the researches of M. 
Odier *. 

The fresh- waters of North America produce another species, 
the A. Bartonii, figured by Bosc. Hist. Nat. des Crust., II, 
x, 1. 

A third inhabits the rice-fields of the same country, to which, 
according to Major Le Contc, one of the best naturalists of the 
United States, it is very injurious. 
In the fourth section, that of the CARIDES, the intermedial antennae 

are superior or are inserted above the laterals : the peduncle of these 

latter is completely covered by a large scale. 



* See his Memoire sur le Branchioddle, inserted in the Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. 
Nat. tome I, p. 69, et seq. 



DECAPOD A. 203 

Their body is arcuated, almost gibbous, and of a less solid con- 
sistence than that of the preceding Crustacea. The front is always 
drawn out into a point, and most frequently HO as to resemble a ros- 

trum or pointed lamina comprev vd and <lrntated along the edges. 
The antennae always project ; the laterals are usually very long and 
,1,1.- very tine setjp; the intermediaries of a great number ter- 
minite in three threads. The . elosely approximated. The 

rnalfoot-j i eh-n^ated and narrow than us ual, resemble 

palpi or anemia-. Tin- nundiblrs of most of them are compressed 
and aivuat.-d at tin- extremity. One of the first pairs of feet is fre- 
.juently llexed upon itself. The segments of the tail are dilated or 
widened laterally. Tin- external leaflet of its terminal tin is always 
divided in two ly a ut me, a character observed nowhere else ex- 
i-ept in tin last Crustacea of the preceding section; the azygous por- 
tion of the middle, or the seventh and last segment, is elongated, 
narrowed near the extremity, and provided above with ranges of 
small .Npines. The false- feet, of which there are five pairs, are elon- 
and usually foliar- 

Immense numbers of these Crustacea are consumed in all parts 
of the world. Some species are even salted in order to preserve 
them. 

In some of them, the three first pairs of feet form a didactyle claw, 
the length of which progressively augments, so that the third pair is 
the longest. Such are the 



Fab., 

Where there is no annular division in any of the joints of the 

Their mandihuUir palpi, are turned up aiid foliaceous. A little 
elliptical appendage may be seen at the base of the feet, a character 
which seems to approximate them to Pasiphaea, the last genus of this 

ii. anil to those of the following one. 

Some, all indigenous to Kuropc, on account of the shortness of the 
t w.. threads of their intermediate antennae, form a first division. It 
the following species. 

P.sulcatus; Palcemon tn/cn'm, Oliv., Encyclop. ; Caramote, 
Rond., Hist. Nat. des Poiss., liv. xviii, chap. 7- Nine inches 
long ; on the middle of the thorax a longitudinal carina bifur- 
>. terminated by a projecting rostrum, compressed, 
witli eleven t"eth in it* upper edge and one in the lower; a lon- 
gitudinal sulcus along each side of the carina. 

ry common in the Mediterranean and the 

obj- risiderable eommeree. It is salted and shipped to 

the Levant. The /'. /r/Wo//v, Leach, Malac. Brit. XLII, 

which inhabits the coast of Kn gland, is jwrliaps a mere local 

''i/Mf. Its thorax is trisulcate and the rostrum 

hidentate beneath. In the P. d'Orbiyny, Lat., Nouv. Diet. 

l-id. II, article Pence, the carina is not sulcated. 

The intermediate antennae of others arc terminated by long 
threads; they constitut -mid division, to which we refer. 



204 CRUSTACEA. 

Penccus monodon, Fab. ; Squilla indica, Bout., Hist. Nat., p. 
81, which inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

P. antennatus, Risso, Crust., II, 6, and P. mars, Id., II, 5, 
also appear to belong to it. 

STENOPUS, Lat. 

Distinguished from the Penaei by the transverse and annular 
divisions of the two penultimate joints of the four posterior feet. 
The entire body is soft ; the antennae and feet are long and slender, 
of the third pair widest. 



But a single species is known. It was brought from the seas 
of New Holland by M. Peron and Lesueur. Olivier retains it 
in the genus Palaemon Cancer setiferw, L.; P.liispidus, Oliv., 
Encyclop. and Atl. d'Hist. Nat., CCCXIX, 2; Seba, Mus., Ill, 
XXI, 6, 7 ; Herbst., XXXI, 3, where I first placed it. 

The remaining Carides, the intermediate antennae of many of 
which are terminated by three threads, have at most but two pairs 
of didactyle claws formed by the four anterior feet. 

A subgenus founded on a single species peculiar to North America, 
that of 

ATYA, Leach, 

Is removed from all analogous Crustacea by an anomalous charac- 
ter. The forceps terminating the four claws is cleft down to its 
base, or seems to be composed of two fingers in the form of thongs 
united at their origin ; the preceding joint is crescent-shaped. The 
second pair is the largest. The intermediate antennae have but two 
threads. 

In all the following subgenera, the blades of the forceps originate 
at a certain distance from the base of the penultimate article, or of 
that which has the form of a hand ; the body or the part that pre- 
cedes it is not lunulated. 

We now have in the first instance those Carides whose feet are 
generally robust and not filiform, and which have no appendage to 
their external base. Their body is neither very soft nor greatly 
elongated. 

Among these subgenera, whose feet are deprived of this appen- 
dage, the three following present an insulated form with respect to 
their claws. 

CRANGON, Fab. 

The two anterior claws, which are larger than the subsequent feet, 
have but a single tooth in place of the index or immoveable finger, 
and that which is moveable is bent and hooked. 

The superior or intermediate antennae have but two threads. The 
srrcnd feet arc folded up. and are more or less distinctly bifid or 
didactyle at their extremity ; neither of the joints is annulated. The 
rostrum is very short. 

We do not separate the EGEON, Risso, or the PONTOPHILUS, Leach, 
from Crangon. In the former, the last joint of the external foot- 
jaws is twice the length of the preceding one, while in the latter 



DECAPODA. 205 

they are equal. The second feet of the Egeones are shorter than the 
third and tin- smallest of the whole number, whilst in Crangon their 
length is the same. Besides, as the number of species is very 
limited, this generic distinction becomes the less necessary. 

C. tnifyam, Fab. ; Roes., Insect., Ill, Ixiii, 1,2, (The Shrimp), 
about two inches long. It is smooth, of a pale glaucous given, 
dotted with gn-y. That part of the thorax which supports tin- 
third p:iir of fe,-t projects in a point. This species is very com- 

non tin IT.-!, ic coast of where it is vulgarly called 

It is t-ikm there annually in nets. Its ile.sli is deli- 
cate, and highly esteemed. In the same locality, though rarely, 
according to M. Brebisson, is found the C. pcmciue de rouge, of 
Risso ; but I consider it, with him, as a mere variety. The C. 
loricalus Egeon loricatus, Risso ; Cancer cataphractu*, Oliv. , 
Zool., Adriat., Ill, 1, has three longitudinal and dentated ridges 
on the thorax. 

Northern seas produce a large species, the Crangon boreas, 
.. Voy. to the North Pble; pi. xi, 1, Herbst. XXIX, 2. 



PROCESSA, Leach. NIKA, Risso. 

One of the two anterior feet simply terminating in a point, the 
other in a didactyle claw ; the two following are unequal, slender, 
and also didactyle, One of these second feet is very long, its carpus 
and the preceding joint being annulatcd, a character which on the 
other foot is only found in the first of these joints. The fourth pair 
t are lunger than the preceding and two following ones. The 
superior antennae have but two threads. 

P. edulis ; Nika edulis, Riss M Crust., Ill, 3, is of a flesh colour 
dotted with yellowi.sh ; a line of small yellow spots in the middle. 
Tin- anterior extremity of the shell is furnished with three 
sharp points, the intermediate of which, or the rostrum, is the 
longest. The two anterior feet arc equal in size, the right one 
ling a forceps. This species is found during the whole year 
in the markets at Nice. It is also found on the coast of the 
department of France, called the Bouches-du-Rhone *. 

HYMENOCERA, Lair. 

The two anterior feet terminated by a long hook with a bifid ex- 
tremity, and composed of very short divisions. The two following 
are very large ; the hands, immoveable finger, and superior thread of 
the intermediate antennae are dilated, membranous, and almost foli- 
aceous. The external foot-jaws are equally foliaceous, and cover the 
mouth. 

The only species known is in the collection of the Museum 
d' Histoire Naturelle, and was captured in the Indian Ocean. 

* For the remaining specie!*, see Risso, Hist. Nat. des Crust, de Nice ; Leach, 
Malac. Brit., XLI ; and the Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ed. II. 



206 CRUSTACEA. 

We now pass to the subgenera, in which the claws present no re- 
markable or insulated peculiarity. 

Sometimes the superior or intermediate antennae are only termin- 
ated by two threads. 

The rostrum is usually short. 

GNAT HOP HYLLUM, Lair. 

The Gnathophylla are the only ones which approach the Hyme- 
noceroe in the size of their foot-jaws. The four anterior feet form 
didactyle claws ; the second pair is longer and thicker than the first. 
Neither of the segments of the four is annulated *. 

PONTONIA, Latr. 

The four anterior feet, as in the two following subgenera, didac- 
tyle claws, but the carpus is not annulated f . 

ALPHEUS, Fab. 

The four anterior feet also terminated by a didactyle claw, but the 
carpus of the second is articulated. The latter are shorter than the 



former J. 



HYPPOLYTE, Leach. 



The Hyppolytes only differ from Alpheus in the respective pro- 
portion of their claws ; the second are longer than the first . 

The two last following subgenera have this peculiarity ; but a sin- 
gle pair of their feet terminate in a didactyle claw. In the 

AUTONOMEA, RlSSO, 

It is the two anterior, which are also distinguished from the 
others by their size, their thickness, and their disproportion ||. In 

PANDALUS, Leach, 

The two anterior feet are simple, or hardly bifid ; the two following 
ones are longer, of unequal length and didactyle, the carpus and 
preceding segment annulated. 

The external foot-jaws are very long and slender, at least in some 
of them. The anterior projection of the shell is greatly extended, 
and multidentate J. 

* Alpheus eleyatis, Risso, Crust., II, 4 ; Desmar., Consid., p. 228. 

f Alpheus thyrenus, Risso, Crust., II, 2 ; Astacus thyrenus. Petag., V, 5 ; Des- 
mar., Ib., p. 229. 

J Alpheus malabaricus, Fab., aud probably some other species, -with which, 
however, I am not sufficiently acquainted. See Desmar., Consid., p. 222, 223. 

To this subgenus should be referred the Paltemon diversimane, and P. marbrt of 
Olivier. See Desmar., Consid., p. 220. 

|| Autonomea Olivii, Risso, Crust., p. 166 ; Cancer glaber, Oliv., Zool. Adriat., 
Ill, 4; Desmar., Consid., p. 251, and 252. 

f Pandalus annulicornis, Leach, Malac. Brit., LI. ; Pandalus narwal, Latr. ; 
Astacus narwal, Fab. ; Patemon pristis, Risso ; Cancer armiger ? Herbst. XXXIV., 
4. See Desmar, Consid., p. 219, 220. 



DECAPODA. 207 

Sometimes the superior antennae have three threads. 
They have four didactyle claws, the smallest of which are folded 
up, ui ill an elongated rostrum. 

PALJEMON, Fab. 

Prawns are distinguished from the two following suhgenera by 
their inarticulated carpus ; the second feet are larger than the first ; 
the latter an- doubled up. A remarkably large species is found in 
the East Indies, the second claws of which are very long. Tolerably 
large ones are also found at the Antilles, some of which frequent the 
mouth* of rivers. Those on the coast of France are much smaller, 
and are known there by the vulgar names of Crevettes and Salicoques. 
Their flesh is more highly esteemed than that of the Shrimp. Ac- 
cording to M. de Brebisson Catal. Method, des Crust, terrest. et 
fluviat.,du Depart, du Calvados, they are taken in the same manner 
a* the latter Crustacea, but in the summer only. Prawns swim well, 
particularly when escaping from pursuit, and in various directions. 
They are always found about the shore. The lithographic stone of 
Papponlieim and Sollmofen frequently exhibits the debris of a fossil 
erustaceous animal, referred by Desmarest to the Prawns, under 
tin- specific appellation of spinipes Hist. Nat.-des Crust. Foss. XI, 4. 
It does in fact resemble it, but the claws are wanting. A second 
fossil species, but much larger, has been discovered in England. 

Pal.serratus, Leach, Malac. Brit. XLIII, 1, 10; Herbst,, 
XXVII, 1, is from four to five inches long, of a pale red colour, 
which becomes more vivid on the antennae, the posterior margin 
of the segments of the tail, and particularly on the terminal fin. 
The rostrum extends beyond the peduncle of the intermediate 
antennae, is recurved at its extremity, and has five teeth above, 
exclusive of the point, and five beneath. The fingers are as long 
as the penultimate joint. It is found on the coast of France and 
England, and is the species of this subgenus that is more particu- 
larly sold at Paris. A sort of wen is frequently, and at all sea- 
sons, observed on one side of the shell, which covers a parasite 
Bopyrus, which fastens upon its branchiae. 

Pal. squilla, Leach, Malac. Brit., XLIII, 1113; Cancer 
."/ui//a, L. ; Squilla fusca. Bast., Opusc. subs., lib. 2, 111, 5, is 
but half the size of the serratus. Its rostrum scarcely extends 
beyond the peduncle of the superior antenna*, is almost straight, 
or but slightly recurved, is emarginatcd at the extremity, and 
has seven or eight teeth above, and three below. The fingers of 
claws are somewhat longer than the hand. Common on the 
coast of France and England *. 

The carpus is articulated, or presents annular divisions in the two 
following genera, vi/. 



* See the article Paltmom, Encyclop. Mrthod., and of the second edition of the 
i <t. Nat, and Desmar., Consid., p. 236238. See also in relation 
to the nervous system, the Mem. Cit. of Messrs. Audouin and Milne Edwards. 



208 CRUSTACEA. 

SYSMATA, JRisso : ante MELICERTA, ejusd. 

Whore the second pair of claws are larger than the first *, and 

ATHANAS, Leach. 

In which, on the contrary, the first pair is larger than the second f . 
The last subgenus of this section, that of 

PASipRflEA, Sav., 

Although closely approximated to several of the preceding by the 
superior antennae which are terminated by two threads, by the form 
of the four anterior feet, terminating in a didactyle forceps, and pre- 
ceded by a joint, without annular divisions, and by the shortness of 
the rostrum, differs from them in several respects. A testaceous ap- 
pendage is very evident at the external base of their feet; these latter, 
with the exception of the claws, which are larger and nearly equal, 
are very slender and filiform ; the body is greatly elongated, strongly 
compressed, and extremely soft. 

Pas.sivado; Alpheus sivado, Risso, Crust., 111,2; Desmar., 
Consid., p. 240, is two inches and a half long, and four lines and 
a half in breadth. The body is transparent, of a nacre white 
edged with red, the caudal fin marked with small dots of the same 
colour. The rostrum is sharp and slightly curved at the point. 
Claws reddish. 

It is very abundant on the shores of Nice, and according to 
Risso spawns in June and July. No other species has yet been 
observed. 

Our fifth and last section of the Macroura, that of the SCHIZOPODA, 
appears to connect the Macroura with the following order. The 
feet, none of which terminates in a forceps, are very slender, resem- 
ble thongs, are furnished with an appendage more or less long, 
arising from their external side near their base, and serving for 
natation only. The ova are situated between them, and not under 
the tail. The ocular pedicles are very short. As in most of the 
Macroura the front projects into a point or rostrum. The shell is thin, 
and the tail terminates, as usual, in a sort of fin. They are small, 
and inhabit salt water. 

Here the eyes are very apparent ; the lateral antennae are accom- 
panied by a scale, and the intermediaries terminated by two threads 
and composed of several small segments, as in the preceding genera. 

MYSIS, Latr., 

Antennse and feet exposed ; the shell elongated ; nearly square or 
cylindrical ; the eyes closely approximated, and the feet capillary, as 
if formed of two threads J. 

* Li/smuta selicauda, Risso, Cnist., II, 1 ; Desmar., Consid., p. 238. 

f Athanus nitescens, Leach, Malac. Brit., XL1V ; Desmar., Consid., p. 239, 240 ; 
de Brfli., Crust., du Calv., p. 23, 24. 

I Mi/sis Fabricii, Leach ; Encyc. Method., All. d'Hist. Nat., CCCXXXVI, 8, 9 ; 
Cancer ontlatus, Oth. ; Fab., Groe.nl., fig. 1. See Depmar., Consid., p. 241, 242. 



STOMAFODA. 209 



CEYPTOPUS, 

Asnbovoid intlated shell, curving downwards on the sides, enve- 
loping tin- l)ddy as well as the antenna? and feet, exhibiting beneath 
a mere longitudinal fissure. The eyes are separated, and the feet in 
tin- form of thongs, with a lateral appendage*. 

There tin- eyes are concealed ; tin- intermediate antennae are coni- 
cal, inarticulated, and very short; the laterals are composed of a 
peduncle, and a thread without any distinct articulations. There is 
no at least salient scale at their base. Such is the 

MULCION, Latr. 

The body is soft and thorax ovoid. The feet are in the form of a 
thong-, and most of them have an appendage at their base; the fourth 
pair is the longest. 

* I know hut one species, the Mulcion Lesueurii, which was 
captured by that zealous naturalist in the seas of North America. 
The late Olivier, in the Pinna marina, found a crustaceous 
animal very similar at the first coup d'oeil to the Lesueurii, 
Imt the specimens were so much injured that it was impossible for 
me to study their characters. 

Tin- Xehali.-v, which we at first placed in this section, having no 
natatory appendages under the last segments of their body, and their 
he'inu- tolerably similar to those of a Cyclops, will pass with the 
C'ondylura into the order of the Branchiopoda, at the head of which 
they will stand. The Nebaliae, by their very prominent eyes, which 
seem to be on pedicles, and by some other characters, appear to con- 
ii' rt the Sehi/opoda with the Branchiopoda. 



ORDER II. 



STOMAPODA. 

The hranehi;r ot th. Stomapoda are exposed and attached to the 

five pair- iominal appendages, exhibited to us by that part of 

the hody, called tail, in the Decapoda, and which here, as in most of 

fitted for natation, or are fin-feet. Their shell is 

ied into two portions, tin* anterior of which supports the eyes and 

intermediate antennae, or composes the head, without giving origin to 

the foot jaws. These organs, as well as the four anterior feet, are 

frequently approximated to the mouth on two lines that converge 

i/ptofHi D^frtmcii, Latr., from the Mediterranean. 
VOL. in. P 



210 CRUSTACEA. 

inferiorly, and hence the denomination of Stomapoda affixed to this 
order. Judging by the Squillae, the most remarkable genus of this 
cmliT, and the only one hitherto studied, the heart is elongated, and 
similar to a large vessel. It extends along the whole length of the 4 
back, rests upon the liver and intestinal canal, and terminates poste- 
riorly and near the anus in a point. Its parieties are thin, transparent, 
and almost membranous. From its anterior extremity, placed imme- 
diately behind the stomach, arise three principal arteries, the mediate 
of which the opthalmic giving off several branches on each side, is 
more particularly directed to the eyes and intermediate antennae ; and 
the two lateral ones the antennaries pass over the sides of the 
stomach and are lost in the muscles of the mouth and of the external 
antennae. No artery arises from the superior surface of the heart* 
but a great many issue from its two sides, each pair of which, as it 
appears to us, corresponds to a particular segment of the body, com- 
mencing with the foot-jaws, whether these segments be external, or 
concealed by the shell, and even very small, as is the case with those 
that are anterior. On a level with the first five abdominal annuli, or 
those to which the natatory appendages and the branchiae are at- 
tached, this superior surface of the heart receives, near the median 
line, five pairs of vessels a pair to each segment proceeding from 
these latter organs, and which, according to Messrs. Audouin and 
Milne Edwards, are analagous to the branchio- cardiacs of the Deca- 
poda. A central canal * situated under the liver and intestine re- 
ceives the venous blood which is poured into it from all parts of the 
body. On the level of each segment to which the foot-jaws and 
branchiae are attached, it gives off a branch on each side, running to 
that part of the branchiae which is situated at the base of the corre- 
sponding foot-jaw. The parieties of these vessels appear to the above- 
mentioned gentlemen to be smooth and continuous, but formed by a 
layer of lamellated cellular tissue glued to the neighbouring muscles, 
rather than by a membrane proper ; these vessels also appeared to 
them to communicate with each other near the lateral margin of the 
annuli, but they could not possitively affirm it. The afferent or in- 
ternal vessels of the branchiae, which in these Squillae form tufted 
bunches, are continuous with the branchio-cardiac canals, are no 
longer lodged in cells, pass between muscles, turn obliquely over 



* See our general observations on the Macroura. Neither this vessel nor the 
venous sinuses have been observed in the subsequent orders ; but the heart preserves 
the same elongated form, and presents similar anterior arteries. From its sides also 
arise other arteries corresponding to the articulations of the body. In addition to 
the pre-cited Memoir, see the Le9ons d'Anatomie Compare of the Baron Cuvier. 



ATOM A POD A. 211 

the lateral part of the abdomen, reach the anterior margin of the pre- 
ceding ring, arid terminate on the superior surface of the heart near 
the median lino, one partly mounting on the other. The medullary 
cord, exclusive of the brain, presents but ten ganglions, of which the 
anterior furnishes nerves to the mouth the three following, those 
of the six natatory feet, and the last six, those of the tail. Thus, 
although the four last foot-jaws represent the four anterior feet 
of the Decapods, they nevertheless form a part of the organs of man- 
ducation. The stomach of these Crustacea Squillae is small and 
has but a few very small teeth* near the pylorus. It is followed by a 
Mi-iiitrht and slender intestine which extends along the whole abdo- 
men, accompanied on the right and left by glandular lobes, which 
appear to supply the want of a liver. A ramous appendage adhering 
to the inner base of the last pair of feet appears to characterize the 
male. 

The teguments of the Stomapoda are thin, and, in several, nearly 
membranous or diaphanous. The shell is sometimes formed of two 
shields, of which the anterior corresponds to the head, and the pos- 
terior to the thorax, and sometimes of a single piece, which however 
is free behind, usually exposing the thoracic segments, bearing the 
three last pairs of feet, and having an articulation before that serves 
as a base to the eyes and intermediate antennae ; these latter organs 
are always extended and terminated by two or three threads. The 
eyes are always approximated. The formation of the mouth is 
essentially the same as in the Decapoda ; but the palpi of the mandi- 
bles, instead of being laid on them, are always vertical. The foot- 
jaws are deprived of the flagelliform appendage presented to us by the 
same parts in the Decapoda. They have the form of claws, or of 
small feet, and, at least in several the Squillse, their external base 
as well as that of the two anterior feet properly so called, exhibits a 
v >icular body. Those of the second pair, in the same Stomapoda, are 
much larger than the others, and even than the feet, which has caused 
thorn to be considered as true feet; fourteen of them have been 
counted f. The four anterior feet have also the form of claws, but 
are terminated as well as the foot-jaws by a hook which curves to- 
wards the head, on the inferior and anterior edge of the preceding 
joint or of the hand. In others however the Phyllosoma for instance}; 

* They form two ranges of transverse and parallel striae. 

t The second jaws of these Stomapoda no longer present the same form as those 
of the Decapoda. They have the figure of an elongated triangle divided into four 
segments by transverse lines. The mandibles arc bifurcated and well dentated. 

J In all those where the four auterior feet are in the form of claws, the six last 
are natatory. 

p 2 



212 CRUSTACEA. 

all these organs are filiform and have no forceps. Some of them at 
least, as well as the last six and equally simple ones of the Stomapoda 
provided with claws, have an appendage or lateral branch. The 
seven last segments of the body, containing a large portion of the 
heart and furnishing a base for the attachment of the respiratory or- 
gans, can no longer in this respect be assimilated to that portion of the 
body which is called the tail in the Decapoda : it is a true abdomen. 
Its penultimate segment has a fin on each side formed like the caudal 
of the Macroura, but is frequently, as well as the last segment or 
intermediate portion, armed with spines or teeth. 

The Stomapoda are all marine Crustacea. Their favourite habita- 
tion is in the intertropieal latitudes, and they are not found beyond the 
temperate zones. Of their habits we are totally ignorant ; that those 
which are furnished with claws use them in seizing their prey, in the 
manner of those Orthoptera called in Provence Prey actions or Man- 
tes*, we cannot doubt. Hence their vulgar appellation of Sea- 
Mantis: they are the Crangones and Crangines of the Greeks. 
According to Risso they prefer sandy bottoms in deep water, and 
copulate in the spring. Other Stomapoda, those of our second family, 
being less favoured with natatory appendages, and having a much 
natter and more superficially extended body, are generally found on 
the surface of the water, where they move very slowly. We will 
divide the Stomapoda into two families. 

FAMILY I. 



UNIPELTATA. 

In this family the shell consists of a single shield, of an elongated 
quadrilateral form, usually widened and free behind, covering the 
head, the antennae and eyes excepted, which are placed on a common 
anterior articulation, and at least the first segments of the body. Its 
anterior extremity terminates in a point, or is preceded by a small 
plate with a similar end. All the foot-jaws, the second of which are 
very large, and the four anterior feet are closely approximated to the 
mouth on two inferiorly converging lines, and have the form of 
claws with a single finger or mobile and flexed hook. With the 
exception of the second feet, all these organs are furnished at their 
external origin with a little pediculated vesiclq. The other six feet, 
at the base of whose third segment is a lateral appendage, are linear, 
terminated by a brush, and simply natatory. The lateral antennae 

* Some other analogous Orthoptera, such as the PhylUuni, resemble leaves. The 
Phyllosorase, Crustacea of the same order, exhibit similar affinities. 



HTOMAPODA. '213 

have a scale at their base, and the stem of the intermediaries is com- 
d of three filaments. The body is narrow and elongated ; the 

oeiilar pedicles are always >hort. 

This family is composed of but one geium, that of 
S)i ii. i. A ; i'ab., 

Which we will divide in the following manner : 

In M>ine the crustaceous shield is preceded by a small and more or' 
less trimgular phtc, situated above the segment, in which th" eyes 
and mediate antennae are inserted, only covers the anterior }iortion of 
the thorax, and does not curve downwards on the sides. The 
piece which serves as a peduncle to the mediate antennae, as well as 
the ocular pedicles, and the external sides of the end of the abdomen, 
arc exposed. 

Here the body is almost semi-cylindrical, the posterior edge of the 
last M'uinent being rounded, dentated or spinous ; the lateral appen- 
dages of the last six feet are styliform. 

SQUILL A, Lat., 

Tin? true Squill*, along the whole inner side of the penultimate 
ient of the two large claws, have an extremely narrow groove, 
dentated on one of its edges and spinous on the other, and the ensuing 
joint, or the claw, falciform and usually dentated. 

Squilla mantis ; Cancer mantis, L. ; Herbst., XXXIII, 1; 
Encyclop. Method., Atl. d'Hist. Nat., CCCXXIV ; Desmar., 
Consid., XLI, 2, is about seven inches in length. The base of 
the large forceps is furnished with three moveable spines, and its 
claws have six elongated and sharp-edged teeth, the last one 
being the largest. The segments of the body, the last one 
excepted, are marked by six longitudinal ridges, mostly termi- 
nating in a sharp point ; the middle of the last is strongly cari- 
nated, punctured, and terminated posteriorly by a double range 
of indentations, and four very stout points, the mediate teeth of 
which are most closely approximated; each lateral margin has 
two reflected or thicker divisions, the last one terminating in a 
point. The peduncle of the lateral fins is prolonged beneath 
and terminated by two very strong teeth. It is common in the 
Mediterranean. The Squille de Desmarest, Risso, Crust. II, 8, 
which also inhabits the same sea, is but two inches and a half in 
length. Its claws have, five teeth; the shell and the middle por- 
of the abdominal segments, the last ones excepted, are 
smooth*. In the 

GONODACTYLUS, Lai., 

The groove of the penultimate segment of the large claws is 
widened at its extremity, presenting neither dentations nor spines. 
The finger is dilated, or resembles a knot near its base, terminating 

* For the other species, see the article Squille, and pi. of the Encyc. Method. ; 
Desmar., Consid. In pi. XLI I, he has given a detailed figure of the SmtiUe 
queue- rude. 



214 CRUSTACEA. 

in a straight or slightly curved compressed point. They are all 
foreign to Europe *, 

There, the body is extremely narrow and depressed, and the last 
segment almost square, entire, and without dentations or spines. 
The lateral appendage of its last six feet is in the form of an almost 
orbicular and slightly bordered palette ; the antennae and feet are 
shorter than in the preceding ; the penultimate segment of the large 
claws has its inner margin fringed with numerous cilia in the form 
of little spines ; the figure is falciform. 

CORONIS, Lair. 
But a single species is known f . 

In the remaining Stomapoda of this family the shell is almost 
membranous and diaphanous, covers the whole thorax, is curved 
laterally beneath, prolonged anteriorly into a spine or ensiform blade, 
and projects above the base of the mediate antennae and of the eyes. 
This base or support is susceptible of being curved under and en- 
closed in the case formed by the curvature of the shield. The pos- 
terior fins are concealed under the last segment. 

These very small, soft Crustacea, are peculiar to the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Eastern seas. The fingers of the large claws have 
no teeth ; the second joint of the ocular pedicles is much larger than 
the first, and has the figure of a reversed cone ; the eyes properly so 
called are large and almost globular ; the fin-like appendage of the 
feet resembles that of the Squillee and Gonodactyli. In the 

ERICHTHUS, Latr. SMERDIS, Leach, 

The first joint of the ocular pedicles is much shorter than the 
second ; the middle of the lateral edges of the shield has a strongly 
angular dilatation, and their posterior extremity exhibits two teeth J. 
In 

A LIMA, Leach, 

The first joint of the ocular pedicles is slender, cylindrical, and 
much longer than the following one ; the body is narrower and more 
elongated than that of an Erichthus : the lateral borders of the shield 
are nearly straight or are but slightly dilated ; there is a slight 
longitudinal carina on its middle, and each of its angles forms a 
spine, the two posterior of which are the largest . 

FAMILY II. 

BIPELTATA. 

In this family we find the shell divided into two shields, the anterior 

* Squilla scyllanis, Fab.; Rumph. Mus., Ill, F; Squilla chiragra, Fab.; 
Desmar. Consid., XLIII. See the article Squille, of the Encyclopedia M^thodique. 

f See Encyclop. Method., art. Squille. Squilla eusebia ? Risso. 

\ Erichthus vitreus, Lat. See art. Squille, Atl. d'Hist. Nat. of the Encyclop. 
Method., pi. cccliv ; and Desmar. Consid., XLIV, 2, 3. 

Alima hyalina, Lat., Encyclop. Method., art. Squille, and Ibid. Atl. d'Hist. 
Nat., CCCLIV, 8 ; Desmar., Consid., XLIV, 1. 



CRUSTACEA. 215 

of which, very large and more or less oval, forms the head, and the 
posterior, corresponding to the thorax, transverse and angular in its 
circumference, supports the foot-jaws and feet. These latter, with 
the exception at most of the two posterior and two last foot-jaws, are 
.slender and filiform, usually very long and accompanied by a lateral, 
ciliated apjn-iula^i 1 . Tlir other four foot-jaws are very small and 
conical. Tim base of the lateral antennae exhibits no scale; the 
intermediaries are terminated by two threads. The ocular pedicles 
are long. The body is much flattened, membranous, and diaphanous ; 
the abdomen small and its posterior fin without spines. It comprises 
but a single genus, the 

PHYLLGSOMA, Leach, 
Of which all the species inhabit the Atlantic Ocean and Oriental 

snas * 



MALACOSTRACA. 

b. Eyes sessile and immoveable. 

The Branchiopoda are the only Crustacea of which we shall hence- 
forward have occasion to speak, that exhibit eyes placed on pedicles. 
But independently of the fact that these pedicles are neither articu- 
lated nor lodged in special cavities, the Branchiopoda have no shell, 
and are otherwise removed from the preceding Crustacea by various 
characters. All the Malacostraca of this division are also deprived 
of a shell ; their body, from the head downwards, is composed of a 
of articulations of which each of the first seven is furnished 
with a pair of feet, the following and last ones, seven at most, form- 
ing a sort of tail terminated by fins or styliform appendages. The 
-rnts four antennae, the two intermediate superior, two eyes, 
and a mouth composed of two mandibles, a tongue, two pairs of jaws, 
and a sort of lip formed by two foot-jaws that correspond to the two 
i ior ones of the Decapoda ; here, as in the Stomapoda, the 
flagrum no longer exists. The four last foot-jaws are transformed 



* See Encyclop. Method., and Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., Ed. II, article Phyl- 
tosome ; also the work of Desmnrest on the Crustacea and the Zoology of the 
de Frcycinet. As respects their nervous system, the Phyllosomo: seem to be in- 
termediate between the preceding and subsequent Crustacea. See Audouin and 
Edwards, op. cit. 



216 CRUSTACKA. 

into feet, sometimes simple and at others constituting a claw, but 
almost always with a single toe or hook. 

According to the observations of Messrs. Audouin and Edwards, 
the two ganglionary cords of the spinal marrow are perfectly sym- 
metrical and distinct throughout the whole of their length, and from 
those of the Baron Cuvier it would appear that the Onisci are only 
removed from them because these cords do not present the same 
uniformity in all the segments of the body, and because there are 
some ganglions less *. Thus, according to them, the nervous system 
of the Crustacea is the simplest of all ; in the Cymothoae and Idoteae 
the two ganglionary chains are no longer distinct, and those ganglions 
which immediately follow the two cephalics, form as many small 
circular masses situated on the median line of the body ; but the 
cords of communication which serve to connect them, remain 
isolated and attached to each other. It would appear from these facts 
that the latter Crustacea are higher in the animal scale than the 
preceding ones, but other considerations seem to us to require a con- 
siderable separation between the Talitri and Onisci, and the 
arrangement of the Cymothoae and Idotese in an intermediate rank. 

The organs of generation are situated inferiorly near the origin of 
the tail. The two first appendages with which it is furnished beneath, 
and which are analogous to those presented to us by the same part in 
the preceding Crustacea, but more diversified, and always, as it 
appears, supporting the branchiae, differ in this respect, according to 
the sex. The coitus takes place like that of insects, the male placing 
himself on the back of his female ; the latter carries her ova under 
the thorax, between scales which form a sort of pouch. There they 
are developed, and the young remain attached to the feet or other 
parts of the body of their mother, until they have acquired the 
strength requisite for natation, and providing for their wants. All 
these Crustacea arc small, and mostly inhabit the sea-coast or fresh 
water. Some are terrestrial, and others are known which are 
parasitical. 

They are divided into three orders : those whose mandibles are 
furnished with a palpus, appear to be naturally connected with the 
preceding Crustacea such are the Amphipoda ; those in which these 
organs are deprived of them will constitute the two following orders 

the Laemodipoda and the Isopoda. The Cyami, a genus of the 

second one, being parasitical, naturally lead us to the Bopyri and 
Cymothoae, with which we commence the Isopoda. 

*See ONISCUS. 



U'HJPODA. 217 

ORDER III. 



AMPHIPODA. 

Tin- Amphipodaare the only Malacrostraca with sessile ami im- 
movcable eyes, whose mandibles, like those of the preceding Crusta- 
cea, are furnished with a palpus, and tin' only ones whose subcaudal 
appendages, always very apparent, l-y their narrow and elongated 
form, their articulations, bifurcations, and other incburea, as well as 
by the hairs or cilia with which they are provided, resemble false or 
natatory feet. In the Malacostraca of the following orders, these ap- 
pendages have the form of laminae or scales ; here these hairs and 
cilia appear to constitute the branchiae. Many of them, like the Sto- 
mapoda and the Laemodipoda, have vesicular bursae either between 
their feet or at their external base, the use of which is unknown. 

The first pair of feet, or that which corresponds to the second foot- 
jaws, is always annexed to a particular segment, the first after the 
head. Tin- antennae, which with a single exception the Phronimae, 
are four in number, project, gradually taper into a point, arid consist, 
as in the preceding Crustacea, of a peduncle and a single stem, or 
one furnished at most with a little lateral branch, and usually com- 
posed of several joints. The body is generally compressed and curved 
beneath posteriorly. The terminal appendages of the tail are most 
frequently styliform and articulated. Most of them swim and leap with 
facility, and always laterally. Some inhabit springs and rivulets, and 
are often found in couples consisting of the two sexes ; most of them 
however live in salt water. Their colour is uniform, verging on 
reddish or greenish. 

They may all be comprised in a single genus, that of 
GAMMARUS, Fab. 

Which we may subdivide, in the first place, into three sections,, 
from the form and number of the feet. 

1. Those which have fourteen feet all terminated by a hook, or 
in a point. 

2. Those which also have fourteen feet, but which are the four 

least simple natatory. 
TluiNi- which have only ten apparent feet. 

first section is divided into two. 

Some of thrm. the UROI-IKKA, Latr., usually have a large head; 
the antennae are frequently short, and in some but* two in number: 
body is soft. All the feet, the fifth pair at most excepted, are simple, 
the anterior are short or small, and the tail is either furnished at the 
extremity with Literal I'm-, of is terminated hy points or apj>< 
u dened and bidentated, or forked at their posterior extremity. They 



218 CRUSTACEA. 

inhabit the bodies of various Acephala or Linnaean Medusae, and of 
some other Zoophytes. 
Here, as in 

PHRONIMA, Lat., 

There are but two -very short and biarticulated antennae ; the 
fifth pair of feet is the largest of all and terminates in a didactyle for- 
ceps ; the six appendages of the extremity of the tail are styliform, 
elongated and forked or bidentated at the end ; six vesicular sacs may 
be observed between the last feet. Several species appear to exist, 
but they have not been strictly and comparatively described. 

That which has been taken for our type is the Cancer seden- 
tariuSi Forsk., Faun. Arab., p. 95; Latr., Gerier. Crust, et In- 
sect. I, ii, 2, 3, which is found in the Mediterranean, and inha- 
bits a membranous transparent body that has the figure of a cask, 
and which appears to proceed from the body of a species of Beroe. 
The Phronime sentinelle, Risso, Crust., II, 3, inhabits the 
interior of Medusae, constituting the genera Equoree and Geronie 
of Peron and Lesueur. Another species, according to Leach, has 
been observed on the coast of Zealand. 

There we observe four antennae ; all the feet are simple ; on each 
side of the' extremity of the tail is a lamellated or foliaceous fin, the 
leaflets of which are acuminated or unidentated at the end. 

HYPERIA, Lat. 

The body thickest anteriorly ; the greater portion of the head occu- 
pied by oblong eyes somewhat emarginated on the inner edge ; two 
of the antennae, at least half as long as the body and terminated by a 
long setaceous stem composed of several small joints *. 
PHROSINE, Risso. 

Form of the body and that of the head similar to the Hyperiae, but 
the antennae, at most, the length of the latter, composed of but few 
and styliform joints, or terminated by a stem resembling an elongated 
cone f. 

* Cancer monoculoides, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc. XI, ii, 3 ; Hyperie de Le- 
sueur, Lat., Encyclop. Method., Atl. d'Hist. Nat., CCCXXVIII, 17, 18; Des- 
mar. Consid., p. 258. 

N.B. Near the Hyperise should be placed the genus THEMISTO, Lat., carefully 
figured and described in the Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat., tome IV. As in the 
Hyperise, the eyes are very large and occupy the larger portion of the head ; two 
of the antennae (the inferior), all terminated by a multi-articulated stem tapering to 
a point, are evidently longer than the others. The part there called fcvre inferieure, 
is the ligula ; those which appear to form the third pair of jaws are the first of the 
foot-jaws, and, as in the Amphipoda and Isopoda, close the mouth inferiorly under 
the form of a lip. The four remaining foot-jaws are very short, directed forwards 
and laid upon the mouth in such a way that they seem to constitute a part of it, so 
that if we do not count them, or if we merely consider the following locomotive and 
much more apparent organs as feet, this animal, like the Hyperia and Phrosine, 
appears at the first glance to have but ten feet instead of fourteen. The third pair 
of foot-jaws is terminated by a small didactyle forceps. The same pair of feet, pro- 
perly so called, is much longer than the others ; its penultimate joint is greatly 
elongated, and is armed with a range of small spines forming a sort of comb. But 
a single species is known. 

f Phros. macrophthalma, Risso, Jour, de Phys., Octob, 1822; Desmar., Ib., p. 
259 ; Cancer galba, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc., XI, ii, 2. 



AHPH1PODA, 219 

DlCTYLOCERA, Lat. 

The body not thickened anteriorly ; the head moderate, depressed, 
nearly square ; eyes small ; four extremely short antennae composed 
of but few joints, us in Phrosine, of various forms the inferior being 
thin and stylifonn, and the superior terminated by a small concave 
plate on tin- inner mhle a spoon or forceps *. 

The others GAMMARINJE, Latr. always have four antennae ; their 
hody, limited with coriaceous and elastic segments, is generally 
comj id arcuated; the posterior extremity of the tail is de- 

prived of fins; its appendages are styliform and cylindrical, or conical. 
At lea>t two of their four anterior feet are usually terminated by a 
forceps. 

The vesicular bursaej in those where they have been observed 
the Gammaririsp, Latr. are situated at the exterior base of the feet, 
commencing with the second pair, and are accompanied by a small 
plate. The pectoral scales which inclose the ova are six in number. 

Sometimes the four antennae, although of different proportions in 
several, have a similar form and use ; the inferior have no resem- 
blance to feet nor do they perform their functions. 

A subgenus which we have established under the denomination of 

IONE, Lat., 

Only, however, from a figure given by Montagu Oniscus thara- 
cicus, Trans. Lin. Spc., IX, III, 3, 4 exhibits very peculiar charac- 
ters which separate it from all others of the same order. The body 
consists of about fifteen joints, but only distinguished by lateral 
tooth-like incisions. The four antennae are very short ; those that 
are external, being longer than the others, are the only ones visible 
when the animal is seen on its back. Each of the two first segments 
of the body of the female is provided with two elongated, fleshy, 
flattened cirri resembling oars. The feet are very short, concealed 
under the body and hooked. The six last segments are furnished 
with lateral, fleshy, elongated, fasciculated appendages, which are 
simple in the male and like oars in the female. At the posterior 
extremity of the body we also observe six simple, recurved appen- 
dages, two of which are larger than the others. The abdominal 
valves are very large, cover the whole inferior surface of the body, 
ami form a sort of receptacle for the ova. This animal remains con- 
cealed under the shell of the Calinassa suhlcrrunea^ on the side of 
which it forms a tumour. Montagu, having withdrawn one of the>e 
Crustacea from its domicil, kept it alive for several days. The female 
\vays accompanied by the male, who fixes himself firmly to her 
abdominal appendages by means of his forceps. It is a rare animal 
winch, in its hal.its, approaches the Bopyri f. 

All the ensuing Amphipoiia have the of the body perfectly 

distinct, throughout their whole extent ; in n- ither sex "nor in any 

* Phrot. tetninulata, Rfeso, r. The stem of the inferior antennae consists of 

two or three joint-, while in Ti rosinc it i> inarticulate. There also, the joints of the 
peduncles of the same antennae are shorter. 

f See Ann. des Sc. Nat., Dccemb. lt$26,XLIX. 10, the male 11, the female. 



2:20 CRUSTACEA. 

of the species do we find those long oar-like cirri observed in the first 
of the lones. 

In the latter, when it exists, the moveable toe of the foot, termi- 
nated by a forceps, is formed of a single joint. 

Of these last, there are some whose superior antennae are much 
shorter than the inferior, and even than their peduncle ; the stem of 
the latter is composed of numerous joints. 

ORCHESTIA, Leach. 

The second feet of the male terminated by a large forceps, the 
moveable toe long and somewhat curved ; those of the female by two 
toes. The third joint of the inferior antennae is at most twice the 
length of that of the preceding ones *. 

TALIPRUS, Lat. 

Neither of the feet forming a forceps. The third joint of the in- 
ferior antennae more than twice the length of that of the preceding 
ones ; the antennae large and spinous f. 

In the following, the superior antennae are never much shorter 
than the inferior. 

Some of them, furnished with elongated setaceous antennae ter- 
minated by a pluri-articulated stem, and without any remarkable 
forceps, approach the preceding in their superior antennae, which 
are somewhat shorter than the inferior, and are removed from those 
that follow by the form of their head which is narrowed before into a 
kind of snout. Such is 

ATYLUS, Leach J. 

All those which succeed have the superior antennae as long as the 
inferior, or longer; their head is not elongated into a snout. 

Here, as in the five following genera of Leach, the peduncle of the 
antennae is formed of three joints . 

Some, in their superior antennae, present a character which is 
unique in this order the internal extremity of the third joint of the 
peduncle is provided with a little articulated thread. It distinguishes 
the 

GAMMARUS, Lat., 

Where the four anterior feet have the form of small forceps, the 
moveable toe folding beneath. 



* Oniscus gammarellus, Pall., Spic. Zool., Fascic., IX, iv, 8 ; Cancer gain mams 
lilloreus, Montag.; Desmar., Consid., p. 261, XLV, :*. 

f Oniscus locusta, Pall., Spic. Zool., Fascic. IX, iv, 7 ; Cancer gammarus saltator, 
Montag. ; Desmar., Consid., XLV, 11. 

+ Atylus carinatus, Leach, Zool. Misc., LXIX ; Desmar., Consid., p. 262, XLV, 
4 ; Gammarus carinatus, Fab. ; (T. nn.yax ' ejusd. ; Phipps, Voy. to the North 
Pole, XII, 2 ; 

The third joint of the peduncle may be very smalT and thus become assi- 
milated to the following, or those of the stem; this peduncle, as in the Dexamines, 
then appears to consist of but two joints. According to the system of Leach the 
stem is understood to form another but compound joint. 



AMPHIPODA. 221 

Tlu species best known and the type of this subgenus is the 
Cancer pulex, L. ; Squilla pulex, De Geer, Insect., VII, xxxiii, 
1,2. It inhabits brooks, &c. The other species are marine *. 

The antennae of the following, as in all the other Amphipoda, are 

Simple or without appendages. 

MELITA, Leach. 

The second pair of % feet, in the male, terminated by a largo com- 
pressed forceps, the toe folding under its internal surface ; the an- 

t im, ni-arly ,|M il in length ; a small foliaceous appendage on each 

vile of tin- posterior extivniily uf the body f. 

M KK A. Leach. 

The second fret in the males terminated as in the Melitae, but tin- 
toe folds under the inferior edge of the forceps and is not concealed. 

The superior antennae are longer than the inferior, and the foliace- 
otls appendages of the posterior extremity of the body are want- 

'.* { 

AMPHITHOE, Leach. 

The four anterior feet nearly similar in both sexes; the penultimate 
article or hand proper, ovoid . 

PHERUSA, Leach. 

The Phorusae only differ from the proceeding subgenus in the hand 
of the forceps, which is filiform ||. 

There, the peduncle of the antennae is only composed of two joints, 
the third being so small as to be confounded" with those of the stem, 
or forming that of the base ; the superior are longer than the inferior. 
All the feet are simple, or without forceps. Such is 



DEXAMINE, 

In those, the moveable toe of the two forceps is bi-articulated. 
The antennae are of equal length. 

LEUCOTHOE, Leach. 

The antennae short, their peduncle formed of two joints ; the four 
anterior feet terminated in a stout forceps ; toes of the two first bi-ar- 



* See Desmar., Consid., p. 265, 267- 

f Cancer palmatus, Montaf?., Trang. Lin. Soc., VII, p. 69; Encyclop. Method., 
Atl..rili<t. Nat.. CCCXXXVI, :n ; Desmar., Consid., XL\ . :. 

; ' n.iurus grorimanus, Montag., Trans. Lin., Soc., IX, iv. 5 ; Desmar. 

L, p. 264. 

$ *' ..-.ifi'i, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc., IX, p. 99; Encyclop. Method., 

Ail. d'llixt. Nat., CC( \\\\ I. :u ; Desmar., Con-id.. XLV, 9; Onisctu canceltos, 
I'nll.. Spic. Zool. Fascic., IX, iii, 18; Gammarus cunccllus. Fab. 

|| Phtnusa fusicola, Lench ; Trans. Lin. >>,., M, p. 360; Desmar., Consid., 
p. 268. 

V Cancer gammon* spinosus, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc., XI, p. 3 ; Desmar., 
Consid., XLV, 6. 



222 CRUSTACEA. 

ticulated ; those of the second pair consisting of a single and long 
joint*. 

CERAPUS, Say. 

Large antennae, the peduncle consisting of three the superior 
or four the inferior joints ; the two anterior feet small, with a 
uni-articulated toe ; the two following terminating in a large triangu- 
lar, smooth, dentated hand, with a bi-articulated finger. 

Ceraphus tubularis, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. of Philad., I, 
j V) 7 11 . Desmar., Consid., XL VI, 2. It inhabits a little cy- 
lindrical tube, and in this respect approaches the subsequent 
subgenus. Very common at Egg Harbour, New Jersey, among 
the Sertularise on which it appears to feed. 

Finally, the inferior antennae, sometimes much larger than the 
superior, their stem consisting at most of four joints, have the form 
of feet, and appear to serve, at least occasionally, as organs of pre- 
hension. 

Here the second feet are terminated by a large forceps, 

PODOCERUS, Leach. 
Eyes very prominent f . 

JASSA, Leach. 

Eyes not prominent J. 

There, neither of the feet is terminated by a large forceps. 

COROPHIUM, Lett. 

C. longicornis ; Cancer grossipes, L. ; Gammarus longicornis, 
Fab.; Oniscus volutator, Pall., Spic. Zool., Fascic. IX, iv, 9; 
Desmar., Consid., XLVI, 1, called Peryns, on the coast of Ro- 
chelle, lives in holes, which it forms in the mud, that is covered 
with hurdles, called bouchots, by the inhabitants. The animal 
does not make its appearance till the beginning of May. It wages 
everlasting war against the Nereides, Amphinomse, Arenicolae, 
and other marine Annelides, which inhabit the same locality. A 
curious spectacle is presented by these Crustacea, when the tide 
is coming in ; myriads of them may then be seen moving in every 
direction, beating the mud with their great arms, and diluting 
it in order to discover their prey is it one of the above men- 
tioned Annelides they have discovered, which is ten or twenty 
times larger than themselves? they unite to attack and devour 
it. The carnage never ceases until the mud has been thoroughly 
turned up and its inequalities levelled. They do not even 
spare Mollusca, Fishes, or dead bodies on the shore. They 
mount upon the hurdles which contain Muscles, and fishermen 

* Cancer articulosus, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc. VII, 6 ; Desmar., Consid., p. 
263, XLV, 5. 

f Podocerus variegatus, Leach, Trans. Lin. Soc., XI, p. 361 ; Desmar., Consid., 
p. 269. 

