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Animals of the Seashore 


Animals of the Seashore 



"Research Associate, New Jersey State Museum 




Copyright, 1938, by 

Printed in the United States of America 

To My Parents 


Every year thousands of vacationists visit the 
summer resorts of the New Jersey coast. The popu- 
lation of such resorts as Atlantic City, Cape May, 
Wildwood, and Beach Haven is doubled many times 
when the warm summer months send throngs of 
Philadelphians, New Yorkers, as well as residents 
of more distant places, to the seashore to enjoy the 
cool breezes and the salt water bathing. 

Rivaling New Jersey's beaches, Long Island has 
its Rockaway, Jones Beach and many other resorts 
from the popular Coney Island to the ultra-fashion- 
able Southampton Beach. 

South of New Jersey, we find Rehoboth Beach, 
Delaware, Ocean City, Maryland, Virginia Beach, 
Virginia, and scores of smaller resorts that in their 
turn draw countless summer visitors from the inland 

Many of these vacationsts like to walk along the 
beach and look with curiosity upon the strange forms 
of animal life that can be found in the tide pools, the 
mud flats or washed on the sandy shores. While 
these sea shells, corals, and the like may not be as 
beautiful or colorful as those found on the more 
tropical beaches, they also have much beauty and 
fascination and often have peculiar stories to tell. 
It is of these sea animals, found along our Middle 
Atlantic Coast, that this guide book attempts to 

In addition to being a guide for the summer 
visitor to the seashore, it is hoped that this book will 
be used by students in schools and colleges and that 

it will encourage them to try to learn something 
more of the strange creatures that live between the 
tides or beneath the waters of the ocean. 

No pretense is made at a complete catalogue of 
the invertebrate animals of the East Coast, or even 
those of the State of New Jersey. An attempt has 
been made, however, to discuss and illustrate all of 
the common and many of the rarer species that 
would be found by the casual collector along the 
coast of New Jersey and its neighboring states. 
While many of the records are specifically from New 
Jersey, the same animals would in most cases be 
found in similar situations between Cape Cod and 
Cape Hatteras. Thus it is hoped that the book also 
will serve as a guide to the study of the sea animals 
found along the seashore between Southern New 
England and the Carolinas. 

The author began collecting and studying the 
sea animals of the New Jersey coast in 1927 while a 
student at the University of Pennsylvania, and for a 
while was associated with Professor A. E. Parr in a 
survey of this coast conducted by the United States 
Bureaus of Fisheries. 

The identifications of many of the species have 
been verified by specialists in the respective branch- 
es of zoology. In addition to checking the identi- 
fication, certain of these specialists have critically 
read the manuscript of the chapters or sections on 
the particular group of animals in which they are 
most interested. For such splendid cooperation the 
author is indebted to the following :- 
Dr. 0. E. Nelsen, University of Pennsylvania 

Mr. A. H. Clark, United States National Museum 

Dr. P. S. Osburu, Ohio Slate University (Bryozoa) 

Dr. J. P. Moore, University of Pennsylvania 

Dr. A. Treadwell, Vassar College (Worms) 
Mr. E. G. Vanatta, Academy of Natural Sciences 

Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, United States National 

Museum (Crustacea) 
Dr. Mary J. Rathbun, United States National 

Museum (Decopoda) 
Mr. Clarence Shoemaker, United States National 

Museum (Amphipoda) 
Mr. J. 0. Maloney, United States National Museum 

Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, Academy of Natural Sciences 

Dr. Willard G. Van Name, American Museum of 

Natural History (Tunicates) 

While many of the identifications have been 
checked by these specialists, it has not been possible 
to have this done in all cases, so the author assumes 
the responsibility for the identifications used in this 

Many of the illustrations are original; others 
have been borrowed from various sources. The 
author is especially indebted to the New York Zoo- 
logical Society, the New Jersey State Museum and 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
for the loan of certain cuts. 

Photographs of published and unpublished il- 
lustrations were supplied by the United States 
National Museum, the American Museum of Natural 
History, the Connecticut Geological and Natural 
History Survey (through Dr. W. R. Coe), the 
Museum of Zoology, Copenhagen, Denmark (through 

0. T. Mortensen), Dr. R C. Osburn, Dr. R. S. Bassler, 
Dr. W. G. Van Name, and Mr. L. C. Brownell. 

Permission to copy certain published illustra- 
tions, either by photographing' or drawing, has kind- 
ly been granted by the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries, the Carnegie Institution of Washington and 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard 

The drawings of Plates 2, 3, 11, 13, Fig. 2, as 
well as the map were made by Mr. Walter Ziomek 
of the New Jersey State Museum and those of Figs 
5, 8, 9 and 10, by Mr. John Boczek. 

Unfortunately, space will not permit the 
acknowledgment of all who have aided in the prepa- 
ration of the book — the collecting and the study of 
the material as well as the task of preparing the 
manuscript and the plates for publication. 



Preface 5 

1. The Ocean and Its Inhabitants 15 

2. Sea Animals of the Atlantic Coast 18 

3. Collecting along the New Jersey Coast ... 22 

4. Fossil Shells of the New Jersey Beaches . . 27 

5. Porifera 31 

6. Coelenterata .38 

7. Ctenophora 76 

8. Echinodermata 79 

9. Bryozoa 98 

10. Vermes 110 

11. Mollusca 134 

12. Crustacea 199 

13. Arachnoiclea 245 

14. Insecta 248 

15. Chordata 250 

Bibliography 257 

a h 


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Chapter Oxpj 

Ever since the earliest times the ocean has held 
a fascination for man. At first it was worshipped 
as a superhuman power, or personified as a god 
such as the Roman Neptune or the Greek Poseidon. 
Later man strove to conquer its mysteries and to 
learn something concerning its great extent, its 
depth and also the animals and plants that lived 
beneath its surface. 

By the beginning of the Christian era there 
had been numerous voyages of discovery and man 
had become more acquainted with some of the 
mysteries of the sea. Many strange animals had 
been collected from various parts of the ocean. 
About this time the Roman naturalist, Pliny the 
Elder, compiled a natural history in which he listed 
176 animals from the ocean. He must have been 
rather pleased with his work, for he remarked: "By 
Hercules, there exists nothing in the sea and in the 
ocean, vast as they are, that is unknown to us, and, a 
truly marvelous fact, it is with these things that 
nature has concealed in the deep that we are best 
acquainted. ' ' 

Today we are not quite so sure that we know 
all the animals of the ocean. Every expedition to 
remote parts of the world brings back scores of new 
species of sea animals and even explorations in 
waters nearer home frequently bring to light speci- 



mens either new to science or not hitherto reported 
in this part of the world. 

Sea animals, like the rest of the animal kingdom, 
are divided into two main groups, vertebrates and in- 
vertebrates. The vertebrates include those animals 
that possess a backbone. In the sea this group is 
represented by the fishes, whales, porpoises and a 
few lesser known animals. The other group, the in- 
vertebrates, includes the more primitive forms of 
animal life. Although many species are very small, 
the invertebrates comprise the great majority of the 
inhabitants of the sea. These creatures, such as the 
jelly-fish, starfish, crabs, the inhabitants of sea shells 
and the like, make up the most conspicuous feature 
of the animal life of the seashore. Even the most 
casual visitor to the seacoast cannot help but observe 
a few of the invertebrate animals of the region, even 
if it be only on the dining room table. Moreover, 
a great many visitors to the shore make collections 
of the various shells, crabs, or other specimens that 
they find washed upon the beach. It is with these 
invertebrate animals that we shall be concerned in 
this book. 

Various systems of classification of the inverte- 
brate animals have been proposed. According to 
the arrangement used here there are ten main divi- 
sions or phyla, each one of which is discussed in a 
separate chapter with the exception of the phylum 
Arthropoda which is discussed in three chapters, 
one dealing with the Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, 
etc.), another with the Arachnoidea (Spiders, 
King Crabs, etc.) and the third with the Insecta 
(Insects). The various phyla are in turn divided 
into smaller groups — classes, orders and families. 
Only a few of the more important subdivisions are 


outlined in this book since their description would 
require the use of too many technical terms. 

A family is composed of a number of different 
animals that are all closely related. Each kind of 
animal has two names — first a genus name which 
always comes first and begins with a capital letter; 
this is followed by a species name which always 
begins with a small letter even if it is named for a 
person or place. Closely related animals have the 
same genus name but always different species names. 
In a few cases there is a third or variety name which 
follows the species name, but for most animals two 
names are sufficient. 

The name of the animal is always followed by 
the name of the man who first described it. For in- 
stance, Asterias forbesi Desor is the common starfish 
and was first described by Desor in 1848 and was 
named in the honor of Forbes. Asterias tenera Stimp- 
son is a related starfish that was described by Stimp- 
son. The fact that they have the same genus name 
shows that they are closely related. 

Chapter Two 

The marine animals of the Atlantic coast of 
North America can be classified roughly speaking 
by the zones or provinces in which they live. Obvi- 
ously these zones are not separated from each other 
by sharp lines, but nature has created a great many 
factors that play a part in the distribution of sea 
animals and no form of animal or plant life will 
conform to arbitrary man-made laws or boundaries. 
Certain of these zones are better differentiated than 
others. So, while this grouping of animals into 
regions is arbitrary and not always accurate, it does 
serve as a convenience and is often of considerable 
help to both the amateur collector and the student 
of marine life. 

Perhaps the most important boundary is Cape 
Cod. Aiiy visitor to the region will perceive the 
considerable difference in ocean temperature north 
and south of the cape. It has long been recognized 
that the waters around Cape Cod were the meeting 
place of two faunas, the Acadian from the north and 
the Virginian from the south. It was once pointed 
out that there is a greater difference between the 
marine algae (seaweeds) of Massachusetts Bay and 
Buzzards Bay which are just a few miles apart, the 
former north of Cape Cod and the latter south of 
it, than there is between the flora of Massachusetts 
Bay and the Bay of Fundy, or between those of 



Nantucket and Norfolk. The same thing, perhaps 
in a lesser degree, is true of the marine animals. 
The most important reason for this fact is the 
presence of the cold Labrador Current north of Cape 
Cod and the warm Gnlf Stream that flows south of 
the cape. 

Other factors also play a part, For instance, 
Cape Cod itself acts as a barrier and helps keep 
distinct the animals north and south of that cape. 
Again, the rocky coast of New England is very 
different from the sandy beaches of the south shore 
of Long Island and from New Jersey southward. 
This variation in habitat accounts for some of the 
differences in the marine life of the two regions. 

Proceeding southward the next important 
boundary line is reached at Cape Hatteras and here 
again we note a marked change in the fauna. As at 
('ape Cod, there is a noticeable difference in the 
water temperature north and south of Hatteras, 
although here the change is more gradual. The 
Gulf Stream, which is fairly close to the shore from 
Florida north to Hatteras, is deflected out to sea at 
this point and proceeds northward a greater distance 
from shore. The warmer waters south of Cape 
Hatteras allow the growth of coral reefs and thereby 
afford a habitat for sea animals not known north of 
that cape. 

There is somewhat of a boundary at the south- 
ern part of Florida and many species are restricted 
to the perpetually warm seas of the Florida Keys, 
the Bahamas and the West Indies. It is in these 
tropical waters that one finds the greatest variety 
and abundance and beauty of marine life. The 
many colored shells are rivalled by the brillancc 
of the corals, sea fans, sponges and other inhabitants 
of the tropical sea. 


The region north of Oape Cod is sometimes 
divided into two zones with a boundary at the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. This boundary, like that of 
southern Florida, is not well defined and the transi- 
tion between the two is more gradual. 

The following zones may thus be recognized: 
Arctic Arctic Seas to the Gulf of 

St. Lawrence 
Acadian Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Cod 

Virginian Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 

Carolinian Cape Hatteras to Florida 
Caribbean Florida Keys, West Indies, etc. 

The region to be treated in this book lies in the 
Virginian Zone— between Cape Cod and Cape Hat- 
teras. Although most of the animals described and 
illustrated were actually obtained from the coast of 
New T Jersey, practically the same fauna would be 
found along the entire coast between the two above 
mentioned capes. 

Near Cape Cod, however, a large number of 
species from the Acadian Zone lap over into the 
region south of Cape Cod. In addition, many rock 
dwelling forms extend their range as far south as 
Long Island, the southern limit of the rocky coast- 
line. Because of this overlapping of faunas, the 
region in the vicinity of the Marine Biological 
Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts has a 
rather large fauna composed of both northern and 
southern elements. 

Again, at and near Hatteras we find a mingling 
of the faunas, and many Carolinian or Caribbean 
species extend some distance north of that cape. 

As we have seen, this zoning is very arbitrary 
and the animals will not stay within their "proper" 
zones. This point is brought out in the following 


chapters when numerous species are recorded for the 
first time in New Jersey far north or south of their 
known distribution. 

Furthermore, many animals, common in shallow 
water along the northeastern coast, extend south 
in deeper water where the temperature is lower. 
Certain echinoderms and mollusks, which are com 
mon in shallow water along the coast of Maine and 
Northern New England, extend their range as far 
south as Cape Hatteras in water of considerable 
depth. Among these may be mentioned the Green 
Sea Urchin (Strong ylocent rot us drobachiensis) , the 
Bloody Starfish (Henricia sanguinolerda) and the Sea 
Scallop (Pecten grandis). 

In addition, certain northern animals extend 
their ranges southward during the colder months 
of the winter; conversely numerous southern ani- 
mals migrate north of their normal range in the 
warmest parts of the summer. 

There are so many factors that combine to 
determine the distribution of marine animals that 
it is very difficult to map even approximate zones. 
Nevertheless, the above mentioned zones have cer- 
tain characteristic species and are used as a matter 
of convenience. 

Chapter Three 


The shore-line of New Jersey from Bay Head 
to Cape May is made up of coastal islands, separated 
from each other and from the mainland by bays 
and inlets. These islands vary in width from a few 
hundred yards to more than a mile. Above Bay 
Head there are numerous inlets but the mainland 
extends down to the ocean. On the bay side of these 
islands is the salt marsh. 

This same description, with slight modifications, 
would hold true for the entire Virginian Zone, from 
the South Shore of Long Island to Cape Hatteras, 
North Carolina. 

Seashore animals are usually particular about 
their place of living; some prefer the mud flats of the 
harbors and bays while others prefer a sandy asso- 
ciation; still others require a rocky situation. Many 
of these animals also have distinct preferences as to 
the depth of water. Some are always found between 
the tides while others prefer the shallow water a 
short distance off shore. Then there are the deep 
sea dwellers — those animals that live in the extreme 
depths of the ocean and which seldom or never are 
found near shore. 



The usual collector is interested in those animals 
which he can obtain most readily, namely the forms 
of the littoral or intertidal zone, or those of the 
shallow sea which are frequently cast upon the beach 
by the waves. 

Perhaps the best places to obtain a large number 
of different kinds of sea animals are tidal mud flats 
such as occur along the various bays, harbors and 
inland waterways of the region. The soft nature of 
the mud makes it easy for many species to burrow 
down and build their homes. In addition, the mud 
flats are usually protected from the action of the 
waves. It is in such associations that one finds 
various species of worms, sea cucumbers, and many 
mud-boring mollusks such as both the Hard Shell 
(Venn* mercenaria) and Soft Shell (J/ ya arenaria) 
Clam, the Razor Clam (Ensis direct us), the Large 
Angel Wings (Pholas costata). 

On the surface of these flats can usually be seen 
thousands of Mud Snails (Nassa obsoleta) and Fiddler 
Crabs (Uca pugnax). 

A sandy beach is not a good place to look for 
living sea animals. It is usually difficult for these 
animals to burrow into the hard sand and they would 
consequently be exposed to the force of the waves. 
Some animals, however, have adapted themselves to 
this type of association and can be looked for on 
sandy beaches. Some worms burrow in the sand 
between tides while a few species actually construct 
more or less permanent tubes out of the sand grains 
(Sabellaria vulgaris, Cistenides gouldii, etc.). 

The Sand ( Jrab or Ghost Crab (Ocypoda albicans) 
can frequently be seen scurrying over the beach and 
disappearing into its hole near or above high water 
mark. The Sand Bug or Hippa (Emerifa talpoida) 


and the Lady Crab (Ovalipes ocellatus) burrow into 
the sand close to low water mark. Among the mol- 
lusks the Surf Clam (Mactra solidissima), the Moon 
Snail (Polinices duplicatus) and the tiny Wedge Clam 
(Donax fossor) often live along sandy beaches. 

Many animals of the shallow sea zone, or the 
off shore communities, are often found on the beach 
where they have been carried by the waves. If one 
walks along one of the New Jersey beaches after a 
severe storm, he is apt to find a great variety of 
strange sea animals that have been washed either 
living or dead upon the beach. 

After one storm the beach may be strewn with 
thousands of Red Sponges (Microciona prolifera) car- 
ried from the oyster grounds of Delaware Bay. 
After another storm one may find instead a 
great many tropical species carried from the Gulf 
Stream which lies about 100 miles off shore. 
The Portuguese Man of War (Physalia pelagica), the 
Gulf Weed Crab [Planes minutus), and other unusual 
specimens are among the rarer visitors to the New 
Jersey coast. 

New England is noted for its " stern and rock- 
bound coast," New Jersey for its sandy beaches. 
Certain species of sea animals are usually found 
associated with rocks and would not be expected 
along the sandy coast of New Jersey. However, in 
recent years, rock jetties and breakwaters have been 
built at a number of places along the coast of that 
state and thus homes are provided for some of these 
rock-loving species. Among the New England 
species that are seldom found in New Jersey waters 
except on the "Rock Piles" are the Periwinkles 
(Littorina litorea, L. rudis and L. palliata) and the Rock 
Barnacle (Balanus balanoides) . 


The woodwork of wharves and piling are often 
covered with marine life. Sponges, hydroids, bry- 
ozoa, sea anemones, sea squirts, mussels and Ivory- 
Barnacles, together with a dense growth of algae, al- 
most completely cover many such wooden structures. 
Destructive species such as the Ship Worm (Teredo 
navalis), the boring isopod (Limnoria lignorum) are 
also found wherever there is unprotected wood. 

The species of the salt marsh are usually very 
limited in number. The water is brackish, being 
diluted with fresh water, and is harmful to many 
species. Moreover, parts of the marshes are entirely 
exposed above the water for certain periods of time. 
The animals of the salt marsh must be able to with- 
stand these changing conditions. Among the species 
most characteristic of the New Jersey salt marshes 
are the Horse Mussel {Modiolus demissus), the Fiddler 
Crabs (Uca pugnax, U. pugUator, U. minax), the Salt 
Marsh Periwinkle (Littorma irrorata) and the Coffee 
Snail (Melampus Unetaus). 

To obtain the animals of the shallow sea zone 
it is most desirable to obtain a boat. A small dredge 
or even a bucket or shrimp net can be dragged be- 
hind a row boat, In this way it is possible to obtain 
a small idea of some of the inhabitants of the shallow 
water close to shore especially in the bays and 

As one goes farther out to sea, the depth of the 
water increases and with it the difficulty of obtaining 
specimens from the bottom of the sea. A larger boat 
and more elaborate equipment are necessary for 
water deeper than a few fathoms. 

As we have seen, many of these off shore animals 
are frequently uprooted from their homes at the bot- 
tom of the sea and carried to the beach. The easiest 


way to collect some of these off shore animals is to 
walk leisurely along one of the beaches after a severe 

Obviously the animals of the greatest depths 
are seldom or never carried to the beaches. It is 
only those that live within a reasonable distance off 
shore and at a reasonable depth that are even 
occasionally found along the beach. For that reason 
we will consider here, with a few exceptions, only 
those species that live within about twenty-five miles 
of the shore and in water of twenty-five fathoms 
(.150 feet) or less in depth. 

Chapter Foub 


It is well known that the oceans have not always 
been in exactly the same places that they are today. 
We know that at certain times in the history of the 
earth the seas were higher and covered certain parts 
of what is now land. Variations in the amount of 
water in the sea together with movements of the land 
have brought about these various changes in the 
position of the oceans. 

AVe find evidence for these ancient seas in the 
fossil remains of sea animals — vertebrate and in- 
vertebrate — that are found far from the present 
seashore, even on the tops of mountains. Fossils 
are defined as "remains or traces of animals or 
plants that lived in a period earlier than the 
present." They may be petrified remains, or they 
may be unaltered, consisting of the hard parts of 
the original animal, such as bones or shells. Ordi- 
narily fossil sea animals are easily recognized 
because they are different from living species and 
because they are often found far from salt water. 

Fossil shells are often found washed up on the 
sea beaches where they have been carried from some 
nearby deposits on land or perhaps from some 
deposit at the bottom of the sea. Many of these 
shells are unaltered, and are .difficult or impossible 
to distinguish from recent shells. In many cases, 
the species are extinct and are not to be found living 



anywhere in present seas. Such species are common 
along parts of Chesapeake Bay and at certain places 
along- the coast of North and South Carolina. 

Fossil shells are frequently found on the New 
Jersey beaches, but they are almost always those of 
species still living in the ocean. While they cannot 
always be spotted with certainty, they can often be 
recognized by their black color and worn character. 
While most of these fossil shells belong to species 
still living in the sea, there are a few that are not 
living in the waters of New Jersey today. Some of 
these live in warmer seas farther south between Cape 
Hatteras and Florida. These are thought to have 
lived perhaps 100,000 years ago during the last inter- 
glacial stage, just before the last great ice sheets 
came down from the north. The seas were probably 
warmer then than at present and it would have been 
possible for these warm water animals to have lived 
as far north as New Jersey. The deposit containing 
these fossils is known as the Cape May formation. 

During interglacial time there was more water 
in the sea than at present because there was less ice 
on the earth; the melting of the polar glaciers had 
poured an extra quantity of water into the sea 
causing it to submerge parts of the present land. 
The advance of the ice in (Wisconsin) glacial time 
caused sea level to fall. 

In a few places along the New Jersey coast 
fossils from this interglacial sea arc found in gravel, 
sand or clay above present sea level. However, 
better fossils are obtained below the surface in well 
borings or dredgings. 

At certain places along the New Jersey coast, 
especially on the coastal islands, real estate develop- 
ments have been created by pumping sand upon the 


salt marshes by means of hydraulic dredging from 
30 to 50 feet below the bottom of the thoroughfares 
or channels back of the coastal islands. In the sand 
thus pumped to the surface are often shells and other 
remains of sea animals. These are probably from 
the Cape May formation which underlies these 
coastal islands, and which, as we have just seen, 
was deposited during the last interglacial stage. 
Many of the species now live only in more southern 
waters and are the same as those frequently found 
washed up on the beach. Two Mile Beach, south 
of Wildwood, is the best place to collect these fossil 
shells. Other similar hydraulic fills are found all 
along the New Jersey coast, as well as at a few places 
on the " Del-Mar- Va Peninsula." 

Some of the commoner of these warm water 
fossils are listed in the chapters on mollusks. 
The following is the complete list of the Pleistocene 
shells of New Jersey which at present are restricted 
to the warmer seas south of that state: Terebra 
concava, T. dislocaia, Fulgur perversum, Polinlces lactea, 
Sinum perspectivum, Thais floridana, Fissurella alternata, 
Mangelia stellata, Cantharus cancellaria, Area ponderosa, 
Transenella stimpsonij Bangia cuneata, Odostomia im- 
pressaV3,T. granitma, Chione cribaria. In addition these 
fossil deposits contain many species still living in the 

A few species of fossil shells from the New Jersey 
beaches are known alive only from the seas north of 
New Jersey and thus indicate a former colder tempe- 
rature. It is probable that these shells lived in the 
sea during Glacial times, perhaps 25,000 years ago 
when the climate was colder than it is today because 
immense ice sheets covered the northern parts of 


There was less water in the sea than at present 
because immense quantities of water were locked up 
in the land ice. The shore line of New Jersey conse- 
quently extended far beyond its present position. 
For instance, the site of Atlantic City would have 
been some 75 miles from the sea ! Fossils laid down 
in this glacial sea would have been deposited far 
from the present shore line and would consequently 
seldom be found on the beach except when they were 
carried by unusually heavy seas. 

The following species, at present only living' north 
of New Jersey, probably lived in this glacial sea: 
Buccinum wndatum, Neptunea decemcostata and CoIuh 
gracilis. Neptunea si one 'i, an extinct gastropod of 
northern affinities, probably also is a shell of this 
glacial sea. All these species are very rare on the 
New Jersey beaches. 

Chapter Five 


(The Sponges) 

Sponges at one time were regarded as plants. 
When, at last, their animal nature was discovered, 
their exact relationship and position in the animal 
kingdom was not clear. For a while they were 
thought to be large colonies or masses of unicellular, 
microscopic animals. Finally, from a study of their 
life history, it was concluded that they were individ- 
ual multicellular animals. Although there are a 
great many microscopic animals made up of a single 
cell (Protozoa), the sponges are usually regarded as 
the simplest group of multicellular animals (Meta- 

The sponge with which everyone is familiar, the 
commercial Bath Sponge, is really only the dried 
skeleton of the original living animal. When these 
large sponges are seen alive in their native environ- 
ment, such as off the coast of Florida, they can be 
seen to be covered with a thin gelatinous layer of 
skin. After the sponges are obtained from their 
home at the bottom of the sea, they are dried and in 
this way the fleshy skin is removed. 

The greatest variety of sponges of the east 
coast of North America is found off Florida, the 
Bahamas and the West Indies. Visitors to- Tarpon 
Springs, Florida, or to Nassau, Bahamas, often visit 
the sponge boats to see the interesting diving equip- 
ment and the unusual animals found at the bottom 



of the sea associated with the sponges. Great quanti- 
ties of sponges can usually be seen drying on the 

Although the large commercial sponges are 
found only in warm seas, there are a number of 
varieties that are found all along the east coast of 
the United States. While these are mostly small and 
of no commercial value, some are very beautiful. 

A few sponges have rather peculiar habits. The 
Red Sponge (Microciona prolifera) is often found 
growing on the back of Spider Crabs which use the 
sponge as a camouflage. The Sulphur Sponge (Cliona 
celata) bores into shells of oysters, clams and other 
bivalves, and finally succeeds in killing the bivalve. 

Sponges have no regular mouths. Their bodies 
contain a great number of small canals which finally 
open again to the outside through larger openings 
or oscula. These oscula are fairly conspicuous in 
the ordinary Bath Sponge. Sea water is constantly 
flowing through these canals, entering the sponge 
through the small pores and leaving it through the 
larger oscula. As this steady stream of water is 
passing through the sponge, the small microscopic 
plants and animals in the water are removed by the 
sponge and utilized as food. 

The skeletal framework of sponges is composed 
of a great many small fibers of a horny, calcareous 
or silicious substance. These fibers are known as 
spicules, and are very important in the classification 
of the various species of sponges. 



Cliona celata (J rant 

(Sulphur Sponge, 

(Cliona sulphurea Desor) 

Boring Sponge, 

Yellow Coral, 


PLATE I. Fig. 1, 4 

The Boring Sponge is fairly common in New 
Jersey waters, especially in the oyster grounds in 
Delaware Bay, where it bores into the oyster shells. 
This sponge usually consists of small, yellow, wart- 
like protuberances which project about one-eighth 
of an inch above the shell. However, at times it 
glows out of the shell which it has excavated and 
assumes a massive form, sometimes as much as three 
feet square. This massive form of the sponge is 
known to the fishermen as "Yellow Coral" or 
"Punk" and is frequently associated with good 
fishing grounds. It is especially abundant in Dela- 
ware Bay near "Old Bare Shoal," off the mouth of 
Mispillion River, Delaware, in Maurice River Cove 
on the New Jersey side of the bay and in Ludlam's 
Bay near Sea Isle City, Xew Jersey. It is present, 
but less conspicuous in other parts of the New Jersey 
coastal waters. It is rarely found in the open ocean. 

Many shells, especially the Oyster and Clam 
(Venus), are cast up on the beach riddled with small 
holes, showing the work of this sponge. 

Chalina arbuscula Verrill (Dead Man's Fingers) 

PLATE I. Fig. 2 

This branched or finger-like sponge lives in 


Cliona celata Grant 
Chalina arbuscula Verrill 
Microciona prolifera Verrill 
Shell bored by Cliona celata Grant 


water about fifty feet deep some ten miles off the 
New Jersey coast. It is buff or grayish when alive 
but as it dries it turns a yellowish color. Dried speci- 
mens are occasionally found washed up on the New 
Jersey beaches particularly in the northern part of 
the state (Sandy Hook to Barnegat). 

