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♦' / 

anTintroduction ) 

.-— "~ ■* 


TO ♦ 












• ' i. 

Wm. H. . a L L E N & Co. 








J. ic H. COX, BROTHERS (latk COX & SONS), 


74 ai 7ft, Great Queen Street, Lincoln't-Inn Fields. 


H»^., *J^ 

f ( 


Sir HENRY WILLOCK. K.L.S., Chairman. 
JAMES WEIR HOGG, Esq., M.P., Deputy Chairman. 

jriLLIAM ASTELL, Esq., M.P. 




Hajor-Gen. Sir J. L. LUSHINGTON, G.C.B. 















l^onouvatlt (BMUStibU eompanpf 









London, V2th May, 1845. 


XZ-l fS/^ 5 


The conviction that great advantage is likely to accrue to 
Candidates for the Indian Service, from the acquisition of some 
elementary and grammatical acquaintance, with the most common and 
practically useful dialect of India, previous to their arrival in that 
country, is now become so prevalent, that argument seems hardly 
needed to extend or strengthen it. And, as in India a knowledge 
of the languages of that region, but especially of the Hindustani, 
is made indispensable to ' the attainment of staff, as well as of other 
extraordinary beneficial appointments, no opportunity — no time 
should be let slip or lost by those about to go thither, for commencing 
and continuing the study of that dialect. To facilitate this study, the 
author or compiler of the following sheets has before prepared and 
passed through the press, various editions of a Grammar, Dictionary, 
and two volumes of Selections, the utility of which is best proved by 
the uninterrupted public countenance shewn them ; and, for such 
learners as can obtain the assistance of a fit instructor, these helps might 
have sufficed. From the manner, however, in which some persons are 
obliged, without much previous notice and with little or no instruction 
in the language, to proceed to India, a compendious work, made as easy 
as possible, has been judged still requisite for individuals thus circum- 
stanced : and, though some little instruction from a qualified teacher 
is earnestly recommended where it can be obtained, to guide the reader 
in the pronunciation and other particulars, yet it is hoped this book 
may prove essentially useful to the assiduous student, whether aided 
by others or obliged to rely solely on his own application and dis- 



• • • • • • 

• > • 

Chaptbb I.— Grammar ... 

Persian alphabet, with the diacritical 
marks and the composition of the 

XC vLvIiS ... .«• ••• *•• 

Devanagari alphabet, with the com- 
pounds ... ••• ... 
Pronunciatioii of the Persian and Na- 
gari, with diacritical signs adopted in 
them as well as in the Roman 
Chaptbr II. — Nouns substantive 

\76uuer ... ••• ... ••• •■• 

Plural, how formed ... ... 

Cases, how formed ... ... ••• 

Postpositions, how used 

w UCn wA * 6 ... ... ... ... 

Persian and Arabic words, how con- 

B wZllCwCU ... ... ... ... 

Declension ••• ... ... 

Adjectives, how inflected and used 
Adjunct of Similitude, w sa 

Chapter III. — Pronouns 

Chaptsb IV. — Verb 

Xi^O w ... ••• ... ... ... 

Infinitive ... ... ... 

P&st PMiciple ... 



Present Participle ... 

Past Conjunctive Participle 

x asL X euses ... ... ... ... 

Present Tenses. . . 

Future Tenses ... 

Imperative ... ... ... 

Transitive and Causal Verbs 

Compound Verbs 

Derivative Verbs 

Passive Verbs ... 

Auxiliary Verb, conjugatipn of 

Intransitive Verb, ^ joj Go . . . ^ . . 

Transitive Verb, conjugation of, Active 
and Passive ... 
Chapter V. — Indeclinable words 

Postpositions, the most usual ... 

Adverbs ... ••« 

Conjunctions ... 

Interjections •.. 
Chapthb VI. — Numerals, Cardinals 

Ordinals and Aggregates 

Numerals, used distributively . . . 

C h apter VI I ., — Derivatives 
Chapter VIII. — Syntax 


PART 11. 

Vocabulary, English and Hindustani ... 88 

Nouns, Celestials, Infemals 88 

Fabulous beings. Some general terms 89 

The Elements 90 

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, &c. 90 

Things relating to Fire 
Things relating to Air, . . 

Things relating to Water 

Things relating to the surface of the 



Vocabulary (continued) — 

Minerals, Metals, &c 

Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs 
Esculent Roots and Vegetables 

f XO nr do ••• ••• ••• 

Fruits ••• ... ' 

Ghrains, Seeds ••• ... . .•• 

Food in general for Animals ... 

Worms, Reptiles, Insects, Spiders 

Fishes — 

Birds ... 

Beasts ... 

Man ••• 

Human beings in relationship 

The Body and what relates to it 

Hurts and Diseases of the Body 

Persons employed in curing Diseases 

Medical Means ... ••• 

The Mind and its Attributes ... 

... 97 
... %f%f 
... 109 



... 113 

... 115 

... 117 

... 117 

... 120 

... 121 

... 123 

... 127 

... 128 

... 132 

... 139 

... 143 

... 144 

... 144 

Morals,— moral and immoral Actions... 146 

Professions, Occupations ... ... 147 

People of Professions, IVades, &c. ••• 147 

... 165 

... 169 

... 170 

... 172 

... 175 

... 179 

... 180 

... 181 

... 185 

... 195 


Meats and Drinks 

Spices, Condiments 

Apparel, Dress... 


Household Furniture ... 

Country and Country Affairs ... 

Society and Government 

War, Military Affairs ... 

Naval AffEurs 

Divisions of Hme 

Other useful Nouns, alphabetically ar- 
ranged ... ... ... ••• 196 

Verbs of frequent use, alphabetically 
arranged ... ... ... ... 293 

Adjectives, Adverbs, &c., of frequent 

use ... 

... 347 

Short Sentences of common use 400 | Dialogue 


... 423 

Short Stories, in Persian and Nagari characters, with translation and grammatical anal3r8is 467 


Hindustani Composition, or facilities for translating English into Hindustani 


... 510 


Forms of Letters and Notes, with verbal 
translations ... ••• ••• ••• 530 

Grammatical Terms, with examples of 
their application 537 

Military Words of Command, English and 
Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman 
characters ... ... ... ... 543 

Corrections ... ... ... ••• 563 







Alphabets, Orthographical Signs, and Pronunciation. 

The most common dialects of Indian whether that of Hindustan 
proper^ or that of the Dakhan^ are often found written in the Persian 
or Arabic characters, especially by the Musalman population of the 
country ; by Hindus, however, the Devanagari (a word often con- 
tracted to Nagari), or characters allied to the Devanagari, are usually 
adopted: the alphabets and other orthographical signs, therefore, 
made use of in each of those two systems of writing claim the earliest 
attention of the learner; and, will in the first place be submitted to 
his notice. 


A Grammar of 

Persian Alphabet.* 


Names in 

Persian and 



equivalents in 



f^\ alif 

^^ tl 


a, a, t, u. 





^ che 

Jb dal 
Jlj ^al 


f 2fA? 








Names in 

Persian and 


c>U §ad 

Ci\^ zad 





^ nun 


equivalents in 






« • « « 


\% wa*d 

'; a, t, u, &c. 







y, t, e, ai, &c. 

* The characters of this alphabet are to be read from right to lef^. 
+ Called pffe hutfi (^Ja*-^^ V>-) by way of distinction from the other he. 
X Called hSe hawwaz (jylb ^c lib) or ha*e mudawwara (^j«^ u5 ^)* 

the Hindustani Language. 3 

The Persian characters^ as above described^ are used when standing 
alone ; and, the letters jjjj J J \ neither admit of junction to a fol- 
lowing one, nor are liable to any material change from another letter 
being prefixed : the rest of the characters, however, become apparently 
abridged, retaining their essential portion only or assuming some varia- 
tion of form, when used in composition ; as in 

kk kl kd kz ghf <* %r shsh sr rs zr jd pch bb ba ab 

^. ^.^ ^ l!^ ^3 ^ y:f ^ H y ^ ^ ^ ^orS If 
ym ye hhh ha II we mm nn hy yh nw mn ma Ik la ga 

f^^ fhi gh ghgh *** ttt zzz shst djd jjj ttt bbb 

yyy hhh hhh nnn mmm III khh fkl^ 

To represent some sounds peculiar to the Hindus, additional marks 
are commonly assumed with a few of the Persian letters, or certain 
combinations may be adopted ; as, 

phab nh mh gh kh rh dh dh chh jh th th ph bh r d t 

u^ i^^^ d.^ (^^Jb^ v.^JbJ ^^^r>- <^-^ 
nhab mhab khab rhab dhab chhab thab 


• • • 

In uttering <3 or J or J the point of the tongue is to be reverted 
to the palate ; and the aspiration intended in -^ bh, &c. is to be ex- 
pressed at once with the preceding consonant. 

m O 

Of the letters above recited, the term d^ *— ir^ harf-irillat (infirm 
letter) is technically given to t or j or (^, as that of ^^^^s^ ^j^ ^^^f' 
usahlh (sound letter) is applied to each of the rest. 

The short vowels are three, namely ' ( yj) zabar or {ii,s^) fat'ha, 
to which may correspond the Roman a ; , (aj) z^'f or (y-^) kasr, 

4 A Grammar of 

which may be represented by i ; and ' (tA?i) P^^ ^^ (f^) ?«»»^> by 

tt : 80, in JJ had ; dJ bid ; JJ btid.^ 

The long vowels and the diphthongs are formed by the adjunction of 
the infirm letters (t/ j to consonants uttered with the short vowels; 
yet, at the beginning of a word or syllable, each of these infirm letters 
may perform the office of a consonant; and, instead of writing \ \ (two 
alifs) at the commencement of a word, one of those letters with the 
sign ^ (2fiX«) madda, is commonly adopted : so. 


cyy cy^ cjy b <^j\ i^j\ L^/ *5 *, tJT 

jaid jlXd jld haut ho-^t hut ha auh d\h vh yah wah ah 

^ ^ ^. ^' ^ ^ ^r. ^ 


yai yeX yi ya sai se^ si sa 

* These short vowels are but rarely marked by the natives in writing 
Hindustani; yet, for the guidance of European learners in pronunciation, 
they may with much convenience be frequently used ; the most common 
of them, however, faVfia or zabar^ will be lefl generally unmarked in 
this work ; and, must then be understood afler a consonant, which is not 
final, nor marked with either of the other short vowels, or with 

+ For the sound here intended there is no discriminating mark in the 
Arabic orthography, because it is unknown in that language : and the 
wa'o in such case termed waW'i mqphul (unknown wa^o) is lef^ without 
any vowel accompanying the preceding consonant, which circumstance 
will sufficiently distinguish it from the wd^o when following a vowel and 
taking another sound. 

X The yO'i mqj^hul (unknown ye) is, for the like reason as the 
wdw»i mafhuly left without any vowel accompanying the foregoing con- 

the Hindustani Language. b 

Other orthographical signs are — 

(jj^a) hamza, which is always initial in a syllable and accompanied 
or moved by a short vowel either written or understood ; as, in 
*_j1 (ab), J^ ijuCt), 4> {l"i<t). 

"" or (|*j>-) jazm shews that the subscribed letter has no vOwel to be 
sounded after it ; so, in *-il (ism), J« (ji'l'), *— ^r^ C^<"/)' 

" (juaU) tashdld, which shews that the letter undemeatli ts to be 
pronounced double ; as, in iU^L (shiddat) : and the letter so 
tnarlced must be distinctly twice sounded- 

'*(jrfj) wa^J, which serves to join together two Arabic words, the latter 
having thearticle Jl (al) prefixed, the vowel of which is dropped in 
pronunciation; as, iDy<ll 1 ^i-T {akhiru-l-amT) : and, the J (/am) 
of the article becomes converted in sound to the following letter, 
if this becuiiijjjj t^j^i^t^laltfjorj^ which may 
then be marked with tashdld, and is to be uttered as double ; 
so, in ijJcS \ »\jP (^awammu-n-nas). 

' ' * * Cijjii^) tanwin, giving the nasal sound to the final vowel ; as, 
in yOyiKS. {khusHsun), ^j>y3£^ (khu^in), Uj-asL {fJiususan). 
Some few words, in which the use of these letters and signs will be 

farther exemplified. 

sidd/ta shola /Juiir jabbar huda bojh hud aur ayat andar abad 
jJ\j1! aJS J3 Ou*^ JdilS" jCi jCe tje A^ .^ 

la-nam lala Idl gumhaz kaghat gkuhhar aiyar turra sidd shubha 
j^l \ ^ <1! J-*J 1 ^jJ \ X^ «-rV*< l^"A« Jj^ 

frl-faiir alhamdit lillah inda-l-hakk maghrab muddat muzak/tar 

hib't nujaba kat'a la'us iu-l-fakuT ftaklkalan fauran fi-l-^aiflkat 

A Grammar of 


' •'%?'«,*' 5 

shu^i^ dhundkna dubna tKandl^ thora sAahanshah shuhah 

O w ««0 C m mO <* mO C 

Devanagari Alphabbt4 

^a, ^5;Tt, ti; ^t£, ^5;^n, ^ri;||W/ri,|| 

W /rJ ;|| ^ c, H ai; ^ 5, ^T au. 

Gutturals, ^ ka^ ^ AAa, '^ ga, ^ gAa, ^ nga.|| 
Palatals, ^ cAa, ^ chha, ^^, ^jAa, ^ nya]\ 

Cerebrals, ^ te,. ''Ma, ' da,ir ^dha,^^^. 
Dentals, 'f^a, ^ Ma, ^ da, ^ dAa, '^ na. 

Labials, ^ pa, ^ jpAa, ^ ia, ^ JAa, ^ ma. 

Semivowels, ^ ya, T ra, ^ ii, ' ra. 
Sibilants and Aspirate, 1 ?«,** ^ 5Aa,tt' *«* ^ Aa. 

* The ^ (nun J before SL<mm> (jbe) or c^(pe) becomes m in pronunciation. 

f When If (he) sensibly expressed is preceded by a vowel, it may be 
thus represented to distinguish it from the Aa^e mukhtaft (concealed he) 
as in ^ gOy or from the aspirated compound as in ^ gha, 

% Frequently called NigarT alphabet, and read from left to right. 

y But very rarely, if ever, used in writing Hindustani. 

f ^ and ^ are often pronounced rather as ra and rha by reverting 
the tip of the tongue to the palate ; and, to mark this variation, a point 

may be subscribed, as ^ ra, W rAa. 

** «l is a palatal sibilant ; and often adopted to represent the Arabic 

ff ^ is sometimes uttered as kha. 

the Hirtdustanl Language. 7 

la addition to the above are the two characters, antutoara (') and 
visarga (•), the first of which placed over a letter imparts to the 
vowel a slight aasal sound, somewhat stronger however than the 
French n in bon ; and the latter placed after a letter denotes a eoft 
aspiration (not perceptible, and but rarely used in Hindustani)." 

The forma of the vowels, as above described, are used when standing 
alone or when initial in a syllable : afler consonants, however, there 
is no character for ^ (a), which is to be understood io case no other 
vowel be noted, or no consonant be added as a compound, or no 
loark called virama (rest) be appended, as in ^ Yet, in Hiudus- 
taui, this unwritten vowel is not to be understood at the end of a 
word, where indeed no vowel, unless expressly marked, is to be 

After consonants, and as compounded with them, the rest of the 
vowels are represented by the following forms :^ 

' a ; I i ; 1 1 ; ,j K ; a^ u ; 4 ri ; J f I ; ^ /j-t ; ^ /r J ; e; ai ; 

And the composition of vowels and other marks with consonants 
may be exemplified in 

^V TTT^ T^ t^ ^^ ''3\% '^era '^S W^ W^ 
aka aka iki Jki vku uku rikri rikn Iriklri Ifiklrt 

j^ ^ ^«V ^wt ^RT nw: ^: 1^ 

eke aikai oko atikau akan akah kansah dif 

* Though in repealing the alphabet, it is usual to say a, a, i, i, &e. 
ka, kha, ga, gha, &c. simply, as before noted, yet iu Darning the letters 
'HT kdra (or k5r) la added to the wund of each ; so '^WHT (akar) 
ihe letter ^, '*'*K {kakar) the letter *. 

8 A Grammar of 

If two or more consonants come together without the intervention 
of a vowel, they should coalesce and become one compound character. 
Such compounds are formed in various ways ; either by placing the 
hody of the subsequent consonant under the first, as in * kw ; by 
arranging them in their usual order, omitting however the perpendicular 
line in all but the last, as ^*"*' amy ; or, by varying somewhat the 
elementary characters and blending them together, as in '^jrt, ^ 
ksh, ^ ddh. With the semivowele ^ y, and T r, composition is 
of most frequent recuiTence : the adjunction of the first to a pre- 
ceding consonant does not much, if at all, change its original shape; 
as, in ^ ky, ^ khy, ^ jy, ^ dy, ^ py, ^ phj, ^^ iy, ^ hy : 
but, the latter, when immediately following a consonant, usually takes 
the form ^ beneath, as when preceding a consonant it is denoted by the 
character placed above ; so, " kr, ^ gr, ^ tr, f sr, ^ sr, 
T hr; ^rk, ^ rg, '^ dharm. 

Other compounds, of most frequent use, are the following : — 

WaA, ^ kl, ^kn, ^^hn,^ kl, '9 gh^,"^ ghy,^ ckch,'^ chchh, 

"". ^ jny. ^jhjh, T ti, "^ nrf, 'ff tt, 
[ tkth, '5 thn, ^ dg, \ dd, ^ ddh, T dn. 

^ chchhr, ^ jj, "^ 
^ tty, W tn, "^ try, 
■ff ddhji, W ddhw, ^ dhh, ^ dtn, X dr, ^ dw, "* dhn, ^ dkm, 
^ dhw, ^ nn, ^ nny, ^ iitry, ^ ndy, " pt, "^ pn, ^ pp, "^pl, 
"^pw, ^ps, "Sptw, ' bb, ■sr bj, ^ bl, ^ bhy, T bhri, ^ mm, 
^ ml, '^ni,'^ rS, "« il, ^ wr, "^ wri, "^ sch, "^ scAA, ^ jry, 
'^ ?J, ^ sAA, S sAf, ^ «A/jr, ^ shtw, ^ s/ith, ^ sri, ^ «i, ^ Au, 
¥ ku, ^ An, ■? An, ^ A n,^ Am, 'W Ay, T? A/, ^ Ate. 

To represent such Arabic or Persian letters as have no exact cor- 
respondents in the NagarT, the following characters, which approach 
most nearly in pronunciation, are commonly used in writing this lan- 
guage ; and, though not the practice of the people of India, points 

the Hindustani Language. 9 

may be adopted beneath the letters, in such cases, to shew the extra- 
ordinary use made of them : thus, 

^ for ^ 



^ for «_i 









J (final) J^ (aZi/^i maksura) 




- J 



? for ^ (<anM?in). 



^ — 










* for 


a, as in America. 



I' - 


or T a^ as a in all. 




or T i, as i in fin. 





^* - 


or t t, as ee m peer. 





or ss u, ^s \x in pull. 





or e^ ^, as 00 in cool. 





or e or e, as ai in pair. 


^^ - 


or ai, as ei in height. 








/ - 


or T or 0, as o in bone, 
or 1 au, as ou m our. 





b, as the English b. 



« — 


bh, as in abhor. 





p, as the English p. 



<i — 

"^ ph, as ph in up-hill. 





^, as t in tube. 


V — 


th, as the last aspirated. 




J — 


f , as t in true. 




th, as the last aspirated. 

]0 A Grammar of 



5 for ^ if^ «« 8 in »in- 

. — ^7, as j in judge. 

^ jh, as the last aspirated. 

^ cA, as eh in church. 

^ chh,* as the last aspirated. 





)l, as h in horse. 





^y as the German ch. 





e2, as d in dew. 




^ dh^ as the last aspirated. 


V J, as d in dim. 




7 dA^ as the last aspirated. 





«, as z in zeal. 





r, as r in rain. 





ri. as ri in river. 

r?^ as the last prolonged. 






r, as r in rim nearly. 
rhj as the last aspirated. 





Zj as z in zeal. 





zh^ as s in pleasure. 





9, as s in sin. 



1( «^, as sh in shine. 




^ ;, as s in sin. 





«, as in zeal. 





(y as t in tub. 





2, as z in zeal. 

* The Nagari compound ^ is occasionally represented by «f>-| and 
similarly pronounced. 

the Hindustam Language. 11 

c or e, for ^ ^9 h ^9 as a, i, or u.* 

^ QX i — f j^, as the Northumberland r.f 

or 3 — "^ /, as f in fin. 

t Of J — ^ i^, as k peculiarly uttered.J 

f^ Of ^ — €ir ft, as k in king. 

^ or ^ — ^^ M> ^ the last aspirated. 

iS^or f — 'Tg, asgin give. 

-^ or ^ — "^ gh, as the last aspirated. 

J or 1 — ^ Z, as the English 1. 

4% or ^ — if iR, as the English m. 

^ or J — ^ n, as n in tint 

^^ or J — V n, as n in king, 

jj or i — 5T 91, as n, in singe. 

* With the Arabs, this letter is a guttural consonant of peculiar 
utterance, which is>hardly attempted in Hindustani ; and the mere vowel 
used with it is noted, in the Nagari character, when it occurs at the 

beginning of a syllable : so^ in that character, for ^ , ^ may be 

adopted; for U, ^ ; for c, T; for ^^c, %; for ^, >; for c ,^; 

forjfi, ^; for ^, ^' . In the Roman characters, this letter ft when 
initial in a syllable will be here represented by a small form of itself 
written over its subsequent vowel ; and, when in the middle or at the 
end of a syllable, by the same mark placed after the vowel which pre- 

cedes ; so, Jifi altly J^ak^ ma ^uL 

+ Or, as the sound gha, gha^ gha, formed in gargling. 

:( With the root of the tongue pressed back on the throat, so as to 
check the voice gently and to occasion a clinking intonation. 

§ The Nagari ^ may occasionally be sounded like this and represented 
by the same Persian or Roman letters. 


A Grammar of 





^ n, as in none. 





a, a slight nasal.* 





W V, or tr, as v in voice.f 




^ A, as h in horse, how.t 





fr y, as y in yoke.§ 

* The Nagari sign may be used for any nasal not initial in a syllable. 

+ Pronounced as w when compounded with some other consonant. In 
the Arabic orthography, moreover, this letter, subsequent to faVfia be- 
comes au ; to zammy u ; and, when mqfhul, it is sounded o, as before 
noted under the vowels. In some Persian words, j though written is 

scarcely, if at all, sounded; as in H^y^ (jdapaJi) desire^ C/T^ (jdimJi) 

pleasant. When thus used it is technically termed ^jJu(^ ^^ {wdw'i 

ma^dula) ; and may in the Nagari translation be either wholly omitted, 

or distinguished by a point underneath, as well as in the Roman, so ? 
W or Vm In a few instance?, too, of Arabic words, this letter may take 
the sound ofalif; so, iy^ salaL 

% When final, however, in Indian and Persian words, this letter is 
sometimes, but very slightly, if at all, sounded, and is then termed 

j^iiir® ^5 ^ (ha*e-'m ukhtaft) ; in which case, it may be denoted by ; 
{visarga) in the Nagari character, and omitted in the Roman. At the 
end of certain Arabic words, too, this letter may occur with two points 
marked above it, when it takes the sound of /, as it is often transmuted 

to C^; so, in Jc^\ Xitfl>- (^khulasatu-l^hind). 

§ In the Arabic character, however, this letter when secondary in 
a syllable becomes^ together with the preceding vowel, if fat ha, at; 
if kasr, t ; and, if it be mafhul^ it is sounded e, as before instanced 
under the vowels. A final ^ moreover, preceded by faVha, in Arabic 

words, is sounded as alif; so \}\xi ^nrTwT (^ta'dla) : but, when followed 

hy J^ («0j as fot^ha only ; so, -UJ \ is- (ala^ssabah). 


the Hin^istant tanguage. 


Words may be divided into Nouns substantive or Adjective, Pro- 
nouns, Verbs compriBiug participles, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunc- 
tions, and Interjections. 

Nouns Substantive. 

1. Nouns substantive may be, in gender, masculine or feminine ; in 
number, sbgular or plural ; and for case, are frequently liable to in- 
flection or change in the termination. 

2. The gender of nouns is sometimes to be determined from the 
nature of the beings to which words are applied ; as J^ (mard) man, 
tiJjjc (flitrat} woman: in numerous instances, however, the distinction 
is conventional, and to be learned by practice in the language only ; 
yet words terminating in a (a), 1 (o),* ^^l (art), are generally mascu- 
line, and those ending in ^^ (i), ^, (iw\ tU ((), ^ (sA), ^^ (n), 
will most commonly be found to be feminine. 

a. As marked exceptions to the foregoing rule, may be noticed 
jJIj (j>ani) water, ^ Cg^') clarified butter, ^J {dahl) curdled 
milk, |-s^ (j?) life, ^<j)^ (ma(i) a pearl, which are perhaps the only 
niasculiaes, unless by nature, terminating in ^ (t) ; and, many words 
ending with i,zJ (t), jji (sA), or ^^ (k) will occur in use as of the mas- 
culine gender. -f- 

* Most of the pure Sanskrit and Arabic nouns ending in 1 (a) are 
feminine, as well as some of the latter tongue terminating in a (a). 
Arabic verbal nouniofihe form J-*ftj (jaf'ii)sTe said to be all feminine in 
the Dakhni ofMudras ; and, in Urdu or proper Hindustani, to exhibit but 
one exception, ^yJ \tu^xiz) an amuletf which in this dialect is masculine. 

+ Some words are naturally of both genders; such as, i5«JI {admi) 
and ^^U (monHi) a human being-, ^^'-j' (oniwi) a ctiral ; whilst, 

14 A Grammar of 

3. To form feminine nouns from masculines, such of the latter 
description as end in i (a), \ (a), w l; {t/a), usually convert those 
finals to 1^, ()) ; such as end in ^Jt (an), or |^lj (yon), to ^, (<6); 
and such as end in ^^ ^ (i) to j^ (an or in) : so t^ J|^ (shahzadi) a 
princess, from n-i]}^ (shahzMa) a prince ; i/'yp (gAori) a mare, 
from ]jjf{gkord) a hone ; ^ 'jJ (pardl), from bl^ (pdraya) foreign ; 
^^yU (sdlicm), from ,JiyL> (sdtwdrl) seventh ; j^^jyeJ (dhobin) a 
washerwoman, from j*J}*J (rfAoij) a wasAermaR. 

a. Masculines, ending in other letters, may either assume certain of 
the above-mentioned feminine terminations, or take \ (a), ^J (ni), jjl 
(ani), ^ Cyan)) or ^^jI (ai/an) ; so ,_jj_;a (AarHl) a rfoe, from y^ 
(haran} a deer; UjU (nayaka) the female of fclSoli (jiayaA) o 
leader; ^jy (morni) a peahen, from j^ (mor) a peacock ; ^J/mt* 
(mihtardni), from j=Hf* C™'^''^'") '^ sweeper ; ^j^^ (banyayan), the 
wife of a l^ (banya) shopkeeper. 

4. To form the nominative plural, masculine nouns ending in > 
(a) or 1 (o) change the termination to ,_; (e) ; as ^Uj (phjale) cups, 
from <i]Uj (pi]/ala) ; ^J-j (Je/e) aowi, from 12_J (fiFfa) : other termi- 
nations remain unaltered ; as J^ (mard) a man or men : j^ (char) a 
thief OT thieves.* 

a. Certain nouns substantive masculine, as well as adjectives, 
though ending in 1 (a) remain unchanged in the nominative plural ; 
such as, Ijd- (fcftmfo) God, \j^\ (umara) nobles or a nobleman, 

other*, like^ CjS'f'") care,^J^ 0*^) 'i^> "^y he uied indifferently as 
maMuIines or feminine*. On the subject of gender, indeed, considerable 
difference will be found to eiisl between the Hindustani and Dakhni; and, 
even speakers or writers of the same dialect are sometimes at v 

* In Dakhni, however, ^J (aii) is subjoined losuch ni 
(nutrdoA) meny iJl/j^- (chorSn) Ikievet. 


the Hindustani Language. 


Lt (tnttlla) a doctor, U-lj (raja) a prince, ti (laid) master, \i\i (babd) 
or IsJ (pita) father, Ijj-i (sauda) melancholi/t Lib (ddnd) wise, \j\j 
(data), liberal, 1 Juj (paidd) produced, and various others.* 

i. Feminine nouns ending in i_s (i) assume ^Ji (an) for the nomi> 
native plural, as those of all other terminations take ^^jJ (en) ;t so, 
jjlij (fieiiyan) daughters, from ^^Ij (Aefj) ; ^^-jti (kitdbhi) books, 
from (_*k£ (kitdb). 

c. Persian nouns may form their plurals in ^Ji (an) la (ha) ijd\ (at) 
or ii)li»- (jdt), or by changing a singular ^ (a) to ^jU (ga»") ; as, 
jjjLiLi (sakiydn) cupbearers, from iyU> (fiail) ; V^L) (sdlhd) years, 
from Jl-> (sfl/) ; cyUijljJ (nairaiwAaf) favours, from ^^'^ (nawd- 
zish). Arabic plurals, too, of various forms may occur ; as, j^'Lt^ 
(andfir) from ji^iic (unsur), j\^\ (akkbdr) from^_,-i. (khabar), 1^1 
(umard) from j--*' (amir). 

5. Cases of nouns, excepting the nominative, are formed in this 
language by the means of small words, generally placed afVer the 
nouns, whence the term postposition is conveniently applied by 
Europeans to these words ; and, such masculine' nouns as have for 
their 6ual in the nominative singular x (a) or 1 (d) mostly change it 
to i^ (e) in' the other cases of that number ; so, ^ ijj'^jj^ (dartedze 
ko) to the door, from Hj'jj'i (darwdza), \^ ^M (larke kd) of the boy, 
from ISjl (larkc^,ji^ *»?JjP (g^t'^ i""") o" '^^ hor»e, from \j^ (ghord). 

* In the Dakhan, ^JJ (oTi) is usually added to nouns ending in 1 (d) 
unchangeable, to form the nominative plural; so, ^jj]J^ (khitdd'oji) gods. 

t In Dakhni, ^^ (o/i) or more rnrely ^Jij (adn) is added to feminine 
nouns whose singular final is ' (d) lo form the plural, whilst other feuii- 
niues assume ^^i (an) or sometimes change ^j (i) lo ^\j (^un); bo, 
^^^M (oia'ori) or yljU (maainri) motherly from U (ma)) (j^Jw nadiii'dii 
(or nadili/a7l) rivers, from k^Jj (aaddt). 


Masculines in \ (a) wbicli are not liable to change in the nominative 
plural, some of which are enumerated at paragraph 4. a., as well as 
masculines of all other terminations, and all feininines, admit of no 
inflection before postpositions in the singular ; so, |— s \s^\j {raja se) 
from the prince ; ^^^ jp (ghar men) in the house ; |--i |jJ (^dawd ge) 
with medicine ; ^\ ^ i^jj^ is^^f' ^^ ^g*) before the mare. 

a. The inflection for the plural is, in proper Hindustani, constantly 
^^ (on), though in Dakhni it is more usually ^^\ (ait) ; excepting, 
however, the vocative, in which it is commonly j (o) ; so, ^jJ ^ ^j£j! 
{hrkanketaln) to boys; (_^\j ^ ^}\j\j(^dana'on ke pas) near the wise; 

ji w"..^jp(g^''nyo"P<''')'"*''*'"'^> j^i^ji!^ {kitabonmefi) in books.* 

b. It may here be noticed that words of two syllables, the first of 
which has any short vowel and the second is sounded with ' (a), drop 
the latter when any termination beginning with a vowel is affixed; 
60, y-jj ijtaras) a yearhecoratts ^^y.'Jl (harson), -f^^jagaK) a place, 
i^y^^ (.Jag'hon): and, on the contrary, nouns ending in 1 (a) un- 
changeable may assume i_j (y) before the affixes of the plural ; as, 
jjU ^\ («t mayo) O mothers ! from U (ma) ; ^ i^ji'jJ (dawayofi se) 
with medicineSf from 'jJ (dawa). 

6. The simple postpositions used with nouns, inflected if capable of 
inflection, are — 

For the Genitive case, ^ (Aa) ^ (Ac) ^^ Qa) of. 
For the Dative, or 1 >,,•'- , ^ 

For U.. Ac™a.,e H^**' '^^V (*^ "■■=")' "«- "■f'"'''- 

(^ («e) i^p- {sin) yy- (son) ^ (sitl) from; by, 
ji^ (par) or 4J (pa) on, at : ^^ (men) in, among. 

• yb (panw)a/oot, bee 
lion of the plural. 

i conlracted lo ^\ (pa'on) in the inflet 

the Hindustam Language, 17 

Of these postpositions^ l^ alone is liable to change^ as above noted, 
to agree with the noun to which it has reference ; and, most com- 
monly this noun follows immediately the postposition : thus, before a 

masculine nominative singular^ l^ is used; as, \Lj \^ ^\j^ (saudagar 
ka beta) the merchanfs son : before a masculine singular acted upon 
by another postposition, or before a masculine plural in every case, 

^ (*e); as,^ ^^ i^ ^}j {raja ke hathipar) on the prince's ele- 

- -^ - f^ 

pKant; i^jyp ^ ^\) (rani ke ghore) the princess's horses ; ^ ^^^ 
L5*^ ^j^U (jarkon ke hathon se) from the hands of the boys : and 


before a feminine noun in every case of each number, ^ (kt) ; as 

i^fpj iJ^y (naukar kl pagn) the servants turban ; ^J^j^ \^ J^y^ 

(ganwar kl murghiyan) the peasants hens. The rest of the postpo- 

sitions remain unchanged ; asj^ -i^ (kutteko) or ^ ^ ^^ (jcutte 

ke tain) to the dog or the dog ; j<-» ^xj {bandar se) by the monkey ; 

jjj-^ {mez par) on the table; ^j^ ^j^ Lr^ {us arse men) in that 
space of time.* 

a. Many other words, moreover, are adapted to the like postpositive 
use ; and, as some of them generally take ^ {ke), whilst others re- 
quire ^ {kl) before them, they have been termed compound postpo- 

sitions ; so, in ^^b ^ »Lljb (bads/iah kepas) near the king;j>^^ \^J^ 

{dor ke upar) at the door ; ^io^^ \^ jih (^^^^'^ *^ wasO) for the 

vizir ; ^S^ ^ i-^JjP (^^^ ^ ^g^) before the horse; ^ ^ c>-**fc) 

{dost ke Ife) for the sake of the friend ; t^f^ij ^^ j^ {ghar ke 

pichKe) behind the house ; i^Jo ^ Ssr^ {masjid ki taraf) towards 

the mosque ; j.)o i yJ^^^ {sipahl Id tarah) in the manner of a sol- 

dier : yet ^ {ke) is sometimes omitted ; as, ^y jJ {dar upar)^ 

• CS3 {takj or dakh. C^ iag\ d^ {lalak^ or ci;.;.l.. ^^S^ talag), 
<^^ \k^s)^ i-^y {^^^) ^^f V ^9 near, are alto m-.^cli used an simple 

pottpotitive wordi; so CS^ j^ \ghar lak) up to the house. 

18 A Grammar of 

(jJo \^jy$ (ghdre pas) : occasionally, moreover, words of this descrip- 

tion may precede the noun or pronoun ; as, ^J^^ tlX>*^ (nazdlk us-ke) 

near him : and two or more of the simple postpositions may occur 
together ; as, ^ ^j^ ^ (ghar men se) from within the house. It 
may be noticed, too, that with pronouns, such words require an inflected 
masculine or a feminine genitive ; so, (j^\i^ ^j^ (wc/r yds) near me, 

*— i^ S&^ ^^^^* t^^^f) ^<^^^ds thee. 

7. The vocative may be the same in form as the nominative; or, it 

may be denoted by some one of the signs xj\ (ai), sj\ (e), ^ {he), 
^ (p)y L5f"' (^0^ \J^} (pJ>^)> V. (y^)* ^^ c?;' (<*^^) before the noun 
singular, inflectedif capable of inflection ; but the usual termination in 
the plural is^ (o); and, to a plural with this termination one of the 
signs above-mentioned may be prefixed. The vocative may likewise 
be expressed by crjyb {hot), ^jj (re), or Jt {lit) afl«r the noun ; but, 
,^j\ {are) is changed to ^^j\ {art), as ^^ (re) is to c^ (r j) if applied 

to a feminine : the interjfectional words, moreover, ^JJ\ or s^J^, and ^j 
or ^j, are generally used in a disrespectful or contemptuous sense, 
and ^J as well as ^} is perhaps always so applied. So, \2^ (i^.'a), or 
^iA s^^ (^* ^^^) ^ ^^^ ' ^j^ »-^' (^ mard) O man ! ^ji ^\ (o larhe) 
^ ^^y •' Wr!; vjf;^ (^'*^ ramchera) holla servant ! ij^j ^Jfj^ (^''« 
randi) O woman! ^j\i {yard) ov •Jo i^\ {ai yard) O friends! 

8. With Persian and Arabic words, the construction and preposi- 
tions peculiar to those languages are frequently adopted. Thus, \jo 
shew the connexion between two substantives, or between a substantive 
and its following adjective, the Persian izafat may be used ; and it is 
denoted, if actually written, after a consonant by ^ (^rcr or kasr), after 
s {he) silent, or after ^ {ye) by {hamza), and after \ {alif) or ^ 

(tra'o) by ^ {ye) : so, i\Ji» ^\:^ jJL^ {mushlr-i khass-i shah) privy 

counsellor of the king ; \sS^ s^xj {banda-i khuda) servant of Ood ; 
c,,yw ^5^y^ {hau)a'e Idiuh) good air ; i\j i^l-J' {asna-e rahj midst of 

the Hindustani Language. 


the way. Aud, when two Arabic substantives come together^ or a 
substantive is followed by its adjective in the Arabic construction, the 
latter of the two words has the article J1 {at) prefixed, and they be- 
come united in pronunciation, the sign wasl being occasionally used 

in writing ; so, JuJ \ l-JII? {talibu'l-ilm) a seeker of knowledge, m 

student ; ^*\^^^J ^ ^ (jillahi-r-rahman^ to the merciful God. 

9. Declension, according to the preceding remarks, may now be 
formally exemplified ; as, with a masculine noun substantive ending 
in if {he) silent, thus — 


N. 2rjcj (banda) a slave. 

G. ^ ij ^ s^*^ ^f^ slave. 

D. ^ uS*^ to a slave. 

Ac. ^ ^*^ o, slave. 

V. s^*^ s^^ ^ slave ! 

Ab. ^-1 s^^ from a slave. 

N. 4/*^ (bande) slaves. 
^' l/ lJ ^ O^*^ of slaves. 
^' ^ c>>*^ ^^ slaves. 

Ac. ^ u^*^ slaves 

V. jJ^ ^^\ or jJ^ O ^Zat;^^ / 
Ab, j<M» (jj^Joj from slaves. 

Or, as with a masculine noun ending in \ (a) liable to inflection, 
thus — 

N. ^j^ig^ora) a horse. 
G. ^ ^^ Jjj$ of a horse. 

D. ^ ^^w ^^ ^ horse. 

Ac. / i^j*^ a horse. 

V. c/%^ ci^ or 5;^ O horse ! 
Ab. ,<M» Cj^^ /^o?* fl^ Aor^e. 

N. ^j^(ghore) horses. 
G. ^^^^^^^^ of horses. 

^' / UV^ ^^ ^^'''^^' 

Ac. ^ U^Ij^ horses. 

Ab. j^ e>x"v^ /rowi horses. 

And nouns ending in ^ {aii), the last letter being the obscure 

nasal, change that termination to*jj> (e?i) in the inflection of the sin- 

gular as well as in the nominative plural ; so ^^^ff^^ (pdnchwen), from 
^l^csrb (panchwan), fifth ; or, sometimes, to ^5 (e), as ^^^ (haniyt), 


A f rt 

mm ^< 

'trni • ' /J ) if nseft. Ji tfaeobiiaiK a 

it to ^^ (cm), 
aod ^oGuiic of the pimaL 

Or. em with a nuaeotiiie aounefBiiiis ul ' ■!;• ooc iiaUe to inflectian. 

hn« — 


G. S >'? .^. .^f*-t ^rnuir. 

— .~\ 

■ 77BM) pnMCtSm 


. ••■ 

1 ♦ 




X .7nE»ce. 

A b. <rf '.^1^ frum -i priiux. 



* . * ^^^ ' ^: or • *^ • U 

Anrt, ^rcopriiiig' to this acampie* ore aeciiDed ail maaeniiDe ooims 
enr)m<r in ^ cnnsoimnt, orin ooy n>wei luc liable to indeetioa; asyj^ 

Or, a^ vrith a femimne aoan tennmsDittc in ^c Ty dms — 



^J^ g(hhn^ a mare, 

sJj^ \^ O mart! 
ijjyf .f^^^ ^ mare. 


N., . .U ?««^i rhorium , mares, 

is. ^ ^ ^ ..v*iU of mares. 
D. «^«^ to mores. 

•^ .i*!?*^ mares. 



^I'r^ n(( with a f<MY)inine noon having aoy other tennination than 4^ 

' tUh' pnrtU'ulnt word haA hei^ri met with inflecUd like t?^ pre- 


A Grammar of 

from ^^Lj (baniym), a trader ; and they may convert it to ^^ (fin), 
and J (o) if used, in the obUque cases and vocative of the plural. 

Or, as with a masculine noun ending in \ (a), not liable to inflection, 
thus — 

N. *^|; (''5/5) princes. 
^- ^/ (^ ^ UjVb of princes. 
^* ^ c?5 Vb ^^ princes. 

Ac. j^ ^^^ U-J^ princes. 

V.^ ^"l5 <-5^ o"* J ^"1; O princes ! 
Ab. ^ jjj \p^\j from princes. 

• Singular. 

N *V1^ (''4/5) a prince. 

G. v-5^ i/ ^ ^'l; ^^ prince. 

D. j^ Isj-J^ ^o a prince, 

Ac. ^ l>-\; a prince. 

V.\>'\j fj] or l>-]^ O prince! 

Ab. j-«j 1>-J^ yrowi a prince. 

And; according to this example, are declined all masculine nouns 
ending in a consonant, or in any vowel not liable to inflection ; as,^ 
ighar) a hotise^ ^ j^ of a house j j^ hotisesy l^ (jjj;^ of houses ; 
^^\ {admi) man, \^ i^^ of man, &c. 

Or, as with a feminine noun terminating in f^ (i), thus — 

^* ^j^ (s^ort) a mare. 
G. ^ ^^^^^ of a mare. 

Ac. jJ '/I^ ^ mare. 

V. St^IH^s^^ O mare! 




rom a mare. 

^'{^^Jy^ighoriyan) mares. 

G- yj ij ^ uyj}e of mares. 
^' J^ U^J^ ^^ mares. 

^^* ^ ^y»J)^ ^ores. 

V. Jil^ S^^ ^ iware* / 

Ab. ^ uyjy^fi^^ mares. 

Or, as with a feminme noun having any other termination than ^^ 
(i), thus— 

* This particular word has been met with inflected like \j^ pre- 
ceding, though this is very uncommon. 

the Hindmtaru Language. 







ZJ^J (bat) a word, an affair. 
^ ^^l:l>\j of a word. 

^ CL^b to a word. 

^ (JL>\j a word. 


*^V s^^ O word ! 






^^\J (bathi) words. . 
v^i/^uyj'-i of words. 
^ jj,yU to words. 
^ wyV coords. 
y b 4^1 or y b O words ! 
l5^ jjyb yrom words. 

And a dissyllabic noun, which drops the short vowel of the second 
syllable before affixes beginning with a vowel, as explained at para- 
graph 6. b., might be exemplified in the feminine *yX5f- (jagah) a place, 

which becomes in the plural ^j^^^^ (/^g'^^O places, l^ \j^$^ (jag^hm 
ka) of places, Sac. 

10. The affix ^,j (on), or j (o), is often taken, in an emphatic as 
well as plural sense, by numerals, whether cardinals or aggregate, 
whether in the nominative or in some other case ; so, ^yy^ (jdonon) or 

y^J (dono), all two, the two, both ; ^y-J {tlnon) all three, j^ ci^ 
(jakhon shahr) hundreds of thousands of cities. And, the nouns of 
time, (j^ji (Jbaras) a year, L«.y^ {mahina) a month, ^^0 (din) a day, 

j^ (pahar^ a watch, not unfrequently, and for the like purpose, as- 
sume the adjunct ^j^ (j5n) ; as, u5;»iS ^y^jf (bursoti guzre) years (many) 
have elapsed; ^^ (j^^-y* (mahtnM se)for (many) months, or months 


1 1. Adjectives are generally liable to the same changes in their finals 
for gender, number, and case, as substantives: in the plural, too, 
they may assume the same adjuncts, with the exception of ^ {tii) ; 
yet when followed immediately by nouns in this number, the plural 
signs ^ (an), or ^^^ (on) are usually, though not always, omitted, the 
substantives for the most part alone retaining them, as may be ex- 

emplified in l^ ^jif^ (chhota larka) a little boy, thus 


A Grammar of 





1^3 13^ 











Ol J^. 



v/i l^J«" «/^ 




^r'L/) J^e- 




"' ™ i^^ ^^-^^^ (cAAofi farK) 

a little I 

firZ, as — . 












/ a-^ v/>r 









^3 ^V J 



The adjective, however, may occasionally stand alone, as when used 
substantively, or it may follow its substantive, in either of which cases 
it requires in the plural the aflSxes ^^ {m) or ^^^ (pfl), 

12. The ordinals of numbers are declined and used as adjectives, 
though they seem hardly capable, like the latter, of following the sub- 

stantives to which they relate ; so jb ^^ (chautkhbar) fourth time, 

ji ^)^X)*^ ^j^ (tisre darwaze par) at the third door, ISLj ^ys^\> 

{panchwan beta) fifth son, -m> J-j izji^yr^ (chhatwen bete se) from 

•• • 

the sixth son. 

13. The comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are 
denoted by means of postpositions and adverbs, or occasionally by 
redupUcation : thus, for the comparative may be used ^from, than„ 

the Hindustani Language. 23 

^j^ among, ^ ^« from among, ^ of, after the noun to which com- 
parison is made, as well as 2f jU j {ziyada) or jj\ (aur) more, \y^ great, 
^jW (^^^5) or }ij^ {zarra) a little, &c. before the adjective; so, 
L5* cj^l^ ^ L5^^ W (^^'*^ ^amJe* se bhari hai) iron from copper 
heavy is : for the superlative, such adverbs as ls.-*^ (bahutj much, 
vjuolyJ {nihayat) or ti-vJ (nipat) or ^Jl (a^i) extremely, *\^ Qiadct) 

for *X>yl f 02: ^orfd) beyond bounds, excessively, Lj ( Jtwa) mos^, very, 
Ijj (Jara) great, before the adjective; or, the expression ^ u--..%-> {sab 

se) or \^ w--^-o (^afc Aa) of all, as well as a reduplication ; so \s^^\ *^^^^ 

(bahut uncha) very high; J^ jib l!UJ {nipat hoshyar) extremely pru- 

efen^; -^2>- j^ **^V ij^^^^V^^ burijagaK) very bad place; \y^ \^ c----%-> 

(«aft AS ftara) or \ji ^ c-^-j (saJ «c bara) greatest; \^\ \^\ 


(achchhd achchha) very good, best. 

a. With Persian adjectives, J {tar) is at times suffixed for the 

comparative, as ^^Jt {ta7'ln) is for the superlative ; so jijy^ {khub^ 

^ o / / 

tor) handsomer, ^jDy>^ {jdmbtarin) handsomest, from c, ^ {khub) : 
and, Arabic forms, like fi^\ {azlam) more unjust, /%il^ {zalldm) most 
UTijust, from Ji? {zulm) injustice, may occur, though but rarely. 

14. The adjunct of similitude, U {so), ^ {se), ^ {sf) like,f 
varying in its termination to agree with the noun to which it has Re- 
ference, is much used after other adjectives, as well as after substan- 
tives and pronouns. To adjectives, which like it must be made to 
accord in gender, number, and case with the governing noun, it seems 
often to convey but httle, if any, additional meaning, though in many 
instances it corresponds to the English useful affix, — ish, and in 
others it imports a degree of intensity to the expression ; so u^\ L> l2^ 

* Observe that'j^ before c— > or c-p> is pronounced as m. 

+ ^j*j {sareka), of similar import, sometimes occurs ; and in Dakhani, 
Ix^y-j {sarlka) like, is extremely common in use. 

24 A Grammar of 

{khatta sa amJ)) a sour or sourish mango ; ^Ju^ ^--i 15^^^ (chhote se 

kele) little plantains ; !^ J ^-» j-gj^ (karwl st dawa) bitter physic ; 

jJb L> c:^ (bahut sd pant) much or very much water. 

a. Before this adjunct, substantives or pronoims become inflected, 

and its meaning is fully intended ; so, J^ Ls ^b (bagh sd mard) a 

tigei'-like man ; ^ji ^^ ^^ (ZarA? « Zarfct) a boy-like girl, ^^ .•fsr* 

jjjjl L5^^ (rnujh si achchhl larkt) a good girl like me : L-^t {aisd) 

for La (jb-\ (w-^S) like this ; Lj>j (tiyaisa) for U (j^-l (t«5-5a) KAc that ; 

and, upon the same principle, L^ (^kaisd) what-like ? Li^ (Jaisa) 

which'like? L-J (^taisd) that-like. Sometimes, however, it is sub- 
joined to pronominals in their uninflected form, when it has a discri- 

minative meaning ; as L-J^ {kaun-sd) which ? what ? what sort ofl 

LJ^ (jaun-sd) whichever, Ljy {taun-sd) that, Lj ^jS (^koH-sd) 

someone, certain person. 



15. Pronouns, in Hindustani, may be personal, demonstrative, 
common or reflective, interrogative, relative, correlative, or indefinite. 
Generally they are the same for feminine as for masculine ; yet, the 
interrogative and indefinite exhibit each two forms, and each of these 
forms is, in great part, appropriated to a distinct gender. In the 
changes for case and number, pronouns difler essentially from 
nouns ; as — 

the Hindustani Language. 


First Person. 




yj^ (mera), ^j^ (mere), 
i^j^ (mert), of me, mine. 

o p 

^ -f^ (jnujh ko), or 
(mujhe), to me, me. 

O f 

Ab. ^ .f<r« (jnujh se) from me. 


N. fjb (ham) we 


' \j\AJb (hamdra), i^^ (hama- 
re)y fc^Ui^ ihamdri) of us, our. 

AcJ (hamen) to us, us. 

Ab. ^ MJb (ham se)from us. 

Second Person. 

N. y (tu), or ^ (tain) thou. 

p rjtP (^^^5), ^jJ (tere), ^jJ 
[ (^erl) o/* Mee, thine. 

jf .^ (tujh ko), or 
Ac A (tuj he) to^thee, thee. 

V. y 4^1 (ai tu) O thou ! 




N. aj (tum) ye or yow. 

hare)y i^V*^ (^MWiAari), of 
yoM, your. 

D. [ j^ jJ (tum ko), or ^j^-^' (^wm- 
Ac.j hell) to you, you. 

9 y 

V. J) t/1 (aitwn) Oyou; 
Ab. ^ ^ (tujh se) from thee. Ab. ^ J (tum se) from you. 

Third Person. 

N. Xj (wuh) he, she, it. 

(9 9 

\^ (J^ (us ka), J C/-1 (us ke), 
or^^ ^\(uski) ofhim,her,it. 

{9 P 

f ij^ {us ko) or ^1 (use) 
to him. 

P 9 

Ac.jf^jJi (us ko),OT ^\ (use) him. 

Ab. ^ ^\ (us se) from him, &c. 

N. 4^ (we) they. 

r " 9 9 

^ iJ^ (un ka) ^ jj\ (un ke) or 

G. < 9 ^ 

<^ ^1 (un ki) of them, their. 

M y 

^- I / U^ («w ko), or ^1 (un- 
AcJ hm) to them, them. 


Ab. jv-) ^ (un si) from them. 



A Grammar of 

And the same word is declined in like manner when used for the 
remote demonstrative, a^ that, in contradistinction to which is the 
proximate demonstrative, ^^ (j/ih) this, declined as follows — 


N. •^ (yiA) this, it. 

^ ^1 (is ka), ^ (jJ (is ke\ 
or ^ (jJ\ (is ki) of this, 

D. 1 / ^' (« ko), or ^\^ (we); 

Ac. I to this, this. 

Ab. ,<«j (j^\ (is se) from this. 

N. ^cj (ye) these. 

f ^ fj^ (in ka) ^ J^ (in ke) or 
1 1/ U^ (*^ ^') ^ these. 
D. I j^ ^' (inko) or ^^1 (inAm) 

Ab. L<->^^ (in St) from these. 


Singular and Plural. 
N. c-jT (ap) self, myself, thyself, himself, ourselves, &c. 
G. \^ c-jT (op ka) yj^ c^T (5p /:e) ^ c-sT (5p fti) or Uj\ (opTia) ^^1 

(apne) ^\ (apni) of myself, &c., my own, &c. 
D. ^ c->T (dp ko) or jJ ^jjI (opne ko) to myself, &c. • 
Ac. jS^ c-^T (ap ko) or j^ ^-ij^ (apne ko) myself, &c. 
Ab. ^ LJ\(apse) or ^^ ,^1 (opne se) from myself, &c. 

This pronoun is applicable to each of the three persons, according 
to the nominative, expressed or understood, with the verb in the same 
sentence: ^j>j\ (dpaS), moreover, is frequently adopted before post- 
positions, especially in a plural sense ; so, ^^ ^jj\ (dpas men) among 


This is of two forms, the one ^^j^ (kaun) being generally applied, 
whether absolutely or adjectively, to persons, as the other L^ (kyd) is 
to actions or things ; yet, ^ (kis) the inflection of ^^^ may occa- 
sionally be applied to things ; and, L^ in the uninflected state only 

the Hindustani Language. 27 

seems fitted to precede, as an adjective, the names of inanimate ob- 
jects : so, yb ^^ tS {turn kaun ho) you who are ? ^ if^V" ^ (%^ 

chahtl ho) what desiring are you ? ;fjir^ (j-^ (Aw chlz ko) to which 
(or what) thing ? l3^ L^ {kya kaiim) what (is) to do ? j^ L^ (/cya 
chlz) what thing ? 


N. ^^ {kaun) who ? which? what? 

\^^{kis ka) J^ {kis kt) 

G. ^ 

I ^S\j^{}^sf^ofwhom\ whose? 

Dvj^ ^ {kis ko) or ^^^ {kisc) 

to whom? 
Ac. j^ fj^ {kis ko) or ^^ {kise) 

whom ? 



N. ^^{kaun)who? which? what? 
{^ J{kin kd) J J{kin ke) 

\^^^{kinkt)ofwhoml whose? 

D. S ^ {kin ko) or^j^ {kinhen) 

to whom ? 

Ac.j^^ {kin ko) or^j^ {kinheii) 

whom ? 
Ab. ^^{kin se)from whomfiic. 

Ah.^^jS {kisse)from whomfiic. 

Singular and Plural, 
N. and Ac. U^ {kya) what ? 
G. l^ ^IS {kahe ka) ^ ^l^ {kdhe ke) ^^^{kdhekz) of what 

D. ^ jJbt^ {kahe ko) to or for what ? 
Ab. j<M> ^Jbl^ (ftSAe «e) /row what ? 


Singular. Plural. 

N.^ O'o)* ^^ jj;^ {jcLun) who, 
whichy what. 

N. ^ (jo) or ^^ (Jaun) who, 
which, what. 

* In an indeBnite sense, this pronoun may be repeated; as,^^ 
(jo jo) whoever^ whatever ; li jj-^- ^r^ (ji^j*^ ka) of whichever : and, 
it is very frequently compounded with the indefinite pronoun; as, i^ y ^ 
(jo ko*t) whoever ; « ,^>Jf w^ 0** ^wi ka) of whomever ; -as? ^ 
(jo kuchh) whatever ; ^ yS ^j^ {jig kisu ko) to whatever. 


A Grammar of 


^U^ (jis ka) ^u^ (jis ke) 

L^ O^ 0*^^*) of whom, &c. 

D. 4^ ifmS^ (jis ko) or ^<--5r (jise) 
to whom. 

Ah.^(^^^m^(jisse)from whom,&ic. 


L5^ Li)^ 0'^^ *') ^ tohom, 8cc. 

Acri), to whom, &c. 

Acw), whom, &c. 
Ab.^^^(ji7i se)from whom,&ic. 



N. j«a (so) or (jy {jtauii) that, he, 

I J^ ^mJ {tis ki) of that, &c. 
D.^,^ (fw fto) or ^^«J (fwe) ^o 

Ac. j^ j^ (f w fto) or j^^ (fwe) 
Ab. ^ ^ (tis se) from that,Sic. 


N. y^ {so) or ^y (^aww) ^Aose^ they. 

{^ ^ (^i» fta) ^ Ji (tin ke) 
^ ^ {tin kt) of those, &c. 

D. j^ ^ {tin ko) or ^^^-fJ (fm- 

hen), to those, &c. 

Ac. ^ ^ (ftw fto) or ^^J^ (tin- 

hen), those, &c. 
Ab. i<-» ^ (^iw se)from them, 8cc. 


This is of two forms ; the one i^ S being more commonly applied 

to persons, as the other ^^ is to things : and, for number, each form 
a4mits of no change ; thus — 

N. j^ ^ (kd*i) a, an, any, some, 

^ ^^^ (jcisi ka) ^ ^^jS (jkisl 
ke) ,S j<-^ (fcm fci) of any. 


some, 8ic. 

N. -fj^ {kuchJi) some, a little, a few. 

^ yS (kisu ka) ySy^ {kisu 

^' < Ac) ^ yS (kisu ki) of some. 


the Hindustani Language. 29 

D. if^^jJ^Qdsi ko) to anyySome,SLc. 
Ac^ ^^^ {kisi ko) any^ some,!ic, 
Ab, ^ ^^^-1^ {kisi se) from any, 


J^.SyS {kisii ko) to some, &c. 
kc^yS (jiim ko) some, &c. 
Ab.^y^ (jdsu se) from some. 

16. In pronouns^ the genitive tenninations \j {ra) U {no) admit of 
inflection^ like l^ (45), so as to agree with the nouns to which they 
relate ; thus,^ ^j^ ^jir^ ("^^^^ g*ore 'par) my horse on ; \Jj^\4j^ . 
{ftrighdn) thy mare ; ^JoJ\^ '^ d^w^J ^\ {apnl dost ke waste) on 
account of his friend. When, however, any word intervenes between 

the pronoun and postposition, .^^ and ,^ as well as jb and jJ are 

then used with the genitive of the succeeding word ; as l^ <*HL;^ -f?^ 

" > ^^ ' "' 

(mujh gh arib ka) of poor me. ^^ and ^j ^ and ^ too, when 

separated from any postposition, may remain uninflected; as, ^if 

jJb i5-«<iT ^ **..**>-U {)iaun sahib ka adrni hai) what gentleman's ser- 

vant is itl wSjU- 1>- ^^ ^ ^J ^^ ^ (Ao7 di» ko main chala 

ja'unga) I shall depart on some day ; ^^ j^ -fsr (kuchh chiz 

9 9" 

mtn) in something. To ^ ^j>- ^ ij\ ^J^ fi (^it> the plural sign ^^ 
(on) may still be subjoined, provided that no noun having the like 

9 9 

termination immediately follows ; the finals of ^ ^^ i:^ u^ U^ (^ 
moreover may be aspirated, when used with, or without, the affix ^^ 


(on)* ; so, ^ ftJb (ham ko) or ^ {^y^ (hamon ko) to us ; ^ fS (turn 
se) or ^ ^ (tumh se) or ^ ujf^ (tumhon se) from you; 
cT^* u/!^ "^^ ^^ U^ (^^ ^^ ^^^ l^ffon men) among those people. 

C ? C9 

And, by the poets, -^jsr* and -^afr are frequently adopted in a posses- 

* The word c^^^ (sab) all^ becomes on the same principle ^j^^-^ 
(sabhbn) for the inflection of the plural. 

30 A Grammar of 

sive sense, instead of the regular genitives ; as, J J -^s^ {miijh dil) 

my heart J fjLx- .^ {tujh ishk) thy love. 



17. Verbs denote the motion or action intended in a sentence, and 
admit of two principial divisions ; verb intransitive and verb transi- 
tive ; the latter of these, moreover, may be subdivided into active and 

18. The most simple form of the verb, and which may be termed 
the root, is the imperative in the second person singular : this form, 
also, serves frequently as a verbal noun ; so, jU (mar) beat or a beat- 
ing ; Jy (boi) speak or speech; 2fl>- {chali) desire (jhou) or the 

19. The infinitive requires the addition of l3 {na) to the root ; and 
before postpositions, when the infinitive often comes into use as a 
gerund or verbal noun, this U is changed to ^J (nt) ; so, fi-om ^U beat, 

comes lijU to beat or a beating ; from Jy speak, ^^ (jpi) drink, 
ji^ ^yi {bolne par) on speaking or about to speak, ^ ^^^ {plrie 
ko) for drinking : the same inflection also takes place when the 
infinitive is in construction with certain verbs ; as, l3 ^^^ (kahne laga) 
he was applied to saying or he began to say. This termination, 
moreover, may be changed to ^J (nl) ^ (jitn) or ^U (niyan) when 

a feminine noun, singular or plural, is the object of the verb ; so, 
^^ (^bj il>j\ (ek zaban bolnt) to speak a language. 

20» The past participle is obtained by subjoining to the root, \ (a) 
c-i («) i/^ (i) ^Ji (7w) or ^^t^ (iyati) according to the gender and 

the Hindustam Language, . 31 

number of the governing noun ; so^ for a masculine noun in the singu- 
lar S^ (bola) and in the plural ^J^ {holt) ; for a feminine noun in the 
singular ^J^ {boti) and in the plural ^^ {boUn) or ^Uy {holiyan) 

spokeriy from Jy . 

a. If the root, however, ends in \ (a) or j (o) the letter ^^ becomes 
inserted before a subsequent \ (a) ; but, it may be either assumed or 
omitted when followed by an affix consisting of, or beginning with, ^5: 
so, from S (la) bring, come W (jaya), ^) (^^y^) or ^^^S (ja'e\ ^^ 
(jayt) or c^ il (/al), &c. brought ; from ^ {bo) sow, b^ (boya), ^y) 
{boye) or ^^'^ {bo'e), ^y^ {boyi) or ^5 ^ (io'O* ^C^- ^ow?n. And, 
when to roots ending in 4^, an affix consisting of, or beginning with 
t/^ (i) would regularly follow, to form the feminine of this participle, 
one of the long vowels is usually dropped ; so, ^^J (di), ^J {diii) or 

{Ji^ (diyan), from b J (diya) given ; J (Zi) ^1 {Un) or ^U (%5?i), 
from U (Ziya) toiew ; ^ {ki) ^ {kin) or ^^^ {kiyan)^ from L? 

{Mya) made, 

b. Roots consisting of more than one syllable, having any short 
vowel in the penultimate and fafha (a) followed immediately by a 
consonant in the final syllable, drop the latter vowel before all affixes 

beginning with a vowel ; hence, l^Jo {guzra) from jjif {guzar) pass ; 

\fsi*^ {samjha) fi-om .fs:^*^ {samajli) understand. 

c. The few anomalies are l^ (^ciya) gone, from Isj- (j5) ; \S {kiya) 
done, made, from ^ {kar) ; \^ {hu a) been, become, from ^ (Ao) ; 
\yo (mu^a) dead, from yo {mar) ; b J {diya) given, from v^ J (de) ; and, 
U (Ziya) tafcen, from ^J (Ze). 

* The regular forms, however, sometimes occur ; but, more especially, 


bl>. {jaya) and 1^ {mora), when used with l3^ (Ararwa) to form a 
species of compound ; and \S {^kara) under other circumstances, though 
but very rarely. 

n I • * 

32 A Grammar of 

d. When used adjectively or substantively^ this participle is often 
followed by lyb (jku^a) been, become; as se\^ lyb l^ {likha hffa 
ka gh az) the become written, or the written, paper; \^ 131^ {kata h%Ca) 
the cut. 

21. The present participle is had by affixmg to the root, b {to) ^ 


(te) ^ {ti) ^ {tin) or ^iJ (iiyan), agreeable to the gender and 
number of the governing noun; so, from *l>- {chaK) wish, come 

o c o 

liJbl>- {chahta) he wishing, ,^^52^^^ {chahti^ she wishing, ^V^^V" (^^^^ 
tiyan) they (^females) wishing : and, to adapt it for use as an adjec- 
tive or even substantive, \^ become is frequently subjoined, like as to 

the past ; so, \^ Ij^U {maria hxCa) striking, the person striking. 

22. The past conjunctive participle may be the same in form as the 
root of the verb, or it may be formed by subjoining to the root, ^^ (e)* 

^ {ke) J (kar) ^J (karke) or ^^ (karkar) ; so, ^ (kah) or ^X^^ 

(Jkahke) otJC^ {kahkar), 8cc., having said : and, from T (5) come, ^T 

(an) or ^ \ (anke), as well as the regular i or ^^ t , &c., having come. 

23. The past indefinite tense is the same in form as the simple past 

participle, explained at paragraph 20 ; so, il^ ^^ {^ain boH) I (a 


male) spoke, ^^ x^ (wuh bolt) she spoke, ^^J^ |^ (ham bolifi) we 
(females) spoke, fJ^U J f^\ (us ne mara) he or she struck, 
+ );Lo jJ ^\ (un ne mara) they (males or females) struck. 


* With this affix, verbs become generally the same as for the inflected 

past participle masculine singular ; so, 4^^ (hii'e) from jtb (ho\ ^^-^ 

(kiyc) from J (kar\ ^J (dlye) from ^J (dt\ ^J (liye) from ^ (le). 

+ Before transitive verbs in any past tense, viz. any tense formed with 
the past participle in the active voice, the particle fj (ne) at once fol- 
lows, or is affixed to, the noun or pronoun denoting the agent, which, if 
not the first or second personal pronoun, is inflected before' it, if capable 

the Hindnstanl Language. 33 

a. The pluperfect or past past tense is obtained by adding the 
auxiliary past to the past participle ; as^ ^7 ^^ ^^ (maiTi hola tha) 
I had spoken,* Iff \jfi^. f ^yt^^^ ^ kJ ^ {turn ne do admiyon ko 
hlieja tha) you had sent two men, 

b. The past definite or past present tense is had by the addition of 

the auxiliary present to the past participle ; as, ^ !t^ y (ju bold hai) 

^ o c «• •• 

thou hast spoken ; *^Jb l^J ^ ^jj^V ij ^, (billi ne baghon ko dekha 
hat) the cat has seen the tigers. 

c. The past future is obtained by the addition of the auxiliary 

future to the past participle ; as, ^^ or t^j^yb ^Jy »^ (wuh bolt howe 

or hogi) she may (shall or will) have spoken, or she might (should or 

would) speak ;* uj^^ or c/j^^ ^; j^ f^j^\ (unkon ne rakha howe or 
hawega) they may (shall or will) have placed, or might (could or 
would) place. 

of inflection ; the verb being made to agree with its object, provided this 
be, as is most customary, in the nominative case : when, however, the 
object is placed in an oblique case, or is not ^ word but a sentence, the 
verb is then invariably constructed as the third person masculine singular. 

Thus, \j\^ ^y^ ^^ {^. (billt ne chuha mdra) the cat killed the rat ; 
i^to \^^ ^ -p^V (*%^ ^^ ghort mart) the tiger killed the mare ; 
i<f^ ^J^ 7^^ iV ^^y^ (saudagar ne panch ghord beche) the 
merchant sold Jive horses ; ]j^ y ^J^ l^ u^^- (baghon ne ghori ko 
mar a) the tigers killed the mare ; c^U^ lS^^ (^ Wt^ Li^ c)^^ 
yb i^jI (larkon ne puchhd turn kaun^st kitdb parhtt ho) the boys 

askedy what book are you (female) reading?** In the Dakhani of 
Madras, however, though ^ is often used, it does not interrupt the 
agreement of the verb with the nominative or name of the agent ; whilst 
the dialect of Bombay conforms to that of Hindustan in this respect as 
well as in most other particulars. 

* See note + on the foregoing page. 

34 A Grammar of 

d. The past conditional or optative is formed by the addition of the 
present indefinite of the verb jJb {ho) be, become, to the past participle 
of the verb conjugated, with a conditional or optative adverb, ex- 

pressed or understood, in the same sentence ; so, b^ S^ ^/-^jT^ {agar 

main bola koto) if I had spoken ; \i^ IjT ii^^\ (agar wuh aya hdta) 

C 9 

if he had come ; IJyb |^U ^j^\ fj^ (hash us-ne mara hdta) would to 
God he had struck ! It may be noticed, moreover, that v^^hen any 
plural feminine form of the auxiliary verb ^, terminating in ^ (w) or 
^j\ {an), is used in construction with participles preceding, these 

commonly drop the like plural signs ^ (n) or ^ {an) ; as, ^^Jb ^J^ ^ 
{ham boll hain) we {females) have spoken ,• ^^^Jcj^ ^^ ^)^ sft (*^^ 
marl ga'i ho'engln) they {females) may have been struck: yet, some- 
times, they are retained; as, ^^ ^J^ji (^ {ham boliyan hain) we 
{females) have spoken, 

24. The present indefinite tense is the same in form as the present 

participle, already explained at paragraph 21 ; so, UjjJ ^j^ {main 
daurta) I {a male) run ; ^\ Sj {wuh att) she comes ; i^^ (^ {ham 
jate) we {males) go ; ^j-J^ /^ {tum boltin) ye {females) speak.* 
a. The imperfect or present past tense is obtained by adding the 


auxiliary past to the present participle ; as. Iff \i^ ^j^ {main likhta 
tha) I {a male) was writing ; ^j^ i<^ji ^3 {wuh parhtt tht) she was 
reading ; ^^^ ^jJy w {tum boltl thin) ye {females) were speaking.f 

* The present indefinite tense, moreover, with a conditional con- 
junction or adverb of wishing, expressed or understood, is much used to 

convey the sense of a past conditional or optative ; as, 2r^ y \s^y^ t»fi^^^ 


li^ {agar main boUd to wuh likhta) if I should speak j then he would 

write ; yet such sentences when rendered word for word are intelligible, 
if I speak J then he writes, 

-f When one or more feminine participles precede an auxiliary verb in 
the plural, the plural sign ^^ (n) or ^^\ {an) is generally omitted in all 

the Hindustani Language, 36 

b. The present definite or present present is formed by the addition 
of the auxiliary present to the present participle ; so, ^^ Ujj J ,j-^ 
(main daurta hun) I (a male) am running ; ^Jb ^t y {tu ati hat) 

thou {a female) art coming. 

c. The present future is had by the addition of the auxiliaiy future 

to the present participle ; so, Ix}^^ or ^^yfe ^ji c;?^ (main parhta 
ho*un or Kffunga) I (a male) may {shall or will) be reading; 
tSi^^ or lS^^ ^^ ^ (wuh gati howe or howegi) she may {shall or 

toilt) be singing. 

25. The future indefinite or aorist* is obtained by affixing to the 
root, for the first, second, and third persons singular of either gender, 
jj^ {un) ,^ {e) i^ (c), and for the like persons of the plural, ^^ {en) 

^ (^) c;i (^») ; so, ^jj/ ^^ {main karun) I may do, ^J y {tu kart) 
thou mayest do, i^ ^j {wuh kare) he (or she) may do ; ^^ ^ {ham 

karen) we may do, j^ w {tum karo) ye may do, ^^^ ^^ {wt karen) 
they may do : and, in a more strictly future sense, by subjoining IT 
(g«) v/ (g^) Ls^ (gO v:r^ (g^«) or ^l/ (giyow), agreeable to the 
gender and number of the goveraing noun, together with the afore- 
mentioned affixes, to the root ; so, \Joj U- ^^ {main ja'unga) I {a 
male) will go, ^^^^\ *j {wuh awlgi) she will come, ,<^^v^ f^ {ham 
kahenge) we {males) shall say, ^j^^^ ^ {ham kahengln) we 
{females) shall say. 

but the final auxiliary, as above exemplified ; yet, sometimes, though but 
rarely, the participle retains it, as ^Uf^ i^^j{ (^ {ham boltiyan thVan). 

* This form serves for a subjunctive mood, and has occasionally an 

indefinite present meaning ; so, ^,^ \s>^ ^^-^ y i^jl 5^ {wuh awe to main 


ja'un) {if) he should come^ then I shall go ; ^J ^w ^^^ \*^^ {khuda 
chahe so kare) {what) God wills^ that he does. 

36 A Graitmar of 

a. To such verbal roots, however, as end in \ (a) j (o) ^ (e) or ^^^ 
(i), the letter J may be optionally affixed, or not, before every future 
terminatioQ begioniDg with i^ (e) ; so, fmm 1 come, may be formed 
^fjT {awe) ^jT iflwU), &c. ; from _jJ mw, Jtif. {howegl) jjj^^ji 
(Jiowhigiyan) : iind, on the contrary, verbs ending in i^ (e) or j 
(o) may admit of contraction or elision ; so, ^^j^ {dc'un) or |^jJ (diiw) ' 
(/} may give; ijji>> {dewe) or i^J {de) (Ac or she) may give; 
lijiJ (de'unga) or \£jJ (duiiga) (/) sAai/ gire ; jjJ (tffi'o) or jJ (do) 
(ye) may give ; ^;J^'J (diwen) or ^^.jJ (rftw) (we or (Aey) moy gice; 
^jjy* (/io'aw) or ^^_Ja (Aom) (/) may be ; ^jfS, (Aoioe) or ^/yt (Ao'e) 
or ^ (Ao) (thou or Ae or sAe or i() may become ; ^jS:^_j^ (Aoit-tngiri) 
or ^pXjy> (A5'e«g?«) or f^j>> (kongln) (we or lAey females) shall 

become; ^JJ^ (/e'fia) or ^^ (lUn) (/) may take; ^jj-l (/i^te) or ^J 
(/r) (Ae or sAe) may lake ; j-1 (/?'o) or j) (ffi) (ye) may (aAe. 

b. Roots of more than one syllable, having a short vowel in the 
penultimate and fat'ha (a) in the final, drop the latter vowel when the 
signs of the future are subjoined ; so, lii^lXJ (niklHirga) from Jij 
{nikal) issue ; lk;jiS (gwsrrga) tiomj^ {guzar) pass. 

26. The imperative for the second person singular is the mere root 
of the verb ; and, for the second person plural, it is fonned by adding 
} (o) to the root; so, Jy (bol) or Jy y {tH 65/) speak thou; Jyi 
{bolo) or j!^ -J (turn bold) speak ye. The other persons of each 
number may be the same as in the aorist ; so, y_ij!jJ ^^j^ {main bolun) 
I may speak, or {if} I may speak ; ^j> tj {wuk bole) {if) he or she 
may speak : yet, to express the impralive sense in these persons, the 
verb ^^J (tie) giee {thou), or in the plural jJ {do), or in the respectfid 
form ipfK^J \dijiye) be pleased to give, OTjfS!.J {dijiyo) you must give, 
is more commonly used, like the English " let" ; so, i^J ^^jt ^ .far* 
{miijh kd bolw (If) let me speak ; |«-^J ^j* ^^ (««? io/nr dijit/e) 

the Hindustam Language, 37 

be pleased to let him (or her) speak ; j^isdo ^<Jy j^\ (tin-kd bolne 

dtjiyo) you must let them speak. 

a. In this mood of the verb, moreover, and of very frequent use, is 
the respectful or precative form ^ ^ (lye) or in a future sense Ixjj ^ 
{iyega)f which some honorific term, such as c-^T (5p) self {you, Sir), 

Qiazrai) the presence, t-.**>-U> (jahib) the lord or mobster, &c., 
generally precedes; so, ,<J^ c-)t (op holiye) he pleased. Sir, to 
«/>eaA ; iCj^ u-M (op lyiyega) you. Sir, will be pleased to take : 
but, the termination ^ ^ (iyc) is at times adopted impersonally, and 
as an indefinite future or present ; so, ^ J ^ jLj««j y l$L^ j^ ^ 
l5^.^^ \J^ 0'^ mar j*5%e ^o «a?war fte </u&A «c chhutiye) when one 
dies, then one escapes from the trouble of the world; j<-aI>* {chahiye) 

one should desire, {one must). And, to give intensity to the impera- 
tive sense, or to express command respectfully, or even with a precative 
or future meaning, the termination ^ ^ {iyo) comes, also, frequently 

into use ; as, ^U l^ 1^ {mtra kaha maniyo) mind my saying ; 
jj^ i%Uj \jf^ ^Cuil {us'ko mera paigham boliyo) speak to him my 
message; jJbj (j:^^5L>jli \j^ (mera yar salamat rahiyo) may my 
friend remain in safety ' ; ji ^^ r« (mar ja'iyo) may you die. After 
words ending in ^^ ^ (?) or^ (o), too, it must be noticed that the affixes 
Ji ^ (iye) or iL ^ (iyega) and ^ ^ (iyo) become ^jJ>- (jiye) or ^^ 
0«)» ^4;*r ijiy^ga), jipr (jiyo) or ^ (jo) ; so, ^isrJ cjT (ap 
dijiye) be pleased, Sir, to give ; lC>j.yi^ c^.^-U (§ahib ktjiyega) the 
gentleman will be pleased to do ; ^^j^ to)l (azma lijiyo) you will take 
(and) try. Before these terminations, we may add, the roots jJb (ho) 
f (kar) u^J (de) J (le) usually become^ (Am) ^ (ki) ^^J (di) ^J 
(^!J; so, ,aP:^ (.hujiye) j-as^ {kljiyo) ^-aero (dijiye) j-saJ (Zyt- 

5. Another way of expressing an absolute command is by the use 

38 A Grammar of 

of the infinitive; as, \j\ i^*^^ ^ {tumjaldi aria) you (are) to come 
immediately ; U^ ^ ^\ (us-ko na kahna) not to tell him. 

c. In a prohibitive sense, c:*^ {mat) is generally used before the 

verb ; as, j^jU {j:^>^ ^\ (us-ko mat maro) do not beat him ; ^ ^ 

J .J c^^ {turn kuchh mat bold) do you not say anything ; ob [^/^^ 

- ♦» ^ 

»jiMi <^.^>c (tt^-fti bat mat suniyo) hear not his word : for the like pur- 

pose, however, <U (jia) may occasionally be adopted ; so, ^^j^jf J J <0 13 

(Zag5 na dil ko kahin) place not the lieart (or affection) anywhere. 

27. A transitive verb is formed from an intransitive, or a causal 
from a transitive, by the addition of \ (a) or \^ (wa), and sometimes of 
^ (o) to the root, the vowel of the primitive, if long, being frequently 
shortened before those additions ; so, Lj- (Jala) burn (transitively), 

Ijicj- (jalwd) cause to burn (by another), from J^ (jal) bum (intran- 

sitively), be burnt ; 5b> (hila) move (transitively), Ijljb (hilwa) cause to 

move (by another), from Jjb (Jiit) move (intransitively), be moved ; 5b 

(bula) call, \^ (bulwd) cause to call (by another), from J^ (bol) 

it "6 

speak ; yJ (dubo) drown, fit)m s->^*^ (dub) be immersed or drowned ; 

•^ (bhigo) wet, steep, from <^/-f^ O^Kig) be wet: and if the primitive 

root end in \ (a) ui ^ (i) c5 («) or^ (o), the letter J (Z) is to be inserted 

before the transitive or causal sign, the vowel being shortened ; so, 

1^ (khila) feed, \yi^ (khilwa) cause (another) to feed, from \p (kha) 

cat; h (pila)give to drink, \jb (pilwa) cause (another) to give to drink, 

from jP (pt) drink ; Sj (dila) cause to give, ^ J (dilwa) cause (ano- 

ther) to cause to give, from i^J (de) give ; ^ J (dhula) cause to wash, 

l^j (dhulwa) cause (another) to cause to wash, from jJbJ (dho) 

a. In other cases, these verbs are obtained by lengthening, if short, 
the vowel of monosyllabic, or the last vowel of dissyllabic, roots ; as, 
<il^ (kit) cut, from «J^J (kaf) be cut ; Ju^ (chhed) bore, from Jk^r>. 


the Hindustani Language. 39 

(chhid) be bored; J*^ (g^ol) dissolve (tmasiiively), from J^ {ghul) 
be dissolved; J^ (jor) join, from J^ (jwr) be joined; J\x3 (nikai) 
make issite, expel, from Jij (nikal) issue : yet, when the termination 
Ij (ira) is used, the short vowel of the primitive remains ; as, \^ 


{kahoa) cause {another) to cut ; \^ (nikalwa) cause to be expelled, 


b. In a few mstances, especially if the root be a monosyllable ter- 
minating in an aspirated consonant^ either \ (a) or 2t (la), as before 
described, or very rarely J I (al) may be added to form the causal ; 

so, l^J (jdikha) or l^t^{dikhla) shew, from ^d (dekh) see; ^Ci {sikha) 
— • X 


or i^ {sikhld) teach, from .^C.^ (^iftA) learn ; \^ (&if Aa) or &^ (bithla) 

or JlfSjj (baithal) seat, from -^ (baitJi) sit ; Jl^ (paithal) cause to 

m^^, from ..^ (paith) enter, the long vowel being continued in the 
syllable before J1 (5Z). On a principle nearly analogous, too, are 

formed 1^3 (jiahla) cause to bathe, and |^ly3 (nahalwa) cause to cause 
to bathe, from ly3 (jnaha or nAa) ftaM^ : and, a very few causals seem 
to deviate more from analc^; as, ^ (bech)sell, from u-^ (bik) be 

sold ; j^^ {chhor) let go, from vJ^-^ (chhut) be let go ; Jf^ iphor) 

and Jf\^ (phar) break or burst, from <-2^j^ (pf^ut) and ti^ iphat) be 

broken ; jy {tor) break, from <-2^P (^m,0 ^^ broken ; %*J {niber) finish, 

from JJ (wiftor) 6e ^cfee/. 

c. In dissyllabic roots, the short vowel of the last syllable, if it be 
fafha (a), is dropped when \ {a) but not when \<^ {wa) is suffixed ; so, 

\fsi*^ {samjha) inform, from -f«s*^ {samajh) understand; l^ (^aria) 

fRot?6, and 1^^ {sarakwa) cause to move, from CS^ {sarak) be moved ; 

ly^ {bahla) amuse, from Jl^ {bahal) be amused. 

28. Compound verbs may be formed in various ways. If regard 
be had to the structure of the words, a compound may be obtained, 
firstly, by the addition of some verb, regularly conjugated, to a sub- 


A Grammifr of 

6t[uitive or adjective, which remains itncbanged as a masculine eJDgu- 
lar uninflected ; secondly, by the addition of a verb, regularly conju- 
gated, to the root, or the infinitive, or the past participle, or the pre- 
sent participle of another verbj and, thirdly, by the construction of 
two verbs, both admitting the usual changes of conjugation : and, 
verba of this description may, according to their import in English, be 
arranged under particular terms, as follows : — 

1st, Nominalsjso, ^S lsjU {bat karna) to discourse; Ijjf c^^ 
(shuri^ karna) to begin ; U^ j\> {yad rakhna) to recollect ; liJ J^ 
{viol Rna) to purchase ; lJ_jVo i^y. (ghota mama) to dive; U^ *UJ 
{tamdm karna) to finish ; Ijyb l;j> (purd kond) to be complete. 

2nd. Intensives ; as, Uj J JjJ {bol dxna) to declare ; U' J j^J {de 
ddlna) to give away ; \iJ J Jl J (ddl dcnd) to throw away ; U!'j Ju 
(^mdr ddlna) to kill downright ; liU^ l^ (khdjdiM) to eat up; 'jJ'jS 
igir pornd) to fall down ; U'j 'y (tor ddlna) to break to pieces ; 
Ufl J^ {bol vlhTia) to speak out ; IjU- T (a jdnd) to come suddenly. 
3rd. Potentials, formed by the addition of \iL^ {sakna) to be able, 
to the root of another verb ; so, bJL ^Cl \likk saknd) to be able to 
vtrite ; Ud J*- {chal saknd) to be able to walk.* 

4th, Completives, formed by adding bila- {chuknd) to be finished, 
to the root of another verb ; as. Iris, j {pt chitkna) to have done 
drinking ; UC>- \^ {khd chuknd) to have finished eating. 

6th. Inceptives or Inchoatires, formed by the addition of 'iJj {lagna) 
to come in contact, to be applied, to begin, to the inflected infinitive 
of a verb ; as, US ^y {bolne lagna) to begin to speak ; 12 ^^ 
{kahhe lagd) he began to say ; Ifl ls^V (parkne laga) he began to 

* Sometimes, however, especially in Dnkhanl, l:Xw intiy lie 
will) an inflected infinitive, or even tin uninflecled one. 

the Hindustani Language. 41 

reiul^ and; sometimes, though but rarely, IG precedes ; as, ^U. l^ 
{lagajanc) he began to go,* 

6th. Permissives, formed by adding Lj J {dena) to give, to let, to 
permit, to an inflected infinitive ; as, LjJ ^vW" (jane dena) to permit 
to go; liJJ ^Jl (awe dena) to let come. 

7th. Acquisitives, formed by the addition of lib (pana) to get, to 
acquire, to an inflected infinitive ; as,.l3U ^\ (^anepana) to be allowed 
to come; lib ^bj- (jane pana) to be allowed to go. 

8th. Desideratives, Requisitives, and Proximatives, formed by adding 

bj^l>- (chdhna) to desire, to require, regularly conjugated, to the past 
participle of a verb, which remains unchanged in the state of the 
masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of the governing 
noun may be ; so, ItoU- L« (mara chaha) or ^^Ij- ]j^ (mard chdhi) 

he or she wished to die, or was about to die ; l:Jbl>- bl^ (jdyd chdhna) 

to wish to go, to be about to go ; bjbl>- l^ (likhd chdhna) to wish to 

write, to be about to write.-]; In this compound, the regular past 
forms \yc (mara) and bbj- (jdya) are preferred, as in the examples 

above, to the more common \yc (mu^a) and \S (gaya). 

9th. Frequentatives, formed by the addition of U^ (karna) to do, to 
make, to the past participle of a verb, which is invariably used as an 
joninflected masculine singular, whatever the gender and number of 

the governing noun may be ; so, b^ bt (dyd karna)) to make aprac- 

tice bf coming ; b^ l^ (likhd karnd) to make a practice of writing ; 

b^ b W (jdyd karna) to make a practice of going. In this com- 

poimd, too, like as in the last described, bbj- is preferred to Ls. 

* In Dakhani, especially in poetry, the verbal noun in ^ (an) may be 
used with bif) ; as U^ (J[^ ^^ began to open. 

+ In Dakhani, or even in Hindustani occasionally, an inflected in- 


finitive, or in Dakbani even an uninflected one, may precede bjbl>». 


42 A Grammar of 

10th. Continuatives, formed by adding Ul>^ (jana) to go, or \uibj 
(rakna) to remain, to a present participle made to agree in gender 

and number with the governing noun ; so, UU- laJ^ (boltajana) to go 

on speaking (a male) ; lub; IjIsj- (jata rahna) to keep ^oing, to go 

entirely away (a male) ; ^Jb 15^ V l$*)J (^^^* j^^^ ^^0 *^^ S^^^ ^^ 
weeping ; ^ J^U jJi.jj {parhte jate hain) or ^ ^j zi,y^ 
{parhte rahte hain) they (males) continue reading. 

11th. Statisticals, formed by adding a verb regularly conjugated, 
to a present participle used invariably as an inflected masculine singu- 

lar ; so, liU- ^J^ (bolte jana) to go (in the state of one) speaking ; 


^Jb ^1 ^Jfli (gate atl hai) she comes (in the state of one) singing; 

L5^ UjjJ ^jj (ro^e daurtd hai) he runs (in the state of one) weeping, 
12th. Reiteratives, formed by using together two verbs regularly 

conjugated ; as, l:Jl>- U^ (bolna chalna) to converse ; Ul^ W^.^ 
(dekhna bhalna) to see. 


29. Verbs may be derived from either substantives or adjectives, by 
affixing the verbal signs only in some instances ; or, more commonly, 
by shortening the vowel of the original, if long, and inserting \ (a) 

or ^ (iya) before those signs : so, ^V[^ (chaurana) to widen, from. 

\j^ (chaura) wide; UUJ (latiyana) to kick, from izJi (Ht) a kick; 

ULlS (galiyana) to abuse, from ^Is (gdii) abuse ; \j\p^ (jutiydna) 

to beat with ^^ O^ff) a slipper. 


30. The Passive voice is formed on the past participle of an active 
verb, by the addition of l3U- to go, both parts of the compound being 
made to agree in gender and number with the governing noun ; so, 

LTJ^U ^^ (main mdra gay a) I was struck ; ^^^ \j\>- ]^U ^-^ (main 

mdrd jdtd hun) I am struck; l^^U- \;U ^^ (main mdrd jd^Ungd) 

the Hindustani Language. 43 

I shall be struck; ^^^ i^j^ y^^ {larkt mart jawegt) the girl will 

be struck. 


31. The auxiliaries,* used in forming the definite tenses of verbs, 

are to denote the 




I was. 

t (^Aa)lff 

y thou wast. 
% x^ he was. 



AJb we were. 


w ye were. 
^3 ^Acy were. 


9 ^ 

(jiun) ^yb ^^ I am. 
{hai) ^ y thou art. 


(jiai) jJh i^ he is. 

(jiain) ^jfJb Mib we are. 

II (Ao)yb J ye are. 

(hain) ^ ^^ they are. 

Aorist or Future. 


(hon) ^^ or, (^ho'un) ^^^ ^Ji^ I 1 ^ 

>r, (hd*e) ^^^ or, {howe) t^^^y thou ) »« '^ 

{ho) yb or, 

op I ;5s 

{ho) yb or, {hd*e) ^*yb or, {howe) (jTj^ *^ he/she] | 

* Which are, also, the substantive verb, answering lo the English fte, 
am^ art^ t>, are, 200^, roast ^ were. 

• + The above is for the masculine gender : with a feminine nominative, 
it would be^^ff {thi)^ and in the plural % ^j^ {thin) or jjW* {^hTan) ; 
in Dakhani) the latter only. 

§ Dakh. 2rj {wall) or ^ (o), &c. 

Dakh. ^tjJb *j (^u/;i W^) as in the two other persons. 


A Grammar of 

(hon) ^^ or, (Ao'ew) ^'yb or, (howen) ^^j^ j*A we 

* (Ao) ^ or, (Ao'o) ^^ (J ye 
(Ao/i) ^^yb or, (Ao'ew) ^*yb or, {howen) ^^yb ^^^ Mcy ^ 

+ (hunga) \£yb or, (Ao'iinga) Ifi^yb ^^j*^ / 
(Aoga) li^b or, (A5*ega) \xjyb or, (Aoic^cga) l^yb y M<w 
(Aoga) \Syb or, {ho^ega) ^jyb or, (Aoirega) ^^fb x^ he 





o c 

J (jidngc)^ybox{hfflngt) ^JL^ yb or {howenge)^I:j^^ ijb we 

(ji5ngi)^^or{hfflngi)^S^ t^^ they 

Conditional or Optative. 





{hota) \j[^ 

^^ I become. 

y thou becomest. 

x^ he becomes. 

Jb we become. 

(^hote)^^ \ J ye become. 

(^ they become* 

o / 

* Dakh. jj^ or ^^yb or ^^,Wb fJ like as in the other two persons. 
Remark that the ^ in all these forms is the soft nasal letter \n). 

+ For the feminine, the termination IT (go) becomes ^ \gt) in thd 


J For the feminine, this termination ^jT (ge) becomes ^^ (g«A) or 

^Lr(gryJn) in the plural ; and the latter only in Dakhani. 

§ Dakh. ^Xjj^yb (Aotrenge), &c., like as in the first and third persons. 

the Hindustani Language. 


32. The intransitive verb UW (jana) to go, is much used in form- 
ing the passive voice of transitive verbs, as well as in other compounds 
and it is conjugated as follows, for the masculine gender. 

Imperative for the second person singular, or The Root. 

(Jo) U go. 

Infinitive and Gerund, 
(jane) ^^ or, (^jana) UU- to go, going. 

Past Participle. 

lybl/ or, (gaya) Us | 
(gaya hu'a) J 


p *<- 


*x ^ 

s? V L5^ or, {gai) ^ 
(ga^ htCe) 


Present Participle. 

U tf V or, (Jati) tfVl . 


(jata hVa) 

^y^ J\^ or, {jatl)d\pr\ . 
(jafe hue) J 

Pflw^ Gwytincfiuc Participle. 
Singular and Plural. 

CO ^ 

Pa5^ Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

ftib we went. 

\^^ I went, 
(gaya) \J \ ^ thou wentest. 

if^ he went. 

4^ they went. 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 


^^ I was gone, 
thou wast gone. 
a^ he was gone. 

^ we were gone. 

J ye were gone. 

t^ they were gone. 


A Orammar of 

Past Definite or Past Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

^^^[^ ^^ lam gone. j ^^ ^ ^ we are gone. 

f <- 

*<. 9 

^ U> ^ thou art gone. *^ ^^ aJ ye are gone. 

^Jb Ls 2rj Ae is gow€. 

Pas^ JPttftire TTjTwe. 

c ^^ i^will have gone, 
^jjjtoLs », Ac J^c. go. 

may, sAaZZy or 
will have gone, 
^c. or might, 
&c. go. 


l^ «ijh Ls J M 

y^ 9 

shall, will, or 
may have gone; 
or, might, ^c. 



ishall, will, or 

o .»^ / [may have gone; 
t^5^>^/r'"y^ (or, wigA^, ^c. 

Jn^^s^^^iJ^^y) so- 
Past Conditional or Optative Tense. 


ijf^ would to 

^ God, I, ^c., 

\^ had gone; ox, 

J Men /, ^c, 

, should have 

gone, ^c. 



If, would to 
^'S God,we,^c., 



J ?v; 

had gone; or, 
J> Men ti?e, ^c, 
^ should have 

gone, ^c. 

^ *-*. ^ 

*<. / 

*•<, / 

But the conjugation of Dakhani verbs varies in many particulars from 
the proper Hindustani, as may be seen in the Short Grammar of the 
Dakhani," appended to the author's more extended ^ Grammar of the 
Hindustani Language." 

the Hindustani Language, 


Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 



y thou goest. 
\ *^ ^^ goes. 


fiSb we go. 


f ye go. 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

/ -^ 


^^ / was going, 
thou wast going, 
he was going. 

we were going. 

i^ l5^ • \ ^ y^ ^ere going. 
t^ they were going. 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

" y 9 

^ IjfU- x^ he is going. 

yj^ ^y ^- (^^ ^« a^^ going. 


yb jvW" f^ y^ ^^e going. 

Present Future Tense. 


U^^ UIp- ^^^ / 

may, shall, 

^.^\3\>'^thou W ^^^^ *^ 


/nay, ^Aa/Z, 
»or t(727Z &^ 

\^j^ l^'V cT* ^ ^ 5A«Z^, i^iK, 

€j^^\j\^^thou W "^^y *« 

l/h!J^ ^Ip- ^ t(?e shall,will, 

•I ' 

'^ This form of the verb, if a conditional conjunction or an adverb of 
wishing accompanies it, may be used in the sense of a conditional or 
optative, like the tense immediately preceding : see paragraph Uy note *• 


A Grammar of 

Future Indefinite or Aorist. 
Singular. Plural. 


(jawe) i^^y thou 
(jawe) v/jW ifj he or she 

(Jawen) ^,^^ f^ we 

jW- ^y^ 

CO tuo ^ 

(jawen) ^^^Ip- ^^ the^ I *§ §^ 

Future Indefinite Tense. 

(ja'Mga) l^^U ^-^ / 


(jawega) l^jV 2r^ ^« ^ 



(jawtnge)^^^\^ ^ we 
(J^'oge) J^\ ^ ye 
{jawengl)^^j^^^they] ^ 


ija'un) ^j V cr* ^ ^^y S<^> ^^^ 

me go. 

(ja) ^ y go thou, 
(jawe) ^^ ^ Ut him or her 

(jawen) ^^^^ ftt^ we may go, let 

us go, 

(jSo) ^ V (^" g^ y^' 

(jawen) ^^^ V *A ^^ ^'*^^ S^* 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 



yoUy Sir, or yowr excellency, §fc. may, 
r^^ ^^AaZZ, or will go ; or, may you, Sir f go ; 
may your excellency, ^c.go. 

{JaHyega) iL V 

(j^^iy^) L^'^ w?^ 'way, ^AaZZ, or tirfZZ go ; or, may we go. 

Z' / 


y ^AoM mayest, shalt, or m?i7^ go ; or, go thou. 

if^ he may, shall, or will go ; or, may he go. 

aJ ye may, shall, or tt?iZZ go ; or, go ye. 

sft ^^^ w*fly> «AaZZ, or u?iZZ go ; or may they go. 

For the feminine gender, the masculine singular final \ (a) of the 
infinitive, the participles, the auxiliaries, and the future, as above 

the Hindustani Language. 


described, must be changed to ^ (?) in that number, and to ^^ ^ 
(tfi) or jjb ^ (iy5») for the plural ; but, where two or more feminine 
plurals come together, it is usual for the last only to take the numerical 
8^ U W ^^ \J^ (5^)> the preceding participle or participles being 
constructed in the femmine singular form : sometimes, however, the 
plural termination is repeated, as shewn at note to par. 24. a. 
33. Conjugation of a regular transitive verH for the masculine gen- 

der, exemplified in U;U {marna) to beat or strike. 


Imperative for the second person singular ^ or The Root. 

(mar) jU leaty strike. 

Infinitive and Gerund, 
{mame) ^J^ or {mama) U^U to beat, beating. 

Past Participle. 

|yb l^U or, (mara) l^U beaten, 
(mara hffa) 


* fi 

S^y^ tj^U or, (mare) i^j^ beaten, 
(mare hu'e) 

Present Participle. 

\yb \jjV< or, (marta) \jjVc beating, 
(marta hu'a) 

^J^U or, (marte) y^^< beating. 

•* " t- 9 

(marte hu'e) ,^yb 

o o 

Past Conjunctive Participle. 
Singular and Plural. 

A^J^ or ^AJ^J>J^ L^J^ ^J^J^ having beaten. 

Past Indefinite Tense. 

(mara) IjU 

^ y t^OM beatedst. 

(mara) IjU 

* ^ Mifb we beat. 

* See the note to paragraph 23, for the reason of (his particle in con< 
struction with the past tenses of transitive verbs. 



A Granmtc-^of 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 

9 <> U y 

^j^Ihad beaten. 

thou hadst beaten. 


\ he had beaten. 

Vb^ • 



^ Jbwe liad beaten, 
_3 aJ ye liad beaten. 


(V ^ ^^ ^^ beaten. 

Past Definite or Pa^t Present Tense. 


have beaten. 

L5* y^ ^ L^ y thou hast beaten. 
^ /i*it he has beaten. 

1^ Mibwe have beaten. 
^ fSye have beaten. 
^J ^ they have beaten. 

Past Future Tense. 


f ^ " \n4iyf shall 
Vs (J^ lor will have 

1 ^^thout^^^^^i^^* 
I i» might, ^c, 



^^ J^they 

may, shall 
heaten; or, 




shall, will 
or may have 

J ^thout^^^^^> ^^f 





^yb\jlc i 



shall, will 
or may have 

^ pye Weaten; or, 
9 ^hould,^c., 
. J J ^^mbeat. 

^^ IjU 

^ Ij!^ 



Past Conditional or Optative Tense. 

If, would to I 
^ God, I, 8rc., ^ ^ 

v!/ had beaten ; , , . , p 

^then I, ^c, ' ^ ^ T 

If, would to 



,^ would have 
beaten, ^c. 


had beaten ; 

J then we, ^c, 
,^ would have 
beaten, ^c. 

the Hindustani Language, 


Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. I Plural. 


^^ I beat. 
y thou heatesU 
i^ he beats. 


^ we beat. 
J ye beat. 
^ft ^Aey beat. 

\^ \jX^ 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

^jf^ I was beating, 
y thou wast beating. 
K^ he was beating. 



1^ we were bating. 

J ye were beating. 

^3 ^^^ ^^^ beating. 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

^^ UjU ^j0^ I am beating. 
^jb \jjl^y thou art beating. 
^ l^U «j he is beating. 

yb ^Jj^ f^ ye are beating. 
^^ ^j^ t/j they are beating. 

Present Future Tense. 


uj^ ly^U ^^ I 

may, shall 

^^ Ij^U y thou or will be 

s&y^ ^^'^ *-? ^« 


c c 

may, shall 
► or M?i7Z be 


> / <» 

l^yb UjU ^^ / 

15^ IJ^U 2(^ Ac 

or may be 


o o "1 

JU* ^yj^ r* ^^ shall, will 

or may 6e 

* When a conditional conjunction or adverb of wishing precedes in 
the sentence, this form of the verb is often used in a past conditional or 
Optative sense, like the tense last described : see the note to paragraph 24. 


A Chrammar of 
Future Indefinite or Aorist Tense. 



4^Uy tliOU 

maxfy shall or 
mil beat ; ox, 
beat, ^c. 


^^jU ^ we 

*j,jU ^ ye 

may^ shall or 
tre7Z &ea^ ; or, 
beat, ^c. 

IwjU y Mom 

Future Ijidefinite Tense. 

shall, will or 
may beat; or, 



shall, will or 
may &ea^ ; or, 
beat, ^c. 

jjjj^U ^^ / may beat, let me beat. 


4^U ^ ^ moy &ea^, let him 


^j^U ^ we may beat, let us beat. 


jj^U aJ ftea^ ye. 
^jU j^^ tA€y may beat, let them 


or / i.^.>-u > 

ariyega) lij^U ( c^^^.^ j ^/^ 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future and Imperative. 

(mariye) ^^j\^ [ tJf | y^> ®*^ ^^ y<^^ excellency, ^c, may, 

I shall or triZZ i^ pleased to beat; be pleased. 
Sir, to beat; may your excellency, ^c, be 
pleased to beat 

{mariye) ^^^U we may, shall, ^c, beat ; may we beat. 


y thou mayest, shalt or wilt beat ; ox, beat thou. 

\ \ ] h ^^ ^^y* ^Aa/Z or will beat ; ox, may he beat. 
{mariyoj^U \ , 

J> ye may, shall or tmZZ beat; ox, beat ye. 
. 4^ they may, shall or ti^iZZ beat ; ox, may they beat. 

* Dakhni ^jU ^ and ^J^^j^ j^. 


the Hindustani Language. 



Imperative for the second person singular, as The Root. 

l>- \jVe be beaten. 

Infinitive BXkd Gerund. 

^JIc^ or Ulsf- I^U to be beaten, 

being beaten. 

,JU- or l3l>. i^U to be beaten, 

being beaten. 

Past Participle. 
UTl^U been beaten. \ \jr ^J^ ^^^^ beaten. 

Present Participle. 
IjW \^U being beaten. \ i^V SrD^ firing beaten. 

Past Conjunctive Participle. 

having been beateru 
Past Indefinite Tense. 

l/l^ Jtl 

was beaten, 
y thou wast beaten. 
x^ he was beaten. 


Jb we were beaten. 


J ye were beaten. 
1^^ they were beaten* 

Pluperfect or Past Past Tense. 

^^^ I had been beaten. 


V" lil^U' 

y thou hadst been 


a^ he had been beat^ 



^ itibwe had been 


J ye had been 

g^ they had been 


A Crrammar of 

Past Definite or Past Present Tense. 

^t^ \S \J^ ^jA^ I have been beat- 

9 -o 


X ^ . 

^ l^l^Uy tliou hast been 


^ ^ 9 

^Jb LT ]^U iTj he has been beat- 



-• *<- 


Jb ^-i lSj^ (J y^ f^ been 


^ *^. 

^ L^V/^^ */j '^y *"^^ *^^ 

Past Future Tense. 

may^ shall 

or will have 

- . ^, ' \beenbeaten\ 

** ^ 9 

4rc. be beat- 

c *-^ 

may, 5/mzZ2 
ox will have 
or, might, 
\^c. be beat- 


or may Aat;e 

^ y ^ beenbeaten; 

^^\S]j^ythau>^^^ ^AottW, 

^ ^ ^c. be beat- 

\^yb\S\jlii gj he jen. 

shall, mil Ji^J^J^j,y,AMl, will 

nrmmthn^fi ^ -^ >e' " \ OT may have 

*j 9 [beenbeaten; 

yJ^^K^^J^^y^ jor, should, 

^^ ySfc. be beat- 

Past Conditional or Optative Tense. 

UjA 1/ i^u, 

if, would to 

^ God, /, ^c. 

^ Aad Jeew 

j^^ftea^en; or, 

^ then /, ^c. 

, , would have 

'• &een beaten. 

^ - IkX 




ijf, would to 

"^ Gorf, tt?e, 


tJ ftca^en; or, 

u* thenwe^^c. 

t-^would have 


LVi,uJ ;- 

the Hindustani Language. 

Present Indefinite Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

X^^fi^ I am beaten. 


y thou art beaten. 
^ Xj he is beaten. 

fjb we are beaten.' 
^^ ^J^ \ ^ y^ ore beaten. 

1^^ they are beaten. 

Imperfect or Present Past Tense. 

f^^Iwas i 

. ^ ^ thouwast(^~ 


thou wast ( *^ 
%^ he was J rS 


jjb we were 

mS ye were 

^^ they were 

Present Definite or Present Present Tense. 

9 ^ 

y^^\i^\},< ^^ I am 

15^ ^W" b^ y th&u art 
^ IjU- I^U Hj he is 

^J^ ^ ^J^ (^ ^^ ^re 


^ ciW" ^}^ (^ y^ ^^^ 

^ J V ^J^ ^3 ^% ^re 


Present Future Tense. 



4^^ bWj^Uy thoumayesh -^ 

v^jjb ljfl>> I^U 2r^ he may 

ttii^)* '4^ ^}^ f" ^^ '^y 
j> 4^ ^J^ f y« "«»y 

^^^^4^ ^J^ ^^ theymay^ 


\Wyh If W |;U ^j^ I shall 

U^ IjI». I^U y thou shalt 

l^ U V IjU i^ he shall 

> -55 


\^Jbwe shall 



> s^ 


A Grammar of 

Future Indefinite or Aarist Tense. 
Singular. Plural, 

4^W l^U y thou 
S&^ 5^U }i^ he 

may, shall 
or tvill be 
^beaten ; or, 
be beaten. 



may^ shall 

or will be 

> beaten; or, 

be beaten, 

Future Indefinite Tense, 

\ijU- |;tty thou 

shall, will 
)0T may be 

shall, will 

^^j^ ^J^ ^ we 
^V i^U ^ ye >or may be 


^Isj- Ijto ^j^ fe^ me be beaten. 


Uf- I^U y fte Mom beaten. 


^jU- fc^U Mf^letusbe beaten. 
% p 

J^ i^U >7 &€ yc beaten. 

Respectful and Precative forms of the Future aud Imperative. 


.. ^ 



yow, /Sir, or, yowr excellency shall, will or way 
> Jc beaten ; be you. Sir, beaten ; may your ex- 
cellency, ^c, be beaten. 

^ l>. tj^U we may, shall or will be beaten ; may we be beaten. 

J thou mayest, shalt, ^c. or be thou beaten. 




ar« A^ 9nay, shall, ^c. or may Ae be beaten. 
. j >y y€ way, ^AoZ/, ^c. or Jc ye beaten. 

L^ Mey way, ^Aa//, ^c, or way they be beaten. 

For the feminine of both the active and passive voices, the singular 
masculine final \ (a) of the infinitive, the participles and the auxiliaries. 

the Hindustani Language* 57 

where it occurs in conjugation, must be changed to ^^ (?) in the 
singular, and to ^^^ (jn) or J<i^ (iyan) in the plural : when, how- 
ever two or more words are constructed together, each of which might 
assume the feminine plural sign ^ (n) or Ji (an), as in many of the 
definite tenses, whether active or passive, that sign is usually omitted in 
all such words but the last; so,^L^.y> or ^^J^ J»\s^ ^^ they 
{females) shall be going; ^^U&yb or ^^^ ^^U ^^U ^ we (females) 
shall be being beaten. Sometimes, though but rarely, the plural 
termination is repeated : see in paragraph 23, d. also paragraph 24, 
note f. 



To words of this description, answering to our prepositions, adverbs, 

conjunctions, and interjections, the word «—$;>- (^(^^/) borrowed from the 
Arabic,is generally applied. The preposition, which in Hindustani usage 

is mostly a postposition, may be termed^ ^j^ (hdTfi jarr) : and, 

this is of two kinds : the simple (*^J^ mufrid) which follows the noun 

it governs without the intervention of any other word ; and, the com- 

pound (s^^j^ murakkab) which usually requires ^ (ke) or ^^ (ki) 
to intervene between the noun and itself. 

34. Of the simple postpositions some notice has already been taken 
at paragraph 6 ; to which reference may be made : and, the most 
usual postpositions, which become compounds by taking ^ (ke), or 
the inflected masculine genitive of a pronoun, in common before them, 
are — 


A Grammar of 

(j^\j near, at the side, by. 

CSlf^ near^ about, icith. 

tt) V (ycihan) at the abode, with, 

,ix->|^ on account, for. 

^<J (%e) on account, for. 

i^J^ by reason. 

^^^^ by reason. 

C-^U by reason. 


v-;-^^ by means. 
^\ in front, before. 
^^yif<L) in front, before. 
JjIL« iw front, opposite. 
^^^^fflcu iw Mc rear, behind. 


J^ after (in point of time). 
j>^j\ over, upon, above. 
,^/f^ beneath, under, below. 
^Jj beneath, under, below. 
jjj\ within, in the inside. 
j^[i or^b without, out. 


^ J 

to, up to, till. 

^ near, to, as far a^. 
^wo^J between, among. 
^^ among, in, between. 
^ ^4> ga j among, in the midst. 


(^Lrfl round about. 
ji\j) equal to, opposite to. 

(j^flt, suitable, worthy. 

Jbli capable, worthy. 


(ji\y< according to. 


j;^llx« conformable to. 
jJb without, besides. 


^^JJ besides, without. 

^Li in company, with. 

fjoy> instead. 

J Jj (badai) in exchange, instead. 

^U into the hand. 

j\j over, across, through. 
i^\j) by reason, for, to. 



/" / 


^ji^jfcLce to face, in the presence. 

the Hindustani Language. 


The most umial, too^ of the postpositions^ which become compounds 
by taking ^ (jki), or the femmine genitive of a pronoun before them, 

are — 

^ in relationy in respect. 

jb on the subject, 

u^'^i^ by means, by. 

uJ^ on the side, towards. 
^Jo in the manner , like. 
J^\^for the sake, for. 

36. Adverbs admit of various divisions ; and are too numerous to 
be here fully detailed. The adverb of time or place is often derived 
from the demonstrative, interrogative, or relative pronouns, though 
many are of other sources ; and, a few of the words before described 
as compound postpositions, are of frequent use as adverbs : so, — 

^ I in front, before. 

jjf^ in the rear, back. 


^b or Jbb out. 
c^t now. 
cl^ L^\ or d^ L^\ till now, yet. 

or uii> 



when ? 

c^^ or ^1 

* , "^.u .ever, sometime. 

^d^ or j^J 
^j^ ^-^ &c. sometimes. 
j<^ <0 ^^ 507we ^img or other. 
^^ i^^ since when ? how long ago ? 
^^ ^ never. 




{till when, until. 

>• perpetually. 
y or y or JJ or c-^ then. 

till then, so long. 

^^j Aere, this place. 
^^ earac^Zy Acre. 

or «lil; ^^lyJ 

or 4S^ ^,L^ 

hitherto, to this 

^^Uj Mere, tlmt place. 



Grammar of 

^j;-Jbj exactly there. 

yl^ every where. 

^i^ where ? 


^juJ iUf within* 

^^^ somewhere J anywhere 


y:^^ within. 



i^j on this side, near. 

\ji^ cT^ nowhere. 

'rfA ^^ ^^^ ^^> beyond. 

^jt^j^ every where. 


jbjl^ on both sides, across. 


^*fi^ j^ elsewhere. 

^T to day. 

^,^>- where, which place. 

(J^ yesterday or to morrow. 

^ly^ ii)V^ 'wherever. 

>" ^ 
y^f^ \J^^ wherever. 

jj^J ^A^«^ Ma^ place. 

^JjI or^J^ A^rc, hither. 

^J^l or^jl ^A^re, thither. 

^Ju^ OTj^di where? whither? 

(J^ ^t nowadays, shortly. 
^j.yjy ^U70 cfay^ ago or ^o come. 
yjy^ three days ago or to come. 
Vil^i/ /owr days ago or ^o come, 
jjfj? a^ ^Ac £2at£;n of day, early. 
kJjr^i^ in the morning, early. 

J^*\^ orytoJcj- where, whither. 
jJbJj) oTjJbjj there, thither. 

^yb*y^Sic. whence? 

— ^ 

jJbJj^Jcf- Acre anrf Merc. 

always, ever. 
Viii^j always, ever. 


i»JJw« always, eternally, 
^^i^some time or other. 

jy^ yet. 

^ also, too, moreover, even. 

The most common adverb of interrogation is ^i^ {kyun) or J^yS 
{kyUnkar) why? how? or ^^Ja^Jj,^ {kiswaste) wherefore? why? 

the Hindustani Langv4ige, 61 

O 9 

The adverb of cause or reason, ^^ (jcyunki) because that, or 

^iiJyJ\ (iswasfe) far this reason. 

The adverb of similitude, W^ (jaisa) as, like as, or \,y(goya) one 
m^ht say, as it were. 

The adverb of explanation, i^ ^^""^ (Jaisa In) or ^^^ (chunan- 

cki) like as, so as, or it^ (jnislan) for example. 

« The adverb of peculiarity, Jb {hi) or ^^ (jitn, used as an affix or 

a separate word) or 4^ ^ (l, as an affix only) very, exactly. 
The adverb of assent, ^U (jiin) or ^^ (Jiun) or ^^ (bale) yes. 

The adverb of negaticxi, ^ (na) or ^^^ (naAin) 710, not, nay, nor, 

ndther, ^Ut (oAoii) or i^^ji\ (unhun) nay, no, do not. 
The adverb of prohibitkm, c:^^ (mat) not, do not. 

<- 9 

36. The ConjunctioQ (J^j^ ^j^ harf-ijumla) may be — 

Conditional — »^ (jo) if, when, oi^ \ (agar) if 
Consequential — y (to) then (answering to the conditional). 
Of exception — j^ (par) but, moreover, ^J^ (lekiu) but, yet,^ 

(jmagar) but, unleu, except, aC; (balki) but* 
Of explanalioD — 4^ (ki) that, because. 
Coojunctive — j^^ (omt) or^ (o) and: or (dakh«) ^y^ (haxar). 
Disjunctive — b {ya) or, ^f^ (khwah) whether, or, ii (la) 

that, or^ 

37. The Intajedkn msy be — 

Of addrewDg or caUii^ to — 4/^ {aij (^ 4/^ (cj or ^ (o) or 
1^ («^) O! 4^1 (arcj or ^ {oIk) you fellow t &c., 
^ [loj look! see! therenow! 

Ofujstomfhwmt or of scppLsRise — /^ -wHt) or /« /« (wah wah) 

wdldtme! bravo! \^\ (acheUii) or i^^ (Jsi»iA) well! 

62 A Grammar of 

Of grief or pain — «! (5 A) or vJ ^ {ha'e) or i^ \^ (wa^e) or S^ 
(wa) or h^\j (wawaila) or 4^ U j^'U (Aa'c ha'e) wo ! alas ! 
lackaday ! 

Of applause or exultation — (^l^LSi {shalmli) bravo ! Jifpr ^VT 
Qaijai kar) huzza ! 

Of blame or censure — ^^^ (cAAi), ijy ijy {tauba tauba), 

J\ (ufl tush ! fy I 



38. The Cardinal numbers, from one to one hundred, with Indian, 
Arabic, and European figures representing them^ are as follows : — 






















{do) ^d 




{das) (j^O 








{igdrah) »J^\ 




{char) jU- 




(^arali) tj^_ 




(panch) ^V 




itlrali) SjJ 




(c^Aa) ^ 




••• {chaudah) i'^f>- 




{sat) c^L) 





• •• {pandrah) ^JOJ 








(^/aA) ^y^ 

the Hindustani Language. 





































































• » {satrah) xk 


(at'harah) Xj\^\ 
• •• {unts) ij^\ 

• • • 

(bh) ^j^ 
• • \ikkls) fj^ 

• •• 

{chaulls) {j^,^ 

« ¥ 

(sata^is) ^^^ 
• •• [unfis) ^j>^\ 

• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

(^15) j^ 


• •• {teds) 
(jchautls) {j^y^ 
(sainiis) , 




■ f 

1 ^ 

















' 42 








; 44 





















































(untalis) ^j^^\ 
{iktalis) j^la^l 


{chau^alts) {j^^^ 
(paintalis) j^liii*^ 


{pachas) (^laf? 


{chauwan) ^y^- 

(pachpan) ^^^ 
(chhappan) ^^^-^ 

{aVhawav) i^^\ 


A Grammar of 



































































& c^ 

>•• ••< 

• • 

(unsafli) .^U^ 


• (safh) -f U 

(jbasaVli) ^b 
(tirsafh) ^J 

«• (^painsaVJi) ^ 

• m 

I • • 



• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

C fcO 


- v./ 

(unhattar) jL^\ 

• •• (jsattar)j:^ 

m O 

• (ikhatiar) j:^\ 
(bahattar) j^. 

• • • (tikattarj j:^ 

• • {chaukattar)jJby>' 

• • (^pachkattar) z^:^ 

.•{chhikattar) ^/^^-v^^ 
• . (^saf/uittar) jx^ 
. . (aVhhattar)jx^] 
• •. {unasi) ^j^\ 
























































• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

• •• 

(ikasJ) ^W 
(be'ast) ^U 

{chaurasi) i^)j^ 

(pachasi) ^\efi 

{chhTasi) ^^^^ 

Csatasi) ^\z^ 

{afhasi) ^\^\ 

(nau'asi) . t^^J 

(ikanawe) ^^y^ 
(ftawatrc) t^y^ 

{tiranawie) i^y]/ 

{pachanawe) i^y^^ 
(cAAt'anatce) v/yU|>- 

• •• (ninamztre) v/y^ 

• •• 

• •• 

{sav) y0i or («ai) 


c c^ 

the Hindustani Language. 65 

Some variations from the above occur in the dialects, even, of 
Hindustan and Bombay ; and still more in the Dakhni of Madras : 
for the latter, reference may be made to the appendix of the author's 
Hindustani Grammar ; but the most striking differences discovered in 
the former are here subjoined. So, xj^ gyarahy 11; \j\^\ aVhara, 
18 ; {j^\ unniSj 19 ; jj---^' ekls, 21 ; irr?^\ ekiis, 31 ; 

taintis, 33; fj^^ cAaunits, 34; ir^J^ ariis, 38; ^j^\isf'\ 

unchalis, 39; ^^-J^jl ektalts, 41 ; ,^ti-J taintatts, 43 ; ,^1^ 
chhatalis, 46; ,^1^^ artalts, 48; ^^ICI ekdwan, 61; ^;{^ cJiaupan, 
64 ; ^(fi^ pachawan, 55 ; -^LXI eksat'h, 61 ; wi-^^i^ chhachhat 
or i^Af>- chha-sat'h, 66; .,^2Li^l arsafh, Gi'y J^} ekiiattar, 71; 
jii^ tirhattar, 73; jjb.^ chhorkattar, 76 ; ^^«^^ cA5*«, 81 ; ,<-»V 
ifl«, or ^^\j} birim, 82; ,^lsi panckasi^ 85 ; ^^^ chhasl, 86 ; 
4>^ nauwad, 90 ; i/y^>' ekanawe or 4/y'^f ikanauwl, 91 ; ^^U 
immnre or ijyj/ biranauict, 92 ; i^yj/ tiranauwe, 93, 8cc. ; «^y l«j 
ptmchanawe, 96 ; t^Wf^ cAhanatce, 96 ; (/y ^ nau'anawe, i^J, 

a. The series after one hundred is continued thus, CS^}'ya flS^\ 
Ik sou ek, 101 ; ,^,,-a^^^ db jau pachls, 225 ; tl^^ ji.' Jj^ J^il 
ri iburor avr eA, 1001 ; ^j^ y^ ^j ^yb yL^\ Ik Juizar punch mu 
iklas, 1521. 

b. When the word il^ is immediately 9ubsef|nent to another 
nmneral or other numerals, it may convey the meaning of near or 
a&m/, erne more or ks$ than sodi number or numbers ; as, il^^ y^ 
abomt a hundred ; (.1^^ mJ t^ •J near two hundred and two : and, if 
a noon is used, it generally precedes the numeral, when this sense is 
intended ; so, CSi ^j^ ^<J\ about ten men ; Jju C^\ o gfj^ two 
gians or $0 afterwards. 



A Grammar of 

39. The Ordinals are— 
1st. lyj pahld. 

I^^J dusra. 




1^^ chauVha. 

6th. ^^^«^^ |75ncAw?5?i. 

6th. l|2^ chhai^ha or ^'^^ 

7th. ^lyL>> 5a^tran. 

8th. ^I^t aj'At£7an. 





10th. ^y«Ui> daswan. 

And so forth, by adding generally ^Jij (wan) or occasionally ^^ 
(an) to other cardinal numbers. 

40. The common aggregate or collective numbei*s 

O X 

JjC-j saikra, 100. 
j];^ Aazar, 1000. 

^ ZaA'A, 100,000. 
jjj^ Aaror, 10,000,000.* 

41. In a distributive sense the numerals, whether cardinals or 
ordinals, are repeated ; as, il^ lL^\ one by one; ^^J ^^J by tens ; 

U^^J^' e^^yt^^ ere7*y twelfth Proportionals and reduplicatives are 
formed by adding lif gw/ia, or, more especially with regard to the folds 
or rows of any material, l^J taha^ or \^ lardy or \jjJ parta to the 
modified forms of the cardinals as used in composition, and in some 

cases to the unaltered forms ; so, l^\ single, \^yi double, \jjJ treble, 

9 ^ o ^ c o ^ 

IJ^ quadruple, \^^s^^ quintuple, jjl <^3- sextuple, U^-s«» septuple, 
\:JS ^ octuple, lyjy nine fold^ ^jm^ tenfold. With Persian numerals. 

* In the decimal arrangement of numberp^ the rank or degree of 
units is termed vJ l^^ eka*i; that of tens, 4^ Uj dahS*t ; that of hundreds, 
IjCmj saikrd (or at Borabay^ ^ ^G ^ «en/:ra) ; that of thousands, \j\jb 
hazard ; that of tens of thousands^ iJjb ^jmJ daS'hazdrd ; that of hundreds 

of thousands, l^ lakk'hd, &c. 

the Hindustani Language. 


Joi^- is much used for the same purpose ; as^ JCi^^ twofold, twice as 
much; JCi>- ^ treble; Jc^ jW^ quadruple; Jc»^ ij ninefold; 
*Xi>- 2rJ tenfold: whilst ^^^^ or <C may be subjoined in a like meaning 
to the simple forms of the cardinals as before given, or to the Persian 
nouns of number; so,^^^^t> twice as much; iJ ^ threefold; jAj CL?L 


or ij LT-^^fiJb seven fold. 

42. The usual terms for fractionals are — 

\ jO ph'o. 

f jb 2j5iJ derh pa'd. 


^ UjT adha. 

I 4^ly5jJ do tiha!t. 
I ^jj pauny"^ or jb ^^ ffw 



1^ sawa (with a 



2f5j5 rfcrA. 
J** ■ • 


jJ -3^ paune (quarter 

less) rfo. 


jj \^ satctt do. 


^ ^jL ^ar'Ae (with a 

half) ^i». 


And with the aggregate numbers, these terms are used as follows — 

75 y^ ijy paune sau (lOO-x)* t 
126 ynt \j^ sawa sau (lOO+x)- 
160 jli »«iJ rferA sa« (IOO+t). 
175^^fc>^jJ2?aM7ic do sau(200'-i^) 
225 ^.^jJ ^^ 5aw?a do saM(200+-4-) 
250 y^ 4/ ljbj\ arAa? sau. 

750 ^ cjL ^^JLj 5arAe 5a^ «aM.:j: 

l,260j|^ 1^ ^atra hazar. 
1,600 j|^ 2f«jJ derh hazar. 
1,750 jI^^J ^j^ paune do hazar. 
2,250 ^]^^fc> 1^ sawa do hazar. 
2,500 j^jJb 4/ ^;^ ar'A5'» hazar. 
75,000 ^ J^;>aMne /aA:'A.§ 
125,000 -^ ^^ Mwa lak'k. 

* At Bombay, Ijy pauna. + At Bombay, ^ l3y pauna 5ati. 

j: At Bombay ,j|^ Ujj pauna hazar* § At Bombay^ ^^ by pauna lak^h. 


A Grammar of 

o o 

160,000 ^i yJiJ derh lak'h. 
175,000 ^jJ (J^^paurie do lak'h. 

225,000 ^y \y^ sawa do lak'h. 
260,000 ^ ^\^ afhal lak'h. 




43. Abstract nouns are often obtained from adjectives by subjoining 
j^ , (?)* as tjj lj4>- hreadth, from \'^ broad. ■ 

erf (pan) 
Uj (^pana) 

W (») 

\3 ita) 

J («) 

t bl^ oZrf age, „ 

^jSyc fatness, „ 

Uj^^ widowhood „ 

f ^^l^ sweetness, „ 


^ll5^ ^tternessy „ 

l:Ju«^ softness, „ 


^1^ deficiency, „ 

Ij^ widow. 

Sometimes, though but rarely, by subjoining to primitive nouns 
substantive — 

ci; ^ (a^) as iJL-^<S\ humanity, firom i<^<i>T man. 

^ (ayaO ^; ^■^.^, « cowwciZ, „ ^b /t?e. 

* When the original word terminates in if silent, {^ becomes substi- 
tuted for that letter before the affix t// (i) ; so, ^S)^ freshness j from 

Sj\j fresh: and^ lA Dakhni, ^Tl \agt) or jX>\ (^'^gO occur* as an affix 
to form abstracts. 

+ A long vowel is sometimes shortened before the affixes, as in these 

the Hindustani Language, 69 

Abstract or verbal nouns, moreover, are abundantly derived from 
verbs ; some having the same foim as the imperative in the second 
person singular ; others resembling the past or present participle in 

either gender ; so, J^ speech ; j^fear ; jU beating; U^ the faculty 

of speech, from J^ speak ; ^JUi a reckonings from ^ count ; \^ a 

saying or order, dictum, from ^ say. They are, also, to be obtained 
frx)m the second person singular of the imperative, by adding — 

^ (o) as ^ bj pressure, from b J press doum, 

j\ {ffo) „ /^jf^ ascent, „ * ^5>- ascend. 

s^/(0 » ^14 a feeding, „ l^ feed. 

^J \ (57) „ s5 'j^ « sowing, „ y 50M7. 

^ (an) „ ^^jlrj- a burning, „ J^ Jwrn. 

1j (tra) „ 1^ deception, „ )L^ deceive. 

(3j (wa.O w ^— iW contrivance, „ Lj con^rit?^. 

iS^ib (hat) „ iS^^iHj a calling, „ h call. 

And, to Persian adjectives, or to imperatives of verbs, fjL , (ish) is 
often added to form nouns olT this. description, notunfrequently used in 

Hindustani ; so, ijtA*^, production, fix)m \xj produced ; ijtj\t^ know- 

ledge, from jjlj know. 

44. The name of the agent or doer is commonly obtained by sub- 
joining S|^ {wala) or \jU (jiara) each liable to change for gender, num- 

ber, and case, to the inflected infinitive of a verb ; as, 1\^ 15^ writer, 
l^lyJ^U smiter : nouns of the like use are, moreover, sometimes had 
from verbal roots by affixing — 

ijj{ak) as cl^^C J a writer, from ^ write. 



ijj\ (ak) „ d^ a swimmer, „ ^ 
W (aAa) „ U^JjJ a runner, „ Jy3 fttw. 

70 A Grammar of 


\j^ (pro) as l?y^ a deserter, from {^^,flee. 

b^ (waiya) „ bf^ « si?iger, „ U «mg. 

And, words denoting the manager or agent in anything, are occa- 
sionally formed from nouns, by the addition of— 

Jlj (wal) 

j\^ (war) 



a wharfinger y\ 
l^fc> a trotter^ 


I (JlAp a wharf 
^J3j a ^ro^. 

j\jb (har) 



jVj>?* ^'o.celetseller. 


iJj^ bracelet. 

j\ (ar) 


^U>- a currier, 


aI^ leather. 

Ij (wa) 


\j^^ a fisherman, 





j^ a watchman, 


^ a watch. 

U (era) 



^^.i^ji^ sndke-^atcher, 





c««J jcmmo a messenger. 

(jy»j[ JCuia a message. 

V ' (»y2) 



Lii^ butter-man. 


^j^ butter. 

\M ' (iyara) 




(jJ^ grass. 

:W ' (aiO 


%^:^l^ spearman. 


^W ^^fl'*' 

J^. (p50 


^y^if a cowherd. 


f cow. 

j^lj (wan) 


(jVj ^ a carter. 


,^j€ cart. 

\i>\j (waha) 


U!^ ploughman. 


Jjb a plough. 

Ji 0>an) 


^bj J a porter, 


jt^ a door. 

JCJ (band) 


JcJjO a farrier. 


Jm a horseshoe. 

ji (fiar) 


^^ a gut d«. 


if\j away. 

jV (653^) 


jUi^ cockfighter, 


^ a cock. 



yj>^jyr^ a drummer, 

— • 


jy^:]^ a drum. 

jb (dar) 


^^jo^j a landholder, 


Lji^J '««^- 

the Hiiu&stanl Language. 71 


^j (^zan) as i:i)/i^ on archer , from jJ an arrow. 

9 9 

jL (jaz) „ jL) ^jss^ an orator ^ „ ^jsr' speech. 

Ji (Jlot) „ j'^'V ^Idoer, „ Jj et?iZ. 

J^igar) „ jSib\i^ sinner, „ >U> Wn. 

j^ (g<w^) f J j^t>^ a merchant „ b^ ^ock. 

45. The noun of place is sometimes the same in form as the infini- 

tive of the verb; as, in 15^^^ ^ uj^ it is a range or park for deer ; 

hut, it is more frequently formed from substantives by affixing — 

jj\i»rf, (istan) as ^^»;-5 burying-place, from ^ a grave. 

^l;«ri («^2n) y, ^;ls«d«JcJb India, ,j «JcJb Indian, 

00, i a temple, „ y^^ a god. 

11 (5/5) „ 5IU-» Siva's temple, „ •-j jSira. 

J ' (aO » J^l** a <e»ipfe, „ ;iJ a god. 

-> ' 1^ * )a flotoer-garden, j^^ a flower. 
^\^ (wan) „ i^jl^^ J 

JL (^aZ) „ ^}Ljjf a stable, „ \jjp a horse. 

1Li(sala) „ iLi^^ a cow-house, „ ^^ a cow. 

j^ (pwr) „ j^j\h. dty of Ghazi, „ ^j\& 

J^ (nagar) „ J^dA^ city of Ahmad, „ 

c\i\ {ahad) „ Jb|; Ju>- city of Haidar, „ j 

^b (d5») „ ^1 JwJj a pen-case, „ Ji a jjcn. 

j\j (^zar) „ j5;^1 ^ tulip-bed, „ *15I a <M/ip. 

^ (shan) „ ^J^ a rose-bower, „ JT a rose. 

ii^{gah) „ if^\j\ a resting-place, „ f^J\ rest. 



72 A Grammar of 

46. The noun of instrument may be the same in form as the infi- 
nitive of a verb ; or, it may be obtained by adding ^ {an) or ^J {nf) 

to the second person singular of an imperative ; so, ULj or ^L^ a 

roUing'piny from J-J roll ; ^J^ a pair of scissors, from^ clip. In 

the instance of S^ a bally this noun seems formed from the adjective 
J^ round, by the addition of \ (a) : and, firom substantives it may be 
had by affixing — 

J\ (aZ) as J^iJ^flw hour-bell, from ^j^ghafi. 

Jj (ei) „ J-O a camcVs nose-stick cL/U a nose. 

2( (a) „ <i(i<w>>fc3 a handle, „ l::..^j a hand. 

<i3l (ana) „ ^Olilx^l a thimble, L::.^wJjt a finger. 

C/(ak) „ u.^4.r.^ spectacles, „ a.1j>- an ^ye. 

47. A diminutive noun is obtained from the common noun by 
adding — 

1 (a) as \Sj a little daughter, from ^Xj a daughter. 

'^'' ^"^^ " '^ a tiger's whelp, „ J\i a Hger. 

\t ^ (^y^) » ^::^ asmallbedstead, „ CA^ a bedstead. 

!^ (w?5) „ Ij J^ a manikin, „ «^ a wan. 

CJ(ak) ' „ ilJ^y a musket, „ L^y a cannon. 

<^sr; ^ (jcha) „ ArsaiU a K^^fe garden, „ i\) a garden. 

^ (cha) „ ^J 

^5f (^*0 ^> ^5^'*^ . 

a kettle, „ l1X^(3 a caldron. 

Or, by changing a final \ (a) to ^^ , (i) ; as, ,^-y a string, firom L, 
a r{>p6; ^^jf a bullet, apill^ fipom Iji a ftaZZ. 

48. Adjectives may be formed from substantives by prefixing — 

the Hindustani Language. 




J^l fruitless^ 



^J (an) 


U^l impossible f 


Uyb ^0 6e, fteiwg. 







jU-X helpless^ 


2r^U- AeZ^. 

i^ (»0 


jjj fearless, 



J (»«r) 


JC^y disrespectful, 


jS\ respect. 