Jassa pukhella, Leach, Ib., p, 361 ; Desmar., Cousid., p. 269. 



AMPHIPODA, 223 

that they will cut the threads that keep them there, in 
order to precipitate them into the mud, where they may devour 
them at their leisure. They appear to hreed during the whole 
summer, as females carrying their ova are to be met with at 
various periods. \Vad-rs and different Fishes prey upon them. 
For these interesting obsen at i oi IN \ve are indebted to M. D'Or- 
bigny, Senior, conservator of the Rochelle Museum and corre- 
!.'; lumber of that of Paris *. 



Tin- second section HETEROPA, Lat. is composed of those with 
fourteen feet, the last four of which, at least, are unarmed and destined 
for natation only. It comprises two subgeneraf. 

PTERYGOCERA, Latr. 

The thorax divided into several segments; four antennae furnished 
with setae or hairs in bunches; all the feet natatory and the last large 
and pinnated J ; cylindrical, articulated appendages to the posterior 

extremity of the body. 

APSEUDES, Leach. EUPHEUS, Risso. 

The thorax also divided into several segments, but the two anterior 
feet terminated by a didactyle forceps ; the two following ones clavi- 
form, ending in a point and dentated on the edges ; the next six 
slender and unguiculated at the extremity ; the last four natatory. 
The antenna- are simple. The body is narrow, elongated, and has 
two long setaceous appendages at its posterior extremity . 

The third and last section DECEMPEDES, Lat. is composed of 
Amphipoda, which present but six distinct feet. 

TYPHIS, Risso. 

But two very small antennae, the head large, and eyes not promi- 
jient ; each pair of feet annexed to its peculiar segment, and the four 
anterior terminated by a didactyle forceps. On each side of the 
thorax are two moveable plates, forming a sort of lids or valves, 



See Encyclop. Method., article Pod 

f This and the following section, iu the first edition of the Rgne Animal, form 
the second of the Isopoda, that of the Phytibranchiafa. But independently of our 
having discovered mandibulnr palpi in some of these Crustacea, the form of the 
subcaudal appendages appears to us to approximate them much nearer to the 
Amphipoda than to the Isopoda. We may also observe that these animals, of 
which we have seen but very few, have not yet been well studied. 

I According to the figure of Slabber Oniscus artnarins, Encyclop. Method., 
Atl. d'Hist. Nat.,CCCXXX, 3, 4, the number of feet is but eight; reasoning 
from analogy, I presume it to be fourteen ; besides, if the figure be exact, this genus 
would belong to the next section. 

Enphnu liffioldft, Risso, Crust., Ill, 37; Desmar., Consid., 285 ; Apsevdts 
1alpa, Leach ; Cancer yammanu talpa, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc., IX, ir, 6 ; Des- 
mar., Consid. : XLVI, 9. See the Gammanu hcteroclitus, Viviani, Phosphor. 
Mans, II, ii, 12. 

N.B. The genus RHCEA, M. Edwards, Ann. des Sc. Nat. XIII. xiii, A, 292, dif- 
fers from the preceding in the superior antenme, which are stouter, longer, and 



224 CRUSTACEA. 

which when joined, the animal folding up its feet and tail beneath, 
enclose the body inferiorly, and give it a spheroidal appearance. The 
posterior extremity of the tail has no appendage*. 

ANCEUS, Risso. GNATHIA, Leach. 

The thorax divided into as many segments as there are pairs of 
foot, but all the latter simple and monodactyle; four setaceous an- 
tennae ; a stout square head with .two large projections in the form of 
mandibles; extremity of the tail furnished with foliaceous fin-like 
append ages f. 

PRANIZA, Leach. 

Four setaceous antennae, as in the preceding; but the thorax viewed 
from above presents but three segments, the two first of which are 
very short and transverse, each supporting a pair of feet, while the 
third, much larger and longitudinal, supports the others. The feet 
are simple ; the head is triangular, pointed before, and has prominent 
eyes. Each side of the posterior extremity of the body is also pro- 
vided with a fin J. 

Various genera of Messrs. Savigny, Rafinesque and Say, but the 
characters of which have not been described or sufficiently developed, 
appear to belong to this order of the Amphipoda. Even some of the 
subgenera I have just quoted require to be re-examined. 

M. Milne Edwards has made several valuable and detailed obser- 
vations on several of these Crustacea, which will most certainly tend 
to elucidate the subject. 



ORDER IV. 

LJEMODIPODA. 

The Laemodipoda are the only Malacostraca with sessile eyes, in 
which the posterior extremity of the body exhibits no distinct bran- 
chiae, and which are almost deprived of a tail, the two last feet being 
inserted in that extremity, or the segment which connects them with 
it being merely followed by one or, two very small joints. They are 
also the only ones in which the two anterior feet, that correspond to 
the second foot-jaws, form part of the head. 

* Typhis ovoides, Risso, Crust., II, 9 ; Desmar., Consid., p. 281, XLVI, 5. 

f Anceus forjicularis ; Risso, Crust., II, 10; Desmar., Consid., XLVI, 6; An- 
ceus maxillaris ; Gancer maanllans. Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc., VII, vi, 2 ; Desmar. 
Ib., XLVI, 7. 

J Oniscus ccervleatus, Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc., XI, iv, 2; Encyclop. Method., 
Atl. d'Hist. Nat., CCCXXIX, 28, and CCCXXIX, 24, 25; Desmar., Consid., 
XLVI, 8. 

I can say nothing of the G. ergine, Risso : the number of its feet would seem 
to place it in the last section of the Amphipoda ; \vhile the manner, in which they 
terminate, and the number of the segments of the body, appear to throw it among 
the Isopoda. 



LMfODIPODA. 225 

They all have four setaceous antennae supported by a tri-articulated 
[><(! uncle, mandibles, without palpi, a vesicular body at the base of at 
least the four pairs of feet, beginning at the second or third pair, those 
of the head included. The body, usually filiform or linear, is com- 
posed of eight or nine segments, including the head, and some small 
appendages in the form of tubercles at its posterior and inferior ex- 
tremity. The t'.Tt are terminated by a stout hook. The four anterior 
the second of which an* the largest, are always terminated by a mo- 
nodactyle forceps or a claw. In several, the four following ones are 
shortened, less articulated, without the terminal hook, or are rudi- 
:1, and nowise adapted for the ordinary uses of similar parts. 

The females carry their ova under the second and third segments 
of the body in a pouch formed of approximated scales. 

They arc all marine Crustacea. M. Savigny considers them as 
allied to the Pycnogonides, and constituting with the latter the tran- 
sition from the Crustacea to the Arachnides. In the first edition of 
this work they formed the first section of the Isopoda, that of the Cis- 
tihranchiata. 

We may unite them in a single genus which, by the law of priority 
should be called the 

CYAMUS, Lat. 

Some the FILI FORMA, Lat. have a long and very slender or 
linear body with longitudinal segments; feet equally slender and 
elongated, and the stem of the antennae composed of several small 
joints. 

They are found among marine plants, walk like the caterpillar 
termed the Geometra, sometimes rapidly revolving in a circle, or 
turning up their body, during which time the antennae are vibrating. 
While swimming, the extremities of their body are curved. 

LEPTOMERA, Lat. PROTO, Leach. 

Fourteen feet, including the two annexed to the head, all complete 
and in a continuous series. 

.as in our L \ proper Gammarus pedatus^ Mull., 

Zool. Dan., CI, 1, 2 all the feet, the two anterior excepted, have a 

ilar lic.dy at their base. 

There, as in the PHOTO, Leach Cancer pedatw, Montag., Trans. 
Soc.,11, 65 I!., -ydop. Method., Atl. d'Hist. Nat. CCCXXXVI, 
38 those appendages are only proper to the second, and four fol- 
lowing feet*. 



\\ i- shiuilil also rrfVr ti> thr Leptomene, the Squilla ventricosa, Mail., Zool. 
Dan., LVI, 1 ;i ; Hcrbst.. XXXVI, ii : the Confer linearis, L., is perhaps a con- 
gencr. He describes it as having six feet, but does not include the head. 
VOL, III. q 



226 CRUSTACEA. 

NATJPREDIA, Lat. 

But ten feet, all in one continuous series ; the base of the second 
and two following pairs provided with a vesicular body *. 

CAPRELLA, Lam. 

Ten feet also, but in an inlerrupted series, commencing with the 
second segment, exclusive of the head ; both this segment and the 
following have two vesicular bodies, and are totally deprived of 
feetf. 

The other OVALIA, Lat, Lsemodipoda have an oval body with 
transversal segments. The stem of the antennae appears to be inar- 
ticulated, and the feet are short but slightly elongated; those of the 
second and third segments are imperfect and terminated by a long 
cylindrical joint without a hook ; their base is provided with an 
elongated vesicular body. They form the subgenus. 

CYAMUS, Lat. LARUNDA, Leach. 

I have seen three species, all of which live on the Cetacea ; 
the most common, Oniscus ceti, L.; Pall., Spicil. Zool. Fascic. 
IX, iv, 14; Squilledela Baleine, De Geer,Ins., VII, vi, 6; Pyc- 
nogonum ceti, Fab. ; Savig., Mem. sur les anim. sans verteb. 
Fascic., I, v, 1, is also found on the Mackerel : it is called by 
fishermen Pou de Baleine. A second very analogous species 
was brought to France by the late Delalande from the Cape of 
Good Hope. The third, which is much smaller, establishes 
itself on the Cetacea of the Indian Ocean. 



ORDER V. 



ISOPODA j. 

The Isopoda approach the Laemodipoda by the palpi of the man- 
dibles being absent, but are removed from them in several other re- 

* A subgenus founded on a species from the coast of France, which appears to me 
undescribed. 

f* The Squilla lobata, Miill., Zool. Dan., LVI, 4, 6 ; his Gammarus quadrilobatus, 
Ib., CXIV, 12; the Oniscus scolopendroides, Pall, Spic. Zool. Fascic., IX, iv, 15, are 
Caprellae, but their specific differences are not well characterized. We had referred 
the Cancer linearis, L., to the first, which, now appears doubtful. His Cancer 
filiformis is probably a Caprella ; the Cancer phasma, Montag., Trans. Lin. 
Soc., VII, vi, 2, is a congener. His figure is copied Eucyc. Method., Atl. d'Hist. 
Nat. CCCXXXVT, 37. For details concerning this order and genus, see the Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ed. II, and the work of Desmarest on the Crustacea. 

J The Polygouata, Fab., with the exception of the genus Monoculus. 

Messrs. Audouin and Edwards Ann. des Sc. Nat., About 1827, p. 379, 381 
treve published some interesting observations on the circulation of the Isopoda, and 



ISO POD A. 227 

spects. The two anterior feet are not attached to the head, and belong 
as well as the following ones, to a particular segment. They are 
always fourteen in number, unguiculated, and without any vesicular 
appendage at their base. Tin; under part of the tail is furnished with 
very apparent appendages resembling leaflets or vesicular bursae, the 
i\vo first or external of which, cither partially or wholly, usually 
cover the others. The body is generally flattened, or is wider than it 
is thick, The mouth consists of the same pieces as in the preceding 
Crustacea; but here, those which correspond to the two superior 
jaws of the Decapoda, exhibit an appearance of a lower lip 
terminated by two palpi, still more than in the latter. The two 
mediate antennae are almost obliterared in the last Crustacea 
of this order, which are all terrestial and also differ from the 
others in their respiratory apparatus. The male organs of gene- 
ration are usually announced by linear or filiform appendages, 
and sometimes by hooks, situated at the internal origin of the first 
sub-caudal laminae, The females carry their ova under the thorax, 
either between scales, or in a pouch or membranous sac, which they 
open in order to allow a passage to their young, which are produced 
with the form of parts peculiar to their species, merely changing 
their skin as they increase in size. Most of them are aquatic. Those 
which are terrestrial, like all other Crustacea which live out of water, 
still require a certain degree of atmospheric humidity to enable them 



on that of the Ligiae in particular. The heart resembles a long vessel extended 
above the dorsal surface of the intestine. From its anterior extremity arise three 
arteries, similar to those of the Decapoda. Lateral branches are also to be observed 
running from the heart towards the feet. On a level with the two first segments of 
the abdomen (the tail), that organ receives, from the right and left, small canals 
(branchio-cardiac vessels) which seem to proceed from the branchiae. From their 
experiments on the Ligiae, it would appear that the venous system is less complete 
than in the Decapoda macroura, and that the blood driven from the heart into 
various parts of the body, passes into lacunae formed between the organs in the infe- 
rior part of the body which communicate freely with the afferent vessels of the 
branchiae. The blood having traversed the respiratory apparatus, returns to the 
heart through the brauchio-cardiac vessels. This disposition would form the tnui- 
i from the circulating system of the Decapoda to that of certain Branchiopoda. 
According to Cuvier, the two anomalous cords which form the mediate portion of the 
nervous system of the Onisci and, probably, of the other Isopoda and even of the 
Ampuipoda are not in complete juxtaposition, and may be distinguished throughout 
thru \\hnk- ''m;r-i -. I iun are nine ganglions without counting the brain, but the 
two first and two last arc so closely approximated that we may reduce the number to 
seven. The second and six subsequent ones furnish nerves to the seven pairs of feet ; 
the four anterior, although, by the order of the parts, analogous to the four last 
foot-jaws of the Decapoda, are true feet. The segments which immediately follow, 
or those which form the tail, receive their nerves from the last ganglion ; these seg- 
ments may be considered as simple divisions of one segment represented by this gang- 
lion ; thus we find that the lumber of these posterior segments varies. 

Q 2 



228 CRUSTACEA. 

to breathe, and to preserve their branchiae in a proper state for the 
exercise of that function. 

This order according to the system of Linnaeus embraces the genus 

ONISCUS, Lin., 

Which we will divide into six sections. 

The first EPICARIDES, Latr. is composed of parasitical Isopoda, 
with neither eyes nor antennae, the body of which, in the male, is 
very flat, small and oblong ; much larger in the female, and having 
an oval form narrowed and slightly curved posteriorly, hollow 
beneath, with a thoracic border divided on each side into five mem- 
branous lobes. The feet are placed on this border and cannot be 
used either for locomotion or natation. The under surface of the 
tail is provided with five pairs of small, ciliated, imbricated leaflets, 
corresponding to as many segments, and arranged in two longitudi- 
nal series ; there is no appendage, however, to the posterior extre- 
mity. The only parts distinctly visible in the mouth are two mem- 
branous leaflets laid upon another of the same nature, forming a large 
quadrilateral figure. The inferior concavity forming a sort of 
shallow basket, is filled with the ova. Near their outlet is always 
found the individual presumed to be the male. Its extreme smallness 
seems to forbid all possibility of copulation ; according to Desmarest 
it is provided with two eyes ; its body is straight and almost linear. 

These Crustacea form but a single subgenus, that of 

BOPYRUS, Lat., 

The most common species is the Bopyrus crangorum, Lat., 
Gener. Crust, et Insect., I, 114; Monoculus crangorum, Fab. ; 
Fouger. de Bondar, Mem. de 1'Acad. Roy. des Sc., 1772, pi. 1 ; 
Desmar. Consid. XLTX, 8 13. It lives on the Palaemon ser- 
ratus, and the Pal. squilla, placed directly on the branchiae and 
under the shell ; it occasions a tumour on one of its sides, re- 
sembling a wen. The fishermen of the British channel con- 
sider them as very young Soles or Plaice. 

A second species, the B. des palemons^ has been described by 
Risso, under the female of which he observed eight or nine 
hundred living young ones *. 

The second section CYMOTHOADA, Lat. comprises Isopoda with 
four very apparent setaceous antennae, almost universally terminated 
by a pluri-articulated stem ; having eyes, a mouth composed as 
usual f; vesicular branchiae arranged longitudinally and in pairs; 
the tail formed of from four to six segments, with a fin on each side 
near the end ; and the anterior feet usually terminated by a small 
stout nail or claw. They are all parasitical. 

The eyes are sometimes placed on tubercles on the top of the 
head ; the tail consists of but four segments. 

* See the work of Desmarest, who has completely described this subgenus. 
f See our general observations on the Malacostraca with sessile eyes. 



I8OPODA. 229 

SEROLI*, Leach. 

But a single species is known, the Cymothoa paradoxa. Fab. 
The antennae are placed on two lines, and terminated l>y a pluri- 
articulated stem. Under the three first segments of the tail, 
between the UMUI! appendages, there are three others, trans- 
ver>.il and terminated posteriorly in a point*. 

Sometimes the eyes are lateral and not placed on ml. .ides; the 
tail is compo.xed of tive or six Moments. 

Here the organ of sight is not formed of smooth, granular, ap- 
proximated eyes ; the antennae are placed on two lines, and consist of 
t lea-4 ; the six anterior feet are usually terminated by 
a small, stout nail. 

In some, wla-iv the tail always consists of six segments, the length 
of the inferior antennae never surpassed the half of that of the body. 

We will begin with those whose mandibles, as usual, are but 
slightly, or in no degree salient. 

CYMOTHOA, Fab. 

The antennae nearly equal in length ; eyes scarcely apparent ; last 
segment of the tail forming a transverse square ; tlie two pieces ter- 
minating the lateral fins, linear, equal arid styliform f. 

ICTIIYOPIIILUS, Lai. NEROCILA, LIVONECA, Leach. 

The antennae, equal in length, and but slightly visible eyes ; the 
last segment of the body almost triangular ; the two pieces termi- 
nating the lateral fins in the form of leaflets and laminae, the exterior 
hich is largest in the Nerocilae, and of the size of the other in 
Livoneca \. 

In the four following subgenera the superior antennae are mani- 
festly shorter than the inferior. 

In several, as in Cymothoa, all the feet are terminated by a small, 
stout, and strongly curved nail ; the last eight are not spinous ; the 
eyes a^e always separated and convex. They form three genera in 
the system of Leach, but may be united in a single subgenus, under 
the common denomination of one of them, or the 

CANOURA, Leach. ANILOCRA, OLENCIRA, Ejiisd. 

The laminae of the fins in the Olencirae are narrow and armed 
with spines. In the Anilocrae || the external leaflet of the same 
parts is longer than the internal: the reverse is the case with the 
Canolirae ^. The eyes, besides, are but slightly granulous while in 
the preceding that disposition is evident. 

* For other details consult Dcsmar., Consid., p. 292 I 

f Cymothoa trstrum, Fab. ; Desmar, Consid., XLYI, 6, 7 ; C. imbricata, Fab. 
For the other species, see Desmar., loc. cit. 

<r Desmar., op. cit. p. 307, genera Nerocila and Livoneca, and varbus species 
of CyinothoR of Risso, p. 310, 311. 

Desmar., Coo? id., p. 306. 

|| Desmar., Consid., Anilocre du Cap, XLVI1I, 1. 

ii Desmar., Consid., p. 305. 



230 CRUSTACEA. 

In the three following subgenera, the second, third and fourth feet 
alone are terminated by a strongly curved nail, and the last eight 
are spinous. The eyes are usually but slightly convex ; they are 
large and converge anteriorly. 

MGA, Leach. 

The two first joints of the superior antennae very broad and com- 
pressed, while in the two subsequent subgenera they are almost cy- 
lindrical *. 

ROCINELA, Leach. 

The Rocinelae differ from the .ffigae, as just stated, in the form of 
the two first joints of their superior antennae, but otherwise approach 
them, as in their large eyes which approximate anteriorly f. The 

CONILIRA, Leach, 

Resembles Rocinela in the antennae ; but the eyes are smaller and 
distant, and the edges of the segments nearly straight and not falci- 
form nor prominent J. 

The last subgenus, among those of this section in which the an- 
tennae are placed on two lines, where the tail is composed of six 
segments, and the inferior antennae are always short, is distin- 
guished from all the preceding by strong and salient mandibles. 

It is the 

SYNODUS, Lat., 

A subgenus established on a single species . 

In those that follow, the tail is usually composed of but five seg- 
ments. The length of the inferior antennae is more than the half of 
that of the body. 

CIROLANA, Leach, 

The tail composed of six segments |[. In the 

NELOCIRA, Leach. 
It consists of but five. The cornea of the eyes is smooth ^. 

EURYDICE, Leach. 

Similar to Nelocira in the number of caudal segments, but re- 
moved from it by the granulous eyes **. 

This subgenus leads us to those in which these organs are formed 
of granules or approximated simple eyes, and that also have the 
four antennae, composed of four joints at most, inserted on one hori- 
zontal line, and all the feet fitted for walking. The tail consists of 



* Desmar., Consid., p. 304, Mga entaillee, XLVII, 4, 5. 
f* Desmar., Consid., p. 304. 

* Desmar., Consid., p. 304. 

See Encyc. Method., article Synodus. 

|| Desmar., Consid., p. 303. 

j Desmar., Consid., p. 302 ; Nelocire de Swainson, XLVIII, 2, 

** Desmar., Consid., p. 302. 



I80PODA. 231 

six segments, the last of which is large and suborbicular. Such is 
the 

LIMNORIA, Leach. 

The only living species known is the Limnoria terebrans, 
Leach, Edinb. Encyclop., VII, p. 433; Desmar., Consid.. j>. 
312. Although scarcely above two lines in length, its habits 
and fecundity render it highly noxious. It perforates the tim- 
bers of ships in various directions and with alarming rapidity. 
When taken in the hand it rolls itself into a ball. It is found 
in various parts of the British seas. 

The figure and description of a small fossil crustaceous ani- 
mal has been sent to Count Dejean by Professor Germar, which 
seems to us to belong to this subgenus *. 

The third section SPILEROMIDES, Lat. exhibits four very dis- 
tinct, short, setaceous or conical antennae, and a single genus An- 
thura excepted, always terminated by a stem divided into several 
small joints; the inferior, always the longest, are inserted beneath 
the under part of the first joint of the superior which is broad and 
thick. The arrangement of the mouth is as usual. The branchiae 
are vesicular or soft, exposed, and arranged longitudinally in pairs. 
But two complete and moveable segments are observed in the tail, 
the first, however, frequently presents impressed and transverse 
lines indicating vestiges of others ; on each side of its posterior ex- 
tremity is a fin terminated by two leaflets, of which the inferior alone 
is moveable; the superior ) is formed by an internal prolongation 
of the common stem. The branchial appendages are curved in- 
wards: the inner side of the first are accompanied, in the male, by a 
small linear and elongated projection. The anterior part of the 
head situated beneath the antennae is triangular, or has the figure of 
a heart reversed. 

Some have an oval or oblong body, usually assuming, when con- 
tracted, the form of a ball ; the antennae terminated by a pluri-articu- 
lated stem, and the inferior, at least, visibly longer than the head. 
The lateral and posterior fins are composed of a peduncle and two 
laminae, forming with the last segment a common fin, shaped like a 
fan. 

In these, the impressed and transverse lines of the anterior seg- 
ment of the tail, which is always shorter than the next or last one, 
do not extend to the lateral margin. The first joint of the superior 
antennae has the form of a triangular palei 

The head, viewed from above, forms a transverse square. The 
leaflets of the fins are much flattened, and the intermediate piece or 
the last segment is widened and rounded laterally. 



* The Onisnts prttgustator, figured in Parkinson, is allied to this species, or at 
least, appears to belong to the same section. 

f It folds over the posterior edge of the last segment, and in several, such as the 
Zuzarae, and Ntcsee, Leach, like an arch. 



232 CRUSTACEA. 

ZUZARA, Leach. 

Leaflets of the fins very large ; the superior, which is the shortest, 
separates from the other to form a border to the last segment*. 

SPILKROMA, Lai. 

Leaflets of a moderate size, equal, and laid one over the other f. 

In those, the impressed lines or transverse sutures of the anterior 
segment of the tail extend to its lateral edges and cut it. The first 
joint of the superior antennae forms an elongated square, or linear 
palette. 

The leaflets of the fins are uaually narrower and thicker than in 
the preceding ; the external sometimes (Cymodocea) incloses the 
other, which is prismatic ; the point at which they unite resembles a 
knot or joint. 

Sometimes the sixth segment of the body is visibly longer through- 
out all its width than the preceding ones and that which follows. 

Only one of the two leaflets projects. 



,' CAMPECOPEA. Leach. J 

Sometimes the sixth segment of the body is as long as the preced- 
ing ones and as that which follows. 

CILIC.EA, Leach. 

Only one of the fin-leaflets salient, the other being placed against 
the posterior edge of the last segment . 

CYMODOCEA, Leach. 

Both leaflets salient and directed backwards ; the sixth segment is 
not prolonged posteriorly, and the extremity of the last one presents 
a small lamina in an emargination J[. 

DYNAMENE, Leach, 

Similar to the Cymodocse in the projection and direction of the 
leaflets of the fins, but the sixth segment is prolonged posteriorly, 
and the last one exhibits a mere fissure without the lamina ^f. 

The others, such as the 

ANTHURA, Leach, 

Have a vermiform body, and the antennae, composed of four joints, 
scarcely as long as the head. The leaflets of the posterior fins by 
their disposition and approximation form a sort of capsule. 

The anterior feet are terminated by a monodactyle forceps **. 

* Desmar., Consid., p. 298. 

f Desmar., Consid., p. 299 302. Sphtrome denttc, XLVII, 3 Oniscus scr- 
ratus, Fab. 
- + Desmar., Consid., Nesfe bidentt, XLVII, 2; Campecopte vclue, Id., It., I. 

Desmar., Consid., CilicJe de Latreillc, XLVIII, 3. 

|| Desmar., Consid., XLVIII, 4, 

<|f Desmar., Consid., p. 297. 

** Desmar., Consid., Anthure grele, XLVI, 13; Oniscus gracilis, Montag., Trans. 
Lin. Soc. IX, v, 6; Gammarus heteroclitus, Vivian., Phosph. Mar., II, 11, 12. 



I8OPODA. 233 

In the fourth section IDOT BIDES, Leach there are also four anten- 
nae, but they ;ur placed on one horizontal and transverse line; the 
laterals terminate in a tapering, pointed, pluriarticulated stem ; the 
intermediaries are short, filiform or slightly inflated at the end, and 
consists of four joints, nrithcr of which is divided. The composition 
of the mouth is the same as in the preceding sections. The branchiae, 
white in most of them, arc in the form of bladders, susceptible of 
inflation, M-rving for natation and covered by two lamina or valvulae 
of the last segment that adhere laterally to its edges ; they are longi- 
tudinal, biarticulatcd, and <>} < n in the middle on a straight line 
like folding doors. The tail consists of three segments, the last of 
which is much the largest, and has neither terminal appendages not 
lateral fins. They are all marine, 

IDOTEA, Fab. 

All the feet alike, and strongly unguiculated ; the body oval or 
simply oblong, and the lateral antennae shorter than half the length 
of the body *. 

STENOSOMA, Leach. 

The Stenosomae only differ from the Idoteae in the linear form of 
their body, and the length of their antennae which is more than half 
that of the body f. 

ARCTURUS, Lat. 

The Arcturi are very remarkable for the form of the second and 
third feet, which incline forwards and terminate by a long, bearded 
and unarmed or feebly unguiculated joint ; the two anterior are laid 
on the mouth and are unguiculated ; the last six are strong, ambula- 
tory, thrown behind, and bidentated at the extremity. In the length 
of the antennae and form of the body they approach the Stenosomae. 
I have never seen but a single species, the Arct. tuberctilatus, 
which was brought to Europe, from the Arctic seas, in one of 
the last expeditions to those regions. 

The fifth section ASELLOTA, Lat. comprises Isopoda with four 
very apparent setaceous antennae, arranged on two lines, and termi- 
nated by a pluriarticulated stem ; two mandibles ; four jaws covered, 
as usual, by a kind of lip formed by the first foot-jaws ; vesicular 
branchiae, in pairs, covered by two longitudinal and biarticulated, 
but free leaflets ; a tail composed of a single segment, without late- 
ral fins, but with two bifid stylets, or two very short tubercular ap- 
pendages] on the middle of its posterior edge. Other lamelliform 
appendages situated at its inferior base, which are now numerous in 
the males, distinguish the sexes. 

ASELLVS, Geoff. 
Two bifid stylets at the posterior extremity of the body ; eyes 

Oniscus <*tomo* t L. ; Sqwlla cntomon Dcg. f Insect, VII. \\xii, 1, 2 ; Idota. 
trictupidata, Latr. ; Desm., Consul., \l.\l. ii. For the other species, see Idotea, 
Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., Ed. II, and Dcsmar. op. cit. 

f Menosomn Uncart, Leach; Desmar. op. cit. Ib. xlvi, 12; Stenosoma htclicum, 
-Idotea nridwsiwio, Risso, Crust., Ill, 8. For the other species, see Desmar. 

nj). cit. 



234 CRUSTACEA. 

separated ; the superior antennae at least as long as the peduncle of 
the inferior ; the hooks at the end of the feet entire, 

The only species of this subgenus that is known the Aselle> 
d'eau douce, Geoff., Ins. II, xii, 2 ; Squille aselle, Deg., Insect., 
VII, xxi, 1; Desmar., Consid., XLIX, 1,2; Idotea aquatica, 
Fab., is very abundant in fresh and stagnant waters as well as 
in the marshes, in the vicinity of Paris. Its gait, unless alarmed, 
is very slow. In the spring it issues from the mud in which 
it has passed the winter. The male, much larger than the fe- 
female, carries the latter for eight days, clasping her with the 
fourth pair of feet. When he abandons her she is loaded with 
a great number of ova inclosed in a membranous sac, situated 
under the thorax, which affords an issue to the young through a 
longitudinal fissure. 

ONISCODA, Lat. 

The Oniscodae or Janirse * of Leach differ from the Aselli in the 
approximation of their eyes, in the superior antennae which are 
shorter than the peduncle of the inferior, and in the hooks of the 
tarsi which are bifid. 

The only species known, the Janira maculosa, Leach ; Des- 
mar., Consid., p. 315, was found on the coast of England among 
the Fuci and Ulvae. 

Leach, 



But two tubercles at the extremity of the tail in place of the 
stylets. 

But a single species has been described, the gezra albifrons, 
Leach; Desm., Consid., p. 316, which is very common on the 
English coast among the Fuci and Ulvse. 

Finally, the Isopoda of the sixth and last section ONISCIDES, 
Lat. have four antennae also, but the two intermediate ones are very 
small, but slightly apparent, and are composed at most of but two 
joints ; the lateral are setaceous. The tail consists of six segments, 
with two or four styliform appendages on the posterior margin of 
the last one, and is without lateral fins. Some of them are aquatic 
and others terrestrial. In the latter, the first leaflets of the under 
part of the tail exhibit a series of small holes, through which air pene- 
trates to the organs of respiration therein contained. 

In some, the sixth joint of their antennae, or the stem, is so com- 
posed, that by counting the little joints of this part the total number 
amounts at least to nine. These Isopoda are marine and form two 
subgenera. The 

TYLOS, Lat., 

Appears to possess the faculty of rolling itself into a ball. The 
last segment of the body is semicicular, and exactly fills up the 
emargination formed by the preceding one ; the posterior appendages 

* A name employed by Risso for a genus of the same class ; I have consequently 
been obliged to replace it with another. 



235 

are very small and entirely inferior. The antennae consist of nine 
joints, the last four composing the stem. On each side is a depressed 
tubercle representing one of the intermediate antennae ; the interven- 
ing space is raised. The branchiae are vesicular, imbricated, and 
covered by laminue *. 

LIGIA, Fab. 

The stem of the lateral antennae composed of a great number of 
small joints ; two very salient stylets divided at the end into two 
branches, at the posterior extremity of the body. 

Ligia oceanica ; Oniscus oceanicus, L., Desmar., Consid., 
XLIX, 3, 4, about an inch long, grey, with two large yellowish 
spots on the back. The lateral antennae are less than half the 
length of the body, and their stem consists of thirteen joints. 
The stylets are as long as the tail. This animal is very common 
on the coast of France, where it is seen climbing up the rocks, &c. 
If an attempt be made to capture it, it quickly folds up its feet 
and lets itself fall. 

In the Ligia italica. Fab., the lateral antennae are nearly as 
long as the body ; the sixth joint, or the stem, is divided into 
seventeen small ones. The stylets are much longer than the tail. 
Ligia muscorum ; Oniscus hypnorum, Fab., Cuv., Journ. 
d'Hist. Nat. II, xxvi, 3, 4, 5 ; Oniscus agilis, Panz., Faun., Ins. 
Germ., Fascic. IX, xxiv. The lateral antennae shorter than the 
half of the body, and their stem composed of but ten small 
joints. The peduncle of the posterior stylets is furnished on the 
inner with a tooth and seta. 

In others, all terrestial, the lateral antennae consist at most of eight 
joints which gradually diminish in size towards the extremity, so that 
no one of them appears to be divided or compound. 

Here, the posterior appendages, or stylets, project beyond the last 
segment. The body does not contract into a ball, or does it im- 
perfectly. 

PHILOSCIA, Lai. 

The lateral antennae divided into eight parts and exposed at base ; 
the four posterior appendages nearly equal. They are only found in 
wet places f. 

ONISCUS, Lin. 

The true Onisci have also eight joints in their lateral antennae, 
1) lit their base is covered, and the two external appedages of the 
extremity of the tail are much larger than the others. These animals 
and those of the two following subgenera are vulgarly called Clous- 
a-porte, and by syncope Cloporte, Porcelets de Saint-Antoine (a). 

Tylos armadillo, Lat., fig, in the pi. d'Hist. Nat. of the great work on Egypt 
from the Mediterranean. 

f Onisriu sylrrstris, Fab. ; Onwrtw muscorum, Cuv., Journ. d'Hist. Nat. II, xxvi, 
6, 8 ; Coqueb., Ill, Icon. Insect., Dec. I, vi, 12. 

$$*(a)Thes9"PigsofSt. Anthony" are American Wood-Life Boiled in milk they 
still constitute a favourite remedy with numerous patients, and some few equally.intclli- 
gent practitioners, who attribute to them diuretic, absorbent, and aperient qualities. 
That they may act as an emetic, I can readily admit. ENG. ED. 



236 CRUSTACEA. 

They inhabit retired and obscure places, cellars, fissures in walls, old 
buildings, under-stones, &c., &c. They feed on decaying vegetable 
and animal matters, and seldom issue from their retreat except in 
rainy weather. They move but slowly, unless they are alarmed. 
The ova are inclosed in a pectoral pouch. The young, at birth, have 
one thoracic segment less than the adult, and consequently have 
but twelve feet. They are no longer employed inmedicine*. 

PORCELLIO, Lat. 

The Porcelliones ' differ from the Onisci in the number of joints 
that compose the lateral antennae, which is only seven. In their 
other characters they are alike f . 

There, as in 

ARMADILLO, Lat. 

The posterior appendages of the body do not project ; the last seg- 
ment is triangular; a little lamina resembling a reversed triangle, or 
widest and truncated at the end, formed by the last part of the late- 
ral appendages, fills on each side, the space between that segment and 
the preceding one. The lateral antennae have but seven joints. The 
superior subcaudal scales exhibit a range of small holes J. 



SECOND GENERAL DIVISION. 



ENTOMOSTRACA. 

Under this denomination, which is taken from the Greek and sig- 
nifies Insects with shells^ Othon Frederic Miiller comprises the genus 
Monoculus of Linnaeus, to which we must add some of his Lernaeae 
His investigation of these animals, the study of which is so much the 
more difficult as they are mostly microscopic, and the observations of 
Schreffer and of M. Jurine, Sen., have excited the admiration and 
secured the gratitude of every naturalist. Other but partial labours 
such as those of Randohr, Straus, Herman, Jun., Jurine, Jun., 
A. Brongniart, Vistor Audouin, and Milne Edwards, have extended 
our knowledge of these animals and particularly of their anatomy ; 

* Oniscu, murarius. Fab.; Cuv., Journ. d'Hist. Nat., II, xxvi, 11, 13; Le Clo- 
porte ordinaire, Geoff., Insect. II, xxii, 1 ; Cloporte aselle, Deg., Insect. VII, xxxv. 
3 ; Desmar. Consid., XLIX, 5. 

f Oniscus asellus, Cuv., Ib.; Panz., Faun. Ins. Germ., IX, xxi ; Cloporte ordinaire, 
var. C, Geoff. ; Porcdlio locvis, Latr. ; Cloporte ordinaire, var. B, Geoff. 

\ Oniscus armadillo, L. ; Cuv., Ib., 14, 15 ; Oniscus cinercus, Panz., Ib., Fascic. 
LXII, xxii ; Oniscus varieyatus, Vill., Entom., IV, xi, 16 ; Armadille pustule, Des- 
mar., Consid., LXIX, 6 ; Armadille des boutiques, Dumer., Diet., des Sc. Nat., 
Ill, p. 1 17, a species from Italy formerly employed by the apothecaries. 



ENTOMOSTRACA. 237 

but in this respect, Straus, as well as M. Jurine, Sen., although pre- 
ceded by Randohr in the observation of several important details of 
onrani/ation, of wljose memoir on the Monoculi, 1805, they seem to 
have been ignorant, has surpassed them all. Fabricius merely 
a<loj>trd the genus Limulus of Miiller, which he placed in his class of 
tin- Kleistagnatha, or our family Brachyura of the order Decapoda. 
All the other Entomostraca are united as by Linnaeus in one single 
genus, Monoculus, which he places in his class of the Polygonata or 
our Tsopoda. 

These animals are all aquatic and mostly inhabit fresh water. 
Their feet, the number of which varies, and that sometimes extends 
to beyond a hundred, arc usually fitted for natation only, being some- 
times r;'iui!ied or divided, and sometimes furnished with pinnulae or 
formed of lamellae. Their brain is formed of one or two globules. 
The heart has always the figure of a long vessel. The branchiae 
composed of hairs or setae, singly or united, in the form of barbs, 
combs or tufts, constitute a part of those feet or of a certain number 
of them, and sometimes of the upper mandibles *. Hence the origin 
of our term Branchiopoda, affixed to these animals, of which at first we 
formed but a single order. Nearly all of them are provided with a 
shell composed of one or two pieces, very thin, and most generally 
almost membranous and nearly diaphanous, or at least with a large 
anterior thoracic segment, frequently confounded with the head, which 
appears to replace the shell. The teguments are usually rather 
horny than calcareous, thereby approximating these animals to the 
ln>eota and Arachnides. In those which are provided with ordinary 
jaws, the inferior or exterior are always exposed, all, the foot-jaws 
performing the office of feet properly so called, and none of them 
being laid upon the mouth. The second jaws, those of the Phyllopa 
at most excepted, resemble these latter organs ; Jurine sometimes 
distinguishes them by the name of hands. 

These characters distinguish the gnawing Entomostraca from the 
Malacostraca ; the others, those which constitute our order of the 
Pcecilopoda, cannot be confounded with the Malacostraca, inasmuch 
as they are deprived of organs of mastication, or because the parts 
which seem to act as jaws are not united anteriorly nor preceded by 
a labrum as in the antecedent Crustacea and the gnawing Insecta, 
but are simply formed by the branches of the locomotive organs, 
which, for that purpose, are furnished witli small spines. The Pce- 
cilopoda in this class of animals represent those which in that of 
injects are known by the name of Suctoria or the Suckers. Nearly 



238 CRUSTACEA. 

all of them are parasitical, and they seem to lead to the Lernaeae by 
insensible gradations; but the presence of eyes, the faculty of 
changing their skin, or even of undergoing a sort of metamorphosis*, 
and that of locomotion by means of their feet, appear to us to esta- 
blish a posit ve line of demarcation between the former and the latter 
We have consulted several erudite naturalists with respect to these 
transformations, but none of them have observed a change of skin to 
occur. The antennae of the Entomostraca, whose form and number 
greatly vary, serve for natation in several. The eyes are rarely placed 
on a pedicle, and when this is the case, that pedicle is a mere lateral 
prolongation of the head, and is never articulated at the base ; they are 
frequently closely approximated and even form but one. The organs 
of generation are situated at the orgin of the tail ; it has been thought 
but erronenously, that their seat was in the antennae of the male. This 
tail | is never terminated by a fan-like fin, nor does it present those 
false feet observed in the Malacostraca. The ova are collected under 
the back, or are external, and covered by a common envelope, and 
resemble one or two small clusters at the base of the tail ; it appears 
that they can be kept in a desiccated state for a long period without 
losing their properties. 

It is only after a third change of skin that these animals become 
adult and capable of continuing their species. It has been proved, 
with respect to some of them, that a single copulation fecundifies 
several successive generations- 



ORDER I. 



BRANCHIOPODA. 

A mouth composed of a labrum, two mandibles, a ligula, and one 
or two pairs of jaws, and branchiae, the first of which, when there 
are several are always anterior, characteriz, this order or the sixth 
of the class, 

These Crustacea are always wandering and are generally protected 
by a shell resmbling that of a bivalve, and furnished with four or two 

* The young of Daphnia, and of some neighbouring subgenera, and probably also 
those of Cypris and Cytherea, with the exception of size, scarcely differ, if at all, 
from their parents on quitting the egg ; but those of Cyclops, the Phyllopa, and the 
Arguli, experience considerable changes -while young, either as respects the form of 
the body or the number of feet. These organs in some, the Arguli for instance, expe- 
rience changes which modify their uses. 

t If we exceptedthe Phyllopa, the last feet we thoracic, or foot.ja.ws (Cypris}. 



BRANCHIOPODA. 239 

antennae. Their feet, with a few exception*, are wholly natatory. 
Their number varies, being but six in some, while in others it 
amounts to twenty, forty-two, or more than a hundred. Many of 
them have but one eye. 

Most of those animals, as we have already stated, being nearly 
microscopical, it is evident that the application of one of the charac- 
ters we have employed that of the presence or absence of the palpi 
of the mandibles with respect to them, presents almost insuperable 
ditlirultirs* . The form and number of the feet, that of the eyes. 
the shell, the anti-nil*, furnish us with more visible marks, and such 
as are within the observtion of every one. 

This order in the systems of De Geer, Fabricius and Linnaeus, a 
single species excepted M. polyphemus, contained by a single genus 

MONOCULUS, 



Which we will divide into two principal sections. 

The first, that of the LOPHYROPA is distinguished by the number 
of feet, which never extends beyond ten ; their joints are also more 
or less cylindrical or conical, and never entirely lamelliform or foli- 
aceous ; the branchiae are but few in number, and most of them have 
but one eye. Several besides, have mandibles provided with a pal- 
pus J ; there are, almost always, four antennae which serve for loco- 
motion. 

In the second section that of the PHYLLOPA the number of feet 
is increased to at least twenty, and in some amounts to many more ; 
their joints, or at least the last ones, are flattened and resemble cili- 
ted leaflets. The palpi of the mandibles are always wanting. They 
all have two eyes, situated in some at the extremity of two moveable 
pedicles; their antennae, but two in number in several, are generally 
small and not fitted for natation. 

We will divide the Lophyropa into three principal and very natural 
groups, the two first of which approach the Crustacea of our three 
orders in their mandibles, each of which is furnished with a 
palpus, and in some other characters. 

1. Those CARCINOIDA, Lat. whose more or less ovoid shell is not 
doubled like that of a bivalve, and leaves the inferior portion of the 
body exposed. They never have antennae resembling ramified arms 
v have ten feet, more or less cylindrical or setaceous. The ova, 
in those females whose gestation has been observed, are contained in 
two external sacs situated at the base of their tail. Some of them 
have eyes. 

* We will begjn, however, with those Branchiopoda whose mandibles are furnished 
\\\\\\ palpi ; they constitute the two first divisions of the Lophyropa. 

f And that of Binocte in the system of Geoffrey. 

J M. Straus appears to attribute this character exclusively to Cypris and Cythe- 
rea, which compose his order of the Ostrapoda ; but from the observations of Juxiuc, 
. and RauUohr, it seems that it also belongs to Cyclops. 



240 CRUSTACEA. 

2. Those OSTRACODA, Lat. ; OSTRAPODA, Straus whose shell is 
formed of two pieces or valves resembling those of a muscle, united 
by a hinge, and closing while the body is quiescent. They have but 
six feet *, neither of which terminates in a digitated fin, nor is accom- 
panied by a branchial lamina. Their antennse are simple, filiform 
or setaceous. They never have more than one eye. Their mandi- 
bles and superior jaws are furnished with a branchial leaf. The ova 
are placed under the back. 

3. The last CLADOCERA, Lat.; DAPHNIDES, Straus have but one 
eye, and the shell doubled but without a hinge (Jurine), termi- 
nating posteriorly in a point, and leaving the head, which is covered 
by a kind of shield like a rostrum, exposed. They have two, usually 
very large, antennae, resembling arms, divided into two or three 
brandies directly above the peduncle, which are furnished with 
threads, always projecting and serving as oars. Their ten feet f are 
terminated by a digitated or pectinated fin accompanied, the two first 
excepted, by a branchial lamina J. 

Their ova are also placed under the back ; their body always ter- 
minates posteriorly in the manner of a tail, with two or three threads 
at the end. The anterior extremity of the body is sometimes pro- 
longed into a kind of rostrum, and at others forms a kind of head, 
almost entirely occupied by a large eye. 

The first division of the Lophyropa Branchiopoda that of the 
Carcinoida may be divided into two according to the number of the 
eyes. 

Some of them have two. 

Here the shell completely invests the thorax ; the eyes are large 
and very distinct, and the intermediate antennae are terminated by 
two threads. 

ZOEA, Bosc. 

Very large globular eyes completely exposed, and horn-like pro- 
jections on the thorax. 

Zoeapelagica, Bosc., Hist, Nat. Crust. II, xv, 3, 4. The 
body semi-diaphanous ; four antennae inserted under the eyes, 
the external ones bent into an elbow and bifid ; a kind of long 
rostrum on the forepart of the thorax and between the eyes, 
and a long pointed prominence on the posterior part of the 
back. The feet are very short and hardly visible, the two last 
excepted, which are elongated or terminate in a fin. The tail 
is as long as the thorax, curved, and formed of five joints, the last 
being large, crescent- shaped and spinous. It was discovered by 
Bosc in the Atlantic Ocean. 



* According to Straus, the first pair of feet ; but although these parts .by serv- 
ing as oars perform their functions. I nevertheless consider them as analogous to the 
lateral antennae of the superior Crustacea and to the two superior ones of a 
Cyclops, which here also concur with the feet in producing locomotion. 

f Muller gives eight to the Cytherese ; reasoning from analogy, we may presume 
that he was mistaken. 

J This character applies especially to Daphnia, the most numerous subgenus of 
this division, and by analogy, to Polyphemus and Lynceus. 



DRANCHIOPODA. 241 

The Monoculus taur.n, Slubber, Microsc. V, and the Cancer 
germanus, L., appear to he allied to it *. 

NEB ALII, Leach. 

Triangular, flattened eyes, partly covered by a triangular and 
arched scale. 

The feet are forked, and the terminal appendages of the tail seta- 
ceous f. 

There the thorax or the shell, viewed from above, is divided into 
five segments, of which the first is much the largest, and has the an- 
ti'iuiie, eyes, and foot-jaws attached to it; the second and the third 
have each one pair of feet, the fourth has the two following pairs, 
and the fifth, the last. The eyes are small and not prominent; all 
the antennae are terminated by a single thread. 

CONDYLURA, Lat. 

The inferior antennae longest ; the anterior sides of the first seg- 
ment prolonged into a point forming two scales approximated into a 
kind of rostrum; feet terminating in a silky point; some of the in- 
tiTmrduirios, as in the Schizopoda, with an external appendage near 
the base ; the tail narrow and formed of seven annuli, the last of 
which, conical and elongated, projects between the two lateral 
appendages that are slender, styliform, and composed of two joints, 
the last silky J. 

We should remark, that the genus Nicothoe of MM. Audouin 
and Milne Edwards, by admitting it to have mandibles and jaws, 
would belong to this section ; but as the animal on which it is founded 



See the Hist. Nat. des Crust, et des Insect., of Latreille, and the work of 
Desmarest on the Crustacea. This genus has not yet been completely described, 
and we have not been able to procure a single specimen of it. 

f Nebalia Herbstii, Leach, Zool. Miscell., XLV; Desmar., Consid., XL, 5; 
Rand., Monoc. 1, 8? 

The Ntbalie tentrue. Risso, Journ. de Phys., Octob. 1822, probably forms a 
peculiar subgenus in the section of the Schizopoda. In the Cyclops exiliens, Viviani, 
the thornx is divided into several segments, a circumstance which excludes it from 
the Nebaliae. It also forms a new subgenus intermediate between the preceding and 
following one. 

N.B. Anew species of this genus, the N. Geoff. Saint-Uil., Ib., XV, l, has 
been very minutely described by Milne Edwards. The head is terminated anteriorly by 
a rostrum articulated at base, or moveable and pointed ; the eyes are pedunculated ; 
the Miivcrior antenme arc inserted under them, and the second joint of the peduncle 
i- furni-lutl \\ith a l;unin;i ; the mouth is surrounded with three pairs of appendages, 
\vhieh appear to correspond in their progressive order to the palpigerous mandibles 
ami four jaws of the Crustacea Decapoda ; beneath are placed five pairs of foliaceous 
and ciliated lamina- which appear to be branchial, and further down are four pairs of 
bifid and natatory feet ; the abdomen is composed of seven annuli, the first of which 
support two small rudi mental filaments ; the last is terminated by two elongated 
stylets furnished with lonir hairs. As it is extremely probable that there is, as 
usual, another pair of feet, the two inferior and branchial appendages above men- 
tioned may very well represent that pair. In the other appendages we should find 
foot-jaws and the parts of the lipula : in that case the Nebalia; must be referred to 
the last seetion of the Decapoda Macroura. 

rbigtii, Lat. From the sea coast of Rochelle. 

VOL. Ul. R 



242 CRUSTACEA. 

is parasitical, and, as I think I perceive in it a vestige of a sucker, I 
have placed it among the Pcecilopoda. I would observe, however, 
that the feet, the anterior excepted, closely resemble those of Cyclops, 
and that the females also carry their ova in two sacs situated at the 
base of the tail as in the latter genus *. 

