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9iitient (iEUsa IPaintinis. 





Ancient (Slags l^aintings. 


antitnt (^lass Jpaintlngs, 







Proba est materia, si probum sdhibeas artificem.'*— f roMri Adagia* 





^xfoi'ti aub Eoution: 



I — I 1 — 

fjo. /j^L 







Ancient (Slass ^aintivfls. 


is gained in technical excellence is lost in art, ..... and, 
on the whole, it is better to have art without trans- 
parency, than transparency without art." When, in 
1861, the Glasgow windows — or, at least, so much of 
them as he ever saw, — had been executed, as pure 
mosaics, and combined two of the qualities which he 
required in a glass-painting — artistic excellence and 
transparency — he, in a letter to Mr. Ainmiiller, notices 
both qualities, attributes their superiority over other 
Munich works to the disuse of enamels, and compli- 
ments him by saying, that they appear to him to touch 
perfection ; but, when saying this, — which, perhaps, as 
being addressed to the glass-painter, is to be taken with 
some grains of allowance — he points out to him the 
superiority of "harmony in a low key of colour" to that 
in a high key, and the defectiveness of some particular 
colours, and he accompanies his letter with " fourteen 
pages of chemical details " towards the improvement of 
the material, together with a box of specimens, as 
" arguments addressed to his eyes" — ^a proof how much 
importance he attached to the defects, which he had in- 
dicated with a modesty becoming him as a mere ama- 
teur, when addressing so eminent a glass- painter. 

To much the same effect as in this letter to Mr. Ain- 
miiller, he expresses himself, both in a criticism on the 
windows, written nearly at the same time, with special 
reference to those of Lichfield, and in a " Memoir on the 
Lichfield Glass," in 1864. In the former, after men- 
tioning with surprise the pleasure which he had felt 
from ^' the harmonies in the lighter colours of some of 


the windows," he adds, " it would be wrong, therefore, 
to say that these windows are wholly inferior to the old 
ones in paint of colour ; on the whole tfkey are inferior ; 
they have in the stronger colours defects which one 
deplores." In the Memoir, he points out in what re^ 
spects the Glasgow windows are improvements on the 
Lichfield ones, and proceeds, ^4n colouring and power 

the Glasgow windows are inferior to the Lichfield 

the general treatment is also rather of the kind suitable 
to fresco, which requires light colours and light shadows 
for efiect at a distance, than that proper for a glass- 
painting which, being by nature translucent, demands 
deep colours." 

In thus balancing the merits of works, both of which 
he considers excellent, he seems to be quite free from 
anything amounting to contradiction, or to a renuncia- 
tion of his earlier teaching; but it has been thought 
advisable to bring together here some passages in 
which his opinions on them are contained, because 
a few words occur which might seem inconsistent, if 
placed in opposition to each other, without their con- 
text to shew what particulars the writer had in view, 
in attributing "inferiority and superiority" to these 
works respectively. 

Perhaps there are few series of writings, spread over 
more than twenty years, in which so little resembling 
contradiction can be found, as in Mr. Winston's on 
glass- painting. Certainly there is not anything in his 
Memoirs and Letters which contradicts the principles 
set forth in the present work. 


Though a posthumous edition of a book is generally 
accompanied with a biography of its author, it has 
not been deemed necessary to make this usual addi- 
tion on the present occasion, as a biographical memoir 
of Mr. Winston is prefixed to the collection of Memoirs 
already mentioned. It seems, however, proper, for the 
sake of those who may not meet with that book, and 
who may not have any knowledge of him from other 
sources, to mention here a few circumstances of a 
kind which a reader frequently wishes to be informed 
of, and which, with reference to some parts of the 
following work, it is desirable that he should be 
acquainted with. 

Mr. Winston was bom in March, 1814. He was by 
profession a barrister, and was called to the bar in 
1845, after having previously practised as a spe- 
cial pleader. In the active exercise of his profession, 
in which he attained a respectable position, he con- 
tinued till May, 1864. In the preceding year his 
health seems to have become seriously weakened, and 
in October, 1864, he died suddenly from an affection 
of the heart. 

In the art treated of in this book, he took a strong 
interest from a very early period, studying it for con- 
siderably more than thirty years with a cultivated 
taste, and with industry rarely surpassed. Besides the 
present work, he wrote on it in 1844, "An Introduc- 
tion to the Study of Painted Glass,'' and many Memoirs, 
principally for the Archaeological Institute, containing 
descriptions of ancient glass paintings, and critical 


remarks and practical suggestions on the art. These 
Memoirs haye, since his death, been collected and pub- 
lished under the title of " Memoirs Illustrative of the 
Art of Glass-Painting." As may be supposed, many of 
the questions treated of in the following pages are 
discussed in them, and among them the treatment of 
painted windows according to the style of the building 
in which they are placed. One of them, read before 
the Eoyal Institute of British Architects, is expressly 
devoted to this subject. In the course of it, he points 
out that much of the harmony observable between 
buildings in the Early English style, and the painted 
glass in them, is due to the colouring of the latter. In 
another Memoir, he suggests, as a means of preserving 
the desired harmony, and at the same time avoiding the 
defectiveness of Mediaeval art, that recourse might be 
had to the antique with requisite modifications ; and in * 
accordance with this idea, which is slightly indicated 
in the "Hints'*," he caused some windows to be exe- 
cuted for the round part of the Temple Church. Though 
he seems ultimately to have abandoned the hope of im- 
proving Mediaeval picture windows by this or any other 
expedient, the subject may not be unworthy of notice, 
and it is an instance of the comprehensive views he took 
of glass-painting, and of his efforts towards its improve- 
ment. These efforts were also perseveringly directed, 
with the aid of the chemical knowledge of his friend 
Mr. C. Harwood Clarke, towards the improvement of 

* See p. 336, post. 


the manufacture of coloured glass ; and the important 
results of them in this respect have more than once 
been acknowledged. It may be mentioned, that the 
glass in the Temple windows, just spoken of, was mai^i- 
factured in conformity with his receipts, and under his 

In some of the early advertisements of this edition, 
an intention was announced of including in it a series 
of his letters on the improved manufacture of coloured 
glass, but this intention was given up in consequence 
of their appearing, on examination, not to be in a fit 
state for publication, nor likely now to be of use. 

As a final instance of Mr. Winston's study of glass- 
painting must be mentioned his Drawings from ancient 
glass-paintings, which represent both the design and 
colouring of the originals with great spirit and fidelity. 
The printed catalogue of these Drawings numbers con- 
siderably more than seven hundred. Their character 
may be inferred from the plates and woodcuts in these 
volumes, which are all, with the exception of two or 
three woodcuts in the text, and one plate, taken from 
them. They were exhibited by the Archfleological In- 
stitute in May, 1865, and afterwards at the South 
Kensington Museum. Since then they have been pre- 
sented by his widow, in pursuance of a wish expressed 
by himself, to the British Museum. 

Such were some of his labours in the art treated of in 
this book ; and the services which he rendered to it, as 
well as the extent and accuracy of his knowledge, have 
been willingly acknowledged, even by those who differ 


from some of the opinions he put forth as to its modern 

It only remains to notice a few particulars as to the 
execution of the present edition. 

Ko additions have been made by the editor, except 
a very few necessary explanations and references. These 
are all very unimportant in themselves, and are mostly 
placed between brackets, with the addition of the 
letter E, though occasionally that mark of distinction 
has accidentally been omitted. In the notes and pas- 
sages of the first edition, where there is a reference to 
time, such as the words " now," or " recently," or the 
like, or where anything occurs which may make it de- 
sirable to be known when they were written, the date 
of the first edition [1847] has been inserted. 

All the plates and woodcuts which were in the first 
edition are reproduced in the present, and several new 
ones have been added. Of these, the frontispiece may 
be particularly mentioned. The whole of them are by 
Mr. Philip H. Delamotte, who executed the Illustrations 
of the before-mentioned "Memoirs Illustrative of the 
Art of Glass-Painting." 


THE following work is the result of the study and 
attention which, at intervals of leisure during the 
last fifteen or sixteen years, have been given to a fa- 
vourite pursuit. At a very early period it occurred 
to me that the varieties of ancient glass-painting were 
capable of a classification similar to that established by 
the late Mr. Bickman * with regard to Gothic Archi- 
tecture ; and in the year 1838 I accordingly sketched 
out a little work, which, though not intended for pub- 
lication, was shewn in MS. to several of my friends 
and others interested in the subject. This work has 
formed the nucleus of the present. My materials were 
continually increasing on my hand, but I had no idea 
whatever of giving them to the press, until in a conver- 
sation with Mr. Parker he suggested that the publica- 
tion of my observations might prove useful in direct- 
ing attention to the study of painted glass, and in 
facilitating the investigations of others. 

The execution of it has been attended with consider- 
able labour, from the difficulty of arranging the mass 
of materials I had collected, and from the necessity 
of entering very carefully into a great deal of minute 

* I hiiYe adhered as nearly as I oonld 
to Rickinan's nomencla^are, from a sense 
of the inconvenience which results from 
any nnneoesdary departare from esta- 

blished terms. See some sensible re- 
marks on this subject, Archaeological 
Joorual, voL iii. p. 372 et seq. 


detail. Unfortunately I have seldom been able to give 
an undivided attention to the work for any consider- 
able length of time. Interruptions occasioned by pro- 
fessional duties, and by preparing drawings for the 
plates, have prevented my doing so ; and I must plead 
this circumstance as an excuse for occasional defects of 
arrangement and style. I can however safely affirm 
that no pains have been spared to render the work sub- 
stantially as accurate as possible, in reference to those 
matters which constitute the peculiar subject of it. 

In forming such of my opinions as relate more ex- 
clusively to glass-painting, I have, in addition to a prac- 
tical knowledge of the art, — for which I am indebted 
to the instruction of the late Mr. Miller, the distin- 
guished glass-painter of his day, — derived much benefit 
from an acquaintance with a few other leading glass- 
painters, and from the opportunities which I have had 
of watching the progress of several applications of this 
art, conducted on principles very opposite to each other ; 
while in those conclusions which rest on more exten- 
sive views of Art in general, I have received the most 
valuable assistance from my friend the Eev. George 

The present work is divided into two parts. In the 
first I have attempted to lay down rules which may 
serve to point out the leading distinctions of styles : 
the second contains observations on the present state of 
the art, and suggestions for its application to particu- 
lar purposes, and as to the best means for its advance- 
ment. In some of my views I may seem too much 


inclined to innovation, but I assure the reader that 
none of them have been hastily adopted. It is an 
error to suppose that glass-painting cannot be pro- 
perly exercised now, without a strict recurrence, in all 
respects, to the practice of the middle ages. It is 
a distinct and complete branch of Art, which, like 
many other medieval inventions, is of universal appli- 
cability, and susceptible of great improvement. There- 
fore it seems improper to confine it to a mere system 
of servile and spiritless imitation. In expressing my 
opinions on this part of the subject, I have not ven- 
tured to do more than throw out a few hints for the 
consideration of artists: to give any precise directions 
on such a matter would be to travel out of the pro- 
vince of an amateur, who, though at liberty to criticise 
a work of art, has no right to assume the authority 
of a teacher. 

For this reason I have carefully abstained from lay- 
ing down any rules as to the composition and colouring 
of glass-paintings, the omission of which may perhaps 
by some be' considered to lessen the value of the work. 
With regard to colour, however, I may be permitted 
to remark, that the same general principles apply to 
a glass-painting as to any other: and to express my 
conviction that there is no foundation for the belief 
that anciently a symbolical disposition of colours was 
observed in a scriptural glass-painting. The conclu- 
sion I have arrived at on this latter point is confirmed 
by the opinion of M. Lasteyrie ^ 

^ Lasteyrte, SUtoire de la Peiniure sur Verre, p. 70, note. 


It is proper that I should make some observations 
on the plates which accompany this work. I had 
originally intended, in addition to the other illustra- 
tions, to give a general view of a window belonging 
to each style, and had prepared drawings for that pur- 
pose : but I was induced to abandon the project, from 
a conviction that the usefulness of these plates would 
not be commensurate with the increased cost of the 
work. The difficulty of producing in a plate the effect 
of painted glass, has never yet been overcome, even in 
engravings of large size, and as it is enhanced by every 
reduction in the scale of the plate, it became evident 
to me that my sole object in introducing these general 
views would be frustrated. I have therefore endea- 
voured to supply the deficiency, as well as I could, by 
references to plates of entire windows in other works. 
With the exception therefore of one general view of 
a window, copied from a French work, and which 
being represented in outline only, presented no diffi- 
culty of execution, all the plates have been taken from 
detached portions of glass-paintings. They are all 
copied from genuine examples, and are arranged in 
two classes ; the first consists of designs on a reduced 
scale, some coloured, some executed merely in outline ; 
which form of themselves a tolerably connected series 
of glass-paintings from the thirteenth to the seven- 
teenth century. ITie second class is composed of en- 
gravings of the full size of the original examples: 
these range over as wide a period as the subjects of 
the first class, and, like them, are executed some in 



colours, some in outline only. By this means I hope 
to familiarize the reader's eye with the handling^ as 
well as the general effect of ancient glass-paintings. 
How far I may have succeeded in this remains to be 
seen, I have, however, taken care in every plate to 
notice those minute features which are peculiar to 
glass-paintings, as the leads by which the work is 
held together, &c. ; so that I trust the plates, if con- 
sidered merely as dmgrams^ may serve in some measure 
to explain the letter-press. 

In conclusion, I must express my grateful thanks for 
the assistance I have derived, in the progress of this 
work, from the advice and suggestions of many of my 
friends. My best acknowledgments are due to Richard 
Charles Hussey, Esq., of Birmingham, for his liberal 
offer, made through my friend, W. Twopeny, Esq., of 
placing some valuable drawings of painted glass at my 
disposal, of which, owing to the progress that had been 
made in the work, I was not able to avail myself. Mr. 
Ward, the eminent glass-painter, must allow me to 
thank him sincerely for the many valuable practical 
hints he has at various times communicated to me. 
I am forbidden to mention the name of an intimate 
friend, to whom I feel under the deepest obligations, 
for his kind aid not only in verifying dates and cor- 
recting references, but in superintending the whole con- 
struction of this work. 

C. W. 
October 8, 1846. 


The terms ** Painted glass/' and ^' Stained glass/' are com- 
monly used as if they were synonymous. I have however adopted 
the former, from a belief that although not strictly correct, it is 
on the whole a more correct expression than the latter. For 
a glass-painting may be entirely formed of painted glass, — i.e., 
glass painted with an enamel colour, — ^but it would be impossible 
to execute a glass-painting merely by staining the glass. Most 
glass-paintings are formed by combining the two processes of 
enamelling and staining. 

I should perhaps state that this work treats only of that pro^ 
cess of glass-painting which is perfected by the aid of fire. 
There is a mode of ornamenting glass with colours mixed with 
copal, or other yarnish. But this is not glass-painting in its 
true sense. A painting thus executed will perish as soon as 
the Tarnish with which the colour is mixed loses its tenacity, 
which is usually in the course of a few years. A real glass- 
painting, however, if properly executed, will endure as long 
as the glass itself. 

As some of my readers may not be aware of the sense in which 
the term ''white glass '^' is used in this work, I will add, that 
amongst glass-painters it technically signifies uncoloured glass, 
or glass to which no colour has been intentionally applied in 
the manufacture of it. 



Notes to the Introduction . 





Ikteoductioit to the Styles. 

SscTioK I. — ^The Early English Style 

1. Texture and Ck)lour of the Glass 

2. Mode of Execution 

3. Figures 

4. Foliage, &c. 

5. Borders 

6. Patterns 

7. Pictures 

8. Canopies 

9. Heraldry 

10. Mechanical Construction 

11. Letters 



Sectiok II. — ^Thb Degobated Style 

1. Texture and Colour of the Glass 

2. Mode of Execution 

3. Figures 

4. Foliage 

5. Borders 

6. Patterns 

7. Pictures . 

8. Canopies 

9. Tracery Lights 

10. Heraldry 

11. Letters 

12. Mechanical Construction 

















III. — The Peependiculak Style 



Texture and Colour of the Glass 

. 138 


Mode of Execution 

. 143 



. 146 


Foliaged and other Ornaments 

. 151 



. 156 



. 159 



. 166 




. 169 


Tracery Lights 

. 179 



. 181 



. 184 


Mechanical Construction 


Section IV. — The CiNQirE Cento Style 

1. Texture and Colour of the Glass 

. 206 

2. Mode of Execution 

. 208 

3. Figures .... 

. 209 

4. Ornaments . . . . . 

. 213 

6. Borders .... 

. 214 

6. Patterns . . . . . 

. 215 

7. Pictures . . . . . 

. 216 

8. Canopies .... 

. 219 

9. Tracery Lights 

. 223 

10. Heraldry .... 

. 224 

11. Letters . . . . . 

. 225 

12. Mechanical Construction 

. 226 

:iO« V , i 1115 IJN TiSUALKUlA ri!< 1 X JLJi 


1. Texture and Colour of the Glass 

. 246 

2. Mode of Execution 

. 249 

3. Figures 

. 251 

4. Ornaments 

. 252 

5 and 6. Borders and Patterns 

. ib. 

7 and 8. Pictures and Canopies . 

. 254 

9. Tracery Lights 

. 255 

10. Heraldry . . . . 

. 256 

11. Letters 

. ib. 

12. Mechanical Construction 

. 257 




Section L — Employment of painted glass as a means of decoration 
II.— On the true principles of glass painting 
IIL — On the selection of a style 






Translation of the second book of the Diversamm Artium Schednla of 

Theophilus ....... 351 

Chapteb I. — On the construction of a furnace for working glass ib. 

II. — Of the annealing-furnace • . .357 

III. — Of the furnace for spreading; and the implements for 

the work . . . ib. 

IV. — Of the raixtore of ashes and sand .358 

V. — Of the working-pots, and the mode of fusing [et de co- 

quando] white glass . . . .359 

VI. — How tables of glass [vitreae tabulae] are made . ib. 

VIL— Of yellow glass . . . .361 

VIIL— Of purple glass [de purpureo vitro] . ib. 

IX. — Of spreading out tables of glass 362 

X. — How glass vessels are made .364 

XL — Of bottles with long necks .365 

Xn. — Of the different colours of glass . ib. 

Xni. — Of glass drinking-bowlsy which the Greeks decorate with 

gold and silver . . . . ' . 366 

XIV. — The same by another method . . . ib. 

XV. — Of Greek glass, which ornaments Mosaic work 367 

XVI. — Of earthen vessels painted with differently coloured glass ib. 

XVII.— Of the making of windows .368 

XVIII.— Of dividing'glass 369 

XIX. — Of the colour with which glass is painted ib. 

XX. — Of the three colours for the lights in glass [de coloribus 

tribus ad lumina in vitro] .... 370 

XXI. — Of the ornamenting of a picture in glass . .371 

XXII. — Of the furnace in which glass is burnt .372 

XXIII. — How glass is burnt [coquatur] .... 373 

XXrV. — Of the iron moulds ..... 374 

XXV. — Of casting the rods [de fundendis calamis] . . ib. 

XXVI. — Of wooden moulds [de ligneo infusorio] . 375 

XXVII. — Of putting together and soldering windows . 376 

XXVIII. — Of placing gems on painted glass .378 

XXIX. — Of simple windows [de simpUcibus fenestris] . . 379 



XXX.— How a broken glass vessel may be mended . 379 
XXXL— Of rings 380 

Appendix (B).— Notices of the cost of some ancient windows, wages of 

workmen, &c. . .383 

(C). — ^Description of glass-paintings in Canterbury Cathedra] 393 
(D). — ^Extracts from the Vision and the Creed of Piers Plowman 408 
(E). — ^Examples of monumental inscriptions on painted windows 415 

Index ......... 419 

Cuts in the Text . . .423 

ERRATA, &o. 

P. 81, 1. 11 from bottom,/or 19 read 48. 

— 57, — 3 from bottom, /or "latter half" read "perhaps first quarter." 
--94^—8 fix>m bottom,/or 27 read 29. 

— 128, To the examples of figures on brackets may be added the Frontispiece 

to the Memoirs, illustrative of the art of glass-painting. 

— 228, The book referred to in the note is Mrs. Merrifield's " Ancient Practice 
of Palntiog.' 



HE principal object of this work is to inves- 
tigate the varieties of ancient glass-paint- 
ing, and to reduce them to a few classes or 
styles, in the same manner as has been suc- 
cessfully attempted with regard to Gothic architecture. 

But, for the study of this subject, and indeed for the 
proper understanding of the following essay, it is neces- 
sary to have some acquaintance with the principles and 
practical details of glass-painting ; and with the species 
of evidence by which alone the date of a glass-painting 
can be ascertained, and a place assigned to it in any 
particular style. I think it desirable therefore, to lay 
before the reader, who may not be already familiar with 
these subjects, some information and remarks, which 
may serve as an introduction both to the practical and 
antiquarian knowledge of the art. 

It is unnecessary to enter into any lengthened disqui- 
sition concerning the antiquity of the manufacture of 
glass, or of its employment, whether white, coloured, 
plain or painted, in windows. It is well ascertained 
that glass, both white and coloured, opaque and trans- 
parent, was made by the Egyptians upwards of three 
thousand years ago': but until the commencement of 

* Sir Qardiner Wilkinaon describes 
the proficiency of the ancient Egyptians 
in the art of making white and eolonred 
glass* at the period of the eighteenth 
dynasty. "Manners and Customs of 
the ancient Egyptians." Lond., vol. iii. 

p. 99. The space of time he allots to 
this dynasty, is from 1575 to 1269 b. g. 
lb., vol. i. p. 47. The Egyptians were 
acquainted with the art of gUui^hlowing 
upwards of d|500 years ago. lb,, vol. iii. 
p. 88, where a representation of work* 



the Christian era, the material does not appear to have 
been applied to any other purpose than the formation 
of various utensils and ornaments, of mosaic works, 
and the counterfeiting of precious stones. A passage 
in Lactantius is commonly referred to as the first un- 
doubted mention of the use of glass in windows^. 
Leo III. is said to have adorned the windows of the 
Lateran with coloured glass, — the earliest instance of 
the kind that can be cited with confidence®; and it 
may be inferred that the art of glaas-painting was 
known at least as early as the tenth century, since the 
process is minutely described in the second book of 
the Diver sarum Artium Schedula of Theophilus ; a work 
supposed to have been written in that or the following 

men engaged in the process is given 
from one of the tomhs. 

I think all that can be said on the 
antiquity of glass manufacture is to be 
found collected in L. Batissier's Hittoire 
de Vart monumental dans VantiquitS et 
au moyen age, Paris, 1845, pp. 633 et 
seq., a book of the existence of which 
I was not aware when the present work 
was first published. Batissier mentions, 
on the authority of M. Baoul Bochette, 
(Peinturee Antiques, 4to., 1836, p. 384^) 
the existence of a glass pavement in 
Isola Farnese, also of some pieces of 
pictures painted on glass. "Nous avons 
recueilli dans les d^mbres des villes 
romaines plusieurs fragments de tableaux 
peints sur verre qui avuent ^1^ enchass^ 
dans les parois." According to M. Batis- 
sier'sviewyglass-painting has degenerated 
since the thirteenth century. As to red 
glass used in a pavement at Cirencester, 
see ArchsBological Journal, No. 28, p. 
352. As to Roman window-glass, see 
Qell's Pompeiana, i. 96, ii. 79—100. 

^ " Verius et manifestius est, mentem 
esse, que per oculos ea, que sunt oppo- 
fiita, transpiciat, quasi per /eneitram 

lucente vitro aut speculari lapide ob- 
dactam." De opif, Dei, c. 8. Tbis 
work is supposed to have been written 
at the close of the third century, or the 
beginning of the fourth. 

^ ** Fenestras de apside ex vitro diver- 
sis coloribus conclusit." Fleury, Sist, 
JEecl., 12mo. vol. x. p. 158. "In con- 
nection with a restoration of the church 
of St. Mary's in the Transtevere by 
Benedict III. (a.d. 855—8), Mr. Gre- 
gorovius produces a passage of the ' Pon- 
tificals' which is perhaps the earliest 
mention of the art of glass-painting. 
' Fenestras vero vitreis coloribus omavit 
et pictnra mussivi decoravit,' (iii. 134, 
Anast. in Migne Patrol, cxxviii., 1354)." 
Quarterly Review, No. 229. (Leo III., 
A.D. 795— S16.) The historian of the 
monastery of St. Benignus at Dijon, who 
wrote about 1052, afiirms that there was 
still in existence in his time, in the church 
of the monastery, a very ancient window 
representing the martyrdom of St. Pas- 
chasia, and that this painting had been 
taken from the old church restored by 
Charles the Bald. Emeric David, JBut. 
de lapeinture, 1842, p. 79. 


century. A translation of this part of the treatise is 
given in the Appendix* to the present work. The in- 
formation which it contains is most interesting, and 
throws light on the execution of glass-paintings, not 
only during that particular age, but throughout many 
subsequent centuries. In consequence, however, of the 
changes which have since been introduced into the prac- 
tice of the art, it becomes necessary to describe it as it 
exists at present. 

The glass used in glass-paintings is, in its original 
manufactured state, either white^ or coloured. The in- 
gredients of White glass®, of which silex and alkali are 
the most important, are incorporated by fusion in the 
melting-pot of the glass-house, having been in general 
previously fritted^ i. e. roasted with a strong fire, in 
order to facilitate their union. When the vitrification 
in the melting-pot is complete, the glass is formed into 
sheets'. These are afterwards annealed^ i. e. suffered to 
cool very graduallv, a process which renders them less 
brittle ; and they are then ready for use. 

Coloured glass is of two kinds : — 

One kind is coloured throughout its entire substance*^, 
and is called pot-metal glasa : the other is coloured only 
on one side of the sheet, and is termed covered^ or coated 
glass ; i. e. white glass covered with a coat of pot-metal 

Ked, or ruby glass, is almost invariably coated glass^; 

' See post. Appendix A. 

* See note a at the end of this Intro- 

' See note h at the end of this Intro- 

f See note c at the end of this Intro- 

^ See note d at the end of this Intro* 

* The reason to be assigned for the 
peculiar manufacture of Ruby glass is 
that its colouring matter is so intense* 
that it would appear opaque, if formed 
into a sheet by itself of the usual thick* 



other kinds of coloured glass are generally pot-metal 
glass ; but they are not unfrequently manufactured as 
coated glass. 

Coloured glass is formed by adding a certain quantity 
of colouring matter to the materials of white glass^, and 
incorporating these ingredients by fusion in the melting- 
pot of the glass-house. It is manufactured into sheets^ 
in the same way as white glass, and is of the same trans- 

The Glass-painter possesses the power of colouring 
white glass, and even of varying the tints of coloured 
glass, by the use of stains^ and enamel colours. 

All shades of yellow, to a full orange red, may be im- 
parted to white glass by staining it" : other colours are 
produced by means of enamels. 

A stain penetrates the glass to some little depth, and 
is properly as transparent as white glass itself. 

An enamel colour" only adheres to the surface of the 
glass, without penetrating it, and always partakes more 
or less of an opaque nature. 

There are three distinct systems of glass-paintmg, 
which for convenience sake may be termed the Mosaic 
metlwd ; the Enamel method; and the Mosaic Enamel 

Of these the most simple is the Mosaic pethod. 

ness of an ordiDary piece of glass. The 
colouring matter therefore requires a 
hacking of white glass, to render the 
sheet thick and strong enough to remst 
the weather. 

^ The compositions of various coloured 
glasses are described at large in From- 
berg's Sandhuch der Olasmalerei, Qaed- 
linburg and Leipzig, 1844; (a transla- 
tion of which, by my friend Henry James 

Clarke, Esq., is printed in Weale's Quar- 
terly Papers,) and in p. 268 of Dr. Lard- 
ner's work, mentioned in note a at the 
end of this Introduction. 

' It is usually made into cylinders, 
which are opened out into sheets. 

"* See note e at the end of this Intro- 

" See note /at the end of this Intro- 


Under this system, glass paintings are composed of 
white glass, — ^if they are meant to be white, or only 
coloured with yellow, brown, and black, — or else they 
are composed of diflferent pieces of white and coloured 
glass, arranged like a mosaic, in case they are intended 
to display a greater variety of colours. The pieces of 
white glass are cut to correspond with such parts of 
the design as are white, or white and yellow ; and the 
coloured pieces with those parts of the design which 
are otherwise coloured. 

The glass-painter in the Mosaic style uses but two 
pigments; — a stain which produces a yellow tint, and 
a brown enamel, called enamel brown. The main out- 
lines of the design are formed, when the painting is 
finished, by the leads which surround and connect the 
various pieces of glass together: and the subordinate 
outlines and all the shadows, as well as all the brown 
and black parts **, are executed by means of the enamel 
brown; with which colour alone a work done according 
to the Mosaic system, can be said to be painted. The 
yellow stain is merely used as a colour. 

It therefore appears, that under the Mosaic method 
each colour of the design, except yellow, brown, and 
black, must be represented by a separate piece of glass. 
A limited number of colours may however be exhibited 
on the same piece of glass, by the following processes. 
Part of a piece of blue glass may be changed to green, 
by means of the yellow stain. The coloured surface of 
coated glass may be destroyed by attrition, or the appli- 
cation of fluoric acid ' ; and the white glass beneath it 

* See note ^ at the end of this Intro- I p This is the only acid known to 
daction. * I rapidly corrode glass. 


exposed to view. This may of course be wholly or in 
part stained yellow, like any other white glass. Two 
shades of yellow may also be produced on the same 
piece of glass, by staining some parts twice over. But, 
unless he adopt one or other of the above-mentioned 
processes, the glass-painter under the Mosaic system 
cannot have more than one colour on the same piece of 
glass. A variety of tint^ or depth^ may often be observed 
in the same piece of coloured glass, arising from some 
accident in its manufacture^. Of this a skilful glass- 
painter will always avail himself to correct as much as 
possible the stiffness of colouring necessarily belonging 
to this system of glass-painting. 

Under the Enamel method, which is the most difficult 
of accomplishment, coloured glass is not used under any 
circumstances, the picture being painted on white glass, 
with enamel colours and stains. 

The Mosaic Enamel method consists in a combination 
of the two former processes ; white and coloured glass, 
as well as every variety of enamel colour and stain, 
being employed in it. 

The practical course of proceeding under each of these 
three methods is nearly alike. 

A cartoon of the design is made, upon which are also 
marked the shapes and sizes of the various pieces of 
glass. The glass is cut to these forms, and is afterwards 
painted, and hurnt^ i.e. heated to redness in a furnace or 
kiln^ which £lxes the enamel colours, and causes the 
stains to operate. The number of burnings to which 
the glass is subjected varies according to circumstances. 

1 This appearance generally arises 
from an inequality in the thickness of 

the sheet in pot-metal glass, and of the 
colouring matter in coated glass. 


It is in general sufficient to bum glass painted with only 
one enamel colour, once or twice ; the self-same opera- 
tion sufficing also to give effect to the stain, if any is 
used. Where several enamel colours are employed, it 
is necessary to bum the glass more frequently; each 
colour, in general, requiring to be fixed by a separate 

It only then remains to lead the glass together ^ and to 
put it up in its place ^. 

The Mosaic system of glass-painting, as now practised, 
may, I think, be considered a revival of the system which 
prevailed throughout the Middle Ages, and until the 
middle of the sixteenth century '. The glass employed 
during this period is similar to the modem in its general 
character, but materially differs from it both in texture 
and colour. These differences are the more perceptible 
in proportion to the antiquity of the glass. It seems to 
have been always painted, burnt, and leaded together, 
nearly as at present *. 

The Mosaic system of glass-painting is admirably 
adapted to the nature of the material. It is however 
unsuited for mere picturesque effect, owing to the nature 
of its colouring, which being produced by broad pieces 
of glass, whose tints can scarcely be varied either in the 
lights or shadows, (the latter being represented by 
means of the enamel brown,) imparts to works executed 
in this style the flat and hard, though brilliant character 
of an ancient oil painting ^ 

' See note h at the end of this Intro- 

* See note » at the end of this Intro- 

* See note Xi at the end of this Intro- 

* It was, I believe, the andent prac- 
tice in oil-piunting, to paint for instance 
a red drapery, at first entirely red, and 
afterwards to represent its folds, by re- 
lieving the light parts with white painty 
and occasionally deepening the darkest 



The revival of art in the sixteenth century, and the 
extraordinary efforts then achieved in oil painting, by 
which the hard and dry illumination of the Middle Ages 
was transformed into a beautiful picture, glowing with 
the varied tints of nature, and expressing to the eye, by 
a nice gradation of colouring, the relative position of 
near and distant objects, seem to have excited the ambi- 
tion of the glass painters. Not content with carrying 
Mosaic glass-painting to the highest pitch of perfection 
it has hitherto attained, and with borrowing the excel- 
lent drawing and composition of the oil and fresco 
painters, they strove to render their own art more com- 
pletely an imitation of nature, and to produce in a trans- 
parent material the atmospheric and picturesque effects 
so successfully exhibited by the reflective surfaces of oil 
and fresco paintings. The facility of applying colour 
to glass with the brush, at the pleasure of the artist, 
afforded by the discovery of the various enamel colours, 
about the middle of the sixteenth century "", soon led to 
their extensive employment. It was not however until 
the eighteenth century that they entirely superseded the 
use of coloured glasses in large works ^. 

Bhadows with brown, or aome other dark 

^ Did not experienco teach ns how 
much we are indebted to chance for our 
boasted discoveries, it would seem un- 
accountable that the art of enamelling, 
itself of such high antiquity, should 
have been confined to opaque substances, 
until the middle of tbe sixteenth cen- 
tury. An interesting account of the 
process of enamelling earthenware is 
given in Theophilus's treatise, book ii. 
chap. 16, [post Appendix A.] It does 
not appear to differ materially from 

the process now in use. See Dr. Lard- 
ner*s "Porcelain and Glass Manufac- 
ture," chap. 6. 

The art of enamelling was practised 
by the ancient Egyptians upwards of 
2000 years before Theophilus wrote. 
See Sir Gardiner Wilkinson's "Man- 
ners and Customs of the Ancient Egyp- 

7 Pot-metal glass occurs in a drapery 
in the glass painting at the end of the 
library of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
which was executed by Peckitt, from a 
design of Cipriani, at the end of the last 


The introduction of enamels, though it certainly occa- 
sioned a grieat extension of the scale of colour in glass- 
painting, was not without its disadvantages. The paint- 
ings lost in transparency what they gained in variety of 
tint; and in proportion as their picturesque qualities 
were increased by the substitution of enamel colour- 
ing for coloured glass, their dq[>th of colour sensibly 

The practical application of enamel colours to glass, 
seems always to have been conducted nearly as at pre- 
sent. Some of the earlier examples of Enamel painting 
are, however, superior in transparency to the modem. 
This is particularly the case with Swiss glass-paintings 
of the seventeenth, and close of the sixteenth century ; 
in which enamel colours are constantly to be met with, 
firmly adhering to the glass in lumps of one-sixteenth 
of an inch in thickness, and so well fluxed in burning 
as to be nearly, if not quite, as transparent as pot-metal 
glass. I am not aware that these enamels have ever 
been successfully imitated, but modem chemical dis- 
coveries have been of late productive of enamel colours 
of very superior quality, both in tint and transparency, 
to those in general use during the last century, and to 
a late period in the present. 

Having given this brief outline of the process of glass- 
painting, I shall now proceed to offer some observations 
on the means by which the age of particular specimens 
of the art can best be ascertained. In few branches of 
antiquarian research will a knowledge of minute details. 

centnry. Bat both tbe west window of 
New College, Oxford, executed by Jcr- 
vais, after a design by Sir Joshua Rey- 

nolds, and the windows of Arundel 
Castle, are entirely coloured with en- 
amels and stains. 



and the consideration of internal evidence, be found more 
important than in this. It is seldom that the age of 
a glass-painting is determined by the direct testimony 
of a date affixed to it, or of written documents ; nor can 
a safe conclusion always be drawn from the situation 
which it occupies. It might at first be supposed that 
the glass would not be older than the window in which 
it is found, especially when the principal divisions of the 
picture or pattern coincide with the apertures of the 
window ; but the inference from this circumstance cannot 
be always relied upon, since instances are known in 
which windows have been constructed for the reception 
of glass older than themselves". It is therefore only 
from the internal evidence afforded by the work itself, 
that the date of a glass-painting can in general be ascer- 
tained ; and this evidence is not, as in a Gothic build- 
ing, presented by a few prominent features, the contour 
of a moulding for instance, or the form of a window, but 
by a variety of minute particulars, no one of which is 
perhaps adequate of itself to decide the question. 

Some of these tests are peculiar to glass-paintings, 
such as those afforded by the nature and texture of the 
material, its colour, and the mode of painting it. Some, 
again, it has in common with other objects ; such as the 
character of the drawing, the form of the letters, the 

* The Perpendicular windows, for in- 
stance, of the north aisle of Lowick 
Church, Northamptonshire, have evi- 
dently been constructed for the recep- 
tion of some rather early Decorated 
glass, — a Jesse, a considerable portion of 
which remains in excellent preservation. 
The tracery lights of many of the clear- 
story windows of the nave of York 
Minster arc filled with Early English 

glass of more ancient date than any part 
of the present fabric that appears above 
ground. Other examples of churches 
containing vestiges of glazing more an- 
cient than the buildings themselves 
might be cited. Painted glass was at 
all times expensive, and this may occa- 
sionally have caused its preservation 
when a church was enlarged or re- 


architectural details, the costume of the figures, the 
heraldic decorations, &c. All these features are not 
equally trustworthy; those derived from the general 
practice of the day, as regards the manufacture of the 
glass, and mode of painting it, are often more to be 
relied on than those afforded by the nature of the par- 
ticular subjects represented. 

Each period of mediaaval glass-painting has its dis- 
tinctive style of execution, but artists were at all times 
prone to copy the designs of their predecessors. This 
may serve to account for the occasional representation 
in a glass-painting, of the armour, costume, and archi- 
tectural features of a period anterior to that of the 
work itself. 

I shall now endeavour to shew more particularly the 
value of certain evidences of date. 

Mere general arrangement affords scarcely any criterion 
of date. The ^^ medallion window ^^^ is perhaps confined 
to the Early English period; and designs extending 
themselves into more than one lower light of a window, 
can hardly be said to be earlier than the Decorated. But 
almost every late arrangement is to be found more or 
less developed in the earlier styles. 

The general appearance or effect of a glass-painting is 
a feature deserving the utmost attention; but taken 
alone, it affords only a sure proof that the work belongs 
to some general period, without conveying a more defi- 
nite idea of its date. The general effect of a glass-paint- 
ing depends indeed almost entirely on the quality and 
texture of the glass employed in it. Hence it varies 

* The meaiiing of the term "medallion window/' is explained in the first 
section of Chapter I. 


according to the progressive changes in the manufacture 
of that material. These, as might be expected, were so 
slow and gradual as to be hardly perceptible ; and glass, 
apparently of the same quality, was therefore employed 
during long periods of time. Owing to this circum- 
stance, it becomes impossible to pronounce with cer- 
tainty whether, for instance, an early glass-painting, 
judging only from its general ejffect, is of the Early 
English, or early part of the Decorated period ; whether 
another is late Decorated, or early Perpendicular; or 
whether to a third should be assigned a less general 
date than the space of time between the beginning 
of the fifteenth century, and the end of the reign of 
Henry VI., &c. 

The execution of a glass-painting according to any 
particular mode, the first invention of which is capable 
of being ascertained, raises a conclusive inference that 
the work cannot be earlier than a certain time: but 
seldom afifords any other criterion of its date. So the 
representation in a glass-painting of different orna- 
ments, costumes, armour, and architectural details ; the 
symbols of the alliance of. families, or of individuals 
holding particular offices, serve in like manner to limit 
the antiquity of the work ; without, however, at least 
in the generality of cases, setting any precise bounds 
to its lateness. Thus, for instance, the existence of the 
yellow stain in a glass-painting, is a proof that it is not 
earlier than the fourteenth century. In like manner, 
a glass-painting which exhibits stipple shading ^, or ruby 
glass having some of its coloured surface purposely 
abraded, may be pronounced not to be earlier than the 

** This tenn is cxplaiued in note h at the end of this Introduction. 


fifteenth. Again, the use of enamel colours marks a glass- 
painting as having heen executed after the middle of 
the sixteenth century, while the trifling circumstance 
that the glass has been originally cut with a diamond, 
will denote that another work is not earlier than the 
seventeenth century. The representation in a glass- 
painting of Decorated windows with flowing tracery, 
is an evidence that the picture was not painted until 
after the introduction of this feature in architecture. 
And the appearance of a shield bearing the private 
arms of a bishop impaled with those of his see, will 
in general raise a presumption that the work was exe- 
cuted during his prelacy. 

The age of a glass-painting is thus sometimes capable 
of being reduced to limits sufficiently exact for practical 
purposes, by the existence of a single feature, such as 
that last mentioned, or even by the character of the 
letters used in an inscription : but in general, its more 
precise date can be established only by the evidence 
afforded by the concurrence in it of a variety of different 
tests. It is indeed always safer to rely on such evi- 
dence, when it can be obtained, than to infer a date 
from a single circumstance. 

Of the value of the testimony afforded by a coincidence 
of minute particulars, in establishing the probable date 
of a glass-painting, the following is an example. 

It has before been noticed, that there is often no dis- 
tinction between the general effect of an Early English, 
and that of an early Decorated glass-painting. Becourse 
must therefore be had to the character of the ornament, 
which will in general at once decide the question of 
style. Supposing this to be in favour of the Decorated, 


the next point is, to what period of the style the paint- 
ing belongs. This may sometimes be also determined 
by the nature of the ornament; but the colour and 
quality of the glass will always conclusively shew that 
the specimen is early in the Decorated style. Another 
instance may be added. It is easy to distinguish a glass- 
painting of the latter part of the reign of Edw. IV. from 
the earlier examples of the fifteenth century, by the 
yellow hue of the white glass; although it may ex- 
hibit precisely the same design and execution, and even 
the same costumes, as a glass-painting of the time of 
Henry VI. As however white glass of the same hue 
continued in use until the end of the Cinquecento style, 
glass-paintings not exhibiting any peculiarity of costume 
which may mark them as being of the reign of Edw. IV., 
must be referred to the period indicated by the general 
character of their drawing and execution. 

I have endeavoured in the course of the first chapter 
to facilitate enquiries into the date of glass-paintings, 
and the styles to which they belong, by commencing 
each section with some general remarks on the effect of 
glass-paintings of a particular period, and by afterwards 
describing their details as minutely as I could, at the 
risk of being considered prolix and tedious. I should 
however warn the reader against the supposition that 
it is possible to acquire an accurate knowledge of a pic- 
tonal art, from mere description, or the slight aids de- 
rivable from plates in such a work as the present. A 
book can do no more than direct his attention to certain 
differences in glass-paintings affording sure indications 
of style, and by a general explanation of the process of 
painting upon glass, clear up some difficulties which 


vould otherwise beset the subject. He must depend 
upon his own exertions for a critical knowledge of the 
different styles of glass-paintings, which can be acquired 
only by minute, close, and repeated observation of ex- 
isting specimens, and a habit of making careful and 
detailed drawings of them, whenever the opportunity 
presents itself. I may add that a certain acquaintance 
with other branches of antiquities, such as architecture, 
and painting in general, heraldry, &c., will considerably 
facilitate his researches. 


(a) The manufacture of the different kinds of white glass, and the 
nature of their ingredients, are minutely described in a small but 
clever popular work, ** A Treatise on the Origin, Progressive Improve- 
ment, and Present State of the Manufacture of Porcelain and Glass." 
Lond. 1832 : which forms part of Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopsedia. 

Until the last few years, only the two sorts of white glass known 
by the names of eroum fflass, and hroad, or spread glaas^ which last is 
also called common window-glaas, were employed in glass-paintings. 
The first kind was, until lately, clearer and more free from colour than 
the last, which being coarser and cheaper, was more commonly used 
for this purpose. The broad glass, however, never possessed any 
other colour than that accidentally imparted to it by the impurity of 
its materials. Owing to continued improvements in its manufacture, 
broad glass has gradually become almost, if not quite, as colourless as 
crown glass; a circumstance which renders it unfit for many glass- 
paintings. A new description of white glass, sometimes called eathe* 
dral glass J has been in consequence manufactured of late, expressly for 
glass-painters, and has been extensively employed in lieu of broad 
glass. Flint glass, into the composition of which lead enters, and which, 
from being highly taxed, was formerly only used for decanters, drink- 
ing-glasses, and other utensils, is beginning [1847] to be employed ill 
painted windows. It is either white or coloured. The name fiint 
glass was most probably derived from its having been first manufac- 


tured in the town of Flint. See Journal of the Archseological Asso- 
ciation, vol. V. p. 296. 

{h) There are various modes of forming glass into sheets, but it 
is only necessary for the purposes of this work to describe two of 

One process, called flashing , consists in making the glass into circular 
tables, or sheets. It is at present appropriated to crown glass. 

The workman is provided with a long straight iron tube or blow- 
pipe, one end of which he dips into the melted metal in the pot, until 
he has collected upon it a sufficient mass of glass. This he moulds 
into a cylindrical form, by rolling it on a smooth plate of iron called 
a marver ; and then applying his mouth to the other end of the tube, 
blows down it into the soft mass of glass, which yields to his breath, 
and gradually assumes a globular shape. When this has been sufficiently 
expanded by blowing, another workman approaches with a solid round 
iron bar in his hand, called a punt, having a small lump of melted glass 
at one end of it. This on being applied to that side of the globe which 
is opposite to the blow-pipe, and which has previously been somewhat 
flattened, immediately adheres to it. The blow-pipe is now disengaged 
from the glass, by wetting the part round it with water, and its re- 
moval leaves a small circular hole in that part of the glass. The glass 
thus attached to the punt, after having been sufficiently softened by 
heat, is trundled round like a mop, *' slowly at flrst, and then more and 
more quickly, when the glass yields to the centrifugal impulse; its 
diameter becomes greater and greater, the hole just mentioned expands 
proportionably ; and when in this continued progression the doubled 
portion opposite the iron rod, and between the periphery of the glass 
and the orifice, is diminished to an annulus or ring only a few inches 
wide ; this in an unaccountable manner instantly flies completely open, 
and the glass is converted into a plane disc of fifty to sixty inches 
diameter, having an uniform thickness throughout the entire plate, 
with the exception of" its rim or selvage, and ''the spot where it is 
attached to the" punt, " and where there is a knot or lump which ia 
called a hulVB eye^^ or centre. The punt is then detached from the 
bull's eye, and the sheet of glass, after having been annealed in the 
annealing oven or lewr^ is fit for use. This description will be rendered 
perfectly intelligible by a reference to the plates in Dr. Lardner's 
work before mentioned, from which (see p. 184) the above extract ia 

The other method consists in making glass into %had6% or cylinders^ 
or muffi^ as they are sometimes called, which are afterwards opened 
and flattened out into sheets. 


This process differs but little from that of blowing plate glass, de- 
scribed and illustrated by diagrams in Dr. Lardner's before-mentioned 
work, p. 211 et seq. 

A hollow globule of glass is formed as before mentioned, and brought 
to the shape of a long bladder, by swinging the blow-pipe about. Its 
end opposite to the blow-pipe is then perforated with a small circular 
hole. The workman now seats himself in a chair, having two long 
horizontal and parallel arms, on which he rolls the blow-pipe back- 
wards and forwards with one hand, and with the other at the same 
time gradually widens the hole, and fashions the glass with a pair of 
shears until it assumes the form of a cylinder throughout its whole 
lengthy except towards the end where it is connected with the blow- 
pipe. A punt, having attached to its end a red-hot piece of glass, 
either in the shape of a flat circular plate, rather wider than the mouth 
of the cyUnder, or consisting of a straight piece crossing the end of 
the punt like a T, is then applied to the already formed mouth of the 
cylinder, and immediately adheres to it. The glass is then detached 
from the blow-pipe, a rotary motion is given to it by trundling the 
punt up and down the arms of the chair, and by a repetition of the 
process already described the little hole left by the removal of the 
blow-pipe is enlarged into a mouth, of the same diameter as the rest 
of the cylind^. The cylinder is then disconnected from the glass at 
the end of the punt> and after having had one side out or slit up, is 
placed in the annealing oven, with its cut side uppermost, and be- 
coming softened by the heat, is easily opened with an iron instrument^ 
and spread out into a flat sheet. Flint glass, both white and coloured, 
is usually thus formed into sheets. 

(e) One kind of pot-metal glass indeed is called plated glass, and 
consists of two sheets or thicknesses of pot-metal glass, of different 
colours, closely united together. By this means a tint is produced 
differing from that which would bo obtained by the fdsion of the two 
colours t4»gether in the melting-pot of the glass-house. I have not 
thought it worth while to embarrass the text with this exception to 
the general rule, that pot-metal glass is of the same colour throughout. 

(if) Coated glass is formed by the workman first dipping his blow- 
pipe into a pot containing white glass, and afterwards into a pot con- 
taining coloured glass; or vice versa. The glass when formed into 
a sheet is thus coated with coloured glass only on one side. Some- 
times the blow*pipe is again dipped into the pot of white glass, in 
which case the colour will be enclosed within two layers of white 

Coated glass is sometimes called flashed glass, but this term seems 



rather to point to the mode in which it is manufactured into sheets. 
It is now, I helieve, more usually made into cylinders and opened out 
into sheets. 

{e) The colour produced hy a stain varies much according to the 
texture of the glass, and the heat of the furnace : soft glass taking 
a deeper stain than hard glass, 'and a high temperature greatly in- 
creasing the colour. On this account, if the glass is unequally heated, 
it will he stained of a deeper tint in some parts than in others. If 
exposed to a too violent heat, the stain is apt to turn red, or to hecome 
opaque. When over-fired, it leaves a peculiar mark on the surface of 
the glass, varying from yellow to a sort of hlue. The composition of 
the yellow stain is given, and its operation accounted for, in Fromherg's 
Handhuch der Glasmalerei, part i. chap. 2 ; and in Dr. Lardner's " Por- 
celain and Glass Manufacture," p. 273, 298. 

One species of yellow stain is called " hrush yellow," from its being 
thinly applied to the glass with a brush, instead of being floated on in 
the usual way. It differs from the ordinary stain only in being stronger, 
in consequence of a greater proportion of colouring matter being con- 
tained in it. The yellow thus applied with the brush often has a 
streaky appearance, occasioned by the manner of laying it on. An. 
effect similar to that produced by brush yellow may sometimes bo 
observed in Decorated as weU as in the later kinds of painted glass. 

(/) An enamel colour is composed of some particular colouring 
matter mixed with Jltix, i.e. soft glass which will melt at a lower tem- 
perature than the glass intended to be painted with the enamel. la 
proportion as the glass cools after having been burnt in the kiln, the 
flux, which has been melted by the process, hardens, and together 
with the colouring matter it embraces, adheres closely to the glass. 

The imperfect transparency of glass coloured with an enamel, no 
doubt arises from the absence of such a complete fusion and liquefac- 
tion of the flux in the glass-painter* s kiln, as are effected of the silex, 
in the manufacture of coloured glass, by the more intense and longer 
sustained heat of the melting-pot of the glass-house. 

The composition of various enamels is described in Fromberg's 
Sandbuch der Glasmalerei; and in Dr. Lardner's work before men- 
tioned, chap. 14. See also a translation of a work by Dr. Gessert^ 
" The Art of Painting on Glass, or Glass Staining," in Weale's Quar- 
terly Papers, Part II. See also the " Art of Glass," translated from the 
French of H. Blancourt. 12mo., London, 1699. 

The enamel brown is made either from iron or copper. Iron pro- 
duces a reddish brown pigment, copper a cold greenish black pigment. 

(^) As the enamel brown is more or less an opaque colour, any 


gradation of tint from brown to absolute blackness may be produced 
with it, simply by increasing the thickness of the coat of paint. 

(A) The following is a brief description of the course now generally 
pursued of painting glass, according to the Mosaic method. 

If the work is intended to be executed merely in outline, without 
any shading, the design is copied on the glass, by simply laying the 
glass upon the drawing, and tracing with enamel brown upon the glass 
the {Mittem seen through it. When a piece of coloured glass is so 
dark as to obscure the pattern, a tracing of the latter is first made on 
a piece of white glass, and placed behind the coloured, through which 
the pattern is rendered distinctly visible by holding both pieces of glass 
to the light. A similar method of transferring the design to the glass 
ifl sometimes adopted, even when the painting is intended to be more 
elaborate ; but the preferable way is, to draw the outlines of the car- 
toon on the hack of the pieces of glass with Indian ink, or other water 
colours, leaving ihe front of the glass imencumbered for the free exer- 
cise of the artist's pencil. 

Becourse is then had to an easel, formed of large pieces of glass held 
in a frame opposite to the light. The pieces of glass intended to be 
painted, are attached, in their order, to the glass of the easel, some- 
times by means of wax, but more properly by little bits of paper pasted 
to their edges, and to the glass of the easel. 

If the painting is intended to be smear shaded^ the artist, if the out- 
lines have not been already drawn upon the glass with enamel brown, 
proceeds to put them in: using for this purpose the enamel brown 
mixed to a proper consistency either with a combination of spirits of 
turpentine, and fat turpentine, i.e. spirits of turpentine thickened by 
evaporation ; or with gum Senegal water, this gum possessing the pro- 
perty of not blistering with heat. The next step is to execute the 
shadows and diapers. The artist, having mixed some enamel brown 
as before mentioned, but of thinner consistency, smears it with a brush 
over the parts intended to be in shadow, softening it off towards the 
extremities of the shadows by gradually raising the brush from off 
the glass as he passes it along. He thickens the coat of colour in the 
deepest parts of the shadows ; and when this is not strong enough, he 
applies a similar coating to the back of the glass, which must of course 
be removed from the easel for this purpose. Shadows thus formed 
always have a streaky and uneven appearance, owing to the unequal 
thickness of the coat of colour caused by the tracks left by the brush 
in its course. It is impossible to produce deep shadows in this way 
without at the same time rendering them opaque. In like manner 
a coloured ground is smeared over so much of the glass as is intended 



to be diapered, part of which, when dry, is scraped off with a pointed 
stick or needle, so as to leave the diaper itself clear and transparent. 

When the picture is intended to be Btipple shaded^ the artist eitlier 
puts in the outlines at first wilii enamel brown, or leaves them out until 
the shading is finished. In either case he covers the whole of the glass 
with a ground of enamel brown mixed with gum water, and dabbles 
or stipples it all over, before it has time to dry, with a large soft long- 
haired brush, held at right angles to the plane of the glass, so that the 
tips of its hairs only are suffered to touch the glass. This process 
entirely obliterates the smears left in the groimd on its first application, 
and renders it soft, and granulated in appearance. Stipple shadows, 
of whatever depth, are always more transparent than smear shadows ; 
for the colour is drawn up into little lumps by the action of the hairs 
of the brush, leaving the interstices oomparativdy free from colour. 
When the ground is dry, the artist scrapes it away fr*om the lights of 
the picture, and having previously moistened it with oil of spike 
lavender, deepens the shadows, where necessary, by a fresh application 
of colour, mixed, however, with turpentine, which he softens off as it 
dries, by dotting it with a long-haired brush. He also sometimes 
heightens the shadows, by laying a similar coat of colour on the back 
of the glass opposite to them. Diaper patterns are executed exactly as 
before described, a stippled ground having been laid all over the glass. 

The stain, when used, is mixed with water, and floated on the back 
of the glass, usually to the thickness of a sixteenth of an inch, just 
before it is put into the kiln. 

The/umaee, or kiln, in which the glass is burnt, consists of an iron 
box furnished with sliding shelves, and enclosed within an oven of 
brickwork*. The shelves are covered with powdered whiting, upon 
which the glass is laid flat, the painted side upwards, and the side to 
be stained downwards. The fire is maintained on a grating below the 
box, which is enveloped by the flame, the vent of the surface being at the 
top of the oven. When the glass has been sufficiently burnt, which is 
ascertained by looking into the box, through a hole provided for that 
purpose in the brickwork with which the mouth of the oven has been 
closed up previously to kindling the fire, the fire is raked off the grat- 
ing, and every aperture having been carefully stopped up, the glass 
is suffered to cool gradually, and anneal itself. After the glass has 
been burnt, and taken out of the kiln, it is necessary to wash or brush 
off the residuum of the stain, and this having been removed, the glass 
underneath, if the fire has been hot enough, will be found to be yellow. 

' A reproBentation of a glaas-painter^s | verre, et de la vUrtrie, par feu M. le 
kiln b given in L'Jrt de lapeinture sur I Vieil, plate ii. 


The glazier finishea the prooeBs; he Uad« the glau together, i.e. ear- 
ronndB each piece with a strip of lead, haring a groove on each aide to 
hold the edge of the glass, according to the pattern marked on the 
cartoon, joining the various pieces of lead with solder. The lead- work 
is rendered less pervious to the wind and moisture, and much stronger, 
hy being cemented, i.e. a kind of cement is nibbed in between the glass 
and the lead, which fills up the intersticee, and hardens by exposure to 
the weather. Every glass-painting of any magnitude, in order to avoid 
breakage and tumecessary troahle in putting it up, is divided by the 
glazier into convenient portions, each contuning several square super- 

k. B. A panel oral: 
- D. Dftlo. '■ 

f. ParlQfi 

9. O. The 1 

Z. D. DltU 

" "" " iQfdilto. 

._. puneli, pluBd 

mdy to b« twilled rOBiiil the ud- 

flcial feet of glass, called glatiiy panelt. Each of these is surrounded 
with a strong lead, and can be moved about by itself. The glazing 
panels are set up in their order, and secured by being aitached to 
the taddle-iars^ of the window, i.e. to an iron framework let into 
the stonework. 

* Then were in the middle of tbe I or "BOndeleU;" and the Dpright iron 
foorteenUi century termed "eondlots," | ban wbicbpaued through them, "(toad. 



Under the Enamel system the glass is painted with enamels much in 
the same way as canvas or paper is painted with oil or water-colour, 
and they are applied to the glass in general as in an ordinary miniature 
painting, hy repeated hatchings with a small pencil. The colour which 
requires the greatest heat is put on first, and hurnt ; and that which 
requires the least heat, last, so that each colour is fixed at a tempera- 
ture not sufficiently high to disturh the flux, or alter the tint of any of 
its predecessors. The glass, when burnt, is either leaded together, or 
secured with ^tty in a metallic framework moulded to the forms of 
the panes. 

In the Mosaic enamel system, coloured glass is often shaded and 
diapered with an enamel colour of the same tint as itself. The colour 
is sometimes floated on with water, but more commonly applied with 
a pencil, as under the former method. The pointed stick or needle is 
often used to scrape the colour off the glass, wherever an intense light 
is required. 

(t) The merit of admiring ancient painted glass, and first bringing it 
into favourable notice, belongs to Horace Walpole; but the actual 
revival of the ancient system of glass-painting was accomplished prin- 
cipally by two distinguished glass-painters, — the late Mr. Miller, and 
Mr. Willement. The latter was the first to observe in his works the 
differences of style. 

{h) The following particulars relate to the ancient method of making 
and painting glass : — 

White glass, according to the Treatise of Theophilus, chap. iv. [see 
the translation, posty Appendix A] was composed of wood ashes and 
sand, mixed together in certain proportions, and fritted, previously to 
being placed in the melting-pot. Many kinds of coloured glass are 
mentioned in that Treatise, chap, xii., as being made from the coloured 
glass found in the antique mosaic works and ancient vessels. Theo- 
philus calls the little lumps of blue glass used in the mosaics, sap- 
phires *, and particularly says that they were fused with white glass, 
in order to make blue glass for windows. This, I think, sufficiently 
explains Abbot Suger's statement, that sapphires were used in the 
painted glass of St. Denys. 

The supply of colouring materials from the above source must soon 
have been exhausted'. Eraclius^ gives various receipts for colouring 
glass with different metallic substances. Lead is mentioned in the 
title of one of the lost chapters of Theophilus, and in chapter 

ardfl." Smith's Antiq. of Westminster, 
p. 196, et seq. 

• See note to Appendix A. 

' In the Mappa davictda (post, 25) is 
" confectio saphiri/' chap, cclvi. 
V Vide note to Appendix A, 


which describes the inaking of glass rings ; and also by Eraclius, as 
an ingredient of glass, which, as it would seem, howeyer, was not used 
for windows, but for the manufacture of utensils^ This glass would 
therefore answer to flint glasa^ the softness and strong refractive power 
of which, arising from the presence of lead in its composition, (see 
Dr. Lardner's Treatise, p. 161,) have, for a long time past, caused it 
to be appropriated to the formation of decanters, and other glass wares. 
Drinking -glasses, &c. made of flint glass, like the modern, may be 
found as early as the reign of Charles I. They are more brilliant in 
appearance, but are much thicker, heavier, and more brittle, than the 
old Venetian glasses, which are light as feathers, and composed of 
a tough horn-like material. 

Flint glass, as stated in a former note, has only lately been used for 

It appears from the Treatise of Theophilus, chapters vi. and ix., poatj 
Appendix A, that both white and coloured glass were formed into 
cylinders, which were opened and flattened out into sheets, nearly as 
at present : the introduction of the punt, in addition to the blow-pipe, 
being the chief improvement upon the ancient system. The process of 
annealing the sheets is identical with that now in use. 

That the art oi flashing glass was known at least as early as the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, is proved by the representations in 
the pictures of John Yan Eyck and others, of round glass ^ each pane 
of which is a miniature sheet of flashed glass, as is more fully de- 
scribed in the course of my remarks on the Perpendicular style. I have 
seen in a glass-painting at Mells Church, Somersetshire, of the latter 
half of the fifteenth century, two hulVs eyes, in pieces of white glass, 
each as large as the bull's eye of a modem sheet of crown glass ; and 
I have often noticed in Early English and Decorated glass, stri€B, or 
waves, of segmental shape, which I am strongly inclined to think 
were formed by flashing the glass. 

All ancient window glass was originally clear and transparent. It 
perhaps was not, at least until the sixteenth century, so perfectly trans- 
parent as modem glass, being, in general, less homogeneous than it, 
owing to the imperfect state of the manufacture formerly ; but it was, 
when new, sufficiently clear to admit of distant objects being easily 
seen through it. Th^film, which usually subdues the brilliancy of old 
glass, and imparts to it a fine harmonious tone, is but the eflt'ct of the 
surface of the glass having become decomposed by the action of the 
weather, or of extraneous substances, such as lichens, or the rust from 
the saddle-bars, &c. adhering to it. Decomposition takes place in glass 
in different ways and degrees, according to its texture, the manner in 


which it is painted, and its position. The glass on the south side of 
a building is in England always more corroded than that on the north 
side ; that containing the least portion of alkaline matter seems most 
effectually to resist the action of the* atmosphere ; and the painting 
upon iiror even the staining/ sometimes preserres it from injury, some- 
times hastens its decay. In some eases the corrosion on the back of the 
glass is confined to those parts which are opposite to the shadows and 
painted outlines, or at least is most active in these parts ; in other cases, 
especially in Ecu'ly English and early Decorated examples, the original 
thickness of the glass is preserved only in those parts which are oppo- 
site the painted outlines, the course of which may therefore be traced 
on the back of the sheet by corresponding lines a little raised above 
the general surface. In some cases the surface of the glass has 
been eaten away without reference to the painting on the other 
side, leaving the course of the streaks formed in the manufacture of 
the glass marked by small corresponding ridges which have escaped 

Some glass is perforated to some little depth with small round holes ; 
other glass has its whole surface eaten away : all old glass is more or 
less covered with a slight film on both sides, but upon breaking it, the 
interior of the sheet is always found to be clear and transparent, the 
obscurity being confined to its surface. 

The white glass varied much in hue, even in early times, being 
sometimes nearly colourless, sometimes so blue or green as to seem 
as if it had been purposely tinted. I am persuaded, however, that 
its colour was accidental, and arose merely from the impurity of its 

The use of manganese, to correct the yellowness of white glass, 
does not appear to be earlier than the reign of Elizabeth. Its pre- 
sence is easily detected, especially in Venetian and Erench glass, by 
the inky purple tint it imparts to the material. The earliest white 
glass, as well as coloured glass, often has a slaty texture, i. e. is apt 
to chip off in layers like slate. This property may arise from an im- 
perfect amalgamation of the glass, already on the blow-pipe, with that 
taken up upon it by a subsequent dipping into the melting-pot, in 
ordar to increase the mass at the end of the rod previously to blow- 
ing it. The white glass of the seventeenth century resembles modem 
broad glass. 

Coloured glass previously to the middle of the fifteenth century, is 
in general richer and less crude than modem coloured glass. This is 
(supposing that we employ the same materials that the ancients did) 
probably owing to our improvements in chemistry, by which the 



modem colouring matter is more completely purified from extraneous 
substances than the ancient*". 

Of all coloured glasses, the mbj varies most in appearance, accord- 
ing to its date. The streakines* of the colour of ruby glass, prior to 
the beginning of the fifteenth century, has occasioned If. le Yi^il and 
others to conjecture that it was applied like an enamel colour, with 
a brush, and burnt in afterwards. The better opinion, however, is, 
that the ancient ruby was made in the same way as modem ruby. 
I have carefully examined a great many specimens of all dates, from 
about the middle of the twelfth century, and have invariably found 
l^e glass to be coloured only on one side of the sheet. The late 
M. Gerente, the French artist, entirely corroborated my testimony. 
M. le Yieil, however, mentions his having met with early specimens 
coloured throughout the sheet, and Dr. Gessert thinks that the in- 
vention of coating ruby glass took place in the fourteenth century, 
and adds that Schmithals, a profound and trustworthy investigator of 
ancient coloured glasses, found all those of the twelfth and thirteenth 
ooituri^i coloured throughout the whole mass. The probability is, 
that the coated method of making ruby was an improvement on its 
original manufacture as an ordinary pot-metal. The chapter of Theo- 
philus, which, judging from its title, treated of mby glass, and would 
most likely have set the question at rest, is unfortunately lost. See 
Boyle's ''Philosoph. Essays," vol. i. p. 458, as to some glass found at 
St. Paul's after the fire. 

The latest real ruby that I have yet met with is in the east window 
of Lincoln Cathedral, which was executed by Peckitt in 1762. The 
ingredients for making ruby (principally consisting of copper in a high 
state of oxidation) are actually given in Blancourt's " Art of Glass," 
chap. Ixxv. : but the mode of using them is not described ; hence it may 
be concluded that he copied the receipt from some older work, and 
never witnessed the manufacture of ruby glass. 

In the Mappa Clavietda, written in the twelfth century (See Archao- 
lagia, xxui. p. 183), chaps, cclvii. cclviii., "confectio vitri rubri," the 
ingredients are given, but nothing is said of the process of coating 
white glass with red. 

The manufacture of ruby glass, after having been dormant since 
Peckitt's time, was revived in 1830, or thereabouts, at the manufactory 
of Choissy le £oi. It is now (1848) common enough. 

^ It has been ooi^eetuTecl, that the 
fine bine coloor in old porcelain owes its 
pecnliar depth and richness to the pre- 
sence of anenic, which the Chinese, in 

their own preparation of the pigment, 
were unable to expel from the cobalt 
ore. See Lardner's " Porcelain and 
Glass Manufacture," p. 114. 



Cut 2. 


Twelfth! and 


n.le{>nth and 






The Romans were acquainted 
with the manufacture of it. See 
Archaeological Journal, No. xxviii. 
p. 352. 

Although doubts may still exist 
as to the precise mode of manufac- 
turing ancient ruby, there can be 
none as to the great thickness of 
its coloured coating in the twelfth, 
thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, 
during which period it most plainly 
exhibited the streaky appearance 
before alluded to. 

The accompanying diagram re- 
presents full-sized sections of pieces 
of ancient ruby, selected quite at 
random, and arranged in centuries, 
but not according to their order of 
time in each century. The dark 
lines at the upper part of each sheet 
are intended to shew the depth of 
its colouring matter. The various 
sheets will be found to agree in 
thickness with the ordinary white 
and coloured glass of the corre- 
sponding periods. 

The coloured coating of ruby glass, \mtil the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, when seen in section with the naked eye, seems to 
be collected into several thin laminae, parallel to the surface of the 
sheet, of unequal thickness, and imbedded in white glass, usually of 
a more yellow hue than that of which the rest of the sheet is com- 
posed. When examined, however, with a powerful microscope, the 
portion of white glass appears to be almost filled with an infinite 
number of the thinnest possible parallel laminae of colour, closer 
together in some places than in others, which irregular condensation 
produces the stratified appearance before mentioned. The multitude 
of these laminae is so great as, I should say, to preclude the possibility 
of their having been occasioned by successive dippings of the blow- 
pipe alternately into white and coloured glass. Indeed the occasional 
liability of the colouring matter to be chipped off like slate in layers, 
not corresponding to the principal laminae of colour, would tend to 
shew that the blow-pipo was repeatedly dipped into coloured gloss; 





while, in other specimens, the perfect coherence of the mass of colour- 
ing matter, coupled with its imperfect adhesion to the white glass 
forming the rest of the sheet, would seem to prove that the colouring 
matter was, hy one act of the workman, conglomerated ahout the mass 
of white glass, at the end of the rod, previously to blowing it. 

Towards the end of the fourteenth and affcer the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, the ruby colour appears like a thin dense stratum on 
one side of the sheet, not thicker than a sheet of writing paper, which 
is sometimes, as in No. 8 in the diagram, covered with a thin layer of 
white glass. This stratum, however, when highly magnified, presents 
the same appearance as the entire mass of colouring matter in the 
earlier specimens, being composed of a vast number of minute laminsB 
of colour imbedded in white glassy The colour on modem ruby is 
equally thin, and bears similar marks of construction. It is also some- 
times covered with a thin coat of white glass, by the workman dip- 
ping the blow-pipe again into white glass, after he has sufficiently 
coated with coloured glass the lump of white glass at the end of the 
instrument. For these and other reasons I consider the modem ruby, 
and that of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to be identical. 

The thinness of the coat of colouring matter on the later specimens 
of ruby is owing to its greater power; for the ancient ruby, notwith- 
standing the greater thickness of its coat, is not deeper in tint than 
the modem, although its appearance is more varied and richer. 

I must not leave this part of the subject without some mention of 
a peculiar kind of glass, which seems to have been invented in the 
early part of the sixteenth century, and which, for convenience sake, 
may be called sprinkled ruby, i. e. white glass sprinkled with red spots. 
The accompanying cut is intended to represent a piece of this glass ; 
the form of the red spots being shewn by the light lines in the engrav- 
ing. See woodcut on the top of the next pa^. 

It appears to me that the spots were put on in manufacturing 
the glass, probably by sprinkling a piece of white glass, whilst on 
the blow-pipe, with melted ruby glass. The spots certainly bear the 

* Some mby glass in the shields of 
the Black Prince and of Lionel Dake 
of Clarence in St. Alban's Abbey, has 
for its backing a sheet, not of white 
bnt of a rich yellow glass. This yellow, 
which ranch resembles in tint the yellow 
glass in which, as has been already oh- 
■erred, the colouring matter of Early 
English roby is sometimes embedded. 

is paler in some places than in others. 
The coat of ruby is not thicker than 
that represented in No. 7 of the dia- 
gram, and is worn off in some places. 
All the ruby is rich in tint; that with 
the yellow backing is not superior to 
those pieces in the arms which have 
a white backing. 



CvT 3. 

mark of intense heat; they are as 
transparent as ordinary ruby, and 
like it, form a thin coating on the 
surface of the glass. Those on the 
same piece of glass are always in 
the same direction. The spots are 
generally of a bright scarlet tint ; 
sometimes they are more of a blood 
colour. The colour is always deeper 
in the middle than at the edges of 
the spot. Glass of this kind was 
extensively used by artists, espe- 
cially of tiie flemish school, until 
the middle of the sixteenth century, 
in representing pieces of marble in 
architectural subjects, and for other 
purposes. The subject of the an- 
nexed cut formed part of the arm 
and wrist of our Sayiour on the 
cross; the ruby spots representing 
the blood stains proceeding from 
the palm of the hand. BPEDfKLKD rubt. 

I have not met with white glass coated with any other colour than 
ruby earlier than the end of the fifteenth century, or the beginning of 
the sixteenth^, about which time coated blue glass appears to have 
been introduced. Coated pink, and coated green glass, seem to be of 
still later invention. 

Some kinds of ancient purple glass closely resemble what is now 
termed plated glMB, but exhibit nearly the same peculiarities in tex- 
turo as the ancient rubyt I allude to those tints of purple which are 
produced by distinct layers, or strata, of light red glass, and light blue 
glass, in the same sheet. I possess, through the kindness of Mr. Ward, 
the eminent glass-painter, a few small fragments of glass of this de- 
scription. Two of them are French glass of the early part of the thir- 
teenth century, and correspond in thickness with the sheets of ruby 
numbered 3 and 4 in the above-mentioned diagram. They are each 

^ Anertions to the contrary are bow- 
ever made : for instance, Langlois, Et- 
sat 9ur la peinture mr verre, p. 142, 
affirms that Soger's hlme glass at St. 
Denys is coated glass, or, as he describes 
it, '* white glass covered with a layer 

of enamel." There seems to be very 
little doubt that the famous Portland 
vase is made of hlme gluss coated with 
white glass. The art of coating glaas 
may therefore be considered of high 


composed of two strata, one of light blue glass, equal to about one 
third of the entire thickness of the sheet ; the other of a mass of white 
glass, full of thin horizontal lamineo of light red glass, exactly resem- 
bling in form the coloured laminae which occur in a piece of ruby of 
the thirteenth century. Two other fragments are, one of English, the 
other of French glass, of the middle of the fifteenth century, and cor- 
respond in thickness with the sheets of ruby numbered 8 and 9 in the 
diagram. Each of these fragments is composed of three strata, two of 
blue glass, each equal to about one fourth of the entire thickness of 
the sheet, and which enclose between them a stratum, which in the 
thinnest sheet appears to be an uniform layer of light red glass, but 
in the thickest sheet is a layer of white glass, filled with a quantity 
of horizontal laminae of light red glass, like those in the earliest speci- 
mens, but more numerous, thinner in substance, and closer together. 

It would seem firom existing documents, that in the infancy of glass- 
painting, the glass was made by the same persons who painted it. It 
is eyident, however, that the two processes were considered distinct as 
early at least as the middle of the fourteenth century, and that the 
gLass-painters purchased the glass they painted. 

Theophilus describes the composition of the brown enamel used for 
outlines and shading. [See post. Appendix A, chap, xix.] The mention 
of ** amement,'' i.e. black, for the painting of the glass, is made in the 
account rolls of the expenses of St. Stephen's chapel in the 2dth and 
26th Ed. III. [see Smith's << Antiq. of Westminster," 4to. Lend. 1807, 
p. 198;] it was probably used for the same purpose. The enamel 
brown formerly used, fluxed better than the modem. It is usually 
of a cool grey purple tint ; the modem enamel brown is too apt to 
have a reddish foxy hue. 

The yellow stain does not appear to have been known before the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. The earliest example that I 
have met with is certainly not earlier than the close of Edw. I.'s reign, 
or the beginning of Edw. II. 's. Large quantities of silver filings are 
mentioned as having been purchased for the painting of the glass at 
various times, in the above-mentioned account rolls. The employ- 
ment of the yellow stain, to change blue glass to green, &c., is as 
early as the middle of the fourteenth century. The practice of 
double staining glass does not seem to have arisen before the six- 
teenth century. 

The whole process of constructing a painted window is minutely 
described in the treatise of Theophilus. [See Appendix A.] 

The glass was then painted nearly as at present, supposing the 
Mosaic method to be adopted, as well as the use of smear shadows. 



Stipple shading was not introduced until towards the end of the four- 
teenth century, or the beginning of the fifteenth. 

It appears from the before-mentioned account rolls, that in the 
middle of the fourteenth century, the designs for the windows were 
made in general by the master glaziers, who, judging from the wages 
they received, were deemed equal in skill to the chief practitioners in 
other branches of art ; and that the glass was painted, and leaded to- 
gether, by inferior workmen. It is owing perhaps to this circumstance 
that ancient glass-paintings are almost always better designed than 
executed. [For further particulars relating to the wages paid to glass- 
painters, see Appendix B.] The principle of employing artists of the 
highest celebrity to make designs for painted windows was adhered 
to during the Middle Ages, and does not seem to have been utterly 
abandoned until the present century. Holbein is said to haye fur- 
nished the cartoons for the windows of King's Chapel, Cambridge, and 
the names of several other distinguished artists are preserved, as the 
designers of many coeval, and later works on the continents It is 
reasonable to suppose, that many works of inferior, or of mere orna- 
mental character, were formerly executed in the first instance upon 
the glass, without any previous delineation on a cartoon. Indeed 
inscriptions, heraldic bearings, scroll-works, &c., &c., often appear, on 
minute examination, to have been sketched upon the glass, with a faint 
line of enamel brown, preparatory to being carefrdly painted with 
strong colour in the usual manner. 

The power of the diamond to scratch glass, must have been known 
at a comparatively early date, if credit is to be given to the stories of 
Francis I. and Queen Elizabeth writing on glass with a diamond set 
in a ring. It does not, however, seem to have been employed to cut 
glass before the beginning of the seventeenth century, previously to 
which time the practice of cutting glass described by Theophilus seems 
to have prevailed with littie variation. 

The pieces of glass were first roughly wrought out by means of a hot 
iron held to the glass, which caused it to crack, and were then reduced 
to the exact shape required, by chipping away their edges with an 
iron hook, called in Theophilus '^ grosarium fernun," and at the pre- 

^ I am not aware that the famous Van 
Dyck, thoQgli the son of a glass-painter, 
(see Le Vieil, ffist. de la peinture sur 
foerre, &c., p. 64,) ever painted glass. 
The Bev. H. H. Norris, of Hackney, 
however, possesses a large eng^Ying of 
the Cmcifixion, which appears well 

adapted for a glass painting. It bears 
the following inscription : — 

" Anton. Van D jck invenit. Erasmoa 
Qaellinusdelineavit. Mathens Borrckens 
scalpsit, et exendit. Antwerpiae com 


sent day a grazing iron. The term '^ groisour " or " croisour/' which 
occurs in the before-mentioned account rolls, means the same thing. 
It is easy to ascertain whether glass has been cut with a diamond, or 
wrought into shape with the grozing iron, by the smoothness of its 
edges in the one case, and their roughness and irregularity in the 
other. This circumstance will, until the forgers of glass -paintings 
become aware of it, continue to be a useful test of the genuineness 
of a glass-painting, and serve to determine whether it indeed be an 
original work, or only a compilation of fragments of the same date. 
The use of the diamond must have effected a considerable saving of 
the glazier's time ; but as extraordinary specimens of skilfiil glass- 
catting may be observed in mediaeval as in modem works. 

It appears that the glass was formerly arranged in the kiln several 
layers deep, with only ashes or lime between them, instead of, as now, 
being placed in single layers on iron plates covered with whiting. 
This circumstance will serve to account both for the crooked and 
undulating surface of many pieces of old glass, which may be pre- 
sumed not to have been laid perfectly flat in the kiln, and also for the 
frequent appearance of a faint yellow stain on old white glass, in places 
where its presence can only be accounted for by an accident; the 
stain having the property of penetrating through a thin stratum of 
lime or whiting, and slightly tinging the glass immediately beneath. 

The leads used imtil the middle of the seventeenth century, are 
nearly of one uniform width, and are much narrower in the leaf than 
the common modem leads. That this was the ease, can be proved not 
only by the existence of the original leads themselves, but more satis- 
iaetonlj perhaps by the black lines drawn upon the glass, with which 
the glass • painters were accustomed some- ^^^ ^ 

times to produce the effect of leads, without 
unnecessarily cutting the glass. Many in- 
stances of this practice may be seen in 
plate 19. 

Fig. 1 in the annexed cut represents an 
ancient lead of the usual width ; fig. 2 its 
profile; fig. 3 the profile of a German lead ^^^^ 

of the early part of the fourteenth century ; xpfv 

fig. 4 a piece of modem fret lead of the or- iT ^ 
dinary width, and which is now considered 
as being verg narrow; and fig. 5 its pro- 
file. It appears, on comparing the sections Diagram, shewing the width a&d pro- 
of these leads, that the ancient lead (No. 1) Ale of ancient and modem leada. 

contains as much material as the modem lead, and is therefore not 



weaker than it; though it presents a narrower surface to the eye. 
The Grerman lead is considerably stronger than the modem. Theo- 
philus [potty Appendix A, chap, xzy.] describes the making of the 
leads, which were then simply cast in a mould. Some leads of 
the fifteenth century, which I have examined, appear as if they 
had been first cast, and afterwards planed or cut to shape. The 
modem leads are cast roughly, and compressed between two rollers 
to the proper dimension. This process makes them more rigid than 
the old leads. It is the practice of modem glaziers to surround each 
glazing panel with a '' broad lead^^ — i.e. a lead three-quarters of an 
inch, or an inch, broad in the leaf, — ^to strengthen the work. 

The German glass from which fig. 3 was taken, and which is now 
in the west window of St. Giles's Church, Camberwell, had each of its 
glazing panels surrounded by two leads of the same dimensions as the 
aboye specimen, soldered together at intervals, the little pipe formed 
by their grooves being filled with a small twig with the bark on. 
This lead-work was remarkably substantial, and as perfect as if it had 
only just been executed. I never met with any old English glazing- 
panels which were either thus defended with a double lead, or with 
a lead of greater substance than that commonly employed to hold the 
glass together. 

The difficulty of introducing colour into glass-paintings, without the 
use of lead- work, seems to have been always considered as a disadvan- 
tage, and no doubt sensibly affected the designs of the middle ages. 

Theophilus mentions a mode of introducing different colours into 
a picture without leads, by laying small pieces of coloured glass upon 
a larger piece, and causing them to adhere to it in the firing, [see pott. 
Appendix A, chap, xxviii.,] but this seems to have been confined to 
representations of jewellery, &c. I have met with an instance of this 
practice, as late as the beginning of the fifteenth century, in a fragment 
of a small mitre, the jewelled bands of which had been originally adorned 
with bits of coloured glass, in imitation of precious stone. One coloured 
piece only adhered to the white glass, the others had all dropped off, 
leaving corresponding rough spots on the glass. Kough spots found in 
similar situations may often serve to indicate this practice in other ex- 
amples where no pieces of coloured glass remain. 

The inconvenience of being obliged to lead in coloured glass, was 
most sensibly felt in the execution of coats of arms. It was to a con- 
siderable extent obviated by the method, introduced towards the end 
of the fifteenth century, of abraiding or grinding away the coloured 
surface of ruby glass, so as to leave at pleasure metal charges on 
coloured fields, or coloured charges on metal fields ; and by the dis- 


coTeiy of other kinds of coated glass, which were used in a similar 
manner. The abrasion of the coloured surface of coated glass, must 
necessarily have been a tedious and ezpensiye process, not to be re- 
sorted to except in cases of absolute necessity, and of additional remu- 
neration. Hence misrepresentations of heraldry occur nearly as fre- 
quently in late as in early works ; the complexity of the bearings in 
late shields counterbalancing the facilities of execution afforded by 
the then recent discoveries. I subjoin, by way of illustration, a few 
instances of false heraldry in glass paintings out of a vast multitude 
which I have noticed. It will be observed that in every case the 
seeming mistake may be readily accoimted for on glass -painting 

In the east window of Fawkham Church, Kent, the Boyal arms of 
England, temp, Edw. II», consist simply of a piece of pot-metal yellow 
glass in the form of a heater shield, on which the three lions are 
painted in outline. In LuUingstone Church, £ent, the arms of Brock- 
bull — Gules, a cross argent between twelve cross croslets fitch^es or 
— are represented on a heater shield of a single piece of white glass, 
Ump. Edw. III., the field being white, and the cross croslets stained 
yellow. In North Cray Church, Kent, the bearing of the Bowes family 
— Argent, three bows in pale gules — is represented on a piece of white 
glass, of the sixteenth century, the bows being stained yellow. And 
at Wilton House, Wilts., the whole of the arms of Philip of Spain, the 
husband of Queen Mary, is, with the exception of the bearing of 
Austria, executed in white, yellow, and black. The last example is 
the more striking on account of the care which has been taken to 
represent a contemporary coat of the Herberts — hardly less compli- 
cated than that of King Philip— in its proper colours, by means of 
coated glass etched out in the usual manner. 



T has already been stated, that a principal object 
M\ \^ of the present work is to attempt a classification 
of the different styles of glass-painting, which 
have successively prevailed in this country. Such a 
classification must necessarily be in some measure arbi- 
trary, as well in the number of styles under which the 
varieties are arranged, as in the limits which are assigned 
to each. With regard to these points I have endeavoured 
to consult simplicity and convenience, by avoiding too 
numerous divisions, and by adopting for the earlier periods 
an arrangement corresponding, as nearly as possible, with 
the generally received classification of English Gothic 
Architecture. To the styles prevalent in these periods 
it has seemed most convenient to apply the same terms 
as are commonly used to designate the contemporary 
styles of architecture, viz. the Earli/ English^ the Deco- 
ratedy and the Perpendicular^ as these terms, from the 
currency which they have acquired, will at once suggest 
well-defined periods of time. The style which succeeds 
them has a very marked character, and may with great 
propriety be termed the Cinque Cento. To the remain- 
ing division of the subject it is, from the want of a pecu- 
liar feature of universal occurrence, difficult to apply an 
appropriate term; but, in the hope that this style will 
hereafter be regarded merely as a link between the 


ancient styles and an improved modern one, I have 
tenned it the Intermediate. 

Thus then the yarieties of glass-painting have been 
arranged under five styles, or classes; viz. 

The Early English, which extends from the date of 
the earliest specimens extant, to the year 1280. 

The Decorated, which prevailed from 1280 to 1380. 

The Perpendicular, from 1380 to 1530. 

The Cinque Cento, from 1500 to 1550. 

And the Intermediate, comprehending the period 
which has elapsed from the end of the Cinque Cento 
style down to the present day. 

These styles are treated of with much minuteness, and 
according to a uniform method. The leading character- 
istics of the style are first, described in general terms, 
and they are afterwards examined in detail, under sepa- 
rate heads. This mode of treating the subject may have 
led to occasional repetitions, and may appear tedious to 
some readers, but it is hoped that the examination of 
details, besides being necessary to a full understanding 
of the subject, will prove serviceable to the student who 
is not content with a simple perusal of the work, but 
may find occasion to consult it from time to time, for 
information on particular points. 



Undee this head I propose to class the glass-paintings 
prior to the year 1280. The present style will therefore 
embrace some glass-paintings coeval with the later speci- 
mens of Norman architecture. But on account of the 




paucity of these venerable relics, the small portion of 
time over which they extend, and the general resem- 
blance they bear to other glass-paintings, clearly within 
the Early English architectural period, it appears more 
convenient thus to classify them, than to attempt to 
form them by themselves into a separate and distinct 

The oldest examples to which a date seems capable of 
being assigned with any degree of certainty, appear to 
be those remains in the abbey church of St. Denys in 
France, which are supposed, on good grounds, to have 
been the work of Abbot Suger, in the middle of the 
twelfth century. I very much doubt whether any Eng- 
lish glass-paintings exist of an earlier date than this. 
The earliest that I have hitherto met with are, I believe, 
of a somewhat subsequent period *. 

Early English painted windows are in general almost 
entirely composed either of coloured glass, or of white 
glass. The coloured windows are nearly exclusively 
appropriated to pictures, and the white ones to patterns. 
Both are usually surrounded with a wide coloured 
border, returning along the bottom of the window. 

The coloured windows are perfect mosaics, of the most 
vivid, intense, and gem-like tints. Their tone of colour- 
ing is deep, harmonious, and rich, but not gay: they 

* Du Caumont (AbicSdaire ou Ru- 
dimenU d* ArchSologie, Paris, 1851), 
says no painted glass earlier than the 
twelfth century is known with certainty. 
He observes that the development of the 
art of glass-painting coincides with the 
period of the Crusades, and that it has 
been conjectured that the paintings, 
mosaics, and perhaps the painted win- 
dows of the East, may have inspired the 

creators or renovators of glass-painting 
in the West. But he adds, that too 
much must not be inferred from this 
conjecture, and quotes the opinion of 
M. Emile Thibault, who, without deny- 
ing entirely the influence of the East, 
thinks that the art of painting on glass, 
which is entirely French, has borrowed 
from the East nothing but its orna- 
mentation. — ^p. 333. 



exclude more light than perhaps any other painted win- 
dows, and their general effect is extremely solemn and 
impressive. Some windows of this description, from the 
smallness and number of the pieces of glass they con- 
tain, present at a distance only a rich and confused 
assemblage of various colours; their design being not 
more defined than that of a Turkey carpet, to which they 
have often been likened. 

The white windows have a remarkably brilliant and 
silvery, though cold appearance, owing to the greenish 
blue tint of the glass. Their effect is grand and im- 
posing, especially when the window is of considerable 

There are three principal classes of coloured windows 
in this style, which for the sake of convenient reference 
may be termed. Medallion windows^ Figure and canopy 
windows^ and Jesse windows. 

The first-named class of these windows is undoubtedly 
the most interesting. They are principally filled with 
medallions, or panels, containing coloured pictures, ar- 
ranged in a symmetrical manner, and embedded in a 
mosaic ornamental ground formed of rich colours ^. The 

^ Coloured representations of French 
medallion windows, of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, are given in the 
elaborate work of M. Lasteyrie, JZm- 
Ufire de la Peinture sur verre, plates i., 
iii^ Y., xxiv., xxxiii.; and of similar win- 
dows of the thirteenth century, (see 
Lasteyrie, Si$t, de la PeitUure snr 
verre, p. 92, et sqq.,) in the magnifi- 
cent work on Bourges cathedral, by P^res 
Hartin and Cahier, entitled. Mono- 
graphie de la CaihSdrale de Sources, 
plates i. to xvi. inclusive. There is also 
an engraving in outline of a medallion, 
window at Bonen Cathedral, of the thir- 

teenth centary, in the Essai Historique 
et descripiif sur la Peinture eur verre, 
par E. H. Langlois, Rouen, 1832; 
likewise of a similar window of the thir- 
teenth century, entitled Vitrail de la 
Passion, in the church of St. Germain 
TAuxerrois, in the Annates Archeolo* 
giques, by M. Didron, vol. i. p. 16, and of 
another of the same date and character, 
in the church of Notre Dame de la Cou- 
ture, at Le Mans, in vol. iii. liv. 4. of 
the last-mentioned publication. 

This mode of arranging subjects in 
panels was not confined to glass-paint- 
ings; it was often resorted to iu the 


pictures are usually related to each other, and represent 
successive incidents in a history, or legend, depicted in 
the windows : sometimes they are so selected that the 
result of them, when taken in connexion with each 
other, is to express, at least symbolically, some theo- 
logical proposition or doctrine®. In the lowest panels 
are sometimes represented the donors of the window 
individually, or members of the guilds or fraternities to 
which they belonged, engaged in their respective trades*. 
The pictures are necessarily of small size ; and a great 
many of them often enter into the composition of a single 
window. In the best examples, attempts were made to 
obviate, as far as possible, the confusion arising from 
a multitude of small parts, and to produce distinctness, 
by judiciously employing the darker colours principally 
in the grounds, and the lighter colours in the objects 
represented in the pictures — for the edgings of the 
various panels and outer border of the window— and in 
the foliage, and other ornaments. These efforts to pro- 
duce distinctness were materially assisted by the texture 
of the glass, and the opacity of the iron framework for 
the support of the glass, which in these windows is 
usually moulded to the shape of the principal panels. 

sculpture of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. The wooden folding^ doors at 
the north end of the transept of the 
church of St. Mary of the Capitol, Co- 
logne, which are figured in Boiaser^e's 
Monuments cP Architecture du Rhin 
Inferieur, plate ix., are decorated with 
a series of rectangular panels, each con- 
taining a Scriptural subject represented 
in relief; and other instances might be 
cited. It is possible that these panelled 
arrangements were suggested by some 
of the bas-reliefs of classical antiquity. 

' This is particularly insisted upon by 
the learned authors of the Monogra- 
phie de la CathidrcUs de Bourges, and 
in many cases admits of easy proof. 

** Representations of the latter kind 
are by the French antiquaries termed 
the "signatures" of the windows. See 
the plates of the Monographie de la 
Caihidrale de Bourges, and especially 
" usages civiles A." See also Langlois' 
Essai, cited above, plate i., in which en- 
•gravings of these subjects are given. 



The ancient artists, however, seem to have been sensible 
that such windows were most calculated for near inspec- 
tion, and therefore commonly placed them in the lower 
windows of a building. They also made the pictures 
larger, and fewer in number, when they designed a me- 
dallion window, as was sometimes the case, for a clear- 
story light *• 

Medallion windows, which certainly seem most fitted 
to occupy wide single lights, continued to be employed 
in this country from the earliest period at which painted 
glass is found, until the introduction into architecture of 
windows either composed of two or more narrow lancets, 
or divided into several lights by mullions. After this 
time white pattern windows seem generally to have 
superseded the medallion windows. In France, the 
medallion arrangement was adhered to long after the 
single lancet had been exchanged for the mullioned 
window: the lower lights, as well as the geometrical 
tracery in the heads of the latter windows, being filled 
with a series of panels, or pictures, arranged so as best 
to accord with the architectural divisions of the window'. 

The arrangement of a circular, or wheel window^ when 
the space is free from mullions, does not materially differ 

* This conjecture is supported by Mr. 
Stotbard's description of the arrange- 
ment of the paintings which formerly 
adorned the walls of the painted cham- 
ber, Westminster. "The paintings on 
tbo side of this chamber are arranged 
aronnd the interior in a succession of 
subjects in six band«i, something similar 
to the Bayeux tapestry; and it is not 
improbable that these paintings were 
designed in imitation of tapestry ; each 
band or range of subjects increnscs in 
breadth the further it is removed from 

the eye, so that the uppermost bdnd 
near the ceiling is thrice the breadth of 
the lowest, which is on a line with the 
sight. This was probably done in order 
that the upper subjects might be as per< 
ceptible as the lower, and to counteract 
the reducing effect of distance." — llokc- 
wood's Account of the Painted Cha'U- 
ber, Westminster, 1842, p. 2. 

' See instances, — Lasteyrie, Hist, de 
la Peinture sur verre, plate xxix. ; Mo- 
nographic de In Caihedrale de Bourges, 
plate, ^tude xiii. 



from that of a medallion window. The panels, and the 
subjects they contain, are, however, in general larger in 
size in proportion to the distance at which the window 
is placed from the eye*. 