J^ undefiled, 


Jb.« ^ZM. 

^5^ (60 


jT^^, incautious, 


^^ care. 

•V (iod) 


CdM dJ ill-bred. 


ci^li nature. 

iS (jcam) 


vji^^fflT^ wretch, 



fjb {ham) 

99 ' 

(.^A^i 1*^ concordant. 


^/:Jbt sound. 




c-i^j-j wellformedj 




(^.^J^J^ ill-mannered. 

9> (^/:JbJ manners. 

Or, by affixing. 




s/yliV <j/" ^^^ market, 


j^jb market. 

uM ' (*") 


^,^ wooden, 


c-^^ u^oocZ. 

*u , (ina) 


<Cm>a1j j silken. 


(Alj ««'^*- 

-Ub , (iyana) 


iOUU annual. 


JU year 





h icla) 


\jp domestic, 


j^ house. 



J^J tusked. 


tXu^ (mand) 


o O • 

JCt^j J wealthy. 


u^jJ wealth. 

jjU (wian) 



US) wisdom. 


l::^^ powerful. 


Jj power. 

i (ffi) 



Iji^ quarrel. 


A Grammar OJ 


Ifc ' (akla) 

J (a) 

U (na) 


^^\J (tofln) 

r 0%) 
j\} (war) 

Jcj {band) 

Ja« (mand) 

43l (ana) 

jb (rfar) 
jL (^ar) 

iTU (nofc) 
jj (war) 
j^ (airar) 
Vi (z5) 

2^j|j (^rorfa) 

iii/ (gfin) 

o f 










l^^ hungry, 
ilJl^J biennial, 

ly3^ golden, 

^Lfa^ hindermost, 

1^1 single, 


Ujfa> double, 

^wJ tenth, 
Vy^ aquatic, 

•ft • 
„ j|^^ grievous, 

JCmiJa c . intelligent, 
^liL childish, 

jl jUj faithful, 
yy jLjb^ mountainous, 
„ yj^^ sorrowful, 
d/Llyb terrible, 
jj^U renowned, 

2fjht^.^s*aBr noble-horn^ 
>> U!r^ ii^^<oloured, 

o ^ 

from '^j^ hunger. 

,9 uam» gold. 
„ l^£sy fAg rear. 









CS>i\ one. 
jj two. 

„ ^ three. 

„ ^/w(3 ten. 
i\i water. 





-J marrying. 

„ ^^y^ grief. 
„ jLfJbarm. 


>i J^ intelligence. 

„ Jit a child. 


„ U^ fidelity. 

i^ a mountain. 









^ sorrow. 
Jyb terror. 
aU a name. 

^j foreign coun- 
yosT noble (man). 

Jj &/tfe, indigo. 


A Grammar of 

c f 

O 9 



¥^ Attiigry, 


^^ Atmger. 



49JL)J biennial, 


JLjJ two years. 

h, ' [pMa) 


ly3^ golden. 


\jy^ gold. 



c c 

JLfa^ hindermost, 


Ifsxj f Ac rear. 

J (5) 






\^ single, 



CJ>i\ one. 

Ij (wa) 


Uj J double, 


^ J ^U70. 




^^ ^Aree. 

^J,^J (wan) 


^I^J tenth, 


^^J ^671. 



Vy^ aquatic, 


^b water. 

ij=r 0"g) 

{^y^'^jJbL) marriageable, 


liibL) marrying. 

jlj (tear) 


J\fy^ grievous, 


i^y^ grief. 

Jcj {band) 

99 ' 


X:j jUfJh armed. 


Ja« {mand) 



JCmiJac. intelligent. 


JiLft intelligence. 

A}1 (ana) 


^^ childish, 


Jit a cAiZe2. 

jb (rfar) 


>lij /aiM>Z, 


Uj fidelity. 

jL> (^ar) 


jLjb^ mountainous. 


i^ a mountain. 



fj^^ sorrowful, 


^ sorrow. 

l^\j inak) 


C/Uyb terrible, 


J^ terror. 

J3 («^«0 


jj^U renowned, 


aU a name. 

j^ (airar) 



jjij strength,[try. 

!; (^5) 




c:^Sj foreign coun- 


2^j|j (zada) 


Iju-^w*^ noble^orn. 

95 « 

^,»Mgc^ no&Ze (man). 

ur (^») 


^jxij blueaoloured. 


JJ &Ztfe, indigo. 

the Hindustani Language. 75 

l*li {jam) as (^^J[^j saffron-coloured^ from ^/^j saffron, 
Jj[U (wia'tZ) ffJilcf^iyfj yellowish, „ i^t^ij yellowness. 

\j^ {kona) „ \j^j^ four-cornered, „ ^incomp./owr. 
^yi^goshci) „ ^^fjLii hexagonal „ (jlA 5m:. 

49. Adjectives of intensity may be obtained from verbs, by affixing 
to the second person singular of the imperative cl/l {ak) 1^1 (Sfca) or 

ICil (anka) or b^ (u?aiya) ; as, vS/jJ^*^ a grea^ runner, from JjJ run ; 

UoJ^ quarrelsome, bom ji fight; \if eloquent, from^ speak. 

50. Adjectives, as well as adverbs, of which latter some notice has 
already been taken at par. 35, may be derived from pronouns in 
various ways ; and, like their originals, they are used demonstratively, 
interrogatively, or relatively : so, from ^ (or Dakh. ^ yah) this, 

O O «. '' X 

are deduced \:J\ or liijl orUl or \sj\ this-much, so much, so many ; L-jJ 

9^9 9 

this-like, such; ^Jyl OTjij^ in this manner, thus : from n^ (or Dakh. 

*f9 ••/' O '' 

if^ wall) that, l-jl or Ul or l:cj j or tjj that-much, so many ; L-j^ that- 
like, so ; jj^^ ^^^3^ ^^ ^^^^ manner, so : from ^j^ who ? what ? 

C (« M X 

tohich ? L;^ or U:i-^ or \s^ or tu^ how much ? A(M£? many ? ^ how 

many? \^ lohat-likel what sort of? how? ^^^otJL*<^ how? in 
what manner ? why ? ^o:?.^ somewhere, anywhere : from ^ or ^^ 
trAo, trAa^, which, \:c^ or \:l*>. trAa^ quantity , as much as, as many as ; 

^ ^ ^ ' 9^9 

>■ as many ; l-->5»- what-like, as ; ^j^ or {j^^ oxJjyc>^ as, like as : 
and, from ^ or f^y that, come \:cj or ^J so much, so many ; ^ so 

^ 9 "^ ^ 9 ^ 

many ; L*^ such, so ; ^^^ or ^y^ or ^y^ so, in that manner. 

51. Transitive and causal verbs have been already noticed at para- 
graph 27. They are generally formed from other verbs by the inter- 
position or addition of! or j or ^ or \y or S. The letter \ is frequently 
inserted after the first consonant of the root; and sometimes, though 
but rarely, it follows the second ; in other cases, it is added to the 

76 A Grammar of 

last : so^ 1:jI^ to cut, from \JSi to be cut ; Ul^ to take out, from UKi 
to isst^e; UlasT to save, from U:^ to escape: ^ and i^ are used imme- 
diately before the last consonant of the root ; as, Uj^ to open, from 

OP o o 

IJi^ to be opened ; L^ to pound or grind, from 1:>«.J to &e ground : and 

Ij or J is always subjoined to the root ; so, ^\j^ to cause to frighten, 

from b^ J to /ear ; US J to cau«e to give, from Uj J to girc. When the 

root, moreover, is a monosyllable ending in 1 or ^ or 4^ , the last letter 
IS commonly dropped and J inserted before the causal sign 1 or 1^ ; as, 

\ii^ and l3U^ to feed and to cause to feed, from Ul^ to eat ; UL^ and 

Ijf^ to catf^e to ^/e^p and to cati^e to put to sleep, from U^ to ^Zeep ; 
ULo and btJui to cattle to sew and to cat^e to be sewed, from L<^ to 



52. The terms usually applied to grammar are ys^ ^ t-J^ i^cLffo 
imhw) which may be translated inflection or accidence and syntax : 
the first has already been treated of, in Chapters II., III., and IV. 
especially ; and die latter, with which practice in the language will 
give the best acqua'mtance, seems not to require here any very minute 
or lengthened explanation. 

53. The noun in the genitive case usually precedes that with which 
it is constructed, as does the adjective its substantive: with these 
exceptions, and unless a conjunction occurs, a relative pronoun, an 
interjection or vocative, or some word which by way of especial dis- 
tinction or of emphasis takes the lead, the nominative case to the 
verb generally presents itself first in a sentence ; nouns in other cases 
if required, a participle or adverb, may follow almost promiscuously ; 

the Hindustani Language. 77 

^ % m 

but, the verb generally finishes the whole : so, ,^ *^ 2f«x>U l^ ^^ai (^1 

^ J/ '^l/^ / r^ j/ r^ / # ^^^ "^^ uy^-^ r^ *^ <>/ <*« 

«^ory ^^ advantage this is, that of the low bred the society (makes) 
the free bom a slave, and the slave ruined makes. In poetry, how- 
ever, but little regard is sometimes had to this arrangement: as, 

' jjj ^bjC C^ Ls^ ^ i:;^ ' JCwJib ^^ j€^ ^ ^^ studious of 
language are the intelligent ; by language is the name of the good 

64. Nouns of various genders, coming together in a sentence, re- 
quire the adjective, verb, or participle, governed in common by them, 

to have the masculine form ; as, ^^jLl ^Lol (o%i-J t^^ Isj UU $ {j^ 
L5^ c^ ^ l/ ^^ mother, father, brother {alt) the three in the 
meditation of the marriage of her were. With regard to inanimate 
beings, however, the adjective or participle usually agrees in gender 

with the noun, nearest which it is placed ; so, l^^ ^ 1^ tjj^ 

\j^ *r^ U^i »J^^ J your son's book and paper are lying here. 

65. Two nouns, having reference to the same person or thing, may 

stand in apposition without any word intervening ; as, ^J^ (^^^ ^ c/"^ 
his brother JBikram. ^ 

66. Notice has already been taken, at par. 6, of the changes to 
which the postposition l^ is liable in construction : and, though this 
particle serves generally to link together words of various import, 
yet on certain occasions it seems to be idiomatically dropped, and 
especially after a noun of weight or measure ; so, jJ^jJ Ixi Ganges- 
bank'on; l3^ Jy j\yb a thousand tolas (of) gold: and, on the con- 
trary, its use in some cases may appear to us redundant; as, in 
liil ^ J3 fikr*s word, or the wordfkr. This postposition, moreover, 
is adopted to denote purpose, worth, size, possibility, totality, Sec, as 
well as mere relationship; so, l^j^^ {^ \^^ ^^ eating room; 

"TT X 

82 A Gftrnmar of 

terms of honour or respect in the singular as are often substituted for 
tile second personal pronoun : bo, \j^ Li J i^}>- 'j ''« makes a practice 
of guarding ; ^^' ^j^jJ (J>--> ^^ the girl was reading a lesson; 
\J\ 'Jj^j- or ^ 7 ^j^ yj a hundred horse or horses came ; ^l;'^* 
ttP* S? ' i_r^^S i-O^ L^^ c^i*-* 1^^ i_j1 f/our majesty has with 
great labour come on my account. And, when two or more nomina- 
tives of different genders come together in the same member of a sen- 
tence, the Tcrb and participles usually accord with the masculine in 
this particular, as exemplified at pai-agrapli 54. 

72. Transitive verbs in any past tense of the active voice, in con- 
struction with which the particle ^ must follow the subject or agent,* 
if actually expressed, are made to agree in gender and niunber with 
the object of the sentence, provided that it is a noun, cither understood, 
or stated as is most usual in the nominative case ; but if llie object be 
placed ill the oblique case, or if it be a member of a sentence, the verb 
has invariably the form of the third person singular masculine. In 
this construction, the subject or agent, if actually expressed, is gene- 
rally inflected by ^J if capable of inflection ; the first and second per- 
sonal pronouns being the only words liable to change for case, that 
retain the form of the nominative, whether in the singular or plural, 
before this afBx.f With the verb IjD to bring, however, which is in 
fact compounded of ^ take and \jt to come, or with LLj to speak, 
though the former seems in all cases to convey a transitive meaning 
and the latter sometimes so, this construction is never admitted ; as, 
bH J>^^ M*^ ij^ 1^)^ '^ J^ ^ Srakman purchased (and) brought 
an egg-plant ; i£^y Sj he said that — 

* Theee remarlu do not apply to the Dakhni, in which dialect the 
particle ^ does nol Interrupt the uauni concord of the verb with the 
iiuRiiiiative cs»e. 

+ See, moreover, the note lo parugrajih SJ. 

the Hindustani Language. 83 

73. The form of the infinitive serves for the gerund or verbal noun, 
and in many cases for the noun of instrument or of place, as has before 
been noticed : but, it is also not unfrequently used as an imperative, and 

imports the absolute necessity of the action intimated; so, JiU ^ i^\ 
liib; e:-^ {it is necessary) not to remain neglectful of him ; 4^*^^- ^3 
lisiyj you (must) arrive quickly ; ^ ^^ ^Jii^ v^W^ tji^ ^ ^^^ % 
no means obey your (word) ; l^ \^j^j {jti^ -vi ^^^ (^ under the ahso- 

lute necessity) of not remaining, 


74. The past and present participles, whether in the simple form or 

compounded with lyb , are much used in the state of the inflected 
masculine singular, whatever the gender or number of the governing 
noun may be, to denote some action incidental with, or preceding, 

that which the subsequent verb declares ; as, ^^1 ^J^\ (in the) taken 
of him or for his sake ; t^U ^X-^ (in the) stricken of which or 
by reason of which; ^^ if^^ *^ ^ <^*^ {J^J^ *^^}j^ ^—^^^ 
having made to accord all the instruments in one tone (she) was 

dancing ;^,J^Jl\ ^j?^);V^ S^Wr^^v U-^^ V" ^-V^c^y^ ^f^ *J 
on going away he had kept saying that (on) becoming mounted on this 
do not use the whip nor strike the spur. With ^ the adverb of pecu- 

Ox " ^ 

liarity or identity, or with ^-^^ time^ subjoined, the simple present 
participle, too, is thus very frequently brought into use ; as, 

*x CO / 

lS^ if lJ^ ^^■?^ l5^ ^J^.*^ *j ifnmediately on seeing that she 
remained as one aghast. 

75. Both the past and present simple participles, moreover, are 
often used absolutely, and sometimes substantively, in the invariable 
state of the inflected masculine singular, when constructed with a 
preceding noun, or even witli a postposition or preposition, or with a 

genitive case ; so, c5 *^ f^^ (on) the become evening ; ^^ ^f^ (on) 

the becoming morning ; ^J^ Ji(*'0 ^^^^ striking an eyelid; ^j^s^ bj 

84 A Grammar of 

without having understood; ^«ii«> c:^Ij 1:j without having heard a 
word ; ^jUbj k/ 1-^ (in) the remaining of me or before me ; ^a^*^ l/^^ 
{at) the sight of which ; ,^^^*^ ^ c--^ {in) the sight of all ; 

\sJbj <0 ^ ^ \j^y^ L5^ (**^ ^-^•' ^^^ mowi^^ without the meditation 
of deceit he rests not. It should be remarked, too, that both these 
participles are occasionally used as nouns in either gender : and, by 
the repetition of a participle, continuance of the action is frequently 

76. The indefinite future or aorist may not only convey a present 
meaning, but it may be constructed witli an auxiliary verb as a pre- 
sent participle even; yet, when used in the latter* way, it may be 
oflten understood as retaining its future sense : so, ^^j-^ ^jt:^ c/-^ 
^^^ /^J^ y i<^*^ ^ J^ *'* ^'*** (^/Joce of time) he went forth 
{many) koSj (when) he looks then evening is become ; ^a^j ^^3^ ^ 

A jf ^ l5^ wei/A^ cold nor hot pleases ; ^yh {^^^y^ ^ ^^ openings 
or / am about to open. 

77. The adverb of prohibition ^JL^^^ as well as that of negation ^ 
or ^^j^ may be used either before, or after, verbs ; but, ^-^ though 

unfit for construction with an imperative, is more emphatical and in 
more general use than ^ with other forms of the verb ; so, c:^v« 

yif-^^ do not ask; c:.^v< jJ^ by no means forget ; ^\>' ^ do not 

suppose. And, when the emphatic ^J^^ is adopted, it frequently 

supplants the present of the substantive verb at the end of a sentence ; 

^y cTW J^^ (^ l/ ^^ ^J^ ^^'* ^f ^«^% (^^^) ^^^ becoming thy 

78. The conjunctions ii and ^ that, are used at the beginning of 

one member of a sentence, which explains the object or reason of 
another generally preceding. The conjunction ^ too may be used 

in the way of comparibon or distinction ; as, i£ z^ ^^ l/***^' '^^.^ 

the Hindustani Language. 85 

j^ a\aj {that) one man die is better than a whole city ; jLa\ i^ ^\ 
4^pjJ y thou mayest take either this or that: it may, also, convey 
the sense of saying that ; as, uJIj ^^Ij jj< ^i^^ ^;->V^5^ J^ -Vi 
^^yb vj:,^>>1 c-i^l |»jf ^ V.W^^ U^^Jk'^ saying this, he called for the 
throne, and having given him pan and tilak seated {him) on it, 
(saying) that you are now become invincible. At times, though but 
rarely, ^ may be adopted as the relative pronomi, after the idiom of 

the Persians : and, in some cases, the application of it seems intended 
merely to connect the members of a sentence, the meaning in other 
respects appearing redundant. 

79. The conditional conjunctional or ^ if requires the conse- 
quential y or jj-J then in the following member of the sentence ; as, 

• M •• ^ 

should interrupt thee in this, then {fail not) to bring him to me : yet, 
the conditional is sometimes idiomatically omitted ; so, l^ ^ .^\ 
Ixi^ l^ *^ ^^ y yS s^ z^J^ ^*^ {person) said, Sir, {if) you will 
give, then why shall I not eat ? 


80. The adverb ^^ or ^^^^ must in general be answered by the 
correlative ^y or ^^^ and ^f^ u^ ^7 U^ i:)!p > ^" ^^® manner, 
the emphatic adverb of time ^jj-f*^ is followed by ^ji^^^ ; so, 

it, at that very moment he tossing about expired. As adverbs of 

9 9 <* 9 9 ^ 

manner ^^^ and ^^ frequently assume^ ; so, ' J^^i=>r ^y^ ^:J1r* 

t^9 S>^ ^ O 

* /j^ ^ yjj^ ^ \i^ ^ as I may say, so it is incumbent on 
thee to perform the business, 

81. The usual term of affirmation or assent is ^\jb {han) yes; but, 

thfs may be understood, and 2»U dLi or jJ^j^ j^ or L.^*^>-ltf or some 

other appellation of respect only be expressed, especially in the reply 
of a servant to his master, or of an inferior to his superior. 

86 A Grammar of 

82. The residence of any one is often denoted by j^l^j and, if more 

than one place is mentioned, ,J^^ may be used distinctively for a 

similar purpose ; as ^ J^^ <^ s.^^^\c ^ ^l^ <^ c-^^^U go to 

the gentlemarCs house here, not to that there. Sometimes, however, 
the mere genitive case is adopted, the adverb being understood ; and 

the postposition {jSi^ may be applied in the same manner as ^lyj : so, 

servants^ who ran to her house, seized and took her away from it. 

83* Two words of similar meaning, which resemble each other in 
sound, are often brought into use where one alone might have sufficed, 

as in the instance of ^^l>.^y exemplified in the las^ pan^raph : one 
of such words, however, seems frequently to have little or no meaning, 

and to be adopted for the sake of the sound chiefly ; so, ^^ '^^^ 

falsehood, j^^ j^ a whisper. By a repetition, moreover, of nouns 

or pronouns, as well as of some other words, individuality may be 

intended ; as, jij^ l^ JfeJ^J \^ uio^ uio\ ^^o\ uio^ jib eadh man 

"c^ ceo 

having filled each a pitcher of milk ; ^^^;t l^J^ ^^ t^\ let us 
each try his own skill : and, when two past participles of the same 
transitive verb come together, the latter of them being in the feminine 
gender, reciprocity of action is intended ; so, j<^V^ ^^=^^ pulling 
and hauling; ^ [^ altercation; 4^U \jVe scuffle; ^<^t3 l^C^J 
competition, emulation. Here, too, may be noticed such idiomatical 
repetitions of participles as blij \uj ready made ; \jISj IG ready 
cooked; ^j^ ^j ^5j j^^ in sitting still: or, of nouns; as, -^ \j^^. 

in the very midst ; i:L:\j^yi\j in the dead of the night; ^ ^y^ with 
all (jiis) ears. 

84. To the names of different classes or sects of men, different 
appellatives are by way of distinction prefixed or subjoined ; thus 
Brahnians take ^^ or ^^^ or ^u^ or ^^\^', Musalnian Fakirs 

the Hindustani Language. 87 


are addressed with 2(L& or ^^ or ^ ; Hindu devotees or religious 
people, with jj/ or J^s*^ or ^ L^or ^^ L ; Rajputs, with ^l^ ; or 
Rajputs and Sikhs, with ^^1^ or .^c,^ ; Moghuls, with \jj^ before the 
proper name, or v^jlj after ; Saiyids, with j^ or Jui«» ; Shaikhs, with 
,^u& ; Pathans, with ^l> ; Doctors, with ci^jcj or 4^^ or 3U ; 
Merchants or Bankers, with 2iL» or .^2^ ; Ladies, with wU- or axj or 
^y U- or yflci- or ^U>-U or ^ , which are placed after the proper 
. name, as JU- ^U^l , ^U>-U l^^J : and, some of the most common 
terms of respectful address, used generally, are 2fl:J \J^^ ^r ^|^^-« 
or JU ^ your Majesty ! Jy2»^jj^ or jJ^ J^^ Sire / ^^c>-L» or ^Lc 
or ^^ otJ\^ or "W or yb iSir / Master! j^y^ S-^/^ cherisker of the 





Gody Deity^ 1j^ kkuda, jy^t^y parameswar^ i^\ allah. 

Lord, jf^t iswarj c-j^ rabb. 

Creator, jJU- k/uililfy JjJ kartar,jSjJj3\ afrtdgar. 



tswarta, ci^gJl ilahiyat. 

A god, a deity, ^J dSr, ^ «£r, IJ^J devta. 
Goddess, j^jJ^J c?eM??, ,<-J>t> dcK, ^ji^) de'dtin (f.)-* 

c / 

Angel, itiJliy Jiriskta, c1j3l« malakj CJ'j J cfu^, u^U Aa^i/*. 
Heaven, {^y^swarg, ^\aJ\ asman, l::^>^ bihisht (f.). 


Sky, Firmament, Atmosphere, (^ITT a/co^ (or ^j^\ akas)^ ^U--! 
asman, CS^falak. 

Devil, Satan, ^Ua^ shaitan, (^-J^^ iblis. 

* For the convenience of the learner, feminine words not terminating 
in ^ (i) will be marked (f.) generally ; as masculines ending in ^^ (i) 
will be marked (m.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 89 

"Demon, jA asur, ^J dev, i^^jie- ifrit. 

9 ^9 

Ghost, Goblin, Fiend, (^^ hhuty l:a^ bhutna, i^:>^y pret 
Hell, fiX^ jakannam, ^i^J dozakh^ c)jJ narak. 

Fabulous beings. 
One of the Genii, ^j^jinn. 
Fairy, t^^^pari. 

Some general Terms. 
{/ Thing, J^ cKiz (f.), ^ shai (f.), c:^*«j icw^, u-^J rfarJ. 

Mode, Manner, u--Jb*> dAaJ, j^ taur, t-j>jL>l i^^/SJ, j-4?j waf' (f.). 
Kind, Species, {j'-^^jins (f.), 9^ waii*, ^-i ^f^iw, c^lj ^5^ (f.). 

c 9 O 

Whole, ^L^jumh, ^A^jam^ (f.), c.;^^-» «a6. 
V^LTiyj^-juZy <U3>- ^i^sa, ^^ ans^ Jjl^ /ran^f, dc^ khand. 


Cause, c,.^i«o sabab, e^^-c*-^ mujib, ^J^ karan, l^^^\j ba^s. 
Nature, c:^1j «a^ (f.), C-^;^ prakrit (f.), ^l^ JAar, Jly nihad. 
lEs8eiice,j^^jauhar, C^lj zat (f.), L^^JbU mahiyat {{.), c:^^ sa^. 
Element, j«<s:i^ unsur^ c:^' to^, (proper sphere) liU^ thikana. 

Fortune, Lot, l,. ^Mn't na^?&, vS/^ bhagy \^^aJ» kumat (f ), c:^-»C bakht. 
Fate, Destiny, \^ likhd, UdS kaza (f.), r>J^ takdtr, \j:,^a^ kismat (f.). 
Beginning, Ijcj! ibtidd (f.), J.^|)aAaZ,j\il aghazy ^jL shuru^. 
End, ci^j^ aw^,^i akhir^ lysi\ iw^iAa(f.), <*^.V ^^^^y^^ (^O- 
Time, ^^Uj zamdn, Jl^ A:a/, ^^-ib^ samai, l::->5j wakt^jSti^ dahr. 


Space (absolute), jJbjl adhar^ (j^^^ dkas. 

Order, ^JJ ^adJir (f.), k-->J dAaJ, c-^-ry ^ar/lJ (f.). 


90 Vocabulary.— Nouns. 

Number, JJic adad, J^Juu ti^dad (f.), t^^ sankhya (f.). 

Form, Figure, CJ)^ ^um^ (f.), Jxii ^AaAZ (f.), c^V *«*'«* (f)- 

/^ • - 

Matter, !f^ hayula, Jb^ jauhar^ ar jU madda. 

Body, *«»>-Ji5m, ,^'v^ fcaf Ai, jjJj badan, <0J deA (f.). 
World, ^L-i-» 5a7war, Jl^ a 2am, fj^^jahdn, Li J dunya (f.). 
East, ^-^^y puraby y}yL^ mashriky ^jJ^ shark. 

West, w»:; pachchhamy ^J^ maghrabj ^i- gh arb. 


North, yl uttar, JU--» shamal (or shimat). 

i* m 9 

South, ^^ dakhan or ^d dakkhan, L^y^ janub. 

9 O 

Spirit, Soul, ^j rah (f.), ^jSi nafs, {J^ jan (m.f.). 

Life, y^jl (m.), <^L>- Aa^^a^ (f.), ^J^jan (m. f.), e;!;tP^^^ or paran. 

9 9 ^ O 

Light, !IU-\ ujaldfjy nur^ iZ^^jot (f.), ^^ L-iajj^ ro5An57. 
Darkness, ];-ibJjl andhera, ^SjJ^ tarlkiy c: >^4J,b zultnat ({.)• 
Heat, C-^l^ hararat, ^ tapan (f.), ^^^^ garmt. 
Cold, Coldness, Jc^ Mancf (f.), 4^*V» «ardi, |?l>- Jar5. 

7%e Elements. 

Ether, (^ITT afra« (or akas\Ji\ as}r. 

Fire, 4*/T ag (f.), ^^T atash (f.). 

Air, |yb Aatra (f.), (^^ pawan or jpaun (f.), ^ b 6a'o (f.). 
Water, cJT ab, J^rjal, ^\ipdnt (jn.),jJ ntr. 

- 9 

Earth, ^^J zamin (f.), ^ iwi/ff, CJ^ IMik (f.), (•jf iAum (f.). 

Heavenly bodies, signs, appearances, ^c. 

^C 9 

Sun, ^j^ suraj, (ZJ\zj\ dftdb, «xJyp^ Minrshaid. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 91 

Moon, jJU- chandy *U niahyjAi kamar, jSu>^ chandar. 
New Moon, JjU^SIb balcHikand, J)U hilal, J^U- U3 nay a chand. 
Full Moon, jJ^ ladry mPJ punim, ^U ^^ puran-mM. 
Star, ]^tf ^ar5, 2r^t--» sitdra, ^sfT najm. 

Constellation, ji:>«! akhtar. w^ kaukab. 
Planet, i^^L^ saiyara. 

Saturn, y^p-* samchar^ J>^ zulial, ^|^ kaiwan. 
Jupiter, c: ^;,. .^ly brihaspatj ^jr^^^ mushtari. 

Mars, Jx:^ mangaly ^^ mirrWi. 

OP p «»/ 

Venus, jCj ^Ar, dC- «wA:, 2^ ^rwAra (f.), JUbU naAid. 

Mercury, irjj ii^c/A, J^lkc utarid. 

Comet, jh\^ J Aaril (m. f.), u-^ A:e^, l^lj* ^^ /•*> <iMm fta <ar5. 

Meteor, u-^l^ shihab. 

Falling Star, lL<3 ZmA, ^1^^ ^AiAaJ. 

Zodiac, jC>- (^1^ rdS'chakrj -^^^^ ASla:^* mintakaturl-buruj. 


Sign of the Zodiac, -^^ Jwr;, crb ^a«- 

Aries, the Ram, J4J>- ^^ burj-i-hamal, -^ iwcM. 

C Taurus, the Bull, ^y ^ burj-i-saur, ^^ ftn'AA. 

Gemini, the Twins, \jfr ^ burj-i-jauza, ^jf^ mithun. ' 

Cancer, the Crab, ^\ty-i -^^ burj-isaratdn, CJJ kark. 

Leo, the Lion, Ju»l -^y burj-i-asad, ^^x:^-* 5iwgA. 

Virgo, <d-:^ sumbuh, LjJ kaniyd (f.). 

Libra, the Balance, ^^|j--« ml^raTi (f.), ^ ^^^5 (f.). 

92 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Scorpio, the Scorpion, lj>jAc akrab, j^, Hchchhu. 
Sagittarius, the Centaur, ^^^ kaus (f.), ^^ybJ dhan or dhanu. 
Capricomus, the Goat, ^^ ^rji burj-i-jadiyj^ makar. 


Aquarius, ^ J ^j) burj-i-dalvj .^^ kumbh. 

Pisces, the Fish, d?^ ^j) burj^i-hut, ^^^ mln. 

Milky way, Galaxy, ^J^tJL^ kahkashan. 

Mansion of the Moon,jifa^ nackhattar, ^^ mcmzil. 

Zenith, (j^J\ c:.^v4»rf samtu^-Ta^yJci:!iS c:,..v4«> samtu-n-nazar. 

Nadir, LL^AmJ\jJaj nazlru-s^amtf Jsj-^l^-lai nazlru-r-ryL 

Sunshine, c-^ybJ dhup (f.), A^ gham (f.), cUA shu'a^ (f.). 

Moonshine, _3jJl>- chandnt, u^lsjbU mahtab. 

Eclipse, ^ gahauj (of the sun) uJ^ kumfy (of the moon) 

p ^ 
Rainbow, -jS ^^y kavs-i-kuzah (f.), ^^y J5ro. 

Cloud, ji\ abr^ J jb badal, j-^ wiegA (m. f.)- 


Rain, .^Xj^ 97z^»A, ^l^b baran, ^j1j\j barish (f.), (dakh.) (j^-f< mhyun. 
Shower, lSj^ jhafty ^**iyjhm, 'j^^*3 daungra^ (j^\^^jhapas (f.). 

Fog, Mist,^^ kokar, Syt^ kohraj Lly^ /:tcAa«a. 

t p 

Vapour, jLcj;Am Jar, ^la^. bukhar. 

Lightning, ^LsT %'R, j j bark (f.). 

o op o 

Thunder, ^fgarj (f.),jJcJ tundar^ J^ raM. 

Dawn, Daybreak, *^ /?oA (f.), l^ ^aria, j^ JAor (f.), ^j\ arun, 


^ subh (f.). 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 93 

V Twilight (evening), ^^df gddhuUj J^iS. shafalc^ \^^'^ -f^ munh" 

Things relating to Fire* 

Flamei AkJ^ shu^la^ c^^ lahab, (of a fire) ^1 ancA, (of a candle or 
lamp) j^ tern (f.)- 


Flashy uX^ ZaAaft (f.), ul^^ hhahhdk (f.), UiC^irw chamak (f.). 
Blaze, l^^ff^ bhahhukoLy cl^ bharak (f.) : see Flame. 

j^jX*^ chinglf <dl^ parkdla, Sj\jJ^ sharara. 

Smoke, ^^^y^J eZAu'an, i*ybJ dhum, J^ ^zkf. 

Soot, 1^^ ^auTira, u^l^ AcaZti, 2^ J^ J duda^ j|^ sawad. 

Ashes, -i^lj raM (f.), jl^ cAAar (f.), a-^ bhasam (j.), 
khakistar (f.). 

Cinders, (cold) Sbj^ fco'eZa, (hot) \j€j\ angara. 

Of o 

Embers, J^^ bhubhaly \j^\ angara. 

Firebrand, 4i:>^ sokhta, ^^ luktt^ (dakh.) ^^ koltl. 

Fireworks, c^b ^^t atash-bazl. 


Firewood, Fuel, /^J-Jb hezam (f.), ^^JcjI tndhan, <U-Jb Aima. 
Coal, Charcoal, Ib^ kd*eld, JU; zu gk aL 

Things relating to Air. 

Wind, jb ia'o (f.), jb J5i (f.), ^ Aatra (f.) 
y Tempest, 

CO ^ "• 

^jjT STwfAi, ^lijt tufan.^f^ jhakkar. 

94 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Whirlwind, ob Jp gird-had (f.), "ifi bagula,j^j^ hawandar. 

Stormy Wind, JcJ jU bad^-tund (f.)* 

Hot pestilential Wind,>i*^4^ samum (f*), ^y^^ jb bad-irsamum. 

Gust, Blast, Breeze, 5;^^ jhakord, ^yp^jhoka^ ^^^^ phunk. 
Fair or favourable Wind, jU« j\j badrirmurad (f.). 

Contrary or adverse Wind, uJSUr^ Jb bad-i-mukhalif. 
Zephyr, morning breeze, U^ JU bad-i-^aba (f.) 

Things relating to Water. 

Drop, JJ^ bund (f.), *;l3S Ara^ra, (of rain) IL5 ^opAra. 

Bubble, Lb bulbula, h bulla, 4.^U>> Au&aft. 
Foam, Froth, Scum, ^^^ phen, (^ kaf(j.). 

Vapour, steam, jlsk; bukhar, -^U J5pA (f.), -i^^^ 6AapA (f.). 

Dew, (^^^ OS (f.), (H^ shabnam (f.), (JUw si^ (f.). 

<» ^ ^ y 

Fog, Mist, j3b^ kohar, \yb^ ktikra, J^ buldiJar, LX^ kuhasa. 

Frost, Hoar-frost, Sb pala, J^ thar. 

Snow, uJ^ barf{m. f.), ilb jpaia,j\^ jAor. 
Hail, iljl oZ5, <0];* zAaZa, vS^)x? tagarg. 

Ice, t^yajdi, uJ^ barf(m. f.). 

Wave, Billow, ^^ mate; (f.), <^flr>« mauja^j^ lahar (f.). 

Ocean, jJJm«^ samundar, jdA^ samudr, \usi^ jar^ bahr-i^'mu^lt. 

Sea,^;^ balir, jdci^t^ samundar, bjJ darya^yLi sagar. 
Lake, J-^jAiZ (f.)^ jj>/-» sarwar, c-^JU talab,j^^^ pd 
Bay, Gulf, J/ AoZ,^ Mr, -^U Ma/y. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 95 

Creek, Cove, J^ koL 
Abyss, Gulf, j«3 kcL^r^ (^\ct^ girdah^ ijs. lujja. 

«» o / o 

River, ^dJ naddt^ bjJ darya, Jjj riirf, iJ^ sarta (f.). 

Rivulet, Brook, Canal, j^ nahr (f.), ^l3 naZa. 
Pool, Pond, JJ*^ Aii^n^, c^^lJ ^aZai. 
Deluge, (jlijt fufan, (Jl-^i? tu ghy anh 

Inundation, )bbT aAZa, s-^1*m9 ^aiZai (f.) : see Deluge. 

Whirlpool, Eddy, Vortex, ^\^^ girdab, j^ bhanwarj (dakh.) 

)/^, bhaunra. 
Harbour, Haven, Port, jJcj bandar. 

^ Tank, c-^SlJ ^aZai, j^j^ sarwar^ Jo<^ fiauz. 


Quagmire, Jjic) daldal (f.), u^b j^anA:, ^^j-AJ dkasan (f.). 

Bog, Slough, uioU panA, JjJj daldal (f.). 

Fen, Marsh,^l^ jhabar (f.), (dakh.) ^ J^ marii. 

Spring, Fountain, <U1^ chashma, l7^ ^^a, Jci A^t/ncf. 

Well, 1^ Au'a, *l>- cA5A, (large one of masonry) UjJ\ indara, ^« b 

Pit, «\.>- cAaA. 

Ditch, Moat, ^^ l^ A:Aa7, JAisi- Idumdah^ (m. f.). 

Shore, Strand, Beach, Coast, Bank, Jf A?:, ij^ kinara, i^ lab, 

Things relating to the surface of the Earth. 

? m m 

Land, Ground, Soil, j%^ ftAtim (f.), JU wiiffi or ^^^ maiti, ^^j 
.anan is.), ;y. hum- 

96 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Dry land, ^X^:-^ khushki (in opposition to ^^ tori, water). 


Island, y 15 ^opii, i.-^.v^ rfij9, ^ Jsj- jazira. 
Peninsula, *Pj5j* jaztray i.-^*^ rfJp. 

Plain, Level, ^^^**^ musattahy j^^Ju^ ^aidan. 

Field, i^<.j(^ /cAc^, j^^ Ju^ wiairfa». 

Park, Chase, ^c^j ramna, ^iT^lCl shikdr-gah. 

Mountain, jLyj jpaAar, i[^ AoA, J,^ JaJaZ, e:^ parbatj (dakh.) 

jW^ dongar. 
Hill, Mount, L5 ^7Za, JJ tall, i^rJlyJ pakdft, a^ koh, (dakh.) kj/^*^ 

Hillpck, JL3 ttldy JJ toZZ, (dakh.) KJ tekrd, i^^^ tenkrl. 

Rock, J-> «Z (fO^J'^l^^^Sr, y^ ftoA. 

Stone, jfj patthar, v^iL-» sang, ^hajar, (dakh.)^^ phattar. 

Block of Stone, ^jli>- chatdn or chattdn (f.). 

Pebble, ^jip^ sang-reza, xj),J^ J^ goZ sangreza. 

Gravel, Grit, ^,5;^^ patthri,J^ kankar : see Pebble. 

Sand, cu^j rc^ (f.), ^U balu (f.), ^^j reg (f.), J^ rawiZ. 

Mould, Loam, ^lo ww'/fi or ^1« matfl : see Clay. 
Chalk, f^J^ khafi or ,J-« ^^ kkari-mittt, ^^ y^ chhVt. 
Clay, ij^ gil (f.), ,<2^ l<^ chikm-mitit, 


Mud, Mire, Dirt, jS^ klchar (f.), ^S kick, ly>- chakla or chihld^ 
Dust, JybJ dAuZ (f.)>jy^*^ dAw^ (f.)> '^/g^r^if')' 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 97 

Turf, JU- ehar(f.), ti^ chakta. 

Clod, ILm cfAeJa, ^ kulukh^ Dj ^Za^ t J^ pinda. 

Minerals, Metals, Sfc. 
A Metal, Mineral, Ore, c:^ljb J dhat, jii ^/i^rjs. 
Odd, Uyrf «6n5, ^ zar, ^^ffS kanchan, )lt JfiZS. 

^ CO (*/ 

Silyer, b^^ ricpa, a^ «iwi, ^*^^ chandnl, XjSj nukra. 
yj Tin, ^Ji JcdUA, ^\j ranga,Jijj\ arziz, ^^\^J rasas. 
Copper, L«\? tamba, ^^^^ mis. 
Brass, Jv jp7^«i> -f^ iiri?j;. 
Pewter, ^j:.^s,^jast, ^^^rf^jj rupjast, ^\j rangd. 
Lead, L.^ sisa, l^j^ surb, [j^j rasas. 
White Lead; \xJu» safeda. 


Black Lead, ^JU ^l^ kali mitfi. 

Red Lead, ji^«Xxm-» sendur,^\ tngur. 
Iron, Uy 25Aa, ^t aAoTi, ^«^^>- fiadid. 
Untempered Iron, ^^^ kacMoht. 


Steel, iSi^fulad {or fauldd). 

Zinc, Tutanag, Lapis calaminaris, l;:^^ dasta. 

O^ X 

Lapis lazuli, t^^^ lajaward. 
Mercury, Quicksilver, u-^U-m> stm-ab, \j\i para. 
Salt, (^^ ZoTi, clX«J namak, ^y non. 
Saltpetre, Nitre, ajyi^ shora. 

Brimstone, Sulphur, jf^ gogird, <*=-V.^ kibrlt. 
Coal (fossil), \if ^ jfH jP^^^^^^ ^^ A:o'eZa, Ibj^ ko'eld. 

98 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Alum, i^^fi^^ phitkari (m.), JuLj -^Jj zaj-i-sufaid. 
Amber, b^^ kah-ruba. 


Lime, l3^ cAilna, (quicklime) ui^^T aAaA:. 

O C C- 9 

Marble, j-«^ marmaryjtj^ v^^L-j sang-i marmar, As>-j rukham. 


Alabaster, aU^ rukkam. 

9 O 

Porphyry, jU-a v^jL«j sang-i sumak. 
Ochre, ^ i^^ jpifi mitfi, ^jS geru. 


Loadstone, Magnet, ^j^\:£^ t^f - • «angH mihiatis, (^^^mJ^I:^^ 

9 U 9 m 9 

7tafi5, Vj^^ aAan^ru&a, (,1Xm«^ chumbakf CJi^ chummak. 
Jewel, Gem,yib^jawAar,^|^>. jatoaAir, ^^ iwan, ^7^ ratan. 
Diamond, Ljb Aira, (^U)l almas. 

Ruby, JjJ 2a*/, (^^b yakut, v,^U manik. 


Garnet, CJy b yaH^ ; see Ruby. 
Carbuncle, ^]/9^ shab-chira gh . 


Emerald, J^j Z2£9niirrt£<i, 1:j panna. 

Sapphire, Ju3 ntlam, ^^ J-J niZ manijjJui safir. 

Topaz, -^1;^ pukhraj, ^ji) zabarjad. 
Turkois, Beryl, tj^j^ ftroza. 
Amethyst, ^^^^ jaballcam, 

^9 C 

Agfate, Onyx, , JU«L» (^j^ ^an^-^ sulaimanu 

o o 

Jasper, Agate, ai^ v2-^ 5ang-i yashm. 

Opal, .fj LtoJjJ dudhiya patthar (?). 
Cornelian, j;-Afi aX:iA:. 
Corundum stone, ^^3^ kurand. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 9S 


Crystal, jjL billaur, L^°f' phatak. 
Glass, ^JLJ^ sklsha, ^^ kdnch. 

ceo ' 

(p Talk, Mica, jj)\ abrak or ci^l aJrai, jit Ja/A:, Jjyb AoraZ, J^!^ 
Arsenic, ^Jjj zarnlkh, JJi \ ^ sammurl-far. 

Orpiment, ^*y jj zamlkh, Jl^ hartal. 

O JO t' 

Cinnabar, Vermilion, LJifJLii shangarf, jtijii dardar. 
Blue Vitriol, Tutty, Ljy tutiya. 

o o 

Naphtha, Bitumen, IiaJ na// or laiJ nifL 
. Red Earth or Ochre, jj^g^rS. 

Armenian Bole, 155^^! J^g*^* armanl, ^JLc ,^^ multam matti.^ 
Natron, ^^ip-* ^o^/i. 

•r X 

Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Herbs. 

c o 

Tree, c:^J darakht,}tiP^T (f')y 'if^^gachhy (dakh.)J^rJAar« 

Shrub, jW jA5r, \5^ Jtija, ^^^jhaft. 

Plant, Herb, cs^L) TiaJa^ (f.). 

Oak, l^jb SaZii^ 

Chesnut, IcjL 2fI& «AaA &a/tij[. 

Cypress, Cedar, ^y-» ^arr. 

Pine, Y\v,ji^ §anaubar, 

WiUow, Jlj Jerf (f.). 

Poplar or Plane Tree, jL>- chanar. 

Teak tree, Tectona grandis, ^ji L sagaun (f.) or ^|/L sdgican (f.). 

Bassia latifolia, |^^ mahVa. 

Trees, foreign to India; and, 
bearing foreign names. 

100 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Mesuaferrea^^^M^ {^\j nag-kesar. 

Nauclea orientalis^ aJ^ kadam or l.^^^ kadamb. 

Xanthyocymus pictorius, JUJ tamaL 

Dalbergia Sisu^ y^^^ ^m, 

Lagerstroemia regina or Flos regina, Roxb. JjU^Jara/. 

Mango tree^ Mangifera Indica, aT am, i«^T amb. 
Embryopteris glutinifera^ Roxb, (^^ gab» 
Melia Azedirachta, w mniy ^^viiJ nimb. 

Melia sempervirens, ^}Li bakayan. 

Michelia Champaca^ l^-**^ champak. 

9 C 

Cratseva Tapia, or Capparis trifoliata, ^^ baruuj l3^ bama, 
Amyris Agallocha, JS^ g^g(^^' 

9 9 

Mimosa Arabica, J^ babul (f*\j^, babur (f.""' 
Mimosa natans^ \^s^^J ^^t^^^^f y'^W Ifgolu* 

Mimosa pudica,jlljs^'^2a;a/ii. 
Mimosa scandens, iS gela. 
Mimosa Seris, (j-/-» sim. 
Mimosa Suma, ,<^«^ ^a^Tii. 

Dillenia Indica, lsi.>- chalta, 
Echytes caryophyllata, ^U malati. 

Shorea robusta^ JL ^a/, JI& ^AaZ. 


Ficus glomerata^^^^McJl udumbar. 


Ficus Guleria,jl^ gS/ar (f.). 
Ficus Indica, Li^ Ja?, J^ Jar. 
Ficus religiosa, J--J jptj^a/. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 101 

Ficus venosa (or infectoria), J^ pakar, 
Zizyphus Jujuba, ^<^ beri. 

Laurus Cassia, Cassia or wild Cinnamon, ^ taj. 

Salvadora Persica (also, in the Dakh. Careya arborea), jLj pilu* 

Mimusops Elengiy L^j^y^ maulsari. 

Mimusops Kauki, ^j^ khirni. 

Cedrela Toona, ^ tun, or ^y tun. 

Celastnis (staflT-tree) ^^S^ii> malkangnl. 

Morinda citrifblia, J \ al. 

Uvarialongifolia,j^«\-jJ debdar^ ^J^^^J^ devdaru, i^yJ\ asog. 
Webera tetrandra, \j\^ kara. 

Butea frondosa, (jJL palas, d/Uj dkak. 

Tamarix Indica, ^ l^ jhffu. 

Acanthus ilicifolius, tjL^yb harkat. 

Terminalia alata or glabra, ^^J^ arjun. . » 

Terminalia alata or tomentosa, ^1 asan. 
Terminalia Belerica, Beleric Myrobolan, Ij-^ bahtra. 
Phcenix sylvestris, wild Date,^j^s# kkajur. 


Justicia Adhatoda, (j^^ arus. 
Justicia Gandarussa, \jS\i bakas. 


Justicia nasuta, ^^ CJ^^^ palakjuhi. 
Achyranthes aspera, \^r>' chirchira^ \?\s T agard. 

o c 

Tamarindus Indica, ^X^\ imU, v^?W tintifi, 

■^gle Marmelos, ^Jj ^/&. 
iEschynomene paludosa, ^ ^Ao/a. 

102 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

^schynomene Sesban, \j:.^^jait. 

Hyperanthera Morunga, Lsrir* saliqjna, ^^b ban. 

Jack 'fruit tree, Artocarpus integiifolia; J^ kaVhah 

ChiroDJia sapida, ^^^^j>- chironjij JU piyal. 

Plantain or Banana tree, Musa sapientumi l>-^ mocha^ \S Icela. 

Bombax heptaphyllum^ 1^*^ slmalj i^^:>^ sembal. 

Bauhinia yariegata, j\:jf kachnar, JUsr kacknal. 

Palm or Toddy tree, Borassus flabelliformis, jU tar,j^Ji bal-tar. 

Pinus longifolia, Jj-» saral. 

Sappan wood, Csesalpinia Sappan, m balcam. 

Papaw tree, Carica Papaya, LmJ papaiya. 
Cane, Ratan, Calamus Rotang, vj:^ bet {{.). 
Creeper, J-^ bel (f.), U lata (f.). 

Agrostis linearis, (--^4> <f ui, Wiiff- janewa. 
Alangium hexapetalum, J^ akol. 

Aloe perfoliata, j\jLp ghlkuwar. 

Alpinia Galanga, Galangal, ^^l^^ kholinjan. 


Andropogon muricatum, j^^.^ l^ias (f.), i-*-^ twir (f.). 
Anethum Sowa, Fennel, \yA scfa. 
Annona squamosa, cjT at. 

Argemone Mexicana, JuW^ tharbhund* 
Artemisia vulgaris, li^ mar&'a. 
Arum campanulatum, J^ ol. 

Arum Colocasia, ^^^j\ arwt, yj^ kachchu. 
Arundo tibialis, s^j narkai. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 103 


Asclepias gigantea^ Swallow-wort, cS;\ arky Jj^\ akwand. 
Asclepias rosea, ^^^ dudht. 

Barleria longifolia, Ul^ Jl; tal makhand. 

Boerhavia diffusa, \jj^ lib j^ gadkd-puma. 

Bryonia grandisi Linn.y Momordica monodelpha, Roxb.^ u,^ bimb. 

Callicarpa Americana, \jx^^ bastara. 

CO o 

Cannabis sativa, Hemp plant, Iff^^ gO'tyhcif (^^\^ bhang. 

Carissa Carandas, Corinda or Caronda, IjJj^ karonda. 

Cassia alata, ^^/« ^^«> dad-mardan. 

Cassia fistula, (j«\JL«f amaltas. 

Cassia Tora, f JJjC>- chakaunda^ (or obtusifolia?) jl^ panwar. 

Cassia Sophera, i^JjymS kasaundi. 

Chrysanthemum Indicum, i^*^*^*-^ J^ gul-vdoCudi. 

Cissus quadrangularis, jjyf^bb har-jora. 
Cleome Viscosa,^^^^ hurhur, 
Clitoria tematea, ^<^Jj^ aparajita. 
Cordia latifolia, \jyJ \Jj bara lasord, 

Cordia Myxa, \jyJ lasora. 

Crinum Asiaticum and Zeylanicum, ^jd^^ mkhdarsan. 

Crotalaria juncea, ^ san (whence, a kind of flax). 

Cucumis Colocynthis, ^j^j^^ indrdyan. 

Cucumis Madraspatanus, Jc^ send-ii.). 

Cucumis momordica, ^y^ phuti, <-^j^ phut ((.) 

Cucumus sativus, \j^ khtrd. 

106 Vocabulary — Nouns. 

Linum usitatissimum, ^^^^ atasi, ^^^^ tlsi. 
Luffa acutangula, ^xu-p^ jklnga. 
Luffa pentandra^ <-> jy \^ ghiyd'tdral. 


Lycopodium imbricatura, c^^ V^ hatha-jorl. 
Menispermum glabrum, ^^ gurch (f.), -^jT gurach^ ^ gilau, 


Menispermum hirsutum, ^y d^^^ farid-hufi, 

•» ^ ^ 

Menyanthes Indica or cristata, ^*^y^ kamodinl (or kamodanl). 

Momordica Charantia, L^ karela. 

Myrtle (Myrtus communis) (jJT o^ (in Arab.), J^ wiwrrf (Gilch.). 

Nelumbium Speciosum, Lotus, aJj padam, JLi.^ kamal^ J^ kanwal. 
Nerium odorum, sweet scented Rosebay,^^ kaner (f.), fj^kanel (f.). 

Nerium oleander, Oleander or Rosebay, ^y^^>- khar-zahra. 

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, jUjlCi-o singdr-har. 


Nymphaea Lotus, ^5^ /ro7, i^S^J^ sdrangj^^ riildfary J^ kamal, 

J^ kanwal, -^1 amhuj. 
Ocimum basilicum, sweet Basil, i;^ sabza, ijj^ sabzi. 
Ocimum pilosum, l.^ wiarii'a, j^W^ rthariy yjU ndzbo, 
Ocimum sanctum, l^-Ij* ^m&i, \^fi brindd, ^>Jj J\^ fta/I tulsl. 
Oldenlandia biflora, Ijjb c:-^ pit-paprd, 2y ill shdk-tara. 
Orange tree, Ib^ kaunld. 
Origanum Majorana, l^^^ marwd (?). 
Ovieda verticillata, ^Lb ^b bamdn-hattt. 
Pedalium murex,^^|5J Jara gokhru. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 107 

^ . - 

Phamaceum Mollugo^ U^ guma. 

Phyllanthus Emblica, Emblic Myrobalan^ let amid. 

Physalis flexuosa^ ^JcJLil asgandh. 

Piper Belle, Betel plants J-^ ^^/U nag-beh 

Piper Cubeba, Cubebs, ^A*?" ^-^V^ fcaftaJ cAiwi, «oL$ kahdha. 

Piper longum, long pepper, J--J jpipaZ, J^^pipH- 

Plumbago Zeylanica, 1::l5»- chittd. 

Poa Cynosuroides, ,^ kush, c-^1 J daft (f.). 
Pteris lanulata, ^^ll^L^ parisiydwashdn, 

Rhus coriaria, jU^s ^t^iTzaA: (prop. jU^s stf^TimaA:). 

jj<- jjt* jj^ jj^ 

Ricinus communis, Jo^l arand, jJ\ anc?, i^^^io^j re»^, JJ; rawrf. 

Rosa Cbinensis, (,,,>^^2^ kathguldb. 

9 jjO 

Rottlera Indica, ^^>^ pinddlu. 

Rubia Manjith, -e^-^sr* mq;7fA (f.), Li-^-s^ man/if (f.). 


Ruellia longifolia, j;^j^ gokhru. 


Rumex vesicarius, ^^ chukd. 

9 9 99 

Saccharum cylindricum, ^ ulu, ^^ ulu (f.). 
Saccharum Munja, ^ya munj, 

<« 9 

Saccharum ofBcinarum, ^^\ ukh, 


Saccharum procerum, d-^ •«» sarpat, 

Saccharum Sara, ^ 5ar, \^2:>^) senthd, ^Jl:^ senthi. 


Santalum album. Sandal wood or tree, ^«^i>- chandan. 


Serratula anthelmintica, j^?^ bakchi. 
Sesamum orientale, Jj ^i/. 

108 Voeabmlary. — Xomms^ 

Sins^MS dichotoma, a species of mastardy ^^-^ sarsom. 
Solanam Jacqniniy ^^ w iS^ bhat-katcTl, 

Sdanam melongena^ ^j^-f baingany ^^xu btdgoM, 
Sotannm nigroni. Nightshade, ^ mako, ^j^^ iuDdum. 

SoDchuSy 'Aj^ kamraj. 
Spb^eranthos Indicns, ^^Jc^ mundl, 

Stiychnos nux-yomica, Isr kuchla, 

Symplocas racemosa, sJ^ Bdh. 
Thymes, Thyme, jb^ ipar, 

Trapa natans, Ijl^^ singhard. 

Trianthema pentandra, \j^ ^^ his-khapra. 

Trichosanthes dioica, j.^ parwar, J Jj palwaL 
Trigonella foenugrsBCum, ,<$^ metJu. 

Trophis aspera, ^j^ se'dra. 

CO o # 

Typha (a species?), ^Jijy gondnt : (elephantina) )l^ hjugla. 


Valeriana Jatamansi, Spikenard, ^^^Uor^^U \:^jata-mdstov-mansi. 

Vallisneria spiralis or octandra, ^L^ siwar. 

Vangueria spinosa, ^Jc« madan. 

Verbesina prostrata or scandens, '^J^j^i bhringraj^ Jjxifi bhangra. 

Vitex Negundo, ^\;*^' indrant, jJU-> ^ama/ti. 

Vitex trifolia, jSU^ samdlu, 

Volkameria infortunata, lI^I^ bhant 

Urtica intemipta, stinging Nettle, \j\^ bichhata^ njss^ anjira (?). 

Xanthium Indicum, ^j$^ ghaghrd. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 109 

Esculent Roots and Vegetables. 

9 ^ 

Potato, jJT alu. 

Yam,jjT aluy ^j ratalu. 

Sweet Potato, JcJ jLii sliakar-kand. 

Turnip, J(L& shalgham. 
CaiTot,^U gajar (f.), 


Radish, ^yo muU. 

Omon, j\j piydz (f.), ljj\^/cancfa(?), J-^ basal (f.),^^ gait ka. 

Leek, Ujd^ gandana. 
Garlick, ^^^ lahsanyj^ sir. 

c pt^9 9 

Beet, ^JCbS?" chichindd, j*i^2A>- chukundur. 


Ginger in the undried state, cSjS\ adrak. 
A Vegetable, ^.jj^y tarkarl. 

Egg-plant, ^^ baigan, ^JLj baingan, lS3l^ bhanta. 
Greens, <^/L sag or CL^b i«/L sag-pat, ^^\^, bkaji. 

Cabbage, K ^ karam-kalla, ^^ fcoJi. 


Cauliflower, ^^^ J^ phul-kobl. 
Cucumber, U-^ kklra. 


Gourd, Pumpkin, ^ J^ kadu. 
Pea,^^ malar y (dakh.) UlSb batana. 

Bean, ISb bdkla. 

Kind of bean (Dolichos Sinensis) \jji tobiyd. 

Spinage, CS^i pdlak. 
Mint, a:j4y podina. 

1 10 Vocabulary, — Nouns* 

9 O 

Parsley, ^y^\ ajmud, 

O Co 

Endive, ^^^^ kasntf bJcJb hindba. 

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) ^l^ kahu. 

Portulaca oleracea, Purslain, U^ lona, U3j! loniya, \Jy noniya, ^*^« 


kandli, ii^ khurfa. 
Cresses (garden), cJ^ ny tara-tezakjj..:^ chansur^ JU halim. 

Cresses (water), U5^ ^^ ldt'putiya,jjj^y^ii di'dkaridar. 


Arum campanidatum (root), y^j^ suran. 

Arum Colocasia (root), JUr kackalu, ^\,yp ghoyan. 

Amaranthus Gangeticus, ^^L> JJ lal-sag, 

Amaranthus oleraceus, U^ marsa. 

Amaranthus polygamus, sjij>- chauldl. 

Basella alba and nigra, v/^ jpo'e. 


Chenopodium album, Ijfj ia^Aii'a. 
Convolvulus repens, j<^ kalmJ. 

Dioscorea fasciculata (root of), i^y^ suthnt. 

Dolichos Sinensis (kind of bean from), lojl lobiya, ^\^j rawans. 

Hibiscus esculentus, c/Jc*^ bhindl, ^*J a\j ram-tura*!, 

Hyperanthera morunga (the root used for horseradish), Ix^fir* sahajna. 

Lathyrus sativus, v^U-^ kisart. 

^ X 


Althea rosea, Ljt*- Jo gul-i-khaira. 

Ar gh awdn, ^fj^ • 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 111 

Bassialatifolia (flowers of), j^^^ J^ gul chikdn. 


Chdndnlf ^ Jol>- . 

Chrysanthemum Indicura, t^*-^j^*^ J^ gulri-dffudi. 

CO m^ 

Clitorea tematea, ^^^ ^^ kawwa-thentht. 

Cockscomb flower, Amaranthus cruentus, ^JLJ^ gul-keshy ^j^^j^ ^^^ 

Globe Amaranth, Gomphrena globosa, Ju*^::* Js gul-i-makhmal. 

Hibiscus mutabilis, u^^ls? Ji gul-i-aja'ib. 

Hibiscus rosa Sinensis, \^ jawd. 
Hibiscus Syriacus, Jjbb gurhal. 

oo ^ 

Impatiens Balsamina, t^^^^^^ fj^ gul-mihridi. 

Jasmine, ^^'•^V. yo>smin or ^j;-^«»-ib ydsmln. 

Jasmine (white), a lily or an Iris (?), ^Jjj zambak. 

Jasmine (a sort of), ^^ ?|y niwdrl. 


Jasminum auriculatum, ^fr 3^^' 
Jasminum grandiflorum, ^ L^i ^ chambeli, 


Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens, 1j ^ kath-beld. 
Jasminum Zambac, J^ btl. 
Jasminum Zambac, var. j3y ^y< motiya. 

Jasminum Zambac, var. y, ]^^ mogrd. 

Kapur,j^ . 

Lily, ^^^ so5an (f.), (of the valley) ^jA^ saman, 

Linum trigynum, t^^/^^ja^fari, ^JA^ J^ gulri-askraft. 
Madan bdn, ^b ^«X« . 

112 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Mango-tree (blossom of), jj^ maur. 
Marigold, \iy:,S genda. 
Michelia Champaca, Lx>- champa. 
Mimusops Elengi, L^j^yo maulsarl, 

Mimbilis Jalapa, Marvel of Peru, (j-U^ ^ gul-vihhas, 


Nafarmany jjUpil3 . 

Narcissus, Narcissus Tagetes, ^j^j nargis (f.), 1^ ^j^jj nargis-i- 

Nelumbium speciosum, Lotus, aJj padam, J<4^ kamalj J^ kanwaL 

Nerium odorum, sweet-scented Rosebay,^;-!^ kaner({,), J-:^ ftaneZ (f.), 

Nerium Oleander, common Rosebay or Oleander, isybj ^ khar zahra. 

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, j\xx-o^ harsingar or jlx^U karsingar. 

Nymphaea Lotus, ^5*^ /ro'e, J^i^ kantval, (^Jjj\^ sarang, y^^-j nJlofar. 

Pandanus odoratissimus, Ij^ ke'ord, ^^^^ ketaki. 

Pantapetes Phcenicea, ^.j^*^ dupahriya. 

Plumeria, ^-^^ gul-achtn, 

Poinciana pulcherrima, ^\s f^ gul-i-turra. 

Polianthes tuberosa, ^ f^gulri shab-bo, or y l-^^ shab-bo, 

Rffe-btl, J-J ^f '1^ . 

Ratan-mdla, SU ^J^. 

Ratan-manjariy i^j^^ ^j • 

Rosa centifolia, l^^ guldb, J^ guL 

Rosa chinensis, Cy^H^^ kathguldb. 

Rosa glandulifera, ^^--» 5c'o^i, v^^ Juc sad-bar g, ^t juJ nastaran. 

TT • 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 113 

White Rose of India^ Rosa glandulifera (?), (^^/^-^ nastaran, ^^j^ 


Sinapis ramosa, UT^J^ sarson. 

Sunflower, Helianthus annuus, {^j^ Tjy^ suraj-mukht. 
Tagetes patula, i^M>- ^^ gul-ija^fart. 
Tulip, a!5l lala, JjU^ shaka'ik. 
Vinca rosea, <^^^ J^ gul-i farang. 
Violet, ALiiJ banafsha (f.). 
Zizyphus Jujuba (flower of), i^y^^ kkichfi. 



Mango, aT am, («^l am$. 
Plantain (fruit), L^ fteZa, ^*>^ kadalij jyc mauz. 
Custard apple, Jf» la--9 sztorphal, \j\ dta, ^J^ sharifa. 
Annona reticulata (fruit of), bj) lona^ Uy noraa. 
Jack fruit, J^ kathaL 


Barhaly JjbjJ . 

Rose apple, ^U-jawian. 

Hog Plum, 1^1 amra. 

Guava, ^^^ji^^ amruty (^\ l^j^ safrt am. 

Date, ^j\i>^ ckhuhara, U^ khurmd. 
Pomegranate, jU\ anar,j\j nar, aJIj ddrim. 

Pineapple, (jJcj\ anannds. 

Cocoa-nut Ji jli ndriyal, (J^j^ ndrjil, 


1 14 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Lemon or Lime, 4^ UmUy 9^^ nlmbu. 

Orange, ^jU narangl, ^j\j naranjy J^ kauta or SDj^ kaunla, xj£:»^ 


Citron, ^y turanjy Juf galgal, U^ karna, 
Pompelmoose, Shaddock, ^^^ chakotara. 


Grape, j|^l angur, c-^^ic tnai. 

Mulberry, ci^^i^ shahtut, CL^y tut. 

p<0 - 

Musk Melon, ^^^ Muirbuza, ^\a^ jamdU, ,^v-^ bitGkh. 

Water Melon, j^ ^ariiij?. 

Kind of Melon (Cucumis Momordica), ^^^ phMiy <-2^^ pAiif. 

Gourd (Cucurbita Pepo) ItoJ^ kamrdhay UjJj^ kondha. 

Gourd (Cucurbita lagenaria), j J^ /racfu, or jJ^ kaddu, l^^ 2auAa« 

Gourd (of uncertain species), l^ petha, j^j^ parwar, ^y^J 

Apple, c,.^%y>*) 5ei, j^ £ei7. 
Pear, ^LlU ndshpdtt. 

Quince, ^^ ftiAi, <U JiA, Js^/^ safarjal. 

Peach, ^liLl shaftaluy jjT arti, J^lasr^T dlu-bukhara. 

Apricot, jlT JJ 2:ard aZii. 

Cherry, j!i 2fL1 s/iaA aZfi. 

Almond, ^bb baddm, Jj) ZaMJ?. 

Olive, jj^ zaitun, ^^ l-l^ jalpdi. 

Betel nut, from Areca Catechu, ur;\--» ^wpari. 

Vocahulary. — Nouns. 115 


Cashew nut, fruit of Anacardium orientale, ^^ kaju. 


Ifxiij^jauz. Filbert, ^iSuifinduk (f.). Pistachio, iz^ pista. 
Tamarind, v/JcJb j^ tamr4 hindi. 

^ ^ • 

Emblic Myrobalan, lUT amla. 

Rottlera Indica (fruit of), jUjcj piruidlu. 

Scytalia Litchi (firuit of), ^^s^ llchl. 

Vangueria spinosa (fruit of), Ji^ ^^^ main-phal. 
Jujube, Zizyphus Jujuba (fruit),^ htr. 

Phyllanthus Cheramela (fruit of), ^jjij^^j^ harpharVdrl. 

Cordia Myxa (fruit of), \jy^ lasora. 

Cordia latifolia (fruit of), \jyJ \y^ hard, lasora. 

Averrhoa Carambola (fruit of), -^^^^ kamrakh. 
Mimusops Kauki (fruit of), ^j^ khirm, 


Chironjia sapida (nut of), ^^f'^j>' chirdnji. 
Flacourtia cataphracta (fruit of), ilUj paniyala. 

Grains^ Seeds, 
Rice (in the husk), ^^IjbJ dhdn. 

Rice (cleared of the husk), ^}^^ chanwal, ^Ji birinj^ JjcJ tanduL 
Wheat, ^yc^ g^kuny A»\ii gandum, (dakh.) f^^t^ ghyaun. 
Barley, yr jau. 

to y 

Holcus SoTghumy j\y>- jo'ar, ^jS)^ jauTuiri, (dakh. also) ijfj^jarl, 

^p << # 

Maize, Zea Mays, Indian com, U^ bhutta, (^J^ kukri, (dakh.) 
,^W iL« makkijari. 

116 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Ragee, Elusine Coracana^ \a>< manru'a, or l^jj^ manrul, (dakh. 

TEL.) ^\j rap. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum Italicum, U*>- cKtnaj ^^^ kangru, 

(dakh.) SI; rala. 
Millett (kind of), Panicum colonum, Ull shama. 


Millett (kind of), Panicum frumentaceum, \yL» sanwa, Ul!» shama. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum miliaceimi (?), U-;j- chaina. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum pilo^m, f^jj\ arzan. 

Millett (kind of), Panicum spicatum, ]^b bajrcLj \j^ laharra. 

Pulse, Vetches, Jb dal. 
Vetches, Lentils, ^yo moth. 

Vetch or Pulse, ^^^--^ tnastn. 

Pulse (kind of), Ervum hirsutum, jj.^..^ mamr. 

Pulse (kind of), Cicer arietinum, Lj- chana. 
Pulse (kind of), Phaseolus Mungo, ^^^ mung (f.). 
Vetch (kind of), Phaseolus radiatus, ^U mash. 

Vetch (kind of), Dolichos biflorus, ^j^ kulthtj ^j^^ kurthl. 


Vetch (kind of), Vicia sativa, lj/j\ ankri. 
Coriander seed, LuJbJ dhaniyd,lsJ:S kishniz. 
Cumin seed, gj)j ztra, \j^jtrdy ^^^ kammun. 
Anise seed, ^y*^\ antsuiif uJ3^ saunf (f.). 


Cardamoms, ^^^Xl ilacKxj alilS kdkula. 

•» X ^ 


Serratula anthelmintica (seed of), ^Ir^^ somraj. 
Sinapis ramosa (seed of), ^^ \j ral. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 117 

Food in general for Animals. 
Grass, Hay, Straw, (jJ^ ghds (f.), ^^ giyah (f.). 

Leaf, ^^pattl, ^^J^\:^, banaspattiy {^jt harg. 

Root, t^ hand, j] I alu. 
^/ Flower, J^ phuly Ji gul. 
/ Fruit, Jfi phalf a^ mewa, ^y fawaKih. 

{/ Grain, Com, As, ghalla^ ^\ andj, <Cl J ddna. 

Milk, JbJjJ c^il^fA, jJ^ shtryj^^ ckhtr, fj^jf go-ras. 

Honey, J^ skahd, J««^ a^aZ, JbJ^^ madk. 
¥ Sugar, /J^ shakar {{.). 

Insects, Reptiles, Grubs, Worms, c^J-^ klfe, \^j^ ^j^ tare makore. 

y Fish, j^^lff^ machhti. 

r Fowl, ifjjy paranday j^\>' janwar. 
V Flesh, j^to maTz^, (j-»U mas, kj:,J^^ gosht. 

Wormsy Reptiles, Insects, Spiders. 
Worm, Grub, Maggot, Reptile, Insect, \^ kira, ^ kirm, \j/^ \^ 
kira makora. 


Earth-worm, |^^^u^ kenchwa. 

Small Worm, ciU^ kirmak, \^ kira. 

Snail, Ix;^ ghbngd, lSx)\ atnf a. 

o / -^ 

/ Leech, tli^^ jowA (f.), jJ'j araZii (f.), l^jl^ jalaukd (f.). " ' ' 

Snake, Serpent, v.^L ^amp. 

Kind of Snake, 6j^^ gohuna, c:-^j^ karait, jy^ donr, ^bbfc> dha" 

min, y l^ sunkdtar, ^^^ji barwat (f.). 

1 18 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Boa constrictory Js^^ ajgar. 
Coluber Naja^ v^U nag. 

Dragon, jJj\ azhdar, \:bjj\ azhdaha. 
Viper, ^jfi\ af\ (m.), t-^U sampj cLf ^ «5g. 
'^ Lizard, y)^^^ chhipkalty <uUcw chilpasa, C^S girgit. 

V Tortoise, \^^ kax^hhtCiy U^ io,Jdmy c:.^ ^±^' * sang-pusht. 
Crocodile, ^}\,jp ghariyalj ^-f*^ kumhtr, \^S^ nihang. 
Alligator, ^^ magar, i\^ grahy -^ J^ magar^machh, x^ goh. 
Chameleon, C^^ g^rgity ^^y^j{ bukalamun. 

y Frog, CSi\:>^ mendak or nienduky j Ji J daduVy {^^ ghuk. 
Toad, i<^^ '^ kath-iiruki, C^ ghuk. 
Salamander (fabulous inhabitant of fire), jJcj^ samandar. 

Centipede, )jy;l^ kankkajura, j^-j^ gojar. 

Beetle, ^^jjij^ gobaronda, \j^j^ gubrauta. 
Fire-fly, Glowworm, ^J^jugm. 

Grasshopper, ^Jj fi^a, Ulf» phanga. 

Locust, 4^Jj tiMiy s^*^ ?^^> «-^ ?^n? ^]/T' i^^Srf. 
Bug, J«4iS^ khatmaly \^ ^^ kathrklriy 1»\:j ntnaya. 


Bug (green), ^o^ gandht. 

Cricket, luj^ J Aiwgwr, ^X^ jhilU. 

Mole Cricket, Gryllus gryllotalpa, \j^j^ ghurghura. 

Butterfly, 4,5/^-^ fiiri, ^Oljy partoana. 

Moth, ^MJ patangdy ^^jj^ parwana. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 19 


Caterpillar, l^»r\^ jhanjha, \^ kira. 


Silkworm, a^ cl^b pat-kirm, <Olj a^S kirm-i-pela. 
Hornet, j^J zamhur^ (dakh.) ^jf^ dikofi : see Wasp. 
Wasp, ^j{ birm,j) barr (f.), IjJb kadda. 

U 9 o / o • c 

Bee (honey), ,<^U^ mumakhi or ^^^Ujb*x« madhumakhl, ,^^ *X^ 
shahd-makkht or ^<^ ^ «X^ shahd kl makkkl. 


Bee (humble or large black), ^J^j^ bhringi. 

Bee (large black), ^y^ bhanwar or ^^y^ &Aantr7*a or \jj^ bhaunray 
^^l aS, iSS^j^, bhring. 
^ Ant, Pismire, ^^ mor^ JaJ namZ. 

Ant (black), l23^-^ chyunta, . (large) tJL^3uJ piZaAi, (small) ^y>^ 

Ant (large), l53^ chunta, \j^ makora, (dakh.) Jj^^ makhora. 

Ant (small), ^^ chunfi, ^J'^^ chlnft. 
Ant (white), uXk> J diwiai (f.), <JJ^ J rfitraA; (f.). 
^ Fly, j<^ makkhl, {jS^ magas (f.). 

Gadfly or large Mosquito, j^Ud5w5,(dakh. gadfly) ,^tf>^^j^ gomacAi. 

» « o/ 

/ Mosquito, Gnat, Midge, ^^js^ machchhar, ^JLj pashsha^ Ss^ kutkl, 


Midge (that flies into the eyes at nigbt), t?^ *^T dnkh-phdra. 
y Louse, (j^jun (f ), jl>- chillar (f.). Lice, ^yr ju'en, &c. 

Nit, ^ ZiAA, (f.). 
\ Flea, ^ pissu, ^.*j piAw, tlX?^ AaiA\ 

Weevil (small insect in rice, com, &c.), IjJ^- sunda, v^^ pitarty 

*^ Vacabulfxry. — Nouns. 

V *,^^ makfi^ <«C« makra. 

<l hicheJiM^ CJi^ji brischikf av^jJ kazhdum. 

^ ^(^ wMckkBy L5*f^ wiocAcA/ii, ^^ w5Ai, ^^^ iwtn, 
Ami (f.). 

w /o 

y^ \|^ ^«:J tom&tt macAAZi. 
ai^ fishy Polynemus paradiseus, \^^^^ lT^ tapasst (or ^opsi) 

^^pecies of Herring, Clupea alosa, Ujb Aiba (f.)* 

Special of Herring, Clupea cultrata, \jij>- clialwa. 

Cypriou» denticulatus, ybjj roAu (f.). 

A •pc\^ie« of Silunis, \J:^ tengra. 

S^ar^« pelorius, i^J^^ magurl, 

SiUini* pinigc»ti8siinu8, ,<&m-9 singl, 

S»lun» ^Mgittatus, t/-l^ pangas. 

-• .♦ 

>t»»w»U v>r H»h ivaembUng a sprat, |^ JlAazra. 
VVvilv** \,j^ *M«Hira (f.). 

Vocabulary Nouns. 121 


Phcenix (fabulous), Ui^ kuma, \Si^ anka, ^^^.jJid A:«/biu5. 

Eagle, c^Uc a^aft. 

i:ittgic, i.-^\** a«;tt£/. 

Vulture, JbtS^ giddh, JbsS gldh, ^^ kargasjj»^ nasr. 
Falcon (species of), )i^ jurra or Sj^-jurra (male of jU fta-zr). 
Falcon (royal white), ^^l2» sAcAm. 
Falcon (female), jU baz. 

Falcon (Falco calidus), ^^^ 6aAri or i^/ssr bahrl. 

Hawkjjb baz, njju shikra^ y^ j^o^gar. 
Hawk (Falco cristatellus), ^^ kohl. 

Hawk (Falco fasciatus or dubius), i^y turmatt. 

Hawk (Sparrow), U»b basha^jS ^y^ mush-gir. 

Kite (Falco Cheela), J-^ cKil (f.), y^j zaghan (f.) 

Owl, ^1 t^ZZii, 4^t ulagK /**J ii<m, Jui>- chtl^hd, Is^ ptcha. 
j^ Sparrow, ^,jy gduriya (f.), ]^ cAera, (hen) bj^ chiriya (f.), 


Lanius Boulboul (Nightingale of Persia, &c.), J-L bulbuL 
Turdus salica or Oracula reUgiosa (Moina), l^U sarika. 
Swallow, J-jW ababil. 

Swallow (Hinmdo apus Batassia), l:^b^ supablna. 

|/ Lark, \jS^^ bhadra, ^ agin, (Alauda Aggia) Lsl agiya. 

Starling (kind of), ^jL 5aro (f.)- 

Raven, \^ i^J^^j^^ngR kawwd, ^^ ytj dhar-katcwa. 


122 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

^ Crow, \f kavnoa, {^S^ kag, ^[^i- ghurab. 

Rook, Jackdaw, \ff kawwa, (^^ kag : see Crow. 

CO c 

Coracias Bengalensis, "^^'^'^^ fiil-kanth. 

f f' P 

Hoopoe, Upupa, JJ^JUb hudhttd,j^ ^\J^ shana-sar. 
Hombill, Buceros, i^,«^J dhanes. 

Woodpecker, Jjf^ -^ ^^i^'P^^^f j^^ jfi patthar-phdr. 

Cuckoo (the black or Indian), J(^ koHl (f.), Jj^ Aoya/ (f.), (-1^ 

Cuculus castaneus, l^^y« mahokha, 

Cuculus melanoleucos, (Jiol>. chdtak. 

/ / / ^ 

(/ Parrot, IJjjf ^5^5, 1^ su'a, tjjlj suk^ ^^ tuXij ^j^ nuri. 

•• • ^ 

f 9 P 

Paroquet, \^ su*d, U^ sugd, ^^ tuft, {j^\r!^ hiraman. 
Domestic Cock, C^ kukkut 

O # i^P 

o/ o^ 

Domestic Hen, ^^ kukri, ^Jj^ mur gfu . 
/^ Peacock, jj^ mor, Jy barht, (j^^ \t /a'zi^. 
Peahen, ^<3j^ wiomi . Peachick, 5b^ murela. 
Fowl, i;^ murghj ^\-^ mdkiydn, 

f Of 

Turkey, ^^^ /jerfi, ^ JJ/tlmiur^. 


Pheasant, j^jJJ tadarv. 

Partridge (Perdix francolinus),^;:ujf fftor, i^^^J durrqj. 

m,9 ^ 

Partridge (unknown species), ^IjJ durraj, CS^ kabk. 
Quail (kind of. Perdix olivacea), J-iJ batcr. 
Quail (kind of. Perdix Chinensis), Ij! lavoa. 
Pigeon, Dove, CJ|^ kapot, Ij^ parlwa^^yS kabutar. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 123 

Pigeon (green. Columba Hurriala), Jjyb haiiyaL 
Pigeon (tumbler), Ujo^ mandaliya. 
Ortolan (Emberiza hortulana ?) JXj bargely c5;Xj pargiri. 

Ostrich, ij^jJ^ shutur-mur gh . 

Sort of Bustard (Otis Bengalensis), J^ charz. 

Crane, t^f*-^^ kulang, ^f kunj : see Heron. 

Hefon (Ardea torra and putea), ixj bagla or Jx) bagula, vl^ 6aA, 

Heron (Ardea Antigone), (^/-;L» saras. 

Heron (Ardea Argala), Adjutant Bird, L:>JJb hargllcLj jj--^^ khages, 

Heron (Ardea Indica), J^l5»- janghaL 
Bittern (Ardea stellaris), IL y«^ chamar-baglt, ^U-J^ butlmar. 

Stork, (^j3i3 laglag, jji! laklak, 


Sandpiper (Tringa Goensis, Lath.), (j;ij tatirt, iJj^ tatlhri. 
Waterfowl, ^^;^ mur gh abt. 


Coot or Diver, ir><^ pandubt. 


Flamingo, jj-JJb -^Ij raj-hans (?). 

Pelican, J^|^ hawasil, (Pelecanus onocrotalus) ^ ^^ gagan-bher. 

Swan, ^^U Aa7i5, jj-iJb ^^j raj-hans. 

Goose, Duck, ^jj^Jb hans, laJ 5aJ (^O* J^ ^^* 
Gander, Drake, UaJ 6a/j5, y jl5 kaz-nar. 

Beast, (^1^-^ haitodn, «J^y>- ckaranda, j-j /mz^. 

124 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Horse, \j^ gkora, l^^ asp, ^^^ far as. 
\/ Mare, ^j}^ gJ^^Pf uV*^^ madiyan (f.), (dakh. also) j^|^fc>U madwan, 
Foal, Filly, i^jn^ bachherl. 

Colt, ^j*^^ backhera, tX^\i norkand, s^ kurra. 
V/ Pony, Galloway, ^b yabu,^ tattu, ^.j^^ tdnghan. 
Gelding, d:i:>-T akhta, \Z^ kutiya. 

\/ Mule,ysr^ Idiachcharj ji0^\ astar. 

Ass, \sb^ gadha, (she Ass) ^J^gadht,j:>- khar^ jU>» himar. 

Wild Ass, Onager, Zebra, j>-j^ gor-khar^ zJiijy>. khar-i-dasktl. 

Camel, l^^I i«n^, ^:i^ shutur, jxJ^\ ushtur. 

CO / C' b 


Camel (female), ,<i5Jjl ilTzfrat, ^jjU^aTz^nt, (dakh. also) ^^J^ sarnl. 

Dromedary, ^JjJLj sandnl, 

Cameliffi Bactnanus (camel with two humps) U^^J do-koh-u. 

Stag, UInj ajo barah-singafJuaxS kandsar, Uyb Aarna. 

Elk, Moose, ^Lj sambar, ^jf gawazn : see Stag. 
Spotted Deer of India (Cervus axis), J^u^ chitaU 

Deer, {^S/<^ mirg, ^jb haran,^\ ahuyj^^^ kdllhar. 


Buck, Hart, \jjJb harna, ^jib haran. 
Doe, Hind, ^Jyb Aaf%i. 

Fawn, b^^ harnauta, Xji yb\ ahu-bara, 

Camelopard, or Giraffe (from Arab. ij\jj zarrafa), {^Jcl) j\S gaw- 

Antelope, ^^ haran, \j^^ chikara : see Deer. 


Antelope (painted or white-footed. Antilope picta), -p^^j rojh. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 125 

Goat (Caper aegagrus), \Jj bakra, (fem.) ^^jL bakrl^ J^^ chhagal, 
(dakh.) L^ chhela, (fem.) ,i-^ chhtU. 

Kid, \i>A^ memna, ^\cj3 buz gh ala^ u^^'^' ftalvmn. 

Sheep, J-^ Mer (f.), J^:^^ gospand (f.), jJ^ gadar (f.)y (dakh.) Ijij 

Ewe, Vf Mer (f.), t^J-« bherl, (dakh.) ^«;G ftaAri. 

Ram, Ujc-^ niendha, \j^ bhercLj ^jLf^ mesh^ (dakh.) \fj bakra. 
Lamb, tor \^ J-fJ Mer &a bachcha, LI SZa, 2r^ 6ara. 
Cow, (^^ gal ({.),t/^gaw (f.), (cow or one of the cow kind) y go. 
Bull, J-J jJ^l andu-bail, dji bar ad, ^ITy nar gaw,jy saftr. 
Ox, Bullock, J^ ftaiZ, U^Jj badhiya. 

CO o c 

.' Calf, \j^, bachhra or IjfsT bachhra, l^b bachha, (female) Lfs:? 
bachhiya, (dakh.) \% para, (fem.) c^b pari. 
Heifer, jf^ kator,j^^ osar (f.). 
Steer, young bullock, ^^J dohan, L^ khaila. 
Buffalo (male), L«:>^f» ftAain^a, ICy^ maihika, ^JL^ ^ gaw-mtsh. 

•/ Bufialo (female), (./-^-^ 6Aai?is (f.), yS^^ maihikl, ^JL^ ^ gaw- 
Buffalo, (wild, male), 13^1 arria, (female) ^j\ arm. 

Buffalo (calf), ^^^ parhl, Ijfl^ ftara, ]/i^ mngra, IjU /jara. 
Bos grunniens. Yak, ^^If 2r^ sara-ga'e or^o ar^ sara-ga'd. 
v7 Hog (wild), Ljbjj barhela or SUb^ barhela. 

i- 9 9 9 

Boar, Hog, j^^ ^ii'ar, «|^b bar ah, cL^rw khuk,^ya sukar. 
Sow, c£;^^ «i'ari. 

126 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Pig, I2i-^g/<&if5, (female) ^Ji^ ghenfi: see Hog, Sow. 

Rhinoceros, \tyLs gainda, ^^^ kargadan, 


Elephant, ^^ hatht (m,), (female) ,<ifJ^ katknl, iS:^ ftl. 

Elephant (large) J^^ kunjal, (small) V.'Vr^ kumedya. 
Hare, Rabbit, liCiJ lamkana, IfJ lamhay J^f y^^ khar-gosh, \ibj^ 

^ ? 

Porcupine, ,^1-j 55Af, JjJL ^aAi/, l;:^%1j jU^ khhr-pusht. 

9 P P<j 

v/ Rat, Ifoft^ chuhRy Lu«« mzi^a, jJCjf iTzefz^r. 

Bandicote Rat, Mus giganteus, Hardw.y \j^y^ ghusj \^yp ghusa. 
Musk Rat, Sorex ceerulescens, jjJjfs^ chhuchhundar. 
Mouse, yjfy^- chuKiy ^j^y< musrl, ^yt mush. 

Squirrel, i^j^^ gilahrt, j^^-^ chlkhuTy ^^j rukht, (dakh.), t^jM 

giliri (?). 
Cat, 5b billd, (fern.) Jb bilRy ^h bila'd, (fem,) ^ Jb bila*iy ^^ gurba, 

^IflcU manjdr, yV< manOy (dakh. also)JjL bilawar. 

Kitten, <^s^ l^ Jj 6e7R fta bachcha. 

Lion, ..^Ld singh, ^r^ kesarl, ^Jj^ kthariyjJ^ sheVy «Xri\ asad. 

CO o 

Lioness, j<2*^^^ singhinly ^j^ sheml. 
'■^ Tiger, .^b bdghyjJ^ sheVyjfi babar,jib\j ndhUr, 
^ Tigress, ^^^^b bdghan or ,<i^b bdghnty y^jn^ sheml. 

\ t "k /CO 

yriger's Whelp, 5L^ bagheliy ^jy\j ddnwru, (dakh.) j^ hor (?). 

/ o 

Panther, bu>- chitdyj^ yuZy i^S^^ palang. 


Leopard, Lynx, IjJc^ f^ndti'a, ^^S^^ palang, (small hunting) b^ 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 127 

Persian Lynx (Felis Caracal), ^^ h\^ siyah'gosh. 

o c 

Hyena, j^girir, \j^ lakra, ^^isS kaftar. 

9 " 

Ichneumon or Mongoose, ,_<^ bljiy ^j rasUf Jw newal, (dakh.) 

(j^y^i^ mungus. 
Dog, tjf hittaj ^f kukaTy {^f^ sag, ^\y^ swan. 
Fox, c^jl Bmrl, h\i^j rohah (f.). 

Wolf, Uj-fi bheriya, ifljJI landga, i^J gurg, jl.XJb hundar. 
J^ckaiyjX^ gldar, JU^ shagKdh JU-* ^iyaZ. 
Otter, jSbjj^ ud-bilffo, jS ^^U maht-glr. 

Weasel, Ferret, Fitchat, Marten, J^ ncw;aZ, ^J; ra«i. 
Polecat, ;^l2^ khatds, JS^ katar. 
Bear, -^j richk, Jl^ iAaZ, jll^ bhdlu, \j^f>- khirs. 
Mole, jJJ^fsai^ chhuchhundar (which is the musk rat). 
Hedge-hog, c:.^ jU* khar-pushtf .f^ sink. 

Bat, JjuX4^ ckamgldar,jd\i badur, ifjj ^^ia shab-para. 

Monkey, Ape, j4X:j bandar, (fem.) gf;*X5J bandrt, ijjy^ bozna. 

'A ' ^ 

Baboon, jyJ langur, ^y^^ maimun: see Monkey. 


9 O C 

Man, human being, {jJ^ manus, ^*^ adrni, ^^jan, ^^LjI insan, 


^jLji^ purush. 


Man (in opposition to woman), J^ mard. 

Man (servant), ^y naukar,yj nafar. 

Woman, i^Aij randi, f^jjf' aurat, t^J^ istrl, tfjjo ba*iko, ^J zan. 

1 28 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Old man, libj^ burha, ^ ptr, J^ shaikh^ (dakh. also) I^jj buddha. 

Old woman, IjJbJ; burhiya (f.), ^^J^ ptr-zan, (dakh. also) Uibjj ftwrf- 

Aiya (f.), . J^J^ buddht or 4<Jk; ftMcfi, 
Young man, {J^f^y naujau^an, ^jt^ gabru. 
Young woman, ^f^juvattj t^J^^ ku'arl, i^J^^ chhokrt. 

m ^ X ^ 

Maid, Virgin, *^b bakira, l^J^^ kVari, *J--2»^J doshiza, ^^j^ kori. 

Boy, Lad, l^ Zar&a, ];^j^ chUdkra^ (servant) ^JJjJ launda. 

Girl, ,^jl Zar&f , i^^y^ chhbkr%fj:j>^^ dukhtar^ (servant) t^Ju|^ laundi. 

Child, Babe, Infant, 4fc< bachcka, (fem.) ^-a^ bachcht, ui3lj &a/aA:, 

• o c 

Jit j[e^, JjJ i far Zand. 
Giant, Jb cJaTiar, «*s-^»i^ i/ri^: see Tall, Big. 
Dwarf, Uy ftauna, (fem.) ^y baunt, \Sl3 na^a, (dakh.) y^ thengu. 

A Human being by relationship may be — 

Husband, a*^ Iduisam, j!byi» shauhar, ^^j zauj. 
Wife, ^jf>- joru, <U»-jj zauja (f.), ^j zan. 

Father, t-^b bap, W 6565, |^b bawa, \sj pita, j jj pidar. 

Grandfather, (paternal) ^Jb dada, U*l 5/5, (maternal) Uli nana, Jo^ 

Great Grandfather, (paternal) ^^ jj par-dada, (maternal) UUy par- 


Father-in-law (husband's or wife's father), y«--» sasur (or susar), \ 

susra,j*m>- khusar. 
Adopted Father or God-father, c-^b ^J dharm-bap. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 129 

Mother, U may ^U man^ bU matay jJU madar, ijJl^ walida. 
Grandmother, (paternal) «^fc>lfc> dorfi, (maternal) ^\3 7i5ni. 
Great Grandmother, (paternal) \^*^\^j{ par-dddt, (maternal) ,V^ ^ 

Mother-in-law (husband's or wife's mother), (^L» sas, ^^\*^ Lrf^ 

Step-mother, CL^U^ bemat, \^f>^ maibha. 

Brother, ^c l^ 6Aa7 (m.), jJ^ j birddar,jif blr. 

Own brother, ^^ l^ u-» «ag5 iAa'«, v^ l^ jJj^^ sahodar bhffi. 

Brother-in-law (sister's husband), l^j^. bahnol, y^^ bahnVo. 
Brother-in-law (husband's elder brother), .^i^jetk. 
Brother-in-law (husband's younger brother), j^ J dewar. 
Brother-in-law (wife's brother), SL sdla. 


Brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband), v^ jJ^ nandol. 

Brother-in-law (wife's sister's husband), ^U ^arAa, u-fl!j ^ ham- 

Step-brother (brother by the father only), ^ l^ ^^ sautela bha't. 
Step-sister (sister by the father only), ^ lsMt* sauteli bahin. 
Son, lij fteja, CJy put,j»>^^pi$ar. 

Son-in-law (daughter's husband), jUb ddmad, c5 U^ jawia'i. 
Adopted Son or God-son, IS^ AjibJ dharm-betd. 
Step-son (son by a former husband), i-.^j rablb, (or dakh.) \5-j c— ^y j 
rabib beta. 

<- ^ c/ 

Daughter, ^ijj btfi,j:j>^t^ dukhtar (f.), ^^^ pw^ri, ^J rfA7. 


130 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Daughter-in-law (son's wife)^ ^ bahuy ^J^ badhu, gfj patok. 
Step-daughter, <Uoj rablba, (or dakh.) ^-j <Ujj rablba be(i. 

Sister^ ^^ J^aAzTZ or bahan^ (<^ bhagintj yy) bubu. 
Sister-in-law (wife's sister), ^Li saU. 


Sister-in-law (husband's sister), jcj nand (f.). 

Sister-in-law (husband's elder brother's wife), ^\^.^ jethani. 


Sister-in-law (husband's younger brother's wife), ^^jji*^ de'dram. 

Sister-in-law (brother's wife), ^^l^ bhawaj (f.), ,^^ bhauji. 

Sister-in-law (younger brother's wife), y^^ bhaxhuj *jl^ bhawah (f,). 
Grandson (son's son), l?^ 2?o^a, (daughter's son) \^\y nawasa. 
Grandaughter (son's daughter), ^Jy potJy t^Jy) pautrt, 

Grandaughter (daughter's daughter), j^U natiuj jcj natntf (dakh. 

also) ^U na^j, i<-»'y nawasl. 


Great Grandson, ^y^ y^ par-potiy \jjy y par-potra. 

Great Grandaughter, ^yy par-pott ^ \^yy^y par-potrt. 

Uncle (fatjier's elder brother), jlJ ra'ii, (dakh.) blj ^aya. 

Uncle (father's younger brother), UsJ^ chacha (or dakh.) U??" cliicha. 

Uncle (father's sister's husband), \^j^ phupha, ^^ phuphu, 

9 9 

Uncle (mother's brother), j-«U mamUf UU mama, JjU nidtuL 
Uncle (mother's sister's husband), jSlsL khdlu. 

Aunt (father's sister), j<^^ phupht, (or dakh.) ^^^ phupt, 1^ 

pAu'a (f.). 
Aunt (mother's sister), ^y^ mausiy 5ll>- A:/taZa (f.). 
Aunt (father's elder brother's wife), ^J^ ta*t. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 131 

Aunt (father's brother's wife, or father's younger brother's wife), ^cf?" 

chachi or jVf?" chachchl, (dakh.) ^^=?" chacham. 
Aunt (mother's brother's wife), j<<^ mami, ^v^ muwawi. 
Nephew (brother's son), Issa^L^ bhatijdf ifjlj jJIj biradar-zada. 
Nephew (sister's son), Is^lfJ bhanja, sS\jjb^y>. Jdapahir-zada. 
Niece (brother's daughter), ,<J^li^ bhatijt. 


Niece (sister's daughter), ^^f\^, bhanjt. 

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's son), j^ l^ ^ j\j ta'era bhd't. 

Cousin (dakh. father's elder brother's daughter), ^^ s^,^ ^a'm 

Cousin (father's brother's son), * o l^ ir^f?' chachera bkal. 
Cousin (father's brotlier's daughter), t^^rv^ ^&!^f^ chachen bahan. 
Cousin (father's sister's son), J c5 ^ Irrfe^ phuphera bhaH, 
Cousin (father's sister's daughter), § ^^, *-^jiiW^ phupheri bahan. 
Cousin (mother's brother's son), v^ l^ 1;^^"^^ mamera bhffi, \\ 
Cousin (mother's brother's daughter), ^^ t^ji"^^ manierl bahan.% 

* In Dakhni, said to be father's younger brother's son." 

•f* In Dakhni, said to be fatlier's younger brother's daughter." 

J Dakh. c^'lfj \ri^ phuperd bhd^u 

§ Dakh. ^ v,g^ phuperl bahan. 

II Dakh. t^ l^J ^j^y^ maulerd bhd^i. 

\ Dakh. ^^ ^j^y^ mauleri bahan. 

132 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Cousin (mother's sister's son), i^'l^ ^j^y^ mausera bkal,* 

Cousin (mother's sister's daughter), ^^ \^j^y^ mauserl bahan.f 

The Body and what belongs to the body. 
\/ Body,^,^ safiTy ^jj badan, <o J deh (f.). 

Limb, Member, Joint, ya& azv, {^Jlj\ angj \fi tukra. 
Sense, (j«.»>- hiss (plur. (^\^ hawass, senses). 
^ Sight, ti^jJ dmA,« (f.), l/^ blna'l, C^La^ ba§drat (f.), iy^b ciy 
kuwat-i'basira, Joj nazar. 
Hearing, ^U^Ls c^y kuwat-i-samVa, l::^£U*«8 sama'at (f.). 

y Smell, <uU) CLy kuwat-irshamma, ^Ui shamma. 
V Taste, ^\j za'ika, <)^^J C^J kuwat-i-za'ika. 

Touch or Feeling, ^l^ lamisa, <u^ CL;y kuwat-i-lamisaf ^j^ lams. 

Voice, Speech, d^s^ natikd, <LsLl3 CJy kuwat-i-natika, j\^\ awaz. 

Colour, ;S-^j roTig, ^^jl laun. 

«* Mi ^ 

Stature, Jj kadd, lil-v^U • jJ Xrocfef o kdmatj Jj» J filiZ. 

V Skin, Hide, cu^^ ;?05^, Jl^ khal (f.), J)**^ chamj'a, S^jild (f.). 

Cuticle, Pellicle, Membrane, ^^^^jhilli, iftij)^ parda. 

Pore, /♦L^ TTio^am, (Pores) CL^UL^ Twewama^ 

Flesh, j^U manf, (j:^J^^ gosht, \j^ herd. 

Bone, v^JJb haddi, JU Aar, ^l^sdu^ ustujdmdn^ fi^ azm. 

* Also, 4^ If |y-lfli- khalcra bhd'i. 
t Also, ^^ ^y^ khateri bahan. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns, 133 

^ Blood, ^j! lohu^y^ laliUj (dakh.)^ IhaUy cu^j rakat or rakt^ ^^ 


Chyle, {j^^ kailus, (^y^ kaimus. 
Humour (of the body), lalr>^ fdiilf^ {j^j ras. 


Serum, ^U manj, ^b parii, x 

P 9 P 

Saliva, Spittle, C^^ thuk, J]; ral (f.), lJj tuf^ t-^U! lu*ab. 

Urine, ^->l^ peshab, J^ 6aM/, CL?^ m5^, ^U» sAa^A. 

,X Sweat, Lj--j paslna, ^-*-j pase*d, jjC- arak. 

Phlegm, >ib balgham. lJi^ kdf(f.), ^ kapk (f.). 
Bile, Gall, u:-^ pi^, ]^ safra (f.), tj pz7^a. 

O P 

Milk, JhJ^J c^iie/A, ^^ shirfj^^ chhlr. 

Marrow, Ijjf gSda,^^ maghz. 

Muscle, Tendon, ^Sb pattha, ^-j pai, j^ na^ (f.). 

Nerve, Sinew, k^^-*ac asai, ^2j pattha, ^^ pat, (^ wo* (f.). 

Fibre, <tlj^ resha, {^j rag (f.), ^1 ans (f,). 

Membrane, ^^ji^ khalft, (of the foetus) ^Xi>-jhilli, y«3^ parda. 

Artery, ^U -A «Airy5n (f.), <^ rag (f.). 

Vein, ^^ rag (f.), ^^ no^ (f.). 

Great vein in the arm, vena basilica, j;Ju-»b basalik, (^j^ shahrag^ 

-/ ^ o/ 

l*!«3J\ uu^AJb haft-andam, 
Gristle, Cartilage, u/?^ Amtt? , uJj^^ gh uzruf. 
Gland, .^^gilfi, JJ^ ghudud, 1^ guthR. 
Joint, ^^ ganth (f.), Jcj band, jy>* jor, if^ girih (f.). 
Hair of the head, Jb M/, ^j^ kes (f.)> >< ^^- 

134 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

/ Hair^ small of the body, ^^j ro'an, ^^j rom, ajI lorn, *1j pashm (f.). 
Feather, jJ par^ .^^ pankh. 
/ Head, J**) sivy dc^ mund, (j«-*-> sis, j^ sar, i^ kalla. 

Crown of the head, l^*^\:>- chandiy ^gj55 tatri, jjU tarak, ^jLo ma' 

Skull, Pate, Pericranium, «^^ khoprtyj^ ^^ kasa-e-sar. 

Face, .^ munh, ^^ mukh, (dakh.) ^^^ mun, ^j^ chihra, ^j rukh. 

Forehead, Front, l^U matha, Jl^ bhdl (f.), jV^^ peshanl, ^o:*->- 
jabin (f.). 

Horn, ^C,j..> «7ig, ^U* shakhy ^^ karn. 

Brain, l^V^ bhejiy 1Jj> gudifjx^ maghzy 4Uj dimdgh. 

Pia mater, JiU 2rJ^ pardori-maghz. 

Temple (of the head), ,A^ kanpati, AaJJ^ shalaka. 

Occiput, back of the head, US Icafa (f.). 

CO c 

Eye, ^1 dnkhy ^ nain or nayan, JL:>- ckashm, sJjJ dtda. 

Eyebrow, ^^^ bhaun (f.), j,^^ aftru (f.)> t/^ bhirkuti. 

Eyelid, \5y ^o<5, d-^ ^^aZaA (f.). 

Eyelash, *to mizha (plur. ,^1^ mizkgan), ^J barani. 

Pupil of the eye, ^^Icj p2£fZf , CS^^j^ mardumaky JL>^ ^^j< mardum^ 


/ C # O V 

"4 Tear, ^T ansuy^^^\ anjhuy uX2»^ ashkyj^ tor. 
Nose, cl/l3 waft (f.), ^^ Tiasika (f.), ^i-; Kni. 


Nostril, \i^ nathna,jssx< minkhar (f.) 
Bridge of the nose, Ljb Z^aTi^a. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 136 

O O f ^ 

Snot, Mucus, l53^ ponta or C^ pota^ l2ijj rentiy \Lj netciy c->Ul {u'aft. 
Mouth, .^ munhy .^ mukh, ^J dahan, ^1 araan. 
Roof of the mouth, Palate, j)l5 ^aZu, ^l^ ftam, J^J^ mogaA:. 
^Tongue, .^^ jtbh (f.), (dakh.) i^;^ jib, Joj zaban (f.), J^^ 
lisan (f.). 
Breath, aJ dam, j^La «5?i5 (f.), ^jJu nafas (f.). 
ooth, c:^! J dant, ^IjJ J danddn, ^J dasan. 
Gums, 1?^««^ masura, ^ Zi.i|a. 

y Lip, ^^ honthf c-J /aft (m. f.). 

Beard, ^j^*^ ddrhly ^^j risk (f.), ^ khflfi- 

Ear, ^ kan, (j^f gosh, ^^j^ sratoan. 

Lobe or tip of the ear, J^f^, bind-goshj ^^^ <U;3 narma-e-gosh. 

Drum of the ear, Tympanum, » J^ ^^ kan ka parda. 
/ Cheek, i}^gdl,JuJ-j rukhsar. J^-^ kapoL 
Jaw, \^^jabra, \^^^ jabkra, (jaws) K AaZZa. 

Chin, t/Jk^ thuddi, (dakh.) ^^J^ thuddt, ^*J zakan, ^j zanaJA. 

**• ** 

Pit or dimple in the chin, ^j zana/di, ^J^f^^aTj zanaJdidan, c,.^tLr »[>- 

chah'ir gh ab gh ab. 


Dewlap, ^^<Lr. gh abghab. 
7 Throat, "i^ gala, j;L- halk, /^y^ halkum. 

CO /o 

Larynx, Throttle, Windpipe, Gullet, i^J^J narkhart, l^SiJI tentu'd, 

C 9 9 

y^j^j narkast, ^ nali, ^ gulu, lb gald. 
Neck, ^^^ gardan (f ), 5b gaZa, \y^^ griwd (f.), .^^ ghanch. 
Nape of the neck, ^^6^ guddi, U3 Aro/a (f.). 

136 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Shoulder, UjjI^ kandha, UjJj^ mondhd, ^^^ dosh, (dakh.) Ijc^ 

Shoulder blade, <UL& shdna, d-jb^ Aia^i/*. 

Wing, y jpar, ,^^ pankh, >^^pachhy ^j\i bdzu. 
Arm, ^b ftanA, ^\3b kdth, 

9 ' 

Arm (from the shoulder to the elbow), jjV bdzu^ ^* ^Aiy, jJj cJaTzJ. 
Arm (from the elbow to the wrist), Lsi^ pahunchd. 
Wrist, iS^ kaldl, ^^?^J pahunchd, (dakh.) ^sJLc mangat. 
V^Hand, -f^U A5M, lt^^^J rfo*^, Jxu^ changul, (extended) ^Lasb panja. 

c > c « 

Palm of the hand, ^X^ hathelt, u-i^ kaff{i.\ l::^^.-jJ l-c^ kaff-i-dast. 

Fist, ^^^ mutthl, Owl^ musht. 
v Thumb, l^^l anguthd,J> ei-^lf;\ angusht-i-nar, f^^\ ibhdm. 
\/ Finger, ^Jxil ungVi or ,^^^ angR, c:.^*'^! angusht (f.). 

Forefinger, CJjl^ tji^-^l angusht-i-shahddaty ^iSl ^ ^J^ ftaZme 
A:? unglt, dj\^ sabbdba. 

Middle finger, ^^<i^^ ^ -jiju KcA A;i z^ng/i. 

Ring finger, (dakh.) ^^jj\ ^ t^J^^ shahddat kl angli. 

■» '^ •« • 

Little finger, (Gilch. ,J^1 (j^ A;a» angti?), ^iio^ cAAin 
; Tips of the fingers, J-«U1 andmiL 

Nail of the finger, &c., ^;S^l' ndldkun, ^C naM, a5 naA. 
Claw, Jt»>- changuly ijsij panja, ^js>'^ ndkhun. 
Elbow, ^^5^ kuhnt, ^Ji^ mirfa^, l5^J^ kohni. 
Knuckle, .i^U ^ (j|j-i^^ ungltydii kl gdnth, Jo; Jcrwrf. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. . 137 


Armpit, JJu haghal (f.), ^j4^ kakhri. 
1/ Breast, Bosom, ,<jW?" chhati, <^Mrf slna. 

Pap, Nipple, Teat, Dug, 4^t--j ^ sar-i-pistan, ^jS^ bkitnl, 
jijiya (f.), ^<fflfy*■ cAiiwcAL 

• - ^ ^ 

Breast-bone, ^^^y^^a ^ar-^ina. 

Back, ^,;)»<A (f.), tiiJ pi«A< (f.). 

Backbone, i^s rlrh (f.), Jul J JanJ, (dakh.) ^-JIj li .^^ ^If A ka bans. 
Side, Ribs, ^;«^ panjar, ,<L-j jpo^/i. 

Bosom, Jy> god (f.), S^ kaulay }S kanar or ftiTiar (f.), ^^T 
aghosh (f.). 

CO ^ 

Stomach, 2fAjv< mi^da, ^.p^^^jhdjh, -fs^-^ o;A. 

Maw, Craw, Crop, <du>^ hausiluy VjjJ />o/a. 

Point of the sternum or ensiform cartilage, t^JjS kauri, 


Navel, uJl3 wa/ (f.), -^^ waJAi (f.), c^-^y ^0/2^1. 

Co WC 

Bowels, Intestines, u^J-^^J^ antrl, or plur. ^^^IjJ-i^I antriyan, ^j^\ 
anten (f.). 

>- CO 

Mesentery, ^<l-^ j<^ c;^J^^ antriyon kl thaiU, 
Heart, IJJb Aircfa, L^Ji Xra/ft, Jj £{t7. 
Liver, ^i^d^ f^O'tyctf^^^jig^^y Ju^ kabid. 

9 CO 

Lungs, Lights, <0; riya, or plur. cijljj rij^a^ (f.), ^^ sAiwA, 4-^ft^^J 


phephre (?), (dakh.) Li^ phepsa, 

. oy / 

Spleen, Milt, ^Jj rf//i, JU- /iAa/ (f.)*^j;r^ supurz. 

138 Vocabulary, ^^Nouns. 

Plucky i^f^ \jij\ l^ (jV^^ haiwan ka antarya kattja. 

Pancreas. <UJ lablaba. 

* • • 

Kidney^ 2rJ^ gurda. 

Bladder^ \:S^ phukna or l^^ phukna, <0l2^ masana, 

m C 

Gall-bladder, Gall, Bile, ^ /?i«5, ijjSbJ zahra. 

Abdomen, l1^ j9e.<, Xi» shikam, ^f kokh (f. ), U^^ /toAAa (f.). 
Loins, Waste, ^;-4^ kamar (f.), ^^Lo miyan (f.). ci^ A;a^< (f.). 

Flank, .^^ ftoftA (f.), Jju baghal (f.) ; see Loins. 

Pelvis (lower part of the belly), jJ-j peru^ l^ kokha. 

Private parts, j<3 V f*^'^^ anddm-i nihani, ^^ ^a^r. 

Hip, Buttock, Ham, Haunch, Rump, S^ iii/a, J^^ chutar^ ciji^r* 

sttrin (f.), 4yi P^^^y ^ ptt«A5. 
V/ Thigh, Jj ran (f.), ^\prjo.ngh (f.), \^jangha (f.). 
. Knee, l:^ ghutna, y\j zdnuy l3^^ the'dnd. 

Kneepan, b -^ khuriyd, ij^ chakki, <^^ 1 a7wa. 
v/ Lap, '^^gorf(f.),ylj zawM. 

Calf of the leg, ^J Jcj piwd/i, JlJ fiff, (dakh.) vj:^-i/ 1^ ^yj pinfi 

kd gosht. 

Shin, Shin-bone, v^JJ^ ^ ^1^ philli kt haddt, (dakh.) ^ ^ ^^ 
/?iwn kJ nalli. 

Ankle, ^yp ghufi^ *-r^ Aa*i, v^joJli-Si shitdlang, (joint) Li^ takhnd. 
Pastern (of a horse), \iy^ the'ond, ^^ ghuij. 


Heel, i^l eri, <cJ*b pdshna. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 139 

Instep, b Li^wJ pusht-i pa. 

Foot, y b panw, \j pa,jiJ pair, v2-^ pag, ^^ charan. 
Sole of the foot, |^' ^aZii'a or Uj talwa, U u-al? Aajf-i jp5. 
V Toe, ,^^1^1 ^ ylj panw kl ungG, (great) y {j:^^tJj\ angusht-i nar. 
Hoof, AMd sum,j^ khur. 

Hurts and Diseases of the Body. 

Blow, Stroke, Stripe, lS^:?-^ chapet (f.), c-y? «arft (f.), j'j wdr,jl* 
mar (f.). 

Blow with the fist, ui^w^ musht, ,X« mukkl, \^y^ ghusa. 

Bruise, Blow, Hurt, ci^ cAo^ (f.). 
Sprain, Strain, ^ye moch, (dakh.) \jyc mora. 

Cut, Slash, \j^ chtra, ^^j zakhm. 

Scratch, small wound. ^^ charka. 
y Wound, Sore, a>j zakhm^ ^*\^ g^oi'o, c^'l^ g^5'e, c:.-*^]^ jarahat 

Ulcer, Abscess, jj^U nasur, <l>-^ karka, Jj^ phora. 

Fistula, j^U 7ia^i2r. 

Issue, Running sore, cr^^J^ bandarkhat. 
Gangrene, Mortification, \^^ Mtpra, ^^A-» saran. 

Imposthume, Bile, Blain, J^«J dummal, ^j^ phora. 
Whitlow, Felon, (j?jf^!^ chhalorl. 

^ Pimple, Pustule, small Bile,Jjsb baltor, ^^j,.»:^^phunslf Jlf>* chhala. 
Blister, It^f^ j:;Aa|}^o/a, Hl^ chhala, \Cif» phulka, A)\ abila. 

140 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Kibe, Chap on the foot, Chilblain, i^ 1«j hiwa^. 

O w o 

Scar, Cicatrix, Mark, 41 J daghj .^i^ chink, ^zj>' chittt, liCj- chakta. 

^ •• ^ ^ 

Bump, \^jf gumrciy U^ gathiya, (from the bite of an insect) ]J^^ 

W« SkVDAllinrr 'Piimz-kiir . i 


Q ^Swelling, Tumour, J^J dummal, j^j^ waram, ^^U) ama«, ^^ /ny 

Wen, \y<^ gumra, (dakh.) ,^j-j; rasult. 

Bronchocele, Goitre, ^^^ ghega, ^^^ ghegha. 

Scrofula, King's evil, SU -^5i^ AiaTif A maZa, »ij^ khanazir. 

Cancer, ^^It^ sarafan, <U.1^|^ hazar-chaskma. 

Chancre, ,^^ .<awA;7, L2^^J- cAaf (f.)- 

Wart, Excrescence, L^ massa, d^*^^^ masbird, ^ ilia. 

Pain, Ache, Ail, -^J dwAA, J. J dardyj^J ptr (f.), ^*Xj Jerfan. 

Sickness, Illness, Disease, Disorder, Distemper, ^jU^ btmdrt, ^j^ 
marz or ^^e^^ maraz, j\j\ azdr, cf)j rog. 

Contagion, Infection, ^^ii^-iV' so.rayat (f.)- 

Sickness at Stomach, Nausea, cS^ ok (f ), (JXj^ hik, i^ h^ matlal. 


Indigestion, ^y*-^ ^ bad-hazml, ^jj^\ ajtran. 
Fainting, Swoon, ^J^ ghashy ^^^Ls- gh ashl, ^i^jy^ murchhd (f,). 
Fit, lP^^55^ j^ ^J^* btmari kl charkti, ci^Jy naubat (f.). 
Headach,j-i J; J dard-i-sar, c^Ju^ suda*, (dakh.) tjj^ j^ sir-phofi. 
Vertigo, Giddiness, Swimming in the head,y-j \^j^'^ dauran-i-sar. 
Ear-ach, ^J:.f^^^ dard-i-gosh (?). 
U Toothach, -j l::^ J dant-plr (f.), j^^JJJ J^ dard-i dandan. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 141 

Ophthalmia, Ji^ c^y«t asholh-i chaskm, ^j^ \^ ^T ankh kamaraz. 

Quinsy, jl:^ Jdiuna^. 

Sore throat, 43^ J l^ ^ gale ka dard. 

Ringworm, Herpes, Jb cfoef, jlj lj;.„,:.j^» bhainsiyardad. 

Cold, Jc^ /Aa72£f (f.), v^J^ ^arrfi, aITj zukam. 

Catarrh, Rheum, <)Jji nazla, ^l^j zukam. 

/ Cough, ^^j-jl^ khanslj ti^ surfa^ (dakh.) jj-JUj dhans. 
Hiccough, Hickup, jXf^ kichki. 

Hoarseness, j)/r ^^Xsi^ giriftagt-awdz (f.). 
/ Fever, ^-^ tap (^), c-^U fop (f,), ^ Jar, *^^|/>- hararat (f.). 
Ague, 2f;^ k-^ tajhi'larza, ^jfrj^f^- 
Ague, quartan, ^^x^^ (-^'^♦^^ hummoL'-e riVx. 
Ague, tertian, ^J^ tijari, c-^ l-^ tap-i gh ibb. 

CO ^ 

Intermittent fever, b^i antriya, u^y k-^ ^op-i naubat. 


Hectick fever, j J k-^ tej>-i dxkkj J-> 5i7Z. 


Quotidian fever, ^1«^ (^.^ tap-i muwdzaba. 

Burning fever, J f*^ 4-^ top-i muhrik. 

Madness, Phrenzy, yS^^^j^ diwanagt^ \jy^ sauda, J-» sif (f.). 

m ^ 

Consumption, Phthisis, Ju-» sillj \^^j ,*f>- chhai-rog (or, vulg. 


Dropsy, Hydropsy, jt^^:^ 


o o 

Anasarca, ^J t<*lL>>a>*»l istiska-i zikkl. 

o o c 

^> Tympany, ^Jut ^^ liui--»\ i«/t«i(:a-i tai^. 

142 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

C ^i" / 

Pleurisy, ^.^yTcii^^J zatu-l-jamb, dX^j>^ jirsamj aL^ barsam. 
Plethora, ^\^\ \:^J^ ifrat-i akhldt^ fj^ t|il ifr^fr^ khun. 

c - y 

Asthma, cliOU 5a7?A: (f.)> u-»*^J^ zlku-n-nafaSy <UJ dama. 

Palsy, (^f -" - sitang, (or hemiplegia) ^^ yHZy , (.^.^Jl adhang. 

Paralysis, 2r^ lakwa, ^JLcj ra sha : see Palsy. 

Gout, (y-Ji3 nikris (improp. nakris), (dakh.) t^'l) L^ gathiyorba^. 

Rheumatism, ^^ b Ja7 or 65'e (f.), ci^U bat (m.), J-tfli« j-p-j tro/a'S 

mafdsil, (dakh.) c^*)^^^^*^ jhanakwSt. 
Jaundice, Jji^ kanwal or jb J^ kanwal-bdd^ u^j!, ycirkan. 
Gravel, Stone, <0\l^ i^g^^*- * sang^i masana. ^ 


A stone in the bladder, Calculus, t^j^ patthrl. 
To have a palpitation of the heart, U^J ^^j^ dharakna. 
^ Smallpox, 5b-M-> ^iala (f.), l^U Twa^a (f.) or (dakh.) IffU ma^Aa, ^^^ 
g^Hy CJ>sf^ chechak (f.). A Pock, ^^y go€i> 
Measles, dj\j^^ garmi-dana (?), ^^'y^^ pangotl (Gilch. ?). 
Chincough, ,^_tf-«jl^ khdnsi, (dakh.) {^J^ khang. 


A sty on the eyelids. ^^^^\ -^1 anAA anjanl, [^j\(^\ anjanhdrl. 

Gripes, Colic, j^r^^li peckish (f.), Ijjij^ marora, J^^ kulinj. 
\ Tenesmus, ^jJSjb hagas (f.), ^^/^^ peckish (S-\jy^ sur. 

<#/ x- c & 

Vomiting, ^J^ 1^1 ubka'i ^ kai, (f.), cl^is-o^ istifra gh . 

Cholera, ^C^Jb kaiza, bj tra&a (f.). 
Piles, Hemorhoids,j--o\y bawdslr. 

Stoppage of the nose, Coryza, 2r ju-» sudda. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 143 

Hemorrhage^ (from the nose) uJlc; ru'df, (from other part) ^ji^ J-*-» 


Polypus, Inflammation in the nose, ^U nakra. 

2fJu*« suddorijigar. 

Diarrhoea, Flux, Dysentery, jLj\ atisar, ^J^^^ sJtras, Jl^l is'hdl, 

Jl^ \^^j>- jirydn-i shikam. 

Constipation, Costiveness, (joJ kabz (f.), c: ^ ^ a J i kahziyat (f.) ^i-J 

Venereal, J b fta'o (f.), (^J^y jU bad-ifarang, tlXui atashak (f.). 

Gonorrhoea, d^lj^ sozak, y^j parmVoj <U<^ pramth. 
Diabetes, J«j ^J^Jy.! sihil-i bauh 

Dysury, Strangury, J^\ v^/--^ habsuArbauly J^l^;--^ usru-l-baul. 
Epilepsy, j<^ Twirgi, jU-j1 apasmdr. 

Rupture, Hernia, <iuU- jb Jarf kkdya^ J^ii /a^^t. 
Leprosy, JbJ^ AorA, ^Ij^ jt/gam, ^^-^ jje^, v^JuLj svfaidt. 

Elephantiasis, b ^^ f'tl-pdy Jb?^ ly^ ma^a /:orA. 

Plague, Pestilence, bj U7a&a l^f,), ^j< mart. 

Epidemic, jUl^ mahormdr, a\^ u^j^ maraz-i-amm. 

Famine, kss* ita//jf, ^JL kss* kaht^sdU, Jl^ A:a/, uJ^J dubhuk. 

Hunger, ^^ bhukh (f), ^J^J^ gursinagl, ^^j^» 

\j Thirst, (y-Lj jjiyo^ (f.), c^)/ ^ro^ (f.), ,^i^ tishnagl, ^jtLe- Stash (f.). 

Persons employed in curing diseases. 

Physician, ^Ji^ hakim, (.-^wj-t tahtb^ Jlj Ja£rf. 

144 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Suigeon, S^jarral,. 

Apothecary, Druggist, jUa^ a /Jf5r,jL»^^dau?5-«5jr, ,^J^m^^pansari{\n?). 

Phlebotomist, ^J v^ rag-zan, jLsi fassad. 
Cupper, aIjs^ hajjanif S\j ^S^'^t^ slngl-wala. 
Bonesetter,^U^ kaman-gar. 

Medical means. 

• ^ o -^ 

Medicine, Drug, |^J ebu^a (f.), jy^*^ rfarS (f.), 2rj^j\ aushadh (f.). 
Remedy, Cure, ---lU */a;, aj^ chara. 

Emetic, L5-i« mukaiyl, \^J ^ ^. kai kt dawa. 
N>' Purge, c->V jullab, j\i>-jhdr. 
V Bleeding, ii^fasd (f.). 

Electuary, ^^j^ys^^ ma^jun, ^j\j JLy nnosh-daru. 
I, Ointment, ^j^ marhaniy ^^^^ %'• 

Plaster, Salve, j^i^ marham, l.^ /ep, jUu? zamad (f.). 
V Fomentation, \1_^'-"^ senk, jUl^ kimad. 

Embrocation, jliJf ^a^5r (f.), jUu? zamad (fj, IL /i/a. 


Poultice, «^}jjl ^^^ jj^ ftAor. 
Bandage, jU-^ zamad (f.), j^^^Sj joajfi. 
Clyster, iii^ hukna. 

The Mind and its Attributes or Affections. 

c / c / 

Mind, ^ man J -p-y bujh (f.), <i^Jt« mudrika, ^^yb hosh. 

Intellect, Understanding, Ji^ oA/ (f.), ^^^ Koshy JbJo JwrfA (f.), ^ 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 145 

Reason^ Jac Ski (f.) ; reasoning iaculty, ^J^ nutk. 
i^ Will, Wish, ^rjl^l irada, \^\ ichchha (f.), j^af^ bichar. 

Desire, jjA shaulf, s\t>- chah (f.), j^y* Aatoo* (f.), ^J^^y>^ Mapa- 
hish ({.). 

Avarice, -^)l lalach, Ja^, bukhl, sj^f*- fiirs (f.). 

Ambition, ^j^^yb kawas (f.), {^Si^\ umang (f.), <d^o» fiausila. 

Affection, e^-^** muhahbat (f.), jU piyar, ^ neh (f,), t3;J Airrf. 

U^ Love, Jtf*c wAij:, *l^ cAaA, jLj jpyar, |yb Aau^a (f.). 

Hatred, Dislike, Aversion, ci^ nafrat (f.), ,<'^|^ «^ bad-khwdkt, 

U Disgust, Abhorrence, (j>jJb|^ karahiyat (f.), ci^ nafrat ({,), ^ 
ghin, (f.), c£;5;-^ ftezari. 

o o « / 

'' Anger, Passion, Rage, J^^f brZdh, JL^ ^ashm, d^oi ghu^sa, u,.i» gTr 
ghaxab^ ^^ m (f.), ,jlJ? towA (f.). 

;.' Pleasure, Joy, Mirth, Gladness, ^y>- Jdimhl, ^jL^ aish^ O-o-^ 

farfiat ((.\ (jS) bilas, JcjT anand, j»j^ «£riir, ^j^ khurraml. 

Happiness, Felicity, ,vlr*^ kamranl, jcjT anand, ^y^y>- kkush- 

y Hope, Ju^^ ummed (f.), ^^T 5* (f.), l-»T o^S (f.). 

Reliance, Faith, Trust, ^^T as (f.), jUcxl ^timad, Lj;^ bhrosa, sjCj 
tahya, J^jisS i^tibar. 


Fear, Dread, Apprehension, jJ rfar, (j^-Ij-j^ waswas, ^<^ ftAai, l^ 


Doubt, Suspicion, lI^ shakk, '-y£>^:>^ sandeA, UjjJ dubdha (f.)? 


^^^ shubha. 


146 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

v/ Courage, Valour, lzj\jS^ jur'at (f.), cs^.w«Jb himmat (f.), ^j^*^ dilerh 
^ Cowardice, ^^iAto ^^ he-himmafiy lS^j-< ^ normardu 

y Shame, Basbfulness, Modesty, ^^ sharm (f.), -^l %' (f.)> ^-^" 
^aya (f.). 
Jealousy, ^zann, ij^jhal (f.), *'»^ d5A (f.), uX2> shakk. 
y Spite, Malice, Grudge, Envy, ^^^aij hughzy Cjj^j rashky ^ kina. 

Animosity, Enmity,^ bair, {^^ lag (f.), ci^^W adawat (f.). 
Vengeance, Revenge, ^liai^ intikam,j^ bair^ Jja Aacf^a. 

y Mercy, Compassion, Pity, >3^j raAw, b J cfaya (f.^j^p*^ (f»X '^^ 

%/ Patience, ^;-Mtf sabr (f.), c&^ saburl, ^^*3 dhtraj. 

Moralsy moral gnd immoral Actions. 
Morals, Manners, C-^;--* «ira^ (f.), jJU-^ akhlak, c-^jl adaft. 


Ceremonies, Custom, Etiquette, l^\j\ addb, m^j rasm (f.), JVj* (f.)« 
Politeness, good manners, ji^^ khulk^ ^^Xr* wiwrfiira^ (f.)« 
Civility, cL^Jm) ft/Zi^/i;, j;Li^ khulk, j^t^LJ^ insaniyat (f.). 

Honesty, Probity, 4^*lf^ sachchal, jcS^5^ ro^^i, ^Jyf^ sachautt. 
Immorality, Dishonesty, ^^U^jj bad-ma'dshl, /^^^l adharm. 
Knavery, Treachery, c^V^i3 da gh a-bazl^ (V W i<? be-imam. 
Falsehood, Deceit, ^j^jhuth,^^ makr, i^jJ darogh, 
^ Temperance, Sobriety, JJb^ parhez, A^si-» sanjam, cj« wara^. 
Intemperance, Extravagance, ^.cjjb^ jj bad-par hezJ, ^yai fazuli. 

o c 

Prodigality, Waste, uJ]^l wy'S/, ^^j>^j^ war-kharchl^ L^alj ^aZa/. 
Niggardliness, Stinginess, ^js^kanjust, ^*^^ tangdili. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 147 

^ 9 

Liberality, Generosity, cu^^ls*^ sakMwat (f,), Jyj- jud^ m^ karam. 
Beneficence, ^L*>-^ ihsan, j\^\ upakar, ^joJ faiz. 

CO o 

Friendship, Kindness, iVVrv^ »**/*^^5w^ \lj^ kirpa (f.). 

Professions, Occupations. 


./ Theology, Divinity, djijikh (f.), ^Jl Jls i/tw-i 27aA?. 

Medicine (practice of). Physic, i.^:--*^^^ tahabat (f.), (*^J^ jtiJft (f.)* 

L?iw, Jurisprudence, <Uii ^AA (f.), ciJl Jcc adalat (f.), ?/^ shar*. 

^ttfeMilitary Professionji ^^^ ifU^j sipak-garl. 

Agriculture, Husbandry, -M-s^Ir, v^\i:«l^ kishtkari, ^^^^-^jj 'zira*at((.j. 

Merchandise, Commerce, CJjlsr tijarat (f.), ^^Jj^ saudagarl, 

jLj baipar, J^j bany, 1 J^ sauda. 
Servitude, Slavery, ^Jcj bandagi, lsS^ chakarl, 4^^ naukarl, 
i<<^ ghulamif Jy ^aAa/ (f.). 

People of Professions, Occupations^ or Trades. 

t 00 

**' Theologian, <u5i faklh, jj^-Jjt« JUbl aAW ma^rifat, tJ^ acharaj. 

"y •• y VI. • 

Lawyer, ^uSi fakth, JJ^j \^ v::^ W adalat ka wakih 

Soldier, ^^ sipahl, iJL^j ^U^ sipahl pesha, t^gg/^ lashkari. 


Physician, c,.^.>Jiy /aiift, Jcj (atcf, a;*^ hakJm. 
Author (writer), t— d^ mu^allifj^ ^j> granth-kdr, u,ttx.a^ musannif. 
Cultivator, Husbandman, ^U-^ kisan, (jUib^) dihkan, 9j]j^ muzari . 
Merchant, Trader, i1j«-*5 5aMrf5gar,^lJ ^5;ir, cg;^rf baiparz (m.). 

"^ y y ' 

Grain-merchant, 5;^^* banjdrd, tj^^j^ <di ghalla-farosh. 

148 Vocabulary. — Nouris. 


Banker, Moneychanger, c^V* ^^^^Z^'^' i^]j^ §0''>^ofj «^SLm» seth. 
Broker, Salesman, J)(J dallal, iji^ muklm. 

Artificer, Artisan, ^j\^ karigar, ^j^ ka$bt(m,),j^iJL^^pesharwar. 
Draper, linen-draper, Mercer, Cloth-merchant, J^ bazzaz. 
Silk-mercer, (^ ji <^Mklj^l abreshmtnorfaroshf U^)j^jl^ fuzrir-fardsh. 

Weaver, libSlcj-JttZaAa, ^J=^^ ^5nff(m.)> ^«^l^ bafinda. 
Embroiderer, Jjfc>;j zar'dJ0Zfjy^^^fj>- chikan^ddz. 

Carpet-weaver, uJl^ ^^frJoL shatranji-baf. 
t« Tailor, (^5;43 rfara (m.)y ^yr^ «f/I (ni.)* !^^-^ khaiyai. 

Shoemaker, Cobbler, i*f-^ mochi (m.),j ^dJLii kafshdoz. 

Saddler^xyj zingar, ,<^j^ wiocAi (m.), ^1^ sarraj. 
<• Tanner, Currier, jU^ cAamar, iljj dabbagh,jLj dabgar. 

Grocer, JUj bakkal, ^^J^*^ pa7i8arl,Jiafi' attar. 

^ ^ 

Druggist, Apothecary, tj5;U^ pansart (m.), lUa^ ajfar. 
Ironmonger, jjij/ ^^t ahan-farosh. 
Blacksmith, jUjJ Iohar,JcJb\ ahangar, J^Jk>. haddad. 
Farrier, jjJjO ncfil-band, v^yjSU ^aStori : see Horse-doctor. 

Coppersmith, Bsasier, Tinker, ^fm^ misgar, \j^ kasera, [f^^^ 

Jeweller, f^Jbb%p^ jauhxiri^ ^y^ j^l^y^f LA)/j)tj ^^^o^^'farosh. 

Goldsmith, Silversmith, jli-» sunarj ^jj zargar. 

Cutler, ^*^J^ karadgar, Jjb^ tohar. 

Needle-maker, jX)j^ sozan-gar. 


Arrow-maker, JjJ tlr-gar. 

Vocabulary. — Noum. 149 

Cartwright, Carpenter, Cabinetrmaker, Li^?^ barhal (m.), ,^1^ khdtt 

(m.),jW'nay5r,^JyJ darodgar. 
Cook, ^5>y^V hawarcht (m.), b j^ rasoHya, ^Lt tabbajdi. 
Sutler, Innkeeper, |;U^ bhathiyara. 
Baker, l5 LjU nanbSt (m.),JJl3 naTipa^:, ^l^ tabbakh. 
Butcher, c^La3 ka§sab, ^^ LaS A:a^a7 (m.), ^U sa&iA. 
Poulterer, (j^^V^ murghban. "i^^t^ murghiwala. 


Fishmonger, crj/ l5^^ mahl-farosh, J|^,^^ff=* machhli-^ala. 

CO/ , 

Green-grocer or -seDer, ^ji/ ^ tarorfarosh, )jS^ hmjra. 

c c 

Gardener, ^JU ma/i, ^^V^V baghban^ (dakh.) Sl^b ba gh wala. 
Architect, Builder, Mason, Bricklayer, jUn^ w^marj i^*j^ thawa^l 
(m.), z:!;^4/^ib''^«^- 

c % 

Stonecutter, ^y (^f * * sang-farosh. 

« / 

Brickmaker, J u:^^^<. Jdnsht-phM, )|^ <^i^^ mt-wia^. 

C/ ' ^*' 

Potter, jlfi^ himhaTy J5l^ kuldl,JL^ kas-gar. 

Plasterer, jJL^ kas-gar. 

Accountant, Cashier, Clerk, Writer, 4^jMa&« mutasaddijjjs^ muharrir 

CJ^ Ukhak. 
Village Accountant, ^J^^ karamchart (m.). 
Steward, J^l^ bakawal, i^^*^, bhandari (m.), (j|^t<> diwan. 

House-Steward, Butler, ^^ULiU- JdhSLmanian^ jSs^di:^ tdUdmatgar, 

^^Ijo^ bhandarlf ^^y^ modi. 

Brewer, ^\j^, bozorgar. 

VraOjuSf 7# J^^ t::kiiptHtHaf 'fA clodi> r ^si^ cAJSpi, ^Ji^ 

AcU^^ Miffiic^ Vhisfiff Jj\g bkand, <^'«-« swanp, •^•j^* hakmrmpiyiy 

^ jj fuiklfaL 

Adjutsattf Aide d^ cairip, Sr^ nalfib, ^^^^..a< musafnb. 
Adifiioi«lrat/>r, Execator (of a vi ill;^ ^^ tra/i. 
AdveriiNer^ R^[xirt/?r, InUtWi^^cetf j^^ mukhbirgJjjm^Uuibar'dir, 
^j0>' j^^ nhahr-khahra, 

Amaritusiwui^ S^^^ Ar^/tft^ ^J ^^^C! likhnl-das, u,<^j tekhak. 
AmbaiMador, Envoy, ,>f*i' e/c/J, Jj(j traAri/^ c^y) dut,jJ^ $afiT. 
Angkr, jb ^^,bansi'baz. 

