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Full text of "The animal kingdom; based upon the writings of the eminent naturalists, Audubon, Wallace, Brehm, Wood and others"

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• • • X X X C4 • * • 



ANIMAL KINGDOM 



Based upon the Writings of the Eminent Naturalists, 



AUDUBON, WALLACE, BREHM, WOOD, AND OTHERS 



.... Edited by ... . 

HUGH CRAIG, M. A., 

Trinity College, Gunbridge. 



. . . WITH . . . 

SIXTY-FOUR FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS 

Accurately and Beautifully Executed in 

EIGHT COLORS AND TINTS. 

VOLUME ONE. 




NEW YORK: 

JOHNSON & BAILEY, 

J J4 and I J6 Nassau Street 



v 



Copyright, iSg'], by Charles F. Johnson. 



WEED-PARSONS PRINTING CO., 

PRINTERS, ELECTROTYPERS AND BINDERS. 

ALBANY. N. Y, 



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HE work which the publisher now offers to the public 
is intended to be instructive as well as entertaining, 
accurate as well as popular. A knowledge of zoology 
can be imparted without the use of technical language ; 
in fact, the conventional vocabulary must be in great 
part discarded by any one who seeks to address the 
general public rather than a select band of scientific 
lents. And it is to the general public, to our clergymen, our 
men of business, our workingmen, and especially to our young 
people, that this Natural History is dedicated. In a work with such 
an aim, a formal inventory and technical description of the manifold 
forms of animal existence would be evidently out of place; instead of 
investigations of the lifeless organism there must be accounts of the 
living creature ; instead of scientific terminology there must be language 
plain, clear, and dii-ect ; the information which the volume seeks to 
impart must be conveyed in a manner easy to comprehend, easy to 
remember, and generally attractive. To the attractiveness of this work 
the numerous beautifully-colored plates with which it is illustrated con- 
tribute in no ordinary degree. The designs are original and have been 
prepared at unusual expense. They represent in a more vivid and 
striking way than mere words can depict, the shape, the habits and the 
habitations of the animals, as well as the colors with which Nature has 
adorned them and the attitudes which most distinctly characterize them. 
Johnson's Household Book of Nature aims, as has been said, to 
be interesting. It is hoped, however, that it will be more than a mere 
readable book of entertainment, and that it will not allay, but stimulate 



VI PREFACE. 

C-iriosity, and invite to a deeper and further study of the wondrous works 
of Nature. In this hope there have been added the technical names of 
caeli order, genus and species. 

It docs not require to be pointed out how fascinating a study 
Natural llistoryin all its branches must ever be, or what a perpetual 
source ol interest can be lound in observing the forms and habits of the 
living creatures which meet our view whatever portion of the world we 
visit. Still more interesting and more instructive must be a knowledge of 
that class of Animated Nature to which man himself belongs, and which 
contains such friends of man as the dog that guards him, the horse that 
labors for him, the ox that supplies him food, and the sheep that furnishes 
him with clothing; till man iiad brought these under his dominion, how 
inconceivably helpless he must have been ! No less instructive is it to 
note how the lower animals differ from or resemble Man, the crown 
of Nature's work ; how admirably each species is adapted for the loca- 
tion in which its lot is cast, and lor the uses it has to luUil in the 
economy of the world ; how marvellously they are endowed with jxiwer 
and grace and beauty. 

I'-S[)ecially in the present day is a knowledge of the elements of 
Natural History a necessary part of our education. This work claims 
(o minister to the educational wants of all classes, and therefore careluUy 
avoids discussion of unsettled points, and states nothing but incontro- 
vertible facts. 

The order in wliich tlie various genera of the Mammalia is placed 
has been adopted in accordance with the most eminent authorities. 

The first two chapters are devoted to an account of the system of 
classification of the Animal Kingdom, and therefore may prove less 
interesting to manv readers than tin- following chapters, in which the 
different genera and species are described, and in wiiich there is more 
of living interest and entertaining narrative. 

Hugh Craig. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE. 



MAMMALIA. 

CHAPTER I. 

Inanimate and Animated Nature (i) — The Mineral (i), Vegetable (2), and Animal (3) King 
doms — Classification of Animals (4) — The Vertebrates (4) — Classes of Vertebrates (5V 

CHAPTER II. 

The Class Mammalia (6) — General Characteristics (7)— The "Dental Formula" (8) — Divi 
sion into Orders (13). 

QUADRUMANA. 

CHAPTER III. 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

The General Characteristics of Quadrumana (17) — Their Habits in their Native Haunts '18) 
— Their Gregarious Disposition (20) — Division of the Quadrumana (22!. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE ANTHROPOID APES. 

The African Division (23) — The Genus Troglodytes (23) — The Gorilla (23)— The Chimpanzee 
(27)— The Asiatic Division (32)— The Genus Simla (32)— Orang-Outan (32)— The Genus Hylo- 
bates or Gibbon (35). 

CHAPTER V. 

THE OLD WORLD MONKEYS. 

The Long-tailed Monkeys (41) — The Genus Semnopithecus (41)— The Proboscis Monkey 
(44)— The Douc (45) — The Genus Colobus (45)— The Guereza (45). 

CHAPTER VI. 

BABOONS AND MACAQUES. 

The Family Cynopithecidx (47) — The Genus Myiopithecus or Talapoin (47) — The Genus 
Cercopithecus (47) — The Guenons (51) — The Genus Cercocebus or Mangabeys (52) — The Genus 
Theropithecus or Gelada (53) — The Genus Cynocephalus or Baboon (54) — The Baboon Proper 
(56) — The Chacma (58)— Its Use m Finding Water (58)— The Sphinx (60)— The Hamadryad (61) 
—Its Pugnacious Disposition (61) — Disgusting Character of the Mandrill and Drill (62). 



viii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 
BABOONS AND UA.CAQVES.—Co>iHntud. 
Genus Macacus (63) — The Common Macaque (65) — The Bonnet Ape (67) — The Rhesus or 
Bunder (68) — The Lapander (103) — The Wanderoo (71) — The Magots (72) — The Gibraltar Mon- 
keys (72) — Genus Cynopithecus (74) — The Black Baboon-ape or Celebes (74). 

CHAPTER VIII. 
THE NEW WORLD MONKEYS. 
The American Monkeys or Cebida; (75) — The Genus Cebus or Sapajou (77) — The Genus 
Lagothrix (80)— The Spider Monkeys (81) — The Genera Ateles and Eriodes (87)— The Howling 
Monkeys (85)— The Sakis (89)— The Night Monkeys (92)— The Tee-tees (94). 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE MARMOSETS. 
The Marmosets or Ouistitis (95) — The Family Hap.ilidae (97) — The Genus Hapale (97) — 
The Silky Marmoset (98)— The Pinche (98)— The Dwarf Marmoset (98)— The Genus Midas (99) 
The Sagouins (99). 

CHAPTER X. 
THE LEMUROIDEA. 
The Indris (102) — The Lemurs (104) — The Ruffed Lemur (105) — The Cat Lemur (106I — The 
Hapalemur (107) — The Cheirogaleus (io8) — The Loris (no) — The Tarsier Spectre (114) — The 
Aye-aye (115). 

CHEIROPTERA. 

CHAPTER I. 
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 
The Order Cheiroptera (121)— Superstitious Dread of Bats (122)— Their Usefulness (122) 
— Their Flying .Apparatus (124) — Their General Characteristics and Habits (124) — The Genera 
of the Order (127). 

CHAPTER II. 
THE VAMPIRES 
The Fruit-eating Bats or Flying Foxes (129)— The Kalongs (129) — The Leaf-nosed Bats or 
Vampires (130) — The Horseshoe Bats (134) — The Rhinopoma (136). 

CHAPTER III. 
THE TRUE BATS. 
The Common Bat (137)— The Taphozous (138)— The Pipistrelle (138)— The Barbastelle (139) 
—The California Bat (140)— The Great Bat of Britain (140)— The New York Bat (141)— The 
Carolina Bat (141)— The Hoari- Bat (142)— The Long-eared Bat (142)— The Big-eared Bat (142)— 
The Noctilionidxf 143)— The Genus Xycticeius (143) — The Genus Nyctinomus (144) — The Genus 
Noctilio (144). 



CONTENTS. 



INSECTIVORA. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE FLYING LEMURS, ELEPHANT SHREWS AND PENTAIL. 
Characteristics of the Order (147) — Its Division into Nine Families (148) — The Galeopithe. 
cidse (149) — The Flying Lemurs (149) — The Macroscelididx or Elephant Shrews (151) — The 
Genus Rhynchocyon (152) — The Genus Petrodromus (153) — The Tupaiadx (153) — The Bangsring 
^154) — The Press (154) — The Genus Hylomys (155) — The Genus Ptilocercus (155) — The Pen- 
tail (155) 

CHAPTER H. 
THE HEDGEHOGS, MOLES, AND SHREWS. 
The Erinaceidae (157) — The Hedgehogs (158) — The Genus Gymnuradgg) — The Centetidae 
(159) — The Tenrec and Tendrac (i6i) — The Genus Solenodon (161) — The Agouti {161) — The 
Potamogalidx (162) — The Chrysochlorida; or Golden Moles (163) — The Talpidae (163) — The 
Moles (163) — The Genus Talpa {163) — Genus Condylura (164) — The Star-nosed Moles (165) — 
The Genus Scalops or American Mole (165) — The Genus Mygale (166) — The Desmans (166)— 
The Urotrichus (167) — The Soricidae or Shrews (i68). 

CARNIVORA. 

CHAPTER I. 
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORDER. 
The Carnivora or Flesh-eaters (173) — General Characteristics of the Order (173) — Its Func- 
tion in the Economy of Nature (174) — Its Geographical Distribution (175) — Its Division into 
Families (175). 

CHAPTER II. 

THE LION. 

The Lion (178) — Their Size and Strength (179) — Their Roar (180) — Their Habits (i8o) — 

Different Opinions of their Character (181) — Modes of Destroying (182) — The African Lion, the 

Cape Lion, the Gambia Lion, the Lion of North Africa (183) — The Asiatic Lion, the Maneless 

Lion (183) — Tame Lions (186) — Dangerous Pets (187). 

CHAPTER III. 
THE TIGER. 
The Tiger (188) — Its Favorite Haunts (188) — Its Destructiveness (189) — Tiger Hunting (191) 
— Modes of Killing the Tiger (192) — Tame Tigers (194) — The Tiger in Ancient Times (195). 

CHAPTER IV. 

PANTHERS AND LEOPARDS. 
The Cougar or American Panther (196)— The Jaguar (198) — Its Destructiveness (199)— A 
Tame Jaguar (200) — The African Leopard (201) — The Asiatic Leopard or Panther (202) — The 
Japanese Panther (202) — The Black Panther (203). 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE OCELOTS AND THE CATS. 
The Marbled Cat (205)— The Tiger Cats (205)— The Common Ocelot (205)— The Painted 
Ocelot (206)— The Syra (207)— The Chati (207)— The Long-tailed Cat (207)— The Pampas Cat 
(207)— Tlic Clouiicd Tiger (208) — The Colocolo (208)— The European Wildcat (209)— The Manui 
(211)— The Malay Cat (211) — The Dwarf Cat I2ii)— Tlie Egyptian Cat (212)— Letting the Cat 
out of the Bag (212)— The Common Cat (214)— Tlie Marten Cat (215) — The Serval (215). 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE LYNXES AND CHEETAHS. 
The Genus Lynx (217)— The Persian Lynx (217)— The Caracal (218) — The European Lynx 
(2ig)— The liootcd Lynx (220)— Tlie Canatiian Lynx ^22o)— The American Wild-Cats (222) — The 
Genus Cynxlurus (223)— The Chectali or llunling Leopard (224). 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE CIVET CATS. 
The Cryptoproctidx (226)— The G.alet (226)— The Viverridffl (227)— The Civet (228)— The 
Zibeth (228)— The Genets (230)— The Pale Genet (231)— Tlic Linsang (230)— The llemigale 
(230)— The Binturong (231)— The Nandinia (231)— The Pougoune (231) — The Musang (231) — 
The Maslied Paguma (232)— The M.ampalon {233)— The Ichneumons (233)— The Mungos or 
Mangoustc (234)— The Egyptian Ichneumon (235)— The Crab-eating Mangoustc (237)— The 
Zebra Mangoustc (237)— The Mcerkat (23S)— The Zcnick (23S)— The Mangue (239)— The Banded 
Mungos (239). 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE AARD-WOLF AND THE HYiENAS. 
The Family Protelidx (240)— The Aard-wolf (240) — The Family Hyxnidx (241)— Fables and 
Superstitions about the Hyxna (241)— The Striped Hya-na (242)— Two Tame Ones (243)— The 
Brown llvana (243) — The Spotted Ilyxna or PigcrWolf (244) — Rapacity of this Species (244) — 
Its Horrid Laughter (245). 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE WOLVES. 
Gcner.al Description of the Genus Canis (246) — The Common European Wolf (247)— The 
Jack.il Wolf (250)— The K.aberoo {250)— The Striped Wolf (250)— The American Wolves (251)— 
The Gr.ay Wolf (251')— The Red Wolf (252)— The Coyote (253)— The South American Wolves 
^253)_The Crab-eating Wolf (254)— The Aguaracha> (253). 

CHAPTER X. 
THE J.\CKALS AND FOXES. 
The Jackal (255)— The Landjak (256)— The Common Fox (256)— The Racoon Dog {259)— 
The Corsac (260) — The Caama (260) — The Fennek (260)— The American Foxes (261)— The Red 
Fox (261)— The Silver or Black Fox (261)— The Cross Fox (261)— The Kid Fox (262)— The Gray 
Fo.<i (262)— The Arctic Fox (262)— The Blue Fox (263)— The Large-eared Fox (264)— The Hunt 
ing Dog (,264). 



CONTENTS. XI 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE DOG. 

The Wild Dogs (265)— The Dhole (265)— The Alpine Wolf (266)— The Domesticated Dog 

(266) — Regard in which the Dog is Held (267) — Abhorrence of the Dog by the Orientals (267) — 

The Dogs of the East (267)— The Dog in Antiquity (268)— The Mental Qualities o( the Dog (268) 

—Its Moral Sense (269) — Its Affection for its Master (270)— Rabies or Hydrophobia (270}. 

CHAPTER XII. 
THE SPORTING DOGS. 
Modes of Classification (273)— Sporting Dogs (273)— The Scotch Greyhound (273) — The 
Irish Greyhound (274) — The African Greyhound (274) — The Common Greyhound (275) — The 
Hare Indian Dog (276) — The Italian Greyhound (276) — The Stag Hound (277) — Fox Hound (277) 
Harrier (277) — Beagle (277) — The Otter Hound (277) — The Dachs Hund and Turnspit (278) — 
The Bloodhound (278)— The Pointers and Setters {279) — The Spaniels (280) — Springers (280) — 
Cockers (280) — Water Spaniel (280) — Chesapeake Bay Dog (281)— Retriever (281). 

CHAPTER XIII. 
SHEPHERD'S DOGS AND HOUSE DOGS. 
The Shepherd's Dog (282)— The Colley (282)— The Spitz (283)— The Esquimaux Dog (283)— 
The St. Bernard (284)— The Mastiff (284)— The Thibet Dog (285)— The Bulldog (28s)— The New- 
foundland Dog (285)— The Black and Tan Terrier (288)— The Scotch Terrier (288)— The Skye 
Terrier (288)— The Yorkshire Terrier (288)— The Bull-Terrier (288)— The Fox Terrier (289)— 
The Coach-Dogs (289)— The Pug (289)— The Poodle (289)— King Charles (290)— Blenheim (290) 
The Mexican Mopsey (291) — The Dingo, or the Dog Relapsed into Barbarism (201). 

CHAPTER XIV. 
THE WEASELS, OTTERS AND SKUNKS. 
The Martens (293)— The Sable (294)— The American Sable (295)— The Black Cat (295)— 
The Polecat (2'?r) — The Ermine (296)— The Ferrets (296) — The New York Ermine (297) — The 
Mink (297) — The A^easels (298)— The Wolverene (299) — The Otters (300) — The Canada Otter 
(301)— The California Otter (302)— The Sea Olter (302)— The Brazilian Otter (303)— The Chinese 
Otter (303) — The Badgers (303)— The American Badger (304)— The Teledu (305) — The Ratel 
(306)— The Skunks (307)— The Zorilla (307)— The Suriho (308)— The Common Skunk (308)— 
The Nyentek (310). 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE RACOONS AND PANDAS. 
The Common Racoon (311) — The Crab-eating Racoon (313) — The California Coon (313) — 
The Coati (313)— The Red Coati (314)— The While Coati (314)— The Kinkajou (315)— The 
American Civet or Mountain Cat (316) — The Panda or Wah (316). 

CHAPTER XVI. 
THE BEARS. 
The Bears (3i8>— The Polar Bear (318)— The Brown Bear (320)— The Syrian Bear (321)— 
The American Bears (322) — The Black Bear {322) — The Grizzly Bear (323)— The Borncan Sun 
Bear (325)— The Sloth or Lipped Bear (326) — The South American or Spectacled Bear (327). 



Xll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE EARED SEALS AND WALRUSES. 
The Eared-Seals (328)— The Fur Seals and Hair Seals (328)— The Sea-Lion (329)— The Sea- 
Bear (329) — Value of its Fur (330)— The Fur Seals (331)— The California Hair Seal (331) — The 
California or Northern Sea Lion (332) — Manner of Capturing it Alive (333) — The Walrus (334) 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
THE TRUE SEALS. 
The Common Seals (337) — Their Wide Distribution {337) — Their Habits (338) — Their Love 
of Music (33S) — Robbin's Reef (339) — The Caspian Seal {340) — The Hoe-Rat (340) — The Harp- 
Seal (340) — Richard's Seal (341) — The Bearded Seal (341) — The Gray Seal (342) — The White- 
bellied Seal (342) — The Sea Leopard (342) — The Crab-eating Seal (342) — The False Sea Leopard 
(343) — The Large-eyed Seal (343) — The Sea Elephant (3441 — The Crested Seal (345) — The West 
Indian Seal {346). ■>^ 

GET ACE A. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE RIGHT WHALES. 
The Cetacea (349)— The Family Bala-nida: (350) — The Greenland Wh.-ile (350) — Its Mode of 
Respiration (351) — Its Blubber (351) — Whalebone (352) — The Young Whale (353) — Enemies of 
the Whale (354) — The Whale Fishery (355) — American Whalers (355) — Mode of Hunting the 
Whale {356) — The Harpoon and Bomb-lance (357)— Australian Right Whale (358) — Scrag Whale 
(358) — Biscay Whale (358) — Genus Eubal^ena^358) — Genera Hunterius, Caperia, Macleayus (359). 

CHAPTER II. 

THE FINNER WHALES AND RORQUALS. 

The Humpback or Bunched Whales (360) — The Rorquals or Big Finners (362) — Difficulty 

of Taking them (363) — The Northern Finner (364) — The Sulphur-bottom (364) — Adventure of the 

Ship " Plymouth" (364) — The Great Indian Rorqual (365) — Ancient Accounts of it (365) — The 

Pike Whale (366) — The Southern Rorqual (367) — The California Gray Whale (367). 

CHAPTER III. 
THE SPERM WHALES AND BLACK FI'^H. 

The Family Catodontida: (36S) — The Sperm Whales (368)— The Spermaceti (369)— Their 
Speed (370) — Their Fury when Provoked {370)— The Story of the Ship " Essex (371) — Other 
Ships Destroyed by this ^Vhale (371)— .\mbergris (372) — Speculations as to its Origin (372) — 
Food of the Sperm Whale (372)— Black Fish (373)— The Genus Cogia (374). 

CHAPTER IV. 
THE BEAKED WHALES AND THE NARWHALS. 
The Family Hyperoodontid^ (375)— The Beaked Whales {375)— The Bottle-nosed Whale 
(375>— The Xiphius (376)— The Family Monodontidx (377)— The Narwhal (377)— The Extra- 



CONTENTS. Xm 

ordinary Horn (378) — Conjectures as to its Use (378) — Fables Respecting it (379) — Medicinal 
Properties attributed to it (379) — Value of the Narwhal to the Greenlanders (380) — Ships Struck 
by it (380). 

CHAPTER V. 
THE DOLPHINS. 
The Delphinidae (381) — The Soosook or Dolphin of the Ganges (382) — The Inia (383) — The 
Lorelei of the Amazon River (383) — The Tucuxi (384) — The Dolphins Proper (385) — Legends — 
Symbols (385)— The Common Dolphin (386)— The White-beaked Dolphin (387)— The Bottle- 
nosed Dolphin (387). 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE PORPOISES AND WHITE WHALES. 
The Common Porpoise {388) — The Grampus, or Gladiator Dolphin (390) — Its Destructive- 
ness (391) — Its Name " The Thresher " (391) — The Pilot Whale, or Caaing Whale, or Grind 
(392) — Mode of Capturing (392) — The White Whale (393) — Specimens Exhibited in Shows (394). 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOLUME ONE. 



Plate Order 

I I. 

II I. 

Ill 1. 

IV II. 

V III. 

VI IV. 

VII IV. 

VIII IV. 

IX IV. 

X IV. 

XI IV. 

XII IV. 

XIII IV. 

XIV IV. 

XV IV. 

XVI IV. 

XVII IV. 

XVIII IV. 

XIX IV. 

XX IV. 

XXI IV. 

XXII IV. 

XXIII IV. 

XXIV IV. 

XXV IV. 

XXVI IV. 

XXVII V. 

XXVIII V. 

XXIX V. 



QuADRUMANA Frontispiece. 

QUADRUMANA To face page 54 

quadrumana 9& 

Cheiroptera 128 

Insectivora 150 

Carnivora 182 

Carnivora 188 

Carnivora ig'' 

Carnivora 206 

Carnivora 218 

Carnivora 212 

Carnivora 228 

Carnivora 242 

Carnivora 266 

Carnivora 274 

Carnivora 284 

Carnivora 256 

Carnivora...... 262 

Carnivora 294 

Carnivora 302 

Carnivora 312 

Carnivora 318 

Carnivora 322 

Carnivora 326 

Carnivora 332 

Carnivora 344 

Cetacea 35+ 

Cetacea 362 

Cetacea 37° 



CONTENTS. 



MAMMALIA. 

CHAPTER I. 

Inanimate and Animated Nature (i) — The Mineral (i), Vegetable (2), and Animal (3) King 
doms — Classification of Animals (4) — The Vertebrates (4) — Classes of Vertebrates (,5). 

CHAPTER II. 

The Class Mammalia (6) — General Characteristics (7) — The " Dental Formula " (8) — Divi 
sion into Orders (13). 

QUADRUMANA. 

CHAPTER III. 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

The General Characteristics of Quadrumana (17) — Their Habits in their Native Haunts 'i3) 
— Their Gregarious Disposition (20) — Division of the Quadrumana (22). 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE ANTHROPOID APES. 

The African Division (23) — The Genus Troglodytes (23) — The Gorilla (23) — The Chimpanzeb 
(27) — The Asiatic Division (32) — The Genus Simla (32)— Orang-Outan (32) — The Genus Hylo. 
bates or Gibbon (35). 

CHAPTER V. 

THE OLD WORLD MONKEYS. 

The Long-tailed Monkeys (41) — The Genus Semnopithecus (41)— The Proboscis Monkey 
(44) — The Douc (45) — The Genus Colobus (45) — The Guereza (45). 

CHAPTER VI. 

BABOONS AND MACAQUES. 

The Family Cynopithecidae (47)— The Genus Myiopithecus or Talapoin (47)— The Genus 
Cercopithecus (47) — The Guenons (51) — The Genus Cercocebus or Mangabeys (52) — The Genus 
Theropithecus or Gelada (53) — The Genus Cynocephalus or Baboon (54) — The Baboon Proper 
(56)— The Chacma (58)— Its Use m Finding Water (58)— The Sphinx (60)— The Hamadryad (61) 
— Its Pugnacious Disposition (6x) — Disgusting Character of the Mandrill and Drill (62). 



il CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 
BABOONS AND MACAQUES.— Coii/inuea. 
Genus Macacus (63) — The Common Macaque (65) — The Bonnet Ape (67) — The Rhesus or 
Bunder (68) — The Lapander (103) — The Wanderoo (71) — The Magots (72) — The Gibraltar Mon- 
keys (72) — Genus Cynopithecus (74) — The Black Baboon-ape or Celebes (74). 

CHAPTER VIII. 
THE NEW WORLD MONKEYa 
The American Monkeys or Cebida; (75) — The Genus Cebus or Sapajou (77) — The Genus 
Lagothrix (80) — The Spider Monkeys (81) — The Genera Ateles and Eriodes (87) — The Howling 
Monkeys (85)— The Sakis (89)— The Night Monkeys (92)— The Tee-tees (94). 

CHAPTER ix. 

THE MARMOSETS. 
The Marmosets or Ouistitis (95) — The Family Hapalidae (97) — The Genus Hapale (97) — 
The Silky Marmoset (98) — The Pinche (gS) — The Dwarf Marmoset (98)— The Genus Midas (99) 
The Sagouins (99). 

CHAPTER X. 
THE LEMUROIDEA. 
The Indris (102) — The Lemurs (104) — The Ruffed Lemur (105) — The Cat Lemuf (106) — The 
Hapalemur (107) — The Cheirogaleus (108) — The Loris (no)— The Tarsier Spectre (114) — The 
Aye-aye (115). 

CHEIROPTERA. 

CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 
The Order Cheiroptera (121)— Superstitious Dread of Bats (122)— Their Usefulness (122) 
— Their Flying Apparatus (124) — Their General Characteristics and Habits (124) — The Genera 
of the Order (127). 

CHAPTER II. 

THE VAMPIRES. 
The Fruit-eating Bats or Flying Foxes (129)— The Kalongs (129)— The Leaf-nosed Bats or 
Vampires (130)— The Horseshoe Bats (134) — The Rhinopoma (136). 

CHAPTER III. 
THE TRUE BATS. 
The Common Bat (137)— The Taphozous (138)— The Pipistrelle (138)— The Barbastelle (139) 
—The California Bat (140)— The Great Bat of Britain (140)— The New York Bat (141)— The 
Carolina Bat (141)— The Hoary Bat (142)— The Long-eared Bat (142)— The Big-eared Bat (142)— 
The Noctilionidae (143)— The Genus Nycticeius(i43)— The Genus Nyctinomus (144)— The Genus 
Noctilio (144). 



CONTENTS. Ul 



INSECTIVORA. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE FLYING LEMURS, ELEPHANT SHREWS AND PENTAIL. 
Characteristics of the Order (147) — Its Division into Nine Families (148) — The Galeopithe- 
cidsE (149) — The Flying Lemurs (149) — The Macroscelididae or Elephant Shrews (151) — The 
Genus Rhynchocyon (152) — The Genus Petrodromus (153) — The Tupaiadx (153) — The Bangsring 
C154) — The Press (154) — The Genus Hylomys (155) — The Genus Ptilocercus (155) — The Pen- 
tail (155) 

CHAPTER II. 
THE HEDGEHOGS, MOLES, AND SHREWS. 
The Erinaceidae (157) — The Hedgehogs (158) — The Genus Gymnura (159) — The Centetidae 
(159) — The Tenrec and Tendrac (161) — The Genus Solenodon (161) — The Agouti (161) — The 
Potamogalidx (162) — The Chrysochloridae or Golden Moles (163) — The Talpidae (163) — The 
Moles (163) — The Genus Talpa (163) — Genus Condylura (164) — The Star-nosed Moles (165) — 
The Genus Scalops or American Mole (165) — The Genus Mygale (166) — The Desmans (166) — 
The Urotrichus (167) — The Soricidae or Shrews (168). 

CARNIVORA. 

CHAPTER I. 
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORDER. 
The Carnivora or Flesh-eaters (173) — General Characteristics of the Order (173) — Its Func 
tion in the Economy of Nature (174) — Its Geographical Distribution (175) — Its Division into 
Families (175). 

CHAPTER II. 

THE LION. 

The Lion (178) — Their Size and Strength (179) — Their Roar (180) — Their Habits (180) — 

DiflTerent Opinions of their Character (181) — Modes of Destroying (182) — The African Lion, the 

Cape Lion, the Gambia Lion, the Lion of North Africa (183) — The Asiatic Lion, the Maneless 

Lion (183) — Tame Lions (186) — Dangerous Pets (187). 

CHAPTER III. 
THE TIGER. 
The Tiger (188) — Its Favorite Haunts (188) — Its Destructiveness (189)— Tiger Hunting (191) 
— Modes of Killing the Tiger (192) — Tame Tigers (194) — The Tiger in Ancient Times (195). 

CHAPTER IV. 
PANTHERS AND LEOPARDS. 
The Cougar or American Panther {196) — The Jaguar (198) — Its Destructiveness (199) — A 
Tame Jaguar (200) — The African Leopard (201) — The Asiatic Leopard or Panther (202) — The 
Japanese Panther (202) — The Black Panther {203). 



IV CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE OCELOTS AND THE CATS. 
The Marbled Cat {205) — The Tiger Cats ^205)— The Common Ocelot (205)— The Painted 
Ocelot (206) — The Syra (207) — The Chati (207) — The Long-tailed Cat (207) — The Pampas Cat 
(207) — The Clou(*ed Tiger (,208) — The Colocolo (208) — The European Wildcat (209) — The Manui 
(211)— The Malay Cat (211) — The Dwarf Cat (211)— The Egyptian Cat (212) — Letting the Cat 
out of the Bag (212) — The Common Cat (214) — The Marten Cat (215) — The Serval (215). 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE LYNXES AND CHEETAHS. 
The Genus Lynx (217) — The Persian Lynx (217) — The Caracal (218) — The European Lynx 
(219) — The Booted Lynx (220) — The Canadian Lynx (220) — The American Wild-Cats (222) — The 
Genus Cynxlurus (223) — The Cheetah or Hunting Leopard (224). 

CHAPTER Vn. 
THE CIVET CATS. 
The Cryptoproctidae (226)— The Galet (226)— The Viverridffi (227)— The Civet (228)— The 
Zibeth (228) — The Genets (230) — The Pale Genet (231) — The Linsang (230) — The Hemigale 
(230) — The Binturong (231) — The Nandinia (231) — The Pougoune (231) — The Musang (231) — 
The Masked Paguma (232) — The Mampalon (233)— The Ichneumons (233) — The Mungos or 
Mangouste (234) — The Egyptian Ichneumon (235) — The Crab-eating Mangouste (237) — The 
Zebra Mangouste (237) — The Meerkat (238) — The Zenick (238) — The Mangue (239) — The Banded 
Mungos (239). 

CHAPTER VHI. 

THE AARD-WOLF AND THE HYENAS. 

The Family Protelid;e (240) — The Aard-wolf (240) — The Family Hyrcnida; (241) — Fables and 

Superstitions about the Hyxna (241) — The Striped Hynena (242) — Two Tame Ones (243) — The 

Brown Hyaena (243) — The Spotted Hj-aena or Tiger- Wolf (244) — Rapacity of this Species (244) — 

Its Horrid Laughter (245). 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE WOLVES. 

General Description of the Genus Canis (246) — The Common European Wolf (247) — The 

Jackal Wolf (250) — The Kaberoo (250) — The Striped Wolf (250) — The American Wolves (251) — 

The Gray Wolf (251)— The Red Wolf (252)— The Coyote (253)— The South American Wolves 

(253) — The Crab-eating Wolf (254) — The Aguarachay (253). 

CHAPTER X. 
THE JACKALS AND FOXES. 
The Jackal (255) — The Landjak (256)— The Common Fox (256)^The Racoon Dog {259) — 
The Corsac (260) — The Caama (260) — The Fennek (260) — The American Foxes (261) — The Red 
Fox (261)— The Silver or Black Fox (261)— The Cross Fox (261)— The Kid Fox (262)— The Gray 
Fox (262)— The Arctic Fox (262)— The Blue Fox (263)— The Large-eared Fox (264) — The Hunt 
ing Dog (264). 



CONTENTS. V 

CHAPTER XL 

THE DOG. 

The Wild Dogs (265)— The Dhole (265)— The Alpine Wolf (266)— The Domesticated Dog 

(266) — Regard in which the Dog is Held (267) — Abhorrence of the Dog by the Orientals (267) — 

The Dogs of the East (267) — The Dog in Antiquity (268) — The Mental Qualities of the Dog (268) 

— Its Moral Sense (269) — Its Affection for its Master (270)— Rabies or Hydrophobia (270). 

CHAPTER XH. 
THE SPORTING DOGS. 
Modes of Classification (273)— Sporting Dogs (273)— The Scotch Greyhound (273} — The 
Irish Greyhound (274) — The African Greyhound (274) — The Common Greyhound (275) — The 
Hare Indian Dog (276) — The Italian Greyhound (276) — The Stag Hound (277) — Fox Hound (277) 
Harrier (277) — Beagle (277) — The Otter Hound (277) — The Dachs Hund and Turnspit (278) — 
The Bloodhound (278) — The Pointers and Setters (279) — The Spaniels (280) — Springers (280)^ 
Cockers (280) — Water Spaniel (280) — Chesapeake Bay Dog (281) — Retriever (281). 

CHAPTER XIII. 
SHEPHERD'S DOGS AND HOUSE DOGS. 
The Shepherd's Dog (282)— The Colley (282)— The Spitz (283)— The Esquimaux Dog (283)— 
The St. Bernard (284)— The Mastiff (284)— The Thibet Dog (285)— The Bulldog (285)— The New- 
foundland Dog (285)— The Black and Tan Terrier (288)— The Scotch Terrier (288)— The Skye 
Terrier (288)— The Yorkshire Terrier (288)— The Bull-Terrier (288)— The Fox Terrier (289)— 
The Coach-Dogs (289) — The Pug (2S9) — The Poodle (289) — King Charles (290) — Blenheim (290) 
The Mexican Mopsey (291) — The Dingo, or the Dog Relapsed into Barbarism (291). 

CHAPTER XIV. 
THE WEASELS, OTTERS AND SKUNKS. 
The Martens (293) — The Sable (294) — The American Sable (295) — The Black Cat (295) — 
The Polecat (20c) — The Ermine (296) — The Ferrets (296) — The New York Ermine (297) — The 
Mink (297) — The Weasels (298) — The Wolverene (299) — The Otters (300) — The Canada Otter 
(301) — The California Otter (302) — The Sea Otter (302) — The Brazilian Otter (303) — The Chinese 
Otter (303) — The Badgers (303) — The American Badger (304) — The Teledu (305) — The Ratel 
(306) — The Skunks (307; — The Zorilla (307; — The Suriho {308) — The Common Skunk (308) — 
The Nyentek (310). 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE RACOONS AND PANDAS. 
The Common Racoon (311) — The Crab-eating Racoon (313) — The California Coon (313) — 
The Coati (313) — The Red Coati (314) — The White Coati (314)— The Kinkajou (315) — The 
American Civet or Mountain Cat {316) — The Panda or Wah (316). 

CHAPTER XVI. 
THE BEARS. 
The Bears (318)— The Polar Bear (318)— The Brown Bear (320)— The Syrian Bear (321)— 
fhe American Bears (322) — The Black Bear (322) — The Grizzly Bear (323) — The Bornean Sun 
Bear (325) — The Sloth or Lipped Bear (326) — The South American or Spectacled Bear (327). 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE EARED SEALS AND WALRUSES. 

The Eared-Seals (328)— The Fur Seals and Hair Seals (328)— The Sea-Lion (329)— The Sea- 

Bear (329)— Value of its Fur (330)— The Fur Seals (331)— The California Hair Seal (331)— The 

California or Northern Sea Lion (332) — Manner of Capturing it Alive (333) — The Walrus (334). 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE TRUE SEALS. 
The Common Seals (337) — Their Wide Distribution (337) — Their Habits (338) — Their Love 
of Music (338) — Robbin's Reef (339) — The Caspian Seal (340) — The Hoe-Rat (340) — The Harp- 
Seal (340)— Richard's Seal (341)— The Bearded Seal (341)— The Gray Seal (342)— The White- 
bellied Seal (342) — The Sea Leopard (342) — The Crab-eating Seal (342) — The False Sea Leopard 
(343) — The Large-eyed Seal (343) — The Sea Elephant (344) — The Crested Seal (345) — The West 
Indian Seal (346). 

GET ACE A. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE RIGHT WHALES. 
The Cetacea (349)— The Family Balaenidae (350) — The Greenland Whale (350) — Its Mode of 
Respiration (351) — Its Blubber {351) — Whalebone (352) — The Young Whale (353) — Enemies of 
the Whale (354) — The Whale Fishery (355) — American Whalers (355) — Mode of Hunting the 
Whale (356) — The Harpoon and Bomb-lance (357) — Australian Right Whale (358) — Scrag Whale 
(358)— Biscay Whale (358) — Genus Eubal^na(358) — Genera Hunterius, Caperia, Macleayus (359). 

CHAPTER II. 

THE FINNER WHALES AND RORQUALS. 

The Humpb.ack or Bunched Whales (360) — The Rorquals or Big Finners (362) — Difficulty 

of Taking them (363) — The Northern Finner (364) — The Sulphur-bottom (364) — Adventure of the 

Ship " Plymouth " 1364)— The Great Indian Rorqual (365) — Ancient Accounts of it (365) — The 

Pike Whale (366)— The Southern Rorqual (367)— The California Gray Whale (367). 

CHAPTER III. 

THE SPERM WHALES AND BLACK FISH. 

The Family Catodontidx (368)— The Sperm Whales (368)— The Spermaceti (369)— Their 

Speed (370) — Their Furj' when Provoked {370)— The Story of the Ship " Essex (371)— Other 

Ships Destroyed by this Whale (371)— Ambergris (372) — Speculations as to its Origin (372)— 

Pood of the Sperm Whale (372)— Black Fish (373)— The Genus Cogia (374). 

CHAPTER IV. 
THE BEAKED WHALES AND THE NARWHALS. 
The Family Hyperoodontida: (375)— The Beaked Whales (375)— The Bottle-nosed Whale 
(375)— The Xiphius (376)— The Family Monodontids (377)— The Narwhal (377)— The Extra- 



CONTENTS. VII 

ordinary Horn (378) — Conjectures as to its Use (378) — Fables Respecting it (379) — Medicinal 
Properties attributed to it (379) — Value of the Narwhal to the Greenlanders (380) — Ships Struck 

by it (380). 

CHAPTER V. 
THE DOLPHINS. 
The Delphinidae (381) — The Soosook or Dolphin of the Ganges (382) — The Inia (383) — The 
Lorelei of the Amazon River (383) — The Tucuxi (384) — The Dolphins Proper (385) — Legends — 
Symbols (385)— The Common Dolphin (386)— The White-beaked Dolphin (387)— The Bottle- 
nosed Dolphin (387). 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE PORPOISES AND WHITE WHALES. 
The Common Porpoise (388) — The Grampus, or Gladiator Dolphin (390) — Its Destructive- 
ness (391) — Its Name " The Thresher " (391)— The Pilot Whale, or Caaing Whale, or Grind 
(392) — Mode of Capturing (392)— The White Whale (393) — Specimens Exhibited in Shows (394). 



SIRENIA. 

THE SEA COWS 
The Order Sirenia (397) — Mermaids (397) — The Family Manatidse (39S) — The Manatees of 
America (399) — Their Voracity and Laziness (399) — Modes of Capture (399) — Tame Specimens 
(399)— The Florida Manatee (400) — The African Lamantin (400) — The Eastern Dugong (400)— 
The Australian Dugong (401)— The Northern Sea Cows (401)— Steller's Description (401) — 
Extinct since 1768 (403). 

UNGULATA. 

CHAPTER I. 
HOOFED ANIMALS. 
The Order Ungulata (407)— The Numerous Families (407) — The Ruminants (407) — Their 
Peculiar Stomach (408) — Horns (408) — Antlers (408) — Extinct Species (408) — The Original Horse 
Protohippus (409) — Gradual Development (409) — The Family Equidae ((409) — The Genus Equus 
(409)— The Horse (410)— The Tarpan or Wild Horse of Tartary (410)— The Mustang or Wild 
Horse of America (411). 

CHAPTER n. 
THE ARAB AND THE BARB. 
Early Domestication of the Horse (416)— The Horse in Egypt (416)— Assyria— Judaea (416)— 
Greece— Persia (417)— Bits and Stirrups (417)— Chariot Races (417)— The Arab Horse (418)— 
Exaggerated Pedigrees (4ig)_The Best Arabs (419V— Their Training (419)— Attachment of the 
Arab for his Mare (420)— Speed and Endurance (421)— The Barb (422)— The Same Horse as the 
Arab (422)— Abd-el-Kader on the Horse (422). 



viii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 
THE RACE-HORSE AND TROTTING HORSE. 

The Race-Horse (425) — The English Turf {426) — The American Turf (427) — Imported Horses 
(427) — The Trotting-Horse (428)— Flora Temple (431)— Steve Maxwell (432)— St, Julien and 
Maud S (432) — The Narragansett Pacers (432) — Pocahontas (432). 

CHAPTER IV. 

EUROPEAN HORSES. 

The Hunter (434) — The Hackney (434) — The Russian Horse (436) — The Austrian Horse (437) 

— The Holstein Horse (,43S) — The French Horse (43S) — The Italian Horse (440) — The Races at 

Rome (440) — The Spanish Horse (440) — The Shetland Pony (441) — The Carriage Horse (443) — 

The Cart Horse (443)— The Percheron Horse (443), 

CHAPTER V. 
THE WILD AND THE COMMON ASS. 
The Wild Asses (445) — The Kulan or Dziggetai (445) — Their Speed (446) — Domestication 
(446)— The Wild Ass of the Bible (447)— The ."African Wild Ass (448)— The Common Ass (448) 
— Its Patience — Its Intelligence (449) — The Egyptian Ass (450). 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE ZEBRAS. 

The Zebras or Tiger-Horses (452) — The Quagga (452) — The Dauw, or Burchell's Zebra (453 ) — 

Harris's Description of it (454) — The Zebra Proper (454) — Hunting the Zebra (455) — Cross- 

Breeds (456) — The Mule (456J — The Hinny (456) — Instances of their Fertility (,457) — Darwinism 

(457)- 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE TAPIRS. 

The Family Tapiridse (458) — The American Tapir (458) — Its Trunk (459) — Its Habits (459) — 

The Tapir as a Domestic Auimal (460) — A Tapir Hunt (461) — Peculiar Marks of the Young 

Tapir (461) — The Malay Tapir (462) — Its Trunk (462) — Its Color (4621 — Discoverj' of the Animal 

(462) — Chinese Account (463) — The Pinchaque (463) — Baird's Tapir {463). 

CHAPTER VIII. 
THE RHINOCEROS. 
The Family Rhinocerotidae (464) — General Description (464) — The Horn — Peculiar Struc- 
ture of the Horn (465) — Known to the Ancients (466) — Woodcut by Albert Durer (466) — Arab 
Superstitions (466) — Haunts of the Rhinoceros (466) — A Nocturnal Animal (467) — Its Food- 
Its Habits (467)— Its Senses (468) — Its Fits of Rage (468)— Maternal Affection (469)— Its Friends 
the Small Birds (469) — Captive Rhinoceroses (470) — Uses of its Hide (470). 

CHAPTER IX. 
THE ASIATIC RHINOCEROSES. 
The One-homed Rhinoceroses (470) — The Indian Rhinoceros (470)— Its Thick Hide (470) — 
Mode of Hunting (473) — The Wara or Javanese Rhinoceros (473) — The Emperor Baber (474) — 



CONTENTS. ix 

The Two-horned Rhinoceros or Badak of Sumatra (474) — The Fire-eating Rhinoceros (476) — The 
Rough-eared Rhinoceros (476). 

CHAPTER X. 
THE AFRICAN RHINOCEROS. 
The Borele or Little Black Rhinoceros (477)— The Sword-Hunters of Abyssinia (479)— The 
Keitloa (479)— Their Fierceness (480)— The Mohogoo or White Rhinoceros (481)— Hunting 
Adventure of Mr. Oswell (482)— The Kobaoba (484)— Probability of its Extinction (484). 

CHAPTER XI. 
THE HIPPOPOTAMUS. 
The Hippopotamus or River Horse (485)— Description (486)— Habits (486) — Favorite Haunts 
(487)— Food (487)— Violence when Provoked (488) — Maternal Affection (488) — Modes of Hunt- 
ing (489)— Pitfalls and Downfalls (489)— Harpooning (489) — The Hippopotamus in Captivity 
(491) — The Small or Liberian Hippopotamus (492). 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE PECCARIES. 
The Swine Family (493)— General Characteristics (493) — The Peccaries (494) — The Collared 
Peccary (494)— Its Courage and Fierceness (495)— The White-lipped Peccary (495)— Its Habits 
(495) — Methods of Hunting the Peccarj' (496) — Flesh of the Peccary (497). 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE TRUE SWINE. 
The Genus Sus (498)— Religious Prohibitions (498)— The Boar of Valhalla (499)— The Boar's 
Head (499)— The Wild Boar of Europe (499)— Hunting the Wild Boar (500)— The Wild Hog of 
India (501)— The Domestic Hog (502)— Anecdotes of the Hog (502)— Breeds of Hogs (504) — The 
Berkshire (504)— Trichiniasis (504). 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE RIVER-HOGS, BABYROUSSA, AND WART-HOGS. 

The River Hogs (506)— The Pencilled Hog (506)— The Bush Hog, or Bosch Vark (507V— 

Edwards' River-Hog (508)— The Babyroussa (508)— Its Peculiar Tusks (508)— The Wart-Hogs 

(509) — Hideous Appearance (510) — The African Wart-Hog, or Vlacke Vark (510) — The Wart- 

Hog of .3Elian or Engallo (511). 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE CAMEL. 
The Ruminants (512)— The Camelida; {512)— The Camels of the Old World (513)— The 
Arabian Camel, or Dromedary (514) — The Camel in the Bible (515)— The Camel in Europe (515) 
—The Camel in Africa (515)— Its Food (516)— Its Powers of Resisting Thirst (516)— Its speed 
(517)— Mode of Riding (517)— Its Behavior when Loading (51S)— Its Vices (519)— Anecdote of 
Latif Pacha (520)— Its Value (521)— The Two-humped Camel of Bactria (522). 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

THE LLAMAS. 

The American Camelidae {s2i)—The Genus Auchenia (524>— The Guanaco (525) — Its Habits 
(526)— The Llama (527) — Its LTse as a Beast of Burden ^527) — The Alpaca or Pace (528) — Its 
Wool (528)— The Vicuna (529)— Indian Hunts (530). 

CHAPTER XVII. 
THE MOUSE DEER. 
The Tragulidse or Hornless deer (532) — Disputes of Naturalists (532) — The Kanchil (532) — 
Its Appearance and Habits (533) — Attempts to introduce it to Europe (534). 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE DEER. 

The Cervidae (535) — Their Antlers (535) — The Process of Growth of the Antler (536) — The 

Shedding of the Velvet (536) — Habits of the Cervid^ (538) — The Various Genera (538) — The 

Elk of the Old World or the Moose of the New World (539) — The Elk of Sweden (539) — The 

Moose of Canada (541) — Habits — Modes of Hunting (541). 

CHAPTER XIX. 
THE REINDEER AND THE CARIBOU. 
The Reindeer (544) — Its Life in Northern Europe (545) — Its Life in Siberia (546) — Its Life 
when Domesticated (547) — Its Value (547) — The Caribou (548) — Modes of Hunting it (548). 

CHAPTER XX. 

THE TRUE DEER. 

The True Deer (550) — The Wapiti (550) — The Red Deer of Europe (552) — The Virginian 

Deer or Carcajou (554) — The Persian Deer (556) — The Indian Species (556) — The Barasinga 

(556)— The Axis Deer (557)— The Sambur (557)— The Maned Stag (557)— The Hog Deer (558)— 

The South American Species (558)— The Pampas Deer (558) — The Red Deer or Guasupita (559). 

CHAPTER XXI. 
THE FALLOW DEER, ROE DEER, AND MUSK DEER. 
The Genus Dama (560)— Fallow Deer (560)— Genus Capreolus (562)— Roe Deer (562)— 
Genus Cervulus (564) — Muntjak or Kidang (564) — Genus Moschus (565)— Musk Deer (565)— 
Its Abode— Habits— The Musk (566). 

CHAPTER XXII. 

THE GIRAFFE. 
The Camelopardalidae or Giraffes (56S)— Its Size and Appearance (569)— Its Habitat (570)— 
Its adaptation to its Location (570) — Its Movements (570) — Its Food (571)— Its Senses (572) 
—Giraffes in London and Paris (572)— Modes of Hunting (572)— Meaning of the Word 
"Giraffe" (573). 



CONTENTS. XI 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS. 

The Bovidae (574) — The Thirteen Sub-families (574) — The Bovinae (575) — The Genus Bos 

(575)— The Domestic Ox (575)— The Wild Cattle (576)— The Cattle of the Pampas (577) — 

Cattle of Africa (578)— Domestic Cattle (579)— The Highland Cattle (582)— The Durham (582)— 

The Alderney (582). 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
THE BISONS. 
The Bonassus or European Bison (584) — Called also the Aurochs (584)— The Real Aurochs 
Extinct (584)— The Forest or Bialowicz (584) — Description of the Bonassus (585) — The Bison of 

the Caucasus (586) The American Bison or Buffalo (586)— Enormous Numbers (586) — Terrible 

Destruction (587)— Estimate of Numbers Killed (588) — The Mountain Buffalo (589) — Death of a 
Bull (590). 

CHAPTER XXV. 

EASTERN CATTLE. 

The Domestic Cattle of India (591)— The Zebu (591)— The Wild Cattle of India (592)— Genus 

Bibos (593) — The Gayal (593) — The Gaur (594) — The Banteng (595) — Genus Poephagos (595)— 

The Yak (595)— The Plough Yak (596)— Hunting the Yak (597)-Genus Anoa {597)— The 

Chamois Buffalo or Celebes (597) — Its Fierceness {598). 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE BUFFALOES. 

The Genus Bubalus (599) — The Cape Buffalo (599) — Drayson's Account (600) — Buffalo 
Shooting (602) — The Indian Buffalo (602) — Buffalo and Tiger Fights (603) — Williamson's 
Account (604) — The Kerabau(6o5) — The Domesticated Buffalo (605) — Its Habits — Its Uses (606). 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

THE ANTELOPES. 
The Antelopes (607) — The Eland (607) — The Koodoo (609) — The Bosch-bok (610) — The 
Nylghau (611) — The Passan (613) — The Beisa (614) — The Sabre Antelope (614) — The Addax 
(614)— The Sable Antelope (615)— The Blau Bok (616). 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
THE GAZELLES. 
The Gazelle (617) — Its Beauty and Grace (617) — The Ariel Gazelle (618) — The Jairou (619) — 
The Spring-Bok (620) — Its Immense Numbers (620) — The Dseren (622) — The Sasin (623) — The 
Pallah (624) — The Saiga (624) — The Sub-family Antilocaprinae (625) — The Prong Horn (625). 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
THE LESSER ANTELOPES. 
The Ourebi (627) — The Klippspringer {628)— The Water Buck (628)— The Blue Buck (630) 
—The Musk Antelope 629)— The Duykcr Bok (630)— The Rhoode Bok (631)— The Chickara 



Xll CONTENTS. 

(631)— The Hartebeest(632)— The Sassaby (632)— The Gnu (633)— The Chamois (633)— The Goral 
(635) — The Mountain Goat of the Rocky Mountains (638). 

CHAPTER XXX. 
GOATS AND IBEXES. 
The Genus Capra (637)— The Goats (637) — The Bezoar Goat or Paseng (639)— The Cash- 
mere Goat (639) — The Angora Goat (640)— The Mamber Goat (641)— The Marlchor and Tahir 
(641) — The Egyptian Goat (64I) — The Ibexes (642) — The Alpine Ibex (642) — The Pyrenean Ibex 
(643) — The Arabian Ibex (644). 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

THE SHEEP AND THE MUSK-OX. 

The Aoudad (646)— The Moufflon (647)— The Argali (647)— The Katshliar (648)— The Big 

Horn (648) — Its Habits (649) — Fat-tailed Sheep (649) — The Cretan Sheep (650) — The Southdown 

(651)— The Leicester (651) — The Merino (652) — The Highland Sheep (653) — The Genus Ovibos 

(653) — The Musk-ox of North America (654). 



PROBOSCIDEA. 

CHAPTER I. 

ELEPHANTS IN GENERAL. 
The Order Proboscidea — Derivation of Name (657) — The Family Elephantid:e (657) — Fossil 
Elephants— The Mammoth (657)— The Mastodon (658)— The Elephant (659)— Its Trunk— Its 
Tusks (660) — The Elephant in History (66i)^In the East — In Rome — In Modern Times {603). 

CHAPTER II. 
THE ASIATIC ELEPHANT. 
The Asiatic Elephant (665)— Its Use (666) — Mode of Capture in Ceylon (666) — Points of a 
Good Elephant (669) — White Elephants (670) — Funeral of a White Elephant (670) — The Dwarf 
Elephant (671). 

CHAPTER III. 

THE ELEPHANT. 
The African Elephant — Difference from the Indian Elephant (672) — Hunting the Elephant 
(672) — Delegorgue (672) — Gordon Cumming (673) — The Abyssinian "Hock-cutters" (674) — 
Captive Elephants (676) — Baby Elephants (676) — Anecdotes of Elephants (677). 

HYRACOIDEA. 

THE ROCK RABBITS. 
The Order Hyracoidea (681) — The Genus Hyrax (68i)— Its Characteristics (682). 



CONTENTS. Xm 

RODENTIA. 

CHAPTER I. 

RATS AND MICE. 

The Order Rodentia (687)— The Family Muridse (688)— Rats and Mice (688)— The Black 

Rat (638)— The Brown Rat (688)— The Mouse (689)— The Harvest Mouse (689)— The Barbary 

Mouse (690)— The Hamster (690)— The Musk Rat (692)— The Water Rat (693)— The Field Mouse 

(693) — Wilson's Meadow Mouse (694) — Le Conte's Mouse (691) — The Cotton Rat (692) — The 

Lemming (695). 

CHAPTER n. 

MOLE RATS, POUCH RATS, AND BEAVERS. 

The Mole Rat (696)— The Jerboa (697) — The Alactaga (697)— The Cape Leaping Hare (697) 

— The Hudson Bay Jumping Mouse (698) — The Fat Dormouse (698) — The Common Dormouse 

(699) — The Pouched Rats (699) — The Beavers (701) — The American Beaver (702) — The European 

Beaver (704). 

CHAPTER in. 

THE SQUIRRELS AND MARMOTS. 

The Family Sciuridse (707) — The European Squirrel (707) — The Javanese Squirrel (708) — 

The Hare Squirrel (708)— The Black Squirrel (708)— The Gray Squirrel (708)— The Northern 

Gray Squirrel (709)— The Red Squirrel (709) — The Long-haired Squirrel (710)— The Flying 

Squirrel (710) — The American Flying Squirrel (711) — The Taguan (711) — The Chipmuck (712) — 

The Leopard Marmot (713)— The Marmot (714) — The Babac (715) — The Woodchuck (715)— The 

Prairie Dog (716). 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE SEWELLELS, PORCUPINES, AND CAVIES. 
The Family Haploodontida; (718)— The Family Chinchillida: (718)— The Chinchillas and 
Visachas (719) — The Octodontid-.e (720) — The Hutia Conga (720) — The Degu (721)— The Tuko- 
tugo (722) — The Gundy (722) — The Coypu (723 — The Ground Pig (723) — The Canadian Porcu- 
pine (724) — The Tufted-tailed Porcupines (726) — The Agouti (726) — The Sooty Paca (727) — The 
Capybara (727) — The Guinea Pig (728) — The Mara (728) — The Pikas (729). 

CHAPTER V. 
HARES AND RABBITS. 
The Family Leporidae (730) — The American Hares (730) — The Polar Hare (730) — The North- 
ern Hare (731) — The Wood Hare (731) — The Jackass Rabbit (731) — The African Hares (731) — 
The Sand Hare (732)— The Common Hare (732)— The Alpine Hare (733)— The Rabbit (733)— 
The Wild Rabbit (734)— The Domestic Rabbit (734). 

EDENTATA. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE SLOTHS AND ARMADILLOS 
The Edentata (737)— The Sloths (737)— The Two-toed Sloth (738)— The Ai or Three-toed 
Sloth (738)— The Spotted Sloth (739)— The Scaly Ant-eaters (739)— The Phatagin (739)— The 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

Pangolin (740) — The Tatouhon (740) — The Giant Armadillo (740)^The Tatouay (741) — The 
Armadillo (741) — The Apar (741) — The Picheogo (742). 

CHAPTER II. 
THE AARD VARK AND ANT-EATERS. 
The Aard Vark of the Cape (743)— The Great Ant-eater or Tamanoir (744) — The Tamandua 
(745) — The Little Ant-eater (746). 

MARSUPIALIA. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE OPOSSUMS AND BANDICOOTS. 
The Marsupials (749) — The True Opossum (749) — The Virginia Opossum (750) — Merrian's 
Opossum (750) — The Crab-eating Opossum (750) — The Yapock (750) — The Pouched Mouse (751) 
The Tasmanian Devil (751)— The Native Cat (751)— The Zebra Wolf (752)— The Native Ant- 
eater (752) — The Striped Bandicoot (752) — The Chaeropus (753). 

CHAPTER II. 
THE KANGAROOS, PHALANGERS, AND WOMBATS. 
The Kangaroo (754)— The Woolly Kangaroo (755)— The Wallabee (755)— The Rock Kan- 
garoo (755) — The Tree Kangaroo (756) — The Kangaroo Hare (756) — The Jerboa Kangaroo (756) 
•-The Potoroo (757) — The Koala (757) — The Sooty Phalangist (757) — The Valpine Phalangist 
(758)— The Cuscus (758)— The Taguan (758) — The Great Flying Phalanger (759) — The Sugar 
Squirrel (759) — Opossum Mouse (759) — The Wombat (760). 

MONOTREMATA. 

THE DUCK MOLE AND AUSTRALIAN HEDGEHOG. 
The Monotremata (763)— The Family Ornithorhynchida: (763) — The Duck Mole {763) — The 
Family Echidnidae (765) — The Native Hedgehog (766) — The Tasmanian Species (766) — Con- 
clusion, 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate Order 

I I. 

II I. 

Ill I. 

IV II. 

V III. 

VI IV. 

VII IV. 

VIII IV. 

IX IV. 

X IV. 

XI IV. 

XII IV. 

XIII IV. 

XIV IV. 

XV IV. 

XVI IV. 

XVII IV. 

XVIII IV. 

XIX IV. 

XX IV. 

XXI IV. 

XXII IV. 

XXIII IV. 

XXIV IV. 

XXV IV. 

XXVI.,... IV. 

XXVII..... V. 

XXVIII V. 

XXIX V. 

XXX VI, 

XXXI VII. 

XXXII VII. 

XXXIII VII. 



QuADRUMANA Frontispiece. 

Qu ADRUMANA To face page 54 

QuADRUMANA 96 

Cheiroptera 128 

Insectivora 150 

Carnivora 182 

Carnivora 188 

Carnivora 196 

Carnivora 206 

Carnivora 218 

Carnivora 212 

Carnivora 228 

Carnivora 242 

Carnivora 266 

Carnivora 274 

Carnivora 284 

Carnivora 256 

Carnivora 262 

Carnivora 294 

Carnivora 302 

Carnivora 312 

Carnivora 3^8 

Carnivora 322 

Carnivora 326 

Carnivora 332 

Carnivora 344 

Cetacea 354 

Cetacea 3(>2 

Cetacea 37° 

Sirent A 398 

Ungulata 416 

Ungulata 428 

Ungulata 448 



XVI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate Order 

XXXIV vn. 

XXXV VII. 

XXXVI VIL 

XXXVII VII. 

XXXVIII VIL 

XXXIX VIL 

XL VIL 

XLI VIL 

XLII VIL 

XLIII VIL 

XLIV VII. 

XLV VII. 

XLVI VIL 

XLVII VIL 

XLVIII VII. 

XLIX VII. 

L. VIL 

LI VIII. 

LII VIII 

LIII X. 

LIV X. 

LV X. 

LVI.... X. 

LVII X. 

LVIII X. 

LIX X. 

LX X. 

LXI XL 

LXII XIL 

LXIII XII. 

LXIV XIII. 



PAGE 

Ungulat.^ 45S 

Ungulata 472 

U.ngi;lat.\ 486 

Ungulata . . 504 

Ungulata 512 

Ungulata 526 

Ungulata 544 

Ungulata 538 

Ungul.\ta 560 

Ungulata 570 

Ungulata 582 

Ungulata 588 

Ungulata 598 

Ungul.«a 608 

Ungulata 618 

Ungulata 638 

Ungulata 648 

Proboscidea 666 

AND IX. Proboscidea and Hyracoidea 672 

Rqdentia 688 

RODENTL\ 696 

Rodentia 704 

RoDENTLV 710 

RoDENTlA 716 

Rodentia 722 

Rode.ntia 72S 

Rodentia 734 

Edentata 744 

Marsupiai.ia 750 

Maksupialia 756 

Mongtremata 764 




inaiiH 



CHAPTER I, 



INANIMATE AND ANIMATED NATURE — THE MINERAL, VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL KINGDOMS 

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS — THE VERTEBRATES — CLASSES OF \'ERTEBRATES. 

THE first and simplest division which an observer must make in 
the infinite variety of natural objects by which he is surrounded 
is a division between things living or Animated and things 
lifeless or Inanimate. He sees the corn springing up from the seed, 
increasing to maturity, then withering ; he sees the tree shooting heaven- 
ward, towering higher and spreading wider year after year till a pause 
comes to its development, and then he sees its branches decay and its 
trunk moulder, and knows that the giant of the forest, like the grass of 
the field, will fade and die. He knows, too, that the beasts of the earth, 
the birds of the air, the fishes of the sea, all the thousand tribes of 
creatures which people the globe, will pass, like the tree or plant, from 
the seed to maturity, from maturity to death. He knows that man him- 
self is no exception to this law of change ; that he grows to manhood and 
declines into old age ; that from the cradle to the grave he changes surely 
and uninterruptedly day by day, and year by year. But the cliffs which 
lift their heads to the clouds, the rocks which crop out from the hill- 
side, the stones he treads on, present no such phenomena of growth or 
decay. Man may shatter them, earthquakes may rend them, frost may 
disintegrate them, rain may wash them, but the alterations thus effected 
are merely physical results of physical causes acting from without, not 
the results of an indwelling force in rock or stone : even when, as in the 
case of crystals, an increase of size takes place, this increase is not a 
growth from within but an augmentation by the addition of particles 
from the outside. The Mineral Kingdom is a kingdom of the dead. 

If we examine the bodies comprehended in the Mineral Kingdom 
more closely, we find that, in addition to the entire absence of any 
tendency to periodic change, they are characterized by possessing a 
very simple chemical composition ; they often consist of only one ele- 



2 INANIMATE AND ANIMATED NATURE. 

inent, or if they are composite, they are simple compounds of two or 
three elements. We find, too, that mineral bodies are either of mdefinite 
shape or crystalline, and that they are composed of similar particles 
which do not stand in any definite relation to each other. In technical 
language they are amorphous and homogeneous bodies. 

Every substance which has yet been examined is found to consist 
of one or more elements. These elements, sixty-three in number, are 
divided into forty-nine metals and fourteen non-metals ; in the latter 
class are placed those substances which at ordinary temperatures are 
gaseous in form, such as oxygen, hydrogen and. the like, as well as some 
solid bodies, such as sulphur, phosphorus and carbon. All the known 
elements occur variously dispersed in the soHd mass of the earth, only 
four in the air, but thirty in the sea. Among the compounds of these 
elements there is a very peculiar class which form a characteristic and 
essential portion of the bodies of animals. These compounds are of very 
complicated constitution ; they do not crystallize, but exist in a jelly-like 
form. They all contain sulphur, and most of them phosphorus, in addition 
to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. To a substance closel^' allied 
to these albuminous compounds, the name of " protoplasm " has been 
given, and apparently no other form of matter can manifest what we call 
vital phenomena. 

Leaving Inanimate Nature to be discussed and described in trea. 
tises of Geology, Mineralogy, Chemistry or Physics, let us cast a further 
look on the division to which we have attributed LiFE. 

We observe that these bodies pass through sundry periodic changes, 
that they grow and decay, and that although subject to the universal 
physical and chemical laws, they possess a something which enables them 
to resist or check these laws. We see they increase, not by the mere 
external addition of particles from outside, but by the assimilation of 
foreign substances which they take into their mterior ; and if we continue 
our observation of them for a sufficient length of time, we discover that 
they can produce germs which, circumstances favoring, will develop into 
the likeness of their parent. In other words, we see that they possess 
organs of nutrition and reproduction. If we examine further these 
bodies which possess life, we find that the chemical elements of which 
they are composed form complex organic compounds which differ funda- 
mentally from any inorganic compound by exhibiting an organized 
structure. Such an organized structure is seen in the simple cell, the 



THE MINERAL, VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL KINGDOMS. 3 

germ of living organisms ; it cannot be prepared artificially from its 
elementary constituents, but is the sole and direct product of life. All 
bodies possessing life consist essentially of cells, minute solid particles 
and fibres. 

Again, in these living bodies the ordinary spectator perceives at once 
a great and striking difference. The grass indeed waves in the wind, 
the trees bow to the tempest, the flower turns to the light, the sensitive 
plant shrinks from the touch. But the snake creeps through the grass, 
the birds fly from tree to tree, the bee or the butterfly hovers over the 
flower, the seas and rivers are filled with creatures that swim through 
the waters. Such bodies not merely live, but live and move. The tree 
seems not to feel a pang when the woodman's axe cuts into its tissues, 
the grass does not apparently feel the scythe, but the moving creatures 
are susceptible of pain and pleasure. They not merely live, but live and 
move and feel. 

Linneeus, the father of Natural Histor}', said that " Plants grow, 
animals grow and move," and his definition will suffice for the higher 
classes of animals and plants ; but modern microscopic investigations 
show that it will not do for the lower classes. Many of the plants possess 
powers of locomotion, many of the animals are rooted to solid objects 
and destitute of any nervous organization. Perhaps the most reliable 
test which enables us to distinguish between the animal and the plant 
is the nature of their food, although even this test is not of universal 
application. 

We may distinguish, then, between the Vegetable and Animal 
Kingdoms by saying that the plant lives on unorganized materials, espe- 
cially carbonic acid, water, ammonia and salts, organizing them and 
evolving oxygen, while the animal lives upon organized materials taking 
up oxygen and evolving carbonic acid. The animal cannot produce the 
complicated chemical compounds it needs for its structure, the plant can 
do so. Without sunlight the plant cannot grow or assimilate carbon and 
eliminate oxygen ; without vegetables the animal cannot live. Thus, in 
literal truth as well as in ancient fable, we are the children of the sun. 

Abandoning the Vegetable Kingdom with all its marvels and beau- 
ties to the Botanist, let us confine ourselves to the Animal Kingdom, 
to creatures which live and move and feel. 

It is at once obvious that the number of living beings which swarm 
on the earth, in the air, in the water, is so vast and enormous that some 



4 INANIMATE AND ANIMATED NATURE. 

classification is absolutel}' necessar\- if we wish to acquire a clear 
knowledge of the Animal Kingdom as a whole. The simplest system 
of classification is that named morphological (from the Greek words niorphc 
form, and logos science), by which animals that are constructed on the 
same plan are placed in the same group. The first grand division we 
make is between animals that have a backbone, the Vertebrata, and 
animals that have no backbone, the Invertebrata. 

The Invertebrat.\ are divided into five sub-kingdoms: PROTOZOA, 
structureless jelly-like creatures of minute size ; Ccelenterata, animals 
without a heart or nervous S3-stem, such as the ordinary " Sea Nettle "; 
AxNULOlDA, a class which contains the " Star-fishes " and " Tape-worms "; 
Annulosa, animals composed of different segments arranged one behind 
the other ; to this sub-kingdom belong forms so widely different to the 
eyes of the superficial observer as " Earth-worms," " Lobsters," " Spiders," 
"Bees" and -'Butterflies." Lastly, the MoLLUSCA; of which the best 
known arc the " Oyster" and the " Snail." 

The Vertebrata are so-called from the Latin word vertebra (joint 
of the backbone), and possess a backbone made of many parts joined 
together. Each joint consists of a central portion which helps to give 
rigidity to the body and support to the limbs. On the upper part of this 
central portion are certain projections, called in technical language 
processes, that form a protection to the spinal cord ; on the lower part 
are similar processes which cover the great descending artery. The 
joints of this backbone from the top of the neck to the end of the tail 
are made up of similar parts. In the neck we do not find ribs, but 
the rudiments of ribs. In the back the lower bon)- processes are elon- 
gated into ribs ; in the loins the processes again degenerate ; in the 
haunches they become confluent with bones that form a cylindrical 
covering for the softer vessels, and offer a strong fulcrum for the lower 
limbs. Nay more, the skull is made up of parts corresponding to four 
vertebra. 

The nervous system of the Vertebrates consist of the brain, enclosed 
in the bony cavity of the skull, and the spinal eord, whence spring at inter- 
vals symmetrical pairs of nerves distributed to the voluntary muscles. 
The organs of sense become more perfect, the e3'es are invariably two in 
number, and sagacity is developed in proportion as the nervous centres 
expand. The blood is red, and the temperature of the bodv higher than 
that of the surrounding medium. But this temperature differs so much 



CLASSES OF VERTEBRATES. 



5 



in the various classes of Vertebrates, that they are sometimes distin- 
guished into Cold-blooded and Hot-blooded Vertebrate. 

To the Cold-blooded Vertebrata belong the countless race of 
Pisces, or fishes. They breathe by gills ; the heart is usually of two 
chambers ; the limbs when present become fins. The Amphibia have 
gills and a two-chambered heart when young ; when old, lungs and a 
heart of three chambers ; the limbs never become fins. The Reptiles 
have lungs, not gills, a three-chambered heart, and the skin covered with 
plates or scales. 

The Hot-blooded Vertebrata contain two classes: Ayes, or birds, 
and Mammalia. In the birds the lungs are connected with air recep- 
tacles in various parts of the body ; the heart consists of four chambers ; 
the skin is covered with feathers ; the forearms become wings. Like 
fishes and reptiles, birds are oviparous or egg-layers. The Mammalia 
form the subject of this volume. 

The subjoined table will show the method of division or classification 
that we have adopted in order to narrow our field of view from the 
world at large down to that portion of its inhabitants to which we our- 
selves belong. Classes are divided again into Orders; Orders sub- 
divided into Genera, and Genus into Species. Species may be so 
modified by accidental external circumstances as to give rise to Varieties, 
and Varieties embrace more or fewer Individuals. 



Kingdoms. 


Sub-Kingdoms. 






Classes. 


mineral 










vegetable 

ANIMAL 


' Invertebrate 


' Cold-blooded . . . . 


I. 
• - II. 


Fishes. 
Amphibia. 




. Vertebrate 




III. 


Reptiles. 






.Hot-blooded 


IV. 
V. 


Birds. 
Mammalia 



CHAPTER II. 

THE CLASS MAMMALIA — GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS — THE "DENTAL FORMULA" — 
DIVISION INTO ORDERS. 

THE name Mammalia is derived from the Latin word mamma, 
" a teat," and signifies animals that have teats. The possession 
of these organs constitutes the most apparent and decisive dis- 
tinction between the Mammalia and the other classes of animals. They 
alone bring forth their young alive and suckle them with their milk. 
The fishes cast their spawn upon the waters, careless of their future off- 
spring. The reptile leaves its eggs to be hatched by the sun's ray, and 
so far exercises some degree of forethought for its posterity. The bird 
sits patiently on her nest till her fledglings appear from the egg, and then 
tenderly watches over them, feeds them, and gathers them under her 
wings. But the mammal brings forth her young alive, and nourishes 
them at the living fountain of her breast. 

While all mammals possess teats, the number and position of them 
vary. Some, like the cow, have them on the belly ; some, like man, have 
them on the breast; some, like the sow, have them on both. In general, 
the number of these teats corresponds to the number of young each 
animal bears at a birth. 

The Mammalia vary greatly in size. How enormous is the difference 
in this respect between the elephant and the mouse, or between the 
whale and the bat, between the giraffe and the mole. Yet all are con- 
structed on the same plan. In all the vertebrates, as we have said, the 
skull consists of modifications and developments of parts corresponding 
to four vertebrjE ; in all the mammalia the number of the neck vertebrae 
are the same. Seven vertebrae form the neck of the giraffe as well as 
that of the seemingly neckless whale. In birds, on the contrary, the 
number of vertebra; increase with the length of the neck. The vertebrae 
in the back vary in number from ten to twenty-three, the commonest 
number being thirteen ; man, however, has onlv twelve. The vertebras 



THE SKELETON AND LIMBS. 7 

in the loins are commonly seven ; man possesses five, but some animals 
have as many as nine or as few as two. The sacral vertebree are amal- 
gamated in most cases into a single bone, and the vertebrae of the tail 
vary from four to forty-six in number, and are usually freely movable 
on each other. The number of ribs varies with the number of the dorsal 
or back vertebrse. 

The limbs are the members in which the greatest differences are seen. 
The regular number is four, and hence this class, the mammalia, are 
sometimes called Quadrupeds, or four-footed things. We must remem- 
ber, however, that many reptiles walk on four legs, and that in some 
genera of mammalia the hind limbs are either wanting or entirely rudi- 
mentary. The fore-limbs also exhibit striking differences in the various 
classes ; the hand in the ape becomes in the cat a paw, and in the horse a 
single hoof; the fingers in one animal are five in number, in another 
only one is found. 

This skeleton, this bony framework, is moved by muscles which lie 
close to the bones and move them in diverse directions. To describe 
the muscular or other tissues is the function of the anatomists, and who- 
ever desires to have a perfect knowledge of their wonderful constitution 
must consult some treatise on Anatomy. Such descriptions are out of 
place here; it is sufficient for us to remark that the muscles stand in the 
strictest harmony with the peculiarities of the skeleton and the animal's 
mode of life, which mode of life both influences and is influenced by the 
figure of the animal. In some, one muscle is wanting, in others, another ; 
the whales, for example, have no neck muscles, the apes have them 
developed as in men. Animals that climb, or burrow, or fly, or prey, 
have immense muscles to the upper arm ; those that run have immense 
muscles of the rump and shoulder. In brief, each creature is provided 
as befits its mode of life, or its mode of life has developed the fitting 
provision. 

A like variation is seen in the organs of nutrition. The mouth with 
fleshy, sensitive lips is a characteristic feature of all except the small 
order of the Monotrcmata. The tcctli vary remarkably both in number 
and shape. Like the hoof or foot, the teeth are admirably adapted 
in the case of each species to enable it to support its existence ; and 
hence these two features form a convenient basis for classification. Teeth 
indeed are wanting in the scaly and great ant-eaters, and are found in 
the whale only before it is born, but the great majority of mammals 



8 MAMMALIA. 

possess teeth invariably planted in distinct sockets in the jaw ; in most 
cases the young animal has inilk teeth, which are ultimately succeeded by 
perinancnt teeth. In man the teeth may be divided into four groups: the 
incisors or cutting teeth in front, the canine or eye-teeth, the false molars, 
and the back teeth or molars. The number of teeth in any animal is 
usually expressed by what is called the " Dental Formula." We know 
that in each half of each jaw there is a like number of teeth ; hence we 
have in man the " dental formula" as follows: 

I. ^-^^ C. i^, F. M. ^^, M. ^^ = 32; 

2 — 2' I — I 2 — 2 3 — 3 

where \. denotes incisors ; C, canine ; Y.M.., false molars ; y\.., true molars ; 
the figures above the line the number of teeth in the upper jaw ; those in 
the lower line, in the lower jaw ; the first numbers in each group, the 
teeth in the left ; the second ones, the teeth in the right jaw ; the final 
figures, the total number of teeth in the mouth. The same dental formula 
is given for the chimpanzee, but what a difference it presents to that of 
the ruminant or cud-chewing animal ! The dental formula of the sheep, 
for example, is 

I. 5-=^, C. ^=^, F. IM. ^^, M. 3-=^ = 32. 



Thus we see at a glance that while the sheep has as many teeth as our. 
selves, they are widely different from ours in position. In the upper jaw 
the incisors and canines are wanting ; the false molars are three in each 
side, while we have but two ; the molars in both jaws are as numerous 
as our own ; in the lower jaw there are three incisors on each side 
against our two, and the same number of canines as we possess. 

In the Carnivora, or flesh-eating animals, the molars assume a cutting 
character, while in those that feed on herbage, the Herbivora, the molar 
structure prevails. In the Rodcntia, or gnawing animals, such as rats or 
squirrels, the incisors project forward and are continuallv growing ; in 
the elephant there are no lower incisors, but the upper incisors, two in 
number, grow into enormous tusks. In the adult whale, the teeth are 
replaced by the whalebone plates. 

The digestive organs of the Mammalia do not differ to any great 
extent. They possess one stomach with the exception of the Runiinantia, 
or cud-chewers, which have four, the first three of which are so arranged 



THE HEART AND RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 9 

as to allow the food to be returned with ease into the mouth. The intes- 
tines vary in length considerably. In the Carnivora, or flesh-caters, their 
length is only three or four times the length of the animal's body ; in the 
Hirbivora, or grass-eaters, they are from twelve to twenty-eight times 
their length. It is worthy of notice, as indicating how a change in struc- 
ture may be developed by change of food and habits, that the intestines 
of the common cat whom domestic life has accustomed to a less carniv- 
orous diet, are longer than those of its wild and bloody kindred. 

The heart of the Mammalia is a double heart, consisting of two 
auricles and two ventricles, which are provided with valves so arranged 
that the blood can flow from the auricle into the ventricle, but not from 
the ventricle to the auricle. The course of the blood through this organ 
may be briefly described. The venous blood that has become impure 
in the tissues is returned by them to the right auricle, and is then dis- 
charged into the right ventricle. The powerful muscles of the heart 
thence propel it to the lungs, where it meets the air taken in by respira- 
tion and is changed into arterial blood. From the lungs it is drawn back 
into the left auricle, passes into the left ventricle, and is thence forced 
through the arteries to all parts of the body, and then by means of the 
exceedingly fine vessels called capillaries, passes again once more into 
the veins. 

Venous blood is changed into arterial blood in the lungs, where it 
absorbs the oxygen of the air. The lungs are two in number, one on 
each side of the chest, and communicate by the bronchial tubes and the 
trachea, or windpipe, with the outer air. The windpipe we can all feel 
in the front of our necks ; it divides in the chest into the two bronchial 
tubes, and they are subdivided into an infinite number of little rootlets 
that enter into the substance of the lung. 

The air is taken into and discharged from the lungs by the operation 
of breathing ; and breathing is effected by the elevation and depression 
of the ribs and the contraction and relaxation of the flat, powerful mus- 
cular partition which separates the cavity containing the stomach and 
the intestines from the chest, which contains the heart and lungs. The 
air we inhale enters the lungs laden with oxygen ; the air we exhale 
leaves them laden with carbonic acid gas. 

The blood, which the lungs renew and the heart distributes, is of a 
light red color. It is the substance which animates the whole being, and 
from which all the complex structures of the body are formed. Blood 



lO MAMMALIA. 

when freshly -drawn is of a uniform appearance ; if it is allowed to stand, 
a dark red mass called the clot rises to the surface, the fluid below, 
named scriivi, becomes colorless. This process of coagulation occupies 
about twenty minutes, and during it a peculiar odor is emitted. The 
upper part of the clot is covered with a film of fibrous matter called 
fibrin ; the remainder consists of myriads of small, round bodies called 
corpuscles, which can be readily seen by examining a drop of blood under 
the microscope. These blood corpuscles are circular in the Mammalia, 
while in the other Vertebrates they are elliptical, and even in the class 
of Mammalia the distinction between the blood of the various orders is 
so marked as to .enable a practised eye to indicate the kind of animal 
from which it has been taken. 

Under the microscope the blood corpuscles are seen to consist of two 
classes, red and colorless corpuscles; and Huxley writes, "The inverte- 
brate animals which have true blood corpuscles, possess only such as 
resemble the colorless corpuscles of man. The lowest vertebrate ani- 
mals possess only colorless corpuscles. Vertebrate animals, the young 
of which are born from eggs, have two kinds of corpuscles, colorless ones 
and red ones, oval in shape and possessing a nucleus. All the animals 
wh'ch suckle the young (the Mammalia) have, like man, two kinds of 
corpuscles, colorless ones and small colored corpuscles, the latter being 
always flattened and devoid of any nucleus. They are usually circular, 
but in the camel tribe they are elliptical. In the vertebrate series the 
colorless corpuscles differ much less from one another in size and form 
than the colored. The latter are smallest in the little musk deer, in which 
animal they are about a quarter as large as those of a man. On the 
other hand, the red corpuscles are largest in the Amphibia, in some of 
which animals they are ten times as long as in man." The blood is the 
product not of one organ, but of all ; and it is profoundly affected by the 
circumstance that everv part of the body takes something from the blood 
and pours something into it. " The blood mav be compared to a river, 
the nature of which is determined by that of the head-waters, and by 
that of the animals which swim in it, but which is also much affected by 
the soil over which it flows, b}^ the water-weeds which cover its banks, 
and by affluents from distant regions, by irrigation works which are sup- 
plied from it, and by drain-pipes which flow into it." 

We have gone somewhat fully into detail respecting the blood, 
because " the Blood is the Life." 



THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. II 

The teats or mammeB from which this class derives its technical name, 
are supplied with the milk which supports the young by glands con- 
sisting of bunches of tiny cells. These by means of very small tubes pour 
their secretions into larger vessels, which unite into five or six principal 
vessels, that are capable of enlargement according to the amount of 
milk which they are called upon to hold. These reservoirs become 
smaller towards the mamma or teat, and serve as tubes for the convey- 
ance of the milk into the mouth of the young. 

As regards the organs of sense, that of sight is perhaps more highly 
developed in birds than in any other class of animals, but the others are 
generally most highly developed in the Mammalia. Especially is this the 
case with the sense of touch, which reaches its highest delicacy in the 
human hand. The sense of taste varies according as the animal is 
Herbivorous, Carnivorous, or Insectivorous. 

These various senses convey intelligence of the external world to the 
brain, and from the brain the voluntary muscles receive their orders to 
exercise their various functions. The brain which receives this intelli- 
gence and issues these directions, together with the multitudinous chan- 
nels through which they are conveyed, belongs to the Nervous System. 
From the great nerve mass, the brain, protected by the bony armor of the 
skull, there runs the great cord of nervous matter, the spinal cord, which, 
defended by the vertebra, extends along the back, giving out branches 
of various sizes. These nerves are composed of fibres, and those fibres 
which form the anterior root of a nerve give rise to motion, and those 
which form the posterior root give rise to sensation. This nervous sys- 
tem, then, not only enables us to move our bodies and to know what 
is going on in the external world, but enables us to discriminate nutri- 
tious from innutritions matters, tells us when food is needed, gives us 
the power to seize and kill, guides the hand to the mouth or the mouth 
to the food, and governs all the movements of the jaws and of the 
alimentary canal — it rules the vital actions. 

The brain varies considerably in size ; in some Mammalia it resembles 
the brain of birds, but as we rise in the scale it quickly changes from the 
less to the more perfect, and displays convolutions which in number and 
extent are proportionate to the intelligence of the animal. 

The intelligence of man and the intelligence of the brute creation 
have been distinguished by the names oi Reason and Instinet respectively. 
A distinction like this is convenient, and unobjectionable if we remem- 



12 MAMMALIA. 

bcr that it implies only difference in the degree, not in the kind of intel- 
ligence. Animals possess memory, can distinguish objects, have per- 
ceptions of time, place, color and sound ; can learn, apprehend, judge 
and conclude. Like man, they learn by experience, they perceive danger 
and devise means to avoid it, they like and dislike, love their friends and 
benefactors, hate their enemies and ill-doers ; they exhibit gratitude, 
loyalty, respect and contempt, anger and gentleness, cunning and saga- 
city, deceitfulness and honesty ; some think before they act, some stake 
life and liberty to gratify their impulses. Animals comprehend the 
benefits of association, and sacrifice themselves for the good of their 
society ; they tend their sick, support the weak, divide their food with 
the hungry ; they can subdue their desires and passions, and have an 
independent will. They can recall the past, and forecast the future, for 
which they save and provide. In character, too, animals differ widely. 
They are daring or timid, bold or cowardly, open or sly, proud or hum- 
ble, trusting or suspicious, docile or stupid, servile and tyrannous, lovers 
of peace or lovers of strife, merry or sad, joyous or melancholy, fond 
of or averse to society, friends to each otiier or foes of all the world. 

Their characters are altered and their faculties developed by educa- 
tion. The horse, the dog, the ox, the elephant display, when tamed and 
trained by man, powers which their wild kindred never exhibit. 

The Geographical distribution of animals has attracted much attention, 
but any detailed classification of animals according to their location 
would, we tiiink, be needless in this work. We may remark generally, 
that the Quadniinana inhabit the Tropics, but the families in the Western 
Hemisphere are different from those that dwell in the Eastern; the 
Marsupials are most abundant in Australia, with some genera in America. 
There are no Edentata in Europe, nor any nati\e Ruminant ia in Aus- 
tralia. The Cheiroptera, Carnivora, Rodentia, and Cctacea are citizens of 
the world. 

We have not yet spoken of the external covering of most tribes of 
Mammalia. Their coats vary both in color and thickness according to 
the dwelling-places and habits of the wearer; from the stripes of the 
tiger to the white fur of the polar bear. This external coat consists of 
hair, which in the sheep becomes wool, in the swine bristles, in the 
liedgehog prickles, in the porcupine quills ; the scales, nails and horns 
wiiich some orders possess are formed by the close contact of the roots 
of the hair, whose horny filaments join firmly together and compose solid 



CLASSIFICATION. 1 3 

flakes. As a general rule, the coat falls off in spring or autumn and is 
replaced by new hair. 

In one very striking point, the voice, the Mammalia are far inferior to 
the birds. Man, indeed, possesses a voice that can produce articulate and 
melodious sounds, but his fellow mammals are a tuneless and songless 
race, and their tones have no charm for us. The voice of most of them 
is disagreeable, and becomes more so when the animal is e.xcited. Love, 
whicli bids the bird warble its melodious lays, only makes the voice of 
the mammal more unpleasing. Compare the notes of our feathered 
denizens of the air and the amatory serenades of the domestic cat. We 
admire indeed tlic poet's verse that tells us how 

" The lowing;; herd winds slowly o'er the lea," 

kut we admire it as a picture of evening; it is not the "lowing," but the 
idea of return from labor that please us. "Lowing" in itself is as inhar- 
monious as the bleating of sheep, the grunting of swine, the braying of 
the ass. The voice of all mammals, excepting man, is rough, dissonant, 
devoid of flexibility, and not susceptible of cultivation. 

We must now proceed to enumerate tiie orders into which all the 
animals comprehended in the class MAMMALIA are divided. Without 
such a further classification we should be in a labyrinth " in endless 
mazes lost." We will, however, first give as briefly as possible a defini- 
tion of the class. 

" The Mammalia form a class of Vertebrate animals. They bring 
forth their young alive and nourish them with milk. They breathe by 
means of lungs; their heart is four-chambered; the appendages to the 
skin take the form of hair." 

The basis of classification of the Mammalia has been a subject of 
frequent discussion. The first and most obvious division is into Pla- 
cental and Non'-Pi.acental Mammals; in the former the unborn 
young are nourished by means of the placenta, and are not born till 
they are able to obtain their natural food, milk, by their own exertions. 
In the latter, the young are born before there is any necessity for a pla- 
centa to supply them with the nutrient materials of the mother's blood ; 
they are born so helpless that they cannot suck, but the milk is forced 
into their mouths by a muscle surrounding the mammary gland. But 
these grand divisions are too large, for the class of placental mammals 
embraces animals so diverse as man and whales, bats and elephants, 



H 



MAMMALIA. 



sheep and tigers. Commencing, then, with the creatures most like man, 
we arrange our orders in a descending scale. The technical Latin 
names will be explained at the beginning of our account of each order. 



CLASS MAMMALIA. 

PLACENTAL DIVISION. 



Order I.— QUADRUMANA. 

II.— CHEIROPTERA. 
III.— INSECTIVORA. 
IV.— CARNIVORA. 

v.— CETACEA. 
VI.— SIRENIA. 



Order VII.— UNGULATA. 

VIII.— PROBOSCIDEA. 
IX.— HYRACOIDEA. 
X.— RODENTIA. 
XI.— EDENTATA. 



NO N- PL ACENTAL DIVISION. 
Order XII.— M.\RSUPIALIA. Order XIIL— MONOTREMATA. 

The above arrangement is in accordance with the conclusions of the 
most eminent naturalists of the present da}', and is undoubtedly the most 
convenient for a popular exposition of the Natural History of the Mam- 
malia. We may mention, however, that many scientific writers separate 
the Rtiviinantia from the Ungjilata, that some form Ruminantia, Ungiilaia 
and Probosddca, and some only the two latter, into an order called 
Pachydekmata. 



ORDER I. 



QUADRUMANA. 



QUADRUMANA OR PRIMATES. 



I.— ANTHROPOIDEA. 



1. SIMIAD^E _...... Anthropoid Apes. 

2. SEMNOPITHECID^'E - - - Old World Monkeys. 

3. CYNOPITHECID^ - - - Baboons and Macaques. 

4. CEBID^ .....-- New World Monkeys. 

5. HAPALID^ Marmosets. 

II.— LEMUROIDEA. 

6. LEMURIDaE ------ Lemurs. 

7. TARSIID^ _-.--. Tarsiers. 

8. CHEIROMYID.E - - - - Aye-ayes. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF QUADRUMANA — THEIR HABITS IN THEIR NATIVE HAUNTS — 
THEIR GREGARIOUS DISPOSITION — DIVISION OP THE QUADRUMANA. 



THE word Quadrumana is formed from two Latin words, quattuor, 
" four," and inanus, " a hand," and means, therefore, " four- 
handed." To this order belong all the monkey tribes ; and a 
comparison of the foot of a monkey with that of a man will indicate 
the reason why they are called " four-handed," while man is called in 
scientific language a bimanous (irom the Latin biniis, "two," and mantis, 
a " hand "), or two-handed animal. In man the upper limbs terminate 
in a hand consisting of four fingers and a thumb, which thumb is capable 
of being " opposed " to each of the fingers. By " opposed " is meant 
that the thumb is so adjusted as to grasp objects between itself and the 
fingers. This arrangement is extended in the Quadrumana to the hind 
limbs; the inner or great toe is opposable to the other toes, the hind 
feet become hands and can grasp objects as easily and firmly as the 
human hand does. Such a construction enables the animals possess- 
ing it to climb with ease, and hence we find that the favorite home of 
this order is in the woods and forests of the warmer regions of the two 
hemispheres. 

From the very earliest ages the extraordinary resemblance of the 
monkey tribes to man has attracted the curiosity of mankind. The 
ancient Egyptians sculptured their forms on their granite monuments, 
and reverenced some species as gods. The modern Arabs regard them 
as the progeny of the evil one, for whom nothing is sacred, nothing 
venerable, who have been cursed since the day when God changed them 
from man into apes, and who still bear in strange combination the form 
of the devil and of man. We of the present day look upon them with 
mixed feelings. The caricature of the human form and human faculties 
which they exhibit is tolerable to us in the smaller, playful species, 



1 8 QUADRUMANA. 

abhorrent in the larger, wilder kinds. They are at once too like and too 
unlike ourselves. Like man, they can stand upright ; like man, they 
have hands, a hairless face, and eyes looking directly forward. Yet even 
these hands, so like ours to the ordinary eye, are not the admirable 
instrument possessed by man ; the thumb is shorter and more widely 
separated from the fingers, and the fingers cannot act separatel)' like a 
man's. The haggard, hairy body, the long arms, the thin, calfless legs, 
the small, receding skull, and the thin, in-drawn lips, are all character- 
istics of the ape, the very opposite of those found in man. 

Morally as well as physically, the apes constitute the " seamy side " 
of man. They are malicious, cunning, sensual, greedy, thievish, easily 
provoked to rage, and have human vices and defects. But they are not 
without what we name virtues. They are sagacious, cheerful, social, 
devotedly fond of their offspring, and display striking compassion towards 
the sick and weak. Intellectually they are neither so much higher than 
other animals, nor so much lower than man, as is commonly maintained. 
The possession of a hand gives them great advantages over the rest of 
the animal kingdom, they have a strong tendency for imitating, and are 
easily taught actions which no other animals can perform. And if we 
compare the mental qualities of the ape with those of the dog, to the 
disadvantage of the former, we must remember that man has been for 
thousands of years training and educating the dog, while the ape has had 
no opportunity of enjoying the elevating society of mankind. Taking 
this circumstance into account, we must recognize the ape as the most 
saafacious of beasts. Yet he is deceived and out-tricked with ease : his 
passions conquer his prudence. The Malays make a small hole in a 
gourd, and then place in the interior sugar or some fruits that apes 
love. The ape inserts its hand through the narrow opening, grasps a 
handful, and finds that it cannot be withdrawn again ; it allows itself to 
be captured rather than lose its grasp on the dainties it has seized. 

The apes are the most agile and active of the Mammalia. When on 
a raid for food they are not at rest for a moment. They devour every 
species of food — fruits, roots, bulbs, corn, nuts and leaves — and insects, 
eggs, and young birds form the delicacies of their repasts. In search of 
provender their bands spread through the forests; even the elephant 
dares not invade the spots where the ape is foraging. But while jealous 
of guarding what they consider their own right, the rogues care not for 
the rights of others. " We sow, the apes reap," is a proverb in the 



THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORDER. 19 

Soudan. Fields and gardens especially suffer ; neither lock nor bolt, 
neither hedge nor wall can keep out the plunderers, who destroy much 
more than they consume. To an unconcerned spectator, the sight of an 
incursion of apes is an amusing spectacle. They run, they leap, they 
climb, they swim, they perform in the branches of the trees astounding 
feats of agility and acrobatic skill. Some seem to fly from bough to 
bough ; a space of six or seven yards across is a mere trifle ; they will 
drop ten feet or more perpendicularly to a branch ; it bends with the 
weight, and as it springs back again, the ape lets go and is shot off" by 
the recoil like an arrow from the bow. Every climbmg plant is a ladder, 
every tree is a high-road. Head foremost, tail foremost, up and down 
they go as if on solid ground. If a branch breaks, they lay hold of 
another ; if their hands fail, their hand-like feet succeed, or if both fail 
to grasp, the apes of this continent hold on by their tails. The American 
monkeys make the tail a fifth hand, or rather their first, most-used hand ; 
they hang by it, they rock themselves by it, they swing by it; their tail 
is their hammock when they take their noon-day sleep. 

This agility and grace of motion are confined to their actions when 
climbing ; their walk is awkward ; even the largest manlike apes can 
scarcely be said to walk; some put down the whole soles of their feet, 
others support themselves on the knuckles of the hand and swing the 
body forward in such a fashion that the feet come between the hands. 
This incapacity of attaining to a walk such as man has, arises partly from 
the fact that in the ape the orifice by which the spinal cord enters the 
skull is set very far back, thus overbalancing the body, partly from the 
conformation of the hind feet. These, as we have said, are like hands, 
and the outstretched, separate thumb cannot furnish such a firm support 
for the body as the great toe does, especially as the creature usually 
walks on the outside of its foot. The Gorilla goes upright most easily, 
and the Tschego shares this faculty. Many other species can maintain 
an upright position for a time, but they sink down, when no longer able 
to balance themselves, on their fore-limbs ; when pursued by the hunter, 
or pursuing their own foes, they move on all-fours. 

Some tribes of apes swim excellently, others sink like lead ; the latter 
have a great dread of water. Many travelers describe how the Brazilian 
monkeys form an ingenious bridge over rivers. A number of them climb 
to a high branch on a tree on the bank of the river they wish to cross. 
One mnnkev grasps the branch with his tail, and seizes with his hands 



20 QUADRUMANA. 

his neighbor's tail ; the second monkey seizes the tail of a third, and so 
on till a chain of monkeys from the branch to the ground is formed. 
This chain is then set swinging by the lowest monkey ; at every oscilla- 
tion a fresh impulse is given it, and higher and higher does the end 
monkey swing, till at last he grasps a branch on the opposite bank of the 
stream. Across this primitive suspension-bridge the young and old 
members of the band pass ; when all have crossed, the first monkey 
uncurls his tail, and the chain swings from the last monkey to the land 
on the other bank. It is a pity that there is no truth in this fable. 

Apes are social animals ; very few are solitary ; they usually gather 
into bands. Each band has its own home, a spot of greater or less 
extent, and fixes its home where food is most easily procured. When 
they have settled on their location, they organize themselves. The 
strongest, or oldest, or most capable of the males becomes their leader. 
The dignity is conferred not by the suffrage of the people, but by victory 
in a series of conflicts with every other male. The strongest arm and 
the longest teeth decide better than an Electoral Commission. The 
leader enforces implicit obedience and enjoys great privileges ; he claims 
and exacts the love of all the female members of his band, and woe to 
maid or matron who dares to flirt with any young monkey. No chival- 
rous respect for the fair sex restrains the despot from letting his erring 
spouse feel the weight of his hand ; the gallant comes off" still worse, for 
no trifling is permitted in love affairs. The leader is literally the "father 
of his people." When the band becomes too numerous for its home, 
some bold youth becomes the leader of a secession, and fights his way, 
in a new location, to supremacy in power and monopoly in love. Natu- 
rall}', not a day passes that is not signalized by some conflict for some 
attractive dame, or by some assertion of his power by the leader. 

The leader discharges his office nobly. Secure in his position, he 
enjoys the esteem and flattery of his subjects ; the ladies vie with each 
other in delicate attentions, and in scratching and cleaning his hairy 
skin, an operation he submits to with the air of a pasha amid the slaves 
of his harem. 

The sounds of which the ape is capable are well marked and numer- 
ous. The cry of terror, which is a warning for flight, is peculiarly 
remarkable. It is difficult to describe or imitate ; it consists of a series 
of short, abrupt, tremulous tones, and when it is heard, the whole ti'oop 
takes flight ; the mothers call together their little ones, which cling fast 



THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORDER. 21 

to her, and huny with their burdens to the nearest tree or rock. The 
leader marches in front and indicates the path to be taken ; not till he 
announces that all danger is over, does the herd gather again and return, 
to resume their foraging. 

All apes do not fly from their enemies ; the larger ones face the most 
savage beasts of prey, and man himself. They fight with hands and 
teeth in most cases, but have been known to employ as weapons broken 
limbs of trees, and to hurl stones and fruit at their foes. Even to a man 
armed with a musket the Gorilla is a dangerous opponent. 

In captivity, almost all kinds of apes live in harmony together, but 
they form for themselves a government resembling that of their days of 
freedom — the strongest rules. 

The females bear one or two 3^oung ones. This is regularly a small, 
hideous creature; its limbs are longer in proportion than those of the 
adult ; its face, with its folds and wrinkles, is more like that of an old 
man than a child. But its mother loves and tends it with touching care ; 
the whole attitude and manner of the mother and child are strikingly 
human as she presses her offspring fondly to her breast, while it flings 
its arms about her neck, as she dandles it up and down in both hands, 
or rocks it to sleep on her bosom. As soon as it can go alone, it is 
allowed to play with other monkey infants, but the mother keeps her 
eye on it, follows every step, every movement, and at the first symptom 
of danger rushes towards it uttering her cry of warning and recall. If it 
disobeys her she boxes its ears ; but this punishment is seldom required, 
for the monkey child is an example to the human child, and rarely 
requires speaking to twice. She divides her food with it, and instances 
have been known where she has died of grief at its loss. If a mother 
dies, some female of the band adopts the orphan and displays towards it 
a tenderness equal to that with which she treats her own offspring. 

It is not ascertained how long, on the average, apes are in arriving 
at maturity. In accordance with all analogy, the larger are slower in 
growth than the lesser. The American species probably attain their full 
growth in three or four years ; the baboons in eight to twelve years ; 
the anthropoid or manlike apes, such as the Gorilla, Chimpanzee and 
Orang-outan, much later, as they shed their teeth at about the same 
age as children. We know nothing of the sicknesses from which they 
suffer when at liberty, nor how long they live; in all probability the 
manlike apes live as long as man. In captivity, the climate of Europe 



22 QUADRUMANA. 

seems fatal to most species, and the poor beast dies of consumption. A 
sick ape is a sight to move the hardest heart. All his merry tricks are 
gone ; he sits sad and sorrowful, looking piteously at the faces of his 
sympathizing visitors. The nearer he approaches his end the gentler he 
becomes. All the brute seems to leave him ; a higher spirit seems to 
shine out. He is grateful for every attention, soon recognizes the physi- 
cian as his benefactor, takes his medicine willingly, and without reluc- 
tance submits to surgical operations. 

In their native country the apes are more destructive than useful. 
Some tribes of savages eat their flesh and make their skins into leather, 
but they do not minister in any other way to the wants of man. 

The above general description is drawn, of course, from observation 
of the best known species, and due allowance must be made in many 
cases for the exaggeration of travelers, and in many cases for our 
ignorance. 

The QuADRUMANA are divided by many writers into three sections, 
which are separated from each other by their geographical position 
and their anatomical peculiarities. The basis of this classification is the 
animal's face, or rather its nose. The first section contains the Catarrhini 
or " the straight-nosed," the second the PlatyrrJiini or " flat-nosed " apes, 
the third the Strcpsirrliini or " twisted-nosed " Lemurida;. 

The Catarrhini have the same dental formula (see p. 8) as man, have 
either no tail or a non-prehensile one, and the thumbs of all the feet are 
truly opposable. They all belong, with one trifling exception, to Asia 
and Africa, and include the Anthropoid or " man-like " apes. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE ANTHROPOID APES. 

THE AFRICAN DIVISION — THE GENUS TROGLODYTES — THE GORILLA — THE CHIMPANZEE — THE ASIATIC 

DIVISION — THE GENUS SI.MIA — ORANG-OUTAN — THE GENUS HVLOBATES OR GIBBON. 



H 



UXLEY remarks that whatever system of classification is 
adopted, the Anthropoid apes are less widely separated from 
man than from the lower races of apes. The body is strik- 
ingly like the human form, the front limbs bein'g longer, the hinder ones 
shorter than ours ; the position of the eyes and ears is the same as in 
man ; the body is covered thinly with hair, except the face and the 
inside of the feet, which parts are bare ; they have no tail. Among 
the man-like apes, the first place must be assigned to the huge and 
terrible inhabitant of Western Africa, the Gorilla. 



I.— GENUS TROGLODYTES. 

The Gorilla, Troglodytes Gorilla, (Plate I.) — More than two thousand 
\ rt'O hundred years ago, a Carthaginian fleet set sail from the Mcditer- 
r.inean to explore the coast of Africa. The commander of the fleet, 
Hanno, left an account of his voyage, and we possess a Greek transla- 
tion of his work. He describes how he passed the present district of 
Sierra Leone, and then continues : " On the third day, when we had 
sailed thence and passed the fire-stream, we came to the South horn. 
In the bottom of the bay formed by this promontory was an island, 
with a lake in which was an island where we found some wild men. 
The mr.jority were females with hairy bodies, and our interpreter called 
them Gorillas. We could not catch any males ; they escaped easily by 
clambering up and down the precipices, and defended themselve? by 
hurling fragments of rock. We caught three females, but could not 



24 QUADRUMANA. 

brin^ them away because they bit and scratched. We were forced to 
kill them, but we flayed the bodies and sent the skins to Carthage." 
To this account, Pliny adds that the skins were preserved in the temple 
of Juno. 

It is clear from the above extract from Hanno's log-book, that he had 
seen Antliropoid apes, and the name he uses is conveniently applied to 
the species we are describing. 

The Gorilla, called by the present natives Njina, represents a 
distinct species. It is shorter but far broader than even a stout 
man. A full-grown male attains the height of about five feet five 
inches, and measures from shoulder to shoulder nearly thirty-eight 
inches. The length and strength of the fore-limbs, the dispropor- 
tionate size of the hands and feet, and tlic connection by a skin of 
the middle fingers and toes, arc the most marked characteristics. 

The neck of this animal is so short that its head appears to be buried 
between its shoulders. The forehead is retreating. The ears are small, 
and nearly on a line with the eves. The nose is flat, but a little more 
salient than in the other monkeys. The chest and shoulders are ex- , 
tremely wide. The abdomen is round and prominent. There is no 
swell in the upper arm muscles, the lower limbs have no calves ; the 
hands are massive and thick, and the fingers short and stumpy. The 
back of the hands is hairy ; the finger-nails are black, thick, and strong. 
The foot is proportioned like the hand of a giant, and is v/ell adapted for 
maintaining the body in a vertical {position. The huge body is covered 
with iron-gray hairs, each ringed with alternate bands of black and gray. 
On the arms the hair is darker and longer, and sometimes exceeds two 
inches in length. The head is covered with a crown of short, reddish 
hair descending to the neck. The hair of the female is black with a red 
tint, and is not streaked like that of the male ; neither has the female the 
red-colored crown until she is aged. The young Gorilla is of a jet-black 
color. The eyes are buried beneath prominent and shaggy eyebrows, an 
arrangement which gives the face a cruel look. The jaws are enormous, 
and furnished with large canine teeth. , 

It is not yet ascertained how large a tract of countrv the Gorilla m- 
habits ; the interior of that part of Africa is not yet thoroughly explored, 
but we mav safely say that the Gorilla is found between the equator and 
the fifth degree of north latitude, and that the forests traversed by the 
rivers Gaboon Moonee and Fernando Vaz form its abode. 