When the circle is divided by muUions, the centre, 
or eye of the window, is usually filled with a picture in 
colours, and one or two small circular panels, containing 
a head, or other picture in colours, are introduced into 
each of the radiating. lights, and. embedded in a coloured 
or white pattern. Sometimes the radiating lights are 
simply filled with a mere pattern^. In France, after 
the introduction of wheels into the tracery of windows, 
a very starlike appearance was sometimes produced, by 
carrying into the radiating lights of the wheel, straight 
branches of foliage of a light tint, diverging from the 
centre of the window and surrounded with a deep co- 
loured ground*. 

Figure and canopy windotosy strictly speaking, consist 
of one large figure under a low-orowned canopy, together 
occupying the whole of the window within the border ; 
or of two or more such figures and canopies placed one 
above the crf;her. The canopy, like those on the tombs 
and seals of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries^ is rude 
and simple, and bears but a small proportion to the 
figure it covers. The different members of the canopy 

t See a mde woedcut of the remains 
of the glass in the -circalar window at 
the north end of the east transept of 
Canterbary Cathedral, in Qostling's 
" Walk in and aboat the City of Ciin- 
terbury." Canterbory, 1825, p. 327. 

^ See engravings in outline of the 
glass in two early wheel windows Mono- 
graphie de la Cathedrale de Bourges, 
dtude xz., figs. A. and C. ; and coloured 

representations of two later examples in 
Lasteyrie's Sutoire de la PeitUure iur 
verre, plates xxi., xxv. 

' See a coloured representation of this 
arrangement, Lasteyrie's EUtoire de la 
Peinture eur verre, plate x. In another 
plate. No. zx., the whole of the wheel, 
except the eye, is filled with a represen- 
tation of the Day of Judgment. 



are in general variously coloured. The figure is usually 
executed in rieh colours, and put on a coloured ground ^. 
Under the present division of the subject, may, how- 
ever, though with less propriety, be included those win- 
dows which are composed of merely a single figure, on 
a coloured or white ground, without any canopy ; and 
those windows whose design principally consists of one 
large coloured panel, containing a single figure, and sur- 
rounded with a coloured ground, or sometimes smaller 
accessoiy figures ^ 

Windows of the above description, on account of the 
size and fewness of their parts, possess a greater breadth 
of colour, and are more distinct, when viewed from a 
distance, than medallion windows ; for which reason, 
I apprehend, they were generally assigned to the clear- 
story of a building, the extremities of an aisle, &c. 
They appear to have been employed at all periods of 
the style; and in France, at least, in mullioned win- 
dows, as well as in single lancet lights. When the 
lower lights of a mullioned window are very long, small 

^ See plate i., fig. 2, which represents 
the matihited remaras of a French figure 
and canopy window of the thirteenth 
century. See also an Engraving in 
Biown'a "Hist, of York Cathedral," 
plate cix. 

* See a variety of figure and canopy 
windows* and their variations, in plates 
XX., xxi.y xxii., XXV., xxvi., xxvii., and 
^tude xviii. of the Monographic de 
la Cathedrale de Bourges. See also 
plates xi. and xv. of Lasteyric's jB7«- 
ioire de la Peinture sur verre. Amongst 
the varieties of the figure and canopy 
windows, may he classed the French and 
German windows which represent gigan- 
tic figares of St. Christopher. Of these 
there is an example in the clearstory on 

the east side of the south transept of 
Strasburg Cathedral. The figure, which 
is executed in colours, and placed on a 
coloured ground, reaches almost to the 
top of the window; it is, I think, up- 
wards of thirty feet high. It is said to 
have been brought from Dreux Cathe- 
draL (Lasteyrie's Histoire de la Peinture 
sur verre. Part XI.) An exterminating 
war appears to have been waged in 
France against these unfortunate St. 
Christophers, between the years 1768 
and 1784; see Monographie de la Cathe- 
drale de Bourges, p. 142, note 1. M. 
Lasteyrie, p. 116, remarks that the figure 
of Christopher is rarely met with in the 
windows of churches. 


pictures are sometimes inserted above, below, or between 
the iSgures. 

Jesse windows consist of a representation of the tree of 
Jesse, or illuminated chart of the genealogy of Christ". 
The main stem, which is in general almost entirely hid- 
den by the figures, shoots upwards, and branches spring 
from it at intervals forming a series of oval panels, one 
above the other, in which the principal figures are 
placed. Smaller attendant figures are sometimes in- 
troduced outside of the panels, resting their feet 
upon the lateral scrolls of foliage which sprout from 
the main branches. In some windows the design 
is somewhat varied, being composed of a series of 
pictures representing scenes from, or incident to, our 
Saviour's life, and linked together by the branches 
of a tree". 

Jesse windows are in general appropriated to the win- 
dows at the extremities of a building, and are usually 
confined to a single lancet: the number of personages 
or pictures, included in the design, varying with the 
length of the light. 

The coloured pattern windows of this style demand 
a slight notice. They are by no means of common oc- 
currence, but specimens may be met with at all periods 
of the style. 

The earliest example, perhaps, is the window at 

"* For convenience in clasaification I 
designate every design "a Jesse" which 
consists of a nanobcr of subjects con- 
nected by the branches of a tree or vine, 
and having more immediate reference to 
our Saviour's genealogy. 

" See a representation of the remains 
of a very early Jesse in York Minster, 
Browne's " History of the Edifice of the 


Metropolitan Church of St. Peter, York. 
Lond. 1845, plate cxxiii. See also an 
engraving of another very curious exam- 
ple, of the same subject, in the east win- 
dow of St. Cunibert's Church, Cologne, 
Boisserdie's Monumentt d? Architecture 
du JRhin Inferieur. Munich and Stutt- 
gard, 18i2, plate Ixxiii. 



St, Denys, figured in the sixth plate of M. Lasteyrie's 
elaborate work on the History of Glass-Painting, and 
which resembles a Eoman tessellated pavement in de- 
sign. Other early instances partake more of the cha- 
racter of a medallion window, being principally com- 
posed of panels, filled with foliaged ornaments instead 
of pictures ^ The later specimens consist of a mixture 
of white and coloured pattern- work. They occur in the 
pierced triforiums of various continental buildings, and 
resemble Decorated glass -paintings more than Early 
English '^. I have not hitherto met with an English 
example of a genuine coloured Early English pattern 

The white windows^ above alluded to, sometimes con- 
sist exclusively of patterns, sometimes of an intermix- 
ture of heraldry, or coloured pictures in panels, with 
white patterns. They appear to have been of rather 
a more late introduction than coloured windows. The 
earliest specimen that I have as yet met with in Bug- 
land, is perhaps a little older than the middle of the 
thirteenth century. 

Early English white patterns are composed of orna- 
mented quarries**, or of a series of panels, furnished 
with narrow borders, and filled with foliaged scroll- 
work in outline, the panels themselves being (embedded 
either in ornamented quarries, or in foliage, disposed 
in scrolls, or other forms, and drawn in outline on 

" See plates iii. and v. of Lasteyrie's 
SUtoire de la Peiniure sur verre. 

* See plate xxiL of Lasteyrie's Sis- 
ioire de la PeitUure sur verre, in which 
several instances of this kind of window 
are given. 

4 See an example, plate i. fig. 1, 
taken from one of the east windows 
of West well Church, Kent. Its date 
is about the middle of the thirteenth 



white glass'. Little, pieces of coloured glass are of tea 
introduced by way of enrichment amongst the -quarries, 
or into the borders, and middles of the panels, &c. The 
earlier white pattern windows were used in single lancet 
lights. It is seldom that any other subject is introduced 
into them than a small shield of arms, and even this is 
by no means of frequent occurrence. Early English 
windows, consisting of mere patterns, may be met with 
at the latest period of the style; but as the style ad- 
vanced, and lancet windows became longer and nar- 
rower, and especially after the introduction of mul- 
lioned windows, the white patterns were often enriched 
by the insertion into them, at regular intervals, of 
coloured panels, containing pictures. We may also re- 
mark, in Early English muUioned windows, or even late 
triplets of lancets, the first indication of a practice which 
extensively prevailed in the succeeding style, that of 
carrying a belt of low -topped canopies, with figures 
under them, like a horizontal stripe of colour, right 
across the lower lights, the remainder of which is filled 
with a white pattern. 

The head of an Early English mullioned window sel- 
dom exhibits a greater amount of colour than do its 
lower lights. Circular panels, containing coloured sub- 
jects, or coats of arms, sometimes occupy the centres of 
the tracery circles, their foils, when the circles are cus- 
pidated, being filled with white glass bearing an outline 
pattern. In French windows, however, the head of the 

' See plates 4 and 5, both of wbicli 
are taken from specimens belonging to 
the close of the tliirteenth century. See 
also a variety of patterns from Salisbury 
Cathedral, Monographiede la CathMrale 

de Bourges, Grisailles E. A compart- 
ment of one of each of the five sisters at 
York Minster, is represented in Browne's 
history of that edifice (cited above) plates 
Ixi., Ixiii., Ixv., Ixvii., and Ixix. 



window is often richly coloured, while the lower lights 
are nearly white ". 

One may perceive, I think, to a certain extent, in the 
general preference for coloured or white windows in 
a building, the prevalent taste of the time, not only as 
regards fondness for colour, but for gloomy or light 
interiors. Thus in the twelfth, and early part of the 
thirteenth century, when the window openings, how- 
ever spacious, were at long intervals apart, the glass- 
paintings used throughout the whole building were 
generally dark with colour. Afterwards, in proportion 
as the windows became more numerous, and were placed 
closer together, the richer glass-paintings at first were 
confined to the further extremities of the edifice, as for 
instance the east and west windows of the nave, or even 
to the central lancet of an eastern or western triplet; 
the rest of the windows, both of the aisles and clear- 
story, being filled with white patterns, and at length 
they were dispensed with altogether. The effect of 
these arrangements, coupled with the greatly increased 
number of apertures, was materially to promote the 
admission of light into the building. 

The most interesting series of English picture windows 
of this period that I have met with, is in Canterbury 
Cathedral ^ Remains of painted glass, of an earlier cha- 
racter than this glass, are scattered about the country, 
but they are chiefly valuable as specimens of detail. Of 
the Canterbury glass, however, notwithstanding the 
severe injuries it has sustained at different times, by 

■ See an example, Monographie de 
la CcftkSdraU de Bourses, plate, Gri- 
aaiUea F. 

* Part of one of these windows is en- 
graved, Le Motfen Age et la Renaissance, 
torn. V. 



actual yiolence, as well as neglect, and by being dis- 
placed in the course of alterations and removals, enough 
still remains, not only to afford abundant examples of 
detail, but also, with the aid of the descriptions left 
of it by Sumner'* and Gostling*, pretty clearly to 
indicate the general nature and arrangement of the 
windows, as they originally existed in the choir of 
the building ^ 

It would seem on the whole, that the lower and upper 
lights of the aisles, as well as those in the lower clear- 
story, throughout that portion of Canterbury Cathedral 
which lies eastward of the central tower, were occupied 
with medallion windows ' ; that the lights in the upper 
clearstory were filled with two large figures apiece, one 
above the other • ; and that the design of the two cir- 
cular windows at the ends of the east transept partook 
of the nature of medallion windows, the subjects con- 
tained in them however being more simple, and of larger 
size, than those in the lower medallion windows. This 
arrangement coincides generally with that of the win- 

* Snmner'B "Antiqaities of CSanter- 
bury." Lond. 1640, p. 385. 

* Qostling'g " Walk in and abont the 
City of Canterbury." Canterbury, 1777, 
p. 329. (2nd ed.) 

y The former choir of Canterbury Ca- 
thedral was destroyed by fire in 1174. 
The first celebration of divine .service 
took place in the present choir in 1180, 
the monks being separated by a wooden 
partition, "having three glass windows 
in it," firom the unfinished part of the 
edifice. In 1184 the present choir was 
completed. The translation of Becket's 
body to the shrine in Trinity Cbftpel took 
place in 1220. (Willis's " Architectural 
History of Canterbury Cathedral," Lond. 

1845.) No documents have hitherto been 
found by which the date of the present 
glass can be determined. It is, I think, 
of the first half of the thirteenth cen- 
tury ; the examples forming a series 
extending over the whole of this period, 
and perhaps a short time immediately 
preceding and subsequent to it. 

' Sumner's description of some of 
these windows is transcribed in the Ap- 
pendix (C). 

* It is clear from Qostling's descrip- 
tion, that the windows in the clearstory 
represented the ancestors of Christ, 
enumerated in St. Matthew's and St. 
Luke's Qospels. 



dows of Bourges, and other French cathedrals; and 
must, when the glass was perfect, have produced an 
equally gloomy and solemn effect. 

Some magnificent white pattern windows, coeval with 
the building, still exist in Salisbury CathedraP. And 
if, as I conceive, nearly all the windows of that edifice 
(with the exception at least of the three west windows 
of the nave, which were always richly coloured "), were 
similarly ornamented, the interior of the building must 
originally have been almost as light as it now is, and 
consequently must have presented a totally different 
aspect from the choir of Canterbury ^. Other fine and 
very perfect examples of white pattern windows, are 
afforded by the five sisters at York ®. These are rather 
later than the Salisbury windows, and there is a great 
diminution of colour in their borders compared with 

^ Viz. one at each end of both the 
allies of the nave, and three at the south 
end of the east transept. These win- 
dows are, however, in a mutilated state. 
Modem copies of some other glass have 
been inserted in some of the other win- 
dows of the cathedral. Salisbury Cathe- 
dral was commenced in 1220, and com- 
pleted and dedicated in 1258 : the first 
celebration of divine service in the new 
bnilding took place in 1225; and in 
1226, William Longespee, Earlof Sarum, 
was buried there; and the bodies of St. 
Osmond, Bp. Roger, and Bp. Jooeline, 
translated thither from Old Sarum. See 
Britton's "History and Antiquities of 
the Cathedral Church of Salisbury." 
Lend. 1836. 

* Some of the glass in these windows 
ia said to have been brought from Nor- 
mandy some years ago. There is, how- 
ever, a good deal of English glass in 
them, much mixed. Amongst other 
subjects there are, if I mistake not. 

the remains of a fine Early English 

^ The wiudows of the chapter-house 
of Salisbury appear to have been al>o 
filled with white patterns. Some of the 
glass is represented in one of the plates 
of Britton's History of the Cathedral 
(cited above). 

It is a curious fact, coupled with the 
restricted use of colour in the windows, 
that the roofs of both the nave and 
chapter-house of Salisbury Cathedral are 
adorned with slight paintings, repre- 
senting foliated ornaments, and executed 
principally with a sort of brown colour. 
The paintings on the roof of the nave 
are unfortunately in g^eat measure ob- 
scured by Mr. Wyatt's yellow wash, with 
which they are covered. 

' A general view of these windows 
is given in plate xxviii. of Britton's 
" History of York Cathedral." The five 
small windows above the sisters are filled 
with modern glass. 



those at Salisbury. Their general effect is however ex- 
ceedingly grand and striking. 

An early example, but on a comparatively small scale, 
of a richly coloured window placed between two white 
pattern windows, is at Westwell Church, Kent. The 
east end of this edifice is lighted by three independent 
lancets, the centre one of which contains the remains of 
a remarkably fine Jesse '. In one of the others are the 
remains of a beautiful quarry pattern with a rich border, 
a sketch of which is given in plate 1. The third lancet, 
which in all probability was once ornamented like the 
last, is now filled with modern white glass. 

A fine instance of a composition consisting of an inter- 
mixture of coloured panels with white patterns, is 
afforded by the five lancet windows at the east end of 
Chetwode Church, Bucks.* Specimens, in a more or 
less perfect state, of small white pattern windows, with 
or without panels inserted in them, are very common 
towards the close of the style. 

The following summary of the most prominent points 

' In Hasted's " History of Kent," pub- 
lished in 1797, vol. vii. p. 426, (second 
edition,) it is stated tliat this window 
consisted of four ovals, each containing 
a figure sitting, crowned, and holding 
a sceptre. The two lower ovals, however, 
were blown in by the wind and destroyed 
Bome years ago. The two upper ovals 
would probably ere this have shared the 
same fate, had they not been carefully 
re-leaded a few years since by Mr. Wille- 
ment, under the directions of William 
Twopeny, Esq., of the Temple, the old 
lead-work being then quite decayed. 
The figure of the Virgin Mary occupies 
the lowest oval, and that of the Father 
Almighty the upper; al)ove which is 

a representation of the Holy Ghost. In 
a History of the Old and New Testament 
(Mus. Brit., MSS. Cotton, Nero, c. iv.) 
is a Jesse (p. 8) consisting of a recum- 
bent figure of Jesse, above whom is 
David, then the Virgin Mary, then 
Christ, and the Holy Ghost above all. 
Tlie MS. appears to be of the twelfth 

» A general view of these windows ia 
given in Lysons' "Buckinghamshire," 
p. 540, and a more detailed drawing of 
some of the glass at p. 488. The letter- 
press should be consulted along with 
these plates, since Mr. Lysons admits in 
it that he has taken some liberties with 
the design in the Inst plate. 


connected with the details of this style, may prove 
a useful introduction to the more minute, and necessarily 
dry and tedious investigation of these matters, which 
completes the present section. 

Thefoliaged ornaments are very conventional and un- 
natural, closely resembling the forms used in !Norman 
and Early English sculpture. 

Scrolls of foliage are not formed out of one continuous 
tendril, but of a series of short stalks, *or leaves ; the 
scroll therefore, whether executed in white or coloured 
glass, appears as if it were divided into a number of 
short lengths of foliage; this eflfeot is increased when 
the scroll is coloured, as in that case each length of 
foliage is frequently of a diflferent colour from the ad- 
joining lengths *". Foliaged and other patterns, on white 
glass, are usually boldly outlined, and rendered more 
distinct by covering the surrounding ground with a 
cross-hatching of thin dark lines. Early English white 
pattern windows in England generally consist of pa- 
nelled arrangements, the foliated scroll-works being 
confined within the panels, and seldom extending from 
one panel into another; when this is the case, it indi- 
cates lateness of style. 

The figures are tall, stiff, and disproportioned, like 
those in the illuminations and sculpture of this period. 
In the earlier examples, the draperies appear almost to 

^ See for example the white scroll- 
works la plate 5, and the white pattern 
from Salisbarj Cathedral, in Shaw's 
** Encyclopsedia of Ornament." See also 
a ooloared scroll-work from Canterbuiy 
Cathedral, In the last publication : and 
other coloured scroll-works in some of 
the plates of the Monographie de la 

Caihedrale de Bxywrge^, 

The general resemblance borne by 
the Early English scroll-work to the 
Antique, will at once appear by com- 
paring a few specimens of the former 
with the plates of any work treating on 
classical ornament. 



adhere to the limbs, admitting of au exaggerated de- 
velopment of the joints. The earlier heads remind us of 
the Byzantine school, the later are often well conceived, 
and possess a certain character of the antique; all are 
rudely executed. The features, and folds of the drapery, 
are very strongly outlined K Pink coloured glass is gene- 
rally employed in the naked parts of the figures. 

The glass of this period usually is, and always appears 
to be, very thick and substantial. The white is generally 
of a bluish green tint. The ruby is very streaky, and 
uneven in depth. The yellow is a pot-metal^ cold and 
greenish, and generally light. The blue is of a pure 
sapphire tint, one sort being very deep, the other quite 
light. Blue and red are the predominating colours 
in medallion windows, being extensively employed in 

I now proceed to a minute examination of the details 
of Early English glass-paintings, under the following 
separate heads. 

1. Texture and colour of the glass. 

The glass of this period, though sufficiently trans- 
parent, when unobscured by decomposition, to enable 
objects to be easily seen through it, is yet less homo- 
geneous than modern glass, and consequently not so per- 
fectly transparent. This peculiarity in the texture of the 
material imparts to the lightest coloured pot-metals, and 
even to the white glass itself, a remarkable degree of 
richness and strength, admirably adapted to harmonize 
with the stiff and hard execution of the paintings. It 

* See plates 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. 


also causes the colours to preserve their distinctive tints, 
when wrought in minute pieces into mosaics. 

The blue glass of this period in general possesses 
a peculiar tint, like that of a sapphire. There are two 
kinds of it, the one very deep, the other light. The 
darker kind is usually employed in the grounds of 
panels or patterns, the lighter more commonly in dra- 
peries and ornaments than in grounds. 

The deep Early English blue is sui generis. The 
colour may be best described as a deep purple grey. It 
has not, or very rarely has, any of that red purple hue 
which is constantly met with in modem glass, and none 
of that heaviness of tone which may be remarked in the 
later kinds of blue glass. This sort of Early English glass, 
unlike any other glass that I have met with, is a cool, 
though by no means cold, blue, of exceeding brilliancy 
and great softness. Smalt is the nearest water-colour 
that resembles it. The intensity of the colour is more 
apparent when the glass i& seen at a distance than when 
near. When held before a lighted candle some speci- 
mens appear of a soft grey purple tint, others retain 
their blueness. 

Of the light blue glass there are many varieties of 
tint. Some pieces are merely lighter shades of the deep 
blue, and when held before a candle present the same 
peculiarities as the deeper specimens, but some are of 
a colder tint, and when held before a candle appear to 
be a blue green colour. 

The beauty of the deep Early English blue is, I think, 
unrivalled. Such a combination of softness, purity, and 
brilliancy as this glass presents I have observed in 
flowers such as the hyacinth, in the sapphire stone, and 



in some other natural objects, but not in any manufac- 
tured substance ^ 

The ruby is exceedingly rich, and generally of a crim- 
son hue. It is in general very irregularly coloured, 
some parts, even of a very small piece of glass, fre- 
quently being of so deep a red as to appear black at 
a little distance, whilst others, from the absence of 
colouring matter, are almost white ; the colour is gene- 
rally in streaks, and appears as if it had been laid on 
with a brush. Occasionally pieces may be found, as in 
the north rose of Lincoln Cathedral, and in the windows 
at Canterbury, as smooth in colour as the early Perpen- 
dicular ruby, which it also much resembles in tint. 
Such pieces, however, seem to have been cut from sheets 
which in other parts are streaky in colour. All the 
ruby in the windows at Salisbury is streaky, though 
not so streaky as some. Some very curious particulars 
relating to the ruby of this, and the Decorated period, 
have already been mentioned in one of the notes to 
the Introduction; to which the reader is referred for 
further information on the subject. 

The white glass throughout this style varies much in 
tint, and in its power of resisting the corroding action of 
the atmosphere : two kinds of glass are not unfrequently 
met with in the same painting. Some of the earliest, 
when examined closely, is almost of a cobalt hue, though 
when contrasted with other colours, and seen at a dis- 
tance, it appears white: some is indeed almost quite 
white. The sort most commonly met with, especially 

^ After the Early English epoch there 
18 no really good hlue till the cinque 
cento. That at Lichfield and at York 
ig R8 fine as the Early English in colour, 

and even superior to it in tone. It is 
the most artistically coloured hlae to be 
found in the whole series of glass-punt- 
ings that I have yet seen. 


in the latter part of this period, is of a rich sea-green 
tint; some specimens are much bluer than others. It 
Taries much in thickness, and consequently in depth of 
colour. This occasions varieties of tint in a window 
wholly composed of white glass of the same manufac- 
ture, especially when it is much corroded or weather- 
stained : for the brown film which attaches itself to all 
the glass without distinction, is more apparent in the 
thin pieces, than in the thick, being to a certain extent 
lost in the deeper local tint of the latter. The yellow 
glass, which is a pot-metal, is in general light, and of 
a cold tone: but sometimes it is very deep, rich, and 
golden : it never partakes of an orange hue. 

Green varies from a cold, though very rarely raw, 
tint, to a fine rich olive. Many tints of it often occur 
in the same glass-painting. 

Purples and pinks may be met with of almost every 
shade of colour and intensity. A curious fact in refer- 
ence to the texture of a piece of Early English purple 
glass which I have examined, has already been men- 
tioned in one of the notes to the Introduction. 

A kind of yellowish pink glass, resembling salmon 
colour, is extensively employed as a flesh colour in Early 
English glass-paintings. That used for the figures of 
men is in general deeper, and redder, than that used for 
the figures of women and children. In some specimens, 
partaking more of a pink hue, the colour is streaky, as 
in ruby glass. 

2. Mode of execution. 

The glass-paintings of this period, whether consisting 
of pictures or patterns, are full of strong dark lines of 


enamel brown, which are used not only to delineate the 
forms of the objects represented, but also for the pur- 
pose of heightening, if not wholly representing, the 
deeper shadows. These lines are in general, I think, 
thickest in works executed about the middle of the 
thirteenth century, but at all times their breadth is re- 
markable, as is also their fulness of colour, to which 
their blackness is attributable. In large figures, and 
their canopies, &c., the lines are, in their widest parts, 
often twice or thrice the width of the leads. When 
used to represent shadows, they taper off to a fine point. 
They always seem to have been drawn with a bold firm 
hand, and a stiff and elastic pencil full of colour. These 
lines, by breaking and cutting up the work, have a ten- 
dency to impart a mosaic appearance to it, even when 
the largest pieces of glass enter into its composition. 
They always however render the drawing distinct and 
effective, notwithstanding the strong colouring of the 
glass, which is naturally calculated to kill and obscure 
the painting ^ 

Outline patterns on glass are frequently rendered more 
distinct, by cross-hatching the ground around them with 
thin black lines. These, although often as fine as a hair, 
are as black and full of colour as the thick lines before 
mentioned"*. When seen at a distance, the cross-hatch- 
ing is apt to resemble a shaded ground. The cross- 
hatching is in general much coarser in the upper win- 
dows of a building, than in the lower windows; it is 
sometimes omitted in the upper windows. 

Smear shadows are extensively employed in the dra- 

» See plates 3, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 
and 15. 


Sec plates 13, 13, 14, 15, 1, 4, 

and 5. 


penes of the figures^ in the architectural parts of the 
composition, and in the foliage and other ornaments, 
sometimes alone, sometimes in addition to the strong 
shading lines above described. The shadows always 
appear to have been put in broadly, and at once, with 
a thin wash of brown paint, and when requisite, are 
softened off towards the edges, by a few streaky strokes 
of the brush ^ I have seldom noticed any attempt at 
heightening a shadow by a second application of colour 
on the same side of the glass, but a second coat, corre- 
sponding with the deeper parts of the shadow, is often 
to be found on the opposite side of the glass. In general 
these washes are too faint to be distinguished at a dis- 
tance. A thicker coat of brown was also used as a colour^ 
in certain cases. The hair and beards of the figures 
are usually covered with it ®, as are occasionally horses, 
and other animals. Diaper patterns are not uncommon 
during this period, they are scraped out of a smear 

3. FiGURBS. 

The figures of this period are in general dispropor- 
tionately tall and slender ; and their lower limbs are far 
too long for the body and arms. The draperies are full 
of small folds, like the antique, but are stiff, scanty, and 
close. In the earlier specimens they are wrapped so 
tightly about the body, as to appear as if they adhered 
to it, the joints of the limbs being often shewn through 

■ See pktm 9, 10, 11. See aim an 
excellent representation of smear shad- 
ing, Monographie de la Cathidrale de 
Bowrffety ^tode iii. I should eantion 
the student that in many of the ftill- 
sized plates of the last-mentioned work, 
the shading it very incorrectly given : ' 

this is particularly the case with Itnde 
X., in which lighU are introduced, which 
can have no exi>tence in the glass itself. 
Even ^tude iii. is not quite free from 
this defect, 
o See pUtes 9, 10, 11. 


the garments in an unnatural and extravagant manner. 
The naked figures are attenuated and meagre, and the 
details badly and inartificially drawn. The hands and 
feet more nearly resemble combs or rakes, than the ex- 
tremities of the human form. The joints and knuckles 
are often marked by a couple of thin straight lines 
drawn right across the hand or foot^. More skill is 
however shewn in the treatment of the heads, which in 
their general contour usually bear a certain resemblance 
to the antique. The faces are in general oval, and 
nearly of the classical proportion; the eyes large, the 
mouth small and well formed, and the chin round- 
In the earlier examples, the hair of the head is usually 
arranged in flat curved plaits, (which have not been 
inaptly compared to maccaroni^) or in crisp short well- 
defined locks. The eye is apt to have a spectral or 
staring expression, from the too great exposure of its 
pupil. The beard is symmetrically smoothed down on 
each side of the chin, and the parting of the masses of 
hair in the middle of the chin is carefully marked ; in 
small figures, by an oval dot, or stroke. The eye-brows, 
outline of the nose, and opening of the mouth, are in 
general strongly delineated. 

In the later figures, the hair both of the head and 
beard becomes more flowing; and a more natural ex- 

' Plates 1, 2, 3, and 6, may suffice thirteenth centary figures, see MonO' 
to shew the general character of £arly graphie de la Cathedrale de Bowrget, 
English figares, of the middle and latter See also two plates of our Lord's temp- 
part of the thirteenth century. A re- tation, and part of a Jesse and another 
presentation of a figure of the early part ' subject, of the thirteenth century, from 
of the thirteenth century, or perhups the glass in the Troyes Cathedral, In 

close of the twelfth, is given in Browne's 
•' History of the Edifice of the Metro- 
poliUn Church of St. Peter, York," 
plate cxxiii. For other examples of 

Arnaud's Voyage Areh^ologique et Pi/- 
ioresque dant le Departement de VAuhe, 
et dans Vanden Dioche de Troget, 4to. 
Troyes, 1843. 


pression is given to the eye, although it still continues 
full, and ia, like the eye-brow and eye-lids, strongly 
marked \ 

Notwithstanding their rudeness, and defective draw- 
ing, the Early English figures in general possess great 
merit. Simple and unaffected, they are often grandly 

Eeadi from Bomgea Cathedral. 

conceived, though they may be imperfectly executed, 
through the artist's want of technical skill, A deep 
and lively feeling often pervades the entire figure, and 
its countenance, though frequently distorted and ex- 
aggerated, is apt to exhibit both expression and cha- 

* Eieellent repKieoUtioni of tbrm 
brads from Abbot Sutcer'a glan at Si;. 
Denyi, the full lize of Vbe originals, nre 
^Ten xn the Monograp\ig ds la Cathi- 
draU dt Bourga, ^ude vii. Copie* of 
two of them are in the cut aboye. The 
(■rliot head in the pretent work !■ 
given in plate 10, fig. 1. Though in 
rcmlitj DOl; a little anterior to the mid- 

dle of the thirteenth centnr;, it ha* tba 
cbaracteristica of a much earlier exam- 
ple. Fig. 2 in the game plate is of the 
middle of the tliirtecnth century, aa 
are those represented \a plates 7 and 
II. The heads in plate 9 are of the 
latter half oF the thirteenth century, and 
that in plate 8 is of the close of the 
Early English period. 


racter, in a far more striking degree than is usually the 
case with later works. 

The Early English artists were particularly happy in 
their representations of divine and sainted personages, 
the peculiarity of the style, as shewn in the formality 
and severity of the countenances, and the stiflf and un- 
natural character of the draperies, contributing to pro- 
duce a solemn effect well suited to the subject. 

A similar style of drawing to that already noticed, 
may be observed in the painting of other objects besides 
the human figure. Some things however, such as ani- 
mals, trees, water, and clouds, are frequently drawn and 
coloured in a manner so conventional, and at variance 
with nature, as to require some ingenuity to discover 
their meaning. 

The head and naked parts of the human figure are, 
as before mentioned, most commonly composed of flesh- 
coloured glass', which from the combined effect of 
shading and age usually acquires a rich brown tint. 
Sometimes however only white glass is used, instead of 

The heads of the figures are in general boldly and 
strongly outlined, and smear shaded, as before men- 
tioned. The smear shading is however never carried 
over the eye-balls. In large figures, though the salmon 
or flesh colour is used for the rest of the countenance, 
the eyes are often made of white glass ; and the beard 
and hair are frequently represented on pieces of blue, 
green, yellow, or other coloured glass, leaded in. 

The costume of the figures affords too some criterion 
of date. Eobes, whether lay or ecclesiastical, are gene- 

' This is represented in the coloured plates of this work. 



rally short, in male figures hardly reaching to the ancles, 
and in female scarcely more than touching the ground ■. 
They are often ornamented with a jewelled band, some- 
times expressed merely by black outlines, sometimes by 
a strip of glass of a different colour to the robe, passing 
horizontally right across the middle of the garment, 
wholly irrespective of folds. 

In the ecclesiastical dress, the other chief distinguish- 
ing features are the triangular shape and flatness of the 
mitre, and the simplicity of the staff, which last is seldom 
more than a mere crook *• 

The female dress usually consists of a close garment 
with tight sleeves, and a loose robe or cope, and shoes. 
The head is sometimes bare, but more commonly draped. 

The male dress usually appropriated to prophets and 
dignified persons, likewise consists of a close garment, 
confined at the waist and furnished sometimes with 
tight, sometimes with loose sleeves, a robe or cope, and 
long hose, to which is often added a cap, greatly re- 
sembling the Phrygian bonnet ". The costume of ordi- 
nary persons is generally a short tunic confined at the 
waist, and reaching nearly to the knees, and sometimes 
a short cloak ; when this is used, the legs of the figure 
are generally represented encased in hose, or a loose sort 
of stocking setting in folds about the leg, and with or 
without shoes : otherwise the legs are left bare. 

Military figures are usually armed with the hauberk 
and coiffe de mailles, and sometimes, in the later exam- 
ples especially, with the chausses of mail. The sword 

" See, for instance, plates 2 and 5. 

* See plate 2. 

^ This is particularly shewn in the 

representations of Suger's glass at St. 
Denys, Monographie de la C<Uhidr<Ue 
de BourjeSj dtucles vii. and vi. 



has a large round pommel, and pointed tapering blade, 
very broad towards the hilt, and having apparently 
a channel or groove down the middle. 

The malicious expression of the countenance of aa 
executioner often reminds one of an antique mask. 

4. Foliage, &c. 
By far the greater part of Early English decorative 
work is composed of foliage. The form of the leaves is, 
as before mentioned, very conventional and unnatural. 
The earlier foliage partakes cure, 

much of the character of the 
antique, and closely resem- 
bles the imitations of the 
ancient honeysuckle met 
with in Norman carvings*. 
The later foliage is more 
like that exhibited in the 
architectural details of Early English work, firom which 
it appears to be taken: the bulbous projecting lobes of 
the leaf are often attempted to be represented in the 
glass by means of a fine outline^. It is frequently 
formed into beautiftil concentric spiral scrolls, broken 
into short lengths by the overlapping of the leaves. 

i Bonlar, tram lott KlDfUr. 

■ Cat G ii from a border in one of the 
cleantorj windows of York Miaster. 
A coionred repreflentnttan of the same 
border, but on n mnch larger scale, is 
giten in an instructive serie* of einm- 
f\et, arranged nccording to their order 
in point of age, in Browne's "Hiatorj 
of the Metropolitan Cburch of St. Peter, 
Torli," plate oxiriii. It appears co- 
eral with the curious Jeue figured in 
plate cixiii.of the last-mentioni'd work; 

and is pcrhapi of the eloM of the 
twelfth, or more probably of the earlf 
part of the thirteenth century. Soma 
foliage of the flnt half oF the thirtoenth 
ceuturj ii represented in Boieser^a 
Moimmtatt d' ArchUecturi du Xlu» In- 
ferirur, plate lixii. Another eiampla 
iveo in plate 16, fig. 1, of the pre- 

Sco plates *, 6, 13, and 14. 


Wten the scroll ifl executed in coloured glass, each 
length is usually of a different colour to the adjoining 
lengths. Bunches of grapes are frequently introduced 
amongst tlie foliage '. 

In all cases the fonn of the leaf is delineated with 
great precision and force. The trefoil and cinquefoil 
are the most common terminations. The leaves are 
occasionally shaded with smear shading, hut their curves 
and overlappings are most commonly expressed by mere 

Foliage is likewise employed in a variety of ways to 
ornament the straight or curved narrow fillets of glass, 
so often used in E^Iy English decorations : but though 
necessarily of different form, it is of the same character 
as that already described *. 

A very common ornament for a fillet, is a row of 
beads the width of the fillet, on a black ground ''. And 
another as common, appears to be taken from the Ionic 
ovolo fillet. A representation of the last is here given. 

HiB Bo>Uap«d OnuLmsnt, atuiton Bsmnin (HiiiKib, OxABflibln. 

and having to refer to it again, I shall by way of dis- 
tinction call it the scalloped ornament Various combi- 

' fat aumpks, I mmt reftr to the 1 * See plate 12, fig. 2. 
cDgnvingi mlrod; ueDtiODed in the '■See y\»te 16, flg. 2. 
Hotel to the present atjle. I 



nations of this ornament are to be met with in Early 
English glass - paintings ^ 

5. Borders. 

The ordinary border almost invariably has an edging 
on each side, of one or more narrow strips of white or 
coloured glass ; or a row of beads, in lieu of one of the 
strips; and the interior space is usually filled with a 
pattern composed of various combinations of foliage, or 
of foliage and fillets ; and occasionally, of a series of 
small medallions formed of foliage, and each containing 
a figure, like the medallion moulding in architecture. 
The pattern is usually variegated, and the general 
ground of the border deep blue or red. Sometimes, 
however, while the edging of the border retains its 
colour, the interior space is chiefly filled with white 
glass, with foUage or some other kind of ornament 
painted on it. 

Such borders, when the window is wide, and consists 
of one light only, are generally carried quite round the 
opening ; and the little square which is often formed at 
each extremity of the bottom of the window, by the 
intersection of the edgings to the border, is commonly 
filled with a distinct pattern, or ornament. The width 
of the border is generally one-sixth of the entire width 
of the window. In very large windows it is about one- 
eighth or one-ninth, varying however from one-fourth 
to one- thirteenth, or thereabouts. 

' < The rose in plate 15, and those in 
the border of the light in plate 5, are 
but combinations of the scalloped orna- 
ment. See also the aureoles or glories 

in plate 17, the coloured triangular or- 
nament in plate 1, and the Decorated 
flower in cut 17. 



Sometimes however, whatever may be the date of the 
window, a few plain strips of coloured or white glass, 
or a row of beads, supplies the place of a more elaborate 
border. In the latest examples, borders are to be met 
with formed of quatrefoils, fleurs-de-lis, or other figures 
placed at regular distances apart, on a coloured ground. 
Their breadth sometimes does not exceed one-nineteenth 
of the whole Mridth of the window *. 

6. Paiterns. 

The pattern on an Early English quarry, whether 
formed of white or coloured glass, in general consists 
of a flower, or some other figure, or bunch of foliage, of 
the same conventional character as those which usually 
occur in Early English ornamental work, and sometimes, 
in the later examples, of a rudely shaped fleur-de-lis. 
The quarry is generally banded on all, or two only of its 
sides, in such a manner, as, when several quarries are 
arranged together, to produce in concert with the lead 
lines, an interlaced pattern independent of the ornament 
on the quarry. The pattern is in general very strongly 
outlined, and the ground of the quarry 'is commonly 
covered with a cross-hatching of thin black lines *. 

The coloured patterns which fill the interstices be- 
tween the panels of a medallion window, are firequently 
formed of concentric scrolls of foliage, variously coloured. 

' See a yariety of borders, Browne*! 
"History of the Metropolitan Church 
of St. Peter, York," plates cxxviii., Ixi., 
UiiL, Ixv., Izvii., Ixix. : Lastcyrie, His- 
ioire de la Peiniure 9ur verre, plates 
xxxiY., i., iii., ▼., xi., xvi., xxiv., xxix., 
&c. : Monographie de la Cathidrale de 
Bfmrgee, passim, and especially some on 
a large scale, Motaiqve* bordaree, Sfc, D. 

(Some examples of medallion borders 
are given in ^tude vili.) See also plates 
1 and 6 of the present work. I ought 
perhaps to mention, that fig. 1, plate 16, 
is part of a border. A coloured border 
Arom Canterbury Cathedral is given in 
Shaw's " £ncycIop»dia of Ornament." 
* See plates 1 and 15. 


and embedded in a coloured ground. They are some- 
times of a geometrical character, consisting of a reticu- 
lated work of narrow strips of coloured glass, between 
which coloured ornamented quarries are inserted, or, of 
small circular ornamented pieces of glass of one colour 
placed close together, on a plain or ornamented ground 
of a diflferent colour. Sometimes the pattern has a tegu- 
lated appearance, pieces of glass of one colour, edged 
with pieces of glass of another colour, being so arranged 
as to resemble the scales of a fish. The variety of these 
patterns is however too great to be particularly enume- 
rated. Eepresentations of several examples are given 
in the Monographic de la Cathedrale de Bourges^ and in 
M. Lasteyrie's * ' History of Glass Painting." 

White patterns are composed sometimes merely of 
white quarries, in which case the same ornament is re- 
peated on each quarry in the same light, but more fre- 
quently they consist of various panelled arrangements. 
In these compositions, the whole or greater part of the 
area of the window within the border is occupied with 
panels of various shapes and sizes, each bordered with 
ornamented fillets and rows of beads, narrow strips of 
white glass, &c., and containing within itself a distinct 
foliaged pattern drawn in outline on white glass. The 
panels sometimes only touch one another, sometimes 
they appear as if they were laid upon each other, the 
larger panels being undermost, and the smaller ones 
uppermost '. When the whole area is not covered with 
the panels, the interstices between them are filled with 

' The principle of forming patterns | is not peculiar to Early English glass- 
by a combination of various figures in I painting^, but may be recognised in 

such a manner as to suggest the idea of 

works even as late as the seventeenth 

their bring overlaid, one upon the other, century. 


white ornamented quarries, or with foliaged patterns, 
drawn in outline on white glass ^ 

It is curious to trace the various modifications of the 
panelled arrangement until it was merged in the running 
patterns of the succeeding style. The first indication of 
the change is in those examples in which the panels are 
represented without broad and distinct borders, their out- 
lines being marked with a single line of colour only ; still 
later, the coloured lines will be found to have entirely 
lost their character as borders, the foliaged pattern not 
being confined within their limits, but spreading itself 
over other parts of the window independently of them^. 

Another species of pattern, of as eariy an introduction 
as the panelled arrangement, is formed by dividing the 
light into lozenge-shaped compartments, by straight lines 
of colour interwoven with each other ; each compartment 
being filled with a separate foliaged pattern on white glass. 

It would however be tedious to enumerate all the 
different varieties of white pattern windows. They all 
partake more or less of the character of quarry patterns, 
or of panelled arrangements. 

Pictures, or shields of arms, when introduced into a 
white pattern, sometimes occupy the place of one of the 
panels, but are more frequently inserted without any re- 
ference to the general groundwork of the window, a part 
of which appears as if it had been cut out to admit them^ 

f- See plates 1, 4, and 5. See also 
engniTings of Bom^ of the Salisbury pat- 
terns, Monoffraphie de la CatASdrale de 
Bourget, Qrisailles E. A pattern from 
Salisbory, and another fVom Southwell 
Church, are engraved in Shaw's " Ency- 
clopfedia of Ornament." 

^ Compare the patterns of the five 
■isters at Tork, engraved in Browne's 


History of the Metropolitan Church of 
Stv Peter, York/' plates Izi., Ixiit, Izv., 
Ixvii., Ixix.y with the Salisbury patterns, 
mentioned in the last note. 

* See an example, plate 5« Plate 18, 
though taken from a Decorated speci- 
men, may be referred to in illustration 
of the text. 



Clearstory windows are sometimes filled with plain 
glass cut in various geometrical patterns, and leaded to- 
gether, the lead-work thus defining the pattern. The 
pattern is sometimes entirely formed of white glass, some- 
times it is enriched by the insertion of a few small pieces 
of coloured glass. Of these patterns there are examples 
in Salisbury Cathedral ^. 

7. Pictures. 

These are in general contained within coloured panels, 
of various shapes and sizes, having narrow edgings, or 
borders, composed sometimes merely of ornamented fil- 
lets, beads, and narrow strips of plain white and coloured 
glass, and sometimes, in addition to these matters, of an 
inscription explanatory of the subject represented in the 
panel. The panels, when large, are sometimes divided 
into two, or even five distinct compartments, each of 
which contains a separate picture, and is separated from 
the others by a narrow border of its own. The same 
subject sometimes extends into two adjacent panels, but 
in general it is confined to one, and with the occa- 
sional exception of a protruding foot, or arm, &c., is 
kept strictly within the limits of the panel. 

In medallion windows, each subject forms in general, 
as before mentioned, a separate incident of one entire 
story, which is represented by the aggregate of the pic- 
tures in the window. The subjects chosen are in general 
simple in themselves, and are treated in a simple man- 
ner. The meaning of the picture is expressed by the 

^ There is also an example in a lancet window of Cholsey Church, Berks., ex 
rel. R. W. Franks, Esq. 


action of the group, with but little assistance derived 
from accessory parts. Few persons only are introduced 
into the picture, even where the representation of a 
multitude would be sanctioned by the nature of the 
subject. I have hardly ever seen a group consisting of 
more than a dozen figures, and this number is more 
than twice as great as the usual average. The figures 
are in general completely insulated by the ground. 

The character of the individual figures has been al- 
ready described ; that of the groups is in general vigor- 
ous and energetic. 

When the incident requires to be represented within 
or near a building, a few open arches, roofs, battlements, 
&c. are usually introduced in the upper part of the panel, 
and a little water, a tree, or even some grass at the feet 
of the figures, generally serves to indicate a landscape. 
Sometimes the figures appear simply to stand upon, or 
move along, a narrow horizontal line of colour. 

The whole picture is represented on a stiff ground of 
colour, usually of deep blue or red glass. The ground, 
when composed of the former colour, is occasionally 
diapered. Sometimes little round pieces of glass, of a 
different colour, are inserted to break the monotony of 
the ground. 

The lighter colours are in general employed in the 
figures and other objects, more, as it would seem, with 
the intention of rendering them distinct and visible from 
a distance, than with any regard to the tints of nature. 
Accordingly, red, light blue, purple, white, yellow, and 
flesh-coloured trees, horses, houses, and cattle, are not 
unfrequent. And as the more positive tints are bestowed 
quite as freely on what are intended for the most distant, 




as on the nearest objects, and as the drawing and ar- 
rangement of the design betoken an almost utter dis- 
regard of the rules of perspective, the picture appears 
like the representatioix of a plane surface, haying all its 
parts equidistant from the eye *. 

It is the smallness of the figures and ornaments in 
medallion windows, and the consequent minuteness of the 
various pieces of glass, that, coupled with the strength 
of the outlines, give to these works that highly mosaic 
appearance, which, as before remarked, has often oc- 
casioned them to be likened to a rich Turkey carpet* 

The figures in the panels are, however, always ren- 
dered the most conspicuous objects in the design, partly 
by their colouring, but principally by their being drawn 
much larger than any of the surrounding ornaments. 
The main divisions of the composition, the panels, and 
border of the window, are distinctly marked by their 
respective edgings, even when their ground colours are 
alike : and the coloured grounds have the effect of giving 
breadth and harmony to the design, and are useful in 
counteracting the spotty appearance which would other- 

^ Some of the earliest pictnres id ex- 
istence, being copied from the venerable 
remains of Suger's glass at St. Denys, 
are carefully represented in the Mono- 
graphic de la CathSdraU de le Bowrget, 
etudes vi. and vii. Engravings of 
other specimens of Suger's glass, the 
originals of which no longer exist, are 
given in Montfancon, Let Monuments 
de la Monarchie FranqtUte, torn. i. 
plittes 1., li., lii., liiLy and liv., hot 
they are anfi>rtunately so incorrectly 
drawn, as to be of no further nso to the 
student of painted glass, thnn as giving 
the general design of the subjects, which 
represent incidents from the first Cru- 

sade. See an interesting commentary 
on these pieces of glass, in Meyrick's 
"Critical Enquiry into Ancient Armonr," 
vol. i. p. 89 et seq. The objects which 
are there (p. 44) conjectured to be ves- 
sels of the Crusaders drawn upon the 
shore, amounted, I suspect, in the origi- 
nal glass, to nothing more than a con- 
ventional representation of the tnrf or 
ground benetith the combatants' feet. 
A variety of other medallions of later 
date are engraved in the ManograpkU 
de la CaihSdrale de Bourgee, and in 
Lasteyrie's Sistoire de la Peinittre emr 
verre. See also the second plate of the 
present work. 


wise be occasioned by the variegated tints of the orna- 
ments and figures. 

I should here add, that though the ground colour of 
the panels, border, and interstices between the panels is 
often alike, red, or deep blue, it not unfrequently happens 
that deep blue is the ground colour of the panels, and 
light blue, or red, that of the rest of the window ; or 
that red is the ground colour of the panels and border, 
and deep blue that of the rest of the window. 

8. Canopies. 

These are simple in design, and small, compared with 
the figures they cover. In form they closely resemble 
those met with on the tombs and seals of this period. 
A representation of a mutilated specimen is given in 
the third plate of this work, and others are to be found 
in the Monographie de la Cathedrah de Bourges^ and 
M. Lasteyrie's " History of Glass Painting." 

The crown of the canopy is low, and usually consists 
of a pointed gable, either plain, or, as is often the case 
in French examples, crocketed, surmounting a semicircu- 
lar or trefoiled arch, which just clears the head of the 
figure, and springs from the capital of a slender shaft 
on each side of the canopy. The sides of the roofs of 
two other gables placed at right angles to that in front, 
are also very commonly represented, and the whole is 
often surmounted with a number of little domes or tur- 
rets, having apparently but little connection with the 
rest of the design. Sometimes however the arch is dis- 
pensed with, the opening being terminated simply by 
the lines of the gable. Sometimes the gable is omitted, 



small roofs, turrets, and domes, being heaped together 
above the arch. The canopy appears like a flat surface ; 
no attempt being made to represent the hoUowness of a 
niche, either by the drawing or shading. The diflterent 
parts of the canopy are variously coloured, and are fre- 
quently shaded with smear shading. 

The intervening space between the inside of the arch 
and side shafts, and the figure, is filled with a plain 
ground, almost always of colour, and of a different tint 
to the ground which surrounds the head of the canopy. 
The canopy generally terminates abruptly at bottom 
in a horizontal line; upon which the feet of the figure 
often appear to rest, though the toes sometimes project 
a little below it. The figure however not unfrequently 
stands upon a piece of turf or grass. The name of the 
personage represented is generally written in large char- 
acters in a straight line, beneath its feet, or within the 
arch, level with the shoulders; but sometimes on a 
flowing scroll held in the hand. 

Plate 5 of this work represents what may be con- 
sidered an early instance of the introduction of a small 
canopy into the middle of a pattern window, (a practice 
which so generally obtained in the succeeding style,) 
though the ornament which surrounds the figure is per- 
haps more strictly a trefoil-headed panel than a canopy ". 

"■ The sabject of plate 5 was copied 
about three y«an ago from the glass in 
the westernmost light in the second trip- 
let of lancetSy coaming from the cast, 
on the north side of the chancel of Stan- 
ton Harcoart Church, Oxnn. Below the 
canopy was one panel more of the same 
white pattern as is represented in the 
plate, in a nearly perfect state. Frag- 
ments of similar patterns were to be 

seen in the windows of the first triplet 
on the north side, and also of the triplet 
on the south side, opposite the window 
containing the canopy. The eastern 
triplet contained no painted glass. I 
have but litile doubt that all the glass 
in this chancel was originally of the same 
character, but I cannot say whether 
there was a double, or only a single tier 
of canopies crossing the light. [1847]. 


The figures in large figure and canopy windows, 
occupying positions at a considerable distance above 
the eye, as the windows of a clearstory, are often ex- 
aggerated in height, in order to counteract the short- 
ening effect of perspective. 

9. Hebaldbt. 

Heraldic achievements at this period were confined to 
the shield of arms alone, without any other addition. 
The shield is invariably of the heater form, and the more 
elongated in proportion to its antiquity. The charges 
on it are always very simple. Its field is not diapered, 
but the glass composing it is left quite plain. 

10. Mechanical constbuction. 

Coloured Early English windows, owing to the mosaic 
and broken nature of their colouring, and the employ- 
ment of a separate piece of glass for each individual 
colour, always contain a great quantity of lead- work. In 
pictures^ and coloured ornaments, the leads are scarcely 
perceptible, being in general thrown into the outlines. 
In white pattern windows, the leads, when incapable 
of being brought into the design, are made to take such 
curves amongst the foliaged scroll-work, as to cause 
their presence frequently to pass unnoticed ". 

In all except medallion windows, the glass is formed 
into rectangular glazing panels, of convenient length 
and size, which are attached in the usual way to the 
saddle-bars passing horizontally across the light. 

In medallion windows, an iron frame- work, taking the 

" The lead-work in plate 5 deseryefl attention. 



fonn of the principal medallions, is firmly fixed in the 
sides of the window, and is in some cases strengthened 
by a second frame- work, of a similar shape, in like man- 
ner inserted in the stone- work, and placed at the distance 
of a foot or two from the first, with which it is connected 
by a number of short bars, perpendicular to the plane 
of each frame-work". The glazing panels of the window, 
which coincide in form with the panels themselves, or 
their principal divisions, are each often surrounded with 
a flat iron rim. Straight iron bars attached to this rim 
afibrd a support to the glass, which is fastened to them 
by leaden bands, and the whole panel is secured in its 
place by bolts passing through the rim to the iron frame- 
work. Sometimes however the iron rim is dispensed 
with, in which case the straight iron bars are attached 
to the frame- work itself, and the glass is bound to them 
with leaden bands, as before mentioned. The iron of 
which the fixed frame-work is made, is often two inches 
wide, and one inch thick, and sometimes of greater 
substance. Its broadest surface being in the same plane 
with the glass, serves by its opacity to render the pic- 
torial divisions of the window more distinct. 

The existence of a fixed iron frame- work in an Early 
English window, is unfortunately too often the only 
evidence of its having once been a medallion window ; 
but the particular arrangement of the design should not 
be too hastily inferred from the form of the iron- work, 
which, in general, can be said to indicate only the main 
divisions of the glass-painting ^. 

* Some of tbese doable iVame-worka 
still exUt at Canterbury Cathedral. 
' The form of the Iron-work in some 

of the principal windows of Canterbnry 
Cathedral is given in the engravings to 
Brit ton's history of that edifice. 


In the wheel windows at the south end of the transept 
of Strasburg Cathedral, and in the west end of the nave 
of St. Thomas's Church in that city, stone tracery, of the 
Flamboyant period, has been substituted for the original 
iron frame- work; the ancient medallion glass-paintings 
still being retained in these windows. 

II. Letters. 

The letters used in Early English inscriptions are 
those known by the name of "Lombardic capitals." 
Instances are given in plates 2 and 5. An inscription 
was generally formed by covering a piece of glass with 
a coat of enamel brown, out of which the letters were 
afterwards scraped. In inscriptions of large size, the 
letters are sometimes cut out of white or yellow glass, 
and leaded into a coloured ground. 

•* *^V ^ ^'^'. 




This style appears to have prevailed about Due hun- 
dred years, viz., from 1280 to 1380. 

One of its most distinctive features is the natural 
form of its foliaged ornaments : in these the leaves of 
the ivy, maple, oak, and other trees and plants may be 
easily recognised. 

These more exact imitations of nature were rather 
sparingly used at the commencement of the style, and 
did not, at least in white patterns, wholly supersede the 
older and more conventional forms until the end of the 
reign of Edward I., or a little after. 



It is principally in works executed between 1280, 
and the end of the reign of Edward I., that the test of 
style afforded by the presence of the naturally formed 
leaf is most valuable ; for they bear in general so close a 
resemblance in other respects to the later Early English 
glass-paintings, that without this mark it would be diflBl- 
cult in many cases satisfactorily to distinguish them 
from each other"*. 

This resemblance principally arises from the early De- 
corated glass-paintings being composed of glass of the 
same texture as the later Early English glass-paintings. 
Hence the general appearance of early Decorated colour- 
ed windows, though extremely rich, is by no means gay ; 
and that of the white windows is grey and cold. The 
grandeur of each sort is enhanced by the great width 
sometimes given to the lower lights of early Decorated 

Towards the end of the reign of Edward I., and after- 
wards, many other points of difference between the two 
styles are observable; amongst which should be par- 
ticularly noticed the employment of the ffellow stain^ 
which seems to have been introduced soon after the com- 

1 The glass represented in plate 18, 
mast be classed as early Decorated, — 
though taken by itself it presents none 
but Early English features, — for the 
Decorated foliage occurs in other parts 
of the same window. The arms are 
those of Margaret of France, the second 
queen of Edward I. In plate 20, it will 
be observed that the Decorated foliage 
is introduced in the outermost border of 
the light. 

A naturally formed leaf may occasion- 
ally be discovered in a late £arly Eng- 
lish glass-painting intermixed with the 
usual conventional foliage, but it occurs 

so rarely that I have not noticed it in 
the text. Leaves of this description 
may be observed in one of the five sisters 
of York, and in one or two of the win- 
dows of Canterbury. 

' The lower lights of the side windows 
of the chancel of Norbury Church, Der- 
byshire, are each thirty inches wide ; the 
central light of the east window is forty- 
four inches wide, the two a^acent lights 
being each thirty -four, and the two outer 
lights thirty-one inches wide. 

For these measurements I am indebted 
to my friend the Rev. H. T. EUacombe. 


mencement of the fourteenth century. The colour thus 
produced is in general easily distinguishable by its 
lemon-like tint, from the more intense and golden jt?o^- 
metal yellows, to which it aflPords an agreeable contrast. 
In many instances, however, especially during the latter 
part of the reign of Edward III., the stained yellow is 
almost as deep as the pot-metal yellow. Its facility of 
application soon brought it into general use'. By its 
means the former coldness of white pattern windows was 
speedily corrected, and artists soon discovered in the 
richness and power of the stain an efficient substitute 
for many of the pot-metal colours. Thus a broader and 
less mosaic style of colouring was gradually introduced, 
white and yellow glass entering more largely into the 
composition of coloured designs. The presence of so 
much yellow had also the effect of imparting to the later 
Decorated glass-paintings a gay and lively appearance. 

The arrangements of this period are very various, in 
regard both to individual windows, and their general 
disposition in a building. 

The most common windows are those which are either 
wholly composed of white patterns, or of an intermixture 
of white patterns and coloured pictures. 

A. white pattern window generally has a coloured 
border to each of its lower lights, which sometimes re- 
turns along the bottom of the window. The patterns 
until the end of the reign of Edward I., are in general 
hardly distinguishable from the Early English; like 
them they are principally composed of white glass, and 
consist of scroll-works of foliage confined within panels, 

■ The yellow stnin is represented in plates 24, 29, and 32. 



or of ornamented quarries, resembling the Early English 
in form and character. The drawing, however, is gene- 
rally slighter than the Early English, and the ground of 
the pattern is rarely cross-hatched *. After this time, 
and even a little before it, the patterns consist either 
of ornamented quarries, or else of flowing tendril-like 
scroUages, bearing natural leaves, and overlaid by a 
geometrical network of bands and fillets, which however 
does not confine the ramifications of the foliage''. The 
earlier patterns are often enriched by the introduction of 
some colour into the bands and fillets, and by a few 
little coloured ornaments inserted in them at distant 
intervals ; the later, principally by staininy certain por- 
tions of the white glass yellow. 

When the lower lights are much enriched with colour, 
the tracery lights are sometimes filled with coloured 
pictures, or ornaments; but they more commonly con- 
tain a white pattern, enriched with colour to a similar 
extent as that in the lower lights. In the earlier win- 
dows it is not unusual to find the pattern in the tracery 
lights Early English in character, while that in the 
lower lights is of pure Decorated character \ 

A single shield of arms, near the top of each of the 
lower lights, is often the only extraneous subject in- 
troduced into pattern windows. The most usual mode 

* See plates 18 and 20. See also 
cat 12. 

" See plate 21. See aUo Lysons' 
"Derbyshire/' p. 221, where an engrav- 
ing IB given of three Decorated patterns 
from the chancel of Norbury Chnrcb, 
Derbyshire. See also engravings of 
some of the patterns from the chapter- 
house, York, in Browne's "Hist, of the 
Metropolitan Church of St. Peter, York," 

plates Izxiz., Izzxiii., Izzzv., Izxxviii., 
1., xdi. A pattern from the same place 
is engraved in Shaw's "Encyclopiedia of 

> See for instance, a plate (rather in- 
correct in its details) of part of the south 
window of the chancel of Trumpington 
Church, in Lysons' "Cambridgeshire," 
p. 88. 


of introducing pictures into them, is by inserting, in * 
the middle of each of the lower lights, a low-crowned 
canopy, covering a figure, or a group of figures ; which 
produces the general eflfect of a belt of colour running 
across the window. Sometimes, when the length of the 
lights admits of it, two such belts of canopies are intro- 
duced, leaving considerable portions of the white pat- 
terns displayed between, above, and below them. A 
shield of arms enclosed in a panel, or small coloured 
ornament, usually occupies the centre of each of these 
intervals. The head of the window, when two or more 
belts of canopies cross the lower lights, is in general 
filled with coloured subjects, in order to preserve the 
balance of colour ; but it is oftener filled with a white 
pattern, when only one belt of canopies traverses the 
lower lights. 

Another, but by no means so common a mode of in- 
troducing pictures, — ^the practice being mostly confined 
to early examples, — consists in the insertion at regular 
intervals in each of the lower lights, of panels contain- 
ing coloured pictures ; the ground of the lights being 
a white pattern. 

There are numerous modifications and varieties of each 
of tlie above-mentioned arrangements. 

Some early Decorated windows have the whole of 
their lower lights entirely filled with simple panels con- 
taining pictures^; others, at all periods of the style, 
with a series of small canopies with single figures, or 
groups of figures beneath them, piled up closely one 
above the other; coloured subjects in each case being 
placed in the tracery lights. The specimens of the fibrst 

7 See an example, Monogrofhie de la CathedraiU de Baur^ei, €tade xiy. 



arrangement, and the earlier examples of the last, closely 
resemble the Early English medallion windows, in depth 
of colour and general effect : but in the later instances 
of the last arrangement, the masses of deep colour are 
separated by the heads of the canopies, which being 
principally composed of white and yellow glass, impart 
a general lightness to the whole design. 

Figure and canopy windows* are not in general met 
with in this country before the middle of the style, 
except in clearstories. In small windows the whole of 
each of the lower lights is sometimes filled up with the 
subject ; but the canopy usually does not reach down to 
the bottom of the light, leaving a space beneath, which 
is filled either by a small picture, a panel containing 
a shield, or a pattern*. This is especially the case with 
votive windows, the portraits of the donor and his family 
occupying the space below the principal figure^. In 
some instances, several panels containing coloured pic- 
tures are placed one above the other and inserted be* 
neath the base of the large canopy. Other windows 
have each of their lower lights quite filled up with 
alternate tiers of canopies containing large figures, and 
panels containing small subjects, placed one above the 
other. The tracery lights of the above-mentioned win- 
dows are generally filled with coloured pictures. 

The effect of a Decorated figure and canopy window, 
though very rich, is on the whole lighter than that of an 
Early English one. The canopy resembles in form those 

* See an engraving of a figure and 
canopy window, Lysons' '* Qloaoester- 
shire," plate Ixyi. 

* Some of the patterns at the bottom 
of the lower lights of the east window, 
York Minster, are engraved in Weale's 

" Quarterly Papers," voL L plates 7, 8, 
and 9. 

** See a plate of some glass in the east 
window of Beer Ferrers Church, Devon, 
in Lysons' ** Devonshire." 



in the architecture and sculpture of the time''. It is 
tall in proportion to the figure it covers. In general 
many of its members are variously coloured, but white 
and yellow glass, both stained and pot-metal, are chiefly 
employed, especially in the spires and crockets. 

The principle of extending the same design (not being a 
Jesse) into all or several of the lower lights of a window, 
which was so commonly done in the succeeding style, 
was introduced on the continent very early in this style. 

The usual mode of carrying it into execution, is by 
placing at the bottom of the lower lights a grand archi- 
tectural composition, consisting of a large canopy in the 
centre, (often extending into two or three lights,) flanked 
by smaller ones, in the manner of a triptic. The princi- 
pal subject is represented under the central canopy, and 
other subjects, in general accessory to it, under the side 
canopies. The spires of the canopies, backed with a 
coloured ground, reach some way up to the lower lights ; 
a white pattern is usually shewn above them, and the 
tracery head of the window is filled with coloured orna- 
ments to balance the mass of colour below. 

In some cases two tiers of canopies are thus intro- 
duced, the upper ones only terminating in spires. 

In this manner^ designs are represented on a superior 

< See plate 22. See also Lyions* 
" Gloncestenhire/' plate lz?i. A re- 
pr eec ntation of one of these fig^ures, and 
part of one of the canopies, is given in 
Sbaw's " Dresses and Decorations of the 
Middle Ages," vol. L See also Lasteyrie, 
Sitt, de la JPeinture mtr verre, plates 
xzzviii., xL, and zliiL 

' A more decided instance of the 
adoption of a design not conforming to 
the architectural divisions of the window, 

is furnished by those foreign windows 
in whose lower lights are placed large 
circular panels, extending into more 
than one light, and containing one large 
picture, which is cut most completely 
by the muUions of the window. Exam- 
ples of this arrangement may be seen 
at St. Thomas's Church, Strasburg, and 
in the south aisle of the nave of Munich 
Cathedral, ice 



scale to that permitted by the usual method. la Eng- 
land the same design is often spread over the whole of 
the tracery lights of a window ; and it is probable that 
examples may be found of a similar arrangement in 
respect of the lower lights. 

Je9Be windows. In these windows are displayed some 
of the most beautiful designs of this period. The lower 
lights are usually surrounded with a border, and filled 
with a series of oval panels, formed by the branches of a 
vine. Each panel contains a figure on a coloured ground, 
usually of a different colour from the ground outside the 
panel, upon which outer ground the side leaves and 
branches of the vine are spread. The same principle of 
decoration usually extends to the tracery lights; the 
most important of which contain figures, or heads, 
within detached oval or circular panels, formed by a 
vine-branch, the leaves of which are turned outwards*. 

Wheel windows. The great defect of the wheel win- 
dows in this style is a spottiness and want of breadth of 
colour, arising from the practice of ornamenting each 
tracery light with a separate pattern, in general sur- 
rounded with a border which insulates it from the other 
patterns. This defect is less observable in those foreign 
windows in which the colour is chiefly disposed in and 
about the centre and circumference of the circle, the 
intermediate space being left nearly white. A small 
picture sometimes occupies the centre or eye of the win- 
dow, sometimes even this is filled with a pattern, or 
heraldry ^ The eye of the wheel in the tracery of the 

* See a general representation of a 
Decorated Jesse, Lysons' "Gloocester- 
shire/' plate xciii. Details on a larger 
scale are given in plate xciv. of the 

same work. 

' See a small Decorated wheel window, 
Lasteyrie Hiatoire de la Peinture sur 
verre, plate xW. 


east window of Merton Chapel, Oxford, is filled with 
coats of arms, and other ornaments, on a coloured 
ground; and the radiating lights principally with di- 
verging scrolls of foliage, also on a coloured ground. 
This circle has somewhat the appearance of a star. 

In the works of this period may be perceived, though 
perhaps not so distinctly as in those of the last, a certain 
selection of particular kinds of windows for particular 
situations. Thus figure and canopy windows are more 
frequently to be met with at the extremities of a build- 
ing, and in lofty situations, than in other positions; 
while pattern windows, with belts of canopies or panels 
in them, are generally reserved for the side windows of 
aisles, &c. But there is no positive rule on the subject ; 
the former description of windows being often found in 
the sides of a building, and the latter in the clearstory. 

There appears to be no positive rule for the relative 
disposition of coloured and white windows. 

In some buildings, the whole of the windows are com- 
posed of white patterns, enriched merely by the insertion 
into them of shields of arms, or panels containing pic 
tures ; in others, the east window alone presents a mass 
of colour; in others, the east and west windows are 
wholly filled with coloured designs, the colour in the side 
windows being confined to their belts of canopies ; whilst 
in others, all the windows are completely filled with 
coloured pictures. 

The abrupt alternation of masses of variegated colour- 
ing, with masses of, comparatively speaking, white glass, 
seems to have been a favourite practice throughout this 
period. It is strongly exemplified in pattern windows 
with belts of canopies crossing them; and in those 



foreign windows which have their heads of tracery full 
of colour, and the bottom parts of all their lower lights 
occupied with one general design richly coloured. 

The remains of the glass of this period are perhaps 
more numerous than those of any other. I have scarcely 
ever entered a church without observing in it some frag- 
ments, at least, of Decorated glass. 

An excellent example of a general arrangement in this 
style is afforded by the nave and its aisles of York 

The great west window, and the west windows of the 
aisles, severally present to the eye one mass of colour, a 
good deal qualified however with yellow and white glass. 
Three tiers of figures and canopies placed closely to- 
gether, one above the other, occupy all but a small 
portion at the bottom of the lower lights of the west 
window of the nave, which portion is filled with patterns 
much enriched with colour. The tracery head of the 
window is principally filled with coloured ornaments. 
The lower lights of each of the west windows of the aisles 
contain a figure and canopy apiece, — that in the central 
light has a small panel beneath, (in each case a modem 
restoration,) containing a picture executed in colours, — 
and their tracery lights are filled with coloured pictures. 
All the side windows of the aisles, with the exception of 
two on the south side, viz. a Jesse window, and a 
window exhibiting, amongst other designs, three large 
figures and canopies, have their lower lights crossed 
with two belts of richly coloured canopies and subjects, 
an interval of white pattern being left between; and 
their tracery lights filled with coloured pictures and 
ornaments. The clearstory windows are of similar char- 


acter; coloured ornaments filling their heads, and two 
belts of panels, containing coloured pictures, crossing 
their lower lights, the remaining parts of which are 
occupied with a white pattern. The glass in the nave 
and aisles of Strasburg Cathedral, especially that in the 
lower windows, resembles Early English work in eflpect ; 
it is however very early Decorated. The colouring in 
all the windows is stiff and mosaic, but the upper win- 
dows are somewhat lighter in appearance than the lower, 
more white and yellow glass being introduced into them . 
The side* and west windows of the south aisle, and the 
west and adjacent side window of the north aisle, have 
their lower lights entirely filled with a series of canopies 
or panels containing coloured pictures ; and their tracery 
heads with coloured pictures and ornaments. These 
windows are quite dark with colour, and as mosaic as an 
Early English medallion window. The remaining side 
windows of the north aisle ^, and also the windows of tho 
entire clearstory, and those of the north side of the tri- 
forium, ar^ figure and canopy windows. The clearstory 
windows, with one exception, contain in each of their 
lower lights two figures and canopies one above the other. 
The triforium windows on the south side are filled with 
coloured patterns. The great rose window is a beautiful 
stai*, richly coloured, with a considerable interval of 
white glass between its centre and circumference. 

The windows of the choir of Cologne Cathedral are 
altogether as light as those of the nave of Strasburg 
are dark. 

The choir is surrounded with seven chapels, each 

> One of these windows is engraved 
in the Monographie de la Caihidrale 
de Bourges,** <^tude xiv. 

^ A lower light of one of tliese win- 
dows is represented in Lasteyrie's His- 
iaire de la Peiniure sur verre, plate xl. 




lighted by three lofty windows. The central window 
of the eastern chapel is a mass of colour; its subject 
being a very singular Jesse K The tracery lights, and 
lower part of the lower lights of the two side windows 
of this chapel, are respectively filled with richly coloured 
patterns and pictures, the long intervening space being 
filled with a white pattern. All the windows of the 
other chapels are of similar character to the two last 
described, except that the pattern of the central window 
of each chapel is rather more enriched with colour than 
that of the side windows. 

The heads of the clearstory windows are full of colour, 
and a row of canopies richly coloured occupies nearly 
the whole of the lower half of their lower lights. The 
intermediate space is filled with a white pattern, except 
in the east window, where it is richly coloured. All 
the windows of the triforium are filled with white pat- 
terns, except those below the east window, which have 
coloured patterns. Thus, in this instance, the chief 
masses of colour are confined to the windows at the 
extremities of the clearstory, and choir aisle. 

The chancel of Merton Chapel, Oxford, affords an 
early and good example of tiie general arrangement of 
the glass in a small building. 

The original glass still remains in the tracery of the 
east window, and presents a mass of colouring as deep 
and almost as mosaic as that of an early English medal- 
lion window. In all probability its lower lights origi- 
nally were equally replete with colour ^. White pattern 

* A description of this window is given 
in the Monographie de la Calhedrafe de 

^ They are now filled with a glass- 
p:iinting by Price, executed in 1702, 
[DalUwny's "Observations on Engli^h 



windows, with a single belt of canopies running across 
their lower lights, occupy the sides of- this building. 

The chancel of Norbury Church, Derbyshire, is another 
early specimen. 

The side windows are all filled with white patterns, 
with a shield of arms inserted near the top of each of 
the lower lights \ and it may be presumed, from the 
fragments that remain, that this was likewise the ar- 
rangement of the east window. 

The glass in the chapter-house, at York, is also of 
early date, belonging to the reign of Edward II. All 
the windows are filled with white patterns, in which 
panels containing pictures are inserted. 

Amongst other valuable examples may be mentioned 
Stanford Church, Northamptonshire, of the time of Ed- 
ward III. ; the chancel of Chartham Church, Kent, of 
the close of the reign of Edward II. ; Merivale Church, 
near Atherston, Warwickshire"*; Lincoln and Here- 
ford Cathedrals; the clearstory windows of the apse 
of Tewkesbury Abbey Church ; St. Ouen's Church at 
Bouen; Freyburg Minster, in Germany, &c. The su- 

Architectnre," p. 2S1]. This does not 
harmonize with the ghiss in the tracery 
lights, yet I should be sorry to see a 
modem antique substitnted for it. 

' All the side windows of Norbnry 
chancel have been engraved in Nos. 1 
and 2 of "The Ecclesiastical Architec- 
ture of Great Britain from the Conqnest 
to the Reformation, London, by Messrs. 
Bowman and Hadfield, Architects." It 
wonld be presumptuous in me to assign 
a date to the chancel itself, bnt I am 
quite certain that the glass in these 
windows is of the first, or early in the 
second quarter of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The only window which retains 

more than the mere border of the ori- 
ginal pattern-work of its tracery lights 
is the second, counting from the west- 
ward, on the north side of the chancel. 
The pattern is of white gkss covered 
with Decorated scrollworks. The tracery 
patterns in the heads of the other win- 
dows, (which have been engraved by 
Messrs. Bowman and Hadfield,) are, 
\\ith the exception of their bordern, 
mere modern inventions. 

"* This glass is in a Perpendicular 
east window, which seems of later date, 
the glass being of the same date as that 
in the side windows. 


perb east window of the choir of Gloucester Cathedral, 
though the architecture is itself Perpendicular, may be 
cited as a pure Decorated example, late in the style 
however. The arrangement of the glass in this window 
is original, and deserves attention. The same principle, 
—that of filling the upper part of the window with 
white ornamented quarries, and the lower part with 
figures and canopies, &c. — was likewise carried out in 
the side clearstory windows of the choir ; as sufficiently 
appears from the fragments which remain in the northern 

The following are some of the most remarkable pecu- 
liarities in detail which have not been noticed in the 
course of the foregoing remarks. A more extensive and 
minute examination of these matters will conclude this 

The figures exactly resemble those in the illuminations 
and sculpture of this period : they are severe in draw- 
ing, but more refined than the Early English, and their 
draperies are likewise broader, more ample, and flowing. 
The figures are often placed in very forced and extrava- 
gant attitudes. A gradual but sensible diminution in 
the thickness of the outline took place as the style 

White glass is quite as much used as flesh-coloured, 
in the naked parts of the figures. The hair is often 
stained yellow. 

The canopies almost invariable have flat fronts, straight- 
sided gables over the main archway, and in general high 
spires and pinnacles. Their details correspond with those 
of the canopies on the seals and tombs, and in the archi- 
tecture of the time. Much pot-metal colour enters into 


their composition, to which the richness of their appear- 
ance is owing. In many instances the smaller members, 
as shafts, capitals, spires, &c., are capriciously coloured, 
red, blue, green, &c. ; and when the canopy consists of 
white and yellow glass only, a considerable portion of 
the yellow used is pot-metal. 

The white glass, in the earliest examples, is in general 
of the same texture and rich tint as the Early English, 
but it gradually became greener, fainter in colour, and 
thinner in substance. The blue also became lighter, 
and the red less streaky and uneven towards the close of 
the style. The pot-metal yellow is rich, deep, and golden, 
frequently inclining to a rich greenish brown hue. 

The flesh-coloured glass is sometimes of a more de- 
cided pink tint than the Early English, but it is in 
general lighter, and more yellow. 

Heraldic achievements were frequently introduced 
into the borders of windows, as well as upon shields ; 
the latter are always of the heater form °, and are un- 
accompanied with mantlings, crests, &c. 

I shall now proceed to a minute examination of the 
details of Decorated glass paintings under the following 
separate heads. 

] . Texture and Colour of the Glass. 

There is no apparent difference between the glass of 
the latter part of the last, and the early part of the 
present period, either in texture or colour. It pre- 
served its richness of tone until the end of the style, 
but in general, gradually became less substantial in its 

" See plates 18 and 23. 



The early Decorated ruby is as streaky and uneven 
in tint as the Early English ""; but as the style ad- 
vanced, the streakiness diminished, as well as the thick- 
ness of the colouring matter on the sheet; a proof of 
which last circumstance is afforded by the cut given in 
a note to the Introduction '. At the end of the Deco- 
rated period ruby glass is sometimes found almost quite 
evenly coloured. 

The deep blue glass gradually became lighter. It is, 
I think I may say, universally colder in tint than the 
Early English. It is more of a grey than a blue colour, 
and not unfrequently appears of a green hue in the 
window, a hue which it always assumes when held up 
before a lighted candle. Sometimes, but rarely, speci- 
mens are met with of a purple tint, but this glass is less 
brilliant than the Early English. The green generally 
used is warm and rich, but a cold green, like that of an 
emerald, may be remarked in many works at all periods 
of the style. 

The white glass, in general, during this period, is of 
a fine rich sea-green hue. It gradually became lighter 
in tint towards the close of the style, at which time it 
varied exceedingly in thickness. Some of the later 
glass is strongly tinged with yellow ; but variations 
from a yellow to a blue-green, and from a blue to 
a yellow-green, may be remarked in the white glass 
throughout the style. White glass of a cold blue tint, 
by no means strong in colour, may even be met with in 
some of the earliest Decorated glass-paintings ; but this 

** I liaTe met with Oerman pictures 
in glass, perhaps as early as Edward the 
Second's reign, — at all events, having 
no yellow stain in them, — in which all 

the ruby is smooth in coloor, like early 
Perpendicular glass, which it closely re- 
sembled in tint. 
•• p. 26. 



is an exception to the general rule that the earliest 
white glass is more strongly tinted with green than the 
later white glass. 

Decorated white glass always appears to have been 
very susceptible of the yellow stain, which when ex- 
posed to a sufficient heat, acted with great power, 
changing the white glass to a fine deep rich yellow, 
varying from lemon to orange. This is particularly the 
case when the white glass itself is of a yellow hue. In 
some instances indeed, the yellow produced by staining 
is of a cold greenish tint, arising sometimes from some 
accidental variation in the quality of the glass, but more 
frequently, as I presume, from the slackness of the 
furnace. The glass-painters of this period in general 
subjected their glass to a very considerable degree of 
heat, as is evident from the frequent oxidation of the 
metal composing the stain, and the consequent redness 
of the colour. Towards the middle of the style the 
yellow stain was occasionally applied to light blue pot- 
metal glass, which it changed to a bluish yellow '^. 

The pot-metal yellow glass is in general of a fine deep 
golden hue, frequently approaching a rich greenish 
brown. The lightest pot-metal yellow is less green in 
its tint than the lightest stained yellow, and the deepest 
pot-metal yellow is less orange than the deepest stained 
yellow. Beautiful contrasts of colour are produced by 
the employment of pot-metal and stained yellow, in the 
same glass-painting. 

Flesh-coloured glass continued to be used throughout 
this style in heads, and naked figures : though by no 

1 See instanoes taken from the glan 
of St. Stephen's Cbapel, Smith's " An- 

tiquities of Westminster," in the second 
plate, facing p. 282. 


means so extensively as during the preceding style, 
white glass being frequently substituted for it. It is 
usually paler, and more yellow, than the Early English 
flesh-colour; when stronger, it more nearly approaches 
a direct pink. 

2. Mode of Execution. 

In the glass-paintings of this period, as in those of 
the last, shadow is, to a considerable extent, as well as 
form, expressed by dark outlines. These outlines are, 
however, in general, not so thick, or so frequent, as in 
Early English glass-paintings. 

Most Decorated glass-paintings, especially the earlier 
ones, exhibit a peculiar freedom of touch, and firmness 
and precision of handling, which, together with the 
ready flow of the colour, the transparency and fulness of 
the outline, and the great expression conveyed by it, 
cause them in some measure to resemble, in their exe- 
cution, the paintings on an ancient Etruscan or Greek 

The practice of putting a cross-hatched ground on 
white glass, for the purpose of bringing out more pro- 
minently a pattern delineated on it, so common during 
the last period, was soon abandoned in this ; but cross- 
hatching continued to be used in small ornaments until 
the end of the style. 

Shading, when resorted to, was always executed ac- 
cording to the sinear method. The smear shadows in 
the draperies of large figures, at all periods of the style, 
often attained a very considerable depth, the colour 
being laid on so thickly as almost to occasion opacity 
in the darker parts of the shadows. 


The discovery of the art of stippling a coat of enamel 
brown appears, however, to have been made during the 
Decorated period. * Shadows having a stipple grain 
may occasionally be detected in Decorated glass paint- 
ings, of the latter half of the fourteenth century. The 
proportion they bear to the smear shadows, in the same 
work, is indeed always small; and they seem to diflter 
from smear shadows only in their granulated texture. 
Their ground, like that of smear shadow, was never 
suflfered to extend over the lights of the picture, but 
was, in the first instance, strictly confined to the parts 
intended to be in shadow. In this respect therefore, 
these shadows diflfer materially from stipple shadows 
properly so called ; which, as before stated, are formed 
by covering the whole surface of the glass with a granu- 
lated ground, which is afterwards removed from such 
parts as are intended to be light. 

The method of shading in question seems most to re- 
semble the mode by which, formerly, the deeper shadows 
in a stipple-shaded glass-painting were heightened. For 
convenience sake it may called smear shading stippled. 

Diapers were profusely used for decorative purposes, 
their smear ground being applied to either side of the 
glass as convenience dictated *". 

3. Figures. 

A very considerable advance in the art of representing 
the human figure took place during this period. 

' See specimens of diapering, plates 
22 and 23. See also Smith's "Auti- 
qaities of Westminster/' plate facing 
p. 232, in which are represented, with 

praiseworthy accuracy, the little par- 
ticles of ground which the glass-painter 
omitted to remove, or clean off, when 
scraping out the pattern. 


Its proportions are better preserved than in the former 
style, the figures in general not being too tall, or 

The draperies are likewise treated in a broader, more 
easy, and natural manner. 

The technical incompleteness of the drawing is much 
more felt in the hands, feet, and other naked parts of 
the body, than in the heads, many of which are very 
finely treated. 

An easy and graceful attitude is given to the stand- 
ing figures, by sUghtly swaying the body backward., 
and resting its weight on one leg, somewhat after the 
manner of the antique': but this position was often 
exaggerated to such a degree, that the figures fre- 
quently seem as if they were in motion, when, accord- 
ing to the nature of the subject, they ought to appear 
at rest. 

The earlier heads of this period, though more delicate 
and refined than those of the last, do not lose any of 
their force, or vigour of character. The features still 
continued to be strongly outlined, but in general a more 
varied and natural expression was imparted to the eye 
and eyebrow. The latter is sometimes, however, too apt 
to resemble a pent-hotiae^ in the angularity of its form. 
In the Decorated, as in the Early English heads, there 
is seldom any attempt made to distinguish the iris of 
the eye from the pupil, the whole being in general re- 
presented by one black dot. 

The mouth, which is small in the majority of instances, 
closely resembles the Early English model; sometimes 

** See platei 22 and 24. 


however, towards the middle of the style, the upper and 
lower lips are represented. 

LnllicgibMie dmroh. KsDt, 

The hair and beard are generally drawn in flowing 
locks, boldly expressed by the varying thickness of the 

The general contour of the face is a well-proportioned 
oval ; and the chin is smaller than in the Early English 

Towards the close of this period, however, there is 
often less character, and more conventionalism in the 
heads. The eye-brows become more uniformly arched, 


and, together with the nose and mouth, less strongly 
marked. The countenance also loses much of its agree- 
able form, the forehead being flat, broad, and somewhat 
projecting; too great prominence is likewise given to 
the cheek bones, and a disproportionate width to the 
face. The chin is also often represented too small and 
pointed *. 

The heads and naked parts of the figures are often 
composed of the flesh-coloured glass before mentioned'*, 
but white glass is as generally used for this purpose, in 
which case the hair and beard are frequently stained 
yellow ^. This is however seldom the case when flesh- 
coloured glass is employed. In the larger figures, the 
beards and hair are of a different colour to the counte- 
nances, being made of blue, yellow, green glass, &c., 
leaded in. 

In the earlier specimens, the hair is often entirely 
covered with a thin wash of brown paint, and the face 
and other parts of the figure are shaded exactly as in 
the former style. A practice of taking out lights in the 
ground covering the hair, to increase the prominency oi 
some of the locks, was however soon introduced *. Many 
figures at all periods of the style were executed in out- 
line only, and not shaded at all ^. 

*■ Cot 8 (see last page) is from an | the sobject of plnte 31 (which is ag^ain 
early example of tlie fourteenth century. ; represented in plate 24) is of the close 

In character it strongly resembles an 
Early English head. The heads in plates 
19, 26, 27, and 28, are all of the early 
part of the fourteen th century, and are 
thoroughly Decorated in character. 
Pktes SO, 29, and 32, are taken from 
specimens of the middle part of the four- 
teenth century, the first example being i * See plate 30. 
rather earlier than the two others. While ^ See plates 26, 28. 

of the Decorated period. See some fVag- 
ments of heads, the full size, from St. 
Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, Smith's 
"Antiquities of Westminster," in the 
last of the three plates facing p. 232. 

" See plates 26, 28, 30. 

* See plates 24, 27. 



The draperies of this period are much more flowing 
and ample than those of the last : and in ecclesiastical 
and female figures the robe is generally long and en- 
velopes the feet *. 

Saints are usually habited in a long robe confined 
round the waist with a girdle, and a loose cloak, the 
broad elegant folds of which add greatly to the grace 
and dignity of the figure. A jewelled band or stripe of 
colour, diflfering in tint from that of the rest of the robe, 
sometimes crosses it horizontally. The name of the in- 
dividual represented is often written round the edge of 
the nimbus. The hair of female saints is generally dis- 
posed in long and smooth locks, and the hair and beards 
of prophets and saints in fine wavy locks, while angels 
are generally represented with their hair in short thick 
curls. The heads of prophets are commonly covered 
with a sort of bonnet or cap, and are not surrounded 
with a nimbus. The figures frequently hold scrolls in 
their hands bearing inscriptions. 

The mitre still continues of a triangular form, and its 
ornaments are simple, but the crook of the staff is often 
of elaborate workmanship, and frequently composed of 
a beautiful scroll of leaves. 

The secular female costume usually consists of a gar- 
ment fitting tightly to the arms and body, and having 
a wide long skirt training on the ground. Upon it are 
sometimes depicted the armorial bearings of the wearer. 
A cloak or mantle is often loosely thrown over it. The 
wimple is a frequent adjunct to the head-dress, and the 

■ It has been suggested to me by a 
learned friend of mine, that robes were, 
for the sake of effect, represented in 

sculpture and painting longer than they 
were actually worn. 



hair is usually plaited down on each side of the face, 
and enclosed in a net, or cauL 

The ordinary costume of dignified laymen consists of 
a long robe and loose cloak ; the hair and beard being 
arranged in fine loose wavy locks. The heads of boys 
are generally covered with short thick curls. The usual 
secular dress is a close short jerkin, or tunic, reaching 
about half way down the thighs, and tight hose and 
shoes ; upon which model the armour of this period was 
formed. The military dress, in the earlier examples, 
consists of the hauberk and chausses of mail, or of gam- 
boised armour ; in the later, of a mixture of plate and 
mail ; and in the latest, of plate chiefly. Armorial bear- 
ings are generally represented on the surcoat and shield, 
and knights mounted and accoutred for the tournament, 
wearing the heaume and its crest, were occasionally 
depicted on glass during this period. 

4. Foliage. 

The general character of the foliage, properly belong- 
ing to this style, is natural, and it is easy to recognise 
amongst it the leaves of the maple, oak, ivy, hawthorn, 
and of many wild plants*. The flower usually repre- 
sented is the rose. The earliest specimens of it are 
formed of the scalloped ornament^, but towards the 
middle of this period it becomes flve-leaved, and when 
single, almost exactly resembles a full-blown eglantine 
or common dog-rose *" ; its leaves are very rarely lipped^ 

• See plates 21, 22, and 23. Cut 9 
is taken from an example early in the 
fourteenth century, as are plates 33, 
34, 35, and 40; plates 37, and 39, and 

cuts 10 and II, are from examples of the 
middle of the fourteenth century. 

^ See plate 42, and cut 17. 

* Sec plate 24. 


or turned over at their extremities. It is however fre- 
quently double-leaved, and occasionally treble, or quad- 

Ghunb, Oilbrtibln- 

BmtMsM Chnnb, Kent. 

ruple. When only double, and painted on white glass, 
the seeds and outer row of leaves are usually stained 
yellow ^. 

The more conventional ornaments composing the archi- 



teotural details, the finials and crockets of canopies, &c., 
are likewise taken from foliage, and drawn in a spirited, 
lively manner ^ 

ClT 11. 

Stanford Ghoroh, VorUiamptoiifihire. 

Scrollworks are formed of the twining tendrils of 
plants, from which spring, it must be admitted, without 

^CQ plaU-s 22 Rnd 41. 



much regard to nature, the leaves of either plants or 
trees, as the case may be'. When represented on a 
coloured ground, the tendril preserves a uniform colour ^^ 
though its leaves are sometimes variegated. 
The new method 

Cut 12. 

of drawing foliage did 
not at once supersede 
the old, and accord- 
ingly the Early Eng- 
lish character of or- 
nament is frequently 
preserved, especially 
in scrollworks, and 
ornaments represent- 
ed on white glass, 
until the end of the 
first, and during the 
early part of the se- 
cond quarter of the 
fourteenth century. 
The old ornament is 
however, in general, 
drawn slighter than 
during the preced- 
ing style**, and the 
ground on which it is J 
delineated is seldom 
cross-hatched. It is 
moreover almost al- 
ways found in con- 

' See plate 21. 

» Sei' an engraving in Fowler's " Mosaic Pavements and Stained Glass,*' from 
au example at Oh. Ch. Oxford. '' See cut 12. 

II 2 

Chartham Glmrch, Kent. 



junction with Decorated ornaments ^ In some of the 
earlier specimens may be seen the very change from 
the conventionality of the early English foliage to the 
more natural character of the Decorated^. 

Throughout this period the leaves are always drawn 
with great firmness and precision. The thickness of 
the line in outlined patterns on white glass diminished 
considerably towards the close of the styled 

The beaded ornament of the former period is to be 
met with in the early works of this style, in general, 
however, accompanied with a narrow border or edging 
on each side. A practice was, however, soon introduced 
of placing the beads further apart, and inserting a couple 
of small dots between each pair". Two little rings often 

Cut 13. 

Chftrtham Ghoich, Kent. 

supply the place of the dots, and sometimes a larger 
ring is substituted for the large bead. The scalloped 
ornament, and its combinations, seem to have gradually 
gone out of fashion towards the middle of this period, 
about which time a singular kind of decoration was 

* See plate 20. A part of the inner 
border of this window is represented 
the full size in cat 12. This glass is, 
I think, of the early part of the second 
quarter of the fourteenth century. Plate 
40 represents, at the full sise, part of 
a scrollwork in another of the chancel 
windows of Chartham, which is of the 

same date as that represented in plate 20. 

^ See plate 17. Another tracery light of 
the same date, and in the same church, 
has its foils ornamented with an ordi- 
nary maple-leaf. 

' See for instance plate 40. 

^ The subject of cut 13 is of the 
latter part of the fourteenth century. 



Cut 14. 

introduced which may be called the 
cross ornament: ar representation of it 
is given in the margin. It was formed 
by cross-hatching a piece of glass with 
thick lines, and afterwards cutting 
them asunder with a stick, or other 
pointed instrument, capable of remov- 
ing the brown enamel colour from the 
glass before it was burnt. This orna- 
ment continued in use to the end of 
the style. 

5. Bobbers. 

Borders, both to lower and tracery 
lights, are throughout this period sel- 
dom dispensed with. 

The ordinary border of a lower light 
is formed of a stalk running up the 
sides of the light, either in a serpen- 
tine direction or straight, from which 
spring leaves, acorns, &c., at regular 
distances. The stalk, which is some- 
times ornamented with a pattern, is 
frequently of one colour, and its leaves 
of another : and the border generally 
has a coloured ground". 

Sometimes the border consists of a series of grotesque 
animals, either placed at short distances apart, with a 
piece of coloured glass between them", or else they are 


Tample Rothley Church, 


" See plates 20, 21, and 22. 
^ See plate 44. In this example the 
iish is white, and the border round it 

stained yellow. It is of the latter part 
of the Decorated period. The nonde- 
script engraved in cut 15, forms part of 


introduced climbing up a stem of foliage, or sitting 
amongst its leaves ; the entire border in this case being 
represented on a coloured ground. 

Slnntjra Church, NortlinnipWn shire. 

There is a window in the nave of York Minster which 
has, in its lower lights, a scries of small figures and 
canopies, by way of border. 

Heraldic borders are very common at all periods of 
the style. They consist either of coats of arms properly 
emblazoned, and arranged in rectangular patches one 
ahoTe tho other''; or of badges, merchants' marks, or 
of other devices, separated from each other with pieces 
of coloured glass. All these borders are often edged on 
one or both sides with a narrow atrip of coloured glass, 
or with the beaded ornament, &C.'' 

Some borders, in general late in the style, are com- 
posed of white and yellow ornaments, of rectangular 

null B border u is deicribed iu tbe tcit. pinte 38, which U taken from two mural 
Itisarihemiddlepirtof tUu fourteentli piiiiitingi on the south uila of the 
ceutury. chamber. 