• / 

Autiotaiur, jmjL^ mufasMir, ^/^ sharifi. 

AppraiHi.'r, Valuer, Artsiziir, ^^y^ nxrjdu^ ^Jl^ mukim. 

Arbitratrjr, Umpire, vJJU .^aZif, ,X>- fiakam, ^^Jua^ munpf. 

Arclujr, j'j^'^ /ir-an^2r, jt jJU^ kaman^ar,jibt} (Jioj^J dhanuk-dhar. 

Arithnictician, c^^^l^^ mufiasib, JJ^ganak, ^b jL.i Hj/ak-dan. 

Aniiourcr,^ Jiutf failfol-gar. 

ArtiHt,^l^ c:-wJ dast-kar, jli«*l U8iad,Jjj\^ karlgar. 

Ancctic, ^^--J ^i/7«7 (in.), ^-^ A^^f go«Aa nishtn. 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 161 

Assassin, JJlS kdtily cL/ILj saffak, (^/^ t^g' 
Assayer (of coins), jiU naiid, *>lft3 nakkady U^ parakhaiya. 

Assistant (in office), «j:.^J j^^^Ij pesh-dast, J^ ^jLj pesh-kdr. 
Astrologer, Astronomer, >si« munajjinij ^^jf3f>-jdtikht (m.), ^ff 

Attorney, c-^l3 na' ii, J-Si« traAiZ. 


Auctioneer, S^j ^^ aSu3 nilam karne-wald. 

Auditor (of accounts), ^vy^*-^ mustauft (m.), v.^.%uls:« m^hdsib. 

Augurer, U3^x.2» shuguniya. 

\j Barber, /•W^ /kyjam, v.^13 nap£^, tu-jl t«^a. > 

Bearer (of a letter, 8cc.)» J-«^ hdmil, (porter) JU:>- hatnmdl^ L3^ 
motiydy ,Jj AtmZi, (chairman) ^^^ mahra^J^ kahary v/^ iAo7. 

O J. 

*/ Beggar, v^^l^ hhikhari (Tn.),jM fakir ^ \t^ gadd, JjL «a'iZ. 
Bell-founder, jU (j^y^-jaras-sdz. 

Binder (of a book), ^i A:>^jild'gar, *-JU^ sahkdf. ' 

Bird-catcher, j\C2» ^^ mir-5AiAar,^UjJ^ chirlmdr, ii\^ saiydd. 

Boatman, -JL malldhj ^^£J:S kishttbduy ,<^as^U mdnjht, (rower) 

t^jjlj ddndt (m.). 

- / 

Bookkeeper, j^y c-?L->- hisdh^nawiSj jjS^ muharrir. 

Bookseller, uJlsf^ sa/ihdf, {J^^ c-?t^ kitdlhfarosh. 
Bootmaker, ^^jyo moza-gar. 

Bowmaker,^U^ kamdngar. 

Boxer, ^j i^s^a^l.^^ musht-zan, JU tiiaZ, J^ maZZ. 

1 52 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 


Bracelelrmaker, jl^Ji^ chun^har. 
Buffoon^ 2r^s^*^ maskhara^ Jjl^ bhand. 
Burnisher,^ Jam^ §aikalrgar. 


Butterman^ U:.^< makhaniya. 

Calenderer,^Jc»^ kundt-gar. 

Camel driver or keeper, ^l{;l-> sarban, ^^ij^J^ skutur-ban, 

Cardmaker, jL» ^^^h^ ganjlfasaz. 

Carman, Carter, Coachman, \J^^!^ ^oftvoan^ \Jiij^ g'^t^^^^' 

Carpet-maker, uJb\>flKr^kA shatraTtp-baf. 

Cashier, J^jJj^aKT tahwil-darjj\*^ ^y fota-i^r, \^^ rokariya. 

Cavalier, j1^ sawar^JiJ^yA sawar-kaVj \,jjf t^, bhalrghoriyd. 

Chairman (president), (^/J^ ^;-«^ mtr-majlis : (^bearer) see Bearer. 

Chandler, jL» w4^ $^m -%az. 

Charioteer, ^^b ^j rath-ban^ ^J^ sarathi (m.). 

Cheesemonger, ^Ji^^ j^^panir-farosh. 


Chess-player, ;Lrf:\Li shatranj-baZy Jb\j^ shatir. 

o / 

Chiromancer, _^iX«m» samudrakl (m.). 
Chronologer, Chronicler, f^^ mu'arrikh. 
Chymist, j^Li-^ ktmiya-gary i^}^j rasayant (m.). 

Clockmaker, jL c:^^L» sa'atsaz. 

Coiner, <— ^]^ zarrab, (counterfeiter, forger) ,^^-J^ ta gh allubi (m.). 
Collector (tax-gatherer), ^' J J-*a^ tahsil-dary Jii^\i bqj-dar. 
Colonel, i^j]y^ hazarl (m.), jSU so/or. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 163 

Comedian^ Wj!/W ^fi^^w-^^j^iya, ^S^^y^ sawangij JUi nakkdL 
Commander^ J^'V* sarddr, JiLa sdldr^ fS\>' hakim, j^\ amir. 

m 9 

Commentator, ^^-J^ mufassir, -;l-2* shdrih^Ji ICJ tika-kdr. 

Commissary, jU *5/j-* sarbardh-kdr, ^^J^ti ,ddrdgha^ 
Commissioner, ^j^\ amin^J^JzJs^ mukhtdr-kdr, (^^^s^ muhtamim, 

-X/ CO 

Compiler, d^flSj^ mu^allif^Ji ^^ granth-kdr, ^\i^jdmi*. 

m, 9 O O 

Composer, j^ju-^a^ mti^awwi/*, jlj^ lU^ inshdrpai'ddz. 
Conductor, Uj if\j rdh-numdyjM^j rdfi-bar, y 1 agu;a. 
Confectioner, L^*^j^ /laliod't,^ c5 l^ mithdl-gar. 
Conjurer, ^jjU^Jflrfwgar; l^y JowAa, ^J/^^ hazirdtl, ^^}^jdn. 
Consul, J-^ traAiZ ; see Commissioner. 


Contractor, j»^li**^ mustdjir. 

Controller, is.^j\d ddrogha, (of accounts) ^^a-^ mustauft. 

Cooper, Jllj j^liJ Ljj j?«pa bandne-wdld. 
A Corporal, uJoU ndyak. 

<m 9 CO 

Counsellor, ^^;%1^ mustaryjiX^ mudabbir, s^j^^ mantri (m.). 
Courier, uXj />aift, Ou»li ifc&irf, «;\^ harkdra. 

O ^ f CO 

Courtier, c^Vj*^ darbdrl, i^jy^^ huzurl, ^j^Xes^ Jjbl aAZ-t majlis. 
Cow-herd, Cowkeeper, ^^^^fgopdl, J|^ gwdl or "i^^ gwdld, j^\ah1r. 

c c ^ 

Crier, bjJbJcJbJ dhandhoriyd, ,^c\:>^ munddi. 

^ C ^9 

Critic, ^uJ^ harf'giry uJuA^ murshigdf. 


Cuirassier, ^^ jjj baktar-posh. 
Cupbearer, ^JL sdkl, J^l^ bakdwal. 

154 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Darner, jS^ rafu^ar. 

Dervis, \J^^^j^ darweshyjM fakir. 

Devotee, JJbU zahid, JjIc dbidj ^A^\,j riyazatl, ^fi^jogi- 

m C 

Dier, iU-^ sabbagh^yj i^S^j rang^ez. 
Digger, j^jJlj btl-dar^Ji^^ kodgar, 

o / ** # 

Director (manager), j\jjj^ J^ kar-pardaz, ^ Ji kar-kuriy J^ Jcjs^ 

Disciple, .^^ sikh, df\J^ shdgird, )L>- cZteZa, ju^l; talmlz. 
Distiller, j\JoT db-kdr^Ji^ kaldr, ijj^y^ sunri (m.), (dakh.) JK fta^Z. 
Diver, (jfi'j^ ghawwdsj \prj^ ''^OTJiy^yj;^ ^^ gh ota-khor. 
Diviner, ^\j c-^ gh aib-ddn. \^y^ shuguniyd : see Astrologer. 
Doctor, JU a/im, l5^^ maulawt (m.), d^Jcj pandit : see Physician. 

o o c 

Doorkeeper, ^^^^^^ darbdn or ^^'j^j*^ darwdn^J^d ^j^i:^ de'drhl-ddr. 

Drover, bjJj baldiyd, ^^b i^galla-bdn. 

Drudge, IJiyS tahlu'd, ^A^'^s^ mitinaR (ni. f.). 

Drummer, Uyb J dholiyd, j^j^^ tambur-chl, J^y JJ? tabl-nawdz. 

Embroiderer, Jj43,j^ chikan-doz, j^i^ jj zar-doz. 

£nameller,j\^L*^ mlnd'-kdr. 

Enchanter,^ J jU-J5rfM-gar,y cJ>>***^ a/sfin-gar,^L» ^SAir. 
Executioner, J^ jalldd, (J^ JJ badhik. 

Factor, Agent, iS::^U^ gitmu^Ato, jlj^jl^ kdr-parddZj J^*^ ^ kdr- 

Falconer, j' J jb bdz-ddr,j^ji^ ^Ji^^ shdhtn-parwar. 

Farmer, j^L^ Ai^aTti ^^^^ miZftt, 15-9^ chdsi^J^*^ ^j^j zamn-ddr. 

C# m /# 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 66 

Fencer, Cudgeller, jb ^Jj pate-baz, j^ij^ lakar-baz. 
Ferryman, ^j^^j^ guzar-ban, ^^i5i patnl, Li naiya. 

Fiddler, \^J^ sarangiifa, j\y ^J^ sarangl-nawdz. . 

Fisherman, j^^U mahi-glr, Ufs^ mac/thwa, Ll^ jO'liya. 

V Footpad, ^j i^j rah-zauyj^ tio bat-par : see Robber. 
Forester, (jJo ^ ban-bas : see Ranger. 

Fortuneteller, ^jX^^ samudrikl (m.), JU; rammalj ^j^f nu- 

juml (m,). 

Founder, Caster, \j^ kasera, (dakh.) jL^ kasar : see Coppersmith. 
Friar, ^;^/ai(r7r, dJb\j zahid,jJc^J kalandar : see Monk. 

Fruiterer, (^j/ ^^-^ mewa-faroshn 
Furbisher, Polisher, jTji^ sai^alrgar. 


Furrier, JL^^j^ samur-farosh. 

Fusileer, ^^^j^j zambur-chl, i^j*^ banduk-chu 

Gambler, Gamester, c5;'^ Jtrari (m.), jb J^ pkar-baz, j\j jUi 

General, jSU 5aiar,j3!L jiLmi ^tpaA-^S/ar, j1 J^ sardar. 

Generalissimo, kj:^\i^ senapat, \j^ 1^;^^ amru-l-umara. 

Geometrician, ^jmS:^ muhandisy ^^^J ^JcJb handasa-dan. 

ci-i^ koft-gar. 
Glass-maker, ^^L^Ja shlsha-gar, 


Glazier, Jl^vJjsj- <ll^ shlshajarne-wala. 

9 ^ 

Governess (female teacher), ^1 atu (f.). 

Governor, a^W hakim, J^lc ami/, J^U nazim^jctj^ sardar. 

166 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Grammarian, j^lj^c^*-J^5ar/'-ttaAtHfan, ^J>\ii byakaranl. 

Grass-cutter, )j\i^ ghasiyara. 

Grave-digger, ^jf gor-kan. 

Grazier, ^^^j^- charwaha, ^'jvil/f- chararie-wala : see Shepherd. 

Groom, ^*-j Lj sals, Ju nafar, ^^;--j-9 sals. 

Gunner, j\iS:>i^ golandaz, 1^ gulchala, ^^IteJCJ bandham. 
Haberdasher, ,Ji?L^ bxsat} or ,v W UsatJ, \jSj patwa : see Pedler. 
Harper, ^J^ changt,j\y Lj j barbat-nawaz. 

CO «- ^ 

Helmsman, ^^csrU manjht (m.), j<i^ sukkanl (m.) : see Steersman. 
Herald, c^^^ munacll, bjfJftjcJbJ dhandhoriyd. 

« o o 

Herdsman, ^i^ galhrbany bjJj baldly a, Uf«^ charwaha. 
Hermit, ^^JLjiJL^ gosha-nishtn, ^jJLJiZJJL^ khalwat-nishln. 

Highwayman, ^jj 2^1j raA-2rfl?i, jLaS kazza^ : Jj ci^ bat-par. 
Historian, ^jy^ mu^arrikhy yj^j ra\£i. 
Horsebreaker,j^^ «Jjl>l>- chdbuk'Sawdr,^y**^ shah-sawar. 
Horse-doctor, %jji^^ sdlotarl, jUa-j baitdr. 

^ o ^ oy 

Horseman (trooper), ^y^ sawdr^jSj^ bdrgir,j^y^ ^^ turk-sawdr. 
Hosier, uJbc^^ wioze-iof, (j^^j^jyo moze-farosh. 

Hostler, ^^^ L l^ cilr>* c5^W% bhathiydrt /chdne kd sals. 

Housebreaker, Li^oc*^ sendhiyd, j^jv-.^ noifcJ-sran. 

Hunter, Huntsman, jbjlCl shikdr-hdz^ C^ saiydd. 

Jailer, j^Vv^ ^ vJ^u/*^ bandi-khdne kd nigahbdn. 


Jester, *^— '« mdskhara, (funny fellow) jb ,^cf2^ thathe-bdz. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 167 

Inlayer^ j^^jjl. ^ 'C munabbat-kar. 

Innkeeper, l^U^ bhathiyara, Ji^ kaldr, (dakh.) JK kalah 

Interpreter, ^^Us>*y tarjuman, \J^\Ai^^} do-bhashiyd. 

Jockey, j|^ <^-^V* cAaft«A:-sau7ar,jl^«ati?ar, jl^-.^ shah'Sawar. 
Joiner, ^^^ji barhal,j^ sutdr : see Cartwright, Carpenter. 
Judge, ^^ kazl (m.), a^I>- hakim, cc.^.^ munsif, ,Aa^ mufti. 
Juggler, jU<5sft^ hukka-bdzy xj -^J dith'band,j\)^^ batte-baz. 
Justice (of the peace), ^^ kdzl : see Judge. 

Keeper, 5I||^ rakh-wdld, \J^^ nigah-bdn. 

Labourer, m«-S^ mazdur, v^^*^ mihnatl (m. f.), Ji iti«/i. 

Land-steward, jl^jpajtrar, Jj]j-» sazdwal. 
Land-surveyor or -measurer, \J^\m^^j^ jarib-kash. 

Language-master, ^J:-^:»^ mujisht, ^^y>A dkhun, i^U ustdd. 

Lecturer, (j^jiX^c mudarris : see Professor, Preacher. 

Lexicographer, (^yv^:^^ lu gfu U-nawls. 

Librarian, ^jt J l^ (J\^l^\z^ kitdb-khane kd ddrb gh a. 

Lighterman, ^|^J^ bhar-wdld, ^X« l^ J^ iAar A:a malldh. 
Limner, jTc:^^ surat-gar, jyo^ mu^auunr : see Painter. 
Mace-bearer, jljjj>- chdb'ddr,j\jjj^y^ sonte-barddr. 


Machinist, jL»J^ kaUsdz^^i,z^^jc>^ ^an'at-gar (?). 
Magician, j^U-Jorfu-gor,^^^ afsun-gar, jj-^j^ bhokas. 
Magistrate, jtj^yyhii/efar, ,<«^13 A:a;8ri, ^U» hdkim: see Judge. 
Major-domo, ^JUl^ kulkuldn, Ji ^rir* sarbardh'kdr. 

168 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Manager, j^jiTjl^ ftar-gwzar, jlCl-j peshkar: see Director. 
Manufacturer, ^j\^ kartgaryjiz^i^ dast-kar: see Artificer. 

Mariner, ,JLc mallah, ^L^il^ kishtt-han : see Sailor. 
Mathematician, ^^^43 c/^^^' riyazi-dan^ fjmiX^^ muhandis. 
Mechanic,^^\^ karigar, ^i^ Jjbl ahli-hirfajj^iJL^^peslia*war. 
Mendicant, \,» gada, \^^*j*^ darwtshjjJifalclrf Si^ jangam. 
Messenger, Ju^lS kasid, ifj^j^ harkara, CJ|^4> efii^, ^^...j>j>.v.,o sandesl. 
Midwife, c^'Vi^j- ^*\j dal^anal. 

Milkman, ^|yb4>j J dudh-wala : Milkmaid, ^Ub Jj4> dudh-wali. 


Miller, \j\j^^„*^ ptsan-nara. 


Minister (of state), jJJ^ xcaziry (^^^^ pardhan : see Priest. 


Mint-master, ^j^J \^ JLJ3 ^a&saZ A:a darqgha 

Monk, j^^j^ darweshfjJi fakir, dJb\j zahid, ^S]fii bairagl. 



Muleteer, i.^^rS^ kliachchar-ban 

c f w / ex 

Musician, c-^;!^^ mutrib, ^^:J^ mu gh anm* (j:^jK kalawant. 
Mustermaster, (jO;lft ariz, \\^ karoroy j^ }ijAe>^ ja'lza-gir. 
Musketeer, J^*XiS^ barkandaz, ^j^j^ bandukchl. 

«■ o o c 

Navigator, JU mallaff, ^L;*;!^ kishtlban, ^j^sflc manjki (m.). 

Necromancer, ^jU- jadugar, jb ^y tone'baz,j>\^ sahir. 
Needle-maker, ^^J^ sozan-gar. 
Notary, y-j J dablr. 

Nurse (of a sick person), jb^U-J btmar-dar. 

Nurse (of a child), ^1 anni, Ub c^aeZa (f.), i^ b rfa'i. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 59 

Nurse (wet), ^5% ^5*b ddl-pllal, (dry) lJ^ l/^*^ dal-khili'i. 
Nurse (male), Wj daya^ Ul anna. 
Oculist, J^^ kahhdl, LfL-j sathiya (?). 

Officer, jl J v.^-^:^ mansathdaVy J^i^ ^Jl^ uhda-dar, j\t}j^ sardar. 

Oilman, Oil-merchant, ^JlJ ^eff, ^jjy ^j^j rau gh an-farosh. 


Ostler, (^1-9 «5*75, jIjIi^ chirwadar (?) : see Groom. 
Overseer, \j^^ karora, ai^jb darogha^ j^jsr<LcLbl zA^imamcA?. 
Palmister^ ^jSa^ samudrikl, (^J^ hhadri (m.). 
Papermaker, 4^Jail^ kd gh azi^^ d£^ kdghaz-gar. 
Parcher of grain, la^jj^ hharbhunjd. 

Pastor, j^b i^ galhrhany {J^f>- chaupdn, j^L-jb pdsbdn, (spiritual 

guide) ^jSgwrii, c^*^^ Aadi, jJ^ murshid. 
Pastry-cook, ^^ !jU- tLalwcTi : see Confectioner. 
Patcher, JjJ sJj pdra-doZf JS jJ^ paiwand-kar. 
Paver, Pavier, Jcj ^jtji farsh-band. 


Pawn-broker, ^^j^xObJjj bandhak-giry ^^j^ murtahin: see Banker. 

Paymaster, ^^j=^j>- khazanrcht, .J^ baldyshiy (general) ,<.l^ 1-^ 

Pedler, J»b-J iwojfi (m), ^jS u:^i-9J dast-faroshj bj^ phariya. 

Penman, ^j^y cr^ [dmsh-nawls, tlLsS^ Mk^tidL 

Perfumer, ^J^J^ gandhi (m.), jlk^ a/i^r, ^^^ ^ atr-farosh. 

Pewterer, 1 -j--^ kaserd : see Brasier. 

/ c ^ 

Philosopher, u,i^>J,>3 failsuf, ^JlJj fahafi (m.), >m^ hakim. 

160 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

C f 

Physiognomist, ^jSa^ samudriklj ^b ^Ui kit/dforddn. 

Pickpocket, \ji^ t^^^^^^ jeb-katrdy ji ^L--^ klsa-bur. 

Pilgrim, »^:-«J1 atlt, i^y\p^ jdtri (m,\ ^L^saiydhy (to Mecca) t<5j-l>- 
Ao/i (m.). 

• / t- o 

Pilot, Jjc« mu'allimj ^^J^ arkdtJfj\^J ^^ kdrn-dhdr. 

9 O 

Pioneer, U3^ lunit/d,j\jLj beJrddf. 

Pirate, cu^J dakaitjf\j ddku: see Robber. 

Plaiter,^^^ uttu^gar^ ^yj\ urtu-gar. 

Planter, LJjiji.ko'erl (m.), Ji-la^ nakhlband: see Gardener. 

Plasterer,ylJ? kasgar. 

«> CO o 

Player (stage), JU3 nakkdl, \^^u^^^ pekhniyd, ^J^^y^ swdngi (m.). 

Ploughman, IJ^TvJj^ haljotd, \jb\jiJb halwdhd, Jj^ jotdr. 

Plumber, il^^j^ /♦^^ ^ 15-^ ^^^^ *5 kdm-karnewdld. 

Poet,y:lS) shSir^ l-^ kab^jL^ kablshar, ;^^jsi^ sukhan-sanj. 

Polisher,^ Jju^ mikaUgarj^\^ jild-gar^ \^yp ghotan-hdr. 

Porter, (carrier) j^J^jV bdrbarddr, L5^ motiyd, ^jl3 Arw/i : see Door- 
Postman, L^\j ddkit/d^ dJ^ kdHd, (dakh.) )lj JU tappdLwdld. 

Potter, j\^ kurnhdr^J^ kasgar, (dakh.) jUi^ kunbdr. 

0/ <^9 

Poulterer, "i^y^Jj^ murght-wdld^ L^J^?/* mur ghr farosh. 
Preacher, ^\^ tra'iz, S^^ wc^z-go, u,, ^ jVt"^ khatib. 
Preceptor, Ci\^ ustdd, ^^T dkhun, JLfco mu'allim. 
Prefect, ^»^U- hakim : see Governor. 

c / 

Prelate, Primate, aW imam, Jc^i^ mujtahid. 

Vocabulary, --^Nouns. 161 

Priest, y^ guruyjfj^ plvy wi-^jyj purohit : see Preacher, Prelate. 

Professor (teacher), ^j^j*^ mudarrisy tlX^b pathak, At^ mu'allim. 

Prophet, ^-J waK (m.),^^--4jtj paighambar, ^j rikh. 

Pursuivant, JjU-i yasawaly j\Sii^ chob-dar. 
Purveyor, L5;'*Xi^ bhandarl, j\^}f\yjj sarbardh-kar. 

Quarter-master, J^^;:*^ mtr-i manzil, cSfj^ mir-i'tuzuk. 

Ranger (of a forest), f\^\Ji karawalyJLL^ niir'shikar. 

Recorder, j\j<tejl j^ sar-rishta-davy j^y y^t^ daftar'Tiawls. 

Renter, j^J^ ftAarai^? , jl J»;l5>-\ ijara-dary J^^i^}S kirdya-dar. 

Retailer, fji^^^<^j^ khurda-fardshf b^ phariyd. 

Robber, jj^ cAor, b^ chottd, <*s^J dakaity i^ji]j rdh'isan, 
Ropedancer,^jb bdzt-gary \^ natwd,j\j^j rasan-bdz. 
Ropemaker, jI-j^j;-^; rusan-sdz. 
Rower, (^jJU ddndiy < ">^;>^^ khewat, (J,^;^^ kketvak. 

Ruler, A^U- hakiniy J^U ami/, J^lJ ndzim, (or dakh.) /^Uiu ntsam. 

Sailor, *X« malldh, ^j\^ jahdzt (ra.), i<tf»^ khaldsl (ra^). 

Salt-maker, \J^ luniydy ^^^xJuo malangly Liy noniyd. 

Sawyer, ^ji^«;l arra-kashy ,^|/ kardnti. 

Scarifier, /•v«^ hajjdm. 

Scholar, .^Co ^/rA, c^^l^ shdgird: see Disciple, Student. 
Schoolmaster, io>^T dldiun^ i^^J^ miydn-jz (m.), S^ mt^ZZa. 
Schoolmistress, ^ho mullanly y\ dtu (f.), (dakh.) ^^y 1 a^iiw. 

1 62 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Scullion, jd&cSio J dig'Shjo. 

Sculptor, j^l/ci^ but-tardshj fjt\Sj nalckashj J^J^^Sc^^ sang-tarash. 

Secretary, ^A^i^ munsht (m.), ^^JLi^j^ mtr-munshl, ^-j J dahtr. 

Sentinel, Sentry, ^^L^l* pasbdn, U^ pahriya, j^*^^^ chaukl^dar. 

Servant, ^^ naukar, J\:>' chakar, J^LciX:^. khidmat-gdr. 

Shaver, /♦l«^ l^ajjam, u:^U Ttopi^ : see Barber. 

Shepherd, 'j^ij-fj bhenkara, ^\)^ galla-bdn, (dMi.)Jiibii dhangar. 

Shoemaker, ^c^^ mdcht,j*i^^jti^ kafsh-doz, jU^ cAamar. 

Shopkeeper, Li baniya, j\j^^^J dukan-ddry tplJ^jJ dukdni (m.). 

Skinner, ^;^«^^'^^ post^kan, JL) salldkh^ J^^ cAamar. 

Slave, 2FJCJ banda, aLc ghuldmy L^ cAe/a, IjJj) laundd, (jJiJ das. 

Slave (female), l^^^V ^antft, i^^^ laundt, CJ^ kariizak (f.). 

Slave merchant, (Ji»^^^^ji barda-farosh. 

Smuggler, j\^\p ghat-mdr^ J^lJ^ chauki-mdr. 

Snake-catcher, j-T^U rmi^girj ^^ gum (m.). 

Snake-keeper, ]ji^ samperd. 

Soap-boiler or -maker, J»^y^\^ sdbuu'gar. 

Soothsayer, liii S\ dgam-baktd, ^^\^ kdhin^ JU; rammdL 

m 9 » 

Sophist, Uj cuo bat-handy j^^J^f^ hujjait (m.), ^^i^ ?5/«. 

WW ^- •• - 

Sorcerer,^^^! ^jjMw-gar, (j«f^ bhokasy j^^S^ jddu-gar. 
Sorceress, ^^jJ^^jddu-garnl, ^^^ kankdlin, LS*^y ionhd'i. 
Spearman, jjl^ ^^ jj barchhaity ^<^J{ «JJ neza-barddr. 
Spinner, Spinster, (^J^;^ charkh-zan^ ^^J^^ kdtanhdfi (f.). 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 1 63 

Sportsman, ;bjl^ shikar-baz, ^jKj^ shikari , L%Jb\ aheriya. 

Standardbearer, jlj^ ,jltJ nishdn-bardar, ^jui bairak-t (m.). 

Stationer, c5<^^ kdghazi : see Bookseller. 

Steersman u2.^v*gf>- jhmgdt, ^Jijj^ kanddri (m.) : see Helmsman. 


Steward ^^ULjlc*. khdnsdman^ i^i^ J^^ bhandari (m.), J^l^ bakdwaL 
Steward (agent), ijj^j^ kdrbdri (m.), ^^^.^^ rfiwaw ; see Factor. 
Stonecutter, ^^|^ i^,^* sang-tardsk : see Carver, Sculptor. 

o o«o y 

Student, Jx] ) k-J\i' tdlibu-Uilm or Jlcu^U^ tdlih-i ilm. 

Sugar-boiler, ^jJI^ kdndu. Sugar-seller, ^Ji^^JJ^ shakar-farosh. 

Sutler, };l;^ bhathiydrdy (dakh.) |^U2^ iAafe'ara. 
jft Sweeper,^Xy^ mihtarj ^j!^jl^\^ jhdriirkashf ^ u^nj^ jdrub-kash. 
^C;^ Swimmer, cS\j^ pairdk,j^\:J^ shindwar. 


^ Swordman, Swordplayer, ^jj^tjJi^ shamsKer-zan, \,j^ talwariyd. 
i Targetier, u:.>Jj»j dhalait, 

^jl Tavern-keeper, jK kaldr,j\^ kalwdr, ];-x^ bhangerd. 
^' Tax-gatherer, j^ J^V 65;-rf5r,j^ jJu-^aa^ tah^llddr. 



) Tenant, jlfc^ ij\^ kirdya-ddry cr^w^; ra^aiyaty ^Jk\ bharaitt (m.). 
Tent-maker, J ^ J<Uj>. khaima-doz, j^ ifj\j pdra-doz. 

y ? 

Testator, Aoy^ mu§t» Testatrix, <U^^ musiya. 

Thatcher, jcj -i^ chhappar-band, ^^^ chhawaiyd, y^^jp ghar- 

ami (m.). 
Thief, j^ chory 13^ chottdy J; J duzdyj^ taskar. 

Thief-catcher, jb^ namr-bdzyj^ i^j*^ duzd-gtr. 

164 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 


Thrasher^ byUj dhmwaiya. 
Tiler, Joj \^j^ khapre-band, 


Timber-merchant, \^lfcjfl lakarhara, jjij/ /^j-A hezam-farosh. 

Tinman, ^^^<Jl3 kaFi-gar, ^j^j rassas. 

Tirewoman, dtll^ maskshata (f.), j^^lrvi 'pO'^oToHoni. 

Tobacconist, jT^LJ tambaku-garj (^jj/^V^ tambaku-farosh. 

Toll-gatherer, b *X3 J dandiya : see Tax-gatherer. 

Torchbearer, jVJ^*^ masJCal-chty j\c>ji s::>Ai fattta-bardar. 

Tpyman, (jij^ *^jV bazlcha-farosh, ^j^\) rdngbhara. 

Trader, Tradesman, f\^yA saudagar, (^Uj baiparl : see Artificer. 

^ / c o / 

Translator, ^^^ ^'^^♦'^r/ tarjumarTiawis, (>>yi^ mutarjim. 

Traveller,y5L^ mu^o^r, ^U-a saiyah, ^^, batohi (m.)- 

Treasurer, j^-cj^J^ khazancht (m.), V^J rdkariya, jb J^^a^ tafiml- 

o o ^ ^ >» o^ 

Trooper, jl^ sawar, \!by>-^ ghur-charha^j^y^ijjji turksawar. 

- 9 ^ 

Tumbler, jXjjb bazigary (S^ nat, \\j K kala-bdz, ^S^^ kautukt (m.). 
Turner, c5j]/i- Idiaradi (m.), ,^]/>- kharrdti (m.), tj^ M«n-5/. 
Tutor, ^bl a^aZii^ u^*^ akhun^ (patron) ^j^ murabbt (m.) : see 

Vamisher, \j^ takhera. 

Vicegerent, aUU ^IS ita'm maitam, c-^L« w^lj na'/& manab. 
Viceroy, jljiOyitf suba-ddr^ c-^)y nawwab: see Vicegerent. 
Victualler Acijj^ti IJ Ju»^ ra^arf fta ddrogha : see Purveyor, Sutler. 

Vocabulary Nouns. 1 65 

Vintner, (JL^^ ^ mai-farosh : see Distiller. 

Waiter, L«»j^ parosaiyay jSs^^d^ fdiidmatgar. 
Warden, lJj^^j^ darwazl (m.), <iLc^j\j daro gh a : see Keeper. 
Warrior, ^^^^ jangl (m.), JjLo ?wMi5n2r, j jlyj hahadur. 
Washer-man, ^^^^ dhobt (m.), CS^j rajaky ji\S gazur. 


Washer- woman, ^^y^J dhobin (f.), ^^;^^ bare than. 

Watchman, jIju^^ chaukidary \J^\ pasban, jj^ pahru. 

Water-carrier, ^c^^^ bihishtl (m.), jlOl abkar, Ia-» sakka. 

Water-cooler, jl J c-?! ab^ar. 

Waterman, <^y^ khewat, JLc mallah : see Water-carrier, 

Wharfinger, j|^5^gAa<ti?ar or ^\y>^ ghatwaL 

Wiredrawer, iJiSj3 tar-kask. 

Wizard, (j-^j^ bhokas, i^jiu^ jantri : see Magician. 

Wood-cutter, I^IaJ^ lakar-hara, ^JiS aj^ hezam-kash. 

Woodmonger, (^jj/ /^J-^fe hezam-farosh^ \J^^ lakar-fiard. 
Workman, jiojl^ karigar, \j^ kamerd, Jic^^O dastkar. 

Wrestler, jSb^^iLl^ kushtl-glr or -gar, jb ^^xl^ kushti-bdz. 

Writer, jjs^ muharrir, LL!h^(^ lekhakj l-^\^ kdtib, Ji\j rdkim. 

m 9 

Writer (one in the Company's service), ,^<y^ac^ mutasaddt. 

Writingmaster, (^^ (J^^ khmh nawis : see Master. 

Of Meats and Drinks. 
Food, Victuals, \3l^ khdnd, f^^jy>- khurak{f.), \*Ughiza({.), ^^ 
bhojan, L^ y^j rasd*i,j\ib\ ahdr (or vulg.jW ahar), C-y kuL 

1 66 Vocabulary. — Nouns, 

Drink, (-y« shurh. Meat and Drink, c- ^ j JS\ akl o shurb, 

Lj l3l^ khana plna, ^\j ^\j dana pant. 
Fodder, ^l>- chara, f^\^ ghas, C^b (jm\p ghas-pat. 
Grain, Corn, <di gh alla^ .^Ul anq;, ^\J ^araa, |ȣ9r tukkm. 

Rice (cleared of the husk, but not cooked), J^U- chawal, Jy^ 
chanwal, m^ birinj, JjcJ tanduL 

Rice (boiled), ci^l^ &Aaf, <^-Cl< Idiushka. 

Rice-milk, ^^ A:7«r (f.), ^J i ^rni, ^J^ .^^ hawikh-firm. 

Wheat, {^y^ gchun^ aX>^ gandum, (dakh. also) {^^ ghyaun. 

V / 

Flour, Meal, ul a/a, J; I arrf, ^^y^ sup, ^^y^pisan. 

Flour of Wheat, 15T \^ \^)\^ g^J^un ka ata. 

Flour of pulse (especially of li^ Cicer arietinum), ^^^^ besan. 

Flour, fine or twice sifted, 2r Ju^ maida. 
Bread, ^^j roti, ^\j nan (f.). 

Thick Bread, Loaf, <-lu^ rot, ^^j rotu 

Small loaf of bread, Cake, ,J3 tiA:/ci, xd^ girda, <tsni? kulicha. 

Parched grain, W Zat/^a, J-^ A:AiZ (f.), ^?f^ chabend, ijiX^ thuddi. 

Parched grain, reduced to meal and made into a paste, ^ sattu. 
Parched grain oij^^jo^ar orl^b bajra, f^jparimaL 

Milk, JbJjJ dudh,jJ^ shir, ^ pat, (j^jj!> goras,j^i^ chhtr. 

sj Butter, ^j^ makkhan, ^j^U mdkhan, iL,^ maska, ^^ nVun. 
Butter clarified by boiling and straining, ^ ght (m.). 

O m 

Buttermilk, -^l^ chhachh (f.), l^ matihay i^J do gh . 
X Thick sour coagulated Milk, ^AJ rfaAi (m.). 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 167 

Cream, S^^ maJa? , i^J^ sari. 

C P 

Whey, ^j0>4 ^ ^ ma^u-l-jubn, ^b ^ JbJj J ^fik/A kd paniy Jy for. 
Curd, l^ chakka, ^*^ cA/ieraa. 
.y Cheese, j-iJ pamr. Round (of a cheese), ^^J^^ chaktl. 


Meat, Flesh, LS^^y goshtj ^to mdns^ (dakh. also) \^ herd. 

o C / 

Broth, Soup, U;j-2» «Aor&a or ]^j^ shorwd, (j^jfrjus, ^jJ parek. 
Porridge, Pottage, --J lapst, fJA ash (f.) : see Broth. 

Flummery, afJjJli fdluda : see Porridge, Rice-milk. 

Gravy, o-2»y <— ^\ aft-i-go^Af, ^^^,i^c-^l db-joshy ^^^^ yakhni. 

Roast meat, ^-'V^ kabdb, c-^U^ V^^ sikhiyd kabdb. 

Stew (of meat), c^.<^ a J dam-pukht^ ls^ yakhni. 

Curry (said to be from the Arab. <uSi), ^U ^aZa/i, UL ^a/na. 

A certain dish made of flesh and rice, /h puld'o. 

Meat dressed dry with onions, ^Uj^^^ dopiydza. 

Minced meat. Hash, <uJ Uima. 

Pie, ^^^ sdmbosa, <U^«4^ samosa. 

Forced meat, v,^ ^i/ri. Pounded meat, <fci^ kofta. 

Beef, ijL^^^ i^*^ gd*e kd gosht, u:.^jf ^ \? ga'o go^A^ 
Mutton, Ls^jf l^Jj^ 6A^ A5 gosAf. 

Veal, \,z^f ^ s£5f5? bachhrt kd gmht. 
Pork, LS^jT l^ j\^ 5ii'ar A:a gosht. 
Ham, jj5^ raw (f. m.). 
Lamb, Kid, ci^jf \^ (j\))^^ halwdn kd gosht. 

168 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

VenisoD; lt^jS l^ ^Jb haran ka goskt 
Hare, Rabbity ij^f^ khargosh,, lfM«l lambha. 
Fishy . Jf*=^ machkli. 

Fowl, ij^ murgh. 

Wild fowl, ^fc j^^ixisr jo^g^ mur gh . 

,j Turkey, ^ cM^/ wiwrgA, j>^ ^erti. 

Peacock, j^ »ior. Peachick, l>j^ mt^reZa. 

Goose, (^U A5n5. 

Duck, Waterfowl, ^<?^;^ murgha^t. 

Partridge, jS-J ^/ar. 

PigeoD,y^ kabutar, ^^^ kapot. 

Vegetables (esculent), Greens, ijj^J tarkari, ^j>-\i) bhajl. 

i*9 ?^ O/ 

Sausage, UK kulmd, U^^x3 languchif JL^Ai kulma. 
Pastry, Pasty, <Ujj-Jm-j sambosa, l^^ jjaraf Aa, Ip-1^ khaja. 
Sweet cakes fried in butter, 8cc., "iSj^ gulgula. 

- / 

Confection, Conserve, Jam, Preserve, ^j< murabba, 
' Sweetmeat, ^5 1^ mitka% Iji^ halwa, ^jJ laddu. 


Egg, IjJI andS, ^l^j baiza. 
Omelet, <U-f U- khagtna. 

Rice-water, Rice-gruel, -fsaj j^IcAA (f.), (dakh.) ,<sii ganji. 

Barley-water, Watergruel, f^-^^ ash-i-jau. 

Water, ^JU 'pam (m.), c- ^1 5 J, J^ JaZ. 

Wine, Spirituous liquors, ^->|;-2« sharab (f.), l<^ mai (f ), <x« mac?. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 169 

Arrack (from the Arab, j^ arak, juice, spirit), ^cjtf tori (toddy), 

^JCw«m) sendhi. 

Beer, tjy 6o2ra or 2[^^ boza. 
Tea, I5- cA5 (f.). 

Coffee, a[^ kakwa, (unground) ^ Jmti. 

Breakfast, ^J^^ fiazirl, lJj^ ^J^ ndn-i-nakarl, \sJ^\j nashta. 

Luncheon, TifEn, cold meat, \y^ kalewa, i:JL\j nashtay c:^l>- 
chasht (f.). 

Dinner, \j\^ khana (eating), <uU. k/uis^a. 

Supper, ^jLi byarly llx asha, \j\^ ^ CL^j rat ka khana. 

Spices, Condiments. 
Spices, Condiment, Seasoning, ^/^"^ ma§alih,j\^ baghar. 


Salt, ^j! ton, \lS^ namaky (rock) Ujci^ sendha. 

c c 

Pepper, ^j^ mirch (f.), Jili ^(^Z (f.)« 

Pepper, black, -.^ J^ goZ wiircA (f.), — ^ ^^ kali mirch, ^j^ 
mirch (f.). 

Pepper, red or Capsicum, -.^ JH /aZ iwircA (f.). 

Co c» 

Ginger (dry), -^^ s5nM (f.), J-^a^ zanjabll (f.). 
Ginger (undried), tlJ; J^ adrak (f.), bT 5rfa. 
/' Clove, <si^^ laung (fO^^J^y Icaranfal. 

Mace, ci/jW" jawatrl or ^J^/^^" jawitri, i^J^t^mi basbasa. 
Cinnamon, , ju>-«b darchlnt. 

Nutmeg, Jfi J'Wj^'^ P^^h jy^ jauz. 

Allspice, Jamaica pepper, Myrtus pimenta, ,c^^ j5--» sJto/ cAini . 


170 Faeabmlanf. — Nouns. 

j Tannaky ^oL^ kaUz, <--J^ ^A '2»ml ekob {(.), u^?^ pitras. 
Mitistardkse^d, ^^'^^ ni7, J«^ khardid, (^JJ^j^ sarshaf, i^y tori. 

Pickles, ^il^t acAttr. Pickle (brine), ^Jb ^^j-C^J namAin p5n5 (m.)« 

Apparelj Dress, 
Ap(HJurel> CMhea, Dress, |j-^ A*apra, (^U libas, cl/U^ posAaft (f/ 

H*t, ^Jj5 IP/M, iS^ ^m/oA (f.)- 

i^HS *SS; *dSA (f.), -.U *5;, ^j5 /op. 

'|\krUui> sjW /hi^, v*/U ;>5g (f.), 1;-?- cAira, jli-.J dastar (f.). 

'fStiiti. l>mv)^itt» Crown, ^\J tai^ cS.>^C< mukut. ^1 a/j;ar. 

VHuiUUiH^ tU* the turban, JjJo^ mandilif.), ^ b u^t^ sar-ptsli or 
^cA, > »\% I; ^vi fjHf gosh'pech or -M?ara, ^^figha, J^ kalghiy 

u\), •J J fttir^a*, C^J ghunghat (fX 

J ■* 


\A^U ^a wsxuuu^'h cloak, ^V^Jj' orAni. 

U4Mulkv^4vKH>^i Jl^ riimaZ, l^^l angochha: see Neckcloth. 

At^i ^ V U< 4uiMv% ^^»*^ Araiwif *^ fcwr^a. 
Iti'i^ vvitl Kwombliag a shirty f^^ juhha* 



Vocabulary. — Nouns. 171 

Waistcoat, ^^ choR, \^J^\ angarkka, ^^ji3 fatuhu 
Bodice, Stays, ,J^ cAoZi, \Sj\ angiya (f.), ajS^ mahram. 
Coat, ^J^ kurtJ, 1^1 anga, ^^^ anggrkha. , 

Cloak, Great-coat, J^/ far gh ul (f.), ^5;V J5r5n7, 2f jU luhada. 


Gown (female's), jty;--J peshwaz (f.), u^ ^ifcft (f-)- 
Gown (male's), Robe, <ulflj-j5ma, ^|^ /^airSAaw. 

9. C/ C 

Frock, ^is!^jhagula, \j^ kurta, ^J da gh la. 

Jacket, t/*|jr< iwira^a*!, lxi\ awga, <G^ kurta, \^J^\ angarkka. 

Mantle, ^jU lubdda, yj pattu : see Cloak. 

Drawers, Trousers, Pantaloons, iUU^b pd'ejdma, ^^\^ tumhdn or 

tambdn, ^A shar%j^^J^ *shilwdr,j\j\ izdr (f.), J\j/-» sirwaL 
Garter, jcj 2jjj^ mdza-hand, ^^ patil, 

CO c 

Girdle, Jcj^ kamarband, \iSj,patka, 

Breeches (short), l:^l»- iangAzya, \^s^ kachhnd, \jj^ chamd. 

Cloth worn round the waist and passing between the legs, (^^ ^wwg, 
^XJ Zwngi, Jcj <G tah-bandy ^f^ langofi, 


Belt round the loins, to which the langofi is attached, uJj tasma, 


jJUj dxCdU. 

Petticoat, Ix;^ lahangd or Ik:*^ Ihangd, ]/p^ ghaghrd, <oL ^aya. 
Night-clothes, ^)^ u---2* shab-ldrndbi. 

m9 S- 

Stocking or Sock, i^\^jurrdb, «olijb pd'etdba. 

9 9 O 

Shoe, Slipper, \j^jutd, Jfy^-jutl, Jl^^j pdposh (f.), jLii kafsh (f.). 

/ w O ^ 

1 7:} Vixmimlary.—Xamms. 

Bgi>l» >J|^ wca» i^\'^ ciakma : (leg of) uSy^ pawal. 

K^isrtii^ i*V^ jT^Aslrttra: (kind of), J^ ^^ kant-phiil, IC«^ 
Hui^ i^wocu cii the Gnger) ^j^^i^^ angushtari, (on the thumb) 


KU^i^ V^v>m in the nose) <^ nath, ^^^^ natknl, j2b bulak, j>^^ 
*cA«r (ft)* 

llmceM* s?*^ rAiiri, ^^^ kangan, J^^'b hazurband. 

f c 

Buckle* v^»-|;-^c4oprfc(f.): (tongue of) '^-ij JaA^w'a. 

A HuiMii^. EdiBce, c:>;Ue tmarat (f.)- 

NVaH. .Ly </?i«ir (f.), c:-.;^ AAi* (f.), JW rfiwaZ (f.). 

U\H^f. c:^>^ cilAiU (f.), \J^ chhan (f.), (of thatch) ^^-^ chAappar, 
Aix*h» Vuuhft Donxe, Cupola, j\l? te/c, d^ gumbaz, aJ kubba. 
lUmsie, M unison, ^^Aor, l^^ haweli, ^^^ kothl, J^r< mahall. 

Cottu^v. Cot, Hut, ^^^^jAomprl, ^ kutl. 

C«8tlts Koit, *Jj ^(ira(Hind. kiFa), Jb^ garh,jL2»-hi§ar. 

\ Tower, Bastion, Bulwark, -^ Jiir;. 

OI)cUsk, Steeple, Minaret, cl^) Za/ (f.)i ^ ^fA (f.), ^1:^^ mtTiar. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 173 

Pillar, Column, .^^ khambh, ^f^ satun, ^J^ thunt, ^ rukn. 
V Temple (Mahommedan), Jcs-** masjid (f. a mosque), Jujc^ morbid. 

)/ Temple (Hindu), J^J dewal,j*^:^ mandir, \-yjJ dehra. 

Shrine, 2flf^J dargah (f.)> j5/< mazar (m. f.). 

Altar, 4^«xj Jcrfi, 2fli j^ljy kurban-gah {{.), f^^ mazbih. 

Church, Chapel, <uJi^ kalisa, ^^ girja, *y^Jt^ ma bid. 

Bridge, Jj ;?wZ, ci^s^ 5c^ 

Inn, ^ ly-» Barest (f.), A}1>. JL-^ musajir-ld^na. 

Storehouse, Magazine, Granary, ^^/s^ makhzan^ ^j^ kotki. 
Cow-house, <JU^ gausdla,j\^ sir, CJj^ kharak, \^<f kotha. 
Stable, f^LiJ^ ghursaly JJa^l i§tabal, A>Jotawtla. 

Elephant stable, .<sjI^V ftl-khana. 

9 9 

Shop, Warehouse, ^j\^^ rfiiAari (f.), ^^ hat (f.), ^l^J dukdn(t.). 
Workshop, <l3l>yl^ kdr-kkana, J^JS kar-gdh (f.), j^^^*^ dukan (f.). 
Gate, Door, tl^l^ phatak, ifj^^j*^ darwdza, c^^ j^aMri. 


Gateway, Porch, Threshold, jJjbJ dahliz (f.), i^jyi^ dewrhty (dakh.) 


^Jj^j^ dt'dri. 
Window, Casement, ySj^ khirklj\^yjp^ jharokhd. 
Floor, ^j^j zamin (f. ground), (of cement) ^ gdch, (of plank) <fcxa 


(<JCJ takhtorbandi. 

Cc o / 

Chamber, Room, Apartment, \j^ kamara, ^j^f kothrt, XjS^ hujra. 
Closet, Cabinet, ij^\s^^ khalwat-Muina, XjJ^ hujra^ ^f gosha. 

^9 . U9 Co 

Cell, HjS^ hujra^ iJ^^ gosha, ^uK kulba^ ^j^lf f^fhrl. 


174 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Hall, j^\j dalan, ^\^\ aiwauj (of entrance) yji^*^jt^ dar dalan. 
Dining room, <Ol=L ^^U^ mikman-khana. 
Hall of audience, jb^ J darbar, <0U* u!^*^ diwan-lzhana. 
Kitchen, <0U- ^^>j^, bawarchi-khdna^ ^^ matbakfi. 
Balcony, Gallery, ^U- Sb bald-khanaf ^^JLj <JUl shah-nishtn. 
Verandah, nxJ^ji bar-amada. 

Garret, )lb ilLt toiAra 55/5, yjj^f ^S y ^ ^Z ^\^ makan ke upar kl 

,J Theatre, Playhouse, ilTlStUJ tomos/ta-gaA (f.), <UU- JJu nakl-khana. 

Brick, uS-cj^ J»« (f.), c::.^ Mw^* (f-)- 

khaprcLy b J nariya, yjL^Z^ khisht (f.). 

Stone, jfj patthar, ^^l^ pakhan, J-» 5iZ (f.), cA-* «awg. 

Mortar, Plaster, J^ gach, AissTj reJdita. 
- ^ Thatch, ^\^ghds (f.), Jb^ ftAarA (f.). 

Glass, ^^ kdnck, <ll-J» shtsha : (pane of) <Jl^ parkdla. 

C b 

Beam, Bar, j^p^ shahtlr, ^^ kafi^ l^ lathd. 

Rafter, Spar, ^^ karl, <^Jol^ kdndi,^j^ korOf CJp tarak (f.). 

Chimney, l^lyybJ dkunwdra, ^*y^0 dud-kash. 

Fire-place, If^ chulka, ^^\j ^\ dtash-ddriy i^'^j^ deg-ddn. 

9 /o 

Oven,jyJ tanuTyj^^ tandur, ti^ JAaf (f.). 
Shutter or fold of a door, Jl^ kewdr, h palld, lS^ pat. 
Palisade, Balustrade, Railing, \j^ kathard. 
Plate or clamp of metal,^ pattar. 

9 9 O 

Hinge, iM ^uldba, J^ chul (f.), <UduJ AraJza. 

Vocabulary, '^Nouns. 175 

Pivot on which a door turns, J^ chul (f.). 

Lock, Ji3 Jcufly SU tola. 

Key, ,^^5^^ kunjiy jJi ftiVid (f.), 15^^ chabu 

« & CO 

Bolt, ^Ij bilUy ^jSi^ chhitkanJy JcjjJ dar-band. 

Bar of a door, \^ Attrfta, JcjjJ darband, \jJv)Jl ardanda. 
Staple (of a lock), b,^/M> ^iA;r7, <!U)U kulaba. 

Hasp, <o)U kulaba. 

Hook, (^j[^l ankrty f^ii kulldb : see Hasp. 

Stair, Step, Ladder, ^J^Jir^ sirhl, ^jV^ir^ nardban, <Uj[j artna. 
Stairs, Steps, ^ j ztna. Staircase, Steps, ^\) Jy nard-ban. 

Bedchamber, Dormitory, «\wl^ Idmab-gah (^f.), ijj^^ ^ ^y^ sone 
ki kothri. 

Cellar, Vault, <iGU* JJ tah-khanaj \j^^, bhonghara. 

Well, \^ ku'a, (large one of masonry) \^^ JJl indara, ^)^ U bd*oli 

Cistern, Reservoir, ^^ Aatif, <!^^=^Vv^ chahbachcha. 

Household Furniture, 

. Table, J-^ mlz (f.), asrk? l^ J-^ mcar ka tajdita, 
«^i Tablecloth, ^^I^^^J dastar^Jdhwan^ iji^ sufra,j*x>' chaddar (f,). 
Chair, Stool, ^S kursi, ^yf- chauki, iJ*^i-^ §andaU, 

Footstool, Ujjj^ mondha, Ujj^ morAa. 

Shelf, j\k fa/c, ^^ fabka, ^j:J^ takhtl, ^b patra. 

♦ Trivet, Tripod, djU ^ si-pdya, ^^ L-o sipa*?, jj^ tirpad. 
Clock, s^yp ghafi, J^jp ghariydl, vi-^^L sa'at (f.). 

176 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

c o 

Carpet, JL^ farsh, ^l5 kalirif ^sjllS kdRcha, ^^ysrjLit shatranji. 
Carpet, (to sit or pray on) ^T asan, (to pray on) sj\s^ sajjada. 


Carpet (to clean the feet on),j!jj\ b pa-andaz. 
Cloth spread over a carpet, jJjjI>. cAantfnt. 

Cushion, (^J^ gaddt. 

y c 

Bed, Couch, ,^ ^e/ (f.), l3jf$7 bichhauna, cil^ ftAaJ (f.). 

c c 

Bedstead, <^ ^jV" ^^^rP^% i^j^ palang^ c3l^ ftAaJ (f.). 
Bedding, ^j^a^ bichhauna, ^y farshyj^ bistar. 

Mattress, CS^^ toshak (f.), i^jy^ soznl, ^^f^ bickhauna. 
Pillow, Bolster, ^lC takiya, ^b balisk, L*^^ ti^^a. 


Coverlet, Quilt, Counterpane, (^y^lb balorposh, ^^yv^/Jj palang- 

Jm CO 

Sheet,jjl>- chadar (f.); j»^ chaddar ({,), Lfcjfjl orAna. 

Blanket, J^ kammal, ^J.^ karnU, ,^ ^ lol. 

c o 

Curtain, 2fJ^ parda, (of a bed, against mosquitos) i^jy*^ masahrl. 
Looking-glass, Mirror, <^ 1 alna, ^j^ darpan^ d-^L* m%r*at (f.). 
Picture, jJ^^ taswir (f.),^i5>- cAi^r, ^^^^ naksh, 


Wash-hand bason, ,<f^*^ chilamchl, ^\) l^ j^^<^ -^^ A5^A c/Aone 
Goglet, Ewer, Water-jug, ^ubiT dftaba, 'jbiT 5/)?5«£?5. 

/ CO o 

Towel, JUji rumaZ, JUc-jJ dastmalf Ji*^:^ mindtl (f.). 

Comb, |<^^ kangKif <Ul2» ^Aana. 

Brush, (English) (JLji barash, ^^j^^ kunchl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 177 


Box, Chest, Trunk, Coffer, J^x--? sanduk (m. f.), ,<2LJ peH. 
Small box, Casket, d^^J:^ sandukcha. \3j batta. b J dibba. 

** ** 8 

Basket, |^j? <oA:r5, tj^jS Joftri, U j daliya, IjlSj piiara. 
Bellows, j^iCybJ dhaunknl, Jl^ HoZ (f.), <UJ eiama. 

Spit (for roasting meat), ^.-j 5zM, (smaller) <ts:^^ slMicha. 
Caldron, Boiler, Copper, <S^v> dtg (f.), 'j^J^ handa, s\^ karah. 
Kettle, Pot, ijf^J^ degcha, \j^ tatakrd, j^jJU hdndi, LJ to^Za. 

CO o 

Lid, Potlid, liijbj dhakna, UjbJ dhapna, (j^yj^ sarposh. 

O i> o 

Chafing dish, ,<^2jo^ angethl, ^j^AUl dtash-ddn. 

Trivet or fireplace (for a kettle, &c.), ^^^J^J degdan. 
Fryingpan, ^^^ karaht, »y ^^ mahi-tawa, ij\i taba. 
Ladle, Wooden spoon, ^^^J d57, v^^y karchka, ijs^^ ckamcka. 

. o o o 

Skimmer, ^^ ujtt kaf-glr, \jj^ jharna, (of iron) ^V^ft/ karchham. 


Dish, Platter, Salver, ^V ^Aaff, c-;\5 AraJ (f.), CJ^ sahnak (f.), 

o o 

Plate, 15^^ riftaJi, ,^5*-^ rikebt, ^J)ji bartan, uioy^ sahnak (f.). 

f? oy /P 

Plate (silver), j^**--* <— ^T;^ «MniA*-simi, t^*;fi3 *-J^ J^ zuruf-i-nukra*!. 

o 00 

Spoon, ^Js^^ chatncha, ^j^^ karchhl : see Ladle. 

/ o 

Knife, t/^^ chhuri^ ^fj^ kdrd (f.), (pen) ^^ Ji kalam-tarash (f.). 
Clasp knife, ^^ chakku, U^ bakiya (f.). 


Fork, l53l^ Aania. 

Saltcellar, ^^'j^ namak-ddn. Cruet, ^\^j^ sirka-dant. 

Bowl, ^^\t I&, fj:^^ tashty aU-^aiw, (of brass) |;^ kaiora, 

2 A 

178 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Jug, Goblet, \^ kulhra, <L*\^ kasa, xj^ kuza, (jJio fas. 
Bottle, Flagon, Al-J» shtshay ^<f^j^ §urahl, ^h gaZofti. 
Cup, Glass, Can, <dUj piydliy Jo^jam, (jJ^ tasj i*^ kasa. 
Phial, small Glass, , J^^ shisht. 

^■^ X 

Decanter, 1:^^ iMna^ ^U^-A shishaj ^:^\ abgina. 
Water-pot, Pitcher, Jar, \j^ ghara, y*^ salu^ ^iSjc matka. 
Porringer, Is-^ mlta^ <U jU hadiya : see Cup. 


Pan, Bason, ^b fio^an, ^^^ ftar^an : see Fryingpan, Bowl. 
Funnel, ^^ chongd, ^Jj naZi, (dakh.) ^J .J jjurwi (?). 

J Tub, ]^ kathra,JJu ta gh ar^ lJj^ ta gh arh JUT gam^ (?). 

Pail, Bucket, iJ^ kathauti^JJu taghar, (milkpail) ^^^*^ dohni, 

Milkpan, i^dcjb JbJtJ dudh-handi. 

Chum, U^if^ maManiya (f,), ^ly^ mihani. 
Cask, Barrel, Pipe, U-j 'pipd. 


« Tray, ^^ khman^ ^\^ Idtwdncha, \j^ kathra. 
jTrough, \j^ kathra f ^y^ dongl, jjI) nand : see Tub. 

Besom, Broom, jJl^JAaru (f.), c- ^y\>.jaro6, t^V ^^^^drJ, 


Sieve, Riddle, ^<J^ c 

Mortar, ^^Ijb ^atran, ,J^y oftAZi, ci«^j$ kundi. 

/ ^ O V. O 

Pestle, d^j^ kutakj J^^ ini/^a/, <tiu^ dasta^ l^^ son/a, Ujf^ /orAa. 
Lamp, fl;^* chirdgh. bj £?iya, v«^^ cHp, C^^ dipak. 

Oil, JJf ^eZ, ^^jj raughan. 

Candle, ,p^ Ja^ff, «^^ skam^ (f.), (of wax), ,jij ^^ mom battl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 179 

Chandelier^ Lustre, Jl^JAar. 
Shade (for a candle), ^^y\ifanus (f.), Ji*3^ kandil (f.). 

Candlestick, ^^^jumJ* sham dan. 

Lantern, (j^^\a fanus (f.), Ji*^ kandil {t). 

o / « / 

Torch, Flambeau, JjC^ mash'al (f.),y«U damar. 
Snuffers, ^^:»il> gMZ-gtr, fJiSp^ guUtarash, 

Country and Country Affairs, 
Country (not Town), ci^l^ J rfi Ao^, ci^Uf^j^ btrunjaty Ju2i« mufassal 

Village, yli ga;it£7, j<i-j io^^i, a^^ gram^ ^J rflA. 

Field, LT.^^ £Ae^, ^^ J^ maidan, j^-a^ chhetr. 

Farm, Cj^ckak, ii>j\>-\ ijdra, (dakh. also) \s^ gutta: see Field. 

Garden, Orchard, ib ba gh . i^j\{ J5rt, (small) ijsP\) ba gh cha. ^-sXc^j 

Flower garden, c^Uf> phulwdrl, ^\:>J^ gulistan. 
Forest, Wood, jM^jangal, ^ Jan, ls^J dasht. 
Heath, Copse, Brushwood, liff^r j^^fh f^^j^^^T' 
Hedge, Jb bar, ^s:jj^ jhaf-bandl, \j^ gJiera. 

Meadow, Mead, Marsh, ^^\p taral,j\jij^ mar gh zar. 

Pasture, Meadow, 2rlsL>. charagah^^j^ alafzar. 

Park, Chase, <u^ ramiia, ifIT^ILI shikar-gah (f.), ^ vSJ^ mirg-sald. 

O C 

Agriculture, Husbandry, ^-j^j sir, sjJizJL^ kishtkdrt, ^^^-^jj zirdHat (f.)- 

Cart, Waggon, ^5J^g5rl, 1^^^^ ckhakrd, i^}jC- ardba. 
Plough, Jjb half <ul5 kulba, Ji U ndgal, Jxili ndngaL 

1 80 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Harrow, l^Jb hengif ^^^ ma?, (j^y-* sarawan, 

— ^ 

Spade, Shovel, J-j 5c/, ^1j^ kudalt, \j^ l^ pha'ora. 

' f > 

Hoe, ^^ J^ kuddli, <tsW belcha, \j^ l^ ^Aa'ora. 

Dibble, lc^ khantt, ^\i^ kudali^ 

P Of V 

Mattock, Pick, Pickaxe, JIvN^ Az^e/aZ, 1; J^ kudrd, 5Jj*^cji>A5'5ra, ^^c^i. 

Ploughshare, ^ c/tau, Ijy ^5f5, d^ Aar*, J^ \^ Ja hal ka phaL 

Pitchfork, \jSu>-jandra. 


Axe, Hatchet, ,^^\^ kulharty jj tabar. 

Sickle, Scythe, IjiJJb Aan^u'a, ^^|/> daran^, ^J das. 

o o o o 

Sieve, ^^yi>- chalrii, Jlj^ gh irbal^ aJj-j pezna, \^ I aHa. 

, Society and Government. 
People, Nation, v^jJJ Zog, ^y Aratim (f.), jd^ M^ZA (f.), ifj/ guroh. 

9 ^ 

Family, Tribe, J^ /cm/, ^y Araum (f.), Aft^ kabtla. 

Family, Household, Li^ kumba, as^ kutum, \j\jp gharana. 

A Country, Region, jj-jJ rfc5, tl^ mulk, v-^fc> ^PfJ^j^ diydr. 

* X 

Territory, ^j--<5^ sar-zamln (f.), ^J des,j^ kishwar. 

Province, <U^ suba,j^j»^ sarkar : see Country. 
'.) King, Sovereign, Monarch, Potentate, «li»Jb badshah, \s>^\j rya, 

U^lj l^ ma^a-ra;a, Vj^ ^J^/ farman-rawa. 
. . Queen, Empress, ii^iL* malika, ^\j rani, .^\j ly^ maha-ram. 

Cf cp o 

: Prince, jI^ kunwar, jyS ^\j raj-kunwar,, xj\j^ shahzada. 
Princess, 4^ j]^l2* sAaA 2ra^, t-£;U^lj raj-kumari, ^\j ram. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 181 

* • 

Chief, Ruler, Prince, U-U r5;5, ^\% watt, u^j rals. 
Minister (of siBie), jijjwazlr, s^J^*^ mantri (m.),jy:«-»J dastur. 


Secretary (of state), (^J^^^ mantri (m.), ^^|y.fc> dttcan. 

o c 

Officer (military), Commander, j^J^^j sar-dar, j\j Ly^*^>* mansalhdar. 

o o 

Officer (civil) c^^J^ Ja^ aAZ-i khidmatf j\j c.^ia;^ mansalhdar. 
Judge, ,<-^15 itflfi, i^U- hakim, cl^Ui nyayak. 

Magistrate, chief officer of police, J^y kotwaly J\do^^ faujdar. 
Nobleman, Grandee, j-^1 amir, (or plur.) ]^1 umara, uSax- umda. 
Of noble birth, uJj^ sharlf, uJJ*l ashraf, ^A^ kulin. 
Landholder, jljj.^ zamlnddr, j]JjS\>'jagirdar. 
Plebeian, Commoner, <^J^ kamlnay j<^fc>l /♦l^ amm acZmi. 
V Townsman, Citizen, i.^j-^ shahrt, jVV*^ kashatl. 

Villager, Peasant, ^l^gantrar, ^^\fgramin, ^\A:bJ dihkani. 

War, Military Affairs. % 

War, {^J^jangy ^ ran, ^-^ bcLrh (f.), ^^Ij! /ara7, f^S»^jadal. 
Battle, i^\ji laral, Jbt\>-judh, i^S^jang, <u^lsr* mtiharaba. 
Peace, ^ 5«ZA (f.). 

Dissension, Discord, Jlw iigar, i^Jitna, i^^^phut (f.). 
Pacification, Reconciliation, c-^1^ mi/ap (f.), ^lo^ musalalia. 
Enemy, Foe, ^^y^^ dushman, ^j>-j^ durjan, lI-^J dus/iL 
Adversary, Antagonist, «— ij^ ^«^?/i i^jt^, iairi (m.), A*ii g hanim. 
Friend, Ally, ^j^pachchhiy ^^J^ kumakt (m.), ji^ fnitr,^jraftk. 
Stratagem, aL>- hlla, Jj Jfj- chhal-bal, c--^y^ ^ fannofarlb. 
Slaughter, Carnage, Jci ta^Z, i^jiyy>- khun-^ezu 
Massacre, see Slaughter : (general) ^Ic Ji3 katl-i-amm. 
Victory, Conquest, ^jaf, ^ifath{(.\ i^i^^jit (f),^ sq/ar. 

1 82 Vocabulary. — JVouns. 

' Triumph, jlJjs- ^^jai-jai-kar, ^^j>~Jai, ^j3^ bijai, ^Ji 
Defeat, Discomfiture, Loss, i.i.->— i^ shikast (f.), tl^i har (f.). 
Flight, <;^~^yi hazlmat (f.),/^. hbigar {f.),jj garez {i.),j\^firhr. 
Pursuit, tfsoJpIcAAa, (._-JUj' ta'nkub, ^fj^ pairaul. 
P'lWa^e, Plunder, (ij! lut (f.), ^^:~^^ ghammat (f.), cf^U tijl 

/iif-pa( (f.). 
Onset, Attack, Assault, Charge, <tLk»- hamla, ij^'j^- charhal. 
Incursion, Inroad, Invasion, Li-J-'J taldit (f.), k^'L>}>- charhal. 
Devastation, Depredation, ^_p ci-^U takht-taraj, JUjIj ^ja'Sma/t. 
Destruction, |_^^ halalii, ^j}^ l^arabj, ^^U_« mtfmari. 
Array, jSli) Ioshkar, \i--i sena (f.), *V^ st^a/i (f.), — .^ favj (f.)- 
Battalion, ^^jSlj paltan, <Uu- i-l^.^ ^ ^y /<"*/ ^'^ ^^ ^ifsa. 
Brigade, Squadron, Jii^J dasta, iJy%^d/. 
Troop, Corps, ^^^ jau}c, Jji gAof, (of horse), a-Lj, risala. 
File, uji-.s(#(f.),^^ ^■a/:«r(f.), cu-3\j j?5«((f.). 
Rank, d-Jb ^lani or pan(i (f,), i—iis fo^ (f.). 
Centre or maio body (of an army), i— -Jj kalb. 
Wing or Flank (of an ^xoiy\ ^^^pahlu, j.\^ janufi (f.). 
Right wing, <C-«-^ maimana. Left wing, >_;—--« inaisara. 
Watch, Sentinel, l^pafim, b^^ pa/trii/a, J^xSj^ c/iaukldar. 
Guard, Patrole, J^jpaAm, Ij^Hf J po/iru'u, \JJ^fi^ pakrij/a, J/l-i sA«A- 

Soldier, j<6^ sipdhl (m.), ^^^/^ lashkari (m.)- 
Foot soldier, »jUj piyada. Infantry, JiV pttidal, ^jJUj piyade. 
Horse soldier, jl^ mwar, Uj>-Jp ghur-charka. 
Pioneer, ^j'jJuJ heldar. 

Ensign, Standard, Colours, ^liJ nishhn, ^a^jhandd, jj-j hnirak. 
Ensign-bearer, jLy ^jLU nishaa-bardar, j^>iji J.* alam-bardar. 
Hostage, JUcy. yarghamal, J-i^ Aa/T^ J^ o^ 
Captive, Prisoner, j-~>l a^, Jaiji giriftar, ^J^ ^aidi. 
Parade, *la Ac'y j^aipa'i(/-gaA (f.), 4M* V^ff-&o.h (f,), ^jlj-^ vialdan. 
Muster, ^_jiii gin(i,OJljj=^j^ mrt«;ii(ia((f.), "^Jj^J ^-r^/"'y *" ''*''^'"- 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 183 

Arms, jUfJb hathyar or hathiyar (m. f.), JL» silah (f.). 
^ Sword, j^jlj talwar (f.), Wl^ khanda^ jJLjJ^ shamshery ^-J ^g g A. 
Dagger,^acl:>* kharijar. JS^ katdr, \j^ chhura. 
Spear, ^\^ bhala, ^t^ji harchhiy »jJ neza, Jb ballam. 
Bow, LlX-J^fc> dhanuk (f.), ^U^ ftamSn (f.), ^^y kaus (f.). 
Arrow, ^ ^?r, f^\) baUyj^ sar, {^JjS^ khadang. 
Quiver, ^J tarkash, ^Jt^ tukkashy ^^ turiy {^S^»>4^ nikhang (f.). 
Bowstring, lU- chilluy aj zih (f.). 

Sling, ^^^gophan (f.), ^^f^falMldmn (f.), ^J gophna (f.). 
Poleaxe, Lj^joS gan^o^a, \^j^^ pharscLy ij^. belcha. 
Shield, Target, Jlw dhal (f.), ^--j rfpar (f.), ^5^ phari. 
Helmet, J^ khod^ L^y tdpfjsJt^ mi ghf ar. 
Coat of mail, ^X^jhilaniyj:^^ baktar, iJ J^ chihaUtah. 
Cuirass, ^^jaushauyj:^^ baktar y (f.), ^\J^ char-alna. 
Musket, Firelock, J^Joj banduk (f.), uJ^ ^wpaA (f.)« 
Swivel, large Musket, wall-piece, Jj|^ jazaUL 
Barrel, Bore, Chase (of a gun), JU naly ^Jj nali. 

Chamber (of a gun), ^^ kothty <U]^ jjohazana. 

' . • ** • 

yj Pistol, <tj^uJ tamanchay ^^^^u7 tabancha. 

Bayonet, ^^^X-j sangtn (f.). 

Pike, 2r^ ne^ra, liil^ kantd. 

Flint, (for striking fire) uJs4>(^ <^Ai^ sang-i-chakmak. 

Powder, <^jV iarii^ (f')oj^ ^^^ (^Ooj^*^ ^^^ (^O- 
Ball, Bullet, (for a musket) ^f goUy (for a cannon) "i^ gold. 
Cartridge, l23y ^onfa, ^yj^ kdrtus. 

Match, (for a gjn) Vjy tordy ^taJi falitay (brimstone) ^5^ V.*^ diyi' 
•^ Cannon, Gun, piece of Ordnance, c-jy top (f.). 
Ordnance, ^^y topen (f. plur.). 
Fieldpiece, iCj^ rahkaldy t-jy U>^ safar^^p (f.). 
Park of Artillery, <0U c-jy top-kkdna. 
Arsenal, <Ulc;- ^JL sildJi'ldyanay <0U t-jy top^MjAna. 

1 84 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Gun carriage, ij\j\ araba. 

Cannoneer, Gunner, jljJl c-y top-andaz, j\d^<^ golandaz. 

Bomb, Mortar, Shell, ifj\^ gh ubdra. (small mortar) J3^ garnaL 

Bombardier, ^js^ tojhchl {m^yj\ix!^^ golandaz. 

Fusileer, Musketeer, ,<f^jJ^ bandukchi, j\^ji barkanddz. 

Fort, Fortress, Castle, Jt^ garh, *Jj^ kot, ^J^ IcaVa. 

Redoubt, ijf^ kiFa^cha, ^y> garht: see Fort. 

Bastion, Bulwark, ^jf burj, Apy^ marhala. 

Battery, ^jy« morchay ^«V«J damdama, ^i^y« marfiala. 

Embrasure, isdjj randa, \^jj^ ^'^ ^y ^^P kajharokha. 

Ditch, Trench, Fosse, Moat, J^^^ Iduindalcj ,^\^ kkfft. 
Nl Trenches, Lines, J^^^ morchal (f.), jX:«-» sangar, <^l^ khal. 

Wall or intrenchments round a town, *U^^^ shahr-panah (f.). 

Walls of a city, Jc^^y^ shahr-band. 

Rampart, Breast- work. Parapet, fj^fasll (f.), i^^ kangara. 

Ponton (bridge of boats), Jj l^ ^J^ kishtl kd puL 

Tent, Pavilion, ]^ J derd, <U^ khaima, ^ tambu. 

Camp, Encampment, x^jLtl lashkar-gdh (f.), ^Jjj pard'o. 

Decampment, March, --^ kuch. 

Halt, place of residence or encamping, /♦liU mukdnif ^\jbj rahd*d. 

Field of battle, «lf f^jj razm-gdh (f.), ^jicc maraka. 

Drill, -.y jj:ljj kawd^id-i'fauj. 

Furlough, f^z^^^a^j rukhsat (f.), ^J^ chhuttl, C-?jU-\ ijdzat (f.). 

Drum, J^J rfAo/, JJ? <aiZ, diClybJ dhblak. 

Kettledrum, ^r^U) nakkdra, \C J dankd, ^^ kos. 
v> Trumpet, j<^y ^orAi or ^^y ^wrAi, l^ ^'nga, ^^ naftr (f.). 

Clarion, t/\^yS Ararwa? or karnd'e, j^ JwA, <^^A shahndl. 

Bugle, Horn, l^Ly narstngd^jyc sur (f.) : see Trumpet. 

Hautboy, «^l3^ surnd'e. 

Flute, Flagelet, Fife, PipW^jyJl alghuza, v/^b iaiwrt, J^ iwwrZi, 
O^^ pfingi, j^^ i^i J nai (f.). 

** »• •• 


Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 85 

Naval Affairs. 

Navy, Fleet, yar Mr (f.), -r^ ^UV^J^^^^ klfauj. 

Ship, jl^ jaAajzr, ^a1^ kishtl, ^Ij t£;aw, ^1^ traAon. (Roebuck.) 

Ship (or Man) of war,jl^ ^^J^^ jungl jahaz. 

Merchant-ship or .man,jly5>- sJ?^''^^ saudagari jahaz. 

Boat, ,^^5^ kishtl,j\i nffo (f.), ,J^ torni, Ijjsr* macAu;a. (Roeb.) 

Barge, \jsfr bqjra, \?|y niwara, i^if^^jy^ mor-pankkl. 

Barge, large Boat, Lighter, J^ bhafyj^ bhar. (Roeb.) 

Brig,jl^ J^jjj dd-doR jahaz. (Roeb.) 

Rudder, Helm, ^\L^ sukkauyj^fj patwar {f.\j^ kanhar. 

Prow, Head of a ship, l^U matha,j^ sir, (^J^Vo mang. (f.) 

Stem, L»y»idabusa, (J^pichhil. (Roeb.) 

Poop, i^J^>^ chhatrt. (Roeb.) 

Deck, izasT ta^ta, ^}j^ manzil (f.), uicJ tutak. (Roeb.) 

Quarter deck, {^Jcj l^ ^^U \^ JS^ ^^^^' ke pas kd tutak. (? Roeb.) 

Main deck, CSsJ ^ ^jJ ^ji^ uparka blch kd tutak. (? Roeb.) 

Forecastle, lif> j>Aana, lii jSi dgalfand (Roeb.), (dakh.) JS) dgal(l). 

Mast, J^J doly f^ji^.^ mastul. (Roeb.) 

Afore, Jsl dgil, Ji \ dgal. (Roeb.) 

Abaft, Aft, Astern, Jff^ p«cA//iZ, \j\^^^ phichwdrd* (Roeb.) 

Ahead, jli dgily Ji \ dgal. (Roeb.) 

Aloft, ^^1 uparyji^ J^J dol par. (Roeb.) 

Amidships, ,0^\sxj blch-Orblch, ^^ -ju blch men. (Roeb.) 

Anchor,^^ langaryjcj nangar. (Roeb.) 

Anchorage^ -^5j- ^ ^^ ^ langar karnt kljagahy 2f\iyxJ langar- 

gdh. (f.) 
Ashore, t^^ kindre, (aground) ^j ^J^ kindrt par. 
Ballast, f^j^ nlram, JlJ nildmy JJ tilam. (Roeb.) 
Bank or Shoal, y>- charyiJ^^ khardb^SRoeh.) 
Beam, a-j bzm, \J[^ drd. (Roeb.) ^ 

Bell, i^j^gharl. (Roeb.) 


186 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Between decks, ^j ^ tl^ tutak ke blck. (Roeb.) 

Birthy *y^ jagah (f.), (J^ makan. 

Boatswain, i^S^jb^ sarhang, j^U-»y bosman, f^^^^^ bochman. (Roeb.) 

Bottom (part of the ship in the water), .^S-j pith, (f.) 

Bore or Boar in the Ganges, Uj^ hummd, \^AJb humba, ^\) ban. 

Broadside, Volley, :^ shalfdi (f.), CS^ salak. (Roeb.) 

Bucket, 4/jJb baldi, ^\) baltl. (Port, balde : Roeb.) 

Cabin, \j^^ kdmara (Port, camara : Roeb.), Uy J dabusa. 

Cable, jUib hamar. (Port, amarra : Roeb.) 

Call (boatswain's), ,^y^* situ (Roeb.) 

Callipers, c^U mop, (j^\f kupas or (j^\^^ kumpas. (Roeb.) 

Can (jug), CjJ Bta, c^b pat (from Eng. pot : Roeb.). 

Cannon, t^y top (f.) : to cannonade, U^U ^^yf or L^y top or topan 

Cap (for the head), ^^y topi or ^^y topi. (Roeb.) . 
Cape, cIXj tek, CS^ tenk, ij:^y piont^ ^j**^ sis. (Roeb.) 
Captain, (European) ^\s^ kaptan, (Indian, &c.) \Jo^J naldmda. 
^*^^^> \^j^. bhartl, Jo bar, ^J\fr}i bdjkal. (Roeb.) 
Carpenter, <,5/i--« mistrt (m.), jt--» sutar, ^Jbjj barhai. (Roeb.) 
Carriage (of a gun), ^j€ ^ c-y top kl gafi. 
Cartouch, ^\xay tosdan. 

Cartridge, (j^yj^ kdrtus, tfy tota qt tjy tontd. (Roeb.) 
Case shot, il/ Ir-v^^.^ chhintd gold. (Roeb.) 
To be cast away, (a person) U\^ ^1^ tawd*t khdnd, (a ship) UUj- ciy 

tutjdnd, UU- \jVo mdrdjdnd. (Roeb.) 
Catamaran, J\^ katmardl, (»>\/^ katmardm, \es^jj^pardnchd. 
To Caulk, ^ ^ J^^ kdlpattl karnd. (Roeb.) 
Centry or Sentry, <j?/i:»-! santri,j\j \jy pord ddr. (Roeb.) 
Chain, ^^jjajrj zanjlr, JCL sdnkal,JjL» sdnkar. (Roeb.) 
Chain pump, Lj l^^-^ zeu^tr kd bambd. (Port, bomba : Roeb.) 
Chain shot, ^<f ^jiPfj zar^i gold. 
Channel, jlft J dhdr. Mid-channel, jljbAscu manjdhdr. (Roeb.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 187 

Chest, ^^^tjj pltlj JjJo-tf sfitiduk, (for arms) ,JL» ^ J)*^ banduk ki 

To clear for action, ^/ jV j!^ ^j^ larnl ho taiyar kama, 
Coboose, \J^*^f^ chuldan. (Roeb.) 
Cockswain, ^^;-^l^ kaksen. (Roeb.) 
Coil (of a rope), KjLj sankla. (Roeb.) 
Colours, tf^^ vauta^ iJy bauta, ^lu nishan. (Roeb.) 
Compass, ^^i^ hukkoy {j^^^ kumpas. (Roeb.) 
Cook, u^^J^l^ bkandarly ^<>y^V bawarcht. (Roeb.) 
Cooking place. Galley, ^^^^^ chuldan^ ^Ici- l<*^J3^, bawarchukhdna. 
Cooking kettle, f^Si^ deg. (Roeb.) 
A Cot, lJ^t «-^l^ khatjoR : see Hammock. (Roeb.) 
A Crane, ^^j:^ katri. (Roeb.) 
Crew, s^j\j^ jahaziyj^ laskar. (Roeb.) 
Cuddy (in E. I. ships), .^^ ^ ^\4 ^^ ^Js^ kaptan Jdianakhanc 

To Dischai^e (unload), \jJj\ utama, (a gun) ^jj^ chhornay l3jU 

mama, l:^U da gh na. (Roeb.) 
Discipline (regulation), vj>%»Jj«3jj bandobast, (punishment) \^ saza 

(f.), Ur* saja, u:-^-ijU mar-pit. (f,) 
Dismasted, jcjjJ Zuracf ittncf, Ix)^ l\;j nanga bunga. (Roeb.) 
Dock, i^(^^ godt. Dock yard, jLj& l^ i^<^j^ godi ka bansar, ^ f^d^ 

JLjj godi ka bansaL (Roeb.) 
Double headed shot, )y )|^ i^Ju J or giA3^^ cfan^Z or (fan^ traZa gola. 
To Dress (a ship), 13^1^ ^Tigarna. 

To Drop anchor, yt J^xJ nangar dalria, \j^ ^ langar kamd. 
East, S-^^ purab, ^^^ ugmauy Jj!^ maskrik, (Roeb.) 
Ebb-tide, l^l^ bhdthd. 

Eddy, c5/^ bhaunrl, ijij^ ghumrt, ^\j \:j^ ghumtd pant. 
Ensign, Flag, j^lU nishan, Ijy bautd, \j*^ ^uta. (Roeb.) 
Fair (as wind), libOui^ sldha, (ji^yo muwafik, (♦^W" jdhom. (? Roeb.) 
Fair (not cloudy), Vfv^ pharchha, uJL» saf, \Ji^ khuld-sd, (Roeb.) 

188 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

To Fall in with, l:l« milna, U^ C^13!U mulakat kama. (Roeb.) 
False fire or blue flames, ^->l:v^ mahtahy ^jy< moramy f^jyc moram. 

To Fasten, l3^ *^^*j^ mazbut karnuy U^ cXjj band kamdy Ikftjjb 

bandhna. (Roeb.) 
Fathom, a\^ toam, ^b bam. (Roeb.) 
Flag, see Ensign. Fls^staff, ^\^ 15^^ icauia katt, ^bj^ chhar 


bans. (Roeb.) 
Fleet, c:-J^ philtty ^IS kafila,j\^ ohar,jiser bahr. (Roeb.) 
Float (of a fishing line), \djji tarinda, IjJy tirinda. (Roeb.) 
Flood-tide, the flow,^|^Jat£?ar, ^^ bhartt. (Roeb.) 
Fore, i^\ agily J?\ agal. Fore and aft, J^solj jfl agil pichhiL 

Foreland, CS^ tek, CJ^ tenk. (Roeb.) 
Fore mast, J^J ^^^f trikat (or tirkat) dol. (Roeb.) 
Fore sail, d.-^ trikat. (Roeb.) 

Freight (hire), Jy nauly Jy nuwal, bj^ kiraya. (Roeb.) 
Freight (cargo), JU U Jy nuwal ka mal. (Roeb.) 
Fresh water, ^Jb Ifu^ mitha pant. (Roeb.) 
Gale of wind, ^^^y tufan, J^*yj\ andhi. 


Quarter gallery, Jj J^ kandll. (Roeb.) , 
Steni gallery, ^C^J dabusa. 
Gangway, ^ ^^ gangwail. (Roeb.) 

Glass (hour), ^J^^ ^ i^j^ S^^T^ ^^ shlslu. 

•• •* 

Glass (spy or telescope), ^^j^^^ durbtn or ^^p^JJ^^ durmtn. (Roeb.) 
Glass (spy or telescope for night), ,j-r<;^t3 \^ cl^\j rat ka durmtn. 

Grape shot, v.s-J\^ ^j^ gerab chhant. (Roeb.) 
A gun-shot, LJ l^ ijy gole ka tappa. (Roeb.) 
Gun tackles, ^^^ l^ L^y^p ka laptl. (Roeb.) 
Gunnel (of a boat),j-^ mez or -jwe mench. (Roeb.) 
Gust, \3j^>^jkapetay \jbJ dhapa. 

Vocabidary. — Nouns. 189 

To Hail, li^ CL^j ^ j£^ bungal se bat karna, (Roeb.) 

Half pike, Sl^ bhald, ,<f>^ barchhi. 

Hammock, ^yrj^It, Jj^j^^oU, ^^^jhuli. (Roeb.) 

All hands, ^^j<Ci\ c^^^mi sab adml, ,<«*^ c^^^ sab khalasu (Roeb.) 

Hand pump, L«j lj^f>- chhoia bamba, L^ ^U hath bamba. 

Handspike, c^X^wU hanspik. 

Harbour, J Jcj bandar or bindar^ cl>lf> g^af. (Roeb.) 

Harpoon, ?jli S|^ v.::^1j tlX>l eA rfSn^ wala kawar. (Roeb.) 

Hatch or Hatch way, Wlf phalkd or \^\ifalka. (Roeb.) 

Hatches, Jl^ l^ l/'^ phalke kd kewdr, ij^^j^ ^ ^li y5/fte AS 

Hatchet, ^^^ kuwdrl, \\^ kurdll. (Roeb.) • 
Head (ornamented figure), hj putld, ^^jy^ murat. (Roeb.) 
To Heave the lead, UlU /^ prum ddlnd, (Roeb.) 
A heavy sea, bjJ kjj^ dkhri daryd, bjJ m^ garm daryd. 
Heel, jltoJ ^ ^JL^ sukdn ki dhdr. (Roeb.) 
Hehnsman, Steersman, ^\L^ sukkdnJ. 
Hold, ^^ khan,y>^ khanr. (Roeb.) 
Hook (for fish), i^ gal. (Roeb.) 
Horizon, jljbj l^ ^J\^ dsmdn kd dhdr. (Roeb.) 
Hoy, \ysi^ machwd : see Boat. 

Hull, jly^ \jc^ mundd jahdz, j\^ Ijc^ tjj lundd munddjahdz. 
Jib, L^^jTJ^^' (Roeb.) Jib boom, ^y s,^^jlb bum. 
Insurance, U^ bimd, Uj« vJmd. (Roeb.) 
Jolly boat, CJj) ^^joH hot. (Roeb.) 
Journal, ^^j^j ^ j\^ jahdz kd roz-ndma. 
Island, Isle, ^Ij tdpu^ \j^jsx>' janjiird (for Zjijs>^ jaztra : Roeb.). 
Jury mast, J«J ^l^ phdltu dol, J^ J yJli fdltu dol. (Roeb.) 
Keel, ^^Ifj pathdn, ^-^|;i^ erdb, uJ\j} erdf. (Roeb.) 
Key, Quay, UjJ dankd^ cil/L&Jjb bffdheld ghdt^ cil/ 10 pakd 

ghat. (Roeb.) 
Ladder, ,J>5--9 sJrhl. Stem ladders, ^js^ ^ Lj^)i^ dabuse Ki slrhl. 

1 90 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Land, aj^ kinaraj^ tar. (Roeb.) 

Lantern^ ^^-.y U fanus, or ^j-^l^ phanus. (Roeb.) 

Larboard, ^i^j^ ^iJ dawa hurdu. (Roeb.) 

Lascar, ^^^^^^ khalasi, ^^j^ kharwa or kharVa, (Roeb.) 

To Launch, \ij3\ j\^jahaz utama. 

Lead (used to heave), /#^ prum. To heave the lead, Ulj |^ prum 

League, ^^^ Jb*jJ derh kos (one and a half kos : Roeb.). 
Leak, clA*«) sulak. vW>* diked. 

To spring a leak, Uyb cu.v«U gamat Aona,A}jib U^ humha kond. (Roeb.) 
Lee-side» t— i/ c5;V ^^^rc ^ara/, ^43;y v^^ bhare burdu. (Roeb.) 
Lee-shore, ifjci ^^^ ^^^l^ bhdre men kinara. (Roeb.) 
A Light (candle), ^-li battl. 

Light-house, \^*y:^ kandiliyhf ij\jy< ^ ^^ battt ka munara. (Roeb.) 
Fishing Line j^J ^ vjff * machht ka dor, 4/;j»> ^ J^ gal kl dori. 

To Load (a gun) U^ t-y top bhama, (a ship) iJ^ j\^ jahaz 

Log, k.^ ^op. Log-book, <uU l^ tap^nama. Log-line, ^ \^ k.^ 

top Aa Sw. (Roeb.) 
Low water, Jli ajI^ A;a'im (for J}i ka'lm) parii; (if in a river) I^I^^Lj 

sar bhatha. (Roeb.) 
Lubbers hole, SI? ^ ^j^^ pdnjre ka gala. (Roeb.) 
Magazine, <UU- ^^XJ^, bdrut-^khdna. 

Magnet,^^ vlX«^ chamak pathar, \jb^ ^?5j- ji^a toha. (Roeb.) 
To Make sail, l5^ 2r^ serh karnd. (Roeb.) • 

To Make stem way, l3Ji j<6?ii ptchheparnd, \i3jb ^^^^^ pickhe hatnd. 
Mallet, (^^yo mogrtf iJ/^yo mongrt. (Roeb.) 

Marines, ^L*j ^ jly^ jahdz ke sipdht (lit. ship soldiers : Roeb.). 
Mast, J^4> dolf (by landsmen called) Jyu.^ mastul. (Roeb.) 
Main mast, J^J 1^ ftafa do/. Fore mast, J^43 «jl^ ^ir/ca^ or trikat 

doL Mizzen mast, J^J ^5^ A:i/xnt do/ or JjJ ^<^ khlml doL 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 191 

Mate (of a ship), JU malam (for Arab. ^^ mu*allim: Roeb.). 

Midshipmen, ^^p4Js;X) btckmen, ^^»A:^ michilmen. (Roeb.) 

Midships, ^ \^ j\^jahaz ka btch. 

Mortar, ^\^ hawa'e, ^J^^\ ukhti, iZ^y ^^ Jcothi top. (Roeb.) 

Muster, ^jz^ ginii, ^j^^ haziri, f^j^^ hajirt. (Roeb.) 

Mutineer, ^^J^*^ dangal, i^SL^ fasadi^ s^/^^ mutfarni. (Roeb.) 

Mutiny, IxiJ danga, <^jUj baghawat (f.), ii\^ fasady c-^^T askob. 

Neap tides, j^^ l^ ^s/j^ bhang kajawarj J^;^ markatal. (Roeb.) 

North, J)j\ uttar, c^l^ gal, JUA shimal. (Roeb.) 

Oakum, _x^ gahnl, (Roeb.) c,.y.>t< istub, i^^r^Ji istap. (Port, estopa.) 

— n tx 

Oar, LJjb halesa, JJb dand (Roeb.), ^^ chappu. 

Officer (of a ship), JU malam : see Mate. 

Over board, y ^^ b j J darya men gira. • 

To out sail, Ul^- (j^j^ Saras chalna, IJ^ 2r jbj ziyada chalna. (Roeb.) 

Packet, vj>.-i^l> paket, jl^ ^ *X^^ Ikofid kajahaz. (Roeb.) 

Paddle L-U -f'U hath-haUsa, ijsi^ c/iamcha, ^^^xy pangaL (Roeb.) 

Pass or Passport, <0|<^j rawana, ^|j^ parwana. 

Passage boat, Sys^ ^ \^^J^^ ^y tart par hone ka machwa. (Roeb.) 

Pig of ballast, (if of iron) ^Js^ ketli, (if of lead) iZj\j^pat. (Roeb.) 

Pike (spear), ^j^Ji barchhi, 511^ bhala. 

Pilot, jV^' arkap, (at Surat) i^y^}^ dungm, (with Arabs) ^\j^j ruban. 

Pirate (ship), jl^ l^ ^^^^ dakait kajahaZy )\^ ^ jy^ ^^^^ *5 

Pitch,y*^fc) damar, ^^^ptcAA. (Roeb.) 
Pistol, ^^^^ tabancha, Jfi^ pistaul. (Roeb.) 
Plank, aiflkr tajdUaj ,j^^^ patiyun. (Roeb.) 
Pleasure boat, \ys^ l^ *^}y^ sawari ka machwa. 
Pole axe, i^j^^ kuharijj^j tabar. (Roeb.) 
Priming, CSafj ranjak, ^^\^ kan. (Roeb.) 
Privateer, jly^r ^ j^ chor ka jahaz, ltj^ ^ W^?V chanchiya ka 

galwat. (Roeb) 
Prize, jl^ 1/Ju5 iaidi jahaz, jl^ ibj^ pakarela jahaz. (Roeb.) 

192 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Pump, Ljj bamba (from Port, bomba: Roeb.)- 

Punt, 1^543 dunga, \jAf thapara, ,^yoj43 dingl. (Roeb.) 


Purser, ^}/ \S j\j,^ jahaz ka kiranl, j^^^ pasar. (Roeb.) 

Quadrant, Sextant, ^U^ kaman. (Roeb.) 

Quicksand, jjbj^ chor balu, ^^^j ^}^tidaldal zamin, (Roeb.) 

Raft, la^y paranchcLy \j\ji trapa. (Roeb.) 

Reel, , ^js>^ charlchl. 

Rocket, \^^ hawoHi. 

Bread Room, dilsw ^^j rott Ichana. 

Spirit Room, ^l^ S-'l/^ sharab khana. 

Ropes, izSi\ alat, (Roeb.) 

Rowers, )t^ ij^^ halese wala. (Roeb.) 

Sail, ifj^serh, »J^ serh,j^ sar. (Roeb.) 

To set sail, U^ *^ serh karna. (Roeb.) 

Salute (from a ship or fort), ^^j^cLa salami. 


Scull, L»Jjb l^ ^yb holt ka halesd, LJjb ^^^ ch&ota kalesa. (Roeb.) 

Sheet, ^j^^J daman, ^W*) daman, ^^Uj daman, (Roeb.) 

To Ship (put on board a ship), liUj^ jij^^^^j^^^^ P^-r charhana. 

To ship a sea, Ul^ ^y< mauj khana. 

Shipping, jl^ ^ j\^ jahaz ka bhdr, aliU ^ j\j^ jahdz ka kajila. 

Shipwright, cg/^— ^ ^ jX^^^jahaz kamistri. (Roeb.) 

Shoal, \j>^ ^U balu chara. (Roeb.) 

Shore, tij^ kinara, 1^1 J dard, (Roeb.) 

To shot the guns, \jm Sjf ^^-^ ,^yj» topon men gold bharnd. 

Shrouds, ^J\j^ labrdn. (Roeb.) 

Sick birth, \j\^ l^ c^l;^ dzdrt kd thikdnd. (Roeb.) 

oide, jJ^ burdu, jJ;^ bordu. (Roeb.) 

Signals, J>j.vCy>o slknel, (^m^ sitnel, gj\Jt»\ ishdra. (Roeb.) 

Skiff, \yst^ ^^j^l? kd gh zl mackwd. (Roeb.) 

Slack water, ^JU /%^ naram pdni. (Roeb.) 

Sloop, c-^ji«^ salup, L^^\»> salup. (Roeb.) 

Smuggler, 15>- l^ J^*JbU mdhsul kd chuttd, (Roeb.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 1 93 

South, ^i} dakhauy (^y,^ janub, ^^ suit. (Roeb.) 

Speaking trumpet, JJIj bungal, J^ bhungaL (Rosb.) 

Spring tide, j|^ \ji barajawar, Jli^ \ji bard katal. (Roeb.) 

Sponge, ,tf^\?J pJncIii, l^^ sumbhd (Roeb.), (of a gun) \Ja^puckard. 

Squadron, ^Jiy ^ j\^ jahdz kd toll. (Roeb.) 

Staff, ^^l^ iJy 15^^ chhotd bautd kdthl, ^^ ll^j ^^f?" chhold wautd 

Ensign staff, L<f>\^ l^^j ^y, bard wautd kdtht. (Roeb.) 
Jack staff, ^5^^^^^^ cJ\>'jdk wautd kdthl. (Roeb.) 
A flag staff, ^^ l?^^ ^ A^^ upar kd wautd kdthl. (Roeb.) 
Stage (for carpenters or caulkers, &c.), ^^];J pardnchd. (Roeb.) 
Starboard, ^Jy \ij^ jamand burduy^^ji \^^ ujd burdu. (Roeb.) 
To Steer, Uj^ ^^Id sukdn pakarndj \i\>- jK^^ jahdz chaldnd. 
Stem ports, j^^jV or v^V iS i/^*^ dabuse kl bdri or bdriym. (Roeb.) 
Steward, jjii>J\ istur or istor. (Roeb.) 

Stores (naval), /♦^^f^ or A^j^ s^ W^" J^^^-^rT sarinjdm or saramjdm. 
Store-keeper, t«...%>-U l^ jLjj bansdr kd sahib. (Roeb.) 
Stowage, JU^ khamdly JU^i samdl. (Roeb.) 
A strait, 1^ gala, ^ khuch. (Roeb.) 

Studding sail, ^^^ J dastur, (lower) jy-iJ 15^ niche dastur. (Roeb.) 
Supercargo, (if an Englishman) Jyf tarnl, ^ tannic (if a Musalman) 

l*Xri*l3 nd-khudd^ (if a Parsee) ^]/ kirdnl, <fc;J*Ui gumdshta. 
Surf,^ Itr. (Roeb.) Surge, ^yc mauj^ ^y mauja. 
Surgeon, jS^b daktar, j:^*^ J^ktar, ^Jjb hakim. (Roeb.) 
X Swivel, »jj0^jambura, {fyjj zambura. (Roeb.) 
Tar, \j:ii\ alkatard (for Port, alcatram), Jj tdr. (Roeb.) 
•/ Teak (wood), ^^y\^ sdgwdn. (Roeb.) # 

s,^Tide, ^iljf \i ly^P^^' *^ l^^' Tide way,jUj dhdr. (Roeb.) 

'^'Tier, ^ thavyjjb hdr. (Roeb.) 
Tiller (of a ship), \Jj bakrd, (JJi ^ ,^lC-s sukdn kd Idt. (Roeb.) 
Tilt, i^JHf- chhatrl. (Roeb.) 

Tonnage, ^^j or ^^jjS ^^Ip-y bojhd'i kd wazan or toajan. (Roeb.) 

2 c 

194 Vocahularr/. — JVoktw. 

Trade winds, \j£> [j-*j^ maum'i hawa, IjA ^j^^^mausami haica. (Roeb.) 

Trousers, ^U-lj pa-jama, j\^\ ijar,j\j\ iziir. (Roeb.) 

Tninnions, tUj-« S (_Jy top kX mut, ^J^ li LUy top ka kdn. (Roeb.) 

Turn of the tide.j-^ K ^JJ tan kapher. (Roeb.) 

Vane, £>x:-J itndk, ^^_ hen, ,^\yi katical. (Roeb.) 

To Unmoor, Uijy jiJ tUJ' ek nangar par rakna. (Roeb.) 

To Unship, UKi nikalna, ^Sj^. f>ar karnd. (Roeb.) 

Upper deck, i^jcj K jij\ upar ka tutak. (Roeb.) 

Watch, jjj por, |/j>- chankJ. Dog watch, jjj Ijj^ chhold par. 

Middle watch.^jj IjjjJ dusra por, jji Isxi btchilapor. Morning 

watch, jjj Ijjji goriyd por,jy^ \j^j^ gharit/d por, j^ \ijp ghuriya 

por. (Roeb.) 
Fresh water, ^b 1^1** mlthd pdnl. (Roeb.) 
Salt water, ^b \j\^ kkdrdpdnl, ^Jb Cjj nana pant, (Roeb.) 
Way (of a sbip), ^jj rus, JU- chdl,jj rav, cSj>' chark. (Roeb.) 
Weather, «-i^ maitsim : see Wind. 

Weather or Weathergage (windward), ^ j'j ica'o jrur,^ jIj ba'o par. 
To weigh anchor, \j\^\ Ji^ nangar utkand, \j^ cJ^l fi^ nangar 

atrang kar7ia. (Roeb.) 
Wharf, klA^ghal, UJtJ dhakd. (Roeb.) 

Wheel of the helm, ^J^j^ ^ ^^ sitkdn kd charMu. (Roeb.) 
West, (-Jji* magkrah, ^^packkam, ^^^Ji kifflal. (Roeb.) 
Wind, La hawa (f.), j'j wd'ti, jb bd'o. (f ) Fair wind, 1^ »^li i/dfiont 

fiawd, \ja Ajb\>'jdhom hawa, lys jj^ \j bd murdd hawa. Side 

wind, ly» ^^ y>- chau giisl hawa, Ijft ^fj^ char gZsi hawii. 

Head wind, l^a 2V=f gosdtl hawd, lyt^j .^ munkpar hawa. 
• Wind's eye, j^ l^ Ij* hawd kd ghar. (Roeb.) 
Windlass, JjJ i^ li-s- cAma'« (/awr, ^i^JO dhlgfl. (Roeb.) 
To windward, jjj'j wd'opar, .^ IS 1^ Aaica Aa murA. (Roeb.) 
Worm-eaten, V^ ^ ghu^-khacld, 11^4 ^ ^ g^'tn *« khadUd. 

Wreck, |^j<S khhkhva, l^j^ Mo-tArra,;!^ 3J.5 luli/djuhdz. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 195 

Yacht, \ys^ l^ «aV^ sawari ka machwa. (Roeb.) 
Yard (for a sail), ^^y^ parwan, ^^jJ pirman. (Roeb.) 
Zenith, ^y ^ JL^ kapal ke upar. (Roeb.) 

Divisions of Time. 

A moment, i<s^ lamlia, clXb palak, .^Cw nimikh, Jj pal, |*J dam. 

Minute, ^^i^ daklka. 

A twenty-four minutes (Indian houT\^J^ ghafi, \3:^ ghanta. 

Hour (may be denoted by the Arab.) «j:^^U sffat. (f.) 

Watch (term of three hours), ^ pahar, f^[> pas. 

Day, ^ din,jju roz, /^^ yaum, (in oppos. to night) ^ din, j\^ nahar. 

Night, cl:\j rat (f.), ^^^ shah (f.), JJ lail (f.), ^^ rain, (f.) 

Midnight, c:^^; v<^^ ^^^* ^^^ i^')f ^-r^ (^ ^^^ skab. (f.) 

Morning, Morn, ,0^ subfi (j*), js^ fyar* (f.) 

Dawn of day, j^ bhor (f.), \^ tarka,jsy^ sahar (f.), ^j;^ arwn. 

Forenoon, ^j J Jj\ aimjoaUi-dJo pahar. 

Midday, Noon, jj^ ^ J do-pahar (f.), ^^ J ^ ^ J do pahar din, J^\ L^ i . a ) 

misfiHfirnahar, jyj ^J mmrroz. 
Aftemoon,^^ ^ si-pahar, ul^ /«l^ lT'j^^^ ^^ pahar se sham tak. 
Evening, ^^sf Lj sdnjh (f.), i%l-2* ^Aam (f.), aII ^-j sar-i-sham, 
i Twilight, ^^t^if godhaii, ]^*x}\ .^ munh-^ndhtra. 
Week, ij\^\ athwara, tosJb hafta. 
Decade, ifjLe. ashara. 

Fortnight, isJjb jj do-hafta, ^ pakh or .^9^ pachh. 
Month, ^^^ moAtna, (^\< mas, ^U maA,^^^^! shahr. 
Year, (^^ boras, JL 5aZ, ^;.«» ^n, ^U^ii ^an^z. 
Age (period, cycle), -a& ap*, S^ ahd, i^S^ jug. 
To day, ^ aj, (adv.) ^J ^ ^^ aj ke din. 
To night, iZj\j ^ ^\ aj ki rat or c:^]^ — \ aj-rat. 
Yesterday, J^ ^^h J3jl^ diroz, ^^i^l^pichhld din. 
Last night, c:^|; ^ J^ kal kl rat, ^j J dosh. 
Day before yesterday, or day after to morrow, ^^^^ parson, (adv.) 

196 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

J Three days ago, or to come, j^j-y tarson. (adv.) 
Four days ago, or to come, ^y^/ narson. (adv.) 
To morrow, J^ AaZ, \djfarda (adv.), ^^V^ hihan. 
Spring, c:^Cm^ basant (f.), jl^ bahar (f.), ^j rabi^. (f.) 
Summer, V*^ garma, m^^^ girekham, f^^s^^ tabistdn, uJ^ saif. 
Autumn, Jp- ls-^ pat-jhar (f.), ^j^jsS- Idkizan (f.), ujb^ Iduirtf. (f.) 
Winter, JjAsj- jaf^, U^ ^arma, ^jlsu-^ zamistauj ^zJ^ shita. 

Other useful Nouns alphabetically arranged. 

Abatement, ^jJ^ ghattt, ^^^ karni^ ^^^a^ kamtt^ cJ-idcr takhftf. (f.) 

Abbreviation, jLxis^f ikhtisar. jLscj] iktisar, ^^y^^f^^ sanchhepan. 

Abdication, tS/V ^y^g, tli^ tark. 

Abhorrence, CDju nafrat (f.), er-^J^ karahiyat. (f.) 

AbiUty, jf^ Ji^ makdur, ci^lL j[aA:a^ (f.), ^^ c:-«-»J dast-ras. (f.) 

Ablution, J^ ghusl, ^\u^ snan or ^^U.^^ a^Tian, ^j U7af u. 

Abode, U\^ thikana, ,^lCo makan, fjL\j Jy budbash ({•),j^ thaur. (f.) 

Abroad,y&b &aAir, (^*^ pardes, (j-^J^ AiJc«. 

Absence, cSJf^ biyog, ij^/^^ j^ ghair-hazirt ; (in the) ^-f^picAAc. 

Abstinence, Abstemiousness, L:u^*tfl^J riyazat (f.), 4j^^li J?^ parhez- 

Abstmct (abridgment), J-4^ mujmal, iJi^ khulasa. 
Absurdity, ^^^, behudagl, \^J^\Sj (Jj^\ ut-^patang, ijyifj^ yawa-gol. 
Abundance, )o\Ji\ ifrat^ c:^*\i^ bahutat (f.), lzj^ kasrat. (f.) 
Abuse (contumely), 1^ gall, i^j]j^ ^^j zaban-darazi. 
Abyss (cavern), jl& gkar^ HSj^J dahak, y^ khoh, \^y gar ha. 
Acacia, (gum) LilJil akakiya, (tree) ^jLS kikar, ^JLi^ mu gh ailan. 
Academy, ^jj^ madrasa, JLlL^ chat^sal, „,,,.^zL« maktab. 
Accent, ^jsfr lahja^j^ sur, l^j^ zarb (f.), ^^Jbd dharan. 
Acceptation (of a word), ^^j^j^ mc^nJ, ^jjlh ^^j^ ^ laiS lafz kt mu- 

rauwaj ma^ni. 

Accessary, Accomplice, jISjj^ madad-gar, CSijJ^ shartk, ^^^ sathl. 
Accident, jliJfl ittifak, <^Jjl>^ haduta, vS^^flSU sanjog. 

Vocabulary, '^Nouns. 197 

Account^ accompty c^L*>- hisabj i^\s^ muhasaba, (narration) ^U 

bayariy j^ khabar (f.), (value) jU-S* shumar, (sake, cause) ^^J^^ 

waste, u-.'^f^ sabab, Lr^b babat, (f.) 
Accusation, ,^U nalish (f.), J^^^) da*M?5, iVoU bar-amad. (f.) 
Ace, (at dice) ^ /jaw (f.), (at cards or dice) ^ nakka, (at cards) 

l^ \^ ^jjj tas ka yakka. 
Acquaintance, (familiarity) ij:^^\^ wakifiyat (f.)> i,^ ^^ ashna^i, 

(associate) U-ll a8hna,j\^>j>' chinhdr, ^jJcJL ^j ru-shinas. 
Acquisition, Jm^^v^ /o^^?/ (f,), c-^v-^ Acwft, v^'U^ kama'l. 
Act, Action, aI^ Aam, ^l^ Aa;, u-^^ kartab, Jxi j^*/. 
Addition, AiW tfo/a, (in arithmetic) j^]}-^ niizan. (f.) 
Address, (skill) ^Sl>- chalakl, (of a letter) <u\3 j^ sar-nama. 
Adjective, cr-^i^ sifat (f.), vi*-i-^ ^^ ism-U^ifat, o«3 na*^ (f.) 
Adjustment (settlement), A^faisala: see Arrangement. 
Admonition, w::..N«r^ nasjhat (f.), Isu^ ti^^fs, (^J^t upades. 
Adoration, c->jLfi %badq,t (f.), U-^ ^ii/a (f.), yj^^^^^j^ parastish, (f.) 
Advantage, (gain) ^H /a6A, ^ii ^/*> **>i^ fd'ida, (superiority) 

^Jlc ghalabay ^^J^f^ charhfi, o-^ j"«^ (f.) 
Adverb, cJ^ «arf, cJ^ harf^J^ *— ^P" ^o^f-i-tamiz. 
Adversary, ^^^ karif, cJllir* mukkalif: see Enemy. 
Adversity, u:^ &tpa^ (f.), t<as ^. bad-bakhti. ij^S^ falakat. (f.) 


Advertisement, jly:L^t ishtihar, ^U ^l^t ishtihar-nama. 

Advice, d^.'jc ^ nafihat (f.), (j--i»3^^ upades, --L? 5aZaA« (f.) 

Adulation, <X«^ cr^ kkush-amad (f.), ,^5^^^ chaplusl. 

Adultery, Uj 2ri»5 (f.), c^^J zina-kari, SU^ chhindla. 

Affair, i*\^ Aain, C^b &a^ (f.), <Ol«U^ mu^dmala, <UJJU mukaddama. 

Affection, aJ^ jwem, c:.-si)\ ti(/a^ (f.),cu^ ^g^ muhabbat. (f.) 

Affliction, (^J|^ 5og, ^ ^-an;, ^J tfzcAiA, f-^«^^ tasdt\ (f.) 

Age (time of life),^;-#^ 5mr (f.), Ji^\ ayurbal : see Time. 

Agent, (doer) J^li/a'?/, b^ Aar^a, (deputy) JL^ wakil: see Factor. 

Agility, ^SU- chdlaki, "■,..,. 'v- chustt, ^j^ phurtt, ^/^^ chabukl. 

Agreement, (concord) jliJl ? ^/i/aA, (compact) t^ ^AarJ, JU kabala. 

VoeaMury. — Ncmms. 

CJ^ kmmak {t)f *^J^ madad (£), i^j^^ dastrgirl. 
Abiaitj, j^ siaml^, . J^Jij dUdiil, ^)U ckaOla. 
Aliea, ^*^ji pardaS, ^^--s^l ajnoK, ^y^^ upri. 

Alnuuttc^ fl^ ta^ufim {t), ]/j patra. 

Afangbty (tfae), ^\£f o^^^^^f j^.^^-^ paramcskwar : see God. 

AbM, ^ bhtkk {f.\ ^\j^ Uyairat (plur. t\ ^b <2«. 

Aloes, (gam) l^^ lUeia^jya^ mMfobbar (f.), (wood)^ c^[«r, Jjc vil. 

Alphabet, ^^ «-jS!t oZi/K (f.), j^^^fV' ^3j>' hwrufUahcqjt. 

kuAstr^ \j^ kah^ruba. Ambergris, ^^ ambar. 

Amount, iiU^Jiraaa, ^^jaa^ (£), %4j^ gaihn^ J^yc motk. (f.) 

Amusement, U#l<J tamaska, .^jij tafamg^ J^ iAe/. 

Ancestor, t^/ncrAAa, ^jadd. 

Ancestors, jl J^l U oMnydad, ^j{ pwrkKc. 

Ancients, ^jtfSia^ muta^addimln, ij\^ purane. (plur.) 

Angle, (JU^j^ kkuni, Sjf konOf iJU^ goska, sj^j zawiya. 

Anguish, c^f j^^ a^&, ^^^^^^ ozlyat, (f.), /J^ aZom, C-%*/ AoxAf. 

Animal, ^yU^ J antrar, ^^^t^^s^* lunwan, y^ pasu. 

Answer, y^ ttftor, (^\^jawab, \j\j\ utara. 

Anvil, 4^ly niA57, j^^Ai-i sindan. (f.) 

Anxiety, C«jJj\ andeshaj ^ fikr^ JJji taraddud, ^^^ ucfa^T. 
Appellation, |*U nam, v.^ lakab, (plur. c^UJt alkab) : see Name. 
Appointment, ^^^ ta'aiyun, (office) ^J^ uAJa, (promise) as^^ wa^da. 
Argument, C^o^ &a>lji, »^L« munazara, JJj da/iZ. (f.) 
Arithmetic, ^z^ gcmit (f.), jL-» nyak, jU-j ^ fann-irsiyak. 
Arrangement, c^^y ^ar/?6 (f.), (^:^>«j ^ j^ bando-basU 
Art, ^ AttTiar, J^ i/wi, ^ /ann, cr^-oc-^? san'a^ (f.) 
Artifice, ^^ makr^ A^ hila, Jfj- chhal, K^^y ^^ fann-fareb. 
Ashes, -^j rakh (f.)> jW" ^^^^^ (^O^/^-^ khakistar. (f.) 
Assafcetida, ^^<;jfr» ^^^gy ^J^^^ anguza^ ij:^>sA^ hiltlt. 
Assembly, ^^^ majma^y U-*^ majlis (f.), Jis:^ mahfil. (f.) 
Assessment, ^|^ khiraj, J^*as^ mahsulf ^b &q;\ 

Vocabiitiirt/ Nouns. 199 

Assistance, JXo madad (f.), j\iol upakar, tjl^ snkayata. (f.) 

Assistant, ^Ujx* madadgar, ,S^ kumakl, ,^ L^ safid'i. (m.) 

Astouishment, ^^j^^ fyairanl, ^—-^ '"''yj"''ij-^ taiiaiyur. 

Astrolabe, i--JiJa,e\ uslurlah. 

Attendant, J iJouAi- khidrnatgar, *jlU muiazim. 

AUeBt\aan^j\~lijA hoshyarl , iZJ^ mrt (f.); (to a gueat) «-<l J /awafu*. 

Attraction, -a^ khainch (f.), ^Jii^ kashish (f.), s-jiir J«l^- 

Attribute, LS— a* S)/a( (f.), i_fl^ wf/i Ul--*!^*- Mtassii/at. (f.) 

Auction, ^ILj ni^am, -.l^fc harraj, i_fjij JiArT. 

Authority, jUsji-l ilditiyar, ki,-*ji>- hitkumat. (f.) 

Awe, jJ rfar, t--*, ni*Zi,j^ g^'^t i-^-frr* kaibat. (f.) 

Axis, axle, axle-tree, ui>ftJ rfAurl ; (pole of the earth) i_Ja5 httb. 

Babbler, tl^jU haobhak, tlXia-j'j ba'bjhak, S»j\j_ yawa-go. 

Babe, baby, <Lsr hachcka, lf=l /«»•*■« (m.), ^jl fcr'^v. (f.) 

Backbiter, j^ Ji>- c/tvgkul-khor, jUi ghammaz. 

Badge, t^);-*- ckapras, ^JCJi niskan, t-l-^ H j alamat. (m.) 

Bag, ,Ji^ tkaili, AlaJ/s- khartta, (sack to carry gruin) ^^^ g5n. (f.) 

Baggage, (_jU-j! asbab, ti-^— J_j-»- c/iiz-bast (f), (slut) U^s^ behaya. 

Bail, (surety) ^A*^ aamin-T, (person) ^^^^ zamin. 

Balance, ^Jij~< tnlzan (f-)> jjV ^'""^"" (^Of (of account) |Jilj AaAi. 

Bale, rfSi gatkar, ^j* moJA (f,), ^If ganfA. (f.) 

Ball, 'if! gola, jjj> go?i, (for play) \j^ genrfa, (dance) — U nacA, 

Bamboo, j^t /lari*. 

Band, (bandage) ^Jjpatti, -iiJ band, (company) St^ guroh. (f.) 

Bane, jt>j zakr, f^ Ha, ,^1;^ Miarabl, ^^tcSj nvkxan. 

Banishment, 3Ki ,^J dSs-nikdla, ^^jis-jila-watan. 

Bank (of a river, &c.}, ij^ kinara,jfj tlr. 

Bank (for money), IJ\S~ ^^j^ sarraf-jdyana, tliCiJ ftanA. 

Bankruptcy, S^jjJ f^walit, i^bU na-(farl, ;_^Sj( i;?a«- 

Banquet, cl-oU-J siyafaf (f.), uyjsJ da^'wot. (f.) 

Bard, (il^ iAaf, i.=-^J^ karkkait, L^^Jy hardait. 

Bargain, Jy: «Arf, _jljj Jji X-«K/-Aardr, t^i sAart. (f.) 

200 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Bark (of a tree), J^ chhal, 1^1^ chhilka^ ^'^^^"^^i P^^^' 

Bamiy jii^^^ khamtr. 

Barter, ^ J ^ ten den, Sjo i!j\ adla-hadla^ <d jL< mubadala. 

Bastard, *jlj ^|^ haram-zada, 5b ,<<|/>- haraml pilla. 

Bdellium, J^ygvgal, Jio mt/A:/. 

Bead, \j^^ guriya (f.), <Uf J l^ SU mala kd dana, l^ mankd. 

Beak, ^j^ chonch (f.), tl^ tioA (f.), jU:^ minilar. (f.) 

Beauty, ^jy^.i^ Idkubsuratl, U^jj^ sundarta (f.), Jlk>. jamaZ. 

Beginning, -f^^ drambh, 9j/^ shurt^y ^JcjI ibtida. (f.) 

Behalf, ^^jl^ ftarcrn, jl^U- khdtir (f.), j;>- ^a-^A, ^ Ziye. 

Behaviour, JU- cAaZ (f.), JW*> J^ chdldhdl {{.), {^JiiJbJ dkang. 

Being, ,<:i-J^ Acw^i, ty»-j WM;5rf, j^ Jjlsj- jdnddr. 

Belch, j\^J rfa/rSr (f.), 4jjl dro gh . 

Belief, yJuSc akida, ^J^\ tmdnjj^^ bdwar. 

Believer, tXSs*-* mu^takid,j^i}^\Aj\ trndn-^drj ^yc mumin. 

Bell, \iu^ ghantd, (jy^ jaras, (small) ^/f^ ghunghru. 

Belt, 430J &ancZ, (girdle) ,^_«1j |?eZ7, jjj ^^ kamar^band, (sword) Xj^ 

Bench, ^^ chauki, is^ takhta, (of justice) ^uCsr^ mahkama. 
Bend, J*- Iduamj 4^ libjJ ierkdl, (twist) Jj JaZ, ^j pecA. 
Benediction, jj--j->>i flwi^ (f.)j ^^ ^"'a (f.), j^Vj^mSjI dshtrbdd. 
Benefaction, m\ju\ iri'dm, ^L>-1 ihsdn, ^jtJL^, bakhshish, (f.) 
Benefit, ndjMfd'ida, ^^L*s>^ ihsdn j (profit) ^ii naf^. 
Benevolence, ^^y>-jt^ Huzir-kkcpdhl, 1^^ nikol, b^ kirpd. (f ) 
Berry, ^Ij tZaTta, Jfj l^ <^^ ^ ci'*^ ^^^^ *« ffira^ kd phal. 
Betel-nut, lsJ^ supdrl or lJj\^ supydrl. 
Betel-leaf, jjb pdn, J^^^J tamboL 
Bier, ^jlisj-janasra, cjyb ^aiii^ 
Biestings, ^^ pe'dsl, ^^«j^ /^Acwm*, ^^ joeyti^. 
Bill, (of parcels) u-^^^snj JyaA;, UL-i siydhd, (of exchange) ^^JCJ^ 

hundi, (account) c^L.»- ^i^afi, l^ lekhd, (of a bird) see Beak, 

(instrument) J J cZa'o. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 201 

Billet (note), ^<^ chittht, smj ruiea, JU patu 

Billet (of wood), L^ chaila, sJcS kunda. 

Bin, i^tf kothl, s^j^f kothrl. 

Binding (of a book), jJlsj- jiM (f.), i^^j^- juz-bandi. 

Bird, \jj>- chiriya (f.), j^;-^ pakheru, JJjJ parand, ij^ murgh. 

Birth, ^H>s>-janam, ^}^^ paidff ish (f.), jJy tawallud. 

Birthday, 2j^U salrgirih (f.), -^l^^^^ baras-gant/u (f.) 

Biscuit, vjj'l^ AaA, <^^jK kuRcJia, ^ tikki. 

Bit, (piece) Ijfl /u/ra, 2J; J zarray Xjy^ purza. 

Bit (of a bridle), <l3Uj dahana, |*\xJ lagam. (f.) 

Bitch, ^^^ X:u^^}, Las' kutiya (f.), v^j^ kukari. 

Bitterness, «i^lj|j^ karwahat (f.), j^^^ talkhl. 

A black (negro), ,^j-l-*>- habshl, ^j zangJ (m.), ^JcJb hindu* 

Blackguard, W luchchd, \*Xi^ shuhdd, jJ; rincf. 

Blade, (of grass) tj patta, (of a sword) J^ pAaZ, (a fellow) ICjb 

Blame, ^^^1.^0 do5, ^jJ cfoM, u:..v<(V« mazammat (f.), |*]jSt ilzam. 
Blank book, ,j^lj baydz, ii^Jua saflna. 
Blemish, i\j da gh . l1^;K kalank, ^<^ khot (f.), c^.^ aii. 
Blessing, Uj du'd (f.), (j«.--»\ flww (f), <*s--^ barakat (f.), «^ 

ni^mat. (f.) 
Blindman's buff, |;^oJ^ .^f an/rA muTze/cfura. 
Blindness, ^^jJl andhldpan, s^j^ korl, u^\^^ nd-blna'h 
Block, (of wood) «iXi^ kunda, *^l^ kath, (of stone) ^i;^^^ chatan. 
Blockhead, cJ^j-j be^uJ^f, fj^^'ahmak, ^^«->j^ gdwdl. 
Bloodshed, ^f^^ ^^jjs>. IduLn-rezJ, Js3 katL 
Bloom, Ai^L& shigufa, ^}^^phul, (of youth) ti^^y nau-jawdni. 
Blossom, Jj^ i^Aii/, j<l^ AaZi, (of the mango) jy^ maur. 
Blot, ^b dSgA, ti-%j^ cAAif (f.), -ir^ chin/t. 
Bludgeon, ^^^ lathij lS3^ sonta, \jjJ danda. 
Blueness, i^lJ nlla't, dyS kabud. 
Blunder, \^jtbd dhokhd or l^ybJ dkoka, CJ^ chuk. (f.) 

2 D 

202 Voeabukary. — Nmms. 

Board, ts^ taJdUa, (iaUe) j,^ wHz (t), (foodjf U^ Ul^ khiaia jnna. 
Board-wages^ l/!^ M?^^> I*^ 4^ ^j^ Umraiu kc dam, 
Bosufi, boasting, ^J c^ laf-zamf ^ \y bara1,j>Mj tafaUttar. 

Bipnd, (fiasUming) xj band, ^^s^Xj band/uin, (written oUigation) CS^ "^T 

tamassukf Ji^^&m^ doit^awez. 
Bondsman, cT^^*^ famtA, JJS kaftL 
Book, ^y^ poMi, Mt^ iK/oA (£), ^iumf^ fohlfa. 
Biym, ji baVf ^/JLa^, baldythiih (f ) : see Bounty. 
Boor, j\^ ganwar, ^Jx^jangU (m, f.), ^V^*^ dihifant. (m. f.) 
Booty JL^j) /u/ (f.)f c:.»v.f ghammat (S.\ \aju yaghma. 
Borax, dU^ tohaga, JLj tinker, j^y i^rai^. 
Border, (side) Mj\i^ kinara,j^^ chhor, (edgmg) ^y ior. 
Botany, (JL^\J Aa tlmi^ndbat, As- ^ ^yy butdii ka ilm. 
Bottom, 117 tala, ^ tati, m\^ thah (f.)f ^«^ penda. 
Bough, J<5 dan, J\5 rfa/ (f.), ^^ shalOi. (f.) 
Bound, (leap) J^ kud (f.), (boundary) Jk»^ >iae{e£ (f.), J^^ mr-hadd 

(f.), (limit, end) lyi3^ tn^i^a (f.), *;li^ kinara. 
Bounty, (jAJfaiz, b^ /cirpa (f.), ^^ karam, ij:^i^ tnayat. (f.) 
Bow (obeisance), {jtjjj^ kornUh (f.), ^>JuJ tastim. (f.) 
Boyhood, ^^^^.^ lajrakpan, ^ ^ji larkal. 

Brand, (burning stick) dsS^y^d sbjdkta, ^^ luktiy (mark) i^J dagh. 
Brat, IjJjJ biundif ^^^^ chhokra, \^ gurga, Jit jfi/?. 
Bravery, (^i^^i) dittrt^ ViS^^Jb himmat (f.), t^*^^ &£zAat2uri. 
Brawl, ]^i^jkagra. Brawler, j^\y^jhagralu, l^ laraka. 
Breach, dLf^^phui (f.)> jl;*^ darar, (quarrel) Jfl^ 6ig5r, jLi- khalal. 
Breadth, ^^ IJf^ chaural, ^^ \u^ pahnal, (of cloth or a river) LlAj^pat. 
Breech of a gun, ^^^ ^ Jj*^ bandulp kl kothu 
Breed, J-J na«/(f.), c-^lj ^at (f.), J-^^ a^l (f.), >i-3 itw^w. (f.) 
Breeding, (education) sz^,J tarbiyat (f.), (manners) ^Jl>^ chalan. 
Bribe, CJy2ij rishwai (f.), u^y^ghus, g^ <^ mttiSA-AAari. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 203 

Brickbat, \jjj rora. Brickdust, l/St* *«^M?* 
Brick-kiln, l^Jjj pazawa (f.), a^^pajawa. v 

Bride, ^^^ J dulhan (f.), t/^S/C arii^. (f.) Bridegi'oom, l^l^J dulha. 
Bridle, aw Zagam (f.), vS/V ^^g (fO> l)^ inan. (f.) 
Brightness, ^J^^j roshnl, 1\p^\ ujala, uX^^ chamak, (f,) 
Brim, Brink, y^U^ kinara, c^ Zflfi, |j]j^ karafa. 
Brine, ^b ^^^Sj^ namkin paniy ^y^]^^ ftA5r5/?a«i. 
Bristle, Jb l^ ..|SLj ^J^y^ sffar kipith ka bdl. 

Brushwood, i^f^r j^Th j^ j^^Ty ^3ij^^j^^T ^?^- 

Brute, (^'^-^ haiwaUf ^JL^^wahshi,j^\^janwar. 

Bud, j^ /caff, J-J^ hJonpal (f.)> to^g gh uncha. 

Bulk, 1^ 15^ fkotal, (^ I5? bara*ty Ji»> di/. 

Bunch, (of fruit) ^s^ gtxhchha, <JLm*^ kfwsha, (of ribbons) Jj^J^AiiZ. 

Bundle, ^Jj^ gathrt (m.), g?;5j^ iwojr?, ^Ljr*^ bufccha. 

Bung, l^j dhattha. 

Burden, ^^^ bojh,j\j bar, (Ja>^ hand: see Grief. 

Bush, ^j<^ jhafiy j^ jhaff 15^ butay ^1-2* shakh* 

Business, /%l^ /cam, ^\^ /co;, (avocation) see Calling. 

Butt, (mark) cJjJb hadafy ^bJ nisAana. 

Buying and Selling, Ci-<>j/ «>i/^ kharid-fardkht, (f.) 

Cage, tyssi) pinjraj ^jJi kafsj (large) \j^ katahra. 

Calamity, \jl^\ afat (f.), c:^ ftipa^ (f.), lb bala. (f.) 

Calculation, c^Li>- hisab, ^zi^ ginti, j\aJ^ shumar. 


Calendar, |^ patra, aJ^ takwlm. (f.) 

Calling, ^H^ pesha, U JcJbJ dhandha^ j^^ byohar. 

Camphor, Camphire, j^ kapur^j^^ kafur. 

Cane, (stick) t,^?5^ ckhafi, XJ bed (f.), (sugar-) -^1 fiAA (f.), l:^ 

Canon, ^yU kanun, ^rJ^U i:fftda, ^ I ain. 
Canopus, Jm^ suhaiL 

Canopy, (^If^U sayaban, iOLxli shamiyana, j:j>- chatr. 
Canter (pace), ^^ pSya. To canter, Ul>- ^^j^;^ poyon chalnd. 

204 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Canvass (cloth), dbZ tat, Jfls^l ajar, (Jj^ ^J^3 wilayatt tat. 
Capacity, (space) (^^sii gunjfflsh (f.), (ability) cu^^ kahilt" 

yat. (f.) 
Capital, (city) y&ar takht^gah (f.)> (sum) ^js^^^ punji. 


Caprice, capriciotksness, aJ^^ wahm, ^J>-]/« {^^ talauwun-mizaji* 

Captive (prisoner), t/*3uS 1caidtfj^\ asiVf Jzi^ giriftar. 

Caravan, ^^^ karwan, ^li hafilaj (car) i^j^gaft* 

Caravansary, \j^ u^xj^ karwansara, i^|^ sara% (f.) 

Carcass, ^^ Zo^A (f.), ^ji loth (f.), 2rv)^ murda, UU'*^ maiyit. (f.) 

Card (visiting), *«; l^ ^L) «aZam fta ruk'a, ^j^ waralc. 

Cards (playing), (jJ3 tas, ^jJj ^^j>L^ khelne kd tas. 

Care, \:^ij>- chinta (f.), ^ii fikr^ <11jJj\ andesJia, \jjJ parwa. (f.) 

Carefulness, Lfy^*^jf^ khabardiri, i^j\^y^ hoshyarl. 

Carelessness, jj:Ji£ gkaflat (f.), *Af^ bekhabari^ ^^^-^^^ susti. 


.Carnage, Jcj Aa^/, JliS Art^aZ (f.), i^jtj^ khunrezl. 
Carriage, J^ bahal (f.), see Cart, (carrying) «j?;^*3^jV 65r6ardar». 
Carrion, j^w>^ murdar : see Carcass. 
Cascade, l5^f>* j Aarn5, jli* <--.>1 ab-shafy j^^ cJiadar. (f.) 
Case, (covering) lJ&j gh ilaf, J*^ AAoZ: see State, Condition, Box. 
Case, (in grammar) c:JU>- halat (f.), lL^I^ karak. 
Cash, L^^at^a, «xa3 nakd, €^j rokar. (f.) 
Cast, (throw) CJ^**^x^ phenk (f.)> (form) AliJ nakska^ (tribe) CL^\j 

zat. (f.) 
Catalogue, iJL^^j^fihrist({,)y UL-i siyaha^ (list) (.li^^ Ji/aA;. 
Cattle, ,^^^ mawashty jytJ dhor, ^jf ^^ \S gXe-^ru. 


Cave, cavern, 2r^ kholij ^U gAar, l^ gupha (f.), <— ^^ /raA/. 

Caution, tUi>*l ihtiyat (f*),jic>^ kazar, ^j\Ji>^ hoshydri. 

Celebrity, LSjy<^ ndmwari, *^^ji^ shuhrat (f.). 

Celerity, ^S^^ chdldki, ^jP^'^ chustl, ^^^ shitdbu 

Celibacy, ^^'/ ku'dr-pand, lsJU. ^ ^^\dJs^\j nd-katjdiuddl kl 


Cell, ^/gosha, hj^ hujra, aJ^ kulbay ^j^f kdihrl. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 205 

Censure, a\J\ ilzam, ^"^t fa*/i, u:..-v«SL« malamat (f.), ^JoJ ninda. (f.) 

Cent, (hundred)^ ^aie, (or, per cent.) IjSIm-j ^atAfa. 

Centre, J^ markaz, ^U«;*3 darmiyan. 

Certificate, Jjjl cz^^-sJ dast-awez (f.)j <^^ wcuuka. 

Cessation, v^y tatvakkufy LZ^\ji fara gh at (f.), culy^ muhlaU (f.) 

Chaff, j^j^ 6Ati«?, J^j^ phokar, 

Chain,^;*flsrj 2raiy7r (f.),^L sankar (f.), <)i-L» silsila. 

Champion, ^^^lyj pahlawan, jy^ sur. 

Chance, (accident) j\ij\ ittifak, (fortune) c>*<^ Idsmat. (f.) 

Change, ck*3ujf tabdil (f.),jJu ta gh aiyur, J*x; badal. 

Change (small money), ,<^^ ^^^g^y ^jf ^i ^awa kauri. 

Chaplet, 1^^ sihra, (rosary) ^-^^^ tasbih, (f.) 

Chapter, v-^b iafi, ^y^\ adhyaya, J-oi /ajZ. (f.) 