This sponge occurs in shallow water from Cape 
Cod to Cape Hatteras. A closely related species, 
Chalina oculata occurs off the coast of northern New 

Microciona prolifera Verrill (Red Sponge) 

PLATE I. Fig. 3 

This is the most common of the New Jersey 
sponges. When young, it forms thin bright red 
incrustations on shells; when fully grown, it rises 
in irregular slender branches as much as six inches 
high. It is very abundant on the oyster shells in 
Maurice River Cove in Delaware Bay, Ludlam's Bay, 
Great Egg Harbor, Barnegat Bay and many other 
parts of the Inland Coastal Waterways of New 
Jersey. It is seldom found in the open ocean or 
washed up on the ocean beaches. 

In the spring, after the breaking up of the ice, 
many sponges are dislodged from their shell and 
washed upon the beaches of Delaware Bay. The 
beaches at Cape May Point in early April are fre- 
quently covered with great masses of this red sponge 
which turns brown as it dries. The same occurrence 
is noted after severe storms, for instance after 
the "Northeaster" of April 12, 1928. It fre- 
quently grows on the back of spider crabs 


(Libinia). At certain times this sponge is said to 
be poisonous. 

Found from New England to the Carolinas. 

Suberites compacta Verrill 

An irregular elongate sponge, bright yellow in 
color, occasionally found attached to shells or 
stranded on the beach. Known from Maine to 
Virginia but rare in New Jersey. 

Chapter Six 


1. HYDROZOA Hydroids and small jellyfish 

2. SCYPHOZOA Larger jellyfish 

3. ACTINOZOA Sea Anemones and Corals 


Hydroids at first glance resemble plants rather 
than animals for they appear to have a stem, root, 
branches and even flowers. In fact, they are very 
often collected and preserved as sea-weeds. Never- 
theless, they are really animals, or more strictly 
speaking, groups or colonies of associated animals. 
A true hydroid colony is made np of two, or in some 
cases three, kinds of individuals or polyps, each- 
performing different functions for the benefit of the 
entire colony. Some individuals have months and 
tentacles and obtain the food for the colony: these 
are the nutritive polyps. Other individuals serve a 
reproductive function and produce the young of the 
next generation. Some species possess a third type 
of individual, serving a protective function. These 
may be armed with thousands of small stinging cells 
which serve the double purpose of protecting the 
colony from enemies and in paralyzing the prey 
which is to be used as food. 

Many of the species of Hydrozoa pass through 
what is known as Alternation of Generations; in 
other words, they have two distinct forms, (1) the 



hydroid stage, briefly described above and (2) the 
medusa or jellyfish stage. As we have just seen, 
this plant-like hydroid possesses reproductive 
polyps; by a form of budding these polyps produce 
minute jellyfish. In many species these break loose 
from the colony and become free-swimming hydro- 
medusae. Although very minute when liberated, 
they may attain a size of an inch or so at maturity. 
In some species they always remain very minute and 
attached to the hydroid stalk. 

When the medusa is mature, it produces eggs 
which soon develop into minute free-swimming or- 
ganisms known as planuae. Soon, however, these 
planulae settle down and attach themselves to some 
object and grow, plant-like, into a hydroid. Thus 
the cycle is completed. The animal has passed 
through an alternation of two generations (1) the 
hydroid stage which reproduces by plant-like bud- 
ding (asexually) to form (2) the medusa stage which 
in turn reproduces by eggs (sexually) to again form 
the hydroid. 

These two forms, hydroid and medusa, are 
totally different in appearance and one would never 
suspect that they belonged to the same species. In 
fact, early naturalists did not realize this and gave 
different names to the two stages. 

Not all Hydrozoa pass through the same life 
history. Some species have only a hydroid stage, 
while others have only a medusa. One group 
(Siphonophora) consists of large free-floating com- 
munities. The Portuguese Man of War (Physalia 
pelagica) is the best known example of this group, 
(see page 59) 

Most of the hydroids are very small and are 
easilv overlooked by the casual collector. The 


species are usually very difficult to determine and 
the identifications are based upon the size, shape and 
position of the reproductive polyps (gonosomes) and 
upon the structure of the nutritive polyp or hy- 
dranth. Some hydranths are uncovered (Tubulari- 
idae) while most are protected by a horny receptacle 
or hydrotheca. 

Hydroids are usually attached to some solid 
object by a root-like structure (hydrorhiza), 
although a few float freely on the surface of the sea. 
From this root arises the main stalk, which is usually 
branched and from these branches hang the various 

The medusa stage resembles a tiny umbrella. 
At the lower part of the handle (manubrium) is the 
mouth which opens into various canals. A mem- 
braneous velum or veil usually projects inward from 
the rim of the umbrella. 

The average collector along the New Jersey 
coast will find only three conspicuous hydroids — 
Tubidaria crocea and II ydr actinia echinata and Thumria 
argentea. Most of the other species are small and in 
order to identify them it is necessary to make a 
careful study of their structure with a fairly high 
powered microscope. The student especially inter- 
ested in the Hydrozoa will find them adequately 
treated in the references cited in the bibliography. 
For the benefit of the more casual student, condensed 
descriptions of some of the New Jersey forms are 
given here. In writing these descriptions free use 
has been made of the sources cited in the biblio- 

Tubularian Hydroids 

Hydroids with naked hydranths, that is, without 
any protective cups (hydrothecae). 


This pinkish covering' is found on shells and 
occasionally on pebbles throughout the entire coastal 
waters of New Jersey, as well as along the New 
England coast, The shells covered by Hydractinia 
are frequently inhabited by Hermit Crabs (Parugus). 

Under the microscope or fairly powerful lens 
the rather complicated organization of this colony 
can be observed. There is a root-like net work 
covering the surface of the shell; from this covering 
various polyps or individuals of the colony arise. 

Hydractinia echinata Fleming- 
Fig, l 

Hydractinia echinata Fleming 

There are three types of polyp: one for feeding, one 
for reproduction and a third type for protection, 
armed with stinging cells or nematocysts. 

The peculiar association between the Hydractinia 
and the Hermit Crab in the shell is known as com- 
mensalism, which is a sort of partnership formed 
for mutual benefit, The crab benefits by being partly 
concealed by the hydroid and by the stinging cells 
of Hydractinia which protect it from enemies and 
paralyze its prey; in exchange the hydroid obtains 
transportation from the crab, thereby being able to 


1. Thuiaria argentea Ellis and Solander 

2. Clytia minuta Nutting 

3. Clytia edwardsii Nutting" 

4. Bougainvillia carolinensis McCrady 

5. Obelia commissuralis McCrady 

6. Plumularia inermis Nutting 

7. Obelia flabellata Hincks 

8. Gonothyrea loveni Allman 

9. Obelia longissima Pallas 

10. Sertularia pumila Linne 

11. Obelia gelatinosa Pallas 

12. Halecium gracile Verrill 

13. Thuiaria cupressina Linne 

14. Plumularia alternata Nutting 

15. Campanularia verticillata Linne 

16. Plumularia floridana Nutting 


procure a better food supply (microscopic organ- 
isms) than if it were rooted to one spot. 

Hydractinia is found in shallow water in tide 
pools, inlets, and like situations, also in deeper water 
off the coast at least to 26 fathoms. 

Tubularia crocea Agassiz (Sea Strawberries) 

PLATE III. Fig. 3 

This hydroid grows in large clusters; The stems 
are smooth, about six inches in height and each is 
surmounted with a flower-like head of deep pink. 
This color gives the local name ' ' Sea Strawberries. ' ' 
The reproductive zooids are not liberated as free 
medusae (jellyfish) but remain attached to the stem 
like a bunch of grapes. 

It grows on wharves, wrecks, driftwood, etc., 
and occasionally on the back of Spider Crabs, from 
New England to the Carolinas ; it is more frequent in 
bays and inlets than in the open ocean. After storms 
this hydroid is frequently cast up on the beach, 
either loose or attached to driftwood. 

It is sometimes found in winter, but the polyp 
has usually contracted within the tube during that 

Bougainvillia carolinensis McCrady 

PLATE II. Fig. 4 

Branched; up to 12 inches in height although 
usually less; nutritive polyps (hydranths) grow on 
both main stem and branches; annulations (rings) 
on stalk below the polyp. Polyp with single band of 


tentacles above which there is a conical shaped 
structure known as the proboscis bearing the mouth ; 
the proboscis is occasionally saucer-shaped; color 
usually reddish brown. 

Reproductive polyps (gonosomes) in clusters 
on main stalk and branches; mature medusae (jelly- 
fish ) break off and become free swimming. 

The hydroid is frequently found attached to 
woodwork from Cape Cod southward. 

For medusa of this species see page 54. 

Eudendrium ramosum Linne 

PLATE III. Fig. 9 

Much branched ; up to six inches in height ; main 
stem fascicled (compound, apparently made up of a 
bundle of stems); annulations (rings) at base of 
branches only; in many respects resembles Bougain- 
villia, but distinguished from it by its more trumpet- 
shaped proboscis. 

Tw t o types of reproductive polyps (gonosomes) ; 
male polyps red and usually found in clusters below 
the nutritive polyp; female ones orange and pyri- 
form; does not produce free medusae. 

Labrador to North Carolina. 

Pennaria tiarella McCrady 

Much branched; about six inches in height; 
stems dark brown or black with conspicuous annula- 
tions. The hydranths are pink; proboscis elongate; 



two rows of tentacles, one at basal portion of pro- 
boscis, the other on the upper part of the proboscis. 
Reproductive polyps attached to the hydranth 
body just above the lower band of tentacles; the 

Fig. 2 
Pennaria tiarella McGrady 

medusae thus formed sometimes remain attached 
to the stalk; other times they become free swimming', 
although always very minute (1.5 mm. by 0.8 mm.). 

This hydroid is abundant at Woods Hole, Massa- 
chusetts, and is known as far south as Florida In 
New Jersey it lives off shore and the dead stems are 
occasionally washed up on the beach. 

Because of their small size the medusae have 
not been observed in New Jersey. 

Campanularian Hydroids 

Hydroids with hydranths at the end of stalks 
and protected by a bell-shaped cup (hydrotheca). 


Clytia edwardsii Nutting 
(Campaniddriti edwardsii Null nig) 

PLATE II. Fig. 3 

About an inch in height, branching- irregularly; 
annulations confined to proximal portions of the 
stems and just below the hydrotheca. Hydrotheca 
large with 12 to 14 sharp teeth. 

On wood work, sponges, etc., just below low 
tide. Originally described from Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts. Sometimes present at Cape May, 
New Jersey, in late September and October. 

Clytia minuta Nutting 
(Campanularia minuta Nutting) 

PLATE II. Fig. 2 

Smaller than the above (y 4 inch); branches 
as the above although the stem is more extensively 
annulated; hydrotheca small with 8 to 10 teeth. 

Grows on Obelia and other hydroids. Described 
from Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Occasionally 
seen at Cape May, New T Jersey, in September and 
October together with the above. 

Campanularia verticillata Linne 

PLATE II. Fig. 15 

Branched, about five inches in height; stem 
and branches fascicled (composed of a bundle of 
tubes) ; hydranth provided with a cup-shaped 


chitinous receptacle (hydrotheca) into which the 
hydranth retracts; stalk of hydranth annulated and 
arises from the stem in a verticillate manner. 

Reproductive polyps on main stem and branches, 
oblong flask-shaped with necks often produced into 
tubular extensions with terminal openings. No free 
swimming medusae are found in this genus. 

Found attached to stones, shells, etc., in Block 
Island Sound, Fishers Island Sound and Delaware 
Bay; not common. Numerous other species of 
Campamilaria have been reported along the New 
England and Carolina coasts and may be looked 
for in New Jersey waters. 

Obelia commissuralis McCrady 

PLATE II. Fig. 5 

A delicate form, up to 8 inches high; stem not 
fascicled, branched in a flabellate manner with 4 
or 5 annulations above the origin of each branch; 
hydranths on annulated stalks; hydrothecae sub- 
triangular, not toothed. 

Reproductive polyps (gonosomes) are ovoid 
and larger than the hydranths and are borne at the 
angles of the branches. Medusae are liberated 
from these gonosomes (seepage 55). 

Abundant along the New England coast growing 
on docks, etc. Present but not so abundant in 
similar situations along the New Jersey coast: 
occasionally found stranded on the beach; southern 
limit of species, South Carolina. 


Obelia flabellata Hincks 

PLATE II. Fig 7 

Very similar to the above and difficult to 
distinguish from it; hydranth-bearing stalks arise 
from shoulders of the branches instead of directly 
from the branches as in 0. commissar alls. 

Rarer than the above ; known from New England 
and northern New Jersey (Shark River); medusae 
not reported from New Jersey. 

Obelia longissima Pallas 

PLATE II. Fig. 9 

Colony longer than the two preceecling species, 
reaching a length of 12 to 14 inches; main stem 
fascicled and branched; stalks annulated; hydro- 
thecae with numerous very small teeth. 

Reproductive polyps ovate with collared apert- 
ures. Medusae with 20 to 24 tentacles when 

Reported from the coast of Massachusetts; occa- 
sionally washed on the New Jersey beaches in con- 
siderable quantities in the spring of the year. 

Obelia gelatinosa Pallas 

PLATE II. Fig 11 

Very similar to the above; stalks shorter (3 to 
5 annulations) ; hydrothecae triangular and with 


teeth more prominent than in 0. longissima. Liberated 
medusae with 1() tentacles. 

Reported from shallow water attached to 
oysters, woodwork, etc., from Vineyard Sound 
(Massachusetts) to Great Egg Harbor Bay (New 
Jcrsev) ; rare. 

Gonothyrea loveni Allman 

PLATE II. Fig. 8 

Stem not fascicled, irregularly branched, less 
than one inch in height. Stalks with 2 to 5 annula- 
(ions; hydranth toothed and tapering toward the 

Reproductive polyps (gonosomes) attached to 
the angles of the branches. These do not give rise 
to mature medusae, but rather to modified medusae 
known as sporosacs which always remain attached 
to the colony. 

Attaches to shells, stones, etc, from Maine to 
Xew Jersey (first record Pierces Point, Delaware 
Bay, September 19, 1928). 

Halecium gracille Verrill 

PLATE II. Fig. 12 

Colony branched; stem fascicled; hyolrothecae 
reduced to saucer-shaped hydrophores, frequently 
ornamented with a necklace of bright dots, and much 
too shallow to accommodate the hydranth. 

The gonosomes do not produce free medusae. 

On shells, floating wood, etc, from Labrador 


to New Jersey (Great Egg* Harbor Bay); rare in 
New Jersey and not reported in recent years . 

Sertularian Hydroids 

Hydroids with hydrotheca sessile, that is, 
without stalks, and arranged on both sides of the 

Sertularia pumila Linne 

PLATE II. Fig. 10 

Usually branched; stem divided into regular 
nodes and internodes, each bearing a pair of oppo- 
site hydrothecae which hardly touch each other in 
front; no stalks. 

Reproductive polyps (gonosomes) ovate with a 
short stalk and a terminal collar containing an apert- 
ure. No free swimming medusae are liberated. 

Grows in shallow water on sea weed, eel grass, 
etc., from Arctic Seas to New Jersey. Common near 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts; occasionally found on 
the New Jersey coast on Fucus (Rock Weed) or eel 
grass. Frequently grows flat on the seaweed with a 
few upright branches about an inch or so high. 

Thuiaria argentea Ellis and Solan der 

PLATE II. Fig. 1 

Dark stem with silver branches ; often a foot or 
more in length; stem and branches divided into 


internodes each of which bears hydrotheeae. Hydro- 
theeae sub-alternate, not opposite as in Seriularia, 
and curve outward so that the terminals are one- 
third free; aperture with two opposite teeth, one 
much longer than the other. 

Reproductive polyps (gonosomes) are urn- 
shaped with two lateral projections; medusae are 
not liberated. 

Fairly common in water from 1 to 100 fathoms 
from Chesapeake Bay northward; probably extends 
farther south. Frequently large masses of dead 
stalks are washed on the beaches. The species 
appears to be particularly abundant in the Dela- 
ware and Chesapeake Bays. 

Some years ago, when marine material was used 
extensively for trimming women's hats, this species 
was used more than any other. 

Thuiaria cupressina Linne (Sea Cypress) 

PLATE II. Fig. 13 

Somewhat similar to the above, but usually 
longer and less branched; internodes shorter than 
argenteci; hydrotheeae not quite opposite and almost 
entirely in contact with the main stem instead of 
being partially free as in curgentea. 

Gonosomes similar to those of the above; borne 
in rows; usually reddish in color and appearing in 
April (New Jersey). 

Found in similar situations as the above but not 
as common ; known from New Jersev northward. 


Plumularian Hydroids 

Feather-like hydroids with hydrothecae on one 
side of the branches only. Nematophores, minnte 
trumpet-shaped or tubular organs containing- sting- 
ing cells (nematocysts), are always present. 

Plumularia alternata Nutting 

PLATE II. Fig. 14 

About one-half inch in height; hydrothecae not 
stalked, arranged on one side of the branches only; 
branches divided into segments, every other one 
supporting a hydrothecae; nematophores movable. 

On sea-weed, etc., from New Jersey southward; 
common near Beaufort, North Carolina. First 
record in New Jersev (Great Egg Harbor Bav, July 
3, 1931). 

Plumularia floridana Nutting 

PLATE II. Fig. 16 

Resembles the above except that the hydro- 
thecae are more cylindrical an*:! there are usually 2 
or 3 aimulations at each node. 

On sea-weed, etc., Delaware Bay (first record, 
August 4, 1931), Chesapeake Bay, Beaufort, North 
Carolina, and southward. 


Plumularia inermis Nutting 

PLATE II. Fig. 6 

Internodes long and slender, usually with hydro- 
thecae on each; otherwise similar to the above two 
species in general characters. 

North Carolina southward; rarely found on 
floating Gulf Weed (Sargassum) as far north as New 
Jersey (first record, Cape May Point, September 15, 


Nemopsis bachei Agassiz 

PLATE III. Fig. 5 

A small jelly-fish (about ]/ 2 inch in diameter) ; 
four clusters of tentacles, each cluster with an erect 
clavate pair which arches over the long tentacles. 

The life history of this species is unknown and 
no hydroid stage has been found. 

Common throughout the summer from Massa- 
chusetts to Florida; often abundant in New Jersey 
in September. 

Bougainvillia carolinensis McCrady 

PLATE III. Fig. 8 

Very similar to the above but without the erect 
clavate tentacles. For hydroid stage see page 44; 
not as common as the above. 


Syncoryne mirabilis Agassiz 

PLATE III. Fig. 4 

Almost hemispherical, 6 to 12 mm. in diameter; 
1 long- tentacles. 

Arctic seas to New Jersey; not common in New 


PLATE III. Fig. 10 

The medusae of this genus are flat and discoid 
and very minute — 1 mm. at time of liberation from 
gonosome and up to 5 or 6 mm. at maturity. It is 
almost impossible to distinguish the various species 
of this genus. 

Blackfortia virginica Mayer 

PLATE III. Fig. 6 

Bell about 14 mm. wide, somewhat higher than 
a hemisphere with relatively straight, sloping sides 
and rounded apex. About 80 long, slender tentacles 
with short swollen basal bulbs. Usually one litho- 
cyst (minute sense organ) between each pair of 
tentacles. Black pigment is conspicuous near the 
tentacles. No hydroid stage is known. 

Originally described by Mayer from Hampton 
Roads, Virginia (October, November, 1901) ; more re- 
cently (August, 1931) found in Mullica River, New 


1. Pelagia cyanella Peron and Lesueur 

2. Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz 

3. Tubularia crocea Agassiz 

4. Syncoryne mirabilis Agassiz 

5. Nemopsis bachei Agassiz 

6. Blackfortia virginica Mayer 

7. Vellela mutica Bosc 

8. Bougainvillia carolinensis McCrady 

9. Eudendrium ramosum Linne 

10. Obelia sp. 

11. Sagartia luciae Verrill 

12. Beroe ovata Chamisso and Eisenharrd 



Blackfortia manhattensis Mayer 

Distinguished from the above chiefly by the ab- 
sence of the dark pigment granules adjacent to the 
lithocysts. Originally described from off Sandy 
Hook, New Jersey, where it was said to be common 
during October. 

Aequorea groenlandica Peron and Lesuer 
(Zygodactyla groenlandica P. & L.) 

Fig. 3 
Aequorea groenlandica Peron and Lesuer 

This is the largest American hydromedusa and 
may reach a foot in diameter although its more 
normal size is about 6 inches. Very many radial 

A northern species usually found north of Cape 
Cod; occasionally found in New Jersey waters 
especially after storms. 


Free-floating communities made up of different 
types of individuals, each performing different func- 
tions in the community. 


Physalia pelagica Bosc (Portuguese Man of War) 




Fig. 4 
Physalia pelagica Bosc 

A Gulf Stream species which is occasionally 
carried to the New Jersey coast after storms. The 
Portuguese Man of War is a colonial animal and 
consists of a large pear-shaped bladder or float 

filled with a 

On the upper side of this float 


there is an extension known as a sail and from the 
lower part hang- a great many tentacles, making up 
the various types of polyps of the colony. Many 
of these tentacles are covered with thousands of 
nematocj^sts or stinging cells and the poison emitted 
by these cells is extremely irritating. A swimmer 
coming in contact with a number of large individuals 
of this species may become temporarily paralyzed 
and as a result may drown. 

The float may be six inches or more in length, 
whereas the tentacles may extend as far as forty or 
fifty feet. 

Several were found stranded on the beach at 
Cape May on September 14, 1930, after a severe 
storm. They were bright red and blue in color. 

Vellela mutica Bosc 

PLATE III. Fig. 7 

Another Gulf Stream colonial hydroid that is 
occasionally found in New Jersey coastal waters 
after storms. It has a blue oblong float about five 
inches long and is divided into concentric communi- 
cating compartments. There is a three cornered 
sail. On the underside there is a mouth and a 
number of small tentacular appendages. 

Porpita linnaeana Lesson 

PLATE IV. Fig. 1 

Somewhat similar to the above but with no sail. 
This form is made up of a circular disc from which 


hang short pale green streamers. These circular 
discs are sometimes found in great numbers washed 
on the beach after storms. After the storm of Sep- 
tember, 1930, a great many living animals were 
found on the beach at Cape May. 


To this group belong the larger jelly-fish or 
medusae. Although usually larger than the Hydro- 
zoan medusae, they have roughly the same structure. 
They are umbrella-shaped and from the center of the 
umbrella hangs the stalk-like manubrium containing 
the mouth and stomach. From the manubrium 
radiate numerous canals. The velum or veil is 
usually absent ; tentacles are present in most species. 
Like the hydromedusae, these jelly-fish are equipped 
with great quantities of stinging cells or nemato- 
cysts. Sometimes these animals are so abundant as 
to render ocean bathing very unpleasant if not 
actually dangerous. 

The alternation of generations, characteristic of 
the Hydrozoa, is reduced or absent in the Scyphozoa. 
The hydroid stage when present is very minute. 
The egg develops into a planula, a sphere-like form, 
which swims freely for while. After the free-swim- 
ming period, the little creature attaches itself to 
some solid object, The planulae of some species grow 
into hydroids; in other species the attached planula 
grows in a different manner, constricting at intervals, 
and at maturity resembles a pile of inverted saucers 
(strobila stage). Each of these saucers becomes de- 
tached and is known as an ephyrula and develops 
into an adult medusa. A few species mature directly 
from the egg without any intervening stage. 


While jelly-fish are able to make some progress 
through the water by their own power (by contract- 
ing and expanding their umbrella), they usually 
drift aimlessly, carried by the waves and currents, 
and belong to the so-called plankton of the sea. 
Their food consists largely of minute creatures of 
the sea. 

A Jelly-fish is nearly 99 per cent water. This 
can be observed by watching one dry on the beach in 
the sun. After a few hours it will have almost 
entirely evaporated. 

Cyanea capillata Fabricins (Jelly-fish, Sun Jelly) 

(C. artica Peron ami Lesueur) 

Fig. 5 

This is said to be the largest jelly-fish known 
and sometimes reaches seven feet in diameter al- 
though in New Jersey it rarely reaches more than 
four feet. The umbrella is thick and blubber-like. 
On the underside is the mouth from which hangs 
four curtain-like structures. The tentacles are of 
various colors and hang in eight distinct clusters 
along the margin of the umbrella. 

This jelly-fish usually begins to appear in the 
coastal waters off New Jersey in the middle of June 
or early July. By the middle of July large indi- 
viduals are frequently found cast up on the beach. 
They are often rather rare in August but by the 
middle of September they appear again in great 
numbers and are often stranded on the beach during 
the fall storms. 

Known from Arctic seas to North Carolina; 
more common toward the north. 



Fig. 5 
Cyanea capillata Fabricius 

Dactylometra quinquecirrha Desor 

(Speckled Jellyfish) 

Fig. 6 

Frequently found with the above but easily 
distinguished because tentacles are on the margin of 
the umbrella instead of on the underside (as in 
Cyanea). Color variable, usually with 16 radiating 



stripes of reddish color upon the surface of the um- 
brella. At times the pigment in these stripes is 
greatly reduced, making' them very inconspicuous. 
This is a Gulf Stream form usually found in New 

Fig. 6 
Dactylometra quinquecirrha Desor 

Jersey waters throughout the summer. Like Cyanea, 
it is frequently cast on the beach during the fall 
storms. Jelly-fish are scarce or absent in New Jersey 
waters in winter; however, a few small individuals 
were found on the beach at South Cape May, New 
Jersey, on January 27, 1929, after severe storms at 
sea, They had probably been carried from the Gulf 
Stream. This species ranges from Vineyard Sound 
to the tropics. It is highly irritant because of its 
stinging cells. 


Chryasora stage of Dactylometra (Sea Nettle) 

This a variety of the above species that lives in 
brackish waters. All Dactylometras pass through this 
form, but those living in brackish water become 
mature in this stage. They are smaller, the number 
of tentacles is only twenty-four, whereas the typical 
marine form has forty, and the pigment is very 
poorly developed. 

This form is typical of Navesink River, Barne- 
gat Bay, upper Delaware Bay and similar brackish 
water situations. 

This variety is exceptionally abundant in parts 
of Chesapeake Bay — making bathing almost im- 
possible because of the irritating nature of the 
stinging cells of the animal. 

Pelagia cyanella Peron and Lesueur 

PLATE III. Fig. 1 

A Gulf Stream form occasionally seen far off the 
New Jersey Coast, rarely seen near shore. 

Aurelia aurita Fabricius (Moon Jelly) 

(^4. flavidula Peron and Lesueur) 

Fig. 7, 10 

Flat, circular, 8 to 10 inches in diameter; short 
marginal tentacles; branching radial canals; four 
conspicuous crescent-shaped egg sacs in the center 
of the disc. 



A northern jelly-fish which is an occasional 
visitor to the New Jersey shores. In early July, 
1935, the ocean at Cape May was abnormally cold 
(58°) and an unusual abundance of this form was 

Fig. io 
Aurelia aurita Fabricius 

Fig. 7 
Aurelia aurita Fabricius 

Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz 



Hemispherical, about 8 inches in diameter; no 
marginal tentacles; the oral lobes extend from the 
underside of the umbrella and fuse to form a mouth; 
this hanging mouth somewhat resembles a root, 


hence the name, Root-mouthed Jelly-fish. Umbrella 
is usually spotted with brown pigment. 

Common from the West Indies to the Carolinas ; 
occasionally found as far north as New England; a 
few Xew Jersey records. 

Fig. 8 Fig. 9 

Martensia ovum Fabricius Pleurobrachia brunnea Mayer 


(Sea Anemones, Corals, etc.) 

These coelenterates are usually sack-shaped and 
may be either individual or colonial. Sea anemones 
are usually solitary and attach themselves to some 
hard object by means of a broad adhesive pedal disc. 
They are, however, not permanently attached and 
may move about as they please. They have a crown 
of tentacles, usually bearing nematocysts or stinging 
cells. Many sea anemones are very beautiful and of 
considerable size — truly flowers of the sea. They 
do not have a hard skeleton. 


Corals resemble sea anemones except that the 
former are colonial and secrete a limey skeleton. Al- 
though the individual coral animals are usually 
small, the colony may reach a great size, forming 
immense reefs in the sea. After the individuals of 
one generation die, those of the next generation grow 
on top of the dead skeletons increasing the size of the 
reef. Sometimes these reefs extend above the sea 
and we find whole islands made up of the dead skele- 
tons of these coral animals. 

The coral polyp (often erroneously termed "in- 
sect") may be of various colors and is really like a 
minute sea anemone. A living mass of coral is really 
quite different from the dried skeleton with which 
we are more familiar. It feels soft and fleshy be- 
cause of the many tentacles of the individual polyps. 

With a few exceptions, corals live exclusively in 
tropical seas where the water is warm throughout 
the year; the most common exception, Astrangia 
danae, lives as far north as Cape Cod. 