HABITS OF THE GORILLA. 2$ 

Battell, towards the end of the sixteenth century, describes two mon- 
strous apes, which he names the Pongo and the Ensego. Another trav- 
eler calls by the name Impungoo " this monstrous production of Nature, 
which grows to the height of from seven to nine feet." In 1846, we began 
to receive more authentic accounts of this gigantic ape. The Reverend 
Mr. Leighton Wilson of New York, a missionary at the Gaboons, saw a 
dead Gorilla and obtained a skull, which he forwarded to Dr. Savage. 
The same missionary procured another skull and part of a skeleton, 
which he presented to the Natural History Society of Boston, Mass. 
In 1852, Ford gave accovmts agreeing in all points with those of the 
gentlemen just mentioned; and finally, in 1867, Du Chaillu's great 
book, " Equatorial Africa," appeared. He tells how the king of the 
African forests stood suddenly before him, with his powerful chest, his 
mighty arms, his glittering eyes, and a countenance with a truly hellish 
expression. He stood and beat his breast with his huge hands till it 
echoed like a drum, while he uttered terrible roars. The eyes of the 
creature grew fiercer, his hair began to bristle, he showed his savage 
teeth and repeated his thundering roar. He came within ten steps of 
the intrepid traveler, and roared ; he came nearer, and again drummed 
on his echoing breast. When he was six paces distant Du Chaillu fired, 
and the creature, with a groan awfully human and yet thoroughly brutal, 
fell dead on his face. The limbs quivered for a few minutes, then all 
was still. Whatever suspicion Du Chaillu's passion for fine writing may 
have at first aroused, it is now agreed that his account of the Gorilla is 
trustworthy. He agrees with the celebrated English philosopher, Owen, 
in placing it in the scale of animals next to man, and adds that, in hunting 
the Gorilla, " I have never been able to maintain the indifference, much 
less experience the triumphant joy of a hunter. It always seemed as if 
a fellow-creature, a monstrous one it is true, but still having about it 
something human, was my victim. It was a delusion ; I knew it> but yet 
the feeling was stronger than myself." 

The Gorilla lives in the loneliest and darkest spots of the dense 
African forest, preferring for his residence deep valleys, or rugged and 
rocky heights in the neighborhood of water. It is a restless animal, 
seldom two days together in the same place. This wandering is ren- 
dered necessary by the difficulty of procuring food ; for although the 
Gorilla has enormous canines and is said to hunt the lion, it really is 
exclusively a feeder on plants. Its favorite food is fruit, nuts, banana 
3 



26 QUADRUMANA. 

leaves ; and when it has laid waste an extensive space in satisfying its 
enormous appetite, it goes elsewhere to seek a supply. It knows when 
certain regions are fruitful, owing to the changes of the seasons, and 
periodically visits them. It does not live in trees, and its huge size pie- 
vents it from leaping like the lesser monkeys from bough to bough ; it 
jnly climbs to get food. Its favorite food is the wild sugar-cane, and 
a nut of exceeding hardness, which it crushes in its iron jaws. The 
young Gorilla, Du Chaillu thinks, sleep in trees, the older ones on the 
ground with their backs leaning against a trunk. The Gorilla is not 
social ; they are found most often in pairs. If a solitary male is met 
he is vicious and dangerous. Young Gorillas associate in fours and 
fives. They run on all fours, and owing to their acuteness of hearing 
it is difficult to get near them. There is no evidence to prove that 
they ever build for themselves huts or shelter. The adult Gorilla is 
very wary, and the hunter may spend a whole day without seeing one. 
" When I have surprised a couple of Gorillas," says Du Chaillu, "the 
male has usually been seated on a rock or against a tree in the darkest 
corner of the jungle. The female sat eating beside him, and, what was 
very singular, it was nearly always she who gave alarm by taking to 
flight, uttering at the same time piercing cries. But the male remained 
seated for a moment, and knitting together his savage countenance, 
slowly stood upright. Throwing a malicious glance at the invaders of 
his retreat, he then commenced to beat his breast, to elevate his great 
head, and to utter his formidable roars. The hideous aspect of the 
animal at this moment it is impossible to describe. Looking at him, I 
forgave my brave native hunters for being full of superstitious fears, and 
I ceased to be astonished at the strange and marvellous stories current 
among them with regard to the Gorillas." 

The Gorilla does not make use of a stick as a weapon ; it only uses 
in its assaults its arms, feet, and teeth. 'rVith a single blo\'C' of its foot, 
armed as it is with short, curved nails, it disembowels a man or frac- 
tures his skull. In attacking this ferocious animal, experienced hunters 
always reserve their shot until the last moment, for the report of fiicarms 
irritates the terrible beast, and if the wound is not fatal, the Gorilla flings 
itself with incredible violence on its aggressor, crushing at the same 
moment both weapon and hunter. 

When it is attacked, it utters a short, jerking, and acute bark, like 
that of an angry dog ; to this succeeds a low growling like distant thun- 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHIMPANZEE. 27 

der, which appears to come from the spacious cavities of the chest and 
abdomen rather than from the throat. The cry of the female and of the 
young is shrill and piercing. 

The Gorilla dies as easily as man; a ball well-directed produce? 
instant death. 

The female does not attack the hunter ; she flies with her little one, 
which clings around her neck with its legs encircling her body. The 
affection of these creatures for their young is so touching, so human, 
that white men have not the heart to kill them. The natives have no 
such scruples, and Du Chaillu saw some young Gorillas whose mothers 
had been slain. He himself had in his possession a young male about 
two to three years old and two feet and a half high. It was violent, 
fierce and quite untamable. It repeatedly broke out of its cage ; neither 
hunger nor other means could conquer its obstinate love of liberty, and 
when it was at last secured by chains it died suddenly of a broken 
heart. A young female which was brought to him was a suckling, and 
died from want of milk. Winwood Reade states that he saw in cap- 
tivity a young Gorilla and a young Chimpanzee, and that they were 
equally docile. He heard, too, a report that the Gorilla frequently pur- 
sued women who went any distance from a village, and saw a woman 
who affirmed that she had suffered from th6 violence of a Gorilla, and 
with difficulty escaped. He considers, however, that stories of captured 
women living with apes in the forests to which they had been dragged, 
are not deserving of implicit belief. Such stories are common in various 
places, and have this basis in fact that the larger male apes will undoubt- 
edly assault women. 

Specimens more or less imperfect exist in the Natural History col- 
lections at Boston and Philadelphia; no living Gorilla has ever been 
brought to America, and only one to Europe. The latter unfortunate 
animal died lately at Berlin from the effects of the climate. 

THE CHIMPANZEE. 

Wallace and others, differing from Owen and Du Chaillu, assign 
the highest rank among the apes to the Chimpanzee, Troglodytes nigcr, 
(Plate I.) — Its appearance is certainly not so bestial as that of the 
Gorilla or the Ourang-outan. The arms arc shorter, the hands and 
feet are better formed, and it can more easily assume a vertical atti- 



28 QUADRUMANA. 

tude ; the legs show a slight development of calf. It is smaller than 
the Gorilla, with a much shorter body ; the head is proportionately 
large, the face broad and flat, the brow less receding than the Gorilla's; 
the nose is small, the mouth large with wrinkled lips. It has a pretty 
thick coat of moderately long hair, which becomes longer on the cheeks 
and the back of the head. The bare portions of the face are grayish- 
brown, the hands and feet like brown leather, the lips a dull red. The 
eyes are mild and soft, with a light-brown iris. 

The Chimpanzee is found not only in the forests of Upper and Lower 
Guinea, but far in the interior of Africa. It usually lives in pairs and 
families; sometimes five are seen together; seldom more than ten, unless 
on some festive occasion, when as many as fifty assemble and amuse 
themselves by screaming and drumming on the old tree trunks. They 
build nests in the trees, and provide these nests with roofs to turn the 
rain. Rarely more than two of such nests are found together. The 
Chimpanzee is not a social ape. 

When at rest the Chimpanzee assumes a sitting position ; usually 
when discovered it is standing erect, but as soon as it perceives itself 
observed it drops on all fours and runs away, differing in this respect 
from the Gorilla which boldly faces the intruder on his privacy. It is an 
excellent climber and leaps from tree to tree with astonishing activity. 
A family group is often seen; the parents sit beneath the shade of a tree, 
eating and chattering, the little ones sport around and swing from bough 
to bough. Their food is usually fruits, nuts, leaves, or the bananas which 
the negroes plant in their cornfields. 

Of all the man-like apes, the Chimpanzee is the best known and the 
most docile. Grandpret saw one that had been taught to attend to a 
cooking-stove, and call the cook when it was hot enough. The same 
ape worked with great intelligence on board ship, and hauled on, cast 
loose or made fast the ropes with all the skill of a sailor. Brosse brought 
a pair to Europe that ate at table, used a knife and fork, drank wine and 
spirits, called the waiter when they wanted anything, and grew angry at 
being neglected. The male had during a fit of sickness been bled by a 
surgeon ; and ever afterwards when it felt indisposed, it held out its arm 
for the lancet. Lieutenant Sayers had a young one which was human 
enough to attempt suicide. On its master refusing to give it its favorite 
food, bananas, it rushed with its head against the wail so violent!}- that 
it fell backwards; it then mounted on a chest, extended its arms with a 



THE CHIMPANZEE IN CAPTIVITY. 29 

gesture of despair, and flung itself headlong down. The Lieutenant, 
fearing to lose it, gave way, and the creature gave lively testimony to its 
delight at its victory. 

Buffon gives some interesting details regarding a young Chimpanzee 
which was brought to Paris in 1740. This animal offered its hand to 
lead people about who came to visit it ; it promenaded with them in the 
gravest manner as it keeping them company ; it sat at table, spread out 
its napkin, wiped its lips with it, and used its spoon and fork to carry 
food to its mouth ; it poured out its drink into a glass by itself, hob- 
nobbed when invited to do so ; it would take a cup and saucer, put them 
on the table, put sugar in the cup, and pour tea over it, leave it to cool 
before drinking it, and all this without any other instigation than the 
signs or words of its master, and often even without this. 

The Chimpanzee, writes Brehm, displays in all its actions so much 
that is human that we almost cease to regard it as a beast. Its intellect 
seems nearly on a par with that of the uneducated savage. It imitates 
whatever it sees just as a child does ; it fails because its hand has not the 
capacity of the human hand, but its attempts are made consciously and 
with reflection. It knows its position, and cordially regards itself as 
higher than the other animals. It distinguishes between grown people 
and children, respecting the former, loving the latter, provided always 
they do not tease it. It expresses its feelings like men. It cannot laugh 
indeed, but it wrinkles up its face and assumes an unmistakable expres- 
sion of pleasure. It proclaims its sorrows not only by gestures but by 
cries and wailing sounds that are intelligible to every one. 

Of the many specimens which have been brought from their native 
homes, most have perished by disease of the lungs. Dr. Martini describes 
his visit to a sick Chimpanzee. " Covered up in its bed, it lay quite 
still with a deep expression of suffering on its countenance, shaken by 
paroxysms of coughing and at times turning its eyes upwards with sighs 
of pain. It was shy at first, but I soon gained its confidence. It was 
suffering from inflammation of the left lung accompanied with change 
of tissue in both lungs and a swelling of the lymphatic glands on both 
sides of the neck ; a deep abscess pressed together the windpipe and the 
throat. I resolved to open the abscess. The state of the lungs forbade 
the use of chloroform ; chloral hydrate produced a drowsiness, but not 
anaesthesia. He resisted all attempts at force by men. To my surprise, 
when my assistants retired he voluntarily submitted to an examination 



30 QUADRUMANA. 

of the abscess. I resolved to perform the operation. Seated on the knees 
of his keeper, the ape bent his head backwards and kept it quietly in that 
position. The incision was quickly made; the creature neither shrunk 
nor cried. Some thin purulent matter was pressed out, and his breathing 
was relieved. An unmistakable expression of pleasure and comfort 
spread over his face; he stretched out his hand to mine, and warmly 
embraced his keeper. The wound in the neck soon healed, but the 
inflammation of the lungs increased. He willingly and obedientl}- took 
all the medicines prescribed for him, and displayed great gentleness and 
patience during his last hours. He died as a man dies." 

A couple of Chimpanzees which were kept at the Jardin d'Acclimata- 
tion of Paris excited great attention. The following account of the 
behavior of the survivor is by an eye-witness : 

" I have had an ' interview ' with the most interesting widower that 
it has been my lot to meet in Paris. His poignant sorrow for his departed 
spouse and his deep affection for the baby she left behind called forth my 
warmest sympathy. This broken-hearted widower is a captive. His 
prison is an iron cage. He seems resigned to his lot, and seeks consola- 
tion in rendering kind offices to his little one, and in caressing it. The 
widower is a powerfully-built individual, eight feet high, and has most 
formidable fists, which he shuts like a prize-fighter. I do not exaggerate 
when I say that a comparison between his forehead and the foreheads 
of those who come to stare at him is not to their advantage. His cranium 
is nobly developed, being well arched at the top, and full in the anterior 
region.- But the nose is flat, and the mouth and chin are prognate. You 
have already divined that I am speaking about the Chimpanzee at the 
Jardin d'Acclimatation and his bereaved baby, which sleeps with its 
head on the papa's arm, and keeps its own arm round his neck when 
it is awake. The senior animal, who has the advantage over his 
masters of having thumbs on his feet, has a trick of doubling the 
blanket which has been given him, and tucking it under the poor 
orphan. When weary of playing with a silky monkey, which has 
been turned into the cage to amuse the babe, it lies down to slumber. 
The father's eyes fill with tears as he watches the young thing, who 
seems to understand his imhappy position and to be in close sym- 
pathy with him. The female died eight days after the infant's birth. 
Her husband grew violent from despair when her corpse was thrown 
overboard, and he was placed upon low diet to weaken the prodigious 



THE BALD CHIMPANZEE. 3 1 

strength of his fists. Physically low as he now is, he can still bend 
up like a cane an iron rod an inch in diameter. I thought of Carac- 
tacus as I watched him in his prison. There is much dignity in his 
silent woe and resignation, and I fervently hope that he will never get 
into the hands of vivisectors." 



THE BALD CHIMPANZEE. 

The TsCHEGO or Nschiego Mbouve, Troglodytes calvus, of Du 
Chaillu differs in many respects from the Chimpanzee. A female 
five years old in the Zoological Gardens at Dresden, is remarkable 
for a head much smaller in proportion than the Chimpanzee's ; the body 
is longer, the shoulders broader, the loins finer, the chest rounder, 
the stomach less prominent than the corresponding parts of the Gorilla 
or Chimpanzee. The arms are long, but the hands very narrow and 
thin ; the thumb is long and weak, the two middle fingers very strong ; 
the legs are longer than those of the other manlike apes, the feet well 
formed. The eyebrows are shaggy and prominent ; the eyes small, 
brown, lively, surrounded with wrinkles. The nose is flattened; the lips, 
very mobile, are more protruding than the Chimpanzee. The face and a 
great part of the fore part of the head are bare of hair, and Du Chaillu 
therefore proposes for this ape the name of Troglodytes ealvus, or the 
bald Chimpanzee. Du Chaillu says that the Nschiego Mbouve builds its 
leafy nest in the boughs of the highest trees. The nest is composed of 
small interlaced branches well thatched with leaves and impenetrable to 
water ; fixed by firmly tied bands, it is generally six to eight feet across 
and dome-formed. The male and female join in building the nest, but they 
live on different trees. These retreats are seldom used for more than ten 
days, by which time the animal has ravaged the district around its habi- 
tation and is compelled to move elsewhere in quest of food. Du Chaillu 
killed a female Nschiego carrying her young one in her arms. He took 
the little creature home, and in a few days it was so completely tamed 
that he could allow it to wander at liberty without fear of it running 
away. He could not move a step without being followed by the 
youngster; neither could he sit down without having the animal climb- 
ing on his knees, or hiding its head in his bosom. The poor little thing 
found extreme pleasure in being caressed and nursed. 

It was possessed of great intelligence, and showed wonderful cun 



32 QUADRUMANA. 

ning in its modes of pilfering, for " Tommy " soon acquired the art of 
stealing. 

" If I opened my eyes," adds Du Chaillu, " while it was in the act 
of committing theft, it all at once assumed an honest air and came to 
caress me ; but I could readily detect it darting furtive glances towards 
the bananas. 

" My cabin had no door, but was closed by a mat. Nothing could be 
more comical than to see Tommy quietly raising a corner of this mat to 
see if I was asleep. Sometimes I feigned to be so, and moved just at the 
moment when it was carrying off the object of its covetousness, when it 
let it drop, and ran off iji the greatest confusion." 

"Tommy" did not like sleeping alone; he watched until everybody 
was asleep to creep furtively beside some negro friend ; and there would 
sleep without stirring until daybreak, when he usually decamped before 
found out. Several times he was caught in the act and beaten, but he 
persevered. 

II.— GENUS SIMIA. 

The OranG-OUTAN, Simia Satyrus, (Plate I.) — The huge man-like 
apes hitherto described are natives of Africa. But Asia produces 
animals as large and fierce as any of the Western Peninsula. The 
representative of the Asiatic anthropoids is the redoubtable Orang- 
OUTAN. The body, in which the abdomen is very prominent, is broad 
at the hips, the arms are long, the neck short, with a large pouch 
which can be inflated. The hands and fingers are long, the lips are 
swollen and protruding, the nose flat, the eyes and ears small and like 
man's. In its terrible jaws the canines are prominent; the lower jaw is 
longer than the upper jaw. The hair is thin on the back and breast, 
but hangs long on the sides of the body; on the face it grows like a 
beard ; on the back of the head and the fore-arm it is directed upwards, 
elsewhere downwards. The color of the hair is a rusty red, sometimes 
a brownish red, darker on the back and chest, lighter in the beard. The 
skin, where visible, is a bluish grey. 

For our knowledge of the habits of this ape in his home, we are 
indebted to the intrepid Wallace. The Orang-OUTAN, called also the 
Meias, appears to be confined to Borneo and Sumatra, where it dwells 
in low swampy woodlands. An extent of unbroken lofty forest is a 



ANECDOTES OF THE ORANG-OUTAN. 33 

necessity for this ape. It traverses them with the utmost ease, passing 
from tree to tree without touching the soil. " It is a strange sight to 
see the Meias taking his way through the woods. He advances along 
a huge bough, in a half upright attitude ; he seems to select trees which 
touch their neighbors. When he is near enough he puts out his long 
arms, seizes the branch and pulls it to test its strength ; if it stands the 
test he swings himself into it, and thus proceeds ; he never springs or 
leaps, and never seems to hurry, although he goes as fast as a man can 
run through the forest." 

His long arms are seen to be of the utmost value ; they enable him to 
climb easily, to reach the fruits on the highest, thinnest twigs, and to 
collect leaves and sprigs to form his nest. How he builds this nest 
Wallace relates. The Meias that he wounded, climbed higher up the 
tree and began to break off branches and lay them across. With extra- 
ordinary rapidity he seized with his still uninjured arm, boughs in 
every direction, and in a few minutes had formed a close mass of leafage 
which hid him from my view. A like nest is used for sleeping in, but 
it is placed nearer the ground at a height of from eight to fifteen yards. 
The natives say that when it rains the Meias covers his nest with leaves. 
The Orang-outan does not leave his nest till the dew is dry on the 
leaves. He feeds throughout the day exclusively on fruit, buds and 
young shoots ; he prefers unripe to ripe fruit, and eats them when 
strongly bitter ; he usually eats only part of each fruit plucked. It is 
very rarely that the Orang-outan descends to earth ; he does so only 
when compelled to seek for water or food in the dry season. They 
often stand upright, but never walk in that attitude unless they have 
hold of a branch above them ; representations of them walking by the 
aid of sticks are purely imaginary. 

The Dayak natives affirm that no animal is strong enough to injure 
the Meias, and the only creature with which he fights is the crocodile, 
which often attempts to seize him when plucking the young shoots 
near the water. The Meias flies at this foe, beats him with his feet 
and hands, tears his jaws open and slays him. The Meias seldom fights 
with man. 

In its native woods the Orang-outan seems to be an unsocial animal, 
and leads a hermit-like existence, sitting in its nest till hunger impels it 
to move. Like other apes it exhibits an objection to captivity, has great 
cunning and great docility, together with great attachment to all that 



34 QUADRUMANA. 

treat it kindly ; a grave and melancholy expression is usually seen on 
its face. 

Numerous living specimens have been brought to Europe. One at 
Paris is described by Cuvier, who gives an anecdote of its intelligence. 
" It was once shut up in a place in the vicinity of a saloon where it was 
usual for persons to assemble. After a time solitude made it impatient, 
and it endeavored to open the door in order to get in. But the bolt 
was high and beyond its reach. Ultimately it dragged a chair to the 
door, climbed up on it, and having drawn back the catch, triumphantly 
entered." 

Another was brought to England by Dr. Abel Clarke; it was as 
docile as affectionate. It took a fancy for two kittens and patiently 
endured their scratches rather than lose their company. It was, how- 
ever, observed trying to pull out their claws with its fingers. He adds : 
" Since its arrival in Great Britain, it acquired, to my knowledge, two 
habits which it certainly never practised on board ship, where its educa- 
tion, I ought to say, had been very much neglected. One of these was 
walking erect, or at least on its hind feet, without resting on its hands ; 
the second was to kiss its keeper. Some writers assert that the Orang- 
outan gives real kisses, and they suppose that this is a natural act of the 
animal. I believe that they are wrong : it is acquired from imitation, 
and even then it does not altogether give a kiss like Man, by advancing 
the lips." 

The Orang-outan is the very opposite in disposition to the Chim- 
panzee. While the latter is lively and playful, the former is quiet, solemn, 
and grave, his motions are slow and measured, and the expression of his 
brown eyes inconceivably sad. 

We have mentioned above that this animal possesses a throat-pouch. 
This strange appendage is not a mere hollow sack, but is shaped like a 
badly-made glove ; it is larger in the male than the female. A careful 
investigator, Mr. Vrolik, is of opinion that this throat-pouch has nothing 
to do with the voice, but is " intended to assist it in climbing and leaping." 
It is a pity that he did not show how it accomplishes this object. The 
sac is connected by a passage with the windpipe, and can be inflated at 
pleasure. 

There seems to be in Borneo another species of Simia called by the 
natives Meias Kassar. It is much smaller than the Orang-outan, or 
Meias Pappan, and has often been regarded as the young of the latter. 



SPECIES OF GIBBONS. 35 



III. GENUS HYLOBATES. 

The Gibbons. — The third genus of the man-Hke apes is that of the 
long-armed apes which are commonly called Gibbons. The scientific 
name Hylobates, or "forest walkers," from the Greek hylc "a wood," 
and baino "to walk,"was given them from the fact that they are chiefly 
found in the dense forests of India and the Eastern Archipelago. For 
life in the forest they are admirably adapted by the length of their fore- 
arms. 

The Gibbons are divided into Seven Speeies, some of which attain a 
considerable size, although not exceeding three feet and a half They 
are the only Anthropoid apes possessing gluteal callosities. The body, 
although the breast is well rounded, seems slender, owing to the thinness 
of the flanks; the hinder limbs are much shorter than the fore limbs, and 
in some species the long hand is characterized by a growing together 
of the index and middle finger. The head is small and egg-shaped, 
the face human-like, the tail is not visible externally. A silk fur 
covers their bodies, the colors being principally brown, brownish-gray, 
or straw-color. 

THE HULOCK. 

The HuLOCK, Hylobates hidock, (Plate I), bears clearly the marks of 
the genus. It has no air-sack and the fingers do not grow together. 
Its hair is coal-black except a white line across the forehead ; in the 
young it is dark-brown, and ash-gray on the back. The HuLOCK 
inhabits Farther India and Bengal, especially the woody banks of the 
Brahmapootra river. 

THE LAR, UNKO AND WAUWAU. 

These species are natives of Malacca and Siam. The Lar, Hylobates 
lar, is almost as large as the Hulock. The prevailing color is a dark- 
gray, the hands are of a whitish-gray on the upper, but black on the 
lower surface. 

The Unko, Hylobates rafflesii, is distinguished from the Hulock 
anatomically by the possession of fourteen pairs of ribs. Its face 
and coat are black, inclining to reddish-brown on the back ; the 



36 QUADRUMANA. 

eyebrows, cheeks and chin are white in the males, but dark-gray in 
the females. 

The Wauwau or Agile Gibbon, Hylobatcs agilcs, has a bare, blue- 
black face, inclining in the female to brown, long hair of a dark-brown 
color on the head, stomach, and inside the arms; on the shoulders and 
behind the neck the hair becomes lighter, and in the females is light- 
brown, while on the hinder parts down to the knees, it is of mixed white 
and reddish hues. The hands and feet are dark-brown. The female is 
lighter colored than the male ; the hair on the cheeks is shorter, but still 
long enough to make the face seem broader than it is long. The young 
are of a yellowish-white color. 

Doctor Franklin, speaking of the Agile Gibbon, says : " Some years 
ago a female of this species was exhibited in London. The cries it 
emitted when going through its performances, naturalists decided to be 
most musical. This individual was timid and gentle. It preferred the 
society of women to that of men. It was thought that this circumstance 
was due to the bad treatment it had received at the hands of the stronger 
sex. It was intelligent and observant : its piercing eyes seemed to be 
always on the qjii vivc, scrutinizing every one, and missing nothing of 
what passed around. When any one gained its confidence, it consented 
after several invitations to descend from its perch and shake hands." 

The Gibbons, as we have observed, are admirably adapted for 
climbing. The round chest gives room to the lungs, the strong hind 
legs give great propelling power, the long fore arms enable them to 
grasp securely the branch which is to be their next starting-point. An 
easy comparison will show how disproportionately long their limbs are. 
A man can barely touch his knee when standing erect, the GlfiBONS can 
touch their ankles. Nothing can present a greater contrast than a 
Gibbon in a forest, and a Gibbon on the ground. In the former they 
fly like birds from bough to bough, their agility is boundless and grace- 
ful ; on the ground they seem out of their element, they move slowly, 
they totter on their hind feet, and can only maintain their equilibrium 
by the aid of their long ai'ms. If the Gorilla is the Hercules, the Gibbon 
is the Mercury of the ape world. The name Z(?r of one species is derived 
from a naiad Lara whom Mercury loved. 

The HULOCK can only balance itself upright by raising its hands 
above its head, and then it waddles rather than walks. If urged to 
greater speed, it uses its long fore-arms. They hop rather than leap, 



HABITS OF THE GIBBONS. 37 

and when they use their arms they resemble cripples on L.t,tches. 
The Wauwau is the most agile. He ascends the smooth stems of the 
bamboo, swings the tall cane backwards and forwards till he gathers 
the required impetus, then flies over a space of thirteen or fourteen 
yards, grasps another twig, a third, a fourth, and so on, till he seems 
to shoot like an arrow. He is proud of his agility and is fond of dis- 
playing it when there is no occasion. A female Wauwau in London 
was kept in a large enclosure where trees were planted at a distance of 
seven or eight yards apart. All spectators were struck with wonder at 
its performances. It sprung from one tree to another without any pre- 
paratory efforts, and never failed in its leap. It would continue this 
performance for a considerable time, seeming scarcely to touch the 
boughs. No less remarkable was the sureness of its hand and eye. If 
an apple was flung at it during its flight, it caught it without a pause in 
its course. In the midst of its swiftest career it could in a twinkling 
change the direction of its flight, or come suddenly to a sitting position, 
in which it seemed as if it had never been in motion. 

If a young one in captivity could display such astonishing feats of 
agility, it is needless to say that the adult Gibbon in its native forests 
moves like a swallow through the air. 

The HULOCKS form bands of a hundred or a hundred and fifty 
members, and are usually seen in the tops of very high trees, occa- 
sionally descending to disport themselves in the clearings of the 
forest. Owen relates that in riding through the jungle he came upon 
a powerful band ; the trees were full of them ; they screamed and 
grimaced at the intruder, and some of the bolder spirits followed him 
as if with the intention to attack. Such attacks on travelers are said 
to be not uncommon. Owen's account, however, is at variance with 
all other observers, who agree in describing the Gibbon as running 
away from the sight of man. 

At sunrise and sunset the Gibbons assemble and unite their voices in 
a clamor that can be heard a full mile away. This cry is very peculiar. 
Bennett says it begins with the fundamental note E and goes up through 
the chromatic scale to the E an octave higher. As it runs up the scale, 
the semitones come out slower and slower ; as it descends, the notes 
increase in rapidity till the end is a yelling scream. The regularity, 
swiftness and precision with which these animals run up the scale is 
astonishing. The Wauwau derives its name from its cry. It begins 



38 QUADRUMANA. 

ua, ua, ua, then the a becomes longer, the u shorter, till it sounds like 
wa, and then the whole band join in the chorus. 

The long-armed apes soon become tame. Harlan possessed a Hulock 
that, like the large apes already described, could sit at table, and learned 
to drink from a cup like a man. It preferred a vegetable diet, but some- 
times ale a bit of hsh or chicken. " When I paid him my morning visit, 
he greeted me with a loud Wau, wau, wau ! repeated till he was quite 
out of breath. He liked to be combed and brushed, and stretched out 
first one arm, then another. He knew my voice and replied when I 
called to him from a distance." 

The Gibbons arc seldom found in captivity, even in their native 
country. They cannot bear the loss of freedom ; they pine away in 
regret for their forest home and woodland sports, and become gradually 
quieter and quieter, sadder and sadder, till death sets them free. 



IV.— GENUS SIAMANGA. 

The SlAMANG, Siamanga syiidactyla, differs in some considerable 
respects from the preceding genus, and one of the most striking of 
these is indicated by its name syiidactyla (Greek syn " together,'" dactylos 
"a finger"). The iore and middle fingers of tlie posterior limbs are 
united by a membrane, and its arms are shorter than those of the other 
species. The low forehead presses down upon the eyebrows, the eyes 
are deep-set, the nose flat, the nostrils large, the mouth enormous. 
The air-sack, formed by loose folds of skin, consists of a double 
pouch at the throat; it protrudes like a bird's crop, and swells when 
the creature cries. A thick soft coat of deep black hair covers the 
body ; the eyebrows, however, are of a reddish-brown. The hair 
of the fore arm points upwards, that of the upper arm downwards, 
just as in Man. The height of a full grown Sianiaug is about forty 
inches, but it can span twice that length. It is a native of the thick 
forests of Sumatra. 

According to Duveaucel, the Siamangs collect in numerous troops, 
under the leadership of an experienced chief, and greet the sun, at its 
rising and setting, with cries which are heard for several miles around. 
They are not very nimble, but their sense of hearing is extremely acute ; 
the moment they notice the slightest sound, they decamp without delay. 



HABITS OF THE SIAMANG. 39 

But if they are on the ground, and they have not time to reach trees, 
they are easily overtaken. The troop, however numerous, abandons 
one of their members who is wounded unless the victim be a young 
one ; then maternal love bids the mother fly to the protection of her 
offspring, and with inflated air-sack and outstretched arms she faces the 
enemy. Otherwise, too, this maternal instinct is touchingly evinced. 
The mother bears her little one to the river, bathes it in spite of its 
cries, and carefully rubs it dry. The Malays affirm that the male parent 
carries the male young ones, while the mother bears the females, and 
travelers assert that this report is true. 

One of these animals was for some time an mmate of a ship, where it 
became quite companionable, and gained the affections of passengers and 
crew. So far from exhibiting the sullen and sluggish demeanor which 
has been attributed to this ape, the Siamang displayed great activity and 
quickness, skipping about the ropes, and given to harmless tricks. It 
took a fancy to a little Papuan girl who was on board, and would sit 
with its arms round her neck, eating biscuit with her. It was of an 
inquisitive nature, running up the rigging, and watching from its elevated 
position a passing vessel, and remaining there until the ship was out 
of sight. In temper it was rather uncertain, and apt to fly into a passion 
if opposed in any wish. 

When thus e.xcited, it would fling itself down, just like a naughty, 
spoiled child, roll about the deck with great contortion of limbs and face, 
strike at everything which came in its way, and scream incessantly, with 
a sound like " Ra! ra! ra!" 

It had a strange predilection for ink, and in order to procure this 
remarkable dainty, would drain the ink-bottle whenever there was an 
opportunity of so doing, or suck the pens in default of the liquid itself. 
Being itself destitute of a tail, and feeling no fear of reprisals in that direc- 
tion, the Siamang used to make very free with the tails of some monkeys 
that lived on board of the same vessel. Catching an unfortunate monkey 
by its caudal appendage, away went Ungka, as the ape was named, 
dragging the monkey after him along the deck, until the wretched 
animal writhed itself free from its tormentor. At another time, Ungka 
would carry the monkey by the tail up the rigging, in spite of its squeaks 
and struggles, and then quietly let it drop. 

It was sensitive to ridicule ; and when its feelings were hurt, it used 
to inflate its throat until it resembled a huge wen, and looked seriously 



40 QUADRUMANA. 

at the offenders, uttering hollow barks at intervals. This sound seemed 
to be used for the purpose of expressing irritation. Anger was expressed 
by the shrieking "Ra! ra!" and pleasure by a kind of mixture between 
a squeak and a chirp. 

Wallace had a Siamang that used to play with liis native servant. 
Hence we may conclude that this genus does not deserve the charactei 
given it by some authors who describe it as a dull and stupid animal, 
that does not care to distinguish between friend and foes, that will not 
move till forced to do so, hardly even taking the trouble to put its food 
into its mouth. 

Mr. Bennett the English naturalist confirms Wallace's account of the 
gentleness of this species. He writes : " Going into the courtyard where 
Ungka was tied up one morning, I was sorry to see it occupied in trying 
to get rid of its waist-belt and rope, while at the same time it uttered a 
sharp, plaintive cry. When unfastened, it went towards a group of 
Malays, and after catching hold of the legs of some of them, it ap- 
proached one who was lying down, jumped on him, and closely embraced 
him witli an expression of recognition. I learned that this man in whose 
arms the Monkey showed so much pleasure, was its first master." 

Mr. Bennett adds that Ungka preferred vegetables, such as rice and 
onions, to flesh. She drank tea, coffee, and chocolate, but never wine or 
spirituous liquors. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE OLD WORLD MONKEYS. 

THE LONG-TAILED MONKEYS— THE GENUS SEMNOPITHECUS — THE PROBOSCIS MONKEY — THE DOUC— 

THE GENUS COLOBUS — THE GUEREZA. 

1EAVING the anthropoid or tailless apes, we now proceed to 
consider, the remaining apes of the Old World. The old world 
— ^ monkeys differ from the anthropoid apes by the shortness of 
their arm, the presence of tails and gluteal callosities, and, in many 
instances, of cheek pouches. The "gluteal callosities" are those bare 
and hard plates which are seen on the posterior parts of these animals, 
and on which they rest when sitting. The cheek pouches are sacks, 
more or less capacious, between the cheeks and the jaws, in which they 
place their food when they wish to reserve it. Like the tailless apes, 
the tailed monkeys of the Old World have the same " dental formula " as 
we ourselves possess ; and their tails are not prehensile or able to lay 
hold of anything. As a rule they are sagacious, but mischievous and 
ungraceful, and very destructive. Hence some nations regard them 
with fear and abhorrence, others regard them as sacred or divine. 

The apes described in this chapter differ, as we have said, from the 
anthropoid apes by the possession of a tail : they differ also from those 
which will be hereafter described in the length of this appendage and 
in the use they make of it. The tail in these genera is usually very long ; 
it is habitually raised, and serves as a balance. 

They are divided into two families, of which the first or Semno- 
PITHECID.(E are distinguished by the absence of cheek pouches. 



I.— GENUS SEMNOPITHECUS. 

The genus Semnopithecus (from the Greek words scmnos, grave, 
and pithecus, ape) is found in Asia. They are slender, with long limbs. 



42 ■ QUADRUMANA. 

a long tail, a small head, a hairless face, a short muzzle, and very 
slight callosities. Twenty-nine Species are known. 

The hands have long fingers, but the thumb on the fore limbs is very 
short, and of no use for grasping. Their hair is fine, and often very long 
on the head. The conformation of the stomach is peculiar, and distantly 
resembles that of the Kangaroo. All species possess an air-sack. 

They are natives of the mainland of Southern Asia and the islands 
of the Indian archipelago. They live in troops in the forests, usually 
near running water, and near villages and cultivated ground. Wallace 
gives a very vivid description of them in their native haunts. The 
traveler generally finds them in companies of twenty or thirty, busily 
engaged in seeking food. They seldom are seen on the ground, unless 
when picking up some fallen fruit. They pay no attention to the natives, 
but avoid Europeans. When alarmed they hide in the trees, or fly with 
extraordinary rapidity, springing from bough to bough. It is amusing 
to witness the attempts the less agile make to follow their leader ; very 
often some of the last of the company hesitate about taking a daring leap, 
till the foremost are almost out of sight ; then they are filled with despair 
at the prospect of being left, jump wildly into the air, and often fall to 
the ground. Their usual food consists of fruits of all sorts, buds and 
leaves ; they seem to prefer the buds of the red Hibiscus even to bananas. 

THE HULMAN. 

This species, the Hulman or Hunemanof the Hindoos, Scmnopitliccus 
entcllus, is the Sacred Ape of India. As it is carefully protected by the 
natives, it is very common in lower India. The tail is usually about 
three feet long, the body about two. The hair is of a yellowish white, 
the hairless parts dark violet. The face, hands and feet, as far as they 
are hairy, and a stiff rim of hair projecting over the eyes, are black; the 
short beard is yellow. 

The Hulman or Huneman monkey occupies a high place among the 
thirty million deities of the Hindoos, and has enjoyed this honor for 
countless ages. Huneman is said in their mythology to have liberated 
Sita, the wife of Rama, from the giant Ravan, and to have brought from 
the garden of the giant the luscious Mango. For the theft of the Mango 
he was condemned to be burnt at the stake, but Huneman extinguished 
the fire, burning thereby his face and hands, which have remained black 



THE SACRED MONKEY OF INDIA. 43 

among his descendants. A ruling family of Indian princes claim to be 
descendants of Huneman, and proudly claim the title of " the tailed 
Rama." High is the honor still paid to this sacred ape. Death is the 
punishment of any violence offered to him ; and the Hindoos allow him 
to rob their gardens or steal from their houses with impunity. In 
Benares the streets are full, the houses covered with these holy animals, 
and any injury provokes a tumult. Hiigel relates that a fakir called 
some of these apes to him, and then gave them nothing to eat ; three 
of the oldest attacked him, he drove them off with his staff; the populace 
at once took the side of the apes, and gave the man a good beating. 
Bishop Heber relates that two English officers, who shot an ape near 
Bindrabund, were driven into the River Jumna and drowned by a fanatic 
mob of Brahmins and devotees. Great commotion was excited at Kish- 
nagur when, in compliance with a petition of the reforming party in 
India, the government destroyed five hundred of these larcenous deities. 

Apart from their thievish propensities these apes are attractive crea- 
tures. A crowd of them will assemble, disperse with magical celerity, 
and in a couple of minutes reassemble. They mount with incredible speed 
to the tops of the trees, descend with equal swiftness, leap from tree to 
tree, and in a few minutes traverse the whole garden backwards and 
forwards without touching the ground. In youth their head is round, 
and they are easily tamed ; but as the shape of the skull alters, their dis- 
position alters. The skull becomes flatter, the ape more brutal; he 
becomes dull instead of bright, violent instead of cunning, and has 
scarcely anything in common with his youth. 

In the forests they form numerous bands under the leadership of an 
old male, under whose guidance they rob and plunder the neighborhood, 
or undertake distant expeditions. Strange tales are told of their wander- 
ings ; they are said to visit at regular intervals of many years certain 
holy groves, stay there a few days, and then mysteriously return to their 
distant home. Wherever they appear they become an object of solicitude 
to the pious Hindoo. The sacred fig-tree is their favorite dwelling, and 
snakes their chief aversion. They are said to watch till the reptile is 
asleep, then seize it behind the head, and dash its brains out against a 
stone. 

Like all the apes the Huneman is devoted to its young. Duvancel 
shot one that had its young in its arms. The dying mother collected all 
her strength, took the little one and placed it on a bough. " I could 



44 QUAURUMANA. 

not," he adds, " master my feeling of repentance for having killed a crea- 
ture whicli even in death manifested the noblest and purest feelings." 

THE BUDENG. 

The BuDENG, Sciiinopifhaiis maurns, called also the Negro Monkey, 
furnishes the furs which were so fashionable with ladies a few years 
ago. His hair is glossy black, on tlie liands and face like satin, on the 
back like silk. The head is covered with a peculiar cap of hair which 
falls over the forehead and grows down both checks. The length of the 
Budeng is about three feet, fully one-liall being tail. 

The Budeng is found in Java in troops of from forty to fifty. At the 
approach of man they raise a loud cry and spring madly into the trees, 
and hurl on the intruder broken branches. But they soon lose their 
fear. The sacred foinitain of I'rogo has from time immemorial been fre- 
quented by a tribe of half-tame Budengs, never exceeding fifteen in num- 
ber, which come down from the trees on the approach of visitors, and 
surround them witli an air of confident familiarity. At Amsterdam there 
were two Budengs which usually sat curled up together side by side, the 
hands crossed over the breast. Their grave appearance was enhanced 
by the thick mass of hair falling over the face. Tiiey came slowly to 
receive their food, but took it quietly and thoughtfully ; their expression 
was sagacious, but not lively. They were terribly annoyed by two mon- 
keys of the genus Cynocephalus. These latter delighted in teasing the 
solemn Budengs, who at the sight of their tormentors embraced each 
other closely. The foes seemed to take a malicious pleasure in loosening 
this close embrace ; they jumped on tlu- Budengs, rode on tluir backs, 
pulled their tails and hair, and climbed over them as if they had been part 
of a tree ; their cruel sport became more cruel when their hapless victims 
screamed out. A Budeng at Antwerp showed a similar timidity in the 
presence of the little Macacus, which kicked and cufled him at its pleasure. 

THE KAHAU. 

The Proboscis Monkey, or Kahau, Scmnopithccus nasica, (Plate \\\ 
is so called from his nose. This organ hangs down over the upper 
lip, and is a caricature of the human feature; it has the peculiarity 
of being very movable. The Kahau has callosities, and the tail is 



THE ABYSSINIAN GUEREZA. 45 

lotif^. Its color presents a curious variety of hues. The hairs on (he 
skull arc sliort and thick, on the l)a(:k of the head and on the sides of the 
face they arc lonj^cr, and lorni a kind of collar round the neck. On (hesc 
parts they are oi a brij^ht brownish red, on the back a brownish yellow, 
on the breast a light reddish yellow, on the extremities and tad, ash-gray. 
The Proboscis Monkeys live in Borneo, where, morning and evening, 
they assemble on the river banks, uttering howls which resemble in 
sound the word Kahau ; they leap and climb with great agility. They 
are said to be difficult to tame, mischievous and savage, defending them- 
selves fiercely when attacked. The natives of Borneo affirm that when 
they leap they keep one of their hands before the nose, to save that 
prominent feature from injury. This of course is a mere fancy, but 
argues a belief in the animal's sagacity. The natives furthermore believe 
that the Kahau is a man who has taken to the woods to avoid paying his 
taxes, and consequently they admire and envy him. . 

THE DOUC. 

This monkey, Scninopithccus nemcetis, is distinguished by the brighf 
tints of his coat. The back, flanks, top of the head, and arms are gray, 
speckled with black ; the thighs and the digits are black ; the legs 'Mid 
tarsi a bright red ; the fore-arms, the lower parts of the legs, the but- 
tocks, and the tail are a pure white ; and the throat is white, encircled 
with a ring of bright red, and the face is adorned with white v/hiskers. 
It is a native of Cochin China, and attains the height of lour feet, but 
we know little of its habits in its state of freedom. 

II.— GENUS COLOBUS. 

The Colobus is an African representative of the Semncpithecus, and 
it obtains its name Colobus, or " maimed," from the fact that it possesses 
only four fingers on the fore-arms. The Ijody is slender, the muzzle 
short, the tail very long ; and the species has no check pouches. Many 
of them are remarkable for the color and growth of their hair. 

THE GUEREZA. 

The GuEREZA, Colobus gucrcza, is, in the judgment of some ob- 
servers, the most beautiful of all the monkeys. It is a native of Abys- 
sinia, and presumably of other regicjns of Central Africa. On the body 



46 QUADRUMANA. 

the hair is like satin, and deep black in color ; but a band across the 
forehead, the temples, the side of the neck, the chin, throat, a mane-like 
girdle extending from the shoulders across the loins, and the bushy tip 
of its tail, are white. Each hair is ringed with slender brown bands, is 
very soft and fine and of considerable length. The mane, if mane it can 
be called, running down both sides of the body, hangs like a silver mantle, 
and is an ornament of indescribable beauty, as the jet-black hair of the 
body is seen darkly gleaming through its silvery fringe, which is very 
long over the back of thighs. The length of the body is about two feet, 
that of the tail without the tuft a little longer. 

The Guereza is found ever}- where in Abyssinia south of North Lati- 
tude 13°, in a chain of highlands six to seven thousand feet above the 
sea level. It lives in banils of from ten to fifteen in lofty trees near 
the clear-flowing mountain-streams, and loves tlie neighborhood of the 
churches, which usually stand under the shadow of consecrated trees. 
The Juniper {Junipcrus proccrd) which grows there to a height that 
dwarfs our pines or hemlocks, is a favorite abode. The Guereza is very 
agile, and, till he has experienced the violence of man, anvthing but shy ; 
he creeps like a cat towards the disturber of his peace. When in flight 
he presents a spectacle of grace and beauty as he leaps from bough to 
bougli, with his white mantle floating around him like the white burnous 
of an Arab chief over his charger. In contradistinction to other apes he 
is regarded by the natives as harmless, for he seldom injures the crops. 
The skin is much prized as an ornament of the shields of the native 
warriors ; a skin is said to be worth six fat sheep. 

Two species, Colobus ursittus and the Colobus satanas, need little men- 
tion. The former has a white tail, but the rest of the body is covered 
with hair of a dirty yellow mixed with black. Tlic latter is entirely 
black, and is perhaps only a variety. Both these species are found in 
Western Africa. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BABOONS AND MACAQUES. 

THE FAMILY CYNOPITHECID.« — THE GENUS MYIOPITHECUS OR TALAPOIN — THE GENUS CERCO- 
riTHECUS — THE GUENONS— THE GENUS CERCOCEBUS OR MANGABEYS — THE GENUS MERO- 
PITHECUS OR GELADA — THE GENUS CYNOCEPHAI.US OR BABOON— THE BABOON PROPER — THE 
CHACMA — ITS USE IN FINDING WATER — THE SPHINX — THE HAMADRYAD — ITS PUGNACIOUS 
DISPOSITION — DISGUSTING CHARACTER OF THE MANDRILL AND DRILL. 

THE family of Cynopithecid.t; comprehends all the monkeys 
with cheek pouches, and the baboons. The scientific name 
signifies " dog-apes," but only some of them, the Cynocephali, 
have much resemblance to our domestic favorite. The genera of this 
family amount to Seven, which will be treated in this and the succeeding 
chapter. 

I.— GENUS MYIOPITHECUS. 

This genus differs from the following genera by the development of 
the brain, the shortness of the muzzle, and the structure of one of the 
molar teeth. In the large ears and short face with an internasal septum 
it somewhat resembles the American monkey. There is only one species. 

The Talapoin, Myiopithccus talapoin, is the smallest of the Old 
World monkeys ; the fur is of a greenish hue, forming on the forehead 
a sort of tuft; the face is flesh-colored, the nose black, the whiskers 
yellowish. It is a very gentle creature, and exhibits in captivity intelli- 
gence and liveliness. It is a native of West Africa. 



II.— GENUS CERCOPITHECUS. 

To this genus belong many of the monkeys seen in zoological 
gardens or menageries, here and in Europe. Their generic characteris- 



48 QUADRUMANA. 

tics are a slender form and limbs, a depressed cranium, delicate short 
hands with long thumbs, a long tuftless tail, large cheek pouches, and 
large gluteal callosities. These are generally vivid, in some species very 
varied. About Hvcnty-four species are known, all natives of the tropical 
regions of Africa. They all choose for their abode woods near rivers; 
by preference in the vicinity of cultivated land. It is worthy of remark 
that this genus of monkey and parrots correspond not merely in form 
and manner of life, but in geographical distribution. Wherever in 
Africa these^apes are found, parrots may be looked for ; wherever there 
are parrots there Ccrcopitluci are found. Between the two continual war 
is waged, the cause of strife being the tail feathers of the parrot. 

The motives that incite the monkeys to pluck out these feathery 
trophies are twofold, each of them dear to the very soul of the mischiev- 
ous creature. The first and most obvious motive is that ot sheer mis- 
chief, but the second is of rather a more complex character. When an 
immature feather is recently drawn from a bird, its quill portion is gen- 
erally soft, and filled with the material by which the feather is supplied 
with nourishment. The monkeys take great delight in sucking these 
soft feathers ; and in order to procure a supply of this curious dainty, 
chase the poor parrots, even to the tops of the trees. At first sight, it 
would appear that the legs and arms of the monkey would have little 
chance of wiiuiing a prize defended by the beak and wings of the parrots, 
which sit exultantly screaming on twigs that bear their weight easily 
enough, but are too slender even for the monkeys to venture upon. But 
the restless vigilance and quick hand of the monkey often win the day ; 
and while the parrot is shrieking defiance to an enemy in front, it is 
suddenly startled from its fancied security bv the loss of its tail, wliich 
has been snatched away by a stealthy foe from behind. The deafening 
din which is occasioned by the joint voices of parrots and monkeys, may 
be easier imagined than described. 

They are the most social and active of all apes. They live in large 
bands ; they form a state of their own, and acknowledge no chief but the 
strongest of their fellows; they make themselves at home everywhere, 
and seem to pass their lives without fear of hunger, and in continual 
cheerfulness. Infinite frivolity and a ridiculous seriousness unite in all 
their actions. No object is too remote, no tree-top too high, no treasure 
secure enough, no property respected, when these apes appear. The 
traveler hears the calls of the ape leader, and soon his ears detect the 



HABITS OF THE MONKEYS. 49 

rush of the band through the leafy forest ; he ther sees them running-, 
clambering, playing, cleaning themselves, fighting; they never try to 
conceal themselves. A foray of these apes is a remarkable sight to an 
uninterested spectator. Under the lead of an experienced patriarch they 
make their approach to the cornfields; the females carry their young, 
who cling to their breasts, and at the same time take a turn with their 
tail round the tail of their mother. At first they are cautious. The 
patriarch goes first ; the others follow step by step, and mount not only 
the same tree but the same branch as he does. 

The leader sometimes climbs to the very topmost spray to get a good 
view of the neighborhood ; if the prospect is favorable, a low gurgling 
note tells the good tidings to his subjects ; if unfavorable, he utters a 
cry of warning. They alight from a tree near the field, and then with 
vigorous leaps advance into their paradise. Then their activity is pro- 
digious. Heads of corn, ears of millet are plucked, the grains picked 
out and placed in their cheek pouches ; when these capacious receptacles 
are full, the band relaxes a little from its labors and becomes more fas- 
tidious in what it steals. They carefully smell the ears they pick, and 
if the odor is not satisfactory, reject them ; of ten heads of corn only one 
is really eaten. As a rule they take merely a couple of grains from each 
head and then the rest is flung away ; they are fond of eggs and partial 
to honey. 

When the troop thinks itself in perfect security in the cornfield, the 
mothers put down their little ones to play, but keep a sharp eye on 
them. All arc careless except the leader. He, even in the daintiest 
repast, stops, stands erect, and looks around at short intervals. After 
each observation he utters his note of safety if nothing displeasing is 
seen, or an indescribable quavering note of warning if an enemy is in 
sight. When this last tone is heard, the band at once reassembles, the 
mothers call back their children, all are ready for flight, and hurriedly 
grasp as much food as they can carry off". If the danger presses they 
gradually unload, but do not part with the last of their burden till both 
hands and feet are necessary. Wide intervals from tree to tree, dense 
hedges, prickly thorns, are all unable to check their march. Their leaps 
are astonishing ; in mid-flight they can change their direction by means 
of their long rudder of a tail ; they leap from a tree-top to the earth, fly 
over the ditclrts and with lightning-like speed up another tree. Their 
leader conducts them through all their operations with his voice, now bid^- 
7 



5C QUADRUMANA. 

(liiit;^ them to increase, now to diminish their speed. Witli all this bustle 
tiicie is no symptom of alarm or cowardice, but a constant display ot per- 
fect presence of mind. Danger docs not exist for them till man appears. 

When the leader has satisfied himself by examination that his troop 
are once more in a safe spot, he utters iiis note of security. Then again 
his followers are busy ; this time with ridding each other of thorns or 
splinters which have run into tlieni during their flight. A monkey lays 
himself out at full length on a bough, another examines him carefully 
and tlioroughly, every tangle is loosened, every thorn extracted, any 
vermin liiintcd out and eaten. These surgical performances ovei", the 
troop returns without delay to the field whence it has just been 
driven. Thus the natives can never leave their crops unwatched. No 
means are left untried to keep off their terrible enemies, but human 
resources and even charms or amulets are all in vain. "The apes," said 
a venerable Sheik of the Soudan, "are godless and respect not the 
words of the apostle of Ciod. Other creatures of the Lord respect his 
prophet, the apes scorn him. If you hang an amulet in your field, the 
clc|)liant will not touch it. Ili' is a just creature; the ape is a being 
changed by God's wrath from a man into a liorror ; a son, grandson, 
great-grandson of the evil one." 

The natives take them in nets ; and it is easy to siioot them lor one 
who has the heart. Brehm writes : "I shot one straight in the face; it 
fell from the tree, then sat up and witliout a cry or groan wiped away 
the blood trickling from its wounds in such a human fashion and with 
sucii noble, calm resignation, that I hastened to end its misery witii my 
hunting-knife. From that day forward 1 have never shot an ape ; the 
image of tiic dying creature iiaunts mc; I Iclt as if 1 luui murdered a 
man." 

These apes are too active for most beasts of prey; the leopard alone 
at times catches some unwary youngster. Birds of prey they repel by 
combined action. A hooded eagle {S/>i::(ti-/os occipitnlis) was seen to seize 
a young monkey. The little one held on to the branch with legs and 
arms, screaming. At once there was an uproar; the eagle was sur- 
rounded by ten big fellows who attacked witli angry visages and fearful 
yells. The eagle soon dropped his prey, to struggle for his own safety; 
tne ta;l feathers and back feathers that began to fly were proofs that he 
fouorl some difficulty in escaping. Birds' nests the monkeys rob without 
mercy; Imt in searching for nests in hollow trees they display great 



TIIK ORKKN AI'ES. 5 I 

circuiiispection, lest a snake be in it; lor snakes arc an abomination to 
them. As to moral qualities, no two are alike; some are (juarrelsoine, 
some quiet, some morose, some sly, some cheerlul, olliers malicious — all, 
however, love to guard, tend and cherish smaller animals. 

THE GUENONS. 

The GrzEN Ape, Ccrcopti/icats sal/cvus, {Phitc 11), attains a lenfrtii of 
ai)ou( forty inches, fully one-half beinfj tail. The hair on the Ixick is 
grayish-green, ringed and tipped with black ; that of the arms, legs and 
tail ash-gray, the short whiskers whitisii ; the nose and eyebrows are 
black, the face light-brown. 

Another species called Diana or Bearded monkey, Ccrcopitlucus 
diana, is a small slender animal, conspicuous by its long beard on 
cheek and chin, and a white crescent on its brow. The color is 
mainly gray, the back a purplish brown, the beard and under side 
of the body white. The species called flu- Nun, Ccrcopitlums iiiohd, 
resembles the apes just described with the exception of wauling the 
pointed beard. From this name Mona it is i)robai)le that our word 
" Monkey " is derived. 

THE WHITE-NOSE AND THE RED APES. 

The White-nosed Monkey, Ccraipiihtrns /xfirnrista, is an inhal)itant 
of Western Africa. It is a curious little creature, with an air of quaint 
conceit, for which it is indebted to the fringe of white hairs that sur- 
rounds its face, and the conspicuous white spot on the nose, which 
has earned for it the title of White-nose. As is so often the case in 
these animals, the under-side of the i)ody and inside of the limbs is of 
a much lighter tint than the upper portions. This distinction is pecu- 
liarly well marked in the long tail, which is nearly black above, and 
beneath takes a grayish hue. 

The Red Ape, Ccrcopithccus ruber. — This species, commonly called 
the Hussar, is by no means so amiable as those we have just men- 
tioned. It is nearly one-half as large again as the other species, the 
face is black, the nose whitish, the cheek whiskers white, the head is 
marked with a dark-red sjjot; tlie rest of the l)ody is of a shining golden 
red color on the upper surface, but white on the inside of the limbs. 



52 QUADRUMANA. 

The Hussar ape extends from the West Coast of Africa to Abyssinia, 
but is much rarer than the Green apes. It is found in low thickets or 
tall grass, with which the color of its coat harmonizes. In character it 
is the very opposite of the Green apes. Its countenance is morose and 
unfriendly, and its actions do not belie its looks. Especially as it grows 
older, does its temper become more irritable ; it never enters into 
friendly relations with other animals, not even with other apes ; every- 
thing seems to annoy and provoke it ; a look excites anger ; laughter 
arouses rage and fury. Then it displays its immense teeth, and, if 
o^:)portunity serves, makes use of them on the observer. Kindness is 
thrown away, severity makes the creature worse. An adult Hussar ape 
has never been seen tame. 



III.— GENUS CERCOCEBUS. 

This genus forms the transition between the Cercopithecus and the 
Macacus, and the name of Mang.vbey is usually given to the animals 
embraced in it. They are almost the same size, and have nearly the 
same gait as the Guenons : but they are not so nimble. Their tail is 
long, and they usually carry it raised above their backs. Their habits 
differ but little from those of the majority of the Macacus, and they 
scarcely offer anything more distinctive in their character. All that can 
be positively asserted is tliat they are more gentle and familiar. 

THE MANGABEYS. 

The Moor Ape or Common Mangabey, Cercoccbus fuliginosus, is the 
best known representative of this genus. It attains a considerable size, 
a little over four feet, including two feet of tail. The color on the back 
is a dull black, on the stomach and the inside of Ihe limlis a dirty gray. 
The face and hands are black, and a peculiar look is given by the con- 
trast of the upper eyelids, which are pure white. 

The species Cercoccbus collaris differs from the above by having 
the top of the head of a dark chestnut hue, the cheeks snow-white, the 
rest of the body a dull black. Both species come from the West Coast 
of Africa. 

Among the peculiar habits which distinguish the Mangabeys, we may 



THE ABYSSINIAN GELADA. 53 

especially notice the action of their lips, and the mode in which they 
carry the tail. They have a strange way of writhing their faces into a 
kind of quaint grin, in which they raise the lips, and exhibit the teeth 
almost as if they were laughing. When walking, they have a fashion 
of turning their tails over their backs, and carrying them reversed, in a 
line almost parallel with the direction of the spine. 

Few monkeys can assume more oiitn' attitudes than the Mangabeys, 
which seem to be, among monkeys, almost the analogues of the acrobats 
among mankind, and twist themselves into such strange contortions, 
that they seem to be able to dispense with the bones and joints with 
which other animals are furnished. They seem to be quite aware of their 
own accomplishments, and soon learn that their display will bnng in a 
supply of nuts, cakes, and fruit to their exchequer. So they keep a 
vigilant eye on their visitors, and when they conceive that tkcy have 
drawn attention to themselves, they execute a series of agile girnbols, in 
the hope of meeting the reward which sweetens labor. 

The apes which we are now about to give an account of, are dis- 
tinguished from those already mentioned by possessing short tails, which 
instead of being raised and carried over the back are usually pendent, 
and do not assist in the movements of the animal. 

The name Makaque or Macaco is given on the west coast of Africa 
to all sorts of apes ; scientifically it is restricted to a numerous group 
of apes, distributed between Africa and Southeastern Asia, which forms 
Genus VI., in the following chapter. 



IV.— GENUS THEROPITHECUS. 

The Gelada, Cynoccphaliis gclada. — This genus is distinguished by 
receding nostrils, a bare spot on the neck and breast, a rich mantle, and 
a long tuft to the tail. It is a giant, and attains the height of a man. 
Its rich fur is dark-brown on the back of the head and back ; the mantle 
and tail-tuft are yellowish-brown; the breast is a brownish-black; the 
face is black. The two bare spots on the neck and chest are triangular, 
the points turned to each other. The callosities are small and dark- 
gray. 

A variety of this ape, called the Tokur Sinjcro, is found in the same 



54 (JUADRUMANA. 

regions of Abyssinia from which the Gelada comes. It differs in some 
slight respects from the latter, and is found only in bands of thirty or 
forty, while tiie Gelada lives in enormous companies, two iiundred being 
only a very small troop. The Gelada sometimes comes down from the 
lofty mountain ranges, ten thousand feet above the sea-level, to seek his 
food in the low country. He then comes into contact with the Hama- 
dryad and a regular battle takes place, both parties using stones. They 
usually go on all-fours, but sometimes erect themselves, using the tail as 
a support. They never climb high trees. 



v.— GENUS CYNOCEPHALUS. 

We now approach a class of apes, very remarkable but exceedingly 
disgusting, both in their appearance and their habits. They are the 
most repulsive and degraded variety of the Quadrumana ; all grace of 
motion or form has vanished, all nobler qualities sunk into abominable 
and loathsome lasciviousness. 

They derive their name of Cynocephali, or Dog-heads, from the 
position of the nostrils at the extremity of the muzzle, and the formation 
of the head and jaws. Unfortunately they do not possess the amiability 
and intelligence of the dog as well as the shape of his head. Next to 
the anthropoid apes, they are the largest members of the order. Their 
frames are square, their muscular force immense. The limbs are short 
and thick ; the gluteal callosities attain a repulsive size and are of an 
intensely bright color. 

They are distributed through Africa and parts of Asia, but the former 
continent seems their native home. They live in rocks, and avoid trees, 
which they only climb when compelled to do so. Their food consists of 
roots and fruits that grow on the ground, insects, birds' eggs, snails, ?sid 
the like. They do great damage to plantations and vineyards, and carry 
off the fruit to some inaccessible spot where they store it up for future 
use. They are said, in plundering a garden, to form a chain and pass 
the spoil from hand to hand. This is perhaps an exaggeration, but it is 
certain that they appoint sentinels to give warning of the approach of 
man : and these sentinels, if neglectful of their duty, are flogged to death 
by their comrades. 

The distinguishing title of this genus is formed from two Greek 



i 



11 . ••'" .i^ 




< 

< 

Q 
< 

O 



< 



THE BABOONS. 55 

words, kyon, kynos, "a dog," and kcphalc, "a head." They are large- 
sized animals, ungainly in shape, and possessed of great vigor. These 
various advantages, joined to their naturally brutal and ferocious dis- 
position, make them dangerous to man, especially when full-grown. 
They have the supra-orbital arch largely developed, deep cheek pouches, 
and all the limbs nearly of the same length. Their hands are well formed, 
and all four provided with an opposable thumb. In general the coat is 
long and woolly, principally on the upper parts of the body. The cal- 
losities, as well as their face, are often tinted with the most brilliant 
colors. Their senses are highly developed ; that of smell is particularly 
delicate. 

As they approach maturity of existence, their primitive qualities, their 
relative gentleness and intelligence, are changed into savageness and 
brutality. In all their desires they then evince an incredible degree of 
violence and impetuousness, manifesting their appetites by the most 
revolting acts and gestures. At this period of their life, they are really 
formidable ; for their upper canine teeth become transformed into long 
sharp tusks, which they use with such adroitness as to produce with 
them serious wounds. The dread they inspire in the countries they 
inhabit is such, that the natives will often permit their gardens to be 
ravaged by them in preference to running the danger of a conflict. 

The Cynocephalus Monkeys almost exclusively inhabit Africa, a 
single species only being found in Asia. They live either in forests or 
low mountainous rocky localities, and subsist on fruits and insects. In 
captivity they are almost omnivorous. 

The Cynocephali are sometimes found in innumerable bands in Sen- 
egal. A traveler in that country writes : " We found every landing-place 
literally covered with monkeys, in parts crowded one against another; 
and as we passed, they saluted us with incredible gambols and furious 
barkings. In stating that this meeting-place did not contain less than 
six thousand Cynocephali, I believe I am not exaggerating." 

The Cynocephali proper are distinguished from the Mormon or Man- 
drill by the length of their tails. 

There is a wild Arab legend told about them which is given in the 
Herat el Hehvan, or " Life of Animals," by Kemaledeen Demiri. " Once 
on a time there stood on the banks of the Red Sea a city, the name 
whereof was Aila. Its people were Jews. But these Jews violated the 
sabbath regularly by catching fish on that day. Pious men remonstrated 



56 QUADRUMANA. 

in vain, and when their words were unheeded, veiled their faces and left 
the godless town. Three days afterward they returned. They found 
the gates shut, but clambered over the walls, when they found them- 
selves surrounded by baboons, some of which came to them with sad 
looks, and fawned upon them with a piteous and imploring expression 
of countenance. The returned natives thought that these baboons, 
which seemed to recognize them, might be some of their kinsfolk; and 
when they asked, ' Baboon, tell me, are you Abraham, my brother's son, 
or my cousin Moses or Achmed ? ' the creatures sadly nodded an affirm- 
ative reply." 

The first species, Cynocephalus babuin, (Plate II) possesses the name of 
Baboon par excellence, and presents characteristics that are typical of the 
entire race. There is great uncertainty about the precise differences 
between the several species, as travelers too often use the term Baboon 
to designate not only this species, but also the Chacma and the Sphinx. 
All of them have very similar modes of action and habits. The baboon 
has smooth, even, short hair, of an olive-green, each hair tinged alter- 
nately with black and yellow, lighter in color on the belly, and a whitish- 
yellow on the cheeks. The face and ears are bluish-gray, the upper 
eyelids whitish, the hands gray, the eyes light-brown. They grow to the 
height of two feet, or two and a half measured from the shoulder to the 
ground, and a total length, including one-third tail, of nearly five feet. 

The baboon abounds in Africa, and annoys the natives, especially the 
women, who go to get water. In their rocky fastnesses their chief foe is 
the leopard, of whom they are in great dread. Yet this animal never 
attacks cither a band of baboons or even an adult, but confines its 
exertions to slyly stealing the young ones. 

Bold as are these monkeys, they will not dare to follow a leopard into 
its den ; so that, if their dreaded foe succeeds in once getting clear of 
their outposts, it may carry off its prey with impunity. The constant 
dread which the leopard seems to excite in a baboon's mind appears to 
be occasioned by the stealthy craft and the persevering aggression of 
the animal, rather than by its physical powers alone. He is easily tamed, 
and becomes accustomed to man and most devoted to his master, soon 
recognizing any name given to him. He readily drinks wine or brandy, 
but rejects spirituous liquors. 

A very quaint story is told of the same animal, which, if true, exhibits 
the strangest combination of cunning, simplicity, and ready wit, that 



ANECDOTE OF A BABOON. 57 

ever entered the brain of living creature. At all events, if it be not 
true, it deserves to be so. 

It appears that the baboon was so tame, and had proved so apt a 
pupil, that its master had taught it to watch the pot in which he pre- 
pared his dinner, and was accustomed to leave it in charge of the culi- 
'nary department while he was engaged in other business. One day, he 
had prepared a fowl for his dinner, and after putting it into the pot and 
the pot on the fire, went away for a time, leaving the baboon in charge, 
as usual. 

For a time all went well, and the animal kept a quiet watch over the 
fire. After a while, it was seized with a desire to see what might be in 
the pot, and so, taking off the lid, peeped in. The odor that issued from 
the boiled fowl was gratifying to the animal's nostrils, and induced it, 
after a brief mental struggle, to pick just a little bit from the fowl, and 
to put the bird back again. This was done accordingly, but the experi- 
ment was so very successful that it was speedily repeated. Again and 
again was a morsel pinched from the fowl, until the natural consumma- 
tion followed — the fowl was picked quite clean, and nothing left but the 
bones. 

Now came remorse and sudden fear, causing the wretched animal to 
chatter with terror at the thought of the scarifying which was sure to 
follow so grievous an offence. 

What was the poor thing to do? Time was passing, and the master 
must soon return for his dinner. At last a brilliant thought flashed 
through the animal's brain, and it immediately acted upon the idea. 

Now, in order to understand the depth of the craft which was em- 
ployed, it must be remembered that the baboons are furnished, in com- 
mon with very many monkeys, with two callosities on the hinder quar- 
ters, which serve them for seats, and which are, in these animals, of a 
bright red color. 

Rolling itself over and over in the dust, it covered its body with an 
uniformly sombre coating, and then, gathering itself well together, and 
putting its head and knees on the ground, it presented an appearance 
marvellously resembling a rough block of stone with two pieces of raw 
meat laid on its top. In those climates the birds of prey absolutely 
swarm, and, being encouraged by their well-earned impunity, crowd 
round every place where cooking is going on, and where they may have 
a chance of securing a portion, either by lawful gift, or lawless rapine. 
8 



58 QUADRUMANA. 

• 

Several of these birds, among which were some kites, being attracted by 
the scent of the boiling meat, came to the spot, and seeing, as they 
thought, some nice raw meat temptingly laid out for them, swept upon 
their fancied prize. 

In a moment the baboon had sprung to its feet, and, with a rapid 
jlutch, seized one of the kites. The cover was again taken off the pot, 
and the shrieking and struggling prisoner thrust into the boiling water 
in spite of its beak and claws. The lid was then replaced, and the 
baboon resumed its position of attention as if it had committed no 
offence. 

THE CHACMA. 

The Chacma, Cynoccphalus porcarius, sometimes called the Ursine 
Baboon, but more commonly the Chacma, is a native of South Africa. 
It is considerably bigger than the common baboon, and is more power- 
tully built, while its color is darker. It is most frequently met with on 
Table Mountain, in the neighborhood of Capetown, and on the Draaken- 
berg range. Troops of from twenty to thirty individuals frequent the 
ravines and often enter cultivated grounds, where they commit the 
greatest ravages. 

It is an accomplished robber, and baffles alike dogs and men. When 
young it is docile, and it can be taught to find roots or water, to blow 
the fire of a forge, or drive a pair of oxen. It possesses so acute a power 
of smell that it is almost impossible to destroy it by poison. 

When the water begins to run short, and the known fountains have 
failed, as is too often the sad hap of these desert wells, fortunate is the 
man who owns a tame Chacma, or " Bavian," as it is called. The animal 
is first deprived of water for a whole day, until it is furious with thirst, 
which is increased by giving it salt provisions, or putting salt into its 
mouth. This apparent cruelty is, however, an act of true mercy, as on 
the Chacma may depend the existence of itself and the whole party. 

A long rope is now tied to the baboon's collar, and it is suffered to 
run about wherever it chooses, the rope being merely used as a means to 
prevent the animal from getting out of sight. The baboon now assumes 
the leadership of the band, and becomes the most important personage 
of the party. 

First it runs forward a little, then stops ; get on its hind feet, and 



A FAMILY SCENE. 59 

• . ■ . 

. niffs up the air, especially taking notice of the wind and its direction. 
It will then, perhaps, change the direction of its course ; and after 
running for some distance take another observation. Presently it will 
spy out a blade of grass, or similar object, pluck it up, turn it on all 
sides, smell it, and then go forward again. And thus the animal proceeds 
until it leads the party to water ; guided by some mysterious instinct 
which appears to be totally independent of reasoning, and which loses its 
powers in proportion as reason gains dominion. 

Captain Drayson, an English artillery officer, gives some interesting 
accounts of the Chacma. 

" During the shooting trip with the Boers, I awoke before daybreak, 
and as I felt very cold and not inclined to sleep, I got up, and taking my 
gun, walked to a little ravine, out of which a clear, murmuring stream 
flashed in the moonlight, and ran close past our outspan. A little dis- 
tance up this kloof, the fog was dense and thick ; the blue and pink 
streaks of the morning light were beginning to illuminate the peaks of 
the Draakensberg, but all immediately around us still acknowledged the 
supremacy of the pale moonlight. I wanted to see the sun rise in this 
lonely region, and watch the changing effects which its arrival would 
produce on the mountains and plains around. 

" Suddenly I heard a hoarse cough, and on turning, saw indistinctly 
in the fog a queer little old man standing near, and looking at me. I 
instinctively cocked ni}' gun, as the idea of bushmen and poisoned arrows 
flashed across my mind. The old man instantly dropped on his hands ; 
giving another hoarse cough, that evidently told a tale of consumptive 
lungs ; he snatched up something beside him, which seemed to leap on 
his shoulders, and then he scampered off up the ravine on all-fours. 
Before half this performance was completed, I saw that the little old 
man was an Ursine baboon with an infant ditto. 

" A large party of the old gentleman's family were sitting up the 
ravine, and were evidently holding a debate as to the cause of my intru- 
sion. I watched them through my glass, and was much amused at their 
grotesque and almost human movements. Some of the old ladies had 
their olive branches in their laps, and appeared to be 'doing their hair,' 
while a patriarchal old fellow paced backwards and forwards with a 
fussy sort of look ; he was evidently on sentry, and seemed to think 
himself of no small importance. 

" This estimate of his dignity did not appear to be universally ac- 



6o QUADRUMANA. 

knowledged ; as two or three young baboons sat close behind him watch- 
ing his proceedings; sometimes with the most grotesque movements and 
expressions they would stand directly in his path, and hobble away only 
at the last moment. One daring youngster followed close on the heels 
of the patriarch during the whole length of his beat, and gave a sharp 
tue: at his tail as he was about to turn. The old fellow seemed to treat 
it with the greatest indifference, scarcely turning round at the insult. 
Master Impudence was about repeating the performance, when the pater, 
showing that he was not such a fool as he looked, suddenly sprang round, 
and catching the young one before he could escape, gave him two or 
three such cuffs that I could hear the screams that resulted therefrom. 
The venerable gentleman then chucked the delinquent o- „r his shoulder, 
and continued his promenade with the greatest coolness; this old baboon 
was evidently acquainted with the practical details of Solomon's proverb. 
" A crowd gathered round the naughty child, who child-like, seeing 
commiseration, shrieked all the louder. I even fancied I could see the 
angry glances of the mamma, as she took her dear little pet in her arms 
and removed it from a repetition of such brutal treatment." 

THE SPHINX. 

The species, Cynoccphalus sphinx, is less brutal-looking than the 
Chacma. It is smaller even than the baboon proper, but more power- 
fully built, its muzzle is shorter, and it is remarkable for a peculiar 
thickening on the cheek bones. Its hair is dark-gray and reddish-brown, 
or chestnut ; the paws are darker than the rest of the body. In the 
prime of existence its colors are the lightest, but as years begin to lay 
their burden on the animal, the hairs begin to be flecked with a slight 
grizzle, and, in process of time, the snows of age descend liberally, and 
whiten the whole fur with hoary hairs. 

THE HAMADRYAD. 

The Hamadryad, Cynoccphalus hamadryas. — This baboon is remark- 
able for its form, its intelligence and its unamiable qualities ; and from 
the peculiar length of its hair it has attained the name of Mantle Baboon. 
Like the common baboon it is frequently represented on the ancient 
monuments of Egypt, and was regarded as a symbol of the moon. Many 



ANECDOTES OF THE HAMADRYAD. 6l 

little images of the Hamadryad are to be seen in collections of Egyptian 
antiquities. The moon was supposed to have a powerful effect on this 
ape, which was said to hide itself and refuse all food during the dark 
phase of the moon. It is not now an inhabitant of Egypt, and perhaps 
even in the days of the Pharaohs was imported. 

The Hamadryad inhabits the mountain ranges of Abyssinia and South 
Nubia as far north as the rains extend ; water is a necessity for it. The 
troops at times descend into the foot-hills on the coast, but the bulk 
remains in the loftier mountains. Here each band occupies a territory 
of about two miles in diameter. Sometimes herds of fifteen to twenty 
are seen, but usually they reach the number of one hundred and fifty. 
Of these there will be ten to fifteen full grown males — monsters of great 
size with jaws that surpass in strength and length of teeth the jaws of 
the leopard — and about twice as many adult females. The face is a 
dull flesh-color, the gluteal callosities fiery red. The hair has the color 
of dry grass more than anything else. The old males have the mantle 
very long ; a specimen, shot by Brehm, had hair measuring ten inches in 
length. This long hair is parted in the middle of the head, rises in bold 
sweeps to each side and stands out at right angles to the face, an arrange- 
ment which seems to have been adopted by many negro tribes. The tail 
is long, and ends in a tuft. Their dwelling-place is some inaccessible 
rock where caverns or holes afford good shelter, but they make con- 
siderable excursions in search of food. When undisturbed they keep 
silence ; the approach of man provokes a cry of attention like the baying 
of a hound. If the approaching intruder seems dangerous, another cry 
is raised, more like the grunting of a herd of swine, through which the 
bellowing of a bull is heard. All the males fit for battle advance to the 
edge of the cliff and look to see what is coming. They have no fear of 
the natives, but are suspicious of white men. 

Brehm relates : " When the troop first caught sight of us, a repeated 
monotonous bellow was heard ; the old ones turned their heads toward 
us, but the young ones still played about. Our dogs, however, replied 
to the bellow by giving tongue, and the apes took flight. To our aston- 
ishment we discovered them again at the next turn of the valley, cling- 
ing in some inconceivable fashion to a wall of perpendicular rock. We 
fired at them ; a terrible uproar, bellowing, howling, roaring and scream- 
ing ensued, and the whole troop ascended the cliff as easily as if they 
had been on level ground. The dogs came upon them as they were 



62 QUADRUMANA. 

crossing the valley ; as they ran up, the old males came down to meet 
them with grinning jaws, threatening claws, and flashing eyes. The 
dogs, courageous animals, accustomed to chase the hyena and to fight 
the wolf, were too glad to fly back to their masters. One young ape, 
half a year old, was cut off from his family ; the dogs had cornered him 
we were flattering ourselves that he would be caught. But a tall, pow- 
erful male appeared ; he advanced without noticing us or betraying any 
haste, proudly and with dignity walked straight up to the dogs, gave 
them a look of which they understood the meaning, and slowly reached 
the little one, which he carried off right past the dogs, who were glad 
enough to let him and hi?, protege escape." On another occasion, the same 
traveler and the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and his party had a battle with 
these baboons. The aggressors had to change their position, as the apes 
hurled stones at them with dangerous accuracy. One old male was seen 
to climb a tree with a big stone in his hand, to get a better shot at the 
Germans. The valley was impassable during the fight, as the stones 
hurled down were larger than a man's head. The}' will attack without 
hesitation opponents not armed with muskets, as Ruppell affirms. 

THE MANDRILL AND DRILL. 

These animals are perhaps the most disgusting creatures of the whole 
animal world. They are distinguished physically from the other species 
of this genus by a very short tail, and both belong to Western Africa. 

The Mandrill, Cynoccp]ialus maimon, is remarkable for the deep 
anakles, brilliantly colored, on each side of the nose. The surfaces of 
two unprepossessing projections are deeply grooved, and are of a deep 
blue tint, through which lines of scarlet and deep purple run. The end 
of the nose is fiery red. The gluteal callosities are of a vivid scarlet and 
blue, and are displayed conspicuously by the exact manner in which the 
beast carries his apology for a tail. The chin is decorated with a smal' 
yellow beard ; the muzzle resembles a hog's snout. Only the male man- 
drill possesses these hideous additions to his face. What is more remark- 
able is that these diverse colorations are not permanent, but disappear 
after or even during disease. They seem to result from a particular 
vascular injection, which acquires its maximum of energy when the 
animal is under the influence of violent feelings. 

The Mandrill, when old, is vindictive and malicious. Even when 



DISGUSTING CHARACTER OF THE MANDRILL. 63 

taken young, and supposed to be tame, it should never be trusted, more 
especially in the vicinity of females. Captivity does not tone down in 
any way the violence of its character. 

In its native country the Mandrill is hated and feared, and, unless in 
large numbers and well armed, the negroes hesitate about attacking 
them. Like other baboons, they assault human females, and even in cap- 
tivity the male baboons always make a great distinction between their 
visitors of either sex. Sometimes they are so jealous in their disposition 
that they throw themselves into a transport of rage if any attentions be 
paid to a lady within their sight. 

This curious propensity was once made the means of recapturing a 
large baboon that had escaped from its cage in the Jardin des Plantes, in 
Paris. 

It had already baffled many attempts to entice it to its home, and 
when force was tried, repelled the assailants, severely wounding several 
of the keepers. At last a ready-witted keeper hit upon a plan which 
proved eminently successful. 

There was a little window at the back of the cage, and when the 
keeper saw the baboon in front of the open door, he brought a young 
lady to the window and pretended to kiss her. The sight of this pro- 
ceeding was too much for the jealous feeling of the baboon, which flew 
into the cage for the purpose of exterminating the offending keeper. 
Another keeper was stationed in ambush near the cage, and the moment 
the infuriated animal entered the den, he shut and fastened the door. 

Cuvier observes of a Mandrill that he studied : " It recognized cer- 
tain women in a crowd, and called them by voice and gesture, and there 
can be no doubt that, if it had been at liberty, it would have done them 
harm." 

Among these animals, there are some which preserve their docility 
for a long time. We have an instance of this in the one which was 
exhibited some time ago in London, and which in consequence of its 
intelligence acquired considerable reputation. This monkey, named 
Happy Jerry, seated himself with an air of hauteur in a carriage, drank 
porter out of a pewter-pot, and smoked a pipe with all becoming 
gravity. 

The Drill, Mormon lcucopJia;us, is smaller than the Mandrill, his 
hair olive-brown, the whiskers dirty-white, the face black, the hands and 
feet copper-colored, the callosities bright red. It was once thought to 



64 QUADRUMANA. 

be a young Mandrill, but its right to be a distinct species has been satis- 
factorily proved. 

Of both these species we may truly say with Wood : " So odiously 
disgusting are the habits in which these animals continually indulge, that, 
as a general rule, their presence is offensive in the extreme, and excepting 
or purposes of scientific investigation, it is better to shun the cage that 
holds any specimen of these creatures. 

" There are now and then exceptional cases, but they are few and far 
between ; and it is hardly possible to watch an adult baboon for many 
minutes without incurring a risk of some shock to the nerves. Even 
their exceeding cunning, and the crafty wiles which are hatched in their 
fertile brains, cannot atone for their habitual offences against decorum. 



CHAPTER VII. 

GENUS MACACUS — THE COMMON MACAQUE — THE BONNET Al'E — THE RHESUS OR BUNDER — THE 
LAPUNDER — THE WANDEROO — THE MAGOTS — THE GIBRALTAR MONKEYS — GENUS CYNOPITHE- 
CUS — THE BLACK BABOON-APE OF THE CELEBES. 

VI.- GENUS MACACUS. 

THE general characteristics of this genus may be briefly sum- 
marized. A square body, the limbs moderately long and very 
powerful. A muzzle as protruding as that of the Cercopitheci, a 
facial angle of forty to fifty degrees, the nose prominent, the thumb short, 
the fingers long ; the former on both the fore and hind limbs have flat 
nails ; the latter strongly curved nails. The gluteal callosities are con- 
spicuous. The tail is of considerable length and strength ; in some spe- 
cies it attains the length of the body, in others is very short. The hair 
of the head is in some species parted in the middle, in others falls down 
from the almost bald cranium like a peruke; in some the beard is want- 
ing, in others it is enormously developed. 

In ancient times the Macaques extended over a great part of Europe 
At present the short-tailed varieties inhabit the North of Africa, China, 
and Japan; the long-tailed ones, the continent and islands of Southern 
Asia. In habits they occupy a middle position between the Cercopitheci 
and the Cynoccphali ; like the former they are found in forests, like the 
latter in rocks ; they are as amiable as the former in youth, as morose as 
the latter in advanced age. They readily endure captivity, and have 
brought forth young in zoological gardens. 

THE MACAQUE. 

The Macaque or Javanese Ape, Macacus cynomolgus, (Plate II), is the 
best known representative of the genus. It has a body longer than the 
other species, a long thin tail, and hair parted or wig-like. It is most 
9 



66 QUADKUMANA. 

near to the Guenons. It attains a length of four feet, including nearly 
two feci of tail. The beard or wliiskcr is very short ; in the male the 
hair lies flat, in the female it forms a kind of comb. The hair on the back 
is of a brownish olive-green, mixed with black, on tlic belly of a whitish- 
j^ra}'. Hands, feet, and tail are black, the face a bluish-gray, white 
between the eyes, of which the iris is brown. The ears arc black. 

The common Macaque is found in all l-^astern Asia, and in very great 
numbers. These apes are very common in menageries, as nearly every 
ship from India brings some back with it. The Macaque in his native 
abode is social, living in bands of ten to fifteen members. They live 
chiefly on fruits, but have been often met on the sea-shore collecting 
crabs and muscles. A traveler in Java describes a scene he witnessed: 
"Chairs were placed for us in a grove which seemed to be the remnant 
of a forest. A hollow cane ol bamboo was struck ; this was the drum 
for the apes. The sound had scarcely ceased, when we heard a rustling 
in the trees, and more than a luindred gray apes sprang out. Great and 
small, old bearded patriarchs, lively young ones, mothers with their suck- 
lings at their breast, came out and played around us like old acquamt- 
ances. They were so free from all fear that they took from our hands 
ttic rice and |)rovisions we had brought. Two splendid males opened 
[hv baskets our attendants were carrying, and helped themselves as 
it pleased them. They stalked about among tiie crowd of apes like 
haughty cavaliers, and were regartlinl by their fellows witli great respect. 
Nor did they hesitate to enforce the respect due to them. If the crowd 
pressed on them, they laid about them lustily, and kept the rest at a 
distance till tliey had satislied their kingly a|)petites. To each otlier 
they were studiouslv courteous. When we departed, the apes again 
dispersed into the wood." The Macaque is not quite so agile as the 
Guenons, but in other respects resembles them. There is the same liveli- 
ness and cheerfulness, the same tenderness to the helpless, the same 
changeableness of temper. He is grateful for good treatment, and be- 
comes attached to his keeper or master. He is naturally very modest in 
his appetites— a piece of bread, a handful of corn, a branch with green 
leaves are devoured with satisfaction ; he soon learns to eat fish. But 
when accustomed to the luxui ics of tlie table he proves himself an epicure 
in Ids tastes, and soon learns to prefer spirituous liquors to any other 
beverage. Thev breed freely in captivity and are passionately fond of 
their young. On one occasion it was found necessary to clear a cage 



ANtCUOlE OK A BONNET APE. ()-J 

full of apes, among which was a young Macaque that had been separated 
from its mother lor several months. The mother was in a cage whence 
she could see the other. When the keepers began to drive the apes out, 
she exhibited great anxiety, and uttered dolelul cries when any one 
came near her little one. It was caught and returned to her ; she at 
once embraced it and tenderly caressed it. They evidently had not for- 
gotten each other. 

As a performing monkey the Macaque plays many roles, but is least 
often exhibited as a rider. He is easily taught ; not so easily as the 
Sphinx, but more easily than the Magot ; l)ut lie is of too volatile a dis- 
position to remember his lessons long witliout constant repetition. 

THE BONNET APES. 

The Bonnet Apes, Macacus sinkus, the Mungas of the Indians, are 
less frequently seen. They are considerably smaller than their kindred, 
the body is slender, the muzzle is prominent, tlic liair on the iiead stands 
out like rays from the centre of the head, the brow is bare, the coat 
pretty short, the color a greenish-gray, the green effect being produced 
by the black and yellow rings with which each of the hairs is marked. 
The hands and ears are black. 

The Munga has a Iiappy life in his native home in the woods of Mala- 
bar. The natives regard him as holy, and allow him the run of their 
fields and gardens ; nay, temples are built and orchards are planted to 
testify their respect. 

The peculiar arrangement of the hair on the head from which this 
species derives its name of Honnet Ape, gives it a very unique appear- 
ance, of which the animal is ([uitc aware, and which it seems to love to 
increase by the frequent grimaces in which it indulges. A variety found 
in the island of Ceylon {Macacus pilcatus) is a general favorite and jiet 
of both the natives and Euroi)eans. The serpent-charmers teach tliem 
to dance, and earn Ihcir livmg by exhibiting their tricks and antics, 
including in their attainments that of smoking tobacco. Most apes are 
passionately fond of inhaling this vapor. 

Sir Richard Schomburgk tells in connection uitli a Bonnet ape a 
curious anecdote illustrative of the reasoning powers of the Macaque. 
A Bonnet ape had hiUen his keeper, and was solemnly condemned' to 
death. Next morning tlie keeper proceeded to the monkey-house with 



68 QUADRUMANA. 

his gun. The animals were all quite familiar with the sight of the 
weapon, which had often been used to kill rats and vermin near their 
house, and no alarm was created by its appearance in the keeper's hands, 
except in the breast of the criminal. The other monkeys sat still, but he 
hid himself in his sleeping-box, from which he refused to stir. When he 
was, after tivo or three fruitless attempts, tempted out by the offer of 
food, and the door of the box shut behind, he fully realized his position. 
He rushed to and fro, examined every corner of the cage to find a loop- 
hole of escape, and then flung himself on the ground to await the fate 
which he saw coming. His comrades showed no emotion, and watched 
with astonishment the terrified behavior of the condemned prisoner. 

THE BUNDER. 

The Bunder, Macacus rhesus, is another sacred creature, exceedingly 
reverenced in India. It is of a powerful square figure, thickly haired on 
the back. His hide forms deep folds about his neck and breast ; its color 
is greenish with yellow or reddish flocks on the buttocks, white on the 
belly; the tail is greenish on the upper, gray on the lower surface. The 
face, hands, and ears are copper-colored, the gluteal callosities bright 
red. 

The natives of India pay the Bunder as much respect as is shown to 
the Hulman or Huneman already mentioned (p. 42). Captain Johnson 
gives an account of his own experience with them, which is here sub- 
joined : 

" At Bindrabun (which name, I imagine, was originally Baunder- 
bund, literally signifying a jungle of monkeys), a town only a few miles 
distant from the holy city of Muttra, more than a hundred gardens are 
well cultivated with all kinds of fruit, solely for the support of these 
animals, which are kept up and maintained by religious endowments 
from rich natives. 

" When I was passing through a street in Bindrabun, an old monkey 
came down to the lower branches of a tree w.e were going under, and 
pulled off" my Harcarrah's turban, as he was running in front of the 
palanquin, decamped with it over some houses where it was impossible 
to follow him, and was not again seen. 

" I once resided a month in that town, occupying a large house on 
the banks of the river, belonging to a rich native ; it had no doors, and 



RESPECT PAID TO THE SACRED APES. 69 

the monkeys frequently came into the room where we were sitting, 
carrying off bread and other things from the breakfast-table. If we were 
sleeping or sitting in a corner of the room, they would ransack every 
other part. 

" I often feigned sleep, to observe their manoeuvres, and the caution 
with which they proceeded to examine everything. 1 was much amused 
to see their sagacity and alertness. They would often spring twelve or 
fifteen feet from the house to another, with one, sometimes two young 
ones under their bellies, carrying with them also, a loaf of bread, some 
sugar, or other article ; and to have seen the care they always took of 
their young would have been a good lesson to many mothers. 

" I was one of a party at Teekarry, in the Bahar district ; our tents 
were pitched in a large mango garden, and our horses were picketed 
in the same garden at a little distance off. When we were at dinner, a 
Syce came to us, complaining that some of the horses had broken loose, 
in consequence of being frightened by monkeys on the trees ; that, with 
their chattering and breaking off the dry branches in leaping about, the 
rest would also get loose, if they were not driven away. 

" As soon as dinner was over, 1 went out with m)' gun io drive them 
off, and I fired with small shot at one of them, which instantly ran down 
to the lowest branch of the tree, as if he were going to fly at me, stopped 
suddenly, and coolly put its paw to the part wounded, covered with 
blood, and held it out for me to see : I was so much hurt at the time, 
that it has left an impression never to be effaced, and I have never since 
fired a gun at any of the tribe. 

" Almost immediately on my return to the party, before I had fully 
described what had passed, a Syce came to inform us that the monkey 
was dead ; we ordered the Syce to bring it to us, but by the time he 
returned, the other monkeys had carried the dead one off, and none of 
them could anywhere be seen. 

" I have been informed by a gentleman of great respectability, on 
whose veracity I can rely (as he is not the least given to relating wonder- 
ful stories), that in the district of Cooch-Bahar, a very large tract of land 
is actually considered by the inhabitants to belong to a tribe of monkeys 
inhabiting the hills near it; and when the natives cut their different kinds 
of grain, they always leave about a tenth part piled in heaps for the 
monkeys. And as soon as their portion is marked out, they come down 
from the hills in a large body, and carry all that is allotted for them to 



70 QUADRUMAXA. 

the hills, storing it under and between rocks, in such a manner as to 
prevent vermin from dcstroving it. 

" On this grain they chiefly live ; and the natives assert, that if they 
were not to have their due proportion, in another year they would not 
allow a single grain to become ripe, but would destroy it when green. 
Jn this account, perhaps superstition has its full influence." 

C)t course Europeans do not acquiesc • in tlie ravages of these apes 
with the equanimity or kindliness of the Hindoos. It is almost impossible 
to keep a garden when these divinities are about. To shoot them would 
provoke a riot and lead to murder as it often has done; to set a guard is 
useless, for the apes driven oft' on one side return on the other ; hres, 
scarecrows and the like do not in the least intimidate them. 

One Englishman succeeded in keeping the nioiikevs awav from his 
plantation lor more than two vears, without using anv violence, or 
oflending the prejudices of the natives. 

He had planted a patch of sugar-canes, and preserved his growing 
crops from elephants, swine, deer, and other animals bv means of a deep 
trench surrounding the cane-patch, and a strong palisading of bamboos 
just within the ditch. But the monkcvs cared nothing tor moat or 
wall, and carried otT wliole canes in their hands, eating them com- 
placently as they proceeded to the shelter of the trees. 

For a long time this state of things continued, and the planter was 
doomed to see the rijiening canes devoured in his ver)- presence, and 
the chewed fragments spit in his face bv the robbers. This last insult 
proved too great a strain for his patience to endure, and after some 
thought, he hit upon a stratagem which answered even beyond his 
expectation. 

He chased a flock of the monkevs into a tree, which he then felled ; 
and bv the help of his assistants, captured a number of the voung, which 
he conveyed home. He then mixed some treacle with as much tartar- 
emetic as could be spared from the store, and after painting all the )-oung 
monkevs with this treacherous mixture set them at liberty. The parents 
ran to embrace tlicir returned ofi'spring, and carried them oft" to a place 
of safetv. There the first care of the elders was to clean the soiled coats 
of the little ones, bv licking off the mixture with wiiich they were 
smeared. The treacle delighted them, and grunts of satisfaction testified 
to the pleasure thev felt. But onlv for a time : the tartar-emetic soon 
began to work, and reduced the apes to a piteous condition. After this 



THE WANDEROO. 71 

bitter experience they never came near the spot again, and left the Eng- 
lishman's garden henceforth untouched. 

The Bunder extends over a great part of the Indian continent, and 
is especially abundant in the valley of the Ganges. It is found too in 
the sheltered valleys of the Himalayas, and has been seen near Simla 
even in midwinter. But it prefers the thickets of bamboo which line the 
banks of streams. It swims well, and never hesitates, when pursued, 
about plunging into water and diving some distance. Its temper is 
irritable and furious, and grows worse with age; his courage, when 
roused, indomitable. Yet in spite of these bad qualities the Bunder is a 
favorite with tamers and jugglers ; he learns easily, while the shortness 
of his tail admits of his appearing in ordinary pantaloons. They breed 
in captivity. 

Many observers confuse with the Bunder a kindred species, Macacus 
erytliricus, which is more slender, but taller, with limbs nearly twice as 
long as the Bunder's. The two species are both Indian and resemble 
each other in color and habits. 

THE LAPUNDER AND NELBANDER OR WAN-DEROO. 

The Lapun'DER, Macacus nemestrinus, is commonly called the Swine- 
tailed ape from its short, thin tail. It is remarkable for the length of its 
hind legs. Its color is olive-brown; the face, ears, hands and callosities 
are of a dull flesh color. It is a native of Sumatra and the Malay Pen- 
insula, and it is said to be tamed by the natives, who train it to gather 
cocoanuts — a task it performs with great skill, selecting only those that 
are ripe. It breeds in captivity. The Zoological Gardens of Berlin 
possessed a young ape, the offspring of this species and the common 
Macaque. 

The Nelbandar, Macacus silenus, or Wanderoo of the Hindoos, is 
commonly known as the Bearded Ape. It is characterized by a rich full 
beard surrounding the whole face, and a moderate tail ending in a tuft. 
Its long hair is bright black, while the mane-like beard is white. It 
attains the length of three feet including ten inches of tail. It is a native 
of Malabar, not of Ceylon, and is very destructive to the gardens. The 
natives, however, value it highly, and train it to perform sundry tricks. 
It is good-tempered and possesses a good deal of sense. The Wanderoo, 
with his long white beard, is not unlike an old Hindoo. It is dignified, 



72 QUADRUMANA. 

thoughtful, and careful, knows when it has done wrong, and expresses 
its sorrow with tears. Other apes exhibit the greatest deference to the 
solemn Wanderoo, and always behave well when in his company. 

THE MAGOTS AND GIBRALTAR MONKEYS. 

Another species, Macacus inn us, is in some respects the most inter- 
esting of the Macaques. It is the only one found in Europe, and the 
absence of a tail has led some naturalists to form it into a genus by itself. 
The name usually given to it is the Magot or Barbary Ape. 

Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans under the name o{ Pit/irats, 
it seems to have been the first monkey brought into Europe ; Pliny 
speaks of one that could play draughts, and perform other human actions, 
and Galen is supposed to have based his anatomy on dissection of the 
Magot. 

As the name Barbary Ape implies, they are natives of Algeria and 
Morocco. They live in numerous bands on the wooded mountains which 
intersect these countries, and make frequent incursions into the gardens 
of the unfortunate natives, pillaging the orange trees and tlie fig trees, 
as well as the melon and tomato beds. These depredations are carried 
on with much intelligence and great precaution. They dispose tliem- 
selves in echelon from the wall of the inclosure to a certain part of the 
garden, passing the plunder from one to another, as soon as collected by 
the most \enturous. Two or three videttes, placed on an elevated spot, 
keep a lookout in the neighborhood. At the least sign of danger they 
give a cry of alarm, when the whole band quickly decamp. 

When at liberty in its native lands, the Magot has a great predilection 
for hunting scorpions, insects, and similar creatures, and devouring them 
on the spot. It displays peculiar aptitude for discovering and pouncing 
upon its prey. 

Scorpions and beetles are found in profusion under stones, logs, or in 
similar sheltering places, and arc there secure from any ordinary foe. 
But the quick senses of the Magot detect them in their concealment, and 
the ready hands sweep away the shelter and make the insect prisoner 
before it recovers the sudden surprise of its violated roof 

To any ordinary animal the scorpion would be rather a dangerous 
prey, and would probably avenge its death most fully by a stroke of 
its torture-giving and swiftly-lashing tail. The Magot, however, has 



THE GIBRALTAR MONKEYS. JT, 

hands which can overmatch even the scorpion's tail, and no sooner 
is one of these baneful creatures brought to light, than the monkey 
pounces upon it, twitches off the i)oison-joints of the tail, and then, 
grasping the disarmed scorpion, eats it as composedly as if it were 
a carrot. 

The enemies which these creatures hold in greatest dread are the 
climbing felidas; and on the approach of one of these animals, the colony 
is instantly in a turmoil. The leaders yell their cry of alarm and give 
the signal for retreat, the mothers snatch up their little ones, the power- 
ful males range themselves in battle array, and the whole body seeks a 
place of refuge. 

The color of the Magot is a clear gray. The head is strong and 
heavy, the eyes deeply set, the neck short and powerful, the teeth sharp, 
the nails strong; the face is always old-looking. It is not often seen in 
zoological gardens, but it displays in captivity a strong attachment to its 
master, and a fondness for nursing other animals, especially if they are 
young and helpless. It carries them in its arms, keeps their coats clean 
and free from vermin, and is ji;alous if interfered with. 

Gibraltar is the spot in Europe where the Magots have been since 
time immemorial. Some writers suppose that they have been on the 
rock since the time when the Straits did not exist ; the Moors assert that 
there is an underground passage between the Spanish and African shores 
which the Magots traverse. Most probably they were introduced by the 
Moorish invaders of the Peninsula. They live on the summit of the rock, 
and move about from place to place to escape the wind. Great care has 
been taken of them by the English authorities, and their numbers are 
reported to the Quartermaster of the garrison. In spite of all care, 
however, their numbers had dwindled down to ten in 1856, and in a kw 
years had fallen to four, all of the same sex, and finally to three. 
Alarmed by this report, Brehm wrote to the English governor of the 
fortress, and had his fears removed by the following answer: "The num- 
ber of apes which at present inhabit the Rock amounts to eleven. As it 
has been found that they can easily find sufficient food on the rock, they 
are not fed, but left to themselves. The signal-man looks after them, and 
prevents them from being chased or disturbed. lie keeps an account of 
them, and, as they are always together, is well informed concerning them 
and their movements. 

" When and how they came to the Rock nobody knows, but the most 
10 



74 QUADRUMANA. 

opposite views are held. Six or seven years ago they were reduced to 
three ; but Sir William Codrington, fearing that they would entirely 
perish, brought over three or four from Tangiers, and since then they 
have increased to the number above stated." 
Europe, therefore, has not yet lost her apes. 



VII.— GENUS CYNOPITHECUS. 

This genus has one species, Cynopithccus nigcr, which is assigned by 
many writers to the genus Macacus : it resembles the Macaques, and 
also has several characteristics of the Cynoccphali, and many naturalists 
follow Cuvier in classing it with the latter. Recent investigations, how- 
ever, have led most naturalists to make a separate genus of it as above. 

It differs from the Dog-heads proper by possessing a very rudimentary 
tail, and in its muzzle, which is broad, flat, and, unlike that of the species in 
the genus Cynoccphali, does not overhang the upper lip. The face and 
callosities are bare, the body covered with long woolly black hair, which 
on the head grows pretty long, and forms a kind of crest, which curves 
backward over the neck like the crest of a cockatoo. The Budeng 
(p. 44) also possesses a crest, but it curves forward. 

It attains the length of two feet, and is abundant in the Celebes, 
Philippine and Molucca Islands. Its habits in its native abodes are little 
known ; in captivity it shows itself domineering and tyrannical toward 
the Guenons, pretty kind toward the Macaques, and quite friendly to a 
young female baboon. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
THE NEW WORLD MONKEYS. 

THE AMERICAN MONKEYS OR CEBID.« — THE GENUS CEBUS OR SAPAJOU — THE GENUS LAGOTHRIX — 
THE SPIDER MONKEYS — THE GENERA ATELES AND ERIODES — THE HOWLING MONKEYS — THE 
SAKIS — THE NIGHT MONKEYS — THE TEE-TEES. 

THE difference between the animals of the Old and New Worlds 
is most strikingly seen in those of the torrid zone. In America 
the land between the tropics forms a world of its own. Soil and 
climate, light and air, plants and animals all bear a peculiar stamp, only 
here or there calling up reminiscences of the Eastern Hemisphere. And 
this is to a great extent the case with reference to the animals we are 
now about to describe. The Cebid.^ are Platyrrhini, or " flat-nosed " 
monkeys ; they are more inoffensive, good tempered and melanchol}' 
than the apes of the old world ; they are distinguished from their 
brethren in the Eastern Hemisphere by the conformation of their bodies 
and limbs, and by their teeth. The nostrils are very different from those 
of the monkeys which have already been described, as they open at the 
sides instead of underneath, and are separated from each other by a 
wide piece of cartilage. The body is slender, the limbs long, the tail is 
never absent, and in most genera is supplied ^v^^^ powerful muscles 
which enable the creature to seize anything by it. The thumb of the 
fore hands is not so truly "opposable" as in the feet. The nails are 
flat. The number of molars is increased by one on each side of each jaw ; 
that is, the " dental formula " becomes 

r2 — 2 I — I _-6 — 6 . 

1. , C. , M. ^ ^ = 36. 

2 — 2' I — i' 6 — 6 -^ 

They have no cheek pouches or callosities. One member of the family 
alone attains any considerable size. Their colors are not so varied as 
those of Asia and Africa. 



76 QUADRUMANA. 

The Cebid.'E are confined to South America. Their northern limit 
is the Caribbean Sea, but tlicy are not found in any of the Islands, nor do 
they pass the Isthmus of I'anama. To the West they are limited by the 
chain of the Andes, on the East by the Atlantic Ocean, and South by the 
twenty-fifth degree of latitude. 

The Apes of America are exclusivel\' arboreal, and the primeval 
forest is their natural home. They prefer well-watered regions. They 
never descend to the earth except in extreme need ; even when they drink 
they climb on some bending branch which droops into a stream. Some 
of those apes can traverse hundreds of miles and never set foot on 
ground. The forest gives them all they want, buds and fruits, insects 
and birds' eggs, young birds and honey. 