In the remaining Lophyropa of our first division, the thorax, as 
in the Condylura, is divided into several segments, the first of which 
is much the largest ; they have but one eye situated in the centre of 
the front between the superior antennae, such is the 

CYCLOPS, Mull., 

So well studied by Jurine, Sen., and Randohr. The body is more 
or less oval, soft or gelatinous, and divided into two portions, one 
anterior, composed of the head and thorax, the other posterior, or 
the tail. The segment immediately preceding the sexual organs, and 
which, in the female, is provided with two appendages in the form 
of little feet fulcra, Jurine may be considered as the first of the 
tail, which is not always decidedly or suddenly distinguished from 
the thorax. It is composed of six parts or segments ; under the 
second in the males, are two articulated appendages, sometimes sim- 
ple, and at others with a small branch on the inner side of various 
forms, and constituting, either wholly or partially, the organs of 
generation. The vulva, in the other sex, is situated on the same 
segment. The last one is terminated by two points or stylets, form- 
ing a fork, and is more or less furnished with setae or peniform threads. 
The other or anterior portion of the body is divided into four seg- 
ments, the first of which is much the largest, and composes the head 
and part of the thorax, which are also covered by a common scale. 
In it, are inserted the eye, four antennae, two mandibles mandibules 
internes of Jurine, furnished with a palpus, either simple or divided 
into two articulated branches, two jaws mandibules externes, or 
levre avec des barbillons of Jurine f, and four feet, each divided 
into four cylindrical stems furnished with hairs or bearded threads ; 

* Near the Condylurse should be placed the genus CUMA, M. Edwards, Ann. 
des Sc. Nat. XIII, xiii, B. The superior antennae are rudimental, and consist of 
but one joint. The head is distinct from the thorax, which is divided into four seg- 
ments, to the first of which are attached the four anterior feet, each of the follow- 
ing having a pair ; all these feet are natatory, directed forwards, and have no hook 
at the end ; the two first pairs alone are bifid. 

The genus PONTIA, Id., Ib., XIV. appears to us to approach Cyclops. The 
head is distinct from the trunk, and terminated by a rostrum which is rather acute 
aud appears to be formed of two pieces ; it has two sessile eyes ; four antennae, the 
superior of which are setaceous, multi-articulated and ciliated ; the inferior are 
pediform, composed of a peduncle, serving as a base to two divisions or branches, 
each terminated by a pencil of hairs, one of them having two joints, the last widened 
at the end, and the other consisting of one. The thorax is divided into five annuli, 
and has six pairs of natatory and bifid feet. The abdomen is formed of two segments 
and terminated by two spatula-like appendages or fins. 

f According to the successive order of the parts of the mouth in the Decapoda, 
the part situated immediately beneath the mandibles is the ligula ; but the denta- 
tion of those here spoken of indicates maxillary organs. The ligula may have 
escaped the notice of M. Jurine. 



BRANCHfOPODA. 243 

the anterior pair, corresponding to the second jaws, differs slightly 
from those that follow. Jurine compares it to a kind of hands. To 
eacli of tin* throe following segments is attached a pair of feet formed 
like the last of the preceding ones. Two of the antennae, superior 
to the others, are longer, setaceous, simple, and composed of nu- 
merous small joints ; by their action, they facilitate the motion of 
their body, and almost perform the office of feet. The inferior 
antennales, Jurine are filiform, usually present but four joints, are 
sometimes simple, and at others, forked; by the rapidity of their 
motions in the water, they occasion a kind of whirlpool. In the males, 
the superior antennae or one of them only (C. castor) are marked by a 
^illation and dilatation, followed by a joint with a hinge. By means 
of these organs, they seize their females, in theiramorouspreludes,either 
by the posterior feet, or by the extremity of the tail, and keep them, no- 
lens volens, in the peculiar position in which they fix themselves. The 
hitter carry off the males, when they arc unwilling to gratify their 
desires on the spot. The business of coition is performed, as in the 
preceding Crustacea, and by prompt and repeated acts. Jurine observ- 
ed it to occur three times in the space of fifteen minutes. Until the pub- 
lication of his remarks, it was thought that the male organs of genera- 
ion were placed on the superior antennae, and this error appeared to be 
the more probable, inasmuch as an analogous conformation was 
known to exist in the Araneides. On each side of the tail, in the 
female, is an oval sac, filled with eggs ovaire externe, Jurine ad- 
hering by a very slender pedicle to the second segment, close to its 
junction with the third, where the orifice of the oviduct is also visible. 
The pellicle, forming these sacs, is a mere continuation of that of 
the internal ovary. The number of ova they contain augments with 
age ; they are at first brown or dark, afterwards become reddish, and, 
when the young ones are about to be hatched, are almost transparent, 
but without increasing in size. If insulated or detached, at least 
until a certain period, the germ perishes. A single, but indispensa- 
able fecundification suffices for several successive generations. The 
same female may spawn ten times in the space of three months. Al- 
lowing it to occur but eight times in that period, and the number of 
young ones produced to be forty, the sum total of births will amount 
to near four thousand five hundred millions. The length of time 
which the young remain in the ovaries, varies from two to ten days, 
according to the temperature of the season, and various other circum- 
stances. The oviferous sacs sometimes present a greater or less 
numher of elongated glandiform bodies which appear to consist of a 
collection of Infusoria. 

The young, at birth, have four feet, and their body is rounded and 
without a tail. It was with these that Miiller formed his genus 
Amymone. Some time after fifteen days, from February to March 
they acquire another pair of feet, constituting the genus Nauplius, 
Miiller. After the first change they have the form and all the parts 
which characterize the adult animal, but more exiguously propor- 
tioned; their antennae and feet are proportionally shorter. After 
thrice changing their skin they arc capable of propagation. Most of 
these Entomostraca swim on their back, dart about with great 

R2 



244 CRUSTACEA. 

vivacity, and move backwards and forwards with equal facility. 
For want of animal substances they will attack vegetable matters, but 
the fluid in which they live does not pass into their stomach. The 
alimentary canal extends from one extremity of the body to the 
other. The heart in the C. castor is oval, and situated under the 
second and third segments of the body ; a vessel is given off at each 
of its extremities, one running to the head, and the other to the tail. 
Directly under it is a second analogous, but pyriform organ, which 
also produces a vessel at each end, corresponding perhaps to the 
branchio-cardiac canals, mentioned in our observations on the circu- 
lation of the Crustacea Decapoda, From several experiments made 
by Jurine upon various Cyclopes, alternately asphyxiated and resus- 
citated, it would appear that in this sort of resurrection the extremity 
of the intestinal canal gives the first signs of life, and that the irri- 
tability of the heart is less energetic ; that of the antennae, in the 
males especially, of the palpi, and lastly of the feet, is inferior. No 
alteration is effected in the antennae by amputating a portion of them ; 
the reintegration takes place under the skin, for the organs reappear 
in all their entireness at the ensuing moult. 

The C. staphylinus, from its shorter antennae, the superior of 
which consist of a considerably less number of joints than those of other 
Cyclopes, while the inferior, on the contrary, have more ; and from the 
shape of its body which gradually diminishes towards its posterior ex- 
tremity, so that it seems to have no tail or at least none that is abruptly 
formed, and its back, in the females, being armed with a kind of horn 
posteriorly arcuated, forms a particular division. The C. castor , and 
some others whose inferior antennae and mandibular palpi are divided 
above their base into two branches, may also compose another group. 
The one designated by Leach under the general name of Calanus, 
might in fact constitute a separate subgenus, if it were true that the 
animal on which it is founded had no inferior antennae ; but has that 
gentleman satisfied himself that such is the fact, by personal observa- 
tion, or does he depend upon the assertion of Miiller ? 

C. quadricornis; Monoculus quadricornis,lt. Mull., Entom., 
XVIII, 114; Jurine, Monoc., I, II, III. All the antennae 
simple or undivided; the inferior with four joints, and their 
length hardly equal to one-third of the others ; the body, pro- 
perly so called, inflated and almost ovoid; tail narrow and formed 
of six segments. The colour varies greatly ; some are reddish, 
others whitish or greenish. The whole length of the animal is 
two lines. This species is very common *. 

The second general division of the Lophyropa Branchiopoda, or 
that in which the shell is formed of two valves uniting by a hinge 
OSTRACODA, Lat. ; Ostrapoda, Straus is composed of two subgenera, 
the first of which, Cythere, since the interesting and valuable obser- 
vations of the latter upon the second or Cypris, appears to solicit a 
more profound examination than that of Muller, our only authority 

* Desmar., Consid., p. 364. For the other species, see the same work, p. 361 
364, LIV ; Mull., Entom., CYCLOPS; Jurine, Hist, des Monoc., p. 1 84, 
prem. fam. des Monoc. a coquille univalve ; Rand., Monoc., I, II, III. 



MKANCHIOPOIM. 245 

\vitli re.spect to it . hai.u tcrs, in order that they may be clearly defined. 
According to Miiller we find in the 

CTTHBRE, Mull. CYTIIERINA Lam. 

Eight simple feet*, terminating in a point, arid two equally sim- 
ple setaceous antennae, composed of five or six joints, furnished with 
scattered hairs. They are found in the salt and brackish waters of 
the sea-coast among the Fuci and Confervas f. 

CYPRIS, Mull. 

Hut six feetj; the two antennae terminated by a bundle of setae 
resembling a pencil. 

The shell forms an oval, laterally compressed body, with an arcu- 
ated and convex back, or towards the hinge; the opposite side is 
almost straight, or slightly emarginated or reniform. Before the 
hinge and on the median line is the eye, forming a large, blackish, 
round point. T lie intermediate antennae, inserted above, are shorter 
than the body, setaceous, composed of from seven to eight joints, the 
last of whieh are shortest and terminated by a bundle of twelve or 
fifteen setae, serving as fins. The mouth consists of a carinated 
labrum, two large dentated mandibles, each furnished with a triarti- 
culatcd palpus, to the first segment of which adheres a small branchial 
leaf with five digitations , and two pairs of j.iws. The two supe- 
rior are much the largest, and have four moveable and silky appen- 
dages on their internal margin, and a large, pectinated, branchial 
lamina on their anterior edge; the second are composed of two joints, 
with a short, nearly conical, inarticulated palpus ||, silky at the end, 
as is the extremity of the jaws themselves. A sort of compressed 
sternum fulfils the functions of a lower lip tf. The feet are divided 
into five joints, the third representing the femur, and the last the 
tarsus. The two anterior feet, inserted under the antennae, are 
nuieh shorter than the others, incline forwards, and are furnished 
with rigid setae, or long hooks united in a bundle at the extremity 
of the last joints. They are deficient in the four following feet. The 
second, situated in the middle of the under part of the body and at 
first directed backwards, are arcuated and terminated by a long and 
strong hook inclining forwards. The two last are never visible ex- 

* It is probable there arc but six. See Cypris, note J. 

f It thes eEntomostraca iuhabit salt-water exclusively, it is easy to see that Jurine 
other observers whose geographical position limited their researches to the 
i irnu-ra, could not have spoken of the former. Sec Mull., Entora., 
Ci mi Ki., an.i IK-Miiar.. Consid., p. 387, 388, LV, 8. 

tr according to Randohr, and eight according to Jurine ; the first consider- 
ing the two last as appendages of the males, and the second looking upon the palpi 
of tli- mandibh"* and the branchial laminae of each upper jaw the two first feet of 
his second division of the body, those which he says are composed of bnt one joint 
and tt -i -minute -d in a dentated spoon as so many feet. The latter does not include in 
tlii- number those which the former considers as sexual organs; he states them 
p. 161, 166 to be five jointed threads issuing laterally from the pouch of the 
matrix, .t tin- use of which he is ignorant. 

Intnior lip. Itundokr. 

|| Forked in the f w 'tis tlriyutti, Id. 

Kuui-i lip, Id. 



246 CRUSTACEA. 

tcrnally, but arc turned up, applied to the posterior sides of the body 
in order to support the ovaries, and terminate in two very small 
hooks *. The body presents no distinct articulations, and terminates 
posteriorly in a kind of soft tail which is doubled underneath, with 
two conical or setaceous threads furnished with three setae or hooks 
at the end, directed backwards and issuing from the shell. The 
ovaries constitute two large, simple and conical vessels forming a 
cul-de-sac at their origin and situated on the posterior sides of the 
body, underneath the shell, and opening, side by side, in the ante- 
rior portion of the abdomen where the canal formed by the tail estab- 
lishes a communication between them. The ova are spherical. These 
Crustacea spawn, and change their skin, as frequently as the Cy- 
clopes and other Entomostraca, and their mode of life is the same. 
Ledermullcr states, that he observed them in coitu. Modern natur- 
alists, who have most closely studied them, however, have never 
been able to discover their sexual organs with certainty, nor been 
fortunate enough to see them in actu. M. Straus observed, under 
the origin of the mandibles, the insertion of a stout conical vessel 
filled with a gelatinous substance, which appeared to communicate 
with the oesophagus by a straight canal, that he suspects may be a 
testis or salivary gland. The individuals which were the subjects of 
these observations having ovaries, the Cyprides according to the first 
supposition must be hermaphrodites. This is so much the more 
doubtful, however, as he himself remarks that it is possible the males 
may only exist at a particular season of the year, and that the vessel 
alluded to seems to be more nearly connected with the function of 
digestion than with that of generation f . 

According to Jurine, the antennae are true fins, the threads of 
which are spread out or united at the will of the animal, and in pro- 
portion to the degree of velocity it wishes to communicate to its 
motions; sometimes but a single one is visible, at others they are all 
displayed. We also think that these threads, and those of the two 
anterior feet, may be considered as aiding in respiration, quite as 
much as the laminae of the mandibles and of the two superior jaws, 
which M. Straus distinguishes by the name of branchial. The last, 
or those of the jaws, appear to me to be true but greatly dilated palpi, 
and the two others are appendages of the mandibular palpi. See 
Jurine, Hist, des Mon. VI, 3. 

According to the naturalist of Geneva before mentioned, these 
animals, while they are swimming, move their anterior feet as ra- 
pidly as their antennae, but very slowly when walking over the sur- 
face of aquatic plants. These feet, conjointly with the two terminated 
by a long hook, or the penultimates, then support the body. He sup- 
poses that those which, according to him, form the second pair, are 
destined to create an aqueous current and to direct it toward the 



* In the figure given by Randohr these feet consist of but three joints, and the 
last is somewhat dilated and emarginated at the end, with a hook in the middle of 
the emarfi nation. 

J See the alimentary canal of the Daphnia pulex, figured by Jurine, X, 7, and 
Randohr, Monoc. Tab. V, ii, d, d, and x. 



B1UNOHIOPODA. 24? 

mouth, thereby assimilating their functions to those of the second 
inferior antennae, which he calls antennulae. The two threads com- 
posing the tail unite on leaving the shell, and seem to form but 
one ; they serve, as he supposes, to brush out its interior. The female 
deposits its ova in mass, nxing them on plants or the mud by means 
of gluten. During this operation, which lasts about twelve hours, 
and in the largest species produces twenty-four eggs, she clings with 
her second feet, and in such a manner as not to fear the shock of the 
water. He collected some of these packets of newly laid eggs, and 
after separating them, observed the hatching of the young ones, and 
obtained a second generation without the intervention of the males. 
A female which had deposited her ova on the 12th of April, changed 
her skin six times between that period and the 18th of the following 
May. On the i>7th of the same month she spawned a second time, 
and two (1 :ys afterwards, on the 29th, a third. From this, he con- 
cludes that the number of these changes in the young animal is in 
proportion to the gradual developement of the individual; that this 
developement ran only take place by a general separation of an en- 
velope become too small to contain the animal; and that the size of 
the hitter has a determined limit to which it must attain *. 

The Polyropha of our third division CLADOCERA, Lat. ; Daph- 
nidtiS) Straus form the second family of the Monoculi of Jurine. 
The form of two of their antennae, which resemble ramified arms and 
serve as oars, and the faculty of leaping which they possess, have 
acquired for one of the most common species the name- of the aquatic 
arborescent flea. 

The first of these naturalists, who has given us an excellent mono- 
graphy of the Daphniae, a subgenus of this division, establishes two 
new ones ; one by the name of LATONA, characterized by antennae, in 
t he form of oars, divided into three branches, and of but one joint f; and 
the other by that of SID A, which approaches other known subgencra 
of the same division, in having similar antennae, divided into two 
branches only, but of which one is composed of two joints, and the 
other of threej. The Daphniae, according to him, are distinguished 
from the preceding and from the Lyncei, inasmuch as one of the two 
branches of these oars is composed of three joints and the other 
of four. Jurine, however Hist, des Mon. p. 92 states, that each 
I > ranch is composed of three joints; but it seems that he did not 
include the first of the posterior branch, a very short one, it is true. 
The last, in all these Lophyropha, is terminated by three threads, and 
each >f t he preceding ones gives out another ; these threads are either 
simple or barbed. There are also two other but very short antennae 



See M011., Eatom. genu Cypris ; Hist, des Monoc., second divis., Mon. & 
coquilles bivalves, p. 159r-179, XVII XIX; Rand., Mon., IV ; Straus, Me'm. 
du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., VII, l ; Desraar., Consid., p. 380386, LV, 17. Des- 
marest Crust. Foss., XI, 8 has figured a fossil species which he calls Cypris /fa, 
found in (treat abundance near the Gergovian mountain in the Puy-de-Ddme, and 
between Vichy- Lcs-Hains and Cussac. 

t Daphnia settfcra, Mull., Entom. 

J Daiihnia cristalluw, Kju^.l. I bill. 

H.indobr has givm it in the Fig. II, vii, tab. V, of these antennte. 



248 CRUSTACEA. 

particularly in the females situated at the anterior and inferior 
extremity of the head, which have but a single joint with one or two 
setae at the extremity. In the 

POLYPHEMUS, Mull., 

As in Daphniae and Lynceus, the antennae are in the form of oars 
divided into two branches ; but each of them is composed of five 
joints. The head, moreover, which is very distinct and rounded, is 
provided with a sort of neck, and is almost entirely occupied by a 
large eye. The feet are completely exposed. 

But a single species has hitherto been discovered, the Mono- 
culuspediculus, L. ; Deg., Insect,, VII, xxviii, 6 13 ; Polyphe- 
mus oculus, Mull., Entom.,xx, 1 5 : Cephaloculus stagnorum, 
Lam. ; Jurine, Monoc., xv, 1 3 ; Desmar., Consid., LIV, 1, 2. 
The feet, according to Jurine, have no resemblance whatever to 
the Monoculi of this division. They consist of a thigh, leg, and a 
tarsus composed of two joints, from the extremity of which, that of 
the last pair excepted, issue several small threads. Two small antennae, 
consisting of a single joint and terminated by two threads, project 
from the anterior extremity of the head. The shell is so extremely 
diaphanous, that all the viscera can be distinguished, The matrix, 
when filled with eggs, occupies the greater part of its interior. 
Their greatest number never exceeds ten. In following the gradual 
developement of the foetus, we are struck with the early appearance of 
the eye, in comparison with that of other parts of the body. It is 
greenish at first, and passes insensibly to a deep black. The abdo- 
men, after being flexed from behind forwards, bends suddenly back- 
wards to form a long, slender, pointed tail, from which issue two 
long articulated threads. The animal always swims on its back, and 
most frequently in a horizontal direction, by the quick and repeated 
motion of its arms and feet, and executes all sorts of evolutions with 
ease and agility. When young, and after its first changes, it is sub- 
ject to a disease called the ephippium*; but this ephippium or saddle 
always has a determinate figure, and never contains the two oval 
ampullae observed in the Daphriiae. These animals do not live long 
in a state of captivity, nor can their young ones be raised, at least 
such was the case with Jurine, who could not preserve them after 
their first changes. Among all the specimens which were the subjects 
of his observations, he could not find a single male, though, it is true* 
he could procure but very few of them, this species being rare in the 
environs of Geneva. It is said, however, to be very common in the 
marshes and ponds of the north, where it aggregates in considerable 
numbers. In the 

DAPHNIA, Mull., 

The oars are always exposed to their base or to the origin of their 
peduncle ; they are as long, or almost as long as the body, and are 
divided into two branches, the posterior of which consists of four 
joints, the first very short, and the other, or the anterior, of three. 

* ee the following article, Dajihnia, p. 250. 



BBANCHIOFODA. 249 

Their eye is small or punctiform, and, with the exception of certain 
at, lias not, as in Lynceus, the small black punctiform spot 
before it, which Miiller considered as ;i second eye*. 

Although the extreme smallness of these animals might be supposed 
to defy any attempt to investigate their organization, but few are 
I- -tier known. Exclusive of those who have devoted themselves to 
microscopic researches, four of the most profound naturalists, 
Schaeffer, Randohr, Straus, and Jurine, Sen., the third particularly, 
have studied them with the most scrupulous attention. If some 
anatomical details escaped the notice of the latter, the omission has 
been remedied by the labours of Randohr and Straus; Jurine also 
completes the observations of the former with respect to their habits, 
which he studied fora long period, and with the greatest success. The 
mouth is sit i Kited beneath at the base of the rostrum; we consider (with 
Randohr) the inferior portion of the head, which Straus denominates 
a labrum, as an elongated clypeus, and we apply the former term to 
that p:irt which he styles the posterior lobule of the labrum. Directly 
under it are two strong jaws interior jaws of Randohr without 
I al pi, vertically inclined, and applied to two horizontal jaws f termi- 
nated by three stout horny spines, in the form of recurved hooks. 
Then come ten feet, the second joint of all of which is vesicular ; the 
first eight terminate by an expansion in the manner of a fin, the 
edges furnished with setae or barbed threads arranged like a crown or 
a comb ; the two anterior seem to be specially appropriated to the 
purposes of prehension, and in fact Randohr considers them as double 
palpi, the external and internal ; they are the same parts, elsewhere 
Cyclops called hands by Jurine. In the figures which they have 
published, the terminal setae appear to be bearded : if this be so, we 
do not see why these appendages may not concur in the process of 
respiration J, a property confined by Straus to the following ones, 
because the latter have, besides, a lamina on the inner side, which, 
witli the exception of the two last, is edged with a pectinated series 
of setae, that according to the figures of Jurine and Randohr are also 
bearded. The structure of the two last feet is somewhat different, 
and Randohr distinguishes them by the name of claws. The abdo- 
men, or body properly so called, is divided into eight segments 
perfectly free between its valves, and is long, slender, recurved at 
the extremity, and terminated by two small hooks directed backwards. 
On the superior surface of the sixth segment is a range of four 
papillae forming indentations, and the fourth presents a sort of 

Such also is the opinion of Randohr, Monoc. pi. V, fig. II, iii, 6 ; and as he 
discovered it in the Daphnia sitna, it is possible that, although but slightly visible 
in several species, this character may be common to this subgeuus, and that of 
Lynceus. Schaeffer had previously noticed it. 

f The exterior jaws, in the language of Randohr ; Jurine not having separated 
these parts from the preceding ones, supposed that the latter were accompanied by 
u kind of valve and by a palpus. Hist, des Monoc. IX, f. 13 17. 

J According to Straus, Cypris and Cythcre arc not true Brancbiopoda, inasmuch 
as their feet are not provided with braiirhitc ; but, as we have already observed, the 
setie and hairs of the two anterior ones and those of the anUnmc may exercise tin- 
functions of branchiae as well as those of tlu palpi and first jaws. 



250 CRUSTACEA. 

tail *. The ovaries are situated along the sides between this segment 
and the first, and open separately near the back into a cavity matrix, 
Jurinc formed betwixt the shell and the body, in which the ova 
remain for some time after they are produced. 

Miiller has given the name of ephippium, or saddle, to a large, 
obscure, and rectangular spot, which at certain periods and particu- 
larly in summer, appears, after the females have changed their 
tegument, on the superior part of the valves of the shell, and which 
he attributes to disease. According to Straus this ephippium pre- 
sents two oval, diaphanous ampullae, placed one before the other, and 
forming with those of the opposite side two small oval capsules, 
opening like that of a bivalve. It is divided, as are also the valves of 
which it forms a part, into two lateral halves, united by a suture 
along their superior edge ; its interior exhibits another similar, but 
smaller one, with free edges, provided it be not the superior that is 
attached to the valves, the two halves of which, playing upon each 
other as if hinged, present the same ampullse as the exterior lids. Each 
capsule contains an egg with a greenish and horny shell, otherwise 
similar to an ordinary ovum, but requiring a greater length of time 
for its developemcnt, and being destined to pass the winter in statu quo. 
When the animal is about to change its tegument, the ephippium, as 
well as its ova, is abandoned with the exuviae, of which it consti- 
tutes a part, and which protecfrthem during the winter from the 
cold. The heat of spring hatches them, and young Daphnise are 
produced exactly similar to those which come from the ordinary eggs. 
Schaeffer affirms that they will remain for a long period in a desiccated 
state without losing the vitality of the germ, but none of those pre- 
served in that condition by Jurine were ever hatched. They are en- 
tirely free, or do not adhere to each other in their peculiar cavities. 
In summer, according to Jurine, they may be hatched in two or 
three days. In the climate of Paris, where Straus observed them at 
all periods of the year, they require at least one hundred hours. The 
fcetus, twenty-four hours after the production of the ovum, is a mere 
rounded and unformed mass, on which, when closely examined, may 
be seen obtuse rudiments of arms in the form of very short and im- 
perfect stumps glued to the body ; neither head nor eye is perceptible ; 
and as yet, the green or reddish body dotted with white, like the egg, 
exhibits no motion. It is only at the nineteenth hour, and when the 
hour has appeared, and the arms and valves are elongated, that the 
foetus begins to move. By the hundredth hour it is very active, and 
finally, at the hundred and tenth it only differs from the newly hatched 
animal in the setae of the oars which are still glued to their stem, and 
in the tail of the valves which is bent under and received between 
their inferior edges. Towards the end of the fifth day, the tail, which 
terminates the valves in the young animal, and the setae of the arms 
become free, and the feet for the first time begin to move. The 
young being ready to make their appearance, the mother lowers her 



* We omit various details of the organization, because some can only be com- 
prehended by means of drawings, and others appear common to most of the Bran- 
chiopoda. 



BRANCHIOPODA. 251 

abdomen and they dart out. Newly laid eggs dcpobited in a glass 
jar, when; tin v \\viv observed by Straus, were developed in this 
order. J urine has also furnished us with the result of his analogous 
observations upon the successive changes in the embryo Daphniae, 
but made during the winter, and, as the eggs were not hatched till 
the tenth day, he could consequently detect their developement with 
more precision. The ovum, on tlie first day, presents a central 
bubble, surrounded by smaller ones, with coloured molecules in the 
intervals. These bubbles and molecules appear destined to form the 
organs by proximating towards the centre, and finally disappear. 
The form of the foetus begins to be defined on the sixth day ; on the 
seventh the head and feet are distinguishable ; on the eighth appears 
the eye as well as the intestine ; on the ninth the network of that eye 
begins to be visible, and the bubbles have entirely disappeared, the 
central one excepted, which contains the alimentary canal under the 
; t; on the tenth the developement of the foetus is terminated, the 
young Daphnia issues from the matrix and for a moment remains 
motionless. 

The males, of those species at least observed by Straus, are very 
distinct from the female. The head is proportionably shorter ; the ros- 
trum less salient ; the valves narrower and less gibbous superiorly, and 
gaping in front in such a manner as to present a wide and almost cir- 
cular opening. The antennae are much larger and have the appear- 
unee of being furnished with two horns bent underneath, which are 
considered by Miiller as the organs of generation. Straus could not 
discover these sexual parts, but he remarks that the little nail termi- 
nating the last joint of the two anterior feet or the second, if we 
suppose the oar to be the first is much larger than those in the female, 
that it has the form of a very large hook with a strong outward cur- 
vature, and that the seta of the third joint is also much longer; it is 
by means of these hooks that he seizes the female. The mammillae 
of the sixth segment of the abdomen are much smaller, and at an 
early age have the form of tubercles. The inferior antennae excepted, 
which are longest, the two sexes are nearly alike, and the two valves 
of their shell terminate in a stylet, dentated beneath, arcuated below, 
nd nearly as long as the valves. Every time the animal changes its 
tegument, this stylet becomes shorter, so that in the adult it forms a 
me iv ohtuse point. 

The males pursue their females with much ardour, and several 
frequently unite in their advances to the same individual. 

A single copulation fecundates the female for several successive 
generations, and for a period of six months, as ascertained by Jurine. 
Straus, remarking that the orifices of the ovaries are placed very 
deeply under tin- valves and that consequently no part of the body of 
the inal<' could reach them, suspects that he has no copulating organ, 
l>ut darts the fecundating lluid under the valves of the female, whence 
it finds its way to the ovaries ; analogy however seems to disprove 
this conjecture *. J urine saw them in actu, for a period of eight or 



See Jurinr, Hist, des MOD. p. 106, etteq. 



252 CRUSTACEA. 

ten minutes. The male, first placing himself on the back of the 
female, seizes her with the long threads of his anterior feet ; he then 
seeks the inferior margin of her shell, and approximating the aper- 
ture of his own to that of the latter, he introduces the threads, as 
well as the hooks of these same feet. He now brings his tail in con- 
tact with that of his companion, who at first, refusing to comply, 
flics with her amorous mate, but finally yields. Little granulated 
bodies of a green, rose, or brown colour, according to the season, 
gradually ascend into the matrix and become eggs. J urine observes, 
that the males of the D. pulex are but few, when compared to the 
number of females ; that they are extremely rare in spring and sum- 
mer, but less so in autumn. 

About the eighth day after they are hatched, the young Daphnia 
effects its first change of tegument, and repeats the same process 
every five or six days, according to the increased or diminished tem- 
perature of the weather ; it is not merely the body and valves which 
lose their epidermis, the branchiae and setae of the oars undergoing 
the same operation. It is only after the third change that they are 
fitted to continue their species. At first the female lays but a single 
egg, then two or three, gradually augmenting the number, which in 
the D. magna amounts to fifty-eight. The day after she has pro- 
duced her ova, the female changes her skin, and in the teguments 
which she abandons may be found the shells of the eggs she has pre- 
viously laid. The next moment a new batch is produced. The 
young from each set of eggs are generally of one sex, and it is rare 
to find two or three males preceding from that which produced females, 
and vice versa. But in five or six of these broods, in the summer, one 
at most consists of males. Individuals are frequently remarked, 
whose integuments are of a milky white, opaque and thickened ; they 
do not however appear to be affected by it, and on the renewal of 
the shell, but slight rugous traces of this alteration are perceptible. 

These animals cease to propagate, and no longer cast their skins 
on the approach of winter ; they perish before the extreme cold has 
arrived. The ova contained in the ephippia, and which were laid 
during the summer, are hatched on the first approach of the vernal 
heat; and the ponds soon abound again with countless Daphnise. 
Some naturalists attribute the occasionally sanguine tinge of these 
waters to the presence of myriads of the D. pulex, but Straus says he 
never remarked the fact, and that this species is at all times but 
slightly coloured. Morning and evening, and even during the day 
in cloudy weather, they keep on the surface ; but in the heat of sum- 
mer, or when the sun darts his rays directly upon the pools which 
they inhabit, they descend to the depth of six or eight feet; frequent- 
ly, not one is to be seen on the surface. Their mode of natation is 
by little bounds, of a greater or less extent, according to the length 
of their oars, and in proportion to the projection of the shell which 
covers the body, an increase of its size impeding their movements. 
According to Straus, their food consists exclusively of small parcels 
of vegetable substances which they find at the bottom, and frequently 
of Confervee. They always refused the animal substances he pre- 
sented to them. He repeatedly saw them swallow their own faeces, 



BRANCHIOPODA. 253 

l>y tin- cimvnt formed by the action of their feet, which 
directs theii -ordinary aliment to wards their mouth. They use the hooks 
which terminate the extremity of their tail to clean their branchiae. 

Daphnia pulex ; Monoculu* pulvx, L. ; Pulex aquaticus arbo- 
rescens, Swamm., Bib. Nat., xxxi; Perroquet d'eau, Geoff., 
Hist. Ins. 11,455; Schscf., Die Grim., arm.. Polyp., 1755, 1, 1,8; 
Straus, Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. V, xxix, 1 20; Jurine, 
Mon., viii xi. According to Straus, this species has a large 
convex ro.-tnnn ; sctir of the oars plumose; first tubercle of the 
sixth segment linguiform ; inferior edge of the valves dentated ; 
valvo terminated by a short tail, which is obtuse in the females. 
This last character distinguishes it from another species with 
which it has been confounded, the 

Daph. longispina, Str. Deg. Insect. VII, xxvii, 1 1. The 
female is four millimetres in length *. 
The last subgenus of the Lophyropa is 

LYNCEUS, Mull. CHILODORUS, Leach. 

It can scarcely be distinguished from the preceding except by the 
oars, evidently shorter than the shell, the inferior portion of whicli 
h.i> 1'ut little or no projection. According to Straus the articula- 
tions of the branchiae are more numerous than in the preceding sub- 
genera. They all have a little spot before their eye which has the 
appearance of a second one. The rostrum, longer in proportion than 
that of the Daphniae, is curved and pointed \. 

The second section of the Branchiopoda, that of the PHYLLOPA, is 
distinguished from the first, as already stated, by the number of feet, 
which at least amounts to twenty J and by the lamellated or foliaceous 
form of their joints. There are always two eyes, which are some- 
timcs pediculated : several of them have also an ocellus. 

They funu two principal groups. 

In the first CERATOPTHALMA, Lat. there are never less than ten 
pairs of feet, nor more than twenty-two ; the vesicular body at their 
base is wanting ; the anterior are never much longer than the others, 
nor ramified. The body is contained in a shell resembling that of a 
bivalve, or is naked, each thoracic segment bearing a pair of exposed 
tcet. The eyes are|sometimcs sessile, small, and closely approximated ; 
at others, and most frequently, they are situated at the extremity of 
two Mu>veal>le pedicles. The ova are internal or external, and are 
contained in a sac at the base of the tail. 

Hi iv the eyes arc sessile and immoveable ; the body is invested 



the other species, see Mem. cit. of Straus ; Mull.. Kntom., and Jurine, 
Hist cles Mon. fam. II, p. 18588, and p. 181, 200. For the I), sima and D. 
lo*gisi**a, see Rand., Mono.-.. Y-VI1. 

f See Miill.. Kntum., a. It/nc na ; Jurine, Monoc. p. l5l, 158; and Desmar., 
Consid., 375378. 

t These animals represent among the Crustacea, the Myriapoda of the class of 

IlKCCt". 



254 CRUSTACEA. 

with an oval shell resembling that of a molluscous bivalve, and the 
ovaries arc always internal. Such is the 

LIMNADIA, Ad. Brong. * 

The Limnadise are so closely allied to the preceding subgenus, that 
the only species known was placed among the Daphniae by the 
younger Hermann. The shell is bivalve, oval, and incloses the body, 
which is elongated, linear, and inflected forwards. In the head, and 
almost confounded with it, we find : 1, two eyes closely approxi- 
mated and placed transversely ; 2, foar antennae, two of which are 
much the largest, each composed of a peduncle of eight joints and 
of two setaceous branches or threads divided into eight segments and 
somewhat silky; the two others are intermediate, small, simple, and 
widened at base; 3, the mouth, situated beneath, and consisting of 
two inflated mandibles arcuated and truncated at the inferior extre- 
mity, and of two foliaceous jaws. These parts, when united, form a 
sort of inferior rostrum. The body, properly so called, is divided into 
twenty-three segments, each of which, except the last, bears a pair of 
branchial feet. All these feet are similar, strongly compressed, and 
bifid ; their external division is simple, and ciliated on the exterior 
edge; the other has four joints, and is strongly ciliated along its inte- 
rior margin. The first twelve pairs are of equal length, and larger 
than the others; the length of the latter progressively diminishes. 
The eleventh pair, and the two following ones, have a slender 
thread at their base, which ascends into the cavity situated between 
the back and the shell, in order to support the ova. The last seg- 
ment on the tail is terminated by two threads. The ovaries are 
internal, and placed along the sides of the intestinal canal, extending 
from the base of the first pair of feet to the eighteenth ; their open- 
ings appear to be at the root of some of those that are intermediate ; 
the eggs, after having been produced, occupy the dorsal cavity above 
mentioned, and are secured there by means of small threads, which 
adhere to those of the feet. At first they are round and transparent; 
they afterwards assume a yellowish tint, which is subsequently darker 
towards the centre, and their figure becomes irregular and angular. 

All the individuals examined by M. Ad. Brongniart were provided 
with them. The males, allowing the sex to exist, do not appear at 
the same time as the females, which is during the month of June, and 
are unknown. 

Limnadia Hermani, Ad. Brongn., Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. 

Nat., VI, xiii; Daphnia-gigas, Herm., Mem. Apterol., V. 

Found in great numbers in the little pools of the forest of Fon- 

tainebleau. 

There, each eye is situated at the extremity of a pedicle, formed by 
a lateral prolongation, in the shape of a horn, of each side of the head. 
The body is naked, without a shell, and annulated throughout. The 

* In my work on the natural families of the animal kingdom, this subgenus, with 
that of Apus, composes my family of the Aspidiphora ; it approximates to this one 
in the number of feet, and to the Daphnia- in the shell. 



BRANCHIOPODA. 255 

ova of the females arc contained in an elongated capsule, situated 
near the base of the tail in those which are thus terminated, or 
in the posterior extremity of the body and thorax in those which have 
no tail. 

Some are provided with a tail. 

ART EMI A, Leach. 

placed on very short pedicles ; the head confounded with an 
oval thorax, furnished with ten pairs of feet, and terminated by a long 
and pointfd tail. The antennae short and subulate. 

A. salina; Cancer salinus, L.; Montag., Trans. Lin. Soc. 
XI, xiv, 8 10; Gammarus salinus, Fab.; Desmar., Consid., 
1. 393. A small species found in the salt marshes of Lymington, 
in Knghind. when nearly dry, of which as yet we have but a very 
imperfect account. 

BRANCHIPUS, Lat. CHIROCEPHALUS, B. Prevost, and Jurine. 

Eyes placed on projecting pedicles; the body narrow, elongated 
and compressed; the head distinct from the trunk, furnished with 
appendages varying according to the sex, and with two appendages 
resembling horns between the eyes; eleven pair of feet; the tail 
terminated by two leaflets more or less elongated and edged with 
cilia 

Although Schaeffer and Benedict Prevost*, have published very 
detailed monographs of two species of this genus, they are still 
imperfect with respect to the profound and comparative study of the 
organs of the mouth, and of some other parts of the head. Considering 
the two sexes together, we find the following general conformation : 
the body is almost filiform, composed of a head separated from the 
trunk by a kind of neck ; of a trunk or thorax longitudinally hollow 
beneath, divided, at least above, exclusive of the neck, into eleven 
segments, each bearing a pair of branchial, strongly compressed feet, 
usually composed of three foliaceous joints, with a fringe of hairs or 
bearded threads along the edges ; and of an elongated tail tapering to 
a point, consisting of nine segments terminated by two more or 
less elongated leaflets fringed with cilia. Under its second segment 
we find the male organ of generation, and in the female an elongated 
containing the ova she is ready to produce. In the head we 
observe, 1. Two reticulated eyes situated at the extremity of two 
flexible peduncles formed by lateral prolongations of the head ; 
2. Two antennae at least, frontal, scarcely longer than the head, 
slender, filiform, and composed of very small joints ; 3. Two projec- 
tions under them, sometimes resembling a uniarticulated horn, and 
at others digitiform the premier doigt des mains, Uened. Prevost 
and biarticulated ; 4. A mouth underneath, composed of two kinds 
of dentated mandibles without palpi, and of some other parts. We 
suspect that these horn-like j.n.jietions are merely an appendage, 
larger and differently formed in the males, of the frontal antennae; 



* Me*m. sur le Chirocrphalc printed at the end of the Hist, dcs Monoc. of the 
late Lewis Jurim . .-!> published in the Journal dc Physique. 



256 CRUSTACEA. 

the two other antennae may be wanting or be obliterated in the 
female, and form in the other sex of one of these species Chiroce- 
pkala diaphana, Prevost those singular appendicated and dentated 
tentacula, in the form of a soft proboscis which is susceptible of being 
spirally convoluted, designated by Benedict Prevost under the name 
of doigts des mains, or fingers. It is probable that, as in Apus, the 
mouth is furnished with two pairs of jaws, a ligula and a labrum, but 
their respective form and situation have not yet been well ascertained. 
I am convinced that the part resembling a rostrum mentioned by 
Schaeffer, and which Prevost calls a valve (soupape) is the labrum ; 
that the four bodies or tubercles placed on the sides, mentioned by 
the former, are the mandibles and the two upper jaws ; and that the 
parts considered by the second as cirri (barbillons) are also maxillary. 
The two first feet, which, according to Schaeffer, are composed of but 
two joints, the last terminating in a point, would represent the two 
first foot-jaws of the Crustacea Decapoda, and the two large anten- 
niforrn feet of an Apus *. The chief of the male organs of genera- 
tion, at least those which are considered as such, consist in two 
conoid biarticulated bodies, which only project by pressure (Schaeffer), 
situated under the second ring, in which vessels terminate that arise 
from the first. M. Prevost presumes that the two vulvae of the 
female are placed at the extremity of the tail, but that they afford no 
issue to the ova. This issue (two apertures according to Schrcffer), 
is in the second ring, and communicates internally with the sac con- 
taining the eggs, which acts as an external matrix. But there is no 
crustaceous animal known in which the female organs of generation 
are placed at the posterior extremity of the body, and hence we can 
allow but little weight to this opinion. 

The observations of Schaeffer on the hairs of the feet of these 
Crustacea, prove that they are so many air tubes ; even the surface 
of the feet of which they are composed, appears to absorb a portion of 
the air, which adheres to it under the form of little bubbles. 

The Chirocephcdus diaphanus, Bened. Prevost, which seems 
to us to be very closely allied to our Branchipus palustris, if it 
be indeed different, has, when first hatched, a body divided into 
nearly equal and almost globular masses. In the first we observe 
an ocellus, two short antennae, two very large oars ciliated at 
the extremity, and two short slender feet, composed of five 
joints. After the first change of tegument, the two compound 
eyes make their appearance, the body is elongated posteriorly, 
and terminated by a conical, articulated tail with two threads at 
the extremity. The subsequent changes gradually developc 
the feet, and the oars disappear. The valve soupape which 
at first extended over and covered the abdomen, diminishes in 
proportion. 

The Branchipi are found, and usually in great numbers, in little 
muddy, fresh water pools, and frequently in those that are formed 
by heavy rains, particularly in spring and autumn. On the first 
approach of cold weather they perish. They swim with the greatest 

* See Mm. sur les Anim. sans VcrtM)., Savign. part I. 



RRANCHIOPOUA. -"> / 

lacility on their hack, and their feet, which they cannot use for 
walking, while thus employed, present a graceful and undulating 
motion. This motion creates a current between them, which, follow- 
ing the canal of the thorax, directs to its mouth the atoms which con- 
stitute its food; when the animal wishes to advance it strikes the 
water, right and left, with its tail, which forces it forwards by 
hounds and leaps. Withdrawn from its element, it movr> its tail for 
a while, and curves itself into a circle. Deprived of a certain degree 
of humidity, it remains motionless. 

Benedict Prevost states, that when the male of the species which 
constitutes the object of his memoir seeks his female, he swims 
round her, seizes her by the neck with the two horn-like appendages 
of his head, and remains fixed there, until she turns up the posterior 
extremity of her tale, in order to approximate the two valves of the 
copulating organs ; this process is analogous to the coitus of the Li 
hellulie. The ova are yellowish, spherical at first, and afterwards 
angular ; the shell is thick and hard, a circumstance which tends to 
jiresi-rve them. It appears that even desiccation, provided it be not 
carried to far, produces no change in the germ, and that the young 
are hatched as soon as a sufficiency of rain has fallen. M. Desmarest 
has frequently remarked Branchipi in the little hollows filled with 
rain water, on the summit of the rocks at Fontainebleau. The female 
Chirocephalus produces several distinct sets of eggs, after each copu- 
lation, at different times, occupying some hours, and even the whole 
day in the process. Each set consists of from one to four hundred 
eggs ; they are rapidly ejected from the female in jets of ten or a 
dozen, and with sufficient force to sink them slightly in the mud. 

Benedict Prevost has remarked that the Chir. diaphanus was sub- 
jeet to certain diseases, of which he gives a description. This spe- 
cies, as we have already stated, does not differ from our Branchipus 
palustris *. The two horns, situated under the superior antennae, 
are composed, in both sexes, of two joints, the last of which, how- 
ever, is large and arcuated in the male, and very short and conical 
in the female. In the Branc/tipn* xtagnalis^ the horns consist of a 
single joint, and those of the males resemble the mandibles of the 
Lin->inn< O/</M, in their form, dentations, and direction. 

Others have no tail; their body terminates almost directly behind 
the thorax and last feet. Such is the 

EfTLIMENE, Lot. 

The body of the Eulimenes is almost linear, and has four nearly 

filiform antenna', two of which are smaller than the others, bearing 
a great re.s.Miihlanee to palpi, and placed on the anterior extremity 
of the head. Their head is transverse, with two eyes seated on large 

Cancer paludnsvs, MQ11. Zool. Dan. XI.YIII, 18; Herbst., XXXV, 35; 
OMffNJpftlM diapkamuf Prcv., Journ. de Phys.; J,,rin., Mmi,.,-.. \\ \\ll 
See Desroar., Consid. LVI, 35. This last species is described in the Manuel tlu 
Naturalise of Duchesne, under the name of Martrau (Vrau douce. 

f Brtnchiopoda ttagnalis. Lat., Hist, des Crust, et des Ins., IV, p. 297 ; Cancer 
staynalis, L. ; Gammanti stagnate, Fab. ; Apus pitc\farmif, Schcff. : Uammanu 
H< \\V, 310. 



VOL. Ill 



258 CRUSTACEA. 

and cylindrical peduncles. There are eleven pairs of branchial feet, 
the three first joints and the last small and tapering ; directly after 
them follows a terminal and nearly semiglobular piece replacing the 
tail, and from which issues an elongated thread, that, perhaps, is an 
oviduct. Near the middle of the fifth pair of feet, and of the four 
following ones, I have remarked a globular body, possibly analogous 
to the vesicles presented by these organs in the following sub- 
genus. 

The only species known, Eulimene blanchdtre, Lat., Regne 
Animal, Cuv., Ill, p. 68 ; Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. X, 333 ; 
Desmar., Consid., p. 353, 354, is very small; whitish eyes, and 
posterior extremity of the body blackish. From the vicinity of 
Nice. 

The remaining Phyllopa ASPIDIPHORA, Lat. have sixty pairs of 
feet, all furnished externally near their base with a large oval vesi- 
cle *, and the two anterior of which, although much larger and ram- 
ous, resemble antennae ; a large shell, covering the greater part of 
the superior portion of the body, almost entirely free, clypeiform, 
emarginated posteriorly, provided anteriorly in a circumscribed space 
with three simple, sessile eyes, the two anterior of which are largest 
and lunated ; and two bivalve capsules containing the ova, and an- 
nexed to the eleventh pair of feet. Such are the characters which 
mark the 

APUS, Scop., 

Which makes part of the genus Binoculus, Geoff,, and of the Li- 
mulus, Miiller. 

The body, including the shell, inclines to an oval, wider and more 
rounded before, and narrowed behind in the manner of a tail ; ab- 
stracting the shell, it is at first nearly cylindrical, convex above, 
concave and divided longitudinally beneath by a furrow, and termi- 
nates in an elongated cone. It consists of thirty annuli, which are 
considerably smaller at the posterior extremity, and which, the last 
seven or eight excepted, give origin to the feet. The first ten are 
membranous, soft, without spines, exhibit a small button-like promi- 
nence on each side, and have each but a single pair of feet. The 
others are more solid or horny, with a range of small spines on the 
posterior margin ; the last is larger than the preceding ones, nearly 
square, depressed, angular, and terminated by two articulated threads 
or setae. In some species composing the genus LEPIDURUS, Leach, 
a horny, flattened, and elliptical lamina is seen between them. If the 
number of feet be about a hundred and twenty, the last annuli, be- 
ginning with the eleventh or twelfth, must necessarily have more 
than one pair, a circumstance which in this respect approximates 
these Crustacea to the Myriapoda. The shell, perfectly free from 
its anterior adhesion, invests a great .part of the body, and thus 
protects the primary segments, whieh, as already stated, are softer 



* Possibly analogous to the vesicles forming the second joint of the feet of the 
Daphnise. 



HRANCUIOPODA. 259 

thin the others. It consists of a large, horny, extremely thin, and 
almost diaphanous scale or plate, which represents tip- superior tegu- 
ments of tin- head and thorax united, and forming a large oval con- 
vex .shield, singularly notched and dentated at : :i or extremity. 
Itr, upper Mitlar.- U divided by a transverse line forming two united 

in t\\-D areas, tin anterior nearly semilunar, corresponding to the 
head, and the posterior to the thorax. In the middle of the first 
\\e observe three closely approximated simple eyes, or without appa- 
rent facets, the two anterior of which are largest and almost rcniform, 
and the posterior much smaller and oval. A duplicature of the ante- 
rior ]jortioii of the shell forms a sort of frontal, flattened, semilunar 
shield heneath, which serves as a base to the labrum. The posterior 
that which corresponds to the thorax, iscarinated throughout 
the middle of its length. This shell is only adherent by its anterior 
extremity, so that looking from this point we can discover the whole 
h u-k of the animal. Each side of the shell, seen from beneath and 
in a strong light, presents a large spot, formed by numerous lines 
describing concentric ovals, which appear to be tubular and filled 
with a red fluid. Directly under the shield or frontal disk, we find the 
antennae and mouth. The former, two in number, are inserted on 
each side of the mandibles, are very short and filiform, and are com- 
posed of two nearly equal joints. The mouth consists of a square, 
projecting labrum ; of two strong, horny, inferiorly inflated inandi- 
e.ompressed and dentated at the extremity and without palpi ; of 
a large and profoundly emarginated ligula ; and of two pairs of foli- 
is jau > laid on each other, the superior of which are spinous and 
eiliated along the inner margin, and the inferior almost membranous 
and similar to small false feet; they are terminated by a slender, 
elongated joint, and are prolonged externally from their base into a 
1 auricle, (oreillette), furnished with an uniarticulated and 
ciliated appendage, which may be considered as a kind of palpus. 
According to Savigny *, the ligula exhibits a ciliated canal, which 
leads directly to the oesophagus. The feet, which amount to about 
one hundred and twenty, insensibly diminish in size, commencing 
from the second pair; they are all strongly compressed, foliaceous, 
and are i-oinj rased of three joints, exclusive of the two long threads 
at the extremity of the two anterior feet, and the two leaflets at the 
end of the following ones, parts, which, when united, we may con- 
>ider as constituting a fourth, forceps-like joint, or one with two 
elongated toes coverted into a sort of antenniform threads. On the 
posterior side of the first joint is inserted a large, branchial, triangu- 
lar m> inl'r.ine ; the second also, on the same side, has a red, vesicu- 
lar and oval sac. On the opposite margin of these feet are four trian- 
gular and ciliated leaflets, the superior of which is closely approxi- 
mated to the toes of the forceps, appearing to form a third to the se- 
cond and following feet, as far as the tenth pair. In proportion as 

e organs diminish in .si/.-, the leaflets approximate more closely, the 
t he forceps is more clearly defined and less pointed, and the first toe 



M*m. ur Ics Anim. tn Verteb., Savig., part I, fasc. 