Sea Fans, Sea Pens, Sea Trees and the like are 
modified corals, many of which have a horny skele- 
ton instead of a calcareous one. Although many 
species are tropical, a few live in temperate waters. 
The Sea Tree, Leptogorgia virgulata, is a conspicuous 
member of the fauna at certain places off the New 
Jersey coast. 

Sagartia luciae Verrill (Striped Sea Anemone) 

PLATE III. Fig. 11 

A very individual form — olive green body with 
orange stripes. Grows on shells, rocks or seaweed 


(Ulva) in shallow water throughout the summer and 

First obtained at New Haven, Connecticut, in 
1892, when it was very rare; since then it has spread 
both north and south. 

Sagartia modesta Verrill 

PLATE IV. Fig. 3 

Flesh-colored elongated body with a crown of 
sixty to a hundred tentacles. Buries in the sand or 
attaches to hydroids or seaweed. Reaches length 
of three inches. The sand flats of Barnegat and 
Delaware Bays are favorite habitats for this species. 
Known from New Jersey (first record) to Cape Cod. 

Cylista leucolena Verrill (The White Armed 

(Sagartia leucolena Verrill) 

Fig. 11 

Smaller than the above and differs from it by a 
smaller number of tentacles (40 to 60) ; more trans- 
lucent, enabling one to observe the mesenteries 
which appear as whitish longitudinal lines within 
the body. 

Usually found attached to, rocks or shells. More 
common in Long Island Sound and northward on 
account of the rocky beaches. Known from North 
Carolina to Cape Cod; common on oysters in Dela : 
ware Bay, etc. 



Fig. 11 
Cylista leucolena Vcrrill 

Bisidium parasitica Agassiz 

An elongated parasitic anemone that lives in 
the month or stomach of Cyanea (Jelly-fish) ; rare in 
New Jersey. 

Metridium dianthus Ellis (Brown Anemone) 

(M. marginatum Lesson; M. senile IAnne) 

PLATE IV. Fig. 5 

Although this is the most conspicuous sea ane- 
mone of the New England coast, it is quite scarce in 

New Jersey waters. The "column' 


body is 

usually brown although it may be a light shade or 
even pink. At the top there is a fringe of tentacles, 
many of which bear nematocysts or stinging cells. 


The column contracts and the tentacles are with- 
drawn when irritated. Slender white threads (acon- 
tia) covered with nematoeysts are thrown out by 
the column when the anemone is irritated. 

In Xew England this anemone may attain a 
width across the disc of ten inches, although in New 
Jersey it is usually much smaller. 

It has been found, particularly in the late 
summer and fall, attached to woodwork and shells 
at Schellenger's Landing', Cape May, and at Corson's 
Inlet and may be looked for in similar situations 
elsewhere in the state. 

Astrangia danae Agassiz (Star Coral) 

PLATE IV. Fig. 2 

Coral is usually associated with warmer water 
to the south of New Jersey. Nevertheless, there is 
one species of coral that is found as far north as 
Xew Jersey — in fact, as far as New England. Fairly 
large masses of this coral have been dredged in the 
channel of Delaware Bay and in shallow water off 
the New Jersey coast. 

The living animals or polyps, often popularly 
called "insects," are creamy white in color and rise 
above the star-shaped opening. 

Small fragments are frequently found cast up on 
the beach. Some of these may be from some living 
offshore coral association; others, being very worn, 
are probably fossil and were washed from a sub- 
marine fossil deposit of Pleistocene age. During 
part of Pleistocene time (Interglacial) this coral was 
more abundant than it is today. 


1. Porpita linnaeana Lesson 

2. Astrangia danae Agassiz 

3. Sagartia modesta Verrill 

4. Mnemiopsis leidyi Agassiz 

5. Metridium dianthus Ellis 



Leptcgorgia virgulata Lamarck 

(Sea Tree, Gorgonid) 

plate v. 

This is the only member of the order Gorgonacea 
found in New Jersey waters. The group is more 
typical of tropical waters. This species is a tree- 
like form with a horny skeleton which forms a 
branched axis, covered with a layer of polyps and 
having- spicules of lime distributed through the mass 
giving some firmness to the bark-like covering. 

Sea Trees vary in color from yellow to orange 
and red. They appear to be very abundant at "Old 
Grounds" some thirty miles south of Cape May and 
fourteen miles east of Indian River, Delaware. The 
floor of the ocean is rocky here, thereby affording a 
foothold for these "trees." "Old Grounds" is well 
known for its good fishing and many of the party 
boats from Cape May and elsewhere make a daily 
visit to the spot. Fishermen often bring up one of 
these trees on their lines and marvel at its beauty. 
Within the past few years there have been a number 
of newspaper accounts describing this new form of 
"plant life" discovered by a fisherman. It is, of 
course, an animal — or more accurately, a group of 
animals — related to the corals and Sea Fans. 

It has also been found in Long Island Sound, 
Delaware Bay, off Hereford Inlet, New Jersey, in 
Chesapeake Bay, near Beaufort, North Carolina, and 
elsewhere along the southern coast. 



Leptogorgla virgulata Lamarck 

Chapter Seven 

(Comb Jelly-fish) 

Ctenophores are delicate creatures that re* 
semble jelly-fish in general appearance but differ 
from them in several details. They are practically 
transparent and have rows of hair-like cilia which 
appear in bands on the surface of the animal, giving 
the appearance of the teeth of a comb. These cilia 
propel the animal through the water. No stinging 
cells (nematocysts) are present in this group. 

These ctenophores often occur in immense num- 
bers and devour the microscopic life of the sea, in- 
cluding the eggs and larvae of certain fish. 

Ctenophores are more abundant on the surface 
of the sea at night. Many species are luminous and 
are one of the causes of the "phosphorescence" often 
seen on the sea at night. !) When rowing through 
the water on August nights along the New Jersey 
coast one often notices a flash of light every time 
the oars strike the water. These flashes are pro- 
duced by Mnemiopsis leidi. 

(!) Luminous microscopic protozoa (especially Noctiluca miliaris 
Suri) also produce the so-called phosphorescence of the sea. 



Mnemiopsis leidyi Agassiz (Rainbow Jelly) 

PLATE IV. Fig. 4 

Oval, up to 6 inches or more in length and about 
half that in width; lower part of the body divided 
into two large lobes; eight longitudinal rows of cilia 
constitute the " combs" by which these jelly-fish 
move. These ctenophores are nearly transparent 
but have a prismatic coloring caused by the waving 
cilia, hence the name "Rainbow Jelly." They are 
highly luminous at night. 

This is the most common of the Ctenophores 
recorded from New Jersey. It is present in the 
coastal waters during a large part of the summer and 
fall but is especially abundant in August. 

Beroe ovata Chamisso and (Sea Walnut) 


PLATE III. Fig. 12 

Oval, 3 to 4 inches high, half as broad; pink or 
light brown in color. In September and October this 
ctenophore appears in New Jersey coastal waters in 
great numbers. Usually in late October during the 
first cold off-shore wind, Beroe becomes numb and 
sinks to the bottom. Then they are carried to the 
shore by the bottom current and are frequently 
stranded in immense numbers .on the beach. In this 
way Beroe disappears from the coastal waters for the 
winter. Its usual home is the open ocean and it is 
only a casual visitor to the New Jersey inland coastal 
waters, appearing only after the heat of the summer 


is past Like Mnemiopsis, Beroe is highly luminous 
at night. 

Pleurobrachia brunnea Mayer 

( P. pile us Fa brie ins) 

Nearly spherical ih long feather-like 

tentacles. This species is . / rare in our coastal 
waters. It occurs in large swarms off the coast of 
New Jersey, but seldom approaches the shore. 

On October 11, 1920, Dr. T. C. Nelson found it 
occuring in large swarms on the surface of the 
shallow water (1 fathom) at the mouth of Mullica 
River This is, so far, the only record from the New 
Jersey coastal waters. It is more common toward 
the north. 

Martensia ovum Fabricius 

Fig. 8 

An Arctic species very rarely found as far 
south as New Jersey and only during winter months. 
Somewhat similar to the above, but more pyriform 
in shape. 

Chapter Eight 


1. ASTEROIDEA Starfis' 

2. OPHIUROIDEA Brit 4 or Serpent Stars 

3. ECHINOIDEA and Sand Dollars 


5. CRINOIDEA foiSs or Sea Lilies and Feather-s'ars 



Starfish are perhaps the most distinctive ani- 
mals of the sea and their star-like shape makes them 
an object of curiosity to even the most casual visitor 
to the seashore. 

While the common starfish (Asterias) normally 
has five arms, some species have more; some of the 
Sun Stars (Heliaster) of the southern Pacific coast 
have forty or more. 

Starfish are carniverous and are especially de- 
structive to mollusks. The common Asterias feeds on 
oysters and its unusual method of procuring its food 
is described on page 

The mouth of the starfish is at the center of the 
under side. This leads into the stomach which 
occupies the center of the disc with projections 
(caeca) into the various arms. 

Extending from the mouth to the tips of the 
various arms are grooves known as ambulacral 
grooves, one on each arm. In these grooves are 
situated a great number of small tube-like processes 



1. Asterias forbesi Desor 

2. Leptasterias tenera compta Stimpson 

3. Ophiopholis aculeata Linne 

4. Amphipholis squamata Delle Chiaje 

r; a a a a 

6. Ophioderma brevispina Say 

7. Henricia sanguinolenta Muller 

8. Astropecten americana Verrill 

9. Arbacia punctulata Lamarck 

10. Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis Muller 



with or without terminal suckers; these are the tube 
feet — the locomotive organs of the starfish. 

On the upper side of the animal there is a small 
circular sieve-like structure, frequently colored dif- 
ferently from the rest of the animal. This is the 
madreporic plate. Water enters the body of the 
starfish through this plate and is carried by a series 
of canals ultimately to the tube feet. A complicated 
system made up of a valve, reservoir and various 
muscles regulates the passage of water through 
these canals and thereby governs the movement of 
the tube feet. 

Asterias forbesi Desor (Common Starfish) 

PLATE VI. Fig. 1; PLATE VII; Fig. 12 

This is the common starfish of the Atlantic coast 
from Massachusetts to Florida. Although not 
abundant along the sandy shores of New Jersey, it 
thrives on the mussel bottom of many of the fishing 
grounds offshore; after storms starfish are fre- 
quently found cast up on the beach. 

The starfish is one of the greatest enemies of the 
oyster and a great menace to that industry. Every 
year starfish kill thousands of young oysters and 
consequently cause a great financial loss to oyster- 
men all along the coast. 

The starfish's method of attack is unique. It 
seizes the oyster (or other bivalve) with the tube 
feet of its opposite arms attached to opposite shells 
of the oyster. The starfish is then able to exert a 
tremendous force (more than 1300 grams) and in a 
short time the muscles of the oyster that keep the 
shell closed (adductor muscles) become fatigued and 
relaxed, and consequently the valves hang loosely. 


The mouth of the starfish is small and it is there- 
fore impossible for the animal to take much of its 
food directly through the mouth. So, the hungry 
starfish everts its sac-like stomach through its mouth 
and places it between the two shells of the oyster. 
Then digestive juices are secreted and the oyster is 
digested and absorbed. Finally, the stomach is 

Fig. 12 
Six-armed Starfish (Asterias forbesii Desor) 

withdrawn from between the oyster shells and is 
returned within the body of the starfish. Rather a 
peculiar method of eating, but a highly destructive 
one to the victim! (Plate VII),. 

The oyster grounds of Long Island Sound are 
particularly troubled with starfish. Fortunately the 
great oyster beds of Maurice River Cove (Delaware 
Bay) are relatively free from these pests, although 


Starfish devouring an oyster 


at times, probably due to an increased salinity 
caused by drought, they become very abundant. 

The usual number of rays of this starfish is five; 
however variations from one to eight are occasion- 
ally found. Starfish possess the power of regenera- 
tion — that is if an arm is injured or broken off, it 
will usually grow back again. The new arm may be 
very small or rudimentary, thereby accounting for 
numbers less than five ; or, two arms may grow in the 
place of a single injury, thereby causing freaks of 
six, seven or eight arms. 

Asterias vulgaris Verrill (Northern Starfish) 

Common along the northern coast from Labra- 
dor to Massachusetts. In Long Island Sound it is 
less common than the above species (A. forbesi) and 
is found only in deeper water. Off New Jersey it is 
usually larger than the above and lives in deeper 
water, although the two are not infrequently found 
in the same association. 

The following key 1} will distinguish the com- 
mon starfish (A. forbesi) from the northern starfish 
{A. vulgaris), although they are very closely related 
and should probably be regarded merely as varieties 
of a single species: 

Rays blunt at the ends; skeleton quite firm; spines 
scattered, pedicellariae (Small scissor-like 
spines) near ambulacral grooves short and 
broad; madreporic plate usually orange. 
A. forbesi 

! ) W. R. Coe: The Echinoderms of Connecticut. Conn. Geol. and 
Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 19 p. 59 (1912). 


Kays pointed at the ends; skeleton rather soft; spines 
scattered, but often forming' a rather distinct 
median longitudinal row on the aboral side of 
each ray; pedicellariae near amhulacral 
groove slender; madreporic plate pale yellow. 
A. vulgaris 

Lepasterias tenera form compta Stimpson 

(Slender Armed Starfish) 

PLATE VI. Fig. 2 

Bays nearly cylindrical, tapering and slender. 
A., tenera was described from Massachusetts Bay, 
A. eompta from off New Jersey. These represent two 
forms of the same species which range from Nova 
Scotia to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay in fairly deep 
water (10 to 129 fathoms). Off New Jersey records 
are scarce and only from water greater than 20 

Henricia sanguinolenta Muller (Blood Starfish) 

PLATE VI. Fig. 7 

Disc and rays comparatively smooth; usually 
brilliant red in color above and orange below. Like 
the above this species is of northern distribution, 
being fairly abundant and of large size from Labra- 
dor to Maine. Farther south it becomes smaller and 
is found only in cold, deep water between Cape Cod 
and Cape Hatteras. 

It is fairly common at "Old Grounds" off Indian 


River, Delaware, in about 110 feet of water where the 
bottom temperature is unusually low. It rarely 
reaches 4 inches in diameter this far south. 

Astropecten americanus Verrill 

PLATE VI. Fig. 8 

Body flat, the arms long', narrow and sharp- 
pointed bordered with a row of conspicuous large 
plates; color yellow. 

A common starfish of deep water: known to live 
75 miles off Cape May; occasionally brought in by 
the deep sea fishing boats. 


(Brittle Stars or Serpent Stars) 

The animals of this group differ from the true 
starfish (Asteroidea) in that the arms are quite di- 
stinct from the body and there are no extensions of 
the body organs into them. These arms are very 
flexible and serpent-like, hence the name Serpent 
Stars; also they break readily, hence the name 
Brittle Stars. 

These animals move aboirt fairly actively and at 
the approach of the slightest danger they throw off 
one or more of their arms. They, however, possess 
the power of regeneration and the missing parts are 
soon replaced. 


Ophioderma brevispina Say (Green Brittle Star) 

PLATE VI. Fig. 6 

Usually greenish or brown, more or less mottled ; 
the disc is completely covered with closely set 
minute granules; each arm segment has 7 or 8 very 
short spines on each side that lie close down on the 
arm. Disc usually about % inch in diameter; arms 
about 2 inches long. This brittle star lives from Buz- 
zard 's Bay to the Greater Antilles. It is very rare 
off New Jersey. It burrows under oyster shells and 
other objects lying on the mud. 

Ophiopholis aculeata Linne (Daisy Brittle Star) 

PLATE VI. Fig. 3 

Usually red, brown or purple, sometimes yellow 
or green, often mottled or spotted; surface of the 
disc closely beset with small pointed tubercles 
among which are a number (usually 30 to 50) of well 
separated rounded plates; each upper arm plate is 
encircled by a row of very small plates; the five or 
six arm spines are broad and flattened, and project 
directly outward from the arm. The disc is usually 
about Vl' inch in diameter, and the arms are from 2 
to 3 inches long. 

An arctic and subarctic species occurring south 
to Cape Cod along the shore, and in deep water south 
to New Jersey, where it is recorded from 38 and 89 


Amphipholis squamata Delle Chiaje 

PLATE VI. Fig. 4, 5 

A very small viviparous brittle star with the 
disc less than % inch in diameter and the very 
slender arms about 2 inches long. Cosmopolitan, but 
rare on the New Jersey coast. 

Amphioplus abditus Verrill 

Occurs at Woods Hole, Mass., and Nohank, 
Conn., and also in Florida, but as yet has not been 
found on the New Jersey coast, It burrows deeply 
in mud. 


(Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, etc.) 

These animals are not pointed like the starfish 
but rather are globular, hemispherical or discoid. 
They are covered with spines which in the Sea 
Urchins are usually long and prominent while in 
some of the Sand Dollar type they are very minute. 

The internal anatomy of the Echinoids re- 
sembles that of the starfish, but there is a coiled 
digestive tube and certain modifications due to the 
different shape of the test or shell. Many urchins 
show a five pointed petaloid design on the test. Tube 
feet are present as in the starfish ; however, some Sea 
Urchins (as Arbacia) also move by walking on their 

Most Sea Urchins are vegetarians, or feed on 


detritus on the sea bottom. Some, like most of the 
starfish and holothurians, swallow mud and digest 
the organic matter out of it 

Arbacia punctulata Lamarck 

(Purple Sea Urchin ; Sea Porcupine) 

PLATE VI. Fig 9 

This sea urchin ranges from Cape Cod to the 
West Indies and Gulf of Mexico and is the only 
urchin ever found in considerable numbers along 
the New Jersey coast. The test or shell is from 1 to 
2 inches in diameter and is usually deep purple in 
color. It is thickly covered with spines from % to 
to 1 inch in length. 

It lives in shallow water down to 25 fathoms or 
more all along the New Jersey coast and occasionally 
in the inlets and thorofares. After storms the beach 
is often strewn with tests of this species. 

This sea urchin may walk fairly rapidly by 
means of its spines. 

Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis Miiller 

(Green Sea Urchin) 

PLATE VI. Fig. 10 

This is the common sea urchin of the Maine 
coast. The test is usually greenish and the spines 
are shorter than in the above species. New Jersey 
specimens are very small and restricted to deep 
water (32 fathoms). It is an arctic and subarctic 
species, ranging south, in deep water, to Chesapeake 


Echinarachnius parma Lamarck (Sand Dollar) 


Disc or shell flat and circular, about 3 inches in 
diameter and covered with small brownish spines; 
often covered with a fine alg'a (sea weed) giving a 
greenish color. On the upper side can be seen a 
plainly marked five pointed petal design. 

This sand dollar is very common on the New 
England coast. It is abundant locally off the New 
Jersey coast, particularly near Five Fathom Bank 
(14 miles off Wildwood) in 60 feet of water and 7 
miles off Atlantic City in 50 feet. It ranges from 
New Jersey to Labrador and is also found from 
Bering Sea to Puget Sound. 

New England fishermen sometimes prepare an 
indelible purple ink by grinding the tests of this 
animal and mixing with water. 

Mellita quinquesperforata Leske (Keyhole Dollar) 
(M. pentapora Gmelin; M. testudinata Klein) 


Superficially similar to the above but with five 
narrow keyhole-like openings (lunules) in the test. 
Dried white tests of this species are occasionally 
found on beaches in southern New Jersey, but as far 
as is known, it has not been found alive north of 
Virginia. Very common on beaches from North 
Carolina to Florida and locally to Brazil, It is com- 
mon as a fossil in the Pleistocene deposits (Cape 
May formation) of New Jersey, and it is possible 
that some of the tests found on the beach had been 
washed from some submarine fossil deposit. 


1. Mellita quinquesperforata Leske 
Thyone briareus Lesueur 
Echinarachnius parma Lamarck 
Leytosynapta inhaerens Muller 
Cucumaria pulcherrima Ayers 
Brisaster fragilis Diiben and Koren 

7. Echinocardium cordatum Pennant 

o it a a 

9. Brisaster fragilis Diiben and Koren 



Echinocardium cor datum Pennant (Heart Urchin) 

PLATE VIII. Fig. 7, 8 

Heart shaped test covered with fine spines. 
This species burrows dee]) in the mud and is seldom 
seen alive. When they die the empty tests often fill 
with gas and rise through the mud to the floor of the 
sea; sometimes after storms they are washed upon 
the beach. It reaches a size of about 4 inches in 

Not seen alive in New Jersey although empty 
tests have been found at a number of places off the 
coast near Cape May. Almost cosmopolitan in distri- 

Brisaster fragilis Diiben & Koren (Heart Urchin) 

PLATE VIII. Fig. 6, 9 

Very young individuals of this species (% inch 
in diameter) were dredged at McCrie Shoal, 7 miles 
off Cape May, in 21 feef of water (August 28, 1928). 
This species is known from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and the Bay of Fundy southward to Florida. It also 
occurs in northwestern Europe and at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 


(Sea Cucumbers) 

Although externally totally different from star- 
fish, the Sea Cucumbers have most of the external 


features of the group. They are cylindrical or elon- 
gate and many (such as Synapta) resemble the 

The mouth is surrounded by a crown of ten- 
tacles. The whole body is very flexible and although 
lube feet are present, the usual method of locomotion 
of many Sea Cucumbers is by contracting and ex- 
panding the body in a worm-like manner. 

Like other Echinoderms, Sea Cucumbers have 
the power of regenerating injured parts. One very 
peculiar habit is possessed by certain of these ani- 
mals. Just as the Brittle Star may throw off its 
arms in an attempt to elude its enemies, some of 
the Sea Cucumbers may eject a large part of the 
internal organs, growing them again when they have 

In its diet the Sea Cucumber resembles some 
of the worms. It ingests sand and mud and utilizes 
as food the small organic particles contained therein. 

Thyone briareus Lesueur (Sea Cucumber) 


Sac-like, about 3 to 6 inches long. At one end 
there is a crown of tentacles which may be retracted. 
It usually buries itself deep in mud in a U-shaped 
position; its color is brown or dark purine. Fairly 
common in mud flats and muddy bottoms off shore 
from Cape Cod to the Gulf of Mexico. In Xew 
Jersey it is found in Delaware Bay and other brack- 
ish water associations, as well as in the open ocean. 


Leptosynapta inhaerens Muller (Synapta) 

(Synapta inhaerens Muller) 


A long' slender worm-like form which is very 
common in sand and mud along the New England 
coast and in Long Island Sound. It occurs sparing- 
ly as far south as North Carolina. 

Cucumaria pulcherrima Ayers 


A small white or yellowish form usually about 
1 inch long and % inch in diameter, occasionally 
slightly larger. Rarely found alive, hut dead speci- 
mens have been picked up on beaches between Vine- 
yard Sound and South Carolina, usually after severe 
storms. (Cape May, N. J. September 9, 1927). 


(Sea Lilies and Feather Stars) 

On our Atlantic coast these live only in deep 
water where, however, they are locally abundant. 
The sea lilies have a flower-like crown at the sum- 
mit of a slender stalk. In the feather stars there is 
no stalk, but instead circlets of jointed hook-like 
processes by means of which the animals attach 
themselves to objects on the sea bottom. 

Feather stars are especially numerous on the 


coral reefs of the East Indies and in water of moder- 
ate depth in the tropics generally. Most of the sea- 
lilies live in water of moderate depth in the tropics. 
As in the case of other echinoderms, many of both 
types live in very deep cold water. 

These animals, which in the present seas are 
about as numerous as the starfishes, are very bony 
and are therefore exceptionally adapted for fossili- 
zation, so that their fossil record is unusually com- 

Hathrometra tenella Retzius 

(Feather star, Orinoid) 
(Alectro derdata Say ; Antedon dentata Say) 

From a small button-like central portion radiate 
10 long very slender arms each with two rows of 
side branches so that it has the general appearance 
of a feather, and also a large number of much shorter 
curved processes. The color varies from dark green 
dotted with white to light grayish brown with nar- 
row darker bands. It lives in rather deep water. 

This species was originally described from Great 
Egg Harbor, New Jersey in 1825 but has not been 
found in coastal waters during recent years. It 
lives in rather deep water from the Newfoundland 
Banks to Chesapeake Bay. 

Chapter Xine 


(Moss Animals or Corallines) 

These are colonial animals, many of which 
resemble Hydroids. They are, however, more com- 
plex in structure and belong to a higher branch of 
the animal kingdom. 

There are two main types of Bryozoa, the up- 
right type and the encrusting type. The former 
more closely resemble hydroids and sea-weeds. The 
common Bryozoa, Bugula, is frequently preserved as 
a hvdroid or as an alga. The group is sometimes 
called Polyzoa. 

Contrasted to the hydroids, each individual 
(zooecium) of the Bryozoan colony is a complete 
organism and there is no "division of labor." The 
tentacles on the bryozoan are ciliated (covered with 
hairs) whereas thoce of the hvdroid are smooth. The 
complete digestive system of the Bryozoa also helps 
distinguish it from the hvdroid. 

The encrusting bryozoa are sometimes called 
Sea Mats. Many form delicate lace-like coverings 
t<» shells, stones, etc, Other species are more massive 
and resemble corals — hence their popular name, 
( Joralline. 

A pocket lens or microscope is needed to dis- 
tinguish the different species. 



Crisia eburnea Linne 

PLATE X. Fig. 16 

Colonies form bushy tufts one-half to one inch 
high. Attaches to Eel Grass or Algae and is especi- 
ally common in New Jersey during the winter 
months. Known from New Jersey northwards. 

Bugula turrita Desor 

PLATE XL Fig. 14; PLATE X. Fig. 7 

Grows iii dense bush-like masses about six 
inches long, occasionally as long as one foot; orange- 
yellow in color. Small clusters are occasionally 
found on floating sea-weed and piling along the New 
Jersey shore; very abundant in water from 4 to 9 
fathoms off southern New Jersey. It is often 
washed on the beach and mistaken for a hydroid or 
sea-weed (alga). 

This is the most common species of Bugula in 
New Jersey waters. It may be distinguished from 
the other New Jersey species by its larger size and 
because the zooecia (individual animals) are al- 
ways arranged in two rows. Common from Maine 
to North Carolina. 

Bugula gracilis uncinata Hincks 

PLATE XL Fig. 15 

A smaller colony, about an inch or two in height 
occasionally found growing on Eel Grass or sea-weed 


1. Electra monostachys Busk 

2. Hemiseptella denticulata Smitt 

3. Amathia vidovici Heller 

4. Bugula flabellata Thompson 

5. Schizomorpha avicularis Hincks 

6. Schizoporella unicornis Johnston 



in the region. Zooecia arranged in two rows but 
distinguished from B. turrita by its smaller size and 
by having hooked processes in place of root fibers. 
Not common; known from Chesapeake Bay to 

Bugula flabellata Thompson 

PLATE XL Fig. 17; PLATE IX. Fig. 4 

A small colony rarely exceeding an inch; easily 
distinguished from the above two species because 
the zooecia are arranged in three to seven rows in- 
stead of two. 

Grows in fan-like fronds on Eel Grass, etc 
Known from Cape May (first New Jersey record) 
northward to northern New England. 

Electra mcnostachys Busk 
(Membranipora monostachys Husk ) 

PLATE IX. Fig. 1 ; PLATE X. Fig. 2 ; PLATE XL Fig. 13 

Forms small irregular calcareous encrustations 
on shells, stones, etc. Often radiate in growth. 
Zooecia oval with usually a series of small marginal 
spines and one more prominent basal spine. The 
species varies considerably in the number and ar- 
rangement of the spines and they may be entirely 

Shallow water to 19 fathoms from Delaware Bay 


Membranipora tuberculata Bosc 
(Membranipora tehuelcha D'Orbigny ) 

PLATE XL Fig. l; 

Somewhat similar to the above but in this region 
only found growing on Gulf Weed (Sargassum fili- 
pendulum). Gulf Weed, as the name implies, is an 
inhabitant of the Gulf Stream and is only occasional- 
ly carried to the New Jersey coast, usually after 
September storms. Gulf Weed and its accompany- 
ing- bryozoon are fairly common in the vicinity of 
Nantucket and Cape Cod because of the proximity 
of the Gulf Stream, and are very abundant on the 
Florida beaches. 

Hemiseptella denticulata Smitt 
(Membranipora tenuis Desor) 

PLATE IX. Fig. 2; PLATE XI. Fig. 10 

A lace-like encrustation, made up of very small, 
crowded, oval or oblong cells, which have the inner 
part of the front partly closed over, but with an ir- 
regular, usually three-lobjd ^aperture toward the 
outer end, which is bordered 1))' small irregular spin- 
ules. Encrusts pebbles, shells, etc. 