Most species are active by day, some are genuine night-animals. 
They all are timid and shy and cannot distinguish with the sagacity of 
Old World Apes between real and imaginary danger. Hence they 
flee from everything unusual. They are weak, and only able to defend 
themselves from small beasts of prey. 

In captivity they are docile and affectionate in youth, cunning and 
malicious in old age. Maternal affection is very strong in the females. 
They bear one or two young ones, and nurse, tend and guard them with 
that care and devotedness which always excite our admiration and 
esteem. 

They do little damage to mankind ; their home is usually remote from 
the operations of man, and those which do levy toll on the plantations are 
merciful in their exactions. Men himt them for the sake of their flesh 
ant! tlicir skin; the natives slay tliem by hundreds, using bows and 
arrows, or the blowpipe, by which they can project their poisoned darts 
that kill with a scratch, over a hundred feet. With the same weapon the 
Indians capture them. " If the Arecunas," writes Schomburgk, " wish to 
tame an old obstinate ape, they dip their dart in weakened Wurari 
poison. When the creature falls down, the wound is sucked, the animal 
buried in the earth up to the neck, and a strong solution of some salt- 
petre-bearing earth or of sugarcane-juice is poured over him. When the 
patient shows signs of revival he is taken out and wrapped like a child 
in swaddling-clothes. In this straight-jacket his drink for some days is 
cane-juice and his food is seasoned with Cayenne pepper, and boiled in 
saltpetre water. If this heroic treatment does not answer, he is hung up 
in the smoke. His temper then improves, his eyes become beseeching, 



THE SAPAJOUS. 77 

he asks for mercy. He is set free, and the most violent ape seems to 
forget that he has ever been a denizen of the forest." 

The Cebid.e are divided into four sub-families which bear the names 
of Cebin.1i, Mycetin.e, PnHECiN.ii, and Nyctapithecin.k, and contain 
ten genera in all. 

The sub-family of Cebin.e contains four genera, the first being the 
richest in species of all the American monkeys, and ranges from Costa 
Rica to Paraguay. 

I.— GENUS CEBUS. 

The Sapajous are small, rather slim creatures. They liv'e in bands in 
the forests of Colombia, Peru, Guiana, Brazil, and Paraguay, usually 
keeping to the highest branches of the trees. They feed on fruits, insects, 
worms, molluscs, eggs, and even small birds. Several species of Car- 
nivora and serpents persecute them incessantly ; the latter more par- 
ticularly inspire them with terrible fear. 

The Sapajous possess an unequalled amount of agility and petulance, 
and are capricious to e.xcess. At the same time they are very intelligent, 
very gentle, and very familiar, and disposed to be affectionate towards 
those who take an interest in them. Thus it is that they are in demand 
in all civilized countries ; in the hands of mountebanks and wandering 
musicians they become objects of amusement to the multitude. They are 
trained to a great number of tricks, which they execute with great cool- 
ness and imperturbable gravity. They may be called the Green Mon- 
keys of the New World. They are sometimes styled the Weeper 
Monkeys, from the low whining sounds they often utter. Plaintive and 
mournful as are these cries, they are expressions of satisfaction and good 
temper. The slightest emotion produces a screaming and screeching 
painful to listen to. They are also called Musk Apes from a musky odor 
which some of them exhale. 

It is very difficult to ascertain the number of species in this family. 
Schomburgk writes: " No genus of apes shows in size, color and growth 
of hair more differences than these do, and hence a crowd of species is 
created which are mere varieties arising from a cross between the Capu- 
cin and the Apella." But the number of observations that have been 
made of these creatures in captivity lead us to prefer more numerous 
divisions than the two to which apparently the intrepid traveler would 
restrict us. We follow Wallace in regarding the genus as divided into 
eighteen species. 



78 QUADRUMANA. 



THE CAPUCIN MONKEY. 

The Capucin monkey, Ccbiis tirpininiis (Plate II., Sapajou), bears in its 
own home — the southern portion of Brazil — the name oi C\i or Sai, a 
word which is said to mean in the lanijuaf^e ot the Guarani Indians, "a 
dweller in the forest." It is one of the larger varieties of the group, and 
has attained in some instances a length of eighteen inches in the body and 
fourteen inches in the tail. It is distinguished by its bare, wrinkled, flesh- 
colored forehead. A brown, more or less deep, is the predominant color, 
the thinly covered temples, side-whiskers, throat and chest are somewhat 
lighter. 

The Ccl'us Itypohiicns resembles the Capucin in size, and difl'ers only 
slightlv in color. Hut the brow is hairy, and the color on the cheeks, 
throat and other parts are of a bright yellow color, contrasting strongly 
with the dark-brown hide. 

A variety, Ccbus olivaccus, is somewhat larger than those just men- 
tioned ; the body measures two feet in length, the tail twcnt}- inches. 
The face and forehead are thickly covered with hair, a broad dark-brown 
stripe crosses tin' brow, and honi it a gradually widciiiiig triangular 
patch of like color extends to the back of the head. The back is brown 
in color ; the cheeks, shoulders and fore-limbs a pale olive-brown. 

.\ thick growth of hair above the eyebrows covers as with a wig the 
head of Ccbus Icitcogcnys, a Brazilian species. Its long silky hair is of a 
grayish-black hue; the hair on the cheeks changes from bright yellow to 
yellowish-white. 

These species dificr little from each other. The)' are found every- 
where in the torrid zone, from iJahia to Colombia and across the Andes. 
They pass their life in trees and are careful to avoid the observation of 
travelers. Usually the}' occur in bands of five to ten, most of which are 
females. 

In tlu'ir habits, too, all the species are very similar, so that the descrip- 
tion of one will serve equallv for anv other. In consequence of their 
sportive manners they are frequentlv kept in a domesticated state, both 
bv the native Indians and bv luiropean settlers. Like several other small 
monkeys, the Capucin often .strikes up a friendship tor tame animals that 
mav happen to live in or near its home, the cat being one of the most 
favored of their allies. Sometimes it carries its familiarity so far as to 



THE CAPUCINS. 79 

turn the cat into a steed for tlic nonce, and, seated upon her back, to 
perambulate the premises. More unpromising subjects for equestrian 
exercise have been pressed into the service by the Capucin. Iliimljoldt 
mentions one ot these creatures wliich was accustomed to catch a pig 
every morning, and mounting upon its baci<, to retain its seat during the 
day. Even while the pig was feeding in the savannahs its rider remained 
firm, and bestrode its victim with as much pertinacity as Sinbad's old 
man of the sea. 

Their food is chiefly of a vegetable nature, but they are fond of 
various insects, sometimes rising to higher prey, as was once rather 
unexpectedly proved. A linnet was placed, by way of experiment, in a 
cage containing two Capucin monkeys, who pounced upon their winged 
visitor, caught it, and the stronger of the two devoured it with such 
avidity that it would not even wait to pluck off the feathers. Eggs are 
also thoughtto form part of the Capucin's food. 

The Ccbiis apclla. This species is the representative of the Capucin 
monkey in Guiana. It varies much in color ; the hair over the brow and 
on each side of the head swells up into a tuft, and on the face is pro- 
longed to form a beard. It is found in large troops of several hundix-ds ; 
Schomburgk saw one consisting of four or five hundred members. The 
Indians shoot them with their blowpipes as articles of food, and keep 
numbers of tame ones about their biits. 

It is this ape which wc usually see accompanying the barrel-organ 
of our peripatetic musicians, and wliich climbs up our piazzas and spouts 
to reach the nursery windows, and collect the children's cents. Its 
health does not seem to suffer much in captivity, but it is dirty and 
melancholy and continually pulling frightful faces. 

The species commonly called the Horned Sapajou or MiKO, Ccbus 
fatiicllus, is found on the East Coast of Brazil, and is remarkable for the 
peculiar growth of the hair on its head. It attains the size of a large 
cat, has strong muscular limbs, a round head and face, a tail longer than 
its body and thickly covered with hair. The cheeks and sides of tlie 
temples are decked with fine whitish-yellow hair, while the face is sur- 
rounded with a ring of bright black hair; on the head there grows a thick 
tuft divided into two bunches. Between the bunches the hair is short 
and black, on the neck it is l)rown, beneath the chin dark-brown, on the 
throat, breast, neck, and sides yellowish-brown, on the rest of the body 
black-brown, almost black. The hairless face has a dirty flesh-colored 



80 QUAURUMANA. 

hue, the hands and feet are brown, and the fingers are clothed with light- 
brown hairs. The peculiar growth of hair on the head does not appear 
till middle age, when it is found in both sexes, but more developed in the 
males. It is exceedingly active and sagacious, travels in bands of thirty or 
lorty, and plunders remorselessly the plantations of settlers near the forest. 
The other species require no mention in a work of a popular char- 
acter. 

II.— GENUS LAGOTHRIX. 

This genus is distinguished from the preceding one by its squarer 
figure, some peculiarities in the skeleton and teeth, and the woolly hair, 
from which latter characteristic it derives its name Lagotlirix. It is found 
in the districts on the headwaters of the Amazon and Orinoco, and lives 
in groups in trees. All the kinds described by travelers are regarded by 
naturalists as capable of being embraced in five species. We give the 
best known and attested species. 

The Barrigudo, Lagotlirix HuinboUitii, is when fully grown little less 
than the Howling Monkeys. Its soft woolly hair grows long on the tail, 
the thighs, and tlie upper arm, and becomes a regular mane on the breast; 
the head looks as if cropped. The face, and the hands, both palm and 
back, the bare spot on the tail, and the tongue are negro-black; the eyes 
dark-brown, the coat dull-black on the head, somewhat lighter on the 
back ; on the further end of the tail a dark brownish-yellow. 

Tschudi describes the Barrigudo — as the natives name them — as 
malicious and daring, often following for a long distance the Indians who 
carrv the productions of remote plantations to market in the upper 
valleys. The apes pelt them with twigs and branches. They are bad 
climbers, and all their movements are slow and deliberate. When 
brought to bay, they put their backs against a tree and fight till death. 
The Indians hunt it for its flesh. In captivity it is a gentle creature, but 
seldom survives removal from its home ; even the change to Para is 
usuallv fatal. One in the Zoological Gardens of London is described as 
amiable and attractive ; in all its actions it equally avoided haste and 
sluggishness, and displayed grace and precision ; a solemn attitude seems 
natural to it, and suits well. In distinction from the Spider apes and 
Cebida;, which are always whimpering or whining, the Barragudo utters 
onl)^ one cry like a sharp " Tsha " not repeated. 



THE COAITA AND MARIMONDA. 8r 

We now proceed to a genus the members of which may be described 
as the Gibbons of the New World. They have not, however, the light- 
ning-like spring and activity of those acrobats of the Eastern Hemisphere. 



THE SPIDER-MONKEYS. 



This appellation, bestowed by early naturalists on the following 
lera, well expresses their leading features, which suggest the com- 
■ison to everv observer. 



genera, 

parison to every observer, 



III.— GENUS ATELES. 

The various species of this genus inhabit South America as far as 
twenty degrees of South latitude. Their name Aides is a Greek word 
signifying "imperfect," and is bestowed on them because the thumbs on 
their fore-limbs are useless. They are usually found in small bodies of 
ten or twelve. The fourteen species do not present much difference to 
each other. 

THE COAITA. AND THE MARIMONDA. 

The COAlT.\, Atclcs paniscus, is one of the larger apes of the genus; it 
attains the length of four feet, more than one half being tail. The hair 
is long on the shoulders, and forms a crest on the head ; it is deep black, 
except on the face, where it is red. A pair of lively brown eyes give 
a pleasing expression to its visage. It is averse to the intrusion of 
strangers, and large bands assault the stranger by pelting him with 
sticks. It is a native of Guiana. 

The Marimonda, A teles Beelzebub, is a species which has been found 
in Guiana, and, according to Humboldt, chiefly in the Spanish prov- 
ince. 

In captivity, the Marimonda is a gentle and affectionate animal, 
attaching itself strongly to those persons to whom it takes a fancy, and 
playing many fantastic gambols to attract their attention. Its angry 
feelings, although perhaps easily roused, do not partake of the petulant 
malignity which is found in the baboons. Very seldom does it attempt 
to bite, and even when such an event does take place, it is rather the 
f^ect of sudden terror than of deliberate malice. 
II 



8-? QUADRUMANA. 

On account of its amiable nature it is often brought into a do- 
mesticated state, and, if we may give credence to many a traveler, 
is trained to become not only an amusing companion, but a useful ser- 
vant. 

The color of this animal varies much according to the age of the 
individual. 

When adult, the leading color is of a uniform dull black, devoid of 
the glossy lustre w^hich throws back the sunbeams from the Coaita's furry 
mantle. On the back, the top of the head, and along the spine, the hair 
is of a dense, dead black, which seems to have earned for the animal the 
very inapposite name with which its nomenclators have thought fit to 
decorate the mild and amiable Marimonda. 

The throat, breast, inside of the limbs, and the under side of the tail 
are much lighter in tint, while in some individuals a large, bright chest- 
nut patch appears on each side. 

It seems to be of rather a listless character, delighting to bask in the 
sun's rays, and lying in the strangest attitudes for hours without moving. 
One of the postures it best loves is achieved by throwing the head back 
with the eyes turned up, and its hands behind its head. 

THE CHAMECK. 

The Chameck, Atclcs pcntadactylos, is the representative of the genus 
In Peru and parts of Brazil. It bears the epithet of Petitadactylos or five- 
fingered (Greek, pcntc five, daktylos finger), because the thumb is slightlv 
projecting; it has, however, only a single joint, and is not furnished with 
a nail, justifying its other designation of atdcs. The body measures 
about twenty inches ; its tail is over two feet in length, and is the most 
conspicuous member of the animal. For the greater part of its length it 
is thickly covered with long drooping fur, but the last seven or eight 
inches are nearly denuded of hair on the upper surface, and entirely so 
on the lower. 

The color of the Chameck is nearl)- black, and of a uniform tint over 
the head, body, and hmbs. Its hair is rather long and thick, in some 
parts taking a slight curl. The head is very small in proportion to the 
rest of the body. The face is of a deep brown color, as are the ears, 
cheeks, and chin, on which some long black hairs are scattered at dis- 
tant intervals. 



ANECDOTES OF SPIDER-MONKEYS. 83 



THE GOLD-BROWED APE. 

Bartlett's Monkey, Ateks bartlcttU, is the prettiest of all the spider- 
monkeys. Its hair is long, of a deep black color on the back, and 
brownish-yellow on the belly ; its whiskers are white, and across the 
brow runs a golden-yellow band. From this remarkable feature it de- 
rives an additional name to that given it in honor of its discoverer, and 
is styled the Gold-browed Ape. 



IV.— GENUS ERIODES. 

This genus, containing only three species, is intermediate between the 
two previous genera, and is confined to the Eastern parts of Brazil, South 
of the Equator. 

THE MIRIKI. 

The MiRlKI, Eriodes liypoxantlius (Plate II, Spider Monkey), inhabits 
vtie interior of Brazil, and is the largest of the Brazilian monkeys. It is 
strongly built, small-headed, short-necked, long-limbed, and thickly-haired. 
Its hair yellowish ; the face in middle age flesh-colored, in old age gray. 
The hair of this species is very thick, short, and furry, of a tolerably uni- 
form brown tint over the head, body, and limbs, the paws being much 
darker than the rest of the animal. There is a slight moustache formed 
by a continuation of the long black hairs which are scantil}' planted on 
the chin and face. On account of the thick coating of fur with which 
the skin of this animal is covered, water has but little effect upon it. 
Knowing this wet-repellent property, the hunters of Brazil are accus- 
tomed to make the skin of the Miriki into cases wherewith to cover the 
locks of their guns on rainy days. 

This species is easily distinguishable from its companions by the 
presence of a better developed thumb on the fore-paws than falls to the 
lot of spider-monkeys generally. 

The characteristics of these species are in the main the same. They 
are all climbers, and endowed with the same faculty of using the tail as a 
fifth hand. The stor}' told b}' the old travelers, Dacosta and Dampierre, 
of their forming a bridge across rivers, has been doubted by later ob- 



84 QUADRUMANA. 

servers. In captivity they are gentle, but the following story of a Spi- 
der Monkey possessed by a British officer, shows that they are some- 
times prone to human frailties : 

At Belize, Sally was permitted to range the town at large for some 
days. One morning, as her master was passing along the streets, he 
heard high above his head a little croaking sound, which struck him as 
being very like the voice of his monkey ; and on looking up, there was 
Sally herself, perched on a balcony, croaking in pleased recognition of 
her friend below. 

Once, and once only, poor Sally got into a sad scrape. Her master 
was going into his cabin, and found Sally sitting all bundled together on 
the door-mat. He spoke to her, and the creature just lifted up her head, 
looked him in the face, and sank down again in her former listless 
posture. 

" Come here, Sally," said the captain. 

But Sally would not move. 

The order was repeated once or twice, and without the accustomed 
obedience. 

Surprised at so unusual a circumstance, her master lifted her by the 
arms, and then made the shocking discovery that poor Sail}' was quite 
ti}jsy. She was long past the jovial stage of intoxication, and had only 
just sense enough left to recognize her master. Very ill was Sally that 
night, and verj^ penitent next day. 

The reason for such a catastrophe was as follows : 

The officers of the ship had got together a little dinner-party, and 
being very fond of the monkey, had given her such a feed of almonds 
and raisins, fruits of various kinds, biscuits and olives, as she had not 
enjoyed for many a day. Now of olives in particular, Sally is very fond, 
and having eaten largely of these dainties, the salt juice naturally pro- 
duced an intense thirst. So, when the brandy and water began to make 
its appearance, Sail}' pushed her lips into a tumbler, and to the amuse- 
ment of the officers, drank nearly the whole of its cool but potent con- 
tents. 

Her master remonstrated with the officers for permitting the animal 
to drink this Strong liquid ; but there was no necessity for expostulating 
with the victim. So entirely disgusted was the poor monkey, that she 
never afterward could endure the taste or even the smell of brandy. 
She was so thoroughly- out of conceit with the liquid that had wrought 



THE HUWLING MONKEYS. 8S 

her such woe, that even when cherry-brandy was offered to her, the 
cherries thereof being her special luxury, she would shoot out her 
tongue, and with just its tip taste the liquid that covered the dainty 
fruits beneath, but would not venture further. 

She seemed to bear the cold weather tolerably well, and was supplied 
with plenty of warm clothing, which stood her in good stead even off the 
icy coasts of Newfoundland, where, however, she expressed her dislike 
of the temperature by constant shivering. In order to guard herself 
against the excessive cold, she hit upon an ingenious device. There 
were on board two Newfoundland dogs. They were quite young, and 
the two used to occupy a domicile which was furnished with plenty of 
straw. Into this refuge Sally would creep, and putting an arm round each 
of the puppies and wrapping her tail about them, was happy and warm. 

She was fond of almost all kinds of animals, especially if they were 
small ; but these two puppies were her particular pets. Her affection for 
them was so great that she was quite jealous of them ; and if any of the 
men or boys passed nearer the spot than she considered j)roper, she 
would come flying out of the little house, and shake her arms at the 
intruders with a menacing gesture as if she meant to annihilate them. 

THE HO\A/LING MONKEYS. 

The next sub-family, the MvcETiN.E, contains only one genus, Mv- 
CETES, which, however, is subdivided into ten species. They range from 
Guatemala to Paraguay. 

v.— GENUS MYCETES. 

Oken's dictum that the largest animals of each family is also the 
most perfect, is true in the case of these monkeys, which are better 
known by their English name of the HOWLING MONKEYS. They attain 
a length of three feet in the body, with a tail still longer. Their form is 
slender but compact, the limbs well proportioned, the hands five-fingered, 
the head large, the chin provided with a beard. They derive their com- 
mon name from the howling with which they fill the forest, and which 
can be heard for miles. 

The instrument by means of which the Howlers make night dismal 
with their wailings, is the " hyoid bone," a portion of the frame which is 



86 QUADRUMANA. 

developed largely in these monkeys. In man, the bone in question gives 
support to the tongue and is attached to numerous muscles of the neck. 
In the Howling Monkeys it takes a wider range of duty, and, by a 
curious modification of structure, forms a bony drum which communi- 
cates with the windpipe and gives to the voice its powerful resonance. 

The larynx has six sacks connected with it, in which the voice is 
received ; two of these are of considerable size, and resemble the crop 
of birds. The tail is long, bare at the extremity, nervous and muscular. 

The Howlers inhabit almost all the countries of South America; 
even those elevated regions where heavy frosts occur in winter, and do 
not suffer from the cold rains. Cattle perish, but the first bright day 
brings out the voice of the HowLERS, and they may be seen climbing to 
the tops of the trees to dry themselves in the warm sunbeams. 

THE RED AND BLACK HOWLERS. 

The Aluate, or Red Howler, Mycctcs scniculus, has a reddish-brown 
fur, inclining to yellow on the back; the hair is short, stiff, and uniform. 
The female is smaller and darker. It inhabits the whole East of South 
America. 

The Black Howler, Mycctcs Caraya (Plate III), is a native of Para- 
guay. The hair is long and black, inclining to red at the sides ; in the 
female, yellowish on the belly. It is rather less than the Red Howler. 

HABITS OF THE HOWLING MONKEYS. 

The habits of the two species are so much alike that the descriptions 
of travelers appl}- equally to both. Schomburgk gives a lively account 
of his observations of a herd of Howlers. " I followed the sound, and 
after great exertions got within view of the troop without being per- 
ceived. They sat before me on a high tree and performed the most 
frightful concert that can be imagined, ever}^ beast of the forest seemed 
engaged in deadly strife ; at times the tones were Hke the grunting of a 
pig, the next moment the roar of the jaguar as he springs on his prey, 
then the low, awful growling of that beast of prey when, surrounded on 
all sides, he recognizes the presence of danger. The performers would 
stop suddenly, as if a signal had been given, and then quite unexpectedly 
a singer would raise up his inharmonious voice, and the howling recom- 



HABITS OF THE HOWLERS. 8/ 

menced. The throat-drum which gives the voice its strength could be 
seen moving up and down during their yells. Yet this concert had its 
laughable aspect ; the most misanthropic of mankind must have smiled 
had he seen the solemn gravity and earnestness with which the bearded 
performers looked at each other. The natives say that each band has a 
leader, distinguished by the shrillness of his voice and the gracefulness 
of his figure. The shrillness was evident; the gracefulness I looked for 
in vain. I saw, however, two apes that were silent, and whom I sup- 
posed to be sentinels." 

Hensel writes: " The Howling monkeys live in little troops of five to 
ten members, and seldom quit the same spot. An old male appears to 
lead them." Humboldt, however, has seen as many as forty together, 
and reckoned that there might be as many as two thousand in a quarter 
of a mile square. He remarks the strange uniformity of the actions of 
all the members of a band. What one does, all do. When the leader 
quits a branch, all the family quit it. If the leader suspends himself by 
the tail and swings himself to and fro to reach a neighboring bough, the 
whole band assume the same attitude and perform the same motions. 
They do not, like the old world monkeys, spring from tree to tree ; they 
never quit one branch with their tail till they have got good hold with 
their hands, and never let go their hands till their tails have a firm grasp. 
The muscles of the tail are like a watch-spring and coil up the end of 
that appendage when at liberty ; the creature can hang by its tail till it 
is quite dead, and it possesses a tenacity of life unexampled except in 
some of the Carnivora. 

The same writer, Hensel, describes the difficulty of dispatching one. 
The first shot broke a hind leg and injured the tail ; a second, went 
through the belly, causing such a gaping wound that the entrails pro- 
truded ; a third, through the chest; a fourth, through the throat, carry- 
ing away part of the underjaw and destro3'ing the howling apparatus, 
and a fifth was necessary to put the miserable creature out of its anguish. 
To the last it hung by its wounded tail. As we have said, the under 
surface of the tail is devoid of hair and has a velvety surface, and when 
two turns of the tail are cast about a branch the animal remains suspended 
even in death. Hence Europeans are not very successful in procuring 
specimens of these apes. A musket-ball seldom hits a part so vital that 
consciousness is immediately destroyed, and as long as consciousness 
remains the ape instinctively grasps some limb with his tail ; the poisoned 



88 QUADRUMANA. 

arrows of the Indians, on the other hand, produce an instantaneous loss 
of consciousness, and the insensible victim falls helpless to the ground. 

They are sometimes caught by an ingenious stratagem. A certain 
plant, the ■' Lecythis," produces a kind of nut, which, when emptied of 
its contents, becomes a hollow vessel with a small mouth. Into one of 
these hollowed nuts a quantity of sugar is placed, the nut left in some 
locality where the monkey is likely to find it, and the monkey-catchers 
retreat to some spot whence they can watch unseen the effect of their trap. 

So tempting an object cannot lie on the ground for any length of time 
without being investigated by the inquisitive monkeys. One of them 
soon finds out the sweet treasure of the nut, and squeezes his hand 
through the narrow opening for the purpose of emptying the contents. 
Grasping a handful of sugar, he tries to pull it out, but cannot do so 
because the orifice is not large enough to permit the passage of the 
closed hand with its prize. Certainly, he could extricate his hand by 
leaving the sugar and drawing out his hand empty, but his acquisitive 
nature will not suffer him to do so. At this juncture, the ambushed 
hunters issue forth and give chase to the monkey. At all times, these 
monkeys arc clumsy enough on a level surface, but when encumbered 
with the heavy burden, which is often as big as the monkey's own head, 
and deprived of one of its hands, it falls an easy victim to the pursuers. 

Young ones are often captured by the cruel device of shooting a 
nursing mother, who even when dying clasps her loved little one to her 
bleeding breast. At times, indeed, she rises to the tragic grandeur of 
sacrificing her maternal instincts, and dying without the consolations ol 
her offspring's embraces in order that it ma)' have a chance of liberty. 
Spix relates that he had mortally wounded a female, who carried her 
progeny on her back. The poor parent fell from branch to branch, and 
the young one would undoubtedly have perished with her, had not she, 
collecting all her strength, and desperate in her anxiety and tenderness, 
thrown it with a fast-failing arm, on to a high branch, and in this way 
succeeded in preserving it from the unhappy fate which befell herself. 

By a strange, or rather by the natural injustice of human judgment, 
this action is often alleged as a proof that the female of the Mycetes is 
devoid of maternal aifection. 

In Paraguay these monkeys are regularly hunted for their skins and 
flesh. Francia, the dictator, had his grenadiers' caps made of skins from 
the Black Howler, and the natives use them for shabracques, saddle-bags 



THE SAKIS. 89 

and the like. Travelers are sometimes compelled to eat the flesh, to 
their disgust at first. " Nothing can be more repugnant than the sight 
of such a repast," writes Schomburgk; "it looks as it one was a guest at 
a cannibal banquet where a child was the chief dish." They are spitted 
and roasted whole. 

THE SAKIS. 

The sub-family Pithecinae is the next division of the American Apes, 
and embraces those genera in which the tail is covered with hair and 
is incapable of grasping anything, or coiling round a branch. 

The apes of this sub-family, or Sakis, have a compact figure which 
appears thicker than it really is, owing to the long and dense covering 
of hair ; the limbs are strong, the tail bushy and usually with very long 
hair down to the end. The hair on the top of the head is thick and parted 
in the middle ; that on the cheeks and chin grows into a strong beard of 
less or greater length. They are distinguished by the dental structure: 
the three-cornered canine teeth are separated from the incisors, which 
are pressed closely together, fine at the points, and inclined towards 
each other. 

The habitat of the few members of this group is confined to the 
northern part of South America. They dwell in high, dry woods free 
from brush, and avoid other species of apes. They are called by Tschudi 
twilight animals, whose active life begins at sundown and continues to 
sunrise. Schomburgk, however, states that his personal observations con- 
tradict this account of their nocturnal habits. " Wherever the foliage 
was thick I found herds of apes, in which the Pitliccia formed the greatest 
number ; their long, graceful hair, the dignified beard, and the bushy 
fox-tail give these creatures a pleasant, but laughable appearance." 



VI.— GENUS PITHECIA. 

The name Saki, often applied to all the apes of the sub-family, be- 
longs more properly to the second species described below. 

The animals of the genus Pithccia bear much resemblance to the 
CcbincB ; they live on fruits and insects, and are very partial to honey, 
being always on the lookout for the hives of wild bees. The Sapajous, 
12 



90 QUADRUMANA. 

who arc aware of this weakness, follow them at a distance, watching 
for an opportunity to rob them of their booty. As soon as the Sakis sit 
down to cat the honey they have discovered, the Sapajous, profiting by 
their physical superiority, spring upon them, and put them to flight : 
after which they enjoy the booty they have obtained so easily. 

The Sakis are generally gentle, but excessively timid, and for this 
reason are difficult to tame, though they are not destitute of intelligence. 
They manifest great solicitude for their young, and both male and female 
carefully occupy themselves in rearing them. But after a certain time 
they chase them awav, and compel them to provide for themselves. 
The whole genus is often named, from their bushy tails," The Fox-tailed 
Monkeys." The number of species is seven. 

The Satan Ape or Cuxio, Pithccia satanas, the most common repre- 
sentative of the genus, is found on the upper Amazon and Orinoco 
rivers. It measures sixteen inches in length, and its tail is nearly as 
long. The quite round head is covered with a kind of cap of long, thick 
hair, which seems to radiate from a central pivot on the occiput, parting 
in front. The cheeks and chin are covered with a long black beard. 
The back is thickly haired, the tail very bushy. The adults are of a 
black color, inclining on the back to brown ; the young are of a grayish- 
brown tint. Varieties are numerous. 

This species has been named by the Europeans the Satan Ape ; the 
Indians call it the Cuxio. It is said to be very careful of its beard, and 
will not put its face down to drink for fear of wetting it. It scoops 
up the fluid in the palm of its hand when it is living in freedom, 
but in captivity it drinks like other apes. It is fierce in temper, and 
easily provoked ; when angry, it rubs the end of its beard and dashes on 
its foe. Its teeth arc so strong that it can drive them into a stout 
plank. 

The White-headed Saki or Black Yarke, Pithccia leucoccphala, 
(Plate III), presents very different appearances at different ages, and 
hence has obtained many different names. It is elegant in form, and 
more varied in color than the Cuxio. The head is surrounded with a 
thick fringe of white hair; the top of the head is deep black. It is a 
remarkable fact that the white hair round the face is short in the male, 
but long and drooping in the female. 

The so-called Sh.\GGY Ape, Pitliccia hirsuta, or Paranam, attains the 
length of forty inches, of which half consists of the tail ; the body is cov- 



THE BLACK-HEADED SAKI. 9I 

ered with hair nearly four inciies long, the points of which turn for- 
ward ; the hair hangs over the brow, partly hiding the face. Spix dis- 
covered this species near the Rio Negro, and describes it as nocturnal 
in its habits. 

VII.— GENUS BRACHYURUS. 

This genus is characterized by the short rudimentary tail (hence its 
name from the Greek, brachys short, and otira tail) and the slight beard, 
the egg-shaped head and the flat face. The teeth are peculiar. In the 
upper jaw the central incisors are twice as long and broad as the exterior 
ones ; in the lower jaw they are shorter. The canine teeth are short and 
strong. Its short tail contains fourteen to seventeen joints. It embraces 
five species. 

The Black-headed Saki or Cacajao, Brackyurus viclaiwccphalus, 
measures about two feet, including six inches of tail. Its shaggy coat 
is yellow-brown, brighter on the breast and stomach, but black on the 
head and tail and fore-feet ; the ears are hairless and very large. Little 
is known of its habits when wild ; in captivity it is docile and sluggish. 
Fruit is its chief food, and when eating it bends over its food in a pecu- 
liar manner, and is awkward in using its fingers. It is not common even 
in its native abodes on the Rio Negro. 

Many names have been given it, the most common being the one we 
have mentioned ; it is also called Chucato, Chucazo, Carniri, and Mono- 
feo, which is, by interpretation, " The Hideous Ape." 

The species named the Scarlet-FACED Saki, Brackyurus ra/vus, has a 
tail still shorter than the Cacajao ; it is nearly a pear-shaped stump. 
The dull-yellow of his coat inclines to dull-white on the back, and to 
bright-yellow on the belly. In old specimens the color is almost white, 
from which the face stands out conspicuously ; it is scarlet-red, with 
bushy yellow eyebrows and reddish-yellow eyes ; the hair on the head 
looks as if it had been closely cropped, in marked contrast to the long 
hair on the back. From its appearance it has received the name given 
above ; the native name is Uakakl 

It is found in a small district near the mouth of the Japura river, and 
can with great difficulty be removed from its home. The natives repre- 
sent its motions as active, and capture it by means of the blowpipe and 
weakly-poisoned darts. It is hard to tame, and repulses all efforts to 



92 QUADRUMANA. 

caress it. After a few days or weeks of captivity, it becomes indifferent 
to everything, refuses food, and slowly pines away. Many of them die 
of inflammation of the lungs. During sickness the bright scarlet of the 
face becomes duller, but the red tint does not entirely disappear till about 
two hours after death. Ueville saw one in captivity which was kindly 
disposed to white men, but could not endure Indians. It lived on fruits, 
and drank from a cup which it held in both hands. Although quite 
tame, it exhibited a great longing for freedom, and made every effort to 
escape. 

The sub-family Nyctipithecinae contains three genera of small and 
elegant monkeys, with long hairy non-prehensile tails. 



VIII.— GENUS NYCTIPITHECUS. 

These night monkeys have large eyes, nocturnal habits, and are rather 
lemurine in appearance. Five species have been described ; the best 
known is 

THE DOUROUCOULI. 

The DOUROUCOULI, Nyetipitliecus trivirgatus. The word Nyctipithe- 
cus or Night Ape, which is used as the generic title of the Douroucouli, 
refers to its habits, which are more strictly nocturnal than those of the 
animals heretofore mentioned. The eyes of this little creature are so 
sensitive to light that it cannot endure the glare of day, and only awakes 
to activity and energv when the shades of night throw their welcome 
veil over the face of nature. 

In its wild state, it seeks the shelter of some hollow tree or other 
darkened place of refuge, and there abides during the hours of daylight, 
buried in a slumber so deep that it can with difficulty be aroused, even 
though the rough hand of its captor drag it from its concealment. 
During sleep, it gathers all its four feet closely together, and drops its 
head between its fore-paws. It seems to be one of the owls of the mon- 
key race. 

The food of this Douroucouli is mostly of an animal nature ; and 
consists chiefly of insects and small birds, which it hunts and captures in 
the night season. After dark the Douroucouli awakes from tlie torpid 



THE SQUIRREL MCNKEYS. 93 

lethargy in which it has spent the day, and shaking off its drowsiness, 
becomes filled with life and spirit. The large dull eyes, that shrank 
from the dazzling rays of the sun, light up with eager animation at 
eventide ; the listless languor is discarded, and it commences its nightly 
chase. 

The general color of the Douroucouli is a grayish-white, over which 
a silvery lustre plays in certain lights. The spine is marked with a 
brown line, and the breast, abdomen, and inside of the limbs are marked 
with a very light chestnut, almost amounting to orange. The face is 
remarkable for three very distinct black lines, which radiate from each 
other, and which have earned for the animal the title of trivirgatus, 
or " three-striped." There are but very slight external indications of 
ears, and in order to expose the organs of hearing, it is necessary to draw 
aside the fur of the head. On account of this peculiarity, Humboldt 
separated the Douroucouli from its neighbors, and formed it into a dis- 
tinct family, which he named " Aotes," or " Earless." 

It is rather uncommon, a fact which some writers attribute to its 
living in a state of virtuous monogamy ; they affirm that a pair may be 
found snugly sleeping in one bed, but never greater numbers, unless 
there be a little family. But Bates, a very careful observer, denies this, 
and asserts that larger troops are not rare. It has a loud cry, and can 
hiss, spit, and mew like a cat. 



IX.— GENUS SAIMIRIS. 

The Saimirt or Squirrel Monkeys are little quick-moving animals 
with a sprightly countenance, and not unlike the squirrels in character 
and size, as their name implies. They have the brain well developed, 
and are remarkably intelligent. Nocturnal, like the preceding, they live 
nearlv in the same fashion, loving to seclude themselves in coppices and 
in well-wooded localities ; they even occasionally inhabit holes in rocks. 
They are carnivorous, for they eagerly pursue not only small birds, but 
also certain species of Mammals. Guiana and Brazil are their native 
countries. 

" Its physiognomy is that of a child ; it has the same expression of 
innocence, sometimes the same sly smile, and always the same rapidity 
of transition from joy to sorrow ; it feels disappointment very acutely, 



94 QUADRUMAXA. 

and testifies it by crying. Its eyes become bedewed with tears when it 
is vexed or frightened. It is pi"ized b}' the natives for its beauty, its 
amiable manners, and the gentleness of its disposition. Its activity is 
astonishing, though its movements are always full of grace. It is inces- 
santly occupied in play, jumping, and catching insects, especially spiders, 
which it prefers to all kinds of food." 

Humboldt informs us that the Saimiri listens with the greatest atten- 
tion to people who ask it questions, and that it even stretches out its 
hands toward their lips, as if to catch the words that escape from them. 

How many species there are is still disputed by naturalists. Wallace 
mentions three. 

The Death's Head Ape as it is c?A\&di, Saimiris sciureiis, has a slender 
form and beautiful colors. It lives in Guiana, in large companies like 
the Capucins, and is widely diffused. All its habits are graceful ; it 
climbs with great activity, balancing or steering itself by its tail. Its 
hair is a reddish-black, sprinkled with gray on the limbs ; in some 
varieties the head is coal-black, the body a greenish-yellow, and the 
limbs golden-yellow. It must have derived its name " Death's Head " 
from some very superficial observer, although the gray face, with its 
large eyes and jet-black muzzle, is startling enough. 



X.— GENUS CALLITHRIX. 

A slender body, slender limbs, a very long thin tail, a round head 
with a beardless face and short muzzle, bright eyes, large ears, and five- 
fingered hands and feet characterize the pretty creatures which form this 
genus. The generic title is derived from two Greek words, callos beauty, 
and tlirix hair, and is expressive of the beauty of their fur. The common 
name for the animal is Tee-tee. The number of species is eleven. 

They live in small bands in the South American forests, and are 
noticeable for their loud voice, which almost equals that of the Howlers 
in carrying power. They are shy and timid in freedom, while in cap- 
tivity they are engaging, intelligent, and affectionate. 

The Tee-tee, Callithrix pcrsonata, (Plate III, Squirrel Monkey.) 
This species is of a brownish-black color from the breast upward to the 
middle of the skull ; the back of the head and of the neck are yellowish- 
white, the rest of the body of a pale dull gray-brown. The hands and 



THE TEE-TEES. 



95 



feet are black, the tail of a reddish-brown. In the female these colors 
are fainter, and the white tint on the neck is wanting. The whole 
length of the animal, includmg the tail, is about thirty inches. 

The Collared Tee-tee, Callithrix lugcns or torquata, is a beautiful 
little creature distinguished by much brighter colors. It has fine, shining, 
beautiful black hair; the face is nearly white, the ear small, well-shaped 
and almost hairless. In front of the neck is a white collar, nearly as 
broad as one's hand ; the feet are black, the hands white on the upper 
surface. Its temper is most amiable, its eyes are bright and lively, and 
all its actions are graceful and tender. It never seems to allow its evil 
passions to rise, except when it sees a small bird, on which it then 
pounces like a cat. It is a native of the right bank of the Orinoco and 
is called by the missionaries the Widow Ape. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE MARMOSETS. 

THE MARMOSETS OR OUISTITIS — THE FAMILY HAPALID.^; — THE GENUS HAPALE — THE MARIKIVA — 
THE GENUS MIDAS OR THE TAMARINS — THE PI.NCHE— THE SILKY MARMOSET — THE SAGOUIN 
— THE DWARF MARMOSET. 

THE Hapalid.e or Marmosets are very small monkeys, which 
differ from the true Cebid^ as well as from the Old World 
Monkeys. The thumb is not at all opposable, and all the 
fingers are armed with sharp claws. The great toe is very small, the 
tail long and not prehensile. The tivo genera, Hapale containing Jiinc 
species, and Midas, tzvcnty-four species, are pronounced by Wallace as 
of doubtful value. They are both confined to the tropical forests of 
South America, near the equator. 

Some naturalists regard these animals as mere genera of the pre- 
ceding division ; others refuse them a place in the tribe of monkeys ; 
it is, however, most convenient to treat them as a famil)- of the Ouad- 
rumana, and as constituting an intermediate link between the Apes and 
the Lemurs. 

The distinctions between the families previously described and the 
present are striking and important. A Greek name, signifying " Bear 
Apes," is sometimes given to the Marmosets, not because they resemble 
bears, but because they have claws in the place of nails, thus approxi- 
mating to the Carnivora. They differ from the other apes of the New 
World in their dental formula, for they possess a set of thirty-two teeth, 
the canines being very large and strong. The head is round, the face 
flat, the brow flat and broad. The eyes are small, the ears large and 
often tufted, the body slender, the limbs short. They are chiefly found 
in Brazil, Guiana, and Peru ; two species occur in Mexico. 




SPECTRUM TA= 


:■.'. LEMUR 


SAKl 


HONWLING MONKEY 


MARMOSET 


SQUIRREL MONKEY 



^ AYE 



PLATE III. OUADRUMANA 



HABITS OF THE MARMOSETS. 97 

They prefer to live in the densest parts of the forests, where they run 
up and down the trees and along the branches more like squirrels than 
apes, often suspending themselves by their claws. Their food is insects, 
fruits, eggs, and small birds. Their chief enemies are the birds of prey. 
When disturbed they utter a feeble cry from which they derive their 
name of OuiSTiTls. 

" Audouin," writes Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, "has assured 
himself, by experiments several times repeated, that these monkeys were 
well able to recognize in a picture not only their own likeness, but that 
of another animal. Thus, the drawing of a cat, and, what is yet still 
more remarkable, that of a wasp, caused them manifest dread ; while at 
the sight of any other insect, such as a grasshopper or a May-bug, they 
threw themselves on the picture as if to seize the object represented. 

" Audouin has also remarked that the Ouistitis were very curious ; 
that they had acute vision ; that they perfectly recognized the people 
who looked after them; and, lastly, that their cries varied considerably, 
according to the passions that animated them." 

Another observer writes : " Their graceful tricks were always amus- 
ing, as they never were mischievous. With my cats and parrots they 
were on terms of the greatest intimacy, sharing, of their own accord, 
their food with the latter. They soon learned to drink wine, and, after 
a short experience, exhibited so marked a liking for the juice of the 
grape, that, if permitted, they would indulge till perfectly intoxicated. 
Nothing alarmed them so much as the appearance of a snake, and several 
times, for the sake of experiment, I had one brought into my residence to 
observe the effect. On seeing their enemy, instantaneously they became 
powerless, and the woe-begone expression of their countenance for the 
time being was the perfect personification of utter helplessness; and even 
after the object of their dread had been removed, it required the lapse 
of many hours before they recovered their vivacity." 

At present, about thirty-three species of Marmosets are known, 
grouped into two genera, on very slight foundations. 

I.— GENUS HAPALE. 

This genus has the face and ears bare, a tail as long as the body, thin 
and tufted at the end, and a mane of greater or less length. The number 
of species is nine. 
1.3 



98 QUADRUMANA. 

The Leoncito Marmoset, Hapalc Iconina, was discovered by the 
great traveler Humboldt on the warm plains which border the eastern 
slopes of the Cordilleras. He says : " It is one of the most beautiful 
creatures I ever saw — lively, merry, and playful, but like all little animals 
passionate and spiteful. When angry the neck swells, the mane bristles 
up and it looks like a lion in miniature." Bates saw a very tame one on 
the upper Amazon and relates: "It ran to my chair, climbed up to mv 
shoulder, turned about to look into my face, showing its little teeth, and 
squeaking as if asking my will." This species attains a length of eight 
inches in the body, and about the same in the tail. 

The next species differs from the others by having tufts of hair more 
or less developed before and above the ears. 

The Marmoset, Ouistiti, or Sagouin, Hapalc lacchus (Plate III), 
the commonest member of this group, has a body nine to ten inches long, 
and a tail twelve to fourteen inches. The color of its long silky fur is 
black, white, and reddish-yellow. The tail is black, with about twenty 
small white rings around it and a white tip. 

The PiNCllE, Hapalc CEdipus, has long hair on the top of its head, 
which hangs down over the forehead and neck, but the sides are bare. 
Specimens have been found to measure twenty-eight inches, including 
sixteen inches of tail. 

The Pinche is remarkable for the tuft of white and long hair which it 
bears on its head, and which is so distinctly marked that the little creature 
almost seems to be wearing an artificial head of hair. The throat, chest, 
abdomen, and arms, are also white, and the edges of the thighs are 
touched with the same tint. On each shoulder there is a patch of 
reddish-chestnut, fading imperceptibly into the white fur of the chest, 
and the grayish-brown hair that covers the remainder of the bod)^ Its 
eyes are quite black. 

The tail of the animal is long and moderately full ; its color slightly 
changes from chestnut-brown to brownish-black. Its voice is like the 
twittering of birds. Unfortunately this pretty creature cannot endure 
captivity, and soon dies. 

To the same group belongs the smallest of all the apes, a little crea- 
ture which measures at the utmost only twelve inches, including fully 
six inches of tail. Its fur is yellow and black, its paws reddish-3-ellow. 
Dark bands run from the back over the sides and thighs. The tail has 
slight rings. Spix discovered this dwarf species at Tabatinga, on the 



THE MARIKIXA, SAGOUIN, AND TAMARIN. 99 

banks of the Solimoen river, in Brazil ; Bates saw it near San Pablo, iind 
remarks that on his return to England he was surprised to see a specimen 
in the British Museum, described as coming from Mexico. The scientific 
name of this specimen is Hapale PVGMiEA. 

II.— GENUS MIDAS. 

The members of this genus are distinguished from the genus Hapale 
by the circumstance that the mane is less developed, and that the tail is 
longer. The number of species is twenty-four. 

The Marikina, Midas rosalia, is larger than the animals just de- 
scribed ; the face is bare and brown ; the ear large and fringed with dark- 
brown hair ; on the cheeks and on the pointed brow fine, short, yellowish 
hair stands out ; the long hair of the head, divided in the middle by a 
streak of short brown hair, falls down like a mane, and has a dark-brown 
color, while the rest of the head, the throat, the breast, and the arms are 
dark orange-brown ; the remainder of the body is covered with a reddish- 
yellow fur which glistens like gold. This fur is smooth and silky to the 
touch, and the creature is hence sometimes designated as the " SiLKY 
Monkey." It is very fastidious about having its beautiful coat kept 
carefully clean, and soon dies if neglected. It is very timid, has a soft 
and gentle voice when pleased, but hisses when angry. It is described 
by Buffon under the name of " Marikina." 

The Silver Sagouin, Midas argcntatiis, is one of the rarest of the 
American apes, and, according to Bates, is found only in Cameta, a 
province of Brazil. It is the most beautiful of all ; the long silk}' hair 
is silver-white, the tail dull-black, the almost bare face flesh-colored. It 
reaches the length of only eighteen inches, including ten inches of tail. 
Many naturalists regard it merely as a variety of the common Midas. 

The Tamarin, Midas ursultis, has a pleasing expression, and a face 
of considerable intelligence. It is black, but the hinder part is mottled 
with grayish-white. Bates says it never congregates into large flocks, 
seldom more than three or four being seen together. Like the squirrel 
it confines itself to the large boughs of trees, whence it peers down on 
the traveler. It seems, however, to have no fear of man. 

The Marmosets do not seem to be possessed of a very large share of 
intelligence, but yet are engaging little creatures if kindly treated. 



lOO QUADRUMANA. 

They are very fond of flies and other insects, and will often take a fly 
from the hand of the visitor. One of these animals with whom Wood 
struck up an acquaintance, took great pleasure in making him catch flics 
for its use, and taking them daintily out of his hand. When it saw his 
hand sweep over a doomed fly, the bright eyes sparkled with eager 
anticipation ; and when he approached the cage, the little creature thrust 
its paw through the bars as far as the wires would permit, and opened 
and closed the tiny fingers with restless impatience. It then insinuated 
its hand among his closed fingers, and never failed to find and to capture 
the imprisoned fly. 

The Marmoset has a strange liking for hair, and is fond of playing 
with the locks of its owner. One of these little creatures, which was 
the property of a gentleman adorned with a large bushy beard, was 
wont to creep to its master's face, and to nestle among the thick masses 
of beard which decorated his chin. Another Marmoset, which belonged 
to a lad}', and which was liable to the little petulances of its race, used 
to vent its anger by nibbling the end of her ringlets. If the hair were 
bound round her head, the curious little animal would draw a tress down 
and bite its cxtremitv, as if it were trying to eat the hair by degrees. 
The same individual was possessed of an accomplishment which is 
almost unknown among these little monkeys, namely, standing on its 
head. 

Another chapter will complete our account of the Qua,irumanous 
animals, with a description of the half-apes or Lemurs. 



<^t^(^te&)^ 



CHAPTER X. 

THE LEMUROIDEA. 

THE INDRIS — THE LEMURS — THE RUFFED LEMUR — THE CAT LEMUR — THE HAPALEMUR — THE 
CHEIROGALEUS — THE LORIS — THE TARSIER SPECTRE — THE AYE-AYE. 

WE now have arrived at the second division of the order Quad- 
rumana, and have to describe the very peculiar animals to 
which Linnaeus, the father of Natural History, gave the 
name of Lemur. The Romans called by this appellation the spirits of 
the departed, and the restless ghosts that wandered about during the 
still hours of the night, and the naturalist applied it to these nocturnal 
animals, which seem indeed to be the ghosts of departed creations. They 
are the last surviving remains of a race which was once widely diffused ; 
fossil specimens of numerous forms of Lemuroiuea occur in various 
parts of Europe and North America, but the living specimens are found 
in Madagascar, Ceylon, and the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, the Philip- 
pines, and Celebes, with some scattered genera in the African contment. 
To explain the occurrence of these strange animals at points so remote, 
Mr. Sclatcr has supposed that a continent, now submerged, once extended 
from Madagascar to Ceylon and Sumatra, in which the Lemuroid type of 
animals was developed. To this hypothetical continent he gave the 
name of Lemuria, and it probably represents a zoological region in some 
long past geological epoch. 

Older writers have classed the Lemurs with the Apes, and called 
them Prosimii, " Half-apes " or " False Apes," but their structure is 
different from that of the true Simians, and their dental arrangements 
peculiarly so. It is advisable therefore to keep them apart in a sub- 
order. 

The Lemuroidea live in forest lands where fruit and insects furnish 
them with food ; they are nocturnal in their habits, and during the day 
retire to the darkest part of the forests where they coil themselves up 



102 QUADRUMANA. 

and sleep ; they are dead in the day, their life begins with the twiHght. 
They are divided into three families, the first of which, the Lemuridie, 
contains eleven genera, the others only one genus each. 

THE LEMURID^^. 

The animals of this family are characterized by an elongated head, 
analogous to that of certain carnivorous animals, from whence the name 
of Fox-headed Monkeys which some of the species have received ; by 
opposable thumbs on the four extremities, and especially by the nail on 
the index finger of the hind-feet, which is long, compressed, and sharp, and 
singularly contrasts with those on the other digits. Although their brain 
is but little developed, they have considerable intelligence, and are sus- 
ceptible of training. They are in general of small size, and furnished 
with a short or long tail, though some species are deprived of that 
appendage. Their eyes are very salient, as befits their nocturnal mode 
of life. 

At the approach of twilight they rouse themselves, smooth their fur, 
utter their unpleasant cries and begin their nightly quest for food. The 
cry of some of the species is alarming, as it resembles the roar of a beast 
of pre3^ In hunting for food, they equal or even surpass the apes in 
agility in climbing; they seem to have wings, so powerful are their 
springs from bough to bough, so swift their ascent or descent of the tree- 
trunks, so restless their ever-changing motions. They eat much, they 
destroy more. 

I.— GENUS INDRIS. 

Indris is the name given to this genus by the traveler Sonnerat, 
and the word is said to be in the Malagasay language not the 
name of an animal, but an exclamation " See here ! Look ! " which the 
stranger misapprehended. The natives of Madagascar call the Indris 
the " Man of the Woods," because of its resemblance, though slight, to 
ourselves. It is the most highly developed of the family. The head is 
small, the fore-limbs not much shorter than the hind-ones, and its power- 
ful thumbs, perfectly opposable on all feet to the remaining fingers, are 
admirable instruments for climbing. The tail is short, the eyes small, 
the ears hidden in the fur. This fur — thick, almost woolly — covers the 



NATIVE STORIES OF THE BABAKOTO. I03 

whole body, even the fingers and toes down to the nails. Its dental 
formula is 

t2 — 2 I — I 2 — 2 ^,3 — 3 

I. , C. , P. , M. = 30. 

I — I I — I 2 — 2 3 — 3 

The genus contains Jive species, all natives of Madagascar. 



THE BABAKOTO. 

The BABAKOTO, Indris brevicmidatus, was for a long time the only- 
known species. It attains a length of nearly three feet, including eight 
and a half inches of tail. Its almost hairless face is of a brownish-black 
color. The head, including the ears, shoulders, arms and hands, are 
black, the back is brown, the forehead, temples, throat, breast, tail and 
flanks are white. The creature is so little known that it is not yet ascer- 
tamed whether these colors change at various ages, or whether they 
belong to both sexes. 

The Crowned Indris, Indris viitratiis, — perhaps merely a variety 
— is somewhat smaller ; the hair is more silky and the coloring of extra- 
ordinary beauty. The naked black muzzle and the cheeks thinly covered 
with gray hairs are set in a broad, gray, black-bordered frame which run- 
ning down each side of the face unites at the throat, and joins a spot of 
dazzling white which dies away on the neck into grayish-white streaks. 
The ears, shoulders, upper part of the back, and the breast are black; a 
triangular patch, beginning at the lower part of the back and gradually 
broadening to the rump, is white ; the tail is a reddish cream-color, the 
feet are light gray. 

Sonnerat describes the Babakoto as active and a good leaper; it eats 
like a squirrel, holding its foot up to its mouth. Vinson, during his pas- 
sage through the great Alanamasoatrao forest, was almost deafened by 
its cries, and inferred that it must collect into large bands. The natives 
reverence it as a holy animal, and believe the souls of their ancestors pass 
into it at death ; hence they consider that the trees on which the Baba- 
koto lives is an infallible cure for all diseases, and use its leaves as a 
remedy in dangerous cases. They say too that it is dangerous to hurl 
a lance at it, as the Indris can catch the spear in its flight and hurl it back 
on the aggressor, and that the mother after birth throws her young one 
to the male who throws it back again, and when this has been repeated 



I04 QUADRUMANA. 

a dozen times without accident, the little one is taken up and carefully 
nursed. If, however, it fall to the ground it is left lying. 

Pollen says that in certain parts of Madagascar it is trained to catch 
birds. But these seem "travelers' tales"; the latter seems especially im- 
probable, for if the Indris had been thus tamed, living specimens could 
have been procured. 

II.-GENUS LEMUR. 

The name Maki by which the natives of Madagascar designate this 
genus is said to be an imitation of the cry it utters. These animals are, 
of all the Lemuridee, those whose heads are the most tapering ; and there- 
fore it is to them that the denomination of Fox-headed Monkeys is appli- 
cable. Buffon called them False-Monkeys. They stand somewhat high 
on their feet, and take rank, for size, between the Marten and the Fox. 
Their fur is soft and thick, and their tail long and bushy. They live in 
forests, and feed chiefly on fruits. Their movements are light and grace- 
ful ; their voice is a low or a loud growl, according to the nature of their 
emotions. The female has only one at a birth, and testifies the greatest 
tenderness for it, keeping it concealed beneath her body, buried in her 
thick fur, until the period when its hair, having acquired a sufficient 
length, may efficaciously protect it against external vicissitudes. It is 
suckled for six months, after which it is left to its own resources. 

These animals are sociable, and often collect into numerous bands. 
They select almost inaccessible places to sleep in ; are readily tA'.ned, and 
even reproduce in captivity. Their dental formula is 

I. ^-=^, C. i^-', P. ^-^^, M. ^^^ = ^6. 
2-2' I — i' 3 — 3 3-3 

The number of species is fifteen. 

Pollen gives a description of the habits of one species, the Mayotte, 
which will serve for them all. They live in bands of six to twelve, and 
travel about in search of their favorite food, the fruit of the Date palm : 
they are seen by day descending from trees to pick up fallen fruic. No 
sooner has the sun set than the whole band set up their lamer.table cry. 
When chased by dogs they take refuge in a tree, where they remain with 
their eyes fixed on their enemy, moving their tails to and fro, and growl- 
ing. If wounded they defend themselves stoutly, leaping on the dog's 



THE LEMURS. I05 

back and biting the ears and neck. The flesh, somewhat resembling that 
of a rabbit in taste, is considered a great delicacy by the natives. 

They endure captivity well. Buffon had a male Maki which was 
quite tame and a great thief. It used to lick his hand ; but if its tongue, 
rough like a cat's, drew blood, it bit savagely. Another specimen lived 
in Paris a long time. It was very fond of warmth, and used to go so 
near the flame as to singe its whiskers ; it was cleanly, and careful not to 
soil its fur, and was very curious and greedy, but kindly to all comers. 
Every evening it hopped or danced for about half an hour, and then lay 
down to sleep. 

THE RUFFED AND THE BLACK-FRONTED LEMURS. 

The Ruffed Lemur, Lemur varius, is one of the largest species of the 
family, equaling in size a moderately grown cat. 

The texture of the fur is extremely fine, and its color presents bold 
contrasts between pure white and a jetty blackness, the line of demar- 
cation being strongly defined. The visage is black, and a fiinge of long 
white hairs stands out like a ruff round the face, giving to the creature 
its very appropriate title. Its voice is a deep sepulchral roar, peculiarly 
loud considering the size of the animal, which can be heard at a great 
distance. 

The Atumba or Black-fronted Lemur, Lemur macaco, and the 
White-FRONTED Lemur, Lemur leucomystax, are sometimes classed as 
different species, but Brehm, who has studied them both in captivity, 
asserts they belong to one and the same species. He says that all the 
Black-fronted Lemurs he has seen are males, all the White-fronted are 
females, and that reports from the zoological gardens in London, Cologne, 
and Rotterdam, and from friends in Zanzibar, state that their experience 
IS the same. A female under his charge brought forth a young one, 
which showed no sign of blending of color, such as hybrids usually do. 

It is a gentle and engaging creature, and not at all shy, even to 
strangers, unless they alarm it by loud voices or hasty gestures. It is 
possessed of great agility, climbing trees, and running among the 
branches with perfect ease, and capable of springing through a space 
of several yards. So gently does it alight on the ground after its leaps, 
that the sound of its feet can scarcely be heard, nor can the eye follow 
its motions. When pursued, it displays incredible activity ; it will 
14 



lo6 QUAURUMANA. 

suddenly drop from the top of a tree to the underwood and run away 
before the hunter can reahze the fact. 



THE MONGOOSE AND THE RING-TAILED LEMUR. 

The Mongoose, Lemur ntongoz, is one of tlie commonest varieties ; it 
measures about three feet, inchiding a foot and a half of tail. The color, 
dark ash-gray on the back, becomes a grayish-black on the head ; a white 
streak runs from beneath llic neck up to the ears; the lower part of the 
back is light-brown. 

The Ring-tailed or Cat Lemur, Limur catta, is not as large as the 
Ruffed Lemur, measuring only a foot from nose to tail, the tail being eight 
inches in length. The grace of its form, the beauty of its color, its large 
eyes, and its long ringed tail, render it one of the most beautiful of the 
species. It is found only in the Southwest of Madagascar, and lives 
like its congeners. Its cry, however, is not loud, but resembles the mew- 
ing of our " harmless, necessary cat." In confinement it becomes familiar, 
and when it chooses to exhibit its powers, is very amusing with its merry 
iranks. If several individuals are confined in the same cage, they are 
fond of luiddling together, and involving themselves in such a strange 
entanglement of tails, limbs, and heads, that until they separate, it is 
almost impossible to decide upon the number of the animals that form 
the variegated mass. 

The quartermaster of a French corvette possessed one which recog- 
nized its master among all the crew ; it loved to play with the boys and 
the ship's dog. It nursed a little monkey as if it had been its own child, 
and amused ilselfbv pulling the tails of the chickens till they screamed. 

Tiie Red Lemur, Lemur ruber, possesses a fur which has somewhat 
of a woolly aspect, the hair separating into tufts, each of which is slightly 
curled. It is a beautifully decorated animal, displaying considerable 
contrast of coloring. The body, head, ami the greater portion of the 
limbs, are of a fine chestnut, with the exception of a large white patch 
covering the back of the head and nape of the neck, and a smaller one 
in the midst of each foot. The face, the tail, and paws, are black, as 
is all tin- under side of the body. This latter circumstance is most 
remarkable, as it is almost a general rule tiiat the under parts of animals 
are lighter in tint than the upper. Around the sides of the face the hair 
is of a paler chestnut than that which covers the body. 



THE DWARF MAKIS. 



107 



In habits it is simikir to the Lemurs which have already been de- 
scribed. Being naturally a nocturnal animal, it passes the day in a 
drowsy somnolence, its head pushed between its legs, and the long, 
bushy tail wrapped round its body, as if to exclude the light and retain 
the heat. Should it be accustomed to be fed during the daytime, it 
shakes off its slumber for the purpose of satisfying the calls of hunger ; 
but even though urged by so strong an inducement, it awakes with lin- 
gering reluctance, and sinks to sleep again as soon as the demands of its 
appetite are satisfied. Its entire length is nearly three feet, of which the 
tail occupies about twenty inches. Its height is about a foot. 



III.— GENUS HAPALEMUR. 

This genus, containing two species, is distinguished by a slender body 
and short limbs, but a tail as long as itself. The head is round and sharp- 
muzzled, the eyes small, the ears broad and short and hidden in the fur. 

The Gray Lemur, HapaUmur griscus, called by the natives of the 
Northwest of Madagascar the Bokambul, chooses tor its abode thickets 
of bamboo. During the day it sleeps on the highest shoots, with its 
head between its legs and its tail over its back. Like all the tribe, it is 
lazy during the daytime but busy at night ; its cry is like that of a pig 
grunting. Pollen had a captive which differed in no wise from other 
Lemurs ; he remarks that, like some apes, it acquired the bad habit of 
gnawing its own tail. 



IV.— GENUS MICROCEBUS. 

The Dwarf Makis have a compact form, a short head, a roundish 
muzzle, a tail longer than the body, and the hind limbs not longer than 
the fore ones. The eyes are large, the ears moderate, thinly covered 
externally with fine hair, pretty hands and feet, with short fingers but 
long tarsi. The dental formula is 

T 2 — 2 „ I — I 6 — 6 

I. , C. , M. = 34. 

2 — 2 I — I 5 — 5 ^^ 

Of the four species into which the genus is divided, the best known 
is the Microccbus niyo.viiius, which attains a length of six to eight inches 



lOS QUADRUMANA. 

in the body. The back is a reddish yellowish-gray, with a golden lustre; 
the lower surface is white. We know verj^ little of it, as its diminutive 
size and nocturnal habits enable it easil}- to escape observation. It lives 
in almost impassable forests, hiding itself during the day in a nest which 
it builds of straw and dry leaves ; at night it roams like its fellows in 
quest of food, cliieflv insects. 



v.— GENUS CHEIROGALEUS. 

This genus, like the preceding one, is remarkable for the greater 
roundness of the head, the shortness of the muzzle, and the great size 
of its eyes; the latter peculiarity indicating more decided nocturnal 
habits. It contains five species. The best known is the Cheirogaleus 
Milii, which measures nearly fourteen inches exclusive of the tail ; the 
fur is tawu}- on the upper surface of the body, but white beneath. Its 
legs are verv sliort when compared with the ordinary Lemur. A speci- 
men in captivitv made a nest for itself out of hay. in which it slept 
during the davtime. During the night its movements were ceaseless; it 
could leap a height of six or eight feet. 

One of the species, the Cluirogahus )nuri)ius or MADAGASCAR Rat, i& 
the smallest of all the Lemurida\ its body measuring only six inches in 
length. 

VI.— GENUS LEPILEMUR. 

Onlv tivo species are known. It has a slender body, a small, long, 
sharp-snouted head, short fore-limbs, moderately long hinder-limbs, and 
a tail longer than the body. The eyes are of moderate size, the ears 
large and bare : the white fur which thinlv covers the face and hands, 
and is largely developed on the tail, is rather woolly. 

THE WALAWY. 

The Walawv, Lcpilcmnr ftircifcr, is nearly as large as the Hapalcmur. 
A brownish-gray is the dominant tint on the back, a sharply marked-off 
light-grav on the bellv ; the head and neck incline to red. black stripes 
beginning on the cheeks, inclosing the eyes, and leaving a blaze on the 
forehead, unite on the head, and run down the spine to the tail ; this 



THE SLOW LEMURS. IO9 

appendage, gray at the roots, is black at the tip. The eyes have the iris 
black. 

Both species are found on the West side of Madagascar. The ani- 
mals prefer as their abodes hollow trees with two openings, especially if 
also inhabited by bees. They are much more active than the ordinary 
Lemur, and their cry is a " kaka kaka ka." 

The curious animal, which is known by the name of the DiADEM 
Lemur, belongs rather to the Indris than to the Lemurs, but it has been 
placed by Mr. Bennett in a separate genus, which he names Proi'ITHecus. 
The shoulders and upper part of the back are of a sooty tint, the head 
darker, the hindquarters pale-brown, the belly nearly white, the paws 
almost black, the tail nearly white at the tip. The thumbs of the hind- 
limbs are disproportionately developed, and the face is not so long as in 
the true Lemurs; the round, tipped ears are hidden in bushy hair, which 
surrounds the head. The species described is called the Propithccus 
diadcma, and seems to be the same as the Indris (or Lechanotus) mitratus. 

The species of the Lamirida already mentioned belong exclusively to 
that strange African Island, Madagascar. The next sub-family, the Nycti- 
cebi?i(g, have a more extensive range. 

VII.— GENUS NYCTICEBUS. 

The Slov^^ Lemurs (Plate III) are found from East Bengal to China, 
Borneo, and Java. Three species are known. These rare denizens of the 
forests have not been much observed in their life of freedom, but they have 
been repeatedly brought to Europe. They creep very slowly, and sel- 
dom take more than two steps erect ; even in climbing, their slowness is 
remarkable. By day their eyes lose their lustre, but they see admirably 
by night. Their hearing is very acute; the slightest motion of a beetle 
wakens them from their sleep. 

THE KAKANG. 

The Slow-paced Lemur, Nyctkcbus tardigradus, called by the natives 
the Kakang, has a fur of a woolly te.xture, and of a chestnut tinge. A 
dark stripe surrounds the eyes, ears, and back of the head, reaching to 
the corners of the mouth, and running thence along the entire length 



no QUADRUMANA. 

of the spine. The color of this dark band is a deep chestnut. The 
animal is a little more than a foot in length. 

In the formation of these creatures some very curious structures are 
found, among which is the singular grouping of arteries and veins in the 
limbs. 

Instead of the usual tree-like mode in which the limbs of most ani- 
mals are supplied with blood — one large trunk-vessel entering the limb, 
and then branching off into numerous subdivisions — the limbs are fur- 
nished with blood upon a strangely modified system. The arteries and 
veins, as they enter and leave the limb, arc suddenly divided into a great 
number of cylindrical vessels, lying close to each other for some dis- 
tance, and giving off their tubes to the different parts of the limb. It is 
possible that to this formation may be owing the power of silent move- 
ment and slow patience which has been mentioned as the property of 
these lemurs, for a very similar structure is found to exist in the sloth. 

The tongue is aided in its task by a plate of cartilage, by which it 
IS supported, and which is, indeed, aii enlargement of the tendinous band 
that is found under the root of the tongue. It is much thicker at its base 
than at the extremity, which is so deeply notched that it seems to have 
been slit with a knife. It is so conspicuous an organ that it has been 
often described as a second tongue. The throat and vocal organs seem 
to be but little developed, as is consistent with the habits of an animal 
whose very subsistence depends upon its silence. Excepting when irri- 
tated, it seldom or never utters a sound ; and even then, its vocal powers 
seem to be limited to a little monotonous plaintive cry. 

All its motions arc exceedingly slow, but it possesses one skilltul 
faculty whicli no other animal exhibits: it can climb slowly step by 
step backward up a pole placed nearly perpendicularly. 



VIII.— GENUS LORIS. 

There is only o/ic species of this small, tailless, nocturnal Lemur, 
which inhabits Madras, Malabar, and Ceylon. It is called the Bengal 
LoRi, Loris gracilis. In Ceylon the natives call it Teivangu, or "the 
creeper." The best account of it is given in Tennant's work on Ceylon. 
" I possessed a living Teivangu which lived for some time ; it ate rice, 
fruits, and leaves, but preferred ants and insects. It was very greedy for 



THE LORIS. Ill 

milk and the flesh of birds. It can catch birds more easily than one 
would suppose from its appearance. The natives affirm that at night it 
will attack peacocks, choke them, and then suck the brains of its prey. 
My prisoner slept all day m a most peculiar attitude. He seized his perch 
with all his hands, gathered himself up into a hairy ball, and hid his head 
between his legs. The large and brilliant eyes of the Loris have attracted 
the attention of the Cingalese ; they make amulets and love-charms from 
them, and hold the poor creature in the fire till its eyeballs burst." 

The Loris is a small animal, measuring only nine inches in length ; its 
limbs are very slender, the muzzle is abruptly sharp and pointed, the 
color is a rusty-gray, somewhat darker round the eyes, and a white 
streak runs down the nose. The absence of a tail is strikingly noticeable. 

Wood gives an animated description of the mode in which it captures 
its prey. " The color of its fur is such that the dark back is invisible in 
the obscurity of night, and the white breast simulates the falling of a 
broken moonbeam on the bark of a branch. Its movements are so slow 
and silent that not a sound falls on the ear. 

" Alas for the doomed bird that has attracted the fiery eyes of the 
Loris ! No Indian on his war-path moves with stealthier step or more 
deadly purpose than the Loris on its progress toward its sleeping prey. 
With movements as imperceptible and as silent as the shadow on the 
dial, paw after paw is lifted from its hold, advanced a step and placed 
again on the bough, until the destroyer stands by the side of the uncon- 
scious victim. Then, the hand is raised with equal silence, until the 
fingers overhang the bird and nearly touch it. Suddenly the slow cau- 
tion is exchanged for lightning speed, and with a movement so rapid that 
the eye can hardly follow it, the bird is torn from its perch, and almost 
before its eyes are opened from slumber, they are closed forever in death." 



IX.— GENUS PERODICTICUS. 

This is another genus containing only one species, the POTTO, Pcro- 
dicticns Potto, a small Lemur with almost rudimentary forefinger found at 
Sierra Leone on the West Coast of Africa. The Potto has a slender 
body, roundish head, projecting muzzle, moderately large eyes and small 
ears ; the arms and legs are nearly of the same length, the hands and feet 
large. The short fur is of a reddish-gray mixed with black, redder on 



112 QUADRUMANA. 

the head and limbs, mouse-color on the shoulders, and a grayish-red on 
the tail ; its total length is about fourteen inches, the tail being about 
three inches. 

Mr. Sclater writes of two specimens in the Zoological Gardens in 
London: "Our Pottos never voluntarily appear by daylight, but come 
out early in the evening for their food ; they are then ver}- active and leap 
about the perches of their cage all night long. Their food is ripe fruit 
of all kinds, cooked rice, milk and bread sweetened, and cooked meat 
chopped fine. They catch very cleverly little birds that are put in their 
cage, and tear them to pieces at once ; they seem to be delighted with 
such a change of diet." 

X.— GENUS ARCTOCEBUS. 

The Angwantibo, Arctoccbus Calabarcnsis, the only species, is a qative 
of Old Calabar. It is remarkable for the total absence of the forefinger, 
for the possession of a long claw on the first toe, and for an almost rudi- 
mentary tail. A thick and long woolly fur — somewhat shorter on the 
face and the backs of the paws — covers the body. It is of a brownish- 
gray on the back, but on the lower surface of the body and on the inner 
side of the limbs it is dark-brown. 

Althougii the Angwantibo has been known since the year 1680, little 
has been ascertained respecting its habits. 

XI.-GENUS GALAGO. 

This solitary genus of the sub-family Galagin.e comprehends fourteen 
species, all ft)und in Africa from Senegal to Zanzibar and Natal. While 
the Lemuridx' hitherto described are remarkable for the development 
of the power of sight, the Galagos are distinguished by the acuteness of 
their hearing. The body is slender, but looks stouter from its possession 
of a thick fur; the comparativclv large head is remarkable for the largely 
developed naked ears, and by tlie close-placed large e3-es. The limbs 
are of moderate length, the forefinger, the second toe, and in some 
species the middle finger and toe as well, are furnished with claw-like 
nails. The tarsus is elongated, the tail bushy. The dental formula is 

7 — 2 I — I ^ — "K 6 — 6 

I. -— =, C. , P. M. ' \ M. = 42. 

3-3 I - I 2-2' 3-3 



THE GALAGOS. II3 

The Galagos are strictly nocturnal animals, creatures whose sun is 
the moon ; during the day they lie rolled up in a shady corner, and if 
by chance they are prevented from finding a spot obscure enough, they 
hide their head from the hated sunlight, and contract their ears to deaden 
every sound. If violently awakened from their sleep they stare dreamily 
about them, and exhibit signs of annf)yance at having been disturbed. As 
soon as twilight spreads over the forest they rouse themselves, open their 
eyes, unroll their huge ears, and leave their lurking-places. Their life is 
that of a beast of prey with an insatiable thirst for blood, and a love for 
slaughter unexampled in the Quadrumana. Endowed with eyes as sharp 
as the lynx, ears as acute as the bat, with powers of scent like the fox, 
and the agility of the monkey, they are persevering in their attacks, and 
a terrible foe to smaller creatures. 

THE MOHOLI AND THE KOMBA. 

This species — Galago MoJioli, (or Otolicnus) — attains a length of eight 
inches in the body and ten inches in the tail. Its short, thick, silky fur 
is dull gray, with a faint tinge of red on the head and back ; the belly 
and inside of the limbs is yellowish-white, and the same color appears on 
the cheeks and a stripe running down between the eyes to the end of the 
nose. It has been found in Senegal and eastward in Kordofan. The 
natives call it Tendj, and say that it is an ape transformed to a lower 
shape on account of its sleepiness. It is usually found in pairs, and lives 
in the forests of mimosa. Startled by the traveler the creatures climb 
quickly up the trees but do not take flight ; they remain there quietly 
watching and listening. They make long springs from bough to bough 
and seem not to regard the stiff" prickles of the tree. By night their eyes 
gleam like burning coals. In captivity thev display great liveHness. 
When they go to sleep the ears wrinkle and contract, and then the point 
turns over and in, till the whole ear is almost invisible. They can con- 
tract the face into strange grimaces like some of the apes. 

The Galago agisymbanus is somewhat larger, attaining a length of from 
eight to twelve inches. The prevailing color is yellowish-gray, darker 
on the muzzle and the hands, becoming a grayish-white on the chin and 
cheeks. The tail, a brownish-red at the roots, is dark-brown at the tip. 

The natives of Senegal capture these animals by taking advantage 
of their fondness of palm-wine; its sweetness attracts them, the spirit in 
1.5 



114 QUAUKUMANA. 

it intoxicates them, and the little lemur falls down from the tree and 
lies in a drunken sleep, to awake a prisoner. It is not difficult to 
tame, and soon learns to eat bread and milk, and to appreciate tea 
and coffee, well sweetened. But flesh is always its favorite food, and 
it displays immense energy in hunting mice. If its master visit it at 
night, it shows great attachment, and allows himself to be handled and 
stroked. 

THE GIANT GALAGO. 

The Galdgo crassicaudatits is the largest species, being nearly the size 
of a rabbit. Its hair is thick and woolly, its tail bushy. The top of the 
head is reddish-brown, the back grayish-russet, the belly gray or 
)'ellowish-white, the tail a brownish-red. 

It extends over a large part of Southern Africa on the Mozambique 
coast. Its habits differ in no respect from those of its kindred. It sleeps 
all day, and is active all night. It sleeps rolled up with its head between 
its fore-legs, its bushv tail is then brought forward and kept in its posi- 
tion by the hind-legs, which are stretched out as far to the front as they 
will extend. The head is thus entirel}' covered. On waking it cleans its 
coat, and then begins to climb. Its movements are slow and careful, its 
steps quite inaudible, the fingers are spread out widely, the tail trails on 
the ground. It casts hungr)- glances at living birds, but in captivity will 
eat bread or fruits, which it sometimes takes squirrel-fashion in its hands. 
It is good-tempered and has a sagacious look in its pretty brown eyes. 

THE TARSIID^^. 

This family is represented by only one genus which contains but 
one species. It derives its name from the great length of the hinder 
feet, in which the tarsus is elongated. The tail is very long and pos- 
sesses a tuft at the tip. Its dental formula is that of the genus Lemur, 
but the lower incisors are oblique. 

THE SPECTRE TARSIER. 

This most extraordinarv-looking animal, the Ttirsius spectrum. (Plate 
III) is a native of Borneo, the Celebes, the Philippine Islands and Banca. 
The head would be round if a short muzzle did not protrude ; the face is 



THE SPECTRE TARSIER. II5 

uncommonly broad, the mouth opens as far back as the eyes, and the 
lips are thick. The eyes are immense owl-like eyes, quite out of propor- 
tion to the size of the animal. They literally occupy the greatest part 
of the face and are close together. The ears are no less peculiar; they are 
like large broad spoons. The neck is scarcely to be distinguished, the 
shoulders are high, the breast narrower than the back. The fore-legs 
are remarkable for their shortness, the hinder ones for their length. The 
hands are very long in proportion to the arms, the middle finger is 
almost thrice the length of the thumb, which again is less than the little 
finger, and the tips of all the fingers have large cushions like balls. The 
thighs are powerful and thick, the lower leg thin, the tarsi dried up and 
fleshless. The color is a yellowish-gray, flecked with reddish-brown, the 
tuft on the tail is yellow, a stripe of deeper hue surrounds the back of the 
head, and the face and forehead have a warmer tint than the body. It 
lives in trees and skips about with short leaps like a frog. 

The natives regard the Spectre tarsier as an enchanted animal, and 
affirm that it was once as large as a lion; they fly at once from their 
fields when one of these creatures is seen on a neighboring tree. In 
captivity it is cleanl)-, particularly in its food ; it never tastes anything 
half-eaten, or drinks twice from the same water. Propped up on its 
thin legs and bare tail, with its enormous yellow eyes, it looks like a 
dark-lantern on a tripod. 

THE CHEIROMYID^e. 

This family consists of a species which must be considered the most 
extraordinary which is known to naturalists. It is a specialized form of 
the Lemuroid type, and like the Lemurs belongs to that isle of won- 
ders — Madagascar. 

THE AYE-AYE. 

The Aye-Aye, CJuiromys Madagascariensis, (Plate III) was first seen 
about one hundred years ago. It was unknown at that period to the 
people of Madagascar, and the name of Aye-Aye given to it by Sonnerat, 
was due to the exclamation of the natives of that island when this traveler 
showed it to them for the first time. 

For a long time it was undecided what place to assign to the Aye-Aye 
among the Mammalia. This indecision arose from ambiguous organic 



U6 QUADRIMANA. 

characteristics in this quadruped, some of which pertain to Rodents and 
others to the M;ikis. At first siirht. the Ave-Ave shows some strikinsT 
points ot rx'semblance to the S<iuirrels : it has their general form, the 
long bushy tail, and especially their dentition. It has, in fact, no canine 
teeth, but possesses, in frv>nt of its jaws, a pair of strong incisors, 
is*.>late<l from the molars by a vacant space, similar to the gap occur- 
ring in the Squirrels and all animals belonging to the Order of Ro- 
dentia. But, on the other hand, the lar^ size and rounded form of 
its head, indicative of a voluminous brain, the conformation of its limbs, 
the length of the digits, and the opf>osable thumb in the posterior mem- 
bers, the complete state of the bony circle of the orbit, as in the majority 
«rf Qitadrumaita. the existence of only two mammx^ in the female, are 
characteristics which assimilate the Aye-Aye to the Makis, and ought 
detiaitively to cause it to be ranked in the Quadrumana. 

But it mav be obser\ed as a majrked diflerence between this animal 
and all the other Quadrumana. that in the Aye- Aye the milk-giving organs 
are placed on the lower :: of the abdomen, and thus a great distinc- 

tion is at once made : this creature and the true Quadrumana. 

Indeed, there are so many points of discrepancy in this strange being, 
that it is difficult to make it agree with the systematic laws which have 
hitherto been laid down, and naturalists have placed it in one order or 
another, according to the stress which they laid on different points of its 
organization. 

After its discovery in 17S2, so little was heard of the Aye- Aye that 
many writers described it as extinct. But further news of it was 
heard in ^&^-^ when De Castelle forwarded the skeleton and hide of 
one to Paris. This remained the ooly ^jecimen in Europe, till 1862, 
when the Zoological Society of London received one alive. Since then 
several of them have been sent to various collections in Europe. From 
the time of Cu^^e^ down to Giebel in 1S59, most writers classed it am<»g 
the Rifdnt^y but Owens and Peters have clearly established its nght to 
the rank of a j^uocuh' ; according to them its dental formula is 

2 — 2 I — I 2 — 2 
L =, C- ^ -, M. = = iS, 

2 — 2 o — o 2 — 2 

for its first set of teeth, bat for the permanent set, 

I. i^. C ^^. P.M. 1^. M. ^^ = ... 
2 — 2 — — 3 — 3 



The: Are-Are b charactenzed bf tibe fofloiriag^ aaria: The heai » 
laiif e, the neck ribort, tlie bodj povretfol, the tafl as loo^ as tibe bodj- 
The limbs are of the sane leagth. The eres are satall ia cnmageuiioa 
with the bead, the ears retj larg^e. The tioogsaed ^stigen amd tir<e« are 
remarkable. The dutmb is stroog^ aad diort, the aeder ifciger weaker, 
the third finder as thick as die thnsub, the fittle finder rerj ftroog, vhdc 
the ioo^ nuddle-fii^er seems driad t^. The tanas is moderateir ioa^, 
the bi^-toe like the Asaab, the other toes all of the same lei^tk. The 
hce IS of a reddisfa-^graj vith dark rii^ roood the eres and a %fat 
patch orer them; the gzaj- caior cootimaes 00 the cheeks aad threat: 
elsewhere the coUx is a brownish^ilack spndkkd vith vhite aad vith 
gra J reflectJoos. The adtdts reach the length of treatj^serea iaches, 
of irhich ooore daaa half beioi^gs to the taiL 

Pollen in 1S63 pubfisbed aa aoc:'- ^ ' the creatnre's habits. "TMs 
remarkable beast lires in the bambr. of the interior of the idbod. 

The satires eaj it e %o rare as to be seies oolr br acckkaC; it fires aloae 
or in paii^ never in band& k seen oolr at night and deeps br dar in the 
densest duckets. It feeds on the sap of tise bambrio aad sogar-csae. as 
wefl as 00 beetles and larvae- To get ks S(>«L it gsaws, -Midi ks Kr'ieag 
incisors, an r^jeoing into the stem of the fiaoL, and tisroo^ it iJHert^ i-s 
attenuated r' . t the insects or the hqaid. At 

amset It oo:_ ,_..,. . .; j openi^^ deft orboliwr in the 

trees, bat at the approach of da-rs liids itseif m the thickest recess^. 
Its err, a load granting, is often beard in the nigiHt.'* 

The eitraordinarv character of the whfAe fK * : ''- ~mda£, '-' -'-'- 
co'^nement to die i^2ad rA >Iadagascar, has noch i 

Geok^gists iniorm ns that remains of Lemnroids hare been Kxiod in tise 
Eocene depr^its in France, while in yorih America Mr. Mar 

r-O less than tR---- : -_ ' : rdsct Lemcroids. "" - ■ 

a:r^ most allied -ican group, the Av 

nK>sets. Hence erea in the Terdaz-r dsfosts we hare act yet got 

^ enough hack to find the priraeral type &om which aS. the Primates 

spring, 

Mr. Wallace oonaders that there js erideace for behef that in ear?T 
Terdarj times a oontinaoce 51a mxB the Bar of Bei^al to the Br 
Islands isolated Southern aad C bich coutineat ext£=:>c.ea 

as fc- as Soodiera ladia aad - -£^ thk period tm '■'■/-=" 

rr:>e; of yismmz!^ were ateec* -% edemata, aad in 



ii8 



QUADRUMANA. 



took their place. He adds that while there is every reason to negative 
a union between Africa and America, yet a moderate extension of their 
shores to each other is not improbable, and this with large islands in the 
piace ot the Cape Verd group, St. Paul s Rocks, and Fernando Noronha, 
would suffice to explain the amount of similarity that actually exists. 



ORDER II. 



CHEIROPTERA, 



I.— FRUGIVORA, 
9. PTEROPID.E .... Fruit-eating Bats. 

II.— INSECTIVORA. 

10. PHYLLOSTOMID^ .... Leaf-nosed Bats. 

11. RHINOLOPHIDyE Horse-smoe Bats. 

12. VESPERTTLIONID.E .... True Bats. 

13. NOCTILIONID.E; Dog-headed Bats. 














^A\lfe^»//l^'^^^^i^--y/l\^'>^^l//^^j?^iy<^M/fe/|\»J^^ >^i'/- ■ 



Jl>4!/ 



CHAPTER I. 



THE ORDER OF CHEIROPTERA — SUPERSTITIOUS DREAD OF BATS — THEIR USEFULNESS — THEIR FLY- 
ING APPARATUS — THEIR GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HABITS— THE GENERA OF THE 
ORDER. 



WE have hitherto been describing strange creatures which are 
not native to our country, and of which living specimens are 
seen by us only as prisoners in the cages of menageries, or 
as beggars accompanying some itinerant organ-grinder. The order of 
which we are now about to treat is one of which some of the members 
are well known to all our readers. In the summer days, as the sun 
declines, the bats begin to come out from the recesses where they have 
hidden themselves from the garish light of the sun. As the darkness 
deepens their numbers increase, and when night has come they are all 
busv, wheeling in their strange intermittent flight, as they pursue their 
insect prey. They seem to be half birds and half mammals, and to forni 
a link between these classes. For a long time, indeed, they were re- 
garded as birds. Moses describes them as " fowls that creep, going upon 
all fours," and adds that they are to be " an abomination." Aristotle 
defines bats to be birds with wings of skin, and his authority gave cur- 
rency to this view of their relationship till comparatively modern times. 
The bats, however, have no other resemblance to birds than that they 
can fly. 

But while philosophers agreed in calling the bats birds, the unedu- 
cated classes, who knew nothing of theory and were guided by their own 
observations, seem everywhere in Europe to have regarded them in their 
true light, as a form of mammal. The French name them " the bald 
shrew mouse "; the Spaniards, the " blind mouse "; to the German they 
are " fledermause "; to the English peasant, the " flittermouse," or the 
mouse that flits or flutters. 
16 



122 CHEIROPTERA. 

The dark dwellings of the bats, the strange, mouse-like body, the 
leathern wing, the melancholy squeak, the repulsive look, give to them 
a mysterious character. While good spirits appear with the wings of a 
dove, evil demons are, in popular superstition, provided with the wings 
of the bat ; and fabulous creatures like dragons or griffons are supposed 
to bear themselves through the air on bat-like wings. Such views, 
instilled in childhood on uneducated people, have produced a hatred 
against a set of creatures which have claims for our protection, and 
which certainly do more good than harm, by continuing in the twilight 
the work of the swallow and keeping down the crowd of insect pests. 

The wild superstitions connected with the name of Vampire deserve 
a longer notice. An eloquent writer has remarked : " Of all the crea- 
tions of superstition a Vampire is perhaps the most horrible. You are 
lying in your bed at night, thinking of nothing but sleep, when you see 
by the faint light that is in your chamber, a shape entering at the door 
and gliding toward 3'ou. The thing moves along the air as if by the 
mere act of volition; it has a human visage and figure. The eyes stare 
wildly from the head ; the hair is bristling; the flesh is livid ; the mouth 
js bloody. 

" When you awake in the morning you think it is all a dream, until 
you perceive a small, blue, deadly-looking spot on your chest near the 
heart. You say nothing of the matter, but you know you are a doomed 
man. Every night the shape returns, and, with a face horrified at itself, 
sucks your life-blood in your sleep. You pine and droop and languish 
till you die. When dead you yourself become a Vampire and create 
fresh victims, who, d3-ing in turn, add to the phantom stock." 

This belief that the dead body is sometimes animated by a demon 
who caused it to rise from the grave and behave like a musquito, is very 
prevalent in the Southeast of Europe. Greece seems to have been its 
cradle, but it is still widelj' spread and firmly held in the countries 
bordering on Greece. 

From about the year 1727 to 1735 there was an epidemic of Vam- 
pirism in Servia and Hungary. People died by hundreds under the 
belief that they were killed by phantoms. Commissions were appointed 
to investigate the matter, and the graves of alleged Vampires opened ; 
the bodies were found undecomposed, with fresh skin and nails growing, 
with florid complexions, and blood in the chest. Voltaire tells us that 
" Vampires can be brought to reason only by being burnt when the)' 



IIIE TiLOOD-SUCKING VAMPIRE. I23 

are caught ; but ilie precaution must be taken not to resort to this 
measure till the heart has been torn out." An old German writer 
describes the execution of a Vampire : " When they opened his grave, 
after he had been long buried, his face was found with a color, and his 
featuixs made natural movements as if tlie dead man smiled. He even 
opened his mouth as if he would inhale air. They held a crucifix before 
him and called, ' See, this is Jesus Christ, who redeemed your soul from 
hell.' Upon this tears began to flow from the dead man's eyes. Finally, 
when they proceeded to hack off his head, the corpse uttered a screech 
and turned and rolled just as if it had been alive." In fact the super- 
stition caused the murder of a sufferer from trance. 
Allusions to the belief are common in Byron: 

But first on earth as Vampire sent, 
Thy corse shall from its tomb be rent, 
Then gliastly haunt thy native place, 
And suck the blood of all thy race, 
Yet loathe the banquet, which perforce 
Must feed thy livid, living corse. 

He refers for further particulars to Southey's notes on " Thalaba," and 
adds that the stories told in Hungary and Greece of these foul feeders 
are most incredibly attested. 

Undoubtedly the application of this name Vampire to the blood- 
sucking bats of South America has increased the aversion with which 
all the order is regarded. 

The Cheiroptera increase both in number and variety as we approach 
the tropics. In the torrid zone they come out by thousands. In Central 
and South America they people the twilight of the primeval forests, 
they live in hollow trees and in rocks, and wage relentless war on the 
tribes of insects. The traveler sees them by daylight hanging from the 
trees, by night they are found in the midst of the forests as well as on the 
banks of the rivers. In Southern Asia the swarms of bats literally darken 
the sky when evening comes. " The bats," writes Tennant, " form a 
decided feature in the evening landscape in Ceylon. They are found in 
crowds in every hollow, in every underground passage, in the galleries 
of fortresses, under the roofs of houses, in the ruins of every temple. 
When night has come and the lamps arc lit they appear, flutter around 
the table, and catch their prey by lamp-light." Nor are they much less 



124 CHEIROPTERA. 

numerous in the South of Europe, where the ruined edifices which abound 
in Italy, Greece, and Spain, send forth whole armies. They are quite as 
numerous occasionally in our own country. In a building in Maryland 
nine thousand six hundred and forty bats by actual count were destroyed 
by new tenants who entered the house after it had remained for some 
time unoccupied. 

The scientific name given to this peculiar order of creatures is CHEI- 
ROPTERA ; a word compounded of the Greek word clicir "a hand," and 
ptcron "a wing," and expressive of the fact that they are mammals with 
winged hands. 

This winged hand deserves our careful notice. hW. the fingers of the 
hand, with the exception of the thumb, which is short, has a nail, and is 
quite free, are immoderately long, and united by means of a transparent 
membrane, which is without hair. This membrane covers also the arm 
and fore-arm, and is nothing else than a prolongation of the skin of the 
flanks. It is composed of two very thin layers, one a continuation of the 
integuments of the back, the other that of the abdomen. It also extends 
between the posterior limbs, where it is more or less developed, accord- 
ing to the species, and there takes the name of the interfemoral mem- 
brane ; but it never reaches the toes of the feet, which are short, and 
have nails. 

It is owing to this membranous sail that Bats direct their course 
through the air in the same manner as Birds. When they are at rest, 
the}' fold their wings around them, enveloping their bodies as if in a 
mantle, just as we close an umbrella. The short, free thumb takes no 
part in extending the leathern wings, but it has to supph' the place of 
fore-limbs when the bat is climbing or clinging. The foot has one strik- 
ing peculiarity; it has a bone which is confined to the Cheiroptera. This 
spur-bone springs from the heel, and serves to stretch the membrane 
between the leg and the tail. 

The nose in all varieties of the Cheiroptera is highly organized. Not 
merely are the nostrils well opened, and capable of being closed or dis- 
tended by peculiar muscles, but many families have in addition most 
extraordinary nasal appendages. 

The ear too is equally complex ; it consists of a very large cochlea, 
which is susceptible of very easy motion. There exists too a large, 
movable, variously formed flap, the tragus or ear-cover, which serves to 
close the auditory canal and exclude sounds which the bat cannot endure, 



SENSES OF THE BATS. 5 25 

or enables it to hear the lightest rustle. In tact bats hear the insects flying 
past them at a considerable distance, and this sense of hearing guides 
them in their course. Cruel experiments have been made to demonstrate 
this fact, and it has been found that the bat's flight becomes wild and 
uncertain when the ear or tragus is removed. 

Their powers of sight and taste are less developed. But it is to a 
very exceptional delicacy of touch that must be attributed the ease with 
which bats fly about in their dark retreats without striking against the 
angles, rocky projections, or other objects. Spallanzani instituted experi- 
ments which were decisive in this respect. The celebrated physiologist 
destroyed the vision of several specimens, and on leaving them alone he 
saw them fly around the room without betraying the slightest hesitation, 
or without striking their heads against the furniture or the ceiling ; in a 
word, without the deprivation of sight having changed in the slightest 
degree their condition of existence. 

This fact induced Spallanzani to declare that bats are endowed with 
a sixth sense, which informs them of the proximity of solid bodies. But 
such an explanation is unnecessary. When we are aware of the prodi- 
gious sensibility of the tactile organs in these animals, we may admit that 
they are affected by certain movements of the air which are imperceptible 
to us, and that bats can thus be rendered conscious of the proximity ot 
a body by the obstruction to the eddies and currents of air displaced by 
them in their flight. 

The hair with which the bat tribe is furnished, is of a very peculiar 
character ; and although closely resembling the fur of a rat or mouse 
when seen by the unaided eye, is so unique in aspect when seen under 
a microscope, that a bat's hair can be detected almost at a glance. Each 
hair is covered with very minute scales, which are arranged in various 
modes around a central shaft. 

As might be expected from their structure, most of the bats walk very 
badly, all slowly and clumsily. Its mode of progression is as follows: 
The bat thrusts forward one of the fore-legs or " wings," and either hooks 
the claw at its extremity over any convenient projection, or buries it in 
the ground. By means of this hold, which it thus gains, the animal 
draws itself forward, raises its body partly off the earth, and advances the 
hind leg, making at the same time a kind of tumble forward. The process 
is then repeated on the opposite side, and thus the creatui^e proceeds in 
a strange and unearthly fashion, tumbling and staggering along as if its 



126 CHEIROPTERA. 

brain were reeling from the effects of disease. It steers a very deviating 
course, falling lirst to one side and then to the other, as it employs the 
limbs of either side. 

In their general form the Cheiroptera resemble the Quadrumana, and 
like the latter the female has two teats. Their internal structure is pecu- 
liar, the skeleton is slightly but strongly built, the bones never have air- 
cavities as birds have, the vertebrae are broad and short, the ribs long, 
the legs very slender, the collar-bone and shoulder-blades thick and 
strong. The extraordinary development of the skin makes these crea- 
tures look larger than they really are, and in some species its immense 
growth in the nose and ears gives them their peculiarly repulsive look. 

All the Cheiroptera sleep by da)-. They suspend themselves head 
downwards by the hind feet, frequently clinging to each other in compact 
masses. 

In cold and temperate regions bats iiibernate. They are then abso- 
lutely insensible, and may be handled, shaken, and even thrown in the 
air, without betraying the least movement. But if they are held for 
some time in the hands, or near a fire, under the influence of the heat 
they rapidly show signs of animation. 

During the period of torpidity the vital functions are executed 
feebly, but the}- are not altogether abolished. They cannot dispense 
with nourishment during this portion of their existence, but as they 
are incapable of taking food, they devour their own substance, the fat 
that has accumulated in their bodies during the period of activity. In 
this way is explained their emaciation at the termination of their winter 
sleep. 

Professor Owen writes: "The preservation of life in tliis passive 
state is due to the irritable property of the fibre of the heart, which is 
excited to contract by the blood in its carbonized state. The slow cir- 
culation of venous blood is the only recognizable vital act during hiber- 
nation, and the material convej'cd by the absorbents is sufficient to 
counterbalance the slight waste. The bat is thus independent of sup- 
plies from without, but it purchases that independence by a temporary 
abrogation of its vital functions. Cold, senseless, motionless and asphyxi- 
ated, its entry into death's chamber is prevented only by its being 
brought to his verj^ door." 

Bats usually have only one offspring at a time. As soon as brought 
forth, the mother carefully cleans it, envelops it in her wings as in a 



FAMILIES OF CHEIROPTERA. - I27 

cradle, and holds it pressed against her breast to receive its first nourish- 
ment. After some days, the youngster can hang by the claws of its hind 
feet to the fur of the mother, and it is not rare to see her Hying about 
with this strange burden. When, exceptionally, the progeny are double, 
then the winged nurse carries both in her aerial voyages. 

The bats are a very difficult study, and it is quite uncertain how 
many distinct species are really known. The genera too are exceedmgly 
numerous, and are in a very unsettled state, while the synonymy is 
exceedingly confused. We shall commence by dividing them into five 
families, the Pteropid.^, or fruit-eating bats ; the Phyllostomid.€, or 
leaf-nosed bats, among which the blood-sucking Vampire is found ; the 
Rhinolophid^, or horse-shoe bats ; the Vespertilionid^, or common 
bats, and the NOCTILIONID^, or short-headed bats. We will mentioa 
their range of distribution under each family. 




CHAPTER II. 

THE FRUIT-EATING BATS OR FLYING FOXES — THE KALONGS — THE LEAF-NOSED BATS OR VAMPIRES 
— ORIENTAL SUPERSTITIONS — THE HORSESHOE BATS — THE RHINOPOMA. 

^^T'^HE Fruit-eating Bats or Flying Foxes, Ptcropidiv, are pretty 
I evenly distributed over the tropical regions of the Old World 
-L and Australia. They range over all Africa and the East of 
Asia northward to China and the South of Japan. They are found also 
in Australia and Tasmania, and in the Pacific islands as far east as Samoa ; 
but do not occur in New Zealand or the -Sandwich Islands. 

Naturalists have divided the Pteropidas into nine genera and sixty-five 
species, but an account of them all would be wearisome. We shall 
therefore confine our notice to a few species of the most characteristic 
genus, the Pteropus, from which the family derives its name. 

THE KALONG. 

This species, the Flying Fox or Kalong oi English travelers, Ptero- 
pus cdulis, is the largest member of the order, and sometimes attains the 
size of a squirrel, with wings measuring four feet across. It has a muz- 
zle somewhat like a dog's, pretty large, naked and pointed ears, and a 
highly developed flying membrane, which, however, between the hind 
legs is reduced to a narrow strip. It has no tail. Its dental formula is 

1."-=", C. '^, M. 5ZZ5 = 34 

2 — 2 I — I 6 — 6^^ 

The color of the back is a deep brownish-black, that of the belly reddish- 
black, the head and neck of a reddish-brown. 

It is found chiefly in the islands of the East Indian seas, and frequents 
the numerous orchards which surround the native villages, especially 
preferring the trees of the Durian, a fruit which Wallace says it is worth 
a voyage to the East to eat, so exquisite is its flavor. By day the Kalongs 




COMMON BAT VAMPIRE BAT HORSESHOE BAT 

COMMON BAT 

DOG HEADED BAT 



FRUIT EATING BAT 



PLATE IV CHEIROPTERA 



THE FLYING FOXES. 129 

hang on the branches by hundreds and thousands and millions. By night 
they fly in bands so large that hours are required for the whole body to 
pass an observer. 

Their food is fruit, chiefly the various kinds of figs and the mangoes ; 
but occasionally they have been seen to eat little fishes, which they catch 
when they leap out of the water. The damage these enormous troops 
of creatures do is incalculable ; but the natives pursue them less to re- 
strain their depredations than to obtain a dainty for their kitchens. " At 
Batchian," Wallace writes, " these ugly creatures are considered a great 
delicacy and are much sought after. At about the beginning of the year 
they come in large flocks to eat fruit, and congregate during the day on 
some small islands in the bay, hanging by thousands on the trees, espe- 
cially on the dead ones. They can be easily caught or knocked down 
with sticks, and are brought home by basketfuls. They require to be 
carefully prepared, as the skin and fur have a rank and powerful foxy 
odor. They are generally cooked with abundance of spices and condi- 
ments, and are really very good eating — something like hare." 

The Kalongs are not the redoubtable animals represented by early 
travelers, who had the privilege of becoming first acquainted with them. 
These explorers allowed themselves to be imposed upon by their extra- 
ordinary dimensions, and their descriptions of them are ridiculous exag- 
gerations. The truth is that the Kalongs never attack any animal, even 
the feeblest. They may, it is true, in the absence of their ordinary ali- 
ment, eat insects, but this is a rare exception ; and they are only to be 
dreaded by man for the injury they do his gardens. Divers artifices are 
therefore resorted to, to prevent such destruction. For this purpose, in 
Java the fruit-trees are covered with network or wickerwork made with 
bamboo slips. 

Another species, the Ptcropus Edzuardsi, is found in India and Mada- 
gascar. It is much less than the Kalong, and differs from it slightly in 
color, having on the back a broad stripe of yellowish-gray. It has been 
often brought to Europe, and Brehm has given an account of the be- 
havior of a pair of them in captivity. They seemed to live in perfect 
harmony, and allowed themselves to be handled and stroked by those 
they knew ; strangers they did not like, even of their own species. 
The Berlin Thiergarten was the scene of deadly combats between 
the flying *"oxes ; difference of sex made no difference in the ferocity 
of the combats, in which one or both usually died from the bites 
17 



I30 CHEIROPTERA. 

inflicted by the enemy. Even with the utmost care they rarely 
live long in confinement. Flight seems a necessity of their well-being, 
and, when kept prisoners, they contract ulcers on the wings and soon 
perish. Yet some specimens lived and produced young in the London 
Zoological Gardens, and Brehm's couple lived over two years in a 
cage. 

The bats which belong to this genus are remarkable for the fact that 
they possess fewer vertebrae than any other known mammalian animal. 
In the entire spinal column, there are but twenty-four of these bones ; 
this paucity of number being caused by the entire absence of a tail. 

THE LEAF-NOSED BATS. 

The Phyllostomid^, or simple leaf-nosed bats, are found from Mex- 
ico and the Antilles to the southern limits of the forests east of the Andes 
and in Chili. One species, closely allied to the Mexican form, is found 
in California ; and the Vampires, of which such terrible tales are told, 
belong to this family. The family has been divided by various naturalists 
into five groups ; it is sufficient for us to say that it embraces t/iirty-oiie 
genera and sixty species. We will mention onlv the genera Phyllostoma, 
Dcsmodus, and Macrotus. 

The members of this family are chiefly characterized by two nasal 
leaves, one in the form of a horseshoe, situated above the upper lip ; the 
other disposed in the shape of a lance, and placed above the first. They 
have the mouth widely cleft, the tongue studded with horny papillae, and 
in each jaw a pair of strong canine teeth, which project beyond the lips. 
They are of medium size, their hair is short and lustrous, and their inter- 
femoral membrane is more or less developed, according to the genera ; 
the tail varies in length, or is altogether absent, as the species differ. 

It is probable that all the leaf-nosed bats are blood-suckers, but 
only under certain circumstances. Hence we have very conflicting 
accounts. 

The naturalist Azara, who observed a large number of these American 
bats, has afforded us valuable information concerning their habits. It is 
usually on the croup, shoulders, or neck, that they bite beasts of burden, 
because there they find a secure resting-place. The wounds they inflict 
are neither extensive nor deep, but are small incisions made by the horny 
papilte with which their tongue is armed, and which only puncture the 



ATTACKS OK VAMI'IRKS. I3I 

skin. The blood, therefore, with which they gorge themselves comes, 
not from the veins or arteries, but from the capillary vessels of the skin. 
They sometimes attack sleeping poultry, and bite them on the crest or 
the other appendages which decorate their heads. Most frequently 
gangrene of the wound supervenes in these subjects, and death follows. 

Azara fully couhrnis their sanguinary proclivities with regard to man, 
having himself on several occasions experienced their effects. At four 
different times this naturalist had his toes bitten when he was obliged to 
sleep in the open air. But the sensation was so painless that he did not 
awake, and knew nothing of his mishap until morning. He suffered from 
the effects of these wounds for some days, although he did not think it 
necessary to pay any attention to them. 