260 CRUSTACEA. 

becomes wider, shorter, and rounder. The two anterior feet, which 
are much larger and arc formed like oars, resemble ramous antennae, 
and have been considered as such by some writers*: they exhibit 
four multi-articulated setaceous threads, the two last joints, one of 
them particularly, being much longer than the others, which are si- 
tuated on the internal side or anteriorly. The two at the extremity 
are evidently analogous to the toes of the forceps, the remaining 
two also correspond to as many of the lateral leaflets ; it is easy to 
convince ourselves of this by comparing these parts in young speci- 
mens. After their sixth or seventh change of tegument, the two or 
three following feet of the latter greatly resemble the two anterior 
ones, and even their antennae are longer in proportion than in the 
adult, and are terminated by setae or hairs. The eleventh pair are 
very remarkable f. The first joint, behind the vesicles, presents 
two circular valves, laid one on the other, formed by two leaflets, 
and containing the ova, which resemble granules of a bright red 
colour. Every specimen which has hitherto been examined being 
always found to possess this kind of feet, they have been considered as 
hermaphrodites, and are considered capable of self impregnation. 

These animals inhabit ditches, pools, stagnant waters, &c., and 
usually in myriads. Abducted, when thus assembled, by violent 
winds,- they have been seen to descend in rain. They generally 
make their appearance in spring, and in the beginning of summer. 
Their customary food is the Tadpole. They swim well on their back, 
and when they sink into the mud they erect their tail. When first 
produced they have but one eye and four feet, resembling arms or 
oars, furnished with tufts of hairs, the second of which are the 
largest. Their remaining organs are regularly developed after each 
change of tegument. M. Valenciennes, an attache of the Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat., has remarked that these Crustacea are frequently de- 
voured by the bird vulgarly called the Lavandiere (a). 

The number of species known being very small, it is unne- 
cessary to imitate Leach in forming a separate genus LEPI- 
DURUS, Leach for those which have a lamina between the 
threads of the tail. Such is the Apus prolongatus ; Monoculus 
apus, L. ; SchaefF., Monoc., VI; Limule sirricaude, Herm., Jun.; 
Desmar., Consid., LII, 2. The carina of the shield terminates 
posteriorly in a small spine, which is not seen in the Apus can- 
ci for mis ; Binocle a queue en filet, Geoff., Insect., XXI, 4 ; Li- 
mulus palustris , Mull.; Schaeff., Monoc. I V; Apus vert, Bosc.; 
Desmar., Ib., LI, 1; the latter, besides, has no lamina between 
the caudal threads ; it is the type of the genus APUS, Leach, or 



* They also seem to represent the two first foot-jaws. 

f- Schaeffer distinguishes them by the name of uterine feet. The preceding nine 
pairs, according to his phraseology, form forceps, those of the first oars, or true 
feet ; finally, those which follow the uterine feet, or the twelfth pair and following 
ones, branchial feet. The vesicular sacs lengthen and lessen just as gradually ; their 
use is unknown. 

The Motacilla alba, and cinerea, L. ENG. ED. 



PJBCiLUl'ODA. 261 

the Apus properly so called. The same naturalist has figured 
another species, Apus Montagu*, Edinb. Encyclop. Suppl. 

I , A .\ 



ORDER II. 



P^CILOPODA. 

The Ptecilopoda are distinguished from the Branchiopoda by the 
divrrsity in the form of their feet, among the anterior of which an 
unit-terminate number are ambulatory, or fitted for prehension; while 
the others, lainrlliform or pinnate, are branchial and natatory. It is 
]>rinril>ally, however, by the absence of the usual mandibles and jaws 
that they are removed from all other Crustacea. Sometimes these 
parts are replaced by the spinous haunches of the first six pairs of 
feet ; and sometimes the organs of manducation consist either of 
an external siphon in the form of an inartieulated rostrum, or of some 
other apparatus fitted for suction, but concealed or slightly apparent. 

The body is almost always, either wholly, or for the greater por- 
tion, invested with a shell in the form of a shield, consisting of a 
single plate in most of them, and of two in others, which always pre- 
nts two eyes when those organs are distinct. Two of their antennae 
Cheliceres, Lat. form a forceps in several, and fulfil its functions. 
Most of them have twelve feet *, and nearly all the remainder have 
i-ither ten or twenty-two. Their usual habitat is on aquatic 
animals, and most commonly on fishes. 

We divide this order into two families f. 

FAMILY I. 



XYPHOSURA. 

This family is distinguished from ih<* second by several characters: 
tin-re is no siphon . tin- haunches of the first six pair of feet are cover- 
ed with small spines and perform the office of jaws; there are twenty- 

Fourteen in several, according to Leach ; those which he considers as the two 

appear to me to be two inferior antennae. The Arguli, which 

i to he the roost favoured subgenus with respect to locomotion, have but twelve 

f In my Fam. Nat. du R N gne Anim. thry form two orders. 



2b''2 CRUSTACEA. 

two feet; the first ten, with the exception of the two anterior ones in the 
mules, are terminated by a didactyle forceps, and inserted, as well 
as the two that follow, under a large semi-lunar shield ; the latter 
have the sexual organs attached to them, and the form of large 
leaflets, as in the case with the ten following, which are branchial 
and inserted under a second shell, terminated by a very hard, ensiform 
and moveable stylet. They are wandering animals, and form the 
genus , 

LIMULUS, Fab. 

The species are known in commerce by the name of the Molucca 
Crab. The suborbicular, slightly elongated, and posteriorly narrowed 
body is divided into two parts, invested by a solid shell composed of 
two pieces, one to each part, very hollow beneath, and presenting 
above two longitudinal sulci, one on each side, and a carina on the 
middle of the back. The first part of the shell, or that which covers 
the fore-part of the body, is much larger than the other, forms an 
extensive semi-lunar shield, with a reflected edge, furnished above 
with two oval eyes of numerous facets, resembling granules, one on 
each side, exterior to a longitudinal carina; and on the anterior ex- 
tremity of the middle one, and common to both pieces of the shell, 
two small, closely approximated, simple eyes*; these carinse are 
armed with teeth or acute tubercles. The duplicature of this shell 
at its anterior extremity, beneath, forms a level border, strongly 
arcuated, and terminated inferiorly by a double arc, projecting like 
a tooth towards the centre of union . Immediately under this projec- 
tion, in the cavity of the shield, is a small inflated labrum, carinated 
in the middle, and terminating in a point, above which are inserted 
two little antennae, in the form of small didactyle forceps, flexed into 
an elbow in the middle of their length, at the point of union between 
the first joint and the second, or of the forceps properly so styled. 
Directly beneath, inserted and approximated by pairs, and on two 
lines, are twelve feet, the ten first of which, the two or four anterior 
ones of the males excepted, terminate in a didactyle forceps ; their 
radical joint, projecting inwards like a lobe and covered with points, 
performs the office of a jaw. The size of these feet augments pro- 
gressively ; those of the fifth pair excepted, they are all composed of 
six joints, the moveable toe of the forceps included. The latter have 
an additional joint, and also differ from the preceding ones by having, 
at their external base, a bi-articulated appendage, directed back- 
wards, the last joint of which is compressed and obtuse ; by their 
fifth joint being terminated on the inner side by five small, moveable, 
horny, narrow, elongated and pointed leaflets, and by the two toes 
of the forceps being moveable or articulated at base. The two pieces 
situated between these feet, which M. Savigny considers as the 
ligula, appear to me to be merely two maxillary lobes of these 
organs, but detached or free. The pharynx occupies the interval 
included by all these feet. The males are distinguished from the 

* One on each side of the tooth that terminates this carina. 



il.oi'ODA. 263 

females by the i< nu of the forceps, which terminate the two or four 
anterior feet : they are inflated ami deprived of the moveable tor. 
Tin 1 t\vo last feet of this shield are united in tin- form of a large, 
membranous, and almost semi-circular leaflet, having the sexual 
organs on its posterior face, and presenting, in the middle of an 
emugination of the posterior margin, two small, triangular, elongated, 
and pointed divisions, which appear to represent the internal toes of 
the forceps ; the other articulations are indicated by sutures. The 
second piece of the shell, articulated with the first in the middle of 
its posterior emargination, and filling the interval it forms, is nearly 
triangular, and is angularly truncated and emarginated at its posterior 
extremity. Its lateral edges are alternately emarginated anddentated, 
and in the middle of each of the emarginations, counting from the 
second, is an elongated and moveable spine, six on -ach side. Inclosed 
in the inferior cavity, and disposed in pairs on two longitudinal 
an- ten fin-like feet, almost similar in form to the two last, 
hut simply united at base, laid one on the other, and bearing, on 
their posterior face, the branchiae, which appear to be composed of 
numerous and crowded fibres arranged on the same plane one against 
the other. The anus is situated at the inferior root of the stylet 
terminating the body. According to an observation communicated 
to us by M. Straus, we only find in the interior of the first shield, 
l>->ides the brain, a single sul>-o>sophagal ganglion*. The two 
nervous cords are then prolonged into the interior of the second 
shield, forming there, and at the origin of the branchial feet, some 
small ganglia, which send branches to those organs, According to 
Cuvier, the heart, as in the Stomapoda, is a large vessel furnished 
internally with fleshy columns, extending along the back, and giving 
out branches on both sides. A wrinkled oesophagus, ascending in 
front, leads to a very muscular gizzard, lined with a cartilaginous 
kind of velvet, .studded with tubercles, and followed by a wide and 
straight intestine. The liver pours its bile into the intestine by two 
. >n each side. A great portion of the shell is filled by the ova- 
ries in the female, and by the testes in the male. 

These animals are sometimes found two feet in length ; they inha- 
bit the seas of hot climates, and most generally frequent their shores. 
They appear to me to be proper to the East Indies and the coast of 
America. The species found in France L. Cyclops is commonly 
railed the Casserole (a), from its having some resemblance to the form 
of that utensil, and (because, when the feet are removed, its shell is 
used to hold water. Major "Le Conte, one of the most intelligent of 
naturalists in the United States, and who has so largely contributed 
to advance the science of entomology by his discoveries and re- 
es, states that it is given to the hogs. Savages employ the stylet 
of the tail to point their arrows, which, thus armed, are much 

* The two anterior feet may represent the mandibles of the Decapoda, the four 
following ones their jaws, and the last six their foot-jaws ; those of the second shield 
would correspond to the thoracic feet. 

{/ (a) The King-crab, of American fishermen, or the Ho-sf-f-hot. Very common on 
the roast of New Jersey. Eno. > > 



264 CRUSTACEA. 

dreaded. Their eggs are eaten in China. When these animals walk, 
their feet are not seen. Fossil specimens are found in certain strata 
of a moderate antiquity *. 

In some, the four anterior feet, at least in one of the sexes, are 
terminated by a single toe. 

But a single species of this division is known ; it is the Limu- 
lus heterodactylus, and is the type of the genus Tachypleus 
Leachf . I have seen it figured on Chinese vellums. 
In the others, the two anterior claws at most, are alone monodac- 
tyle. All the ambulatory feet are didactyle, at least in the females. 
This division is composed of several species, which, owing to the 
little attention that has been paid to the detailed form of their parts, 
to the differences resulting from sex and age, and from their peculiar 
localities, have not yet been characterized in a rigorous and com- 
parative manner. The common American Limulus for instance, 
when young, is whitish, or of a light colour, and has six stout teeth 
along the whole ridge of the middle of the upper shell, and two 
others equally strong and pointed on each lateral ridge of the shield, 
or of the first piece of that shell ; while older specimens, sometimes 
more than a foot and a half in length, are of a deep brown colour, or 
almost blackish, their teeth, the middle ones especially, being almost 
obliterated. Here also the lateral margins of the second piece of the 
shell are marked with fine dentations, which are scarcely apparent 
or wanting in the former. 

We should consider as young individuals the Lim. cyclops, 
Fab., and the L. Sowerbii, Leach, Zool. MiscelL, LXXIV ; his 
L. tridentatus, and the L. albus, Bosc. : and as older ones, my 
Limule des Moluques ; Monoculus polyphemus, L. ; Clus., 
Exot., lib. VI, cap. xiv, p. 128; Humph., Mus., XII, a, b, which 
I at first considered a distinct species, under the belief that these 
large individuals inhabited those islands exclusively. In all of 
them, or at all ages, the tail is somewhat shorter than the 
body, and triangular, the upper ridge finely denticulated and 
without any decided sulcus beneath. We will designate this 
species by the name of Limulus polyphemus. These latter 
characters will distinguish it from some others described by Dr. 
Leachf. 

FAMILY II. 



SIPHONOSTOMA. 

The Siphonostomse have no kind of jaws whatever. A sucker or 
siphon, sometimes external, and in the form of an acute inarticulated 

* Knorr, Monum. of the Deluge, I, pi. XIV; Desmar., Crust, fossil., XI, 6,7. 
It would seem from these figures that the lateral spines of the second piece of the 
shell, in lieu of spines, merely form smaller teeth articulated at base ; but these arti- 
culations have perhaps disappeared. 

f This Limulus is perhaps the Kabutogani or Unkia of the Japanese, and repre- 
sents the constellation of Cancer on their primitive Zodiac. 

J See Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Ed. II. ; Desmar., Consid., p. 344 358. 



P^ECILOFODA. 265 

rostrum*, and at others concealed or but slightly visible, fulfils the 
functions of a mouth. There are never more than fourteen feet. 
The shell is very thin and composed of a single piece. They are all 
parasitical. 

We will divide this family into two tribes. 

The first CALIOIDES, Lat. is characterized by the presence of a 
shell resembling an oval or semi-lunar shield; by the number of 
visible feet, which is always twelve, or fourteen, if we include those 
which Leach considers as such, and which I call inferior antennae; 
by the form and size of the tenth pairs which are sometimes multifid, 
pinnate, or terminated in a fin, and well adapted at all times, and in 
the adult, for the purposes of natation, and sometimes foliaceous, or 
broad and membranous. The sides of the thorax are never furnished 
with wing-like expansions directed backwards and inclosing the 
body posteriorly. 

Here, the body, exhibiting several segments above, is elongated 
;uid narrowed posteriorly, terminating in a kind of tail with two 
threads, or as many other salient appendages at the end ; this extre- 
mity is not covered by a segment of the superior teguments in the 
form of a large rounded scale, deeply notched in the posterior margin. 
The shell is at least half the length of the body. This subdivision 
will comprise two genera of Miiller. 

ARGULUS, Mull. 

This genus was at first designated under the name of Ozolus, and 
but very imperfectly described. Jurine, Jun., has since studied its 
type with the most scrupulous attention, followed it throughout all 
its changes of age, and produced a perfect and complete monograph 
of it. He has restored to the genus the original name given by 
Miiller. 

The Arguli are furnished with an oval shield, posteriorly emargi- 
nated, covering the body, the posterior extremity of the abdomen 
excepted, and bearing on a mediate, triangular space distinguished 
by the name of ciypeus, two eyes, four very small, almost cylindrical 
antennae placed in front, the superior of which, shorter and triarti- 
culated, have a stout, edentated and recurved hook at their base ; and 
tlie inferior quadriarticulated, with a small tooth on the first joint. 
The siphon is directed forwards. There are twelve feet. The two 
first terminate in a transversely annulated disk, striated and edentated 
along the margin, and presenting internally a sort of rosette formed 

* The composition of this rostrum or beak is not well known. It is evident, 
from the figure of the Aryultts foliaceus, given by Jurine, Jun., that it contains a 
sucker ; but is this the case with the others, and of how many pieces is it composed ? 
I connot answer the question. I presume, however, that this siphon consists of the 
lal.ni in, mandibles and the ligula which forms the sheath of the sucker. In (he 
IM-tvnliiif* Entomostraca, the four anterior feet, whose form is very different from 
that of the following ones, would correspond to the four jaws of the Decapoda. 



266 CRUSTACEA. 

by the muscles, and apparently acting in the mariner of a cup or 
sucker. Those of the second pair are prehensile, the thighs large and 
spinous, and the tarsi composed of three joints, the last of which is 
provided with two hooks. The remaining feet are terminated by a 
fin formed of two elongated pinnulae, whose edges are fringed with 
bearded threads : the two first of the latter, or those of the third pair, 
including the four that precede them, have an additional but recurved 
toe. The two last are annexed to that portion of the body which 
projects posteriorly from the shell, or the tail. The female has but 
a single oviduct, covered by two small feet situated behind the two 
palettes. The organ which is considered as the penis of the male, 
is placed at the internal extremity of the preceding joint of the same 
feet near the origin of the two toes. On the same joint of the two 
preceding feet, and facing these organs of copulation, is a vesicle 
presumed to be seminal. The abdomen, by which we mean that part 
of the body which extends posteriorly from the ambulatory feet, the 
rostrum, and a tubercle containing the heart, is entirely free, without 
distinct articulations, and terminates directly after the last feet 
behind, by a sort of tail, in the form of a rounded lamina, deeply 
emarginated or bilobate, and without terminal hairs ; it is a species 
of fin. The body is so transparent that the heart may be distinguished 
through its parietes. It is situated behind the base of the siphon, 
lodged in a solid tubercle, semi-diaphanous and composed of a single 
ventricle. The blood, formed of little diaphanous globules, is 
impelled forwards in a column which soon divides into four branches, 
two of which proceed directly towards the eyes, and two towards the 
antennae; the latter are then reflected backwards and united to the 
former, constituting a single column on each side, which descends 
towards the cup, turns round its base, and disappears. A little beneath 
the two following feet, we may distinguish on each side another 
sanguineous column which curves outwards, extends along the 
borders of the shell, and having reached the two penultimate feet, is 
flexed forwards and ceases to be visible. Another, where, as in the 
preceding, the blood flows from the anterior part of the body to the 
posterior, and traverses longitudinally the middle of the tail ; it unites 
behind with two other currents that may be seen on the edges of the 
tail, but which flow in a contrary direction, or appear to return the 
blood to the heart, Jurine avoids using the term vessel, because the 
blood which is driven into the anterior part of the body appears to 
be diffused there in such a manner as to induce us to believe that its 
globules, instead of being contained in particular vessels, are dispersed 
in the parenchyma of those parts. From what we have stated, how- 
ever, with respect to the circulation in the Decapoda, it is evident, 
that the blood, in the first instance, is distributed in the Arguli in the 
same way, and that the currents or columns of which we have just 
spoken seem to indicate the existence of peculiar vessels. This able 
observer, in fact, subsequently acknowledges that the circulation is 
not every where carried on in so diffused a manner as in the anterior 
part of the shell, where, however, in our opinion, it is effectuated as 
in the Decapoda. The brain, which is situated behind the eyes, 
appeared to him to be divided into three equal lobes, one anterior and 



267 

two lateral. The anterior part of tin- stomach ^iv> origin to two 
large appendages, each divided into two branches, which ramify in 
th. wings of the shell. The brownish coloured aliment they contain 
render.*, these ramifications visible. The ceecum is provided near its 
origin with two vermiform appendages. 

Tin* excessive ardour of the males frequently induces them to 
mistake one sex for the other, or to make their advances to pregnant 
or dead females. Thev are placed in coition on their back, to which 
they cling by means of their feet with cup for several houre. The 
period of gestation is from thirteen to nineteen days. The ova are 
smooth, oval, and milk-white. They are fixed with gluten on stones 
Of other indurated bodies, either in a straight line or in two ranges, 
and from one to four hundred in number; being pressed against 
each other, their form becomes almost hexagonal. 

Twenty-five days after the extrusion of the ova, and after they 
have assumed a yellowish and opaque tinge, the eye and parts of the 
embryo are perceptible. In about ten days more, the shell opens 
longitudinally, and the tadpole issues from it, being at this period 
about three-eighths of a line in length. Its general form is similar 
to that of the adult, but the organs of locomotion present a very 
essential difference. Miillcr has described it in this state by the name 
of Argulus charon. Four oars or long arms, two situated before the 
eyes and two behind, each terminated by a pennate and flexible pencil 
of hairs that have a simultaneous motion, by which the animal is 
impelled by jerks, project from the anterior extremity of the shell : 
they do not represent the antennae, for they also are visible. The 
feet with cups are replaced by two stout feet, flexed into an elbow 
near the extremity, and terminated by a strong hook, with which it 
clings to Fishes. The only feet proper to the adult, that are developed 
and free, are those of the second and third pairs, or the two ambu- 
latory and the two first natatory feet ; the following ones are as yet 
fixed to the abdomen. The heart, proboscis, and ramifications of 
the appendages of the stomach are distinct. After the first change 
of tegument, which is effected by a laceration of its inferior surface, 
the oars disappear, and all the natatory feet are visible. In three 
days more the second change ensues, but without producing any 
important alteration. But after the third, which occurs forty-eight 
hours subsequently to the second, these same feet are converted into 
those with cups, still, however, preserving the terminal hook. At 
the expiration of nine days, there is a new change of skin, and the 
organs of generation, male and female, are apparent ; another change 
of tegument, however, is required ere the sexes are fitted for copula- 
tion, so that the period of their metamorphosis extends to twenty-five 
days. Still, however, they have attained but the half of their proper 
size. For that purpose fresh changes of the tegument, which occur 
every six or seven days, are requisite. Jurine satisfied himself of 
the faet, that propagation never ensues without the intervention of 
the male. The females, which he kept .separate, perished from a 
disease which was announced hy the appearance of several brown 
ile>. arranged in a semicircle on the posterior portion of the 



268 CRUSTACEA, 

clypeus, and apparently formed in the parenchyma, for they were 
not dispersed by the change of tegument. 

Argulus foliaceus* Jurine, Jun., Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. VII, 
xxvi ; Monoculus foliaceus, L.; Argulus delphinus, Herm. Jun., 
Mem. Apter., V, 3, VI, ii; Monoculus gyrini, Cuv., Tabl., 
Elem. de 1'Hist. Nat. des Anim., p. 454 ; Ozolus gasterostei, 
Lat., Hist., Nat. des Crust, et des Insect., IV, xxix, 1 7 ; Des- 
mar., Consid., L. ; Louse of the Stickleback, Baker, Micros., II, 
xxiv. This species, the only one of the genus that is known, 
attaches itself to the under part of the body of the tadpoles of 
Frogs, of that of the Stickleback or Gasterosteus, and sucks its 
blood. The body is flattened, of a light yellowish green colour, 
and about two lines and a half in length. Herman, Jun., who 
lias well described this Argulus in its perfect state, and who 
quotes a manuscript of Leonard Baldaneur, a fisherman of Stras- 
bourg, dated 1666, in which the same animal is figured, says, 
that in the environs of that city it is seldom found, except on the 
Trouts, and that it frequently kills them, those especially which 
are kept in ponds ; it is also found on the Perch, Pike, and Carp. 
He has never found it on the gills. It has a habit of whirling 
round like the Gyrini. He says that the body is divided into 
five rings, but slightly distinct on the back. 

CALIGUS, Mull. 

Neither of the feet with cups ; those of the anterior pair unguicu- 
lated ; the others divided into a greater or less number of pinnulae or 
membranous leaflets. A considerable portion of the body is not 
covered by the shell, and is usually terminated posteriorly by two 
long threads, and sometimes by fin-like or styliform appendages.* 

The vulgar name of fish-louse, by which they are collectively desig- 
nated, announces their habits to be similar to those of the Arguli and 
other Siphonostomae. Several naturalists have considered the tubular 
threads at the posterior extremity of their body as ovaries ; I have 
sometimes found ova under the posterior and branchial feet, but never 
in these tubes. Besides, external oviducts thus prolonged are never 
met with except in females whose eggs are to be deposited in deep 
holes and cavities now this is not the case with the Caligi. Miiller 
and other zoologists have remarked that these Crustacea erect and 
agitate the appendages in question. We believe with Jurine, Jun., 
and such also is the opinion of his father, that they serve for respi- 
ration, like the terminal filaments of the abdomen of an Apusf. 



* The interval also frequently exhibits other, but smaller or much less salient 
appendages. 

f In the Ann. Gnr. des Sc. Phys., vol. Ill, p. 343, Brussels, is an extract 
from the observations of Dr. Surriray on the foetus of a species of Caligus which he 
believes to be the elongatus, and which is very common on the operculum of the 
Esox bclone. That gentleman informs us, that, by pressing the two caudal threads of 
the animal in question, a number of transparent and membranous ova were ex- 
truded, each of which contained a living foetus, very different from the mother, 
and of which he gives a description. From these observations we might be induced 



P*CILOPODA. 269 

Some of them whose feet are free, and (the two last excepted) 
annexed to the anterior part of the body Cephalothorax, Lat. 
covered by the shield, in which some of the posterior feet are fur- 
nished with numerous and pennated threads, and in which the siphon 
is not apparent, have the abdomen naked above and terminated by 
two long threads, or as many styles ; they compose the subgenus. 

CILIQUS, properly so called, CAUCUS RISCULUS, Leach*. 
In all others, the superior surface of the body is imbricated, or that 
portion of the body is inclosed in a kind of case formed by the last 
feet which resemble membranes and fold over it. 

Of these latter, there are some whose antennae never project like 
little claws, whose feet are free, and whose last ones do not envelope 
the body like a membranous case. They form the following sub- 
genera. 

PTERYGOPODA. Lat. NOGAUS ? Leach. 

Wher6 the posterior extremity of the body is terminated by two 
kinds of fins ; where the under part of the post abdomen or of the 
second division of the body, not covered by the shield, is furnished 
with pinnated or digitated feet; and where there is a distinct pro- 
boscis or rostrum f- 

PANDARUS, Leach. 

Two threads at the posterior extremity of the body ; the first and 
fifth pair of feet unguiculated, and the remainder digitated ; no ap- 
parent siphon J. 

DINEMOURA, Lat. 

Two long anal filaments and an apparent siphon ; the two anterior 
feet unguiculated'; the two following ones terminated by two long 
toes, and the remainder membranous leaflets . 

The last subgenus of this subdivision, that of 

ANTHOSOMA, Leach, 

Approximates to D;nemoura in the presence of a siphon, and in 
the two caudal threads ; but it is removed from it, as well as the pre- 
ceding ones by its projecting antennae, which resemble little mono- 
dactyle claws, and by its six last feet which are membranous, 



to conclude that these threads are a kind of external oviducts ; but is there no 
mistake in this ? I have studied these same organs in various specimens preserved 
in -pirit-i. it is true but could never discover any body whatever. 

Caligus piscinus, Lat.; Cat. cvrtus, Mull. Entom. XXI, i, 2; Manoculus pis. 
data, L. ; Col. Multcri, Leach ; Desmar., Consid.. L, 4 ; found on the Cod. The 
Onucus Menu, Slabber, Encyclop. Method., AU. d'Hist. Nat. CCCXXX, 7, 8, from 
the fin-like appendages of its tail, seems to indicate a separate subgenus. The 
Binocle h queue en plumet, Geoff., might be placed in it. 

f A single living species found on the Shark. See the genus Nogaus, Desmar., 
Consid., p. 340. 

J Pandanu bicolor. Leach; Desmar., L. 5; Pandarus Bascii, Leach, Encyc. Brit. 
Suppl. I, xx. For the other species, see Desmar., Ib., .p. 339. 

Caligus proJuctus, Mull., Entom. XXXI, 3, 4; Monorulus salmonevs. Fab. 



270 CRUSTACEA. 

united inferiorly, and folded laterally over the post- abdomen, enve- 
loping it like a case ; tho$e of the first and third pairs are ungui- 
culated; the second feet are terminated byjtwo short and obtuse 
toes *. 

There, the body is- oval, without salient caudiform appendages, 
composed of threads or fin-like productions at its posterior extre- 
mity. A portion of the superior teguments forms a shield, which 
does not cover its anterior half, is rounded and emarginated before, 
widened and as if bilobate behind ; then follow three pieces or scales, 
posteriorly rounded and emarginated, the second of which, and the 
smallest of the three, is almost in the form of a reversed heart ; the 
last, and the largest, is arched. The four posterior feet are in the 
form of laminse, and are united by pairs ; those of the first and the 
third are unguiculated ; the extremity of the second is bifid. The 
siphon is apparent. The ova are covered by two large, oval, conti- 
guous, coriaceous pieces, placed under the abdomen, and surpassing 
it in length. Such are the characters of the genus 

CECROPS, Leach, 
Of which a single species only is known. 

Cecrops Latreillii, Leach, Encyc. Brit., Supp. I, xx ; 1,3, the 
male ; 2, 4, the female ; 5, the antennae magnified ; Desmar., Con- 
sid. L, 2 Found on the branchiae of the Tunny and Turbot. 

The second tribe, that of the LERNEIFORMES, Lat., consists of Ento- 
mostraca, which approximate to the Lernese, in their external confi- 
guration, still more than the preceding subgenera. There are but 
ten feet visible f, mostly very short, and but slightlyor nowise adapted 
to natation. Sometimes the body is nearly vermiform and cylindrical, 
the anterior segment being merely somewhat widened and furnished 
with two projecting didactyle claws ; sometimes, on account of two 
lateral expansions resembling lobes or wings behind the thorax, and 
of two posterior ovaries, it forms a small quadrilateral mass. This 
tribe is composed of two genera. In the first or the 

DICHELESTIUM, Herm., Jun. 

We observe a narrow elongated body, slightly dilated before, and 
composed of seven segments, the anterior of which the thorax of 
Herm. is wider than the others, rhomboidal, and formed of the 
head and a portion of the thorax united. It bears : l,four short 
antennae, of which the lateral are filiform and consist of several joints, 
and the intermediate project like little arms and are quadri-articu- 
lated, the last joint terminating in a didactyle claw; 2, an inferior, 
membranous, and tubular siphon ; 3, three kinds of deformed palpi 



* Anthosoma Smithii, Leach; Desmar., Consid., L, 3 ; Caliyus imbricatus, Risso. 
f There are probably two more, as in the preceding subgenera, but they are either 
indistinct or have such a peculiar form that they have not been recognised. 



PACILOPODA. 271 

tu-o multifid feet ? on each side plarrd on an eminence ; 4, four pre- 
hensile feet, the two lirt of which r< i tliifh and leg termi- 
niited by various unequal and dentatcd hooks, and the others of 
an enlarged thi^li terminated l>y a small hut stout nail. The second 
and third segments are almost lunulated, each bearing a pair of feet 
formed of a single joint, terminated by two kinds of toes, dentatcd at 
the end. To thr fourth Moment is attached another pair of feet, the 
fifth and last, but having the form of simple, oval, divergent, and 
immoveable vesicles, which Hermann presumes are rather ovaries than 
feet. This segment, as wrll us the next, is nearly square. The sixth 
is much longer, and cylindrical. The seventh and last is three times 
shorter, almost orbicular, flattened, and terminated by two small 
.-Irs. The eyes are not distinct. 

Dichelestium sturionis, Herm., Jun. Mem. Apter. p. 125, V, 
7, 8 ; Desmar., Consid. L, v. About seven lines long and one 
broad. The second segment is prolonged on each side into an 
obtuse papilla, and the four following are red in the middle, 
with whitish-yellow along the lateral margins. When viewed 
from above, the feet are not visible. This animal penetrates 
deeply into the skin and places itself on the osseous arches of 
thr branchiae, but without, as it appears, intruding upon their 
combs. Twelve of them were taken by Hermann from a sirigle 
fish. Of this number, two or three, perhaps males, were one 
third shorter than the others, and had a curved body ; one of 
the tweive lived three days. They are constantly whirling about 
and with considerable vivacity. By means of their frontal 
claws they are enabled to cling with great tenacity. 

NICOTHOE, Aud. and Edw. 

These animals terminate the Crustacea, and are distinguished from 
all others of that class by their heteroclitical form. To the naked 
eye they seem nothing more than two lobes united in the form of a 
horse-shoe, which inclose two others. By the aid of glasses, how- 
ever, we discover that the two large lobes are formed by the great 
expansion of the sides of the thorax, which resemble wings, are 
almost oval and thrown behind; that the two others are external 
ovaries or clusters of eggs, analogous to those of a female Cyclops, 
and inserted, one on each side, into the base of the abdomen by 
means of a short pedicle ; and that the body of the animal is com- 
posed of the following parts : 1 , a distinct head furnished with two 
separate eyes ; two short, setaceous, lateral antennae formed of eleven 
joints, each with a hair on the inner side ; a mouth forming a circular 
aperture which acts as a cup, and accompanied on each side with 
anterior feet maxilliform appendages : 2, a thorax of four seg- 
ments, with five pairs of feet beneath, the two anterior of which 
are terminated by a stout hook, and are bidentated on the inner side; 
the remaininir rijrht being formed of one large joint, terminated by 
two nearly equal and cylindrical stems, each composed of three joints. 
and furnished with setae : 3, a pointed abdomen of five annulli. thr 
first and largest of which gives origin to thr oviferous sacs ; the last 



272 CRUSTACEA. 

is terminated by two long hairs. The lateral expansion merely ap- 
pears to be an excessive developement of the fourth and last ring of 
the thorax. Within we may perceive two kinds of entrails origi- 
nating from the median line of the body, which may be considered as 
caeca or divisions of the intestinal canal in a state of hernia. They 
are endowed with a very decided peristaltic motion. We have seen 
that the stomach of the Arguli also exhibits two caeca, which ramify 
in the wings of their shell, and it is possible that these thoracic ex- 
pansions of the Nicothoes may be two analogous lobes *. 

Nicothoe astaci, Aud. and Edw. Ann. des Sc. Nat., 1826, 
XLIX, 1,9. The only species known; it is about half a line 
long and three lines broad, the thoracic enlargement included. 
It is rose-coloured, paler on the oviperous sacs ; the expansions 
yellowish. It adheres closely to the branchiae of the Lobster, 
and penetrates deeply between the filaments of those organs. It 
is only found in small numbers, and on a few individuals. All 
the Nicothoes observed by these two naturalists were furnished 
with ovaries; it is probable that previously to fixing themselves 
on the branchiae of the Lobster, and before their thoracic lobes 
have acquired their ordinary developement, they can swim ; that 
developement, as is the case with the body of the Ixodes, may 
be the result of superabundant nutrition. 



TRILOBITES. 



According to Brongniart and various other naturalists, it is in the 
vicinity of the Limuli and other Entomostraca with numerous feet, 
that we should place thesa singular fossil animals, originally con- 
founded under the common name of Entomolithus paradoxus, and 
now designated by that of Trilobites, of which an excellent mono- 
graph, enriched with good lithographic figures, has been published 
by that gentleman f. By this hypothesis we have to admit as a 
positive or at least highly probable fact, the existence of locomotive 
organs, although, notwithstanding the most careful investigation, no 
vestige of them has been discovered J. Presuming, on the contraiy, 

* In this case, the geuus may be approximated to the preceding one. 

f M. Eudes Deslongchamps, professor of the University of Caen, Count Ra- 
soumowski, M. Dalman and other savans have since published new observations on 
these fossils. M. Victor Audouin, zealously advocating the opinion of Brongniart, 
has contested that published by me, in which I approximate them to Chiton. The 
great difficulty was to prove the existence of feet, and this he has not done. The 
application of his theory of the thorax of Insects to the Trilobites, appears to me 
so much the more doubtful, as, according to my view of the matter, the first annuli 
of the abdomen of Insects alone represent the thorax of the Crustacea Decapoda. 

J M. Parkinson (Outlines of Oryctology) thinks he has perceived them, and 
suspects that they are unguiculated. See also the Entomostracite yranuleuv, Brongn,, 
Trilob., Ill, 6, Ann. des Sc. Nat, tome XV, 



JMSCILOPODA. 273 

that these animals were -deprived of them, I thought that their natural 
position was in the neighbourhood of the Chitones, or rather that 
they constituted the original stock of the Articulata, being con- 
n<rted on the one hand with these latter Mollusca, and on the other 
with those first mentioned, and even with the Glomeres *, to which 
some Trilobites, such as the Calymenes, appear to approximate, as 
well as to the Chitones, inasmuch as by contracting they could also 
!) -come spherical. Since the publication of M. Brongniart's work, 
some naturalists have rejected his opinions and adopted mine, either 
wholly or in part ; others still hesitate. Be this as it may, these 
animals appear to have been annihilated by some ancient revolution 
of our planet. 

The Trilobites, one heteromorphous genus excepted, that of 
Agnostus, have, like the Limuli, a large anterior segment in the form 
of an almost semicircular or lunated shield, followed by from about 
twelve to twenty-two segments f, all transversal except the last, and 
divided by two longitudinal sulci into three ranges of parts or lobes, 
whence their name of Trilobites J. Some naturalists call them 
Entomostracites. 

* First edition of the Kegne Animal, tome III, p. 150, 151. There is no Bran- 
chiopoda known which can contract itself into the form of a ball. This character is 
peculiar to Typhis, Sphaeroma, Tylos, and Armadillo among the Crustacea, and, 
among the class of apterous Insects, to Glomeris, a genus which is at the head of that 
class, and which leaves between it and the latter Crustacea a considerable hiatus. 
The Calymenes, with respect to this contractility, evidently approach these latter 
Insects, the Typhes and Sphaeromae ; but it does not appear that the posterior 
extremity of their body is provided with lateral natatory appendages, a negative cha- 
racter, which would remove them from the Sphaeromae, but approximate them to 
Armadillo, and particularly to Tylos, where the superior part of the thoracic segments 
is divided into three. The study of a well-preserved specimen has convinced me that, 
like the Limuli, they had eyes placed against two prominences, and that the cornea 
was granulous or with facets. The non-existence of the superior antennae also 
indicates a new affinity between these same Trilobites and the Limuli. 

f The body of various Trilobites, and particularly of the Asaphi, seems to consist, 
exclusive of the shield, of twelve segments, well separated on the sides, and of 
another forming the post-abdomen, or a triangular or semi-lunar tail, whose divisions 
are superficial and do not cut its edges. In the Paradoxides, on the contrary, the 
lateral lobes terminate by well marked acute prolongations, and twenty-two of them 
can be distinctly rountrd. A s pi-pies of Trilobitr, mentioned by Count Rasoumowski 
in his memoir on fossils, Ann. des'Sc. Nat. June, 1826, pi. xxviii, ii, which he pre- 
sumes should constitute a new genus, is, in this respect, very remarkable. Its 
lateral lobes form very long thongs or slips tapering to a point. The feet of the 
pupoe of the Culices are elongated, flattened, iuarticulated laminae terminated by 
threads and folded on the sides. They are in a rudimental state, and may be 
analogous to the lateral divisions of this species of Trilobite, allied to the Para- 
doxidet. 

J The Squillac, and various Amphipodous and Isopodous Crustacea have also 
several of their segments trisected by two impressed and longitudinal lines ; but 
these lines are nearer to the edges and do not form d*en sulri. 

VOL. HI. T 



274 CRUSTACEA. 

AGNOSTUS, Brongn. 

The only genus where the body is semicircular or reniform. In all 
the other genera it is oval or elliptical, and exhibits the general 
characters above mentioned. 

CALYMENE, Brongn. 

The Calymenes are distinguished from all other Trilobites, by the 
faculty of contracting their body into a ball, and in the same manner 
as Sphaeroma, Armadillo, and Glomeris, that is, by approximating^ 
the two inferior extremities of the body. The shield, as broad as it 
is long, or broader, is furnished, as in the Asaphi and Ogygise, with 
two oculiform prominences. The segments do not project beyond 
the sides of the body, and are united throughout ; the body is ter- 
minated posteriorly by a sort of triangular and elongated tail. In 

ASAPHUS, Brongn. 

The oculiform tubercles seem to exhibit a sort of eye-lid, or are 
granulous ; the species of tail which terminates the body posteriorly 
is less elongated than in Calymene, and is either nearly semicircular, 
or in the form of a short triangle *. In the 

OGYGIA, Brongn. 

The shield is longer than it is broad ; its posterior angles are ex- 
tended into a kind of spine, The oculiform tubercles exhibit neither 
eyelid nor granulations. The body is elliptical. 

PARADOXIDES, Brongn. 

The eye-like tubercles cease to exist, or are not apparent in this 
genus. The segments, or at least most of them, project beyond the 
sides of the body, and are free at their lateral extremity. 

Such are the characters of the five genera established by M. Alex- 
ander Brongniart, which may be arranged in three principal groups ; 
the Reniformes AGNOSTUS ; the Contractiles CALYMENE ; and the 
Extensi ASAPHUS, OGYGIA, and PARADOXIDES. 

For a description of the species and their localities, we refer the 
reader to the excellent work of this celebrated naturalist, who in his 
labours upon the fossil Crustacea, properly so called, or universally 
admitted as such, has availed himself of the talents of one of his 
most distinguished pupils, M. Desmarest, frequently referred to by 
us, not only with respect to this particular part of the science, but 
in relation to his work on the living Crustacea. Different naturalists 
have proposed various generic sections of these fossils ; but being 
restricted to general considerations, I have adopted those presented 
to us by the best work hitherto produced on the subject. 

* In the Asaphus Brongniarti, described and figured by M. E. Deslongchamps, the 
posterior angles of the shield, instead of being directed backwards as in the other 
species, are recurved. 



< LASS II. 



ARACHNIDES. 

The Arachnidcs, which compose the second class of articulated 
animals provided with moveable feet, are, as well as the Crustacea, 
deprived of wings, are not subject to changes of form, or do not ex- 
perience any metamorphosis, simply casting their skin. Their sexual 
organs also are at a distance from the posterior extremity of the body, 
and situated at the base of the abdomen, those of several males ex- 
cepted ; but they differ from them as well as from Insects in several 
particulars. Like the latter, the surface of their body presents aper- 
tures or transverse fissures called stigmata,* for the introduction of air, 
but they are few in number eight at most, and usually but two and 
confined to the inferior portion of the abdomen. Respiration is also 
effected either by means of air-branchiae, fulfilling the function of 
lungs, that are contained in sacs of which these stigmata are the 
apertures, or by radiated tracheaef . The visual organs merely con- 
sist of ocelli, which, when numerous, are variously grouped. The 
head, usually confounded -with the thorax, in place of the antennae 
has two articulated pieces in the form of small didactyle or monodac- 
tyle chelae, improperly compared to the mandibles of Insects, and so 
denominated, moving in a contrary direction to the former, or from 
above downwards, still however co-operating in the manducation, 
and replaced in the Arachnides, where the mouth has the form of a 
siphon or sucker, by two pointed blades which act as lancetsj. A 
kind of lip labium, Fab. or rather ligula, produced by a pectoral 
ln>l..nirntion; two jaws formed by the radical joint of the first seg- 



A yague and improper appellation, for which we might substitute pneumostoma, 
air-mouth, or spirantlum. 

f See general observations on Insects. 

J CheKcertf, or forcfps-antennte ; the evident result of the comparison between 
them and the intermediate antennae of various Crustacea, those of the Pftcilopoda 
H cannot then be said, strictly speaking, that the Arachnides are 
deprived of antennae, a negative character, which, previous to us, had been exclu- 
sively attributed to them. 

T 2 






276 ARACHNIDES. 

mcnt of two small legs or palpi*, or by an appendage or lobe of 
that same joint ; a part concealed under the mandibles, called langue 
sternale by Savigny description and figure of the Phalangium cop- 
ticum and composed of a projection in the form of a rostrum, 
produced by the union of a very small clypeus, terminated by an 
extremely small triangular labrum, and of an inferior longitudinal 
carina, usually very hairy, are the parts, which, with the pieces termed 
mandibles, constitute with some modifications the mouth of most of 
the Arachnides. The pharynxf is placed before a sternal projection 
which has been considered as a lip, but which, from being placed 
directly behind the pharynx, and having no palpi, is rather a ligula. 
The legs, like those of Insects, are commonly terminated by two 
hooks, and even sometimes by one more, and are all annexed to the 
thorax, or rather cephalo- thorax, which except in a small number, is 
only formed of a single segment, and is frequently intimately united 
to the abdomen. This latter part of the body is soft, or but slightly 
defended, in most of them. 

With respect to their nervous system, the Arachnides are greatly 
removed from the Crustacea and Insects ; for if we except the Scor- 
pions, which from the .knots or joints forming their tail have some 
additional ganglions, the number of these enlargements of the two 
nervous cords is never more than three, and even in the latter, all 
counted, it never extends beyond seven. 

Most of the Arachnides feed on Insects, which they either seize 
alive, or to which they adhere, abstracting their fluids by suction. 
Others are parasitical, and live on vertebrated animals. Some of 
them, however, are only found in flour, on cheese, and even on 
various vegetables.. Those which live on other animals frequently 

* They only differ from legs, properly so called, by their tarsi, which are composed 
of a single joint, and are usually terminated by a small hook, resembling, in a word, 
the ordinary feet of the Crustacea. See our general observations on the first order. 

These jaws and palpi appear to correspond, to the palpigerous mandibles of the 
Decapoda, and to the two anterior feet of the Limuli. In Phalangium, the four 
following legs have a maxillary appendage at their origin, so that these fotir appen- 
dages are analogous to the four jaws of the preceding animals. I had described these 
parts, long before the publication of Savigny's memoirs on the invertebrate animals, 
in a monograph of the species of this genus proper to France. From these and 
preceeding observations, it is evident that the composition of these animals is easily 
reduced to the same general type which characterizes all articulated animals with ar- 
ticulated feet. The Arachnides are not then a sort of acephalous Crustacea, as stated 
by this savant, usually so exact in his anatomical observations, of which, unfortu- 
nately for the sciences, he has become the victim. 

f Although Savigny admits of two orifices, neither Straus nor myself can find 
but one ; it must have been the effect of an optical illusion arising from the fact 
of his having only perceived the lateral extremities of the fissure, its middle 
being concealed by the tongue with which its anterior face is thickened in its mediate 
portion. 



ARACHNIDES. 277 

multiply there to a great extent, Two of the legs, in some species, 
are only developed by a change of the tegument, and in general it is 
not until the fourth or fifth change of skin that these animals are 
capable of propagation* 

Division of the Arachnides into Orders. 
Some have pulmonary sacsf, a heart with very distinct vessels, 
and six or eight simple eyes. They compose our first order, or that 

Of the PULMONARLE, 

The others respire by tracheae, and have no organs of circulation, 
or. if they have, the circulation is not complete. The tracheae are 
divided near their origin into various branches, and do not, as in 
In-fcts, form two trunks which run parallel to each other throughout 
the whole length of the body, and receive air from various points by 
means of numerous stigmata. Here, but two, at most, are distinctly 
viMblr, and they are situated near the base of the abdomen;);. The 
number of simple eyes is at most but four. They constitute our 
ml ami last order, or that of the TRACHEARJJE. 



ORDER I. 
PULMONARY . 

We here find a well marked circulating system and pulmonary sacs, 
always placed under the abdomen, announced externally by transverse 
openings or fissures (stigmata), of which there are sometimes eight, 
four on each side, and at others four, or even two. The number of 
-i i })le eyes is from six to eightj), while in the following order it 

* We have seen, according to the observations of Jurine, Jun.j that they only 
acquire this faculty after the sixth change. This fact is also applicable to the 
l, pidoptera, and probably to other insects that frequently cast their skin, for 
caterpillars usually change it four times before they enter into the state of a chry- 
-alK which is a fifth. The insect does not become perfect until after another, so 
that it changes its skin six times. 

f Sacs containing air-branchiae, or fulfilling the functions of lungs, and distin- 
.:tii-tir<l by me from the latter by the name of pnetttno-branchite. 

; The Pycnogonides exhibit no stigmata, and seem, in this respect, to approach 
the last of the Crustacea, such as Dichelestium, Cecrops, and other Siphonostomous 
Entomostraca. Savigny thinks they have a closer affinity to the Ltemodipoda, 
from whirl:, however, they are greatly removed, by the organization of the mouth as 
well us by their eyes and feet. We still believe, however, from the ensemble of their 
character-, that they rather belong to the class of Arachnides, and that they approxi- 
mate particularly to Phalangium, with which various authors have arranged them. 
We also think that they may respire by the surface of their skin. At all events, we 
nui-t await the results of anatomical investigation before we can decide. 

UNOGATA, Fat>. 

II The Tcssarops of Katin, aro.nl'ni: t,i him, has but four eyes ; I presume, how- 
ever, that the lateral ones escaped his notice. See the subgenus Emits. 



278 PULMONARLK. 

never exceeds four, and is most generally but two ; sometimes they 
are hardly perceptible, or even annihilated. The organ of respiration 
is formed of little laminae. The heart is a large vessel which extends 
along the back, and gives off branches on each side and anteriorly*. 
There are always eight legs. The head is always confounded with 
the thorax, and presents at its anterior superior extremity two man- 
dibles so called by authors, the chelicerce or antenne-pinces, Latr. 
terminated by two fingers, one of which is moveable, or by a single 
one resembling a hook or claw that is always moveablef. The mouth 
is composed of a labrumj, of two palpi, sometimes resembling arms 
or claws, of the two or four jaws, formed, when there are but two, by 
the radical joint of these palpi, and moreover, when there are four, by 
the same joint of the first pair of feet, and of a ligula consisting of 
one or two pieces . If we base our arrangement on the progressive 
decrease of the number of pulmonary sacs and stigmata, the Scorpions 
where it is eight, while in the other Arachnides it amounts to but 
four or two, should form the first genus of this class, and consequently 
our family of the Pedipalpi should precede that of the Araneides||. 
But the latter Arachnides are in a manner insulated by their male 
organs of generation, by the claw or hook of their frontal mandibles, 
by their pediculated abdomen and its spinning apparatus, and by their 
habits ; besides this, the scorpions appear to form a natural transition 
from the Arachnides Pulmonarise to the family of the Pseudo-Scor- 
piones, or the first of the following order. We will therefore com- 
mence, as we have said, with the Araneides or spinners. 