Fairly common Vineyard Sound to Chesapeake 
Bay and south to the Gulf of Mexico, 


Conopeum reticulatum Linne 
( Me mb ranipora lacro ixii A udouin ) 

PLATE X. Fig. 1 

An encrusting form somewhat similar to the 
above ; usually with no spines whatever ; occasionally 
with a few very slender erect spinules. 

Encrusts pebbles, etc., along entire Eastern 

Schizoporella unicornis Johnston 

PLATE IX. Pig. 6; PLATE X. Fig. 4 

The most abundant of the encrusting bryozoa in 
New Jersey. Encrusts pebbles, shells, etc., and some- 
times reaches a considerable size and may be many 
layers in thickness. 

Zooecia roughly hexagonal or rectangular, punc- 
tured with a variable number of small pores. Orifice 
or opening approximately circular with a prominent 
indentation; very variable in form. Usually pink 
when living but turns to gray when dried. 

Because of its frequent massive appearance this 
form is often erroneously called "Coral." 

Intertidal zone to 25 or more fathoms from Cape 
Cod to South Carolina. 

Cryptosula pallasiana Moll 

(Lepralia pallasiana Moll) 

PLATE X. Fig. 6; PLATE XL Fig. 4 

Encrusts stones, etc.; not as common as Schizo- 
porella unicornis and Membranipora monost&chyh. 


Found in shallow water or washed upon the beach. 
Characterized by its keyhole shaped orifice (open- 
ing) ; no ovicells. 

Entire coast Canada to Gulf of Mexico. 

Hippodiplosia americana Verrill 
(Lepralia americana Verrill) 

PLATE XL Fig. 11 

Similar to the above but distinguished from it 
by its oval instead of keyhole shaped orifice and 
the presence of ovicells. 

New Jersey to New England. 

Smittia trispinosa var. nitida Verrill 

PLATE X. Fig. 8; PLATE XL Fig. 9 

Encrusting stones, shells, etc. Characterized 
by the presence of three spines on the rounded 
opening. Rare ; dredged . in 7 fa thorny off Cape 
May, New Jersey. Ranges from the Gulf of Mexico 
to Canada. 

Schizomopora avicularis Hincks 
(Cellepora avicularis Hincks) 

PLATE IX. Fig. 5 

Encrusts shells, pebbles, etc., at Five Fathom 
Bank and elsewhere along the New Jersey coast; 
not common. 

This species has been confused with 8. americana 
Osburn which may be a varietal form. According 


1. Conopeum reticulatum Linne 

2. Electra monostachys Busk 

3. Hippopoedra edax Busk 

4. Schizoporella unicornis Johnston 

5. Alcyonidium verrilli Osburn 

6. Cryptosula pallasiana Moll 

7. Bugula turrita Desor 

8. Smittina trispinosa nitida Verrill 



to Dr. Osburn some specimens collected near Cape 
May, New Jersey, are the first definite record for 
8. wvicularis from the Fast Coast of America. 

Hippoporidra edax Busk 

PLATE X. Fig. 3 

Forms wart-like encrustations on gastropod 
shells. A southern species not hitherto reported 
north of Florida. It has been dredged alive at 
Five Fathom Bank, fourteen miles off Wildwood, 
in fifty-four feet of water. Also occurs as a fossil 
in the Pleistocene at Two Mile Beach, New Jersey. 

Bowerbankia gracilis Leidy 

PLATE XI. Fig. 18 

A delicate white creeping form with cylindrical 
zooids rising singly or in clusters from the creeping 
stolon or base. On pebbles, algae, etc., in shallow 
water from Chesapeake Bay northward. New 
Jersey specimens are usually the variety known 
as form densa. 

Amathia vidovici Heller 
{A nidi hia dichotoma Verrffl) 

PLATE IX. Fig. 3 

(J rows in thick clusters 1 to 2 inches high. 
The branches stand in different planes so as to give 
a miniature tree-like effect, When a branch divides 
there is a joint formed at the base of each of the 


forks by the interpolation of a very short segment 
of a dark brown opaque substance, which contrasts 
strongly with the white translucent substance of 
the rest of the stem. Easily recognized by its 
bushy character and spotted appearance; often 
mistaken for a hydroid. 

Very abundant, washed on the New Jersey 
beaches during some summers; other years entirely 
absent. Reported from Maine to New Jersey; prob- 
ably more widespread. 

Alcyonidium verrilli Osburn 

(A. ramosum Verrlll ) 

PLATE X. Fig. 5; PLATE XI. Fig. 8 

Fleshy, much branched, usually about V 3 i" (, li 
in diameter; sometimes reaches as much as 12 inches 
in height. 

Known from shallow water from Chesapeake 
Bay to Cape Cod; at times abundant on the beaches 
of Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. 

Alcyonidium polyoum Hassall 
(A. my till Dalyell) 

PLATE XI. Fig. 7 

Forms a fleshy covering to stones and shells; 
usually impregnated with earthy material giving 
the shell or stone the appearance of being coated 
with mud. 

Known from shallow water from Delaware Bay 
to Nova Scotia. Frequently dredged in New Jersey 
waters or found washed up on the beach. 

( Ihapter Ten 



a. Platyhelminthes ( Flat worms) 

I). Nemertinea (Nemertinean worms) 

c. Nemathelminthe ^ (Round worms or thread worms) 

• I. Chaetognatha (Glass worms) 

e. Sipunculoidea 


1. Un segmented Worms 

When we think of worms we usually think of 
the rather common earthworm. However, the 
worms of the sen are sometimes very much more 
beautiful limn the earthworm. They are of various 
colors and many resemble Mowers and are among 
the mosl brilliant creatures of the sea. 

There are two groups of worms the segmented 
and the unsegmented. Although the various groups 
of unsegmented worms are not always closely re- 
lated, they bear a superficial resemblance and for 
convenience will he grouped together here. 

Although there are many species of unseg- 
mented worms, they form a relatively inconspicuous 
part of the seashore fauna as contrasted with the 
segmented annelid worms. Many species are very 
minute and easily overlooked; the larger species 



are seldom common along our coast. A few of 
the more easily recognized arc described below. 


(Flat worms) 

Plat, unsegmented worms, most of which are 
parasitic, such as the Tape Worm, Liver Fluke, etc. 
A few are free-living and can be found along most 
sea coasts. 

Leptoplana variabilis Girard 

PLATE XI. Fig. 3 

A yellow leaf-like flat worm about an inch long 
by half an inch wide, occasionally found living* on 
Ulva (Sea Lettuce) or other algae 

Bdelloura Candida Girard 

PLATE XI. Fig. 5 

Elongate with anterior end tapering and pos- 
terior end with an adhesive disk. Lives on the gills 
of the King Crab (Limn/us polyphemus). Thought 
by some to be parasitic, but probably merely a com- 
mensal form doing no harm to its host. 

Syncoelidium pellucidum Wheeler 

Smaller than the above (% inch long) and 
tapering to both ends. Also found on the gills of 
the King Crab, but not as common as the preceding. 


1. Cerebratulus lacteus Leidy 

2. Micrura leidyi Verrill 

3. Leptoplana variabilis Grirard 

4. Cryptosula pallasiana Moll 

5. Bdelloura Candida Girard 

6. Malacobdella grossa Muller 

7. Alcyonidium polyoum Hassall 

8. Alcyonidium verrilli Osburn 

9. Smittina trispinosa nitida Verrill 

10. Hemiseptella denticulata Smitt 

11. Hippodiplosia americana Verrill 

12. Membranipora tuberculata Bosc 

13. Electra monostachys Busk 

14. Bugula turrita Desor 

15. Bugula gracilis uncinata Hincks 

16. Crisia eburnea Linne 

17. Bugula flabellata Thompson 

18. Bowerbankia gracilis Leidy 




Elongate, unsegmented worms, usually narrow 
and flat; characterized by the presence of a very long 
proboscis — sometimes as long as the body of the 
worm — which may be everted. These worms are 
carnivorous and some are cannibalistic, They pos- 
sess the power of regeneration to a marked degree. 

Cerebratulus lacteus Leidy 
(Meckelia ingens Verrill) 

PLATE XI. Fig. 1 

One of the longest of all marine worms; when 
full grown it may attain a length of six fe?t and 
an inch in breadth; however, worms of this length 
are very rare along the New Jersey coast and most 
individuals are much smaller. It usually burrows 
in sand or mud near low water mark but is occasion- 
ally seen swimming in the water. Because of its 
great length, it is difficult to collect a perfect speci- 
men. Maine to Florida. 

Micrura leidyi Verrill 

PLATE XI. Fig. 2 

Red-brown or yellow, about 6 inches long; 
prominent flesh-colored proboscis. Burrows in mud 
Hals near low water mark from Cape Ann (Massa- 
chusetts) to Cape May; fairly common. 


Malacobdella grossa Miiller 

A small flat worm of leech-like form that lives 
as a commensal in the Clam (Venus mercenaria) and 
other bivalves. 


(Round Worms, Thread Worms) 

Round, unsegmented worms, a large number of 
which are parasitic, However, great quantities of 
minute thread worms are to be found in sea water. 
If one examines a few drops of sea water under a 
microscope, particularly water containing some 
algae or sea weeds, one can see these tiny thread 
worms constantly coiling and uncoiling themselves. 
Many species have been described, but since they 
are all very minute and difficult to determine, they 
are not discussed here. 


(Glass Worms) 

Elongate, unsegmented worms with two or three 
pairs of fins. 

Sagitta elegans Verrill (Arrow Worm; Glass Worm) 

Slender, transparent and very minute (about 3 
mm. long) ; three pairs of fins. Various species of 
Sagitta, often of larger size, are abundant in all seas. 
S. elegans is known from Chesapeake Bay northward. 



Unsegmented worms usually made up of two 
divisions — a slender head portion (introvert) which 
can be retracted within a thicker posterior portion. 

Phascolosoma gouldi Pourtales 

PLATE XII! Fig. 8 

About 6 inches in length; occasionally dredged 
off the New Jersey coast. 

2. Segmented Worms 

The segmented worms (Annelids) are composed 
of a series of ring-like segments, each segment con- 
taining a complete set of internal organs. The most 
conspicuous marine annelids belong to the class 
Polychaeta (meaning many bristles). These worms 
possess a pair of leg-like structures (parapodia) on 
each segment; on each parapodium there are numer- 
ous bristles (chaetae) usually in two bundles. 

The annelid worms are much higher in the scale 
of animal life than the unsegmented worms. They 
have better sense organs, a well developed nervous 
system as well as a digestive system and blood 

Most annelids burrow in the sand or mud; some 
build tubes of sand or shell. Certain species can be 
found swimming on the surface of the sea especially 
at night. Some worms are carnivorous, while others 
are vegetarian. Many ingest mud and obtain their 
nourishment from the minute organic particles in- 
cluded therein. 

Another group of annelids, the Oligochaeta, in- 


eludes the common Earthworm. These have no 
parapodia and only a few small bristles. Although 
most species are terrestrial or of fresh water, a few 
are marine. However, they are inconspicuous and 
are not included here. 

Still another group, the Hirunidea, includes the 
Leeches. These possess a conspicuous terminal 
sucker at each end. While most of the species live in 
fresh water, many are marine and occasionally they 
are seen attached to a fish or free swimming. 


Lepidonotus squamatus Linne 

Fig. 15 

Flat, about one inch long, usually brown in color, 
covered with twelve pairs of rough scales. Often 
found on underside of stones or in dead shells; com- 
mon along the New Jersey coast from between the 
tides to ten fathoms or more. Known from Delaware 
to Labrador; probably extends farther south also. 
When disturbed it rolls itself into a ball. 

Lepidonotus sublaevis Verrill 

Similar to the above except that the twelve pairs 
of scales are smooth and lighter in color. 

Harmothoe imbricata Linne 

Similar to the above except with sixteen pairs 
of smooth scales; not as common as Lepidonotus but 
known from Delaware Bay to the Arctic. In New 
Jersey it is known from shallow water to 84 feet. 


Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 

Eupomotus dianthus Sabellari a vulgaris Lepidcnotus squamatus 
Verrill Verril] Linne 

Fig. 16 
Aphrodita hastata Moore 

Aphrodita hastata Moore (Sea Mouse) 

Fig. 16 

Elliptical, about 5 inches long- and 1% inches 
wide. Characterized by a thick growth of setae 
which form a fur-like coating on its back; beauti- 
fully iridescent in color. 

Lives in the mud below low tide along the New 
England and Xew Jersey shore. Occasionally washed 
upon the beach after storms. 


Nereis pelagica Linne (Clam Worm) 

PLATE XIII. Fig. 7; Fig. 17 

Red-brown, up to five inches long; body widest 
at the middle. Head with pair of tentacles and four 
pairs of cirri (hair-like structures). 

Very common in shallow water along- the New 
England coast. Present along the New Jersey coast 
but not as abundant as N. limbata; reported as far 
south as South Carolina. Found among mussels, 
under stones, etc, from between the tides to deep 
water. Females longer than males. Used as bait 
as are all species of Nereis. 

Nereis limbata Elders 1 


Usually shorter than the above and always 
widest at the anterior end instead of at the middle 
(as pelagica). Common all along the New Jersey 
coast and especially abundant in the oyster beds of 
Delaware Bay. 

One phase of this species is very similar to the European 
Nereis dumerilii Audouin and Milne-Edwards and it is pos- 
sible that some of the records of N. dumerilii from the east 
coast of the United States are really N. Limbata. The follow- 
ing key, kindly furnished by Dr. J. Percy Moore, will help the 
more technical reader to identify the three species of Nereis 
found along the New Jersey coast : 
Notocirral lobe of parapodia enlarged and foliacious 

Foliacious lobes broad ovate and on all 
parapodia nearly to the anterior end N. virens 

Foliacious lobes more or less narrow and 
elongate (lingulate and confined to 

middle and posterior segments N . limbata 

Notocirral lobe not foliacious but simply 

cirri form N. pelagica 



Fig. 17 
Nereis pelagica Linne 

Nereis virens Sais 

Larger than the above two, sometimes reaching 
18 inches; flesh-colored with a greenish sheen. A 
common New England species that is occasionally 
found along the New Jersey coast. 

Nepthys incisa Malmgren 
{Nepthys ingens Stimpson) 


Up to six inches in length and y± inch in dia- 
meter. Body white with red blood vessel visible 
on dorsal side; appendages dark brown or black. 
Very active, burrowing in mud or sand between the 
tides and in shallow water. Delaware Bay to Bay 
of Fundy ; fairly common in Cape May Harbor, New 

Nepthys picta Ehlers 
(N. bucera Ehlers) 

More slender than the above. From low water 
mark to 21 feet. Massachusetts Bay to South Caro- 





& 1 1p- 

Fig. 18 
Tubes of Diopatra cuprea Bosc in mud flats along Delaware Bay 1 . 

Diopatra cuprea Bosc (Plumed Worm) 

PLATE XII. Fig. 2; Fig. 18 

As much as a foot in length and V2 inch broad. 
Lives in a parchment-like tube, the tops of which 
project two or three inches above the surface of mud 
flats and are often covered with bits of debris, sea- 
weed, etc. The tubes may extend three feet or more 
obliquely into the mud. The worm is reddish brown 
in color, specked with gray. Many-branched red 
gills are conspicuous from the fifth segment to the 
posterior end of the animal. The appendages are 
yellowish brown and green. Common in mud flats 
along the whole New Jersey coast and dredged to 
six fathoms off Cape May, New Jersey. Cape Cod 
to South Carolina. 


1. Cirratulus grandis Verrill 

2. Diopatra cuprea Bosc 

3. Cistenides gouldi Verrill 

4. Arabella ornata Verrill 

5. Clymenella torquata Leidy 



Arabella opalina Verrill (Opal Worm) 

PLATE XII. Pig. 4 

This a red-brown worm, a foot or so in length 
with a brilliant opal-like iridescence, hence its 
specific name ; tapers to the ends ; appendages short. 
It burrows into the sandy mud near low water mark, 
but does not build permanent tubes. When removed 
from its burrow, the worm coils in a spiral manner. 
Common in mud flats at Beach Haven, Sea Isle City, 
Cape May, and elsewhere on the Jersey Coast; 
known from the West Indies to Maine. 

Fig. 19 

Lumbrinereis tenuis Verril 

Lumbrinereis tenuis Verrill 

Fig. 19 

Very slender, about 12 inches in length; bright 
red with a conical head without eyes or appendages. 
Somewhat iridescent; resembles a slender red 
thread. Often abundant in sandy mud from New 
England to Virginia. 

Glycera dibranchiata Ehlers 


(Blood Worm) 

A long smooth worm tapering to each end; head 
small, pointed and with four short tentacles. Simple 
gills on each side of appendages; proboscis long. 
Sandy mud flats from North Carolina to Bay of 
Fundy. Common in New Jersey waters to 15 feet 
in depth. 

o ~ 

Fig. 20 
Glycera americana Leidy 

Glycera americana Leidy 

Fig. 20 

(Blood Worm' 

Branched gills on upper side of appendages; no 
gills on lower side. Not as common as the above. 


Amphitrite ornata Leidy 
Sabellaria vulgaris Verrill 

3. Nereis limbata Ehlers 

4. Potamilla oculifera Leidy 

5. Spio setosa Verrill 

6. Nepthys incisa Malmgren 
Nereis pelagica Linne 
Phascolosoma gouldi Ponrtalea 


5 I 


Spiosetosa Verrill 

An elongate worm up to three inches long; seg- 
ments all alike. Inhabits small round holes or tubes 
in the mud near low water mark. Massachusetts to 
New Jersey. 

Polydora ligni Webster 

Somewhat similar to the above except that the 
fifth segment is much longer than the others. 

Lives in fragile tubes which it constructs with 
great rapidity out of dirt. When disturbed, the 
worm retracts within the tube. Lives in shallow 
water along the New Jersey coast. Numerous other 
species of Polydora are found among tunicates and 
mussels on piles and in similar habitats elsewhere 
along the East Coast. 

Amphitrite ornata Leidy 


One of the most beautiful worms on our coast. 
It constructs rather firm tubes out of the mud and 
sand in which it lives. The worm is flesh-colored 
and has three pairs of large red plume-like gills and 
flesh-colored tentacles at the head end. Mud flats at 
low water, North Carolina to Cape Cod; fairly com- 
mon in New Jersey. 


Amage pusila Verrill 

A small worm inhabitating mud tubes below low 
tide line. New England and New Jersey. 

Sthenelais leidyi Quatrefages 

(S. pida Verrill) 

A scale worm, up to 6 inches in length and com- 
posed of more than 100 segments. Body gray with a 
dark stripe along the middle of the back ; head brown 
with one red spot and two white spots. Shallow 
water, New England to Carolinas. 

Autolytus varians Verrill 

A slender worm, about an inch in length. The 
intestines are marked with bright red spots which 
can be seen through the body wall; often found 
among hydroids. Known from Maine to North Caro- 
lina, but rare in New Jersey. 

Cistenides gouldii Verrill (Mason Worm) 

(Pedinaria gouldii Verrill) 

PLATE XII. Fig. 3 

This worm constructs conical free tubes of sand 
grains arranged in a single layer bound together by 
a waterproof cement. Body red or flesh color with 
groups of golden bristles (setae). Lives in sandy 
mud from between tides, North Carolina to Maine. 
The characteristic tubes are frequently found on 


mud flats and a little digging will generally yield the 
living animal. Common on New Jersey coast. 
Sandy Hook to Cape May and dredged offshore 

Clymenella torquata Leidy 

PLATE XII. Fig. 5 

Body long- and slender, composed of 22 conspicu- 
ous segments, the fifth of which bears a peculiar 
collar-like fold; caudal extremity (tail) funnel 
shaped; color pale red. Constructs tubes of sand 
from between the tides to ten or more fathoms; the 
tubes are occasionally built on shells. 

Found with the preceding species but usually 
in more sandy associations. North Carolina to Bay 
of Fundy; fairly common in southern New Jersey. 

Cirratulus grand is Yerrill 

PLATE XII. Fig. 1 

A slender worm about 4 to 6 inches in length 
and about Vj. inch in width. Characterized by its 
very long red and orange cirri, almost as long as the 
worm itself; these cirri occur on almost every seg- 
ment except the first three; burrows in sand and 
gravel in shallow water; known from Cape Cod to 
Virginia, but rare in New Jersey. 


Polycirrus eximius Leidy 

Fig. 21 

A small red worm, usually less than one inch, 
with long crowded tentacles extending in every di- 
rection. Lives in sand near low water mark. New 
England and southward. 

Fig. 21 
Polycirrus eximius Leidy 

Chaetopterus pergamentaceus Cuvier 

A short stout worm with the anterior (head) 
region much flattened; the middle region is composed 
of one segment bearing large -wing-like parapodia 
and four swollen segments; highly luminous. The 
worm lives in a U-shaped parchment-like tube up 
to two feet in length, which is buried in the sand 
or mud. Known from Cape Cod to North Carolina. 


Potamilla oculifera Leidy 


"Another beautiful annelid, related somewhat 
to the Serpula {Eupomotus) , but its tubes are tough 
and flexible; they are constructed out of fine sand 
and other foreign matters, glued firmly together 
with the special secretions of the animal. These 
tubes are often found attached to the under sides of 
stones, but, passing around to the sides, open upward 
by a free extremity; they also frequently occur in 
sheltered nooks in the tide-pools. The worm, when 
undisturbed, puts out a beautiful wreath of branchiae 
somewhat resembling that of the Serpula (Eupo- 
motus), but there is no operculum. The branchiae 
are always beautifully colored, though the colors are 
quite variable. In one of the commonest styles of 
coloration, the branchiae are surrounded at base 
with reddish brown ; above this with a ring of white ; 
next by a band of reddish brown; then for the termi- 
nal half the color is yellowish gray, with indistinct 
blotches of brown; on the outer sides of the branchiae 
stem there are one to three dark red eyes. There are 
ten or more branchiae in each half of the wreath, and 
'icy are longer on one side than on the other. m 

New Jersey to Bay of Fundy in shallow water. 

Eupomotus dianthus Verrill 

(Serpula dianthus Verrill; Hydroides dianthus Verrill) 

Fig. 13 

Forms white calcareous tubes on shells, rocks, 
etc. Common Trom depth of 1 to 15 feet. Shells cast 

1. Verrill, 1874, pp. 322-3 


on the beach are often covered with worm tubes of 
this species. Frequently present on Pleistocene 

Spirorbis spirorbis Linne 
(Spirorbis borealis Daudin) 

Lives in a minute coiled calcareous tube at- 
tached to sea-weed, shells, etc. Common from Long 
Island Sound northward. This and other species 
occur in New Jersey. Found on Sargassum (Gulf 
Weed) after storm at Cape May. (September 1934) 

Sabellaria vulgaris Verrill 

(S. v avians Webster) 

PLATE XIII. Fig. 2; Fig. 14 

Forms firm sand tubes which may be attached 
to shells or may grow into large masses perhaps a 
foot thick. Especially common on oysters in Dela- 
ware Bay but dredged in the ocean off the New Jer- 
sey coast to 20 fathoms. The tubes of this worm a^ 
commonly washed on the beach. Worm is sm? :, 
reddish yellow. North Carolina to Cape Cod. 

Chapter Eleven 


Mollusks, Shellfish 

1. PELECYPODA Clams, oysters, etc. 

2. GASTROPODA Sea snails, etc. 

3. CEPHALOPODA Squid, Octopus, etc. 


The name Pelecypoda means hatched-foot and 
refers to the type of foot usually possessed by the 
mollusks of this group. The more popular name, 
bivalves, is often applied to the group and refers to 
the fact that the animals have two shells. 

The muscles that the bivalve uses to open and 
close its shell are known as the aductor muscles and 
are often very strong; the scars where these muscles 
are attached to the shells are sometimes conspicuous 
even after the muscle itself has disintergrated. 

The two shells of the bivalve are held together 
by the hinge ligament, a tough leathery substance 
which often is lost when the shell is cast upon the 
beach, and usually by one or more pairs of inter- 
locking teeth. The arrangement of these teeth is 
often of paramount importance in identifying the 
families and genera of bivalves. 

The foot, as indicated by the name Pelecypoda, 
is usually hatchet shaped. In some species the foot 
is used for slow locomotion along the ocean bottom, 


MOLLUSC 1 A 135 

while in others it is used for rapid burrowing'. The 
oyster and other species, however, possess a foot only 
in their young stages, while in the mussel (Mytilus) 
and related genera, the foot contains a gland which 
secretes silk-like fibers which constitute a byssus or 
"anchor". These may be used for temporary or 
permanent attachment. In a few species the foot is 
used as a rasping or boring organ and may drill a 
hole through other shells (a3 does Urosalpinx, Thais, 
etc.) or may even penetrate hard rock (as does Litho- 
domuSj Pkolas, etc.). 

Most bivalves possess two tubes or siphons; 
through one the water passes into the animal and 
through the other it is discharged. In some species 
the siphons are very long and conspicuous (as 31 t/<i, 
Pholas), while in others they are very inconspicuous 
and are contained within the shells. 

The group Pelecypoda contains various species 
of considerable economic importance. While the 1 
Hard Shell and Soft Shell Clam, the oyster and the 
scallop, are the only bivalves frequently eaten in 
our region, many other species are also edible and 
are used as food in other parts of the world. 

While the species mentioned in this book are all 
inhabitants of salt or brackish water, many bivalves 
live in freshwater streams and lakes. 

Solemya velum Say 

PLATE XV. Fig. 6 

These shells are very thin and fragile, about an 
inch long and Vo inch wide and covered by a corne- 
ous epidermis of deep chestnut color. Radiating 
lines are prominent. Known from Nova Scotia to 


Florida but rare in New Jersey. Has been found in 
the mud of Cape May Harbor. 

. . i 1 f ^!k 

Fig. 24 
Nucula proxima Say 

Fig. 25 
Mulinia lateralis Say 

Nucula proxima Say 

Fig. 24 

A small oblique shell, less than % inch in length. 
Its hinge is marked with two rows of comb-like teeth, 
one on each side of a central pit. 

It is very common along the New England coast ; 
south of Cape Cod it appears to be local but is often 
very abundant when found. The ocean floor off 
Cape Henlopen, Delaware (particularly near Hen 
and Chicken Shoals) is covered with this species. 
It is also known from Delaware Bay, Barnegat Bay, 
Raritan Bay and elsewhere in New Jersey waters. 
It is rare south of Delaware. 


Several varieties of the species have been 

Yoldia limatula Say 

PLATE XV. Fig. 3 

Hinge and color somewhat similar to Nucula but 
larger (up to 2 inches) and with one end tapering. 
Lives in shallow water in muddy associations. The 
shell is rarely found on the beach but has been dredg- 
ed in Delaware Bay, Barnegat Bay, etc. Range : Gulf 
of St. Lawrence to North Carolina. 

Area campechiensis G-melin (Ark; Bloody Clam) 
(A. pexata Say) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 1 

One of the commonest shells of the New Jersey 
beaches. The genus Area is characterized by the 
long row of comb-like hinge teeth. A. campechiensis 
has an oblong shell with its beak directed forward. 
Radiating ribs are prominent and the shell is 
covered with a hairy brown epidermis, which, how- 
ever, is often removed before the shell is washed 
upon the beach. Up to 3 inches in length. Lives 
in both inland waterways and in shallow water 
in the open ocean. Known from Massachusetts to 
Yucatan, Mexico; its name is taken from the Gulf 
of Campeche (Mexico) where it was first described. 

Area transversa Say (Ark; Transverse Ark) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 5 

Similar to the above but elongate and with 
beak more central and not directed forward. 


1. Area campechiensis Gmelin 

2. Area ponderosa Say 

3. Macoma balthica Linne 

4. Venericardia borealis Conrad 

5. Area transversa Say 

G. Laevicardium mortoni Conrad 

7. Mactra solidissima Dillwyn 

o n a a 

9. Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck 

10. Divarcella quadrisulcata D'Orbigny 

11. Lyonsia hyalina Conrad 

12. Siliqua costata Say 

13. Pandora gouldiana Dall 
11. Tellina tenera Say 

15. Mesodesma arctatum Conrad 

16. Donax fossor Say 



Similar habits to those of the above except that it 
is more often found in the open ocean than in the 
harbors, etc. The shell is common on the beach 
from Massachusetts to Texas. 

Area ponderosa Say (Large Ark) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 2 

This shell is larger and thicker than the above 
two species. The two beaks are directed forward 
and do not touch each other, there being a large 
space between them. There is a prominent con- 
striction on the ventral margin of the two valves. 
This shell is not known alive north of Cape Hatteras 
(except for a questionable record from Vineyard 
Sound, Massachusetts). Nevertheless it is fre- 
quently found on beaches as far north as Massa- 
chusetts. A. ponderosa is abundant in Pleistocene 
deposits from Florida as far north as Nantucket, 
Mass., and it seems plausible that the beach shells 
have been washed from some nearby fossil deposit. 
Many of these shells are worn and dark in color, sug- 
gesting considerable antiquity. They are often 
fairly numerous on New Jersey beaches after storms. 