Character, (mark) ^lU nishan, uJ^ Aarf, (writing) Lr^ (ju-*-: J diwN 

khafh (^j rakam (f.), (reputation) jLiftl Ctibar, a\j nam. 
Charcoal, h^ ko'ela, JU) zugkaU ^j:,^tSj\ ankisht. 
Charge, (care, custody) ^\^ fiawala, <ui zimmaf w::^Ul amanat (f.), 

(office) c:--^*x> khidmat (f.), (e3q)ense) -^c*- kharck, c:^!l Zaga^ 

(f.), (assault) ^1^^ hamla, (accusation) ^\jS\ ilzam^ ^J eZo&A. 
Chariot, ^^^Jl^ gap, fj^^ ghur-bahal (f.), -f^j raM. (f.) 
Charity, (benevolence) ^JijjJl^;**- khair-andesht : see Alms. 
Charles's Wain, ^^ c-^ dubb-i-akbar, -^j:^ saptarikh. 
Charm, (spell) ^tAs^jadu, yu*^ mantar, (amulet) jjyw tawlz, \L)y 

Chart, XliJ na^sha, ^J^ ^ *^j^ 15^ ^j^ cfar^a /:e kinare ka naJcsha. 
Charter, jj^^ sanad (f.), ^^jifarman, <ul3 Jl^ ahd-nama. 
Chase, (hunting) jICA shikar, (park) ^^ ramna : see Pursuit. 
Chastisement, ]j«» saza (f.), ^\aJ^^ goshmdR, c-^*3lj' ^aeflft. (f.) 
Chastity, ^j»^\^S\j pakdamanl, ^}t^^^ pakJzagi, ci-vi^a r . a§mat. (f.) 
Chat, i^^ gap (f.), uio Jaft (f.), ^x:ir c- pK j ^ Je takalluf guftgu. 
Cheat, Uj dogAa (f.), J^ cAAa/, (cheater) jb U J dagha-baz, i^S^ 

thag. * 

206 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Cheer, C>p-« masarrat (f.), ^^^i^ khurraml, (food) ^»fr^. bhojan. 

Chess, ^^j^ shatraiy. (C.) Chess-board, LL«j S t<}aL shatravj ki 
bisat. Chess-man, aj^ muhra^ Jy nard^ cij> got. (f.) King 
at chess, »\L shaky *L&jb padshah. Queen, ^^tljj^ farzlnf jij^ 
wazir. Castle or rook, ^^ukh, C^^\ unt (?), Bishop, (j-^ipil, 
^U hdthz. Knight, i^^^l asp, )j^gfidra. Pawn, ii^L)^piyada, 
jJuj baidak. 

Chick, chicken, »j^ chuza, ^J^^^ chingnh 

Chief, chieftain, j\4>^ sarddr,j^ mir, ^/^j rals. 

Chisel/ ,<^\5 tankl, .^^^j rukhdni, ^^*i^ chkenl. 

Chitchat, c^l;> gapshap, ti-^-^ Cl^b ia^-cAI^ (f.), J^ J^ bolr 
chaL (f ) 

Choice, (will) jl-i>-l ikhtiydrj (selection) u^ladjl infikhab. 

Christianity, ij:^\j»aj nasramyat (f ), k«..^«X« v^^^^ Isawi mazkab. 

Chronicles, f^^y tawdrikh. 

Chronology, fCj^yi ^ ilm-i-tawdrlkh. 

A Churl, j\yS ganwdry ^^UteJ dihkdnl, (miser) J-a^ bakHjl. 

Chymistry, L^ kmiydy g^L«J? kindyd-gari, ^;i^f rasdyan. 

Cipher, (in numbers)^^^? ^T/r, L-j sunnd, (letter) uJ^ Aar/i C^\ dnk. 

Circle, Jj^ kundal, i^Aj dd'ira, \j^ gherd, i^^ halka. 

Circuit, jjJ dauTj Jj>' chakkar, ^^^^ gardish (f.), i^\s>A ihdta. 

Circumference, Jp gird, \j^ gherdy j^^ pher, Saj«^ muhiL 

Circumstance, l::-11>^ hdlat, cr-^-i^^ kaifiyat (f.), \^y^ chigunagl. 

Citizen, lS/^^^ shahrlyj^ Jjbl ahUi-shahry ^H-j Jjbl ahli-pesha. 

City,y^ shahr, Jj nagar, if*A) balda, icjXo madina. 

Civet, jbj zabdd. 

Civility, ls^LjI insdntyat (f ), ^^jj^ muruwat. (f.) 

Claim, f]^f'^ dawdy jUs^l istihlcdk, J>- hakk. 

Clamour, j^ ^Aor, li^ gh augkd^ Ji gAuZ. 

Clamp, ^ pattar, (of bricks) 2(jW^ po/atra. 

Clap, (blow) l^*^ chametd, ICH^ khaikd, {pi hands) ,Jb* ^aZi. 

Clasp-knife, yl>- chdkuy ^j>' chakku, LG bakiyd. (f.) 

Vocabulary f^Nouns, 207 


Class, (division) ii^jirka^ ^^jiism^ (degree) ^j*^ darja. 

Clause, (sentence) gjsijikra, AAJ>^jumla, (condition) t^ sharL (f.) 

Clearness, t^ \sua §afSl, ^U-2» shaffdfi, ^ JU-l ujlal. 

Cleaver, (butcher's) \dJu bu^Ma, \jjI^ kkdndd. 

Cleft, lu:>j rakhna, jjJ darz, j\jJ darar, fjj^ shakk. 

Climate, clime, aJj\ lArffnt, ,^,J rfe^, ^y^5^->t 5ft-o-Aatra. (f.) 

Cloth, J-^ kapafy \^ kaprdjj:^ bastar, ^j^^ parcha. 

Clown, j^yifga7it£?5r,.^JUibJ dih^anty L^r<^ anchhJld. 

Club, ISj^ 5onfa, l.^^ asa, ^_c^I ZafAt, Ij^ gaefa. 

Cluster, ^^ ^oska, ^^ guchchha, (crowd) yUcj- jamd'o. 

Coach, i^j^ gdrtf J^ bahal((.)y J^Jp ghur-bahal. (f.) 

Cobweb, SU- \^ iJ?5^ waftri Aa j5K. 

Cochineal, U^ Hrmiz, djSt^^J kirm-ddna. 

Coffin, ^ kafaUf JjJc-^ sanduky tsjylj^ ^565^ 

Coil, ,JJ^ kundtt, Jj bal, j^^ pher, ^ Mam. 

Complaint, ^U na/t^A (f.), Jb^ farydd (f.), <d\3 wafa ; see Disease. 

Coin, aCs ^i/cXmz, c.-^ ^arb (f.), Ijj^ mudrd, (f.) 

Collection, ^Uisj-l ijtimd*, f*^ majma*, (sum)^L4^ jam*. 

College, <iU;tX« madrasaf StU <^U path-sdld. (f.) 

Collusion, ^«3^ bandish (f.), ^^L sdzish (f.), l^ iLa ^a/^a &a,^^a. 

Collyrium, ^j;^*^^ an;a«, J.^ ftuAZ, <U^ surma. 

Colour, cSioj ra/ig, ^^ &aran, (pretext) U- Ja, A3l^ bahdna. 

Column, ^^y:ji«> ^^un, ^ lath (f.), ^U J^ pihpdya. 

Combat, v/ \j! lardl, ^j[st* muhdraba : see Battle, Fight. 

Combination, J«^ mSZ, c-jSU mildp (f.), jUjI ittifdj^. 

Comfort, UIj efif^a, -^ «ttA:A, a^T drdm. 

Command, Commandment, J«^ hukm, L^ I dggyd,j^\ amr. 

Commencement, 1jcj\ ti^i^Za (f.), c^jJ^ shuruy jliT d gh dz. 

Comment, Commentary, -.^ ^AarA (f.), ICS tlkd (f.), <U&W hdshiya. 

Commission, (warrant) JCn«» ^aTiotZ (f.), (acting) L^\iJ)j\ irtikdb. 

Committee, cs-jlaKij panchdyat (f.), jj-i?^ majlis. (f.) 

Commodity, fj^^jins (f.), JU maZ, J^ cAf^r (f.), ts-wj 6a«^. (f.) 

205 Vor.ah^t^n/. — N^ouiis. ^^^^H 

Common ehore, j,- jJ^ badar-rau,'' (ff)^^^y parnala. ^^^^ 

Commotion, (tumult) Ijb ialwd, Ai:J Jttna : see Motion. 
Community, (whole people) jjf*=- jamhur : see Society. 
Compact, jj/ Jji Icaul IcaraT, )ejL s/iart (f.), A^c nArf. 
Companion, ^rfJ^ sa(/ii (m.), Jf-jj rafiJc, i._-»-Uk musuZ/t^. 
Coaipany, (society) O-^-^- sangat (f.), i— -olij rifakal, (assembly) 

j^^l^ rna//is (f.), (guests) ^jU^* miAman, (partnership) eu^il^A 

sharakal (f.). (body of people) !>jf gurok. (f.) 
Compass, Ij-^ ghera, ^U-1 i/'ata, j^ pher : see Circuit. 
Compasses (pair of),_;li_;J pargar (f.), or (dakh,)jl^ parkar. 
Compassion, J,J dard,j^plr (f,), LiJ (/a^u (f.), »»-, rahm. 
Compensation, ^\i talafi, 3jj iatf/a, \j>.jaza, (f.) 
Complaint, (lament) A^i farydd (f.), ^Ij MflZfjA: see Disease. 
Complexion, (colour) i^fjj rang, i^Jjj ^ <~Sj^ chihre ka rang. 
Compliment, (salutation) aXj salam, (service) ^x^bandagt. 
Computation, JU-iUf muhasaha, J^.i«j ti^ddd. (f.) 
Concern, (care) Ij^j purwd,(f.), iljJJl andtsha: see Affair. 
Concord, (agreeraAt) J-^! me/, L:;-~Jijl^« ttiuwafakai (f.), tjl* mi^aji 

(f,), (harmony) ^S^] *a ltani-5haiigi, U— £ama. 
Concourse, *j«^ hujum,^ i/izr(f.), (meeting) i—"!!-* ;ni/%. (f.) 
Condition, JU>- hal, ^::-JU- Aa/a( (f.), (stipulation) t^ sAar/. (f.) 
Conduct, ^^jW chalan, CJ^ suluk,j\^\ ulwdr. *■ 
Confidence, ^)_ri> bkarosd, jUi=l i^tihdd, i^j^J dilerl. 
Congratulation, ^^jIj C^V* muhdrak-bddi, t^--;.y takniyat. (f.) 
ConqMCBt, Ji fat^ (f-)>j*^ i?"/"'".^'^ iasM'''. (f.) 
ConBcieuce,^;-«-i zamlr (f.), .far*-" samajk (f.), ^y^ll iraan. 
Consent, t^Ai^lJ, rnzd-mandi, Jj-i ^abul, J—o iwe/, jUjI ittifaljc. 
Consequence, ila:i::j natija, (moment) Ai^l.^* vivsaya};a, 1^ panra. (f.) 
Conserve of roses, .wj ^^ gul-kand, ^ Li J? gtil-shakari. 
Consideration, ^^LaJ dhydn,j\^, hickdr,JS jikr. 
Consolation, j_jl_; tasalli, USj di^a, ^^y'^J dkdras. 
Conspiracy, ^JkiJ handUk {{.), iS-J^fi gosht (f.), ^^ijL sa=iV(. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 209 

Consternation^ ul^L^f) ghabrahajt' {{.), ^^j*s^ hairaL (f.) 
Constitution, ^|j^ mizaj, vji^^-jOuL taVlyat, cuXc»* jibillat (f.), c:,^A^ 

sirisht. (f.) 
Consultation, l5^^^ r^ ^a£A-ftAaz;a£iy d^yl^ maskwarat. (f.) 
Contemplation, J^lJ ta*ammul, ^Ui^*3 dhyauy j^ ghaur. 
Contempt, c:^l5^ liikarat (f.)? ^j)Uj1 apamarij L::^\jbl iAana^. (f.) 
Content, contentment, ,<-2*^ khushty »ju-x:li5 X^ana'St. (f.) 
Contract, j]^ Jy ifcawZ Icarar, iX^ ahd,j^ hor, (f.) 
Contrivance, Jlasr^ yorf, Lr.>%4C"»^ hikmat {{.\j^Si tadblr. (f.) 
Controversy, C^^ JaAg (f.), J J^*3; radd-badal (f.), <Ufl3 kaziya. 
Conversation, ^MLfiTgij/Vgu (f.), e:-*-^ '^V bat-chit, (f.) 
Copy, Ja3 naifcZ (f.), Ai?-^ nuskha, (first or foul) 2rj^w« musauwada. 
Coquetry, jU naz, \jas^ nakhra^ \J\ ada (f.), Sb^^ chochla iJylp- 

Coquette^ jbUkr nakhra-baZf j^jf^Le- ashwa-gar. 

Coral, ^yc mungCLj \J^j< marjdn, (child's) ^^^^ chusrii. 

Cord, ^j ras8t,j^Jddr ({.),\]^^jrord. 

— mm 

Cork, (plug) \^J dhattha, ^J^^ theritht. 
Comer, \j^ kona, iJ^^ goshaj C^y^ kfiunty Ji kunj. 
Corpse, xJj^ murda, ^3 lash (f.), ^^ loth (f.), CS^j^ mirtak. 
CorKection, (amending) fi^^sf^ tafhih (f.), (punishment) Ij-j saza. (f.) 
Correspondence,, (by letter) c:-^t^lafl*- khatt-kitdbftt (f.) ; see Rela- 
Cost, Jj*< moZ, Ls.-^^y'i itima^ (f.); ^^ &aAa, ^^ kharch. 
Cotton, (undressed) ^^U^ kapas, (dressed) j^jj ra?, ^^mtmba. 
Covenant, <ul3 <Xy^ ahdrnama, Jy A:a?/Z, 1?^ ^^ar/,. (f')^Wn^ 
Cover, liCfcJ dhakna, tr^^ sar-poshy (shelter) «Uj panah. (f.) 
Covetousness, -f S lalach, -^jj Z5JA, (j^;5>- >lir5. (f.) 
Coulter, ^^«J na«I, jl^ phar. 

Council, ^j-i<p* majlis (f.), lf--» ^oJAS (f.), w::^l^ panchayat. (f.) 
Counsel, v^x^ ^y gu nasihat (f.), »^ ^anrf ; see Counsellor, Attorney. 
Countenance, Hjj^ chihra, -f^ munh, (favour^ ^y tawajjuh.. (f.) 

2 E 

210 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Country, (region) ^;-^jy-» sar-zamln (f.), a^ hhum (f.), clXU mulk, 
^jm^O des, (opposed to town) c:^l^«3 dthat, J^^sLo mufas^al^ (na- 
tive land) ^^ watan, a^ fi^^janam-hhum. 

Countryman, (of the same country) ^^ ^Jb hantwatan, 4^ l^ (y«jJ 
deS'bhfflf (peasant) _JUfrJ dih^aniyj^ ganwar. 

County (division of a country), ^Ju^ zil*, ic^j pargana. 

Couple, jO do, ^jyTJor^y ^^z^^juft. 

Couplet, uu%j hait (f.)> ^^*^ doha. 

Course, Jj4> daur (f.), tl^J dapat (f.), (race-course) JjJJ^gAttr-daier. 

Court, (of justice) v^\jic adalat (f.), ^jJi^ hachahriy (yard) ^^^ 
sahn, (hall of audience) jbj J darbar : see Palace. 

Cracker, (squib) U^lSb patajdiay (boaster) ^ ««i5l laf-zan. 

Cradle, !i^ JOJh kindola, ^^y^ gahwara, Jl^^ mahd. 

Crane, (for raising goods) K^J damkala, (dakh.) c::jyX« mahut. 

Crease, ^^fJ^ shikan (f), ^;->- c/Jn (f.), <*:^i>- chunat. (f.) 

Creation, (^/^/T q/rlnisA (f), (^Ijlj paida'.wA (f.) : see World. 

Creature, jj^-^ makhlufc, (irrational) ^'^-^ haiwan. 

Credit, jL::^\ Ctibar, mj^^ hharam^ .^^ sakh (f.) : see Reputation. 

Creditor, *^^ ^^ karz-kfupah, Vy^^-^ bydhariya, 

Crew, j-^ JAf r (f.), ls^^U^ jama'at (f.), (ship's) jlyr*- Jjbl ahlri- 

Crime, ^^--flSJ ta^§lr (f.), i\:>^ gunah, c-jU jp5p, f^j>-jurm. 

Criminal, j|^ jif^ tai§tr'War, juJbUT gundh-gar. 

Crisis of a disease, ^]/a^ btifiran. 

Critic, J^ cJS)^ wakif-kar, ^j\j Ss^ nukta-dan, <u!U allama. 

Crop, (harvest) J-oi /cwZ (f.), (produce) J-pI>- A&i/ : see Maw, Craw. 

Cross, ^"^^ fatibf Ljl>- chaltpa. 

Crowd, J-^ JAir (f.), c^^cUsj- ja»ia'a/ (f.), f^ys^ hujum. 

Crumb, (particle of bread) \^ 1$ ^^j rop kd tukrd, (soft) \j^gudd. 

Crush, /\jJ dabd'o, (shove, push) lijbJ dhakkd,J!j takkar. (f.) 

Crust, (shell) Ifl^ chhilkd, (of bread) ^^^^-^^ |>05f , Ij-J paprd. 

Crutch, ^J)i Idtht, l|^L-j baisdkha, Lift osa, c^j V phd'orl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 211 

Cry, jl^ pukar (f.), j^ shor, (lament) hj\j wawaila. 

Cub, &sf^ bachckaf h pilla. 

Cube, («-^^ kab^jSLii ahashdar. 

Cubit, ^\jb hath, c^U j^ ^U Aa^A &Aar mop, ui^^^sj dost. 

Cuckold, Cj^J daiyus, CyJa c j zan-jalab, ^^UdS kaltaban. 

Cud, Jl^ jugan,/\j pagur. 

Cudgel, ^^^ Za/Ai, J^ 2aAMir, \mm^ tKenga. 

Cupping glass, ^X^ «wgi. Cupper, JUj ,^^i^ singt-wala. 

Curd, UI>- chakka, U-f^ cAAena, ^J daAi. (m.) 

Curl, Jftf ftSA-ttZ (f.), y^glm, uiSj arw/f (f.) : see Bend. 

Currency, (of money) ^^ rawaj, ^^^ chalan. 

Currycomb, \fy^ kharahra. 

Curse, t-^5/-» «araj), cl^ Za*na^ (f.) : see Calamity. 

Custody, sl\^ hawahZf ^ V^ nigah-bam : see Imprisonment. 

Custom, Jl>- cAaZ (f.), Jl^ chalan, ci^jlc ada^ (f.), j^3ua> dastur, 

(tax) Jj'^^^ nuifi§uL 
Custom-house, */^-^ chabutara, j^^j^ parmit-ghar. 
Customer, tl^lf gahak, j^'Hj^ Idtaridar. 
Cut, (gash) CjZ kat (f.); ^^J araM'Wj (shape) JjJ dauZ. 
Cut-throat, Jij^yi- khun-rez, (^f^ t^^gfJ^J^^. bat-par. 
Cycle,jijJ ^a^^> ^Ji}*^ da'ira, ^\j^*^ dauran: see Circle. 
Dalliance, ^^^j rffd-chffd, jUijjl3 naz^o-niyaz : see Delay. 
Dam, (bank) J^Jjb bandh, Jj pul: see Mother. 
Damage, cl^LJ- khisarat {(.), ^\*aMj nuk$an, ^\^ kharabu 
Damask, (silk)yB^ mushy jar, (cloth) iJ\s^\p^ jamdam* 
Dance, dancing, ^l3 nach, ^j^j rdlc^. 

Dancing girl, ^J-'S^ kancham : (band of) f^}j^ ffl^o,'if. (f.) 
Danger, ifja:>^ khatra^j^ dar, M^y>^jdkhim. (f.) 

Darning (a.), ^ ^a/ii- 

Date (time), <-SC;l? tarilA (f.), 4J ft7A (f.), ^^ mitu 
Day-book, iJB^\jj^jrdZ'mamcha, \j0m^ khasra. 
Dearth, J\^f akH, ^^ iaht, ^J!ij tangt, ^j4^ kamu 

212 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Death, d^^ maut (f.), t^J^ nuxrg (f.), CL^^faut (f.), J*-^ ajL (f.) 

Debate, lL^oT^ bah$ {{,), <U^ kaziya, <iii>-L« mubaha^. 

Debauchery, ,^^^^ aubashlf f^^j rindi, jUi khumar. 

Debt, ^J eiaiTi, jUj\ vcIAar, ^^a^ i^arx, aIj team. 

Debtor, j^Xaji ^arz^ar, j^J^O dain-dar, \jj riniya. 

Deceit, t---i/ fareb, liJ da gh a (f.), i^ July J^ cAAa/. 

Decision, jLi«3\ injisal, ^j faf*, ]^l2Lj niptara. 

Decree, Jl>- AuXrm, ^^^yi fatwa^ Jlaiil inji§aL 

Deed, .^l^ fcam, Jjfijtl, (written) Jj^la-aj dast-atpez. (f.) 

Defect, j^^ kusuTy c-^^ ati, l<^ ghatti. 

Defence, c:J&\i>- hifazat (f.), ifli^ pariah (f.), i-li*j ^'oA:. (f.) 

Defendant, (in law) ^Ic J^^^^ muddd!q alaihiy ^^^ o^am? . 

Deficiency, ^^u^ kamtly ^^^^ ghaitty jyci ktisur. 

Defile, (narrow pass) l^ nakay ^ galiy ^\p ghaii. 

Definition, ^J^ bakhauy d^ hadd (f.), «— fl^^ tarif. (f.) 

Degree, *>^ darjcy <UJ^ martabuy jSi kadr (f/), <LJj rutba. 

Delay, ^ J der (f.), j^*^ rferl, c^^Jt bilamb, jl dr. (f.) 

Deliberation, J^tf ta^ammuly J^ fikvy ^^ sochyj^ gh aur. (f.) 

Delight, JoJT anand, i^y>- Jdiushty ^J>>ldiurrami. 

Delirium, ,<-2*^ be-koskly ^^J^iru bt-khtidiy y^ sir, (f.) 

Deliverance, delivery, cjlar no/a^ (f)o ^f^ bachd'o : see Birth. 

Delusion, l^JbJ dhokhdy c-^ i fareby liJ da gh a. (f.) 

Demand, (claim) l^J dc^wdy (question) l,J1? ^afaJ. (f.) 

Demolition, |«1«Xy3l inhiddniy t^jbiu^]^ khardb-dbddi. 

Den, (lion's, &c.)^ ^Aar, JjU mane? (f.) : see Cave. 

Denial, jlOl inkdry ^Jj nafi (m.), ^JliJ tandft. 

Dependant, ji«^ muta^allikyj^ ^\d ddman-gir, ^y^ parbas. 

Depth, Jh^js umuk^ ^ \j^ gahrd'Oy (dakh.) ^l^^*> dongdn. 

Deputy, ^qJ^\a^ gurndshttty c:.«^0 ,^^^ pesh-dasty v---*jl3 waVJ. 

Derision, ^J^^ thathdlty <iUiL ta^nay \^ thatihd. 

Denvation, jlib^l ishtikdky ^^Js^ istikhrdj. 

Descendant, (^^ ian^, ^l:;:^^ santduy (plur.) JJ*f auldd. 

Vocabulary, — Nouns. 213 

Desert, Jxu^j- jangal, j^blo bayabauy ^Jb hadiya. 
Deserter, 1?^^ hhagora^ ^j^/ fi'i'^o^rtj CSJ^ tdrik. 
Design, (purpose) iJyoi:^ mansuba, 2f j]^\ irada : see Plan. 
Desire, i\^ chah (f.), ijl^^y^- khwakUk (f.), ^^yb hatoas. (f.) 
Despair, ^^ju^lU n^umme^, ^^b yas (f.), i5-»]/ nirosi, j<-»ji^ wi- 

Destiny,^J^ tafcdlr (f.), L33 toa (f.), c:^^«w»J kismat. (f.) 
Destruction, ^J^1^ jpa'cmaZI, <i^^l ihtakj ,<^]/*- kharabl. 
Detail, Jt^oAJf to/jPi2^ (f.), (in detail) J«^ai« mufassal. 
Determination, JuiS kasd^ ^^ azm^jifsf tajwiz. (f.) 
Detestation, sf kark (f.), ci^^ nafrat (f.) : see Abhorrence. 
Detraction, cr >^,.>.»r ghU bat (f.), ^^ f ^, bad-gol,, (j:.^a^ tuhmat. (f.) 
Detriment, ^Laft} nu^san, CL^j^ mazarrat (f.), \5jS <o<a. 
Devastation, d^U gharat (f.), ^Uj^ ^5'cmafi, ^IJ teftaAi. 
Deuce (at cards, dice, &c.), ^^J cfti'a, (dakh.) IdjJ eioga. 
Device, (contrivance) ts-vijo* hikmat (f.), (on a shield, &c.) ^IIj 

Devotion (worship), cs^jLc z5a^^ (f.), W^j pii/a (f.) : see Prayer. 

Dexterity, ^J^ c:,^'«> dmt-karlf ^^If- chalakl. 

Dialect, ^y io^, l^l^ bhakha : see Language, Idiom. 

Dialogue, jS:ii guftgu (f.), J\^ (mJ^^jawab suwaL 

Diameter, jlaS ffutr, kei- ^ ^ ^ ^y}*^ da' ire ke btch ka khqft. 

Diary, ^\^ j^j roz^nama^ ^^^)v ^oznamchay ^j^^\ awarja. 

Dice, ,<-»b pose (plur. of Lb pasa, a die), (dakh.) ,^^^ phanse. 

Dice-board, tLj &i«aj^. (f.) 

Dictionary, {^fiJbji farhang (f.), ts^ lu gh at (f.), (^j^ Ao«A. 

Die (colour), t^joj rang, (stamp) ^ sikka, L^ thappa. 

Diet, IJlc g'Aigg (f.), ci/};^ Idiurak (f.), l3l^ kkdna, cu^y /:fi^. 

Difference, jy /ar/t, d^^Uj tafdtout, cSi3j &i2ag ; see Discord. 

Difficulty, i^^y^"^ dushwari, Jl^l ishkal : see Labour, Trouble. 

Diffidence, ^^^ sankocfif l^J dharkd, cl^ shakk. 

Digestion^ l»«^ Aa;sm, tU^U CJy itutra^-i-Aanma. 

2 1 4 Vocabulary — Nouns. 

Digit, jil angul, (of ihe raoon's diameter) IS kaia. (f.) 
Dignity, s^jah {f.),jM kadr (f.), fJ^ martaba, ^JJi skan. (f.) 
Dilemma, 1*JjJ dubdka (f.), (ciakh.) Jl*^*J b/ionjal. 
Diligence, ^f*fj^ tar-garmi, ^^ dhun (f.), i^j*^^^ tait^M. 
Dimension, (_>V« niaj),j^Ji£rf mikdar, iJ^jjI andaza, 
DlmiDution, i^p g^"?*! >— J?i=^ t a kit ft f (f,), |i<»S knm-1. 
Din, ^ji «Aor, Jc ^n/, (dakh.) \5Li Ji ji^u/ ghapald. . 
Diploma, ii-i sanaff (f.),j»iJ-* mansASr, Jj.U-tJ dastawts. 
Direction, (way) i\j rah (f.), (label) ty ;ja(o, (of a letter) JulJ ^ 

Dirt, (filth) J-. iMoiKf-). tU ™o/, (mud)^aq^ AicAar. (f.) 
Disagreement, is^l^li na-mnwafakat (f.), (discord) le^^ ^ no- 

khisk'i, J 1^1 «»&flHa'o, jlw Ingar. 
Disappointment, ^^^ 'j na-lcdm-1, \^^J dkokha, ^J^/>- Airman. 
Disaster, tj:,----^ musthat (f.), ^_^iir Ju bad-bafdit-J, li^l 5/af. (f.) 
Disbelief, ^jIjE-^I^ be-i^likadl, ijjr^^^ be-'^tihdri. 
Disbursement, --^ fdiarj, ~J>- kharch, iZj\sAjB-\ ikiirdjdt. 
Diaceroment,^j-*j tatnlx (f.), ^jij sfirak-l, uX-j iiieA. 
Discbarge, j_^!*=- chhutfi, dj'ji bar-tarafl, (of debt) bl «rf5. (f.) 
Disciple, -jC-i siA:A, S-»- cAe/a, J^li »hdgird, J»*!j talrnix. 
Discipline, l_-jj1j tadib (f,), i-^-^y tarhiyat (f.) : see Punishment. 
Discovery, i.i-iljjJ darydjt (f ), ^liul iniwAo^; see Invention. 
Discount, lib baUd, b^ e/iota, 

Discourse, iZJ\j bat (f.), (-i—a-tCJlj ia( cAiif (f), fzj£ guftgu. (f.) 
Discretion, jLs-^l imdyds, Jil£ a^2, ,^j\Jt>jii koskydri. 
Discus, jil*. cAnftr or chakkar. 

Discussion, Al>-L.« mnbahasa, Jjj J, rat/rf badal, (f) 
Disdain, (.i-oW tAanai (f.)» CJ,U=- ^tittrat. (f.) 
Disease, j'jT azdr, <iJj, rog, ^^ marat, ^J tfi/^A. 
Disgrace, 4^ 'j-t rKswa", ^U ur, (dismission) .^j^ taghtri. 
Disguise, j_/-^ iAcs, ^SL^j WteW, (sham) aL* /«/«. 
DiBgUBt, (i^J no/ra( (f.), ^^ffAtn (f.), *.=-rr»l/ kardhiijat. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 216 

Dishonour, l5j[/?T ^ be-dhruri^ kS^J^ {j! ^'^hurmatt. 

Disk (of the sun or moon), ^j^i kurs : see Discus. 

Dislike, t^^jsS Crax^ Jby>- chirk (f.)> J:!^ gurez. (f.) 

Dismission, c:,wtw^ rukh^at (f.)> \^J^j( har-iaraf-t. 

Disorder, ^j^j:^^ he-tar tib-t^ (illness) v^U^ btmar-'U 

Dispatch, ^}cJi» shitab-t: see Messenger, Epistle. 

Displeasure, ^V^J^ azurdagi, ^J^y>-\j na-k/mshl, ^Si^ khafagh 

Disposition, Jiaoj] intizam, (nature)^ khp (f.), ^^. mizqj. 

Dispute, lL^ bahs (f.), (quarrel) )^^jhagra, <U-aS Icaxiya. 

Disregard, t/ \^y^ ^ be-parwal, ^\ici\ ^ be-iltifat-t. 

Disrespect, ^j\ ^^ be-adah-t^ .<--^*3^ Cjp tark4radab : see Disregard. 

Dissembler, jl? b^ riy5-A:5r,jlSU makkar, ^2^ kaptl. 

Distance, i^j^*^ durAy d^UJ tafaimit^ u:^L^ masafat. (f.) 

Distemper, ^jOj^ maraz,j\j\ azar, {^j rog, c^U^ bJmarJ. (f.) 

Distich, vj:^ &at^ (f.), UjJ efoAa, l^jJ dohra. 

Distraction, L^\j2^\ iztirab, ^Sa>^\^ sardsimorgt. 

Distress, \ij\ Iza (f.), {S^ kasht, vj:^ bipat (f.), u^f afat. (f.) 

District, ^L^ xi/*, K^ chakla, J^'^ mahall, ^LS^ pargana. 

Disturbance, ^\^ hangamay ^j^ »^Jtb harj-marj. 

Diversion, (turning aside) uJ|^a^ inhirafj (sport) L&Uj tamasha. 

Divination, ^.^ J^ ilm-i-ghaib, J^j ranj^l, ^yiM fal-gd*l. 

Division, f^^^^Jj taksim (f.), (share) c:i4,»/i kismat : see Difference. 

Divorce, jlt taldk (f.), c^^J^ ^-^ (^-^^^^J jj^J^^ ^ ldui§am kljuda-i. 

Dizziness, jm> c^|;j^ dauranrp-sar, %^j^ ghumru 

Doctrine, ^iJuJ to^Hm (f.), v«^«X« maz'hab, ^Jo tarlka* 

Doer, 5;^?^ Aarne-A5r5, U^ karta, Jx\ifa'iL 

Doings, a\^ kdm, <^y^ kartut, L^ Atya, JUil q/^a/. 

Doll (child's), \}€ guriya{i^y ^)sj putii, \j^ khilauna. 

Domestic (a servant), ^(:uj|^ wdbasta, jSc^d^ khidmatgar. 

Dominion, c:..v«yl^ hukumat (f.)> ^^'SL^^q mamlukat (f.), ^\; ro;. 

Donation, Donative, ^j,*^>fV; bakhshish (f.), ^Ij cian. 

Doom, (sentence) ^^ ^uftm, Lyi fatwa, (fate) LaS /tasa. 

216 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Dot, i^ nuktcif \s:j bunda, t^*y^ bindi, U^ suna. 

Double-dealer, ^jj*> do'rangafj\j IcJ dagha-bdz. 

Double-entendre, \i:^janikaf lzj[) ^\ju:jc«^J do-mam-dar bat. 

Doubt, (JX^ shakk, ..^^ skubha, ^J^ gumaUy \^ sankd. (f.) 

Dovecot, ij\:>'Ji^ kabutar-khdna^ S^^*^ dhdbrl. 

Dough, ^Jj^ gundhaUfj^j^ Mumiir, v^*^ lu^ or B't. 

Down (hair, small feathers), ^^j rdm,j)^ f^j narmpar: see Plain. 

Drain, K^jy< mort, ^U naff, jjjJj badar-rau. (f,) 

Draught, (of liquor) {Ji^^ ghunt, (of a carriage) yi^u^ khznchd*o, 
(plan) <lli3 nafcsha, (of a letter) 2fJ^«i<^ mtisauwada, (of soldiers) 
ifj^CJiA l^ 'T^fatij kd ek guroh, (for money) 4^JjJb hundi. 

Draughts (the game), ^\^ JjU mughal pathdn, 8lc. 

Drawer, (of a bill) ^j^y ^^jojh hundi-nawtSy (of a chest) <UU. khdna. 

Drawing (delineation), ,<^U^ nakkdshl, ^jtij naksh. 


Dream, c-^\^ khzpdbf \:^ sapnd, (fancy) JL^ khaydL 

Dregs, {JL^^J tirchhat (f.), Li-^ff^ talchhat (f,), 4>^J durd. (f.) 

Drink, <--jy& shurb, vj:-^^ sharbat, *^\^ shardb. 

Drollery, ^j^}j^s^'^ maskhard-panf ^y^ thatholi, ^^J^ khilti. 

Dross, J^ mail (f.), '•i-^ *^^^ j^J zangdr. 

Drove, (of cattle) ^ galla, (crowd) J-^ bhir (f.), ^jl.^\a^ jamd'at. 

Drudgery, J^ tahal (f.), vjiuo^^r* li:-^-* sakht mihnat. (f.) 

Drunkard, -j\^ sAarafr-7,j|^isx< mai-k/tor. 

Dung, <io bit (f.), «jf gwA (f.), (of the cow) j{y gobar, (of the 

horee or elephant) jJ lid (f.), (of birds) Jli^ pljdidl: see 

Dungeon, ^c*^ bhakslj ^fl^ 2^1^ ^zyaA cAa/2, ^<^ J^ S^^^ngl. 
Dunghill, <d^ mazbala, ^y\f guhariyd, j^ ghur. 
Dusk (twilight), -^sTLyb J dhur-sdnjh (f.), ^^^y godhuli. 
Dust, Jy^fc> dAwZ (f.),jybJ efAiir (f.), d^ gard (f )y jV^ gh ubdr. 
Duty, (obligation) ^j^ /a^*?, (service) Jy faiaZ (f.) : see Tax. 
Dwelling (habitation), ^^gAar, aILo mukdm, ^^^^-^ maskan. 
Earnest (money), <OU-j baVdna, ^olj {io^fnt. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 217 

Earthquake, Jl>- ^^ bhun-chal, ^Jj zalzala. 

Ease, l*|^T aramj Ji kal (f.), ^^^^ chain^ (facility) ^JLT asani. 

Eaves, (of a roof), ^j\ oltiy ^^ji^\ ori, i^>^jl parchhatu 

Ebb (of the tide), l^l^ bhatha,jj>-jazr, ^j:5^ ghattl. 

Ebony, ^^^1 abnus. 

Echo, t^^ gunj (f.), Ijutf ^ociJa. (f.) 

Economy, ^j^ juz^rast : see Arrangement, System. 

Ecstacy, do^^ wyd, c/«>^a^ be-^hudi. 

Edge, (of a blade), jUj dfiar (f.), Jb Mr (f.) : see Border. 

Edging, Jl|>- J AoZar (f.), i^jLc ma gh sl, uJUi-* sanjaf. (f.) 

Edict, ^U^/arwon, a5^ rakam (f.), ^^^--jLj ^o^an. 

Edition (of a book), U\^ chhapa, ^ L^ chhapaH. 

Editor, (compiler) uJS j^ mu'aUif, (arranger) l^j^ m 

Education, ^^::^Ji tarbiyat (f.), J^j^J^ parwarish. (f.) 


Effects, JU ma/, c^L^l asbab, cL« ^ JU ma/ o mata\ 
Effigy, JCA skakl (f.), <^^ ?5ra^ (f.)> ^^y< murat. (f.) 
Effort, ^ju» sa i, j^>2^^ koshish (f.), ua^v.^-^ mihnat. (f.) 
Eft (newt), A«J lL^\ ^ ^.lC^j> chhipkati kl ek kism. 
Egg, IjJI an^a, <U3^ &a£sa. 

Egotist, ^jy *^)>' Jdvifd-farosk^ U3 jyL Jdmd-numa. 
Egress, -j^jj^ khuruj, *X«J^ barimad (f.), ,<&'jj rawanagl. 
Election, y^^^fj{ barguztdap, lt ^jj^ft< makbuliyat. (f.) 
Elegance, c-aU /wf/, (ji^W /aja/a« (f.), l::-^]/ nazaila^ (f.) 
^l®gy> ^j^ »wtr?*yfl> *ju4^ \Jj\jki J^ soz-gudaz ka kaslda. 
Elevation, v/jJj bulund-t^ l/^ barhtl, ^5 W^l tincAa-t. 
Elixir, j««»^ aA»ir: see Essence. 
Elocution, tj[;jl ^;Vj zaban-awarl, kj:^^\^ fasahat. (f.) 
Eloquence, ^^Jijo Ji^ Jdmsh-takrirl, i^^h balaghat : sc 

Embryo, ^^^-ii»- jantn, \qf?L sancha, \^\f gaftAa. 

218 Vocabutary, — Nouns. 

Emersion, cjUj tnlu , j \^\ ulhS'o, aJij> bar-amad. 

Eminence, ^Jc^^ unchdn, ^jjt buzurgl, J^ fazl. 

Emissary, ^~fj\:>- janus, V.'*^*^ bhediya, »J&^ karkara. 

Emperor, ilt.:j)Ll shakanshah, -t:^]^ maka-ruj. 

Empire, ^jsllj-ali shahanshah-'t, i^ -'.Uij salfanat. (f.) 

Employ, Employment, Jj>^ shvghl, ^^ ham, Jiyt uhda. 

Emporium, i^S^j^ arang, Jij\i bazar,jMJ bandar. 

Empress, ti'j^-o maha-ranl, >b-VJ&Ui tS^ bcgam-i-sha/iaiishdh. 

Emulation, ■<.'■-•- ^ ghibta, K_J» hiska, jS^j ras/ik. 

Enamel, U— « mhia, i_j| 56, %>-jil(i, ijyl^ U-* mhia-kari. 

End, Li-Ol ani, '_^ sir«,_^l d /ch ir, (object) ^jC ghetras. (f,) 

Engine, JS kal (f.), c: - »*;-g faH'«( (f,), ^L^rJt kathydr. 

Enigma, ^_^-^ paheH, ^^'...^ cAiffan, Ua^ mu'ummd. 

Enjoymeot, tj^ tamattu*, syn maza, ^jLx. aish, ^^ khusKl, 

Enmity, lUjIj*. addwat {f.), j^_ bair, ,«i*iJ dushmam. 

Entertainment, tiU^ mihmdni : see Feast, Amusement. 

Entrance, .(2^ pait/i, Jri-J dakhl, Jl«T ^ji-j pesh-amad. (f.) 

Entry, *lji.lrj ddkhila, *i-y rnsfa ; see Door, Insertion, 

Environs, i_jy?l atraf({.), ^\j^^ pairdman, (_/-U-il ds-pds. 

Epistle, k^ khalt, A«j ruk'a, Axli ndma, iJli /)a(I, 

Epitaph, jjl:iS kitdba : see Inscription. 

Epithet, L_-N*l /flitaft, cu^ no*/ (f.), hLL-U.^ ?(/''', i^'j waff'- 

Epitome, jl^ii-l ikhlisar, ^.a^i" mukhtamr. 

Epoch, *c^U tufikh (f.), iji san, Li~.»-i mmbat, JL. sa?. 

Equator, IjUjI Li- khaU-i-istiwd. 

Equipage, (_>U_il asbdb, ^UU sdmdn, ^J^y^ sawarl, i-J^j rikdb. (f.) 

Equity, i_iUaJl irisdf, Jjic adl, ^^]j rdsti, ^^ Iff* sachd'i. 

Era, fcCj^ Idrlkh (f.), l^Lt saH, C ..n* ' sambat. 

Ennine, *3U ka^m, l_»Wi^ sanjdb. 

Errand, L_j>x_d sandiid, »\Jt^ 

*U;j pa<^ 

^l£ /;ant. 

Errata (in a book), t«lj lii ghalat-ndma. 

Error, ^ali. ghalatl, CSj>- ckuk ((.),jyM kuiur, Jj^ iAaZ. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Noujis. 219 

Eruption, -rij^ M^'Ti/ijW f^bhar, (of the skin) ^ ts_^ rakt-pitti. 
Essay, ^jt^ sa*i, (jiJV<)l azma'isk (f.), (treatise) ■JUi rwaia. 
Essence, CJlj sai (f.),^ hir, (spirit) j_^ araif, (perfume)jlic atr. 
Estate, (condition) JU- hal, (posseBsioo) tU3.* mi/it ; see Degree. 
Esteem, t.l/Lj tapak, u^jy^ tzzat,j^^ pyar,jM kadr. (f.) 
Eternity, ^U^ dawam, JjI aioif, ^l..«J> Aameska-gi. 
Etiiics, jUI aM/aA, j3o-l ^ 'lim-i-akhiak. 
Eti<|uette, t_jbT adab, u-^^ cuUliu takallujat-i-majlh. 
Event, (incident) i;jW. hadisa, fcjL-wjkj^ iar-gvzas/it. (f.) 
Evidence, ^\^ gatcahl, JJj (/a/7/ (f.), (witness) jj>Ui shafdd. 
Evil, jJljj hura'i, ,jyj zabun-1, (calamity) Kj ia/w. i_f.) 
Evildoer, ^l^ Jj badrkar,JS i\^ gunah-ger. 
Eulogy, (— flJ;«J te'rl/" (f.), ~-J.-« wiarfA (f.), U! janu. (f.) 
Eunuch, A>-yi- khoja, V-i Asr^^ khmajasara. \ys^ kijra. 
Examination, yi;'^;l azma'isk (f.), jjlsx*! imtihan. 
Example, "0^ namuna, jj^'jI udaharan : see Pattern. 
Excellence, i.^L~Jiti faukiyat (f.), (as an address) »JLJ,.iis- huzrat. (f.) 
Excess, tl^l '/'■".O lP'^VJ -iyadall : see Intemperance. 
Exchange, 3jj 3j1 arf/a £«(/£, yoy; 'icaf, (place) ulija- chauk. 
Excrement, if guh (f.), LjU j^ia'.rt.- see Dung. 
Excrescence, ifgirih (f.), (fleshy) \ — ■ massa, J,- — < masbird. 
Excuse, J J* uxr, (pretence) iil^J bahana, i.:L-«p*" ftujjat. (f.) 
Execution, i^( i*,^ Aar-gusar-J, (killing) Jii ^atl. 
Executor, ^^^ toasi (m.). Executrix, *-oj itanya. (f.) 
Exercise, c:-^i*.'• mitinat (f.), (practice) J^e umul, (_Ji-« mushk. (f.) 
Exertion, (_^j^ fco*AwA (f.), ^^^sai, ic~i.s* mifinat. (f.) 
Exhibition, jljbl iaVior, (_5%^J dikhla'i, (show) liUj ^anios^a. 
Exhortation, i.:u.,sU2J nasi/tat (f.), licj uia _z, '^■ ^J ! tar gh lb. (f.) 
Exile, (banishmeut) ^jts^ jila-watan, (banished) jjkjj be-wot'in. 
Existence, |J— * /<««'', Jjs>-^ wujud, (life) ^Xiij sindagl. 
Expedientjji^jJ tadblr (f), »jW- c/iara, uf'^ upae. 
Expense, il;-^ /agaf (f.), ~j>- idiarck: see Money, Cost. 

220 Vocabulary.^^Nou7is. 

Experience, Experiment, ^js^iMribaf ^jtj\^j\ azmffish. (f.) 
Explanation, ,jIj bayan, J--^ tafstl (f.), ^^ shark, (f.) 
Express, (messenger) iX^ IS ^asid, (JJLj paik : see Message. 
Expression, lii)J talaffuz^ iZj\) bat (f.), (squeezing out) Jfyasr' nichof. 
Extension, jX^pAaiZa'o, ^jll^ kiishadagt. 
Extract,^ htr, iJii- khulasa : see Essence, Selection. 
Extreme, Extremity, ^ sira, ^^:^^ nihayat (f.) : see Distress. 
Exuviae (slough or skin), y^^^f^ kenchR, J^^i^^ kenchul, (f.) 


Eyesore, U ^;^^^ jls^ kliAr ankhon ka. 

Fable, c:-^l^ hikayat (f.), Jii naArZ (f.), ^^ kahanu 

Fabrication, cijl:J banawat (f.), c:^.^L ggfefc^ (f.) 

Facility, ^UT o^anl, l::^^^ sahulat (f.) : see Readiness. 

Fact, (deed) |%\^ Hm, Jjii fTl, (reality) ls-^LS>- halclkat, (f.) 

Factory, ^^ kotht, AjU^ jl^ kar-JduLna. ^ 

Factotum, ^^y^ Aar-Ja6-f, j^^Kl^ kulkullan. 

Faculty, ci^y ittiu^at (f.), (quality) ^ gun, (skill) ^ hunar. 

Fair, (market) 1L« meZ3, cilfc A5f (f.), ..^2i-^ j^enM. (f.) 

Faith, (belief) ^\^ tmdnf hsm aladay (religion) \jiA< millat, (f.) 

Falsehood, Falsity, ^^p^ jhuth, dj^J daro gh , <— ^i^ kizb. 

Fame, /^J nam, yL^\ ishtihar, \j'^ja8, *^^j\^ shuhrat. (f.) 

Familiarity, ^\2j\ irtibat, LS-^/g^ suhbat (f.), c>i!\ wZfa^. (f.) 

Family, ^b^gAarJar, \j^j^ gharana, (race) ^^jJU- khandan. 

Famine, ks^ AaAf, J\^ a/caZ, cli^^ dubhuk. 

Fan, l^^ pankha, ^5^^ pankhi, (for grain) ^^^j^ parti, c-^^ ^wp. 

Fancy, JUs^ khiyaL Jb^ wahm, (whim)^ lahar, (f.) 

Fare, (food) C/t;^ ^urak (f.), (hire) ^Jlf bhara, ^}^ kiraya. 

Farewell, cl JjSl al-widi^, laiU- \j^ ^tcefa A5/i«. 

Fashion, Jjj daul,jjb taur, (form) jCi* ^Aa/cZ. (f.) 

Fast, ^\sfdka, ij^j roza, fJi^j bar at, \j^} upas. 

Fat (of animals), ^j>- charbi, ^^ LCj- chlknal. 

Fate,^^J^ takdir (f.), vj: ^.4 5 kismat (f.), (death) CL>^ waw^. (f.) 

Fathom, t-^U ^ ^UjU- cAor har kl nap, *; 6am. (f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 221 

Fatigue, ^^ l^ thakffl, ^'^^ mandaglf ^A^^^*^ sustl. 
Fault, jy^ ktt§ur, c-^^-^ Sib, (crime) ^--^Sj tak§tr. (f.) 
Favour, tJ^j^^ mihrbantf ^y tawajjuh (f.) : see Gift. 
Feast, vj^LJ xiyafat (f.), C^^J dawat (f.) : see Festival. 
Feature, J^ ^AaAZ (f.), ^LLa3 nakska, ^j Tukh^ ,^i>>- ckinh. 
Fee,^\ aJTf fty^j rumm, ^l:;:^^;^ mihnatanaf ^j^^ ajura. 
Feeling, A^^ lamisa, (sense) ^/«^ hiss, (affection) j\j pyar. 
Feint, d3\^ bahana, l^^J dhokha, aL>. ^i2a. 
Felloe, ^J^ b ^-^ l^ jiL>- chakkar ka gher or halka. 
Fellow, (equal) JL^- ^ ham-chashm : see Companion, Manikin. 
Fellowship, ij:,^^ ^ suhbat (f.), ^^1 ttn^, J-*« wicZ. 
Felon, i^yp* wii^Vim, j\^^^-k.^ tak^ir-war : see Whitlow. 
Felony, 8^ »\:^ gunah-i-kabira, m^ f^j>' jurm-irainm. 
Fence, \jt^ ghiera, }i\:^^panah (f.), ^^ tatfi : see Defence. 
Fermentation, J^f^josh, Jb\ ubal, (ferment) j*4tf>- khamir. 
Ferry, (passage) Sj\iS guzara,jfX^ ma bar : see Boat. 
Festival, jUjJf te'dhar, c-^ parab, Ju^ id. (f.) 
Festivity, i^jLl shadl, ^JL>^jashn, ^JL^ aish, ^^y>- khtishl. 
Fetter, Fetters, i^^^ befi, VfeJ^ paikarha, ^^bj-J beriydn. 
Fiddle, yS^J^ sarangl, \jf^ kingri, yjJjU sdrinda. 
Fidelity, i^j^*^^J<^\ Iman-dart, lij wafd (f.), ^j^ sachauti. 
Fight, j^*]«l iara7, Jbi^judh, iif^jang, ^^ ran : see Battle. 
Figure, (for number) ul^T awft, ^Jj rakam : see Form, Image. 
File, (instrument) ^^^ sohan (f.), ^^j rlti : see Row. 
Filings, jj^ ckur, sj\j) burada, (of iron) ^^ s^ tuh-chun. 
Filth, J-^ wiaiZ (f.), Ci^ chirk, ^J:ji\ aWlsh. (f.) 
Fin (of a fish) ^jb ^ ^ ^ vjWf^ machhU ka par or &a2i«. 
Finance, i^^«3^ JU malrguzari, <rl/^ khiraj^ 4X«1 amad. (f.) 
Firman, ^t«ri farman, ^1j^ parwana, <uU Jl». hukm-nama. 
Fish-hook, ^^^--:j iaTi^t, UJ^ /ra.^i^a (f.), 123 1^ A5n<a. 
Fissure, C/l>- cAaA, ^ torait;, 4-J\x& shigaf,j/i darz. 
Fitness, c::^U liya^at (f.)> ^J^^j^ sazawart, JL«jI^ shdyastagi. 

222 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Flannel^ c^ jS lol, UjJ^ dhosa. 

Flask, (powder-horn) Jj^*--* singra, ^\t} f^ju^, barut-dan : see Bottle. 

Flattery, *v«Ll^ Jdmskamad (f.), ^}^}^ chdplust. 


Flavour, i(yc maza, c\i^ sawad, C^«>S lazzat (j.\ c^V^ bu-bas. (f.) 
Fleam, j:i1j nasktar. 

Flight, -(of a bird) jVj^ partoaz (f.), (running ^,w9Ly) ji^ gurez. (f.) 
Flock, (of animals) ^ gaUa, tXu^jhund, (of cotton) J^ pahaL 
Flood, <mJi^ sailab (f.), i% barh (f.), (tide) J^f>- jawar (f.) : see 

Flower, J^ phuly Ji gwZ, (prime) jl^ bahar (S'\\^.^ joban. 
Flowers on cloth, \j^ J^ beUbuta. 

A Fluid, (J\>^pant (m.), jy^ aralcyj^ S ,<x^ &aAne fcl cAi^r. 
Fold, (plait) ^J tah (f.)> ^^fi^- chin (f.), (of a door) lb palla. 
Folk, (5^ Zog, ^fc>T oJmi, |%J^ mardum, ^\sf^\ ashMuis. 
Folly, Foolishness, ciy^ blwukufi, (.r^U^ himaJcat. (f.) 
Fondness, jLj py5r, j^ skauk, 2fl>- cAaA. (f ) 
Food, Ul^ khana, CS]jy>' khurak (f.), tiXc gA fag (f.), cjy Artif. 
A Fool (buflToon), 2r^— ^ maskhara^ jjl^ bhand. 
Footman, j^y naukar, aj^yb karkara, aJ^jpiyada. 
Footpath, 2^1^ rSA (f.), ^^Jj JtS/j pag-dandl, L gaZ?. 
Footstep, U jjSiaJ naksh-i'pa, (step) i»*xS kadam. 
Fop, ICb bankcif Lf>> chhaila, LJ) albela, L:>C^ chikaniya. 
Force, j^J jzror, Jj 6aZ, CJy kuwat (f.\j^jabr. 
Ford, <--^V^ payab, »\^ thah, (f.), LlApghat. 
Forefather, Jc^^jaddj J^fjy, buzurgwdr : see Ancestor. 
Foreman, J^J^ peshkdr, ^yl-J ptshwa, j^*^j^ sardar. 
Forepart, |jljf \ agwara, ol ag5, <U3>- w I agZa ^is^a. 
Forerumier, ^j j^^^ pesh-rau, Uj ^^^ pesh-numa. 
Foresight, ,-i-j ^^/Lj ptsh-blnt, ,^i-^ j^J rfiir-fctni : see Prudence. 
Forfeit, Forfeiture, vXilj dand, aJUj^ jarimana. 
Forge, iUlsL jUjl tohar-Miana, ^jfi^ bhatkt. 
Forgery, (^U /iia«, c,.ln7 taghallub. ^UU* jdUsazl. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 223 

Fornication, ^Wf* chkinala, \jj zina (f,\ JUJ faJc. 
Fornicator, ^bi^ chhinala. Fornicatress, J^>" chhinal, (f.) 
Fortitude, CL:t\j>' jur*at (f.), ^jiK^^^ jawanmardt : see Courage. 
Fortune, (chance) c:'i>i»«'? kismat (f.), (portion) v^l^ bhag, Jti^ 

■ _ 

Foundation, (of a building) jLjj bunyad (f.), ^^UT asas. (f.) 

Fraction, (bit) ^3 tukra, njij reza, (in numbers) j^ kasr. (f.) 

Fragrance, y cr^ kkush^m (f.), JhJCiLj surgandh. 

Frame, (plan) lo^libj dhancka, (shape) J^ daul: see Shape. 

Frankincense, ^U^ luban, ^bj) Zo&an, j^a^ bakhur. 

Fraud, t-^ji fareb, Uj dagka (f.), J^ chhaly^ makr. 

Freckle, (^;Xe magas (f.), ^^^««^ lahsan, ilj rfayA. 

Freedom, ^X>5jiT azadagt, ^^ khalasi^ iju\af najat. (f.) 

Freehold, ^^^-^ ^joU. ^^\ apni Ma^y zamin, j^\>' jdgtr. (f.) 

Freight, Jy nati/, ^^^ bhartt, (hire) Ijl^ bhara. 

Friday, l^p^junCa^ ^jT adina^Js^^ sukrwar. 

Friend, lii-^J dost, i^^js^ muhibb^Jo yar,j^ mitr. 

Friendship, ^^^^^^ dosti, ls-^^jc^ muhabbat (f.), c:^^ wZ/af. (f.) 

Fright, jj £{ar, <— fj<. Jdumf, u;^l,^.> dahshat (f.), ^^^^ 5aAm. 

Fringe,^lp- JAaZar (f.), J«^T anchal. 

Fruit, J^ 2>Aa/, 2r^ 97ief(?a, (profit) iSy^ samara^ wiJ no/*. 

Fruition, ^L«l^ kamyabij ^^ tamattu^, i^y^^ husuL 

Fulness, L^jy^-^^ mc^murty ^*]jyf^ pura% ^Jj^-^ sert, Lij^, bhartu 

Fun, LiUJ tamashaj J-^ khel, ^J^b bazi, ^J>-y^ sholdu. 

Fund, ^^^ff^yi^punji, ^A^ maya, ^Uy-a sar-maya, 


Funeral, ^^*^ tadfin (f.), J*^ tafhtz (f.), ij^janaza. 
Fur, ^^pUi^ pdstln,jy%^ samur, mJLj pashm (f.), (scum) ^5 l^ Aa7. 
Furnace, ,<^ bhathl, "l^ JA5r, ^b ^^T atash-dan. 
Furniture, (^L«»l ^ j(^ S^^^ *^ asbab, ,jUL ^aman, -^L saj. 
Furrow, L>- lyb \ii ^^ Jjb hal se bana hua khatt^ ^J^vij reghdrt. 
Fury, ij'^jazba, iJ^/>- u^y^ josh Jdwrosh, ^^r. gh azab. 
Gain, (earning) 4^'*U^ kama% J-^W hasil, (profit) jJ3 no/*- 


224 Vocabulary. — A'ouns. 

A Gallant, j\i j^iji tsliff-baz, L-y rasiya, (^U^ aiyash. 

Gallows, ^Ij dar, ^j^ suU, ^^ ^J>\(iphansl-kat/t. 

Game, (play) i^j\j hazl, J^ hhel, (prey)jlii shikar. 

Gaming-house, lOl^ <J^ ji*'e-^Mna, V' phar. (f.) 

Gang, Jji ghol, \^j^ jatha, AiJUs ta'ifa, ^^juth. 

Gaol, Ajli. ./OiJ handi-kiiuna. ii\s~ J^ kaid-Mutna. 

Garb, CJ^jJ pS*AaA; (f.), (_f.U /ii^oc, (guise) i_^--*j iAes. 

Garland, Sl^J^ phul-mala (f,), 1^.^.* siArfl,jU /i«r. 

Gamer, *)U-jLj! ambar-k^na, Sy go/u, ^U- JJj ghalia-kJianu. 

Gas,j\^. bukhfir, ^b %A (f.), ^^J iA5jj-4. (f.) 

Gauze, JjfJ)/ kapar-phul, JjfcJJ-i' kapardhul. 

Gazette, <uljjL»-l akhbar-nama. 

Gender, ,_^_i:9-j'i7is: (fem.) cl—jll tanls (f.), (mas.) j-?JJ foiATr. (f.) 

Generation, jJy taioallud, (race) J_j nasi (f.), l:.-Jj pusht. (f.) 

Generosity, cujli.-* safdtawat (f.), (ji^^ bahhs/tish. (f.) 

Genitive case, i.i^jLslu;-JU- ftalat-t-isafat. 

Gentleman, i^^Jl ^^ mardi-admi, ii^\jo- khwaja, i_,o-U ;u^iA. 

Gentlewoman, ^j\j i_j^l asArfl^aadi, ,^^ |ifj 6Aa/< ilij . 

Geography, &J^Jc>. jtighrafiya. 

Geomancy, ^^j ramal, ^^j rammal-7. 

Gesture, i^u-ip- (larakat (f.), j_,i-i;>- jwmfitsA (f.), f_^j was*, (f.) 

Ghost, (spectre) i^j^ bkut, ..::-oy^ ;»r(, (spirit) ^^j ruft. (f,) 

Giant, ^ *ie lJ^ mard-i azhn tan, ul-jJ dait/at. 

Gift, *Uil i»V*m, ^::-< bakhshish (f.), i^t'-i <'«", *!-» si/a. 

Gilding, ^S;!^^ tila-kan, ^j^jj =ar-ntgan, J^ ^a/f. 

Gills, (of a fish) \^ gal-phara, (dewlap, &c. ) •— -ix ghubghub. 

Girth (of a horse), <^^ tang, ,Xj pill, i^Ji^ jmshtang. 

Gladness, ^ys^ktl'^hl, iJ-^^^ shafii,jjj^ suriir, JcJI anand. 

Glass, (substance) ^IS kanch, Al-i aAwAa, (vessel) L-. w7n5. 

Globe, »/ Aiira, t^ gola, (world) J^ jakan. 

Gloom, Gloominess, ^^jlUftJ dhumlal, (sadness) t^Jl* malalat. (f.) 

Glory, (praise) J.*^- hamd (f.), (splendor) ^^ niir, jJ.y raunalc (C.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 225 

Glossary, i^jjjij farhang ({.), ^^^J^ UuU! Ivghat matruka. 

Glue, i^_j-> sartsh. 

Goodness, k/s^J hkalal, i^j^J nikoT, ^^j^ lOiubl. 

Goods, (furniture) cjL-I '£ j^ ghnr kd asbab, (effects) JU mat. 

Gossip, J^ijjit tiarza-gard, (sponsor) U t (_,»'o *jAJ dliaram-bap or 

Government, tj^-^r^^- fyukumat (f.), --Ij ra;', (&tate)^'.J^ sarAar. (f,) 
Grace, (divine) ij^faxl, (favour) ^jOfj faiz : see Beauty. 
Gracefulness, hjiU littj' ((.'), i^'Wj zeba't, tlsjLs^ sajawat. (f.) 
Grammar, jatr^ i_i^ .sar/" o naAo (f.), ju^li Ara'Trfa. 
Grandee, aJ-ks umda,j-t\ amir, ^j rukn, u-);il ashraf. 
Graodeur, ^\ baral, i.r.v»la j azamat (f.), |J^ buzurgi. 

Grant, *UJl in'a 

r hawkish (f.), Ui^ «V (f.) 



Gratitude, jCi shukr, •^J'J^J-!^ shukr-guzdri. 
Grave, jji gor (f,), j-j ffabr (f-)> jlf* wasar (f,), ^^•y^ madfun 
Gravitation, ^yS~e uJjt i/jiy« markaz kl taraf maildn. 
Grease, l<J^ charb'i, ^^ LC^ eAiAnal, ^^jy ravgfum. 
Greatness, i^ 1^ baral, ^^ kaldni, ^jji busurgl. ' 

Green (the colour) sj^ sabza, (grassy plot)^|j iy-j sabza-zar. 
Greyhound, \^ ,^j^ tazi kutta, U^ ^J^ shikari kutta. 
Grief, c^ gham, ^J dukh, J1 alam, vU ma/am, ^ ranj. 
Gnmace, ^J~^ kf/ls (f.), j*lf;jjcj bandar-bku'o. 
Gripe, (^msp)^pakar (f.), iLaJ kabza, (squeeze) jj=j" nicioT 
Grot, Grotto, i—i^ AaA/, Jj^J tAoA, ajU- AJ tak-kllana. 
Grove, iLj JagA, ^ kunj, j.i^ \$ t:.!y=^jJ darakhloA kdjhund. 
Groundwork, JLiJ bunyad (f.), ^J^' as/ (f.),J»-jfwr. (f.) 
Growth, (vegetation) ^-^^jj rolilagl, (increase) ^A^jf barfitl. 
Grudge, ixS klna, i~^ \S kHJOk* muddat ka klna : see Envy. 
Guard, (watch) __,'ji-fji»- ckauktddr, (protection) (.^-131*3- ftifusat. (f.) 
Guess, ^JCI atkal (f.), (^Li kit/as, j\>ij\ anduz,j\^ jiinddi 
Guest, ^J^*y« ™i^^an,j<i\^ J,lj wdrid sadir. 
Guidance, i^ UiAj rahiumdl, l1-«j'^ kidayat, (f.) 
2 r. 

■. (f.1 

226 Vocahubiry. — Nouns. 

Guide, Iaj t\j rah-niima, \f> t agwa, t/>jlA kadi, (m.) 

Guilt, ii^gujidh, ^,J t^kh, j^a kufur, ILf^- ^iH. (f.) 

Guitar,jls-i ^~ilaT,Ja-t titar. 

Gum, .ii^gond (f.)i j-** samagh. 

Gutter, i^jY* mukrl, *llj^ pamala, ^^W\j nahdatt. 

Habit, (tlresa) (^U libax, (cuBlom) d-'jU atia^ (f.) ; see Mode. 

Habitation,^ ghar, ^J^ makan, *Vi* mttkam. 

Haft, .^ muf/i (f.), •'^•^ kabia, -b-o dasta. 

Hag, (witch) ^^^J d57n (f.), (fury) Jj^ chuTail. ((.) 

Halo, (tlU Aa^, Jjoxi jnandal, Jj>:^ kundal. 

Halter, (for a horse) jjJ tS/V f>og-fpir (f.), (noose) j^-^l^ pAan 

Ham (of pork), ^\j jjjTl lI^ ^ j^y su'ar ki namak-Hiida r 

Hammer, (sledge) l?jfj> hathora, (small) i/Jj^ hat/iaurh 

At hand, 'i}=rj* 7itaujud,j^\^ fidzir. 

From hand to hand, ^:: — ijj k:u^-J ifosf ha-dast. 

Handful, ij^ tauthi,jfi i_J lap-bhar, •^-L.t mitsht. 

Handle, -u^J dasta, lZ.'O^ A^n(, &13J kabza, ^j^ miilh. (f.) 

Handmaid, iJ-^saAe/j, J_<1 i7fl/ (f,), ijj")l laundi. 

Handwriting, kr^- ^alt, L:i- v^L—fJ dast-khatt. 

Hap, (accident) jlwl tMi/S^, (luck) «:-v«-' kismat. (f.) 

Happinesg, *ljl urawi, mS\ anand, ^^j*^ kdmrani. 

Hiirdware.^ji Bkhar, ^^J^ ^ ^;! loht klchlzen. 

Harm, ^J^^ nuksdn,jjJ sarar, ^Joj ziyan, ^j ranj. 

Harmony, J—* met, jWI itti/tad, t^l^L* ndsgdri. 

Harp, kijj harhat (f.), cA»- cAang (f.), (j-f 6in, (f.) 

Harvest, (time) j^J tj-^^ wakt-i-dirau, (grain) --lil anii;. 

Haste, ^jij>-jaldi, ^'cJt sinlabT, Jj'Ij' a(a'5fi.' see Rage. 

Hate, Hatred, u=J^ nafrut (f.), clJjIac odau-a/ (f.). ^,>/ff''^«- (f-) 

naughtiness. itjC ghuruT. A:.^^ gkamand,jS kibr. 

Health, ^^^jiJ tanduriist'i , i^;^^s^ sifi/tat (f.), *^l dram. 

Heap,j-jkj dhcr, j\J\ ambdr, tJy tada, i^)j rds. 

By heart, i:;Vj'-^ ""^■* ~abdj>. 

V'ocabulari). — Nouns. 

HGarlli, t^^ chauka, ^y>- chullia, (dnkli.) I^ chula. 

Heal, ^J garmt, CJ,!^ Hararat (f.), ^J^jalnit: see Suiumi 

lleaXhen, ^^ kafir, ^ — 'ji<^^ but-parast, jX gabr. 

Height, ^ lec^l uncha'i, ^ Uja- c/iarkal, i^aJj bulandl. 

Heir, "iJ/'j wuris, ^Jlj wufi, Jiy* ^j watt-ahd. 

Help, JX* /H«</arf (f.), I— OUs-il isti'anat (f.) : see Aid. 

Hem, (border) i^^ maghzi. uJWLj sanjaf (f.)> j^ ^f^or. (f.) 

Hemisphere, Uol l^ ^^ fture ka adha, ^^ iSi adh-gola. 

Hemistich jl/'** mi^ra^, uX* /ufc (f.), ^^^ charan. 

Heptagon, «.,— < musabba', 0^ bZ^'U sai-imna. 

Herd, (flock) jli Jiur, jIs galla, (crowd) Jyc ff&)/, j:,^ jhund. 

Heresy, ki-cJj Jitfrtf (f.), jlJl iVAurf, -f-i kupalh. 

Heritage, tijl^ wilraj (f.), Cjj^ i/",^, j^yj;^ hapauti. 

Hermaphrodite, J^lia- khunm, \y^ hijra. 

Hero, j-j b'lT, (^y-\J pahlawan, _;J^J ba/iadur, eLs:* sAw/'a*. 

Hexagon, ^^J>...e musaddas, JiLijl.^ ,jii shash-pahlu shakl. 

Highlander, IjJ^J pahuriya, jjiU—ftj? kohistanl. 

Highness, lJ>3>Jj bulandl, (annA.&KsajiZJj.iis^liazrGtifi.'): sec Height. 

Highwater,j^j:»- 1^ b/iarajawar, JUS J-* madd-i-kainal. 

Highway, alj ali s^aA raA (f.), s^j ]^ &ar« ro^ta. 

Hilt, .^ye mulh (f.), a-aJ kabza, a:^^ dasta. 

Hinderance, Jlijl ofAa'o.jl^j rKiS'o, JjU ha'il,'f\ ar. (f.) 

Hint, ijtll ishara, UjI iwa (f.), JjtiJ kinat/a. 

Hire, i_-ii9 /a/a6 (f.), Aj\J kirai/a, ijyr^ ajura, \«l^ bharh. 

Hireling, j' J s_ij3-l njuT(uia,r,^<ii^jjj Tozlnordar. 

History, *i^jV Cawarikh (f.), fCj^ ^arU-A (f.), "-^--j'y rawayat, (f.) 

Hive, Uf»- chhalta, JL^^ makhiyal, .UVi-j»Jj zumbur-klMna. 

Hock (of a horse) ^jjil ^^ si;J<* ^''^f^ ^' ^f'- 

Hole, (pit) lap gnrAa, (rent) A.^j- chhed, r>jy sura^. 

Hollow, a^f i^ - y-J atKAefi gaA (f,), i-Jj»~ jauf,Ji^ kkalar. 

Holyday, Juc id (f.),jl*jw te'ohar, i^j}^ parab. 

Home, j^ gkar, ^^^t makan, IjJJ (/era, ^^C- < maakan, ^j viatnn. 

228 Vocalnlary Nount. 

Homicide, ^^lS »<3j* mardum-kusKl : see Mnrderer. 

Honesty, i^"^ tacka'i, ,_^\) rastl, S^j4 kfiaral, JA« fidk. 

Honey>conib, Uf>- chhatta ^Lt skaa, &jU~ j^ ihahdrkhana. 

Honour, 1.1^ tzzat (f.), k^w pat (f.), (rank) t^j* martaha. 

Hoop, Aai»- halka, ^^ kundHjj;^ chambar. 

Horottcope, lJ/^, f^ janan-patn, *=^, \j zalcha. 

Horror, ^^ -..» kaibat (f.), J^ haul, u-J-s-j wo^Aa^ (f.) 

Horserace, jj J Jp gkur-dauT. (f.) 

Horseehoe, J«j wu*/. 

Horticulture, ^j>:»:>a>- chaman-bandl, ^V^V bagh-bam. 

Hospital, UI»~jIaw blmaT-fdmna, UlII^Ij daru-sh-n/iaju. 

Hospitality, j^^j^^l— « musajir-pnrwari, ^JiSjSa^ mihmandarl. 

Host, (entertainer) ^^^J^ mezhan, _j'jjL**|-e mihrnandar: see Army. 

Hovel, 'jjijff- j^'>"'PT''tj;i^ chhappar, ^Ji Aafi. 

Hound, LS" gfj^ sAiAar? AuKa. 

Hour-glaas, Li-tLj Al^ slUsltorosaut, ^j^ ^ jUj fia/u A7 ghafi. 

Householder, \^ ■ i^' girhist, Ji-i iiJli- khana-dur. 

Hubbub, jTjLc Jj ghul-ghapara, ^jiy> liarbafi. 

Hue and cry, jISj LK^lft hank-pukar (f.), Ji ^Aa/. 

Humanity, u:.^-^J| admiyat (f.), tJLJ\— -.^Ifi blialmanaat. (f.) 

Human kitid, ^l— j1 insan, ^iJl ,<^ baniadam. 

Humility, ^jL ghaflbi, lii-ajl adhlnta. (f.) 

Humour, (juice) (^^ roe, i^jj fari, (of the body) U». klaU. 

Hunger, ^^ &/tuM (f.), is^ji^if-), ^S^-i^ guminagi. 

Hunt, Hunting, ^U^ shikar, Jw« sate/ (f.), jJ.)>{!^ khader. 

Hurry, ^^jL^-jaldi, . «jt-i shUabi, i^^^J* ''".''^T'- 

Husbandry, ,^J~—S kisnal, ^^^ khetl, ^JiziS kishtkarl. 

Husk, \a^ ckhilki.'iij bakla: see Chaff. 

Hyperbole, ^L< mubalagha, jj^l ighrak. 

Hypocrisy, tj Wya, ,_^jlL sulus,/^ makr, (^^ kapat. 

Jack, (engine) jS fta/ (f.), (for raiding weights) iLtJ damkalh. 

Jail, lOls^ Jui ^aiV-Mana, AJlaTji,;; buadikhana. 

Vocah alary . — No u ns. 

.lap,^:^ ^ C^W J* g"^"' abbas Hi jar. 
!dea, JU»- Miiyul, jyJi toMuwur, ^'utJ dkyan, 

liom, ^U j^ tarz-i-kalam (f.), ^iia-1 i§tila(i. (f.) 
!diot, ^j^ ^M*i=^ janatnl murakh, ^sS glcH, i^^pagal. 
Idleness (waiit of employment), tjfjKj bekarl, (laziness) ^^i— j km/; ,■ 


del, k^ iu/, |k~e sanam, ^^jy* muraC. (f.) 
dolater, i^-j^ L2— J but-parait, cX^ mushrtk, jS gabr. 

ialousy, ijli zann, ^^l^ Jj bad-gumam, LLij^ ghairat. (f.) 
'est, ^i^ khiin, ^j* mazakh, \^^ Ihalha. 

Christ, lU— T!* tiVa*- hazrat-lsa. 
et, Jet d'eau, »J^ fawwaTa, i^Ji^\ abkhezi, LLJysot, 
ew, JjyJ ytikud, ,^^y*^, yahudl. 
ews-harp, {^S^j* murchang, \±f'-^-^ muchang. 
Ignorance, ij^\.^ jakalat (f.), [J'-j'-' nadanl : see Folly. 

I, (evil) ,_f \j> bural, (harm) i^^T afat (f,), "U bala. (f.) 
mage, Hcj putld, ^^jj* miirat (f.) : see Idol, Likeness. 
magination,j^ tasaawuT, JU^ htiy^l, jj'-*'^ dhyan. 
mmodesty, ^jIs*^ he-kijabt, ^ L^u he-hayaTt. 
mpatience, i^j-'O-J bcmbri, ^ W^^ na-shikebaT. 
mpertinence (disrespect), ^jl ^ he-adabx, ^j>-\^ giistakhh 
mpiety, ^}~i jUk, ^J Ijki na-khuda-tarsi, fijb,i\ adharm. 

iport (meaning" 

a m<^in, , 

mpostor, jU Uj dagha-bax, \^S^ Ihag.J^ rnak)iar. 

nipressioD, (mark) ,_^ naksh, (print, edition) 'jl^ ckhapa, 

mpiiBonment, Ji-i kaid, (J—* Aais, joj Aami. 

mprovement, i_Jp^ bthtari, ^Ji tarakk},JLA islafi, (f.) 

Inability, i^iJ^^ nd-takatl, tJjj-i^iJ be-makdhri. 

ncamation, (of a divinity) ^IjjI autar, (of a wound) JUjjl indimal. 

ncendiary, jjyil ,_^l atash-afros, (seditious) jXl ,^^1 atash-angez. 

ncmse, ^^j^ loban, jysr ba^iir, Jy: iid. 

utli, ^ tassii, Jwl angal or j£l avgttl,jj^ par. (f.) 

230 Vocabulary. — JTouns. 

Incision, tilS kat {{.), ^J.Ji burrish (f,), |;r?- chira. 
InclinatioD, ,_J^ laailan, ,J— c mail, (wish) '•^i-^j raghhat. 
Income, (rent) iAJ klrat/a, (revenue) J^<1 iinad. (f.) 
Inconvenience, LS-iilj-oU na-muwufakat (f.), ^g.K'i takHf. (f,) 
Increase, i^J^J barhtl, ^jy*' afzuv'i, ^Ji taraJi^l. 
IncuBus, 1^})^ kabus, (dakh.) i^'AJjS Ai— i slna-kondi. 
Indenture, A^'^ jiyc akd-nama, -iXLe* machallia, ^Lj kabala. 
Index, (pointer out) Jlj daW, JJj (/ail/, (of a book) ilu-..^^ jihriat. 
Indigo, (die) J-i n7Z, (plant) wi^i-^.J IS J-i n7/ Aa darakht. 
Indisposition, (dieinclination) ^<^/^ namar^l, (illness) ^XjjU man- 

Individual, Jjifard, ^/tk-' Cj^\ ek shakJis, ii»-lj wafiid. 
Indolence, ,J——' sujttl, ^Jjn^ kahili, i^ TLaj dhtlal. 
Industry, vi '* mihnat (f.), x^j^jidd o jahd. 
Infancy, ^J^, bachpan, L^u-Jjit tufuliyat (f.), ^^Jio tifil. 
Infection, ij:-j.|;-> eirayat (f.), lh-^^ «/una^ (f.) 
Inference, i^ViJ natlja, J^la- /ia?t7, Jijl atkal. (f.) 
Infidel,yli^ kafir,jS gahr, ^jJ-iJ 6c(/iK, tlS^i-* mushrik. 
Infidelity,ji? /cm/t, tli^ shirk, kS^}i^ be-lmanl. 
Inflammation, ^^^jalan, i^Jj^ mztsk (f.), s^l^l Utihiib. 
Influence,yl «,;ar, ^JIj (osir, -Sj- /iukm, c-jLj A^o^. 
Information, j-». kfuibaT (f.), tUt' VHiiu* (f.), Jii-i *a(iA. (f.) 
Informer, aUj nammam, ^J-)_^ tuii khufya-nawis. 
Infraction, i:— ' fasldi, e: ^"' shikast (f.), i,^^-;; bhang. 
Ingot, Sj rfo/a, l^" (Afl^Aa, e-ijl 7n(. (f.) 
Ingratitude, t^jJ^'j na-shukrl, jjl - ^uu ^^JS kufriin4-7ii^miil. 
Inhabitant, ^^^Li sakin, *X« mukha, ii^\i baskauda. 
Inheritance, i^l irt, ii>);-« »itr«.«, ^^J^> bapaut't. 
Injury, (hurt) (.--mI aseb, 'j^l isa (f.) : see Detriment, Injustice. 
Injustice, ^*»Uaj^ ^ be-in}df7, (wrong) *Uj sw/m. 
Ink, i^lf-i siyah'i, 4, 
Inkhorn, Ink^tund, 1 

^ Toshnal, (i-ed) 
jj t/uwaf (f,), ^Ij Ji kalam-dim. 

Voca hulary . — Nou ns . 

Innocence, ^ULj begiinohl, iji^-t-ac tstnat (f.), .Sh pakl. 
Inquiry, ^\i -if-y puchh-qMchh (f.), j^i— -j puTsUh. (f.) 
Inscription, •uU£ kitiiba, ^^-^ likhat (f), ^^f marhum. 
Insertion, JU-j| idjdMl, k-'jJj1 indirajy iU-lj da^ila. 
Inspection, »^ nigak (f.), ^tu nnsdr (f.), IsW /i^a:. 
Inspector, |^-«t amrn, *-*3.^ mufitamim, i^jJiJ darogha. 
Inspiration, (drawing in the breath) ^J^f"^ damkask'i, (dirine) ^-^-j 

wa^I, (f.) 
Instalment, (to o£Bce) ^J^J«^*«Li k/Urat-dihl, (portion) L_i A-isj!. (f.) 
Instance, (entreaty) ij:,— j'yi-_|iJ darkJiwast (f.); eee Affair, Example. 
For instance, lil^ mamlan, i£ L-^jaisa ki. 
Instruction, *-L»j ta^lim, (f.), ,_; l(£~» sikha't: see Education. 
Instrument, <tlT ala, ^^ jantr, Jw^ hathyar, ui-cb io'ijt. 
Musical Instrument, Ib*-\j haja,j\~i saz. 
Insiilt,J-fs- ch/iir (f.),^ tans (f.), Ui-Jl»i shamaUtt. (f.) 
Insurance (against loss), Iw i7nia. 
InsurrecUon, IJj balwa, du^iift hangama, JLJ fasad. 
Integer or Integral number, 'f'i^'" J-i^ adad-i-iafuh. 
Intellect, Intelligence, J*c a^/ (f.)f l^j* Ao*A, ^jj &«iiA. (f.) 
InteUigence (news)^^ Jdmbar (f.), ^itl i««/a», ^ifl agahJ. 
Intent, Intention, JwU v^aptf, ii<i\j' irada, i>u-w ntyat. (f.) 
Interces^on, ij^-^U^ shafa'at (f.), Ll-iiLij wasatat. (f.) 
Intercourse, Jk^iXil amad-shud (f.j, uls alujca. 
Interest, (for money) Jj-i md, —U Jya; ; see Concern, Benefit, 
Interference, J.i-J dajdil, i^ljjl Li-^iJ dast-andHzi. 
Interjection (in grammar), 1jJi_i^ fiarf-i-nida, t—ij>- harf. 
Interim (in the), ^^j-* ,J^j<i w^ ^ darmiyan men. 
Interposition, Intervention, u^Lij wasatat (f.), i^^j rraxlla. 
Interpretation, t-*s^y Carjtima, fC;^ taahrlfi. (l.) 
Interrogation, J^-k-Ji isHfsar, *\^fia-i\ Utifham. 
Interruption, ts-f^ harakat (f.), Jl^i khalul, — ^ hurj. 
Interstice, A^Mjafilii, (l>etwecn fingers or toes) ^J 1^ g/ial. 

SOd Veembmkuy. — Nouns. 

kMlefftmlp ^Jt^j>> i farmyin , ^ Kci,j:j\ antar. 
hitorriev^ oMSU mmBkii (t\ C.c^ bh^nt. (f.) 
liKlnMtioiii> «;llt isAira» iAi^ kinaya, UA tma. (f.) 
liiloxk«tk»> Ui nmkif ^J^"*^ mastt^ ^^ behoshu 
lulioduetioii, JWo) MMa', (of a book) <ib»-Ljj dtbaja. 

lavwtion, ^U:\ i/irf, ^]/^< ikhtirdf", C^L «aM^ (f.) 
Inventor, Oj^j^ m^*u^ ^Ij tuayi*, ^b 6ani. 
Inventory, UU-» riyoAa, J^ fard (f.), <^J^ tc^tilca. 
Investigation, J!^ taJmh (f.), ^^^^iiJ► tafttsh. (f.) 
Invitation, CJy J daVa^ (f.), l^y nyofS, t«JJk fafaJ. (f.) 
Invoice, ^U^l \^z,^jji^ fihrist'-irajnasy uXsnj btjak. 
Job. (work) Jy5 laAa/ (f-), f^^ ^ thtka kam, (stab) Jyb AiiZ. (f.) 
Jointure, jy* fMhr. 

Joke, l|Sf thathaf ^J^ khilR^ ^ mazaldk. 
Jolt, ICw rfAii*fta, cL^^Aoft (f.), S^ hachkolR. 
Jot, Iota, 1^0 sarra, ^aSi huJctay JJ ^iZ. 
Journal, *^^ Jv ^oar-nama, ^j'jT awarja^ \j^ khasra, 
Joumey,^^ safar^ c^L-^ musafarat. (f.) 
Jimrneymany \jfjS kamera, xsjJ^ karanda, 
Joy, ^y^- Idmf^^y ^J>- Mkurrarm^ fjJL bilas, ^j^jai. 
Irony, ^U^*^ hajo matih {fXjSS^ tasa khkh ur. 
Itch, (disease) J^ khaj (f.), ^Xsr khujii : see Desire. 
Judgment, (decision) (_jLi3^ insaf, (sentence) J^ ^ukm : see Intel- 
Judgment (day), c:-^li Myamat (S),y '^ fyashr. (f.) 
Juice, fjmj ras, jy: araAr, y^ sAira, ^y** jt«, ^v^ T^^wi. (m.) 
Jump, 4f^K kulanch (f.), «J»/ ASrf (f.)> Ji^: -**>*fr> jast, (f.) 
J unction, J^jor, JJ^ paiwandj (J^^tc€i§L 
Juncture (time) ls^^ tro^f, ciJU- halat (f.) : see Junction. 
Ivory, i^:^\j ^\^ hatht^ant, ^Ic q;, ^IjJjLi ftl-dandan. 
Jurisdiction, S^- fiukm^ ViS^v«yl>^ hukumat ({.),^jJj kalam-rav. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 233 

Jury, vjuolsu panchayat (f.), -ju panch. 

Justice, (_iL33\ insaf, Jj^ adl^JLj nyaw: see Judge. 

Kalendar, m)^ takwim (f.), ]^ patra. 

Kali, j^ /taff, ^^^jf*^ «ay«. 

Keepsake, u^ol^b yadgarl, t^^,t^\i yad-bud, ^IIj nwAaw?. 

Kennel, (for dogs) ^UgrjlJ ^azi-Ma^a: see Gutter. 

Kermes,J^ Ipirmiz. 

Kernel, Ji^ maghzj \jtf guda, (of cocoa-nut) ^f gari. 

Kick, c^S Za« (f.)f j^W* V'^^'^ (f-), '^ ^Aa^- (f-) 
Kiln, ^<^ bkatht, (especially for grain) Jl^^ JAar, (potter's) 'jj airS. 
Kin, j^ jIjU nata-dar, \x-» ^aga, JiJisJ^j rishta-dar. 
Kind, (genus, race) (j-^i^jins, d^U §5^ (f.), ^y nau^. 
Kindness, ^y VjV* mihrbam, As^y tawajjuh. (f.) 
Kindred, jcj ^^*l^ bhd*Uband, byl akriba, Lri^ khzpesk. 
Kingdom, ^jr ^;U.o saltanat {(.), c:.^l2> Jb badshahat. (f.) 
Kinsman, jb^ti;^ rishta-dar, ^]/ karabatu 
Kiss, U^ chuma, <U^ ^^a, ,^^ff^ machhi. 
Paper Kite, 4^Jo guddi, (^fisj patang, JCj tukkaL (f.) 
Knack, (habit) k.^j £?Aa&, a^J^^a^itra: see Dexterity^ 
Knapsack, "i^^jholiyt^ tkaila, ^^Ji^\^ jama-dam. 
Knave, jblcJ dagha-baZfj^^ aiyar,j\Lc makkar. 
Kneading-trough, \j^ kathrajj\xi taghar. ^^ kathautl. 
Knight, jJI^ bahadur, \jj^ mirza^ (at chess) ^j^ ghdra. 
Knob, -|2it> ganth (f.), (dakh.) t^S^gundi. 
Knocker (of a door), ^iSW hO'lkflf j^ ^^'f^ halka-dar. 
Knot, -^if ganth (f.), *^ akd, yp giriA (f.), *^^ plch. 
Knowledge, J^ t/m, JbJJ ^t^^A (f.), cu*«Jl J danist. (f.) 
Label, \sj ^a^a, ,<^^ chitthl, ^\jj^ sar-nama. 
Labour, c:^.;i^ mihnat (f.), ^J rfuM, (in birth) 2rj J,j dard-i-zih. 
Lace, (gold or silver) ^^ gota, ^J^ kinari, (cord) j^^J dori. 
Lacker, (varnish) d^ ZmA, ^^j raughan. 
Lady, ^^^j KM, ^^^U Idvatun (f.), Jl£>* khanam. (f.) 

2 H 

234 Vocabulary. — iViiuns. 

Lamentation, (Jli nala, ^j^j zar't, e^y nauha, iPjS giriya. 
Lampblack, i^'^ kajal, iJjJ dada. Is? kajia. 
Lampoon, j^ /lajo (f.)> 'jJ^ bhaiulauwa. 
Lancet, jiiJ nas/itar. (f.) 

Landlord, j1Jm*<; zamindar, (of a 

■n) c-k^^ 


Landmark, rijl^ siwana, -Mi^ mend (f.), IJJ^J diiiula. 

Landscape.jJ^ ^S <i\y^ \j ul-fX* ^ Aisii mulkya savsad kl taswir. (f.) 

Lane, ^Jks ga/7, *!_, rah (f.), \^lj na/ca. 

Language, ^^j saban (f.), jJjJ iofi, \4^ hkakha. (f.) 

Lap, j/god{{.), ^cfgodi, ^ ^/J J y\j sana kc upar kljagah. 

Lappet, riLtJi shamla, ^^ pa'traman. 

Laid, ^j!>- ^Sj S^y su'ar kl pakki charbl. 

Lascar (from ^jf^ lashkart, soldier), ,^si>- khalasj. 

Lash, (liiong) \j^ kora, (stroke) iJSj}^i^j-i tarb-i-chabuk. 

Lass, (young woumb) »ji^j<i dasklza (f,), lioU naeka. (f.) 

Last (for a shoe), ^jtii l_JIj ^alib-i-kafsh, jjl^ kalbud. 

Lathe, jy. MiJ-i*^ (f-). ^^J- Mtflrrat. (f.) 

Latitude, ij')jj>- cAaura"?, |^_,s^ «rf (f.), ^je-i=^j<i darja-e-ars. 

Lattice, <Jjl^ shabak, ^jj^sx^ jhnnjArJ, ^y^Jul, ^''■4 kklrk't. 

Laudanum, jy; If *J^ a/7m ft« arak. 

Laughing-stock, ijs — " maslduiTa, ij-^s*** iRuthik. 

Laughter, Laugh, (.liLsr^ tax/iik (f.), j<— ^ Aarijd. 

Law, (rule) lAsM kaida, (statute) ^^'l aln, i^jj'j ^anSn. 

Lawn, jUir* raarghzar, ^^'j--« »itiirfa« : see Mustio. 

Lawsuit, I^J da^wa, i~fJi Jtasiya, A^jkiU mukadditma. 

Laziness, ^j — > sjisCi, ^yfS* mafhuVi, ^^Jbi dhil, (f.) 

Leader, ly-J pe«Awa, j^ J^ sardar, ij^j^ sar-guroh. 

Leaf, lu patta, CjIi ;ia(, iS.^ 6a^g. (of a book) jjj [carnAr. 

League, (alliance) iJr* ""^'j (three miles) \±f' y farsatig. 

Leanness, 'jSjJ duhlapa, i^^ lagharl : see Poverty. 

Leap, Jjf ASrf (f.), lj — ^ jast (f.), JJl^J phand: see Jump. 

Learning, J-s i/m, IjJj iirfyu (f.)» i.i4— ai /aj*/o(. (f.) 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 236 

Lease; ^\ji kiraya, ifj\pr^ yara, (deed) l2^ patta. 
Leather, \y4^ chamroy aj^ charm, jJi^ jild. (f.) 

Leave, c^l^r^ ijazat (f.), U| rafsa (f.), (to depart) us-war^j rukh- 
sat. (f.) 

Leaven (ferment), j^^aS^ Idunmr, ^U may a. 

Leavings (offal), ^^^ jhutha, sJj^ ^ pas-ldviirda. 

Legacy, <Ub hiha, vju---f^ waslyat. (f.) 

Legerdemain, ^^Joj -^ j dith-bandi, grjWju*A sha^bada-bazl. 

Leisure, \.z^^Ji fursat (f.), ^^2^\Jfaraghat (f.), ^^5^ chhutfi. (f.) 

Length, ^^ LiJ lambffi, Jjt /fiZ, Jlja*\ imtidad. 

Lesson, JU-» «a&ai^, (^.-^ J ciar«, (precept) jcj pand. 

Letter, <— i^ )iar/*, (epistle) ladL ^agf, ^^^^5^ chitihu 

Lexicographer, (ju^ l^J^ mu^aHifi-lughat. 

Liberality, t}j>-jud (f.), ^ju^yJU dli-himmati : see Generosity. 

Liberty, (freedom) c^^|;T azadt, i^*^j rikal: 8||^ Leave. 

Library, ^U« l,^ kutub-Miana, l,^ iz^'^x^^As^ jamVat'>kutub» 

License, S^ hukm, f^Vtji farman, lj\^j)^ partoana : see Leave. 

Licorice, (^y^ sus, (j^yJ) fj^\ aslurs-sus, JbXc ^^^^^jp^ jetht-madh. 

Lie, ^^^ jhuth, 4;|;J darogh, l^S^ kizb. 

Lieutenant (deputy), ^U^ J}3 ka'im makam, c^U na\lb. 

Life, ^jl (m.), ^iPr jtw, J^jan, (living) ^Jjj zindagi. 

Lighter, (large boat) !^ bhar. 

Likelihood, JUi»-1 ititimal, ^^jy^ furat (f.), ^Uf guman. 

Likeness, ur-^L^ shabahat (f«)i v::^U^ mumasalat (f.) : see Form. 

Limit, Limitation, «X>- fiadd (f.), aI^WI i^to, Ut^ siwana. 

Line, (string) jj*> dSr (f.), c^^l^ j[aita&, (streak) ^-fl iaAir (f.), (of a 
book) Jsua satar (f.), (hemistich) 9]/-»< mi§ra^, (equinoctial) 
\^\ ia^ ^kz)[t-t-i5^ttra : see Lnotiit, Row, Lineage. 

Lineage, J-J nasi (f.), ^^^JJlei- JduSmdan, t--^ nasab. 

Lineament, JlsS- Idial, \^ khafl. • see Feature. 

Linen, ^^\s£ kattan or katan, \^'kapra. 

Lining, ^i-j^ a^tar, ^y< marhan. (f.) 

236 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Litik, (of a chain) iJU ^alaba, ^^ kafi, (torch) J«i^ mash'al. 
Linseed, ^^1 alsl, ^Ja^ *3r tukhm-i-katun, ._jJi\ atasl. 
Liquefaction, jTi^ pighla'a, ^ galan, lz -j -Ijj gudakht. (f.) 
Liquid, Liquor, jy: arak, ijLi pani (na.)i Wj '""*> '^A 'fmrh. 
List, (roil) ci— yt* fikrist (f.), J/ /i'"'^ (f)) (bandage) |_j2j J^afff, 

(border) »jLf kinura, (palfestra) |^l^ \ akhara : see Desire. 
LithargCj ^^,> • ■ i^J-e murdar sang, \t- ^' ■• i-i,^ mvrda sang. 
Litter, (chair) ^JUIj pa^ftt, (straw) j^T aAA"'" (f-)) (brood) JjfrjV'o'. 
A Little, .fa? kuchh, ijti sarra, JJjjAs kadr-i-kalil. 
LiveHhood, ^jjj rozi, jj_, risA, ^i-i-jt^ mc'fsAal. (f.) 
Load, ^y bdjh,j'^ bhar, *j-i m5(A (f.), JH iad. (f.) 
Loaf, »-2;'_)_^ Tol, jjj ro/i, ^jj yb panw rofi. 
Loan, |i^ ^"ars, ^J o^j^ (iriyaf-rfiAi, ^Iftjl udhar. 

Lock, (of a door) Jw /.v///, DU tola, (of a gun) i ~jU- champ (f.), 

JS *«/ (f.), (of hair) ^J sulf (f.), J^ /t5Atti (f.), (for water) 
>iii band. 
Lodge (small house), j^ ^_jt^ chhota gfiar, lSj^^ kolkri. 
Lodger, •iJLc muklm, iSi^\j bashanda, j\-3ij\^ kiratfa-dar. 
Loftiness, (height) i/jJj bulamVi, (j^uAe) j>j=- ghurur. 
Log, i'^ kiinda, >u> tana : see Block. 
Logic, j_^Sai.< mantik (f.), s^U-« *ii '/ni-i-mHnazara. 
Logician, ^J^au^ manfikl, ilSj}^ naiyayik. 
Longitude, ^}je tul, yUJ lamban. 
Looby, i^;^"' JJ— iyU na-tarashlda shakJts, (dakh.) |;Ji~j& heiidra. 
Loom, cr-JlJ 'on' (f.): see Instrument. 
Loop, ^J*j phali, 6*Sj" tukma, 4aL»- halka, ^*— JlfJ phansi. 
L' oseness, ^^j'^ kushadagi, i^J-iJ be/faidi t see Diarrhtca. 
Lord, (master) (Jj3to tnalik, (»_.,s»-\,tf saftib, (nobleman) ^^li- AVjoh . 

liJLj beg,j^ tnlr : see Husband, God. 
Lordship, ^^^l-s xahibl, ciyltl imaruf (f.). *^-*^U malik'njat. (f.) 
Lore, -U Ifm, IjJ iirfya (f.), J^fasl. 
Loss, ijLsiiJ nulifan, lz..^'— i- khisarat (f.), (defeat, q. v.)_;^ /'«''. (L) 

Vocabulary — Nouns. 237 

Lot, c,. •**»tv luisibf kz ^.aJj kismat (f.), (share) it.^>^ hissa^ 

Lottery, ,^J^ sharfiy ^^j\j Ac^ kur'a-bazl, J-£^ \J \J^^ ckittiS ka 

Lover, J^^U ashik^ u^U? taUi,j\i yar, ^^^jbt* sajjan. (m. f.) 
Lowland, i,y.j^.> ^^^j zanund-nasheb, ^\^ nlchan. ^ 

Lowness, ^ l^ nlcAa't, ^^^ ptu^I, (meanness) uuJ J sUZa^. (f.) 
Lucifer, (the planet Venus) sybj zuhra (f.), ^Cd ^uitr .* see DeviL 
Luck, (chance) jIaJ\ ittifak, (fortune) <»,^j.fl» naslb : see Lot. 
Lucre, ^fi3 'i^l/*^ »*yj\3 fa'ida, ijys st<G?, .fS 2a&A. 
Luggage, L£>>^Jy>> chtz^ast (f.)» ^-'V*'^ ^ if^ ^^ ^ o^ioi. 
Lumber, cs^^J-^ s^^ nakari cKiz-bastj ^^ agarbagar. 
Lump, )j ^Za, 1^ fuira, cl^ fuA, (of sugar, meat) ^J ^/i. 
Lunacy, J^^^<^ diwanagi, y^ sir (f.), \j(^ sauda. 
Lunch, Luncheon, \^ kathoa, \i^l3 nashta, ^^^ tafannun. 
Lust, ^^''''^ masdj ^^y^ shahwat (f.)» u^^ ^ ^^ Juiwa o hawas. (f.) 
Lustre, jy nur, uX«^ cAamo/: (f.), \^jHa (f.), s^jahoa. 
Lute (instrument), Is^ barbat (f.), ^^^^^ tambur^ ^ &f n. (f.) 
Luxury, c^^lx ^^^,l»c at«A ashrat (f.), ^^^t^ aiyashl. 
Lyre, ia^^ barbat (f.) : see Harp : (constellation) ^fjl|^ nasru4- 

wafpi . 
Mace, (club) lS3^ «oii^a, loe asa,j^gurz: see under Spices. 
Machine, J^ AaZ ({.),j:>:^jantr, ^ dla, ks^^jc^ §an*at. (f.) 
Madam, ,^_^ bibl, ^>^r^\^ ^^^ &75i ;a>li6, ^U^^Ip JIj i^i^affi §afiiba. 
Mademoiselle, ,^^ Zarfti, i^J^^ chhokri, <Ui.^ §abtya. (f.) 
Madness, J.rf «r (f.), f^^junutif ^\^'^ diwanagi. 
Magazine, (store) ^|^ kfuzana, ^js^ malchzan, (book) <dL| maZa. 
Magi (one of the), (j^jst* my us, ^ mugh, ^S gabr. 
Magic, c^l^U. ^xirat (f.), ^U- jo^Ztl, ^^ ^lAr, Ifly ZojAra. 
Magician, j:>^ls^jaJt«gar,jU(^,j^)^ nairang^sazj j^\^ sahir. 
Magistrate, j^Jc»*y/aii/G?ar, ^l>. kakimj J^U amiZ. 
Majesty, (royal title) 2fU^l^ jahan-panah, cu^.a>. fiazrat: see 


S38 Vocahalary. — Nmas. 

Maintenance, (protection) ^j^j^ fAabarglri, ((bod) ,^^/ par- 

warish. (f.) 
Majority, (greater part) t^^ kturrat 'f.), (full age) cjL bula gh . 
Make, (form) Jj J daul, (structore) »ijly banawat (f.) : see FttebiMi. 
Mkker, ^S karta, Vj^^ banancwald : see Creator. 
Malady, ^0^ maraz, ^J-*^, hmarl, >^jj rog, j^j* asar. 
Malice, Jj-S kina, ^^ baghz, oJj'jj admcat (f.), ^jJ^ hadl. 
Mallet, 'jS^ mogra, t^^y^ ""Sgri, ^i^ ratkhrcha. ijjf AoAo. 
Mam, Mamma, UU mama, U^ amma, U ma, U.< maiya. (f.) 
Maoacle, ^j^ .^ halh-kafi, (Manacles) ^J^_^ -cA hath-kariyan. 
ManagcmcDt, ^^jij^ tarbaraht, iJij^i^J^ kargusarl: sec Care. 

Mane, Jlj yit (f), JU fli/a/ (f.), 


Mange, u^j^ kharish (f.), ^_j).«? |ji liiuy^ janwaroit kl khfijti. 
Manger, ^j^ kkurli, \j^ kathra, ^J^ than. 
Manhood, ijJ^jT jcwani, i— »t.i skabab, ^Jj^ mardi. 
Manikin, liili bd'oita, ijSif< mardak, ISj! larka : see Dwarf, 
Mankind, ^jUj' pji was" inxun, *J| |_jij fittnl dHam,jti hashar. 
Manna (in medicine), ei^l^^^ s/iirkMsht, ^^--arj laranjubin. 
Manner, _jt (oraA (f,), ^}.J davl, t_.^>> (f^aft, jjt four. 
Manners, (morals) jlLi-l akhlak, (politeness) t-j^J] addb. 
Manufactory, lOUylS kdrkhana. Manufactnre, ,jS^.J^ karlgari. 
Manure, (_H^ pans, ti*'"^ AAa? (f), jl^ A'Aoff (f.) : see Dung. 
Manuscript, (writing) Lir-j dasMiaU, (book) iiiy >Ji~^-iidast-iiatcis/ila. 
Map, <tl.iJ itukska, il^^'*' °'' naksba-i-mtiluk, iJ-ni ^af. 
A Marble (for playing with), lS»l awfa, i)f goli. 
March, (journey) ~^ kuc/i,jLj safar, (month) u^.^^ chait (?). 
Margin, it^U. hdshiya, s^lif Afnara, i_J /a£. 
Mark, (sign) ^JjLJ niskdn, (stamp) jU dagh : see Coin, Butt. 
Market, C^j^- chauk,Jj\i bazar, tJAa hat (f.), .^j^ pentk. (f.) 
Marriage, jLj *ynA, ^tjj /»*#, ^S'^ shadi, ^'\xi.^ kadkhiidal. 
Martingal, ■^ jij zer-hand, A^_ ,_^ pesh-band. 
Martyr, J-i(.i shaltid. 

Vocabulary. — .Nouns. * 

Mass, (lump) IjiiJ pinda, Uj dala, (multitude) j U>. jama'o. 

Massacre, JiJ katl, *U iJy katUi-dmm ; see Carnage, 

Master, (proprietor) C£iVe malik, (lord) ^--^l* ;a/ii&, (teacher) 

J^\ ustad. 
Mastich, ^C^.j-« masfa/cT. 

Mat, lijjj boriya, i_f l2>- citalal, i—i-: saff{{.\ ^'^ phfi. 
Match, (contest) AjU^ mteffdbala, ^j\j bdzt, (an equal) j-^ nasTc. 
Mate, (comrade) ^-(jLj sa( A;, i^L^i>-juft; see Husband, Mate (of a 

Materials, i—^L-it ashab, ^L>Li samdn, i^j>^ lawdzima. 
Mathematics, ^\}jAa tlm-i-^iyazi. 

Matrice, Matrix, (mould) lajrU mncha, (womb) *»-_) rihm. 
Mutter, (substance) ij_b hayuld, (pus) »— — -J P'^ (*"■) - see Affair. 
Maxim, (axiom) )J.c\j ka*ida, (adage) ^jfc« ma}aida. 
Meadow, J '_^c^ marghzdr, i^'\ji tara'i, >»^_/^ charagdh. 
Meal, (flour) \jT afa, J,l arrf, (eating) Lil^ khdnd. 
Meaning, ^J-'^ m«*w7, irJ|_fl irdda, ^1 ar(A, .Wtt* maksad. 
Measure, yijl»-J paimd'/sh (f.), fc_j\i wup (f.), tJ^ moTJ, (in verse) j 

i^j utarn, ^j'j;^ mlzdn, (in music) JlJ (aZ, (portion) i.a^ kifid, 

(means) JjJ daul, i--^Ji tark'ib (f.), (a land measure) k_-J;»- I 

jarib (f.), '^ kattbd, (for cloth) jfgaz. 
Meat, (flesh) u:,^^ gosht, (_/JLe mai's, (food) \j\^ khdnd: see Food. 
Mechanics, J^^i*- A: 'lm-i-Jarr-i.saftiL 
Medal, A*jiJ taghma. iLj stkka, \jX< mudrd. (f.) 
Mediation, J Ufi" ..y b'tch-bichd'6, uh-JjIjj wnsatat. (f) 
Meditation, yUftJ dhydn, (thought)jCj_/(Ar, J.«l; taammnl. 
Meed, A* jiia, jS»-\ ayV, l^jaza (f.), Aaat* fuA/w. 
Meeting, 1(_j sabkd (f.), j'\^ jama'd, \Ji-y*,*^ jam'iyat, (i-) 
Melancholy, tl^U mdkhuliyd, bj- saWa, JIU ma/a/. 
Melody, naghma, Jt^ sarbd, i^S^^ dkang. 
Memoir, -c^^jj (awtirlMt li-— i^^ jfar-guaaaAf (f.), »/JJ taskim 
Memorandum, iji^lj jb ydd-ildskl (f.),jjl jIj yad-dwar. 

1240 Vocahnlury. — Novtis. 

Memorial, jU jU yatZ-gflr, (petition) li^'Jj_^ ars-daskt. (f.) 
Memory (faculty of^, ilajU- Ao^aa, U£;»- ftifs, (remembrance) ob yut/. (f.) 
Mendicity, ^'\Mgaddl, i^j^ faJari* 
Mending (repair), l:>i.<^ marammat. (f.) 

Mensuration, ^^1*-j paima'ish (f.), (of land) ^_jl^ i.^y>- jaTib-kaslii, 
Mention, ^J aiftr, ^y>- charcha, j^i^ mazkur, jLy^ il:-j bat-kaka'a. 
Merchandise (goods), JU maf, |_;«ijs-jins (f.), J) ra^am. (f.) 
Meridian, (noon) J^\ 4_ii« nisfu-n-nahar, (line) j^Jl t—i-ai U^ 

fcAa f J -i-B isfu-n -nahar. 
Merit, jjS gH7i, jJj ^arfr (f.), ^^ jaiihar, l::-5U Uyakat. (f.) 
Mermaid,,^ Uii^jo/muKKS (m. K;a(er-mnn),_^sJli.:i-iJ /'inrii-Z-ia/(j'.(f,) 
Merryandrew, J,ir-* maskhara, jjUt hkaiid, iSi^)-> swangi. (m.) 
Message, *l-J payam, |»U_J paighani, L-j J.:_j sanclesa. 
Messenger, ^—ali-jpaiglAamfiar, |^— jJj— ; sandesl, tJ^jXi harkara, li^li 

Messiah, :#w< masih, 1s^_4 masi^a, J^— -c lij,,.<=9- /latrat fsa. 
Metaphor, j^.Ui^l isti'dra, j\j=* majaz, (simile) Uj^ u^ama. (f.) 
Metempsychosis, jcr'liJ tanasvkh, j^}\ autdr, ^fi\}\ dwdgawan. 
Method, (order) t— 'jLl uslub, (manner) j^ fa«r, JjJ dau/, AiiJ-j 

Metre, ^^\}^ mizan (f.),/^ bafir (f.), *!=' nam (f,), ^^jj wazti. 
Metropohs, ti—Ja!— Sljlj ddru-i-saUanat, s^acjs^ taMitgah. (f.) 
Mettle, iJUj^)^ phvrt (f.), ci-vtA himmat (f.), 4^LjU-_;aa6a=T. 
Mice, ^Lija^ chuhiydii, ^j^ chuht. 
Mien, luLi kiyafa, a,^ chihra, ^J (/Ao/, »-Jj woa*. (f.) 
Might, cuy /cuu-i7i: (f.), Jj bal,jjj zdr,j,Jui^ tnakdur. 
Mildew, UjcJ Undha, i*^ chittl, iSjjS g^^i^'', ^•^ harda. 
Mile, J-« mi/, |_^jf UjT odAa Aos. 


iljjllj K A_« ni(/ ta nishan- 

Milestone, JLv mandr, 

dor patthar. 
Mill, JU- ckakkl, i.l/W (.7mA-, IsjIb- junta, L_jT (Isjt/u, (wind) 

^jS^^ pawati-c/ialikl, (water) ^i^w pun-c/iakk'i. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 24 1 

Minaret, jU*« wmnar, y^U-« manara,j\i^ mlnar. 

Mine, ^J^ khan {{.), ^J^ kan (f.), (under walls) ts/^^ surang. 

Mint (place of coining), JLiS taksal (f.), c->;-3!J^^ J ddru-z-zarb. (f.) 

Miracle, C^jU ,^j^ khark-i'ddat^ cu^J/ karamat (f.), ^[^i?*^ mu^jiza. 

Misbehaviour, ,^^ •i^ badsulukJ, ^^J^^^ kudhangl. 

Miscarriage, (failure) y^|/^^ na-sarbarahi, (abortion) J-4^ tliLol 

• •• • 
Miscellany, JjCs.^ kachkol (f.), t^J^jung (f.), ^y^jsr^ majmu'a. 

Mischief, t^Jj Jarfe, ^5 J^ buroTi, ^l-aiu nuksan, jjJ zarar. 

Misery, ^^]/>- kharabl, c:-J J «iZZa^ (f.), vJI-Slj^ pareskdnl. 

Misfortune, jji^CJ^ bad-bcMti, cu-wJ Jipa^ (f.), 5b JaK. (f.) 

Miss, (young woman) ^^j^ korl, ^^^ bell, (lady) 4^jlji*.-^o-U mhib- 

zadi. t 

Miss, cl5^ chuk (f.), J^ iAii/ (f.), (loss) jyai kusur, ^jcfij naks. 
Mission, (j^iLaj risalat (f.), ^j^AJui paighambariy JL»;1 irsaL 
Mistake, ^L^ khata (f.), CJ^ chuk (f.), Jj# JAii/. (f.) 
Mistress, d-i^U sahiba, ^^-»*j MK, (sweetheart) 4^^ pydrt. 
Misunderstanding, ^^^ iali ghalat-fahmi : see Disagreement. 
Mite, (particle) Xji zarra, njij reza, (insect) ^ ghun: see Weevil. 
Mixture, ^ jU mila'o, (jyi^\ amezish (f.), (compound) l^j^ mu- 

Mob, J-^ bhir (f.), a^b* hujum, Xy0j\ amboh, i^yus^ majmVa. 
Mock, Mockery, iLsiP^ maz'haka, /\y>' chira'd, \^ thatthd. 
Mode, (custom) Ji^^j rawish (f.), ^^T 5771 (f.), (form) f^jy^ surat 

(f.) : see Manner. 
Model, ilJo naksha, <U^ namuna, J^J daul, c^lS kdlib. 
Moderation, Jljco:! i^tidal, ci^^lJ kand'at (f.), J-Jb^ parhez. 
Modesty, Ji laj (f.), a^ sliarm (f.), L> hayd (f.) : see Chastity. 
Moistness, Moisture, vji-J^j rutubat((.), iZ^^\Jbtarawat(f.)y^^ naml. 
Mole, (spot) JJ riZ, JU M«^> (mound) daL:;<j pushta, »S)\) bdndh. 
Molestation, ii-a-10 taklif({.), \jj\ izd (f.), j^JwaJ tofdi* (f.), Jl?^ 


2 I 

242 VoeahMlanf—Nmnu. 

Monarchy, ^lij\j hadshaHi, fc=-ctL. taUtnat (f.), —1. raj. 

Monastery, iluUt khankah (f,), ijXi dS'ira. 

Mouday, <-iijJ do gkamba.j^^ pJr, j'j^^ somwar. 

Money, jj ror, ,*-— J pwMe (plur.), ^j^ rajKtt (plnr.), ^JS taJiS. 

Mitnk, (^jjJ f/ortf ?M, _;-« yJiAir, ^JkJi kalandar, i_-ftU rJAti. 
Munument, jt.>lj yud-gar, (pillar, &c.) ^;,<•i-' sutun, (toiub) AJy 

Mood, (state) tr-IW- Aalat (f.)> ^^j ira!:* (f.), (in grammar) ii^ 

Moonlight, Moonshine, ^^<i^^ chandni, <_>U&U mahtah. 
Moor, (negro) ^Sjj iaiigt(in.), ,<— *^ hohsh\ (m.): see Marsh, Bog. 
Moral, (of a &ble) ^^■^au3^ nasi^at (f.), t,eLi~ tAuiasa, ^Is^UJ natija. 
Morality, Morals, jli-1 alMak, t_)jl a(fa&, i^/ji-- il^ i)e^-«ii/ti^. 
Morsel, <Uil lu^ma, il'y navraJa, ,J^ kawal, \^ Itikra, ijjpara. 
Mortality, Li fana{f.), ,^fj- chAai (f.), (deaths) ^^^j- maartn. 
Moilgagce, ,^j* miirtahin, j^ JSj^-Uj \j j^ girau- or batidhak-gir. 
Mortgager, ^\j rahin, j''^}j' giravdar, i^j (i-i"^ uI.XsJii bandhak 

Moas, i^'ti ka't, J-y^ siwar (Vallisneria spiralis), (dukh.) i^tj rttii 

(? Harris). 
Mother (on vinegar, &c.), ^ iJjA ^ t_fO^ ^ uiJ>Jjfrti phaphundl 

ju tlrkc par hoi'i hot. 
Mother of pearl, wJ«i.« sadaf(f.), ^rfr' ";>i- 
Motion, <J>^j>- harakat (f.), |_A'i^ jumhish (f.), ^1a /iila'o: see 

Motive, L>ic^ ^'tfi i— ">}« mujib, )_^ sabab, dk-:lj uia»(u. 
Motto, ki-jl^ Ai(5ifl/ (f.), ^^-~«^ aiamof. (f.) 
Moveables, Am^ JU ma/'t-manitula, i^^j^ cktz bast, (f.) 
Mountaineer, V.j^ pahnriyTt, ^f kohl, ^^J, parhatt, J-^ bhll. 
Mourning, (grief) «c g/iam, *jU 7;iatant, (dress) (_^U ^<*i'to maZatnl 

Vocahularif, — Nouns. 243 

Mouse-trap, ^ylj^jo- chu/ie-ddn,^J dabkar. (f.) 

Mouth, .yi4 muah, (of a river, &ic.) \j\y' mahana, (of a water-bag) 

^\Al> dahana. 
Mouthful, J^ luffoia, illji nawu/a, JjS kawal. 
Mucus, li^i>- chitka, *— >UJ /u'ai, lS - ^^jj renf, wib balgham. 
Mud wall, j!^_J ^_^ kachchi diwar, j\^ii ^ ^^J^ mittl kl diwar. 
Mullar (for grindiDg colours), \S; baita, Lftjjl lorhiya, lajjl lorha. 
Mulatto, !_-:_*o masiisa (m. f.) : see Mongrel. 
Multiplication, (in arithmetic) ^-J^ xarb (f,), ^jJ?*^ jorH, (table) 

iJ^j pahdfa. 
Multitude, (great number) tl*^ Aa^ai (f,), J^ ^51: see Crowd. 
Muiuniy, U*w momiyd, (a medicine) i^'L*j^ momi^uT. 
Munificence, OJjli.-* safduiwat (f,), jjs- jii*/ (f.), ,*,:.-r7 6aA^ 

shuh. (f.) 
Murder, j^^ Mwii V=* Ao'yo (f-)i J^ ij- u-wJ 6«g^f w iafi. 
Murderer, ^_J^ khuni (m. f.)j JJj j^^ khtm-rlz, ^iS *J^ mardum- 

Murrain, b^ i^ UJ:!^ jV" '^^^dT-payon kl wabd, jj'j^j*- JVj wabal-i- 

Mushroom, Jj^ l^^_jJ^ dharCi ka pkul, jjjU-i samiirugk, (dakh.) 

^Jij-iJ ffudraii. 
Music, yJrr'y* mufiffi, iMu naghma, yWl alhdn, t*/lj Tag. 
Musk, CS'-* mushk, il^— < misk. 

Muslin, t^^i^ malmal (f.), |»— w fAainam, i^l^ (_jT a&-t-rawan. 
Mustaches, -^y muclik (f.), ^^j-^j* muchhiH (plur. f.), tiJ,vJ 6k- 

Til. (!.) 

Muzzle, .^^ munh (f,), \^y* '^^^T^t (bore of a gun) ,^f^ muhrl, (for 

cattle) i—i\^jab. 
Myriad, (ten thoUBand)^^ (_^J daskazar, ,J^ji lutnda. 
Myrrh, (a gum-resin)_^ murr, Jjj 65/. 
Mystery, j]j tHz, t--^ ghaib, J-^ blied, (trade) >.^S kasb. 
Mythology, SUyJ dc'o-mala, ^l^ ^ «y*'^Ji'^ tliwta'vA k'l kakiini. 

244 Vocabulary* — Nouns. 

Nag, ^V. y«*«*i j^ W\^f ^j)^gf^ora. 

Nail, (of iron, &c.) J^^^ meldi (f.), ^yS kil (f.), (in measure) »^ 

girih. (f.) 
Nakedness, ^^y^ji barahnagl, ^J^j^ uryarUy v/*l^ nangal. 
Name, ^l3 nam^ ^\i nanw, a^iI ism, (title) ^^ lakab: see Fame» 
Namesake, aU jjb ham-nam, ^^^^^^ saml, j<<l^ sanami (?). 
Nap, (short sleep) JoJ «^J^ thofi nlnd (f.), (of cloth) iJLj^j resha. 
Napkin, JUa-^J dastmal, JU^j rumal, ^^^ anguchha. 
Narration, Narrative, Ji3 wait/ (f.), ui-o^ hikayat (f.), <^ Ai??a* 
Narrator, ^^^J rawi^ Jib wa^t'Z, ^ii) nakliy ^\>^ haki. 
Narrowness, ^xJ toTzgl, ^5 \J^ sakral, (meanness) ^Ji>^ {^J^ tang- 

Nastiness, cJU^UfT najasat (f.), J^ mail, ^^}\ aludagl, cl^lU 

gkilazat, (f.) 
Native country, ^^ watan, j^-j J de«, ^y jtj zadrbum. 
Nativity, jJj tawalludj f;>^ janam, (pl^ce) jJ^ maulid. 
Nature, (constitution) L::.->ffyJr tabVat (f ), ^]j^ mira/ : see Custom, 

Navigation, ^^iU mallaht, u5 ' J^l3 nakhudal, Jx fc^lyfij-JaAasrl */r/i. 
Nearness, jJ^.*^ nazdikl, c—y Awr J, JLxf^ ittisal : see Covetousness. 


Necessaries (things needed), lJj^j^ c->L-j\ cwJaJ-i-farwri, <ujljl /a- 


Necessity, f^j^j^ zarurat (f.), ^-y^^ wujub, (need) l::.^%^W ^o/a^ 

(f.) : see Force* 
Necromancy, jjW jadw, ls/^^^ jadugarJ, lJj>-^ sahirij jJss^ 

taskhlr. (f.) 
Nectar, d-^l amrit, )j^ Ij^ sharaban tahuraj yf c-->l ab-i-kausar. 
Need, ^^-3^^^ i^tiyoj (f. m.), jj^;^ gh araz (f.), ^^ d^lJ tatparj : see 

Needle, (for sewing) ^^5 j-j ^ii'i, ,jfj^ sozan (f.), (packing) 1^ su'iy 

(of the compass) c^ ^ ^ Uj c^-JaS kutb-numa kl sul, l2il^ kanta. 

Eye of a needle, l^U naka,Jiy^ sufar. (m. f.) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 246 

Negation, j\i3\ inkdr, ^ nafi (m.), v-Ju^ salh^ J; radd. 
Neglect, Negligence, uiJii gh aflat (f.), ^JJ^\^ kahili, . a>*«*«> sm^^i. 
Negotiation, iLc\x^ mu'dmala^j\i^j^ kdrobar. 
Negro, ^JL^ habshi, ^j zangl, nL^ siyah, u/Ju-» sldt or u/«xJa 

shidi (?). 
Neighbour, <oL..4Jh hamsaya, ^jj^^ pardsi,j\ys^ hamjawar. 
Neighbourhood, c/r?^ paros, j\j>' jawdr, <oU.-«Jb hamsaya. 
Nest, ^LJiyp ghonsloLj UjJ^ khondha, ij\J^\ ashiydna, Lb io^a. 
Nestling, \j^ gedd, ^\J^\ ashiydnt, IjJ Zeria. 
Net, JU- jaZ, UUj dhdbdy aIj rfam. 

News, ^Ici-l aMibdry (sing.) j-:> Idyahar (f.), d^USl^ wdkVdt. 
Nib, (point) Ci^ noft (f.), ti' fl»^ (beak) ^^' f Aor. (f.) 
Niche (recess in a wall), jlt, tdl^, <ts^ll? tdkcha. 
Nickname, ^-^ Jj Jorf Zaitai, a\j ^J^ wr/7 nam. 
Niggard, J^*^ bakhtly ilJL^A^ mumsik, (j^ys^ kanjus, a^ sum. 
Nitre, Saltpetre, Hjj^ shora^jAA abkir or aJAar (?). 
Nobility, c:^|;^ shardfat (£), «*s-^^^ najaia^ (f.), (nobles) li^ 

Noble, Nobleman, j-^1 amir, j\s0,*ac^ mansabddr, uSas- umda. 
Nobody, ^^^ ^*^ kol nahm, (figurat.) J-^ \j ndrchiz. 
Noise, jyi» shor, cS^b bdng (f.), j\y\ dwdz (f.), J£ ghul, U^ 

gh aughd. 
Nomenclature, !IU /^J ndm^mdld, t^Sc^^jfarhang (f.), c:^ lugkaL (f«) 
Nominative (in gram.), J^li/S'iZ, u>wlftli ciJU- hdlat-irfd'tliyat (f.) 
Nonce (purpose), ^j|;l irocJa, JuoS Ao^J, u^Jla^ matlab, fjOjS, 

gharaz. (f.) 
Nonentity, Nonexistence, |«J^ adam, ^^^ nestl, ^jJ^\j^d-budi. 
Nonsense, ^\f t<-*^ bt-mc^at bdten, iSy^j^ ydwa-gd'u 
Nook, \j^ kond, dJ^ji gosha, (narrow place) -^^ s^j?" (^ kamr 

Noose, ,^_5«^^ phdnsJ, IjJI^ phdndd, tX^ kamand, (f.) 
Noith-east, ^^ 4;;^^ tsdn'kony ^\*^ isdn. 

246 Vocabulary. — JVouns. 

North pole or star, ^^*i ^--Jaj ^utb-i^himali, t-JjAJ dhrvb. 

North-west, t—jlj bayab. 

Nosegay, *;-ijJi gul-dasta, i^ turra, .^ IS i^J*^ phuion kit 

Notch (in a log of wood), \j\x^ khandana. 
Note, (mark) ^JcJi nishaii, (letter) j^j*^ chiltlil : see Comment. 
Nothing, j^j*yi .fjr kuchh nak'm, -jva hech, (worthless) J-j-lJ Jia-cAiz. 
Notice, (attention) jjc ghaur, tijUJl i7i(y5i (f.), (information) cSiil 

iMi/a" (f.), (notification) ^1=1 i'lam,j^ khabar. (f.) 
Notion, ij:^L[jJ daryaft (f.), jl>iw pi/irfar (f.), i^'l^ ra'c (f.), JL»- 

Novel (tale), *jl_sl afsana, i^ kissa, iJXif kaham, ^^b-il J dastan. (t) 
Novelty, lJAsT* tnjaddud, ^\^ nayapan, t^jjh y nau-larsi. 
Nought, ^jj-y ^' kuchh nahtii, ^Jn hech. 
Novice, J^l y nau-amuz, .^■XSi^ mubtadi, i^j^\ anafi, »\s~ kham, 

\j^ kachcka. 
Noun, »-^ ism, *\i nam. 

Nourishment, i^jy parw(iTish(f.J, \^ ghiza({.l, i^\jja- khorak. (f.) 
Nuisance, j^ j'^^J siyankar chlz (f.), JIjj wabal, j^ li 15^ V?" 

chliaCi ka pattkar. 
Number, Jjkc adad, tlsCil dnk, (reckoning) ^^^ ginCi, Ji^Jit shumar : 

(in gram.) singular, J.;»-1j wahid; dual, A,^ tamiya ; plur. 2-'*>' 

>»'■ (f-) 

Numbness, ^J-^al,(S^ tkithrahal (f.), i;-s:y be-hissi, ^J^J^ bc- 

Numeration, t—jL*- (lisab, z^ gintt, jli*j t^dad (f.),jlAi skumar. 
Nuptials, ;i1f» &yaA, h^Jlii shaiH, ,J^ nikah. 

Nursery, Ailac'l-' dal-ldiana, {fot plants) ^y^ bihnaur,'\^ Ai'ar. (f.) 
Nursling, jij)jij-i «A7r-A;^»fl)a, Jit L) j»JjJ dudh-ptya tifl. 
Nutriment, Nutriture, yssghiia (f.), ^J.j»jparwar'uh. (f.) 
Nymph, 1;^?^ apchkara (f.), ^js- Aiir (f.), ^j^ ^url. 
Oaf, Ll>j1 uf, ^\ uUu, iJ'*^\ ahma^ : see Idiot, Dunce. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 247 

Oath, *<«S kasam (f.), jJ^ saugand (f.), ^^ sonh (f.), (dakh.) 

i.£.vd sapat. (f.) 
Obedience, lii^UjI ita'nt (f.), ^J\jji)\! tahi^darl, ^JtJT^rfA(H(a. (f.) 
Obeisance, i—i\,i\ adab, (jiJj^ harnUh (f.), /Xj salam, C-?jOJj f/an^* 

wat. (f.) 
Obelisk, jU.0 minar, (-L-!l lat (f.), LjIiU^ kandasu. 
Object, (purpose) tWai* mak§ad, ^^ gh araz (f.) : see Affair, 

Objection, yo]_^! i^tirax (f.), jJj paAar (f.), (argument) u=-^:=*' Aiy- 

>(. (f.) 

Oblation, jLi niyas (f.),_;jj Ttair (f.), ^\iji htrban, Jj fta/. 
Obligation, (contract) L^sAarj(f.), J^* «''t^, (duty) ^jfarx, (—J^j 

wujub, (favour) jjUj*-! ihsan, \jy^ nihora. 
Oblivion, ^^y*\^ faramnshi, (^l-— J nisyan, tijl^ hisruwal. 
Obloquy, ^ulr ta^n, ^-iiJ i^yilj (a"n tashnt (f.), *lj!l Uzam. 
Obsequies, ^j;-fti^ 3Ji^r^ tajktz 5 takf'in (f,), |»jf 1;^ kriya-karm. 
Observance, (respect) *V$1 ikram, (attention) 4»-l« mula/iam. 
Obstacle, jJU mflnf", JjU- Aa'iV, jT ar (f.), t::-Ash-'j.o tnuzaAama;. (f.) 
Occasion, (cause) iJ-^Ij iH"!;, (need) '^jj-' sarurat (l'.), (time) 

i^:-^^ furiat. (f.) 
Occupation, (business) JS kam, Uaj^j dhandha: see Calling, Abode. 
Occurrence, AjuIj wa^i'a, AjjW hudifa, iar^ sani/ia. 
Ode, Jji. gkazal (f.), (long) jJmu ^aftda, (Hindustani) Aia^j 

Odour, y bo OT lu (f.), *JiJ gandh (f.), ilX^ mahak {(.), j^L-j 

suhas. (f.) 
Offal, li^ fuxla,jji'\ aklluT (f.), 't^^^ j^ pas-khfirda. 
Offence,j— oftJ iffl/tjir (f.), jUi gunfl/i .- see Injury, Displeasure. 
Offender, jliteUSgwnaAgor,jV)_,-^£' /Oji-fTricar, j,*^ Oj'i. 
Offering, y;^ jturftan, Jj fcd/, (present) j jj na?r, «j JJS kacTiya. 
Office, (service, duty) i,£.^Jo^ khidmat (f.), sj>^ «A(fa, (room) i^S;^^ 


248 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Offset, Uj^ paudha, U^ kalgha (?). 

Offspring, (child) JJj^ farzand (m. f.), (children) Si^ auldd (f.) : 

see Lineage. 
Oil, J-J telj ^%j raughaUj (scented) JJ^ phuUl. 
Oil-press, y^^f kolhu, J\^gkam. 

Omen, ^t^shuguny Jliy5Z. (f.) • 

Omission, cSy>' chuk (f.), J^ hhul (f.), y^ sahu (f.), jyoS ku§ur. 
Omnipotence, d^ji Icudrat (f.), i^j^^ kadiri, ^ i^jSi kudrat4r 

Omniscience, ^<i^J ^UJb hama'ddnl, J^ Ac ilm-i-kulL 
Openness, ^j\zS ktishadagi, (candour) ^*^\^ sadagiy c5^^ safdl. 
Operation, J*4^ amal, Ji kar, (effect) J\ asar, j^\j tasjr. (f.) 
Opinion, ^^ \j ra'e (f.), .^jJ bujh (f.)i J^ Khayal^ ^Ja zann,jCj 

Opium, ^^1 a/yiin (f.), j^^ aftm (f.), jljy tiryak. 
Opportunity, \::^^^ fur^at (f.),j^l5 A:a&u, l:>5^ M;aX:^, ^^^ gaun. (f.) 
Oppression, Ji^ stiZm, a:u«} dtam^j^jaur^ s^*^ tcCaddi. 
Oppressor, JU? 2aZim,jXic-»5i^a7Wgar,jlj! m^jk mardumrazar. 
Optative (mood, in grammar), ^^,a:^ mutamanni. 
Option, jL:^! ikhtiyar, «U- chah (f.), ,<*^ marzi, J^:^ pasand. (f.) 
Opulence, v^jJ daulat (f.), \Jf^^^ tatvdngart, ci^^w*-* sampat. (f.) 
Oration, /%K kaldm, jijSJ takrir (f.), ^j^-* sukhuny lzj\» bat. (f.) 
Orb, 2^ A:wra, f^ charkhj ^^d^ gar dun ^ Jj^xo mandal : see Globe. 
Orbit, 0«^ dd'ira, (of the eye) >l^<ii5l^ halka-e-chashm. 
Order, (command) j^Sl:>^ hukm,j^\ amr, (method) c-^y ^ar^iJ (f.) : 

see Class, Rank. 
Ordinance, c^ sharpy ^^\i kanuny (rite) ^^ rasm: see Law. 
Orifice, J^^ chhtdy ^\;»^ surdkhy u-ilxii* skigaf, Jix« manfaz. 
Origin, J-^l a.vZ (f.), jUij bunydd (f), ^J JeM (f.) : see Root, Family. 
Ornament,^i^J zewar, v-iii^i^^J r7wa^ (f.), jlJo-o singary ^j^}j\ arffish. (f.) 
Orphan, ^jjij yatlm, Ijb^ murha. 
Orthography, L:i^|^ rasm-i-khatiy lUl iwiZa, tyjjyf^-' achhrautt. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 249 

Oscillation, J JJ rfMZa'o,^Af>-j7/w/5'o, lSj^j^ tharthari. 

Outcry, jyJii skor, Ic^ gh au gh d, J^ ^ul, Sj\^ Jx ghul gh apara. 

Outrage, Jiozulniy ^»:i^ sitam, ^^^ jafa if'),jj>'jaur. (f.) 

Outside, Jb\j bdhar, t^Jojtb\j hdhar tarafy ^^ upar^jb^ zdhir. 

Outworks, iS^y^V bahar kota^ Suf?l artala, <ds^ marhala. 

Owner, uj3U malik, j\j^ hakk^dar, Jjjlsi- khdwind, 

Oxyrael, ^^--j^ICj sikavjabm. (f.) 

Pace, (step) ^ jJ (:adam, (gait) ^l:J; raftdr (f.), ^-^^ ^ i^^ chalrie 

ki waz . 
Pack, (bundle) l^ gattha, <i:x--j ias^a, ^j^ wiofA (f.), (of cards) 

^^y^clT garyifa, (of hounds) UjjJ lendha, Jc*^ jhund: see 

Package, Parcel, x^j4^ gathri, ^y{pot^7 ^^H ^<^ta: see Pack. 
Packcloth, ^^;^ bethan, ^U) lifafa. 
Packet, (mail) dL^ ^ kharlta, , <Lff . «^ , ^«Sl^ chiithi kt thaili : see 

Packhorse, |;^l^ Jj^ parte/ AS ghora^yS l^ i^j^^^jij^. barbardart ka 

Packsaddle, ij*^ gaddi, jjJ^/?5Zan,^^ Iduygir. 
Padlock, JiS itti^, uili kahfox kulafy % tdla. 
P{^an, cs^w^ «ju^ but'parasfyjS gabr, cii^.1^ iwt«Artft,yl^ fcq^r. 
Page (of a book) i^s^ saffuiy (servant) ^^f^- Idiawdss.Jf^^jilaudar, 
Pagoda, ^J^ but-kada, ^\ssX) but-kkana^ ]t|^ shiwala: see Idol. 
Pain, -^J dukhf J; J dard,j^^ pir {{,), ^ ranj : see Labour. 
Pains (toil), ^z^^ujsf mi^nat (f.), ^<*-» sa*i, (of labour) sj JjJ dard-i- 

Paint, {^J^j rangy ^ji bar an y ^jj raughan. 