* According to Marsel de Serres, M^moire sur le Vaisseau Dorsale des Insectes, 
the blood, in the Araneides and Scorpions, is first directed to the organs of respiration, 
and thence proceeds to various parts of the body through particular vessels. Judg- 
ing, however, from the affinity of these animals to the Crustacea, the circulation 
would seem to be effected in the contrary direction. See the Memoir of Treviranus 
on the Anatomy of Spiders and Scorpions. 

f These parts are formed of a first very large and ventricose joint, one of whose 
superior angles, when the chelse are didactyle, forms the fixed finger, and of a second 
joint, that which forms the opposite and moveable finger or the hook, when there is 
but one finger. In the latter case, as with several of the Crustacea, I will employ 
the term claw. 

J See our general observations on the class. 

. That of the Scorpions appears to be composed of four pieces, forming an elon- 
gated and pointed triangle, directed forwards ; the two lateral ones however are 
evidently formed by the first joint of the two anterior feet, and may be considered 
as two jaws analogous to the first. We see by Mygale, Scorpio, &c., that the palpi 
are divided into six joints, of which, in the other Araneides> the first or radical one, 
is anteriorly and internally dilated to form the maxilliform lobe. Even this lobe, in 
some species, is articulated at base, and thus becomes a maxillary appendage of this 
same joint. Exclusive of this joint, the pulpus consists of but five, and su"ch is the 
most usual mode of supputation. In the Scorpions the moveable finger of the for- 
ceps, as in that of the Crustacea, forms the sixth joint. 

|| In my Fam. Nat. du Regne Animal, I begin with the Pedipalpi. M. Leon 
Dufour also thinks that the Scorpions should come first. 



ARACHN1DE8. 279 

FAMILY I. 



ARANEIDES. 

This family is composed of the genus ARANEA, Lin., or the Spiders. 
They have palpi resembling little feet, without a forceps at the end, 
terminated at most in the females by a little hook, and the first joint 
of which, in the males, gives origin to various and more or less com- 
plicated sexual appendages*. Their frontal chelicerae (the mandibles 
of authors) are terminated by a moveable hook, flexed inferiorly, 
underneath which, and near its extremity, which is always pointed, is 
a little opening, that allows a passage to a venomous fluid contained 
in a gland of the preceding joint. There are never more than two 
ja\vs. The ligula consists of a single piece, is always external and 
situated between the jaws, and either more or less square, triangular, 
or semicircular. The thoraxf usually marked with a depression in 
the form of a V, indicating the space occupied by the head, consists of 
a single segment, posteriorly to which, by means of a short pedicle, 
is suspended a moveable and usually soft abdomen ; it is always fur- 
nished, under the anus, with from four to six closely approximated 
cylindrical or conical articulated mammillae with fleshy extremities, 
which are perforated with numberless small orificesj for the passage 
of silky filaments of extreme tenuity proceeding from internal reser- 
voirs. The legs, identical as to form, but of different sizes, are com- 
1 of seven joints, of which the two first form the hip, the third 
the thigh, the fourth and fifth the tibia, and the two others the 
tarsus : the last is terminated by two hooks usually pectinated, and in 
several by one more, which is smaller and not dentated. The intes- 
tinal canal is straight, consisting of a first stomach composed of 

* From all the observations that have been made on the mode of copulation of the 
Araneiiles, I am still inclined to believe that these appendages are the genital organs. 
I have vainly sought for particular organs on the base of the abdomen of a large male 
Mygale preserved in spirits. We are not always to judge from analogy ; for the 
sexual organs in the female Glomeris, Julus, and other Chilognatha, are situated near 
the mouth, a fact of which no second example is to be found. 

f The term eephalo-thorax would be more strict and proper ; not being in use, 
however, I have thought it best to avoid it ; neither will I employ that of corselet, 
although generally admitted, because, with respect to the Coleoptera, Orthoptera, 
r only applies to the prothorax or first thoracic segment. 

: These holes are pierced in the last segment, which is frequently retracted. 
If it be strongly compressed, very small mammillae, (at least in some species,) perfo- 
rated at the extremity, are protruded they are the true fusi or spinning apparatus 
Some naturalists think that the two smaller mammillae, situated in the middle of tht 
four exterior ones, furnish no silk. 

This joint, or the first of ti ,i kind of patella. 



280 ARACHXIDES. 

several sacs, and then of a second stomach or dilatation sur- 
rounded with silk. According to the observations of M. Leon Dufour 
Ann. des Sc. Phys.VI it occupies the greater part of the abdomi- 
nal cavity, and is immediately enveloped by the skin. It is of a 
pulpy consistence, and is formed of granules*, whose individual ex- 
cretory ducts unite in several hepatic canals, which pour the secreted 
matter into the alimentary tube. In the middle of its superior sur- 
face is a depressed line, where the heart is lodged, and which divides 
that organ into two equal lobes. Its form, like thatof the abdomen, va- 
ries according to the species ; thus in the Epeira sericea its contour is 
festooned. In this subgenus, as in the Lycosa tarentula, its surface is 
covered with a whitish coat split into areolse, which, in several species, 
are easily perceived through the glabrous skin ; they may be seen 
obeying the impulse communicated to them by the systole and diastole 
of the heart. Both sexes frequently eject from the anus an excre- 
mentitious fluid, part of which is milk-white, and the remainder black 
as ink. 

The nervous system is composed of a double cord occupying the 
median line of the body, and of ganglions which distribute nerves to 
the various organs. M. Dufour has not been able to determine the 
number and disposition of these ganglions, but from the figure of this 
system given by Treviranus Veber deninnern, bau des Arachniden, 
tab. V. fig. 45 there are but two. The observations of the latter 
will also supply the want of those relative to the organ of the circu- 
lation by M. Dufour, which, according to him, appears to consist of 
a simple dorsal vessel, as well as with respect to the testes and 
spermatic vessels, on which he is totally silent. 

The dorsal region of the abdomen in several Araneides, those 
especially which are glabrous or but slightly pilose, exhibits depressed 
points varying both in number and arrangement. M. Dufour has 
ascertained that these little orbicular depressions are caused by the 
insertion of filiform muscles, which traverse the liver, and which he 
has also observed in the Scorpions, 

The one or two pairs of pulmonary sacs are indicated externally 
by as many yellowish or whitish spots near the ventral base, and 
immediately after the segment, which, by means of a fleshy thread, 
unites the abdomen with the thorax. Each pulmonary bursa is formed 
by the superposition of numerous, triangular, white, and extremely 
thin leaflets, which become confluent round the stigmata, and whose 
number exactly equals that of the pulmonary sacs. When there are 

* The liver of the Scorpions is composed of pyramidal and fasciculated lobules, a 
circumstance which seems to announce a more advanced degree of organization. 



PULMONARI/B. 281 

four, a sort of fold or annular vestige found even in those where 
there are but two, and placed directly behind them, forms a line that 
separates the two pairs, 

The females have two very distinct ovaries, lodged in a species of 
capsule formed by the liver. In an unfecundated state they appear 
to be composed of a spongy, flaky kind of tissue, formed by the 
agglomeration of rounded and scarcely visible corpuscles, which are 
the germs of eggs. As the results of fecundation become more 
apparent, the cluster formed by these ova * becomes less compact, and 
they are seen to be laterally inserted on several canals. Their great 
analogy to the ovarier of the Scorpions induces the same observer to 
presume that they form meshes terminating in two distinct oviducts, 
which open into a common vulva. The figure of the latter varies ; 
sometimes it is a longitudinal bilabiated slit, as in the Micrommata 
argelasia ; sometimes it is protected by an elongated operculum with 
a caudiform termination, as in the Epeira diadema ; and at others 
resembles a tubercle. 

With respect to the simple eyes, or ocelli, he remarks that they 
shine in darkness like those of Cats, and that the Araneides most 
probably enjoy the faculty both of nocturnal and diurnal vision. 

The abdomen becomes so putrid and decomposed after death, that 
its colours and even its form are soon destroyed. M. Dufour, by 
means of a rapid desiccation, the mode of which he points out, has 
succeeded in remedying this evil to a great degree. 

The silk, according to Reaumur, is first elaborated in two little 
reservoirs, shaped like tears of glass, placed obliquely, one on each 
side, at the base of six other reservoirs, resembling intestines, situated 
close to each other, flexed six or seven times, proceeding from a 
little vessel beneath the origin of the abdomen, and terminating in the 
papillae by a very slender thread. It is in these last mentioned vessels 
that the silk acquires a greater degree of firmness and other proper- 
ties peculiar to it ; they communicate with the preceding ones by 
branches, forming a number of geniculate turns, and then various 
pieces of net-work f- The newly spun filaments, when first drawn 
from the mammillae, are adhesive, and a certain degree of desiccation 
or evaporation is required to fit them for their destined purposes. 
When the tempi rat ure is propitious, however, a single instant is 
sufficient, as the animal employs them the moment they escape from 
the apparatus. Those white and silky flocculi that may be observed 

* For their dcvelopemcnt and that of the foetus, see the admirable work of 
ll.rold. 
t See Trcviranus, on the same subject. 



282 ARACHN1DES. 

floating about in spring and autumn in foggy weather, vulgarly 
termed in France Jils de la Vierge, are certainly produced as we 
have satisfactorily ascertained by tracing them to their point of origin 
by various young Araneides, those of the Epeirae and Thomisi 
particularly ; they are mostly the larger threads which are intended 
to afford points of attachment to the radii of the web, or those that 
compose the chain, and which, becoming more ponderous by the 
access of moisture, sink, approach one another, and finally form little 
pellets : we frequently observe them collected near the web com- 
menced by the Spider, and in which it resides. 

It is also very probable that many of these young animals not 
having as yet a sufficient supply of silk, limit their structure to 
throwing out simple threads. It is, I think, to the young Lycosse 
that we must attribute those which intersect the furrows of ploughed 
grounds, whose numbers are rendered so apparent by the reflection 
of light after sunrise. By chemical analysis, these fils de la Vierge 
exhibit the same characters as the web of the spider they are not 
then formed in the atmosphere, as, for want of proper observation, 
ex visu, that celebrated naturalist, M. Lamarck, has conjectured. 
Gloves and stockings have been made with this silk ; but it was 
found impossible to apply the process on a large scale, and, as it is 
subject to many difficulties, is rather a matter of curiosity than 
utility. This substance, however, is of much greater importance to 
the little animals in question. With it, the sedentary species, or those 
which do not roam abroad in search of their prey, weave webs * of 
a more or less compact tissue, whose form and position vary accord- 
ing to the peculiar habits of each of them, and that are so many snares 
or traps, where the insects on which they feed become entangled, or 
are taken. No sooner is one of them arrested there by the hooks of 
its tarsi, than the Spider, sometimes placed in the centre of his net, 
or at the bottom of his web, or at others lying in ambush in a peculiar 
domicile situated near and in one of the angles, rushes towards his 
victim, and endeavours to pierce him with his murderous dart, dis- 
tilling into the wound a prompt and mortal poison ; should the former 
resist too vigorously, or should it be dangerous to the latter to 
approach it, he retreats, waiting until it has either exhausted its 
powers by struggling, or become more entangled in the net; but 
should there be no cause of fear, he hastens to bind it by involving 
the body in his silken threads, with which it is sometimes completely 
enveloped. 

* Those of some exotic species are so strong, that small birds are entangled in 
them ; they even oppose a certain degree of resistance to man. 



PULMONARY. 283 

Lifter ^ays that Spiders dart their threads in the same way that the 
Porcupine darts his quills, with this difference, however, that in the 
latter, according to the popular belief, the spines are detached from 
the body, whereas in the former, these threads, though propelled to 
a considerable distance, always remain connected with it. The pos- 
sibility of this has been denied. Be it as it may, we have seen 
threads issuing from the mammillae of several Thomisi from straight 
lines, and, when the animals moved circularly, producing moveable 
radii. A second use to which this silk is applied by the female Ara- 
neides is in the construction of the sacs destined to contain their 
eggs. The texture and form of these sacs are variously modified, 
according to the habits of the race. They are usually spheroidal ; 
some of them resemble a cap or tymbal, others are placed on a 
pedicle, and some are claviform. They are sometimes partially en- 
veloped with foreign bodies, such as earth, leaves, &c. ; a finer 
material, or sort of tow or down, frequently surrounds the eggs in 
their interior, where they are free or agglutinated and more or less 
numerous. As they are voracious animals, the males, in order to 
avoid a surprise and to prevent themselves from falling victims to 
their premature desires, approach their females in the nuptial season 
with the greatest circumspection and mistrust. They cautiously and 
repeatedly touch them, and frequently for a long time before they 
yield to their wishes, and when this is the case they quickly and 
repeatedly apply the extremity of their palpi to the inferior surface 
of the abdomen, protruding at each time, and as if by a spring, the 
fecundating organ contained in the button formed by the last joint of 
those palpi, and insinuate it into a sub-abdominal slit, near the base 
and between the respiratory orifices ; after a moment's interval the 
same act is repeatedly performed. Such is the mode of copulation of 
a small number of species belonging to the Orbitelae. It is impos- 
sible to avoid feeling the most lively interest in reading what has 
been written upon this subject by that learned naturalist, who of all 
others has most profoundly studied these animals, the celebrated 
Walckenaer, member of the Acad. des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. 
The apparatus of the male organs of generation, or at least of what 
are considered as such, is usually highly complicated and very various ; 
it consists of scaly pieces, more or less hooked and irregular, and of a 
white fleshy body, on which sanguineous looking vessels are some- 
times perceptible, which is considered as the fecundating organ, pro- 
perly so called ; but in the Arachnides with four pulmonary sacs, and 
in some belonging to the division where there are but two, the last 
joint of the palpi of the males only exhibits a single horny piece in 



284 ARACHNIDES 

the form of a hook or ear-picker, without the smallest visible opening. 
Although Muller and others were mistaken when they placed the 
male organs of certain Entomostraca upon two of their antennae, it 
is very certain that the parts considered as analogous to them in the 
Araneides are very different from those observed on the antennae of 
those Crustacea, and that if we refuse to admit of their exercising 
this function, it is impossible to conceive of their use *. 

According to the experiments of Audebert, who has given us a 
history of the Monkeys worthy of the talents of that great painter, 
it is certain that a single fecundation is sufficient for several succes- 
sive generations, but that with them, as with all Insects and other 
analogous classes, the ova are sterile without a union of the sexes. 
Their nuptial season in France lasts from the latter end of summer 
till the beginning of October. The ova first laid are frequently 
hatched before the termination of autumn: the others remain in 
statu quo during the winter. The females of certain species of 
Lycosa have been observed to tear open the egg-sac when the young 
ones were about to issue from the ovum. Th$ latter then mount on 
the back of their mother, where they remain some time. Other 
female Araneides carry their cocoons under the abdomen, or remain 
near them and watch them. The two posterior feet of some of the 
young ones are not developed until several days after they have been 
hatched. Some, during the same period, live together, and appear 
to spin in common. Their colouring is then more uniform, and the 
young naturalist may easily err in multiplying their species. One of 
our collaborators for the Encyclopedic Methodique, M. A. Lepelletier 
of Saint- Fargeau, has observed that these animals, as well as the 
Crustacea, possess the faculty of reproducing a lost limb. 

I have ascertained that a single wound from a moderate sized 
Araneid will kill our common Fly in a few minutes. It is also certain 
that the bite of those large Araneides of South America, which are 
there called Crab-Spiders, and are placed by us in the genus Mygale, 
kills the smaller vertebrated animals, such as Humming-Birds, 
Pigeons, &c., and produces a violent fever in Man ; the sting of 
some species in the south of France has even occasionally proved 
fatal. We may, therefore, without believing all the fabulous stories 
of Baglivi and others respecting the bite of the Tarantula, mistrust 
the Araneides, and particularly the larger ones. 

Various insects of the genus Sphex, Lin., seize upon these Spiders, 
pierce them with their sting, and transport them into holes where 
they have deposited their eggs, as a source of food for their young. 

. ^ . ; - ^ 

* They must at all events be organs of excitation. 



PULHONARJJE. 285 

Most of them perish in winter, but there are some which live several 
years such are the Mygales,the Lycosa, and probably several others. 
Although Pliny states that the genus Phalangium is unknown in 
Italy, we still presume that these latter Araneides and other large 
species which weave no web, as also the Galeodes and Solpugae, are 
the animals they collectively designated by that name, and of which 
they distinguished several species. Such also was the opinion of 
Mouffet, who, in his Theat. Insect,, p. 219, has figured a Lycosa or 
Mygale, of the island of Candia, as a species of Phalangium. 

Lister was the first and most successful observer of the Spiders, 
whose habits he was enabled to study ; those of Great Britain laid 
the foundations of a natural arrangement, of which most of those 
that have been since published are mere modifications. The more 
recent discovery of species peculiar to hot climates, such as the 
Araignde mafonne described by the abbe Sauvages, and some others, 
the use of the organs of manducation introduced into the system by 
Fabricius, a more exact study of the general disposition of the eyes, 
and of their respective sizes, with that of the relative length of the 
legs, have all contributed to extend this classification. Walckenaer 
has entered into the most minute of these details, and it would be a 
difficult matter to discover a species that could not find its place in 
some one of his divisions. One character, however, existed, the ap- 
plication of which had not been made general: I allude to the pre- 
sence or absence of the third terminal hook of the tarsi. Savigny, so 
far as this is concerned, has given us a new method, of which, how- 
ever, I have only seen a simple sketch*. 

M. Leon Dufour, who has published many excellent memoirs on the 
anatomy of Insects, who has especially studied those of Valencia, 
among which he has detected several new species, and to whose 
labours the science of Botany is not less indebted, has paid particular 

* SecWalck., Faun. Franc., note to genus Atta. 

We knew nothing of the observations of M. Savigny on the Spiders, which accom- 
pany the plates of Nat. Hist, of the great work on Egypt, until long after our arti- 
cle relative to the same animals was printed. 

That gentleman Hist. Nat. ut sup. establishes the following genera in the 
family of the Araneides : 1. ARIADNE, near that of Segestria, having but six eyes, 
of which the two intermediate posterior ones are further forwards ; 2. LACHESIS, 
near Drassus, but with the hooks of the Chelicerae, (forripules, Savign.,) very small ; 
3. ERIGONE, also allied to Drassus as well as to Clubiona ; thorax very high 
before ; second joint of the palpi spinous, and dilated into an angle or tooth at the ex- 
tremity ; 4. HERSILIA, allied to Agelena and Theridion of Walckenaer; feet long 
and slender, the superior nails bidentate ; eyes united on an eminence, arranged in two 
transverse lines, and curved backwards ; two very long fusi forming a tail ; 5. ARACH- 
NE, which does not appear to us to differ from Angelena; 6. ARG VOTES, Epeirae 
whose anterior, lateral eyes are much smaller than the others ; 7. ENYO, fifth 
family of the Theridion, Wnlck. ; 8. OCVALE, second family of the Dolomedes, Id. 



286 ARACHNIDES. 

attention to the respiratory organs of Spiders, and it is from him that 
we have taken our divisions, which consist of those that have four 
pulmonary sacs with as many external stigmata, two on each side, 
and closely approximated and of such as have but two*. The first, 
which embraces the order of the Theraphosse of Walckenaer, and some 
other genera of the one he collectively designates by the name of 
Spiders, according to our method form but the single genus 

MYGALE. 

Their eyes always situated at the anterior extremity of the thorax, 
and usually, closely approximated ; feet and chelicerse robust ; copu- 
lating organs of the males always salient and frequently very simple. 
Most of them have but four fusi, of which the two lateral or external, 
situated somewhat above the others, are longest, and consist of three 
segments, exclusive of the prominence that forms their peduncle. 
They weave silken tubes in which they reside, and which they con- 
ceal either in holes excavated by them for that purpose, or under 
stones, bark of trees, or between leaves. 

The Theraphosae of Walckenaer will form a first division, the 
characters of which are: 1. Four fusi f, of which the two that are 
intermediate and inferior are usually very short, and the two that are 
exterior very salient; the hooks of the chelae doubled underneath, 
or along their carina or inferior edge, and not on the inner 
side of their internal face, or upon it ; eight eyes always, usually 
grouped on a little eminence, three on each side, forming a reversed 
triangle, and the two superior ones approximated ; the remaining 
two arranged transversely between the preceeding 

The fourth pair of legs are the longest, and then the first ; the 
third is the shortest. 

Here the palpi are inserted into the superior extremity of the jaws ; 
so that they appear to consist of six joints, the first of which, narrow 
and elongated, with the internal angle of the superior extremity 
salient, fulfils the functions of a jaw. The ligula is always small and 
nearly square. The last joint of the palpi of the males is short, has 
the form of a button, and bears the organs of generation at its extre- 
mity. The two anterior legs of the same sex have a stout spine or 
spur at their inferior extremity. Such are the characters of the 

MYGALE, Walck., 

Or the true Mygales. In some of them we find no transverse series 
of horny and moveable spines or points, resembling the teeth of a rake,' 
at the superior extremity of their cheliceras immediately above the 
insertion of the claw or hook which terminates them. The hairs 
which decorate the under part of their tarsi form a thick and broad 

* Section of the Territelae of our first edition. 

f. I have perceived, in the Atypi, vestiges of two other mammillae, those which, 
in the Spiders of the ensuing division, are placed between the four exterior ones, and 
are. there, very visible ; as they are here but scarcely apparent, I have not thought it 
requisite to notice them. 



PULMONARY 287 

brush, projrc -ting beyond the hooks, and usually concealing them. 
The male organs of generation consist of a single scaly piece, termi- 
nated by an entire point, or neither emarginated nor divided ; some- 
times it is formed like an ear-pick M. dela Blond, Lat. usually, 
however, it is globular inferiorly, then becomes narrow, terminates in 
a point, and forms a kind of arcuated hook. 

This division is composed of the largest species of the family, some 
of which, when at rest, cover a circular space of from six to seven 
inches in 'diameter; they sometimes seize upon Humming-birds. They 
establish their domicile in the clefts of trees, under the bark, in the 
fissures of rocks, or on the surface of leaves of various plants. The 
cell of the Mygale avicularia has the form of a tube, narrowed into 
a point at its posterior extremity. It consists of a white web, of a 
close, very fine texture, semi-diaphanous, and resembling muslin. 
One of them, presented to me by M. Goudot, when unrolled, was 
about two decimetres in length, and six centimetres in breadth, mea- 
sured across its greatest transversal diameter, The cocoon of the 
same species was of the figure and size of a large walnut. Its enve- 
lope, consisting of the* same material as that of its domicile, was formed 
of three layers. It appears that the young are hatched in it, and 
undergo their first change of tegument there. The naturalist just 
mentioned stated to me, that he had taken a hundred of them from 
a single cocoon*. 

This Mygale Aranea avicularia, L. ; Kleem. Insect, XI, and 
XII, the male is about an inch and a half long, blackish, and 
extremely hairy ; the extremity of the feet and palpi, and the in- 
ferior pili of the mouth reddish. The genital organ of the male 
is hollow at base, and terminates in an elongated and very acute 
point. 

South America and the Antilles produce other species, called 
by the French colonists Araignees-crabes. Their bite is reputed 
to be dangerous. A very large species M. fasciata ; Seb., 
Mus., I, Ixix, i ; Walck., Hist, of Spiders, IV, i, the female is 
also found in the East Indies. A species, nearly as large as the 
avicularia, inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. Another of the 
same division M. Valentino, was discovered in the sandy and 
desert districts of Moxenta, in Spain, by M. Dufour, who has 
described and figured it in the Ann. of the Phys. Sciences, Brus- 
sels, Vol. V. Walckenaer has also described a second species 
from that peninsula which has two prominences above its respi- 
ratory organs. These two latter species form a particular group, 
characterized by the hooks of the tarsi, which are salient or 
exposed f . 

In the following Mygales J, the superior extremity of the first 

* See my memoir on the habits of the Avicularia in the ADD. du Mils. d'Hist. 
Nat. VIII, p. 456. 

t For detail* concerning these and the following species, as well as for the other 
genera of this family, see the corresponding articles in the Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., 
where we treat of them at length. 

J The genus CTBNIZA, Lnt., Fam. Nat. du Rgne Animal. 



288 ABACHNIPJfS. 

joint of the chelicerae presents a series of spines, articulated and 
moveable at base according to the observations of Dufour and 
forming a sort of rake. 

The tarsi are less pilose underneath than in the preceding division, 
and their hooks are always exposed. The males of one species, the 
only ones I have seen, have more complicated organs of generation 
than those of the preceding division. The principal and scaly piece 
incloses a peculiar, semiglobular body, terminating in a bifid point, 
in an inferior cavity *. 

These species, in the dry and mountain districts of the south of 
Europe and of some other countries, excavate subterraneous galle- 
ries, which are frequently two feet in depth, and so extremely tortu- 
ous, that, according to Dufour, it is frequently impossible to trace 
them. At the mouth, they construct a moveable operculum with 
earth and silk, fixed by a hinge, which, from its form, nicely adjusted 
to the aperture, its inclination, its weight, and the superior position 
of the hinge, spontaneously shuts, and completely closes the entrance 
of their habitation, forming a kind of trap-door, which is scarcely 
distinguishable from the surrounding earth. -Its inner surface is 
lined with a layer of silk, to which the animal clings, in order 
to keep its door shut and prevent intruders from opening it. If it 
be slightly raised, it is a sure indication that the owner is within. 
Unearthed by laying open the gallery front of the entrance, it be- 
comes stupified, and allows itself to be captured without resistance. 
A silken tube, or the nest properly so called, lines the inside of the 
gallery. M. Dufour thinks that the males never excavate. Inde- 
pendently of his having found them under stones only, they do not 
seem to him so well prepared with organs adapted to such work f . 
Without deciding upon this point, we presume, with him, that the 
My gale carminans of France Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., art. MYGALE 
is merely the male of the following species : Walckenaer, however, 
doubts it. 

M. ccemeniaria, Lat. ; Araignee maponne, Sauvag., Hist, de 
1'Acad. des Sc., 1758, p. 26; Araignee mineuse, Dorthes., Trans. 
Lin. Soc. II, 17, 8 ; Walck., Hist, des Aran., fasc. Ill, x ; Faun. 
Fran9, Arach., II, 4; Dufour, Ann. des Sc. Phys, V, Ixxiii, 5. 
The female Mason Spider, as it is called, is about eight lines 
in length, of a reddish colour, verging on a brown more or less 
deep ; edges of the thorax paler. The chelicerse are blackish, 
each one furnished above, near the articulation of the hook, 
with five points, of which the internal is the shortest. The 
abdomen is of a mouse-grey, with streaks of a darker hue. 
The first joint of all the tarsi is furnished with small spines. 
The hooks of the last have a spur at their base, and a double 
range of acute teeth. The mammillae are but slightly prominent. 

* On this point I am contradicted by M. Dufour. I was compelled again to 
examine the fact, and have convinced myself that I was not mistaken. It is possible 
the specimens he examined did not present this character. 

f See his excellent memoir entitled " Observations sur quelques Arachnides 
Quadripulmonaires . ' ' 



PULMONARLC. 

According to Dufour Ann. des Sc. Phys., V. Ixxiii, 4 the 
supposed male, of which I have made a M. cardeuse, 

differs from the preceding" individual in the Creator length of 
its feet, in the hooks of the tarsi, which are t \viee the number 
of the other, hut have,n/> spurs, and in the diminished length of 
its mammillae. A more apparent character may he found in the 
stout spine, whirh terminates, inferiorly, the two anterior tibiae. 
This Mygale is found in the southern departments of France, 
situated on the borders of the Mediterranean, in Spain, &c. 

M. fodiens, Walck., Faun. Fran?., Arach., II, 1, 2;M.Sau- 
vagesii, Dufour, Ann. des Sc. Phys., V, Ixxiii, 3; Aranea 
Sauvagesii, Ross. The female is somewhat larger than that 
of the preceding species, and of a light reddish-brown, without 
spots. The exterior fusi are long. The four anterior tarsi are 
alone furnished with small spines ; all have a spur at the end, 
and their hooks have but a single tooth, situated at their base. 
The chelicerae are stouter and more bent than those of the Cae- 
mentaria ; the teeth of the rake are rather more numerous, and 
th.-rc are two ranges of teeth under the first joint. The male is 
unknown. This species is found in Tuscany and Corsica. There 
is a small clod of earth in the Museum d'Hist. Nat. of Paris, in 
which are four of its nests, forming a regular quadrilateral 
figure. 

M. Lefevre who has made so many sacrifices to the science of 
Entomology, has discovered a new species of Magale in Sicily, 
the entire body of which is of a blackish brown. The extremity 
of the anterior tibiae of the male does not exhihit that stout spine 
which appears to be peculiar to the individuals of the same sex, 
in the other Mygales. 

Another species is found in Jamaica M. nidulans figured, 
together with its nest, by Brown in his Nat. Hist, of Jamaica, 
pi. xliv, 3. 

There, the palpi arc inserted into an inferior dilatation of the ex- 
ternal side of the jaws, and consist of but five joints. The ligula, at 
fir>t very small Atypus lengthens, and then advances between the 
jaws, and this character becomes general. The last joint of the palpi, 
in both sexes, is elongated, and pointed near the end. There is no 
.spur to the extremity of the anterior tibiae of the males. 

ATYPUS, Lai. OLETERA, Walck. 

The Atypi have a very small ligula almost covered by the internal 
portion of the base of the jaws, and closely approximated eyes group- 
u a tubercle. 



Sulzeri, Lat., Gener. Crust, et Insect., I, v, 2, the 
male; Dutour, Ann. des Sc. Phys., V, Ixxiii, Aranea picea^ 
Sul/. ; Olt'-tcre atype, Walck., Faun. Fran?., Arach., II, 3. Body 
entirely blackish, and about eiuht lines in length. The thorax 
is nearly square, depressed posteriorly, inflated, widened, and 
broadly truncated anteriorly, presenting an appearance very 

VOL. III. U 



290 ARACHNIDES. 

different from that of the same part in the Mygales. The che- 
licerae are very stout, and underneath the claw and at its base is 
a little eminence resembling a tooth. The last joint of the palpi 
of the male is pointed at the end. From the genital organ arises, 
inferiorly, a little squamous semi -diaphanous piece, widened and 
unequally bidendated at the end, with a small seta or cirrus at one 
of its extremities. This species excavates a cylindrical gallery 
in sloping grounds covered with grass ; in this gallery, seven or 
eight inches in length, horizontal at first and then inclined, it 
weaves a tube of white silk of the same form and dimensions. 
The cocoon is fastened with silk by both ends to the bottom of 
the gallery. It is found in the environs of Paris and Bourdeaux ; 
M. Basoches has observed a variety near Seez, which is always 
of a light brown. 

M. Milbert has discovered another species Atypus rufipes 
near Philadelphia, which is entirely black, with fulvous feet. 

ERIODON, Lat. MISSULENA, Walck, 

The Eriodons differ from the Atypi in their elongated, narrow 
ligula, advancing between their jaws, and in their eyes, which are 
scattered over the anterior part of the thorax. 

The only species known Eriodon occatorius, Lat. ; Missu- 
lena occaora,Walck., Tabl. des Aran. pi. II, ii, 12 is an inch 
long, blackish, and peculiar to New Holland, where it was dis- 
covered by MM Peron and Lesueur *. 

In our second and last division of the quadripulmonary Spiders or 
Mygales, we find characters common to Eriodon, such as the ligula 
being prolonged between the jaws, and the palpi consisting of five 
joints ; but the claws of the chelicerse are folded over their inner face, 
there are six fusi, their first pair of legs is the longest and not the 
fourth, and the third is always the shortest. Some of them have 
but six eyes. The number of pulmonary sacs will not allow us to remove 
the subgenera of this division from the preceding ones, and as they 
conduct us to Drassus, Clotho, and Segestria, subgenera with but 
two pulmonary sacs, the natural order will not permit us to pass from 
the Mygales to the Lycosee and other hunting or wandering Spiders. 
The Mygales are true tapissieres or true spiders which line their 
galleries with silk and in fact, it was in this division that the Ara- 
nea avicularia of Linnaeus was formerly placed. 

This second division comprises the two following subgenera. 



* In the first memoir of M. Dalman upon the Insects found in amber, that 
celebrated naturalist mentions (p. 25) a spicier which, it appeared to him, should 
be made the type of a new genus (Chalinura). The eyes are placed on a very high 
anterior tubercle, four of them, of which the two anterior are very large and approx- 
imated, occupying the centre. The external fusi are much elongated. From these 
characters it would seem that this spider approaches Mygale or some other analo- 
gous genus. 



PULMONARY. 291 

DYSDERA, Lat. 

But six eyes arranged in the figure of a horse-shoe, the opening in 
front; the chelicene very *t>ut and projecting ; jaws straight and 
dilated at the insertion of'the palpi *. 

FILISTATA, Lat. 

Eight eyes grouped on a little eminence at the anterior extremity 
of th- thorax; the chelicerae small; the jaws arcuated on the outer 
side, and surrounding the ligula f. 

We now pass to Araneides with but one pair of pulmonary sacs 
and as many stigmata. They all have palpi formed of five joints, 
: ted into the external side of the jaws near their base, and most 
frequently in a sinus ; a ligula extending between them, either nearly 
square, triangular or semicircular, and six fusi at the anus. The 
last joint of the palpi, in the males, is more or less ovoid, and usually 
encloses, in an excavation, a complicated and varied organ of copu- 
lation : it is rarely Segestria exposed. 

With the exception of a few species, which enter into the genus 
Mygale, they compose that of 

ARANEA, Lin. ARANEUS, of some authors. 

A first division will comprehend the ARANEJE SEDENTARLE, or seden- 
tary spiders. They make webs, or throw out threads to ensnare 
their prey, and always remain in these traps, or their vicinity, as 
well as near their eggs. Their eyes are approximated anteriorly and 
are sometimes eight in number, of which four or two are in the middle 
and two or three on each side, and sometimes six. 

Some, which, from the circumstance of their always moving for- 
wards,we term the RECTIGRADJE, weave webs and are stationary ;their 
legs are elevated when at rest ; sometimes the two first and two last 
are the longest, and at others those of the two anterior pairs, or the 
fourth and the third. The general arrangement of the eyes does not 
form the segment of a circle or a crescent. 

They may be divided into three sections : the first, or that of the 
Tubitelse, has cylindrical fusi approximated into a fasciculus directed 
backwards ; the legs are robust, the two first or the two last, and vice 
versa, longest in some, and the whole eight nearly equal in others. 

We will commence with two subgenera, which, with respect to 
the jaws that describe a circle round the ligula, approach the Filis- 
tatse, and are removed from those that follow. 

CLOTHO, Walck. UROCTEA, Dufour. 

.\ -ingular subgenus. The chelicerae are very small, can separate 
but littl< thereby approximating this subgenus to the last and 

Dysdera crythrwa, Lat. ; Walck., Tab. dcs Aran., V, 49, 50 ; Dufour, Ann. 
dcs Sc. Phys. V. hutiii, 7; Aranea rvfipes, Fab.; Dysdcra porruto, Dufour, Ib. 

f Filistnta tricolor, Lat.; Walck., Faun. Fran9., Arach., VI, 13, A moder- 
ate size species is founded at Guadaloupe, the male of which has long and slender 
legs, curved pnlpi, with the genital organs sitimti-d at the extremity of the la*t joint. 
and terminated by a slender and arcuated, or falciform hook. 

U 2 



292 ARACHNIDES. 

arc not indented; very small hooks; the shortness of the body and 
length of the legs produce a resemblance to the Crab-Spiders or 
Thomisi. The relative length of these organs differs but little ; the 
fourth pair, and then the proceeding one are merely somewhat longer 
than the first ; the tarsi, only, are furnished with spines. The eyes 
are further from the anterior margin of the thorax than in the fol- 
lowing subgenus, and are approximated and arranged as in the 
genus Mygale of Walckenaer ; three on each side form a reversed 
triangle ; the two others form a transverse line in the space comprised 
between the two triangles. The jaws and the ligula are proportiona- 
bly smaller than those of the same subgenus ; a short projection or 
slight dilatation on the external side of the jaws, gives insertion to 
the palpi ; the jaws terminate in a point ; the ligula is triangular and 
not nearly oval as in Drassus. The two superior or most lateral 
fusi are long, but what, according to Dufour, particularly charac- 
terizes his Uroctese or our Clothos, is, that there are two pectiniform 
valves which open and shut at the will of the animal *, in place of the 
two intermediate fusi. 

But a single species is known, the Uroctea 5-maculata, Du- 
four, Ann. dcs Sc. Phys., V, Ixxvi, 1 ; Clotho Durandii, Lat. 
The body is five lines in length, of a fine chcsnut colour; abdo- 
men black ; five small, round, yellowish spots above, four of 
which are arranged transversely in pairs, and the last or fifth 
posterior ; legs hairy. It is evident from the plates of the great 
work on Egypt, that M. Savigny found it in that country, and 
proposed forming a new genus with it. Count Dejean brought it 
from Dalmatia ; and Schreiber, director of the Imperial Museum 
of Vienna, has sent me specimens captured in the same coun 
try. M. Dufour also found it in the mountains of Narbonne, 
in the Pyrennees and among the rocks of Catalonia. To this 
latter naturalist we are indebted not only for our knowledge of 
the external characters of this spider, but for many curious 
observations relative to its habits. " She constructs," says he, 
" a shell resembling a calotte or patella an inch in diameter, on 
the under surface of large stones or in the fissures of rocks. Its 
contour presents seven or eight emarginations, the angles of 
which are alone attached to the stone by silken fasciculi, the 
margin being free. This singular tent is admirably woven. 
The exterior resembles the very finest taffeta, formed, according 
to the age of the animal, of a greater or less number of layers. 
Thus, when the young Uroctea fiivt commences her establish- 
ment, she merely forms two webs, between which she seeks for 
shelter. Subsequently, and I believe at each change of tegument, 

* I have seen, in a -well preserved specimen, six fusi, of which the two superior 
were much the longest and terminated by an elongated joint, forming an elliptical 
lamina, and the other four small, the inferior ones particularly, and arranged in a 
square. The anus, placed under a little membranous projection resembling a cly- 
peus, was furnished on each side with a pencil of retractile hairs. These pencils 
are the parts named by Dufour pectiniform valves, and are distinct from the two 
intermediate fusi, which are concealed by the two inferior ones. 



PULMONARLE. 293 

sin* adds a certain number of layers Finally, when the nuptial 
-on has arrived, .she lines an apartment with a softer and more 
downy material which is to enclose the sac of eggs a "d young 
ones. Although tin- exterior shell is more or less soiled by foreign 
bodies which >ervc to conceal it, the chamber of the industrious 
architect is always extremely neat ;:nd clean. T lie re are four, 
live, or six egg pouches or sacculi in each domicil ; they are len- 
ticular, more than tour lines in diameter, and formed of a snow- 
white taffeta lined with the softest down. The ova are not pro- 
duced till the latter end of December or the beginning of 
January; the young are to be protected from the rigour of 
winter and the incursions of enemies all is prepared ; the recep- 
tacle of this precious deposit is separated from the web that 
adheres to the stone by soft down, and from the external calotte 
by the various layers I have mentioned. Some of the emar- 
ginations in the edge of the pavilion are completely closed by 
the continuity of the web, the edges of the remainder are merely 
laid on each other, so that by raising them up, the animal can 
issue from its tent or enter it, at pleasure. When the Uroctea 
leaves her habitation for the chase, she has nothing to fear, she 
only possesses the secret of the impenetrable emargination, and 
has the key to those which alone afford an entrance. When her 
offspring are able to provide for themselves, they leave their 
native dwelling, to establish elsewhere their individual habita- 
tions, while the mother returns to it and dies it is thus her 
cradle and her tomb." 

DRASSUS, Wcdck. 

The Drassi differ from Clotho in several characters. Their che- 
liccrae are robust, projecting and dentated beneath; their jaws are 
obliquely truncated at the extremity, and the ligula forms an infe- 
riorly truncated oval, or an elongated curvilinear triangle ; the eyes 
are nearer to the anterior margin of the thorax, and the line formed 
by the four posterior ones is longer than the anterior, or extends 
beyond it on the sides, There is but little difference in the propor- 
tions of the fusi, and we do not observe between them the two pecti- 
nifonn valves peculiar to Clotho. Finally, the fourth pair of legs, 
and then the first, are manifestly longer than the others. The Tibiae 
and first joint of the tarsi are armed with spines. 

These Spiders live under stones, in the fissures of walls, and on 
leaves ; they construct their cells with an extremely fine white silk. 
The cocoons of some are orbicular and flattened, and consist of two 
valves laid one on the other. M. Walckenaer distributes the Drassi 
into three families, according to the direction and approximation of 
the lines formed by the eyes, and the greater or less dilatation of the 
middle of the jaws. 

The species which he calls I'iruii^imus, Hist, des Aran. fascic. 
IV, 9, and which alone comix >< - his third division, weaves a 
tine, white, transparent web on the surface of a leaf; under this 
web it seeks for shelter. I have sometimes observed a similar 
web on the leaf of the Pear-tree, but the margin was angular 



294 ARACHNIDES. 

and resembling a tent, like that of the Clotho, beneath which 
was the cocoon. It is, I presume, the work of this species of 
Drassus, and proves the analogy of this subgenus with the pre- 
ceding one. M. Leon Dufour, Ann. des Sc. Phys., VI, xcv, 
1, has given a very complete discription of a species of Drassus 
D. segestriformis found by him under stones in the highest 
Pyrennees, and never beneath the Alpine region. It is one of 
the largest of this subgenus, and appears to me to be closely 
allied to my melanoy aster, which I believe to be the D. lucifugus 
Walckenaer, Schseff. I con. CI, ?.. 

One of the prettiest species, which is very commonly observed 
running along the ground in the vicinity of Paris, is the D. 
relucens. It is small, and almost cylindrical, with a fulvous 
thorax, invested with a purple silky down ; the abdomen is a 
mixture of blue, red, and green, with metallic reflections, and 
marked by two transverse and golden lines, of which the ante- 
rior is arcuated. Four golden dots are sometimes observed on it *. 

In the ether Tubitelse the jaws do not surround the ligula ; their 
external side is dilated inferiorly beneath the origin of the palpi. 

Some have but six eyes, four of which are anterior, and form a 
transverse line, and the two others posterior, situated, one on each 
side, behind the two lateral ones of the preceding line. Such is the 
essential character of the 

SEGESTRIA, Lai. 

The ligula is elongated and almost square. The first pair of legs, 
and then the second, is the longest ; the third is the shortest. These 
spiders construct long, silky, cylindrical tubes in the chinks and 
crevices of old walls, which they inhabit; their first pairs of legs are 
always directed forwards, and diverging threads border the external 
entrance of their domicil, forming a net for ensnaring Insects. The 
genital organ of the S. perfida Aranea florentina, Ross., Faun. 
Etrusc., XIX, 3 a large black species with green chelicerse, which 
is not rare in France, is shaped like a tear, or is ovoido-conical, very 
acute at the end, entirely salient, and red f. 

The remaining Tubitelae have eight eyes. On account of the dif- 
ference in the site of their habitations, we may divide them into the 
terrestrial and the aquatic. Although the last family of the Araneides 
of Walckenaer (his Naiades) is composed of these latter, they are so 
closely allied to the other Tubitelse, that notwithstanding this disparity 
of habits they must be placed together. In those which are terres- 
trial, the ligula is almost square, or but very slightly narrowed, with 
a very obtuse or truncated summit ; the jaws are straight, or nearly 
so, and more or less dilated towards the extremity ; the two eyes of 
each lateral extremity of the ocular group are generally separated 
from each other, or at least are geminate and placed on a particular 
eminence like those of the aquatic Tubitela>. 

* For the other species see Faun. Paris., Walck., and Tabl. des Aran., Id. 
f Add the Sey. senoculata, Walck., Hist, des Aran., V, vii ; Aranea senoculata , 
L. ; Deg. 



PULMONARLE. 295 

CLUBIONA, Lat. 

This submenus is only distinguished from the following one by the 
nearly equal length of the exterior fusi, and by the straightness of the 
line formed by the four anterior eyes. The Clubionae construct 
silky tubes under stones, in chinks of walls, or between leaves. Their 
cocoons are globular *. 

ARANEA. 

The true Aranea, which we at first designated by the generic ap- 
pellation of Trgcnaria, retained by Walckenaer, and to which we add 
his Angeleua- and Nyssi, have their two superior fusi much longer 
than the others, and their four anterior eyes arranged in a line pos- 
teriorly arcuated or forming a curve. 

They construct in our houses, in the angles of walls, on plants, 
hedges, along the roads, in the earth, and under stones, a large and 
nearly horizontal web, at the upper part of which is a tube where 
they remain motionless f. 

Then follow the Naiades of Walckenaer, or our aquatic Tubitela*, 
which form the 

ARGYRONETA, Lat. 

The jaws are inclined on the ligula, which is triangular. Th 
two eyes of each lateral extremity of the ocular group are closely 
approximated and placed on a particular eminence ; the four others 
form a quadrilateral. 

Argyroneta aqualica ; Aranea aquatica, L., Geoff., Deg. 

Blackish brown, the abdomen darker ; silky ; four depressed 

points on the back. It is found on the stagnant waters of Europe, 

where it swims with the abdomen enclosed in a bubble of air; 

it forms an oval cell, filled with air, and lined with silk, from 

which various threads extend to the surrounding plants. Here 

it lies in wait for its prey, deposits its cocoons, which it carefully 

watches, and encloses itself to pass the winter. 

In the second section of the sedentary and rectigrade spiders, that 

of the INEQUITEL^E, the external papillae are nearly conical, project 

but little, are convergent, and form a rosette ; the legs are very slen- 

<1 r. The jaws incline over the lip, and become narrower at their 

superior extremity, or at least do not sensibly widen. 

Most of them have the first pair of legs longest, and then the 
fourth. The abdomen is more voluminous, softer, and more coloured 
than in the i>irrediii tribes. Their webs form an irregular net 
composed of threads which cross each other in every direction, and 
on several planes. They lie in wait for their prey, display much 

* Aranea holoscricea, L. ; Degeer, Fab. ; Walck., Hist, des Aran. IV, Ui, fern. ; 
Antnea atrosc. Deg., Fab. : List., Aran., XXI, 21 ; Albin, Aran., X, 48, and 
\\ 11, 83. See also Tab. des Aran., and the Faun. Paris., Walckenaer. 

f Aranen L., Deg., Fab.; Clerck., Aran. Suec., pi. ", tab. be ; 

Tnjcnfriii > , lii t. (U> Aran., V, v ; Aranea labyrinthica, L., Fab.; 

1 . Aran., Suec. pi. ii, tub. \iii. Sec the Tab. des Aran., Walck. 



296 ARACIINIDES. 

anxiety for the preservation of their eggs, and never abandon them 
till they are hatched. They are short-lived. 

In some, the first pair of legs, and then the fourth, are the longest. 

SCYTODES, Lat. 

But six eyes arranged in pairs. According to Dufour, the hooks 
of their tarsi are inserted into a supplementary joint. 

Two species are known, one of which, the thoracic a * inha- 
bits houses in Europe, and the other, la blonde, Ann. des Sc. 
Phys. V, Ixxvi, 5, was found under calcareous debris in the 
mountains of Valencia. It weaves a uniform tube of a thin 
milk-white tissue, like that of the Dysdera erythrina. 

THERIDION, Walck. 

Eight eyes disposed as follows : four in the middle forming a 
square, the two anterior of which are placed on a little eminence, and 
two on each side, also situated on a common elevation. The thorax 
has the figure of a reversed heart, or is nearly triangular. This sub- 
genus is very numerous f. 

Therid. malmignatte ; Aranea 13-yuttata, Fab. ; Ross. Faun. 
Etrusc., II, ix, 10. The lateral eyes separated from each other; 
body black, with thirteen small, round, blood-red spots on the 
abdomen. Its bite is considered venomous and even mortal. 
From Tuscany and Corsica J. 

The A. mactans, Fab., a second species of Theridion inhabit- 
ing South America, is equally dreaded in that country. This 
prejudice against these animals appear to originate from their 
black colour, varied with sanguine spots. 

EPISINUS, Walck. 

Eight eyes also, but they are approximated on a common eleva- 
tion ; the thorax is narrow and almost cylindrical . 

In the remaining Inequitelse, the first pair of legs, arid then the 
second are the longest. Such is the 

PHOLCUS, Walck. 

Where the eight eyes are placed on a tubercle, and divided into 
three groups ; one on each side consisting of three eyes, forming a 
triangle, and the third in the middle, somewhat anteriorly, and com- 
posed of two on a transverse line. 

* Scytodes thoracica, Lat., Gen. Crust, et Insect. I, v, 4 ; Walck. Hist, des 
Aran., I, x, and II, Suppl. 

f See the Tab. and Hist, des Aran., Walcken., the Ann. des Sc. Nat., and Ann. 
des Sc. Phys. The Araneee bipunct ata, redimita, L., and the A. albo-maculata, Deg., 
&c., should be referred to this genus. 

J This species is the type of the genus Latrodecta, Walck., which he distinguishes 
from that of Theridion by the difference in the respective length of the feet ; in this, 
however, he appears to me to have erred. 

His Theridion benignum, Hist, des Aran. fasc. V, viii, whose habits he has care- 
fully studied, establishes its domir.il between the clusters of grapes, and defends 
them from the attacks of various Insects. 

"' Episinus truncutus, Lat. Gener. Crust, et Insect, t. IV, p. 371. Italy, and 
environs of Taris. 



PULMONARUE. 297 

Ph. ptmlangioides, Walck., Hist, des Aran., fasc. V, tab. x; 
Araign^e domestique a loiigues pattes, Geoff. The body long, 
narrow, pale yellowish or livid, and pubescent; abdomen nearly 
cylindrical, very soft, and marked above with blackish spots; 
very long, slender legs; a whitish ring round the extremity of 
t lie "thighs and tibiae. Common in houses, where it spins a web 
of a loose texture, in the angles of the walls. The female cements 
her eggs into a round naked mass, which she carries between 
her mandibles. 