Ostrea virginica Gmelin (Oyster) 

The oyster is too well known to figure or to 
describe in detail. It is undoubtedly the most im- 
portant bivalve of the entire Atlantic Coast' and 
one of the most important of all animals of the sea. 
The oyster industry is one of the largest of New 
Jersey's industries, and in a single year more than 
$3,000,000 worth of these bivalves have been ship- 



Fig. 22 
Oyster Reef, Pierces Point, N. J. (Delaware Bay) 

ped from the oyster grounds of Maurice River Cove 

Oysters live in great beds in bays and esturaries 
where the sea water is diluted with considerable 
fresh water from the rivers. In most places oysters 
live in shallow water and from New Jersey south- 
ward they may often be seen exposed between the 
tides. Figure shows an oyster bed or reef in 
Delaware Bay as it appears at low tide. 

The life history of the oyster is very inter- 
esting, and one that has received considerable study 
from biologists. In the spring or early summer, or 
as soon as the water has reached a temperature of 
68° or 70° F., the oyster begins to spawn. The time 
of spawning varies considerably with the locality. 
In Long Island Sound, most oysters spawn in late 
July; in New Jersey spawning occurs in May or 



June and along the southern Atlantic or Gulf Coast, 
it may occur as early as March. 

The embryo produced by the spawning is a 
minute (0.25 mm.) spherical body. It is able to 
move over the surface of the water by means of its 
small hair line cilia or swimming organs. This free 
swimming stage may last two or three weeks. 
However it soon wearies of a free swimming exist- 
ence and falls down through the water and "sets'' 
or attaches itself to the substratum. If the young 
oyster happens to fall on something hard, it 
will immediately attach itself, and lose forever its 
cilia. On the other hand, if it falls on something- 
soft, such as mud, it will be unable to set, and will 
consequently soon die. It is therefore to the great 

Fig. 23 
Oyster shells, Bivalve, N. J. 

interest of the oystermen, that the young oyster 
find something hard when it begins to set. It is 


in many places the practice to save all the empty 
shells and throw them back into the water. See 
figure 23. 

After setting', the oyster grows and in about 
two years (in New Jersey) will reach a market- 
able size. Very often the oystermen will dredge 
the young' oyster (spat) and replant them in order 
to thin out the beds to avoid overcrowding. Some- 
times oysters are transported a considerable distance 
before replanting. 

In the United States, the oyster occurs from 
Massachusetts to Southern Texas. As demon- 
strated by the presence of large Indian shell heaps, 
the oyster undoubtedly lived as far north t Maine 
within the past few hundred years. There are 
various species of oysters (Ostrea) in tropical waters, 
and 0. virginica has been reported at lerst as far 
south as Honduras. 

In New Jersey, the most important oyster 
grounds are found in Maurice River r < a part 
of Delaware Bay. The towns of Biva Port 

Norris are the center of the oyster indus. this 


The trade names of oysters such as "Lynn- 
havens", "Blue Points" "Maurice River Salts", 
etc. are local variations in size, shape, etc. probably 
due to ecological conditions of the environment. 

Pecten gibbus irradians Lamarck (Bay Scallop) 

PLATE XV. Fig. 9 

This fan-shaped shell is found on all beaches 
from New England to Florida. In this species the 
"ears" of the shell near the beak are about equal in 


Ensis directus Conrad 
Tagelus gibbus Spengler 
Yoldia limatula Say 
Anomia simplex D'Orbigny 
Pholas> truncata Say 
Solemya velum Say 
Astarte castanea Say 
Pitar morrhuana Gould 

9. Pecten gibbus irradians Lamarck 



This scallop was formerly of considerable eco- 
nomic importance in New Jersey; however, the num- 
ber of scallops has steadily decreased, and now al- 
though the shells are frequently found on the beach, 
they do not occur in commercial numbers at many 
places within the state. 

It is only the muscle that connects the two shells 
of the scallop that is eaten and this is usually con- 
sidered very delicious. 

The scallop is one of the few bivalves that is 
able to swim through the water. By means of quick- 
ly opening and closing its shell it is able to make 
fairly good progress. 

It is also one of the few bivalves equipped with 
good eyes (ocelli). These small black dots can be 
seen lining the margin of the shell. 

The scallop lives in shallow water and is often 
very common on mud flats. Various varieties have 
been described from different parts of the East Coast, 
differentiated by the number of ribs, convexity 
of the shell and other minor variations. The color of 
irradians varies from white to brown. The black 
scallop shells occasionally found on certain beaches 
are probably fossils redeposited from some nearby 
Pleistocene formation. 

Pecten grandis Sollander 

(Sea Scallop; Giant Scallop) 
(P. magellanica Gmelin; P. tenuicostoda Mighells) 


Much larger than the Bay Scallop and with 
much finer ridges; reaches a length of almost 6 
inches; upper valve brown, lower one white; this 
scallop is fairly common north of Cape Cod, especial- 
ly on Georges Bank, where it is dredged by the com- 


merciaJ fishing beats. South of Cape Cod it is 

restricted to the deeper cold water and while it is 
known as far south as Hatteras, it is very rare south 
of Cape May. Beds of the Sea Scallop off the coast 
of New Jersey are occasionally visited by some of 
the fishing boats. 

An omia simplex D'Orbigny (Toe Nail; Jingle) 

(.4. epMppium Linne ) 

PLATE XV. Fig. 4 

Roughly round in shape, up to 3 inches in dia- 
meter; shells are very variable in color from pale 
yellow to dark brown and black; especially char- 
acterized by its pearl-like nacre. One valve is fiat 
and there is a large oblong' hole near the beak; 
through this hole projects a calcareous byssus by 
means of which the animal anchors itself to some 
hard object such as another shell or pebble; the other 
valve is curved. 

Sometimes hundreds of these shells showing all 
variations in shape and color can be found on the 
Xew Jersey beaches; the toe nail can be seen alive 
attached to larger shells, stones, etc. in shallow 
water. The Toe Nail is known from Xew England 
to Florida. 

Mytilus edulis Linne (Mussel) 


The mussel is abundant along the east coast 
from the Arctic regions to North Carolina, although 
it is more common from New Jersey northward. The 
shell is easily recognized by its usual jet black color 
and by its beak at the tip of the shell. There is a 
form with green and yellow rays, sometimes called 


variety pellucidus, and a brown form known as notatvs 
but these are probably merely genetic types and 
occur with the typical edulis. 

The mussel is frequently found attached by its 
thread-like byssus to piles and rocks along the New 
Jersey coast; it also lives below low water and is 
known from 25 or more fathoms. The mussels from 
deeper water often grow much larger than those of 
the intertidal zone. The bottom of the ocean and 
Delaware Bay in many places is covered with 
mussels, and after severe storms these shells are 
washed up on the beach in great numbers. Starfish 
are often abundant on these mussel grounds. 

Although usually anchored to one spot by its 
byssus, the mussel may "break anchor" and move 
about by means of its foot and attach itself by secret- 
ing new byssal threads. 

The mussel is prized as food in Europe but does 
not seem to have found much favor in the United 

Mytilus recurvus Rafmesque (Southern Mussel) 
(31. hamatus Say; 31. clava Meuschen) 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 12 

Differs from the above by being twisted near 
the beak and by being striated; usually dark brown 
in color and smaller than the above. Abundant from 
Chesapeake Bay southward; local in New Jersey and 
southern New England; probably introduced into 
Barnegat Bay with seed oysters from the Chesa- 


Mytilus edulis I. 



Modiolus modiolus Linne (Bearded Mussel) 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 11 

In this genus the beak is not ai the tip of the 
shell but a little to one side. The shell is large (up 
to 5 inches) and is covered with a dark brown epider- 
mis and a tough growth of hair. Common from New 
England to the Arctic; known from deep water off 
Long Island, New Jersey and North Carolina; a few 
shells have been found on the beach at Point 
Pleasant, N. J., Wildwood, N. J., and Cape May, N. J. 

Modiolus demissus Dillwyn (Horse Mussel) 

(M. pUcatula Lamarck) 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 10 

Beak similar to the above but the shell has 
numerous radiating ribs; the epidermis is very thin 
and of pale brown color; length up to 4 inches. Very 
common in New Jersey on tidal mud flats and estu- 
aries, extending into brackish and almost fresh 
water; found between the tides and above high water 
mark. Known from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to 
Florida; not edible, frequently poisonous. 

Pandora gouldiana Dall (Pandora) 

(P. trilineata Gould; P. trilineata Say (?) ) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 13 

An extremely flat white shell about 1 inch long. 
The shell is shiny, rounded anteriorly and extended 


posteriorly into an upturned tip which gapes to 
accomodate two little siphons. 

P. gouldiana is found in shallow water on sandy 
bottom from Prince Edward Island to North Caro- 
lina. The southern form P. triliTieata Say, known 
from North Carolina to the Gulf of Mexico, differs so 
slightly from the northern form that it seems probab- 
le that they should be regarded as the same species. 

Pandora, while not common in New Jersey, is 
fairly numerous in a few places, particularly in parts 
of Delaware Bar. 

Lycnsia hyalina Conrad 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 11 

Shell pearly and transparent, a little less than 
1 o inch long with the left valve slightly larger than 
the right. Anterior end rounded, posterior end 
elongate. Lives in shallow muddy water from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to Texas. In New Jersey it is 
known from Barnegat and Delaware Bays; not com- 

Cyprina islandica Linne 
(Arctica islandica Linne \ 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 4 

A large clam up to 4 inches in length easily 
recognize;! by its thick wrinkled black epidermis; 
usually lives in dee]) water ((MX) fathoms) and is 
occasional but not common on the New England 
beaches after storms. Known from New Jersey by 
only one record, 20 miles southeast of Atlantic City. 


Astarte castanea Say 

PLATE XV. Fig. 7 

Shell thick, smooth, about 1 inch in length and 
covered with a light brown epidermis. Found be- 
tween Nova Scotia and Cape Hatteras but very rare 
south of Delaware ; fairly common on sandy grounds 
off northern New Jersey and frequently found on 
the beaches of Asbury Park, Seaside Park, Beach 
Haven and vicinity. Less common in Southern New 
Jersey but is known to occur off Atlantic City and 
near Five Fathom Bank (14 miles off Wildwood). 

Astarte is a northern genus and there are a num- 
ber of species found along the coast of Northern New 
England, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. 

Venericardia borealis Conrad 
(Cardita borealis Conrad) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 4 

A heart-shaped shell with conspicuous radiating 
ribs ; two prominent hinge teeth ; rusty brown epider- 
mis. Fairly common Labrador to Cape Cod; rare 
and in deep water south of that cape; a few shells 
have been found on the New Jersey beaches at Cape 
May and elsewhere; about an inch in length. 

Venericardia tridentata Say 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 9 

A small (% inch) somewhat triangular clam 
with prominent ribs; decidedly a southern species 


not hitherto reported north of North Carolina. It 
occurs in considerable numbers near the mouth of 
Delaware Bay and elsewhere in southern New 

Divarcella quadrisulcata D 'Orbigny 

(Dollar a Dozen) 
(Lucina dentata Wood) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 10 

Shell up to about 1 inch in length, with well 
marked concentric lines crossed by a series of wavy 
lines. This shell is frequently found on beaches 
along the whole length of New Jersey from Sandy 
Hook to Cape May, but has never been seen alive in 
New Jersey waters. It is said to live in from 10 to 
30 fathoms between Massachusetts and Brazil; it is 
much more common, and the shells are much fresher 
in appearance south of New Jersey; it is probable 
that many of the New Jersey shells are fossils. 

Laevicardium mortoni Conrad 

(Heart Shell; Smooth Cockle) 
(Cardium mortoni Conrad) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 6 

A smooth white, somewhat heart-shaped shell, 
seldom more than an inch in length and about the 
same in height ; hinge typical of the genus with two 
teeth in the center and one lateral tooth on each side 
and some little distance from the center (beak). 

A rather rare shell which occasionally can be 
found burrowing in the sand or mud in shallow 


water; it is found between Nova Scotia and the Gulf 
of Mexico, but is more common toward the south. 
Cardium is a more or less southern genus, a 
goodly number of species being known from Florida. 
The large, ribbed, C. robustum, which may reach as 
much as 5 inches in height, is common from Virginia. 

Venus mercenaria Linne 

(Hard Shell Clam; Little Neck; Quohog) 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 5 

This is the common clam of the New Jersey coast 
and the one most frequently used as food. It lives 
in the sandy mud flats. It burrows into the mud, 
and, especially when young, can dig or crawl fairly 
rapidly by means of its foot. It obtains its food 
through the small siphon or neck which is projected 
upward. This small siphon has given the popular 
name Little Neck as contrasted with the Soft Shell 
( flam or Nanny Nose {31 y a arenaria) which has a long 
projecting siphon. 

The Hard Shell Clam was frequently used as 
food by the Indians who gave it the name Quohog. 
Large piles of the shells of this species will often 
indicate tin 1 site of a former Indian village. The 
purple portion of the inside of the shell was frequent- 
ly used as wampum or money. 

The species ranges from the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence to the Gull' of Mi : co. The large shells, parti- 
cularly those from the so, hern coast, are frequently 
difficult to distinguish from Venus campechiensis', it is 
highly possible that mercenaria and campechiensis 
should be regarded as ecological or genetic varieties 
of a single species. 


The shells of Venus mercenaria as well as V. 
campechiensis from the Pleistocene are often consider- 
ably thicker than those living' today. 

Venus mercenaria notata Say 

A variety of the common clam (V. mercenaria) 
with zig-zag' color markings on the shell ; said to live 
on the sandbars off shore; shells are occasionally 
found on the beach, but the variety is by no means 

Venus campechiensis Gmelin 
(T\ morioni Conrad) 

Very similar to V. mercenaria but distinguished 
from it by having its concentric ridges extending 
across the entire shell, whereas in mercenaria they are 
obscured except near the beak. Campechiensis never 
has the interior purple characteristic of mercenaria. 

V. campechiensis is a southern form and in the 
Carolinas, Georgia and Florida may attain a con- 
siderable size (as much as 8 inches in diameter). 

New Jersey specimens arc very small — rarely 
more than 2 inches in length — and can usually be 
distinguished from mercenama by their conspicuous 
concentric ridges. 

Gemma gemma Totten „ (Gem Shell) 

A minute clam (usually less than ] 4 inch) with 
typical venerid hinge, frequently found in great 
numbers in tide pools along the entire Xew Jersey 


coast. This species, made up of three varieties, is 
known from Labrador to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Pitar morrhuana Gould 

(Cytherea convexa Say; Callocardia morrhuana Gould) 

PLATE XV. Fig. 8 

Closely resembles Venus mercenaria, but rarely 
grows larger than. 2 inches; shell smoother and with 
no purple marks on the interior; hinge has both 
lateral and cardinal teeth. 

Lives in shallow water from Nova Scotia to 
Florida; not uncommon on New Jersey beaches but 
more abundant farther south. 

Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck (Angel Wings) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 9 

Shell thin, white, with numerous ribs; about 
2 inches in length; when spread open resembles 
a pair of wings, hence the name. It burrows to 
the depth of about 6 inches in mud or hard clay 
offshore or near salt marshes. Frequently after 
storms large clumps of old meadow sod or peat 
are washed ashore from below low tide line, 
and are found to contain these mollusks. After 
a storm at Cape May Point, N. J. (September 20, 
1928), a log was washed ashore containing a large 
number of individuals of this species associated with 
Pholas truncaia and Teredo (Ship Worm). 

Known from Prince Edward Island to the Gulf 
of Mexico, boring in clay or peat. 


Tellina tenera Say (Tellen) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 14 

A small white shell occasionally tinted pink; 
common in sand associations from the littoral zone 
to about 10 fathoms. This species, which is frequent- 
ly found on the New Jersey beaches, is known from 
Prince Edward Island to Florida. 

Tellina is a southern genus, and many beautiful 
species are known between Cape Hatteras and 
Florida and in the West Indies. 

Macoma tenta Say 

Very similar to the above but without the lateral 
hinge teeth. Not as common as T. tenera, but known 
from Cape Cod to Florida. 

Macoma balthica Linne 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 3 

A white or pink shell, about an inch long, 
rounded in shape, often with a thin dusky epidermis ; 
characteristic of brackish water and especially 
abundant in Delaware Bay. 

Known from the Arctic regions, where it is very 
common, as far south as Georgia. 

Macoma calcarea Gmelin 

Similar to the above but more pointed posterior- 
ly. A northern species known from the Arctic to 


New Jersey; abundant in the north; rare in New 
Jersey and occasionally found associated with M. 

Donax fossor Say (Wedge Clam) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 16 

A small shell, up to V. inch in length, elongated 
in front, obliquely rounded and short behind. The 
radiating sculpture is superimposed by a thin layer 
making the surface of the shell entirely smooth; 
white or purple in color. Very common on sandy 
beaches where it often may be seen burrowing into 
the sand at low tide line just as the waves recede 
Very common from Long Island to Texas, abundant 
in New Jersey. 

A closely related form, Donax variabilis Say is 
found on beaches from North Carolina southward. 
This species has the posterior obliquely truncated 
and the sides noticeably angular; it reaches a length 
of 1% inches and usually is more brilliantly colored 
than the more northern fossor. In Florida, where this 
species is especially abundant, it is known as the 
Coquina or Pompano Clam, and is often used for 

Tagelus globus Spengler 

PLATE XV. Fig. 2 

An elongated white shell covered with a yellow- 
ish epidermis. It burrows dee]) in the mud and is 
seldom seen alive. The shell is very common on all 


New Jersey beaches. Range: Massachusetts to the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Tagelus divisus Spengler 

Smaller and narrower than the above; similar in 
range and habits, but much rarer. 

Ensis directus Conrad (Razor Clam) 

(Sole 11 americana Gould) 

PLATE XV. Fig. 1 

This is the common razor clam of the New Jersey 
coast; shell slightly curved, white, but covered with 
an olive green epidermis; up to 6 inches in length; 
two teeth on the right valve and three on the left. 

This species is known as the razor clam because 
of its resemblance to an old fashioned razor. These 
clams burrow into the mud perpendicularly to a 
depth of 2 or 3 feet. Sometimes they can be seen 
projecting slightly out of their holes; however, they 
burrow very rapidly and are often very difficult to 

An easy method of obtaining some of these ani- 
mals alive is to sprinkle salt on the mud flats where 
they are living. The salt will cause them to quickly 
come out of their holes and they may then be readily 
collected. One must be careful to put the speci- 
mens in a jar or other container, because upon being 
laid flat on the mud they soon recover and with a 
quick movement of their foot, they may right them- 
selves and burrow rapidly again into the mud. 

This clam is common in mud flats and shallow 


water from Labrador to Florida and the shell is 
frequently found on the beach; occasionally used 
as food. 

Ensis viridis Say (Green Razor Clam) 

Shell smaller and straighter than the above with 
a single tooth in each valve; light green in color. 
Rhode Island to Florida, very rare. 

Siliqua costata Say 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 12 

A very thin elliptical shell, up to 2 inches long; 
characterized by a rib extending across the inside 
of the shell; greenish epidermis. Lives in shallow 
water from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras; rare in 
New Jersey and only occasionally seen on the beach 
after a storm. 

Mactra solidissima Dillwyn (Surf Clam; Sea Clam) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 7, 8 

One of the commonest shells on the New Jersey 
beaches. Shell large, up to 7 inches in length, and 
covered with a yjale brown epidermis which is usu- 
ally worn off before the shell is washed up on the 
beach. A triangular shaped cartilage plate at the 
hinge is characteristic of the family. 

Often found living on sandy beaches at low 
water mark; also dredged in considerable numbers 


off southern New Jersey from shallow water to 10 
fathoms; occasionally used as food, but usually re- 
garded as too tough or too sandy; sometimes 
gathered in considerable numbers for use as fish 

Mulinia lateralis Say (Salt Marsh Clam) 

(Mactra lateralis Say) 

Hinge similar to the above but the shell is much 
smaller (less than an inch in length). A prominent 
shelf or constriction on the shell is characteristic of 
this species. Very common in brackish water in 
sandy associations from 1 to 4 fathoms; especially 
abundant in Delaware Bay. 

Labiosa canaliculata Say 


Hinge somewhat similar to Mactra, but the shell 
is very thin and ornamented with ridges; fairly 
common south of Virginia; broken shells are oc- 
casionally found on the beaches of southern New 

Mesodesma arctatum Conrad 
(Ceronia arctata Conrad) 

PLATE XIV. Fig. 15 

A northern species that is occasionally found 
on the New Jersey beaches from Seaside Park north- 


Mya arenaria Linne (Soft Shelled Clam; 


PLATE XIX. Fig. 6 

Shell oval and not as thick as the Hard Shell 
Clam [Venus). A single large tooth on one valve 
fits into a pit on the opposite valve. 

The soft clam lives in mud fats along' the New 
Jersey coast, hut usually prefers a more muddy asso- 
ciation than Venus. Its siphons are much longer than 
those of the hard clam and may even be longer than 
the shell of the clam. When disturbed in its burrow 
it quickly withdraws its siphon within the shell 
ejecting a jet of water into the air. Its usual size 
is '2 to 3 inches in length. Known from the Arctic 
regions to Cape Hatteras, but rare south of Chesa- 
peake Bay. It is used as food, but is not quite as 
popular in New Jersey as the Hard Shell Clam. 

Corbula contracta Say 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 8 

About half an inch long with a single tooth in 
each valve fitting into a pit on the opposite valve; 
shell smooth with concentric ridges. Cape Cod to 
Florida; occasionally dredged in shallow water off 
the New Jersey coast. 


1. Labiosa canaliculata Say 2. Pholas costata Linne 
3. Pecten grandis Solander 


Pholas costata Linne 

(Barnea costata Linne) (Large Angel Wings) 


This conspicuous white shell reaches as much 
as 6 inches in length. It burrows 2 feet or more deep 
in the mud or clay and is very difficult to obtain 
alive. This species had not been seen alive along 
our northeastern coast for a good many years and 
it was thought that they were possibly becoming 
extinct. However, it has recently turned up again 
and is found to live in considerable numbers in the 
mud flats along Delaware Bay and in Cape May 

There is a large bed of these mollusks along 
Delaware Bay near Fishing Creek. They can some- 
times be seen at low tide in the shallow pools with 
their siphons slightly elevated above the mud. Upon 
trying to capture them, they burrow very rapidly 
some two feet or more into the mud. In attempting 
to resist capture the animal will frequently draw 
itself into the shell with such force that the shell 
becomes broken. The shell is indeed very fragile 
and although many fragments are found on the New 
Jersey beaches, it is seldom than one finds a perfect 

A few years ago a fisherman at Cape May found 
a bed of these bivalves in Cape May Harbor and re- 
ported that they were good to eat. 

These shells are known from Cape Cod to the 
West Indies, and are more frequent on beaches south 
of Cape Hatteras. 

Although not closely related, this shell at first 
glance resembles Petricola pholadiformis and the popu- 
lar name for the two species is sometimes the same. 


Pholas truncata Say 

(Barnea truncata Say) 

PLATE XV. Fig. 5 

Smaller than the above and more truncate; bur- 
rows in mud and peat and found between Maine and 
the Gulf of Mexico. The shell is fairly common in 
New Jersey, especially along Delaware Bay beaches ; 
it has been observed burrowing into a log washed 
ashore at Cape May Point. (September 21, 1928). 

Zirphaea crispata Linne 

Somewhat similar in general appearance to the 
above but with a prominent furrow which divided 
each valve into two parts. 

A northern shell living in hard clay or rocks; 
very rare in New Jersey. 

Teredo navalis Linne (Ship Worm) 

Fig. 26 

One would naturally expect that the ship worm 
was an annelid worm. However, it is really a bi- 
valve mollusk of a very modified type. It is worm- 
like in form and lives in a shelly tube not unlike 
that of the worm Eupomotas dianthus. It does how- 
ever, have a very small shell (14 inch long) at the 
wider end of the tube. At the other end of the tube 
there are two calcareous structures known as pallets 
which are used to close the tube. 

Ship worms bore into submerged wood and are 


Fig. 26 
W'nod bored by Shipworm (Teredo navallis Linne) 

very destructive to piling-, wharves, buoys and even 
vessels. Various kinds of paints have been perfected 
to coat the wood in an attempt to protect it from the 
lavages of this pest. 

The ship worm is world-wide in distribution; 
along the New Jersey coast the tubes grow to 6 
inches in length. In tropical waters they may attain 
the length of two feet or more. 

Various species or varieties of the ship worm 
have been described, based upon slight differences 
in the shell or pallets. 


The word Gastropoda means stomach-footed; 

the foot of this mollusk is really a thickening of the 
surface of the animal, giving the impression that the 
animal walks on its stomach. There is a great deal 


of variation in the size and shape of the fool among 
the various species of gastropods. 

As contrasted to the bivalves, the gastropods 

are often called univalves because they usually pos- 
sess a single shell, generally coiled or spiral; a few, 

however, such as the slugs and nudibranchs possess 
no external shell whatever. (These are not treated 
in this book.) 

Another common name for this group of mol- 
lusks is Sea Snails. 

The opening through which the animal projects 
out of the shell is known as the aperture and is in 
some species covered by a horny or calcareous lid 
known as the operculum. 

The top of the shell is called the apex and each 
turn of the spiral is known as a whorl. The sculpt- 
ure of the whorls is often very complicated and is 
of importance in the determination of the various 
species. The outer edge of the aperture is known 
as the outer lip, while the inner lip is termed the 

Although externally very different from the bi- 
valves, the internal anatomy of both bivalves and 
univalves is essentially similar. One structure, how- 
ever, peculiar to univalves is the radula or tongue. 
This structure is equipped with many small teeth 
and is used to grind the food obtained by the mol- 
lusk. The radula is hidden among the muscular 
tissue which lines the inside of the snail. The struct 
ure of the radula is of great importance in the differ- 
entiation of species, particularly of land mollusks. 

As is the case with the Pelecypoda many gastro- 
pods are of economic importance as food, although 
they seem not to be especially favored along our 
coast. Among others, the Moon Snail (Polinices 


heros) and the Periwinkle (Littorina litorea) are 
eaten with much relish in Newfoundland, and vari- 
ous species of Conch (8 trombus, Fulgur, etc.) are often 
eaten in Florida and the West Indies. 

Gastropods are found in the sea, in fresh water 
and on land. 

Fissurella alternata Say (Key Hole Limpet) 

Fig. 30 B 

A southern shell occasionally found on the 
beaches of southern New Jersey, probably washed 
from a Pleistocene fossil deposit. Not known alive 
north of Cape Hatteras. 

Scalaria lineata Say 

(Scala lineata 8 ay; Epitonium lineatum (Say) ) 

Fig. 30 D 

Shell white, sometimes with a few brown lines; 
about 1 inch long with about eight whorls, promi- 
nently ribbed. Not common on the beach, but 
occasionally found in from 2 to 25 fathoms off 
shore; known from Vineyard Sound to the Gulf of 
Mexico; more common north of New Jersey. 

Scalaria humphrysii Kiener 

(Scalaria say ana Doll; Epitonium humphrysii (Kiener) ) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 11 

Ribs more prominent than those of the above; 
color usually pure white; similar in habits and 
range as the above; rare. 


Janthina janthina Linne (Floating Shell) 

(J. communis Lamarck; J. fragilis Lamarck) 

Fig. 27 

A pelagic species, that is one that floats on the 
surface of the sea, usually far from shore. After 
storms they are occasionally washed upon the 
beaches from Nantucket to the "West Indies. The 
shell is very thin and is usually purple in color. 
The animal is kept on the surface of the water by 
a gelatinous secretion from the foot. Very rare 
on New Jersey beaches (one record from Cape May 
Point) ; more common on Florida beaches. 

Fig. 27 
Janthina janthina Linne 

Stilifer stimpsoni Verrill 

A small, elongate shell that lives among the 
spines of the Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocerdrotus 
drobachiensis) , usually in deep water. One record 
from 35 fathoms off New Jersey. 


1. Crepidula fornicata Linne 

2. Crepidula plana Say 

3. Sinum perspectivum Say 

4. Crepidula convexa Say 

5. Columbella avara Say 

6. Nassa trivittata Say 

7. Melampus lir^atus Say 

8. Terebra c va Say 

10. Terebra ^ jcata Say 

11. Polinices duplicata Say 

12. Polinices heros Say 




(a) Littorina saxatila; (b) L. obtussata; (c) Lacuna vincta; 

(d) Paludestrina minuta; (e) Columbella lunata; (f) Odostomia 

impressa; (g) O. seminuda; (h) Triphora perversa nigrocincta; 

(i) Bittium alternatum; (j) Actoocina canaliculata; 

(k) Natica pusila. 