» See n (food i-iainplc of Uiis mode of I ' See a Bpetiroeo of an heraldic hor- 
nrniiigemBiit in liokewooJ'J account of d.r, Lastcyrie, SUtoire de la Pemtura 
lUe Fuinted Cbniiiber, Weitmiiuter {pub- | wr verre, pUtc iiiv. 
liaUed by tlic Rirlcly ot ,\iiti<iiiftrii's). 


shape, placed, like the grotesque aaimals first men- 
tioned, at intervals up the sides of the window, with 
coloured glass hetween them ; sometimes two or three 
of the upper foils of the cuspidated head of the light are 
filled with lions' heads, or roses'. 

The border is almost universally separated from the 
stonework by a margin of plain white glass, which in 
many of the earlier examples is an inch broad. 

The width of the border, including the white margin, 
is usually one-sixth of the entire width of the light : but 
there are a few rare instances of small narrow windows 
whose only border consists of a strip of white glass. 

A border is sometimes carried along the bottom of 
the light; in which case its pattern frequently difiers 
from that of the border at the sides'. 

loutMeet Chorclt, Kent. 

The ordinary border of a tracery light, ia either 
a plain margin of white glass, or the beaded ornament, 
which is usually stained yellow, and always separated 
from the stonework by a white edging. When the 
light is large, a broader kind of border is often used, 

' As in plntc 2S, Nn. 1. Tliii spoi-Liinn ia qiiile •■( IW close of tlie DecoraUd 


formed of roses, quatrefoils, or other ornaments, in little 
squares, and separated from each other by pieces of plain 
coloured glass. This border has a narrow edge of white 
glass between it and the stonework. 

6. Pattebns. 

These are composed sometimes of ornamented quarries 

of white glass, upon each of which is repeated the same 

leaf or pattern, represented in the earlier examples 

merely in outline', but in the later, often wholly or 

BbUIhv Chuoh, Xmtp 

partially stained yellow. Sometimes a running foliaged 
scrollwork is carried over the quarries. The quarries 
are frequently banded on their two upper sides, and the 
bands are occasionally smear-shaded. A quarry pattern 

' Cat 17 repreieiiti a qaury of tbe foDrteentb century. None of tbese quar- 

etrlj part of the fburteonth centor; ; it riei ar« itaiucd. Flatei 24 and Z5 reprc- 

ii rrom the lame window as the subject mat epecioieus of qaarriei of the latUr 

of plate 16. The qasrries in plates 34 part^ «Qd close of the style. 
and 86 are also of tlie enrlj part of the 


is frequently enlivened by the insertion at regular in- 
tervals in the centre of the light, of small circular 
panels containing heads, small coats of arms, or other 
ornaments executed in colours, or in white and yellow 
stained glass. Coloured stars with wavy rays are some- 
times, in like manner, leaded in amongst the quarries : 
especially in late Decorated work. 

The more common Decorated pattern, however, con- 
sists of a number of narrow fillets and bands, some 
coloured, some ornamented, but for the most part plain 
and white, disposed in the form of lozenges, ovals, 
quatrefoils, and other geometrical figures; or even 
simply reticulated, and curiously interwoven with each 
other. Behind this network, and occasionally entwined 
with it, are spread running scrolls of foliage, outlined 
on white glass, and usually branching off from a main 
stalk which runs straight up the centre of the window. 
The leads follow the course of the bands, and form an 
essential part of the pattern, which is generally further 
enriched by the insertion, at regular distances, of little 
coloured panels, containing heads, small shields of arms, 
patterns composed of leaves, and other devices, or occa- 
sionally a sacred emblem, as the double triangle ^ In 
the later examples the yellow stain is often applied 
to the leaves and acorns of the scrollwork, &c. : some- 
times the foliaged scrollwork is rendered more conspi- 
cuous by being smear-shaded. 

The patterns in clearstory windows, when the height 
would prevent more minute work being seen, are some- 

" See plate 21. See also the other 
plates referred to in a former note (u, 
p. 76.) The lion's head represented in 
plate 42 originally formed the ccntml 

ornament of a pattern. It is of dark 
green glass, and is of the middle of the 
fourteenth century. 


times formed of plain pieces of white and coloured glass 
leaded together. These patterns resemble in their general 
effect those which have been already described. The 
groundwork of the lower lights is composed of plain 
white glass, cut into various geometrical forms, the com- 
plicated character of which serves as an equivalent for 
a painted pattern. The tracery lights of windows of 
this description, are often surrounded with a narrow 
strip of plain coloured glass by way of border, and are 
enriched in the same way as tracery lights commonly 
are, by the insertion of small coloured circular panels ; 
the only difference being that the glass of which these 
circles are constructed is not painted with any pattern. 
A shield, bearing a red cross on a white field, and 
formed simply of plain pieces of white and coloured 
glass, is inserted in the centre of one of the tracery 
lights of a clearstory window on the north side of the 
nave of York Minster. The tracery lights of two win- 
dows in the north side of Ash Church, near Wrotham, 
Kejitj are ftlled with patterns composed of plain pieces 
of white and red glass. These patterns are coeval with 
the ornamental patterns which exist in the lower lights 
of the window. 

The Early English patterns are, as before stated, 
often introduced in the earlier works in this style, with 
however, in general, a certain admixture of Decorated 
details *. 

Cross-hatched grounds, to bring out an outlined pat- 
tern on white glass more distinctly, are by no means of 
common occurrence in English work during this period. 

Richly coloured ground patterns also are seldom to bo 

* See plate 20. 



met with in English work, except in the backgrounds 
of panels: the interstices between the pictures, when 
closely placed, being in general filled with architectural 
details, or scrollworks of foliage on coloured grounds. 
They usually consist of pieces of glass of various colours, 
cut into roundels, or other geometrical shapes, haying 
patterns painted on them, and embedded in some general 
ground colour. 

The ordinary German Decorated patterns are gene- 
rally far more highly enriched with colour than the 
English ; they are also bolder in design, and abound in 
cross-hatched grounds on the white glass ^. The French 
patterns more commonly bear a closer resemblance to 
our own; but the running scrollwork is in general 
more entwined with the bands, than is usual in English 
work. Many minute differences in the drawing of the 
leaves, &c., may also be remarked in English, ^GjSkmn, 
and French patterns. i?^ *^ -^{.. ^ * '^t\ 

These are represented either on panels, or under cano- 
pies; or, when placed in tracery lights, on plain or 
ornamented grounds, either white or coloured. The 
general treatment of the subject is similar to that de- 
scribed under the former style. The design is simple 
in its composition, and not overcrowded with figures, 
and is generally represented on a stiff coloured ground, 

7. Pictures. 


^ Several Qer man pattemB from Stras- 
barg are represented in the Monogra- 
phie de la CathSdrale de B<mrge9 ; and 
a pattern from Attenberg, near Cologne, 
in Shaw's " Encyclopiedia of Ornament." 

See a Fi-ench Decorated pattern in Laa- 
teyrie, Hitt, de la Peiniure awr verre, 
plate xxxi. Two patterns from Chartres 
Cathedral are given in Shaw's " Eucy- 
clopnediii of Ornament." 


which is usually diapered. Clouds are occasionally intro- 
duced, as in representations of the Ascension, for in- 
stance, not as a pictorial embellishment, but as mere 
stiff accessories to the subject. Their form and colour 
are very conventional, as are also the representations 
of animals, trees, architectural details, and other like 

The panels are of various shapes, and contain, in 
general, but one subject apiece. They are usually edged 
with a narrow strip of white, or coloured glass, usually 
left plain, but sometimes ornamented with beads, &c. 

8. Canopies. 

The canopy forms a very important feature in Deco- 
rated glass-paintings. It is extensively used to cover 
groups, as well as single figures. Its form and propor- 
tions vary exceedingly. 

Some canopies, as for instance those used in tracery 
lights, or those which are carried like a belt across 
a window, are seldom more than twice or thrice the 
height of the figure under them; whilst others, as in 
figure and canopy windows, when the lower lights are 
long and narrow, are surmounted with very lofty spires, 
carried occasionally to a great height above the figure, 
the effect of which is sometimes quite overpowered by 
the superstructure. 

The details of the canopies resemble those on the 
seals, the sepulchral brasses, and in the architecture 
of the time. The crockets and finials of the later ex- 
amples in general possess a graceful, leaf-like character '. 

« See plates 22 «nd 41. 



In the earlier specimens they are stiff, and more re- 
semble the Early English. 

The low-crowned canopy, so commonly used in form- 
ing belts of colour across a window, is very simple in 
its arrangement. It consists of an arch, either plain or 
cuspidated, (beneath which the figure is placed,) sur- 
mounted with a flat-faced gable, which is sometimes 
straight-pointed, sometimes ogee-pointed, and almost 
always crocketed, and crowned with a large finial. The 
side pilasters from which the arch springs, in general 
run up on either side into pinnacles *. The spire of the 
canopy, if it has one, generally springs from a low flat- 
faced tower rising from behind the gable. The tower is 
usually pierced with windows, and furnished with pin- 
nacles, from which flying buttresses are thrown to the 
spire, and the side pinnacles. The canopy. in general 
terminates abruptly at bottom without a pedestal, and 
the feet of the figure rest on a piece of turf or grass, or 
sometimes on a pavement, or even on a straight line 
of colour, or a straight inscription. The space beneath 
the main arch of the canopy does not appear like a recess. 
So much of it as is not occupied by the figure, is simply 

* The canopy represented in plate 
22, is one of a belt of canopies which 
crosses the lower lights of a three-lighted 
window; the border of the light may be 
seen on each side of the canopy. The 
canopy itself is executed principally in 
white and yellow pot-metal glass, and 
is backed by a diapered red ground. 
Its finials mn into the next glazing 
panel, and are there embedded in a white 
pattern ground. There is likewise a 
large space of white pattern gronnd be- 
low the canopy. See some more com- 

plicated examples, Lasteyrie, Hist, de la 
Peinture sur verre, plates xxxviii. and 
xliii. In the second vol. of the " Trans- 
actions of the Exeter Diocesan Archi- 
tectural Society" are coloured lithograph 
engravings of three of the early Deco- 
rated figures and canopies now inserted 
in the east window of that cathedral, as 
well as of two of the figpires and cano- 
pies on a portion of the white pattern 
in one of the north windows of the clear- 
story of the choir. 


filled Tip with a flat coloured ground, in general richly 
diapered, and no attempt is made by shading, or other- 
wise, to produce the eflfect of its being a hollow niche. 
Indeed these representations exactly resemble geometri- 
cal drawings of architecture, especially those of the 
medieeval period, in which an incorrect sort of per- 
spective is not unfrequently shewn. Although white 
and yellow pot-metal glass usually predominate in the 
canopy, many of its architectural members frequently 
are otherwise coloured, pot-metal glass being much used 
for the purpose, and diapers are profusely employed on 
the pilasters and other flat surfaces; a practice which 
imparts to Decorated canopies a peculiarly rich and 
variegated appearance. 

It is not unusual to meet with spires and pinnacles 
formed of green or red, or pot-metal yellow glass ; or to 
find the tympanum of the principal gable, or the chief 
window in the tower above it, coloured blue, green, &c. 
Those parts of the canopy which are executed on white 
glass, are often much enriched with the yellow stain. 
The head of the canopy is generally backed with a 
coloured panel, sometimes flat-topped, sometimes trefoil - 
headed. The spires, however, occasionally run into the 
white pattern-work above them, without any backing 
of colour. 

The ordinary canopies in figure and canopy windows, 
differ from the canopy described only in their superior 
height, and greater complication of parts, occasioned by 
piling up tabernacle- work on the tower above the gable. 
When a figure and canopy window consists of three 
lower lights, the central canopy is often shorter than 


the side ones, and elevated by being placed above a 
panel containing a separate subject. 

In many continental examples, the interior and groin- 
ing of the canopy are carefully represented, especially 
when the canopy is of considerable size, extending into 
more than one lower light. Of these, instances may be 
seen in the windows of the choir of St. Sebald's Church, 
Nuremberg, some of which are dated 1379. 

It would be a tedious and unprofitable task to enu- 
merate the varieties of which Decorated canopies are 
susceptible. Some very excellent and early arrange- 
ments of canopies, extending into more than one light, 
may be seen in some of the aisle windows of the choir, 
Cologne Cathedral; in St. Thomas' Church, Strasburg; 
and in a large south window of the transept of Augs- 
burg Cathedral, restored after the original design, in 
1837. The panels of colour which back some of these 
continental canopies, are of excellent and varied design. 

9. Tracery Lights. 

The variety of designs for tracery lights in this style, 
is equalled only by the variety of the shapes given to 
the openings themselves. 

The most common design is formed by inserting one 
or more small coloured circles, or round pieces of co- 
loured glass, having a rose or other pattern painted on 
them, in the principal tracery lights, like insulated dots 
of colour, the remainder of the lights being filled with 
white glass, either plain or ornamented. The general 
colouring of the tracery lights is, as before stated, regu- 
lated by that of the rest of the window. When the 


lower lights are richly coloured, the tracery lights, in 
general, abound with colour likewise, and vice versa. 
The east window of the choir, Gloucester Cathedral, 
seems to afford a striking exception to this rule ; but as 
the lowest tiers of lights of this window are likewise 
filled with white patterns, the whole arrangement may 
perhaps be referred to a partiality of the glass-painters 
of the Decorated period for abrupt contrasts of masses 
of white and coloured glass. A desire to admit light 
into the choirs may also have operated to the exclusion 
of coloured glass from the tracery lights of the east 
window; and this conjecture is strengthened by the 
fact that the side windows of the clearstory, which are 
divided by a transom into two parts, originally had only 
their lower tiers of lights filled with figures and canopies, 
the upper tier of lights, as well as the tracery lights of 
each window, being filled, like the upper part of the 
east window, with white patterns sparingly enriched 
with coloured ornaments. 

At the earlier periods of the style, when large cus- 
pidated circles were common in architecture, it was not 
unusual to occupy the central space, to the points of the 
cuspidations, (and which is generally defined by a strong 
iron ring, connecting the cuspidations together,) with 
a circular panel, having an ornamental border, and con- 
taining either a coloured picture or heraldry, or even 
a coloured ornamental pattern of leaves, &c., drawn on 
it in outline, or with scrolls of foliage on a coloured 
ground; a narrow strip of white glass in either case 
separating the pattern from the stonework ®. 

The centre of the smaller cuspidated openings of 

•^ See plate 17. 



the same period, and subsequently, is often filled with 
a round panel, containing a head, or coloured leaves; 
or is even sometimes composed of plain pieces of coloured 
glass formed into a geometrical pattern; and the sur- 
rounding foils are either wholly occupied with an out- 
lined pattern on white glass, separated from the stone- 
work by a narrow strip of white glass, or are enriched 
by the insertion of a small circular coloured panel in the 
centre of each opening \ 

, Occasionally the Early English scrollwork on white 
glass, may be found inserted into the head of a geo- 
metrical tracery window, the pattern being adapted to 
the form of the openings. 

Other tracery lights, partaking more or less of the 
character of the quatrefoil, are in the earlier examples 
frequently filled in part with a panel, or niche, contain- 
ing a figure, or even with a figure by itself, executed in 
colours, the residue of the opening being covered with 
a white, or variegated scroll of foliage on a coloured 
ground, and furnished with a narrow edging, or border, 
of white glass next the stonework *. In the later ex- 
amples, however, such scrollworks on coloured grounds 
appear to have been discontinued, and the ground of 
the opening, when a figure was introduced, was merely 
diapered, or quarried with ornamented quarries ' ; or, in 

' In the eighth No. of the Archieo- 
logical Joarnal^ p. 863, is a representa- 
tion of a curious piece of panelling, in 
imitation of a window of three lights, 
with three cuspidated circles in the 
head, of the early part of the reig^ of 
Edward I., which ornaments one side 
of the chapter-house of Thornton Ahbey, 
Lincolnshire. The centre of each of the 
lowest circles, up to the points of the 

cnspidations, is filled with a circle, in 
relief, on which is carved an ornament 
like a star: the fbils are left plain. 
This affords a curious instance of the 
manner in which a decoration usually 
supplied by the glazing, is introduced 
in stonework. 

* See an example, '^Weale's Quar- 
terly Papers," part i. plate 5. 

' See phite 24. 



case a shield of arms was inserted, the rest of the space 
between it and the border of the light, was occupied 
with leaves, &c., represented by filling in round them 
with black paint «. At all periods of the style, however, 
the centre of the quatrefoil is often found to be filled 
with a circular panel containing a coloured picture, or 
pattern, and surrounded with white glass with leaves, 
&c., in outline upon it ^. 

The smaller triangular-shaped, and other openings, 
were, in the earlier windows, generally flUed with a piece 
of plain coloured glass, separated from the stonework 
by a strip of white. In the centre was often introduced 
a rose, or other circular ornament, on a piece of glass of 
a different colour to that forming the ground of the 
light. In the late windows, such openings were more 
commonly ornamented with a leaf, shewn by filling up 
the space round it with black paint, or a diaper pattern' ; 
or an animal, bird, or fish, ingeniously contrived to fill 
up the space, and separated from the stonework by 
a narrow edge or margin of white glass ; or with a little 
coloured rose, or other round object, surrounded either 
with white or yellow leaves, represented in the manner 
before mentioned ; or, with a diaper pattern. 

In their selection of designs for the head of a window 
the artists seem often to have been guided by a some- 
what capricious taste: and it is frequently difficult to 
discover any connexion between the subjects repre- 
sented in the different lights; or between them and 
those in the lower lights. 

Sometimes, however, one general design occupies the 

K See plate 23. 

*» See an instance, "Weale'a Quar- 
terly Papers," part ix. plate 2 ; nnd sec 

Lasteyrie, HUtoire de la PeitUure sur 
verre, plate xlii. 
^ See plate 39. 



whole of the tracery lights of a window, portions of it 
being represented in each. The Day of Judgment is 
a rather favourite subject for this situation. Christ, 
seated on a throne, usually occupies the principal top- 
most light, and angels and saints those in its im- 
mediate vicinity. Below are represented the dead rising 
from their tombs, &c. Each light generally embraces 
a distinct portion of the subject, and is always bordered 
with a narrow strip of white glass, which produces a 
very brilliant and sparkling appearance. The unity of 
the design is sometimes assisted by an uniformity of 
ground colour in certain groups of tracery lights. 

Sacred emblems are far more frequently to be met 
with in the tracery, than in any other part of a window : 
but they do not appear to have been very favourite sub- 
jects during the Decorated period. When the principal 
tracery light is of moderate size, it is sometimes appro- 
priated to an emblem, but when large, a smaller tracery 
light is usually assigned for this purpose. 

10. Heraldet. 
The simple shield, unaccompanied with either helmet. 

or mantling, was in use 
throughout this period : 
it was always of the 
heater form, becoming, 
however, somewhat longer 
and narrower, its sides 
being more nearly par- 
allel to each other in their 
upper parts, towards the 

Cut 18. 

o Hn 

Fawkham Ghttrch, Kent. 


end of the style ''. The earlier shields are often of con- 
siderable size, and are, in general, not ornamented with 
diaper patterns. 

They are usually inserted by themselves in the upper 
part of a lower light', or sometimes on a circular coloured 
panel in the midst of a geometrical tracery light. In 
some of the windows of the chapter-house at York, two 
shields are thus placed in, a circle, the one above the 
other ". 

The later shields are very richly "^ "■ 

diapered, and are generally of 
smaller size, to allow of their in- 
sertion into panels in the lower 
lights and into the tracery lights 
of the later Decorated windows, 
where they are often represented 
as if suspended by a strap from 
a stem of foliage. 

Four quarterings are not un- 
usual even in very early shields, on«»»''=i"'<anioi.,B*«. 
but the charges are always very simple. 

The introduction of heraldic devices, merchants* marks, 
&o., into the borders of windows, has been already no- 

la ibitld in pl>t« 18, whieli 
it of the earl; part of the fourteenth 
oentarj, with thkt in plate 23, which ii 
of the elate of the Qecanted period. 

' See LjwHU' "Drrbyihire," p. ccxii. 

■" See a fiunt oatiine of thii arrange- 
ment, Britton'a " Hiit. of ¥ork Ctithe- 
drsl," plate ixili. 

• The caatle reprennted in cat 18, 
originally fanned part of a coat of armi. 
Argent, a crow galea charged with five 
caitlcB or. Tbi* ii evident trma an cn- 

gnting of the Bane window, in which it 
now it, in Thorpe'* CtuimnaU Soffme, 
facing p. 114, in which two eiamplei of 
tbii coKt are given. The eastlea are now 
inieited in the border of the window, 
and being separated fWim each other, 
bj pieces of plain red gUu, fonn a verj 
genuine- looking heraldic border. The 
caitle is of the eorlj part of the four- 
teenth centnty. An heraldic lion, of the 
middle of the fourteenth century, ia re- 
premnted in plate 13. The fleucKle-liB 



II. Lettebs. 

The letter generally used, was the Lombardio capital °, 

but towards the middle of the style the black letter was 

introduced, and employed concurrently with the Lom- 


12. Mechanical Consteuction. 

Glass-paintings of this period present hardly any pecu- 
liarities in this respect. The lower lights being furnished 
with horizontal saddle-bars, the work is leaded together 
in rectangular glazing panels, which are bound to the 
saddle-bars with leaden bands. The glazing panels gene- 
rally coincide in length with the principal divisions of 
the subject represented ; and the leads, when not thrown 
into the outline, with the course of the saddle-bars. In 
German leadwork of this period, each glazing panel is 
often surrounded with a double lead, which greatly adds 
to the stability of the work, but this precaution does not 
appear to have been taken by the English glaziers. 

The glass of the tracery lights is likewise attached to 
horizontal, or perpendicular saddle-bars, sometimes to 
both, or to the circular iron rings before mentioned, 
when they exist, in the cuspidated circles of geometrical 




Although Perpendicular glass-paintings, taken collec- 
tively, are easily distinguishable from Decorated glass- 
paintings, by the form of their details, the greater 

in cat 19 is from an example of the 
latter half of the fourteenth centuiy; it 
should be compared with the fleurs-de-lis 

in plate 18, which are of the commence- 
ment of the century. 
« See plate 22. 


breadth and delicacy of their colouring, and their more 
refined and finished execution, these changes were in- 
troduced so gradually as to render it diflScult, if not im- 
possible, to determine exactly when the Decorated style 
ended, and the Perpendicular style commenced. I have 
made an arbitrary selection of the year 1380 as the 
period about which the change of style may be con- 
sidered to have taken place ; but the Perpendicular style 
can hardly be said to have become thoroughly esta- 
blished until the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
During this interval, therefore, glass-paintings may be 
classed as Decorated, or Perpendicular, accordingly as 
Decorated or Perpendicular features prevail in them. 
I think that the Perpendicular style may be deemed to 
have terminated with the use of Gothic ornamental de- 
tails, about the year 1530 ; consequently, one hundred 
and fifty years, or thereabouts, may be assigned as the 
period of its duration. 

The substitution of ornaments of a peculiarly flat, deli- 
cate, and conventional character, for the more decided, 
and naturally-shaped leaves, of which so much of the 
detail of Decorated glass-paintings is composed, con- 
stitutes a striking feature of the Perpendicular style, 
though one which was by no means fully developed 
until the fifteenth century. The increasing use of the 
yellow stain, and of white glass, in lieu of pot-metal 
colours, and the gradual adoption of a less mosaic, and 
broader style of colouring, may be traced throughout 
the interval between 1380 and 1400, but the pre- 
dominance of white and yellow stained glass, over the 
other colours, is perhaps more strikingly manifested 
after the beginning of the fifteenth century. 


The stipple method of shading, which so materially 
increased the pictorial resources of the art of glass- 
painting, appears to have been introduced about the 
commencement of the fifteenth century. It is true that 
glass-paintings did not display the full powers of stipple 
shading until upwards of a hundred years afterwards, 
but it was immediately discovered that this system of 
shading afforded remarkable facilities for imparting a 
highly finished appearance to glass-paintings. The intro* 
duction of stipple-shading may also be regarded as 
haying sensibly affected the colouring of glass-paintings ; 
for the ancient artists appear to have soon perceived 
that mosaic arrangements of stiff and powerful colours, 
were unfavourable to a display of the more minute 
gradations of light and shade in pictorial compositions ; 
and that the very shadows themselves tended to correct 
the coldness of white glass, and to increase the richness 
of the lighter kinds of coloured glass. 

These considerations may serve to account both for 
the introduction of large masses of white glass, relieved 
with the yellow stain, into the richest picture windows 
even of the commencement of the fifteenth century, 
a practice which involved the general adoption of a 
broader style of colouring ; and also for the diminished 
intensity of tint in the different kinds of white and 
coloured glass, as well as the greater harmony, liveli- 
ness, and gaiety of their hues, and evenness of colour, 
in proportion as the style advanced, and the new prin- 
ciple of colouring was carried out. 

The taste for broad and soft colouring, and delicacy of 
execution, manifested in Perpendicular picture windows, 
naturally, or rather necessarily, extended itself to Per- 


.pendicular pattern windows also, which display these 
qualities in as remarkable a manner as the former class 
of windows. Owing to these circumstances, Perpen- 
dicular glass-paintings in general, when contrasted with 
Decorated glass-paintings, are apt to appear paler, and 
less rich in colour; in their general effect, however, 
they are more brilliant, softer, more silvery and deli- 
cate; and what they seem to lose in power they gain 
in refinement 

The earlier Perpendicular picture glass-paintings are 
more bright and sparkling than the later examples, in 
which the powers of stipple-shading are more perfectly 
developed; but the deeper shadows, which detract in 
a certain degree from the lustre of the glass-paintings 
of the sixteenth century, sensibly add to their warmth 
and richness ; and besides, render them less flat in ap- 
pearance, and more effective and distinct when seen 
from a distance. 

The arrangements of this style are more numerous 
and varied than those of any other, and seem to have 
been adopted without reference to any fixed principle. 
I shall confine myself to a short notice of some of the 
most common and striking. 

The figure and canopy window, probably owing to 
the grandeur of effect produced by the simplicity of its 
design, and the facilities it afforded for a display of 
broad colouring, was the favourite arrangement of this 
period. It was most extensively employed ; and is to 
be found in all situations, whether at the sides, or the 
extreme ends of a building, below, or aloft. 

In form, the canopies resemble those in the taber- 
nacle-work of the time ; they generally have projecting 


fronts, and are large in proportion to the figures they 
cover, but not so large as to overpower them, as is 
sometimes the case in Decorated work. 

The canopy, in general, fills up the whole of the light 
in which it is placed ; when however the light is suffi- 
ciently long, one or more small panels, containing pic- 
tures, symbolical devices, or armorial bearings, are not 
unfrequently introduced beneath the base of the canopy, 

A Perpendicular figure and canopy window greatly 
differs from a Decorated example, not only in the archi- 
tectural details of the tabernacle-work, but also in the 
disposition of its colours. It has before been stated that 
every pot-metal colour used in the glass-paintings of the 
time, may generally be found in the architecture of 
a Decorated canopy. But all the architectural members 
of a Perpendicular canopy, with the exception some- 
times of the little windows in its head, or the groining 
of the principal niche, are composed of white glass ; the 
crockets, finials, and other details, being stained yellow. 
The strong pot-metal colours are principally confined to 
the ground with which the head of the canopy is backed, 
to the figure under it, and the background of the niche. 
This practice of surrounding, as it were, the colouring 
of the picture with masses of white and yellow stained 
glass, is not confined to figure and canopy windows, but 
may be observed in almost all Perpendicular designs. 
It may indeed be considered as an essential feature of 
the style. 

Each lower light of a Perpendicular figure and canopy 
window is occupied with a figure and canopy, and the 
repetition of the subject produces a very striking effect 
in all cases, and especially when the window itself is 



divided into several tiers of lights by transoms. The 
principal tracery lights are filled either with small 
figures and canopies, or with heraldry, or foliaged orna- 
ments ; in all of which white glass prevails, more or less 
enriched with the yellow stain : and the smaller tracery- 
lights with white and yellow stained ornaments, or plain 
pieces of coloured glass ^, 

Another arrangement of this style, of more common 
occurrence however during the first half of the fifteenth 
century than afterwards, and which for convenience sake 
may be termed th^ panelled arrangement; consists in 
filling each of the lower lights, with the exception some- 
times of a small space near the bottom, with a series of 
flat-topped canopies or panels, of the same width as the 
light itself, placed closely together; each canopy or 
panel containing a picture executed in white and pot- 
metal glass. 

The tracery lights of such a window are usually oc- 
cupied with small figures and canopies, or ornaments, 
and the vacant space, if any, below the subjects in the 
lower lights, is in general mled with ornamented quar- 
ries, or heraldic decorations, &c.*^ 

The various panels are usually of the same size, and 

p See representations of fignre and 
canopy windows, Lasteyrie, Sistoire de 
la Peinture sur verre, plate Ixix.; Ly- 
Bons' "Gloucestershire," p. 109. See 
also Hedgeland's "Description of the 
Windows of St. Neot's Church, Corn- 
wall," 4to. Lond. 1830, plates ii., iii., 
iv., v., vi., X., xi., xii. As these last 
plates represent the windows after their 
"restoration" in 1829, they are, I fear, 
not very trustworthy. 

<i See representations of panelled ar- 

rangements, Lasteyrie, Histoire de la 
Peinture ntr verre, plate liv.; Hedge- 
land's "Description of the Windows of 
St. Neot's Church, Cornwall," plates i., 
viii., ix., xvi. See also a plate of the 
east window of York Minster, from a 
drawing by J. Haynes in 1736, pub- 
lished at York, 1832 ; a faint outline of 
the glass in this window is likewise 
given in Britten's "Hist, of York Ca- 
thedral," plate XXV. 



their subjects commonly bear some relation to each 
other; but instances may be met with where a subject 
much longer than the others is represented in the centre 
light of the window, occupying as much space as two 
or more of the smaller panels in the side lights, with 
which it is made to range. 

In other windows may be noticed a belt of low- 
crowned canopies, each covering a figure, or a group of 
figures, executed in coloiirs; which crosses the lower 
lights, as in a Decorated window ; the space above and 
below the canopies being filled with ornamented quar- 
ries, or in German examples, with round glass. 

In other windows such a canopy or panel is placed in 
the middle of the central lower light only, the rest of 
the window being filled with ornamented quarries, &c. 

In other examples a figure standing on a bracket, 
occupies the central portion of one, or each of the lower 
lights of a window, without any canopy or background, 
the space above and below the figure being filled with 
ornamented quarries *", and occasionally enriched by the 
insertion into it, above or below the figure, of a small 
panel, or wreath, containing either a picture or a coat of 
arms, or a badge, a sacred emblem, monogram, or the 
like *. A modification of this arrangement may be seen 
in small three-lighted windows in the fifteenth century, 
where a representation of the Crucifixion occupies the 
central portion of the middle light ; and figures of the 

' See Lysons* "Gloucestershire/' p. 
ziii.; see also the window of West 
Wickham Church, Kent, Lysons, vol. iv. 
p. 353. The figures in this window 
have likewise heen engraved in Weale's 
" Quarterly Papers," vol. ii. 

* Three examples of figures standing 

on brackets and on quarry grounds are 
given in the second vol. of the Exeter 
Diocesan Architectural Society. In one 
of the engravings, a wreath enclosing 
the instruments of the Passion, is intro- 
duced, as above described, below the 


Virgin Mary and St. John, standing on brackets, take 
up the central portions of the outer lights, each subject 
being surrounded with ornamented quarries ; and some- 
times having beneath it the portraits or arms of the 
donors of the window. 

Pattern windows in this style are by no means un- 
common. They are almost always made up of quarries 
of white glass, ornamented with stained yellow devices 
and borders. Badges, shields of arms, or emblems, 
painted on small panels of glass, usually of circular 
form, are often introduced into either their lower or tra- 
cery lights, or into both. German pattern windows are 
generally composed of round glass. 

I have hitherto been speaking of arrangements con- 
sisting of separate' subjects, not extending beyond the 
limits of a single lower light. It was, however, by no 
means an uncommon practice, in this style, to extend 
the same design into two or more adjacent lights, or 
even over the whole window. This practice, though of 
considerable antiquity on the continent, does not appear, 
from existing examples, to have been very freely adopted 
in England until towards the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury ; when it was often resorted to with the happiest 
effect, as a means of representing, on a scale as large as 
the figures in figure and canopy windows, groups of 
figures and other subjects, which, if confined within the 
narrow limits of a single light, must have been reduced 
to dimensions so insignificant as to prevent their being 
distinctly seen from a distance : a defect which is strik- 
ingly exemplified in the earlier panelled arrangements. 

Subjects, when extending over the whole of a window, 
are seldom surrounded with any kind of ornament, the 



picture reaching quite up to the outside limits of the 
window : so, canopies, or other architectural ornaments, 
are frequently dispensed with, late in the style, even 
when the design itself does not extend beyond the limits 
of a single light. In general, however, when the same 
picture occupies some of the lower lights of a window, 
it is included within a canopy, or a bower of foliaged 
work. These canopies being principally composed of 
white, and yellow stained glass, are of great use in keep- 
ing the different subjects distinct, when, as is often the 
case, several pictures of different dimensions are in- 
cluded in the same window. The effect of such an 
arrangement, when properly managed, is extremely 
satisfactory, and may be likened to that of a number of 
great and small pictures framed, and hung up close to- 
gether. In some instances an architectural design, in 
the form of one general canopy, traverses all, or several 
of the lower lights of a window, but includes beneath its 
arch several distinct figures or subjects, each confined 
within the limits of a single light ^ 

The earlier wheel windows of this period have a star- 
like appearance, like those of the last; the later ex- 
amples, however, more nearly resemble a rainbow. The 
first are composed of variegated patterns, while in the 
last the colours are collected together towards the cir- 
cumference, and in the eye of the window, in concentric 
circles of different widths, and sometimes nearly in the 
prismatic order. A broad space of white glass, some- 
times enriched with yellow ornaments, separates the 

* Parts of a canopy of this description 
are represented in some of the plates 
taken from the glass in the east window 

of the choir, Winchester Cathedral, in 
the second toI. of Weale's "Quarterly 




colour in the eye of the window, from that in its cir- 

The earlier Jesse windows consist of a vine springing 
from a recunabent figure of Jesse ; and which forms, by 
the crossing of its branches, a regular series, sometimes 
of oval, but more frequently of hexagonal openings, in 
each of which a figure is placed. The ramifications of 
the vine, which in general extend over the whole or 
greater part of the window, independently of the mul- 
lions, are usually white, and the leaves which spring 
from them are either white or variegated. The ground 
of the whole window is often of the same tint, but 
sometimes the insides of the openings appropriated to 
the figures are of a different colour to that of the general 
ground of the window : in other instances, when this is 
not the case, an alternation of colour throughout the 
whole design is produced by making the entire ground 
of each light alternately, red and blue^ 

In the later Jesse windows, the vine assumes a more 
playful and varied form. It is generally placed on a co- 
loured ground, and the figures of kings and patriarchs, 
&c. stand upon its branches, or sit upon foliaged stools 
growing out of them. The branches of the vine, as well 
as its principal leaves, are generally coloured white or 
yellow; many of its leaves, however, are formed of 
various pot-metals. The Jesse often occupies only two 
or three lights of a window, the remaining lights being 
filled with other subjects. 

* This is the case with the east win- 
dow of the chapel of Winchester Col- 
lege. The cast window of Oloacester 
Cathedral, a figure and canopy window 
late in the Decorated style, exhibits 

a similar alternation of oolonr. The like 
principle may be recognised in the east 
window of the north aisle of Levington 
Church, Cambridgeshire, a Jesse of the 
first quarter of the fifteenth century. 


I shall conclude my remarks on Perpendicular ar- 
rangements, which I fear have been already drawn out 
to a wearisome length, by observing that they comprise 
not only a great variety of new combinations, but also 
almost every old one which has before been noticed, and 
every variation of which it is susceptible. Owing to 
this circumstance the Perpendicular style is greatly 
superior to the Decorated and Early English, in re- 
sources and general applicability. 

The ante-chapel of New College, Oxford, contains 
some of the best examples extant of early Perpendicular 
glass. All its windows, except the west, retain their 
original glazing, which is generally in a very perfect 
state. They are all figure and canopy windows; and 
may be said to be all of the same date, though some 
differences of style are observable in them, marking in 
a very satisfactory manner the transition almost from 
Decorated to Perpendicular work. The figures and 
canopies which most partake of the Decorated character, 
are in the east windows of the ante-chapel : but even in 
these may be observed the principle of excluding all 
colours except white and stained yellow from the archi- 
tectural members of the canopy. The windows of the 
body of the chapel retain their original glazing only in 
their tracery lights. I have little doubt but that these 
windows originally were likewise figure and canopy 
windows. New College Chapel, as is well known, has 
no east window; but the general arrangement of the 
glass in a contemporary building of like character, and 
furnished with an east window, has fortunately been 
preserved at Winchester College. The original glass of 
the chapel of Winchester College, with the exception 



of a few trifling fragments, does not exist, but its design 
has been faithfully copied in modem glass. From this 
it appears that all the side windows of the chapel were 
originally figure and canopy windows, the canopies, like 
those at New College, Oxon., being always confined 
within the limits of a single light ; and that the east 
window was filled, as to its tracery lights, with a re- 
presentation of the Day of Judgment, and as to its 
lower lights, with a magnificent Jesse. The great west 
window of Winchester Cathedral, is a figure and canopy 
window, of very early date. From the fragments which 
remain I have ground for believing, that all the side 
windows of the nave, and aisles, and clearstory, of the 
nave of Winchester Cathedral, were figure and canopy 

In the choir of York Minster, the glass of which is of 
different dates, varying from the end of the fourteenth 
century to the middle of the fifteenth % figure and canopy 
windows, panelled arrangements, and combinations of the 
two. are rather promiscuously employed. The original 
clearstory windows are indeed figure and canopy win- 
dows, but the great east window, of which a very distant 
view is obtained, is but a panelled arrangement, its lower 
lights being filled with a series of panels representing 
many of the occurrences recorded in the Bible, each in- 
cident forming a separate picture. Its tracery lights are 
adorned with single figures and ornaments ^. The great 

* The foregoing examples are cited 
principally with the object of directing 
the student's personal attention to them. 
The dates of many of these windows 
have been ascertained with considerable 
exactness, in " Brown's History of York 

Minster/' to which valuable work the 
reader is referred for farther informa- 

^ This window has been engraved, see 
the former note (q, p. 122). The contract 
for glazing it is dated 10th Aug. 1405, 


north and south windows of that curious projection, 
which may be called the eastern transepts, are likewise 
panelled arrangements. The lower windows of the aisles, 
with the exception of a fine Jesse, of similar character 
to that in the chapel of Winchester College, are either 
figure and canopy windows, or have their lower lights 
occupied with large figures and canopies, and a series of 
panels beneath them. 

I may refer to the ante-chapel of All Souls' College, 
Oxford, as aflbrding an example of a general arrange- 
ment of the reign of Henry VI. All the windows of the 
ante-chapel are figure and canopy windows, their details 
are of pure Perpendicular character. 

Nettlestead Church, Kent, a small building consisting 
merely of a tower, nave, and chancel, retains most of its 
original glazing. The south windows of the nave were 
almost totally destroyed by a storm many years ago, but 
enough of the glass still remains, I think, to shew that 
like the windows on the north side, they were originally 
figure and canopy windows. All the glass in the nave 
is of the latter part of the reign of Henry VI. That in 
the chancel appears from an inscription to have been 
put up in 1465, and affords a rather striking contrast to 
that in the nave, being more simple in its design, and 
much less richly coloured. The tracery lights of the 
chancel windows are filled with heraldry, emblems, &c., 

and stipalates for the completion of the 
work in three years from that time. John 
Thornton of Coventry, the glazier, in 
case he performed the work to the satis- 
faction of his employers, was to receive 
the sam of £10 in silver, over and ahove 
the stipulated price. Whether or not he 
was influenced by this consideration, it 

must be admitted that he has succeeded 
in producing not only one of the highest 
fiuished, but also one of the most artistic 
works of the time. The details and exe- 
cution of this window are of the purest 
Perpendicular character. He was bound 
by the contract to perform the painting 
with his own hand. 


and judging from the remains in the north and east 
windows, their lower lights each contained a single 
figure, or other subject, supported by a bracket, and 
placed on a ground of ornamented quarries. A separate 
subject appears to have been inserted at the bottom of 
the light. In the east window, portraits of its donors 
are thus introduced. 

Many of the churches in York afford examples of 
general arrangements. I may mention All Saints' 
Church, North-street, in which figure and canopy win- 
dows, and panelled arrangements, appear to be used 
promiscuously : and also St. Martin's-le-Grand Church. 
The west window of this church has five lower lights, 
each of the four outer of which contains three tiers of 
square-headed panels, including separate subjects, the 
upper panel being surmounted with a fine canopy. In 
the centre light a large figure of St. Martin, under 
a canopy, is introduced, which ranges with the two 
upper tiers of subjects and canopy above them, in the 
outer lights ; a separate subject ranging with the lowest 
tier of pictures in the outer lights, being placed below 
the feet of the figure. 

The great north window of the western transept of 
Canterbury Cathedral appears to have been originally 
a figure and canopy window. It contains portraits of 
Edward the Fourth's family, and like some of the rather 
later windows of Great Malvern Church, and the east 
window of Little Malvern Church, Worcestershire, has 
a remarkably soft and silvery appearance. 

The seven east windows of the choir of St. Lawrence's 
Church, Nuremberg, which are mostly of the close of 
the fifteenth century, are excellent specimens of panelled 



arrangements, consisting of an intermixture of small 
panels confined to a single lower light, with larger 
panels extending into two or more such lights, and 
varying in length and shape as much as in breadth. 
Similar arrangements are likewise aflfbrded by the five 
windows in the north aisle of the nave of Cologne 
Cathedral, which are of the early part of the sixteenth 
century. In all these windows may be observed the pro- 
gressive development of the powers of stipple shading, 
and the more pictorial character assumed by glass-paint- 
ings in consequence. The white glass employed is sil- 
very, and almost colourless, its tint inclining to yellow. 

Fairford Church, Gloucestershire, contains perhaps 
the best and most extensive specimens existing in this 
country of painted glass of the early part of the six- 
teenth century *. Nearly all of its twenty-eight windows 

■ The peculiar character of the Fair- 
ford gbiisB-paintings induces me to class 
them as a work of the sixteenth century. 

The tradition (for it amounts to no- 
thing more) that Fairford Church was 
founded by John Tame in 1493, /or the 
reception of this glcue which he hcidjust 
then taken in a valuable prize, is impro- 
bable; for it can hardly be supposed 
that this costly edifice was built for the 
sake of such a drug as these windows 
must then have been considered, however 
highly we may now esteem them. The 
facts indeed seem to point to a different 
oonclnsion. The windows of the church 
are late Perpendicular, of thoroughly 
English character ; yet the glass-paint- 
ings exactly fit the stonework, which 
they would hardly have done had they 
been originally designed for the windows 
of a foreign building. Moreover, Eng- 
lish royal cognizances are introduced in 
some of the tracery lights, on the south 
side of the church, the glass of which 
does not differ in character and effect 

from that in the other windows. The 
story, however, seems to admit of an ex- 
planation reconcilable with the date I 
have ventured to assign to the glass. 
Mr. Tame may have taken a rich prize, 
and applied t^ proceed* to the building 
of the church, and adorning of its win- 
dows with painted glass. He died in 
1500. The church was completed by 
his Fon, Sir Edmund Tame, who died in 
1534. [Byland's " Hist, of Gloucester- 
shire," Lond. 1721, p. 668.] In all pro- 
bability the windows Were not painted 
until the edifice was ready, or nearly 
ready for their reception. In one of 
the windows occur the Prince of Wales' 
feathers, which clearly alludes either 
to Arthur, who was created Prince of 
Wales 1489 and died 1502, or to Henry 
(afterwards Henry VIII.) created Prince 
Feb. 1503, or Edward the son of the 
latter, bom 1537. The style of the 
glass, however, forbids the supposition 
that the Prince alluded to was other 
than Prince Henry. 



retain their original glazing, which is generally in a very 
perfect state ; and they afford not only valuable examples 
of particular arrangements, but also of the general dis- 
position of subjects throughout an entire building. All 
the clearstory windows of this church are figure and 
canopy windows, but with the exception of four figure 
and canopy windows in the north side of the north 
aisle, and four more in the south side of the south aisle, 
towards the western end of the edifice *, the other win- 
dows are all filled as to their lower lights with one or 
more pictures illustrative of Holy Writ, The great west 
window, for instance, is entirely occupied with a repre- 
sentation of the Day of Judgment : the east window has 
its upper tier of lower lights filled with a painting of 
the Crucifixion, while in each of the five lights of the 
lower tier, is represented some incident of our Saviour's 
life, &c. These glass-paintings exhibit in a striking de- 
gree the great progress which the art had made in the 
early part of the sixteenth century. The shadows are bold 
and deep, but perfectly transparent, the drawing of the 
draperies is excellent, and that of the figures themselves 
tolerably correct : and a general richness and warmth is 
imparted to the picture by using a fine brown enamel 
for shading, the colour of which is assisted by the yellow 
tone of the white glass. As a glass-painting the great 
east window of Winchester Cathedral is not inferior to 
any work at Fairford, but it has sustained such damage 
at different times that its general effect can scarcely be 
judged of \ 

*■ Two of the Fairford figures are en- 
graved in ** Fowler's Mosaic Pavements 
and Painted Glass." 

I* Bishop Fox, whose armorial bear- 

ings and motto are introduced into this 
window, held the see of Winchester 
from 1509 to 1528. 


The windows of the church of St. Mary of the Capital 
at Cologne, are valuable examples of late German Per- 
pendicular glass, and of the mode in which round glass 
may be combined with painted glass in the same win- 
dow. The windows themselves consist of three lower 
lights and a head of tracery. In some, only the central 
lower light is adorned with a painting, the outer lights, 
as well as the tracery lights, and such part of the central 
light as is not occupied with the painting, being fur- 
nished with ornamented borders, and glazed with round 
glass. Stars of colour, which will be more particularly 
described hereafter, are employed to enrich the round 
glass in the outer lights. In other windows all the 
lower lights are, in equal degree, partially filled with 
painted glass, which sometimes consists of one general 
design, sometimes of several distinct subjects, the rest 
of the window being glazed as before mentioned with 
round glass, &c. In one window a square-headed canopy 
with a picture under it, occupies the middle part of the 
central lower light only : an arrangement which though 
resembling a Decorated arrangement in character, is not 
unfrequent in late German Perpendicular glass. 

The round glass in the windows of St. Mary's of the 
Capitol, has been at some not very distant time in- 
judiciously smeared over with what appears to be blue 
varnish colour. This of course will in time peel off, and 
leave the glass uninjured. For the present, however, 
in order to judge fairly of the effeot of round glazing 
in combination with painted glass, recourse must be had 
to other examples where the round glass has been left 
untouched ; as for instance the windows of St. Peter's 
Church, Cologne, which I shall more particularly nojioe 


in the course of my remarks on the Cinque Cento 

I now propose to give a summary of the most re- 
markable Perpendicular details before I enter upon their 
more minute examination. 

The grand characteristic of all Perpendicular glass- 
paintings is delicacy, sometimes even bordering on 
timidity, and general breadth of effect. It displays 
itself not merely in the highly-finished execution of 
the figures, and the general style and tone of colour- 
ing, but in the form of the most trifiing and subor- 
dinate ornaments. 

Perpendicular figures are in general superior to the 
Decorated in grandeur and dignity, their attitudes are 
less fantastic, and their draperies possess a simpler and 
still broader character. The elaborate execution of the 
work is however apt to occasion the countenances of 
the figures to be less distinct and striking when viewed 
from a distance; but this defect is more observable in 
glass-paintings prior to the sixteenth century than after- 
wards, when a bolder style of shading in great measure 
supplied the loss of the strong Decorated outlines. 

Perpendicular figures are more commonly too squat 
than too tall in their proportions. A light pink glass 
was frequently used, early in the style, for the faces and 
naked parts of the figures ; in England, however, it was 
soon discontinued almost entirely, and white glass sub- 
stituted, but fiesh-coloured glass is occasionally to be 
met with both here and on the continent, at all periods 
of the style. In the sixteenth century the flesh is 
coloured by slightly tinting the white glass with a red 
enamel, resembling china red. The hair and beards of 


the figures are frequently stained yellow, sometimes 
however they are merely coloured brown. Stipple 
shading was almost universally employed after the close 
of the fourteenth century, but smear shading is likewise 
occasionally to be met with throughout the style. 

The canopies are sometimes flat-fronted, like the 
Decorated, in general however the front of the canopy 
is three-sided, and projects beyond the figure. Until 
towards the close of the fifteenth century, the space 
beneath the canopy not occupied by the figure, was 
usually filled up with a stiff ground, reaching to the 
groining of the canopy, and terminating at bottom in 
a fringe, like a piece of tapestry. In the latter examples, 
the plan of the niche is in general distinctly shewn. 
A piece of tapestry is suspended behind the figure, from 
a rod on a level with its shoulders ; above it, the back 
of the niphe is often represented as if pierced with win- 
dows. The figure generally stands on a pavement, ex- 
hibited in very sharp perspective; when the space al- 
lows, the canopy is commonly furnished with a regular 
pedestal. As I have before stated, the architectural 
members of the canopy, with the exception of the groin- 
ing of the principal niche, and the little windows in the 
head of the canopy, are all composed of white and yellow 
stained glass. The smaller crockets from almost the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century, are usually represented 
like rounded knobs of stone ^, and the larger crockets 
and finials assumed, as the style advanced, a variety of 
fantastic shapes. In the earlier canopies, the later De- 
corated details prevail \ 

Xhe ornamental work on the draperies, on the quarries, 

« See plate 59. <* See plate 25, fig. 2. 



in the borders of the windows, in the architecture of the 
canopies, in diapers, &c., after struggling with the Deco- 
rated until the beginning of the fifteenth century, as- 
sumed an entirely new character, wonderfully har- 
monizing with the general breadth and delicacy of Per- 
pendicular glass-paintings. In form it is highly con- 
ventional and feathery ; its outline is tender and varied, 
and on the whole it more resembles embroidery work, in 
its flatness and irregularity, than anything else *. 

The early Perpendicular white glass closely resembles 
the late Decorated in tint and in richness of tone; it 
however gradually became colder, until towards the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, when it assumed 
a cold blue green tint, which it preserved, with but 
little change, until the end of the reign of Henry VI., 
varying, however, very considerably in depth in different 
parts of the country. It then became rather yellower, 
and uniformly paler, but did not wholly lose its blueness 
until perhaps the end of the reign of Edward IV. ; the 
glass then wholly assumed a yellow tint, not the rich 
yellow tint which is sometimes observable in Decorated 
glass, but a very much lighter and colder tinge of 
yellow; indeed, this glass would appear to an unprac- 
tised eye quite white. It continued of the same general 
yellow tint, in some instances, of course, inclining a little 

* Compare plate 58, wbich is taken 
from an example of the latter part of 
the fourteenth centary, with the later 
Perpendicnlar ornaments represented 
in plates 48, 56, 57, 61, 62, and 
64, &c. The Decorated lion's head in 
plate 42, should also be compared with 
the Perpendicular example in plate 65, 
and the early Perpendicular rose in 
cut 21 with the late one in cut 22. 

I should add, that the contrast between 
Decorated and Perpendicular details is 
in reality greater in the original glass 
than in these engravings, for the ont- 
lines used in Perpendicular work, though 
sometimes as broad, are not in general 
so dark as those used in Decorated work, 
a distinction which could not have been 
easily preserved in the plates. 


more to blue, in others a little more to yellow, during 
the remainder of this style, and also throughout the 
whole of the succeeding style. 

The red glass, towards the end of the reign of 
Henry VI., is far more scarlet and brilliant, though 
paler in tint than that of the early part of the fifteenth 
century. The streakiness and irregularity of the Early 
English and Decorated ruby, are not observable in the 
Perpendicular ruby, though a considerable, but gradual 
yariation in depth of colour from one side to the other 
of a large sheet of glass, may often be remarked. 

It was during the Perpendicular period that the prac- 
tice arose of grinding off the coloured surface of ruby 
glass, so as to produce white or yellow objects on a red 
ground. Blue glass in Perpendicular glass-paintings 
is almost invariably light, and of a soft purplish hue. 
It took the yellow stain remarkably well, and is ex- 
tensively used in the later glass-paintings, broken and 
varied with the stain, in pictorial backgrounds. Some 
of the most harmonious and exquisite tints to be found 
in coloured glass are afforded by the purples and pinks 
of this period ; they are at once light and brilliant, and 
rich and soft in tone. The same remark applies to green 
glass likewise. 

The yellow stain varies much in colour according to 
that of the white glass. When the latter is cold and 
green, the yellow stain is cold and green also. The 
yellow stain, however, does not appear to have affected 
the Perpendicular white glass with the same degree of 
intensity as it did the Decorated, until the reign of 
Edward IV., and afterwards, when the white glass it- 
self generally assumed a yellow tinge. The stain then 



became deep and golden, and the glass- paintings lost 
in consequence much pf that coldness which is so re- 
markable a feature in the earlier Perpendicular works. 
*' Double staining" was occasionally resorted to towards 
the close of the style. 

Heraldry aflfords one of the most splendid sources of 
ornament of this period. The shield, with numerous 
and complicated quarterings, is often introduced, with 
all the accompaniments of helmet, mantling, crest, &c. 
Sometimes the shield is used alone, and sometimes it is 
enclosed within a very beautiful wreath. The earlier 
shields are in form simple escutcheons, straight at top, 
the sides parallel for a little distance, and then brought 
together like a reversed Gothic arch. Towards the six- 
teenth century the same shaped shield became squarer 
in form, and less pointed at bottom. Almost every 
variety of shield may be met with from the latter part 
of the reign of Henry VI. Some of the forms are ex- 
tremely fanciful and elegant '. 

I shall now endeavour to describe these matters more 
at large under the following heads. 

1. Texture and Colour of the Glass. 

The glass at the beginning of this style of course did 
not dijffer from that used at the close of the last ; like it, it 
was rich and brilliant. A considerable change, however, 
seems to have taken place during the first twenty years 

' See plates 49 and 60. Large coloarcd 
engravings of fonr of the windows in the 
hall of Ock weirs House, Berks., are given 
in Lysons' « Berks," p. 247. 

In this hall are also the arms of 
Richard Beauchamp, who became Bi- 
shop of Salisbury (in which diocese Ock- 

well's House was formerly situate) in 
1450. As Henry VL, whose arms are 
in one of the windows, was deposed in 
1461, these two dates seem to define the 
period to some part of which the Ock- 
well's glass should be assigned. 


of the Perpendicular period, involving a diminution in 
the depth of some colours, and a loss of richness in 
others. The white glass appears to have sustained more 
variation than any other glass, and the changes in its 
texture aflford, on the whole, tests of date. 

The white glass used in the earlier Perpendicular 
glass-paintings, was like the late Decorated white glass, 
of a rich sea-green tint, and of great thickness in the 
sheet. It gradually lost its richness, becoming towards 
the commencement of the fifteenth century, of a cold 
greenish blue hue, but preserving its sparkling bril- 
liancy, as well as its general thickness in the sheet. It 
continued of this cold tone; and its colour in the 
southern and western parts of England was scarcely 
diminished in depth until the close of the reign of 
Henry VI. In the north, however, the white glass 
even of the early part of the fifteenth century is in 
general much less strongly tinged than that in other 
parts of the country. 

During the reign of Edward IV. the white glass, which 
had before in general varied much in thickness, became 
thinner, and of a more uniform substance throughout the 
sheet ; and its tint gradually changed from a cold blue 
green to a cold yellow green, which last tint it had uni- 
versally assumed by the end of the reign of Edward IV. 
It preserved the same yellow hue until the close of the 
style. This change in the complexion of the glass will 
be found, I believe, to be generally true, in England at 
least; and I have noticed similar variations in foreign 
glass. It is of course subject to many exceptions and 
qualifications, arising no doubt firom accidental circum- 
stances connected with its manufacture. Thus, for in- 


stance, in the reign of Henry VII. pieces of white glass 
may occasionally be found of as rich a yellow hue as the 
late Decorated. On minute examination, however, con- 
siderable diJBferences in texture will be discovered, the 
later glass being fuller of air-bubbles than the earlier 
glass; its colour also approaches the dusky tint of 
common bottle-green glass. The yellow stain was 
materially influenced by the colour of the white glass. 
It operated more strongly on the yellow than on the 
green tinted white glass. When applied to the former 
species, and over-fired, it is apt to assume a deep orange 
tint, whilst in some pieces of the cold green white glass 
of the time of Henry VL, which have been over-fired, 
the stain has been changed in places to a light pink, or 
faint scarlet colour. 

The ruby also underwent a very considerable change. 
It had quite lost its streakiness as early as the beginning 
of the fifteenth century, at which time the coat of colour- 
ing matter was reduced to the thickness of a sheet of 
writing-paper. This is exhibited in cut 2, given in 
a note to the Introduction. Specimens are, however, 
to be found as deep in colour as at any former period, 
though in general the ruby became lighter, and more of 
a bright scarlet, or crimson tint, as the style advanced. 

The colour was always subject to considerable, though 
gradual variations in depth in the course of the sheet. 
The ancient artists often availed themselves (as is now 
done) of these accidents in the manufacture, and cut the 
glass with reference to the general effect of the paint- 
ing ; bringing the light parts of the sheet into the light 
parts of the picture, and vice versa. Euby glass, damaged 
or imperfect in its manufacture, was often introduced 



with great effect into architectural designs late in the 
style, to represent variegated marble. Such, for in- 
stance, is the glass in which the ruby colour appears to 
have vanished in certain parts of the sheet, leaving 
a sort of copper-green colour in its place *. ^* Sprinkled 
ruby" was also used for these and similar purposes. 
The practice of abrading the coloured surface of ruby 
glass in certain places, so as to leave white spots on a red 
ground, appears to have been introduced during the latter 
half of the fifteenth century. It greatly facilitated the 
representation of complicated coats of arms. 

The blue glass lost much of its richness and depth 
during this period. It is generally of a soft purple 
hue, heavy and not brilliant, but sometimes of a cold 
grey tint. The Perpendicular blue is a much less pure 
blue than the Early English. It is invariably of a neu- 
tral tint, and almost invariably of a purple hue. It may 
be imitated in water-colour by mixing together French 
blue, purple lake, and indigo, and occasionally a little 
neutral tint. The most purple pieces when held to a 
candle are not so purple in effect as the Early English 
generally is. But it is rarely found that pieces held to 
the candle appear of a green tint,* they are commonly 
of a light purple grey tint. Coated blue was introduced 

i Ruby glass, exhibiting similar pe- 
culiarities, was occasionally used in De- 
corated glass-paintings also. Some very 
large pieces of glass of this description, 
having a pale green colour, with here 
and there slight streaks of red, have 
been employed to represent the water, 
through which wades a gigantic figure 
of St. Christopher, that occupies a por- 
tion of the central lower light of the 
second window, counting from the west, 
of the south aisle of the nave of York 

Minster. Some pieces of white glass ex- 
hibiting, here and there, a streak of ruby 
have been used as white glass in some of 
the scrolls and drapery in the early Per- 
pendicular Jesse which occupies the east 
window of the north aisle of Leverington 
Church, Cambridgeshire. Such an in- 
stance of economy deserves notice. This 
glass, of imperfect manufacture, is, ex- 
cepting these red streaks, as white as 
the other white gloss employed in the 



towards the sixteenth century, and was occasionally 
subjected to the same process of removing parts of its 
coloured surface by abrasion, as was practised on ruby 

The pot-metal yellow glass is generally of a fine 
golden colour ; it is, however, sometimes with difficulty 
distinguished from the stained yellow. Towards the 
close of the style the yellow stain was sometimes used 
to heighten, in places, the colour of the yellow pot-metal 
glass, a practice which produces the same effect exactly 
as double staining. 

The tints of purple, pink, and green glass, throughout 
this period are very pleasing and harmonious. Much of 
the purple is formed, as mentioned in a note to the 
Introduction, by enclosing a layer of light red glass 
within two layers of blue glass. The sheets thus con- 
stituted are not thicker than the glass ordinarily em- 
ployed, A light pink pot-metal glass was much used 
for flesh-colour early in the style ; and on the continent, 
occasionally at all periods of the style. It much resem- 
bles the later Decorated flesh-colour in tint. A much 
lighter and yellower sort of flesh-coloured glass was 
sometimes used in the sixteenth century; but towards 
the close of the style a slight wash of an enamel colour, 
resembling china red, was frequently applied as a flesh- 
colour to the white glass used for the naked parts of 
the figures, which white glass seems in general to have 
been selected for this purpose, with reference to the 
yellowness of its tint*". 

*^ Nothing can be more tatisfactoiy 
than the fine rich warm colour of the 
hands and faces, &c,, which, in late P^r- 
pendicular and Cinqne Cento work are 

often gimply painted with brown enamel, 
on yellow-tinted white glau; whilst 
nothing is more disagreeable than the 
sickly jaundiced appearance so often 



2. Mode op Execution. 

Perpendicular glass-paintings are in general easily 
distinguishable from Early English, and Decorated, by 
their handling, whether they are executed in outline 
only, or with shadows combined with outlines. 

It is true that throughout the Perpendicular style 
outlines as firm and black as those of any other period, 
were repeatedly used to define the eye or nose — ^the 
contour of a face — the crockets of a canopy — to mark 
the division between two quarries painted on the same 
piece of glass, and not separated by a lead line — or the 
like: but the outline employed after the beginning of 
the fifteenth century for ordinary purposes, and with 
which the painting is principally executed, is almost 
invariably not only narrower than the Decorated outline, 
but is also very much fainter, and less full of colour, be- 
sides being, in general, less firm and decided. Towards 
the end of the fifteenth century the stroke often appears 
ragged and uneven, as if made with an almost dry brush. 

The outline is generally more juicy and flowing during 
the sixteenth century, though it still continues pale and 
transparent. In inscriptions, the letters were very fre- 
quently slightly marked out with a faint outline, and 
afterwards filled in with a thick, and consequently black 
coat of paint. 

Stipple shading appears to have been introduced about 

exhibited by modem flgnrefl punted in 
imitation of the ancient. Assnming that 
the tint of the white gUiss is in both 
cawe alike, the difference of effect mnst 
be occasioned by the different tint of the 
ancient and modem enamel brown. The 

former is a rich Vandyke brown tint, 
which harmonizes with the yellowness 
of the white glass ; the latter is of a cold 
sepia tint, which is rendered colder by 
the colour of the glass. 


the beginning of the fifteenth century*, and soon almost 
entirely superseded the smear method. Smear shadows 
are, however, occasionally to be met with throughout 
the style, principally in ornamental work, and, as it 
would seem, their employment arose rather from the 
painter's negligence in omitting to stipple the enamel 
ground after laying it on, than from any deliberate 

The full power of stipple shading in producing sha- 
dows at once deep and transparent, was unknown till 
nearly the close of the Perpendicular style. In the 
earliest examples the stipple shadows, even in their 
darkest parts, hardly exceed the lightest smear shadows 
in strength. Indeed until the latter half of the fifteenth 
century the shadows are so light and faint as to be hardly 
perceptible even at a short distance ; and although their 
ground is more spread over the glass than the ground 
of a smear shadow, it by reason of its thinness scarcely 
subdues the brilliancy of the glass. On this account, 
coupled also with the cold green hue of the white glass, 
which a light shadow was unable to correct, and the 
comparative thinness of all kinds of glass in the sheet, 
the earlier Perpendicular glass-paintings are even more 
lustrous and gemlike than the late Decorated. Thus 
for a long period stipple shadows were more remarkable 
for their delicacy and finish, than their depth and effec- 
tiveness. Many attempts were made to strengthen the 
shadows with a hatching of thin lines, sometimes as thin 
and fine as a hair, and in representations of architec- 
ture with a flourishing of thin lines^. In the reigns of 

* See a late Bpedmen of stipple shading, plate 71. ^ See plate 63. 


Edward IV. and Henry VII. dots of black paint were 
often used to deepen the shadows in the architecture of 
the canopies. The stipple ground, whether employed in 
diapers or shadows, was very fine in its grain until 
towards the end of the fifteenth century, when it be- 
came coarser. The deeper shadows had always been 
coarser in grain than the general gro.und. 

The bolder and more effective shading of the sixteenth 
century gave greater rotundity and distinctness to the 
figures, whilst the shadows, being more spread over the 
glass, and increasing in thickness, imparted their own 
fine brown tint to it, and greatly increased the richness 
of the painting. They were however too thoroughly 
stippled to occasion any opacity to arise from their 
depth. The latest shadows are often strengthened with 
a hatching of dark lines\ 

At all times of the style, the shadows were applied to 
both Bides of the glass, whenever it was necessary to in- 
crease their strength beyond a certain limit. I think it 
appears from a careful examination of a stipple shadow, 
that an uniform coat of colour was first applied to the 
glass, out of which the lights were taken, and that the 
depth of the shadow was produced by another coat of 
colour — increasing in thickness in the darker parts of 
the shadow — the moisture of which dissolved the ground 
beneath it, so that the brush in stippling it, penetrated 
through both coats to the surface of the glass. It is 
only in this way that I can account for the transparency 
of ancient stipple shadows in their darkest parts. If 
great depth was required, a fresh application of a single 
coat of enamel was made to the back of the glass, oppo- 

I See plate 72. 


site the deepest part of the shadow, and in stippling 
was softened off as it approached the light parts of 
the subject. 

The colour of the enamel brown used for shadows and 
outlines was, until the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, in general of a cool purple tint; it afterwards 
more approached the warmth, and richness, of Vandyke 

Diaper patterns are profusely used throughout this 
style to embellish draperies, shields of arms, back- 
grounds"*, &c. 

3. Figures. 

The mode of representing the human figure became 
better understood, and more refined during this period ; 
but it is not until the close of the style, that the union 
of correct drawing and just proportion with grandeur 
of conception and severity of outline is to be met with, 
even in draped figures. 

Even in the early part of the sixteenth century the 
figures, though in other respects drawn with tolerable 
accuracy, and exhibiting a very high degree of finish, 
are yet in general too slight, and too narrow across the 
shoulders for their height : a peculiarity which probably 
arose from the artist's desire to introduce large figures 
under canopies, leaving at the same time a sufficient 
space between them and the pillars of the canopy to 
render the figure distinct. For this practice of assimi- 
lating the proportions of the figure to that of the space 
allotted to it, was very common throughout the fifteenth 

" See plates 46, and 50, and '* Wealo's Quartarly Papero," part i. plates 1, 3, 
and 4. 


century; and accordingly we find, both early and late 
in this period, a squat, thickset figure, sometimes even 
less than four heads high, occupying a tracery light, or 
a panel of a Jesse formed by the branches of the tree, 
or even placed under a canopy where sufficient head- 
room was not left for a taller figure. Towards the close 
of the fifteenth century however, kneeling, or even 
demi-figures, were often introduced into the shorter 
tracery lights, by which means their proportions were 
better preserved. 

Greater repose was given to the figures in this than 
in either of the former styles ; and they do not, even 
when in action, appear in such strained or forced atti- 
tudes, as the Decorated figures. 

The draperies are generally disposed in very broad 
and grand folds ; they sometimes hang down in a rather 
heavy manner, so as to impart to the whole figure a 
somewhat column-like appearance ". 

The German figures, especially of the time of Albert 
Durer, are easily distinguished from the English by 
the multitude of little angular crumples into which 
the surfaces of the greater folds of the draperies are 
broken up. 

The heads, even of the early part of this period, will 
be found on a close examination to present many dif- 
ferences in drawing as compared with the Decorated. 
In the first place, the. outlines generally are more tender 
and refined; and the features are more carefully and 
delicately shaded, stipple shadows being used, which, 

» See plates 46» 46, 47. Other Per- 
pendicular figures are engraved in the 
plates referred to in the former notes 

(p and q, p. 122). See also Weale's 
''Quarterly Papers," port i. plates 1 
and 2, 3 and 4; and part ii. plate 10. 



though light, materially assist the outlines in giving 
expression to the countenance. The form of the eye- 

StovUiic Cbnroh. East. 

brow, especially in ideal figures, is still more arched ; as 
the style advanced, it became almost semicircular, and 
after the beginning of the fifteenth century was in 
general defined only by a few lines, so thin and faint as 
in many oases to be barely perceptible ; the opening of 
the mouth is differently shaped, and the upper lip is 
usually represented, as well as the lower. The iria of 
the eye is almost always distinguished, and shaded 
dart, while the pupil itself is marked by a black dot. 
The nose is but faintly delineated, except at the tip, 
which as well as the nostril is generally expressed by 
a dark stroke. The upper eyelid, and opening of the 
mouth, as well as the general outline of the &ce, are in 
general strongly defined; but all the other lines, espe- 
cially those used to denote the lower eyelid, lips, and 
lineaments of the face, are light and faint. The general 


contour of the face is oval, terminating in a small and 
pointed chin. These distinctive marks of course be- 
come more apparent with the progress of the style. 
At the end of the fifteenth century, the use of out- 
lines was almost altogether superseded by the skilful 
and bold manner in which the shadows were applied ; 
and more completely so at the close of the style, at 
which period the heads were in general very correctly 
and naturally drawn. 

White glass was usually employed for the heads and 
naked parts of the figures* The hair of the head was 
often stained yellow, and in portraits especially was 
sometimes made brown, by a strong application of the 
enamel ground ^. 

Light pink glass, as before mentioned, was however 
occasionally used as a flesh-colour, and on the continent 
until late in the style. It is not uncommon to find the 
faces of the larger early figures in this country composed 
of pink glass, with white hair and beards leaded in. 
A practice, which has been mentioned, of tinting the 
naked parts of the figures with a thin wash of an 
enamel colour, resembling China red, applied to the 
back of the white glass, was also introduced here early 
in the sixteenth century. 

The costumes appropriated to saints and ecclesiastics 
differ from those of the last period rather in their dis- 
position and arrangement than in their form. 

^ The beads represented in plates 
62 and 63 are of the reign of Henry 
VI.; and those in plate 61 are of 
the commencement of the reign of Ed- 
ward IV. These heads arc all executed 
in white glass; the hair of some is 
stained yellow. Plate 64 and cut 20 
represent heads of the latter part of 

the reign of Edward lY. Id Weale's 
"Quarterly Papers," part ii. plate 2, 
is an engraving of a head, which I 
should say, judging merely from the 
drawing, was of the commencement of 
the fifteenth century. As a specimen 
of a sixteenth-century head, I may refer 
to plate 71 of the present work. 


The mantle is in particular much more ample, and 
covers the greater part of the body of the wearer ; and 
the sacred vestments are still longer, and more orna- 
mented with embroidered borders and diapers. 

The mitre is more elongated and more highly en- 
riched ; in the later examples it a good deal resembles 
in form the flat side of a bellows. The head of the staff 
is also more elaborated, and often springs from a cluster 
of Uttle canopies and pinnacles. 

The secular female dress in general consists either of 
a close-bodied dress, with long skirts and tight sleeves, 
or of a looser dress with sleeves wide at the shoulders 
and tight at the wrists. A cloak is often added, upon 
which armorial bearings (when used) are emblazoned 
more frequently than on the other garment. The earlier 
head-dresses resemble the wimple ; their variety how- 
ever was great, especially towards and during the reign 
of Edward IV. 

The secular male costume, until almost the end of 
Edward the Fourth's reign, appears to have usually 
consisted of a furred gown of tunic-like form, reaching 
rather below the knees, slit nearly half way up the 
middle, and confined round the waist with a girdle. It 
had either wide sleeves narrowing towards the wrist, 
or small at the shoulder and wide at the wrist, like 
those of a surplice. The legs were enclosed in pointed- 
toed boots. The hair, until the latter part of the reign 
of Edward IV., appears to have been cropped closely all 
round, and after this time to have been cut straight 
across the forehead, but allowed to grow long behind, 
and at the sides of the face, and to have been there 
smoothed down like a club. In the reign of Henry VII., 


long furred gowns reaching to the feet, and broad-toed 
shoes or boots were used. They continued in fashion 
during the next reign also. 

Military figures are represented in plate armour, in 
general painted on white glass, and more or less orna- 
mented with the yellow stain. The character of the 
armour is occasionally of an earlier date than that of 
the painting itself. 


The foliaged ornaments of this period, though pro- 
bably suggested by the forms of nature, bear in general 
but little resemblance to their originals. They are 
accommodated with great skill to the particular posi- 
tions they occupy, but their outline is so irregular, 
varied, and conventional, that, as before remarked, they 
have more the character of embroidery work than of 
anything else. It would seem that the chief object 
of their designers was to produce a decoration possess- 
ing breadth and flatness of effect K 

A very common pattern, the use of which may be 
traced from the beginning of the style until late in the 
reign of Henry VI., is a sort of narrow leaf, or rather 
stalk, with numbers of irregular foliations jutting out 
from its sides. It is employed for a variety of orna- 
mental purposes : and when used as a ground pattern 
on white glass, is generally strongly outlined, and the 
space not covered by it cross-hatched, with broad faint 
lines ^. The extremities of the side leaves are often 
turned over^ and frequently stained yellow, a practice 

' See plates 56» 60, 61, 62, and cut 24. 4 See plates 47, 60, 61, and 62. 


which is peculiar to this period, and is often to be 
met with in the representations of other leaves and 
foliaged ornaments. 

Leaves are, however, to be seen in this style, strictly 
speaking, quite as true to nature as any of those of the 
last period, especially in the vine of a Jesse. But even 
here the same flatness of effect is perceptible. The eyes 
of the leaf are indeed strongly marked, but the indenta- 
tions of its serrated edges are faint compared with those 
of a Decorated vine-leaf, as well as less vigorously 

The foliaged details of architectural work also ex- 
hibit the same peculiarity. Their flatness and breadth 
of effect, and variety of outline, in general distinguish 
them from those of the last period. 

A peculiar kind of ornament is common in German 
work late in the style, consisting of knotted sticks, and 
a species of leaf entwined and intermixed together. It 
is employed in the formation of canopies and bowers, 
frequently in conjunction with architectural details ; 
and a similar species of ornament may be met with 
in English wood-carvings of the early part of the six- 
teenth century. 

Scroll-works are of rare occurrence during this period, 
except in the design of a Jesse. This is generally exe- 
cuted on a coloured ground, the principal branches and 
leaves of the vine being white or yellow; when on 
a blue ground, some of the leaves are often drawn on 
the blue glass, and stained to a green colour. 

A great variety of flowers were represented during 
this style, especially towards its close, when punning 
allusions to the bearer's name were common in rebusses 


and heraldic devicM. They are in general very ac- 
curately drawn. The lily, as a symbol of the "Virgin 
Mary, is often to be met with in borders and other 

In tlu poMMrimi at Xr.nstohtr. I«m1)eth PbIh*. 

decorations. The rose is also a very common orna- 
ment, and is more usually represented double than 
single. The leaves are almost universally lipped, or 
turned over ■■. After the accession of Henry VII. the 
inner row of leaves is often white, and the outer red. 
And at all periods of the style double roses, executed 
on white glass, often had their outer row of leaves 
stained yellow. 

Shading was very generally employed to heighten the 
effect of foliaged ornaments. 

Many of the Decorated ornaments, such as the beaded 
ornament, the cross ornament, &o., are to be found early 
in this style. They were, however, soon exchanged in 
draperies for jewelled bands, often having a hatched 
ground ; and in narrow borders, for a broader and 

' See cut 22 ; this apecImeD U taken 1 tnr; ; it cIomIj reBsmbla the rom in 
from B border anrronndiDg the arms of pUte 25, and poueesea, almoat cam- 
Henry VII. Cot 21 ia Trom &n example pletdlj, the Decorated character, 
of the latter part of the foarteentb cen- | 


lighter omament, composed of a row of small irregu- 
larly-drawn circles in outline, having a smaller circle at 

their centre, and enclosed within a narrow edging on 
each side, which, as well as the circles, was generally 
stained yellow '. 

The same flatness of effect and irregularity of outline, 
which have already been noticed, extend to the represen- 
tations of lions' heads *, and, in fact, to all the other orna- 
mente of this period", including the patterns on qnarries'. 
The variety of these last devices is immense ; and their 
form is not always a sure indication of their date, since 

• See eaU 23 ind 25, knd pUte 64. I eren ■□ early i lorder ai that giveD in 
< See plate 66. plate 2G. 

■ Tbii flatDCM ma;, to ■ certain ei- 'See plate* 48, K5, 56, and 67. 
teot, be noticed in the onuuneute of ' 



the same pattern often occurs both on late and early 
quarries. In general, however, a strong-outlined pattern 
is the badge of an early quarry, but early patterns are 
often likewise slightly outlined. Some of the most ex- 
traordinary are those bearing a caricatured drawing of 
a bird or animal, which is sometimes represented in 
armour, sometimes harnessed to a plough, or holding 
a drinking-cup, &c. The most beautiful are those orna- 
mented with a simple pattern, confined to the central 
part of the quarry, producing the efltect of a star ^ The 
ornament on the quarry is generally enriched by the 
application of the yellow stain. 

Circidar wreaths were often used during the latter 
part of this style to enclose arms, monograms, or other 
devices. They are composed sometimes of foliage, some- 
times of a scroll twisted round and round a stick, some- 
times of pure ornaments, and occasionally of an entwined 
branch with leaves sprouting from it, at regular inter- 
vals, and extending considerably beyond the limits of 
the wreath itself. They are in general represented on 
white glass, ornamented with the yellow stain. 

y The tme office of an intulcUed orna- 
ment on a quarry, — ^merely to enrich 
the reticokted pattern formed hy the 
lead lines, — is, I think, snfficiently in- 
dicated in those simple representations 
of windows which, in Early English 
glass-paintings, the effigies of the donors 
are so commonly made to hold in their 
hands; and of which an example is 
given in Lasteyrie* HisUAre de la Fein- 
iure 9ur verre, plate zxix. The objects 
in qnestion are generally composed of 
a piece of white glass, which is orna- 
mented with a coarse cross-batchiDg of 
black lines, and with black dots, placed 
one in the centre of each of the lozenges 
or squares, formed by the intersection 

of the lines. For this reason I greatly 
prefer an ornament which, like a spot, 
occupies only the centre of a qnarry, as 
in plates 65 and 57, to one which is 
more spread over the surface of the 
quarry, as in plate 56. In no glass- 
paintings is narrowness in the width of 
the lead more essential to goodness 
of effect than in quarry lights. In 
plate 67 there is a certain proportion 
between the thickness of the lines which 
form the pattern, and the ancient lead- 
work which surrounds the quarry, while 
in plates 66 and 56, the pattern on the 
quarry is in each case completely over- 
powered by the breadth of the leads. 


All ornaments, except in general quarries and narrow 
borders, are usually shaded. 


Some borders, early in this style, closely resemble 
those late Decorated examples which consist of a run- 
ning stalk, with leaves and flowers sprouting from it, 
executed in white and yellow stained glass, on a coloured 
ground. In these borders, however, the Perpendicular 
character is indicated by the c^t m. 

greater breadth and flatness of 
the leaves. 

The most ordinary Perpen- 
dicular border, which also had 
its type in the Decorated style, 
is formed by placing ornaments, 
executed on oblong pieces of 
white glass, at regular distances 
apart, with a plain bit of coloured 
glass between each. A crown, 
oftentimes surmounting a mono- 
gram, or a knot of foliage, en- 
riched with the yellow stain, is 
a very common ornament; but 

the design often varies. Two waniip tamroh, Laiooewniiii*. 
ornaments of different design are generally used alter- 
nately. Glass of the same colour is occasionally em- 
ployed to separate the ornaments throughout the entire 
light; in general, however, the pieces are alternately 
blue and red, and sometimes blue, purple, and red. In 
the latter case the pieces of blue glass on either side of 
the light are usually made to range with each other ; 


while the purple on the one side ranges with the red on 
the other. A similar law of colour prevails in those 
windows where the border is composed of a series of 
ostrich feathers, each with its pen stuck through a scroll ; 
though its mode of application is different. The feathers 
alternately are represented on pieces of red and blue 
glass, which are kept separate by the square pieces of 
white glass, on which the pens and scrolls are painted. 

Such borders are sometimes carried uninterruptedly 
round the head of the light, the ornaments being ac- 
commodated to the curvature of the stone-work. In 
general, however,- when as is usually the case, the 
head of the light is cinquefoiled, a circular piece of 
glass with a sun, a star, a lion's head, or rose, &c., 
painted on it, is inserted into each of the two upper 
foils, or into the top foil likewise, the top foil in the 
former case being filled with one of the ornaments of 
the border. The size and relative position of the cir- 
cles, are regulated by the shape of the arch, and form 
of its cuspidations. When three circles are used, they 
often closely approximate; sometimes a little piece of 
glass, — one of the colours of the border, — is used to 
connect them together. The circles are usually com- 
posed of white glass stained yellow, but they are oc- 
casionally blue, or of some other colour. Sometimes 
all these circles are of the same pattern, sometimes that 
in the upper foliation differs from the other two". A 
crowned letter is sometimes used as a border. A tomb 
at Folsham, Norfolk, engraved in the Vetusta Monu- 

* See plates 25 and 48. See also 
Lysons' "Oloacestenhire/' p.ciz. : and 
Hedgeland's ** St. Neot's," plates x., xi., 
xii., and xiv.; (in the tracery lights). 

See also " Guide to Architectnral Anti 
qaities in the Neighboarhood of Oxford 
p. 168. 


menta, p. X7., has an inscription round the sides ; each 
letter is a Iiombardio capital crowned. 

8ome few instances of heraldic borders may be met 
with in this style, consisting of coats of arms, formed 
into reotangular patches, as in the Decorated style. 

In many windows, especially late in the style, the 
border of the lower light is entirely represented on 
white and yellow stained glass, and oonsists of a raffle- 
leaf wound round a straight stick ; of a running stem 
with leaves springing from it ; or of some conventional 
ornamental pattern. These borders are generally fur- 
nished with a narrow edging of yellow stained glass on 



each side, the interval between which and the pattern 
is sometimes filled in with black paint, or left white. 

The earlier Perpendicular borders bear generally the 
same proportion to the width of the light as the Deco- 
rated, but the later ones are often much narrower. The 
strip of plain white glass which serves to separate the 
border from the side of the light, is frequently omitted 
in Perpendicular windows. Some Perpendicular pattern 
windows have no borders at all, in others a mere strip 
of white glass is used as a border. The border seldom 
extends along the bottom of the light. In tracery lights, 
borders similar to those in the lower lights are occa- 
sionally employed; in general, however, they consist 
of circles or round flowers irregularly drawn in outline 
on white glass stained yellow, and enclosed within two 
yellow narrow edgings*. More frequently a narrow 
strip of white glass constitutes the only border to the 

6. Patterns. 

In some very early Perpendicular works, patterns are 
used, which are composed of white patterns with a run- 
ning foliaged scroll carried over them in outline, and 
enriched with the yellow stain, as in late Decorated 
examples. With these exceptions, however. Perpen- 
dicular patterns are, in England, universally formed of 
quarries of white glass, each bearing some independent 

* The border represented in cot 25 is 
that of a tracery light ; the centres of the 
little drdee are yeUow as well as the 
outer edges of the border, all the rest is 

white glass. 

Another border of the same kind is 
g^Yen in cut 23, and in plate 64 


ornament^ which is generally enriched by staining it 

Quarries banded on their two upper sides are not 
uncommon, especially in early work. In late work 
sometimes a narrow edging is carried all round the 
quarry. In some examples the quarry, besides bear- 
ing an ornament in its centre, has its sides indented 
like a leaf. 

The quarries in the lower lights of the same window 
are all of the same size, and in general bear the same 
pattern; the exceptions seem to be where quarries on 
which birds are represented, are intermixed with quar- 
ries having a stiflP ornament painted on them, or where 
letters or mottoes are used to adorn the quarries. The 
quarries in the tracery lights are sometimes smaller, and 
bear a diflferent pattern to those in the lower. The 
lights, both upper and lower, are as before mentioned, 
often furnished with borders. In some windows occu- 
pying very lofty situations, the lower lights are fur- 
nished with ornamented borders, but are glazed with 
plain unornamented quarries of white glass. 

It was a common practice towards the latter part of 
the fifteenth century to insert into the lower lights of a 
pattern window, mottoes painted on strips of white glass 
extending diagonally across the window in a downward 
direction parallel to the quarry lines. These strips of 
glass are sometimes simply edged with yellow, some- 
times scroll-like terminations are given to them. They 
are usually placed at an interval of one or two quarries 
apart, and the same motto or text is generally repeated 
on each scroll, throughout the same light, and sometimes 

^ See platoa 25 and 48. 


on each scroll throughout the window®. Ornamented 
quarry lights are not unfrequently enlivened by the 
insertion, quite independently of the arrangement of 
the quarries, of small circles of white glass, enriched 
with the yellow stain ; and enclosing within a plain or 
ornamented border, monograms, badges, emblems^, or 
other devices. The border of the circle is often com- 
posed of two sticks, or bands, the one white, the other 
yellow, entwined together. Until the end of the reign 
of Henry VI., the formality of the design was very 
commonly corrected by leaves of trees or plants, which 
sprouting outwards from the wreath at regular distances, 
were delineated upon some of the adjacent quarries. 
Panels having a coloured ground, and containing a 
shield of arms, a badge, a human head, a demi-figure, 
or the like, were in the same manner, but more rarely, 
inserted in quarry lights. The form of the panel subse- 
quently to the reign of Henry VI., was in general that 
of a circle, or other regular geometrical figure. Pre- 
viously to this time, however, the panel was often placed 
in the centre of a beautiful foliaged ornament of white 
and yellow stained glass, of star-like shape, the leaves of 
which frequently extended themselves into some of the 
adjacent quarries. 

In Germany, and adjacent countries, .the material 
which for convenience sake I have termed Round GlasSj 
was very generally used instead of quarries. This kind 
of glass seems hitherto to have attracted but little atten- 
tion, but I trust that a brief notice of it in this place, 

« See Lysona' "Berks," p. 247. 
^ See an instance from a window of 
Doddiscomb Church in the second vol. 

of the "Transactions of the Exeter Dio- 
cesan Architectural Society." 



will not be deemed improper or useless, considering its 
intrinsic beauty, and its importance, either as a substi- 
tute for painted glass, or as an accompaniment to it**. 

* The following mention of Round 
glaas occurs in Le Vieil, If Art Ae la 
Peinture tur Verre, p. 200. 

"F^ibien [Principes d'Arehiiectmre, 
chap. zxi. de la Vitrerie] ^tablit pour ex- 
emple den vitrea blanches les plna anden- 
ues, ce qn'il appelle des civet, telles qn'il 
e'en voit en Allemagne, c'est 2k dire de 
petites pieces rondes de verre qu'on y 
assembloit avec des moroeaux de plomb 
refendus des deux c6t^ pour emp6cher 
que le vent et I'eau ne pussent passer; 
mais sans indiquer le temps oil Ton usoit 
de cette sorte de vitres." To this the 
following extract from M. F^ibien'swork, 
(Paris, 1690,) is appended in a note. 

"C'est de ces cives on cibles dont 
Jean Marie Catan^, dans ses Commen- 
taires snr Pline le Jeune, dit que de son 
temps, c'est k dire, vers la fin dn quin- 
zi^me si^e, ou se servit pour ohasser 
des maisons, en Italic, I'ftpret^ des vents 
ft-oids par un assemblage de plateaux de 
verre, ronds, r^uuis et joints ensemble 
avec une eep^e de mastic Sicui nostrd 
tempeatate vitreit orhibut conglntinaiia 
JHgus et ventos arcemus/* See also Ba- 
tissier, Siet, de VArt Mon., p. 643. 

M. Le Yieil in another part of his 
work, p. 17, n. (a) adds, that the round 
pieces of glass are called by the German 
glaziers cibles. But cible is a French, 
and not a German word, signifying a 
target having a bull's eye in the centre. 
Round glass was used in the windows 
of the monastery of Hirschau in Ger- 
many. Tritheim, an historian of the 
monastery, says, under the year 1491, 
of Abbot Blasius, 'Fenestras cum rotun- 
dis, id est eehyhen, et picturis ad tria 
latera ambitus monasterii fieri jussit; 
pro quibus plus quam trecentos auri 
florenos exposuit. In quarto vero latere 
picturas sine rotundis fecit duntaxat.' 

The above-cited passage shews that 

anciently echeibe when applied to glass 
denoted a round pane. 

The idea of roundness fbrms part of 
the original signification of the word, and 
of most of its meanings, though in many, 
as in Fenterecheihe, or GlateeJkeibe, it is 
lost. See 'scheibe' in Adelung's Wdr- 

That panes of glass in general should 
be designated by a word originally im- 
plying roundness, affords an inference, 
that in early German glazing, t^iis ibrm 
was universal, or nearly so. A contrary 
inference with regard to French glazing 
may be drawn from the word carreau, 
and perhaps with regard to English 
glazing, from the word ' quarry.' 

A window glazed with round glass ia 
represented in a Van Eyck, in the Na- 
tional Gallery, (na 186,) which punting 
bears date 1434. Two other Van Eycks 
in the king's palace at the Hague (nos. b. 
1870, d. 1441) exhibit windows glazed 
with round glass. And abundance of 
similar examples may be found in most 
collections of early paintings. Round 
glass is represented in a painting by 
John Schoreel, a.d. 1620, of which there 
is an engraving in the second voL of 
Shaw's " Dresses and Decorations of the 
Middle Ages." The little windows in 
the tabernacle-work of German glass- 
paintings, are sometimes depicted as if 
glazed with round glass; instances of 
this may be seen in the windows of the 
north aisle of the nave of Cologne Cathe- 
dral. A cinque cento glass-painting, 
engraved in Lasteyrie's Hietoire de la 
Peinture eur Verre, plate Ixxiii., also 
exhibits in its background a circular 
window glazed with round glass. 

The only example of round glass I 
have met with in England is that which 
was removed, a few years ago, from a 
window of the Bishop's Chapel, Chester 



Eepresentations of round glass frequently occur in 
the paintings of John Van Eyck, and other early artists, 
from which we may infer that it was used at least as 
early as the commencement of the fifteenth century. 
It is now very commonly to be met with in Germany 
from Cologne eastward, throughout the Tyrol and Swit- 
zerland, and, as I have been informed, in Eome also. 
Venice, and the north of Italy, are full of it. The 
close resemblance which the panes bear to Venetian 
glass, both in texture and colour, and the countries in 
which they are found, have induced me to conclude that 
the round glass was a Venetian manufacture. 

Each pane of round glass is a miniature sheet, or 
table, of white flashed glass. The mark of the punt or 
bulPs eye is in general distinctly visible in the centre of 
the sheet, the surface of the sheet is more or less undu- 
lated in concentric rings, and its outer edge, like that of 
the foot of a Venetian drinking- glass, is strengthened by 
a narrow lip, or rim, formed by turning down a small 
portion of the sheet upon itself, and which is in general 
hidden by the lead- work. The panes used towards the 
end of the fifteenth century, and early part of the six- 

Cathedraly wbieh look» into the cloister. 
Two pftnee of this were given to me by 
my friend B. C. Hossey, Esq. The ar- 
chitecture of the window itself is late 
Perpendicular. An exterior view of the 
window, in which the ronnd glass is in- 
dicated, is given in Front's " Antiquities 
of Chester." It would seem from the 
following extract from Leland's Itinerary, 
vol. yiii. p. 82, ed. 1760, that this was not 
a solitary instance of the use of round 
glass: "The Hawle of Sudley Castle 
glased with round Beralls." In the wood- 
cut representing Cranmer's Confession of 


Faith, in St. Mary's Church, Oxford, 
March, 1556, in Fox's " Acts and Monu- 
ments," foL Lond. 1576, p. 1781, the 
windows are clearly filled with round 
glass. The architecture is however evi- 
dently not taken from St. Mary's; it is 
precisely similar to that in another cut, 
p. 571, representing a scene at Bouen, 
in which round glazing likewise occurs. 
No inference can therefore be drawn 
from this cut, that the windows of St. 
Mary's, Oxford, were ever glazed with 
round glass. Thes* woodcuts are per- 
haps the work of German artists. 




teenth, in general average four inches in diameter, and 
this seems to have been the size of the older specimens. 
They afterwards gradually increased to upwards of six 
inches in diameter, and as they increased in size they 
became smoother and smoother, until the bull's eye and 
concentric undulations were almost invisible. It is in- 
deed, owing to their smoothness, extremely difficult to 
distinguish the later specimens from the circular pieces 
of plain white glass which appear to have superseded 
the use of the round glass about the close of the seven- 
teenth century '. 

The earliest mode of arranging the panes of round 
glass, was to place them, touching each other, in con- 
tinuous rows ; in such wise that the rows, if regarded 
as vertical rows, would be parallel to the sides of the 
rectangular glazing panel ; or to its ends, if considered 
as horizontal rows. The little four-cornered interstices 
thus left between the panes, were filled either with plain 
pieces of white, or coloured glass, or sometimes orna- 
mented with quatrefoils, painted on coloured glass. The 
later, more common, and most pleasing arrangement of 
the panes, is that represented in plate 75. The small 
three-cornered interstices between the circles, are some- 
times filled with plain coloured glass, but much more 
frequently with plain white glass. It was also a com- 
mon practice to introduce at intervals, up the centre of a 
light thus arranged, little coloured stars ; by filling the 
six interstices immediately around one of the central 
panes, with plain pieces of coloured glass ; all the other 

' Some of the windows of the Doge'B 
palace at Venice, have been repaired, by 
inserting circular piAes of ordinary white 
glass in place of such of the round panes 

as have been broken. I have ground for 
believing that the manufacture of round 
glass was discontinued about a hundred 
and fifty years ago. 


interstices throughout the light being filled with plain 
white glass. The number of stars differs according to the 
length of the light. In some instances every sixth cen- 
tral pane, counting from the bottom of the light, is thus 
surrounded with colour, but the stars are often further 
apart. Each star alternately is in general red, light blue, 
or purple. The dots of colour thus introduced produce 
an extremely beautiful effect; they enrich the round 
glazing, without diminishing the breadth or harmony 
of its appearance. 

A third mode of arranging the round panes may be 
seen by looking sideways at plate 75; and treating 
what are in fact the sides, as the ends of the glazing 
panel. This arrangement of the round glass is however 
neither very pleasing, nor very common. The inter- 
stices between the panes when thus arranged, are gene- 
rally filled with white glass. 

Some few examples exist, where the round panes have 
been cut into hexagons and leaded together, which how- 
ever does not produce a good effect. 