The same traveler adds that they do not live on blood except when 
insects are scarce. He also gives an opinion, but without mentioning 
it as his own, or expressing his belief in it, hut which is credited by the 
natives, that in order to lessen the sensation of pain in their victims, these 
animals fan with their wings the part they are about to wound. 

Humboldt writes : " During the cool long night the cattle and horses 
cannot rest; for monstrous bats suck their blood while they sleep, or 
fasten themselves to their backs, causing suppurating woimds in which 
flics and insects settle. The bats which bit our dogs had long tails like 
the Molossi, but I believe they were the leaf-nosed varieties which 
possess a tongue that is a real sucking machine. The wounds were small 
and round; the dog howled from fear rather than pain. Still I have slept 
many a night under the open sky without being bitten. The bite is not 
dangerous, and the pain so slight that the bat is off and away before the 
sleeper awakes." Rengger states " that the wounds are a quarter of an 
inch in diameter and about two lines deep, never reaching the muscles, 
and showing no traces of teeth. The loss of blood is about three ounces 
from each wound." Burmcister, however, says that the loss of blood is 
very slight, and that he never knew of any man being attacked, or any 
animal dying of the wound. Hensel tells us that in Rio de Janeiro the 
stables require to be furnished with lamps and punkas to keep the bats 
from the horses. He does not attribute blood-sucking propensities to all 
the leaf-nosed bats. ' Most of them have teeth like Carnivora, and pro- 
duce wounds resembling those inflicted by beasts of prey ; but the wounds 
caused by the blood-suckers are quite different; they seem to be produced 
by raising up the skin and then severing it by a horizontal cut. Hence 



132 ClIElRoriLRA. 

numerous capillary vessels of the skin are divided, and an abundant, long- 
continued bleeding results. Such \vt)unds can only be eft'ected by pecu- 
liar organs such as the genera Desmodus and Diphylla are endowed 
with." 

Waterton, in his travels in South America, writes : " In the morning I 
heard my friend Tarbot swearing in his hammock. ' What's the matter?' 
I asked; 'Anything wrong?' 'The matter!" he replied ;' the bats have 
sucked me to death.' 1 found on examination that tiie bats had attacked 
his great toe; the wound was less than tlie bite ot a leech. 1 conjecture 
that my friend lost twelve ounces of bk)od." 

Bates, who lived eleven years in Brazil, was once bitten. His narra- 
tive of a night in a South American forest is not very cheering : " To- 
wards midnight I was awakened by the rustling sounil produced by bats 
flying to and fro. They had put out my lamp, and when I had relit it 
I noticed that the whiile room was black with them. I laid about me 
with a stick and they disappeared through the roof; next morning I 
founil a wound, evidently inflicted by bats, on my hip. The negroes 
assert that the \'ampire is the only species which attacks man." 



GENUS PHYLLOSTOMA. 

The Vampire, Phyllostoma spectrum (^ Plate II), is the largest of the 
South American blood-suckers. The head is thick ; the snout project- 
ing ; tJie ears large ; the nose-leaf small for the size of the animal ; the 
tongue is flat, elongated and extensile, covered with papilUi; so as to 
form a kind of sucking organ ; tlic upper lip smooth, the lower lip cov- 
ered with two large, bare, warty excrescences; the soft fur is chestnut- 
brown on the back, yellowish-brown on the belly. 

Nothing is more hideous than the front view of this creature. The 
great, leathern, projecting ears, the jirotruding spear-like nose, the 
sparkling black eyes, form a whole whicii calls up the goblins of legend, 
and hts well with the Vampire's bloodthirsty reputation. Our intro- 
ductory remarks will have shown that there is considerable doubt 
whether the Spectre Vampire deserves its character as a sucker of blood. 
Bates expressly states that it is well known to the natives of Brazil for 
its harmlessness. Still there is no wonder that a superstitious race 
should find its monstrous appearance an index to its disposition. Both 



THE CALIFORNIA VAMI'IRE. I33 

Bates and Watcrton affirm that it is mainly friigivorous. The former 
opened the stomach of several specimens and loiind that they contained 
various kinds of seeds mixed with the remains of insects ; the guava fruit 
is an especial object of their attack. The latter observed these bats in 
a moonlit night fluttering round the tree-tops evidently eating the buds. 
It is difficult to discover in many cases what species a traveler describes 
under the name of Vampire, and in ordinary language it designates all 
the bats that suck blood. 



GENUS DESMODUS. 

This genus possesses nasal leaves in the form (jf the letter V, large 
ears that stand wide apart, no tail, and a mere strip of femoral membrane. 
The crowns of the molars form a long cutting-edge. The " tragus," or 
inner ear, is long and pointed. 

The species Dcsmodus rufiis, which is usually regarded as the represen- 
tative of the genus, is russet-brown on the back, but silver-gray on the 
under surface. The nasal leaf, ears, arms, and legs are thinly clothed 
and appear flesh-colored ; its length is about two inches and a half, its 
spread of wing twelve inches. It is abundant in Brazil. Mensel states: 
" In capturing these animals, I have often seen the wounds they inflicted 
on the noses of my dogs and on my own hands; they bite with lightning 
speed : even when they appear only to touch the skin, a part is soon felt 
to be removed. They do not hold on with their teeth like other varie- 
ties." 

GENUS MACROTUS. 

The Californian Vami'IKE, Macrotus Calif ornicus, although a quite 
distinct species, is nearly related to some of the West Indian bats. It 
has a long head and a face covered with hair, which grows somewhat 
thinly on the large oblong ears, while the neck behind them is almost 
bare. The fur is white and fawn-colored, each hair being tipped with 
white, but that on the face is somewhat inclined to brown. Its dental 
formula is 

I. -— , C. "~ ' , M. 5 ~ 5 ^ 34. 
2 — 2' I — i' 6 — 6 ^^ 



134 CHEIKOl'TERA. 



THE HORSESHOE BATS. 



The family Rhinolophidit, which embraces seven genera and SL-ve?ity 
species, derives its scientific name from a curious crest-like membrane 
on the nose. They are found most abundant and varied in Eastern 
Asia, where twelve species are found. Africa and Australia possess 
five, Europe one genus only. 

The nasal appendage consists of three portions — the horseshoe, the 
longitudinal comb, and the lancet. The former begins at the end of the 
snout, and surrounds the nostrils with a deep fold of skin. The comb 
rises up inside the horseshoe behind the nostrils. The lancet rises up 
between the eyes under the posterior end of the horseshoe, and contains 
three cellular cavities. The ears are simple, without an inner ear; the 
flying membrane short, and the flight clumsy. The tail is short, and 
the interfemoral membrane entirely embraces it. At the flanks two 
glands are found which have the aj)pcarance of mamm;«, and secrete an 
odoriferous substance. The Rhinolophidie differ but little in size from 
the Vespertilionidae ; they have a long, abundant fur, generally of a light 
shade, which is sometimes remarkably handsome. 

These Cheiroptera are widely spread in the Old World, in Europe, 
Africa, Asia, and the islands of Sunda ; no species are found in America. 
They live in numerous bands during the greater part of the year. When 
the females are with young, they separate themselves from the males, to 
bring forth and rear their progeny. The following genus contains the 
"Horseshoe Bats" proper: 



GENUS RHINOLOPHUS. 

The Lesser Horseshoe Bat, Rldnolophus hipposideros, is not uncom- 
mon in Europe. During its winter sleep it folds itself so closely in its 
wings that it seems a fungus rather than an animal. Its chief food is soft- 
bodied insects, like flics or motlis, but it is said to be a blood-sucker, on 
very inconclusive observations. It attains the size of only two inches, 
with a spread of eight inches in the wings, and is distinguished from the 
following species by an additional appendage to the nose, placed in front 
of the ordinary lancet. 



THE HORSESHOE BATS. 13$ 

The Great Horseshoe Bat, Rhinoloplms ferrum equinum (Plate II), 
is much larger, sometimes measuring eighteen inches across the wings. 

The NoiiLE Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus nobilis, is the largest of the 
genus, measuring four inches in length, and twenty inches from tip to tip 
of the wings. It is a native of Java, and has very fine and long hair, the 
color being brownish on the back and grayish beneath. The nasal ap- 
pendage is a broad membrane, stretching transversely across the nose 
like a shelf. The sides are bounded by parallel folds, and the inferior 
portion is semicircular, with an obtuse point in the middle. 



GENUS MEGADERMA. 

The African Leaf Bat, Mcgadcrma frons, is more properly a mem- 
ber of the Horseshoe family than of the Vespertilionidae, with which 
some writers class it. The nose has three leaflets — one horizontal, one 
vertical, and one of the horseshoe form. The ears are very large, fur- 
nished with a tragus, and united over the forehead so as to give a heart- 
shaped appearance to the head. They are blood-suckers. 

Of the four or five species known, the most important are the Leaf- 
nosed Megadermes, which inhabit Madagascar, and the Lyre Mega- 
dermes, found in Senegal. The latter measures fourteen inches across 
the wings. 

GENUS NYCTERIS. 

This genus, with three species, is found in the Moluccas and Africa. 
The nose is pierced by a cavity in which the nasal-leaf is concealed ; the 
tail is of medium size, and supports the interfemoral membrane through- 
out its length. They measure from eight to ten inches across the wings, 
and possess a contrivance by which they can increase their size without 
augmenting their weight. Two very small openings afford a communi- 
cation between the mouth and the space between the skin and flesh, 
which are only tied to each other by a few membranous threads at each 
side of the neck and on the sides of the thumb ; when, therefore, the bat 
desires to inflate its body, it closes its mouth and forces the air through 
the cheek-passages into the empty space between the skin and flesh. 
The result of this operation is that the skin is puffed out, so that the 



136 CHEIROPTERA. 

creature looks like a little ball of fur to which the head and limbs had 
been artificially attached. 



GENUS RHINOPOMA. 

This curious Indian genus, which is sometimes classed with the Noc- 
tilionidae, has a long tail, a narrow femoral membrane, and a peculiar den- 
tal formula, 

2 — 2 I — I 5 — 5 

The best known species, Rliinopoina microphyllum, is found in Bengal 
and Egypt. It is a small, long-haired, light-gray bat, about two inches 
long. The tail is remarkable for its length, and contains eleven vertebra. 
It is found in great numbers in the old ruins on the Nile, and hangs in 
masses that quite hide the roof. In the evening they are seen skimming 
across tiie waters, especially during the inundation, in quest of insects. 



e 




CHAPTER III. 
THE TRUE BATS. 

THE COMMON BAT — THE TAPHOZOUS — THE PIPISTRELLE— THE BARBASTELLB — THE NEW YORK 
BAT — THE CAROLINA BAT — THE HOARY BAT — THE CALIFORNIA BAT — THE GREAT BAT OF 
BRITAIN — THE SHORT-EARED BAT — THE LONG-EARED BAT — THE BIG-EARED BAT — THE NOC- 
TILIONID.E — THE GENUS NYCTICEIUS — THE GENUS NYCTINOMUS — THE GENUS NOCTILIO. 

OF the numerous recognized species of bats, nearly two hun- 
dred belong to this family, the Vespertilionid^. They are 
placed under eighteen genera, all agreeing in the following 
characteristics : the nose is simple, with leafy appendages, the ear has 
always a tragus or cover, the pointed molar teeth have an edge some- 
what in the shape of a W, The dental arrangements are very varied, 
and on them the division into genera is founded. The incisors, which 
are pointed, are two, four, six, or more in the upper jaw ; usually four, 
rarely six, exceptionally two, in the lower. The canines and false molars 
vary from one to three above, and from two to three below, while the 
molars are three on each side. Thus the number of teeth varies from 
twenty-eight to thirty-eight. 

Equally various are the sizes of these bats. Some measure five inches 
in the body and two feet across the wings ; others attain only a length 
of one inch and a half and seven inches of wing-spread. They are most 
numerous in America, but are found everywhere outside of the polar 
circles. They prefer to live in trees, on the branches, rather than in 
holes or caverns. Some live in large bands, some are solitary, or at most 
form very small societies. They live almost exclusively on insects., at 
times on small animals, but it is not ascertained whether any of them eat 
fruit. They may be described with justice as the most useful of the 
Mammalia. Their flight is abrupt and full of sudden turns, thus baffling 
birds of prey. They climb and run very well ; their sense of hearing 
is highly developed. We will notice only the principal genera of this 
family. 

i8 



138 CHElROrTERA. 



GENUS TAPHOZOUS. 

The animals belonging to this genus are natives of Africa and the hot 
parts of Asia. They arc characterized by a liollow foreliead and a some- 
what short tail, which is detached and projects downward. Their wings 
generally have a span of from eight to twelve inches. It contains ten 
species. 

GENUS VESPERUGO. 

This genus is distinguished by short, thick, fleshy ears, set wide 
apart and rounded in front, the tragus or cover of the ear projects, 
the wings are pretty long with a thick membrane, and the tail is as long 
as the body. 

The Northern Bat, or Vcspcmgo Nilsoiiii, attains a length of about 
ten inches. Its color on the upper surface is dark-brown, on the lower 
somewhat lighter. It is found in the north of Sweden and Norway, 
probably extending to the Arctic circle, and in Russia. It does not sus- 
pend itself by the hind feet during its period of hibernation, but hides 
in crevices from which only its snout projects. It migrates southwards 
in the summer, because in the far north the days of June and July are too 
long to suit nocturnal animals. 



GENUS VESPERTILIO. 

This genus is found over the whole of the Northern Hemisphere, and 
contains many species. The wings are slender and capable of quick 
movement and great endurance ; the covering of the ear is directed 
inwards, and the tail is included in the flying membrane. 

THE PIPISTRELLE. 

The PiPlSTRELLE, Vcspcrtilio pipistrellus (Plate IV), is the smallest 
European bat. It is only two inches and a half long, of which length 
full one inch is taken up bv the tail. The fur is a yellowish red-brown 
above, inclining below more to yellow. The thick ears and membrane 
are brownish-black. 



THE COMMON HAT. 1 39 

It inhabits almost all Europe and North and Central Asia, and extends 
from Spain to Japan. It is exceedingly common in Germany, where no 
town, no village, no farm does not harbor them. It is the Common Bat 
of Great Britain. 

Its flight is marked by great adroitness. In the bright evenings it is 
seen sometimes skimming over the surface of small pools, but oftener 
flitting to and fro between the stems of the trees. In villages it seldom 
rises higher than the second story, and never Hies far in the centre of 
the street, but keeps near the houses. It is fond of entering lighted 
rooms, but avoids low and small chambers. 

They can be tamed to a certain extent, and soon become familiar with 
the people whom the relations of every day have taught them to recog- 
nize. Dr. Franklin says that he has seen, in several farms in England, 
bats which were perfectly tame. These little creatures lived in the same 
room with the farmer's family. If any one, holding an insect between 
his lips, imitated the buzzing of a fly, they perched upon his shoulder, 
sought for the insect around his mouth, and even seized it from between 
his lips. 

Its mode of eating is peculiar. According to White's " History of 
Selborne," if you give it anything to eat, it brings its wings round before 
the mouth, hiding its head. It is capable of running on the ground, and 
is an agile climber. 

They are exposed to many enemies ; hawks attack them in summer, 
weasels and mice invade their hiding-places in winter, but it finds its 
bitterest enemy in man. 

The Sero TINE, Wspcrtilio serotinus, has the ears pretty large, the fur 
long and soft, the color reddish-brown passing into dull-yellow beneath 
the body. Its flight is slow, and it is generally found solitary or in pairs. 

The Mouse-colored Bat, Vcspertilio murinns, measures three inches 
and a half from the snout to the root of the tail. The head is narrow in 
front and elongated, the eyes conspicuous, the ears sharply pointed. It 
is described as a very pugnacious animal. 

THE BARBASTELLE. 

The Barbastelle or Bulldog Bat, Vcspertilio barbastellus, (Plate 
IV), measures three and a half inches, and has a spread of wing of ten 
inches. The color is blackish-brown, inclining to gray beneath. The 



!40 CHEIROPTERA. 

ear is tolerably large and wrinkled, with a sharp-pointed tragus. I( is 
found all through Europe, and has been often observed in captivity. It 
is of more gentle disposition than most bats, and soon recognizes its 
keeper; a couple of days render it comparatively tame. It is not very 
active, and one kept by Bell, the naturalist, preferred lying on the 
hearth-rug to using its wings ; it fed on meat. 

During hibernation, they hang by their hind legs usually at the 
entrance of caverns, where they sometimes have been seen perfectly 
enclosed in icicles. 

THE CALIFORNIA BAT. 

The California Bat, Vcspcrtilio nitidus, is to be carefully distin- 
guished from the previously-described California Vampire. The body 
is small, its spread of wing seven inches, the head and face hairy, the 
ears longer than the head, the foot small, the tail usually embraced in the 
interfemoral membrane. The fur is silky, of a brownish tint, becoming 
lighter in front. As far as known, it has never been found to the east of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

THE NOCTULE. 

The NocTULE, Vespertilio noctjila, is one of the largest species. Its 
length is sometimes four inches, including one inch of tail. When its 
wings are expanded they measure fourteen inches. 

It is found over a great part of the Old World, preferring lowlands 
and valleys. During the summer days it sleeps in clefts of trees, but 
during their winter-sleep hundreds are found clinging to each other in 
old ruins. Its flight is strong and high, and it turns with such dexterity 
as to escape almost all attacks from birds of prey. The Noctule is com- 
monly called in Great Bi-itain the Great Bat, but it possesses a more 
popular appellation derived from its sharp and piercing cry, that of the 
" Jacky Screamer." It does not make its appearance till the end of April ; 
it emits an offensive odor. 

THE SHORT-EARED BAT. 

Daubenton's Bat, Vcspcrtilio (or Bracltyotus) Daubcntonii, has ears 
which, when pressed down, scarcely reach the top of the nose. It 
measures an inch and a half in the bodj-, and about one inch in the tail. 



THE NEW YORK BAT. I4I 

It is easily distinguished from bats of the same size by its short ears and 
the absence of wmg-claws. In Germany it is called the Water Bat, 
as it loves well-wateied regions, where it is found occasionally in extra- 
ordinary numbers. It seems to prefer chalk quarries for the scenes of 
its hibernation, and it lives in societies. 

Ponds near houses and gardens are their favorite haunts, and they 
skim within a hand's-breadth of the surface ; if a bridge comes in their 
course they always pass under the arches. By day they hang in clusters 
jn branches over the water. 

The Little Brown Bats, Vcspcrtilio subulatus, common throughout 
the Middle States, and the Blunt-NOSED Bat, Vcspcrtilio lucifiigus, ex- 
tending throughout the United States as far as Mexico, call for no 
remarks. 

GENUS SCOTOPHILUS. 

The Carolina Bat, Scotophilus Carolincnsis, has oblong ears as 
long as the head and rather velvety. The projecting portion of the 
ear is heart-shaped. The fur is chestnut-brown above and yellowish 
below. 

The Georgian Bat, Scotophilus Gcorgianus, is of a dark-brown color 
on the back, brighter in front, and the fur is thick, soft, and long ; the 
head is somewhat flat, and the point of the tail is not involved in the 
membranous wings. 

GENUS LASIURUS. 

The New York Bat, Lasiurus noveboraccnsis, has short and broad 
ears, and a rather pointed, short nose. The fur is soft and thick, and 
there is a white spot at the origin of the wings. It is sometimes called 
the Red Bat, and is found in New York, Pennsylvania, and on the 
Missouri. 

" Godman's Natural History " relates: " In June, 1823, a son of the 
keeper of a city park in Philadelphia brought home the young one of 
one of these bats. Three hours afterward its mother made her appear- 
ance and followed the boy two blocks, finally alighting on his breast. 
Both were brought to the museum, the young one firmly adhering to the 
mother's teat." 



142 CHEIROPTERA. 

The Hoary Bat, Lasmms cincrciis, is common in the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The ear is large, but shorter than the head ; the tragus obtuse 
and bow-shaped. The nostrils are wide apart, the canine teeth large, 
and there is only one incisor on each side. Its fur is long and of a 
black-brown at the base, then of a brownish-yellow, then blackish, then 
white, and from the mixture of these tints is derived its name. It is 
nearly four and a half inches long — that is, it is nearly twice the size 
of the New York Bat, with which it has much affinity. 



GENUS PLECOTUS. 

The Long-eared Bat, P/a-otus nuritus, derives its name from its 
highly developed ears. These appendages are nearly as long as the 
whole body, and are remarkable for their transparency. The wearer 
has the strange power of contracting and expanding his ears, producing 
sometimes graceful folds and festoons, at other times a feathery appear- 
ance. When flying they usually curve them backward, so that merely 
the long, pointed tragus stands up. When it hangs itself up to sleep, it 
covers its ears with the arms. 

The Long-eared Bat bears captivity better than most of his fellows, 
can be easily tamed, and exhibits a very amiable disposition. The pris- 
oners soon become bold and familiar; they arc yery cleanly, not only 
cleaning themselves after their meals, but occasionally assisting each 
other. They are playful and pretend to bite one another, but they never 
harm their companions of the same species. 



GENUS SYNOTUS. 

This closely allied genus is one of the genera peculiar to the South- 
eastern and Central States. It is characterized by very large ears, the 
inner border of which continues as a nasal excrescence, and has no 
tongue-shaped development, as in the genus Plccotus. 

The Big-eared Bat, Synotus macrotis, is found in the South Atlantic 
States. It measures ten inches from wing-tip to wing-tip ; the hair is 
long and fine, of a blackish-brown color. A very similar species, the 
Synotus Toiviisoidii, is found on the L^pper Missouri. 



THE DOG-HEADED BATS. 1 43 



GENUS ANTROZOUS. 

This genus possesses a large head, high tapering nose, slender trun- 
cated snout, large eyes, and cars longer than the head. 

The Pale Bat, Antrozous pallidus, is found in the Pacific States and 
Texas, and exhibits two varieties — one fawn-colored, the other yellowish- 
brown ; in the latter the interfemoral membrane is bare. 

THE NOCTILIONIDv*:. 

The Dog-headed Bats are very unequally distributed. Their head- 
quarters are in the tropical regions of America, where most of the 
genera into which the family is divided are to be found. They range 
from Mexico to Chili on the West Coast, and Buenos Ayres on the 
East, and one species occurs in California. New Zealand and Norfolk 
Island each possess one species. The New Zealand species, Mystacina 
tubcrciilata, seems to form a connecting link between the Noctilionidas 
and the Phyllostomidae. 

The Noctilionidas have the ears usually joined, the lips are pendu- 
lous, the nose sharp, the tragus is broad and square. The tail extends 
beyond the interfemoral membrane, and the great toes are fringed on 
the outside. Various classifications of this family have been made ; 
some authorities include in it the Rkhiopoma, which we have placed 
with the Rhinolophidac:, and the Taphozons, which we class with the 
Vespertilionidas. 

The genera are fourteen in number, but their differences are only 
interesting to the professed student of natural history. 



GENUS NYCTICEIUS. 

This North American genus contains only one species. The head and 
cars resemble those of the Vesperugo. 

The Creek Bat, Nycticeius crepuscalons, is found from New York to 
the Rock}' Mountains, and southward to New Orleans. The fur is 
rather short, and brown, with yellow tips to the hair. 



144 CHEIROPTERA. 



GENUS NYCTINOMUS. 

This genus has pointed ears, thick hanging lips, and a sharp nose. 
The great toes are separated from the others and fringed on the outside. 

The Nyctinoiiuis nasiitus, called likewise Molossus or Dysopcs nasutus, is 
found in South Carolina, but most extensively in South America. As 
befits its name of nasutus, the nose is well defined ; the head is larsfe, the 
lips pendulous ; the ears are as broad as they are long, and almost join at 
the base. The fur is soft and thick, of a yellowish-brown, tipped with 
white, and covers the lower part of the ears. The tail projects some dis- 
tance beyond the interfemoral membrane, and the toes are supplied with 
long hairs. 

Another species, the Nyctinoimts obscurus, is nearly the size of the Bar- 
bastelle, and measures three inches. The head is short, the muzzle 
swollen, the ears large. 



GENUS NOCTILIO. 

The DoG-iiE.\DED Bat, Nodilio Avicricauus or Icporinus, is the best 
known of the tivo species of this genus. The ear is short, narrow, and 
pointed ; the muzzle conical, the nose overhanging the lips ; the upper 
canines very long.' The fur is of a reddish-yellow, and does not extend 
to the flying membrane. The second species, Noctilio albiventer, is much 
smaller, and the fur on the belly is yellowish-white. 

The bats are a very difficult study, and it is quite uncertain how 
many species are known ; the most probable estimate is that of Mr. 
Murray, who gives a list of four hundred species. For American Bats, 
the reader who desires to pursue the subject is referred to the exhaustive 
monograph of Dr. Allen, in the Transactions of the Smithsonian Institute. 
For the Cheiroptera in general Mr. Dobson's elaborate Catalogue is the 
latest authority. 



ORDER HI. 



INSECTIVORA. 



14- GALEOPITHECIDtE ... - Flying Lemurs. 

15. MACROSCELIDID^ .... Elephant Shrews. 

16. TCJPAIAD^ Squirrel Shrews. 

17. ERINACEID^ - Hedgehogs. 

18. CENTETID.'E Tenrecs. 

19. POTAMOGALID^ .... Otter Shrew. 
io. CHRYSOCHLORID^ - - - Golden Moles. 

21. TALPID^ Moles. 

22. SORICID^ Shrews. 



CHAPTER I 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORDER — ITS DIVISION INTO NINE FAMILIES — THE GALEOPITHECID.'E — • 
THE FLYING LEMURS — THE MACROSCELIDID/E OR ELEPHANT SHREWS — THE GENUS RHYN- 
CHOCYON — THE GENUS PETRODROMUS — THE TUPAIAD.« — THE BANGSRING — THE PRESS — THE 
GENUS HVLOMYS — THE GENUS PTILOCERCUS — THE PENTAIL. 



THE third order of Mammalia, the INSECTIVORA (from Insccta " in- 
sect," and 2'oro " to devour"), embraces numerous animals which, 
like many of the Cheiroptera, feed on insects, for the consumption 
of which they are specially adapted by the formation of their teeth. 

The distribution of the Insectivora over the habitable globe is 
remarkable ; they are completely absent from South America and 
Australia ; some genera only found in Madagascar have allies in the 
West Indian islands ; the hedgehogs, so common in Europe, are un- 
known in North America, and the majority of the species of the order 
belong to one genus, Sorex. From these facts it is evident that they are 
the detached fragments of a much more extensive group of animals 
which are gradually diminishing in number and which are now almost 
extinct. In the terrible struggle for existence which has gone on since 
life first made its appearance on the globe, the INSECTIVORA have not 
held their ground, except in special localities or by the favor of special 
circumstances. Some have been saved from the severe competition with 
other mammals by their isolation in regions like Madagascar ; the Moles 
have escaped extermination by their habits : the Hedgehogs by their 
prickly armor ; and others, Hke the Elephant Shrews and Squirrel 
Shrews, owe their safety to the likeness they present to dominant 
groups in their own districts. It is only under special conditions ihat 
they can maintain themselves against more highly organized forms. 



148 INSECTIVORA. 

The animals of this order exhibit remarkable deficiencies and remark- 
able developments of particular parts. The body as a rule is compact, 
the head long, the nose prolonged into a snout : the limbs, with the 
exception of the tail, and, in some species, of the hind-leg, are shortened 
excessively ; the clothing of the body varies from the velvety skin of the 
mole to the sharp, stiff, erectile spines which defend the hedgehog. 
Their limbs are adapted for walking, swimming, and digging. They are 
all plantigrade, that is, in walking they apply the whole sole of the foot 
to the ground. 

Their intelligence is verv slight ; they are dull, shy, and distrustful, 
loving solitude, yet of violent tempers. Most of them live a subterranean 
life, but some frequent the waters, some the trees. Their astonishing 
energy is an essential check on the increase of worms and insects, and 
even of the smaller rodents. 

A look at the jaws of an insectivorous animal immediatel}' con- 
vinces us that the creature is carnivorous to a greater degree than such 
Carnivora as cats or dogs. The jaws bristle with pointed teeth, 
daggerlike spears take the place of canines, and sharp pyramids resem- 
bling a double saw complete their dentition. The whole striicture is 
formed to seize and hold fast even hard-shelled insects like cock- 
chafers. The jaw^s of a shrew-mouse enlarged to the size of a lion's, 
would be far more terrible and appalling in the ferocity of their appear- 
ance. 

In spite of the benefits conferred on us by these creatures in destroy- 
ing our insect pests, the prejudice of man accuses them of divers imag- 
inary crimes. In England the shrew is considered venomous, and every 
village has a mole-catcher. 

Many of the IxSECTlV0R.\ hibernate. As cold approaches thousands 
upon thousands of the victims destined to feed the members of this 
order, are removed from their clutches. Hence, as the Insectivora 
cannot, like the birds, migrate in quest of food, they are providentially 
given the faculty of hibernation. Of course, those that prey on crea- 
tures which do not disappear in winter, have no need to pass the 
cold season in torpid slumber. 

We follow the latest authorities in classing the animals of this order 
in nine families, and commence with the family of the FLYING LEMURS or 
COLUGOS, which present a striking resemblance to the " Flying Foxes," 
and seem to form an intermediate link of transition. 



THE FLIGHT OF THE COLUGO. 149 



THE FLYING LEMURS. 



The family Galeopithecid.-e contains only one genus, which again 
contains oniy two species. For a long time the COLUGO, Galcopithecus 
volans, I Plate V; was placed among the Lemuroidea. Its food seems to 
be entirely vegetable, and its flying membrane shows some relationship 
to the Cheiroptera. Its dental formation settles its place among the In- 
sectivora, but the fact that the young are bom very small, blind and naked, 
and are closely attached to the wrinkled skin of the mother, indicates 
some affinity to the Marsupialia. This animal indeed seems to be a 
lateral offshoot of some low form which has survived during the process 
of development of the Insectivora, Lemuroidea and Marsupialia from an 
ancestral type. 

The Flying Lemur is as large as a cat, with a slender body and 
limbs of moderate length. Attached to the extremities of these limbs is 
a membrane which envelops the animal from the neck to the extremity 
of the tail, and which permits it to sustain itself in the air. The fingers 
of all the feet have retractile claws and the thumbs are not opposable. 
The head is small, the muzzle prominent, the eyes moderately large, the 
hairy ears small. The membrane between the limbs is merely a para- 
chute. When the Colugo desires to make a leap it spreads its limbs 
so that the membrane may present as large a surface as possible. The 
membrane is not used as a wing, and the Colugo cannot rise. At every 
leap the spot it aims at must be lower than that from which it starts ; 
hence after a few aerial voyages it is compelled to climb a tall tree 
and begin afresh. At rest the membrane folds so closely as to be 
almost indistinguishable. The Colugo has two mammae. The lower 
incisors are set pointing forward, and are notched like the teeth of 
a saw, and the molars are studded with points like those of all the 
Insectivora. 

The Galeopitheci are essentially nocturnal. They are seen at night 
moving actively through the trees. On the ground they run with agility. 
Their flight is noiseless. Insects constitute the staple of their food, but 
they are fond of fruit, and even devour small birds. 

In order to rest, these animals suspend themselves by their hind 
paws to the branches of trees, like bats. The people of the regions 
they inhabit choose this opportunity for capturing them ; and not- 



ISO INSECTIVORA. 

withstanding the disagreeable odor their flesh exhales, eat them with- 
out repugnance. 

The Colugo attains a length of two feet, including the tail ; the back 
is thickly covered with hair of a brownish-red color, becoming darker 
on the under surface. It is found in Sumatra, the Moluccas, and the 
Philippine Islands. 

It is difficult to obtain any satisfactory account of the habits of the 
Colugo in its native forests, as many travelers have, beyond all doubt, 
confused it with the Flying Fox (Ptcropus cdulis). Nearly all the infor- 
mation we possess is given by Wallace : " This creature has a broad 
membrane, extending all round its body to the extremities of the toes 
and to the point of the rather long tail. This enables it to pass obliquely 
from one tree to another. It is sluggish in its motions, at least by day, 
going up a tree by short runs of a few feet, and then stopping a moment 
as if the action were difficult. It rests during the day clinging to the 
trunks of trees, where its olive or brown fur, mottled with irregular 
whitish spots and blotches, resembles closely the color of mottled bark, 
and helps to protect it. Once in a bright twilight I saw one of these 
animals run up a trunk in a rather open space, and then glide obliquely 
through the air to another tree, on which it alighted near the base and 
immediately began to ascend. I paced the distance from one tree to 
another and found it to be seventy yards, and the amount of descent I 
estimated at not more than thirty-five or forty feet, or less than one in 
five. This, I think, proves that the animal has some power of guiding 
itself through the air. The Galeopithecus feeds chiefly on leaves, and 
possesses a very voluminous stomach and long convoluted intestines. 
The brain is very small, and the animal possesses such tenacity of life 
that it is exceedingly difficult to kill it by ordinary means. The tail is 
prehensile, and is probably made use of as an additional support while 
feeding. It is said to have only a single young one at a time ; and my 
own observation confirms this statement, for I once shot a female with a 
very small, blind, and naked creature clinging closely to its, breast, which 
was quite bare and much wrinkled. On the back and over the limbs and 
membrane the fur of these animals is short but exquisitely soft, resem- 
bUng the chinchilla." 

A German traveler writes : " We heard a shriek so peculiar and pain- 
ful that we seemed to hear the cry of a child or the scream of some 
sufferer. Weird and disagreeable, it echoed from time to time through 



THE ELEPHANT SHREWS. 15 1 

the still night ; the natives drew up around our fires ; fear of spirits 
silenced their merry chatter. But the secret was soon betra^'ed : the 
spirit whose voice resembled a distant cry of pain came in sight and 
hovered slowly over our heads. It was a Flying Lemur." 

A female that lived for some time in captivity is described as a harm- 
less, stupid creature. " It lay on its stomach with all its legs stretched 
out, and then slowly and awkwardly hopped to the wall of the room, 
which it tried to ascend. As the wood was planed it could not take 
good hold of the surface, and after climbing a few feet it fell down again, 
but the fall was always broken by the expanded membrane with which 
nature has provided it." We do not possess much further knowledge 
respecting the Flying Lemur. 

THE ELEPHANT SHRE\ArS. 

The animals of the famil}' Macroscelidid.*: are extraordinary little 
creatures, and are called "elephant" on account of their trunk-like snout, 
and "long-legged" because their hind-legs resemble somewhat those of 
the Kangaroo. They are almost confined to South Africa, and extend 
up the East Coast as far as tha Zambezi and Mozambique. They are 
divided in three genera and ten species ; but two of the genera, Petro- 
DROMUS and Rhynchocyon, are each represented by a single species. 

The Elephant Shrews are essentially leaping animals ; the hind- 
legs are enormously elongated, and they possess usually five, sometimes 
four short toes, with shoi^t, weak claws. The thin, short-haired tail is a 
little shorter than the body ; the fur is thick and soft ; the teeth number 
forty ; the long, proboscis-like nose is perforated at its extremity by the 
nostrils which are placed obliquely, and it doubtless aids the animal in its 
search for food, while the enormous length of its hinder-limbs enables it 
to catch its prey with wonderful agility. 

I.— GENUS MACROSCELIDES. 

The typical Elephant Shrew, Macroscelides proboscideus (Plate V), 
attains a length of nine inches, of which four and a half belong to the 
tail. The snout is nearly an inch in length, and reddish-black at the ead. 
The coat is a reddish-brown or mouse-gray, more or less bright, with 
shades of white on the lower surface of tb*^ body; the ears are white 



152 INSECTIVORA. 

inside. They frequent stony mountains ; and under stones, in deep and 
almost inaccessible recesses, in clefts of the rock, and holes of the earth, 
they find refuge from danger. They love the sunlight, and are most 
active during the scorching hours of noon ; their food consists mainly 
of insects, which their long legs enable them to catch or their long snout 
to find in rifts and clefts. They are very timid, and the slightest motion 
sends them into their hiding-places ; after some time, one after another 
sallies out, hops about, looking and listenmg on every side ; then they 
begin to snuffle at the stones or catch, at a spring, some passing insect. 
Their habitations are made below the surface of the ground, and consist 
of a deep and tortuous burrow, the entrance to which is a perpen- 
dicularly sunk shaft of some little depth. 

The rapidity of their movements and the speed with which the}' take 
flight render it a difficult task to capture them ; but when captured they 
endure confinement pretty well, are gentle and graceful and soon gain 
the sympathy of man. 

Seven of the species are found in Southern Africa ; one, the Trunked 
Rat, Macroscelides Rozetti, has been found in Algeria. It is said that some 
ingenious soldiers of the French army, quartered there, have at times 
been induced to meet the demand for specimens by a manufactured 
supply. An erudite naturalist was delighted at purchasing from a 
Zouave a magnificent specimen of the Trunked Rat, till closer examina- 
tion showed him that it was a common rat with an inch of its own tail 
grafted by a little incision on the end of its nose. 

II.— GENUS RHYNCHOCYON. 

The Rhynchocyons are also leaping animals, consequently have the 
hind quarters more elevated than the fore ones, but their bodies are 
more slim, and thev are altogether larger than the Macroscelides. 
Besides this, they are " tetradactylous " — that is, their limbs are ter- 
minated by only four toes. 

The 07ily species known, the Rhyjichocyon cirnei, was discovered in 
Mozambique by the traveler and naturalist Peters. Its muzzle is pro- 
longed into a very conspicuous proboscis ; the eyes are large, the ears 
moderate, while the tail is considerably developed. The outer toe is 
widely separated from the others in the fore-feet. It possesses thirty-six 
teeth. 



THE TUPAIAS. 153 

The third genus — Petrodromus — is represented by one species which 
inhabits Mozambique. It has the general characteristics of the family, 
and, as its name implies, is most frequently found in rocky neighbor- 
hoods. 

THE SQUIRREL SHREWS. 

The family Tupaiad^ embraces three genera divided into ten species. 
They are often called Squirrels, and have a superficial likeness to 
these denizens of our forest. They are all natives of the Indian Archi- 
pelago and the adjoining continent. The head is pointed and ends in 
a snout usually bare at its blunt extremity, the body is slender, the 
tail long — sometimes very long and bushy, having two rows of hair 
hanging equally on each side ; the fur is thick and soft. They have 
from thirty-eight to forty-four teeth, which are remarkable from the fact 
that the canines are shorter than the incisors. The eyes are large, the 
ears rounded, the limbs regular, the feet have bare soles, and the five 
toes are separated and armed with short, curved claws. The female has 
four teats. 

The development of the eye indicates their diurnal habits, and the 
curved claws, that they can climb. 



I.— GENUS TUPAIA. 

The TUPAIA Tana, Tupaia Tana, is the largest of the seven species 
of this genus. It has a bushy tail with the hair hanging evenly down 
on each side, large prominent eyes with a bony ring closing in the orbit 
behind, and thirty-eight teeth. It is distinguished from other species by 
the great length of its tail, and it wears a dark-brown blackish fur which 
displays on the underside a ruddy tinge and appears mixed with gray on 
the head and muzzle. A gray stripe crosses the back of the head, and 
a dark-brown line runs down the back. Each hair consists of gray 
and dark-brown rings alternately. It is very nearly the size of the 
common squirrel. We know little of its wild habits. It is described 
as an agile, active, merry creature, which uses its crooked claws excel- 
lently, and climbs with all the skill of an ape. It is not strictlv insec- 
tivorous — it sometimes eats fruits which it picks from the branches or 
off the ground. 
20 



154 INSECTIVORA. 

THE PRESS. 

The Press, or Squirrel Shrew, Tupaia fcrruginea (Plate V), is a 
very pretty creature so like the squirrel that, as it runs about, it can be 
distinguished only by the elongated outline of the head. It measures 
about thirteen inches, including hve inches of tail ; the length of the head 
being two inches. Its height, as it stands or .ill-fours, is about three inches. 

The coloring of its fur is a brownish-maroon, which in some parts, 
as the spine, is deepened into a rich brownish-black, and in others, as the 
ribs and flanks, is warmed into a reddish tint. Hence the epithet of 
fcrruginea or "rusty" has been applied to the animal. This change 
of color is caused by tlie mode in which the hairs are marked in alter- 
nate rings of black and maroon. Those which run along the back are 
black, with a fawn-colored ring in the middle, but those which grow 
upon the ribs are fawn, with a black ring in the middle. The ears are 
black. Upon the under surface of the body the fur is of a whitish- 
yellow, fading into gray. The long and bush}' hairs which decorate the 
tail are so dotted with white that they give a grayish-brown effect. 

Alihough ihe teeth of all the Tupaias are evidently of an insectivorous 
description, the Press, as well as its congeners, feeds chiefl)- on coleopter- 
ous insects, but varies its diet with certain fruits. It is affirmed that the 
Press partakes so far of the carnivorous propensities of the mole, that 
it will sometimes pounce upon small birds as they are hopping among 
the branches, and make a meal upon their bodies. One of these animals 
that was tamed, and accustomed to roam about the house at will, was 
very fond of milk and fruits, and used to attend at every meal for the 
purpose of obtaining these coveted luxuries. 

THE BANGSRING. 

The Bangsring, Tupaia Javaiiica, abounds in the dense forests of 
Java. It differs from the preceding species by the length of its tail, 
which is fully as long as its body, of a uniform thickness and clothed 
wit li hairs that spread out like those on the squirrel's tail. The fur is 
close and line, with a few longer and darker hairs interspersed in its 
prevailing hue of grayish-brown. It is easily tamed. Sir .Stamford 
Raffles describes one which behaved like a pet spaniel, and ate fruits 
and milk at the table of its owner. 



THE PENTAIL. 155 



II.— GENUS HYLOMYS. 



This g-enus is characterized by the shortness and bareness of its tail, 
and by the absence of the bony ring around the orbit of the eye, wiiich 
is such a peculiar feature in the genus Tupaia. Two species only are 
known. 

The Hyi.OMYS, Hylomys suillus, is a small species which is found in 
Sumatra and Java, where it lives on the hills, two thousand feet above 
the sea-level. It is by no means common. The muzzle is developed 
into a movable proboscis, turning in a downward curve at the tip, 
where the nostrils are placed laterally. The eyes are not promment or 
large, but the ears are of considerable size. It possesses forty-four teeth; 
the three central toes in the feet are longer than the rest. 



HI. — GENUS PTILOCERCUS. 

This genus is known only by one species, a specimen of which is 
preserved in the British Museum. 

THE PENTAIL. 

The Pentail, Ptilocercus Lowii (Plate V), is an extraordinary crea- 
ture which was first described by Mr. Low, who captured one of them. 
in the house of Sir James Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak. It derives its 
name from the resemblance borne by its tail to the old quill pen of our 
ancestors. It is about the size of a rat, but appears to be of greater 
dimensions, on account of its extremely long tail with the remarkable 
appendage at its extremity. As represented in the plate, the tail is of 
extraordinary length when compared with the size of the body, and is 
devoin of hair, except at its extremity, where it is furnished with a 
doublj row of stiff hairs on each side, which stand boldly out, like the 
barbs jf an arrow. The remainder of the tail is covered with scales, 
which are square in their form, like those of the long-tailed rats, and 
of considerable size. The color of the tail is black, and the bristly 
barbs "vhite, so that this member presents a peculiarly quaint aspect. 

The fur which covers the body of the Pentail is extremely soft in 
texture, and is of a blackish-brown tint above, fading into a yellowish- 



156 INSECTIVORA. 

gray beneath. As the tips of the hairs are tinged with a yellow hue, the 
precise tint of the fur is rather indeterminate, and is changeable, accord- 
ing to the position of the hairs which are exposed to view. 

It is presumed that the long tail of the Pentail is used for the pur- 
pose of balancing itself in its progress among the branches of trees ; but 
this conjecture is only problematical, as the habits of the animal are not 
yet known. 

The Tupaiadse are an interesting fanriiy of Insectivora in a scientific 
point of view on account of the presence ol several well marked anatomi- 
cal peculiarities. As already stated the most important of these is the 
osseous ring that completes the posterior part of the orbit of the eye. 
In all other specimens of the order Insectivora a communication exists 
between the orbits and the spaces occupied by the temporal muscles 
which act upon the lower jaw. In this peculiar conformation of the 
TupaiadcC, therefore, we observe an approach to the structure of the 
insectivorous monkeys. The eyes project sufficiently to enable the ani- 
mal to see backward almost in a straight line. The small but sharp nails 
that arm the five toes of the plantigrade feet are sufficiently elevated 
to be spared from friction against the ground. The name Tupaia is given 
by the natives of Sumatra both to the members of this family and to the 
squirrels which they so strongly resemble. The fossil remains of the 
Omoinjs have been found in the Pliocene deposits of the United States. 




CHAPTER n. 

THE HEDGEHOGS, MOLES AND SHREWS. 

THE ERINACEID.* — THE HEDGEHOGS — THE GENUS GYMNURA — THE CENTETIDyE — THE TENREC ANP 

TENDRAC — THE GENUS SOLENODON — THE AGOUTA — THE POTAMOGALID/E — THE CHKYSOCHLO- 

RID^ OR GOLDEN MOLES — THE TALP1D>E — THE MOLES — THE GENUS TALPA — GENUS CONDY 

■ LURA — THE STAR-NOSED MOLES — THE GENUS SCALOPS OR AMERICAN MOLE — THE GENU* 

MYOGALE— THE DESMANS — THE UROTRICHUS — THE SORICID-E OR THE SHREWS. 



T 



HE family Erinaceid^e is not represented on the Amencan 
Continent. It consists of tivo genera — one comprising th? 
Hedgehogs proper, the other the Gymnura. 



I.— GENUS ERINACEUS. 



The Hedgehogs are scattered somewhat capriciously over the East- 
ern Hemisphere. Their most remarkable feature is the coat of stiff- 
pointed spines covering the back ; another is the power of rolling them- 
selves up into a ball, by placing the head on the breast, drawing up the 
legs, and curling the body round them. When thus rolled up the crea- 
ture is almost invulnerable, and can with difficulty be unrolled ; an 
enormously developed muscle with a thick margin spreads over the 
back and sides, and contracts with an immense force, capable of resist- 
ing the efforts of its enemies while the spines inflict severe wounds. The 
only method readily available for making the creature unroll, is to fling 
it into water. 

The spmes, which the animal can erect at will, are confined to the 
back ; the other parts of the body are either, like the face and feet, hair- 
less, or covered with hair of a more or less dense character, according to 
the species. The food of the Hedgehogs consists of insects, worms, 
snails, and the like. 



158 INSECriVdRA. 

The LoNO-EARED IlEnGEMOG, J'.n'iiiUtiis auriius, is found in Siberia 
;iiul tin- luist ol Asiatic l\iissia, and lias also been discovered in Ee;ypt- 
It is smaller than the common European Hedgehog ; the limbs are longer 
and more slender, the hair on the lower suriace ot the body is extremel)^ 
line. The spines on the back do not extend so far as in the luiiopean 
species, and aie of peculiar color — tlie base being white, \\\v ixiitre 
brown, the tip yellow. The species derives its name from the large size 
of its cars, which project in such a manner as to produce a very pig- 
like look. 

The Hedgehog or Urchin, Erinaccus Europcus (Plate V), is found in 
every part of Europe, where it is often kept in gardens to-kill snails and 
insects, anil \\\ houses to kill cockroaches. 

The imder surface ol (lie bodv, together wit'a the limbs, is covered 
with long l)ristles and imdulating soil hair, which passes rather abruptly 
into the stiff quills that deliMul the back, and is so lorig that it almost 
conceals the limbs when the animal is walking. The quills cover the 
entire back and top of the head, and are of a grayish-white '_'-)lor, iliver- 
sified w ith a blackish-brow 11 ring near tlie middle. In the j'oung animal 
the sjiincs are few in number, soft in texture, and nearly wliite, so that 
the little creatures look like balls of white hair or \()ung birds. Tlie 
young are born not onl\ w ith llie i\es, but with the ears closed also — a 
fact said to be quite unique. The nest in which they are produced and 
nurtured is most ingenious in its structure, being so ailmirably woven 
of moss and similar substances, and so well thatched with leaves, that it 
will resist the elVccts ol \ iulenl showers. 

The Hedgehog is very fond of milk, and is accused by tht ignorant 
peasantry of sucking cows. But it does not despise strong liquor. 
There is a widespread belief that the easiest way of taming it is by 
making it drunk ; and l>r. Ikill, w !io tried the t-xpeiiment, found it per- 
fectly successful. He gave sc^ne sweetened whiskey to one, and writes 
of the result: " He did not go far before his potation produced all its 
effects; he tottered, then fell on his side — he was drunk in the full sense 
of the word, for he could not e\en hold bv the ground. Wt- touKI then 
j)ull him about, open his mouth, twitch his whiskers, etc. ; he was un- 
resisting. There was a strange expression in his face, of that selt- 
confidence which we see in cowards when inspired by drinking. 

"We put him awav, and in some twelve hours afterward found him 
nnining about, and, as was predicted, quite tame, his spines lying so 



'iiiK maija(;ascai< iii':i)(>i;iio(;s. 159 

smoothly and rcf^ularly lii.il, lie could be sircjkcd down the back and 
handled freely. We turned hitn into the kitchen to kill cockroaohes, 
and know nothing further (jI him." 

The Iledf^eho^ is the only animal which can eat Cantliaridcs (lies 
without inconvenience, and it is quite impervious to most kinds of poi- 
sen, including that of venomous snakes. 



II. -GENUS GYMNURA. 

This genus is represented by only one species, the BuLAU or TiKUS, 
Gymnura RaJJlcsii, foun<l in Sumatra, and somewhat like our own opos- 
sum. All the feet have five toes, the three middle toes being longer than 
the others. The muzzle is lengthened, but is cut off abrujjtly at its ter- 
mination. The eyes are small, and the ears small, rounded, and devoid 
of hairy covering. 

One peculiarity of the animal is, that the fur on the body and head 
is pierced by a numl;er of very long, bristling hairs, which aic much 
longer on the neck and shoulders. The color is a mi.xture of black and 
white, as follows: the greater part of the body, the upper portion of the 
legs, and the beginning of the tail, are black; while the head, the neck, 
and Hanks, and the remainder of the tail, are white. There is also a black 
stripe over each eye, which forms a bold contrast with the white fur of 
the head. It emits a musky odor. Nothing is known of its habits. 

THE TENRECS. 

The family Centetid.^ contains a number of small animals, many of 
which have a spiny covering. Of the six genera into which it is divided, 
all but one inhabit Madagascar, and the animals are often called Maua- 
GASCAR IIeugeiiogs. In general they may be described as having a 
long head and pretty long muzzle, small eyes, moderate ears, short legs, 
with five toes and strong claws, while their coat is like that of the 
Gymnura — half hair, half bristles. The tail is either almost or entirely 
wanting in five of the genera, while the two species embraced in the 
genus Solenodon are endowed with a very long, bare, and scaly caudal 
appendage. 



lOO INSECT! VORA. 



I— GENUS CENTETES. 



This genus is subdivided into hco species, \vhii.li ditVor very sligbtl)-. 
The Tenrec, Ce'Htftts cidiit/tj/its {Plate V), has a slcinlor IhhIx , and a 
iong- head taking up nearly one-third of the animal's whole length. The 
ears are short, the eyes small, the neck short and thinner than the body ; 
the hind-legs are slightly longer than the lore-legs. T;:e bodv is cov- 
ered with spines, bristles and iuiirs, wliieh clearly show, bv tiie pio- 
gressive changes in their structure, that the spines are merely hairs 
transtbrmed. At the back ot the head real spines, not very hard and 
bending, grow to the length of nearly half an inch. Down the flanks 
these spines become longer, thinner, softer, and more pliant: and on tlie 
back, biistles piedominate. The under side of the bodv is covered with 
hair, and long, sharp hairs project from the muzzle. The spines, bristles 
or hairs are of a yellowish color; the former are tipped with black. The 
Tenrec is not adorned with a tail. It attains a length of eight to tet. 
inches. It cannot co'l up into a ball like the heilgehog. 

The Tenrec lias been carried from Madagascar to the .Mauritius and 
neighboring islands. It is shy and timid, and only comes out at sun- 
down, but never ventures far from its burrow. There is some doubt as 
to its becoming torpid at certain seasons : the best evidence is to the 
eftect that during the dry season the Tenrec retires to the deepest part 
of its burrow, and theie sleeps from April to November. 

Although this creature exhales a muskv odor verv otVensive to most 
nostrils, the natives regard it as a great delicacv, and tlie markets o\. 
feast days display numbers of Tenrecs in all stages, alive, slaugiitered or 
ready for the spit. 

The B.VNDEi^ Tenrec, Ctntitcs viirligtitiis. is also a native of Madagas- 
car, and has derived its title of Banded, or Varied, from the bold coloring 
of the quills and hair. 

The color of the back is a blackish-brown, diversified with three bold 
stripes of vellowish-white. The centre one of these stripes extends along 
the entire length t.>f the animal, and the two others commence by the ear 
and terminate by the flank. The hair that covers the under portion of 
the body is of a yellowish-white color. The generic name, Centetes, is 
of Greek origin, and signifies " thorny," in allusion to the short and 
thorn-like spines with w hicli the body is covered. 



■ THE TENDRACS. j6l 



II^GENUS HEMICENTETES. 

The Tendkac, nimiccntctcs speciosus, is smaller than the Tenrcc, 
attaining a length of little more than five or six inches. The color of this 
animal is rather rich and varied, owing to the deep tinting of the quilU 
and the soft hues of the long and flexible hairs which stud the body 
intermixed with the quills. The hair is of pale yellow, and the quills are 
ol a deep red or mahogany tint toward their points, and white toward 
their bases. The long coarse hairs which cover the abdomen and the 
legs are annulatcd. This animal is generally found in the neighborhood 
of water, whether fresh or salt, and makes deep burrows near the bank. 
The natives esteem it highly as an article of food. 

The genera III. Kricalus, IV. EcHlNOP.s, and V. Orvzoryctes, are 
based on very slight distinctions, and call for no remarks. 



VI.— GENU.S .SOLENODON. 

This genus is found only in the Antilles, one species occurring in 
Cuba, the other in Hayti. We have thus in this genus as compared 
with the preceding genera, a most remarkable case of discontinuous 
distribution, two portions of the same family being separated from each 
other by an extensive continent as well as by a deep ocean. 

THE AGOUTA. 

The AgOUTA, Solenodon cubanus, is one of the few indigenous mam- 
mals of the West Indian Islands. Its length of body is about twelve 
inches, of tail about eight inches. The head, neck, and stomach are of 
a dirty ycUow-rjchre color, the tail blue-black, the rest of the coat, black. 

This animal is nocturnal and sleeps during the day. Peters accuses 
it of being guilty of the piece of folly which is usually attributed to the 
ostrich. When pursued it hides its head, and then stays so quietly that 
the hunter can seize it by the tail. In captivity it does not refuse food, 
but requires its meat cut up fine ; perfect cleanliness is indispensable 
for its existence ; it seems to take pleasure in plunging into water. Its 
voice is a grunt, or a scream. When angry its hair stands up. It 
9.^ 



102 INSECTIVORA. 

catches little animals that come witliin ils reach, and (ears tlicm to 
pieces with its powerful claws just as a hawk tears his victim with his 
talons. 

THE ALMIQUI. 

The Almiqui, Solcnodon paradoxus, is peculiar to Hayti. The fur ot 
the Almiqui is long, harsh, and coarse, and its color is an undecided red, 
tinged with )'ellow. Tiie nose is elongated, and strengthened at its base 
by a slentler bone, so that it appears to be intendeti for digging in the 
carlh. ri>e nostrils are placed a( ihc exlreinity, and divided l)y a 
furrow. The cheeks and lips have hairs of very great length ; the eyes 
are small ; the ears are moderate, rounded, and almost devoid of hair. 
The feet are terminated witli five toes, and the long claws are curved, 
and evident ly fitted lor sirapiiig at tlic soil. 

The tail is moderately long, measuring about nine inches in length, 
and is rounded thrt)ught)ut, tiie head and body being rather more than 
a foot long. The tail is not covered with iiair, but is ratlier naked, and 
for the greater part of its length is scaly. Tlie lower jaw is somewhat 
8lu)rter tiian tlie upper. 'I'lie teeth are ver\- [peculiar. Tlie two nudille 
mcisors of the lower jaw are small and narrow, placed between two long- 
conical ones, which are hollowed on the inside by a deep groove ; there 
are no true canines. 

THE OTTER SHREW. 

The familv roTAMOG.M.lD.v, consists of one genus and otr species, and 
is founded on a curious otterlike animal from West Africa, discovered by 
Du Chaillu at tlie Gaboon; it has affinities with several groups of Insec- 
tivora, but is sufficiently peculiar to require a distinct family for its 
reception. 

The OrTl'.R Shricw, Potanios^alc vclox, is thus described: "The head 
is long and verv flat, the nose sharp, eyes very small, ears small and 
spaiingly covered with hair; whiskers stifl", and white-colored, neck 
tiiick, body stout, extremities small, feet live-toed, plantigrade behind, 
t;iil stout, com|)rcssed hitenilly. Fur short, dense and soft, with coarser 
hair mixed with the tnie fur on the u]tper part of the bod}- ; three- 
fourths of the tail is covered with very short, bristly antl closely ap|>lii(l 
hairs forming a crest along the u])per edge. Color dark-brown on Ixuk, 



Till': COI.DKN MOLES. 163 

palc-ycllow below, almost white on tiic throat. Length of body fifteen 
inclies ; ot tail, iiiiic inelics. 

It is found aioiio- i\a- water-couises of elcar streams, and iiides under 
rocks waiting for hsii. il swims very last. The great motive-power 
of the animal seems t(j be in its tail." 

THE GOLDEN MOLES. 

'J"he family Ciikysociilokid.v: is divided into /7ao genera of very 
remarkable mole-like animals with a [Kauliltd silky fur >)'. a metallic 
lustre and changeable golden tints. Their dentition clearly distinguishes 
them from the true moles. The teeth are separated from each otiier by 
an interval equal to their thickness, so that when the jaws are shut, tiie 
teeth of one jaw fall into tiir' interstices between the teeth in the oth';r. 
This is the only known example of such an arrangement. The skele- 
ton, too, has nineteen pairs of ribs. The fore-feet have four toes ; tlic 
fourth is small, the other three have powerful claws fitted for digging, 
while the claw of the mi(hlle toe is of formidable dimensions. The 
hind feet are small and iive-tocd. The eye is invisiiile, being covered 
with skin. The limbs arc very short, the tail rudimentary, and the snout 
abruptly truncated. These moles arc found in South Africa. The two 
genera differ chiefly in the lustre of their fur. The first, Clirysoclilom, 
has a gf)lden reflection; tlie second, Calcliocliloris, has a more co|)pcry 
tinge. The tltrcc species come from the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, and 
Mozambique. 

The Changeable Mole, Clirysochloris holoscricea, is the most common 
species, and is distinguished by the long silky texture of its fur. 

THE TALPID/E OR MOLES. 

We now come to a family which comjjrises many extraordinary forms 
of small mammalia, especially characteristic of the temperate regions of 
the Eastern Hemisphere. It is divided into eight genera. 

I.— GENUS TALPA. 

This genus is quite unknown in America, but is exceedingly common 
in Europe. It forms seven species. 



164 INSECTIVORA. 

The Mole is a burrowing animal, and passes its life underground. 
Digging with head and paws, it makes a system of communicating pas- 
sages, which can be traced on the surface of the ground by a slight 
elevation of soil. These passages radiate from a central dome, which is 
marked by the mole-hill ; to reach it, the animal enters a circular gallery 
on the same level as the numerous radiating passages ; then it passes into 
one of five conduits, which ascend obliquely toward another circular gal- 
lery of a smaller circumference than the first, and placed a little higher ; 
lastly, it enters its dwelling by a passage which opens into the latter 
gallery. From the floor of this chamber a tunnel runs and connects 
with some of the radiating galleries. 

The body of the Mole is a cylinder terminating in a cone; there is no 
neck, and the nose is a boring instrument. The eyes are nearly imper- 
ceptible. The sense of hearing is very acute ; there is no external ear, 
but the internal ear is highly developed. Its powers of smell, too, 
are excellent. The tail is very short, the coat black, thick, and silky. 
Their food is chiefly insects and earth-worms, and the dead bodies of 
small mammals or birds. The Mole is essentially carnivorous ; it does 
not experience a mere sense of hunger like other animals, but a craving 
of the most powerful description — a kind of frenzy. 

The Common Mole of Europe, Talpa Europcsa, is, as its name implies, 
found everywhere in that continent, and is the type of the genus. A 
species called the Blind Mole, Talpa cceca, occurs in Italy, and in it 
the eye is quite invisible, and the snout is somewhat longer than in the 
common species. 

II.— GENUS SCAPTOCHEIRUS. 

This genus is represented by one species, a recent discovery in North- 
ern China, and calls for no remark. 



III.— GENUS CONDYLURA. 

This genus consists of only oii'.- species, which inhabits the Eastern 
States from Nova Scotia to Pennsylvania. Its most striking character- 
istic is a peculiar membranous appendage to the snout, which has a star- 
shaped termination. 



THE STAR-NOSED MOLES. 165 

The Star-nosed Mole, Condylura cristata, (Plate V) is of a dark- 
brown or blackish color ; the tail is long and hairless, and nearly as 
long as the body without the head. 

The most remarkable point in this animal is the muzzle, which is pro- 
duced into a long, slender proboscis, round the extremity of wliich are 
arranged a number of soft, fleshy rays, of a bright rose-color, radiating 
like the petals of a daisy or the tentacles of a sea-anemone. These 
curious rays, or " caruncles," as they are more scientifically termed, can 
be spread or closed at pleasure, and present a strange spectacle when in 
movement. Their probable object is that they may serve as a delicate 
organ of touch, to aid the animal in its search for food. The number of 
these caruncles is about twenty, and the openings of the nostrils are 
placed in the centre of the star. 



IV.— GENUS SCAPANUS. 

The tivo species of this genus extend from New York to San Fran- 
cisco, and are mere varieties of the Scalops. 



v.— GENUS SCALOPS. 

This genus, which seems to form a link between the MOLES and the 
Shrews, is peculiar to North America. East of the Rocky Mountains, 
it ranges from the Great Lakes to Mexico ; but on the Pacific slope it is 
found only to the north of Oregon. 

Its characteristics are an elongated nose, invisible eyes, five toes, 
armed with large claws and somewhat webbed, and a naked tail. The 
number of species well defined is three, but varieties are numerous. 

The Common Mole, Sea/ops aquatieus, (Plate V) has thirty-six teeth, 
approaching in some points to those of the Rodentia. The eyes are very 
small, but not covered with skin. The naked tail and webbed feet are 
white. The body is shapeless; the claws immensely large and strong. 
The hinder feet and legs are much smaller than the fore ones. The Mole 
passes the greater portion of its existence below the surface of the 
ground, and finds a subsistence among the worms and other creatures 
which it captures during its subterraneous meanderings. The muzzle 



l66 INSECTIVORA. 

of the American is even more remarkable than that of the European 
Mole, being much longer in proportion to the size of the animal, and is 
cartilaginous at its extremity. The length of the animal is about seven 
inches. They come to the surface daily at the hour of noon, and caii 
then be caught by thrusting a spade underneath them. Mr. Peale had 
a tame one which followed his hand by the scent, and fed freely on fresh 
meat. It would burrow for amusement ui loose earth, and after mak- 
ing a small circle, return to its keeper. 

The Prairie Mole, Sea/ops nrgcntatiis, is very similar to the Com- 
mon Mole, but it is rather larger, and its fur is lead-colored. 

The Hairy-tailed Mole, Scalops Brcwcrii, differs by possessing a 
tail densely covered with hair, a membranous covering over the eye, and 
large ear openings. In color it resembles the Prairie Mole. Other 
varieties are the Oregon Mole, Scalops Townsendii, and the Broad- 
HANDED Mole, Scalops latinianus. 



VI.— GENUS MYOGALE. 

The two species of this genus are widely separated, one being found 
in the Pyrenees, the other in Southeast Russia. The animals compre- 
hended in them are specially organized for an aquatic existence. The 
hind-paws are palmated, and their tail is flattened at a certain portion of 
its length, in such a manner as to play the part of an oar. Their eyes 
are very small, and their ears scarcely visible. The body is elongated 
and covered with silky hair of an iridescent hue. At the base of the tail 
are numerous glands, which exhale an excessively penetrating odor. The 
nose is terminated by a small, compressed trunk ; the paws are formed of 
five toes, and are furnished with strong claws. 

The Pyrenean Desman, Myogalc pyrmaa, which the Spaniards call 
Almizilero, or the " Musky Rat," attains a length of ten inches, of which 
one-half belongs to the tail. It is chestnut-brown above, brownish-gray 
on the sides, silver-gray on the belly, white on the snout, the tail dark- 
brown, with some white hairs. This creature has been found not only 
in the Pyrenees, but in the Sierra de Gredos, and is probably common 
to all North Spain. 

The Russian Desman, Mjoga/c mosc/iaftr, {Plate V) is nearly twice 
as long as its Spanish congener. The eyes are small, the auditory 



THE DESMANS. 167 

passages thickly covered with hair, the nose is elongated into a pro- 
boscis and the nasal aperture can be closed with a small flap. 

On account of its aquatic propensities, and the peculiar aspect of its 
incisor teeth, the Desman was formerly thought to be a rodent animal, 
and allied to the beavers, among which creatures it was classed under 
the name of Castor mosckatus, or Musky Beaver. Its fur is much esteemed 
on account of its ricr color, long silky texture, and warm character. The 
color of the Russian Desman is brown on the upper portions of the body, 
becoming darker on the flanks, and fading suddenly into silvery-white on 
the abdomen. The peculiar warmth of the fur is owing to a thick, inner 
coating of fine hair beneath the long, silken hairs of the exterior. 

The tail of this animal is shorter than the body, and very remarkable 
in its shape, for at its base it is compressed, but rapidly becomes rounded 
and swells with such abruptness that it may almost deserve the term of 
bulbous. It then decreases in size as rapidly as it had increased, and, in 
proportion as it becomes smaller, it becomes vertically compressed. The 
entire member is, like that of the beaver, thickly set with scales, through 
the intervals of which protrude a number of short and bristly isolated 
hairs. 

VII.— GENUS NECTOGALE. 

Some specimens of Desman-like animals found in Thibet, have been 
described by the eminent French naturalist Milne-Edwards, and raised 
to the dignity of a separate genus, to which he has given the name of 
Nectogale. They are closely allied to the members of the genus Myo- 
gale. The remoteness of the locality in which they were discovered 
seems to have had some influence in suggesting the creation of a new 
genus, just as the wide separation of the two Desmans has led to the 
division into two species. 



VIII.— GENUS UROTRICHUS. 

This genus is represented by a shrew-like mole, which was discovered 
about twenty years ago in Japan, and a species more recently found in 
Washington Territory. It seems to form a link, through the Condylura, 
between the Shrews and the Moles. 

The Japanese Mole, Urotrkhus talpoidcs, has a muzzle prolonged 



1 68 INSECTIVORA. 

into a tube which terminates in a naked bulb. The eyes and ears are 
concealed. The tail is long and hairy ; all the leet covered with small 
plates ; the fur is brown. 

GlHHs" Mole. L'rotru/iiis Gihbsii, is the name given to the species found 
near the White River, Cascade Mountains. It is of a sooty color, and 
smaller than the Japanese variety. The skull is broader, and narrows 
anteriorly more abruptly than in Scalops; but the specimen examined by 
Professor Baird was injured and not quite mature, so that he could not 
make out many of its characteristics. 

THE SORICID.-E OR SHREWS. 

This famih' contains out- genus, and sixty-Jii'c species. We content 
ourselves with a description of tho more important species, especially 
those belonging to our own countr}-. 



GENUS SOREX. 

The Shrews offer examples of the smallest animals in the class Mam- 
malia, some species being much smaller than the mouse. Like Moles, they 
have defective vision; the hair is silky, thick, and varving in color be- 
tween a gray and a brown ; thev feed on worms and insects, leading a 
solitary lite in holes, which they seldom leave during the dav. Thev are 
furnished with glands in the tlank which secrete a musky odor. Their 
bite was for a long time considered poisonous : and our ancestors gave 
the name to a scolding woman, whom, on account of the venom of her 
tongue, they called </ s/iriw. 

The Shrew Mouse, Sorex vulgaris, has a long head and a long and 
flexible snout ; the incisors are extremelv long, the lower ones projecting 
almost horizontally. It is common in all parts of England. A Natural 
History published in 1658 gives the following quaint account of it : 

'•It is a ravening beast, feigning itself gentle and tame, but, being 
touched, it biteth deep, and povsoneth dcadlv. It beareth a cruel minde, 
desiring to hurt anvthing, neither is there anv creature that it loveth, or 
that loveth him, because it is feared of all. The cats, as we have said, do 
hunt it, and kill it, but thev eat not them, for if they do. they consume 
away and die. They annov vines, and are seldom taken, except in cold; 



THE SHREW MOUSE. 169 

they frequent ox-dung, and in the winter time repair to houses, gardens, 
and stables, where they are taken and killed. 

" If they fall into a cart-road, they die, and cannot get forth again, as 
Marccllus, Nicandcr, and Pliny affirm. And the reason is given by Philcs, 
for being in the same, it is so amazed, and trembleth, as if it were in bands. 
And for this cause some of the ancients have prescribed the earth of a 
cart-road to be laid to the biting of this mouse as a remedy thereof. 
The}' go very slowly ; they are fraudulent, and take their prey by deceit 
Many times they gnaw the oxes hoofs in the stable. 

" They love the rotten flesh of ravens; and therefore in France, when 
they have killed a raven, they keep it till it stinketh, and then cast it in 
the places where the Shrew-mice haunt, whereunto the}- gather in so 
great a number, that you may kill them with shovels. The Egyptians, 
upon the former opinion of holiness, do bury them when they die. And 
thus much for the description of this beast." 

The Water Shrew, Sorcx fodicns (or Amphisorcx Linneamis), is, as 
its name implies, found near the banks of streams. It is a good diver, 
and its ears are admirably adapted to protect it under water, as they 
are so constructed that the pressure of the water completely closes 
them. 

The Etruscan Shrew, Sorex Etruscus, is the smallest of all known 
mammals. It measures only an inch and a half in length. Its habitat is 
Italy, but it is said to have been found in Algeria. 

The House Shrew, Sorcx araucus, is common in Central Europe, but 
is not found in England. It frequents barns and often enters houses. 

THE AMERICAN SHREWS. 

Forster'S Shrew, Sorcx Forsteri, is a very well-known species, found 
in all the Eastern Slates and quite common in New York. De Kay 
describes it in the following terms : " Body slender, more elongated and 
divided at the tip, whiskers long, fur short but fine, feet slender, with five 
toes ; tail four-sided, with a small pencil of hair at the tip, and nearly as 
long as the body. The color is dark-gray tipped with brown. Length 
four inches." 

The Thick-tailed Shrew, Sorex pachyurus, is found in the North- 
western States. Its fur is longer than that of most Shrews, and gives 
the creature a stout appearance. The feet and claws are large, the tail 
22 



I/O INSECTIVORA. 

verj' thick, and all the teeth are chestnut-colored at the tips, like those 
of a confirmed tobacco-chewer. 

The Broad-nosed Shrew, Sorex platyrrhinvs, is one of the smallest 
quadrupeds on this continent. It is found in the Northeastern States, 
and a specimen has been captured in Rockland County, N. Y. The 
ears are large, the tail is almost bare, the color is dark-brown on the 
back and gray below. Length two inches. 

The Masked Shrew, Sorex pcrsonatus, allied to the preceding species, 
is the one called by Audubon Sorex longirostris. It is smaller even than 
the Broad-nosed species. 

Thompson's Shrew, Sorex Thompsoni, is, however, the smallest 
Shrew yet described. Professor Baird has seen a specimen weighing 
less than twenty-two grains. Its color is a dark olive-brown, the ears 
are large, the incisors fewer than usual. 

The Navigator Shrew, Sorex navigator, is characterized by the 
length of the tail, which is one half longer than the body. The fur, too, 
is long and very soft and thick ; the color is a grayish-brown. 

The Carolina Shrew, Sorex ta/poides, is a large species, measuring 
nearly four inches, with a tail not half an inch in length. The nose and 
feet are flesh-colored ; the rest of the body covered with bright gray fur. 
It is found in all the Northern States, and as far south as Georgia, being 
the commonest of all the North American Shrews. 

The Short-tailed Shrew, Sorex brevieaiidus, is the largest of all 
our Shrews ; its fur is leaden in hue, with a slight shade or gloss of pur- 
ple. The head is broad and obtuse. The tail is about half an inch in 
length. 

Carolina Shrew, Sorex Carolinensis. This species, though usually 
known by the same name, is smaller than the species just described as 
Sorex talpoides, and its color is darker; the fore-feet are broader than 
the hind-feet, and have much longer claws. It is common in the South. 

Berlandier's Shrew, Sorex Berlandieri, is the most southern spe- 
cies, not passing the Rio Grande. It is small, with a stout body and 
small ears. Its fur is soft and thick, resembling long-piled velvet. 



<®^ 



ORDER IV. 



CARNIVORA 



FAMILIES. 

23. FELID^ - - Cats, Lions, etc. 

24. CRYPTOPROCTID^ .... Cryptoprocta. 

25. VIVERRID^ Civets. 

26. PROTELID^ Aardwolf. 

27. HY^NID^ Hyenas. 

28. CANID.E - Dogs, Foxes, etc 

29. MUSTELID^ Weasels. 

30. PROCYONID^E Raccoons. 

31. .'ELURID.E; Pandas. 

32. URSID.E - Bears. 

33. OTARIIDtE Eared Seals. 

34. TRICHECID.E Walrus. 

35. PHOCID^ Seals. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE CARNIVORA OR FLESH-EATERS — GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORDER — ITS FUNCTION 
IN THE ECONOMY OF NATURE — ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION — ITS DIVISION INTO 
FAMILIES. 



NO division of the Animal Kingdom presents such a variety of 
forms as the order at which we have now arrived ; it embraces 
the lordly lion and the stealthy weasel, the domestic cat and 
the faithful dog, the ponderous bear and the unwieldly walrus. Yet 
these creatures that seem to differ so widely, some of which are fitted to 
live on the ground, some on trees, some in the waters, are most closely 
akin. 

The title Carnivora is derived from two Latin words, caro, cariiis, 
"flesh," and voro, "to devour," and indicates the most striking char- 
acteristic of the order. Strictly speaking, no doubt the epithet is appli- 
cable to many of the animals which we have described in preceding 
chapters ; but the diet of the bats and shrews is confined to small ani- 
mals, such as worms and insects, while the Carnivora not only possess 
the appetite for blood, but the strength to gratify it in larger victims. 
The Carnivorous Quadrupeds are distinguished by the possession of four 
large and long canine teeth, which can seize and hold fast their struggling 
prey, and the cheek teeth are either entirely constructed for tearing and 
cutting or have their crowns more or less blunted ; behind the false 
molars is a large tooth denominated the " laccrator," and it may be 
remarked that those genera which have the fewest false molars have the 
shortest, and consequently the most vise-like jaw. 

With the exception of the human race and a few of our domestic 
pets, no animal in a state of nature arrives at old age ; that is, at such 
age as permits decline and feebleness to take the place of strength and 
vigor. Throughout the whole creation violent death awaits alike all 



174 CARNIVORA. 

living things. Do the feebler animals betray a lack of cunning or a 
want of speed ? The destroyer is at hand ; the executioner stands ready. 
Does the tyrant fail in strength or courage to pursue its prey? The foe 
awaits it and its doom is fixed. No maudlin pity interferes with this 
dread duty ; no decay, no disease, decline or decrepitude are allowed to 
sully Nature's works. The agents appointed in the general struggle for 
existence to destroy and live upon the flesh of their fellow-creatures are 
the most highly gifted and intelligent of the brute creation, the Car- 
NIVORA; their special function seems to be that of limiting the multipli- 
cation of the herbivorous species, and their disappearance from the earth 
might lead to serious inconvenience. 

The Carnivora combine in a very high degree strength and agility ; 
and their appearance, while it may strike tenor, docs not awaken 
those feelings of repugnance which many other animals excite. They 
are usually handsome and graceful, and we find in the order very 
few of those strange forms which meet us, for example, in the Chei- 
roptera. They live in all parts of the glebe, in mountain and plain, 
in field and forest, in the North as well as the South, and man}- of 
them are nocturnal animals, seeking their prey by night as well as by 
da3'. Hence, even if we exclude from our present consideration the 
marine families of tiic order, it is difficult to give anything but a very 
general sketch of their structure. 

Their limbs arc well-proportioned, and their toes, which are entirely 
separated from each other, are terminated by stout and strong claws, 
more or less sharp according to their habits of life ; these, with the 
teeth, constitute their means of attack and defence. In all the members 
of the cat tribe tlie claws are retractile, that is, they may be withdrawn 
into tiie interior of the paw at the will of the animal. This faculty is 
owing to the peculiar arrangement of the claws, and the action of a 
special muscle. 

The Carnivora vary very much in their mode of placing their feet on 
the ground. Some, such as bears and badgers, tread upon the whole 
surfiice of the foot, and are remarkable for their thick-set forms, — these 
are called Plantigrades ; others, as cats and dogs, only touch the 
ground with their toes, and have a more slender body and a more agile 
gait, — these are called Digitigradcs. Between these well-marked typet 
are ranked various species, which more or less partake of both char 
acteristics. 



THE CATS. 175 

The intelligence of the Carnivora does not contradict their bodily 
structure; it is the intelligence of beasts of prey, in which cunning and 
p'^rseverance are combined. The feeling of their strength gives them 
courage and confidence such as no other creatures possess, but these quali- 
ties are accompanied by bad ones ; the Carnivora too often display cruelty 
as well as courage, and some seem to be possessed by a thirsty for blood 

One of the most marked features presented by the group of the 
terrestrial Carnivora is its comparative scarcity in South America, only 
four families being represented there, not counting the Andean species 
of the Ursidse, and both genera and species are few in number. We may 
therefore, from these considerations alone, conclude that the Carnivora 
are a development of the Northern Hemisphere. North America is 
distinguished from Northern Europe and Asia by its possession of at least 
six species of skunks and the racoons. Another marked feature is the 
total absence of bears in Southern Africa. The great mass of the generic 
forms of the Carnivora are found in Asia and Africa. 

The marine Carnivora form three families ; the terrestrial, ten — the 
most important of the latter being the Felidas or cats, the Canidee or 
dogs, and the Ursidas or bears. Between the two former is placed the 
family of the Viverridi? or civets, connected with the cats by the single 
genus of the Cryptoproctidas, and with the dogs by the single genus of 
the Hya:nida2. Next to the dogs are the Mustelidee or weasels, which 
are linked to the Ursidre by the Procyonida; or racoons and the 
^lurida;. The Ursidre are followed by the sea-bears or Otariida\ and 
then we pass through the walruses or Trichecidae, to the seals or Fho- 
cidas. The modification of form is not very great, and the occurrence 
of several families, consisting of but one species, is an indication of a 
great amount of recent extinction. 

THE CATS. 

We commence our description of the Carnivora with the family of 
Cats or Felid^. They are not only the most perfect beasts of prey, 
but perhaps, with the exception of man, the most perfect of all animals. 
The common cat may be taken as a type of the family, for in no other 
family is the fundamental form preserved so closely by all its members; 
the Lion with his mane, and the Lynx with his tufted ears, are as cat- 
like as the Leopard ; the Cheetah, or Hunting Leopard, alone presents 



1/6 CARNIVORA. 

any important variation, and seems to form a link between the Felidae 
and Canida;. The Cats present a wonderful combinatioii of suppleness, 
agilit}-, and strength ; the head is round, the neck and jaws powerful, 
and the limbs muscular. The canine and lacerator teeth are large 
and strong; compared with them tlie incisors are insignificant, and 
even the molar teeth, which have ceased to be grinders, appear weak 
and inconsiderable. The tongue Is thick and flesh}-, and armed with 
spines that curve backward. But the teeth are not the onl}' weapons 
of attack possessed by the cats ; they possess in their claws a terrible 
weapon wherewith to seize their prey or hold the struggling victim 
while the pointed teeth are doing their work. The foot appefirs short, 
because the last joint is curved upwards so that it does not touch the 
ground, an arrangement which, ensures perfect safety to the curved and 
pointed claws. These claws have an additional safeguard in being 
retractile, or capable of being withdrawn into a sheath. A little obser- 
vation of the foot-prints of a cat in comparison with that of a dog will 
show how complete a protection Nature affords to these powerful and 
delicate instruments. The cats walk well, but slowly, cautiously, and 
silently , they can run rapidly, and make springs ten or fifteen times the 
length of their body. The larger species are too heavy to be good 
climbers, but the majority are expert in the art. Although they have 
a repugnance to water, they can swim well, and are exceedingly difficult 
to drown. The tenacity of life in all species is proverbial. 

Their senses of hearing and sight are highly developed ; it is the 
former which guides them on their hunting expeditions. They hear at 
great distances the lightest footfall, or the gentlest rustle. Their sight, 
though less developed, is excellent ; they probably cannot see far, but sec 
well all that is in their range. In the smaller species the eyeball is con- 
tractile ; in the bright light of day the aperture of the iris contracts into 
a mere slit, at night it dilates to a full circle. The whiskers which pro- 
ject on each side of the face seem to be instruments of touch. The cats 
all seem remarkably sensitive to all external influences, and are very 
careful to keep their fur clean. Their senses of taste and smell do not 
seem highly developed: the latter, indeed, is quite subordinate, if we 
may judge from the delight they exhibit in strong smelling plants, such 
as Valeria n. 

The Felidas are found in all parts of the Old and New Worlds, with 
the exception of Australia and Madagascar. They live in the most 



DIVISION OF THE CAT FAMILY. 1 77 

varied localities. Some are found at great heights in mountain regions, 
others roam over plains or deserts, some haunt the reedy banks of rivers; 
the most, however, are denizens of the forest, in which the trees afford 
them a shelter and a vantage ground. They usually avoid the dwellings 
of man, unless hunger compels them. Then they commence at nightfall 
to prowl about, or lie in wait near frequented paths for animals or for 
men. By day they seldom attack. Their food is not confined to any 
one species of animal; some of them prefer birds, a few eat reptiles, 
others even catch fish. As a rule they do not disturb the Invertebrata, 
and prefer prey that they have killed themselves. 

All the species of Felida3 attack in the same manner. With silent, 
cautious tread they creep along, listening and looking in every direc- 
tion ; a rustle attracts their attention, they crouch low and advance up 
the wind, till they are near enough for a spring. One or two bounds 
carry them to their victim, a blow on the neck from their frightful paw 
hurls it to the ground, and the sharp teeth are buried in its throat. 
Most of the Felidae have the habit of tormenting their victims, letting 
them go, then catching them again, and repeating this cruel proceeding 
till they die from their wounds. It is probable that by a marvellous 
provision of Nature the sense of pain is driven out of the victim as soon 
as it is seized or struck by its destroyer. Dr. Livingstone had personal 
experience of this fact. He writes : " The lion caught my shoulder as 
he sprang ; growling horribly he shook me as a dog shakes a rat. The 
shock produced a stupor similar to that which seems to be felt by a 
mouse after the first shake by a cat. It causes a sort of dreaminess in 
which there was no sense of pain or terror, though I was quite conscious 
of all that was happening. The shake annihilated fear, and allowed no 
sense of horror in looking round at the beast." 

The family has been made by some naturalists identical with the 
genus Felis, others again divide it into seventeen generic groups The 
most convenient arrangement is to regard it as embracing three genera, 
the Cats, the Lynxes, and the Hunting Leopards 



CHAPTER II. 

THE LION. 

THE AFRICAN UON— THK CAPE HON — THE GAMBIA LION— THE UON OF NORTH AFRICA — THE 
ASIATIC UON— THK MANKLKSS UON— TUF.IR SIZE ANl> STRKNGTH— THEIR ROAR— THEIR 
lUBlTS— DIFFERENT OlMNIONS OF THEIR CHARACTKR— MODES OF DESTROYING— TAME LIONS 
— DANGKROl'S PETS, 

X X TK may promise witli ri\c".ird to tlu- tlirce g:enera into wliioh 

\ \ the Kklio.v: arc divided that tiie third is distinguislied tVom 

» » the tii-st two by liavinti- iion-retraetile claws, and tlie second 

tioni the tii-st by tlie shortness of its tail, and the possession ot pencils of 

hail's which tuft its ears. 



I.— GENUS FELIS. 

The true cats are the most beautiful and terrible of animals, and at 
their head stands that magniticent creature which has been styled from 
time immemorial the " King of Beasts." 



THE LION. 

The LlOX fully justifies by his appearance the roval title which he 
has received. He carries his head high and walks witli an air of 
stately gravit}-, his visage is calm and dignified, and bespeaks a con- 
fidence in his strength. Hut his most striking feature is the bushv mane 
which, in most varieties, overshadows his Iiead and nock, ami gives to 
his remarkable appearance an air of grandeur which commands awe. 
From the mane alone the home of the lion can be discovered : in the 
Persian lion it is long and consists of brown and black hair mixed, in 
the lion of Guzerat it is thin and short : it is most dovolopod in the 
proudest and most royal variety, the African lion. With the excep- 



THE LIOX. 



179 



tion of the mane and a tuft at the end of the tail, the coat of the 
lion is entirely smooth, and in adult life of a uniform Uwny color, 
while in the cubs it is faintly marked like a tiger or our domestic cat. 
Ow'w'fr to this uniform tawny color, the lion is liardly distinguishable 
from surrounding objects even by daylight, and at night he walks 
secure. Even skilled hunters, who have heard him lapping v/ater at 
twenty yards distance, have been unaj^le to make out his form. The 
female never acquires a mane, and the male docs not possess it in its 
full glory till he is three years old. Some naturalists regard the Cape 
lion and the Gambia lion as different species, but they do not rise 
higher than the dignity of varieties. It is amusing to see how national 
pride influences even the philosophic minds of natural historians. The 
English regard the specimen of the lion which comes from the f3ritish 
possessions as the type of the heraldic supporter which holds the shield 
of England, and is famous in our nurseries as having fought with the 
unicorn. The French writers, on the other hand, sing the praises of the 
" Monarch of Mount Atlas," and accept with exemplary faith the stories 
of Jules Gerard. Perhaps no African lion can justly claim to be the 
old original lion of fable, for there is no doubt that the species was once 
much more widely distributed than at present, and was not unfrequent 
in the Southeast of Europe. But as man advanced the lion has receded; 
when pastoral life succeeded nomad life, flocks arid herds were no longer 
left unguarded to become the prey of any nocturnal prowler, and the 
lion was driven to seek his sustenance eLsewhere or lose his life in the 
attempt. At present even in Africa the lion is not commonly seen, and 
in a few generations, as civilization extends over the now unknown 
interior of that vast continent, it is probable that the lion will be as 
extinct as the Dodo or the Mammoth, and known only by description. 
Herodotus tells us that lions attacked the baggage-train of Xerxes in 
Macedonia, and Aristotle distinctly says that lions are not found in 
Europe beyond the Achelous, the present Aspropot^mo. The Bible 
mentions the lion as ravaging the herds of Palestine, and it was once 
as common in Egypt as it is now in Algiers or Morocco. 

Some lions have attained the length often feet from the muzzle to the 
root of the tail, and measure four feet in height from the ground to the 
shoulder. Their strength is prodigious, and with a single blow of the 
paw they will break the back of a horse; they can leap a space of thirty 
feet, and can carry off a bullock in their jaws. Nothing can be more 



l8o CARNIVORA. 

dreadful than the lion preparing for combat ; he lashes himself with his 
tail, his mane becomes erect, and envelops the whole head, his enormous 
eyebrows half conceal his flashing eyes, while he protrudes claws as long 
as a man's finger. It has often been doubted whether the end of the lion's 
tail was armed with a claw as Aristotle described it ; but the existence 
of a strange appendage is demonstrated by Mr. Bennett, who exhibited a 
claw-like formation taken from the tail of a specimen living in the Lon- 
don Zoological Gardens : it was about a third of an inch in length, solid 
for the most part, sharp at the apex, and hollowed out at the base. 

The roar of the lion has passed into a proverb ; when heard within 
a distance of a mile or two during the silence of the night, it awes all 
living creatures. Not knowing whence the sound proceeds, they leave 
their lairs, and in the confusion one or two will probably pass within 
reach of his spring. Livingstone, however, affirms that the roar of the 
lion ma}' be mistaken for the cry of the ostrich, and that the voice of the 
•jstrich has never frightened anything. Both Europeans and natives 
told him that the sounds were indistinguishable, and that the only differ- 
ence is that one is heard by day, the other by night. Figuier suggests 
that the lion of the British possessions may roar "like a sucking-dove," 
but that the lion of the French colony has a much more powerful voice. 

The lioness produces from two to five cubs at a birth, and is a devoted 
mother, defending them from all aggressors, among whom their majestic 
father is numbered, for the " King of Beasts," like the Tom cat of our 
homes, devours his helpless offspring as soon as they come into the 
world. 

As a rule the necessity of procuring food prevents lions from assem- 
bling in large numbers, but Livingstone asserts that troops of six or eight 
have been seen. These were probably two lionesses with their cubs. 
Delegorgue relates that in winter twenty to thirty lions have been seen 
to assemble and drive their prey into narrow passes. Five have been 
seen in the chase of one giraffe, two pulling the victim down, the others 
waiting close by. These also were probably two females with their 
families. 

Generally the lion does not hunt during the day ; not that his eyes 
are unfitted for diurnal vision, but indolence and prudence keep him at 
home till evening. When the first shadows of twilight appear, he enters 
upon his campaign. If there is a pool in the vicinity of his haunt, he 
places himself in ambush on the edge of it, with the hope of securing a 



CHARACTER OF THE LION. l8l 

victim among the antelopes, gazelles, giraffes, zebras, buffaloes, etc., 
which are led thither to slake their thirst. These animals, well aware 
of this habit of their enemy, will not approach a pond without extreme 
caution. If one, however, places itself within reach of their terrible foe, 
its fate is generally sealed. One enormous bound enables the lion to 
spring on its back, and one blow with his paw breaks its spine. If the 
lion misses his aim, he does not endeavor to continue a useless pursuit, 
well knowing that he cannot compete in speed with the children of the 
plains. He therefore skulks back into his hiding-place, to He in ambush 
until some more fortunate chance presents itself, or complete nightfall 
shuts out all hope of success. 

The audacity of the lion increases in proportion to his requirements. 
When he has exhausted all means of procuring subsistence, and when he 
can no longer put off the cravings of hunger, he sets no limit to his 
aggressions, and will brave every danger rather than perish by famine. 
In open day he will then proceed to where herds of oxen and sheep 
pasture, entirely disregarding shepherds and dogs. At such times he 
has been known to carry his rashness so far as to attack a drove of 
buffaloes, but the latter can repel him ; the bulls forming a ring around 
the cows and calves, and keeping him off with their horns. Unlike most 
felines the lion will eat carrion, contrary to the usual opinion that " 'tis the 
royal disposition of the beast, to prey on nothing that doth seem as dead." 

The " King of Beasts " seems, like other kings, to have fallen on evil 
times ; not only is he sedulously shot down, but even his character is 
taken from him. Buffon ascribed to him courage, magnanimity, gene- 
rosity, nobility, gratitude, and sensibility, and adds that he is so gallant 
as never to eat till the lioness has satisfied her hunger. More recent 
observers, however, seem to have arrived at the conclusion that " the 
lion is a very fox for his valor, and a goose for his discretion." He is 
not an open foe, he creeps stealthily on his victim, and never attacks 
targe animals. He is accused of indolence, and to this indolence these 
learned men attribute a bad habit he sometimes acquires of becoming a 
man-eater. Unarmed, they say, man is weaker of limb, slower of foot, 
and less vigilant of sense than any wild animal, and is therefore an easy 
victim. From the mom.ent the lion becomes a man-eater, he is a scourge 
to the neighborhood, paying, night after night, visits to the village, 
instead of as usual flying from the presence of man. The lion is exceed- 
ingly distrustful; they have been known to surround an escaped horse, 



1 82 CARNIVORA. 

and to prowl round it for two entire days, not daring to attack so appar- 
ently defenceless a prey, simply because its bridle was dangling from 
its neck, and made the creatures suspicious, even though the rein had 
accidentally been hitched over a stump. On another occasion a lion 
crept close to a haltered ox, saw the halter, and did not like it, crept 
away again until he reached a little hillock about three hundred yards 
away, and there stood and roared all night. 

The hunters take advantage of this extreme caution to preserve the 
game which they have killed. A simple white streamer tied to a stick, 
is amply sufficient to prevent the lion from approaching. Sometimes, 
when no streamer can be manufactured, a kind of clapper is substituted, 
which shakes in the wind, and by the unaccustomed sound, very much 
ahums the brute. It does truly seem absurd, that so terrible a beast as 
the lion should be frightened by the fluttering of a white handkerchief, 
or the clattering of two sticks — devices which would be laughed to scorn 
by a tomtit of ordinary capacity. 

Various means are adopted to destroy lions. The negroes dig a pit, 
which they roof over with branches that give way at the slightest 
pressure, on which they place a lamb as a bait. When he has fallen into 
the pit, his enemies destroy him at leisure. The Arabs adopt a similar 
device, but sometimes prefer an opposite method ; three or four men 
hide themselves in a hole about three feet deep on the margin of a path 
frequented by their prey. The roof is covered with heavy stones and 
earth ; narrow openings are made in the sides, in order to see what may 
be passing without, and on which to rest their fire-arms ; lastly, a lure is 
placed in front of this sanctuary to induce the lion to stop, and when he 
does a volley of bullets is his welcome. It is rare that he falls dead im- 
mediately, he springs towards the ambush, hoping to find the foe ; but 
the construction is too strong to permit him to enter, and he staggers 
off, probably to die in his den. 

At other times, the hunters conceal themselves in a tree, to which 
they even add more branches in order to make a safe hiding-place. 
From this post they operate in precisely the same manner as in the sub- 
terranean plan. 

In South Africa the lion is hunted by dogs, and shot down when he 
is driven from his hiding-places into the plain. There is another method 
recommended by Jules Gerard. You must study the lion's habits and 
movements, and discover his favorite haunts; then you go alone on some 




/.: lilCAN LION ASIATIC LI -j 



PLATE Yl. CARNIVORA, 



HUNTING THE LION. 1 83 

fine night, attack him and kill. This is very easy to say ; but it seems 
to be quite as easy to do, at least for French sportsmen ; for M. Chassaing 
by this method killed fourteen lions in ninety-six hours, four of them 
falling in one night. 

The African Lion, Felis leo, var. Barbarus (Plate VT), is a native of the 
ranges of the Atlas. He is the type of the species, and the Cape Lion 
and the Gambia Lion are merely varieties ; the 'ormer being remarkable 
for his size and dark mane. One or other of these varieties is found 
from Algiers to the Cape of Good Hope, and from Senegal to Abyssinia. 

As far as is known the Asiatic Lion, FcHs Ico, var. Pcrsicus (Plate 
VI) is very similar in habits to that which inhabits Africa. One variety 
only, the Maneless Lion, or Fclis ho, var. Goojraiciisis, deserves special 
mention ; it derives its English name from the scanty nature of its mane. 

When first this animal was brought before the notice of naturalists, 
it was supposed to be merely a young male, whose mane had not yet 
reached its full development. It is now, however, allowed to be either 
a distinct species, or a permanent variety. The mane is not altogether 
absent, as the popular name might give cause to suppose, but is very 
trifling in comparison with the luxuriant mass of hair which droops 
over the shoulders of the African lion. The limbs do not appear to be 
quite so long in proportion as those of the last-named animal, and the 
tail is shorter, with a more conspicuous tuft. This tuft, by the way, 
is the readiest point of distinction which separates the lion from the 
other cats. 

We have selected two accounts of a single combat with a lion ; the 
first is from the Cape of Good I lope, the actor a Dutch Boer. 

" The Boer had penetrated scarcely fifty yards into the bush when he 
had reason to suspect that he was close upon the lair of the lion. After 
remaining silent for several minutes, he saw an indistinctly outlined 
object moving behind some large, broad-leaved plants. This was the 
lion, whose head only was clearly visible. The lion was evidently 
aware that some person had approached, but, after a careful inspection, 
appeared to be satisfied and laid down behind the shrubs. The Dutch- 
man cocked his rifle, and turned the muzzle slowly round to cover the 
lion. But even this slight movement was perceived by the lion, who 
rose to his feet. The Boer fired at a spot between the eyes; the-buUet 
st uck high, but the lion fell over on its back, rising again immediately, 
a d uttering a fierce roar. As he regained his feet, the Boer sent a 



1 84 CARNIVORA. 

second bullet into its shoulder. The lion bounded off through the 
bush, and the Dutchman went home and sent his servants and dogs to 
look for the wounded animal, which he concluded would be found dead. 
Before sunset the hide of the lion was pegged down outside the Boer's 
house." 

It is amusing to contrast this plain narrative, and the Dutchman s 
prudence in retiring from the field when he knew his enemy was mortally 
wounded, with the highly-spiced relation of Jules Gerard, who winds up 
with a hand-to-hand combat. 

" The wood, in the middle of which I found myself, was so dense that 
it was impossible to see for more than eighteen or twenty feet around. 
I had taken the precaution to assure myself, by the spoor, of the direction 
the lion had taken when retiring, so as to face that point. Afterward I 
relieved myself of my turban, the better to hear the slightest noise. At 
sunset all the animal life in my vicinity was on the move, so that I was 
often falsely alarmed — at one time by a lynx, at another by a jackal, and 
sometimes by creatures of less importance. For each alarm I experi- 
enced as many fancies ; and I may truly say that, in the space of half an 
hour, I felt as many as would satisfy the most fastidious adventure- 
hunter. Toward eight o'clock in the evening, at the moment when the 
new moon half lighted up the edges of the black scud overhead, I heard 
a branch snap. This time there could be no mistake ; only the weight 
of a large animal could make such a noise. Shortly after, a hollow, sup- 
pressed roar re-echoed through the forest. Then I could distinguish a 
slow heavy tread. With ni}' rifle to my shoulder, elbow on knee, and 
finger on trigger, I waited the moment when his head would appear. 
But I could not perceive the foe until he had reached the bull, on which 
he began to ply his enormous tongue. I aimed at his forehead and fired. 
The lion fell roaring, then sprang up on his hind-legs, as a horse when 
rearing. I had also risen, and taking a step to the front fired a second 
shot at close quarters. This brought him head over heels, as if struck 
by a thunderbolt. T then withdrew in order to reload ; which having 
done, and seeing that the animal still moved, I advanced on him, dagger 
in hand. Certain of the spot where his heart was situated, I raised my 
hand and struck. But at the same moment the fore-arm of the tawny 
savage made a backward movement, and the blade of my dagger broke 
in his side. My presence had renewed his vitality. He raised his enor- 
mous head. I retired two paces, and administered a final shot. Mv first 



STORIES OF LIONS. 1 85 

bullet entered about an inch above the left eye and came out behind the 
neck, but was inefficient to produce death." 

The lion, on his part, refuses sometimes to be hunted. One traveler 
relates that he and his companions one day saw, at two or three hundred 
yards distance, two large lions, which fled away as soon as they per- 
ceived the hunters. The latter pursued them on horseback, shouting 
loudly ; but the lions doubled their pace, and plunged into a wood, 
where they disappeared. 

A wealthy farmer was walking over his land, armed with his gun. 
Suddenly he saw a lion. Making certain of killing it, he aimed. The 
gun, however, hung fire ; the man, alarmed, turned to the right-about 
and scampered off with all his might, pursued by the lion. A little 
mound of stones presented itself, and on this he jumped, wheeling round 
to face the brute, and threatening it with the butt-end of his gun. In 
turn the animal halted, and withdrew some paces, looking very com- 
posed, but the farmer did not venture to descend. At last„after nearly 
half an hour had passed, it slunk slowly away as if it had been stealing ; 
and as soon as it got a short distance off, took to rapid flight. 

One more lion story and we have done : 

'• A Boer, a very humorous fellow, told me that he was returning to 
his wagons one evening when he wag far in the interior ; at the time he 
had with him only the single charge of powder with which his gun was 
loaded, as he had been out buck-shooting all day. 

" Straight in his path he disturbed a lion, which jumped up and 
turned to look at him. Very naturally his first impulse was to fire, but 
remembering that he had but that one charge in his gun, he changed his 
tactics. 

" The Dutchmen usually wear large broad-brimmed felt hats, around 
which several ostrich feathers are fastened. The Boer jumped from his 
horse and pulled off" his hat, which he held with his teeth by the brim, so 
that the upper part only of his face could be seen above the conglomera- 
tion of feathers. He then dropped upon his hands and knees, and com- 
menced crawling toward the lion. Such a strange animal had never 
before been seen by the astonished Leeuw, which turned and fled without 
a moment's hesitation." 

Few animals have been the subject of such fables as the lion from 
time immemorial. The ancient Egyptians knew both the African and 
Asiatic lion, and knew how to tame them; but it is to the Greeks and 
24 



1 S6 CARNIYORA. 

Romans that we owe our stories of the magnanimous nature of the brute, 
how "the lion knows the true prince," or how 

The lion will turn and flee 

From a maid in the pride of her purit)- ; 

and how an ointment made of a cock and garlic is a certain protection 
against his attacks. The Romans must have known the lion well from 
his frequent appearance in the circus. The first fight of lions was 
exhibited by the ^Edile Scarvola. Sulla exhibited one hundred lions, 
Pompey six hundred, Julius Cresar four hundred, which fought either 
wnth each other or with the gladiators. M. Antony had tame lions ; and 
he and his mistress Cytheris rode the streets in a chariot drawn by a 
pair. Hanno, the Carthaginian, employed lions to carry his baggage ; 
and tame lions are still sometimes seen in the East. 

In 1825 there were, in the menagerie in the Tower of London, two 
young lions, a male and female; they had been obtained in India, where 
they were captured when only a few days old, and a goat had been 
employed to suckle them during the early months of their existence 
So docile were the)-, that they were allowed to wander about the court- 
yard, and visitors caressed and played with them with impunitv. At a 
later period it was deemed proper to shut them up, to prevent accidents; 
but this more rigorous captivity did not alter the character of the male. 
With regard to the female, she became intractable when suckling — a 
circumstance perfectly explained when we know the violent aficction 
this creature displa3-s toward its progein-. 

In menageries, the keepers who look after these ferocious beasts 
perform every da}- as great feats as the professional trainers, for they 
enter the cages and are received by the occupants with much affec- 
tion — a trul}- curious interchange of greetings between the man and 
beast. 

There is still preserved the remembrance of a deep friendship which 
arose between two lions, male and female, brought to the Jardin des 
Plantes in 1799, and a man named Felix, the keeper at that period of the 
menagerie. When he became unwell, and it was necessary to replace 
him, the male lion persistently refused to have anvthing to do with the 
stranger, and would not even allow him to approach the place of confine- 
ment. When Felix reappeared, the lion, accompanied bv the lioness, 
r» shed to meet him. They roared with pleasure while licking his face 



A PET LION-CUB. I87 

and hands, and in all their movements demonstrated the greatest joy at 
seeing him once more. 

A lioness has been exhibited in England which would allow her 
keeper to get upon her back, and, with a still greater degree of familiarity, 
drag her about by the tail, or even place his head between her teeth. 

The following story, however, is a warning to those who intend to 
indulge in such dangerous pets. A gentleman had a lion cub which 
was very fond of its master and would play with him like a kitten. One 
day the gentleman fell asleep, leaving one of his hands hanging over the 
side of his couch. His pet lion came up to the couch when its master 
was slumbering, and by way of showing its affection, began to lick the 
exposed hand. In a very short time the rough, file-like tongue cut 
through the delicate skin of the hand, and caused some little pain and 
a slight effusion of blood, which was eagerly licked off by the animal. 
The pain which was caused by the too affectionate creature awoke its 
master, who naturally began to withdraw his hand from the caresses of 
the lion. But at the first movement the lion uttered a short, deep 
growl, which was repeated in a menacing manner at each attempt to 
remove the hand from its dangerous and painful position. Seeing that 
the lion cub had become suddenly transformed from a domestic pet to a 
wild beast, which had for the first time lapped blood and thirsted for 
more, its owner quietly slipped his other hand under his pillow, where 
he kept a ready-loaded pistol, and shot the poor lion through the head. 
It was an act that went sorely against his will, but was the only course 
which he could have adopted in such an extremity, when there was no 
time for reflection, and when the hesitation of a moment might have cost 
a life. 




CHAPTER III 

THE TIGER. 

THE TIGER — ITS FAVORITE HAUNTS — ITS DESTRUCTIVENESS — TIGER HUNTING — MODES OF KIIXINO 
TIIF, TIGER— TAME TIGERS — THE TIGER IN ANCIENT TIMES. 

IF in Africa the lion reigns supreme, in Asia his claims to empire 
are disputed by an animal which equals him in size, and exceeds 
him in beauty of fur. 

The Royal Tiger, Filis tign's (Plate VTI), stands as high as the lion, 
but is more slender and lighter built, while the absence of a mane gives 
it more of the typical cat-look. It is peculiar to Asia, and inhabits Java, 
Sumatra, a great part of Hindostan, China, and Southern Siberia as far 
north as the banks of the river Obi; it approaches sometimes the con- 
fines of Europe, one having been killed near Tillis in 1853. 