A Pair, 'j^ j5r5, c:--ir>A ^^^j^g> (one of a pair) (Jjy>- jot. 
Palanquin, J3b j?5/A?, ^c^l3 nalkl. 

Palisade, US^ kathara, \;^^ kathgkara, \^ mutakka (?). 
Pall (for the dead), jAj- chaddar (f.), ^^ kafan. 
Pamphlet, ,<2^i^ chaupatl, <dL; risala. 

2 K 

250 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Pan (broad vessel) Jjj) \jy>' chaura bartan^ (of a gun-lock) ^\j 

Pancake, IjJU malpVa^ \jf^ |n«'5, ^^ kuku. 
Pane (of glass), aSl^ parkala, ^f^ \tm^li shishc^e'Chaugosha. 
Pang, Jjj **^V wiA5ya< dard^ ^z.^^J^ siyasat (f.), (of death) cjJ 


Panic, j«^^l^l3 nagahan dar, ca>'.»Jh haibat (f.), Jyh Agm/. 

Paper, «kcl^ kaghaz^ (j^^^ IdrtjoLS. 

Par (equality), d^ljL-^ musawat (f.), «^];^ barahari ; (at par) ^|^ 

Parable, JuijiJ ^a;?!^?/ (f.), Jl« iTta^a/ (f.), o^lSLljJ drishtant. 

Paradise, {j^^^/ firdaus, j^*Xc adn, <i:U'wl»^ bihisht. (f.) 

Paragraph, xji jikra, ^aLS Ai//a, ^^ prakaran. 

Parallel, Parallelism, c^J^/^ barahari ^ i^^^ tasawt. 

Paramour, LJ*t ashna, ^^Ic ashik^Jo yar, j\pr j^^f \^fibJ dhagra. 

Parasite, 4^J^ll^ khiishamadt, j^ c:.-^i< mvft-khor^ J-iL tufail. 

Parasol, ljlf>- t*f>- chhota chhata. jl^>- chJiatr, t^ji^ chatrl. 

Parcel, (bundle) <Ls^ bukcha^ t^j^ SO.thriy (part) ^L^i^ //t^^a. 

Parchment, j^ raH', ,<.l-^ iwe^^t ('?). 

Pardon, tJ'j*-< mu'dfi, ^ afuy (J^jj^\ amurzish. (f.) 

Parent, c-^b Ij U ma (f.) <5r i5p,jjU l[ jJJ /^irfar or madar. 

Parents, c-;b U iwa Jap, ^;iJJ\j waHdaiUf • .zj pitarau. 

Part, <JU35»- Ai55a, ]^pr bakhra, (i^b iaw^f, (duty) /%l^ A:a»i. 

Parterre, jlj ij^ sabza-zdr, ^j^ chaman. 

Partiality, ^^IjiJ:? taraf-ddriy ^JL^ Ai^ palla-kashJ, „^s^pachh. 

Participle, (active) J^li >-*^ ism-i-fd'tl, (present) dJU- ^-o^ ism-i-hdliya, 
(past or passive) J;**^ m^^ ism-umaful, (past conjunctive) 
iUlc cJftiaA^ ,<^U mojsl ma^tuf alaihi. 

Particle, clio fwA, »jj zarra, ^ Aan, (in gram.) «— i^ Aar/*. 

Partition, |>---a7 takslm (f.), j;^^ to/riA (f.), (fence) j\ dr. (f.) 

Partner, «JJo/^ «AariA, jbUa^ bakhrdddrf ^^^^ sdjkl: see Com- 

Vocabulary. — Nouns > 26 1 

Partnership, vj:^^ sharukat (f.), l^L sajha^ lZ^jJ^ shirkat. (f.) 
Party, (of men) J^ gho L i%^ guroh, (in a suit) j;jy farllc : see 

Pass, ^ gaUy ci>l^ ^5f, *}^ r5A (f.) : see Passport. 
Passage, ijV^ guzdra, is^j rasta, C^ sarak (f.) : see Paragraph. 
Passenger, yU^ musafir, jSjt]j rahgJr, ^^ batohi, (m. f.) 
Passport, «^^J^'j ^^jy parwana-e-rdhdart, ij\jj rawdna. 
Paste, ^ /e7, jW ahdr^ iJJfLe mdrnty j^;^^^ khamtr, ls^ /e^. 
Pasteboard, ^^^-ii^^ daftln (f.), ^Ju^^ tz^o^n. 
Pastime, c5;-«i d^Ujl aukdt-basarl^ JSj^ kautak, jlyj bahWo : see 

Pasturage, u^^^ c/mrt, uJLc alaf, (or Pasture) «\^];^ chardgdh. (f.) 
Patent, Jc^ ^nac£ (f.), ^U/ farmdn, ^|^ parwdna. 
Path, Pathway, ci>b fta< (f.), ^tuj; rcw^a, cii)-) ^araft (f.), iilj rdh. (f.) 
Patriarch, j'j^ l^ (J\j^ ghardne kd sarddr, v^Jj buzurg. 
Patrician, <^y^ shartf^ nx^ umda, ^l^l^ dlishdn. 
Patrimony, C^);:*^ mira.^ (f.), ci^ bapaud, d^l t>j?. 
Patriot, uU'H.^i^J ^^ watan-dost, t^^^s^^f^ habburl-watani. 
Patriotism, ^;l^j)^«^-r'^ habbvrlwatany yL«jJ despdltd. (f.) 
Patron, ^^^ murabbtj jSz^^ dastgir, l<«^ Aa>wl, j^^fc>;A3 kadrddn. 
Patronage, s^y \^,j^ murabbhgarl, ojU>" himdyat (f.), (^j^^ 

parwarish. (f.) 
Pattern, ^^ Tiamtina, l<^^ bdngl, (leader) »^ jj Ifidwa : see Leader. 
Paucity, ,^-^ /^ami, ^^^^ ghaittf ^^uJ kamti, c:Jj AtZZa^. (f.) 
Pavement, ^^^ farsh, \afj^ kharanjdy i^\Sj patd*d. 
Pay, (payment) bl ada (f.), (wages) i\f^ tanldapdh (f.), uJi? 

to/iaft. (f.) 
Peace, ^*^ fuZA (f.), ^^t o^A^i, (ease) m^j{ drdm, (concord) J-^ 

Peak, (top of a hill) ^f^- chdntlyjf^ sikhoTy (pomt) CJy nok. 
Peal, l^l^ thahdkdy jJ^Jb]^ gofS^T^^^^i (^Oj ^^^^•J^ dhamkd. 
Pearl, ci^ mod (m.), jJ dwr, ^^ gauhary^^ lulu. 

262 Vocabulary Nouns. 

Ve^BB,nt,j\yS ganwar, ^L.^ kisany ij\SjbJ dihkant. 
Peasantry, \)\cj rVaya, {^^ JUibJ dihkant tog, ^^i^y^-j rdflyaU (f.) 
Pebble, ^J^ kankar, ^^^ Jy goZ sangreza, \j^j rora. 
Pedestal of a column, ^^ ^^ \j pffe situn, ^^f^ ^ bun-i-situn. 
Pedigree, l«^^ 7uisabf < J uJ^ silsila, (table of) <uU <,,, ».u,t mtsab-nama. 
Peel, ii:^^^ po^^i JW^ ckkal (f.), ^^3l^ chhilka, Kj fta/^/a. 
Peer, ^ ^ hani'sar, (nobleman) j^\ amir, 4.^*«> 5a^i6 ; see No- 
Peg, ^^ mcAA (f.), ^^ khuntt, lS3^ khunta. 
Pellet, <dJic ghuUlaj ^J^ go/i, ,j^*>p girdgan. 
Pellicle, tX^jhilli, ^V?" chhali. 
Pen, Ji kalam, ^Is^ Jdiamaj (enclosure) ^W-1 i^a/a. 
Penalty, ]j«» 5a;2'5 (f.), j^VjU tawan. Job ^faTicf, <Ol«j^ janmana. 
Pence (money), l<--^ />aMc, ^J3 faAe ; see Penny, 
Pencil, (of lead) ,^\^ salal, (of hair) (^yo mu-kalam. 
Pendant, ijjjT aweza, lC«»p- jhumka, ,^^ latkan. 
Penitence, ^y tauba, liu^IjJ nadamat ((,)fj\ajc^\ istighfar. 
Penny, LmJ i^j>./^\ ^ /»^ u.X>^ eA: iti^TTi ka angrezi paisa. 
Pension, <UJ(^^ wazlfa, j^^jaglr (f.), ^^Ujoj bandhan. 
Pentagon, ^j^^a^x^ mukhammaSy ^^^ J^ shakUupanj-gosha. 
Penury, ^jl-»*Xx5j tangdastl, ^z^x^ tihldasfiy ^-Jii* muflisl. 
People, <I^ /og, ^1^1 a«AAA55, j;JU fcAa/aVA:. (f.) 
Perception, o^ljjJ daryaft (f.), -^^ iS/A (f.), CJ>jl^ basarat. (f.) 
Perch (for birds), t/-«^ chakkas, \j\ adda. 

Perfection, J-^ tdkmtl (f.), JUi kamal, (completion) |*Uj1 itmam. 
Perfume, ^,(j^^ ^mh-bo (f.), ^Lt afr, ^^L^ 5u5a^. (f.) 
Period, (circuit) j^J daur, (time) <UUj zamana : see Sentence. 
Perjury, j^ i<At^J^S?^' kasam, l^^I^ ^y^ saugand-l-kazib. 
Permission, CL^U-l ya^^a^ (f.), ^31 izuj \j:^^^^j rukhsat, (f.) 

A Permit, i<42>- ^ ,<-j^ nikasi kl chitthij ^Ol^ parwana. 
Person, ^^^Ai--* shales, ^S\ admt (m.), (in gram.) <u--tf .wgAq ; 


Body, Form. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 263 

Perspicuity, e:,> w! L» salasat (f.), vju^^]^ sarahat (f.), i^'li-^ ?fl/57. 
Perturbation, c2-^J^ ghabrahat (f.), j^y^J" tashwlsh. (f.) 

Petition, ^JOJC arz (f.), ^jC- arzl, ^i^J\ ardas. (f.) 

Petitioner, 1^^^ ^jS> arz-karnlwala^ i\^ Jb dM-ldmah. 

Phantasm, Phantom, fc>^ ^y^ namud-i-hebud, l^lf>- chhaya. 

Philology, ^fl^ J <-J^ J^ ilm-i'Sarf o naho. 

Phrase, ci^b fta^ (f.), .^\ istilah (f.), CJjU liara^ (f.) 

Piece, (bit) |ji5 jt£A:ra CSi tuky ^j\{ parcka, (patch) ^j>'jdr. 

Piety, ^^5J takwa, 4^ t.^ bhagtal, (to parents) i/^^j'^'^jj'^ 

Pilgrimage, J^W Ja^ra (f.), ci^bj ziyarat (f.), (to Mecca) ^ hajj. 

Pill, ^f gotiy c-^^>- ^aM, ^^^ . ^^ IjJ £fau7a fci go/i. 

Pillory, ^o^^jf^ chambar-i-gardauy ^^l^jJ do^hakha. 

Pimp, Ijji^ bharwcLj LS^ kutna, ^^U^Ji kultaban. 

Pimple, (on the face) Uly^ muAo^a, (on the skin) if^^ phunsi. 

Pin, ^y^ ml, ISUl^ kanta, (peg) ,liy« mekh: see Peg, Straw. 

ft ^ ^ ■ 

Pincers, ^\jc^ sandasi, ^■■■vm.> sangslj U^^ muc&na. 

Pinion, t^^ giiddl,j)^ par, •j\) bazuj (quill) j-b^A shahpar. 

Pinnacle, ^^/J^ AaZeu, ^j^ Aangi^ra, (peak)^;^ sikhar. 

Pipe, (tube) Jj na/, ^Jj nali, (musical) i^j^^, bansri : see Cask. 

Pitch, (resin from the pine) J\j ral ({.),jJ ktr: see Degree. 

Pitfall, CSif>J dahaky ^^j^ chor-garha. 

Pith,JjU maghz,j\^ sar (t.),jjb Kir, \ii^ guda. 

Pity, ^j rahm, Jjti dard, (jmj» tars, t J daya (f;), ^i gham. 

Place, "i^jagah (f.), ^^ makan, (office) *J^ uhda. - 

Plainness, i^Jy^ hamwarl, (sincerity) ,X>^ sadagl : see Clearness. 

Plaintiff, i^t^^^y faryadi, s\^ ol J dad-ldmah, ^^X^ mudda'i. 

Plait, Ajf tah (f.), ^^^ shikan, ^^^ chin (f.), (plaits) vs-i^ cAti- 

nat. (f.) 
Plan, (scheme) ^^-Ai*« mansuba, jlf^ tajwlz (f.) : see Model. 
Plane (joiner's tool), *JJ^ randa, (tree) jU^ chanar. 

234 Vocabulary. — Xonns. 

Plank, izsT takhta, —j! lauh (f,), 1^ patra, ^pJ patrl. 

PliLDtatioD, (place planted) ^^L-ia^ nafchiistan, (colonyj ^j^ hasR, 

Plaster, (cement) ^^sT^' rtfJlla, ^ gnrlt, (salve) «-V« mar/iam. 

Ptay, ^ khel, ^j\> ba=l, JJ>i kalol {(.), Jjj^ kaiituk. 

Plaything, \j^ khilaam, t.r-y«! U^'-bat (f.), ^.j^. hazicha. 

Plea, (argument) il:-.^^ (t^jjat (f.), (suit) IjsJ da'ica: see Excuse. 

Pleading, a1:»-L* vmhaliasa, J'^ takrar (f.), u:— ?^ ('"jjot. (f.) 

PleasantDess, i-i-Jiy li'fafat (f.)- Pleasantry, j^ maziikh. 

Pleasure, ^t— j* tdtmhl, ij~.& aish, lar»- Awsz, (assent) ,_j-i/* mar»(. 

Pledge, jjS giro, l^^^'- bandhak, ^j rilnt: see Bail. 

Pleiades, b J suraii/u, rjJ.iy parwln, \^sxsr kachpachiya. 

Plenty, Sj^I ifrul,j^j wafur, (enough) ^j^^^ bhar-pur. 

Pliers, l2*3- cJdnila, ^_^'jii-i sandusl, ^^^ chi'unla (?). 

Plot, (^J^iJ bimdish (f.), rjjj.^:** »ifln,VMi(i, (of ground) UiJ /aaa. (f.) 

Plug, \jJ dattd, ^JL^ ihenihi, ^j^ ihepi. 

Plume, (oniament) ijis (urra, ^>K kalgfti : see Feather. 

Plummet, J^U sahul, J^^ sakol, (plumb or lead) ^5l lalkan. 

Plunge, i/j-i dubki, A:yi. ghota, ^y barkl (?). 

Plural (number), w«^_yaff* (f.), j-*^ '**--> figku-i-jam^. 

Ply, Aj tah (f.), ,^^;j5- cA7n (f.), ti)^ ;jara(, ^^ sAiAart. (f.) 

Pocket, ^^-^jeh (f.), l--^ AAtdij, ^laj/i- kharila, ^jif-jhotl. 

Pod, u*rt=" cAAemJ, |_jl(j ;)Aafi, lii^ chhilka, "-z-^^ y5«(. 

Poem, J^ ghazal (f.), aj^ai fcafida, iJy-^ tnasnawi. 

Poesy, Poetry, yti sAiV, j^ Kosm (f.), ^j^^ Aaiir. 

Point, (end) Cjy nok (f.), ^il an?, (stop) i_aij *laiii nukta-e-wakf. 

Poison, y^J iroAr, (_^ iis, .(ij bikk, Jjiia halahal, *j sa//tm. 

Pole, .Jj /5fA (f.), (_jjfl- cAoi, (of tbe earth) w-kS kvlh. 

Polestar, i__-iij ;5'u/ft, ^Ui w-JaJ tfutb-i-skimatl : see Guide. 

Police, Wjj k-i ^jv^ akahr k'l mbt o rabt, ^V/ Ao/wa/*. 

Polish, (.i-^liC^ chiknahat (f,), Jaj-j sailfal, (of manners) ^^ lOittlk. 

Politics, c: — iLj Ac i/m-t-ttt^ojtaf, ilu-XUm ^.j^l amur-i-aiamlukat. 

Polygon, Alj^ _pl^ i^tSli shakl-irkusjTu-z-zawiya. 

Vocahulary.^^Noum. 265 

Poppy, J^5^ koknar, (head) L£^>>^y^ post, (seed) ^jti^^ khash^hash. 

Populace, (^U\ A\yc awammu-n-nasy jy^^ jamhurj /%lft dmm. 

Population, u^«^V^ abadi, ^A^ bastl, \^j^^^^^ ma*murt. 

Portion, i^a^ H§§^9 ]/*% bakhru^ (bride's) J-^JaAez. 

Portmanteau, ^^^j^ khurjtn^ ^jl J^lsj- jamadant. 

Portrait, <Ummi shablh (f.),^^ taswtr. (f.) 

Position, .j^fp^jagah (f.), J*s^ mahallj lii^IU Aafa^ (f.), ^^ teroA. (f.) 

Possession, t^^^^ tasarruf, J^^^ ama/, <Uui kabzu, k^i 2ra5/. 

Possessor, u^U malik, c^^^^-U ^aAift, uJy.deu) muta^arrif. 

Post, (stump) lf»:^ khambhdy f^ ^ ckob, (business) XJ^ uhda, /M 
kanif (for conveying letters) i^b rfoA, (post oflEice) j^ CS^J 
dak-ghar, (man) \JSj ddkiya, Ju^lS kdpd, cS\j dak. 


Postage, i^y^s^ ^ d/tj dak ka mah§ul, /%^ riisum. 
Posterity, J\ aZ (f.), ^^^^^ awCd (f.), c:-^ai«» santatj J-J twwZ. 

Posture, j--tf^ waf' (f.)> *^^ fiiraf (f.), sji, tXnishast, (f.) 

Potash, jl^ khar, ^Xq ^-^ *«y^ wiiffl. 

Potsheix], \f^ thikra, JlLs «i/a/. 

Poverty, ^^^Jli^ iflas, ^,u\i^ mujlist, ^^^JkXJ tangdastu 

Pound, (weight) ^;--JbjT adh-ser, Jietj rati, (fold) Uj-; fterAa. 

Powder, ^^ii^ buknty (medicine) «— y..^ ^o/S/", (gun) <^jb ftaru^ (f.) 

Power, fc^ U^y tawana% (authority) jLisi-l ikhtiyar : see Force. 

Practice, (use) ^JL^ mashk (f.), (custom) CL^jlc arfa^ (f.), J^AJt< 

Praise, <— a^ ta^rif(f.\ (^Lu ^po^ (f.), U sana (f.), ^«x« modA, (f.) 
Prayer, (request) ^^UcJl iltimas, (to heaven) jUj nama2r. (f.) 
Precaution, ^^^^J^l (j:^U dkibat-andtshi, Ci;\jJ taddruk. 
Precedent, ^^ Ttamtina, J^|j|^J dctsturu-l-amaL 
Precinct, *\>- ^acIcZ (f.), ^|^ siwdna. 
Precipice, ^^jjUj-^fAang (f.), f^Jjj^^ sring, Sj^^ kandald. 
Predecessor, ^^yi^^ peshtn, (ji\^ sdbik, >% J^Lo mukaddam. 
Predestination,^*^*} takdir (f.), iji^y^ sar-nawishU (f.) 
Preface, <J^Vd(3 dibdja, (f.), <)^L;J dibdcha, <U«xL« mt^itracZcZama. 



Preferencej ffVr/ tarjili (f.), i,:;.^^ faukiyat (f.), ^^ L^ sarsal. 

Preferment, ^Jj barhtl, ^Jy (ara^lfi, i^j]/j^ sarfardsl. 

Pregnancy, J-*>- Aamt, -fi^ garbk, ^jii-jt abistanl. 

Prejudice, i. ■ — " ta'assul), i^j^-iij;! larafdarl : see Detriment. 

Premises (houses, lands), ^jx:~vj~e- J'j^^ amwal-i ghair mankula. 

Premium, (on bills, Stc.) j<i— J beshi, Lijj- ckatii : see Gift, Bounty. 

Preparation, ^jj^ tmi/arJ, i^ji^. hanawarl, i.i--,yj taliiyat. (f.) 

Prepuce, .^'i^ klialfi, w-alj- ghalf, '^y^^ chhichra. 

Prerogative, Jt»- i^U- Mass hakk. 

Presage, JU y5/ (f.), ^/i sAagttw, eiJb (/a/5/fl(. (f.) 

Prescience, J\ju-i ghacb-daiii, . ^ y2-o peshbtiH. 

Prescription, (medical) its?-' nusldia, (custom) m-ij rasm: see Custom. 

Presence, t^_/^^ Aayir7, ^jy^>~ ^usurt, (view) jIjjJ dirfaj-. 

Present, ,_^tJE; bakhshish (f.), (in gram.) JW ^ai.- see Gift. 

Preservation, j\=£] backd'o, uJcU^ ^ifazat (f,), LJT a*ra. 

Press, (for oil) jflj? kolhu, (for bookbinding) AxiSLii shikanja, (for 

printing) J^ ^^jJ ^j*iW?" ^hhaprie kt kal: see Crowd. 
Pressure, (weight) t_jlj (/aJ, <— ''^ cAop, (urgency) UU; fa^aza. 
Presumption, (arrogance) ^^ l^Sao dkilhal, ^i-li—S gvstatdu : see 

Pretence, -Ol^ bahana, L=-.;iL.- sakht. (f.) Pretension, 'jiJ datra. 
Pre te rim perfect, ^f^lj.«i-!l ^^^ moE7 istimran. 
Preterite, ,j^\-* tnaai, i^jii guzas/ila. 
Preterperfect, 4_-;:jJ i*^^ »iti?' i'ar'ib. 
Preterpluperfect, Ju«j ^^1t mast ba^d. 
Prevarication, jC«j^ chakar-makar, (J'^aLs. fi'ila-ftawala. 
Prey, t^jl /«_( (f.), c: ■* »: - - ghammat (f.), (game) A-o said, (f.) 
Price, iJ^ mo/, i.;:,-*J ^('imaf (f.), l^ fia^ii, (reward) ji>-l ajr. 
Prick, J-^ cA/erf, ij^y AwdA. Prickle, l2iK kanla,j\:i~ Miar. 
Pride, ^^y-j j^ khnd-bint, jtjz ghurur, J<iiji\ ahankar. 
Primogeniture, ^'j-J Jjl atcwal paida'ish (f.), ^ hj baru'l. 
Principal, (hend man) j'jj-^ sardar, yj-^j ra'is, (sum) .jef^*; ?'''»/'■ 

' Pro 

B Pro 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 267 

Principle, Jrfl asl (f.), )^jar (f.), (teoet) ^\j ra'e. (f.) : see Canon. 

Print, |_^^ Jialcsfi, ^bJ nishan, t-»l<>- ckkap. 

Prison, -UUi- JlJ Icaid-kkana, AJlaTAij ImnfU-kJuina, y^^-AJJ zindim. 

Prisoner, i/J^ kaid-l, l^Aij bandhu'a, j-Ji asir. 

Privilege, ijJU ^yni^ malchsus fa' Ida , ^Js- fiakk. 

Privity, (secrecy) J-^ bhcd, (collueion) j^jL- sazish. (f.) 

Prize, (reward) (•Ujl ire'ara, (winnings) ^)\i bazJ : see Plunder. 

Probe (sui^eon's), ,^Xi ^ -^ jarrali kl sala'i, J*< ;hT/. (f.) 

Problem, Jj^ suwal, •d-~< masla. 

Proboscis, JJj-i ^ (.(J^ hathl ki suiul, ftjtj^ k/turtum. 

Procedure, uu-f^ harakat (f.), JW- ckal (f.), aLsU.* mu'anio^. 

Proceeding, Process, f!^ kam, *^yj kartui (f.) : see Method, Affair. 

Proclamation, ^.^jl:..* manadi, (by drum) lj^J.ytj dhandkora. 

Procuress, ^^j^ kulnl, aISj dallala. (f,) Procurer, \jjfj bharma. 

Prodigal, Jll^j^ — yi ijVj ^'■i/oda kharch karne-wala, j\j\ ura'u. 

Produce, Product, Production, J-iU- /lasil, i^'j-J paida'ish. (f.) 

Profit, tAi\i fa'ida, p-ij naj', ^1 labh, ^U-o manaf^. 

Progeny, di^ aulad (f.), J— J ins/ (f.), ij-ij ia?is. 

Progress, Pn^ression, ij|«j— J ^jesAratca?^, Jy tarakkl. 

Pi-oliibition, ti-JwU.* muimna'at (f.), ^^ jnaji*. 

Project, Ajj«i-« maitsuba, )y^ tajmlz (f.): see Invention. 

Promise, Jy (!:««/, ^^^ 6acAan,j|/l iA7'ar, *ACj wu^da. . 

Promotion, i^j^-SJJ barhCt, ^_^Ji taraffkl, i^j^J>j^ mrfarazi. 

Prong, l2Jl^ kanti, iLi s/iakh, Jj-i «S/. 

Pronoun, rr^ jamir, (demonst.) jjLll^l ism-i-iskara, (inlerrog.) 

*L4iiril Jjr»- //arf-i-Ulif/iam, (relat.) J^m -j' u'ta-i-mansul. 
Pronunciation, liiJj talaffuz, ^jS^ makhraj, j\»'\ uchchar. 
Proof, (jijttjT (izma'ish (f.), (confirmation) tijUl isfiai, JJj da/7/. (f.) 
Prop, ijjfi Muni, ,J1j /eAan, \1S^ Ilk (f.), ij:-^^ pwsAi (f.). 
Property, u:™*U- fduzssiyat (f.), (possession) il<L miVA (f.J, JU 

Proportion, JjljJl anrfasa, ^IaL* tnikdar, ^j-J-j siidault. 

2 L 

258 VocahuJary. — Nouns. 

Proposal, k.r— .Iji-^J darfdwast (f.)- Proposition, ii_« masla. 
Proprietor, iJ^U maVik, jJ^tri- kfiawind, (_.,>-l^ sahib. 
Prose, ^ nav- (f.), jf.:^ *K katam-i-manfiir. 
Profiecation, (suit) 4-^ kasiya, .)^Ji< mukaddama. 
Prosody, \^}j^ ^ Um-i-arut, ^J'jt^ mJzdn. (f.) 
Prospect, (view)^ nazar (f.), jlij Jt« madd-i-nasar : see Hope. 
Prosperity, ^L^K kamyab't, j^.jtrjr bakhtawarl, dJjU-i sa'adat. (f.) 
Prostitute, Ij— J iejofla (f.), J^if?- cAAina/ (f.), ^ /-aAAa. (f.) 
Protection, Li-jUa- himayat (f.)i j^«C bacha'd, i_rj;j'^ parwarish. (f.) 
Protector, j<«'^ AamT, ^^L!l^JJ nlffah-ban, lisU- AajSi. 
Provender, s^U- cAara, ij\j dana, UyJ /eAnn, (^\(^ ghas. (f.) 
Proverb, ,Jl^ musal (f.), i-^^^ kakawat (E^), J^^t.^^ xar&K-I- 

Providence, (of God) t^lj^i- l^itda'i, jVljj razzaki : see Foresight. 
Provisiop, (food) Ul^ kkana, 1 j^ g-Aiaa (f.) : see Preparation. 
Proximity, t_y 'i^'""^. ,_^'^ nazdikl, l^—*-' samlpl. 
Prudence, jis^ ftazar, l»Li>-l i^tiyat_ (f.), ^^y-j ,_^i»j pesA-frmi. 
Psalm, ti-ul osftt^ (f.), J^ wS\ poA saTod,jj3j zabur. (f.) 
Puberty, i.;^j]u bulugkat (f.), iS\^ jawdiit, h_)L^ shabdb. 
The Public, jU. Ma/* (f.), JjU Ww/aVft (f.): see People. 
Publication, j\^\ i^'^'^r, (of a book) U^^lt ,_^^f=- chkapke zdhir 

Pulley, i<^7*- charldn, ^jf^^ phirkl, ^i^ ghirnl. 
Pulpit, —-« mimbar, ^l^ki-j singhwsan. 
Pump, \L^pichakkd, ^f^pachuka, Uj hamba. 
Pun, uJ^ JBgwf (f.), Jjj zatal. (f.) 
Punch, (the instrument), - .. f^ ckhlnl or ijjr*?- cAAe'onF. 
Puncheon, (instrument) i— jI^ cAAap (f.): see Punch, Cask. 
Puncture, Jl^ 
Punishment, Ij 

Puppet (doll), \]j^gurit/a, ^^zj patU. 
Purchase, Jj^ khar'td (f.), jLj bisah. ( 

■ chhed, ■r'jy surdkh. 

i saza (f.), (_*1 j^ u?a6, i-i— L- siydsat. (f.) 

Voca biliary. — iVoa ns. 
r, jWjil. kharidar, il^^ gahak, i^j:. 

is/itnrl. (m.) 

Fureness, Purity, ^\j pakl, ^^'\Lf: mfaT, ^c^y nirmalla. (f.) 

Purport, i<>*^ mu^iu, -i-j^ ma!csad, jL« murad. (f.) 

Purpose, tS-Ji irada, Jm^jj kasd, liu-J nli/at (f.), u^j^ gfiaruz. (f.) 

Purse, lA^ thaili, i~-S klsa, Sj^ surra, Ify (5r«. 

Pursuit, (.__-A*j ta'u^kub, ijjj^^pairaivl, sSj raged, (f.) 

Putty, izlS |_j<Ji jtafe'f-i kusfita, ^-1 K'7, ijiJ -> jraresA (?). 

Pyramid, jLo nianar,jL** mJwar, f^ij^ gdw-duia. (f.) 

Quadrangle, A^>3*»-,,)Ci shaklri-ckaitgosha. 

Quadruped, Aj.LijW chaTpuya,j^ sutur. 

Quality, li-i* fi/iK (f.), i—jUjI au^af, (rank) iJJj^ martaba. 

Quantity, ^IjiU mikdar, (heap)_;-aJ dker,j.i3 kadr (f.) : see Part. 

Quarantine, IL^ chilla, (after the death of a relative, 8tc.) ^-Jl»- 

Quarrel, \^^^jfiagra, f-ai 4o2iya,J& i%ar. 
Quarry, ^^^ ^j^patlliar ki kan, ^JcS^ sangistan. 
Quarter, ^^ys- chautha'i, (district) ids;* ma^a/ifl .- see Abode, Pardon. 
Quean, iuUjj kuttama, tjt^M fujira, a:.;>-U ^^j zan-i fakisha. 
Query, Question, Jlj-i mwal |_,i-;J purmh (f.), ^'-^i-jl istifham. 
Quest, -.j^ khoj, ^J^ talash {{.),jp^jij: — s^just-o-ju. (f.) 
Quickness, jJ^ shitahl, ^S^ jaldi, ,_^la- chaluk'i, ^^^ tizt. 
Quietness, Quietude, ^^iji*-' sukiin, *\J\ uram, j\^ karhr. 
Quill, *1j '^ ji^par ka kaiam.j^^ akalipar, (porcupine) ISjK kanta. 
Quintessence, lUi^ /^ula^a, k:!-^ sat,J^ sat. (f.) 
Quire, (of paper) *ijJ dastn, \^ iJMa, (choir) iju% ta'ifa. 
Quota, l-a>- fiissa, Vstr bakhrd. ijf^ bifirl, i^ hahra. 
Quotation, l/-L^1 ilztibds, ^Ijiijl istiidtraj, Ji»-lj ddkhila (?). 
Quotient, J^l»- hasil, ^L« mahlagh. 

RacCjfjJ dauf (f.), t^^^jJ daurordanrl: see Breed, Family. 
Rack, (engine of torture) t:^^^ skikanja : see Anguish. 
Radiance, tUi sAa'a' (f.)i f/^partau, ^J^tajalU, ULi^ jot. (f.) 
Rafter, l^ hargd, tJjjK kdmp, jj^ koro. 

260 Vocabulary TVbtins. 

Rag, Jj^i*- cJdthra, U latta, -s^>i dhajji, j'3^ gudar. 
Rail, Railing, 1^ kalAara, '^j^^ kathgkara. 
' Raillery, \^ tkatlha, ^-y* mazukh, ,Jj(2^ thatholi. 
Ramrod, Ji gaz, ij—^ tkasiii. 

Rack, (row) jUii katar (f.), *-ft* ?aff (f.), (degree) A»-jJ rfarja. 
Ransom, \m Jida (f,), ijiiifidya, ^/iJ-Jaj na Ibandi. 
Rap, JjftJ d/muZ (r.), jjfl tliappar, U-Uj tamacha. 
Rapture, Ois»-j wo/oT, L^ii^ jatb, Jl:»- Aai, jj'j*-j wajdan. 
Rascal, s jlj-«U»- haram-zada, cX)^ mardak : see Base, 
Rate, (price) ls,-*^ htmat (f.),j\(J bka'o, ^y nirkh : see ' 
Hatio, Jjljjl andu3a,}\fi bha'o, f/ nirMt. 
Ray, ^jj^ k'lTan. (f.) Rays of the bud, cUi shu'd'. (f.) 
Razor, »jS_il vstura, ^j^ chkura. 

ReadioesB, (j^Lj laiyurJ, ^jUl amadagi: see Alacrity, 
Ready money, Jjij nuifrt/, lLJj; ''"'•jJ^iJ *okar, (f.) 
Rear, l^^saj p7c/j^5, |^lj(^ j?ic/(AM;«ra, ^jfjl^ix^ ^jjcAAori. 
Receipt, (reception) Uli pana, (fi>r money, See.) J--y raiid, (f.) 
Receptacle, j^g/mr, *iU- khUna, ^^^ jagak. (f.) 
Reception, ^J^^ giriftagi, Ar»-1 afc/<s, Ui^U ja/i. (f.) 
RecesH, ij^ljj rawanagl, i,z^S:>-j rifilat, (respite) -toj wakfa, > 

Recipe (medic^ prcBcriplion), Ai?-' nmkha. 

Reckoning, z:S ginfi, i-jU->- /lisab, j\,*J^ shumar. 

Recollection, jIj ^atf (f.), lJj^-^^, r/adawart, Jtj^ stidh. (f.) 

Recommendation, fjtj\i^ sifaris/i (f.), «---J.^ ta/frlb. (f.) 

Record, jiJJ daftar, fCjj' tattar'ikh. 

Recovery, i.:L-iLijlj bas-yaft (f.)j (from illness) IjLI shifa. {f.) 

Recreation, jLyj bahla'o, j^ tair (f.): see Amusement. 

Recruit, (soldier) ^^ ^ nayasipahj, (supply) jji^Jj-' sarbarahi. 

Redemption, l_j^i^2t» c/ihulkdra, ^licLel istikhlas. 

Redness, ^/^ surkfu, JS /afi, (pale) ^^\f gurSl. 

Redress, i^j^>j^ c/iara-aazl, ^i^U*- fiiiniiyut (f.), Ci^ljJ tadaruk. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 261 

Reel, (frame) ^^y-lll apran, (dance) — li K wJ ^^Sj} ek fcism ka nacL 
Reference, f j^ "yi*"i j«J /ago'5. Ails alaka, <^:.~~yJi nkbat. (f.) 
Reflection, (throwing back) ^^\iJ6l in'tAos, i_j-i** afcs •" see Thought. 
Reform, Reformatioo, j.L>l i^la/i (f.), ^vs?^ (as^I^. (f.) 
Refuge, »liJ panah (f.)> ^^^ am", )/-T 5«r5, Jl* ma^z. 
Refulgence, ,)^ tajalli, ij^jalv!a,jy nur, ll!^ jot. (f.) 
Refusal, ^^io^ inkar, ^^ nafi (m.), bl i6o, ^^ man'. 
Regard, iiii^X* muluham, i^y tawajjuh (f.), (look) Ji) na:»ir. (f.) 
With Regard to, l::. v^ :] ba-nisbat, ^^j~t Jf»- Aayj^A min, 
RegioD, ilj3^ m«/A, |^**^j-i sar-zamln (f.), -JjI i^Hm, 
Register, (book)j:iJ daftar, (officer), jl J <tiA,^ «ar-rt«Afa-e^ar. 
Regret, (__,.j-jl a/sos, iZJj-^>- kasrat (f.), i—i-ilJ ta'assuf: see Grief. 

Regulation, ^Uaijl tnfi'sani, l 

J bandobast : see Law. 


Reiu (of a bridle), ^^Uc 'nan (f.), ^s/U iug (f.), (_^5_, t 
Reiteration, jIjSj takrdr (f.), ;JytijJ dSAra'S. 
Relation, (recital) _^^ /aArlr (f.), (affinity) iw-*_j nisbat. (f.) 
Relative, jbiii, rUhta-dar, ^]/ karabatl, ^.y>- Idapeth. 
Reliance, jUocI i'timad, J^-ix\ i'tibar, \j^\ asra, (j-l as. (f.) 
Relief, JJL* madad (f.), ,^1^-* pvsktl, i—i-ii^ takhftf. (f.) 
Religion, ,j J tHn,^ maz'hab, »jbJ dharam : see Piety. 
Relish, iij^ masa, tiJJl /oaani (f.), Jlj-i sawad, te^f>- khushi. 
Remainder, ^J^J ba/cl, ^y»C bachfi, amj talimma, ^gwU maba^l. 
Remark, Jy ifraB/, cd\j bat (f.), (note) -.^ skarh (f.) : see R^rd. 
Remedy, ijW cAura, —Ic "/«;* (f.), i^'W u/)a7, C^ljJ tadaruk. 
Remembrance, ol; yarf (f.), c:--»- c/iet, «SJ« surfA. (f.) 
Remorse, ^yt:; pachhtawa, (^j^\ afsos, i_i-ilj ta'assuf. 
Rencounter, aLILo nmkabala, iLlijljj bardz-i nagdh. 
Rennet (for curdling), ij^e j^pamr-nidya,j^ rfjU maya-w/iir. 
Renown, ^Ij Jiam, i^jyt^ ndm-wari, i-^^^/^^ gkuhrat. (f.) 
Rent, (split) ul/U- chdk,jf^ c/tir, (hire) ii'jS kirdya, _1^ ^irdj. 
Repentance, ^jW=f^ pac/iAtdwd, iJl.»-iJ pashemdni : see Regret. 
Repetition, j'ji; luftror (f.),jl^y doAru'o, (rehearsal) ^^,Uj /jai/utt. 

262 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Report, j-i ^tahar((.), (rumour) Sj^ skuhra, {eonad) j^j\ awaz. (f.) 
Repose, /t]j] aram, ^jtj^^ asa'isk (f.), ^^j^ chain, .^~i sukk. 
Reprehension, Reprimand, t:u~«lU malamat (f.), lijlj tarna. 
Reproof, ^nb j!a*fl, ^\^f gosh-tnali, (_AJJ j-j sar-zanish. (f.) 
Reputation, |_j<UiLj nek-naml, tj/] dbru (f,), *lj worn. 
Request, ij:^j~~jii darkhwast (f.), |_^l«31 iliimas : see Question. 
Research, j_^S^ ia/asA (f.), |.A^"J taffish (f.), ~~j^ khoj. 
Residence, jfigAar, *lt< muAram, (J^'^j<ij> hud-o-bash. (f.) 
Resin, Rosin, lijAJ t/ASna, J^ 7-5/ (f.). tvy*--* rfA«p. (f-) 

Resolution, Resolve, 
Resource, ijW- cAnn 
Respect, a.^inV (a*s7 

s kasd-i-musamvtam. 

hikmat. (f.) 

t (f.), ^.J:i takr'im (f.), (^Jl adab: 

Respite, Afijj wakfa, A«j IS Jii jfr«i/ Aa wakfa, Aili jiagha. 
Rest, ^^^ sukun, (quiet) *^jl arawi, jl^ karar : see Remainder. 
Result, Jijlr- Aflsi7, «^ !iamara : see Consequence. 
Resurrection, jiJ J i>l.jtj ba's o nashr : see Judgment (day of). 
Retaliation, Revenge, ^tUiJl iniiledm, ^J>^ \%ea%, Ijj hadla. 
Reticle, Jls"- Cj^*- chhaldjal, ,_jL^ Jjf?" "^^Sff thaili. 
Retinue, ^■s*-jilau (f.), ijr_j'^ snwurJ, tlijj tuzvk, jjj ftor. (f.) 
Retirement, Retreat, cUjLi khalvat (f.), il&^ khalwalgdh. (f.) 
Revenue, Jk*! amnfj (f.), tj^^j-e madakhil, Jj.^!*:* mahsul. 
Reverence, *i^ takrlm (f ), |•l;i5^-l i^^tram, (bow) »J— J tasUm. (f.) 
Reverse, (opposite side) ^-fj ^Aer, ,_^-il* aAs; see Adversity. 
Revolution, (going round) u^'ij) gardish (f ), (change) t—jSij' inlfUab. 
Reward, ^1 ajr, \j^jazd (f.), *— '^y xawab, ^Jt!LA^ bakhsliisk. (f.) 
Rhetoric, i.::-^L V; *S^ A* ^Im-i-kalam or -balaghat. 
Rhyme, *-ils ^afitfa, i— ivJj rodJ/, ^jt'^o;* ij^ (aft. (f.) 
Ribaldry, (^^Is* fuh»h,^^ phaJckar, ^^ ^cA. 
Riband, Ribbon, Xi^ IS i^y' aiiresAaBi kdfita, j^ ffoT. (f.) 
Riches, l^jJ daulac{f.), JU wu/, ett* JU ma/ mata^. (f.) 
Rick, JJy («(/(;, Jl! fo/, Slj tdlii, ^J *//ii-r, jUI ambiir. 

Vocabulary/. — Nouns. 263 

Riddle (enigma), ^J^»^J paheli, Ujto mu'amma, ,jb,- ^ c/iistan. 

Ridicule, ^^-^ knrisl, iLx^^^ max'kuka, ^j^ Ihalhdn. 

Right, (^ kakk, Ijc J du^wa, (hand) UjbJ dahina : see Property. 

Ring (circle), i^s^ halka, Ja^^ kundli : see under Apparel, Dress. 

Ringleader, *ila- j-i ear-/ial!ca, i^j^j-^ sar-gurok : see Chief. 

Ringlet (small ring), ^j^l Lp}i^ chhofi angutht : see Curl. 

Riot, "Jj> huUar, lUwJii hangama, ^_yi— e ^i khar-masti. 

Rijieness, ^i=£; pukhtagi, ^ \ijpaka'i: see Perfection. 

Risk, «;k^ khatra, m^j^ jokhim (f.), lii*- c^tnfa. (f.) 

Rite, ^^J ^^I a7n-i din, Ui-Jj fli (f,), (jJjt tartk (f.), *-j^ rosm. 

Rivet, jA* ffteAA (f.), i^/^packri, 4^^Jj\ andlierl (?): see Nail. 

Road, Jw-, ros(a, tlJ}-> snra/c (f ), >\j rah (f.), t^lj 6ai. (f.) 

Roar, ^^garj (f.), ^ gunj (f.), ^jL gknrrish. (f.) 

Robbery, k^j>- c/i6r7, ^fJJJ dazdi, ^J^J dakaifi, iJj*!; raAsanl. 

Rocket, (used in battle) ^Ji ban, (skyrocket) _5 IjA hawal. 

Rogue, »jlj *5;3- haram-zada, i^J^ f^ag, LsJ lachcha. 

Room, (space, place) .^fj>-jagah (f.J, *li* ma/cam: see Chamber. 

Roost, bl a^a, L/-i^ chakkas, J^-— J iosera. 

Root, Js^ jflf (f.), J^ inul, M hekh (f.) : see Origin. 

Rope, u-y rossl, ^^ys^ je'ofi, t^jj-J ^5r7, ^^-j rasan. 

Rosary, (of beads) -^ly-J tasblA (f,), (rose bed) i^li-jL gulabistaa. 

Round, (turn) ^Ji^ gardish (f.), jjJ daur: see Circle, King. 

Row, u_i« sq^(f.),jllaj» >co/ar (fJij^ i^or (f), ci-sib j)uh(. (f.) 

Rubbish, iS^J kurkut {{.), lL/UU- k/mhdk, Ij/ i5m. 

Ruffian, .**'>»- ^oromT, J^Aif ckandal, ^ katar, Jib»- jallM. 

Ruin, |_;j|/>- kharabi, ^JL*j'j pa'emal'i, ^V taliahl. 

Rule, ^yjjU ^anu?i, »acIj Ad'it/a, (sway) X*- Au/cm, Jac unia/. 

Rumour, jly! afwah (f.), liJ^ sAaArai (f.), i^ gap. (f.) 

Rupture, jljJrfarar, tii^y /«_( (f.), (hernia) u-f Jul and-kos. 

Rust, fcS^J 2a«g, j'iJj cangar, Ap-jj-t morc/ia, J-* maif. (f.) 

Sabre, j:~:~*^ ahumsJier (f ), IaJ tegha, aLa.*^ samsam. (f.) 

Sack, (bag) ^^fgon {(.), \<ji bora, (plunder) ^\jC .j:-*:i.l7 («AA(-/ur«;.J 

Vocahtt lary . — No uns. 


Sackcloth, tilj tat, jcl^C« mlkhU, (iC ,^^ mutaml /u/. 
Sacrifice, ^\ij kurban, Jj bal, ^i zabfi (f.), Ij^/fia. (f.) 
Saddle, ^^j zin, ^Jj^ kallt'i, (pack) j^'j palan, (camel's) *jls? 



:b1 uddst, *i g/i -am, Jl* ma^aZ, k,;^;:;^^ rfi/-g?r?. 

• (!)■ 

Safety, |A«^" salamatt, ^\ amn, j\^ bac/id'o, \^j rachchkd. (f.) 

Sage (prson), ^jT bb rfana a(/mT, Jl^; a/im, J^lj_/az(/, _« mwni. 

Sago, JJb^Li sdgii-ddna. (From the pith of the Sagus Uumphii). 

Saint, |Jj wall (m.), iJSJw gidk,j^ plr, CJji gfiann- 

Sake, i^\j wasta, (_—-■» sabab, Je^S- khuttr, (f.), ir ,;" /'^^ or /iZfu. 

For the sake, i^jla-lj was(e, ^^^^ sabab,Je\i' ^atir (f.), j_jJ lii/e. 

Salad, (English) 4j"L, sa/o(a (?). 

Salary, ajUU sdlij/dna, ^sJ^) waslfa, i\ysiz tankhwdh. (f.) 

Sale,j'Kj bikd'o, i^Jj_ bikrl,u:.^jjifarokht(f.): see Auction, 

Salvation, c:j'j*r no/ai (f.), Ui-X* mukt (f.), i^w-^ rQ*(agar-T. 

Salutation, jXj saldm, ,^jf kornUh (f.), ^MJ bandagi. 

Sample, iJvtJ navtuna, i^jlj bangt, ^5jjU mddarl. 

Sandal, ifll a/^a, Ijj^^ khurpd, (pair of sandals) |^jJjti na'lai 

Sandal wood, Sanders, ^^-i^ ckandan, Ja^^ sandal. 

Sap, (j-j rcw, ijjc nrak, tj\j pan? (ni.), JtJj^ dudh, 

Sarsaparilla (Smilax, sp.?), <ul.c us/tba, i^^wr ffinAci'e. 

Sash (for dress), JU- j'a/, KSj palka, ^^jL-i scfi, |_jftJJ baddhi. 

Satiety, ^'1^1 aglidl, ^ji^ bharO, ^j—i sirl, i^ IS^ chkakiil. 

Satin, i_^-li=' ofJ'Mt i*^ jiilam, <!ijlj io/ia, ^^jU. safin (f ). 

Satire, js* hajo (f.), IjJ"!^ bhandautod, IjiiJ nindd. (f.) 

Satisfaction, (content) |^wj>- jLU- khdtir-jam'i : see Retaliatimi 

Saturday, ^lau-i samcfiar, i-i^ shamba, i^iiiSi hafta. 

Sauce, i^jiila- chds/inl, ,1^^ c/ialnl, ^^JS^i binjan. 

Saucer, kjjfr—J (■asktari, ^Sj/-" (fa/rari, — ^ ;«>icA (?). 

Savour, jj 6u or ^ (f.), JtSiS ganflh (f.), ij* maza, o1^ saicud. 

Saw, u:^Jji kardnt, i^l ara, |jl ora, jli—* mirnhdr. 

Saying, CJ.!^ fcaAaw^n; (f.), Ji- »irt;<a/ (f.), t^V ''«'■ (•"■) 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 265 

Scab, jjf^ khulhl, 1^— jS' khasra, i-i-^ chal (f,), ijfJ-J papfi. 

Scabbard, |»U niyam, ^'^ kat/il, i_Jii ghilaf, ^J^ miyan. 

Scafibld, 1^^ machan, lac^J dauiija, ^_Ij />%«,"'. J^ ;'"r- C^') 

Scale (of a balance), Hj pa^/u, Ijjj pa/rn, (fish) \Sl(*- ckhilka. 

Scalp, ^J*»- l^ -^jii^ khoj)Ti ku c/iamra. 

Scammony, Ujj.«i_! sa^muniya. (From Convolvulus scammonea.) 

Scandal, i——:^ aib, f\j da gh , ■, ' ^•■'■^ kalank, ji^^JJ badnami. 

Scapula, t^Jkft jji ^■*'^ kandhe kl liadd'i- 

Scarceness, Scarcity, ^^^ kamtl, ^V*^ kamyabl, J^ tangl. 

Scarf, (i^jjl orhnl, ^^^} ek-patla, '*^;J do-patta, \ijA uparna. 

Scene, AjJ did,JaJ,x< madd-i-nazar, (theatre) ^j\^ akhara. 

Scent, jj bo or bit (f.), ^/-V *^*i -"J-^ gandk (f.), tlX^e mahak. (f.) 

Sceptre, j^li^jUw asd-i-shahi, tr-ciJ—- rt-iJ kahza-i-saUavat. 

Scheme, (plan) A^^ nakska, (contrivance) c:,,-*C>- (nkmat (f.): see 

School, t^-^-« maktah, i^j.i^ madrasa, ^jW_jJ dabistan. 
Science, Jx'/m, loJ Aitfyu (f.), Li~«i^ hikmat (f.), ^ fann. 
Scissors, (jo|^ mifcras, ^j:^^ kainchi, ij^ katarnt. 
Sconce, ^ljji*i shan^dan, j^J^^Jji diwar-glr,j\^jhur: see Head. 
Scope, (space) .^i^ jagah (f.),jlL^ phaild'o, (aim) JuaLo maksad. 
Score, (notch) UIjj^ khandana, (line) Sai khntl; see Account, Twenty. 
Scorn, J)vi-1 istihzd, i.i-JUl tAana^ (f.), CJ,U*- i^-o.r(z(. (f.) 
Scoundrel, jl—*^ AurramsSA:, lAyi shithdd, CJl^J jj bad-zat. 
Scourge, 1^ tofa, AJ'jj'^ tdziydna: see Punishment, Affliction. 
Scout, (__„*j\s>- Jaszis, \jJwj bhediyd, xJ^jA hm'kara. 
Scrape, ,S^ ftmgi, ^,tLtJLi kas/tniakash (f.), iS'fs\:=^j/iaitj/iat. 
Screen, s'kreen, ^ faffi, t_^l^ j/iump, -jyU ;taJiu^ (f.) 
Screw, -Aj peck, ojjj^ moron.- see Nail. 
Scrotum, Ai^fola, ijji pota. 

Scrutiny, (JUj taldsh (f.\js^ji^:~—^jvstoju (f.): see Examination. 
ScufBe, ^^ci-j^ls^^ khaiacha-khainchl, Lao J^jsiJ dhauMhappu- 
Sculpture, ,^iU; nakkaslii, (work of) ILm '^ Ijj^ kkoda ku'ii niikuhn. 
2 M 

266 Vocabulary. — IVouns. 

Scurf, Uj bafa (f.), ijjJ-j papfi, ^;j rusl, A^^ sabusa. 

Seal (staiup),^,^ muhr ((.), t-j^?" chkap (f.), *j'^ khutim. 

Sealiag-wax, ^!i /aH, }3 /u^. 

Seam, ts^jJ doldht (f.), jjj_s s7ioan,J)a- jor.jjJ rfars. 

Season, *-j^ mausim, tiJj rii or rut (f,), J-aJ /as/ (f.), »\i\ aiyiim. 

Seat, (chair) J'j*- cAomW, (mansion) ^jlSl*iflu^an, (place) *U*m«ia/H. 

Secession, J^_^l ^Uzal, '^jH phut (f,), i_jjj2t"( in/tiraf. 

Secrecy, lii-l ikhfa, iJ^ parda, i^^Jjl^ raz-darl, CJjU- khalwat. (f.) 

Secret, jIj raz,j^sirr, >>^ i/ied, tiJlj ^^ C-»^ pcf A* ia(. 

Sect, t—lj jai (f.), tiyjirjfa, t.Z'~^''^K^ jama'at (f,), k— -*j«i mas'/tab. 

Section, Ajas J-f^'a (vulg. kata), Jo^ kha7id,j>-juz, i^ fast (f.) 

Sedition, lUlJiJb havgama, 1^' balwa, JL^fasad, ^J danga. 

Seduction, Ijil i gh wa, j'li^ b/ialkao, ij;j1_j&|jJJ hadrulisiiz't. 

Seed, -AJ ty, .a^ tukhm, ,^_ bihan, (sperm) ■Jilai nulj'a. 

Segment, Ijfl lukra, (of a circle) &.*>- tj,^3 l^ ^Jl}-^ da'trl ka ek 

Selection, t-jlinjl inlikhab, lI^V?- chhant (f.), .^\i buchh. (f.) 

Self, t^l a;), J^ My'i i_^~ op-we, l=j1 j ?5( (f.), ^j_ai nafs. 

Semicircle, *^'J*j nlm-dii'ira, l^-Afcj' adhghera. 

Senna, L^ «ana, _C«l:-< sand-makki. 

Sense, Sensation, ij-^ ftiss, tj^j\ ausdn, JbJhd sudh (f.) : see Meaning. 

Sentence (decision), J, jij /aitt-a, S^ hukm, lai ^«za. (f.) 

Sentence (period in writing), ^M-jumla, SjUJikra, 

Sentiment, jSlj fikr, ij'\j ra'e (f.), ^Jt ^"fi, -i^ji bujh. (f.) 

Sepulchre, jy gor {(,),jj Ifobr (f.),jl^ mazar, c;-j/ fitriaf. (f.) 

Sei^eant, (military) jlj*iJ daf*dar, (at law) J-S'j iwiAi/. 

Series, A»yd sarishta, <tU-i silsiia,jj<i daur. 

Sermon, Isaj wo's, i^Iis- khutba, ks-vSXdJ nafihat. (f.) 

Service, ^//j5 naukarl, i^_f^ chakarl, tLu—tJ^ fdiidmat. (f.) 

Set, ^ ganj, 'y>-J5r, ,_!*« mr/, ii^lS* ta'ifa. 

Seton, ^U nuM, J^'gw/. 

Settlement, ti— -Jj j^ band-o-bast, JLaKJl infill: see Abode. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 267 

Sex, ts/J ling, w^ jins ((.), iZj\6 zat (f.), C^Ip- Ja^ (f.) 
Shackles, ^^jjflsrj zanjJr (f.), ^^ berl, JuS kaid (f.), Jcj ftancf. 
Shade, yW' cAAan2(7 (f.), 40U sa^a: see Darkness, Shelter. 
Shadow, ^Ji}i>y>^ parcAhaln (f.), ^^^Sz aks : see Protection. 
Shaft, (column) ^^ji^ dtun, (pit)^^l^ khankhar : see Arrow. 
Sham, d^lij banawat (f.), b^^Cj pekhna, ^y^jhuth. 
Shambles, ^**'** masla kh. ^larLaS kassab-khana. 
Shank, ^J^^ philU^ ybj narhar, (of a tool) v/J^^ dandi. 
Shape, JC^ «Aa« (f.), ts^jj-? 5«ra^ (f.), ^laS Aaf . (f.) 
Share, ci^b Jan^^, ^lUa:^ hissa^ (plough-) Jl^ pA5Z, Ijy tora. 
Shark,^U hangar ^ {^J^ nihang, s\^ grdh: see Artful. 
Sheet, (cloth) J jU- ckadar (f.), (of paper) Ctjifard (f.)o'^ ^^'^> ^'^^'^^ 

Shell, i— ^^ ««p (f.)> ^j^ gf^nga, ijj^ kauri: see Case, Husk. 

Shelter, j l;^ iacAa o, 2flij panah (f.), jT 5r (f.), ^ioU saya. 

Shift, JC ial (f.), <ill^ <idL>. hilorhawala : see Contrivance, Shirt. 

Shillishalli, ^^ b I agdrpichha, ^jILj ^ ^^^ pas-o-pesh. 

Shot, (shooting) {^Su^^phenk (f.), 4-^ yarJ (f.), (bullet) ^f goU. 

Shroud, ^^ kafan^ iiUl lifafa : see Shelter. 

Shutter, (of a window) tM^ jhilmil, (j^5^ chilwan, cl^>- cAiA; (f.)> 

(of a door)j^^ kewar, (matted) ^ tatti, k^\^ jhamp. 
Sickness, i^^*^ bimartyj\j\ azar, ^^r^ marZy j*i^ rog. 
Side, jLyj pahluy ja^\i^ panjar, lJ)o taraf (f.), (party) Ajy /rAa : 

(on this side) uJjt (^1 is taraf (f.), (on all sides) j^ \j^J^ 

charM or. 
Siege, Xj^As^ muha§ara, Lj^ ghera, ^JjJ^^^J^ girdawaru 
Sigh, «T 5A (f.), tj^'U Aa'e (f.), j^U sans (f.), tij^ daregh. 
Sign, u:.-w<lU alamat (f.), (j^ nishan, (hint) 5;l2»^ ishara, Uj\ iwia. (f.) 
Signal, cs.^li»l isharat (f.), ^ \:^jana'd, JJj cZaHZ. (f.) 
Signature, LicL^J dast-khatt^ cf^jV^ likhawat (f.) : see Mark. 
Signification, iji*-« mc^ni^ -^j\ arthy ^^a^o^ mazmun. 
Silence, _^^l:>« khainoshl. iJD ^ suKut (f.), ^^ maun. 


268 Vocabulary. — Nouns. 

Silk, (thread) f!^./) ahresham, (cloth) \^ ^^^*i^__j reshmt kapra. 
Silliness, ^^^_ bhola-jmn, i^J^' anar-pan, i^'j^J nadant. 
Siniilarity, t^'y harabar't, CJ'jL-* musaxoat (f,): see Likeness. 
Simile, iJl« maml (f.), Jll< mii^l (C), -rt™? tashhth. (f.) 
Simpleton, tJiUlt i_\*" xa'tfu-l-akl, -^jy murakh. 
Simplicity, i^')y niral, ^o'^ sailagi : see Folly. 
Sin, t'^ guna/c, i—j\jpap, aj^jurm, m-^yan mc^siyat. (f.) 
Singer, \i^ gawaiya, ^i3j j^ sarbdi, ^Ji^ ga'in, l::-^j1^ kulawant. 
Singing, ^ gun, lijj^ tarod, ^-liii taghannt : see Song, 
A Sink, J Ly-iJ panbaha'o, |Jli wa/i, i,ifrt^ J^ pa(a/ mahri. 
• Sinner, jlJjb\iSgunaA-g(ir, |_5i^ po/*'! _;''^<W badkdr, ^y*^ nf'- 
Sir, i_,j».Ls ga/iib, ^U* jaiyaii, ^\i babu, ^^p- 
Sire, blj ioio, wlLi- tlX;^ ^ ^yilijli pMshalJm led ek khitdb, 
Sirius (the star in the great tiog), S^j>^ sfn'ra or sAi*r7. 
Sirname, ^,-^iil Ij, w^a a ^ ^ ^\j^ g/iardne kd fdiitdb or lakab. 
Sirup, HjJli shlra, i~jj rub, i-j\j rdb (f.), ^j^j 1^2_< viithd ras. 
Site, Situation, .^^ jagah (f.), l^lSlfi thikdnd: see Conditioo. 
Sitting, i^-...1.J nishast (f.), Ci^S^ bailkak (f.), f^.^ julus. 
Si7.e,j\,il< mi/fddr, J.;J rfi/, JJ i(;n(W; see Bulk, Starch. 
Skein, iJ^jf* phenl'i, i^T an,'', Sji^ kalawa, ^^J larckhd. 
Skeleton, iJ;^ thathri, Ijj firfrfu. 
Sketch, dCJij naksha, WLi sancAa, t;^ kkarrd. 


. »A:/i. 

Skewei-, isr*^ * 

Skill, jj*i sku'ur, k^^^j rasdl, j:Jt hunar, ^ gui 

Skirt, iij\ii kindra, |j-*'j daman, Jj J jm7. 

Skylight, y^ljjlj idbdan, ^^^A:-i>jj raushan-ddn, \^jj^ jharokkd. 

Slander, c:-<*y tuhmat (f.), (_^-iiJ bamllsh (f.), i-:-*r^ g^'^uf- (f-) 

Slavery, ,j^S.i ghaldml, ^J.ijj! lauiutl-pana. 

Sleep, JiJ ninrf (f.), t-j'^ khwab, S^'^ unghd't: see Rest. 

Sleeve, j^^-^T a«(7s (f.), *laij^ IdytTita, l^ hatthd. 

Slight, (indignity) Li-fii Mt/a' (f)» (sleight) iiJ«*i jA«*i«(/a. 

Slitifss, „i-jV-' ifjan-jmn, ^ \ji^ r/iaturdl, |VjW ^tit/cfg^- 


Vocabulary^^Nmms. 269 

Slope, Jlis> dhal, j^\ utar, kjjij)/^ saraz&ri. 
Sloth, ,^^:u^ sustl, ,i^^ kahiR, i^z^S^\ askat (f.)» ^\ alas. 
Slough, (of a snake) ^^^^ kenchli, (of a sore) ^Jfi^ chhichjra. 
Slowuess, ^JLjbl ahistagi, J«J^J dhll (f.), ,j;««Ma sustlj tjj^^ 

majhuli. ^ 

Sluice, f^jY* muhrl, L^\jy>^ khurab : see Di*ain. 
Slumber, i^V^J^ ungha% JCwJ ^^^ kachcht nlnd: see Sleep. 
A Slut, Jib^ phuhar (f.), ^JU\ anam (f,), JiJ^ churail. (f.) 
Smallness, ^^ b^^ chhotal, k^^j^ kliurdiy, ,<^^ kuchakl. 
Smell, ^y^sungh (f.), (odour) JbJi^gandh (f.)>^ 65 (f.), c/*V *^' (^0 
Smile, iS^jLm^ muskurahat (f*), a«i«J tabassum. 
Smut, (spot) (J^^ A;a2a&9 (obscenity), c::.^li|^ ]dh,urafat (f.) : see 

Snare, f\*i dam, \iyj\^^ pkanda, (dakh. also) CJ^ sarak. 
Sneer, ^y>' cAi nak-charht, \jj^\ istihza, \jm^ thesra. 
Snout, ^J^^ thuthfu (?), (elephant's) JJj-j sund (f.), (crocodile's) 

f^j^y tumrh 
Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), vi*^^ J^ gul-irchandnl. (?) 
SnuiF, (of a candle) J? gul, (the powder) (^U nas (f.), ^J^y» 

Snuffbox, ijlj^^li nas-dan. 
Soap, ^ji^U sabun, i»yCiCj suklikarm. 

Sobriety, i^J^j^J^ parhezgarl, i^j\J^yb hSshyari : see Moderation* 
Society, ^1 un^, (^^^jotf fufibat (f)i cu^l>^ ntu^Aara^a^ (f.) : tee 

Soda, jl^^ khar^ ^X* ^^iB-» ^ j^JI CS^ ek kism kl sajfi miffi. 
Softness, ^y narm, liU^ komaltd (f.), c:^.^l< mulayamaL (f.) 
Solicitation, cs^^y^J darl^ast (f.), i^ilff jfabi (f.), u:,^%i^ nttn- 

na/. (f.) 
Solitude, 4^V^ ton/ia7, v^ m! iklal: see Desert, Retirement. 
Solution, jl|^ ;}igA/a'o, ^*llfga/5'o, ^(lall: see Explanation. 
Somnoleacy, j^liX;J ittiu/oi (f.), jTjjlT Cp^|^ Ugpab^ludagl. 


Song, i—-^ git, i^^lTgflK, lijjj sarod^ <UxJ naghma, t£/I_; rag. 
Sorrow, ^^yJ^ afsos, »i gh-am, ^^ajS kurhan (f.) : see Grief. 
Sort, *-5 iism (f.), i-^^^ 6A(Jn( (f.), j-^ JaraA (f.), ^j-is^jms. (f.) 
Sound, jlji aicac (f.), 'o«s sa(/a (f.), (J-^T a/iat, i^^jIj Sang, (f.) 
Space, i^jC arsa, AJ^ fasila: see Room, Distance, Interval, 
Span, i.:u^b hallsht (f.), ^ ii((a, >— -i>-_j toajab, jJHj biland, (f.) 
Spasm, jSjs-JaA-ar, .flol aiH/A (f.), ,_,.i^^ pichish (f.) : see Twist. 
Spawn, tJ-*j^ ^ uJ^"^"^ ^y ijjjJ.^ ^ machhliyon aur miiidukon ke 

Speaker, Ji=^ mutakallim, \jJai holwaiya : see President. 
Specimen, dJj^J namuna, j***^ hangt, t/iJv« matfari. 
Speck, ib rfogA,,ljli^ ckitkara, (in the eye) ^J^ phuTi. 
Spectacle, LiUj tamasha, j^.Uj l_-~^ a;o6 nnma'ish. 
Spectacles, ^^r.^ chaahma, -'^^^ ^ chashmak, i ' ^'j'' ainak. (f.) 
Spectre, ^U sai/a, liI'^ i/tuf, ^^^»> shaitan. 
Speech, ^^Uj swian (f.), Jy Jofi, (>:j nutk, \4ki hh^hi. (f.) 
Speed, i^>l^- joldl, .^5* harbarl, ,<;'^ shitah'i. 
Spell, jii* mantar, jjU- _yarf5 : see Turn, Time. 
Spendthrift, ^Jfl wrau, —^ ^^y^ fazul-kharch. 
Sperm, ^^ mant, cuUjdAai (f.), -ftJ %': see Seed. 
Sphere, see Globe. Spheroid, j-»- tjy^rJ baisawl ckiz. 
Spike, (of com) Jl 4a/ (f.), Ai^ AAosAa, (nail) >,-c meM. 
Spindle, Kj takla, Uo taku'a, -4/^ chamTokh. 
Spinning, Jj ~j>- charkh-zani, (-wheel) ^;*- charkha. 
Spirits, (liquors) t— 'U— sharab (f.), JjcJ (« arak: see Mirth. 
Splendour, n^^jatwa, klXt^ chamak (f.), J^J-y raunak. (f.) 
Splinter, ^/ ftiVcA (f.), lU:*- slnA (f.), ^L^f AAt/parA. (f.) 
Spoke (of a wheel), IjT ^_;^ chakkar ka dra, ^^y-j Khi. 
Sponjje, JjU 1^ mna badal ..,M->\ ufanj. 
Sport, (of the field) jKi skikar, (play) J-(S' He/, ^jli Aa^Z. 
SportsQian, ^J^ shilcarJ, j\jj^ shikar-bii::, ^jf^^^ ahtr't. 
Spot, (speck) fij c/agA, (disgrace) CS^ kalank; see Place. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 271 

Spout, ^j5 tontlj S^J painaloLy (pipe) (-l^jj pot (f.), Ji na/. 

Spread, JL^ joAaiZa'o, <d?W i/iatayj^ gher: see Extension. 

Sprig, Sprout, ^f^^phunglf <)UKr^LJ» shaKhchay ,^^j rfaff. 

Sprightliness, ^_^^ chalakl, ^^X^^ achpatt, u:-^llj bashashat. (f.) 

Spur, t23l^ ft5n<5, Jj\ er (f.), J-a^^ mahmez. (f.) 

Spy, (j^jJ^jasuSy l>Juf bhediya, j\}Jaj nazar-baz: see Scout. 

A Square, «^y^ «jC2i shakl-i murabba, l^j^ chauka. 

Squib, (firework) l>*li» patakhif (lampoon) ys?^ hajo, (f.) 

Squire, ^J^ mirza, sCtSj (^^'^\*a sahib-zdda, 2t!l ZaZa. 

A Squirt, t^Ji^pichkart, )IC«J damkald, \is^ pichukka. 

A Stab, Jyh AiiZ (f.), ul^^ bhonk (f.), ^^^ khoncha. 

Stability, j|^ ^rar, y^j^ thahra'Oy i^J^f>^ ustuwarl. 

Stack, JC tal(f.), Jl3l atal (f.),jlJ\ ambar, s*}y tuda. 

Staff, Lac Sfa, ^j^ lathi, L^Sjif- chhafi, M^ chob. (f.) 

Stage, ^J^ manzil (f.), (platform) ^Isr* machan, (of a playhouse) 

2f\S LS>Uj tomo^Aa-gaA (f.), \j^\ akhara: see Station. 
Stain, ^J dfl gA uXJ Zi^ (f.), C,^:Si kalank, (on cloth) LjbJ dhappa. 
Staircase, ^^J-j pairi, jjbjy nardban, ^j^^ pharkh (?) 
Stake, (post) l^-^ khambha, l^j^ khunta : see Peg, Wager, 
stalk, ^u dIaZI, v^J datha, l^^ &5n^, <iL:J ^ana, ,<^^^ dantht. 
Stall, (for a beast) ,J^ than, Aijb tawela, \^j\ argara (?): see Bench, 

Stallion, jJU sand, U^ \^ ^ blj ka ghora. 
Stammerer, Stutterer, \jbi^ haklaha, i^:^ luknafi. 
Stamp, (instrument) l>l^ chhapa, jj^^ muhr (f.): see Print. 
Stanchion, Ijj J danda, ^^ thuni, ^^SJs teknt, ^A^^ pushtl. 
Stand, (stop)JK31 atkffo, (station) \j\i^ thikana: see Cessation. 
Stanza, ^ukS kifa,jiJ^ shi^r c:^ bait (f.), UjJ cJoAa. 
Starch, ic^iLj nishasta, («Jl^ kalap, IjU mawa. (f ) 
A Start, clii^ chaunk (f.), klS^^s^ jJdjhak (f.), d^ bharak. (f.) 
State, LrJU- ^a/a^ (f.), ^j trax* (f.), JU aZam: see Eangdom. 
State, Stateliness, j]Ja^ tamtarak, ^ojj j dabdaba. 

272 VocahuluTy. — Nouns. 

Station, ..^^jagah (f.), IjISUj t/iikana: see Place, Degree, 
Statue, i^jy* muTut (f.), c-o hut, SJy patla, i_:--J (n'bal. (f.) 
Stature, JJ kadd, Jjj tfj/, ii,-*li A-awia( (f.), m'jJ) andaza. 
Statute, tjjyl^ kanun, 3Ac\i ka'ida, ^^jT a'ln, t-^j ri^ (f.) 
Stay, jKj tika'o, jjibjJjJ hudohash (f.), lAj^; ralia'isk. (f.) 
Stead, .j^s^jagah (f.), jJj^ mauka^, (instead) ^^^ "was. 
Steak, Kj" tikku, ^jji ftof!. Stealth, ijy^ cAorl, i^^^J duzdi. 
Steed, iTyp ghora, OjIj hadpa, An-i samand. 
Steeple, j\i*< minur, tij ia( (f.), !_^__,yiiJ dkaurahra. (?) 
Stem, (stalk, twig) fli shiikh, i^^'j danth'i: gee Lineage. 
Step, *Jj kadam, »\S gam, t^^J rfeg, (of stairs, 8t,c.) le^/r" Jf'f/i'- 
Sterility, i^'U-y' tisaraf, tj']^ kallara'l, i^-^atrlj hanjhpan. 
Stick, i_s5il iaftri, ^j5j fa(A7, Uk asa, i-J^ cAofi, IjJO danda. 
Stigma, i'j rfogA, .^ia- cAinA, (disgrace) fcl^-.K kalank, i-J>j=^ harf. 
StillnesB, iJU.i^-> sun^ant, L^.^Lri sunahal (f.) : see Silence. 
Sting, (JJjJ ^nA, tlJjlj dank, t^_^ nesh, •' ^(--^ chdbhak. (f.) 
Stink, ^Jw bad-bu (f.), JuX^j^ durgandk (f.), |j£«J ta'affun. 
Stipulation, !s^ sAari (f-)» j)/ Jy kaul-karar : see Contract. 
Slirrap, f-->l;fj riAufi (f.). Stirrup-leather, J1jJ(_j1S, rikah-do'al. 
Stitch, liJIj tonka, <SU lapkl, (pain) l^ ° tasak. (f.) 
Stock, itiJ (dwd, (gun-) ifiiitf kunda, (capital) J^ wim/; see Cattle. 
Stocks, (wooden)^ kar, ^^ kalft, (funds) ^*c <sf^y ^j— ^ lj'**' '"'" 

Ami ;)ujy7 men. 
Stop, Stoppage, jlSlIll afAS'o, tl^l atak (f.), (in gram.) *'j-j hisram. 
Store, (plenty)j-ftj dher, (house) ij^j>- kkazana, j'-*^ hhandar. 
Story, (tale) iaJ Aissa, ijl^ kakunl, (floor) J^ manri/. (f.) 
Stove, j^;^ gul-khan, jjij tanur, ^g'.V'l o.ngithi,j[fi bhar. 
Stranger, ^_jWj^ ghmr-janib, ^--jJy par-desi: see Guest- 
Strap, (of leather) JUj rfo'a/, (razor) jVj*?' chamotl : see Bell. 
Stratum, tlJ^ parat, Aj (oA (f.), Jl1» tabak, jUt jtiiflit. 
Straw (ata)k of grain), Jlj «ttfi, JljJ7»Kw5i (f.), IS^" finAu. 
Streak,^ ^.iKr {(.), j^ lahar{i.).\^ kfy'V ^■'^ L-iiw, Hiiy. 


Vocabulary, — Nouns. 273 

Stream (current), V^l^J dhdra (f.),jUj dhar (f.): see Brook, Riven 
Street, <Lj-^ kucha, <teu-y rasta, ^ gaU, CJj^ sarak. (f.) 
Strength, jjj zor, Jj bal, trjy %uwat (f.), ^y^^a^ mazbuti. 
Stress, j^jj zoTy ^^y>- chot (f.), ^y hojhjjo bar. 
Stretch, JL^^Aaiia'5,jLjpa5ar, ^L^ kasa^o: see EflFort. 
Strife, l2i5 faTz^a, \f^ jhagriy ^y^y tdka-tokt: see Dispute. 
String, t/jj*^ ^ri, j^-y rassl, ^y^ sutR, Jir^^JeZ: see Row. 
Strip (slip), ,<^fc> dhajjif ^j:^ katran, \Ji tukrif ^Jb paifi. 
Stripe, (line)^-ji3 lakir (f.), (from a whip) jU mar (f.), \j^ kora. 
Stroke, jLo niar (f.), ^^ cKot (f.), tlio^ thonk: see Stripe. 
Strophe, ^IL« matlo^y <uLS Ai^a ; see Stanza. 
Structure, ^^**i« to*m7r (f.), (edifice) ti^Uc imarat (f.) : see Shape. 
Stubble, Jbjb badh (f.), ^j^y^ thunthtf ijj\j narl. 
Stucco, 4.^ l^ L5l^ chune ka tep. 
Stud, (of horses) J^ Iduiily \f U paga, (button) J^ phul. 
Study, ^IL^ mutala'Sf (room) ^U- <u!\k« mufala'a'khana. 
Stuff, 2rjU maddoy ijuo^ rakkt^ ^Ui* Jcimash : see Nonsense. 

Stump, (^<^y ^U9t£fi, Jjy fttn^i 'f^^ fAimM : see Root. 
Stupefaction, ^^y^si be-hosht, ^i^jyo murchha. (f.) 
Stupidity, ^fy;^, bt-wukufi, «j:^U>» ^imalcat (f.), ^^^y:S kundi. 
Style, (idiom) ^Ik^l i§tila/i (f.), c.^,U iJara^ (f.) : see TiUe. 
Subject, i-s-^j ra^aiyat (f.), Ip-^ /)ar;5 (f.), (matter) aft)U madda. 
Sublimity, l::-^ jU ulwiyat (f.), i^JcL bulandi : see Height. 
Submission, iJt^^y>'j^ uzr-tdapahtf ^ bJ daba'd: see Obedience. 
Subpcena, L^f^ v,y.Jl^ talcJhchittlUy ^IxJms safina. 
Subscription, (signing) Li^J dastkhafh (s^^) ^"^^ chanda. 
Subsidy, g?;\Sl)JL« ^ ^j rtfpat ti madadgari : see Aid, Tribute. 
Subsistence, (being) ^^A'^ hastl, (Jy>-j wujud: see Livelihood. 
Substance, (being) ,A-A Acw^i, (matter) *jLo, madda: see Body, 

Substantive, A^t t^m, /^^ nam. 

Substitute, a\sU a>U ka'im-makam, ^f- xwaxi : see Agent. 

2 N 

'274 Vocahulari/. — JVoKns. 

SubtilenesB, Subtilty, (fineness) ^Xi^V i«"Ai; see Artifice. 
Subtraction, ^jjA haran, j_.<jj icaz* (f.), ,_j ISp ghatal. 
Subversion, t_)S£jl inkildb, <^/jjlj zerzabari, ^\Ajh pa'cmUn. 
Suburbs, ^yi ,j-«''* daman-shakar, Ijjj j^ shakar-pura. 
Success, ^UfllS kamyabl, ^s\)'. ii^ uhda-baral. 
Succession, J— L-J tasalsul, j ifl lagaa : see Series, Lineage. 
Successor, ^j^\s^ ja-mishm, *U« JU ka'im-malcam. 
Sucker (a shoot), JjJj? kompal, ^}^ karil: see Sprig, 
Suckling, \j\jA.jJit skir-khwara, i^^ l^ J»JjJ dadk ka backchak\ 
Sufiiciency, i-l-oU^ kifayat (f.), _jj>j Ww/uJ", Uj mafa. (f.) 
Suffocation, i_;~iJl i.'-r-*' babsu-n-'nufas, |_jXi_j-j dambastugl. 
Sugar, jCi shakar (f.), (coarse) ^eJ^^ c/mi7, Ajl^ kband, (candy) 
tj/*** mifrt, iXJ jtanrf, (-cane) .ffjl uAA (f,), Ls ganna, |^U^ 

Suggestion, S_,l^l iskara, i^J'ii fJiS gonlt-guzari, ,l*i galah. (f.) 
Suicide, |-1^ J^ khud-kushl, (murderer) |_^ Jjs- kJmd-kush. 
Suit, l?jp- j'of«. (retinue) t:u~»i-s- /lashmat ((.) : see Lawsuit. 
Suitor, (plaintiff) jl^jb dad-ldnpah, (wooer) (_Jilc aahilf. 
Sum, jJ-n mablagh, ,JS kulU, (summary) ^J*** tnujmal. 
Summerhouse, ^jj'^Hj^ barah-dari, Sxj bangla. 
Summit, i^^ ■-;; phunavg (f.), ^^^ didn(i, aIj }culla. 
Summons, i_-11j talab (f.), |rf^ t—Jij talab'ckitlhi. 
Sunbeam, j^_^ ftiraw, y^ ^ i_jtiT a/i!a6 Aa partau, 
Sunday, jlyl itwar,j\^j rabibar, rUii (-l^.^ ^k skamba. 
Sunrise, c-iliil cjlL tulu't aftah, ^ii\ -rjy^ suraj-udai. 
Sunset, t—'kiT f—^jj^ ghuru bA-aftab , tc^ TJi^ guraj-ast. 
Superficies, -tr^ satji (f.), c:.,-«-j. icus'ai (f.) : see Outside. 
Superfluity, J^Jjl izdiyad, asjS kasrat (f.), ^^^ bakutat. 
Superintendence, |JU^ nigahbanl, Ji'y^ sarbaralii. 
Superiority, tJ^ bartarl, iz-^ji faukli/at (f,), ^ kj barul. 
Superstition, ^^\l ^A din-i-batil, i_ - "*' ta'ussub. 
Supplement, i~mj laHmmn. 


Vocabulary. — Nouns. 275 

Supplication, IcJo-a^ isHtTd (f.), Uj du'd (f.), i^j\j zarl. 

Supply, ^j^ bharttj Juy rasad (f.), Jc«t dmad (f.), t-*^ AAcp. (f.) 

Support, (prop) »jla->i istada, (sustenance) ^^j^ parwarish. (f.) 

Supposition, J^f a<A;a2 (f.), (^US ^iya«, Sj\jj\ andaza. 

Suppression, j U J daba'd, ^ L^ chhipffo. 

Suppuration, j iG /MzA;a o, lL^Umjj plbiyahat (f.), ^^ »W57- 

Supremacy, C^jl aiowatiyat (f.), (^^^ sardarl. 

Surcingle, ,JLj jpc/i, wSicJ SU bala-tang^ ^jS JJjJ kotal-kash. 

Surety, (bondsman) ^li^ xamtn, (bail) ^<^t^ xaminl. 

Surf, Surge, ^a^ ^yc mauj-irbahr^ Hj^^Jb hilkdra,j^ lahar. (f.) 

Surface, ^J^^^sat/i, (f»),^j ru,jib\j bahar, tLj bisat. (f.) 

Surfeit, ^JJi^^ ajlran, i^ \j^\ aphrSl^ ^ Lp kachal. 

Surgery (practice of a surgeon), ^^^j>-jarraht. 

Surplus, ^JL^ beshlf ^^ji barhtty ^^^^ bachtl, ^J^MfaziL 

Surprise^ k,,^^*^ ta'ajjub, ^^if^ nagahani, d^U-l achanak. 

Survey, «\6 nigah (f.), Joj namr (f.) : see Mensuration. 

Surveyor, jbU nazir^ jjV^^ nigahban : see Land-surveyor. 

Surviver, 2^ JjU««j pasmanday ndij ^^ pas-zinda. 

Suspense, \>y ^ uJ^ khauf o raja (f.)> li^OjJ dubdha. (f.) 

Suspension, /Kfl latka'Oy (putting off) ^jjj*^ ^ lJjv •^^^'^ cAand 

Sustenance, jUl aA5r, C/J;^ Miurak (f.), ^^^ Ji*5 : see Livelihood. 
Suture, (seam) ^^^ siwany i^J^ silaly (of the skull) ^^jor. 
Swain, ^^\y^jawan, fj^fr o^^^ chaupani jawauy (J-^l3 nayak. 
Swamp, Jj3 J daldal (f.), ^^j-JbJ dhasan (f.), ^^;^<i ^>>- cAor zarnin. 
Swarm, iX:^^- j^undy Jjj^ mandal, |*\>-<i>)\ izdihdm. 
Sway, K^,^^ hukumat (f.), si'V^/ farmdn^awal. 
Sweepings, ^Jlp- jA5ra» (f.), ^jj^ buharan (f.), ijj^ iiira. 
Sweetheart, l^U pyara (m.), aSyjU) mashuka (f.) : see Beloved. 
Swell, ^^ phulan, ^^ sujaUy (wave) ^y« wiaty (f.") : see Increase. 
Swiftness, ^jj^ tezl, t/jA^- jaldt, ^'->- chdlakly ^cJt-i shitdbl. 
Swindler, i---^y /♦*>;-« mardum-fareby j\^^ butth-baz. 

276 Vocaiulary. — Noun*. 

Swin g, yi^ jhula'o, (machine) Sjp^-JAuZa, ItjjliA hiiidola. 

Swoop, i^-".,^ jhapal. (f.) Swop, SJj UjI adlu-badla. 

Sycophant, t^x<\^^ kh\ishamadi,jj^ J*»- chv gh ul-Mior. 

Syllable ^_jjir* Aye, <uJ^ kalima. Syllabus, see Abstract. 

Syllogism, A-aJ fcasiya, ^jAJ k'lyas, JJj daVil. (f.) 

Symbol, ^^lij niskan, ij>-«Sa alamal (f.), jl^ muraii. (f.) 

byminetry, 4ij^ ,tarj»a, jJj'i-' swdaafi, jl Jjl andas. 

Sympathy, i^^J>«tt kam-dardi, .^jj— J>J dilsozl, ci-Jj rikkal. (f.) 

Symphony, ^JLtlkft ham-ahangi, ,jf j'jUj* Aam-Juia^T. 

Symptom, ^ " ■ t'^ " alamat (f.), ^jjlij wwAan, Jl csnr. 

Syncope, see Fainting ; (in gram.) *h*-_/ i*^ ^ ^? ^^ tarkfiim. 

Synopsis, ^---g"' mukhtasar, J.*^ mtijmal, JU^-l i/'mai. 

Syntax, ^atr na/fo. (f.) Syringe, u^j^i^^ pichkarl, Aiib- /iu/.'Ra. 

System, ^^yli i^-anuw, jAcU ^a'lrfa, (plan) Aiij naksha. 

Tablet, ^jl iflwA (f.), ,Jb pafi, ,_^ar ta^rt. 

Tackle, Tackling, *l«rl^ sar-anjdia, '.Ijli J^ kll-kanta. 

Tactics, t^,^i=f-^jf» fann-i-jang, i^'|^T i_£^ saff-iiral. 

Taffeta, <tJlj (a/Za, ^Z ^,^J daTyal, ^yrr^ che'otl. 

Tail, ["J rfum (f,), .f:^^ punchk (f.), JUiJ dumbal- 

Taint, (stain) ilj rfaj^, (corruption) jj 6u (f.), ^^b Aar. (f.) 

Tale, i^ ^issa, ^\^ kahmi, Ji3 nakl (f.) : see Calculation. 

Talebearer, j^ (J**- chughul-khor, jUo: ghammJiz. 

Talent, (weight) j^jj u'or«, (coin) aSLj sitAa ; see Faculty. 

Talisman, .-lb ilt/um, (or plur.) ci^U-U; tilismat. 

Talk, c^V iat {t),^^:-^^\ ial-diit (f.), JlJo hokhal. (f.) 

Talkativeness, ^^s j^ jjb j ziyada-gnl, S^ j\r^ bigt/ar-go'i. 

Tallow, ^jf- charhl, ^^ pik (f.) : see Fat. 

Talness, ^j LJ ^ .M ^atfff AT iamba'l, ^ li^l uncAal. 

Talon, j^lj nakhun, ii nuh, ^C tiqAiA, Asw pavja, 

Tambourin, ijr;?ii ^anjarl, dlij (atM, .^J da;>A. 

Tameness, ^ lU Aifa'j, ^Ij raniJ, ij''^;i ;TO5tca7. 

Tap, t-jlf; (Any) (f.), ^^S^ thapki, CJ^ tkok, \j^ lakora. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 277 

Tape, jy kor (f.), ^^ pattt, (coarse) j^y niwar. (f.) 

Tapestry, \^jS J^^"^ diwdr^iri, yer^ mushajjar. 

Tar, ^j^ kitran, JJ^ ral, (sailor) ^<-tfl^ khalasi. 

Tardiness, ,^^JcuJb! ahistagi, t<--«» si«^i, «^«i> d5^« • see Sloth. 

Tare, (weed) ^^l^ ghas, (in weight) |^ dhariy t^Jtui dharat. 

Tariff (Arab. ^.J^), a^\:^y \^ Jt"^^^^ mah§ul ka nirkh-nama. 

Tartness, ^J> turshl, i^\^ kavwal, ,Ai?^ sakhtt. 

Task, J^Ll?^ wasafay ^l^ Aam, ^^^ chtLkauta, kzj^ kut. 

Tassel, L^jhabbd^ \js:^^phundna, ^^^ latkan. 

Taste, iyo maza^ C^^jJ 2azsa^ (f.), i3j\j zaUka : see Discernment. 

Tattler, ^Jj bakkl, yj^ goppiy \jJj^ barbariya. 

Tavern, <UU c-^]^ sAardb-khana, Sj\>-jSi^^ bhanger^khanam 

Taunt, ^jJh taUf ^j *i«L tanarzani,\i^ mihnayji^ tanz. (f.) 

Tautology, j]^ takrar {i.\ j^ takarrur. 

Tax, i^yAs^ mahsulf J-^U- (idsily —1^ Miirdj, ^\j:^ Iduizdna. 

Teacher, Ja« mu*allimy oli*^! u^^o^, (j-^Xo mudarriSf ^^ guru. 

Teacup, ^Lo ^ l^ cA5 ktpiyali. Teapot, |j^fc>V>- chdrddn. 

Te Deum, cu^-Tl^ \J^j^^ *^ g*'- 

Telescope, ^jy^ dur-bln. 

Teller, "i^ytri^ kahtiewdla, "i^^ ginnewdla : see Accountant. 

Telltale, jy>^ Ja>* chu gh uUkhory \j^ lutra, i^J^ nesh-zan. 

Temerity, \jf^JCLj be-tadblri, jyP tahawwur. 

Temper, Temperament, ^yc mizdjj (ju-J*^ sarisht. (f.) 

Temperance, Temperateness, Jl«>aft\ Ctidal, JJtj)^ parhez. 

Temperature, Jljot^ Ctiddl, L<y ^ S^'V* **^^ hUat-isardt o 

Temptation, s^^^y targhib (f.), \^\ ighwdy ^U^\ imtihan. 
Tenacity, lL^LU Uxslasahat (f.), fJ.^Lsx>^ ckipchipdhat. (f.) 
Tendency, ^J^ matZ, |^pL« matZan, /^^^ jhukd*d. 
Tenderness, ^^^ narmi, l^L*^ AromaZ^a (f.): see Pity. 


Tendril, CJy^ sut, ^JLij resha^ (of a vine) J^ fte/, ^JbJ i^SZi. 
Tenour, (continuity) JL^j rawish (f.), (drift) ^^fa^wa: see Meaning. 

278 Vocabulary. — Nouns. \ 

Tense, ^Jl^ slgha^ Jje ^Uo| zamanori-jCl. Past, ^>^U mazu Pre- 

sent, JU- hah Future, J;5-.....« mustakbil. 
Tension, Tenseness, j\-^ kasffOyyjs^ khicha'd, ^\5 tan. (f.) 
Tenter (hook), i^^\ ankn, ,^5-^^ anfts?. 
Term, (limit) Jc*- hadd (f.), (word) c^b Ja^ (f.) : see Condition, 
Termination, J^ haddyji^l akhir, (of a word) g^^T uJ^ harf-irajdiiri. 
Terrace, V^r?* cAaftiitora or ^J^ chautara, ^b 6a»i. 
Terrour, cu^^JbJ dahshat (f.), J^ haul^j^ dar^ L^yL fdiauf. 
Testament (last will), <ul3 t^w^j wasiyat-nama. 
Testicle, ^oU- M5y«, ^S?*^ Mkusya, ^\ and, |«Lj pcZra. 
Testimony, c^Jly-i* shahadat (f.), ^)^ gawaht : see Evidence/ 
Tether, fj^y]/ garanwan, l^ paghd or ui paga. 
Tetter, Jb rfarf, ^^ Uj ^tna7, ^^.yi--* «e»Aii*a, Ju-j «f Zi. 
Text, ^ji*« ma^n, J-^' a§l (f.), J^ iwiiZ, ^Ij^ rau^an. 

Texture, <-l»^bj binawat (f.), <^bj bunawat, ^US Arimo^A. 

Thanks, Thanksgiving,^^ «AmAt, ,^Js>j^ shukr-guzdrl. 

Thaw,j*Sl^ \^ ^Jb |?aZe Aa jpigA/a*o, f^::.^\j^ guddMit. (f.) 

Theft, gF;>>' cAori, t/Vi>;*> duzdi, ^J^ taskarl, iJj^ sarika. 

Theme, ll.i^ manshd, jiX,a^ masdar, ci-^ac^ maVhas. 

Theorem, aL^ masla, ^j-LS Aiya^. Theory, (^L5 Ariyo*. 

Thermometer, <«t CS^} ^ l5^^ '^*ir' l5^ gamii sardi ndpne kd 
ek dla. 

Thicket, 1^ jhund, ]^^ jl^ jhdr^jhur (f.), jlr^ >wga/. 

Thickness, c^'l5^ iwo^^al, l::-^!!^ kasdfat (f.), ^^s:^ gunjdnJ. 

Thimble, djb^lijl angushtdna, c— ?y fop. 

Thinness, jJoJ tunukJ, t^'hjpatldl, ei-Jj rikkat. (f.) 

Thong, <u*J tasmay jLi sallu : see Strap. 

Thorax, «j jpe/7, tJ^ ^^^u^ ^ yj^i^ chhdtt ki bhitri taraf. 

•• M at 

Thorn, (tree) ui^c^-jJ l^ ^li' Hnfe Aa darakht, (spine) U3l^ Aanfa. 
Thought, b»>-^ sochnd, JU>. khiydl, iJLj^j\ andesha, jjLfei^ dhydn. 
Thmldora, Thrall, ^li ghuldml, yj^^i^^ ubudlyat. (f.) 
Thread, c^^- *ti^, c/^ tdgy izJ^j rishtUy l^J rfAfiga. 

Vocabulary. ^'Nouns. 279 

Threat, Threatening, IC^J^J dhamka, J^^Jy tahdtd (f.), js^j zijr. 
Thrift, ^jj^ juzrasi, ^j>^j>- (S kam-kharchi, \j\^ wara. 
Throe, CfjO |jj bara dard,j^^ plr (f.), 9j J;J dard-i-zih. 
Throne, uu^a^ ta^t, ^l^x;^ singhasan, Jo>«y^ masnad. (f.) 
Throng, J-^ iAir (f.), *j-j1 ambohf f\^Oj\ izdi/idm, /^y^ hujum. 
Thrust, Ur^ khoncha, J^ ihel (f.), l^*> dhakka, tiii^ ftAoni. (f.) 
Thump, Thumping, iCubJ dhamka, CSAJbJ dhamak (f.) : see Stroke. 
Thursday, kZj\jiJu^ jum'S-rat (f.), i»f>:JLjsij panj-shamba. 
Ticket, ^J^^ chitthl, u>v" Jfp (fO> JiJ^*^ dastawez. (f.) 
Tide, (flood) jl^ Jai£;5r (f.), ty< madd ((.), (ebb) \^\^ iAaMa,^^}?" 

Tidings, jU>\ akhbar, \^dc^ sandesa, J^:>\a^ samachar. 
Tier (row), <JJ ^aA (f.), c:.^ par at y ^JLt tabka^Jiai kafar. 
Tightness, t/'^fc'*^?, ^Xj ^angl, ^j^.'^chustl,^ liJ tona'o. 
Tillage, ^^'lisj- Ju^al, ^\jlj^ AaZt£?aAi, ^J^^ kisna*!. 
Tiller, lib\^ halwahif l3^ Jjb hal-jota, ^\j ^ kulba-ran. 
Timber, ^^^ Zaftri, -^l^ J^ goUkathy 51^ goZa, M^ cAoJ. (f.) 
Timbrel, aU? tabla^ f^JjJj^ mirdang, <^^V^ pakhawaj, (f.) 
Timidity, uJyi- khauf, \,::^J:jbd dahshat {(.), ^]/>r (^ kam-jur^afi. 
Tincture, (extract) jy: arak, (colour) {^j rang, (quality) ^ gun. 
Tinder, disS^y^ sokhta^ J^ gul, <d«i» shula. 
Tinsel, lyJ 3J^^, ip^j rauna/c-i-be-nur 6 bahd, ^^^sf^ jagjaga. 
Tint, 4*jt3j rang. Tip, ^ «V, Ci^ woA;, (blow) ^jo iljb AaZAI 

Tippler, iL^ chusakkar,J^^^ plwakkar, ^5/2» sharabl. 

Tissue (brocade), fj>^jj zar-baft, Jjb badld, .^Ui tomami. 

Titbit, y <ui! luhna-tar, c:^.v«ju ntmat (f.), <i]1y ^-r^/f" cAard nawala. 

Tithe, ^Lj dasdnSfJLC' ushr, (.iXjbJ dahyak. 

Titillation, ,^^J^ gudgudi, ^/^j^ sursurt. 

Title, c^lU M«tt*, S^ faM or (plur.) 4->lAli aZAaJ. 

Titlepage, a^l5^ «ar-nama, r^/-» sar-i-lauh. 

Tittle, (dot, particle,) y^J sarra, IJoJ tinka^ ycj^ sar-i-mu. 

2B0 Vocahulary. — Nouvs. 

Tittletattle, ^^^.^ gapshap (f.), C^^- huk-jhak. (f.) 

Toast (dried bread), ^^j ^jA ^J^^'r^ senkl hu'» rijtl. 

Tobacco, jSLij tambaku, U-L^ bhtlsa, J\i gal. 

Toil, o-is^ miknat (f.), i-J^J jjJ daw-dhup (f.), Jv ff*^^- (*"■) 

Token, ^^liJ nijAan, lu pata, (memorial) ijfju jLi yadgart. 

Tolerance, Toleration, iJL^llLy hardaskt (i."), j\^ saha'o. 

Toll, _Ij bajf^S:^ efiungi, ^JjiSi\jrahdarJ,^ kar. 

Torab,_^ kabr (f,), ^^ gor (f.)i V*^ ma^Sara : see Grave. 


-jji ^arli fis mam ka ek wazi 

Tone, jljT «u>a3 (f.), 'j-* fflrfa (f.), -^ iahjo-, J ^»- (f-) 

Tongs, JiliJ Ui— jJ dast-panah, —.li-j sandasi. (f.) 

Tonsil, iJjjS ftflKfi, i^S gilfi. Tonsure, |_^J*i-* mundan. 

Tool, jUfJfc kathyuT, eiJl a/a( (f.) ; (tools) jVijl ausar. 

Top, jMi sir, CS:^phunang {f.),j^sikhar, i^}^ ckdnti. 

Toper,^j*j pJtcakkar, j-jJJ dabwiu (?) : see Tippler. 

Topic, ^i^4.>^ masmun, ^y^j* nauxi^, Uj.^ mudda'a. 

Topography, ^L IS .jj^^ j°g^<>^ *a layan. 

Torch, J*irfi mash'al (f.), &l)j faHta, jt\j damar. 

Torment, c^--=U-i siyasat (f.)( '-^,'^1 azlt/aC (f.), tjjl tin, (f.) 

Torpor, j,Sf!s:u be-harakali, ^'^yl la-jumbiskl, ^^~isunJ. 

Torrent, |_jIbJ J^ fes dhara, J—t sail (f.), jy (or, ^jSJj nadi. 

Torture, ^^ii ^{b~ jan-kani, i.i-J4*c ukubat (f.), ^j-j su/T. 

Total, Totality, il^jiimla, 5-»^jam'(f.), ^j- mo(/j. (f.) 

Touchhole, ^jf ^ *^-^-=f^ ranjak ka surakh. 

Touchstone, ^Jj-^ kasautl, CSs* mihakk (f.), jLc ^^f-- • san^-i-ayar. 

Tour,jijJ daur, j^sair{{^, u^Jif gardish (f.), (tuni) ^j\j bart. 

Tow, (lib b ^jLi 'jA 'j'f*- j^arii hu'a san or j»a(. 

Town,^^^ shahr, a-^ kaaba, tjJj balda, ^^ gaiiw. 

Townsman, ^f/Hj-i •* hamshahrl, (of a town) i^^^ sAakrl. 

Toy, Dj!^ kkilauna, *!*2jb ba-~icha,j^ ^ ^-^-4 kkilne ki chtz. 

Trace, Track, (.IC! /*A:(f,), Ij *ijj nalfaha-i-pa: see Footpath. 

Tract, (of country) i_-i*-^'((»ii, _1^ nau-aA (f.) : see Country .Treatise. 


TheaJManf^-^-^immi , Hfi 

r, ^Vj iris, i^'^ irirfag f^ JJ itt2 (fs\ <s,i*^\^ tii^f . vl>^ 

Trmsfiiniiiliao, 4^^ b ^^=-!;9' Ji^ to&dif4-firt0^ or ^dUiJtA 
TranagresBkxiy ^^=^ tajiacmz^ ?y lor, 4^«s«? ia^addii see F«\ilu 
Traofiit, TViMtinn, ^^ jT gwgir, ^yg iiMcr, JbxJ hibdiL (t) 
Traiwhtino, (Terskm) ^Uc»-y iarjuma^ (remoTal) JU3j\ iMti^L 
Transmigratioii, ^ULc Jij nakl4-makam : see Metcmpsychi>ais« 
Tranqparency, (^5>^ ^^jff^^f iV^ iorro^i : see Clearness* 
Tian^xxtatioDy Jleil itUikal: see Banishment. 
Trap, J^ kal (f.\Jjti dabkar (f.), jyWjaurt : see Snare. 
Trappings, ^ji^J\ arffishtn (f. plur.), (dress) ^^^-ifl-i*^ jmkikfii. 

(f. plor.) 
Trash, J^^l agar bagar, (unripe fruit)^Jij \jf kachchaphaL 
Travail, see Throe. Travel, ^^i^j safar^ c:.^L*« musafaraL (f.) 
Treacle, jfgttf, C^ chotaj ^->]; rab (f.), jU/ tiryafc. 
Tread, ^J3 kadam, ^j aJj kadam-zant, Jl>- cAaf. 
Treason, ^J^sr^ namai-Aaramf, <^jU; baghawat. (f.) 
Treasure,**}]^ Iduizana^^^ rdkar(f.), y^i ^ajdt^ra. 
Treasury, ^]j^ khazana, ^\s>- khazhia. ii^^ja^ ganjtna. 
A Treat, ci-oL^ ziyafat(t.), CJ^^J dawat({.\j\j^^jc*dnar, (f.) 
Treatise, dSUi risala, ^ii^ nuskhctf <uU nama, c^\:iJ^ At^aA. (f.) 
Treatment, cl$^ suluk, (^^JbJ dhang^ <jlJU^ tnu*alaja. 
Treaty, aUUo mu'dmala, ^ §ulh(S.)fj\^ J^ IfauUlparar, 
Tremour, 15-^ kapkapl, JL)^ larzish (f.), ai^j rasha. 


282 Vocabulary.— Nouns, 

Trencher, ^j^ kalhautl, (trench-diggei)jS i^*!^ khal-gar. 
Trepan (saw used in surgery)f jI* mah (?), iU^ parvtak (?), "is^ 

pecha. (?) 
Trepidation, t^j^j^ ihartkari, sjjt larea, JU Jj^rfoZ-mo/. (?) 
Trespass, llti- khata (f.). j>-tUJ ta^sir {{.'), i)\S gunah. 
Tresses, i^j zulf{{.), J^lf Hftiti (f.), y-^ glsu, ^j~> babri. 
Tret (an allowance), t— J/Jj^ uparlap, ^j,iji-yj .lo^tam, j \^^pha'd. 
Trial, i_;ijUiT azma'isk {(.), ^J>sLA imtihan, (legal) J;^ (aWi^- (f-) 
Triangle, i.iJi-« lad- khatl-i-mv m lla^, t^f s^ si-gosha. 
Tribunal, u;-lljui adalat (f.), A*Cs:.'* mahkama, >!:»« masnad- (f.) 
Tribute, _b Jiy, — ly=- Mii^y,^ ^ar, ,JS1-j pexhkash. 
Trice, iia^ lahza, mJ dam ; in a trice, ■' -jT j^"P *c. 
Trick, A^ klla, Jy Jb tal-tolf i-i^ji fareb, ^ fann, J^ dtlial. 
Trident, Jj-y tirsulor Irisul. 

Trifle, j->-lJ nS-cAJz, cyy i^JjiJ' Mori bat (f.), _a» AecA. 
Trifler, jtc -(SL* makkhJ-mar, UybC tapato'ii/a,j^ sjjSi /larsa-kur. 
Trigger, JS ^ JSj-*^ bandulf kt kal. 
Trill, 1^ lakra, i^j^j^ ^ j\^ awaz hi t/iartharl. 
Trimming, jy jjj zark-bark, JfP:-\>~ jhalajhal. (f.) 
Trinity, C-UiJ ftt?/** (f.), ^jSj iJ-JU mlis-salasa. 
Trinket, jjjj zewar, ^a gahia, tj pa«a : see Toy. 
Trio, ts/1^ tlX;! l?^lj^;iX«j_/is-'^jjJ CtnshaldtsmilkaTganekackrag. 
Trip, (stumble) tLCf /acAaft (f.),jfj^ /Aofrar (f.) : see Error, Journey. 
Tripe, tJ^l aji(n, t:u-jT tint (f.), »Jjj rot/a, ij^ bat, tjj^^ ojhafi. 
Triplet, C-\% mv>alla», iJ^~^ MJ Iripad-kahit. 
Trituration, \I^j>j ragrakat (f.), j Lj pisa'o. 
Triumph, ^jrjai, ^fatft (f.), ^),j^ftrozl, <^ ^jai-glt. 
Trollop,jJSji^p/iuAar(f.), ^_^Jjj Jorffi, ^jtS gcgR. 
Trope, _}Ik* majaz, iZjJLc 'bdrat (f.), <uU^ kinaya : see Metaphor. 
Trophy, yjbJ K -iv) fal/i ka iiishau, \ji.~»i^ ghammat. (f.) 
Tropic, (of Cancer) ^J:eJ^ Ui j^aU-i-saralan, (of Capricorn) ^cJ^ kri- 

Vocabulary/ Nouns. 283 ' 

Trot, J3j dulki, Jl*// }iukar~chal. (f.) 

Trouble, ^J dukh, i_iJX: taklifif.), j^A-aJ fajrfi* (f.), Ijjj Isa. (f.) 

Trowel, ^^ kurtCi, ^}^ thapi, ,^_^j-' surmaT. (?) 

Truce, ^^ ^ ^ si^J ^^3^ ihore zamatie ke lii/e sulh. (f.) 

Tnick, Lsf^J-i ^_Jf^^ ^J*?" chkbte-pahiye-dar gari : see Barter, 

Trull, fc^Jlj Jto Mia/-3a(fi, ,_j--^ kasbl, l^_j fiefica. (f.) 

Trumpery, yj <fijj»i harza-go'l,jSj€\ agar bagar: see Trash. 

Trumpeter, UljjW^j-tti nafir-hajanlwala, ^j^^_^ ^amacM. 

Truncheon, jjU-^Uu: asu^i-hukm, f—^jf- chob (f.) : see Club, 

Tnink, (of a tree) dij tana, i-li^yr- jarwat : see Box, Proboscis. 

Truss, (of straw. Sic-) Ujj pula, (bandage) ^3i pattl, tfjwl larigola. 

Trustee, jl J «:i-jUl amanat-dar, ,j-«l amin,j\>iL<j pmma-dar. 

Truth, rf^ iflcA, j_^l; rautt, jji^ fid,fc; see Fidelity. 

Tube, |_lj na/7, ^*^ chongl, ^ nai (C), ,ji^jfJ pAwfoii, 

Tuesday, Jx-c mangal, <Lwi ^ ai-skamba. 

Tuft, j^ j!urra, jc^ jhund, ^ gitchchha, (of hair) 1-^^ ckonda. 

Tug, J-(f AAflincA (f.), ^,1 «wcA (f.), (^ kashish. (f.) 

Tuition, iJLal^ nigahbam, u^jfjl parwarish (f.): see Instruction. 

Tumbler, iS^ nal, j\jii kala-baz, (pigeon) ^j^ ghirm : see Glass. 

Tumult, '^j-^ bakhira, i~Jii£i hangama, i—>ySt\ ashob. 

Tune, jljT awaz (f,), Jj_pj sardd,j^ swr, ^J lai (f-), ^^iJ (an. (f.) 

Tunic, iJj^ cAofi, iJ^ A:ur(a, (membrane) i^jS^ kkalft. 

Tumiel, (fuimel) liijj- chonga, (shaft) i\j rah (f.) : see Chimney, 

Turbulencd, (^\Ja^\ ixtlrab, ^^-^^ khalbalt, ^^jbwJ dangabasl. 

Turn, j^p/ier, j\^ g/iuma'Of (tour) ^Ij bari : see Change. 

Turncoat, jLjJUj zamana-sas. 

Turning, ^^^iJ^ gariiMA (f.)> JI;*i p/iirao, (of a river) tlS^V ^a"*- 

Turpentine, sjaj s^ ganda biroza. 

Turret, >j^iS kangura, Jj^ manar, ^e^T/ burjl, ^^^ kalas, 

Tusk,j^ Sir (f.), i^l^S khang, t—Jij nab. 

Twang, jU^ lankar (f.),^,jCj laitkor (f,), ^ /an, i_^5^ harhafi. 

Tweezers, \~>-}^ muchna, li*.*- c/iimta. 

284 VocahulaTy,~-Tf^ouns. 

Twig, ,_^ luis, t^j^ chhafi, jb palB, Jb rfafi, 

Twioe, iJjj-" *u(fi, i^.U—jj Tcsman, (twist) -^ pecA,- aee Twist. 

Twinkle, Twinkling (of the eye), ,<S^-pr i/ ■*^' ''"^A kljhapki. 

Twist, (wrench) ,^1 ainfA (f*)) jjj* mcror (f.) : see Bend, Thread. 

Type, (mark) ti,**!* alumat (f.), (emblem) J:i«J tamjii. (f.) 

Types (printer's), i— '•/>- ^ <<iW?" chhape ke huruf. 

Typographer, jLjlfs- chhapegar. Typography, ^^[A^ ckkapagarl. 

Tyranny, Jii sjilm, j^ jabr, j*itSj\ andher, j^ kahr. 

Tyrant, J^ zalim.^i*:^ sitamgar, Ji\A^ jafakaj: 

'Vyro,jyc\y nau-amoz, u^Ji^ mubtadl. (m.) 

Vacancy, Vacuity, jl^ khulu, So- khala, i^^ janf: see Leisure. 

Vacation, AcU nagha, jl>\ atitar, J^ia*j ta^tll. (f.) 

Vagabond, Vagrant, ^j^Vj' aubasli, *,ljT award, W luckcka. 

Valerian, («JS3 JU-_/u/Za/rrI, ^^^M^ bilU-Blan. 

Valet, jli^Jii- khidmutgar. 

Valetudinarian, ^jaI'JIj da'eiau-I-maras, ^^j f,i^ janam-rogi. 

Validity, i^J'f-^ ustutcarl, j.\iLs^l istiiikatn, ^j-jS; i/a^ml. 

Valley, Vale, ^J^ nickaji, ^\#i g^a/I, i^Jlj wacfi, JjJ dura. 

Valuation, k:l~-aJ ^j^ju ta'tn-i-^lmat (f.), y^\ anka'o. 

Value, u:-^ f^lmat (f.), Jj^ mo/, \^ baha,jSa Icadr. (f.) 

Valve, Jlj-^ kewiir, ^j4 AAif^'j ('■'') ,_f^-' 4fiokni. 

Van, Vanguard; 1^ muhra, Jj^^* karawal, ^jjls 1 agafi. 

Vane (weathercock), UjjIj badnuma, ^J»j^ pharakra. 

Vanity,^'' l^^^jAu/Aa/t/Mr, ijStLi shekhl ■• see Boast. 

Variance, (_jS:^l ikhtilaf, ,_^Xi mAs, j-c xidd(t.), (-^;f ;iAuJ. (f.) 

Variation, Jj, JJ tabdil (f.), (of the compass) ui.-j^ fur^at. (f. ?) 

Variety, ^jj/ark, (mixture) —Jaj -^tarfy ba-tarak; see Sort. 

Varnish, fcU3 (mA, ^^y ranghan, ^ lakh. 

Vase, *liJ ilS^ ^ *— i.!J* l/ cji/^ bartan kl surat ka eh nafcsfia. 

Vassal, ii-*^^ osumi, jl Jj«jU Idbtdar. Vassalage, j*^ gkuldmt. 

Vat, (joy^ Ao"?! *?1y?" cA«^^cAcAa. 

Udder, y fi«J«, ^^" (Au/(, 

^^ kfih 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 286 

Vegetationy ^^xJl^ ^ C^UU nabatat Ki baltdagi, y^ namu. 

Vehemence, (JL>JJ^ shiddat (f.), ^J^^^ saJditl, jjj zor, 4/JcJ tundi. 

Vehicle, L^J^y^ sawart, i^^^Aj^, barbardarl, u-^-^ markab. 

Velocity, ,^j^ tezi, ^tA^jaldt, i^i\uj tundi, i^j^J*^ tezrawl. 

Velvet, Ja^ makhmaL 

Veneration, a\^ ikram, i^ijji takrim (f.), U-^ puja. (t) 

Venom, ^J zahr^ ^ samm, .^ bikh, ^ bis. 

Vent, Ju^ chhed, ^jy^ surakh, ^^10 ni/co^ : see Breath, Sale. 

Ventilator, ^^jU badkasL Ventilation, ,^^<l^Jb badkashu 

Venture, if^lasw khatra, ^^ jokhim (f.), (of goods) ^Jo\5 fa72£?a. 

Veracity, ^^^\) rastl, 4^ U-» sacha% Ls-il Jui §adakat, (f.) 

Verb, iJjojfL Verdict, jj^ajT tajwiz({.), JL^l inJisaL 

Verdigrise, ^\Sj zangar, i^T/^^ pitral, (dakh.) Jlfij zangaL 

Verdure, i^r}--* «aJ;r?, t^ji^J^ sarsabzl, l/];!^ karfft. 

Vei-ge, (border) ^-J iaJ, ifj\:S kinara, (wand) t^j^ chhari. 

Vermicelli, /^J^ ^\^ kirmanl gandum, ^Jl^ sewa^n. (f.) 

Vermilion, uJ^ScJ* shingarf^^zJ^ ingur. 

Verse (line), f/^^ mip'a, ^ISj tuk, J^ /arrf (f.) : see Poesy, 

Versification, ^Ja,;? tansum (f.), (^«X:j dJlS kafiyorbandi. 

Vertebra, 2j^ ^ JJlj ^an^ &I gtrih, (of the neck) Uj^ manka. 

Vespers, i»l& jUj naniaz-irsham, \^sx^ sanjha{{.), llx tsAa. 

Vessel, (cask) ^ j'lpa, (bason) ^ji bar tan, {ship) j\^ jahaz : see 

Vestige, U ^LUu nakshorirpa, ^lU ni^Aan, \:u |ia^a. 
Veteran, ^J^l {^JimP^ jang-azmuda, ^J^^ l3|^ pur ana sipahi. 
Vexation, ^Ju^ ^o^cfi* (f.), \jj\ tza (f.), .^J c^uAA. 
Ugliness, y^jy^^, bad^uratl, y^yj ur-^J zisht-rul. 
Vibration, k^j^j^ tharthari, d^ pliarak (f.), ^JLi^ jumbish. (f.) 
Vice, 4^JJ 6a^, 4^']^ ittr57, t.^.^ aib, <^j^j--» shararat. (f.) 
Vicinity, j|^Jau?ar, l:^]^ Aar56a/(f.), ^jj^paros. 
Vicissitude, c^u^y naubat (f.), i^b dari, j^b da'd : see Change. 
Victim, j^b^ ijrurdan^ Jj bal,j^i^ nichhawar. (f.) 

286 Vocabulary A'own*. 

Victor, JUa zajir, c^U ghalib. M^ ^'y fatk-mand, (^iVi ghazi. 

View, *Ui ni^uh(X.'),Jaj nazar{(,), li^jJ drisAf (f,): see Prospect, 

\'i5ilance, i^^'j-J bidart, ^^j'jj-i- kha bardarl, ^J^^ hoshyarl. 

Vigour, jjj zor, t^y kuwaf (f.), Jj iai, Li-j\!e tuffat. (f.) 

Villa, ib A«^, IClj Z<uf t/ca, ib <ijU. kluina-bagh. 

Villnin, Jjl^l^ fiaramziida, J^Ai*- ckandal, ^Jt\ P"j~'- (™-) 

Vitlany, iP^J^*);*- fiaramzadagt, ^^j^t^ii dagkahazi. 

Vine, fclJTj /aA, cl-*,j ^j/^' o«gur fta dara/dit. , 

Vinegar, ai^ (irAa, ,Ji Mc^'^- Vineyard, jjt_«^ufcl angurtsfan. 

Vintage, J^ v/ jfi^ angur blfiul. 

Violation, ^— * fmkh, * ^ *■ shikiutngi, j'tSj bigar. 

■i,Ji)=OT,jji tor.j^jai 

e. ghasab, 

Virginity, iiJ;Kj bakarat ((.),_/-' bikr (f.), ^j^J^jj doxkizagl. 
Virility, t^J;^ 'ntardl, cl-J^j rajuliyat (f.), alj ioA. (f.) 
Virtue, |Xj ncftT, i^ ^^ neko'i, (efficacy) ^^ gun: see Effect. 
Virulence, tu^shiddal (f,), ^P^^ saM^'t iJJ^ tundi. 
Visage, jj ru, ^'^j r«'e, jIjjJ didar, tj^ chikra. 
Visibility, Vi§iblene38,j^ tukur, ^J^'iyti namudan. 
Vision, i^'^j btna'i, (phantom) JUi khiyal: eee Sight. 
Vinit, tzjljils mvlak»t (f.). i^-^*?fj bkhit (f.), \r?* ""ijra. 
•Visitant, Visitor, i^'K^ mujra'i, '^ji^ bKiMwaiya. 
Vitality, i^;^ -jj ruh-parwarl, ^^J^aAs^ jundarl. 
Vitriol, Jj sa;', (blue) Ljj3 tutiya. 
Viviicity, ^ii)Aij sindo'dili, ^j:J^ ^li dil-shiidi. 
Vixen, J^ljl larankt. Vizarti, Vizor, t_>l^.(il« mukh-ehliitp. 
Umbrella, Ij'l^ cAAara,j::^ ckhattar, i^Jii>- chhatri. 
Umpire, CJU iin^'j;, ic^Wv^ darmiyanl, t— e.3".-« muntif. 
Unanimity, jWl iKi/a^, JjCS^' eA-(/»ff, ^tl^l cA-mani. 
Unbelief, ^^jUic^^ be-i'ti/fadl, yS kufr, C!\^\ ilfiad. 
Unbeliever, ojiit, j-t gAair mu'la^id, ji'S kafir: see Infidel. 
Uncertainty, ^jj^jJ^ ^a*'" mu/farrart, lIXa shakk. 
Uncleaniiess, ^IjO na-paki, Jji^^ na^^afi : see Filth, 

Vocabulary. — Nouns. 287 

Unction, ^^U malish (f.), i^^L* J-J telrmalal: see Ointment. 

Underling, t^s. '^^^j},) zer-dcut, tjiy tahlffa, j^J^^^ talihru. . 

Undertaker, (of funerals) J^ J ^^ kafanrdoz: see Contractor. 

Underwood, j\f>- JAflf, J^ ^ jhankar, ^f^r j^^T^' 

Underwriter, Slj ^^^-j btme-wala. 

Undulation,^ lahar (f.), |^jU Ai/ora, j/^ hilKor. (f.) 

Uneasiness, l<«|;^l5J teirawi, j^ty letabl, ,^^i-^ becliainu 

Unevenness, v^)^^^ norhamwari, ^jj^ytfJ^ nashebfarazt. 

Unfavourableness, v^j]/«l3 normuradi. Unfitness, ^^'^fl3 norrasal. 

Ungracefulness, ^^IjJU na-ztbaUsh. (f.) 

Ungratefulness, ^LrfU na-sipast. 

Uniformity, (JLi^^ ek-sam, ^j/^ji barabari, J^ m^Z. 

Union, ^& yagi^agl,Jy>^jdr, ^J^i^^ paiwastagl. 

Unit, 4^ IC^ yakal, J^\ aAoJ, \^1 iMa. 

Unitarian, «x>-j^ muwahhid, v.^'J^ j^ munkir-irtaslis. 

Unity, oiJk>-^ ahadlyat (f.), 4^ bjj yakta*t^ 15^^ yaganagl. 

Universality, c:uJ^ kulliyat (f.), c:^y<»^ umumiyat, (f.) 

Universe, jJU afam, ci^lJl^ AaViia^ (f.), CJ^y ^i-SA. 

Unkindness, ^U^U no-miArfiani, ^j\^^. be-mihri. 

Unlawfulness, ^A^j*^^ no^durustly _5l^l_j be-iUfoft. 

Unreasonableness, ^y4t«U na-ma^l^li. 

Unruliness, ^Ja-^ ^, be-xabii, ^^^ be-lagamt, i^'\J^ magral. 

Unseasonableness, ^jJj ,<j be<Dakti, ^^IwJb ^ be-hangamh 

Unsteadiness, 4/^)/ ^ be-'kararl, ^-JLJ ^ beaab^t, 

Unsuccessfolness, ^s^oLe^ be-mak^adi, ^L«lAj norkamyabl. 

Untruth, i<^^U norrastt, <f|^p- JAti^A : see Falsehood. 

Unworthiness, 4,g;*3Li ^ be-kadrl^ ^\j^ nSHrasal. 

Vocabulary, ^iioJy farhang (f.), e^ /t(gAa^ (f.), SU j^U nam-mala. 

Vocative (case), tjJ nufa (f.), ^^^^^m*^ sambodhan. 

Vociferation, ,J2-1^ j^ ^Aor-pw^Art, U^ ghavgha : see Noise. 

Vogue (fashion), <-^^^j riwo; (f.), JU- cAoZ, ^Jl>. chalan. 

Void (empty space), ..^^ ^JU Muttijagah, h^ JdudUf ^ lAulu, 


Volcano, ^^j^'i\js^ jwala-mukkl, ^J^JL3\^^1 a^ kok-i-dtashafshan. 
Volley, ^ shaikh, ^.^), dekur (f.), (dakh.)j"jJ'^ dlwar. (f.) 
Volubility, (aptness to roll) i^ Iftj! lurha'l : see Eloquence. 
Volume, j\^ jild (f.),jii>i dafCar, (compass) jILf; phailSo. 
Volunteer, i_ -^ najlb. Voluptuary, (__;iLc ait/ash. 
Vomit, p^ii—o mustafrigh,j^ ^ ,_? IjJ dawd-i-kai-awar. 

Voracity, i_f;iiJl ff^ju'u-l-bakari, j_j-Kll «^7 


I Vortex.^Sl^ ckakr, L-Aj^ girddb, j^_ bhanwar. 

■ Votary, ^^ii fidwi, n^y banda, /oli gkuldm, ij-\ii das. 

Vote, Jj3 ka\tl, cub 6af (f.), ^Jy &o?7.- see Consent. 

Voucher, »\f gawdh, JJj daVd (f.),jjjls_iij dastdwez. (f.) 

I Vow, Lii-w n7^a((f.),__;Ju na3r(f.), ^_ -LG.i.ii aankalp. 
Voyage,_^ t-f'^j*^ darydl safar, ^i_i IS ^«^ (arl Aa safar. 
Vpbolstery, l_jL-i1 ^jf S^*^^ ^^ asbab, A3U>- ^,UU sdmdn-i-khhua. 
Upland, i^j-^ jc^^ Mnc/jisamin, (f.) 
Uproar, »,l*c ^)i ghul-ghapdra, U^i ghaughd, i*tWJ» hangama. 
Upshot (result, consequence), |*W^ anjdm, *;s\ii nallja. 
Upside, <^^ ^ j)^j<: upar kt tarnf. Upstart, i.::Jjjy nau-daitlat. 
Urbanity, tUjj^ muruwat (f.), .^ L.i.«i^) bhalmansdi. 
Urchin, see Hedge-hog ; 'jjj! lauruld, is^_ bachcka. 

(Urethra, stjlj na'lzha or Jjjli nd'tza, ^y< mutnl. 
Urgency, LjUj takdxd, ,Ji^'^ sakhtl, i-^jjj-i xarurat.({.) 
Urinal, 3jjJ^ karura, ^li J^ baul-ddn, ^^J *-r'^i— ^ peshdh-ddn. 
TJm, ij'j!>- charas, j!j (ioi/u.-, ^^\j^ guldli»,j\j^ satJwdr. (f.) 
Usage, CSjl-j suluk,i.^^j rit (f.), J^ cA«i (f.),^^j dastur. 
Use, JUviiM isti'mdl, J-fcc ama/, |*lS iam -■ see Custom, Need. 
Uselessness, ^^J^^ nd-bakdr}, X^\s-'i Id-Jidfiti, —ISl akiij, 
vUsurer,^^ «.Lj bi/dj-fdwr, jji~ Jj-j sud-khor, ^j>-\^ bydjl. 
Dsurper, j|jiifc::.™jj dast-dardz, i,;l— iJ^Jj zabar-dast, ^-•««iU ghdsib. 
iTsury, ^Lo t^oy, or (dakli.) jU i^u^, Jf^jji-ts^ bedastur sud. 
Utensil, ^ji buTtan, i— 'jl= .?*";/'■ jW^ hathyar: see Tool, 
tility, Usefulnpss, -\S ft^m, jAjli /«>(/«, •J; na/^. ^.li i.iWj. 

Vocabulary. — Nouns, 289 

Utterance^ jU-\ uchchar, lailJ talaffuz, ^Uer ^ c^ laho-lahja. 
Uttermost, Utmost, cu-jI^ nihayat (f.), c><iU gKayat (f.)i ui--^ 

Vulgar, ^^U\ J^ ati?ammtt-n-na«, i^jS^ kunjre, Jljjl ar2raZ. 
Uvula, 1/ l^ jL>- AaZit Aa kawwa, C^lyJ faAa^ (?), )lj) lold (?). 
Uxoriousness, u^*^y« ^^J jzran-wiwrirfl, ^^^j^ ^jf>^ joru-para^ti. 
Wad, Wadding (of a gun), <C|y nawdla, ^j^ kasan (?). 
Wafer, ,^^li3 JiA/7, 1^-^ chapra^ Li3 tildya^ l2-j>- chipta. 
Wager, t^ «Aar( (f.)i j^ Aor (f.), j^»^ ^fl'o, cuc^^b j;^ burd-baldu* (f-) 
Wages, w^lU j[a2a5, <0\i:i^r« mihnatana, ifjib\JL^ muskahara. 
Waggery, Jujo Shrift, 4/jU-^ thathebazi, ^^^ Aaw«i, 
Wail, Wailing, t^gj^j^^^ nala-o-zarl, <i^y nauha. 
Wainscoat, i^jcj daar t akh ta-bandij v/«3cj Ajfls>- khatim-bandi, 
Walk,j^ «atr (f.), ^^ ^ gasht^ (gait) Jl^ cAaZ, (path) i\j rah. (f.) 
Wallet, "i^jhola^ JuJj zambtl (f.), ^y^jhoR. 
Walnut, ^ji^^ akh?^otfjk^j[>^ char-maghz. 
Wand, 4,^?5^ chhart, iac a§a, ^^^^ kamcht, ^JSj patkan. 
Want, ^U^l i^tiyaj, c:.-d^U A5;a^ (f.), ^j^" tangl, ilf\^ ghat. 
Ward, (guarding) ^^^ chaukl, (of a lock),Jp" jAar; see District. 
Wardrobe, fJitxJJ libasdan, ij\>^^y tdsha-khana. 
Ware, Wares, ^Jj-» sauda, ^^/^i^jins (f.)i J^ ^^hjnf^ chiz. (f.) 
Warfare, i^jj^<u>- jang-awart, ^J^mp^ jangbazi. 
Warmth, ^^^garml, <^j];=^ hararat (f.), (ardour) cliT-J tapak. 
Warning, at! tfiS/i* (f.), jt^ Mabar (f.), ^JblTf agaAi. 
Warp (the threads lengthwise in a loom), ^Ij tanl,j\j tar. 
Warrant, CSs^^ dastak (f.), fj\^farman, (voucher) Jc--* sanad. (f.) 
Wash, (cosmetic) J!ii\ ubtan, ij^ gulguna^ (washing) ^^ jUj dhulal. 
Waste, (land) ij\j^ wlrana, ^|/>^ Muzraba : see Ruin. 
Waste-book, \j\^ khata, ^^ ^ jfj\>^ jankar k'l baht, \j^ khasra. 
Watch, tjj]*i^ bedarif (guard, watching) ^^ chaukl, (guard, 

sentinel) 1^ pahra, ^)V*^li pasban^ (time piece) c5j^ gf^<^P' 
Watchhouse, ^^^j!>- chaukl-khana. 

2 p 

290 Vocabulartf. — Nouns. 

Watclimaker, i\}^j\iJ^^ ghafi-banane^wald. 

Waterfall, ^lijl abshar, \ij^j/iarna,jj\^ chadar. (f.) 
Wax, M mom, ^^ sham (f.), (sealing) ^i lakh, cfi liik. 
Way, (road) s\j rak (f,), •la-y rasta, Ci^ sarak (f.) : see Method. 
Wayfarer, ^\j raJti (do.), i_5*J% haloht (m.)> j^^j rahgir. 
Weakness, i^ji/*^ kamsorl, ijy^ natawanl, |_j«f** f^'t/^- 
Weal, l::--JIi'Jj rafahiyat (f,), ,J^ (ara^jtl, ^^JiiaIIJI ilfbahnandi. 
Wealth, ij:JjJ daulat (f.), ^^iJ dkan, JU mo/, |tr*f? lachhml. 
Weapon, jL^ hathyar, A>j*- fiarba, -X- si/aA, (f.) 
Weariness, |_/'ajL« mandagi, iZ-^L^ tkakahal (f.), ^f^'-* (yisT. 



»\A aiyam, i^Jj tit (f,), ^J^ din. 

Web, ^\=rjali, ti-U iinuwaf (f.), u;V '/'«"> (M°^) ijWj'«7ff. 

Wedding, aU iyuA, ^^Jli KAarfZ, (feast) i^^i^ jashn. 

Wedge, j^ pachchar (f.), ^j^ pkaiil, iei^ meAA (f.), K-fJ Ihtka. 

Wedlock, i^^lCiiJU- Italat-i-nikahi, 

Wednesday, ^Jj htdk, i-^Jva- ckarshamba. 

Weed, 1^^^^^ chikhvran, ij-\fghas, (widow's weeds) SLjJu'j raudsala. 

Weight, (for weighing) ti\j but, j^tf-J bat-khara, j^f--^ sang, ^jjy 

wazn, (heaviness) J ^(J Mai', (importance) ^ii kadr. (f.) 
Welcome, ijL-^%jT a'ubhagat (f,), j-^^y (oicoju* (f.): see Respect. 
Welfare, lJ*!!^ bhalal, ijj^ biktarl, J^L^ ^^^ chhem-kuskal. (f.) 
Welkin, (^/.^i"' afta*, lj& Aawa (f.) : see Sky. 
Wellbeing, t^Jy^t^ Hkbudijf^ khair : see Welfare, Prosperity. 
Wellwisher, *1^-i idyiiT-fdmah, *1^M nek-kha>ah. 
Wench, ^f-iij ej'j*- jowan raridi, ^^j^ chhukrl, tJJ"j! laundl. 
Wetness, i^li^ naKunaK, tjlLs gi/al, i^'Jii-Jjt, rutubat-darl, 

ySji tart. 
Whale, .^s-'yU magar machchk (?), tZJj^- Afif (f. ?). 
Wharf, tlflfi gAa/. Wharfage, ^j\^ ghalwan. 
Wheel, ji^ chakr, \^ pahiya, (potter's) tlST*- chak: see Spinning. 
Wheelwright, HjjtJLjL^^ pnhii/a-banani-fDula. 
Whelp, h pilld, is^_^^S-> sag-backcha, (tiger's) S-^ bagfula. 

Vocabulary.^^Naun8. 291 

Whetstone, ^L» san (f.), ^J-i dR, t^jfSJ patthri, ^^Li faan. 
Whiff, j^L sans (f.), z^*^ dam, u^^^ phunk (f.), CSjy^jhurak (?)• 
While, (time) c:^^ trai^/, (length of time) c:^«3^ muddat. (f.) 
Whim, Whimsey, JU AAtyaZ, ^ faAar (t), cl^ lalak (f.), ^^ 

7?zaz£;. (f.) 
Whip, uJ^l>- chabuky \^if kord, ^/^ Icamchlj ^Jtjjb ^aartyaiia. 
Whirl, (J^ji gardish ({.), ^\a>p ghuma'd, ^j Jb bad-resha. 

Whiskers, 'f^^ miicAA (f.)> ^^J^. ^^'"^^ (f*)y '4^=^^ gonchh (?)• 

Whispering, LS^l>-(;.wf^ phasphasakat {J.\j>^^j^ khusar-phtuar. 

Whistle, (musical pipe) i^j^^, bdnsrJ, (whistling) j^^SL-a slti. 

Whit (point, jot, tittle), iiasj nuJkta, ^j rati, JJ til, ICiJ tinka. 

Whiteness, 4/Jui-a sufaidi, ^joLj iayox (t), c5TL>-l tj/Zal. 

Whitewash (a compos, of lime and water), ^ kali. 

Whiting, ^J^fBT^ ^ ^ CJ^ ek l^ism ki machhR: see Chalk. 

The Whole, ^ kulliya, ^4^jam^ (j.), A^^jumla: see Total. 

Wick, ^ battJ, ^\j bad, isJifalita. 

Wickedness, 4^Jj badi, fjy>j zabum, C^|/m^ shardrat (f.) 

Wicket, 1^5^ kkirkl, ^b{C;J daricha. 

Widow, Ijjj bewa (f.), Jj|^ rancf. (f.) Widower, \y^j randu'd. 

Widowhood, ^J^j randdpd, ^y^, bewagi, ^;j|^ iewapan. 

Width, 4^ \j|^ cAatfra't, ^j\tS kushddagJ, (of cloth) ^^/>5J,y iar. 