Odostomia impressa Say 

Fig. 28 F 

A small smooth shell (less than 14 inch long) 
occasionally found on sea weed between the tides 
and in shallow water. 

Odostomia seminuda C. B. Adams 

Fig. 28 G 

Similar in general appearance and habits to 
the above, but distinguished by its more granulated 


This is a genus composed of numerous species of 
minute shells, several of which are to be found in 
New Jersey waters. They are long, slender spiral 
shells, seldom reaching % inch in length. The 



various species are very difficult to determine. They 
can be distinguished from Odostomia by an oblique 
fold on the columella (shell axis). 

The most common New Jersey species are T. 
conradi Bush and T. irderrupta Totten. 

Fig. 29 
Polinices duplicata Say 

Polinices duplicata Say 

(Natica duplicata Say ) 

(Sea Snail; Moon Snail 
Sand Collar Snail) 

PLATE XVIII. Fig. 11; Fig. 29 

A large shell (up to 3 inches in diameter) with 
a comparatively flat apex; characterized by a thick 
brown callus almost covering the umbilicus. Usu- 
ally found partially buried in the sand from the 
intertidal zone to relatively deep water; known 
from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico; common 
in New Jersey. 


This snail forms a curious egg case known as 
the sand collar. The animal glues together grains 
of sand in the form of a collar and deposits its 
eggs in the gelatinous substance between the sand 
grains. (Fig. 29) The operculum (or lid of the 
shell) is horny. 

Polinices heros Say (Moon Snail) 


Somewhat similar to the above but without 
the callus on the umbilicus; therefore easily disting- 
uished by the "hole". Often larger than duplicata 
(up to 4 inches); similar habits as the above but 
more common in deeper water (to 238 fathoms). 
Found between Newfoundland and North Carolina, 
especially abundant north of Long Island Sound. 
Used as bait for cod fish. 

Polinices triseriata Say 

Exactly similar to P. heros except for its smallei 
size and for three rows of brown spots on the shell 
probably the young of P. Iwros. 

Natica pusila Say 

Fig. 28 K 

Shell small ('4 inch) with white callus almost 
completely filling the umbilicus. Lives in shallow 


water from Massachusetts to Florida. Not common 

in New Jersey coastal waters but occasionally 
dredged off shore. 

Natica clausa Broderip and Sowerby 

A small species with a white callus in the um- 
bilicus; operculum (lid) calcareous instead of horny 
(as in heros, triseriata and duplicata). A northern 
species very rare in Xew Jersey. 

Sinum perspectivum Say (Ear Shell) 

(Sigaretus perspectivus Say) 


A flat ear-shaped shell which is really a modi- 
fied Natica. Common on southern beaches but only 
a few have been found in New Jersey (Atlantic 
City, Wildwood, Two Mile Beach and Cape May); 
some of these may be fossils. 

Crepidula fornicata Liiine (Boat Shell; Slipper 

Limpet ) 


One of the most easily recognized shells of the 
Xew Jersey beaches. The top of the shell is pointed 
and the spire is merely an inconspicuous apex closely 
pressed against the shell. The top part of the shell 
is rounded giving it a boat-like appearance. A 
shelf covering the upper part of the aperture 


1. Fulgur canaliculata Linne 

2. Fulgur perversa Linne 

3. Fulgur carica Gmelin 

4. Cyprina islandica Linne 

5. Venus mercenaria Linne 

6. Mya arenaria Linne 

7. Marginella guttata Dillwyn 

8. Corbula contracta Say 

9. Venericardia tridentata Say 

10. Modiolus demissus Dillwyn 

11. Modiolus modiolus Linne 

12. Mytilus recurvus Eafinesque 



corresponds to the forecastle of the ship. The color 
is white frequently with brown markings. 

These shells are found attached to other shells, 
stones, and often to each other; most frequent 
on shells inhabited by hermit crabs. Very large 
boat shells are sometimes found attached to King 
Crabs and occasionally to Bine Crabs. 

Variable in shape because of the object to which 
they are attached. Very common all along the New 
Jersey coast from tide pools to at least 25 fathoms; 
ransre: Prince Edward Island to the West Indies. 

Crepidula plana Say (Flat Boat Shell; White 

Boat Shell) 


Shell white and flat with suppressed spire at the 
tip of the "bow"; The "stern" is square. Found 
on the inside of shells, frequently those inhabited 
by Hermit Crabs; occasionally on the outside of 
flat shells, such as the oyster. Similar distribution 
to the above. 

Crepidula convexa Say (Convex Boat Shell) 


Very convex; usually spotted brown in color; 
grows on pebbles or other objects suitable to its 
shape. Very abundant from Nova Scotia to 


Paludestrina minuta Totten 
(Rissoa minuta Totten) 

Fig. 28 D 

A small (i/4 inch) shell common in salt marsh 
pools and brackish waters froo James Bay and 
Labrador to New Jersey; often found on sea weed 
in New Jersey Inland Waterways. It can often be 
obtained by drying* masses of Sea Lettuce (Utva) 
and then shaking- it thoroughly and collecting the 
small shells that were adhering to it. 

Littorina litorea Linne (Periwinkle; Wrinkle) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 6 

This thick black shell is the most conspicuous 
member of the littoral marine fauna from Labrador 
to Long Island. It is said to have been accidently 
introduced into Nova Scotia from the Old World 
about 1863 and has since migrated north and south 
along the coast. It is usually associated with a 
rocky coast and is therefore not to be expected along 
the sandy shores of Xew Jersey. However, the 
rock breakwaters along the coast have in recent 
years afforded a habitat for this species and it is 
now firmly established at a number of places along 
the New Jersey coast. As far as is known, Cape 
May is the southermost point that the Periwinkle 
has yet been reported. 

In Great Britain and other European countries 
these periwinkles are used as food and are regarded 
as quite a delicacy. In Newfoundland, where they 
are known as "Wrinkles" they are also frequently 


Littorina irrorata Say (Salt Marsh Periwinkle) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 4 

Resembles L. litorea in general appearance but 
with a higher spire; usually white with a series 
of brown revolving lines or dots. Very common in 
New Jersey attached to Eel Grass or other salt 
marsh plants. It is usually found between tides 
or above high tide and lives in brackish or even 
almost fresh water. Known from Massachusetts 
to Texas, but is rare north of New Jersey and pos- 
sibly in some cases a recent addition either by 
migration or introduction with oysters. 

Littorina obtusata Linne 

(L. paliata Say) 

Fig. 28 B 

Small (% inch in length), low spired, usually 
olive in color, occasionally banded. Pound on sea 
weed and associated with L. litorea along the coast 
of New England. Rare in New Jersey but occasion- 
ally found in brackish water or associated with L. 
litorea on various rock jetties along the coast. Cape 
May appears to be its southern limit. 

Littorina saxatila Olivi 

(L. rudis Maton; L. groenlandica, Menke) 

Fig. 28 A 

About the same size as the above; the spire is 
higher and there are usually revolving bands; usu- 


ally white or olive in color. Similar habits as L. 
6btussaba\ known from Cape May, N. J. to Labrador 
and Hudson Bay. 

Lacuna vincta Montagu 

Fig. 28 C 

Shell less than % inch in length, usually purp- 
lish in color. The umbilicus forms a lengthened 
groove along the columella. A northern shell known 
from Labrador to New Jersey. It is frequently 
common on Sea Lettuce (Ulva) between the tides 
and in shallow water. It is inconspicuous on the 
living sea weed, and may best be found by drying 
some, and then shaking it to obtain the small shells 
that were adhering to the weed; often associated 
with Paludestrina minuta. Cape May is the southern 

Cerithiopsis subulata Montagu 
(C. emersoni Adams) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 9 

A small gastropod known from 2 to 15 fathoms 
between Massachusetts and the West Indies. Not 
seen alive in New Jersey waters, but occasionally 
found in the Pleistocene deposits or washed upon 
the beach. 


Triphora perversa nigrccincta C. B. Adams 

Fig. 28 H 

Shell black, about % inch long. This species is 
easily recognized because it is sinistral or left- 
handed — that is the whorls turn to the left and the 
opening- is on the left side. Cape Cod to Florida; 
rare in New Jersey. 

Bittium alternatum Say 

(B. nigrum Totten; Diastoma virginica Henderson & 

PLATE XX. Fig. 10 

A right handed shell about Vi? inch long; 
rounded aperture; often abundant in shallow water 
Massachusetts to North Carolina. 

Urosalpinx cinerea Say ( Oyster Drill ; Drill ; Borer ) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 8 

These gastropods bore small round holes in 
shells, pa idarly those of the young oyster. They 
are found in great numbers in Delaware Bay where 
they cause considerable damage to the beds in 
Maurice River Cove. They are especially abundant 
below low tide, although they may sometimes be seen 
alive on the exposed beach or mud flats. They are 
not as resistant to fresh water as the oyster and are 
therefore not common in the upper part of Delaware 
Bay and are rare above Fortesque. Drills are also 


common along the rest of the New Jersey coast. 
The species is known from Prince Edward Island 
to Florida, and is particularly abundant in Long 
Island Sound, Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay 
where it feeds on young' oysters. 

Eupleura caudata Say (Oyster Drill; Drill; Borer) 

Fig. 30 C 

Flatter in appearance than Urosalpinx but simi- 
lar to it in habits and distribution, although not 
nearly as common. Of some 10,000 borers taken 
from Delaware Bay by the New Jersey Oyster In- 
vestigation Laboratory in one season, 3% proved 
to be this species, the other 97% being Uroscdpinx. 

Thais floridana Conrad 

(Purpura haemastoma floridana Conrad) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 7 

Although not known alive north of North 
Carolina, the shell is occasionally found on New 
Jersey beaches where they have probably been 
washed from some fossil deposit. 

In southern waters where this species abounds, 
they cause considerable damage to oysters by drill- 
ing holes in the same manner as Uroscdpinx and 


i . Buccinum undatum Linne 

.. Colus gracilis Da Costa 

3. Neptunea stonei Pilsbry 

4. Littorina irrorata Say 

5. Nassa vibex Say 

6. Littorina litorea Linne 

7. Thais floridana Conrad 

8. Urosalpinx cinerea Say 

9. Cerithiopsis subulata Montagu 

10. Bittium alternatum Say 

11. Scalaria humphrysii Kiener 






Columbella avara Say 
( .1 na c/iis avara Say) 


A slender shell about Vi* inch long; upper 
whorls smooth, lower ones undulated; yellowish 
white in color. Fairly common in sandy associa- 
tions from 3 to 25 fathoms; not found in the inter- 
tidal zone or in the inland waterways. Known from 
Massachusetts to Florida. 

Columbella lunata Say 

(MUrella Janata Say; Astyris lunata Say) 

Fig. 28 E 

Less than y± inch in length; reddish brown 
with circular rows of white spots or "half moons". 
( /ommon on sea weed, etc. from low tide to 10 
fathoms or more, particularly abundant on the 
hryozoon Bugula turrita in a large area of 3 to 6 
fathoms depth off Wildwood and Cape May. 

Nassa obsoleta Say (Mud Snail) 

( Xa.ssai ias obsoleta Say ; Aleetrlon obsoleta Say) 

Fig. 30 A 

This small (1 inch) black snail is exceedingly 
abundant on mud Hats from between the tides to 
a lout L } fathoms, occasionally deeper; usually found 
in inlets or in brackish water, never in the open 
ocean; the mud fiats along Delaware Bay are almost 



Fig. 30 

(a) Nassa obsoleta; (b) Fissurella alternata; (c) Eupleura 

caudata; (d) Scalaria lineata 

literally covered with these snails. This species 
does not drill holes in oyster shells as does Urosalpinx 
and Eupleura but is a scavenger and eagerly devours 
dead animals of various kinds. 

The eggs, small white bodies, are common in 
May and June and may be found attached to sea 
weeds or floating plants. The species is known 
from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida; the mud 
flats of Xew Jersey are perhaps its favorite home. 


Nassa trivittata Say (Sand Flat Snail; White 

Mud Snail) 
( Nassarius trivittata Say; Tritia trivittata Say ; Alectrion 
trivittata Say) 


About the size of N. dbsoleta, but white and 
granulated in appearance. Common on sandy shores 
from just below low tide to fathoms; more common 
in the open ocean than in the inlets and bays al- 
though it is frequent in parts of Delaware Bay. 
Shells of this and the above species, often inhabited 
by Hermit Crabs are very abundant in tide pools 
and washed up on the beaches. Known from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to Florida. 

Nassa vibex Say (Southern Mud Snail) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 5 

This species is not common north of Cape 
Charles, Virginia. It has, however, been collected 
alive from the New Jersey coast and as far north 
as Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts. The shell is 
slightly smaller than the two preceding species and 
is white with brownish spots. It is very common 
in sandy bays along the Florida coast; known from 
the Pleistocene deposits of New Jersev. 





Fig. 31 
Neptunea decemcostata Say 

Buccinum undatum Linne 


PLATE XX. Fig. 1 

This large gastropod (2 to 3 inches long) is 
common on the coast of Newfoundland and along 
northern New England. Farther south it is re- 
stricted to deep water and off New Jersey is known 
only from 32 fathoms or deeper. Occasionally shells 
are found on the beach, some of which are probably 
fossils which lived during a part of the Pleistocene 
when the climate was cooler than the present — 
probably during a glacial stage. 

The peculiar egg masses of this species are 
common on northern beaches and are occasionally 


dredged in deep water off New Jersey or as far 
south as Ocean City, Maryland, the recorded south- 
ern limit of the species. 

Neptunea decemcostata Say 

Fig. 31 

A large shell decorated with ten revolving ribs; 
known from Nova Scotia to Massachusetts Bay. A 
few fossil specimens have been found on the New 
Jersey beaches; these, like the above species pro- 
bably lived off the New Jersey coast during Glacial 
times when the water was considerably cooler than 
it is to-dav. 

Neptunea stonei Pilsbry 
( ( 7/ rysodom us si one i Pilsbry ) 

PLATE XX. Fig. 3 

An extinct species that is occasionally picked 
up on the New Jersey beaches. It is known from 
Pleistocene deposits on Gardiners Island, N. Y., 
Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket, Massachusetts, 
and probably lived during or just before the last 
glaciation; rare and never found perfect. 


Colus gracilis DaCosta 

PLATE XX. Fig. 2 

Another northern species which probably lived 
in New Jersey waters (luring' the Glacial period; 
one fossil shell has been found on the beach at 
Asburv Park, N. J. 

Fig. 32 

Egg case of Conch (Fulgur) 

Fulgur carica Gmelin 
(Busycon caricum Gmelin) 

(Knobbed Conch 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 3 

The conchs are the largest gastropod shells 
north of Cape Hatteras. They may be seen crawling 
among the Eel Grass in shallow water or may be 


dredged from deep water; the shells are common 
on most beaches. The conch has a proboscis like 
an elephant's trunk, which it holds before it as it 
crawls about looking for food. 

The Knobbed Conch is the largest of the Conchs 
off the coast of New Jersey and adjacent states and 
may reach 9 inches in length. It may easily be 
identified by the wart-like knobs near the top of 
the shell. 

This conch as well as the two following species, 
is edible, but it is not extensively used along this 

The egg cases of this species are often found 
upon the beach (Figure 32). If one of the pockets 
of a mature case is opened, one will discover scores 
of minute "baby conch shells. ' ' 

Known from Cape Cod to Florida. 

Fulgur canaliculata Linne (Channeled Conch) 

(Busy con canalicidatum Linne.) 

PLATE XIX., Fig. 1 

This specie , . , lightly smaller than the above 
conch; instead of having knobs, the shoulder is 
flattened and there are deeply channeled sutures. 
Same distribution as the above. The egg case of 
this species differs from the above in that the 
margins of the capsules or pockets are thin and 
wedge-shaped rather than square and angular. 


Fulgur perversa Linne (Left-Handed Conch) 

{Busy con perversion Linne) 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 2 

Similar to the above species except that it is 
sinistral or "left-handed." In other words the 
opening is on the left instead of the right as in 
caricci and canaliculata. For this reason most people 
call it the "left-handed conch." However, accord- 
ing to some, this is a "right-handed" shell, whereas 
the other two species are "left-handed," because 
perversa is held in the right hand when used as a 
drinking cup and the other species are held in the 
left hand. This double meaning of the popular name 
has caused some rather amusing incidents among 

F. perversa is not known alive to-day north of 
Cape Hatteras. Nevertheless worn shells are oc- 
casionally found on the beaches as far north as New 
Jersey and occasionally southern New England. It 
is believed that these are fossil shells and that they 
were washed from some deposit of Pleistocene age. 
This species apparently lived in New Jersey waters 
during interglacial time, when the climate was some- 
what milder than that of the p^ it. 

Marginella guttata Dillwyn 

PLATE XIX. Fig. 7 

An attractive southern shell that has only re- 
cently been found in New Jersey waters; about an 
inch long and usually pink in color. 


Terebra dislocata Say (Spiral; Staircase Shell) 


A spiral shell up to 2 inches long; numerous 
minute radiating- lines; prominently ribbed with 
numerous revolving grooves. 

Although this species is not known alive north 
of North Carolina (or possibly Maryland), shells 
are occasionally found on the New Jersey beaches. 
The species is frequent in the Pleistocene (inter- 
glacial) deposits and it is probable that the beach 
shells were transported from some such deposit. 

Terebra concava Say 

PLATE XVIII. Fig. 8, 9 

Distinguished from the above because the 
radiating lines or nodules do not extend across the 
grooves. Similar distribution as T. dislocata but not 
quite as common in the Pleistocene of New Jersey. 

Mangelia cerina Kurtz and Stimpson 

This small species, although reported from 
Massachusetts to Florida in 3 to 10 fathoms, has 
not been found alive in New Jersey waters; known 
from the Pleistocene (interglacial) deposits at Two 
Mile Beach. 


Mangelia plicosa C. B. Adams 

Bailee similar to that of the above; not found 
alive in New Jersey although present in the Pleisto- 
cene (interg'lacial) deposits at Two Mile Beach and 

Acteocina canaliculata Say 
(Tornatina canaliculata Say) 

Fig. 28 J 

A small (% inch) white shell occasionally 
found on sea weed or dredged in shallow water be- 
tween Prince Edward Island and Florida. 

Melampus lineatus Say (Salt Marsh Snail; 

(M. bidentatus Montagu) Coffee Snail) 


A small brown pulmonate (air breathing) snail 
that is always found near salt water; almost always 
found above high tide line; since, contrary to most 
marine snails, it is air breathing, it seldom is found 
in the water, although it has been found on some 
mussels (Mytilus edulis) submerged between the 


The name Cephalopoda means head-footed and 
was applied to this group of mollusks, because the 


foot is partly fused with the head above the eyes 
and around the mouth. 

Except for the Nautilus and one or two others, 
the animals of this group do not possess an external 
shell. The shell is internal and very much modified. 
The common squid (Loligo pealei) has a horny struct- 
ure known as the pen which is really a modified inter- 
nal shell. The Squid of the Mediterranean (Sepia) 
has a hard pen known as the cuttle bone, of which 
the canary birds are so fond. 

In former geological ages, Cephalopods were 
much more abundant than at present and their 
fossil remains are often abundant in the rocks. Many 
reached a great size, either elongate such as the 
modern squid, or coiled like the Nautilus. Pens of 
BellemnitelJa americana are abundant in the Cretace- 
ous deposits of New Jersey and elsewhere on the 
Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. 

Loligo pealei Leseur (Squid) 

Fig. 33 

Body cylindrical, about 8 inches long, tapering 
to a point; terminal fins about half as long as the 
body. The internal shell or pen is as long as the 
main part of the animal; conspicuous eyes equipped 
with a cornea. 

The squid resembles a submarine boat. Its 
method of locomotion is rather unique. It squirts 
a stream of water from a little tube near its neck; 
if it squirts forward, the animal moves backward. 
The squid, therefore, is the Rocket Animal of the 


Fig. 33 
Loligo pealei Leseur 

sea. It can move just as rapidly in either direction. 

The pen acts as a sort of backbone to support 
the soft parts of the body. This pen is really the 
shell of the animal, which has become very much 
modified and is entirely within the body of the 

If the squid is in danger, it will discharge a 
great quantity of a black fluid out of its mouth, 
which acts like a smoke screen and enables it to 
escape. This fluid is India ink. 

The squid is often caught off the Xew Jersey 
coast for use as bait, It is usually found in the open 
ocean and rarely comes within a mile or so of shore. 

Its eggs are laid in elongate jelly-like masses 
about 3 inches long which form large clusters on 
stones or other submerged objects. Thousands of 
minute squid can sometimes be seen in one of these 
masses which occasionally wash ashore in the early 

In some countries the squid is considered quite 
a delicacy, but it is seldom eaten in the United 


Ommastrephes illecebrosus Lesueur (Sea Arrow; 

Flying Squid) 

Similar to the above but with fins only half as 
Long as the trunk and with eyes not equipped with a 
cornea. A more northern species which usually 
lives farther from shore than Loligo. Known from 
New Jersey to the Bay of Fundy. 

Rossia sublaevis Verrill 

About 2 inches in length with fins near the 
middle of the body; pen small. 

A northern species not hitherto reported south 
of Cape Cod. Occasionally seen in New Jersey 
waters especially during the winter. 

Octopus sp. (Octopus) 

The octopus has been reported from New Jersey 
waters but its presence has not been verified. It 
resembles a squid but has a much larger head, pro- 
portionally, and possesses eight arms which are 
equipped with suckers. 

The terrifying stories about the tropical octopus 
do not apply to those individuals from New Jersey 
and vicinity. If it does occur in New Jersey, the 
specimens would be small and entirely harmless 
and might easily be confused with the common 

Chapter Twelve 












(Mysids; Opossum Shrimp) 


(Amphipods; Beach Fleas; Scuds; etc.) 



(Shrimps, Lobsters, Crabs, etc.) 



To this group belong a great many very minute 
forms which are of great importance because they 
form a large part of the food of many fishes. Many 
copepods live on the surface of the sea and may be 
collected by means of a "tow net" or "plankton 
net," usually made of fine silk or bolting cloth to the 
end of which is attached a small bottle. This net 
is dragged behind a slowly moving boat and these 
minute creatures are gathered by the net and con- 
centrated in the bottle. Small jellyfish and other 
plankton or floating animals are obtained in the 
same way. Many more species of copepods live in 
the sand along beaches and off-shore bars. 

In addition to the great many free living cope- 
pods, there are numerous species that are para- 
sitic on fishes and other sea animals. 

The copepods are too minute to be seen by the 



average collector, or if seen the species are very 
difficult to determine. Therefore they are not 
treated in this book. 

Other minute Crustacea often obtained by a tow 
net, which are not discussed in this book, are the 
Cladocera (Water fleas), Ostracoda and Cumacea. 



Barnacles were for a long time classified with 
the Mollusca (shell-fish) and it was not until their 
life history was studied that their position within 
the group Crustacea was fully recognized. 

When young, the barnacle is a minute free- 
swimming animal with one eye, three pairs of legs 
and a single shell. It grows and moults in the 
manner of an insect until it has two eyes, six pairs 
of legs and two shells. Then it attaches itself to 
some solid object and completely changes its ap- 
pearance. The bivalve shell disappears and it 
develops a new shell made up of various plates. The 
legs become modified to "cirripeds" — meaning 
curled legs — giving the name to the order. These 
legs are feather-like and, when extended, are con- 
stantly waving, thus creating a current which carries 
food to the mouth of the barnacle. These legs are 
withdrawn within the shell when the animal is 

Some barnacles are sessile, attaching themselves 
directly to some solid object; others are stalked. 
Many barnacles attach themselves to ships and often 
occur in such great numbers as seriously to diminish 
the speed of the vessel. 


Lepas anatifera Linne (Goose Barnacle) 


On fleshy stalk which is about as long as the 
shell of the barnacle (1 inch); shell smooth and 
white. Attaches to ships, driftwood, etc., and is of 
worldwide distribution. Periodic along the New 
Jersey coast and when present is apt to be exceeding- 
ly abundant, for example, late in the summer of 
1931 when the Jersey beaches were covered with 
driftwood to which this barnacle was attached. 

There is an old tradition that these shells, which 
somewhat resemble eggs, hatched into geese — hence 
the common name Goose Barnacle. 

Balanus balanoides Linne (Rock Barnacle) 


Very common on rocks between the tides ; grows 
abundantly on the rocky coast of New England; 
south of Long Island it is found only where rock 
jetties have been built; it is attached to the rock 
by its membraneous base, known as far south as 
Cape Charles, Virginia. 

Balanus eburneus Gould (Ivory Barnacle) 


Found at or below low tide, especially on wood- 
work; frequently found inside large shells and 
occasionally on the back of King Crabs; young bar- 
nacles are sometimes found on sea weed; easily 


Lepas anatifera Linne 


distinguished from the above by its shelly base. 
Range: Massachusetts to South America in shallow 
water; extends into brackish and almost fresh 

Balanus crenatus Bruguiere 

A white barnacle, usually rougher in appear- 
ance than B. ebumeus and with a somewhat thinner 
calcareous base; about 1 inch wide and up to IV2 
inches high, although usually less. 

Common on rocks and stones from Long Island 
Sound northward; rare in New Jersey, although 
occasionally found as far south as Cape May. 

Balanus amphitrite niveus Darwin 

Resembles B. crenatus with which it may easily 
be confused; it may, however, be differentiated by 
its smaller size and by the fact that its base is 
porous, whereas in crenatus it is not, and also by the 
fact that there is a fairly well marked ridge on the 
scutum (plate of the shell). Rarely reaches more 
than % inch in diameter. 

Grows on wood etc. from Cape Cod to Florida. 
Not common in New Jersev. 

Chelonobia testudinaria Linne (Turtle Barnacle) 

Fig. 34 

A large white barnacle that lives attached to 
the shells of Sea Turtles. 


W r ± 

&- Iff ,^A ? 

Balanus balanoides Linne 






* ' y.^Zt-' 


Balanus eburneus Gould 



Fig. 34 
Chelonobia testudinoria Linne 

Platylepas hexastylos Fabricius 

Fig. 35 

Lives on the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas 
Linne). Noted at Cape May, New Jersey and Chinco- 
teague, Virginia. 

Coronula diadema Linne 

Fig. 36 

(Whale Barnacle) 

A crown-shaped barnacle that attaches itself +o 
the back of whales; known in New Jersey from 
whales off Sandy Hook and from a broken piece 
washed on the beach at Cape May. 

Fig. 35 
Platylepas hexastylas Fabricius on skull of Green Turtle 

Fig. 36 
Coronula diadema Linne 



These are small, elongate Crustacea usually less 
than an inch in length. The appendages of the 
thorax (head region) are branched (biramous) — 
hence the name Schizopoda (meaning cleft-footed) 
by which these animals were formerly called. No 
gills present. 

Numerous species are known from our coast, 
although only one is common in New Jersey. 

Mysis americana Smith (Opossum Shrimp) 

About half an inch in length, translucent with 
prominent eyes. Particularly common in winter 
and early spring on the surface of shallow water, 
especially in Delaware Bay. These small animals 
form an important part of the food supply of many 
of our food fishes. 

In this species the eggs are carried in pouches 
under the thorax, giving the common name "Opos- 
sum shrimp." 


These shrimp-like crustaceans were formerly 
grouped with the Mysidacea in the Order Schizopoda 
because in common with them the thoracic append- 
ages are biramous. However, they differ from the 
Mysidacea in having gills attached to the thoracic 
legs. They are considered as of much higher degree 
of development and are classified nearer the decapod 


Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars 

A small shrimp-like form, frequently luminous, 
that forms an important part of the plankton of the 
North Atlantic. The only New Jersey records are 
from a considerable distance off shore. The species 
may occur at times in the coastal waters of the state. 


This group comprises mostly small, and usually 
laterally compressed crustaceans, covered with a 
shiny, segmented cuticle. There are usually seven 
thoracic legs, and seven abdominal appendages. 
The first three abdominal appendages are the plio- 
pods or sircurmerets, the next three the uropods, 
and the last the telson, which is sometimes fused 
with the last abdominal segment, Gills or branchial 
vesicles are usually present on the inside base of 
the last six legs. The various appendages are im- 
portant in the differentiation of the various species. 
While most species, including all the Xew Jersey 
forms, rarely exceed an inch or two in length, there 
are a few known from the deeper ocean waters that 
reach a length of about 5% inches. 

A few Amphipods hop about on the sandy 
beaches, but by far the greater number live in tide 
pools, the shallow water close to shore, and in the 
off-shore waters of the ocean. 