M. Dufour has found a second species, the Pholque a queue 
Ann. des Sc. Phys. V, Ixxvi, 2, in the clefts of the rocks in 
Moxente, Valencia. Its abdomen terminates in a conical point, 
and thus forms a sort of tail, like that of the Epcira conica. Like 
the preceding species, it balances its body and feet. The genital 
organs of the male are very complex. 

In the third section of the sedentary rectigrade spiders, the ORBI- 

K, or Araiynees Tendeuses of others, the external fusi are almost 

conical, slightly salient, convergent, and form a rosette; the legs are 

slender, as in the preceding section, but the jaws are straight and 

evidently wider at their extremity. 

The first pair of legs, and then the second, are always the longest. 
There- are eight eyes thus arranged: four in the middle forming a 
quadrilateral, and two on each side. 

The Orbitelae approach the Inequitelae in the size, softness, and 
diversity of colour of the abdomen, and in their short term of exist- 
ence ; hut their web is a regular piece of net-work, composed of con- 
centric circles, intercepted by straight radii diverging from the 
centre, where they almost always remain, and in an inverted position, 
at the circumference. Some conceal themselves in a cell or cavity 
which they have constructed near the margin of the web, which is 
sometimes horizontal, and at others perpendicular. Their eggs are 
agglutinated, very numerous, and inclosed in a voluminous cocoon. 

The threads which support tho web, and which can be extended 
one-fifth of their length, are used for the division of the micrometer. 
This observation was communicated to us by M. Arrago. 

LINYPHIA, Lat. 

The Linyphi;e are well characterized by the disposition of their 
eyes; four in the middle form a trapezium, the posterior side of 
which is widest, and is occupied by two eyes much larger and more 
distant ; the remaining four are grouped in pairs, one on each side, 
and in an oblique line. The jaws are only widened at their superior 
extremity. 

They construct on bushes a loose, thin, horizontal web. attaching 
to its upper surface, at different points, or irregularly, separate 
threads. The animal remains at its inferior portion, and in a reversed 
position*. 

* Lim/filnti friitnyularis, Walck., Hist, des Aran., V, ix, female ; Aranea resupina 
sykestris, De Geer; Aranea montuna, L. ; Clerck., Aran. SUIT., pi. Ill, Tab. 1 ; 
Aranea rcsiifina domcstica, De Geer. 



298 



ARACHNIDES. 



ULOBORUS, Lat. 

The four posterior eyes placed at equal intervals on a straight line, 
and the two lateral ones of the first line nearer to the anterior edge 
of the thorax than the two comprised between them, so that the line 
is arcuated posteriorly. Their jaws, like those of the Epeirae, begin 
to widen a little above their base, and terminate in the form of a 
palette or spatula. The tarsi of the three last pairs of legs terminate 
by one small nail. The first joint of the two posterior ones has a 
range of small setse. 

The body of these animals, as well as in the following subgenus, 
is elongated and nearly cylindrical. Placed in the centre of their 
web, they advance their four anterior legs in a straight line, and 
extend the two last in an opposite direction ; those of the third pair 
project laterally. 

These Arachnides construct webs similar to those of other Orbi- 
telae, but they are looser and more horizontal. They will completely 
envelope the body of a small coleopterous insect in less than three 
minutes. Their cocoon is narrow, elongated, angular at the margin, 
and suspended vertically to a web by one of its extremities. The other 
end is bifurcated or terminated by two prolonged angles, one of 
which is shorter than the other, and obtuse; there are two acute 
angles on each side. For these interesting observations I am indebted 
to my friend M. Leon Dufour. 

Uloborus Walckenaerius, Lat*. About five lines in length ; 
reddish-yellowish ; covered with a silky down forming two series 
of little fasciculi on the top of the abdomen; paler rings on the 
legs. From the woods in the vicinity of Bourdeaux. and in 
various departments of the south of France. 

TETRAGNATHA, Lat. 

The eyes placed 'four by four on two nearly parallel lines, and 
separated by almost equal intervals; jaws long, narrow, and only 
widened at their superior extremity. The chelicerae are also very 
long, in the males especially. The web is vertical f. 

EPEIRA, Walck. 

The two eyes on each side approximated by pairs, and almost con- 
tiguous ; the remaining four forming a quadrilateral in the middle. 
The jaws dilate from their base, and form a rounded palette. 

The cucurbitina is the only species known whose web is horizon- 
tal ; that of the others is vertical, or sometimes oblique. 

Some place themselves in its centre in a reversed position, or with 
their head downwards ; others construct a domicil close by it, either 
vaulted on all sides, or forming a silky tube composed of leaves 
drawn together by threads, or open above, and resembling a cup or 
the nest of a bird. The web of some exotic species is formed of such 

* Lat., Gen. Crust, et Insect., I, 109; see also second edition of the Nouv. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat., article Ulobore. 

t Tetraynatha exlensu, Walck., Hist, des Aran., V, vi ; Aranea exlensa, L., Fab., 
De Geer ; Aranea viresccns ? Fab. ; Aranea, maxillosu, Id. See Tab. des Arun. of 
Walckenaer. 



299 

stout materials that it will arrest small birds, and even impede the 
progress of a man. 

Their cocoon is usually globular; that of some species, however, 
is a truncated oval, or very short cone. 

The natives of New Holland Voyage a la recherche de la Pey- 
rouse, p. 239 and those of some of tin- South Sea Mauds, for want 
of other food, eat a species of Epeira, closely allied to the Aranea 
esurienx, Fab. 

M. Walckeriaer, in his Tableau des Aranei'des, mentions sixty-four 
species of Epeirte, remarkable, in general, for the diversity of their 
colours, form and habits. He has arranged them in various small 
and very natural families, the study of which we have endeavoured to 
simplify in the second edition of the Nouv. Diet, d'Hist. Nat., article 
Epe'ire. Certain important considerations, such as those of the 
sexual organs, had been neglected or were not sufficiently attended 
to ; thus, for instance, the female Ep. diadema, and others, present at 
tin- part which characterizes their sex, a singular appendage, which 
reminds us of the apron of the Hottentot women. These species 
should constitute a separate division. By pursuing this examination 
other not less natural divisions might be established. 

We will content ourselves with mentioning a few of the principal 
species, commencing with those that are indigenous to Europe. 

Ep. diadema ; Aranea diadema, L., Fab. ; ROBS., Insect. IV, 
xxxv xl. Large, reddish, velvety ; abdomen of the females 
extremely voluminous, particularly when about to lay their eggs, 
and of a deep brown or yellowish red ; a large rounded tubercle 
on each side of the back near its base, and a triple cross, formed of 
small white spots or dots ; palpi and legs spotted with black. 
Very common in Europe in autumn. The eggs are hatched in 
the spring of the ensuing year. 

/.'/;. vf//A//-/\ ; Aranea scalaris, Fab.; Panz., Faun. IV, xxiv. 
Thorax reddish ; top of the abdomen usually white, with a black 
spot in the form of a reversed triangle, oblong and dentated, 
weaves its web along the banks of ponds, brooks, &c. 

Ep. cicatricosa ; Aranea cicatricosa, De Geer; A. impressa, 

>. The abdomen flattened, and of a greyish brown or obscure 
yellowish ; a black band, festooned or edged with grey along the 
middle of the back; eight or ten large impressed points in two 
lines. It constructs its web on walls or other bodies, and 
remains concealed in a nest of white silk, which it forms under 
some projecting object, or in some cavity in the vicinity. It 
only works and feeds during the nitfht, or when the light of day 
is but weak. It retires under the bark of old trees or logs. 

l-'.p. sericea, Walck., op. cit., Ill, ii. Covered above with a 
silvery and silken down ; abdomen flattened, immaculate and 
with festooned margins. South of Europe and Senegal. 

lip, finca, Walck., Hist, des Aran. II, i, the female. Very 
common in the cellars of Angers. Its cocoon is white, almost 
globular, fixed by a pedicle, and composed of very fine threads; 
it is soft to the touch, like wool. That of the 

Ep. fasciata, Walck,, op. cit. Ill, i, the female, is about an inch 



300 ARACHNIDES. 

long; it resembles a little balloon, of a grey colour, with longi- 
tudinal black stripes, one of whose extremities is truncated and 
closed by a flat and silky operculum ; a fine down envelopes the 
eggs in its interior. This species weaves a vertical arid irregular 
web, in the middle of which it remains, along the banks of rivu- 
lets, &c. Its thorax is covered with a soft and silvery down, 
and its abdomen is of a beautiful yellow, intersected at intervals 
with transverse brown, or blackish- brown lines, arcuated and 
slightly undulated. M. Leon Dufour, Ann. des Sc. Phys. VI, 
pi. xcv, 5, has given a detailed description of this species, and of 
its habits, and was the first who ascertained the male. He has 
figured its sexual organ. The penis resembles a twisted seta. 

Ep. cucurbitina; Aranea cucurbitina, L.; A. senoculata, Fab.; 
Walck. Hist, des Aran., Ill, iii. Small; abdomen ovoid and 
lemon-coloured, marked with black points ; a red spot on the 
anus. It weaves a small horizontal web between the stems and 
leaves of plants. 

Ep. conica; Aranea conica, De Geer and Pall. ; Walck. Hist. 
Nat. des Aran., Ill, iii. Remarkable for its abdomen, which is 
gibbous anteriorly and has a conical termination ; the anus is 
placed in the centre of an eminence. When it has extracted 
the juices from an insect, it suspends it to a thread. 

Immediately after the conica, we may place the species called 
by Dufour Epe'ire de Vopuntia Ann. des Sc. Phys., V, Ixix, 3 
from the circumstance of its always weaving its loose and 
irregular web among the leaves of the Agave and Opuntia. It 
is black, with white hairs laid close to the body, having an 
appearance of scales. The abdomen has two pyramidal tuber- 
cles on each side, and terminates posteriorly in two others, 
which are obtuse, and separated by a wide emargination. The 
posterior face of each tubercle is marked with a beautiful snow- 
white spot, resembling nacre ; these spots are connected with 
each other, and with one or two more behind them, by white 
zig-zag lines. In the newly-hatched animal, these tubercles are 
not visible. The cocoons are oval, whitish, and formed of two 
coats, the interior of which is a kind of tow that envelopes the 
ova. Seven, eight, and even ten of these cocoons are frequently 
found arranged in file, or one after the other. From Catalonia 
and Valencia. 

Some of the species foreign to Europe arc very remarkable. 
Here we observe that the abdomen is invested with an extremely 
firm skin, furnished with points or horny spines* ; and there the 
legs are provided with bundles of hairs f. 

* The Ar. militaris, spinosa, cancriformis, hexacantha, tclracantha, gcminata,fo-rni- 
cata, of Fabricius. M. Vauthier, one of our best painters of subjects of natural 
history, has described and figured, Ann. des Sc. Nat., I, p. 161, a spec'.es of this 
division curvicav.du which is very remarkable for its posteriorly widened abdomen, 
terminated by two long arcuated spines : it inhabits Java. These spinous species 
might form a peculiar subgenus. 

f- The Ar. f.ilijHS, claiipes, &c., of Fabricius. His Ar. macidala forms the genus 
Nephisa, L?ach. See the Tab. and Hist. des. Aran. of Walckenaer. 



PULMOVARLB. 301 

We now come to Spiders that UP- sedentary, like the preceding, 
Imt \vhich have the faculty of moving side wards, and back- 

wards, in a word, in all directions. They constitute our section of 
the LATKKIOUAIM:. The four anterior logs are always longer than 
tin- others; sometimes the second pair surpasses the first, and at 
others, they are nearly equal ; the animal extends them to the whole 
of their lenuth on tin- plane of position. 

The Hielicer.T are usually small, and their hook is folded trans- 
versely, as in the four preceding tribes. Their eyes, always eight in 
number, are frequently very unequal, and form a segment of a circle 
or crescent : the two posterior or lateral ones are placed farther back 
than the others, or are nearer to the lateral nrirgin of the thorax. 
The jaws, in most of them, are inclined on the lip. The body is 
usually flattened, resembling a crab; the body is large, rounded, and 
triangular, 

These Arachnides remain' motionless on plants, with their feet 
extended. They make no web, simply throwing out a few solitary 
threads to arrest their prey. Their cocoon is orbicular and flattened. 
They conceal it between leaves, and watch it until the young ones 
are hatched. 

MlCROMMATA, Ldt. SPARASSUS, Wdlck, 

Jaws straight, parallel and rounded at the end ; eyes arranged four 
by tour, on two transverse lines, the posterior of which is longest, 
and arcuated backwards. The second legs, and then the first, are 
the longest ; the ligula is semicircular *. 

Microm. smaragdula ; Ar. smaragdula, Fab. ; Ar. nV/Vi w//na, 
De Geer ; Clcrck, Arnn. Suec. pi. 6, tab. iv. A medium size ; 
green ; the sides edged with light yellow ; abdomen greenish 
yellow, intersected on the middle of the back by a green line. 

It ties three or four leaves in a triangular bundle, lines the 
interior with a thick layer of silk, and places its cocoons in the 
middle: the latter is round, white, and so diaphanous, that the 
ova can be perceived through its parietes. The eggs are not 
agglutinated. 

.17. Argelas ; Dufour, Ann. des Sc. Phys., VI, p. 306, XCV, 
1 : \VaU-k., Hist, des Ann., IV, ii. This animal, whose specific 
appellation will remind the French naturalists of one of their 
most zealous sevans, one already recommended by me to their 
< ra as my protector from the horrors of the revolution, is one 
c-t th" l.i'.! >st species indigenous to France; M. Dufour has 
completed my description of it, and has observed its habits. The 
about seven or eight lines in length, of a cinereous 
flaxen colour, covered with down, and more or less spotted with 
black. The top of the abdomen, from its middle to the extre- 
mity, is marked with a hand formed of a series of small hatchet- 
shaped spots, t i ti ntioned colour. A black longitudinal 

. 

' M . V. this genus in that series which is composed both of the 

^rilcutaritc, such ;i> tin- Att.i or our Saltici, the Thoinisi, Philo- 
c/rumi, Drassi, nnd dubious, ami which have but two hooks to the tar-i. 



302 ARACHNIDES. 

band, grey in the middle, runs along its under surface. The 
legs are annulated with black. This species was discovered by 
the naturalist to whom I have dedicated it, in the environs of 
Bourdeaux. M. Dufour has since found it in the most barren 
mountains of Valencia. It runs with great velocity, the feet 
being extended laterally. Its unguiculated palettes enable it to 
cling to the smoothest surface, and in every possible possition. 
It constructs a cocoon, which in texture resembles that of the 
Clotho of Durand, on the under surface of stones, to which it 
retires for shelter in bad weather, to escape from enemies, and to 
lay its eggs. It is an oval tent, nearly two inches in diameter, 
attached to the stone in the manner of a marine Patella. It is 
formed of an external envelope, consisting of a yellowish taffeta, 
as fine as the peel of an onion, but rigid, and of an inner lining 
which is more supple, softer, and open at both ends. It is from 
these openings, which are furnished with valves, that the animal 
issues. The cocoon is globular, and placed underneath its 
dwelling, so that it can brood over it ; it contains about sixty 
eggs. 

The same naturalist has described and figured another species, 
the M. a tarses sponyieux Ann. des Sc. Phys., V, Ixix, 6 
which he found on a tree in a garden at Barcelona. From its 
habits, however, and some of its characters, I presume that it 
belongs to the genus Philodroma of Walckenaer *. 

SENELOPS, Duf. 

The Senelops form the transition from the preceding genus to the 
following one. The jaws are straight, or but slightly inclined, with- 
out any lateral sinus, and taper to a point obliquely truncated on the 
inner side. The ligula is semicircular like that of the Micrommatae, 
but the eyes are arranged differently. There are six before forming 
a transverse line ; the two others are posterior, and situated one on 
each side, behind each extremity of the preceding line. The legs are 
long ; the second pair, and then the third and fourth, are longer than 
the first. 

The type of the genus, Senelops omalosoma, Dufour, Ann. des 
Sc. Phys. V, Ixix, 4, was found by M. Dufour in Valencia, but 
it is very rare there. The body is about four lines in length 
and very flat, of a greyish red, with cinereous spots ; the feet 
are annulated with black. The posterior part of the abdomen 
seems to exhibit vestiges of annuli, forming on the sides an ap- 
pearance of teeth. It lives among rocks, arid when escaping 
from pursuit flies with the rapidity of an arrow. It is also 
found in Syria -Collection of M. Labillardiere and in Egypt. 



* For the other species, see the Tab. des Aran., Walck., and his Hist des Aran., 
fascic. IV, Sparassus roseus, X, the male ; Ib., fascic. II, viii, the male. I think 
we should refer to this subgenus the Aranea venatoria, L., Sloane's Hist, of Jam., 
CCXXV, 1,2; Nhamdiu, 2 ? Pison ; and another species from India very analo- 
gous to the preceding, figured on Chinese drawings and paper-hangings. 



PULMONAPIJE. 303 

Oth inliabit Senegal, the Cape of Good Hope and the 

Mr of France. 

PHILODROMUS, Walck*. 

The Philodromi dilVer from tin- two pivr.-ding subgenera in their 
jaws, whieh an- inclined on tin- litfula, which is also higher than it 
H wide. The almo.st i'i|ual ryes always form a crescent or semi- 
eirel\ Tin- lateral one* arc nevT placed on tubeivlrs or rminences. 
The ehalicerae are - i and cylindrical: the four or two last 

legs do not materially diner in length i'roni the others. 

rdin-4 ti. Walckenaer the>e ajiimaU run with great swiftness, 
tln-ir le<4's extended laterally, lie in wait for their prey, throw out 
solitary threads to entrap it, and conceal themselves in crevices or 
among leaves. 

In some the body is broad and flat, the abdomen short and 
widened posteriorly, and the four intermediate legs the longest. 
Such is the I'/ii/utlmme tigree ; Thomise tigre, Lat. ; Araneus 
margaritarius, Clerck, VI, iii ; Schaeff., Icon., Ixxi, 8; Frisch. 
I UN., Crntur., II, xiv; Aranea levipes, L. ? It is about three 
lines in length. Its two anterior intermediate eyes and the 
four lateral ones are situated on a slight elevation, and the lat- 
ter, according to the same naturalist, are somewhat the largest, 
or at least are more apparent. The thorax is very wide, flat- 
tened, of a reddish fawn colour, brown laterally and posteriorly, 
and white anteriorly. The abdomen, which forms a kind of 
pentagon, is speckled by the red, brown and white hairs which 
cover it, and edge laterally with brown; there are four or six 
impressed points on the middle of the back. The belly is 
whitish, and the legs are long, slender and reddish, with brown 

'tS. 

This species is very common on trees, wooden partitions, walls, 
&c., where it remains as if glued, with the feet extended. If 
touched, it runs with astonishing rapidity, or falls to the ground 
supported by a thread. The cocoon is of a beautiful white, and 
contains about a hundred eggs, which are yellow and free. The 
f'milr plae.'s it in hollows of trees or clefts of posts, &c., ex- 
1 to the north, and carefully watches it. 

The other Philodromi, which, according to the method of M. 

\Val-krna'T. i'nnu M-veral small groups, have the body, and some- 
times tin- ehrlieri.r, proportioiiably longer. The abdomen is some- 
tiiin'-N j.yriionn oi ovoid, and sometimes cylindrical. The second 
pair of legs and then the first or the fourth are the loni, 



r/iii"-/r,,i,ni< ronihif.'ru^ Walek., Faun. Franc., Aran., VI, 
8, the male. Its body is tluv.- lines and a half in length and 
reddish; the second legs and then the two last are the longest; 

* la the first edition of tbis work, this buhgenus formed our first division of the 
Thombi. 



304 ARACIINIDE3. 

sides of the thorax brown; the abdomen ovoid, with a black or 
brown lozenge-shaped spot above, bordered with white. 

Pktiodromus ohlonyn*, Walck., Ib., tab. ead., fig. 9, This 
species, as respects the relative proportion of the legs, and the 
disposition of the eyes, belongs to the same division ; but the 
abdomen is longer and almost cylindrical or forming an elon- 
gated cone, with three brown longitudinal streaks and points on 
a yellowish ground, which is also the colour of the thorax, 
In the middle of the latter are two brown streaks forming an 
elongated V. 

These two species inhabit the environs of Paris. For the 
other, see the Faune Fra^aise, from which we have extracted 
the preceding descriptions. 

THOMISUS, Walck. 

The Thomisi differ from the Philodromi in their chelicerse, which 
are smaller in proportion and cuneiform, and in their four posterior 
legs, which are evidently and even suddenly shorter than the pre- 
ceding ones. The lateral eyes are frequently situated on eminences, 
while those of the Philodromi are always sessile. Here also the two 
posterior lateral ones are further behind than the two that arc inter- 
mediate on the same line, while in the Thomisi these four eyes are 
nearly on a level. 

The species of this genus are those more particularly designated 
by the name of Crab-Spiders. The males frequently differ greatly 
from the females in colour and are much smaller. 

Some of them, all exotic *, have their eyes arranged four by four 
on two transverse and almost parallel lines, the posterior of which is 
the longest. 

In the others, and the greater number, the ensemble of these eyes 
represents a crescent, the convex side of which is forwards and out- 
wards. 

Thomisus glolosus ; Araneaylobosa, Fab. ; Aranea irregularis, 
Panz., Faun. Insect. Germ, fascic. LXXIV, tab. xx, female ; 
Walck., Faun. Franc., Aran., VI, 4. Three lines long; black; 
abdomen globular ; red or yellowish all round the back. 

Thomicus cristatus ; Clerck, Aran, Suec., pi. 6, tab. vi, size 
of the preceding ; body grey-reddish, sometimes brown, with 
scattered hairs; feet with small spines; lateral eyes largest 
and placed on a tubercle ; a transverse yellowish stripe on the 
front of the thorax ; two others of the same colour on the back 
forming a V ; abdomen rounded, and a yellowish band on the 
middle of the back with three indentations on each side. A 
common species frequently observed on the ground. 

Thomisus citreus ; Aranea citrea, De Geer; Schseff. Icon. In- 
sec., tab, xix, 13. A lemon yellow, with a large abdomen wider 

* Thomisus Lamarck. Lat., a species allied to the Aranea nolilis,- Fab. ; T. 
canceruhis, Walck., ejusd. ; T. leucosia ; Aranea regia? Fab.; T. plagusius ; T. 
pinnotheres. 



PULMONARY. 305 

behind ; two rod or saffron coloured streaks or spots are fre- 
quently observed on the back. On flowers *. 

^.subgenus established by M. Walck. n T. under tin- name of STO- 
\, but which is yet but imperfectly known, should apparently 
terminate this section and lead to Ozyopes, which an- U m-arly allied 
to the Crab-Spiders as t> the Citigradae. The Storonae have their 
inclined on the ligula, which is nearly of the same length, and 
fornisaiieh.ii: >Mtfle; t he chelicerae are conical ; th' tw<. ante- 

rior lens, and then the second, longest; the two folio wing ones longer 
than the last. The eyes are arranged in three transverse lines, 2, 4, 
2; the pt.Mrrior, with the two intermediate ones of the second lines, 
form a small square, and the two anterior ones are distant f. 

Other Araneae whose eyes, always eight in number, extend more 
along the length of the thorax, than across its breadth, or at least 
almost as much in one direction as the other, and which form either 
a truncated curvilinear triangle or oval, or a quadrilateral, constitute 
a second general divi-ion, < r the VA<; \ HUNDJE, which I have thus 
named to distinguish them from those of the first, or the Sedentariae. 

Two or four of their eyes are frequently much larger than the 
others; the thorax is 1 irge. and the legs robust; those of the fourth 
pair and then the two first, or those of the second pair, are usually 
the long 

They make no web, but watch for their prey and seize it, either by 
hunting it down, or by suddenly leaping upon it. 

\\'e divide them into two sections. 

The first, that of the CITIGRADA, is composed of the ARAIGNEES- 
LOUPS of authors. The eyes form either a curvilinear triangle, an 
oval, or a quadrilateral, of which, however, the anterior side is much 
narrower than the widest pirt of the thorax. This part of the body 
is ovoid, inn-owed before, and carinatcd along the middle of its length. 
The legs are usually only fit for running. The jaws are always 
straight, and rounded at the end. 

Most of the females remain on their cocoon, or carry it with them 
at the base of the abdomen, or suspended to the anus. Nothing but 
the most extreme necessity will induce them to abandon it, and, when 
the danger is over, they always return in search of it. They also 
take can- of their young for a certain period after they are hatched. 

OXYOPES, Lai. SPHASUS, Walck. 

The eyes arranged two by two, or fouf transverse lines, the two 
extreme ones the shortest; they describe a sort of oval, truncated at 
each end. The ligula is elongated, narrowest at base, dilated and 
rounded towards the end. The first pair of legs is the longest; the 
fourth and second are nearly equal; the third is the shortest J. 

See the Tab. des Aran., Walck ; the Faune Franc., Id., and the Ann. des Sc. 
Phys., for the Spanish species described by M. Dufour, see also Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat. second edition, article Thomise. 

f See Tab. des Aran., Walck., IX, 85, 86. 

J Sphasits hftfrnphthalmiif, Walck., Hist, des Aran. fasc. Ill, tab. viii, female ; 
Oxyopes rarirgatus, Iat. : Sphasun itaKctu, Walck., Ib., Fasc. IV, tab. viii, female; 

VOL. III. X 



906 ARACHNIDES. 

CTENUS, Walck. 

The eye arranged in three transverse lines, which become gra- 
dually longer 2, 4, 2 and form a sort of curvilinear, reversed tri- 
angle, with a truncated apex. The ligula is square, and almost iso- 
metrical ; the fourth pair of legs, and then the first, are the longest ; 
the third is the shortest. 

This genus was established on a large species found at Cayenne. 
Others have since been discovered in the same island and in Brazil, 
but none of them have been described. 

DOLOMEDES, Lai. 

The eyes, arranged in three transverse lines, 4, 2, 2, form a quad- 
rilateral, somewhat wider than long; the two posterior ones are 
placed on an elevation. The second pair of legs is as long as or 
longer than the first ; those of the fourth are still longer. The ligula 
is square and as broad as it is high, like that of a Ctenus. 

In some, the two lateral eyes of the anterior line are larger than 
the two intermediate ones ; their abdomen is an oblong oval termi- 
nating in a point. 

The females construct an infundibuliform, silky nest on the tops of 
trees covered with leaves, or on bushes ; there they lay their eggs, and 
when they go abroad to hunt or are forced to abandon their retreat, 
they always bear off" their cocoon which is attached to the base of the 
abdomen. Clerck says he has seen them spring upon flies which 
were buzzing around them *. 

They inhabit the borders of streams, run over their surface with 
the most surprising rapidity, and can even partly enter the water 
without becoming wet. The females weave a coarse irregular web, 
between the branches of plants, in which they place their cocoon. 
They watch it till the ova are hatched f. 

LYCOSA, Lat. 

The eyes of the Lycosse also form a quadrilateral, but one as long 
or longer than it is wide ; the two posterior eyes are not placed on an 
elevation. The first pair of legs is evidently longer than the second, 
but shorter than the fourth, which, in this respect, surpasses all the 
others. The internal extremity of the jaws is obliquely truncated. 
The ligula is square, but longer than it is broad. 

Almost all the Lycosae keep on the ground, where they run with 
great swiftness. They inhabit holes accidentally presented to them, 

Oxyopes lineatus, Lat., Gener., Crust, et Insect., I, v, 5, female. See article Oxyope, 
in the entomological part of the Encyclop. Method., the Tab. des Aran., Walck., 
and the Faune Franchise. 

* Aruneus mirabilis, Clerck, Aran. Suec., pi. v, tab. 10; Aran. rufo-fasciata, De 
Geer ; Ar. obscura, Fab. See the Faune Fran9aise Dolomedes sylvains and the 
Ann. des Sc. Phys. Doloniede spinimane, Dufour, V. Ixxvi, 3. 

f* Dolomedes marginatus, Walck. ; Araneus undatus, Clerck, V, tab. 1 ; De Geer. 
Insect. VII, xvi, fig. 13, 15; Panz., Faun., LXXI, 22 ; Dolomedes fimbriatus, 
Walck ; De Geer, Insect. VII, xvi, 9 11 ; Araneus fimbriatus, Clerck, V, tab. ix. 
These species compose the division of the shore Dolomedes of Walckenaer. 



IM-LMONARI.fi. 307 

or which they excavate, lining their parietes with silk, and enlarging 
them in proportion to their growth. Some establish their domicil 
in chinks and cavities in walls, where they form a silken tube, 
covered externally with particles of earth or sand. In these retreats 
they change their tegument, and, as it appears, after closing the 
opening, pass the winter. There also the females lay their eggs. 
When they go abroad they carry their cocoon with them, attached to 
the anus by threads. On issuing from the egg the young ones cling 
to the body of the mother, and remain there until they are able to 
provide for themselves. 

The Lycosae are extremely voracious, and courageously defend 
thier dwelling. 

A species of this genus, the Tarentula, so called from Taren- 
tum, a city of Italy, in the environs of which it is common, is 
highly celebrated. The poisonous nature of its bite is thought 
to produce the most serious consequences, being frequently fol- 
lowed by death or Tarentism, results which can only be avoided 
by the aid of music and dancing. Well-informed persons, how- 
ever, think it more necessary in these cases to combat the terrors 
of the imagination than to apply an antidote to the poison ; medi- 
cine at all events presents other means of cure. 

Several curious observations on the Lycoxa tarentula of the 
south of France have been published by M. Chabrier, Acad. de 
Lille, fescic. IV. 

This genus is very rich in species, which have not as yet, however, 
been well characterized. 

Lye. tarentula; Aranea tarentula^ L., Fab.; Albin, Aran., 
tab. xxxix ; Senguerd. de Tarent. An inch long ; under part 
of the abdomen red, crossed in the middle by a black band. 

The Tarentula of the south of France Lycose narbonnaise, 
Walck., Faun. Franp., Aran., I, 1 4, is not quite so large ; the 
under part of its abdomen is very black, and edged all round 
with red. 

A similar species is found in the environs of Paris, the Lycose 
ouvriere, or L. fabrilis, Clerck, Aran. Suec., pi. 4, tab. ii ; Walck., 
Faun. Franp., Aran. II, 5. 

Lye. saccata ; Aranea saccata, L.; Araneus amentatw, 
Clerck, IV, tab. viii; Lister, tit. 25, f. 25. Small; blackish; 
carina of the thorax, obscure reddish, with a cinereous line; a 
little bundle of grey hairs at the superior base of the abdomen ; 
legs of a livid red, varied with blackish spots; the cocoon flat 
and greenish very common about Paris *. 
We will terminate this section with the subgenus 
MYRMECIA, Lat., 

Which seems to lead to the following one, and whose characters we 
have detailed in the Ann. des Sc. Nat., Ill, p. 27. The eyes form a 

For the other species see the Tabl. and Hist, des Aran. of Walckenaer, and the 
Faune Frt^aise, Aran. Id. See also the second edition of the Nouv. Diet, d 1 Hist. 
Nat., article Lytose. 

x2 



308 ARACHNIDES. 

short and broad trapezium ; there are four before in a transverse 
line; two others, more internal than the two last of the preceding 
ones, form a second transverse line ; the last two are behind the two 
preceding ones. The chelicerae are stout. The jaws are rounded, 
and very hairy at the end. The ligula is nearly square ; somewhat 
longer than broad. The legs are long, and almost filiform ; those of 
the fourth and first pairs are the longest of all. The thorax seems to 
be divided into three parts, of which the anterior is much the largest 
and square; the two others resemble knots or humps. The abdomen 
is much shorter than the thorax, and is covered with a solid epidermis, 
from its origin to the middle. 

The Myr. fulva, on which I have established this genus, inha- 
bits Brazil; other species, however, appear to be found in Geor- 
gia, United States of America. 

In the second section of the Vagabundse, that of the SALTIGRADJE, 
called by others Araiynees phalanges, the eyes form a large quadrila- 
teral, the anterior side of which, or the line formed by the first ones, 
extends across the whole width of the thorax ; this part of the body 
is almost square or semi-ovoid, plane, or but slightly convex above, as 
wide anteriorly as in the rest of its extent, and descending suddenly 
on the sides. The legs are fitted for running and leaping. The 
thighs of the two fore legs are remarkable for their size. 

The Araignee a chevrons blancs of Geoffroy, a species of Sal- 
ticus very common in summer on walls or windows exposed to 
the sun, moves by jerks, stops short after a few steps, and raises 
itself on its fore legs. If it discover a fly, or particularly a mus- 
quito, it approaches softly, and then darts upon the victim with a 
single bound. It leaps fearlessly and perpendicularly on a wall, 
being always attached to it by a thread, which lengthens as it 
advances. This same filament also supports it in the air, enables 
it to ascend to its point of departure, and allows it to be wafted by 
the wind from one place to another. Such, generally, are the 
habits of the species that belong to this division. 

Several construct nests of silk resembling oval sacs open at 
both ends, between leaves, under stones, &c. Thither they 
retire to change their tegument and to seek shelter in bad 
weather. If danger menaces them there, they leave it at once 
and escape with speed. 

The females construct a sort of tent, which becomes the cradle 
of their posterity, and in which the young ones, for a time, live 
in common with the mother. 

Certain species, resembling Ants, elevate their anterior legs 
and make them vibrate with great rapidity. 

Singular combats sometimes ensue between the males, but no 
fatal issue occurs. 

A subgenus established by M. Rafinesque, that of 
TESSAROPS, 

Appears to us to approximate closely to the following one in most 
of its characters and habits, but to be widely removed from it, if there 



I'ULMONARI.-K. 309 

l>c no mistake, in the number of the eyes, which i but four. See 
Ann. (i.-iK r. des Sc. Phys., VIII, p. 88. 

A second subgenus, which aUo is only known to us by description, 
is the 

PALFIMANUS, Duf., 

Described by M. Dufour in the Ann. des Sc. Phys., V, lxix,5, and 
which appears to him to be int.-nn. -diate between Eresus and Salticus. 
The disposition of the eyes is about the same as in the first of these 
two subgenera. The ligula is similarly triangular and pointed, and 
the jaws are still dilated and rounded at the end ; but, according to 
M. Dufour, they are inclined and not straight like those of the Eresi. 
The terminal joint of the anterior tarsi is inserted laterally, and has 
no licoks. 

He describes one species, the Palpimane bossu. It never 

jumps, walks slowly, and is found under stones in Valencia, 

where, however, it is extremely rare. 

A new species has been discovered by M. Lefevre in Sicily, 

which appears to me to belong to this genus. 

In the two following subgenera there are always eight eyes; the 
jaws are straight. 

ERESUS, Walck. 

Four eyes forming a small trapezium near the middle of the ante- 
rior extremity of the thorax, the other four on its sides forming a 
similar but much larger figure. The ligula is triangular and pointed. 
The tarsi. are terminated by three hooks*. 

SALTICUS, Lai. ATTUS, Wcdck. 

Four eyes, the two intermediate of which are the largest, on the 
anterior part of the thorax in a transverse line, and the other near its 
lateral edges, two on each side ; they also form a large square open 
behind, or a parabola. The ligula is very obtuse or truncated on the 
summit. There are but two hooks to the extremity of the tarsi. 
Several of the males have very large chelicerae. 

The thorax of some are very thick and sloping, (en talus) and 
much inclined at base. 

Salt. Sloanei; Aranea sangwnolenta* L. Black; a white line 
formed by down on each side of the thorax ; the abdomen of a 
cinnabar-red, with an elongated black spot on the middle of the 
back. South of France, on stones f. 

Eresus cinnaberinui, Walck. ; Aranea qvaluor-guftata, Ross., Fnun. Etrusc., II, 

1, 8, 9; Coqucb., lib -ect., dec. Ill, xxvii, 12; Aranea niyra, Petag., 

;i. Insect. Ciilab. M. Dufour, Ann. des Sc. Phys., has described two Spanish 

species ; one of them ; the Eresus acanthophilus VI, xcv, 3, 4 is my Erest rayt of 

the Nouv. Diet. (HIM. Nat.; the other, Eresus imperialis V, Ixix, 2 is closely 

allil t.) the Awn xiyra, Petagna, above quoted. These two species are figured 

in the Faune Fran9Risr, A.-SMI., pi. IV, 3,4, 5. See also on same plate, fig. 7, th 

cinnhre. 

f Tlii. * the following Atti of Walckenaer : feiro/or, 

niyer, cvpr< ' I)e Getr. 



310 ARACHNIUJES. 

The thorax of the others is much flattened, insensibly sloping at 
its base. 

Sometimes their body is simply oval, and furnished with hairs or 
thick down ; the legs short and robust. 

Saltique chevronne ; Aranea scenica,!*.; Araignee a chev- 
rons, Geoff.; Araignee a bandes blanches, De Geer, Insect., 
VII, xvii, 8, 9. About two lines and a half long ; above, black ; 
margin of the thorax, and three lines en chevron on the top of 
the abdomen, white. Very common *. 

Sometimes the body is narrow, elongated, almost cylindrical and 
shorn ; the legs long and slender. 

Salt, formicarius; Aranea formicaria, De Geer, Insect., VII, 
xviii, J, 2; Atte fourmi, Walck., Faun. Fran9., Aran., V, 1 
3. Reddish ; fore part of the thorax black ; black band and two 
white spots on the abdomen f 



FAMILY II. 

PEDIPALPI. 

In the second family of the Arachnides Pulmonarise, we find very 
large palpi, resembling projecting arms, terminated by a forceps or a 
claw ; didactyle chelicerae, one finger of which is moveable ; an 
abdomen composed of very distinct segments, without fusi at the 
extremity ; and the sexual organs placed at the base of the abdomen. 
The whole body is invested with a firm tegument ; the thorax con- 
sists of a single piece, and exhibits three or two simple eyes, 
approximated or grouped, near the anterior angles; and near the 
middle of its anterior extremity, or- posteriorly, but in the median 
line, two others equally simple and approximated. There are four 
or eight pulmonary sacs. Those which form the genus 

TARANTULA, Fab., 

Have their abdomen attached to their thorax by a pedicle, or por- 
tion of their transverse diameter ; it has no pectinated laminae at its 
base, nor sting at its extremity. Their stigmata, four in number, 
are situated near the origin of the venter, and are covered with a 
plate. Their chelicerse (mandibles) are simply terminated by a 

* Add, Attus tardigradus, Walck., Hist, des Aran. V, iv, female. See his Tabl. 
des Aram. 

f For the remaining species of this subgenus, see the Aran. of the Faune Fran- 
^aise. M. Walckenaer, author of that portion of the work, in his Tabl. des Aran., 
mentions a species enclosed in amber. 



PULMONARMt. 311 

moveable hook. Their ligula is elongated, very narrow, and con- 
cealed. They have but two jaws, which are formed by the first joint 
of their palpi. 

They all have eight eyes, of which three, on each side and near 
the anterior angles, form a triangle ; and two near the middle at the 
anterior margin are placed on a comman tubercle or little elevation, 
one on each side. The palpi are spinous. The tarsi of the two 
anterior legs differ from the others, being formed of numerous seta- 
ceous or filiform joints, and without a terminal tail. 

They are confined to the hottest portions of Asia and America. 
Their habits are unknown to us. They now constitute two subge- 
nera. 

PHRYNUS, Oliv. 

Palpi terminating in a claw ; the body much flattened ; thorax 
broad, and almost in the form of a crescent; abdomen ecaudate, and 
the t\vo anterior tarsi very long and slender, resembling setaceous 

antennae *. 

THELYPHONUS, Lat. 

The Thelyphoni are distinguished from the preceding subgenus by 
their shorter, thicker palpi, terminated by a forceps, or by two 
united fingers ; by their long body with its oval thorax, and the 
extremity of the abdomen furnished with, an articulated seta forming 
a tail. Their anterior tarsi are short, of a uniform appearance, and 
composed of few articulations f . 

The others have their abdomen intimately united to the thorax 
throughout its entire width, presenting, at its inferior base, two 
moveable pectiniform laminae, and terminated by a knotted tail armed 
with a terminal sting. Their stigmata, eight in number, are exposed 
and arranged four by four along the belly ; their chelicerae are ter- 
minated by two fingers, of which the exterior is moveable. They 
form the genus 

SCORPIO, Lin. Fab. 

Scorpions have an elongated body, suddenly terminated by a long 
slender tail formed of six joints, the last of which terminates in an 
arcuated and excessively acute point or sting, which affords issue to 
a venomous fluid contained in an internal reservoir, forming a long 
square, and usually marked in the middle by a longitudinal sulcus, 
presenting on each side, and near its anterior extremity, three or two 

Phalangium renifomif, L. ; Pall. Spic. Zool. fascic. IX, iii, 5, 6; Herbst. 
Mouog. Phal., Ill; East Indies, the Sechelles ; Herbst., Ib., IV, l, South America; 
Tarantula ren\formu, Fab. ; Pall. Spic. Zool., IX, iii, 3, 4 ; Herbst. Ib. V, 1 ; 
ejusd. IV, 2, var. ? the Antilles. 

f Phalangiuin caudatum, L. ; Pall. Spic. Zool. fascic. IX, iii, 1, 2, from Java. 
South America produces another species described and figured in the Jour, de Pliys. 
et d'Hist. Nat., 1777 ; the inhabitants of Martinqur call it the I'inaiyrirr. A third 
species, smaller than the preceding ones, and with fulvous feet, inhabits the penin- 
sula beyond the Ganges. 



312 ARACHNIUES. 

simple eyes, forming a curved line, and near the middle of the back 
two others, also simple, which are approximated.* The palpi are 
very large, with a forceps at the extremity resembling a hand; their 
first joint forms a concave and rounded jaw. There is a triangular 
appendage at the origin of each of the four anterior legs, which 
(appendages) by their approximation have the appearance of a qua- 
dripartite lip ; the two lateral divisions, however, may be considered 
as a kind of jaws, the remaining two forming the ligula. The abdo- 
men is composed of twelve annuli, those of the tail included ; the first 
is divided into two parts, of which the anterior bears the sexual 
organs, and the other the two combs. These appendages are com- 
posed of a principal, narrow, elongated, and articulated piece, 
moveable at base, and furnished along its inner side with a suite of 
little hollow laminae, united to it by an articul. tion, that are narrow, 
elongated, parallel, and similar to the teeth of a comb; their num- 
ber is more or less considerable according to the species ; it varies to 
a certain extent, and perhaps with age, in the same species. No 
positive experiment has yet determined the use of these appendages. 
The four following annuli have each a pair of pulmonary sacs and 
stigmata. Directly after the sixth, the abdomen becomes suddenly 
narrowed, and the remaining six, under the form of joints, compose 
the tail. All the tarsi are alike, and consist of three joints, with two 
hooks at the end of the last. The four last legs have a common 
base, and the first joint of the hip is soldered ; the two last are even 
partly fixed against the abdomen. 

The two nervous cords, proceeding from the brain, unite at inter- 
vals and form seven ganglions, the last of which belong to the tail. 
In all other Arachnides, there are never more than three. 

The eight stigmata open into i s many white bursse, each contain- 
ing a great number of very slender, small laminae, between which it 
is probable that the air passes. A muscular vessel extends along the 
bdck, and communicates with each bursa by two branches*; it also 
distributes vessels to every part of the animal, The intestinal canal 
is straight and slender. The liver is composed of four pairs of 
glandular clusters, which pour their humour into the intestine at 
four points. The ni:ile has two copulating organs arising near the 
combs, and the female has two vulvse. The latter open into a matrix 
consisting of several inter-communicating canals, which in the proper 
period are found filled with living young ones; the testes are also 
formed of some anastomosing vessels f. 

These Arachnides inhabit the hot countries of both hemispheres, 
live on the ground, conceal the u selves under stones and other bo- 
dies, most commonly in ruins, dark and cool places, and even in 
houses. They run with considerable swiftness, curving their tail 
over their back. They can turn it in every direction, and use it for 
the purposes of attack and defence. With their forceps they seize 
Onisci and various insects, Caribici, Orthoptera, &c., on which they 



* See our preceding remarks on the circulation of the Arachnides Pulmonarise. 
t For the anatomy of the Scorpion, see Treviranus, Marcel dc Serres, and Leon 
Dufour, Journ. de. Pbys., June 1817. 



i I.MONABIA:. 313 

feed, pierce them with their sting by directing it forwards, and then 

Jms.s their prey through their chelicerae and jaws. They are particu- 
arly fond of the eggs of Spiders and of Insects. 

The wound occasioned by the sting of the ewroptEus is not usually 
dangerous. That of the Scorpion of Souvignargues, of Maupertius, 
of the species which I have named Roussatre (occitanus), and which 
is larger than tin preceding one, according to the experiments of 
Dr. Maccary courageously tried upon himself, produces serious and 
alanninu mi; the older the animal the more active seems to 

be tin- j>ois,>n. The remedy employed is the volatile alkali, used 

mally and internally. 

Some naturalists have asserted that the European species produce 
two generations in the year. That which appears to me to be the 
most unequivocally ascertained occurs in August. The female in 
coitu is laid on her back. According to Maccary she changes her 
teguments previous to the production of her young. The male ex- 
periences a similar alteration at tho same epoch. 

The young are produced at various intervals. The mother carries 
the. a mi her back for several days, during which time she never 
leaves her retreat, and watches over them for a month, when they 
are strong enough to establish themselves elsewhere, and provide for 
their subsistence. Two years are required to qualify them for con- 
tinuing their species. 

Some have eight eyes ; they form the genus Butkus of Leach. 

S. afer, L., Fab. ; African Scorpion, Roes., Insect., 3, Ixv ; 
Herbst., Monog. Scorp., 1. Five or six inches long, and of a 
blackish brown ; forceps large, cordate, rough and somewhat 
hairy; anterior edge of the thorax deeply emarginate; thirteen 
teeth to each comb. From the East Indies, Ceylon. 

S. roussdtre ; S. occitanus* Amor. ; S. tunetanus, Herbst. 
Monog. Scorp. Ill, 3 ; Buthus occitanus, Leach, Zool. Miscell., 
cxliii. Yellowish or reddish ; tail rather longer than the body, 
with elevatiid and finely crcnulatcd lines. Upwards of twenty- 
eight teeth fifty-two to sixty-five, Maccary to each comb. 
From the south of Europe, Barbary, &c. Very common in 
Spain. 

The other> have but six eyes ; they compose the genus Scorpio, 
properly so called, of the same naturalist. 

S. curop&us, L., Fdb.; Herbst. Monog. Scorp., Ill, 1, 2. 
Brown, more or less dark ; legs and last joint of the tail paler or 
yellowish; forceps cordate and angular; nine teeth to each comb. 
From the extreme southern and eastern departments of France. 



ORDER II. 

TRACHEARI/E. 

The Anichnides which compose this order differ from those of the 
preceding one in their oilman* of respiration, which consist of radi- 



314 ARACHNIUES. 

ated or ramified tracheae *, that only receive air through two stigmata ; 
in the absence of an organ of circulation!; and in the number of 
their eyes, which is but from two to four J. The want of sufficiently 
general anatomical observations, has prevented the limits of this 
order from being rigorously determined. Some of these Arachnides, 
the Pycnogonides for instance, exhibit no stigmata ; their mode of 
respiration is unknown. 

The Tracheariae are very naturally divided into those which are 
furnished with chelicerae, terminated by two fingers, one of which is 
moveable, or by one that is equally so ; and into those where these 
organs are replaced by simple laminae, or lancets, which with the 



* The tracheae are vessels which receive the aerial fluid and distribute it to every 
part of the interior of the body, and thus remedy the want of circulation. They are 
of two kinds. Those that are tubular or elastic are formed of three membranes, the 
intermediate of which is composed of a cartilaginous elastic filament spirally con- 
torted ; the two others are cellular. The vesicular tracheae consist of but two mem- 
branes of the latter description. They are a kind of pneumatic pouches susceptible 
of being inflated and depressed. Aquatic Insects, and others that are aerial, are 
deprived of them. They communicate with each other by tubular tracheae. In 
several of the Orthoptera, where they are well developed, cartilaginous arches, 
formed by appendages of the inferior semi-annuli of the abdomen, give points of 
attachment to the muscles which form them. The branchiae are divided into two 
principal trunks which extend longitudinally throughout the body, one on each side, 
receiving air through lateral openings or stigmata, and then throwing off numerous 
branches and twigs which distribute it. In several Insects, however, there are two 
other trunks more or less long, situated between the two preceding ones, and com- 
municating with them. M. Marcel de Serres distinguishes them by the term pulmo- 
nary trachece : the others he calls arterial trachea. He also distinguishes two sorts 
of stigmata : one kind, or the ordinary stigmata, simple, and consisting of two 
membranous lips, furnished with transverse striae or fibres, and opening merely by 
contraction ; the others, which he calls tremaeres, are formed of one or two (usually 
two) horny, moveable pieces, opening and closing like shutters. De Geer Descript., 
Gryllus migratorius compares them to eye-lids. They are peculiar to certain 
Orthoptera, and their position shows them to be the stigmata of the mesothorax. 
M. Leon Dufour Ann. des Sc. Nat., May 1826 has given excellent figures of 
these various kinds of stigmata, but without employing the names of the preceding 
authors. It would appear from his description of the abdominal stigmata, that they 
have the characters of the trmares, while those which he afterwards describes as 
different, are the ordinary stigmata. Our own opinion is that these differences are 
mere simple modifications of the lips. Reaumur, Mem., I, iv, 16, has figured a 
stigma of this latter kind, where the lips have an internal border, which, from all 
appearances, must be corneous. By supposing them to be almost entirely of this 
nature, we have the trmare of M. de Serres. Certain aquatic larvae have a pecu- 
liar respiratory apparatus, of which we shall speak hereafter. 

f The presence of tracheae excludes a complete circulation, that is to say, the 
distribution of the blood to the different parts of the body, and its return from the 
organs of respiration to the heart. Thus, although some vessels have recently been 
discovered in certain Insects Phasmae and, although they may possibly exist in 
various Arachnides Tracheariae, it does not exclude them from the general system. 
M. M. de Serres has observed that the intestinal tube of the Phalangium gives off 
numerous caeca or vermiform appendages, which seem to have some analogy with the 
hepatic vessels, and that the tracheae ramify over them ad infinitum. 

1 According to Muller the Hydrachna umbrala has six eyes: but may this not 
have arisen from an optical illusion or some mistake? 



I KA< HKAhM.. 315 

ligula constitute a sucker. Must of these animals, however, being 
very small, great difficulties necessarily accompany these investi- 
gations, and it is readily perceived that such characters should only 
be resorted to when it is impossible to avoid it. 