Wig, ^J J JV M/ A? Opt, Jj barkt (?). 

Wight, ,^^T orfiwi (m. f.), f^jan, ^j^^s^ slmkh^, yjS kas. 

Wild, Wilderness, ^^^VW baydbdn, \jS!^ §ahrd, J^^jangaL 

Wildgoosechase, ^^ ^«^^^; befd'fda sai, ur^^Ci^ jU^ barbdd mi/ir 

naL (f.) 
Wile, <du>. fSla,J^ makar, (^:jjo» fitrat (f.), b buttd. 
Will, (choice) ^^ morxi, »l>> cAaA, (last) <uU c:u.w^ wa§it/at ndma* 
Will-o'-the-wisp, |pif>- chhaldwd, v^lfl ZuAart (?)• 
Wimble, U^ barmd. Winch, ^(ru^J l^ ^J^jf^ chark/n kd dasta. 
Windegg, bJl l/^ AAaH an^. Windingsheet, ^ kafan. 
Windfall, \^ cho'd, J^ \y^pardphal, (figur.) jbljtfJ* khudd'ddd. 

292 Vocabulary, — Nouns. 

Windlass, jLf,( argbud (?), Ji-i^Ve manjanlk. 
Wink, ^X*>- jkapki : see Hint. Wipe, -^yi ponchk : see Stroke. 
Wire,jlj tar, Aiij ris/ita. Wire chain, ljF;Cw» stAri, ^J-j sa"!. 
Wisdom, Jic ai^-/ (f.), o'^^^J danal, Jtxi btidh (f.), i^i^gyas. 
Wise, _yL (ara^ (f.) : see Manner, 

Wiseacre, C^ ^^ kachcha biizuTg,^^^xr,^ lai-bujhakkar. 
Wisp, !!jj pula, ^-iJt anH, ljj»- juna, ^'f gurhl (?). 
Wit, ,<*v*J^ fiz-fahvii, ^i zilin : a Wit, jj^jT tl^J sirak adml. 
Witch, i^b rfa'c« (f.), Lji^J dankaiH, ^j>j<i\^ judugarnl. 
Witchcraft, jJW- jorfu, lijl Jona, j^-' w'Ar, ^^ l^j! q/Aal (?). 
Witness, (testimony) iZJJt\jft shahadal (f.). (person) A»li skah'id. 
Witticism, &Jo nukta, ,_^J sIraAT, al^ fra^/a, l=-J^ i"g«'- (^0 
^o, *i gham, 3.Jj\ anfioh, liJjj sog, ^/-j— >1 a/«oi, *jU matam. 
Womankind, iiJ'jkjJJjranrf7-Ba((f.), LJ JU: dlam-i-nisa. 
Womb, *»-, ri^m, ^jb Aa:^ bachcha-dan, ^^ kokk (f,), iJUj pe(. 
Wonder, •^-r-^ ^^'ajjtib, If-i*-' acAa»i6Aa, c:.^;-^- hairat. (f.) 
IVood, (the -substance) ,^^ ?afcr7, ,^1? Aa/A : see Forest, Timber. 
Woof, Jy pud, i^jH bkarm, lib iuna. 
Wool, ^^j\u7i(f.), j»ijpa«A)n(f.}, ,^1^^ ro'an, i^yo jUf. 
Word, ld\ bat (f.). ^;;=C ff<":han., i^jir* suM<"t-' see Message, Pro- 
Work, M^ kam, —Is kajj^^.-K.^r* mihjtat (f.) : see Book, Workmanship. 
Workmanship, i^Sjj^ karigari, l::.-.*:.^ san'at {(.), ij^-a* tnasnu'. 
Worship, (,/.i-;J parastish (f.), tllJjLc "iadai (f.), ^^^ bhajan. 
Worth, t.=,-A-J i'Tmaf (f.), Jj^ mo/,j.JJ kadr (f.), fcj:_l«ai /aBl/af. (f.) 
Wrangle, Wranghng, l°Xp- j'Aagra, ^3^'^^:^=- jhanjhal, J^ rngm. 
Wrangler, ^i^^jkagralu, lijH laranka, j^ij?*" (mjjall. 
Wrapper, *iUl /i/«/«, ^^^ bithan, i^. (.=— =J daxt-bukcka. 
Wrath, i_.-a. - ghasab, jj^ h'^kr, ^A:>-jazb(i, t.jjS fto^, 
Wreath, (garland) L^ si/ira, jy* maur, (thing twisted) #^ ytch. 
Wreck, (of a ship) \j44 kkakhra (?), ^<J> ^ ^ kxskCx kl ghi- 

Vocabulary. — Verbs* 293 

Wrench, (instrument) jUfJb CjiA ^ ^^J '^^P^^^ ^we ka ek hath- 

yar: see Twist. 
Wretch, ^^^J^Xa^ kam-bakht, ^?jw nigora, j^U na-kas : see Poor. 
Wretchedness, ^-iicu^ kambakhtif ^^llJ^ pareskanl, ls^ J |i//a^ (f.) 
Wrbkle, ^^^ chin (f.), ^j;^ shikan (f.), kJj^ jhurl^j^sikor. (f.) 
Writing, Writ, yi^;as? tahrir (f.), cijl^ likhawat (f.), cJ^>:w.aj ^a^- 

ni/. (f.) 
Wrong, J^ zu/m, ^^^ft^lj norhakkl, l::-^oj bid*at((.). 
Yard, (measure) jfgaz, cl;J «ira*, (enclosure) ^jsi^sahn, lifil angna. 
Yam, c:^^ l^ ^^1 ii» /ca ^^, cnj^^ ^ii^. 

Yearning, ^j!Jb\y>. b 2fl>" j^ Jari cAaA or jdmahish, Jj^} dard. 
Yeast, 4jU maya, jt^^^ khamlr^ g^JlJ ^ari : see Leaven. 
Yell, J^i^ chlkh (S'),j^ chikkar (?) : see Roar. 
Yeoman, («^ _CL« mi/A» 25g, jl J^te malguzar, ^L^ ftt^an. 
Yoke, 1^ JM'a, -^1^ jii'aj*, (pair) Ijfyrjora, ij:^juft. 
Yolk, (or Yelk) of an egg, ^^J;J ^^ j^jJI ande kzzarcR, IjU matra. (f.) 
Young (of any creature), saf^ bachcha. Jit Hfl : see Child. 
Youth, ^\f>-. jawanl, ( ■■ >UA shabab, ^^,^joban: see Young man. 
Zeal, ^ji garmt, v::.^^i » - harmyat (f.), ^^j^ sar^garml. 
Zone, (girdle) *^j^ kamarband, (frigid) ^4);^;^^ ^i^Skiw* mintakare- 

mabruda, (temperate) ^ Jcjc« *<<ftVi:. ^ minkika'^mutadila, (torrid) 

^jjjS^ ^Kiia:^ mintakare-mahruka. 
Zoology, iJL^\i\y^ aU f/m-i-^iu^ana^. 


To abandon, \iafr tctjna, \j^ cSy tark-karna, ^J^^ chhorna. 
To abase, \jj\^sfi pachhapiif \j\fgirana, li^ JJj |aZi/ karna. 
To be abashed, UW lajana^ UU^ sharmana, \:^j^ mkachna. 
To abate, UlS^gAa/ana, U^ ^^ 4,1>.4.J Ariina^ kam karna. 

294 Vocabulartf. — Verbs. 

To abdicate, U^ tyagna, ^J^^ chhopia : see To abandon. 

To abet, U^ JtX« madad karna, L) J ^'^t^J V. ^■^'^'^ himmat or ^ar- 

To abhor, L^ jf^J cfiir i^agTia, U^ c^ b c>^]^ karahiyat or 

nafrat rakkim. 
To abide, U^j basna, U^ thaharna, Lib^ ra^na. 
To abjure, l)^ uJ\^a^\ inhiraf kama, \j^ ^^^*^^ fiadi^ karna : see 

To reject. 
To be able, UC«) sakna, Uyb j;jS 2a'/X: Aona, l^^ u^l!? ta^at rakhnd. 
To abolish, 1:jJ 1^1 utkadend, l3li« mitand, ^^ i^^yc maukuf kamd. 
To abound, l3<x«l icmocfna or IjiXi^^ umandnd, \iybjyu^ mamur hond. 
To abrade, (act.) U^ ragapid, UL-^ gAi«a9ta, (act. or neut.) L«^ 

To abridge, ^^jois^ mukhtasar kamd, U^jLgr.>.l iMitisdr karnd. 
To abscond, Lib^ U^^- chhipd rahnd, Um^; bkdgnd, \jjJb (^y^j ruposh 

To absolve, bj^ j^ muiarra kamd, U^ uJU^o mffafkarrid. 
To absorb, l:^^ sokhnd, U^ o^i^jazb kamd, UL^ khapdnd. 

To abstain (from), ^1 jV ^^ ^^^ ^'^ ^^^ ^^^» V/j^?^ parhez kamd. 

To abstract, l3^ (^Is^l intikJidb kamd : see To select, extract. 

To abuse, (revile) liJ J ^Jb gafi cSim, (ill treat) U^ if^j^^ »^ badsulukt 

To accept, UJ Zena, l)^ J^ kabulkamd, L)U mdnnd. 
To accept (a bill of exchange, &c.)i lijUL sakdrnd. 
To accommodate, li^ ^jrji^ khabar-glri karnd, UU^ ma7ia7ia. 
To accompany, \j^ i\j^^ hamrdh hond, U^ OJ^; rifdkat kamd. 
To accomplish, Ij^ |j|y jpz^ra kamd, LiblJ nibdhnd, \jjLa sdrnd. 
To account, (compute) l3^ .U-i ^Aumar kamd, (answer for) JbS>\js^ 

\j^ jawdh-diht kamd. 
To accuse, U^^ dokhnd, U^J^^J da^wd kamd, U«JbbJ dkdnsnd. 
To accustom, l3^ Ljj b if^^lai* b Ci^jU acia^ or muhdwara or raft£ 


Vocabulary. — Verbs. 295 

To ache^ \:.^J dukhna, U\^ pirana, \jji J;J dard kama. 

To acknowledge, ^^ j]/^ ikrar karndy liJU manna. 

To acquaint, \jjij^ b ftXtl i/J?i7a* or khabar kama: see To inform. 

To acquire, li^ J-^U- hasilkama, \jJ ^Jlj j^aicfa kamdy UU^ kamana. 

To acquit (of crime), ^5/V^ *^^ be-gunah thahrana : see To absolve. 

To act, l3^ kamoLy (a character) li^ Jii wait/ kama. 

To actuate, 1:jJ uU'«^;>- harakat denay Ul^ sarkana. 

To adapt, U^ ^^.^1:m« b Jhi|^ muwajiJc or iTSttno^ii kama. 

To add, lilfl laganay\jjj>' jopia, (up figures) U^ t^j^ gathri kama. 

To address (a letter), U^ ^\J^ \^ kJ^^ chittkt ka samama likhna. 

To adduce, US /aiia, Ulbj batlana : see To bring, relate. 

To adjust, Uj J ^^^:^f tar fib dena, Ul^ cAt^ftaraa, l)^ c^.«.«a^J durust 

To admits UjJ JT 5nc rfcna; (to allow) b^ J^ Ara&uZ ftama. 
To admonish, lil^js"*^ samjhanay \j^ v::^>^gqL^ naslhat kama. 
To adopt, U^ jLi>l ^ <WV^ irau^afranTza ^ ikhtiyar kama, (use) 

US (^;r^ J'^ amaZ mefi /ana. 
To adore, l^y pujnd, l:csr* bhajna, U^ ^^^js^ bhajan kama. 
To adorn, Uj|^ ^antrarna, UjljbJu} sudhamcLy Ulij ianaraa. 
To advance (v. n.), liJbJj barhna, \j^ ^Jj tarakkt kama. 
To advance (v. a.), Ubbjj barhana, l5l>- cAaZana; see To propose. 
To advance (money), liJ J 15^^^ peshgl dena. 
To advertise, li^jl^^ wA^Aor kama, U^ybUfcaAir kama. 
To advise, bj J L:;^a q ,a3 nan^at dena, U/ ^^ Iduahar kama. 
To afflict, Ul:;^) satand, 1:j J t^djKT toftZt/* cZena. 
To agitate, l3)U kildnd, 1:jJ ^Ju^jumbish dend, (in the mind) U^^ 

^Ar kamd. 
To agree, Uyb j;«^ U ^-*^\^ ra«? or muttafik hond, IjU manna. 
To agree (to stipulate), U^ ^^^ U j]^l b l?^ ^AaH or iArar or 

bachan kamd. 
To aim, UjbJjU c:,m.,A 5^^ iancZAna, l:Ju ^aX:na : see To guess. 
To alight, \jjj\ utarnd, Uyb Jj^ farod hond. 


296 Vocabulary. — Verln. 

To allowy UjU mannif l}^ J^ kabU karma ; (to pennit), 1:j4> </rjia ; 

(to abate) \i^ gkatana, bj i^g.g,^ taUiftfdena. 
To alloie^ UiJ s^y yorri cfrna, Ul^ btbhana, bl«^ phmslana. 
To alter, UIjj hadalnif \j^ Ji^V^ ^oMi/ A:ania9 \i^ jJu tagfur karna. 
To amass, U^ ffb\^ faraham karna, U^ ^^ jaa^ karna. 
To Bmsae, UUusf^ bhaehkanif U^ c^)/?^ Aairan karna. 
To amuse, UI^j bahlana, UiJ <#^yij^ ^q^i^ ^Siia. 
To animate, \jip^jilana ; (to encourage) UjJ (^Jli^ dharas dena. 
To annex, UU3 lagana, \jj^jdpiay U^ Jj^ paiwand kama. 
To annoy, Uls^ khijana, 1:j J ^«Xi^ ^af£fi* cSna. 
To anoint, U^ ^2;!«^«^ V ^ .^^ ^^ tadhtn karna, UL0 malna. 
To answer, liiv>yl l[ c->1^ JatuoJ or tt^^or dena, (to suit) liT vlXj(° 

MfA: ana. 
To appear, U^^ sujhna, \i\Jaj nazar ana, \:j J (^ I^J dikklal dena. 
To applaud, l5^ ^^^yT q^« Aanta, liJ^J^ foraAna, Ljt) ^bl--» 

shabasht dena. 
To apply, (v. n.) \m lagna ; (to suit) Uj dC^ /AiA ana ; (v. a.) Ulfl 

lagana, Uj[^ jorna; (to address to) l)^ uuw1j»yj darldmast 

To appoint, ^'^-^ thahrand, \j^ jjLc mukarrar karna. 
To appraise, 1:j^ kutna, U^l dnkna, ^];^ J^ nsoZ thahrand. 
To approach, UT c-^^ V. C/*^ k ^--^'iP nazdik or ^5^ or itarii ana. 
To approve, U^ di^^^jffa^and karnd, l:JbU- chdhnd, l:J^ kabulnd. 
To argue, l3^ o^f^ ^wya^ karnd, l3^ C^^ iafe hamd, U^ jIj iarf 

To arise, U^l uthnd, \^y>- charhnd. 
To arrange, L> J t-^y tor^i J efena, Ujl^ sanwdrnd. 
To airive, lijsn^ j^aAz^ncAna, Ul ana, Uyb ^1^ traAi Aona. 
To ascend, ^J>^ chafhnd, \jyb jJj buland hand, iJoJj bilangnd. 
To ascertain, U^ Jmaos^ tahklk karnd, ^]j^ thahrdnd. 
To ascertain (a disease), U^ ^^^A^i-J tashkhts karnd. 
To ask, ^f"^ puchhnd, l:Jbl>> chdhnd; (ask for) iJoU mdngnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 297 

To assault, li^ (c^lJ b <iU^s>- hamla or taklit karna. 

To assist, \j^ JJ^ madad karna, U]1^;m4^ sambhalna : see To help. 

To assuage, uj J ujLiikr takhftf dena, v^ 1 Jc*^ thanda karna. 

To assume, LJ Zi/ia, (grant, admit) l3^ ^y /ara karna. 

To assure, ^^ j]/' iArar karna, (to comfort) li^J j^^J^ tasalli dtna. 

To astonish, U^ yj^ji^ hairan karna, \j\i^^jhabkana. 

To attain, (v. n.) lia;^ ^^ baham pahunchna, (v. a.) 0/ -^S /5M 

To attempt, U^ Ju^ b ^^^ b ^JLJL^ koshish or 5a*i or kasd karna. 
To attend, (wait on) 1:j^^ ^U. Aaxir rahna, (observe) \jJ ^^^ 

dhyan karna, (as a physician) U^ IjJ b ^U« mu'dlaja or 

^at£;a karna. 
To attest, bj J ,<J^\5^ b ^^JiJbll shdhidi or gawahl dena, (to sign) 

b^ -^«?^ ^aAi^ A^arTia. 
To attract, b.^L^ khainchna, b^ L^'sp^jazb karna: see To allure. 
To avail, b! |*li /:am ana, b^ gJj\ifaUda karna. 
To avert, b^ ^J bj^J dur ot d&f^ karna, Ul5 falna. 
To augment, bUjj barhana, \j^ ifjbj ziyada karna. 
To avoid, b^ j|yi&-\ V JJh^ parkez or ifitiraz karna, LsT &aoAna. 
To avouch, avow, b^ kahna, b^ jly^ iitrar Xrarna, b^^lk saAir 

To awake, (v. n.) UsU- Jogna, ^i^jagna, (v. a.) blx>- Jaga/ia. 
To babble, U^ bakna, UO J^J\ ar&ar bakna, l^J^ barbarana. 
To back, (mount a horse) b^ j^a «atrar Aona, (second) b^ ;^5^ 

pushtt karna. 
To backbite, bl^ (,.5^>^ chughR khana, b^ vj:^^ gh tbat karna. 
To bait, (a hook) b^ if^I>- cAora rakhna, (take food) b^ <C:J*b 
* no^A^a karna. 

To bake, bbj pakana, (to make bread) b^ j^oraa. 
To balk, bjj )lb &a2a eJSna, b^ (^1/'^ k Ju^^b na-iimmii2 or mahrum 

To bang, bjU marna, b»ij pitna, bid Jyb4> ifAauZ lagana. 


298 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To bar^ UU3 Ijji^ bertdd lagana, (obstruct) \:S^j rokndf U^ Ju^ sadd 

To banish, \jji ^^t^ jila-watan karna, 1:jJ SIC ^^J des^kala dena. 
To bargain, (promise) \j^ aj^j wc^da karna, (to buy) LJ J^ mo/ 

To bark, (as a dog) UC^ bhaunkna, (v. a, a tree, Sec.) Uj<^ chhtlna. 
To bate, [j^ip ghatana, \j^ fS ^ ^-^^^^ ktmat ko kam kama^ 
To bathe, (v. n.) l3ly naAana, (v. a.) \j^ J^ ghusl karna, \ji^ 

To bawl, IJ^IO j92£Xrarna, l3l>- chiltana, bjU (li^bb AanA inarna. 
To be, to become, Uyb Aona, liibj raAna, 1:j banna, \jl>-yb hojdna. 
To bear, (endure) U^^^ sahna, U^ ci^^t)^ bardasht karna, (carry) 

l:J /ena. 
To beat, U!Lj plina, UjU 97iama, 1:j^ ft2//7ta : see To conquer. 
To beckon, \jJS \aj\ b ifj\J^\ iskara or i ma karna* 
To become, (suit) U^ j;JX b JJi\j-« muwafik or ZaVA A5n5 : see To be. 
To beget, UUi»- Janmana, U^ Iju^ paida karna. 
To beg, IJjU .^C^ &Af/:A mangna, [j^ ^}\y^ suwal karna, \:Jb\:>-chahna. 
To begin, (v. a.) IJ^ cj^ shuri^ karna, (v. n.) Uf! lagna, l:JbJ^ 

To begird, UjbjJljy4^ kamar bandhna, l:d3S lapetnd, \j^ Jcj ianei karna. 

To beguile, lj\^ bahkana, liJJ S^y fareb dena, Lf J a J dam dc/ia. 

To behave, lil^ ^^^^ chalan ckalna,^\:,Jb\^ nibakna. 

To behead, UjU ^Jp gardan mdrnd, U5l^ -j 5ir kdtnd. 

To behold, l-^*> dekhnd, U^^ bitoknd, ^^J^ nazar karna. 

To behove, l3yb c-^^l:^ b <j^V* ^uwdjik or mundsib hond. 

To beUeve, l:JU manna, ^j^^^V bdwarkarnd, liJU-Janwa. 

To bellow, Ijjl^J dakdrnd, \jh>' chilldnd, \jjijyi» shor karnd. 

To belong, iJj lagnd, \»jSb jJxl« muta^allilc hond. 

To bend (v. a.), U^ a£*- l> libj-j ^er^a or Ai/mm karnd, ^\j^ nihurdnd. 

To benum (v. a.), l^j^^S^ thithurdnd or thithirdnd, l3^ .-^ swn karnd. 

To bequeath, Ij^ 4^ J de mama, U^ ^ Ij cu--*«^j waslyat or /«'6a karnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 299 

To beseech, ^^y^ giTgV['OLnay U^ s^r^"^ V. l^'^ bind or djizi karna. 

To beset, l}^ gherna, \jj^ ZjJ^sf^ muhasarakarna. 

To besiege, \:»^j^gher lena, U^ SjA^^ muhasara karna. 

To besmear, U^ lepnd, l3^^ chupapia, l3^^ /^iVa karna. 

To bestow, li^J . jJlaT bakhsh dend, \}S \kc a^a karnd, \:jJ de»a. 

To betoken, U^vjiJltJ daldlat karna, \jhjbatldnd. 

To betray, liJj-* ^>-j s/JV^-^*^ daghd-bdzi se sompnd, (a secret) l3j^ 

phorndy l3 ^ h^*^**^ parda^dari karnd. 
To betroth, l3^ x<^^^ \ c: >^y».> nisbat or mangnt karnd, \jJ L^f y m \ ^ 

mansub karnd. 
To bid, Ly^ kahnd, l3L.*> sundnd : see To command, invite. 
To bid for (offer a price), U^ J^ iwoZ karnd. 
To bilk, l3^ t^blcJ daghdbdzi karnd, l3^ H^ r^ /arci karnd. 
To bind, UjbJjU bdndhnd, \jjL>- jakapid, UjJI^ chhdndnd. 
To bisect, l)^ i<^^ 3*^y^j^» bardbar do his§e karnd. 
To bite, UjI^ kdtnd, 1:j\^ ,<«« cr^lj cian^ se kdtnd, UL>> chabdnd. 
To blab, U^ ijC^J «J;i parda-darl karnd, \j^ lt^^ j\f ^^^ ^ fi^^^ 

To blame, \i^^J dokhnd, U^ v::^v«L« maldmat karnd. 
To be blasted, \j\^j^ murjhqnd, \j1^ kumhldnd. 
To blaze, l:JJbJJbJ dhadhaknd, (blaze forth) U^) bharaknd. 
To bleach, l3;l^ nikhdmd, U^ ijU U 5U-1 tyVa or sdf karnd. 
To bleat, UL*^ mimiydnd, (dakh.) U^ ^^^ ^^^ bhen bheti karnd. 
To bleed, (lose blood) 1:j J ^j! /oAu dend, (let blood) Uj^ Ju^i fasd 

To blemish, U^ ,^b rfSgAi karnd, lilw c--^ ai6 lagdnd, \jS ^LaSJ 

nu^san karnd. 
To blend, U5U miland, U/ tjlsr* b J*^l amer or makhlut karnn. 
To bless, Ix) J Ic J ^u'a (fSna, 1:j J (./r?*^^ ^^^« (/e»a, l3^ ^J^ mubdrak 

To blight, Uj J j^^r-i^ jhulas dead, Ij^ **^ji pazhmurda karnd. 
To bloom or blossom, Ui^ khilnd, IJ^ pkulnd, LiJj bikasnd. 

300 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To blow, (v. n.) L^ bahna, UL>- ckalna, (v. a.) liC^ phunkna. 

To blunder, ^^ cAuAfia, U^ bhulnUj U^ ILi:^- ^aj^a karria. 

To blush, Ul^l d^l^ Iddjlat utlianay Uyb Jjb^*^ Ma/t7 Ao»5. 

To boast, brag, U/ ^j i-JS laf-zant karnif \j^jfs^fakhr karna. 

To bode, liJJ (j^^ shugun denuy \j^ v::J!IJ dalalat karna. 

To boggle, U^S^j thithakna, U^yf^ jhajhakna. 

To boil, (r. n.) U^ khaulna, Ub\ ubalna, (v. a.) UU ubdlna, (cook 

by boiling) li^J u^^j^^^ dena. 
To book, U^ — p rfary karna. To boot, U^ s^j\3 fd'ida karna. 
To bore, liJu:^ chhedna. liJbJuJ bedhna, bU J &a77na;ia. 
To be bom, Sx^janniy \ijt>:>^ janamniy U^ tjuj paidd hond. 
To borrow, IxJ (^jllU iraang C/ia, LJ ^y i^ars /«/2a. 
To bounce (jump up), UJj vlii^ chaunkparnd, l3^ s^^ chaukarl 

To bound (jump up), Ujj^ kudna, IJ^^ uckhalnd. 
To bound (limit), lubJjU iX>- Aacf^ bdndhnd, U^ Jv:«> iancZ karna. 
To bow, (v. n. to stoop) l3j^ nihurndy \iLp^jhukndj (v.a.) see To bend. 
To box (strike), U^U Li^ ghusd mdrnd, U^U <i^Uj tamdcha mdrnd. 
To brace, l:>2^^) sametnd, L^ kasnd, (a drum) Ul^j^ charhdnd. 
To braid, liJ^Jci^ gwidhnd, \iJ bunnd. 

To brand, Uj^J i^J rfa gA rfewa, U12 Ji gi/Z lagdnd, Lt^J dd gh nd. 
To brandish, l3U^ ghumdnd, ^JlC^^ chamkdndy l3|^ phirdnd. 
To bray, (to pound) U3^ kutnd, (as an ass) liCi£^ renknd. 
To break, (v. a.) l3jy ^orna, U?^ phorndy (v. n.) U5j5 fu/na. 
To break (become bankrupt), lil:>-yb,^^plA^ muflis ho jdnd. 
To break (v. a. break in, tame), \j^ /^j rdm karnd, IjbjL sddhnd. 
To break (v. a. dismiss), l3 S J*}** mo^zul karna. 
To breathe, (draw breath) LJ aJ dam lend, (expel breath) lj;^f>- /♦J 

e^am chhomd. 
To breed, (produce) l3li5»- Janawa, 13^ \xj paidd karndj (nourish) Ub 

To bring, \ji Idnd (v. n.) or ^ ^ It-dnd, (v. a.) LiT anna. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs, 30 1 

To broil, lij^ bhunna, \j^ ^^ kabab karna, \j/ aj> garm karna. 

To brood, l)^^ seuma, (over) U^ ^jj\ andesha karna. 

To browbeat, UlGj dabkana^ \3)L^J ^! ankh dikhlana. 

To bruise, IJl^ kuchalnij U««^ ptsna, UU dalna. 

To brushy Ujl^JAarwa, b^ 4^U» j<-* ^^^ bar ash si saf karna. 

To bud (v. n.), UUi^ kaliydna, Uj^ cM^ konpal phutna. 

To budge, l:^ hatna, Uij /a/na, L>^ sarakna. 

To build, U^^^-^jJ ta^mlr karna j U^ li^ iina karna. 

To burden, l:^ U UjS -f>-y Jo/A Za^na or rakhna, ^^ J^^Jj ^^^ bar 

To bum, (v. n.) \Ap^jalna, UL balna, l:JbJ dahna, (v. a.) IjL*- Ja/ana. 
To burnish, lJl^3i^»- JAa/iana, blC^^ chamkana, \j^ J^ saikal karna. 
To burst, (v. n.) 'cj^ phutna^ Uiif» pAa^^na, (v. a.) UJ^ phdpia. 
To bury, UjU gapid, U^ ^J rfo/n ^ar^za ; see To hide. . 
To buy, LJ f^yc mol leTia, Ujj^ kharidna, \uu^ kinna. 
To buzz, 1)1;{.>'»|J bhimbhinana, (whisper) l)Li^^M»f» phusphusjind. 
To cajole, UlL^ phuslana, 1:jJ H^y ^ (^'^ ^^^ or fareb dena. 
To calculate, l:c^ginna, l3^ c^L.^- >lt^ai baryta : see To guess. 
To calk (a ship, &c.), \j^ ^^ Sli kdH-patfi karna, \:j^ gdbna. 
To call, \jh bulana, (send for) U^ ^.^^ fa^i karna^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ 

bhejnuy (name) U^ ^\j nam rakhna, (cry out) l3^\^ pukarna. 
To calve, (v. n.) UU byana, l^:^^ s^.;€^ bachhre kojanna. 
To calumniate, l3\S CUa^w^ ^Ama^ lagdna : see To revile. 
Can, U^ ^oATia ; see To be able. 

To cancel, l^i^ metna, \j^ ^s^ mahw karna, UliU mildna. 
To cannonade, l))L^ \i l3jU ^^^ ^cpp^n mama or chaldna. 
To canvass, (examine) 1:^1^ chhanna^ l:^U> JancAna, U^;^^ bahasna. 
To caper, U Jj^ kudna, l:J^^ uchhalna. 

To captivate (to charm), LJ i[^ iwoA Zcna, U^ izh^fartfta karna. 
To card (comb cotton, &c.), UJliJbJ dhunaknd, l:J^ dhunnd. 
To care, ^^JSfikr karna, (care for) US ^-^^ l?l>- khatir men land. 
To caress, ^j!^ j^ pyar karna, U^ w^V wawazwA karna. 

302 Vocabulary Verbs. 

To carry, *«^^^ Hjana, \j^dhona, \j\^\ uthana. 

To carve, U J^ khodndj \j^ axS kanda kami, L^t^ tarashna. 


To case, l:Jb^ marhnd, \mc^< mandhna, U^ i»Jlc ghilaf karria. 

To cashier, U^ ^J^ji ^^^ tarafkarTia, l5^ JjjJ** mc^zul kcama. 

To cast, LCvj^j phenkna, UJ^J dalna, \iij^p^ jKorikncLj ^\ji girana. 

To catch, Uj^ pakapia, M J^ pakar leTui, UL^ phansdna. 

To cavil, l;^ 4^^ ^/^ ^ uf*^ ^'^ n«A^a-cAf ni or hatf-glrl kama. 

To cause, l)|^ kardm, U^ karria, U\^ nikalna, US Zaim. 

To cauterize. Lib ddghnd, U^J Ji b 4b rfagA or gw/ rfena. 

To cease, (v. n.) Lib; jb Jaz rahnd, Uyb ^^j^ ^::— aj dast-bardar hand. 

To cease, (v. a.y UJ^^ chhopid, U^ ^^y^ maulcuf kamd. 

To celebrate, LibJ^ ^araAna, U^ «— ^iy^ ta^rlf karnd. 

To challenge, Lx^U v^ Ij) lardl mdngnd, LjbU- ^U^ mukdbala chdhnd. 

To change (v. a.), U^ Jd'V ^<^*^^ karnd, USj^j badldnd. 

To charge, (load) l3^ bharnd, (impute) Ul^ ^AaArana, (attack) 

U^ dUk>» handa karnd, (enjoin) U^ Ju^U ^a/:7e^ karnd. 
To charm, (bewitch) U^ j'^W" Jadii karnd, (enchant) LJ x^ moh 

To chastise, chasten, \j$ \^^J^ b <LwjJ tambth or ^aeZIi karnd. 
To chat, Lij baknd, U^U i^^ gap mdrnd, \j^ ^cJo S^P^d karnd. 
To chatter, \3^V*r> barbardnd. LC baknd, \j\f>^,s>^ chirckirdnd. 
To cheapen, l3^ w::,.v»J U J^ mo/ or Arlma^ karnd, Ul5^ l::,.v4> J itiwia^ 

To cheat, L^ thagnd, Ll^ chhalnd, li^ ^^^bliJ da gh dbdzt karnd. 

To check, blSuV atkdnd, L^j roknd, UUj dabdnd, Li}U ddntnd. 

To cherish, Lib j7a/na, l)^ \^--> U (^^2?an<;amA or «dM?a karnd. 

To chew, LjI>- chdbnd, bL>- chabdnd, (the cud) LJlx:>- jugdlnd. 

To chide, L23b ddntnd, \:S^^ jhifaknd, L^^J dokhnd. 

To chirp, L^^ churagnd, \3^ ^^ ^^ cAiiw cAiiw karnd. 

To choke, L23^ is gaZa ghdntnd, L-Jl^ IT ga/5 phdnsnd : see To 

To choose, b^ iXi«-j pasand karnd, Lis^- ckunnd, LaU- chdhnd. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 303 

To chop, USlS ^ *— ^^ *— ^.*3 ^^ ^^^? *^ kdtna, lijfl^^ pharna : see To 

To churn, \:ifL« mathnoj Ixy^ mahna, UIO ^^C«^ maska nikalna. 
To circulate, (v. n.) l3^ phirnd, \:^^ ghumncLy (v. a.) Ul^o phirana. 
To claim, U^ I^Ia? b J^^^ f^aira or takaza karna> 
To clang, \:^j^ kharakna^ (dakh.) bU^yf^ chhanchhariana. 
To clap, (to place) l3lxJ lagandy (strike hands) iJlasr Jljf ^5/7 bajand. 
To clarify, \3^ i^Jli^ ^dfkarnd, 1:^1^ J^ mail ckhantna. 
To class, U^ ^^ ^"T^y tar fib mm rakhnd. 
To clatter, U^J^^ kharkhardnd : see To chat, gabble. 
To claw, l^y nochndf bU^ nakhiydndy \:j>^^j^ kharochnd. 
To cleave, (to split, v. a.) U^ cAima, Ujl^ phdrnd : see To cling. 
To climb, ^^^^^ charhnd, \Jm bilangnd. 
To cling, UJ lipatnd, Uli«^ chimtdnd, \:Jbj Isj Ztjp^a rahnd. 
To clip, l3^ katarnd, \J^\j) tardshnd, USl^ fcafna. 
To close, (v. n.) Ujc^ mundnd, (v. a.) UjJ^ mundnd, \j^ Jcj ftawcf 

To clothe, UL^ 1^ kaprdpahndnd or \i|^ paArawa. 
To cloy, l3li[^ chhakdndf ^^jt^ sir karnd. 
To coagulate, (v. n.) \:,A^jamndy (v. a.) l3U>- Jaiwana. 
To coalesce, ULe milnd, Uyh <tiu«>^ paiwasta kond. 
To coax, l3)Li4^ phusldtm, \ji^^ bkuldnd, Uj J /* J r2am tfSna. 
To cock, (set up) \jJ Ij^ AAara karnd, (a gun) UlibJ>- Ij^ ghord 

To collect, (v. a.) U^ l^Cjl L> ^^jan^ or e/:/Aa karnd, \j\4^jamdnd. 
To colour, (v. a.) liSj raiig;ia, U^ vSil3j rang bharnd : see To blush. 
To combine, (v. n.) ULo milnd, ^j>'jurnd, (v. a.) l35U mildnd. 
To come, UT ana, (arrive) l^^^^J pahunchnd, (out) UX3 nikalnd. 
To comfort, bjJ iJ^ tasalli (tend, liJJ jt4^^U- khdtir-jam^ dend. 
To command, U^ Jl>- ^ttj:m karnd, \j\^ji farmdnd. 
To conmience, (v.n.) l}^ ^^ shura kond: see To begin. 
To commit, (entrust) li^ i^'^ fuiwdle karnd : see To imprison, do. 

To compare, Ijji ftblil* mukdbala kama, lil* mi&na. 

To complain, \j^ jby faryad karna, (against) ^J ^_;i!U naligh kamS.% 

To compose, IjIjj banana, (a book) \jS •. °r'-.-' tajnlf kartia. 

To compound, 1)1U milana, \i^ *-r^* murakkab karna. 

To comprehend, Ufar*** samajhnh, \j^ cl-jIj^J dari/aft karna. 

To compute, liS ginj(«, Ij^ (_»'_»- ^ j'-*— ■ skumar or Ai«(iJ karna. 

To conceal, IjLfa- chhiyana, U-ilaJ dhampiia. 

To conceive, lj»fi ilL«l»- hamila hbna, (think) Lj^- J«7in«. 

To conclude, (v. n.) liSl*- cftuknd, Ijjft ^Uj lamam hbnii, (v. a.) 1 

Ij^«Uj tamam karna. 
To concur, lijA JkAX« muttaji^ hona, (agree) Ljto manna. 
To condemn, Ul^^jl^iS ganaAgar l/iakrana, l*iJ J^jiJ/ufwarfona. 
To conduct, lij^ ^'LtJ a^j rah-numal karna, ULsJ le-chnlna. 
To confess, LiU ntanna, Ijyt ^Ui kaUl /ionn, ^^ jly' iitrSr karna. 
To confine (v. a.), ^^ J^ ^. *lij J«nrf or kaiil karna. 
To confirm, (prove) Ijjf ui-oU iiabit karna, (establish) \jSjjKs mw 

karrar karna. 
To confiscate, IJjS" J^S \i_ k-c yafij or ^wrA karna. 
To confound, (mix) liHt* milana, (perplex) Ij/ ij^.yi pfiTtshan karna. 
To confuse, \j\S .V aAjJ darham barham karna: see To confound. 
To congeal, be congealed, ^i«*>- Jamna, liys X4J £U c munjnmid hbna. 
To congratulate, l:^ JU i^V* vinharak-bad kuhna. 
To connect, conjoin, liTjsj- /orna, liSL* mi/5na, liw lagana. 
To connive at, ^^S ^Wil ighmaz karna, uLS-o maliyana. 
To conquer, l:i-»-_/I(na, U^ -^ /(i(A karna. 

To consent, LiU manna, U^ ^_*^lJ ''^' Aona, Ij^ JjJ kabitl karnii. 
To consider, U»-^ mAna, 'j^'jJ Ja« akldanrana. 
To consign, U^ J^y>- fiawate karna, ^J^ sompna. 
To console, UjJ ^JLJ 'j JlJ tasalli or tagkln r/rna. 
To construct, IjUj banana, \jj Ai.iJ L; bj Jina or nukslia karna. 
To consult, U^ <^j»i-< Ij e:-ns.^-^ majlahat or moihworat karna. 
To contain, li^ rakkna, U*a J-^-' - mns/ituinil hona : sei' Tn ri^strain 

Vocabulury. — Verbs. 303 

To be contained, IjU-i iamana, IjUl amana, LLI antnd. 
To contemn, \ijl»-j-a>- ^aklr janna, \jS t.i^Ul ihunat karna. 
To continue, La, rahna, Lsj by \j J^ ba-ffal or bar-pa rahna. 
To contract, (v.n.) LL*_i simatna, (bargain) LjsjJIj L^ sAnr^ handhna. 
To contribute, (give) IxiJ dena, (bear a part) UjJ liis- chavda delta. 
To contrive, U^jW^l yad/wrna, IJISj niH^»u, \jjj^ij tadVir karna. 
To cook, lj\ij ^fl/cana, IiajuIj randhna, IjUj i^'^ r(Mo7 banana. 
To copy, li^ JiJ nakl karna, \j^ ^j~-i.y J^ na^l-nawm karna. 
To con-ect, ^ij^ tlX^ t 7*^^ ?« ^'/' or ?A7/c frarna -■ see To punish. 
To corrode, lijli katna, LJ Lf iAa /cKa, ljU»- \^ khajana. 
To corrupt, (cause to rot) Ijk^ sarana, (spoil) lJ?l3o bigarna. 

To cost, US b li«j 

timaf /7ar»a or lagna, lil una, U^-J baithnS. 

To cover, U-jUj dhampna, \i\^ chhana, \iij\m dhankna. 
To covet, Ij^ ^H lalach karna, UtsU lalchana. 
To cough, (t. n.) L-Jlff khansna, L{C^ khonkhna. 
To count. Us gtnna, Ij^^^l^i shumar karna, (sum up) U^j5>- Jorna. 
To counterfeit, U^ *V^ ta^tid karna, \j_^ i^-td iAes karna. 
To crack, (v. u.) Li^ /arai^-»a, U5^ phatna, (v.a.) liUjj mrjana. 
To crackle, UCS^ chalakna, \)\^^ charchardna. 
To cram, U^Ijj (Aosna, U^tr^ kkonckna, WytJ dAiuna. 
To crave, Uol« muMg»a, UjtW- cAaAna, \>^ lh - j-b tninnat karnd. 
To creak, lih^"!^ charchardna, liW*?^ machmachdna. 
To create, ljilj»j paidd karnd, Lp-^ iirajnd, \j^ karnd. 
To creep, U^j, rmgnd, (as a snake) IjI—j-j sorsaraia. 
To crop, UjIS kdtnd, \:Sj\^ chkdnlnd, Li^ iardshia. 
To cross, (pass over) Ij/^Ujyar ftdrnn, (lay across) UiSj Ifl ara rnA/inu. 
To crouch, LSjJ dabaknd, (to fawu) U^ ^J^V chdplusl liornd. 
To crow, li lU cX^ Wing marna. To crowd, ljJ<J hhirnd, \i.M>-jamnd. 
To cniah, Ul^ kuchalnd, (squeeze) ^jj=5" nicASrwa. 
To cry, (out) Iji^ cAiWana, ^J^^ pukdmd, (weep) \ijj road. 
To cull, L»- cAunns, Ij^^ i_)Uaj1 inltkhdh karnd. 
To cultivate, (till) Uj^t J"'"". ^^ J* A"^' chalthtu ; see To [ipople. 
2 K 

306 Vocahulury. — Verhs. 

To curb, \Sjj rokna, U^V '''''"'wo ■' see To restrain. 

To cure, U^ _1U Xlaj karna, bj Ui sAi/a (fiH« ; see To heal. 

To curse, 'L-i^ koma, Lj1j_i sarapna, \JS i.i— i*! Ic^nat karna. 

To cut, U5lf kalna, Lily tarasbna, \i^ «-L5 /:of" karna : see To carve. 

To dally, (delay) Ij/ ^^J derT ftflrna, (trifle) \j^ <^'y\,'^ lapalol 

karna. < 

To damage, \j^ tiJ,L_i. khisarat karna, IjJoj bigarna. 
To dance, U^lj nachna, Ij^ (_;flij j-a;(-j karna, (jump) ^Jj? kudna. 
To dangle, Uf^ lalakna, Wa Hilagna. 
To dare, Ij/ <jlj\j^ jur'at karna, (defy) ljlX,*iJ dhamkana. 
To darn, 1^;^^ ro/iri karna, LjJ .fj War dsna. 
To dash, Li^ patakna, li^U ^/J (/e marno, (sprinkle) ^J^ chhirakna. 
To daunt, Ijl^J darana, \jKaaJ dhamkana, \j\^J dabkana. 
To deal, LiJ li^b ftanf (fena, ^!J / i^i^ Aijju ftor rf?na. 
To debate, (think) \jj J^Ij ta'ammul karna, (dispute) \>^j\Jj takrar 

karna : see To ai^ue. 
To decamp, U^ --.^ A:iie/( Aurna, (move off) ljl;»- ^j^- chatejdna. 
To deceive, Ujj \^^^ dhakha dtna, Ulf»- chkalna, U^ thagna. 
To decide, ^|/\-fJ Ikahrana, \j_^ JLaaJl infisal karna, lilSl^ chukaua. 
To deck, Ij^lji-i sarfioiirTia, li^ *i-i(jl arasta karna, lj__,lL_j singarna. 
To declare, U^ kakna, lib*- ^'a/ano, Ij/jl/l i,trar /rarna. 
To decline, (a3 the sun) Ujsj dhalna : see To bow, refuse. ^ 

To decoy, UjJ »— J_;* fareb dcaa, Ijl-ifJ phansana. 
To decrease, \i^ ghafna. Uys *£ Asm /(ona. 
To dedicate, lj\S »_aSj Ij jV* "»y«- or wait/ karna, tbj »\j |^ A'c urtm 

To deduct, l^ ^j wax* karna, U|j JKj TuftuZ i(a/na. 

To deem, lijU-^'annu, O^Jj kkT' tajw'is karna, Ij^ ^-"-^ itiyo* karna. 

To deface, Lj^j ll^ mt/a f^nu, ^^ ys:" ma^tv k<iraa, \jj^ bigarna. 

To defame, U^ *U Si bml-nam karna, Ul^ i^r^f^ '^'^ lagana. 

To defeat, L>J ci-.-JLi sAiiatt f^na, U|ya harana, (frustrate) ^l^katna. 

To defend, li^ ySjJc^J U ts-^;Uj»- h'tmayat or dastglrl karna. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs, 307 

To defile, l3^ d/b U b ]L« mai/a or na'pak kama. 

To deform, Ijj\m JLm) ^/iaXr/ bigapia, \j^ J^«^ bedaul karna. 

To defy, l:JbU» ^5 |^ laral chahna, Ul^J I^^jI angu^Aa dikkana. 

To deign, l3^ 49>-j2^ mutawajjih hona, \j^ J^ A:a&i^/ kama. 

To delay, (v. n.) \j^ i^yj^ deri karm, (v. a.) U\3 fa/na. 

To deliver, (free) \j^ jIjT b Ub; riha or a^racf ftan<a ; see To give. 

To demand, (claim) U^ \^c^ dawa kama : see To ask. 

To demolish, UJU-I tyapiiy \j\^ girana: see To destroy. 

To deny, U^ jUot inkar kama, UjUj na-ma7t;ia. 

To depart, Ulsj- ^1^ chale-jand, UjUju^ sidharna. 

To depend, UXS) latakna, (upon) UjO ^1 J cSman pakapia. 

To depopulate, lijV^ ujarna^ U^ j^];j^ triran kama. 

To deposite, UJ^ ^mpna, U^ cs^Uf amana^ rakhna. 

To depress, l:^^ dabniy \j^ i£,^^past kama, UbJ dabana. 

To derive, (v. a.) Ul^ nikalna, (v. n.) Uyb Jpili^ mushtakk hbna. 

To descend, U^\ utarnaf UU- ,<^ niche janay U^ JjU ;ia2rt2 A5/ia. 

To describe, bJl^ AaftAanna, \jJjIj5j talcrlr kama. 

To desert, U^ cli/ torA karna, ^j^^ chhorna. 

To design, (intend) li^ 2rjlj^ ira(2a Aarna, (plan) l5^ <lljii naksha 

To desire, Ujbl^- cAaAna, U^ ,^^1^ khwdhish kama. 
To desist, l-J^ jV ^^ raAnS, Ulsf- i[^ rah j ana. 

To despair, despond, UjJb Ju^lU norummed hona, \jyb (jjjj niras hona. 
To despise, \:jU-^^«a>- fialcir jdnniy IJ^ c1^1a>> hikdrat kama. 
To destroy, U^Jjl^f ti;ar (Sua, U^ -^L^iib b u: -^^^3 yie^^ or haldk 

To detain, l:^ jU fta^r rakhna, U^j ro/ma, l3^ JuS ^auf kama. 
To deter, Ul^ darana, \j^ (iS^%<«^ U-himmat kama. 
To determine, b|;ivf! f AaArana, l)^ uX*^ .^AtA Aarna : see To decide. 
To dethrone, \jJj\ ^ Ls.-sdcT' toftA^ 5^ utamd. 
To devise (by will), l5^ c:^---^j wasiyat kama: see To invent. 
To devote, l3^ ^U;3 \j Iji b jU ntya^r or fidd or kurbdn karnd. 


To devour, \;-^;' bhakhjia, \>\>- \4 f'fi^ajana, UJ \^ kha lend. 

To die (colour), Uiij rangna, ^^j^ C^j rang charhana. 

To die (expire), ^i^ mama, Ij^ c/l* V. '■^^fi'i't or AaZaA: Aono, 

To differ, ljj» tUjUj tafawat hona, (quarrel) \i^^ jhagaTnu. 

To diffuse, U!L^ pkoUana, ^J^—i bistarnd, Ulfs^ &ic/jAana. 

To dig, Liij^ khodnd, lijjs gorwa, (up) lijl^ ukhaptd. 

To digest, ti^ j^is Aasrm ftarnu, lj^;pacAona; see To arrange. 

To dignify, ^Sj\^r^ sar-faraz karna, tilftjj barhand. 

To diminish, (v. n.) L2^ ghatnd, (v. a,) lilS^gAafflna. 

To dine, 0^ U\j^ khdnd khund, \j^ ■^■.iiU- chdskt karnd. 

To dip, (v. n.) liJ.J dubnd, (v. a.) Ubj dabdnd, UjJ t?^^ rf«6AT (ff«a. 

To direct, (shew) tiV^ dikhldnd, (command) IjLy /armana. 

To disagree, \i^ jji'^U nd-muwdjik hand, (quarrel) Ijjw bigarna. 

To disallow, Ijj^ j-:-o L; ^Kjl itikar nr maw* karnd, \Jj\} bdmd : see 

To deny. 
To disappear, ^{»- chhipnd, U^ i^-w.-v- champat kond. 
To disappoint, ^^ tj|r« Ij na murdd karnd, IJ&JbJ dahkdnd. 
To disapprove, l)^ J.:— J \j nd-pasand karnd, IjJS Jj rat/d ^rna. 
To disband, UjJ i^\j>- jawdb dind, UjJ ^*jt^ chhbrd dend. 
To disbelieve, liJUi na-maw«a, IJjSjlijl iKAdr ftama. 
To discern, lijS^jLi^l imti)/dz karnd, l^SJJ dekhnd. 
To discharge, 'j^J^ cAAarana, Uj? '— ^^ bar-taraf karnd. 
To disclose, U^ kholnd, \j^ j\^\ is'hdr karnd. 
To discontinue, U^ iilj ndgha karnd, Ij^ '~^^i* maukiif karna. 
To discover, Ij^ Iji-j paida kamu, ^^ ^% idhir karnd : see To show. 
To disembark, (v. n.) Upl ularnd, (v. a.) OjU^ Kfarna- 
To disengage, \jj \,\a-juda karna, Ul^fS kholnd. 
To disfigure, ^jOo digarna, \jj *--»'/5- kharab karnd. 
To disgrace, Ijjy ut-v*^ kurmat torna, \jS Jjj** ma'zul karnd. 
To disgust, IjU^ AurAana, li/jJ/i^J fieior karnd. 
To dishonour, li^lJl j^l dbru utama, \j^ ct~«,4SV bt/iur/nat karna. 
To dislike, UaW' na-ckdhnd, ^^ x«^0 nd-pmand karnd. 

Vocabulary Verbs. 309 

To dismiss, \j^ lh-x^j- j rukhsat karna, Ij^ '-^)'/. bar-taraf karna. 

To dismount, (v. n.) Uyi utarna, (v. a.) \jj3\ utarna. 

To dispatch, li^ *j'jj rawana karna: see To kill, waylay. 

To dispel, \j^ j)<3 dur karna, \i^ jjj rf«J* karna. 

To disperse, ^^i^!^ chhitkana, Ij^^ij^ mvntashir karna. 

To displease, l^ j^jiU ntt-M)MA karna, Ij/ aJjJT azurda karna. 

To dispose, Ij^ .ti_il^l arasta karna: see To arrange, give. 

To dispute, Uiat^ bafiasna, (quarrel) Xi^^^jhagurna. 

To dissipate, lil'l wrana, U^ uJIj-jI isra/ karna, UjJ Ijl wm rfe/ta. 

To dissolve, (v. n.) bli gaina, bif. gAu/«a, (v. a.) tH^ pigklana. 

To dissuade, U^ jIj Jo; rakkna, \i^ «_:-* ma/i* karna. 

To distil, (v. n.) U^ cliunii, UO tapafma, (v. a.) lj'j»- cAo'ana, ^c. 

To distil (as spirits), \j^JaLe mukaUar karna. 

To distinguish, U^ i^ fark karna, U^jUxaI imtiijas karna. 

To distribute, I— jb bantna, \jj i-ns- hissa karna. 

To disturb, ^S i^^itdt, muzlarib karna, ^J^rf^- chkcpia. 

To dive, Ij^to itji ghota marna, Lj^j dubna. 

To divert, (amuse) IjI^j ba/ilana, (turn away) ljl_^ phirdna. 

To divide, U^ .^ °" takshn karna: see To distribute. 

To divulge, \j^ (j^\j fash karna, lilbj batlana. 

To do, Ijji karna, IjUj Aananu, IjH W; 6(ya iana. 

To dodge, Ij'-i^ kaniyana, li3 |_54^'^ plcJthe lagtid. 

To doff, tjlil ufarTia, (to doff clothes, Ojbl ijjf? ftapre u/arna). 

To doubt, \j^ i' ^* shakk karna, UjW^ ^^Ju yakln na-janna. 

To doze, li^wjl unghna, \i^ ^j^ ^.^^jkapkl men hUna' 

To drag, (v. a.) \i3-;,-S ghasltna, {v.n.)\i2—f g/tasitnu : see To draw. 

To drain, li^l^ chhanna, Ub JKi ijU pan! »iA-a/ dalna. 

To di'aw, L.<1^ AAtncAna, (a sword) l:^Jl^ AarAna, (out) UlC nikalna, 

(oD, as a garment) CU^ cAarAana. 
To dread, Ij^J dama, lil^ cl-Ijw dahshat khana. 
To dream, U^J ^V^ Idupab dekhna, (dakh.) I^-^mJ tjllj baakara 


310 Vocabuluri/.— Verbs. 

To dress, Uy> pahanita or pahinnd, (food) \j^pakana. 

To drink, U^ pltia, \iSjj^ ghuntiia, \i\^ bJ vasha khana. 

To drive, (v. n.) lij|.J datipta, (v. a.) \jt>- chalana, \jljjJ daurana. 

To droop, IjV?v* ''"*'7''^"^i ^>* ""i^ji p^^hmurda kona. 

To drop, (distil, v. n.) li^ cAuna, (v. a.) UlLS lapkand : see To fall. 

To drown, (v. a.) Ijyj dahona, (v. n.) Lj.j dubnd. 

To drum, Ij^^ ^^ ^a&/ bajdna, U£j^ j>^ tambur t/iunkna. 

To dry, (v. n.) l^Sj- ««Win5, (v. a.) lil^S-. «aAA5/<a. 

To dwell, li— J basad, Lftj rcAfla, lij^ c^J^^ siikunat karnd. 

To earn, lJl*£ kamdnd, U^ ,_Ul^ W Ij-j paidd or ^ast/ kanid. 

To eat, b'^ A/iflTta, \j_/ JjliJ tandwul karnd: see To corrode. 

To educate, lj_;? '•^^-^.y tarbiyat karnd, \i\^ sikhand. 

To eSace, Ui~< metnd, IjlS^ taildnd, VJ_.{^ chhllnd. 

To effect, U^? karnd, \ji ^-b J.** ama/ wfen Zuna. 

To eject, LpJ JIO nikdl dhid, \j^jjj dur karnd. 

To elapse, \Jjm gyzarnd, ljy> >ti^j>:i gnsashta hond. 

To elect, L-! i^js- c^MB /Fna, Ij^ Ji1_j pasand karnd. 

To elevate, 1^1(51 uMana, Ij^ jJj btiland karnd, UUJj barhdnd. 

To embark, ljUj>- Ij UjsJo- jj jL^jaAa;^ar cAarAna or cAarAaiiB. 

To embellish, \iji^-i singdrnd, iJ^ jUj band'a karnd. 

To embrace, iJ^j-i Jj" hagkal-gtr hdnd, Ufi ^S gale lagnd. 

To embroider, li^S ^»».^IS kdr<hob'i karnd. 

To emigrate, liys ^^j !;»- jild-watan hond, ^jji^ u-i*^ '^^ chhariid. 

To employ, li^ Jl«c-1 iift*flia/ karnd, liU ^^j«i *li Aam wif/i /ana. 

To enable, 1;>»J ^j:^ Ju U i^^y kuwat or talcwiyat dend. 

To encamp, Uj? *U« Ij |^J Ij <U-i khaima or (Sra or ntuAam karnd. 

To enchant, liji Ijy Li^'*- ^ U.J— '^ a/s«» or_/'orf5 or (5n5 karnd. 

To encircle, Ij^ i-ffW" b ^^ g''*'' o' mu/idsara karnd, 'J^ gAeraa. 

To enclose, iJ^ gAerna, Ij^ AjU-I iAbJo karnd, U»jj\j frantfAno. 

To encourage, Uj<j Li!lt> b l=-w«jb kimmat or dilasd dend. 

To end, (v. n.) lijA *UJ li ^T djdiir or fatnam Aona. 

To endanger, U'j _^ <^j^ kiyf/' "''" ddlnd. 

-^^ ^ 

Vocahulary. — Verbs. 31 1 

To endeavour, \j^ -V^J ■^ V. .^s*-" *°^ or jidd-o-jahd kama. 

To endure, (v. n.) La, rahtta, (v, a.) \ij cu-i'jJ bardaskt kama. 

To engage, (in service, &c.) UJ ^ ratA lena : see To employ, allure. 

To engrave, IjJjii khodna, \i^ ^iiiJ li^ irji^ kanda or nuksh karna. 

To enjoin, li^ JuSIj faftftf kama, \j^ S>- hiikm karna. 

To enjoy, \j\i phna, lil^l ulhanu, Li^ bhvgatna. 

To enlarge, IjUji barfiana, 0^ jjlli kushada karna. 

To enlighten, li^jjx* li lU-l M;7a or munauwar karna: see To teach. 

To enrage, li/ c/^-ic V. ls*^ ^wf?« or ghasab-nak karna. 

To enrol, Ij/ JilJ ^^j-B^JiiJ daftar men daidiil karna. 

To ensnare, U— jl^ pAansna, ^\i=^, hajhana, ^\^_ halbhwiia. 

To entangle, 11-^ phasuna, Ij oJl^ phandna, Ij^l nljhana. 

To enter, (v. n.) L^ pailhna, Uja Jib dafddl Itona. 

To entertain, Lj/ c^^— ' V. S^''*V* "i'^'"^''' or ziyafat karna. 

To enthrone, U'.j:-J _^ i.:-,ir (a^( par bailhalna. 

To entice, liL^ p/iuslana, ljl(j liihhana: see To allure. 

To entrap, IjAJl^i^Aanrfnti, IjL-^j phansana. 

To entreat, Ij/ Is^l i/ifya karna, (dakh.) lijy tarasna. 

To equip, IijJ ^jULi . jL* saz o soman dena, ULsr" sajana. 

To erect, Ijl^' u/Aana, Ij^a jjli i^aV" A;arna: see To build. 

To err, L^^ chukna, Ijjfc »1^ gu.m-ru,k hona, li!j^ bhulna. 

To escape, U=r; iacAna, lif l^ Jij niftai bkagna, "^j^ chkulna. 

To espy, U^J dekhna, UC takna, UjiJ dtlna. 

Toestabhsh, Ij/ JU ifraVm kama, 1)]^ ?A«Ar«na. 

To estimate, UijI afkalna, Ljj? ftufna, Ij/ i.2-,<*j klmat karna. 

To evacuate, lijS ^^^ khaU kama, U\ij nikatna, 'jjjt*- chkorna. 

To evade, Ut! (a/na, Ijl'^ wr5n5, Ll^ chkalna. 

To exaggerate, IJjS iil'-.* muhalagha karna, Ij'j^ harhana. 

To exalt, li/ jJj huland karna, UUjj barltuna, Ijlftja- cAarAu»u, 

To examine, IjUjI a;?inana, (as money) l^^ parakkna. 

To excavate, Vijj^ ^rna, ^S ^^ khokka karna- 

To exceed, Ly" »jbj zli/ada kona, La^ iarAna; see To excel. 

312 Vocalmlarj/.~rer?>s. 

To excel, l^J ■ - -"'- • sablcat Icna, \j^ u^U ghalib kbna. 

To excbange, UliW badalna, \jji ^Jjj SjI adla-hadU karna. 

To excite, ^Jrf?" cAherna, Uj J i_-.^-c^ targlfih dena. 

To exclaim, \j!L>- chillana, li^SljlCj pukar ufhva. 

To excuse, U^ ujl*« w»'o/ tar/ia, (make excuse) Ijjf jic war karnd. 

To execute, l\^ karna, \i^ f*'^^ anjam karna: see To kill. 

To exhibit, OS^J dikhlana, iJ^^^b aaAir /:((?-na. 

To exist, \j)& /jonu, lj>c '^>=?'^ maujud kond, l^>-^ ac/ihnd. .^^H 

To expand, (v. n.) LLfJ phaibta, (v. a.) IL^ phatldnd. ^^H 

To expect, lij^jUaiJl inthdr karna, lifi^J il^ ruA dekhna. ^^\ 

To expel, IijJ J^Sj nikal dend, Ij^jjj ^^ s/io/ir bar<lar karna. 

To expend, Iji ^^ kharch karnd, \i\^\ uthdnd, Uljl vrdnd. 

To expire, ^jj<=- ("J dam ckkornd, (to die) l^ mama. 

To explain, lilfs**-* MwyAaHfl, USij balldvd, \j^jiiio zdhir karnd. 

To explore, ^^j^ kkojnd, IJjU i^l^ cfthdn mdmd : eee To seek. 

To express, (utter) 'j_j^^'' uchchdrnd, (squeeze out) ^jf^ nichnrnd. 

To expunge, lili^ miidnd, LijS js^ mnfiw karnd. 

To extend, Ijj^— J paadrnd, (v. n.) UL$J phailnd : see To spread. 

To extinguish, li^«r btijhdna, li^^^ gu/ karnd : see To destroy. 

To extirpate, Ij^l^l ukhdrna, Iji^l .i^^^jar kkod vlhana. 

To extort, LJj^ ba-zor lend, UJ Jfja? nichar Una. 

To extract, Ij^ — ^^,iA-il isliMiraj karnd, UJ ^a^ khainck tend. 

To extricate, 'j^J^ cAAKrana, Uj^ uoir!- khald; karnd. 

To face, Ij^ rc^^^ ramwe hand, (oppose) \j^ jIjIL* mvkdbala karnd. 

To fail, Li^fcs- chuknd, (become bankrupt) Ijyt ,_-li.* mw^i* hand. 

To faint, Ijl ^^gha*h and, ^\^ Wv^* murchha khdnd. 

To fell, Ijji girna, 0^ papid, (decrease) U2p gkalnd. 

To famish, (v. n.) Ij^ u.ij*^ V li.i^'^ /o'toB or bhuklion marnd. 

To fasten, U^ J!^-« mustahkim karnd, (tie) LajJIj bdndhnd. 

To father, Ul^ )_jIj Aa;» kahldnd, UIj J /? pdlnd: see To apply. 

To fear, Up darnd, \i\^ ^ bhai khdnd, L.*^ sa/imuli. 

To feed, U!L(S khildnd, U.;J Ll/[_.ja- khurak drnd : see To graze. 

Vocahularij. — Vvi'hs. 

To feel, (touch) Ijj^ chhuna, \i^ (__,-*J lams karna : see To kiio 

To feiga, IjUj banana, \j/ ij\^ bahana karna. 

To fell, U' J tilS kdl dalna, Uj J t-lil^ ftut rfE«a ; see To cut. 

To fermeot, (v. n.l L^l ^U> ^ (^•tj>-jdsh ke sath uljtna. 

To ferry over, UjIjI jb par utarna, ^_f j^^ pt^r karna. 

To fetch, 'jT^J S-nna, \jTjCJ /t/rac ana : see To reach. 

To fight, Ij! larna, \i/ i^J^jc'ig karna: see To quarrel. 

To fill, \jj^ bhama, ^!JyfJ hkar dena, \j^ l^jJ pura karna. 

To filter, \jj\fj nilharna, l^jl^ chhanna. 

To find, IjU pUBU, Ulij —j^ Wo/ nikalna, Ulili nikalna. 

To finger, L!^ talolna, ^jt^ c^Au»a, lj\J£l ungliyana. 

To finish, Ij^ *ii. Ij *UJ tamam or khatm karna. 

To fire, (a gun, &,c,) l^jya- chhdrna, Uclj daghna : see To kindle. 

To fish, Ijj^jlCi IS Ljl+f^ machhli ka skikdr karnd: see To seek. 

To fit, (v, n.) Uf (J.S-JJ th'tk and, (v. a.) Ij^ tU-ljT arasto karna. 

To fix, Lajjb bdndkna, Ijlx! lagana, \i^ j^ mtikarrar karnd. 

To flame, iii«i shv^la uthm, \iii^>- jkataknd. 

To flap, Ll^^'Aa/na, (the wings) Uli^-S^ phalphaldna. 

To flatter, li^.S ^--ijH^ chdjdasi karnd, l;I-^ phusldna. 

To flee, liS\^ bkdgnd, \ij> 'y;_^ gurtz karnd, ^y»J\^ firdr hond. 

To flinch, USa hatnd, Uj talnd, \jj^ phirnd. 

To fling, bCi^ phrnknd, lilr^ chaldnd, L!lj ddlnd. 

To float, L^ bahnd, U_^ bitasnd, \ij^ tairnd. 

To flog, ^JjU (.lifW chdbiik mdrnu, lijU i^^jS AiJre mdrnd. 

To flounder, liijj tarapnd, lj\~^ chhalpatdnd. 

To flourish, (t. n.) Ij^ ^j^ jy torotdza hond, (v. a.) liU^gAw! 

To flow, L^ hakna, Uj6 i^l?- V. ^J)'JJ rowan orjdrt hond. 

To flutter, ^Ij^Jj tarp/iardnd, ^^5*^3^ pharpkardnd. 

To fly, \;^1 Hr/ia, lj/jlj^_;jar«'fl= Aarwa; see To flee. 

To foal, IjL; bydnd, Ui>- jawnrt, IjLj l/rf^ bachherd bydnd. 

To fold, lil(^' tahand, LiLJ hpetiid, \jj aj tah karnd. 

Vocabulary. - 

■ Verhs. 

I ^j^ ^ }j^, puiraul 

To follow, UU- Li \j\ jrfs^i plchhe aiia ( 

To forbid, \j^ f^ man* karna, U?jj roknd, \jj\j barna. 
To foretel, UUs- ,— * ^^1 age sejatana, U^ -i T jgam kahuu. 
To foi^e, La^|-Ci.j pI(Ae garhna, Ijj? <_;-'-) ii/ias karitd. 
To forget, Uj^ bhulna, Ij/ ^^l^j /aramosA Aarna. 
To forgive, Ij^^i i—jlim mu'af karna, ^jj^ chhorna. 
To form, U^ Ij-j paida karna, liliJ banana, \j^ karna. 
To forsake, Ljjj^ cAAorna, liS l*" tt/agnd, \j^ cSji tark karna. 
To forswear, (swear falsely) \i\^ *-J ^y^ jkulKi Icasum khana. 
To fortify, (make a fort) \i_f ^Mj **!i kara-bandi karna. 
To frame, ULj banana, ^SAi t_^j j Jj J rfo;/i 5 rfAoi bandhna. 
To free, lij^ jj"^ \i J^l asat/ or khalas karna, Li'j^ cAAorna. 
To freeze, (v. n.) 'L^ja-jamnd, \x*3- ^ i_^ Ij.^^ tkantfi sljamna. 
To frighten, \i\ji darana, (scare) M^j^ bharkdna. 
To frisk, \i£j^ kudaknd, USji^ phudakad. 
To front, UjA i^jlie Ij ,_5^^ samnt or mufiubil hand. 
To frustrate, IJjS [M^*^ mnArum fcarna ; see To disappoint. 
To fry, Lij^ bliunnd, \j^ \J^.ji birydn karna, blj' talnd. 
To fulfil, (complete) Lj^ Ijy purd karna, (perform) lljS \>i\ add karna. 
To furl, l»J lapelnd, L.y^£ khainchnd. 
To furnish, Ij^^^ pahunckdnd, \j_^ ii^ljT drdsta karnd. 
To gabble, li^ tli^ LliQ 6aA iafc karnd, \i^ ^ ^j^^hlpeit karnd. 
To gain, (earn) UU^ kamdna, (get) Ijlj pdnd, \i^ (J^W /tasiZ karnd. 
To gall, (v, a.) UL^ ^ 1/*^ ^^J^~p g/tiske chamrd chlulnd. 
To gallop, (v. n.) Ujjj dapatnd, (v. a.) l".C-._.j,i t-^-J^ sarpat phcnknd. 
To gamble, liL^? l^jii'a khllnd, U^ s/j'^j^ kimdr-hdzl karnd. 
To gape, (yawn) UJ ^^'\f4»- jamhdl lend, (with surprise) Ij^U-j .^ 

ntunA pasdrnd. 
To garnish, 1jjI>J-j svdhdrna, U^ «-;ljT ani^^a iajnti. 
To gasp, UJ ^^1 ^L «a»« «//7 ffnc, I W^ lakhlakhdnd. 

Vocabuliiry. — Vi-rbs. 31 

To gather, li^ «-*>-^'nni* kama, ^jyj bafoma, L>- chunna. 

To gaze, t_^ ^Jiurna, L&, l^^' (aA rahna, \j>j ^J (ffi/tA rahna. 

To gesticulate, U\ij jl^ &/(u'o batana. 

To get, li^J puna, iJjS 1j-j b J^\>- Aust/ or paida karna. 

To gild, ljj£ ^_U- \j ll.y^ sonaA/a or hall kama. 

To giiigle, liUf^c^a-jAan/Aanona, IjL^iy tkanthonana. 

To gird, LbJjlj Lji™J lapetke bandhita : see To tie, reproach. 

To give, Ljj denS, ^''-^ ba^^hna, ^^y sompna. 

To glad, gladden, li^ t/-y*" M'^*/' karna, IjLJjb halsana. 

To glitter, Uil*.»- chamahta, ^^-^^^ j/ialakna. 

To glow, UI1.UJ dagdagana, \jSjtj dahakna. 

To gnash (the teeth), liU-r kichkicliuna, \i,^ pisrta. 

To gnaw, UjI*- chabna, Ujli Au/»a, IjU^- ckahana. 

To go, li'j*- jano, Ll=»- chalna, Uys iilj^ rawana /liina. 

To govern, Ij^ Li — tjC- hukumat karna, (actuate) Ull*- chalana. 

To graft, \j/ Jjj-J paiicand karna, IjlS Ji kalam lugana. 

To grant, LjJ rfeao, Li-ir bakhshna, liJU manna. 

To grasp, \j^ pakupia, U^ gahna, Uji li-J^J g'''iA karna. 

To gratify, Ijjf la^ MksA karna, (requite) Lj^ l^J^^'a^a Aarait. 

To graze, Ij^ cliarna, Ui>- chugna, (toucli) liU- ^f>- chhujani 

To grin, UICj i..l^1j (fan/ nikalna, U!IC (_;-^ M7s nikalna. 

To grind, U_jp7£nd, Uf^ bukria, (afflict) Ijlii-i satana. 

To groan, Lfllj? karahna, \jS t^J^j j i\ alio sari kama. 

To grope, UjH (afolna, \jy tona, ^_f i_f y 'y {(ra-iiil karna. 

To grow, (vegetate) l;ol wgno, (increase) li«=j bar/ma. 

To grub, U]lj i>j4? ftAorf dalna, \jf^ ukkaraa. 

To grumble, ^^Jj harbarana., \j\y tarrana, ^^^^^ kitrkuraiui. 

To guesB, Lu31 atkahia, \ji l^IjS itiyoi karna. 

To guide, li^ o* UiAj raknuma'l karna, liH^- chalana. 

To gush, Uy» ^^^^- |_j^ LTj^J''^^ sejarl hoaa. 

To hail, (v. n.) Ij^ ^j\ 5^ ;;«r/ia, (salute) U/ jX. ^/zKm /«/rn«. 

To halt, (limp) \i\pi langrhna, (stop) Us, U^ AAuri ra/,)«7. 

316 VnmhuluTJj.—Vcrhs. 

To hang, (v. n.) Ui^ lalakni, (v. a.) liW^ lafhani: see To choke. 

To happen, \j^ ^^t an parna, liW I ajana, Ui-j bitna. 

To harrow, Ij^,-^ \^-Jb hriiga p/icrna, (disturb) UjJ -bT, ranj (fena. 

To hasten, Ij^ ^As^jaldt kartia, (v. a.) liS.»- j=j'=-i sMtiihtar chalana. 

To hate (detest), Ij^ ci^ nafrat karnu, Ujl>- ^i^ makriih janna. 

To have, l:^ rakhna, ^\i puna, UjfJ pakarna, \jy» /i^nu. 

To heal, (v. n.) li^a *Ui!l iltlyam hona, (v. a.) li^ lua- c/iangu 

To heap, IjjJ t.,*^ jam' karna, lj\S! ^j (//ler lagaiia. 
To hear, hearken, li-j sunna, li JhJ j^K Aon dharna. 
To heat, Ij/ *f garm karna, \i^ i^T tig karna: see To enrage. 
To heed, take heed, '^j f^\j t ^^^UaJ dhyan or joos rakhna. 
To help, l^^ l;;^Ic-s1 \j jx* madad or £s(i'ana( karna. 
To hem, Ijlfi i^/" maghzt lagana, IJUftjl lurhijjana. 
To hesitate, li^ tr^J u-'pos b pcsh karna, ljU:~f^ hichkickana. 
To hew, UjIS' ^ fcjyV^ kulkaft te kalna, Lily taraskna. 
To hide, 'jV*?' chkipana, \i^ lukana, (v. n.) li-p- chhipna. 
To hie, UW Ast- jald jajia, \iW j:jlii skitdblar jana. 
To hinder, Uf;_j Tokna, IjKjI alkana, U^ j-i^j man* karna. 
To hire, UJ JjI/ A:ir«ya ^na, (to let) Vi/ o')/ JtirH'c AarHu. 
To hit, (v. a.) 0;te marna, IwJ t-Jj-e sort rfenu, (v. n.) \m lagna. 
To hold, \i^j rakhna, IjjSj pakarna, \:^ gahnu: see To think. 
To honour (shew inspect), U^ tiJjc li (_>jl at/ai or tcsn/ karmi. 
To hop, Ij Jjii ^ jjb tl^' eft panic sc kudna, IjljLJ langranii. 
To hunt, U^^Ki shikar karna, U';jiiS kkaderna. 
To go a hunting, UL^j\Ci shikar khelna. 

To hurry, U^ ^ji^jaldi karna, liSJjj halhalana : see To hasten. 
To hurt, (pain) Ijl^J diikhana, (injure) tj? ^j^-aw nuk^an karua. 
To jahber, \iSC; bakna, (dakh.) Ij^jy* wafirafuna. 
To jeer, \j^ t ;■" " ^^ /«*» fashnf karna, ^^J>- ckirana. 
To jest, Ijjf Ij IjjU l^ thalha mama or karna. 
To illumine, \j^!H>-l Vt [jij^ roshaji or ryVl/a karna. 

Vocafmlan,.- Verbs. 3I7 

To illugtrate, (explain) \j£ *Cr-^ foshrih karna : see To illumine. 

To imagine, \jSjyaj tasanicur karna, U>-j-i soc/iita. 

To imitate, (follow, ape) '^J j--iJ lulabhu karna : see To copy. 

To immej^e, Ijyj dubo»a,\jjji boriia, Ijj? ji j ghark karna. 

To impart, (inform) 1:^^ kahna, liS^ batlana: see To grant. 

To impel, \ilL»- chalana, IJ'Jj'J dauraim. 

To imply, U^f ui-J3j dalalat karna, Uffj ^j^-** ma'nJ rokkna. 

To import (ae merchandise), US JU ^^^Jj-- saudagarl mal lana. 

To importune, IJjS LjUJ takaza karna, UJ ^4*^ pichfie lena. 

To imprison, U^ OkU 1j (^yfS^ b jJi Arnitf or maftbus or Aantf karna. 

To improve, (v. n.) Ij^^^i^^ bihtar hona, (v. a.) lijUj-j sftrfAarnfl. 

To impute, UlJJ lagana, ^^z^+i Ikahrana, Uiijlj bandhna. 

To incite, UjJ l-.- -.-y targblb dena, lil^l ulhana, ^ji^ ckherna. 

To include, l3j? J^lj dakftil karna, (surround) lj_^ ghema. 

To increase, (v. n.) Ujijj harhna, (v. a.) ^Up barhana. 

To indicate, Ij^ lh^Hj dalalat karna, \i\^_ baf.liina. 

To induce, Uj J j^ysT" li L-.-,;rjJ tar g/i ib or tahfls dena, IjS /ana. 

To inflame, IS^ jalana, Uw ^^T ag lagana, UC^ phunkna. 

To inflate, LS^ pkulana, \jj^ i:*^ tio/M karna, UO^ phunkna. 

To inform, L-U^s-jaianu, IJlfK*-" snmjhana, ^^ ib I ngaA karna. 

To ingratt, I'Ul ^yjpaiwand lagana, (6x) Ul^ ba'dhulna. 

To inhabit, U_j basna, Lfi; rahut, ^^ kj;-jyLt sukuaat karna. 

To inherit, Ij^ '^Jj^J icari* AonS, LJ ki^l irs Sna. 

To inject, Ullj dalad, (with a syringe) \JjU ^Jis^pichkarl viurna. 

To inquire, W?-^ puc/ihna, \jj ij*"^ parsisA Aarnu. 

To instigate, Liljjj warghulannu, \j\^\ uksana: see To incite. 

To instruct, iJ^fCi siklilana, \ji mA»j tatim karna. 

To intend, U^ j»3J L; iJ^l iratfa or /rosrf karna, UaW cAaAna. j 

To interfere, \jS J:i-J rfrtM/ karna, IjlS .^"la Aa(A lagana. 

To interpret, Vij^ ^^-*sr/ tarjuma karna : see To explain. 

To interrupt (hinder, stop), US^jj rokna, \:jlf cjb &a( /:u_(na. 

To intimate, \j^ tj^\ is/riiru karna, \:jJ j^ kfiabar ilena. 

318 VocabulaTi/.— Ver/'S, 

To introduce, (to a person) li^^S CjUIU mulukat karunu: see 1 

To intrude, \)S ^^J dakhl karnd, Ij^ i^^-^ ghus pariia. 
To intrust, Ujjj-i sompna, \>^ A-«j \i_ J^ sipurd or simma karna. 
To invade, Ij^ s^'^^/?" charfia't karna, Ijl ^J»- cAor/t ano. 
To inveigle, 'jj'^l uhharna, UUJj halhhana, IjLs^ lalchana. 
To invent, Ijj^ J^C' y^*^ karna, UllSlj nikalna : see To feign. 
To investigate, U^ Jf-i*^lj ,^,i*iaj taffish or tahkik karna. 
To invite, liJjJ nyotna, U^ CJ^j da^ieat karna. 
To involve, (wrap) liajjb ^ii!-J lapetkc bandhna: see To eutnngle. 
To join, (v. n.) Ii5:»-J«fna, liJ;>-_yVrno, (v. a.) lJjy»- ^'orna. 
To jostle, UjJ y^J dhakka dena, LLSJtJ dhaktlna. 
To irrigate, U-'^a^.t sinckna, ^Sy tar karna. 
To irritate, IjUr khijana, ^JJ^?" ckhvrna, lli- safano. 
To issue, (v. n.) Ulilj nikalna, (v. a.) U'.Sj nikalna. 
To judge, IJjS j^ 'i J-^ 'i i_jLul injS^ ot faisal or wydw kiiriiu. 
To jumble, b^ lrjlj=« makhlut_ karna, (dakh.) iJiS kaU'uia. 
To jump, liJ^ kudna, (over) Ujj\^ phandna. 
To keep, U^?; ra&/i»a, (preserve) li^r fracAana ; see To protect. 
To kick, liLJ latiyana, \ij^^^ \s LLi'i lat or ihakar mama. 
To kill, U'j_jti! mar-dalna, U^ ijjj^ V. <J^ '^""'^ °'' kJnni karna. 
To kindle, (v. a.) b\^ su/gUHO, (v. n.) L&- ««/«5««. 
To kiss, ^^ chUmna, LJ \j Lii> JL^y bosn dcna or /e»ii. 
To knead, \J JJ^ gundna, UU sanna, ijJjL: mandna. 
To kneel, li^ y^J jii do-sanu bailhna. 
To knit, liiJ frinna, LiJ ^^ <:l~^\jjJu haghair liint ke hinna. 
To knock, liCi»f l/tonkna, (at a door) \JU(S^ khalkhaluna. 
To know, UjIs;- _;awna, (recognise) LiU-vi paAcA«««5. 
To labour, \i^ '^ -■-«-* vn/inat karna, Xtj^ ^J duklt bharmi. 
To lack, liji r-'^^^ muhtaj hona, \jjb JSj-i darkur honu. 
To lament, li^ A\j nala karna, L)^ rona, U^ to-jj nauAu karna. 
To land, (v. II.) KiJiS ularnu, (v, a.) lj_;ljl Htarriu. 

VombHlar!,.—Verhs. 319 

To lapse, (pass) \jjJS giisarna, (err) US'**- chuknu: see To fall- 

Tw last, Ui5 likna, ^j^ tkaharna, L*, rafmd. 

To laugh, L—:^ /tansna, (deride) Uji l^ that/ia karna. 

To lay, \i^ rakhna, lijAJ dharnii, (eggs) UjJ Ijul anrfu rfTnii, 

To lead, Ul^ J /£ chalna, liyt ^>^ peshwa kona. 

To lean, Ijjft JJU ma't' ftona, (on) ^m ilXj tuk'tya lagana. 

To leap, IjJji kudna, (over) lijjl^p/tanrfnu, U-j laprta. 

To learn, I'.jV;..' sikkna, L>^ J-sW *L; i/wi AEti/ karna. 

To leave, ^y«»- cAAorn«, li^i 1J.S;; lark karna, (by will) lj_^ iJn kiba 

To lend, UjJ Wj^ ariyatan dena, UjJ ^o^ ^ar? rfena. 
To lengthen, Ijlajj barhana, liL*! lambana: see To delay. 
To lessen, (v. n.) LSjTgiafnu, (v. a.) ljl2^gAa(ana. 
To let, (permit) IjJ tfcna, (let go) UjJ ?jp- cAAor dena : see To liire. 
To lick, bSU- chalna, U—J ffi^na, (to beat) IJjU mama. 
To lie, (rest) ULl itfna, Ijjj parna, \iji>_; rflAwa ; see To lean on. 
To lie (speak falsely), U^ li Ujj .^t^jhutk bobtd or kahna. 
To lift, lj\^l ulhana, U-1 1^' a'Aa /eni, Ijla^ barhana. 
To light, (kindle) lil^- ya^ana, (make bright) lijS t^r^^^ roshan karita. 
To lighten (v. n. to flash), '^■iU.^ chamakna, UC^ lahakiia. 
To lighten (make light), U^S 1X1» kalka karna : see To descend. 
To hke, lj_jJ J^ Ij jj— j pasand or i^a&u/ karna, kal>- cAaAna. 
To liken, lj_^ s^yjl;^ ^ -tijU.* mukabala or barabarl karna. 
To listen, Li_i sunna, 'j^jSJV. '^^ liJ^ ^^^ lagana or dkarna. 
To live, (exist) l_>-jf7na, (dwell) Ujsj rakna, U_J inswu. 
To load, liJ3 ladnd, U^jj bojhnd, 1)^^ bharna. 
To lock, li^ Jii i5:«/ fogana, bj SU (aZa rfe/ta ; see To Fasten. 
To lodge, (v. a. to place) LLj basdna, Ul^ baUhdlna: see To dwell. 
To long, Lj^ fdrama, IjLs" lalchdna, OjA j'ai.* mmhtdlf hand. 
To look, (v. n. to seem) li^^ mjknd, (v. a. to behold) Ij/^ nasar 

karna, \^ji tSkhvd, \Sj taknd, (for) liAjJjftJ dhundAna, (to 

eipCL't) Ij^jUiiJl infisar karna. 


Vocabulary — Verbs. 

To loose, looaen, UjiJ k/wlm, Lr.Jjj^ cbhor dena. 

To lop, L2il(». chhantita,\:2^ katna, Ui^ tarashna. 

To lose, 0^ kMind, (at play) li^lb harna, (err) Lij»- c^uAhq. 

To love, li*W- chdhna, \i^j\-j pyar karna, li(S, j;ij: wA^ rakhna. 

To lounge a horse, Lo yU- f i^')^g^'<>T^ ^^ c/iakkar dtna. 

To lower, Ij^ l^ hTcAS karna, (the clouds) Ij^ ghima : see To 

To lug, (drag) li™f> ghasilna, (by the ears) Li3 ,/;S^ i^^ kan pu- 

karke lana. 
To lull, Ij!Lj sulFtna, IjH JuJ hIhc^ /una. 
To lurk, 1:>{i^ ij-^ CLJ'^ ^^'"^ '"^^'^ baithna, UjJ dabakiiu. 
To lualntaia, (defend) Ulf^^t.^ sambhulnu, (rear) bllj puliia: see To 

To make, Ijl-J banana, U^ 1jl-j paida karna : see To do, cause, get, 

To mar, Ijjli bigarmi, Ij/ ^-'|;^ ^ Jl^ fJtalal or kharab karna. 
To mark, li^ j^lU nu'^un iar«a, (brand) UjJ i'j f/agA dind. , 
To marry, Ij^ jLj ftyaA Aarnu, LaLj bi/dhnd, t(3 aUj iyuA fii»a. 
To measure, lijU mapnd, \ij\j nupnd, lijS yi^Wi paimd'hk karna. 
To meditate, IJ^S jjUaJ t/A^an ftarna, (think) U^^ soc^no. 
To meet, Ul* mi^/in, tj/ cylJil* muldkdt karna, Ijjftjl^-jJ du-char hand. 
To melt, (v. n.) [iSS galna, U.^ pighalnd, (v. a.) IjS^ pighldnd. 
To menace, Ij'^fSJ dhirand, IjlSlAaJ dkamkanu, USj'j ddnlnd. 
To mend, IjJS i,i— *^ marammat karna, \>J^A~- sudhdrna, 'JjUi sSj-na. 
To mention, li^^j jtftr karna, U^ kaknd, \j^ j\ji ^_^^ gosh-gusdr 

To milk, LajJ (ffiAwa, UlCj jJjJ (^5(/A nikdlnd. 
To mince, (hack) liiL^ chhlnehva, (mince meat) Ij^ J-*J ,5'f'n« 

To mind, (regard, notice) Ui tU! /i7/5a A-«rnn, (remind) Ijjj jU ydd 

To mingle, 11. »«iiS«tf, ^i^ }r^ b L-jli-* muk/ilut c 



Vocabulary. — Verbs. 321 

To mislead, l}l^ bkatkana, b\^ bahkana, \j^ s\j4^ gumrak karna. 
To miss, (not to find) liLi na-pana, (mistake) \j^ Uas^ khata karna. 
To mistake, (v. n.) ^^ ckukna, U^ bhulna : see To miss. 
To mitigate, \j^ \Si^ b ^»j]L« \j ^^ narm or muWim or thanda karna. 
To mix, (v. n.) UL« milna, (y. a.) l3l« mtlana, \j^ It^Ls^ makhlut 

To moan, Li^ kurhna, \j^ (^j«J1 b <idl3 na/a or a/2?o« Ji:arna : see To 

To mock, (make feces at) \j\ij .^ munh banana, (gibe) l^]^ chirand, 

\j\j) birand. 
To molest, l3l2M» «a/ana, ULsf kkijdnd, IjJ uJJ^ toi/tf e2ena. 
To mortgage, ^j^r ^jn^^ ^jt^j zamtn d gh aira girau rakhnd. 
To move, (stir, v.n.) Ubb hilnd, U^ saraknd, (go) UL>- chalnd, (v. a.) 

blU kildna, 1})L>> cAaZana, l)\^ sarkdnd : see To excite, propose. 
To mount, (v. n.) ^J^J^ charknd, (a horse), liyb j|^ sat^ar A5na, 

(y. a.) UU^ ckarkana. 
To mourn, l:Jb|^ kurkna, l}^ >c b aJU b dSU j 2T aA o ndla or matom or 

gh am kamd. 

To mow (cut with a scythe), USl^ vi«» (^lc> dds se kdtnd. 

• ** 

To multiply, (as in arithmetic) \j/ d^j^ b c-^ «ar6 or jortt kamd : 

see To increase. 
To mumble, mutter, Ix^ c^ ^J zer /ofr kahna, U|^Jj barbardnd. 
To murder, U^^ ^^^ Aton karnd, l)^ Jai ,<-» (^^. ftag^s se A:a^/ 

To murmur, l}||^ /rtir^ttfana, (mutter) b|^ barbardnd. 
To muse, b^>-^ «ocAna, b^ u^^ k ^'^^J^fikr^ andtsha or ^atis 

Must, ^Jb i*jX /a;2rim Aai, ,«**^ chdkiye, byb Aoga, l^jjj^ zarur kai. 
To name, l:*^ ^1} nam rakhnd, (mention) l3^ «3^l3 ndmzad kamd. 
To nauseate, feel nausea, \jh^ \^fr fi matldnd, l3LU haliydnd: see 

To abhor. 
To need, l«JbW ckdhnd, Uyb^l^J b <^bjB^ muhtdj or darkdr hond. 

2 T 

322 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To neglect (act carelessly)^ U^ <aJla& gh aflat kama, OU- J^ bhul 

To negotiate, U^ A^\x^ mu'amala kamoy (a bill) l3l>- f^JCJb hundi 

To neigh (as a horse), 1}U^ AinAinana. 
To nibble, \iiS^ khutakna, [Sjy tungnd^ U^ kutamd. 
To nip, lx>-y nocAndE^ l:J ,^^i^ chutki Una. 
To nod, lii^ jhuknd, UU^ ^ ^ar jhukana, (from sleep) li^^^ 

To nominate, \iJJ Ij UIIij aU nam batlana or e;2ena : see To appoint. 
To note, (observe) \jS jy. gh aur karna, (set down) LJ ^ /£ AA 



To notify, (declare) \jJ aILI i*lam karna^ (tell) Uli5»-Ja/5na; see To 

To nourish, UU pdlna, li-s^ posna, U^ (j*l;j>/i parwarish kama. 
To number, Uii^ginna, l}^ c^L*»- V J^^ ^Aiemor or hisdb karna. 
To nurse, (the sick) \jji Lfy^*^j^^, btmdrddri kama, (a child) JbJ^J 

liSb dudh pilanif li^ t^^ ^j*\ J da't-gart karna. 
To obey, iJU manna, U^ ^^IjuoIj \j[ ^J?;^*^^/ farmdn-barddri or 

tabi^ddrt karna. 
To object (urge against), l3^ ^j^^^l f'tirdz karna, l3j^ pakarnd. 
To oblige, (bind) U^ A:l-j|^ i> jcj Jand or wdbasta karna, (bind by 

gratitude). U^ c:,^x>< ^j^j< marhun-Uminnat karna: see To 

To observe, (watch) li^ 2foj nigaA karnd, (look to) ^l^^r nijhdnd. 
To obstruct, li^j roknd, \jj \ drnd, \jy^ C^]/^ muzdhim hond. 
To obtain, \jJ J-^U. AasiZ karnd, Ub pana, (be current) l3y> <-srJ^ rd*ij 

To obtrude, l)^ Ji-lJ ddkhil kama, l3L^ ghusdnd. 
To obviate, lilc^ bachdnd, Ub fa/na, li^ jJ« ra/* karnd. 
To occur, liyb Aona, U^j-S^^ uja/ci Aon5, l3^ JJ^ sar-zad hond : see 

To meet. 

Vocabulary Verbs. 323 

To offer, (present) li^ ^5^^^ samkne rakhna, (sacrifice) \jS ^i 

kurban karna. 
To ogle, li4^.<^ u^ii^ kankhiyon dekhna, LJ ^^y W jhanwU lena. 
To omit, Ijjjff- cAAonia, 13 U- J^ bhuljana, U^ cu-ilj^jj^i /aro 

guzasht karna. 
To ooze, UIX3 nikalna, U^ cAiina, L^ risna, l:*^ chhanna. 
To open, (v. n. be opened) Ll^ khulna, (v. a.) U^ kkobia. 
To operate, U^ aI^ iam Aarna, (upon) ^/ y^ asar karna. 
To oppose, U^ ij:^\s^ mukhalafat karna, U^j rokna. 
To ordain, l3l^ titahram, \i^jjA< tnukarrar karna : see To fix. 
To order, (command) l3^ Jl>- Awim /^arTia, (regulate) Uj J c-^y 

To organize, l|^ ^"^J tarkib karna. 

To ossify, (v. n.) bU-yb «^JUb haddi hojana, (v. a.) Ulj ^^ v^jjb Aacbfi 
/ror dalna. 



To overawe, U|^j darana, lijj vj:.^&0 dahshat dena. 

To overcome, b^ ^fath karna, U^ <A.'%.>Xii shikast karna. 

To overflow, (v. n.) U fl ^ ^ chhalakna, \j^ ^ 6aA papia. 

To overlook, (inspect) li^.t> dtkhna, (excuse) l5^ j^j*^ dargvzar 

To overset, (v. a.) Uj J v^l uZaf dtna, (v. n.) UU. CJt ulatjana. 
To overtake, UT y|^ barabar ana, ^J J^ pakar Una. 
To overthrow, (overturn) 1:j J ci^l ulat dena : see To overcome. 
To overwhelm, (crush down) lij J bj da&a e2ena, (immerse). l3^ J^ 

ghark karna. 
Ought, y^\^ chakiyCf ^Jb aJU b j[j/^ zarur or Za^rim Aai. 
To oust, y\0 nikalna, bj J l^l tiMa dena. 
To outroot, UU j|\^^ ukhar dalna, bjl^ ukharna. 
To outstrip, b^ cs.^A»>rf sabkat karna, bJ y^J ^^T 5gc rfAar Itna, 

bJI J Lff^ p^chke dalna. 

•» " 

To owe, bjbbj <2Aarna, byb j\ju^^ karz-dar hona. 

To own, (possess) byb u^U malik hona, b^ rakhna: see To confess. 

324 Vocalulary.^ Verbs. 

To pacify, \iS b^Ju^^ Ihandha karna, Uj^J ,j^—j laskhi deita. 

To pack, \:J>Jgl) i^j^ gathrl bandhna, \:£f^ lapelna. 

To paint, Iji (_/ii« maita/fkash karna, Us-a- c/ilind. 

To palpitate, \^'^ kampna, U^ pharaknd, U^J dharakna. 

To pant, Lf.JJb hamphiid, Ijl^-^f^ haphkaphana. 

To parch, Lj^ bhunnd, \i^ ^Jjj b'lrydn karna. 

To pordoD, iJjSjiiSp L; uJ^ viu'tifox dargnsar karna. 

To pare, ULf ^ chhilna, \jj£ katarnd, \Jit\Ji tarashna. 

To participate, LSilj banind, \jjbj\ji.^3»- /litsa-dar hond. 

To pass, (v. n.J \jj jT gaaarjitt, LyJ bahna, (y. a.) lj_,ljirgi/?5raa. 

To pat (strike lightly), UjI^j tkapnd, IJjU \*-Uj tamac/ia niarna. 

To patch, \jjy:^jornd, lilS JJj^ paiwand lagdnd, LC^ (anA;na. 

To pawn, li^ }fgi^^ rakhnd, U^S, ili^Ji^J bandlmk rakhna. 

To pay, lij^ 1j1 add karna, liJJjW 6Aar (ffi/ia: see To beat. 

To peck, \Jjy tujigna, liltjjj thongdnd, li^UjU:-* min^dr mdrnd. 

To peel, (v. a.) UL^ ckkllud, \ij\j\ IJi^ chkilkd utarnd. 

To peep, liyk Jj«J (J^i"*''^ wamiid Aona, (v. a.) liiJl^jfArtnAna. 

To penetrate, liJ^j*- c/ionknd, ^^^^^ chhrdnd, (affect) \i^ y\ asttr 

To people, Ijl—J basdnd, IjjS ■«*** Ij jIjI ufiad or ma^miir kamd. 

To perambulate, \jjfi_ phimd, Li^ -wi «nir kamd. 

To perceive, Ijjf *i-jl;^ darydft kamd, \i\i ^J rfcftA pan«. 

To perfect, (finish) li^ ^lu lamdm karna, U^ nifienio. 

To peiforni, Ij^ kamd, LiLj nibdhnd, IJSW; fitya /aM«. 

To perish, l^ marna, 0^ t.1^ A«/oA Aojio, U*, Ul>-ju(« ra/i«5. 

To permit, UjJ (ffna, Lj J fcifjU-l ijdsat rfena, li(^ \y cnica rakhnd. 

To perplex, Ujf ;:;\p»- hairdn kamd, Ulj ^^ -^ pech men ddlnd. 

To persevere, persist, \iJij Jli jfraVni rn/<na. 

To per&pire, U^su^ pasijnu, LlXj L™_( pasind nikalnd. 

To persuade, UL* mandnd, \i^ Jj^ ma'/' karTtd, UjJ _S^ sa/«/i (/tnil 

To pervade, UfS^ puilhnd, U-^ phaibid, \j I ^ </(ir nita. 

To peivert, V>lilil uUdnd, lj?\^ bigdrnd, '^J *-->lf= 

Viicahulitry. — Verbs. 323 

To peruae, liji juSIIk mutala'a karna, UaJj parhna. 

To pester, liU-. satana, Olrf k/iijana, lijj c-fl-1^ taktif dena. 

To petitioD, U^ i^}f^ \^^ '"'f fa^m karna: see To request. 

To petrily, (v. n.) Ijl^ifj patkrana, Ij^-^ jfJ jtatthar ko-janu, 

(v. a.) ^^jfJ patthar karna, ^^ u;-^-* U jij pattkursa sakhl 

pick, Us>- chunna, liJ j^j^ cAwn /£««, U^ c/iugna : see To choose. 


To pierce, ^^^ chonkna, UL. aa/na ; see To bore. 





pilfer, \-^y< THUsna, ijl^ churana, 

pinch, ^->-y nocAno, UJ ^S^^ chalkl Una, (press) lij!j dabna. 

pine, lj;j^ jhurna, ljy^ sJ^-Jl afsurda kona, L&i j^ war ra^na. 

place, 1:1^ rakkna, Ul^ baitbalna, ^'j-V^ MaAra/ia. 
To plan, (scheme) IJjS Ji^f^ tajidiz karna, (design) LajwU aUu 

naks/ia bandkna. 
To plant, (set) lilfl lagana, ^jj rbmpna, (settle) Ul^ haithalna. 
To play, liL^ kheha, (to toy) 'j;^j'f-_;!; ''fl'o cAa'o karna, (inu3ic) 

lils^ bajana. 
To plead, \j/ <£,-.*;*■ /"(yuf karna, Uil JJj rfafi/ ia«a : see To argue. 
To please, \jj ^A^ kJitish karna, '^^j rijhana, (v. n.) U*^ ruc/ma. 
To pluck, UJ ^j;f»- cA/(7« tena, (as a fowl) iiJl^Sl j par nkharnd. 
To plunge, (in water) IJ^U atjc ghbta vtarna, ^iJ dubna, (v. a.) 

ubj dubana. 
To polish, Ij^ USl*. I; (_iU L JiL-« saikal or so/" or cAiftnu Aur»a. 
To pollute, U^ cAjIj napak karna, UjH^ bigdrna. 
To possess, l^fj rakkna, li^ t^j^ iasarruf karna, Ij^ft J dharna. 
To jwstpoDe, Ulj fa/na, Ij^^^U ia^Ir karna. 
To pound, Ujjf kutnd, '^j^ l/ionkna, ^jj>- c/turna : see To confine. 
To pour, UUj ifhalna, UjOlJ^ un^Ina, (flow) L^ bakna. 
To practise, Ij^ ^arna, U^ L^ A;iya ftarna, U^ ij^-^ maskk karna. 
To praise, Lal^ sariiAna, Ij^ i— a;j*J (oVT/" karna : see To applaud. 
To prance, lijS u'—J latnbii/aii karna, bjU t^^'^-- shalang mama. 
To prate, prattle, ljj£ l^-^; Ij i^^-LS gapshap of bakbak karna. 

326 Vocahulury. — Verbs. 

To pray, (entreat) U^iU mangna, (to heaven) lj_/ jUi naniaz kurna. 

To preach, \jj lacj ioa*a Aama, Lftjj i-ko- idiulka parhna. 

To precede, UUf- ,^l agijana, liyfc j*jX« mvkaddum horta. 

To precipitate, LjJ |/'g(ra (/ena, U.;0 J-iaJ dbukl-l deiia : see To 

To preclude, li^ j\j 6as rakkna, Uj^ katna, \i^jj rokna. 
To predict, liibj Ij Ik^ ^ ^X\ age se kakiia or batlana. 
To prefer, Wi) -f^y tarjifi dma, lijls>- |^_>-l nlisan junna : see To 

To piemise, \iS A^^ tamfitd karna, ljU>- ^-j .Sl iige sejatana. 
To prepare, \j^ j\j taiyar kartiu, liUj banana, IjJS iJjU AaAii Anrna. 
To prescribe (medically), LLj IjJ Li Ai— ' nuskha or rfaira batUirta. 
To preserve, \JW; bachuna, (as fruits, &c.) li^S rbj^ murabba karna. 
To press, (squeeze) Lil^ chapna, (out) 'jJj™^ ntckorna, (down) Ijbj 

dabana, (to distress) li/ *i^ long karna, (urge) \j^ JuAj takld 

To presume, Ij/ JU^ khiyal karna, (be bold) U/ ^In-i gustHkhl 

To pretend, lilw cuIj iai banana, Ij^S ajL^j bahana karna. 
To prevail, (be current) liji ^^bj- j'flri bona: see To extend, conquer. 
To prevent, \:Stj rokna, IJlCl alkana, UTl uinn ; see To hinder. 
To prick, (v.n.) U^*^ chabkna, (v.a.) ^^*f»- ckubhma, ^^ clionkna. 
To prime, OSj i ' ^f^ ranjak piluna, (in painting) tiU ^j—ej zamin 

To print, UjI^ ch/iapna, lijS ^W?" k u^ nalfsk or chhapa karna. 
To proceed, (on) IjU- ^1 wge ^'ano, Ula- chalnd, (from) U^ nikalna. 
To proclaim, tjSjA\k saAir karna, U^-^j I^^AJmAiJ dkandhoru. p/ierna. 
To procratitinate, Lib f^/na, Ij/ .j^Jii V. tJ^ r"' "j'k^tl or (ffrJ ^arnti. 
To procure, \j^ Ia-j paida karna, ^^c^i *.^J baham pahunchana. 
To produce, (bring forth) Lii»- jff«nS, (make grow) lila:^ upjana. 
To profess, ^j^j|/l iirur karna, L^ /caAwi, \ili>- j'ofana. 
To proliibit, Ijj^ fc,i^ man* kurna, \i^ j^J Aar ru/cAna, \;S,j ritknii. 

Vocabulary. — Verbs. 327 

To prolong, U^ J^jlb tawtl kama^ UU^ barhdna, U)L^ phailana. 

To promise, \j^j\J\ ikrar karna, lij J ^^ bachan dena. 

To promote, UUJj barhdna^ l3^ ^^^Sy tarakkt karnd. 

To prompt, 1:jJ .^ A:aA cKna, Ulu batldnd, \j\sj>.jatdna. 

To pronounce, ^;^^ uc/ichdmd, l3^ laiSj talaffuz karnd. 

To prop, l:XJ /e/ma, l:^l|7 thdmnd, Ujt arna : see To support. 

To propose, U^jlyb\ uAar karnd, U^ ^jo/i ar« karnd: see To intend. 

To prosper, \jyb Jc^ar^ If (-->L«l^ kdm-ydb or bahra-mand hond. 

To protect, li^ rakhnd, UW; ^acAana, U^ ojU>- himdyat karnd. 

To prove, (try) l3Uj4 azmana, (evince) U^ c:^\5 ^aii^ karnd. 

To provide, U^ L^ ntuAaiya karnd, Uj J rZena ; l3 Jj badnd. 

To pry into, LJ Ju^ &Aec{ Zena, \iij\^ jhdnknd. 

To publish, U^ j^yl^ mo^AAur karnd, (a work) Is^^ ckhdpnd. 

To pull, Lyu^ \S^JV ^^^ ^^ khtnchnd, 1:j\J tdnnd. 

JTo punish, Uj J |^ ^2ra d3;ia, \jJj\j ddndnd. 

To purchase, l3^ *H/^ kharid karnd, LJ J^ mol lend. 

To pursue, LJ b U^ Ifsp pichhdrkarnd or -Zena ; see To hunt. 

To push, LLCibJ dhakelnd, UL^ thelnd, LLj pelnd. 

To put, L^ rakhnd, U^J dharnd, UU ddlnd. 

To put off, (as dress) UjUf u^ar^ia, (defer) UlS ^aZna. 

To put on (as dress), Lx^ pahannd or pahinnd, Lih?«l orhnd. 

To put out (extinguish), Ut^af; bujhdnd, U^ J? giiZ karnd. 

To put up with, Ly-* «aAna, U^ cu^l J^ barddsht karnd. 

To putrefy, (v. n.) Uj-» «ania, \^ galni, (v. a.) U]^ sardnd. 

To quake, Uj\^ kdmpnd, \jjj laraznd, L^ kapnd. 

To quarrel, \jy^ jhagarnd, U^ Zania, U/ ^UaS Araariya faima. 

To quaver, UC^ lahaknd, ^jyj<j^^ dwdz maropid. 

To quell, \)Uj dabdnd, U?y ^oma, U^ wi; rq/"* iiuirTta. 

To quench, U(^a^ bujhdnd, U^ tJd^ thandd karnd. 

To question, \J^ Jl^ futraZ Aama .* see To debate, To doubt. 

To quit, UJ^^ chhopid, \user tajnd, \jJ cS/i tark karnd. 

To quiver, L-^ kapnd, \^jj laraznd : see To quaver, quake. 

230 V'orahvlary. — Verbs. 

To request, UaI>- cfia/inS, U^ L^i-^ljiyJ darkhwUst karna. 

To require, liSU maligna, t^ („^,Ji> (n/ai karna: see To need. 

To reside, L*, rahva, U_i basna, \j^j^ gliar karna. 

To renign, UJ^ sompna, Ij^ *A— ' 'a*/int karna : see To leave.* 

To resound, \ijsrS gunjna, Lfc, *="ja g2™7 rcAnar see To praia^^ 

To respect, Ij^i . -1^*" b tiJj; w^af or tc^am karna : see To relate to. 

To rest, Ij^ *'jT arum karna, liJ (tiJ rfam /ena; see To sleep, lean on. 

To restore, lj3 ^ /lAir /ana, Uj J -*^ pAer deno : see To cure. 

To restrain, US^j rokna, lilCl alkana, l^fj jV ftas rakhria. 

To retail, lis^ ^jf,^ Ijjp' Ij^ iAora ^Aora karke hechna. 

To retain, b,<^i rakhna, UliS h'ftuna ; see To keep, hire. 

To retreat, \j^ U_j paspa ltd/id, 1:.2a hatna. 

To return, (v. n.) IjU- li Ij I _^ pAir anu orjana, (v, a.) liUu paltdna. 

To reveal, U!^ khdln'i, (divulge) U^ ^li_/5sA ftnrna, ^^ ftaAna. 

To revenge, UJ 3jj Ij yojc Ij, *liiJl inti^am or Jicoy or Aut/ia (ena. 

To review, revise, Ij^^ jUjliJ jiasar-i-sanT karna. 

To revile, ULli galiyana, IijJ ^Jls gafi rfena ,■ see To reproach. 

To revoke, UjJ ^31 wf Aii dina, UjJ ii-w« mf/ rfcna : see To repeal. 

To rid, lilj^a- chhvrma, U^ i_»\rf jo/" karna : see To free. 

To ride, Ijysjlj..; sauia?" konu, U*=^^ ^'^ ghore par charhna. 

To rinse, \^^ ghangholni, Ul^ kkavghhlnd (?). 

To rip, CJUj p/iarna, ^J-ftj! udktrna, U^ i»li'>- cAaA' Aarna. 

To ripe, ripen, (v. n.) LSli pakna, (v. a.) IjKj pakana. 

To rise, li^l uihna, Lft^ barhna, ^^ charhna, (the sun 


l;^ ^jl w(/n( /lOHfi, lijib cjU; (aitt* Aona, (the moon) LT' Hgna, 
To roast, U^S t— 'U^ kabah karna, Ijjf ^^Ijj biryun karna. 
To rob, ^)^ cAurona, lijU jr|j rdh mama, Uj^ lu[na. 
To roll, (v. n.) li^, pAirnS, Uijl /wrAn5, (v. a.) 11^, pkiraaa, UUjl 

fi/rAartu, UU^g/iumanu, (roll up) Li— 1 lapefna. 
To roof, lijli pd/nd, Ijl^s- cAAana, liJ J ^^-{j- chkappar dtna. 
To rot, (v. n.) Ij-. snfno, bJj galnd, (v. a.) \il^ sardnd. 
To rouse, (v. n.) UiU|-Jagn/i, Lti' n(Awo, (v. a.) I'Ujs- y'flgawd. 

Vocahularij.— Verls. 331 

To row, U^ kbl'onu, IjjU liC dinii marni. 

To rub, (v. D. chafe) L_^ ghisna, (v. a.) \i'yj ragarna, liL* malna. 

To rue, Ijl::^:^ pucAAfana, lijy r5«a, Ll^ c:,-«'jJ nadamat karna. 

To ruin, \i^ (^01^ U »Li ta&u/t or satyanas karna, Ujy ^orna. 

To rule, Ij^ *j:„^^j>- IfukUmat karna, (lines) '^^ Ja—^ mislar karna. 

To ruminate, ^'j^ pagurana, \i^ Jl^ jiigafi karnii : see To muse. 

To niu, l;?jJ daupta, ^IftJ ditana: see To flee, dissolve. 

To rush, 'JTjJ daurna, LL^ relna, (upon) \i3.-^ Jhapalna. 

To eacrificei ^^J*- charhaiM, Ij^ -i^J !j .^Im Ifurhan or gaiA karna. 

To saddle, liAiJlj ^J cin, bandhna, LiJ t«l>-jl»- char-jama dim- 

To salivate, U^ -y:_« ntu/iA /ana, liU^ thvkana. 

To sally, Ij^ r*>r^ Hhftruj karna, lijj Jili st'A'a/ parna. 

To salute, lj_^ u^j^ ^ f*^ sa/am or koraish karna. 

To sap, b^ f^S^j^ surang karna, UjU -AJCwi £en^A marna ; see To ruin. 

To eate, satiate, \jj^ bharna, lilS^f*- chhakuna, (v. n.) Ijl^l agkana. 

To satisfy, Ijj? it-^'j ^ t-TJ*" M'/*'* <"^ '"^?' karna, liL* nianana. 

To save, Ijlac^ hackana, Uf^ u:.-..«!Li salamat rakhna, Lj^ rakhna. 

To say, U^ kahna, UjJ bolna, ^^ OJt £at karna, IjUu batiyana. 

To scald, IjlLs- ^^ ii^ ^ ^jlj *^garmpanl o ghaira xe jalana. 

To scan, (measure) Ij^ t ^^°" takti* karna: see To examine. 

To scare, li[;J darana, Ul^Jfi b/iarkana, ljUl=^ hichkana. 

To scarify L»J l-j** pocAAna (fen», IjL=c?j(S khonch'iyana ylj. 

To scatter, b^jS^^ chfiitrana, lj\iS^ ckhitkuaa, lj|^ b'Uhrana. 

To scoff, \j_;? ,^;«ls Ij IgS^ tkatha or /« n karna, \i\\S galiyana. 

To scold, U^Jf»-_;AtraAn«, UISUaJ tfAamAana, L-J ^^ gali derta. 

To scorch, (v. n.) L-i^j bhulasna, (v. a.) ljLlf>- JAufsana. 

To scour, La^ tnanjnii, 'j/ i—ile f of karna, (purge v. n.) U^ cU-j 

pc/ chalna. 
To scowl, I;/ jj^ ,iij*J SAhkh /er/i7 karna, b^/»- C/li «aA- charhuna. 
To scrape, liL(»- c/ih'ilna, '^j^ kkurachna, ^^^ chholna. 
To scratch, li*-^ khurachna, liS^rf khujlana, '^y nockna. 
To sci-cain, liUsf chkhhjaiia, l-!l^ ch'dlauu, L^^ !L=- cAi/^a ('/A;.«. 

332 Vocabulary.— Verbs. ^^M 

To sculk, \jJtj i_-f=»- c/ihip ruhna, L»j il^J dabak raknd. ^H 

To seal, Xt^ j^ muhr karna, li^ Jcj iS/j*f* fnuhr karke band kartta. 

To seclude, L^ i^J^ kinare rakhna, U!\ij nikalna. 

To seduce, Ijl-^ phuslana, ^^JJ warghalarina, tjliS^ Ihatkana. 

To see, U^J dekkna, \j/ }aj nasar karna, ^,lLyj niharna. 

To seek, bjijJ^j dhundkna, ^^ tj^ talash karna, li*"^ kkojnii. 

To seem, lif=^j-i sajkna, U y» (•j'^*-' mif'lum hbna, lil^^ wosor 5bh. 

To seeth, Ol^jsr" sijhaiia, bjLl v«anna, (v. n.) U.^^ syna. 

To seize, Ij^ pakarna, Ij^ |_,aJi itaij; Aarna ; see To confiscate. 

To select, lii^ chunna, U i_^^^ ^^^^ cAan chhan lena : see To cull. 

To seil, U.=^ bechna, \i^ •,::..-d'jji farokht knrna, UjJ J^ moi t/ena. 

To send, Us^ bhejnu, \jj J'liJi irsUl karna, liSs- ckalana. 

To separate, Ij_?jj iornu, ^Jj*^ bickhopia, \i^ )j^jttda karna. 

To serve, Ujf i.;l.^j>;^ b u^^y naaAari or khidmat karna: see To help. 

To set, (place) U^ rakhna, \ijSi dharna, (plant) Ulfo bilhlaiia, (as 
the sun) lij* ij: — j' \j "rJ*/: gharub or as( /ona, (set np) lil^l 
ulhano, see To raise, (set on) IjjISIa hutkarna, see To excite, 
(set on fire) IjlS c/T 5g /aguna, ^J i-l^^ phunk dend. 

To settle, (v. n.) Lf~J bailhjtd, (v. a.) Ul^ baithalnd, lijl^ Man»a, 
(an account) lili»- cAaiaTia : see To fix. 

To sever, '^j^ chirnd, \iJJjtfj phar denii, li^ ljis»- ^urfa karna. 

To sew, U— J sTna, Ijj^ i.:u->jJ ddkhkt karna, UlLi silana. 

To shake, (v. n.) lift At/na, VJj dw/na, (v. a.) lilU hilana: see To 

To shape, UUj Aanand, Ua^garAna, LftAilj Jti s/jaA/ bmidkna. 

To sharpen, 'j^Jy 'e- karna, \j'^j^ chokhdna, LiJJ jlj bar dena. 

To shave, ljJjj,< mutidna, \i^ w-^*Lk?^ ftajdmat karna. 

To shear, l>^ Aaiorna, li/ l/='^ miAraf Aarna, li31^ Aafna. 

To shed, (v. n.) liJ^^/Aarna, Uji girna, (v.a.) U^j^a/na, li^ji giruna. 

To shine, LC*.^ ckamaknd, \:S\^J/ialaknd, L^jl lauknd. 

To shiver, li-j\J kampnd, (to shatter) Ij^j^jj*. chur-chur karna. 

To shoot, (let go) 'j°;«?- chhorna, (bud) 1>L!^ kali;/am : gee To Imsleii 


Vocabulary. '^Verbs. 333 

To shorten^ U^ i^t^ kotah karna^ \j\5>^ ghatand : see To abridge. 

To shove, IJuObJ dhakelna, Uu^ thelndf \djj relnd, Uu pelnd. 

To shout, U^ tlmdy (huzza) ^^J^^^^^j^-jai-jairkdr karnd: see To 

To show, U)L^J dikhldnd, U\:u batdndf U^^ll? saAir karnd. 
To shrink, shrivel, l3^ sukarnd, l:iy4.rf sametnd. 
To shrug up the shoulders, Uiib Ujjl^ kdndhd hiland. 
To shudder, OJ;^^ tharthardnd, liljAjJb harhardnd: see To quake. 
To shuffle, Ul3 /a/na, U^ JyUSlS tdlmatol karnd : see To mix. 
To shun, U6 fa/raa, Uyb ^*^/^j rugarddn hond, l^ jb &a;2r ra^na. 
To shut, IJ^ Joj &anc{ karnd, Ulxl lagdnd, \^y^ muchnd. 
To sift, Ul>- chdlnd, \jj\^ jhdpid, \:j\^ chhdnnd. 
To sign (ratify by writing), Ij^ ,^^ U Vi'vi[..0 dast^khatl or ^oAiA 

To signify, Ul^ bujhdnd, \j\ss^ jatdnd, U^ ,<i«^ wia*/i7 rakhnd. 
To sing, U\S gana, l:jSt aldpnd or dldpnd, U^ ^l^ gan karnd. 
To sink, Iij^J dubnd, l'.^>ufei> dhasaknd, U2^ ghatnd. 

To sit, 1:1^ baithnd, l3^ c:>^ *J nishast karnd : see To fit. 

To skim, (v. a.) lif^^ kdchhnd, ULj /?flw5n5, (v, n.) Ij^ j^ cAAu 

To skin, U'^j^lT Jl|^ khdl kktnchnd, (a wound) ^^J^ g^a'o bhamd. 
To slake, Ul^aC bujhdnd, U^ ^ «arrf ftama : see To quench. 
To slap, UUybJ dhauliydndy UjU s^\a^ iamdncha mdrnd. 
To slash, U3\^ kdtnd. U,a>* cAirna, U/ lI^IS^ katdkat karnd. 
To slaughter, slay, U^ J&i lead kamd^ Ub jU mdr-ddlnd. 
To sleep, U^ «ona, UJ tX»J nlnd lend^ l:J^ sutnd. 
To slight, U^ v^iJif. ghaflat karnd, UjIs*- \Ojb halkdjdnnd. 
To slip, Ul..,|^ khisalnd, \:>Sjj rapatnd, l:lfa^ bichhalnd. 
To sUt, Ul^ _^ LJ /amia Zam&i kdtnd, U^ cAirna, Ujl^^ phdrnd. 
To slop, Uj^j i<^b jV^ pdniddlkt bhigond. 
To smart, ^|;{^ charpairdnd, ^|^ j^ parpardnd, \i>^J dukhnd. 
To smell, Ufx}^ ^ngAna, LJ ^ 65 lend, (v. n.) 01^ Iffdnd. 

334 Vocabulary. — Verbs, 

To smile, UyL^ muskuranay l3^ ^^ tabassum karna. 

To smite, (strike) UjU marna, (kill) Ub jU mar-dalna. 

To smoke, (emit smoke) UUly^^ dhutiwarana, (tobacco) Ixjpina. 

To smuggle, l3^U ti\f» gAof mama, U^U ,<^^ chauki marna. 

To snarl (a dog), ^^^^r^^ gurqjna, \:Sj^ ghurakna, \)\jp ghurrana, (?) 

To snatch, l:J ^j^^ chhln Una, UJ iS^^^jhapat lena. 

To sneak, (creep slily) liT b UU^ ^lioJ dabakjana or ana; see To 

To sneeze, uxx* ^ chhinkna, \j^ <LJae atsa karnd. 
To snub, l:i3U dantna, L^JL sansnd, U?l^ kdtna. 
To snufF, (a candle) LJ Ji gwZ Cna, (inhale) Ivyj^^ khinchnd. 
To soak, (v. n.) l3yb <— ^|^ ^erai Aoiza, (v. a.) Uy^^ bhigond. 
To soar, l3j\ t^rna, l3^ ojlj/i *^ buland parwdzi kamd : see To mount. 
To sob, l:JL.M«» sisakndy l:*^!:^ thunuknd, \jjj^ bisurnd. 
To solicit, l:Jbl>- chdhnd, U^ Ujo^l b c:,.^:w« minnow or istid'd karnd. 
To solve, U^ J^ hall karnd, l3^ t^U ,^5/ kamd : see To explain. 
To sooth, U^ x«Ui^ khiishdmad kamd, bU^ manaTia, UjlC«^ cAum- 

To sow, l3y iowa, Ulj -jaj iy ddlnd, U^ 4^j ^sk^ tuklim-rezl 

To spare, (v. n.) l3yb u^j^ juz-ras hond: see To save, forgive. 
To sparkle, l3J^ b li5^f>- ».<^^ chingi chhutna or jharnd. 
To speak, IJ^ ioZna, Ixy^ kahnd : see To pronounce, praise. 
To specify, bLy^ thahrdnd, \i^ jSj^L^aiu tafsiUwdr kahnd. 

To spell, U^ L5?^ V. l5^ V. ^^ *^^^ ^^ ^^^ o^ tahajji kamd. 

To spend, U^ ^^ kharch kamd, \j\j\ urdnd, Ul^\ ut/idnd. 

To spike, l3^U ^;u« me^ marna, U^ Joj ^ ,liv^ wieM 5c ian£{ kamd. 

To spill, UUj dhdlnd, l3Kl^ chhalkdnd, Ul^ iaAana. 

To spin, liJl^ kdtnd, (out, protract) blfcjj ^arAana. 

To spit (eject), l:^^' thuknd, lv(.v.;£j lL^ Mm/: phenknd. 

To spit (meat), Ul2 <1a-j ^/^A lagdnd, \^i^ guthnd. 

To split, (v. a.) li^;:*^ chlrnd, \jj\^ phdrnd, (v. n.) L5^ phatud. 

Vocabulary, — Verbs. 335 

To spoil, (v. n.) li^ ^^\f^ Iduirab /lona, (v. a.) U^ bigarna, f^]/>- 
\j^ kharab karna, (to plander) l^^ lutna. 

To sport, UL^ khelna, \i^ Jjl^ Jj!^ atol-katol kama. 

To spout, ^^^^ chhutna, l:J^^ uchhalna, (v. a.) V3?^f> chhorna. 

To spread, (r. a.) l3l^a^ bichhana, \jj\^pa8ama, (v.n.) LL^ phailna. 

To spring, U^f uf Ana, lii^ i t^g^iS, (a mine) U^Jt urana : see To leap. 

To sprinkle, ^^^ chhirakna, L'^f^ chhltna^ ^y^. bhigona. 

To spur, U^U lS3\^ b ^1 ^r or &anfa mama, U^ chalana : see To 

To spurn, U^U (^iSi Jut marMf (reject) UIj talna : see To despise. 

To spy, \:ij\^ jhankna^ \:S\i takna, lil^a^ nijhana : see To seek. 

To squander, Uljl vraYia, U^^iT gomrana, U^ 4i^|^f t^^ kama. 

To squeeze, (press down) \j\)J dabana, (crush) ^jysf nichorna. 

To squint, ^^^ Wl/ ^''^^A^ dekhna, U^ 2fIx) ^J^ terAi ntgaA kama. 

To squirt; ^Jj^ V ^^^ i/^lCaf^picAftari-iwama or -chhorna. 

To stab, lii^^ bhonkna, Uyb hulna^ ^^^^ cltjonkna^ ^^^^ kunchna. 

To stagger, U\x«6j dagmagana, (be staggered) Ul^r^ hickkichana. 

To stain, U^ ^5^^*^ da gfu kama, UlU UftJ dhappa dalna. 

To stammer, UiGh haklana, li|^ larbarana. 

To stamp, (with the foot) IJLj ,^ ^^« % /?a'(J^ *c pifna : see To print. 

To stand, \:Jbj U Uyb tj^ ftAara Aona or rahna : see To stay. 

To starch, \jj\tb\ aharna, Ulx! b 1:jJ ^^.J^ JtaZop ^na or lagana. 

To stare, \jj^ ghuma, \:S\j takna, \:jtj b V3\^! dlio tak lagana or rahna. < 

To start, (up) Ujj b U^^ ^^-^^J" chaunk uthna or j>ania : see To pro- 

To startle, (v. n.) U^4^ chamakna^ (v. a.) IjlC*^ chamkana : see To 

To starve, (v. n.) U^ \:)y4j^. bhukhon mama. 

To state, (settle) ^JjjS-<^ mukarrar karna, (tell) \jjj\^\ iz'har kama. 

To stay, \:Jbj rahna, UC tikna, \:^ basna : see To prop, stop. 

To steal, bf^ churana, blfl^ ^y^ chura lejana, L.^^ mturaa. 

To steep, U^* bhigona, U^ y J JU dal-dubo rakhna. 

336 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To steer, Ul>- chalana, blsci! t&jana : see To direct, guide. 
To step, Ul^l \j \:^j |»j3 kadam rakhna or tif/iana, \i\j>- chalna. 


To 8tew,l3^ c:^^ /*«> dam-pukht kama^ Ulfsr* sijhana : see To seeth. ^ 
To stick, (v, n.) \^^^ chipatria^ l^^SU^ chimatna, (ia mud) L^^ 
phasna or U^:>(> phansna, (v. a.) ^^2^ chiptana: see To stab. 
' To stimulate, Ull^- chalana. Uh«J chz^rana, Uw>^ chhema. 
To sting, U^U ^^^^ Tie^A mama, Lj^jjj bindhna, ULCi J dankiyana. 
To stink, U^ JbJc^ k^*^ bad-bo or durgandh karna, bl^ Ao*aita. 
To stir, (v. n.) l:J^ sarakna, Uiib At/iia, (v. a.) Ul^ sarkana. 
To stitch, l:*^ «tna, Ujy turapna, U^^ tankna. 
To stone, bj^yf^ patthar mama, ll^jLJu^ sangsar kama. 
To stoop, U^l^JAu/:7ta, U^ nihurna, (submit) ijU manna. 
To stop, (y. n.) bi^l atakna UC ^tA:na, (v. a.) l3lC^ atkana. 
To storm, U^ c:^5>-ljf ^aM^ karna^ lijUjfjJ rfattr mama. 
To straddle, UL>- ^r^ tSit3\5 fang chhitrake chalna. 
To straggle, U^ ^^J u^ V^ J^'*^^ toAan phima : see To ramble. 
To strain, (filter) l:»3l^ cAAanna, (sprain) lilCse kachkana. 
To strangle, U.'vL^^^ <u^ ^asma khainchnd, 1:^3^ IL? ga/a gAonfna. 
To stray, UCSl^ bhatakna, U^ bahakna, U^ bhulna. 
To strengthen, U ^ )oy^,^ b ,^y Aaw;! or mazbut karna. 
To stretch, l:jl? tunna, ^J^ pasdrna, l3L^ phaildnd. 
To strew, l:iL*i^^ chhtnind, liL»^ bar sand, l^l^^ bickhdnd. 
To strike, UjU warna, L>J jU wiar c?ew5, U^^ thonknd. 
To string, Uul i^j(«J rfori lagdnd, (as pearls) l3j)^ parond. 
To strip, (off dress) U^ljfl utdrnd, (make naked) l3^ lxi3 nangd karnd. 
To strive, l3^ ^H^ J *x>-jidd djahd karnd, ^j^jjj zor mdrnd. 
To stroke, UiL^ sahldnd, U^ -ffU ASM phernd. 
To struggle, lijU^ .^jflib AaM /^air mdmd, l3^ ^^^ kuskti karnd : 


see To strive. 
To strut, U^J ainthnd, \j\y\ itrdnd, Uj^l akarnd. 
To study, l3^ «u!lk< muidla'a karnd, \j^ jLiJikr karnd. 
To stuff, li-.A^« tkdsnd, l3^ bharnd, (the belly) Ul^^ npfirund. 

I'ocabulartf — Verkt. 337 

To stumble, U\(^^^ Ihdkar khana, \j\S f_f^ thes kAaaii. 

To stun, Ij/ fcjL,—^' -* j\i\ Ij (-r^ f afft or aifis « achet karna. 

To stutter, liSia hakluTta, UI=j=J Inrbarana. 

To style, l}^ kJ^\) namzad karna, Iij J ^\k^ khitah dena. 

To subdue, U^ «-iU Ij i—'jU* maghlub or fa&t' karna, UjU mai-Ha. 

To submit, (v. n.) lij* *J.^ /a«Am Aona, (v. a.) U^ rakkna. 

To subscribe, Ij^ ■j'i'*^ ^ li=ci,-"0 dastkhatl or xuAlA Aarita. 

To subsist, Ij^ hana, \i^jina, MS ^J^j^ gaxrait karna. 

To substitute, li^ ^Jj l; ^^j^ 'was or ^r/A TakAna. 

To substract, subtract, UJ i.s^ lii?sa lena, \j^ t^j toat karna. 

To subvert, Ijji /jjfj 'i •'^ J "^ tak-o-bala or zrr-zabar karna. 

To succeed, liU- L> lil jrf^jJ pickke ana orjana : see To prosper. 

To suck, U^j » - cAusna, (as a child) Ik^ JiJ>J c/utfA ;)7na. 

To suckle, IjIIj \i Uj j ^Jj j rfirfA d?na or pilana. 

To sue, U y i^ ^^prf i.iJlj* adalat mhi khainckna : see To entreat. 

To suffer, ^(-l sahnd, ^^ j^ \j J-*at* ta^ammul or mbr karna. 

To suffocate, US^j *J b ijJLi ^o/m or dam rokna: see To strangle. 

To suggest, li^ j_j-i t^_;^' uAdre sr kahna, lik^ cMtand. 

To suit, Ijl ■ ' <^_f° fA7A' «na, ^^ (^^^ tnuicajik hona, U-^ phabnd. 

To sully, U^ S— c inai^a Aarna, Ul'j ?lj riii g'A dalna. 

To sum, Ijjj^^'orna, li^ ^^^jaiu karna, \>^ J-*** mujmal karna. 

To summon, U .^ i^JJ? talab karna, \:.s\ii \i1j hulvid bkcjnu. 

To sup, l\^ Ijl^ \i i2j\j rat ka kkdnu khana. 

To superintend, Ij^ ^^jij^ Ij jjUij nazara or sarbardln karna. 

To superscribe, U^i^ Li^^ ^^-iJ^ iipar or sar-khatt likkna. 

To supersede, U^ i;li^ ^ >^ ^ J^^ batiloT rudd or kindra karna. 

To supervene, Ijjj ^^,1 li Ijl jj'-^slj ndgahdn dnaot an-parnd. 

To supplicate, Oj^ (^U::)^ 1^ Ujc^f uttda or ildrnds karna. 

To supply, Ijyf* b/iarna, \)^ ij^ bhart'i karna, U.O dena. 

To support, Ij\^ ij;.-iljj barddsht karnd, Uljjl uthdnd, LaLj nibdlind. 

To suppose, (admit) lii .^^ /or* /;arna ; see To guess, think, know. 

To suppress, L^^ t^^^ riiA rnk/md, UlCl «//cona, 11;-* dabiina. 

338 Vocalidary.— Verbs. 

To suppurate, UJj pakna, ^jU—j pibii/ana, Ijllt_--J p^l lanu. 

To surfeit, (v. a.) ^\^} apkrana, \jj j.-' ser karna, (v, ii.) \j\^ 

To surpass, Ul^ -a^J iarA c/ialna, Ulj jtf?'^ pichhe dalna : see To 

To surprise, UJ i^^.^ ICjI ek-a-ek Itna, \jjj\ tljol^l achanak a-parna. 
To suirender, UjS^ a^— ^ taslim karna : see To coosign, resign. 
To surround, \jj^ gherna, \j^ *1jW\ Ii, li^ gird or t^o/a karna. 
To survey, lij? ^^ najMtr karna, (land) \j^ ^^^ '-r'sr^ jarib-kashi 

To suspect, U^S ulXi shakk karna, li^^ -^-i sAwiAo rakhna. 
To suspend, Ij^ latkana, (to stop) UjS ■~J^^ maulfuf karna. 
To sustain, U^..*^ sambhalna, UfJl^ tbambkna: see To support. 
To swagger, Ij^ iji/^'' ^ ^/^^ shaikJu or laf-zaiii karna: see To strut. 
To swallow, \iiSj nigalna, ULJ fi^na, ^iSijp ghuntna, L5;-j suruhna. 
To swarm (as flies, 5:c.), liili^ bhinakna. 
To sway, (incline) li^ ■'^j=-< tnutaieajjih karna : see To rule. 
To^^ivear, l,>1f^ jt_Ji A-ufam khana, (make) \j'ij ^—i kasam diloTia. 
To sweat, (v. n.) ^cuj pasljna, (to toil) li/ ui^i-s^ mihnat karna. 
To sweep, ^Jjlj^- _;' AafBa, Ijj^ bukarna, \:^^J j\^ jhar dalna. 
T^ sweeten, Ul^ mithana, Ij/ l^2_* 1j ^.iJj-i ^h'lr'in or mj/Aa karna. 
To swell, Uj^ ;)Au/na, ^_^ >tu;?ia, (look big) Ijj? ^ 'jj iaru7 kai-na. 
To swim, l;_pj pairna, Ij^ (i>»a, (float) L-^ bkasna, l^j bahna. 
__^jll>-gW'ing, (v. n.J U^p-^Au/na, UjJ dolna, (v. a.) lj3^^jA«/ana. 

To swoon, Ul^ b Ijl V>y}^ rAurcAAa a/ia or khana. 
__ To s woop, lj_jti \j LJ l" -;~ j''"J'"'. '^»a or murna. 
To swop or swap, Ij/ IJAj Dj) acf/u 2'U(i/a karna. 
To tack, \JS^ tankna, \ij^ jorna, \i^j^^ \\^^ jahaz phirana. 
To taint, (stain) Ij^ ls^'-^ t/«^i karna : see To corrupt, spoil. 
To take, UJ /ena, Ij^ pakarna, (away) IjUkJ lijanu : see To thiak. 
To talk, Lly &5/na, Li'L^j batiyana : see To prate, chatter. 
To tally, Ui mi/na, 'jt*y^ I; CS^ [h'lk or larabar kona. 

Vocahularif — Verbs. 