Lights glazed with round glass are in general sur- 
rounded with a border, consisting, in the earlier exam- 
ples, of coloured as well as white glass, but in the later, 
almost always of white glass ornamented with a pattern 
and enriched with the yellow stain. Of these, an in- 
stance is given in plate 75. In many cases round glass 
is employed to fill up a light partly occupied with a 
coloured picture, as for example in the windows of St. 
Peter's Church, Cologne, &c. In all those instances in 
which it is thus used, the picture is terminated as much 
as possible with right lines ; in order not unnecessarily 
to embarrass the glazier in cutting the round glass to it. 


Bound glass in its general effeot resembles mother-of- 
pearl, being at once soft, silvery, and brilliant. Many 
continental buildings are entirely glazed with it, and its 
appearance is so delicate and ornamental, that the ab- 
sence of painted glass is not felt. The most brilliant 
specimens are the oldest ; the deeper undulations of the 
old panes, caused by the comparative rudeness of the 
manufacture, occasioning a greater play of light than 
is exhibited by the smoother and later glass. 

The round glass of the close of the fifteenth century 
and afterwards has a yellow tinge ; the earlier examples 
are of a greener tint. 

7. Pictures. 

In Perpendicular glass-paintings the pictures are in 
general simple in their arrangement and composition. 
The design, unless it extends over the whole of a window 
consisting of many lower lights, seldom embraces many 
figures. The action of the piece is usually expressed by 
the figures in the foreground, there being but little 
attempt to carry it into the background of the picture. 
The earlier pictures are in general of small size, being 
confined to the limits of a single light. They are some- 
times individually enclosed within a sort of architectu- 
ral framework, or panel ; or placed under a low-crowned 
canopy : all executed in white and yellow stained glass. 
Sometimes, however, the subjects are separated from each 
other only by a saddle-bar. The figures are generally 
executed in white and coloured glass. When the scene 
is not laid within a building, a landscape is introduced 
behind the figures, di'awn in veiy sharp perspective, and 



principally composed of white glass; on which grass, 
rocks, trees, houses, and other objects are represented, 
either simply with the brown enamel and the yellow 
stain, or on pieces of coloured glass leaded in. The 
former is however the commonest method. The sky 
above is treated as a coloured ground, being often in 
alternate panels, red or stiff blue, and frequently dia- 
pered. An inscription explanatory of the subject is 
often introduced on a scroll into the picture, or along 
its base'. 

Towards the end of the fifteenth century the pic- 
tures often extend into two or more of the lower lights 
of a window, or even occupy its whole area, becoming 
more complicated in design according to the space they 

They are sometimes included under canopies, or an 
architectural framework, of white and yellow stained 
glass, but as frequently reach quite up to the stonework 
of the window, without any intervening ornament^. ITie 
figures are generally so disposed as not to be cut by the 
mullions. It is wonderful indeed how little the frame- 
work of the window interferes with the effect of the pic- 
ture, even when it extends over the whole window : the 
mullions are really not more observed than the saddle- 
bars, the whole attention being attracted to the picture. 

Considerable pains were in general taken towards the 
close of the fifteenth century, and during the remainder 
of the style, to render the landscapes more pictorial. 

i See for ioBtance Hedgland's "St. 
Neot'8," plates i., ix., xvi. Lasteyrie, 
Hittoire de la Peinture mr Verre, 
plate liv. See alao a representation 
of one of the compartments of the east 
window, York Minster> in Fowler's 

"Mosaic Pavements, and Stained Glass." 
^ See Lasteyrie, Histoire de la Pein^ 
ture 9wr Verre, plate Ixiv. This glass 
is, however, rather cinque conto, than 
Gothic: but it may be cited as illas- 
trative of the text. 


Thus the extreme distance was often represented by 
light blue glass varied in tint by the shading and the 
yellow stain ; whilst the sky above was likewise coloured 
light blue, and shaded so as to appear cloudy in places. 
As the style advanced, the sky at the top of the picture 
was made of a deeper blue than the sky just above the 
horizon, the horizon itself being kept distinct, and of a 
darker colour than the sky, by shading the blue glass, 
and applying the yellow stain to it. Sometimes the 
horizon is defined with a lead line. In other examples 
a piece of white glass is inserted between the horizon 
and the blue clouds, and shaded so as to appear like an 
interval of clear sky. The sky is however occasionally 
converted into a plain white background, which produces 
a brilliant and clear effect when the picture itself is 
richly coloured, and coloured portions of the design are 
carried high above the horizon. This practice seems to 
have been most resorted to, when from the absence of a 
canopy above the picture, tbe want of white glass to 
relieve the other colours would otherwise have been felt. 

In the more pictorial landscapes the effect of distance 
in the background was increased by introducing the most 
powerful and vivid colours chiefly into the foreground : 
but this rule was often transgressed, very vivid and 
strongly contrasted colours being frequently used in the 
draperies of the most distant figures, and in other objects 
the furthest removed from the spectator. In the colour- 
ing of a Perpendicular glass-painting, harmony of effect 
seems to have been the principal object aimed at. 

The colouring of the picture is generally varied as 
much as possible by employing, whenever the same 
colour is repeated, glass of a different tint. This is 


particularly observable in the later Perpendicular glass- 
paintings. In the windows of the north aisle of Cologne 
Cathedral, which, as before mentioned, are of the early 
part of the sixteenth century, white glass of two dif- 
ferent hues, the one yellow, the other blue, as well as 
various tints of ruby, blue, purple, green, lilac, and 
other colours, are employed in the same picture. 

Scriptural and other subjects executed in brown and 
yellow on small circles of white glass, were very com- 
monly used towards the close of this style, especially 
during the sixteenth century. Their composition is 
often extremely good, and they are in general as admi- 
rably painted. They are frequently surrounded with 
beautiful borders of scrollwork or foliage, sometimes 
composed of coloured glass, but more usually of. white 

glass enriched with the yellow stain K ^^^> tV '^ 

8. Canopies. 

The eai'liest Perpendicular canopies possess 
corated features, both in their general form and details ; 
the tabernacle- work, however, instead of being formed 
of coloured pot-metals, as in the Decorated examples, is 
composed of white and yellow stained glass, pot-metal 
glass being used only for the interior of the windows 
of the canopies, and sometimes for the groining of the 

Some canopies early in the fifteenth century are repre- 
sented, like the Decorated, flat-fronted, with a straight- 
sided gable over a large pointed or circular arch, which 
covers the figure : the tower of the canopy rising from 

^ See a cinqao cento example, plate 67. 



behind the gable. The crockets and finials are of Deco- 
rated character^, but the canopy itself more frequently 
terminates in a sort of pepper-box, or polygonal roof, 
than in a spire. The side jambs of the canopy are gene- 
rally flat-faced, and ornamented with long rectangular 
shallow sunk panels : the sides of the pepper-box being 
often panelled in a similar manner. The head of the 
canopy reposes on a coloured ground ; the canopy some- 
times has a pedestal, of open work, quite unlike the heavy 
stone pedestal which occurs in the architecture of the 
time ; being formed of detached pillars and arches, be- 
hind which a scroll bearing an inscription, or the name 
of the personage intended to be represented, is intro- 
ducedJ The top of the pedestal, which forms the floor 
of the canopy, is generally paved, and represented in 
very sharp perspective. In the majority of cases, how- 
ever, the pedestal is omitted, and the figure rests its 
feet on a piece of turf, or apparently on a floor seen 
edgewise; the canopy terminating abruptly at bottom 
with the line of the saddle-bar, and another canopy, 
or a panel containing another subject, being placed im- 
mediately beneath it. No attempt is made to represent 
the hoUowness of the niche. The groining of the canopy 
is not shewn, and the whole space between the figure 
and the architecture is filled up with a flat-coloured 
diapered ground. 

In other examples of the same date as the last, the 
head or hood of the canopy is three-sided, and projects 
over the flgure. Each front is gabled, and crocketed, 

^ Finiiacles like that represented iD 
plate 41, are common in early Perpen- 
dicular work. See also plate 25, fig. 2. 

This last example is however purely 
Decorated, though very late in the 


and furnished with pinnacles at the angles. The tower 
of the canopy has likewise three projecting fronts, and 
terminates in a lofty spire. The coloured ground on 
which the head of the canopy is placed, shews itself in 
all the interstices between the little spires and pinnacles 
and body of the canopy; and the little windows in the 
tower being in general coloured red or blue, it appears 
at first sight as if a good deal of colour was introduced 
into the head of the canopy itself, though in reality its 
architectural parts are only composed of white and yel- 
low stained glass. The canopy sometimes has a pedestal, 
similar to that last described, but whether this be the 
case or not, its floor is shewn in sharp perspective. The 
groining of the niche is sometimes indicated' but in such 
a manner that the ribs, &c., appear almost as an appen- 
dage to the front face of the hood. The hoUowness of 
the niche is not shewn, the space between the architec- 
ture and the figure being filled up with a stiff diapered 
ground of colour. 

The Decorated architectural details were entirely 
superseded by the Perpendicular, early in the fifteenth 
century, but the last-mentioned form of canopy continued 
in general use, without any material alteration, until the 
end of the Perpendicular style. The head of the canopy 
was always more or less elongated according to the cir- 
cumstances, but soon after the commencement of the fif- 
teenth century, it became more massed and compacted 
together, and its architecture more confused ; arches, but- 
tresses, cornices and pinnacles being multiplied, with, 
as it would seem, the sole object of filling up an al- 
lotted space, without reference to the means of support. 
Owing to these circumstances, the head of a later canopy 


represents a greater and a broader mass of white and 
yellow stained glass than an earlier example, fewer inter- 
stices being left amongst its spires and pinnacles, &c., for 
the occupation of the coloured background. Through- 
out the style the daylight appears to proceed from the 
middle parts of the canopy, each of its side fronts being 
in shadow, as well as all but the front faces of the pinna- 
cles at the angles, &c. Scarcely any attempt was made 
until the end of the reign of Henry VI. to represent 
the hollo wness of the niche : although the stiff coloured 
ground which surrounded the figure, was latterly often 
fringed at bottom like a curtain of tapestry. In the 
reign of Edward IV., however, the groining- shafts were 
often exhibited at the back of the niche, the intervening 
spaces up to the spring of the groining, which is itself but 
slightly indicated, being filled with a coloured ground 
diapered. Towards the close of the fifteenth century 
the groining of the niche was frequently represented 
in a conspicuous manner, and formed of coloured glass. 
The back of the niche down to the shoulders of the 
figure was often pierced with windows, through which 
a landscape, executed in brown and yellow, is sometimes 
visible. A piece of tapestry suspended from a rod by 
means of rings, and terminating in a fringe at bottom, 
conceals the rest of the back of the niche. Even in the 
latest examples, however, the back of the canopy down 
to the tapestry rod, is frequently covered with a stiff 
ground of colour richly diapered. The pedestal of the 
canopy is in very late examples sometimes solid, but in 
general is formed of open-work, behind which a scroll 
bearing an inscription is often inserted, as before de- 
scribed. When the light is occupied with only one 


figure and canopy, the pedestal of the canopy is often 
represented as if it was resting upon the earth, the space 
at its foot being covered with flowers and herbage. The 
pavement on which the figure stands, is in late examples 
often formed of coloured glass. It is however at all 
times composed of white or yellow glass, chequered with 
black ; and is shewn in such sharp perspective that the 
point where it meets the back of the niche, is often 
as high as the middle of the body of the figure. 

Scrolls bearing passages of Scripture, &c., are to be 
found at all times of the style, inserted above the head 
of the figure, when a long space intervenes between it 
and the groining of the niched 

It now remains to notice some of the minuter features 
of canopies subsequently to the commencement of the 
fifteenth century. Soon after this period the larger 
finials and crockets assumed a flatter character, and 
greater irregularity in their outline than the Decorated. 
The smaller crockets became in general mere rounded 
knobs; and the smaller finials, simple prolongations of 
the sides of the pinnacle, having three trefoils arranged 
round their base ^. It was usually the practice to shade 
the pinnacles, and to take out a narrow bright light up 
the centre of each pinnacle, with other narrow lights 

' Plate 46 represents a traoery-light 
canopy of the time of Henry VI. See 
a very beaatifol canopy from the Chnrch 
of All Saints', York, Weale's "Quarterly 
Papers," part i. plate 1. See also ib. 
plates 3 and 4. See also Lasteyrie, 
Histoire de la JPeiniure atr Verre, 
plates L and Iviii. See also a late 
Perpendicular canopy, Lysons' "Glou- 
cestershire," p. cix. A portrait of 
Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII., 
kneeling under a canopy, in one of 

the windows of Great Malvern Chnrch, 
Worcestershire, is represented in Car- 
ter's "Ancient Sculpture in England," 
plate xcii., and more correctly in the 
2nd voL of Shaw's " Dresses and Deco- 
rations of the Middle Ages." See also 
several late canopies from the east win- 
dow of Winchester Cathedral, Weale's 
" Quarterly Papers," vol. ii. : and some 
others from St. Neot's Church, Corn* 
wall, in Hedgeland's " St. Neot's." 
" See plate 59. 


diverging £rom it into the middle of each of the knob- 
shaped crockets, and there to terminate each light in a 
round ball-shaped spot. The lights of the smaller win- 
dows, and openings of the arches, are generally cross- 
hatched, and stained yellow. Saddle-bars are some- 
times represented across the windows. The shadows in 
the smaller recesses of the tabernacle-work are usually 
strengthened with fine lines, flourished irregularly about 
in a spiral form \ 

In the latter part of the reign of Edward IV., and sub- 
sequently, the Tudor flower was often introduced as 
a stringcourse in the head of the canopy, the crocket- 
knobs of the smaller pinnacles were greatly reduced in 
size, and the shadows in the smaller recesses of the 
canopy were often heightened with a number of black 
dots, instead of the spiral flourishes before mentioned. 
Towards the close of the fifteenth century, the crockets, 
finials, and other ornaments of the canopy, assumed in 
general a bolder appearance, both in their drawing and 
shading. The finials are more like bunches of leaves, 
and the crockets more closely resemble those in the 
architecture of the time. 

When a picture, and not merely a single figure, is 
placed under a canopy, the back part of the niche is 
generally omitted, and the background of the subject 
represented in its stead. 

The above remarks apply also to the short canopies 
which do not occupy the whole of a light. They differ 
from the longer ones only in the shape of their heads, 
which are less lofty, and flatter in their termination. 

The canopies in tracery lights exhibit the same pro- 

" See plate 63. 


gressive changes in form and arrangement, as those in 
the lower lights. Their heads, however, generally con- 
sist of a simple arch, with a flat-faced crocketed canopy, 
or gable, above : though when the tracery light is spa- 
cious, the head of the canopy is often three-sided, and 
projects forward as in the larger canopies, which have 
been already described. The canopy is painted on white 
glass, and ornamented with the yellow stain, and the 
whole space beneath the arch up to the figure is gene- 
rally filled with a flat-coloured diapered ground ^. Some- 
times in the later examples this space is also left white, 
and is merely shaded dark brown. 

The above descriptions apply in particular to canopies 
confined to the limits of a single light; the canopies, 
however, which spread themselves over several lower 
lights differ from these principally in their increased 
size and arrangement. The heads of the larger canopies 
are usually flat-faced, and terminate in an ogee-crocketed 
top ; beneath is a large wide arch. Sometimes, however, 
the head is three-sided, like that of a smaller canopy. 
White and stained yellow are the prevailing colours of 
the architecture. In the later examples pot-metals are 
often introduced into the groining, and sometimes into 
the bases and capitals of the side pillars, whose shafts 
are occasionally composed of sprinkled ruby. 

The most beautiful canopies of the kind that I have 
hitherto met with, are in Munich Cathedral, and I 
cannot better illustrate the subject than by a descrip- 
tion of them. 

Three canopies, one above the other, are in one of the 
windows of the choir, — ^the second on the south side 

« See pUte 45. 


from the east window, — which consists of five very lofty 
lower lights, and a short head filled with tracery. Each 
canopy extends across the whole five lights. The head 
of the lowest canopy is three-sided, and entirely com- 
posed of yellow stained glass, as are also the jambs of 
the canopy. It is terminated at the top with a flat 
stringcourse, between which, and the bottom of the 
next canopy, is a broad interval, having a red ground, 
panelled with green, into which the yellow spires and 
pinnacles of the canopy run. The picture beneath the 
canopy represents an episcopal saint seated in a Gothic 
apartment, and surrounded with a crowd of ecclesiastics, 
nobles, and soldiers, and is brilliantly coloured. The 
group is brought prominently forward, by keeping the 
interior of the canopy in shadow, — the shadow being 
deepest immediately under the hood, — ^and by using 
a retiring colour — purple — for the walls of the room. 
The windows of the room are seen in the background, 
and the vaulting-shafts of the canopy run between them. 
The roof of the canopy forms the ceiling of the apart- 
ment. The ribs of the roof are coloured yellow, and the 
interstices between them purple. The next canopy has 
a two-sided projecting front, which as well as the jambs, 
is entirely coloured white. Its head is terminated with 
a stringcourse, between which and the bottom of the 
next canopy is an interval of the same width as that 
above the lower canopy, having a plain red ground, into 
which the white spires, and pinnacles, and interwoven 
branches of foliage, which proceed from the front of the 
canopy, run. The subject of the picture beneath this 
canopy is the Circumcision, executed in rich colours. 
The group is brought forward, and disengaged from the 


architecture in the same way as the last. The back- 
ground represents the interior of a building, the roof of 
which is formed, as in the other example, by. the vault- 
ing of the canopy. The ribs of the roof ajp purple, and 
the ceiling green. The next canopy, like the lowest, 
has a three-sided front, which as well as its jambs is 
composed of yellow stained glass. The head is ter- 
minated with a string-course, as in the former canopy, 
above which are the remains of a blue ground on which 
the yellow pinnacles, &c., of the canopy are represented. 
The picture beneath is the Birth of Christ, with a land- 
scape background ; the rafters of the stable, which are 
coloured, are very ingeniously contrived to connect the 
picture with the architecture of the canopy. This group, 
like the others, stands as prominently forward as the 
front of the canopy. The effect in this instance is pro- 
duced by gradually deepening the colour of the blue 
sky from the horizon upwards to the groined roof of 
the canopy ; and by keeping the roof of the canopy, the 
rafters of the stable, &c., in deep shadow. It is evident 
that this last canopy is not in its original position, since 
the heads of the lights immediately above it are filled 
with a red ground, on which are represented the white 
pinnacles and branches of a canopy like that secondly 
mentioned. In the tracery lights are represented the 
arms of the donors of the window, and other ornaments, 
on a blue ground p. A considerable interval remains 
between the bottom of the lowest canopy, and the sill 
of the window, sufficiently spacious to have contained 
another canopy and subject of the same dimensions as 

V The anDB are those of the family of 
Lewen, one of whose members gave the 

window in 1503. Gessert, Oeschichte 
der Olasmalerei, p. 119. 



those described, besides leaving room for an additional 
subject underneath it, rather more than half the height 
of the canopy, and which we may conjecture to have 
been supplied by the portraits of the donors of the 
window. The singular character of this window consists 
in the alternation of the white and yellow canopies, and 
the mode in which their masses of white and yellow 
glass separate the different pictures from each other. 
I ought to mention that the general rich colouring of 
the pictures is, to a certain extent, carried into the 
fronts of the canopies by means of a few large coloured 
figures placed in niches formed in the side jambs of the 
canopy, and in the tabernacle- work of its projecting 

The other canopy is in the lower part of a four-lighted 
window in the north aisle, — the fourth window from the 
west. It has a flat-faced front, with a low gable, all 
composed of white glass ; above is a broad space, covered 
with a red ground, on which are represented the upper 
parts of four pair of white twisted branches and leaves, 
the lower ends of which are brought down low in front 
of the gable, forming as it were a leafy screen, through 
the interstices of whichj the gable itself, and the yellow 
groining, and blue ceiling beneath it, are shewn. Under 
this bower is a painting of the Annunciation. The 
figures are represented as within a Gothic apartment, 
the architecture of which is coloured purple, and as in 
the other window, forms the basis of the groining and 
ceiling of the canopy. Through the windows of this 
apartment a landscape is seen executed in colours, and 
with a blue sky. The group is brought into strong 
relief, by the mass of shadow which is thrown behind 


the figures immediately under the hood of the canopy. 
This canopy is evidently of the same date as the others, 
though of smaller size. It would appear from the blue 
ground beneath it, on which the yellow pinnacles of 
another canopy are represented, that the general ar- 
rangement of this window once resembled that of the 
other windows. 

9. Tracery Lights. 

The general form of tracery lights in this style being 
elongated, figures became the most ordinary subjects 
for them. 

In the earliest examples the figure is usually placed 
on a coloured ground, which is diapered, and often sur- 
rounded with an ornamented yellow border, which im- 
part somewhat of a Decorated character to the design. 
The earliest figures are sometimes chiefly formed of pot- 
metals, but are more commonly executed in white and 
yellow stained glass. 

The canopy was, however, very soon introduced into 
tracery lights. The figure is sometimes partially coloured, 
especially in the earlier examples, but is more fi-equently 
of white glass, enriched with the yellow stain, and is 
separated by a coloured ground from the head, jambs, 
and pavement of the canopy, which serve as a border to 
the light, the coloured background to the figure thus 
being surrounded with a broad belt of white and yellow 
glass. This effect is not destroyed even when the head 
of the canopy is itself on a coloured ground ''. The white 
figure and canopy, with the intermediate space of colour, 

*> See plate 45, 




continued in almost general use until the end of the 

At all periods of the style, however, figures in tracery 
lights are to be found represented on a white, or on 
a quarry ground, or on a coloured ground usually (ex- 
cept in the latest examples) separated from the stone- 
work by a margin of white glass. 

The figures are in general those of saints, cherubim, 
or angels, the latter often hold shields bearing arms or 
the emblems of the Passion. In the later examples, 
kneeling or demi-figures are common, where the light 
itself is short ^. 

The triangular and other shaped openings in the tra- 
cery, of Perpendicular figure and canopy windows, are 
often occupied with foliaged patterns'. These in the 
larger openings are sometimes executed in coloured 
glass, but more frequently in white and yellow stained 
glass, the patterns in nearly all cases being rendered 
conspicuous by filling round them with black paint, 
leaving a narrow edging of white glass around the light 
next the stone- work *. 

A rose, a lion's head, or a shield of arms, is often 
introduced in the centre of a quatrefoil, nearly as in 
a Decorated window. Groups of figures in colours are 
often to be found in the larger tracery lights of early 
windows. Sometimes the donors of the window are 
represented in this position. 

Tracery lights are often filled with quarry patterns. 

' See some examples of tracery lights, earlier character than the canopies in 
Lasteyrie, Histoire de la Peinture the lower lights. Hedgeland's "St 
9ur Verre, plates Ixix., Ixiv., Ixvi. ; ' Neot's," plates Tii., viii., x., xi., &c. 

Lysons' " Gloucestershire/' p. cix. ; the 
tracery lights are in this plate of an 

• See pktes 47, 58, 61, and 62. 
t See plate 58. 



with or without borders to the light ; sometimes a circle 
with an emblem, or other subject represented on it in 
white and yellow, — and with or without leaves sprout- 
ing outwards from the border of the circle, and painted 
on the surrounding glass, — is inserted amongst the quar- 
ries in the centre of the light. The borders to tracery 
lights in this style are almost invariably composed of 
white glass, ornamented with the yellow stain. A co- 
loured border is of very rare occurrence. 

In addition to these subjects, white and yellow scrolls 
bearing inscriptions on coloured grounds, as well as 
almost every variety of heraldic device, often occupy 
narrow tracery lights. 

The smaller openings are usually filled with plain 
pieces of white or coloured glass. 

When a general design pervades the lower lights of 
a window, portions of it often extend into the tracery 
lights also, to the exclusion of other subjects. 

10. Heraldry. 

The heraldry at the commencement of this period 
preserved its former simplicity, the simple shield only 
being employed ; but it would seem that the use of the 
helmet, crest and mantling, the crown, the mitre, and 
the coronet, together with supporters and the motto, is 
of rather early introduction''. The earliest complete 

" The indent of a flhield of arms, snr- 
moanted with a helmet, crest, and mant- 
ling, remains on the grave-stoue of Sir 
Thomas Welsh, or Walsh, who founded 
Wanlip Charch, Leicestershire, in 1393. 

It is supposed that the earliest instance 
of the arms within the Qarter is in the 
stall-plate of Charles, Doke of Burgundy, 

who was invested 1469, and died 1477. 
A collection of tracings, formed under 
the direction of Anstis, to illustrate his 
history of the order, and purchased in 
1757 hy Leake, Qarter King at Arms, is 
preserved in the Library of the Heralds' 
College. Communicated by T. M. King, 
Esq., Kouge Dragon, 1844. 



atchievements that I have met with in this country are 
late in the reign of Henry VI., after which time they 
are frequent "". 

The shield alone, however, continued in use at all 
times of the style, and its form affords a good indication 
of date. The earliest shields are similar to those at the 
end of the former period, but the sides are more upright, 
and the shield gradually becomes squarer in its propor- 
tions, until at the close of the style it is almost square. 
A great variety of shapes was introduced in the reign of 
Henry VI., and during the latter part of the style ; but 
it would be impossible to describe them without the aid 
of numerous plates. 

The simple shield is employed in all ways, sometimes in 
a quatrefoil light surrounded with leaves ^, or suspended 
from a branch by a strap ; sometimes in a panel at the 
foot of a canopy, or above or below it, or in the midst of 
a lower light of a pattern window, and sometimes by 
itself, in a tracery light, held by an angel, &c. At the 
close of the fifteenth century a practice arose of enclosing 
a shield within a wreath of flowers &c., containing some- 
times rebuses or punning allusions to the bearer's name ; 
the whole being inserted in the midst of a quarry light. 
Sometimes the shield by itself is introduced into the 
midst of a quarry light, with or without the addition 
of a motto on a scroll, and frequently when in this 
position it is surmounted with a crown, or a mitre, and 
supported by angels or heraldic beasts. 

The more elaborate atchievements are sometimes in- 

* See plate 50. I saw in 1844, some 
earlier examples than this, in the west 
window of St. Leonard's Churchy Frank- 

y See plate 28, which though copied 
from a late Decorated example, bears 
a close resemblance to many early Per- 
pendicular arrangements. 


trodnced into a quarry light, with the motto written on 
the scroll beneath, or on the quarries themselves ', or on 
a piece of glass placed diagonally across the window'. 
Sometimes they are inserted in hollow panels, or covered 
with a canopy, and introduced into windows in conjunc- 
tion with pictures. When the outer lights of a window 
are thus filled, the opposite helmets are usually disposed 
so aa to face each other. 

Heraldry is also occasionally represented on the gar- 
ments of the figures, &c. Instances may sometimes be 
met with of heraldic borders like the Decorated, to win- 
dows in this style. Late in the fifteenth century, and sub- 
sequently, badges and initial letters, outlined and stained 
yellow, are to be constantly found on quarries or on 
small circles of glass, as well as introduced in proper 
colours in various parts of windows. 

Pulliam I'lilBcs. 

The charges in the shield became more complicated in 
the later examples, and every means was resorted to in 
order to represent them in their proper colours : whether 
by leading-in pieces of glass, or by destroying by abra- 

• See pUU 49. ■ See Lysona' " Berka.," p. 217. 



sion the coloured surface of coated glass. In the more 
ordinary specimens, stained yellow and white glass were 
often for convenience sake substituted for the proper 
heraldic colours *. 

11. Letters. 

Inscriptions in this style are composed of Black letters, 
the capital letters being sometimes Lombardic. The 
capital letter, however, whether Lombardic or Black, is, 
like the small letters, painted black, and the only ap- 
proach to illumination that I have seen, consists in either 
applying a patch of yellow to it, or painting a small leaf 
within the compass of the letter, and staining it yellow ®. 
Open characters, stained yellow, are commonly used as 
initial letters on quarries, &c., but not as capitals to in- 
scriptions. The scrolls on which inscriptions are written 
are more flowing in this than in the former style. They 
often have a yellow edging, and the letters are frequently 
applied to the back, as well as the front of the scroll, so 
as to avoid breaks in the inscription. 

12. Mechanical Construction. 

The glass is formed into rectangular glazing panels, 
and attached to the horizontal saddle-bars as in the 
former style. Great pains were taken to conceal the 
lead lines as much as possible; the vertical leads are 
generally thrown into the outlines of the picture, and 

^ See ante, p. 33, note to the iDtro- 
daction. Cut 26 is taken from an exam- 
ple at the dose of the reign of Henry 
VI.; it affords a comparison with the 
Decorated fish in plate 44. Cut 27 is 
taken from a specimen of the reign of 
Henry VII., and affords a comparison 

with the Decorated flenr-de-lis in cnt 19. 
^ Open letters, stained yellow, appear 
however as capitals to Black letter in- 
scriptions, in some of the engpravings of 
the glass from the east window, Win- 
chester Cathedral; Weale's "Quarterly 
Papers," voL ii. 



horizontal leads are almost invariably carried across the 
work in front of the saddle-bars, by which they are en- 
tirely hidden. Thus the necessity of using very large 
pieces of glass was entirely obviated. I have met with 
instances of late foreign canopy- work leaded together in 
squares, the vertical divisions not coinciding with the 
outlines of the design, but this is of rare occurrence. 

%* It has been observed in a former part of this work, that painted 
glass, when found in situ, is sometimes useful in helping to determine 
the date of the architecture of a window, &c. In Perpendicular win- 
dows possessing features not peculiar to any particular period of the 
style, the existence of this test is of especial value, since they are at 
once proved to be early specimens of the style, if they contain Deco- 
rated, or early Perpendicular painted glass, in such positions as will 
lead to the inference that they were originally glazed with it. Of this 
an instance is afforded by the great east window of Gloucester Cathe- 
dral, which though of Perpendicular architecture, is filled with late 
but pure Decorated glass ^. It is easy to multiply examples. I shall 
content myself with mentioning the following. A small two-lighted 
Perpendicular window on the south side of the chancel of Tredington 
Church, Gloucestershire, contains some good late Decorated glass in its 
principal tracery light. The Perpendicular east window of the south 
aisle of Southfleet Church, and a Perpendicular window on the south 
side of the chancel of Eynesford Church, Kent, respectively contain 
fragments of late Decorated, or early Perpendicular painted glass. And 
to the best of my recollection, there are some small pieces of early 
Perpendicular, if not of late Decorated glass, in the spandrels of the 
lower tier of lights of the west window of Tewkesbury Abbey Church. 
An opinion seems to be gaining ground amongst students of architec- 
ture, that some of the most distinguishing features of the Perpendicular 
style were introduced at an earlier period than was at one time sup- 
posed : and certainly the existence of Decorated glass in Perpendicular 
windows, tends to a similar conclusion. 

' [The date of this glass-painting has 
been ascertained by an examination of 
the heraldry. Its conception is referred 
to 1847, and it was probably completed 

not later than 1350. See "Archaeolo- 
gical Journal/' No. 80, p. 327, and 
Winston's "Memoirs Illnstratiye of 
Glass-painting." — E.] 




The Cinque Cento style may be said to have lasted 
about fifty years, viz. from the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, until the introduction of the " mosaic 
enamel mode" of glass-painting; about the middle of 
the sixteenth century. For a short time, therefore, the 
Perpendicular and Cinque Cento styles were concurrent. 
And if it were not for the peculiar character of the 
Cinque Cento ornamental details it would be a matter of 
considerable difficulty to distinguish the Perpendicular 
glass-paintings of the first thirty years of the sixteenth 
century, from the contemporaneous Cinque Cento glass- 
paintings. These examples of the two styles, especially 
those of the early part of the sixteenth century, often 
bear a considerable resemblance to each other, not only 
in their general arrangements, but sometimes even in the 
drawing of the figures : there may also be remarked in 
these paintings the same gradual change from compara- 
tive poverty, to richness of colour; and from hardness 
and fiatness, to softness and roundness of effect. The 
Cinque Cento style reached its perfection between the 
years 1525 and 1535, a period which may be termed 
the golden age of glass-painting. During this time. 
Cinque Cento glass-paintings display in general the 
most gorgeous effects of colour, and the greatest con- 
trasts of light and sh&de that have hitherto been at- 
tained in painted glass without sacrificing the trans- 
parency of the material, whilst they often possess at the 
same time considerable merit both in their drawing and 
composition. Cinque Cento glass-paintings executed soon 


after 1535, begin to lose their transparency and bril- 
liancy, and to become black and opaque in their deeper 
shadows, an evil which increased as the style advanced, 
and was doubtless occasioned by the anxiety of the art- 
ists to give greater force and effect to their pictures, 
by imitating the deep shadows of oil paintings. In point 
of richness of colour, design, and composition, the latest 
Cinque Cento glass-paintings are however not inferior to 
the earlier specimens. 

We may perceive in the superior pictorial qualities of 
the glass-paintings of the first half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, as compared with the more ancient examples, the 
influence which a progress in one branch of art usually 
exerts on others. The close of the fifteenth, and begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century, is almost universally ad- 
mitted to have been the period of the highest develop- 
ment of modern fresco, and oil-colour painting. Glass- 
painting did not then indeed attain perfection, but it 
reached a degree of excellence during the first thirty or 
forty years of the sixteenth century, which has not only 
never since been equalled, but also affords a satisfactory 
ground for the belief, that if glass-painting cannot boast 
of possessing examples as full of artistic merit as the 
works of the great masters, this deficiency is attributable 
not to any inherent incapacity in this species of painting 
for a display of high art, but simply to the want of skill 
in those who have hitherto practised it. 

Cinque Cento glass-paintings partake less of the cha- 
racter of mosaics, and more of the nature of finished 
pictures than Gothic glass-paintings. This picturesque- 
ness was produced without resorting to any other expe- 
dients than those afforded by the mosaic system of glass- 


painting. The limited scale of colour common to that 
system, was considerably extended early in the six- 
teenth century, by the introduction of a great many 
new tints of coloured glass, as well as by the single 
and double application of the yellow stain to them, and 
white glass. The varied and harmonious colouring of a 
Cinque Cento glass-painting is however the result not 
merely of a skilful disposition of individual tints, but of 
taking advantage of the accidental variations of colour 
in the same sheet of glass, so as to make the light parts 
of the glass coincide, as far as possible, with the lights 
of the picture, and its dark parts with the shadows. 
None, I am persuaded, ever understood the principles of 
colouring as applied to glass-paintings, more thoroughly 
than the Cinque Cento artists ; their works, even if re- 
garded as mere "maps" of colour, would still be pic- 
turesque. Some great principle of colouring may gene- 
rally be remarked in them, tending to counteract the 
natural spottiness of a glass-painting. The eye is not 
distracted by capricious contrasts, but by means of well- 
arranged leading tints is quietly conducted over the 
whole design. In point of execution, the stipple mode 
of shading was that principally employed throughout 
the Cinque Cento style ; smear shading being however 
a good deal used in architectural ornamental work. The 
stipple shading became much coarser in its grain as the 
style advanced, which enabled the artists by this means 
considerably to increase the depth of the shadows with- 
out destroying the transparency of the painting. Soon 
after the year 1530, a practice was introduced of 
heightening the deeper shadows with broad smear 
hatches of paint, left unstippled, the cause of that 


opacity in the later Cinque Cento glass-paintings, which 
has before been alluded to. The enamel brown used in 
the earlier paintings, is of a cold tone; towards 1520, 
however, it acquired a fine warm tint, by which a con- 
siderable degree of richness is imparted to the work. 
The chief superiority, however, of the Cinque Cento 
glass-paintings over the Gothic, consists in the extra- 
ordinary distinctness and relief of the picture; partly 
caused, it is true, by well-defined outlines, and contrast 
of colour, but more eflfectually by powerful and skilful 
contrasts of light and shade. The artifice resorted to may 
be most easily detected in those Cinque Cento glass-paint- 
ings in which the picture is represented as seen beneath 
an archway. The front face of the arch and its abut- 
ments, &c., forms a mass of strong light, and is conse- 
quently brought prominently forward. The soffit and 
sides of the archway are however kept in deep shadow. 
The group of figures stands just within the threshold of 
the archway, and is a very prominent object, on account 
of its forward position, its vivid colouring, and strong 
lights and shadows. In the distance is represented 
a landscape, delicately painted on light blue glass, and 
the space between the horizon and the archway is filled 
with a very clear light blue or grey sky. This sky serves 
as a background to the heads and upper portion of the 
bodies of the figures of the group, and by its tint and 
transparency, throws forward the darkly-shaded arch- 
way, and the group in a most surprising manner, and at 
the same time gives great apparent distance to the back- 
ground. In this way are produced the greatest effects 
of atmosphere that the art of glass-painting is capable 
of. The same method of ensuring distinctness may be 


traced in all Cinque Cento work. It may be observed 
in figure and canopy windows, and in glass-paintings 
where the whole of the window is covered by the pic- 
ture. The effect produced is, however, never so striking 
as when the picture is represented as seen through, or 
under, an archway. 

The principle of keeping the picture separate and dis- 
tinct from the mere ornamental part of the design, is 
fully carried out in the Cinque Cento style. The archi- 
tectural work, which is principally composed of white 
and yellow stained glass, is in general made to form 
a frame-work, or setting to the picture, with which it 
neither interferes, nor intermingles. In some composi- 
tions indeed, the pictorial part is closely interwoven 
with the ornamental part, but when this occurs, it may 
usually be accounted for by the peculiar nature of the 
subject, as a Jesse for instance. 

The ornaments of the Cinque Cento style of glass- 
painting resemble those of the Italian architecture of the 
sixteenth century, to which the term " Cinque Cento " 
is ordinarily applied. These are principally derived from 
the ancient Boman architectural details, such as friezes, 
arabesques, and the like. Some Boman ornaments are 
directly copied in Cinque Cento work ; in general, how- 
ever, there is a playfulness in Cinque Cento decorations 
which of itself sufficiently distinguishes them fr6m the 
classical. They likewise frequently exhibit the costumes 
and armour of the sixteenth century. The drawing of 
the principal figures and draperies in Cinque Cento glass- 
paintings is in general more nearly allied to the Italian 
than to the German manner. Some figures are extremely 
grand and severe ; and they are almost all far more cor- 



rectly designed and executed than the Gothic, On the 
whole, however, the Cinque Cento style must be con- 
sidered more ornamental, and less severe in its cha- 
racter, than the Perpendicular style: I am of course 
speaking of it as it appears in existing specimens, for 
there is nothing in the style itself that is opposed to 
severity or grandeur. 

In their general arrangements Cinque Cento glass- 
paintings usually exhibit a remarkable unity of design, 
which is accomplished sometimes by means of the archi- 
tectural work which environs the different pictures; 
sometimes by the manner in which the colouring of 
several distinct pictures brought into juxtaposition, is 
managed, so as to produce the effect of one connected 

The figure and canopy window is a common Cinque 
Cento arrangement. Sometimes each figure is placed 
under a separate canopy ; but more commonly they are 
all covered by one large canopy, extending across the 
window. In either case a panel containing a coat of 
arms, or a picture, is often inserted beneath, or even 
above the canopy, the tracery lights being filled with 
angels, emblems, heraldry, or other devices ®. 

In picture windows the arrangement sometimes con- 
sists in entirely filling the lower lights, and occasionally 
the tracery lights also, with one subject, unaccompanied 
with any canopy or ornamental work. Sometimes in 
occupying the lower lights with one general canopy, or 
open screen-work, which includes one or more distinct 

* See representations of figure and 
canopy windows, Lasteyrie, Hist, de la 
PeifUwre wwr Verre, plate Ixxzii. ; and 

Lettn, Description de VEglise MHro- 
politaine du Dioc4»e d^Auch, Nos. 7, S, 
21, 22. 



pictures : the tracery lights being filled with inde- 
pendent subjects. Sometimes the central part of the 
window is occupied with one large picture with or 
without an architectural framework, the two outer lower 
lights being each filled with a figure and canopy. In 
other windows, especially those consisting of five or 
more lower lights, the centre light is filled with a figure 
and canopy, and the outer lights on either side with 
a large picture. The tracery lights being in all these 
instances adorned with other pictures'. Sometimes when 
a window consists of three lower lights, a figure and 
canopy is placed in the centre light, and all the rest of 
the window is filled with heraldry, or with plain white 
glass leaded together in geometrical patterns, or, in 
Germany, with round glazing. Sometimes an arrange- 
ment like the Decorated is resorted to, one general 
canopy, or several canopies, including either a large 
picture, or single figures, being carried like a belt 
across the middle of the lower lights, the space above 
or below the belt being occupied with white, or round 
glass, as before mentioned. The variety of arrange- 
ments in works of this period is however very great, 
since amongst them may be reckoned, in addition to 
many original arrangements, almost every combination 
which has hitherto been noticed in the examination 
of the former styles : it is therefore impossible to do 
more than just glance at some of the most ordinary, 
leaving the rest to be ascertained by actual obser- 

' See plate 66. See bIso Lasteyrie, 
HUtoire de la PeirUure sur Verre, plates 
Ixiv., Ixvi., Ixxvi., Ixxvii., and Ixxxi. 

' See the engravings of the windows 

of St. Jacqnes Church, Li%e, in Weale's 
"Divers Works of Early Masters in 
Christian Decoration." 


In the Wheel windows of this period, the colours are 
in general arranged so as to produce the effect of a star, 
or rainbow, as the case may be. In the centre opening 
there generally is a demi-figure or other picture ; the 
openings immediately round the centre are filled with 
yellow rays; and the larger outer lights with demi- 
angels, or cherubs, all executed in colours and placed 
with their heads towards the circumference of the circle ; 
the smaller openings being filled with patterns, or plain 
pieces of glass. In some instances all the openings 
except the central one are filled with ornamental pat- 
terns \ 

The Jesse windows of this period are in general 
extremely rich and fanciful. The vine generally ex- 
tends itself in graceful curves over the whole of a win- 
dow, it is seldom confined within the limits of a sin- 
gle light. The figures stand upon, or sit on foliaged 
stools growing out of its branches. The whole design 
is sometimes represented on a coloured, sometimes on 
a white ground. In the former case the principal 
branches are generally white, the leaves and stools 
being variously coloured, in the latter the vine is usually 
stained yellow K 

The painted glass in the windows of the apsidal choir 
of St. Jacques Church, Liege, though inferior both in 
extent and subject to many other examples, may safely 
be pronounced to be one of the most splendid specimens 
of the Cinque Cento style, and merits particular atten- 
tion on account of the excellence of its execution, and 

^ See Lasteyrie, MiHoire de la Pein- 
tmre tur Verre, plate IxxiL; see also 
Letto, Description de VEglise MHrO' 
poUkume du Diocke d^Auch, Nos. 6, 

and 24. 

^ See a spedmen of a Cinque Cento 
Jesse, Lasteyrie, Sitt, de la Feinture 
swr Verre, plate liziv. 


brilliancy of its effect. Its goodness as a specimen of 
glass-painting will be the more readily appreciated by 
the student since it has lately been repaired, and restored 
to its original lustre by a careful and judicious cleaning. 
Its principal subject is the family alliances of the Counts 
of Horn. 

There are five lofty windows in the apse of St. Jacques 
Church, each having its lower lights divided by a tran- 
som into two tiers of three lights apiece. The three 
lights in the upper tier of the centre window are occu- 
pied with a large picture, (the Crucifixion,) and the 
canopy under which it is placed : the lower tier of lights 
is filled with another large picture, comprising two sub- 
jects, (Abraham offering Isaac, and the lifting up of the 
brazen serpent in the wilderness,) and its canopy. 

Both thTse pictures exhibit good drawing and group-g 
in the figures, brilliant and harmonious colouring, and 
a depth of shadow which could scarcely have been in- 
creased without sacrificing the transparency of the glass. 
Each is furnished with a landscape background, and 
a light blue sky above, reaching to the arch of the 
canopy, through which the picture appears to be seen. 
A most luminous effect is produced by this sky, con- 
trasted as it is with the dark soffit of the archway, and 
the powerful execution of the group of figures beneath. 
The sky in the lower picture is represented clear and 
serene, gradually deepening a little from the horizon 
upwards; that in the upper picture is slightly clouded 
towards the top, doubtless to indicate the supernatural 
darkness of the Crucifixion. 

The canopies, which are thoroughly Cinque Cento in 
design and details, are principally composed of white 


and yellow stained glass, and by their mass eflfeetually 
serve as a setting to the pictures. Their ornamental 
character is increased by the stiif coloured grounds on 
which their heads are placed ; that of the upper canopy 
being deep blue, and that of the lower bright red. 

In the tracery lights of this window are two heads, 
the one intended for God the Father, the other for 
Christ, as well as representations of the Holy Ghost, and 
two cherubs; these subjects are all executed in white 
and yellow stained glass, and placed on bright red 

Each of the remaining four windows has, like the 
centre window, its lower tier of lights occupied with 
a large picture and canopy, the subjects however being 
portraits of members of the Horn family, kneeling and 
attended by their patron saints, and angels holding their 
armorial bearings. The glass in the upper tiers of lights 
differs much in its arrangement from that in the centre 
window. A single figure and canopy partly occupies the 
central light, and a small portion of each of the side 
lights, in the upper tier of each of these windows, the 
remainder of the lights being filled with shields of arms 
backed with plain white glass : a more perfect and beau- 
tiful display of heraldry than this can hardly be con- 
ceived. Many of the arms are furnished with helmets 
and mantlings, and the white glass not being leaded 
together in any particular pattern, but principally in 
horizontal lines, hidden by the saddle-bars, offers nothing 
to distract the eye from a contemplation of the bright 
bearings, and the varied and elegant forms of the lam- 
brequins and crests. The single figures in the central 
light of the upper tier, serve to keep up the interest of 



the general composition; while the small amount of 
colour presented by them and the heraldry together, 
when compared with that of the painting of the Cruci- 
fixion, serves to preserve the predominance of the cen- 
tral window. The tracery lights of the four side win- 
dows contain angels and scrolls, in white and stained 
yellow glass on coloured grounds. One of the scrolls 
bears date 1525. 

I must not omit to mention two other windows, of 
singular shape, one on each side of the choir next the 
nave of St. Jacques. In the autumns of 1843 and 1844, 
the north window alone contained painted glass, the con- 
tents of the south window being, as I was informed, in 
the cleaner's hands. The north window is divided into 
two grand compartments by an immense muUion, which 
runs up the mLle of the window and branche; off at 
the top like a Y. Each compartment has four lower 
lights, and a head of Flamboyant tracery. The three 
lower lights of each compartment next to the large mid- 
dle mullion, are, with the exception of a space at bottom, 
equal in width to the breadth of the outer light, occu- 
pied with paintings representing members of the Horn 
family, — kneeling and attended by their patron saints, — 
under canopies of the same character as those in the 
apsidal windows. The heads of these canopies are on 
coloured grounds. The picture is painted on precisely 
the same principle, in respect of contrasts of colour, and 
of light and shade, as the pictures in the east window. 
The tracery lights which form the central portion of the 
head of each compartment, and, though not exactly over 
the tops of the three lower lights, immediately adjoin 
them, are filled with angels, scrolls, and other subjects, 



principally executed in white and yellow stained glass, 
and placed on coloured grounds. White glass, however, 
forms the ground not only of the exterior lower lights of 
each compartment, and of the space beneath the pictures 
in the other lights, but also of all the exterior tracery 
lights in the head of the compartment. These tracery 
lights are occupied with angels, letters, &c., executed in 
colours; and the exterior lower lights, as well as the 
space below the pictures, with heraldry, richly coloured, 
principally consisting of shields of arms with helmets 
and mantlings. The eflfect of this arrangement is com- 
pletely to cut out, and surround with white, the coloured 
central portion of the window, and to make it harmonize 
with the general appearance of the windows in the apse. 
The space above the fork of the large middle muUion is 
occupied with a representation of the coronation of the 
Virgin, in colours, surrounded by a coloured rainbow, 
composed of pink, red, and blue rows of cherubim \ 

A remarkably fine Cinque Cento general arrangement 
is afforded by the four windows of the chapel of the 
Miraculous Sacrament, on the north side of the choir of 
Brussels Cathedral. Each of these windows has five 
long lower lights and a head of tracery. The lower 
lights of each window are filled with a grand Cinque 
Cento architectural design, terminating at the top like 
a triumphal arch, but comprising a double tier of open 
arches separated by a broad frieze, and principally com- 
posed of white and yellow stained glass. In these glass- 

^ The windowB of St. Jacques Church 
have been engraved in a recent publica- 
tion by Weale, entitled " Divers Works 
of Early Masters in Christian Deco- 
ration;" these plates are exceedingly 

Qsefnl as giving the arrangement, the 
colouring, and general design of the 
glass ; they however by no means convey 
an adequate idea of the effiBct of the 
glass, [1847]. 

1 98 


paintings the principle of producing distinctness, and 
atmospheric eflfect, by strong contrasts of colour and 
of light and shade, is carried out in the boldest 
and most complete manner. Under, and sometimes 
partly in front of, the upper tier of arches in each 
window is depicted in rich colours a group of figures 
forming a portion of the legend of the miracle; the 
space below the lower tier of arches being occupied 
with the kneeling portraits of the donors of the window 
and their attendant patron saints. The front of the 
whole screen presents a mass of light; but the soffits 
and sides of all the archways are kept in deep shadow. 
A bright grey or azure-coloured sky is, in every case I 
believe, introduced in the distance; filling up the re- 
mainder of the space beneath the archway, and serving 
as a background to some of the figures of the group. 
The ornamental architectural work serves not only (as 
at Liege) as a setting and relief to the pictures, but 
by means of its connected design, to produce a general 
unity of effect. The space above the architectural ele- 
vation, and also the tracery head of each window, is 
filled with plain white glass in quarries, but this is 
not original. In point of mere execution, these glass- 
paintings are to a certain extent inferior to those at 
Liege, since there is a certain degree of opacity in their 
deeper shadows, and a consequent diminution of trans- 
parency in this portion of the picture ^ 

The windows of Auch Cathedral, in the south of 
France, are not only extremely valuable as collectively 

1 For the dates and Airther particulars 
of these windows, and remarks on them, 
see L^vy, Mistoire de la Peinture sur 
Verre, p. 101, Broxelles, 1860, [" Arch»- 

ological Journal," vol. xxi. p. 206 ; and 
"Memoirs on GUss-painting/' by the 
kte C. .Winston, p. 322.] 



shewing the general arrangement of the glass, through- 
out an entire building, but as affording a satisfactory 
proof of the ease with which in the Cinque Cento style, 
unity of design in any particular window may be accom- 
plished by a judicious employment of architectural and 
ornamental details, although no visible connection exists 
between the principal subjects of the composition them- 
selves. The richly coloured glass-paintings are confined 
to the windows of the chapels eastward of the transept, 
and to the circular windows at the west end of the 
nave, and the northern and southern extremities of the 
transept, the rest of the edifice being glazed with mere 
pattern windows, possessing but little colour. Some 
of the pattern windows are of the seventeenth century, 
but others are of the same date as the picture windows 
in the chapels, which appear, from an inscription on one 
of them, to have been finished in 1513. 

The general character of the latter windows may be 
gathered from plate 66, which is a reduced copy of the 
window numbered 23, in M. Lettu's excellent work on 
Auch Cathedral, from which I have principally derived 
my information on the subject"*. 

In all except the three windows of the easternmost 
apsidal chapel, the principal subject has a smaller 
Bubject beneath it, by which means an uniformity of 
level is preserved throughout the whole of these com- 
positions ; the three windows of the easternmost chapel 
being somewhat shorter than the others. The principal 
subjects of the window represented in plate 66, the 
incredulity of St. Thomas, and Christ appearing to 

" A representatioii of this same win- 
dow is given in Lasteyrie, HisL de la 

Peinture sur Verre, plate Ixxxi. Its 
coloaring is extremely rich and brilliant. 


Mary Magdalene, form together one connected picture. 
In the great majority of the other windows, however, 
the principal subject consists of a row of three or four 
independent figures, according to the number of the 
lower lights, each light containing a single figure. 
These figures are of prophets, patriarchs, sybils and 
apostles, and their relative positions can for the most 
part be accounted for only by reference to the legends 
and doctrines of the Church. In some windows these 
figures are treated as independent, each being covered 
with a separate canopy; in general, however, they 
either stand in front of a grand architectural elevation 
extending across the window, or in a connected row of 
niches. In some windows the unity of the composition 
is further assisted by the introduction of a curtain be- 
hind the figures, supported by angels, as in plate 66. 
The Crucifixion in the east window, and the Fall of 
Adam in one of the side windows, are treated as at 
Liege and Brussels, as pictures seen through an arch- 
way. The tracery lights in all these windows are filled, 
as in plate 66, with figures, heraldry, ornaments, &c. 

The circular window at the west end of the nave has 
its eye, or centre light, filled with a half-figure of the 
Virgin Mary ; the lights which immediately diverge from 
the centre are filled with flames of fire, and the outer 
lights principally with angels and cherubs. The two 
other circular windows are nearly alike. One contains 
a demi-figure of St. Peter, and the other a demi-figure 
of St. Paul in its centre light, all the radiating lights 
being occupied solely with foliaged ornaments. 

The pattern windows have their tracery heads full 
of ornaments and heraldry, and their lower lights are 


enriched with a border, and filled with plain quarries. 
As all the picture windows and some of the pattern 
windows have been engraved by M. Lattu, I must refer 
the reader to his work for further particulars on the 

King's Chapel, Cambridge, affords another example 
of a general arrangement .of windows throughout an 
entire building. With the exception of the west win- 
dow, all the principal windows of this edifice are adorned 
with pictures on glass, which from the original contracts 
with the glaziers, still in existence, appear to have been 
finished about 1531. 

The east window contains in its lower lights six 
distinct subjects, viz. three in the upper tier, and 
three in the lower tier of lights, each picture entirely 
filling three lights, and not being enclosed within any 
ornamental framework, but simply separated from the 
others by the muUions and transom of the window. 
These pictures are very fully and richly coloured. The 
tracery head of the window is entirely occupied with 
royal cognizances and initial letters, &c., executed in 
white and coloured glass, and placed on a blue ground 
of much deeper tint than the blue used in other parts 
of the window \ 

The side windows each consist of ten lower lights, 
disposed in two tiers, and an obtuse head of tracery. 

* A print of the east window of King's 
Chapel, by the late J. K. Baldry, was 
published in 1809 ; it is a faithfnl repre- 
sentation of the drawing of the glass, 
bat conveys but little idea of its colour- 
ing or general effect. It is to be re- 
gretted that Mr. Baldry did not fulfil 
his original intention of engraving all 
the side windows in a similar manner. 

I have a sort of suspicion that the glass 
in the tracery lights of these windows is 
a little e:trlier than that in the lower 
lights. The initials H. £. in the tracery 
lights of the east window seem to have 
reference to Henry VII. and his qucen» 
Elizabeth of York. See notices of these 
windows, " ArchsBological Journal/' voL 
xii. pp. 162, 366; and voL ziii. p. 462. 


The central light of each tier contains two figures 
richly coloured, placed one above the other, and each 
covered with a Cinque Cento canopy principally com- 
posed of white and yellow stained glass. On either 
side of the centre light is a distinct suT^ject, occupying 
the two outer lights of each tier. These pictures are 
all richly coloured, and except in one window are not 
surrounded with any architectural framework. The 
tracery lights are filled with heraldic bearings and 
cognizances placed on coloured grounds, deep blue 
being the prevailing ground colour. In point of exe- 
cution, these windows appear weak in comparison with 
those at Liege ; there is a want of depth in the shadows, 
and consequent want of relief in the picture; and the 
grain of the shading is too fine, which makes the 
shadows rather hard. The mass of deep blue in the 
tracery lights produces a rather heavy effect. Still 
these windows will always rank deservedly high as 
glass-paintings; taken collectively they form indeed 
the most important specimen of the Cinque Cento style 
in this country. Some of the windows have been 
lately cleaned, and are in my opinion greatly improved 
by the operation ®. A few of the windows which sepa- 
rate the little side chapels from the main building, 
preserve portions of their original glazing. Some of 
it is in the same style as that in the large windows, 
the rest is rather more Gothic in character. These 
windows do not appear to have been richly coloured. 

<* A description of the BnbjectB repre- I eighteen windowo^to be completed within 

Rented in these windows is given in the 
"Cambridge Guide,'* Cambridge, 1831. 
It appears from this authority, that in 
April, 1527, a contract was made for 

fonr years: and that another contract 
for four other windows, to be finished in 
three years, was made in May, 1628. 


Many of the figures in the tracery lights are executed 
in colours, and placed on ornamented quarry grounds. 

The windows of St. Peter's Church, Cologne, demand 
attention, since they afford combinations of very beauti- 
ful Cinque Cento picture glass-paintings, and patterns 
principally composed of round glass. The central por- 
tion of the three lower lights of each of the three eastern 
windows, is occupied with a very considerable mass of 
painted glass, consisting of one general subject above, 
and several smaller subjects beneath. Thus in the 
centre windows, the upper subject is the Crucifixion, 
below which the portraits and arms of the donors are 
represented. The remaining portions of the lower 
lights are filled with round glass, in which stars of 
colour are introduced, as before described. The tracery 
lights either contain arms, or are surrounded with an 
ornamented border, executed in white and yellow glass, 
and filled up with round glass. 

A similar arrangement prevails in most of the other 
windows of this edifice ; in some only part of the central 
lower light, in others the middle portion of all the lower 
lights is filled with painted glass, the rest of the open- 
ings as well as the tracery-head of the window being 
glazed with round glass. Some of these windows bear 
date 1528, 1530. The pictures they contain, considered 
as glass-paintings, are of the highest excellence, being 
exceedingly brilliant, without displaying any timidity in 
their shading, which is at once clear and effective. The 
effectiveness of round glass as an adjunct to painted 
glass is here fully developed; it appears to harmonize 
with it both in colour and form, far better than orna- 
mented quarries. 



Want of room prevents my noticing in detail many 
other valuable examples of Cinque Cento glass-painting. 
I must not however forbear to mention the churches of 
St. Patrice, and St. Yincent, at Eouen, both of which 
contain many beautiful specimens p; the church of St. 
Martin, at Liege, whose seven easternmost windows 
(some of which bear date 1527) exhibit a remarkable 
combination of the most splendid heraldic compositions 
and sacred subjects; and especially the choir of Lich- 
field Cathedral, the windows of which are filled with 
glass brought from the diocese of Liege, and strongly 
resembling that of St. Jacques Church in its general 
character and execution \ The Lichfield glass is dated 
1534, 1535, 1538, and 1539, and though the relative 
arrangement of the different pictures has not been 
preserved, by which the general effect of the work is 
lessened, they are individually worthy of close attention 
by every true admirer of painted glass. As glass-paint- 
ings they are indeed finer than those at St. Jacques 
Church, Liege. They are most effective specimens of 
the art; the principle of contrasting colour and light 
and shade, and using the architectural framework as 
relief to the picture, being fully displayed in them. 
The clearstory windows of the choir of Brussels Cathe- 
dral are also very fine specimens of the Cinque Cento 

' EngraviDg^ of some of the glass in 
these churches, and also in that of St. 
Oodard at Rouen, are given in Langlois, 
JEtMai Historique et descriptif sur la 
Peinture tur Verre, 8vo. Rouen, 1832, 
plates 8, 4^ 5, 6 and 7. 

4 A description of the Lichfield glass 
is given in a little work entitled "A 
Short Account of Lichfield Cathedral,'' 
Lichfield, 1843, 6th ed. The portrait of 

Cardinal de la Marck in one of the north 
windows of the choir, is really a wonder- 
ful performance as regards colouring and 
execution, and sufficiently proves the 
pictorial excellence to which a glass- 
painting may attain. The glass belonged 
to the dissolved abbey of Herkeurode, in 
the diocese of Li€ge. [See " Arch solc^i- 
cal Journal," vol. xxi., and " Memoirs on 
Qlass-painting," p. 321, note.] 



period; they appear to be coeval with the great west 
window of that edifice dated 1528, and which with the 
exception of its tracery lights is entirely filled with 
a representation of the Day of Judgment, a work which 
displays the capability of glass-painting for such sub- 
jects ^ Some good Cinque Cento glass-paintings, portions 
of larger works, and as I think, of the Flemish school, 
may be seen in the windows of Ashtead and Gatton 
Churches, Surrey. I cannot conclude these remarks 
without a reference to the east window of St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster, which though at present much 
begrimed with London smoke and soot, may be cited as 
an example of the pictorial excellence attainable in 
a glass-painting without any violation of the funda- 
mental rules and couditions of the art, and as affording 
a practical refutation of the notion that glass-paintings 
must necessarily be confined to mere mosaics possessing 
hardly any other merit than that which results, from an 
assemblage of splendid and dazzling colours \ 

' Aooordiog to M. le Vieil, the west 
window of Brnssek Cathedral was 
painted by James Floris, otherwise 
Jacques de Vriendt, brother of the well- 
known Francis Floris, "the Flemish 
Raphael." 1/art de la FeitUure tur 
Verre, p. 42. 

' A very indifferent print of this 
window was published in the Vetusta 
Monumentci, in 1768. The Society of 
Antiquaries there state, that this window 
was originally intended as a present by 
the magistrates of Dort, in Holland, 
to King Henry VJI.; that it remained 
at Waltham Abbey till the dissolution, 
when it was removed to Kew Hall, Es- 
sex; that it afterwards passed by sale to 
Mr. Conyers, of Copt Hall, £ssex, fVom 
whence the inhabitants of St. Marga* 

ret's, Westminster, purchased it in 175S, 
for 400 guineas. 

That the window was howeyer painted 
for Henry VIII., and not for his father, 
appears I think pretty clearly from the in- 
troduction of the pomegranate, the badge 
of Henry the Eighth's first wife Catha- 
rine of Arragon, in the upper part of the 
window, and also from the figure of 
St. Catharine which is placed over the 
kneeling effigy of the queen. The style 
of the work itself is of the time of Henry 
VIII. It is not likely that it should 
have been painted after the king's 
scruples respecting the validity of his 
marriage had arisen, but I thmk, judg- 
ing by the analogy of other examples, 
that it is as late as 1526 or thereabouts. 
In its general character it closely re* 


I now proceed to examine Cinque Cento glass-paintings 
in detail, conducting the investigation in the following 

1. Texture and Colour of the Glass. 

The glass used in Cinque Cento glass-paintings is iden- 
tical in texture with that employed in the Perpendi- 
cular glass-paintings of the sixteenth century, and it 
also resembles it in the general lightness and gaiety 
of its colours. 

Generally speaking, the colours of the Cinque Cento 
are fuller of tone and more harmonious than those of 
the Perpendicular period. ITiis is particularly the case 
with the blue, in comparison with which that of the 
Perpendicular looks quite raw and crude. It is cool, 
but warmer than that of any other period, not excepting 
the twelfth century. It is a warm grey blue full of tone. 
The same superiority is observable in all kinds of green, 
which are never raw, and always much modified with red. 
The yellows also are never violent or crude. 

Many new tints, especially of pink and purple, were 
introduced during this period, as well as a deep blue 
of a purple tint, which last was much used in the dra- 

sembles a window containing the por- 
traits of John Draeck (who died 2Sth 
"Nov., 1528) and Barbara Colibraat, bis 
wife, (wbo died 28th Sept., 1538,) in the 
north aisle of the nave of St. Jacques 
Charch, Antwerp. Mr. Rickman was of 
opinion that the kneeling personages 
represented Prince Arthur and the Prin- 
cess Catherine; arguing that the man 
wore only a coronet round his bonnet, 
and that the lady's face was that of a 
very young woman. Walcott's " History 
of St. Margaret's Church, Westminster," 
p. 17. The male figure, however, has 

a crown and not a coronet on his head, 
which disproves Mr. Bickman's opinion; 
and indeed there is strong ground for 
suspecting that the head itself is not 
original, but a modern restoration. The 
queen's head is modem. But query if 
these heads are not original, though re- 
touched when the glass was put up in 
St. Margaret's. 

The harmonious arrangement of the 
colouring of the Westminster window is 
worthy of attention. It is the most 
beautiful work in this respect that I am 
acquainted with. 


peries, &c., of late works. A very light blue or rather 
grey glass, was constantly employed to represent the azure 
of the firmament, and also very extensively in land- 
scapes, and ornamental work, where it is often changed 
to a light green, or even a deep yellow, by staining. 
" Sprinkled ruby" and many kinds of irregularly colour- 
ed ruby may be frequently observed in Cinque Cento 
glass-paintings. The white glass is apparently colour- 
less, but on close inspection it will be found to retain 
the light yellow tinge which has been already remarked 
in reference to the late Perpendicular white glass. 
Flesh-coloured glass is uncommon, white glass tinted 
with a red enamel like China red being generally used 
instead of it. Those specimens of flesh-coloured glass 
that I have met with are very light in colour. 

As a general rule, the Cinque Cento artists worked 
with secondary and tertiary colours, and the primary 
colours are with them so modified as to be primary 
only in name. Whether it was that they were unable 
in an equal degree to modify the ruby, or for some other 
cause, it is certain that ruby glass is more sparingly 
employed in Cinque Cento glass-paintings, than in any 
other. Sometimes, even in large pictures, it appears in 
little bits only. 

Many kinds of coated glass besides ruby, were used 
during this style, and the abrading process was fre- 
quently exercised on them. 

It is to the profuse employment of the yellow stain, 
and the rich and varied hues it assumes under diiferent 
degrees of heat, that the gorgeous effect of Cinque Cento 
glass-paintings is in great measure attributable. The 
yellow thus produced is usually of a fine deep golden 


colour, it very often inclines to a deep orange, it is 
seldom of a pale lemon tint. 

A practice was often resorted to of double staining the 
glass, that is, applying the stain twice over, whenever 
increased depth or variety of colour was required. By 
this means yellow grounds were often ornamented with 
a pattern executed on them in a still deeper shade of 
yellow. The stain was sometimes applied to yellow 
pot-metal glass, and frequently to blue and also to ruby 
and purple glass. Blue glass was often subjected to the 
process of double staining. 

2. Mode op Execution. 

Dark outlines were constantly employed in the figures 
of this period, and great eflfects were often produced by 
them, but being in general used to assist .deep shadows, 
their presence is seldom remarked. In ornamental work 
the chief expression is given by outlines. They are 
always full and juicy, and vary much in depth. 

The shadows were generally produced by the stipple 
method, but smear shading was much employed in 
ornamental work, especially late in the style. 

In depth and texture the stipple shadows exactly 
resemble those used in Perpendicular glass-paintings 
of the sixteenth century, and which have been already 
described. In the earlier Cinque Cento paintings the 
shadows often are weak and fine in their grain, but as 
the style advanced they became gradually darker, and 
much more coarsely and boldly stippled. It was the 
common practice during the first thirty years of the 
sixteenth century to heighten the shadows with a hatch- 


ing of thin dark lines, which increased their depth with- 
out diminishing their transparency ; but soon afterwards 
broad dabs of unstippled paint were used instead of the 
thin lines to strengthen the shadows. 

It is to this circumstance that the dulness and opacity 
of the later Cinque Cento glass-paintings are attributable, 
for the stippled ground of the shadow itself always pre- 
served its transparency, the coarseness of its grain in 
general increasing with the thickness of the coat of 
colour employed. The introduction of the warm brown 
enamel instead of the colder tint formerly used for 
shading, seems to have taken place contemporaneously 
both in this and the Perpendicular style. It greatly 
tended to increase the richness of the painting *. 

A light red enamel colour resembling China red was 
as before-mentioned frequently employed as a flesh- 
colour on the naked parts of figures when executed on 
white glass. It was usually applied like a wash to the 
back of the sheet, and was not suffered to extend over 
the drapery or hair. In some cases it was used as 
a stipple shadow on flesh-coloured glass, and sometimes 
as a colour for the lips and cheeks. It is the only 
enamel colour used in Cinque Cento glass-paintings be- 
sides enamel brown. 

Diaper patterns were very commonly used throughout 
the style, they are often of very bold design, especially 
in tapestry grounds. 

3. Figures. 

The glass-painters of this period certainly surpassed 
their predecessors, and their successors likewise, in their 

* See plate 71. 


technical knowledge of the human figure. Its form and 
proportions are in general well preserved in their works, 
and their pictures are often as well executed as designed, 
a matter of very rare occurrence in glass-painting. 

There are however many degrees of merit in the 
works of even the best time of the Cinque Cento style. 
In some, the figures, besides being exquisitely finished, 
are simple, dignified, and full of character: in others, 
the figures, though by no means badly drawn, are 
placed in whimsical and extravagant attitudes, with 
their draperies fluttering about in a capricious and un- 
natural manner, and are totally devoid of all dignity, 
or propriety of expression. Such figures sometimes 
affectedly gather up their outer garments with their 
hands, in order more completely to exhibit the rich 
dresses which are underneath. In technical complete- 
ness, however, the Cinque Cento figures are always 
superior to the Perpendicular, though they may some- 
times be inferior to them in dignity. Ifaked figures 
of cupids, genii, &c., are very commonly introduced 
into Cinque Cento ornamental work, a practice borrowed 
from the antique ^ 

The heads of the larger figures, from their high finish, 
and fiatness of effect, bear a considerable resemblance to 
those in the oil-paintings of the close of the fifteenth and 
early part of the sixteenth century. Some of the por- 
traits possess much of the character of Holbein's pictures. 

" See plates 66 and 69. See also | Verre, plates Ixiv., Ixvi., Ixvii., Ixix., Izx.* 

a variety to Cinque Cento figures, 
in the plates of Lettu's Description de 
VEglite MetropoUlaine du Diochte 
d'Auch; also in Langlois, JEssai Hit" 
torique et Descriptif aur la Feinture 
aw Verre, plates 3, 4» 5, 6 and 7. In 
Lasteyrie, Sitt, de la Feinture sur 

Ixxi., Ixxiii., Ixxvi., Ixxzii., &c. Also in 
Wenle's "Divers Works of Early Masters 
in Christian Decoration," plates of the 
windows of St. Jacques Church, LiC'ge, 
and In Baldry's engraving of the east 
window of King's Chapel, Cambridge. 


The features are represented more by well-defined 
lights and shadows than by actual outlines, though these 
were much used for the sake of giving distinctness and 
force of expression. The faces and other naked parts 
are executed as before mentioned, either on light pink 
pot-metal glass, or, more commonly, on white glass 
tinted with a red enamel: this colour is often used to 
heighten the colour of the lips, and sometimes that of 
the cheeks, particularly in portraits*. 

The hair and beards of ideal personages, saints, or 
angels, are most commonly stained yellow, but in por- 
traits are generally coloured a rich brown, independently 
of the shading. Distant figures in a picture are often 
entirely composed, faces and all, of light blue glass, 
shaded with warm brown, or the red enamel before 
mentioned : their hair and parts of their dress being in 
general stained yellow. 

The costumes of this period are, in general', exceed- 
ingly rich and splendid from their colouring, and from 
the profusion of diapers, borders, and other ornaments 
which are lavished upon them. The garments are mostly 
lined with a difierent colour, and are disposed so as to 
shew it oflF as much as possible. 

The ecclesiastical dress diff'ers from that of the close 
of the former style only in its ornaments, which are of 
Cinque Cento character. 

In portraits, the female head-dress is in shape like 
that in the pictures of Anne Boleyn, and of the other 
queens of Henry VIII., being richly ornamented with 
gold and pearls, and confining the hair beneath it. In 
the pictures of female saints, sybils, and ideal person- 

' The head in plate 70 belongs to the period between 1620 and 1530. That 
in plate 71 is perhaps a little later. 



ages, the hair, even when this head-dress is adopted, 
is in general allowed to descend in long curls upon the 
shoulders. The most peculiar dress of this period, and 
which is appropriated both to saints, holy and ideal per- 
sonages, and private individuals, consists of a garment 
fitting tight to the body, and having a short skirt reach- 
ing rather below the knees split up at the sides, some- 
times as high as the hips, and fringed like a tunic. 
The whole dress, and especially its body and sleeves, is 
usually richly ornamented, and embroidered. Beneath 
it is a long garment descending to the feet. 

To this costume a cloak is often added, upon which 
the armorial bearings of the wearer are sometimes re- 

Another very commoa dres, consUt, of . tight g«ment 
like that before mentioned, but with long skirts reaching 
down to the ground, to which a cloak is sometimes added. 

The military dress in portraits consists of plate-ar- 
mour highly gilt and embossed, like that actually worn 
at this period, with arms depicted on the tabard : a 
more fanciful costume, consisting of a mixture of the 
dress of a Eoman soldier and of a sixteenth century 
pikeman, being often appropriated to ideal personages. 

The civil costume consists usually of a long robe and 
cloak, but the utmost variety prevails in those of ideal 
characters, saints, prophets, and angels. In the repre- 
sentations of the latter the neck is usually exposed, the 
amice, of such universal occurrence in medieval paint- 
ings, being wholly omitted. Indeed in the drapery in 
which saints and angels are apparelled, there is often 
a close approach to the classical^. 

7 See the engravings above referred to in note (a). See also plate 66. 


4. Ornaments. 

The Cinque Cento ornaments are identical with those 
employed by Eaphael and other great Italian masters of 
the sixteenth century in the decoration of their works. 
They are borrowed from the Eoman arabesques, which 
they almost surpass in richness and varied fancy, and 
like them impart a peculiar liveliness and freedom of 
effect to whatever subject they are applied. 

A complete knowledge of their forms can only be 
obtained by the eye; it is impossible fully to describe 

They consist in general of foliages and flowers en- 
twined together, and intermixed with little genii, cupids, 
or angels, which sometimes sprout from the centre of 
a flower ; of vases richly fluted or embossed, candelabra, 
fruit, wreaths, festoons, cords, tassels, and the like. The 
foliage is principally derived from the classical Eoman 
acanthus, and is frequently used in detached scroll-like 
portions, terminating in the heads of birds, beasts, or 

A highly characteristic ornament and of very frequent 
occurrence in Cinque Cento work, consists of a row of 
small rectangular indents, placed at rather more than 
their own width apart. It is employed to decorate any 
narrow flat surface. 

The greater portion of the Cinque Cento ornamental 
work is executed on white glass, profusely enriched 
with the yellow stain. . Many of the smaller ornaments 

« See pules 69 and 72. See also the engravings refeir^ to in note (u). 


are, however, very frequently executed in white, on 
ruby glass, by the removal by abrasion of so much 
of its coloured surface as is required for the orna- 

Medallions with heads or figures on them, executed 
in the last-mentioned manner, and surrounded with 
coloured wreaths, are also common, as are also coloured 
festoons and garlands, bound together with coloured 

A considerable admixture of Gothic details may often 
be found in the ornaments of the earlier Cinque Cento 

5. Borders. 

Borders are hardly ever used in this style, except in 
mere pattern windows. They are generally composed 
of foliage and other ornaments executed on white glass, 
and enriched by staining. The ornamental pattern of 
the border is usually enclosed within a plain narrow 
white or yellow edging on either side, the space between 
it and the edging being very commonly filled up with 
black paint, or shaded dark to represent a hollow, or 
sometimes left white. The border is usually separated 
from the stonework by a narrow strip of white glass. 
Its width in lower lights is frequently much less than 
one-sixth of the entire opening. In tracery lights the 
borders are sometimes formed merely of a narrow strip 
of white glass. Both in lower and tracery lights, the 
border often extends round the whole opening *. 

• See plates 69 and 75. 


6. Patterns. 

Pattern windows early in the style usually have their 
lower lights, and larger tracery lights, filled with orna- 
mented quarries**, and surrounded in general with an 
ornamented border of white and yellow glass ; the 
smaller tracery lights being filled with little devices, 
such as sacred monograms, suns, moons, &c., in white 
and yellow glass, surrounded with Cinque Cento orna- 
ments, likewise executed in white and yellow. Later 
in the style, however, plain quarries superseded the 
ornamented, the painted borders being still retained. 
Frequently, however, even these were omitted, and the 
whole window was filled with plain white glass, cut 
into squares, or various geometrical patterns, defined 
solely by the leads. In Germany, &c., round glass was 
almost always employed instead of quarries or orna- 
mental glazing "". 

There are many instances of windows in this style 
whose lower lights are partly occupied with pictures or 
heraldry, and partly with patterns; or whose tracery 
lights are filled with coloured patterns, heraldry, or 
other subjects, and lower lights with white ornamental 
glazing only. 

One of the most curious pattern windows that I have 
met with, is in^the choir of St. Lawrence's Church, 
Nuremberg. The window consists of six lights. An 
ornamented pillar coloured with yellow and other tints, 
and on a red ground, occupies each of the two outermost 
lights, and a space in the upper part of the window 

*» See plate 73. « See plate 76. 


about equal to the width of one of the outer lights, is 
covered with heraldry and other ornaments. A large 
coloured festoon suspended from the pillars stretches 
across the central lights, which are filled with round 

7. Pictures. 

It was not until almost the end of the first thirty years 
of the sixteenth century that the great powers of the art 
of glass-painting began to be developed, or that glass- 
paintings attained a picturesque beauty sufficient to en- 
title them to rank above mere ornamental decorations. 
These results were produced not by the introduction of 
any novelties into the art of glass-painting as practised 
in the fifteenth century, but by a more skilful employ- 
ment on the part of the Cinque Cento artists of the 
means equally possessed by their predecessors. 

The pictures vary much in size, being sometimes 
confined within the limits of a single lower light, and 
sometimes extended over the whole, or a great part of 
a window, as was usually the case in all large works. 
Each picture is most commonly surrounded with a mass 
of ornamental work, which being executed chiefly in 
white and yellow stained glass, serves as a frame to it, 
and by its breadth completely insulates it from sur- 
rounding objects. The effect of the slfeded soffit of the 
frame in throwing back the picture has been already 
noticed. In many cases, however, the pictures are 
separated from each other only by a muUion or saddle- 
bar. The pictures are in general simple in their com- 
position, and seldom contain more figures than is abso- 


lutely necessary. The groups are usually well formed, 
and so arranged as to avoid as much as possible the 
necessity of cutting the figures and draperies by the 
muUions, when the design is on an extended scale, 
without at the same time betraying by any awkward- 
ness of position the artist's anxiety to achieve this object. 
Colours as positive as those used at any former period, 
are freely admitted into Cinque Cento glass-paintings; 
but instead of the picture being almost entirely executed 
with them, as was often the case even in the Perpen- 
dicular style, the strong colours are generally qualified 
and supported by the introduction of a great many other 
tints of less power and vivacity, so as to produce a gene- 
ral harmony of colouring throughout the entire work. 
Much attention was paid by the Cinque Cento glass- 
painters to atmospheric effect, and though perhaps they 
did not succeed in representing it as completely as 
they might have done, they developed the power of 
the mosaic system of glass-painting in this respect, in 
a very remarkable degree. In the larger pictures, the 
more striking and positive colours are in general most 
employed in the draperies of the figures in the imme- 
diate foreground; while the landscape in the back- 
ground, and even the more distant figures, are executed 
in light blue or grey glass, qualified and enriched with 
the brown shading and the yellow stain. The sky is 
almost always composed of the same blue sort of glass, 
so light in tint as almost at first sight to be mistaken 
for the natural colour of the firmament, seen through 
the window. This glass is generally left quite clear 
for some distance above the horizon, and is gradually 
deepened by shading, or the introduction of blue glass 


of a darker hue, towards the top of the picture. Owing 
to these circumstances, and to the somewhat restricted 
use of white glass in the pictures themselves, — ^that 
colour being chiefly confined to the ornamental archi- 
tectural work in which they are set, — Cinque Cento 
glass-paintings possess but little of the flat mosaic 
appearance which is the grand characteristic of the me- 
dieval glass-paintings \ 

I have already alluded to the practice of indicating 
the supernatural darkness of the Crucifixion by a slightly 
clouded sky, which was no doubt suggested by a desire* 
to preserve a memorial of so remarkable an incident in 
such a manner as should least aflect the transparency 
of the picture. The clouds are sometimes represented 
merely by shading with the enamel brown on blue glass 
of an uniform tint, sometimes by using pieces of a darker 
kind of blue glass, cut to the shape of clouds, and shaded 
and leaded in amongst the light blue of the firmament. 
In some works great liberties were taken with the colour 
of the clouds ; purple and pink glass being freely em- 
ployed to represent them. In paintings of the Day of 
Judgment, the glory of heaven, and the flames of hell, 
are generally indicated by yellow glass. 

Great prominence was given during this period to the 
groups representing the donors of windows, or benefac- 
tors to the church. The figures, which are often nearly 
as large as life, are evidently portraits ; they are usually 
placed in a kneeling posture before an altar, and behind 
each figure stands its patron saint. The latter is some- 
times placed under a canopy of state, the whole subject 
being included within a room or apartment formed by 

' See the plates referred to in note u. 



a larger canopy, through the further arches of which 
a distant landscape is not unfrequently shewn ®. 

In some cases the ancient Gothic arrangement is still 
adhered to, the kneeling figure of the donor being repre- 
sented in a small compartment immediately below the 
foot of a large canopy which covers his patron saint. 

Pictures painted on small circles of glass similar to 
those which have been already described under the 
Perpendicular style, but better executed, are very com- 
mon throughout this period. The designs of some of 
them are extremely good, and they are in general 
exquisitely finished. The landscape, &o. is executed 
only in brown and yellow, on white glass, but the 
naked parts of the figures are usually coloured with 
light red '. 

8. Canopies. 

The canopies of this period are generally confined to 
the lower lights of a window, and vary in size, from the 
canopy which occupies only one light, to that which 
extends across an entire window. The general charac- 
ter of their architecture is Italian, with an occasional 
admixture of Gothic details; and they are usually 
drawn in very correct perspective. 

The niche commonly appropriated to a single figure 
consists of a semicircular recess, finished at top in 
a semi-dome, which is usually wrought like a shell, and 
darkly shaded. The face of the canopy is flat, the 

* See Lasteyrie, Histoire de la Fein- 
ture stir Verre, plates Ixxz. and Ixxi.; 
see also the engravings of the Liege 

windows in Weale's "Divers Works of 
Early Masters on Christian Decoration." 
' See plate 68. 


opening being formed by a semicircular arch springing 
from a flat pilaster, or ornamented shaft, on each side. 
A festoon of flowers, in general richly coloured, is often 
hung across the archway, and by the vividness of its 
lights serves to relieve the mass of shadow in the upper 
part of the niche, and to throw the recess back. The 
architecture above the arch sometimes terminates ab- 
ruptly in a horizontal frieze, iipon which foliaged orna- 
ments, urns, genii, heraldry, &c., are placed. Some- 
times a pediment is raised above the arch, &c. Other 
canopies are more Gothic in character, consisting of 
a recess with a projecting hood of tabernacle- work 
above, or terminating in an ogee arch with a finial 
and crockets. Others have, strictly speaking, hardly 
any architectural features, the hollow allotted to the 
figure being closed in at top merely with arabesque 
scrollworks. In all these cases the head of the canopy 
is generally backed with a coloured ground, its archi- 
tecture being principally executed on white and yel- 
low stained glass. The side pillars are often made of 
sprinkled ruby, and furnished with light blue, purple, 
or green capitals and bases. The interior of the niche 
is sometimes entirely lined with coloured tapestry. In 
general, however, the tapestry does not ascend above 
the head or shoulders of the figure, where it is sus- 
pended from a rod. In this case the back of the niche 
above the tapestry is sometimes pierced with windows, 
which occasionally exhibit Gothic tracery. The hoUow- 
ness of the recess is very commonly represented by 
a shadow. When the light is narrow, and the pilasters 
of the canopy broad, the figure often appears to be too 
wide for the niche, and to stand in front of it, rather 


than within it, the pilasters being partly concealed by 
the drapery of the figure. The canopy sometimes has 
a projecting pedestal ; in general, however, it rests upon 
a flat horizontal frieze *. 

The larger canopies, which extend over several lights 
when enclosing a single subject, as a group of benefac- 
tors, &c., often convey the idea of a room, the exterior 
of one of whose sides is represented by the front of the 
canopy. This in general consists of an architectural 
elevation resembling a triumphal arch, highly enriched 
with bas-reliefs, &c., and terminating in a kind of 
pediment. The interior of the room is seen through 
the arch, and in it is represented the principal subject. 
A landscape background is often shewn through the 
arches or windows of the further sides of the room, 
the architecture of which is executed in some retiring 
colour, as purple for instance ^. 

Canopies, in the true sense of the word, are not how- 
ever of common occurrence in Cinque Cento work, when 
the design is of an extended nature. An architectural 
screen, or elevation stretching over the whole of the 
lower lights of the window, and furnished with spacious 
archways for the reception of pictures, is constantly 
employed, when it is intended to represent in the same 
window either several distinct subjects, a row of insu- 
lated figures, or one principal design, with its accom- 
panying incidents. 

This screen, though often of considerable depth, is 
flat-faced, and usually consists of an assemblage of great 

' See examples, Lettn's Description 
de VJEglite MHropolitaine du Dioche 
d*A«ch, No8. 7, 8, 21, 22. 

^ See a good instauce of this in one of 

the engrayings of the Liege windows 
in Weale's "Divers Works of Early 
Masters in Christian Decoration." 


and small arches placed in tiers and supporting one 
another. It terminates in general in a pediment, the 
top of which is sometimes decorated with genii, cupids, 
&c., holding flags and banners, and is commonly backed 
with a stiff coloured ground. Sometimes however the 
head of the screen is backed with plain white glass, 
leaded together in rectangular pieces; the horizontal 
leads being in general concealed by the saddle-bars. 
The architecture of the screen is almost wholly com- 
posed of white and yellow stained glass, and appears 
like sculptured white marble, decorated with gilding, 
when contrasted with the gay colours of the pictures 
which occupy the spaces enclosed by its arches, &c. 
The soffit and sides of each archway are kept in deep 
shadow, and being brought into immediate contrast with 
the bright sky of the picture, materially help to produce 
that effect of distance and atmosphere which is so re- 
markable a feature of a Cinque Cento glass-painting. 
The soffit of the arch is that part which is most deeply 
shaded : but the mass of shadow is in general relieved 
by lights reflected against the ornaments sculptured 
on its face ; and sometimes by a festoon of flowers and 
fruit, usually richly coloured, which is hung across the 
front of the arch. A similar festoon is sometimes 
suspended across the other side of the arch, and is 
represented in deep shadow against the bright sky of 
the picture. 

Thus in a Cinque Cento painted window, the deep 
shadows of the architectural screen increase the effect 
of the pictures, whilst the front of the screen forms 
a mass of ornamented white glass which serves to sepa- 
rate the pictures from each other. At the same time 



the connected character of the architectural composition 
gives unity and grandeur to the whole design *. 

9. Tracery Lights. 

In many early Cinque Cento examples single figures 
executed either in white or coloured glass are placed in 
tracery lights, being surrounded with an ornamented 
quarry ground. Borders of any kind are seldom used 
in these lights. The most common subjects for tracery 
lights throughout the style are saints, angels, cherubs, 
&c., either richly coloured, or executed only in white and 
yellow stained glass ; riband-like scrolls bearing inscrip- 
tions, heraldry, emblems, initials, &c., executed in white, 
yellow stained, or coloured glass, and placed on plain 
white or coloured grounds ^. 

When the tracery lights are spacious, they occasionally 
contain coloured figures on plain white grounds sur- 
rounded with a broad border of coloured clouds. A 
general design is sometimes introduced, extending over 
the whole tracery head of the window. Arms, when 
the lights are small and narrow, are frequently split into 
two portions, and represented in two adjacent lights. 
Sometimes the shield is in one light, and the supporters 
in two other lights. 

In pattern windows the tracery lights are often filled 
with foliaged ornaments, usually executed in white and 
yellow stained glass, cyphers, &c. : sometimes with or- 

' See plate 66. See also Lettu's De- 
scription de VEglise Mctropolitaine du 
Dioche d'Auch, Nos. 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
14, 16, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21. See 
also Lasteyrie, Mittoire de la Peinture 

sur Verre, plates Ivii., Ixix., and lxx?ii. 

^ A variety of tracery lights may be 
seen in most of the plates already re- 
ferred to, especially in those belonging 
to M. Lettu's work. 


namentcd, or even plain quarries, geometrical glazing, 
or round glass. In these cases the light, when wide, 
is generally enriched with an ornamented border of 
white and yellow stained glass. 

10. Heraldry. 

Heraldic devices constituted a very extensive and 
prominent branch of the decoration of this period. The 
shield, with its various accompaniments of helmet, crest, 
mantUng, collars of orders, motto, &c., frequently forms 
an important part of the general design of a window, 
being supported by an angel and placed beneath a canopy. 
It is however more commonly represented with its accom- 
paniments, on a ground of plain white glass, sometimes 
leaded together in a geometrical pattern, and sometimes 
in horizontal lines parallel to the saddle-bars, in which 
case the whole design, on account of the clearness of the 
white glass, and the apparent absence of lead-work, is 
apt to appear as if suspended in the air. An heraldic 
design of this nature is not always confined to the limits 
of a single lower light, but occasionally extends itself 
beyond, the shield and helmet being in one light, and 
its mantling, &c., carried into the two adjacent lights. 
The shields exhibit almost every variety of shape ; they 
are often charged with numerous and complicated quar- 
terings: lozenges are frequently used for the bearings 
of females. 

The mantlings and scrolls are very spirited and grace- 
ful, and the helmets, crowns, coronets, &c., are very 
delicately and vigorously designed. The gorgeous na- 
ture of Cinque Cento decoration is strongly exempli- 


fied in the latter objects, which are highly enriched 
with pearls and jewellery, and the single and double 
application of the yellow stain ^ Very beautifal fo- 
liaged wreaths, sometimes bound about with a riband, 
and executed either in colours, or in white and yellow 
only, are frequently employed to surround the simple 
escutcheon ^. 

Initial letters of considerable size, formed of yellow or 
other coloured glass, and sometimes tied together with 
a cord, are often represented both in tracery, and lower 
lights, on a plain white or coloured ground. Heraldic 
banners are sometimes displayed from the upper parts of 
canopies or screens, and white scrolls bearing mottoes are 
frequently introduced into tracery lights. The figures 
of benefactors often bear the insignia of their family on 
their mantles and surcoats, &c. Crests, badges, mottoes, 
rebusses, initials, &c., executed with the enamel brown 
and y.ellow stain, are amongst the commonest subjects 
which occur on the ornamented quarries of this period ''. 

11. Letters. 

The Roman characters do not appear to have gene- 
rally superseded the Black letters before the year 1530, 
until which time both kinds were used indiscriminately. 
Both Roman and Arabic numerals were employed 
throughout this style. 

When Black letters are used the capitals are gene- 
rally Lombardic, and illuminated with yellow precisely 
as in the former style. 

^ Some excellent examples of heraldry 
are ^ven in the eng^vings of the win- 
dows of St. Jacqnes Church, Li%e, in 

Weale's '< Divers Works of Early Mas- 
ters in Christian Decoration." 
» See pi. 67. " See pi. 67, No. 2. 




Many of the initial letters of this period are very- 
beautiful in form, and highly decorated with leaves and 
other ornaments. 

12. Mechanical CoNsxRucnoN. 

The utmost attention throughout this period was paid 
to the glazing of the paintings so as best to conceal the 
leads : without thereby incurring any unnecessary dif- 
ficulties in point of execution, or diminishing the sta- 
bility of the work. 

The horizontal divisions of the glass are almost in- 
variably parallel to the saddle-bars, which conceal many 
of the leads : and the vertical divisions generally follow 
the course of the outlines of the design. In some 
instances, however, especially in skies, and canopy -work 
of late date, the glass is leaded in lines perpendicular 
to the saddle-bars. The saddle-bars themselves, in late 
work, are sometimes bent a little out of their course so 
as to avoid passing across the head of a figure. 

The original leads of this period are not wider in the 
leaf than those previously used: and from the pains 
taken to conceal them, and the great use of plain clear 
white glass for grounds, armorial bearings, as has before 
been remarked, as well as many other objects, often 
appear as if suspended in the air. 

The ornamental glazing is sometimes very complicated, 
but always designed with a view to stability, and facility 
of execution. Some of the patterns are very beautiful \ 

<> A variety of geometrical patterns 
are given in Le Vicil's Z*Art de l^ 
Peiwture iur Verre, plates z., jL, zii., and 


It 18 always easy to distinguish 
Cinque Cento geometrical glazing from 
Decorated by the colour of the glass. 



The Intermediate Style. 

The period I have assigned to the Intermediate style 
extends from the middle of the sixteenth century to the 
present time. From its long duration it of necessity 
includes many varieties. These may be classed under 
two heads; the first comprising the glass-paintings 
executed between 1550 and the revival of the Mosaic 
system, which took place some twenty or thirty years 
ago P ; the second, those which have been executed since 
that period. 

Of these two classes, the first in a series of original 
works, exhibits the gradual decline of the art of glass- 
painting from the excellence it had attained in the first 
half of the sixteenth century; the second, though it 
cannot claim much originality of design, most of the 
English examples at least, being but servile copies of 
ancient glass, is yet interesting as shewing the progress 
abeady made towards the resuscitation of the true art. 
I have endeavoured in a subsequent part of this book 
to point out what are the true principles of glass-paint- 
ing, and the reasons why I prefer the Mosaic system to 
either the Enamel, or Mosaic enamel^. I therefore do 
not now intend to enter upon any discussion on the 
subject. Assuming however the correctness of my views 
on this point, it follows that glass-painting deteriorated 
not in consequence of any want of encouragement, for 

1^ Twenty or thirty years before 1847» ^ See chap. ii. § 2, On the trae prin- 

the date of the first edition of this work. 

ciples of glass-painting, &G. 




the causes of its decline were in full operation at the 
period of its greatest prosperity, but from confounding 
its principles with those of other systems of painting, 
from a disregard of its peculiar conditions and distinctive 
character. The Eeformation and its troubles did not 
corrupt the art of glass-painting, though combined with 
the prevailing fashion of the times, it may have dis- 
couraged its practice. The Mosaic system of glass- 
painting would equally have been forgotten had the 
Eeformation never taken place, and the religious habits 
and feelings of the people remained unchanged. 