In its color the tiger presents a most beautiful arrangement of mark- 
ings and contrast of tints. On a bright tawny yellow ground, simdry 
dark stripes are placed, arranged, as may be seen by the engraving, 
nearly at right angles with the body or limbs. Some of these stripes are 
double, but the greater number arc single dark streaks. The under parts 
of the bod)% the chest, throat, and the long hair which tufts each side of 
the face, are almost white, and upon these parts the stripes become very 
obscure. The tail is of a whiter hue than the upper portions of the 
body, and is decorated with dark rings. 

The bright hues of the tiger harmonize admirably with the dusky 
jungle grass and dark stems of the Eastern forests in which he dwells, 
and enable him to approach his victims without being perceived, while 
even skilled hunters have overlooked him when close at their feet. The 
tiger is met not only in the grassy thickets of the jungle, but also in 
large, heavily timbered forest lands ; but his favorite haunts are the reedy 
banks of rivers, the impervious bush of bamboos, and such like cane- 
brakes ; he loves above all spots, however, those where the shady 



HABITS OF THE TlGliR. 189 

" korinda " tree grows ; the branches of this tree are not merely closely 
intertwined, but hang on all sides down nearly to the ground, and thus 
furnish him witii concealment from his foes and shelter from the sun. 
Here he reposes during the heat of the day, and hence he sallies out or 
springs upon his prey. In the steppes of Siberia he iiidcs in corners of 
the rocks, or scratches away the snow between the clumps of grass. 

The tiger is not exclusively nocturnal in his habits ; he is often seen 
by day, but prefers the twilight hours. In the southern parts of his 
domain he lies in wait near roads, forest paths, or rivers where he knows 
that both men and beasts come to drink. In India tlie lioly rivers, to 
which crowds of votaries go to perform the ceremonies of their religion, 
supply him with many a victim. In Siberia he is found near the salt- 
licks, for he knows as well as the hunters do that the game he seeks 
for can be found there. In Java, where the wild swine are a plague, 
he keeps their numbers down, but repays himself for any benefit he con- 
fers on man by levying contributions on his horses or dogs. Me is, in 
that island, generally found in the same thickets as the peacock. " When 
the peacocks cry, the tiger is nigh," is a saying of the Dutch colonists ; 
the Javanese natives say the peacock tells the dwellers in the wilderness 
that the tiger is leaving his lair. The tiger's mode of attack is like that 
of the lion ; the wounds he inflicts are extremely dangerous, for even 
when they are comparati>^ely slight, lockjaw is apt to supervene ; as in the 
case of wounds from the lion, they are said to open again periodically. 

Anecdotes of the monster's strength and audacity are numerous. 
One attacked a regimental baggage camel and broke its skull with one 
blow, another is said to have pulled down an elephant. Horses become 
paralyzed with fear and quiver in every limb when the dreaded foe 
appears ; the very scent of a tiger's presence, or the sight of a dried 
skin, is sufficient to set them plunging and kicking in their attempts to 
escape from the dreaded propinquity. One horse, which had been terri- 
fied by a tiger, could not afterward endure the sight of an}' brindled 
animal whatever, and was only restored to ordinary courage by the 
ingenious device of his master, who kept a brindled dog in the same 
stable with the horse until the poor beast became reconciled to the 
abhorred striped fur. 

The buffalo, however, faces him and often slays him. A tiger had 
sprung on to the neck of a buffalo ; the latter rushed with such violence 
against a tree that the aggressor was hurled to the ground, and before 



IQO CARNIVORA. 

he recovered consciousness the courageous ruminant had hurled him 
repeatedly in the air. According to the Tungusians the bear and tiger 
often fight, and then the latter usually comes off second best. In Hin- 
dostan, where many sects of natives reverence the tiger as an incarnation 
of the destructive powers of Nature, the roads would be impassable in 
many regions unless for the creature's extraordinary dread of fire ; yet 
hunger drives it to contemn even fire, and an English officer was carried 
off by one when he was sitting with his companions by the camp-fire. 
The sentries of troops in the field are often victims. Forbes knew of 
three well-armed soldiers killed in one night. At the great fair of Hurd- 
war, where hundreds of thousands of natives assemble, a tiger sprang 
into the crowd from a thicket and struck a native who was peacefully 
preparing- curry. Another sprang upon an elephant, tore the English 
sportsman out of the howdah, and plunged with him into the jungle; the 
man had been rendered senseless by the fall and shock, but was revived 
by the scratches he received from thorns as the brute carried him away ; 
with great presence of mind he remembered he had a brace of pistols ; 
he drew one, but it missed fire, and the tiger only bit the deeper. A 
second shot just behind the shoulder-blade was lucky enough to reach 
the heart ; the officer recovered, but was lame for life. The postal ser- 
vice in India is rendered very dangerous by the attacks of these Car- 
nivora ; at one ford across the Goomea in Guzerat a letter-carrier was 
carried off every day for fourteen days, and at Cutcam Sands a tigress 
stopped all postal communication for several months. But the island of 
Singapore seems the spot where men are most frequently attacked. 
Wallace states that there are always tigers near the town, and they kill 
a Chinaman every day. Another traveler puts the number of Chinese 
killed annually at four hundred. The Dutch government returned the 
loss of life by tigers in Java in 1862 at three hundred. 

It is a remarkable fact that the tiger is quite a new arrival in Singa- 
pore. During the early years of its occupation the beast was never 
heard of; at present, in spite of all the efforts of the English government, 
they increase instead of diminishing. New immigrants come from the 
mainland, and in doing so have to swim a strait fully an English mile 
wide. The tiger is an admirable swimmer, and never hesitates to pursue 
its prey in water. A sportsman on Saugor Island came upon a tiger and 
immediately fled into the river ; the tiger followed, and gained rapidly 
till the man dived and swam some distance under water. When he 



TIGER HUNTS. I9I 

reached the surface again the tiger had turned back. Another swam out 
from the land to a boat and climbed into it ; the crew partly jumped over- 
board, partly locked themselves in the cabin ; the tiger sat quietly on the 
forecastle till he was convinced that his prey had escaped him, when he 
plunged into the river, reached the bank, shook his coat dry, and dis- 
appeared in the jungle. Like the lion, the tiger, when he has once tasted 
human flesh, becomes a confirmed man-eater ; he usually eats only a small 
portion of his victims ; as the Singapore journal remarks : " If he would 
only eat more, there would be a great saving of human life." 

While Europeans regard the tiger as a plague to be extirpated, the 
Hindoos, as already remarked, regard it as a divinity. Very similar 
sentiments are held even by the tribes of Eastern Siberia. They call the 
tiger the " Man-beast," or the " Lord-beast "; they do not like to speak 
about him, and never mention his proper name. The tribes on the Amoor 
River designate him by the word they use for God. Li the Chinese 
mountains, hunters who find the tracks of a tiger leave half of their game 
on the spot to propitiate him ; the Tungusians believe whoever kills a 
tiger will be eaten by one. In Sumatra the natives believe him to be the 
form assumed by some dead man, and therefore will not hurt him. In 
addition to the superstitions which thus preserve the tiger, we must 
remark that in some parts of India he is carefully preserved as game by 
the princes and rajahs, in spite of the hundreds of lives his maintenance 
may cost. The English authorities tyrannically interfere with this style 
of game preserving. In Candeish alone they procured the destruction 
of one thousand in four years. 

In the East the chase of the tiger is an affair of state and conducted 
with all the elaborate care of a campaign. The Emperor of China some- 
times sends thousands of men to the hunt ; the King of Oude used to go 
hunting with more pomp than Louis XIV used to display in making 
war. He went afield with cavalry, infantry, and artillery, thousands of 
elephants, an immense train of carts, camels, and beasts of burden. His 
women accompanied him in covered cars ; bayaderes, singing women, 
iugglers, peddlers, hunting-leopards, hawks, fighting-cocks, doves, and 
nightingales were carried in the grand procession. With all this prepa- 
ration only one tiger was slain on the occasion described. 

The Indian princes also take their roval game in nets. A series of 
strong bamboo poles are placed about five or six yards apart, and a strong 
net stretched between them. The line of nets extends in a circular form 



192 CARNIVORA. 

for a considerable distance ; the beaters then drive the game into the 
circle toward a platform where the shooters are statioried. All means 
imaginable are employed to drive the animals in the proper direction — 
guns are fired, drums beaten, fires lit ; sometimes even the grass is set on 
fire. The flames, as they hiss and roar, fill the tiger with terror, and soon 
he is seen stealthily creeping away. He sees the nets ; they are too high 
to leap over, too strong to burst through, the bamboo poles too weak for 
him to climb up. He is compelled to advance inside the net till he comes 
within range of the guns of the sportsmen. 

The English officials give tiger-hunts on a grand scale. Sometimes 
as many as forty or fifty elephants are employed. Some bear the sports- 
men, some are used to drive the game ; an infallible sign of the neighbor- 
hood of a tiger is given by tiie elephant elevating his trunk and trumpet- 
ing. The tiger has often been known to pull the hunters from their seats 
on the elephant. 

A very ingenious mode of tiger-killing is employed by the natives of 
Oude. 

They gather a number of the broad leaves of the prauss tree, which 
much resembles the sycamore, and having besmeared them with a kind 
of bird-lime, they strew them in the animal's way. Let a tiger but put 
his paw on one of these innocent looking leaves, and his fate is settled. 
Finding the leaf stick to his paw, he shakes it in order to rid him- 
self of the nuisance ; and finding that plan unsuccessful, he endeavors to 
attain his object by rubbing it against his face, thereby smearing the 
bird-lime over his nose and eyes, and gluing the eyelids together ; then 
he rolls on the ground, and rubs his head and face on the earth in his 
efforts to get free. By so doing he only adds fresh bird-lime to his head, 
body, and limbs, agglutinates his sleek fur together in unsightly tufts, 
and finishes by hoodwinking himself so thoroughly with leaves and 
bird-lime, that he lies floundering on the ground, tearing up the earth 
with his claws, uttering howls of rage and dismay, and exhausted by 
the impotent struggles in which he has been so long engaged. These 
cries are a signal to the authors of his misery, who run to the spot 
armed with guns, bows, and spears, and find no difficulty in dispatch- 
ing their blind and wearied foe. 

Those who have hunted the tiger in a genuinely sportsmanlike 
manner assert that it is a very cunning animal, and the color of the 
sportsmen's dress is a matter of some importance. Experience shows 



SHOOTING TIGERS. I93 

that there is no tint so admirably suited for the purpose as that warm 
reddish-brown which is assumed by dried leaves. 

If a tiger be fairly traced to its ordinary lair, the sportsmen prefer to 
lie in wait at some convenient point, and either to await the voluntary 
egress of the quarry, or to send in the beaters and cause the animal to be 
driven out in the proper direction. When this mode is adopted, it is 
found best to have, besides those which are held in hand, a whole battery 
of guns, eight or ten in number, which are laid on the ground, ready 
loaded and cocked, their muzzles all pointing toward the spot where the 
tiger is expected to make its appearance. It is so usual an occurrence for 
two tigers to make their sudden appearance where only one was expectec 
to lie, that the precaution is an absolutely necessary one. 

Contrary to the habits of most animals, which take the utmost care 
of their young, and in their defence will expose themselves to the direst 
peril, the mother tiger is in the habit of making her young family her 
pioneers, and when she suspects anything wrong, of sending them for- 
ward to clear the way. Knowing this curious propensity, the experi- 
enced hunter will not fire upon a cub that shows itself, for the mother 
will, in most cases, be waiting to see the result of her child's venture. 
Therefore they permit the cub or cubs to pass with impunity, and reserve 
iheir ammunition for the benefit of the mother as she follows her off- 
spnng. 

Should the tiger not fall to the shot, but bound away, the hunters 
know whether the wound is a mortal one by inspecting the marks made 
in the ground by the feet of the retreating animal. It is a curious fact 
that, however hard a tiger may be hit, yet, if the wound be not a rapidly 
mortal one, the claws are kept retracted and the foot-prints show no 
mark of the talons. But should the injury be one which will shortly 
cause death, the tiger flings out its limbs with the paws spread to their 
utmost, and at every leap tears up the ground with the protruded talons. 
A very slight wound causes the death of a tiger ; the wound soon 
becomes inflamed and covered with flies, and the poor beast dies of a 
swarm of devouring maggots. It is sometimes difficult to tell whether 
a tiger has been wounded ; the loose and movable skin covers the 
wound as the creature moves away, and checks the effusion of blood. 
The dead body of the tiger very soon decays, and if the hunters wish to 
preserve the hide in all its beauty, it must be immediately covered 
from the sun's rays. 
25 



194 



CARNIVORA. 



The tigress gives birth to two or three cubs, choosing some sheltered 
spot for her home. During the first weeks of their existence she never 
leaves them ex'cept when hunger compels ; as soon as they are larger she 
takes them abroad, and then is doubly dangerous and destructive ; noth- 
ing, however, can exceed her care and loving-kindness for her offspring 
while they are at the breast. 

Tigers, like lions, have been often tamed ; we have all seen circus per- 
formers enter the cages where they are confined, but in all cases great 
caution must be exercised in dealing with a creature so treacherous. In 
the East they have been used for the purposes of the chase. " The Khan 
of Tartary," writes Marco Polo, "keeps in his city of Cambolu many lions 
greater than those of Babylon, having beautiful hair and beautiful colors, 
namely, white, black and red stripes, which he uses to catch wild boars, 
bears, deers, and other beasts." Some of the Indian fakirs have been 
seen accompanied by a tiger which followed them like a dog ; they are 
careful to give their favorite no animal food, but feed them on boiled rice 
and butter. 

The Indian princes usually keep tigers for their wild beast fights. A 
fight in Siam is thus described : " Three elephants, whose heads were 
defended by a species of armor, were brought into the arena ; the tiger 
was there already, held by two ropes ; at the sight of the elephants he 
tried to escape and crouched down, but received two or three blows 
from their trunks, which knocked him over. He was then let go ; with 
a terrible roar he sprang at the elephant's head, but it received him on 
its tusks and flung him high into the air. The tiger fled and tried to 
clamber over the paling of the circus ; failing in his attempt, he laid down 
and let the elephants beat him with their trunks till the fight was put a 
stop to." 

When he wants to fight, however, the tiger shows vigor and courage 
enough. One menagerie was the scene of a deadly combat between a 
lion and a tiger. The two creatures had been put into one large cage 
or box, which was divided by a partition in the centre, so as to separate 
the two animals. While the attendants were at their breakfast the tiger 
battered down the too frail barrier, and leaping into the lion's chamber, 
entered into fierce combat. Not even the keepers dared interfere to 
stop the battle, which raged until it was terminated by the slaughter 
of the lion. The poor beast never had a chance from the beginning, 
for it was weakened by three years' captivity, and had lost the switt 



BLAKE'S LINES ON THE TIGER. 191, 

activity of its wild nature. Its heavy mane defended its head and neck 
so well that the tiger could not inflict any severe injury on those 
portions, and the fatal wounds under which it sank were all upon the 
flanks and abdomen, which were torn open by the tiger's claws. It was 
a serious loss to the proprietor, for the lion had cost three hundred, 
and the tiger, which, although the victor, did not escape unscathed, 
four hundred pounds. The lion was six or seven years of age at th<? 
time. 

The tiger was not known in Europe so early as the lion. He is not 
mentioned in the Bible. Nearchus, the famous admiral of Alexander the 
Great, had seen a tiger-skin, but not the animal itself. A tame tiger was 
exhibited at Rome about 24 B. c. The Emperor Claudius had four ; the 
Emperor Heliogabalus had four tigers yoked to his chariot to represent 
Bacchus. Avitus had five killed in the amphitheatre. Nero had a tame 
tigress named Phoebe, which he used to set at those of his guests who had 
displeased him. 

Tiger, tiger, burning bright 
In the forest of the night ! 
What immortal hand or eye 
Could frame thy fearful symmetry? 

In what distant deeps or skies 
Burnt the ardor of thine eyes? 
On what wings dare he aspire — 
What the hand dare seize the fire? 

And what shoulder, and what art. 
Could twist the sinews of thy heart? 
And when ihy heart began to beat, 
What dread hand formed thy dread feet? 

What the hammer, what the chain, 

In what furnace was thy brain? 

Did God smile his work to see? 

Did he who made the Lamb make Thee? 



c^^^fe^)^ 




CHAPTER IV. 

PANTHERS AND LEOPARDS. 

ritE COUGAR OR AMERICAN TANTHKR — THE JAGUAR— ITS DE3TRUCTIVENESS — A TAME JAGUAR — 
THE AFRICAN I.EOI'ARD — THE ASIATIC LEOI'ARU OR PANTHER — THE JAPANESE PANTHER— 
THE BLACK PANTHER — 

ET US pass from the Old World to the New, from the havoc and 
splendor of the East to the forest of America. We owe an 
apolo,^y to the animal we are now to describe for not placing 
him next the lion in our series of Carnivora. Many naturalists place him 
in a sub-genus, for the small, maneless head, the slender body, the ab- 
sence of stripes or spots, and the round eyeball, are characteristics 
marked enough to justify a separate division. 

THE AMERICAN PANTHER. 

The Cougar or Puma, Fclis concolor (Plate IX), bears many names; 
the Guarani Indians call it Guazara, the Chilians Popi, the Mexicans 
Mitzli ; our hunters and frontiersmen style it the Panther, or more ver- 
nacularly the Painter. It has the general appearance of a lioness, and 
attains the length of about four feet and a half on the average. It 
inhabits Paraguay, Brnzil, Guiana, Mexico, and the United States, and is 
found even in Canada. 

The thick, short, and soft fur appears somewhat richer on the belly 
than on the back, and is of a very dark fawn-color, because the hairs are 
tipped with black. There is some difference of color between the natives 
of different regions, those from South America being lighter than those 
from the United States. The cougar generally prefers thick woods to 
the open fields, but he is found constantly on the Pampas of I'ucnos 
Ayres. His mode of ascending trees differs from that of the jaguar — 



■'^^^sra;??" 




THE COUGAR. I97 

the latter climbs like a cat, the cougar leaps at one spring into the 
branches. All his movements are light and powerful; he can easily 
clear a distance of six yards. His eyes are large and tranquil, without 
any expression of wildness ; and although he can see better by night 
than by day, the sunlight does not dazzle him. His sense of hearing is 
very sharp, and when hunger calls, his courage is great. All the weaker 
quadrupeds dread his attacks ; even the agile monkeys fall victims to his 
appetite. He steals, cat-like, up to his prey, and then makes his spring ; 
if he fails, he, unlike the cats, pursues it by long leaps for some distance. 
A traveler observed one engaged in the chase of a monkey. While he 
was waiting to get a shot at a Capucin monkey, the whole tribe of apes 
suddenly set up a terrible scream and took to flight, swinging from bough 
to bough and tree to tree, betraying at the same time every mark of the 
wildest terror. A cougar was after them ; he took leaps of nearly seven 
yards from tree to tree, and crept with incredible skill through the climb- 
ing plants and intertwined boughs of the Brazilian forest. 

When his prey is caught, the cougar bites the throat and sucks the 
blood, and then eats a portion of the victim, burying the rest in the sand 
or under leaves. He is very destructive, and hence is everywhere pui"- 
sued with vigor. The Guachos of the Pampas are expert in destroying 
him by the lasso or the bolas. One of our own sportsmen said that he 
always ran away from a grizzly, but that painters were of no account. 
If the traveler faces round on the animal and looks it steadily in the face, 
it always retreats. Although the cougar or painter is not an object of 
personal dread to the settler, he is a pestilent neighbor to the farmer, 
committing sad havoc among his flocks and herds, and acting with such 
consummate craft, that it can seldom be arrested in the act of destruction 
or precluded" from achieving it. No less than fifty sheep have fallen vic- 
tims to the panther in a single night. It is not, however, the lot of every 
puma to reside in the neighborhood of such easy prey as pigs, sheep, and 
poultry, and the greater number of these animals are forced to depend 
for their subsistence on their own success in chasing or surprising the 
various animals on which they feed. As' is the case with the jaguar, the 
cougar is specially fond of the capybara and the peccary, and makes a 
meal on many smaller deer than even the latter animal. 

The cougar is a good swimmer, and can cross from the mainland to 
Terra del Fuego, and was seen swimming out to one of the Florida Keys. 
In Florida, authentic reports tell that children have been carried off by 



198 CAKNIVORA. 

the rapacious brute from the very fields where their parents were work- 
ing. It is by no means uncommon in the Adirondacks, and De Kay 
writes that he remembered the appearance of one of these animals in 
Westchester County, New York State. It is occasionally seen in the 
Catskills, and has been shot in Vermont and Massachusetts. 

The Yaguarundi, Fc/is Yaguanuidi, resembles the American panther 
in being of a uniform color ; it is a much smaller animal — not much larger 
indeed than a cat, but with a more weasel-like body. It extends from 
Paraguay as far north as Matamoras. 

THE LEOPARDS. 

The most beautiful members of the whole cat tribe are the graceful 
an J mottled species which are usually grouped together under the name 
of leopards. They are moderately large creatures, with short, glossy fur 
marked with spots, but without mane or tail-tuft, with short ears and 
beautiful, large, round-pupilled, brilliant eyes. They are to be found in 
both the Old and New Worlds, and their habits and conditions of life are 
pretty uniform wherever they are found. Most of them possess a talent 
unknown to either lion or tiger — they can climb trees, not mounting by 
a bound, but by the aid of their claws, like the common cat. The noblest, 
the largest, and the most dreaded of all the leopard tribe is the species 
found in the New World, and with it we will commence our descrip- 
tion. 

THE JAGUAR. 

The Jaguar, FcHs onca (Plate IX), has been celebrated by all travelers 
in South America, and as the cougar has been called the American lion, 
he has been styled the American tiger. Indeed, as regards size he is not 
much inferior to the lord of the Indian jungles, and surpasses all the 
other members of the cat tribe excepting the lion. He is somewhat 
heavily built, the body is not so long as that of the tiger, and his legs are 
shorter in proportion ; but he, when full grown, measures on an average 
about five feet from the muzzle to the root of the tail, and stands about 
three feet high. Humboldt, however, says that he saw jaguars " which 
in length surpassed all the Indian tigers he had seen in European collec- 
tions." The tail of the jaguar is comparatively short, averaging a little 
less than three feet in length. The color of the fur is not quite the same 
26 



THE JAGUAR. I99 

in all specimens. In general it is of a bright tawny hue; across the 
breast run two or three bold black streaks ; the rest of the body is 
covered with spots somewhat angular in form, and increasing in size 
from the head to the tail. These spots have a yellowish-red and black 
border, and the centre of each displays one or two black points. Along 
the back runs a line of black spots which m the last third of the tail form 
rings. A black variety is sometimes found, the spots being still visible, 
like the pattern in damask. 

The jaguar is found from Buenos Ayres and Paraguay through all 
South America as far as Mexico, and has been seen in the United States 
as far as the Red River in Texas. It is gradually becoming scarcer. It 
haunts the wooded banks of streams, the edge of woods, and the bottom 
lands where the tall grasses grow. During the daytime he sleeps in the 
shade of the forest or in the long grass of the pampas. The morning 
and evening twilight is the hour of his exertions, and then no animal 
comes amiss to him. His strength equals that ot the lion or tiger, his 
eye is sharp and flashing, his hearing excellent, his sense of smell, as in 
all the cat tribe, only slightly developed. He attacks horses, deer, and 
tapirs ; he has been known to swim across a wide river, to kill a horse, 
drag it sixty yards to the water-side, then swim across the river with his 
prey, drag it out of the water, and finally carry it off into a neighboring 
wood. The natives assert that he has been known to kill one of two 
horses that were fastened together, and drag off with the dead one the 
living horse also, in spite of all its struggles. 

His powers of climbing like a cat make him a deadly foe to all the 
monkey race, whom he usually tries to surprise when sleeping ; a few 
sweeps of his paw knock the unfortunate quadrumana from their perch 
to the ground, whither he then descends to banquet at his leisure. The 
peccary is seldom attacked openly ; this courageous, sharp-tusked crea- 
ture never hesitates to charge the powerful jaguar, and a herd of pec- 
caries would Eoon make him repent of his rashness. 

It is said that the jaguar kills horses and larger animals in an ingenious 
manner, which reflects great credit on his understanding. Leaping on 
the shoulders of the doomed animal, he places one paw on the back of 
the head, another on the muzzle, and then, by a tremendous wrench, dis- 
locates the neck. His most remarkable feat, however, is the way iu 
which he catches and kills the large turtles. Humboldt relates : " The 
jaguar follows the turtle to the shore where she lays her eggs ; he 



200 CARNIVORA. 

attacks her on the sand, and turns her on her back to be devoured at 
his leisure. The shells are often found quite emptied apparently by the 
claws, with very little injury to the carapace. We cannot sufficiently 
admire, the power of the jaguar's foot, which clears out the double shells 
as if t.ie muscular bands had been loosened by a surgical instrument." 
Hamilton tells a traveler's tale about him: " The jaguar and the alligator 
are deadly foes; when the jaguar perceives one of these enemies sleeping 
on a warm sand-bank, he catches him by the under part of the tail, where 
the soft and most vulnerable parts lie. Usually the alligator is too much 
astonished to resist or fly ; sometimes, however, he drags his aggressor 
into the water, drowns him, and eats him up." The jaguar can also catch 
fish. Rengger saw one plunge his paw into the water and bring out a 
good-sized " dorado." Unlike the cats in general, the jaguar has no dread 
of fire ; he has been known to scare the Indians from their meal, and help 
himself to the meat on the embers. 

Rengger, who landed in Asuncion in Paraguay in 1819, and spent 
several years there, states that the jaguar is sometimes driven by inun- 
dations to enter the cities. He was told when he arrived during the 
floods at Santa Fe, in 1824, that a few days before a Franciscan monk, 
who was going to sing morning mass, had been eaten by a jaguar at the 
door of the sacristy. This story is developed by the " Report of the 
Mexican Boundary Survey " into a thrilling narrative with four victims, 
and the scene in Santa Fe of New Mexico. 

When the jaguar once tastes human flesh he becomes a confirmed 
man-eater. It is a comfort to know that he prefers negroes and Indians 
to white folk ; hence a white sportsman has always to provide himself 
with a negro attendant, if he is going to sleep in the bush. 

The jaguar is easily tamed, and young ones are often seen in the 
houses in Paraguay, where they play with the cats and dogs. Captain 
Inglefield, of the British navy, had on board his ship a jaguar so tame 
that he could use its body as a pillow. He never gave it raw meat. 

When " Doctor," as it was called, received his daily food, he used to 
clutch and growl over it like a cat over a mouse, but was sufficiently 
gentle to permit the meat to be abstracted. It was a very playful animal, 
and was as mischievous in its sport as any kitten, delighting to find 
any one who would join in a game of romps, and acting just as a kitten 
would under similar circumstances. As the animal increased in size and 
strength, its play began to be rather too rough to be agreeable, and 



THE LEOPARD. 20I 

was, moreover, productive of rather unpleasant consequences to its 
fellow voyagers. For, as is the custom with all the cat tribe, he de- 
lighted in sticking his claws into the clothes of his human acquaintances. 
This jaguar remembered Captain Inglefield after an absence of two years. 

THE LEOPARD AND THE PANTHER. 

From the time of Aristotle, the founder of the science of natural his- 
tory, down to the present day, there have been disputes as to the identity 
or distinction of the panther and the leopard. From this uncertainty 
great confusion has arisen, and nothing but the examination of the living 
animals has enabled modern investigators to finally establish the distinc- 
tion between the two species. The leopard has a brighter coat than the 
panther, the spots being further apart and the centre darker, and its tail 
has only twenty-two vertebra;, while that of the panther has twenty -eight. 
They have also different habitats ; the true panther is found in India and 
the Indian islands ; the leopard is found in Africa. Hence the title 
"African Panther" is a misnomer in one direction, and "Japan Leopard" 
in the other. 

The Leopard, FcHs pardus (Plate VIII), resembles the jaguar in figure. 
His total length is over seven feet, including one-third of that length in 
the tail. The head is large and round, the muzzle slightly prominent, the 
neck very short, the body powerful, the limbs of moderate length, the 
paws very large. The ground of his beautiful coat is of a reddish-golden 
hue, darker on the back, and becoming a light yellow on the throat and 
belly. Perpendicularly over the upper lip broad black stripes are seen, 
as well as a large*oval spot at the corner of the mouth, and a smaller one 
over each eye. The rest of his body is covered with black, round or 
roundish spots, about the size of a walnut. Some of these spots on the 
shoulders and all those of the back consist of a dark centre surrounded 
by two crescent-shaped lines, which usually coalesce ; on the flanks, where 
the spots are arranged rather transversely than longitudinally, the centres 
are surrounded by three or four semicircles. 

The leopard is a terrible animal, and will make a bound of forty feet 
with surprising ease. It keeps by preference in places covered with 
brushwood, and near streams or arms of the sea. The leopard, perhaps, 
does not climb on trees ; but every day, before commencing his search 
for prey, he sharpens his claws on a tree, just as our cats do m the carpet 
26 



502 CARNIVORA. 

or elsewhere. He never hunts in the middle of the day, but his nocturnal 
depredations make him as destructive as the lion. 

When attacked, the leopard will generally endeavor to slink away, 
and to escape the observation of its pursuers ; but if it is wounded, and 
nnds no mode of eluding its foes, it becomes furious and charges at them 
vith such determinate rage that, unless it falls a victim to a well-aimed 
shot, it may do fearful damage before it yields up its life. In consequence 
of the ferocity and courage of the leopard, the native African races make 
much of those warriors who have been fortunate enough to kill one of 
these beasts, and the fortunate hunter is permitted to decorate his person 
with the trophies of his skill and courage. The teeth of the leopard 
are curiously strung, with beads and wire, into a necklace, and hung 
about the throat of the warrior, where they contrast finely with their 
polished whiteness against the dusky hue of the native's brawny chest. 
The claws are put to similar uses, and the skin is reserved for the pur- 
pose of being dressed and made into a cloak, or "kaross," as this article 
of apparel is popularly termed. 

The Panther or Asiatic Leopard, Fdis Icopardus (Plate VIII), has 
;qual ferocity, but not the same amount of strength as the African 
leopard. The spots of the panther differ from those of the leopard by 
their considerable size, and are formed of five or six black patches 
grouped around a centre somewhat brighter than the ground color of 
the coat, and are very appropriately called " rosettes." 

The panther ascends trees with agility ; into which it pursues mon- 
keys and other climbing animals. It is a ferocious and untamable animal, 
and inhabits only the wildest forests ; not even the tiger is more uncon- 
querable, and its pursuit is proportionably dangerous. It rarely attacks 
man without being provoked ; but it is irritated at the merest trifle, 
and its anger is manifested by the lightning rapidity of its onset, which 
invariably results in the speedy death of the imprudent being who has 
aroused its fury. Its power, nimbleness, and stealth surpass anything 
that can be imagined. 

The Japanese Panther, Fdis Japonicns (Plate IX), is merely a variety 
of the common panther ; it differs in having a thicker fur and a bushier 
tail. 

The Sunda Panther, FcUs variegatus, sometimes called the Asiatic 
Leopard (Plate VIII), has a small, long head, longish neck, short legs, 
and a very different coat. The spots are much smaller, darker, and 



THE PANTHER. 203 

thicker ; the hide thus obtains a black-blue lustre ; the ground is dark 
loam-yellow, so thickly set with dotted spots as to appear almost black. 

The Black Panther, Felis mclas, which has been sometimes described 
as a separate species, seems to be merely a variety of the Sunda panther, 
and is often produced in the same litter as the lighter varieties. 

The strength of the panther is marvelous when compared with its 
size. One of these animals crept by night into the very midst of a cara- 
van, seized two wolf-greyhounds that were fastened to one of the tent 
pegs, tore up the peg to which they were tethered, and although both 
the dogs were linked together, and were of that powerful breed which is 
used for the pursuit of wolves and other fierce game, the panther dragged 
them clean out of the camp, and carried them for some three hundred 
yards through dense, thorny underwood. 

The panther has a distaste for trees around which there is no under- 
wood ; the long grass jungle, which is so favored by the tiger, is in no 
way suited to the habits of the panther ; so that if the hunter seeks for 
tigers, his best chance of success is by directing his steps to the grass 
jungles, while, if panthers are the objects of his expedition, he is nearly 
sure to find them among wooded places where the trees are planted 
among underwood reaching some seven or eight feet in height. 

When a panther is driven to take refuge in a tree, it displays great 
skill in selecting a spot where it shall be concealed so far as possible 
from the gazers below, and even when detected, covers its body so 
well behind the branches, that it is no easy matter to obtain a clear 
iim at a fatal spot. Its favorite arboreal resting-places are at the junc- 
tion of the larger limbs with the trunk, or where a large bough gives off 
several smaller branches. The panther does not take to water so readily 
as the tiger, and appears to avoid entering a stream unless pressed by 
hunger or driven into the water by his pursuers. When fairly in the 
water, however, the panther is a very tolerable swimmer, and can cross 
even a wide river without difficulty. 

The panther has often been tamed, and, indeed, almost domesticated, 
being permitted to range the house at will, greatly to the consternation 
of strange visitors. 

The Ounce, Felis nncia (Plate VIII), which was once thought to be 
but a longer-haired variety of the leopard, is now known to be truly a 
separate species. 

In general appearance it bears a very close resemblance to the leopard. 



204 CARNIVORA. 

but may be distinguished from that animal by the greater fulness and 
roughness of its fur, as well as by some variations in the markings with 
which it is decorated. From the thickness of its furry garment it is sup- 
posed to be an inhabitant of more mountainous and colder districts than 
the leopard. The rosette-like spots which appear on its body are not so 
sharply defined as those of the leopard ; there is a large black spot behind 
the ears. The spots exhibit a certain tendency to form stripes, and the 
tail is exceedingly bushy when compared with that of a leopard of equal 
size. The general color of the body is rather paler than that of the 
leopard, being a grayish-white, in which a slight yellow tin.ge is per- 
ceptible, and, as is usual with most animals, the upper parts of the body 
are darker than the lower. In size it is intermediate between the leopard 
and the panther. 

The ounce is an inhabitant of some parts of Asia, and specimens of 
this fine animal have been brought from the shores of the Persian Gulf. 
Its home, however, seems to be the central plateau of Thibet, and it 
occurs not rarely in West Siberia and the Altai range, but is very un- 
common in the region of Lake Baikal. The ounce has seldom been seen 
in captivity. Two living ones were in the Zoological Gardens of Mos- 
cow in 1 87 1, but like the other animals in that establishment, they died 
from neglect. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE OCELOTS AND THE CATS. 

THE MARBLED CAT — THE TIGER CATS — THE COMMON OCELOT — THE PAINTED OCELOT — THE EGRA 
— THE CHATI— THE LONG-TAILED CAT — THE PAMPAS CAT — THE CLOUDED TIGER — THE COLO- 
COTS — THE EUROPEAN WILDCAT — THE MANOL — THE DWARF CAT — THE EGYPTIAN CAT — 
LETTING THE CAT OUT OF THE BAG — THE COMMON CAT — THE MALAY CAT — THE WEASEL 
CAT — THE SERVAL. 

WE now have arrived at the smaller members of the genus, 
which are usually grouped together under the title of 
Ocelots or Tiger CAxe. They are all most beautiful 
creatures, their fur being diversified with brilliant contrasts of a dark 
spot, streak or dash upon a lighter ground, and their movements grace- 
tul and elegant. The link between the panthers and the cats is perhaps 
to be found in the Marbled Cat. 

The Marbled Cat, FcHs marmoraUis, is about three feet in length, 
mcluding a foot and a half of tail. The color of its fur is yellow, with a 
light red shade marked with dark spots. On the forehead and over the 
top of the head two black stripes nui and unite to form one longitudinal 
band along the spine, which, however, again divides before reaching the 
tail. Other dark stripes run obliquely from the back of the neck down- 
ward ; the shoulders are covered with horseshoe-shaped spots, and the 
limbs are covered thickly with black dots. The ears are short and 
rounded, externally of a silver-gray color with a black border. The 
bushy tail is yellowish and ringed. 

The Marbled Cat inhabits the mountains of Southeastern Asia, in- 
cluding Borneo and Sumatra. Nothing is known of its habits when 
wild ; m captivit}' its conduct resembled that of the Ocelot. 

THE TIGER CATS. 

The Ocelot, Fells pardalis (Plate IX), is common in the tropical 
regions of America, and is found in Texas as far north as the Red River. 



2o6 CARNIVORA. 

In length it rather exceeds four feet, including the tail. Its height aver- 
ages eighteen inches. The ground color ol the fur is a very light 
grayish-fawn, on which are drawn broken bands of a deep fawn-color, 
edged with black, running along the line of the body. The band that 
extends along the spnie is unbroken. On the head, neck, and the inside 
of the limbs the bands are broken up into spots and dajhes, which are 
entirely black, the fawn tint in their centre being merged in the deeper 
hue ; the cars are black, with the exception of a white spot upon the 
back and near the base of each ear. Owing to the beauty of the fui", the 
Ocelot skin is in great request, and is extensively employed in the manu- 
facture of various fancy articles of dress or luxury. 

In its habits the Ocelot is quick, active, and powerful, proving itself 
at all points a miniature leopard. It is a good climber ; not equal, how- 
e\er, in this respect, to the jaguar; and a good swimmer, but only takes 
water in the direst extremity. It rarely approaches the settlements of 
mankind ; at the utmost its courage only reaches to the robbing of a hen- 
roost. It is very shy, and takes to the ti^ees when the dogs come near, 
but defends itself savagely when brought to bay. In captivity it is lazy 
and lifeless, learns to play with the domestic cats and dogs, and purrs 
when stroked. 

Of the numerous varieties of these pretty and agile animals, v.'e men- 
tion only the most conspicuous. 

The Gray Ocelot, FcHs grisais, has comparatively light-colored fur, 
with few, not very distinct spots, and the whole throat an unbroken gray. 

The Painted Ocelot, FcHs pittus, is, as befits its name, much more 
richly varied than the common Ocelot. The black markings of the tail 
are very deep in color, and the throat has one or two bold black streaks 
extending toward the shoulders. The spots on the spine are of a deep, 
velvety black. 

The Marquay, Fclis tigrinus, is about the size of the domestic cat. Its 
soft and beautiful coat is of a fawn-yellow color, with two stripes running 
along the cheeks, and two others from the corners of the eyes to the 
neck. Between these, two other stripes make their appearance, and six 
may be counted on the neck. A long line runs along the back, and on 
each side are spots either solid or with a bright centre. The ears are 
black ; the tail bushier at the end than at the root. 

Waterson had a pet one which had been captured when a kitten ; it 
followed him about, and waged continual war on the rats. 




OCELOT 

JAPANESE PANTHER 



COUGAR 



JAGUAR 



PLATE IX CARNIYORA 



THE PAMPAS CAT. 20; 

The Syra, Felis syra, resembles the lion and the cougar in being 
uniffjrm in color. Its body is so long, and its limbs comparatively s^j 
short, that it seems to be a link between the cats and the weasels ; and it 
indeed displays the agility of one family and the cruelty of the other. 
No member of the cat tribe can carry off its booty with greater rapidity 
than this little marauder. It has never been tamed, lierlandier obtained 
one at Matamoras, but it seems, like the Yaguarundi, to belong properly 
to Guiana and f3razil. 

The Chati or Maracaya, Fdis cliati, is more like the jaguar than 
the ocelot. It measures about three feet in length of body, and resem- 
bles the leopard in the color of its skin, but the spots arc disposed 
irregularly and are of irregular shape. Some are round, some oblong ; 
in places they are in lines, in others scattered without any order. Two 
black streaks appear on the cheeks and a brown one on the throat ; the 
latter half of the tail has black rings. 

It is a courageous beast, and attacks pretty large animals, such as 
small deer. But like the rest of its kin, it prefers to devastate a well- 
filled hen-roost, and usually chooses a very dark and stormy night for its 
visit. 

It is easily tamed, and becomes amiable and Mtached to its owner, 
but nothing can eradicate its propensity to catch and kill chickens. In 
Brazil the Indians and negroes eat its flesh, but it is said to have a very 
unpleasant odor. 

The Long-tailed Cat or KuichL'A, Felis macrouros, is about the size 
of a large cat. It is distinguished from the Chati by a longer tail, a small 
head, large eyes, pointed ears, and the great curvature of its claws. Its 
color is reddish-gray, flecked with grayish-brown or black-brown. The 
back is marked with five longitudinal stripes ; on the crown there are two 
dark stripes with a black spot between them. 

It is found nearly everywhere in Brazil, and is hunted for its skin. It 
is one of the most beautiful of the whole cat group, and is much more 
agile than the Chati. 

The Pampas Cat, Felis pajeros, resembles the ordinary Wild-cat, but 
it stands higher, its head is smaller, its tail longer, and its hair stififer and 
longer. The color of its coat is silver-gray, on which brownish-red 
streaks are visible, running obliquely V;ackward and downward from 
the shoulder, but forming a girdle round the chest, and appearing as rings 
on the limbs ; the tail has four to six dark rings, and is short and bushy. 



JOS CARNIVORA. 

The male attains the length of three feet. As its name indicates, it is 
found m the plains of South America, its food being the small rodents 
thaj; abound there. It is a harmless creature. 

The Clouded Tiger or Rim.\u-dahan, Ft/is macrociiis, is marked 
verv irregularly — some spots are oval, some angular; some open, some 
solid. It has stripes like the tiger, spots like the jaguar, rosettes like the 
leopard, and black-edged spots like the ocelots. Its color is gray, and it 
always has two bold, uninterrupted bands of velvety-black running the 
whole length of its back. The hair is long and very fine, and thus its 
tail is peculiarly capable of that curious expansion which is familiar to 
us in the domestic cat. When full grown its body measures about forty 
niches, its tail about twenty-five. 

In spite of its size it is a gentle creature. Two specimens, possessed 
by Sir Stamford Raffles, were very playful, rolling over on their backs 
the better to enjoy the caresses of those who would pat or stroke their 
beautiful soft fur. Nor did they confine their sportful propensities to 
human companions. One of them, while on board ship, struck up a great 
friendship for a little dog that was its co-voyager, and used to gambol 
with its diminutive playfellow in the most considerate manner, taking 
great care to do no damage through its superior strength and size. 
While on board, it was fed chiefly on fowls, and generally used to extract 
a little amusement out of its dinner before it proceeded to the meal. 
When it received the fowl, it was accustomed to pounce upon the dead 
bird just as if it had been a living one, and tear it to suck the blood. It 
would then toss the bird about for hours, just as a cat tosses a mouse, 
tumbling over it, and jumping about it. 

The natives of Sumatra, where it is found, assert that it is by no 
means a savage animal, and that it generall)- restricts its depredations to 
the smaller deer and to birds, including domesticated poultry. The 
curious name which is given to this animal is of native formation, 
and has been assigned on account of its arboreal propensities. It 
spends much of its time upon the tree branches, and lies in wait foa" its 
prey, crawling along a bough, with its head resting in the fork of the 
branches. The word " Dahan,'" or " Dayan," signifies the forked portion 
of a bough. 

The COLOCOLO, Ftlis fcrox, is a small savage creature. Its color is 
gray, with the exception of the under parts of the body, the throat, and 
inside </ the limbs, which are white. Black streaks, occasionall}- diversi- 



THE WILD-CATS. 209 

fied with a deep tawny hue, are drawn at intervals over the body and 
limbs ; the legs are of a darker gray than the rest of the body, and the 
tail is covered with a series of partial black rings, which extend only 
half way round that member. These black stripes are almost invariably 
edged with a deep tawny hue, and, on the shoulders, flanks, and thighs, 
they are entirely tawny. The legs themselves are darker than the rest 
of the body, being of a very deep gray. In size, the Colocolo equals or 
surpasses the ocelots, and, to judge from collateral evidence, is a terrible 
enemy to the animals among which it lives. 

A specimen of this creature was shot on the banks of a river in 
Guiana by an officer of rifles, who stuffed it, and placed the skin to dry 
on the awning of his boat. As the vessel dropped down the river it 
passed beneath some trees on which monkeys were perched. Monkeys 
usually never hesitate to indulge their curiosity, and venture as near as 
they can to passing boats, but the stuifed skin of the Colocolo was too 
much for them and they fled in dismay. 

THE WILD-CATS. 

We must warn our readers that they must go on and consult our next 
chapter if they wish to learn anything about our native Wild-Cats. 
Neither the so-called "American Wild-Cat, nor the "Texan Wild-Cat," 
nor the " Red Cat," are cats at all, but lynxes : such is the perversity 
of scientific classification. By the true cats, we mean the domestic cat 
with its varieties, and two wild species from either of which our domestic 
cat may be a descendant. 

The European Wild-Cat, Fdis catus, has for a long time been 
regarded as the original form of our household pussy, and this view has 
still some defenders. But some very striking differences, not to be ex- 
plained by domestication, exist ; one very apparent one is the different 
shape of the tail. In the domestic cat this appendage is long, slender 
and tapering ; in the wild-cat it is shorter, truncated at the end and 
bushy. The wild-cat is one-third larger and much stronger than the 
domestic cat. The hair is stronger, the whiskers more ample, and the 
teeth stouter and sharper. The color of the creature is pretty uniform, 
the ground tint of the fur being yellowish or sandy-gray, marked with 
streaks like the tiger at right angles to the spine. A dark row of spots 
runs along the back ; the tail has numerous black rings and a black tip, 
27 



2IO CAKNIVOKA. 

The tur in tlio colder regions, sueli as North Cicrnianv anil parts of 
Russia, becomes very lonj; and thick. 

The wild-cat is not found in nenin.uk. Sweden or Xorwav. nor in 
Northern Russia, wiiere tlie lynx t.ikes its place. In Cierni.inv it in- 
habits all the well-wooded centr.d nunnitain regions, such as tin- liar/, 
tlie Thurinjiian, lioheniian and Black I'orests. .mkI the mountains of 
Upper Hesse. From these head-quarters tlu- wild-cats pass from wood 
to wood in the plains, and it is probable tiiat they mioht be tound in 
such localities much oftener than one tancies. In l-!ngland it is almost 
extinct, but it still lingers in the North o[ Scotland and in Ireland, in 
which last country it bears the name of the " Hunting Cat." It is very 
common in Southeastern Europe, from the Alps to the Black Sea and 
tiie tViMitiers of Asia. But it does not pass the limits of Europe, and 
has ne\er been caught south o( tlie Caucasus. It loves dense .ind 
lonely forests, especially selecting rocky localities, as the crags and 
boidders turnish it with safe shelter: it often occupies hollow trees, and 
does not despise to take up its abode in the hole of the badger or the 
den of the to\. 

At night the wild-cat sallies out on his foray, and anv one who has ob- 
served the sly, stealthy, silent way in wiiich the common cat hunts birds, 
can form a good notion of its actions, and judge how it climbs into the 
nests of the birds, pounces on the liare on its form or the rabbit sporting 
near its burrow. But it attacks even voung t.iwns. and kills them, leap- 
ing on their back and biting the veins oi the neck: while it is most de- 
structive to dovecots and hen-roosts, where it kills manv more than it 
can eat. When driven to extremity cir wounded the wild-cat is a 
dangerous foe for dog or man. A Cierm;ui forester tracked one into a 
hollow tree, and struck the trunk to start it out again. While he was 
hammering away the cat appeared ; before he could raise his gun it was 
on his back, tore oft his thick leathern cap with its claws, and bit 
through his neckerchief. His cries brought his son to his assistance, but 
the cat held on to its victim till its head was broken in. In spite of every 
care the forester died in great agony. An English sportsman wlio 
attacked a wild-cat in Scotland, writes: "As soon as 1 was within six 
or seven feet of the place, she sprang straight at mv face, over the dogs" 
heads. Had 1 not struck her in mid-air as she leaped at me. I should 
probably liave got some severe wound. As it was. she fell with her back 
half broken amongst the dogs. who. with mv assistance, dispatched her. 



THE DOMESTIC CAT. 211 

I never saw an animal fight so desperately, or one which was so difficult 
to kill. If a tame tat has nine lives, a wild-cat mu;->t have a dozen." 

The Manul, /v/zj manul, is a Siberian wild-cat, somewhat lower than 
the European one in stature, and clad in a very thick coat of yellowish 
and dark-brown hair (growing out of a close gray fell. It is found on 
the North of the mountainous border of Central Asia, exclusively on the 
steppes. It is mentioned here because some naturalists perhaps justly 
regard it as the original of the Angora cat. 

THE MALAY CAT. 

The Malay Cat or Kuwuk, Felis Javanensis TPlate XI), is of a 
grayish-brown color with dark black bands. During the day it hides in 
hollow trees, sallying out to plunder by night. The natives describe it 
as very sagacious, but fierce and untamable ; they affirm that, in order to 
approach fowls unsuspected, it imitates their voices. 

The Chinese Cat, Felis undatus (Plate XIj, is a dwarf variety, reach- 
ing a length of barely two feet, including tail. Its color is a brownish- 
gray, and four longitudinal stripes, two over the eyes, two on each side 
of the nose are very conspicuous. The stripes from the eyes turn 
toward the shoulders ; those from the nose run along the back on each 
side of a row of oblong spots : the flanks are covered with small round 
spots which extend also over the tail. 

This dwarf cat is found in India, the Sunda islands and Japan, and in 
China is the representative of the wild-cat. It is one of the wildest and 
bloodiest species of the family, and resists all attempts at taming. 

THE DOMESTIC CAT. 

There seems to be little doubt that we must regard as the ancestor 
of our household cat, the Nubian Cat, which, in the hoariest antiquity, 
all Egypt reverenced, worshipped and embalmed. While other animals 
were worshipped locally, the cats were deemed holy everywhere. If a 
house took fire, the cat was the first thing saved ; if a cat died, the 
Egyptians went into mourning; whoever purposely or accidentall}' killed 
one was put to death ; not even the name of a Roman citizen could save 
the offender. The bodies of the cats were carefully embalmed and 
placed in the tomb, and they are still the most common mummies found 
in the sepulchres. 



212 CARNIVORA. 

The Goddess Pacht or Bast who is represented with a cat's head, 
had her shrine at Bubastis in the Delta, and there most of the cats were 
taken to be buried. Pacht seems to have been the goddess who presided 
over birth and infancy, and to have represented some of the attributes 
of the Phccnician Astartc. 

In German mythology the cat appears as the beast of the goddess 
Freia who drove about drawn by a team of cats ; hence when the religion 
of our fathers gave way to Christianity the cat became the associate of 
witches in popular superstition, and lingering reminiscences of its sacred 
character have given rise to the belief still held by most of us, that " who 
ever drt)wns a cat will be unlucky for seven years." The cruel practice 
of throwing from the church tower cats with bladders tied to their feet 
is said to have arisen at Vpres, and was regarded as a sign that the 
people had thrown off heathenism ; it was a mockery of Freia's team. 
The proverb of "letting the cat out of the bag" has a curious history. 
According to tradition the Ring of the Nibelimgs had the power ol 
always replenishing a lioarded treasure : ot course such a ring was a 
most desirable acquisition, and if the ring could not be procured, was 
there any substitute ? The substitute was called the " Broodpenny," and 
was a coin which could be procured in this fashion : on the longest night 
of the year take a black cat and put it in a bag, and tie the bag tight with 
ninety and nine knots ; then go to the church and walk three times round 
the church, taking care every time you pass the door to put your mouth 
to the key-hole, and call for the sexton. On the third summons the 
sexton — of course old Nick — appears ; you ask him if he would like to 
buy a hare ; he offers and vou accciU a dollar for vour bag and its con- 
tents. \'ou must then do j'our very best running, while the purchaser 
is untying the ninety and nine knots, for when they are all untied, the 
cat is out of the bag, and there is the very devil to pay. 

The cat was undoubtedly first tamed by the Egyptians ; the Greeks 
and Romans make very slight mention of them. In the tenth century 
the laws of the Welsh prince Howell Da, fixed the prices of cats of all 
ages, and it was decreed that whosoever killed the king's cat should pay 
as a fine such an amount of wheat as was necessary to cover the cat 
cntirelv when held by tiie tail with its nose on the ground. 

The EcvrriAX Cat, Ftlis utauiculatus, was found by Ruppell on the 
west side of the Nile, in a district where rocks and bush alternate ; it has 
since been seen in Abyssinia, the Soudan and the interior of Africa. Its 




CHINESE CAT 
MALAY CAT 
COMMON CAT WITH KITTFNS 

PLATE XI. CARNIYORA 



THE DOMIiS'IIC CAT. 213 

length is about twenty inches, its tail about ten. Its color is a dull- 
yellow or gray, reddish on the head and back, lighter on the sides, the 
hind-legs are marked with stripes, and some narrow lines appear on the 
forehead. lirehm in vain sought to tame a grown up one, but two young 
ones in the Zoological Gardens of London seemed peacefully inclined, and 
the eminent traveler Schwcinfurth found that among the Xjam-njams 
of Central Africa, the Felis niatiiculatus did the mouse-catching of their 
households. There can be little doubt, then, that this is the species which 
the ancient Egyptians undertook to tame. The mummies of cats from 
the earliest monuments of that extraordinary people prove that very 
little change has been effected in the animal by domestication. 

The descendants of the Egyptian cat are found as household pets in 
all countries of Europe, in India, Japan and China, in which last empire 
it is used to tell the time of day by the size of the pupil of its eyes. In 
Modern Egypt it is still regarded with affection as the favorite animal of 
Mohammed, and funds exist the interest of which is devoted to feeding 
cats. In South America it is not found in the Andes, as it cannot endure 
the cold and thin air of the mountains; in New Zealand it has relapsed 
into a wild state, and is hunted by the settlers as zealously as they hunt 
its wild congeners. In the North of Asia it is an article of commerce, 
the Mantchoos do a large trade in it, selling kittens for sable skins 
to the neighboring tribes, but it is not found among the Nomad 
tribes of Eastern Siberia. Whenever the population quits a roving 
for a settled life the cat makes its appearance ; it was introduced into 
the regions at the mouth of the Amoor in 1853, and by 1857 had 
reached the settlements half-way up that stream. The Danish ladies 
carried cats with them to Greenland. In North America it is in every 
household. 

The cat is thus a living witness of the progress of mankind, of settled 
life and incipient civilization. Yet under all circumstances the cat asserts 
its independence, and submits to man only as far as it chooses. If cared 
for, it becomes attached to the family ; if neglected, it becomes attached 
to the house. We are too frequently in the habit of ascribing to the cat 
treachery and want of affection, as well as of undervaluing its intelligence •, 
we apply to it the same epithets that a dominant race always applies 
to a weaker one when it obstinately refuses to resign its independence, 
and sink into contented slavery. The cat refuses to be our slave or lick 
the hand that flogs it ; and it will not place its qualities unreservedly at 



314 CARNIVORA. 

our disposal. As far as mere brain power is concerned it is higher than 
the dog. Gratiolet, who has classed all the mammalia in groups accord- 
ing to the development of the brain, places the cats in the class above 
that to which he assigns the dog. 

The Domestic Cat, Fe/is domestiais (Plate XI), appears in various 
colors. We have them white, black, almost always with a white spot 
on the breast, yellow, bluish-gray, gray with dark stripes, and the so- 
called lortoiseshell cats in whose coats three colors combine. We may 
remark as a curious fact that all white cats with blue eyes are deaf, and 
that all tortoiseshell cats are females. 

There are few varieties of the cat ; two only deserve mention here. 

The Angol.a Cat, Fclis doiiusticHs niigolinsis, is distinguished by its 
size, its long silky hair, and its flesh-colored lips and soles. Pallas regards 
it as descended from the Manul (p. 211). It is generally of a uniform 
color, and is a very handsome creature. It is very lazy, and prefers 
being supported for its beauty to working for a living 

The M.VNX Cat, Fclis doiiicsticus icaiidatiis, has the hind-legs dis- 
proportionately developed, and is remarkable for the want of a tail, 
the absence of which member is only indicated by a rather wide pro- 
tuberance. This want of the usual caudal appendage is most con- 
spicuous when the animal, after the manner of domestic cats, clambers 
on the tops of houses, and walks along the parapets. How this singular 
variation of form cam.e to be perpetuated is extremely doubtful, and at 
present is an enigma to which a correct answer has yet to be given. It 
is by no means a pretty animal, for it has an unpleasant weird-like aspect 
about it, and by reason of its tailless condition is wanting in tliat undulat- 
ing grace of movement which is so fascinating in the feline race. A 
black Manx cat, with its glaring eyes and its stump of a tail, is a most 
unearthly apparition. 

We need not burden our pages with anecdotes of cats, nor endeavor 
to refute the ignorant belief that they can perform the impossible feat 
of sucking an infant's breath. We may, however, add a few lines on two 
points. 

The extraordmar}' electrical character of the Cat is well known. On 
a cold, bright day, if a cat be stroked, the hairs of the fur bristle up, and 
electrical sparks issue therefrom, accompanied with a slight crackling. 

It appears, too, that the animal may be so surcharged with electricity 
that it will give a severe shock to the holder. In order to obtain this 



THE SERVAL. 21$ 

result, the cat should be placed on the knees, and one hand applied to its 
breast while the other is employed in stroking its fur. Cracklings and 
sparkles soon make their appearance, and in a short time, if the party 
continues to stroke the animal, he will receive a sharp electrical shock 
that may be felt above the wrists. The cat seems to suffer as much as 
the experimenter, for on giving forth the shock she springs to the ground 
in terror, and seldom will permit a repetition of the same process. 

The other point is the " homeing " power of the cat. No difficulties or 
dangers seem to prevent it from finding its way home, even from a con- 
siderable distance and under circumstances which would cause any other 
animal to fail. Eighteen cats, belonging to different persons, were put in 
baskets and carried by night to a distance of three miles, when they were 
set at liberty at a given moment. A wager was laid upon them, and the 
cat that got home first was to be the winner. One of the animals arrived 
at its residence within an hour, and carried off the prize. Three only 
delayed their arrival until the next morning. 

Whether the cat can ever be used, like the carrier-pigeon, to carry 
intelligence in time of war through the enemy's lines, remains to be seen, 

THE MARTEN CAT AND SERVAL. 

Before we pass to the next genera two other species of cats must be 
mentioned, one a link between the cats and civets, the other between the 
cats and lynxes. 

The Marten Cat, Felis vivcrrinus, attains the length of three feet, ten 
inches of which must be reckoned to the tail. It is longer and lower 
than the ordinary cat, and has a smaller head. It is found in the East 
Indies and the adjacent islands as far as Formosa. 

The Serval, Felis serval, is commonly called by the Dutch colo- 
nists of the Cape the " Bush cat." It is a very pretty animal, and on 
account of the bold variegations of its fur, its skin is in great request, 
and finds a ready sale among furriers, who know it by the name of the 
Tiger-cat. 

The ground color of the Serval's fur is of a bright golden tint, sobered 
with a wash of gray. The under portions of the body and the inside of 
the limbs are nearly white. Upon this ground are placed numerous dark 
spots, which occasionally coalesce and form stripes. In number and size 
they are very variable. The ears are black, with a broad white band 



2lG CARNIVORA. 

across them, and from their vvidtli at the base, they give the animal a 
very quaint aspect when it stands with its head erect. 

In disposition, the Serval appears to be singularly docile, and even 
more playful than the generality ot the sportive tribe of cats. It is not 
a very large animal, measuring about eighteen inches in height, and two 
feet in length, exclusive ot the tail, wliich is ten inches long, and covered 
with thick, bushy fur ; the body is slender, but stands high, the head is 
long, the ears remarkably large, the eye small and placed obliquely. 

According to Mr. Anderson some of the African tribes believe that 
the real Tiger exists in their country, but they evidently refer to the 
Serval. When attacked the Serval displays great ferocity , the traveler 
just mentioned had one of his best and strongest dogs nearly killed 
by a Serval. On being discovered the beast took refuge in a tree, and 
was not dispatched before it had received sixteen wounds, some of the 
arrows employed for the purpose having been poisoned. 




CHAPTER VI. 
THE LYNXES AND CHEETAHS. 

THE GENUS LYNX— THE PERSIAN LYNX — THE CARACAL— THE EUROPEAN LYNX— THE BOOTED 
LYNX — THE CANADIAN LYNX — THE AMERICAN WILD-CATS — THE GENUS GEPARDUS — THE 
CHEETAH OR HUNTING LEOPARD. 



A 



LMOST all naturalists now place the lynx in a separate genus from 
the cats proper, although in common parlance many lynxes are 
called cats. In our family of the Felid* the Lynxes form the 



second genus. 

II.— GENUS LYNX. 

The Lynxes are characterized by a large head with tufted ears, a 
powerful body on long legs, and usually a short tail. All quarters of the 
globe, except Australia, are blest with Lynxes. They haunt dense, almost 
impassable forests and thickets, but are found also in steppes and deserts ; 
they may be regarded as highly developed cats, and are as rapacious as 
any leopard, and must be classed among the creatures which do more 
harm than good. Dr. Gray classes together as a genus two small lynxes 
in which the ear tufts are not developed and the tail hangs down to the 
heel. One of them is an African, the other an Indian animal, which we 
prefer to regard as species only. 

THE PERSIAN LYNX. 

The Persian or Marsh Lynx, Lj/nx chaus (Plate X), our first ex- 
ample ot the Lyncine group, is not unlike the lion in the general tawny 
hue of its fur, but is extremely variable both in the depth of tint and in 
certain indistinct markings which prevail upon the body, limbs, and tail. 
The fur, however, is always more grizzled than that of the lion, and there 
seem to be in almost every individual certain faint stripes upon the legs 
28 



JlS C'AKMNOKA. 

;iiul lail, (()j;i'llu'i- w itli a lew (il)sciiic sliipfs or dashes ol a daikci' tolor 
upon IIr- l)i)(l\ . 

Aldiii; (he liark, I lie liiir is ili'cpi'f llian on I he sides, ami cin the iiiuU'r 
parts (it llic l)(>(ly Ihe liir is ot a very pale liiil. Vhc extri'inilj ollhc t;ril 
is iilark. I'lic markiiii^'s which are Imiiul mi ihisaiimial are caused by 
llu- hlaek i-xliemilus ol siimr ol liie haiis. W'lieii these l)iack-tip|)e(l 
hails an- seatlcird, the\' piodiuc the i;ri//ly aspect which has been 
lueiitioiu'd as ln'loiii^iiii; to this aiiiiiial, but wheu they occur in close 
proxiuiits' to eaih othei, the\ pioduce either spots, sticaks, or dashes, 
acc()i'(hii!;' to theii' nunibei and arraui;iiucnt . ()n the tail, however, 
thc\ always sei'in to <;'ather into iitii;s, and on the lci;s into stripes, 
rhc'.e is an undi'iinatiui'dl solt wooll\ hairthrousjh w hit h tlii' lousrer 
hail s stick up. 

'l"hc ( 'li.iiis is lonnd in hlastcrn and Southern Ali'ica, i'crsia and India. 
It Ircipicnts, as its u.inie indicates, m.ush \ ground; its lood consists 
cliiclU ol the smaller (iiiadiupeds and binls, l)ut it is also loud ol lish, 
whiih it catches ycvy adioitb b\- a swet-p ot its paw. 

riu- ('li.ins was known to the ancient l'"L;\|>t ians, who eni!)ahned and 
nitonibed it as tiiey did thi- tat, and some authorities cxi'ii incline to 
ri'ii'ard it as the ancestor ot the cat. 

THE CAHACAL.. 

The C\K.\C.\l., y.i7/.r »/i/<i/i<>fis (I'late X), is distinguished by a slender 
bod\ . lonn' lesjjs, narrow pointed ears w ith black tiitts. Uoth its common 
and its scicniilic titUs. the rnikish larn-ai/, and the (ireek inrtnil-otis, 
mean " black I'aied.' It is widely i-xlended, bein;.;' touiid in .\tiiea, .\sia 
Mmoi, ami India; it avoids woodlai\ds, and jtri'lers tln' ste)>pes ami 
deserts, wlu'ie it lives usually on sm.ill birds .iml animals ; sometimes, 
howcser, it att.icks the lesser kinds of antelopes. Its color is pali'-browu, 
warmed with a tin^eol red, \ai\iiii;' slii;htlvin dilVerent individuals 
The under parts ol the bod\' are paK'r than the upin-r, ami siijihtly be- 
sprinkled with sjiots. Pile coloi- ot these spots is vi-r\' variable, tor in 
some iiuli\ idiials the\' are nearly black, w hile in others they are a reddish- 
chestnut. I"he lower lip, the tip ot the uppi'i" lip, ami the chin are quite 
white, riu- tail is very short. It is not a vei'v lar<je animal, beiii!;' about 
(Jip.i.il to a r.ither laiLiC bull-terrier ilog' in si/e, but veiv innch more 
active. 








o 

o 
o 

CC 

o 

X 

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>: 

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o 

u 

X 

H 

Oh 



THE LYNXES. 



219 



It is a peculiarly ferocious and surly animal, wearing a perpetual 
expression of malevolence, and always appearing to be, as it truly is, 
ready for a snarl and a bite. 

It is said to hunt in packs occasionally like wolves or wild dogs, and 
it possesses very great strength in comparison to its size, being capable 
at the same time of making surprising springs and of climbing trees. 

THE EUROPEAN LYNX. 

The Common Lynx, Lynx vulgaris, Mzs a strong beard and a short 
rudimentary tail. A full-grown lynx attains the length of three feet, or 
even three and a half feet, the tail measuring six to eight inches. The 
animal has a very powerful, compact figure, strong limbs, paws resem- 
bling those of the leopard, long ears ending in black hairs an inch and a 
quarter long. The lur is thick and soft, forming on the face a white 
beard which hangs down in two points ; its color is usually reddish-gray 
and grayish-brown mixed, and marked on the head, neck and back with 
darker spots ; the inside of the ear is white. The tail is thickly covered 
with hair, and the latter half is hilack. Its coat is shorter in summer and 
reddish in hue, but Vjecomcs longer and whiter in winter. The varieties 
of color are very numerous; indeed, scarcely two individuals are pre- 
cisely alike. 

However common this animal may have been in the Middle Ages, it 
is now comparatively rare; and Brehm states that the last lynx in Ger- 
many was killed in 1846. It is found, however, in Hungary and Russia, 
and is represented by a kindred species in the -South of Europe. 

The lynx was known to the ancients; the Greeks consecrated it to 
Bacchus, and Pliny has placed to its credit several absurd stories. 
Among others, he endows it with the faculty of seeing through walls ; 
hence the expression Lynx-eyed, which is adopted in our language to 
designate very keen vision. 

This animal resembles the caracal in its habits and mode of obtaming 
prey. Sheep often fall victims to the lynx, but it finds its chief nourish- 
ment among hares, rabbits, and other small animals. Like the caracal it 
is an excellent climber of trees, and chases its prey among the branches 
with ease and success. 

The fur of the lynx is valuable for the purposes to which the feline 
skin is usually destined, and commands a fair price in the market. Those 



220 CARNIVORA. 

who hunt the lynx for the purpose of obtaining its fur, choose the winter 
months for the time of their operations, as during the cold season the 
lynx possesses a richer and a warmer fur than is found upon it during 
the warm summer months. 

The Southern Lvnx, Lynx pardinus, is a smaller but more beautiful 
animal, found in Spain and Portugal. Its fur is of a ruddy chestnut color, 
with black spots and stripes, and from these leopard-like markings it 
derives its scientific appellation. Its flesh is regarded in Spain as a 
great delicacy ; it is beautifully white and tastes like veal. Madrid 
receives yearly about three hundred lynx-skins, which are made into 
caps much admired by gipsies, stableboys, and bull-fighters. The name 
of " Loup-cervier," sometimes given to it, probably originated from its 
howling like a wolf during the night. It nimbly climbs trees in pursuit 
of prey. Martens, ermines, hares, and rabbits also enter into its ali- 
mentation. It does not, however, eat the flesh of large victims, unless 
its hunger is extreme ; but generally is satisfied by sucking out the 
brain. 

Taken young, it becomes accustomed to captivity, and is fond of being 
caressed ; but it will return to its wild life if opportunity offers, so really 
never becomes attached to its master. It is an extremely cleanly animal, 
and like the cat, passes a large portion of its time in washing and cleansing 
its fur. 

THE BOOTED LYNX. 

The Booted Lynx, Lynx caligatus, derives its name from the appear- 
ance of its hind-legs, which are covered with black hair. The general 
tint of the fur is gray, plentifully besprinkled with black hairs. It is 
found in the southern parts of India and the greater part of Africa, from 
Egypt and Morocco to the Cape. It is very probable that the Booted 
Lynx is not a species, but only a variety of the Persian Lynx. 

THE CANADIAN LTNX. 

The Polar or Canadian Lynx, Lyrix Canadensis (Plate X), is called 
by the French Canadians Lc Chat or PccsJioo. It is the largest of the 
American lynxes, and sometimes attains the length of four feet, including 
the tail. It is one of the most important fur-bearing animals of the con- 
tinent ; the hair is longer and thicker than in the European lynxes, the 



THE CANADIAN LYNX. 221 

beard and ear-tufts are more developed, and each hair is of two colors. 
A brownish silver-gray is the prevailing hue, marked on the Hanks very 
indistinctly with spots ; in some specimens the fur takes a slight chest- 
nut tinge. The ears are edged with white. But it is probable that con- 
siderable changes of the coat take place according to the season of the 
year. 

When running at speed it presents a singular appearance, as it pro- 
gresses by a series of bounds, with the back arched and all the feet 
coming to the ground nearly at the same time. It is a good swimmer, 
being able to cross the water for a distance of two miles or more. 
Powerful though it be, it is easily killed by a blow on the back, a slight 
stick being sufficient weapon wherewith to destroy the animal. The 
j^.esh of the Peeshoo is eaten by the natives, and is said, though devoid 
^i flavor, to be agreeably tender. It is not so prolific as the generality 
of the feline tribe, as the number of its young seldom exceeds two, and 
.t only breeds once in the year. The range of this animal is as far south 
as the Great Lakes and eastward to the Rocky Mountains, but it is not 
uncommon in Northern New York. It frequents wooded regions, and 
in its manner of life differs in no respect from the other lynxes. Some 
authors describe it as a timid animal easy to destroy, but Audubon calls 
it a strong, bold creature, which can take good care of its hide. Audu- 
bon writes ; " The Canada lynx is more retired in its habits than our 
common wild-cat, keeping far from the habitations of settlers. Its fine, 
long fur enables it to withstand the cold of our northern latitudes. When 
alarmed, it leaps or bounds rapidly in a straight direction, and if hard 
pressed, takes to the trees, which it climbs by the aid of its powerful 
fore-legs and claws. It swims well, and will cross the arm of a lake two 
miles wide." He adds : " The stories told of the great cunning of this 
species in throwing mosses from the trees m order to entice the deer to 
feed on them, and then dropping on their backs, may be omitted as 
requiring no refutation." He cvidentlv discredits the common belief 
to which we have referred above that this lynx " is easily destroyed by a 
blow on the back with a slender stick." 

The food of the Canada lynx consists of grouse and other birds, 
hares, rabbits, squirrels, the Arctic fox, and the lemming. It is said to 
pounce on the wild goose at its breeding-places, and Audubon heard 
with skepticism an account of its having killed a deer, but confirms the 
statement that it kills young fawns. 



222 ■ CARNIVORA. 

THE AMERICAN WILD-CATS. 

The so-called wild-cats consist of three small species of lynxes which 
are somewhat difficult to distinj^uish. IJaird writes: "In the study of 
the North American lynxes 1 have found it very difficult to comic to 
satisfactory conclusions, owing to the imperfect condition of some speci- 
mens and t!ie uncertainty as to date of collecting others. Northern skins 
of w ild-cats have generally longer and softer hair the year tln-ougli than 
the southern, wliile, as in the deer, the hair will have a reddish or bay 
tinge, which is replaced by grayish in winter. As a general rule, the 
further south we go the smaller tlic species. There appear to be at least 
tJircc species of smaller American Ivnxcs in North America — the Common 
Bay Lynx, which reaches h"om tlie Atlantic to tlie Pacific througiiout 
nearly the whole latitude of the United States, but is replaced in Texas 
and Southern California by the Lynx inaculatus (Texas Wild-cat), and in 
Northern Oregon and Washington Territory by the Lynx fasciatus (Red 
Cat). The precise limit of the last mentioned species, other than as 
indicated, has not been ascertained." 

Audubon regards the two latter species as merely varieties of the 
common wild-cat. 

THE WILD-CAT OR BAY LYNX. 

The WiLn-c.\T or Hay Lynx, Lynx rufus (I'late X), is described as 
follows : " Tlie lur moderately lull and soft, above and on tlie sides pale 
rulbus overlaid with grayish — tiie latter color most prevalent in winter — 
a few obsolete dark spots on the sides, and indistinct longitudinal lines 
along tlie middle of the back ; color on the throat like the sides but much 
paler; beneath, white spotted; inside of tlic legs, Ixandeil ; tail, witli a 
black patch at the end with indistinct subterminal halt-rings; inner sur- 
face of ear with a white patch." Length of head and body twenty-seven 
inches ; tail, seven inches ; height at shoulder, fifteen inches. The Bay 
Lynx is fond of swampy situations, and is abundant in tlic cane-brakes 
of the Southern States, where at times they have become a great nui- 
sance by the havoc they make among the poultry. It is generally cow- 
ardly when attacked, and always flies from its pursuers; and Audubon 
says that he always found it very timid, and unwilling to attack an3'thing 
larger than a hare or a young ]iig. Dr. Coleman witnessed a fight be- 



THE WILD-CATS. 223 

tween an eagle and a wild-cat. After a fierce struf^p^le, in which the 
eagle was so badly wounded that he could not fly, the cat, badly scratched 
and having one eye gouged out, was found lying dead. 

In parts where their destruction is necessary, the wild-cats are hunted 
by dogs or caught in traps, and if a cat is " treed," the hunters shake it 
off" as they would a racoon. These cats hunt just like common cats, and 
mew and purr in the same way. They are not good swimmers, but are 
not averse to taking to water. 

Audubon tried to domesticate a young wild-cat; it showed, however, 
no disposition to improve its habits and manners, but became daily more 
wild and vicious. 

THE TEXAS WILD-CAT. 

The Texas Wild-cat, Lynx maculatus. We quote again from Baird : 
" Fur short and rather coarse, color light reddish-brown overlaid with 
gray in winter, quite distinct darker spots on back and sides ; color on 
throat paler than on sides ; beneath, white spotted ; inside of legs, 
banded ; black patch at end of tail ; inner surface of ear black, with a 
white patch ; an obscure dark line runs on each side of the neck, with 
two round, black spots between their extremities ; the ears large and 
pointed." Length from nose to root of tail, three feet; tail, six and a 
half inches. This variety is found in Mexico, Texas, and California. 

THE RED CAT. 

The Red Cat, Lynx fasciatus. Fur very full and soft; back, chestnut- 
brown, a little paler on sides and throat ; no spots or bands on the back ; 
dusky spots beneath. Ears black inside, with slight grayish patch. Last 
third of tail black on upper side. Size same as the common wild-cat. 

This variety was first described by Lewis and Clark in 1814 as the 
" Tiger Cat." 

in.— GENUS CYN^ELURUS. 

This genus, CyN/ELURUS, which is by interpretation " Dog-cat," con- 
tains only one species. The animals thus described well deserve their 
name, for they indeed seem half-dog and half-cat. Catlike is the head 
and long tail ; but the rest of the body is doglike, especially the long 



224 CAKMVORA. 

limbs, the claws ot" whiih arc only imporfoctly retractile: the muscles for 
shooting" out and drawins;- back the claws are tlioro. but tliev arc so weak 
and powerless that the claws always protrude and consequently are worn 
blunt. The teeth, on the other hand, are immistakably those ot a member 
ot" the family ot' Felida\ but the tail is curled over on itself at the extremity 
like the tail of a dog-. Not onlv in exteinal appearance are the members 
of this i^enus intermediate between the feline and the canine taniilies. but 
thev also display the qualities of both; they have the sharp eye and the 
cunnings of the cat combined with the docility, mildness, and attachment 
of the dog. 

THE CHEETAH. 

The Cheetah, Cvn<r/Mnis ;'uf><tfus {V\Mc VIIIV is popularly called the 
•• Huntinof Leopaid." but it can lay no claim to be considered a leopard, 
and has been so called on account of its spotted hide. Its scientific name 
j'uhiius. or " maned." has been assigned to it because a quantity of long 
hair grows on the back of the head and neck. Some writers needlessly 
distinguish between the African and Asiatic varieties, but the animals are 
essentiallv the same. 

The Cheetah, with its slender, narrow body, stands higher than the 
cats proper ; the head is small and somewhat rounded like a dogs, the 
ear is broad and short, the eye has a round pupil, the hide is rough and 
of a vellowish-gray color, marked with black and brown spots, arranged 
close together on the back and partly extending along the tail, which is 
ringed with black toward the end. The body measures about three feet, 
the tail about two. The African variety, called in Arabic FahJuid. has 
no mane, the predominant color of the fur is orange-yellow, and the tip 
of the tail is white. 

The Cheetah is found in all Southwestern Asia, and is a genuine beast 
of the plains, depending for its food on its speed and activrtv. It can 
creep on the ground, but does so more like a wolf or fox than like a cat : 
when it quickens its pace it runs with the long leap of the greyhound. 
It is quite unable to climW. It purrs like a cat. but in a deeper and 
rougher tone, and at times uttei-s a very peculiar cry. so like the word 
Cheetah th.>t we are justified in supposing that it derives its name from it. 
Its usual food consists of small ruminants : its speed alone would not 
enable it to take an antelope, but its catlike cunning comes to its aid. 
When its prev is visible, it creeps snakelike along the ground till it conies 



THE CHEETAH. 225 

within twenty or twenty-five yards, when a few of its long leaps places 
it on its victim's back, and it buries its teeth in the throat. 

Being docile as a dog, the Cheetah has allowed these natural gifts to 
be developed and trained by man, and in the East it is as much a part of 
a hunting establishment as a falcon or a pack of hounds. It is usually 
the female that is thus used ; and when it is taken out to hunt, it is 
hooded and placed on a light car in company with its keepers. 

The places which gazelles frequent are sought out. As soon as one 
is perceived, the hunters stop, the Cheetah is unfastened and its eyes 
unbandaged, and the game is pointed out to it. Immediately, under 
cover of the high vegetation and brushwor>d, the beast glides off in pur- 
suit, taking advantage, with unequalled tact, of the slightest breaks in 
the ground to conceal its movements. When it considers that it is suf- 
ficiently near its victim it suddenly shows itself, dashes on with terrible 
impetuosity, springs on the prey after a succession of prodigious bounds, 
and immediately pulls it to the ground. 

Its master, who has followed the events of the chase, then enters upon 
the scene. To detach it from its victim he throws it a piece of flesh, 
speaks gently to it, and caresses it ; after which he again covers its eyes, 
and replaces it on the saddle or in its conveyance, while the assistants 
carry off the quarry. 

This amusement is greatly in vogue in Mongolia, and a well-trained 
hunting-leopard attains an extraordinary price among the inhabitants. 
In Persia this method of hunting is not conducted in quite the same 
way. Men and dogs beat the woods and drive the game toward the 
hunters, who let the Cheetahs loose as the quarry passes them. 

The Cheetah can be tamed perfectly, so that it can be allowed to 
ramble about like a dog ; it knows its master's voice and comes when 
called, nor does it betray any objection to the caresses of strangers. A 
Cheetah at Paris had a most excellent temper, and after a considerable 
lapse of time, recognized a negro who had traveled on board the same 
ship from Senegal. 




29 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CIVET CATS. 

THE CRYPTOPROCTID.'E — THE GALET — THE VIVERRID.E — THE CIVET — THE ZIBETH — THE GENETS 
— THE PALE GENET — THE LINSANG — THE HEMIGALE — THE BINTURONG — THE NANDINIA — THE 
POUGOUNE — THE Ml'SANG — THE MASKED PAGUMA — THE MAMPALON — THE ICHNEUMONS — THE 
MUNGOS OR MANGOUSTE — THE EGYPTIAN ICHNEUMON — THE CRAB-EATING MANGOUSTE — THE 
ZEBRA MANGOUSTE— THE MEERKAT — THE ZENICK — THE MANQUE — THE BANDED MUNGOS. 

THE family Crvptoproctid.e forms a link between the Cats or 
Felidse and the Civets or Viverridee, and contains only one genus 
and that genus but one species. In figure this animal resembles 
the Yaguarundi, in color the Cougar ; it has the build, the appearance 
and dentition of the felines, the long body, short legs, short ears, long 
whiskers and naked soles of the Civets, as well as the remarkable' inguinal 
glands that characterize the latter. 

THE GALET. 

The Galet, Cryptoprocta ferox (Plate XII), attains the length ot nearly 
three feet m the body with a tail about two feet and three quarters. Its 
fur is short, thick and stiff, and seems shorn on the head and feet ; the 
color is a reddish-yellow, darker on the back; its eyes are like those of 
the common cat. 

The Galet or the Ferret Cat, as the Germans have named it, comes 
from Madagascar, where it is dreaded to a laughable extent. It attacks 
the Lemurs, and is a foe to domestic fowl, and occasionally to swine. Its 
flesh is highly prized as a delicacy by the Malagaseys. 

Pollens, the traveler, relates that his native huntsman one day came 
face to face with a Galet. The creature was surprised and began to spit 
at him. The huntsman in terror flung away his gun, climbed up a tree 
and stayed there, trembling in every limb, till the animal had disappeared 
in the thickets. 



CIVET CATS. 227 

Gentle and quiet as the creature appears, it is one of the fiercest 
known ; it is very muscular and active, and is inflamed with an insatiable 
thirst for blood. 

The name of Cryptoprocta is given it on account of the manner in 
which the hind-quarters taper down into the tail. The word is Greek, 
the first two syllables signifying " hidden," the second two " hind- 
quarters." 

THE CIVET CATS. 

The family of the Viverrid.e comprises a number of small and mod- 
erate-sized carnivorous animals known as Civets, Genets and Ichneumons, 
which differ from the Carnivora hitherto mentioned, by their slender, 
elongated, round body, their short legs, their long, slender neck and 
elongated head, as well as by their long, usually pendent tail. The eyes 
are small, the ears of various sizes ; some species have four toes, some 
five, and many possess retractile claws. But the most remarkable 
peculiarity about them is the presence near the tail of two or more 
glands and receptacles, which secrete and store up a fluid of a peculiar, 
sometimes agreeable odor. While the Viverridge in many respects re- 
semble the Martens and Skunks, in many others they resemble the Felidas 
and seem to connect the two groups. They are found in the southern 
regions of the Old World, chiefly in Africa and Asia ; for the so-called 
American Civet, Bassaris astiita, finds its proper place in the famil)' of 
the Procyonidce or Racoons. Throughout the family we find great variety 
of form, and equally great variety in their haunts ; many live in wastes 
and steppes, or the scanty thickets of the driest portions of Africa and 
Asia, others prefer fruitful lowlands and the banks of rivers, some 
approach the settlements of man, others shyly retire into the darkness 
of the forests, some frequent trees, some never leave the earth. 

The Viverridas are mostly nocturnal in their habits, active and lively, 
but many prowl about during the day. Their movements are char- 
acterized by suppleness and grace ; and no animals equal these in the 
serpentine manner in which they glide over the ground, and few in the 
rapidity with which they spring upon their prey, a rapidity in striking 
contrast with their usually deliberate gait. Some species have been quite 
domesticated, the Ichneumons and Mangoustes being used to keep the 
houses in Eastern countries free from serpents and other animal pests. 
Their sense of smell is very acute; their powers of sight vary according 



228 CAKNIVORA. 



U) the luibits, nocturnal or diurnal, ol the animal ; their sense of hearing 
is less developed. 

All species of this family arc intelligent and docile, and express by 
their movements gratitiulc for kindness ; even the wildest varieties soon 
become tame, and learn to answer to tiieir name. 

The great variety of form in the \'iverrida^ lias led to numerous 
systems of classilication ; older writers arc content witli eight genera, 
but Gray, who has made an exhaustive studv ol tin- lamilv, subdivides it 
into tliirty-tlircc genera, and one luiiulrcd species. Of these we shall men- 
tion only the most important. 



GENUS VIVERRA. 

The members of this genus have a long slender body, a long drooping 
tail, pretty long legs, feet of five toes with half retractile claws, and hairy 
soles; short broad ears, moderately large eyes with a round ]iupil and a 
pointed snout antl nose; tiie solt hir and llie higlilv di'\i'ioi)i'(l odorifer- 
ous glands complete the ciiaracteristics of tiic genus. It is distributed 
over North and Tropical Africa, and Southern Asia, as far as the Molucca 
Islands. According to Gray's classification it contains three species. 

THE CIVET AND THE ZIBETH. 

The CiVKT, Viverrii eivettn, ami the ZiniCTll, Jlverrn zihetlia (Plate 
XII), are remarkably alike. The Civet has transverse bands upon a gray 
ground, narrow and parallel with each otiier on the shoulders, larger on 
the body and the thighs, while the Zibeth has the body covered with 
small round black spots upon a gray ground, sometimes tinted with 
brown. The tail of tiie Zibeth has eight or ten rings of a blackish-brown 
witii about two inches of black fur at the tip ; that of the Civet has only 
four or five rings with six inches of black tip. The Zibeth has four black 
bands on a white ground on the neck, the Civet in the same place, only 
three; the Zibeth has a white sjiot under tlie eye and a gray muzzle, the 
Civet has no sjiot under the eve. ami the head is entirely black except 
the upper lip, which is white; in general tlie Zibeth h;»s more brown than 
the Ci\et, whose tints are pure white, w liilc llic Civet has a rougher coat 
than the Zibeth. Tiu' wortls Ci\et and Zibeth are both European pro- 



!i 



THE CIVET AND ZIBETH. 229 

nunciations of one and the same Arabic word. The former is a native 
of Africa, the latter of Asia. 

The Tangalung, Vivcrra tangarunga, has rather more distinct mark- 
ings than the preceding species, the three black bands on the throat 
being very conspicuous. The body has a thick downy covering of soft 
hair next the skin, which gives the tail a cylindrical aspect. The Tanga- 
lung is a native of Sumatra. 

The Civets in their natural wild state are rather nocturnal than diur- 
nal creatures, and live on small birds and animals. Numbers are kept in 
captivity for the sake of obtaining the odoriferous substance they pro- 
duce. Civet was long a favorite perfume. " He rubbeth himself with 
civet, a sign that the sweet youth is in love," and " An ounce of civet, 
good apothecary, to sweeten my imagination," are well known quotations 
from Shakespeare, who describes it correctly as the " most unclean flux 
of a cat." This substance is contained in two glands, each of which 
will hold about the size of an almond ; as the civet is formed it is pressed 
through small orifices into the pouch, which the animal can compress at 
will. When at liberty it discharges the substance in pieces about the 
size of a nut every fourteen or twenty days ; when captive it is deprived 
of the secretion by means of a spoon, care being taken to secure the 
creature so that it cannot bite. Usually the civet is removed twice a 
week, to the quantity of a drachm each time. When fresh it is white in 
color, but turns brown. To prepare the civet of commerce, the sub- 
stance is carefully freed from hairs, washed with water and lemon-juice, 
and finally dried in the sun. The best kind comes from the Moluccas. 
When civet was the scent in fashion, large numbers of the animals were 
kept in Italy and Holland as well as by the traders in Abyssinia. 

GENUS VIVERRICULA. 

The RasSE, Viverricula malacensis, the ottly species of the genus, is 
the Javanese Civet. Its head is wedge-shaped and the ears close to- 
gether, the fur is rigid, coarse and scanty, and is marked along the back 
with eight parallel lines. It is found usually in forests slightly elevated 
above the sea-level ; it preys on small birds and animals, and has the 
sanguinary appetite of the family in a high degree. It preserves, unlike 
the Zibeth, the natural ferocity of its disposition in captivity. Its per- 
fume is highl}' valuea by the Javanese. 



230 CAKMVOKA. 



GENUS GENETTA. 

This genus differs from the preceding by the fact that the pouch is 
reduced to a slight hollow formed by the projection of the glands, and 
that there is no sensible secretion although there is a most manifest odor. 
It embraces ^7'<' species. 

The body is slender and elongated, the muzzle pointed, the limbs 
short, the whole appearance, indeed, that of the marten. The Genets 
live in low grounds and are easily tamed. The eye resembles that of 
the common cat. and the claws are retractile; like the Civets they lire 
on a mixture of animal and vegetable food. 

THE GENETS. 

The Common Genet, Gcmtta vulgaris, is found in Africa, and even in 
the South of France. It is a verv beautiful and graceful animal, of a 
gray color mixed with yellow, on which dark patches are lavishly scat- 
tered, and the full bushy tail is covered with alternate bands of black and 
white. The muzzle is black except a white patch on the upper lip. 

The Pale Genet, Gcmtta Soicgalcnsis (Plate XII), has a whiter fur 
and different markings ; the spots having a tendency to form stripes, and 
the hinder legs are quite black at the ankle-joint. 

GENUS LINSANG. 

This genus contains two species found in Malacca and Java, and 
differs very little from the general characteristics of the Genet group. 
The head is pointed, the body uncommonly elongated, the legs short, 
the tail as long as the body, the fur smooth and close. 

The LiNSAXG, Linsnng j;m<i7i.i (or Prioiiodon gnrci/is), is of a gray 
or vellowish-white color with black-brown spots and bands ; the tai' 
exhibits seven broad dark rings and has a white tip. 

GENUS HEMIGALE 

This genus from Malacca and Borneo is represented by only o>tf 
species, the Hctnigalc Hardxvickii (Plate XII). The color of its fur is 



THE BIXTURONG. 23 r 

grayish brown, with six or seven bold stripes across the back ; these 
bands are broad on the back but narrow to a point on the flank, and are 
unconnected with each other. The latter half of the tail is black. 



GENUS ARCTITIS. 

The BiNTUROXG, Arctitis binturong, is of a dead black color, with 
long coarse dull hair ; the head is gray and each ear is furnished with a 
long tuft of black hair, the tail is longer than the body and covered with 
exceedingly bushy hair. The muzzle is short and sharp, rather turned 
up at the extremity and covered with long brown hairs which radiate 
round the face. 

The Binturong is a good climber of trees, being assisted by its thick 
and powerful tail, which is prehensile at the end. 

The only species known extends from Nepaul to Java and Sumatra. 



GENUS NANDINIA. 

This is another genus that contains only one species, the Nandinia 
binoiata, which some writers have classed with the Civets, some with the 
Ichneumons. It derives its epithet binotata from the double row of spots 
on the body. The general color of the fur is a rich dark brown, and 
the tail is marked with obscurely defined blackish rings. 



GENUS PARADOXURUS. 

This genus has the dentition and general characteristics of the Genets, 
but the walk is almost plantigrade, and its tail coils spirally although it 
is not prehensile. It contains riine species. 

The PouGOUXE, Paradoxurus typus, comes from the East Indies, and 
is of a brownish-yellow color with some browner markings; the feet, 
muzzle and part of the tail are black ; on each side of the spine there are 
three rows of elongated spots, which, when viewed in certain lights, are 
merged into lines. 

The MusAXG, Paradoxurus fasciatus, is a native of Java, Borneo and 
Siam, and is commonly called the " Java Cat." It is smaller than the 



232 CARNIVORA. 

Pougoune, and has a coarser and shorter fur, whicli presents great varie- 
ties of color in different specimens. 

The MuSANG is, although a destroyer of rats and mice, a great pest 
to the coffee-plantations, which it ravages in such a manner as to have 
earned the additional title of the " Coffee Rat." It feeds largely upon 
the berries of the coffee-shrub, and it is a remarkable fact that the berries 
thus eaten appear to undergo no change by the process of digestion, so 
that the natives, who are free from over-scrupulous prejudices, collect 
the rejected berries, and are thus saved the trouble of picking and clear- 
ing them from the husk. However, the injury which this creature does 
to the coffee-berries is more than compensated by its very great useful- 
ness as a coffee-planter. For, as these berries are uninjured in their pas- 
sage through the body of the animal, and are in their ripest state, they 
take root where they lie, and in due course of time spring up and form 
new coffee-plantations, sometimes in localities where they are not ex- 
pected. The Musang is not content with coffee-berries and other vege- 
table food, although it seems to prefer a vegetable to an animal diet. 
When pressed by hunger, it seeks eagerly after various small quadrupeds 
and birds, and is often a pertinacious robber of the hen-roosts- 



GENUS PAGUMA. 

This genus containing three species is found in Nepaul, China and 
Borneo, and Singapore. 

The Masked Paguma, Pagmna larvata, used to be placed among the 
weasels, and called the Masked Glutton. The name Larvata or Masked, 
is given to it on account of the white streak down the forehead and nose, 
and the white circle round the eyes, which gives the creature an aspect 
as if it was endued with an artificial mask. There is a pale olive-gray 
band extending from the back of each ear and meeting under the throat, 
and the general color of the fur is an olive-brown, sprinkled w ith gray. 
In China it bears the name of Yu-min-mao. It is a good climber of 
trees and is nocturnal in its habits. The other species are the White 
Whiskered Paguma and the Woollv Paguma. 

The genera we have hitherto described have been formed by Gray 
into the sub-family of the Viverrin.-e ; we now proceed to his second 
sub-family, that of the HERPESTiNyE. 



THE ICHNEUMONS. 233 

GENUS CYNOGALE. 

Another genus of only one species. 

The Mampalon, Cynogalc Bcnncttii, has a thick compact body, a long 
head, pointed muzzle, very short tail and legs, and is remarkable for a 
strong beard of long yellowish-white bristles, behind and above which 
there are brown bristles, while the cheeks are adorned with two bundles 
of long, strong, whitish hairs. The animal is plantigrade, but can climb 
trees. It is a native of Borneo and Sumatra, and lives on fish, birds and 
fruits. 

GENUS GALIDICTIS. 

Madagascar furnishes the tivo species which constitute this genus. 
Little is known of either, except the account furnished by Dr. Gray in 
the Zoological Transactions of London. 

The Galidictis Vittata is gray, with eight black-brown streaks on the 
back and sides, and attains the length of fourteen inches, with a tail of 
twelve inches. This animal is remarkably agile, keeping its long bushy 
tail erect as it runs about, and uttering a chirp like a rat. One that was 
kept on board ship for six months soon became tame, and preferred raw 
eggs for food. Its method of breaking them was amusing: it would roll 
one toward a projecting timber, then lying down on its side, it grasped 
the egg with all its feet and threw it with a sudden jerk, repeating the 
process till the contents were obtained. 

THE ICHNEUMONS. 

Under the popular name of Ichneumon, numerous genera are em- 
braced. The word Ichneumon is Greek, and signifies the " tracker," 
from the fact that the best representatives of the group display remark- 
able patience and skill in tracking their prey to its hiding-place. 

GENUS HERPESTES. 

This is a well-defined genus containing twenty-two species, of which 
we need mention only two or three. In this genus the pouch is volu- 
minous, and single instead of double. 
IP 



234 CARNIVORA. 

The Garaxgang, Hcrpcstis yavauinis, abounds in the teak forests of 
Java; it attacks and kills serpents with great boldness; and it is said by 
tiie natives that, when the snake has coiled itself round tiic Garangang, 
the latter inflates its bodv to a considerable extent, and when the reptile 
IS about to bite contracts again, slips from between the folds and seizes 
the snake by the neck. It burrows in the ground, and is expert in pur- 
suuig rats. It is easily tamed and becomes very docile, following its 
master like a dog. 

THE MUNGUS. 

The MUNGUS or Mangouste, Hcrpcstcs griscus, is a native of the East 
Indies ; it measures about a foot, and its tail is about the same length ; 
but it is difficult to ascertain its exact size, as it can contract or elongate 
its body several inches. 

Its color is a dirty-gray ; the circumference of the eye, the ear, and 
the muzzle are naked and violaceous ; the tail is the same color as the 
body, very thick at the root, and terminating in a yellowish point, and 
the hairs bristle up like the cat's when the animal is irritated. 

The Nvin.A. Hcrpcstcs Xy/i/a, has its fur uKukcil in a singularly beau- 
tiful manner, tiie pattern resembling fine basket-work ; on the back the 
pattern is tolerably large, but it becomes smaller on the head, and on 
the nose is microscopically fine, although as perfect and uniform as on 
the body. The paws are dark. 

The Meloxcillo, Hcrpcstcs IViiiiiriiigtonii. deserves notice as the only 
European Ichneumon. It was long known to Spanish sportsmen, who 
hunted it for the hairs of its tail, which were used to form paint-brushes. 
It is probable that it occurs also in Africa. 

It lives in river bottoms, chiefly in the provinces of Estremadura and 
Andalusia, where the Esparto grass abmuids. It measures, including a 
tail of twenty inches, about three feet and a half. The fur is short on the 
bodv, the lower surface being almost bare, but becomes longer on the 
spine and tail ; a dark-gray is the prevailing color, but the tip of the tail 
is black. 

The Mungus proper is a clcanlv. lively, good-tempered creature, and 
keeps the house of its owner free from rats and mice, and such creatures, 
as well as from those horrible nuisances in all tropical countries — snakes 
and scorpions. It is from its combats with the latter that it obtains its 
fame. The name it bears has been given it because, according to native 



THE MUNGUS. 235 

reports, when it is bitten by a poisonous serpent, it digs up a very bitter 
root named the Mungo-root, which it eats, and then with renewed vigor 
resumes its combat with its foe. European observers who have watched 
the animal when it leaves the field of battle, say it eats either grass or 
any other herb in the neighborhood. An eye-witness writes : " The 
snake — a Spectacled Snake — was a yard and a half long ; the Mungus 
attacked it immediately, and a terrible struggle ensued. At the end of 
five minutes the snake struck the Mungus with its poison-fang. The 
animal fell, lay for some time like a dead thing, and foamed at the mouth ; 
then suddenly rose and rushed into the jungle. In twenty minutes it 
returned and renewed the attack with greater spirit than ever, and killed 
the snake within si.\ minutes." 

In 1 87 1 the governor of one of the West India Islands consulted the 
Zoological Society of London how to get rid of the terrible Lance-snakes. 
Mr. Sciater recommended tiie Mungus, and sent two living ones to Santa 
Lucia. On their arrival Governor Des Voeux resolved to try their 
powers. A snake was brought in in a glass bottle ; the Mungus at once 
displayed great animation, and tried to open the glass bottle by pulling 
out the rags which served as a stopper. He succeeded ; the snake came 
out, the Mungus sprang at it, the snake drew back quickly, then struck like 
lightning, and the Mungus leaped into the air screaming. But it at once 
rushed afresh to the attack, and after a few minutes dragged the serpent 
to its cage, where it devoured its captive at leisure. After the lapse of an 
Lour nothing but the tip of the reptile's tail was left, and the Mungus was 
Ho well as ever. He suffered no inconvenience from the poison. 

The Ichneumon, Hcrpestcs Ichneumon (Plate XII), has been famous for 
ages. Herodotus relates that the Ichneumons were embalmed and en- 
tombed in the shrines of every city of old Egypt. Strabo affirms that it 
never attacks its foes — the serpents — without calling its companions to its 
aid. -lElian maintains that, before going into the battle, it rolls itself in the 
mud, and then dries this coating in the sun till it can resist the serpent's 
fangs. Pliny asserts that the crocodile sleeps with its ponderous jaws 
wide open, and that the Ichneumon seizes this opportunity to jump into 
its mouth, eat its way to the heart, and then out of the monster's belly. 
The Roman writer adds that the Ichneumon creeps about till it finds 
the hidden eggs of the crocodile and eats them all, thus deserving the 
gratitude of mankind. All these pretty stories unfortunately are devoid 
all foundation in fact. 



236 CARNIVORA. 

The Ichneumon, when fully grown, is as large or larger than oui 
domestic cat, but seems smaller owmg to its short legs. The body is 
slender, but by no means so graceful as that of the Genet ; the feet have 
naked soles, and are partially webbed. The long tail appears, in conse- 
quence of its long hair, to be very thick at the root. The eyes are proml 
nent, the ears short, broad and rounded. The fur consists of a thick, 
woolly, russet-colored felt, covered with long hair marked with black and 
yellowish rings, and having a dull yellow tip. 

The Ichneumon, or Pharaoh's Rat, extends over all North Africa and 
Northwestern Asia, and is always found near the habitations of man, fre- 
quenting the reedy banks of rivers or the hedges which surround the 
fields ; through these reed-beds it forms narrow roads which lead to its 
nest, where the female brings forth her young. Brehm describes the 
Ichneumon as strictly diurnal in its habits, and as timid and suspicious, 
possessing the evil odor and bloodthirstiness of the marten. It eats 
everything — snakes, worms, lizards, mice, reed-birds ; its plunder of the 
nests of hens and pigeons renders it hateful to the fellaheen. At present 
it does not come into contact with crocodiles, the latter being nearly 
exterminated in Lower Egypt. Its mode of progression is very serpent- 
like ; it seems to glide over the ground without using its legs. In the 
summer, when the young ones have been born, the whole family may be 
seen together, following each other in Indian file so closely that they seem 
to be one snake-like creature. The sense of smell is highly developed, 
and is the means by which the Ichneumon tracks his prey. 

The Ichneumon was, in the land of the Pharaohs, an emblem of the 
Deity as the destroyer of evil ; in the Egypt of Turkish Pachas and 
Greek traders it is considered a charitable action to kill it. When a 
report spreads that some traveler is going to kill a Nims, as the Arabs 
call the beast, young and old rejoice; the peasant drops his hoe, the 
weaver quits his loom, the waterwheels stop, and all the population 
flock to witness the destruction of the murderous little thief. 

The sportsman must use a strong charge of powder and fire at a 
short range if he wishes to kill, for the Ichneumon possesses incredible 
tenacity of lite, and will certainly escape if only wounded. The Ich- 
neumon is easily tamed and is as playful as a cat, but it is not of much 
use to its master. 

Like other illusions of our youth, belief in the virtues of the Ich- 
neumon is torn from us b}^ modern philosophers. 



THE MANGOUSTES. 237 



GENUS URVA. 

The only species of this Eastern genus is the Crab-EATING Man- 
GOUSTE, Urva cancrivora. It seems to occupy a position between the 
Mangoustes proper and the Gkittons. It is easily distinguished by the 
narrow stripe of long white hairs that runs from the mouth to the shoul- 
ders, and the bushy base of the tail. It was discovered in the swampy 
jungles of Nepaul, but beyond its passion for crustaceous food nothing 
is known respecting its habits. 



GENUS ARIELA. 

The Zebra Mangouste, Aricla tccniata, is again the only species of the 
genus. It is one of the smaller members of the family, and does not 
much exceed a foot and a quarter in length. The fur is rich, of a fawn- 
gray color ; on the head and neck the hairs end in black or brown and 
white; on the back, in dark and fawn-colored tips; thus producing nine 
to ten pairs of regular dark and light transverse bands. 

The Zebra Mangouste is found in all Eastern Africa, from the Cape of 
Good Hope to Abyssinia. It can be easily tamed, and soon becomes 
attached to its masters. It is said to attract some small birds within its 
reach by imitating their cries. 

Brehm describes two Mangoustes which he had in his possession : 
" As soon as I let them out of the cage they rambled through the whole 
house, and in a few minutes had explored it all. They first visited the 
milk-bowl, lifting the lid up with ther snout: they then collected all the 
bones the}^ could find, preferring marrow-bones ; they extracted the mar- 
row as far as possible with their claws, but when they could reach no 
further they took the bone in their fore-paws, stood up on their hind-legs, 
and threw it between their hind-legs against the wall with violence suf- 
ficient to dislodge the marrow." 



GENUS CYNICTIS. 

This genus, comprising tliree species, is closely allied to the Ichneu- 
mon, but differs in the formation of the feet — the animals comprehended 



-\;8 CARXIVOKA. 

Ill It possossini:: five toes on the front and four on the hinder legrs. and the 
soles of the feet are partly covered with hair. The body is slender, the 
ear short and round, the hair long on the sides of the tail. 

The MEERK.xr. (>///<//> /,<-:•<////<;/////. attains a leno:th of two feet and a 
half; its fur is smooth, its tail bushy ; its color is reddish, whence it is 
called sometimes the Ruddv Ichneumon : the tail is sprinkled with silver- 
gray and has a white tip ; long black hairs project over the eyes and on 
the lips. 

It is found from the Cape of Good Hope northward in tlie lowlands 
and pb.ms of South Africa, living on mice, birds, and insects : it is savage, 
cunning, and agile. 

Its specific title has been given it in compliment to the well-known 
African traveler Le VaiLlant. 

The following genera belong to Gray's third sub-family, the Rhino- 
g^ids : 



GENUS SURICATA. 

This remarkable genus resembles the Herpestes in the color and 
markings of its fur. but it is distinguished from them and all the Car- 
nivora hitherto mentioned bv possessing onlv four toes on each foot, and 
these are covered witli a fine skin like the human hand. The odoriferous 
glands are not developed into a pouch witli separate external apertures. 
Onlv <>«<■ species is known. 

The Zenick. Sun'ttUa sintV^ (P\Mc XII\ is of a dull-brown color, 
crossed transversel}' b}- slight bands : the tail is brown, and the length 
of the body from the tail to the muzzle is about a foot. It moves quickly 
with the bodv arched, not low like the Mangoustes ; it is plantigi-adc. and 
can stand up on its hind-legs and carry food to its mouth with its fore- 
paws. The Zenick is easilv tamed, and acquires a cat-like aftection for the 
house it inhabits. It is a native of .\frica. 

The Zenicks are less carnivorous than the rest of the Viverrida\ and 
seem to form an intervening link between tlie Mangoustes and the family 
of the Mustelidce or Martens. 