To tan, Ijj^ u;-^^'^ dibaghat karna, (in the Bun) \i\^^ jkaiiw 

To tantalize, liLi^ tarsaaa, liKflj dahhUna, lils^ lalcltanu.. 

To tap, Uli^Siii thaklhiikana, \ijlf> thapna: see To pierce. 

To tarry, 'j,-^ t/ca/tarna, l^So likiiti, li--4ij hilambna. 

To taste, li^SU- ckakhna, LJ s^ »ja2« /fwa .- see To enjoy, feel. 

To taunt, 'j^ ^^^ /rt*/i karna, Ijla^ ckirhana : see To revile. 

To tax, lilS ^)/>- khirdj lagana, (accuse) UjJ *y i/^am (/e«a. 

To teach, Ul^Ld «i/:^anu or blL^SLi sikhlana : see To instruct. 

To tear, \jj\u pharna, U^-a- cAirHa, (v. n.) IX— « masakna, &.c. 

To tease, Ub^ satana, Ujj ^>a^ iasdl* dena: see To vex. 

To tell, L^ kahna, Ijt-" mnanu ; see To count, betray. 

To temper, \j^ Jji*< mu'tadil karna : see To mix. 

To tempt, U;iijj waTghalanna, lilsr /afcAunu; see To excite. 

To tend, (incline) \jt& JjU ma'tl hona: see To attend, aim. 

To tender, \i^ jdJ \j_ j—s'y tawuzif" or jiajr karna : see To offer. 

To terminate, (v. ii.) lj_jft__p.| akJtir hona, (v. a.) \j^ *Uj' tamhn 

To terrify, li^J daraita, UjJ i-i-slJtJ daltshat dena : see To frighten. 
To testify, l~;J ^^ gatvakl dena, \jj^ ij:J3j dalalat karna : see To 

To thank, return thanks, U^ jiLi sAi/ftr karna, LiU ^^J (f/iOH manwa. 
To thaw, (v. n.) U^ pighalna, LJ.^ Hghalna, (v. a.) l;D^ pighluna. 
To thieve, \jjf ^''^J^ ^ •^J^i' ^^'O'"' "■' duzdi karna. 
To think, l^j- soc/ina, ^f^ bajhna, \jj Jjjikr karna. 
To thirst, li^ Ui\-J pyasa /lona, Li) j^Lj ^i/u« lagtia. 
To thrash or thresh, lia\j ga^na, UU malna, liS-j plfna. 
To thread, tj_^ pirona, llbj! lariyana, Ufi'ji gathna, \:S\i tagna. 
To threat, threaten, lJlC.«JbJ dfiamkiiaa, ^^^ jhirakna. 
To thrive, Iw^j barhna, li-iJ panapna, \i^ ^Ji tarak^l kurnd. 
To throb, \:»^ ^)s»a, IJjU ,j_y fis mdrna, LLt^ftJ dimmakna. 
To throng, Ij^S (•>?* Vji* ^^'f "'' kujum karna, Ijl jj iAar nna. 
To throw, liili-^ phenkna, W.> daliia, (down) lJ°V^ pachharna. 

340 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To thi'uHt, (shove) UjJ IXjsJ dhakka dena: see To stab, shove, stuff. 

To thiinip, UJjj^ thonkna, L£-j pitita, (v. n.) LJUjiJ dhamakna. 

To tliunder, \^J garajiia, liSjS kamkna, (io menace) b\i,«AJ dham- 

To thwart, (oppose) Ij/ ijL-jsJVi.-" Ij j^ sidrf or mukhalafat kai-na. 

To ticket, iiJJ i-li^a^ bljak dena, lili:^ |_j-s jy\iJ nishan aejatma. 

To tickle, Ijljifj/gK^gMt^ona, Vj1\-« sahlana, IjL-iA /janjana. 

To tie, Uajgb bandkna, \j^j!^jakarm, L^ls ganthna. 

To tighten, li— fi kasna, \i^j»~ jakarm, U=^-*^ khainchna. 

To till, Ujy»-jo(?)ti, Ijj-fJ (j-^ chds pherna. 

To tincture, tinge, Ujf SJjl 1 aiafiu karna, l*;J t^jjj ra/ig rft/ia. 

To tingle, lilii^J /an(an«7ia, IjIas*?" ckamchamana. 

To tinkle, \jU{sif:>' jkanjhanana, IJUgS^i Ihanthanaiia, 

To tire, (v. n.) Ui^ thakna, (v. a.) li/ JJjU manda karna, UlC^ 

To titter, L_:Jb ^^^U^ .f^ munA ddbke hansna. 

To toast, Ui!*-.i senAno, iJj^ bkunna, U^ uV^ biryan karna. 

To toil, Ijj^ t.r-^ijg' mihnat karna, ^^^ ■^•i dwAA bharnu. 

To torment, IjUl^ kalpana, IjUj? hirkana, IJ^J dukhana. 

To toss, l:>Jl~>f) phenkna, UH^l uckhalna, \i^j^ jAonkna. 

To totter, lJlL*f^ dagmagana, UtJ ^Zna, Lijj! larazna. 

To touch, (feel) 'jjj*- cAfiuna, Ij^ (__,-< hiojw karna, (come in contact) 

liiJ lagna, lil* milna, (handle) ^y;<^ chhepia. 
To tow, U-y.gS i^uJ |j-;j rassi lagabe khainchna. 
To toy, U-^ khelna, \i^ j^Jlj ra'o-cAa'5 karna. 
To trace, track, li^ s/jj^^i ^ ^ '^■^■^ naksha-i-pa k'l pairajol karna. 

I or banij-baipar kat 

To trade, \;_/jL-j ^ 

To traduce, lj\^ <j:,.»«-^ tukmat iagana, ^ i*^-^ hadnam karnu. 

To trail, U, ..■■■(> ghasitna, \j\^;—^ ghisiydna : see To draw. 

To traio, \j^Jija& \j Vi — ^Ji tarbiyat or hamwar karna: see To teach. 

To trample, U-s ^ ^'.h pa'on at malni, liLs' kuchalna. 

To tiansact, \ii»- vkulana. Ij^f id-tU^ mu'amala karna. 

^ » 

Vocahii.kiri). — Vtrhs. 341 

To transfer, (make over) ^y^ sompna, ^^ .J-J taslim karna. 

To transgress, \i^ lUi Vi jjW" Ij Jj Ji; udul or tajawus or fcAajEa karna. 

To translate, Ijj^ Jij n«i7 knrmt, (interpret) IJjS ^•*=T'j' tarjuma karna. 

To transoiit, \j^ lOVy rowana karna, ^isx^ bhejna. 

To transport, UliJ ^ ^J rfes «e niAaMa ; see To banish : (put 

into ecslacy) LfS^ .-* Jc^j wajd men rakhna. 
To travail, be in travail, \j\^ iJjJ dard khand. 
To travel, lJjJ^i-> safar karna, iJj^ phirna, bi>- chalna. 
To traverscj (lay athwart) UK IjT ara laguna, (pass) iJ^ phimd. 
To tiead, L^jib li ^.w /cadam or panw rakhna, (thrash) Ijjb dd'ond. 
To treat, \i^ ■ '^^ ■ suluk karna, (of) \j^^J sikr karvd: see To feed. 
To tremble, b-jl^ kampna, \i^^>i daldaldnd, Ij^ laraznd. 
To trick, U^ thagnd, '^J^^ chhalnd: see To cheat, adorn. 
To trickle, ljL^^^^_/Air;Airana, liVi.-^ hundiydna. 
To trifle, Vj^Li ,rfS^ makkht mdrnd, IJjS .j y bb fapa-f 57 karna. 
To trim, l^l^ chhantna, \i^ Aui^l drdsta karnd: see To shave. 
To trip, (stumble) Ijli? jS;^ thokar khana, (up) Ij^U ^^j^J langi 

mdrnd (?). 
To triumph, IJlaT Aibol^ skadiydna bajand : see To conquer. 
To trot, \A^ Ij IjU- ijS^'J dulk'i jdnd or chalna, UljJjj^ khudrdna. 
To trouble, IjL- «a(ana, Uo i-JJ-lij (aA;^ rfena, 'jj::^^ chhepid. 
To trundle (v. n.) U^ j dagamd, (v. a.) Ijl^j dagrdnd, IjWJ lurhdnd. 
To trust, y jjV iawi'" kar'nd, U^ijLiel i^tibdr rakhna, (sell on 

credit) liK:y j ^y ^'ars par bechnd: see To consign. 
To try, Ij^ (_^UjI dzmd'ish karnd: see To attempt, examine. 
To tug, (pull along) L-y.^ khatnchna, (strive) IJjU jy sor marnd. 
To tumble, (act as a tumbler) Ij/ t^sj'j S-^ kald-ldzi karnd : see To fall. 
To tune, IjlU miland, Ij^jL** ham-sdz karnd, (the voice) IijI^ a/dpnd. 
To turn, (v. n.) Ijjj phirna, li^jp ghumna, (v.a.y OK^pAirana. 
To tweak, (pinch) U>-y mrhna, (twist) ^V-* niarorna, ^- ^' mlsnd. 
To twine, li^JkJjJ baundiijdna, (to plait) \iAJjf gundknd : see To fold. 
To twinkle, ljl*l«j timtimdnd, (move the eye) LilSi* mulkaiid. 

342 Vocabuiarij. — Verbs. 

To twirl, (v. n.) \:~^j^ ghumna, (v. a.) Ijl^ ^i^jaldi phirana. 
To twist, (v. n.) li^* ainthna, \j\4 J^ bal k/tana, (v. a.) liJJ Jj bat 

delta, ^;3r* """"orna, 'jV* wior»a. 
To twit, VijU ^iiat i!(i*/io mama, \j^ l:,^3-« vialamat karna. 
To twitch, Ijjfisr nij/iotna, Ujj_^ AAas5(na .- see To snatch. 
To tyrannise, ^Sjjj ^.^■- V. i^ .?"'"* orjabr or iiir karna. 
To value, 'jK:^^ Jj^mo/ Ikahrana, IiCjT anhia, \:j\^ Jijs. azizjanna. 
To vanish, Utj \jU»- jtifa ruhna, IJjA t— -;'^ V. '■^-r*?' champnt or 

gha'ib /ion a. 
To vanquish, Us-s-jifna, lj?jj I'lrna, \i^ ci-^-^ shikast karna. 
To varnish, llU^ tlw /wA: cAarAuna, 'jjf^ chuparna: see To cover. 
To vary, Ijj^ i^S^jSjj rangarang karna, Ijj-fi pkirna ; see To change. 
To vault, (leap) Ujj^ kudna, see To leap, (arch) IjUj a-5 kuhba banana. 
To vaunt, Ijjl* i^l^i_j;i laf-guzaf mama, \if ^j'—Si laf-zam karna. 
To veer, li^ phirnu, li-«j# ghumnu, Ujj hadaha. 
To vegetate, Us I |^ ^^ CuLj na&a^ A* s7 ugna, Li*^ jamna. 
To veil, Wj ^^ bmlca* dalnd, Ij/ lS-^j^ ghunghat karna. 
To ventilate, Ij^ Uii^ |_jj lyn Aawa se thandka karna. 
To venture, liljjl ^^y^ Jokhim tttfiana: see To dare. 
To verify, IjjS CjUj' Li, l::-j1j ,*fflAif or w6a( karna. 
To versify, l^ ^ nasm karna, L^ ^^^ «tu nasm mm likhna. 
To ves, lij? jJ djjti karna, ljj;rf>- chherna, LiU-i satana. 
To vibrate, (v.o.) Ijj^fjjf' thartharami, ^J^^V (irrairana .• see To shake. 
To vilify, li^a C-~«*« li [•'^•^ bad-nam or masammat ka'fna. 
To vindicate (justify), Ij^ ui-jIj U jliio blgnnak or .eafiiV karna. 
To violate, liJ ci— <p- hurmaC Icna, (infringe) \>f:^fasMi karna. 
To vitiate, Ijjw itgorna, U^^S' t— '^»- idiarab karna, ULJ Hosana. 
To vivify, \jitr-jilana, \j^ »JjJ jtnrfa karna. 
To unbind, U^ khbbia, U^ |^-H bandhan kholna. 
To unbolt, UjJ Jj(f ij b 1^ hurka or bilSkftol dena. 
To unbosom, Uj^jl^ ras kholna, \ij f_l\ijaah karna. 
To unbuckle, Uj^ 1-X AnAsu'w AA5/hb. i 

Vocahvlary. — Viyrba. 343 

To unbutton, Uj^ i^*^ ghuntfi kholna. 

To uncase, U\0 ^ Jj4 ^ '—^^ gT^dVa/ or Wo/ «e nihalna. 

To undeceive, lilfs*^ samjhana, \jj j^j* hoshyar Icarnu : see To 

To undergo, Ijl^) ufAanu, ^^ hharna, \--<i.j? khainchnu. 
To underline, LaH-{^ ^-£1 1". ^ (.e^i^ nic/ie ^aK or /aKr khainchna. 
To undermine, li'JjJ tSjjj-' surang daurana, \uj^ ^li A:(inn! katna. 
To underrate, lilS^ ui-vt-i klmat gkalana, LjU-j-5». /laklr janna. 
To understand, lif^"* samaj/ina, U^i-jj bujhna, LjU- Jan»a. 
To undertake, 'j^ Aorna, Ijlil ^Ift AaiA lagatid: see To accept. 
To undervalue, LiU- j-a»- V; j^ -^ kam-kadr or (laklr janna. 
To underwrite, V^ ?^v^ V. W^ .5^ nicAe likhna or sm^I^ kama. 
To undo, (ruin) \i/ i—ilp- AAftrafi karna, (open) L!b Jj^ k/ioldal/ia. 
To undress, Ij^tl^ ^ /cuj^ra afarna. To unduliite, Ijl^J /aArann. 
To unfasten, Ulj(? kkolnH, ^jii>~ chhbrna. To unfix, U^ Ho/nu. 
To unfold, U^ kholna, liJJ>j' udktrna : see To discover, explain. 
To unfurl, U^ kholna, IJJ-AJl udkefna, (spread) Ijj'— j pajar»a. 
To uugii'd, Ulj^ ti^ \j J-o,*^ kamarband or /dHg kholna. 
To unharness, IjjUl jLi «a3 vtarna, LjJ J*^ k/uil dcna. 
To unhinge, lj;\(?l ■'-iJ V. J^ f^''"^ '"' /'O^za ukharna. 
To unhorse, Ij'^ |_j-j i^jf gliore se girana. 

To unhusk, Ij\j\ lil^ cAAi/tS w(5rn«, WIC ^.^j^ tAtfi7 t(i'A-u/«5. 
To unite, UL* mi/na, \j^ JLk-* mutlafifc hona, (v, a.) l;l« miluTia. 
To uulace, U^ s^^l)-' <'^''' kholna, U^ ^-J*^ handhan kholna. 
To unlade, uuload, Ijjtil .^^ bojh ntarna, Ujl^l ubharna. 
To unlatch, U;(? Jj 6i//7 AAo/am. To unlock, L!^ Jij /,■»/ khijlni. 
To unloose, LjJ Jj^ khol dena,\J^ ^'io- ^ X.3 band st kJialas karna. 
To unmask, '0j3\ ^jJ burku ntarna, li^jjilt za/ilr karna. 
To unpack, U^ .^j-j t ii:;— j t l;5i gatthd or Ans/a or mo/A kholna. 
To unravel, (v.n.) lifs^ sM/a/Ana, (v.a.) Ijlff^ suljhanu : see To open. 
To unriddle, IJ J^ hall kami, U^ klwlnd. 
To unrol, U'lJkjl vdhcpiTi. To unroot, li^U^l '.^ jnr ukharna. 

344 Vocabulary. — Verbs. 

To unscrew, Ulj^f -aj p^ch khdlna. To unseal, Ujy ji^ muhr torna. i 

To uDsheath, Li^ *lx h/qw A-a)-wB, Uilij ^ |«Li nit/am se nikalna. 

To imtie, U^ kholna. To untwist, Uj^ ^ pecA kkolna. 

To unveil : see To unmask. To unyoke, ^J j^^ Ijs-j'u'n ttfar drna. 

To vouch, lijj iift^ji gawah'i dena, ^/ t^i^lj saJii karim. 

To vouchsafe, lijS ^W^ mihrbam karna, 'j^;i farmana. 

To upbraid, Ij^ i_:-v4lL« Ij (jiJjj~> sarzanish or malamat karua. 

To uphold, (support) l^Jl^ thambhua : see To support, raise. 

To urge, \iS j-^Ij Ij UlaJ talcaia or iafcirf karna, \jlj!l uruna. 

To use, Ujy bartna, Iji ^** j*li ftawi wiba lana : see To treat. 

To usurp, UJ i^pi^ chhin lena, liJ Jl^'j na-hakh letia. 

To utter, L^ kakna, U,^l uchcharna, ^J^'^ ?ikr karna. 

To waddle, liL>- JW iJ-wJ ^ tl^SaJ hatak- ot dagmagt-ckal chalna. j 

To wage, U^j tyi sAarjt rakhna, (war) Ij^ i^S^jo^ng karna. 

To wai!, liLlj bilhilana, \}^ '•Jj'} 3 '•^^ "a^** <> -"" karna. 

To wait, Ijj^ ^lliJl intizarl karna : see To expect, attend. 

Towake, (v.n.)\:4- 


, bfW 


(y. a.) l«V 


To walk, liia- cAa/»a, (go about) Ij^ phirna, \i^ j^ sair karna. 
To wallow, UjjI ^-u jJ-yf ckaklh men lolna, \jj tl*^ i3j! B(-;»( A-ama. 
To wander, U<j ramna, \ij^ phirna, (stray) LilJ^^ bhnlaknu. 
To wane, US^ ghalna, ljy» ^.f /cam Ao«o, iJ^ ^^j-* J'jj sawitti men 

To want, (be wanting) L'»2> ^JU- A'An/i Aohu, (need) liila- cha/ma : 

see To wieh. 
To war, li'J lama. To warble, IjlJlyl lahkana, CIS gswa. 
To ward off, 1:jJ i^l^ Aaf (/e«a, 'jl:^^ bachaiia : see To protect. 
To warn, Ut^ chitana, UjJ |<AaT aga/il dena, IjU;?- j'a/Swu. . 
To warp, (v. n.) ljy> *ji. ^ kaj kham hand, (v. a.) L-Ojli^ mardr 

To warrant, U^ jjl:*- ja'/z rakhna, UjJ^Ls^I ikhtiyar dena. 
Was, l^ ?Art, Ijft Aii'd, l&j ra/tu, \S gaya. 
To wash, lij^J dhona, \j^ jit t \" - „ ' s/iusi ii sAu kuTna : sec Tn bathe. 


Vocabulary/. — Verbs. 345 

To waste, (v, n.) \i3^ ghat»a, Uli galna, (v. a.) W^ urana. 

To watch, LjJ j«Sja- ckaula dena, (not sleep) Ua^^Ixj ieddr rahna. 

To water, IjLiJ paniyava, liJJ ti^ /lan? rfena, 1^=^ sichva. 

To waver, lijft OiJji* \)_^I^ bikarar or mutaraddid kona. 

To wax, (v. a.) Ij/ ^y* momt karna, (become) \jjb hona : see To 

To waylay, UjU }[, rak mama, Ujf lu\^ gAat karna. 
To wean, ^^j^ ^JjJ rfSdA chhurana, Ulj^ ji- ^5 chhurana. 
To wear, (rub, v. n.) L — f gimna, (v, a.) UL^ ghUana, (dress) Li^ 

pahanna, (hold out) liS, rahna, LC £iAna. 
To weary, lilS^J thukana, Ijji jjJU) manda karna. 
To weave, UiJ 6i«na or iunna, LaJ15 ^\:>-jari karhrta. 
To wed, UaL) byahna. To ween, Ujls^jflnna; see To think. 
To weep, Uy rona. To weigh, Uy fo/na: aee To consider. 
To welter, Lij! lolna. To wend, liU-_yano, Ijjfj phtrna. 
Went, \^ gaya, (out) iilj nifc/a. Were, ^ Me, ^^y. Aae. 
To wet, (v. n.) iXjg bkigna, (v. a.) Ijjf^ bhigmd, \j^ J nnm Wna. 
To wheedle, UL^ j^Aus/una. To wheeze, IjK...;..i saTtsanana. 
To whet, UjLi san7ia, \)^ -4^ \.j^ '^* **'' (^^^^^ karna. 
To whine, ^iw^r jklkhna. To whinny, LsrL* h'lnchna (■?). 
To whip, Uul IJjf Ij O^l^ chabuk or Aora tagana. 
To whirl, (v, n.) Ij^ phirna, Lrfjja gkiimna, (v. a.) liUp gAumanii. 
To whisk, Wi^ sehathiid. To whisper, liL-j—^ phusphusana. 
To whistle, liW; ^_^ s7(7 fctyona. To whiten, li/ J-i- su/et/ Awrwd. 
To whitewash, li^rii (.j^ '^'''* pherna, ^\i^ chhukana. 
To whiz, lJl:-iJ piupinana. To whoop, tjUj^S].^ kilkur mama. 
To will, Ualo- cAdAnd, Ij/ » Jl^l irarfa Aarnd .- see To command. 
To win, l™»-_y7(nd, UJ i.;>-^ JTi ffina, ^\s:^ ^fjb fidii lejana. 
To wince (from pain), ljl!jiLt>- -j J|J dardse chhalpatdna. 
To wind, (v. u.) U^t^gAumnd, Ij^ phirnd : see To twist, fold. 
To wink, \ii^ mataknd, (v. a.) lilS^ matkana: see To connive. 
To winnow, OU usana, LCS^ phalakna, IJjU^ J/iarna. 

346 Vocabulary.— Verbs. 

To wipe, W=5\fi piitohhna, \j^ i_jl* saf kama. 

To wis, \i^^ bujhna. To wish, L*U- chahna : see To desire. 

To wit (adv.), ^a* ya*ne, yl^-j'anw. 

To withdraw, (v. n.) Uib Aatna, \iA;jtj 6«- raJmu: see To take away. 

To wither, \ii^ kumklana, Ij^^^y* mwrjkana, \»j^ jhuTJia. 

To withhold, L^ j-^ Ij jli i«= or jjAer rakkna, L C :-^ chhenkna. 

To withstand, Ujl «rwa, Ufj^ rokna, L^-«l^ thamhhna, Ul lalna. 

To witness, LuJ ^\^ gawahl deiia, lijA JJkli g/iahid kond. 

To wonder, lijS ;_~fi~ ta'ajjub karnd. To be wont, tj/ karnd. 

To woo, ^jj? j^l* isA^ karnd, li^ lj^'-' "'^"gtii karnd. 

To work, lij^ |«\S /ram Aarnti, (ferment) \jU? gajdnd: see To emhroider. 

To worry, Ij^j^-^j bhamb/iornd, '^\^j^pfidr khdnd. 

To worship, ^i^rji P'ij^''' '^^ bhajnd, \j^ cA^^jJ parasdsfi karnd. 

To worst, (foil) Ij^ Adfantt, Ijl^a harand, lj\^j bhagdnd. 

To wound, IjU5>- chuHydnd, \i^ ^_^*^j sajdimi karnd. 

To wrangle, li)%r J^'^gT'^^t ^^^^ bafiasnd, '^^ J^ takrdr karnd. 

To wrap, L5— 1 ^ajpffna. To wreak (revenge), L-! [•UiJ^ intikam lend. 

To wi-ench, wrest, LJ -a^^^ l^ji/* '""''o.''^^ khaitlch lend. 

To wrestle, Ijj^ i^— ^ hishtt karnd. To wriggle, UjJj tarapnd. 

To wring, ^;j=f^ nichornd, ^''j* marbrnd, UjJ -aj pecA c^/ia. 

To write, L^ /lAAwa, U^ Jii--tij ^.jJ/sr (aArir or kalamhand kttTTih. 

To writhe, lij^ akapid, L^l ainUtna, LjJj tarapnd: see To twist. 

To yawn, Ijl^^i^JamAafa, UJ ^^ lf»a- j'(imAa7 /ena. 

To yearn, Lj^ uLi-iii shafalcat rakkna, ^JJjj^ marorjio. 

To yell, ^Jll->- chitldnd. To yelp, l^Xj^ bhaunknd. 

To yield, UlCi nikulnd, \j^ 1ji-j paidd karnd : see To give, resign. 

To yoke, Uj^^olna, l:^jU nddhnd, \Mp^ jutdnd. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, Sfc. 347 


Aback, i^Jo ^^J^^sfipichhli faraf, ^A^fiJ pichhe. 

Abashed, ij:.^ lyjit, ^^JLj pasheman, 2rJCw«^ sharmanda. 

Abject, JJ J salil, cr^ patitjj\^ idapar, c^|/^ kharab. 

Able, JjlS l^abilj yj^j^^ samartfit, ^) la\ik : see Capable. 

Aboard (a ship), ^ji^j^^^jahaz men,j} jl^^jahaz par. 

Abominable, i^J^ makruh, \jy^ ghinauna, ^S karih. 

Abortive, \^ji birtha, ^U «5V*, J-^U-S la-ha^iL 

Above, ^y upar,j)^ par,jij zabar. 

About, fj»»\j(jj{ as-pas, ^jLj J^ gird^esh, (j^^^pas. 

Above-cited, above-mentioned, j^iX« mazkur, jjia*.^ mastur. 

Abreast,^!^ barabar, j\:S ^ ham-kinar, ^Jo ^ lage-lagt. 

Abridged, jaJs^ mukhta§ar, l^ '^jti"^ sanchhep. 

Abroad, yb\j bahar, {j^j^ji parades, ^j^ tlA< ^ gh air mulk men. 

Abrupt, ^^ behar,j\ i i^^tj nisheb-faraz, (sudden) u^U-^ achanak. 

Absent, ljtf>- jtida,^W^ gh air'hazir^ (in mind) Jilc ghafiL 

Absolved, uJ\x^ mu'df, u:^X« mukt. 

Absolute, (supreme) jlis:** muJditar, (sole, complete) j3Ja^ mutlalp. 

Abstemious, Abstinent, jlTj-Jb^j jparAczgar, ,<4-3 nhrii. 

Abstruse, Jh5 J daktk, J^ mughlak, ^jo^M- gh amiz. Jbj^ gurh. 

Absurd, Jtb batil, ^y\ anarth, J^£«^l3 nd-ma^kul, njj^ harza. 

Abundant, ^j^p^, bahutera, ^\ aksar, ^^I^Ui firawan, 2f Jbj ziyada. 

Acceptable, J^-i« makbul, 9^Jx« matbu^, ^^^^ji bar-wakt. 

Accidental, ^^5Uj1 ittifakt, (J,\^ \j nagahanl. 

According (to), ^\y< muwafi^, J^^ mutabik. 

Accurate, u,C^" thlk, f^^ fahlh, (pereon) {j^y>' chaukas. 

Acid, 12^ khatta, J^l ami, ^ip tursh. 

Acquainted, i*j55l^ wakif, s^ agah, (intimate) ^jS^ mahram. 

Across, \j\ ara: (adv.)^l) par, j\ij^^ war-par. 

348 VocabuluTy. — Adjtclives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Active, il^l>- chalak, 'L^u man-chala, ^j^^j*- charphara, i^ — ^ chwst. 

Actual, U-" sachcku, ,J^^ /laklki. Actually, l::-,*-*^' j j!-/-AaA7ia/. 

Admirable, .— -^ aji/>,j.3\j nadir, (interj.) t^^- \^ kya khyh. 

Affable, y~iL« milansar, -Ja- fialm, ajjj^\j ba-muruicat. 

Affectionate, Ji-iirf shafUf, J^^JJ daya-iil, ^J^ji^ chhokl. 

Aforesaid, jj^j^ maxkur, j^a—c mastur. 

Afraid, \j& \jj dard ku'd, >Jj:i^4> dahsitat-zada. 

After, jrfscu pichhe, Jjw Ja*rf. 

Afterwards, jjo AaV, , -C-.1 aw bcf'd is-kr, JJ /od. 

Again,^ phir, ^^ ^/(er, *jlU alavia, iij\i jiJ do-bara. 

Against, (_JlLi. kftilof, (over against) .fC*.^^ sanmuJrA. 

Aged, lajij hnddha, \j\ji^ purana, -jJj kad'im: see Old. 

Ago, 1^ 1 oge, jii— J pes/ilar, JfjLi iablk. 

Agreeable, Oi_j Jj dit-pasand. Agreeably (to), J^^^ muwdfilf. 

Alert, jljj_i khabardar, j\^jb hothyar. Alien, (^-J^J/i pariBsl. 

Alike, y|^ barabar, ^|LJuliy.l cA-shb, yj^*-i saman, ^^^ shablk. 

Alive, b-sf ji^a, jijjj ztnrfo, jWl>- j'on-riar. 

All, i_.„rf sab, *UJ tamum, IjU sor5, jC sakal,ji> bkar. 

Almost, i_j^^ ankar'tb, i_-^^ karib, ^.3^ nazdiktar. 

Alone, VI fl/r?/S, l^' (an^fl, Kl ikia, uJ> sir/. 

Although, 'if^ agarcki, iSx-»-j^ har-chand-ki. 

Altogether, j_;11m tnitllak, ^^x* Taafis, ly Btro. 

Always, lj»z sac/a, <U^^ Uaniesha, ,^^jj>> har wakt. 

Ambiguous, cJ^l~t mas/ikuk,j^^-^__ plchddr, *.^*« mubkam. 

Ancient, *jjj kadtm, ^j->-V paracliin, ^\ji^ puratam. 

Anew, Afresh, j<i pAir, y^- sar^i-wau, ^j>»^ ""^^ ""^ **■ 

Angry, ^^-ai £^N?je (in anger), Aii M**/", j^i;^ /crorfAI. 

Angular, jljkJj? koaeddr, j\j-~iij> gos/tedar. 

Animated, ^J diler, (•^Jj dil-garm ; (as language) ^j^J^ namAi. 

Annual, ajUU saliyand, ti^y^y. haras-wan, ^\-ty> har-sdlu. 

Another, Sj^yJ dasrh, j,\ l1C,1 Ik aitr, ilij^jj^ ««'■ «*- 

Anterior, jj,_P_j pl»k-ruu, JJ ^oW. A»tK[uc: sec Ancient. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 349 

Anxious, s:~tjj Jikr-mand, JJ^ mutnraddid. 

Any, ^ ^ kol, .^s? kuchhf^S Ao'w. 

Apiece, ^ CjAjb har ek ko. 

Apt, ^]S la'fk,j\J taii/ar, JjIj ^abil, lU^I^- chalak. 

Aquatic, ly-iJ pamha, ^\ ahl, jt^^ jalchar, ^\jii daryal. 

Around, t^-^t^-l asfos, ^ gi'''fi ,ir*\ri J"'»''a?nan. 

Arrogant, j>^ maghrur, ^ii.^ gvstuk/i,jJj^ mutakahbir. 

Artful, jLc aiyar, ^y ^ fann-farebt, ^J^ chkall, CSi\^ chalak. 

Artificial, •t^^Li sakhta, \^ LUj banaya hu'a. 

Artless, L|>^^ anart, )I^ hkoia, Ja^L-j besakhta, JJL> aada. 

As, L-js- j'at5a ,' (conj.) i£jj^ kyunki : ae much, as many, \izsf-jitJia. 

Ashamed, 3.ii^jJ^ sharvtanda, ti-v^ ^^jj'U ij-f=^ khajil. 

Aside, (apart), (^j31 a/og, \jt»-j"«(fa, ^Jci kinurc. 

Aslant, ^ u?'l«>-/ (ircAAa'7 st, i_jjt uIJIpI ci (ara/. 

\^ Ij'^ so'a Au a, 

, ija \jj_ 


-a, ^JiynXamadhush, \, 

t-chakit, ^j^hairan. 
I -rah. 

Astray, ISlS^ Ikalka, »\j^ gumrah, D^ dAu/a, i)^|vJ bc- 

Asunder, \,i^ juda, i^S^\ alag: see Separate. 

At all, (JUm mullak, Uik^ mullaka. 

At all times, i.^j^ Anr- wakt: see Always. 

At length, At last, ja-T akhir, ^j^ pas. 

Atrocious, y^i LiW^^ nibayat sharir, i-r'y^ *>^>^ hahiU mn^yub. 

Attentive, fjS%»- chaukas, X^*ti hUxhyar, A»>Vi« mutaioajjih. 

Averse, (_ilU:* mukhfllif, ^\j\> na-ras. 

Austere, l::-^-* sakht, \ji.'ltj\i duruiht, iiJ tund, \^ kara. 

Auxiliary, jbtJXs madadgar, ,S^ krimakl. 

Awake, \:S\s^ jagta, j\a^ bedar,j\;^}b hoshyar. 

Aware, t—ulj wuliif, j\jij^ k/mbardar, ilTT agah. 

Away (absent), j-!li>--^ ghnir hazir,j^ CiJjUj tafawiit par, \i^juda. 

Awhile, iZJi~t jkis- ckand muddat, t^^ \*^ tfiora arsa. 

Azure, |_jJU-il aamaai, |_yj' azra/r, ^yS J-j itil-giiti. 

iiack, (adv,)_^ phcr,j\j baz, ^-i\ wapas. 

-- ■>- 

350 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Backward (loath), ij^'ij^ )j ru-gardan, tX^ kashtda, i^ i sust 

Bad, 'jj bura, jj had, ^^,jij zabun, <-~~>\j^ kharab, jjj^ shartr. 

Bald, Hj^ chandla, Isai ganja, (unadorned) Uijli na-seba- 

Baneful, jl J -fij zahr-dar, j,d< muzirr. 

Bankrupt, Ulj.;J dewaliya, i^^^^i^ muflis,j'Ji\j na-dar. 

Barbarian, (adj.) ii^u»~jangtl, i<i-^ tcafis/ii, »>-j^. be-rafim. 

Bare, (naked) IW nanga, (plain) JjLt sada, (void) Jl^ Mafi. 

Barren, (land)j_-jl usar,Ji kallar, (animal) .f»rb &an/A. 

Base (adj.), .pt'^ P'f/'f **^*^ kanitna, -tij «7cA, ^^J rfun. 

Base-born, ajlj »\j>- /larain-sada, Jj~j ^ji barn-sankar. 

BaBhful, "i^j^ s/iarmlla, t^ It^'ild, ^-jSli_i sankochi. 

Bay-coioured (a horse), ul-^^ kiimait, i.:,^*^ sainand. 

Beastly, \mi ^J<y^ haiwan-sa, Cj'^^i na-pak, axS ganda. 

Beautifiil, iZJjyoi^ }diub§urat,ji^^ sundar, '~-^;j-> surup. 

Because, li \ji_j zJra ki, Ij.^ Ukaxa, ^jS kyuHki. 

Becoming, ^J^J la'i}(, a-mj\J^ shayasta, Uj ^^ Mimh-numa. 

Before, ^S\ age, ^ji-*^ samne, ^^^_^pesh. 

Behind, ;^i' plchke, ^j^ L_-Jifi akah mert, Juu bff'd. 

Beloved, |jLj pyarii (m.), ijj^^pyar'i (f.), »--'j~«:' miihbttb,y_\s. asAs. 

Beneath, ^e?V fUc/te, (unwoithy) J^ \i na-la'/k. 

Beneficent, JIjJ dayal, ^Lifaiyas, Ulj data. 

Beneficial, Ji^Lo mvf'id, Au^iiy-i sTidmand, H^ hhala. 

Beaide, Besides, 1^ siica, SjlU ulawa, l/J^ klnare, ulXi-Si nazd'ik. 

Best, -JI uttam, 11^ |^ '-r~' ^"^ ^"^ 6Ati/n, jj'jjl aulatar. 

Between, Betwixt, -aj i)cA, |^l«jJ darmiyan. 

Beyond, ^JJl_ pare, j\i^ par, ,S\ age. 

Biennial, ilUjJ iB-sala, ^ -i&f l1^ J*-" j*^ ''o *"^ '"'^ raA«e ka. 

Big, Wj ftara, 1j^ mold, ^jK fta/nn, (pregnant) ^*U.A(iwu/«, 

Bigot, bigotted, i_.-.;3U4 mutd'asfih, ^j^ katln. 

Bilious, 1^ 1^ safrd'i, urj'j*-' safrdwi, ^^\-ij} zarddl'i. 

Bitter, 1^^ Aaprti, Uj rt(a, i:^" talkh : eee Cruel, Sharp. 

Black, SIS' Aa/rt, sl^^iydh, (complex iun) l!jl^ /cu/u/S, Uli t«%«. 

Vocabvlar'j. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Blamable, *jUi mulzim, ^jjyoi kvsuTwar. Blameless: see Innocent. 

Blank, (white) xJt.^ sufed, (unwiitteo) uLj mda, IfSX^ hc-likha. 

Bleak, (cold) J-i sard, \i>x^ Ihandha, (pale) Jjj zard, Lj plla. 

Blear-eyed, lj-=- chtprH (m.). ^^ ^''«^''« («•■)• 

Blessed, C^V* wufiaraA, Jls- j^^ fdiush-hal, ^jii-yJ JiAwAfT. 

Blind, UjJl andha,j^ kor, Lj Ij jia-binS, (of one eye) lili Mnii. 

Biinkard, Ibijki^ ckundhla, SjbJ>iAj dhundhla. 

Bloody, i^Lyl^j! Wiu-iuhan, sJjSl ^^ khun-aluda, ^-^ k/iunl. 

Blue, ILi ni/a, L! /i/«, i^j^?J ni/-gSn, ^Jj^ kabudi : see Azure. 

Blunt, (dull) J^ fc«nrf, li^ fi^ofa, (un polite) J 1^1 ^ tc imtiyaz. 

Boisterous 31jJ^ jji jjj zor-shor-karncwaVi, J>^J.^ s/indld, OoJ (wnd. 

Bold, Jjrft/er, jjHJ Ji/aawr, j jl^^j bafiadur, l^u* manc.hala. 

Bom; lia-_;ana, 1j-j paida, (in compos.) ijlj rarfu, Ij zS. 

Both, jjjj dono or y^yjJ rfonSii, jJ_^ /'«r do. 

Bounteous, bountiful, \j\j data, *j^ karlm, ^\ifaiyas. 

Brackish, \j\^ k/iara,jjli shar, Ujl ffina, ^^XtJ namkln. 

Brave, jjl^j bahadur, iji-OjUi sawani, ij\.ij^ maTdana : see Bold. 

Brawny, l£t-<^ /lurmushla, \^^ kungra, .^Cyp- ehahkailh. 

Brazen, Ib-^ p7;/«, (j'a^ birinji : see Impudent. 

Brief, >UjS kotuh, j-axs^ mukktamr, J.^-^^ viujmal. 

Briefly, ^-.jLaji-1 iMfisar se, (in short) ^oyc gkaraz, ^_^^1 al gh ara. 

Bright, ^ 

, Tvskan, ls»-l lyVu, i_iLs su/; see lUiistnous. 

Brilliant, jU Ji^j raunnk-dar, cAxjU tabnak, ILC*^- c/iamklla. 
Brimful, *— 4LJ lah-a-lab, jji j^ bhar-pur. 

Brisk, ol*-^'aW, jij— shdidi, cS'i^ chalak, c:.~ ^ chttst,jJ ie: 
Brittle, Cij^J nazuk, tl5^.jV barik, 1L> patla, lU^j tunak. 
Broad, V|j^ cAaura, j^y; ar/s, (vulgar) <ii-*S kamtna. 
Brown, tiXij aX^ gandum-rang, ^^yS *Aii gandum-gun. 
Brutal, .yVp- /laiiranl, (savage) je^-»-j wa^sht : see Cruel. 
Bulky, Cj^ ni5(o, ^f-^si^ jasim, ^ fiara, tjfjV bharl. 
Busy, Jj*i-« mashghul, *ji j^ sar-garm, '^•jc^ masruf. 
Hut, (except) '^ siwa,J=^ Jfiz, (cnnj.)^ miigur, ..jU ^F/cf'n. 

362 Vocabulary.— Adjectivet, Adverbt, $v. I 

By, j_j- se, .___, ^ ke sahab, ij ba : see Near. 

Calamitous, iJj c:-JI afat-zada, ^i^^J parrshan : see Wretched. 

Callous, i-L^-^ sakfit, IJ-^f^ gathlla,jt^ kathor, JjJ ^^ bt-dard. 

Calm, U_AJ r/^ima, Jxa« mt^tadil, J^ band, '^j rvka. 

Cancelled, Li b\!U mitaya gaya, LS Li *!e* nia^v iiyo gaya. 

Candid, i_iU> taf, jSt Li.~il^, rfisr-fras, j W ^ 4p-/aga'5. 

Capable, ^li kabil, fZii la'ik, Ji\j pair, ^yr-joga. 

Capacious, t<i\lS kushadtt, f-^ji farakh, ^jjf- chatira. 

Capital, (as a crime) jU-s»- jlmar, (principal) Wj bara, *Jii ii»n. 

Capricious, ^-t^^jlj talauwun-tpi^, W?"j^ ocAAo. 

Cardinal, |^1 <^'^'»>, j^''' olfbar, jy awwaL 

Careful (cautious), ^ljj-;i. kha bar-dar, j V^jft hoskyar. 

Careless, JJli ghajil,Jj^ be-fikr, ^^y^ asocht. 

Carnal, ^Ljj nafsant, t^.,-wjJ ■■^n"' shahtcat-parast, ^^ A'«wi. 

Carnivorous, JJi.c:^/go«A^^o^, j^laiil^_^U mos-arfAar*. 

Casual, jtiUjl ittifala, ^J'^ urifi, ti^U nuguA«n'. 

Cautious, jLiji- hoshr/dr, j\jj^ khahardar, tj-^j^ c/iaukas. 

Celestial, |_^^J bihishtl, ^^r^a-^'annart, tjU-al asmanl. 

Censorious, ji-i._--j; aib-jo,jS^^ harf-glr, CJ^ nindak. 

Central, Centric, tj,\^j-^ darmiyanl, -ty ^^i»a^ blchoii blck. 

Certain, ^^_ yaJfin, lIjC."..; blshakk, jjt^ mvkarrar. 

Certain, (some),^^^ bt^e,,^ Sko'i, {persoa) ^^ fuldn, uii j'uldnn. 

Certainly, tsj\ alballa, L-Sj yakman, j^ tnvkarrar. 

Charitable, j-i" muk/iaiyir, Ub data, ^-i?* sak^, ^Ji\i faiydx. 

Charming, Ua^ moknd, lij'^-t <u/tawana, i_ -■ ■—- J J dil-chasp. 

Chary, jLijJs lios/iydr, Ji^ij^ khahardar, (frugal) ,A>U^ kifdyatl. 

Chaste, tl/l> /fuA, ji-j pahitr, sJ-j sut/A, iii-aa fJ/7/u (f.). 

Cheap, \i„^ sastd, lii* manda, ^jji arzdn, \j S kam-hahd. 

Cheerful, ^jrJua- Monda-ru, ^ .4—^ haAa-mukh, i^}>- IdiHsh. 

Cheerless, ^^Ijl udds, \>fa sund, (dreary) jJj jJ /o/:^ o c/a/:^'. 

Chief (principal), Jjl a 

4 mukuddam, 1^ Z<ara. 

Chiefly, Ul; ghaliban,jS\ ahur, X-,-- ■,-.■'- khvm 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 363 

Childless, ^^J^i^ be-^iulad, j3^ lorwalad', \J^ niputa. 

Chilly Chilly, \j^ thanda, J^ sard, Uf Jc^ thandorsa. 

Choice, (select) <uU. lduL§sa, (careful) J^a*« mc^Jpil, ^\j^ kifayatl. 

Christian, t^y^^ isawi, ii]/^ na§ram. 

Chronic, Chronical, ^j^ muzmin, ^^^\^ da'imi, li^J der-pa. 

Chubby, S^^ galphuld. Churlish, J^^ be-tamiz, {^f:jJ dabang. 

Circular, j^Jc« mudauwar, ^}^ gdl,j\jdA^ /lalka-dar. 

Circumjacent, J«j£^ muttasil, (.-^y Jcarlb, (^L.»t aspas, uXj^ 

Circumspect, ^j^y>- chaukas, J^^ hoshyar, ^^ chaukanna. 
Civil, (sociable) ^Lj>L« milaTisar, (political) |<CL« mulkl, (not military) 

^U maU. 


ChLmxny,JixJ^.laS'dar, LU laslasa, ^^^f}^- chipchipa. 
Clandestine, 2rju^y pioshida, L^^ chhipa, ^^^^^ S^P^* 
Clean, uJ\^ §af, ^U paklza, ls^\ ujla, J^ nirmal, (j/b j?aA;. 
Clear, (bright) 4-JU-S1 shaffaf, uJU ^of, (not cloudy) ^t?:;^ pharchha, 
(evident) \JLi^ ashkara,Jtfiff sAhir, (free) yj^ khaU. 

Clearly, uJU ^o/*, W^y^ §arlhan: see Evidently. 
Clever, ^^i^ chatur, C/Jl^ chalak,j\J^^ hoshyar, JmcIJ kamil. 
Close, Jcj ^anef, IjCi^ 9ii2/nrfa, \i^ ghana, |^ &Atra. 
Cloudless, |^)L^ A:Au/a Ati'a,^^ ^ be abr. Cloudy, j^^^ ghanghor. 
Clumsy, i^j^\ anarl, ^caJu» ^ &i saRka, Jj^^ J^ bad-dauL 
Coarse, \!|^ mo^a, ir jof gunda, (rude) ^z.-J^jJ durusht. 
Coeval, y«^^ ham-umr, ^^/^ hanhsinn, ^^^ ham-joti. 
Cold, iJCif^ thanda, J^ ^arcf, i^^'*^ ]dkunuk, J::^^^ 57to/. 
Comical, Comic, jV**^"^" thathebaz, jy^.:^ hansdr. 
Commercial, ^J^ ^43^ sauddgarana, ^j^ tijaratl. 
Common, cJ/iJL^ mushtarak, (inferior) d^>^ kanitna. 
Commonly, ^^ aksar,jiJL^^ beshtar. 
Compact, (^^ thds,J^jJ pur-kar, {jJ^ ghqfs. 
Compassionate, JUi^ shaft k, JUj dayal, J*3(^ narm-dil. 
Competent, j;j J ZaVit, cil^ kafi, JjU Araii/, ^^ Aa*. 

2 z 

354 Vocahulary. — Adjectives, Adverhs, ^e. 

Complete, I^jj pura, a\4j tamam, (ready) jLi taiyar. 

Compound, compounded, i—-^ tnurakkah, cu-Xs n ^ sanjukU 

Conceited, -j Jjsi- jdutd-bhi, ^Uj dimaghl, jO^\ akarbaz. 

Concise, ■^sii:' mukklamr, i_ ,:tf^ - sanchkep, i^f kotdh, 

Confessed,(declarcd)jji^ mash'hur. Confessedly, ^i_jl>uil i^tiraftt. 

Confident, lad* man-chala, -^^^ dhilh, .ixix^ mit*takid. 

Conscious, i_u'j wa^tiy", ilTl agaA,j-^Jji khnd-ldiabar. 

Consequently, liX^ lihaza, Js-ilj-:! wi-wujie, ^;FJ^-^ mruratan. 

Consistent, L_~iL« munaiib, ^JfJ^ la'ik. 

Conspicuous, ^^lii zahir, 4-ilLs alaniya, j^.^:^ viashkur, \^ khula. 

Constant, i.:u-jIj safeti, ,_^1 atal, S^sii.,^ mustahkim, uS^_^ kararl. 

Constantly, ^1 iji^ nit-vth, ^J\jBi har an, •Ijjll^^ ala-d-dawdm. 

Contagious, ^j\^ sari. 

Contemptible, j-*»- fia^lr, JJsJ satil,J^ thpdr, CjL-t subuk. 

Content, contented, ^r^\) rati, i^j^ khnsh, . p;'-' - ■ santokhl. 

Contiguous, ,J.<t:M tnuttasil, ^jb^ mila ku^d, i^-~-y^ jtaiwasta. 

Continual, t^J dd'im, (continually) U-r-^ hanuslia. 

Contrary, wJU-* muk/ialif, Ull nlld, J^ zidd, ^'i^ khi^f. 

Convenient, fj.^ Id'ik, i_ ■■•■■■' ttmnasib, ^l.^-(- Ih'ik. 

Convex, jl J j-iS gumbas-ddr, Jij tji kubba-dar. 

Cool, IJL^ thandd, J^-— > sT(a/, J^-i sarrf. 

Copious, tj:,-^ bakut, tJ^ij ziyddtt,j^ kafir, j\::^ bistdr. 

Cordial,^ji<mH)taua!?, (sincere) W'sac/jcAflijjU sot/it, \i^ be-riya. 

Corporeal, %j\-*..:.->- jismdnl, i^j^,/^ sarlri. 

Corpulent, k^^—o^ jasim, \iyt mold, j\i^.i daldar,j^ tanawar. 

Correct, .t^s-" ?ahik, ilX^ {Ink, lz— j_uJ duTvst, (J*£^ tahklk. 

Corrupt, J-ilj fdsid, J^ sard, L-j1 ubsd, IjJo itgfa, f-r"!/^ Mar«6. 

Costly, j^i*^ ATmart, ti— w j_;i^ btsh-k'imat. 

Covetous, |^s.'U lulcht, ^_^ horis, ^j! ffiAAi. 

Counterfeit, J^ libasi, \^-yp^ jkuthd, Z^ khoid. 

Country (adj.), ijU*J dihl^dm, jjrjjls gdiiwi.J-^ gajiwur. 

Courageous, ^ J dilir,jj'l^- baltdduT : see Brave. 

Vocabulary. — Affjeclioes, Adverbs, ^c. 


Courteous, u-)j}« mu'addab, jli-1 t^y*- khitsh-akhlak, jlyj CXj we/:- 

Coward, Cowardly, L^y p dar-pokna, Jj^ buz-dil. 
Coy, L-«,i sharmlla, t_jW*'jj pur-tiijab : see Bashful. 
Crafty, jUc aiyar, ^Jsi Jitraii, liLj f^ana, ;— i j-L. i failsuf. 
Creditable, y-SJt* ma tahar, jy^ natnuiar, Jtiyj Tu-dar. 
Crimson, kjf}^^ iirmiz*, ij'^j' arghawanl, Uj-s suAa. 
Cripple, lj£j langra, Hjl ^u/a, j^ pangu. 
Crooked, UjJ fcrAa, .^ kham, l^_/ tirckha, J' kaj. 
Cross, \j\ dra, ^j^y tirchha, (peevish) 'y^-^ chirchifa. 
Crude, Ls? kachcha, Ab- kham, iijkrXi nd-pakhta. 
Cruel, f^j^ hc-ra/im, jj^ kathor, JJi^Si-i lang-dil. 
Cumbersome, ^jj^ bhdrl, j;\^j ranjaiuar. 
Cunning, \i\mi syana, j\^ aiydr, ^pakkd,^^ ckatur. 
Curious, yf-jlj rdzjo, (rare) \^y\ anut/ia, (nice) |^4j^jli barik-b'in. 
Current, (customary) ^'<j ra'^^flowing) ^j^jdrl, ^\tj rawdn. 
Customary, —^^ murauwaj, |_y*-y rasml, ijjf-^ii dasluri, ^j ru'ij. 
DaWy, jjji j,j roz ba-rQZ,jjjj& kar roz, )jjj)j ros roz. 
Dainty, (squeamish) CiTjyi-^y*- khmh-^iurdk: see Delicious. 
Damp, 2-i gild, y tar, i^^^t maTiub, J warn. 
Dangerous, Cj'^jos- k/igtar-ndk, fcJ-JljJ pur-dfat, «-j^ pur-bim. 
Dark, K-aAil aad/ura, Cjjj^ tdrlk : see Blind, Abstruse. 
Darling, S^ Idrld, \JLj -pydrd, ji)e- azlz, i--)j-^ g- * malibub. 
Dauntless, J JiJ nidar, tljLj hlbdkfjS^^ bedar. 
Dead, L* mn'd, i-ij* murda, \j^ mard, (insensible) ^ sua. 
Deadly, JiM kdtil. CS^muhlik, fU. haldku, JjsSa haldhuL 
Deaf, 1^ iuAra, -^ summ,^ liar. 
Dear, (costly) liy* mahangd, ^\j> girdn: see Beloved. 
Deceitful, jUU J daghd-bdx, jj^ chhal'l,J^ miikkdr. 
Decent, 4w.jLw skdj/asta, jJ!J /a'/i, ki^-^^-l vchit, aJ\j\ drdsta. 
Decisive, ji^ i^/,** i— >^ ?a/", \jj^ yjiira, ^^-iu t/akln. 
Declinable (in graui.), t^jisi^ mutasatrif, y^^a:^ muusmit'. 

356 VocahTiIart/ Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Deep, Ij^gaAra, -fc.i» gambkir, (coloured) i^Sjjj^ ghor-rang. 
Defective, ^j^ khota, 4_/olJ nakif, -UjU na-tamam. 
Deficient, -? kam,jJi ko^tr, |_/asU na^ii- 
Definite, OjA*^ ma/iduri. Definitive, ^^j^x^ muta'aiyin. 
Deformed, JiLlJj bad-sfiakl: see Ugly, Humpbacked. 
Dejected, (_^ljl urfns, iJyl asurda, ^^^Jjt^ gham-gtn. 
Delicate, (exquisite) ^j^^ nafls, (fine) cJj^ nazuk: see Dainty, 
Delicious, jjj! lazi^, J^ti iy* maza-dar, (_fij^ kiaisk. 

Delightful, 1.^— Jj dil-chasp, aijIj^^- jdimk-ayand. 

Delirious, (^^^' 6e-Ao«A, Jjib be-khud, ■OljjJ rfticanu. 

Dense, i-ji-ia ias?/, j^i-£— sangin, ^J^. bhart, UjlS garAa. 

Desirous, jUi-« musktak, l.-— ^J; raghib, ,^yi> skaukln. 

Desplate, (^]/»j ic7ran,Jl>-! lyar, fV=^ be-chiragh, ij*^ kha[i. 

Desperate, (hopeless) ji^l li na-ummed: see Hopeless, Mad, Rus 

Despicable, ^^J %aUl,jf3»~ fiak/r, ^^^ P^fiy i^-^S kamlna. 

Destitute, ^l^H la-char, jjJU,j darmanda, jJ^ khali. 

Detestable, i^J^ makruk, ij^ karl/i, ULp ghinana. 

Devilish, J\l2^ s/iaUan-l, t^j^\ asur-J, ^jij zabun. 

Devious, il^ he-rah, i^jM bad-rak, >\j^ gumrah, ,f^ kaj-ra». 

Devoted, jbj ^^ jan-nisar, ^jAJJtdicl, ^j-«-< mu'aiyan. 

Devout, .X.«L< muta'nbbid, ^Uj nain7iz-'i, i-J^ls (^Tif. 

Dexterous, (_i~iJ i.U^U- chalak-dast, JS (.^-J dast-kar, i^ >■ c/ 

Different, t_iil-.-f'° mukhlalif, IjU nyara,jji anr, liSHI a/og, 

Difficult, JJl;i^ mushkil, jLij dvshwar, ^fS^ katlnn. 

DifSdent, ^_jCi shakkt, ^g^j v:ahmi, «:— •^ bt-liimmat. 

Diffuse, ji,iX* muntoshir, Jji /nu-T/, La ^J^*^- ckhilka hu'a. 

Diligent, [-/^ sar-garm, J^«i-« moibghul, \^j^ chaukas. 

Dim, SlaXI andhla, hiij^ chondhla, lj*jjy>j dhundhra. 

Diminutive, i^Sf-^ kiichak, IfJ nannkh, ljj(^ c/iA5(a. 

Diie, Ijjl;.' darawnai ^\i i.:i---Si haxbat-nah, t—-*^ muliib. 

Direct, Ujl_j sidAa, <^f—^ mustov'i, (open) (_iL» jo/. 

Directly, ciJJ (««, JUt^l ^ fi-l-kal, ^\ abk'i : Bee Direct. 


Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, ^c. 357 

Dirty, (filthy) ]L« maila, ij*^ najis, laJii ghattz : see Base. 
Disaffected, ^^UTj^ bad-guman, »\^ Jj bad-ldmah. 
Disagreeable, JCi«»j U na^asandy (j!if>- ^ na-khush. 
Discontented, f^\j \j na-raz, (^^ l3 nSrkhush, ^^ shakh 
Discordant, (ji^y ^ normuwafi^, (in music) JLj be-taL 
Discreet, J^ b &a^^amljr, jLw»yb hoskyaTf ^^^^ bibek-t. 
Dishonest, (j:^^|^ l3 na-^ast, ^^Uj\ ^^ i^-ir/ian, ^^jjifarebt. 
Disloyal; a|^ (il^ namak-haraniy \i^ be-wafa. 
Dismal, d/lJy^ haul-nak, cli^U^ bhayanakj (jJii\ udas. 
Disobedient, ^;^;^ l^ na^rfnan, \J!^j^ sar-kash. 
Displeased, (ji>^ ^ na-lAushyj\jfJ bezar, »j^jl azurda. 
Disputatious, ^^^jb^ li,ujjat'ty (^\s^^bahhas, ji^^!^ jkagralu. 
Disrespectful, <^j1 ^ be-adab, ^^ shokhj ^Is^ be-li/idz. 
Dissatisfied, (joV^U na-raz, JL^ U na-Mmsk, Jj^^ bezar. 
Dissimilar, J^^^ ^ normuwafi^^ u.fl\".<^ mukhtalif. 
Dissolute, (^Vj^ aubashy juS ^ be-Jcaidy n^^ awaroy jjj rincf. 
Distant, ^^J ^fiir, Juu £a'fe2 : see Bashful, Shy. 
Distinct, \>\>-juday fjjkx^ mutafarriky (clear) tJU §af. 
Distracted, l^Jo^o^ maztariby \jf\ft ghabra, IsaJ^ ashufta. 

Ditto, la)t aizariy jf^^ mazkur. 

Divers, oc^ chandy ^ ^ kal. kal, li^ c:^ bahut bahut. 
Divine, ^li; rabbanly ^^\ ilahty ^U^ rahmanl. 
Diuretic, j^ I jV^*^l idrar-^awaTyjS^ mudirr. 


Dizzy, ^\iifj^ sar-gardauy ^jL^S^ madJmsh. 

Docile,^ JJ ^^s^y tarbiyat-paslry ^3 JJ tez-zikn. 

Domestic, ,<Sls^ khangtf \j^ ghar-ela. 

Done, U^ kiyiy \yb \^ kiya hffiy \C»- chuka : see Good, Well. 

Double, U^ J ^iina, ^jJ doAra, J^^(> do-chand. 

Doubtful, di^Cli^ mashkuky JjsJL^ mushtabih. 

Doubtless, CS^ ^ beshakky Uw^ yaliiinan : see Certainly. 
Down (prepos. or adv.), ^^^sxj niche, ^Jj tale, .^2jb AcM. 
Downcast, ^jt^j^ sar-nigun : see Bashful. 

358 Vocabulary. — Adjectioet, Adverhs, ^c. 

Dreadful, dfU^ kauUnak, <J,^L^ hkayanak, i^\:ayr- khaufnak. 

Drowsy, LitjoJ nindasa, t>iS\ i^\j^ kkwah-aluda. 

Dmnlc, 1^^ matwala, l^->»j mast, ^Jt^ kaif-1. 

Dry, (arid) lI^I-^ khushk, I^Jj-j sukhd : see Thirsty. 

Dull, (blunt) fi^S kuttd, IjjfJ bkota, (stupid) t^*.>-( itlimak. 

Daly, ijr*^ I— -:»- jawa ckahiye, i ' ^_p (AH. 

Dumb, '€jf, gunga, JS lal, €zS gttnga, Si bukm. 

Dunce, (^*s>-( akmak, IjilfJ bhakwa, jJj haUd, ^\ alia. 

DuTuhle, j\'ij}j pa'e-dar, *^U /fa'im, Ij^jJ der-pa, ^b ioitl. 

During (postpos.), lyj* A5(e, ^^j-* mc«, lj-^j rahte, ^^U*^ darmiyan. 

Duteous, Dutiful, j-J*< muji", (child) J-i; rashld: see Obedient, 

Dwarf, DwarBsh, Ijjlj fta'ona, \jli na/a,'lC4.^ /AumM. 

Each, CJiAjA har ek, i.L^} kISj^ ek ek, ,_jj ^^j** jJ ^^ A57 rfo m«i «. 

Eager, f*^j-> sar-garm, j^ji shaukm, tix^yjX arzumand. 

Early, (in the morning) iJ/_y sazfhe, (as fruit, &c.) U.«l agmanti. 

Eamestj Ji:^ ba-jidd, ^^ sa i, aJl^ muj^aiyad. 

Earthen, ^Jo g'^-', ^i*^ milCi ka, (as ware) JU-i sifal-J, 

Earthly, ^J* arz-7, (worldly) iJjUiJ danya-wi. 

Eastern, ^Jjy^ purbl, i^j^ shar^l, ^j^~* maskriki. 

Easy, i^Ul asdn, Jyj sa/d, (at ease) JU- nJ^l asuda-/tal. 

Economical, ^Ai^ Icifayatl, i^^js^ juz-ras. 

Effectual, Efficacious, i^_jl^ kar-gar,Jiyi mu'amr. 

Effeminate, u:-si* ^^j zan-xifai, J^ '0 na-mard, I— iJ-ij randisa. 

Egregious, \j) bara, Lii—i-^ sakht, t_-*^ ajabyjy^i,^ mask'Aur. 

Eightfold, Lj^T alh-guna. 

Either, \^S>} l^ ujJjJ donon ka ek, ^ jS f^% (conj.) t\y^ kh^ak. 

Elastic, tfS-*^ chimtha, |/4^ chimTa,J-i »J dam-dar. 

Elder, Ij* iorii, l^S-i»-je(Au, jjTii kalan, <^jj> buzurg. 

Elegant, t_flJJ iifi/, cSj\J nazuk, l.^_i suf Ara, i— y- khiib. 

Eloquent, .^^^ fafi/i, ^ ^j=^ kli'fsfi-go, ^Mi ^.jfr* sh'inn-zahm. 

Else, (other) jj1 aar, lj->jJ dusra, (conj.) 31 iUa. 

Eminent, aJj hulaiid, ^^\ ala,jytSi uam-tcar, >^jj>. buzurg. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, 6fc. 

Empty, jJU- id^ti, '^jf*- chkuchha, \iyj suna, ^ ti/il. 
Endless, lii-^V u^ be-nihdyat, Ao- ^ bt-hadd, A^i^ miidam. 
English, iJjiX*^ angrezl, ^^atJSj\ inglishtam. 
Enormous, m-^os axial, fcji-^sr' saMlt, jL'Juii sftadid. 
Enough, u-J has, ^'^ ^n/*, t-^^-V '"'^*''- ^^^ Sufficiency. 
Entire, *UJ tamam, J^K kamil, lj«j ^»iir«, ^=i^ xa^l/i. 
Entirely, -lU-i sar-a-sar, Jilj bilkull, ^ CSi} ek-kalant. 
Envious, J>dW hasid, ^\<i dahl, ^l^M bad-chaskm. 

Equal, ^Ij barabar, ^^UlIS^' cA-sa«,^»a hanhsar. 
Equitable, cu— ''j '■«s^ (_i-ai« munsif, (is^- ha}c]c, ulX^ (^it. 

Equivocal, *!(— c mub'ham, ^U|_ji**^J da-ma m-dar. 

Erect, jjI=-i1 istada, »Ji'.— -« mustakl/n, ^^ kkara. 

Ere long, |j-.« ^j^j >^,\J*^ More zamane mh't. 

Ere now, ^jl JJi Aafi/ az-in, jJwl ^^^T age is-ke. 

Erroneous, LU ghalal. Erroneously, ILii ghalnlan, 1^^ sahwan. 

Esculent, Jj^^i /dtnrdanl, JjU ^/ ^_^^S AAunE /(F it5/«7. 

Especial, ijoU- Masf. Especially, i^j-ai- khusus, t-rvi^- k/iii.iii^an. 

Et CEctera, Jr^j loa ghaira, c,^ljj-c ghair ^alik. 

Eternal, i^JjI abadi, JJ^.S la-yazal, J'J f/aVni. 

Even, (level) ^jAA Aumifar, t/^t»- cAauros: see Equal, Straight. 

Even (adv. or couj.), .^ sacA, ^_^^j ica^tt, ^jj 5Ai, 

Ever, (at some time) jtf-i kabhi, ^^ bad/a : see Always. 

Every, yis har, CXil^ Aar efc, i^'j^ <.^ — j sai kol. 

Every where, |^j*^^ Aar kahla, •^f^y karjagak. 

Evident, ^jUs a^a«,^U? saAir, S^ khula, IjliliT ashkara. 

Evidently, W^j^ sarVjan, 1 Jilt zakiran, i_jLi ju/". 

Evil, 1^ Aarii, Jo &«(/, ^^j zabun, j^ji- khwar. 

Exact, (Jpi-fp (AjA, l:l~^J dunist,ji\ji barabar: see Nice. 

Exactly, .tjuxj ha-aini-hi, •■^jJ!> ha-ba-liu, •' '^-.V thik. 

Exalted, jj^j-i sar-faraz, Jiloj-j sar-bulnnd. 

Exceeding, <iw niywf, jjM ziyiida, c:-^ fiflAuf. 

Excellent, _^ bihtar, ^Jj}j fafk, ^\ iittam, i !U gh ulib. 

_ r. 

» » •* — > 

Expert, jj^ MJifTy Lj^-g pimHiEi, 'ij pocttiL 
Eacqinsite, ^-Ju mafhyZ^ hiitaryjJi ai 


Extensive, «--^ msi*, &>ll^ hrriiriii, ^ 

Exterior, External, ^.^ siri, ^jJ^ si^^a^> v^^S;^ terma. 

Extra, 1^ U aa sari, xJb «&■«, &3Uj 

Extraordinary, l^^ 4nilic, <^,^<^ ^^> j^ 

Extravagant, «^^ J«^^^2ij-Uardl,^^^«xW h Arfir. 

Face to fiure, ^^y^U^^^I one smaule, ^^ r»4»-ri. 

Facetioos, ^\;tp^'MMsi4a2^, T^.^ ionmr, J^ lialAol. 

Facing, ji^j^t rm-ba-ru^ Jf^ wutabUy ^>«^ siane. 

Fair, (in complexion) |;|^ g^^y (honest) i^z^^j risi : see Beaotifiil. 

Faithfb],^1j^;Uj1 tmanr^r^ Jjli^ wtrfa-dar^ Isr* saeieka. 

Faithless, li^ bc^wafa, /»|f>* clX«^ namahrharam. 

False, [^^jhutha, J1?'j i«4«/» ^^^''g^rf) c/aA^ taklidi. 

Famous, ^^li naml,Jxi,\j namdarfjy^^^L^ mash'hur. 

Far, j«J <-/iir, Juiu i&a z//, (much) <»s^^ bahut^ 3jU j ziyada. 

Viifihvjf Jij^J durtaVf (f>€Hides, moreover) ir^lc alawa. 

Vanif (i\ru\) ]0^0,A>4 mazbufj U7y paurha or par ha : see Swift. 

Fttt, m^ OT/>/5, ^ji farbih, m^;,.^ jaslm. 

I'fitfil, clAy^ mu/dik, JJli Aa^i/, (fated) Ijj Jorfa. 

l'aultlft»H,y*i^^ bt'talffiTf /'♦^S la-jurnif c-^--^^ be-aib. 

Faulty, ^^t> ^*i, j^^jf^aij takslr-war : see Bad, Defective. 

Favourable, ^^^V^y-^ mi/irban, (suitable) J^'^ muwafik. 

I'Varful, (afraid) cS\j ij:^!:„>J dahshat-nak, (awful) t-*^^ mukib. 

F<«arlc«H, cJ\i -J bc'bak.jjj nldar: see Bold. 

Vocabulari/ Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Fell, J.iu_i tangdil, j\yi^yi. j^unkh^ur,^ kalur. 

Female, Feminine, JidU mada : see Effeminate, Soft. 

Ferocious, |A»-j wafiaKi, fi=-j^ be-ra/tm: see Cruel. 

Fertile, J-^jJ zar-Muz,},.,^^ saitsgar, i^ jaiyxd. 

Fetid, txS ganda, ^^^x^ muta'affin, IjiiU-j hisahinda. 

Feverish, iii^i^^ tap-ginfta, Aji garm, JjU i_^ tap-ma'il. 

Few, Ijj^j thora, ijJ)*j More, Ji^ ckand, -^ kuchh. 

Fickle, '^j' ochha, — jj^j^jlj talauwua-mizaj, ^^^^ chanchal. 

Fictitious, £u>-L> sakhta, Vjf^ jhutfia, ^Aiu taghalluhl. 

Fierce, JtJ (unrf, jjJti shadid, ij^-sijJ durusht, ^y ffatot. 

Fiery, ^jijl utashi, ^Jj tiarl, (passionate) J^ tez, ^ tund. 

Figurative, i^jW* miijazi, ^J-i-w tatngitl. 

Filthy, 1L« maila, ^js^ 'iojU, cl/li na-puk, SiAt g/ializ. 

Final, i,i;»-l akhir'tf -a-l akhir, i^s^ pic/ihla, J-*\^ kamil. 

Fine, (not coarse) CJkj^ harlk, (showy) JiSL^ jiladar : see Elegant. 

Fmite, JjJ.*::* mahdud, jl Jjl;^ j «jl Jjl flndasa 5 payan-dar. 

Firm, l;j--i« nius&uf, l.i.^«;^ jtaMf, Ij^ ^aro, CJj-J suiuf. 

First, !Lyj pahla, Hal ag/a, J^ awwal : see Chief. 

Fit, iJjL^ tliik, ^JJi la'ilf, 1.1— jjJ durust, »_— il:^ tnunosii. 

Fixed, -jlj ^a'fm, »ils:l— * mtistahkim, ^\-i sakin. 

Flabby, Flaccid, Uj pi/pi^S, ^.^ iiarm, \aI dhiVi. 

Flagrant, (burning) ^J'jy^ gozan, (enormous) jj J-i shadid. 

Flat,y'jJ barahar, j^y*ii Aamtcar, (insipid) li-^ phlkd. 

Flexible, !/*>- chimra, S-« lachtla, *j norm : see Soft. 

Flimsy, Hsj /^affii, J-|ij patll.^J kam-zor, ^^\jpaji. 

Fond, (_»jU. s/ia'ik, ^J^\a ashik, JjU mail: see Fool. 

Fool, Foolish, JL«»-1 afimak, (— iyj^J &e-uiu^/, -{^j^ mura/iA. 

Forasmuch, ^^ chunki, iL^ jabki, i^ji,) ziraki. 

By Force, Forcibly, \j^ jabran, ^ jj) ^or sc,jjji fio-zor. 

Fore, tol aglS, j_,i-j pesA, ^^—rJ peahtn, ILyJ pahla. 

Foreign, Foreigner, tj-J.'^ pardesl, ,_j~»-' ynabl, ,_^Ju iu^. 

Former, ii 1 og/a, HyJ pahla, ,j*i-J plshlTt, JIjLi ihbik. 

382 Vocalulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Formerly, ^ I Bge,_,ii-j peshtar, ^^ (_^Li sabi^ men. 

Formidable, i—-^^ viuh'ib, cS\J <.jl^*-Ji> haibat-nak. 

Forth, (forwards) ^il age, (abroad) _;Ab hahar. 

Fortunate, i.i-i:;i.l^ nek-bakht, "-^j^ hhagwant. 

Forwaril, (early) L*ST agmana, (bold) UyL shokh: see Before. ( 

Foiil, 1— • fita'da, i_»LilJ na-saf, ,j~^ najis, iJjll aluda. 

Fragrant, _^.bjj ^^ khiish-ba^ar, Jsm^ mu'atlar. 

Frail, (weak) i,jL«-a sa'j/", (not durable) U»^ kampa, ^\i Janl. 

Free, jIjI ajorf, jUi.-« mukhtar, ■Ujj'j warasfa, 

French, j_»— jl^ yaroiTs, ,_j— — I'jj yariislsi, ^^^_J_i'JjyraRS Au. 

Frequent, jlS) akgar, j^y-j paiham, "-^i-N^J fiaAwf. 

Frequently, ij_^l aksar'ti/a,j\jj\j bar-bar, jil^ besktar. 

Fresh, (new) Li ti«ya, »;l; ias^a, (not salt) \il\ aI5na : see Cool. 

Fretful, ^jf-J»~ chirddra, Ui- khafa, r^ji'j na-Mntsh. 

Frightful, tlAil^ haulnak, Lijl_») darawnu, t^^,^si° Tuufub. 

Frivolous, Ulljii Afl?Aa,J-^li nu-cA7s, CS.f-> subuk. 

Frosty, j' J i_i;J barf-dar, U l^,J^J Jjaffi Aa «a. 

Fniitful, jljjj-fl njeica-(/ar,jjjb barwar: see Fertile. 

Fruitless, J^^jl apkal,j^ be-bar, (profitless) O— e a6ax. 

Full, (complete) \jy^pura, (replete) J_^ bhara, ^jpur, .— * scr. 

Fulsome, Ujip ghinauna, J'^'^ tia-gawar, Jki_j Ij na-pasand. 

Furious, JkiJ (uflJ, jJiii s/iadtd, Cj U«di ghasab-imk. 

Further, ^jijJ durtar, (furthermore) _^ ^ tis par. 

Fusty, .x.^^ ^/ja^Aun^, ^^Ij da$7, 1j>iJbLj bisakinda. 

Future, ^Liii— * miutakbil, a-wJl a'fada, ^itSl dgathi. 

Gamesome, lis- chulbula, i^jV khilafl, Uj, rasif/a. 

Glaudy, L^ bharklla, 1LX2»- chatk'ild, SJj^ rangild. 

Gay, 1^^ kJnish, ,jUi)li ahadmdn : see Gaudy. 

GeneraJ, «U am, f^jr* murauico/iy^t akfar. 

Generally, Jji? akxarlya,J^ aksar, tej.*fi umuman. 

Generous, ^-i-" saMi, ^J'j rfiiia, *Jj5 ftorJm. 

Gentle, (tame) h> hild, (well-bred) J-el /«</. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, Spc. 363 

Gently, ^^^^^ ahiste, ^^^-i-JbJ dklme, ^y ^jj norm norm. 

Genuine, Ju^l afily (pure) fjA\>- kf^lis, l^^ chokha. 

Giddy,Jj ^jfghurni-^ar, (volatile) J-^^^^- chanchal. 

Glad, (^^ kkushf Jl^ shady jy^ masrur, ^j>- khurram. 

Gladly, ^ ^^ khushi se, ^ JcJ I anand st. 

Globular, Globous, Jy gol, \^^^ golorsa, ^j^J kurawi. 

Glorious, JA>- jalil, jdji\jAs>- jaRlU'l'kadr, Jujp« mqjld* 

Glutinous, V?}?" chipchipa, LU laslasa, j\*\Ji las-dar. 

Glutton, Gluttonous, ^Lj peiu, ^J^ petdrthu, J\^! akkah 

Golden, 5ly^ i^nahlij ^jijj zarrln, ^J^ tilal. 

Good, \^\ achchha, 1^ bhala^ (^^ khubf lL^ riek. 

Graceful, JLsr* sajlla, fj^kj^ jamil, JiJ^Jb tarahrdar. 

Gradually, t^'^ ba-tadrijf isij ^j rafta rafta. 

Grammatical, »JsXi b borka^day ^ji/^ marbuL 

Grand, \j) bara, aJoc azim^jJi kabtr, CS^ buzurg. 

Grateful, jljki^^ shukr-guzar, (jJcJ^^j^^ haklc-shinas. 

Gratis, Gratuitously, \j:^Jlc muftj '^.j^jpi be-zar khartd. 

Grave, \jJbJ dhira, 2fJu£^ sariftda, \j^i^ gambhtra. 

Greasy, jIjlj^ charbt-ddrf \:Sj>- chikncLj iS^i>- chikkat. 

Great, 1^ bara^ ^^as. azim, (^Jnj) buzurg^j^ kabtr. 

Grecian, j<>l3^ yunann. 

Greedy, i/^j>^ harts] jVf-'^ Idlchl, (ravenous) \^,j^ mar-bhukkhd. 

Green, \^ hardy J^ sabz, (fresh) »jljf tdza, (raw) Ls? kachchd. 

Grey, '^f^a^-Afli^ khdkistarl, \j^ kabrd, l-^^v^^ ash'hab. 

Grievous, Jj<x& shadid, c:.^ss*^ sakht, jJj\ J; J dard-angez. 

Gritty, \^^ kirkird, (as bread) LiL^ kaskasd. 

Gross, \Sj^ motdf i^^^myjaslm, i^j^, bhdrl : see Stupid* 

Guiltless, ^UIj be-gundhf «^j(^ nirdokh, ^j{ bart. 

GmXiy^ JS^ gunahgdr J ^^jf;,aSj taJc§irwdr. 

Hairy, (full of hair)j1jJ^ mVeddr^ (made of hair) ^^^'•^ pashmi. 

Half, Ujt ddhdf CL2) ni^, aJ riim. 

Half and half, in halves, ^J^ U.^ nisfd nisfi. 

3()4 Vocabulary. —Adjectives, Adverbs, ifc. 

Handsome, ^^-— ->■ (lasin, l^fi-j SKlhra : see Good, Beautiful. 
Happy, (lucky) ^^rt^ kamran, (at ease) JU"(_,;j»- khmh-hal. 
Hard, vi^-= sakht, \^ kara : see Firm, Difiicult, 
Hardly, (with difficulty) ^ t^J J difcfcat se : see Scarcely. 
Hark ! ji^ y^ smio suno, j{^J ^f^,*^ dek/to dekho. 

Harsh, i. 

lijJ duruiht, t 

takht, (sour) (_^ turs/j. 

Hasty, (quick) Aa~jald, LJ^ phurtlla, (rash) Jij («nrf. 
Haughty, jj^;iw maghrur, i^Jii*^ gkamandi : see Proud. 
He, (pron.) Vj wuA, ^. yifi, (male) y nar. 
Healthy, Healthrul, u::,^^ tan-durust, \^^ "i^ hkala ckanga. 
Hearty, (sincere) L>_;-j ht-riya, i^U »af: see Healthy, Strong- 
Heavenly, ^<jL«—I asmant, t^j'-*-' samawt, i]j falakl. 
Heavy, ^j\^ b/iart, ^J|^ giran: see Grievous, Stupid, Sad. 
Hebrew, ^j]Jf^ ibrarii, i^Jj^ yahudi. 
Heedless, Ij^—j be-'parwa, JJU ^afil, ti-i-»-l achet. 
Helpless, j\^S la-char, ij^^_ be-c/iara, u--^ He-has. 
Hence, (adv.) -. ^^j yahan se, (conj.) ^^-l-il is-ltye. 
Hence ! (interj.), j* jjJ dur ho ! jA j-JO daf* ho ! 
Henceforth, Henceforward, ^ *_>! ab si, C\ age, «J^T a'inda. 
Her, ^^ ^ ^ {j-^ \ u~' "*■ °'' is-^^i "^^> -kl,^(_^\ us-ka. 
Hereafter, |_jd\ .xm ia"d isAe, ^T age, JJ^T a'inda. 
Hereditary, ^)jjy mauruiii, ^'\j\ 5657, lIS):;-; paitrik. ' 

Hideous, t^-^-^ mu^ii, jJUjA haulnak, ij_J karlh. 
High, jJj buland, l=j^\ uncha, (proud) ^J[i^ mutakabbir. 
mir-zada, JjjU- Jlr dti-kliandan. 


High-bom, idjlj^-*! 

Highly, li-v.V "'^"y^i '•^V nipat, jjIjJ ziyada. 
High-mettled (as a horse), _jLJl».j«n-A52,j^ rti. 
High-seasoned, )^^ cAtVpira,jlj jLo* masalih-dar. 
Hind, Hinder, Hlndermost, !.(3:;j>icA/i/a,j3-l afdiir. 
Hitherto, Cicjl uh-tak, CJj ,J^_ yahan lak,jfiA hanoz. 
Hollow, l^^jj- chhuclika, uJ^*-" mujumoaf, Vj^ khokhla. 
Holy, (_^AiU muArtd(/(w,_;A\t jtnAtr, c/b ;jqA. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 366 

Honest, \^ khara, j\j{»^l>^j rast-baz, JboU sadJt, 

Honourable, jjx« mu'azzaZfjyc\j namwar: see Honest. 

Hopeless, s^\ \j na-ummed, fjJy niraSf (j^^^ mayus. 

Horrid, Horrible, y-^;^y^ muhib) clAJ Jb haulnak : see Dreadful. 

Hot, A,^ garm, \ij tattiyj^ tez: see Eager, Furious. 

How long ? u^ 4.^ kab tak ? How ottlj^^ kai ber ? 

How many? ^jc^ kitne (m.) ? How much ? lis^ AtVna (m.) ? 

However, (conj.), ^^f^ lekin,Jio magar,j)^ par. 

Human, ^LJl insam, f^J^, bashart. 

Humane, J<^/«*/ narm-dil, aJl>- Aa^ira, aJ^ ^aZtm. 

Humble, ^^y farotan, c-^y^ gh arlb. j^\g> djiz. 

Humid, C/Lw naYiinaX:, MjW« marftift, y ^ar. 

Humpbacked, Ij^ X:t£&ra, cr^^ljj^ kuz-pusht. 

Hungry, l^^ bhukka, iCt^^ gursina. 

Hurtful, jl^bj ziyankar,j,d^ muzirr, Jlsk« mukhilL 

Hypocritical, Hypocrite, ^-2-^ kapattj J^^J riyakar. 

Ideal, ^\i>' khiyalif ^<^ tDahmi, ^Ji farzi. 

Idle, (unemployed) j\Cj be-kar, (lazy^ ls ^ i 5m«^. 

Jealous, ^^l^JJ bad'Zann, (emulous) ^jt^ iZJj^ ghairat-kash. 
Ignorant, ^bU nordan, j0ss\i be-khabar : see Fool. 
Ill, (bad) \j burif jj bad, (sick)jU^ blmar: see Evil. 
Ill-behaved, ^5^^=^ kuckalt,j^^\,^> badratwar: see Rude. 
Illiterate, «Jj|^U norJdmanda, aJliclj bt-ta^lim, .^^Lj^ ansikh. 
Ill-natured, ^V«V bad-hatin, jI^jJj bad-nihad. 
Illustrious, ^U namt,j^i^^Li^ mo^AAttr, jL^^o mumtaz. 
Immediately, t>;.f^ ba-mujarrad, cl>Jj turt, ^^ ^aiAi. 
Immense, J^£^ be-Jiadd, (j^Uiuj be-kiyas : see Infinite. 
Immoderate, *J^«^^^ be-andaza, ifjbj ziyada, *\ssx) bc-hadd. 
Immodest, /^/^ be-skarm, Ls^ be-haya. 
Immoral, ^U/cJj bad-rndfash, l^^^j^ ma^yub: see Bad. 
Immortal, ^\ amar, C2^^ be-marg, J|jj5I 2a yaraZ. 
Immovable, Jj»-1 achat, Jj\ alal, cS^sS^j^ ghair mutaharrik. 

366 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Impartial^ fjOjk^ be-gharaz, ^Q.rav^ munsif, JjU ddiL 

Impatieaty jf^ be-sabr, ^^i.JL\j norshikeb, ^f garm. 

Imperfect, aUjO na-tamam, fjci\j nakis,j^^ fcasir. 

Impious, ^^Xj bc'din, (j^\ifasik, i<*;^<^^ adharmi. 

Important, ^^ ahamm, t^l^ bhart, \y^ bard. 

Impossible, ^jLt^j^ ghair mumkin, l3^\ anhond. 

Impotent, (unable to propagate) J^l5 nd-mard: see Weak. , 

Improbable, ,^az^:^ j^ ghuir mufitamil, ^j^UiuJ^U- khildf-i kiyds. 

Improper, Ir^ be-jd, J[^5fc«l5 nd-md^kul, J^yiib\i ndrhamwdr. 

Improvident, Imprudent, ^jlbi^\dj^ kotah-andesh,j^^s^^ be-tadbtr. 

Impudent, fj^ be-sharm, (bold) .^iJbj dhtth. 

Impure, 4-jUU nd-sdf, ^j*^ najis, tl/bl3 ndrpdk. 

In, ^^ men, -^y bich, j:^ bhitar, (dakh. also) ^^^ mane. 

Inaccurate, ^f^ j^ gh air sahlh, c;:..^jl3 ndrdurust. 

Inactive, \jl> ^ sust, LjbJ dhtld, ^-^J^ ardml. 

Inadvertently, ^ vj:>Ji i gh aflat se, ^^ bhulkar. 
Inanimate, Inanimated, \J^f^, be-jdn, CS^^^:^^ be-namak. 
Inattentive, JiU gh dfiL C^liJ^*^ be-iUifdtf^tj^ be-parwd. 
Incapable, ^^'3 kasir, JjlS -ȣ gh air kdbil, U^U nd-rasd. 
Incentive, iiii^^,^^J targhib-dih, CJ^ muharrik. 
Incessant, Jly:^ mutawdtir, j\j^ lagdtdr, ^^^ paiham. 
Inclined, JjU md\el, (desirous) l-^5; rdghib, (Jj\J^ shd\ik. 
Including, Inclusive, fJj^sJL^ mushtamil, J^Ui shdmil. 
Incomparable, ^jiaxj bc-nazlr, (JIjS Id-sdm. 
Incomplete, /Xu\j nd-tamdm, ^Jsi\J ndkis. 
Inconstant, f^^\^, be-sabdt, Ji^, be-kardr. 
Incorrect, ^i^*^l) nd-sahlh, ^i\J\ asudh, lali ghalat. 
Indebted, jljup^ karz-ddr, (obliged) ^j^i^^ mamnUn, 
Indecent, Indecorous, l^j\^ be-adab, /^jt^, be-sharm. 
Indeclinable (in gram.), CSf^j^ ghair mutaharrik. 
Indeed, ^f^\^ wdkVi, ^ sack, <^J\ albatta. 
Indefinite, %jLkj^ ghair mukarrar, (noun) ip nakira. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 267 

Independent, JSr.«*>« mustakill, J^^ sar-khnd. 

Indiscreet, bUW be-lihax, j\p^\ ^ bt-imtiydz. 

Indisposed, (disinclined) jLl3 na-sazy (sick) j>:wJuJ^ kasalmand. 

Industrious, ^A^'^sr^ mihnat-t, ^^sj-UUl^ kdmkdji, ^^ sa^i. 

Inestimable, l^ be-bahd, i^^a>J^ be-klmat. 

Infamous, /^J JJ bad-nam, \y^j ruswd, ^j«i*s^l apajasl. 

Inferior, l^ nicAa, C^f>- chhota, Ji^^ farotar, l3 jl arfna* 

Infinite, aacy be-hadd, ^^^^, bepdyan, l^'^<; be-intihd. 

Infirm, c£>n^ ?o,^fy ^'^ dubld, ,^'y^ nd-tawdn, ^%j rogl. 

Ingenious, ^^J zaki, ^^4> ?aAiw, |yi^ chaturd. 

Initial, 1^ pahld, /»J^ mukaddam, ^}^ awwaL 

Inlaid, o^ munabbat, ^y^jard^u. 

Innocent, C/b j?aft, « w!L; be-gundk, (harmless) <*---i^ gh arlb. 

Innumerable, jU^ be-shumdr, ijL^^\ anginat. 

Insane, <^^^^ diwdna, V%\i bd'old, ^y^"^ majnun. 

Insatiable, \^ vJy^j-*^^ nS-^cr-Aowc kd, \^^j^ marbhukhd : see Greedy. 

Insensible, ^j^-s^ be-kiss, (J^^^y^, be-hosk : see Gradually. 

Inside,^^i«f; bhttar, ^j^j«x)t andarun, jiyj\ andar. 

Insipid, sy^^ be-maza, IC^ pklkd, Cm^^v»> bc'Tiamak. 

Insolent, |^ magrd, ^J^j*^ sar-kask, Ai^S gustdkh. 

Instantly, ^\ ablu, aJ ^1 ist dam, j^\^ fi-l-faur. 

Instead, ^^f' twaz, Jjj badal, v^ \sfr. ba-jd'e. 

Intelligent, JiU akil, *^ fahtm,j\J^^ hoshydr. 

Intemperate, J-Jb^JkJ bad-par hez, ^5/2* shardbi. 

Intentionally, ^JuaS ka§dan, \*^a^ amdan, ^^J-^yi iJ^j^^ bujlike. 

Interior, Internal, k^/-^, bhltrt, ^^^ darunl. 

Intimate, (^^(^^ ham-dam, a^ mdhram, (jJyo munis. 

Intransitive verb, ^Ji ^Jm fi^l-irldzimi, tlCo^l akarmak. 

Intrepid, tlA»*^ 65-i5A,jJj nidar, j\j\p^ jdn-bdz. 

Intricate, j1 J ^jpecA-efar, ^^j<^ *f(^P^^^ dar peck. 

Intuitive knowledge, (J^ aU ilm-i-ladunnl. 

Invalid, (null) Jtb bdtil, (sick) (j-s;^'^.!*^ ddUmu-Umaraz. 

368 Vocabulary. — Adjectwes, Adoerbs, Sfe. 

Invaluable, ly— j be-baha, Jj^l am.ol,yyi mis. 

Inverse, Inverted, W uUa, UjJ^I aundka, (— ijii^ malclub. 

Invincible, tj:^-^\ ajlt, ^^1 atal, (_->jLi« j-= gkair maghlub. 

Invisible, ^iSJI andekha, u-^^ gka'i'b, A>Jj^ na-padid. 

Involuntary, i^^aJl izjf trari, jUiil ^ be-ikhtiyar. 

Jocular, Jocose, JjfS^ thalhol, J^--* hansor, i— ijt i?''^''l/- 

Jolly, Jovial, t^^ khitsk, J J ajjj zinda-dil, ^yH bkogt. 

Joyful, t_ri^ M'M^t 1*1^ IdiuTram, ^Ujli shadman. 

Irr^ular, jjielij^ he-lcd'tda, (_^Lii_j!U- khilof-i-kiyas. 

Irremediable, IjjH lu-dawa, r-^td be-daj. 

It, »j wikA, ^ jiA or yah. Its, IC(\ us-/;a, IC-I is-Aa. 

JudiciouB,jL^^ hoshyar, A:-«.\Af- o/clmand, ^^Jl parbtn. 

Jugular, ^ ^ gale kd ; vein, jijjjll J-b- ftablu-l-wafid. 

Juicy, L-)j rafila, J^X^j rasdar, t_j) jli shdddb. 

Juuior, t;j^ chhold, CS^^^ kuchak, jJub sa gh lr. 

Just, JiiU aiii7, C— >|; rasi, Isr" sachchd, -'.^j' tkik. 

Just now, jjjl ab-h't, JWI alhdl, t_jl afi. 

Keen, (eager) Ji^Li sha'il;, (sharp) jJ (Fs, (severe) aJ ^unrf. 

Kind, (j^^^ mikrbdn, (.i-ojbj dayawant, jjt^i-i shafik. 

Knotty, Knotted, L^gafAi/a, (abstnise) (_djie mugklak. 

Knowing, (_iilj wakif, lilj ^ana, ^Li gydnt, juX^ md/iir. 

Laborious, ^^^^s^ mihnatt: see ladustrious, Difficult. 

Lame, \^ langrd, cJiii long, ^1 lunj, (of the bands) Hjl laid. 

Languid, i— i»*J f^^'Vi '■^'^ mdnda, Ja\£ kdkil, i^ sugf. 

Large, Ijj iara, Ijj^ mof a, ^ly /ara^, ^^^j 6/iori. 

Lascivious, !,::,_« nia«2, iVjv-" ^'"i'"'"'''. 1^^*- chulhdrd. 

Last, ^stjpic/iA^j^T HjfcAir, -^1 aMir. 

At last, jiT aMir, ,jljj nic/an, C-~jlc a^ibat. 

Late, (after time)^ii der, (deceased) (t}*y* marram, (past) ial ag^. 

Lately, ^^j-i ^JJy J t^^ '^ofe rft'nori sF, Sj ^^^<i darln wiUi. 

Laudable, rj<X4-« mamdufi, Jj\5 ^^S i-JJ/w (a^rt/ ke kabil. 

Lawful, ^j^ ghar'i, (allowable) JjU-ZaVz, Jii- haldl. 

ft.^ L. 

Vocahttlajy — A(§ectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Lazy, Li 1 svst, JaK" kahil, ^^ nikkattu. 

Lean, SjJ duhla,yii lagkar, j-^ hakir: see Poor. 

Learned, JU alim, J^\i fazil, J^l^ kamil, iziMj pandit. 

Least, ^jf»- ,_j-i k_-uj sab se chkola, ^J^ kamtarJn. 

Left, (opposite to right) j^tU bayan, (remaining) ^U fia(!-7. 

Lenient, Lenitive, |^;J-* mulaiyin, ^^f-^ mmakkin. 

Leper, Leprous, ^J^'f korht, ,_5— -^ pcsi, ^^A^jasaml. 

Less, ^ tam, ljj#»- chhola, ^a^ kamtar, jl^ ki/itar. 

Lest, (that not) liiL* mabada, (for fear that) ^ 1_j! awa naho. 

Level, ^1^ barabar, j\y^ kamwar, -r*~^ musattaft. 

Liar, 1<jj^ jr'Awf Aa, t-jjli iazift, jSfjjJ darogkgd. 

Liberal, (munificent) j**-"" saklii, Ulj (/afa : see Generous, Free. 

Libertine, aJ^_ be-fcaid, Is! luchcka, -iJj rind, tjiji dwdra. 

Licentious, Jl^j be-kaid, ^J^J^ sarkask, J€jj badkdr. 

Lifeless, ^J^i be-jan, (inactive) lt. — ^ sast, J>j^ maj'hul. 

Light, (bright) 1*-1 ajla, ^^ij roshan, (not heavy) ICIa ^a/^u. 

Like, (equal) (Jf*|;-« muwafik, (similar) Lj ^5, uL- SJl cksm. 

Likely, (probable) ^ly^ honhdr, (probably) ^jTjj* houie, UU ghdlihan. 

Likewise, (adv.) ^jj biti, ^ ntz, ^J-'^j^j^ upar-iske. 

Liquid (fluid), ILi patla, JV^ aaiydl, c-t^j.^ musafi. 

Little, IJjjj thora, (small) ^jf»- ckkbta, '^jf^ khurd. 

Live, Living, t->-Ji/a, tS^j zinda, (burning) *S garm. 

Lively, Jjsiij zinda-dil, j^ skokh, ^^^J:.yi~ khnsh-tal^: si 

Lo ! ^J rfcAAo, j! ?o, ^SJJ d^kh. 
Loath; i^/s'jlj na-rus, jiii-li kashida, t^'^/jj rUgarddn. 
Lofty, (l^'gli) >*-^ bulaitd, (proud) jj_,jt* maghrur : see Conceited. 
Lone, Lonely, S^l ikla, IfJ tankd, 'LS\ aliela : see Solitary. 
Long, L-»! lambd, j>jJ daraz, (time, dilatory) i^^jJ dirang. 
Loose, i^ kkuld, ISjfs- cAAu/S, ILjtJ rfAiia, iJLj fie-iaid. 
Lost, S gvm, t— 'Iji- khardb, Li g^ya, »---j'^ ghd'tb. 
Loud, tjj,'^ jAort, jljT JkiL' buland dwuz, W".! unc/id. 

-■^*- *• 

370 Focabulary, — AJjecttves, Adverbs, ^c. 

Loudly, with a loud voice, iSj^^ pukarke, ^^jy^ shor se. 

Lovely, ^JLj pyara, |j-JJ^ nasnln, j^H dilbar. 

Lovesick, ah^ Jarefta, ^yii^ maftitn, (j^i^* majnun. 

Lousy, Wi^^ckilraka, \jf> ^^_J>• ju'tn-bhara : see Base. 

Low, \s^ nicAa, ij.— j past, (weak) (_i-jua za'if: aee Base. 

Low, (adv. not loud) |V— *' a/iiste, ,_j***J dhme: see Down. 

Lowly, ^Jij^ farotan, *Jo- ^alim, l--OjJ gkarii : see Humble. 

Loyal, JlU-CXtJ namak-ltalal, t^ — « muslaiilm : see Faithful. 

Lucid, )_il* saf, jl/ barra^, ^^jy rosAon, i_jlii shaffaf. 

Lucky, t__--a; (_^ji khmh-naslb, j^tirr hakhtawar : see Fortunate. 

Ludicrous, tJj^'—' mask}iari,j\:^ lannaz,jSj\ii.ii.^ IduindorUiigez. 

Lukewarm, f>fjt^ ihlr-garm, (dakh.) UL*? kumkuma. 

Lunar, LJJ^-« mahCaln, ijj*i kaman, (day) ^ (*(A. (f.) 

Luscious, 1^1^ m7(/;a, L-i_, ru«7/a, i;j) i(/37| : see Delicious. 

Lusty, (stout) ^jLj tanawar, ^y *aw',^'|;jj zbrawar: see Corpuleut. 

Luxuriantly^ Aaslr,y'j wafir, s,i\j ziyada. 

Luxurious, (^Uc aiyash, ^J:^*^^J^ fdtusk-ma'dsh, jS-j ;7e(ii, ^JL-iJ 

Mad, ^WiJ dlwana, "ijh ba'ola, (enraged) CJ'U^.oc ghazahnak. 
Made, t^ LiUj banaya ku'a, iiS\^ sukhta, ^}}^ karwaya. 
Magnificent, ^jl;Jl*Jac aziTnu-ah-skan : see Grand. 
Main, (chief, principal) J^ atcical, |*ii« muknddam: see Important. 
Major, ^ bara, i^/^ Ziwswrg, Jjl aipwa/, _;'t>^ sardhr. 
Male,^ nar, ^jy narukh, iijy narina, Ailj^ mardaiia. 
Malicious, Malevolent, ^^J^ kina-kash, ji^^jj had-khpuh. 
Manifest, f^\) icaziAjjftlis aaAir, S^ khula, \JiS\ ashkara. 
Manlike, Manly, ii^J^ mardana, >ij*i\js^ jawanmard. 
Many, i-i-vyJ bahut, i^j^-^, bahutrrZ {ra. plur,),jU-J bixyar. 
Marine, Maritime, i^/=«7 bahri, ^ \_j<i darya'u 
Marvellous, i— *<=? •y'^i ^r-*?"' achambha, UysP- ajuba. 
Masculine, (in gender) jSj^ musakkar, i^Jidj puling : see Manly. 
Material, (of matter) iJU_j^ jismam : see Important. 

Vocabulary Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 37 

Maternal, Motherly, ^5;jU madarJ; see under Grandfather, &c. 
May be, JjLI shuyad, ^jjHi howe, ISjA hoga, ^ ho. 
Mean, <ij_^ kamlna, u^f Ij l>^j'*i (middle) «iL« miyana. 
Meek, !Jj^ bhola, --L>- haUm, *J-- *afim, i--JjJ= gharib. 
Meet, i._-^li^ Tnundfi6, 4.::,-^;^ durmt: see Fit. 
Mellow, ISj pakka, mJ> narm, iX^ rasida, (A* khnsh. 
Mercantile, ^j^ tijaraii, ti^Jj-i satidagarl, |_ji3>-Ly^ mnAa/anl. 
Mercifiil, »^j rafilm, J J m mom-dil, cu-vjliJ dayuwant. 
Merciless, (lay-J bl-^alnn, JjJ-j be-dard, Jji,^J^ sang-dil. 
Mere, (pure) ly niVu, Sljj nira/a, (merely) i-Jyo ft'"/, yi=* mafix. 
Merry, ^^tojLl shadman, jy-^ hansor, |jLo magan, ^A^ khiish. 

Metaphorical, _ 

e musta'ar, ,_SjW* moyu: 

V.) (jW* majazan. 

Methinks, ^ 's^j- i_j**^ iWfy'Ae sujhta hai, ^^ ^ .^ mujh ko 

lagta hai. 
Mid, Midet, -aj»j1 adk-blch, ^t ^i,y^^ blchon btch. 
Middle, Middling, >tJU-<i miyana, i^3-ij viasati, 'it^s* majkbla. 
Midway, s1;,^'Uj1 asna'e rah, ^^^ i\j ^S\ Mln rah mm. 
Mighty, li-jjb balwant, ijtjs Ifawi, ^^j^ samarthl, (dakh.) Jl^C« 

mukhand. . 

Milch (giving milk),__jUJjJ dudhar, ,J-tJJ dudhail. ' 

Mild, •JJui mula't'm, *ji narm, *Ja. hallm, J-oj^ komal. 
Military, ^J^^ lashkar'i, i^^Jang'', ij/—e- askarl. 
Million, ^ (_^J das lakh, Li-ocT ny k( ; ten millions, Jj^f karor. 
Mine, i^j:^ ^J iJyr?* Jp* mera, mere or mer*, jj\ ^jwI lijl a;»Ba, qpne, 

Minor, JLijj^ khttrd-sal, {^jax^) ^00 na-baiigh (shakJi^). 

Minute (very small), Cjf». i 
MiraculouB, >— -vdEf q;l&. 

Miser, J^at; bakhll, CJ~^* 
Miserable, ^.LIJ safi/, Jls.-rf 
Mudern,^!::^ lauta'akhkhiT 

-jlyj nihayat chhota, fjr^ mihtn. 
*Jj=f HJuba, (j=-<J/ karamlt, i^-^jjl 

mun)«iA, *»i s/juiti, (^^=s^ kaujus. 

— i ]diasta-^al, ^^fJ^ mvfiis. 

, ^.i^jadid, i^jlla. Aafi; see New. 

372 Vocabulary. — Adjectiveg, Adverts, Sfc. 

Modest, (bashful) LJ lafdh, *-U baUm, (chaste) <^j^ mahjub. 

Moist, jj tar, J nam, cS\u^ namnak, \S giVi, Ijjl oda. 

Mongrel, *lijd dbghla, il-JjJ do-nasla. 

Moral, (of manners) \i JU.\ akhlak ka, (virtuous) jii khatjk. 

More, jjl aur, jjIjJ ziyada, ul^^jl adhik, \^p^^ hisk. 

Moreover, -_; tis-par, JIjI Jjl upar wAe, (ji* aldtoa. 

Morose, tj^^^jJ duTuskt,}j(_^y tursk-ru, ^ Aara. 

Mortal, J^ fani, ^-Jj^ wiattrt, (deadly) tl^-« muhlik, JJ\i ^oii7. 

Most, j^ aksar, ^^^--^ bahut, i<i\j ziyada, j:JL^ hes/ttar. 

Mostly, for the most part, ^\ akxar, j^^_ beshtar, UU ghaliban, 

£j_^\ aksartya. 
Motherly, i^j'i\^ madarl, LjLo ma-sa, AlljjU madarana. 
Much, u:-^ ioAw(,jL-J hisyur, (adv.) Li^ly nihayat. 
Muddy, (foul) \~„ muila, 'i^ gadla, (stupid) ^Jj\i gatcdi. 
Murky, CSi_Jj tar'ik, l^jAJol andhlTa, jy^:^ ghanglwT. 
Musty, \yi sara, n-^ji, hastda, \~*S gumsu. 

Mute, (dumb) ^ gunga, J3 lal, (letter) |_jisr*._J^ fiarf-irmaldifi. 
Mutual, Mutually, ^jo^^ do-tarfi, ^j^\>~ janibain. 
Myself, Jyi- ,j^ maal Idiiid, (_jT op, t_*T ^^ main ap. 
Mysterious, yj^* makhfl, *■!— Ijj poshlda. 
Naked, Iw nanga, iCJi^ barahna, u^i ys uryan : see Bare. 
Namely, jjw ya*ne, \^yei>- khusiisan, Hl« masalan. 
Narrow, tSJ-J (cn^, i^-— r - chust, Ijd sakra, uu~Xj sakel. 
Nasty, 1L« maild, jJj palid, i^/ts^ najis, aJjTt aluda. 
Native, sjiiilj J->1 ^f tl^l-* ^_j— f fttsi mw/fc fto ajZ boihanda. 
Natural, ^c*^ .^i^'^i i,^'^ sa^'j t<*l^ kti^^f't (unaffected) Aii.L-j 

be-sakhta, (illegitimate) ijjj^l^ haram-zada. 
Naval, i^_;=< 6aAr?, tjfjVY=;-_;nA527. 

Naught, Naughty, jj ftad, \^ iwra, <— '|/^ kharah, jijJU shar'ir. 
Nauseous, Ijjif ghinauna, t;J~* mahruU, *j^ kar'th. 
Near, Nearly, (postpos.) t/-'^pfl«i t^*^ nasdik, (adj.) i---j/ A«"ft, 

J-aii.* muttaf'd, w /flga. 

Vocabutary— Adjectives, Adverbs^ ^c. 373 

Neat, i_JL« saf, cS\j pak, ^j^ suthra, sj^\j paklza. 
Necessarily, '^jjj-i xaruratan, M'i la budd, *j>- !t lajaram. 
Necessary, Needful, jj^ xarur, jtji lazim, i_ ~^^ wajib. 
Needy, Necessitous, ^Ls;* muhtaj, Jl^ kangal, j_As-« mujlis. 
Negative, ^Ju^ manfi, (sentence) UU saliba. 
Neglectful, Negligent, Jili ghajil, jJsXi be-kh^bar, CL ■-»•' stut. 
Nether, Nethermost, Sy larla, ^_^_j serin, JLjI da/a/. 
Never, ^^^^ hargiz nahtn, ^^ j^S kahhu aahh't,j\^j zinkar ! 
Nevertheless, ^^ji ^j-j lis par bfti, ^_ y tau bhi, fA^ tit ham. 
Neuter, (in gram.) CS-^ napunsak, (a verb) ^Ji lasimi. 
Neuter, Neutral, j&j\ ij^jljj na idhar na udfiar, i^^( a^g- 
New, Uj nayu, y nau, (fresh) ij\j toza, (modern) J^JJ^sr jodid. 
Next, (postpos.) (j~\^pas, »— -J/ ^arib, (second) l_^jJ dusra, tjlj nam. 
Nice, (JX*j thik, .^^ ^ahi/i, —\j^\jj^ mirsa-mixaj : see Dainty. 
Nigh, (postpos.) 1^/-^ pas, ulioJ^ nazdik, (adj.) t---Jy karib. 
Nightly, lUy-i shab'ina, ^ iJJi\j rat ka, (every night) cul_,^ har rat. 
Nimble, Ci^La- chalak, Asrjald, c::,^-. ^ chust,JJ tez. 
Noble, t— BJyi skarlf, i— -^jsT" wfy'Ii, *J-*c umda: see Brave. 
Nocturnal, 'i^-— »1 shablna, ^JJ /ai^, ^c-m skabl. 
Noisy, j^^ purs/tor, ci-iJ _^ shor-pusht, ^ U^ gh augha't. 
Nolens volena, iljj-* al^i khwaJi ma-J^wah, J^^ j\^ char nd-c/tdr. 
None, (no one) ^^^ t^'jS' kol nahlii, (nothing) ^^^ ^^^ kvchh naMii. 
Northerly, Northern, ^JUis^tmfl/I.jij JU-1 shimdl-ru, \s,\ji\ uttrahd. 
Notorious, (well known )^j^i.* mask'kur, i_Jj^,x^ ma*ruf: see In&mous, 
Notwithstanding, si ^-ij^-j^J hd^wujude ki, ii J-^y> har chand ki. 
Novel, Lj nat/d, Aj^ jadid, l^;-**-' achambhd, j-jJj badi*. 
Now, lj! ab, J«JU i^^/'/, J^l a;^«/, ^yS\ aknm. 
Nowadays, Ji —I dj kal, ^jji^J yl in dinoii. 
Nowhere, ^^^ ^j^ kahin nah'tn. 
Nowise, ^^j-^ ^ -.jL -_f Aisi jtaroA sc na^iri. 
Noxious, Ju-i« m'lfsidij.^ nmxirr, J^\ijatid: see Uuilful. 
Nugatory, ^U^li Id-fidsil, UC nikaaimd, ,^fJt hech. 

376 Vocdhuhry.—AdjecUves, Adverbs, ^c. 

Past, as^jj guxaskta, \^ gaya, \jiS gugra, (in gram.) ^j-j'-* mazi. 

Pat (fit, exact, fitly), ilCf th'tk,^) la'tk,j\J taiyar. 

Paternal, ^/jJJ pidari, dj\jM pidarana, ^^\ abwi. 

Patient, jjU sabir, L-Sli shiktba, (one sick) tj^:^j^ maTtz. 

Peace ! t-—**- chup ! ^^^li. kAamoxh ! 

Peculiar, (jO^£>- kiiass, ^^asr* makhsus, to -=r ny A«. 

Peevish, ^J^-J*- cktrchira, •^j'^^j zud-rarij. 

PeDitetit.^i,ic...i mvstaghjir, »<i\i nadim, i^l*-^ paskeman. 

Penultimate,^! J-J U ma fcabl akhir. 

Peremptory, (decisive) jJjli kati', (absolute) <ij i lorTadd. 

Perfect, J^\^ kamil, l^jj piira, (faultless) t_-^^ lie-aib. 

Perfectly, Ji^lj hi-l-kull, JU^ j (•Uj (amam 5 kamal. 

Perfidious, *|^CX*j namak-karam, Uj^j hl-wafa. 

Perhaps, JjUi ahayad, i^ /'oga, liiUjl ittifakan. 

Pernicious, j.<i« musirr, A_i< mufsid, ^,^J 2a&un. 

Perpetual, lj*j'>J du'tmt, ^JIj Juiti, i_fjlj.*s-il islimrarl, »jli kii'im. 

Perpetually, •C-'t^ hamlsha, li-i ja^a, [•'j-il' |Jj= dla-d-datcam. 

Persian, ^J^ farst. 

Pert, ^^ sho^, Ji?%- chanckal, .^LaJ rf/(7//(, Is^ machla. 

Pertinent, ^!l ^a'//:, <C:i_jL1 shayasta, tv^..>L4 munusib. 

Perverse, ^jJ-i airftfl, L,f2» hatfiila, \x* machla. 

Petty, ljjf»- chkola, Jij^ khyrd, i.;U *^ ham-maya, *ij 7i7cA. 

Piebald, jJjI ai^oit, 1^ AaJra, \,4^ cMtkabru. 

Pious, |ii=-« muttaki, JU> fa^i/i, u;.-^ bhagat, ic^*^ dkarml. 

Pish ! i_jl !//■, i^^i^ phish, ^jV^ chkt. 

Piteous, Pitiable, Pitiful, _jX\ J^ dard-angcz. 

Plain,^!^ barabar, J>y»i> Itamwar, (Sinaplfe) ioL) sada: see Clear. 

Plain, Plainly (adv.), \^% saJdran, i_JU> fof, j-j i_r-=b *'^'* ^'• 

Playful, Sjll a/o/5, J^>^ chanckal, Jy>-1 achpal, j-ji shokh. 

Pleasant, (_/tj»- khiish. If*-! achchha, jj JJ ZflsT? .- see Cheerful. 

Plenteous, Plentiful, e;-^ bahut, j^ kasir, JUfU malamal. 

Plump, \jj^ miifa, HJj^ m(j//a, ijU ^y /nr o (rt^a. 


Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbt, ^c. 377 

Pointed, j'jiSy nok-dar, iJy notala,J^yt? kajo-dmez. 
Voiaonoun, J^'ijtij zahr-dar, i^jij saftrl, ^^^^^ sammt. 
Polite, ijJ^ khnTik, jlU-l^^ khiis/t-akhla^. 
Politic, Political, ^Ji^ rnulk't, t^j^-i^ tadbirl ; see Cunning. 
Poor, (weak) i—L^ ?«**/. (leaii) J\W kangal, (needy) ^JALt muflis. 
Popular, ^U J*^j* ^'"' dil m'tz, (usual) ■rj/* murauwaj. 
Populous, jIjI abad,jyu^ ma muT, j^M ^-i C^ Rg se bkar-pur. 
Positive (certain), ijijiy yalflm, J|3I Id-radd, \1^'- -< bes/uikk. 
Positively, b-^ yakJnan, LLijjj^\i bi-z-zariirat : see Certainly, 
Possible, j^jil4^ mumkin,j\^jb honkar, ^Jjul shudanl. 
Potbellied, L^J-Jy tondaila, tLHiy^ sabu-s/iikam. 
PoXeat,jj\j2J soroirar, j-.»sj'Jo takatmand, ^^y JfutDi. 
Powerful, ki^-Jjlj balieant, jjj^ shah-zor, ci— nVj ^abardasl. 
Precious, ^^^ fcimaii, ^tA^ bes/t-baha, ^Jt aziz. 
Precise, (exact) iJ-C^' (Aift, j_jJj dakrk, (formal) (Jyli iE:anu»7. 
Pre-eminent, ^_^\j Ja'fk, J«iil a/ia/.jL*^ rnumfa^. 
Pregnant, ^\»- (lamila, ^^ '•^-^, P^ ^^i W bhara. 
Present, j^ls* haeir,^,j rubarS, '^)>-x* '"^oajud, |J-«U samiie. 
Presently, ^jjI ab-Iit, i_j1 ab, j^\^ fi-l-faur. 
Presumptuous, f^ shokh, ^\i_s gustakh : see Bold, Arrogant, 
Pretty, 1^^ sufAra, see Beautiful, (in some degree) ^ kuchk. 
Prev^ling, Prevalent, (common) — t^ murauwy : see Victorious. 
Previous, Previously, JJ kabl, ^ \ age, ^Ji^ pa/ile, ^^-i-j /)mA7«. 
Primitive, Primeval, ^J^\ osll, 1^ pahla, jJ\ adait : see Ancient. 
Principal, Jjl awical, Ijj fi«rn, 1^ paA/u, (essential) ^^jl*! csfi. 
Principally, |_Jl.^^J jtnA/e, W».i». khususan. UU ghaliban. 
Private, U^ chhipa, A^iy nihvfta, (own) ^U- klia^s, -^ ny. 
Probable, ^V^ honkur, Jm.^^ mu^tamil, wJU ^alib. 
Probably, JjLi shayad, ^jA ho'c, UU ghaliban, -j*'^ chahiye. 
I'rofitable, Jc^f^Ai fa'tda-mand, J-i* miifid, J-^J^ sndmand. 
Profligate, jjjj'iuik,j:^\ijajir, Sij rind,JSjj boHkar. 
Prolix, Jjjla jiawi/, *1£ J^ tul-kalam, ^Jt—^ bistarl. 
3 c 


378 Vocahulari/ — A(^ectives, Atlverhs, §"0. 

Prompt, .VJ taiyar, fa\s~ (laxir, cSi\»- chdlak, ^j^j^ chaukas. 
Proper, *^ wy, ^j>^ M^??> (fit) w-^iU^ munasih, tlXjfj Uiik. 
Properly, |<fft^ '— r^J"'*" ckahiyi, ^j^^i^ Ui kamd yambagkt. 
Proud, jjjjc* maghrur, jS^^ mulakabbir, jjLo magra. 
Prudent, J Lija hbshydr, '•^jij sirak, ij-^ff- chaukas. 
Pshaw ! iji^ p/iisA, i_Jl a/, ^ja- cA/ii. 
Public, (common) *U dmm, J-«Ll skdmil, (manifest, q. v.)^;*'^ sdhir. 
Pugnacious, U^l^ larukd, ^S^ jangi, ^\^^ jhagralu. 
Punctual, tJJ^ tiak, W" sachcha, lij sAcj uia da-wafd. 
Pungent, JW fiddd,JJ tez, J.ij iMnrf, hjjj parpard. 
Pure, (_/Jlii- khdtis, uj\^ sdf, J^y nirmal: see Genuine- 
Purple, tJ'j^^l arj:yiawa;it,^lj JH /a/-n(fiinies. 
Putrid, Ij-j sard, Si gaiffl) *J-i ganda, ^J—-:^ hosida. 
Quadrangular, j-J^^* "turabba, £ji^y>- c/iaa-gosha. 
Quadrilateral, j)h^^ chau-pahlu. 
Quadriliteral, ,<>/=- jf- chau-harfi. 
Quadruple, ^^ cAauguria, >3»»~jl»- ckdr-chand. 
Quarrelsome, jI^jipj-^Angrtl/S, ^ ri^-ii kaxiya-jo. 
Queer, l«-^ ayaft, L--^y^ ajib,j\x^\^ tamds/ieddr. 
Quick, j^J^jald-bdz, l1jiI»- chdldk,JJ tiz: see Alive. 
Quickly, ^jL^ jaldi, i^^Ji turant, iS^-.^ jhatpat. 

Quiet, Quiescent, ^Li sdkin, (silent) t r - cAm^ ; see Still. 

Quietly, ^_jaj>J dlilvii, ^Ji-~i^ ahistc, itt—JiT dhisla. 

Quintuple, liS;»J panchgund, l^ifltr'lj pdndttuhd. 

Quite, J^b bi-l-kuU, f-Jji- M"^. 'jy j^ura, diju bi-uinik. 

Radical, ^-sl aji7, ly''^ sdtl, i_sjV^ bunyddJ. 

Random, J»aa-j be-ffasd. At Random, ja^ JijI alkal pachchu. 

Rapid, J^ (!er, .jjJ tex-rau, Asr- jald, Ji^ /uwd. 

Rare,jJli nddir, t-^V*^ kam-ydb, l --,^ "/"A, ![;; itVK. 

Rash, jjUl vld'old, ^\^. he-lihdz, jL*-jald,JJ tez. 

Rather, Jjl awwal, 1^_^ pa}ile, jil^^ peshlar, JJ ^l-ftfi/. 

Rational, Jj**-« ma /,«/, ,Jjifi "^fi, j_iljlj nu(*t. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs, ^c. 379 

Raw, \j^ kachcha, ^bd^U na-pukhtaj, (as skin) jJusX^ be-jild. 
Ready yjlJ taiyar, 2rjUT amada, Atr.,,.^^ musta^dd. 
Real, ^^5%*^ haktkij ^^^J^ yaktnij Is-* ^acAcAa, ^X^^ a^Zi. 
Really, ^ 5acA, tjLS>. hakikatan, M^^^,^ firl-wald^. 
Reasonable, ^Jic aftff, u-^J durust, u-C^ fAift; see Rational. 
Rebel, Rebellious, ^^b ba gJu ^ \J^j^ sarkash, ^\j ta gh u 
Recent, L3 naya, y nau, ^j^^ jadtd, HjJ tdza, \^ tatkd. 
Reciprocal, ^J^^*^ do-tarft, ^^j^\p^ janibain. 
Reciprocally, ^^ ^jmA apas men, ^ ^j^\s>- jdnibain se. 
Recumbent, ,<^ muttakt, sCfjJjL) takiya-zada. 
Red, JS lal, ^^ surkh, \j\j rata, jA^\ ahmar. 
Redundant, 2f jbj ziyada, <>-i^'^ bahut, lI^J^ adhik. 
Regular, ^rj^lS b &a-A:a'trfa, ^US kiyasi, clX^ .<AiA:. 
Relative to, j;Ui^ muta^allilc, c: "^.im./* t ba-nisbat. 
Relaxed, IL^J dhtla, l::^.^mi ^t^^f, Jibl^ X:aA£/. 
Remediless, -JiUS Z5-*/5;,^l^!l E-cA5r,^U-l3 norchar. 

Remiss, LjbJ ^At /a, c: ) sust, J>v^ mafhul, JiU gh dfil. 

Remote, ^^ J cZiir, u:.^^^ Jj^ J dur-dast, Jluu &a tc?. 

Renowned, ^j^U nam-u^ar, a13(JXj3 weft-n5iw,j^.^lMC mash'hur. 

Repeatedly, jbjU 65r-ftar, li« J dafatan, ^Jj^^ji^ phir-phirke. 
Reprobate, ^ji^\^ gaya^guzra, c-^|/>- Jduirab, JJj rfwrf. 
Resolute, J^..^^ mustakill, ^^**a^ mazbut,Ji^\ tistuwar. 
Restiff, Restive, Resty, la?* machla, \^jJl>- chalbidhra. 
Restless, AJ^ ^, be-iram, j\jA^^ be-karar, JLj be-kal. 
Reverend, ^sS^Jf buzurg, ^^ mukarram, cu^^J^- fiazrat. 
Rich, JCmcJjJ daulatmand, j\t}jj zar-dar : see Fruitful, Sweet. 
Right, u:.^J durust, ujCj^" MiA, c:u^^ ro^^, (hand) LibJ dahna. 
Righteous, (I^ nei, )^j &Aa2a, jl^li^ ro^^da^r, JJU ^ar/iA. 
Riotous, Rioter, jLJj J dangebaz, jSj\ ii:zi fitruHingez* 
Ripe, ^^pakka, is^pi^ pukhta, »*y^j rastda, \jy)^pura. 
Rotten, \y^ sara,i^ gala, ^Ju^ bosida, id:^ ganda. 
Rough, )j4j4 kharkhara, (rugged) JjJ|\ arbar: see Harsh. 

3S0 Vocabulary.— Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

Round, ^\^ gal, SjjS^ chakrela,j)<i^ mjidauwar. 
Royal, ^J^ shahi, Jtlijlj ■padshahi, ijlAli shahana. 
Rude, t-jjl^ hl-adab, j.^c~S gustdkh: see Ignorant, Clumsy. 
Rural, Rustic, icvi*^ dikt, t^jj^a giintot: see Peasant. 
Russet, i^Sij/,^ ganduin-rang, ^^ jinduki. 
Rusty, iii^\^Sjj sang-aluda, \is\>-j^ murchaha. 
Ruthless, 1*=-;^^ berahm, ^)M^ sang-dil, JjJkfJ be-dard. 
Sacred, ^J-Ak< mukaddas, CS\j pak, J-.*:^ majid,s^ pabitr. 
Sad, 4_^li>' K/ffls, ^^ j J-» i gkam-gln, J^ malul, ^jjs^ mahzuri. 
Safe, M^^ mamun, litur' mahfus, L::.-v<:Ld salamat. 
Sallow, ^JLi sanwld, K^ phlkd, I^j pila, ^^-Lc mdftn. 
Same, ^^j wuh~l, ^-^ yih-l, ,^c^) ek-ht, ^Jl** /(amuB,y1^ barabar. 
Sandy, llaj_j retla, !L^j rt(i/a, i<^j '"^g'j V^ bulu'd, ^^^ kirkira. 
Sanguine, ^y>-ji pur-khun, j^-ij*^ k^un-dar : see Confident. 
Savage, (wild) ^jSi^jangVi, yj^-^j wahsh'i: see Cruel. 
Saucy, Ai^gustdkh, .^2-JW dhUk, <--)J^ ^^J le-adab, ^j_) sliojch. 
Save, Saving, 1^ siwa, ^jj^ chhorke : see Except. 
SaToury,jljij-B masa-dar, jjjJ la^Stj^^^y^ kJittshgttwar. 
Scabby, ^^lijli. khdrishtl, jJ^j^ khasra-pur : aee Mean. 
Scandalous, (-Jj;^ ma^yub, »yn>A^ maxmum, ^^j zabuit. 
Scant, Scanty, Scarce, ^ kam, ^^^S kalil, VTjf! thord : see Rare. 
Scarce, Scarcely, iS kain,ji^ kamtar, ^^ ij:^J dikkat si. 
Scarlet, ^ ijW-i suUdnt surM, >^Sjj tjj^j' kirmist rang. 
Seasonable, ••^•jf bar-wakt, *J»j^ b to mauka'^, J^=^ har-mal'all. 
Second, Ij-yJ dusra, ^\j suni, *jjJ doyam, (inferior) ^ kam. 
Second-hand, J-^** ' musta'mal, ]j^\ ittdrd, JU«i-il isfi ma/i. 
Secondly, uf/^jJ diisre, Uilj saniyan. 

Secret, JJ—iy poek'ida, ^J^ makhflt l-^ chhipd, t-r^i^ gha'ib. 
Secretly, t-i^ kAufyatan, it-ii Idaifya, ^J^^f^ ckkipdke. 
Secure, ^.*«U mamuti, b^jt* mafifuz, ^J^^ f>c-!^otTa. 
Sedate, Jt„ii? tiAu^a, U-6J dh'imd, l^J dhird,j^^ Icarar. 
Seemly, t^Li skdyasla,j \^J dikhd'u, J^'Jf crosta. 

yocabulary. — Adfectioes, Adverbs, ^c. 381 

Seldom, ^ kam, jli s/ioss, \j^ tkora, ^j^ ^^^ kabhi kabhi. 
Selfiah, Ju-* ^ ^ gharaimandf ^jk-i^i- khud-gharax. 
Senior, IjJ bara,j~^ kabir, ^^ kalan, *JjJi kadim. 
Senseless, i,/-^ bS-fiiss, ^ sun, ^^^ bc-jan : see Stupid. 
Sensible, (./-=*■ tJj'J ^abil-i-fiiss, ^_^yms^ maltsus : see Intelligent. 
Sensual, tJU^ nafidiii, ^j^ skakwatl, L-i; rastya. 
Separate, ljk;»-^'uf£u, ^^^1 a'ag> (^Uj tafiiwut, J^LJ nyara. 
Separately, 1 Jis;- \Aa-judajuda, i^\ i^j3l aiag a/ag, tlX;! tlSCl eft eft. 
Septuple, ^jf^^ sat-parta, U^ sat-guna, ly i.:;— iJt> haft-taka. 
Several, J^ii-* mutafarriif, (many) ^^^--^ bahut, i--a*j ba'xe. 
Severe, J-J tund,J^ tez, li^-* saMit, m-Ji_;ti durusht. 

Shabby, Ij js:; piyora, j^jijOa gudar-posh (?): see Mean. 

Shallow, 1^1 uM/u, JU* -^ kam-umu^, (silly) l^jl ocliha. 

Sham, l(jj4>- ^'ASf Aa, ,^-*a amati, ^J-*'^ swungi, A*l vaklt. 

Shameful, ^>jU^ s/iarfft-auiar, j W ^u;o'ii.- see Bad, Vitious. 

Shameless, j^/^^ besharm, U^ be-fiaya, ^U— S gustakh. 

Sharp, jJ fc2, ^^l^j burrun, ^^^ ckokha: see Acid, Pointed. 

Shocking, jXl iJli>;U wfl/ra(-<i/igB~,J-ii\Li-i-s»-j wahshat-angez. 

Short, ^*f^ chhbta, i\i^ kolah, \jy^ t/iora, tS kam. 

Shortly, ji^jald, *-— J^^j;* an-karlh, ^j— « *J j^j^ ftol dumvieit. 

Showy, tjiJ^ ntima'fshl,j\jy*j namiidar,tS^ bkarkila. 

Shrewd, ^^j^JJ tez-hosh, \ij pakka, IL- sit/atta. 

Shrill, JJ tez, ^J-Y' ""'/"i. <— ^j^ fiarlft. 

Shy, J^^ bharkel, jei-=*-j wa^sAi, i^ys^" mahjub. 

Sick,^U~) blmar, i^J-j^ azari, ^S^j rogi ; see Displeased. 

Signal, \^-^^ ojlb, Lf—^' ac!tambAa,j»^L^7nash'hur. 

Silence ! (interj.), »— «»■ chup, j^ij-ili- khamoah. 

Silent, f^*«U- A^iwo^A, (-^l^ ^—^ ckup-chiip, i^l-^Li jiafti^ 

Silken, Silky, |_j*iJ_j reahml, ^\j^ pali, ij/,j>- fiarlri. 

Silly, ll>^ bhola, ^loU nd-c^un, aJU> sat/a, Lk? kachcha. 

Similar, jjlj bardbar, ^J^|JS;} ck-sdn, t^jl-=-< mutasdwl. 

Simple, (plain) ijL sada, (single) J^i* miifrad: see Silly, Mere. 

382 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Since, (conj.) iL^aJ^^ is-wa&teki, iL^jab-kt, (adv.) ^^1 age. 

Sincere, i^,— il; rast, JjUa sadlk, j\^^j rast-baz, Lsr" sachcha. 

Siufulj^^lia gunahgar, ^}{p^p-i, ,_j^^ ''?«» C-jl^lJ na-pdk. 

Single, IL^ akela, \^ tanha, (not married) -^j^ mvjarrad. 

Singular, (uncommon) ^_,--^ ojib, (in gram.) AoA^ wakid: see Rare. 

Sirrah ! ^\ abe, ^j\ are, ^ be, ^j re, (fern.) ^1 ari, ^j ri. 

Situate, jJlj wakC, 9j^j< maaxu', \^j rakha, JJj para. 

Skilful, yals muhir, t_«l) vafcif, JjU kahil, ^^ii gum. 

Slack, L^J (ihila, us-— ' su^;, (as a knot) liL^ phuska : see Loose. 

Slant, Slanting, Wv tirchka, \b^ {irha, j)Lsj dhalu. 

Sleek, Lil^ chikna, (_Jl.o .<«/"; 8^ Smooth. 

Sleepy, LIaJ ninf^osa, CJiij'^ kimiib-nak, LilfXi^ ungAosa. 

Slender, JliJ patla, ^^^f^ c/ihm, uX>_jV bank, i^li nasuk. 

Slight, !bj patla, ^js.^ kaghast, CS^ tunuk, ^j^ chhola. 

Slim, Si> patla, CJjJ^ barlk, ILjJ dubla, CJj\j Ttasuk. 

Shppery, liila- chikna, V—*; phislaha, (uncertain) jj^\j wa-Acrar. 

Slope, Sloping, jSUo dhalu, •j(j\ uturu, j!,j]j-> sarazer. 

Sloppy, ILXu pankila, 1L«^ knckaila, ^^ ^^ jal-thal : see Dirty. 

Slothiul, iji ^. 1.1.1 s«5(, Jj>\i fcuAJ/, (._.iL»l^l aram-talab. 

Slovenly, AiU— -j be-sali^a, liAi ^atip, ,^j^ chirkln. 

Slow, d:;_Jti| a^ufa, il;.~-j su^f, Laj dAi/a, V«^>> dhlma. 

Slowly, «_!!iT a^tf^o, ^Jji^^j^ hauU-hauli, -* t/jj_J rferJse. 

Sluggard, Sluggish, J^i-i' (wAali, ^.-Jis aIJT aram-talab. 

Sly, UL-i sii/ana,ji^ chatur, t_ij^.jyatfeit/'. .\a£ ghaddar. 

Small, bj^ chhbta, \^ naiinha, tlXj-jf kuchak, Jjji khurd. 

Smart, (active) jlSJbi sAiftiA-fcnr, SLj^ jiAwrrt/a ; see Keen. 

Smoky, jUjLil^j dhu'dn-dhar, iJjlTjjj dud-dluda. 

Smooth, ji\j} harabar, j\jaA hamwur, t^jjf- chauras, t_JLs tafi 

Smutty, (obscene) laii ghalis. ^li*^ Aftura/afi; see Dirty. 

Snappish, \^ katahu, ^"-J-Jj- chirchira, \^jt harkii/il. 

'^""gt (private) JA-ijj poshtda, (neat) IjfL- aufArd : see Fit. 

So, \-A aim, \-^^j waisa, y^ so, rjt^ U-larah, ^jj yuith'i. 

Vocabulary Adjectives, Adeerba, ^c. 3 

Sober, jLijft hoshyar,j''^JJ!>jjparhezgdr, (grave) tx^sx^ sanjJda. 

Soi^iable, j\— iL* mitansuT, ^r!^ viilajn, ^-^^-^ji^ ^1 ashna-pai-ast. 

Soft, ftji narm, *51« mula'im, ^ pilpUa, J-yS komal: see Easy. 

Solar, Solary, ^-n-t.A shamsl, ^jbil aftabl. 

Sole, Kl iA/o, IL^ aklla, \^ tanha, -^-f^ mujarrad. 

Solenin, (grave) aJi-sLi »anjida, t^J^ bhari, (awful) ^j^ ibrati. 

Solid, s*Ak muiyaviid, \^\i tanlhd, (^^ thos, li— i?^ sakhl. 

Solitary, \^ tan/ia, i^l ikld, f^y nirala: see Sole, Hermit. 

Some, ,^«? kuchfi, ^ ^ kol, lIXjI ^j j^ kol ek, JO*- chand: sea Few. 

Sonorous, jl.l J ^ar-riifa^, jljl jJj baland-atoaz . 

Soon, fc/'ilf- jaldi, t_j\ii shitdb, i^S^_ beg, ^J'*- ^«^i ,_e*jl wfiAT. 

Sore, -^J^ pur-dard, j l^J dukha'u. Sorely, ^^ s casJ^ shiddat sS. 

Sorrowful, _j-W J dilglr, ^^JitJi ghawgin, Jjl.* malul : see Sad. 

Sorry, ^J^*.J^< pasheman, (worthless) iijS'^ na-kdra: see Vile, 

Sound, .^vs^ sah'ifi, UL.~ti-i saldmat, u:^^^^ AAa/a cAangu; see Firm. 

Sour, ,ly tursh, Is^ kltaltd, CJj^ cHuk, ^^\o~ fydmiz. 

South, So atherly, Southern, ,^J^ii dakkm, ^^>-januhi. 

Spacious, «_«1j tDusC, Sii\zS kuskdda, ILfj pliaild, ^^ farakJi. 

Spare, JJJ kaUl, IJjfT tliara ; (to spare) JU'jj ziyada : see More. 

Sparing, .^^^ kifdyad, —y^ fS kam-kharch : see Economical. 

Special, |joU- fcAaffi ^j^^ ma^ii,; .■ see Great. 

Specious, \Mjb% stdkir-numa, *lja- '•^jy surat-kaTdm. 

Speechless, i^VjH ie-iwian, .Ji-j^yljj zubdn-basta, J^l anhiil. 

Speedily, ^^-i ^^ji^ jaldi se, ^^j '.,^^''1/)'^ daurd-daurl si. 

Spick and span new, ^ latlcd, jj-iu^ tak-darz, \-^ kord. 