FAMILY I. 

PSEU DO-SCORPION ES. 

Jn this family we find the thorax articulated, its first segment much 
the largest, and resembling a corselet ; the abdomen is very distinct 
and annulated, and the palpi very large and in the form of legs or 
claws. There are eight legs in each sex, with two equal hooks at the 
extremity of the tarsi, the two anterior ones, at most, excepted, and 
two apparent chelicerse terminated by two fingers and two toes, formed 
by the first joint of the palpi. They are all terrestrial, and have an 
oval or oblong body. This family comprehends but two genera. 

GALEODES,O//r. SOLPUGA, Licht., Fab. 

Two very large chelicerae, with strongly dentated vertical fingers, one 
superior, fixed, and frequently furnished at its base with a slender, 
elongated, pointed appendage*, and the other moveable; large pro- 
jecting palpi in the form of feet or antennae, terminated by a short, 
vesicular joint, resembling a button without a terminal hook ; the two 
anterior feet of an almost similar figure, equally unarmed, but 
smaller ; the others terminated by a tarsus, the last joint of which is 
furnished at the end with two little pellets, and two long toes termi- 
nated by a hook ; five semi-infundibuliform pediculated scales on each 
posterior leg, arranged in one series along their first joints : and two 
eyes closely approximated on an eminence anterior to the first tho- 
racic segment, which represents a large head bearing the two anterior 
feet, as well as the parts of the mouth. 

Their body is oblong, generally soft, and bristled with long hairs. 
The last joint, of the palpi according to M. Dufour, contains a parti- 
cular organ formed like a disk, of a nacre-white, and which never 
protrudes unless the animal is irritated. The two anterior feet may 
be considered as second palpi. The labrum has the form of a little, 
strongly compressed, recurved rostrum, pointed and hairy at the end. 
The ligula is small, shaped like a keel, and is terminated by two 
divergent, bearded setae, each posted on a little joint. The other 
pairs of legs are annexed to as many segments, I have perceived a 
large stigma on each side of the body, between the first and second 
pair of legs, as well as a slit at the base of the inferior part of the 
abdomen. The abdomen is oval, and composed of nine aimuli. 

* 1 do not think it is peculiar to either sex. 



316 ARACHN1DES. 

It is supposed that the ancients designated these animals by the 
names of Phalangiwn, Solifuga Tetragnatka, 8?c. M. Poe dis- 
covered a species in the environs of Havanna, but the others are pecu- 
lar to the hot and sandy countries of the eastern continent (a). They 
run with great celerity, erect their head when surprised, and show 
signs of resistance ; they are considered venemous *. 

CHELIFER, Geoff. OBISIUM., lllig. 

The palpi elongated, in the form of an arm, with a hand terminated 
by a didactyle forceps; all the legs equal, terminated by two hooks ; 
the eyes placed on the sides of the thorax. 

These animals resemble small Scorpions destitute of a tail. Their 
body is flattened, and the thorax nearly square, with one or two eyes 
on each side. 

They run swiftly, and frequently retrograde or move sideways 
like Crabs. Rcesel saw one female lay her eggs and collect them 
into a heap. Hermann, Sen., says that she carries them under her 
abdomen, united in a pellet. He is even of the opinion that these 
Arachnides can spin. 

Hermann, Jun. Mem. Apter. divides this genus into two sec- 
tions. 

In some Ckclifer, Leach the first segment of the trunk or 
thorax is divided by an impressed transverse line ; the tarsi consist of 
a single joint; there is a kind of stylet at the extremity of the 
movcable finger of the chelicerse, and the hairs of the body are 
shaped like a spatula. 

Ch. cancroides ; Phalangium cancroides, L. ; Scorpio can- 
cr aides, Fab.; Roes., Insect. Ill, Supp. LXIV, vulgo Book-Scor- 
pion. Found in herbaria, old books, &c,, where it feeds on the 
small insects that destroy them. 

Ch. cimicoides ; Scorpio cimicoides, Fab.; Herm., Mem. 
Apter., VII, 9. Inhabits under bark of trees, stones, &c. 
In others Obisium, Leach the thorax is entire, the chelicerse 
are destitute of a stylet, and the hairs on the body are setaceous f- 
A more important character however is found in the number of 
eyes. In Obisium it is four, and but two in Chelifer properly so 
called J. 

* Svlpuga fatalis, Fab.; Herbst., Monog., Solp. I, i, Bengal; S. chelicornis, 
Fab., Herbst. Ib. II, 1; Phalangium araneoides, Pall., Spicil. Zool., fascic. IX, iii, 
7, 8, 9. See also the Monog. of this genus by Herbst., and the Voy. of Pallas and 
Olivier. 

f Herm., Mem. Apter., V, 6 ; VI, 14. 

J See Leach, Monog. of the Scorpions, Zool. Miscell. Ill, tub. 141, 142; and a 
memoir on the Insects found in copal by M. Dalman, where he describes and figures 
a species under the name of eucarpus, and mentions several others. 

(j^ (a} Our author does not seem aware of the fact that two species of this genus 
havebeen discoveredby Mr. Say near the Rocky Mountains rthey are, 1 . Gal. pallipes' 
Say. Hairy ; chelicerse horizontal ; fingers arcuated ; abdomen sub-depressed, 
livid. 2. Gal subulata, Id. Hairy ; chelicerse horizonal ; thumb nearly rectilinear and 
destitute of teeth ; resembles the pallipes in form, size and colour, but the superior 
finger of the chelicera: is unarmed and rectilinear, and the inferior arcuated with 
about two stout teeth. Long's Expedition, IT, p. 3. ENG. FD. 



TRACHP.ARI.K. 317 

FAMILY II. 

PtfCNOGONIDES. 

The trunk, in this family, is composed of four segments, occupying 
nearly the whole length of the body and terminated at each extremity 
by a tubular joint, the anterior of which is the largest, sometimes 
simple, and sometimes accompanied by chelicerae and palpi, or only 
one kind of these organs, that constitutes the mouth *. There are 
eight logs in both sexes, formed for running, but the female is 
furnished with two additional false ones, placed near the two ant< 
rior and solely destined to carry her eggs, 

The Pycnogonides are marine animals f, analogous either to the 
Cyami and the Caprellae, or to the Arachnides of the genus Phalan- 
gium, where Linnaeus placed them. Their body is commonly linear, 
with very long legs, composed of eight or nine joints, terminated by 
two unequal hooks which appear to form but one, and the smallest of 
which is cleft. The first segment of the body, which replaces the 
head and mouth, forms a projecting tube, cylindrical or in the form of 
a truncated cone, with a triangular aperture at its extremity. The 
chelicerae and palpi are placed at its base. The former are cylindrical 
or linear, simply prehensile, and composed of two joints, the last of 
which is a forceps, the inferior finger, or the one that is fixed, being 
sometimes shorter than the other. The palpi are filiform, and consist 
of five or nine joints, with a terminal hook. Each of the following 
segments, the last excepted, bears a pair of legs J ; but the first, or the 
one articulated with the mouth, has a tubercle on the back, on which 
are placed two eyes on each side, and beneath, in the females only, 
two additional small foldf.d legs, bearing the eggs which are collected 
around them in one or two pellets. The last segment is small, cylin- 
drical, and perforated by a little orifice at the extremity. No vestige 
of stigmata can be perceived. 

* On the siphon of a large species of Phoxichilus brought from the Cape of Good 
Hope by the late M. Delalamle, I observed longitudinal ^turos, so that it appears 
to me to be composed of the labrum, ligula, and two jaws, all soldered together. In 
this case the palpi belong to the jaws. 

t According to Savigny they form the transition from the Arachnides to the Crvs- 
tacta. We place them here, but with some hr-itation. 

I M. Milne Edwards, who has investigated the anatomy of these animals on the 
living subject, has told me that in tin- iutrrior of these organs he observed lateral ex- 
pansions of the intestinal canal, or caeca. I have, in fact, observed traces of them 
under the form of blackish vessels, in various Nymphones. This induces me to 
believe that these animals respire by the skin, a character by which we might form 
them into a particular order, and one perhaps intermediate between the Arachnidea 
and Apterous Insects of the order of the Parasita. 



318 ARACHNIDRS. 

They are found among marine plants, sometimes under stones near 
the beach, and occasionally also on the Cetacea. 

PYCNOGONUM, Brun., Mull., Fab. 

The chelicerae and palpi wanting ; length of the feet hardly greater 
than that of the body, which is proportionably thicker and shorter 
than in the following genera. They live on the Cetacea *. 

PHOXICHILUS, Lat. 

The palpi wanting, as in the Pycnogoni ; but the legs are very long, 
and there are two chelicerae f . 

NYMPHON, Fab. 

The Nymphones resemble the Phoxichili in the narrow and oblong 
form of their body, the length of their legs, and in the presence of 
chelicerae ; but they have, besides, two palpi J. 



FAMILY III. 



HOLETRA. 

The trunk and abdomen are here united in one mass, under a com- 
mon epidermis, or, at most, the thorax is divided by a strangulation, 
and the abdomen, in some, merely c-xhibits an appearance of annuli, 
formed by the plicae of the abdomen. 

The anterior extremity of their body frequently projects in the 
form of a snout or rostrum : most of them have eight legs, and the 
remainder six ||. 

This family consists of two tribes. In the first or the PHALANGITA, 
Lat., we observe very apparent chelicerae which either project in 

* Mull. Zool. Dan., CXIX, 1012, the female. Found on our coast by MM. 
Surirey and D'Orbigny. 

t Refer to this genus the Pycnogonum spinipes of Othon Fabricius, his variety of 
the P. grossipes, without antennae ; the Phalangium aculeatum ; the spinosum, Montag., 
Lin. Trans. ; the Nymphon femoratum of the Acts of the Soc. of Nat. Hist, of Copen- 
hag., 1797 ; the Nymphon hirtum, Fab., which perhaps does not differ from the Phal. 
spinipes and spinosum above quoted. 

J Pycnogonum grossipes, Oth. Fab. ; Mull., Zool. Dan., CXIX, 5 9, the female; 
to compare with the Nymph, gracile and femoratum, Leach, Zool. Miscell., XIX, 1, 

2. His genus Ammothea A. carolinensis, Ib. differs from Nymphon in the che- 

licerse, which are much shorter than the month, the first segment or radical joint 
being very small. The palpi consist of nine joints, while those of the Nymphoues 
have but five. In this genus, as well as in Phoxichilus and Pycnogonum, the second 
joint of the tarsi is very short. The tubercle on which the eyes are placed is some- 
times situated on an elevation, which projects above the base of the anterior segment, 
or the mouth. 

HOLETRA, Hermann. 

|| The Trombidium longipes, Hermann, Jun., Mem. Apter, pi. I, 8, is represented 
with ten legs, the two first very long. He allows but eight in the text. 



TRAGHEARMt. 319 

front of the trunk, or are inferior, and always terminating in a di- 
dactyle forceps, preceded by one or two joints. 

They have two filiform palpi, composed of five joints, the last of 
which is terminated by a small nail; two distinct eyes; two jaws 
formed by the prolongation of the radical joint of the palpi, and fre- 
quently four more*, which are also a mere dilatation of the hip of the 
two first pairs of legs. The body is oval or rounded, and covered, 
the trunk at least, with a firmer skin ; there is also an appearance of 
annuli or plicae on the abdomen. The legs, of which there are always 
eight, are long, and distinctly divided, like those of insects f At the 
origin of the two posterior legs, at least in several Phalangium 
aro two stigmata, one on each side, but hidden by their hips. 

Most of them live on the ground, at the foot of trees, and on plants, 
and are very active ; others conceal themselves under stones and in 
moss. Their sexual organs are internal, and placed under the mouth. 

PHALANGIUM, Lin. t Fab. 

The chelicerae projecting, much shorter than the body ; eyes placed 
on a common tubercle. 

Their legs are very long and slender, and when detached from the 
body show signs of irritability for a few moments. The two sexes 
in coitu are placed opposite to each other ; this occurs at the latter 
end of summer. The penis of tlj male is formed like a dart, and has 
a demi-sagittal termination. The female has a filiform, flexible, 
annulated and membranous oviduct. The tracheae are tubular. 

Ph. cornutwn, L., the male ; Opilio, Id., the female; Herbst., 
Monog. Phal., I, 3, the male; Ib., 1, the female. Body oval, 
reddish or cinereous above ; black beneath ; palpi long ; two 
ranges of small spines on the ocular tubercles, and spines on the 
thighs ; corneous chelicerse in the males ; a blackish band with 
a festooned margin on the back of the female J. 

A celebrated English entomologist, M. Kirby, under the name of 
GONOLEPTES, has formed a particular genus of the species with spi- 
nous palpi, the two last joints of which are nearly equal, sub-oval, and 
terminated by a stout nail, and in which the hips of the two posterior 

* Tf we suppose that the two superior jaws, with their palpi, represent the mandi- 
bles of the Crustacea Decapoda, the other four will also represent the jaws of the 
same animals, and the two jaws and inferior lip of the triturating (Broyeurs) Insects. 
From M. Marcel de Serres we learn that the ganglion which immediately follows the 
brain is opposite to the thinl pair of legs, which, according to these approximations, 
are analogous to tin- Hist pair in Insects; now, there also we find the same ganglion 
in the latter. See Myriapoda. 

f The hips, thighs, tibiae, and tarsi are the same as in the preceding families. 
But the legs of the Arachnides Trncheariee are composed of short joints, whose rela- 
tive proportions differ very gradually, so that these distinctions of parts are less 
apparent. 

J See the Monograph of this genus, published by Latreille at the end of the His- 
toire des Fourmis, and those of Herbst., and Hermann, Jun., Mem. Apter. 



320 ARACHNIDES. 

legs are very large, soldered, and form a plate under the body. These 
legs are separated from the others and placed behind*. In Phalan- 
gium properly so called, the palpi are filiform, spineless, and termi- 
nated by a joint much longer than the preceding one, with a little 
terminal hook. All the legs are approximated, with similar coxae 
contiguous at their origin. Such are all the species indigenous to 
Europe. 

SIRO, Lett. 

Projecting chelicerae nearly as long as the body ; eyes separated and 
placed on different insulated tubercles f. 

MACROCHELES, Lat. 

Extremely salient and very long chelicerae ; but the eyes null or ses- 
sile; the two anterior legs very long and antenniform; the top of the 
body forming a plate or scale without distinct annuli. 

To this genus I refer the Acarus marginatus and the Ac. testudi- 
narius, of Hermann, Jun., Mem. Apter., p. 76, pi. vi, fig. 6, and p. 
80, pi. ix, fig. 1. 

TROGULUS, Lat. 

Anterior extremity of the body projecting like a clypeus, and re- 
ceiving the chelicerae and other parts of the mouth into an inferior 
cavity, 

The body is flat and covered with a very firm skin J. 

In the second tribe of the Holetra, that of the ACARIDES, we some- 
times find chelicerae, but they are simply formed of a single forceps, 
either didactyle or munodactyle, and are hidden in a sternal lip; some- 
times there is a sucker formed of united lancets ; or finally, the mouth 
consists of a simple cavity without any apparent appendages. This 
tribe is composed of the genus 

ACARUS, Lin. 

Most of these animals are very small or nearly microscopical. They 
are observed everywhere. Some of them are errant, and of these 
some are found under stones, leaves, the bark of trees, in the earth, 
in water, dried meat, old cheese, and putrescent animal matters. 
Others are parasitical, living on the skin or in the flesh of various 
animals, which they often, by their excessive multiplication, reduce 
to a state of great debility. The origin of certain diseases, such as 
the itch, is attributed to particular species. The experiments of Dr. 
Galet prove that if the Acari of the human psora be placed on the 
body of a perfectly healthy person, they will inoculate him with the 
virus of that disorder. Various species of Acari are also found on 

* Gonoleptes horridus, Lin. Trans., XII, xxii, 16; from Brazil. 

f Siro rubens, Lat., Gener. Crust, et Insect., I, vi, 2 ; Acarus crassipes, Herra., 
Mem. Apter., Ill, 6, and IX, Q. N. 

J Trogulus nep#formis, Lat. Gener. Crust, and Insect., I, vi, 1 ; Phalangium 
tricarinatum, L. South of France, Spain. 



TRACHKARlvE. 321 

Insects, and some of the Coleoptera that feed on cadaverous or excre- 
mentitious substances are frequently covered with tln-m. They have 
even been observed in the brain and eye of man. 

The Acari, or Mites as they are vulgarly termed, are oviparous, 
and excessively prolific. Several of them at first have but six legs, 
the remaining two being developed shortly after. Their tarsi ter- 
minate in various ways according to their habits. 

Some ACARIUKS, Lat. or the Acari proper, have eight legs, 
solely destined for walking, and chelicerae. 

TROMBIDIUM, Fab. 

The chelicerae menodactyle, or terminated by a movable hook ; 
salient palpi, pointed at the end, with a moveable appendage or spe- 
cies of finger under their extremity; two eyes, each placed on * 
iittle immoveable pedicle. The body is divided into two parts, the 
first of which, or the anterior, is very small, and bears the two first 
pair of legs, together with the eyes and mouth. 

Tromb. koloscriccum, Fab.; Herna., Mem. Apter., pi. 1, 2, and 
II, 1. Very common in gardens in the spring; blood-red; ab- 
domen nearly square, posteriorly narrowed, with an emargina- 
tion ; the back loaded with papillae, hairy at base, and globular 
at the extremity. 

Tromb. tinctorium, Fab. ; Herm. Apter.; 1,1. Three or four 
times the size of the preceding ; it furnishes a red dye. The 
East Indies *. 

ERYTHR^US, Lat. 

The chelicerae and palpi of Trombidium; but the eyes are not 
placed on pedicles, neither is the body divided f . 

GAMASUS, Lat. Fab. 

Didactyle chelicerae; very distinct or projecting filiform palpi. 
The superior surface of the body, in some, is either wholly or 
partially invested with a scaly skin \. 

The body is entirely soft in the remainder. Several species of 
this division live on Birds and Quadrupeds. Some are known ; 
such as the 

Gam. telarius ; Ac. tetanus. Fab.; which form extremely fine 
webs on the leaves of several plants, particularly of the Elm, and 

T. Suliginotum, Herm. Mem. Apt. I, 3 ; T. bicolor, Ib. II, 1 -,T. assimile, 
Ib., 3 .- T. curtipes, Ib., 4; T. trigonum, Ib. 5 ; T. trimaculatum, Ib., 6. 

f Erythratu pkalaxyioidts, Lat.; Trombidium phalangioidfs, Herm., Ib., I, 10; 
Trombidium quuquilUarum, Ib., 9 ; Tromb. paru-ti**m, Ib M 12 ; T. pusillum, 
Ib., II, 4 ; T. mwvmm, Ib., 5. 

J Gamotmt marginal**, Lat.; Acanu marytnatvs, Herm., Mem. Apter., VI, 6, found 
on the corpus callosum of the human brain; Trombidium hnyipes, Herm., Ib., 1, 
8; Acanu coleopl rotor urn. Fab.; De Geer, Mem. Insect., VII, vi, 5 ; Acarus 
hirumdinu, Herm., Ib., I. 13 ; Ac. retptrtilionis, Ib. 14 ; Trombidium bipustulatum, Ib., 
II, 10; Tromb. socittm, Ib., II, 13; Tromb. tiliariutn, Ib., 12; Tromb. ttlarium, 
Ib., 15 : these three specie* live in society on leaves, covering them with extremely 
fine and silky filaments; Tromb. celer, Ib., 14 ; Acarus gallinee, De Geer, Insect, 
VII, vi, 13. 

VOL, III. T 



322 



AUACHNIDES. 



are very injurious to them. These particular species is reddish, 
with a blackish spot on each side of the abdomen. 
CHEYLETUS, Lat. 

Didactyle chelicerae ; but the palpi are thick, resemble arms, and 
have a falciform termination *. 

ORIBA.TA, Lat. NOTASPIS, Herm. 

The chelicerae are also didactyle in the Oribatae, but their palpi 
are very short or concealed ; their body is invested by a firm, cori- 
aceous or scaly skin resembling a shield, and their legs are long 
or moderate. 

The anterior part of the body projects into a snout, and an ap- 
pearance of a thorax is often observable. The tarsi, in some, are 
terminated by a single hook, and in others by two or three, without 
any vesicular pellet. 

They are found on stones, trees, and in moss ; their gait is slow f. 

UROPODA, Lat. 

Judging from analogy, we presume that the Uropodae are fur- 
nished with forceps-like chelicerae. Their palpi are not apparent ; 
their body, still covered with a scaly skin, has but very short legs, 
and a filament at the anus, by means of which they attach them- 
selves to certain coleopterous Insects, suspending themselves in the 
air J. 

ACARUS, Fab. Lat. SARCOPTES, Lat. 

Two didactyle chelicerae, and very short or concealed palpi, as in 
the preceding ; but the body very soft or without a scaly crust. 

The tarsi have a vesicular pellet at their extremity. Several spe- 
cies live on the food of Man, and others are found in his psoraic 
ulcers, and in those of the Horse, Dog, and Cat . 

Others, called Ticks RICINUE, Lat. also have eight legs, solely 
adapted for running, but are destitute of chelicerae, properly so 
called ; they are replaced, however, by two lancet-like blades, which, 
with the Hgula, form a sucker. 

Sometimes they have distinct eyes,- and salient, filiform, free palpi ; 
a sucker composed of membranous parts, and entire ; and a very 
soft body. They are errant animals. 

B DELL A, Lat. Fab. SCIRUS, Herm. 
Elongated palpi, bent into an elbow, with setae or hairs at the ex- 

* Acarus eruditus, Schrank., Enum. Insect. Aust., No. 1058, Tab. II, 1; ejusd., 
peciculus musculi, Ib., No. 1024, I, 5. 

f- See Hermann, Mem. Apter., genus Notaspis ; and Olivier, Encyc. Method., 
Insect., article Oribate. 

J Acarus vegetans, De Geer, Insect., VII, vii, 15. The Acarus spinitarsus, Herm. 
Mem. Apter. VI, vi, 5, perhaps forms a genus intermediate between this and the 
preceding one. 

Acarus domesticvs,De Geer, Ib., V, 1 4; Acarus siro, Fab. ; Ac. scabiei, Ib., 
12, 13. Seethe dissert, of Dr. Galet ; Ac. farina, Ib., 15; Ac. avicularum, Ib., 
VI, 9 ; Ac. passerinus, Ib., 12, remarkable for the size of its third pair of legs ; 
Ac. dimidiatus, Herm., Mem. Apter. VI, 4 ; Trombidium expalpe, Ib., II, 8. 



TRACHBARLB 323 

tremity; four eyes; the posterior legs longest; sucker projecting in 
the form of a conical or subulate rostrum. Found under stones, 
bark of trees, and in moss. 

Bd. longioornis ; Acarus longicornij t L.; La Pince rouge. 
Geoff. ; Scirus vtUgaris, Herm., Mem. Apter., Ill, 9 ; IX, S. 
Hardly half a line in length ; scarlet; the feet paler; sucker in 
the form of an elongated and pointed rostrum ; quadriarticu- 
lated palpi, the first and last joint of which are the longest ; the 
latter somewhat the shortest of the two, and terminated by two 
setae. Common in the environs of Paris ; under stones *. 

SMARIDIA, Lai. 

Distinguished from Bdella by the palpi, which are hardly longer 
than the sucker, straight and without terminal setae ; by the eight 
eyes, and by the two anterior legs, which are longer than the others \. 

Sometimes these Ticks, with eight legs and without chelicerse, 
have no eyes that are perceptible ; their palpi are either anterior and 
projecting, but in the form of valvulae, widened or dilated near the 
extremity, serving as a sheath to the sucker or inferior ; the parts 
composing the sucker are horny, very hard and dentated ; the body 
is invested with a coriaceous skin, or has at least, anteriorly, a scaly 
plate, 

These animals are parasitical, gorge themselves with the blood 
of several of the Vertebrata, and from being extremely flat, acquire 
by suction a great volume and a vesicular form. They are round 
or oval. 

IXODES, Lat. Fab. CYNORH^STES, Herm. 

The palpi forming a sheath to the sucker, and with it constituting 
a projecting and short rostrum, truncated and slightly dilated at the 
extremity. 

The Ixodes are found in thick woods abounding in bushes, briars, 
&c. ; they hook themselves to low plants by the hind legs, keeping 
the others extended, and fasten on Dogs, Oxen, Horses, and other 
Quadrupeds, and even on the Tortoise, burying their sucker so com- 
pletely in their flesh, that they can only be detached by force, and by 
tearing out the portion that adheres to it, They lay a prodigious 
quantity of eggs, which, according to M. Chabrier, are protruded 
from their mouth. They sometimes increase to such an enormous 
extent on the Ox and Horse, that they perish from the exhaustion. 
Their tarsi are terminated by two hooks inserted in a palette, or 
united at base on a common pedicle, 

The ancients designated these Arachnides by the term Ricinus. 



Scina longirottris, Herm., Mem. Aptcr. VI, 2 ; S. latirastris, Ib., II, III; 
S. w/irM/ru, Ib., Ill, 12; IX, T. 

f Acarus samhuri, Srhrnnk, and perhaps the following Trombidia of Hermann; 
TV. miniatum, 1, T; TV. papillositm, II, 6; Tr. squammatum, Ib., 7. The second 
is even closely allied to the species which serves as a type tathe genus. 

rl 



324 ARACHNIDES. 

Huntsmen in France call the species which attaches itself to the 
Dog, Louvette. It is the 

Ixodes rtcinus; Acarus ricinus, L.; Acarus reduvius^ DeGeer, 
Insect., VII, vi, 1, 2. A deep blood-red; the sealy, anterior 
plate still darker; sides of the body turned up, and slightly 
hairy ; palpi forming a sheath to the sucker. 

Ixodes reticulatus, Lat. Fab.; Acarus reduvius, Schrank, 
Enum. Insect., Aust., No. 1043, iii, 1,2: Cynorhcestes pictus, 
Heim. Cinerous, with small reddish-brown spots, and little 
annular lines of the same colour ; edges of the abdomen striate ; 
palpi nearly oval. It infests Oxen, and when tumefied, is six 
lines in length. 

The species of this genus have not been sufficiently studied *. 
ARGAS, Lat. RHYNCHOPRION, Herm. 

Distinguished from Ixodes by the inferior situation of the mouth, 
and by the palpi which do not encase the sucker, have a conical 
form, and are composed of four joints, and not of three, as in the 
preceding genus. 

Argas reflexus ; Ixodes reflexus, Fab. ; Lat. Gen. Crust, et 
Insect., I, vi, 3, Herm. Mem. Apt. IV, 10, 11. Pale yellow, 
with dark blood- coloured, or obscure and anastomosing lines. 
On Pigeons. 

Argas persious ; Malleh de Mianeh. This species, described 
by travellers under the name of Punaise venimeuse de Miana, 
with other Ixodes, constitutes the subject of some curious obser- 
vations published by M. Gotthef Fischer de Waldheim. 

Others again HYDRACHNELUE, Lat. have also eight legs, but 
they are ciliated and adapted to natation. 

They form the Genus HYDRACHNA of Miillerf or that of At/tax 
Fab., and are wholly aquatic. Their body is generally oval or nearly 
globular, and very soft. That of some males is narrowed posteriorly, 
so as to resemble a kind of tail, their genital organs being placed at 
its extremity ; in the female, they are on the inferior surface of the 
abdomen. The number of eyes varies from two to four, or, accord- 
ing to Miiller, even to six. 

The mouth of those species, I have been able to study, offered the 
three following modifications, which have served as a base to three 
generic divisions, but to which it is almost impossible to refer all 
Miiller's species of Hydrachnae, that naturalist not having described 
them with sufficient minuteness. 



* Acarus eegyptius, L. ; Herm. Mem. Apter., IV, 9; L. TV, 13; Acarus rhino - 
cerotis, De Geer, Insect., VII, xxxviii, 5. 6; Acarus americanus, L. ; Ac. niyua, 
De Geer, Ib., XXVII, 9, 13. See the genus Ixodes of Fabricius, and the work of 
Leach on the apterous Insects of Linnaeus Trans. Lin. Soc., XI. 

f HydracJina, Herm. 



TRACHEARME. 325 

EYLAIS, Lai. 

Chelicerae terminated by a moveable hook* . 
HYDRACHNA, Lot. 

The mouth composed of laminae, forming a projecting sucker ; a 
moveable appendage under the extremity of the palpi f. 

LlMNOCHARES, Lat. 

The sucker mouth of the Hydrachnse, but the palpi are simple J. 

Others, MICROPHTHIRA, Lat. are removed from all the rest of the 
Arachnides by the number of their legs, which only amounts to six. 
They are all parasitical. 

CARIS, Lat. 

A sucker and apparent palpi ; the body rounded, flat, and covered 
with a scaly skin. 

LEPTUS, Lat. 
A sucker and palpi as in Caris, but the body very soft and ovoid. 

Leptus autumnalis ; Acarus autumnalis, Shaw, Zool. Miscell., 
II, pi. xlii. A very common species, in autumn, on grasses and 
other plants. Having reached the person of the passenger, it 
climbs up, insinuates itself into his skin at the root of the hairs, 
and occasions an itching as intolerable as that produced by a 
regular itch. It is called the Rouget in France, and in fact it 
is of a reddish colour and very small. 

The remaining species are found on different Insects, and belong 
to the division of the Trombidia hexapoda, Hermann ||. 

ACLYSIA, And. 

The body shaped like a bagpipe, and furnished with a siphon, 
without distinct palpi, situated beneath its anterior extremity, which 
is narrowed, curved and obtuse; very small legs. 

The Aclysiae live on the Dytisci. But a single species Ac. 
dytisci, Mem. de la Soc., d'Hist. Nat., I, p. 98, pi. v, fig. 2 
was at first known, the one on which M. Victor Audouin esta- 
blished the subgenus. Count Manheiren, a Russian naturalist, 
to whom the science is much indebted for his entomological 
essays, and his readiness to second the efforts of those who 
study it, has, as it appears, discovered another. 

Atax extendms, Fab. ; MOIL, IX, 4. 

f Atax geographic**, Fab. ; MOIL, VIII, 3, 5 ; At globator, Fab. ; Mull., IX, I. 

t Acanu aquatiau, L. ; Acanu aquaticut holoscrictus, De Geer, Insect., VII ; 
ix, 15, 30 ; Trombidium aqvaticum, Herm., Mem. Apter. I, ii. 

Cans respcrtilionis, Lat., Gener. Crust, et Insect. 1,-lGl. 

|| Trombidium insfctorum, Herm., Mem. Apter. I, 16; Ge Geer, Insect., VII, 
vii, 5; Tromb. latirostre, Herm., Ib., 15 ; Tromb. cornutum, Ib., II, ii ; Tromb. 
aphidis, Ib. ; De Geer, Insect., VII, vii, U; Tromb. HbclluUf, Herm. Ib. ; De 
Geer, Ib., VII, 9 ; Tromb. o/m, Herm. Ib. ; De Geer, Ib., VII, 13; Tromb. 
lapid*m, Herm., Ib., VII, 7. 



326 ARACHNIDKS. 

ATOMA, Lat. 

Neither sucker nor palpi visible, the mouth merely consisting of 
a small orifice on the chest. The body is oval and soft, the legs 
very short *. The 

OCYPETE, Leach, 

Belongs to this tribe by the number of legs ; but, according to him, 
these animals are furnished with mandibles f. 

* Acants parasiticus, De Geer, VII, vii, 7 ; Trombidium parasiticum, Hermann, 
t Ocypete rubra, Leach, Lin. Trans., XI, 396. On the Tipulse. 



THIRD 
GREAT DIVISION 

OF THE 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

(CONTINUED.) 



CLASS III. 



INSECTA. 

Insects, which form the third class of articulated animals provided 
with articulated legs, have, besides, a dorsal vessel analogous to the 
vestige of a heart, but totally destitute of any branch for the circula- 
tion *. They respire by means of two principal tracheae, extending, 

Anatomists are greatly divided with respect to the nature of this organ ; some 
consider it as a true heart ; others, among whom is the Baron Cuvier, deny it this 
quality, an opinion which appears to us to be fully confirmed by the admirable re- 
searches of M. Marcel de Serres " Memoire Sur le Vaisseau Dorsal des Insectes " 
published in the Me"m. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. According to the latter it secretes 
fat, whieh is subsequently elaborated in the adipose tissue which surrounds it. 
Lyouct says that it contains a gummy substance of an orange colour. Some very 
recent observations appear to establish the existence of certain very small vessels ; 
but in addition to the fact that this circulation must be very partial. Insects 
would still greatly differ, in this respect, from the Crustacea, inasmuch as the 
blood does not return to the heart. M. Straus in his report Bullet. Univers., de 
M. le Baron de F^russac on a Memoir of M. Harold on this subject, has inti- 
mated his own opinion on the matter as deduced from his anatomical investigations 
of the Melolontha. " The dorsal vessel," says that gentleman, *' is the true 
heart of Insects, being, as in the higher animals, the locomotive organ of the 
blood, which, instead of being contained in vessels, is diffused throughout the 
general cavity of the body. This heart occupies all the length of the back of the 
abdomen, and terminates anteriorly by a single non-ramified artery which carries 
the blood into the head where it diffuses it, and whence it returns into the abdomen 
in consequence of^its accumulation in the head, to again enter the heart ; to this 
all the circulationTn Insects is reduced, they having merely a single artery without 
hnmche* and no veins. The ul;r of the heart are not muscular as is asserted by 
Hit-old they are merely fibrous ligaments which keep the dorsal vessel in its place. 
The heart, that is to say the abdominal part of the vessel (in the Melolonlha rulyaris) 
is divided, internally, into eight chambers, separated from each other by two con- 
verging valvulie, which allow the transmission of the blood from behind forwards, and 
from one chamber to another, into the artery which runs to the head, but which 
prevent it from retrograding. At the lateral and anterior part of each chamber, are 



328 1NSECTA. 

parallel to each other, throughout the whole length of the body, 
having centres, at intervals, from which proceed numerous branches, 
corresponding to external openings or stigmata*, which admit air. 

two transverse fissures which communicate with the abdominal cavity and through 
which the blood contained in the latter enters the heart. Each of these apertures is pro- 
vided, internally, with a little semi-circular valve which presses on it during the systole 
of the heart. From this short description it will be seen, that when the posterior cham- 
ber dilates, the blood contained in the abdominal cavity penetrates into it by the 
transverse fissures of which we have spoken, and which we call auriculo-ijentrieulairies. 
When the chamber contracts, the blood finding no exit into the abdominal cavity 
forces the inter-ventricular valve, passes into the second chamber which dilates to 
receive it, and which, at the same time, receives a certain quantity of blood by the 
true auriculo- ventricular apertures. When the second chamber receives the contract- 
ing impression, the blood passes into the third, which also receives a portion of it 
through the lateral openings, and thus the blood is forced from one chamber to another 
into the artery. It is these successive centractions of the chambers of the heart that 
we perceive through the skin of caterpillars." The heart of the Crustacea Decapoda, 
Squilli, Limulse, Aranese, &c., as I have been assured by the same profound 
observer, also contains similar valvulse. It is enclosed in a sort of sac or pericar- 
dium, which, according to him, acts in lieu of an auricle. These divisions or chambers 
of the dorsal vessel are what Lyonet terms ailes or wings, he also saw that the 
dorsal vessel extended to the head, and terminated there in the manner already 
described : but he did not see the orifices and valvulae mentioned by Straus. The 
definition of the dorsal vessel given by this naturalist, evidently proves, that, what- 
ever be its internal formation, it is not a true heart. Besides, these observations do 
not teach us the true nature of the liquid it contains, nor how it becomes diffused 
throughout the other parts of the body to effect their nutrition. It is however certain, 
from the observations of Lyonet, that all the parts of the body communicate with the 
corps graissmx by means of fibrilli. The tracheae give off branches which extend to 
the extremities of the various appendages of the body. The action of the air may 
occasion the ascension of the nutritive juices in the interstices, forming a sort of 
capillary tubes. 

* The number of segments in the body of the Myriapoda being undetermined, that 
of their stigmata is the same, and frequently extends to above twenty. In the Hexa- 
poda it is frequently eighteen, nine on each side. This computation, however, is 
rather true with respect to the animal as a larva than in its perfect state. Cater- 
pillars, the larvae of the Coleoptera and those of various other Insects, have one 
pair of stigmata on the first segment, or the one that bears the first pair of legs ; the 
second and the third are destitute of them, owing, I presume, to the developement 
of the wings which occurs in these rings, and renders the presence of respiratory 
apertures useless in that particular place. The fourth and each of the seven follow- 
ing annuli exhibit a pair : but in coleopterous Insects in their perfect state, besides 
the two anterior stigmata concealed in the cavity of the pro-thorax, which had not 
been perceived, we observe two others, situated between the origin of the elytra and 
that of the wings : they belong to the mesothorax. There are none in the metatho- 
rax, unless we consider the two of the first abdominal segments, as supplementary 
to the thorax, a consideration founded on what occurs in the Diptera and Hymenop- 
terous Insects with a pediculated abdomen, where these two stigmata, with the 
semi-segment in which they are placed, make part of the thorax. Thus, generally 
speaking, the bexapoda have eight pairs of abdominal stigmata, the two last of 
which, however, are frequently obliterated. 

In Acrydium, Truxalis, and Libellula, each side of the mesothorax presents a stig- 
ma, or those which Marcel de Serres calls trtmaeres. In these latter Insects, as 
well as in others with naked wings, or without elytra, the two first thoracic stigmata 
are placed above, between the prothorax and the mesothorax. With the exception of 
the Libellulse, the thorax proper offers no other distinct stigmata I say thorax proper, 
because, as we have already observed, the two first of the abdomen, in several, are 
referable to the posterior extremity of the thorax. The metathorax of the Pentatomse, 
and Scutellerae is provided inferiorly with a pair of stigmata. In the apterous Spec- 



1NSKCTA. 329 

They all have two antennae and a distinct head. The nervous sys- 
tem of most Insects the Hexapoda is generally composed of a 
brain foi nil of two opposing ganglions, united at base, giving off 
eight pairs of nerves and two single ones, and of twelve ganglions*, 
all inferior. The two first are situated near the junction of the 
head with the thorax, and are longitudinally contiguous ; the anterior 
sends nerves to the lower lip and adjacent parts ; the second, third 
and fourth belong to each of the three first segments, or those which 
form the thorax in the Hexapoda ; the remaining ganglions belong 
to the abdomen, so that the last or the twelfth corresponds to its 
seventh ring, and is immediately followed by those which compose 
the organs of generation ; each of these ganglions transmits nerves 
to the parts of its respective segments. The two last, which are 
closely approximated, also send some to the terminal annuli of the 
body. The frontal region exhibits three particular ganglions called 
frontal by Lyonet, from the first of which arises posteriorly a great 
nerve with enlargements, the longest of all, that he denominates the 
recurrent. The first ordinary or sub-cesophagean ganglion, gives 
off, according to him, four pairs of nerves, and each of the following 
ones, two; so that by counting the eight pairs of the brain, and the 
ten spinal bridles, which may also be considered as so many pairs of 
IUTVCS, we shall have in all forty-five pairs, exclusive of the two 
solitary nerves above-mentioned, or from twelve to fourteen more 
than are found in the human subject. The two nervous cords which 
form the ganglions by their union, are tubular and composed of two 
tunicks, in the exterior of which we observe tracheae; a medullary 
substance fills the central canal. The admirable work of M. Herold 
on the anatomy of the larva of the great Papilio brassices, L., 
studied throughout its various degrees of developement, and to the 
]>>! iod of its transformation into a chrysalis, shows us that the ner- 
vous system and that of the digestive organs experience remarkable 
changes ; that in the beginning, the nervous cords are longer and 
further apart, an observation which strengthens the opinion of one 
of the greatest zootomists of the age, Doctor Serres, on the origin 
and developement of the nervous system. In our general remarks 
on points common to the three classes of articulated animals provided 
with articulated feet, we mentioned the various opinions of physi- 

tra, there is none in the second segment or mesothorax ; but in the following one 
or the metathorax, there are two pairs, one anterior, which being situated near 
the articulation of this segment \\ith tin- preceding, may be considered as belonging 
t the latter, and the other smaller, and placed close to that of the first abdominal 
segment. 

* Several of the Lamellicorne* in a perfect state form exceptions. 



330 INSECTA. 

ologists with respect to the seat of the sense of hearing arid of smell. 

We will merely add, in regard to the former, that the little nervous 
frontal ganglions of which he have spoken, seem to confirm the 
opinion of those who, like Scarpa, place it in the origin of the an- 
tennae. I have detected two small orifices near the eyes of certain 
Lepidoptera, which, perhaps, are auditory canals. If, in several 
Insects, particularly .those furnished with filiform, or long, setaceous 
antennae, they (the antennae) are organs of touch, it seems to us 
difficult to account for the extraordinary developement they acquire 
in certain families, and more particularly in the males, if we refuse 
to admit that they are then the seat of smell. The palpi also, in 
some cases, as when they are greatly dilated at the extremity, may 
possibly be the principal organs of smell, part of which sense may 
also perhaps belong to the ligula. 

The digestive system consists of a preparatory or buccal apparatus, 
intestinal canal, biliary vessels, also called hepatic vessels, those styled 
salivary, but which are less general, free and floating vessels called 
excrementitious, the epiploon or corps graisseux, and probably of 
the dorsal vessel. This system is singularly modified according to 
the difference of the aliment, or forms a great number of particular 
types, of which we shall speak when treating of families. We will 
merely say a word with respect to the buccal apparatus and the prin- 
cipal divisions of the intestinal canal, beginning with the latter. In 
those where it is the most complicated, as in the carnivorous Coleop- 
tera, we observe a pharynx, oasophagus, crop, gizzard, stomach or 
chylific ventricle, and intestines which are divided into the small in- 
testines, great intestine or caecum, and the rectum. In those Insects 
where the tongue, properly so called, is laid on the anterior or inter- 
nal face of the lip, or is not free, the pharynx is situated on that same 
face and this is most commonly the case *. We will also add, that 
a naturalist who first furnished us with correct observations on the 
respiratory organs of the Mygales, M. Gaede, professor of natural 
history at Liege, does not consider the biliary vessels as secreting 
organs this opinion, however, does not appear to.be sufficiently 
well founded, and the observations of M. Leon Dufour f. even seem 
to destroy it. 

* See what we have stated respecting the ligula, in our general remarks on the 
three classes. 

f This latter naturalist, whom I shall have frequent occasion to mention, has 
published, with the most minute detail, every thing relative to the digestive system 
of Insects, in a series of admirable Memoirs, which have enriched the Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles. Well arranged resum of the whole by M. Victor Audouin may 
be found in the Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., article INSECTKS. 



IN8KCTA. 331 

Some few, and always apterous Insectes, such as the Myriapoda, 
approximate to several of the Crustacea, either in the number of the 
annuli of their body and in their legs, or in some points of analogy 
in the conformation of the parts of the mouth ; but all the others 
never have more than six legs, and their body, the number of whose 
segments never extends beyond twelve, is always divided into three 
principal parts, the head, trunk, and abdomen. Among the latter 
Insects, some are found without wings, that always preserve their 
natal form, and merely increase in size and change their skin*. In 
this respect they bear some analogy to the animals of the preceding 
classes. Nearly all the remaining Hexapoda have wings ; but these 
organs, and even frequently the feet, jlo not make their appearance 
at first, but are only developed after a series of changes, more or less 
remarkable, styled metamorphoses, of which we shall soon have to 
speak. 

The head f bears the antenna, eyes, and mouth. The composi 
tion and form of the antennae are much more various than in the 
Crustacea, and are frequently more developed or longer in the males 
than in the females. 

The eyes are either compound or simple ; the first, according to 
tin* baron Cuvier, Marcel de Serres and others, are formed : 1, of a 
cornea, divided into numerous little facets, which is so much the 
more convex, as the insect is more carnivorous ; its internal surface 
is covered with an opaque, and variously coloured, but slightly fluid 
substance, usually, however, of a black or deep violet hue: 2, of a 
choroides, fixed by its contour and edges to the cornea, covered with 
a black varnish, exhibiting numerous air vessels, arising from tolera- 
bly large trunks of tracheae in the head, whose branches form a cir- 
cular trachea round the eye : it is frequently wanting, however, as 
well as the choroides, in various nocturnal insects ; 3, of nerves aris- 
ing from a largo trunk, proceeding directly from the brain, which 
then opens, forming a reversed cone, the base of which is next to the 
eye, and each of whose rays or threads traversing the choroides and 
lining matter of the cornea, terminates in one of its facets : there is 
no crystalline nor vitreous humour. 

Several, besides these compound eyes, have simple ones, the cor- 



* My Homottntt (similar to the end) or the Ametobolia of Leach. 

t It* surface is divided into several little regions or arcac called the clypcus (nose 
of Kirhy), the /oie, the/roji/, the vertex or summit, and the cheeks. The term rlyptus 
being equivocal, I have substituted for it that of epistoma or overmoutb. It gives 
insertion to the labrum or upper lip. 



332 1NSKCTA. 

iiea of which is smooth. They are usually three in number, and are 
disposed in a triangle on the top of the head. In most of the Aptera, 
and in the larvae of those that are winged, they replace the former, 
and are frequently united in a group; those of the Arachnides seem to 
indicate that they are fitted for the purposes of vision. 

The mouth of hexapodous insects is generally composed of six 
principal parts, four of which are lateral, are disposed in pairs, and 
move transversely ; the other two, opposed to each other in a contrary 
direction, occupy the space comprised between the former : one is 
placed above the superior pair, and the other beneath the inferior. 
In the triturating insects (broyeurs), or those which feed on solid 
matters, the four lateral parts perform the office of jaws, the other 
two being considered as lips ; but, as we have already observed, the 
two superior jaws have been distinguished by the peculiar appellation 
of mandibles, the others alone bearing that of maxillae or jaws ; 
the latter are also furnished with one or two articulated filaments 
called palpi, a character never exhibited, in this class, by the man- 
dibles. Their extremity is often terminated by two divisions or lobes, 
the exterior of which, in the Orthoptera, is called the galea. We 
have already said that the upper lip was called the labrum. The 
other, or the labium, properly so styled, is formed of two parts ; the 
one, inferior and solid, is the mentum or chin ; the other, which is 
usually provided with two palpi, is the ligula *. 

In the Suctoria, or those that live by the suction of fluid aliament 
these various organs of manducation present themselves under two 
kinds of general modifications. In the first, the mandibles and the 
jaws are replaced by little laminae in the form of setae or lancets, 
forming, by their union, a sort of sucker, which is received into a 
sheath, supplying the place of a labium, and is either cylindrical or 
conical, and articulated in the form of a rostrum, or fleshy or mem- 
branous, inarticulated, and terminated by two lips constituting a 



* With respect to this, see what is stated in the general remarks which precede 
the particular exposition of each class. The inferior lip appears to us to be a mere 
modification of the second jaws of the Crustacea Decapoda, combined with their 
ligula. The changes gradually effected in these parts in the Crustacea, Archnides, 
and Myriapoda, seem to authorize this idea. According to this hypothesis, the six 
thoracic legs are analogous to the foot-jaws, a fact already recognized with regard 
to the Crustacea of the genus Apus. The five first abdominal segments of the Hex- 
apoda will then represent those, which, in the Crustacea Decapoda, bear the legs 
properly so called, or the third and four following pairs of the Amphipoda and Iso- 
poda. All the observations that have been published on the thorax of Insects, al- 
though otherwise useful, will necessarily be liable to continual changes, when that 
part of the body is compared in the three classes of articulated animals provided with 
articulated feet. In this respect our nomenclature is far from being fixed. 



INSXCTA. 333 

proboscis. Tin- labrum is triangular and arched, and covers the base 
of the sucker. 

In the second modification, the labrura and mandibles are nearly 
obliterated, or are extremely small : the labium is no longer free, 
and is only distinguishable by the presence of two palpi, to which it 
gives insertion : the jaws have acquired a most extraordinary length, 
and are transformed into tubular filaments, which, being united at 
their edges, compose a sort of spiral proboscis called the tongue, but 
which, to avoid all equivocation, it would be better to call sjnrigna- 
tha ; its interior exhibits three canals, the intermediate of which is 
the duct of the alimentary juices. At the base of each of these fila- 
ments is a palpus, usually very small, and but slightly apparent. 

The Myriapoda are the only insects in which the mouth presents 
another mode of organization it will be explained in treating of 
that order. 

The trunk * of insects, or that intermediate portion of their body 
which bears the legs, is generally designated by the term thorax, or 
corselet by the French. It is composed of three segments, not well 
distinguished at first, the relative proportions of which vary consider- 
ably. Sometimes, as in the Coleoptera the anterior, much the largest, 
separated from the following one by an articulation, moveable, and 
alone exposed, appears at the first glance to constitute the entire 
trunk, and is called the thorax or corselet ; sometimes, as in the Hy- 
menoptera, Lepidoptera, &c., it is much shorter than the ensuing 
one, has the appearance of a collar, and, with the two others, forms a 
common body, attached to the abdomen by a pedicle, or adhering 
closely to it across its whole posterior width, and is also called thorax. 
These distinctions were insufficient, and frequently ambiguous, inas- 
much as they were not based on a ternary division, distinctly an- 
nounced by me in the first edition of this work, as a character pro- 
per to the Hexapoda. M. Kirby having already employed the deno- 
mination of metathorax, to designate the after-thorax f, that of 



* This term, here, is synonymous with that of thorax. In order to avoid confusion, 
I think it would he better to restrict the application of the former to the Linnaean 
Aptera with more than six legs, and where those organs are borne by particular seg- 
ments, that is, where the head is distinct from the trunk. With respect to the 
Crustacea in which these parts of the body are confounded, the thorax might be 
called thoracida ; and cephalo-thorax in the Arachnides, animals presenting the same 
character, but in which the trunk or thorax is more simple and provided with fewer 
appendages. The Entomostraca, in this respect, approach the latter, but as they 
belong to another class, the term thoracida should still be applied to them ; that of 
thorax would then be exclusively appropriated to the Hexapoda. 

t This segment should not be restricted, in the Hymenoptera, to this superior, 
very short, and transverse division of the thorax, on the sides of which the second 



334 1NSECTA. 

prothorax and mesothorax, the ternary division once established, 
naturally presented itself to the mind, and the celebrated professor 
Nitzsch was the first to employ it. Some naturalists have since desig- 
nated the prothorax or anterior segment, that which bears the two 
first feet, by the term collar, collars. Wishing to retain the deno- 
mination of corselet, but to restrain its application within proper 
limits, we will employ that term in all those cases where this seg- 
ment is much larger than the others, and where these latter are join- 
ed to the abdomen, and seem to constitute an integral part of it a dis- 
position proper to the Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and several of the 
Hemiptera. When the prothorax is short, and forms with the suc- 
ceeding segments a common and exposed mass, the trunk composed 
of the three will retain the name of thorax. We will also continue 
to style pectus the inferior surface of the trunk, dividing it according 
to the segments, into three areae, the ante-pectus, medio-pectus, and 
post-pectus. The median line will also constitute the sternum, which 
we divide into three parts : the ante-sternum, medio-sternum, and 
post-sternum. 