-A. specimen lived for some time in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, but 
nothing is known of the animal's habits in its wild state. 



THE MUNGOS. 239 



GENUS CROSSARCHUS. 

The animals of this genus have the teeth, the muzzle, the pouch, the 
gait of the Zenicks, but the toes and other organs of the Mangouste. 
Only one species is known. 

The Mangue, Crossarchus obscurus, is a native of Sierra Leone. The 
body is compact, the head round with a pointed muzzle, the tail of me- 
dium length, the legs moderately long, all the feet have five toes, the ears 
are small, the eye has a round pupil with a third undeveloped lid, the 
tongue is long. The color of the animal is a ruddy-brown, which in cer- 
tain lights presents a yellowish tmge, owing to the alternate rings of 
white and brown with which each hair is marked. 



GENUS MUNGOS. 

This African Genus contains three species, of which we need mention 
only the most typical. 

The Banded Muxgos, Mungos fasciatus, is a small animal not much 
larger than a water-rat. The color is a blackish-grizzle with a chestnut 
tinge on the hind-quarters and a row of darker lines across the back. 
It is very lively in its movements, and utters continuously a curious 
sound like a frog's croak; when excited it spits like a cat and bites 
furiously at its companions. The fore-paws are armed with long claws, 
and it is an admirable climber. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

THE AARD-WOLF AND THE HYAENAS. 

THE FAMILY PROTELID^ — THE AARD-WOLF — THE FAMILY HY^NID.-E — FABLES AND SUPERSTITIONi 
ABOUT THE HY>ENA — THE STRIPED HY.'ENA — TWO TAME ONES — THE BROWN HY>ENA — TH3 
SPOTTED HY^NA OR TIGER-WOLF — RAPACITY OF THIS SPECIES — ITS HORRID LAUGHTER. 

THE family Protelid.e is limited to o>ic genus and one species, 
which is found only in South Africa. 
The Aard-wolf, Proiclcs cristatus (Plate XI 11), is a highly 
modified form of the hyjena, and seems to form a link between that family 
and the civet-cats. Some naturalists, indeed, have called it the Civet-hya^na, 
but it is usually known by the appellation bestowed upon it by the Dutch 
colonists of the Cape of Good Hope. It is much smaller than the hyasnas, 
and larger than the civets ; in appearance it bears a striking resemblance 
to the striped-hya;na, possessing the same powerful and well developed 
fore-quarters with the low sloping hind-quarters, and coarse rough fur; 
the tail is very large in proportion to the animal's body, and covered 
with thick bushy hair which is black at the tip of the tail ; like the hyama 
it has a thick bristling mane on the back of the neck and shoulders, and 
it can erect this hirsute appendage when excited. Its ears, however, are 
larger than those of the hyaena, and its fore-feet are armed with powerful 
claws, the thumb being, as in dogs, very slightly developed. The Aard- 
wolf attains the length of about three feet and a half, including the tail, 
which measures about one foot. The fur consists of a soft woolly coat- 
ing, through which the stiff rough hairs grow, and it is marked with black 
vertical stripes on a dull yellow ground ; the head is chiefly black, the 
mane is black and 3'ellow mixed. 

The Aard-wolf is nocturnal in its habits, and passes the day in a 
burrow which it digs skillfully with its powerful claws. From this prac. 
tice of burrowing it derives its DutcV. name, which means Earth-wolf. 



THE HYENAS. 24I 

These burrows differ from those of the fox and other animals, in being 
the habitations of several individuals. Several deep tunnels are dug 
which converge to one small chamber where three or four Aard-wolves 
take up their residence. Verreaux, the companion of Lalande, who first 
described the animal, drove some from their abode ; he remarked that 
one in place of running away began to burrow in a new spot with remark- 
able dexterity. The same observer states tnat the favorite food of the 
Aard-wolf consists of lambs, but that at times it kills a sheep, of which, 
however, it devours only the tail ; carrion seems to form its staple article 
of diet ; it sometimes makes a meal of the white ants. 

It is probable that the Aard-wolf is more widely distributed than is 
commonly assumed. A traveler in Nubia reports that he found there 
a civet-hytena, wnich had been killed by some natives, and which seemed 
to resemble perfectly the Aard-wolf of the Cape. 

THE HYAENAS. 

The Hy^niD^ constitute another small family of one genus and three 
species, of which one only is found out of Africa. 

The Hyaena is one of the animals which the showmen of menageries 
love to dilate upon ; blood-thirstiness, rapacity and cunning are the 
least crimes laid to its charge ; it is accused of beguiling travelers 
by imitating the laughter of human revellers, and then falling upon 
them and devouring them ; and represented as digging human corpses 
out of their graves to gratify its loathsome hunger. Some ancient 
authors give the hyasna three rows of teeth like the shark {des Mccres 
Hydne), and prickly darts at the end of its tail ; some affirm that its 
eyes become stone after death. The Arabs regard the animal as a 
disguised magician who, by day, assumes a human form, but, by 
night, appears as the hyaena, and they warn travelers from shooting 
them. " These bewitched men," said an Arab, " who are cursed by 
God, the most High, can, by the mere glance of their evil eye, stop the 
blood in the veins of the righteous and make his heart cease to beat. 
Our Lord, Kurshid Pacha — may God be gracious to him ! — burned 
several villages in which these magicians dwelt, but he died suddenly — 
the glance of the evil eye slew him. Listen to their cries ! are those the 
cries of a beast? Assuredly not; they are the lamentations of a human 
being, Dr rather this voice is the laughter of the devil. I knew a young 

31 



242 CARNIVORA. 

man who killed a hyaena — next morning he had become a giil; I knew 
another whose leg withered after he had slain one of these magicians. 
Refrain, O my brother," he continued, addressing the traveler ; " point 
not thy musket at what thou deemest a beast; for it is a son of the 
accursed one." 

The appearance of the hyaenas justifies the dislike of mankind ; they 
resemble dogs, and yet are repulsively dissimilar. The fore-legs which 
are used for digging are powerful, the liind-legs short ; the disproportion 
between the limbs gives them a shambling, slouching gait, and the slop- 
ing line of the back has a sneaking, cowardly look. The teeth and jaws 
are remarkably strong, and crash through the thigh bones of an ox with 
savage force; the muzzle is short, the tongue rough like a tiger's; che 
feet have four claws. 

The hyaena is nocturnal, and usually avoids populous neighborhoods. 
It is in darkness and solitude that the traveler hears the peculiar cry of 
the prowling troop that makes night hideous till the dawn is breaking. 
A piece of stinking carrion attracts them in numbers, but they seldom, 
attack powerful animals ; and never unless the latter take to flight. 
Thus they often destroy healthy cattle that can run away, but are afraid 
to touch the sickly or maimed ones which are forced to stand at bay. 
Schweinfurth the African traveler, however, says that in the country of 
the Njam-njams they pursue and run down the antelope as wolves run 
down their prey. But this must be quite an exception. The voracity 
of the hya-na is frightful to witness, and the noise made by a pack over 
their favorite carrion, scarcely to be described. The screams, the growls, 
the piercing shrieks of laughter easily suggest to the natives that hell 
has broken loose. They are useful as scavengers by removing decay- 
ing animal matter, especially in the interior of Africa where the corpses 
are simply flung outside the villages. Further to the South in the 
Hottentot country, they dig up the remains of the dead which are 
interred in shallow graves. They everywhere follow the caravans 
that cross the deserts, as they know some victim will fall into their 
clutches. 

THE STRIPED HY^^NA. 

The Striped Hy^NA, Hycena striata (Plate XIII), is distinguished by 
its peculiar stripes. The general color is grayish-brown with blackish 
stripes running along the ribs ; a large black patch covers the front of 




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THE STRIPED AND BROWN HYENAS. 243 

the throat, and black hairs are sprinkled abundantly over the whole fur; 
the mane on the crest and shoidders has hairs with black tips. The 
length of this species is about three feet and a quarter, in the body. 

The Striped Hyjena extends from Sierra Leone in Africa as far east 
as the Altai Mountains in Asia. It is the least injurious of its kind, and 
the abundance of carrion and bones it finds everywhere, saves it from 
being driven to attack living things. Its cowardice is incredible, although 
they will prowl close to a village or camp. It can be easily tamed. 
Brehm had a pair which behaved just like dogs — leaping up and gambol- 
ing around him. During the sail down the Nile they were fed every 
third day, but on one occasion had to fast eight days. Some of the wild 
Eastern dogs were shot for them. When the carcasses were brought, 
the hyajnas laughed aloud and rushed like mad creatures on the food. 
A few bites tore awa)' the covering on the breast, and then they plunged 
their black muzzles into the entrails till their heads were all besmeared 
and clotted with gore. 

The hyjena always eats rapidly and in large mouthfuls, and has been 
seen to swallow a bone nine inches long ; a wise instinct ; food thus swal- 
lowed takes a longer time to digest, and hence hunger recurs less soon. 
It lives in holes or in clefts of the rock ; its smell is so offensive that no 
other animal will come near its carcass, and dogs, when they come across 
the trail of a living one, exhibit every mark of fear and keep as close as 
they conveniently can to their master's heels. 

THE BROV/N HYyENA. 

The Brown Hy^na, Hycena brunnca (Plate XIII), is distinguished 
from the other species by a long, rough mane hanging down on both sides. 
The color is uniformly dark-brown, with a few white lights on the legs; 
the hair of the mane has a whitish-gray ground, the rest being blackish- 
brown. It is about the size of the Striped Hyaena. 

The Brown Hyjena inhabits the South of Africa, usually in the vicinity 
of the sea. It is less common than the striped species, but resembles the 
latter in its habits ; it feeds chiefly on carrion cast up by the waves, and 
hence is sometimes called the Strand Wolf It does not possess the hor- 
rible laughter-like cry of its congeners. 

Some specimens have been seen in which the brown fur has a warm 
chestnut tinge. 



244 CARNIVORA. 



THE SPOTTED HYAENA, 

The Spotted Hy.ena, Hyana croaita (Plate XIII), is the largest of th^ 
tribe, and is distinguished by its powerful frame and spotted fur. The 
latter consists of a whitish-gray ground, inclining more or less to fawn- 
color, with brown spots on the sides and limbs. The head is brown, the 
cheeks reddish, the tail ringed with brown, and tipped with black. Some 
trifling varieties of these colors are found, some specimens being lighter, 
some darker. The animal attains a length of over four feet, and stands 
nearly three feet high. 

The Spotted Hyaena inhabits Southern and Eastern Africa, from the 
Cape of Good Hope to the 17th degree North Latitude. It is common 
in the Soudan and Abyssinia, and when it is found in large numbers it 
drives away the Striped Hyaena. Its size and strength render it :nuch 
more an object of dread than the latter, and many obsen'ers agree in 
stating that it will attack men, especially if they are asleep or weary, 
and that, when hunger conquers its native cowardice, it will enter villages 
even in the daytime, and carry off children or the sheep returning frona 
the pasture to the folds or enclosures. 

The title Tiger Wolf was given it by the farmers of the Cape of Good 
Hope, where it is very common, and where every farm-house has a trap 
set for this prowling marauder. One method of killing it is to fix a 
loaded musket on a couple of posts about thirty inches from the ground. 
A string is then carried from the trigger through a ring at the butt, and 
then forward to the muzzle, where it is attached to a piece of meat. The 
hysena scents the meat, seizes it between his teeth, and thus draws the 
trigger and lodges the bullet in his brain. The natives regard it with 
dread, and justly. Strodtmann relates that in a few months he heard 
of forty deaths of children caused by the Tiger Wolf; these hungry 
hyjenas enter the kraals of the Kaffirs, venture even near the blazing fire 
where the family is sleeping, and carry off a child from under its mother's 
cloak before they can be intercepted. 

It is this species which is the subject of the fables we have already 
mentioned, and which deserves to be called " The Laughing Hyana." 
Of all the Camivora it is the most repulsive and voracious : it is stupid, 
malicious, and only capable of being tamed to a certain degree by the 
whip. In captivity it lies for hours like a log, then leaps up, rubs itself 



THE TIGER WOLF. 245 

against the bars, and utters its horrid peais of laughter, which seem to 
be an expression of a pleasurable sensation. It accompanies this mani- 
acal, mirthless, hysterical laugh with most absurd gestures— dancing 
about in a state of frantic excitement, running backward and forward, 
spinning round on its hind-legs, and nodding its head to the ground. 

This Hyasna usually lives in holes, or amongst rocks in retired locali 
ties, and when the sun has set he comes forth and searches for food. He 
then utters a long melancholy howl, which finishes with a sort of bark, 
and occasionally that fiend-like laugh which, when heard in the desert, 
amid scenes of the wildest description, calls up in the imagination of the 
solitary traveler the forms of some spectral ghouls searching for their 
unnatural feast. 

One of these animals was discovered in a state of sad laceration. 
The two fore-paws were gone, and the legs themselves had been fright- 
fully torn, evidently by some powerful beast of prey. The natives said 
that it had been thus punished by the lion for interfering with his arrange- 
ments, and stated, moreover, that the lion frequently corrected the for- 
ward conduct of the Hyaena by biting off every one of its paws. This 
statement, curious as it may seem, was corroborated by several experi- 
enced hunters. 

It has already been mentioned that the Hyasna is in no wise fastidious 
in its diet, and that it will habitually consume the most indigestible of 
substances. Yet there seems to be something capricious about the func- 
tion of assimilating food, which is subject to remarkable fluctuations. 
To one of these animals, after a fast of thirty-six hours, a dead rat was 
given, which, as might be expected, it immediately swallowed. In fifteen 
minutes the creature rejected the skin and bones of the rat, though the 
same animal would have eaten with impunity the heavy bones or tough 
hide of a veteran ox, or even would have made a satisfactory meal on a 
few yards of leathern strap. 

But enough respecting these repulsive creatures — these hideous carj-^ 
catures of the nobler Canidas. 



CHAPTER !X 

THE WOLVES. 

GKJWRAL DKSCRirTION OP THK CSNIS CANIS— •-'HK C»MMO.N Kl'ROrKAN WOLF— THE JACKAI 

WOXJf — riUi XA5KR<X>— TJIK STKll'Kl^ WOlJf — THK AMERICAN WOLVKS — TOK C.KAY WOLP— 

THK C\>YOrK — IHK RKD WOLF — IHK SOI.' FH AMERICAN WOLVKS — IHK CRAB-K.ATINO WOLK— 
VllK AOfARAOllAY. 

TllU family of tin- CANin.K, comprising the animals commonl) 
kt\o\vn as dogs, wolves, and foxes, has an almost universal range 
over the earth, being i>nly absent from liie island siib-regii>n5 
ot Madagasavr. the Antilles, AustrivMalaya. Nexv Zealand, and the 
.slands of the l\uitie. With the exception of the IIvina IVh; ami the 
Great-eakkh Fox, all the species are usually placed in the genus Cams. 
The family is pretty clearly defmed, but in its structure does not ditVer 
fn.mi the Felid;e so widely as vs commonly suppose.^.. As a whole, the 
animals embraced in it do n^.t .attain the size of the Kirge species o( the 
cat family, and are far inferior to the latter in cruelty and love of slaughter. 
They are nearly equal to them in agility ; their blunt claws, indeed, df 
not permit them to clitub, nor can they perform the enormous leaps which 
the cats execute; but they are excellent rumiers, and their wonderful per- 
severance far exceeds anything of the kind displayed by the l'"elid;v. Thev 
are all swimmers, and some ol them are masters in the art. and K>ve to be 
in water. Their senses are all highly ileveloped. that of smell in par- 
ticular attaining a wonderful degree of acuteness. 

All the species of the Caniii.k exhibit great intelligence ; the lowei 
ones betray remarkable cunning and slyness, sometimes at the sacrifice 
of courage ; but the higher varieties, especially those which have been 
long associated with mankind, prove that their taculties have been 
cultivated to an extent which no other animal has reached. The tame 
dog and the untamed fox act with reason and deliberation, and execute 
carefully-prepared plans, the result of which they have foreseen. The 



THE WOLF. 247 

rery wildest species exhibit this quality of foresight, and act with cir- 
cumspection only the most violent pangs of hunger ever changes this 
characteristic. 

Their food usually consists of mammals and birds, but all the species 
have a preference for carrion ; nor do any members of the family refuse 
to make a meal of reptiles, fish, or molluscs. In addition they will eat 
honey, fruit, roots, buds, grass, and moss. The females usually bring 
forth four to nine at a birth, and are always most devoted mothers. 

The family is divided into three genera ■d.n(\ fifty-four species. 



I.— GENUS CAN IS. 

This genus contains fifty-two species ; and the one with which we sha*. 
begin our account is that which plays so important a part in our nursery 
tales and in the mythology of many nations, the Wolf. 

THE WOLF. 

The Greek and Roman writers speak of the wolf with a kind of super- 
stitious awe, on account of the supernatural qualities they attributed to 
it. In Greece the wolf was especially connected with the worship of 
Apollo, and near the great altar at Delphi, the chief seat of the worship 
of that divinity, there stood an iron wolf. In Rome the wolf was re- 
garded as the nurse of the founders of the city ; and the brazen she-wolf, 
with Romulus and Remus sucking her, is still one of the ornaments of 
Rome. In the mythology of our ancestors the wolf occupies a distin- 
guished place as the favorite animal of Woden. Two wolves sit before 
his feet, and when the end of all things is at hand, one of them shall 
devour the sun, the other the moon. Then comes the " Twilight of the 
Gods." The wolf Fenris breaks loose ; his lower jaw reaches to the 
earth, the upper one to heaven ; he swallows up Woden himself, and fire 
and flame spread over the earth and the whole universe is consumed. 
Christianity modified these stories. Woden and his wolves became the 
Wild Huntsman and his dogs; and the wolf became, in popular supersti- 
tion, one of the forms assumed b)' magicians and witches, or imposed by 
them on their victims. Gervase of Tilbury writes : " We have often seen 
in England men changed a* the full moon into wolves, which kind of men 



243 CARNIVORA. 

the English call werewolves." In the great beast-epic of the Middle 
Ages, " Reynard the Fox," the wolf appears as Isengrim ; and the wolf in 
" Little Red Riding Hood " is still a terror to countless children. 

The Wolf, Canis lupus, as it is found in Europe, may be taken as a 
type of the group. It possesses the form of a large, long-legged, thin 
dog, and carries its tail drooping; the head is thick, the muzzle pointed, 
the eyes oblique, the ears always erect. The fur varies according to 
climate, both in thickness and color: in northern countries it is long, 
rough, and dense, bushy on the tail, erect on the neck ; in southern 
regions it becomes shorter and rougher. The color is usually gray, 
with a tinge of fawn color, but mixed with a great deal of black. This 
color becomes somewhat reddish in summer; in winter more yellowish. 
In the north, the lighter tints are predominant ; in the south, the darker. 
Wolves that live in mountainous districts are generally large and strong; 
those that live in plains are smaller and weaker, but equally rapacious 
and audacious. 

The wolf is still widely diffused in Europe, with the exception of the 
British Isles and Northern Germany. In England it was extirpated, 
according to some accounts, by the Saxon king Edgar, and in Scotland 
during the seventeenth century, while in the Prussian provinces it is now 
rare. In Russia, Southern Austria, Hungary, and the Slavonic princi- 
palities, as well as in the three Scandinavian kingdoms, it still ravages to 
a terrible extent. In France, regular wolf-hunts are legally ordered to 
take place every three months. The prefect of the department issues 
directions to the ma3'ors of each commune, who name the inhabitants 
who are to take part in them ; a fine of sixteen to one hundred francs is 
imposed on all who shirk this duty, and a bounty is paid of six francs for 
a whelp, twelve for a male wolf, fifteen for a female wolf not in young, 
and fifty for a female if pregnant. M. d'Houdetot gives the number 
of wolves annually destro3'cd in France as twelve hundred. Under the 
old regime an office of Grand Louvcticr or Grand Wolf-hunter existed, 
while each province had a subordinate loiiveiier, who levied a tax on each 
inhabitant residing within a radius of two miles of the place in which 
a wolf was killed. 

In spring and summer the wolf is found alone or in pairs; in autumn 
he appears with his young family ; in winter he unites with his neigh- 
bors into packs. The members of these packs work in company, range 
the country in every direction, and become a terrible scourge. 



THE EUROPEAN WOLF. 249 

In those plains of Siberia that are infested by wolves a sledge journey 
is far from agreeable, for frequently a band of these ferocious brutes per- 
sistently follows travelers. If the sledge stops for only a second, the men 
and horses are lost ; safety exists only in flight. The struggle on such 
occasions is fearful. The horses, mad with terror, seem to have wings. 
The wolves follow on their track, their eyes flashing with fire. It is a 
terrible situation to be placed in, to behold these black spectres tearing 
across the surface of the white shroud of snow, thirsting for your blood. 
From time to time a report is heard ; a wolf falls. More audacious than 
the others, the victim had tried to climb the sledge, and one of the trav 
elers has shot it. This incident gives some advantage to the fugitives ; 
for the carnivorous troop halt for a few seconds to devour the body of 
their companion. But the end is nigh : the village or castle appears 
against the gray sky, and the wolves are deprived of their anticipated 
prey. At other times the adventure terminates in a tragical manner : 
after a pursuit of some hours, the team, exhausted and incapable of pro- 
gressing farther, is overtaken ; the sledge is surrounded and carried by 
assault ; the rest may be imagined ! 

Certain wolves — fortunately they are rare — show a marked preference 
for human flesh. Such was the notorious animal which desolated G6- 
vaudan, in the second half of the eighteenth century, and whose evil 
reputation yet survives. This animal was of enormous size (measuring 
about six feet from the point of the nose to the tip of the tail), and for 
several years defied all efforts made for its destruction. In India, where 
wolves are classed among sacred animals, they levy tribute on mankind, 
carrying off" every year numbers of children. 

Bold as the wolf usually is, it is exceedingly suspicious ; a stick and 
a piece of rag will keep it at a distance from the carcass of a deer, and 
a piece of rope trailed from a carriage is always an object of much fear. 

All methods are justifiable for the destruction of the wolf: snares, 
traps, even poison. It is said that a trapped wolf will permit itself to be 
handled without attempting to resist, and will even lie passively by the 
hunter's side till he resets his trap. The bite of the wolf is peculiar; 
it is a short, fierce snap delivered with such energy that when it misses 
its mark the jaws clash like a closing steel trap. 

The wolf can be tamed ; Cuvier relates the history of a wolf that lived 
in the menagerie of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, which, after being reared 
by a person who had to leave to proceed abroad, displayed more pas" 
32 



250 CARNIVORA. 

sionate affection for its master than the most devoted dog could have 
shown. And this is not a single isolated example, tor they have been 
trained to hunt like dogs. 

THE STRIPED WOLF. 

The Striped Wolf, Ccviis aditstiis, is a link between the wolf and the 
jackal ; the body is long, the head is fox-like, the eyes are placetl ob- 
liquely and have rather elongated pupils ; the ears are wide apart ; the 
legs remarkably long and slender ; the tail touches the ground. The 
color is a brownish-grav; a dark stripe runs from the mouth to the ear, 
a black band crosses the breast, ;i fawn-colored stripe with a black border 
traverses the sides longitudinallv, the tail is faw n-colored at tlie root, 
black in the centre, but pure white at the tip. 

The Striped Wolf extends from the Cape of Good Hope to Zanzibar 
on the East, and the Gaboons on the West Coast of Africa. It is prob- 
ably the Mboyo of Du Chaillu. 

THE KABEROO. 

The Kaberoo, Canis siinciiis, is a native of Abyssinia, very slender 
and very like a greyhound. But it is neither a domestic dog gone wild, 
nor a variety of jackal, but a real species of wolf. The Kaberoo is 
widely dispersed in tlic interior of Africa, where it does enormous 
damage to the shcphertls. The natives of Cordofan call it the dog of the 
wilderness, and regard it as more destructive than the hyasna dog itself. 

THE JACKAL WOLF. 

The Jackal Wolf, Canis lupastcr, is found in tiie whole North, 
North-east, and North-west of Africa. It is smaller than the common 
wolf, which it resembles more closelv than it does tiie jackal. It usually 
confines itself to a limited range of countrv. in which it chases hares, 
mice, wild-fowl and the like, as well as devours fruit of all sorts; during 
the rainy season it forms considerable packs, and attacks herds of sheep 
and goats. In the plains of Central Africa it is hunted by greyhounds 
which, in spite of the w'olf's energetic defence, pull it down, or keep it at 
bay till the huntsman has the courage to come up and give the marauder 
the finishing stroke with his spear. 



THE GRAY AND BLACK WOLVES. 25 1 



THE AMERICAN WOLF. 



The Gray Wolf, Cants occidentalis (Plate XVII), is covered with long 
and fine fur; its form is more robust than the European, its muzzle thicker 
and more obtuse, its head larger and rounder, its forehead more arched, 
its ears shorter and wider. In the Eurojjean Wolf the fur is coarser, with 
less of soft wool under the long hair, and its tail is more thinly clothed 
with fur. 

The body of the Gray American Wolf is long and gaunt, muzzle 
elongat.ed, head thick, nose long, ears erect and conical, the eyes oblique, 
the pupil circular, the tail straight and bushy. 

In Gray's classification it represents the genus Urocyon. 

The LOBO, Canis occidentalis, var. gigas, is regarded by Audubon as 
identical with the Common Gray Wolf. He relates that some hunter? 
with a pack of half a dozen fox-hounds struck the trail of a Giant Wolf 
near Fort Gibson. He dashed boldly into the prairie, making a straight 
course for the hills on the other side, a distance of three miles. Here he 
took cover, and when dislodged again took to the plain. In this way he 
made bold dashes from cover to cover, till at the end of five hours he 
was brought to bay 

A desperate fight then ensued, dog after dog recoiled more or less 
injured till, when all the combatants were exhausted, and the hunters 
could at last distinguish in the crowd which was dog and which was 
wolf, the latter was knocked on the head with a heavy club. 

Col. McCall says the striking marks of distinction in this variety are 
the size and breadth of the head, and the smallness of the tail ; the former 
forms nearly an equilateral triangle, the latter is short and scant of hair. 

The Black Wolf, Canis occidentalis, var. a/^r (Plate XVII), is found 
chiefly in Florida at present ; but Audubon saw it in considerable num- 
bers during his residence in Kentucky. At one time he was with a 
planter who had taken three wf)lves in a pit, and was astonished to see 
his friend coolly jump down and hamstring the beasts, which were then 
dragged out and given to the dogs. On another occasion he saw a 
beautiful black wolf following its owner, who assured the naturalist that 
no dog could trail deer better. He tells, however, a story of an attack 
by black wolves on negroes. Both fought bravely, but soon one of the 
negroes ceased to move, and the other, despairing of aiding his comrade, 



252 CARNIVORA. 

took refuge in a tree. In the morning he found the bones of his friend 
scattered on the snow, which was stained with his blood. 

Audubon considers the dusky wolf and the black wolf the same. 

The White Wolf, Canis occidcntalis, var. albus (Plate XVII), used to 
be exceedingly common on the plains, consorting in large bands witt 
the Coyote, and is large, stout, and compactly built. 

This variety of wolf is found as far north in the Arctic regions as they 
have been traversed by man. A white wolf was killed in Erie county, 
N. Y., at the beginning of this century, but they do not appear on the 
Atlantic coast. A very considerable degree of cold seems necessary to 
produce wolves of the white variety. 

Audubon remarks that the wolves in the North are mostly white, in 
the Middle States and on the Atlantic Coast gray, in the South and Florida, 
black, in Texas and the Southwest, red. " It is difficult," he adds, "on 
any principle of science to account for this remarkable peculiarit)'." 

The Red Wolf of Texas, Canis occidcntalis, var. rufus (Plate XVII), 
in shape resembles the common gray wolf, but is more slender and 
lighter than the white wolf, with a more cunning fox-like look. The hair 
on the body is not woolly, but lies smooth and flat. The color is reddish- 
brown mixed with irregular patches of black, there is a brown stripe on 
the fore-legs extending from the shoulders to the paws ; the end of the 
tail is black for about three inches. 

It is by no means the only variety found in Texas, but it does not 
inhabit the northern prairies, or even the lower Mississippi bottoms. Its 
habits are nearly similar to those of the black and the white wolf 

It is said that when visiting the battlefields of Mexico, the wolves 
preferred the Americans to the Mexicans, and only ate the bodies of the 
latter from dire necessity, as, owing to the quantity of pepper used by 
the Mexicans in their food, their flesh is impregnated with that povv'erful 
stimulant. No corpse of wounded straggler, or of unfortunate traveler 
butchered by the Comanches is ever neglected by the prowling wolf. 

THE PRAIRIE WOLF. 

The Prairie Wolf, Canis latrans (Plate XVII\ has a full, bushy tail 
like a wolf, and a sharp muzzle like a fox. The neck is short and power- 
ful, the head thin ; the eye is light-brown with a round pupil. The color 
is a dirty-gray, passing into a blacker tint on the back ; the tail is 



THE PRAIRIE WOLF. 253 

deep black at the tip. Full-grown, it measures about four feet and a 
half Thii.' wolf is found on the plains of the West, where it is 
erroneously called the Coyote. 

The Prairie Wolf digs its burrow upon the prairies or some slight 
elevation, to prevent them from being filled with water. These dens 
have several entrances, like those of the Red Fox. Their howl resem- 
bles so closely the bark of a dog, that they deserve their alias of " Bark- 
ing Wolves." They display considerable intelligence, and no sooner is 
the report of a gun heard than they all assemble around the hunter in 
anticipation of a meal. They are always found on the outskirts of the 
herds of buffaloes, and pick up a subsistence by assailing the weak or 
wounded members of the herd. In captivity the animal displays all the 
qualities of the common dog; it knows its master, wags its tail, and leaps 
up in joy at his approach ; like a dog, it shows a quick understanding of 
different sounds and words — shrinking when spoken roughly to, and 
being moved to lamentable howls if addressed in a melancholy tone: 

THE COYOTE. 

The Coyote, Canis ochropus (Plate XV 11), is seldom seen except in 
Texas and Mexico. It is a miserable little cur of an animal, scarcely 
larger than a fox, and is sometimes called the " Indian Fox." It has a 
wolfish head, large eyes, small sharp ears, a long, black, slender muzzle, 
and a very rough, thick tail. 

THE SOUTH AMERICAN WOLVES. 

The Aguarachay, Canis Azarce, is a real link between the jackal and 
the fox. This species is found from the Equator to Patagonia, from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. It is said to follow the jaguar as the jackal fol- 
lows the lion, and to devour what the more powerful animal has left. 
When hunting by itself it shows great cunning, making long circuits till 
it comes near an unsuspecting victim, and prowling around the farm- 
yards even by day ; it causes great damage, not only to the poultry but 
to the sugar-canes, which it bites off close to the root — the place vi^hich, 
its experience tells it, contains most sugar. 

It is, when caught young, easily tamed, learning to know its master 
and answer to its name, and assisting him in the chase, in which it ex- 
hibits great keenness of smell and remarkable perseverance. 



254 CARNIVORA. 

THE CRAB-EATING WOLF. 

The Crab-eating Wolf, Cants cancrivoms, or Maikong, is a slender, 
long-legged, jackal-like animal, with a short, broad, blunt-nosed head, 
rounded ears of moderate size, placed wide apart, oblique eyes with 
oblong pupils, and a tail nearly touching the ground. It attains the 
length of two feet in the body, with a tail of nearly one foot. The coat 
consists of moderately long rough hairs, which cover completely the 
woolly under-coating ; the color is a fawn-gray, darkened on the back 
and shoulders by black-tipped hairs, and becoming nearly pure white 
below. 

The Spaniards are said to have found this creature domesticated 
among the natives when they landed on the Antilles ; it is no longer 
found in the islands, but is common in the woody plains that border the 
rivers of Guiana, where it lives and hunts in large bands. 

The Maikong, in its habits and behavior, completelv corresponds to 
the jackal of the Old World, and in captivity soon becomes tame. 

The epithet " Crab-eating " is as old as Buffon and Linneeus, but is 
somewhat misleading, as the animal by no means confines itself to a crus- 
tacean diet. Schomburgk describes it as preymg on the smaller rodents, 
and as being a terrible plunderer of the hen-roosts of the settlers. It is 
often crossed with the dog by the Indians, and the breed thus produced 
is highly prized. 

THE RED WOLF. 

The Red or Maned Wolf, Canis jubatus, is less powerfully built than 
the common wolf, and has longer legs, a narrower muzzle, and a shorter 
tail. Its color is a clear reddish-brown. This wolf is found in most 
parts of South America, and is particularly frequent in Brazil, Paraguay, 
and the Argentine Republic. It is very timid and avoids settled dis- 
tricts, and hence is little known. Its long legs give to it the power of 
making very long leaps, by which it overtakes its prey. When walking 
it has the swinging gait of a Newfoundland dog, and is a good swimmer. 

Gray forms the Red Wolf and Coyote into a separate genus which 
he calls by the name of Chrysocyon. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE JACKALS AND FOXES. 

THE JACKAL — THE LANDJAK — THE COMMON FOX — THE RACOON DOG — THE CORSAC — THE CAAMA 
— THE FENNEC — THE AMERICAN FOXES — THE RED FOX — THE SILVER OR BLACK FOX — THE 
CROSS FOX — THE KID FOX — THE GRAY FOX — THE ARCTIC FOX — THE BLUE FOX — THE LARGE- 
EARED FOX — THE HUNTING DOG. 

BETWEEN the Wolves which we have just described, and the 
Foxes which we shall soon treat of, stands the Jackal ; it differs 
to such an extent from both, that Gray has placed it in a sepa- 
rate genus, Dieba, so called from its Arabic name, Dieb " the howler." 

THE JACKAL. 

The Jackal, Canis aureus (Plate XVII), is known everywhere in Asia, 
where it is regarded very much as the fox in our fairy tales, and is found 
also in Greece and Dalmatia. It is rather larger than the fox, and its 
coat is of a grayish-yellow color, the tail being tipped with black. 

The jackals resemble the fox more nearly than they do the wolf. They 
conceal themselves by day, but roam at night, usually in large packs. To 
keep together they are constantly howling, and their voice is sad, loud, 
and unmusical. Their voracity and audacity are unparalleled. They 
enter habitations, when opportunity presents itself, and sweep off every- 
thing eatable they can reach ; devouring even boots, horse-harness, and 
other articles made of leather. In the desert they follow the caravans, 
prowl all night around the encampment, and endeavor to carry off any- 
thing chance may throw in their way. Like the hyasnas, they disinter 
the dead, and the natives of the districts in which they are found are 
obliged to protect the graves from their outrages by covering them with 
heavy stones and prickly bushes. 

The jackals hunt the antelope, gazelle, and other small animals, and 
m large packs will attack oxen and horses. They fear man, and the 



2S6 CARNIVORA. 

stories of women and children having been devoured by them are mere 
fables. Equally fabulous is the notion that assigns to the jackal the duties 
of being the lion's purveyor ; it is rather the lion's parasite, and follows 
the nobler creature in order to get the remains of his meal. The story 
that the jackal gave the lion notice of prey, was taken bj- Aristotle from 
an Indian fable, and was borrowed from him by later writers. 

When taken young the jackal is easily tamed, and becomes more 
domesticated than the fox, exhibiting most of the characteristics of the 
dog. Like the dog, it is subject to rabies. 

The Landjak, Canis pallipes, is a species found in Nepaul and North- 
ern India, resembling in its habits the common jackal. 

The Black-baxded Jackal, Canis mcsomdas, is by some writers 
classed with the foxes. It is an inhabitant of Southern Africa, and is 
sometimes called the Cape Jackal. It is distinguished from the com- 
mon jackal by the black and white mottlings of its fur. 

The traveler Burton remarks that among the Somali the morning cry 
of this jackal is used as an omen of good or evil, according to its direc- 
tion and its tone. He also mentions that it is in the habit of attacking 
the peculiar fat-tailed sheep which inliabit that country, and carrying 
off their Iambs. The fat-burdened tail forms an article of diet which 
seems to be greatly to the jackal's taste, and which he procures by leap- 
ing suddenly upon the poor sheep, and then making a fierce bite at its 
tail. The terrified sheep starts off at best speed, and leaves a large 
mouthful of its tail between the aggressor's teeth. Kids and other small 
animals fall victims to this insatiate devourer. 

THE FOX. 

The foxes are distinguished from the wild dogs, wolves, and jackals 
by their long bodies, sharp-pointed heads, and by the possession of oblong 
pupils to their eyes ; the tail is very bushy, and most of the species exhale 
an unpleasant odor. 

The Common Fox, Canis vulpcs (Plate XVIII), is found throughout 
Europe, where it enjoys an immense reputation tor cunning, which he 
displays equally in prosecuting his robberies on the poultry-yard of the 
farmer and in his endeavors to throw his pursuers on a false track. Like 
some of the wolves, he will feign death when surprised by the hunters 
and there is no hope of safety in flight. 



FOX-HUNTING. 2SJ^ 

I'he fox is unsocial, and never hunts in packs; he therefore never 
attacks powerful animals. Birds, hares, or rabbits form his customary 
diet, but he does not dislike certain fruits ; for grapes it exhibits a great 
fondness. 

In the north of the continent of Europe and in England the color of 
the fox is red ; but as we proceed southward we find both gray and black 
foxes, till in Spain he becomes small and fawn-colored. The fox resides 
in burrows, which it scoops out of the earth by the aid of its paws, wind- 
ing its way among the roots of large trees or between heavy stones. 
Here the vixen, or female fox, produces and nurtures her cubs, which 
she educates with great care. 

In England fox-hunting is the favorite sport of the w ealthier classes, 
and its headquarters are in the county of Leicester. The soil being for 
the most part good, is highly favorable for scent ; there is an immense 
proportion of grazing land in comparison with arable, and the enclosures 
are large, the fields running up to one hundred acres each. Large woods 
are scarce, while natural covers of gorse abound. In addition to these, 
artificial covers are sometimes made with stakes set a certain height from 
the ground for the grass to grow over them ; but these are far inferior to 
those of natural brushwood. Usually from twenty to twenty-five couples 
of hounds are taken out, and it is the custom, quite necessary in these 
days, for each sportsman to have two horses, the second one being ridden 
by a groom well acquainted with the country, who rides his horse slowly 
and carefully, not following the hounds, but seeking to meet his master 
at some favorable point and give him an opportunity to change horses. 

A meet of Fox-hounds is a very pretty sight ; the numerous carriages 
that bring the sportsmen to the field, the magnificent horses that are being 
walked about till the sport begins, the scarlet coats of the riders, the 
strong yet graceful forms of the hounds, form a scene almost impossible 
to describe. 

Let us indulge ourselves with a fine morning in the first week of 
February, and at least two hundred well-mounted men by the cover's 
side. Time being called — say a quarter past eleven, nearly our great- 
grandfathers' dinner-hour — the hounds approach the furze-brake, or the 
gorse, as it is called in that region. A cheer and a wave of the master's 
cap sends the dogs into the cover. In a very short time the gorse 
appears shaken in various parts of the cover — apparently from an un- 
known cause, not a single hound being for some minutes visible. Pres- 



258 CARNIVORA. 

ently one or two appear, leaping over some old furze which they cannot 
push through, and exhibit to the field their glossy skins. Two minutes 
more elapse ; another hound slips out of cover, and takes a short turn 
outside, with his nose to the ground and his stern lashing his side — 
thinking, no doubt, he might touch on a drag, should Reynard have been 
abroad in the night. Hounds have no business to think ; a crack of the 
whipper-in's thong sends the too enthusiastic animal back to its work. 
Soon the cover shakes more than ever. Every stem appears alive, and 
it reminds us of a corn-field waving in the wind. In two minutes the 
sterns of some more hounds are seen " flourishing" above the gorse. In 
an instant a hound challenges — and another — and another. The fox 
breaks out; " Tally-ho," cries some countryman, and the chase has com- 
menced. The whole pack, the whole crowd of horsemen is after him. 
If the hounds are pressed too hard by the riders, they are apt to overrun 
the scent and come to a fault. It is now the duty of the huntsmen to 
recall them. At one blast of his horn they are back at the place where 
the scent failed ; it is again taken up, and all that are left of the field are 
again dashing forward ; but the number of men up with the hounds soon 
diminishes., not only are many of the horses unable to keep up with the 
speed of the leaders, but many of the riders have not the nerve to face 
the fences, brooks, or posts and rails which have to be surmounted with- 
out a pause. 

The pencil of a painter is now wanting ; and unless the painter should 
be a sportsman, even his pencil would be worth little. What a country 
is before him ! — what a panorama does it represent ! Not a field of less 
than forty — some a hundred acres — and no more signs of the plough than 
in the wilds of Siberia. See the hounds in a body that might be covered 
by a damask table-cloth — every stern down, and every head up, for there 
is no need of stooping, the scent 13'ing breast-high. But the crash ! — the 
music ! — how to describe these? Reader, there is no crash now, and not 
much music. It is the tinker that makes great noise over a little work ; 
but at the pace these hounds are going there is no time for babbling. 
Perchance one hound in five may throw his tongue as he goes, to inform 
his comrades, as it were, that the villain is before them. The fox shows 
signs of distress : his coat becomes darker, his pace slower ; the dogs run 
mto him, and all is over. 

The maintenance of a pack of Fox-hounds is an affair involving con- 
siderable expense. The master of one, hunting four days a week, must 



THE RACOON DOG. 259 

spend on his hounds and stable not less than $20,000 a year. To this 
must be added the cost of maintaining covers for the foxes, and a stock 
of game and rabbits for their food, as well as the cost ot earth-stopping, 
an operation which has to be performed on the evening before the 
chase. 

The fox is susceptible of being tamed to a certain extent, but it seems 
impossible to eradicate entirely its instincts for plunder. Its cunning is 
no doubt great, but has been very much exaggerated by popular imag- 
ination, in which there still linger reminiscences of the astuteness ascribed 
to him in the great beast-epic of " Reynard the Fox," which had unex- 
ampled popularity in the Middle Ages, and which Goethe did not disdain 
to modernize for our age. The subjoined story evinces the possession 
of considerable intelligence. 

Two foxes, located in a neighborhood where hares abounded, adopted 
an ingenious stratagem for capturing them. One of them lay in ambush 
on the side of a road ; the other started the quarry and pursued it with 
ardor, with the object of driving the game into the road guarded by his 
associate. From time to time, by an occasional bark, the associate in am- 
bush was notified how the chase was succeeding. When a hare was driven 
into the road, it was immediately pounced on, and both foxes devoured 
it in thorough good-fellowship. Nevertheless, it sometimes happened 
that the fox who kept watch miscalculated his spring, and the hare 
escaped ; then, as though puzzled at his want of skill, he resumed his 
post, jumped on to the road, and several times repeated the movement. 
His comrade arriving in the middle of this exercise, was not slow to 
comprehend its meaning, and irritated at being fatigued to no purposs, 
chastised his clumsy associate; but a tussle of a few minutes sufficed 
to expend the bad humor, and the entente cordiale was quickly re- 
established. 

THE RACOON DOG. 

The Racoon Dog, Canis procyonidcs, is very like a weasel in shape, 
but has no near allies. The long body rests on short, weak legs ; the 
head is short, narrow, and pointed ; the tail very short and bushy ; the 
color is dark-brown ; the under fur is very thick, but the long hair is as 
rough as the coat of a badger. 

This species is found in Japan and China, and is not rare on the tncu- 
taries of the Upper Amoor River. It is shy and timid by day, but by 



26o CARNIVORA. 

night will boldly face a dog. It does not run well, nor can it leap like 
the fox ; its voice is a kind of mewing. It is quite omnivorous, eating 
flesh, fowl, and fish, and vegetables of every kind. Gray places it in a 
genus Nyctereutes. 

THE CORSAC. 

The CORSAC, Cams corsac, is an Asiatic species of fox, considerably 
less than the ordinary fox, found from Mongolia to the Caspian Sea, 
exclusively in the steppes, never in woods or hills. It is pursued for the 
sake of its winter fur, in which a large trade is done with China. The 
Tartars employ not only dogs to capture the Corsac, but hawks of various 
kinds, from which winged enemies it has no chance of escaping. The 
color of the fur in summer is red ; in winter more of a fawn-color. 

THE CAAMA. 

The Caama, Canis caavia, is an inhabitant of Southern Africa, where 
it is in great request for its fur, which is highly esteemed by the natives 
for the purpose of making " karosses," or mantles. As the Caama is one 
of the smallest of the foxes, a great number of skins are needed to form 
a single mantle, and the manufactured article is therefore held in high 
value by its possessor. Indeed, so valuable is its fur, that it tempts many 
of the Bechuana tribes to make its chase the business of their lives, and 
to expend their whole energies in capturing the animal from whose body 
the much-prized fur is taken. 

THE FENNEC. 

The Fennec, Canis zcrdo (Plate XVIII), is the most graceful of the 
foxes. Its face is refined and sly, and embellished by a pair of unusually 
large eyes, and by large, wide ears. Its legs are very fine, and support a 
slender, supple body terminating in a bushy tail ; everything about it indi- 
cates activity, intelligence, and acuteness of sense. Nothing escapes its 
notice ; grasshoppers, lizards, small birds are betrayed by their slightest 
motions or softest notes. The Fennec is the smallest of all the foxes. It 
measures, including the tail, about two feet ; the head is very pointed : 
the large eyes have round pupils ; the ears are nearly as long as the head. 
It inhabits the whole north of Africa. 



AMERICAN FOXES. 261 

The Fennec burrows in the earth, forming a den with many passages, 
in which it sleeps by day, rolled up with its head under its tail. At sun- 
set it leaves its home and seeks some spring, where it drinks eagerly 
before proceeding on its nocturnal chase. Small birds are its favorite 
food, but it is also very fond of fruit, especially that of the date-palm, 
which it is said to possess the capability of climbing. 

THE AMERICAN FOXES. 

The Red Fox, Cajiis fulvus, is very plentiful in the Northern fur 
countries ; it has long, fine fur, and has a much finer brush than the 
European animal. The coat is of a bright ferruginous color on the head, 
back, and sides ; the throat and neck a dark-gray ; the tail is not tipped 
with white. 

In summer it burrows, in winter it shelters under a fallen tree ; it 
preys on the smaller animals of the rat family and is fond of fish, but 
rejects no animal food it can find. It runs for about a hundred yards 
with great swiftness, but is easily overtaken by a wolf or a mounted 
man. 

THE SILVER FOX AND THE CROSS FOX. 

The Silver or Black Fox, Cattis fulvus, van argentatus (Plate XVIII), 
supplies one of the most valuable furs of the world, surpassing in 
richness and beauty those of the beaver or sea-otter. The outer hair, 
which is in some places two inches longer than the under fur, is soft, 
glossy, and fine ; the under fur is unusually long and dense, feeling to the 
hand as soft as sea-island cotton, and the separate hairs exhibit a crimped 
or wavy appearance. This under-fur is uniformly blackish-brown ; the 
long hairs are brown at the roots, then silver-gray, and then tipped with 
black ; the tail is brownish-black to near the extremity, where it is broadly 
tipped with white. 

The Silver Fox is by no means abundant, and presents considerable 
variations in color. Some skins are brilliant black, with the exception of 
the white tip to the tail ; others are bluish-gray. This white tip of the 
tail is a characteristic of the variety. 

The Cross Fox, Cards fulvus, var. decussatus, is considered by Rich- 
ardson a mere variety of the Red Fox. Its fur is nearly six times more 
valuable than that of the latter ; the front of the head is gray, the ears 



262 CARNIVORA. 

covered with soft black fur behind ; the back ferruginous, with dark 
stripes, one running from the head longitudinally, the other at right 
angles over the shoulders ; the rest of the back is gray, the sides a pale 
rusty-red, the legs and belly black. The fur is thick and long. 

THE KIT FOX AND THE GRAY FOX. 

The Kit Fox, Cam's velox of Audubon, the Can^s cinerco-argcntatus 
of Richardson, is very like the Red Fox in shape, but approaches the 
Gray Fox in color ; its form is slight and slender ; the tail long, bushy, 
and tapering. It is the smallest of the American foxes ; the back is of a 
grizzled color, the flanks of a dull reddish-orange, the belly is white. It 
is found on the plains of the Columbia River valley, and on the plains 
east of the Rocky Mountains ; it does not appear to be an inhabitant 
of New Mexico, Texas, or California. 

The Gray Fox, Canis Virginiatms or griscus, has a shorter and 
broader head than the Red Fox. The long hairs which give the general 
color to the body are white at the roots, then for more than a third of 
their length black, then white, with a broad black tip. This color vanes 
somewhat, specimens from New York State being more fulvous than 
those from South Carolina. 

The Gray Fox is in the South what the Red Fox is in the North — the 
detestation of farmers. Audubon asserts that the former is by no means 
rapacious ; that he is shy and cowardly, and only preys on creatures 
much weaker than himself He hunts quail or partridges just as a 
pointer dog will do, and runs down rabbits, and it is very fond of 
making raids on the nests of the wild turkey. 

Till within a couple of years fox-hunting in America was exclusively 
a Southern sport, extending from Maryland to Florida and westward to 
Louisiana. It is now, however, being taken up in different sections of 
the Northern States. The hounds are put on the fox's trail near some 
cover, but it requires good dogs to follow him, as he does not leave so 
strong a scent as the Red Fox and possesses more cunnmg. 

THE ARCTIC FOX AND THE BLUE FOX. 

The Arctic Fox, Canis lagopus (Plate XVIII), is of a pure white 
color when in its winter dress, except at the tip of the tail, where a few 




COMMON FOX 
TENREC 



ARCTIC FOX 



bLUL I- OX 



SILVER FOX 



PLATE XVIII CARNIVORA 



THE ARCTIC FOX AND THE BLUE FOX. 263 

black hairs are sprinkled. The fur before the eyes is short and sleek ; 
on the neck it is as long as the ears, and is intermixed with soft wool ; 
on the rest of the body it is very long. In most specimens the fur has a 
bluish-gray color at the roots, the proportion of the length of the fur so 
colored varying according to the season ; at all times the under fur is 
of a dark brownish-gray color for half its length. In summer the long 
white fur falls off", and is replaced by shorter hair more or less colored, 
although individuals may at times be found so eccentric in their tastes as 
to preserve their winter suit till the dog-days ; this is the kakkortak of the 
Greenlanders. In form the Arctic Fox resembles the common fox ; the 
brush is full and large, covering the nose and feet like a muff" when the 
animal sleeps. The eyes are hazel-colored and bright, the legs are long 
and strong, the feet large and armed with strong claws, and the animal 
can make powerful leaps. 

The Arctic Fox is very cleanly, and does not exude an unpleasant 
odor; it is very difficult to come upon unawares, as it seems to sleep 
with both eyes open ; its bark is so modulated that the hearer thinks the 
animal at a distance when it is close before his feet. It is very impatient 
of confinement. It inhabits North America above latitude 50°, and is 
numerous on the shores of Hudson Bay. The fur is of small value ; the 
flesh is eatable. 

The Blue Fox, Cariis lagopus, var. fuliginosiis (Plate XVIII), is a mere 
variety of the Arctic Fox, and is to be distinguished from the Black or 
Silver Fox by its round ears and poor fur, which diff'ers from the ordinary 
winter or summer states of the Arctic Fox in being entirely of a uniform 
blackish-brown color. It is called by the Greenlanders keknektak, and 
is very numerous in Iceland. Audubon observed two Blue Foxes which 
came to the place where he had been cooking ; they carried off the scraps 
of meat and buried each piece in a separate place. The Arctic F9X has 
the same habit ; and the domestic dog, as we all know, still retains these 
primitive uneducated instincts. 

II.— GENUS MEGALOTIS. 

The animals hitherto described are so essentially similar that we have 
followed those authorities who place them all in one genus. We now 
proceed to consider others which display such marked differences as 
entitle them to be placed in separate genera. 



264 CARNIVORA. 

The Large-eared Fox, Megalotis Lalandii, has a slender figure, long 
legs and tail, large oval ears, and forty-eight teeth ; it attains the length 
of three feet, of which one-third is tail, and externally bears a strong 
resemblance to the Fennec. The predominant color is a dull-gray, 
except on the tail, where it has long black hair. It is' a native of South 
and Eastern Africa, hunts in packs, and succeeds in pulling down ante- 
lopes or even wild cattle. 



III.— GENUS LYCAON. 

We now come to a link between the Canidce and the Hycenidce — the 
remarkable animal which has been, indeed, placed by some naturalists 
among the hygenas, as, like the latter, it possesses only four toes on its 
feet. The genus contains only one species. 

The Hy/ENA or Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus, derives its former title 
from its hyaenine aspect, the latter from the fair and sportsmanlike man- 
ner in which it hunts its game. The general color is a reddish or 
yellowish-brown, marked at wide intervals with large patches of black 
and white. The nose and muzzle are black, and the central line of the 
head is marked with a well-defined black stripe, which reaches to the 
back of the head. The ears are extremely large, and are covered on both 
their surfaces with rather short black hairs. From their inside edge rises 
a large tuft of long white hair, which spreads over and nearly fills the 
cavity of the ear. The tail is covered with long bushy hair. 

Although very fond of putrid flesh, these dogs do not make it their 
exclusive aliment ; for they also feed on living prey, such as gazelles and 
antelopes. To pursue and capture these they collect in troops, which 
are sometimes very numerous, and under the direction of a chief, when 
they hunt with a unanimity and cleverness unsurpassed by the best pack 
of hounds. When the game is taken they divide it equally ; but if any 
of the larger Carnivora approach to take a share in the feast, all unite 
against the intruder. This often happens with respect to the leopard, 
and even the lion. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE DOG. 

THE WILD DOGS — THE DHOLE — THE ALPINE WOLF — THE DOMESTICATED DOG — REGARD IN WHICH 
THE DOG IS HELD — ABHORRENCE OF THE DOG BY THE ORIENTALS — THE DOGS OF THE EAST — 
THE DOG IN ANTIQUITY— THE MENTAL QUALITIES OF THE DOG — ITS MORAL SENSE— ITS AFFEC- 
TION FOR ITS MASTER — RABIES OR HYDROPHOBIA. 

BEFORE we describe the Domesticated Dog, we must say a few 
words respecting the dogs which still live a free, independent 
life. In them we see what the dog was before he devoted him- 
self to the human race. They represent the original, the Domestic the 
modified, or, we may say, the humanized animal. 

Gray forms the following species into a genus which he calls CUON, 
the members of which possess forty teeth. They are dog-like wolves. 
The head is broad, the muzzle short, the ear erect and high, the eyeball 
round, the body powerful, the fl;.nks thin, the tail bushy and drooping. 
They are all animals fond of the chase and skillful in hunting. 



THE DHOLE. 

The Dhole, Canis Dukhtmcnsis (Plate XIV), sometimes called the 
Kholsam, inhabits the western parts of India ; it is a very shv animal, 
and avoids man and his dwelling-places. The Dhole is remarkable, not 
merely for hunting in packs — as many of the Canidee do— but for the 
possession by the pack of such confidence in its own powers that it will 
give chase to the tiger. The boar falls a victim in spite of its tusks, 
the antelope in spite of its swiftness, and the panther finds its only safety 
in taking refuge in a tree. 

The color of the Dhole is a rich bay, and it stands as high as a small 
greyhound. It hunts mute, and has a very intelligent face. 
34 



266 CARNIVORA. 

The BUANSUAH, Cdiiis Priiiiccvus, is found in Ncpaul and Cashmere, 
and resembles the Dhole in almost all points. He gives tongue during 
the chase: his note is peculiar — quite different from that of a dog, and 
equally remote from the long howl of the wolf or jackal. 

The Adjag, Canis Sumatrcnsis, is fountl in the Kast Indian Islands and 
Japan. In the former they attack the lurtles on their nocturnal visits to 
the land, and travelers have seen on the sand remains of hundreds of 
these Crustacea. They neither bark nor howl, but yelp. 

The Ali'INE Wolk, Canis Alpiiius. is a fourth claimant for being the 
progenitor of the dog. It is found in tiic mountain regions of Eastern 
and Central Asia, and is very similar to the Buansuaii. The hair is long 
and stiff, the tail bushy, the color a dull russet. 

Near the vXmoor River tiic hunters stand in great dread of this wild 
dog, and take refuge in a tree when a pack of them appears. In the 
chase they utter a kind of whining note, and display great speed and 
cunning, the pack being letl by a powerful old dog. A specimen in 
Berlin is very like a large sheep-dog. 

THE DOMESTICATED DOG. 

To give the history of the tlog would be little less than to trace man- 
kind back to their original state of simplicity and freedom, to mark the 
progress of civilization through the var'ous changes of the world, and 
to follow attentively the gra>.Iual atlvancemcnt of that order which placed 
man at the head ot the animal world, and gave him a manitest superiority 
over every part of the brute creation. 

If we consider for a moment the state of man without the aid of this 
useful domestic, with what arts shall he oppose the numerous hosts 
of foes that surrt)und him on all sides, seeking every opportunity to 
encroach upon his possessions, to destroy his labors, or endanger his 
personal safety? or how shall he bring into subjection such as arc neces- 
sary for his well-being? His utmost vigilance will not be sufficient to 
secure him frr,m the rapacity of the one, nor his greatest exertions 
enable him to overcome the speed of the other. To maintain his inde- 
pendence, to insure his safety, and to provide for his support, it was 
necessary that some one among the animals should be brought over to 
his assistance, whose zeal and fidelity might be depended on. And 
where, amidst all the various orders of animated being, could one be 



HISTORY OF THE DOG. 26;- 

found so entirely adapted to this purpose ? where could one be found so 
bold, so tractable, and so obedient as the dog ? Without his assistance 
how could man have conquered, tamed, and reduced other animals into 
slavery ? how could he have hunted down and destroyed those noxious 
animals from whose rapacity his life was in continual danger? To con- 
firm the truth of these observations, we need only turn our attention to 
the present condition of those nations which are not yet emerged froia 
a state of barbarism, where the uses of the dog are but little known or 
attended to, and we will find that they lead a precarious and wretched 
life of perpetual warfare with the still more savage inhabitants of the 
forest, with which they are obliged to dispute the possession of their 
uncultivated fields and divide with them the fruits of their labors. 

"Through the intelligence of the dog the world exists"; so says the 
Vendidad, the oldest portion of one of the oldest books of the world — 
the Zend-Avesta. " The dog," writes Frederic Cuvier, " is the most re- 
markable, complete, and useful conquest which man has ever made. The 
whole species is become our property ; each individual belongs wholly 
to his master, learns his habits, knows and defends his property, and 
remains devoted unto death. And all this springs not from necessity or 
fear, but from pure love and attachment. The speed and the sense of 
smell possessed by the dog have made it one of m.an's most powerful 
auxiliaries, and perhaps it is necessary for the maintenance of human 
society. The dog is the only animal which has followed man over all 
the world." Toussenel goes further, and, regarding the dog as an inte- 
gral part of mankind, exclaims : " The best part of man is the dog." 

In marked contrast to these views is the remarkable loathing with 
which some of the Semitic nations regard the dog. All through the 
Jewish Scriptures the dog is always mentioned in terms of abhorrence 
,md contempt, although we know that dogs were domesticated among 
the Jews, and used to guard the sheep-folds (Job, ch. xxx, v. i) and to 
watch the house (Isaiah, ch. Ivi, v. lo). This feeling is still felt by mos.t 
of those who profess the religion of Mohammed. As, however, the 
Moslemin of Persia on the one side, and of North Africa on the other, 
are as fond and proud of their dogs as we are, the dislike seems to 
have its foundation in race rather than in religious feeling. As a con- 
sequence of this abhorrence the dog is, in most parts of the East, in a 
very miserable condition ; he is left, uncared for, to wander gaunt, 
hungry, and savage — to wander through the streets without a master 



268 CARNIVORA. 

and without a home, cut off from all companionship with man. But 
even in this neglected state they exhibit a great capacity for organiza- 
tion ; they divide the town into districts, and no dog can be tempted to 
trespass on a district to which he does not belong ; each troop seems to 
be under the command of a leader, whose position is recognized by all 
the rest. Pierotti describes the dogs in Palestine to-day as ill-favored, 
ill-scented, ill-conditioned beasts, but ready to respond to the slightest 
advance and grateful for any kindness, exhibiting, under circumstances 
of great social degradation, the true canine yearning after human society. 
These outcast dogs, of course, have to get their living by devouring the 
offal of the street. 

The question has been raised, " Is the dog a separate, independent 
species, like the wolf, the jackal, or the fox?" Darwin discusses the 
matter at considerable length, and comes to the conclusion that the 
origin of the dog is to be looked for in the taming and crossing of various 
species of Canid^ in various regions. Each race of mankind would train 
and preserve the animals most suited to his wants, and this process of 
selection continued for ages would account for all the varieties we 
know. 

The oldest traditions, the most ancient monuments, show us the dog 
already tamed. The records of the twelfth Egyptian dynasty, B. c. 3400, 
exhibit several kinds of dogs, several of them resembling greyhounds, 
or the Arabian boar-hound. The Assyrian monuments, B. c. 640, repre- 
sent huge mastiffs. Homer describes Odysseus weeping over his old dog 
Argus, that recognized him after twenty years of absence, when wife and 
child and friend knew him not ; and in all European literature, from that 
day to this, the dog holds an honored place. Socrates used to swear 
" By the dog ! " Alexander the Great built a temple over the remains 
of his favorite ; at Corinth a dog, Soter by name, was presented by the 
city with a silver collar inscribed with the words, " Corinth's defender 
and deliverer." A dog is one of the dramatis persona; in a play of Aris- 
tophanes ; and who does not remember Launce and his dog Crab in 
Shakespeare's "Two Gentlemen of Verona"? A still more important 
role is played by the dog in the melodrama " The Dog of Montargis," 
where he appears as a party in a Wager of Battle, and procures the 
punishment of his master's murderer. 

Volumes have been written respecting the mental and moral qualities 
of the dog. All dogs have good memories for time and place ; they 



THE MORAL SENSE OF THE DOG. 269 

rememoer the dinner-hour, and distinguish Sunday from week-days ; and 
in places where they are in the habit oC going to church with their mas- 
ters, they soon learn to behave themselves and sleep like good Christians. 
They vary, like the rest of us, in their capacities for acquiring knowledge, 
and each variety has its special gift. It is still an open question as to 
how far the dog possesses the faculty of reasoning, it is said that a dog 
tracking his master has been seen, when he came to where three roads 
met, to examine two of them carefully, and then at once run along the 
third ; that is, the dog reasoned, " He must have gone by A, B or C ; 
but he has not gone by A or B, therefore he has gone by C." A dog, 
however, if offered a large and a small piece of meat, does not as a.^ mat- 
ter of course choose the large piece ; from which fact it is assumed that 
he does not know the axiom " that the whole is greater than its part." 
It is more probable that he takes the small piece first, as easiest to dis- 
pose of, reserving the large piece to occupy his leisure time. 

That the dog has a moral sense we all see ; but his moral sense is one 
suitable to his condition and to promote the chief end of dog, which, to 
borrow the words of Professor Wilson, is to love man and keep his com- 
mandments. A dog taught to steal will become as mean and slouching 
as his master, and will hate to be detected ; but his wicked conscience 
does not smite him. A dog virtuously brought up feels keen remorse 
when he has transgressed the moral code. Dr. Calderwood, in his work 
" The Relations of Mind and Brain," relates the following story: " A dog 
belonging to a United Presbyterian minister killed the fowls while the 
family were at church and buried them in the garden. The bodies were 
found. The dog was taken to the garden and immediately confessed his 
guilt. His master took him to his library, and having shut the door, 
began a reprimand after this fashion : ' What a wicked thing you have 
done in murdering the hens ! You are a minister's dog, and should have 
been an example to other dogs instead of doing such a thing as this. 
Then, this is the Sabbath day, and the deed is all the worse on account 
of the day on which it has been done.' Thus admonished, the dog was 
put out of the room and the door shut. Next morning he was found 
dead, A veterinary surgeon was consulted, and declared that the dog 
had died of a broken heart." 

Of course, duty ignorantly performed sometimes perpetrates injustice. 
A dog in Haverhill, Massachusetts, met the newsboy every morning at 
the gate and took his master's paper. When the subscription was 



270 CARNIVORA. 

stopped and the boy attempted to pass the house, the dog threw the boy 
down, and seizing a copy took it to his home. 

The affection and devotion of the dog is proverbial, but the extent to 
which these qualities are developed depends as much on the master as on 
the dog. They are seen most plainly in those anmials which have been 
not the mere toys or playthings, but the fellow-workers and constant 
companions of their " guide, philosopher, and friend." There is more 
than one well authenticated instance of a shepherd's dog accompanying 
the coffin of its departed friend to the grave and remaining there till its 
death, either dying of hunger or leaving the spot only long enough to 
get some food. 

Suicides by dogs are not unknown. An old collie in Caithness, 
troubled with the infirmities of age, including deafness and the loss of 
teeth, committed suicide by drowning. A Newfoundland dog had his 
feelings wounded by being scolded. Soon after he was found alive, but 
with his head partly submerged in a ditch. He was dragged out ; but 
he refused to eat or drink, and before long he was found in the same ditch 
dead. 

Numerous Instances are known of dogs calling on their friends to 
assist them or avenge them. " Liege" was the favorite of his owner. Dr. 
Van Tuyl, of Dayton, Ohio. One day he tackled a large yellow dog. 
With ears torn and bleeding, and smarting from defeat, he ran through 
the house and jumped a fence into an adjoining yard where another dog 
was quartered. They held some sort of a council, and half a minute 
later they both cleared the fence and ran into the street, and there, while 
Liege looked on, his friend gave the yellow dog a wholesome defeat. 

We conclude this chapter with a few remarks on that most terrible 
of all diseases, rabies or hydrophobia. The first symptom of this com- 
plaint is an entire change of manner in the animal. The affectionate, 
caressing dog becomes suddenly cross, shy, and snappish ; retreating 
from the touch of the friendly hand as if it were the hand of a stranger. 
His appetite becomes depraved, and forsaking his ordinary food, he 
eagerly swallows pieces of stick, straws, or any other innutritions sub- 
stances that may lie in his way. He is restless, unable to remain in the 
same position for two seconds together, and snaps at imaginary objects ; 
and he ever and anon starts up and listens eagerly to imaginary sounds. 
Generally he utters at intervals a wild howl, but in some cases the dog 
•■mains perfectly sileni during the whole of his illness, and is then said 



HYDROPHOBIA. 271 

to be afflicted with the dumb madness. In most instances the dog is 
silent during the later stages of the illness. 

Before the disease has developed itself to any extent the poor crea- 
ture becomes thoughtful and anxious, and looks with wistful eyes upon 
his friends, as if beseeching them to aid him in the unknown evil that 
hangs so heavily upon him. He then retires to his usual resting-place, 
and sluggishly lies upon his bed, strangely uneasy, and continually shift- 
ing his posture. Fortunately the disposition to bite does not make its 
appearance until the disease has made considerable progress. 

In these stages of the malady the dog is often seen to fight with his 
paws at the corner of his mouth, as if endeavoring to rid himself of a 
bone that had become fixed among his teeth. This symptom may, how- 
ever, be readily distinguished by the fact that the dog is able to close his 
mouth between the paroxysms of his ailment, which he is unable to do 
when he is affected by the presence of a bone or other extraneous sub- 
stance in his throat. 

An unquenchable thirst soon fastens upon the afflicted dog, and drives 
him to the nearest spot where he can obtain any liquid that may cool his 
burning throat. 

In the earlier stages of the complaint he laps without ceasing, but 
when the disease has destroyed the powers of his tongue and throat, he 
plunges his head into the water as far as the depth of the vessel will per- 
mit, in hope of bringing his throat in contact with the cooling fluid. It 
is generally supposed that a mad dog will not touch water, and for this 
reason the malady was termed hydrophobia, or " dread of water"; but it 
is now ascertained that the animal is so anxious to drink that he often 
spills the fluid in his eagerness, and so defeats his own object. 

In the last stage of this terrible disease the dog is seized with an 
uncontrollable propensity to run. He seems not to care where he goes, 
but runs for the most part in a straight line, seldom turning out of his 
way, and rarely attempting to bite unless he be obstructed in his course ; 
and then he turns savagely upon his real or fancied assailant, and 
furiously snaps and bites without fear or reason. 

The average time of the appearance of this disease after the bite is 
from three weeks to six months, its duration is four or five days, and no 
remedy has been as yet discovered. 

With regard to people bitten by rabid animals, the wound ought to 
be immediately cauterized, either with lunar caustic or by a red-hot iron, 



272 CARNIVORA. 

such as a steel fork or knitting-needle. Many persons assert that hydro- 
phobia in man is purely a disease of the imagination ; this is not the case, 
as Hertwig has produced the genuine canine rabies in dogs by inoculating 
them with the virus from a man suffering from hydrophobia. But it is 
beyond doubt that ver}- many people fall victims to their own terrors ; 
and therefore everything which tends to excite alarm ought to be care- 
fully avoided when the sufferer is nervous or excitable. Do NOT kill t/ic 
dog on suspicion ; keep it carefully till its condition is clearly ascertained ; by . 
destroying it at once we are left in a state of uncertainty as to whetlier it is 
mad or no, and the nervous sufferer zvill ahvays adopt the zcorst alternative ; 
by preserving it we shall be able to give the most positive assurances in most 
cases that the animal is not mad. 

The number of puppies which the dog produces at a single litter is 
very large, var)-ing from three or four to fifteen, or even a still greater 
number. The.y are born, as is the case with kittens and several other 
3-oung animals, with closed eyes, and do not open their e3'elids for the 
space of several days. As it is manifestly impossible for the mother to 
rear the whole of a very large family their number must be reduced, 
either by destroying several of the little ones, whicli of course ought to 
be the weakest and smallest specimens, or by removing the supernu- 
merary offspring and placing them under the care of another dog which 
has lately taken upon herself the maternal duties. In this case it needs 
not that the wet-nurse should be of the same kind with her charge, as it 
is found that health of constitution and a liberal supply of milk are the 
only necessary qualifications for that responsible office. 




CHAPTER XII. 

THE SPORTING DOGS. 

MODES OF CLASSIFICATION — SPORTING DOGS — THE SCOTCH GREYHOUND — THE IRISH GREYHOUND 
— THE AFRICAN GREYHOUND — THE COMMON GREYHOUND — THE HARE INDIAN DOG — THE 
ITALIAN GREYHOUND — THE STAG HOUND — POX HOUND — HARRIER — BEAGLE — THE OTTER 
HOUND — THE DACHSART AND TURNSPIT — THE BLOODHOUND — THE POINTERS AND SETTERS 
— THE SPANIELS— SPRINGERS — COCKERS — WATER SPANIEL — CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG — RETRIE\'ER. 

VARIOUS classifications of the numerous varieties of the dog 
have been proposed. Some have grouped them into "dogs 
that hunt by sight," of which the Greyhound is the type ; 
" dogs that hunt by scent," of which the Fox-hound or Bloodhound is 
the type ; " Shepherd Dogs," " House Dogs," and " Toy Dogs " — a 
division based on habits impressed on the animal by education or the 
use to which man has put them, and not on any natural characteristic. 
Cuvier groups them according to the shape of the head, and forms them 
into three large classes : the Matins, including the Great Danish Dog, 
the different varieties of Greyhound, the Shepherd's Dog, and the St. 
Bernard ; the Spaniels, comprising the Esquimaux Dog, the Common 
Spaniels, Hounds, Pointers and Setters, with the Turnspit and the New- 
foundland Dog ; and thirdly, the Mastiffs, including the English Mastiff, 
the Thibet Dog, the Pug, the Bulldog, the Terrier, and Bull Terrier. 
This arrangement, however, is somewhat confusing. We shall therefore 
make no pretence to a scientific classification, but describe the most note- 
worthy varieties in the order which seems to be most simple for the 
ordinary reader. 

THE GREYHOUNDS. 

The Rough Scotch Greyhound. There is but one breed of the 
Scotch Greyhound, although some families are termed Deerhounds, and 
others are only called Greyhounds. Each, however, from being con- 
stantly employed in the chase of either deer or hare, becomes gradually 
35 



274 CARNIVORA. 

fitted for the pursuit of its special quarry, and contracts certain habits 
which render it comparatively useless when set to chase the wrong 
animal. The Scotch Deerhound is possessed of better powers of scent 
than the Greyhound, and in chasing its game depends as much on its 
nose as on its eyes. Although it makes use of its olfactory powers when 
running, it holds its head higher from the ground than the Gre3'hound, 
which only uses its eyes, because this attitude is the best in waiting to 
pull down his game. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to procure 
this Deerhound thoroughbred ; even the celebrated one, " Maida," pos- 
sessed by Sir Walter Scott, was a cross with the Bloodhound. 

The Irish Greyhound (Plate XIV) is a magnificent animal, much 
larger than the Scotch Deerhound, many of them being nearly four feet 
high, but it resembles that variety in shape ; it is usually of a fawn-color, 
with a rough coat and pendant ears. " Stonehenge " writes that the 
genuine breed is extinct. They were formerly used for hunting the 
wolf, which animal was exterminated in Ireland during the 1 st century. 

The Russian Greyhound is also gifted with the power of running 
by scent, and is employed at the present day for the same purposes which 
Irish Greyhounds subserved in former times. 

Many Russian forests are infested with wild boars, wolves, and bears, 
and this powerful and swift dog is found of great use in the destruction 
of these quadrupedal pests. In size it is about equal to the Scotch Grey- 
hound. It is not exclusively used for the chase of the large and savage 
beasts, but is also employed in catching deer, hares, and other animals 
which come under the ordinary category of " game." The fur of this 
dog is thick, but does not run to any length. 

The Persian Greyhound is slender in make ; its ears are pendulous 
and feathered like a Setter's, the body is smooth, the tail is like that of a 
silky-coated Setter. It is used for coursing the hare and antelope in the 
plains, and hunting the wild ass in the rocky hill country. 

For the antelope the Greyhound would be no match, and is therefore 
assisted by the falcon, which is trained to settle on the head of the flying 
animal, and, by flapping its wings in the poor creature's eyes, to prevent 
it from following a direct course, and thus to make it an easier prey to 
the Greyhound which is following in the track. Of this curious mixture 
of falconry and hunting the Persian nobles are passionatel)' fond. 

The African Greyhound has a silky coat of a cream color, and is 
highly valued by the Arabs. In the Sahara rich and poor regard him as 




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THE COMMON GREYHOljND. 2/5 

an inseparable companion — ^the very apple of their eyes ; they feed him 
carefully, and bestow as much care on the purity of his race as on that 
of their horses. An Arab will go any distance to get a good mate for 
his dog, and the whelps are attended to affectionately ; in fact, General 
Daumas says the women sometimes suckle them. When he is broken in, 
he passes the day by his master's side and the night in his bed ; he is 
clothed to protect him from the cold, and is adorned with rich collars 
hung with amulets to keep off the "evil eye." When the dog dies the 
women and children lament him like a member of the family ; often, 
indeed, he has been the main support of the family. A dog that can run 
down a gazelle is valued at the price of a camel ; one that can capture a 
larger antelope is as valuable as a good horse. 

THE COMMON GREYHOUND. 

It is hardly possible to conceive an animal which is more entirely 
formed for speed and endurance than a well-bred Greyhound. Its long 
slender legs, with their whipcord-like muscles, denote extreme length 
of stride and rapidity of movement ; its deep, broad chest, affording 
plenty of space for the play of large lungs, shows that it is capable of 
long-continued exertion ; while its sharply-pointed nose, snake-like neck, 
and slender, tapering tail are so formed as to afford the least possible 
resistance to the air, through which the creature passes with such ex- 
ceeding speed. 

In England great attention has for years been paid to the breeding 
and training of the Greyhound, where it is used for coursing the hare, 
chiefly in matches. 

In actual speed the Greyhound far surpasses the hare, so that, if the 
frightened chase were to run in a straight line, she would be soon snapped 
up by the swifter hounds. But the hare is a much smaller and lighter 
an'mal than her pursuer, and, being furnished with very short forelegs, 
is enabled to turn at an angle to her course without a check, while the 
heavier and longer-limbed Greyhounds are carried far beyond their prey 
by their own impetus, before they can alter their course and again make 
after the hare. On this principle the whole of coursing depends ; the 
hare making short, quick turns, and the Greyhounds making a large 
circuit every time that the hare changes her line. The sport is con- 
ducted in this wise : A couple of dogs are held in what is called a pair 



27f> CAKNIVOKA. 

of slips by a functionary called the slipper, whose duly it is to let them 
jj^o at the same niomcnl wlien a liare is started. Tiie jiid;;e, who is tiie 
«)niy person allowed to l)e nionnted, rides alter tiie dofj^s and awards the 
victory to the one llial pi liornis the hcsl, wliitli is by no means the one 
lliiil kills llic hare, hnl llic onewliich gains most jjoints, such as " first 
t ni II," and t lie like. 

I'he Common (ireyhonnd lias varied little in the c:oiirse of centuries. 
All old rhyme, which can he traced hack to 1496, says this hound should 
have 

Tlu' lR':t(l nl ;i stiakc, 
'I'lu' iii'ck (if :i (IraUe, 
A back like a lirain, 
A side like a l)ioaiii. 
'I'lii' tail ol a lal, 
Anil llic l(»it ul a cat. 

And these arc still excellent points. The coat is smooth, firm, and glossy ; 
the favorite colors black, red, or lawn, with black muzzles. 

The IIaki'. Indian I )(u; is used by siiottsmen on tin- Mackenzie River 
(o liiiiil reindeer and moose. Its hair is long and straight, the tail bushy 
and slightly ( iiived, the color grayish-black. It is remarkable lor pos- 
si'ssing leet thai spread out on the snow, thus ])reventing the animal from 
sinking into it. Its height is about two feet. 

The liAMAN ( iKiAiKUiND is prized in inverse proportion to its size. 
Many s])ecimens only weigh six or seven |)oiuids. One of the most per- 
fect dogs of the present day weighs eight and three-quarter pinmds, 
and is fourteen and a ipiarter inches in height. His color is luiiformly 
black. 

.Attempts have been made to employ tlie Italian Greyhound in the 
chase of rabbits, but its powi-r of jaw and endurance of character are so 
disproportioned to its S|)eed that all such endeavors have failed. A 
ini\ed breed between the llalian ( iieylionnd and the Perrii-r is useful 
enough, combining endiiraiui" with s|)eed, and perieetly capable ol 
chasing and holding a rabbit. 

In this country it is only used as a pelted companion, and takes rank 
among the "toy-dogs," being subject to certain arbitrary rules ot color 
and form, wliicii may render a dog worthless for one year throngli the 
very same cpialities which would make it a paragon ot peiiection in 
anotlier. If ol' a nnilorm color, it iiiiist be tree from the least spot of 



•MIK HOUNDS. 277 

white ; (lie hiMnilt^ color is a golden law 11. Il is a |)rc;tly liltl(; creature, 
very active ami j^raccliil, and l)y no means devoid ot alfcctioii. It is 
cliielly !)re<l in Spain and ttaly. 

THE HOUNDS. 

Tlie F-NCi.isii SiA(i I lonNi) is cxlnincly laic. It was a cross l)etvveen 
the Bloodlionnd and llu; Grcylionnd \vi(li a dash oi llie l'"ox-lioii!i(l, hut 
the (InfT now used in luij^land is simply a larjj^c breed oi I''ox lionnd. 

'riie Im)X I lodNI) I i'lale XV, is llic result of two centuries ol ( arelul 
1)1 (•(•diu}^, conducted ic^ardless ol expense and under llie j^uichmce ol 
^reat judj^mcnl. I5(( klord describees tin- pcrlcci Mound llius: " Let his 
lef^s be straight, his leet lound and nol loo large, his breast wide, liis 
chest deep, his back broad, his head small, n('ck thin, tail thick and 
bushy"; to which ouf^ht to Ix; adrled, "llur thi^h Ion;,'-, (lu; bark ribs 
deep." I lis lii-i;;lil varies lion 1 I w ml y lo I went y li\(' inches, and a larj^er 
or smaller breed is chosen accordinj^ i,, the (pmiily ol Ihe (onnlry in 
which it is enifjloyed. The P'ox-hound lias excellent sceni, is swill ol 
foot, ancl |)erseveriii}^ in (•haracter. In a trial at New Markel, a h'ox- 
hound ran loin miles, one liiilon^', an<l one hundred and Ihiilylwo 
yards in eij;ht minules and a lew seconds. 

The I Iakkiiik, so calhul because it is employed in hunliiif; the hare, 
is nothiufif el.se than a small Fox-honiid, standin/i^ about ei),dileen inches 
hij.jh. Me re(|iiii-es a more delicale S( cnl ihaii ihe l''ox-!iound in older 
to lollow Ihe doubles oi I he hare, and is poss(!SSed of a more musical nole. 
IJotii tiie l''ox-hound and llu' llarrier iiuist be lookeil on not as indi- 
viduals, but :is componenl pails ol a pack; and lience an animal invaluable 
in one, will be inadiiiissilile in aiiolhei pai k. 

The I5|';A(;i,I'; is smaller than Ihe Mairi(!r, staiidinj^ abimt rourteen 
inches hifjh, with a body ( omparalively stouter. The IJea^de has no 
great speed, and is loiiowcd on lool ; hence his chief poini is his hij^lily 
cleveloi)ed powers of scent and sagacity in tracking the hare. A dwarf 
variety is used for himtiiig rabbits ; 1he.se Meagles are sometimes sf) sin.ill 
that a whole pack can be carried in hampers on a horse. The Koiuwi 
BKAfJl.l". is a cross with the Terri( r, and has lost the lie.iglc's longiie. 

The On'KK Hound or \Vi;i.sii Makuikk is a Harrier wliich, by careful 
selection, has been adapted lo hunt the hard-biting otter. He is hardy, 
courageous, and unusually savage. When he bites he does not retain 



278 CARNIVORA. 

his hold, but tears his teeth away with great force. His coat is rough 
and long, with a short, woolly undercoat, which keeps it warm even when 
immersed for a long time. • 

The Dachshund is one of the most ancient forms of the dog. The 
well-bred specimens \veigh about sixteen pounds, have a long body with 
a curved back, short crooked forelegs, large head with hanging ears ; the 
tail is thick at the root, but tapers off and is carried to one side ; the hair 
is short, smooth, and stiff: the usual color is black or black-and-tan ; the 
bark is very loud and deep. As their German name implies, they are 
chiefly used for attacking badgers in their hole. 

The Turnspit seems a variety of the Dachs which has been con- 
demned to menial labor. At one extremitv of the spit was fastened a 
large circular box, or hollow wheel, something like the wire wheels 
which are so often appended to squirrel-cages ; and in this wheel the dog 
was accustomed to perform its daily task, by keeping it continually work- 
ing. As the labor would be too great for a single dog, it was usual to 
keep at least two animals for the purpose, and to make them relieve each 
other at regular intervals. The dogs were quite able to appreciate the 
lapse of time, and if not relieved from their toils at the proper hour, 
would leap out of the wheel without orders, and force their companions 
to take their place and complete their portion of the daily toil. The 
thoroughbred Turnspit is very rare, although spits are said by travelers 
to be still turned by canine labor in some parts of France. 

The Bloodhound (^Plate XV) derives his name from his power of 
scenting blood, and his proper use is to single out a wounded deer from 
the herd, and to keep steadily on the trail ; when thus engaged he utters 
a long, loud, and deep bav. His talents were very soon emploved to 
trace human beings, but at present he is used in England onl}- for hunting 
fallow-deer. A pretty pure breed of Bloodhounds can still be found in 
some of the Southern States. He is extremely irascible, and therefore 
not fitted to be a companion. He stands about two feet high ; the ears 
.measure eight to ten inches ; the forehead is long and narrow ; the lips 
loose and hanging ; color black-tan or a reddish-fawn ; the tail long and 
sweeping. 

The Bloodhound, when once laid on the scent, will follow the trail 
through a hundred crossing- footsteps, and can be baffled only by water 
or blood. The latter, if spi't on the track, kills the weaker scent of the 
fugitive's footsteps, and the former holds no scent. 



FOWLING DOGS. 279 



THE POINTERS AND SETTERS. 

The Pointer (Plate XV; has a moderately large head, a high fore- 
head, broad square muzzle, a long neck, strong loins, and wide hips ; 
the tail is strong at the root, then suddenly diminishes, and within two 
inches of the tip goes off into a point. The shape of the tail is an index 
of pure breeding. 

The Pointer possesses considerable speed, and this quality is specially 
useful because it permits the sportsman to walk forward at a moderate 
pace, while his dogs are beating over the field to his right and left. The 
sagacious animals are so obedient to the voice and gesture of their mas- 
ter, and are so well trained to act with each other, that at a wave of the 
hand they will separate, one going to the right and the other to the left, 
and so traverse the entire field in a series of " tacks," to speak nautically, 
crossing each other regularly in front of the sportsman as he walks for- 
ward. When either of them scents a bird he stops suddenly, arresting 
even his foot as it is raised in the air, his head thrust forward, his body 
and limbs fixed, and his tail stretched straight out behind him. This 
attitude is termed a "point," and on account of this peculiar mode of 
indicating game, the animal is termed the " Pointer." 

The Setter (Plate XVIj. As the Pointers derive their name from 
their habits of standing still and pointing at any game which they may 
discover, so the Setters have earned their title from their custom of 
" setting " or crouching when they perceive their game. In the olden 
days of sporting the Setter used always to drop as soon as it found the 
game, but at the present day the animal is in so far the imitator of the 
Pointer that it remains erect while marking down its game. 

The English Setter is thus described : " A moderately heavy head, 
but not so much so as in the Pointer ; the muzzle not so broad nor so 
square in profile, the lower angle being rounded off, but the upper being 
still nearly a right angle. The eye is similar to that of the Pointer, but 
not so soft, being more sparkling and full of spirit. The ear long, but 
thin, and covered with soft, silky hair, slightly waved. The neck is long, 
but straighter than that of the Pointer, being also lighter and very flexible. 
The back and loins are hardly so strong as those of the Pointer, the latter 
also being rather longer ; the hips also are more ragged, and the ribs not 
so round and barrel-like. The tail or ' flag ' is usually set on a little lower. 



28o CARNIVORA. 

is furnished with a fan-like brush of long hair, and is slightly curled up- 
ward toward the tip ; but it should never be carried over the back or 
raised above the level of its root, excepting while standing, and then a 
slight elevation is admired, every hair standing down with a stiff and 
regular appearance. The elbow, when in perfection, is placed so low as 
to be fully an inch below the brisket, making the fore-arm appear very 
short. The hind-feet and legs are clothed with hair, or ' feathered,' as it 
is called, in the same way as the fore-legs, and the amount of this beautiful 
provision is taken into consideration in selecting the dog for his points." 
The Irish Setter has lately come into deserved favor. There are 
two strains — the Red, and the White and Red — the former being the 
more fashionable. This dog stands higher than the English Setter, and 
his head is longer and narrower. He is fast and enduring, and works 
beautifully, but is unreliable. 

THE SPANIELS. 

The Spaniels are divided into two classes — the Field and the Water 
Spaniels; and the Field Spaniels are again divided, according to their 
work, into Springers and Cockers. 

The Springers are heavy and slow dogs, and the favorite breed at 
present is the Clumber. This animal weighs about thirty pounds, and 
stands twenty inches high, with a heavy head and broad, square muzzle, 
long ears, very long body, with a good barrel ; the tail is bushy, the 
legs well feathered. The Clumber hunts mute, while the Sussex Spaniels 
give tongue when questing. 

The Cocker Spaniel (Plate XV). This class includes all the other 
Field Spaniels, and is the original of the Toy Spaniels. The name is 
given to it because this breed is used for woodcock shooting. The varie- 
ties are very numerous ; generally speaking, the Cocker is a light dog, 
of about fourteen pounds in weight. Like the Springer, he keeps his 
tail down when questing, but moves it to and fro more rapidly. The 
coat is thick and wavy ; the color is plain liver or black, white and black, 
liver and white, and lemon and white, or nearly all red. 

The Water Spaniel has great powers of swimming and diving, and 
is very docile, and is one of the best of outdoor companions. 

Much of its endurance in the water is owing to the abundance of 
natural oil with which its coat is supplied, and which prevents it from 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. ?8l 

becoming really wet. A real Water Spaniel gives himself a good sb.ake 
as soon as he leaves the river, and is dry in a very short time. This oil, 
although useful to the dog, gives forth an odor very unpleasant to human 
nostrils, and therefore debars the Water Spaniel from enjo)dng the fire- 
side society of its human frie«ds. 

Some people fancy that the Water Spaniel possesses webbed feet, and 
that its aquatic prowess is due to this formation. Such, however, is not 
the case. All dogs have their toes connected with each other by a strong 
membrane, and when the foot is wide and the membrane rather loosely 
hung, as is the case with the Water Spaniel, a large surface is presented 
to the water. 

The Water Spaniel is of moderate size, measuring about twenty-two 
inches in height at the shoulders, and proportionately stout in make. 
The ears are long, measuring from point to point rather more than the 
animal's height. 

The Chesapeake Bay Dog is very much prized by the duck-shooters 
of Maryland. There are three breeds — the Otter, with very short hair 
of a tawny color ; the Red, with long hair ; the Curly, with curly hair 
of a reddish-brown hue. The average height is about twenty-five 
inches. 

The Retriever (Plate XVI). In America all shooting-dogs are 
broken to retrieve ; in England this duty is assigned on land to a cross 
between the Newfoundland and the Setter, or between the Water Spaniel 
and the Terrier. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

SHEPHERD'S DOGS AND HOUSE DOGS. 

THE shepherd's dog — THE COLLEY — THE SPITE — THE ESQUIMAUX DOG THE ST. BERNARD— 

THE MASTIFF — THE THIBET DOG — THE BULLDOG — THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG — THE BLACK 
AND TAN TERRIER — THE SCOTCH TERRIER — THE SKYE TERRIER — THE YORtJSHIRE TERRIER — 

THE BULL-TEKRIER — THE FOX TERRIER — THE COACH-DOGS — THE PUG THE POODLE — KING 

CHARLES — BLENHEIM — THE MEXICAN MOPSEY — THE DINGO, OR THE DOG RELAPSED INTO 
BARBARISM. 



w 



T'E now come to the classes of dogs not used for sporting, 
and commence with the most useful of them. 



THE SHEPHERD'S DOGS. 



The Shepherd's Dog (Plate XVI) is divided into numerous breeds, 
all possessing the same general characteristics. It is rather large and 
powerful, with a thick closely set fur; the muzzle is sharp, the head of 
moderate size, the eyes intelligent ; the shape that of a short, strong 
greyhound, and there are usually two dew claws on each hind leg. 

The Scotch Sheepdog or Colley has a sharp nose, a bright and 
mild eye, and most sagacious aspect. The body is heavily covered with 
long and woolly hair, which stands boldly out from its sides. The tail is 
exceedingly bushy, and curves upwards towards the end, so as to carry 
the long hairs free from the ground. The color of the fur is always dark, 
and is sometimes variegated with a very little white. The most approved 
tint is black and tan ; but it sometimes happens that the entire coat is of 
one of these colors, and in that case the dog is not so highly valued. 

It is hardly possible to overrate the marvellous intelligence of a wcll- 
laught sheep-dog ; for if the shepherd were deprived of the help of his 
dog his office would be almost impracticable. It has been forcibly said 
by a competent authority that, if the work of the dog were to be per- 
formed by men, their maintenance would more than swallow up the 



ESQUIMAUX DOG. 283 

entire profits of the flock. The Colley is untiring in the discharge of 
any useful task, but will not display his talents for the idle gratilication 
ot spectators. 

The Si'i rz Dog is one of the conuuonest house-dogs we see. In its 
native country l^omcrania it discharges the duty of a sheeu-dog, and it 
is fit for nothing else. Its intelligence is of a low order, and its courage 
is conspicut)us by its absence. It has a pointed lox-hkc head, short legs, 
and a long tail tightly curled up, and is clad in a thiik woolly coat 
usually of a white color. It has the merit of being a good watch-dog, 
and witii this ends all its good qualities. It is irritable and snajjpish and 
therefore unfit to be a playmate for cliildren. Most cases of hydrophobia 
can be tracetl to tiic bite of a Spitz; not that he is more subject to the 
disease, bu( tliat he is more addicted to biting than other dogs. 

THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 

The Esquimaux Dog (Plate XIV) is a wolfish-looking creature with 
obliijue eyes, bushy tail and elongated muzzle ; its color is a deep dun 
uilii obscure bars and pate lies; its height about twenty-two inches. Ir. 
winter it is used entirely for drawing sleds and sleighs, but is usually 
turned loose in the summer. The team of dogs is harnessed to the sleigh 
by leathern straps, and directed by the voice or the crack of the whip of 
the driver. The old and experienced animal which leads liie team will 
dash forward, slacken speed, halt, or turn to right and left at the word of 
commantl, and, the actual stroke of the whip is used as little as possible, 
for when a dog feels the sting of the biting lash, he turns round and 
attacks the dog nearest to him. The others immediately join in the fight, 
and the wliole team is thrown into confiision, the traces being entangled 
with each other, and the sledge in all likelihood upset. When such a 
rupture occurs, the driver is generally forced to dismount, and to 
harness the dogs afresh. Usually, the leading dog is permitted to run 
iiis own course, for he is able to follow the right path with marvelhuis 
accuracy, and to scent it out, even when the thickly-falling snow- 
flakes have covered the surface of the ground with an uniform 
white carpet. 

These dogs are able to travel for very great distances over the snow- 
clad regions of the north, and have been known to make daily journeys 
of si.vty miles for several days in succession. 



284 CARNIVORA. 



THE SAINT BERNARD AND MASTIFF. 

The Saint Bernard Dog (Plate XV). These splendid dogs, which 
belong to the group of Spaniels, are among the largest of the canine 
race, being equal in size to a large mastiff. The good work which is done 
by them is so well known that it is only necessary to give a passing 
reference. Bred among the coldest regions of the Alps, and accus- 
tomed from its birth to the deep snows which everlastingly cover the 
mountain-top, the St. Bernard Dog is a most useful animal in discover- 
ing any unfortunate traveler who has been overtaken by a sudden storm 
and lost the path, or who has fallen upon the cold ground, worn out bv 
fatigue and hardship, and sunk into the death-sleep which is the result 
of severe cold. Whenever a snow-storm occurs, the monks belonging 
to the monastery of St. Bernard send forth their dogs on their errand 
of mercy. Taught by the wonderful instinct with which they are 
endowed, they traverse the dangerous paths, and seldom fail to discover 
the frozen sufferer, even though he be buried under a deep snow-drift. 
When the dog has made such a discovery, it gives notice by its deep 
and powerful bay of the perilous state of the sufferer, and endeavors to 
clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form. 

The monks, hearing the voice of the dog, immediately set off" to the 
aid of the perishing traveler, and in many cases have thus preserved 
lives that must have perished without their timely assistance. In order 
to afford every possible help to the sufferer, a small flask of spirits is 
generally tied to the dog's neck. 

There arc two varieties, the rough and smooth haired, the former 
of a tawny brindle color, the latter red and white with a broad white 
collar. 

The Mastiff (Plate XVT) is a noble-looking dog, and when pure 
bred is remarkably good-natured, and seems to delight in affording 
(protection to the weak, either of men or dogs. 

The head of the Mastiff bears a certain similitude to that of the blood- 
hound and the bulldog, possessing the pendent lips and squared muzzle 
of the former, with the heavy muscular development of the latter. 
The undcr-jaw sometimes protrudes a little, but the teeth arc not left 
uncovered by the upper lip, as is the case with the latter animal. The 
fur of the Mastiff is always smooth, and its color varies between a uni- 



THE THIBET DOG. 23$ 

form reddish-fawn and different brindiings and patches of dark and 
white. The voice is peculiarly deep and mellow. The height of this 
anin'-al is generall}' from^ twenty-five to twenty-etght inches, but some- 
times exceeds these dimensions. One of these dogs was no less than 
thirty-three inches in height at the shoulder, measured fifty inches round 
his body, and weighed a hundred and seventy-five pounds. 

The Thibet Dog (Plate XIV) is an enormous animal employed 
by the inhabitants of Thibet to guard their houses and flocks: The men 
journey as far as Calcutta, for the purpose of selling their merchandise, 
and while thus engaged, they leave their dogs at home, as guardians to 
the women and children. The courage of these huge dogs is not so 
great as their size and strength would seem to indicate, for, excepting on 
their own special territories, they are little to be feared, and even then 
can be held at bay by a quiet, determined demeanor. Their color is 
generally a deep black, with a slight clouding on the sides, and a patch 
of tawny over each eye. The hanging lips of the Thibet dog give it a 
very curious aspect, which is heightened by the generally loose mode in 
which the skin seems to hang on the body. 

The Bulldog (Plate XVI) shares with the gamecock the reputa- 
tion of being the most courageous animal in the world. His original 
vocation was bull-baiting, but at present he is kept either for fighting or 
breeding. Nearly all sporting dogs owe a good deal of their courage to 
some Bulldog ancestor. " Stonehenge " thinks the Bulldog is naturally 
sagacious and intelligent, and derives his evil habits from his human 
companions. He bites before he barks, and will attack anything ; when 
he has once got hold he cannot be dislodged unless by choking. His 
repulsive appearance is chiefly due to his underhung jaw ; in other 
respects he is a remarkably neat and compact animal. 

THE NEWFOUNDLAND. 

The Nev^tfoundland Dog (Plate XIY) is so called from its native 
country. It belongs to the group of Spaniels and is remarkably intelli- 
gent. It loves to be in water, and is famous for the numerous instances 
in which it has rescued drowning persons ; it swims with great speed, 
owing to its large feet and legs. There are three kinds of this dog — 
the True Newfoundland, the Labrador Dog, and the St. John's 
Dog. 



286 CARNIVORA. 

The true Newfoundland is a magnificent and benevolent-looking 
animal, and an admirable companion ; it stands twenty-five to thirty 
inches high, and has a long, shaggy coat ; the favorite color is black, or 
black and white. Anecdotes of him are innumerable. 

The story of the big dog that dropped the little dog into the water 
and then rescued it from drowning, is well known. But another dog 
behavsd in a less generous manner. • Being provoked beyond all 
endurance by the continued annoyance of a small dog, it took the little 
tormentor in its mouth, swam well out to sea, dropped it in the water, 
and swam back again. Another of these animals, belonging to a work- 
man, was attacked by a small and pugnacious bulldog, which sprang 
upon the unoffending canine giant, and, after the manner of bulldogs, 
" pinned " him by the nose, and there hung, in spite of all endeavors to 
shake it off. However, the big dog happened to be a clever one, and 
spying a pailful of boiling tar, he bolted toward it, and deliberately 
lowered his foe into the hot and viscous material. The bulldog had not 
calculated on such a reception, and made its escape as fast as it could 
run, bearing with it a scalding memento of the occasion. 
J The attachment which these magnificent dogs feel toward mankind is 
almost unaccountable, for they have been often known to undergo the 
greatest hardships in order to bring succor to a person whom they had 
never seen before. A Newfoundland dog has been known to discover 
a poor man perishing in the snow from cold and inanition, to dash off, 
procure assistance, telling by certain doggish language of its own of the 
need for help, and then to gallop back again to the sufferer, lying upon 
him as if to afford vital heat from his own body, and there to wait until 
the desired assistance arrived. 

One day a Newfoundland dog and a mastiff had a sharp quarrel over 
a bone. They were fighting on a bridge, and over they went into the 
water. The banks were so high that they were forced to swim some dis- 
tance before they came to a landing-place. It was very easy for the 
Newfoundland ; he was as much at home in the water as a seal. But 
not so poor Bruce the mastiff; he struggled and tried his best to swim, 
but made little headway. The Newfoundland dog quickly reached the 
land, and then turned to look at his old enemv. He saw plainly that his 
strength was fast failing, and that he was likely to drown. So what did 
the noble fellow do but plunge in, seize him gently by the collar, and 
keeping his nose above water, tow him safely into port ! It was funny to 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 287 

see these dogs look at each other as they shook their coats. Their glauce 
said as plainly as words, " We'll never quarrel any more." 

Another incident exhibits the intelligence of the Newfoundland. A 
large, heavy wagon, which was, notwithstanding its enormous weigh-t, 
dragged along at a smart trot by a vigorous horse, was passing lately 
through the Rue de la Chapelle, at Paris. An infant of three years of 
age having ventured on the public road, unconscious of the danger it 
was running, was just about to be crushed beneath the wheels of the 
huge vehicle. Quicker than thought, a magnificent Newfoundland dog, 
which was sitting on the pavement, darted forth with one immense 
bound, snapped up the little being, passed like an arrow beneath the 
wagon between the four wheels, and deposited the poor child safe and 
sound upon the opposite pavement. 

The second variety is the Large Labrador Dog, which is never 
entirely black, and has a longer and more curly coat than the true New- 
foundland. The third breed is the St. John's Dog, which seldom 
exceeds twenty-five inches. 

It is a popular mistake to suppose that, to secure a good specimen 
of these noble animals, it is necessary to send to the country fi'om which 
they are named. In point of fact, the pure breed is almost extinct in 
Newfoundland, and there are to be found there now in their stead a race 
of mean-looking, shabby, cowardly, thievish mongrels, the degenerate 
descendants of a once noble race, and as different from them as the 
modern Greeks from the heroic Greeks of Homer. Neglect, ill-usage, 
starvation, and hard work have wrought the change. Rather more than 
two years ago an effort was made to introduce another breed, the cele- 
brated Leonberg dog, the finest in the world — a development of, and a 
decided improvement on, the original Newfoundland. The breeder of 
this race is Count Esseg of Leonberg, Wurtemberg, and hitherto his 
endeavors have been crowned with success. 

THE TERRIER. 

The Terrier, so named from the Latin terra " the earth," was origi- 
nally used to drive foxes or vermin from drains or burrows in the ground. 
He is a small, strong, and courageous dog, with a very good srent. As 
a rule, all terriers have a strain of bulldog in them, to which they owe 
their determination and endurance. In England, before the present style 



288 CARNIVORA. 

of fox-hunting arose, Terriers were attached to eveiy pack of fox-hounds ; 
but the old fox-terrier has now become the assistant of the rat-catcher 
and game-keeper, or the faithful house-dog. 

The Black-and-Tan Terrier (Plate XVI) is the old English Ter- 
rier. It is a smooth-haired dog, with a long, tapering nose, high fore- 
head, and overhung jaw ; the tail ought to be fine and rather drooping. 
The colors ought to be well contrasted without any speck of white. The 
mouth is always black. It is a lively, affectionate dcg, a good ratter, but 
unequal to attack larger vermin. 

The Scotch Terrier resembles the English dog except in his coat, 
which is rougher and more mixed with gray. A cross between this dog 
and the otter-hound has produced the D.\NDIE Dinmonts, of which 
there are two varieties — the "Mustard," of a reddish-biown color, and 
the " Pepper," of a gray or blue-gray color. The legs are short, the 
body long, the ears large, the tail erect with a curve over the back, and 
the hair on the forehead is silky. 

The Skve Terrier (Plate XVI) has a long body and short legs, 
and ought to measure from nose to tail three times its height. The tail 
is long and straight ; the fore-legs are slightly bandy-, and dew-claws are 
entirely absent. The hair is long, straight, and parted along the back ; 
it hangs straight down nearly to the ground, and falls well over the eyes. 
The Skye is a good dog for vermin, but is now chiefly prized as a com- 
panion. 

There are two kinds of pure Skyes — one small with soft hair, another 
larger with wiry hair. The Toy Skyes, with a black, silky coat, are pro- 
duced by crossing with the Spaniel. 

The Yorkshire Terrier is a cross between a mongrel Skye and a 
Black-and-Tan Terrier. The coat is very long and silky, and abundant 
over the whole body, head, legs, and tail ; its color is a silvery blue, the 
ears and legs are of a dark tan shade, and the long beard is of a golden 
tan, the top of the head almost fawn-colored. This dog is a modern 
invention and is only fit for a toy. 

The Bull-Terrier is a cross between the bulldog and the terrier ; 
generally, however, the terrier cross is continued till the bulldog head 
disappears ; the dog retains the courage of its ancestor and acquires 
more docility, and is the best of ratters; the first generation is an 
admirable fighting dog and will face anything. Mr. Andersson relates 
that, during his travels in Africa, his bull-terrier caught a rhinoceros by 



THE COACH DOGS. 289 

the lower lip, and did not relinquish its hold till the beast was shot. 
The same dog attacked and killed jackals. A bull-terrier, which was 
celebrated in the sporting world under the title of "Tiny," weighed only 
five pounds and a half, and yet was known to destroy fifty rats in twenty- 
eight minutes and five seconds. It is estimated that this dog must have 
killed more than five thousand rats, the aggregate weight of which nearly 
equals a ton and a half. He could not be daunted by size or numbers, and 
was repeatedly matched against the largest rats that could be procured. 
The Fox Terrier is well represented at most dog-shows. The head 
is flat, jaw powerful, eyes small, ears set rather back, neck light, chest 
full, thighs well bent, legs strong. The color is white, with black or 
black-and-tan markings ; coat fine, but hard. At present they are the 
favorite dog in England, and about the most numerous. These dogs are 
gay and lively in appearance. The best are white, and weigh about six- 
teen pounds. 

THE COACH DOGS. 

The Great Danish Dog (Plate XIV) is a large, noble animal, with 
slender limbs and a smooth tail, short ears and large eyes, and is a cross 
between the mastiff and greyhound. His color is white, with brown, 
mouse-colored, or black patches. He used to be employed to hunt red 
deer ; at present the name Danish Dog is given to a variety which is 
usually seen running with carriages. 