The following are the most conspicuous species 
to be found in our region. 


1. Talorchestia longicornis Say 

2. Talorchestia megalopthalma Bate 

3. Gammarus locusta Linne 

4. Orchestia planensis Kroyer 

5. Orchestia grillus Bosc 

6. Cerapus tubularis Say 

7. Caprella auctifrons Latreille 

8. Ancinus depressus Say 

9. Cirolina concharum Stimpson 

10. Livoneca ovalis Say 

11. Idotea balthica Pallas 

12. Limnoria lignorum Ratlike 


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Orchestia platensis Kroyer (Beach Flea) 

(0. agilis Smith) 


Small, % inch or less in length, light brown 
in color; occurs in great numbers among moist sea- 
weed washed on the beach near high water mark; 
jumps out rapidly when disturbed. Found along 
the whole coast. 

Orchestia grillus Bosc 
(0. palustrus Smith) 


Larger than the above (about 1 inch in length), 
with longer first antennae; light brown in color, 
Found among grass in salt marshes; does not hop 
about as much as the above. Cape Cod to Texas. 

Talorchestia longicornis Say 

(Talitras longicornis Say) 


Resembles Orchestia agilis, except for being 
whitish in color; about 1 inch in length; long an- 
tennae. Lives in small burrows near and above high 
water mark, usually farther from the water than 
the home of 0. agilis; hops about the sand particular- 
ly at night. Cape Cod to New Jersey. 


Talorchestia megalopthalma Bate 
(Talitrus megalopthalmns Bate) 


Similar in habits to the above; distinguished 
by its shorter antennae and very large eyes; not 
nearly as common. Maine to New Jersey. 

Gammarus locusta Linne (Scud) 


Resembles the beach fleas in general appearance 
but is usually larger and lives exclusively in water; 
very common among seaweed, under stones, etc., in 
shallow water. Arctic to Virginia and probably 

Cerapus tubularis Say (Tube Scud; Tube Shrimp) 


This animal lives in a small tube which it carries 
about with it. Often very abundant in New Jersey 
coastal waters. 

Caprella auctifrons Latreille (Skeleton Shrimp) 
(C. geometrica Say) 


Very slender; walks like the measuring worm. 
Common on oyster shells in Delaware Bay and in 
shallow water in general throughout the state. 



Isopods differ from Amphipods in that their 
bodies are flattened dorso-ventrally instead of 
laterally. In other words, they are flattened on 
top and bottom. The two groups resemble each 
other in size and in many details of anatomy. As in 
the Amphipods there are 6 or 7 pairs of legs. 

Some species of Isopoda may be found among 
seaweed, under rocks or among woodwork in the 
intertidal zone, while others swim in the sea either 
on the surface or at considerable depths. A large 
number of species are parasitic. 

The following are the most frequently en- 
countered species of this region. 

Idotea balthica Pallas 
(/. marina Linne) 

PLATE XXIV. Fig. 11 

The commonest New Jersey isopod; a greenish 
form about 1 inch long; exceedingly abundant in 
tide pools and among seaweed in shallow water. 
It has also been found on the surface of the ocean 
many miles off shore. Common from Delaware 
northward; local farther south. 

Livoneca ovalis Say (Sea Louse) 

PLATE XXIV. Fig. 10 

Parasitic on the gills of numerous fish caught 
along the New Jersey coast. 


Cirolina concharum Stimpson 


Very common in New Jersey waters in winter; 
free swimming" or parasitic. 

Limnoria lignorum Rathke (Gribble) 

PLATE XXIV. Fig. 12 

A small form, 1/5 inch in length that bores into 
wood doing considerable damage to piling, etc. The 
animal is covered with minnte hairs. In New Jersey 
it is present from low water mark to about 10 
fathoms, more frequent near shore. 

Ancinus depressus Say 


This species was originally described from Egg 
Harbor (Bay) by Thomas Say in 1818. It was not 
collected again until very recently. It is now known 
to be common along the New Jersey and Delaware 
coasts and probably occurs elsewhere along the 
Atlantic seaboard. 


These animals are elongate and somewhat re- 
semble the lobster, although the abdomen is longer 
in proportion and the legs are very different. Be- 
cause of their peculiarly formed chelipeds, or great 



claws, which resemble those of the praying mantis 
of our gardens, they are commonly called mantis 
shrimp. The carapace or shell is softer and does 
not cover the entire thorax (head and neck region). 
The gills are on the abdominal appendages. Only 
one species is known from New Jersey. A few 
closely related forms are known from more southern 

Fig. 37 
Chloridella empusa Say 

Chloridella empusa Say 

(Squilla empusa Say) 

(Squill; Mantis Shrimp) 

Fig. 37 

This stomatopod is rarely seen in New Jersey 
waters during the summer, but sometimes is very 
conspicuous during October and November in 
shallow water or stranded on the beach, particularly 
in the southern part of the state. It is horny, brown 


in color, and from 8 to 10 inches in length. Known 
from Cape Cod to Florida, especially in muddy 


(Crabs, Shrimp, Lobsters, etc.) 

The decapods are the most conspicuous group 
of Crustacea. To this group belong the crabs, lob- 
sters, shrimp and other related forms. When adult 
there are five pairs of legs of which the first pair, 
in crabs at least, forms conspicuous claws or chelae. 
(The name decapoda means ten legs.) The head 
and thorax (neck region) are united into a cephalo- 
thorax which is covered by a chitinous or calcareous 
shell or carapace. The eyes are on stalks. 

Many decapods are of economic importance 
because of their food value. Shrimp, lobsters and 
crabs are gathered for the market along the Eastern 
seaboard. The Spiny Lobster (Palinuriis argus) is 
found along the Florida coast and is equally deli- 
cious as the nothern lobster (Homarus americanus). 
Crawfish, inhabitants of fresh and brackish water 
are also frequently eaten, especially in the South. 
In Cuba they are known as "langustina" and are 
considered a delicacy. 

The following is the current classification of 
the Decapoda: 


Usually with well developed abdomen and com- 
pressed cephalothorax. Shrimp. 



Lobster and crab-like forms; divided into four 
groups : 

1. PaUnura: Abdomen extended; rostrum short 
or wanting; cheliped (large claw) absent. Not 
represented in this region — Spiny Lobster. 

2. Astacura: Abdomen extended; rostrum short; 

cheliped present. Lobster. 

3. Anomura: Abdomen usually bent under cephalo- 

thorax or more or less spirally twisted and con- 
cealed in a shell; last pair of thorasic legs re- 
duced in size and extended upwards. Hermit 
Crabs, Hippa, etc. 

4. Brachyura'. Abdomen shorter than cephalothorax 

and permanently folded under it; no uropod 
(tail fin). True Crabs. 

According to older classification the two divi- 
sions were Macrura and Brachyura — the former in- 
cluding the shrimp, lobsters, hermit crabs and the 
like, while the latter included the true crabs. The 
term Macrura is not used today while the term 
Brachyura is still used for the crabs but is a sub- 
division of Reptantia. 


(True Shrimp) 

Crago septemspinosus Say . (Shrimp) 

(Crago vulgaris Verrill) 

Fig. 39 

The common shrimp of the New Jersey coast. 
It occurs in great numbers in shallow water from 



Fig. 39 

(i) Penaeus setiferus Linne (2) Crago septemspinosus Say 

Labrador to South Carolina. Usually pale in color, 
occasionally speckled or gray. This shrimp rarely 
exceeds 2 1 /L > inches in length and is too small to be 
used to any extent as food by man although it is 
devoured by fish and other sea animals. 



Fig. 38 
Palaemonetes vulgaris Say 

Palaemonetes vulgaris Say 

Fig. 38 

(Prawn; Shrimp) 

Usually slightly smaller than Crago and more 
.translucent and almost colorless. It differs from 
Crago also by its longer rostrum and by having its 
first two pairs of legs chelate (equipped with forcep- 
like pincers) whereas in Crago the first pair is very 
stout and subchelate. An inhabitant of brackish 
water and muddy associations rather than the open 
ocean with Crago. Known from Massachusetts to 
Florida and along the Gulf Coast. 

Palaemontes carolinus Stimpson 

Occurs with the above but very much rarer. 
This species is exceedingly difficult to distinguish 
from P. vulgaris and has the same distribution. The 
following key from Kemp x will help the student 
differentiate these two species: 

Outer antennular flagellum with free part of 
shorter ramus very little longer than fused part. 

1. Records of Indian Museum, vol. 27, pt. 4, p. 317. 


1 tooth on carapace behind orbit; carpus of second 

leg longer than palm and half fingers carolinus. 

Outer antennular flagellum with free part of 
shorter ramus IV2 times as long as fused part; 2 
teeth generally present in carapace behind orbit; 
carpus of second leg not longer than palm in adult 
female, in male not longer than palm and 1/3 of 
fingers vulgaris. 

Penaeus setiferus Linne (Southern Shrimp) 

Fig. 39 

This is the common shrimp of southern waters 
and is highly valued as food. Although it does not 
not occur in commercial numbers north of Chesa- 
peake Bay, it is occasionally found in New Jersey 
waters. When full grown it normally reaches about 
6 inches in length; some abnormally large individ- 
uals have been taken from New Jersey waters, one 
measuring 11 inches. 

Penaeus brasiliensis Latreille (Brazilian Shrimp 

or Prawn) 

Differs from the above by having a groove on 
each side of the ridge which runs through the center 
and whole length of the carapace. Much rarer than 
the above and not seen in New Jersey for many 
years; frequents brackish and fresh water along the 
southern coast. Of less commercial value because 
it cannot be shipped in a fresh condition. 



Fig. 40 
Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards 


1. Astacura 

Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards (Lobster) 

Fig. 40 

The common Lobster of the North Atlantic 
Coast which is known from Labrador to Delaware 
and locally farther south. In the northern part of 
New Jersey lobsters are taken near shore, but in the 
Cape May region they are confined to the colder 
water farther off shore. 

Some years ago lobsters were "planted" on the 
Rock Pile at Cape May, but none are present there 
today. They are fairly numerous among the rocks 
at the Breakwater at Lewes, Delaware. 


2. An omnia 

Upogebia affinis Say (Mud Lobster) 

Light brown in color and somewhat resembling 
a lobster; integument thin and hairy; lives along 
muddy shores where it digs burrows near low water 
mark. Known from Massachusetts southward; not 
common in New Jersey. 

Emerita talpoida Say (Sand Bug; Hippa) 

(Hip pa talpoida Say) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 6 

Body egg shaped, white with two conspicuous 
plume-like antennae which strain the water for 
micro-organisms which it uses as food. 

Very abundant on all sandy beaches of the state. 
It may be seen burrowing rapidly into the sand, 
head first, as the waves break upon the beach. Often 
hundreds of these little Sand Bugs may be seen in 
tide pools. In late summer and early fall young 
Hippas are very numerous. Known from Cape Cod 
to Florida. 

Pagarus longicarpus Say (Small Hermit Crab) 

This crustacean differs from those we have just 
seen in that its hind end or abdomen is not protected 
with a hard covering. It, therefore, must find some 
means of defending itself from any enemy that might 
attack its soft and defenceless abdomen, so it steals 


1. Cancer irroratus Say 

2. Ovalipes ocellatus Herbst 

3. Planes minutus Linne 

4. Calappa flammea Herbst 

5. Persephona punctata Linne 

6. Emerita talpoida Say 

7. Pinnixia chaetopterana Stimpson 

8. Pinnotheres ostreum Say 

9. Pagurus pollicaris Stimpson 

11. Sesarma reticulatum Say 



the shell of a sea snail and inserts its abdomen there- 
in. These hermit crabs move about very rapidly, 
carrying' their "houses" on their backs. 

As the hermit grows, his house becomes too 
small for him, and it is necessary for him to seek a 
new one. The hermit often encounters trouble in 
this home-seeking task, for two crabs may choose 
the same house ; as a consequence, there is a fight and 
the victor takes the house while the loser is forced 
to continue his search elsewhere. At times a home- 
less hermit crab may attack and dispossess another 
crab which happens to have a desirable home. 

These crabs are very abundant on the bottom of 
the ocean off the New Jersey coast; they are also 
frequently found in tide pools along the beach. It 
is amusing to collect some and watch their antics in 
a small glass dish or aquarium. 

This species usually inhabits shells of Nassa, 
Urosalpinx, Eupleura or other small gastropods. The 
shells are frequently covered with the hydroid 
Hydrad in ia echlnata. 

Very common Massachusetts to Florida. 

Pagurus pollicaris Say (Big Hermit Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 9, 10 

Larger than the above and with broader hands ; 
usually bright in color and covered with hairs. In- 
habits shells of Fulgur and Polinices. Common with 
the above, but more apt to be found off shore, al- 
though frequently found stranded on the beach. 
Like the above they are often covered with Hydrac- 
tinia. Common from Massachusetts to Florida. 


3. Brachyura 

Libinia emarginata Leach (Spider Crab; Sea 



The common Spider Crab of the New Jersey 
coast; very common on sandy and muddy grounds 
from shallow water to 25 fathoms, rarely deeper; 
found in bays and inlets as well as in the open ocean. 
The carapace of the Spider Crab is often covered 
with hydroids, sponges or algae which serve to mask 
the crab and make it invisible to its enemies. The 
median line of the carapace has about nine spines. 
Known from Maine to Florida. Of no commercial 
value. Sometimes reaches a foot or more in size, 
usually smaller. 

Different from the Blue Crab (CaUinectes sapi- 
dus) in that the claws of this crab are not at all 
sharp and one may pick it up without danger. 

The Spider Crab occasionally lives as a com- 
mensal within a jelly-fish. 

Libinia dubia Milne-Edwards (Spider Crab) 

Six median spines instead of nine and with a 
longer rostrum (beak); similar habits to the above. 
Not as common. 

Hyas coarctataus Leach (Toad Crab) 

The affinities of this to the Spider Crabs are 
obvious, but it strongly resembles a toad. A north- 
ern species not seen in New Jersey since Leicly 


1. Callinectes sapidus Kathbun 

2. Libinia emarginata Leach 

3. Portunus gibbesii Stimpson 

4. Portunus spinimanus Latreille 

5. Ocypoda albicans Bosc 

6. Arenaeus cribarius Lamarck 



recorded it in 1855; not uncommon along the New 
England coast. 

Calappa flammea Herbst (Box Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 4 

A buff or light purple crab of southern distri- 
bution which is fairly common from Cape Hatteras 
to Florida. The larval stages occasionally drift as 
far north as New Jersey or southern New England. 
Rarely, one survives a mild winter and is found, 
as an adult, at one of the Jersey beaches. Seen at 
Corsons Inlet and Cape May Point, New Jersey. 

Neopanope texana sayi Smith (Southern Mud 



Carapace quite convex with a dentate anterior 
border; 3/5 as long as broad; usually a dark slaty 
bluish green. 

Very common on the oyster grounds of Delaware 
Bay and generally distributed in shallow muddy 
water throughout the state. Massachusetts to 

Eurypanopeus depressus Smith (Flat Mud Crab) 


Similar to the above with a flatter carapace. 
In similar localities to the above but less common: 
Cape Cod to Gulf of Mexico. 


Eupanopeus herbstii Milne-Edwards (Mud Crab) 


Larger than the above two species (up to 2 
inches) ; carapace with a dentate anterior border 
and with a tubercle just beneath the first tooth; the 
larger claw has a tubercle at the base of the movable 
segment; terminal abdominal segment of the male 
rounded. Gray with black fingers. 

With the above three species but not common; 
Long Island to Florida, more common south of 

Rithropanopeus harrisii Gould (Brackish Water 

Mud Crab) 


Smaller than E. herbstii (less than 1 inch); dull 
brown or gray with fingers pale. 

Frequents brackish water and salt marshes; 
known from Dennis Creek, New Jersey, and Mis- 
pillion River, Delaware, and can probably be found 
in similar habitats elsewhere in the region. Known 
from Massachusetts to Florida. 

Eurytium limosum Say 


Differs from the above four species by being 
more oval and having a nearly smooth carapace 
with ridges; bright purple-blue in color. A tropical 
crab known as far north as New York, but very rare 
north of South Carolina. Some specimens were ob- 
tained many years ago from the New Jersey coast. 


1. Neopanope texana sayi Smith 

2. Rithropanopeus harrisii Gould 

3. Eurypanopeus depressus Smith 

4. Eupanopeus herbstii Milne-Edwards 

5. Uca pugilator Bosc 

6. Uca minax Le Conte 

7. Eurytium limosum Say 

8. Pinnotheres maculatus Say 



Fig. 41 
Carcinides maenas Linne 

Carcinides maenas Linne 

(Green Crab) 

Fig. 41 

About 2 inches long, slightly wider; character- 
ized by five prominent teeth on. each side of the cara- 
pace; color greenish with yellow spots above, paler 

Principally a New England crab living in the 
rock pools between the tides and in shallow water. 
The southern limit appears to be South Carolina, 
but it is rare south of Delaware Bay. In New Jersey 
it frequents tide pools and shallow water and is 
usually more common during the colder months. 


Callinectes sapidus Bathbun (Blue Crab) 


This crab is probably familiar to everyone be- 
cause it is very frequently used as food. It lives 
in muddy regions all along the coast of New Jersey 
and is particularly abundant in bays and harbors. 
Summer visitors to the New Jersey often go crab- 
bing from the ends of piers or from row boats in 
the shallow bays. 

It has a hard shell and five pairs of legs. The 
front pair of legs is larger than the rest and is 
equipped with nipper-like claws. These are used 
in defence from enemies and in obtaining food. 
These claws are very sharp and can inflict an ex- 
tremely painful wound. The next three pairs of 
legs are smaller and pointed at the tips and are 
used for walking along the sea bottom. The fifth 
pair of legs has rounded paddle-like structures at 
the ends which are used by the crab as oars or 
paddles when it swims through the water. As the 
crab grows, the hard blue shell does not grow 
with it; in the course of time the shell becomes too 
tight for the growing crab; so the shell splits, and 
the crab crawls out with a new soft shell of the 
proper size upon its body. This crab, which we call 
a soft shelled crab, makes especially delicious food. 
After a time the soft shell hardens and the story 
is repeated. This process is called moulting, and is 
the same thing that happens to a great many in- 

Common from Cape Cod to Florida. 


Callinectes ornatus Ordway 

Closely resembles C. sapidus, but distinguished 
from it by having six front teeth instead of four. 

This crab has not hitherto been reported north 
of Beaufort, North Carolina. However, the young 
of this species now frequently occur in small num- 
bers during the summer in southern New Jersey. 
They may be looked for in the inlets and thorough- 
fares, although they have also been found in Dela- 
ware Bay (to 10 fathoms). No adult specimens have 
been seen in New Jersey or Beaufort ; in New Jersey 
it never reaches over 2 inches in length. The adults 
are common from South Carolina to the West Indies 
and in South America. Its nip is said to be more 
painful than that of C. sapidus. 

Arenaeus cribarius Lamarck 


Resembles a young Callinectes but easily disting- 
uished from it by its color and design. It is light 
brown or olive and is thickly covered with small 
rounded white spots; it rarely reaches a length of 
more than 2 inches. This is a southern species that 
is rare north of Virginia. Its home is the deeper 
water off shore but it is frequently carried to the 
coastal waters or stranded on the beach. It has been 
seen as far north as Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts. 


Portunus gibbesii Stimpson 


Resembles CaUinertes but thickly covered with 
small spherical granules; arms long and slender; 
color reddish brown with small iridescent areas on 
the carapace (shell); usually about 2 to 3 inches 

Known from Massachusetts to Texas, usually 
in moderately deep water; very rare in New Jersey. 

Portunus spinimanus Latreille 


Resembles P. gibbesii but distinguished from it 
by being narrower and rounder and by the absence 
of the iridescent patches characteristic of gibbesii. 
Yellow-brown or red-brown in color; usually about 
2 to 3 inches wide. 

Known from New Jersey to South America; 
rare and usually in moderately deep water. Speci- 
mens dredged in Delaware Bay mark a new northern 
limit for this species. 

Ovalipes ocellatus Herbst (Lady Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 2 

Easily recognized by its shape and color; 
white or cream shell covered with small reddish- 
brown rings; 2 to 3 inches in width ; five teeth on each 
side with three between the eves. 


Very common on sandy ground from between 
the tides to 20 fathoms or more. It can often be 
found at low tide on sandy beaches buried in the 
sand up to its eyes; here the crab waits for its prey. 
Having seen something promising, it quickly comes 
from its hiding place, takes a nip with its very 
sharp claws, and immediately retreats beneath the 
sand. Often a bather's toe is the subject of such 
an attack. 

Occasionally used as food in the South; Range: 
Cape Cod to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Cancer irroratus Say (Rock Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 1 

Sub-oval, broader than long; average size 3 to 
4 inches; carapace smooth with nine blunt teeth on 
each side. Color yellowish closely spotted with red- 
brown dots. 

Common along the rocky shores of New England 
from shallow water to about 25 fathoms; fairly 
common in shallow water along the New Jersey 
coast, but rare south of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, 
although reported as far as South Carolina. 

Occasionally used as food, but not prized as 
much as CaUinectes sapidus. 

Cancer borealis Stimpson (Jonah Crab) 

Very similar to the above but usually larger 
and with a rougher carapace with irregular gran- 
ules; the teeth of the lateral margins have denti- 
culate edges. 


Common on the rocky shores of New England 
in shallow and deep water Not frequent in New 
Jersey, although occasionally seen with the more 
common C. irroratus, especially in the northern part 
of the State. Rare south of New Jersey but found in 
deep water as far south as Florida. 

Pinnotheres ostreum Say (Oyster Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 8 

Carapace nearly circular, somewhat membrane- 
ous; surface smooth and white; rarely more than 
% inch across the carapace (female). The females 
live as commensals in the mantle cavity of oysters; 
the males are very minute and are free swimming. 

The females are frequently found in oysters 
taken from New Jersey waters, and in fact, are 
eaten with the oysters; the males are seldom seen. 
Known from Massachusetts to Florida and the West 

Pinnotheres maculatus Say (Mussel Crab) 


Carapace slightly firmer than the above and 
covered with a hairy growth; females about the 
size of the above; males smaller than the females, 
but not as small as the males of P. ostreum. Females 
commensal in the shells of the Mussel (Mytilus edulis) 
or other bivalves; males either free swimming or 


Not as common as the above in New Jersey, 
although occasionally seen in Mussel shells. Similar 

Pinnixia chaetopterana Stimpson 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 7 

Carapace transversely oval; slightly more than 
twice as wide as long; hairy; length of carapace 5 
to 6 mm.; width 12 to 14 mm.; lives commensal in 
tubes of annelid worms (Amphitrite ornata and Chae- 
topterus permagmentareus) . Male and female about 
the same size but the carapace is smoother in the 

Found from Massachusetts to South America; 
not uncommon in New Jersey especially in tubes of 
Amphitrite; occasionally taken free swimming. 

'esarma reticulatum Say (Marsh Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 11 

Carapace rectangular; usually about 1 inch in 
width, slightly less in length; color dark olive or 

Lives in holes similar to those of the Fiddler 
Crab (Uca) although of larger size due to the greater 
size of the crab. Lives near high water mark in mud 
flats, inlets, etc. Not common in New Jersey al- 
though it may occasionally be seen associated with 


Uca, It is known from Massachusetts to Florida 
but is more common south of Virginia. 

Persephona punctata Linne (Purse Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 5 

An odd-looking- crab with a globular carapacc- 
thickly covered with granules; legs also with numer- 
ous granules; gray-brown; carapace about 1 to 1}4 
inches in length, the same in width. A southern 
species, common from Cape Hatteras southward. 
One specimen was taken from the Xew Jersey coast 
10 miles southeast of Barnegat Light. 

Planes minutus Linne (Gulf Weed Crab) 

PLATE XXV. Fig. 3 

Carapace rectangular, about as wide as long; 
usually smaller than Sesarma and easily recognized 
by its more brilliant color which is extremely vari- 
able. It is usually olive green blotched with ligh" 
greenish yellow or pale purple and with three sma) 
white spots on the front of the carapace. 

This is a pelagic crab that lives on floating Gulf 
Weed (Sargassum fili pendulum) throughout the 
whole length of the Gulf Stream. It has been carried 
at least twice to the New Jersey shore. H. L. Vier- 
eck found it at Cape May on September 20, 1904 
(Fowler) and the writer found it at Cape May 
Point on September 24, 1928, after the " Florida- 
Porto Eico Hurricane." It may be looked for after 
any severe storm. 


Uca pug-nax Smith (Marsh Fiddler Crab) 

This odd looking crab is often found in great 
numbers scurrying about the mud flats. The males 
all have one claw very much enlarged; this large 
claw is used for fighting and in defending the fe- 
males. The females have smaller claws of equal 
size. Fiddler crabs live in burrows in the mud just 
beyond the reach of the tide; upon the approach of 
danger they quickly disappear within their holes. 
The resemblance of the large claws of the male to 
a fiddle gives the name fiddler crab. Cape Cod to 

Uca pugilator Bosc (Sand Fiddler Crab^ 


Similar to the above except that the inner sur- 
face of the large claw (cheliped) does not have the 
oblique ridge which is present in U. pugnax. Its color 
also is different, the carapace being purplish gray 
with irregular markings of brown, dark gray or 

It is usually found in more sandy associations 
than U. pugnax, but is often seen associated with it. 
Habits and distribution similar to the above; not 
quite as common in New Jersey. 


Uca minax LeConte (Rod Jointed Fiddler Crab) 


Larger than the other Fiddlers and easily 
distinguished by the red marks at the joints of the 
ehelipeds (legs). 

It is found in marshes in brackish or almost 
fresh water. It digs holes, often as big as 2 inches 
in diameter, considerably above high tide line; it 
often builds an archway over the mouth of its bur- 
row, which it uses as an "outlook. " 

Common in the Delaware Bay region in Dennis 
Creek, Maurice River, etc., and in similar situations 
elsewhere in the state; known from Cape Cod to 

Ocypoda albicans Bosc (Sand Crab; Ghost Crab) 
(0. arenaria Say) 


Somewhat resembles Uca but without the great- 
ly enlarged claw. Carapace almost square in shape 
and about 2 inches long; white or gray in color. 

This species burrows round holes in the sand 
near and not infrequently above high water mark. 
The animals may be seen scurrying very rapidly over 
the sand and disappearing into their burrows. These 
holes may be as much as 3 feet deep and often 
honeycomb the sand with underground passages. 
The movable eyestalks of these crabs are very con- 

Very difficult to catch because of their great 
speed. However, because of their nocturnal habits 


they may often be blinded by a flashlight and thus 
obtained at night, 

From Long Island to South America. They are 
particularly large and abundant along the North 
Carolina coast and may often be seen far from the 
water and even in the sandy streets of some of the 
towns of the outer beaches of this region. They 
are often abundant in New Jersey, particularly in 
the southern part of the state. Young individuals 
are often conspicuous in the late summer. 

Chapter Thirteen 


1. XIPHOSURA (King Crabs) 

2. PYCNOGONIDA (Sea Spiders) 

3. ARACHNIDA (Spiders) 

(Not marine — omitted in this book) 


(King Crabs) 

Although frequently grouped with the Crusta- 
cea, the Xiphosura are probably more closely related 
to the Arachnida (Spiders), although perhaps they 
should better be placed in a group by themselves. 

The Xiphosura form a group of great geological 
antiquity, closely related to the Trilobites, which 
lived in the seas of Palaeozoic times, millions of 
years ago. 

Limulus polyphemus Linne (King Crab; Horse- 

shoe Crab) 

Fig. 42, 43 

This conspicuous animal is found all along the 
coast from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico. It prefers 
sandy and muddy associations in bays and harbors 
where the salinity is not as high as in tL„ open 



Fig. 42 
Limulus polyphemus Linne 
Cape May, N. J. 

Fig. 43 
Mating of Limulus 

St. Petersburg, Fla. 

The body of the King' Crab is in three parts — 
a horseshoe shaped head, an approximately triangu- 
lar abdomen and a spinelike tail. The total length 
from head to tip of tail may be as much as two feet. 

King Crabs are abundant in Delaware Bay. In 
May and June they come ashore in great numbers 
to deposit their eggs on the beach near high tide 
mark. The crabs come up the beach in pairs, the 
males being the smaller, riding on the backs of the 
females. After the eggs are deposited in the sand, 
the males fertilize them, and then the crabs return 
to the deeper water of the bay. 

A number of years ago Limulus was much more 
abundant than at present. Every year many of these 
crabs are collected along the New Jersey shore of 
Delaware Bay. They are allowed to dry on the 
beach in large pens and then are ground up and 
used as fertilizer. Because of this industry Limulus 
is dying out in some places. 