The teguments of the thoracic segments, as well as of those of the 
abdomen, are usually divided into two annuli or semi-annuli, the one 
dorsal or superior, the other inferior, laterally united by a soft and 
flexible membrane, which, however, is but a portion of the same 
tegument that in many Insects, the Coleoptera particularly, is less firm. 
At the point of junction between these annuli we observe a little 
space of a more solid texture, or of the consistence of the annulus 
itself, which bears a stigma, so that the sides of the abdomen present 
a longitudinal series of small pieces, or each segment seems to be 
quadripartite. Other equally corneous pieces occupy the inferior 
sides of the mesothorax and metathorax and immediately under the 
origin of the elytra and wings, which are supported by another longi- 
tudinal piece. The relations of these parts, the size and form of the 
first joint of the coxae, the manner in which they are articulated with 

wings are inserted. It is also formed of that portion of the thorax which extends 
backwards to the origin of the abdomen, a circumstance which evidently demonstrates 
the position of the two last stigmata of the trunk, they being placed on the sides of 
this extremity, behind the wings, and above the last pair of legs. I am even of 
the opinion that this observation will apply to all winged Insects. Their metathorax 
should be divided, at least above, into two parts or semi-segments, one, in the 
Tetraptera, bearing the second wings and destitute of stigmata, and the other fur- 
nished with them ; sometimes this latter portion, as in nearly all Insects, the Hyme- 
uoptera with a pediculated abdomen, the Rhipiptera and Diptera excepted, appears 
to belong to abdomen sometimes it is incorporated with the trunk or thorax and closes 
it posteriorly, as in those last mentioned. In the Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepi- 
doptera and Diptera, the two anterior or thoracic segments are placed between the 
prothorax and the mesothorax. The abdomen will then consist of nine complete seg- 
ments, the three last of which compose the organs of generation. 



IN8BCTA. 335 

the semi-annulus to which they belong, the extent and direction of 
that semi-annul us varying, furnish the thorax, thus considered, with 
a combination of characters, which in a systematic point of view are 
of great importance. Some naturalists, Knoch in particular, had 
already employed them, but on no fixed principle, and under arbitrary 
denominations. A necessary preliminary step was the careful and 
comparative study of the thorax, as it exists in all the orders of the 
class of Insects. This was undertaken at my request, by the late 
Lachat. His friend, M. Victor Audouin, has prosecuted his re- 
searches and presented to the Academic des Sciences an excellent 
memoir on the subject. All that is yet known of it, however, is 
from the general sketch given by the Baron Cuvier in his report *, 

* The exposition of the parts of the thorax, and a fixed nomenclature created 
for them, says the Baron in his report, should naturally be placed at the head of 
the work. The trunk of Insects is always divisible into three annuli, each of which 
bears a pair of legs, called by M. Audouin, from their position, the prothorcuc, the 
mesothorax, and the metathorax. Besides these legs, the mesothorax bears the first 
pair of wings, and the metathorax the second. Each of these three segments is 
composed of four parts : one inferior, two lateral (forming the pectus), and a 
fourth superior, which constitutes the back : the inferior is called the sternum ; the 
lateral portion, or the flank, is divided into three principal parts, one which is 
attached to the sternum, called cpisternum, another behind the first, and to which 
the coxa is articulated, the epimera (^pime're). A little moveable piece, hitherto 
unknown, which serves to unite the epimera and the coxa, is named trochantimts, 
(trochantin) by way of distinguishing it from trochanter. The third piece of the 
flank, which in the mesothorax and metathorax is situated before the episternum 
and under the wing, is called the hypothera. Sometimes there is also a small cor- 
neous piece round the stigma, styled the peritrema. The superior portion of each 
segment, which the author calls tergum, is divided into four pieces, named, from 
their position in each ring, preescutum, scutum, and post scut ellum. The first is fre- 
quently, and the fourth almost always, concealed in the interior. Naturalists have 
seldom distinguished any other part of the mesothorax but the scutcllum, which is 
frequently remarkable for its large size and its configuration, although an analogous 
piece is found in the three segments. Thus the trunk of Insects may be divided 
into thirty-three principal parts, and, if we count the hypothera, the number will 
amount to forty-three, more or less visible in the interior. From these pieces, 
besides, arise various internal productions, which, on account of their uses and im- 
portance, require to be named : thus, from the posterior portion of the sternum of 
each segment, a vertical apophysis arises internally, sometimes shaped like a Y, 
called by M. Audouin the entothorax. It furnishes insertions to muscles and pro- 
tects the medullary cord ; an analogous one is seen in the head and sometimes in 
the first annuli of the abdomen. Other internal prominences result from the pro- 
longation of the external neighbouring pieces that are soldered together. M. Au- 
douin names them apodema (apodt'mes). Some of them give insertion to muscles, 
others to the wings : finally, there are other small moveable pieces either internally 
and between the muscles, or at the base of the wiuijs, \\hich our author styles the 
(i-pidi'-inc-.) 1'iritlnntt. \Vi- havu -tated that the principal pieces, or vtstitrcs of thorn, 
are always to be found, but they are frequently far from being separable. In par- 
ticular genera, or in certain orders, many are only to be distinguished by traces of 
sutures. M. Audouin Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., art. Insectes has since substi- 
tuted the name of paraptera for that of hypoptera. That of entothorax will also be 
changed, in some situations, into cntocephala, relative to the head and into ento- 
yasttr, as respects the abdomen. He remarks that the head of Insects is composed 
of several segments. We have also observed, that the rostrum of the Cicada-, repre- 
senting the lower lip, is not attached to the head but to the membrane which 



336 INSECTA. 

and by the extract published by the author in the article INSECTES of 
the Diet. Class. d'Histoire Naturelle. Before we can adopt his 
nomenclature, and apply it generally, we must wait until his work 
and the figures which accompany it are published ; for all practical 
purposes, however, the denominations already introduced may suffice. 
A second production relative to the same subject, which both justice 
and friendship here compel me to notice, is that of M. Chabrier on 
the flight of insects. It forms part of the Mem. du Mus. d'Hist. 
Nat., but is sold separately. The figures are executed on a great 
scale, as are also those of a Memoir of Jurine, Sen. on the wings of 
the Hymenoptera, a work, like the preceding one, which is the result of 
infinite patience. 

As Insects inhabit all kinds of dwellings, they are provided with 
all sorts of locomotive organs, wings and feet, which in several, act 
as fins. 

The wings are membranous, dry, elastic organs, usually diapha- 
nous, and attached to the sides of the back of the thorax : the first, 
when there are four, or when they are unique, on those of its second 
segment, and the second on those of the following or of the meta- 
thorax. They are composed of two membranes laid one on the other, 
and are traversed in various directions by more or less numerous 
nervures, which are so many tracheal tubes, now forming a network, 
and then simple veins. A celebrated naturalist, Jurine, Sen., has 
taken advantage of the disposition and decussation of these nervures * 
in a systematic point of view. The Libellulae, Apes, Vespae, 
Papiliones, &c., have four wings ; but those of the latter are covered 
with small scales, which at the first glance resemble dust, and give 
them the magnificent colours in which they are drest. They are 
easily removed with the finger, and that portion of the wing becomes 
transparent. By the aid of glasses we discover that these scales are 
of various figures, and implanted in the wing by means of a pedicle, 
arranged gradually and in series, like tiles on a roof. Before the 
superior wings of these Insects are two species of epaulettes ptery- 
goda which extend posteriorly along a portion of the back on which 
they are laid. The wings of some Insects remain straight, or are 

unites it with the thorax, and thus also we find that the two medullary cords form 
two contiguous ganglions under the mouth. In accordance with these views, we 
consider the first segment of the body of the Scolopendrae, that which bears the 
two hooks, as an analogous division of the head. It seems that Knoch had distin- 
guished the epimera by the names of scapula and parapleuree, the post-pectus by 
that of acetabulum, while the mediopectus was his peristathium. The first joint of 
the four posterior coxae, in most of the Coleoptera, forms a transverse plate, enclosed 
in the flanks, and is the piece, as far as I can judge, that he calls the moerium. 
* See general observations on the Hymenoptera. 



INSECTA. 337 

doubled transversely. Those of others are folded or plaited longi- 
tudinally like a fan. Sometimes they are horizontal, and sometimes 
inclined in the manner of a roof : in several they cross on the back, 
and in others they are distant *. Directly under them, in the Diptera 
arc two small movcable threads with a claviform termination, which, 
according to the general opinion f, seem to replace the two wings 
that are wanting. They are called (balanciers) halteres. Other 
two-winged and more extraordinary Insects have also two halteres, 
but situated at the anterior extremity of the thorax, which to distin- 
guish from the others we will callprohalteres. Above these append- 
ages is a little membranous scale formed pf two pieces united by one 
of their edges and resembling a bivalve shell it is the alula or 
cueilleron. The same appendage is also observed under the elytra (at 
their base) of some aquatic Coleoptera. 

Many Insects, such as the Melolonthae, Cantharides, &c., in lieu of 
the two superior or anterior wings, are furnished with two species of 
scales, more or less solid and opaque, which open and close, and be- 
neath which, when at rest, the wings are transversely folded. These 
scales or wing cases are called elytra J. The Insects provided with 
tin-in are named Coleoptera, and in such they are never absent, 
though this is sometimes the case with respect to the wings. In 
other Insects the extremity of the scale is completely membranous, or 
like the wing : they are styled Hemiptera. 

The scutel or scutellum is usually a small triangular piece, situated 
on the back of the mesothorax, and between the insertions of the 
elytra or of the wings. Sometimes it is very large, and then it 
covers the greater part of the superior portion of the abdomen. 
In various Hymenoptera, behind the scutellum and on the meta- 
thorax, we find a little space called the post-scutellum. 

The ambulatory organs of locomotion consist of a coxa formed of 
two pieces, a femur, an uniarticulated tibia, and of a tarsus, which is 
divided into several phalanges. The number of its articulations 
varies from three to five, a difference which greatly depends upon 
the proportional changes experienced by the first and penultimate 

' The Insect is supposed to be at rest. The rapid vibration of these organs 
appears to us to be one of the principal causes of the humming produced by these 
animals. The explanations hitherto given of it are not satisfactory. 

f They are, in my opinion, appendages of the tracheae of the first abdominal 
segment, and correspond to that space, perforated with a small hole, adjacent to 
the anterior side of an opening, with a membranous and internal diaphragm, that 
is seen on each side in the same segment in several species of Acrydium. See my 
Me'm. sur les Apprml. Artie, des Insect., in the Mt-m. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 

t For their chemical composition, see Odier, Mem. cit. in the Mem. de la Soc. 
a* Hist. Nat. ; and the article Insectcs of the same work. 

VOL. I. Z 



336 INSECTA. 

joints. Although their supputation may sometimes prove embarrass- 
ing, and this numerical series may not always be in exact accordance 
with the natural order, it furnishes a good character for the distinc- 
tion of genera. The last joint is usually terminated by two hooks. 
The form of the tarsi is subject to some modifications, according to 
the habits of the animal. Those of aquatic species are usually 
strongly ciliated and flattened, and resemble oars *. 

The abdomen, which forms the third and last part of the body, is 
confounded in the Myriapoda, with the thorax : but in all other 
Insects, or those which have but six feet, it is distinct. It contains 
the viscera and the sexual organs, presenting nine or ten segments or 
annuli, some of which, however, are frequently concealed or con- 
siderably reduced. The organs of generation are situated at the 
posterior extremity and issue through the anus. The luli and 
Libellulae alone constitute exceptions. The last annuli of the abdo- 
men, in several females, form a retractile or always projecting 
ovipositor oviscapte of Marcel de Serres more or less complicated, 
which act as an auger. A sting is substituted for it in many of the 
female Hymenoptera. The fecundating organ of the male is almost 
provided with hooks or a forceps f. The sexes usually copulate but 
once, and this junction in certain genera is even sufficient for the 
fecundation of several successive generations. The male places 
himself on the back of his mate, and remains there for some time. 
The latter soon lays her eggs J, and deposits them in the way best 
adapted for their preservation, and in such a manner that the moment 
the larvee make their appearance, suitable aliment is always within 
their reach. Frequently she collects provisions for them. This 
maternal solicitude often excites our surprise, and more particularly 
unveils the instinct of Insects. In the numerous societies of several 
of these animals, such as the Ant, Termes, Wasp, Bee, &c., those 

* M. Kirby, in his Monograph of the Bees of England, designates the two 
anterior tarsi by the name of hands. The first joint is the palm, palma. This 
gentleman, in conjunction -with M. Spence, has published a very complete and 
detailed work on the elements of Entomology. 

f The generating organs of the male consists of an apparatas for the elabora- 
tion of the semen, and of the parts proper to copulation. The preparatory ap- 
paratus is composed of testes, vasa deferentia, and vesiculse seminales. The copu- 
lating instrument is a penis provided with an armature consisting of surrounding 
parts, of various forms, acting like pincers or forceps, with which the male seizes 
the posterior extremity of the body of the female. The sexual apparatus of the 
latter is composed of an ovary, the receptacle or calyx formed by its base and the 
oviduct. For more minute details, see the memoirs of M. Dufour, Ann. des Sc. 
Nat., and the Dissertation of Hegetschweiler, Zurich, 1820. 

J M. Audouin supposes, that, in a great number of Insects, the ova are fecun- 
dated, as they descend, in a sac situated near the anus ; but this idea requires to be 
confirmed by experiment, and one of those naturalists who have most closely studied 
the anatomy of these animals, M. Dufour, is of a different opinion. 



IWSICTA. 339 

individuals which form the greater portion of the community, and by 
whose labour and vigilance the whole community are maintained, 
have been considered as being of neither sex. They have also been 
designated by the terms of labourers and mules. It is now known, 
however, that they are females, whose sexual organs or ovaries have 
not been fully developed, and that if an amelioration of their diet 
perfect those organs at a particular epoch while they are young they 
become fruitful. 

The ova are sometimes hatched in the abdomen of the mother ; she 
is then viviparous. The number of generations in a year depends on 
the duration of each of them. Most commonly there is but one or 
two. A species, all things being equal, is so much the more com- 
mon, as one generation succeeds more rapidly to another, and as the 
female is more prolific. 

A female Papilio or Butterfly, post coitum, lays her eggs, from 
which are hatched, not Butterflies, but animals with an elongated 
body, divided into rings, and a head furnished with jaws and several 
small eyes, having very short feet, six of which are anterior, scaly, 
and pointed, the rest varying in number and membranous, being 
attached to the posterior annuli. These animals, caterpillars, live in 
this state for a certain period, and repeatedly change their skin. An 
epoch, however, arrives, when from this skin of a caterpillar issues a 
totally different being, of an oblong form and without distinct limbs, 
which soon ceases to move and remains a long time apparently desic- 
cated and dead under the name of a chrysalis . By close examination 
we may discover on the external surface of this chrysalis, lineaments 
which represent all the parts of the Butterfly, but under proportions 
differing from those they are one day to possess. After a longer or 
shorter period, the skin of the chrysalis splits, and the Butterfly, 
humid and soft, with flabby short wings, issues from it a few mo- 
ments, however, and it is dry, the wings enlarge and become firm, 
and the perfect animal is ready for flight. It has six long legs, an- 
tennae, a spiral proboscis, and compound eyes in a word, it has no 
resemblance whatever to the caterpillar, from which it has originated, 
for it is ascertained that these various changes are nothing more 
than the successive development of parts contained one within the 
oth'-r. 

This is what is styled the metamorphosis of Insects. In their first 
condition they arc called larvce, in their second pupa' or nymph*, and 
in th<> third perfect insects. It is only in the last state that they are 
capable of reproduction. 

All insects do not pass through these three states. Those which 

z2 



340 INSECTA. 

are apterous issue from the ovum with the form they are always to 
preserve*: they are said to be without a metamorphosis. Of those 
that have wings, many experience no other change than that of 
receiving them : these are said to undergo a demi-metamorphosis. 
Their larva resembles the perfect insect, with the single exception of 
the wings, which are totally wanting. The nymph only differs from 
the larva in possessing stumps or rudiments of wings, which are 
developed at its final change of tegument, and render the animal per- 
fect. Such are the Cymeces, Grylli, &c. Finally, the remaining 
Insects provided with wings, that are said to undergo a complete meta- 
morphosis, are at first larvce, resembling caterpillars or Worms, and 
then become motionless nymphs, but presenting in that state all the 
parts of the perfect insect contracted, and as if wrapped in a bandage. 

In the nymph of the Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, &c., 
these parts, though closely approximated and in contact with the 
body, are free ; but they are not so in that of the Lepidoptera and of 
many Diptera. An elastic or solid skin is moulded over the body 
and its external parts, forming a kind of case for it. 

That of the chrysalides of the Lepidoptera merely consisting of a 
simple pellicle applied to the external organs, following their contour 
in every direction, and forming, for each of them, so many moulds, 
like the envelope of a mummy, allows us to recognise and distinguish 
themf; but those of Flies and Syrphi, formed of the dried skin of 
the larva, resemble an egg-like shell. It is a species of capsule or 
case in which the animal is shut up J. 

Many larvae, before they pass into their pupa state, prepare a cocoon 
in which they enclose themselves, either with silk which they draw 
from the interior of their bodies by means of the spinning apparatus 
of their lip, or other materials which they collect. The perfect 
Insect issues from the nymph through a fissure or slit which opens on 
the back of the thorax. In the pupae of Flies one of the extremities 
is detached, like a cap, to allow the egress of the animal. 

The larvae and pupae of those Insects which experience a demi- 
metamorphosis only differ from the same in a perfect state, in the 
absence of wings. The other external organs are precisely alike. 
But in such as undergo a complete metamorphosis, the form of the 
body of the larva has no constant relation with that it is to possess in 
its perfect state. It is usually more elongated ; the head is frequently 



* The Pulex, the female Mutillce, the Working Ants, and some few other Insects 
excepted. 

f Pupa obtecta t L. 
J Pupa coarctata, L. 



IN8ECTA. 341 

very different, as well in its consistence as in its figure, having mere 
rudiments of antennae, or perhaps none at all ; there are never any 
compound eyes. 

There is also a great disparity in the organs of manducation, as 
may be easily seen by comparing the mouth of a caterpillar with that 
of the Butterfly, or the mouth of the larva of a Fly with that of the 
perfect Insect. 

Several of these larvae are destitute of feet ; others, such as the 
caterpillars, have many, all the six first excepted, membranous, and 
without terminal hooks. Some Insects, such as the Ephemerae, 
exhibit a singular anomaly in their metamorphosis the animal 
arrived at its perfect state undergoes another change of tegument (a). 

The Insects which constitute our three first orders preserve for 
life their natal form. The Myriapoda, however, exhibit a kind of 
metamorphosis. At first they have but six legs, or, according to 
Savi, are altogether destitute of them; the others, as well as the seg- 
ments on which they depend, are developed by age. 

But few vegetable substances are protected from the voracity of 
Insects ; and as those which are necessary or useful to Man are not 
spared by them more than others, they become very injurious, parti- 
cularly during seasons which favour their multiplication. Their 
destruction greatly depends upon our vigilance and knowledge of 
their habits. Some of them are omnivorous such are the Termites, 
Ants, &c., whose ravages are but too well known. Several of those 
which are carnivorous, and all the species which feed on dead animal 
and excrementitious matters, are a benefit conferred on us by the 
Author of Nature, and somewhat compensate for the inconvenience 
and injury we experience from the others. Some are employed in 
medicine, the arts, and our domestic economy. 

They have numerous enemies : Fishes destroy many of the aquatic 
species; Birds, Bats, Lizards, &c., deliver us from a part of those 
which inhabit the air or earth. Most of them endeavour to escape 
by flight or running from the dangers that surround them, but some 
have recourse to stratagem or arms. 

Having undergone their ultimate transformation, and being pos- 
sessed of all their faculties, they hasten to propagate their species : 
this aim once accomplished, they soon cease to exist. Thus, each of 



" Sc dupouillrut encore dc leurs ailcs," is the unguarded expression of our 
author. It is not the wings alone, but the entire animal, after attaining its perfect 
condition, that is thus divested of its external pellicle, even to the slender, setaceous 
appendages which terminate the posterior extremity of the bvdy. It is the common 
May. fly of America. ENG. ED. 



342 IN8ECTA. 

the three finer seasons of the year produces species peculiar to it. The 
females and males of those which live in societies, however, enjoy a 
longer term of life. Individuals hatched in autumn shelter them- 
selves from the rigours of winter, and reappear in spring. 

The species, like those of plants, are circumscribed within geogra- 
phical limits. Those of the western continent for instance, a very 
few, and all from the north, excepted, are strictly peculiar to it ; such 
also is the case with several genera. The eastern continent, in turn, 
possesses others which are unknown in the western. The Insects of 
the south of Europe and north of Africa, and of the western and 
southern countries of Asia, have a strong mutual resemblance. The 
same may be said of those which inhabit the Moluccas, and more 
eastern islands, those of the Southern Ocean included. Several 
northern species are found in the mountains of southern countries. 
Those of Africa differ greatly from the opposite portions of America. 
The Insects of Southern Asia, from the Indies on the Sind eastward, 
to the confines of China, are very much alike. The intertropical 
regions, covered with immense and well-watered forests, are the 
richest in Insects of any on the globe; Brazil and Guiana are 
particularly so. 

All general systems or methods relative to Insects are reduced 
essentially to three. Swammerdam based his on their metamor- 
phoses ; that of Linnaeus was founded on the presence or absence of 
wings, their number, consistence, superposition, the nature of their 
surface, and on the deficiency or presence of a sting. Fabricius had 
recourse to the parts of the mouth alone. In all these arrangements 
the Crustacea and Arachnides are placed among the Insects, and in 
that of Linnaeus, the one generally adopted, they are even the last. 
Brisson, however, had separated them, and his class of the Crustacea, 
which he places before that of Insects, comprises all of those animals 
which have more than six feet, or the Insectes Apiropodes of M. 
Savigny. Although this order is more natural than that of Linnaeus, 
it was not followed ; and it is only in modern times, that anatomical 
observations and their rigorously exact application have brought us 
to the natural method *. 

I divide this class into twelve orders: the three first of which, 
composed of apterous Insects, undergoing no essential change of 
form or habits, merely subject to simple changes of tegument, or to a 



* Cuv., Tabl. Elm. de 1'Hist. Nat. des Anim., and Logons d'Anat. Compar. ; 
Lamarck, Syst. des Anim. sans Vert&b. ; Latr., Precis des Caract. GLnr. des Insect., 
and Gen. Crust, et Insect. For more minute details, see also the excellent elemen- 
tary work of Kirby and Spence. 



IW8BCTA. 343 

kind of a metamorphosis, which increases the number of legs, and 
that of the annuli of the body, correspond to the order of the Arach- 
nides antennistes of Lamarck. The organ of sigljt in these animals 
is usually a mere (more or less considerable) assemblage of simple 
eyes resembling granules. The following orders compose the class 
of Insects of the same author. That of the Suctoria, which only 
comprises the genus Pulex, from its natural relations should appa- 
rently terminate the class, but as I place those Insects which are 
apterous at the beginning, this order, for the sake of regularity in the 
system, should immediately follow that of the Parasita. 

Certain English naturalists have formed new orders, based upon 
the wings; I see no necessity, however, for admitting them, that of 
the Stresiptera excepted, the name of which appears to me to be 
erroneous *, and which I will call Rhipiptera f . 

In the first order, or the MYRIAPODA, there are more than six feet 
twenty-four and upwards arranged along the whole length of the 
body, on a suite of annuli, each of which bears one or two pairs, and 
of which the first, and in several even the second, seem to form a part 
of the mouth. They are apterous J. 

In the second, or the THYSANOURA, there are six legs, and the abdo- 
men is furnished on its sides with moveable parts, in the form of false 
feet, or terminated by appendages fitted for leaping. 

In the third, or the PARASITA, we find six legs, no wings, and no 
other organs of sight than ocelli ; the mouth, in a great measure, is 
internal, and consists of a snout containing a retractile sucker, or in 
a slit between two lips, with two hooked mandibles. 

In tin? fourth, or the SUCTORIA, there are six legs, but no wings ; 
the mouth is composed of a sucker inclosed in a cylindrical sheath, 
formed of two articulated portions. 

In the fifth, or the COLEOPTERA, there are six legs, and four wings, 
the two superior of which have the form of cases, and mandibles, and 
maxillae (a) for mastication : the inferior wings are simply folded cross- 

Twisted wings. The parts taken for elytra are not so. See this order, 
ings folded like a fan. 

J Destitute of wings and srntcllum. 

They undergo metamorphoses and acquire organs of locomotion which they did 
not possess at first. This character is common to the following orders, but in the 
latter the metamorphosis developcs another sort of locomotive orgaus the wings. 

K^*(o) The maxillae of coleopterous Insects, in conjunction with the mandibles, usu- 
ally have this triturating function assigned to them. M. Hcntz, a distinguished Ame- 
rican entomologist, Trans. Phil. Soc., Ill, part ii, p. 458, is of the opinion that in 
many cases the maxillte must be considered as mere appendages to the tongue, and 
that their office is to assist in deglutition, seldom serving to grind or lacerate, except 
;<tfclul<r, and some others, where there seems to be a departure 
from their primary use. In corroboration of this idea he adduces the configuration 



344 INSECTA. 

wise, and the cases, always horizontal, are crustaceous. They ex- 
perience a complete metamorphosis. 

In the sixth or- the ORTHOPTERA*, there are six legs; four wings, 
the two superior in the form of cases, and mandibles and jaws for 
mastication, covered at the extremity by a galea; the inferior wings 
are folded in two directions, or simply in their length, and the inner 
margins of the cases, usually coriaceous, are crossed. They only 
experience a semi-metamorphosis. 

In the seventh or the HEMIPTERA, there are six legs and four wings, 
the two superior in the form of crustaceous cases, with membranous 
extremities, or similar to the inferior, but larger and firmer ; the 
mandibles and jaws are replaced by setae forming a sucker, enclosed in 
a sheath composed of one articulated, cylindrical or conical piece, in 
the form of a rostrum. 

In the eighth or the NEUROPTERA, there are six legs, four mem- 
branous and naked wings, and mandibles and jaws for mastification ; 
the wings are finely reticulated, and the inferior are usually as large 
as the superior, or more extended in one of their diameters. 

In the ninth or the HYMENOPTERA, there are six feet, and four 
membranous and naked wings, and mandibles and jaws for mastica- 
tion ; the inferior wings are smaller than the others, and the abdo- 
men of the female is almost always terminated by a terebra or sting. 

In the tenth or the LEPIDOPTERA, there are six legs, four mem- 
branous wings, covered with small coloured scales resembling dust ; 
a horny production in the form of an epaulette, and directed back- 
wards, is inserted before each upper wing, and the jaws are replaced 
by two united tubular filaments, forming a kind of spirally convo- 
luted tongue f . 

of the maxillae of several Insects, in which he has been fortunate enough to detect 
a retractile appendage hitherto unknown. The first is the Cantharis marginata, Fab., 
whose maxillae, when dried, offer but one bifid lobe ; if, however, the abdomen and 
thorax of the recent animal be gradually compressed, a soft, elastic, sub-conic body 
is protruded from the cleft of that lobe, more than half its length, and extending 
beyond the palpi ; a second appendage of the same kind, and about half its length, 
projects at right angles from the base of the first, which is directed forwards, both 
are covered with hairs. The second is the Canth. bimaculata, Fab., in which this 
appendage is still more sensibly and easily displayed, protruding by pressure from 
each maxilla in the form of a tapering filament covered with fine hairs, susceptible of 
considerable extension, reaching beyond the middle of the antennae, and consequently 
more than double the length of the maxilla itself. J have verified these facts in this 
last species. The use of these organs in collectiong nourishment from flowers is 
evident. See Trans. Phil. Soc. ut sup. pi. XV, f. i, e, and f. ii, e. ENG. ED. 

* De Geer established this order under the name of Dermaptera, improperly 
changed by Olivier to that of Orthoptera. We preserve the latter, however, as na- 
turalists have generally adopted it. 

f* Spiritrompe. See our general observations on the class. The thorax of the 
Lepidoptera has more analogy with that of the Neuroptera than with that of the 
Hymenoptera, the segment which I have called the mediate appearing to form 



IN8ECTA. 34$ 

In the eleventh or the RHIFIPTBBA, there are six legs, two mem- 
branous wings folded like a fan, and two crustaceous moveable 
bodies, resembling little elytra *, situated at the anterior extremity of 
the thorax ; the organs of manducation are simple, setaceous jaws 
with two palpi. 

In the twelfth or the DIPTEBA, there are six legs, two membranous 
extended wings, accompanied, in most of them, by two moveable 
bodies or haltercs, placed behind them ; the organs of manducation 
are a sucker composed of a variable number of setye, inclosed in an 
inarticulated sheath, most frequently in the form of a proboscis 
terminated by two lips. 



ORDER I. 

MYRIAPODA f. 

The Myriapoda commonly called Centipedes, are the only animals 
of this class which have more than six feet in their perfect state, and 
whose abdomen is not distinct from the trunk. Their body, destitute 
of wings, is composed of a (usually) numerous suite of annuli, 
most commonly equal, each of which, a few of the first excepted, 
bears two pairs of feet mostly terminated by a single hook ; these 
annuli are either entire or divided into two demi-segments, each 
bearing a pair of those organs, and one of them only exhibiting two 
stigmata J. 

The Myriapoda in general resemble little Serpents or Nereides, 
their feet being closely approximated to each other throughout the 
whole extent of the body. The form of these organs even extends 
to the parts of the mouth. The mandibles are bi-articulated and 
immediately followed by a quadrifid piece in the form of a lip with 
articulated divisions, resembling little feet, which, from its position, 
corresponds to the ligula of the Crustacea : next come two pairs of 



part of the abdomen, while in the latter and in the Diptera it is incorporated with 
the thorax. 

* Formed, as we presume, by pieces analogous to the epaulette or pterygoda 
of the Lepidoptera. 

f The Mitosaia, Fab. 

J The annuli of the body of Insects are usually provided with two stigmata. If 
those of the Scolopendne, particularly the larger species, those which have twenty- 
one pairs of feet, be thus considered, it will be found that they are alternately desti- 
tute of, and provided with, two stigmata, and that thus, compared with these latter 
animals, they are in fact but semi-annuli. Each complete segment will then have 
two pairs of feet, one of which is supernumerary, since, in other Insects, the annuli 
furnished with feet have but two. 



346 INSECTA. 

little feet, the second of which, in several, resemble large hooks, that 
appear to replace the four jaws of the last-mentioned animals, or the 
two jaws as well as the lower lip of Insects : they are a sort of buccal 
feet. The antennae, two in number, are short, somewhat thicker 
towards the extremity, or nearly filiform and composed of seven 
joints in some ; in others they are numerous and setaceous. Their 
visular organs are usually composed of a union of ocelli, and if in 
others they present a cornea with facets, the lenses are still larger, 
rounder, and more distinct, in proportion, than those of the eyes of 
Insects. The stigmata are frequently very small, and their number, 
owing to that of the annuli, is usually greater than in the latter, 
where it never exceeds eighteen or twenty. The number of these 
annuli and that of the feet increases with age, a character which also 
distinguishes the Myriapoda from Insects, the latter ab ovo always 
having the number of segments peculiar to them, and all their legs 
with hooks, or true legs, being developed at once, either at the same 
epoch, or when they pass into their pupa state. M. Savi, professor 
of Mineralogy at Pisa, who has paid particular attention to the luli, 
has observed, that on leaving the egg they are destitute of these 
organs : they experience then a true metamorphosis. In some, the 
male organs of generation are placed immediately after the seventh 
pair of feet, on the sixth or seventh segment of the body, and those 
of the female near the origin of the second feet : in the others the 
two sorts of organs are situated, as usual, at the posterior extremity 
of the body. The position of the male organs of the first compared 
with that in which they are placed in the Crustacea and Arachnides, 
would seem to indicate the separation of the trunk and abdomen : 
with respect to these in which these organs are posterior, we observe 
that an inversion of the successive order of the stigmata takes place 
in an analogous portion of the body of certain species, which appears 
to announce a similar distinction. 

The Myriapoda live and increase in size longer than other Insects, 
and, according to Savi, two years are required to render the genital 
organs of some (the luli) of them apparent. 

From this ensemble of facts, we may conclude, that these animals 
approach the Crustacea and Arachnides on the one hand, and the 
Insects on the other ; but that as respects the presence, form and 
direction of the bracheae, they belong to the latter. 

We divide them into two families, perfectly distinct both in their 
organization and habits, and forming two genera according to the 
system of Linnaeus. 



M1RUPODA. 34? 

FAMILY I. 



CHILOGNATHA*. 

The body generally crustaceous and frequently cylindrical; the 
antennae somewhat thicker near the end or nearly equal, and com- 
posed of seven joints ; two thick mandibles without palpi, very dis- 
tinctly divided into two portions by a median articulation with imbri- 
cated teeth, implanted in a cavity of its superior extremity; a species 
of lip ligulaf situated immediately above, that covers them, is 
crustaceous, plane, and divided on its exterior surface by longitudinal 
sutures and emarginations, into four principal areae, tuberculated on 
the superior margin, the two intermediate of which, narrower and 
shorter, are placed at the superior extremity of another areae, serving 
as a common base : the feet very short, and always terminated by a 
single hook ; four feet, situated immediately under the preceding 
part, of the form of the following ones, but more closely approxi- 
mated at base, with the radical joint proportionably longer ; most of 
the other attached in double pairs to a single annulus. The male or- 
gans of generation are situated immediately after the seventh pair of 
feet, and those of the female behind the second. The stigmata are 
placed alternately, outside of the origin of each pair of feet, and are 
very small. 

The Chilognatha move very slowly, or slide along, as it were, and 
roll themselves spirally or into a ball. The first segment of the body, 
and in some the following one, is the largest, and has the form of a 
corselet or little shield. It is only at the fourth in some, and at the 
fifth or sixth in others, that the duplication of the feet commences ; 
the first two or four feet are even entirely free to their origin, where 
they merely adhere to their respective segments by a median or 
sternal line. The last two or three rings are without feet. A series 
of pores is observed on each side of the body, which were considered 
as stigmata, but, according to Savi, they are simply designed to 
afford a passage to an acid fluid of an extremely disagreeable odour, 
which appears to serve as a means of defence ; the respiratory aper- 
tures, for whose discovery we are indebted to him, are situated on 

* CIIILOGXATA, Lat. or the genus IULUS, Lin. 

f The lower lip composed of the two pairs of jaws of the Crustacea, according 
to Savigny. 



348 INSECTA. 

the sternal part of each segment, and communicate internally with a 
double series of pneumatic sacs strung together like a rosary, extend- 
ing along the body, from which proceed tracheal branches that ra- 
mify over the other organs. According to an observation of Straus, 
the sacs or vesicular trachea are not, as usual, connected with each 
other by a principal trachea. 

In the environs of Pisa, where M. Savi collected the preceding 
facts, the nuptial season of the common lulus commences near the 
end of December, and terminates about the middle of May. The 
male organs of copulation, in this species, are situated under the 
sixth segment, but they do not appear in this form till the individual 
has attained the one-third of its full size ; until this epoch, that place 
is occupied by a pair of feet (the fifteenth), which is always found 
there in the females ; in the latter, the orifice of the sexual organs 
is between the first and second segment. Some female Glomeres and 
luli, behind the origin of the second pair of feet, exhibit two convex 
mammillae, which appear to characterize this sex; that of the males 
also consists of two mammillae, but each of them is terminated by a 
scaly and twisted hook. These insects, in coitu, erect the anterior 
extremities of their bodies, and place them in contact, face to face, 
twining round each other inferiorly. The body of the new-born ani- 
mal is reniform, perfectly smooth, and destitute of appendages. 
Eighteen days after, it undergoes its first change, and then for the 
first time assumes the form of the adult, still, however, having but 
twenty-two segments; the total number of feet also amounts to twenty- 
six pairs. Savi appears to contradict the assertion of De Geer, who 
says that he only found three pairs and eight annuli in the young 
animal but it is certain that this change of which Savi speaks is 
really the first ; and should we not, on the contrary, rather presume 
that these young individuals do not suddenly pass from a state in 
which they exhibit no locomotive appendages to one where we find 
them possessed of twenty-six pairs, or, in a word/that previous changes 
of tegument, which have escaped the notice of Savi, have taken place 
and successively developed this number of feet ? Do not the obser- 
vations of the Swedish Reaumur confirm these gradual transitions ? 
Be this as it may, the first eighteen pairs of feet, according to Savi, 
alone serve for locomotion ; at the second change we observe 
thirty-six pairs, and at the third, forty-three ; the body then consists 
of thirty segments. Finally, in the adult state, the male has thirty- 
nine, and the female sixty-four ; two years afterwards they again 
experience a change, and then only do the genital organs make their 
appearance. From the moment of their birth, which occurs in March, 



JIYRIAPODA. 349 

until November, at which time M. Savi terminated his observations, 
these changes take place about once a month. In their exuviae, we 
find even the lining membrane of the alimentary canal and tracheae. 
The organs of the mouth were the only parts that Savi could not 
discover *. 

These Insects feed on dead and decomposed animal and vegetable 
matters; they deposit in the ground a large number of eggs. Ac- 
cording to the system of Linnaeus they form but one genus, that of 

IULUS, Lin. 
Which we divide as follows : 

Some have a crustaceous body without terminal appendages, and 
antennae enlarged near the end. 

GLOMERIS, Lat. 

Resembling Onisci; oval, and rolling into a ball; the body convex 
above, and concave underneath, with a range of little scales analo- 
gous to the lateral divisions of the Trilobites along each of its in- 
ferior sides. It is composed, exclusive of the head, of but twelve 
segments, the first and narrowest of which forms a sort of semicir- 
cular transverse collar; the following and the last are the largest of 
all; the latter is arched and rounded at the end. There are thirty- 
four feet in the female, and thirty-two in the male, his sexual organs 
replacing the pair that is deficient. These animals are terrestrial, 
and live under stones in hilly places f* 

IULUS, Lin. 

The body of the true lull is cylindrical and very long, and has no 
ridge or trenchant edge on the sides of the annuli; they roll them- 
selves up spirally. 

The larger species live on land, particularly in the woods and 
sandy places, and diffuse a very disagreeable odour. The 
smallest ones feed on fruit, or the roots and leaves of esculent 
vegetables. Others are found under the bark of trees, in 
moss, &c. 

I. maximum L.; Marcgr., Bras., p. 255. Peculiar to South 
America, and is seven inches long. 

/. sabulossus, L.; Schaeff. Elem. Entom., Ixxiii; Lfasciatus, 
De Geer, Insect. VII, xxxvi, 9, 10; Leach, Zool. Miscell., 
cxxxiii. About sixteen lines in length, of a blackish-brawn, 

* See Ballet. Gt'nt'r. et Uuivers. of the Baron Ft'-russac, Decemb., 1823. The 
observations of Savi, an extract of which is contained in this work, were published 
in a memoir, intitltul " Osaervazioni per servire alia storia di una specie di Jnlus 
communissima" Bologna, 1817. The same savant published another in 1 SI 9 on 
the Julutfatidusiauu. 

f lulus ovalis, L. ; Gronov., Zooph., pi. XVII, 4, 5; Oniscus zonatvs. Pan*. 
Fam. Insect. Germ., IX, xxiii; Glomeris maiyinata, Leach, Zool. Miscell., CXXXII ; 
Oiisc\u pustulatus, Fab.; Panz., lb., XXII. 



350 INSECTA. 

with two reddish lines along the back; fifty-four segments, the 
penultimate terminated by a stout point with a horny and hairy 
extremity. Inhabits Europe, 

/. terrestris, L. ; Geoff., Insect. II, xxii, 5. A fourth smaller; 
bluish-cinereous, picked in with light yellowish; forty-two to 
forty seven segments. Inhabits Europe with the sabulosus *. 

POLYDESMUS, Ldt. 

The Polydesmi resemble the luli in the linear form of their body, 
and the spiral manner in which they roll up their body; but the seg 
ments are compressed on the inferior sides, and have a projecting 
ridge above, They are found on stones, and most commonly in wet 
places f . 

The species with apparent eyes form the genus Craspedosoma of 
Leach J. 

The others have a very soft, membranous body, terminated by 
pencils of little scales. Their antennae are equal. Such is the 

POLLYXENUS, Ldt., 

Which as yet comprises but a single species, placed among the 
Scolopendrae Sc. lagura,lj., by Linnaeus, Geoffroy and Fabricius. 

It is the lule a queue en pinceau of De Geer, Insect., VII, 
xxxvi, 1, 2, 3,; Zool. Miscel., cxxxv, B. Very small, oblong, 
with bunches of little scales on the sides, and a white pencil at 
the posterior extremity of the body. It has twelve pairs of feet 
placed on as many semi-annuli. Inhabits cracks in walls, and 
under pieces of bark . 



FAMILY II, 



CHILOPODA ||. 

The antennae of the Chilopoda are more slender towards the extre- 
mity, and consist of fourteen joints and upwards ; their mouth is 

* See the two memoirs of Savi already quoted, and Leach, Zool. Miscell., Ill, 
for an account of these two species and some others that inhabit England. Add 
lulus indus, L.; De Geer, VII, xliii, 7; Seb., Mus. II, xxiv, 4, 5; Seb., Mus. I, 
Ixxxi, 5; Schfiet., Abhandl, I, iii, 7. [Add of the American species the/, impres- 
sus, punctatus, annulatus, lactarius, marginatus, and pusillus.'] 

f The luli cumplanatus (Zool. Miscell. CXXXV, A), depressa, stigma, trident atus, 
Fab. ; his Scolopendrse ? dorsalis and clypeata. [Amer. species, P. serratus granula- 
tus, Say, and the lulus virginiensis, Drury.] 

J The species, unknown before Leach, appear to be proper to England. See pi. 
cxxxivof his Zoological Miscellany, vol. III. 

There is a second species, P. fasciculatus, Say, that inhabits the southern 
section of the United States. See Jour. Ac. Nat. Sc. of Phil. II, part I, p. 108. 

H CHILOPODA, Lat. or the genus Scolopendra, Lin. &c. 



MYRIAPOUA. 351 

composed of two mandibles furnished with a little palpiform appen- 
dage, which seemed to have been soldered in the middle, and ter- 
minated like the bowl of a spoon with dentated edges; of a quadrifid 
lip *, of which the two lateral divisions are the largest, and trans- 
versely annulated, resembling the membranous feet of caterpillars; 
of two palpi or little feet, united at base and unguiculated at the extre- 
mity, and of a second lip f formed by a second pair of feet, dilated 
and united at base, and terminated by a stout moveable hook, whose 
inferior extremity is perforated by a hole which affords an issue to a 
venomous fluid. 

The body is depressed and membranous. Each of its rings is 
covered with a coriaceous or cartilaginous plate, and most generally 
bears but a single pair of feet J ; the last is usually thrown backwards, 
and elongated into a kind of tail. The organs of respiration are 
wholly or partly composed of tubular tracheae. 

These animals run very fast, are carnivorous, avoid the light, and 
conceal themselves under stones, logs, in the ground, &c. They are 
much dreaded by the inhabitants of hot climates, where they are very 
large, and where their venom is possibly more active. The Scolo- 
pendra morsitans is styled in the Antilles the mal fats ante. Some of 
them exhibit phosphorescent properties. 

The organs of generation are internal, and placed at the posterior 
extremity of the body, as in most of the following Insects. The 
stigmata are lateral or dorsal, and more apparent than in the preced- 
ing family. 

The Cbilopoda, which, in the system of Leach, form the order 
Syngnatha, from these last characters, the nature of the respiratory 
organs and the feet, may be thus divided : 



* A part analogous to the lower lip of the Chilognatha, representing, in my 
opinion, the tongue of the Crustacea, but also capable of fulfilling the function of 
jaws ; Savigny calls it the first auxiliary lip. 

f The second auxiliary lip of the same naturalist. It is not annexed to the head, 
but to the anterior extremity of the first semi-segment. The two hooked feet, by 
the union and dilntation of their first joint, form a plate resembling a mentum and 
lip. The same segment bears the two first ordinary feet. In the Scolopendree 
proper of Leach, the two first stigmata are situated under the third half-segment, 
the first not counted ; the second and following one will compose the first complete 
ring, and then the two first stigmata are found, as in other Insects, placed on a 
space corresponding to the prothorax. This second auxiliary lip may thus represent 
the inferior lip of the grinding Hixapoda. But here the pharynx is placed before that 
lip, \\IHTC.XS in the Myriapodu it is situated before the first auxiliary lip. It is from 
these considerations and affinities, and from others furnished by the Entomostraca 
and Arachnidcs, that I consider the feet of the Hcxnpoda as analogous to the six 
foot-jaws of the Crustacea Decapoda. . 

J Iu this case they aie but semi-annuli. See our general observations on the 
order. 



352 INSECTA. 

Some have but fifteen pairs of feet *, and their body viewed from 
above presents fewer segments than when seen from beneath. 

SCUTIGERA, Lam. CERMATIA, Illig. 

The body covered with eight scutelliform plates, under each of 
which M. Marcel de Serres has observed two pneumatic sacs or vesi- 
cular tracheae, which receive air and communicate with lateral and 
inferior tubular tracheae. The under part of the body is divided into 
fifteen semi-annuli, each bearing a pair of feet, terminated by a very 
long slender^multi-articulated tarsus ; the last pairs are more elonga- 
ted ; the eyes large and compound. 

Their antennae are slender and tolerably long ; the two palpi sali- 
ent and furnished with small spines. The body is shorter than in 
the other genera of the same family, and the joints of their feet are 
proportionably longer. 

The Scutigerse, which by these characters form the passage from 
the preceding family to the present one, are extremely agile animals, 
and frequently part with some of their feet when seized. 

The species found in France f conceals itself between the 
beams and rafters of houses. 

LITHOBIUS, Leach. 

The stigmata lateral ; body divided above and beneath into a simi- 
lar number of segments, each bearing a pair of feet; the superior 
plates alternately longer and shorter, and overlapping each other 
close to the extremity. 

L. forficatus; Scolopendra forficata, L. ; Fab., De Geer; 
Geoff., Hist, des Insect., II, xxii, 3; Panz., Faun. Insect. Germ., 
L., xiii; Leach, Zool. Miscel., cxxxvii J. 

The others have a least twenty-one pairs of feet, and the segments 
both above and underneath are equal in size and number. 

SCOLOPENDRA, Lin. 

Those which form the two feet that immediately follow the two 
hooks forming the exterior lip, presented but twenty-one pairs, and 
whose antennae have seventeen joints, constituting the genera Scolo- 
pendra and Crytops of Leach. There are eight distinct eyes, four 
on each side in the first, and that in which the largest species are 
found ; in the second, they are null or but very slightly visible. 

The most southern departments of France and other countries 
of the south of Europe, produce a species Scolopendra cingu- 

* Dr. Leach makes two pairs more by including the palpi and the hook-like feet 
of the head. 

f The Scolopendre it vingt-huit pattes of Geoffroy which appears to differ from the 
the S. coleoptrata, Panz., Faun. Insect. Germ., L, xii, and from that of Linnaeus; 
lulus araneoides, Pall., Spicil. Zool., IX, iv, 16; Scolopendra longicornis, Fab., of 
Tranquebar. See also Leach, Zool. Miscell., Cermatia livida, CXXXVI, and Lin. 
Trans. XIV. 

I L. varieyatus, lavilubrum, Leach, Lin. Trans., XI. See also vol. III. of his 
Zoological Miscellany. 



THYSANOTJRA. 353 

.i fefe, Lat.; Sc. morsitans, Vill,, Entom., TV, xi, 17, 18 which 
is nearly as lav^e as the common species of the Antilles, but has a 
more flattened body *. 

Those which foiMi the genus Crytops, Leach, have a rougher an- 
tenna- thin tii.- Seolopcndrae, and their t\vo posterior feet are more 
>lrn,ler. L -ach mentions two species found in the environs of Lon- 
don | . 

In such as form the genus Geophilas, Id., the number of feet is 
more than forty-t\vo, and often considerably so. The antennae con- 
sist of but fourt' -en joints, and their extremity is less tapering; the 
body is proportionably narrower and longer. The eyes are but 
slightly apparent. Some of the species are electrical J. 



ORDER II. 



THYSANOURA. 

This order consists of apterous Insects, supported by six feet, that 
experience no metamorphosis, and have, in addition, particular organs 
of motion either on the sides or the extremity of the abdomen. 

FAMILY I. 

LEPISMEN^E, Lat. 

Sctiform antennae divided from their origin into very numerous 
and small joints; mouth furnished with -very distinct and salient 
palpi ; each side of the under part of the abdomen provided with a 
range of moveable appendages, in the form of false feet ; abdomen 
terminated by articulated setae, three of which are the most remark- 
able ; body always covered with small shining scales. 

It comprises but one genus, the 

LEPISMA, Lin. 

The body of tli -M> animaU is elongated and covered with small scales, 
frequently silvery and brilliant, from which circumstance the most 

* Scolopendra monUans, L.; De Gccr, Insect., VII, xliii, 1. For the other spe- 
cies, see Zool. Miscell., Ill ; the Scolopendra gioantca, L., Brown, Jam., XLII, 4, 
tor large but perfectly described species. 

ylops kortensis, Zool. Miscell. . : Id., lb., Crytops Sacignii. 

J S. elcctriea, L. ; Erisch., Insect., XI, viii, I; T. occiJc*talis, L. ; List. Itiii. 
vi ; S. phosphorca, L. it fell f