The characteristic which in general serves to distin- 
guish glass-paintings of the Intermediate style from 
those of the Cinque Cento, is the employment of enamel 
colours. The nature of these colours, which appear to 
have been discovered about the middle of the sixteenth 
century^, has been already explained, as well as the 

' There is no sufficient ground for 
attributing the invention of enamels to 
John Van Eyck, as has been done by Le 
Vieil, L*Art de la Peinture mir Verre 
et rf«? la VUrerie, pp. 30 and 36. He 
also states that the art of painting on 
glass with enamels was perfected in 
France by Pinaigricr, and that he was 
even regarded in France as their in- 
ventor, ib., pp. 63, 43. This, if correct, 
would place the introduction of enamels 
in the first half of the sixteenth century. 
I should add, however, that I have found 
Le Vieil not altogether trustworthy in 
his account of the different methods of 

From some of Mrs. Merrifield's re- 
marks on the work of GuUelmo di 
Marcilkt (William of Marseilles) it 
might be inferred that Enamel paint- 
ing on glass was known as early as 
1519, if not 1500; but it is evident 
from Vasari's account of the method 

practised by this artist that he painted 
glass according to the Mosaic system 

In Mrs. Merrifield's "preliminary 
observations" on the Bologna MS., 
which is of the fifteenth century, she 
says, " It will also be observed that the 
art of painting on glass with enamels of 
various colours is distinctly described in 
No. 270, and smalti or enamels are also 
mentioned in No. 1. It is usually con- 
sidered that these were not in use until 
after the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury: the chapter in the text will, I 
think, disprove this fact. The same 
' smalti' are also mentioned in the MS. 
of the Marciana (No. 325, which is of the 
sixteenth ceotuxy,) with the additional 
information that they were brought 
from Germany. It is probable that 
they were in general use for painting 
on glass in Italy during the fifboenth 
and sixteenth centuries. Gaye has 



facilities they aflPord for producing a great variety and 
gradation of tints. 

Enamels were at first very sparingly used, being 
employed merely to heighten the tint of the coloured 
glasses, or for the purpose of introducing colour into 
places where it would have been difficult if not impos- 
sible to lead in a piece of coloured glass: by degrees, 
however, their easy application, and the increasing dis- 
position to assimilate glass-paintings to oil-paintings, 
led to their substitution in a great degree for coloured 

The presence of enamel colours in a glass-painting is, 
in general, easy of detection. The partial colouring of 
a piece of white glass, especially when the coloured part 
bears but a small proportion to the white part, will 
almost always excite a suspicion that the effect has been 
produced by enamelling". On a closer inspection, the 

ihewn, {Carteggio inedito cTArtitH, vol. 
2, p. 4i6,) that the windows in the 
Duomo d'Arezzo, painted in 1477 by 
Frati Cristoforo and Hemardo, were to be 
executed with coloars, ("cotti al fnoco 
e non mesfli a olio"). The colours ' cotti 
al fuoco' were probably these smalti 
or enamel colours," (vol. ii. p. 333). A 
little further, however, (p. 338,) she says 
" It is singular that although the author 
treats of making artificial gems of glass, 
of mosaics, and of glass pottery, he should 
have omitted to treat of painting on 
glass for windows (unless windows may 
be included under the head of any other 
works in glass in No. 270), which was 
certainly known long previous to the 
date of this MS." 

On turning to the Marciana MS., (No. 
325, vol. ii. pp. 614—616,) it will be seen 
that when the writer speaks of smalti 
applied to glass, he is describing the 
mode of painting on glass with non- 

vitrified colours, varnish colours, — the 
" messi a olio" above mentioned ; for he 
also describes very clearly the enamel 
brown for painting on glass, and the 
yellow stain, both of which are to be 
heated in a furnace, — the "cotti al 
fuooo" above mentioned. The extract 
from Gaye proves nothing, for Vasari, in 
describing Gulielmo di Marcillat's me* 
thod, speaks (loosely enough it roust be 
admitted) of the colours being fused and 
fixed into the glass. Introduction, lxxxvi« 

Levy, Hittoire de la Peinture »ur 
Verre, mentions as the earliest enamel 
glass which he knows of, a coat of arms 
in the cloisters of a church of Maestricht 
with the date 1548, adding that enamels 
were first used for small pieces, and not 
for large painting^ till the following 

■ A specimen of enamel painting is 
given in plate 74 from a Swiss example 
of the early part of the seventeenth cen* 



diflterence between the effect of an enamel colour, and 
that produced by a piece of coloured glass, will usually 
be at once perceived in the comparative dulness of the 
former. "With regard to the general appearance of the 
work, it will be found that the employment of enamels 
to heighten the tint of the coloured glass, increases the 
richness of the glass-painting, whilst poverty of colour 
is the result of their substitution for pot-metals, &c. In 
either case they tend to dimmish the transparency and 
consequent brilliancy of the picture. 

Windows painted even as late as the early part of the 
eighteenth century usually bear a considerable resem- 
blance to those of the Cinque Cento style in their general 
arrangements. The most common design consists of one 
large picture which occupies the lower lights of the 
window, the picture being in general surrounded with 
architectural work, as a triumphal arch or screen ; or of 
one large picture with portraits of its donors beneath, 
or of two or more pictures, each enclosed within a frame- 
work of architecture, and which together cover the whole 
of the lower lights. The tracery lights are usually filled 
up with a continuation of the principal design, or with 

tary. In addition to the enamel brown, 
with which the shading and oatlines are 
executed, four different enamel colours, 
viz. blue, green, red, and purple are here 
represented; the green, in this particu- 
lar instance, being of itself an enamel 
colour, and not produced, as is often the 
case, by staining the glass yellow on one 
side, and enamelling it with blue on the 
other. The yellow represented In the 
plate is of course stained yellow. 

Other specimens of enamel painting 
are given in Fowler's "Mosaic Pave- 
ments and Painted Glass," vis. Robert 
King, last Abbot of Osney, and first 

Bishop of Oxford, from a painting at 
Christ Church, Oxford, (supposed by 
Dallaway to be by Bernard Van Linge ; 
see Dallaway's "Observations on Eng- 
lish Architecture," p. 279, note,) and 
the portraits of the Saxon earls, from 
Aston Hall, near Birmingham, a co- 
loured engraving of which is also g^ven 
in "Old England," vol. i., where they 
are said to be at Brereton Hall, Cheshire. 
See also Lasteyrie, Hittoire de la 
Peinture iur Verre, plate Ixxv., where 
enamels are introduced in a garland 
of flowers, at the bottom of a picture 
dated 1551. 


smaller subjects accessory to it. The architectural de- 
tails are rather Palladian than Cinque Cento in character. 
In the course of the seventeenth century the architecture 
was more embodied with the picture than was the case 
in the Cinque Cento style. The same contrasts of light 
and shade were not kept up, and the designs became less 
striking in their eflfect*. After the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, architectural frameworks to sur- 
round the designs were generally abandoned. 

Figure and canopy windows are not uncommon, their 
architecture is either Palladian, or debased Gothic. The 
interior of the niche frequently is so darkly shaded as to 
appear black, and parts of the canopy-work are often 
enriched with enamel colours. In their general arrange- 
ment, however, the figure and canopy windows of this 
style, previously to the revival of the Mosaic system, 
closely resemble the Cinque Cento examples "*. 

The Wheel windows are sometimes like the Cinque 
Cento; more commonly, however, the radiating lights 
are each filled with an entire figure, having its feet 
turned towards the centre of the circle. 

Pattern windows are composed simply of white glass 
cut into quarries, or various other geometrical patterns, 
and leaded together. Ornamented borders to the lights 
are seldom to be met with after the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, and never were very common. In 
Germany, &c., round glass was in general used instead 
of plain white glass. Coats of arms, and even small 

* See Lasteyrie, llisioire de la Pein- " Diverg Works of Early Masters in 
ture sur Verre, plates Ivii., Ixx. See Christian Decoration." 
also the representations of the windows | ^ See Lasteyrie, Histoire de la JPein* 
of Qonda Church, Holland, in Weale's ture tur Verre, plate Ixxt. 



scriptural or historical subjects, were sometimes inserted 
in pattern windows. 

The revival of the Mosaic system in this country, has 
been attended with the revival of most medieval arrange- 
ments, and has produced but few new, or original de- 
signs. In Germany, however, greater freedom has been 
displayed, the artists availing themselves of the ancient 
designs as guides, rather than as models to be servilely 

Some of the earliest examples of the Intermediate 
style are to be found in the church of Gouda, in Hol- 
land '. With the exception of a few Cinque Cento 
specimens in the clearstory of the choir, all the win- 
dows of this edifice were erected between 1555 and 
1603. Two of them were indeed repaired as late as 
1651 and 1655. The names of the artists who exe- 
cuted these works have been preserved, a circumstance 
which gives additional value to the Gouda windows, 
since it enables many little differences in style to be 
referred not to progressive changes in the art, but to 
the practice of particular masters. The influence of 
particular schools may always be more plainly perceived 
in the Intermediate style, when artists acted more in- 
dependently of each other, than in the Middle Ages, 

* An aooount of the sobjecto repre- 
sented in these windows, and the names 
of the artists employed, are gfiven in 
a little book entitled "Explanation of 
the famous and renowned Glass-work or 
painted windows, in the fine and emi- 
nent Chnrch at Qouda. For the nse 
and commodity of both Inhabitans and 
Foreigners that oome to see this artificial 
Work." Qonda, printed by J. Van Ben- 
turn, no date: my copy was purchased 

in the autumn of 1843. 

Le Vieil's description of these win- 
dows, {L'Art de la Feinture tur Verre, 
p. 44 et seq.) is taken from a former 
edition of the abore-named work. The 
English edition is reprinted, without 
acknowledgment, in the first vol. of 
Weale's "Quarterly Papers," consti- 
tuting "the account" there given "of 
the painted-glass windows of the Church 
at Qouda, in Holland." 


during which a certain general uniformity of style was 
preserved by a widely extended observance of conven- 
tional rules. 

The Cinque Cento arrangements are in general pre- 
served in the Gouda windows ^ In the majority of 
instances the window contains two designs, the lowest 
representing the donors of the window, or their heraldic 
insignia, and the upper some religious, historical, or 
allegorical subject. Each picture extends across the 
window irrespective of muUions, and is usually enclosed 
within a framework of architecture. The principal sub- 
ject sometimes has only a landscape background. 

The execution of the painting, however, diflfers much 
from that of a Cinque Cento example. The chief mass 
of colouring is, as in that style, confined to the picture, 
whenever this is surrounded with architectural orna- 
ments ; but the colours are produced as much by means 
of enamels as of coloured glass. In some windows, espe- 
cially those erected in the latter part of the sixteenth 
century, enamel colours are almost wholly substituted 
for coloured glass. The character of the shading also 
differs much from that of the Cinque Cento style. The 
enamel ground used for this purpose is not worked up 
into dots by bold stippling, but is watery and dabbled, 
without having any decided grain, while the darker 
shadows are, with a few exceptions, produced by un- 
stippled smears of paint. The white glass in those 
parts of the painting which are not in shadow is seldom 
left clear, but is covered with a white enamel. Owing 
to these circumstances, the Gouda windows are less 

y See the engravings of the Qouda windows in Weale's "Divers Works of 
Early Masters in Christian Decoration." 


effective than many Cinque Cento or late Gothic exam- 
ples, inferior to them in grandeur of design. Taken 
collectively they are poor in colour, and dull in ap- 
pearance, and it is worthy of remark that this poverty 
and dulness are not more perceptible in those windows 
erected to commemorate the triumph of the Protestant 
Faith, and the Independence of the United Provinces, 
than in those inscribed as the gift of the most Catholic 
princes of Christendom, Indeed the very earliest exam- 
ples exhibit precisely the same defects as the latest. 

In England during the latter half of the sixteenth 
century, the Reformation appears to have stopped all 
great works. In the reign of Elizabeth little else was 
attempted than coats of arms, which were usually en- 
closed within panels of that species of ornament known 
by the name of Elizabethan, and in the execution of 
which pot-metal and enamel colours were nearly equally 
employed, or small subjects taken from Scripture, such 
as the "Wisdom of Solomon, &c., executed in white and 
yellow stained glass. 

Glass-painting, however, considerably revived in the 
reigns of James I.' and Charles I. One of the best 
specimens of the former reign, is in the chapel of Arch- 
bishop Abbot's hospital at Guildford, Surrey. It is de- 
fective in transparency, but is much richer in effect than 
the Putch and Flemish glass-paintings of the same 
period. In its general appearance it resembles the 
works of the Van Linges, who were extensively em- 
ployed in England in this and the next reign. Of 
these artists many undoubted productions exist at Ox- 

" Bacon, in describing the model of a palace, places, in the stately galleries on 
the banquet side, " fine coloured windows of several works." — Essay on Building. 



ford and elsewhere *. Their paintings at Oxford gene- 
rally consist of large pictures extending over the whole 
or greater part of a window, irrespective of the mullions, 
and usually furnished with landscape backgrounds, ex- 
hibiting a great preponderance of green and blue. They 
are deficient in brilliancy, but are in general exceedingly 
rich in colour, the enamels in most cases being used 
rather to heighten the tint of the coloured glass, than 
by way of substitution for it. This last remark equally 
applies to the windows of Lincoln's Inn Chapel ^, which, 
if not actually painted by the Yan Linges, are at least 
of their school. In point of colour they are as rich as 
the richest Decorated glass that I have ever seen. The 
majority of the windows of this chapel are figure and 
canopy windows, having the arms of their donors placed 
beneath the feet of the figures. The east window is 
now filled with glass of a much later date, and there 
is no proof that it ever was adorned with glass of the 
same date as that in the side windows. The west win- 
dow evidently was an heraldic window, and much of the 
original glass remains in its upper part. Amongst the 

* A list of artists who practised glass- 
painting in England in the seventeenth 
and following century, and references to 
some of their most remarkable works, is 
given in Dallaway's "Observations on 
English Architecture," Lond. 1806, p. 
277 et seq. Le Vieil has collected the 
names and g^ven short notices of most of 
the French and Flemish artists from the 
fifteenth century to the middle of the 
eighteenth. L'Art de la Peiniure aur 
Verve et de la Vitrerie, p. 33 et seq. It 
appears that many of the artists of the 
sixteenth and following centuries prac- 
tised oil-punting as well as glass-paint- 

ing, and that many more forsook glass- 
painting for oil-painting. 

The most complete list is in Dr. Ges- 
sert's Oeschichte der Olasmalerei, p. 
78 et seq., which includes German, 
Flemish, French, English, Swiss, Italian 
and Spanish artists, from the eleventh 
century to the year 1800. 

^ The Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn 
possesses no authentic information re- 
specting these windows. In aU pro- 
l»bility they were erected at the cost 
of the individuals whose arms are in- 
serted in them. 

2 36 


arms still existing may be noticed those of Noy, attor- 
ney-general to Charles I., and of Henry Sherfield, Esq., 
Eecorder of Salisbury, who was so severely fined by the 
Star Chamber for breaking what he considered an idola- 
trous painted window in a church at Salisbury ®. 

After the reign of Charles I, the further progress of 
glass-painting was for a while retarded by the Kebellion, 
and the gloomy prejudices of those unhappy times, when 
men were led rather to deface and despoil churches and 
places of worship of their ornaments, than to render 
them the receptacles of works of art \ 

The taste for painted glass had so universally declined 
both at home and abroad towards the latter half of the 
seventeenth century, that it is not surprising that so 
few works of interest should have been executed in this 
country after the Restoration • Of heraldic achievements 
in glass there is indeed no lack; the glass-painters, even 
in the times of the greatest depression, seem to have 
been continually employed on such subjects. 

The earliest example of a picture glass-painting since 
the Restoration that I am aware of, is the east window 
of University College Chapel, Oxford, the subject of 
which is the Birth of Christ, painted by Giles of York 
in 1687. Time has already severely injured this work. 
The colours of the stains and pot-metal glass remain, 
but the enamel painting has almost wholly perished, 
a proof how much the art had deteriorated at that time 

« See "State Trials," vol. i. p. 399, 
fol. ed. The "images of the apostles" 
in the Lincoln's Inn Chapel windows, 
are referred to by Archbishop Laud in 
his account of his own trial. "State 
Trials," vol. i. p. 884, fol. ed. 

* There can be little doubt, I think. 

that we owe the preservation of many 
glass-paintings to their timely removal 
from the windows at the Rebellion. 
Some were respected through conven- 
tions entered into with the parliament- 
ary generals, or from scrupulous mo- 



even in its most mechanical department, the composition 
of the fluxes. 

William Price, in 1702, painted the lower lights of 
the east window of Merton College Chapel, Oxford, the 
subjects being taken from the life of Christ. This is, as 
the last-mentioned work must have been, a weak per- 
formance as regards colour, enamels being used almost 
to the exclusion of coloured glass. His brother Joshua, 
however, in the east window of St. Andrew's Church, 
Holborn, (which is dated 1718, and represents two 
subjects, the Eesurrection, and the Last Supper,) has 
really rivalled the rich colouring of the Van Linges. 
In this window coloured glass is abundantly used, 
together with enamels, in the draperies of the figures. 
The painting is deficient in brilliancy, and some of the 
shadows are nearly opaque, yet these defects may al- 
most be overlooked in the excellency of its composi- 
tion, and in its immense superiority as a glass-painting 
over all other works executed between the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth century, and the revival of the 
Mosaic system. A like richness of colouring is observ- 
able in most of the other works of Joshua Price. He, 
however, seems to have imitated not only the tints, but 
also the heavy though effective execution of the Van 
Linge school. This is, I think, particularly observable in 
such of the side windows of Magdalene College Chapel, 
Oxford, as were painted by him ®. 

Coloured glass continued to be extensively used in 
England, together vrith enamels, until the beginning of 

' Viz., the easternmost, one on each 
side. The remaining eight were painted 
in 1636. << Oxford Quide," 1832, p. 32 ; 

Ingram's "Memorials of Oxford," vol. 
il. pp. 20, 22. 



the present century, to which circumstance many of the 
works of William Price the younger, and Peckitt of 
York, owe their principal effect and value. The latter, 
it is true, in the allegorical painting in the library of 
Trinity College, Cambridge ', has in great measure dis- 
pensed with the use of coloured glass. He has, however, 
applied the enamels to the glass in little hatches, as in 
an oil-painting, by which means much of the dulness so 
observable in earlier works has been avoided. 

The practice of painting even large works entirely 
with enamels and stains, was introduced here in the 
latter half of the last century. Of this, one of the most 
remarkable examples is afforded by the west window of 
New College Chapel, Oxford *. 

The enamels are applied in little hatches, and the 
painting has in consequence a very pearly effect, but 
the inferiority of this work in point of colour to those 
in which coloured glass has been employed, must be ap- 
parent to the most casual observer. The windows of 
Arundel Castle, Sussex, are inferior instances of the 

' It was desigpied by Cypriani, and 
was put up towards the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

' This window, which consists of two 
designs, the upper being the Nativity, 
and the lower the four cardinal and 
three Christian virtues, placed in a row, 
was "painted by Jervais, from finished 
cartoons by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
begun in the year 1777." [Ingram's 
"Memorials of Oxford," vol. i.] It 
must have been put up between that 
time and 6th Oct 1785, when Horace 
Walpole thus writes to the Hon. H. T. 
Conway. "I don't wonder you was 
disappointed with Jarvis's windows at 
New College : I had foretold their mis- 
carriage:" (in a letter to the Rev. Mr. 

Cole, 12th July, 1779) "the old and the 
new are as mismatched as an orange and 
a lemon, and destroy each other, nor is 
there room enough to retire back and see 
half of the new ; and Sir Joshua's washy 
virtues make the Nativity a dark spot 
from the darkness of the shepherds, which 
happened, as I knew it would, from most 
of Jarvis's colours not being transparent." 
These remarks appear just. Tlie radical 
defect of the work, however, consists in 
the general unfitness of the design for 
a glass-painting. Had it been executed 
in coloured glass, it would have still been 
unsatisfactory, though it would have 
more nearly approached the splendour 
of Sir Joshua's original sketch. 



same system. In their washy appearance they rather 
resemble a painted canvas window-blind, than a painted 

The decline and fall of glass-painting may be as 
distinctly traced on the continent as in England. The 
cause of its corruption has been already alluded to, that 
of its gradual disuse may be ascribed rather to the 
fashion of the times, and a preference for works of art 
executed in other materials than glass, than to the 
wars consequent on the Reformation, though these to 
a certain extent must have checked its practice ^. 

Lanzi, speaking of the art in Italy, says, "The art 
afterwards declined when custom, the arbiter of arts, 

^ An illustration of the rapidity of the 
decline of glass-painting in France, and 
a striking contrast between the universal 
taste for this art in one age, and the dis- 
credit into which it had fallen in that 
which immediately followed, may be seen 
in Le Vieil's L'Art de la PeiiUure gur 
Verre etdela Vitrerie. In the sixteenth 
century, he observes, the quantity of 
works is astonishing ; not only churches 
and palaces and the mansions of the great, 
btK town halls, the saloons of the rich, 
and the apartments of private individuals, 
and even carriages were ornamented with 
glass^palntings from the designs and car- 
toons of the best masters. (lb., p. 38.) 
By the end of the century, on the other 
hand, we find Bernard de Palissy, a glass- 
painter, complaining of the difficulty 
which the too numerous glass-painters 
had of procuring subsistence, and the 
imperfect manner in which many works 
were, in consequence, executed. Palissy 
adds that at the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, the art of making and colouring 
glass began to decline, especially in Pe- 
rigord, Limousin, Xaintonge, Angou- 
mois, Gascony, Bearn, and Bigorre. The 
glass- paintings from these provinces were 

hawked about by the sellers of old clothes 
and old iron. " L'etat de Verrier," he 
continues, "est noble, mais plusieors 
sont Gentilshommes pour exercer le dit 
art, qui vondrolent dtre ronturiers et 
avoir de quoi payer les subsides des 
Princes, et vivent plus mechaniquemcnt 
que les crocheteura de Paris." (B. de 
Palissy as quoted by Le Vieil, ib., p. 62.) 
In a subsequent chapter (ib., p. 81,) Le 
Vieil, after noticing the almost total ex- 
tinction of his art at the time he was 
writing, enumerates the reasons which 
were usually alleged to account for and 
justify the continuance of its disuse. 
These were the fragility of the material, 
and the liability of glass-paintings to 
perish, — the obscurity they occasioned in 
churches, an inconvenience which had 
caused many of them to be taken down, 
— the unbecoming character of many an- 
cient glass-paintings, — and the difficulty 
of repairing those which had fallen into 
decay, on account of the art of colouring 
glass being lost. Le Vieil combats these 
reasons, most of which are sufficiently 
frivolous, but they serve to illustrate the 
light in which glass-painting was held 
at that time. 



by excluding it from palaces and churches caused it to 
be forgotten '." 

In France, even towards the end of the sixteenth 
century, the substitution of enamels for coloured glass 
does not appear to have taken place to the same extent 
as in Holland and Belgium; and the French glass- 
paintings are proportionably richer and more effective. 
A proof of this is afforded by the beautiful representa- 
tion of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin, which was 
brought from the Church of St. Nicholas at Eouen, and 
now, through the munificence of the late Lord Carlisle, 
adorns one of the choir windows of York CathedraP. 
This work, which, judging from its style, is of the 
middle of the sixteenth century, is one of the best 
specimens of glass-painting in existence ^ There is 
perhaps rather a want of transparency in the shadows, 
owing to their ground not being sufficiently stippled, — 
a symptom of the decline of the art, — but enamel co- 
lours are very sparingly introduced, being employed 
merely in the border of a drapery, and in the sandals, 
and there not to such an extent as to diminish the 
transparency of the picture. 

I Lanzi, *< History of Painting," trans- 
lated by Rowoe, book i., end of epoch 2, 
where he gives some interesting notices 
of the rise and progress of glass-punting 
in Italy, referring to many existing spe- 
cimens and giving the names of several 

^ Viz., the easternmost window in the 
ude of the south aisle. This beantifnl 
work, which was presented to the cathe- 
dral in 1804, appears to have been taken 
from a design of Baroccio. Le Vieil 
however states, Miatoire de la Peinture 
9ur Verre et de la Vitrerie, p. 57, that 

it was said to have been painted after 
a cartoon by Raphael Sadeler. The an- 
nual register for the year 1804, in record- 
ing the gift to the cathedral, says, that 
"the figures were always considered to 
have been designed either by Sebastian 
del Piorobo, or Michael Angelo," p. 432. 
It is evident that it was originally de* 
signed for a window of four lights. 

^ Le Vieil seems to allnde to this pic- 
ture as a work of the end of the nxteenth 
century, but I am sure that it b of the 
middle of the century. 



The windows of the traDsept and north aisle of the 
nave of St. Jacques Church, Antwerp, which are con- 
temporary works, (some are dated 1620, 1621, 1629, 
and 1640,) have precisely the same defects as the Gouda 
windows; viz. a washiness and want of brilliancy, the 
consequence of employing enamels in a great degree in 
lieu of coloured glass, and of omitting to confine the 
shadows to their proper limits, and to sufficiently stip- 
ple their ground. Windows of an earlier date, quite as 
dark and dingy as these, may be seen in Amsterdam 
Cathedral ""; they were erected in 1555. 

The four eastern clearstory windows of the transept, 
Antwerp Cathedral, dated 1613, are as defective in 
transparency as those last mentioned, although but little 
enamel colour is used in them. 

In their general arrangement all the foregoing win- 
dows resemble the picture windows of the Cinque 
Cento style. 

Some of the best examples of glass-painting of the 
middle of the seventeenth century, remain in the four 
windows of the Chapel of the Virgin, Brussels Cathedral. 
They are dated 1649, 1650, 1658, 1663". 

■ Viz., three in the north aisle repre- 
senting the Visitation, the Nativity of 
Christ, and the death of the Virgin. 

* The principal snhjects of these win- 
dows are enumerated in the text in the 
order in which they are, counting from 
the eastward. The first window from the 
cast is inscribed as the gift of the Em- 
peror Ferdinand, 1650; the second, that 
of the Emperor Leopold, 1658; the third, 
that of the Archduke and Archdachess 
Albert and Isabella, 1663; and the fourth, 
that of the Emperor Leopold, 1649. Le 
Vieil, L*Art de la Peiniwe tur Verre 
et de la Viirerie, p. 71, ascribes these 

windows to Abraham Van-Di^penbeke, 
a pupil of Rubens, and a skilful painter 
in oils as well as on glass. He was 
nominated director of the Academy of 
Antwerp in 1641. It is not impiobable 
that this artist merely furoished the de- 
signs for these windows, which may ex- 
plain the report that they were painted 
by Van Tilden after designs hy Uubens. 
The fourth window from the east, which, 
as above stated, is inscribed as the gift of 
the Emperor Leopold, 1649, bean also 
the following inscription, " I de Laharre 
i et Fa 1654/' from which it would seem 
that he both designed and executed it. 



The Cinque Cento arrangement is preserved in these 
Mrindows ; two tiers of archways, or rather architectural 
screens, fill their lower lights, the lower containing 
portraits of the donors kneeling and attended by their 
patron saints, the upper, one of the following subjects, 
the Presentation in the Temple, the Marriage of the 
Virgin, the Annunciation, and the Salutation. In these 
works, coloured glass is used only in some of the dra- 
peries, the picture being almost entirely painted with 
enamels and stains. The shading is also not sufficiently 
stippled and open, and the general effect of the windows, 
when contrasted with the Cinque Cento examples in the 
opposite chapel of the Miraculous Sacrament % is dull 
and dirty. The most brilliant window of the four is 
of the Annunciation, owing to the flood of light which 
is admitted through the clear yellow glass with which 
the angel Gabriel is surrounded. With all their faults, 
however, these windows are, from the nature of their 
design, grand and imposing objects, and when viewed 
from the nave of the cathedral, whence their want of 
transparency is less 6bservable, and their colouring from 
being seen sideways is ^ apparently increased in depth, 
they constitute very splendid ornaments. It must be 
admitted, however, that their merit is greater as works 
of art than as glass-paintings. 

After the middle of the seventeenth century, glass- 
painting appears to have gone more rapidly and com- 
pletely out of fashion on the continent than in England. 
Few works of greater interest than coats of arms, and 
little borders and ornaments, were executed during the 
remainder of the century, and these were but of small 

• Theie have been already noticed in the coune of the Cinqne Cento style. 



importance. In the eighteenth century little else was 
done than repairs; and Le Yieil mentions that at the 
time he wrote (1768) there was but one glass-painter in 
Paris, and he had so little employment in his art, that 
he would not have had the means of subsistence if he 
had not joined to it the business of a glazier p. Pre- 
viously to this time enamels had so entirely superseded 
the use of coloured glass in France, as to have caused its 
manufacture in that country to be discontinued \ 

The revival of the Mosaic system of glass-painting 
has been more complete in this country than abroad. 
Some of our modem specimens are indeed not inferior 
to the best ancient examples in the mere strength and 
vividness of their colouring, but such is the tendency 
of opinions on matters of taste to run into opposite ex- 
tremes, that, whilst celebrating the exchange of a vicious 
for a purer practice of glass-painting, by the abandon- 
ment of the enamels of the last and early part of the 
present century, we have to deplore the loss in general 
of that originality of design and treatment of subjects, 
which constituted the redeeming quality of the works of 

' L'Art de la PeinUtre 9ur Verre et 
de la Vitrerie, p. 81. The artist alluded 
to eeemg to have been a brother of Le 

4 It is clear from Le Vieirs state- 
ment in I/Art de la Peinture sur Verre 
et de la Vitrerie, that in his time, glass 
WHS no longer coloured in France at the 
manufactories, either as a pot-metal, or 
as coated glass. Coloured glass of the 
former kind, and probably of the latter 
also, was procured from Bohemia and 
Alsace. Of coated glass, however, be 
seems to hare had no knowledge what- 
ever. The process of colouring glass on 

one side, described by him, is enamel 
colouring, and even this he speaks of as 
being disused in France, adding that such 
disuse had given rise to the prevalent 
opinion that the art of painting on glass 
was lost. It is to be observed that in 
describing the last-mentioned process, he 
does not speak from personal experience, 
but takes his account from Kunckel; 
and on the whole, his want of practical 
knowledge has caused some obscurity 
in the terms he applies to the different 
kinds of coloured glass, and renders' his 
authority in relation to them of little 


that period. Indeed the erroneous notion that nothing 
besides brilliancy of colour is required in a glass- 
painting, has engendered the cultivation of a low species 
of art, and the seryile imitation of the grotesque and 
extravagant drawing of the Middle Ages. 

The great majority of the English glass-paintings of 
the revived Mosaic style, are either direct copies of an 
original work, or mere* compilations, in which each 
individual part is taken from some ancient example. 
They are in general easily distinguishable from ancient 
glass even when the closeness of the copy precludes any 
mixture or confusion of style; the imitations of the 
earlier patterns being betrayed by the flimsy quality 
of their material, and by the attempts made to impart 
depth of colour, and tone to them, as well as to disguise 
their real date, by dirtying or dulling over the glass 
with enamel brown or other pigments : and the imita- 
tions of the later specimens, by a peculiar heaviness of 
execution and a display of the imperfect drawing of the 
ancient artists without any of their feeling or inspiration. 
To this may be added the imperfect fluxing of the 
enamel brown, the ruddiness of its hue, and the occa- 
sional use of other enamel colours. There are of course 
some examples to which the above strictures do not 
apply, but these works ' partake rather of the character 
of a new and original, than of mere imitative style, 
which sufficiently serves to distinguish them from an- 
cient glass '. The French, in their imitations of ancient 

' As, for instance, the artistical prodac- I century, withoat their defective draw- i 

tions of the late Mr. Miller, in whose | ing; and the subseqaont performances , 

figures are displayed all the delicacy of Mr. Ward, and Mr. Nixon. [1847.] 
and grace which belong to original works ' Of all modern works the most diffi* 
of the oommenoement of the sixteenth i cult to be distinguished from ancient^ 



glass-paintings^ have been jnore successful than ourselves 
in catching the spirit of their models, a circumstance 
which is no doubt attributable to the higher artistic 
talent generally employed in the practice of glass-paint- 
ing in France. The different texture of the modem 
material from the old, will in the generality of cases 
serve to detect the copy. 

In Germany, instead of the revival of the Mosaic 
system, we see the adoption of the Mosaic enamel, 
purified of such of its defects as are not absolutely 
inherent; and instead of mere imitations of ancient 
authorities, the bold and undisguised development of 
a new and original style, apparently having for its 
object an union of the severe and excellent drawing 
of the early Florentine oil-paintings, with the arrange- 
ment of the glass-paintings of the former half, and the 
colouring of those of the latter half, of the sixteenth 
century. There is therefore no danger of confounding 
the productions of the Munich school with those of the 
Middle Ages. With a full persuasion that the adoption 
in Germany of the Mosaic system would be attended 
with beneficial results, I am compelled to admit that 
the artistical character of the Munich glass-paintings in 
general, renders that school at the present moment on 
the whole superior to all those which have arisen since 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

I now proceed to a more detailed description of some of 
the most remarkable features of the Intermediate style. 

are Mr. Willement's heraldic glats-paint-* 
ings, whether in respect of their design, 
or their execation. So thoroughly haa 
he imbihed the spirit of the ancient 

draughtsmen, that the quaintness he 
imparts to his works has a truly ori- 
ginal air. [1847.] 



1. The Texture and Colour op the Glass. 

The white glass throughout all but the last few years 
of the Intermediate style, is in general of a pale dusky 
yellow tint; sometimes however it is colourless, or of 
a light bluish green hue. The different kinds vary but 
little in substance, but the colourless glass is usually of 
a harder texture than the yellow, and takes the yellow 
stain less easily*. One kind of colourless glass, however, 
which was much used in glass-paintings, is often stained 
to the deepest tint of orange. During the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James I. there were in this country other 
varieties of white glass besides those which have been 
mentioned, one sort without the thickness of the sheet 
being increased, is of a deep dirty olive colour, like 
modern common bottle glass: another is of an indigo 
blue, or purplish green tint, as deep and powerful as 
Early English or Decorated white glass, for which it 
may by an unpractised eye be easily mistaken; the 
inky purple colour of a third kind seems to indicate the 
presence of manganese in its composition. With the 
exception of the last sort but one, which is apt to be- 
come perforated with holes as large as the head of a pin, 
all this glass is but little affected by the action of the 
atmosphere. The yellow sort, in particular, is sometimes 
covered with minute black dots, but is seldom much 

' Le Vieil notices the difference in 
coloor and teztare between various kinds 
of white glass in his day. He states 
that Venetian glass is softer and less 
resists the fire than that made in Ger- 
many, Hesse, and at St. Quirin in 
Vosges: and that the French glass is 

harder than any of these, being much 
less charged with salts. He also cites 
«n observation of Konckel, that the 
yellow stain takes best on Bohemian 
and Venetian glass. VArt de la Fein- 
ture 9ur Verre et de la VUrerie, pp. 
109, 110, 111. 


obscured. The surface of the sheet is generally uneveu 
and crumpled, so that objects seen through the glass 
appear greatly distorted. 

In the early part of the last century, crown glass 
began to be used instead of broad glass, (to which alone 
the above remarks apply,) in glass-paintings. Indeed 
all the more elaborate enamel glass-paintings are com- 
posed of it. Crown glass is in general easily distin- 
guished from broad glass, by its flimsy appearance, and 
its want of tone. 

Within the last few years the demand for imitations 
of ancient painted glass has occasioned the manufacture 
of white glass purposely tinted in imitation of the old, 
from which however it is easily distinguishable by its 
texture, its hue, and even the levelness of its surface. 

Euby glass was certainly used in this country as late 
as the first quarter of the eighteenth century. That 
found in the glass-paintiDgs of this time exhibits all the 
peculiarities of ordinary ruby. Its tint, however, changed 
from scarlet to a deep crimson, or rather claret colour, 
as early as the reign of Elizabeth, during which period 
it began to be superseded i^ small works by enamel red. 
This colour is generally produced by covering stained 
yellow glass with a coat of enamel, resembling China 
red, sometimes by covering both sides of the glass with 
a coat of red enamel. It is always of a strong orange 
tint, and may on this account as well as by its want of 
depth and transparency be immediately distinguished 
from ruby. The facility of its application caused it to 
be always much employed. It is durable, for though 
the enamel colour may, in general, be easily scratched 
off the glass with a pin, or even a pointed stick, it is 


not much affected by the action of the atmosphere. The 
art of making ruby lay dormant from, it would seem, the 
beginning of the eighteenth century until within the 
last twenty years, during which time many expedients 
were resorted to, in order to produce red glass**. The 
most common was that of deeply staining crown glass on 
both sides of the sheet, but the result was seldom satis- 
factory, the colour in general being dull, and inclining 
to orange. I have indeed seen in some modem works, 
especially in those of Mr. Willement, small pieces of 
stained red not to be distinguished from real ruby. 
Mr. Ward has also produced a red, by combining an 
enamel with a stain, which except on a close inspection 
might easily be mistaken for ruby. Happily, however, 
for glass-painting, a stop has been put to these inven- 
tions by the revival in France of the manufacture of 
ruby glass, identical in texture and colour with that of 
the first half of the sixteenth century. 

The use of pot-metal yellow seems to have been aban- 
doned soon after the middle of the seventeenth century, 
and to have been superseded by the yellow stain, which 
is generally of a deep colour, and frequently of an 
orange tint. Light blue pot-metal glass was much 
employed throughout the style, in representations of 

" It would aeem fh>iii a puBsage in 
Evelyn's "Diary" that difficulty was ex- 
perienced in obtaining a good red stain, 
and that as late as the year 1682, the 
glass-painters had not overcome it. 
This may perhaps account for the nse 
of ruby glass nntil the period mentioned 
in the text 

"At y* meeting of R. Society were 
exibited some pieces of amber sent by 

very intire. There was a discourse of 
y* tingeing of glass, especially with red, 
and J* difficulty of finding any red co- 
lour effectual to penetrate glass, among 
y* glass-painters; that y* most dia- 
phonouB, as blue, yellow, &c., did not 
enter into the substance of what was or- 
dinarily painted, more than very shallow, 
unless incorporated in the mettal itsplfe, 
other reds and whites not at all beyond 

y* Duke of Brandenburg, in one of w*^^ y* superficies." — Evehfn't Memoirs, voL 
was a spider, in another a gnat> both iii. p. 65, 8vo. ed. 




armour, and landscapes, ornamental work, &c. ; but 
the blue glass commonly used in draperies, &c., was of 
a deep purple tint, until the revival of the Mosaic sys- 
tem within the last few years, when a recurrence to 
ancient colours took place ^. 

The green of the Van Linge school is often a fine 
rich olive colour, but that which was generally employed 
until lately is of a cold raw tint. 

Of the various enamel colours, blue, besides being in 
general the dullest, is that which is the most perishable, 
being liable to chip or scale off, leaving the surface of 
the glass which was beneath it quite rough. The enamel 
blue used in the Swiss glass-paintings of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, however, is not open to this 
objection, being completely fluxed, and nearly as trans- 
parent as pot-metal blue. The Swiss enamels are indeed 
the only ones which seem perfectly to resist the action 
of the atmosphere. 

In enamel paintings many compound colours are pro- 
duced by applying two enamels of different tints, to 
opposite sides of the glass ; or by staining one side, and 
enamelling the other. 

A perfectly black enamel was much employed, even 
as early as the reign of Elizabeth, to represent sable in 
heraldry, or black draperies, &c. 

2. Mode of Execution "". 

The coarse stipple shading of the Cinque Cento style 
was retained in many instances, as late as the middle of 

^ See ante, p. 227, note p. 
* The different modes of glatt-paint- 
ing are considered with reference to their 

effect on the transparency of the material, 
in the second section of the second chap- 
ter of this book. 


the seventeenth century : the deeper shadows, however, 
being formed of unstippled hatches of brown paint, or 
with thick smear shading. Sometimes, indeed, they are 
slightly stippled, but not sufficiently so as to produce 
a grain. In general, however, the brown ground ap- 
pears as if it had been simply washed in, and allowed 
to dry without being stippled, or else it is so slightly 
stippled as to have no decided grain; the deeper sha- 
dows in this case being formed as before mentioned, or 
with dense black dabs of brown paint. Lights are taken 
out in the usual way by scraping off the brown ground. 
The Dutch and Flemish artists seem to have always had 
a prejudice against perfectly clear lights, especially 
where white glass is used, except it is of small ex- 
tent. They generally spread a coat of white enamel 
on the back of the glass ^, which produces a dulness 
resembling that of a piece of ground glass. 

In the eighteenth century, and subsequently, the 
glass was painted with enamels, very much as canvas 
is with oil colours, viz., in little hatches, and the sha- 
dows were not produced merely with enamel brown, 
but with deeper tints of the various local colours. In 
this way the shadows are almost imperceptibly blended 
with the lights, scarcely any parts of the glass being left 
perfectly free of colour, or the marks of the brush. 

The practice of abrading the surface of ruby glass for 
the sake of representing white or yellow objects on it. 

y This practice is defended by Le Vieil, 
JjAri de la Peinlure sur Verre et de la 
Vitrerie, pp. 110 and 133, who in the 
former place controverts Dom Pemetti's 
opinion tbat it is improper to paint glass 
white, both because this would render it 

left clear appears to the spectator as if it 
were white. Le Vieil himself, in draw- 
ing a comparison between the two 
brothers, Dirk and Walter Crabcth, 
however, admits the effect of clenr lights 
in a glat^s-painting as producing bril- 

opaque, and itlso because the glits when liancy. — lb., p. 44. 



continued to be occasionally used as long as the ruby 
itself was employed. The same object was, however, 
more frequently achieyed by means of the enamel red. 

3. FiGUKES. 

The Italian maimer of drawing, much corrupted, had 
entirely superseded the medieval at the commencement 
of the Intermediate style, though medieval costumes 
were occasionally represented'. The figures are in 
general well proportioned, but the draperies, though 
ample, are seldom natural, but have a vague and un- 
satisfactory appearance. They seem to be taken from 
draperies made of some thin fabric, not from cloth 
draperies, which appear to have been studied by the 
Medieval and Cinque Cento artists. The folds are too 
much broken up and diversified, and in general do not 
express the action of the figure beneath with sufficient 
precision. It is principally to this want of crispness, 
and decision in the draperies, that the heaviness of the 
figures of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is 
owing : for where there are no strongly marked projec- 
tions, there can be no vivid lights ; and a glass-painting 
without a sufficient proportion of vivid lights must ne- 
cessarily be dull in effect. 

The figures are generally far better designed than exe- 
cuted. In English glass-paintings of the seventeenth and 

* If the engraving of the morrice 
dancers formerly in a window of the 
house of George Toilet, E^q., Betley, 
Staffordshire, which forms the frontis- 
piece to the first vol. of" Old Engbind/' 
be correctly coloured, this glass must 

have been painted subsequently to the 
middle of the sixteenth century, what- 
ever may be the date of the costumes of 
the dancers. The presence of enamel 
colours in the window would set this 
question at rest. 


eighteenth centuries the execution of the heads and hands 
is frequently very coarse, vulgar, and inartificial. 

White glass is generally used for the naked parts of 
the figures, which are tinted and shaded with a red 
enamel, the hair of the head being left white, stained 
yellow, or coloured brown. The white of the eye is 
also in general coloured pale blue, or left white. The 
iris is not unfrequently painted blue. The lips and 
cheeks were tinted with a brickdust-coloured red, until 
the latter part of the last century, when this colour 
was superseded by a light carnation. 

4. Ornaments. 

The ornaments introduced into the glass-paintings of 
the Intermediate style, always resemble those found in 
other decorations of the same period. At the com- 
mencement of the style, the Cinque Cento character of 
ornament was preserved. This gradually gave way to 
the curious style known as Elizabethan, which was in 
its turn superseded by that of Louis XIV., &o. 

The Elizabethan form of ornament offered in its little 
scrolls, its incrustations of jewellery, &c., many oppor- 
tunities of introducing various enamel colours*. The 
general body of the ornament was usually stained yellow. 
Yellow was the colour principally employed in the later 

5 and 6. Borders and Patterns. 

The pattern windows of the latter half of the six- 
teenth and during the following century are in general 

* See examples of this si^le of ornaineut, plates 73 and 74. 



composed of plain white glass in quarries, or so cut as to 
form with the leads various geometrical patterns^. In 
some rare instances of the time of Elizabeth, or James I., 
a few plain pieces of coloured glass are inserted amongst 
the white glass ®. Ornamental glazing, however, became 
to be greatly discontinued in the course of the eighteenth 
century, and the windows were usually filled with uni- 
form rectangular panes of white glass \ 

In Germany, round glass was in general substituted 
for plain white glass. The panes seem to have reached 
their greatest diameter * about the middle of the last cen- 
tury, at which time, from the level smoothness of their 
surfaces, it is difficult to distinguish them at first sight 
from circular pieces of plain white glass. 

^ A geometrical pattern very com- 
monly nsed in the reign of Elizabeth 
and James I., is represented in plate 73. 
In ordinary cases, the square occupied 
with the coat of arms is of course filled 
with a piece of plain white glass. The 
geometrical patterns of this, as well as of 
the Cinque Cento style, are not only 
distinguishable from the Decorated and 
Early English^ by the colour of the 
glass, but in the generality of instances, 
by the form of the pattern itself. The 
earlier patterns usually consist of a kind 
of interlaced work formed of narrow 
strips of glass: the Cinque Cento, and 
Intermediate, are principally composed 
of square, octagonal, and hexagonal 
pieces of glass of different sizes, with 
short narrow bits interspersed. These 
last patterns on the whole very much re- 
semble the design of an inlaid oak floor. 

* A window of this kind may be seen 
in Bisham Church, Berks. 

' This uninteresting kind of glazing 
was by no means uncommon even in the 
reign of Charles I., and was of still ear- 
lier invention; a representation of it 
occurs in a painting of the Seven Sacra- 

ments, by John Van Eyck, in the 
museum at Antwerp. [John Van Eyck 
was bom in 1370, and died in 1465.] Its 
employment probably originated in a 
desire to conceal the leads as completely 
as possible without regard to ornaments; 
for, in windows thus glazed, the hori; 
zontal lines coincide with those of the 
saddle-bars, and the perpendicular lines 
with those of the standards, or upright 
bars. The perpendicular leads, however, 
arrest the e^e more forcibly than the 
standards, which being placed outside 
the window, at a little distance from the 
glass, — the transparency of which is in 
general somewhat diminished by age, — 
are on this account seldom distinctly seen 
through the window. 

* i.e. about six inches. 

The smoothness of the round glass 
alluded to in the text, may be noticed in 
earlier examples, as in the windows of 
the post inn at Oberlauchringen, a vil- 
lage between Schaffhausen and Wallshut^ 
where this kind of gliizing is employed 
to surround some Swiss heraldic glass- 
paintings, bearing date 1578, 1579, 1580, 
and 1587. 



* Borders to the lights were not commonly used. The 
latest that I have met with are of the middle of the 
seventeenth century, and are, like the earlier examples, 
composed of foliage and other ornaments executed in 
white and yellow glass, on a black or white ground, 
resembling in eflfect a Cinque Cento border '. 

Coats of arms, and other devices, were often inserted 
in pattern windows. 

In churches, &c., the tracery lights of pattern win- 
dows, when not glazed with mere patterns of white glass, 
are often filled with coarsely designed masses of foliage, 
&c., executed in white and yellow, or coloured glass. 

7 and 8. Pictures and Canopies. 

The pictures for the most part resemble those of the 
Cinque Cento style in their general composition, and 
arrangement. Greater importance was however given 
to the landscape backgrounds, and proportional efforts 
were made to produce atmospheric effect. Some of the 
paintings, those of the Van Linges in particular, have 
a cold appearance, from the great quantity of green 
foliage introduced in the background. 

Large pictures having for their subjects a landscape, 
or the interior of a building, and executed entirely in 
brown and yellow, were not uncommon even so early as 
the latter half of the sixteenth century «. Their effect 
is generally dull and heavy, and always unsatisfactory. 

' Some late borders are engpraved in 
the French work on Auch Cathedral, 
plate 4. This window ia dated 1649. 

r See Lasteyrie, JERttoire de la Pein- 
ture iur Verre, plate Ixxiii. 

See also engpravings of some of the 
windows of Gonda Chorch, Holland, in 
Weale's "Divers Works of Early Mas- 
ters in Christian Decoration." 



Designs executed in the same manner, but painted on 
round or oval pieces of glass of but a few inches in 
diameter^, were very common in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 

The canopies in figure and canopy windows in general 
bear a smaller proportion to the size of the figure be- 
neath, than was usual in the Cinque Cento style. Their 
details are either bad Gothic, or a mixture of Cinque 
Cento and Falladian. The hoUowness of the niche is 
generally marked with a deep shadow. A curtain of 
coloured tapestry is usually hung behind the figure. 
The back of the niche above the curtain is often pierced 
with windows, through which a landscape is seen. A 
coat of arms is frequently inserted beneath the feet of 
the figure. 

In Holland, and England, after the Beformation, re- 
presentations of sybils, and female saints, gave way to 
personifications of the Christian virtues; and subjects 
taken from Scripture supplied the place of those founded 
on mere legendary authority. 

9. Tracery Lights. 

The tracery lights of pattern windows have been 
already described ^ Those of picture windows are 

^ I have met with two instances of 
small subjects, each painted on a pane of 
round glass seven inches in diameter, 
the turnover edge of which has been 
grazed off. The subject of one picture 
was Abraham offering up Isaac, 1698. 
The other represented Jacob wrestling 
with the angel: this was dated 1700. 
The panes were remarkably thick and 
smooth. Mr. Miller had them to repair, 
July, 184S. The pant head was not 

Urger than a pin's head. There ii 
another specimen in the British Mu- 
seum. . 

* See an example in Lettu's Detcrip^ 
iion de VEgUse MitropoUtitine du Dio' 
cise d^Auch, plate 4. The windows re- 
presented ib., plates 1 and 2, seem to 
be Cinque Centa But plate 3 may be 
referred to as affording another example 
of the Intermediate style. 


sometimes filled with angels or saints, executed in 
colours, and placed on coloured or white grounds, or 
even with small pictures, or heraldry. The design in 
the lower lights, however, frequently extends into the 

tracery lights, which are in that case filled wi%j^^e- 
sentations of clouds, foliage, or the like. i: ,^ j^ - 4 • 

10. Heraldry. V/ ;*^^ 

Armorial bearings, consisting sometimes of the sim- 
ple shield, but more commonly of the additional accom- 
paniments of helmet, crest, and mantling, &c., are most 
usually found enclosed within little ornamented panels 
of a square or oval form, and inserted in pattern win- 
dows. The helmets, mantlings, &c., scarcely differ in 
form from those used in modern heraldry. Shields of 
arms, or crests painted on quarries, are not uncommon ^. 
In some windows large achievements were introduced, 
extending into three or more Ughts without regard to 
the mullions. The colouring of the arms is produced 
principally by enamels, but until the beginning of the 
present century pot-metals were introduced as oppor- 
tunities offered. 

11. Letters. 

The ordinary Roman letters were generally used 
throughout the style, until the revival of the Mosaic 
system, and the imitatj^ns of the Gothic glass within 
the last few years. 

^ See an eiampls plate 73. 


12. Mechanical Constetjction. 

In the want of harmony between the picture and its 
leadwork, we perceive one of the false principles on 
which glass-painting was conducted after the middle of 
the sixteenth century. Instead of availing themselves 
of the lead lines as giving force and precision to the 
painting, the artists of the Intermediate style appear to 
have regarded them as unsightly objects, which ne- 
cessity alone compelled them to retain. The practice 
continued nearly as late as the middle of the seven- 
teenth century of leading figures across, in horizontal 
lines, corresponding with the saddle-bars, and making 
the vertical leads take the course of the outlines ; but 
as early as the commencement of the style, the glass of 
which the background and architectural framework of 
the picture was composed, was generally cut into uni- 
form rectangular pieces, and so leaded together. The 
principle thus introduced of treating this part of the 
painting as if it were an object seen through a net- work 
of straight black lines crossing each other at right angles, 
was at length extended to the figures also, which were 
cut in pieces, and leaded together in perpendicular as 
well as horizontal lines like the rest of the window; 
a piece of glass equal in size to four of the ordinary 
rectangles being used when the face of the figure would 
otherwise have been crossed by the leadwork. 

Coats of arms, for convenience sake, were generally 
leaded together in the direction of their principal divi- 
sion lines. 

The narrow lead continued in use during the reign 




of Elizabeth, and does not appear to have materially 
increased in width even in the reign of Charles I. ^ 

The broad lead seems to have been introduced in 
pattern work towards the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, and was employed in glass-paintings, together 
with several sorts of narrower leads, until within the 
last few years. It is still used in ordinary glazing 


^ I have noticed in a glass-painting in 
Lydiart Tregoz Chnrcb, Wilts, — which 
I shoald ascribe to the Van Linge 
school, — some portions of the original 
Icadwork, which from beiftg in a rather 
complicated coat of arms» were on that 
account perhaps left undisturbed, the 
rest of the window having been re-leaded. 

The leads are here scarcely a quarter of 
an inch broad in the leaf, and closely 
resemble modem fret lead. 

"* Leads of different widths, are re- 
presented in Le Vieil's L'Art de la 
Peinture sur Verre et de la Vitrerie, 
plate viii. 





The art of glass- painting was in all probabiUty first 
employed in the embellishment of churches; and this, 
which still continues to be its most extensive and im- 
portant application, is naturally that to which the atten- 
tion is at first directed '. 

The kind of decoration furnished by this art has been 
approved during many centuries, and possesses con- 
siderable advantages. Besides its beauty, it is capable 
of being made subservient to edification and instruction ; 
and, whether these objects are aim«d at or not, it seems 
to be more universally applicable than any other mode 
of decoration. The only instances in which even the 
richest and most splendid painted window can be inap- 
plicable, are those in which it would darken the building 
too much ; or, where the walls of the edifice are adorned 
with paintings. The grounds of the first objection are 
too obvious to require comment: with regard to the 
last, it should be remarked, that an equally advantage- 
ous display of rich glass-paintings and mural paintings 

* Though a really religionB person 
will neither be attracted to a place of 
worship by its splendour, nor repelled 
from it by its poverty : I think that the 
proper embellishment of churches is not 
a trivial matter. An inordinate expen- 
diture for this purpose is unjustifiable 
when 10 many other important works 

remain to be done; but money thus 
applied, with discretion, affords an evi- 
dence of the earnestness of the rich for 
the cause of religion, and of their will- 
Ingness to bestow a part of their wealth 
in such a way, as may render the poorest 
partakers of its benefits in common with 




in the same building is impossible. A mural painting, 
however gorgeous, cannot vie with a glass-painting in 
brilliancy, but must materially suffer by the contrast. 
The colours of a translucent painting will always over- 
power those of a picture which only reflects light. If 
therefore full effect is to be insured to the mural paint- 
ing, the means of a disadvantageous comparison should 
be removed, by rendering the paintings in the windows 
as little obtrusive as possible, both in design and colour. 
They should, in fact, be reduced to mere patterns, prin- 
cipally composed of white glass ; even yellow should be 
sparingly introduced into them, and no other colours 
admitted more positive than pinks, and purples, &c. 
Thus the full power of painted glass cannot be deve- 
loped consistently with the effective display of mural 
paintings^; but inasmuch as the latter kind of decora- 
tion seldom extensively exists in a church, a painted 
window, however rich, is hardly ever out of place there, 
and it can be introduced when grandeur in the struc- 
ture, and architectural beauty of any kind, are quite 

^ The Munich artiflts leem quite aware 
of this palpable fact. The Maria HUf 
Charch, in the suburb An of Munich, 
whoae windows are adorned with rich 
painted glass, has no fresco paintings on 
its walls, while the St. Ludwig's Kirche 
and the Hof Capelle, which are adorned 
with beautifnl frescoes, have their win- 
dows almost entirely filled with white 
patterns ; the little colour that is intro- 
duced into them being confined to the 
narrow border which surrounds the de- 
sign. These windows in their general 
effect resemble plates of silver, and con- 
trast harmoniously with the rich gilding 
and painting which decorate the interior 

of the building. It is clear that figures 
executed in white and yellow glass, 
would not produce an effect as satisfac- 
tory as that of a mere pattern, owing to 
their greater tendeucy to distract the 
spectator's attention firom the mural 

I of course do not mean to say that 
glass-paintings should be banished from 
a building whose walls are adorned, how* 
ever elaborately, with ornamental pat- 
terns executed in paint, or gilding, or 
both. These patterns are not ii\jured 
by the splendour of the glass, and they 
rather tend to increase its effect. 


The application of this mode of decoration, however, 
requires a good deal of consideration, and I therefore 
propose to offer a few remarks respecting it. 

The first requisite in a painted window for a church 
is, of course, that it should be appropriate ; that is to 
say, that it should be of a character suitable to a church, 
and not to a dwelling-house, or secular building. I think 
also that it must be conceded, that in a Protestant 
church, it should be of a Protestant character, and ac- 
cordingly free from those legends and symbols for which 
Protestants have neither reverence nor belief; and a 
third requisite is, that if possible it should be rendered 
subservient to edification or instruction. A good pat- 
tern window is no doubt always preferable to a bad 
picture window, and in large buildings an inteimixture 
of both pattern and picture windows is generally desira* 
ble, but I think as a general rule that patterns should 
not be used to the total exclusion of pictures, unless 
this is rendered expedient by economy, or such other 
circumstances as have already been adverted to \ 

I do not suppose that there can be any prejudice at 
the present day, against the representation in churches 
of Scriptural subjects, or the portraits of saints. The 
established and recognised use of altar-pieces is of itself 
a sanction for the introduction of pictures into windows ; 
and to portraits of saints there seems to be as little 

' Pattern windows in the Perpendicn- • downward direction, although the hitter 

htr style, may often he made the vehicle 
of tome appropriate expreanon of prayer 
or praise, hy inscrihing short passages 
on diagonal strips of glass inserted be- 
tween every two or more rows of qoarries. 
It is a matter of indifference whether the 
inscriptions be written in an upward or 

is most usual in ancient examples: the 
best is that which enables the inscription 
to be most easily read. The puerile con- 
ceit that the former should be adopted, 
because "praise should ascend," is not 
wortliy of attention. 


objection. They are merely the representations of per- 
sons distinguished in Church history, who by their 
virtues, or services to religion, have earned a title to 
respect. No one can suppose that either portraits of 
saints or other Scriptural subjects are introduced into 
a church with any other view than for the purpose of 
ornament, or possibly of example and instruction. But 
against the representation of unscriptural subjects, there 
is in Protestant minds a general and well-founded ob- 
jection. And here an imitation of some of the older 
glass-paintings may lead into mischievous error. In 
these, legends of saints which are wholly or in part 
fabulous, and incidents in ecclesiastical history which 
rest merely on uncertain tradition, are frequently found. 
To adopt these subjects is to give a sanction and cur- 
rency to fiction; they should therefore be rigidly ex- 


eluded, and cannot be justified by the authority of 
ancient examples. A strict adherence to the principle 
of giving no sanction to fiction, might possibly exclude 
some worthies whose claim to veneration rests on no 
certain ground, bat patron . saints, though their history 
may be apocryphal, have a claim which it would be 
hard to dispute. 

As a general rule, however, it is evidently better 
to select for representation, prophets and apostles, or 
persons who have really deserved well of mankind; 
a rule, which by no means confines us to those who 
have chanced to gain the distinction of canonization, 
but gives free admission to the Protestant martyrs, and 
the Fathers of the Anglican Church. There are some 
objects which though not legendary, are hardly of a Pro- 
testant character. The Romish veneration for relics 



gives to the instruments of the Crucifixion, such as the 
nails, the hammer, the ladder, the scourge, the crown 
of thorns, &c,, an importance which Protestants do not 
commonly allow them, and therefore we should not affect 
it by giving them a prominent place in our designs. 
Eepresentations of God the Father *, the Trinity, and 

* It appears from the report of the 
proceedings in the Star Chamber, Feb. 6» 
1632, ("State Trials," vol. i. p. 399,) 
against Henry Sherfield, Esq., Recorder 
of Salisbury, for breaking a painted 
window in a church of that city, repre- 
senting the Creation, that he was moved 
to do so, principally by a representation 
of Grod the Father, which he considered 
profane and idolatrous. His answer to 
the information contains so lively a de- 
scription of the window that it is worth 
giving an extract from it. "He saith 
that this window and the painting there- 
on was not a true representation of the 
Creation, for that it contained divers 
forms of little old men in blue and red 
coats, and naked in the hands and feet, 
for the picture of Ood the Father : and 
in one place He is set forth with a pair 
of compasses in His hands laying them 
upon the sun and moon : and the painter 
bath set Him forth creating the birds on 
the third day, and hath placed the pic- 
tures of beasts, man and woman, the 
man a naked man, and the woman naked 
in some part, as much as from the knees 
upwards, rising out of the man; and the 
seventh day he therein hath represented 
the like image of God sitting down and 
taking His rest : whereas the defendant 
conceiveth this to be false, for there is 
but one God, and this representeth seven 
Gods, and the sun and moon were not 
made on the third but on the fourth 

day, nor did the Lord God so 

create woman as rising out of man, bat 
He took a rib of the man when he was 
in a deep sleep, and thereof made He the 
woman, in all which the workman was 
mistaken/* &c. 

Representations of God the Father 
are condemned by most of the members 
of the Star Chamber in giving their 
judgments; the only one who defends 
them is Neale, Archbishop of York. 
"The question," he says, "is whether 
it is unlawful to express God the Father 
by any representation, I think it is not 
unlawful in itself. The eternity of 
Alpha and Omega doth appear in Christ, 
and Christ is the image of His Father." 

Laud disapproves of such a represen- 
tation. "As touching the matter iu 
question I do not think it lawful to make 
the picture of God the Father : but it is 
lawful to make the picture of Christ, and 
Christ is called the express image of His 
Father. I do not mean to say that the 
picture of Christ as God the Son, may be 
made, for the Deity cannot be pourtrayed 
or pictured though the humanity may. 
I do not think but the representation 
of God the Father, (as in the Prophet 
Daniel He is called the ancient of days) 
hath been allowed (though erroneously) 
to be made like an ancient old man: and 
this the Lutheran party hold too: but 
whether it be idolatrous or superstitious 
or no, this I hold not to be the question, 
and I shall crave liberty not to declare 
mine opinion at this time, whether it 
ought to be removed." 

Notwithstanding the opinion expressed 
by Laud in Sherfield's case, a similar 
representation of God the Father was 
among the subjects in the windows re- 
stored by him at Lambeth. The alleged 
setting up, or restoration of those win- 
dows, which took place the year after 
his translation to Canterbury, gave great 
offence, and was urged against him on 



the Holy Ghost, are much better avoided. They cannot 
by any possibility convey to us an adequate . idea of 
these awful mysteries of the Christian religion, and 
may excite very false notions in the minds of the igno- 
rant, as well as supply materials for many a vulgar or 
profane jest. The same objection of course does not 
apply to the ordinary representations of our Saviour. 

his impeachment^ though as he Bud, 
" the repairing and setting np of the pic- 
tares was no high treason by any law." 
In his defence he alleges, among other 
things, that he had only restored the 

"The first thing the commons have in 
their evidence charged against me, is the 
setting up and repairing Popish images 
and pictures in the glass windows of my 
chappel at Lambeth, and amongst others, 
the picture of Christ hanging on the cross 
between the two thieves in the east win- 
dow; of Qod the Father in the form qf 
a Utile old man with a glory striking 
Miriam with a leprosie; of the Holy 
Ghost descending in the form of a dove ; 
and of Christ's nativity, last supper, re- 
surrection, ascension, and others; the 
pattern whereof Mr. Prynn attested I 
took out of the very mass-book, wherein 
he shewed their portraitures. To which 
I answer, first, that I did not set these 
images up, but found them there before. 
Secondly, that I did only repair the 
windows which were so broken, and the 
chappel which lay so nastily before, that 
I was ashamed to behold, and could not 
resort unto it but with some disdain, 
which caused me to repair it to my great 
cost. Thirdly, that I made up the his- 
tory of these old broken pictures, not by 
any pattern in the mass-book, but only 
by help of the fragments and remainders 
of them, which I compared with the 

His adversaries retorted upon him that 
*'he might have new glazed the windows 
with unpainted glass, for the tenth part 
of that his painted windows cost him." 

(Rushworth, " Hist. Collections^" voL iii. 
p. 273, ed. 1680.) 

From the report in the " State Trials" 
the Lincoln's Inn windows seem to have 
had a narrowr escape. Laud in arguing 
that images in glass windows were not 
within the statute of Edward VI. as had 
been asserted, observes, '*! could not but 
wonder that Mr. Browne should be so 
earnest in this point, considering ho is of 
Lincoln's Inn, where Mr. Piynn's seal 
hath not yet beaten down the images of 
the apostles in the fair windows of that 
chapel : which windows were set up new 
long since that statute of Edward VI. 
And it is well known that I was once 
resolved to have returned this upon Mr. 
Browne in the House of Commons, but 
changed my mind, lest thereby I might 
have set some furious spirit on work to 
destroy those harmless goodly windows, 
to the just dislike of that worthy society." 
" State Trials," voL iv. p. 456. Laud, in 
oiie part of his defence, (" State Trials," 
vol. i. p. 884, foL ed.,) refers to Calvin 
[1 Inst. c. 11, § 12.] as approving the 
use of pictures which contain a his- 
tory, although condemning "images in 
churches." It is worthy of remark 
that the painted windows in the cathe- 
dral of Geneva were suffered to remain 
and were existing as late as 1646. "The 
church," says Evelyn, "is very decent 
within ; nor have they at all defaced y* 
painted windows, which are full of pic- 
tures of saints; nor the stalls, which are 
all carv'd with y* history of our B. 
Saviour."— Evelyn's "Memoirs," vol. i. 
p. 384^ edit. 1827. 


With regard to symbols, there may be much difference 
of opinion. My own is decidedly hostile to them. To 
some persons they are offensive, to most they are unin- 
telligible, and in very few perhaps of those who do un- 
derstand their meaning, are they capable of awakening 
any sentiments of piety or veneration. If any interest 
attaches to ancient symbols, it is an antiquarian interest ; 
they are valued because they are old, and because they 
are witnesses to the religious feeling and modes of 
thinking of the age of which they are relics, and to 
which they carry back the imagination. But we know 
that the modern copies are an unreal mockery, the pro- 
duction not of a congenial mind, but a mere mechanical 
hand, and we turn from them with indifference or con- 
tempt. Unless we could revive the modes of thinking 
which rendered them interesting and impressive, symbols 
cannot be better than frigid and idle ornaments ; and it 
may be questionable how far the employment of somS 
symbols as mete ornaments, considering the peculiarity 
of their forms, can be justified on any principle of good 

If it should be thought that the objections which I 
have urged against symbols are without weight, I should 
still suggest that it is injudicious at the present day, 
when hostility to every thing savouring of popery has 
been awakened, to run the risk of raising a prejudice 
against so useful and appropriate a style of ornament as 
painted windows, by wounding this sensitiveness, even 
though we should think it excessive : no pretext should 
be afforded for a repetition of the quaint puritanical 
remark, that popery can creep in at a glass window as 
well as at a door. There surely remains a sufficiently 


wide field for the exercise of the art, and for the choice 
of subjects, the representations of which can shock no 
man's opinions, — subjects which belong to all time, 
being founded on incidents universally admitted as true 
by the whole Christian world, and whose importance is 
irrespective of the adventitious circumstances of fashion 
or opinion. Abundance of these, rich in instruction and 
interest, and aflfording full scope for the skill and inge- 
nuity of the artist, may be found in the parallelism 
between the Old and New Testaments®, — ^the history 
of our Saviour's life, — His miracles, — most of the para- 
bles, — the Acts of the Apostles, &c. — ^Eepresentations of 
such subjects cannot, I think, be without advantage. 
A picture is to the eye what language is to the ear ; — 
or rather it seems to convey an idea in a more lively 
manner, and will excite more attention than a mere 
narration. Hence besides constituting splendid orna- 
ments, painted windows representing Scriptural subjects, 
may serve to refresh the memory, — to fix wandering 
thoughts, — to place a familiar idea in a new light, — 
to suggest some sentiment, — or awaken a spirit of en- 
quiry. To produce such beneficial results, however, 
it is obvious that the painting should not be a mere 
conventionalism, or something incomprehensible except 
to the initiated ; but that it should, as far as possible, 
be a faithful representation of truth and nature'. 

* The relation of type and antitype is 
pushed to a great extent by the old artists. 
It is often extremely fancifxil and far- 
fetched : many instances of this may be 
seen in the Appendix (C). The modern 
artist will of course treat as typical those 
events and circnmstances only which 
there is sufficient authority for consider- 
ing to be so. 

' It was for instruction that pictures 
were anciently placed in churches. 
"Picturse ecclesiarum sunt quasi libri 
laicorum," an observation of which a 
striking illustration occurs in the fol- 
lowing passage from the introduction to 
the third book of the treatise of Theo- 
philus: — "Quod si forte DominiciB pus- 
feionis effigiem liucameutis ex^ressam 



Whatever subject is chosen, it should be treated by 
the glass-painter in the same spirit as it would be by 
any other artist : that is to say, according to the best of 
his skill and information, and as if he were addressing 
himself to intelligent spectators, and not to the uncritical 
population of the Middle Ages, or to their immediate 
successors ^. As I shall recur to this topic, I shall only 
further remark, that what would be condemned on can* 
yas, ought not to be admitted on glass. It is as unne- 
cessary and foolish to continue in modem glass-paintings 
the extravagant drawing, anachronisms, and absurdities, 
of the medieval glass-painters, as it would be to imitate 
in a modem fresco the imperfect and rude execution of 
the Byzantine artists. 

With regard to the introduction of armorial bearings 
into church windows, I think that the practice cannot 
be objected to on any stronger ground than that which 
has sometimes been made to the insertion of the donor's 

conspicatur fidelis anima, compungitar ; 
si quanta sancti pertnlerint in suis cor- 
poribus cruciamina, quantaqne viteo »- 
terns perceperint premia conspicit, vitas 
melioria obsenrantiam accipit ; si qaauta 
sint in coelis g^adia, qaantaqne in tar- 
tareis flammiB crnciamentnr intuetnr, spe 
de rais bonis actibns animatur, et de 
peccatomm suomm consideratione for- 
midine concntitur." 

t Tbe impropriety of reproducing at 
the present day representations only fitted 
for tbe coarser minds and less cultivated 
taste of tbe Middle Ages, has not escaped 
the author of the following remarks, 
which will perhaps have the greater 
weight as they are made by a zealous 
admirer of the arts and virtues of those 
times: — "Le moyen fige introduit vo- 
lontiers le grotesque dans les scenes 
d'enfer. Mais c'est le grotesque terrible 

d'une ^poque qui croit, et pour laquelle 
le rire dans cette mati^re n'est qu'un as- 
saisonnement effrayant de la cruaut^. 
Cest done bien moins du rire que du 
sarcasme. II ne faut pas s'y m^prendre 
et imaginer que les mdmes moyens puis- 
sent dtre encore de saison aujourd'hui 
que ce grotesque, au lieu de faire frison- 
ner prdterait k uue sorte de divertisse- 
ment. 0» doit s*apercei>oir que cette re- 
marque pourrait Hrefort etendue, 1\ est 
telle repr^ntation que j'ai d^veloppee 
avec quelqae complaisance dans les vi- 
traux de Bourges on de Lyon, et que 
je d^pprouverais tr^-formellement 
dans une oeuvre du xix*. si^le. Car il 
ne faut pas imiter servilement : c'est 1' 
esprit surtout que nous devons chercher 
k saisir dans les monuments des &ges 
de foi." — MonograpMe de la CathSdrale 
de Bourges, p. 236, note. 


name, or any allusion to it. The objection is an over- 
refined one, though of very old standing*". It appears 
to be founded on a morbid humility, which is not acted 
upon in other cases, and if followed up, would exclude 
monuments from our churches altogether. Armorial 
bearings only supply an additional memorial of the 
person who caused the work to be constructed, and in 
after times may be useful in establishing a date. In 
many ancient windows the existence of a shield of arms 
has contributed to determine the period of its construc- 
tion. If armorial bearings are admitted at all, I see no 
greater impropriety in placing them in an east window 
than in any other ; even granting, for argument's sake, 
that we are bound to regard the eastern part of an 
ecclesiastical edifice with peculiar reverence. Our Eo- 
man Catholic ancestors certainly had no scruples of this 
kind; for the insertion of coats of arms in the east 
windows of cathedrals and churches is of far too fre- 
quent occurrence to be regarded as an exception to any 
general rule of exclusion : nor can the practice be con- 
sidered as an innovation, and a departure from ancient 
propriety, since examples of it are quite as frequent 
during the fourteenth century as at any other period, 
and possibly may be met with of a still earlier date. 

The importance of church decoration has drawn out 
my remarks on this application of glass-painting to 

^ See Appendix (D). 

That armorial bearings were some- 
times placed in churches in an humble 
spirit is apparent from the will of Vis- 
countess L'Isle (dated 1500), by which 
she directs the arms of her husbands 
and herself to be set up in the high rood- 
loft of the church of St. Michael, "to the 
intent that our souls by reason thereof | 

may the rather be there remembered 
and prayed for." — Sir H. Nicolas's Tet' 
tamento VeiuHa, p. 466. It is unjust, 
therefore, in the absence of any proof, 
to assume that armorial bearings are 
necessarily marks of ostentation and 
vanity, and to exclude them accord- 
ingly from churches. 



a considerable extent. Its employment in secular 
buildings calls for fewer observations. It evidently 
forms an ornament which may occasionally be intro- 
duced into them with great advantage. Painted win- 
dows, and especially pattern windows, composed merely 
of round fflass with a painted border, would in many 
domestic buildings be found as effectually to exclude 
the sight of some disagreeable object, as panes of com- 
mon ground^ or corrugated glass, besides being infinitely 
more ornamental. Painted glass is always appropriate 
in the windows of the halls of colleges, corporations, and 
other public edifices; its richness and colour being of 
course regulated by the general character of the build- 
iug, and the number of paintings which adorn its walls, 
&c. And here, when it is wished to go beyond a dis- 
play of mere heraldry or ornamental patterns, there 
exists a wide choice of subjects. Abundance will 
suggest themselves in historical incidents, and in such 
as are of local, or family interest; portraits, if they 
can be represented, are not out of place, and in short 
any subject proper for a picture may be adopted, pro- 
vided it is capable of being treated within the limits 
imposed by the true principles of glass-painting ^ Here, 

* "There is besides NottiDgbam, an 
anncient house called Chilwell, in which 
house remayneth yet, as an anncient 
monument, in a great windowe of glasae, 
the whole order of plantyng, pmyning, 
stamping and pressing of vines." — Bar- 
nabie Qooge's "Foure Bookes of Hus- 
bandry/' Lond. 1578, quoted in the 
notes to Warton's "English Poetry/' 
ed. 1824, vol. ii. p. 265. 

Morrice dancers have been mentioned 
p. 261, note. Curious scenes from do- 

mestic life, as well as subjects from 
classical hbtory, often occur in the little 
circles and ovals of glass which were 
introduced into the windows of secular 
buildings in the sixteenth century. The 
story of Cupid and Psyche frt>m Raphael's 
designs, was represented in the windows 
of the chAteau d'Econen. They were 
executed by Bernard Palissy. The 
designs are given in outline in Lenoir, 
Muiie des moimmen* Fran^aU. Stat, 
de la FniUur^ iw Verre, Bsris, 1803. 



too^ is the most appropriate field for the introduction of 
heraldic achievements of whatever description, cogni- 
zances, and mottoes. Mere armorial bearings, with their 
accompaniments of mantlings, &c., are capable of being 
rendered highly ornamental, as may be seen at Ockwell's 
House, Berks. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that 
the remarks which have previously been made on the 
treatment of subjects, with regard to the improved taste 
and knowledge of the present day, are in their essential 
principles not less applicable to historical than to Scrip- 
tural glass-paintings. 

Painted windows have of late years been frequently 
erected as memorials of the dead. This is by no means 
an innovation, but merely a revival of an ancient cus- 
tom ^ : and it is an application of the art of glass-paint- 
ing which has many claims to be generally adopted. 

The sum which will procure a handsome painted 
window, would produce a very plain or indifferent 
tomb; and the window will form an ornament to the 
church, which, if it is a building of any architectural 
pretensions, is not un frequently disfigured by the in- 
troduction of stone monuments. Few things are more 
misplaced than tablets, urns, or the like on the columns 

One of them is alao eDgraved in Lastey- 
rie'8 Sitt. de la Feintwre tur Verre, 
plate Ixxiii. 

The windows described by Chancer, 
in the following passage, can be looked 
npon as imaginary only, as it occurs in 
the relation of a dream ; but it is not 
too much to infer from it, that subjects 
of this kind were represented in the 
glass-paintings of his times. 
"And sooth to sayn, my chamber was 
Full well depainted, and with glass 
Were all the windows well y-gUzed 

Full clear, and not an hole y-crazed. 
That to behold it was g^reat joy : 
For wholly all the story of Troy 
Was in the glazing y-wronght thus, 
Of Hector, and of King Priamus; 
Of Achilles, and of King Laomedon^ 
And eke of Medea, and of Jason ; 
Of Paris, Helen, and of Lavine." 

The "Dreme" of Chaucer. 
^ This is sufficiently proved by nume- 
rous inscriptions either still remaining 
in windows, or preserved in antiquarian 


of a building, and even when they occupy merely the 
walls, they are very frequently out of character both 
with the building and with each other, and present 
ill-arranged groups of statues and carving,, like those 
in a sculptor^s workshop. Further, if the object of 
a monument is to attract attention, and thus preserve 
the memory of the person to whom it is erected, this 
end can be hardly more, effectually obtained than by 
a painted window, which even a careless spectator is 
not likely to overlook ; whereas even well-executed mar- 
ble monuments are often of necessity placed out of sight. 
It may naturally be objected that glass is too frail 
a material for a monument. Experience, however, 
sufficiently refutes this objection. The quantity of an- 
cient glass which has been preserved in this country, 
in spite of its having been exposed at two different 
times to the violence of religious zeal, as well as treated 
with intentional neglect \ hardly less injurious in its 
consequences, shews that it is not necessarily of a perish- 
able nature. Much has perished, but so have innumera- 
ble monuments in brass and marble: and perhaps it 
may be a question whether the work of the glass-painter 
has, after all, fared so very much worse than that of the 
sculptor: however this may be, the simple fact that 
there are in existence windows five or six centuries old. 

> " As for churches themselves, belles, 
and times of morning and evening praier 
remain as in tiroes past, saviDg that all 
images, shrines, tabernacles, rood-loftes, 
and monuments of idolatrie are removed 
taken down and defaced: onlie the 
stories in glasse windowes excepted, 
which for want of sufficient store of 
new stuffe, and by reason of extreame 
charge that should grow by the altera- 

tion of the same into white panes 
throughout the realme, are not altoge- 
ther abolished in most places at once, 
but hy little and little suffered to decaie, 
that white glasse may be provided and 
set up in their roomes.*' — Harrison's 
"Description of England," {temp, Q. 
Elizabeth,) prefixed to Hollingshed's 
"Chronicle," book ii. ch. 1, p. 233. 


Bufficiently proves that there is no objection to painted 
glass on the ground of its want of durability. 

In conclusion I must state that a monumental win- 
dow is not confined to any particular design or subject. 
Pattern windows, or windows containing portraits of 
saints, or other Scriptural pictures, are equally appro- 
priate. The addition of a short inscription shewing the 
intention with which the window is erected, is all that 
is required to render it monumental. Ancient windows 
commonly introduce a portrait of the deceased, or of the 
donor of the window, and it has been made a question 
whether this practice should be adhered to. As to the 
propriety, strictly speaking, of a portrait, there is evi- 
dently no difference between a painted representation of 
an individual, and a sculptured one. But considering 
the limited power possessed by the glass-painter of 
imitating nature, if a portrait is desired, this object 
will be better attained by means of marble, or of 
a fresco painting. But indeed no further allusion to 
the deceased is required than the mention of his name 
in an inscription, or the insertion into the window of his 
armorial bearings. 




Every method of painting, from the nature of the 
material employed in it, is more or less fit than others 
for the production of certain effects. The capabilities 
of some kinds of painting are greater than those of 
others, but whichever an artist has occasion to adopt, it 



is evident that his efforts should be confined to a skilful 
application of the means which it places at his disposal. 
He should endeavour to develope its resources to the 
fullest extent; but he ought not to seek excellences 
which are incompatible with its inherent properties. 
Failure must necessarily result from an attempt to pro- 
duce in one mode, effects which are only attainable in 
another. Hence a great part of the artist's skill consists 
in the invention of a design, and mode of execution, 
calculated under the circumstances to display to the 
best advantage the excellences, and conceal the imper- 
fections, peculiar to that method of painting which he is 
called upon to employ. 

Obvious as the preceding remarks may appear, they 
will be by no means superfluous if they serve to call the 
attention of the glass-painter to the consequences which 
result from the nature of the material on which he 
paints; since it is to a disregard or defiance of these 
consequences that the erroneous system which long pre- 
vailed in the practice of the art, and possibly its decline, 
are mainly to be ascribed. The artist who undertakes 
to practise glass-painting should bear in mind that he is 
dealing with a material essentially different from any 
with which he has hitherto been familiar, and his first 
object should of course be to obtain a thorough know- 
ledge of the peculiarities and of the extent of the avail- 
able means of his art ; of the excellences which ought 
to be developed, and the defects which should be con- 
cealed. TLe nature of these excellences and defects, * 
and the best modes of displaying the former and reme- 
dying the latter as far as circumstances will allow, will 
form the subjects of the following enquiry. 

The chief excellence of a glass-painting is its trans- 



lucency. A glass-painting by possessing the power of 
transmitting light in a far greater degree than any other 
species of painting, is able to display effects of light and 
colour with a brilliancy and vividness quite unapproach- 
able by any other means. 

On the other hand this same diaphonous quality is 
the source of certain defects, such as the limited scale of 
colour, and of transparent shadow, observable in a glass- 
painting, of which its inherent flatness is a necessary 

These peculiarities will be found to restrict the suc- 
cessful application of glass-painting to a particular class 
of subjects. 

Another peculiarity of a glass-painting, which has the 
same tendency, is its mechanical construction. Lead- 
work and saddle-bars, or some other mechanical con- 
trivance, have been shewn to be essentially necessary 
for the support of the glass, and to enable the painting 
to discharge one of its most useful functions, the exclu- 
sion of the weather. But metal- work, on account of its 
opacity, cannot be concealed ; and in whatever manner 
it may be arranged, it causes the picture to be traversed 
by a number of black lines. 

These remarkable features of a glass-painting, then, 
render it unfit for the representation of certain subjects. 
Such as essentially demand a picturesque treatment, are 
better suited to an oil, or water-colour painting, than 
to a glass-painting, the pictorial resources of which are 
"^ more limited. A glass-painting is incapable of those 
nice gradations of colour, and of light and shade, which 
are indispensable for close imitations of nature, and for 
producing the full effect of atmosphere and distance. 
And even if this defect could be overcome, the lead or 


other metal-work would infallibly ruin the picture. For 
these reasons it would be improper to select a landscape, 
for instance, as the principal subject of a glass-painting. 
A subject of this description, though it might form a valu- 
able auxiliary as a background to a design, would, if exe- 
cuted by itself, only betray the defectiveness of the art in 
its flatness and want of atmosphere. The same objection 
equally applies to long perspective views of interiors, and 
the like. To these may be added groups of figures, or 
even single figures requiring a great display of fore- 
shortening ; and compositions which do not simply con- 
sist of figures confined to the foreground, but comprise 
distant groups carried far into the background of the 

The subjects which appear best suited to glass-paint- 
ings, are those which, when executed, are of themselves 
pleasing objects, and are favourable to a display of the 
translucent qualities of glass. Of this kind are oma- 
mental patterns, and a variety of other designs capable 
of being properly represented in a simple, hard, and 
somewhat flat manner, by broad masses of stiff colour- 
ing, hard outlines, and vivid contrasts of light and shade. 
A group sculptured in bas-relief would, for example, 
afford an excellent model for a glass-painter, on account 
of its want of apparent depth, and the means taken to 
counteract as far as possible this cause of indistinctness, 
— the simplicity of the composition namely, and the 
sharp lights, and broad shadows of the figures. Its 
landscape background might indeed be almost directly 
copied in a glass-painting "*. 

™ The raising of Lazarus, by Sebas- would forna, with a little modification, 
tian del Piombo in the National Gallery, n good design for a glass-painting ; as 



I will therefore assume that subjects of the kind just 
indicated as best suited to glass-paintings, should alone 
be selected by the glass-painter. In his treatment of 
these subjects, moreover, he is, I conceive, bound to adopt 
such a course as will exhibit the translucency of the 
glass as much as circumstances will reasonably allow. 

In a pattern this object is of easy accomplishment : 
but in a picture glass-painting the union of transpa- 
rency with effect of atmosphere, and apparent depth, 
so far as these latter qualities are attainable, is often 
attended with diflBiculty. I by no means entertain the 
opinion that a glass-painting is to be estimated merely 
in proportion to its sparkling brilliancy, and the beauty 
of its colours, without regard to its pictorial quaKties. 
If this were so, pattern glass-paintings should always 
be preferred to picture glass-paintings ; and geometrical 
patterns formed of plain pieces of glass, to patterns 
enriched with painting. I only assert that the best 
picture glass-painting is that which most fully com- 
bines the qualities of a good picture, with a display of 
the diaphonous property of glass. It ought, no doubt, 
to be a translucent picture ; but it should, amongst other 
things, exhibit the greatest effect of atmosphere and 
distance that can reasonably be imparted to a glass- 
painting, and which so materially promotes the distinct- 
ness of the design. The accomplishment of this end 
must necessarily involve a diminution of the brilliancy of 

would also Baphaers cartoons. My < gestions most valuable to the glass- 
attention has been directed to these last painter, and is worthy of an attentive 
works by the Appendix, No. 2, to the ! perusal. Had I fortunately met with 
Fifth Report of the Commissioners of , this work before I commenced the pre- 
Fine Arts/' Lond. 1816, pp. 13, 14. This sent section, it would have saved me 
Appendix contains a number of sug- some time and trouble. 



the glass in some parts of the picture. The extent of this 
obscuration, and the mode by which it may be effected 
with the least sacrifice of the brilliancy of the work, will 
form a principal part of the present enquiry. 

In order to render available the translucent quality of 
glass to the utmost extent under every conjuncture, the 
artist should, I think, adopt the Mosaic system of glass- 
painting; because under this system the most brilliant 
and powerful effects of light and colour may be produced. 
This will at once appear on examining the glass which 
forms the raw material of a Mosaic glass-painting. 
Whether it is white or coloured it is equally trans- 
parent; but this is not the case in general with the 
glass either of an Enamel, or a Mosaic Enamel glass- 
painting. In these paintings such portions of the pic- 
ture as are coloured either wholly or in part with ena- 
mels, are not so transparent as the white parts. Hence, 
cceteris paribus^ a Mosaic glass-painting, the whole of 
whose basis is equally transparent, must be more diapho- 
nous than an Enamel, or Mosaic Enamel glass-painting ; 
the groundwork of which is of different degrees of 
transparency, varying from that of white glass, to that 
of the dullest kind of enamel coloured glass. 

It may be said that the Mosaic system does not possess 
so extended a scale of colour as the Enamel system ; and 
that it is not capable of producing such rich colouring 
as the Mosaic Enamel: but its inferiority in these 
respects to the other systems is but trifling, and is 
more than counterbalanced by its superiority over the 
Enamel in strength of colour, and over the Mosaic Ena- 
mel, as well as the Enamel, in point of brilliancy. The 
truth of this will, I think, be established by comparing 


together a Cinque Cento picture glass-painting, and 
any ancient or modern example of the Enamel, or Mo- 
saic Enamel systems. It will be found that the Cinque 
Cento glass-painting is on the whole hardly if at all 
inferior to the other works in pictorial effect ^ : and that 
although its colouring may possibly not be quite as rich 
or so varied as, for instance, that of a Mosaic Enamel 
glass-painting executed by the Van Linges, it is infi- 
nitely more vivid and powerful than that of an Enamel 
glass-painting ; whilst at the same time the whole pic- 
ture is far more brilliant and transparent than either of 
the others. 

It may also be urged as an objection against the 
Mosaic system of glass-painting, that the employment 
of a separate piece of glass for almost every colour of the 
design, renders the use of harsh outlines throughout the 
picture unavoidable, and consequently that it is less 
favourable than the Enamel system for pictures. But 
this objection does not appear to be well founded. 

It has already been stated that no glass-painting, un- 
less it be of very small dimensions, can be constructed 
without the aid of metal- work; and that wherever 
metal -work is used there will be the appearance of 
black lines. To this law an Enamel glass-painting 
affords no exception: if of large dimensions it must 
be composed of many pieces of glass, and these must 

" It would, I apprehend, be impossi- 
ble to meet with afiy Enamel or Mosaic 
Enamel- glass-paintings, not excepting 
those of the modern French scliool, which 
are the best of their kind, more effective 
as pictures than, for instance, the four 
Cinque Cento windows of the chapel of 
the Miraculous Sacrament, Brussrls Ca- 

thedral; the Flemish glass in the apsa 
of Lichfield Cathedral ; or the choir win- 
dows of St. Jacques Church, Li^e : all 
which works are pure specimens of the 
Mosaic system, and are far more bril- 
liant and translucent than any Enamel 
or Mosaic Enamel glaas-puutings that I 
can mention. 


be secured in their places either simply by means of 
leads, or in a metal framework. The construction of 
the work does not indeed require that the leads or 
metal framework should follow the course of the out- 
lines of the picture, but this is practically the only 
difference between an Enamel, and a Mosaic glass- 
painting. The black lines cannot be got rid of. In 
some Enamel glass-paintings an attempt is made to 
avoid the effect of the metal- work; either by using 
pieces of glass of the largest possible dimensions, and 
moulding the lead or other framework to a few of the 
principal outlines of the picture, or else by making it 
take a course altogether independent of the design, and 
cut the glass into a number of uniform rectangular 
panes'. But neither of these expedients appears to con- 
stitute any improvement upon the method necessarily 
adopted in a Mosaic glass-painting, of throwing the 
leadwork into all the principal outlines of the picture, 
and strengthening it with saddle-bars. For besides the 
inconvenience resulting from the use of very large piece3 
of glass, the first-mentioned mode is objectionable on 
account of the inharmonious prominency which the opa- 
city of the metal- work imparts to the particular outlines 
it follows : a prominency the more striking on account 
of the weak colouring of an Enamel glass-painting. 
And the second mode, though perhaps less objection- 
able than the first, is attended with this disagreeable 
effect; that the close network of black lines, through 
which the picture appears to be seen, distracts the at- 
tention from the painting itself. 

The construction of a Mosaic glass-painting appears 
indeed to be on the whole more favourable to the effect 


of the picture than that of an Enamel glass-painting. 
For the leadwork being generally and pretty equally 
distributed over the whole design, is on that account 
less noticed than if its course were confined only to 
a few particular outlines. I may also add that the 
colouring and execution of a Mosaic glass-painting 
greatly tend to disguise the leadwork. The saddle- 
bars must however be admitted to be very prominent 
objects, though, from the style of the painting, they 
are perhaps less prominent than the lead or metal-work 
of an Enamel painting. The eye soon becomes recon- 
ciled to them. They are indeed so essential to the 
stability of the leadwork that their absence would only 
suggest a disagreeable feeling of weakness and inse- 
curity. In some respects they assist the effect of the 
picture, diminishing by contrast the apparent width of 
the leads, and throwing back the picture, with the de- 
sign of which they in nowise interfere. It has been 
already remarked in a former part of this book, that the 
metallic framework of an Early English medallion win- 
dow decidedly improves the effect of the glass, by ren- 
dering the main divisions of the design more distinct. 

From these considerations, I think I am justified in 
concluding that the Mosaic system of glass-painting is, 
on the whole, the best system to be adopted. I shall 
now proceed to enquire into the proper application of 
this system, particularly with reference to the develop- 
ment of the resources of the art of glass-painting, con- 
sistent with a due preservation of its translucent powers. 

An attention merely to form, contrast of colour, and 
magnitude of parts, will suffice to ensure to some sub- 
jects of the glass-painter's art, proper distinctness and 


effect, — a&y for instance, patterns, either simply com- 
posed of yarions pieces of plain glass, or enriched with 
ornaments added with the pencil. And in these sub- 
jects there is no difficulty in exhibiting the transparency 
of the material to its greatest extent. But in a picture 
glass-painting, — especially one consisting not of a single 
figure, but of a group, — though the nature and treat- 
ment of the subject itself, the size of the different ob- 
jects represented, and the arrangement of its colouring, 
may all powerfully contribute to produce distinctness, 
full effect cannot be given to the work without having 
recourse to strong shadows, contrasted with brilliant 

A proof of this is afforded by all the picture glass- 
paintings which were executed previously to the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century. They are but bril- 
liant Mosaics. Their universal defect is, that, like 
patterns, they are as flat in appearance as the glass 
actually is on which they are painted. A single figure 
placed under a canopy, owing to the simplicity of the 
design, the breadth and contrasts of its colouring, and 
the magnitude of its parts, usually preserves a certain 
degree of distinctness : but a group even of large figures 
is but a mass of confusion when seen from a little dis- 
tance °. This defect arises in general not from any vice 

<* Some persons for whose opinions I 
entertain great respect, regard this very 
indistinctness as a beauty rather than as 
a defect in a glass-paiuting. I readily ad- 
mit that the imagination may be power- 
fully excited by the contemplation of a 
mere assemblage of brilliant and harmo- 
nions tints, snch for instance as the east 
window of York Minster presents, when 
yiewed from the choir : yet I cannot bot 

reg^ard as defective a picture glass-paint- 
ing which creates only such indefinite 
impressions. A pattern glass-piunting 
which produces this result is admirable, 
for it does not profess to do more when 
seen from a distance; but surely the 
fundamental principles of art must ap- 
ply to glass pictures equally as to all 
others; and in these last it is always 
an essential condition that they should 


in the composition, — for the design of most, medieval 
groups is admirably suited to the nature of a glass- 
painting, — nor from a bad disposition of colours, for the 
effect is the same in a late picture, where the more 
positive tints are confined to the foreground, and the 
retiring colours to the background ; as in an early one, 
in which no such rule is followed; — nor yet from the 
want of powerful outlines, for an Early English group is 
almost as indistinct as a Perpendicular one ; — but from 
a too timid application of shading. It is to the power of 
the shadows that the superior distinctness and effect of 
a Cinque Cento glass-painting are chiefly attributable. 

Since, then, powerful shadows are the principal means 
of producing distinctness in a glass-painting, and as it is 
essential that the work should also be both brilliant and 
transparent, it becomes important to ascertain, if possible, 
the mode by which a union of these requisites may be 
best effected. 

The greater the depth of the shadow, the greater no 
doubt will be the force given to the picture; but the 
brilliancy and general transparency of the picture are 
in proportion to the brilliancy of its lights, the trans- 
parency of its shadows, and the relative quantities of 
light and shade. The picture will be dull, if its lights 

appear distinct from the fhrthest point 
whence they are intended to he viewed. 
On this account the east windows of 
Qloacester and Winchester Cathedrals, 
and the west window of St. Gndule at 
Brussels, are better adapted in design to 
the situations they occupy than the east 
window of York Minster. 