The Coach Dog or Dalmatian Dog (Plate XVI) is a handsome 
variety of pointer ; his color is white, thickly spotted with black spots 
of a uniform size, about an inch in diameter. In England he runs with 
his master's carriage, his proper place being just in front of the horses. 
In his native country he works as a pointer. 

TOY DOGS. 

The Pug Dog (Plate XVI) is low and thick-set, of a fawn-color, with 
a blacK mask extending to the eyes and clearly defined. The coat is 
short, thick and silky, the head round, the nose short, tail short and 
curling closely to the side. 

The Poodle is a very obedient, intelligent dog, and soon learns all 
kinds of tricks. He is a favorite in France and Germany, where he is 
37 



290 CARNIVORA. 

generally seen shaven, all but a ruff round the neck and legs and a tuft 
at the end of the tail. He is good-natured, playful and sociable, and 
makes a good watch-dog. He fetches and carries readily, and swims 
well ; but, although possessed of keen scent, he has no sporting tastes. 

The King Charles Spaniel (Plate XV) is a very small anim.al, as a 
really fine specimen ought not to exceed six or seven pounds in weight. 
Some of the most valuable King Charles Spaniels weigh as little as five 
pounds, or even less. These little creatures have been trained to search 
for and put up game after the manner of the springers and cockers ; but 
they cannot endure severe exercise or long continued exertion, and 
ought only to be employed on very limited territory. 

When rightly managed the King Charles is a most amusing com- 
panion, and picks up accomplishments with great readiness. It can be 
trained to perform many pretty tricks, and sometimes is so appreciative 
of its human playfellows that it will join their games. 

The Blenheim Spaniel is even smaller than the King Charles, and 
resembles it closely in its general characteristics. Both these animals 
have very short muzzles, long silky hair without any curl, extremely long 
and silky ears, faUing close to the head and sweeping the ground. The 
legs are covered with long silky hair to the very toes, and the tail is well 
" feathered." The eyes of these little dogs are extremely moist, having 
always a slight lachrymal rivulet trickling from the corner of each eye. 

A very celebrated but extremely rare " toy " dog is the Maltese 
Dog, the prettiest and most lovable of all the little pet dogs. 

The hair of this tiny creature is very long, extremely silky, and almost 
unique in its glossy sheen, so beautifully fine as to resemble spun glass. 
In proportion to the size of the animal, the fur is so long that, when it is 
in rapid movement, the real shape is altogether lost in the streaming mass 
of flossy hair. One of these animals, which barely exceeds three pounds 
in weight, measures no less than fifteen inches in length of hair across 
the shoulders. The tail of the Maltese dog curls strongl)' over the back, 
and adds its wealth of silken fur to the already superfluous torrent of 
glistening tresses. It is a lively and very good-tempered little creature, 
endearing itself by sundry curious little ways to those with whom it is 
brought in contact. 

The Indians possessed two kinds of dogs before the Spanish discovery, 
both called by the generic name Alco. Buffbn gives as the native names 
of the two species, Ytzaiinte potzotli, a short-necked, silky-haired dog ; 



TOY DOCJS. 291 

and Tcchichi, a melancholy clog; the former is the Peruvian or Mexican 
lajjclos^, the latter tlic forest dog of Guiana. The best known variety 
is the much-prized Mexican Moi'SEY, which has fine woolly — net silky 
— hair. This is the tiniest of the dog family, and is precisely like the 
woollen dogs of the toy-shops. 

The Chinese Dog is remarkable only for the entire absence of hair 
on all parts of its body. In form it seems a modification of the grey- 
hound, the body being long and narrow, the neck moderately long but 
thin, the head and muzzle pretty long, the legs thin without dew-claws 
on tiie hinder pair. 

It is called Chinese because it does not come from China, but is prob- 
ably a native of Africa, where it is said to be used to hunt tlic antelope. 
It is very light, swift, and persevering, and is reported to be indefatigable 
in tracking its game. These exploits of the hairless dog, however, 
require confirmation, and dates and places. With us the unfortunate 
creature is a mere monster, kept as a curiosity to gratify a perverted 
taste, and it must suffer severely from the changes of our climate. One 
possessed by the writer was good-natured and playful, and was a good 
watch-dog, but was excessively afraid of other dogs. 

THE DINGO. 

The Dingo, Canis dingo (Plate XIV), is not a noble savage who has 
never known civilization, but a civilized dog run wild. It is the only 
carnivorous animal found in Australia, consequently is not a marsupial, 
and therefore is not indigenous to the island. It has all the look of a 
domestic dog. It is about as large as a sheep-dog, and is of a reddish- 
brown color, sprinkled with jjlack. It crosses freely with the tame dog. 

Large packs of these wild dogs ravage the localities in which they 
have taken up their residence, and have attained to so high a degree of 
organization that each pack will only hunt over its own district, and will 
neither intrude upon the territory which has been allotted to a neighbor- 
ing pack oi Dingoes, nor permit any intrusion upon its own soil. For 
this reason their raids upon the flocks and herds are so dangerous that 
the colonists have been obliged to call meetings in order to arrange pro- 
ceedings against the common foe. Before the sheep-owners had learned 
to take effectual measures to check the inroads of these marauders, they 
lost their flocks in such numbers that they counted their missing sheep 



292 



CAKNIVOUA. 



by I he liundrcd. I'roni one iiolony no I(;ss lli.iii Iwclvc liimdrcd sliccp 
and hiinlis were stolen in tliicc inonllis. 

I lie l)in^o is covviiKJU, ;ind will rallici inn ;l\v,i\ lliini li/^lil ; hnl 
when liiii'd pri'ssed, :uid il line Is lh;it its Icf^s ;ir c ol no nsc, il I in ns t'j biiy 
wit.li s:i7;if;c; liToeity, iiiid dasiics ;il its ()|i|)oninls wil li I he Ini ions cncrj^y 
of (k'spair. It (.:iirrics tlicsc; uncivilized ciisloiiis inli) domeslic iitcd life; 
and even wln-n its restless liiiihs ;iie snlijet led lo llie loi |til \iii;; t lii;il(lolii 
of eli;iiii ;iii(l lollar, and its wild, woilisii natnic allayed by re)^ulai imals 
and restricted e\er(ise, it is e\'er ii'ad\' to iiiake a sudden and unpro- 
voked attack ll|)on m: i beast, |mi>\hIi(I always that its 1 1 eac herons 

ousel can be made unseen. /\hei the allin k il ah\a\s iclreats into the 
farthest recesses of its liabilalion, and there ( roni lies in tear and silence, 
whether it has laiied or succeeded in ils cowardly inalici'. 

Thus we sec thai il the <lof; is iie( cssai y lor iiian, iiiaii is no less 
necessary lor the ilof^'. Wilhonl lunnan societ \ , hiiinan guidance, and 
hiiinaii inh^the dn^', in a lew {;i'iieial ions, displays all ihe. vices ol bis 
wullisli prof^eniUns. 



^^ 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE WEASELS, OTTERS AND SKUNKS. 

TUB MARTKNS — TUP, SABLE— TIIK AMKRICAN SAllMt— Till'. III.ACK CAT — TUB I'OM'.rAT — TUB 
EltMlNB — TIIK NEW YOKK KRMINE — TIIK I'KKKUTS — THE MINK — IIIK WKASI'.I.S — THE WOI,- 
VKKI'.NK — THE OTTI'.KS — I'mC CANADA OTTICR— TIIIC CALIFORNIA OllKR — HIE SUA Dl'll'.R — TIIK 
IIRA/.II.IAN OTTER — ITIK CIIINKSK OirHR— THE IIADCI'.RS— I 111'. AMI'RICAN IIADOI'.R — THE 
TKIl'.DU— THE RATKI. -THE SKUNKS — THE ZOKILI.A— ITIK SIIKII.IIO— ITIK COMMON SKUNK — 
THE NYENTEK. 

TIIR family of the MiiSTKl.inyn: may be divided conveniently into 
tiircc sub-fainilics, tiic MusTKLlN.l':, containing the Weasels and 
CJluttons, the LtJ'iKlN/K, containinjj^ the Otters, and the Mi:i,l 
NIN/TJ, containinff the IJadgcrs and Skunks. The family compri.ses 
twcnty-cif^lit fjenera and ninety-two species, of which we shall nientior 
the most interesting. 

THE MARTENS. 

The hifrhest i)osilIon !n this siili-family is held by the Martens, sicn. 
der, short-lcfTf^ed animals with a pointed head, round ears, and moderate 
size. 13y many writers the genera Martcs and Mustela arc united into one. 



GENUS MARTES. 

This genus, comprising the Martens proper, is distinguished by pos- 
sessing thirty-eight teeth. The two species ff)und in the TJuitcd States 
are i>laced by Haird in the Mustelic. 

The I'iNii Marten, Martcs abictttm (i'latc XIX), is a very pretty 
active creature, with a body measuring eighteen inches to two feet, and 
a tail about f)ne foot in length. In luiro|)e it is found in .Scandinavia, 
Russia, F-lngland, Germany, 1'' ranee, Italy, and Sjjuin ; and in Asia, as far 
as the Altai Mountains. The largest specimens dwell in Sweden, and 



294 CARNIVORA. 

their fur is of extraordinary thickness. The color docs not vary essen- 
tially, being <rcncrally brown, with a yellowish tinge in Spain and Italy, 
and a gray hue in Sweden. 

riie I'nie Marten is so called because it is generally found in those 
localities where the pine-trees abound. It is a shy and wary animal, and 
although fierce when brought to bay, naturally shuns collision with an 
enemy. It traverses the trunks and branches with wonderful address and 
activity, being enabled by its rapid and silent movements to steal im- 
noticed on many an unfortunate bird, and to seize it in its deadly gripe 
before the victim can take llight. It is very fond of appropriating to its 
own use the nests of crows and other birds, and sometimes occupies the 
habitation ofa squirrel which it has previously killed. Its fur is valuable, 
and little inferior to that of the Sable. 

The Bkkcii Martkn, A/i/r/rs fni/nr, is distinguished by the white tint 
of the fur on the throat and breast, and by its habit of prowling about 
human habitations. It is more easily domesticated than the Tine 
Marten, which in other respects it closely resembles. 

The odor si'creted by the inguinal glands of these two species is of a 
musky, not olTensivc, odor, and hence they are called in England Sweet- 
martens, to distinguish them from the Foul-martens or Polecats. 

The Saiu.e, Martis zibcllina (Plate XIX), has large ears, long legs, 
and a brilliant, silky lur, and is found from the Ural Mountains to 
Behring Straits. It lives near the banks of rivers in burrows among 
the roots of trees, or in hollow trees ; its food in summer consists of 
hares and small animals, in winter it is said to feed on wild berries. 

The value of its fur has induced a constant pursuit of the Sable, and 
as it is most valuable when the animal is captured in winter, the hard- 
ships to be undergone by the hunter are very great. The Sables are 
taken in various modes. Sometimes they are captured in traps, which 
are formed in order to secure the animal without damaging its fur. 
Sometimes they are fairly hunted down by means of tlu' tracks which 
their little feet leave in the white snow, and are traced to their domicile. 
A net is then placed over the orifice, and by means of a certain pungent 
smoke which is thrown into the cavity, the inhabitant is forced to rush 
into the open air, and is entangled in the net. The hunters are forced to 
support themselves on the soft yielding surface of the snow by wearing 
"snow-shoes," or they would be lost in the deep drifts which are per- 
fectly capable of supporting so light and active an animal as that they 



THE POLECATS. 295 

are following. The Sable measures about eighteen inches in length, and 
an ordinary skin is worth thirty to thirty-five dollars ; one of the very 
best quality, however, will bring si.xty to seventy-five dollars. 

The American Sable, Martes Americana, varies a good deal in color, 
but is usually of a dull grayish-brown, which becomes darker in winter. 
It is shy, cruel, cunning and active, but does not approach the habitations 
of man. It is found in the wooded districts of the northern parts of 
America, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the 68th to the 40th degree 
of latitude. It is considered by Audubon identical with the European 
Pine Marten. 

The Black Cat or Fisher, Martes Pennaniii, has long canine teeth, 
and indeed its head resembles that of a dog more than that of a cat; the 
fur is chestnut-brown, with whitish hairs interspersed, which mixture of 
tints produces a hoary appearance. It is rare in the Northern and East- 
ern States, but is still met in the thinly settled portions. It obtains its 
name of " Fisher " from its singular fondness for the fish used to bait 
traps; it is a formidable enemy to the raccoon and the squirrel, and often 
pursues the American Sable. When attacked by dogs it makes a more 
desperate resistance than either the gray or the red fox. It is the 
largest of the Martens. 

The WOODCIIUCX, Maries Canadensis, is of some value on account of 
its fur, which is of a grayish-brown color. It lives in burrows on the 
banks of streams, its food consisting of fish and animals which live near 
water. 

GENUS PUTORIUS. 

This genus comprises the Foumarts or Polecats, and they differ from 
the Martens not only by giving out an offensive odor, but by possessing 
gnly thirty-four teeth. 

The Polecat, Putorius fcstidus (Plate XIX), is bold and blood- 
thirsty, destroying remorsely everything it can ; it sucks the blood of its 
victims and eats their brains, leaving the body untouched. Its fur is 
often fraudulently sold for sable, but is most valued for the manufacture 
of artists' brushes which are made from the long, sharp, brown hairs 
which protrude through the creature's woolly coat. 

It is a determined foe to game, ravages poultry-yards, and attacks 
even frogs, newts, and fish ; large stores of eels have been found in the 



296 CARNIVORA. 

larder of the Polecat, and the nests of the wild bees are not safe from the 
intrusions of this daring plunderer. 

The Ferret, Putorius furo (Plate XIX), is an African polecat, and 
requires, in England, where it is used in rabbit-hunting, to be preserved 
carefully from cold or frost. One variety is of a creamy white color, with 
bright pink eyes, another, produced by crossing with the Polecat, is 
darker and fiercer. 

When used for hunting rabbits, it is usually muzzled before it is sent 
into the burrow, for if its teeth were at liberty, it would kill the first 
rabbit it met, and remain sucking its blood. It is a very fierce animal, 
and apt to turn on its owner. A tame one has been known to attack a 
child in the cradle, mangling it terribly. 

The Ermine or Stoat, Putorius crminms (Plate XIX), is larger than 
the Weasel. It is a determined hunter, and tolerably swift, possessing 
good powers of scent, and singular endurance. It has, however, obtained 
its fame from the beauty of its fur. In summer its coat is of a reddish- 
brown, not quite so ruddy as that of the weasel, but in winter it becomes 
entirely white, with the exception of the tail, two-thirds of which remain 
black. Two explanations of this change of color have been given. One 
is that new and white hairs are produced in autumn to supply the place 
of the falling brown ones. The other, which is now generally accepted, 
is that the summer hairs become blanched. 

The hairs are not entirely white, even in their most completely 
blanched state, but partake of a very delicate cream-yellow, especially 
upon the under portions, while the slightly bushy tip of the tail remains 
in its original black tinting, and presents a singular contrast to the 
remainder of the fur. In temperate latitudes, the Stoat is never suf- 
ficiently blanched to render its fur of any commercial value, and the hair 
appears to be longer, thicker, and whiter in proportion to the degree of 
latitude in which the animal has been taken. As may be supposed, from 
the extreme delicacy of the skin in its wintry whiteness, the capture of 
the Stoat for the purpose of obtaining its fur is a matter of no small dif- 
ficulty. The traps which are used for the purpose of destroying the 
Stoat are formed so as to kill the animal by a sudden blow, without 
wounding the skin ; and many of the beautiful little creatures are taken 
in ordinary snares. 

The Ermine is extensively diffused over the northern regions of the 
Old World ; the colder the climate is, the more valuable the fur becomes, 



THE ERMINE. 297 

and hence the most valuable specimens come from Siberia, whence about 
400,000 pelts are annually sent to market. 

The New York Ermine, Putoriiis Noveboracensis, is called also the 
White, and the Common Weasel. It is found as far south as Pennsylvania. 
It differs from the European Ermine, the tail not being so long, but the 
hair very long and bushy. It does not change the color of its coat in 
winter. 

Kane's Ermine, Putorius Kaneii, was so named by Baird in honor of 
the Arctic explorer, Dr. Kane. Its length to the tail is about eight 
inches, the tail vertebras about one-sixth of this length. In summer it is 
brown, in winter, white. It is smaller than the European Ermine, but 
has a longer tail, and the black color in place of occupying two-thirds, 
takes up only one-half of that appendage. 

The Little Nimble Weasel, Putorius agilis, is light, slender, and 
graceful ; it is smaller than the Ermine, but stands higher in proportion, 
and has more prominent ears. In summer the color of the fur on the 
upper portion is light-brown, on the belly and throat white ; in winter, 
the whole body is pure white, except an inch and three-quarters of black 
at the tip of the tail. The specimen described by Audubon was obtained 
in the northern part of New York ; its burrow was situated on a 
high ridge of pine-land, and had a very narrow entranct. It feeds 
upon the meadow mouse, the little chipping squirrel, and other small 
animals. 

The Tawny Weasel, Putorius fuscus, is more robust than the Euro- 
pean Weasel, and is of a uniform tawny brown color. It does not 
change color in winter. It is found in the States of New York, Ohio, 
and Michigan. 

The Mink, Putorius vison, is of a brown color, with some white 
about the jaws ; but both the color and the size vary considerably. It 
lives by the banks of ponds or marshes, and its food is chiefly aquatic. 
In shape it assumes something of the Otter aspect. Its fur is excellent 
in quality, and as it bears a great resemblance to the sable, it is often 
substituted for that article. 

The Small Weasel, Putorius pusillus, is the smallest of our native 
species ; it has a very short tail, without the black tip common to other 
species. It is very like the common weasel, but smaller. 

The Yellow-Cheeked Weasel, Piitorius xanthogcnys, is found only 
in California ; it derives its specific name from three yellow patches on 
38 



298 CARNIVORA. 

the cheeks. The back and sides are brown, the abdomen slightly duller 
in tint. 

The Small Brown Weasel, Putorius cicogtianii, is common in New 
England. It is brown above, and white beneath, the tail has a black tip, 
and is one-filth the length of the body. 

Richardson's Weasel, Putorius Richardsonii, has smaller feet, higher 
ears, and a longer tail than the preceding species. Its summer coat is 
dark-brown ; its winter raiment white. The hair on the tail does not 
form a brush. 

The Bridled Weasel, Putorius frenatus, is found in Texas, and per- 
haps extends into Mexico. It has a yellowish patch on its forehead, and 
another just in front of each ear. 

The Black-footed Ferret, Putorius Nigripes, is, according to 
Audubon, the size of the Marten ; the tail is one-third of the length of 
the body ; the feet, tip of tail, and forehead are black. 



GENUS MUSTELA. 

The Weasel, Mustcla vulgaris (Plate XIX), does not exceed ten 
inches in length over all ; the color is a reddish-brown on the upper part 
of the body, but the under portions are pure white. It is one of the 
most audacious of animals, and will attack anything, however superior 
in size ; it is a terrible foe to rats and mice, and in this respect makes 
some atonement for the chickens it occasionally kills. It hunts by scent 
and will even cross water in the chase. When it reaches its prey, it fixes 
its teeth in the back of the neck and drives them into the brain. 

Weasels will unite their forces, and act in concert to repel a foe. It 
is reported that a powerful man was so worn out with his exertions in 
keeping off his assailants, that he would soon have sunk under their 
united attacks had he not been rescued by the timely assistance of a 
horseman who happened to pass near the spot, and who came to the 
rescue with his whip. Urged by their bloodthirsty instinct, the Weasels 
all directed their efforts to the throat, and made their attacks in such 
rapid succession that their opponent was solely occupied in tearing 
away the active little creatures and flinging them on the ground, with- 
out being permitted the necessary leisure for killing or maiming Lii per- 
tinacious and undaunted antagonists. 



THE WOLVERENE. 299 



GENUS GULO. 

This genus is represented by one species, which keeps to the cold 
regions of Europe and Asia, and on this continent comes as far south as 
the Great Lakes. 

The Wolverene, G21I0 luscus (Plate XX), has a strong compact 
body, a short tail, which is very bushy, a thick short neck, large head 
and short legs. Sometimes it attains the length of three feet. Old 
naturalists gave this animal the name of Glutton, and told marvellous 
stories respecting its voracity ; in fact it has been known in captivity 
to eat thirteen pounds of meat in a day. 

The general aspect of this animal is not unlike that of a young bear, 
and probably on that account it was placed by Linnasus among the bears 
under the title of Ursus Luscus. The general color of the Wolverene is 
a brownish-black ; the muzzle is black as far as the eyebrows, the space 
between the eyes of a brownish hue. In some specimens, a few white 
spots are scattered upon the under jaw. The sides of the body are 
washed with a tint of a warmer color. The paws are quite black, and 
the contrast between the jetty fur of the feet and the almost ivory white- 
ness of the claws is extremely curious. These white claws are much 
esteemed among the natives of Siberia for use in manufacturing certain 
feminine adornments. 

The Wolverene is specially obnoxious to hunters, as it takes the bait 
from their traps, and discovers the stores of provisions that they have 
cached or hidden as they advanced, and on which they depend for suste- 
nance on their return. 



GENUS GALICTIS. 

The two species of this genus are confined to tropical America, and 
differ very little in their habits or modes of life. 

The Grison or Huron, Galictis vittata, is found in Brazil and Para- 
guay. Its color is peculiar, being lighter on the back than on the belly 
the latter being of a dullish black color, the former covered with a gray 
fur. The ears of this species are very small, and the tongue is rough. 
The hairs which give the distinctive coloring to the upper parts of the 
Grison are longer than those which cover the remaining portions of the 



300 CARNIVORA. 

body and the limbs. In total length it measures about two feet, the tail 
being rather more than six inches in length ; the neck is very long and 
snake-like. All its movements are brisk and cheerful. 

The odor which proceeds from the scent-glands of the Grison is 
peculiarly disgusting, and offends human nostrils even more than that of 
the stoat and polecat. 

The Tayra, Galictis barbara, is of a uniform black color, with the 
exception of a large white patch on the throat and chest. It is often 
called the Great Weasel, and is nearly the size of the Common Marten. 

THE OTTERS. 

The next sub-family, the Lutrince, is divided by some authorities into 
ten genera, by others only into tJircc. All are characterized by a long 
body, small prominent eyes, short round ears, and webbed feet, and all 
inhabit rivers and lakes, or seas. They are all excellent swimmers, and 
can remain a long time under water. 



GENUS LUTRA. 

The Common Otter, Lutra vulgaris, is found in all parts of Europe 
and Northern Asia. In India and China it is represented by allied genera. 

This aquatic weasel is a terrible foe to fish, being quite as destructive 
in the water as any polecat or stoat is on the land. 

For the pursuit of its finny prey the Otter is admirably adapted by 
nature. The body is lithe and serpentine ; the feet are furnished with a 
broad web that connects the toes and is of infinite service in propelling 
the animal through the water ; the tail is long, broad, and flat, proving a 
powerful and effectual rudder by which its movements are directed ; and 
the short, powerful legs are so loosely jointed that the animal can turn 
them in almost any direction. The hair which covers the body and 
limbs is of two kinds, the one a close, fine, and soft fur, which lies next 
the skin and serves to protect the animal from the extremes of heat and 
cold, and the other composed of long, shining, and coarser hairs, which 
permit the animal to glide easily through the water. The teeth are 
sharp and strong, and are admirably adapted for preventing the slippery 
prey from escaping. 

The color of the Otter varies slightly according to the light in which 



THE OTTERS 3OI 

it is viewed, but is generally of a rich brown tint, intermixed with 
whitish-gray. This color is lighter along the back and the outside of 
the legs than on the other parts of the body, which are ot a paler grayish 
hue. Its habitation is made in the bank of the river which it frequents, 
and is rather inartificial in its character, as the creature is fonder of 
occupying some natural crevice or deserted excavation than of digging 
a burrow for itself. The nest of the Otter is composed of dry rushes, 
flags, or other aquatic plants, and is purposely placed as near the water 
as possible, without danger of being inundated. 

The Otter can be easily trained to hunt for its master. In the East 
Indies tame otters are nearly as common as tame dogs with us ; and in 
Germany and England many tame otters have been described. 

The mode of instruction which is followed in the education of the 
Otter is sufficiently simple. The creature is by degrees weaned from its 
usual fish diet, and taught to live almost wholly on bread and milk ; the 
onlv fish-like article which it is permitted to see being a leathern cari- 
cature of the finny race, with which the young Otter is habituated to 
play, as a kitten plays with a crumpled paper or a cork, which does tem- 
porary duty for a mouse. When the animal has accustomed itself to 
chase and catch the artificial fish, and to give it into the hand of its 
master, the teacher extends his instructions by drawing the leathern 
image smartly into the water by means of a string, and encouraging his 
pupil to plunge into the stream after the lure and bring it ashore. As 
soon as the young Otter yields the leathern prey, it is rewarded by some 
dainty morsel which its teacher is careful to keep at hand, and soon 
learns to connect the two circumstances together. 

The North American Otter, Liitra Canadensis (Plate XX), diflfers 
from the European Otter by the large size of the naked muzzle and by 
the skull. It is now exceedingly scarce, and is hunted for its highly 
prized fur. There are two kinds of this fur, an under coat, very fine and 
soft, and an outer one, long, coarse, and shining. Audubon tamed sev- 
eral Otters that had the run of his library, and used to climb into his lap. 

It is very shy, building its dwelling close to the banks of a running 
stream. It has a most remarkable habit of " coasting." In winter it 
selects a high bank of snow, and slides down it head-foremost ; in summer 
it indulges in the same game on a steep river bank ending in deep water. 
Audubon saw two Otters make twenty-two descents in succession on 
one of these slides without intermission. 



302 CARNIVORA. 

The California Otter, Liitra Califomica, differs from the Canadian, 
by possessing a shorter muzzle. It is about four and a half feet long ; the 
color above is liver-brown, the under surface of the throat a dirty-white. 
The ears are small, pointed and high, and the hind feet rather larger than 
the fore feet. Its habits are the same as those of other otters. 



GENUS ENHYDRIS. 

The Sea Otter, or Kalan, Ejihydris marina (Plate XX), the oiily 
species of the genus, prefers sea-water to fresh for the greater part of the 
year. It is very much larger than its fresh-water relations, being rather 
more than twice the size of the common Otter, and weighing as much as 
seventy or eighty pounds. During the colder months of the year, the 
Kalan dwells by the sea-shores, and is found upon the coasts of the 
Northern Pacific, where it is active in the capture of marine fish. When 
the warmer months begin, the Sea Otter leaves the coasts, and in com- 
pany with its mate proceeds up the rivers until it reaches the fresh- 
water lakes. There it remains until the lessening warmth gives warning 
for it to make its retreat seawards before the frosts seal up the waters. 

It is a scarce animal, and is not prolific. The fur of the Kalan is 
extremely beautiful, shining with a glossy velvet-like sheen, and very 
warm m character. It is, in consequence, valued at a very high price 
The color of the fur is rather variable, but its general hue is a rich black, 
slightly tinged with brown on the upper portions of the body, while the 
under portions of the body and the limbs are of a lighter hue. In some 
specimens the head is nearly white, and in one or two instances the white 
tinge extends as far as the neck. Indeed, the proportions of dark and 
white fur differ in almost every individual. 

All the Otters are long-bodied and short-limbed, but in the Kalan 
this peculiarity is very conspicuous on account of the comparative short- 
ness of the tail, which is barely seven inches in length • while the body 
measures three feet on the average. 

GENUS LONTRA. 

This genus contains three species, of which we mention the most 
characteristic. 



'"^' w 




THE SAND BEAR. 303 

The Arrianha, Lontra Brasiliensis, differs from the Common Otter 
very slightly, but is considerably larger ; the head is rounder and the tail 
is sharply flattened vertically. It fishes in bands of considerable num- 
bers. Although it prefers a fish diet, yet it has been known to kill 
geese when swimming in a pond. It betrays a determined hostility to 
dogs, and attacks any that straggle from the hunter's camp. 

According to Azara, " this species lives in troops, which rising to the 
surface of the water, bark like dogs. Each family possesses a separate 
domain, and spends as much time on the water as it does on land. Its 
motions are slow, and it drags its belly along the ground." It is found 
in the Amazon aad other rivers of Brazil. 



GENUS AONYX. 

The five species of the genus are from Africa and Eastern Asia. 

The Chinese or Javanese Otter, Aonyx Icptonyx, is somewhat 
small, measuring only about three feet. Its color is tawny rather than 
brown, and the whiskers are strongly developed. When wild it is very 
ferocious, but when taken young is gentle and tractable, and in China 
and Java is kept in many houses. Its voice is said to resemble that of a 
person crying in pain or grief 

THE BADGERS. 

Our third sub-family, the Mclinincs, comprises the Badgers, Ratels, 
and the unsavory and dreaded Skunks. 



GENUS ARCTONYX. 

The Sand Bear, Arctonyx collaris, the only species, has longer legs, 
and a more hog-like snout than the common Badger. Its color is of a 
yellowish-white, marked with two black bands that run on each side of 
the head, uniting at the muzzle ; the toes are united for their entire 
length, and are armed with powerful claws. It is a fierce animal, and 
when attacked stands up like a bear, and fights with its fore limbs. It is 
found in the East Indies, and is sometimes called the Indian Badger. 
The native name is Balisaur, or " Sand Hog." 



304 CARNIVORA. 



GENUS MELES. 

The four species of this genus are found from the Atlantic Ocean to 
Japan, and as far south as Hong Kong in China. 

The Badger, Mcles taxtis (Plate XX), is a quiet inoffensive crea- 
ture, slow and clumsy in its movements, and awkward in its gait. Its 
colors are gray, black and white ; the head is white with a broad black 
line on each side, the body is gray, the chest and abdomen, legs and feet 
are of a deep blackish-brown. Its average length is two feet six. 

It lives in a long and tortuous burrow, which it digs with great 
rapidity, using its nose to push aside the earth, which is then flung back- 
ward by its paws. It has long and sharp teeth, and a peculiar arrange- 
ment of the jaws by which they lock and remain closed without farther 
effort ; its bite is therefore very severe. The word " Badger " is old 
English for a corn-dealer, and the animal has got this title because it is 
accused by ignorant persons of injuring the crops of wheat and oats ; 
but far from causing injury, it is benefiting the farmer by its pursuit of 
mice and the larvae of insects. It is said to be bolder and fiercer in the 
steppes of Asia, where it ventures to attack calves and sheep. At the 
end of autumn the Badger retires to his burrow, makes a thick, warm 
bed, and rolls himself up for his winter sleep. This is not continuous ; 
he awakens at any spell of fiae weather, and leaves his den to get a 
drink. In Germany the Dachshund is used to drive him from his hole, 
in which operation the dog often suffers severely, owing to the fierce 
bite of the inhabitant. A Badger will receive without injury the most 
violent blows on the body, but one stroke on the nose kills him. 



GENUS TAXIDEA. 

The tivo species of this genus are both North American. They have 
short, low bodies, short tails, large claws, and pointed skulls. 

The Mexican Badger, Taxidea Berlandieri, differs slightly from the 
following species, the most noticeable variation being in the continuation 
of the white line on the head to the root of the tail. 

The American Badger, Taxidea Labradoria, has one tooth less on 
each side in the lower jaw than the European Badger. The body is 



THE TELEDU. 305 

thick, heavy, flat and broad, and is covered in winter with a dense fur 
three inches long, of a hoary -gray appearance ; in summer the hairs be- 
come shorter and approach to yellowish-brown ; the coat in summer 
may be best described as hairy, but in winter, as woolly. 

This Badger may be distinguished from that of Europe by its hairy 
muzzle, stout fore-limbs, strong claws, and conical head. It attains a 
length of about two feet and a half. 



GENUS MYDAUS. 

This Asiatic genus is represented by one species, which is nearly as 
offensive as our native Skunk. 

The Teledu, Mydaus meliceps, is a native of Java, and is confined to 
the mountainous districts where the earth is light, and hunting for 
underground insects proportionately easy. Horsfield writes: 

" The Mydaus forms its dwelhng at a slight depth beneath the sur- 
face, in the black moi'ld, with considerable ingenuity. Having selected 
a spot defended above by the roots of a large tree, it constructs a cell or 
chamber of a globular form, having a diameter of several feet, the sides 
of which it makes perfectly smooth and regular ; this it provides with a 
subterraneous conduit or avenue, about six feet in length, the external 
entrance to which it conceals with twigs and dry leaves. During the 
day it remains concealed, like a badger in its hole ; at night it proceeds 
in search of its food, which consists of insects and other larvee, and of 
worms of every kind. It is particularly fond of the common lumbrici, or 
earthworms, which abound in the fertile mould. These animals, agree- 
ably to the information of the natives, live in pairs, and the female pro 
duces two or three young at a birth. 

" The motions of the Mydaus are slow, and it is easily taken by the 
natives, who by no means fear it. During my abode on the Mountain 
Prahu, I engaged them to procure me individuals for preparation ; and 
as they received a desirable reward, they brought them to me daily in 
greater numbers than I could employ. Whenever the natives surprise 
them suddenly, they prepare them for food ; the flesh is then scarcely 
impregnated with the offensive odor, and is described as very delicious. 
The animals are generally in excellent condition, as their food is found 
in abundance in the fertile mould ol the country. 
39 



306 CARNIVORA. 

Like the skunk, it can eject a most offensive fluid. " On the Moun- 
tain Prahu, the natives, who were most active in supplying me with 
specimens of the Mydaus, assured me that it could only propel it to the 
distance of about two feet. The fetid matter itself is of a viscid nature : 
its effects depend on its great volatility, and they spread through a great 
extent. The entire neighborhood is infected by the odor of an irritated 
Teledu, and in the immediate vicinity of the discharge it will produce 
syncope. 

" The color of the Teledu is a blackish-brown, with the exception of 
the fur upon the top of the head, a stripe along the back, and the tip of 
the short tail, which is a yellowish-white. The under surface of the 
body is of a lighter hue. The fur is long and of a silken texture at the 
base, and closely set together, so as to afford to the animal the warm 
covering which is needed in the elevated spots where it dwells. The 
hair is especially long on the sides of the neck, and curls slightly up- 
wards and backwards, and on the top of the head there is a small trans- 
verse crest. The feet are large, and the claws of the fore limbs are 
nearly twice as long as those of the hinder paws. In the whole aspect ot 
the Teledu there is a great resemblance to the badger, and, indeed, the 
animal looks very like a miniature badger, of rather eccentric colors." 



GENUS MELLIVORA. 

The three species of this genus inhabit tropical and South Africa and 
India to the foot of the Himalayas. The animals contained in them have 
short noses, short tails, and broad backs, and only thirty-two teeth. 

The Ratel, Mcllivora capcnsis (Plate XIX), loves to feed on the 
combs and young of the honey-bee. As it is exposed to the attacks of 
these infuriated insects, it has received from nature a thick, coarse, and 
rough fur, which is impenetrable to their stings. It digs with great skill 
and sinks into the ground in a few minutes. 

The color of the Ratel is black upon the muzzle, the limbs, and the 
whole of the under portions of the body ; but upon the upper part of the 
head, neck, back, ribs, and tail, the animal is furnished with a thick 
covering of long hairs, which are of an ashy-gray color. A bright gray 
stripe, about an inch in width, runs along each side, and serves as a line 
of demarcation between the light and the dark portions of the fur. The 



THE SKUNKS. 307 

ears of the Ratel are extremely short. The lighter tur of the back is 
variously tinted in different individuals, some being of the whitish-gray 
which has been already mentioned, and others remarkable for a decided 
tinge of red. The length of the Cape Ratel is rather more than three 
feet, inclusive of the tail, which is about eight inches in length. 

In captivity the Ratel is very lively and amusing. The writer has 
often watched one in the Zoological Gardens in London, and can con- 
firm the account given by Wood in his Natural History. 

" In the enclosure that has been allotted to this animal, the Ratel has, 
by dint of constantly running in the same direction, made for itself an 
oval path among the straw that is laid upon the ground. It proceeds 
over the course which it has worked out, in a quick active trot, and every 
time that it reaches either end of the course, it puts its head on the 
ground, turns a complete summersault, and resumes its course. At in- 
tervals, it walks into its bath, rolls about in the water for a second or 
two, and then addresses itself with renewed vigor to its curious 
antics." 

GENUS ICTONYX. 

The two species which have been formed into this genus are natives 
of Africa, and have a remarkable dentition, while in skeleton they seem 
to be midway between the Martens and the Skunks proper. 

The ZORILLA, Ictonyx capcnsis, or Zorilla striata, is found throughout 
Africa, and even m Asia Minor. The Dutch of the Cape style it the 
muislinnd or " mousedog," an honorable title given it, because it destroys 
so many of those little rodents. It is somewhat inactive, and avoids 
water whenever it can, although it is an excellent swimmer when forced 
to take to the water. 

The color of specimens of this animal vary considerably, but they all 
have the same marks. In some, a broad white transverse band crosses 
the back of the head, from it four longitudinal bands run down the back, 
separated by three black stripes ; the two outer white stripes are pro- 
longed on the tail. In others, the whole back is white, with the three 
black longitudinal stripes. 

The Zorilla emits an obnoxious odor which it uses like the skunk, and 
drives dogs and hunters to ignominious flight. The very touch of a dead 
Zorilla leaves a permanent odor on whatever has been in contact with it. 



308 CARNIVORA. 



GENUS MEPHITIS. 

Wc cannot affirm that any member of the Mustelidae is truly sweet- 
smelling ; we have described the Foumart and Polecat, the Teledu and 
tlic Zoriila, but what are they beside our native Skunk? The animals 
lorming tiie tivclvc species ol this genus are exclusively American, and 
are found from Canada to the Straits of Magellan. They are distin- 
guished from their nearest relations, the Badgers, by a slenderer body, 
a long bushy tail, a black ground color, with white marks. The head is 
small, tlic nose hairless and thick, the eyes small and sharp, the ears 
short and round, the legs are sliorf, the feet large, witii live toes pro- 
vided with long weak claws. The number of teeth is thirty-two. Kach 
of tiie mepiiitic glands contains a space the size of a nut, and is provided 
witli a strong muscle. Tliis space is filled with an oil-like fluid, which 
by contracting the muscle can be ejected in a narrow stream which is 
gradually resolved into si)ray. The odor is stronger when tlie animals 
are old, especially with the male sex. 

The SuklLllo, ATc'p/iitis suffoctuis, inhabits Brazil, and attains a length 
of sixteen inches in the body. The hair is thick, long, and abundant; it 
is short on the snout, but gradually grows longer till it attains a length 
of nearly three inches on the tail. Two white stripes run from a point 
on the forehead to the root of the tail, at times widening so that the 
space between them is reduced to a mere line; the tail has a white tip. 

The Suriliio lives in tlie plains, and avoids the thick jjrimeval forest, 
haunting the clumps of trees that are found in the campos. Its presence 
can be discovered by a small funnel-shaped hole which it makes in the 
ground. It is a nocturnal animal, and lives on insects. 



THE SKUNK. 

The Common Skunk, Mephitis mcphitica (Plate XIX), has a broad 
fleshy body, with a small head and short legs. This species varies so 
much in color, that there is some difficulty in finding two specimens 
alike, but, speaking generally, we may say that there is a narrow white 
stripe commencing on the nose and running to a point on the top of the 
head ; a patch of white, two inches in length, covers the upper part of 



Tllli SKUNK. 309 

the neck; on each side of the vertcbnc of the tail tlicrc is a wliite 
longitudinal stripe, and the tail is broadly lipped with white; on every 
otlier part of the body the color is blackish-brown. 

The Skunk is neither shy nor timid, and walks slowly as if conscious 
that nothing dare molest it. Wlien surprised, it quickly makes use of 
its natural weapon of defence, and generally to the discomfiture of its 
enemy. 

" It happened in our early school-boy days," writes Audubon, " that 
we ol)served in our path a pretty little animal, playful as ;i kitten, throw- 
ing up its busily tail, and seetiiingly (iesinms to keep c(jinjjany with us. 
It makes no effort to escape, we run towards it, it waits for us, and raises 
its tail as if inviting us to take hold of its brush. We seize it instanter, 
and grasp it with the energy of a miser clutching a box of diamonds, a 
short struggle ensues, when — faugh ! we are suffocated, our eyes, nose, 
and face arc suddenly Ijcspattered with the nifist horribly fetid Ikiid ! " 
The oflensive odor often produces sickness and vomiting, and is of an 
acrid character. Ur. Richardson states that he knew several Indians 
who lost their eyesight in consequence of the inflammation produced by 
it. A dog, when he has received the discharge, seems half distracted, 
plunging his nose into the earth and rolling in every direction, and the 
eyes have been swollen and inflamed for a week afterward. The vSkunk 
can eject this nauseous fluid with unerring aim to a distance of upwards 
of fourteen feet; it is a thin transparent fluid scarcely visible by day, but 
at night resembles an attenuated stream of ]jliosphoric light. Every- 
thing on which it falls is tainted for a considerable time, if not forever; 
clothes that nave once been infected will, after every effort has been 
made to purify them, give out the sickening effluviuin if the wearer in- 
cautiously comes near the fire. It has been sometimes used as a medicine 
in cases of asthma, but the verdict of the patient generally is, that the 
remedy is worse than the disease. 

The Skunk has a bad character among the farmers, and destroys 
aargc numbers of eggs, but he is too clumsy to do much damage. 

The burrows of the Skunk are found on a flat surface, and seldom 
possess more than one entrance ; the gallery runs about seven or eight 
feet in a straight line, about two feet beneath the surface, and ends in a 
large excavation cf)ntaining an immense nest of leaves. During winter, 
five to fifteen individuals may be found in these burrows ready to defend 
themselves by the means with which Nature has provided them. 



310 CARNIVORA. 

The Skunk in the Northern States retires to its burrow about 
December, and remains there till February ; during this period of 
inaction he is dull and sluggish, but certainly not asleep. In the South 
he prowls actively about, " steahng, and giving odor." 

When taken young, and the glands removed early, the Skunk is 
easily tamed, and becomes an interesting pet, keeping its fur exceed- 
ingly clean and smooth. 

The L.\RGE-TAILED Skunk, Mcphitis viacroura differs from the com- 
mon Skunk in the length of its tail, and in its markings. It is the size 
of the common cat, of a brownish-black color, with a white stripe on 
each side of the back, and on the forehead ; and the tail is longer than 
the body. This species is very common in Texas, where its tail is used 
by the country-folk as a plume or feather in their hats. 

This species exists on the western ranges of the mountains in Mexico, 
in New Mexico, and the western parts of Te.xas. 

The California Skunk, Mephitis occidcntalis, has an oval spot of white 
on the forehead, and a large spot on each temple, with four interrupted 
white stripes on the sides and back, the tail being tipped with white. 

The Texan Skunk, Mephitis mesoleuca, is distinguished from the 
Common Skunk by having the nose naked for about three-fourths of an 
inch above the snout. The whole back from the forehead to the tail, and 
the tail, is white, the whole of the under surface of the body is black. 

This species is not met in any portion of the United States north of 
Texas, but seems to represent in that .State the common Skunk. 



GENUS HELICTIS. 

The four species of this genus are found in Eastern Asia, from Nepaul 
to Java, Formosa and Shanghai. 

The Nyentek, Helietis Nepaulcnsis, has been described by Horsfield. 
The body is about sixteen inches in length, the tail about six ; the color 
is a grayish-brown, with white markings, the ears are large, and the eyes 
prominent. Little is known of the habits of this creature, but Horsfield 
supposes they resemble those of the Ratel. 



CHAPTER XV. 
THE RACOONS AND PANDAS. 

THE COMMON RACOON — THE CRAB-EATING RACOON — THE CALIFORNIA COON — THE COATI — THK 
RED COATI — THE WHITE COATI — THE KINKAJOU — THE AMERICAN CIVET OR MOUNTAIN CAT^ 
THE PANDA OR WAH. 

THE family ProcyoniD/E are a small but interesting family of 
bear-like quadrupeds, ranging from British Columbia to Para- 
guay and the tropical forests to the south thereof. It embraces 
fotcr genera, all peculiar to the New World. 



I.— GENUS PROCYON. 

This genus is usually considered to be represented by only one 
species, but at least the varieties inhabiting South America are so well 
defined as to deserve the dignity of species. The animals in this genus 
are characterized by the following marks. The body is compact, the 
head very broad posteriorly, the muzzle short, the eyes large and close 
together, the ears large and on the side of the head, the legs high and 
thin, the soles of the feet naked with moderately long toes and strong 
claws ; the tail is long, the fur rich, long and smooth. 

The Racoon, Procyon lotor (Plate XXI), derives its specific title of 
"Lofor" or "Washer" from its habit of immersing its food before eating: 
it grasps the morsel in both fore-paws, and shakes it violently backward 
and forward in the water. 

The general tint of the body and limbs is an undecided blackish-gray, 
the gray or black predominating according to the position of the ob- 
server and the arrangement of the fur. The hairs that form the coat of 
the Racoon are of two kinds, the one of a soft and woolly character, 
lying next to the skin, and the other composed of long and rather stiff 



313 CARNIVORA. 

hairs tliat project through the wool for some distance. The woolly tin- 
is of a unilonn gray, while the longer hairs arc alternately markctl wilh 
blark and grayish-wliite. Upon tlic toj) of the head and across the eyes 
the fur is of a very dark blackish-brown ; and upon the knee-joint of each 
leg the fur is of a darker tint than on the rest of the body. The tail is 
rather short and bushy in cliaracler, and is marked with live or six 
blackish rings on a dark gray ground, it is ni)cturnal in its habits, ami 
when standing is plantigrade, tiiat is, it stands on the soles of its feet, but 
it runs on the tips of its toes. It hibernates in winter. 

It eats anything, fruit, clu-stuuts, grapis, corn, and birds, and is very 
skiihd in sucking eggs; it devours iish, crabs, and oj'sters, as well as in- 
sects. In captivity it shows a propensity for intoxicating liquors. 
Lawsoii, the surveyor-general of Carolina, in 17S4, says, "It is the 
drunkcnest creatuii' living, if he I'an get anv liipior that is sweet ami 
strong." 

in s\/.v the ivacoou C(iuals a small fox, and it is usually liuntcti by the 
aid of dogs till it takes refuge in a tree, from whicii it is dislodged either 
by an expert climber, or by felling the tree. Audubon gives the follow- 
ing account of a C\)on hunt. " The boys had got up with the dogs, which 
were baying at a Racoon in a small puddle. \Vc soon joined tiiem with 
a light. 'Now, stranger, watch ami see!' The Racoon was all but 
swimming, and yet had hold of the bottom of the pool with his feet. The 
glare of tiie lighted torcii was doubtless distressing to him ; his coat was 
milled, anil his roumlctl tail scemeil thrice its ordinary size, his eyes 
shone like emeralds ; wilh loaming jaws lie watelicd ihc dogs, ready to 
seize each by the snout il it came within reach. They kept iiim busy for 
several minutes; the water became thick with mud; his coat nt)w hung 
dripping and his draggled tail la^^ floating on the surface. His guttural 
growlings, in place ol intimidating his assailants, excited them the more, 
anil they closed upon him. One seized him by the rump, but was soon 
forced to let go; another stuck to his side, but Coon made him yelp 
pitifully. The Racoon would not let go, but in the meantime the other 
dogs seized him and worried him to de.ilh. To the last he held on to his 
antagonist's snout. Knocked on the iieail by an axe, he lay gasping, the 
hea\ ing of his chest being painful to see. The hunters stood gazing at 
him in the pool, while all around was, by the flare of tiie torch, rendered 
doubly dark and dismal, ll was a scene for a painter." 

The Coon is easily tamed, but can ne\er be trusted near jioultry. 




KINKAJOU 



PANDA OR WAH 

COAITI 
RACCOON 
AGO UARA 



PLATE XXI CARNIVORA 



THE COAITI. 313 

The Agouara Procyon cancrivorns (Plate XXI), as the South American 
variety is called, is styled " Cancrii'orus" or " Crab-eater," as he is even 
fonder than his Northern kindred of all kinds of Crustacea and mollusca. 
It is larger than our racoon, and its fur has a tinge of yellow, darker or 
lighter on different parts of the body. The tail is short, and has six 
black rings on a blackish-yellow ground. 

The Black-footed Racoon, Procyon Hcrnandczii, is larger than the 
common coon, the tail is longer and thinner, and the black rings narrower 
and better defined. It is found on the Pacific coast and in Mexico. 

The California Coon, Procyon psora, is, according to Prof. Baird, a 
mere variety of the above. It was found in the same neighborhood, and 
Gray, who described and named it as a separate species, never saw any- 
thing but a most imperfect specimen, 

II.— GENUS NASUA. 

The number of species comprised in this genus is still far from settled. 
Wallace expresses doubt as to the five species which he gives in his 
" Distribution of Animals." The Prince of Wied describes two Brazilian 
species, but Henscl conclusively shows that they are identical. Tschudi 
seems to have established tivo species for the Southwest of America. 

The animals of this genus have a slender, marten-like body, short 
neck, and long pointed head ; a bushy tail as long as the body, and short, 
powerful, bare-soled legs. Their conspicuous feature is their nose, 
which is prolonged over the mouth so as to form a miniature proboscis, 
which they are in the habit of turning up when they drink to keep it from 
being wetted more than necessary. 

The Coati, Nasua nasica (Plate XXI), comes from East Brazil, and 
is about forty inches in length, of which eighteen belong to the tail. Its 
thick and pretty long fur consists of stiff bright bristles protruding from 
a soft, short, woolly coat. The color on the back varies from red to gray- 
ish-brown ; on the belly it passes into a yellowish shade. The tail has 
seven rings of dark-brown, and seven of brownish-yellow. The forehead 
is yellowish-gray, the lips white, the ears yellowish in front, black 
behind ; a round white mark stands over each eye, and a white stripe 
runs from below the eye down the nose. A curious set of tubercules 
is found on their feet. The narrow head terminates in a salient, mobile 
muzzle, and the tongue is soft and extensible. 
40 



314 CARNIVORA. 

When wild it resembles the racoon in its habits, and climbs trees 
with great agility, descending head foremost. It is a nocturnal animal, 
and a merciless robber of birds' nests. In captivity it is a very amusing 
and lively creature, very inquisitive and distrustful. One which was in 
confinement for some time was very tame to its friends, but any stranger 
who ventured to approach the animal was repelled with open mouth and 
threatening cries, unless he propitiated the creature by offering it some 
delicacy of which it was fond. It would then lay aside its suspicious 
demeanor, and become suddenly confidential, returning the caresses of 
its newly-found friend, and searching eagerly for a further supply of 
food. It proved to be quite a useful inhabitant of the house when it was 
domesticated, for it was accustomed to roam over the premises in chase 
of mice and rats, which it pursued unrelentingly through house, hay-loft, 
and stables. It was also accustomed to pay visits into the garden, where 
it spent much of its time in catching snails and slugs, and in digging 
after worms — a task for which its powerful claws are eminently calcu- 
lated to adapt it. When it was supplied with meat, it was accustomed 
to tear its food to pieces with its claws before carrying it to the mouth ; 
and in the act of feeding, it always supplied itself by hitching one of its 
claws in the morsel which it was about to carry to its mouth. It struck 
up a friendship with a little dog, and would permit its four-footed friend 
to occupy the same bed, but would never endure the societ}' of any other 
animal. When attacked by men or dogs, the Coaiti fights desperately, 
inflicting dangerous wounds with its double-edged teeth. 

The Red Coati, Nasua riifa, differs from the preceding species in its 
color, which is of a reddish-chestnut tinge, interrupted only by black ears 
and feet, and maroon-colored bands on the tail. 

The White Co.\ti, Nasua Icucorhynclia, is somewhat lighter colored, 
having a good deal of fawn color; the snout is yellowish-white. 

We need not mention other species ; the " Social " and " Solitary " 
Nasua2 of the Prince of Wied, are identical, the latter being old males 
which have been expelled from the troop. 

III.— GENUS CERCOLEPTES. 

This genus contains one species of small animals with a long prehen- 
sile tail, short toes, and claws more or less retractile. It has caused sys- 
tematic naturalists great perplexity. At first it was put down as a 



THE KINKAJOU. 315 

Lemur, and called Lenitir flavus ; then it was placed among the Civets, as 
Vivcrra caudivolvida ; at present it possesses a genus to itself, and seems to 
be intermediate between the Martens and the Bears. 

The KiNKAJOU, Ccrcoleptcs caudivolvuliis (Plate XXIj, comes from 
Northern Brazil, and when full grown, attains the size of a cat; but it is 
much more powerful. Its soft, silky coat is yellowish-gray with a red 
shade running through it, and marked with indistinct dark bands which 
can only be seen in certain lights. 

The prehensile tail which the Kinkajou possesses renders it a fearless 
climber ; it swings itself from bough to bough with such agility that even 
a naturalist like Bates mistook it at first sight for a Mirikina {Nyctipitlie- 
cus trivirgatus). It is endowed with a very long, flexible tongue, which it 
can protrude to a marvellous extent and insinuate into the smallest crev- 
ices or the cells of the honeycomb, or can use like an elephant's trunk 
to seize and draw things towards its mouth. Being a nocturnal animal, 
its eyes are contractile, and sunlight seems to annoy it very much. 
During the day it lies buried in deep slumber ; at night it becomes 
extremely lively, and exhibits considerable activity of limb and playful- 
ness of character, running up and down the branches with great skill, 
uttering at intervals a low, bleating kind of sound, and descending every 
now and then to drink. In descending it makes use of its hinder claws, 
turning the feet outward and backward so as to clasp the branch or 
trunk of the tree, and proceeding head-downward. In its native state 
its food is of a mixed nature, consisting of fruits, insects, honey, small 
birds, eggs, and other similar substances. It is easily tamed, and when 
domesticated is of a sportful nature, delighting to play with those per- 
sons whom it knows and trusts, and making pretence to bite, after the 
manner of puppies and kittens. It is very susceptible to kindness, and 
is fond of the caresses which are offered by its friends. In its wild state, 
however, it is a rather fierce animal, and when assaulted, offers such a 
spirited resistance even to human foes, that it will beat off" any but a 
determined man, supposing him to be unarmed and unassisted. 



GENUS BASSARIS. 

The animals constituting the tivo species of this genus have been often 
placed among either the Viverrida or the Mustelidce, but they are now 



3l6 CARNIVORA. 

found to agree in all important respects with the family we are now 
describing. They are both confined to America. 

The American Civet, Bassaris astuta, is thus described in the U. S. 
Pacific R. R. Report : " This beautiful animal, which was formed}^ sup- 
posed to be peculiar to Mexico and Texas, has since been found abun- 
dantly in California. The miner calls it the Mountain Cat. It frequently 
enters his tent and plunders his bag of provisions. When caught, as it 
often is, it becomes so familiar and amusing, and does so much to relieve 
the monotony of the miner's life, that it is highly valued, and commands 
a high price. It is equally efficient as a mouser with the common cat, is 
much more playful, and to a large number of the members of every 
community who are cat-haters, might be a desirable substitute." It is 
abundant in the city of Mexico, frequenting barns and out-buildings, 
and, like the cat, ravaging pigeon-houses. The Mexican name is Caca- 
mixtli. Prof. Baird says it looks like a mixture of the Racoon and the 
Fox, having the tail of the former, the head of the latter ; its fur is soft, 
and as long as a fox's, the head pointed, the eyes large, the muzzle long 
and hairless. The color is a dark brownish-gray, with indistinct marks 
on the neck and leg ; the tail is white, with eight black rings. It is shy 
and retiring, and seldom goes far from the tree which holds its nest. 

A second species has recently 'oeen described by Professor Peters 
from Coban in Guatemala, where it had also been observed by Salvia. 



THE PANDAS. 

The family of the ^Elurid.^ contains Izvo genera, of one species each, 
and the animals comprised in it seem to have their nearest allies in the 
Coatis and the Bears. 

The Panda, blunts fulgens (Plate XXI), appears stouter than it 
really is, from its thick and soft fur ; the head is short and cat-like, the 
long tail is very bushy, the ears small ; the short legs have hairy soles, 
and short toes with semi-retractile claws. The fur is thick, soft, smooth, 
and very long; on the upper surface of the body it is of a vivid and 
brilliant chestnut-brown, deepening into a brilliant black on the belly 
and legs ; on the cheeks, muzzle, and chin the hair is white, on the fore- 
head ruddy yellow, the head fawn color, and a chestnut-brown mark 
runs from tlie eye to the corner of the mouth, separating the white 



THE PANDA. 317 

muzzle and cheeks ; the ears are externally black-red, internally pro- 
vided with long white hair. The fur is not only handsome in appear- 
ance, but is very thick, fine, and warm in texture, being composed of a 
double set of hairs, the one forming a thick, woolly covering to the skin, 
and the other composed of long glistening hairs that pierce through the 
wool, and give an exquisitely rich coloring to the surface of the coat. 
The hair on the soles of the feet is often snowy-white, contrasting 
strangely with the black paws. 

The Panda or Wah, so named from its cry, is a native of Nepaul, 
where it lives in the mountains on trees near the Alpine streams, two to 
three thousand feet above the sea level. The Panda resembles in its 
habits the common racoon ; when angry, it sits up like a bear, and utters 
a very peculiar snorting noise, although its ordinary voice is like the 
twittering of a bird. Its food is chiefly vegetable. Simpson, who 
brought one to London, never saw it eat animal food, and Bartlett 
says it refused raw and cooked chicken and rabbit, but loved to eat 
young rose-leaves and buds. The latter took great care of the Panda, 
and lestored it to health, but it never betrayed any gratitude for his 
exertions. It continued as irritable as ever, assumed a hostile attitude 
at his approach, and struck about with its fore-paws like a cat. As com- 
pared witn the other members of the family, the Panda is most like the 
Kinkajou, in its movements and manner of eating, but the Kinkajou far 
surpasses it in activity and, to all appearance, in intelligence. 

An allied genus, ^Eluropus, has been recently described by Milne- 
Edwards, from the mountains of Thibet ; it is larger than the Panda, and 
its color is nearly all white. 




CHAPTER XVI. 

THE BEARS. 

laS BEAK»— THE TOt-UL BKJLt. — TVCS ^O'tTS SE.A&— THE SYKIAN BEAK— THE AXEUCAN BEAKS — 
THE 3tJlL.CS. BEAS.— THE GUZZLY BEAS.— THE BOSXEAN StTS BEAK— IBB SLOTH OK LIFfSD BKAK — 
THE SOCTH AXSStlCCS OBL STSCTACLXD SEAS. 

THE fiunily UR5tD-E, comprisdng the Bears, has a tolerably \\"ide 
distribution : thev are absent from Australia and Southern and 
Tropical Anica. and only one species is found in South America. 
They are the largest and most powerfiil of American and European 
Camivora. Considerable uncertaintr still prevails respecting the 
generic classification of the bears : vre shall follow Wallace, who divides 
them into ^ve genera or sub-genera, and fifteen species. 

A glancx; at the teeth of the members of this fcimily shows that they 
are onuuvorous, and more inclined to a vegetable than to an animal diet : 
b«K:e it is probable that their ferocity is exaggerated, for although they 
exhibit d€^)erate courage in defending themselves, they seldom seem 
aggressive. The brain of the bear is highly developed, and they are 
consequently possessed of considerable intelligence, and soon learn all 
kinds of accomplishments. Their walk is plantigrade, that is, they place 
the whole sole of the ioot on the ground ; they progress at a rapid rate, 
and soon overtake a man : they can climb and swim excellently : their 
sense of smeQ is very acute. When attacked they stand upright, and 
strike with their fiar^jaws, which carry long and sharp claws, they p>arry 
neatly, and are remarkably dangerous irozn the fearful energy they dis- 
play in the very last moments of life. 

I.-GEXV5 THALASSARCTOS. 

The Polar Bear, T. :■:: :'::as maritimus 'Plate XXIf, is the only 
representative of the genus. It is almost entirely carnivorous, its food 



THE POLAR BEAR. 3I9 

consisting of fishes and seals, which it captures skilfully. It can swim 
long distances, and has been seen swimming steadily across a strait forty 
miles wide. Its fur is of a silvery white, tinged with a yellow hue rather 
variable in different specimens ; the claws are black, the neck is very 
long in proportion to the body, and the head is small, sharp, and almost 
snake-like. The foot is equivalent in length to one-sixth of the entire 
length of the body, and the sole is covered with thick fur. 

The Polar Bear has a most acute sense of smell, which enables it to 
detect the breathing holes which the seals make through the ice, even 
when the snow is lying thickly over them. After its repast it lies down 
to sleep, and is often carried off to sea on the moving ice-fields ; one was 
observed two hundred miles from land, and as fish are not easily caught 
at sea, it doubtless had a hard time. Sometimes whole herds of Polar 
Bears have been carried by drift-ice to civilized shores, where they prey 
on sheep and cattle, to the dismay of their unwilling hosts, and are said 
not to hesitate to attack man. Instances have been known where they 
have pursued hunters back to their ships, and tried to make their way 
into the cabms through the port-holes. 

The Polar Bear dreads heat, and in a climate like ours requires to 
have daily poured over it, winter and summer, sixty to eighty pails of 
water. It always remains wild and savage, and even when caught 
young, can be only very slightly tamed. 

Its flesh is very good, and the animal is hunted for it by the natives as 
well as by all whale-fishers and Arctic explorers ; but the liver must be 
avoided ; Kane, for an experiment, tasted the liver of a newly killed 
animal, and became seriously sick in consequence. 

It is said that the female of this genus hibernates, but that the male 
continues in the active exercise of all his faculties. The Polar Bear 
sometimes attains the length of nine feet, and the average is over eight 
feet. Ross weighed one which had lost thirty pounds of blood, and it 
tipped the scale at 1131 lbs., while Lyon saw one that weighed sixteen 
hundred pounds. 

II.— GENUS URSUS. 

The twelve species which constitute this genus are found in all the 
northern regions of the globe from the arctic circle to Mount Atlas and 
the Gulf of Mexico, and present a striking similarity over this extensive 
region. 



3 JO CARMVOKA. 

The Brown Bear, ['rsiis Anfcs ^^Plato XXI 11*. is toimd in t lie old 
world from Spain to Kanitschatka, and from Lapland to Mount Atlas, 
and is only absent from Belgium. Denmark. Hngland, Ciermany, and 
Holland. It requires for its dwelling large unfrequented U>rest lands 
rich in fruits and berries, for it seldom attacks cattle. Ants are a 
favorite food ; it scrapes their nests up with its powerful claws, and 
devours them and their eggs, and, as is well known, it is especially 
fond of honev : these, however, are but luxuries, its staple food consists 
of cranberries, blueberries, strawberries, and the like. But when it is 
unable to find vegetable sustenance, it exhibits a taste for flesh, and will 
attack sheep and goats, or devour carcasses that fall in its way. When 
rendered desperate bv the pangs of hunger, it will assail the benighted 
traveler; even when he seeks to protect himself by a ring of fire, the 
bear dips himself in the nearest stream, then returns with his thick fin- 
well saturated with water, and rolls over the burning embers, extinguish- 
ing them etTectuallv. This curious fact is well known to the natives of 
Siberia, so that they have good ground for the respect in which they 
hold the bear's intelligence. 

During the autumn the bear becomes fat. and makes preparations for 
hibernating. A curious phenomenon now takes place in the animal's 
digestive organs, which gives it the capability of remaining through the 
entire winter in a state oi letliargv. without food, and yet without losing 
condition. As the stomach is no longer supplied witii nourishment, it 
soon becomes quite emptv. and. together with the intestines, is contracted 
into a verv small space. , No food can now pass through tiie system, for a 
mechanical obstruction — technically called the " tappen '" — blocks up the 
passage, and remains in its position until the spring. The " tappen " is 
almost entirely composed of pine-leaves, and the various substances which 
the bear scratches out of the ants" nests. 

It remains in its den till the middle of April, and is said to emerge 
as fat as when it entered, unless it has lost the " tappen " too soon. 
During the winter, the bear gains a new skin on the balls o( the feet, and 
Mr. Lloyd, who has studied their habits carefully, suggests that the 
curious habit of sucking the paws. \o w IuiIt bears are so iironc. is in 
order to facilitate the growth of the new integument. 

In old davs. bear-baiting was a favorite amusement ot royalty. 
Queen Elizabeth was a constant patron of the sport, and in the last cen- 
tury, Augustus the Strong, the king of Poland, was ardently devoted to 



THE BKOWN BEAK. 32 1 

it. But the improvement of manners has abolished this cruel amuse- 
ment, and the bear is only called upon to display his talents by dancing 
and going through the platoon exercise. 

Bears are seen in all Zoological Gardens, and the Swiss city of Berne 
keeps several in honor of its name. The bear in captivity is usually 
gentle, and takes cakes and frxxJ from visitors. The bc-ar's name in 
" Reynard the Fox " is "Bruin," but in Paris all bears at the Jardin des 
Hlantes are called " Martin." They derive this name from a celebrated 
fellow-captive. He was unrivaled at begging and catching in his mouth 
the pieces thrown to him. He earned his glorious fame by killing a 
soldier. This man saw sfjmething shining in Martin's den, and mistook 
it for a piece of gold. He foolishly went down to pick it up, but it only 
turned out to be a brass button ; Martin attacked and killed him, and 
from that day became a prominent character in the Jardin des Fbntes. 

The .Syrian Bear, Ursus Isabellinus (^Plate XXIV), is possessed of a 
coat which in youth is a grayish-brown, but in mature years, white. 
The hair is long and curled, and hides a thick woolly fur, while at the 
neck and shoulders it projects like a mane. 

To this species belonged an animal which enjoyed a high reputation 
at Oxford and elsewhere, on account of his singularly gentle and amusing 
manners. The bear, which was generally known by the name of " Tig," 
being an abbreviation of the somewhat lengthy name of Tiglath-Pileser, 
was for some time a noted celebrity in Oxford, whither he was brought 
in his early boyhood. High-spirited and rather tetchy in temper, he 
was very affectionate to those who treated him with consideration, and 
was perfectly amenable to proper discipline; he was accustomed to don 
a regulation cap and gown, and under this learned shade to perambulate 
the college, and partake of the hospitality of its members. 

On one occasion he contrived to escape from bondage, and made at 
once for a candy-store. The owner took to flight at his entrance, and 
when his pursuers entered they found Mr. Tig seated upon the counter, 
helping himself to brown sugar with a liberal paw, and displaying such 
an appreciation of his good fortune that it was not without much trouble 
that he was removed from the scene of hLs repast. He was rather pecu- 
liar in his tastes, and had attained to a highly civilized state of epicurean- 
ism, for his chief delicacies were not, as might be supposed, the produce 
ol the garden or the iield, but the more sophisticated dainties of hot 
muffins and cold ices. He was a most social animal, and if left 



7,22 CARNIVORA. 

alone, even for a short time, would cry and lament in the most pitiful 
of tones. 

The fur of this animal is valuable for its warmth and beauty, and the 
Svrians still believe in the medicinal virtues of its fat. Even in Europe 
•• Bear's Grease " was for a long time considered a specific for various 
injuries; but at present it is only heard of in hair-dressers' shops. 

THE AMERICAN BEAR. 

The Black Bear, ['rsits Anwrkamis (Plate XXIII), had formerly a 
o-reat ranee of country, and was once so common in New York State, 
that the city had a bear-market. It is a very inofiensive animal, and lives 
chiefly on fruit, insects, and small animals. Audubon sa3-s, contrary to 
the usual opinion, that it will prefer flesh to fruit any day, and confirms 
the statement that it is fond of fish. The Black Bear is small and of a 
uniform black or brown color, and is hunted for its fur and tat, which 
have a commercial value, as well as for its flesh, which is smoked before 
it is sent to market. Its weight rarely exceeds three hundred pounds. 
It is chiefly found in mountains and thickets, or in the cane-brakes of the 
South, and gives good sport when hunted with dogs, as it runs pretty 
quick, and then takes to a tree. It is really no more dangerous to the 
hunter than a hog of the same size would be. 

As a general rule, they will never fight a man unless forced into it. 
When thev have cubs, and arc followed closely, they will keep them 
ahead and follow close in the rear to protect them. If pushed closely, 
they will make a great show of fight, growl, and tear the bark from the 
trees with much fuss and noise, and do their utmost to frighten off the 
enemv ; and. if there is no help for it. they will fight fiercely when 
brought to bay. Bears when known to be with young are left alone, 
unless the hunters are well armed for a fight. Experienced dogs greatly 
assist the hunter, and do much toward checking the speed oj" the bear. 
Now and then they nab Bruin by a hind-leg, which worries him greatly. , 
After a dog has tackled a bear once, however, he knows enough to keep 
out of the reach of his paws, and, being nimbler than Bruin, he has little 
trouble in avoiding his grasp. 

It is said that instead of becoming extinct among the Catskills, bears 
are more numerous now than ever before. A well-known trapper gives 
as his reason for this that a number of vears ago, when the mountains 




BROWN BEAR 



BLACK BEAR 



GRIZZLY BEAR 



PLATE XXIII. CARNIVORA 



THE GRIZZLY BEAR. 323 

were well timbered, the bears could scarcely find anything to eat, and 
had to live on roots, bark, and whatever game they could lay their paws 
on. Since the wood has been cleared off, shrubs and bushes ha\'e grown 
thickly, intermingled with briers and trailing vines, which furnish berries 
and other food, capable of sustaining considerable numbers. 

Although the white hunters chase and kill the bear without any 
remorse of conscience, the copper-colored races are so impressed with 
the intellectual powers of this cunning and dangerous animal, that they 
endeavor to appease the manes of a slaughtered bear, or Musquaw, as 
they call it, with various singular arid time-honored ceremonies. The 
head of the slain animal is decorated with every procurable trinket, and 
is deposited ceremoniously upon a new blanket. Tobacco-smoke is then 
solemnly blown into the nostrils of the severed head by the successful 
hunter, and a deprecatory speech is made, in which the orator extols the 
courage of the defeated animal, pays a few supplementary compliments 
to its still living relations, regrets the necessity for its destruction, and 
expresses his hopes that his conduct has been, on the whole, satisfactorr 
to the dead Musquaw and its relations. 

This curious custom is the more remarkable, as it bears a close analojrv 
to the belief of the Scandinavians, who are little less fastidious in their 
conduct towards the bear. No true Norwegian will ever speak of a 
bear as a bear, but prefers to mention it as " the old man with the fur 
cloak ; " or, more tersely and poetically, the " Disturber." 

The Cinnamon Bear, Ursus cinnamonens, is a variety of the Black 
Bear ; its hair is rather longer and softer, and its color a dark chestnut 
with Durple shades. 

THE GRIZZLY BEAR. 

The Grizzly Bear, Ursus fcrox (Plate XXIII), is the most terrible 
animal on this continent, the largest of American Carnivora. It is found 
over all North-western America, most abundantly on the slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains. In the fall it comes down from its usual dwelling 
in the mountains, and hunts for berries, grapes, and wild fruit in the 
plains. General Dodge says the Grizzly is very shy, and takes to cover 
at the slightest suspicious circumstance, always running away if it can, 
and never attacking except when cornered or wounded. In that case 
its assault is furious, and quite regardless of the number of its foes, and 



324 CARMVORA. 

then its size and strength, its immense teeth and claws, its tenacity of 
life and ferocious determination render it a terrible antagonist to the 
bravest and coolest sportsmen. 

The Grizzly Bear varies in color ; some specimens are of a dull 
brown, flecked with gray, while others are of a steely-gray ; but the 
grizzled hairs are always conspicuous. The length of a full-grown male 
is about eight feet and a half, and the girth the same, while the weight is 
about eight hundred pounds. The fore-limbs are very powerful, the 
feet measuring eighteen inches, and the claws five inches; these claws 
are very sharp, and cut like chisels ; the head is large, the tail very shcrt 
and quite hidden in the fur. The gait of the Grizzly is awkward and 
roUing; when young it can climb trees; fortunately, however, as it in- 
creases in size and weight, it loses this power, its claws being unable to 
sustain its unwieldy buik. 

The Grizzly is the king of all our animals, and can destroy by blows 
from his armed paws even the powerful bison of the plains ; wolves will 
not even touch the carcass of this dreaded monster, and, it is said, stand 
in such awe, that they refrain from molesting deer that he has slain. 
Horses also require careful training before they can be taught to allow 
ts hide to be placed on their backs. 

Terrible stories are told of encounters with Grizzlies. General Dodge 
, dy^ one of the most complete wrecks of humanity he ever witnessed 
M'SS a huntsman for a party of California miners. He suddenly, one day, 
came face to face with a Grizzly ; the bear stood up on its hind-legs, the 
man presented his rifle, and stood waiting the attack. The bear ad- 
vanced, and took the muzzle of the rifle in its mouth, the man fired, and 
before he had time to think was in the bear's clutches. " It was all over 
in a second," the narrator stated; "/ didn't feci any pain, and I didn't 
know nothing more till I come to next day." His companions found the 
man and the bear together, the latter dead with a bullet in the brain ; 
the man had received only one stroke from each paw. One fore-paw 
had passed over the shoulder, and a claw had hooked under the shoulder- 
blade and torn it out entirely ; the other fore-paw tore all the flesh from 
the left-side ; a hind-claw had torn open the abdomen, letting out the 
bowels, while the remaining hind-paw had torn away the muscle of the 
right-leg fron. groin to knee. The man recovered, and when he 
described the fight to the General, added, " Anybody can fight bear 
that wants to : I've had enough grizzly." 



THE SUN BEAR. 335 

The same officer tells of a remarkable escape. A she-grizzly overtook 
a sportsman and knocked him senseless with one blow ; she then smelt 
him carefully, and being satisfied that he was dead, retired. His friends, 
who had remained at some distance, were just about to proceed to 
recover his remains, when the body sprang to its feet and made the best 
possible time to the top of the hill where they were standing. This man 
was not injured, his clothes only having been torn off; he reported that 
he came to his senses while the bear was smelling him. 

Dr. Parker Gillmore had a regular duel with a Grizzly. The bear 
was standing up behind a tree ; as it peeped round the trunk the sports- 
man fired, but the bullet only sm.ashed a paw. The bear fell, but rose 
again in an instant, and went for the aggressor ; he fired again, but the 
result was only a momentary recoil, the gun was sent flying, and he was 
prostrated. Two or three stabs from his sheath-knife settled the mon- 
ster. Fortunately, before Gillmore came to close quarters, the bear had 
one fore-paw smashed, and his lower jaw splintered. 



III.— GENUS HELARCTOS. 

This genus comprises only one species, which is called the " Sun- 
bear," because it has the very unbearlike habit of basking in the sun. 
The generic name, Helarctos, is compounded of the Greek words Helios 
"the sun" and arctos " bear." The Sun-bears are found in the mountains 
of Nepaul, and in the Malay archipelago. 

The BORNEAN Sun-bear, Helarctos Malayanns (Plate XXIV), is not a 
large animal, measuring when full grown about four feet and a half; but 
it is powerful for its size, and is armed with very long claws. The head 
is thick, and the neck remarkably developed in comparison with the 
head : the eyes are small and lively, but the ears are large. The fur is 
very fine and glossy, of a deep black color, with the exception of a 
crescent-shaped patch of white on the breast, which, in some varieties, 
is of a fulvous yellow hue. It feeds chiefly on vegetables and honey, 
and is very destructive to the young cocoa-trees. It is called in Java the 
" Bruang." 

It is easily tamed. Sir Stamford Raffles, who possessed one of these 
bears, permitted it to live in the nursery, and never was obliged to chain, 
chastise, or otherwise punish the good-tempered animal. Being some- 



S^O CAKXnORA. 

thing of an epicure, and often admitted to his master's table, the Bruang 
would refuse to eat an\- fruit except mangostecns, or to drink any wine 
except champagne. It may seem remarkable that a bear slioukl display 
any predilection for fermented liquids, and more so that it should be so 
fastidious as to select champagne as the wine which it honored with its 
preference. Such, however, was the case, and the animal was so fondly 
attached to the champagne-bottle, that the absence of his favorite liquid 
was the only circumstance that would make him lose his temper. His 
afl'ectionate disposition led him to extend his friendship to various of his 
acquaintances, and he was on such excellent terms with the entire house- 
hold, that he would meet on equal footing the cat, the dog, and a small 
Lory, or Blue-mountain bird, and amicably feed with these domestic 
favorites from the same dish. 

One of these bears that was successfully domesticated was able to 
eat animal as well as vegetable food, but was fed exclusively on bread 
and milk, of which it consumed rather more than ten pounds per diem. 
It is possessed of much flexibility of body, and is very fond of sitting on 
itf. hind legs, thrusting out its long tongue to an extraordinar}' distance, 
and ever and anon withdrawing it into the mouth with a peculiar snap- 
ping sound. While thus engaged, it makes the most grotesque and 
singular gestures with the fore-limbs, and rolls its body from side to side 
with unceasing assiduity. 



IV.— GENUS PROCHILUS. 

The one species of this genus is found from the Ganges to Ceylon, and 
is characterized by a short thick body, short limbs, and large feet armed 
with enormous sickle-shaped claws. It is usually found in the mountains, 
and is equally dreaded and admired by the natives. 

The Sloth Bear, Prochilus (or Mdursus) labiaUis (Plate XXIV), is 
nearly five feet long. Its flat, low-browed head is prolonged into a nar- 
row-pointed proboscis-like snout of very peculiar construction, and the 
nostrils and lips are very mobile ; the latter can be so protruded and 
contracted that they form a kind of pipe nearly as useful as a trunk. 
Through this lip-pipe the long, thin, flat tongue is constantly shot out, so 
that the animal can draw things near it, and then suck them up. The 
hair is very long, of a deep black color with some brownish hairs, and a 




BORNEAN SUN BEAR 



SYRIAN BEAR 

SLOTH BEAR 

PLATE XXIV CARNIVORA 



THE SPECTACLED BEAR. 327 

forked patch of white on the breast. When it walks, its fore-legs cross 
each other; its feet are remarkably sensitive, and soon blister. 

This bear is liable to lose its incisor teeth, a peculiarity which led 
earlier writers to class it among the Edentata, and style it a Sloth. It is 
called indifferently the Sloth Bear, the Jungle Bear, the Lipped Bear, or 
the Honey Bear. The Hindoo name is Aswail. It is very sensitive to 
heat, and remains in its den during the noontide glow ; its diet is chiefly 
vegetable, the exceptions being honey and oats. Its flesh is in much 
favor, and is said to be \try good. 

When captured young, it is easily tamed, and can be taught to per- 
form many curious antics at the bid of its master. For this purpose it is 
often caught by the native mountebanks, who earn an easy subsistence 
by leading their shaggy pupil through the country, and demanding small 
sums of money for the exhibition of its qualities. On account of its asso- 
ciation with these wandering exhibitors, it has been called by the French 
naturalists " Ours Jongleur." Whether owing to the natural docility of 
the animal, or to the superior powers of its instructor, it performs feats 
which are more curious and remarkable than the ordinary run of per- 
formances that are achieved by the Learned Bears of our streets. 



v.— GENUS TREMARCTOS. 

The solitary species of this genus is isolated in the Andes of Chili 
*tj«d Peru, and is commonly known as the Ursus ornatus. 

The Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus, is black, with the excep- 
tion of two yellow marks above the eyes ; as these are of a semicircular 
shape, they suggest the common name. Little is known of its habits in 
its wild state, and it has not been domesticated. 

One curious detail in the physiology of all the bears is the extraordi- 
nary smallness of the young at birth, compared with the bulk of the 
parents, for they are not larger than cats. The mother has, like the cat, 
the habit of licking her cubs with her tongue to clean them, and she per- 
forms this highl}^ necessary operation so assiduously that a legend has 
arisen that " she licks them into shape." 



«^^^^^ 






CHAPTER XVII. 

THE EARED SEALS AND ^A^ALRUSES. 

THE EARED-SEALS — THE FUR SEALS AND HAIR SEALS — THE SEA-LION — THE SEA-BEAR — VALUE OP 
ITS FUR — THE FUR SEALS — THE CALIFORNIA HAIR SEAL — THE CALIFORNLA OR NORTHERN 
SEA LION— MANNER OF CAPTURING IT ALIVE — THE WALRUS. 

THE family Otariad/E comprises the sea-bears, sea-lions, and 
eared-seals. These animals are divided by Wallace into four 
genera, but Mr. Allen, in his paper in the " Bulletin of the 
Harvard Museum," arranges them into five. They are confined to the 
cold and temperate shores of the North Pacific and similar regions in 
the Southern Hemisphere. 

The Eared Seals, as the Otariad^ are commonly called, form a dis- 
tinct family from the Earless Seals, or Phocidic ; they can walk on their 
limbs with the body raised from the ground, and they rest with their 
hind-legs bent forward ; they cannot swallow under water, and come to 
the surface during the process of mastication ; the pupil of the eye 
dilates and contracts to an enormous extent. Mr. Allen divides the 
Eared Seals into two sub-families, the Triclwpliociim or Hair Seals, and 
Oulophocina: or Fur Seals ; but Dr. Gray objects to this classification as 
overlooking the fact that the abundance of the under-fur depends on the 
season of the year, and the age of the animal. In ordinary parlance the 
distinction between Hair and Fur Seals is common ; the latter are hunted 
for fur as well as their oil, as they furnish the seal-skin jackets of fashion. 
These furs differ much in appearance; in most species the hairs aie 
much longer than the under-fur; in others, they only slightly overtop 
the soft woolly fur, which is very dense, forming a soft, elastic coat. 
Their habits resemble those of the Earless Seals. The young are 
brought forth far inland, and are taught to swim very gradually, their 
dams devoting much time to this duty. They are naturally quiet and 
peaceable animals, and have no dread of mankind. 



THE SEA LION AND SEA BEAR. 329 



I.— GENUS OTARIA. 

This southern representative of the Sea Lions is found on the coasts 
of South America, and the islands southward as far as Graham's Land. 
It is very abundant in Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands. It 
seems to perform annual journeys of considerable length to reach its 
breeding-places, where the females bring forth and nurse their young for 
some time before leading them into the water. There is only one species 
of this genus, which is the Phocarctus of Gray. 

The vSea Lion, Otaria jjibata (Plate XXV), attains the length of about 
nine feet ; its fur generally lies flat, but on the neck and shoulders is 
developed into a short mane, which gives the creature a leonine aspect. 
The head is of a yellowish-brown color, the muzzle black, the back 
yellowish-gray, the hairless paddles look black. The female has a darker 
color, and is without a mane. 

The Otarige are not pursued so zealously as the rest of the family, 
their skin being comparatively worthless, and their oil scarcely repaying 
the cost incurred in taking them. 



II.— GENUS CALLORHINUS. 

The only species of this genus is an animal found on the coasts of 
Kamtschatka and Behring Straits and California in the North, and of 
Patagonia in the South, having thus a very wide distribution. It is 
characterized by an elongate skull, round forehead, and small, narrow 
fore-flippers. It is a Fur Seal. 

The Northern Sea Bear, Callorhinus ursinus (Plate XXV), is the 
Otaria ursina of ^tX.&xi, ■sxiA\h^ Arctocephalus Calif or nianus oiOxTiy. It 
attains the size of eight to nine feet, the females, however, being only half 
that length. The head is long, the neck short but clearly distinguished 
from the body, the tail short, the mouth small, the eye large, dark and 
lively. The coat consists of somewhat stiff hairs, with very soft, delicate 
silky fur thickly covering the skin. The ground color is a dark brown, 
sprinkled with white-tipped hairs on the head and neck. The fur is of a 
reddish tint. Old females are of a silver-gray color, and the young of 
both sexes have a silvery coat. 
42 



330 ^ARNIVC?.A. 

The Sea Bears, like the Otariae, are migratory, but it is not known 
where they pass the winter; they return in spring, each family to the 
same spot for years in succession; an Indian chief in Alaska observed a 
male that had lost one of its flippers come back to the identical rock for 
seventeen years. Steller writes that each male has eight to fifteen 
females, whom he watches jealousl\-, and, although on the coasts where 
they were observed these seals were lying in thousands, yet each family 
kept distinct ; such a family, consisting of an old male, his wives, his sons 
and daughters, and yearlings which had not yet paired, amounts often to 
one hundred and twenty. The females bring forth usually two cubs, which 
are covered with very fine brilliant black wool, and which play about 
like young dogs, while the father looks placidly on, only interfering when 
a quarrel takes place, in which case he always caresses the conqueror. 
The males also fight among themselves for the possession of the females, 
or a resting-place on the shore ; old defeated males are often found lead- 
ing a solitary life, and they are bad-tempered and vicious. Their cries 
are of three- sorts; when unoccupied, and on land, they low like cows 
that have lost their calves ; when fighting, they growl like bears ; when 
.'ictorious, they utter repeatedly a loud scream which Steller compares 
to the note of a house-cricket ; when wounded they spit like cats. The 
males kiss the females, according to the same observer, and wag their 
hind-flippers as a dog does his tail. They are very active, and swim ten 
to twelve knots an hour. They are very tenacious of life, and will stand 
before dj-ing two hundred knocks on the head. 

The Sea Bear is especially hunted for his fur, and, fortunately, any 
number of these seals can be obtained. On St. Paul's Island there were 
twelve miles of coast occupied by these creatures with an average width 
of fifteen rods. Allowing twenty seals to the square rod, we have the 
number of breeding seals as 1,152,000: deducting one-tenth for males, 
there remains 1,037,800 females. The Russian Fur Company used to pay 
to the fishers ten cents a skin, the skin when salted being worth three 
dollars. This price fluctuates with the fashions of the day. When 
Alaska was transferred to us the price of seal-skins rose to seven dollars, 
but in 1871 it fell again to three dollars. In 1873, it is estimated that 
145,000 were taken, and the net value of the fishery is put down at 
$1,175,000 per annum. Besides the skin, each seal yields a gallon and a 
half of oil. The chief time for hunting is from June to September. The 
skins of the young are much prized for clothing. 



THE FUR SEAL. 331 



III.-GENUS ARCTOCEPHALUS. 

The seals of this genus are usually divided into three species, but 
there is considerable difference of opinion as to how far subdivision 
should go. The name Arctocephalus is formed from two Greek words, 
and means " Bear-head." All the species are Fur Seals, and of great 
commercial value. 

The Cape Fur Seal, Arctocephalus Antarcticus, is found near the Cape 
of Good Hope. Gray gives the following descriptions in his " British 
Museum Hand-book": "(i.) Adult male, slight mane, called 'Large wig;' 
fur whitish, under-fur reddish. (2.) Adult without mane, called ' Mid- 
dling;' fur reddish-white, under-fur reddish. (3.) Young, called ' Black- 
pup;' fur black and polished, under-fur brown and very thin." 

The Southern Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tiigrescens, is found at the 
Falkland Islands. It is the Arctocephalus Falklandicus of Allen, and is 
peculiar to America. 

The Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus cinereus, is black, with an 
abundant reddish-brown under-fur. 

The chief distinction on which classifiers rely for this distribution 
into species, is the position of the fifth grinder in the upper jaw. The 
Southern Fur Seal is the only one of importance in a commercial point 
of view. It is remarkable for the closeness and elasticity of its short 
and even fur, which can be worn without removing the long hairs. 
When these, however, have to be removed, it is done by shaving the 
fleshy side of the skin till the deep roots of the long hairs are severed, 
when the hairs fall out. 



IV.-GENUS ZALOPHUS. 

The chief representative of this genus, of which tivo species are 
known, is 

The California Hair Seal, Zalophus Gillcspii, which is found in the 
North Pacific and on the coasts of Japan and California. The under-fur 
is very thin. Gray communicates the interesting fact that a line drawn 
across the palate at the front edge of the zygomatic arch leaves one-third 
of the palate behind the line. 



332 CARNIVORA. 

The Australian Hair Seal, Zalophus lobatus, has very little under- 
fur, and small toe-flaps. Its upper grinders are all single-rooted, and 
the sixth molar is absent. 

We add to these species of Hair Seals one which is still waiting for 
classification. The specimen on which Gray labored had no head, and 
therefore he is unable to give us his usual charming details about molars 
and zygomatic arches. 

The Cape Hair Seal, ArctoccpJialus ? nivosus, has very black, short 
fur with small white spots. It differs from Arctocephalus Antarcticus in the 
length of the hair, and by having no under-fur. 



V— GENUS EUMETOPIAS. 

The one species is found in Behring Straits and on the coast of Cali- 
fornia. It has no under-fur, and the flap of the toes is very short. 

The Northern Sea Lion, Eianctopias Stdlcri, was called by Steller 
himself Leo uiarinus. The jaw is much more elongated than in the Otaria 
jubata. This is the Sea Lion of California. It reaches the enormous 
size of fifteen feet, and weighs sixteen hundred pounds ; the eye is lai-ge 
and expressive ; the limbs, which discharge the duties of legs, feet, and 
fins, are covered with a rough, horn)' skin, while the rest of the body is 
hidden in a short, hard, brilliant coat of hair. The males are of different 
colors, the females are usually light brown, and only half as large as their 
partners, while the lordly male has around its neck a heavy mass of stiff 
curly hair, which gives it a lion-like look. During the autumn, great 
numbers are found at Behring's Island, and in July it comes down the 
American coast. The male confines himself to three or four females. 

They are very ferocious in aspect, but in disposition very peaceable or 
even sluggish, and fall an easy prey to the hunter, great numbers being 
slain by the natives by means of harpoons and poisoned arrows, when 
they come ashore to breed. Their sojourn on shore lasts about four 
months on the California coast, and a few years ago thousands of barrels 
were annually filled with their oil. In consequence of the visible dimi- 
nution of their numbers, at present only males are killed. South of 
Santa Barbara, there rises a rocky ledge accessible on one side ; here, 
when the sun goes down, fifty to a hundred males will congregate till 
morning. If a boat approaches, they glide into the water, and wait 




TRUE SEAL 



WALRUS 
CRESTED SEAL 



HARP SEAL 



PLATE XXV CARNIVORA 



THE CALIFORNIA SEA LION. 333 

there till the human foe has departed. One day, however, a landing was 
successfully effected by pulling against the wind, and the poor brutes 
were massacred, for a seal-hunt is a mere butchery of unresisting victims. 
At present the authorities of California carefully preserve the Seal Rock, 
which has become one of the natural curiosities of San Francisco. 

Sea Lions are in demand for menageries and aquariums all over the 
world. Captain Mullett, who supplies this demand, gives an interesting 
account of the method of capture. 

" Our field of operations is on the lower or Mexican coast of Califor- 
nia, as we are not allowed to catch the lions in American waters. We 
are therefore compelled to operate off San Diego, which is the dividing 
line of California and Mexico. Our method of capturing the lions is 
this : They go in rookeries of one hundred or more, and we watch the 
shore to see where they will go into camp. This we can determine from 
the fact that they carry their young on shore, leave them, and go back 
to the water, returning at break of day. When we find a camp, we dig 
trenches in the sand to hide in, or if there are rocks convenient, we hide 
behind them. The vessels are anchored some distance off the shore, and 
we bring from them in small boats cages made of six-inch fencing-boards. 
When the herd comes ashore, the lassoers watch their opportunity, and 
lasso one of the lions around the neck. Another lasso is then fastened to 
one of the hind-flippers, and the lion is forced into one of the cages. 
This must be done within a short time, or the animal will not live. I give 
orders that if twenty minutes elapse from the time the animal is lassoed 
until he is in the cage, the men must let him go. This is necessary, from 
the fact that if kept longer, they struggle and strain themselves so that 
they die within a few days afterwards. After the lion is captured, a 
shot, to which a long rope is attached, is fired from a bomb-gun on the 
shore over the vessel ; the other end of the rope is attached to one of the 
cages, and it is pushed into the breakers and hauled out to the vessel. 
On board the vessel the lions are not put in water, but are kept wet with 
a sprinkler. They are then taken to San Francisco, where they are 
placed in cars built for the purpose, and transported across the conti- 
nent, each car containing twelve lions." 

THE WALRUS. 

The family of the Trichechid.-e comprises only one genus and one 
species, the well-known Walrus or Morse. It is a very characteristic 



334 



CARNIVORA. 



animal of the North Polar Regions, and is seldom found straying south 
of the Arctic Circle, except on the coasts of North America, where it 
sometimes reaches latitude 60°. It is most abundant on the shores of 
Spitzbergen, but it is not found between longitude 80° and 160° east, or 
between 100° to 15° west of Greenwich. 

The Walrus, Trichcchus Rosmarus (Plate XXVI), which is also com- 
monly called the Sea Horse, is truly a monster of the deep. When fully 
grown, it has been known to reacli a length of from twenty to twenty- 
four feet, and weighs two thousand to three thousand pounds, but is usu- 
ally rather smaller. Its huge body is thickest in the middle, but does 
not taper down to the tail so finely as in the seals ; the powerful limbs 
project outwards and downwards to such an extent that the elbow and 
knee-joints are plainly to be seen ; the feet have all five fingers, with short 
blunt claws which do not reach the end of the fingers ; the tail is a mere 
flap of skin. The head is small, the muzzle short, the upper-lip fleshy, 
the under-lip swollen, on both sides of the muzzle is a considerable num- 
ber of round, stiff bristles, and in front there protrude two enormous tusks 
two feet and upwards in length, growing downwards from the upper- 
jaw. The skin is nearly devoid of hair, and of a liver-brown color. 

The Walrus has been long known, and has formed the subject of 
countless fables. Albertus Magnus says that in the North Sea is a whale- 
elephant that climbs up rocks with its tusks. The fishermen come up to 
it when it is asleep, raise the hide near the toil from the blubber, and 
make it fast with a rope to the rocks. They then pelt the creature with 
stones ; upon which it drops out of its skin and falls into the sea, where it 
is helpless. Olaus Magnus adds his quota of legend. A few centuries ago, 
the Walrus was found much farther to the south than it is now ; Hector 
Boece describes it as bemg a regular visitor of the Scotch coasts, and 
stray ones have been seen on the shores of the Orkney islands and the 
Lewis as late as 1857. The swimming powers of the Walrus would 
enable it easily to accomplish such a journey, but it is, more than all 
other animals of its kind, restricted by the necessity of procuring food tc 
certain regions. It avoids the deep sea, and sailors know that the sight 
of one is an indication of land in the neighborhood, for experience has 
told them that it seldom leaves the pack-ice rovmd the islands. There 
vast herds are found, as many as seven thousand having been seen in a 
single herd, clambering in endless succession on to the shore. A single 
ice-floe often has twenty walruses sleeping on it. When the herd is 



THE WALRUS. 335 

reposing, one of them remains on guard, and at the first sign of danger 
wakens his comrades with his terrible roar, and then the whole party 
either take to flight or prepare for war ; and they are no cowardly foes ! 

Scoresby writes : " The Walrus is a dauntless creature ; he examines 
an approaching boat with curiosity, not with dread ; an attack on one is 
resented by all the herd ; they gather round the boat, dash their tusks 
through its sides, or suspend themselves by them on the gunwales." " I 
was once," Brown relates, " in a boat where a walrus was harpooned ; it 
dived at once, but rose again immediately, and in spite of our lances, 
axes, and muskets, sent its tusks through the sides of our boat, so that we 
were glad to cut the harpoon-line, and escape to the ice-floe which the 
walrus had left." Another whale-fisher was pursued by a herd, and 
when he landed, was regularly besieged. In all cases it is dangerous to 
meddle with this monster while he is in the water, while its vigilance 
renders it a difficult task to reach it on land. 

A Walrus is a valuable animal, for its skin, teeth, and oil are in much 
request, while among the Esquimaux its body furnishes them with almost 
every article in common use. Among civilized men, the skin of the 
Walrus is employed for harness and other similar purposes where a thick 
and tough hide is required. The tooth furnishes very good ivory, of a 
beautiful texture, and possessing the advantage of retaining the white 
hue longer than ivory which is made from the elephant-tusk. The tusks 
are sometimes two feet in length, and seven inches in circumference, 
weighing ten pounds each, but usually attain only half this size. The oil 
is delicate, but there is very little to be obtained from each Walrus, the 
layer of fatty matter being scarcely more than a hand's-breadth in thick- 
ness. Fish-hooks are made from its tusks, its intestines are twisted into 
nets, its oil and flesh is eaten, and its bones and skin are also turned to 
account by the rude but ingenious Esquimaux. 

The food of the Walrus consists chiefly of various kinds of moUusca, 
and it seems probable that the chief use of its formidable tusks is to 
scrape these shell-fish from the rocks. The Walrus has other than 
human foes : the Esquimaux speak of its terrible combats with the 
Polar Bear, and say that when the latter has seized one, the Walrus 
throws itself and its enemy together into the sea, and drowns him. 

The number of young which the Walrus produces at a litter is seldom 
if ever more than one, and when newly born, the little animal is about 
the size of a yearling pig. Winter is the usual time of year for the 



336 CARNIVORA. 

appearance of the young, and the mother always repairs to the shore or 
to the ice-fields for the purpose of nourishing her family. The maternal 
Walrus is very attentive to her charge, and while in the water is very 
solicitous about its welfare, carrying it about under her fore-limbs, and 
defending it from any danger that may arise, regardless of her own safety 
in watching over that of her offspring. When a mother Walrus is sur- 
prised upon the shore, she places her young one upon her back, and 
hurries away to the sea, bearing her precious burden. 

The English name of this strange creature, Walrus, means " strange 
horse," the specific title Rosmarus is a Latinized form from the Nor- 
wegian name Rosmar or " Sea-horse " ; the appellation " Morse " seems 
derived from the Lapp name '' Morsk." 

A very full account of the Walrus is given by Dr. Kane in his 
" Arctic Explorations," to which we refer our readers who desire further 
information. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
THE TRUE SEALS. 

THE COMMON SEALS — THEIR WIDE DISTRIBUTION — THEIR HABITS — THEIR LOVE OF MUSIC — ROBBIN's 
REEF — THE CASPIAN SEAL — THE HOE-RAT — THE HARP-SEAL — RICHARD'S SEAL — THE BEARDED 
SEAL — THE GRAY SEAL — THE WHITE-BELLIED SEAL — THE SEA LEOPARD — THE CRAB-EATING 
SEAL — THE FALSE SEA LEOPARD — THE LARGE-EYED SEAL — THE SEA ELEPHANT — THE CRESTED 
SEAL — THE WEST INDIAN SEAL. 

THE family, Phocid^, or True Seals, is pretty equaiiy divided 
between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, frequent- 
ing almost exclusively the cold and temperate regions. The 
absence of an external ear, the short limbs which seem stuck into the 
body, the hairy flippers, and the teeth, distinguish the animals of this 
family from the Eared Seals already described. 

They are usually divided into thirteen genera, and Gray groups these 
genera into five sub-families, the first of which (the sub-family of the 
Phocin.€j, contains five genera. 



I.— GENUS CALLOCEPHALUS. 

The three species of this genus are distributed over the coasts of 
Greenland, the North Sea, and the Caspian Sea, and also in Lakes Aral 
and Baikal, and the occurrence of seals in these inland waters is a fact 
of peculiar interest. In the case of the Caspian and Lake Aral, it is 
remarked by Wallace, that as they are connected with the Northern 
Seas by extensive plains of low elevation, a depression of less than five 
hundred feet would open a communication with the ocean. At a com- 
paratively recent epoch, a gulf of the Arctic Sea must have extended to 
the Caspian till the elevation of the Kirghiz steppes cut off the passage. 

Lake Baikal offers greater difficulties, for it is a fresh-water lake 
situated in a mountain district two thousand feet above the sea-levfii, 
43 



338 CARNIVORA. 

and separated from the plains by several hundred miles of high land. 
Mr. Wallace adds : " We are accustomed to look at seals as animals 
which exclusively inhabit salt water, but there seems no reason why 
fresh water should not suit them, provided they find in it a sufficiency ol 
food, facilities for rearing their young, and freedom from the attacks of 
fenemies. Mr. Belt's ingenious hypothesis that during the Glacial epoch 
the northern ice-cap dammed up the waters of the northward flowing 
Asiatic rivers, and thus formed a vast fresh-water lake which might have 
risen as high as Lake Baikal, seems to ofler the best solution of the 
curious problem." 

The true seals keep closer to the coast than the eared-seals, and are 
rarely seen over thirty nautical miles from land. On land their move- 
ments are awkward — they cannot walk like the eared-seals, but only 
shufHe along ; in the water they are perfectly at home, working their 
fore-flippers as a means of propulsion, while the hind one seems more 
used to steer by, and swimming with great speed. They are often seen 
sporting in the sea, leaping in and out of the water, racing in circles, 
and so occupied with their pursuits that a fisher can approach them 
unperceived. When alarmed, they dive, but do not stay very long 
under water, coming to the surface to breathe once a minute, on the 
average, and perhaps never remaining more than six minutes under 
water. Wallace observes that the seal has the curious habit of sleeping 
for three minutes, and then waking for three minutes. 

The voice of the seal is usually like that of a calf, but when angry it 
utters a growling bark. The eye is very peculiar, the pupil is neither 
round nor oblong, but four-rayed ; the eye is very expressive, and the 
seal when wounded or alarmed sheds tears. In spite of the absence of 
an external ear, the sense of hearing is good, and the creature is very 
susceptible to music, listening with great complacency to the sound of 
bells. The seals will raise their heads above water and listen to the 
song of the sailors weighing the anchor; at Iboy in the Orkneys, the 
church stands on the shore, and when the bell rings for divine service, 
the seals are observed swimming shoreward straight to the spot whence 
the sound proceeds, and then listening with rapture as long as the bells 
are ringing out their summons to all good Christians. 

They are easily tamed, learn their names, and come when called for, 
and it is said that some have been trained to fish. The females are 
devoted to their young, playing with them and defending them at all 



THE COMMON SEAL. 339 

risks ; when hard pressed, they take their offspring in their fore-paws, 
press it to the breast, and fling themselves into the water ; if flight is 
difficult, the mother never deserts her child, but remains to share its 
fate, whether it be captivity or death. 

The food of the seal is almost exclusively fish, and they work sad 
havoc in salmon fisheries, as they occupy the mouths of the rivers and 
catch the ascending fish. In some regions, therefore, they are hunted as 
destroyers ; in others, they are hunted as the most valuable of animals. 
The Greenlanders use every part of the seal, civilized men prize its 
water-proof skin and its oil. The seal-fishery is a mere slaughter, espe- 
cially as carried on by the professional seal-fishers. Another enemy is 
the species of dolphin, Orcinus orca, which the Greenlanders call the 
"Seal's Master"; and the terror of this foe makes the seals lay aside all 
their fear of man, and they will come up on shore and crowd Hke dogs 
around the fishermen, as if hoping to find protection. The Polar Bear, 
too, is assiduous in capturing them. 

The Common Seal, Calloccpkalus vitidinus (Plate XXVI), is found 
on our northern and eastern shores, and is the common seal of Europe. 
It is not, however, very numerous south of Hudson's Bay ; a small 
colony is said to have existed at Nahant, but usually only individuals 
are seen in our waters. It is probable, however, that they were once 
common in New York harbor, as the reef named Robbin's Reef derives 
its name from the Dutch word for seal, " Robbe." 

This seal attains the length of five or six feet, and the female is larger 
than the male. The head is round, the eye large and with a sagacious 
expression, the ear marked only by a slight elevation, the neck short, the 
body tapering from the shoulders to the tail, the fore-feet short, the hind- 
feet broad. The hide is covered with stiff shining bristles over a thin 
undercoat, the color is gray, with brown and black spots. 

It is found all through the North Atlantic, on the coasts of Spain, 
France, England, Scandinavia and Iceland, in the Baltic, in the Sound 
and Belt, as well as in the Gulf of Bothnia and Finland, in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, in the White Sea, and on all our Northern Coast. It has 
been seen in the Gulf of Mexico, and even on the north coast of South 
America. 

To the Esquimaux this seal is indispensable ; his food consists of its 
flesh, his hut is lighted with its oil, its blood is formed into soup, its 
sinews are used for fishing-lines and in countless other ways, its finer 



340 CARNIVORA. 

membranes are dried, and, as they are transparent, are used to cover the 
windows of the hut. Each seal furnishes about half a barrel of oil. 

The Caspian Seal, Calliccphalus Caspkus, seems to be a mere strag- 
gler from the great army of Common Seals, and to possess no very 
characteristic marks, distinguishing it from its fellows. 



II.— GENUS PAGOMYS. 

This genus embraces tivo species, and is distinguished from the pre- 
ceding genus by the greater depression of the skull. 

The Hoe-RAT, Pagoniys fatidus, is the smallest of the northern seals, 
and obtains its specific title firtidiis or " stinking " from the vile odor 
emitted by the old males. 



III.— GENUS PAGOPHILUS. 

The seals contained in the two species of this genus have a longer and 
narrower head than the common seal, a flatter forehead, a longer muzzle, 
a shorter hand, the second finger being the longest. 

The Harp Seal, or Atak, Pagophilus Grcenlandiais (Plate XXVI), may 
be taken as the representative of the genus. It is also called the Saddle- 
back Seal, and derives its name from its remarkable coloring. Its coat 
is a whitish-gray, on which two broad semicircular bands of deep black 
are drawn, extending from the shoulders to the tail ; the muzzle and fore- 
part of the head are also black. This marking is not conspicuous till the 
animal attains its fifth year. 

The Harp Seal is generally about seven feet in length, and is found 
in great numbers on the coasts of Greenland, where it congregates in 
large herds. It prefers to take up its abode upon floating ice-islands. 
The oil it supplies is said to be purer than that from other seals, and it is 
furnished with an extraordinary amount ot blubber. In its habits it 
resembles the Common Seal, and like it, it is easily tamed. 