(Sea Spiders) 

This is another group of uncertain relationship, 
although it is probably somewhat related to the 
Araehnida (Spiders). The Sea Spiders ( not to be 
confused with the Spider Crabs) are small creatures 
with very conspicuous legs. They may frequently 
be seen among hydroids, seaweeds, submerged logs, 
etc. Undoubtedly various species are represented in 
our waters. The following species is the only one 
actually noted in the coastal waters of New Jersev. 

Tanystylum orbiculare Wilson (Sea Spider) 

A small spider-like animal, about V/ 2 mm. long; 
occasionally found among hydroids, algae or sub- 
merged timber. Vineyard Sound to Virginia. Known 
from Delaware Bav. 

Chapter Fourteen 



Insects are not usually regarded as marine, yet 
there are a few that are so characteristic of the sea- 
shore that they merit inclusion here. Of the marine 
insects, even in a broad sense of the word, the num- 
ber of species in this region is very small. One of 
these few, a minute blue collembolan or Spring Tail 
(Anurida maritime/, Guerin) is occasionally seen 
among rocks or pebbles in tide pools along the New 
England and New Jersey coasts. A few closely 
related species have been found on Long Island 
beaches but have not yet been found in New Jersey. 

The larvae of certain midges (Chironomidae) 
frequently live in tide-pools feeding on the green 
algae. These are truly aquatic larvae, breathing 
oxygen by means of gill filaments. The adults of 
these midges usually inhabit the region adjacent to 
the seashore. Occasionally these larvae are dredged 
at a considerable distance from shore in water up 
to 20 fathoms in depth. The most common species is 
Chironomus oceanicus Packard, which is known from 
Maine, Massachusetts and New Jersey and probably 
lives elsewhere along our coast. 

Numerous insects may be considered as mari- 
time since they are to be found in the brackish water 
of the salt marshes and inlets and yet are not to be 
found in the open ocean where the salinity is higher. 
The most conspicuous of these are the larvae of the 



four species of mosquito — Aedes sollicitans Walker, A. 
taeniorynchux Widemann, .1. cantator Toquillet and 
Culex salinarius Coquillet, which breed only in salt 

Insects are often picked up in a mass of seaweed 
or other refuse cast up on the beach by the waves. 
These insects can hardly be considered marine since 
their presence in the water was probably caused by 
an unusually venturesome flight which carried them 
too far for a safe return to land. After a violent off- 
shore wind the insect drift may be very large. Vari- 
ous groups of insects are represented in this drift. 
The common Lady Bug is among the most frequent. 

The only truly marine insects, in the strictest 
sense of the word, are a small group of Hemiptera or 
bugs. Whereas most of the insects mentioned above 
spend only part of their life (either larval or adult) 
in the ocean, these hemiptera live their entire life 
on the surface of the sea. These wholly marine in- 
sects belong to a single genus, Halobates, of the 
family Gerridae. All members of this family of 
insects live on the surface of water either fresh or 
salt. The familiar Water Spider (Gerris) is fre- 
quently seen on the surface of our fresh water ponds. 

Of the genus Halobates about fifteen species have 
been described. All are inhabitants of tropic and 
temperate seas. Some have been taken near shore 
while others are found as much as 400 miles from the 
nearest land. 

Chapter Fifteen 


The Chordata is the highest phylum of the ani- 
mal kingdom. It is in this group that all the higher 
animals are found, even including man. The main 
characteristic of the phylum is the possession— some- 
time during life — of a notochord. In higher chor- 
dates this notochord becomes surrounded with car- 
tilage or bone and becomes the spinal column. The 
higher groups of chordates — those that possess a 
backbone — are the vertebrates and include the fishes, 
amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals. 

There are a few groups of chordates that do not 
possess a backbone and therefore are invertebrates 
and are to be considered in this book. In many of 
these lower chordates the notochord remains 
throughout life; in others it disappears after a larval 


Worm-like chordates in which the notochord 
consist of a hollow dorsal projection of the forward 
part of the digestive tube. 



Dolichoglossus kowalevskyi Agassiz 

An elongate worm-like animal made np of three 
parts, a proboscis, a short neck and a trunk. The 
trunk is usually orange-yellow, while the proboscis 
is more pink with the collar a darker tint. It reaches 
a length of about 6 inches. 

It may easily be mistaken for an annelid worm, 
but may be recognized by its proboscis and neck. It 
is often common, burrowing into the sand flats be- 
tween tides from Massachusetts to North Carolina. 


These are degenerate chordates in which the 
adult is cylindrical or globular and is encased in a 
cuticular or cellulose covering called the tunic. The 
most conspicuous tunicates are the Ascidians. 
Some, the "simple Ascidians", are usually solitary 
and attached to some solid object. Others, the 
"Compound Ascidians" are largely colonial forms 
embedded in a gelatinous substance. 

The larval stages are free-swimming and pos- 
sess a notochord. Later they assume a sedentary 
habit and undergo considerable changes in structure. 
In this process of degeneration, the notochord dis- 

Another group, the Thaliecea, comprise the 
Salpas, pelagic tunicates which are abundant on the 
surface of most seas. 



Salpa democratica Forskuli (Salpa) 

Salpa and related genera pass through an alter- 
nation of generations. One stage is solitary and con- 
sists of small transparent, ovoid individuals about 
an inch long, each with two posterior projections. 
These simple animals reproduce by budding and 
thus form long chains, the animals always being 
arranged in two rows. These chains may be a foot 
or more in length and may be composed of 30 or 40 
pairs of Salpas. The individuals of the chain pro- 
duce eggs and from these eggs new solitary Salpas 
are formed. Thus the cycle, or alternation of genera- 
tions is completed. The life history reminds us of 
that of the hydroids. 

Salpa is often very numerous floating on the 
surface of the sea and may frequently be collected 
by a tow net or plankton net. Although able to 
swim with a snake-like motion, Salpa is usually 
carried by the currents, and thus belongs to the 
plankton of the sea. 

Widespread distribution; often very abundant 
in summer off the New Jersey and New England 

Simple Ascidians 

Molgula manhattensis De Kay (Sea Squirt; Sea 


Fig. 44 

A globular form with two contractile siphons or 
tubes; often found growing in clusters in shallow 



Fig. 44 Fig. 45 

Molgula manhattensis DeKay Botryllus schlosseri Pallas 

water attached to piling, sea weed or Eel Grass and 
often coated with small bits of sea weed, sand, etc. 
This species will live throughout the winter un- 
less frozen by the ice; those living in deeper water, 
where there is little danger of ice, usually reach a 
larger size. The average size is about an inch in 
diameter. Its usual color is pale olive green. Maine 
to North Carolina; often abundant in New Jersey. 

Molgula arenata Stimpson 


Flatter than the above and with shorter siphons; 
usually heavily coated with sand grains which ad- 
here tightly to the tunic or body. Lives unattached. 
Found in slightly deeper water than M. manhattensis 
and not nearly as common. Some specimens dredged 
at McCrie Shoal, 7 miles off Cape May, in 21 feet 
of water, mark the farthest south that this species 
has vet been found. 


Perophora viridis Verrill 

Simple tunicates, about % inch long, but con- 
nected at the base by a common creeping stem; 
greenish in color. Covers piling, sea weed, etc. in 
shallow water from Vineyard Sound to Bermuda. 
Often found in New Jersey's inland waterways. The 
pulsation of the heart is easily noted under a low 
powered microscope. 

Compound Ascidians 
Botryllus schlosseri Pallas 

Fig. 45 

A colonial form that occurs as fleshy masses 
attached to algae, eel grass, etc. The individuals 
of the colony (zooids) form elliptical or stellate pat- 
terns with as many as ten individuals in a design. 
The whole colony is embedded in a common gelatin- 
ous tunic. The color of the zooids is variable but 
usually some bright shade of purple. 

Known from New Jersey northward; often com- 
pletely covers a group of Molgvla. 

Amaroucium pellucidum Leidy 


A colonial tunicate which forms large gelatin- 
ous masses as much as 6 inches in diameter; often 
coated with sand grains. The individual zooids are 
elongate and are arranged in tightly crowded stalked 




1. Amarcucium pellucidum Leidy 

2. Amaroucium constellatum Verrill 

3. Molgula arenata Stimpson 


lobes. Known from Cape Cod to North Carolina, but 
rare in New Jersey. Characteristic of a sandy bot- 

Amaroucium constellatum Verrill (Sea Pork) 


Similar to the above but with much larger lobes. 
The zooids are usually pink or orange and the rest 
cream. This species is fairly common in rocky asso- 
ciations from Long Island northward. It was re- 
cently dredged at the "Old Grounds", 14 miles off 
Indian River, Delaware. The water was about 130 
feet deep and the bottom was rocky. 


Acontia — Long slender threads equipped with nematocysts or sting- 
ing cells, in sea anemones. 
Adductor muscle — The muscle used in opening and closing shells 

of bivalve mollusks. 
Algae — Unicellular plants; sea weeds. 
Ambulacral groove — The elongate groove on the lower surface 

of the arms of starfish. 
Antennae — Slender hair-like appendages located on the head of 

various animals ; "feelers." 
Bivalve — A mollusk composed of two individual valves or shells. 
Bronchia— A gill. 
Byssus — A group of threads secreted by the foot of certain 

bivalve mollusks for the purpose of attachment. 
Carapace — The shell covering the cephalo-thoracic region of crabs 

and other crustaceans. 
Cephalo thorax — The body-division of crustaceans formed by the 

fusion of the head and neck regions. 
Cheliped — The pincer or large grasping claw of crabs, lobsters 

and other crustaceans. 
Chetae — Same as setae 
Cilia — Small hair-like projections on the outer surface of certain 

animals ; used for locomotion in certain lower forms. 
Columella — The axis of a spiral gastropod shell. 
Epidermis — The outer layer or skin. 
Fascicled — Compound or in bundles. 
Gonosome — An individual of a hydroid colony which bears the 

reproductive organs. 
Hydra nth — An individual of a hydroid colony which performs the 

nutritive or digestive functions. 
Hydrorhiza — The root-like structure by which the hydroid is at- 
tached to stones, shells or other substrata. 
Hydrotheca — The chitinous recepticle into which the hydranths 

of many hydroids may retract. 
Hydroid — The sessile, asexual generation of the Hydrozoa. 
Lithocyst — A marginal sense organ in certain medusae. 
Littoral — Pertaining to the seashore, particularly the intertidal 

Madreporic plate — A porous plate on the upper surface of echino- 

derms through which fluids may enter the system. 



Manubrium — The projection of the body of a medusa (jellyfish) 

which bears the mouth. 
Medusa — Jellyfish. 
Mesentery — A sheet of leaf -like connective tissue supporting various 

viscera ; in Coelenterates, a partition extending inward 

from the body wall. 
Notoehord — A cylindrical rod of cells ventral to the spinal cord 

and dorsal to the alimentary tract. Occurs in Chordate 

Nematocysts — Stinging cells in Coelenterata. 
Operculum — A plate used for closing the shell of gastropod mol- 

Orifaee — Opening. 

Oseulum — The excurrent opening in sponges. 
Para podium — A flat fleshy segmental appendage found in many 

marine annelid worms ; used for locomotion and respira- 
Pediccllariac — Minute pincer-like organs on the external surface of 

Pclagie — Pertaining to the open sea— not near shore. 
Plankton — Animals and plants that drift on the surface of the 

water ; usually without much ability of locomotion. 
Planula — The free-swimming, usually pear-shaped ciliated body, 

into which the egg of a hydroid develops. 
Pleistocene — The most recent period of geologic time ; frequently 

spoken of as "The Great Ice Age". 
Proboscis — The portion of the hydranth body that usually surmounts 

the basal tentacles and which contains the mouth. In 

other animals a tubular extension of any part of the body. 
Polyp — An individual member of a hydroid colony. 
Rostrum — A projection of the carapace in crustaceans. 
Seta — A bristle in worms. 
Siphon — A tube-like organ through which water enters and leaves 

the body of mollusks and ascidians. 
Spat — The larval stage of an oyster. 
Spicule — A minute calcareous or silicious body in sponges or echino- 

Strobila — The attached compound stage in the Scyphozoa. 
Tentacle — An elongated tactile organ. 
Thorax — The body division of Arthropods following the head ; 

the neck region. 
Tube feet — Tubular locomotor organs in echinoderms. 
Umbrella — Curved or cup-like body of a jellyfish. 
Umbilicus — The depression in gastropod shells at the base of the 

Velum — The circular muscular membrane of medusae. 
Zooecium — An individual belonging to a bryozoan colony. 
Zoo id — A member of a hydroid colony. 


The following bibliography makes no pretense at being 
complete. It merely lists a few books which the reader may 
consult if he is interested in obtaining further information 
on the various groups of invertebrate animals found along the East 
Coast of the United States and especially between Cape Cod and 
Cape Hatteras. For details on the anatomy of the various animals, 
the reader is referred to any text book in Invertebrate Zoology 

Arnold, Augusta F. 
Burgess, Thorxtox W. 

Cowles, R. P. 


Crowder, William 
Crowder, William 

Heilprin, Axgelo 

Mayer. A. G. 


The Sea Beach at Ebb Tide. 

Century Co., New York, 1901. 
The Burgess Seashore Booh for 

Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 

Biological Study of the Offshore 
Waters of Chesapeake Bay. 

Bull. Bur. of Fish, Vol. 46, 


Dwellers of the Sea and Shore. 

Macmillan Co., New York, 

A Naturalist at the -Seashore. 

Century Co., New York, 1928. 
Between the Tides 

Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 

The Animal Life of Our Seashore. 

J. B. Lippincott Co., Phila- 
delphia, 1888. 

Seashore Life. 
N. Y. Zoological Society, 1911. 



Pratt. H. S. 

Shannon, H. J. 

Sumner, F. B., Osborn, 
R. C, Cole, L. J., and 
Davis, B. M. 

Verrill, A. E. and 
Smith, S. I. 

Whiteaves. J. F. 

A Manual of the Common In- 
vertebrate Animals, (revised edi- 

A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 

The Book of the Seashore. 

Doubleday, Doran & Co., New 

York, 1935. 
A Biological Survey of the Waters 
of Woods Hole and Vicinity. 

Bull. Bur. of Fish., Vol. 31, 

Report of the Invertebrate Ani- 
mals of the Vineyard Sound. 

Rept. U. S. Fish. Comm., 

1871-2, 1874. 
Catalogue of the Marine Inverte- 
brata of Canada. 

Geol. Surv. of Canada, 1901. 

George, W. C. and 
Wilson, H. V. 


Sponges of Beaufort (North Caro- 
lina) Harbor and Vicinity. 

Bull. Bur. of Fish., Vol. 36, 



Agassiz, A. North American Acalphae. 

Illus. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Harvard, No. 2, 1865. 
Some Hydroids of Beaufort, N. C. 
Fraser, C. M. Bull. Bur. of Fish., Vol. 30, 

Hargitt, C. W. Medusae of the Woods Hole 


Bull. Bur. of Fish., Vol. 24, 



Hakgitt, C. W 

Mayer, A. G. 

Nutting, C. C. 

Nutting, C. C. 

Anthozoa of the Woods Hole 

Bull. Bur. of Fish., Vol. 32, 

Medusae of the World (3 vol.) 

Cam. Int. Wash., Pub. 109, 

Hydroids of the Woods Hole 
Beg ion. 

Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., Vol. 

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Names in italics represent synonyms; words in capital letters repre- 
sent common names. 


Acteocina canaliculata 195 

Aedes cantator 249 

Aedes solicitans 249 

Aedes taeniorynchus 249 

Aequorea groenlandica 58 

Alcyonidium polyoum 109 

Alcyonidium mytili 109 

Alcyonidium ramosum 109 

Alcyonidium verrilli 109 

Alectrion obsoleta 186 

Alectrion trivittata 188 

Alectro dentata 97 

Amage pusila 129 

Amaroucium constellatum . . 256 

Amaroucium pellucidum .... 254 

A mat hia die ho to ma 108 

Amathia vidovici 108 

Amphioplus abditus 89 

Amphitrite ornata 128 

Amphipholis squamata 89 

Anachis avara 186 

Ancinus depressus 215 

ANGEL WINGS 156, 164 

Anomia ephippium 147 

Anomia simplex 147 

Antedon dentata 97 

Anurida maritima 248 

Aphrodita hastata 118 

Arabella opalina 124 

Arbacia punctulata 90 

Area campechiensis 137 

Area pexata 137 

Area ponderosa 29, 140 

Area transversa 137 

Arctica 151 

Arenaeus cribarius 236 

ARK 137 

Astarte castanea 152 

Asterias forbesi 82 

Asterias vulgaris 85 

Astrangia danae 

Astropecten americanus 

Astyris lunato 

Aurelia aurita 

Aurelia flavidula 

Autolytus varians 





Balanus amphitrite niveus . . 203 

Balanus balanoides 201 

Balanus crenatus 203 

Balanus eburneus 201 

Barnca eostata 164 

Borneo tntneota 165 




Bdelloura Candida Ill 

Beroe ovata 77 


Bisidium parasitica 70 

Bittium alternatum 182 

Bit tin m nigrum 182 

Blackfortia manhattensis ... 58 

Blackfortia virginica 55 






BORER 182, 183 




Botryllus schlosseri 254 

Bougainvillia carolinensis . 44, 54 

Bowerbankia gracilis 108 




Brisaster fragilis 94 


Buccinum undatum 30, 189 

Bugula flabellata 102 

Bugula gracilis uncinata .... 99 

Bugula turrita 99 

Busycon canaliculatum 192 

Busycon caricum 191 

Busycon pcrvcrsum 193 


Calappa flammea 230 

Callinectes ornatus 236 

Callinectes sapidus 235 

Callocardia morrhuana .... 156 

Campanularia edwardsii .... 47 

Campanularia minuta 47 

Campanularia verticillata . . 47 

Cancer borealis 238 

Cancer irroratus 238 

Cantharus cancellaria 29 

Caprella auctifrons 213 

Caprcllla geomctrica 213 

Carcinides maenas 234 

Cardium mortoni 153 

Cardium robustum 154 

Cardita borealis 152 

Ccllcpora avicularis 105 

Cerapus tubularis 213 

Cerebratulus lacteus 114 

Cerithiopsis emersoni 181 

Cerithiopsis subulata 181 

Ceronia arctata 161 

Chaetopterus pergmentaceus 1.31 

Chalina arbuscula 33 

Cbalina occulata 36 


Chelonobia testudinaria .... 203 

Chione cribaria 29 

Chironomus oceanicus 248 

Chloridclla empusa 216 

Chrysaora 65 

Chrysodomus stonei 190 

Cirolina concharum 215 

Cirratulus grandis 130 

Cistenides gouldii 129 


Cliona celata 33 

Cliona sulphured 33 

Clymenella torquata 130 

Clytia edwardsii 47 

Clytia minuta 47 


Columbella avara 186 

Columbella lunata 186 

Colus gracilis 30, 191 


CONCH 191, 192, 193 

Conopeum reticulatum 104 


Corbula contracta 162 

Coronula diadema 206 

Crago septemspinosus 218 

Crago vulgaris 218 

Crepidula convexa 178 

Crepidula fornicata 175 

Crepidula plana 178 

Crisia eburnea 99 

Cryptosula pallasiana 104 

Cucumaria pulcherrima .... 96 

Culex salinarius 249 

Cyanca arctica 62 

Cyanea capillata 

Cylista leucolena 

Cyprina islandica 

Cytherea convexa i^o 


Dactylometra quinquecirrba . . 63 



Diastonia z'irginica 182 

Diopatra cuprea 121 

Divarcella quadrisulcata .... 153 

Dolicbnglossus kowalevskyi . 251 


Donax fossor 158 

Donax variabilis 158 

DRILL 182, 183 




Echinocardium cordatum ... 94 

Echinarachnius parma .... 91 

Electra monostachys 102 

Emerita talpoida 223 

Ensis directus 159 

Ensis viridis 160 

Epitonium hutnphrysU ...... 168 

Epitonium lineatum 168 

Eudendrium ramosum 45 

Eupanopeus herbstiii 231 

Eupleura caudata 183 

Eupomotus dianthus 132 

Eurypanopeus depressus .... 230 

Eurytium limosum 231 



FIDDLER CRAB 242, 243 

Fissurella alternata 168 





Fulgur canaliculata 192 

Fulgur carica 191 

Fulgur perversa .' 29, 193 


locusta 213 155 

u... KAB 243 


Glycera americana 125 

Glycera dibranchiata 125 

Gonothyrea loveni 50 










Halecium gracile 50 

Halobates 249 


Harmothoe imbricata 117 

Hathrometra tenella 97 



Hemiseptella denticulata ... 103 

Henricia sanguinoleuta 86 

HERMIT CRAB 223, 226 

HIPPA 223 

Hippa talpoida 223 

Hippodiplos-ia americana 105 

Hippopoedra edax 108 

Homarus americanus 222 



Hyas coarctatus 227 

Hydractinia echinata 41 

Hydroides dianthus 132 


Idotea balthica 214 

Idotea marina . . . . 214 



Janthina communis 169 

Janthina fragilis 169 

Janthina janthina 169 









Labiosa canaliculata 161 

Lacuna vincta 181 


Laevicardium mortoni 153 




Lepas anatifera 201 


Lepasterias tenera compta . . 86 

Lepidonotus squamatus 117 

Lepidonotus sublaevis 117 

Lepralia americana 105 

Lepralia pallasiana 104 

Leptogorgia virgulata 74 

Leptoplana variabilis Ill 

Leptosynapta inhaerens .... 96 

Libinia dubia 227 

Libinia emarginata 227 

Limnoria lignorum 215 

Limulus polyphemus 245 


Littorina groenlandica 180 

Littorina irrorata 180 

Littorina litorea 179 

Littorina obtusata 180 

Littorina paliata 180 

Littorina rudis 180 

Littorina saxitila 180 

Livoneca ovalis 214 


Loligo pealei 196 

Lucina dcntata 153 

Lumbrinereis tenuis 124 

Lyonsia hyalina 151 


Macoma balthica 157 

Macoma calcarea 157 

Macoma tenta 157 

Mactra lateralis 161 

Mactra solidissima 160 

Malacobdella grossa 115 

Mangelia cerina 194 

Mangelia plicosa 195 

Mangelia stellata 29 


Marginella guttata 193 



Martensia ovum 78 


Meckelia ingens ■ • • 114 

Meganyctipbanes norvegica . 209 

Melampus bidentatus 195 

Melampus lineatus 195 

Mellita pentapora 91 

Mellita quinquesperforata . . 91 

Mellita testudinata 91 

Membranipora lacroxii 104 

Membranipora monostachys 102 

Membranipora tehueleha . . . 103 

Membranipora tenuis 103 

Membranipora tuberculata . . 103 

Mesodesma arctatum 161 

Metridium dianthus 70 

Metridium marginatum .... 70 

Metridium senile 70 

Microciona prolifera 36 

Micrura leidyi 114 

Mitrella lunata 186 

Menemiopsis leidyi 77 

Modiolus demissus 150 

Modiolus modiolus 150 

Modiolus plicatula 150 

Molgula arenata 253 

Molgula manhattensis 252 

MOON SNAIL 173, 174 





Mulinia lateralis 161 



Mya arenaria 162 

Mysis americana 208 

Mytilus clava 148 

Mytilus edulis 147 

Mytilus hamatus 148 

Mytilus recurvus 148 



Nassa obsoleta 186 

Nassa trivittata 188 

Nassa vibex 188 

Nassarius obsoleta 186 

Nassarius trivittata 188 

Natica clausa 175 

Natica duplieata 173 

Natica pusila 174 

Nemopsis bachei 54 

Neopanope texana sayi 230 

Nepthys bucera 120 

Neptbys incisa 120 

Nepthys ingens 120 


Nepthys picta 120 

Neptunea decemcostata . . 30, 190 

Xeptunea stonei 30, 190 

Nereis dumerlii 119 

Xereis limbata 119 

Nereis pelagica 119 

Nereis virens 120 


Nucula proxima 136 


Obelia commissuralis 48 

Obelia flabellata 49 

Obelia gelatinosa 49 

Obelia 55 

Octopus 198 


Ocypoda albicans 243 

Ocypoda arenaria 243 

Odostomia impressa 172 

Odostomia impressa granitina 29 

Odostomia seminuda 172 

Ommastrephes illecobrosus . 198 


Opbioderma brevispina 88 

Ophiopholis aculeata 88 


Orchestia agilis 212 

Orchestia grillus 212 

Orchestia palustris 212 

Orchestia platensis 212 

Ostrea virginica 140 

Ovalipes occelatus 237 



OYSTER DRILL 182, 183 


Pagurus longicarpus 223 

Pagurus pollicaris 226 

Palaemonetes carolinus .... 220 

Palaemonetes vulgaris 220 

Paludestrina minuta 179 

Pandora gouldiana 150 

Pandora trilineata 150 


Pecten gibbus irradians .... 143 

Pecten grandis 146 

Pec ten magellanica 146 

Pecten tenuicostata 146 

Pectinaria gouldii 129 

Pelagia cyanella 65 

Penaeus brasiliensis 221 

Penaeus setiferus 221 

Pennaria tiarella 45 


Perophora viridis 254 

Persephona punctata 241 

Petricola pholadiformis .... 156 

Phascolosoma gouldi 116 

Pholas costata 164 

Pholas truncata 165 

Physalia pelagica 59 

Pinnixia chaetopterana .... 240 

Pinnotheres maculatus 239 

Pinnotheres ostreum 239 

Pitar morrhuana 156 

Planes minutus 241 

Platylepas hexastylos 206 

Pleurobrachia brunnea 78 

Pleurobrachia- pileas 78 


Plumularia alternata S3 

Plumularia floridana 53 

Plumularia inermis 54 

Polinices duplicata 173 

Polinices heros 174 

Polinices lactea 29 

Polinices triseriata 174 

Polycirrus eximius 131 

Polydora ligni 128 

Porpita linnaeana 60 


WAR 59 

Portunus gibbesii 237 

Portunus spinimanus 237 

Potamilla oculifera 132 

PRAWN 220 

PUNK 33 

Purpurea haemastotna flori- 
dana 183 






Rangia cuneata 29 



CRAB 243 


Rissoa minuta 179 

Rithropanopeus harrisii 231 



FISH 66 

Rossia sublaevis 198 


Sabcllario varians 133 

Sebellaria vulgaris 133 

Sagartia leucolena 69 

Sagartia luciae 68 

Sagartia modesta 69 

Sagitta elegans 115 

Salpa democratica 252 

SALPA 252 









Scala lineata 168 

Scalaria humphrysii 168 

Scalaria lineata 168 

Scalaria say ana 168 

SCALLOP 143, 146 

Schizmopora avicularis .... 105 

Schizoporella unicornis .... 104 

SCUD 213 













SEA SPIDER 227 247 






Scrpula dianthus 132 

Sertularia pumila 51 

Sesarma reticulatum 240 


SHRIMP 218, 220 

Sigaretus perspectivus 175 

Siliqua costata 160 

Sinum perspectivum 175 



FISH 86 


Smittina trispinosa nitida . . 105 



Solemya velum 135 

Solcn americana 159 







Spio setosa 128 


Spirorbis borealis 133 

Spirorbis spirorbis 133 

SQUID 196 


Squilla empusa 216 



STARFISH 82, 85 

Sthenelais leidyi 129 

Sthenelais picta 129 

Stilifer stimpsoni 169 


Stomolophus meleagris 66 



Strongylocentrotus drobach- 

chiensis 90 

Subiteres compacta 37 




Synapta inhaerens . . 96 


Syncoelidium pellucidum ... Ill 

Syncoryne mirabilis 55 


Tagelus divisus 159 

Tagelus gibbus 158 

Talitrus longicornis 212 

Talitrus megalopthalmus . . . 213 

Talorchestia longicornis .... 212 

Talorchestia magalopthalma 213 

Tanystvlum orbiculare 247 


Tellina tenera 157 

Terebra concava 29, 194 

Terebra dislocata 29, 194 

Teredo navalis 165 

Thais floridana 183 

Thuiaria argentea 51 

Thuiaria cnpressina 52 

Thyone briareus 95 




Tornitina canaliculata 195 

Transenella stimpsoni 29 

Triphora perversa nigrocincta 182 

Tritia trivittata 188 



Tubularia crocea 44 

Turbonilla 172 



L T ca minax 243 

Uca pugillator 242 

Uca pugnax 242 

Upogebia affinis 223 

Urosalpinx cinerea 182 


Yelella mutica 60 

Yenericardia borealis 152 

Venericardia tridentata .... 152 

Venus campechiensis 155 

Venus mercenaria 154 

Venus mercenaria notata . . 155 

Venus mortoni 155 




WHELK 189 








Yoldia limatula 137 


Zirphaea crispata 165 

Zygodactyla grocnlandica . . 58