Michael Angelo, in painting the ceil- 
ing of the Sistine chapel, increased the 
size of the figures in the compartments 

he executed last, having observed — as is 
suggested by Sir C. Eastlake in a note 
to Kugler's "Handbook of Painting," 
vol. ]. p. 206; and more pointedly in 
the second Appendix to the " Fifth Re- 
port of the Commissioners of Fine Arts," 
p. 12 — that the figures in the former 
compartments were too diminutive to 
produce the desired effect from the floor 
of the chapel. See ante, p. 89, note. 


be not kept clear and bright, whether its shadows be 
strong or weak; opaque if its shadows be not trans- 
parent, notwithstanding the brilliancy of its lights; 
and heavy if the aggregate volume of the shadows 
greatly exceeds that of the lights. 

The dulness and opacity arising from a want of clear 
lights and transparent shadows, are exemplified in most 
of the glass-paintings which were executed after the 
middle of the sixteenth century, including the produc- 
tions of the modem Munich school. And the heavi- 
ness occasioned by a disproportionate preponderance of 
shadow may likewise be remarked in many favourite 
subjects of the above period, such for instance as large 
perspective views of the interiors of buildings, and in 
landscapes and other pictures in which large masses of 
dark clouds are introduced ; of these the Nativity, at 
New College Chapel, and the Last Judgment, at Mag- 
dalene Chapel, Oxford, may be cited as examples. 

From these defects the glass-paintings of the first 
half of the sixteenth century are in general free, al- 
though they exhibit shadows as deep and powerful as 
those of any subsequent works. I therefore cannot 
better illustrate the present subject than by examining 
the execution of the glass-paintings of this period. 

The shadows of every glass-painting executed accord- 
ing to the Mosaic system, are principally .produced by 
the application to the glass of a coat of enamel brown ; 
varying in thickness according to the required depth of 
the shadow. And it is on the superficial extent and 
texture of this ground, that the brilliancy and general 
transparency of the picture depend. For the biilliancy 
of any piece of glass may be as effectually destroyed by 


spreading over it a thin coat of enamel brown, as a coat 
of any other enamel colour : and since the enamel brown 
partakes of an opaque nature, a very trifling increase in 
the thickness of the coat will, if the colour be smoothly 
applied, reduce the glass to a state of dulness, or even 
deprive it of all transparency whatever. It is therefore 
essential to the brilliancy of the glass-painting, that 
certain portions of the glass should be left for the 
free transmission of light, quite unencumbered with any 
enamel brown. These portions, being the brightest, 
may be generally assigned to the strongest lights of the 
picture : and in these lights the brown ground must be 
entirely removed from off the glass. It is also essential 
to the complete transparency of the shadows, — especially 
when the painting is intended to occupy a distant posi- 
tion, — that the enamel ground of which they are com- 
posed should be very coarsely granulated or stippled. 
A coat of enamel brown smeared smoothly and evenly 
on the glass, will exclude the light more completely in 
this state than after it has been rendered irregular in 
its texture by the process of stippling. For this pro- 
cess collects the colour into little lumps or dots, leaving 
interstices between them less loaded with colour, and 
consequently more pervious to the rays of light than 
any part of the ground was before it was stippled. 
A stipple shadow is therefore always more transparent 
than a smear shadow of equal depth; and glass-paint- 
ings entirely executed with stipple shading, are con- 
sequently on the whole more transparent than those 
which are entirely executed with smear shading. Some 
analogy may in this respect be perceived between glass- 
paintings executed with stipple, or with smear shadows. 


and line and mezzotint engravings ; in whicli a perfectly 
opaque matter — sprinting ink — is employed. The de- 
gree of transparency exhibited by the print as essen- 
tially depends on the light which is reflected back from 
the white paper forming the interstices between the 
black particles of the ink, as that of the glass-painting 
depends on the light which is suffered to pass through 
the less dense interstices of the brown ground. These 
interstices are more regular and better defined in a line 
engraving than in a mezzotint, and to this the former 
owes its superior clearness and transparency. 

It will be found on examination that in all glass- 
paintings of the first half of the sixteenth century, 
equally as in the earlier Perpendicular examples, the 
shadows in half-tint are abruptly terminated, and the 
vivid lights of the picture formed by entirely scraping 
off portions, sometimes considerable ones, of the brown 
enamel ground. The shadows, especially in the later 
examples, are always very coarsely granulated by stip- 
pling; and it will be observed, as might be expected, 
that in proportion to the coarseness of the grain of the 
enamel ground are the apparent clearness and juiciness 
of the shadow. The mode in which the shadow was 
applied had also a very favourable effect on its trans- 
parency. The ancient artists appear never to have ap- 
plied more than two coats of enamel to the same side 
of the glass. They seem to have first spread a thin 
stipple ground of enamel brown all over the glass, and 
after having cleared the bright lights out of it, to have 
heightened the depth of the shadow by a thicker coat 
of colour, decreasing in depth as it approached the 
lighter parts of the picture, where it became insensibly 


blended with the shadow in half-tint, formed by the 
first ground of colour. This second coat was very 
coarsely stippled, and it would seem as if its moisture 
softened the first coat, and caused it also to be dis- 
turbed by the stippling ; for the stippling of the second 
coat appears, in all the specimens I hare examined, 
to have gone right through to the glass. This causes 
the stipple shadows of an ancient glass-painting to 
be in general clearer and more transparent than those 
of a modern glass-painting, which are usually com- 
posed of several distinct coats of paint, some not un- 
frequently being applied after the others have been 
actually burnt in; a practice which has a tendency to 
fill up the lighter interstices of the ground, and to coun- 
teract the effect of the stippling. The ancient artists 
were often accustomed to increase the depth of the 
shadows in the darkest parts, by a coat of well stippled 
enamel brown applied to the opposite side of the glass, 
and which was made gradually to diminish in strength 
as it approached the lighter parts of the shadow ; but 
this proceeding for some reason or other does not pro- 
duce dulness like that occasioned by a third coat of 
colour on the same side of the glass. They were also 
in the habit of further strengthening the deeper shadows 
with a hatching of black lines; a mode by which the 
transparency of the shadow was preserved while its 
depth was increased, the interstices between the lines 
allowing a passage for the light. 

But whilst the artists of the first half of the sixteenth 
century thus successfully combined the use of brilliant 
lights, and of powerful and yet transparent shadows, 
they were careful to avoid the effect of heaviness by 


duly proportioning to each other the aggregate quanti- 
ties of light and shade in the picture. It is difficult to 
determine the relative amount of these quantities, which 
varies in almost every case ; nor do I take upon myself 
to define it. It will be enough if I succeed in pointing 
out, however imperfectly, the method by which the 
ancient artists contrived to produce in their works, 
principally by means of light and shade, sufficient dis- 
tinctness without heaviness. 

I have already described in the course of my remarks 
on the Cinque Cento style, the method usually adopted 
by them to confine within certain limits the masses of 
deep shadow, to the use of which their works owe their 
striking effect. I allude to the favourite practice of 
placing the picture, or scene to be represented, under 
a canopy or bower, or beneath an archway. 

When the first-mentioned arrangement is adopted, 
a gi'eat mass of light is produced by keeping the front 
of the head of the canopy, or bower, clear and bright, 
no more shadow being there employed than is sufficient 
to give effect to the mouldings and other ornaments 
represented on it. The side jambs or pillars of the 
canopy, and the front of its base, if it have a base, are 
likewise but slightly shaded. This mass of light is 
strongly contrasted with the deep shadow which is 
spread all over the interior of the niche or recess, and 
which serves both to give projection to the figures, 
and to throw back the bright landscape which is shewn 
through the open-work, or windows of the recess, behind 
the figures. The same principle of alternately employ- 
ing masses of light and shade, is shewn in the treatment 
of the figures themselves, which commonly have one 


side strongly illuminated, and the other in deep shadow ; 
the shaded side of one figure being relieved against the 
bright side of another, or the bright background dis- 
played in the distance. It will be observed that the 
mass of shadow which covers the interior of the recess, 
and constitutes so important an element of the composi- 
tion, is prevented from spreading itself too far in any 
direction, by the figures, the side pillars, and front of 
the canopy. The shadow is generally relieved in its 
darkest part, which is immediately under the hood of 
the canopy, by reflected lights cast on the groining 
of the recess. Examples of this arrangement are too 
common in Cinque Cento work to require particular 
notice. I may however mention as good Perpendicular 
examples of the sixteenth century, the canopies in 
Munich cathedral, which have been already described 
in the Perpendicular style ; and the windows of Fairford 
Church, Gloucestershire, which contain the figures of 
the twelve Apostles. In the windows last mentioned 
it is worthy of observation how skilfully the artist has 
availed himself of the white scroll inscribed with a por- 
tion of the Creed, which is disposed about the head of 
each figure^ as an additional contrast to the shaded 
interior of the niche ; and possibly as a means of break- 
ing up what otherwise might have proved a too exten- 
sive mass of shadow. 

The other arrangement, — that of placing the group 
or picture in front of, or underneath an archway,— does 

P The portion of the Creed written 
on each Bcroll is given in the " History 
of Fairford Church/' Cirencester, 1841, 
p. 9, as well as the name of the Apostle 
around whose head the scroll is placed. 

The majority of the sentences are di- 
vided and appropriated, in a manner dif- 
ferent from that set forth in the chapter 
"De symbolo Apostolorum," Gavanti 
Thesaurus, Cologne, 1705, p. 49. 


not diflfer in principle from that which has just been 
described, though it admits of stronger contrasts of light 
and shade, and consequently of more vivid effects. The 
whole front face of the arch presents a mass of strong 
light. This is contrasted with the dark shade of the 
soflBt and inside of the arch ; and this in its turn is con- 
trasted with the bright light, which streaming through 
the aperture of the archway, is displayed behind the 
group, and serves as a contrast to some of the dark 
shadows of the figures. The figures have their bright 
sides and their dark sides, and these alternate masses 
of light and shade are contrasted with each other, with 
the light and shaded parts of the archway, and with the 
light passing through it. Thus the dark interior of 
the archway — forming a mass of shadow the extent 
of which is limited — separates the mass of light on the 
front of the arch, from the light which apparently passes 
through the arch, and most effectually throws back the 
distant landscape represented as seen beyond the arch. 
I should add that the deep mass of shade in the soffit 
of the archway, is relieved by strong reflected lights 
cast against the ornaments sculptured on its surface, 
and sometimes more effectually by a festoon of fruit or 
flowers, hung across the front of the arch, and of course 
equally exposed to the influence of a powerful light. 
A similar festoon, but in deep shadow, is not unfre- 
quently suspended across the further side of the arch, 
and affords an additional contrast to the mass of light 
under the arch. The effect of both these arrangements 
is materially promoted by the disposition of the colour- 
ing ; but this has already been sufficiently described in 
the course of the Perpendicular and Cinque Cento styles, 



and more than a reference to it now would only em- 
barrass the subject \ One of the best and most simple 
examples of the last arrangement is aflPbrded by the 
windows of the chapel of the Miraculous Sacrament, 
Brussels Cathedral, which have already been noticed. 
These windows, and the remark equally applies to many 
others of the same class, are indeed true glass-paintings. 
They exhibit the fullest atmospheric effect that perhaps 
can be produced by the art; and they differ from all 
other paintings not only in brilliancy, but in their 
general nature and arrangement. The statuesque cha- 
racter of the figures perfectly accords with the architec- 
ture which surrounds them, and serving as an orna- 
mental setting to the picture, is in some instances inti- 
mately connected with its design. At the same time 
the broad stiff colouring of the picture, its decided out- 
lines, and its sharp contrasts of light and shade, per- 
fectly harmonize with the natural stiffness of a glass- 
painting, arising from its mechanical construction. 

1 The colouring of a glass-painting is 
no doubt a point which mast be care- 
ftilly studied by the artist; but it is one 

stained yellow, is more apt to diffuse 
itself than any other tint. A very slight 
apparent variation in the tint of parti- 

upon which little light can be thrown , cular colours will prevent their harmo- 
by a written essay. The proper selec- ' nizing. Hence the difficulty of repra< 

tion and arrangement of colours can 
only be learnt by studying ancient spe- 

ducing the same design in the siune 
colours ; for differences in tint may often 

cimens of glass-painting, and by prac- be observed in glass made of the same 
tice. The colours of a glass-painting materiuls, at the same manufactory, and 
differ in many respects irom those of 1 on the same day. This difficulty in ob- 
an oil-painting. They have the property ' taining the same tint of colour in glass 
of intermingling their tints with each ! may perhaps have prevented the ancient 
other, so that raw colours, if placed side I glass-painters from appropriating parti- 
by side, will often produce a very bar- ' cular colours to particular subjects, — as 
moiiious effect without the assistance of ecclesiastical dresses, &c. In copying an 
the glass-painter. Ruby, and a light ' oil-painting in glass, the artist will in 
pink glass, preserve their distinctive ! general be obliged entirely to recast its 

tints at a greater distance than any 
other colours. Yellow, and especially 



The principle of confining the principal masses of 
shade within proper limits, may also be observed in 
those Cinque Cento picture glass-paintings which are 
not relieved by being set in an ornamental frame- work 
of architecture. An excellent instance of this is aflPorded 
by the east window of St. Margaret's church, West- 
minster. The painting of the Crucifixion, which occu- 
pies the three central lower lights of a five-light window 
is relieved and framed as it were by the figures and 
canopies which occupy the outer lights, and the angels 
and badges with which the tracery lights are filled. 
The principal subject is thus sufficiently supported, 
without the intervention of great masses of clouds, or 
an extended landscape, which has been shewn to have 
been resorted to in later times for this purpose. I might 
also refer to many similar examples '. 

I have thus endeavoured, however imperfectly, to 
point out the great principle adopted in the first half 
of the sixteenth century, of preserving the brilliancy 
and general transparency of the glass, and of promoting 

' The light which falls upon the side 
figares and canopies in the St. Marga- 
ret's window, in either case proceeds 
from one side of the picture, so that the 
bright side of ench figure is contrasted 
with the dark side of the niche, and vice 
verad. The painting of the Visitation, 
in one of the windows of the sonth aisle 
of the choir of York minster, — to which 
reference has already been made {ante, 
p. 240), though inferior as a glass-paint- 

in the possession of Mr. Ward, the glass- 
painter), abounds in deep masses of sha- 
dow, which do not appear in the glass- 
painting. Their exclusion no doubt arose 
from the conviction that though a source 
of beauty in an oil-painting, such exten- 
sive masses would only have rendered 
the glass-painting heavy. The colouring 
of the oil-painting has also been departed 
from in the glass ; a step probably ren- 
dered necessary by the altered character 

ing to many Cinque Cento examples, | given to the design by the exclusion of 
fliews that the principles of glass-paint- > the deep masses of shadow. The glass- 
ing were not forgotten even in the latter ' painting, I think, must originally have 
part of the sixteenth century. The ori- , been enclosed within an ornamental 
ginal painting from which the glass was frame-work of architecture, 
designed (of which I have seen a copy I 



the distinctness of the design by the use of clear lights, 
transparent shadows, and strong contrasts of light and 
shade. But in order that we may appreciate the supe- 
rior execution of the glass-paintings of that period, I 
propose to make a few observations on the execution of 
those which were painted subsequently to the middle 
of the sixteenth century. 

The dulness and opacity of all these works may be 
ascribed less to an increased use of enamel colours, than 
to the mode of their application. Some enamel colours 
are naturally more transparent than enamel brown; 
none are less transparent than it. 

The commonest defect in glass-paintings after the 
middle of the sixteenth century, is the absence of clear 
lights. This is in some cases caused by not sufficiently 
removing the enamel brown ground from the glass in 
the lights of the picture; in others by purposely spread- 
ing a thin coat of a white enamel colour on the back of 
the glass, over the lights and shadows alike. The result 
in either case is to destroy the brilliancy of the material, 
producing the same effect as if the painting had been 
executed on ground glass. In no glass-paintings is this 
defect more conspicuous than in the works of the modern 
Munich school. The German artists have adopted the 
Mosaic Enamel system; and with the object probably 
of reducing the brilliancy of the manufactured coloured 
glass, to a level with the dulness of the glass coloured 
with enamel colours, their practice is to spread a very 
heavy coat of white enamel all over the back of the 
glass. No rays of light are therefore permitted any 
where to pass directly through the glass as in a Cinque 
Cento glass-painting, and the work in consequence as- 



Bumes a dull, heavy, and substantial appearance, quite 
opposed to the translucent and unsubstantial character 
of a true glass-painting'. The eye seeks in vain for 
a few clear spots through virhich it may be carried 
a little beyond the actual plane surface of the painting. 

The shadows also soon after the middle of the six- 
teenth century became, in general, opaque and heavy. 
This arose partly from omitting to stipple their ground 
sufficiently, partly from a practice, which may be de- 
tected even in some of the later Cinque Cento works, 
of heightening the deeper shadows with broad, smear, 
unstippled patches, or dabs of Enamel brown. 

This defect is particularly observable in the Dutch 
glass-paintings of the latter half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and the works of the Van Linge school ; coupled 
with the absence of clear lights, it transformed glass- 
paintings from translucent pictures, to objects scarcely 
exceeding in actual transparency, fresco, or oil-paint- 
ings. In general transparency of tone, an oil-painting 
is very superior to one of these glass-pamtings ; which 
are often disfigured by shadows having a certain degree 
of transparency when closely examined, but which ap- 
pear perfectly black when seen at a distance. 

The shadows and general tone of the glass-paintings 
of the eighteenth century, from the colour being applied 

* Some of tbe smaller works of the 
Manich school rather resemble in their 
opacity and high finish paintings on 
porcelain than glass-paintings. The dnU 
ness noticed in the text is very apparent 
in the windows of tbe Maria Hilf charch 
at Munich, and also in the windows of 
Kildown charch near Tunbridge Wells. 
These may be cited as fine specimens 
of the practice of the modem Manich 

school of glass-painting. The general 
arrangement and design of the Maria 
Hilf charch are founded on an unexcep- 
tionable principle. [The Manich artists 
have since altered their method. The 
Glasgow windows are executed accord- 
ing to the Mosaic method. See "Archie- 
ological Journal/' vol. xxi., p. 202, and 
"Memoirs on Glass-painting," pp. M, 


in little hatches with a brush, as in an oil-painting, are 
upon the whole more transparent than those of the 
paintings which have just been noticed. Such shadows 
are however not so clear, and are by no means so 
effective, as shadows produced by a coarsely stippled 
ground *. 

It would admit of easy demonstration that the excel- 
lent system of glass-painting which grew up in the 
middle ages, had an accidental origin, and continued 
to be so long practised, rather because it presented the 
sufficient means of competing with the hard and dry pro- 
ductions of the medieval oil and water-colour painters, 
than from any philosophical consideration of its intrinsic 
merit as a method of art : and that the development of 
its powers in the first half of the sixteenth century, was 
the consequence not of the adoption of any fixed prin- 
ciple of execution, but the mere desire on the part of 
glass-painters to emulate, as far as they could, the won- 
derful effects which had then been attained in oil-paint- 
ing. This consideration, whilst it may serve to account 
for the rapid deterioration of the art of glass-painting 
in the latter half of the sixteenth century, should ope- 
rate as a warning to modem artists not ignorantly to 
confoimd the principles which belong to essentially dis- 
tinct systems of painting ; the one having for its object 
the production of effect by the transmission of light 
through the picture; the other, by the reflection of 
light from its surface. The glass-painters of the latter 
half of the sixteenth century, and subsequently, in 
a vain endeavour to compass the beauties which essen- 

* I have collected in a note at the end 
of this section, some remarks illostrating 

the execution of several glass-paintings 
which I have particularly examined. 


tially belong to the art of oil-painting, lost sight of the 
excellences of their own art. The result is, that after 
nearly three hundred years of misconception of its prin- 
ciples, and mistaken practice, the art of glass-painting 
has not yet regained the point of excellence it had at- 
tained in the middle of the sixteenth century. Whether 
it will ever surpass that point is a question on which I 
offer no opinion ; of one thing I am certain, it will not 
reach that point unless the principles of the art, what- 
ever they may be, are adhered to and carried out \ 

In conclusion I must call attention to some practical 
questions important in their bearing on glass-painting, 
— the proper width of the leads, and the distance at 
which the saddle-bars should be placed apart. 

The ancient artists though they never shrank from 
the employment of leadwork, never unnecessarily used 
it. On the contrary their efforts were constantly di- 
rected to its disguise, by making it constitute as much 
as po ssible an integral part of the design. 

In geometrical patterns formed of plain pieces of 
glass, (and which are the more interesting since they 
undoubtedly exhibit the germ of the Mosaic system of 
glass-painting,) the outlines of the pattern are entirely 
represented by the leadwork; and in patterns enriched 

* I am not so presamptuous as to 
BuppoM that some of the rules I have 
attempted to establish are not soBcepti- 
ble of modification and improvement. 
For instance, I think that enamel co- 
lours, the use of which would be ex- 
cluded by a rigid adherence to the Mo- 
saic system of glass-painting, may be 
introduced for particular purposes, as 
to tint the flesh-colour of the figures. 
But I am decidedly opposed, for the 

reasons already given, to their more 
extensive employment. 

The colouring of the flesh by means 
of enamels to a greater extent than it 
was carried in the Cinque Cento period, 
has long been with me an open question. 
But I have now come to the conclusion, 
that the flesh, if coloured at all, ought 
to be fully coloured. The new win- 
dow for Christ Church, Bloomsbury, haa 
principally deterujined me. [1847.] 


with painting, and in pictures themselves, the leads 
constitute most of the principal outlines, and are in 
general not distinguishable from the outlines painted 
on the glass. 

But it is ievident that to ensure the disguise of the 
leadwork the width of the leads must be proportionate 
to that of the lines usually painted on the glass ; for the 
leaden outlines will easily be detected if they are much 
stronger than the painted outlines \ In other words, 
the leads should be as narrow in the leaf as they can 
be made with safety. 

The lead anciently used is not wider than (and some- 
times is not quite so wide as) three sixteenths of an 
inch in the leaf ^, and this will be generally found to 

* In proof of this I need only refer to 
cut 8, p. 93 ; and plates 60, and 56 ; in 
which broad lead is represented; and 
plate 18, in which the effect of modem 
fret lead is shewn. 

y The profile and face of some ancient 
leads of the ordinary width, have already 
been shewn (p. 81) in cut 4^ figs. 1, 2, 
and 3. But leads somewhat narrower 
in the leaf than these, were very exten- 
sively employed. An entire window at 
Stowting Church, Kent, probably of the 
early part of the reign of Edward IV., 
was leaded together with leads, the pro- 
file of one of which is given in the mar- 
gin ; fig. 2. The other lead, fig. 1, is of 
the early part of the reign of Henry VI., 
and is from Melb Church, Somersetshire, 
where similar lead is commonly used. 
Its profile is here given in order to prove 
that the mode of strengthening the 
lead, without increasing its width in the 
leaf, so remarkably displayed in cut 4, 
fig. 8, was not confined to the Decorated 

Both the specimens from which the 
cut in the margin was taken, had all 
the appearance of having been east in 

a mould. It will be observed that one 
of the faces of the leaf is in each lead 
narrower than the other. This inequal- 
ity was doubtless caused by decomposi- 

Cut 28. 

tion of the metal; the narrowest face in 
both cases being outside the window, 
and therefore more exposed to the ac- 
tion of the atmosphere. The broadest 
face of the leaf is that represented in 
fig. 3. 

A somewhat still narrower lead than 
those in the margin mny occasionally be 
met with in heraldry, and other minute 
Mosaic works of the fifteenth and six* 


harmonize in width with the painted outlines. In Early 
English, and sometimes in Decorated glass-paintings, 
lead of this width is not iinfrequently narrower than 
the painted outlines ; and in Perpendicular and Cinque 
Cento glass-paintings, it is barely wider than them. 

Experience has also abundantly proved its capability 
of retaining the glass securely in its place. The perfect 
state of repair of many specimens of Early English and 
Decorated glazing, the leadwork of which is coeval with 
the glass, sufficiently attests this fact. 

There seems to be no reason why lead of the ancient 
width should not again be used. That ordinarily em- 
ployed in glass-paintings at the present day is a quarter 
of an inch wide in the leaf. Yet this increased width, 
though so trifling, is very perceptible. The reason 
assigned for the increase, is the impossibility of com- 
pletely excluding the wind and rain by means of leads 
less than a quarter of an inch wide in the leaf. Consider- 
ing however that glass-paintings are chiefly employed in 
large public edifices, used mostly on particular occasions, 
and for particular purposes, I hardly think that a per- 
fectly weather-tight window is of such paramount im- 
portance as to override all considerations of taste. The 
windage of an ancient piece of glazing cannot be per- 
ceived at a little distance, and its leakage is very trifling. 
The water it may occasionally admit can easily be con- 
veyed outside the building, together with the moisture 
condensed on the glass from within, by a simple mecha- 
nical contrivance at the bottom of the window. 

teenth centuries; and sometimes in re- 
pairs, but a knowledge of its weakness 
seems to have prevented its more ex- 
tensive use. 

It is hardly necessary to observe that 
the greater the number of leads em* 
ployed, the weaker individually may 
they be made. 


In ancient windows it will be found that the saddle- 
bars are usually placed from eight to nine inches apart ; 
and this seems to be the most agreeable distance in most 
cases, though in some, an interval between the bars not 
exceeding six inches does not appear too little. The 
great object is to avoid as much as possible causing the 
light to appear as if it were divided into a number of 
square compartments — which is so often the case in 
modem work — ^by making the distance between each 
pair of saddle-bars too nearly equal the width of the 
light. It is always better to place the saddle-bars too 
closely together than too far apart, not only for the sake 
of the stability of the work, but because they are ren- 
dered less obtrusive by their very repetition. Amongst 
the advantages resulting from the use of saddle-bars at 
short intervals, is the opportunity it affords the glazier 
of carrying a horizontal lead across the light, immedi- 
ately in front of each saddle-bar ; the opacity of which 
hides the lead. The workman is thus enabled, without 
deviating from the principle of cutting the glass to the 
outlines of the design, to avoid the employment of in- 
conveniently long and weak pieces of glass, by dividing 
them unseen into lengths in no case exceeding the 
distance between two saddle-bars. This method of 
concealing leadwork has been noticed before. It was 
carried to such perfection during the first half of the 
sixteenth century, that a person ignorant of it, would 
find it difficult to conceive how some of the works of 
that period were constructed. 

Before quitting the subject of saddle-bars, I should 
express my opinion in favour of retaining, at all events 
in pattern windows, the upright standards, or stanoheons 



as they are sometimes called, which in ancient windows 
are usually put through the saddle-bars. The standards 
do not appear to be out of place even in picture windows 
also, whenever they do not happen to pass immediately 
behind the head of the principal figure. They seem on 
the whole to improve the eflfect of the architecture from 
without, and certainly they do not, in the instances just 
put, injure the appearance of the glass from within. To 
pattern windows they are an improvement. The stand- 
ards from being somewhat set back from the glass, and 
therefore only indistinctly seen through it, are not open 
to the objection which applies to vertical leads, which 
on account of their tendency to arrest the eye, should 
in general be avoided as much as possible in a glass- 

The following notices of various glass-paintings are given solely with the 
view of directing attention to their mode of execution^ and without any 
reference to their qualities as compositions. 

The Gothic glass in the five "windows of the north aisle of the nave 
of Cologne Cathedral, some of which bears date 1508, 1509 ■, when 
compared with earlier specimens, as, for instance, that in the windows 
of Great and Little Malvern churches, Worcestei-shire, of the close of 
the third quarter of the fifteenth century, or that in the ante-chapel of 
All Souls* College, Oxford, of the time of Henry VI., or that in the 
ante -chapel of Kew College, Oxford, of the time of William of Wyke- 
ham, aflTords a satisfactory proof of the progress already made in the 
art, and of the more powerful effects produced by employing stipple 
shadows, deeper, and coarser in grain, than those used in the fifteenth 
century. But this Cologne glass exhibits the resources of the art only 
in a limited degree. The general appearance of paintings is too flat 

* An enumeration of the subjects re- 
preseuted in these windows, and the 
method of their arrangement, are given 
in a little book entitled, Ber Dom zu 
Koln von M, J, de Noel, Cologne, 1837, 

2nd od. The glass in the tracery lights 
of these windows is early Cinqne Cento. 
As to the glass in Great Malvern, see 
" Archeological Journal," vol. ii. p. 48. 


and hard, arising from the shadows not being sufficiently deep. It is 
impossible, however, to overrate the granulated texture of the shadows, 
or the manner in which the bright lights are taken out The glass is 
in excellent condition, having been cleaned within the last few years. 

The windows of Fairford Church, Gloucestershire, and the remains 
of the original glass in the east window of Winchester Cathedral, both 
works of the sixteenth century, but probably not later than 1520% 
shew a still further progress in the art. Their shadows are deep, juicy, 
and effective, without exhibiting the least appearance of opacity. The 
grain of the shadow is very coarse, and the enamel brown of which it 
is formed is of a rich brown tint, which renders the paintings wanner 
and more mellow in their tone than the Cologne glass; the enamel 
brown of which is, like the medieval, of a cold tint. Some of the 
shadows, not only of the figures, but also of the architectural work, 
are heightened with a warm enamel, resembling China red. The 
lights are invariably left clear and transparent. 

The shading used in the two last examples is, on the whole, superior 
to that of the greater number of the earlier Cinque Cento specimens : 
in which works the grain of the shadow is often too fine ; a defect 
which produces a certain degree of dulness in the lighter shadows, and 
renders the deeper ones somewhat opaque. This may be observed in 
the west window of Brussels Cathedral, dated 1528, a work by no 
means remarkable for the goodness of its effect ; and in the windows 
of King's Chapel, Cambridge, painted between 1527 and 1531 ^. And 
also in the fine Flemish glass which now occupies the east windows of 
St. George's Church, Hanover-square, London, a work apparently not 
later than 1520 «. 

■ I have already stated my reasons for 
sapposing that the Fairford glass is of 
the sixteenth century (anUt p. 181, note 
z.) A description of the subjects repre- 
sented in the windows, is given in a 
little work, "The History of Fairford 
Church/* Cirencester, 1841. 

Bishop Fox, whose arms and motto 
are introduced into the east window of 
Winchester Cathedral, held the see from 
1509 to 1628. 

^ Some particulars relating to these 
works have already been given ante, 
p. 202, note o ; and p. 205, note r. 

* It appears iVom a modem inscrip- 
tion in one of these windows that the 
glass formerly adorned a church at 

Mechlin, in Belgium. Its original ar- 
rangement has been preserved in a 
drawing made of it by Bridgens, for 
the Marquis of Ely, who once po»seased 
the glass. Its subject, the Stem of Jesse, 
was adapted for three long lights; the 
centre one being rather taller than 
the others. All the figures, but one, are 
inserted in the windows of St. George's, 
though their situations have unavoid- 
ably been changed in some instances. 
The omitted figure was a grand repre- 
sentation of God the Father, which 
originally occupied the highest place in 
the centre light. It exists, but only 
in an altered state, in one of the win- 
dows of St. Nicholas' Church, Wilton, 


To these may be added a window containing portraits of John 
Draecky and his wife Barbara Golibrant, with a representation of the 
Last Supper above, in the north aisle of St. Jacques Church, Antwerp, 
which does not seem to be later than 1530. The shadows used in this 
work are more powerful* than those of the others, and their opacity 
arising from the fineness of their grain, is therefore the more re- 

The east window of St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, which 
seems coeval with the last example**, is so dirty and obscured with 
London smoke, that it is impossible to see clearly the grain of the 
shadows without closely inspecting the glass, when they appear to be 
most admirably executed. The colour is laid on thick, and is very 
coarsely and effectively stippled. Indeed it is impossible to refer to 
a better specimen of glass-painting. 

Very good specimens of execution may be seen in the three 
east windows of St. Peter's Church, Cologne, which represent Christ 
beariug the Cross, the Crucifixion, and the Descent from the Cross, 
(one of these pictures is dated 1528,) as well as other paintings in 
the same church, some dated 1528, 1530. In all these paintings the 
shadows are deep and transparent, the enamel ground being very 
coarsely stippled; and the lights are clear and brilliant. I hardly 
know of more perfect specimens of glass-painting than these windows. 

The painting of the Annunciation, in Munich Cathedral, (which 
has already been mentioned p. 178,) rather wants transparency in 
its deeper shadows, owing to their ground not being sufficiently coarse 
in its grain. 

Of all glass-paintings, however, those in the apse of Lichfield Cathe- 
dral are perhaps the most worthy of study ; on account of the bril- 
liancy of their lights, the power, and general transparency of their 
shadows. Some of the deeper shadows have, indeed, been rendered 
rather opaque by being heightened with a hatching of broad patches, 
or smears of unstippled paint ; but the shadows are, with this excep- 
tion, exceedingly coarsely stippled. It is almost impossible to speak 
too highly of the dexterity with which this glass has been handled. 

Wilts. The late Mr. Nixon fortanately 
made me an excellent drawing of it 
btifore it waa iigored. 

* Some particalan relating to this 
window and the last, are given ante, p. 
205, note s. It bas been said that the 
portrait of the king in the east window 
of St. Margaret's, resembles Henry VII. 

rather than Henry Vni. It may be 
that the window was originally intended, 
as the story g^oes, for Henry YII., and 
that hiB portrait was obtained for the 
purpose ; but that on bis death the win- 
dow was executed as it now is, as a pre- 
sent to his son, bat without obtaining 
A fresh cartoon for the King's likeness. 



A good deal of the shading is calculated to produce effect only when 
seen from a distance, so coarse is it in its texture. If the Lichfield 
glass were to be carefully washed with soap and water and cleansed 
from the dirt which covers it, the transparency and brilliancy of the 
execution would be more apparent than at present. Some of the Lich- 
field glass- paintings are dated 1534, 1535, 1538, 1539. -They arc all 
equally fine specimens of execution •. 

The painted glass in the choir of St. Jacques Church, Li^ge, though 
on the whole inferior to that at Lichfield, may also be very advan- 
tageously studied. Its lights are clear and brilliant, and its shadows 
powerful, and very coarsely stippled, and transparent. The Li^ge 
glass is in beautiful order, having been lately cleaned. 

The examples which I shall next cite are the four windows of the 
Chapel of the Miraculous Sacrament, Brussels Cathedral, two of which 
are dated 1546, and two others 1547. Their shadows are deep and 
powerful, but in general, transparent. Their grain is very coarsely 
stippled, and the deeper parts of the shadow are, in most instances, 
strengthened with a hatching of black lines; but in some cases, I 
think, with unstippled hatches of paint. The complexions of the figures 
are, as is common in works of this period, heightened with a red 
enamel, like China red, and the brown with which they are shaded 
is of a fine rich tint ', 

The next specimens are the north and south windows of the tran- 
sept, Brussels Cathedral, which are both dated 1557; but these, 
though most effective pictures, betray in the increased opacity and 
heaviness of their darker shadows, and diminution of clear lights, 
symptoms of the decline of glass-painting which so soon afterwards 
took place. These last windows are doubtless inferior as glass-paint- 
ings to those in the Chapel of the Miraculous Sacrament, but are very 
superior to most contemporary works. 

The three windows in the north aisle of Amsterdam Cathedral, 
which are dated 1555, are very heavy and dingy objects in comparison 
with those which have been mentioned. Their subjects are the Salu- 
tation, the Nativity of Christ, and the Death of the Virgin, with por- 
traits of the donors beneath. Enamel colours are used to the exclusion 

■ Borne fiirther notices of the Lich- 
field glass will be found anie, p. 204. 

' Dr. Qessert, Oesehichte der Qlcu- 
malerei, p. 143, ascribes these windows 
to Roger Van der Weyden, whom he 
supposes to be identical with Roger de 
Brussels, (ib. 142.) This Roger appears 

to be the same artist as Rogiers, men- 
tioned by Le Vieil (L'Art de la Pein- 
ture sur Verre et de la Vitrerie, p. 42), 
as having painted not only these win- 
dows, hot also the north window of the 
transept, Brussels Cathedral. 



of coloared glass in many parts of the pictures ; the shading, though 
coarsely stippled, is too dense, and is too much heightened with smear 
hatching. The lights are also not sufficiently preserved. Much ex- 
aggerated praise has been bestowed on the painting representing the 
Death of the Virgin, principally, I believe, on account of the natural 
appearance of the flame of the candle which she holds in her hand. 
I need hardly say that the brilliancy of this flame is materially en- 
hanced by the dulness of the rest of the picture. 

The windows of Gouda Church, Holland, form a nearly complete 
series of glass-paintings from 1555 to 1603. Two of the windows 
were repaired in 1655, 1657. As glass-paintings they possess various 
degrees of merit, but all sadly want brilliancy and transparency. 
Some, and these not always the latest ones, are also very defective 
in richness of colour, arising from a substitution of enamel colours 
for coloured glass. Their dull heavy appearance is principally owing 
to a want of clear lights and transparent shadows. A brown enamel 
ground dabbled on, and possessing no decided grain, is used for the 
shadow in half-tint, and is generally not sufficiently removed from 
the lights. In some instances the bright lights are subdued with 
a thin coat of enamel paint. The darker shadows are formed some- 
times of coarse stipple shading, heightened with smear hatching ; but 
more commonly of smear hatching only. They are also spread too ex- 
tensively over the glass. 

These works are very inferior in point of execution to the Visita- 
tion, in the south aisle of the choir of York Minster, but the shadows 
here have not a sufficiently decided grain, and are therefore not per- 
fectly transparent. 

The side windows of Lincoln's Inn Chapel, which are dated 1623, 
1624, and 1626, are generally supposed to have been painted by the 
Van Linges, but from their coarse and inartificial execution, I am in- 
clined to attribute them rather to some inferior workmen employed as 
painters under the Van Linges. In their general style, however, they 
evidently belong to the Van Linge school. In the Lincoln*s Inn win- 
dows, as in the works of the Van Linges at Oxford and elsewhere, 
enamel colours applied as in an oil-painting, are much used in the 
heads and naked parts of the figures, and in the backgrounds of 
the designs. Coloured glass is very generally employed in the dra- 
peries, and is occasionally diapered with an enamel colour of the same 
tint as itself. In some of the Oxford glass, the basis of the shading 
is stippled; in general, however, in the works of the Van Linges, it 
possesses no decided grain, but appears to have been suffered to dry 


without being stippled at all. The darkest shadows are universally 
formed by smear hatching, and smear shading. The shadows are in 
general opaque and heavy, and too much extended over the glass, to 
the exclusion of clear lights. 

In point of colour the works of the Yan linges, chiefly on account 
of the strength of the pot-metal colours employed, are often as rich 
as the richest Decorated examples, the colouring of which these artists 
appear to have imitated : but as glass-paintings they are aver-pm'nted^ 
and heavy. I have remarked in the draperies of large figures belong- 
ing to the Decorated style, smear shadows as deep, and nearly of the 
same texture as those used by the Van linges, but these are confined 
to proper limits, and are always accompanied with bright lights, and 
therefore whilst they increase the richness, and materially promote 
the distinctness of the painting, the deep colours of which would 
overpower and extinguish more delicate shadows, they do not destroy 
the brilliancy or general transparency of the work. 

The dulness and heaviness of the works of the Van Linge school, 
are nowhere more conspicuous than in the side windows (all but the 
two easternmost) of Magdalen College Chapel, Oxford, in which there 
is no coloured glass to withdraw the attention from the style of the 
execution. These windows indeed rather resemble sepia drawings 
than glass paintings. 

The four painted windows of the Chapel of the Virgin, Brussels 
Cathedral, which are dated 1649, 1650, 1658, and 1663, are much 
poorer in colour than the paintings of the Van Linges, though they 
are nearly as dull in appearance ; the result of substituting enamel 
colours in a great degree for coloured glass, and of omitting to pre- 
serve the lights clear. 

This heavy style of glass-painting was exchanged for a lighter, but 
weaker one both as regards colour, and general effect, in the latter 
part of the last century and early part of the present. As instances I 
may mention the allegorical painting in Trinity College Library, Cam- 
bridge, painted by Peckitt, from a design by Cipriani ; the west win- 
dow of New College Chapel, Oxford, by Jervais, after a design by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds; and the windows of Arundel Castle, Sussex. 
Coloured glass is sparingly introduced into the first example, the two 
last are wholly coloured with enamels. All are executed by smear 
hatching, exactly like oil-paintings. It must be admitted that the 
windows at Trinity College, and New College, possess a more pearly 
and silvery tone than the preceding works; but their want of rich 
colouring constitutes a futal objection to them. The windows at 


Arundel Castle are as deficient in brilliancy as they are in colour, 
indeed these last works have more the appearance and effect of a 
painted canvas window-blind, than of painted glass. 

In the modem Munich school of glass-painting, coloured glass is 
used to a considerable extent in the draperies of figures, &o., but the 
painting is chiefly executed with various kinds of enamel colours, ap- 
plied to the glass like the paint in an oil-painting. The lights are 
subdued with a white enamel colour, spread over the back of the 
glass. Thus these works, though their shadows are sufficiently trans- 
parent, are uninteresting from their want of brilliancy s. 




If the remarks in the preceding section are well 
founded, it is evident that the Mosaic is the only true 
system of glass-painting; and consequently, that all 
future works — restorations and repairs of Enamel and 
Mosaic Enamel glass-paintings excepted — should be 
conducted on this system exclusively. This being as- 
sumed, it remains to enquire how far the four styles 
into which ancient glass-painting has been divided, 
are capable of being employed in modem works ; and 
to consider whether it is not possible and desirable to 
practise the art, free from the restrictions which these 
styles impose. The examination of these points will, 
I think, lead to the conclusion that the Early English 
and Decorated styles must, for the present at least, be 
discontinued; and that though the two more recent 
styles — the Perpendicular, and Cinque Cento — may 
still be followed with more or less success, the adop- 
tion, on all occasions, of a new and independent stylo 

> See note, p. 293. 


will be found at once fully to satisfy the conditions, 
according to which any particular style must be selected 
for practice, and to contribute most effectually to the 
cultivation and advancement of the art. 

The comparative merits of the several styles, as a 
question of speculation, must be left to the decision of 
individual tastes and sentiments; but, in the selection 
of a style for practical application, a compliance with 
two conditions appears to 'be necessary. These condi- 
tions are, first, the possibility of successfully executing 
a modem work in strict conformity with the proposed 
style ; and secondly, the appropriateness of the style to 
the building for which the glass-painting is designed. 

An exact conformity with style demands, of course, 
an exact resemblance between the imitative work and 
ancient examples, not only in the conventional manner 
of its execution, but also in its general effect. And 
since the general effect of a glass-painting depends quite 
as much on the quality of its materials as on the mode 
of working them, it is evident that in order success- 
fully to imitate the effect of ancient glass-paintings, re- 
course must be had to materials identical in all respects 
with those used in them. 

But the modem material is identical, or nearly so, 
only with the glass of the first half of the sixteenth 
century, and is essentially different in texture, and 
quality, from the glass used in the thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and indeed until almost the close of the fifteenth 
century; the dissimilarity increasing according to the 
antiquity of the example. 

The progressive changes in the manufacture of ruby 
glass are, to a certain extent, actually exhibited in a 


diagram given in a former part of this work ^. Those 
in other kinds of glass, although incapable of such an 
illustration as this, have already been repeatedly pointed 
out as affording some of the most valuable tests of the 
age of a glass-painting. I am not aware that any at- 
tempt has hitherto been successfally made to revive 
the manufacture of the earlier kinds of ruby glass. 
The ruby glass now used is identical, both in the thin- 
ness of its coloured coating, and in its general effect, 
only with the ruby of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies; not excepting even the streaky inxhj which has 
recently been made, as it is said, in imitation of that of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but from which 
it entirely differs in appearance. 

A like difference may be observed between other 
kinds of ancient glass, and their modern imitations. 
The ancient tints have in many instances been repro- 
duced, but not the texture of the more ancient material. 
Consequently there is a difference of effect between the 
modem and the ancient glass. The former is more 
homogeneous, and therefore clearer, and more perfectly 
transparent than the latter, especially than that be- 
longing to the twelfth, and two following centuries: 
and I feel persuaded that it is to this circumstance that 
we must refer the poor and thin appearance, which 
almost every modem glass-painting, executed in a style 
much earlier than the sixteenth century, presents in 
comparison with an original specimen ; notwithstanding 
the utmost pains have been taken to render the imita- 
tion of the particular style complete, by a strict ad- 
herence to its conventionalities in regard to drawing, 

*> See cut 8, ante, p. 27. . 




and execution K It has often been boldly asserted, that 
the superior richness of the glass of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, to that now made in imitation of 
it, altogether depends on the effects produced by age, 
and dirt. But most assuredly this is not correct. Glass 
of the thirteenth century, especially blue French glass, 
may not unfrequently be met with in a clean state, and 
scarcely, if at all, affected by the corroding action of 
the atmosphere ; and yet this glass, whether seen near, 
or at a distance, is invariably much richer than any 
modern glass. Again, glass of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries, which has been cleaned, is always 
richer than modem glass, even than that "which has 
been purposely dirtied to give it a rich tone. No 
cleaning is able to deprive ancient glass of the above 
date, of its tone, richness, and gem-like appearance ^, 
qualities which impart to it such a charm, and so ad- 
mirably harmonize with the general character of the 
execution adopted concurrently with its use ^ ; cleaning 

* I might mention amongst other in- 
stances, a large Decorated design in one 
of the windows of Augshurg Cathedral, 
which has recently been re-executed in 
modem glass. 

^ The g^m-like appearance of early 
glass is chiefly produced by the irregular 
depth of its colour. This is strikingly 
exemplified by the ancient ruby glass, 
the black parts of which answer in ef- 
fect to the shaded parts of a real ruby, 
and the light parts to the play of light 
seen in the gem. Modern glass-painters 
often try to prodnce the effect of the 
earliest kinds of ruby, by leading toge- 
ther a number of small pieces of mo- 
dem mby, of different tints; instead of 
employing large pieces of glass as the 
ancient artists did. But this is but an 
imperfect expedient. The leads may 

serve for thd dark parts of the old mby, 
but there is nothing to answef to its 
light parts. 

' A proof of this is afforded by one or 
two of the windows of the south aisle 
of Strasburg Cathedra], which have been 
lately cleaned. Tliese works are of the 
early part of the fourteenth century; 
their present richness, and brilliancy, 
are surprising. 

In repairing many of the earlier win- 
dows of Cologne Cathedral, modem glass 
has been substituted for the old, where- 
by their general effect is much impover- 
ished. Many early glass-paintings en- 
tirely owe the goodness of their effect 
to the texture of the glass of which 
they are composed. The experiment 
may easily be tried by copying the rose 
represented in plate 3S, in modem white 



only increases the brilliancy of this glass. Indeed the 
difference of effect between modem and early glass, is 
too great to be accounted for in the manner supposed. 
Glass of the latter half of the fifteenth century is often 
as much, and sometimes more corroded and weather- 
stained than that of the thirteenth century ; but none 
can deny that there is a very perceptible difference in 
appearance between all the glass of these two periods. 
The difference above alluded to between modem and 
ancient glass, is, I believe, occasioned by our using 
purer materials than the ancients did, in glass-making ; 
and furnaces of greatly improved construction, which 
insures a more perfect fusion and amalgamation of the 
vitreous particles than perhaps could have been effected 
in the older furnaces. If this supposition be correct, I 
apprehend, that glass of the same quality as that for- 
merly used, will not be reproduced, until there is a re- 
currence not only to the substances formerly employed 
in its formation, but also to the ancient mode of fusing 
them together ™ 

glass, embedding it in a triangnlar- 
shaped mass of modem niby, aboab fif- 
teen inches in length, and then com- 
paring it with the original example. 

"* Since the present work was sent to 
the press, I have met with a pamphlet, 
entitled, Teiniwe iwr Verre au xix* 
iQele, far Q-. Bontemps, Chevalier de 
la LSgion (T Honnevr, Directeur de la 
Fctbrique de Verres et VUraux de 
Choisy-U'Roi, Paris, 1846. M. Bon- 
temps must possess great experience; 
I am therefore glad to find in his re- 
marks a confirmation of what I have 
said respecting the difference which 
exists between the texture of early and 
modem glass; and of my opinion that 
the peculiarity of the early material 

arises from the imperfection of the ma- 
nofactnre, and cannot be obtained by 
the present process. 

M. Bontemps would perhaps ascribe 
less of the effect of ancient glass-paint- 
ings to the inflaenoe of their texture, 
than I have done; bat he folly admits 
that a part of this effect is the result of 
the textxure, and he endeavours to ac- 
count for it. I shall give M. Bontemps* 
own words on this subject. It is as well 
to premise that the drift of his argu- 
ment, and indeed of the pamphlet, is 
to shew that it is erroneous to suppose 
that the art of glass-painting is a lost 
art, that the modems have, or might 
have, the same materials as the an- 
cients, and that nothing is wanting but 



But however this may be, it is impossible to deny 
the unfitness of glass, as at present manufactured, for 

an artist capable of unng them. He 
is, it should be added, a decided ad- 
mirer of early Christian art, and prefers 
the glass-paintings of the twelfth and 
thirteenth oentnries, to those of any 
subsequent period. 

In the first of the passages to which 
I have alluded, after having enumerated 
the few colours used in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, he goes on to add 
to them the peculiar white glass of that 

"II ne faut pas oublier dans cette 
nomenclature le verre blanc que Ton 
fabriquait alors tr^s-verd&tre k cause de 
Timpuret^ des mati^res premieres qu'on 
employait, ce qui ^tait du reste un m^- 
rite pour son usage dans les vitraux, 
car un verre trop blanc ^teint les au- 
tres couleurs, les obscurcit et fait trou 
dans les vitrauz. Tons ces verres sont 
g^n^ralement in^gaux d'^paisseur et de 
teinte, car Tart de la verrerie n'est pas 
tr^s-perfectionn^ sous le rapport dn souf- 
flage," p. 19. 

"Qne nous manque-t'-il mat^rielle- 
ment pour faire les vitrauz des xii* et 
xiii* si^es P Nous avons des verres 
rouges ausd beaux que ceux qui nous 
restent de ces ^poques : nous avons des 
verres verts> jaunes, violets, et bleus des 
tons les plus vari^. Nous fabriquons 
g^n^ralement ces verres plus minces que 
les anciens ; mais k coup e^ oe n'est pas 
une difficult^ de faire des verres plus 
^pais. Des personnes d'une autorit^ re- 
spectable pensent qu'une partie de I'effet 
produit par les anciens vitraux r^sulte 
de r^paisseur des verres, des irr^ula- 
rit^ de fabrication et des bulles nom- 
breuses multipli^es dont ces verres sont 
cribles : jusqu' k un certain point ce r^- 
Bultat ne pent 6tre r^voqu^ en doute; 
les bulles surtout empdchent le passage 
direct des rayons de la lumi^re, et pro- 
duisent un effet analogue k oelui qui r^- 
suite de Talt^ration de la surface ext^ 

rieure du verre par le temps; toutefois 
il ne faudndt pas chercher Ik le secret 
de la perfection des vitraux des xii* et 
xili* sidles, car on trouverait bien des 
panneaux de verri^res de oette ^poque 
oii le verre 6tait d'une fabrication asses 
r^guli^re et presque exempt de bulles." 

" QuoL qu'il en soit, 8*11 est bien re- 
connu n^cessaire pour prodaire I'effet 
des anciens vitraux d'avoir des verres 
irr^uliers d'^paissour et de teinte, des 
verres remplis de bulles, oe sera bien 
plus coiiteux que de foumir des verres 
r^guliers et purs, car la fabrication est 
organist de mani^re k produire dn beau 
verre; mais enfin le verrier en fabri- 
quera ; et oe n'est certes pas Ik qu'il faut 
chercher les secrets perdus du grand art 
des vitraux." p. 22. 

M. Bontemps agrees with me in the 
opinion that the effect of a thirteenth 
century glass-painting has not yet been 
attained in any modem work; and in 
condemning the practice of seeking to 
produce this effect by dirtying and ob- 
scuring the glass. He speaks with 
marked contempt of the process of 
making up windows, by means of copies 
from various ancient examples ; and of 
servilely imitating the defective draw- 
ing of the old masters. Finally he 
agrees with me in thinking that glass- 
painting should be executed in accord- 
ance with the improved taste, and in- 
telligence of the present age; and in 
the opinion, that in order to succeed, 
glass-painting must be studied and cul- 
tivated by arHsU: this last point in- 
deed he regards as the one thing needful 
for the perfect restoration of the art. 

M. Bontemps' remarks on imitation, 
and the following of ancient models, are 
so pertinent that I cannot refndn from 
transcribing them. 

" II en est d'antres qui ont era qn'en 
copiant le desun de la bordure d'nn an- 



the execution of many of the ancient designs. I allude 
in particular to those compositions which are most 
thoroughly Mosaic in character, as the medallion win- 
dows of the Early English style, and many of the 
coloured borders and ornaments of that and the Deco- 
rated style. The various colours of the works, when 
composed of the ancient material, continue distinct from 
whatever point they may be viewed; yet if modem 
glass is substituted for it, the different colours appear 
to the distant spectator as if they were confused and 
blended together ; the intermixture of a number of small 
pieces of glass of two primitive tints, as red, and blue, 
often producing at a distance the effect of a colour com- 
pounded of both ^ It is indeed surprising that modem 
glass-painters continue to attempt impossibilities, in try- 
ing to imitate designs of this nature, without possessing 
the requisite materials ; and the more so, as a very little 
attention to the subject will suffice to shew, that the 
ancient glass-paintings became generally less broken 

cien yitrail et la moaalqae d'un autre 
pour entourer des m^daiUons 2k Bajets 
d'un desrin raide et grima^ant, on ad- 
mirerait ces fAcheux pastiches h I'^gal 
des anciens vitraox ; ils ont vonla ^riger 
en principe ce qm n'^tait chez enx qa'im- 
pnisBance de mienx faire; le penple et 
les hommes de godt les ont reni^ et 
ont dit : ce ne sont pas ]k les anciennes 
yerri^res de noe pires. 

" D'aatres, mettant ansa k oontriba- 
tion la riche ornamentation des anciens, 
ont pens^ qne lenrs mMaillons devaient 
6tre d'un dessin correct ; nous ne dirons 
pas qn'ils aient r^nssi, lenr dessin man- 
qnait de fermet^ Vaction n'^tait pas 
soffisamment indiqn^; mais ils ont agi 
dans nne bonne direction, car, nous le 
r^p^tons, on pent fidre de beaux vitraox 

sans que les stgets soient choqnants et 
on objet de ridicole pour le people; 
c'est poor tons que les vitraox sont 
fiiits; quand ils d^plairont aox classes 
les plos nombreoses, le bat ne sera pas 
atteint ; les vrais arch^lognes ne seront 
pas non plos satisfidts car ils compren- 
nent que les vitraox, an xix* si^le, doi- 
vent sans doote dtre fkits poor la com- 
prehension et r^dification des fiddles, et 
non poor la satisfaction particolidre de 
qoelqoes personnes qoi ne veolent re- 
oonnaitre le pass^ qoe qoahd on leor en 
rappelle les d^faots." — pp. 40, 41. 

* The confarion of coloors above al- 
loded to, is greatly increased when an 
ancient design of Mosaic character is 
imitated on a reditced 9eale, 


and Mosaic in their oolouring, in proportion as suoces- 
sive improvements in the manufacture graduaUy pro- 
duced a more perfectly homogeneous and translucent 
kind of glass. It is indeed hardly necessary to insist 
further on a fact so obvious as that an essential dif- 
ference in the material must produce a sensible difference 
in the effect of a glass-painting. An instance of it 
may be found in Perpendicular glass-paintings of late 
and early date. The similarity of execution and cha- 
racter which exists between works of the early part of 
the fifteenth century, and of the close of the reign of 
Edward IV., or commencement of that of Henry VII ., 
has already been noticed; yet in their general effect , 
these paintings often present a striking contrast; the 
earlier being commonly colder and greener in their ap- 
pearance than the later examples, which are softer, and 
more silvery. This is principally owing to the texture 
and quality of the white glass, which enters so largely 
into the composition of a Perpendicular glass-painting ; 
that used in the earlier specimens, being in general of 
a cold strong green hue, while that subsequently em- 
ployed is nearly colourless, and of a yellow tint. 

It appears then from the foregoing remarks, that the 
peculiar nature of modem glass presents an obstacle to 
the complete imitation of any of the ancient styles of 
glass-painting, except the Perpendicular of the sixteenth 
century^, and the Cinque Cento. The Early English 
and Decorated styles are therefore excluded from em- 

^ I have in the ooune of the following 
remarki, uaed the term, " Perpendicular 
of the Bixteenth century/' as if it denoted 
a style different firom the "Perpendi- 
cular/' This has heen done, howerer, 
principally for the sake of more conve- 

nient reference. All late Perpendicular 
glass, including that of the last twenty 
years of the fifteenth century, is as easy 
of imitation now, as that of the nx- 
teenth century. 



ployment in modem work, by the first of the conditions 
which have been above laid down for the selection of 
a style. 

The second of these conditions it may be remembered , 
required that the style of the glass should be appropriate 
to ,that of the building for which the painting is in- 
tended. It is true that in the practice of former ages, 
no such condition as this was attended to in the erection 
of painted windows p; the style of glass-painting pre- 
valent at the time being indiscriminately employed in 
all works, whether destined for the windows of build- 
ings of contemporary, or earlier date. At the present 
day, however, the better opinion is in favour of ob- 
serving a general harmony between the architecture and 
decorations of a building, so that the whole work may, 
as far as possible, appear consistent with itself^. With 
regard to glass-painting considered as a decoration, this 
harmony may be obtained, either by executing the work 
in a style which was contemporaneous with the archi- 
tectural style ; or by modifying the style of a different 

P My Mend, the Rev. J. L. Petit, has 
repeatedly called my attention to the 
adaptation in medieval architecture, of 
late styles to early styles, when they 
come in contact in the same bnilding; 
but I have not observed similar adapta- 
tions of styles in glass-paintings. In 
repairs even, the style of the day was 
adopted without modification. A simi- 
larity in general arrangement between 
early and late windows in close proxi- 
mity, may be however sometimes noticed, 
as for instance between Bishop Fox's 
and some earlier glass in the side win- 
dows of the clearstory of the choir of 
Winchester Cathedral. 

4 That is to say, provided the building 
itself be Gbthic Falladian architecture 

is not in fashion just now [1847] ; con* 
seqaently no impropriety appears to 
have been felt by the promoters of that 
curious mSkmge, the east window of St. 
James's Church, Piccadilly, in selecting 
a nineteenth-century design, with orna- 
mental details, more resembling the 
Romanesque in character, than anything 
else ; although one would have thought 
that a knowledge of the Cinque Cento 
style, might have led them to adopt 
a design wholly in that style, as best 
suited to the general character of the 
church, which is certainly not " Roman- 
esque," according to the technical sig- 
nification of the word, but is parely, 
and exclusively, " Palladian." 


period BO as to render it in some measure accordant 
with the architecture; or, thirdly, by the employment 
of a new style of glass-painting, of a character so com- 
prehensive and flexible as to admit of adaptation to the 
style of the architecture of any building. In Perpen- 
dicular, and Cinque Cento buildings, the first of these 
methods may be adopted ; and even in earlier buildings 
the desired harmony may literally be preserved, by imi- 
tating the glass-paintings of the corresponding period. 
But the employment of these styles of glass-painting 
has already been forbidden by the first of the conditions 
for the selection of style, and they can hardly be said 
to comply with the spirit of the second. The imitations 
of these ancient styles are necessarily so imperfect that 
it is immediately perceived that the architecture and 
decoration are not really of the same period ; and this 
circumstance, joined to the disgust which is felt at 
a gross and clumsy imposture, produces an effect at 
least as disagreeable as that which can be occasioned 
by mere discordancy of styles. 

The Early English, and Decorated styles of glass- 
painting being thus excluded, it would be necessary to 
confine ourselves to the Perpendicular of the sixteenth 
century, and the Cinque Cento, if we forbid glass-paint- 
ing to be practised except in conformity with ancient 
examples. But in this case the harmony between arohi- 
tecture and decoration, which has been made a necessary 
condition in the practice of the art, cannot be observed 
in buildings of the earlier Gothic styles. For neither 
of the styles of glass-painting just mentioned, though 
of course admitting many varieties in execution, is 
sufficiently plastic to enable the character of indivi- 



dual works designed in conformity with its rules, to 
be always moulded into conformity with the character 
of the buildings chosen for their reception. Indeed the 
rigid rules of conventionality would prevent our fiirther 
adapting the style of the glass-painting to that of the 
architecture, than by simply confining the Cinque Cento 
style to the buildings in which the round arch pre- 
vailed, and the Perpendicular to Gothic '. It would be 
impossible consistently with the rules of style, to impart 
a Korman character to a Cinque Cento glass-painting 
intended for a Iforman building, or an Early English, 
or Decorated character to a Perpendicular glass-painting 
designed for an Early English, or Decorated building. 

Hence it follows, that neither of the two first methods 
above indicated for obtaining the desired harmony be- 
tween the style of the architecture, and that of the 
glass-paintings which decorate it, being capable of gene- 
ral application, recourse must be had to the third, viz., 
to the introduction of a new style of glass-painting more 
comprehensive and flexible than the late Perpendicular, 
and Cinque Cento. 

The introduction of a new style of glass-painting, 
suitable to the exigencies of the present age, may be 
objected to as a startling novelty. That it is founded 
on the analogy of ancient precedents, sufficiently ap- 
pears by the fact that formerly each century, and 
almost every year, was productive of some fresh change 
in the practice of this art, dictated by a desire to render 

' I was onoe myself in ftiToar of an 
exdosive application of the Perpen- 
dicular style of glass-painting to the 
windows of all Gothic buildings; and 
of the Cinqne Cento to Palladian; but 

a more carefnl consideration of the sub- 
ject has indaoed me to relinquish this 
opinion in favour of that set forth in 
the text. 


it conformable with the spirit of the age, and to keep 
it in a state of concnrrent advancement with the other 
arts of design. 

It should also be borne in mind, that the modern 
imitations of the two earlier styles of glass-painting, 
do themselves in ejffect constitute collectively, a new, 
though unsatisfactory style of glass-paintings. For they 
bear the manifest stamp of the nineteenth century in the 
material of which they are composed, notwithstanding 
their design and details belong to an earlier period. 
The hands may be the hands of Esau; but the voice 
is still the undisguised voice of Jacob. 

On the formation of the new style, I shall in a sub- 
sequent page offer a few suggestions ; but I think that 
they may be advantageously preceded by some general 
remarks on imitation, and on the means of raising the 
character of glass-painting as an art ; for a consideration 
of these points can hardly fail of shewing the necessity 
of the new style, independently of the ground which has 
abeady been urged for it. 

The most successful of the modem imitations are 
those of the later examples of ancient glass-painting. 
Such as are executed in the Perpendicular style, are 
in general far more satisfactory, than those executed 
after Decorated and Early English models. This cir- 
cumstance is easily accounted for by what has already 
been stated concerning the texture of modem glass and 
the practice of the ancient glass-painters. I am strongly 
inclined to think that the greater transparency and 
evenness in tint of the glass of the fifteenth century, 
tended, amongst other causes, to the general adoption 
at that time of larger pieces of glass than had been 


usually employed in the Early English and Decorated 
glass-paintingSy and in particular, of a. more tender and 
delicate mode of execution. The ancient artists had no 
doubt observed that the glass of the fifteenth century 
was not so. well suited for mere Mosaics, and works 
principally expressed by strong outlines, as the denser 
and less homogeneous material of the earlier periods. 
Whilst therefore I greatly object, under the present 
circumstances, tp imitations of Early English, and De* 
corated glass-paintings, from a persuasion that much of 
the beauty of the originals depends on the peculiar 
adaptation of their design and execution to the texture 
of their material, which is so essentially different from 
that of njodern glass ; I admit that very pleasing, though 
imperfect imitations may be produced of Perpendicu- 
lar glass-paintings, earlier than those of the sixteenth 
century; for the delicate execution and hEuidling, the 
breadth of colour, and character of ornament used in 
these works, are not unsuited to the nature of modern 

Without therefore expressly advocating the employ- 
ment of these imperfect imitations of Perpendicular 
glass, I am far from condemning their use, if carried 
out in a true and artist-like spirit; in such case they 
may furnish the means of embellishing the Mrindows 
of Perpendicular buildings, earlier than the sixteenth 
century, in an appropriate manner ". But I must enter 
my protest against those vile imitations of ancient Per- 

• The beet imitation of the kind that 
I have yet seen, is in one of the north 
windows of the naye of Famingham 
Churchy Kent. This work, connsting of 
two figores with canopies over them, in ' 

the style of the latter half of the fifteenth 
centary, possesses the brilUaney, as well 
as the silvery effect of old glass. It was 
painted by Mr. Clatterbnck. [1847.] 


pendicular glass, the disfigurement rather than the or- 
nament of so many buildings, which whilst exhibiting in 
an exaggerated degree all the defects of their originals, 
possess little of their merit, and none of their interest. 
A taste for these, amongst other gross caricatures of 
ancient painted glass, sprung up in this country on the 
revival of the Mosaic system of glass-painting, and al- 
though considerably modified of late, is by no means 
extinct \ That designs of a character so execrable as 
would ensure their speedy condemnation if represented 
on canvas, should yet become the theme of extravagant 
praise, if executed in glass, would be unaccountable, 
did not experience teach that on a change of fashion, 
the good and bad qualities of the old one are commonly 
rejected together. The defect of the glass-paintings 
between the close of the Cinque Cento style, and the 
revival of the Mosaic system, chiefiy arose fi-om a 
misapplication of art. Hence both the amateurs and 
painters of this century appear to have thought that 
they could not more completely rectify the error of their 
predecessors, than by falling into the opposite extreme 
of disregarding the claims of art altogether. But how- 

* The general character of these 
works, and the usual mode of their com- 
position, being made up of " authorities" 
raked together from all parts of this 
country, and even of the continent, is 
thus ridiculed in "Punch," Nov. 29th, 

1845. "A card, worthies made up 

from any number of authorities, as per 
specimen annexed, viz., an unknown 
saint, which has been faithfully copied 
from various originals, viz., head from 
a piece of broken window found under 
A brick-kiln by the Archseological Insti- 
tute at Winchester; missal from a tomb- 

stone in Dublin Cathedral; right hand 
from half a bishop picked up after the 
fire at York Minster; left ditto from the 
nineteenth figure (counting firom the 
right) in the oriel window of St. Peter's 
at Rome ; feet from part of a broken 
window (which has never been mended) 
in St. Stephen's, Walbrook; drapery 
from the deal boards in Westminster 
Abbey." Ludicrous as this is, those 
who are acquainted with the practicea 
of the authority-mongers, know that it 
is hardly an exaggeration. 



ever this may be, it is impossible to defend the practice 
of extolling glass-paintings of very inferior merit be- 
cause they exhibit the imperfect drawing, or quaint 
expression, of the middle ages, or because being pur- 
posely obscured with dirt"*, they may in some degree 
remind the spectator of what is termed the "myste- 
rious effect" of ancient glass. 

It cannot be imagined for a moment, that the me- 
dieval glass-painters ever intentionally drew ill, — the 
evidence is entirely the other way; — and it is indeed 
a great mistake to suppose that any object is gained by 
imitating the bad drawing of the earlier figures. Their 
charm consists not in their distortion, but in the real 
artistic feeling, and thorough conception of the subject, 
which are expressed in them, as completely as the artist's 
imperfect knowledge of drawing would admit*. And 

* I do not go to the length of con- 
demning all dirtying or "antiqnating" 
of glass whatever, my objection is to the 
abuse of the practice. A slight obscura- 
tion, snch as that produced by age, is on 
the whole beneficial, because it increases, 
though it cannot of itself produce an 
harmonious tone in the work. This' is 
particularly observable in the white pat- 
tern windows of the fifbeenth and six- 
teenth centuries. In picture windows 
it is of less consequence, because the 
shadows themselves give a tone to the 

I believe that nothing is more difficult 
to imitate in practice than the mellowing 
effect of age upon a glass-painting. The 
film produced on the glass by a slight 
decomposition, affecting both surfaces of 
the sheet, and the adhesion of ferruginous 
particles derived from the saddle-bars, 
and of various kinds of minute lichens 
and mosses invisible to the naked eye; 
is, through the superior delicacy of 

Nature's operations, more transparent 
than any yet produced by artificial 
means. [See in "Memoirs on Glass- 
painting," mention of an improved mode 
of "antiquating" glass. Letter xxxii. 
p. 44,] 

* The practice of imitating the imper- 
fect drawing of the human figure which 
so often occurs in Gothic glass-paintings, 
derives no support, as is sometimes sup- 
posed, from the legitimate practice of 
adopting in modem buildings the gro- 
tesque sculpture which constitutes so 
important a feature in ancient Gothic 
architecture. These details, sometimes 
so g^oes and extravagant as to call down 
the censure of the Church, [see "ArchsB- 
ological Album," vol. i. p. 92 ; and the 
extracts there g^ven (in notia) from the 
"Apology of St. Bernard, in the twelfth 
century," and the decrees of the second 
Nicene council, a.d. 787,] were however 
designed as mere ornaments, and, as or- 
naments, are always most effective, and 



as to the *^ mysterious eflfect" above alluded to, that is 
a matter rather to be deprecated than sought for, since 
it is principally occasioned by the injury which the 
ancient work has sustained by time or accident, and is 
really a defect, and not a beauty; though imaginative 
persons may derive a pleasure from contemplating the 
confused fragments similar to that produced by the sight 
of an unfinished sketch of some great master. 

When the sacredness of some of the subjects repre- 
sented in glass-paintings is considered, we surely ought 
to be cautious not to suffer them to be degraded into 
caricatures. And if such representations are useful in 
churches, as .serving to recall the wandering thoughts, 
and awaken feelings of piety and veneration, they should 
be such as can be easily understood. In short, if we 
wish glass-paintings to be a means of instruction, or 
even to be looked upon without contempt, they must 
not be permitted to fall below the level of the under- 
standings of those to whom they are addressed ; at a time 
when the gradual diffusion of knowledge and the en- 
gravings with which every class of books, and even 
many kinds of newspapers are accompanied, insensibly 
create a familiarity with good, or at least respectable 
models ^ 

complete. The Hatues which abonnd in 
Gothic buildings Are not grotesqae, and 
no architect would think of making them 
go in a modem building. Grotesque 
ornaments may and do often occur in 
ancient glass-paintings, but the g^ro- 
tesqueness of the principal figures is but 
the result of imperfect drawing, and not 
of design. I certainly thiuk that in 
heraldic glass-paintings groteequeness 
is a decided merit. 
f The folly of admiring ancient art for 

the sake of its bad drawing, and of imi* 
tating its bad drawing, is amusingly 
quizzed in the following extract from 
"Punch," Oct. 4th, 1846.— "PoB par- 
XJAMBiTT. (A Cartoon.) The decorations 
of the Kew Houses of Fwliament will be 
incomplete, unless they include a repre- 
sentation of JUBTICB, who is supposed to 
preside over parliamcDtary proceedings. 
That the jib of JuBTio^ to use a nautical 
term, should have a medieval cut, is 
highly necessary, for two considerationiL 



The extensive employment of glass-paintings suggests 
the propriety of rendering these works conducive to the 
advancement and encouragement of art ". 

Glass-paintings are, to a certain extent, a species of 

In the first place. Justice, cbeek by jowl 
as she will be with Chitalby, and other 
Gothic company, will otherwise resemble 
a denizen of the waters oat of its element. 
In the second, the Justice of Parliament, 
for an obvious reason, should be de- 
lineated in a style approaching cari- 
cature or burlesque, which is precisely 
that of the art of the middle ages. For 
these good reasons, it is essential that 
Justice > should grasp her scales and 
sword by a mode of prehension practic- 
able by no mortal ; and that those pro- 
perties should be cumbersome and awk- 
ward-loeking in the extreme. There 
is a profundity in representing ber as 
a supernatural being, taking hold of 
things in an impossible manner. On the 
same deep principle she should be drawn 
standing in an attitude which the human 
mechanism does not admit of. 

"The tardig^de character of Justice 
ought further to be made visible in her 
feet, which should be quaintly clumsy, 
and contorted to a degree involving lame- 
ness. The anatomical difficulties which 
oppose these requisites are to be veiled 
with a profusion of drapery, which, as 
our sagacious ancestors well knew, will 
cover outrageous drawing. The face of 
Justice should be that of a monumental 
brass, both on account of the lesthetical 
character of the material, and the oorpse- 
like attributes proper to Qothic sanctity. 
The cause of right and nature versus 
humbug, which Justice is ever trying, 
ought to be manifested by scrolls stuck 
into her scales, inscribed of course with 
Old English characters. Altogether, the 
person of Justice should be deformed, 
and her look old-maidish; so that she 
may be devoid of the Paganism of sym- 
metry and beauty." 

The figure of "Justice" which accom- 

panies the above extract in the original, 
is excellent, and really not a whit more 
absurd than many grave imitations of 
medieval art. 

* A very unfounded prejudice exists 
in the minds of some persons against the 
claims of glass-painting to be considered 
one of the fine arts, because some of its 
processes are necessarily conducted by 
artisans, as burning the glass, leading it 
together, and setting it up in its place, 
&c. Tet the scnlptor is not thought 
less worthy the title of cnrtist, because 
he employs a number of assistant work- 
men to hew the marble roughly into 
shape, to prepare it for his own chisel, 
and to erect the statue when finished. 

Equally incorrect is it at the present 
day, to designate an artist who paints 
glass a glasier. No one thinks of apply- 
ing any other term than architect to 
the artist who designs beautifal build- 
ings; yet in the simplicity of ancient 
times the word architect was unknown. 
He was but a chief of the fraternity of 
masons, and was called a master mason ; 
so indeed the glass-painter was a chief 
of the fraternity of glasiers, and was 
called a master glasier; but we are not 
therefore bound to retain his ancient 
appellation. The master glasier appears 
to have been formerly a person of equal 
consideration with the master mason; 
each received the same amount of wages. 

Many modem painters are indeed de- 
servedly classed with glasiers; such as 
those purely mechanical persons who 
paint glass pictures at so much the 
square foot; and in order to undersell 
their competitors, set the enormous pro- 
fits arising from the sale of their pattern 
windows, against the losses sustained by 
the cheapness of their picture windows. 


architectural decoration; but not more so than fresco- 
paintings, yet the greatest authorities have not con- 
sidered a display of high art in a fresco incompatible 
with its decorative character. I am quite sure that 
a glass-painting is in its way, as capable of high artistic 
development as a fresco-painting ; and am only anxious 
to see the same attention paid to the one branch of art, 
as has already been paid to the other. It should be 
borne in mind that a display of high art depends, not on 
the nature of the materials employed, but on the mode 
of employing them. The glass-painter must indeed 
adapt his subject and the manner of executing it to 
the means which glass-painting places at his disposal ; 
but the artistic character of the work is wholly •inde- 
pendent of these circumstances, and is secured by the 
skill of the artist alone. 

It requires, however, far greater knowledge to produce 
a work of art, than is possessed by a mere draughtsman, 
however rapid or expeditious he may be in his execu- 
tion*. If, therefore, we are anxious to cultivate glass- 
painting as an art^ we must encourage artists to practise 
it, by ceasing to countenance those mere artisans who at 

* Sir Joshua Reynolds' observation 
on great rapidity of execution, is ex- 
tremely just : he says, — 

"It is undoubtedly a splendid and 
desirable accomplishment to be able to 
design instantaneously any given sub- 
ject. It is an excellence that I believe 
every artist would wish to possess ; but 
unluckily the manner in which the dex- 
terity is acquired, habituates the nUnd 
to be content toith first thoughts without 
choice or selection. The judgment after 
it has been long passive, by degrees 
loses its power of becoming active when 
exertion is necessary. Great works which 

are to live and stand the criticism of 
posterity, are not performed in a heat^ 
A proportionable time is required for 
deliberation and circumspection. I re- 
member when I was at Rome looking at 
the fighting gladiator, in company with 
an eminent sculptor, and when I ex* 
preyed my admiration of the skill with 
which the whole is composed, and the 
minute attention of the artist to the 
change of every muscle in that momen- 
tary exertion of strength, he was of 
opinion that a work so perfect required 
nearly the whole life of man to perform." 
— Discourse xii. 


present make it their trade, and confine it to the lowest 
depth of degradation ^. 

It is evident that the first step towards elevating glass- 
painting to the rank it once held amongst the arts, is to 
estimate its productions by those sound rules of criticism, 
which are alike applicable to all works of art ; and not 
by the sole standard of antiquarian conformity. But 
I fear that this principle cannot be carried into eflFect 
whilst glass-painting is confined to mere imitations. 

In estimating the merit of an imitative work two 
points are really presented for consideration ; its quality 
as a work of art, and its conformity with the conven- 
tionalities of style. But inasmuch as a knowledge of 
the conventionalities of style is more commonly possessed 
than a knowledge of the principles of art — ^because 
the former is incomparably easier of acquirement than 
the latter — amateurs, who exert a very powerful infiu- 
ence on the state and condition of glass-painting, are apt 
in their criticisms, to fall into the error of regarding 
a conformity with a style, not as an accessory to the glass- 
painting, but as constituting the sole end and essential 
object of the work. Hence a copy, or mere compilation, 
scarcely rising in merit above a copy of some ancient 
glass, or other painting, is so often preferred to a design, 
which attempts, however artistically, to carry out an 
ancient style in spirit^ rather than in conventionality 
only; because the mere copy will naturally exhibit 
a closer and more literal compliance with the petty 
details of style, than the latter more intrinsically meri- 
torious work : a course which cannot fail to retard mate- 

^ See note, p. 309 ante, 




rially the real advancement of glass-painting as an art^ 
and the full development of its powers. 

Being clearly of opinion that the art of glass -painting 
has not hitherto attained that perfection of which it is 
susceptible, — for the peculiar circumstances of the six- 
teenth century caused its decline before it arrived at 
complete development, — ^I trust I may be excused if 
I go counter to the generally received opinions of the 
age, in advocating as the surest means of effecting the 
true advancement of the art, the total relinquishment 
of all copies or imitations of ancient glass whatsoever, 
whether perfect or imperfect in themselves; and the 
substitution of a new and original style of glass-paint- 
ing, founded on the most perfect practice of the Mosaic 
system^ and sufficiently comprehensive to include within 
itself designs of the most varied character; some for 
instance bearing a resemblance to Early English glass- 
paintings, some to Decorated glass-paintings, and so 
forth, without however ceasing to belong to the nine- 
teenth century, or degenerating into imitations. 

It has already been shewn that a measure of this kind 
would at all events be necessary to enable the modem 
glass-painter to adorn the windows of a Norman, Early 
English, or Decorated building with painted-glass in an 
appropriate manner. It is also necessary in order to 
enable him to represent without inconsistency and con- 
tradiction subjects belonging to a period later than the 
termination of the last of the four styles ^. But I con- 

^ It appears from the ** Fifth Report 
of the Commissionen of Fine Arts/' 
that they approve of the introduction of 
such subjects into glass-paintings; and 
that they have in particular recom- 

mended that certain windows of the 
New Houses of Parliament should con- 
tain a series of portraits from the Con- 
quest, to the reign of William IV. 


ceive that its more extended adoption would be bene- 
ficial by unfettering the artist from the trammels of 
conventionality, and leaving him free to pursue such 
a course as a deep and philosophical consideration of the 
whole subject would lead him to embrace, as best calcu- 
lated to ensure a successful carrying out of the art of 
pure glass-painting from the point at which the ancient 
artists left it. 

I shall now attempt to define my idea of a new style 
more distinctly by offering a few suggestions as to its 

I will first imagine the treatment of a glass-painting 
intended for a li^orman, or Early English building. 

The nature of the modem material of course precludes 
any attempt at adopting as models the ^^ medallion win- 
dows" of the Early English style, which partake so 
highly of the character of Mosaics; nor do I consider 
the abandonment of these designs at all to be regretted, 
since, amongst other objections, the pictures contained 
in them are, owing to their minuteness, in general quite 
indistinct when viewed from even a moderate distance. 
But other designs are afforded by this style, capable of 
suggesting many valuable hints to the modem glass- 
painter. I allude in particular to the large figures 
which often occupy the whole, or the greater part ol 
a single light. These are usually composed of pieces 
of glass nearly if not quite as large as those which occur 
in the glass-paintings of the sixteenth century ; and I 
am certain that an effect might be produced in modem 
glass, sufficiently resembling that of these works for all 
practical purposes, though of course not identical with 
it. I should say that the artist might either adopt the 


ancient design, and place a single figure in each light ; 
or divide the window, if too large for this arrangement, 
into as many parts as might be necessary for the reduc- 
tion of the figures to a scale proportionable to the build- 
ing ; filling it with two or more figures placed one above 
the other, or with rows of figures placed under arcades : 
or else occupy the whole, or some part of the window 
with a group of large figures. The last arrangement, 
though it may be unsupported by any ancient authority, 
would in skilful hands, be unobjectionable in a glass- 
painting avowedly of the nineteenth century, and which, 
according to my view of the case, the artist would be 
bound only to render conformable to the general character 
of the building. I presume that the artist would con- 
sider it proper to impart to his figures, whether single 
or in groups, that grand, severe, and classical character, 
borrowed from the antique, which belongs to the figures 
in the glass-paintings of the Early English style ; with- 
out however imitating their rudeness, or imperfect draw- 
ing; and that he would select for their execution the 
deepest and most powerful colours, and those which 
most resemble the ancient in tint ; employing them, as 
far as circumstances would admit, as they are employed 
in Early English figures, pink glass for instance being 
used for the faces and hands, &c. 

I also think that he might in painting the glass, unite 
the bold and strong outlines of the Early English style, 
with the stipple and transparent shading of the Per- 
pendicular ; for the use of deeply coloured glass would 
render the adoption of the first almost a matter of neces- 
sity, in order to ensure expression ; and in a nineteenth 
century style would not be an objectionable innovation 



to impart a greater degree of roundness to the figures 
than is usual in Early English glass-paintings. I am at 
a loss to understand how the flatness of ancient Early 
English glass- paintings is to be defended. It cannot be 
on any fancied harmony between the glass and the archi- 
tecture, for Early English carved work is in general re- 
markable for its high relief. Indeed it is evident from 
the strength of the outlines, that the glass-painters of 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries strove to imitate 
this eflfect in their own works. I beUeve we are led to 
admire the flatness of Early English glass-paintings 
simply by having associated it with the beauties of Early 
English architecture ; without considering that it is but 
the result of an imperfect degree of execution. The 
use of deep colouring is undoubtedly opposed to extreme 
contrasts of light and shade, and therefore a modem 
glass-painting founded as suggested on the model of the 
Early English style, must necessarily be more flat than 
one founded on the model of the Perpendicular style ; 
still I think the artist should endeavour to impart to the 
work the greatest degree of roundness which the means 
at his disposal will effect. In order, however, to keep up 
the character of the style, I apprehend that a greater 
quantity of clear and vivid lights should be left than 
would be the case in a Perpendicular glass-painting*. 
In the majority of instances, a coloured or white back- 
ground diapered, such as indeed is recommended by 

* I hardlj tliink that any objection 
can be raised against the substitution in 
these works of stipple shading for smear 
shading. It is not the teztnre of the 
shadows, but their form, which may or 
may not be an element of simplicity. A 
stipple shadow at a distance cannot be 

distinguished from a smear shadow, ex- 
cept indeed by its superior transparency; 
a circumstance, which, of itself, seems 
to afford a sufficient reason for the gene- 
ral adoption of stipple shading in all 


Theophilus, and of which examples may be seen in 
Augsburg Cathedral, and elsewhere, would probably 
render the introduction of ornaments round the figures 
wholly unnecessary; but if such necessity existed, I 
should say that the character and form of the ornament 
were matters entirely for the decision of the artist. It 
might perhaps be found that leaves of a simple form, 
such as those of the ivy or maple, are better adapted to 
the nature of modern glass than the conventional foliage 
of the Early English style, and their adoption might be 
preferable on another ground, the avoidance as much as 
possible of anachronisms ^ 

The whole of the foregoing remarks have been made 
with reference to pictorial glass-paintings only, but they 
are applicable, though in a less degree, to pattern glass- 
paintings also. 

Some patterns in the Early English style are, for want 
of the requisite material, at present utterly incapable of 
imitation ; but there are others, — those for instance in 
which but little colour is introduced, — not liable to the 
same objection ; especially if imitated in ^^ pressed glass," 

* An example of a nineteenth-century 
window adapted to an Early English 
building, is afforded by the great end 
window of the south transept, We^t- 
minster Abbey, the greater part of which 
has already been painted by Mr. Nixon, 
the artist, who undoubtedly stands at 
the head of English glass -painters. 
Without pretending to give any opinion 
on its merits or demerits, either as 
a work of art, or as a glass-painting, I 
cannot help regarding it with much 
satisfaction, as the commencement of 
a new and oriUt-like style of true 
glass-painting, the first introduction 
of w^ich may be fairly ascribed to 

Mr. Nixon, and his coadjutor, Mr. 

Since the above-mentioned work was 
commenced, Mr. Nixon has in the east 
window of Snodland Church, Kent, snc- 
cessfhlly adapted a nineteenth-oeutury 
design to a late Qothic windpw; this 
work, considering that the new style is 
yet in its infoncy, is of great merit. 
Another window is now completing on 
the same principles by Mr. Nixon for 
Christ Church, Bloomsbury. A few 
more such glass-paintings as these will, 
I think, place the success of the new 
style beyond doabt. " Magna est Veritas, 
et pr€tvaMnt." [1847.] 



according to Mr. Powell's invention'. Patterns thus 
produced will be found in general more satisfactory than 
those painted by hand, and it seems probable that they 
would harmonize if placed in juxtaposition, though not 
in the same window, with the pictorial works above men- 
tioned. But this again is a question more properly left 
to the decision of the artist. 

In like mamier I would suggest that a due resem- 
blance should be preserved between modern pictorial 
glass-paintings designed for a Decorated building, and 
ancient Decorated glass-paintings. Those subjects only 
should be selected as models, which are least Mosaic in 
character; and I would allow the same latitude to the 
artist in following them as I have recommended in 
regard to Early English models. He might, according 
to ancient authority, introduce a large single figure 
into each of the lower lights of a window, or carry 

' ThiB invention is itill quite in its 
infancy, and susceptible of material im- 
provement and of yery extended appli- 
cation as a means of ornament. The 
superiority of the pressed or stamped 
glass for patterns over that painted by 
hand consists in the roughness of its 
surface, occasioned by the contact of 
the surface with the mould, which 
imparts to the glass, when seen at 
a little distance, a richness and bril- 
liancy of effect more closely resembling 
that of old glass than has, in general, 
been hitherto produced by any other 
modem expedient. Some glass, such as 
the ornamented quarries of the fifteenth 
century — whose charm consists in their 
silvery appearance — can, I think, only 
be properly imitated in pressed glass. 
And for a long time I thought Mr. 
Powell would have no rival in his imita- 
tion of the earlier white patterns. Such 
a rival however appeared, shortly after 

these sheets were sent to the press, in 
Mr. W. Miller, of 82, Brewer-street» 
Qolden-square, who has painted the 
wheel window, at the east end of Bar- 
freston Church, Kent, in exact imitation 
of Early English glass. It is true that 
this work principally consists of a white 
scroll pattern on a cross-hatched ground; 
but the material used has all the appa- 
rent substantiality, richness, and bril- 
liancy of ancient glass, without any of 
the inherent defects of pressed glass; 
the pattern here, having been drawn by 
hand, being as sharp and clear as in an 
original example. This window is, on 
the whole, the most perfect imitation of 
Early English glass that I have ever 
seen, and reflects the greatest credit on 
its author, who has encountered and 
overcome no ordinary difficulties, which 
the numerous fiulures in imitating early 
glass by hand painting abundantly tes> 
tify. [1847.] 



a general desiga across it independent of the mullions ^. 
But I think he would not be bound in any case to put 
his figures under canopies of architectural design, (which 
would lead to the adoption of Decorated details), but. 
might place them on coloured grounds, and surround 
them with a sort of framework of foliage, a preference 
being given to the ivy or maple leaf, somewhat like that 
which occurs in the Decorated Jesse windows. Thus 
a window might be entirely filled in an appropriate 
manner, without resorting to the use of any Decorated 
architectural ornaments whatever, in case this should be 
considered objectionable. The artist, I apprehend, would 
take care to infuse the Decorated character of drapery 

> There are plenty of authorities for 
thii arrangement in ancient German 
Decorated glass; and in French mnl- 
lioned windows of the Early English 
period, the same snhject sometimes 
e winces a disposition to extend into more 
than one lower light. Both German 
and French, as well as English glass, 
shonld be carefdlly stndied by the glass- 
painter, with a view to increase his 
knowledge of the general arrangements 
of each particular style. There can be 
no impropriety in borrowing an arrange- 
ment from foreign painted glass, even if 
no English example of it existed, pro- 
vided it be translated into English (if I 
may be allowed the expression) by the 
adoption of English details ; for nothing 
can, in general, be more objectionable 
than the employment in the windows 
of English bnildings, of designs copied 
from French and German models, the 
details of which seldom harmonize with 
those of oor own architecture. 

I should perhaps declare once for all, 
that in recommending the adoption of de- 
signs extending into more than one light 
of a window, I am by no means insen- 
sible to the necessity, when teveral dis- 

tinct subjects are intended to be intro- 
duced, of accommodating them as much 
as possible to the principal architectural 
divisions rf the windows. For instance, 
though in some five-light windows it 
might under the circumstances be ad- 
visable to fill the three central lights 
with one subject, and each of the outer 
lights with different ones; in others, 
consisting (so to speak) of two pain of 
windows, divided by a central lights it 
might be better to fill the centre light 
with one subject, and occupy each pair 
of lights on its flanks, with another and 
larger design; as for instance, in the 
side windows of King's Chapel, Cam- 
bridge. So a transom ranning acroes 
a window, might render it necessary to 
fill each tier of lights with a separate 
subject. Again, tracery lights are some- 
times so divided into groups by the 
principal mullions, as to make a corre- 
sponding division of the design advisable. 
The thickness of the mullion in some 
Early English windows would render it 
impossible to extend a design into acya- 
cent lights more completely than was 
done by the ancient artists themselves. 


and attitude into his figures, without however imitating 
either the bad drawing, or forced attitudes of the origi- 
nals; and I should consider the enjoyment of stipple 
shading, and a greater roundness of effect than an an- 
cient Decorated figure displays, quite unobjectionable. 

A similar difficulty to that before adverted to, might 
be felt in composing pattern windows to suit Decorated 
buildings. I should be sorry to object to the use of 
running patterns on white glass, designed on the same 
principle as the beautiful ancient Decorated running 
patterns, or to the employment of ornamented quarry 
patterns, or, in clearstory windows, of patterns simply 
composed of plain pieces of glass, provided a good ma- 
terial could be found in which to execute them. But 
this, as I have already stated, must be a question for 
the decision of the artist. I would not, however, ad- 
vise the introduction into pattern windows of belts of 
canopies running across them, from a belief that some 
of the finest ancient Decorated windows are those which 
are wholly composed of white patterns, with or without 
the addition of a single shield of arms in each of the 
lower lights ; and that an alternation of abruptly de- 
fined masses of white and coloured glass crossing a 
window like belts, is hardly to be justified on sound 
principles of taste; or at least would not produce a 
pleasing effect, unless the ancient materials were used. 
I should say, though of course I only throw this out 
as a suggestion, that in filling the windows either of 
a Decorated or of an Early English building with ap- 
propriate modem glass, an intermixture of pictures with 
white patterns is unadvisable ; that each window should 
be either entirely a picture window, or else a pattern 


window; that either kind might, in aooordanoe with 
ancient authority, be employed throughout the entire 
building to the exclusion of the other : or if a mix^ 
ture of the two should be considered necessary, that it 
might be carried into effect, by confining the picture 
windows to the ends of the building, and the pattern 
windows to its sides; but this last would require the 
building to be of such a length as fairly to admit of 
apparent curtailment : the inevitable result of employing 
dark windows at its extremities with light windows at 

its sides. 

The ancient models might be followed more closely 
than has hitherto been recommended in adapting glass- 
paintings to Perpendicular buildings. Such a general 
similarity of character exists between edifices in the Per- 
pendicular style, that late Perpendicular glass-paintings 
seem equally to harmonize with them all. Indeed, as 
has before been remarked, there is scarcely any other 
diffei'ence between glass-paintings of the early and lat- 
ter parts of the fifteenth century than that occasioned 
by the tint of the glass. The same breadth and de- 
licacy, both in figures and decorations, is observable in 
all works of this period, after the style had become 
thoroughly developed. I therefore see no impropriety 
whatever in introducing glass, painted after the models 
of the close of the fifteenth century, or even later, into 
any Perpen«Ucular building. The painted windows of 
Fairford Church, Gloucestershire, would harmonize in all 
respects, except their architectural details, with build- 
ings of the time of William of Wykeham. The figures 
introduced into the glass at Fairford possess the same 
Germanic character as the sculptured figures of the 



early part of the fifteenth century, which, unlike the 
glass-paintings of that time, they equal in merit, owing 
to improvements in the art of drawing, by which at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, artists were* enabled 
to represent on a plane surface, the forms and inequali- 
ties actually produced in sculpture. 

I am far from supposing that the drawing of the 
Fairford figures might not be improved upon, but their 
architectural character, especially as developed in the 
single figures, is so admirably suited to the position 
they occupy, as to appear worthy of imitation at the 
present day. 

Whether or not it would be advisable to imitate the 
architectural details of these canopies, or of others of 
earlier date, is a question which I do not feel myself 
competent to decide. I hardly think that it would be 
possible without taking very great liberties with the 
rules of perspective, and of light and shade, — ^pardon- 
able I should say under the particular circumstances, — > 
to produce the effect of the ancient canopies. Their 
value, however, consists not so much in their archi- 
tectural excellence, as in the opportunity they afford 
the artist of introducing large masses of white glass 
into the picture, and of producing strong contrasts of 
light and shade. These objects might perhaps be equally 
secured by placing the pictures whether consisting of 
single figures or groups, in elegant bowers formed of 
the foliage of the vine, the sofiits or ceilings of which 
might be shewn in perspective, and darkly shaded, so 
as to produce apparent depth, by bringing forward the 
front of the bower, and the figures beneath it, and 
throwing back the distant landscape behind them; on 


the principle partly of the Cinque Cento canopies at 
Brussels and Lichfield, and of the Gothic foliaged 
canopies in Munich Cathedral, which are described in 
a former part of this work. Canopies or bowers of this 
description might, from their unsubstantial and light ap- 
pearance, prove perhaps better suited to glass-paintings 
than representations of solid stonework. 