Two of these animals which were placed in the zoological collection 
at the Jardin des Plantes, were at their first arrival extremely shy, and 
would avoid the person of man with every mark of terror. Yet in a 
very short time they became quite tame, and would voluntarily seek the 
caresses of those who had behaved kindly toward them. They also 



THE HARP SEAL. 34I 

struck up a great friendship with two little dogs, and would allow their 
little playfellows to take all kinds of liberties with them, permitting the 
dogs to sit on their backs and bark, and not even resenting an occasional 
6ite. They would even permit the dogs to take their food from their 
mouths; but if any of the seal-tribe attempted to act in like manner, a 
sharp combat immediately took place, the weaker being forced ulti- 
mately to succumb to superior might. In cold weather, dogs and seals 
were accustomed to huddle closely together for the sake of warmth, and 
when the dogs made their way out of the entrance, the seals did their 
best to follow their little playfellows, caring nothing for the rough 
ground over which they were forced to pass. This Seal stands in great 
dread of other species of Seal, such as the Sea Lion and Sea Bear, and 
according to many accounts holds the spermaceti whale in awe, being 
chased by that formidable creature into the shallow waters of the shore. 
Twice in the year the Harp Seal indulges in a migration similar to that 
of the Sea Leopard. The young of this species are sometimes two in 
number, although the maternal Seal is often forced to content herself 
with a single child. 

IV.— GENUS HALICYON. 

The two species mentioned by Gray are probably identical, and we 
may regard them as the sole representative of the genus. 

Richard's Seal, Halicyon Rkliardsii, the best known species, is found 
on the Californian and Oregon coasts. 

v.— GENUS PHOCA. 

Of the three species of this genus we need mention only one. 

The Bearded Seal, Phoca barbata, is so called from its long mus- 
taches ; from its size, it has also obtained the name of the Great Seal. 
It attains a length of about fifteen feet, is of a dark-brown color, with 
short stiff hair, and fiequents lonely and sequestered places. The Esqui- 
maux say its blubber has a very delicate taste, and its skin is used for 
their harpoon lines. 

The other species are found in the North Pacific, and in Japanese 
waters. 

Gray's sub-family Halich^rina contains only one genus, of one 
species. 



342 CARNIVORA. 

VI. -GENUS HALICH^ERUS. 

The Gray Seal, Halkharus gryplius, is common on the Swedish 
and Scotch coasts. The muzzle is broad and rounded, the skull high in 
front, the nostril very large. In many respects it resembles anatomically 
the walrus, and like the latter, has a small brain, and consequently little 
intelligence. 

The next sub-family is called by Gray MONACHINA, and the genus 
Monachus. We prefer Wallace's nomenclature. 

VII.— GENUS PELAGIUS. 

The ocean near the island of Madeira, and the Black and Mediter- 
ranean seas are the homes of the tivo species of this genus. 

The White-bellied Seal, Pdagius albivenicr, is found in the Medi- 
terranean, especially on the borders of the Adriatic Sea. It varies in 
size from seven feet to over ten feet. It is one of the most intelligent 
of the family. M. Boitard says that he saw one which had been in 
captivity for two years, and which, let loose in ponds and even in large 
invers, came to its master when called. 

The sub-family Stenorhvncina contains /w/r genera. 

VIII.— GENUS STENORHYNCUS. 

The solitary species of the genus inhabits the Antarctic Ocean, 
extending northward to the Falkland Islands, New South Wales, and 
New Zealand. It is named by Gray the Sea Leopard, Stcnorhyncus 
leptonyx ; the hinder feet are nearly clawless, and resemble somewhat 
the tail-fin of a fish. 

IX.— GENUS LOBODON. 

This also is represented by one species. 

The Crab-eating Seal, Lobodon carci)ioplioca, has a pale-olive color 
on the head and back, and hind-feet ; the fore-feet, sides of face, and 
belly are yellowish-white, and the whiskers white. Like the preceding 
genus, it is found in the Antarctic Seas. 



THE LEOPARD SEAL. 343 



X.— GENUS LEPTONYX. 

The False Sea Leopard, or Leopard Seal, Lcptonyx Weddellii, the 
only species yet discovered, is distinguishable from the other Seals by 
means of its slender neck, and the wider gape of its mouth, which 
opens further backward than is generally the case. The body is 
rather curiously formed, being largest toward the middle, from whence 
it tapers rapidly to the short and inconspicuous tail. 

The fore-paws are without any projecting membrane, and are largest 
at the thumb-joint, diminishing gradually to the last joint. The claws 
are sharp and curved, and rather deeply grooved ; their color is black. 
The hind-feet are devoid of claws and projecting membrane, and bear 
some resemblance to the tail-fin of a fish. The color of this Seal is gen- 
erally a pale gray, relieved with a number of pale grayish-white spots, 
which have earned for the animal the name of Leopard Seal. The exter- 
nal ears are wanting. 

Very little is known of the habits of this Seal. Captain Weddell, 
who first noticed this species, speaks of it casually as a well-known 
animal, merely mentioning that his men caught so many Leopard Seals, 
or that they secured so many Seal skins and so many Leopard Seal skins 
in the course of their hunt. 

It is not a very large animal, as the average length of the largest 
specimens is scarcely ten feet. Around the largest part of the body the 
circumference measures nearly six feet and a half, round the root of the 
tail about two feet three inches, and round the neck barely two feet. It 
was recorded by Captain Weddell to have been seen off the South Ork- 
neys. Some specimens in the British Museum were taken off the eastern 
coast of Polynesia. As far as is yet known, these animals are only found 
in the Southern hemisphere. 



XI.— GENUS OMMATOPHOCA. 

This genus is distinguished by a short, broad muzzle, and very large 
orbits of the eyes. Its habitation is the Antarctic Ocean. It contains 
only one species. 

Ross's Large-eyed Seal, Ommatophoca Rossii, has a greenish-yellow 
fur, with oblique yellow stripes on the side. 



344 CARNIVORA. 

Gray's last sub-family is that of the Cystophorina or Crested Seals, 
and comprises two genera. 

XII.— GENUS MORUNGA. 

The two species of this genus are found in California, the Falkland 
Islands, and in general the temperate regions of the Southern Ocean. 

The Sea Elephant, Morunga dcphantina (Plate XXVI). This 
enormous animal, when fully grown, has a length of twenty-five feet, 
and a circumference of sixteen feet. It has a prominent proboscis, 
which, as well as its great size, justifies its name. When fully developed 
this feature attains in the male a length of about four feet. It has the 
power of drawing in or extending it at will. The color of the male is a 
dark grayish-blue or brown, and that of the female a dark olive-brown 
above, and a yellowish-brown below. It has four fingers and a short 
thumb on the fore-limbs, with perfect nails, but the hind-toes are nailless. 
The hair is rather coarse, but the thick skin was formerlv in much 
request for harness. The blubber yields an odorless oil, which burns 
without smoke. Sea-elephants were formerly found in shoals in the 
Antarctic seas, but have been almost entirely exterminated. One of the 
Falkland Islands was called Elephant Island, from the number of tliese 
creatures that frequented it; but when Lecomte was there, he found the 
place deserted. Their food is chiefly cuttle-fish and sea-weed. 

It is a migrating animal, moving southward as the summer comes on, 
and northward when the cold weather of the winter months would make 
its more southern retreats unendurable. Their first migration is gen- 
erally made in the middle of June, when the females become mothers, 
and remain in charge of their nurseries for nearly two months. During 
this time the males are said to form a cordon between their mates and the 
sea, in order to prevent them from deserting their young charges. At 
the expiration of this time, the males relax their supervision, and the 
whole family luxuriates together in the sea, where the mothers soon 
regain their health and strength. They then seek the shore afresh, 
and occupy themselves in settling their matrimonial alliances, which 
are understood on the principle that the strongest shall make his 
choice among the opposite sex, and that the weakest may take 
those that are rejected by his conquerors, or none at all, as the case 
may be. None but the brave obtain the fair. 





SLA BEAR 



SLA LION 
SEA ELEPHANT 



PLATE XXYI.CARNIVORA 



THE CRESTED SEAL. 345 

During the season of courtship the males fight desperately with each 
other, inflicting fearful wounds with their tusk-like teeth, while the 
females remain aloof, as quiet spectators of the combat. They are 
polygamous animals, each male being lord over a considerable number 
of females, whom he rules with despotic sway. When the victorious 
combatants have chosen their mates, they are very careful about their 
safety, and refuse to quit them if they should be in any danger. Know- 
mg this fact, the seal-hunters always direct their attacks upon the 
females, being sure to capture the male afterward. If they were to kill 
the male at first, his harem would immediately disperse and fly in terror, 
but as long as he lives they will continue to crowd round him. 

Although these animals are of so great dimensions and bodily 
strength, and are furnished with a very formidable set of teeth, they are 
not nearly such dangerous antagonists as the walrus, and are most 
apathetic in their habits. When roused, they never use their teeth, but 
waddle away toward the water, their huge bodies shaking like jelly. So 
plentifully are they supplied with blubber, that one male will furnish 
seventy gallons of oil. 

The extraordinary proboscis is not very conspicuous till the animal 
is excited ; then it protrudes it, blows violently through it, and has a 
most formidable appearance. The female is entirely destitute of this 
extraordinary and inexplicable appendage. 

At present the Sea Elephant is found chiefly near the Crozet Islands 
and Kerguelen's Land, but it seems possible that in a few years it will be 
as extinct as the Mammoth. 

XIII.— GENUS CYSTOPHORA. 

The preceding genus has the nose developed into a trunk ; this one 
has it provided with a hood. The head is broad, and the muzzle very 
short, and over the head stands a cartilaginous crest, six or seven inches 
in height, supporting a hood-like development of the septum of the 
nares, which is covered with short brown hair, and can be inflated 
at will. This extraordinary head-gear is peculiar to the adult male. 
The genus contains two species. 

The Crested Seal, Cystophora cristata (Plate XXVI) is found spread 
over the coasts of Southern Greenland, and is in the habit of reposing 
much upon ice-islands, caring comparatively little for ordinary land. It 
44 



346 CARNIVORA. 

also frequents the shores of Northern America. From September to 
March it is found in Davis' Straits, but leaves that locality for the purpose 
of producing and rearing its young, and returns again in June, together 
with its ofi'spring, in a very bare and poor condition. About July it 
takes another excursion, and employs its time in recovering the health 
md strength which it had lost during the period of its former absence, 
so that in September it is very fat, and altogether in excellent con- 
dition for the fisher who values it for its oil. 

The Crested Seal attains the size of ten to twelve feet when fully 
grown, and then it is of a dark blue-black color on the back, fading away 
to a yellowish-white below : a number of gray patches, each with a dark 
spot, are scattered over the body ; the head, tail, and feet are black. It is 
the lion of the Northern Seas, and shares with the walrus the empire of 
the Pole. The onset of an enraged Crested Seal is much to be dreaded, 
for the creature is marvellously fierce when its anger is roused, and its 
strength is very considerable. The teeth, too, are formidably powerful, 
and can inflict very dangerous wounds. In fighting, they can use their 
claws as well as their teeth. The males are always pugnacious animals, 
and during the season when they choose their mates are in the habit of 
fighting desperately among each other for the possession of some 
attractive female, and in these combats inflict severe lacerations. 
During these conflicts the two combatants express their mutual rage 
by emitting a torrent of loud, passionate, yelling screams, which are 
audible at a considerable distance. Various speculations have been 
made regarding the use of the crest, or rather, nasal bladder. It 
probably is useful by protecting that very vulnerable spot, the nose. 

The West Indian Crested Seal, Cystophora Antillamm, has a gray- 
brown color. In the Report of the U. S. Exploring Expedition to the 
Antarctic Seas, Dr. Pickering states that he saw one a hundred and thirty- 
'ive miles from land, swimming entirely by its pectoral fins. 



ORDER V. 



C E T A C E A 



Sub-Order— I. 
MYSTACETI. 



36. BAL.ENID^. 

37. BAL.ENOPTERID^. 



Sub-Order— II. 
ODONTOCETI. 



38. CATODONTID.E. 

39. HYPEROODONTIDzE 

40. MONODONTIDiE. 

41. DELPHINID^, 



^irfr|eg6|rrr|c£:|rrf|s3^|rn|^^i|ffr|g§?|rrr|cg^inT|4g'|r[r|#^fr|0|ffr^g'|frr[i^ 




CHAPTER I. 
THE RIGHT V/HALES. 



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THE CETACEA — THE FAMILY BAL.INID/E — THE GREENLAND WHALE — ITS MODE OF RESPIRATION — 
ITS BLUBBER — WHALEBONE — THE YOUNG WHALE — ENEMIES OF THE WHALE — THE WHALE 
FISHERY — AMERICAN WHALERS — MODE OF HUNTING THE WHALE — THE HARPOON AND BOMB- 
LANCE — AUSTRALIAN RIGHT WHALE — SCRAG WHALE — BISCAY WHALE — GENUS EUBAL/ENA — 
GENERA HUNTERIUS, CAPERIA, MACLEAYIUS. 

THE order at which we have now arrived contains some of the 
largest animals of the world. In land animals, whose weight 
has to be supported by limbs, there is evidently a limit to their 
size ; while aquatic animals, buoyed up by the dense medium of water 
on every side, and surrounded by an inexhaustible supply of food, attain 
to enormous dimensions. 

The Cetacea are mammals deprived entirely of hinder limbs. The 
trunk of the body is prolonged into a thick tail terminated by a broad fin 
which resembles in its general shape that of a fish, but is entirely com- 
posed of an expansion of the skin, supported by a tough cartilaginous 
substance. This tail, instead of being placed vertically, is horizontal, 
thus enabling the animals to plunge into the depths of the ocean, and 
rise again to the surface. The head is joined to the body without any 
apparent neck, and the fore- limbs ai^e so flattened and hidden in the skin 
that they may easily be mistaken for pectoral fins. Dissection, however, 
shows that they present, under a modified shape, bones and fingers cor- 
responding to those met with in the lion and the bat. Constructed 
entirel)' for swimming, the Cetacea are strictly confined to the waters ; 
nevertheless they breathe air by means of lungs, and are therefore per- 
petually compelled to come to the surface for the purpose of respiration. 
Their blood is hot ; they bring forth living young which they feed with 
their own milk, and thus, in all details of their structure, differ from the 
cold-blooded, gill-breathing, oviparous fishes. As the Cetacea often dive 



350 CETACEA. 

to considerable depths, where the pressure ot water is enormous, they 
are provided with a covering of great elasticity. Their skin is thick- 
ened, and made up of a texture of interwoven fibres enclosing an im- 
mense quantity of oil or blubber, which is admirably adapted to resist 
compression. This thick integument of fat retains the animal heat, and 
thus enables the Cetaceans to inhabit the coldest regions of the ocean, 
and as oil is lighter than water, it contributes greatly to the buoyancy 
of these unwieldy animals. A dead whale floats, but the carcass, when 
stripped of blubber, sinks immediately. 

The order Cetacea is divided into two sub-orders ; Mystaceti, or 
true whales, which have the mouth provided with baleen or whalebone, 
and Odontoceti, sperm-whales, blackfish, porpoises, and the like, which 
have teeth in one or both jaws. The first sub-order contains tzvo families, 
the second, /^?^r. 

THE RIGHT WHALES. 

The family Bal^NID.-e is divided into six genera and fourteen species, 
but most of the latter are imperfectly known, and their classification is 
by no means settled ; it comprises the " right " whales, of which the 
Greenland whale is the most important. 



GENUS BAL^^NA. 

Into this genus three species are admitted without controversy ; but a 
fourth, the so-called "Scrag Whale of Dudley," has been the subject of 
great doubt, as it is not known to whalers now-a-days, and is supposed 
by Cuvier to be a mutilated Rorqual. 

The Greenland or Right Whale, Baleena Mystaeetus (Plate 
XXVII), inhabits the Northern seas, and when full-grown, attains a 
length of sixty to seventy feet, with about thirty to forty feet in girth. 
Its color is velvety black upon the upper part of the body, gray at the 
junction of the tail and at the base of the fins, and white on the abdomen. 
The head is remarkably large, being about one-third of the length of the 
entire bulk. The jaws open very far back, and average sixteen feet in 
length, seven feet wide, and ten or twelve feet in height, affording space 
for a jolly-boat and her crew to float in. The tail is enormousl}' power- 
ful, enabling the largest whales, measuring eighty feet in length, to leap 



THE WHALE. 35 I 

clear out of the water, like a trout after a fly. This movement is techni- 
cally called " breaching," and the splash of the creature as it falls back 
into the water may be heard for miles. The length of the tail in the 
larger whales is about five or six feet, but it is often more than twent}" 
feet in breadth. The skin of the whale is devoid of hair, and is of very 
peculiar structure. The true skin constitutes the blubber, which is never 
less than two inches in depth, and in some places is nearly two feet 
thick ; it is as elastic as caoutchouc, and in a large specimen will weigh 
thirty tons. 

The whales are compelled to rise to the surface to breathe; their 
respirations are technically called " spoutings," because a column of 
vapor is ejected from the " blow-holes " or nostrils, and spouts up to the 
height of about twenty feet. These blow-holes are on the upper part of 
the head, so that very little of the carcass need be exposed during the 
operation ; in fact, only the upper portion of the head and part of the 
back are visible. The "spoutings" can be heard for a considerable 
distance, and indicate to the fisher the presence of their victim. These 
"spoutings" at intervals would not be of any avail to oxygenize the 
blood unless the organs of respiration had been modified to meet the 
peculiar circumstances in which the whales are placed : the whales 
therefore are furnished with a large reservoir of arterial blood, which is 
contained in a mass of vessels lining the interior of the chest and the 
adjacent parts, and which are capable of holding a sufficient quantity of 
fresh blood to support life for a considerable period. 

The spout is not formed of any liquid water ; it is composed at one 
and the same time of hot air issuing from the chest, of a certain quantity 
of vapor of water, mixed with this air, and of greasy particles. So, 
when the temperature is rather high, the sea calm, and, above all, when 
the sun is near the zenith, this blowing, or spouting, is invisible. When 
the vapor from this blow-spout is disseminated into the air, it dissolves — 
all disappears : there falls nothing but a few little drops of greasy matter. 
These drops, diffused over the surface of the water, and joined to the 
exhalations of the skin, leave on the surface of the sea long trails of oily 
spots, which show the way by which the whale has passed. Of course 
there is always a certain quantity of water, which has penetrated into 
the aerial canal terminated by the blow-hole, and this water is mixed in 
a state of minute subdivision or particles, with the respired air, and dis- 
seminates itself in the atmosphere, like the pulmonary moisture. 



35- CETACEA. 

The whales descend to depths so profound, that if a piece of dry 
wood be sunk to an equal depth, it will become saturated, and cease to 
tioat ; their ears and nostrils require special adaptations to prevent the 
water from penetrating into these cavities ; they are consequently pro- 
vided with an ingenious valvular structure which closes the external 
orifices in proportion to the depth to which the animal dives. 

The substance called " whalebone " is a very remarkable feature in 
the jaws of the Right Whales. This whalebone, or baleen, is found 
in a series of plates, thick and solid at the insertion into the jaw, and 
splitting at the extremity into a multitude of hair-Hke fringes. On each 
side of the jaw there are more than three hundred of these plates. The 
weight of baleen which is furnished by a large whale is about one ton. 
This substance does not take its origin directly from the gum, but from 
a peculiar vascular formation which rests upon it. These masses of 
baleen are placed along the sides of the mouth for the purpose of aiding 
the whale in procuring its food and separating it from the water. 

The mode of feeding which is adopted by the whale is as follows: 
The animal frequents those parts of the ocean which are the best sup- 
plied with the various creatures on which it feeds, and which are all of 
very small size, as is needful from the size of its gullet, which is not 
quite two inches in diameter. Small shrimps, crabs, and lobsters, 
together with various molluscs and medusee, form the diet on which the 
vast bulk of the Greenland Whale is sustained. Driving with open 
mouth through the congregated shoals of these little creatures, the 
whale engulphs them by millions in its enormous jaws, and continues its 
destructive course until it has sufficiently charged its mouth with prey. 
Closing its jaws and driving out through the interstices of the whale- 
bone the water which it has taken together with its prey, it retains the 
captured animals which are entangled in the whalebone, and swallows 
them at its ease. The multitude of these little creatures that must 
hourly perish is so enormous, that the prolific powers of nature would 
seem inadequate to keep up a supply of food for the herds of whales that 
inhabit the Northern seas. Yet the supply is more tiian equal to the 
demand, for the sea is absolutely reddened for miles by the countless 
millions of medusas that swarm in its w.iters. 

The enormous mouth contains an immense tongue, which sometimes 
measures as much as twenty-five feet in length and twelve feet in 
breadth. This organ is very soft, and produces five to six barrels of oil. 



THE WHALE. 353 

The e3-e is placed immediately above the junction of the lips, very near 
the shoulder, and thus either eye can see only the objects on its own 
side ; it is very small, and often difficult to discover ; the eyelids are 
destitute of lashes, and so swollen by the grease which occupies their 
interior, that they are almost incapable of being moved. The structure 
of the eye is admirably adapted for aquatic media. 

The Greenland Whale, as its name indicates, inhabits the Arctic seas 
without having, however, any fixed dwelling-place. Its coming and 
going depends on the state of the ice, and it immediately leaves a neigh- 
borhood when the ice is melted. Accordmg to some observers, the old 
whales never come south of 65^ north latitude, nor the younger ones 
south of 64°. Between the 66° and 69° both young and old are seen 
regularly in December and January. In March, numbers are seen in the 
bays and near the islands of the coast of Greenland, but after that month 
they retire to the north, and in summer may be found in the latitude of 
71° to 75° north, resuming their journey to the south in the end of Sep- 
tember. 

According to the observations of Scoresby and Brown, the whales 
pair about June or July, and bring forth their young (never more 
than one at a birth) in ten months. No one has yet seen how the 
little one is taught to suck. Other marine mammals are either born 
on land, or if born in the water, as is the case with the Sirenia, 
are clasped by the mother to her breast and raised above the sur- 
face. The whales, from their bodily structure, must, from the first 
moment of their lives, perform the same motions as the parent. Scam- 
mon states that the mother reclines on one side on the surface of the 
water in order to give suck. The young whale sucks for nearly a year, 
during which time the mother displays the utmost affection and solici- 
tude, exposing herself to all dangers, and never leaving it as long as she 
IS alive. 

The movements of the whale are by no means so slow as we might 
imagine, if we regarded only the unwieldy shape of the carcass. A 
whale wounded at Scoresby Sound on the east coast of Greenland, was 
found dead next day on the west coast at Omenak ; it must therefore 
have swum round Cape Farewell, and traversed a distance of nearly 
three hundred miles. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the 
length of time the whale can remain under water. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances it seldom exceeds half an hour, although one instance is 
45 



354 CETACEA. 

recorded where a wounded old whale remained an hour and twenty 
minutes without rising. When it did appear, it was terribly exhausted. 

The whale possesses numerous enemies, the chief being the Gladiator 
Dolphin, the most savage of all Cetacea. The Thresher and Greenland 
Shark do not attack it while alive. A very circumstantial account, 
given by many writers, of a combat between the sword-fish and the 
whale, originated in a misconception, the name sword-fish being applied 
by many sailors to the above-mentioned Gladiator Dolphin. Each kind 
of whale has its own peculiar kind of parasite, one has the Coromila, 
another the Diadema, a third the Tubicinilla. They are all sunk beneath 
the surface of the skin, with the aperture for the free valve exposed, and 
as they grow in size, they sink deeper into the skin. Birds have often 
been observed alighting on the backs of whales for the purpose of pick- 
ing up these cirripeds, but the operation does not seem to be acceptable 
to the marine monster, which usually dives with the utmost speed when 
it feels the first dig of the bird's beak. 

The whale is an animal of great importance to civilized and to savage 
men. The oil which is procured in great quantities from its blubber and 
other portions of its structure is almost invaluable to us, while the bones 
and baleen find their use in every civilized land. To the natives of the 
polar regions, however, the whale is of still greater value, as they pro- 
cure many necessaries of life from various parts of its body, eat the flesh, 
and drink the oil. Repulsive as such a diet may appear to us who live 
in a warm region, it is an absolute necessity in these ice-bound lands, 
such oleaginous diet being needful in order to keep up the heat of the 
body by a bountiful supply of carbon. But the best part of the whale is 
one that would hardly be expected to form an article of diet, namely the 
portion of the gums in which the roots of the baleen are still imbedded. 
The Tuskis call this substance their sugar, though its flavor is very like 
that of cream-cheese. One traveler who had been obliged, through 
motives of politeness, to take part in a native banquet, and who had been 
more than disgusted by the very remarkable dishes which were brought 
to table, became quite enthusiastic on the merits of whale's skin and 
gum, acknowledging himself to be agreeably surprised by the former, 
and calling the latter article of diet " perfectly delicious." On the shores 
of the Polar Sea whalebone is used for building purposes, and the dwell- 
ings thus constructed are described as better and more solid than most 
of the Siberian huts on that bleak coast. 



WHALE FISHING. 355 

THE WHALE FISHERY. 

The chase of the whale has been long practised, and has furnished 
material for countless stories of adventures. The figure copied from 
" Scoresby's Account of the Arctic Regions" of a whale tossing a boat 
and its crew far into the air is an artistic exaggeration ; at the utmost, a 
whale has been known to toss a boat nearly three feet into the air. The 
occupation has enough of excitement and danger to dispense with any 
imaginary feats. The Basques are the people to whom belongs the 
honor of first fitting vessels for hunting the whale. Like other nations, 
these bold sailors at first contented themselves with attacking the 
rorquals that visited their native coasts, but as early as 1372 they ven- 
tured into the Northern seas. But the civil war of 1633 which ended in 
a success for the Spaniards, destroyed the whale-fishing enterprise of the 
Basques, many of whom left their country, and took with them a 
knowledge of the art. .Hull, in England, sent out a whaling-ship in 1598, 
and the merchants of Amsterdam formed a company in 1611 to prose- 
cute the fishing near Spitzbergen. The business speedily developed. 
Between 1676 and 1722 the Dutch had sent out 5,886 ships from their 
harbors, and captured 32,907 whales. In 1732 England offered a bounty 
to whalers, and even doubled the amount in 1749: the result was that 
soon afterward she had over two hundred ships engaged in the pursuit. 
At present the Americans are the most active. Scammon states that 
between 1835 and 1872 nearly 20,000 vessels had been occupied in the 
trade, and brought back a little over three and a half million barrels of 
spermaceti, and six and a half million barrels of train oil ; worth, alto- 
gether, two hundred and seventy-two millions of dollars. This state- 
ment leads to the conclusion that 3,865 sperm whales, and 2,875 right 
whales were killed annually. The year 1854 shows the largest figures, 
668 ships, 73,696 barrels sperm, and 319,837 barrels train oil: while, in 
1872, the numbers had fallen to 218 ships, 44,880 barrels sperm, and 
31,395 barrels train oil, and in 1876, to 169 ships of all sizes. 

Whale-fishing is not only a very dangerous and laborious pursuit, but 
it is also exceedingly precarious. Sometimes a complete cargo of oil 
and whalebone is taken in a short time, but it also happens that after a 
long cruise not a single whale is caught. 

The Greenland whale-fishery was at first confined to the seas between 
Spitzbergen and Greenland, but at present the whalers seek the higher 



356 CETACEA. 

latitudes of Baffin's Bay, sometimes entering Lancaster Sound and Bar- 
row's Straits. 

Tiie ships leave tlieir harbors for the Arctic fishing-grounds in spring, 
and when they reach the fishing-grounds, either cruise to and fro, or lie 
at anchor in a favorable spot. Men are placed at the mast-head to look 
out. The cry, " There she blows," brings all the crew on deck, the 
boats are at once manned with six or eight rowers, a helmsman and a 
harpooner, and row with all speed toward the unsuspecting whale. The 
harpoon is a long, lance-like weapon, provided with a strong barb, and 
made fast to a very long, very flexible rope which is rolled on a reel with 
the utmost care, as any kink in it as it runs out would imperil the boat. 
The boat approaches as near the whale as possible, the harpooner rises 
and poises his weapon. He flings it with all his strength, and the rowers 
immediately back-water to get away from the wounded animal. Usu- 
ally it dives at once, and with such speed that the line runs from the 
reel with such violence that it has to be kept cool by pouring water over 
it. It often, indeed, happens that the boat is dragged for hours by the 
wounded creature in its headlong flight. The whale appears at the sur- 
face in about a q^uarter of an hour, in order to breathe ; the boat from 
which it has been struck and other boats from the ship apprr-ach a 
second weapon is plunged iucO the body. The fish rolls froir side to 
side, leaps out of the water, dives furiously, leaving a whirlpo(<l behind 
it ; rises once more, only to meet a new lance. Blood is driven out from 
the blow-holes, and the sea is dyed red; a vain expenditure ol strength 
makes the ocean boil, then comes a final quiver, and the whale sinks on 
one side, a plaything for the waves ; while, in the Southern seas, thou- 
sands of birds, chiefly petrels and albatrosses, are flying around waiting 
to make a meal of the dead monster. 

When the whale is dead, it is made fast alongside of the ship, belly 
upward, its tail forward, and its nose level with the stern of the vessel. 
It is not without great difficulty that this enormous mass, which just 
now traversed the sea with such facility, can be towed so as to be 
landed on the shore. 

In olden times the fishermen of the north of Europe used to cut up 
the whale by going upon its carcass, provided with boots furnished 
with cramp-irons. They thus stripped off" bands of blubber along the 
whole length of the animal, from head to tail. But this way of cutting 
up the whale was long, difficult, and even dangerous. 



THE SCRAG WHALE. 357 

The whalers in the Southern Ocean have a better way of proceeding : 
this consists in cutting out, along the whole length of the animal's body, 
a broad continuous band shaped like a screw, beginning at the head and 
only finishing at the tail, very nearly in the same way in which children 
proceed when they are taking off the peel of an orange. 

The head is drawn up by puUies, and they then detach, b}' means of 
sharp spades, one side of the under-lip, and take it away ; they then 
detach the tongue, which weighs many thousands of pounds ; then the 
other half of the lip ; next the upper jaw, with its whalebone-plates, 
which are becoming more and more sought after in commerce every 
day. Then they begin to cut a thick band of grease and skin, which 
they keep on detaching, hauling up on board, and stowing away. It is 
thus that they unwind, as we may sav, the whale, making its body turn 
round on itself. The blubber is then melted ; a single Right Whale will 
yield twenty tons of oil. 

The harpoon, however, has been superseded by the bomb-lancc. This 
weapon contains about one hundred grains of powder, and can be 
thrown by a heavy gun a distance of over twenty fathoms. When the 
gun is fired, the projectile penetrates into the fleshy parts of the animal, 
the fuse which had been kindled by the explosion of the gun, sets fire 
to the powder in the bomb, the bomb explodes and throws out 
barbs. If the explosion of the charge takes place in the lung, death is 
nearly al\va3's instantaneous. 

The Greenland fishers estimate the size of the fish by the size of the 
whalebone, and when this is six feet long, the whale is called a size-fish. 
The flakes of whalebone are from ten to fourteen feet in length in full- 
grown specimens, the breadth of the largest at the thick end is about a 
foot. As regards the color of the whalebone, it is variable. In the 
young, the laminas are frequently striped green and black, but on the old 
animal they are occasionally altogether black ; often some of the laminje 
are striped with alternate streaks of black and white, whilst others want 
this variegation. Whalebone is said to be occasionally found white, 
without the animal differing in the slightest degree; and, accordingly, 
this character loses its supposed importance as being a peculiarity of the 
exceedingly dubious Scrag Whale indicated by Dudley. With regard to 
the nature of whalebone Dr. Gray writes : " The baleen has generally 
been considered as the teeth of the whale, but this is a mistake. The 
teeth in the balmna never cut the gum, but are reabsorbed, while the 



35^ ■ CETACEA. 

integumentary system furnishes the baleen, which is evidently a modified 
form of hair and cuticle." 

We need not do more than mention the other species of the o-enus as 
they do not differ in any important particular from the Greenland 
Whale, which we have just described. 

The Western Australian Right Whale, Balcena viarginatu, is 
remarkable for the length and slenderness of its whalebone, and is un- 
doubtedly a very distinct species. 

The Scrag Whale, Balmna gibbosa, we have already mentioned. 
Its describer Dudley writes in the year 1725, " Nearly' akin to the Fin- 
back, but instead of a fin upon its back, the ridge of the after-part of its 
back is scragged with half-a-dozen knobs or knuckles. He is nearest the 
Right Whale {B. viysticctus) in figure and quantity of oil. His bone 
(whalebone) is white, but will not split." Mr. Brown says, " What 
whale this is, I cannot imagine." 

The Biscay Whale, BaLena Biscayensis, is the name given bv Dr. 
Eschricht to a second species of Right Whale found in the Greenland 
seas, whicli is much smaller and more active than the Balczna viysticctus, 
and which belongs to the temperate North Atlantic. 



GENUS EUBALvENA. 

The C.\PE Whale, Eubalcena Australis, is the onlj^ species that can 
be certainly referred to this genus ; a female measuring sixty-eight feet in 
length has been caught, and we may remark that in the Greenland Right 
Whale, and probablv in all other BalcenidcE, the female is the larger. 
The Japanese Whale (£. Sicbaldii of Gray), according to that naturalist, 
" is onh- described and figured from a model made in porcelain clav bv a 
Japanese under the inspection of a Japanese whaler and of Dr. Siebold ; 
but no remains of the animal were brought to Europe ; so that we do not 
know whether it is a Eubalana or a Hiintcrins, or if it may not be an 
entirely new form." Mr. Bennett observes that " the Right Whale, so 
abundant and so little molested in the northernmost waters of the Pacific, 
especially off" the north-west coast of America, is probably identical with 
the Greenland species ; " but Dr. Gray remarks that its baleen, which is 
very inferior in qualitv to that of B. mvstnrtiis, " shows that it is more 
allied to the Cape species, but apparently distinct from it." 



THE SOUTHERN WHALE. 359 

GENERA HUNTERIUS, CAPERIA, MACLEAYIUS. 

These three Southern genera are only beginning to be understood. 
In one or more of them a curious horny substance is commonly observed 
upon the fore-part of the head, which the whalers denominate the crea- 
ture's " bonnet." One in the British Museum, obtained at the Sandwich 
Islands, is oblong in shape, eleven inches long and eight inches wide, 
with a very rough, pitted surface. The whole substance seems to be 
formed of irregular homy layers placed one over the other, the lowest 
layer being the last one formed ; and each of these layers is more or less 
crumpled and plicated on the surface, giving the irregular appearance to 
the mass. " I do not recollect obsers'ing any account of this ' bonnet,' " 
writes Dr. Gray, " or giant com, or rudimentary frontal horn, as it may be 
regarded, in any account of the Right Whale, nor in that of the Cacha- 
lot. I have especially searched for it in works by persons who have 
seen these whales alive, but without success. It has been suggested by 
Mr. Holdsworth, that the ' bonnet ' may be a natural development, and 
possibly characteristic of the species bearing it." 

Our knowledge of the Cetaceans is still very incomplete ; they dwell 
in the most inaccessible parts of the ocean, and the swiftness of their 
movements rarely allows more than a transient view of their external 
form. Doubtless many species are still unknown, and doubtless, too, one 
and the same species has often been described under different names. 




CHAPTER II. 

THE FINNER WHALES AND RORQUALS. 

THE HUMPBACK OR BUNCHED WHALES — THE RORQUALS OR BIG FINNERS — DIFFICULTY OF 
TAKING THEM — THE NORTHERN FINNER — THE SULPHUR-BOTTOM — ADVENTURE OF THE 
SHIP " PLYMOUTH " — THE GREAT INDIAN RORQUAL — ANCIENT ACCOUNTS OF IT — THE 
PIKE WHALE — THE SOUTHERN RORQUAL — THE CALIFORNIA GRAY WHALE. 

THE second family, Bal^nopterid.e, comprises the Finner' 
Whales and Rorquals, which are characterized by possessing 
a dorsal fin, and by having the baleen, or whalebone, less 
developed. The head is moderate in size, the body elongate, the belly 
usually marked with longitudinal plaits. They are abundant in all the 
Northern seas, occasionally found in the Tropical seas, and reappear in 
the Southern hemisphere in less numbers than in the Northern. The 
family is divided into nine genera, containing tivcnty-two species. We 
describe the most typical. 

GENUS MEGAPTERA. 

The animals of this genus are distinguished by having the flippers 
elongated, and the dorsal fin placed very low, the flippers attaining to 
one-fifth, or even one-fourth of the total length of the animal. From 
this extraordinary development the genus derives its name Megaptera, 
from the Greek words mcgas '• great " and pteron a " wing or fin." 
When the integument is removed these flippers are seen to be provided 
with only four fingers. The whalebone is of little value, being short, 
not splitting kindly, and becoming twisted when dry. 

THE HUMPBACK WHALE. 

The Humpback or Bunched Whale, Megaptera longimana, may 
be taken as the representative of the genus. It is found in all parts of 



THE HUMF-BACK WHALE. 361 

the ocean, and attains a length of sixty to eighty feet, with fins measuring 
from twelve to twenty feet. The body is thick and clumsy, the front 
part, especially on the lower surface — for the pecuharit}' is not so 
noticeable on the back — being extraordinarily protuberant, the hinder 
part at the tail being remarkably contracted. The under jaw is longer 
and broader than the upper. On the last quarter of the body is founds 
with various modifications and developments, a mass of blubber forming 
a hump, a foot or so in height, and about the size of a man's head. 
From the under-jaw there run along the throat and breast as far as the 
pectoral fin- broad folds varying in number from eighteen to twenty-six, 
which are supposed to enable the creature to dilate its maw at pleasure. 
The skin is smooth, and is usually of a more or less uniform black on the 
back, while the under surface of the body and the pectoral fins are of a 
whitish color : some specimens are simply black above and white below, 
others all black, others black above, white below, with the pectoral and 
tail fins of a dark ash-gray hue. 

The Humpback or Bunched Whale is very .ommon, and seems to 
migrate annually from the Poles to the South, C'jming southward about 
September, and returning to the Arctic seas in spring. Off the coast of 
Upper California they are seen rarely between April and December, but 
on the coast of Greenland they are found only in summer. On the west 
coast of America they are seen all the year, but not every month at the 
same places. The movements of this whale are very irregular ; it seldom 
swims any great distance in one direction ; it stops here and there for 
longer ur shorter intervals, and changes its course. At times the Hump- 
backs appear in numerous companies which cover the sea as far as the 
eye can reach, at other times they appear solitary, yet in this latter case 
they indulge in all the play, and all the attitudes of the tribe, as if they 
were surrounded by hundreds of their fellows. Even when swimming 
under water, they rock themselves from side to side. When they 
breathe, they blow in quick succession six to twenty times, sending up 
spouts of various degrees of strength from six to eighteen feet in height. 
Their food consists exclusively of small fishes and molluscs. 

The Humpwhales are almost entirely neglected by the fishers, as their 
blubber furnishes much less oil than the Greenland or Sperm Whales. 
Of like quantities of blubber taken from Humpback and Greenland 
Whales respectively, the former will give eighteen, the latter sixty 
barrels of oil. Hence they are never chased when anything better can 
46 



362 CETACEA. 

be procured. Since our acquisition of Alaska, the capture of this species 
of whale has been carried on, while the older hunting-grounds, the Bays 
of Monterey, Magdalena, and Balenas are neglected. 

The American Humpback, Mcgaptera Americana, is found in the 
neighborhood of Bermuda, and attains a length of fifty to sixty feet. 



GENUS PHYSALUS. 

The general characteristics of this genus — which contains four 
species — are as follows ; the head forms one-fourth of the total length, 
the dorsal fin rises in the last quarter of the body, the pectoral fins close 
behind the head ; the tail is deeply cut in the middle, forming two more 
or less clearly divided flaps. 

THE RORQUAL. 

The Rorqual, Physalus antiquonnn (Plate XXVIII), is called also 
the "Gibbar," the " Razorback," or the "Big Finner." It is the most 
slender of all cetaceans, and the longest of all known animals, measuring 
in some cases upwards of one hundred feet. The pectoral fins possess a 
length of one-tenth of the creature's length, and a breadth of one-fifteenth. 
The body attains its greatest thickness just behind the pectoral fins, but 
towards the tail becomes so compressed that its vertical section is con- 
siderably greater than its horizontal diameter. With the exception of a 
few hairs, or rather of some horny filaments split at the extremity into 
very fine threads, which are found on the upper jaw, the body is per- 
fectly smooth, of a black color above, and pure white below. The deep 
furrows which run from the lower jaw down to the navel, are of a 
bluish-black. These furrows resemble cuts made with a knife. The 
toothless jaws bear three hundred to three hundred and fifty plates of 
baleen on each side, but this substance is short, coarse, and valueless for 
ordinary manufacturing purposes. 

The Rorqual frequents the northern portions of the Atlantic Ocean 
and the Arctic seas, and is especially abundant near Barendt's Island, 
Nova Zembla, and Spitzbergen. When autumn begins, the Rorquals 
migrate to southern waters, and are found during the winter in the seas 
of the Temperate and Torrid Zones. 



THE RORQUAL. 363 

As befits its slender figure, the Rorqual is a swift and active animal, 
and when going at full speed, can pass a steamship. Its course is right 
ahead, and it rises on an average every ninety seconds to breathe. Less 
timid than other members of the family, it often appears near sailing 
ships, swimming round them or following them for hours ; it displays 
extraordinary courage, and when provoked is the most mischievous of 
all whales : it possesses social instincts, and in case of danger seeks with 
all its power to defend its fellows. 

It requires more nourishing food than the Right Whale, and has a 
much larger gullet. In the stomach of a single Rorqual six hundred 
codfish have been found, as well as a quantity of pilchards. It is in pur- 
suit of the shoals of these fishes that the Rorqual proceeds southward, 
hovering around the fishing-ground and swallowing whole boat-loads of 
herrings and pilchards. It eats also immense quantities of sea-weed, 
and is said by observant fishermen to leave a neighborhood when the 
sea-weed is all consumed. 

The Rorqual being almost valueless for commercial purposes, is 
seldom attacked by whale-fishers, and it is so active and fearless that the 
aggressors have often to repent their temerity. On one such occasion 
the Rorqual when harpooned started off in a direct line, and at such a 
rate that the men in the boat lost their presence of mind, and forgot to 
cut the rope. The whale made straight for a neighboring ice-field, shot 
beneath it, and dragged the boat and its crew beneath the ice. Scoresby 
endeavored to secure some Rorquals by using short lines with a buoy at 
the end, hoping the resistance offered by the buoy would tire out the 
whale. Two Rorquals were struck ; the first dived with such speed and 
force that the line snapped away from the buoy ; the second got loose by 
the rope being cut by the dorsal fin. A third that was harpooned by 
mistake, carried out three thousand feet of line in about a minute, and 
escaped by snapping the rope. 

While neglected by the regular whalers, the Rorqual is eagerly 
chased by the inhabitants of the coasts which it visits. The chase 
is dangerous, not merely from the strength of the animal attacked, 
but from the fact that the other whales in the vicinity come to 
assist their comrade in his hour of need. 

The Laplanders, who find the bones and other portions of this animal 
to be of great service to them, unite in its chase, and employ a very 
simple mode of action. To harpoon such a being would be useless, so 



364 CETACEA. 

they content themselves with inflicting as many wounds as possible, and 
leaving it to die. After the lapse of a few days the huge carcass is 
generally found dead upon the strand, and becomes the property of all 
those who have wounded it and can prove their claims by the weapons 
which are found in its body. The person who finds the stranded carcass 
is by law entitled to one-thiid of the value. 

The Northern Finner Whale, Physahis Gibbaldii, has been taken 
by Gray as the representative of a separate genus which he calls Gibbal- 
dius. It attains a length of one hundred feet, and has pectoral fins twelve 
feet in length. Little is known about this species, as it is usually con- 
founded with the Rorqual. 

THE SULPHUR-BOTTOM FINNER. 

The Sulphur-bottom Whale, Pliysalns sulphitrcus, is found on our 
North-west Coast. It is, perhaps, the largest of the whales frequenting 
the Pacific Ocean. It is found on the coast ot CaHfornia at all times of 
the year, but appears from May to September in numerous bands which 
approach the coast fearlessly, and swim round ships at anchor, or accom- 
pany them on their voyage. In the year 1850 the ship "Plymouth" 
passed through a school of these whales. One of them left its com- 
panions and followed the ship for twentv-four days. The crew, not 
admiring this dangerous companion, tried all means to get rid of it. As 
whales have a great horror of bilge-water, they set their pumps to work, 
but in vain. They pelted the whale with bottles, pieces of spars, and 
other missiles, and fired ball after ball into it. But the Sulphur-bottom 
paid no heed to their attentions, and kept close to the ship, occupying 
exactly the same position with regard to the vessel, whether she was 
sailing free before the wind, tossing about in a gale, or lying becalmed. 
At the end of November, the " Plymouth " met the bark " Kirkwood ;" 
as the ships approached to each other within speaking distance, the 
whale left the " Plymouth " and took its station at the " Kirkwood," but 
when they parted, it returned to its old ship. The sailors gradually 
grew accustomed to the creature's presence, and called it " Blowliard," 
affirming that it knew its name, and would come nearer when summoned 
by this appellation. The Sulphur-bottom seemed to be anxious when 
the " Plymouth" drew near the coast, and finally left the ship when she 
came into soundings. 



THE GREAT RORQUAL. 365 



THE INDIAN RORQUAL. 

The Great Indian Rorqual, Pliysalus Indicus, was seen by Near- 
chus, who commanded the Indian fleet of Alexander the Great, B. c. 327. 

Arrian informs us that when, in the morning, Nearchus was off Kyiza 
or Guttar, his people were surprised by observing the sea thrown up to 
a great height in the air, as if it were carried up by a whirlwind. The 
people were alarmed, and inquired of their pilot what might be the 
cause of the phenomenon ; he informed them that it proceeded from the 
blowing of the whale, and that it was the practice of the creature as he 
sported in the sea. His report by no means quieted their alarm ; they 
stopped rowing from astonishment, and the oars fell from their hands. 
Nearchus encouraged them, and recalled them to their duty, ordering 
the heads of the vessels to be pointed at the several creatures as they 
approached, and to attack them as they would the vessels of an enemy 
in battle : the fleet immediately formed as if going to engage, and 
advanced by a signal given; when, shouting altogether, and dashing 
the water with their oars, with the trumpets sounding at the same 
time, they had the satisfaction to see the enemy give way ; for upon tht 
approach of the vessels, the monsters ahead sunk before them, and ros« 
again astern, where they continued their blowing without exciting any 
further alarm. All the credit of the victory fell to the share of Nearchvs, 
and the acclamations of the people expressed their acknowledgment, bf;th 
to his judgment and fortitude, employed in their unexpected deliver}-. 

The great Indian Rorqual is, indeed, very common still in th'.^ seas 
where it was observed by Nearchus and his companions, off the coasts 
of Arabia and of Mekran, Sindh, the peninsula of Cutch, a:id again 
further southward, off the Malabar coast. One cast up dead upon Am- 
herst Islet, near Ramri Island, on the Arakan coast, in the Bay of Bengal, 
during the rainy season of 1851, measured eighty-four feet in length, of 
which the rami of the lower jaw were twenty-one feet, or exactly one 
quarter of the total length. Another, stated to be ninety feet long, and 
about forty-two feet in circumference, was cast upon the Chittagong 
coast in 1842, in about lat. 21° N. It appears that early on the 15th 
August, the attention of the inhabitants of that coast were attracted by 
something in appearance like the capsized hull of a large vessel, floating 
on the surface of the sea, and coming towards the mouth of the Muskal 



■)^(£ CETACEA. 

River. When it approached near the land, they perceived that it was a 
livino- creature, by its continually spouting up water into the air, and by 
the middle of the day it cast itself on the shore of Muskal Island. By 
the assistance of the flood and the surf of the sea, it was brought com- 
pletely on shore, where, as soon as it was landed, it appeared to be in 
great distress, for it roared very loudly, like an elephant. 



GENUS BAL^^NOPTERA. 

This genus, to which Gray allows only ttvo species, comprises the 
smallest and most gracefully built creatures of the whole family. They 
possess moderately long pectoral fins, and a sickle-shaped dorsal fin on 
the latter third of the body. 

THE PIKE "WHALES. 

The Pike Whale, Balanoptera rostrata, is the best known species of 
this genus. It seldom exceeds thirty feet in length, and is more com- 
monly about twenty-five. It is furnished with baleen, but the plates are 
comparatively short, and of a slight pinkish hue. The mouth is devel- 
oped into a kind of huge pouch, which is capable of containing a very 
large volume of water and marine animals. The tongue is not tied down 
as in the Greenland Whale, but is free toward the apex, and almost as 
capable of movement as that of man. The Pike Whale is a native of the 
seas that wash the coasts of Greenland, and is sometimes seen near Ice- 
land and Norway, descending but rarely into warmer latitudes. The 
flesh of this animal is in some repute for its delicacy, and is therefore 
much coveted by the natives of these northern regions. They do not, 
however, attempt to harpoon the creature, on account of its great 
activity, but content themselves with inflicting severe wounds with their 
darts and spears, in the hope that the wounded animal may die, and 
may in time be stranded on their coasts. The oil which it furnishes is 
said to be particularly delicate. 

The Pike Whale feeds not only on the little creatures that form the 
food of the Greenland Whale, but chases and kills the active salmon and 
other fish. In the stomach of one of these animals have been found the 
remains of various fish, those of the dog-fish being the most prevalent. 



THE GRAY WHALE. 367 

The head of this species is elongated and rather flattened, and the throat 
and chest are furnished with very deep longitudinal folds, which are 
capable of dilatation to a great extent. 

At the extremity of the snout there are eight distinct bristles, arranged 
in perpendicular rows on the top of each jaw. It has been called by a 
great number of names by different writers, and is mentioned by various 
authors under no less than seventeen distinct titles. The color of this 
animal is black upon the upper parts of the body, and white on the 
abdomen, tinged with a reddish hue. The pectoral fin is almost entirely 
dark, but changes into white on its upper surface, near its base. 

On the American coasts the Pike Whale is never made a regular 
object of pursuit. It is often, however, attacked when it comes near the 
coast ; all the fishing-boats of the neighborhood put out to sea, surround 
the bewildered animal and drive it into shallow water, where it can be 
dispatched at leisure. 

The Southern Rorqual, Balcenoptera Australis, has a long dorsal fin 
placed not far backward as usual, but just over the flippers. It is some- 
times seen at the Cape of Good Hope, but is never pursued. 

THE CALIFORNIA GRAY WHALE. 

The classification of all these cetaceans is still very unsettled. Cap- 
tain Scammon remarks : " We have experienced the greatest difficulty in 
finding any two of these strange animals alike, or possessing any marked 
generic or specific differences. If the differences pointed out as consti- 
tuting different species are maintained, we conclude there must be a great 
number." One of the sufferers by modern systems of classification is the 
California Gray Whale, for which Professor Cope has formed a 
separate genus, Rhachiancctcs. This species differs from the Southern 
Rorqual by the color of its baleen, and the number of its vertebra, and 
from the Right Whale by its short head. It has no dorsal fin. 



«^<^(^te&)^ 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SPERM WHALES AND BLACK FISH. 

THE FAMILY CATODONTID/E — THE SPERM WHALES — SPERMACETI — THEIR SPEED — THEIR FURY 
WHEN PROVOKED — THE STORY OF THE SHIP " ESSEX " — OTHER SHIPS DESTROYED BY THIS 
WHALE — AMBERGRIS — SPECULATIONS AS TO ITS ORIGIN — FOOD OF THE SPERM WHALE — BLACK 
FISH — THE GENUS COGIA. 

THE family Catodontid.^, comprising the Cachalots or Sperm 
whales and the Black-fish, are distinguished from the true whales 
by having teeth in the lower jaw, and by being destitute of 
whalebone. While the two preceding families are dwellers in the Arctic 
and Antarctic regions, the toothed whales prefer the Tropical seas. The 
general characteristics of the family are as follows : The head is very 
large, and truncated in front ; the blow-holes are separate, and situated 
in the front of the head ; the pectoral fins are short and broad ; in the 
upper jaw the teeth are only rudimentary. The numerous teeth in the 
lower jaw fit into holes in the gums of the upper. The family comprises 
four genera. 

GENUS CATODON. 

The skull of the animals of this genus occupies nearly one-third of the 
entire length of the body. Gray assigns to it two species, but expe- 
rienced fishermen affirm that there is only one species, which is pro- 
foundly modified in form and size by location and abundance of food. 

THE SPERM WHALES. 

The Sperm Whale, Catodon viacroccphalus (Plate XXIX) is called 
" Cachalot " by the French, and " Pottfish " bv the Dutch, and attains a 
considerable size. An adult male measures from sixty to seventy feet in 
length, a female about thirty to forty feet. The long, abruptly trun- 



THE SPERM WHALE. 369 

cated neaa is as thick as the body, and passes into it without any exter- 
nal marks of separation. The pectoral fins are close behind the eye, and 
are marked on the upper surface by folds which indicate the five fingers ; 
the tail is deeply indented. The blow-hole, an aperture almost in the 
shape of a capital S, is placed at the extremity of the snout, and occupies, 
therefore, the position of the nostrils in terrestrial animals. The mouth 
is huge, the jaw opening back almost to the eye. The under-jaw is 
narrow, and shorter than the upper, and possesses heavy and strong 
teeth which vary considerably in number in the specimens that have 
been examined ; the average in the adults is about fifty-two. In the 
upper-jaw we find a series of conical cavities in which the teeth of the 
lower-jaw fit, and near them, or sometimes even in these depressions, a 
series of rudimentary teeth is detected. The teeth of the Sperm Whale 
are, for us, merely curiosities, but in the South Sea Islands they are 
articles of the highest value, being thought worthy of dedication to the 
idol deities, or at least placed as rare ornaments in the king's house. So 
great is the conventional value of these teeth, that several wars have 
arisen from the possession of a whale's tooth by an inferior and unfortu- 
nate chief who had discovered the rarity and meant to keep it. 

The partly-hidden teeth of the upper-jaw are about three inches in 
length, but they hardly project more than half an inch through the soft 
parts in which they are imbedded. In preparing the skull of the Sper- 
maceti Whale these teeth are apt to fall out together with the softer 
parts, as their attachment to the jawbone is very slight. Eight of these 
teeth have been found on each side of the jaw. 

The enormous head is divided by a perpendicular wall into two 
chambers, which connect by several openings. The whole space is full 
of a liquid, oily substance, the so-called "spermaceti," which is also 
found in a canal running from the head to the tail, and in many small 
cavities scattered in the blubber, the bulk, however, being in the head. 
When the whale is killed, the head is cut off, a large hole cut in the top 
of it, and the liquid is baled out in buckets. It is then clear and oily, 
but after a few hours exposure to the air the spermaceti begins to sepa- 
rate, and is soon firm enough to be removed, and put in a different 
vessel. To' prepare it for commercial purposes, a long process is 
required ; it is melted several times, treated with a solution of potassa, 
and boiled in alcohol. It is then deposited in laminated crystals of a 
pearly-white hue. The amount of this substance obtained from a single 
47 



370 CETACEA. 

whale is sometimes very large : from a moderate-sized one twenty-four 
barrels of spermaceti and one hundred barrels of oil were procured. It 
is used in medicine, and in the preparation of candles. 

The Sperm Whale in its movements resembles the Dolphins more 
than the Right Whales, and in speed nearly equals the Rorquals. When 
swimming quietly, it glides at the rate of three or four miles an hour 
under the surface of the water, but when excited, it rushes through the 
sea with violence, the strokes of its powerful tail sending the water in 
waves on every side. It is remarkable for assuming at times a perpen- 
dicular position, the head or tail just projecting above the water. When 
alarmed, it sinks straight to the bottom ; when sporting, it raises first 
one, then the other pectoral fin above the surface, and leaps clear out of 
the sea, falling again with a splash that sends the foam mast-high, and 
can be seen for ten miles. These movements are usually attributed to 
the attacks of parasites ; but this seems an erroneous supposition, as the 
Sperm Whale suffers less than others from such enemies. The members 
of a troop of Sperm Whales usually arrange themselves in a long line, 
dive and rise simultaneously, spout at the same moment, and at the same 
instant disappear beneath the water. When they are sleeping, they lie 
motionless, rocked by the swell, or keep the head out of water, so that to 
the spectator it seems the end of a huge timber, or the neck of an enor- 
mous bottle bobbing up and down. They breathe at very regular 
intervals, the spouting is directed forward, and is on an average only 
three feet high. Scammon pursued a sperm whale for five hours, and 
noticed that it regularly blew fifty-five times at intervals of ten seconds 
at each appearance, and then remained fifty-five minutes under water, 
going at the rate of three miles an hour. The sense of hearing of the 
sperm whales is dull, that of sight pretty good, that of touch or feeling 
excellent, as the skin seems provided with nerves which convey the 
slightest impression. 

The sperm whales, very unlike the dolphins, avoid the neighborhood 
of vessels, and it often happens that when surprised, they are almost 
paralyzed with terror, and remain motionless. This is especially the 
case when a female is the first to be wounded, whereas if an old male is 
struck, the whole herd at once take flight. 

Sometimes, however, a " large whale " will become belligerent, and is 
then a most fearful antagonist, using its tail and its huge jaws with equal 
effect. One of these animals has been known to drive its lower jaw 



FATE OF THE SHIP "ESSEX." 



371 



entirely through the plankings of a stout whaling-boat, and another well- 
known individual destroyed nine boats in rapid succession. This for- 
midable animal was at last killed, and in its carcass were found a whole 
armory of harpoons and spears belonging to different ships. Not only 
boats, but even ships have been sunk by the attacks of an infuriated 
" old bull," as the adult male is styled. 

An American ship, the " Essex," was thus destroyed by the vengeful 
fury of a sperm whale. The story of the disaster is as follows: "The 
'Essex,' Captain Pollard, sailed from Nantucket in August, 1819. Late 
in the fall, in latitude 40° of the South Pacific, a school of sperm whales 
was discovered, and three boats were manned and sent in pursuit. The 
mate's boat was struck by one of them, and he was obliged to return to 
the ship to repair damages. While he was thus engaged, a sperm whale, 
judged to be eighty-five feet long, broke water about twenty rods from 
the ship on her weather-bow. He was going at the rate of about three 
knots an hour, and the ship at nearly the same rate, when he struck the 
bows, just forward of the chains. The ship shook like a leaf; the whale 
dived and passed under the ship, grazing her keel, and then appeared at 
about the distance of a ship's length, lashing the sea with fins and tail as 
if suffering the most horrible agony. He was evidently hurt by the 
collision, and frantic with rage. In a few minutes he seemed to recover 
himself, and started with great speed directly across the vessel's course 
to windward. Meanwhile the hands on board discovered the ship to be 
gradually settling at the bows, and the pumps were rigged. While 
working at them, one of the men cried out, ' God have mercy ! here he 
comes again!' The whale had turned at about one hundred rods from 
the ship, and was making for her with double his former speed, his path- 
way white with foam. Rushing head on, he struck her again at the bow, 
and the tremendous blow stove her in. The whale dived again and dis- 
appeared, the ship filled and fell over on her broadside in ten minutes 
from the first collision. After incredible sufferings, the survivors reached 
Ducie's Island, where three of the crew resolved to remain. The 
remainder, in three boats, made for Juan Fernandez ; the mate's boat 
was taken up by the ' Indian ' of London, ninety-three days after the 
catastrophe, with only three survivors. The captain's boat was fallen in 
with five days afterward by the ' Dauphin ' of Nantucket, with only two 
survivors. Thus, out of a crew of twenty, only five survived to tell the 
sad tale." 



372 CETACEA. 

Another American ship, the "Ann Alexander," was similarly de- 
stroyed, and two months after the sinking of the unfortunate vessel, the 
" Rebecca " captured a huge sperm whale which surprised the fishermen 
by offering no resistance. They found embedded in its carcass two har- 
poons marked " Ann Alexander," and discovered severe injuries in its 
head from a terrible wound in which fragments of ship's planking were 
projecting. A British ship, " Waterloo," was another victim to the fury 
of the sperm whale, and Scammon expresses his belief that manv a ship 
which goes to the fishing and never returns, has been sunk by the animal 
it was engaged in pursuing to the death. 

We have not yet mentioned one of the most curious products of the 
sperm whale, the strange substance called Ambergris. It is a light wax- 
like material of various colors, and greasy to the touch ; it possesses a 
very agreeable smell, and becomes soft when heat is applied, boiling 
water reducing it to an oily fluid. It is used by perfumers for mixing 
with sundry oils and soaps. In ancient times, and down to the last cen- 
tury, it was employed in medicine as an anodyne and antispasmodic, but 
modern science rejects it from our pharmacop£eia. 

The origin of this substance for a long time baffled all inquirers ; 
some imagined it to be the excrement of a bird, which, being melted by 
the heat of the sun and washed off by the waves, was then swallowed by 
whales, who returned it in the condition we find it. Others took it for a 
kind of wax or gum which distils from trees, and congeals in the sea. 
Many of the Orientals say it springs out of the sea; others, that it is a 
vegetable production issuing from the roots of trees ; others, that it is 
made from honeycombs which had fallen from the rocks into the sea, 
and witnesses were brought forward to depose that they had found 
pieces half-ambergris, half-honeycomb, and even had taken honey from 
a piece, when it had been broken. As it was usually found on the shore, 
it obtained the name of amber, and to distinguish it from the genuine 
amber of the Baltic coast, it received the epithet of gris or " gray." 
Ambergris, therefore, means "gray amber." Amber, however, is a 
resinous substance, and we now know that ambergris is a morbid 
secretion found in the intestines of the sperm whale, a mass weighing 
fifty pounds having been discovered in a single whale. The value of 
this article is very variable, but is always costly, averaging five dollars 
the ounce. 

The food of the sperm whale is mostly furnished by squids or cuttle- 



THE BLACK-FISH. 373 

fish, but when it approaches land it devours any small fish. The manner 
in which it feeds is, however, not ascertained. It is supposed that it drops 
its lower-jaw till it makes nearly a right-angle with the upper one, and 
then swims slowly along, its sharp teeth transfixing whatever comes in 
its way. The stories that it can devour seals or dolphins are unworthy 
of credence. It will take vegetable diet, and has been seen to swallow 
fruit drifting on the waves. 

The Sperm Whale never passes the Cape of Good Hope, but does 
pass round Cape Horn. 

THE BLACK-FISH. 

The Black-Fish has been separated from the genus Catodon because, 
although it possesses the huge head and heavily -toothed ja>v of the 
sperm whales, the spout-holes are removed from the extremity of the 
snout, and placed upon the middle of the top of the head. These spout- 
holes are separate, and covered with a common flap. The pectoral fins 
are moderate in size and triangular in form ; the dorsal fin is long and 
sickle-shaped ; the head exceeds one-fourth of the entire bulk. 

GENUS PHYSETER. 

The Black-Fish, Physetcr tiirsio (Plate XXVII) the only species of 
the genus, is, when fully grown, of considerable dimensions, often 
measuring fifty to sixty feet in length. 

The dimensions of one of these animals have been very accurately 
given by Sibbald. 

In total length it measured between fifty-two and fifty-three feet, its 
girth at the largest part of the body was rather more than thirty-two 
feet, and as it lay on the ground the height of its back was twelve feet 
The lower jaw was ten feet in length, and was furnished with forty-two 
teeth, twenty-one on each side. Each tooth was slightly sickle-shaped, 
and curved towards the throat. An equal number of cartilaginous 
sockets are placed in the upper jaw into which the conical teeth are 
received when the mouth is closed. The teeth in the middle of the jaw 
are larger and heavier than those of the front or base ; some of them 
exceed nine inches in length, and weigh more than eighteen ounces 
when perfectly dried. The root of each tooth is hollow in the centre to 



374 CETACEA. 

the depth of several inches, and is so deeply buried in the jaw, that the 
projecting portion of the largest tooth rarely exceeds three inches. The 
teeth range from seven to nine inches in length. These teeth are very 
white and polished, are conical in their shape, tolerably sharp while the 
animal is young but become blunt as the creature increases in years and 
dimensions. 

In Sibbald's specimen, from the tip of the snout to the eyes was a 
distance of twelve feet, and the upper part of the snout projected nearly 
five feet beyond the tip of the lower jaw. The eyes were remarkably 
small, about the size of those of the common haddock. As may be 
supposed from the popular name of this animal, the color of its skin is 
almost uniformly black. The throat is larger, in proportion, than that 
of other whales. One of these animals is said to have beeji thrown 
ashore at Nice, in the month of November, 1736; when the head was 
opened, it was found to contain spermaceti, which lay in a mass two 
feet in thickness in the usual locality. 

This species is frequently seen on the coast of the Shetland Islands in 
summer. 

GENUS COGIA. 

The two species of this genus are both inhabitants of the Southern 
seas. They are considerably smaller than the rest of the family, and as 
in the dimensions of the head .they resemble the dolphins, they are com- 
monly known as the " Short-headed " Whales. 

The methods of taking the Sperm Whales are identical with those 
already described as emplo3-ed in the capture of the other whales, and 
the ships engaged are principally from the United States and Australia. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE BEAKED WHALES AND THE NAR^A^HALS. 

THE FAMILY HYPEKOODONTID^— THE BEAKED WHALES — THE BOTTLE-NOSED WHALE — THE 
XIPHIUS — THE FAMH,Y MONODONTID^ — THE NARWHAL — ITS EXTRAORDINARY HORN — CON- 
JECTURES AS TO ITS USE — FABLES RESPECTING IT — MEDICINAL PROPERTIES ATTRIBUTED TO 
IT — VALUE OF THE NARWHAL TO THE GREENLANDERS— SHIPS STRUCK BY IT. 

THE family Hyperoodontid^ consists of the Beaked Whales, 
which have no permanent teeth in the upper jaw. It is divided 
into nine genera or sub-genera, containing twelve species, nearly 
equally distributed between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. 
Most of the genera consist of only one species. 



GENUS HYPEROODON. 

The tzuo species embraced under this genus both inhabit the North 
Seas. The best known representative is 

The Bottle-nosed Whale, Hypcroodon bidens, a powerfully-built 
creature of twenty to twenty-six feet in length. The head is like that of 
the dolphin, but the animal is longer, the body being thicker for the first 
half of its length, narrow towards the tail. The eye is small, and just 
behind the corner of the mouth ; the ear is scarcely noticeable behind 
the eye ; the spout-hole lies between the eyes, and is crescent-shaped ; 
the fore-part of the muzzle is prolonged so as to form a beak, the pec- 
toral fins, springing from the anterior third of the body, are narrow and 
abruptly rounded, the dorsal fin is small, low, and sickle-shaped, the tail 
is divided into two pointed flaps. From the centre of the under-jaw 
runs a short, deep fold of skin, the rest of the hide is smooth and shming, 
and of a dark color, becoming black on the back. 

The Bottle-nosed Whales are confined to the Northern Arctic and 



576 CETACEA. 

Northern Atlantic Oceans, but they occasionally migrate into more 
southern regions, and are, every year, found in the neighborhood of the 
Faroe Islands, and sometimes on the Scotch coasts, even entering the 
mouths of rivers. They are rare in the Greenland waters, but fre- 
quent at the entrance of Davis Straits. Their habits are little known, 
owing to their being so often confounded with the dolphins. When they 
blow, they send out a thin low spout four or five times in succession. 
Cuttle-fish and squids form their chief food. 

The Bottle-nosed Whale is often stranded on the coasts of Europe. 
The earliest account of it we have is a description of one taken near 
Harwich in England, in 17 17, and measuring fourteen feet. Hunter 
describes one caught above London Bridge in 1783, which was twenty- 
one feet in length, and he mentions the skull of one which must have 
been thirty feet in length. 



GENUS XIPHIUS. 

The solitary species of this genus is found in the Northern Atlantic. 

The XiPHlUS, Xiphius Soiverbicnsis, is so named after the well-known 
naturalist Sowerby, who figured and described the animal in the British 
Miscellany. His description was founded upon a specimen that was cast 
ashore upon the estate of Mr. J. Brodie, in Elginshire. The skull of this 
individual was preserved by Mr. Sowerby in his museum, and after his 
death it was placed by Dr. Buckland in the Anatomical Museum at 
Oxford. As it is so valuable a specimen, it has been industriously multi- 
plied by means of plaster-casts, which have been distributed to various 
scientific institutions. 

The length of the creature was sixteen feet, and its girth at the 
largest part of the body was eleven feet. The head is small, narrow, 
and pointed, and the lower-jaw is longer, blunter, and wider than the 
upper-jaw, so that when the mouth is closed, the lower-jaw receives the 
upper. In the upper-jaw there are two depressions corresponding with 
the teeth, and permitting the perfect closing of the mouth. The color 
of the animal is black on the upper surface and gray below, and is 
remarkable for the pellucid and satin-like character of the skin, which 
reflects the rays of the sun to a considerable distance. The body is 
marked hke watered silk; this effect is produced by a vast number of 



THE NARWHAL. 377 

« 
white streaks immediately below the skin, which are drawn irregularly 
over the whole body, and at a little distance appear as if they were 
made by means of some sharp instrument. Nothing is known of the 
habits of this curious animal, which is unknown to science, except by 
means of the specimen above-mentioned. 

We may dismiss the remaining genera of the family with the remark 
that Petrorhyncus and Neoxiphius are found in the Mediterranean 
Sea, that Berardius has been seen near New Zealand, and DoLiCHODON 
at the Cape of Good Hope. The genus Dioploodon in the Indian 
Ocean is a very remarkable creature, judging from its solitary species, 
Dioploodon Schcllcnsis. The skidl has two horn-like processes projecting 
from the snout ; the vertebras are enormous in comparison with the ribs, 
which are slender and short. The genus Lagonocetus inhabits the 
North Seas, and EPIODON the South American waters. 

THE NARWHAL. 

The family ^Ionodontid.e comprises one genus of only one species, 
but this is so remarkable and so peculiar as to fully justify the creation 
of a family for it. 

GENUS MONODON. 

The Narwhal or Sea Unicorn, Monodon monoccros (Plate XXVIII), 
is distinguished from all other whales by the possession in the upper-jaw 
of two powerful teeth. As a rule, the tooth on the right-hand side is 
rudimentary, while the other attains a length of seven to nine feet. This 
curious weapon is placed perpendicularly in the jaw, is hollow within, 
and twisted spirally from right to left. In the females it is only slightly 
developed. The skull, too, is likewise unsymmetrical. The upper-arm 
and fore-arm are joined so as to preclude motion, the flipper consists of 
five fingeis of four or three ioints. The round head occupies one-seventh 
of the total length of the creature, the eyes are deep set, a little higher 
than the point of the snout, the ear is very small, the crescent-shaped 
blow-hole is between the eyes, in the centre of the forehead. From the 
blow-holes a tube leads to two large air-chambers. The dorsal fin is 
wanting, and only indicated by a fold of skin, the pectoral fins are short 
and oval, the tail forms two distinct flaps. The skin is soft, brilliant, and 
48 



378 CETACEA. 

like satin, and in the male it is marked in numerous irregularly shaped 
but usually long spots of a dark brown color, the rest of the skin being 
white or yellowish. These dark spots are densest on the back. Speci- 
mens, however, have been seen of a uniform white or gray color. The 
length of the Narwhal is on an average twelve to sixteen feet, but some 
have been found which measured nearly twenty feet. 

The extraordinary weapon with which the Narwhal is armed, soon 
attracted attention, and provoked numerous speculations as to its use. 
The celebrated Albertus Magnus describes this animal as a fish which 
has a horn on its forehead by which it can pierce fishes, or even ships, 
but that the mercy of the Creator has made it so sluggish that escape 
from it is easy. Rochefort relates that the horn is used for attacks on 
other whales, and for boring through the ice. Fabricius conjectures that 
the Narwhal spits fish on this weapon, which it then holds up till the prey 
slips down within reach of its tongue. Scoresby agrees with those who 
regard the horn as an instrument for making breathing-holes in the ice. 
It is evident, however, that an apparatus necessary to enable the animal 
either to procure food or get fresh air would not be restricted to one sex. 
There can be no doubt that this horn, which is a distinguishing mark of 
sex, is, like the tusk of the boar, a weapon of offence. 

In some rare instances the right tusk has been developed instead of 
the left, and it is supposed that if the developed tooth should be broken, 
the right tusk becomes vivified, and supplies the place of the damaged 
weapon. One remarkable case is known where both tusks were almost 
equally developed, being rather more than ten inches in length ; and 
another example is recorded of a Narwhal which possessed two long 
tusks, the one being seven feet five inches in length, and the other seven 
feet. These tusks diverge slightly from each other, as their tips are 
thirteen inches asunder, though there is only an interval of two inches 
between their bases. Both these specimens were females. Sometimes 
the female Narwhal possesses a spear like her mate, but this is probably 
the effect of age, which in so many creatures, such as the domestic fowl, 
gives to the aged female the characteristics of the male. As both these 
double-tusked Narwhals were females, it may be probable that they 
owed their unusual weapons to some peculiarity in their structure, 
which prevented them from becoming mothers, and forced the innate 
energies to expend themselves in the development of tusks instead of 
the formation of offspring. The tusks of male swine and other animals. 



THE NARWHAL'S HORN. 379 

the horns of male deer, the mane of male lions, and other similar struc- 
tures, appear to be safety-valves to the vital energies, which in the one 
sex are occupied in the continual formation of successive offspring, and 
in the other find an outlet in the development of tooth, horn, and hair, 
according to the character of the animal. In all probability, the health 
of the animal would greatly suffer if the calcareous and other particles 
which are deposited in the tusk were forced to remain in the system in- 
stead of being harmlessly removed from it and. placed upon its exterior. 

The ivory of the Narwhal's tusk is remarkably good in quality, being 
hard and solid, capable of receiving a high polish, and possessing the 
property of retaining its whiteness for a very long period, so that a 
large Narwhal horn is of no inconsiderable commercial value. The 
throne of the kings of Denmark was made of this ivory ; kings and 
emperors had their sceptres, and bishops their croziers fashioned from 
it. But the Narwhal's tusk in older da3^s had a still greater renown for 
its medicinal virtues ; it was regarded as the horn of the unicorn, capable 
of disarming all poisons. This antidotal potency was thought to be of 
vital service to the unicorn, which resides in the wilderness, among 
all kinds ot loathsome beasts and poisonous reptiles, whose touch was 
death, and whose look was contamination. The springs and pools at 
which such monsters quenched their thirst were saturated with poison 
by their contact, and would pour a fiery death through the veins of any 
animal that partook of the same water. But the unicorn, by dipping the 
tip of his horn into the pool, neutralized the venom, and rendered the 
deadly waters harmless. This admirable quality of the unicorn-horn was 
a great recommendation in days when the poisoned chalice crept too 
frequently upon the festive board ; and a king could receive no worthier 
present than a goblet formed from such valuable material. Charles the 
IX of France was very careful to put into his cup a piece of the Sea 
Unicorn's tooth. The Margraves of Baireuth kept one in their treasury, 
but reserved its benefits for members of their princely house alone. 
Under the influence of such a belief the most exaggerated price was set 
on a Narwhal's horn. One in the Elector of Saxony's possession in 
Dresden was valued in the sixteenth century at 100,000 dollars. As 
navigation became more general, the horn lost its value, and when in the 
beginning of the eighteenth century the " Greenland Company " sent 
several Narwhal horns to Moscow with a view to selling them to the 
Czar, the emperor's physician refused to buy them, as they were merely 



380 CETACEA. 

fishes' teeth, not the horns of the unicorn. At present the only believers 
in the medicinal properties of the horn are the Chinese and Japanese. 

The native Greenlanders hold the Narwhal in high estimation ; for, 
independently of its value, it is welcomed on each succeeding year as the 
harbinger of the Greenland whale. It is, moreover, of the greatest 
service to the Greenlanders, for its long ivory tusk is admirably adapted 
for the manufacture of various household implements and of spear- 
heads, so that it is the sad fate of many a Narwhal to perish by means 
of the tooth that has been extracted from its near kinsman. It is easily 
killed, as it possesses no very great power of diving, and is soon tired 
out by means of inflated buoys which are attached to the harpoon, and 
offer a great resistance to the water. It seldom descends above two 
hundred fathoms below the surface, and when it again rises, is so 
fatigued that it is readily killed by a sharp spear. The oil which is 
extracted from the blubber is very delicate, but is not present in very 
great amount, as the coating of fatty substance is seldom more than 
three inches in depth. About half a ton of oil is obtained from a large 
specimen. The flesh is much prized by the natives, and is not only 
eaten in its fresh state, but is carefully dried and prepared over the fire. 

The stories of the Narwhal destroying ships have some foundation in 
the experience of later navigators. The force of the tusk is terrific when 
urged with the impetus of the creature driving through the water at full 
speed, for the whole combined power of the weight and velocity of the 
animal is directed along the line of the tusk. A Narwhal has been 
known to strike a ship on the quarter, and to drive its tusk through the 
sheathing, and deeply into the timbers. The shock was probably fatal 
to the assailant, for the tooth was snapped by the sudden blow, remain- 
ing in the hole which it had made, and acting as a plug that effectually 
prevented the water from gaining admission into the vessel. This the 
author can verify from personal observation. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE DOLPHINS. 

THE DELPHIN'ID/E — THE SOOSOOK OR DOLPHIN OF THE GANGES — THE INIA OF THE AMAZON 
RIVKR — THE TUCUXI — THE DOLPHINS PROPER — LEGENDS — SYMBOLS — THE COMMON DOLPHIN — 
THE WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN — THE BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN. 

THE family Delphinid.e comprehends the Porpoises, Dolphins, 
and White Whales, all of which may be described as small fish- 
shaped whales with teeth in both jaws. The two breathing- 
holes are, as a rule, united together so as to form a single crescent-shaped 
aperture set transversel)' on the crown of the head : the body is usually 
slongated, the head small, the snout prominent and often pointed ; a 
dorsal fin is usually present. 

Members of the Dolphin family are found in all seas, and are the only 
Cetaceans which ascend high into rivers, or pass the greater part of their 
lives in them and the lakes which are connected with them. They are 
all social in a very high degree ; many species indeed form very large 
bands, which traverse the seas in company for days and weeks together. 
The smaller species often form troops in alliance with some one or more 
of their kindred species, and pursue their quest for food in common. 
The liveliness of all members of the family, their sportiveness, and the 
absence of all dread of mankind have rendered them in all ages favorites 
of sailors and poets. 

Nearly all the Delphinidas swim with extraordinary skill and rapidity, 
and are thus well qualified to catch fish. They are the most terrible of 
sea-robbers, attacking even the huge whale and mastering it by their 
persevering courage. Their food usually consists of cephalopods, mol- 
lusca, Crustacea, or radiata, but some feed on sea-weed, and will even eat 
fruit, which they pluck from the boughs which overhang rivers. They 
are all rapacious, greedy, and cruel. They consume whatever can be 
eaten ; even the young of their own or allied species fall victims to their 



382 CETACEA. 

gluttony ; when one of a band is slain, the others at once fall on the. body 
and tear it to pieces. During the pairing season the males fight des- 
perately, and the slain rival is at once devouied. The females, after a 
pregnancy of ten months, bring forth one or two young ones, which they 
suckle for a long time, cherish with the utmost care, and defend against 
all dangers. It is conjectured that they grow slowly, and live long. 

The Delphinidte are less pursued by man than other Cetacea ; their 
chief enemies are those of their own kindred. Their own impulsiveness 
leads to their destruction very frequently ; they follow their prey with 
such fury, that they rush blindfold into shallow water, or on to the 
treacherous strand, where the fishers sometimes find them by dozens. 
When wounded to death they utter lamentable groans and sighs, which 
are usually accompanied by floods of tears. 

As all members of the family exhibit the greatest uniformity in their 
habits and modes of life, we confine ourselves to a description of the 
most important genera. The family is divided by Carus into four sub- 
families and eight genera, but Dr. Gray distributes it into tzvcnty-four 
genera and one hundred species. 



GENUS PLATANISTA. 

The name Platanista is given by Pliny to a dolphin which he 
describes as living in the Ganges, and measuring twenty-three feet in 
length. The actual animal is much smaller, being only six feet long. 

The SOOSOOK, Platanista Gangetica, has a slender body, remarkable 
for the curious shape of its beak, which is long, slender, compressed at 
the sides, and larger at the extremity than at the middle. It possesses 
one hundred and twenty teeth. It is a swift and powerful but sluggish 
animal, never caring to exert itself except in pursuit of its prey. Its 
color is grayish-black upon the back, white on the abdomen ; the eye is 
extraordinarily small, being about one-eighth of an inch in diameter. 
The dorsal fin is indicated by a projection of the skin. 

As far as is known, this remarkable dolphin is found only in the 
Ganges and its various arms. It often goes far up the country, but is 
usually found near the mouth. It is as social as the other dolphins, lives 
on fishes and aquatic animals, and is said to pluck the ears of rice or the 
fruits which bend over the stream. Tlie natives pursue it for the sake of 



THE INIA OF THE AMAZON. 383 

its fat, which they regard as a sovereign cure for rheumatism and other 
diseases of like nature. Its flesh is used only as bait for other fishes. 



GENUS INIA. 

In 1 8 19, Humboldt published his observations on a dolphin which 
frequents the fresh-water streams of South America, but we owe to the 
French naturalist, D'Orbigny, the first accurate description. This trav- 
eler was astonished to hear that there existed five hundred miles from 
the Atlantic Ocean a " fish " which he was compelled to recognize as a 
dolphin ; he had considerable difficulty in procuring a specimen, but 
finally obtained one at Principe Dobeira, the frontier port of Brazil. 

The Inia, Inia Aniazonica, is called " Bufes " by the Spaniards, 
"Bonto " by the Brazilians, and " Inia " by the Indians. The breathing 
apparatus is placed far back on a line with the pectoral fin, the dorsal fin 
is very small, the mouth is cleft far back, the snout is prolonged into a 
narrow, round beak covered with stiff" bristles, each jaw possesses about 
sixty-six teeth. The length of the body is from six to nine feet, the 
female being only half as large. The color of the back is a dull blue, 
passing into a rosy red beneath. There are considerable variations in 
color, and specimens have been seen entirely red, and entirely black. 

As far as is known, the Inia is found in all the streams of South 
America between 10° and 17° south. It is common in the Orinoco and 
the Amazon and its tributaries. It differs from the Sea-Dolphins in its 
movements, which are slower and less lively ; it comes more often to 
the surface to breathe, and usually forms only small societies. Schom- 
burgk observed dolphins which he considered identical with the Inia in 
the rivers of Guiana ; they were especially numerous during and just 
after the rainy season. " Very often six or eight of them appeared, 
keeping together, in pairs, or swimming swift as an arrow just under the 
surface, or at other times diving up and down incessantly, thus display- 
ing not only their pointed snout, but the greatest part of their body 
above the water. As soon as the head was above the surface, they 
snorted like horses, the water ejected from the blow-holes looked like 
fine rain, and gave a remarkable charm to the quiet landscape." 

Bates, the explorer of the Amazons, asserts that there are three 
species of this genus. " From its mouth, for fifteen hundred miles 
upward, we heard continually, especially by night, one or other of these 



384 CETACEA. * 

varieties blowing or snorting, and the sounds contributed in no small 
degree to creating a feeling of sea-like extent." 

The Inia always keeps near the surface, often projecting its beak-like 
snout for the purpose of swallowing its food. This food consists chiefly 
of small fishes, and of fruits that drop into the stream. The Inias are to 
be found most abundantly in the clear deep bays of the river, or where 
streams flow into it, these spots being the best for catching fish. They 
often annoy travelers on the banks by approaching when a fire is kin- 
dled ; the crowds of dolphins blowing and snorting is often so great, that 
the stranger, if he desires to sleep, must put his light out. 

The native Indians do not chase tlie Inia, less because they can make 
little or no use of it, than from peculiar views respecting its nature and 
being. Mysterious tales respecting the Inia pass from mouth to mouth. 
It is a seductive nymph who has the power of appearing in the form of a 
maiden of wondrous beauty and flowing locks to beguile young men 
from the paths of virtue. She walks by night through the streets of the 
village, and many a 3'outh follows the siren to the banks of the stream. 
Enraptured he sinks into her arms, when with a yell of triumph she 
plunges with the lover whom she is clasping to her bosom into the fatal 
waters. The Inia is the Lorelei of the Amazons — no Indian kills it, no 
one uses its oil for his lamp, for the light cast by such oil causes blind- 
ness. Bates had great difficulty in overcoming the scruples of an 
Indian fisherman who procured a specimen for him. The poor man 
declared afterward that from the moment he killed the Inia, all good 
fortune had deserted him, and that his peace of mind had been destroyed 
forever by his yielding to the importunities of the naturalist. 

GENUS STENO. 

The Tucuxi, Stcno Tucuxi, shares with the Inia the lower waters of 
the Amazon River. It can be distinguished from the latter by its 
method of rising and sinking in the water. It ascends to the surface in 
a horizontal position, so that its dorsal fin is the part first seen ; it 
then breathes and sinks back, head foremost, into the water very gently, 
while the Inia rolls like a porpoise, displaying first its head, then respir- 
ing, and immediatel}' plunging its head down so that by degrees the 
whole external line of its curved back and its dorsal fin become visible. 
Apart from its peculiar mode of respiring, the Tucuxi differs from the 
Inia by not keeping in pairs. 



FABLES RESPECTING THE DOLPHIN. 385 

THE DOLPHINS. 

No whale occupied the attention of ancient naturalists more than the 
Dolphin, no marine animal inspired the poets with brighter descriptions 
or more marvellous fables. According to them, it was a mild, familiar 
animal, sensible to music. Philautes, after being shipwrecked on the 
coast of Italy, had been saved by a dolphin. Arion, threatened with 
death by the sailors of the ship of which he was on board, having thrown 
himself into the sea, was picked up by a dolphin attracted by the sweet 
notes of his lyre, and conveyed safely mto harbor on the animal's back. 
Apollo took the form of a dolphin when he conducted his colony to the 
Delphian shores. Neptune changed himself into a dolphin when he 
carried off Melanthus. And so this marvellous creature was, among 
the ancients, the object of religious worship. Neptune was adored at 
Sunium, under the form of the Cetacean dear to his friend ; and the 
Delphian Apollo, honored at Delphi, had dolphins as his symbol. Pliny 
tells a pretty story of a boy who gained the affection of a dolphin by 
feeding it with bread : the grateful creature used to save the lad a 
long walk every day, by carrj-ing him on his back to and from school, 
across the Lucrine Lake. When the boy died, the dolphin appeared at 
the accustomed spot, and when the lad never came, pined away and 
died. Pliny also affirms that a 3'oung dolphin never goes abroad with- 
out an older companion, and that dolphins have been seen carr3'ing off 
a dead dolphin to save it from other fishes. The old German writer, 
Gessner, calls the dolphin " the king and regent of the seas and waters," 
adding that for this reason the heir to the throne of France is called the 
Dauphin, an erroneous but favorite explanation of the origin of the title. 

The fables inherited from antiquity still exist near the borders of the 
Mediterranean Sea, and from these fables are derived many of our 
current symbols. Twisted round a trident the dolphin represents the 
liberty of commerce ; placed round a tripod, it signified the college of 
fifteen priests who performed service at Rome in the Temple of Apollo ; 
caressed by Neptune, it was the sign of a calm sea and the safety of 
sailors ; arranged round an anchor, or placed above an ox with a human 
face, it indicated that mixture of quickness and slowness which is 
expressed by prudence. Modern artists still represent the dolphin in 
the manner adopted by the earliest Greek sculptors, the tail elevated, 
the head large, the mouth enormous. 
49 



386 CETACEA. 

The species of dolphins are very numerous. Gray enumerates ten 
species in the genus : they inhabit all the oceans, and possess the 
same general traits. 

We must remember that in common language the name " dolphin " is 
applied to the Scomberoid fish Coryphana, and this must not be con- 
founded with any species of the Dclpliinus of the naturalists. 



GENUS DELPHINUS. 

The general characteristics of the genus may be summed up as 
follows : the head is small in proportion, and is prolonged into a beak- 
like snout equal in length to the rest of the head, the jaws are armed 
with an extraordinary number of teeth, the pectoral fins are lateral, the 
dorsal fin rises from the centre of the back, the tail is very large, and 
forms almost a complete crescent. 

The Dolphin, Dclpliinus Ddphis (Plate XXVII), attains on the 
average a length of six feet. The number of its teeth vary considerably ; 
specimens have been found with the astonishing number of two hundred 
and twelve ; these teeth are so arranged that those of the lower-jaw fit 
into the interstices of those in the upper-jaw ; and are all sharply pointed 
and curved backward, thus enabling the dolphin to hold securely its 
slippery prey. All the seas of the Northern Hemisphere are inhabited 
by this Cetacean, and it is everywhere a favorite of the sailors. It loves 
to follow vessels, and however swift their speed is, it gambols around 
their bows as if they were stationary. Dolphins are seen in troops 
numbering from ten up to many hundred members, their companionship 
arising chiefly from community of interest in obtaining food. This 
consists of small fishes, such as herrings or sardines, and they chase 
with great eagerness the flying-fish. In fact, it is the attack of the 
dolphin that makes the bonito leap from its native element. 

In old clays, the flesh of the Dolphin was considered a luxury ; and as 
the creature, in common with all the Cetaceans, was considered as 
belonging to the fishes, its flesh was a permitted diet upon fast-days, 
and was served at table with a sauce composed of bread-crumbs, 
vinegar, and sugar ; now-a-davs, however, the flesh of the dolphin has 
fallen entirely into disrepute as an article of diet. The formation of the 
Dolphin's brain is of such a nature that it indicates great intelligence on 



THE BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN. 387 

the part of its possessor, and goes far toward confirming some of the 
current reports on this subject. It is said that dolphins have been 
tamed and taught to feed from the hand of their instructor, besides 
performing sundry feats at his bidding. Sailors still believe m its pos- 
sessing a taste for music, and when they desire to harpoon one, are 
reported to whistle in concert, with a view of keeping the dolphin still 
till the iron can be thrown. 

The Dolphin produces only one young one at a birth, and is a very 
tender and careful parent. 



GENUS DELPHINAPTERUS. 

The White-beaked Dolphin, Ddphinaptcrus Pcronii, bears also the 
names of the Right-whale Porpoise and Peron's Dolphin. It is 
the only species known, and can be distinguished by the white beak, 
abdomen, and pectoral fins, the rest of the body being black. It is 
a Southern variety, and confined to the Atlantic Ocean, between the 
opposite coasts of Africa and Brazil. 



GENUS TURSIO. 

This genus contains seven species, one of which has been found in 
Philadelphia harbor. They are all rarer than the ordinary dolphin. 

The Bottle-NOSED Dolphin, Tnrsio erebennus, usually measures 
seven or eight feet in length ; its back is deeply tinged with purple, but 
the abdomen is grayish-white. It is distinguished from the common 
dolphin by the projection of the lower jaw beyond the upper ; the teeth 
never exceed one hundred in number. This species is sometimes called 
the " Blunt-toothed Dolphin," but the shape of the teeth which led to 
this appellation has been proved to be not the normal one ; as skulls 
exist in which the teeth are as sharp as in the ordinary dolphin. 




CHAPTER VI. 
THE PORPOISES AND WHITE WHALES. 

laE COMMON PORPOISE — THE GRAMPUS, OR GLADIATOR DOLPHIN — ITS DESTRUCTIVENESS — ITS 
NAME " THE THRESHER " — THE PILOT WHALE, OR CAAING WHALE, OR GRIND — MODE OF CAP- 
TURING — THE WHITE WHALE — SPECIMENS EXHIBITED IN SHOWS. 



s 



OME of the Cetacea which form the subject of this chapter are 
better and more widely known than any other, as many speci- 
mens are seen in every inlet or bay of our sea coast. 



GENUS PHOC^NA. 



The members of this genus, which comprises two species, are distin- 
guished from the dolphins by having the muzzle short and uniformly 
rounded, instead of ending like a beak. Their size varies from six to 
eight feet, the head is small, the body round and full anteriorly, but 
compressed toward the tail ; the color is a black-brown, or black with a 
greenish or violet reflection, with pure white on the abdomen. The 
jaws are armed with about one hundred teeth. 

The Porpoise, Phoa^na communis (Plate XXVII), is the most familiar 
of all the Dolphin fraternity. The name is a corruption from the 
French Porcpoisson, or " Swine-fish," and it is curious to observe that 
while we borrow a name from the French language, the French fisher- 
men adopt a name of German or Scandinavian origin, and style the 
animal Marsoidn, or " Sea-swine." 

The true home of the Porpoise is the northern portion of the Atlantic 
Ocean, from Greenland to North Africa, the Baltic and the Mediter- 
ranean Seas included. In the Pacific it extends down to the latitude of 
the Japan Islands. It seems to undertake regular migrations, proceed- 
ing- northward when summer comes, and seeking the south on the 



THE PORPOISE. 389 

approach of winter. The porpoises live in numerous troops, and attract 
attention by their merry gambols among the waves. The mackerel, the 
herring, and the salmon flee before these turbulent troops, which are 
sometimes so numerous that, at the moment when the individual crea- 
tures composing them come to the surface to breathe, they darken the 
surface of the ocean. One then sees their oily, blackish bodies shining 
on all sides. They may often be seen shooting over the surface of the 
sea in Indian file. 

As might be presumed from the formidable array of sharp teeth 
with which the jaws are studded, and which are so arranged that the 
upper and lower sets interlock when the animal closes its mouth, the 
food of the Porpoise consists entirely of animal substances ; its voracity 
is proverbial ; and it is a declared enemy to the fisherman, as it seems to 
prefer to devour the most marketable kinds of fish. Alone of the Cetacea 
it prefers the waters near the coast to the high seas, and pursues its prey 
into shallow water, and up rivers. Even the salmon, with its enormous 
power of leaping, cannot escape. The Porpoise prefers places where 
the water is discolored. It swims not far below the surface, comes up 
for an instant to breathe, and then dives again, curving its body so 
sharply, that it seems to form a ball. It is very active before a storm, 
and gambols about as if it were delighted at the coming tempest. It 
was much easier to watch these creatures before our rivers and coasts 
were so frequented by steam vessels, for the porpoises will not approach 
them so nearly as they approach sailing vessels. 

The female produces one or two young ones at a birth, and the new- 
born offspring are remarkable for their very great size, measuring nearly 
one-half the length of the parent. The mother has large quantities of 
milk of a saltish, fishy taste. 

The skin of the Porpoise is well suited for tanning, and makes 
valuable leather. Beneath the skin is a layer of fat about an inch deep, 
which can be melted into a very fine and delicate oil. Its flesh was 
formerly highly valued, and was cooked with bread-crumbs and vinegar; 
but it is unpleasing to the eye, and is said to be coarse to the taste, 
although it graced the royal banquets of Queen Elizabeth. The Por- 
poise has often been caught and kept for some time in captivity. When 
alarmed, it utters continuous cries of a very distressing and plaintive 
kind, and sheds tears in profusion. It is not known how long it would 
live in a state of nature if unmolested. 



390 CETACEA. 

GENUS GRAMPUS. 

The characteristics of this genus are a rounded head, a convex fore- 
head, conical teeth, and ovate pectoral fins. It contains three species, of 
which none are found in our American waters. 

Cuvier's GrAxMPUS, Grampus Cuvitrii, is of a bluish-black cok)r 
above, dirty white below. It loses its upper teeth at an early period, 
and preserves only a few of its lower ones. It is distinguished from the 
Orca glddiator — the Grampus of English sailors — by the lower position of 
the dorsal fin. 

GENUS ORCA. 

Of the four species assigned to this genus, we need only mention 
two, both of which are commonly called Grampus, a word corrupted 
from the Yvench graiiii poisson, "great fish." 

The Killer or Grampus, Orca gladiator, is also called the " Gladi- 
ator Dolphin," and has obtained in the Northern seas the somewhat 
misleading name of " Sword-fish " from its large sabre-Uke dorsal fin, 
which it is erroneously supposed to use as a weapon. It attains a 
length of eighteen to twenty feet. It possesses forty-four teeth, strongly 
made and slightly curved. It is black on the upper part of the body, 
white on the abdomen and sides, with a white patch above and behind 
the eve. 

Although it sometimes wanders into more southern regions, its 
favored home is near the coasts of Greenland and Spitzbergen, where it 
congregates in small herds. It is a very wolf in its constant hunger, and 
commits great havoc among the larger fish, such as the cod, the skate, 
and the halibut : at times it is said to make systematic attacks on seals, 
by startling them from their slumber as they lie sunning themselves on 
the rocks or ice, and seizing them as they plunge half-asleep into the sea. 
Even the smaller porpoises and dolphins fall victims to the Grampus, as 
has been proved by the discovery of their remains in the dissected 
stomach of one of these animals. 

In ancient times the Grampus seems to have been seen in the Medi- 
terranean Sea, as Pliny mentions a whale which had white streaks on 
the head : but at present it does not seem to penetrate the Straits of 
Gibraltar, although very common on the English and French coasts. A 



THE GRAMPUS. 39I 

Grampus was captured nearly opposite Greenwich Hospital in 1772, and 
was so swift and powerful, that after it had been struck with three har- 
poons, and covered with lance wounds, it twice dragged the boat from 
Blackwall to Greenwich, and once ran as far as Deptford, going at a 
rate of eight miles per hour against the tide. The struggles of the 
wounded animal were so formidable, that none of the boats could 
approach it. .Several other specimens of this animal have been caught 
in the same river at dififerent times, one being twenty-four feet in length, 
and another measuring more than thirty feet. 

The Killer is not onl)- the largest, but the boldest, most rapacious 
and voracious, most blood-thirsty and dreaded of all the Delphinidae. It 
deser\'es the title bestowed on it by Linneeus of " The Tyrant of the 
Whales," and exceeds even the shark in the devastation it creates 
wherever it appears. Its extraordinary voracity compels it to approach 
the coasts, but its favorite hunting-grounds are where the white whale 
is found. These robbers of the seas are also fond of amusing themselves 
by mobbing the Greenland whale, just as the little birds mob owls 
when they venture forth in the daytime, and they persecute it by leaping 
out of the water and striking it sharply with their tails as they descend. 
The Americans, in consequence, have called it by the name of Thresher, 
or Killer. Captain Scott relates that he has often seen the Thresher 
engaged m this strange combat. Scammon writes : " The attack of 
these wolves of the ocean on their gigantic prey was like that of a pack of 
dogs on a deer. Some hung on to the head of the whale, others attacked 
it from below, others seized it by the lips, and if it opened its mouth, 
tore its tongue. In 1858 I was eye-witness of a combat between three 
grampuses and a whale and her calf; the calf was three times the size of 
the largest grampus. The latter charged the whales alternately, and 
slew the young whale after a combat of an hour's duration. During the 
course of the struggle the strength of the mother was nearlj^ exhausted, 
and she had received several severe wounds in the breast and on the 
lips." Even harpooned whales are attacked by this sea-murderer and 
dragged under water, in spite of all the fishermen can do to prevent it. 

The Cape Killer, Orca Capensis, called also the " South Sea Gram- 
pus," is frequently noticed in the Pacific Ocean. They occur in herds, 
and their appearance is supposed to indicate the resorts of the sperm 
whales. They are less in size, but similar in other respects to the 
common grampus. 



392 CETACEA. 

GENUS GLOBIOCEPHALUS. 

The fourteen species comprehended under this genus are all distin- 
guished by the globular aspect of the head, the sickle-formed pectoral 
fins, and the dorsal fin rising from the centre of the body. To the 
inhabitants of the Faroe and Orkney Islands, and to the dwellers in 
remote Iceland, the sea yields no more precious product than the 
animals we are about to describe. 

The Pilot Whale, Globiocephalus dcductor, is known by many names. 
The one we have used is that of the British Museum Catalogue ; but 
the names RouND-HEADED PoRPOisE, Bottle-head, Social Whale, 
Howling Whale, and Black Whale are given to it by English 
writers. The Scotch call it the Caaing Whale. In Iceland and the 
Faroe Islands it is called Grind. This species has long pectoral flip- 
pers and a black skin, the belly and throat being white ; the teeth 
seldom exceed fifty in number. The males attain the size of eighteen to 
twenty feet, the former being perhaps more common. 

More social than others of its kindred, the Pilot Whale is always 
found in troops varying in number from ten up to thousands, and led by 
some old experienced male whom the rest follow with the same docility 
or senselessness with which sheep follow their leader. On the appear- 
ance of a shoal, the sailors endeavor to get to seaward of their victims, and 
gradually closing upon them, drive them onwards by shouts and missiles 
to the shore. When one of them — the leader — is forced upon the beach, 
a curious scene of self-immolation is acted by. the whole herd. They are 
then attacked by the whole assembled population of the neighborhood, 
who dispatch them by various means ; the cries and struggles of the 
poor animals — some in, some out of the water — the shouts of the men, the 
bloody sea, combine to form a scene of no trifling interest. By such 
methods an entire shoal of seven hundred and eighty were captured at 
once at Sumburgh in Shetland ; while there came ashore at Hvalfiord 
in Iceland no less than one thousand one hundred and ten, all of which 
were taken. Cuvier relates that some fishermen drove a cub-whale 
ashore on the coast of Brittany ; its cries attracted the rest of the herd, 
all of which, seventy in number, were soon lying on the strand. The 
herd consisted of seven males and twelve young ones, all the others 
being adult females, many of which had their udders full of milk. They 
lived for some time ; one old male did not die till the fifth day. 



THE WHITE WHALE. 



393 



To the inhabitants of all the Northern islands this dolphin is in- 
valuable ; on the average, each one yields a barrel of oil ; the flesh is 
eaten both salted and fresh ; it is said to resemble coarse corned-beef; 
the fat has no taste ; the skin is used for straps and rudder-lines, the ribs 
to fence in the fields, and the bladder as a receptacle for oil. 

GENUS BELUGA. 

The most remarkable characteristic of this genus, which contains six 
species, is the entire absence of a dorsal fin. The pectoral fins are oval, 
and placed in the first quarter of the total length of the body ; the round 
head falls perpendicularly to the broad, short truncated muzzle ; the 
jaws are provided with a few teeth, which fall out in age. 

The White Whale, Beluga Catodon (Plate XXVIII), is an animal 
nearly akin to the Narwhal, but it is not provided with a tusk, and it has 
situated in the front-half only of the jaws some teeth which are conical, 
oblique, often truncated from attrition, and in the upper jaw not unfre- 
quently disappearing. These teeth vary in number, but there is usually 
a row of nine above and eight below, occasionally one more or less. 
The color of the Beluga is wholly white, but the young are black. In 
length it rarely exceeds fifteen feet. According to Mr. R. Brown, this 
animal is, beyond all comparison, so far as its importance to the 
Greenlander and Eskimo are concerned, tlie Whale of Greenland. 
Like the Narwhal, it is indigenous ; but it is only seen on the coast of 
Danish Greenland during the winter months, leaving the coast south of 
72° north latitude in June, and roaming about at the head of Baffin Bay 
and the western shore of Davis Strait during the summer. In October 
it is seen to go west, not south ; but in winter it can be observed, in 
company with the Narwhal, at the broken places in the ice. Its range 
may be said to be the same as that of the Narwhals : and during the 
summer months corresponds with that of the Right Whale, of which it 
is considered the precursor. It, however, wanders farther south than 
the Narwhal, being found as a regular denizen as far south as 63° north 
latitude, on the European coast, though on the opposite or American 
side of the Atlantic it reaches much farther south, being quite common 
in the St. Lawrence River. The Greenlanders, during the summer, kill 
great numbers of them, and preserve their oil and dry their flesh foi 
winter use. Of this animal and the Narwhal, about five hundred are 
SO 



394 CETACEA. 

yearly caught by the Greenlanders ; but the majority of this number are 
Belugas. It feeds on crustaceans, fishes, and cuttles, and in the stomach 
is generally found sand. The Greenlanders often jocularly remark, in 
reference to this, that the Kclclluak takes in ballast. Great numbers are 
captured by means of nets at the entrance of fiords and inlets, or in the 
sounds between islands. The young are darker colored than the adult, 
and can at once be distinguished among the herds of the adults, which 
are of a pinky-white color. They are rarely seen far from land. The 
males and females go together in the herd, and do not separate. Their 
blast is not unmusical ; and, when under the water, they emit a pecu- 
liar whistling sound, which might be mistaken for the call of a bird ; on 
this account the seamen often term them " Sea-canaries." It is rarely 
that the regular whalers kill a Beluga, their swiftness and activity 
giving the fishers more trouble than the oil is worth. 

A White Whale was exhibited for some time at Barnum's Museum, 
New York. It was sufficiently well-trained to recognize its keeper, and 
would put its head out of the water to take its food. Since then numer- 
ous specimens have been seen in captivity both in New York and 
Boston. There was one at Coney Island in 1877, where it had the 
benefit of having a tank supplied with fresh sea-water. 

The name Beluga Canadensis has been given to the White Whales 
which are taken at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, but Gray con- 
siders them identical with Beluga catodon. 



Most of the species of whales are as yet imperfectly known. Some 
idea of the number of the species may be formed from part of the 
evidence of Professor Owen given before a Parliamentary Commission. 
He said that in order to display his specimens of whales properly, the 
British Museum ought to have fourteen galleries, each one mile in length.