There is perhaps no ancient Perpendicular arrange- 
ment which could not be successfully adopted at the 
present day. The figure and canopy window, or some- 
thing resembling it, might be employed in the majority 
of instances with the best efiect, especially in the win- 
dows at the sides of buildings; but the artist should, 
in my opinion at least, never scruple to use a design 
extending into more than one light of a window, when- 
ever a complicated subject would render this arrange- 
ment necessary, in order to give sufficient size to the 
figures. Designs extending over the whole of a win- 
dow are common enough in the Perpendicular style ; 
nor is practically any ill effect produced, as might be 
anticipated, by their being cut by the muUions. In- 
deed it is surprising how little in reality the muUions 
interfere with the design. The eye traverses the pic- 
ture without being caught by them; nor do I think 
that the appearance of the building itself suffers by 
reason of the design of the glass-painting not strictly 
coinciding with the architectural divisions of the win- 
dow. Such pictures are, no doubt, best suited, for the 
extreme ends of a building, where they are calculated 
to produce an agreeable variety when contrasted with 
the somewhat monotonous design of the figure and 
canopy windows at its sides. This circumstance, and 


the distinctness of their parts, owing to their size, are, 
I apprehend, sufficient grounds of themselves to justify 
the use of designs extended over the whole or a great 
part of a window. 

The only improvement perhaps of which the technical 
mode of execution as practised at the close of the fif- 
teenth century and early part of the sixteenth, seems 
susceptible, is an increase in the thickness of the out- 
line in those works intended to occupy distant positions. 
The ancient glass-painters, although they often elon- 
gated their figures to counteract the shortening effi^ct 
of perspective upon them when placed much above the 
eye, do not appear at any time to have varied the 
thickness of the outlines irrespectively of the size of 
the figures. This was unimportant until the introduc- 
tion of the Perpendicular style of glass-painting and 
its delicate mode of execution, which is not calculated 
to insure distinctness in the more distant figures. An 
instance of this may be seen in the portraits of Ed- 
ward IV. and his family in the north window of the 
western transept of Canterbury Cathedral. The fea- 
tures of these figures are quite lost to the eye when 
viewed from the steps leading to the choir. The re- 
medy, an increased boldness of outline or shadow — 
for in glass-painting this comes pretty nearly to the 
same thing — is suggested by some Early English 
figures of about the same size as the last , which, having 
been removed from the clearstory of the choir into the 
south window of the western transept, have been curi- 
ously enough placed at about the same distance from 
the steps in question, as the Perpendicular glass in the 
opposite window. 



The same facility of adoption extends also to the an- 
cient Perpendicular patterns, and to combinations of 
pictures and patterns in the same window. I hardly 
think that patterns more appropriate to the modern 
material than the Perpendicular could be devised, or 
that any great improvement in their form could be 
eflfected. Purely pattern windows would probably be 
more satisfactorily executed by Mr. Powell's machinery, 
than by hand; but, if figures were to be placed on 
white quarry grounds, I certainly think that the orna- 
ment should be painted by hand on the quarries. The 
German "round glass," from the curvature of its sides, 
certainly harmonizes better with the flowing lines of 
pictures placed in juxtaposition with it, than the rigid 
cutting lines produced by quarries. Bound glazing 
therefore appears to be more appropriate than quarry 
glazing, where part only of a light is occupied with 
a picture. Both quarry and round glazing are thus 
employed in the windows of St. Peter's Church, C!o- 
logne; the relative merits of the two systems may 
therefore be determined by actual inspection. Eoimd 
glass is a manufacture easy of revival; it affords of 
itself a very valuable means of ornament \ I shall 

k The round glass in the windows of 
the new library at Lincoln's Inn, was 
copied by Mr. Powell from some ronnd 
glass of the dose of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, which I bought at Nuremberg, in 
the autumn of 1844. It has been imi- 
tated with tolerable exactness, except in 
the size of the hulTs-eye: which in the 
original glass is very smalL As a first 
attempt the modem glass must be con- 
sidered a very creditable performance, 
and much praise is due to Mr. Hardwick 
for his boldness in introducing a com- 

parative novelty from a conviction of 
its beauty. Round glass, if employed 
in the windows of Palladian churches, 
would be found to harmonize with the 
architecture ikr better than the square 
or rectangular panes now in use. -The 
design for the church of St. John Bap- 
tist, at Florence, by Michael Angelo, re* 
presents the window with round glan. 
See Ingiffnium Roma Templorum pro- 
speduM by Jacobus de Rubeis, 1684» 
folio, plate 48. 


however conclude by reiterating my opinion that the 
decorative, as well as the pictorial part of the work, are 
matters equally to be decided upon by the artist. 

Hardly any variations from the ancient models would 
be necessary in following the latest Perpendicular, and 
Cinque Cento styles, further than correcting in the 
latter the generally too ornamental character of its 
figures, and their draperies, and substituting for it 
a severer mode of treatment. No ornaments perhaps 
could be devised which would harmonize better with 
Palladian buildings, than those of the Cinque Cento 
style ; and they, as well as those of the late Perpen- 
dicular, are quite adapted to the nature of the modem 
material. Care should be taken not to imitate the too 
opaque execution of the later Cinque Cento glass- 
paintings. The finest specimens of handling are to bo 
found scarcely later than 1535, — certainly not later 
than 1540. After this the blackness of the shadows 
betokens the deterioration of the art. 

Eound glass, or geometrical glazing with appropriate 
borders, would still, as formerly, afford the means of 
producing Cinque Cento pattern windows. I tliink that 
a preference should be given to round glass on account 
of its richness, the beautiful play of light it occasions, 
and its pleasing silvery tone. 

The above suggestions have been thrown out, simply 
for the sake of rendering my recommdndation of a new 
style of glass-painting more intelligible : it is therefore 
unnecessary for me to apologize for their incomplete- 
ness, or to disclaim any presumptuous intention of lay- 
ing down rules on the subject. 

It sufficiently appears, I hope, that in advocating 




a new style, I by no means advise any unnecessary dis- 
regard of the rules of the old styles. Indeed I should 
consider an infringement of the rules of style in some 
cases as objectionable in an original modern glass- 
painting as in a copy of an old one. For instance, 
the introduction of a coat of arms charged with com- 
plicated bearings, or surmounted with a helmet and 
mantling, into a modem glass-painting, designed for 
an Early English building, would seem to me as in- 
appropriate as its insertion would be into a copy of 
a thirteenth-century pattern window; not indeed upon 
the narrow ground that the thirteenth century affords 
no precedent of the kind; but because the crowded 
shield, the fluttering mantling, and its accompaniments, 
would be unsuited to the simplicity of the rest of the 
work. For the same reason it might in many cases 
be desirable to attend to the minutisD of costume, of 
armour, &c., and even to the selection of the Blaok, or 
Eoman letter for inscriptions*. Indeed any breach of 
style would be reprehensible, which tended to impair 
the general harmony of the design; the security and 
maintenance of which ought to be the principal object 
of all rules of style whatever. 

The adoption of a new style of glass-painting is a pro- 
ject, which it is to be expected will encounter much 
opposition, especially from all parties interested in up- 
holding the present corrupt system : for if carried into 
effect, it will inevitably render not only the invention 
and execution, but also the selection of designs for 
painted windows, matters of far greater difficulty than 

^ I mean the common Black, or coiD' 
mon Roman letter, for I see no ose in in- 
scriptions, which none but the initiated 

can read. For a like reason I should 
say that an inscription in English is 
preferable to one in Latin, or French. 


at present. The mere imitator will no longer be able 
to shelter his ignorance of the higher principles and 
rules of art, under a scrupulous and literal conformity 
with the petty details of conventionality; nor can he 
any longer be upheld with impunity by his patrons, the 
soi'disant connoisseurs, who sneer at real works of art 
from sheer incapacity to appreciate their merit, and flip- 
pantly bring forward their own miserable conceits as un- 
questionable authorities. Both the artist and the critic, 
in order that their opinions may be generally respected, 
must learn to estimate a pictorial glass-painting, not by 
its conventional character, but in proportion as it ex- 
hibits those essential qualities which will entitle it to 
be considered a work of art, as well as a perfect glass- 

A degree of knowledge will therefore be required of 
both these parties far beyond that obtained by a little 
industry in tracing ancient painted glass. They must 
acquire a thorough acquaintance with the deep princi- 
ples of each style of ancient glass-painting, and of the 
defects and excellences of the ancient glass-painters, to 
which must be added a competent knowledge of art, 
derived from an acute, refined, and unprejudiced obser- 
vation, not only of the works of the middle ages, but 
of the great masters of the sixteenth century, and of 
the invaluable relics of classical antiquity. 

There will, we may be sure, be no lack of excellent 
glass-painters in this country, so soon as artists find it 
their interest to direct their talents and skill to this 
hitherto neglected art. Every branch of the fine arts 
is so overcrowded with practitioners, that many artists, 
if properly encouraged, would be glad to adopt glass- 



painting, and would rejoice at the new field of enter- 
prise thus opened out to them. 

The chief difficulty is, in what way to evince to the 
artistic world, a sincere desire for good glass-paintings. 

The only mode seems to be, by throwing open all im- 
portant works to public competition; and appointing 
artists of known reputation, and who have themselves 
devoted some attention to glass-painting, as judges, both 
of the rival designs, and of the specimens of glass-paint- 
ing submitted to them. 

Public competitions in oil-painting, architecture, or 
sculpture, are in general to be deprecated; because 
artists of established fame will not condescend to enter 
the lists. But it is a diflferent matter, when either 
a branch of the fine arts is newly taken up, or an eflfort 
made to establish it on a new footing. In this case 
a public competition aflEbrds perhaps the surest means 
of enabling those most worthy of patronage to become 
known. The experiment has been, successfully I be- 
lieve, tried with regard to fresco-painting; and I trust 
it may ere long be tried with regard to glass-painting. 

I have already intimated my dislike to modem glass- 
paintings exhibiting the exaggerations and deformities 
which are so common in ancient glass-paintings. I should 
further caution the glass-painter who seeks to attain real 
eminence in his profession, against being betrayed into 
the imitation of models, which though free from absolute 
bad drawing, are defective in character and expression. 
Such models are afforded in abundance by the modem 
German school of painting, and by its English imitators. 
The German School, some artists of deserved reputation 
being excepted, has committed the fundamental error of 


neglecting the study of nature, and taking for its models 
the masters of an age when art was still imperfectly 
developed. It is therefore less likely to advance art, 
than to cause it to recede from the high point which 
it had attained in the sixteenth century; and it does 
not appear that its most successful followers can bo 
ranked higher than able and ingenious cultivators of 
a vicious style. Amongst the most striking defects in 
the productions of this school, and of its imitators, are 
an insipidity of expression, and a want of individuality 
in the figures. In some works the distinction of sex is 
scarcely distinguishable except by the size and dress, 
and can rarely be guessed at from the features, or the 
form of the figure. Martyrs are apparently devoid of 
sensation, and angels are reduced to mere automata; 
our Saviour Himself is not unfrequently represented 
like a spectre. This seeming apathy is doubtless in- 
tended to denote in the first case, a sublime and perfect 
resignation to the Divine will ; in the second, the exer- 
cise of an irresistible power, which requires no effort 
in the person who displays it ; in the last, the profound 
and awful majesty of a Divine Being: but in their 
treatment of these subjects the German artists, and 
their English disciples more especially, seem obnoxious 
to the criticism, that although they most successfully 
denude holy personages of all earthly expression, they 
fail to clothe them with a spiritual one \ 

Notwithstanding its defects however, the modem Ger- 
man school appears to meet with many admirers, because 
it is supposed to be deeply imbued with the spirit of 
what is termed "Catholic art." But this alone is no 

I' See " Quarterly Review/' No. 154^ p. 330. 



recommendation of its artistical character ; many of the 
rudest medieval figures being admitted to possess a "Ca- 
tholic feeling " as deep as that which pervades the pro- 
ductions of the modern German school. The merits attri- 
buted to Catholic art, are an earnestness and depth in 
the expression of religious feeling, which (according to 
its advocates) the great masters of the sixteenth century, 
and their followers, the cultivators of "Pagan art V are 
incapable of attaining, or at least never have attained, 
and in comparison with which grace and correctness of 
design, ought to be regarded as " beggarly elements." 

This view of Catholic art seems to be chiefly, if not 
entirely, founded on narrow and exclusive religious 
grounds "*; and subjects art rather to the uncertain 
standard of devotional susceptibility, than to any defi- 
nite principles of taste and criticism. Indeed it might 
be supposed from much of the language employed on 
the subject, that there was a necessary repugnancy 
between the expression of Christian sentiment, and the 
employment of technical skill; an inference which, 

^ The phrase "Pagan art," is here 
Tued to indicate the art of representa- 
tion as refined and improved in the six- 
teenth century by the study of classical 
models. It is rather amusing that the 
same charge of "inanimate insipidity" 
which has been brought, and with truth, 
against many antique statues, (see 
Reynolds, Discourse viii.,) applies with 
greater force to the works of those 
moderns who regard with distaste the 
remains of heathen antiquity, and the 
subsequent improvements in art. 

"* It is sometimes carried so far as to 
regard Protestantism as incompatible 
with religious art, a prejudice which is 
somewhat inconsistt-nt u ith the fact that 
the great model of German Catholic 

art, Albert Dilrer, produced his noblest 
work, "The Four Apostles," after his 
adoption of the Protestant faith. See 
Kugler, " Handbook of Painting," part 
ii. p. 149, edited by Head. 

I should add that by "Catholic art" 
is meant exclusively and distinctively 
" Roman Catholic art." This is pointedly 
and clearly put by the Count de Monta- 
lembert in his letter to the late Cam- 
bridge Camden Society, quoted in Weale's 
" Quarterly Papers," part vi. p. 36. In 
another work entitled Du Vandalisms 
et du Catholicisme dans VArt, Paris, 
1839, by Count Montalembert, it will be 
found that "Christian" and "Catholic" 
are used as synonymous terms. 



though to a certain extent contradicted by the Count 
de Montalembert in his remarks on the works of Over- 
beck ^j is supported by the same author's condemnation 
of Anthony PoUajuolo, for introducing into painting 
the element of anatomical study, and of Baphael, and 
Michael Angelo, for pursuing it in their works ^. An 
objection to the study of nature seems to come with 

■ "— tons ceux qui ont vu et 
oompris des tableaux oa dee deagins 
d'Oyerbeck, ne pourront a'empdcher de 
reconnoitre qu'il n'y a U aucunement 
oopie des anciens maltres, maia bien nne 
originality puiasante et libre, qui a au 
mettre au service de I'id^e catbolique 
tous lea perfectionnemens modemes du 
deasin et de la perspective ignor^ des 
anciena. L'Ame la mieux dispose k la 
po^ie mystique n'en est pas moius com- 
pl6tement satisfaite, comme devant le 
cbef-d'-oeuvre le plus suave des anciens 
jours, et rintelligence la plus revdche est 
forc^e de convenir qu'il y a m^me de 
notre temps la possibility de renouer le 
fil des traditions saintes, et de fonder 
nne ^le vraiment religieuse, sans re- 
monter le cours des &ges et sans cesser 
d'dtre de ce si^le." — Du VandalUme et 
du CathoUci$me dans VArt*' p. 178. 
Tbese remarks are satisfactory inasmuch 
as they prohibit the artist who adopts 
the barbarisms of Gothic art, from 
pleading the necessity of adhering to 
" Catholic examples/' and defending the 
badneas of his drawing by the sacred- 
ness of his subject. 

• *<Antoine PoUajuolo, qui eut la 
triste gloire d'introduire dans la pein- 
ture I'^l^ment des Etudes anatomiques, 
et qui s'en servit le premier pour pro- 
faner oe noble sojet du martyre de Saint 
S^bastien, qui 1' a ^t^ tant de fois de- 
puis." — "11 pr^parait ainsi les voies h 
Michel-Ange, qui ne trouva rien de 
mieux qui de printer les saints et 
mdme lea saintes dans nn ^tat de nudity 
cm l^te, dans ce fameux Jugement der- 

nier," — Du Vandalisme et du Catholu 
cisme dans PArt, p. 93. 

" Aussi ^ la fin du xv si^de, apr^ la 
mort du Beato et de Benozzo, la supr^- 
matie de Tart chr^tien est d^volue k 
r^le ombrienne dans la personne de 
Perugin, de Hnturicchio, et de Raphael 
avant sa chute, glorieuse trinity qui n'a 
jamais ^t^ et ne sera jamais surpassee." 
—lb,, p. 104. 

"Nous admettrions volontiers avec 
M. Rio qu'il (Raphael) a port^ I'art 
Chretien k son plus haut degr^ de per- 
fection, a. nous n'^tions attrist^ et r^- 
volt^ mdme en prince de ses chefs- 
d'-(Buvre les plus pars, par la pens^ de 
sa deplorable defection." " Le rapproche- 
ment entre la Dispute du Saint Sacre- 
ment et le po^me du Dante, est naturel 
et juste: cette fresque est en effet un 
veritable po&me en peinture. Pourquoi 
faut-il qu' aussit^t apr^s I'avoir termini, 
Raphael ait c^^ aux suggestions du 
serpent ? Comme dit notre auteur [M. 
Rio] ' le contraste est si frappant entre 
le style de ses premiers ouvrages et celni 
qu'il adopta dans les dix derni&rs ann^es 
de sa vie, qu'il est impossible de regarder 
I'un comme une Evaluation ou un d6- 
veloppement de I'autre. Evidemment il 
y a eu solution de continuity, abjuration 
d'une foi antique eu mati^re d'art, pour 
embrasser une foi nouvelle.' Cette foi 
nouvelle n'est autre qui la foi au pagan- 
isme et an mat^rialisme, qui a eu pour 
r^vElation les fresques de Thistoire de 
Psyche, et la Transfiguration." — Ih,, pp. 
112, 114. 



a singular bad grace from so ardent and enthusiastic an 
admirer of ancient Christian art as the Count de Monta- 
lembert, when we consider what close and servile copy- 
ists of nature the medieval artists really endeavoured 
to become. 

It is sufficient to refer to the Chinese-like exact- 
ness P with which in the paintings of the early masters, 
jewellery, and the texture of the stuflfs composing the 
draperies, are imitated, the latter in many instances 
even to the very stitches : to the scrupulous delineations 
of each single hair of the eyelashes and eyebrows, &c., 
the stiff map-like delineation of the meagre bodies and 
attenuated limbs of saints, and ideal personages, &c. 

Hence we may conclude that it was from mere igno- 
rance of the true method of representation, that the 
medieval artists failed of arriving at that truthful sim- 
plicity with which nature was more faithfully rendered 
in the periods of more advanced art. They laboured 
like children to attain a minute imitation of unimportant 
detail because they knew no better **. Had the early 
artists possessed the same degree of skill and knowledge 
as the painters of the sixteenth century, they would 
likewise have imparted to their delineations of the 
human figure, that perfection of beauty which affords 
the best proof of the soundness of the judgment exer- 

p The parallel between ChineBe art 
and Middle Age art is mach closer than 
would at first be supposed. Many a por- 
trait of a Chinese lady might be trans- 
formed into a highly Catholic saint, by 
simply substituting a book for the fan, 
and slightly altering the form of the or- 
naments on the robe. The face with its 
long eyelids and scarcely marked eye- 
brows and couTentlonal expression, — the 

carefVil exactness with which the orna- 
ments on the drapery, and the little 
flowers and sprigs at the feet of the 
figure are drawn — all have their counter- 
parts in the European paintings of the 
flfbeenth century. The extent to which 
an artist may avail himself of such 
imperfect models, is well defined in 
Reynolds' sixth Discourse. 
4 See Barry's sixth Lecture. 



cised by the artist of a more cultivated mind, in select- 
ing, through his accurate knowledge of nature, the 
most perfect form as worthy of imitation': and they 
would have expressed the truest Christian emotions, with 
that fulness and completeness of meaning, which cause 
some at least of the religious works of the great masters 
so powerfully to excite the sympathy of the spectator. 

It has been often observed that the later paintings of 
Baphael are inferior in depth of religious feeling, or 
holiness of expression, to his earlier works, in which 
he has more closely followed the established types. 
Admitting this to be true, it affords no reason for pre- 
ferring an imperfect, to a more perfect method of repre- 
sentation; which must, of course, be capable of more 
perfectly expressing a sentiment, whether devout, or 
otherwise, reedly felt by the artist. In the religious 
works of Leonardo da Yinci, for instance, both excel- 
lences are combined. 

It seems therefore absurd to suppose that Scriptural 
subjects cannot be adequately represented without retro- 
grading to an imperfect style of art. Such a notion can 
I think only be attributed to the fashionable, and there- 
fore exclusive and indiscriminating admiration of Middle 
Age art, and customs. Such admiration will most pro- 
bably, like other fashions, soon pass away. The best 
established opinions are, it is true, liable to be reversed 
by the progress of enquiry and knowledge, but it is not 
probable that standards of excellence, like the works of 
the great masters, which have been recognised during 

' The distinction between servilely 
copying Nature, and adopting her as 
a guide, is repeatedly pointed out in 

Reynolds' Discourses, especially in the 
third, fourth, and fifth Discourses. 


three centuries, will either be subverted, or long neg- 
lected. Judgments which have been examined and con- 
firmed by successive generations, and in various coun- 
tries, must be supposed to rest on deep-seated principles; 
and hence the artist who desires to please long and 
generally, and to obtain a permanent reputation, will 
do better to adhere to these, than to be guided by opi- 
nions which may fairly be attributed to partial views, 
or to the favour with which startling novelties are apt 
for a time to be entertained. 

I cannot conclude the present work without some en- 
deavour to promote the preservation of such specimens 
of ancient painted glass as we still possess. The value 
of these remains to the student and artist sufficiently 
appears when it is recollected that they constitute the 
sole evidence of the state and progress of the English 
school of glass-painting. We cannot repair the injuries 
which have reduced the original specimens of the art 
to such scanty numbei's, and rendered them, in the 
majority of instances, little better than a mere collection 
of fragments; but we may testify our regret at what 
has been lost, — a loss that so materially retards and 
embarrasses our investigations, — and our appreciation of 
what remains, by attempting as far as possible to arrest 
the further progress of destruction. 

The ordinary effect of time in decomposing the sur- 
face of the glass, is a cause of decay which we cannot, 
and indeed should not, attempt to counteract; for the 
remedy would in all probability prove worse than the 
disease. But glass-paintings are subject to other and 
more serious injuries, which a little care and judgment 
may prevent. From wilful and wanton destruction, it 


is true there is little to be apprehended. The icono- 
clastic mania has happily passed away ; the most zealous 
reformer sees in an ancient picture only a specimen of 
ancient art, though its subject abstractedly considered 
may be one to which he entertains the most profound 
antipathy; and as for the mischievous attacks of the 
childish and ignorant, they may be eflfectually resisted 
by an external wire guard. The great danger to which 
a glass-painting is exposed arises not from these sources, 
but either from neglect, or from well-intentioned but 
mistaken zeal for its preservation and restoration. 

It is difficult to say which of these evils is the more 
to be deprecated. There can be no doubt that innu- 
merable glass-paintings have already perished or become 
mutilated through the neglect to keep their leadwork 
and saddle-bars in repair, or to defend them against 
injuries from without by a wire guard ; and that many 
others are at present in jeopardy for want of similar 
precautions : but I am sorry to add that an almost equal 
amount of damage has accrued to these works, in many 
cases, either through restorations conducted on false 
principles, or their unnecessary removal from their ori- 
ginal situations into other windows. 

Fainted glass loses so much of its interest and value 
in every respect, when torn from its original position, 
that this measure should never be resorted to unless for 
the purpose of better preservation. It may sometimes 
be advisable to collect into one window all the little 
fragments of painted glass scattered about a building, 
with the view of protecting them there with a wire 
guard; but the removal of ancient painted glass from 
one window into another merely for the sake of im- 


proving the general appearance of the building, appears 
to me wholly unjustifiable. 

The injury thus committed is however trifling in 
comparison with that arising from such ^^ restorations^^ 
as are founded on the desire of converting a ragged- 
looking and mutilated glass-painting into a sightly orna- 
ment. The restoration (as it is termed) of an ancient 
glass-painting to its pristine beauty, would in the ma- 
jority of cases be more truly designated the premeditated 
destruction of an original work. It is generally incom- 
patible with that conscientious preservation and reten- 
tion in its original place of every portion of ancient 
glass, which ought to be the essential and paramount ob- 
ject of all real restorations. By far the greater number of 
ancient glass-paintings are valuable, rather as specimens 
of the art at particular periods, than on account of their 
intrinsic merit. In this point of view, every fragment 
possesses a degree of interest quite independent of its 
size, its effect, or the subject it represents, and there- 
fore though apparently insignificant, should by no means 
be cast aside, nor should a modem copy, however accu- 
rately executed, be suffered to usurp its place. With 
such restorations as scrupulously preserve the original 
glass, and admit of no more modem painted glass than 
is requisite to supply the deficient parts of a design, 
clearly indicated by the portion of it which remains, 
little or no fault can be found. But when they are 
carried beyond this point, and modem glass is inserted, 
not on the direct . authority of the dilapidated work 
itself, but merely according to the analogy afforded by 
other ancient speciniens, they are open to serious objec- 
tions. They diminish or altogether destroy the value 


of the work as a specimen of ancient art, and not only 
mislead the unpractised student, who is incapable of 
discriminating between ancient and modem glass, but, 
if engravings or written descriptions of the window are 
given, may impose on the most experienced antiquary, 
who has not an opportunity of examining the glass per- 
sonally. In such restorations also great inconsistencies 
occur. As a general rule therefore, it is prudent, and 
for the sake of corrupting as little as possible the 
sources of antiquarian knowledge, very desirable, to 
abstain altogether from restoring the deficient parts 
of a glass-painting, except where the original work 
affords a model and guide according to which such 
deficiencies can be supplied. 

Attention to the state of the lead and ironwork of 
painted windows, is one of the simplest and least objec- 
tionable modes of ensuring their preservation. The 
ironwork may generally be expected to be found in 
good condition, but many glass-paintings still retain 
their original leadwork, which through age is in a very 
decayed state, as is indeed manifested by the work 
bagging^ or bulging out in places. In many windows 
the glazing panels, though their leadwork is in sound 
condition, are very insecurely attached to the saddle-bars, 
and may be observed in consequence to rock backwards 
and forwards with the wind, causing the glass to rattle 
violently, and loosening it in the leadwork. 

The destruction of an entire glazing panel is the 
almost inevitable result of its breaking loose from the 
saddle-bars ; while defective leadwork not only occasions 
the glass to be blown in and lost piecemeal, but is often 
apt to induce theft ; persons not possessing high princi- 



pies of honesty being too often tempted to appropriate 
that which seems to be neglected and abandoned by its 

Simple as it appears to be, there is no operation 
perhaps which requires greater care and patience than 
the reloading of an ancient painted window; and not 
every workman is competent to undertake the task. 
Not only should the relative positions of the pieces of 
glass be accurately preserved, but the course of the 
original leads should be adhered to, even where the 
painted glass has dropped from them, and been lost, 
since this may often afford a clue to the original design. 
Narrow leads should always be used in repairs, and it 
would be well perhaps if in all cases of reloading, the 
old original leadwork was deposited in a place of safety, 
as besides being a curiosity of itself, its form might 
serve to correct any mistake that might have arisen in 
the reloading. 


A Translation of the Seoond Book of the " DiyerBarom Artinm 
Sohednla, Theophili, FresbTteii, et Honaohi'j" with Hotes. 



If it please you to make glass, first cut up much beech wood 
and dry it well. Then bum it equally in a clean spot, and dili- 
gently collecting the ashes, be careful not to mix any dust or 
stones with them. 

• This translation of Theophilos has 
been made from the edition published at 
Paris in 1843 by le Comte Charles de 
I'Escalopier with a French translation, 
and with an introduction by I. Marie 
Guichard. The entire treatise consists 
of three books. The first treats of punt- 
ing, the second of the manufacture of 
glass, and the third of the working of 
metals, particularly with reference to 
the fabrication of sacred utensils. It 
was brought into notice by Lessing about 
seventy years ago. Having discovered 
a MS. of it in the Ducal library of Wol- 
fenbiittel, of which he was librarian, 
he printed some extracts from the first 
book in an essay which it induced him 
to write on the antiquity of oil-painting; 
the treatise of Theophilus affording con- 
siderable evidence that the invention of 
this practice is not due to John Van 
£yck. In 1781 Raspe in his critical essay 
on oil-painting printed the whole of the 
first book from a MS. in the library of 
Trinity CoUege, Cambridge. In the same 

year the entire treatise was pablished 
with an introduction by Leiste'. The 
text of thb edition had been prepared 
by Lessing from the Wolfenbiittel MS., 
collated, as it seems, with another in 
the Pauline library at Leipsig, and was 
printed in his lifetime, though he did 
not live to publish it. From this edi- 
tion the seoond book, in that of 1843, is 
printed. Dr. Qesscrt, in speaking of 
Lessing's edition, observes that it must 
be used with caution, as it occasionally 
destroys the sense of the original K He 
does not expressly say that he has com- 
pared it with the MS., and in the second 
book, the only one with which we are 
concerned, or to which perhaps his re- 
marks are intended to apply, the obsca- 
rities are so few, that it is not probable 
that serious inaccuracies can exist in it. 
Perhaps therefore he merely alludes to 
errors of the press, of which undoubtedly 
there were several; most of these are 
corrected in the French edition. 

In Lessing's edition an index of the 

1 In tbe Beytrage nwr Oeuhiehie und Litteratmr au» den SehUizen der henogliehtn Bibliothek 
zu Wb{fenhUttel Brautuehweiff, 1781, a work previoosly oondacted by Leseing. It is printed 
in tbe Seehater Beytrag, 

t " Den originaltext sinnstorend entstellt" OeachiehU der Giasmahrei, p. 29, note. 



Afterwards form a furnace Poatmodum compone fumum 
of stones and clay, fifteen feet ex lapidibus et argilla, longi- 

chapten ib printed. This index enume- 
rates (between the eleventh and six- 
teenth chapters of the Paris edition and 
of the present translation) four chapters, 
which are wanting in the MS. and have 
the following titles : — 

Cap. XII. de coloribus qui flunt ex 
cupro et plumbo et sale '. 

Cap. XIII. de viridi vitro. 

Cap. XIV. de vitro saphireo. 

Cap. XV. de vitro quod vocator 
Gallien \ 

In the Leipsig MS. the deficiency is 
thus noticed in a hand-writing more re- 
cent than that of the MS. : " Hie defecit 
Bubtilior pars et melior et utilior totius 
libri pro qua, si quidam haberent, darent 
mille florenos^ It is remarkable that 
in a MS. which wss in the Nani library 
at Venice, and is described by Morelli^ 
these chapters are agun deficient, though 
enumerated in the index, llie MS. de- 
scribed by Morelli is of the seventeenth 
century, copied from one in the Imperial 
library at Vienna. Morelli was informed 
that there were two MSS. in this library, 
one of them of the twelfth century and 
imperfect, from which that which he 
describes was probably taken, the other 
of the seventeenth century. When this 
note was written it seemed but too pro- 
bable that th^ four chapters were totally 
lost ; the recent announcement of a new 
edition of Theophilus fh>m a < eompUte ' 
MS. justifies a hope that this is not the 
case, and that they will soon be made 
public. [This hope was not fulfilled. 
The edition announced was that by Mr. 
Hendrie, which was soon afterwards 
published: "An Essay upon Various 
Arts, by Theophilus, called also Rugerus, 
Priest and Monk, translated with Notes 
by Robert Hendrie. Murray, 1847." 

In the MS. from which this edition is 
printed the titles of the four chapters 
are given in the index, but the chapters 
themselves are wanting, and seem to 
have been also wanting in the MS. 
from which it was copied. Notes to 
Book li., p. 163. The completeness of 
the MS. has reference to the third book 
of the Schedula, The text of the se- 
cond does not differ from that which 
has been here used.] 

After the publication of Lessing's 
essay in 1774, those passages of Theo- 
philus, which seem to prove the early 
practice of oil-punting, attracted much 
notice, hut the other parts of the treatise 
do not seem to have been equally at- 
tended to. Dr. Qessert however has re- 
cently [1847] given several extracts 
from the second book, in his " History 
of Glass-painting." 

Of Theophilus himself nothing what- 
ever is known except that he was a 
priest and monk, "humilis presbyter, 
servus servorum Dei, indignus nomine 
et professione monachi," as he qualifies 
himself in the introduction to the first 
book. His coimtry and, what it would 
be far more important to ascertain, the 
age in which he lived are alike uncer- 
tain. With regard to the former it has 
been disputed whether he was a Ger- 
man or an Italian. M. Guichard thinks 
that he was a German : Lessing is also 
of this opinion, and conjectures that he 
may have been the same with Tutilo, 
a monk of St. Gall who lived in the 
tenth century, and who besides other 
accomplishments was "celator elegans 
et pictune artifex." This conjecture, 
which has no stronger support than a 
supposed identity of the names Tntilo 
and Theophilus — ^an identity of which 

3 Vide post note. * Vide post note (h). 

» Lciwing, Vom Alter der Oelmnhrey H&mmt. Werke 8, p. 361, Berlin, 1792. Dr. Gesaert says 
in a hand probably of the seventeenth century. 
• Codices MS. Latini Bib. Manians Venet., 1776. 



in lengthy and ten in breathy 
in this manner. 

Letting himself seems subsequently to 
have become less confident — is evidently 
entitled to very little weight in deter- 
mining the age of Theophilns. Morelli 
places him in the twelfth century, but 
without any sufficient reason. The gene- 
ral opinion, however, is that he wrote 
in the tenth or eleventh century. From 
this opinion M. Guichard dissents. He 
thinks that the treatise was written in 
the twelfth or thirteenth century. This 
belief he founds on the accordance of 
the character and declared objects of the 
work with the features by which he 
conceives those ages to be distinguished 
in the history of art, its revival namely, 
its exclusive application to ecclesiastical 
purposes, and the increased taste for 
splendour in everything connected with 
divine worship. Whatever weight there 
might otherwise be in this species of in- 
ternal evidence, the date of the Wolfen- 
bfittel manuscript is a decisive authority 
in favour of those who place Theophilus 
In the earlier period. This manuscript 
is said by both Lessing and Leiste to be 
of the tenth or eleventh century, and in 
the absence of any better-founded doubts 
than those which are cast on their testi- 
mony by M. Guichard, we are not justi- 
fied in rejecting it. 

It is of course essential to M. Gui- 
chard's opinion that the antiquity of 
the Wolfenbuttel MS. should be dis- 
proved, and for this purpose he makes 
the following objections to the authority 
of Lessing and Leiste. *<£u 1774 le 
manuscrit de Wolfenbuttel 6udt selon 
Letting du xi* si^e; en 1781 Leiste le 

faisait remonter jusqu' an x* 

Lessing et Leiste ne desiguent pas les 
particularit^t k I'aide desquelles ils ont 
fix4 I'Age du manuscrit : il faut que ces 
particularites aient 6t6 tr^-l%er^ment 
observe puisque pour celui>ci elles in- 
diqueut le xi* si&cle, et pour oelui-la le 

tudini pedum xv et latitudine 
x^ in hunc modum. 

X*; enfin Leiste a laiss^ ^happer une 
phrase qui inflrme tout k la fois et sa 
propre opinion et oelle de Letting. Voici 
cette phrase, qu'on nous permettra de 
citer textuellement 'Beyde (les manu- 
Bcrits de Leipsick et de Wolfenbuttel) 
sind in grott Quart auf Pergament ges- 
chrieben und gleichen sich sehr in dea 
Schriftzugen, so dau man sie wahrsche- 
iulich in ein Jahrhundert versetzen 
mutt ' or, comme Letting et Leiste da- 
tent le manuscrit de Leipsick du xiii* 
ou du xiv* si^cle, il resulte de tout ceci 
une singularity impossible, c'est a dire, 
un livre (le manuscrit de Wolfenbuttel) 
^rit au X* si^le aveo I'^criture du 
ziv*." A reference to Letting and Leiste 
will shew that these remarks are per- 
fectly unfounded. Not only is there no 
discrepancy between them with regard 
to the date of the Wolfenbuttel MS., 
for Leiste speaks of it as of the tenth ot 
eleventh century, and Lessing in treat- 
ing of its age exprettly says that it has 
all the marks which the most rigid con- 
noisseur of MSS. of the tenth or the 
eleventh century can ever require ^ but, 
what is very important, Leiste, in the 
passage which is cited as destructive of 
the value of his and Letting's opinion, 
is not speaking at all of the Leipsig 
MS., but is comparing the Wolfenbuttel 
MS. with one of Yitruvius in the same 
library. This is evident from the sen- 
tences which immediately precede and 
foUow the above-cited passage. They 
are literally as follows, and contain the 
first reference which Leiste makes to 
the Leipsig MS. «FeUer adds that a 
manuscript of it (the treatise of Theo- 
philus) exists in the Pauline library at 
Leipsig, and it is probably the same 
author who (in the Acta Erud. Mem, 
Aug. 1690, p. 420) indicates its con- 
tents somewhat more exactly though 
imperfectly. Thus much, however, may 

7 Vom Alter der Oeimalertjf, 
A a 



First lay foundations on both 
sides of the length, one foot 

be known from this notice, that this is 
the same work which is foand in the 
library here (viz. Wolfenbuttel) among 
the Qudian MSS. after the Vitmvius. 
Both are written in large qoarto, npon 
parchment, and resemble each other 
very much in the writing, so that they 
must probably be placed in the same 
centary. Both MSS. indisputably be- 
long to the rarest articles in the library 
here** Nothing can be clearer than this, 
and it perfectly accords with. Lcssing's 
account of the MS., who says that it is 
among the MSS. of Marquardus Gadius, 
and does not form a separate volume, 
but is bound up with the MS. of Vi- 

[Mr. Hendrie places Theophilns in the 
early part of the eleventh century, and 
looks upon the Vienna MS. of the twelfth 
century as the oldest that is known. 
For though the date, "the tenth or 
eleventh century," assigned by Lessing 
and Leiste to the Wolfenbtlttel MS. is 
not inconsistent with that which from 
internal evidence he gives to the trea- 
tise, yet he rejects their testimony to its 
Bg^, making the same objections as those 
raised by M. Quichard. The MS. from 
which Mr. Hendrie's edition is taken is 
of the very commencement of the thir- 
teenth century. It is among the Harl. 
MSS. in the British Museum. £.] 

This notice of Theophilus and his work 
ought not to terminate without giving 
the concluding sentences of the intro- 
duction to the first book. Besides shew- 
ing the spirit in which the work was 
composed, they are remarkable for the 
enumeration of the arts for which va- 
rious countries were then most cele- 

Primum pone fundamenta 
in utroque longitudinis latere^ 

brated, and for the testimony which 
they bear to the early excellence of 
France, in that art with which we are 
at present most concerned. In &ct it 
is probable that Limoges, though it can- 
not claim the merit of having invented 
glass-painting, was the cradle of the art 
in the West ^ 

The passage I have just alluded to is 
as follows. " Wherefore, my dearest son, 
whom God has herein so highly blessed 
that those things are offered to yoa 
without price, which many acquire with 
intolerable labour, crossing the ocean at 
the extreme peril of their lives, suffering 
the hardships of hunger and cold, en- 
during a long slavery to the learned, and 
wearing themselves out with the desire 
of knowledge, long for this treatise with 
eager eyes, study it with a tenadons 
memory, embrace it with ardent affection, 
and if you diligently examine it you will 
find in it all the knowledge that Greece 
possesses in the kinds and mixtures of 
colours; Tuscany in inlaid-works, and 
the various kinds of niello; Arabia in 
malleable, fusible, or chased works ; Italy 
in the various kinds of vases, and the 
carving, enriched with gold and rilver, 
of gems and ivory ; France in the pre- 
cious variety of windows; and the skil- 
ful Germany in the delicate workman- 
ship of gold, nlver, copper, iron, wood, 
and stones*; and when you have 
repeattdly read all these things, and 
have committed them to your tenadons 
memory, recompense me for my instruc- 
tion, by praying to God, as often as yoa 
make a good use of my labours, for His 
mercy towards me. He knows that it is 
neither from the love of man's applause. 

> See Memoirs lUastratiye of Glass-pidnting, p. 217. 

* " Qaidquid in dlTersorum oolorum generibos et mixtaiis habet Greda, quidqnid in electro* 
rum operositate sen nigelli yarietate novit Tuseia, quidqnid dnctili vel fuaill vel Interrasili opere 
distingait Arabia, quidqnid in vasonun diversitate sea gemmarum oaaiumye aenlptura anro et 
argcnto inclyta decorat Italia, quidqnid in fenestrarum pretiosa yarietate diligit Franda, quid-> 
quid in anri, argenti enpri et ferri lignorum lapidnmqne snbtilitate aollen landat Germania.'*— > 
Instead of Tuscia—Ruasia, Ruaaeia, Rn«ea, and Rntigia oeonr in the different MSS. 




thick, making a firm and level 
hearth of stones and clay in 
the midst, dividing it into 
three equal parts, so that two 
thirds be together, and one 
third by itself, divided by a 
wall placed breadth- wise. 

Then make a hole in both 
fronts of the breadth, through 
which wood and fire may be 
put in ; and building a wall all 
round, to the height of nearly 
four feet, make again a firm 
and level hearth throughout 
and let the dividing wall rise 
a very little [above it.] After 
which, make in the larger 
chamber four holes in one side 
of its length, and four in the 
other side through the middle 
of the hearth, in which the 
working-pots may be placed, 
and two holes in the middle^ 
through which the flame may 
ascend; and building up the 
wall all round, make two 
square windows, one hand in 
length and breadth, one in 
each of the two sides which 
are opposite to the holes, 
through which windows the 
pots may be put in and with- 
drawn with whatever is put 
into them. Make also in the 
smaller chamber a hole through 

nor the desire of earthly reward that I 
have written what is herein contained, 
and that I have kept hack nothing vain- 
able ont of jealousy or envy, but that for 
the increase of the honour and glory of 

spissitudine pedis unius, faciens 
larem in medio firmum et SDqua- 
lem lapidibusetargilla, dividens 
eum inter tres partes aequales 
ita ut du89 partes sint per se, 
et tertia per se, divisa muro in 
latitudine posito. 

Deinde fao foramen in 
utraque fronte latitudinis per 
quod possint ligna et ignis 
imponi, et sedificans murum 
in circuitu usque ad latitu- 
dinem^ pene quatuor pedum, 
fac iterum larem firmum et 
eoqualem per omnia, et sine 
murum divisionis aliquantulum 
ascendere. Post qusB fac in 
majori spatio quatuor foramina 
in uno latere longitudinis et 
quatuor in altero per medium 
laris, in quibus ponantur vasa 
operis duoque foramina in 
medio per qu» flamma possit 
ascendere, et sedificans murum 
in circuitu, fac duas fenestras 
quadras, longitudine et latitu- 
dine imius palmi, in utroque 
latere contra foramina unam, 
per quas vasa imponantur et 
ejiciantur cum lus, quae in ilUs 
mittuntur. Fao etiam in minori 
spatio foramen per medium 
laris juxta parietem medium, 
et fenestram ad mensuram 
palmi juxta parietem frontiB 

His name, I have endeavoured to supply 
the wants, and have consulted the ad- 
vantage of many/' 

^ I have translated this word as if it 
were a misprint for "altitudinem." 




the middle of the hearth, close 
by the middle wall, and a win- 
dow of the size of a hand's- 
breadth near the outer wall of 
the front, through which what 
is needed for the work may be 
put in and taken out. After 
you have thus ordered these 
matters, make the inner part 
with the outer wall into the 
likeness of an arched vault, 
internally barely more than 
the height of half a foot, so as 
to make a hearth at top level 
all over, with a ledge placed 
round it thr€% fingers in 
height, so that whatever is put 
upon it belonging to the work 
or utensils may not fall. 

l^is furnace is called the 
working-furnace *. 

<^ I have translated this word as if it 
were a misprint for "fornicis." [It is 
" fornicis" in Hendrie's edition. K.] 

' I have endeavoured in vain to form 
a satisfactory idea of a working-fdniace 
from the above description, the obscurity 
of which is so contrary to the usual style 
of Tbeophilus, who generally writes like 
an eye-witness, and not as a mere com- 
piler, that I am inclined to suspect some 
alteration or corruption of the text in this 
place. 1 have therefore contented myself 
with giving above a literal translation of 
the original Latin, which is printed in a 
parallel column for the satisfaction of 
those who may consider farther investi- 
gation desirable. No reference is made to 
the working-furnace except in the fourth 
and last chapters of the second book of 
the treatise, and these throw but little 
additional light on the subject. [The 
description of the furnace in Hendrie's 
edition does not differ from the above. 

exteriorem, per quam possit 
imponi et asaumi quod neces- 
sarium est operi. Postquam 
EsBC ita ordinaveris, fac partem 
interiorem cum muro exteriori 
in similitudinem fornacis® ar- 
cuarii interius altitudine modice 
amplius pedis dimidii, ita ut 
superius larem facias sequalem 
per omnia, cum labro altitudine 
trium digitorum in circuitu 
posito, ut quicquid operis vel 
utensiliorum superponitur non 
possit cadere. 

Iste fumus dicitur dibanus 

The fiirnaoe described by Eradios* 
"de coloribus et artibus Bomanoram," 
a compilation made apparently about 
the middle of the tenth century, [see 
Hendrie's Tbeophilus, preface, xiii.], and 
printed from a MS. of the thirteenth 
century at the end of Baspe's " Essay 
on Oil-painting," consisted of three com- 
partments [areas] of unequal site. In 
the centre, which was the largest com- 
partment, the glass was made in two 
small pots [mortariola] placed, as it 
would appear, on the floor of the fur- 
nace, on which also the fire was kindled. 
The glass was put into and taken out of 
the pots, through an aperture left for 
that purpose in each of the outer walls 
of the compartment. One of the other 
compartments was used for making the 
frii; and the other for baking the pots 
before they were put into the working- 

The process of making glass is at tha 





Make also another furnace, ten feet long, eight wide, and 
four high. Make in one front an opening for putting in wood 
and fire ; and in one side a window of the size of one foot, for 
putting in and taking out what may be necessary ; and within 
a firm and even hearth. This furnace is called the annealing* 
furnace J [clibanus refrigerii]. 




Make yet a third furnace six feet long, four wide, and three 
high, and an opening, a window, and a hearth as above [men- 

present day conducted on the same prin- 
ciple as in the times of TheophiluB and 
Eraclina, bnt in much larger and differ- 
ently-oonstmcted furnaces. The most 
improved form of a modern working- 
fnmace, is a circle of about sixteen feet 
in diameter, covered by a dome, the 
crown of which is raised about five feet 
from the floor of the furnace on which 
the pots stand. Ten pots, each capable 
of containing from eighteen cwt. to a 
ton of glass, are placed round the inside 
of the furnace, dose to the wall, through 
which are holes communicatiug with the 
pots. In the middle of the floor of the 
furnace is a large grating, which sup- 
ports the fire, and admits a current of 
air to pass through its bars. Draft holes 
opening into flues, are made through the 
sides of the furnace near the pots, by 
wluch the heat and flames are brought 
to act more intensely on the pots and 
their contents, and through which the 
smoke Ac is carried off*. In general all 
these flues open into a huge conical 
chimney, bnilt over the fhmace to the 
height of eighty or ninety feet; the 

chief use of which is to prevent annoy- 
ance to the neighbourhood from the 
smoke. See a more detailed account of 
a modem working-furnace in Dr. Lard- 
ner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, "Porcelain 
and Glass Manufacture," p. 155 et seq. 

In the JSncyclopcBd, Brit., sixth ed., 
art. " Qlass," a furnace is described nine 
feet in diameter, the chief peculiarity of 
which is, that the flre is made in a 
vaulted chamber, and ascends through 
holes in the roof into a vaulted chamber 
above, in which the pots for the glass are 
placed. The flame and smoke escape 
through a hole in the vault of the upper 
chamber. This kind of working-furnace, 
which appears to bear some similarity to 
that mentioned above by Theopbilus, is 
I believe now disused. It is almost iden- 
tical with one originally described in 
Agricola, De JRe MetaUica, a work of 
the first half of the sixteenth century. 
See Holbach, Art. de la Verrerie, 4to. 
Paris, 1752. See also engravings of 
glass-furnaces. "Art of Qlass," trans- 
lated from the French of H. Blancourt, 
12mo. Lond. 1699, pp. 19, 21, 27. 



tioned]. This furnace is called the furnace for spreading and 
flattening, [clibanus dilatandi et eequandi]. 

The implements necessary for this work are, an iron tube 
two ells long, and of the thickness of an inch ; two pair of tongs 
of wrought iron at one end : two iron ladles ; and such other 
wooden and iron tools as you please. 



These things being thus arranged, take logs of beech-wood 
thoroughly dried in smoke, and light a large fire in each part of 
the larger furnace [in majori fumo ex utraque parte]. Then 
taking two parts of the ashes of which we have spoken above, 
and a third of sand, carefully purified from earth and stones, 
which sand you shall have taken out of water, mix them to- 
gether in a clean place. And when they have been for a long 
time and well mixed together, taking them up with an iron 
trowel, put them in the smaller part of the furnace, upon the 
upper hearth [in minori parte fumi, super larem superiorem], 
that they may be roasted [ut coquantur] : and when they have 
begun to grow hot, immediately stir them, lest they chance to 
melt by the heat of the fire, aud run into balls. Do this for the 
space of a day and a night *• 

* Contrary to the direction contained 
in this chapter the frit is now formed 
into a mass; and inch was the more 
ancient practice, as appears from Pliny's 
account of the mannfactore of ghias — 
"Continuis fomacibos, nt r», liquator 
masseque fiunt colore pingni nigricantes 
. ... Ex massis rursos fonditnr in offi- 
dnis ting^itorque. Et aliud ilatn fign- 
ratur, aliud tomo teritnr, aliud argenti 
modo celatur." And subsequently — 

" Arena alba qusD molissima est, 

pila molaque teritnr. Dein miscetur tri- 
bus partibus nitri pondere vel mensura. 

ac liquata in alias fomaoes transfunditnr. 
Ibi fit massa, quse vocatur ammonitrum' : 
atque hiec recoquitur et fit Titrum pa- 
rum, ac massa vitri candidi." — Lib. 
xxxyi. oh. 66. It might be inferred from 
Eraclius that the same practice obtained 
in his time, but on this point his autho- 
rity is of no value. This part of his 
treatise is copied ahnost verbatim from 
Isidore of Seville, and the account of 
glass in Isidore is again taken with very 
slight variations from Pliny. — Isid. Stjf- 
fnolog^ lib. rvi. ch. 16. 

1 Ammonitnun ab StmLOi amia, et i^rpov nitrum. Hodie opiflocs Fritta nunoupaat teste 
Cn8alpino.~Note to Dolphin Ed. See the neoenity of firittlDg the materials explained in 
Merret'i tranalation of Neri, p. 273, and more clearly in Lardner'a "Porcelain and Glaaa 






Take white clay of which earthen pots are made, dry it, and 
pound it carefully, and having poured water upon it, macerate 
it strongly with a piece of wood, and make your pots. Let 
these be wide at the upper part, and narrow at the lower ; and 
have round the mouth, a small lip bent inwards. When they 
are dry, take them up with the tongs, and put them into the 
openings of the heated furnace adapted for this purpose [in 
foramina fumi candentis ad hoc aptata.] Take up with the 
ladle the mixed roasted 'ashes and sand, and fill all the pots in 
the evening ; adding dry wood during the whole night, in order 
that the glass produced by the Aision of the ashes and sand may 
be completely fluxed [ut vitrum ex cineribus et sabulo lique- 
factum, pleniter coquatur] '• 



In the morning at the first hour, take an iron tube, and if 
you wish to make tables of glass, put the extremity of it into a 
pot filled with glass : when the glass adheres to it, turn the tube 
in your hand until there is conglomerated round it as much as 
you want. Then draw it out, put it to your mouth and blow 
gently. Presently remove it from your mouth, and hold it near 
your cheek, lest in drawing in your breath you should draw 
flame into your mouth. You should have a flat stone before 
the window [of the furnace], on which you will gently beat the 
hot glass, that it may hang equally on every side ; and imme- 
diately and with speed blow frequently, and as often remove 
[the tube] from your mouth. When you perceive that the 

' The pots generally used at the pre- 
sent day are not open, but covered at top, 
having only a small ori6ce on one side 
through which the glass is pnt in and 
taken ont. By this means the contents 

of the pots are completely defended from 
the dust and dirt of the furnace. A repre- 
sentation of a pot is given in Dr. Lard- 
ner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, "Porcelain 
and Glass Manufacture," p. 159. 



glass hangs like a long bladder, hold its extremity to the flame, 
and the end immediately becoming melted a hole will be yisible 
in it. Take a piece of wood formed for this purpose, and make 
the hole as large as [the bladder of glass] is in the middle, then 
join its lips together, viz., the upper part to the lower, so that 
on either side of the juncture an opening may be visible. Im- 
mediately touch the glass near the tube with a piece of moist 
wood, shake it a little, and it will separate [from the tube]. 
Then heat the tube in the flame of the furnace, until the glass 
which adheres to it melts, and quickly put it to the two lips of 
the glass which have been joined, and it will adhere to them. 
Immediately lift it, and put it in the flame of the furnace imtil 
the hole from which you first separated the tube melts. Take 
a round piece of wood, and widen this hole as you did the other. 
And wrapping the edges of the glass together in the middle 
separate the glass from the tube with a piece of moist wood, 
and give it to an attendant, who haying inserted a piece of 
wood into the opening [inducto Ugno per foramen ejus] will 
carry it to the annealing-furnace, which should be moderately 

This kind of glass is pure and white. Work off like portions 
of glass in the same manner, and in the same course, until you 
have emptied the pots ^. 

f The word "table" is applied at the 
preeeDt day to any flat sheet of glass. 
It ocean in this sense in many of the 
statutes which imposed duties on glass, 
as for instance, the 2nd and 3rd Wil- 
liam lY. c 102, § 16; and the 8rd and 
4th Victoria, c. 22, § 3. 

The process mentioned in this and the 
ninth chapter is very like the modem 
method of making glass into cylinders 
and opening and flattening it out into 
sheets, which has been already briefly 
described in a note to the Introduction. 

The only part of Theophilus* descrip- 
tion which could not easily be reduced 
to practice, is that which relates to 
pinching the lips of the cylinder to- 
gether in the centre of the mouth, in 
order as it would appear to ensure a firmer 
adhesion of the cylinder to the blow- 
pipe, by bringing both its edges in con- 

tact with the hot glass at the end of 
the rod. If one could without doing 
violence to the words, translate the fol- 
lowing passages, — "Conjunge oram ip- 
sius, superiorem videlicet partem ad infe- 
riorem, ita ut ex utraque parte coi\junc- 
tionis foramen appareat," — and again« 
" et complicans oram ejus in medio * * 
as if the lips of the cylinder were merely 
approximated, without being actually 
brought in contact with each other, the 
difficulty would be obviated; but in the 
opinion of practical men it would be 
almost impossible to separate the edges 
of the glass, after they had once been 
allowed to adhere together, without 
serious injury to the sheet of glass. 

The flat stone, "lajndem equalem/* 
mentioned by Theophilus upon which 
the lump of glass at the end of the blow- 
pipe was moulded to proper shape before 





But if you see [the glass in] any pot change to a yellow 
colour, let it continue in fusion [sine illud coqui] until the 
third hour, and you will have a light yellow. Work off as 
much of this as you want, in the course above mentioned. If 
you like, let it continue in fusion [permitte coqui] till the sixth 
hour, and you will have a reddish yellow. Make also from this 
as much as you please. 



If indeed you observe that [the glass in] any pot happens to 
change to a tan-colour [in fulvum colorem] which is like flesh, 
keep this glass for flesh-colour; and taking as much of it as 
you want, fuse [coque] the residue for two hours, viz., from the 
first to the third hour, and you will have a light purple, [pur- 
puream levem]. And again fuse it [coque] from the third to 
the sixth hour, and it will be a red and perfect purple [pur- 
purea rufa et perfecta] \ 

it was blown, appears to hare been tn- 
peneded by a plate of iron, as early aa 
the time of Eraclins. The name he 
gives it, "marmor ferri/' clearly indi- 
cates the material originally used for 
the purpose, of which the modem word, 
" marror" is evidently a corruption. 

*^ The following receipts for colouring 
glass are taken from the treatise of 
Eradius before referred to. 

If yon wish that the glass may be red 
make it thus from ashes which have not 
been well roasted. Tbke filings of copper, 
bum them till they become powder, and 
throw them into the little pot (morta- 
riolum), and there will be produced the 
red glass which we call galienum. 

Oreen gUut you will make thus. Put 
into the little pot as much of the same 

powder as you think fit, and stir it, and 
it will be gpreen. 

Yellow (croceum) glass is thus made. 
Take raw ashes (dnerem cmdum) and 
fuse them, and throw in a little sand 
with them, and if I mistake not, a little 
powder of copper, and stir them to- 
gether, and the yellow glass is produced 
which we call cerasin. 

Purple and flesh-colour (membrana- 
ceum) are made from the ashes of the 
beech-tree, which are roasted as the 
white ashes, and thrown into the pot, 
and fused by boiling (buUiendo) till (the 
glass) is turned to a purple colour. 
When you see it turn a purple colour 
take as much as yon want, and make 
the work which you desire, till you see 
it turn to paleness. From this pale 





When you have worked off as much as you can of these 
colours, and the glass has been annealed in the furnace [in 

eolonr it tarns to another, which is 
called membnin. 

In this last receipt Eraclins agrees 
with Theophilos in representing the 
pnrple and flesh-colonrs as being ob- 
tained without the addition of any 
oolooring matter. For procuring red, 
green, and yellow, it will be observed 
that he directs the same colouring in- 
gredient to be employed. 

The analysis of some ancient Soman 
coloured glass, given in Lardner's Cy- 
dopadia, shews that this is not so 
absurd as it may at first appear. The 
same ingredients (oxide of copper being 
one) were obtained from a piece of red 
and a piece of green glass. *' It is re- 
markable," observes the author, "that 
the constituent ingredients of both these 
specimens should prove to be the same. 
The difference between them exists only 
in their relative proportions; and the 
colours depend upon the different degprees 
of the oxidation of the copper. Sub- 
oxide of copper, that is, copper which 
has combined with only half the quan- 
tity of oxygen required for the pro- 
duction of tiie perfect oxide, produces 
a red enamel; while that which has 

received its full proportion of oxygen 
yields a green enamel colour." — " Trea- 
tise on Porcelain and Glass," p. 270. 

According to the analyses which have 
been made of ancient coloured glass, the 
colouring material in red glass was cop- 
per, and more rarely iron ^ ; in blue, iron 
or cobalt; in yellow, charcoal; and in 
green, copper; though some have as- 
serted that all the g^dations of red, 
blue, and yellow, were obtained from 
iron ' . . . This assertion as fSv as middle- 
age glass is concerned, is contradicted by 
the receipts just given. It seems that 
the analyses of ancient glass have not 
been made in sufficient number or very 
sealously, and this perhaps is the reason 
that no satisfiu:tory result has been ob- 
tained. But even if an analysis should 
succeed in detecting the ingredients 
which have been employed, these are 
not of themselves sufficient to account 
fbr the colours of the glass. A great 
deal, especially in variations of tint, 
depends on the temperature at which 
fusion takes place, the length of time 
during which it is continued, and the 
thickness and quality of the glass. From 
the receipts of Theophilus and Eraclius 

1 M. Bomtempii, in the pamphlet to which I have hefore rafeired, Peinture ntr Verrt au xix 
tUcle, p. 23, note, relates that daring the French Bevolation, when it waa propoaed to melt all 
the ruhy glaaa in the ohorohea, for the sake of obtaining the gold which it was anppoeed to con- 
tain, the ohemiat who waa charged to aaoertain by experiment the probable quantity of gold 
derivable ftom thia source, on analysing some ruby glaaa, found that the principal colouring 
matter waa composed only of a weak proportion of copper and iron. Thus the intended deatme- 
tion of the glaaa waa arrested. This fact M. Bontempa girea on the authority of M. d'Aroet. 

I should add that to M. Bontempa belongs the honour of having, in 1886, revired the ancient 
manufacture of ruby glasa. He noticea In the above-mentioned pamphlet, the streakiness of the 
colouring matter of the earlier kinds of ancient ruby ; and ridicules Le Yieil's notion that it waa 
eauaed by applying the colour with a brush. M. Bontemps aacribes it to a defect in the manufac- 
ture, adding however, that it would be far more difficult to reproduce this streaky ruby, than to 
make ruby glasa of an even tint. 

* Gessert, OnehiehU der (7to«ma/er«t, p. 66. He adds that yellow had often been produced 
merely by stirring the melted glasa oontfaiually with a wooden polo. 



fumo refrigeratam], set out your whole work, and light a large 
fire in the furnace in which it is to be spread out and flattened. 
When this is heated, take a hot iron, and having split [findens] 
one side of the glass [cylinder] , lay it [the cylinder] on the 
hearth of the heated furnace, and when it begins to soften, take 
the iron tongs and a smooth piece of wood, and opening it in 
that part in which it is split, spread it out, and flatten it at 

it is erident how mnch the old artiBts 
relied on the effects produced by the 
longer or shorter duration of the fosion. 
Not so mnch practical benefit therefore 
is to be expected from the employment 
of chemical science in the analysis of 
old glass, and firom its application to the 
production of colours which may rival 
the old ones. 

Modem blue glass is always coloured 
with oxide of cobalt. 

The preparation of cobalt is conjec- 
tured by Beckman (Hist, of Inventions, 
voL ii. p. 353) to have been invented at 
the end of the fifteenth century, and its 
application to colouring glass to have 
taken place about 1540 or 1560, though 
he admits that the use of cobalt might 
have been known to the ancients, and 
the knowledge of it afterwards lost. 
The analysis of ancient glass mentioned 
by htm produced iron. Dr. Qessert 
however mentions that ancient blue glass 
from Thebes, from Pompeii, and the 
baths of Titus, has yielded ferrugtneous 
(eissenschussig) oxide of cobalt. This 
would be the same as zafii'e, which is 
also termed impure oxide of cobalt, and 
contuns both iron and arsenic, and is 
the cobalt of commerce. 

The fine deep blue on the little porce- 
lain fig^ures found with Bgyptian mum- 
mies appears from the application of 
various chemical tests to have been pro- 
duced by oxide of cobalt (Lardner's 
Treatise, p. 8), and possibly the imita- 
tive glass gems mentioned by Theophi- 
lus, chap, xii., were also coloured with 
cobalt. The strong colouring power of 

this material, one grain giving a fhU 
blue to 240 grains of glass ', may have 
caused its presence in the latter to 
escape detection by the ancient chemists. 
The word zaffre is perhaps merely a cor- 
ruption of sapphire, and may have ori- 
ginated in the use to which the above- 
mentioned glass gems called sapphires 
were applied. 

It seems that the blue with which the 
little Egyptian figures in the Museum 
of Economic Geology are coated, whether 
it be light and of a green hue^ or deep 
and of a full blue tint, is composed of 
copper. Ex. rel. Prof. Forbes, 1850. 

It seems firom Eraclins, § xx., Bfrs. 
Merrifield, vol. i. 202, that cobalt was 
used to colour glaas blue. See also 
" ArchsBological Journal," vol. viii. p. 56, 
vol. vii. p. 351. 

My friend Mr. C. H. Clarke analysed 
in 1853 two pieces of Early English 
blue, or rather French grey, glass, and 
found one piece to contain protoxide of 
iron, tin, and manganese; the other 
protonde of iron, tin, and cobalt. Dr. 
Medlock in 1851 analysed quantitively, 
some deep blue glass of the twelfth cen- 
tury, and found it to contain cobalt and 
a little copper, and only a trace of iron, 
which doubtless was contained in the 
sand or other materials of the glass. 

See fhrther as to the ancient means of 
procuring blue glass, the Mappa Clavi" 
cula Arehmologia, voL xxxii., pp. 183, 
244. Mr. Hendrie's Translation of Theo. 
philus, note to book ii., and Mrs. Merri 
field's "Ancient Practice of Painting, 


s Aikin't Diet, of Chemistrr and Mineralogy, Art. " Cobalt." 

364 APPENDIX (A). 

pleasure with the tongs. When it is quite flat, take it out and 
BO place it in the annealing-iiimace, which has been moderately 
heated, that the table [of glass] do not lie down, but may stand 
against the wall of the furnace. Place next to it another table 
flattened in the same manner, then a third, and so all the rest. 
When they are cold, use them in the composition of windows, 
dividing [findendo] them in pieces as you wish* 



When you are going to make glass vessels, make glass in the 
order above mentioned, and when you have blown it to the size 
you wish, do not make a hole in the bottom as above directed, 
but separate it entire from the tube, with a stick dipped in 
water, and immediately, having heated the tube, make it adhere 
to the bottonL Raise the vessel, heat it in the flame, and with 
a round piece of wood enlarge the opening from which you have 
separated the tube. Form and widen its mouth at pleasure, 
and enlarge the bottom of the vessel round the tube, that it 
may be hollow at its lower extremity. If you wish to make 
handles to it, by which it may be suspended, take a thin iron, 
plunge it up to the end in a pot of glass, and when a little 
adheres to it, take it out, and put it on the vessel in whatever 
place you please, and when it adheres, heat it in order that it 
may stick firmly. Make thus as many handles as you please, 
holding the vessel in the meantime near the flame so that it 
may be hot, without however being melted. Take also a little 
glass from the furnace, so as that it may draw a thread after it, 
and laying it upon the vessel where you wish, wind it round it, 
[holding it] near the flame so that it may adhere. This done 
you will remove the tube according to custom and put the 
vessel into the annealing-furnace. In this manner you can 
work off as much as you want. 





If you wish to make bottles with long necks, thus do. When 
you have blown the hot glass in form of a large bladder, stop 
the hole of the tube with your thumb in order that the wind 
may not escape, swing the tube with the glass that is appended 
to it beyond your head, as if you intended to throw it, and the 
neck haying been stretched out in length by this action, raise 
your hand high, and let the tube with the vessel hang down- 
wards in order to straighten the neck. Then separate it with 
a wet stick, and put it into the annealing-furnace. 



There are found in the ancient buildings of the pagans, in 
mosaic work, different kinds of glass ; yiz., white, black, green, 
yellow, sapphire [saphireum], red, purple, and the glass is not 
transparent, but dense like marble. They are as it were small 
square stones, from which are made works inlaid (electra) in 
gold, silver, and copper ; concerning which we shall speak suf- 
ficiently in their place. There are also found various little ves- 
sels of the same colours, which the French, who are very skilful 
in this manufacture, collect : they fuse the sapphire [saphireum] 
in their furnaces, adding to it a little [modicum] clear and 
white glass, and they make tables of sapphire, which are pre- 
cious, and useful enough in windows, [tabulas saphiri pretiosas 
ac satis utiles in fenestris]. They make tables of purple and 
green in like manner K 

^ The manufacture of thefe imitation 
glass gems is mentioned in the following 
passage in Pliny, — " Fit et tinctune ge- 
nere obsidiannm ad escaria vasa, et totum 
ruhens vitrum, atque non transluccnsy 
hfematinon appellatum. Fit et alhum, et 
murrhinum, aat hyacinthos, sapphiros- 
que imitatum, et omnibus aliis coloribus." 
— Lib. xzxvi. c. 67. See further as to 
these ooloun, aiUe, note to chap. viii. 

The signification of the word " elec- 

trum" is adopted from the French trans- 
lation. The word occurs in other parts 
of the treatise, and Theophilus appears 
to have used it to signify the stones, or 
enamels, which are found in the reli- 
quaries, crosses, &c., of the Middle Ages. 
In one place he seems to mean amber 
The French translator justifies his inter- 
pretation by a note, which is too long to 
be inserted here. 

366 APPENDIX (A). 




The Greeks indeed make of the same sapphire stones [ex 
eisdem saphireis lapidibus] precious bowls for drinking out of, 
decorating them with gold after this manner. They take gold- 
leaf^ of which we have spoken above ''^ and form out of it figures 
of men or birds, beasts or leaves, and lay them with water on 
the cup in whatever place they please. This gold-leaf ought to 
be rather thick. Then they take very clear glass, like crystal, 
which they themselves make, and which melts as soon as it feels 
the heat of the fire. They pound it carefully with water on a 
porphyry stone, and lay it with a brush very thinly all over the 
gold-leaf. When it is dry they put it into the furnace in which 
the painted glass for windows is burned, — of which we shall 
speak hereafter \ — putting under it [supponentes] fire and logs 
of beech- wood, thoroughly dried in smoke. When they perceive 
that the fire so far penetrates the bowl that it acquires a mode- 
rate degree of redness, they immediately take out the wood, and 
stop up the furnace till it cools of itself, and the gold will never 



They do it also in another way. Taking gold, ground in 
a mill, such as is used in books ™, they mix it with water, — 
they do the same with silver, — and make with it circles, and 
within these, figures, or beasts, or birds, in varied workmanship, 
coating them with the very transparent glass of which we have 
spoken above. 

They then take white glass, and red, and green, which is 
used in inlaid works [electra], and pound each by itself on 
a porphyry stone carefully with water, and paint with it little 

^ In the first book of the treatise. ^ PoH, chapter xxiii. 

"* Chapter xxzi. book i., of the treatise. 

APPENDIX (a). 367 

flowers, and knotSi and other minute objects as they please in 
varied workmanship between the circles and knots, and a border 
roand the lip of the vessel. This painting is laid on of a mo- 
derate thickness, and is burnt in the furnace in the way above 

They make also bowls of purple, or light sapphire [levi sap- 
phire], and phials with moderately long necks, surrounding 
them with threads made of white glass, and giving them handles 
of the same material. They vary also their different works with 
the same colours at pleasure. 



They make also in the same manner as window glass, tables 
of clear white glass, a finger thick, and divide them with a hot 
iron into minute square morsels. They cover them on one side 
with gold-leaf, and spread over it the very clear glass, pounded 
as above mentioned. They place the pieces of glass together on 
an iron plate, — of which we shall speak a little lower down ^ — 
which is covered with lime or ashes, and bum them in the fur- 
nace for window-glass as above mentioned. Mosaic work is 
very much embellished by the intermixture of glass of this 




They make also open dishes [scutellas], incense-boxes [navi- 
cula], and other useful vessels of earthenware, which they paint 
in this manner. They take colours of every kind, and pound 
each separately with water, and with each colour they mix a 
fifth part of glass of the same colour, pounded by itself exceed- 
ingly fine with water. With this they paint circles or arches, 
or squares, and within them beasts, or birds, or leaves or any- 

° Pott, chapter zxiii. 

368 APPENDIX (a). 

thing else they please. After these vessels have been thus 
painted, they put them into the furnace for window-glass, ap- 
plying below [adhibentes inferius] fire, and logs of dry beech- 
wood, until the vessels being surrounded with flame acquire a 
white heat. Then taking out the wood, they close up the fur- 
nace as before mentioned. They can also, if they wish, decorate 
the same vessels in places with gold leaf, or with ground gold 
and silver, as above mentioned. 



When you desire to construct glass windows, first make your- 
self a smooth wooden board of such length and breadth that 
you can work on it two panels [partes] of each window ^. Then 
take chalky and scraping it with a knife over the whole table, 
sprinkle water thereon in every part, and rub the table entirely 
over with a cloth. When it is dry, take measure of the length 
and breadth of one panel [unius partis] of the window, describe 
it on the table by rule and compass, with lead, or tin. If you 
wish to have a border in it, draw it of such a breadth as pleases 
you, and with such workmanship as you wish. This done, 
draw as many figures as you like, first with lead, or tin, then 
in the same manner with a red, or black colour, making all the 
strokes carefully, because it will be necessary when you shall 
have painted the glass to join the shadows and lights [on the 
different pieces of glass] according to [the plan of] the board. 
Then arrange the various draperies, and mark down the colour 
of each in its place, and whatever else you wish to paint ; mark 
the colour by a letter. After this take a small leaden vessel^ 
and put in it chalk pounded with water ; make yourself two 
or three hair pencils, viz., of the tail of a martin, or ermine, or 
squirrel, or cat, or of an ass's mane. Take a piece of glass of 
whatever kind you please, which must be every way larger 
than the place it is to occupy, and lay it flat on this place. 
When you have seen the strokes on the board through the 

^ Theophiliu^ reason for making the board twice the size of the picture is giTea 
Bubseqnently in chap, xzvii. 



glass, draw with chalk upon the glass the outer strokes only, 
and if the glass should be so dense that you cannot see the 
strokes on the board through it, take a piece of white glass and 
draw on that, and when it is dry lay the opaque glass upon the 
white, raise it against the light, and draw on it what you see 
through it. In the same manner you will mark all kinds of 
glass, whether for the face, or the drapery, hands, feet, or 
border, or wherever you wish to place colours. 



Afterwards heat in the fire the dividing-iron, which should 
be thin in every part, but thicker at the extremity. When it is 
red-hot in the thicker part apply it to the glass which you 
wish to divide, and soon the beginning of a crack will appear. 
If the glass should be hard, moisten it with saliva with your 
finger in the place where you had applied the iron. As soon 
as it is cracked, draw the iron in the direction in which you 
wish to divide the glass, and the crack will follow the iron. 
All the pieces having been thus divided, take the growing iron p 
[grosarium ferrum] which should be a palm long, and bent 
back at each end, with which you can smoothen and fit to- 
gether [conjunges] all the pieces, each in its place. These 
things having been thus arranged, take the colour with which 
you are to paint the glass, which you are to compose in this 



Take copper, beaten small, and bum it in a small iron pipkin 
imtil it is entirely pulverized. Then take pieces of green glass 

p In the before-mentioned account 
rollfl given in Smith's "Antiquities of 
Westminster," the tool used by the 
glaziers for breaking the glass and work- 
ing it to shape is called "croisour," 

croysour," or "gioysour." The mo- 


dern term is ** grosing iron." In French 
it is called "gresoir." A representa- 
tion of one is given in Le Vieil, plate 7, 
fig. 8, and grosing irons are borne as 
a charge in the arms of the Glaziers' 




[viridis vitri] and Greek sapphire [saphiri GreciJ, and poand 
them separately between two porphyry stones. Mix the three 
ingredients together in the proportion of one third powder, one 
third green glass, and one third sapphire. Pound them to- 
gether on the same stone with wine or urine very carefully, put 
them into an iron, or leaden vessel, and paint the glass with 
the utmost care, according to the strokes which are upon the 
board. If you wish to make letters on the glass, you will cover 
those parts of the glass entirely with the same colour, and 
write the letters with the handle of the brush. 




If you are diligent in this work, you can make the lights and 
shadows of the draperies in the same manner as in a coloured 
painting [sicut in pictura colorum]. When you have made 
the strokes in the drapery with the aforesaid colour, spread it 
with a brush in such a manner that the glass may be clear in 
that part in which you are accustomed to make a light in 
a picture, and let the same stroke be dark [densus] in one part, 
lighter in another, and again yet lighter, and distinguished 
with such care that it may appear as if three shades of colour 
had been applied [to the glass] ^. This order you should 
observe, below the eyebrows, and round the eyes, and nostrils, 
and chin, and round the faces of young men, round the naked 
feet and hands, and other members of the naked body. And 

4 The process of smear shading is 
here very accurately descrihed. I sp- 
prehend that Theophilns, in speaking of 
three gradations of tint in the shadow, 
only thereby means that the wash of 
colour should not be left of equal denrity 
throughout, but shonld be softened off 
towards the edges of the shadow with 
the brush. His directions in this re- 
spect, however, did not continue to be 
complied with, for nearly all the shadows 

that I have examined in Early English 
glass-paintings are of uniform depth in 
their whole extent Experience pro- 
bably shewed that the effect produced 
by a more finely finished shadow, was 
not commensurate with the labour of its 
execution. In lar^e figures belonging 
to the Decorated, as well as the Early 
English style, shadows executed accord- 
ing to Theophilus' method, may occa- 
sionally be met with. 

APPENDIX (a). 371 

thus let the gla,ss-painting have the appearance of a painting 
composed of a variety of colours. 



Let there be also some ornament on the glass, viz., in the 
draperies, in the seats [sedibus], and in the grounds [iu cam- 
pis]; on the sapphire [saphiro], on the green and white, and 
the bright purple coloured glass. When you have made the 
first shadows in draperies of this kind, and they are dry, cover 
the rest of the glass with a light colour, which should not be so 
deep as the second tint of the shadow, nor so light as the third, 
but a medium between the two. This being dry, make with 
the handle of the brush near the shadows which you first made, 
fine strokes in every part, so as to leave between these strokes 
and the first shadows fine strokes of that light colour. On the 
remainder of the glass make circles and branches, and in these, 
flowers and leaves in the same manner in which they are made 
in illuminated letters [in litteris pictis] : but the grounds, 
which in the letters are filled with colours, you ought in glass 
to fill with the most delicate little branches. You can also in 
the circles sometimes insert small animals, and little birds and 
insects, and naked figures. In the same manner you can make 
grounds on the clearest white glass. You should clothe such 
figures as you place on this [white] ground with sapphire [sa- 
phiro], green, purple, and red; but on grounds of sapphire 
[saphiri] and green colour painted in the same manner [as 
before mentioned], and on red grounds not painted, make 
the draperies of clear white, than which kind of drapery 
none is more beautifuL In the borders, paint with the three 
before-mentioned colours, branches and leaves, flowers and 
knots, according to the process above described ; and use the 
same colours in the faces of the figures, and in the hands and 
feet and naked limbs throughout, instead of that colour which 
in the preceding book is called Pose. You should not make 




much use of yellow glass in the draperies, except in the crowns, 
and in those places where gold is to be placed in a picture ^ 

These things having been all arranged and painted, the glass 
is to be burnt [coquendum], and the colour fixed [confirm- 
andus] in a furnace, which you will thus construct. 



Take flexible twigs, fix them in the earth, in a corner of 
the house, by each end, equally, in the form of arches ; which 
arches ought to be a foot and a half high, and of like width, 
but a little more than two feet long. Then strongly knead 
clay with water and horse-dung, in the proportion of three 
parts of clay and one of dung. This mixture having been 
very well kneaded, mix with it dry hay. Make the composi- 
tion into cylindrical lumps, and cover [with it] the arch of the 
twigs, both within and without, to the thickness of your fist ; 
and in the middle of the top leave a round hole through which 
you can put your hand. Make yourself also three iron bars, 
a finger thick, and long enough to run across the width of 
the furnace. Tou can make three holes in each end of these 
bars, in order that you may, when you please, put them in 

' In the first part of this chapter the 
process of ornamenting glass with diaper 
patterns is descrihed. 

It is worthy of ohsenration that the 
recommendation not to diaper red glass, 
which seems to be conveyed in the text, 
is to a certain extent in accordance 
with the practice of the medieval glass- 
painters ; red glass, especially when nsed 
in draperies, at no time being so com- 
monly diapered as glass of other co- 

Some excellent hints relating to the 
arrangement and disposition of colours 
are also given above. One of the most 
valuable is that which regards the re- 
stricted employment of yellow glass, the 
lavish use of which is one of the vices of 
modern glass-paintings. 

The following account of the colour 
called "Pose," is taken from the third 
chapter of the first book of Theophilus* 
treatise, entitled, De Poseh primo, 

" When you have mixed flesh-colour, 
and covered the faces and naked bodies 
with it, mix dark green and red, — which 
is obtained by burning ocre, — and a little 
cinnabar, and make ' posch,' with which 
you will mark the eyebrows and eyet» 
the nostrils and mouth, the chin, the 
little hollows about the nostrils and tem- 
ples, the wrinkles on the forehead and 
neck, and the roundness of the face, the 
beards of young men, and the joints of 
the hands and feet, and all the limbs 
which are distinguished in a naked 




and withdraw them [from the furnace]. Then pat fire and 
logs of wood into the furnace until it is dried. 



In the mean time make yourself an iron plate [tabulam] less 
both in length and breadth by two fingers than the measure of 
the interior of the furnace. On this sift dry quick-lime, or 
ashes, to the thickness of a straw, and press them down [com- 
pones] with a smooth piece of wood, that they may lie firmly. 
The plate should have an iron handle, by which it can be car- 
ried, and put in and drawn out [of the furnace] . Lay upon 
it the painted glass carefully, and together [conjunctum], so 
that the green and sapphire glass [saphirum] may be placed 
on the outer part [of the plate], near the handle; and on the 
inner part of the white, yellow, and purple, which are harder 
and resist the fire [longer]. Then haying inserted the bars, 
place the plate upon them. Then take logs of beech-wood 
well dried in smoke, and light a moderate fire in the furnace, 
and afterwards increase it with the utmost caution until you 
see the flames ascend on every side between the plate and the 
furnace, and turn back, and cover the glass by passing over 
it, and as it were licking it, until it becomes a little white 
with heat. Then immediately take out the wood, stop the 
mouth of the furnace carefully, as well as the hole at top, by 
which the smoke used to escape, until it cools of itself. The 
lime and the ashes on the plate serve to preserve the glass 
from being broken to pieces on the bare iron by the heat. 
Having withdrawn the glass, try whether you can scrape off 
the colour with your nail, if you cannot, it is sufficient : but 
if you can, put the glass into the furnace again*. All the 

■ I have never met with any ancient 
glam-painting tbe enamel brown of which 
might not be wratched off in places, 
either with the point of a penknife, or 
the sharp angle of a broken piece of 
glass. But this softness of the enamel 
I am inclined to ascribe rather to the 

effect of decomposition, than of insaffi- 
cient baming. In some Early English 
glass-puntings, the whole surfoce of tbe 
glass is so decomposed, that the enamel 
brown will readily chip off, along with 
portions of the glass, on being scratched 
with the finger nail. 

374 APPENDIX (a). 

pieces of glass having been burned in this manner^ replace 
them on the board each in its own place. Then cast rods of 
pure lead in this manner. 



Make yourself two irons two fingers broad, one finger thick, 
and an ell long. Join them at one extremity like a hinge, in 
order that they may keep together, being fastened by a nail, so 
as to be able to open and shut. At the other extremity make 
them a little broader and thinner, so that when they are shut 
together, there may be, as it were, the beginning of a hollow 
within. Let the outer sides be parallel, and you should so fit 
the irons to each other, with a plane and a file, that [when 
closed] no light shall appear between them. After this sepa- 
rate them from each other, and taking a rule, make in the 
middle of one of them two lines, and opposite, two lines in 
the middle of the other from top to bottom, of little width. 
Hollow these [lines] out with the tool used for hollowing 
candlesticks and other cast metal works, as deeply as you wish. 
In each iron scrape a little between the lines made with the 
ruler, in order that when you pour the lead into them, it may 
form only one piece. You must form the mouth into which 
you pour the lead in such a manner that one part of the iron 
may fit into the other, so that during the pouring it may not 
be unsteady. 



After this make yourself a hearth on which to cast lead, and 
in the hearths a pit, in which you can place a large earthen- 
ware pot, which you should line within and without with clay, 
kneaded with dung, in order that it may be stronger. Light 
a large fire upon it. When the pot is dry, put lead upon the 
fire in such wise within the pot that when it is melted it may 
run into the pot. Then opening the iron mould [in which 



the rods are to be cast], place it on the coals^ that it may be- 
come hot. You should have a piece of wood an ell long, which 
at one end where it will be held by the hand, should be round, 
but at the other flat, and four fingers broad. In this end there 
should be a hole cut across to the middle, according to the 
breadth of the iron ; in which incision you will place the hot 
iron closed. You should hold the iron by the upper part, 
your hand being slightly bent, in such a manner that with 
its lower end it may rest on the ground. Having taken a 
small iron pipkin, heated, take up in it some of the melted 
lead, and pour it into the iron, and immediately replace the 
pipkin on the fire that it may continue hot. Throw the iron 
on the ground disengaged from the wood ; open it with a knife, 
and having taken out the [leaden] rod, shut the iron again, 
and replace it in the wood. If the lead will not flow to the 
bottom of the iron, pour it again into the iron, having pre- 
viously heated the iron better. And thus continue to heat the 
iron imtil it will allow itself to be quite filled with lead : be- 
cause if the iron is of an equal temperature you can cast with 
one heating more than forty rods \ 



But if you have no iron, take a piece of fir or other wood 
which can be evenly split, of the same length, breadth, and 
thickness, as above [mentioned]. Having split it make it 
round on the outside ; then make two small marks on the 
outside at each end of each face of the wood, according to the 
breadth vou wish the rod to be in the middle. Take a line, 
[made of] a thin twisted thread, soak it in some red colour, 
and having separated the pieces of wood, apply the thread on 
the inside from the mark which you have cut in the upper 

* The process described in this and 
the preceding chapter is almost identical 
with tiie casting of the leaden rods at 
the present day, which are reduced to 
proper dimensions by being passed be- 
tween two rollers. Kepreseiitations of 

the instmments nsed for these purposes 
are given in Le Vieil, plates 7, 8, and 9. 
See further remarks on the form and 
width of leadsy Introduction, p. 31, 
note (k). 



part, down to the lower mark, so that it may be stretched 
tight. Then apply the other piece of wood^ and press both 
strongly together, so that when they are separated, the colour 
may shew itself on both pieces [of the wood]. Take out the 
thread, and having again wetted it in the colour, fix it in the 
other mark, and again lay the other piece of wood on it, and 
press. When the colour appears on both sides, cut a hollow 
[calamum] with a knife, as wide and as deep as you wish, 
but so that the groove go not to the extremity of the wood, 
but only have an aperture at top, where you are to pour in 
[the lead]. "Which having been done, join the pieces of wood 
together, binding them with a thong of leather from top to 
bottom. Hold them with another piece of wood, and pour 
the lead in, and having untied the thong take out the [leaden] 
rod. Bind it again and pour lead again into the wood, and 
this do until the charring extend to the end of the groove. 
So afterwards you may pour in [lead] lightly, as often and 
as much as you want. When you see that you have rods 
enough, cut a piece of wood, two fingers broad, and as thick 
as the rod is broad within: divide it in the midst, so that 
on one side it may be whole, and in the other there may be 
an incision in which a rod may be laid. Having placed the 
rod in the cleft, cut it on both sides with a knife, and plane 
and scrape it as you think fit. 




These things having been thus completed, take pure tin and 
mix with it a fifth part of lead, and cast in the above-mentioned 
iron or wood, as many rods of it as you want ; with which you 
will solder your work. You should have also forty nails, one 
finger long, which should be at one end slender and round, and 
at the other, square and perfectly curved, so that an opening 
may appear in the middled Then take the glass which has 

" These nails seem from the above de- 
scription to have been formed like a com- 
mon wire skewer. In the account roll. 

25 Edward III. (see Smith's <' Antiq. of 
Westminster," p. 197,) is a charge of 
Is. 6d. for " 200 of cloiryng nails, bought 



been painted and burnt, and place it according to its order on 
the other part of the board on which there is no drawing. 
After this take the head of one figure, and surrounding it with 
lead, put it back carefully in its place^ and fix round it three 
nails with a hammer adapted to this purpose. Join to it the 
breast and arms^ and the rest of the drapery ; and whatever 
part you join, fix it on the outside with nails that it may not 
be moved from its place. You should then have a soldering 
iron, which ought to be long and thin, but at the end thick 
and round, and at the extreme end of the roundness, tapering 
and thin, filed smooth, and tinned. Place this in the fire. In 
the meanwhile take the pewter rods which you have cast, cover 
them with wax on all sides, and scrape the surface of the lead in 
all those places which are to be soldered. Having taken the hot 
iron, apply the pewter to it wherever two pieces of lead come 
together: and rub with the iron until they adhere to each 
other. The figures having been fastened^ arrange in like man- 
ner the grounds of whatever colour you wish, and thus piece by 
piece put the window together. The window having been 
completed and soldered on one side, turn it over on the other, 
and in the same manner by scraping and soldering, make it 
firm throughout^. 

to keep the glass together till it was 
joined." Nails are still used by glaziers 
for this purpose. 

▼ In Smith's *' Antiquities of West- 
minster/' Lond. 1807, p. 191, et seq. 
many entries are given from the account 
rolls, chiefly of the 25th Edward III., 
relating to the expenses incurred in 
glazing the windows of St Stephen's 
Chapel, Westminster. These entries, 
especially when read in connexion with 
Theophilus* treatise, throw so consider- 
able a light on the process of glass-paint- 
ing, and glazing in general, as practised 
in the reign of Edward III., that I have 
been induced to give here some extracts 
from them. 

Amongst these entries occur the prices 
paid for divers quantities " of white, red, 
blue, and azure-coloured glass ; for small 
bars called sondlets to hold the glass in 

the windows ; for a long bar for a stan- 
dard in a window ; for a cord to draw up 
the panels of glass; for nails to fasten in 
the glass ; for cervis [qu. cerevisia, ale 
or wort] bought as well for the washing 
of the tables of glass, as for the cooling 
of the glass;" or, as it is elsewhere ex- 
pressed, " for the washing of the tables 
for drawing on the glass ; for croysours, 
bought to break and work the glass; for 
cloryng nails to keep the glass together 
till it was joined ; for suet for the solder- 
iug of the glass windows ; for filings to 
make solder; for tin for leading the 
glass; for wax for the glaziers; fornlver 
filings for painting the glass for the 
windows of the chapel; for amement, 
rosyn, and geet for the painting of the 

It will be observed that "wax" and 
"tin" are mentioned by Theophilus, 





In the figures of windows, if indeed you wish to make on the 
painted glass, in the crosses, in the books, or in the ornaments 
of the draperies, gems of another colour, without lead, viz., hya- 

chapters xxvii. and xyiii., as used in 
soldering the glass ; and " nails'* to hold 
it in its place till soldered : and a "gros- 
ing iron" to work the glass into shape. 

Other entries relate to wages paid, 
^for grinding colours for the painting 
of the glass; for grinding geet, and ar- 
nement, for the painting of glass; for 
new washing and whitening the glaziers' 
tahles anew ; for washing the tahies for 
drawing on the glass; for drawing and 
painting on white tahles several draw- 
ings for the glass windows of the chapel ; 
for working on the catting and joining 
the glass for the windows ; working on 
the glazing of the windows ; joining and 
cooling the glass for the windows; hreak- 
ing and joining the glass upon the painted 
tables; to two glaziers' boys, working 
with the glaziers on the breaking of the 
glass ; to the glaziers joining and hying 
the glass for the window; laying glass 
for the quarrels^ of the windows; laying 
glass on the tables and painting it." 

To the smith, '* for mending the croy- 
sours for the glaziers;" to the " scaffold- 
maker, making a scaffold for raimng the 
glass of the panels of glass in the win- 
dows of the chapel ;" to " a glazier going 
with the king's commission into Kent 
and Essex, to procure glaziers for the 
works of the chapel." To another man 
"for going on the business of procuring 
glass;" and to another, " for being em- 
ployed on the providing of glass for the 

It appears then, that as recommended 
by Theophilus, chap, xvii., the designs 

for the glass were made on white table*, 
and that these designs were afterwards 
washed off the tables to make way for 
fresh designs. The practice of destroy- 
ing old designs to make room for new 
ones, seems to have been followed by the 
masons also, see "Archaeological Jour- 
nal," No. 13, p. 14, which, as is there 
suggested, may account for the few ori- 
ginal designs which have been preserved. 
Dr. Henry conjectures, see Henry's 
"Hist, of England," vol. x. p. 112, that 
the fifly-three deUneations illustrating 
the history of the Earl of Warwick, by 
John Rouse, who then resided at War- 
wick, contained in a MS. in the British 
Museum, (MSS. Cotton, Julius £. IV.,} 
which have been published by Mr. Strutt, 
are the very patterns which were de- 
livered to John Prudd to be painted on 
the windows of the Beauchamp Chapel, 
or that these delineations were copied 
from the windows after they were 
painted. I have had no opportunity of 
comparing these delineations with the 
remains of the glass in the chapel win- 
dows, but there is nothing in their de- 
sign which would render them unfit 
subjects for a painted window. 

The meaning of the phrase " breaking 
and joining the glass," cited above, may 
be gathered from chapter xviii. of Theo- 
philus' treatise. And from the mention 
of "cervis to cool the glass," it seems 
that it was used to wet the glass, and 
make it crack, after it had been heated 
with the hot iron, called by Theophilus, 
the "dividing -iron.' 


1 Quarry, or quarel, bb applied to glara, Bigniflefi properly a pane cut in tbe shape of, or placed 
as a lozenge. The word is most prohably derived from the old French, quarel, quareau, quariau, 
Iko., [low Latin qnarellus, qnadrellaa, fjrom quadrum,] a word applied to seTeral square or four- 
sided objects, and having many of the signiflcatioiis of the modem French, carreau. 

APPENDIX (a). 379 

cintlis [iacinctos]^ and emeralds, do thus. When you shall have 
made in their places crosses in the glories, or on a book, or 
ornaments in the borders of draperies, which in a picture are 
made of gold or orpiment, let these in windows be made of clear 
yellow glass. When you have painted these in the way prac- 
tised [opere fabrili], select the places in which you wish to put 
stones, and having taken pieces of clear sapphire, make of them 
hyacinths, according to the number of the places they are to 
occupy ; and make of green glass, emeralds ; and so arrange 
them that there may always be an emerald between two hya- 
cinths. These being carefully brought together and fixed in 
their places, draw with a brush a thick colour round them, in 
such a manner that none shall flow between the two pieces of 
glass. Then bum them with the other pieces in the furnace 
and they will adhere to each other so as never to fall off ^. 



If indeed you wish to compose simple windows, first make on 
a wooden board the measure of the length and breadth. Then 
draw knots, or anything else you please, and having determined 
the colours to be inserted, cut glass and fit it with the grosing 
iron [grosa conjunge], and having applied the nails, surround it 
with lead and solder it on both sides. Place around it pieces of 
wood strengthened with nails, and fix it where you wish \ 



If by chance a glass vessel of any kind faU, or is struck, so as 
to be broken or cracked, let it be repaired as foUows. Take 
ashes and sift them carefully, macerating them with water, and 
fill therewith the broken vessel, and place it in the sun to dry. 
When the ashes are entirely dry, join the broken part of the 
vessel, taking care that no ashes or dirt remain in the joining. 

^ See Introdoction, p. 32, note (k). l to the formation of geometrical patterna 
* It is dear that this chapter relates I of plain white and coloared glass. 

380 APPENDIX (A). 

Take sapphire and green glass, which should be made to liquefy 
Tery slightly by the heat of the fire. Pound it carefully with 
water on a porphyry stone, and with a pencil draw a thin stroke 
of it over the fracture. Then place the vessel on the iron plate, 
raise a little that part of the vessel in which the fracture is, so 
that the flame may equally pass over it. Place it in the furnace 
for windows, putting under it logs of beech-wood and fire, by 
degrees, until the vessel becomes hot, as well as the ashes in it : 
then immediately augment the fire that the flame may increase. 
When you perceive that it is almost red hot, take out the wood, 
and carefully stop up the mouth of the furnace, and the hole 
above, until it is cool within. Then withdraw the vessel, re- 
move the ashes without [using] water, and then wash it and 
put it to such uses as you wish. 



Rings are also made of glass, in this manner. Construct 
a small furnace in the way before described, then take ashes, 
salt, powder of copper, and lead. These things having been 
prepared, choose such colours of glass as you wish, and having 
placed underneath fire and wood, fuse them. In the mean- 
while provide yourself a piece of wood a palm long, and a finger 
thick : on one third part of the wood place a wooden roller 
a palm long, in such a manner that you may be able to hold 
the other two parts of the wood in your hand. The roller also 
should remain above your head, firmly attached to the wood, 
and a third part of the wood should shew itself above the roller. 
The wood [of the roller] should be cut thin at the top, and so 
joined with a piece of iron as a spear is joined with its point. 
The iron should be a foot long, and the wood [of the roller] 
should be so inserted in it, that at the juncture the iron should 
be equal [in size] to the wood, and from that place shoidd be 
drawn out thinner even to the end, where it should be quite 
sharp. Near the window of the furnace, on the right, — that is, 
on your left, — let there stand a piece of wood of the thickness 
of a man's arm, stuck in the ground, and reaching as high as 
the top of the window : but on the left of the furnace, — that is. 



on your right, — near the same window, let there stand a little 
trough made in a piece of clay. Then the glass having been 
fused, take the wood with the roller and the iron, which is 
called a spit [veru], and plunge the end of the iron into a pot 
of glass ; and drawing out [of the pot] the little glass that 
adheres to the iron, thrust the iron strongly into the wood 
[which is stuck into the ground], that the glass may be pierced 
through. Immediately heat the glass in the fire, and strike 
the iron against the wood twice, that the glass may be opened 
wide, and with quickness turn your hand with the iron that the 
ring may be enlarged into a round ; and thus turning it, make 
the ring descend even to the roller, that it may become of 
equal shape. Immediately drop the ring into the little trough, 
and work off in the same manner as much as you want. 

If you wish to vary the rings with other colours, when you 
have taken the glass and pierced it through with the thin iron, 
take from another pot, glass of another colour, surrounding 
the glass of the ring with it, as with a thread. Then having 
heated the ring in the flame as above [mentioned], complete 
it in the same manner. You can also place on the ring glass 
of another kind, as a gem, and heat it in the fire, so that it 
may adhere y. 

Theopliilus does not describe tbe making of sheets of glass otherwise than 
in cylinders. The chapter however which appears to have treated of the 
manufacture of ruby glass is lost. That the art of flashing glass is of con- 

f The instrnment called veru above 
described, appears to have connBted of 
a short piece of wood with a handle at 
each end, and in the' centre an upright 
shaft or roller of the same material, of 
the diameter of the intended ring, sar- 
monnted with a tapering iron head. 

The lead seems to have been used in 
order to render the glass easier to work. 
It is mentioned as an ingredient of glass 
in the title of one of the lost chapters of 
Theophilus' treatise. The following re- 
ceipt for making glass with lead is given 
in £raclius. 

" How glass is made from lead. Take 
lead very good and clean, and put it in 
a new pot, and bum it on the fire till it 

becomes powder. Then take it from the 
fire that it may cool : afterwards take 
sandj and mix it with that powder, but 
so that there may be two parts of lead 
and the third of sand, and place it in 
an earthen vessel. Do as is before di- 
rected for making glass, and place tbe 
earthen vessel in the furnace, and con- 
tinue sti^Dg it, till glass is produced. 
But if you wish it to be green, take 
filings of copper (aurichalcum), and put 
as much as you think fit to the glass 
made from lead.'' Thb glass was used 
either to make vessels or as a flux mixed 
with sapphire to paint on glass. See 
Eradius in Mrs. Merrifield, vol. i. p. 

382 APPENDIX (a). 

siderable antiquity appears from a piece of French mby glass of the middle 
of the thirteenth century, in the possession of Mr. Ward the gkss-painter. 
This fragment is about five inches square, and it exhibits what according to 
the opinion of a veiy competent judge,— Mr. James Green of the Whitefriars 
glass-works, — is the mark- of a punt, or a bull's eye. In Mr. Green's opinion 
this piece of glass was made by "flashing," and that in a very workmanlike 
manner. The colouring matter, as is often the case with glass of thb date, 
constitutes about one-third of the entire thickness of the sheet; and when 
seen in section, exhibits the ruby collected into little laminae precisely as in 
the specimens of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries referred to and repre- 
sented ante, p. 26, cut 2. The rough face of the bull's eye is on the white, or 
unooloured side of the sheet. It is barely an inch in diameter ; some of the 
white glass which covered the end of the punt still adheres to the sheet. The 
glass in, and immediately about the bull's eye, is a quarter of an inch thick : 
the rest of the sheet being, on an average, about half that thickness. It would 
appear from what has been stated, that in making this sheet of glass the work- 
man collected on the blow-pipe the colouring matter first, and the white 
glass last. 


The rolls of account relating to the works carried on at 
Westminster in the reign of Edward III., contain a great deal 
of valuable and interesting information on the state of art, and 
on the prices of materials and the rates of wages at that time. 
Extracts from these rolls are printed in Smith's '' Antiquities of 
Westminster/' and in Britten's and Brayley's " History of the 
Ancient Palace and late Houses of Parliament at Westminster." 
From these two works, but principally from the former, the 
following particulars have been selected, which may serve to 
throw some light on the state of glass- painting in ancient times. 
The windows to which the accounts relate were those of St. 
Stephen's Chapel, the late House of Commons. 

It appears that there was expended on these windows be- 
tween the 20th of June and the 28th of Nov., 1351, about 
£145 ; equal to about £1,170 of the present day 7. 

The workmen who are said to " work on the drawing of the 
images'' and '' draw and paint on white tables several drawings 
for the windows," that is to say, those who make the designs, 
are six in number. Master John de Chester, John Athelard, 
John Lincoln, Simon Lenne, John Lenton, and Hugh de 
Lichesfeld : of these John de Chester is paid sometimes seven 
shillings (equal to five guineas at present) per week, but in 

f According to the estimate of the 
yalae of money made by Mr. Hallam, 
" Middle Ages," vol. iii. p. 449, the pro- 
per moltiples for converting into its 
modem equivalent, any sum mentioned 
in this note, the modern value of which 
is not given, would be, for sums previ- 
ously to the reign of Henry VI., twenty ; 
for sums during that reign, sixteen ; and 
for the reign of Henry VIII., twelve; 
but in consequence of the changes which 
have taken place since that estimate was 

made, lower multiples must be taken, 
and fifteen, twelve, and eight respec- 
tively will probably give a near ap- 
proximation to the truth. [1847. Hal- 
lam's estimate was made in 1816.] 

Many instances of the prices paid for 
works of art, and of wages and re- 
munerations to servants and officers, 
will be found in Devon's " Issues of the 
Exchequer," but there is nothing in 
that book immediately relating to painted 



general he receives the same wages as the other five, who are 
styled master glaziers, namely, one shilling a-day. When these 
men work on " the glazing of the windoves," or " paint the 
glass," they receive the same wages. There is another set of 
workmen, fifteen in number, who are paid seven- pence a-day : 
a third, three and twenty in number, who are paid sixpence 
a-day ; and three, who receive only four-pence, or four-pence 
halfpenny a-day : two of these last are termed " glaziers' boys,'* 
and they are generally specified as grinding colours. The 
second class, viz., those at seven-pence a-day, are generally de- 
scribed as '^ drawing on the glass," or painting on the glass, 
while the third class, the men of sixpence a-day, are almost 
always mentioned as '^ cutting and joining the glass, joining 
and cooling, joining and laying the glass, breaking and joining 
the glass on the painted- tables." Frequently however no par- 
ticular kind of work is specified. These wages seem much the 
same as those given to workmen in other branches of art : thus, 
in the instance of painters. Master Hugh de St. Albans, and 
John de Cotton, who were employed in painting the walls, &c. 
of the chapel, receive " for working on the drawing of seve- 
ral images," and for "drawing images," as well as for the 
other occasions on which they are employed, one shilling a-day. 
Two other painters receive the same. Of the rest, four are 
paid ten-pence, thirteen nine-pence, three eight-pence, three 
seven-pence, nine sixpence, and six five-pence and five-pence 
half-penny a-day: a colour grinder receives, as with the 
glass-painters, four-pence halfpenny a- day. One painter, John 
Bameby, is paid as high as two shillings a-day. The par- 
ticular nature of his work is not mentioned, he is merely said 
" to work on the chapel ''." Edmund Canon, master stone- 
cutter, for working on the stalls is paid one shilling and six- 
pence a-day for 364 days. The sculpture seems generally to 
have been done by task-work; this therefore is the only in- 
stance which we have in these accounts, to enable us to judge 
of the sculptor's wages. A master mason is paid one shilling, 
masons in general five-pence halfpenny a-day. Carpenters are 
paid four-pence, five-pence, and sixpence a-day ; but one of 

■ A case occtirs in the yenr-book 
14 Heiiry VI., 19, b., in which an artist 

is retained for a year for limning books 
at the rate of ten marks a-year. 

APPENDIX (B). 385 

them^ William Hurle, a master carpenter^ receives seven shil- 
lings a-week " for working on the stalls.'' 

On these wages it may be remarked that those of the inferior 
workmen seem higher than they would be at the present day^ 
the lowest being equal to five shillings ; while the master work- 
men^ on the other hand^ seem to be remunerated at a lower 
rate than a leading artist of modem times would expect. But 
in making this comparison it is necessary to take into con- 
sideration the greater frugality and simplicity of living in 
ancient times ; and on examination it would probably be found 
that the gains of the ancient artist bore at least as high a pro- 
portion to the incomes of the gentry, and to the salaries at- 
tached to o£Sces of trust and dignity, as those of his modern 
successor. Thus in the reign of Edward I., according to Mr. 
Hallam % *' an income of £10 or £20 was reckoned a competent 
estate for a gentleman: at least the lord of a single manor 
woidd seldom have enjoyed more. A knight who possessed 
£150 per annum passed for extremely rich : yet this was not 
equal in command over commodities to £4,000 at present." 
With regard to official salaries we find that William of Wyke« 
ham was appointed on the 30th of Oct., 1356, surveyor of the 
king's works at the castle, and in the park of Windsor, with 
a salary of one shilling a-day when he stayed at Windsor, and 
two shillings when he went elsewhere on his employment, and 
three and sixpence a-week for his clerk. The following year 
he received an additional salary of one shilling a day^» In 
1389 Chaucer was appointed by Richard II. clerk of the works 
at the palace of Westminster, the castle of Berkhampstead, and 
several other royal residences, with a salary of two shillings 

• Hallam, « Middle Age^," voL ui. £873 68. 8d., aboat £13,000. Bat thia 

p. 451, fourth edition. 

^ Bishop Lowth's "Life of WilUam 
of Wykeham/' p. 20. He subBequeutlj 
inde^ received ecdeaiaatical prefer- 
ments to a great amount. "Dominus 
rezy" it is said, " mnltis bonis et pingui- 
bus beneficiis ipeum Wilhelmum dita- 
vit." The annual value of these fat 
benefices amounted in the year 1366, 
before he was Bishop of Winchester, to 

C c 

is to be attributed to the high place he 
occupied in the councils and favour of 
the king. "There was at that time," 
says Froissart, " a priest in England of 
the name of William of Wykeham : this 
William was so high in the king's grace 
that nothing was done in any respect 
whatever without his advice." — Johnes' 
Froissart^ voL iii. p. 384^ third edition. 



a-day «. The salaries of the judges in Edward the Third's time 
varied from 40 to 80 marks a-year. The chief and puisne 
Barons of the Exchequer in the 36 Edward III. had £40 : in 
39 Edward III. the justices of the Bench had £40, and the 
chief justice of the King's Bench 100 marks ^. It seems un- 
necessary to seek for other instances of this kind. Enough 
has been stated to shew that the ancient workman was very 
liberally rewarded. From the modes of thinking prevalent 
in the Middle Ages he, no doubt, held a less honourable place 
in society than the modem artist : yet there was ample induce- 
ment for men of genius to devote themselves to the cultivation 
of art, and, if we could free ourselves from the prejudice that 
attaches to names and terms, we might conclude, even with- 
out appealing to the testimony afforded by his productions, 
that the ancient icorkman was much more than a mere me- 
chanic, and that in intelligence and education, according to 
the measure of his age, he was in no respect inferior to the 
modem artist. 

Among the materials enumerated, in the before-mentioned 
accoimts, for the construction of the windows, are " small bars 
of iron called sondlets, to hold the glass in the windows,'^ which 
cost twopence a pound. *^Two hundred of daring nails to 
hold the glass together till it was joined, one shilling and six- 
pence :" 160 pounds of tin for leading the glass, at threepence 
a pound : six pounds and a half of wax, and three pounds of 
resin for the masons and glaziers, each pound of wax costing 
sevenpence - halfpenny, and each pound of resin twopence. 
Croysors or Groisors to break and work the glass, costing a 
penny-farthing each. Cepo arietino (mutton suet), and filings 
to make solder for the glass windows: servicia (qu. cervisia, 
ale or wort®) for the washing of the tables for drawing the 
glass : cervis, as well for the washing of the tables as for 
the cooling of the glass : silver filings : geet (jet, or black) : 

e Turaer'g "History of England." 
from Goodwin's " Life of Chancer." The 
salary is fW)m Britton and Brayley. 

^ Beeve's *' History of English Law," 
voL iii. p. 154. 

* Servicia, ale or wort. This is the 

coi^ecture of both Smith and Brittoii. 
From some old receipts it would seem 
that ale was a favonrite ingredient. 
It is prescribed for making glue and 
vanush. See MeU^^ma JMiq^ voL L 
p. 163. 

APPENDIX (B). 387 

arnement and resin: all mentioned to be for the painting 
of the glass. 

The greater paii; of the glass for the chapel is purchased 
between the 15th of August, 1351^ and the 12th of December, 
1362, white glass at the rate, some of sixpence, some of 
eightpence, some of ninepence per ponder, the ponder con* 
taining five pounds. The mean rate therefore at which the 
white glass is purchased is nearly sevenpence three-farthings 
per ponder, or about one and elevenpence of present money 
per pound. 

The following curious entry occurs 13th Aug., 1352 : " John 
Lightfoot for 300 leaves of silver for the painting of a certain 
window to counterfeit glass." This of course must have been 
a blank window. 

Blue glass is purchased, some at the rate of one shilling, 
the rest^ and by far the largest quantity, at the rate of three 
shillings and sevenpence-farthing per ponder, azure glass at 
three shillings, and red glass at two shillings and twopence per 
ponder. Besides the glass just mentioned, "three windows of 
white glass, each containing seven feet," are purchased 13th 
Nov., 1331 ', at fourpence per foot. In 1357 one mndow of 
glass bought for the window over the chancel, forty feet, costs 
one shilling and twopence a foot. In 1365, ninety-seven feet 
of white glass, wrought with flowers and bordered with the 
king^s arms, cost one shilling and a penny per foot. And in 
the same year forty-two feet of white glass are purchased at 
the rate of one shilling per foot. No charges for wages or 
materials are found in the printed accounts corresponding with 
the dates of these four last purchases : from this circumstance, 
as well as from the terms in which the first three of them are 
described, it seems probable that the workmanship was in- 
eluded in the price. 

The following instances of the price of glass, and of the 
expense of constructing painted windows, have been collected 
from various sources. 

The cost of the glass of the north window in St. Anselm's 

' The pound at thiB time oontiuned 
the same quantity of nlver as in Ed- 
ward the First's reign. Fourpence may 


therefore be taken as equal perhaps to 
six shillings. 



Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral, constructed in 1336, including 
materials and workmanship, was £6 13s. 4d., equal to about 
£100 present moneys. The presumption is that this was a 
painted window. 

By the contract entered into in 1338 for glazing the great 
west window of York Cathedral, the glazier was to find the 
glass, and to be paid at the rate of sixpence^ equal to about 
nine shillings, per foot for plain, and twice as much for co- 
loured glass ^, 

In 1405, John Thornton of Coventry contracted for the exe- 
cution of the great east window of the same cathedral. It was 
to be finished in three years, and he was to receive four shil- 
lings a-week, and one hundred shillings at the end of each 
year : and if he performed his work to the satisfaction of his 
employers he was to receive the further sum of ten pounds in 
silver ^ Including the ten pounds, the cost of this vdndow 
would be equal to above nine hundred pounds of our money ; 
at the present day such a window would probably cost not less 
than £2,000. It is remarkable that the sum agreed to be paid 
to John Thornton, exclusive of the contingent ten pounds, is 
a trifle less than the wages paid to the master glaziers em- 
ployed on St. Stephen's Chapel for workmanship only. 

f The whole cost of this window is 
contained in Somner's "Antiq. of Can- 
terbury Cathedral," 2nd ed., Lond. 1703, 
Appendix to 2nd part. No. I. b. It is 
as follows : — 

" De noy& fenestrA in capellA Aposto- 

lorum Petri et Paali. Mem. qnod ann. 
1836 facta fuit nna fenestra nova in 
eccl. Xpi Cant. viz. in Cap. S.S. Petri 
et Pauli Apost. pro qao expens. faernnt 

Imp. pro solo artificio sea labore cementariorum 

item pro muri fractione ubi est fenestra . 

item pro sabulo et calce .... 

item pro MM ferri empti ad dictam fenestram 

item pro artificio fabrorum 

item pro lapidibas Cani^ emptis ad eandem 

item pro vitro et labore vitrarii 





















Summa viii25 xiiif \yd data fiiit k qai- 
bnsdam amicis ad dictam fenestram, 
reliqua pecunia ministrata fuit h Priore." 

»• Britton's "Hist, of York Cathe. 
dral," Appendix viii. 
' Britton, ubi supra. 

> Caen stone. 



In 1447 the windows of the Beauchamp Chapel, at War- 
wick, were contracted for at the rate of two shillings, equal 
to £1. 48. present money, per foot. They were to be glazed 
with "glass from beyond seas and with no English glass," 
according to patterns to be delivered and approved by the 
executors of the Earl of Warwick, and afterwards to be newly 
traced and painted by another painter in rich colours at the 
cost of the contractor. Foreign glass was probably much used 
at about this time, for "painted glasses" occur among a num- 
ber of articles, the importation of which was prohibited by an 
Act passed in 1483 on the petition of the manufacturers of 
London and other towns ^. 

In 1526 the windows of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 
were contracted for, some at the rate of sixteen, some at that of 

k Henry's " Hist, of Great BritaiD," 
vol. X. p. 251. [2 Rich. III. ch. 12.] The 
contract for the windows of the Beaa- 
champ Chapel entered into with the 
Earl's executors, is given hy Dngdale, 
as follows: — "John Prudde of West- 
minster glasier 23 Juxlii 25 Hen. 6. 
oovenanteth &c. to glase all the win- 
dows in the new chappell in Warwick 
with glasse heyond the seas, and with 
no glasse of England ; and that in the 
finest wise, with the best, cleanest, and 
strongest glasse of beyond the seas that 
may be had in England, and of the 
finest colours ; of blew, yellow, red, pur- 
pare, sanguine, and violet, and of all 
other colours that shall be most neces- 
sary to make rich and embellish the 
matters, images, and stories, that shall 
be delivered and appoynted by the said 
executors by patterns in paper, after- 
wards to be newly traced and pictured 
by another .painter in rich colour, at 
the charges of the said glasier. All 
which proportions the said John Prudde 
must make perfectly to fine glase, eney- 
lin it, and finely and strongly set it in 
lead and solder it as well as any glasse 
is in England. Of white glasse, green 
glasse, black glasse, he shall use put in 
ns little as shall be needful for the 
shewing and setting forth of the mat- 

ters, images and storyes. And the said 
glasier shall take charge of the same 
glasse wrought and to be brought to 
Warwick and set it up there, in the 
windows of the said chapell : the exe- 
cutors paying to the said glasier for 
every foot of glasse ii shillings and so 
for the whole £xci. Is. lOd." 

"It appeareth," Dugdale continues, 
"that after these windows were so 
finished, the executors devised some 
alterations, as to the adde ... for our 
Lady; and scripture of the marriage 
of the Earle, and procured the same 
to be set forth in glasse in most fine 
and curious colours; and for the same 
they payd the sum of xiii/t. y'ls. i\d. 
Also it appeareth, that they caused the 
windows in the vestry to be curiously 
glased with glasse of iis. a foot, for 
which they payd Ls. The sum totall 
for the glasse of the said Vestry and 
Chappell xviZt. xviiif. y'ld. which in all 
contain by measure ; The east windows 
cxlix foot, 1 quarter and two inches. 

The south windows ccccclx foot, xi 

The north windows cccv foot. 

The totall dccccx foot iii quarters of 
a foot and two inches." 

(Dugdale's " Antiquities of Warwick- 
shire," 2nd edition, p. 446.) 



eighteenpence per foot for the glasSi and twopence per 
for the lead^ 


^ The following is the contract re 
ferred to in the text : — 

" Indenture made the laste day of the 
moneth of Aprelle in the yere of the 
reigne of Henry the 8th. by the gnce 
of God, &c. the eightene, betwene the 
Right worshcpfulle maeters Robert Ha- 
cotnbleyn Doctor of Divinitie and Pro- 
vost of the Kynge's College in the nni- 
versitie of Cambridge, master William 
Holgylle clerke master of the Hospitalle 
of Seint John Baptiste called the Savoy 
besydes London, and master Thomas 
Larke clerke Archdeacon of Norwyche 
on that oon partie, and Qalyon Hoone 
of the parysshe of Seint Mary Mag- 
delen next Seint Mary Overey in Suth- 
werke in the countie of Surrey glasyer, 
Richard Bownde of the parysshe of 
Seint Clement Danes without the barres 
of the newe Temple of London in the 
countie of Middlesex glasyer, Thomas 
Reve of the parysshe of Seint Sepulcre 
without Newgate of London glasyer, 
and James Nycholson of Seint Thomas 
Spyttell or Hospitalle in Suthwerke in 
the countie of Surrey glasyer on that 
other partie witnesseth, that it is cove- 
naunted condescended and aggreed be- 
tween the seid parties by this Indenture 
in manner and forme folowing, that is 
to wete, that the said Galyon Hoone, 
Richard Bownde, Thomas Reve and 
James Nicholson covenaunte gnmnte 
and them bynde by these presents that 
they shalle at their owne propre coetes 
and charges well, suerlyj clenely, work- 
manly, substantyally, curyously and suf- 
ficiently glase and sotte up, or cause to 
be glased and set up cigbtene wyndowes 
of the upper story of the great churche 
within the Kynge's college of Cam- 
bridge, whereof the wyndowe in the 
este ende of the seid churche to be 
oon, and the wyndowe in the weste 
ende of the same churche to be an- 
other ; and so seryatly the resydue with 
good, clene, sure and perfyte glasse and 

oryent colors and imagery of the story 
of the olde lawe and of the newe lawe 
after the forme, maner, goodeness, cary- 
onsytie, and clenelynes in every poynt 
of the glasse wyndowes of the Kynge's 
newe chapell at Westraynster ; and also 
accordyngly and after such maner as 
oon Bamiurd Pflower glasyer late de- 
ceased by Indenture stode bounde to 
doo, that is to sey, six of the seid wyn- 
dowes to be clearly sett up and fynyshed 
after the forme aforeseid within twelve 
moneths next ensnyng after the date 
of these presentes ; and the twelve wyn- 
dowes residue to be derely sett np 
and fully lynysshed within foure yerea 
next ensuyng after the date of these 
presentes; and that the seid Galyon, 
Richard, Thomas Reve and James Ny- 
choUon shalle snerly bynde all the seid 
wyndowes with double bands of leade 
for defence of great wyndes and out- 
rageous wetheringes; Furdermore the 
seid Galyon, Richard, Thomas Reve 
and James Nycholson covenaunte and 
grannte by these presents that they 
shall well and suffycyently sett up at 
their own propre costes and charges 
all the glasse that now is there redy 
wrought for the seid wyndowes at suche 
tyme and when as the seid Qalyon, 
Richard, Thomas Reve and John Ny- 
cholson shal be assigned and appoynted 
by the seid masters Robert Haoombleya 
William Holgylle and Thomas Larke or 
by any of them j and well and snfly- 
ciently shall bynde all the same with 
double bandee of lede for defence of 
wyndes and wetheringes, as is aforeseid 
after the rate of two-pence every fbote ; 
and the seid masters Robert Hacombleyn 
William Holgylle and Thomas Larke co- 
venaunte and graunte by these pre- 
sentes, that the fbrseid Galyon, Richard 
Bownde, Thomas Reve and James Ny- 
cholson shall have for the glasse work- 
matjship and setting up twenttf foot of 
the seid glasse by them to be provided. 



It would appear from these instances^ notwithstanding the 
high price of the Beauchamp windows, that the expense of 

wrought, and sett up after the forme 
ahoveseid eightene pence sterlinges; 
Also the seid Galyon Hoone, Richard 
Bownde, Thomafl Reve and James Ny- 
cholson, covenaunte and graante by 
these that they shalle deliver or cause 
to be delyvered to Ffraunces William- 
son of the parysshe of Seint Olyff in 
Snthwerk in the countie of Sarrey 
glasyer, and to Symond Symondes of 
the parysshe of Seinte Margarete of 
Westmynster in the countie of Middle- 
sex glasyer, or to either of them good 
and true patrons, otherwyse called a 
vidimus, for to fourme glasse and make 
by other four wyndowes of the seid 
cburche, that is to sey, two on the oon 
syde and two on the other syde, where- 
unto the seid Ffraunces and Symond be 
bounde, the seid Ffraunces and Symond 
paying to the seid Qalyon, Richard 
Bownde, Thomas Reve, and James Ny- 
cholson for the seid patrons otherwyse 
called a vidimus as mocbe redy money 
as shal be thought resonable by the 
foreseid masters William Holgylle and 
Thomas Larke ;" 

A clause follows for making void a 
bond of 500 marks entered into by the 
contractors, on due performance of their 

The next contract is dated the 8rd of 
Majf in the same year as the preceding ; 
it is made between the same persons of 
the one part and Ffraunces Wylliamson 
and Symond Symonds above-mentioned 
of the other part, and wituesseth " that 
the seid Ffraunces Wylliamson and Sy- 
mond Symondes covenaunte graunte 
and them bynde by these presentes that 
they shalle at their owne propre costes 
and charges well, suerly, clenely, work- 
manly substantyally curyously and suffi- 
ciently glase and sett up or cause to be 
glased and sett up foure wyndowes of 
the upper story of the great churche 

within the Eynge's college of Cam- 
bridge, that is to wete two wyndowes 
on the oon syde of the seid churche, 
and the other two wyndowes on the 
other syde of the seid churche with 
good dene perfyte glasse," &c. verbatim 
as in the preceding contract. "And 
also acoordyngly to suche patrons other- 
wyse called vidimus, as by the seid Ro- 
bert Hacombleyn, William Holgylle and 
Thomas Larke or by any of them to the 
seid Ffraunces Wylliamson and Symond 
Symonds or to either of them shal be 
delyvered, for to forme glasse and make 
by the foreseid four wyndowes of the 
seid churche; and the seid Ffraunces 
Wylliamson and Symond Symonds co- 
venaunte and gpraunte by these pre- 
sentes that two of the seid wyndowes 
shall be clerely sett up and fully fynyshed 
after the fourme aboveseid within two 
yeres next ensuyng after the date of 
these presentes, and that the two other 
wyndowes, residue of the seid foure wyn- 
dowes, shal be clerely sett up and fully 
fynyshed within three yeres next en- 
suyng after that . . . without any furder 
or longer delay; Furdermore the seid 
Fraunces Wylliamson and Symond Sy- 
monds covenaunte and graunte by these 
presentes that they shalle strongely and 
suerly bynde aU the seid four wyndowes 
with double bands of lende for defence 
of great wyndes and other outragious 
wethers; and the seid masters Robert 
Haccombleyn, William Holgylle and 
Thomas Larke covenaunte and graunte 
by these presentes that the seid Fraunces 
Wylliamson, and Symond Symonds shall 
have for the glasse workmanship and set- 
tyng up of every foot of the seid glasse 
by them to be provided, wrought, and 
6ett upp after the forme aboveseid six- 
tene pence sterlynges :" 

Proviso for making void a bond of 
£200.— Walpole's "Anecdotes of Punt- 



constructing painted windows gradually diminished from the 
time of Edward III., a result which might be expected, as 
the improvements that in the course of time would be intro- 
duced into the manufacture, would naturally have the effect 
of rendering the articles cheaper. 

ing in England," 2nd ed., vol. i. Ap- 

The east window of the chapel of 

Wadham College was contracted for by 
Bernard Van Linge for £100 in 1621. 
Ingram's " Memorials of Oxford," vol. ii. 



As there has been frequent occasion, in the course of the 
preceding work, to speak of the nature of the subjects which 
are usually met with in painted windows, it has appeared con- 
venient to bring together a few descriptions of some ancient 
ones, which are either still in existence, or of which accounts 
have come down to us. The first of the following descriptions 
is taken from Somner's "Antiquities of Canterbury," (2nd 
edition, by Nicholas Battely, M.A., London, 1703,) and con- 
tains an account of the subjects represented in the windows of 
the cathedral of that city. Portions of these windows still 
exist, though principally in a confused and fragmentary state, 
and they offer a very ancient specimen of painted glass in this 
country. The window described in Gostling's " Walk round 
Canterbury," as the windoto next the organ-lofty \& at present 
made up of portions of the second and third windows in Somner's 
description, two*thirds belonging to the former and one-third 
to the latter. The window next to this is made up from the 
third, fourth, and sixth windows in Somner's description. As 
might be expected from the age in which they were executed, 
the subjects will be found to represent chiefly such occurrences 
in the Old and New Testament as bear, or were supposed to 
bear to each other the relation of type and antitype. They 
were evidently a good deal dilapidated even in Somner's time, 
and4t is not always easy to discover, from his description, even 
as ^rrected by Battely, (who says he compared it with " a fair 
MS. roll in parchment,") in what order the medallions contain- 
ing the subjects were arranged. They most probably were 
placed three in a row ; this is the way in which those in the 
first of the existing windows above-mentioned are arranged, 
and it is accordant with the arrangement which prevails in the 
Biblia Pauperum. There, as here, two types from the Old 
Testament are joined to each antitype, the former being placed 
on each side of the latter. The subjects of the Biblia Pauperum 
frequently bear a considerable resemblance to those enumerated 



by Somner°^. Thus the first woodcut contains, Eve and the 
serpent, the Annunciation, and Gideon and the fleece. Moses 
with Ood in the bush^ is however associated with Christ lying 
in the manger. The verse relating to the flourishing of Aaron's 
(by Somner called Moses') rod is nearly the same as at Can- 
terbury, *' Hie contra morem produxit virgula florem." David's 
escape from Saul is associated with the flight into Egypt : and 
the ofiering of Samuel with the presentation of Christ in the 
Temple : but there is rarely an agreement between the Biblia 
Pauperum and the windows in both the types which are joined 
to an antit3rpe. As Somner is not a book of very common 
occurrence, I have inserted the whole of his description. The 
subject of the painting is first briefly mentioned, and then the 
verses written in the medallion are given. 

"■ Lening wrote an essay to shew that 
the woodcats of the Biblia Pauperum 
were taken from painted windows. His 
principal endeavour is to prove that the 
forty prints, which form the most an- 
cient series, were taken from the forty 
windows of the cloisters of the monastery 
of Hirschan on the borders of the Black 
Forest. The monastery was destroyed 
by the French in 1692, but a minute 
account of the windows, drawn up by 
Abbot Parsimonius, or Karg, in 1574, is 
still extant, with plans of their arrange- 
ment. Nothing according to Lessing 
can be more exact than the corre- 
spondence between the woodcuts of the 
Biblia Pauperum, and these windows; 
and the two specimens which he gives 
from the description by Parsimonins, 
confirm his statements. There are the 
same subjects, the same arrangement, 
the same texts from Scripture, and the 
same verses, with only one very trifling 
variation. Unfortunately an investiga- 
tion into the date of the windows shewed 
him that they were more recent than 
the woodcuts, as the cloisters or at least 
three sides of them were built about 
1491, and there arc two editions of the 
Biblia Pauperum, with a German text, 
bearing the respective dates 1470 and 

1475, while the oldest with a Latin text 
is supposed to be still more ancient: 
Mr. Young Ottley thinks it not later 
than 1420. Lessing, however, will not 
entirely give up his opinion, but his 
attempts to get over the difficulty are 
very unsatisfactory. He relies much on 
the resemblance which the woodcuts 
bear to Gothic windows, but this re- 
semblance will hardly strike others so 
forcibly as it did Lessing. On the whole 
it seems most probable, notwithstanding 
the reasons he urges to the contrary, 
that the window- paintings were taken 
from the woodcuts. It is evident that 
one of the works must have been taken 
from the other, or both iVom a common 
source. Subjects from the Biblia Pom- 
perum are of no unfrequent occurrence 
in glass-paintings. Some of them, for 
instance, are found in one of the windows 
of Munich Cathedral. (Gessert, (?e#- 
chichte der Glasmalerei, p. 118.) The 
title Biblia Pauperum is often sup- 
posed to mean '* The Poor Man*s Bible.** 
It seems rather to mean, " Bible of 
the Poor Clergy." See ** ArchsBological 
Journal," vol. xx. p. 409, and notice there 
of a MS. of the fourteenth century, con* 
tiining thirty-four of the representa- 

APPENDIX (C). 395 




1. Moses cum Bubo. In Medio. Angelas cum Maria. 

Kubus non consumitur, tua nee comburitur in came yirginitas. 

2. Gedeon cum vellere et conca. Tellus coelesd rore maduit, dum 

puellffi venter intumuit^ 

3. Misericordia et Veritas. In medio Maria et Elizabeth. 

Plaude puer puero, virgo vetube, quia vero 
Obviat hie pietas : veteri dat lex nova metas« 

4. Justitia et Pax. 

Applaudit Itegi previsor gratia legi. 
Oscula JustitisB dat pax ; cognata MarisB. 

5. Nabugodonosor et lapis cum statua. Puer in prsBsepio. 

lit Kegi visus lapis est de monte recisus 

Sic gravis absque viro virgo parit ordine miro, 

6. In medio Maria. 

7. Moses cum virga. In medio. Angelus et Pastores. 

lit contra morcm dedit arida virgula florem 
Sic virgo puerum, verso parit ordine rerum. 

8. David. Gaudebunt campi et omnia quae in eis sunt. 

9. Abacuc. Operuit c<b1os gloria ejus, &c. 


1. In medio tres Reges equitantes. Balaam. Orietur stella ex Jacob, 

et exui^t homo de Israel. Isaia et Jeremia. Ambulabunt gentes 
in lumine tuo, &c. 

2. In medio. Herodes et Magi. Christus et Gentes. 

Qui sequuntur me non ambulabunt in tenebris. 
Stella Magos duxit, et eos ab Herode reduxit 
Sic Sathanam gentes fugiunt, te Ghriste sequentes. 

396 APPENDIX (C). 

3. Pharaoh et Moses, cum popnlo exiens ab Egipto. 

Exit ab erumpna populus duccnte columpna. 
Stella Magos dnxit. Lux Christus utrisque reluxit. 

4. In medio. Maria cum puero. Magi ct Pastores. Joseph et fratres 

sui cum Egiptiis. 

Ad te longinquos Joseph trahis atque propinquos. 
Sic Deus in cunis Judeeos gentibus unis. 

5. Bex Solomon, ct Rcgina Saba. 

Hiis donis donat Bcgina domum Solomonis. 
Sic Beges Domino dant munera tres, tria, trino. 

6. Admoniti sunt Magi ne Herodem adeant : Propheta et Bex Jero- 

boam immolans. 

Ut via mutetur redeundo Propheta monetur, 
Sic tres egerunt qui Cbristo doDa tulerunt. 

7. Subversio Sodomo) et Loth fugiens. 

Ut Loth salvetur ne respiciat prohibetur, 
Sic vitant revehi per Heiodis regna Sabei. 

8. Oblatio pueri in templo, et Simeon. Melchisedech offerens panem 

et vinum pro Abraham. 

Sacrum quod cemis sacris fuit umbra modem is. 
Umbra fugit. Quare ? quia Christus sistitur ane. 

9. Oblatio Samuel. 

Natura geminum triplex oblatio trinum 
Significat Dominum Samuel pucr, amphora vinum. 

10. Fuga Domini in Egiptum. Fuga David et Doech. 

Hunc Saul infestat : Saul Herodis typus extat. 
Istc typus Christi, cujus ^ga consonat isti. 

11. Elias Jesabel et Achab. 

Ut trucis insidias Jesabel declinat Elias, 
Sic Deus Herodem, terrore remotus eodcm. 

12. Occisio Innoccntum. Occisio sacerdotum Domini sub Saul. 

Non cecidit David, pro quo Saul hos jugulavit 
Sic non est escsus cum cassis trans^ga Jesus. 

13. Occisio Tiibus Benjamin in Gabaon. 

Ecce Bachel nati fratrum gladiis jugulati, 
His sunt signati pueri sub Herode necati. 

APPENDIX (C). 397 


1. Jesus sedet in medio Doctorum. Moses et Jethro cum populo. 

Sic Moses audit Jethro yir sanctus obaudit 
Gentiles verbis humiles sunt forma superbis. 

2. Daniel in medio seniorum. 

Mirantur pucri seniores voce doceri 

Sic responsa Dei sensum stupent Pharisei. 

3. Baptizatur Dominus. Noah in archa. 

Fluxu cuncta vago submergens prima vorago 
Omnia purgavit : Baptisma significayit. 

4. Submersio Pharaonis et transitus populi. 

Unda maris rubri spatio divisa salubri 

Que mentem mundam facit a vitio notat undam. 

5. Temptatio gulee et yansB glorisB. Eva capiens fructum. 

Qui temptat Jesum movet Evam mortis ad esum, 
Eva gulee cedit, sed non ita Jesus obedit. 

6. Eva comddit. 

Victor es hie Sathana : movet. Evam gloria vana, 
Sed quo vicisti te vicit gratia Christi. 

7. Tenta^o cupiditatis. Adam et Eva comedunt. David et Goliah. 

Quo Sathan hos subicit Sathanam sapientia vicit, 
Ut Goliam David, Sathanam Christus superavit. 

1. Vocatio Nathanael •> 

jacentis sub ficu. 
Adam et Eva cum foliis. 
Populus sub lege. 

Yidit in hiis Christus sub ficu N'athanaelem. 
> Lex tegit hanc plebem, quasi ficus Natha- 

2. Christusmutavitaquam 
in vinum. Sex hydrise. 
Sex eetates mundi. 
Sex aetates hominum. 

Kydria metretas capiens est quselibet aetas, 
PrimumsignorumDeus hie prodendo suorum, 
Ljmpha dat historiam, vinum notat allego- 

In vinum morum convertit aquam vitiorum. 

398 APPENDIX (C). 

8. Fisoatores Apostolomm.' 
S. Petms cum ecdes. de 

Verbum rete, ratis Petri domushsec pietatis, 
Pisces Judaei, qui rete ferant Pbarisei. 
Jud. Villa secunda ratis, domus bffic est plena 

Paulus cum eoolesia de gen- 

Ketia scismaticuSyetquivisscinditiniquns. 

4. In medio Jesus legit in \ Quod promulgavit Moses, legem reparavit 
Synagoga. Esdras legit I Esdrasamissam; Ghristusrenoyayitomissam. 
legem populo. S*" Gre- i Quod Christus legit, quasi pro lectoribus ^t. 
gor. ordinans lectores. / Exemplooujussaoerestgradusordinisbujus. 

5. Bermo Domini in \ Hii montem scandunt Scripturse dum sacra pandont 
monte. Doctores I Gbristus sublimis docet bos sed vulgus in imis, 
Eoclesiae. Moses ( Ex bine inde datur in monte quod inde notatur, 
Buscepit legem. * Gbristum novisse debemus utramque dedisse. 

6. Gbristus descendensde 
monte mundat leprosum. 
Paulus baptizat popu-^ 
lum. Heliseus. Naaman 
et Jordanis. 

fCarne Deus tectus quasi vallis ad ima pro- 

Mundat leprosum genus bumanum Titiosum : 
Quem lavat ecce Deus, quem mundat et hie 


Est genus bumanumGbristibaptismate sanuxn. 


1 . JesusejioitDemonium. \ Imperat immundis Deus bic equis Airibundis 
AngeluB ligavit Demo-VHiis virtus Gbristi dominatur ut AngeluB 
nium. j isti. 

2. Maria unxit pedes *) Guram languenti, victum qui prsBbet egenti 
Ghr. Diusiana yes- I Scque reum plangit, Gbristi vestigia tangit. 
tit et pascit ege- fllla quod ungendo facit bsec sua distribuendo 
nos. J Dum quod de pleno superest largitur egeno. 

3. MartaetMariacumJesu.'j Equoris unda ferit bunc; ille silentia 
Petrus in navi. Jobannes > quserit ; 

legit. ) Sic requies orat dum mundi cura laborat. 

4. Leab et Bacbel ) Lyab gent curam camis ; Baobelque figuram 
cum Jacob. j Mentis, cura gravis est bffiC| est altera suavis. 



5. JesuB et Apostoli 
coUigantspicas. Mo- 
la fumus et Apostoli 
facientes panes. 

Quod terit altema Mola lex vetus atque modema 
Passio, crux Christe tua sermo tuus iste. 

Fetrus et Faulns cum ^ Argait iste reos, humiles alit hie Phariseos 
populis. j Sic apioe tritse panis sunt verbaque yitae. 

6. Jesus cum Samaritana 
Synagoga et Moses cum 
quinquelibris. Ecclesia 
de gentibuB ad Jesum. 

Potum queesisti fidei cum Christe sitisti 
^qua yiri oui sex Synagoga librique sui sex. 

delicta notat, hydria fonte relicta 
Ad te de gente Deus Ecclesia veniente. 

7. Samaritana adduxit^ 
populum ad Jesum. 
Bebecca dat potum 
servo Abraham. Ja- 
cob obviat Bachaeli. 

Pons servus minans pecus hydria yirgo propinans 
Lex Christo gentes mulierque fide redolentes 

Jacob lassatus Bachel obvia grex adaquatus 
Sunt Deus et turbse mulier quas duxit ab urbe. 

1. Jesus loquens cum 
Apostolis. Gentes 
audiunt. Phaxisei 

2. Seminator et yolu- 
cres. Pharisei rece- 
dentesaJesu. Phari- 
sei tentantes Jesum. 


SoUicitse gentes stant verba Dei sitientes, 
Haec simt verba Dei qu89 contemnant Pharisei. 

Semen rore carens expers rationis et arens 
fiii sunt qui credunt, temptantes sicque rccedunt. 
Semen sermo Dei, via lex, secus banc Pharisei, 
Et tu Christi sator, verbum Patris insidiator. 

3. Semen cecidit inter \ Isti spinosi locupletes deliciosi 

spinas. Divites hujus > Nil fructus referunt quoniam terrestria que- 
mundi cum pecunia. J runt. 

4. Semen cecidit in terram \ Yerba Patris seruit Deus his fiructus sibi 
bonam. Job. Daniel. > crevit 

Noah. / In tellure bona, triplex sua cuique corona. 

5. Jesus et mulier commis- 
censsatatria. TresfiliiNosB 
cum Ecclesia. Yirgines 
Continentes. Conjugati. 

Parte,No8e nati,mihi quisque sua dominati. 
Una fides natis ex his tribus est Deitatis. 
FersonsB trinsB tria sunt sata mista farinse 
Fermentata sata tria tres fructus operata. 

400 APPENDIX (C). 

6. Piscatores. Hinc \ Hii qui jactantur in levam qui reprobantur 
Pisces boni, inde I Pars est a Domino maledicta oremanda camino, 
mali. Isti in vitam i Yase reservantur pisces qnibus assimulantur 
cctemam. / Hii quos addixit vitse Deus et benedixLt. 

7. Messores. Seges reponi- \ Cum sudore sata messoris in horrca lata 
tur in horreum. Zizania in f Sunt hie vexati sed Christo glorificati. 
ignem. Justiinyitam eeter- k Hie crem at exmcsse quod inutile judical esse 
nam. Keprobi in ignem edtcr. J Sic pravos digne punit judex Deus igne. 

8. De quinque panibus et \ 

duob. piscibus satiavit I Hii panes legem, pisces dantem sacra Kegem 
multa millia hominum. ( Signant quassatos a plebe nee adnibilatos. 
D^ Sacerdos, et Rex, / 

Synagoga cum Mose et -v Quae populos saturant panes piscesque figu- 
libris. Ecolesia cum > rant 
Johanne. } Quod Testamenta duo nobis dant alimenta. 

Bex fecit nuptias filio \ Bex Pater ad natum regem sponsse sociatum : 
et misit servos. ) Prsecipit adciri populum renuuntque venire. 

Excusant se qui- "i Quos vexat cura caro. Quinque boum juga tuta, 
dem per villam. ) Nuncius excusans : hie ortans, ille recusans. 

Petrus docens sed se- \ Sunt ascire volens Deus hunc, hie credere 
quuntur Moyen et > nolens 
Synagogam. J Petrus docens istumque studens Judaea fuisti. 

Johannes predicat ^ Vox invitantis causa tres dissimulantis. 
intenteaudientibus. j SponsamSponsusamat: vox horum previa clamat. 

Ysaias praedicat audi- | Ecclesiam Christi junotam tibi praedicat iste 
entibus tribus. ) His invitata gens est ad edenda parata. 

Quidam sequuntur Be- ^ Hie Begis factum confirmat apostolus actum, 
gem quidam fugiunt. ) Credit et accedit, cito Gens Judaea recedit. 

Contemplatur Bex come- \ Ad mensam tandem cito plebs sedet omnia 
denies. Besurgant mor- > eandem. 
tui. ) Sic omnis eadem vox bora cogit eadenu 

Dominus dicit electis \ Bex plebem pavit spretis quos ante Tocavit. 
Tenite Benedicti. ) Christus se dignos reficit, rejicitque malignos. 

Invenitur et ejicitur non ) Dives etextrususservustenebrisquerecluBoa, 
vestitus vesto nuptiali. ) Quern condemnavit rex ejecit cruciavit. 

Ananias et Saphiras moriuntur a Petro. Dominus ejecit vendentes 

a templo. 




1. Curavit Jesus filiam^ Natam cum curat matrisprece; matre figurat 
yiduae. Ecclesia de Christo credentes primos, nataque scqucntes. 
gentibus cum Jesu. Fe- > 

trus orat et animalia 
dimittuntur in linthea. -^ 

2. Curavit Jesus hominem' 
adpiscinam. Moses cum 
quinque libris. Baptizat 

3. Transfiguratio Domini.' 
Angeli vestiunt mortuos 
resurgentes. Angeli ad- 
ducunt justos ad Deum.. 

Fide viventes signant animalia gentes ; 
Quos mundat sacri submersio trina lavacri. 

Lex tibi piscina concordat sunt quia quina 
Ostia piscinsB, seu partes lex tibi quince. 
Sanat ut eegrotum piscinae motio lotum 
Sic cruce signatos mundat baptisma renatos. 

Spes transformati capitis, spes vivificati 
Claret in indutis membris a morte solutis. 
Cum transformares te Christe, quid insinuares 
Veste decorati declarant clarificati. 

4. Fetrus piscatur et in-^ Hunc ascendentem mox mortis adesse yi- 
yenit staterem. Domi. I dentem 

nus ascendit in Hier. Tempora; te Christe piscis prsenunciat iste. 
Dominus onicifigitur. J Ludibrium turbae Deus est ejectus ab urbe. 

5. Statuit Jesus paryulumin' 
medio Discipulomm. Mo- 
nacbi layant pedes paupe- 
rum. Beges inclinantur 
doctrinae Fetri et Pauli. 

Hoc informantur exemplo qui monachantur 
Ne dedignentur peregrinis si famulentur. 

Sic incurvati pueris sunt assimulati 
Beges cum gente Faulo Fetroque docente. 

6. Pastor reportat oyem."^ 
Cbristus pendet in cruce. > sine versu. 
Cbristus spoliat infemum. J 


!• DominuB remittit de- ) Tit prece submissa sunt huic commissa remissa 
bita seryo poscenti. j Farcet poscenti seu parcit Deus egenti. 




Petrus et Fanlus absol-^ 
Yunt poenitentem, et 
Dominus sibicredentes. 
Servus percntit conser- 
yam. Pauluslapidatur. 
StephanuB lapidatur. 


Cur plus ignoscit Dominus xninus ille poposcit 
Conservum seryus populus te Paule protervus 
Begi conserve repeteati debita servo 
jssimulare Deus Martyr nequam Pharisseus. 

Tradidit eum tortoribus. ^ 
Mittuntur impii in ig- 
nem. Judaei penmun- 

Cseditur affiigens, captivatur crucifigens 
' Hunc punit Dominus flagris, hos igne caminus. 


Homo quidam descende-"^ 
bat de Hier. in Jerico et I Perforat hasta latus, occidit ad mala natus. 
incidit in latrones. J 

Creatur Adam. For- 
matur Eva, comedunt 
fructum, ejiciuntur^ 
de Paradiso. 

nSx Adse costa prodiit formata virago. 
Ex Ckristi latere processit sancta propago. 
Fruetum decerpens mulier suadens mala serpens 
Immemor authoris vir perdit culmen honoris 
Virgultum. fructus. mulier. vir. vipera. luctus 
Plantatur. rapitur. dat. gustat. fallit. initur. 
Poena reos tangit, vir sudat, foemina plangit. 

LPectore portatur serpens, tellure cibatur. 

SacerdoB et Levita*^ 
vident vulneratum 
et peitranseunt. 

If OSes et Aaron cum 
Pharaone. Scribitur 
tau. Educiturpopu- 
lus. Adoratvitulum. 
Daturlez. Elevatur 

YulneribuB plenum neuter miseratus egenum. 

Tro populo Moyses coram Pharaone laborat : 
Exaugetque preces, signorum luce coronat. 
Gui color est rubeus siccum mare transit fiebreeus 
Angelico ductu patet in medio via fluctu. 
In ligno serpens positum notat in cruoe Christoxa 
Qui videt hunc vivit, vivet qui credit in istum. 
Cemens quod speciem DeitatLs dum teret auram 

^Frangit scripta tenens Moyses in pulvere taunun. 



Samaritanus ducit vul-' 
neratum in stabulum 
cumjumento. Ancilla 
accusat Petrum. Do- 
minus crucifigitur. 
Sepelitur. Resurgit. 
Loquitur Angelus ad 

Qui caput est nostrum capitur: qui rcgibus ostrum 
Prebet, nudatur : qui solvit vine! a ligatur. 
In signo pendens. In ligno brachia tendens. 
In signo lignum superasti Christe malignum, 
Christum lege rei livor condemnat Hebraei 
Came flagellatum, rapit, attrahit ante Pilatum. 
Solem justitisB tres, orto sole, Marise 
Quaerunt lugentes, ez ejus morte trementes. 

Suscitat Jesus puel- 
1am in Domo. Abi- 
gaeloccunit Dayid 
et mutat proposi- 
tum. Constantinus 
jacens et matres 
cum pueris. 



Qu£B jacet in cella surgens de morte puella 
Signat peccatum meditantis corde creatum, 
Rex David arma gerit, dum Nabal perdere quserit 
Obviat Abigael mulier David, arma refrenat, 
Et nebulam vultus hilori sermone serenat. 
Rex soboles Helens, Romanse rector habense 
Yult mundare cutem quserendo cruce salutem. 
^Nec sceluB exercet, flet, humet, dictata coercet. 

Dominus suscitat pue- 
rum extra portam. 
Rex Solomon adorat 
Idola et deflet pec-' 
catum. Pcenitentia 

Qui jacet in morte puer extra limina portae 
De foris abstractum peccati denotat actum. 
Errat foemineo Solomon deceptus amore : 
Errorum redimit mens sancto tacta dolore. 
Dum lacrimando gemit Theophilus acta redemit, 
Llnvenies veniam dulcem rogando Mariam. 

Dominus suscitat Laza-^ 
rum. Angelus alloqui- 
tur Jonam sub hedera 
anteNinevem. Pceni- 
tentia Marise Egip- 

Mens mala mors intus ; mains actus mors foris : 

>Tumba, puella, puer, Lazarus ista notant. 
Pingitur hie Nimve jam pene peracta perire 
Yeste fidus Zosimas nudam tegit Mariam. 

" Tbeophilos, in order to obtain hk 
restoration to an office from which he 
had been removed, entered into a com- 
pact with the devil on the nsoal terms, 
giving a bond signed with his blood. In 
consequence of his snhseqnent bitter re- 
pentance the Virgin compelled the bond 
to be delivered op and cancelled. The 


legend seems to have been a favonrite 
one. It is said to be twice represented 
in the sculptures of Notre Dame, Paris, 
and in glass-puntings of the Cathedral 
of Laon, St. Rerre at Troyes, and else- 
where. There are several French ver- 
sions of it, and Mr. Dasent in 1846 pub- 
lished some in old German and Icelandic 




Imperat adduci puUum cum matro Magister 
Faruit huic operas euccinctus uterque minis- 

Mittit Dominus duos Dis-^ 
cipul. propter asinam et 
Pullum. Sp. sanctus in 
specie columbad inter 
Deum et hominum. 


Signacius simplex quod sit dilectio duplex 
Ala Deum doxtra ^trem docet ala siniatra. 

Jesus stans inter Petrum \ Genti quae servit petris Petrum, petra mittit. 
et Paulum. ) Escas divinas Judeis Paule propinas. 

Adducunt discipuli 
Asinum et Pullum. 
Petrus adducit eccle- 
siam de Judeis. Pau- 
lus adducit ecclesiam 
dc gentib. 


^Qu8B duo solvuntur duo sunt animalia bnita, 
Ducitur ad Christum puUus materque soluta. 
De populo fusco Petri scrmone corusco 
Extrahit ecclesiam yeram reserando Sopbiam^ 
Sic radio fidei cseci radiantur Hebraei 
Per Pauli verba fructum sterilis dedit herba, 
Dum plebs gentilis per eum fit mente fidelis 

^Gentilis populus venit ad Christum quasi puUus. 

Occurrunt pueri Do-"^ Vestibus omari patitur Salvator asellam 
mine sedenti super |- Qui super astra sedet, nee habet frenum neque 



Isaiaa dicit. Ecce Rex tuus | q^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 
sedens super asinam ; 

David ex ore infantum, &c. Sancti sanctorum laus ore sonat pucrorum. 


In medio ccena Domini' 
David gestans se in 
manibus suis. Manna 
fluit populo de cqbIo. . 

Lavat Jesus pedes Apo- 

Abraham Angelorum. 
Laban camelorum. 

Quid manibus David se gestans significavit 
Te manibus gestans das Christetuis manifestona, 
" Manna fluit saturans populum de plebe figurans 
De mensa Jesu dare se coenantibus esum. 

Obsequio lavacri notat liospes in hospite sacri 
Quos mundas sacro mundasti Christe lavacro. 
Cum Laban hos curat, typice te Christe figurat^ 
Cura camelorum mandatum Discipulorum. 

Proditio Jesu. 
Yenditio Joseph. 
Joab oBculatur. 

Eraus Judse Christum, fraus fratrum vendidit istum, 
Hii Judsc, Christi Joseph tu forma fiiisti. 
Foedera dum fingit Joab in funera stringit 
Ferrum, Judaicum prsssignans foedus iniquum. 




Vapulatio Jesu. Job per- 
CUSSU8 ulcere. Heli- I Christi testatur plagas Job dam cruciatur 
zeus et pueri irriden- | Ut sum Judese, jocus pueris Helisee. 


Christus portat cnicem.^ Ligna puer gestat, crucis typum manifestat. 
Isaac ligna. Mulier }• Fert crucis in signum duplex muliercula lig- 
colligit duo ligna. J num. 

Christus suspenditur' 
de ligno. Serpens 
BBueus elevatur in co- 
lumna : Vacca rufa 

Mors est exanguis dum cemitur aureus anguis, 
Sic DeuB in ligno nos salvat ab hoste maligno. 
Ut Moyscs jussit vitulam rufam rogus ussit, 
Sic tua Christc caro crucis igne crematur amaro. 

Dominusdeponiturde ligno. ^ Nos a morte Deus revocavit et hunc 
Abel occiditur. Heliseus ex- ^ Heliseus. 
pandit se super puerum. J Signa Abel Christi pia funera ftinere tristi. 

Frontibus infixum Thau praBcinuit cruci- 

Ut Samson tjpice causa dormiyit amicsB, 
Ecclesise causa Christi caro marmore clausa. 
Dum jacet absorptus Jonas Sol triplicat ortus 
Sic Deus arctatur tumulo triduoque moratur. 

Salvat ovem David; sic Christum significavit. 

Est Samson fortis qui rupit vincula mortis. 

vid eripuit Oves, et Sam- ] ^"^^ Samsonis, frangit Deus ossa Leonis. 

Moses scribitThau in fron-" 
tibus in porta de sanguine 
agni®. Dominusinsepul- 
cro. Samson dormit cum 
amicasua. Jonas in ventre 

Dominus ligansDiabolum. 
Spoliavit infernum. Da- 

son tulit portas. 

pulcro. Jonas ejicitur 
de pisce. David omis- 
sus per fenestram. 

Dum Sathanam stravit, Chr*" Regulum 

Surgit Dominus de se-*^ Rcdditur ut salvus, quem ceti clauserat alvus: 

Sic redit illesus, a mortis carcere Jesus. 
Hinc abit illesus David : sic invida Jesus 
Agmina conturbat, ut victa morte resuigat. 

•» This subject, as well as that of the 
lion vivificating its cub, and the woman 
(of Zarephath) gathering two sticks, are 
explained in the Monographie de la Ca- 

thedrals de Bourses. See the review of 
this work in vol. i. of the "ArcbsBolog^cal 
Journal," p. 169 et seq. 



Angelus al loquitur Mariam 
ad Scpulcram. Joseph ex- 
trahitur e carcere. Et Leo 
suscitat filium. 


Ad vitam Christum Deus ut leo suscitat 

Te signat Christe Joseph ; tc, mors, locus 

Sanctus Gregorius dat^ 
aquam manibus pau- 
penim, et apparuit 
ei DominuB. 

Hospes abest : ubi sit stupet hie, cur, quove 

Membra prius quasi me suscepisti sed heri 

Gregorius dictat. Pe- \ _ _ ... 
trus scribitP Soli- J catum, quam Presul Pontificatum. 

tarius cum cato % ) ^^® ^'^"^ '^''^''^'^ ""'^^^ ^^^'^^^^^ ^^^^*- 

Hostia mutatur in ^ Id panis velat, digiti quod forma revelat. 
formam digiti '. ) Velans forma redit, cum plebs absoondita credit. 

Gregorius trahitur \ Quem nomen, vultus, lux, vita, scientia, cultus 
et papa efficitur. ) Approbat extractus latebris fit papa coactus. 

The windows of King;'8 College Chapel^ Cambridge^ exhibit for 
the most part the same principle of parallelism as the Canter- 
bury windows, but instead of two types, one only is joined to an 
antitype. As descriptions, of these windows are very common, 
a few instances will here be sufficient. 1. Joseph cast into the 
pit : Christ laid in the tomb. 2. Joseph meeting his father and 
brethren in Egypt : Christ appearing to the eleven. 3, Elijah 
ascending to heaven: the ascension of Christ. 4. The delivery 
of the law to Moses : the descent of the Holy Ohost on the' 
Apostles. 5. Jacob flying from the wrath of Esau : the flight 
into Egypt. 6. Esau tempted to sell his birthright: Christ 
tempted in the wilderness. 

9 Peter, a deacon, and disciple of St. 
Qregory, saw, as it is said, on one occa- 
sion when the saint was dictating to him, 
the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove 
seated on his head, and conveying words 
into his ears. 

4 This alludes to the following legend. 
A hermit who had no possessions except 
one cat, — unam cattam quam blandiens 
crebro quasi cohabitatricem in suis gre- 
miis fovebat, — having, in thought, com- 
pared his poverty with the riches of the 
saint, was admonished in a vision, and 

instructed that the pope who gave away 
all his wealth to others was poorer than 
the hermit who retained to himself ex- 
clusive enjoyment of his cat. 

' This was a miracle wrought by St. 
Qregory. A woman having, during the 
Holy Communion, smiled firom incre- 
dulity on hearing the bread which ihe 
herself had made termed the body of our 
Lord, St. Qregory put aside the morsel 
he had offered her, and afterwards shewed 
it to her changed into part of a little 
finger covered with blood. 



All these parallelisms occur in the Biblia Pauperum; they 
are examples (among many others) of how much the Middle Age 
artists con&ied themselves to a certain established set of sub- 
jects^ a practice however which is not peculiar to them, but is 
observable in the works of the great masters. The types and 
antitypes represented in the Sistine Chapel are described in 
Kugler's *' Handbook of Painting/' vol. i. Many valuable and 
instructive remarks on the typical treatment of Scriptural sub- 
jects by artists, will be found in the first book, and in the pre- 
face and notes of the English editor : see preface, p. 19, and 
notes, pp. 14, 53, 127, 216 », 

■ The following notice of the painted 
gbi88 formerly in the windows of the 
chapel of Lamheth Palace, is taken from 
" The History of the Troubles and Tryal 
of W. Laud, Abp. of Canterbury, by him- 
self." London, 1695, p. 311. It should 
be stiErted that the chapel is lighted by 
triplets of lancets on each side, and by 
an east window consisting of five lancets. 

** The windows contain the whole story 
from the Creation to the Day of Judg- 
ment : three lights in a window ; the two 
side lights contain the types in the Old 

Testament, andthe middle light the anti* 
type, and Verity of Christ in the New." 

In a subsequent page he says, " Abp. 
Morton did that work, as appears by his 
device in the windows," p. 317. Cardinal 
Morton, who held the see of Canterbury 
&om 1487 to 1500; may however have 
only repaired the windows, as Laud him- 
self did. 

These painted windows were destroyed 
during the Rebellion. See State Trials, 
voL i. p. 886, (note,) foL ed. 


Ix this Appendix are inserted two extracts, one from what is 
commonly called the " Vision of Piers Plowman :" the other 
from " Piers Plowman's Creed/' which may serve to illustrate 
the history of glass-painting. The satirical picture they pre- 
sent furnishes an amusing specimen of the dexterity with which 
the ecclesiastics rendered the weaknesses of the faithful sub- 
servient to the decoration of their buildings, and shews that^ 
notwithstanding the romantic view which is sometimes taken 
of the virtues of the Middle Ages, the simple piety of our an- 
cestors was not unalloyed by vanity and ostentation, not to 
speak of grosser admixtures. The principal use of the extracts, 
however, is to illustrate the practice of introducing armorial 
bearings, and to shew how generally the figures in ancient 
glass-paintings may be looked upon as portraits. Portraits 
were certainly introduced at a very early period ; there is one, 
for instance, of Suger in the glass at St. Denis, a representation 
of which is given in M. Lasteyrie's work. In monumental 
windows they were very common, and it is probably by means 
of such a portrait that the likeness of Littleton has been 
preserved \ 

The censure of inscriptions recording the donor's name, which, 
occurs in the first extract, may call to mind Pope's lines, 

'* Who builds a church to God, and not to Fame, 
Will never mark the marble with his name,*' 

and shews the antiquity of the scruples which are enter- 
tained on this head, and which are noticed in a former part 
of this work. 

* "It appears from county records tbat 
in the east window of the chancel in the 
chapel of St. Leonard at Frank ley, there 
was a figure of a man in scarlet with a 
coif on his head, in the position of prayer, 
probably the original of the print pre- 

fixed to the old editions of Lord Coke's 
commentaries. Cornelias Jansen painted 
from this likeness a full-length pictore of 
the judge (Littleton), which is now in 
the Inner Temple hall." — Phillimore's 
"Memoirs of Lord Lyttleton/' vol. i.p. 4. 

APPENDIX (D). 409 



'* Thanue cam ther a confessour, 
Coped as a frere ; 
To Mede ** the mayde 
He meved ^ thise wordes, 
And seide ful softely. 
In shrift as it were, 
* Tbeigh lewed men and lered men 
Hadde leyen by thee bothe 
And Falsnesse hadde y>folvired thee 
Alle thise fifty wynter, 
I shal assoille thee myself 
For a seem * of whete, 
And also be thi bedeman, 
And here well thi message 
Amonges knyghtes and clerkes, 
Conscience to torne^.' 
• Thanne Mede for hire mysdedes 
To that man kneled, 
And shrof her of her sherewednesse 
Shamlees I trowe ; 
Told hym a tale 
And took ' him a noble 
For to ben hire bedeman 
And hire brocur als ''. 

Thanne he assoiled hire soone, 
And sithen he seide, 
' "We have a wyndow in werchynge 

" Mede, Reward. Dr. Whittaker calla ' sought by all those who set their hopes 
her Bribery, but Mr. Wright in his in- | on the present." — " The Vision and the 

Creed of Piers Ploughman, with Notes, 
and a Glossary, by Thomas Wright, M. A., 
F.S.A." &c London, 1842. 
' moved. 

troduction to the edition firom which the 

present extracts are taken, says, Mede 

" is the personification of that mistaken 

object at which so large a portion of 

mankind direct their aim — the origin of 1 *■ seam, the measure so called. 

most of the corruption and evil deeds in ' t turn. 

this world ; not the just remuneration of ' gave. 

our actions which we look forward to in J * also. 

a future life, but the reward which is 

410 APPENDIX (d). 

Wole Bitten us ful bye, 
Woldestow ^ glaze that gable 
And grave tberinue thj name 
Sjker^ sholde tbi soule be 
Hevene to bave.' 

' Wiste I that' quod that woman 
' I wolde nogbt spare 
For to be your frend, frere, 
And faile you nevere. 
While ye love lordes 
That lecberie baunten, 
And lakketb nogbt ladies 
That loven wel the same. 
It is freletee of flessbe, 
Ye fiuden it in bokes. 
And a cours of kynde *^ 
Wberof we comen alle. 
Who may scape sclaundre, 
The scathe is soone amended ; 
It is the synne of the sevene 
Sonnest relessed.' 

* Have mercy' quod Mede 
' Of men that it baunteth, 
And I shal covre your kirke, 
Youre cloistre do makeu ', 
Wowes ' do whiten 
And wyndowes glazen, 
Do peynten and portray e 
And paie for the makynge. 
That every segge ' shal seye 
I am suster of youre bouse.' 

Ac God to alle good folk 
Swich gravynge defendeth, 
To writen in wyndowes 
Of bir wel dedes, 

An aventure ^ pride be peynted there, 
And pomp of the world ; 
Eor Crist kuowetb tbi conscience, 

^ woaldest thou. 

* certain. 

* nature. 

* do maken, do wbiten, &c., cause 

to be made, &c. 
' walls. 
' man. 
'' by adventure, by chancfi* 




And thi kyude wille. 

And thi cost and thi coveteise 

And who the catel' oughte^. 

For thi* I lere™ you, lordes, 
Leveth swiche werkes ; 
To writen in wyndowes 
Of youre wel dedes. 
Or to-greden*^ after G-oddes men 
Whan ye dele doles, 
On aventure ye have youre hire here. 
And youre hevene also. 
Nesciat sinistra quod faciat dextra. 
Latnoght thi left half ^ 
Late ne rathe p 
"Wite what thow werchest 
With thi right syde ; 
Tor thus hy the gospel 
Goode men doon hir almesse." 

In the ** Creed/' from which the next extracts are taken, 
*' the author,, in the character of a plain uninformed person^ 
pretends to be ignorant of his creed; to be instructed in the 
articles of which, he applies by turns to the four orders of 
mendicant friars. This circumstance affords an obvious occa- 
sion of exposing in lively colours the tricks of these societies^/' 

The first of the following passages contains part of the answer 
of the Minorite, or Franciscan friar. 

" Certeyn, felawe' quath the frere 

* Withouten any fayle 

Of al men upon mold ', 

We Minorites most sheweth 

The pure aposteles liif, 

With peuance on erthe, 

And suen him in sanctity, 

* goods, property. 

^ owned. 

\ therefore. 

" teach. 

■ cry out. 

<> ride. 

' h&te nor soon. 

4 Warton's "Hist, of English Poetry, 


section ix. The "Creed" was written 
subsequently to the "Vision," and by 
a different author. The " Vision," Mr. 
Wright thinks, was written in the latter 
part of 1362. The "Creed" was written 
after the death of Widif, who died in 
' earth. 

412 APPENDIX (D). 

And sufferen wel harde. 

We haunten no tavernes, 

Ne hobelen abouten ; 

At marketes and miracles 

We medeleth us never ; 

We hondelen no moneye 

But monelich* faren, 

And hayen hunger at the mete, 

At ich a mel ones. 

We haven forsaken the worlds 

And in wo libbeth, 

In penaunce and poverte, 

And prechethe the puple 

By ensample of our liif 

Soules to helpen ; 

And in poverte preien 

For al our parteneres, 

That gyveth us any good 

God to honouren, 

Other* bel other book, 

Or bred to our food, 

Other catel, other cloth 

To coveren with our bones. 

For we buldeth a burwgh", 

A brod and a large, 

A chirch and a chapitle*, 

With chaumbers alofte ; 

With wide wyndowes y-wrought. 

And walles wel heve. 

That mote ben portreid and paint, 

And pulched ' ful dene, 

With gay glitering glas 

Glowyng as the sunne. 

And mightestou* amen den us 

With moneye of thyn owen, 

Thou shouldest knely bifore Christ 

In compas of gold. 

In the wide window west- ward 

' meanly. , « a chapter-honse. 

* either. y polished. 

■ a caatle, or large edifice. ' mightest thou. 

APPENDIX (D). 413 

"Wei neigh in the myddel 

And Saint Fraunceis himselfe 

Shal folden the in his cope, 

And present the to the Trinity 

And praye for thy synnes. 

Thy name shal noblich ben wryten 

And wrought for the nones, 

And in remembraunce of the 

Y-rad there for evere. 

And, brother, be thou nought a-ferd ; 

Bythink in thyne herte, 

Though thou conne noughte thy crede, 

Care thou no more ; 

I shal asoilen the, Syr, 

And setten it on my soule ; 

And thou maken this good 

Think thou non other." 

He afterwards goes on to make enquiry of the Dominicans, 
or Friars-preachers. 

"Than thought I to frayne' the first 

Of this foure ordres ; 

And presed to the Prechours 

To proven her wille. 

Ich highed to her house, 

To herken of more ; 

I gaped aboute, 

Swich a bild^ bold 

T-buld upon erthe heighte 

Say I nought in certeyn 

Siththe a long tyme. 

I seemed' open that hous, 

And yeme* thereon loked, 

Whou the pileres were y-paint. 

And pulched ful clene 

And queyntly y-corven 

With curious knottes; 

"With wyndowes wel-wrought 

Wyde up a-lofte. 

And thenne I entred in, 

■ inquire of. »» bmlding. * looked. ** eagerly. 

414 APPENDIX (D). 

And even forth wente ; 
And al was walled that woae*, 
Through it wiid were, 
With pestemes in privity 
To pa sen when hem liste ; 
Orchejardes and erberes' 
EvesedK wel clene, 
And a curious cros 
Craftly entajled, 
With tabernacles y-tight 
To loken*" al abouten, 
The pris of a plough-land 
Of penies so rounde 
To aparaile that pjler 
Were pure litel. 
Than I munte me forth 
The mjnstre to knowen, 
And awaited^ a woon^ 
Wonderly wei y-bild, 
With arches on everich half, 
And bellyche y-corven, 
With crochetes on corneres. 
With knottes of gold, 
Wyde wyndowes y-wrought, 
Y-wryten ful thikke, 
Bhynen with shapen sheldes, 
To shewen aboute, 
With merkes of merchauntea 
Y-medeled betwene 
Mo than twentie and two 
Twyse ynoumbbred." 

* dwelling. 

' arbours. 

f Aimished with eavm. 

^ look. 

' saw — awayte^ to see or 
by watching. 
I* dwelling. 




In a window of St. Michael's Bashishaw^ under the portraits 
of a man and his wife kneeling, (an engraving of them is 
given,) is the following inscription : — 

Adrianus D'Ewes ex illustri .familiU des Ewes olim dynasta- 
rum ditionis de Kessel in Ducatu Oelriae prognatus, intesti- 
narum patrise su» discordiarum pe.rtcesus in Angliam aliege- 
narum asylum sceptrum tenente rege Hen. YIII. recessit: 
foDminamque Anglicam nomine Aliciam ex perantiquft Ravens- 
croftorum famili& oriundam in uxorem duxit, et quatuor de 
e& genuit filios Geerardt, Jacobum, Petrum et Andream. Obiit 
iste Adrianus de sudore Anglico mense Julii ann. 5 Edward YI. 
ann. dom. 1551, et infra limites sacratsB terrse hujus ecclesiss 
inhumatur. Dicta autem Alicia maritum supervixit annis 
XXVIII. et ultimum naturae debitum persolvit mense Julii 
ann. dom. GIqDLXXIX. et tumulatur in h&c ecclesi& non 
procul ab ietd fenestr&^ postquam viderat quatuor reges Anglise 
viz., Hen. VII. Hen. VIII. Edw. VI. et Philippum, et ix. 
reginas regni ejusdem, viz., matrem vi. uxores et duas filias 
regis Hen. VIII.i— Weever, p, 698. 


In the south window of this church is to be a seen a Bama- 
diston^ kneeling, in his compleat armor, his coat armor on his 
breast, and behind him his seven sons. In the next pane of the 
glass is Elizabeth the daughter of Newport, kneeling, with her 
coat armor likewise on her breast, and seven daughters behind 
her : and under it is thus written, now much defaced : — 

Orate pro animabus Thomse Bamadiston, militis, et Eliza- 

^ This window with its "large iiiBcrip- 
lion" was set up by Sir Simon IVEwes 
the antiquary, great-grandson of Adrian, 

as he himself records. ( Life of D'Ewes, 
▼ol. i. p. 10.) 


4l6 APPENDIX (E). 

beth« uxoris ejus, qui istam fenestram fieri fecenmt, anno 
domini MOCCC anima Deus amen.— Ibid., p. 471. 


In the east window is thus to be read in glass: — 

Memoriali reuerendi patris domini Jacobi Goldwell epiflcopi 


In the midst of the east window in the south chapel of this 
church, is the picture of the aforesaid Bishop Goldwell, kneel- 
ing, and in every quarry a golden well or fountain, (his rebus 
or name-device,) and across the window inscribed, 

.... Jacobo Goldwelle, episcopo Norwicien, qui ... . opus 
fundavit ann. Christi MCCCCLXXVII.— Ibid., p. 92. 


In the east window of the south ile of this church you may 
find by an inscription that one Thomas Elys Esquire and 
Thomazin his wife were here buried. — ^Ibid., p. 87. 


In the north window are depicted the portraitures of the 
Lord Hugh Stafford kneeling in his coat armor and his bow 
bearer Thomas Bradlaine by him, with this inscription : — 

Orate pro animabus domini Hugonis Stafford et Thomse 
Bradlaine arcuar Ibid., p. 126. 


In most of the glass windows these two verses following (not 
long since to be read) were curiously painted, 

** Al the nunnes in Holy wel. 
Pray for the soul of Sir Thomas Lovel." 

He died 25 May, ann. 1524. — Ibid., p. 211. 


In the glass of the east window, 

Tyrrell knyth and dame and for all the BOtiles 

Bchuld be preyd for. — Ibid., p. 410. 




The following inscription is carved on the architrave of one 

of the chancel windows. 

Me fecit fieri Wyat noie (nomine) Johns. 


Orate pro animabj Johannis Asshefeld armiger et Elionore 
uxori {sic) eius^ qui istam fenestram fieri fecerunt anno doraini 
MCCCCCXXII, de quibus animabu^ propriciet deus, amen. 


Orate pro salubri statu™ domini Willelmi Warhara, legum 
doctoris, et Pauli London, canonici, magistri rotulorum, can- 
cellarii regis, ac rectoris de Barley. 

Thifi Warham (remembered here in the glass window) was 
sometime archbishop of Canterbury. — Weaver's " Funeral 
Monuments/' p. 314. 


There were here many inscriptions in the windows. Under 
two figures — 

Yos qui inspicitis animabus rememoretis P. Dene nee non 
fratris masculini. 

** There i8 reason for believing that in 
general, anch an expression as "orate 
pro salubri statu/' or " pro bono statu," 
indicated thnt the person mentioned was 
living at the time. Thus in the instance 
given in the text, it may be inferred 
from the absence of any allusion to the 
title, that the glass was executed before 
Warham became Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. So the inscription, "Orate pro 
bono statu religiosi viri Johannifi, Spis' 
copi Wi/ffom" now lost, but preserved 
by Habringdon, shews that the work 
was done in the Bishop's lifetime, for 
he was translated from Worcester to 
Ely in 1486. 

The following inscription may also be 
cited in support of this opinion. 

In St. Peter*s Church, Canterbury. 

Orate pro bono statu Johannis Bigg 


armiserif ac Aldcrmanni civitatis Cant, 
et ConstantiflB consortis snse, qui mo 
vitrari fecerunt. Anno Domini 1473, 
et speciHliter pro bono statu Willclmi 

Bugg civitatis Cant, et Johaunte 

consortis susb, et pro animabus parentum 
ac benefactorum eorum qui hoc laraen 
Anno Dom. 1468. 

(Appendix to Somner's "Antiq. of 
Canterbury," p. 69, 2nd ed.) 

In Great Malvern Church, in the win- 
dow containing the portrait of Prince 
Arthur (referred to page 173) was 

"Orate pro bono statu Henrici 

septimi et Elizibethss regino) et domini 
Arthuri principis necnon .... consortis 
sue et suorum trium militum," portraits 
of all these as well as of the Prince being 
in the window. (Nash's "Worcester- 
shire," voL ii. p. 131.) 

4l8 APPENDIX (E). 


Orate pro bono statu Christopheri Willoughby, armigeri, et 
Margerie uxoris ejus. 

This is in a glass window of the church. — Weaver, p. 490. 

The following extract is from Burton's "History of Leicester- 
shire," Znd edition, p. 279. 

"In the east window of the chancel [of Wanlip Church]. 

The portrait of a knight, armed, kneeling; on whose surcoat, 
Gules, two bars gem els a bend argent: against whom is bis lady 
in a kneeling posture, on whose under garment are the same 
arms, and under whom is written : — 

Orate pro anima Thomse Welsh Militis qui hoc templum fieri 
fecit MCCCLXXXXIII et pro anima Catharinse uxoris ejus." 

Other inscriptions are given in Somner's "Antiq. of Can- 
terbury," pp. 328, 330, 333, 335, 336, and 337, 


ABBADiNa coated glass, 5, 32, 137, 142, 

184, 250. 
Amsterdam Cathedral, windows in, 241, 

Annealinpf glass, 3, 357. 
Antiquating glass, 319. 
Antwerp, painted windows at, 241, 301. 
Arabesqaes, 213. 
Architectural skreen, 221. 
Amement, 29, 377, note. 
Arundel Castle, window in, 238, 305. 
Auch Cathedral, windows in, 198, 255, 

Augsbui^ Cathedral, window in. 111, 

308, note. 

Banded quarry, 63. 

Barfreston Church, windows in, 329, 

Beaded ornament, 61, 100. 
Beauchamp Chapel, contract for glazing, 

Belt of canopies, 44, 77, 123, 192. 
Biblia Pauper urn, 394, note. 
Black-letter, 117, 184, 225. 
Blow-pipe, 16, note (b) ; 358. 
Blue glass, peculiar colour of old, 25, 


coated glass, 141. 

Bontemps, M., remarks on ancient glass, 

309, note. 

• on injudicious imi- 
tation, 315, note. 

revived the nncient manu- 

facture of ruby glass, 362, note. 
Bower canopy, 178, 334. 
Brackets, figures on, 123. 
Brodd glass, 15, note (a), 247. 
Brush yellow, 18. 
Brussehi Cathedral, windows in, 241, 

Bull's eye, 16. 

Canopies t'oliaged, 334. 

Canopies in Munich Cathedral, 175, 

288, 334. 
Canterbury Cathedral, windows in, 45. 
Cartoons, 30. 

Cathedral gliss, 15, note (a). 
Cement, 21. 
Chaucer's dream, description of painted 

windows in, 270, note. 
Chetwode Church, windows in, 48. 
China red, 149, 207, 247, 300. 
Chinese art, resemblance to medieval 

art, 344, note. 
Clffintchurch, Bloomsbnry, windows in, 

328, note. 
Circular window, see Wheel window. 
Clear lights, 284. 
Clearstory windows, 66, 71. 

figures in, 71. 

Cologne Cathedral, canopies in choii* 

windows of, 84. 
windows in aisle, 

111, 299, 308, note. 

— in nave, 12l. 

St. Mary of the Capital, 


St. Peter's Church, 203, 301, 


Cloryng nails, 376, note (u) ; 377. 
Coated glass, 3, 17, note (d). 
Coloured windows, 37, 81. 

glttss, 3, 22, note (k). 

pattern window, 42, 83. 

Colouring of glass-painting, remarks on> 

2iJ0, note. 
Common window glass, 15, note (a). 
Contrast of colour, 280. 

of light and shade, ib. 

Corrosion of glass, 23. 

Covered glass, 3. 

Cross-hatching, 39, 76, 151. ' 

Cross ornament, 101. 

Crown glass, 15, note (a), 247. 

Crowned letters used us borders, 157. 

Cylinder of glass, 17, 360. 



Dates, evidence of, 9. 
Decomposition of glass, 24. 
Decorated style, examples of, 85. 
Designs extending over the whole of 

a window, 33 k 
Diaper pattern, 19, 91. 
Doable staining, 29, 138, 208. 
Durer, Albert, German fignrea in time 

of, 147. 

Enamel brown, 4, 18, note (f) ; 29. 

probable decomposition 

of the ancient, 373, note. 

colour, 4, 18, (note f) ; 228. 

method of glass- painting, 6, 22. 

Glass, cost of ancient, 387. 

furnace, 357, note. 

painting, how soon practiaed, 2, 

Enamels, invention of, 228, note. 
Kraclius, 356, note. 

Fairford Church, windows in, 131, 288, 

remarks on the 

figures in them, 332. 
Fat turp. ntine, 19. 
Festoon, 220. 
Figure and canopy window, 40, 78, 120, 

191, 231. 

Flashed gbiss, 17, note (d) ; 23, note (k). 

Flat-fronted canopy, 110, 169. 

Flatness of Early English glass-painting, 

Flesh, colouring of, 295, note, 326. 

Flint glass, 16, note (b) ; 23, note (k). 

Flourished lines, 144. 

Fluoric acid, 5. 

Flux, 18, note (f). 

Framework, double, 72. 

France, rapid decline of glass-painting 

in, 239, note. 

Fritting, 2, 21, note (k) ; 358. 

Garland, 214. 

Garter, earliest instance of arms within, 
181, note. 

Geet, 386. 

Geometrical glazing in times of Eliza- 
beth and James I., 253, note. 

George's, St., Hanover-squire, windows 
in, 800. ' 

Giles, 236. ' 

Glass, ancient, gem-like appearance of, 

blowing, 1 note (a) ; 14, note (b). 

and note. 

of, 227. 

decline and deterioration 
of in France, 239, 

note, 2-13. 

in time of Charles and 

James I., 234. 

and wall paintings in the same 

building, 260. 

shade, 16. 

Glaziers' diamond, 30. 

Glazing panel, 21, 71, 117. 

Gloucester Cathedral, east window in, 

86, 112, 126, note, 185, note. 
Gond.1, windows in chorch at, 232, 303. 
Grisaille, 3. 
G rosing iron, 31. 
Grotesque representations, impropriety 

of, 267. 
Guilford, Abbot's Hospital, window in, 

Gum Senegal, 19. 

Heater shield, 71, 87, 115, plates 18, 23. 
Heraldic borders, 102, 116, note (n). 

colours misrepresented, 29, 83. 

Heraldry in churches not improper, 268, 

Honeysuckle ornament, 60. 

Illuminated letters, 184, 226. 

James, St., Church, Piccadilly, windows 

in, 313, note. 
Jesse window, 42, 80, 126, 193. 

Kiln, 6, 20. 

King's Collie, Cambridge, windows in, 
201, 300. 

Lambeth, restoration of painted win- 
dows at by Laud, 264, note, 405, note. 

Lead-work, 21, 81, 295. 

Leaf of lead, 31. 

Lear, 16. 

Lever ington Church, windo^vs in, 141, 

Lichfield Cathedral, windows in, 204, 



Li^e, St. Jacques, windows in, 193. 

St. Martin's, windows in, 204. 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel, windows in, 235, 

236, 26^, note, 303. 
Library, round glass in, 

336, note. 
Littleton, portrait of, 406, note. 
Lombardic capitals, 73, 117, 184. 226. 

Malvern Cliurch, 130, 299. 

Mangnnese, 24. 

Margaret, St., Westminster, windows 

in, 205. 291, 301. 
Marver, 16, note (b) ; 361, note. 
Medallion, 214. 
— ^ window, 87. 
Memorial window's, 270. 
Merton College, Oxford, windows in, 84. 
Metallic frame-work, 22, note (b) ; 71, 

Morrice-dancers represented in glass- 

painting, 251, 269, note. 
Mosaic Enamel method of glass* painting, 

6, 22, note (h). 
method of glass-painting, 4, 18, 

note (h). 
Muff of glass, 16. 
MuUious may be disregarded, 334. 
Munich Cathedral, canopies in, 175, 288; 

Ludwig Kirche and Hof Capelle, 

260, note. 
Maria Hilf Church, 260, note. 

Nettlestead Church, Kent, 129. 
New College windows, 127, 239, S^i. 
Norbury Church, windows in, 85, note. 
Nuremberg, St. Lawrence's Church, 180, 

Palissy, Bernard de, 239, note. 
Panel, 37, 107. 

Panelled arrangement, 65, 122. 
Pattern window, 63, 120. 
Perpendicular style, imitation of, 818. 
^— ^— — picture glass-puinting, 120. 

window, 119. 

Plain geometrical glazing, 66, 106, 160, 

215, 226, note ; 253. 
Plate glass, 17. 

Plated glass, 17, note (c) ; 28. 

Portland Vase, 28, note. 

Portraits in ancient glass-paintingD, 406. 

Pot-metal glass, 3. 

Pressed glass, 329, 336. 

Price, William, 237. 

Joshua, ib. 

Projecting fronted canopy, 170. 
Proportionate quantities of light and 

shade, 287. 
Punt, 16, 23, note (k); 163. 

Quarry or Quarrel, 337^ note (1). 
insulated ornament on, 155, note. 

Representations of God the Father, 263, 

Restorations, 348. 
Repairs, 850. 

Reticulated pattern, 64, 105. 
Robes represented longer than actually 

worn, 95, note. 
Roman letter, 225, 256. 
Rose window, see Wheel window. 
Round glass, 23, 162, 253, 336. 
Ruby glass, 3, 25, 306. 

why coated, 8, note. 

strtaked, 140, 307. 

smooth, early occurrence of 

in Qerman glass, 88, note. 

in Leverington Church, 

141, note. 



in Queen Elizabeth's time, 
in the eighteenth century. 

Running patterui 65, 76, 104> 331. 

Saddle-bars, 21, 71, 117, 298. 

Salisbury Cathedral, windows in, 47. 

Sapphire, 22, note (k). 

Scalloped ornament, 61. 

Scroll-work, 49, 61, 28, 152. 

*8elvage, 16. 

Setting to a picture glass-painting, 190, 

Shell dome, 219. 
Shi rfield fined for breaking an idolatrous 

window, 236, 263, note. 
SigncUure of a window, 38, note (b). 
Skrten-work, 191, 221. 
Smear shi'iing stippled, 91. 



Smear shadow, 19, note (h); 250, 284. 

Sondelet, 21, note. 

Spike lavender, oil of, 20. 

Spread glass, 15, note (a) ; 360. 

Sprinkled ruby, 27, 141. 

Stain. 3, 29, 74. 137, 247. 

Standard, 22, note (c) ; 298. 

Stan of colour, 164. 

Stick ornament, 152, 333. 

Stipple shadow, 20, 144, 284, 327, note. 

Strasburg Cathedral, wheel window in, 

-^-^— painted glass in aisle 

of, 83. 
Strasburg, St, Thomas' Church, 111. 
Stria), 23. 

Styles, definition of, 35< 
Swisd enamel, 249. 
Symbols, 265. 

Table of glass, 360. 

Tapestry background, 135. 

Tegulated pattern, 64. 

Texture of ancient and modem glass, 

307, 309, note. 
Theophilus on tlie sentiments awakened 

by the subjects in u painted window, 

266, note. 

« account of, 352, note. 

notice of the MSS. of his 

treatise, ib. 

The objections of Quiehard 

and Hendric to the date ass'gncd to 
the Wolfenbtittel MS. nnfqundled, 353, 

Transparent shadows, 281. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, window in, 

IViumphal arch, 230. 
Turn over of leaf, 151, 153. 

University College Chapel, east window 
in, 236. 

Van Linge, 234, 235, 249, 254^ 303. 
Varnish colour, note to preface, 133. 
Venetian glass, 23. 

Wadham College, cost of the window in 

by Van Linge, 391, note. 
Wages of ancient glass-painters, 384. 
Westminster Abbey, windows in, 328, 

Westwell Church, window in, 47. 
Wheel window, 39, 80, 125, 193, 231. 
White glass, note to preface, 2, 22^ note 

(k)j 247. 

patterns, 47, 64. 

windows, 37, 43, 47, 81. 

Winchester Cathedral and College, wiu- 

dows in, 128, 129, 313, note. 
Windows painted, intentional neglect 

of, 271, note. 

memorial, 271. 

Wreath, 155, 214. 

Yellow stain, 29, 74, 89, 137. 
York Minster, windows in, 82, 128. 

window in, from Rouen, 



1. Saddle-bare and^laxing-panels, p. 21. 

2. ComparmtiTe view of die thiclcneM at colour on nilij glass, 26. 

3. Siirinkled rnby, 27. 

4. Diagrani, shewing tho width and profile of ancient and modern leads, SI. 

5. Heads from Bonrges Cathedral, 67. 

It Church. Oxfordshire, 61. 

, Leiceatenhin, 101. 



Smear shadow, 19, note (h); 250, 284. 

Sondelet, 21, note. 

Spike lavender, oil of, 20. 

Spread glass, 15, note (a) ; 360. 

Sprinkled ruby, 27, 141. 

Stain. 3, 29, 74. 137, 247. 

Standard, 22, note (c) ; 298. 

Stan of colour, 164. 

Stick ornament, 152, 333. 

Stipple shadow, 20, 144, 284, 327, note. 

Strasbarg Cathedral, wheel window in, i 

painted glass in aisle 

of, 83. 
Strasburg, St. Thomas' Church, 111. 
Stria), 23. 

Styles, definition of, 35« 
Swiss enamel, 249. 
Symbols, 265. 

Table of glass, 360. 

Tapestry background, 135. 

Tegulated pattern, 64. 

Texture of ancient and modern glass, 

307, 809, note. 
Theophilus on the sentiments awakened 

by the subjects in u painted window, 

266, note. 
■ account of, 352, note. 
notice of the MSS. of his 

treatise, ib. 

The objections of Quichard 

and Hendric to the date ass'gned to 
the Wolfenbuttel MS. unfquutjicd, 353, 

Transparent shadows, 281. 

Trinity College, Cambridge, window in, 

IViumphal arch, 230. 
Turn over of le^, 151, 153. 

University College Chapel, east window 
in, 236. 

Van Linge, 234, 235, 249, 254^ 303. 
Varnish colour, note to preface, 133. 
Venetian ghiss, 23. 

Wadham College, cost of the window in 
by Van Linge, 391, note. 

Wages of ancient glass-painters, 384. 

Westminster Abbey, windows in, 32S» 

Westwell Church, window in, 47. 

Wheel window, 39, 80, 125, 193, 231. 

White glass, note to pre&ee, 2, 22, note 
(k); 247. 

patterns, 47, 64. 

windows, 37, 43, 47, 81. 

Winchester Cathedral and College, win- 
dows in, 128, 129, 313, note. 

Windows painted, intenliouul neglect 
of, 271, note. 

memorial, 271. 

Wreath, 155, 214. 

Yellow stain, 29, 74, 89, 137. 
York Minster, windows in, 82, 128. 

window in, from Rouen, 



1. Saddle-ban and glazing-panels, p. 21. 

2. Comparative view of the thickness of colour on niby glass, 26. 

3. Sprinkled ruby, 27. 

4. Diagram, shewing the width and profile of ancient and modem leads, 81. 

5. Heads from Bourges Cathedral, 57. 

6. A border, from York Minster, 59. 

7. The scalloped ornament. Stanton Harconrt Church, Oxfordshire, 61. 

8. LuUingstone Church, Kent, 93. 

9. D .rchester Church, Oxfordshire, 96. 

10. Southfleet Church, Kent, ib. 

11. Stanford Church, Northamptonshire, ib. 

12. Chartham Church, Kent, 100. 

13. Westonbirt Church, Qloucestershire, ib. 

14. Cross ornament. Temple Rothley Church, Leicestershire, 101. 

15. Stanford Church, Northamptonshire, ib. 

16. Southfieet Cliurch, Kent, 103. 

17. Selling Church, Kent, 104. 

18. Fawkham Church, Kent, 115. 

19. Great Dunmow Church, Essex, 116. 

20. Stowting Church, Kent, 148. 

21. In the possession of Mr. Fletcher, 153. 

22. Lambeth Palace, ib. 

23. Mells Church, Somersetshire, 154. 

24. Wanlip Church, Leicestershire, 156. 

25. Mells Church, Somersetshire, 158. 

26. Ock well's house, Berks., 183. 

27. Fulham Palace, ib. 

^28. Profile of lead-work, 297.