Spirited, j^<ij\=^ jdn-ddr, JjijjJ sindn-dil, j^<i diler. 

Spirituous, Spiritous, j^ tez, J«J tutid, ^j^ chbkkd. 

Spiteful, jj«i-? k'tna-war, ^H /ogT, ,_;2ji kapaft. 

Splendid, V^ chatklld, l^jft bhark'iLd, SJ-Jj ravglld. 

Spoken, ^^ lljj &oZa-/iu'a, ^>£ 1^ kahu-hu'd, izJS gufta. 

Spontaneous, ^j\^\ ikhtii/ari. Spontaneously, ^j-.(_jl dp-se 

Sportive, ^^f^ khnsh, «_Jr|_^j»- klimh-tah , Jj.^^ achpal. 

384 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adcerbt, ^c. 

Sprightly, (.::—>- chust, lIXU- chahuk, j-ji shoMi,jy-ia> hansor. 
Spurious, \^j^ jhulha, Jl»-^ai, jj-jU libasi, iiiU sakhta. 
Square, ^j^ murahba , ^^jf- chau-kona, AJi^^ c/iau-gosfia. 
Stable, Ji^ji bar-karar, JlJ ^a'fm,j\j.^ pd'edar : see Finn. 
Stagnant, JiiJ band, ^^'jjU na-rawan, ^\~i saidn,j^ thir. 
Standing, 1^ khara, JU }{a'jm, by bar-pa : see Stagnant. 
Stark, (adj.) t^- ^ fioM(, J /kcA, (adv.) jik* inuf/aj^, ,_/is* ma^ 
Stately, JjJ fiaro, JiA*c umr^a, (j^** ali-shan. 
Stationary, ^\~i sakin, jfiJi ast/dr, JU ka'fm: see Standing. 
Sleadiast, *jli ka'im, *£!«?—■ musla(ikam, ^1 a(a/. 
Steady, ^»«i4 mas£uf , jl^;^^ ustuwur, a ji ul^^Ij aabtt-kadam. 
Steep, 'j^ khara, -&jl^ _(A«rA, latTjl uncAa, Li^l augkat. 
Sterling, id siftAa, yJU- !dMlt§, Sy nirala, \4i^ chokha. 
Stern, iZJjj^^jj ruk/ii-surat, \.^ karwa, ^^ ialkh-ru. 
Sticky, (viscous, adhesive) ^-^^ ckipchipa, LJ—l laslusa. 
Stiff, 1^1 oftra, \^ kara, jstr ia/r, (stubborn) \J^ vtagra. 
Still, ^ (Air, Iji^ khara, (silent) ^j^l—i-i sunsan, ^_«»- chup. 
Stillborn, U»- 1^ mu'ajana. Stingy, *^-*^ tang-ckashm. 
Stomachic, *-:lk haxim, ij^^-h pachak, ,1^— -• mushtahl (?). 
Stormy, ij'jjl' tufanl, ULflJul andh'iyaha, tl/U— ic ghatabnak. 
Stout, Lji^ mas6uj[, .^-jji ;tKw7, t.:;-JJ^ chau-dant. 
Straight, IjsJi— 1 sidha, (.:l— ilj ras(. Straightways, ll-JJ turant. 
Strait, IjCt soAtq, i£^ '"ngj ^rvi^ norpahan, cu—^ cAuf^. 
Strange, (foreign) Aj^Cj blgana, (unusual) l_-— «? fl?76. 
Streaked, Streaky, i^t*i) rf/inrT, Ij_^ /aAriya,jl,il»i- khaU-dar. 
Strenuous, AsT ba-jxdd, ^j>f^ sar-garm, ^j^^A* mazbiit. 
Strict, ti-^i-" soAA'j tS^ '""gt (eiact) jjJj dak'ili, tlX^ Mi*. 
Stringy, j^Alj J resAo-rfor, (viscous) W^ ^y^y«- 
Strong, i^y ^auii, jj^jj sorawar, ^Ju fcraff, kj-^ mazbut. 
Stubborn, !L(5a hathila, \f^ magra, Jj Jl afya/, ^jA^ xirfrfj. 
Studious, i^L-^jJ j£ i/jn-(^2f, L2_;j0 Aj«11W< miiialu'a-dost. 
Stupendous, i_- wg ' ajlb,j^\j nadir, u:-^jl ailblmt, ^^axlm. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, §-c. 385 

Stupid, (J**-l a/imak, (^j^ be-hHs/t, i— fjSj-J be-wukuf. 
Sturdy, sAii— « mustanda, c;^'^^ ckaudant, i-i-Oj!j balwant. 
Subaltern, ^s.^ nlcha, ^U tabC, ji^ klklar: see Inferior. 
Subject,j'j*ti tabfdar, (_>jLi< mnghluh, Jasv« mutahainmil. 
Sublime, (0*-j mu'alla, ^_JU a/7, jJi*^ 7mrfa, jJj buland. 
Submissive, j^^ *iL>- halka ba-gosh, J-JJ dahcl: see Humble. 
Subsequent, X^pic/ihla. Subsequently, ,_jtsaj pichhl. 
Substantial, jji-s* af/7, ^yt^ jauhari, ^\*~>' jismani : see Real. 
Subterranean, ^^jyJ cer-i-caniiw, i^^jl^Lii-of taktu-lrarz. 
Subtile, Subtle, JijJJ dak'ik, (witty) i-iJal lafif, \jus~ chatura : sec 

Fine, Thin. 
Successful, (\jjii) ci-aTjl Jkj \j ^-^L^^f kam-'jab or hedar-bakht (hona). 
Successive, jjl_j=^ mulawatir, ^\if^^ matawalt, j\j\Si lagiilar. 
Successively, iji j'* ■<{ P''^ '''"' T"''- jfj^'^ tabartor, *^-j paikam. 
Succulent, j)j-jj ras-dar, t_jbLl shadab, ^jf^i^j ras-bhara. 
Such, I— Jj waisd, \—j} aUa, \,„-s^ jaisd, K _jl; ^^1 i> tar/i ka. 
Sudden, ijfc^ «agaA7. Suddenly, il^U-1 achdnak, ^\^\j ndgahan. 
Sufficient, ^ has, d^ kafi. Sufficiently, ^j^\^ \-~^jaisd ckdkiye. 
Suitable, jljU-> sazdioar, jj'j^ muwafik, J-*- sumeL 
Sullen, j,iL< mukaddur, *>/_ barham, ^j^\j nd-fdiusk. 
Sultry, i^-s^ khamas, C^ khamsd. (?), ^'^ ukhma} (?). 
Sundry, |^jJ (^o (Jn, lI^J;' ^^ kal rk, |_j.a«J ba'st, J^i*- chand. 
Superb, *-la£ a^m,j~S kabir, ^jli-JU atiskdn, saac umda. 
Superficial, S;jl uparla, ^^jj^^ uprauncAd : see Shallow. 
Superfine, j^j^v-^ '-^-V ^'"'' mihlu, ilSj,j^_ ^ ^^^j^. bdrik se bdrlk. 
Superfluous, JjU zd'id, — Lsa-Dl Jijlj za'idu-l-ihtiyaj . 
Superior, jj^ bartar, 'ij\ aula, ji}ifd'ik, hj bara, Jjlcl «/«. 
Superlative, J^l fl/ai'. J^ \; V (_;-* •-: — ' **"* *^ ^'/"i^« oi fiwra. 
Supernatural, tUOUlljy /«uitii-^arfa(. 
Superstitious, t_— <»» mula'assib, ^^*Jt) wahmt. 
Supine, ^J3\ utdn, .^ -^jj^ iirdk-munh, ui-o- ckie : see Lazy. 
Supple, fji narm, JLi- ^ lachk'ild, Jii^ mula'fm, ^j*>- ehimru. 

388 Vocabulary. — Adjectivet, Adverbs, ^c. 

Tight, i^^ tang, u;-— »- chust, sS^ kashida, L^i-ir^ sakht. 

Till, ui^ tak or dakh. i^jo tag, lLJIj («&it or dakh. i^^ talag. 

Tiruely, t^^jiy 6a'' walct, ^yj> bar mau^a': see Early. 

TimeserviDg, jLi <OUj zamanasaz, ^y^j J*l ahl-i-zaman. 

Timid, Timorous, \iSji j^ dar~pokna, ^IjJ darala. 

Tiny, ^jfj- '-^-^ 6aAu( chhola, \^ nannha, Jjji khurd. 

Tipsy, d,—* mas(, !llja« matwala, ^^j^ sar-^usk. 

Tiresome, j'li^ MaAa'ii, j 1^ sihra'u, (jJj^ udas. 

To, ^ ko or dakh. A«, ^ ^ ke tain, lISj tak, tli3j fa/a&. 

Together, .^'Ui C^} ek sath, *aV iu/iam, o--*-! samei, l(SS\ ikallka. 

Tolerable, j'ly-i snAa'u, jt^:^ £A/ianAar-, (passable) ^^-J |^ &ain-^tn. 

Tonguetied, J»y |^ljj zabm-hand, J^j Au/ girifta-zaban. 

Tonic (giving strength), jjut* t^y-* rnukawwlMmx^da, 

Too, W^J ziyada, ui-i^J hahut, \.^^ nipaf, ^_J-l J*. Aarfrf sc. 

Toothless, Mjjj popla, "i^ muTlii, Toper, Jjfj^ pewakkar. 

Topsyturvy, l2lj ls!l ulla-puUa, Sbj ij iaA o Aa/a- 

Torpid, 1^^ thilhara, ^^ sun, (./-^ bl-liias, lil — —^ sus(. 

Total, *U; tamam, Ji Au/^, i_ — > soi, IjjJ pura .■ see All. 

Totally, \j\j^ sarapa, J^ j js^ juz-5-kuU, jCJb bi-l-kull. 

Tough, H^ chimra, ti-i=' ^aM^ l^^-i* vtasbut, \f2*3- chimlha. 

Toward, Towards, »_jj» ^S t7 /ara/", l_-^ W ^S k'tjanib, (j-\j ^-S kepas. 

Tractable, j1J;J *Cp- hukm-bardar, »ji narm, -Jj»- /lalim: see Docile. 

Traditional, ^bj ^ofcani, ji*^ sama'f, iai Tuiili. 

Traitorous, j\jU J da gh abaz. Ijj-j be-waja, ^^}^ kba'ln. 

Tranquil, yfi thir, iiJ^I aeuda, ^J^—i-t surtsan, ,^fd sukkh 

Transient, Transitory, j'jjljli na-pa'edar, ^^farii, iJ?'^ chanchnl. 

Transparent, i_jUi shaffaf, j'y barraff, i_iU so/". 

Transverse, UT am, '^y tvrchka, Vx^ benda, \j} 'ira (?). 

Treacherous, i^^} ^ be-lman, J^Ac ghaddaT. ^iS kapati. 

Treble, Triple, \m tiguiia,^jtp tihra, Juj>-i~^ sh-chartd. 

Tremendous, ^--f^ 
Triangular, C-li-* n 

luhlb, cl/UJjA haulTiak, ^'\jJ daraona. 
"alUifi, UjjiJ likmiya, AijTj-; si-gusha. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc, 389 

Tributary, jlj« ^1p" khiraj-guzar, J^'s^ ^b baj-guzar: see Subject. 

Triennial, dlLi s^ si-sala, ^Lj' tt-sala, 1-^^ ,^ tin-barsa. 

Trifling (trivial), li]ji. Aa/AS, CX-j sMfi^i/c, lf>-jl ocMa. 

Trim, *i_>l_,l arasta, UjJ scifl, t— i^ ^t)f>j^.j^ saz-baz. 

Trite, U^j puraiia, iUJjJJ derJna, (common) *U nmm. 

Trivial, Klb ftaZ/ca, iSJ^ subuk.j.^ hefcadr, Ujt orJna. 

Troublesome, j^^j ranjatcar, i^J^ bhari, JSLl-* muskkil. 

Truant, i^-x— y swsf , tj^^ awara, JjT »j^ harza-gard. 

True, Is-* sachcha, ^ sack, ki— *|j rasi •■ see Just, Faithful. 

Truly, |_^lj toaAil, ^^JLJL*:!^ ^-^/(flyt7^a(, ^ sack. 

Trusty, Trust- worth y,^-s*rf n»^lahir,J\ii <j:^\^\ amanat-dar. 

Tumultuous, ,_A*^ halckalt, t^,j^ ashobi, i.;;-— Jjj dangait. 

Turbid, Ujifgarf/tt,jjSU mukaddar, IftJ'agar/w; see Dirty, 

Turbulent, •^'Si>i datigait, j\) ^^•i dange-baz, l^J Jb hur-danga. 

Tuab ! Tut ! ,ji^ p^i*/i, ^^jfj- cAAT. Twain, jJ do. 

Twice, *;V jJ (Bbara. Two-fold, ly jii da-taka, U?J (^ugnu. 

Typical, JU rfa//, jj—w tamsjli. Typically, i-t*J tam^lan. 

Tyrannical, Jl!» zalim, ^^*^-^ sitarnt, ^^ katkin : see Cruel. 

Vacant, JUi- khaVi, ^ tiki, (unemployed) Jiutc mu'attal. 

Vague, ^jjji" j-^ ghair mu'aiyan, f^*^ ^ na-mt^lum : see Doubtfii!, 

Vain, (fruitless) j^jUo bs-fa'ida, Jtb ia«; J-;U3 lo'/iasiL 

In vain, *.^,--c aio;, y^lj ra'egati, jIj^ bar-bad. 

Valiant, jJj di[er,j<i\^_ hahadur, cU;^ shuja^, Ik J d'd-chala. 

Valid, J\j A-aVw 

, aC^ — c » 

-jIj Kaii( : see Firm. 

Valuable, ,^^-^ Iftmatl, ApU ^J<ji giran-maya, l^j ^^ giran-baha. 
Vapid, ly* ^ be-maza, IC^ pMka, ^^~^ sitha : see Insipid. 
Variable, Jj-j^ mutabaddil, i^^'^'-* mutalauwin: see Inconstant. 
Various, j;ii^ mutafarrHf, \sp^\.i>'judd-juda, i-Jlii.-* mukhtalif. 
Vast, Vasty, l"j ^aru, *ii£ asim, j-r^j irasi", jM «par. 
Vaulted, jb s~^ gumbai-dar, ^J ^ hubbt-dar. 
Vehement, JJAi skadld, t.2--iT' soM(, 1=£ kara, JJ /er, JoJ (awrf. 
Vendible, cJ^ ^5^"^ bechnl-jog, liil*- c/ialanta, p'jjj mwiij. 

390 Voeabulary—Adjectives, Advtrht, ^c. 

Venerable, */!« mukarram, jj*^ mu'azzaz, tS-f^ buzurg. 
Venomous, i^Aj xahri,j\j j^j zahr-dar, (ooxioue) ^<iy* tnuji. 
Venturesome, Venturous, jbjjWja»-fio«: see Bold. 
Verbal, ^^j zahanl, t^j^ Ij Sy -^ munh-hola or -ahhrl. 
Verbally, Verbatim, Uisl lafzan, laalj ^ /o/V ba-lafs. 
Verbose, *K Jjt lul-kaldm, i^jt Jjt tul-tawtl, fy^ pur-go. 
Verdant, J—- sabz, \jb hara,}~ij^ sar-sabz. 
Verily, see Truly, Certainly. Veritable, ^ sack, ts-w(J durutU 
Vernacular, [J-jJ desl. Vernal, t^^ bahari, ^J^^.J rahi t. 
Versed, ^J'-^J^ kar-dan,J£ >Jy^j\ azmuda-kar: see Skilful. 
Very, (adj.) ^ sack, see True, Real : (adv.) ii«^ ^An^, lI-J nipat. 
Vexatious, 'Jjljl azar-dih, jji]/*- J'i dil-kharaak, ^ b ^J dukh-ddl. 
Ugly, 4iJ)^ "W bad-surat, jj t.s-Jy si«Af-rfi, J;.> ii bad-daul. 
Vicious, VitiouB, ij--c uihi.jijii tharlr, A-i\i Jdsid: see Bad. 
Victorious, jirf^ JT(u, t_>U ^fath-ydb, .^^\s- ghdlih,jjj^ firoz. 
Videlicet, ^jiw yt^nx, jiW j'ano. Vigilant, »\!l aguA : see Cautious. 
Vigorous, ^jVijJ zoTcacar, ^^ Ifaw't, l:— iJjJj zabar-dast. 
Vile, -^ nlch, u;.-^ pa«<, J-Jj safi/, j'^ khmdr, j^jjJ du«. 
Villanous, ,<sr^ pS;j, -ty nlcA, ijljj rij«^,jfis- ^a^ir ; see Base. 
Vindictive,jj<LM^ klnatoar, ^^ Jijj t «Ik:J^ int(j:a>n-or icoitAtuA. 
Violent, <Xiii-& shadid, kji^^f^ saM^, J.J furu^. 
Violently, t^-Jef sakht. 

Virile, ti\iiyo mardana. Virtually, L::->Li3i1 ^ fi-l-ha^fcat. 
Virtuous, ,r</^ dkarvH, CXi nek, J>^ bhald, ^U ;a/iA. 
Virulent, >>j Jmw shadld, i.z-^sr' safdit. Viscous, W^ lajlajd. 
Visible, yftlt ^hir, *C/* iori/t. Visibly, l^A^li saAiran, 
Visionary, ^^j wahml, iJV^ liLiydll, i^jytu lafauwttri. 
Vital, ijjj zinda, c.Jj— .'.."tJjL^ Aayaf>maiuufr,^ljOU-^'aR-(/ar. 
Vivacious, Jj»jjj zinda-dii, jll J J dilshdd, ^^^ magan. 
Vivid, (bright) ^_j; rosAan, (splendid) L ilS. ^ cAa(fti/u .- see Lively- 
Ultimate, ijf^T dldtiri. Unable, j^Aa^ ^ hc-maicduT : see Weak. 
Unacceptable, ■ii^\i na-pasand, jja:^\i n 

Vocahu!aiy. — Adjectives, Adi^erhs, ^c. 

Unaccoutred, jL |j he-saz. Unaccustomed, ^j^J hc-ruht. 
Unacquainted, t.ji'jlj na-waldf, ,_^^\aja,n. 
UnaiFecled, iii.U-j hi-saldita. Unanimous, Jiitli^l ek-dil. 
Unanswerable, <iji la-radd. Unarmed, \f^ nikattha. 
Unasked, Uj-lt -j he-talah. Unassisted, JJ^^^^J be-madatl. 
Unavoidable, Jj3 lu-hudd. Unauthorised, ■^—•^_ he-sanad. 
Unaware, Unawares, (.l^l»-l achanak, lISJI '^\ ek-a-ek. 
Unbecoming, i— ->J li na-zeb, Uj A> bad-numa : see Improper. 
Unbidden (uninvited), LiLjl an-bulaya, lzj^cJi^ he-dc^wat. 
Unblamable, ^i^j-^y nirdokhl, •i'^j^jj ru-iufaid: see Faultless. 
Unblemished, i'j-J be-dagh. Unblown, fciJ!i U na-shigufta. 
Unborn, Lac^ anjana, l-V^ na-paida, (future) t^\ ayanda. 
Unbound, (a book) ji^^-c ghair majallad: see Loose. 
Unbounded, ^y apdr, J^cij be'hadd, li^ss^j^ ghair-matidud. 
Unbridled, c^^. he-lagam. Unbumt, W'^ artjala. 
Uncertain, _j^j-c£;Aair mv^arrar, cJ<fJL^ mtahkuk. 
Unchangeable, Jj,^^ be-tabdil, Jljj ^ be-zav>al, (i«l ainif. 
Unchaste, iVjv^ shahwaO, ^j-^lifblj 7ia-paJtddman. 
Uncivil, t^Ju had-khalk, jJo--(^ kaj-khulk, J— -J fie-sH. 
Unclean, see Filthy. Uncomfortable, (A^'j nii-khush. 
Uncommon, (-jV-i^ kam-yab, \^'y\ anutha,j^\i nadir. 
Uftcompounded, i-^j^j^c- ghair nmrakkab,'L*J\ an-mila. 
Uncontrollable, li*^ bt-xabt, A^J^ hl-kuid, lI^j^I oroA:. 
Uncouth, ljj^ hhoTida, i.^J^ bc-dkab, t_*jLil j bl-asluh. 
Uncultivated, ^, jjn j^ ghair mazru , ^^j^porti, ^^Si»~ Jangli. 
Undaunted, ul/L-j be-bak, ,<— ^^ «aAaj7. 
Undecided, j^^a^l; wa-nmAarrar. 

Undefiled, see Pure, Clean. Undefined, (_^fli:— *lj normusha khkh nt. 
Undeniable, ^j-N?^ be-daregh. Under, |<^ niche, ^JJ /flff. 
Underhand, ^y^ ^inAani, j*ii^ mvkhfi. Undermost,_^j zcrtar. 

Undeserved, t, 
Undesigned, i 

^\jj»e.gkair wajib, J^V) na-ka^^. 

li ^ be-kafd. Undesigning, yfi/^J ie^ar«i. 

399 Veativktn/. — Adjeetiveg, Adverhi, ^c. 

Undetermined, j^^-i ^flir rnvkarroT, — l^^^^Ci shakki-mtzuj . 
Undigested, *.i^— •^-i ghair munhaiim, (,_,Jj^lJ na-muratlafi. 
Undisciplined, J.c'y^ be-^awd'id, ^j^ be-rahl. 
Undisguised, it:i9-l»J be-sa^ta, i^ kkula, ^^U-J be-lihas. 
Undone, (ruined) t_*'yJ- kharab, (opened) \jbd\ udhra, (not done) 

l^ywl ad/iura. 
Undoubtedly, tl^l.J he-ahakk, L^^jl aur kya, A^^j be-shuhha. 
Undutiful, |_j*i»-lj na-fiukmi, (son) uJlili na-fdialaf, clJjJ kaput. 
Uneasy, Aj^ i<! be-dram. Unemployed, ,_)1ul« mu'aUal, 
Unequal, Uneven, j'j-tJ»li nd'hamwdr, j\ji • - * '■ nashehfardz. 
Unequivocal, cJf.1^ \j nd-mashkuk, uJLi sdf, fn^j^ ghair mvhham. 
Unerring, i^-Syf-' achuk, ILsAj ie-Ma(a,j'jjl^Vi; nwAan-aKffui. 
Unexampled, Jll-« j be-mi,idl. Unexpected, ^jj^ali ndgahdtil. 
Unexperienced, jli*jyarlj nd-tyriba-kdr, i^jiljlj nd-wakif. 
Unexplored, UjJ^jJI an-dkundhd, sJj^TU nd-dzmuda. 
Unfading, '.1^5-,*jl an-murjhd'u. Unfair, Li-«ljU nd-rdst. 
Unfaithful, Uj^j bhwafd. Unfashionable, t''*;*^ be-rawy. 
Unfathomable, Unfathomed, t^l afAu, aT' agam. 
Unfavourable, (^V._rt^li nd-mihrban, J>x_«U nd-mus'ad. 
Unfeathered, J'jj^^ be par 5 hdl. Unfeeling, see Cruel. 
Unfeigned, ,J^1 abhaglJ, ''—sw be-hlla, Ij -j be-riyd. 
Unfelt, (^ys^ j^ ghair tnafism, ^J^\ anjan. 
Unfinished, *\*i\j nd-tamdm, aW"! j be-anjdm, \fjbS\ adimra. 
Unfit, (_Jj,lHi na-ld'fk, ii^LiU nd-skd'ista, JjUU nd-kdbil. 
Unforeseen, i Jj J.L.J l^ nd-pesh-dida, JtjjjIj nd-dida- 
Unfortunate, i^,.-isr^ bad-bakht, ^S^) abhdgi, C^j^'i mafluk. 
Unfounded, 'jli^^jJ bl-tkikdnd. Unfrequent, see Uncommon. 
Unfriendly, \^\j^ ghair dshnd, j^Ij^^U nd-mihrbdn, '^jj riikha. 
Unfruitful, J^jl aphal, Ji^J^U nd-bahramand : see Barren. 
Unfurnished, jL«j be-sdz, l-jU-^I^j hhasbdb, i^j\ U nd-drdsia. 
Ungain, Ungainly, (j>^ ^ be-nazdkat, ^j^\ andri : see Uncouth. 
Ungenerous, J^lj»-li ndjawdnmard, Ungcni&l, t,*''^* ^ na-miiw il^il'. 

Vocabulary, — Adjectives, Adverbs, i/c. 393 

Ungenteel, jii- j^ijili na-khmk-khull;, rti_jlllj nasha'ista. 
Ungovernable, Ungovernedjkjjjk^^ Je-ja6/oraij[;see Disobedient. 
Ungraceful, jf^JJ bad-sty, w^Juj bi-dhab, \^:^^J^ ht-nazakat, 
Ungi-acious, t.:u-JJ^ be-nazakat, Ji^^ na-garvar.jj^ sftarlr. 
Ungrateful, jSliU nd'shukr, i^-*Jtyti kafir-i-ni'mat, 1jj-j he-wafa. 
Unhandsome, CDjye^j had-swrat, Jjiat^lj na-ma JaZ. 
Unhappy, ^^13 na-khiish, ^y-ity^\> na-khitshnud : see Unlbrtunate. 
Unhealthful, Unhealthy, ui—yJ-Jli na-tandurust, (Ji^y^ nii-iaiiwajik. 
Unheaid, \:--J\ ansuna. Unholy, (^j>a^Ij na-mukaddas. 
Unhurt, tija.^ ie-cAof, *^j-J bt-zakhm, y;Uui^ Ail-MKAsan. 
Uniform, j^'— So' efc-«ori, jI^j barabar. Uniformly, ^-n^ly barabarise. 
Unimportant, *J^1 ^^ ghair akamm, \' ^- ■ svbuk, Kljb halkd. 
Uninformed, ^Uinj-i ghair muUalt,jJs:^ be-khabar, ^jljlj nadan. 
Uninhabitable, JjUU ^ ^^ ,_^IjjJjj bud-o-bash karnl ke na-kdbil. 
Uninhabited, L-Jl anbasa, ,j>-Ji mrjan, ii\i\ \i na-abad. 
Uninjured, ^La^-J hi-nulcsan, i^^jj\j\ U no-aaar-rosiifa, 
Uninstructed, IjCjl ansi^^a, *Jj<j^ be-talim, ■4jy^ murakh. 
Unintelligible, +y*-rrf be-samajh, ^_jis^ljU na-^nu^ant. 
Unintentional, Unintentionally, Ji-sjLj be-kasd, hJ^i^j be-irada. 
Uoiuterestfd, ^j\j^ beswarth, ^j^^ Idrgharaz, ^iy—J be-sud. 
Umnterrupted,jiiil an-antar, A^\jh bild-Jdfila. 
Uninvited, HSjc^ be-da'wat, \Jy-o te-nautd, V.'M^ anhulayd. 
Unique, tij yaktd, ^\ ikkd, ^^'i la-sanJ, jit Idk, J-.3-J watiid. 
Universal, (_i!L* viutlak, ^S kulli, ^y*'^ umuml, ^\^jamC 
Unjust, (JO'\i Jia-hakk, (.jLail j be-insuf, J^Xj bl-dad. 
Unkind, ij:-%aii j He-ihafakat, jt^^ be-mihr, ^:jVjv*^ »u-miAr6an. 
Unknown, -jLkIj nd-malum, UW"! anjand, ^^l«W^ anpahchan. 
Unlawful, cjJ.i_jlL-i. A;^i/a/'-i-sAar",J.'WlJ na-jaiz, ^\^ ftaTam. 
Unless, SI i?/a, jJu haghair, Ajil agaT-na,^~.« magar. 
Unlike, JjU-«U nd-muskabih, J^' attmel: see Dissimilar. 

Unlikely, i lUU nd-ghdlib. Unlimited, Jwco bl-hadd. 

Unlocked for, i3-^^ tia-gafidm. Uiducky, tj-ji^ manfiiis. 
3 E 

394 Vocabulary. — Adjectives, Adverbs, Sfc. 

UnmanagetiUe, L~« gi bS-zabl, ,ji^ sarkash, -M^ be-lagi 
Unmanly, AJb^O na-muTdana. Unmannerly, i_jj1^_jJ be- 

Uiimarried, UUjI anbyaka. Unmeaning, |<^*^^ ht-ma'nl. 
Unmercifiil, »s-^ he-rafira. Unmindful, bU^ be-likas. 
Unmixed, LtJl anmila. Unmoved, Jj:>-1 achal, '•^j^, he-rikkat. 
Unnatural, cjJa-ili na-matbu^, tj:,-^jt2p i^'i^ ^ilaf-i-lab iyat. 
Unnecessary, jjjJ Ij ndzarur. Unobserved, V^'*'' andekha. 
Unoccupied, Jj.*— «tj na-mashghui, J^ khali ■- see Vacant. 
Unpalatable, sj.<JJ bad-masa, j\^\) na-gawar. 
Unparalleled, <x^\x^ bc-manand. Unpared, S»f=^ anchh'ila. 
Unpardonable, Unpardoned, jjJa«j-c ghair-ma zur. 
Unperceivable, ^JjJ^ na^tdam. Unperceived, jijjjU na-dida, 
Unperishable, J'jjH la-zawal, ,Jli3 la-fanl : see Eternal. 
Unpleasant, j^/i^'j jjo-MmsA, j^ji li na-gawar: see Disagreeable. 
Unpolished, Ji-o ^ be-jtaikal, (rude) JJ-ily Ij na-Caraahtda. 
Unpolite, '■^-'j/'ieJ he-muruwat, fJ^M bad-khulk. 
Unprecedented, J-i.^.!-! lt-tams~il, J^**« ^ be-ma'mul. 
Unpremeditated, ^J»-i---J he-peshbandi, ,_<^JJ badihJ. 
Un prepared, jIJ Li na-taiyaT, Juc— «^ ghair-musta idd. 
Unprincipled, tuljju bad-zat,ji^yi bad-guhar, i\j^ be-ruh. 
Unprofitable, J.aU-3 la-fiagil, vjJU-j bc-fa'ida. 
Unpromising, jl^^l anhonkar. Uopropitious, |j-tJJJ bad'yumn. 
Unprotected, ^,1— -j be-saya, •d.c^ be-waslla, ^^^\ asaran. 
Unprovided, ^^'^SJ-'^J be-sar-o-saman, l-j'LJ^ bi-asbab. 
Unqualified, ^_^Li na-la'tk , j\j^J-^\j na-sazawar. 
Unquestionable, ^\^\\j bila-i tirds, «y-i^ be-shubha. 
Unquiet, ^^^-sij be-chain, Jf^ chanchal, i—J^k^U muxlarib. 
Unread, l^j^jl anparhd, iijj\y>-\j nd-kka>anda : see Ignorant. 
Unreasonable, l=cij &F^a, JjM^U no-ma Ifvl, ^j'^L^^ bt-thikdna.'^^ 
Unreserved, i— iii;^ be-takallaf, Jji_JUi fdf-dU, Ij^ &e-r»ya. 
Unrestrained, jJij be-kaid, |»10-j bl-lagdm, lfa-4^ K-tafii. 
Unrighteous, .g'U^ ghah-sdlih, (_»l^l^ be-insdf, ^J^^ pdpi, \ 

Vocabulary. — A^ectives, Adverhs, ^c. 395 

Unripe, ULjI anpaka, *ia£;\j na-ptikhta, as^j\j na-raslda. 
Unrivalled, ^l=i-; be-nazlr, i_-— J^ be-raktb, i^^y^-j^ ghaiT-hartf. 
Unruly, K--i.' be-zabt, *W»J br.-lagam, SsXi be-hukm. 
Unsafe, \ji.-^-XJ^ na-salamat, >Ja:>\t ba-khatra, ^'^^. he-amn. 
Unaatisfactory, u-il^U nu-mwab, X^ na-saz, 
Uiiseasouable, s-i-^^ be-wakt, lsn,j be-ja, (^\}^t> be-aiyam. 
Unseaaoued, i ' ^■^'-] bi-namak. Unseemly, i_— iL-clJ Tta'tnuTiasib, 
Unseen, V^.J^t andekka, ti-wij' adishl, iJujli nd-dida. 
Uasettied, jijiij be-karar, i.;:--jj J.iJ ^j be-band-o-basi. 
Unshod, i^jlj^^MJ Tiange pa'on. Unsightly, UjJj bad-numd. 
Unskilful, »— ajljlj nd-icdkif, jUj^ be-kunar, ^^ nirgun. 
Unsound, lU-jL^ skikasta, J^^i^ aibnldr, tjL-^s^^. be-sihfiat. 
Unsparing, f^j-i^ be-duregh. Unstable, jj^iw be-ki 
Unsteady, tiJ^AH be-mbat. Unsuccessful, o-aLt_j be-maksad. 
Unsuitable, ^l^U nd-muwujik. Unsullied, i_,— c^ be-aib. 
Untamed, %^\ anhila, Untasted, IjJ^l anckakhd. 
Untaught, lU^j^l Ij •na-amokhta. Untimely, uuJj-J bZ-vaalct, 
Until, CSj ^^^^Jab-tak, cfl lag. Unto, j^ *o, ,ji~jf Ae-Ia7;(. 
Untold*, L^iil an/;aAa. Untouched, '^sfl ancA^5a, 
Untoward, see Perverse. Untrue, ul^j ^ nd-rast. 
Unusual, ^ijuJ-j be-dastur. Unwary ,j-i:u be-ldiabar. 
Unwearied, tl^! athak. Unv^elcome, J-— (\j nd-pasand. 
Unwholesome, j'ji li nu-gawdr. Unwilling, ^'j Ij 

Unwitting, i^'^l anjdn. Unwittingly, «-j'j \j n 
Unworthy, (_jj!! li /(o-ioVJ*, jlj'^ ^ aa-sasamar, 
Vocal, ^'jjV dwdz-ddr, ^y^ sautl, u/J— i shabdl. 
Vociferous, Li-%i^j*i sJior-pusht, ,.^ ^^ ghavghdl. 
Void, JUj. Mflfi. ^ ''Ai, ^^san, (null) Jl;\j bdlil. 
Volatile, (winged) sjiiyj paranda, (playful) i,^^^^ chaachal. 
Voluntarj', tJ;\~»-^ ifditiydrl, i^J-aJ kasdi, Jj>-jl az khiid. 
Voluptuous, jitl-A aiydah, \^j rasila : see Luxurious. 
Voiacious, .iJl ij^ ju'u-l-bakar, \^j^ mar-bhukkkd. 

396 VocabUlajy Adjectives, Adverbs, ^c. 

Up, ji^j^ upar, t'ij baltt, (out of bed) \^\ utha : see Standing. 

Ifpon, jj par, jjl upar. Upper, yl\j baliitar ,U-c\ a la. 

Uppermost, Isj^jl V. y^^V (*-' '— ' sab se balatar or tincha. 

Upright, (erect) \^ khara, (just) jiJU farfijt ; see Honest. 

Upward, Upwards,^j\ ujHir, (more than) jjIiJ siyada. 

Urgent, j^ji sarur, »p luzim, fc^u^-* sa^t, i3ar bajidd. 

Useful, IS *l^ kam ka, ^A^JS kar-amdam : see Profitable. 

Useless, IjKU nakara, Uj^ nikamma, sAj\i-J be-JaUda. 

Usual, ^'\j ra'ij, —.j^ murauuio/, |*il*- ckalnJ, t^j^jirl. 

Usually, j^l atwr, t--L=l aghlab. ji^ beshtar. 

Utmost, Utter, i-i^-jV^J nihayat, l2-w wi^^a/, l:^'.^ gkayat. 

Utterly, JUS j *UJ taniam o kamal, li*- fiadd, i-i-^V nihayat. 

Vulgar, (common) *lft amni, |tJ/^ w^r*! (mean) ^^^^ kamina. 

Uxorious, Jj_^ ^ zan-murld, 'jS^ karlagu'a. 

Waggish, t— flJjl? ^rlf, ii^— ' maskhara, j-Js i^^ kfiJtsft'tab^. 

Wan, J;J ^art/, Lj piffi, ,_y)/e; zoyaroKi, 

Wanton, f^ shofch, j^ j^ lahar-huz, J->-' achpal, ^^^ kaml. 

Warlike, ^J^ jangi, «i-j jtjj rasm-pesha, ISli^ laranka. 

Warm, *j> garm, bJ tatta,j\>' harr, (""^SB^l^;^ f sqr-garm. 

Wary,jUij»/i5fi/fyar, tr^y^f^ ag^raso^, «j=- chaukanna. 

Waspish, ^J»- chirchira, ffj Jjj sud^anj, \j^ ghuna. 

Waste, c-J^/i- khardb, ^Jjij wlran, jW'j pa'emu/, JU-I lyar. 

Wasteful, ^ \ji ura'u, (_if— * mtisrif, —y>- Jj-^ fazul-kharck. 

Watchful, j'.i-J ie-ffar,jLijj» hoshyar, i_r^j3- chaukas : see Cautious. 

Watery, ^1 abl, L^-ij panlha, (tasteless) L-y pansa : see Insipid. 

Wayward, fji s/iokh, I LfSa halhlla, ^Jui ziddr. 

Weak, jjj *S kam-zoTt u-f-t-^ ?«"»/". ic— jJ ^J zer-dasl ; sec Feeble. 

Weal thy, jljilU maWar,jlj_y zardar, Ax+sJ^J dautatmand. 

Wearisome, j ISl^J Mafta'ii, ^jfjV^ ftAar*. Weary, jfjJUj manda. 

Wedded, b^Lj byahta (f.), UUj A^/aAu (ni.). Wee, see Small. 

Weekly, oiA ^ har liafta, ftOJn Jiia //u/Va Ao/Ha. 


, swV W'- 

.^.L* mubai 

Vocabulary, — Adjective*, Adverbs, ^c, 397 

Well (adj.), \^\ achchha, Ifi bhala, l£^ % bhalorchanga. 

Well (adv.), i,:L.^J durust, llf> bhala, f-J^ ^ub, — ;t ^j^^ achchhl- 

Wellbred, jia. ltJ^ khmh-khuli:, j\^\ tlCj aeA-a/u?ar. 
Well done ! u^V^ shabash, ^j sake, ^^.y»l afarin. 
West, Westward, j? -^ pachchham ko, t_j^ i_Jji> taraf-i-magkrib. 
\Vesterly, Western, ij*f^ pachchhaml, ^Ji/^ maghribi. 
Wet, iC^ 6A7ga, L? gTla,JJ tar, »j nom, i-l/li*j namRflt. 
What? L^ ftya, ^jjS^ Aaan. What,^_/o. Whatever, -i^ }>-jo kuchh. 

Wlieaten, K j^^^gcAurifta. When? i, i kub. When, y..^^ jab. 

Whence? i<^ tj^ kahanse, (from what source ?) ^J^j ^ kis 

Whence, >- i^iV^ jakati si, (from which source) ^)^} u-=r j^s 

Where?jjlyS ka/iati. Where, ^^\.^jafla1^, jhM- jid/iar. 
Whereas, -ti— Jjl az-bas-ki, *Sjj»- chun-ki. Whereby, i^fj~s^jisse. 
Wherever, ^J>^ ^^\^jahaAjahan. Wherefore, ^Ja-'^j (^\ is watte. 
Wheresoever, ^^^ uV^ jahan kahln. Whereupon, j--il tis-par. 
Whether, /S ki,\Jkya. Which 7 ^^,jS ftawn. Which, js^j5. 
Whichever, iSj^-jo-ki. While, Whilst, i^J^z-^ jab-tak, ■^jad. 
Whimsical, JLji- (•'^J* har-dam-khhjali, ^jj^ lahri. 
White, xJ^sufed, t:--- set, (fair) \j^ gora, (bright) is- \ »jla. ' 
Who? ^,^ Icaun, |_jj ^^kis-ne. Who, f- jo, ^y>.jaun, ^_^^~,^jis-n7. 
Whoever, ^^'^ ^jb-kal. Whomever, ji ^^S ij-^ jis hisl ko. 
Whole, (sound) J_^ masailam, (entire) ^Uj tamam: see All. 
Wholesome, jjT k^-.*'* nhhat-iiwar, J^lj-* muwafik : see Useful. 
Why ? ^^y^ kyun, jJ»f>l^ A«fie kii, ^i-^j ijS kis waste. 
Wicked, \j> bura, ^\j p<tpi,j>,j^ skarir, JJ bad, j^.jjj zabun. 
Wide, lTj3- chaura, K^ chakla, L^ pa/ina, ^\ji farakh. 
Wild, ^)i^jangn, ,ci*-j waAafii, i<iiJ das/itt: see Licentious. 
Wilful, jki^ jji- khiid-pasand, jj JyS- khnd-sar: see Perverse. 
Wilfully, Ai»iljj jjjJ didao ddnUla: see hitentiotially. 

398 Vocahulari/ Adjectives, Aduerhs, ^c. 

Willing, ^^\j razl, Jo-* U|; raxd-mand, ^^ khush : see Desirous. 
Wily,jlj ■*!-;»- h'da-haz, \\i i\ijj robah-baz : see Cunning. 
Windy, ^ lys kawal, j_f j\j badi, (pufled up) !J^ pkuld : see Slormy. 
Winning, Lftj^ mahna, \ijj dil-rub^, ,ji^ Jj dil-kask: see Charming. 
Wise, jj-Jas ti/flmavd, JjU a,ti/, lib rfano, (^Jj z'toA-. 

, :>x<jjj\ 


With (prepos. or postpos.)i ^j-* s^i (along with) .^Li satk, ^* wi 
Within, jzu^ bhltaT,j^\ andar, ^i b'lch, ^j^ »i«i. 
Without, (adv.)^\j bafiar, ^jj^_ h^run, (prep.) ^j be, 3j b'lla. 
Wittingly, .J'iPr^. cjW Jfl" bujhke, «— jU j iJjJ th(ia 5 danista^^ 
Witty, ^j^ Cez-fa/tm,jL»- chatur, i-J^Jo tarif: see Jocular. | 
Woful, CJ\) *c gham-ndh, ^^--i santupl, j.T tSj!j-i sog-aicar. 
Wuoden, If ..^ /atrl Aa, ^^J=- chobln. Woody, ^^^ jangTi. 
, |Jj! urn, i_j*iJ ptwAmi, '' ^•■■t n . j paskmln 

Worldly, jbUj dunyd-ddr, tl^Lj-i sansank, ijjUj J dunyawi. 
Wormeaten, >iJjj»- |«_;f kirm-khiirria , 'c^ghund, iM-f /:JraAa. 
Worse, y Jj badtar. Worst, \ji ^^j- ^jy bure se bura. 
Worthless, jji-j be-^adr, ]j\S[J na-kard, J^\j na-ckls. 
Worthy, J^jJ Id'i'k, Jj^j kdbil, w-^^ji— « mnstaujih, 11^ bhald. 
Wratliful, CJ'l~-iii ghazab-ndk, i.lJ\i Jij>- khashm-ndk, ^S kbpi. 
Wretched, t— -yai^ bt-naiib, i^^^jJ pareskdn, JlW kangal. 
Written, ly» l^S^ likhd hu'd, HJi^ naicishta, f^j^ markum. 
Wrong, t-— il^'j fiormundsib, j_ir»-lj nd-fia/f/c, Ux g/ialal. 
Wrongful, ._jU;1 ^ be-insaf, J=^\j vd-fiakk. Wroth, see WnithlLiI. 
Wrought, Uj iano, WjigarAa. Wry, UjJ /crAa, ^ Aa/. 
Yclad, 1^ l:H,''^A?fa Au'a. Ycleped, Jj it\j tidm-zad. 
Yea, ^\a A5«, ^ 6a^. Yearling, JUol tk-siiU. 
Yes, jjjlft Aart, Ij fiaff, i^jl are, y fau, ^^j'- 
Yet, (conj.) ^ jj tau-bhl.ji par, (adv.)^ (^ tis-par: see Beside. 
Yon, Yonder, *j wuh or (dakli.) tcaA, S^ parld, IS ijr_J />nrt Aa. 
Of yore, ^ <JLii^ muddat ka, H> aglii, ^j-> *J-iJ ^adlm st. 
Young, ^J^f^jawaa, JL* •ijj=^ khurdsal, ji aaa: see Small. 

Vocabulary. — Adjectives^ Adverbs^ ^c. 399 

Your, ^J^ tumhara, \uj\ apna* Yourself, l-;1 a? turn ap. 
Youthful, jj^^ jawan, xj\j taza, i^^ kawi. 
Zealous, mj^ garm, ^fj^ sar-garmf JcJ tund^ ^^ sS^. 
Zigzag, Ujj5 tirha, ^ j ^ kaj 5 jlech, |jCj 6aAro (?). 



yb <^*T j^ ^ly^ kahail se a'e Ao . . . . Where are you from ? 

^^'U-^J^ kidharja'dgt Where are you going ? 

^ U^ f^ ^^^ AiattTi Ad Who are you ? 

^ j^*T Lj^a-*!^ t/^ Aw t£7a^/e a*e ho . . . . Why are you come ? 
^jS^ ^ Lif?^ iwtt/Ae X:t£cAA kahogS . . Will you say something to 


l5^ (^J^ b ^^^ Aiaun Aot Who is he ? Who is that ? 

j'T^^I u2Aar a'o * . Come here. 

J T (JL^«>p nazdik a'o Come near. 

Isf- j^»3l5>- jaldija .... ^ . Go quickly. 

jL>- i/*^^- jaldi chalo Go (or move) quickly. 

ifj t-^^ chup rah Be silent. 

yS i^j^^ haziri ISo Bring breakfast. " 

j*il Ul^ khana la'o Bring dinner. \ 

J S ^t^ rofi la'o Bring bread. . 

yi JbJjJ dudh Wo Bring milk. . 

j*3 KJf^^ misri do Give some sugarcandy. ^ 

J \^ \j\^ khana kha'o Eat (your) dinner. 

j-j JbJjJ dudhpTo Drink milk. 

J jUf- iU>- chirqghjald'o .... Light the lamp. 

J jUf- ^u batttjala'o Light the candle. 

^jS\^ gulgir IcCb Bring the snuffers. 

jS jf gul B Snuff the candle. 

Short Sentencet. 



^\flsr ^^ battt bujha^o 
yi (^yli fdnus Iffb . 
j*\^\ (^yli fanus utha*d 
aJL^ bhuliyo mat 
• \:j l>- cha banffo . 
• •^ ^xibfj dahnephird 
A;<ic;iV ha'hlphiro 
J jb f^^y^ motiydArko bula*o 

j*ls:il t-^L-»\ <»&ai ie/5'o 

ybj\jj^ khahaT'dar ho 

^j^ ^l^ .^5^ kuchh muzayaka nahtn 
^ yjL.^ji^ fj turn kofursat Jiai 
^^^i^ uJU^ j^ ftib ham ko mu^af ktjiye 

^^ s^A> s/fjV '%' »■»?» ^'» • • 
J» VV^ VjC'^ fttcAAanna bichhaya 
jj^ Jcj ^|4[/> darwaza band karo 
^jJb ^j^ 4/^ toe burhe haiai . 4^ 
_ib ,^^ A^ «y2 ^A kanhbakhii hat 
yi v-^ls^ 4//r« ^^^ kitab Wo 
/i ^^ ^ji^ mlri juti la'o . 

-J*V jli^ A? ^wm bazar ja^o 
/i u:.^/\j^ thora gosht Wb 
^ (j:^v« jj cfiit ma^ karo . 
^Ib j^^ULjU^ S(0^« ^^'^ khansaman ko 
jj A^ \^ (V^ iAanS /ra Ate/mt do 
iSj Isj-^b ^j^ mam bahir jffunga 
^*i \^ \j^ mera kapra Wo . 
^1 jJi^ ^ turn jald a*iyb . . 



buWb . 

Put out the candle. ' 

Bring a8hade(forthecandle). 

Take away the shade* 

Do not forget. 

Make tea. 

Turn to the right. 

Turn to the left. 

Call the porters. 

Lay the table. 

Take away the things. 

Remove the table. 

Be careful. > 

What is (your) command ? 

Get the carriage ready.. 

It is no matter. 

Are you at leisure ? 

Be pleased to pardon me. 

Bring a little bread. <» 

Have they made the bed ? 

Shut the door. * 

They are old. 

This is a misfortune. 

Bring my book. 

Bring my shoes. 

Go you to the market."^ 

Bring a little meat. 

Do not plague (me). I 

Call my khansaman. 

Order dinner. 

I shall go out. 

Bring my clothes. 

You must come quick. 

402 S/iorf. Sentcnres 


, Sj J? ^jji—* —1^ raj mistarl kh hula'Ti 

. Call the bricklayer. 

mi i.::-~c-fl ls^;^ kolk't marammnt karo 

. Repair the house. 

p JulS 'S'j^ khabar ki ka^haz la'5 

. Briug the newspaper. 

t^ L^J -Vi 5'*^' *"«''■' ''«' ' • ■ 

, This is that very (thing). 

^ ^_j^--j i^Uj WflAaJi «aft-AT Aairi . 

. They are quite all there. 

i_s* --^J^ LJ^J mahaii kul kai . . 

. Is anyone there? • 

}^j-ii t) "JwA pAer ArtAo . . 

. Say that agaiu. 

(A'jW- J^ (^ ''""' fialjawaige . . 

. We shall go totnorrow^H 

i^.5j«- ^'y4 Mr 'o/* %"" ^''''".'' • • 

. Why is the gun lired'^^| 

, \C-s i^J>5->- ,_s^'-' pulktjaldi manguii . 

. Send for the palanquil^^f 

mediately. ^^H 

^ If^l i_^Ui s5AiJ wMa Aai . . 

. Is the gentleman up ? ^^" 

j'T^j^ ghum-kar a"o . . . 

. Come round. Turn about. 

jla- to_aT [^ J zarru ahista ckaio . 

. Go a little more gently. 

jJG\ ^jy*3 t a'o maze ataro . . 

. Come, take off (my) boots. 

3^ ^S'J^ M'*'' *'^ "'^^ • • ■ 

. Get out of the house. ^^ 

i-A »— yjiH >j WuA be-wukuf kai . 

. He is a simpleton. ^H 

i^ ^\& ^JiJl apne A5iA dfio'o . . 

. Wash your hands. .^H 

jjAJ .^ Lil a;)«a raurfA rfAo'o . . 

. Wash your face. ^H 

!<£> |<y '-'V iaAu( garmi hai . . 

. It is very hot. ^| 

' jj jC*A (_)l:iJ ij ipii/i kitab kam-ko do 

. Hand me that book. 

lyi i_-^ jUjI ^ yi'A i7/i/u^ Acft hu'a . 

. W'hen did this happen ? 

J 3 Jlj '.iiw f/ianda panl Id'o . . 

. Bring (some) cold water.H 

j'3 ^j^ \^j^ ihora sharhat lad . 

. Bring a little sherl>et, fl 

\^ jj4J ^ ghala namud hu'a 

. It appears cloudy. ^^| 

lC-.y i_ylj ^T aj pa»l harsega . . 

. It will niin to day. ^| 

^J. c-_jJ cu^ iL.1 ag-Ac ba/iut dost haiti 

. He has many friends. ^| 

^ *-^ \(»-\ ^ jiA achcUha mausim ha 

. This is tine weather. ^| 

^ ^J^'^ 4^> ^^' ■"-*' *"r' '^"r/" Afli- 

. He has a great beard. ^^1 

ij* Vj?- ^ n'i y*'' *y" cAin3,5 Atfi . 

. What bird is this? H 

^ li'^ \01 ^, ^iA wi'kd tamas/ia luii 

. This is their fun. ^| 

^,a Klji^ \y >j wuh hara matwala hai 

"'"■""' i 

, . 1 

Short Sentences. 


CJSV ^f^ ^^ *jr* »J 
.>?W t/-^ iA?^ j^^ 

tf7^A;a &ara gundh hat . • 
yiA maidan kis-ka hai . • 
t/5-/:a mukaddama aj hoga • 
yahanbahut makkhiyan haiti 
kitne ddml hazir haiii . • 
chiragh men tel nahm . • 
yih fakat hila hai . . . 
ham-ko ek namuna dijiye . 

tumhdre pas rassi hai . • 
badshah takht par baiihd . 
u8-kl dwaz achchht hai • • 
topi aur kurtijhdro . . . 
yih kaunsd jdnwar hai . • 
tumhari kyd §aldh hai . . 
wuh niewa khdnd achchha 

is-mtn tumfdUda pa'dge • 
apne bdlotlrmm kanghl karo 
tumhdri umr kyd hai . • 
pdlkt mere pas bhejo . • • 
hdth dhJonl kd pdnl la'o . . 

*il \jj \j^ uiol ekjord kaprd Id'o . . 

dawdi kalam kdshaz Id'o 


wuh gord kaun hai • 
wuh kis-kd ghord hai 
yih hamdrl ghJofi hai 
yih kiS'kd ghard hai. 
tumhdrd ndm kyd hai 
wuh bahut chdldk hai 

Their crime is great. 
Whose field is this ? 
His trial will be today. 
There are many flies here. 
How many men are present ? 
There is no oil in the lamp. 
This is all a trick. 
Be pleased to give me a pat- 
Have you any string? 
The king sat on the throne. 
He (or she) has a fine voice. 
Brush (my) hat and coat. 
What kind of animal is this ? 
What is your advice ? 
That fruit is not good to eat. 

You will find this very usefiil. 
Comb your hair. 
What is your age ? 
Send me the palanquin, r 
Bring water to wash (my) 

Bring a suit of clothes. 
Bring the inkstand, pen and 

What European is that ? 
Whose horse is that ? 
This is our (or my) mare. 
Whose water-pot is this ?" 
What is your name ? 
He is very active. 

^nl04 S/iort Sentences. ^^^H 

■ i/'jr' u^J -vi y** -'""'" **"'■ ^'" • 

. This ground is salt (bair^^^H 

H i/j/ y (iTM.'' -J/' "'™ na/ilA to giroge . 

. . Get down lest you fall. ^^M 

B ss* ^J^ H)J -vi ^''* '■"/''y« '"^^^ *"* 

■ This rupee is adulterated. ^H 

H \jtt .ij Ji-i ^_/-l us-kl shakl lad hai . 

It looks iU. ^M 

H j_y* Jl^ i^ljj >!ii^j^' angrezi zahan mus/ikit hai . The English tongue is difl^^H 

K j_jft lf»-l ic-^ ^ y'th bohut ackchha hai 

. This is very good. ^^M 

. . This is wonderful news. ^^H 

( u?» ^'^i ^jfl (*» ^«™ b/mkhc pii/asB hain 

. * We are (Urn) hungry a^^l 


thirsty. ^^H 

^ ,<*jTjLijb Sj wmA htishyar adm'i hai 

. He is a prudent man. ^^^| 

;\4\ J^ j'Ai/miV «(/m'5 . . . 

. Raise up the Venetian bUndi^^H 

3 ^ ii;?^ barton leja'o . . . 

. Take away the dishes. ^| 

' lO^ OiU- (.^L-^J ^ tfih darakhtjaid maulega . This plant will soon blos6oin.^H 

y» ls^ '^ Ai— *^ *j '""1 /lamesha ghalal karte ho You are always blundering. ^H 

l?!^ liJ^ lS"^ s^''^ 'J "'"^ ianrfi-Mane moi 6Ae/ti He was seut to prison. ^^^ 

>/ gay«. 


^^ tj-^ JJj ^1 us kt dam masbut hai 

. His argument is strong, ^^^| 

^ '-r'-^y^^ 15? »j wuA i«ra ie-adai Au£ 

. He is very unmannerly. ^H 

(^ 4_»L. Mj=;- ^^UJT 5«man AAifi sdf hai . 

. The sky is very clear. ^| 

cT* C?^ LS^ '^^ "'^ V*? *''5M Aafn . 

. Those boys are pert. ^H 

1^ ^ Ir* *B?^ u^' «*-"« ^r' ™=« ?'«'' ■ 

i_j») fc_-o- »_—> ^jTj wc saJ cAap roAe . . 

. They all remained silent. ^| 

^Jj^ J J liL-1 t».ft8 dil bc-^arar hai 

. Hie heart b unsettled. ^| 

^J ic\S ^ i/fA kaghas (ar hai . 

. This paper is damp. ^^ 

^ ^Jjy^ tU^ ^"'''"' sA^r A-arttt Aui . 

. Who is making a noise ? 

yb jjLyi Li |W ram %a kahte ho . . 

. What are you saying? 

j» ^V L^ (^ ftim *ya ifc/io/e A5 . . 

. What are you eating? 

* Like as in Europe llie plural of ihu tecotul 

pplied loan iiidiviilual, ho in IlinduHlatii not only 

le pluriil of the second person, but 

W thai ofllii' lirsl, utiU c^tn o( iLe lliird, i& in usi 

"""■'""-" -"1 

1 J. 

^^. J 

^^^^^^^^^^^^P Short Sentences 


jlyy (jdAjTi,^ salts hindi to hdlH 

. Speak easy Hindustani. ^^M 

^ ij:--*jA.j j V ^Jj>- chaleja'o, rukhsat ho 

. Go along, you arc dismissed, ^^k 

yU- i-:-**^. ^^^ wahan pMr matjd'o . 

. Go not there again. ^^| 

JJ^^ji Vl"^ /•** ham-ko kinare par utaro 

. Put me down on tlie shore.^^J 

^ Uaj |^j£ ^jIjSj icaAmm kaun rahta hai 

. Who lives there ? ^H 

if\s^ ij^ 1*^ L^-h-" sTrf''^ flg^ chaleja'o . 

. Go straight forwards. ^^H 

J*!! JIj *-jlp' -{f^ kuchh sharab pant Id'o 

. Bring some wine and water^^^| 

j^ \.i:^ t—y^ _jli /ju/ti MuA thandd karo 

■ Cool the water well. ^H 

/^jj J~t \j\^ khdna mlz-par ld.'d . 

. Bring dinner on table. ^^| 

J 'i^ js? ^^ yU^ ham-ko baft fajar jagd'c 

. Waken me very early. ^^| 

^ W-jfi U'^ -^ y '^"' pharchha hai . 

. It is fair to day. ^^| 

' ^y\ ^ ^T aj kuchh ahr hai . . 

. It ig a little cloudy to day. ^H 

^ \Jj\J\ ^\ «^«? ikrar kiyd hai . 

. He has made a confession: ^^| 

' ^ ^T J^ jSUjb ham-ko liind M hai . 

. 1 am very sleepy. ^^| 

^ \i&j Stji<_^l s. wuhaksarmatwdldTahtdhai He ie generally drank. ^^| 

J* O*?"' '^J^ ^J^ "V^ ^'* *"'"' ^''''^' achckhl hai . This wood is entirely aound^^f 

L-»>- i^jJ u;-^ ^^1 ws-ne 6aA«i! rfau/af 7am 

■ ki Heha8Bma3sedgreatwea!th.^H 

j-j *<«■. 


(^/ £j/^ I**^ (^ kj«^^ (^i'" '""" *""■ a^""*' frareri Let us now begin work. ^^M 

J^l:>-^C*A^L,^1 apne sdth ham-ko June do . Allow me to go with you, ^^M 

^Ji\^\j,,j wuh bard difil hai . 

. He is a very wise man. ^^| 

^ ijf^ i~ij^ ^ yih khub mewa kai . 

. This is tine Iruit. ^H 

<^ iJ}J u*^' ni i'^* ac/icAA7 rm hai . 

. This is good bread. ^^^| 

ip* \Jfj* ij^' ^y '-* nifl iap un-ke mar-ga'e hain Their parenta are dead- ^^H 

i_r*iH *,*7t?- ^j^ tumhdr't chhurl tez Hai 

. Is your knife sharp? ^^| 

i^ ^j^ i-j^ HfJ l^ ki/d yih chhurl tumhdr't 
i^'i^'cP^'^^'j^j^l m-ke ddnt men dard hai 

hai Does (his knife belong to yoQ^^I 

. He baa the toothacb. ^H 

" ^5* 1/ r?* lT^ -^ 2"'^ *""' ""»"* *' ^"^ 

. This candle is of wax. ^H 

ij* '^ IJJ J<i -Hfi y«A pJfl/ fiara khalta ha 

i . This fruit is very sour. ^^H 

^'^y'^j'-^j^ ■^- y'^^ kaprd bard motd ha 

. This cloth is very coarse. ^^M 

^ ^^>n^ LS- 'T-- V. ?'* *"* sJ 6iA(«r /iSg<i 

. This will be the best. ^^ 

H ^ |V '^^^' r^ v: y»/' fi'^i'"" *«/'wf "«'■'" / 

'"■'""""■ 1 



Short Sentences. 

yih (larf bad-surat hui . 
turn angfczl bol sakte ho 
is ghafi ko /? chalo . . 
ham sab kuchhjanic kain 
we hahut kuchhjanic haih 

ganna bara ttutha kai . 
is ghar ka lawazima nahln 
we be-khaboT sote haxn . 
turn it ghar lu malik ho . 

^ L^ LS »j jj j^ kttho to wuh hya kahia hai 

yn ^U»-|J^^«lJ1^^' is Hilml ko turn jante ho , . 

^V ^^ |.Lj nltam mtuja'dgi .... 

Jti^J ft'S'S fXj jj leuh mlatn ka kum kartH hai 

Jtjf rfSi IS ^^ jj '■J*'' ^^ galhar khoB . . . 

ls* •^"•i ls^'"* ls^' "**' ilarhl baft hai . . . 

J^ lj""''t '-^ '■' • ^^ "^ y l"-'" iska subab janlc ho . . 

jj^-,' jl ,^j»- chatikl Id baiOiQ . . . . 

^^Ji «ft t— jU yjjS A'aun Aai A«m parh^ii . 


t miifi se lal banal kai 

jsl^j A-yXsLj J j,j (Km ne naya madrasa dikha 

•j\»- j^ jj\ ^ i_s^^ frang/'7 fit n«r sirjharo . . 

|J>^T IS i_)li ^_ yih bah ka df^ir liai . . . 
^J^ ijl(^ ^J;r•-' ^/Sjiiii gtftgH Icarna tumhen bhata 

Tliis letter is HI formed 
Can you epeak Eoglist 
Take away this watch. , 
We know ttlL 
Tbey know much. 

Tlie sugar caue is very sweet. 

The house is unfurnisbt 

They are dead asleep. 

Are you the owner i 

Tell (me) what he saysi' 

Do you know this manfl 

Will you go to the auctu 

He is by trade an auctiouecr. 

Open this bale of cotton. 

He wears a long beard. ^^| 

Do you know the cause^^H 

Take a chair and sit dawn. 

What chapter shall I read I 

He bears an excellent cha- 

Bricks are made of clay. 

Have you seen the new 
college ? 

Take a comb and comb your 

This is theend of thechapter. 

Are you fondof conversation! 

IjA ii-^ — lil ^ji ^ gii'e barus anaj bakut hU'a There was pleuty of com last 
Vi thd, ' year. 

Short Sentences. 407 

^t . ^ c::.a4>..j.S Lj^ Aya A:7fwa^ hai in chlzon-ki What is the cost of these 

<J^3J^ tilings ? 

Jh 1^^^ i^y, ^^ tts-ko baft khanst hai . . She has a bad cough. 

c5^ <J^3 b^ 'V. y*^ hamara watan hai . . This is my native country. 
L5^ V^ c;l^ "V. y^^ hartan phuta hai • . This bason is cracked. 
4^X0 ^ JbJ^fc) ^^1 is dudh se maldl nahm hot! This milk produces no cream. 

-^ ^ Cjb 4^L£.^ tumhdri bat ham sach jante I give credit to what you say. 

^^^ Lf^ ^ J^^ ^^'^^ Ztt^^a /:aA^e hain • • This is called a creeper. 

j^ 4U3U i^y ^^^ ir^ t£?ttA 6161 ban allama hai . She is an excellent critic. 

Kj^J! ^4jsr^ \ji f^\^ wahanbaramajma admiydn- There was a great crowd of 

\^ ka tha, people. 

^Ul^ t^T^^^^gf^ ^ /cya^amAe/icMena&Aa^aAai Are you fond of curds? 

_Jb J ^-^^^ j^ <^ ^^ g^^^ bahut nam hai • This house is very damp. 

^\J ^^ ^ L> ^Lj\ us-kt kimtt hi kaun tarildi What is the dateof his letter? 

^ haij ^ 

_Jb (.::^j Us^ c^\ aft AtVna wakt hai • . • What time of day is it ? / 

jJb^ljuy \y^ Xj wuh bard karzdar hai . . He is very much in debt. 

15^^ U*^ l5^ '^r^^ S^^ t£?«/arc6 «i rftn /raj^d Aaiw . They live only by deceit. 

^ v^,>i J r. ^j-ir^ (^ turn is'-men Sib ko dekhte ho Do you observe any defect in 
yh j^iljJ' this? 

Ij^ j«3^ y;5^^*Xc jA-»l lis-ne adalat-men uzr kiya . He made his defence in court. 
y^jt^ ijj^, ^2fi^ (^^ C/*^ w kam men ban der hai . There is much delay in this 

^ \S(jAX' \i c^Sljf fjm\ is tdldb kd umuk kyd hai . What is the depth of this 

lyh Ap ^ s^V/^^ f) ^^^ chausar-bdzi se tabdh He was ruined by playing at 

Au'a, dice. 

^^^xlJU c^b 4^V^ (^ f^^ tumhdrl bat mdnenge . I shall attend to your direc- 



408 Short Sentai^. 

^ !aJ-c ^JJ i\} ■^.J yift »■«* I'ar'i ghaEz hai . . 

This road is very dirty. ^^| 

k/^^cTV-^'^C^-Vi yi^favj kawa'tdnahutjant'i 

These soldiers are undui^^| 


iJ» lfj-1 i.::--^ jUrl jj utuA yorf hahut achchha hai 

That is a great discovery. 

^Jj iLs- L_-™» »a Aam s<i6 ^*/a na-karin . . 

Let us not use disguise. 

y^ Jj\S ^j<, t^l -J (Km is marax ka nam kaho . 

Tell me the name of this 


4^UJ u:->yj iy cjI ai wkA bahut Id^AdrJ mU 

She is now in great distress. 

^^ hai, 

ij^ ^J Lf^^ ^r'i'^ dusre mahlne kl pahti tarlidi 

A dividend on his estate wij^^ 

J J^ J^^ fTj^" "*-ft^ mhl kl kUi pahuii- 

be paid the first of BdlH 

JU^^ k_i cAegJ, 

month. ^H 

i_ja l^ i-::--jU' J^tJ li^l tw-tS p^sA« (a&5ta( ka hai . 

His profession is that of;^H 

doctor. IH 

l5* cj/ -"j 4/ ^' "-'fo Aarne-waZa kaun hai . 

Who was the doer of this ? 

^ Ijj CJ'jyi- ^J j^^ ue-«? do k/uiriik-i dawa fi . 

He has taken two doses of 


i_j* •^jy^./f^ \Jj^ g^'or Ac wicAe mori hai . . 

There are drains under ( 


|J» Hlji^ j^ *j tcu/i Aflfa mattoala hai . . 

He is quite a drunkard. 

\^^fax:'^^J.L^^J^ isjijis-kamahml lagta hai. 

Du these arUcles pay dot 


U~^ i^jj* yJ i^Jj-H '^'^'^ '^i" Aii'e is makalle 

An earthquake was felt lata 

V" Ij* y ^ J^" mU larza hu'a thi. 

in this part. 

^ ^W ^s«l ai-AI iA5jAa hai . . . . 

It is now ebb tide. 

>. s^*^ J^' 'j*^ ^j^"^ hamrie dawd us-ko di par 

1 gave him medicine, bal 

y 4J jtaJU ^ ^1 m-sefa'ida na kit'a. 

bad no effect. 

Ljj/lf Ijjs^ tlX> Jj^ /jam n^ ek chiriya kaghonsld 

I saw a bird's nest with fi 

i^-^iljViir^^-'jJ^ ««'■ «*■««« cAur flncfi 


H (^.J t^'tAr, 

H t^**j j^^li^ L-jj ^^^ Aam-BF rfaryct AworJ ioifA? 

1 saw him sitting on tht 

^K l^J /;! ^y> Au't un-ko dckha, 

bankoftheHver. ^ 

Short Sentences. 409 

\j^ JS ^ j^) i^jf if J tDuh bare zor se kam karta He goes towork with energy. 

^ hai, 

VM?" ji Id^^ ^jUy bauna wuh hai jis-ka kadd Dwarf — one who is small in 

^ cAhota hai, stature. 

^^ ^uf \S JU f^^\ U8*ke mil ka kaun wast hai Who is the executor to his 

jJb estate ? 

U^ ^^ ^^ a!S ^ is kam karne men kya kharch What will be the expense 

b^ ^^ Koga, of doing this ? 

^^ jll^ ^^ jb jjl^ iTj wuh kar o bar men mash*- He has experience in busi- 

shak hai, ness. 

l^ ^xxfif ^ J^ ^ L^ Aya yiA awdmm ki guftgu Is this mode of expression 

^jjt AS tour hai, common? 

Ja) ^ L>- ^ iJ aJ^ Aam w« is fdhalt ki nakl I showed you an extract 

(^ \^J ^;ff*^ ^umAen dikhaH, from his letter. 

<^ CJfjJhJL^ jCt aA Aam ttn-Ao be-dharak kah I can speak to him without 

^^ L<^ «aA^e hain, fear. 

^^yl< JiJb ^^ y^J jjl in dono AZ ^AaAZ milti hai . The features of these two 

^Jb arealike. 

clX^I Mr:!-« /•l-A-^ (/»t Mff maAam men eA cfengt hai There is a ferry boat at that 

v/ ^5^^ place. 

4^j^ (j-;?^ (^)ll7 (^t is talab men kol machhli Are there any fish in this 

^Jb jJiff^ Aat, tank ? 

^iC ^ J^***^ ^S/^ ^g chakmak se nikle . • . Fire is produced by flint and 


^^yiAfe^l^jjJj4> J^ *^^^ ^* g ^Q^ 6Aeroii-A5 ham^ I saw there a flock of sheep. 

l^J dekha, 

L5^ l/^ l5^A^ l5^ ly ^ ^'^ *^ ''^- * ^^'*'* ^^* • • • Bread is made of flour, 
^ li}ls»- ^^^^^;«•^V ^^ ^^^ ian^i bajajanta hat . He plays on the flute. 
{:)i^ uW^ ^^^'^ c^^d yaAan iaAu^ makkhiyan Here are a great many flies. 

^ ^— jjiXiljj^ t^ji^\ uS'ko bafi dur^andesht hai . She possesses much fore- 
3 G 

410 Short Sentences. 

Llfw4^*c-^ JU,<i-9^ us-ne mal bahut jam^ kiyd . He has made a lai^e for- 

1^ jL:j ^ j^ ghar-ki bunyad pan . . . The foundation of the house 

was laid. 
^^ ^ C^U ^ 5JcJ\ ayandorkt bat ham naKin We cannot see into futurity. 

^U jantcy 

j^l^ 1/ jf^ \S^ yj'^^ AMm-7ici«cMa6ar ArcfttfgAo? I saw this in the gazette. 

l^J ^^ nien dekhif 

Ji ^^«>-U (^\ J turn us §ahib kojante ho ..Do you know that gentle- 

jb Ja^^ man ? 

vl^^ 11;-^ u4;^ (J^vj^^^ ««-nc tlmi-arz men Ik kitab He has composed a book on 
^ ^ c, ff .> ; * n7 c->\a^ tosni/ kt hai, geography.. 

JLj^^^^^jT'Ij JLI us'ke panch larktf tin bete, He has five children, three 
^jjb ^JLj ^ J do 6e<7 Aairi, boys and two girls. 

MT* Jv -^ J^^ ,r^ khabar ddr yih sahl men tut Take care, this will easily 
l^ ^JLJ^ ^^" ^y j^'^S^ shlshe ka fiai, break, it is made of glass. 

^J\La(^ \jf^ C^\ f^JiMb ham-neekjora dastana mol I have bought a pair of 

L5* y J^ '(y^ ^^*i gloves. 

^ ^jS ^ l5^W" (^ tumjdnte ho kis st saresh Do you know what glue is 
^ Lj ^/^/-» 6ana Aai, made of? 


Jjuj Jb^ oii'J L^^^ sone rupt lohe pltal yd tambe Is this chain made of gold, 
j^ios^j ,<-* \^^ V. ^^ zanjfir bant hai, silver, iron, brass, or cop- 

^j^ ^r^ per? 

j^ ^^ ^y^irV^ S^^ ^1^ miArJawi AarAe khabar Have the goodnes^^ Sir, to 

^juB^ kljiye, inform me. 

eus^^ c-?b ^^1 j^y»^^ us-ne apne bdp ko bahut He has caused much grief to 

4^J L»gJ^7 takVtf di, his father. 

O^ \j^j^ ^ l/J^ C/-' *^ i^T^^ *5 wiMroiJj Aa«n Who is the guardian of this 

^ haiy child ? 

L5^ si^ i«^^^^ y^^ M5-fco suhh-ke phirne kl ddat He is in the habit of walking 
jb d^jlc Aai, out early. 

Sitort Sentences. 4H 


^ jC) ^\ib iCsf uS'^ka hath pakar to . . . Take bold of his hand. 
^ l5^ TJ}^ ^^^ ^^'^ suraj nikalne se kam I must go to work every day 
Jbljjjb ^U-vJ^/*^ kafrnejarie hbta haiy yih at sunrise: this is a great 

^ JCl^ ^jfJj %Yi bafi mushkil hai, hardship. 

^^1 1^ Jcj j^ C/U ^aX: gAar btmd hoga^ is-lVl I write in great haste to save 
-^i>- i^jir*- ,c2»A^ ham-nejaldi chittht likhl, the post. 

" -^ j.^ ^^^ L5^^^ •**'^^ ftaiware iw&i ghusG On entering the room he took 

^jUI ^y ^pi utat It, off his hat. 

«,-i*ftflerc-->l Li^L^^y^^ W-A5 age «e aft tajAftf hai, She is now much better than 

^ she was. 

Jbj^Jbjly^d^^^f^i^ y^^^^ kaghaz ka bara dhlr Here is a heap of papers, 

^j ^^ .j^^ j^Ji^ haij lekar aur jagah meH put them away. 


,j \i \jffc ^^ l/^ chalrie nieA niera pffoA us-ki I trod on his heel. 

j\^>i (^1 (^ Wf («:a^ kitnt unchSl is diwar kt hoi What is the height of th|» 

i/ J waU? 

^^ aU ^^\ ij;j\^iJb jj turn hamare U kam mhi Can you afford me any as- 
yb ^^iCi ^ J«X« .fsr kuchh madadkar sakte ho^ sistance in this ? 

J\^ ^j^J isAi 4/j wefakat tarkari khakarjtte They live on herbs solely. 

c:^ Jflyj ^^ jjl^ bangale meA pahaf bahut There are but few hills in 

^ J kam haifif Bengal. 

i^*i)j\ (jJ t^ ^lA\ ^J^\ us-nl ishara kiya is irade He gave a hint to this effect. 

Jjj jSL Ulf ^^^^i yahM'Se ganga sagar tak What will be the boatrhire 
l>yh L^ \^ i<^ ^}j^ kiraya kishtl ka kya hoga from this place to Saugor ? 

xf rV>^ cr?^ cTi^ Vi>^i yaAaw zamin meti surdkh Make a hole in the ground 

karo, here. 

*i^ c-->l 1^ ^ jt*^ ij:^ ftoAw^ rfcr Au7 aft Aam gAar It is late, let us now return 
^^^.3^j^ jaece^i, home. 

412 Short Sentences. 

,^\ LZJje. fj^ ^i-*l us-nc baft tzzat pa*i . . He has obtained much ho- 


^^^ ^ iS^ iV"^^ hO'Tfnrne bansl se ek machhlt I have caught a fish with a 

^!fi yj^ P^^fh hook. 

lg_^\-' ^ ij'^ ^ is gffe he sing nahin . . This cow has no horns. 

IxjJ ^bbj UlJl ^b uiol ek ddrU'Sh-shafd wahaft ba- An hospital is about to be 

nega, built there. 

^ \sfl U^y^ Lj^^ (^ turn j ante ho kya baja hai . Doyou know what hour it is? 

** ^ • ^ * 

-fs? L5^ SiP L5^*^ ^MW-wS girwc «c ftttcAA chot Had you any hurt from your 

J^ ci^ • pcTi, fall ? 

&* ^^ ^2^^ J^y^ hamrko khiyal nahtti tha ki I had no idea that you would 

^j \ -T turn aj a'oge, come to day. 

^ jCiJ ^ ^ J ^U2^ /n7ne rfin «^ turn ho yih How long have you had this 

L5^ i^U^ &f mar? Aai, illness ? 

tjuj _mJL^ JW" '-Vi y^^ Mkiyol kahofirse paida Whence came this idea? 

1^ Au'5, 

^ ^mIo^ Ai^^ *y£ yt'A muhimm-i-aum hai . . This is an important affair. 

^ jj.^.t^jlC* i^j tt;MA makkdr-i masNhur hai He is a notorious impostor. 

^A^\ ^ji^ j^ -^ yih muhrnahln uthtt . . This seal makes no impres- 


s^j^ JI^ ^i^^ Sr[5^ v. y^^ ^^^^^ ^S^^ ^* ^^'* ^^•'^^ ^^ ^^^^ piece of wood been 

^j^ i*l^ ^ y ciyb Ao^i^ ^0 i^ /:am men dtJy an inch longer^ it would 

(Ji have done very well. 

vjjk^i j^^iLl^ jijU- -J tumjdnte ho us-ki dmdanl Do you know what is his 

^ \^ kya hai, income ? 

jJl^j i^^ i^y*?^ c//->^*^ dusremahlneki pahtitdrtldi Will my staying here iill the 

^JuUb CJj) fCj^'^ tak hamdrt rahne se turn- first of next month be any 

^ ^j^ ^ ^jJbj hen kuchh ranj hoga, inconvenience to you ? 

liUai.^ ^^^ L^\z^ ^jJi is kitab mm jihrist hai . . Is there an index to this 

^ book ? 

Short Sentences. 413 

^^^ c*^*^ if^^ H ^^ kitnl dinon se Hindus- How long have you been in 

^ {jif^ j^\iM»jJkiJb tan men ho, India? 

fj ^ ^^ji^ \^\ 1*^ ^. yih kam aisa nahln ki turn This affair is not to be treat- 

ji^ Ls.Ji£ ghafiat karo, ed with indifference. 

Jl^l l^ fc^U-J 4^1^ tumhari hlmari ka ahwal I heard of your indisposition 
^ i/^ j<-^ lS^''** ham-ni ga*e hafte se suna, last week. 

^^^ tl/\ J ^ -^T Jf jS) agar ^wm a; Ai rfaA wicri If the letter goes by to day's 
^\ y ^'< \. ^ ) k^ l^fi bhtjo to abht dak post, you must send it to 

^J'^F^* ^:fi^j^^^*^ gkar men bhejne chahiye, the post-office now. 

\^ <ti— ' -yj fj mJ^^ hakim ne yih nuskha likha The doctor wrote this pre- 

^ haif scription. 

\mmA ^^^L»i^j\AJb^^^\ us-ne hamarc samhne aisa He said so in my presence. 

\^ kaha, 

^ v::.^ J kftiJ \jUjb hamara talaffuz durust hai Is my pronunciation cor- 
^ JH JJ J \J ^J^\ w tum is-ki kya daUl late ho . WJiat proof can you give of 

jj^ \ijL» ^y jJ tum tosha safar ka karo . Make provision for your 

jI^ ^JLJ c-^I» ^^ yih kitab kis-tarah chhapt Is the work printed in folio, 
\j Jh dsas^ \jL» ^ ga*i sara takhta hai ya quarto, octavo, or duode- 
y>' b ISjj 4rf U \ij^ yd do-waraka ya si-waraka cimo ? 

ISji^ ya chaurwaraJka, 

Jb tjj ic\^ ^ ?Jjf gudar se kaghaz banta hai . Paper is made of rags. 
J yd J^^ iiLojy\ CjLc malik aur malika wahan The king and queen were 

^ ^U- dono hazir the, both present. 

^is-fO lL^\ j^ Ji \LSJ\ Ik kalam aur ek dasta kor Give me a quill and a quire 

^^laq^ «j:^1:^ j^U ghaz \nayat kljt% of paper. 

if^^ if^ jd^ ^ t^. yih fikra aur kisl kitab-se This is a quotation from some 
l5^ y l:;^ chun liya hai, other book. 

414 Short Sentences, 

JT^J^ \Jo*V W^^^ L5^' ^'^^ *^^ rupTe ghur-daur kl He lost all his money at a 
^fc> W ^^^tj^jlj ,^ bazi-men ura di'e, horse-race. 

(JLy % -fse ^ i\j bagh ki kuchh bar tut gal . Some of the garden rails are 

ii broken, 

b)^^^ .^ ^^ kaun yih khabar laya . • Who brought these tidings? 

^jjb ^«i^ i^ ^^ we hukka pite kain . . • They smoke tobacco. 

j^ t^^ Jjtl^ if-«J^ ham-ne mash'al jalake sair We travelled by the light of 

L^ kiya, torches. 

i^^^ CSi^ y^ f^^ tts-ne ham-ko ek chhoG kitab He gave me a tract. 

^ li' <ll-j 'jlf«J ^2<mAara pe^Aa Aya hai . . What is your trade ? 

^;«J^ vi W ^(^ si]/^ (^ ^^^ Muizane men jate I am going to the treasory. 


\^ c:..v»>J ^^y^ ^f t^^t iRo^tyori-fti Aimal Aya AVhat is the price of those 

^ Aai, pearls ? 

J^f>- L5f?^ ^W?^ (^ ham chhata plcAhe chhor a*e I have left behind my nm- 

^j-Jb fcj^ T hain, brella. 

jJl»- ul^J ^ c^li^ (^^ » fti/aft ki ekjild hai ya do Is the book in one or two 

jj \j Jb volumes ? 

^^ J^-^ «A ^^ ohwejahazmtnmandraS'ko He is now on a voyage to 
^j^ (JU- jLJjX^ jate hain, Madras. 

^ l^ aIC^ -^ yiA kis-kam ka hai . . . What is made of this ? 

j^<^»fl^J Jo^ \1^} yl^Jb ham-ko ek wefar dljiye . . Please to give me a wafer. 

^ vJl^ J> li^« U^ %5 mahlnd tum pate ho . What wages do you get ? 

4jfjj fj^y„^ l5^^ 6aj:A-/:7 cfiirar gir /?ari . . The garden wall is fallen 


lH-?"^ \Jj^ ^J^ tumharighafiachchhichaltl Your watch goes well. 

^Jb ^ ^j'^^ *'j -V. y^^ ^^'* Chandamagar ki Is this the road to Chander- 

haiy nagore ? 

^S^S ^\ rx^ c^ ham his-tarah us-ko karlnge In what way am I to do 

tliis ? 

Short Sentences. 416 

^ c5;^ ^^jfi '^ yi^ pO'tthar kitna bhari hai What is the weight of this 

stone ? 
<Jj^ ^^^\ \^ ilS^ ek ku'a un-se khodne kaho . Tell him to dig a well. 

J c^^^y ^\f^ (S turn chaho to sab Zo . . . You are welcome to the 

Jb L^ ^/^l^ Sr^W^ tumhari khzpahish kya hai . What is your wish ? 
^ \:;C: ^ ^ Lf^ tum-se yih ho sakta hai • Are you able to do this ? 
yi^l^ j^ jjj ^ J *Jb ham das roz ghair pazir the I have been absent ten days. 


Lf^yi u^^ L^^ H^ ^^'^ M^^ zarnin par baithe We sat on the bare ground. 

^ the, 

j^yrrirRl ^^fi^ fJb L^ kya ham is-men takslr-voar Am I blamable in this ? 

^ hain, 

ybjyoLj fj L^^ -» Ve-shakk tum be-fcufur ho • Without doubt you are 

15^ *^ i^ji ^j^ *vi y*^ chhuri ban hand hai • This knife is very blunt. 
\^ tyb \^ ^J>y^JA;>i^^ samundar tikub third hu'a The sea was quite calm. 

^ fj Jb \s^ ^ j9- jo wuh kahta hai tum sach Do you think what he says 

yb ^ifc*^ samajhtt ho, is true ? 

^jiiW ^j^ ^\ ^ j^U han ham us-ko yakinjante Yes, I am certain of it. 

^ hain, 

Ufi c:^ |Jl>- ^^fi^ hamenjara bahut lagta bai I feel very cold. 

^Jb ^z^ L^l i*^^ awamm aisa kahte hain . • The common people speak 

J^^ {^ U^j C/*^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ;7a&an men kamil hai He is complete master of the 

^ language. 

^ ^^Jti^ ^ yiA safr lerAf Aai. . - . This line is crooked. 
^j0^ ciT ti ijj ,X^^ itf-A:e one na ane men shakk It is doubtful whether he 
^ uXl Aai, will come. 

416 Short Sentences. 

jh 4<^ L^-J^ ?^ ^'^^ S^^S^ hahri hai, . . She is both deaf and dumb. 

iVW ij^ l/ l5^ ^ ^^ »ii,^/i Ac bartan banate They manufacture earthen- 

^^ Aain, ware. 

_x^JJ;Lm«9 J^yU? Ub Aam tum-ko sahal sabak I will set you an easy lesson. 


*Vi ^ <^'W v;^ iVi^ ^1"^^ ^^r^ bhal ko yih kitab Give this book to your elder 

UjJ u^\2^ dena. brother. 

•* • ' 

\^ ^ bi (jr* U^)^ (^ '*''" d5«o« se bara kaun hai Which of you two is the 

elder ? 

ff^J^ji ^ y^ do khatt bardbar khaincho . Draw two even lines. 

cT?* Lfi^ *-r^ L5^ sd ^''^ *^^ *^ *^^ S^'^ ^^^^ • • 'T^^y *^^ g^^c* every one of 


^ (ji^ ^U4^^jC«J tum-kd kol manC nahtn jo You are free to do as you 

j^^^W chahb so karo, please. 

^ J-4CLsr*^ 2[^ iTttA gh air muhtamil hai . That is not probable. 

\j\ iA^j\^ gj wuh jahaz jald aya . . . That vessel has made a 

quick passage. 

^ \}^jCi^ ^^ yih nadir buta hai . . . This is a very rare plant. 

c^^ \j\^ JjV" » kachcha chdwal khana khub It is not good to eat rice 

^j^ nahln, raw. 

c-;L^ J«JV U:!/??" L5^. y^ chizen bi-l-ji*l kam-yab This article is now scarce. 

^j ^;*y JV ,<-» ij)^ ft^ ham jane se bdz nahin rah I cannot avoid going. 

^^^>**^ sakte, 

'fi^ sft ^ 15*'*^ ham-nt suna we sahih sala- I heard of his safe arrival in 

j^^Lyj jj*\J c:^^lL» mat landan pahunche, London. 

cr?V U^ {j'H'^ hamen yakln nahin ki aisa I am not certain that it is so. 

jJh \yb L-j! hu'd hai, 

^ v.5^V' *^^ ^T^ (^ ^^^ mo/a kdghaz chahte ho Do you wish for thick paper, 

**-^jV k y^ bdrlky or thin ? 

jjrjbUj ^^^ ^^Ui ^^^1 un-ke jC Ion men daghd'bdzJ Their conduct was full of 

L5^ Sr^ iAari Aai, treachery. 

Short Senlences. 

Isiyj (Jv^ ^ -vi 3/*^ M"/.', ' 

i pahun- This letter was unexpecte 

^ \^ *-i ^ jjl i_r^ tum-ne aur /it kism ka hlj You have bought the v/roa^ 
i^ U J^ mol liya hat, kind of seed. 

-j1»j -a i^ [**J^ J" ^''"' A'«A'^ AaiM (am is-Ao Do you accede to what I 
j Ij y> J^ JjJ ^a£u^ Aarfe A5 ya naktn, propose, or not ? 

fAJ ^j~^ j^ ^^\ *ft hamapneghar men tumharl I can accommodate you i 
^-a ^jiL^S s/^*r* ratAmawT Aar sa/t/e Aain, my house. 

Vusij^ iJ~^^y^ i.S~i^ iif^ niatii apnl khsyjthish bhar- I was not able to accomplifll 
\L^Jj pur na-kar saka, my wishes. 

i> |J* '— 'y>* (J*«^ j-T «;' makfil maii^uf hat do To day's meeting was i 
i_rJ*-rfiJw !_/ \J^ shambe ke roz phir tiogl, journed til! Monday net 

a JjJ I (,i^ iX^ j^ »j wiih khabar sunke bahut The news a6Bicted hin 
lyi asurda hu'a, greatly. 

I »^'^ tpV f* W'r* ^^ ^'"^ "Kih'tna ham nahh't de I cannot afford to give B 

ij^i-i sakte, much wages. 

I«}.V< i^j^^J '•Jhr^ mihrbaai karkar hamart Pray afford me your assist*! 

j^ madad karo, aiice. 

I'V* 1-5^5* 't^ o;;^'*^ adalat-mhl khafe hole hi On appearing before the 



wuA kampne laga, 

court he was mucli agi- 
< ilXjj (J^ |_i-*_» Aam-ne kalek bafi machhtt I caught a lai^efish yesterj 

^-j j^^ jCil:.^ 'rL'* gufre mangal-ka mavt-ne I saw him last Tuesday. 
l^J yLl W-A5 (JJAAb, 

UU- ^^p^ Lajj l^ ^ t/ih likhu parha nahmjata This writing is not legible^ 

I |_j-^l li-^ ];L*» Samara ma^ind is-klse kam My wages are less than b 

r ji liT^j j^^ u'^ 'j "'*'^ he-jhn hbkar zam'tn par He fell to the ground lift 

1 ic* ijfj^ .^jJ -^J yiA bojh hhar'i hai ya halka Is this package light : 
m* hea?y ? 



5A£wi Sentences. 


^ ^jj i^jd. 1^^ t/ift kamara k/mbrdEkan hat 

This is a light room. ^^ 


ye koljtriyan hahut unchi- 

These rooms are very lofty. 


yan hain, 


turn kitnt din wakatirahogl 

How long shall you remain 


^=-M ^!;«5 •J^~^ t] 

vmh bahut thofi klmat 

The price he asks is very 


mangta kai. 


^\ji<Sy. 0_^ 1, 

wuk hahut mold, ku'a hat . 

He is now grown very lusty. 

liU-'ji UUr l_,\^- ^^l^, 

wahan tumharajiina najana 

It is immaterial whether you 


barabar hai, 

go or not. ^^^H 

i^j-yi j.A*Mr /JV P^A^r /<:ojumbish riahln . . 


is-tneii tarafain ka fd'ida 

This will be for our m^^| 


beneflt. ^B 

luW i/^-t- w-:)'' f» 

ham dusrt mahhie wahan 

We will go there next mO^H 




ic-'kjrj'^^^yijli^'-fcft kamari uagliyan jure se 

My tiugers are numbed ^M 


Ihithir ga'ln, 



titm-neapne khati men tarikh 

You have not dated ]^^| 


nahU likhl, 


L^ J^^'j^ U^j •^. 

yih zamin bol gal hai . . 

This land is cultivated^^H 

ji^r ^ c^i ^ 

yih istilah fi-l-hal matruk 

This term is become J^f 



solete. ^t 


dar kc mare us-ka rang zard 

He became pale throt^B 


ho gaya. 


Lf,* w-./ wi .J 

wuh ah gharlh ho gaya . . 

He is now become poor. 

U=r=^-" o'/ vj- I-' (^ 

ham turn se kol muUuu^ hat 

I wish to converse on par- 

CT* ^V V '^V 

kaha chahte hain, 

ticular business. 

^,1 ^^ l^ ^U__^. 

yih jaf likka hai aur bar This writing is plain and 

^ IjU- Ujj jlo 

-asani parhajala hai, 

easy to be read. 

^^ ^" J cj;*i' 

unhoA lie maWjl bal-chlt k'l 

They held a private conver- 

" ^^-- 


/^- ^.- .iTT Ai^' ^. 

yih kaghaz ag-se seiiko . . 

Dry this paper at the fire. 

Short Sentences, 419 

j^ vJ^J^ Jj*^^^ t/*^ *^ ?andtiA-Ao ^a/t hard . . Empty this box, 

Ikj J |*l5 ^ji^ ,^c-il ^if kaun aise togon-ko kam dega Who would employ such 

people 08 these ? 
^j--< ki- ,-ij\ L^ ijUib hamara JdkaU apnc khaU Enclose my letter in yours. 

J J ^j men rakh do, 

\J^ ^jjy ^^ l/***^ ham-ne is-ko naukar rakha I have engaged him as my 

haiy servant. 

^^^ tf^ j^'f^^ Mib ham puchh-kar tum-ko I will enquire^ and let you 

^<tij[fc> Jdiabar dengij know. 

^^^^j^ i^ji^ k/'^'*^ *j t^uh danal men har-ek se He excels every one in in- 

^ \j) ^ bara hai, telligence. 

(J^ (^V ^ jy V i«i y^ janwar faJcat ghas khate These animals feed only on 

^ hain, grass. 

jTI 2r^ Ij^ --* ?V/V J5'^ ftogA «c thora mewa la*o Go fetch some fruit out of 

the garden. 
y^^ ^iljtjSjsX) ^ is pech'ko red se ghiso . . File this screw. 
j^^fsaj (iJ^ J Isr i/ 1 Jf ^wm age ja*d ham ptchhe You go before, I will follow. 

^/ awenge, 

\J^ crfj^ L^ (^ ^^^ y^ cAi;2re;i At^nl jaldi How soon can you furnish 
y> ^jS^^Jui i^jlsj- ^atyor ftor ^aA^c Ao, these things ? 

c:^^ j^i^io ^^1 4^^ trc apnt makdur bhar bahut They hasted away as fast as 

^ jiij- jald ga% possttble. 

^ V W"^ ^^ H'J ^' ^^^ zakhm ab achchha hffa His wound is now healed. 

^ <>^Hl^^ {^jtji^ L^ y^ chtzen wilayat se a'tn These things were imported 

^^ ^Jil hain, from Europe. 

U^ Lj\ ^JaJy^ j^ tum-ne kis^aste aisa kama Why did you teach him to 

bl^Ci ^^1 i/«? sikhlaya, act thus ? 

^^^ i»\!^ fjm\ ^^ MiJb ham kyun vs ham men hath Why should we interfere in 

^U «ffU daUn, that affair ? 

^ luLyl^ yUib 2[^ j>- jotouhham-kokahtahaitum- You must interpret what he 
l^ ci/ ^'^'^'fy^ ^:;:rf^ '^^^^ tarjuma kame hoga, says to me. 

49» Start Semiemea. 

} ^>AM k,iV>>U 4/t ai foAib kaahko ummied hai I hope, Sir, I do not in- 

^ <^,/ '■-► i^ ^ Id jamab-ko tasdt no-din^ temipt joo. 

y^fif i^^f^ *^>'^< '-V^ yiA WMJaddama iamm We most faiTestigmte this 

l>^ (J^ tofunz kamc koga, matter. 

cZ^ ik^ i:^^ j0^ ^ yik khabar sum-kar wuk ba^ The iiewsfery much akrmed 

LS^ hut dor gaya, him. 

4^ ^ (jb j^j^j J^ nair^f rupiye pane le tre They allow five per cent, dis- 
1^ ^ J- l5^^^ f$^ P^^^^™piy^^^'i^^^^^ coont for ready monej. 

yJi\i ^^ c^L.>» ^ifoi AorX^i pangau rupiye The bill will amoont to fire 

^j»yi L<iiL^ Aong^y hondred mpees. 
jC^Cj ^4^ ^^CL.^- fjisab-kt jan^ dekh-kar ham- I was amazed at the amoopt 

\ytb ^-^f^ y^ -^ ta*ajjub hu'a, 

%£^^j^ ^^jtrf- 15-^' <^^^ cAtz^ ijrinia/ tywiz His goods will be appraised 

15-^^ y^ jif^ ^^^ hecKjawenpf and sold. 

Li Jui j^ L> 1^ ir^ wuh pakra gaya atar kaid Hewas apprehoided and pot 

hu*a, in prison. 

^>.4>*«.M ^<-jJbl>- yLiJb ham-kb ckahiye dpas-men We ought to assist each 

^ji JXo madad karen, other. 

C/*^ 1^ ^ i!*^ i/*"*^ Aawi-we khabar pal das I have received notice to 

^Ij cuJ^ ^ v-5^^^ gkante ke wakt daru-l- attend the court at ten 

^Jyb y-^U- ^-^!juJ\ adalat-men hazir Iione o'clock. 

o^b kogd, 

jyJ j^^y. ^ *^Sr^ (^ tumpere ko barhakar tanur Bake this dough in the oven. 

j'LxJ ^^^ men lagd'o, 

fS ^*-» vJ*^ ^'^^ ^-? ^'^^ ^* j>awe «e Aawi nahln He would not abate me one 

lsi*> j^;-^ rfc^a, pice. 

yj^-^Jl c:^ L5^''*^ ham-nl bahut admiyon-ko I saw numbers bathing in 

Sir^ J**^ e;:^* ^^ g^^g^ 'wen ^t/^Z Aar^c the Ganges. 

l|^^ dekhd, 

Short Sentences. 421 

^ \J ^Ji>AJb ^ jo ham-ne kiya kai mu*df I beg your pardon for what 

y^iS^ kljiye, I have done. 

jt^3^^ ^J^ LsH^ L^^ w-nc apne sare kaghazon- He blotted his paper all 

^^J JU ^Ji^ poT siyaht dH rfi , over. 

-^^ jlj^sj ^j-^ j^^ W"*5 main-ne sir par bojh I saw him carrying a load 

\^J cilf^ 2e;a^E dekha, on his head. 

iJi^J^J^ lai jj jjjf 1 ttnAon nc khatt likhrkar cha- They have circulated no- 

^Jb L<?i<? j**^ *— i^ ^^ J^*^^ fchabar bheji tices. 

"f?^ ^;;fiY3 Cyj ^^flw ^ ^ Aam ytA AJtfift nahtii samajh I do not well understand 

^^^i»*^ sakte, this. 

jfibj'J /M I^Ujb |^i<«j tum-me hamara kam darham You have confused my work. 

bc> ^ JtJbj) barkam kar diya, 

ls^^ '^^ ^ JW^ jaAa2r ka hojh use arhat The cargo of the vessel was 
L> bj ^^ ui^J^T Tten cftya gayif consigned to him. 

- / ^ L<s^^ y^ f^^.m-ko norcKahiye kisi'-ko We ought not to despise any 

u;rCr^*^ ^flifcir samjhcfi, one. 

j^l 9^ j^ C/*^ (^ ^^ ^^ natfAar-fto a»r nuz^ Do not detain the servant 
y\ij\ atkffOf any longer. 

i^j^ cli^l ^^ j*> ijj tt^ttA do pahar par ek guzre He dines at one o'clock. 

J5 \2\^ \j\^ khana khata kai, 

^ jj>- CSj J\ ^J>Mb ham-ne aj tak chor-kd na I have not as yet discovered 

UUiri ^ pahckana, the thief. 

^^^ Cfj f^ S>^ lC)t us'ka fiukm ham radd nahlti I cannot disobey his orders. 

i;iL» ^ kar sakte, 

yb ^^sd^ wx« yL»t *ji /tim u^Ao man^ Aar «aA^S Cannot you dissuade him 
i^Jj \^\jff i^ ^ ho ki wuh phir aisa nor from doing so? 

y j!^ ]/^ f ^j ij^ is rassJ'kd duhra karo to Double this strings and then 

^pyh f^X^^ kam-kt hogl, it will do. 

^^ ^ a/ jf^ )jy^ thbra §ahr karo wuh ab Waitalittle^ he is now dress- 
Li^ ^^^^ ^-^j^ k(ipT^ pahanta hai, ing. 


Short Sentences, ^^^^^^^| 

■ t/-J f» ^ C> <^' 

is tar^ Be ham das rupiye In this way I can m^^^^^ 

1 ^r'-^^^r•l/K)-' 

maktna kamd sakte haiti, rupees a month. 

1 <j^ 


■ / ^^iiU ^ \_.l 

aUd jald kankne ko gUrl- Tell the coachman not i^^| 


■ban ko mdh* karo, drive so fast. ^H 


;o ham-lie age MoH nw-Hkko, Pray excuse my not writing 


yih ^iisur ma'af ktjiye, before. 

(j^ IjUj- I_-!-1^ J 

aisahibtumharahukmjaldi Sir, your orders shall l||^| 


kiydja'ega, executed without delaji'^^l 

r >=^ r :e-ji r Z' 

agar turn puchho to jo turn If you ask, he will explain 

'-) )* ^r-s"^ *^ 

na samajhte ho with turn- any part which you do 

l*i'' W" cr*^" 

hhi samjhd dega, not understand. 

cT" sij!/'' '^^ ■^. 

yih bat angrezt men kis-tar^ I do not know how to t 


boli jail hai ham nahla press this in English. 



y sijv /' J-^ o'-' 

ug-ki madud agar na-holJ to Had it not been for tiis 

»i f Wl^ ^K IjUi. 

kamdrd kdm sar-unjam sistance I should ha 


na pdta, failed in my purpose. 


agar wuh na-pakartd to I should have fallen into 1 


main darya men gir river but for him. 


^<^ i^y JTfj/i 

agar turn ate to ham bahut I should have been glad 

^^ tA^ 

Maish liate, you had come. 

J,J U f: ^ /( 

agar phir turn aisa karoge If you do so again, yuu ma 


to tnujrim hoge, be fined. 

jVr i^ Jji ^ y^ j'oiTflr bItaT'puT kai jakas It iB high water, the va^^^f 

i4Vj' ^i;^' 

ab pdni par chalega, will now float. ^^| 

y-' J^ J^. ^ 

agar pakle main tise dek- If 1 should happen to ^^M 

^j ^ ^ iSjXo 

hungd to khabar de dungd, him before you do, I T^^| 


tell him this. ^H 


wr apnc. vmkddr hhar bahut They hasted away as taatr^^ 

jald ga'e, possible. ^^M 

Dialogue. 423 

.J^j^ji *^J^ lS^} ^Jou^^P'f^^gf^orlparcharhkaT Having mounted his horse, 

LS !>. chalu gayif he rode off. 

mj ^j^ vjH^ /»^ ^ fi ^^^ kahtl hain turn sunte Do you hear what I say? 

^ ^A^^ ho, 

L^ l/ Li^"?^ \J^^ wahan pahunchne ke We To go there I must hire a 

J)^ L5^^ ^^^ iji^ hamenek paUu aur kishii palanquin and boat 
L<y^ ii^ <o|^ l/^ ktrdya kame hogt, 

(^ jlf>- ^ 43w«1 ^yl4Jb hcaairkdyih ummed haijaldi I hope soon to see you. 

^ySb cu\SLc ^^m^Aj tumse muValcat hogt, 

}>- ^^ji^ l-i^ ij^t^jf ^S*? yahan aisa nahtn jo Is there no one here that 

^ ^<J^ C/*^ ^^fi^^ hatken is mukaddame hi can inform me concerning 

_C» i^Jj^ khabar de sake, this ? 

^^^^ ^ lasL ob j9- JO bat khatt ke likhne men Interiine what you have omit- 

b l52^ <J^ H' U=^ ^"^ ^***^ ^^'^ *''''* satTdn- ted in your letter. 
^ ^ ^^^jj^ -men likh do, 

i^ ^Jx^^j^^At^^^^ 2A chiie par ham-ne kal We fired several times at a 

^^^ ^\i\^ \J<^^ goliyan lagaHyafi lekin chtta, but not one ball 

l5^ \Jii ^^^} l/^^ us-ke ek bh% na^Iagl, struck him. 

y li^^yUft^^s^ 9^^\ agar wuh beshtar ham-hJo If he had informed me of 

(Jy^ JLjs>. l:;^ ^ kahta to ham bahut khmh this before, I should have 

hoie, been better pleased. 


Addresses at meeting. 

JLi salam Peace or safety ! 

JLU 2L salamun alaikum .... The peace (be) on you ! 

^ytb \j^ ^js. jfjcj bandagi arz karta hun . . My service to you, Sir ! 



AAmJi AjLalf* • 

In reply* 

wa alaikumus'Salam • • • And on you (be) the peace ! 

{jL.^'La i^,^.,>^[»a sahib salamat Sir, peace or health (to you)! 

j^slyi i/jcj ^^ ^5^ meri bht bandagl pahunche My service, also, to you ! 
^JCJ (j:,^.<oLj {ZJjo^ liaxrat salamat bandagi • • Sir, health (and my) service 

(to you) ! 

At parting. 

laiU- 1«X>- Afttfrffl ^q/?2 

jLLe purf salamun alaikum • • 

. God (be your) protector! 

Farewell ! 
. Peace (be) on you ! 

Inquiry after health. 

Jb LsJU- \J ljJ^ tumhart kya halat hai . . How are you ? 

^L^ Jj^l^Cy^i i^\ ab ap ka mizaj kaisa hai .1 j o- o 

V *-•' ^ ... rHow do you do, Sir ? 

_JbL.^(^\^^U^c-^i abmizaj'imubarak kaisa hai) 

In reply to inquiry after health. 

j^yb \j^ Uj du'd karta hun • . . . I pray (for you). 

<d] SaA\ alhamdu lillah .... Praise to God ! 

cs^ i^ lW^ *-^ /axZ-i i7aAi «e ia^u^ achchhd By the divine favour (my 



health) is very good. 

Inquiry after time. 

Wi>- ..Si} \:ci kitna din char ha hai 

Jb b i jjJ UiJ /ciVna rfin dya hai . 
Jb ^J lii^ c-^1 aft Ai^na din hai . 

Jb \jbj ^J Usi^ /ci/na din rahd hai 

1 What o'clock is it? (Asked 
J before noon). 

What o'clock is it ? (Asked 
after noon). 

In reply to inquiry after time. 

^L^(j^J das ghante 

lJj^ U^^ das ghaft 


Ten o'clock. 


^j^ U^^ \^J^ ^^r^^ ^ gAar? . . • . 
^ J-«bC \J ij^ igdrah ka amal hai . . 
^ iJa£' l^ Sj\S \y^ sawa gyarah ka amal hai 
^ Jb«^ \^ i^J^ ij\> barah ghafi ka amal hai 


Half past ten o'clock. 
Near eleven. 
A quarter past eleven. 
Between eleven and twelve. 

j^ysiy^ \jS^ \^ mera mujra pahunche \ 

^ iXoLc \S l^lf^J tumhara kya maksad hai 

Jb kX^afi^ L^ l^ c^i dp ka kya maksad hai . 

{J^ L5^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^P ^^ kaha chdhte haiii 

• My respects (to you) ! 

• What is your desire ? 

. What is your wish, Sir? 
. What do you wish to say, 

\^^^j^^\\J<^j^f^ guftgu darmiydn dkd aur 
^ Hj^ ^ naukaron o ghaira ke, 

^Jh ^j^ kol hai ....... 

uT!^ (^ \ ^y naukar d^e hain • • • • 

^jb ^5' t ^^^ (.^^wi «a& nahtn d^e hain . • . 
\j\ ^J^ ^^f kaun nahtn dyd .... 

^jokf^ iiii faldna sh akhs 

^^ viT^V^ U'^^ ^^ faloMi shaldj^ nahlti dyd 

^^r^"^^ iifi^ 7uzA?i2 sdhib 

ujjl L^ 5j trtiA kab dwegd .... 
c:^^ L5^ S^^J^y l5^^ «arAc nau gAari ke wakt . 

L5^ ^' S^ ^ '^^'^ ^y^ ^^* • • • • • • 

\c ^^ ^^«^ dekhtd hun sdhib .... 



3 nahtn sdhib ab-tak nahtn 

. • 

^ J \jS \j^ merd kaprd Wo .... 
^T ^^?^ ^<-» ^j^ C-/T 5p kaun-si kurti dj pah- 

J^ J ' L5^ L5^ S^;t!^ ^^'"^ ^*^ Awr/I H'o awr 
^j^j^j^ ^f^\ \4j^ ^(^^^^ angarkhd aur izdr 


3 I 

Dialogue between a gentle- 
man and his servants, 8cc. 

Gent. Is any one there ? 

Gent. Are the servants come? 

Servt, They are not all come. 

Gent. Who is not come ? 

Servt. Such a one. 

Gent. Is not such a one come? 

Servt. No, Sir. 

Gent. When will he come ? 

Servt. At half past nine. 

Gent. Is the barber come ? 

/Sen?^ I will see, Sir. 

Servt. No, Sir, he is not 
yet come. 

Gent. Bring my clothes. 

Servt. What coat. Sir, will 
you put on to day ? 

Gent. Bring my blue coat 
and waistcoat and pan- 

426 Dialogue. 


jH JblS^^J-f-c^lft hath muAh dkonl ka pan'i 

Gen(. Bring me water t^' 


wash my hands aud face. 

jJ ^yJ^ sabun do 

Gent. Give me the soap. 

(^ t'V J^y '■"'"^^ ^'^^°'' ''°^ .... 

Gent. Where is the towd^| 

!/■ uV. s-=^'-' f"*"*'* W'"« Adi . . . . 

Ser»(. Sir, it is here. ^| 

/j Cjlj^ ^,i^ mere jurrab la'o .... 

Gen(. Bring my stockings. 

|X-iyjljjs-lijlti_jl— .1 fl^' ajj apno _/"<« pa/ivengi 

Sent. Will you. Sir, wear 

^)y \. y« ™5sf, 

boots or shoes to day^^l 

3^ sOr 'A^ """^ """^^ '«'» ■ • . • 

Gent. Bring my boots. ^H 

i^^ u;?^j)' CSlj-* miawak aur manjan mire 

Bring me a tooth-brush' anc^ 

yi ^\j wistl Iffo, 

the tooth-powder. 

uj^ Jj^J /^ ^ '^«"g''' '«'° «'"" "> *^ ^°^ 

Brmg me a comb and ha 

j'S ^j ^JsJ^j [j ke waste brash la'o, 


^J> ^Ju^ JUy \j^ mera rumal kahan hat . . 

Where is my bandkerd 

^ d\i-i<i gy-fl mere danlane la'o .... 

Bring my gloves. 

jS i_jT iJb-.-J ijj ^^^ kaunse dasta/ie up ko cha 

Servt. Will you, Sir, : 

^ ^<J,*»-^-fi — JbW- Ai^e kain ckamre ke ya 

cotton or leathern OQ 

<^y> \l sutl, 

J i (jU-iJ S ^y*^ chamre ke dastane la'o . 

Gent, Leathern ones. 

j\^^^ sals ko bum . . . . 

CaU the groom. 

i_,o-L.^^U- |_rr4-' *"''* ^'"?*'' ''"» f^/'*''' • ■ 

SeTVt. The groom is 1 

Gent. Saddle the boraa 

^'^^- uij A ^J^ S'*^r^ ?«'■ -'" ^anrfAo . 

j'^ ^J J^ Si^r* weri naT tdpJ la'o . . 

Bring my new hat. 

I,?, |^j_« "-r-:;^ JW^ rumal jcb men rakha hai 

Have you put ahandkei 


in my pocket ? 

jJ 1.1^^ chahuk do 

Give me the whip. 

jjj jS iiiiJ^ kaharoii ko bula'u . . 

Call the palanquin-beai 

^jLj ^b p5ift7 (flij/ar karo . . 

Get the palanquin read 

j$ ^/ «— o-U* (i^l/ Grant sihibkegfmrkltfiraf Go to Mr. Grant's. ^| 

jV -J> J ja'o. 


/^ a<N- V, Sih churn re:ja-d . . . 

"•"■ 1 


. 1 

Dialogue* 427 

J T jip- jald a*o Come quickly. 

^ S «Xcl^ \^ jU»>1 alMar ka kaghetz Wo . . Bring the newspaper. 

^ J ^U l;»jc^ Ij^ Mora thandha pant Wo • Bring some cold water. 

\^ v.;^^>-U lI^];^ -^^ yih Grant sahib kagharhai Bearer. This is Mr. Grant's 

y^j^ house. 

U c^^^>-U j^ -^ ^^^ Tia^in yiA awr §ahih ka ghar Gent. No, this is another 

^j^ ♦ haiy gentleman's. 

jf l^ c^.^>-ltf vJJi aj ^ttwi falane §akib ka ghar Do you know such a gentle- 

jib ^^^^ jdnte ho, man's house ? 

yL»l ^^ c.^..^>-U ^Ijb Aan sahib main usko khub Bear. Yes, Sir, I know it 

f^yb 1:;JU- c-jy^ j*an/a Ailn, well. 

jj^ *jljj;*^ uVj*^ darban darwaza khoto . . Ho ! porter, open the door. 

^^j-i*-l CJJ\ ii ^^j^ Idiabar karo ki ek ajnabi Porter. Give intelligence 

^jJb t^ t i^^.>^>A^ sahib a'e hain, that a strange gentleman 

is come. 
t^\j\ i/J^ palkl utard Gent. Set down the palan- 

^ u] \3\^ chhata laga'o Hold the umbrella between 

me and the sun. 
ij^\^ c^ SrT^ LT^ *** ^^^^^ ^^^ Grant sahib In what room does Mr. 
(J\^ S^^ w.'^»>U ^astri &Aa/i hain, Grant breakfast ? 

l3l|^ A^ U ^^ ^^J <2aZan m^» ya ki khana In the hall or in the dining- 

^^ sir*^ i/ si^ AAanZ ke kamare men, room ? 

^S l>> cl^\ jIml«Jc^ khidmatgar ekcha k% piyaU Khidmatgar, bring me a cup 

Li^^J StLr^ iJ^ '^^^ wo^^c Za'o, of tea. 

y^J 2^ ji^^ U> ^^^U §ahib cha awr Icahwa dono Khidmatgar. There is both 
U^ 'fr ^ U^ J^ taiyar hain jo kuchh un tea and coffee. Sir, whicb- 

JJm-j ^ ^^ (j^y^*^ donon men se pasand ho ever you please I will 

^S fc^T ^^ y^ fi ^ main ap ke toaste H'un, bring you. 

428 Dialogue. 

L^*^!^ Sr?;^ L^V W*^ achchhapahlt niere waste ek Gent. Well, bring me a cup 
^iJ iy^ jjl-^ CSA piyati kahwa Ai Co, of coffee first. 

** ** V tt 

J jI ^jJI aTidc Za'o • Bring the eggs. 

^ Sy jbjjj j^l .^^ kuchh aur dudh to Wo • • Some more milk. 

jH JU ^^ l>. CJJ\ ik cha kt piyali Wo . . . Bring me a cup of tea. 

jomJ l^ L5^^ ^ S^' ap-A:o garhi cha pasand aft Khidmaigar. Do you like it 

^ ^T haiy strong, Sir ? 

l>> L<^ L5^^ U^ ^^^ mti/Ai garAI cAa |}a- Gent. Yes, I like it strong. 

^ ^T Jc»-j «anrf att hai, 

Jye djs4^ IjJt CjiA ek anda chamcha mulirott Bring an egg, spoon, radish, 

«fsr jj\ ^^^ 3^ makkhan aur kuchh mU' bread, butter and some 

^ djj^ rahba Wo, jam. 

If- jj^ 'ff^ cP^ c>'*^ V* ^^^'^^^ ^i"^ kuchh OUT cha Put some more tea in the 

jIb £fa25, tea-pot. 

\^ c;iV vJ^^f^ r^ ^ %^ 4/ ^^^A^ iMiAin wiiZi . What, was there no fish to 

be got to day ? 
L.5^ff* L5^^ c-^^U ^ahih achchhi machhti aj Servt. Sir, there was no 
kJ^ U^ r' naAiw wiiff , good fish to be had to 

^Ij c£r^>^ ^2fi^ L^L^ ^lyaZi men mwrl dali hai . Gen^. Have you put sugar 

jjb in the cup ? 

^Jb 4,^f;-»« c-.^rfU9 ^jla ^a» sa^ii misri doZI hai • Servt. Ye8, Sir, sugar is put 

^ in. 

j*S ^j^ L^^ ^y LIX4J namak aur kali mirch Wo . Gent. Bring me the pepper 

and salt, 
ii^y ^^^; s^Sri-* ^^^ rikdbl Grant sahib ke Take my plate to Mr. Grant 
J lasjl^^b^Cj^A^^U |)<w le-ja'd aur thori for some fish and rice, 

jjl L^i^ *i^l^ J!^^ machhli aur jAushka Wo, 


L^\ ^Jf^ ^ /•— J (j«-^ A'w kism kl machhli ap S^rrt. \\ hich fish do you 
^^^SC^ ^j-Jb Lf^'f" <^^^te hain bhikthf ya prefer, Sir, bikti or mango 

J b tapassi, fihh ? 

'» » 


Dialogue. 429 

^^^^^ 15-^ L5*^ '^J^ Mori si tapassi machhU Gent. Bring me some man- 

/^ 15^^^ lSji^ ^^^^ ir&jfc Wdy go fish. 

J S -— j-o Jl K/ wiircA /a'o Bring the red pepper. 

L5^ VJ^ L^ ^^ ^ *^^ ^^'^'^ *^ «»ircA Aai kati What kind of pepper is 

^ j-o JS b — ^ jjl^ miVcA ya Z5Z mircA, this ? black pepper or 


\J^ S^T* J^ -^ Lij^^^U ?5Aift yiA ZaZ wiircA hai . . Serv^ This, Sir, is red 


&^ ^i^;^ W- cliol eA cAa pine-ka chamcha la*d Gent. Give me a tea-spoon. 

c-.»1 rf.:, ;Cle>> U \]|^^ Mora sa khagina ap khaH- Servt. Will you take some 

IxJl^ ySgS, omelet, Su'? 

^^j^jlfcy <l5^^^^ nahtnhukka'hardarKokaho Gent. Ho. Tell the hukka- 

4^j^ aA>. At hukka lawe, bardar to bring the hukka. 

^ ii y^ ^ j^ULjU- Man^aman ko kaho ki tijin Tell the khansaman to pro- 

jU- ^^ K£^^ ^ he wakt panch char §ar vide every thing for tiffen ; 

jJLrflj ^ (jtjf^^ hibon ke toaste saman I expect four or five 

jl/ j\^ j^UU taiyar karo, fiiends. 

\j\^ ^^ j^ c^T ^T aj dp ghar men khana Khansaman. Do you dine at 

IxJl^ khaHyega, home, Sir, to day ? 

-f^ Mf\j ^U ^g^ ^U han mere sath panch chfia Gent. Yes, I have five or 

^^\ J ji J ) j^\ c^^.>-li0 ^oAii attr blbiyan khane six ladies and gentlemen ; 

^ y^ s5^^^ si^ *^ khffenge so turn un-ke prepare every thing suit- 

jIJ (^ «»,.^L« ^^t munasib ko taiyar karo, able. 

^yj^^\ i^ Jjij^jlS Icaz aur fil'murgh in dinjon Khans. Good geese and 

cT^ lT^ l5^^ u^ ^^^ acAcAAe mt'/^e hainjo turkeys are to be had at 

yb y^j^ ^ L^\ j9- ap ki marzi ho to main do this season ; if it is your 

J^ ^^ ^J ^^ y tin mol le*iin, pleasure. Sir, I will buy 

jj^ two or three. 

^ ^ CSA jb ^U han har ek kism ke tin char Gent. Yes, buy three or 

j)jl>- ^^ to, four of each sort. 

430 Dialogue. 

\^\ Ls^^Jy \i J^ ^ jo bher ka gosht cxhchha Khans, If good mutton can- 
^ S^*^ y (^"^ ^^'^i^ to gffe ka gosht not be got, shall I buy 

^jil fl^/ ZE'tW, beef? 

^i^ >y^ f/* ^— ^' un^ naAm c* murgh awr tk batak Gent. No, send for a fowl 

/Zi^ ui^ manga'o, and a duck. 

L5^ U^ lJ ^^ Aa?a7 Ac yaAan se gosht la'o Get meat from the butcher's. 

s^?<^ 'if^ 77^ ^j^^^jT^ khabarddr ki aj chha ghafi Take care that dinner be 
jLj \j\^ c:.J^ ^ A^ trayt^ /:Aa7ia taiyar ready to day at six 

^jikytb howe, • o'clock. 

\j\f^ L5^^^ L^^ (*^ ^^^ ^^^^ J^^^^S^ ^^^^^ I mvist go now, it is dinner 
_Jb vjL^ ^ \^ ^l^ A:Aa7ie ka wakt hai, time. 

^^ y ^ jW^ ^^ Mana taiyar ho to la*d . • Bring dinner if ready. 

bTy J^ Ul^ k^na mez par ay a • . . Servt. Dinner is on the 

yi ijjyi» \jU9 thora sliorba la'o .... Gent. Bring me a little 

^c-^ -jU l^ ^j^ shorbe ka basan mere waste Bring me a soup plate. 

UflT cuolJ <Oic<l -^ yih shorba nihayat garha This soup is too strong and 

N r^/^^^^-W Jj' l5^ ^^* ^"'' bahut garm hai, too hot. 

j< v n ^ ^J-fjsr* cj??^ ^Aori machhit mere waste Get me some fish. 

J^ lS^^J *— '^ ^— ^' ^^ ^^-^ rikabl aur chhurl A clean plate, and knife and 
j*S l5il^ 4-0^ A5».'a lad, fork. 

jjjWT j^l -i2L>- cAaJwi aur 5cA5r do . . . Give me the chatnt and 

Li^b S&s^ ^J^J "^ kuchh tarkarl mer^ wasft Bring some vegetables. 

.•S la% 

.^^ lL<f .^ ji\ ^ kuchh alu kvchh karamkalla Some potato, some cabbage, 

^^^ kuchh phul'kobl, some cauliflower. 

•*S s^^^^ ^^ -i^ kuchh gat ka goshi la*d . Bring some beef. 

- .♦. 

Dialogue. 431 

j\y^ l::^^ Id J^ tj^ ^Aora bher ka gpsht su'ar ka Bring me a little mutton, 

l^ lJj^b^ f^-^J^ji ^ gosht bachhre ka gosht pork, veal, venison, kid, 

> ^cl/^'^'^^ Airan A:5 go^A^ halwan fowl, partridge, hare, duck 

** jV fj^ U^^^ murgh tttar khargosh and ham. 

^J^y^J^^ Li^^^* crJ^ murgKahi aur stJCar ka 

SrT^ v^*b '^9-^^^^ namak-aluda ran mere 

J J i<-» ^*^ c/*' 1;^ *Aor5 i« pula'o se do . . Give me a little of that 

^^ ^^* ^j^ -fs^ iucAA aur khushka Iffo . • Bring a little more boiled 

• rice. 

j^\ f^*\j j^\ vl^ -fs? /rticAA namak aur ral aur Bring some salt and mus- 

/^ J-j j^ <^ 5trAa attr ^eZ K'o, tard and vinegar and oil. 

.J ^jjj^ ^ i/ V^ Lr^ ^ wittAal «S ^Aon do . . Give me a little of that 


Jb 2r^ L ^^ i^ yih kaun sa mewa hai • • What sort of fruit is this ? 

j^ _jb ^T «y^. ^^^>.U f a^ii yiA am hai aur yih Khidmatgar. This is a man- 

^ \S «y£ /re/a Aai, go, and this is a plantain. 

jj^ I— ^gtrfjf^ j[^l Ui^ kyaangur aur seb aur q,njir Gent. What, have you not 

L^ {:fi^ J^^ waAtw miUf got grapes and apples and 

ui3u« (jm\ s^,^^'*s>Xa ^j^ nahm sahib is mulk men Khidmat. No, Sir, they are 
^-Jb ^Ju« S ^j^ kam miltt hain, rarely to be met with in 

this country. 

J J ^->t;^ sharab la'o Gent. Bring me wine. 

^ c^T ^-^|/& ^ {j^ kaun si sharab ap-ko pasand Khidmat. Which wine. Sir, 

Jb ^JfT JCI--J atl hai, do you prefer ? 

^^ lJ\jJ^ JS ijrj^ ^Aori /aZ ^Aarai twcrc waste Gent. Bring me a httle red 
J J jia-*!^ Za'o, wine. 

^ J 41^ \^^ uiol ek bir ka shtsha Wo . . Bring a glass of beer. 

jj^Ul i^j^^ I a'dmoze utaro Come, take off my boots. 

jJ j\i\ ^^ kurtt utar Id Take off my coat. 

432 Dialogue. 

Jb \i\^ ^^^ bichhauna bichhdya hat . Have they made the bed ? 

^^ L^" ^} c^^-^^L^ sahib ab-tak nahln Kchhaya Khidmat. Sir, they have not 

\i\^ yet made it. 

/ 9U>- chiragh laga'o .... Crcn^. Set the lamp. 

^^6^ j^ Kjji ^-^^ ham-ko bari fajr jagffo . Wake me very early in the 


^JjiJ^ u^J^ ghafi mez par rakhJo . . Put my watch on the table. 

fjJuJ\ ^ j^ ij^^ kursiyan mez he aspas rakho Put the chairs round the 

^j table. 

^ i^fdj sj^ ^ (V^ P^^^ *^ ^^^ palang ke Put the guglet of water be- 

^j j^ysaJ niche rakho, neath the cot. 

j^ ^V^r* l/ i^J^ palang ke sirhane par ghafi Hang up the watch at the 
/^ ^j^ ^o>tka% head of the bed. 

^ lJ lS^ U^:^?^ kunjiydn takiye ke tale rakh Put the keys beneath the 

•• •• •» 

^*3 ^j do, pillow. 

J*^ Jj^ L5^J'^ 't-*^ *^* ^^^^^^^ *^^^ do j9ar M«- Open all the windows, but 
*^ ^jIa;*^ J^*^jT^y 6ard5r dartraza ftawd Ai- take care to shut the door. 

*^ j^^ ,<-«j jl^jkTi- khidmatgdr se puchho ki Ask the servant whether he 

<i^j^Jb l/j^ u^^ ^asiri taiydr ki hai ki has prepared breakfast or 

^^ nahln^ not. 

^^ L^ j%l} Ijl^y^M-j sum to tumhdrd nam kyd Pray, what is your name, 

l^ L--^>-lrf> i-f;V*^^j^ /i«i ctMr tumhdre sahib kd and what is the name of 

L^ a\j ndm kyd, your master ? 

^^^ l/ S-*^^ C/**' ^^ ?aAt6 Ae jpa^ AaJ se nau- How long have you been the 

y^^y^ Lf^ ^"-r^ ^^^ ^^' servant of that gentleman? 

j}^ L<^ (^^^ fj^^ bW' tumhdrd watan kahdn hai What is your native country, 

L5^ J^*^ l5^iS*^ c^^i ^^^ yahdn se kitnl dur and how far is it from 

Aai, this ? 

-^ L5 1^ L5^ L3^ uk'^ (*^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ rahne-wdle ho Where do you live ? 

1^ (jV. v.j^^ Sr^/rP ^^^^ iasrt yahdn se kitnl How far hence is your town? 

Dialogue. 433 

^ \s^\j \i ^J (j^ das din ka rasta hai . . . It is ten days journey. 
\^ y^ i^lf4J tumhdri utnr kya-. . . . How old are you? 
U^ji LTti y^ f^J^^ haman umr tis haras Id hai My age is twenty years. 

^U l^ ijS\dua Relating to commerce, 8ic,* 

* # • 

o/ o 

3^ •^ ^^^JJ3^ ^ ^fljb^l^ 

^ P 

^\^^ ^»j\J^\ ^j^Jjf\J 

* / 

o<^ O 

CJS^ SJ!iiy Ji *^J A* ^jV S^-A^- 

* / 

^} ''^^ V<?t^J 

Sarcar, take the draft and bring the 

money. Be quick. 
What is there to do ? It is now eleven 

Be quick, that I may have the money 

in time. Let me have it by one 


Go to the counting house, and speak to 

the head sarcar. 
Tell the sarcar to take bank notes, and 

pay the amount of the draft. 

^ lT'?^ / ^ \^^ K^.V The money must be sent to Mr. . 

lJ^ i^ ^ 3^ L/^ l5^ k-.*^U JJU Request Mr. to order what re- 

ft p 


mains to be paid in before three 

* Extracted from The Hindoostanee and English Student's Assistant/' printed 
at Calcutta in 18^0. 


434 Dialogue. 

l5^ L^iriji!^ ?V l/ S-"*^^ sP^ .^ (^ Have you ever been to Mr. such a one 


ISlj -45e SI J J V cr^yw-sl ^U. w You must go there immediately, els 

nothing will be done, 
^flsi^ ^J ^ <J^ Jo]^ 15^ ^^^y f )^j^ S^^d ^ sarcar to hire a boat. 

^Joj^U- if^ji>^ r^ (*^ ' ^^^' S^ ^ Chowringhee to day. 


J*^ J>* er?^ Jj^ J'^j^ jbV ^f?" Go to the China bazar, and buy a pai 

of globe lanterns. 
9 f ^ 9 • 

l&^ ^yA>- fJ ji^ ^ *V^j ^>/ Who will collect the bills ? 

• /o / o / # 

J5 Lj-mo^ ^^J^ y;r* ii^ tly^"^ uV ^''^ Aghajan is clever in collecting bills. 

0/0 * / 

Jb Jil^ IJlo j<-Jj[j ^-» Uj^^r^U ^Hi It is very difficult to get money of sucl 

a one. 

three and a half seers a rupee. 


15^ j=^ W Jr< 1)?^ (^^ j-r^ c)*^ 4^^ I<i will be better to wait a few days, an( 

then buy the cloth. 
j\^ ^^^ ^j^ ^ < ^\S ^^ ^jl ^^^J Of what use are such people ? The 

"... . know nothing of business. 

^^ S-^i/ c?^ c;^ Lf^ • jV J^ (^ I understand business — I am not to b 

' «- >' imposed upon. 


^J^ '^ M-JJ L5^ (^;-^^i-^ Raisins are six seers for a rupee. 

y Jr* L^ sJ!^s}JJ^^ Buy about one thousand rupees wortl 

^^y^ cr^y (*J^ ^^-^rf' c/i ^jb^ There is no understanding the bazj 




u^ si^/y ie '^ -'i^^ cr* J^ 

In Calcutta, the bazar rate is scarcely 
for two hours alike. 

-^ o 

U\«0 c^y jj>_^ 

Cf o/ 

I made a deposite ; to morrow I shall 

see them weighed. 
See that you are not imposed on. 

Have you compared them with the 
sample ? Do they agree ? 

^ o 

U?^ j^ v/^ S^^ \J^ crJ^ V y^ Two or three packages are superior. 

Go and procure a pass for the things 
that are ready. 


j\ J Hjj ^JaJj 

%0» O 

/ ^ o 

r j»4 yU w=^ ^^1 ^jb\a^ ^ JSja 

/ / o 

J^ s^ ^?** 

O 9 

^^ ur* lT' (^ v/ V^^ V^U 4^1 


Get a boat, and send them on board the 

Sir, the captain's sarcar said, the goods 
cannot be shipped to day. 

Do not mind what the sarcar says, but 
mind what I say. 

Sir, according to your command, I am 

o o 

J *J j^ j^ jij^flK? s4^^^ Piyada, call the cashier. 

. ^9 O 

% P U 

^jjb ijyb ^^ J^ i^V L5^ ^^^ much was collected yesterday ? 


What is the discount on the Com- 
pany's paper in the bazar ? 



O O • S- 9 

^<4 1}^ ^^ J j^ ]j^ ^.v -tr- 

* / 

ttT* K/^J^^ s^^ -^ i^a; j*^ ct* 

If you purchase the Ciompany's paper 
of six per cent, interest, the discount 
is two rupees six annas ; and, if yoo 
sell, it is two rupees eight annas. 

y ^ J3\y6 ^ J\^ {J^:^ \^ Send these letters as directed. 


» fi 

ts*^4' •♦''(^JJ*^ 

X t# c c 

Bring those goods in carts fiom the 
Custom house. 

^ o 


Darban, are the counting-house sarcars 

Who is at work in the iron-factory ? 

k' {ji^ *— ^ ^^ ^*jf <-^^^^ (^^ Sir, nobody is yet come. 

1^ ^ ^U; dii? JJui^l^ c-^U 

1^1^ \^ 

This is the case every day, and there- 
fore Mr. 's work is not yet done. 

U^ L5^ L^ C^ ^JVj^ i-^^^U? ^h Mr. is speaking to me daily about 

this work. 

o ? 

J J Mfii^, (jA^ i^j\AJb^\ y ^jT ^^^ S-^ When they come, send them to me. 

U^J'^. i:ri>r lS^Wj ^ S 

o • 

jjolU c-;L-l /j^ uh^ji^. c-^U ij\ 

How long are those Europe goods to 
lie at the Custom house ? 


c /c 

^^^0 uu^ jjl ^_^^ i/iyj-*^ s 


^ \j^J c^ r' sT* 

Sir, without an invoice to know what 
they are, how can I bring them ? 

By opening the boxes and seeing their 
value, you will be able to understand. 



^Ji^j is^^ '^ M^ ,^ s—'^-^ i^\ Sir, I cannot myself open tlie packages. 

^ O 

^ V* U>'^ ""^^ j^r idr^j^jr^ s^' Sarcar, take the invoice and go directly. 

^U Jj^ji ^Jyij^^jo 

o u 

^ o 

i/ ^T-t^ ^/^^.Jii^ uV ^e-^ 

1^ OU- ^^;-^J^-d^ 

At two o'clock, the custom house officer 
came and opened the boxes. 

Kranee, copy these and give them to 
the Serjeant. 

Call a blacksmith and open the boxes ; 
compare the value and quantity of 
the goods with the invoice, then 
make them tight again. 

Serjeant, when you have signed your 
name, give (them) to the cashier. 

Taking the invoice, I had to go again 
and shew it to the head officer. 

? c 

Ijjb t^jp 

O fi 

Having done all this, it had struck four 
o'clock, and the custom house was 

The next day I delivered the invoice to 
the officer. 


Having ascertained the value of the 
articles and the duty, he signed it. 



9 O 


uT!^ v/-^*^ trft^^ c;ij^ ^ r* *-:^^ */' 

Sarcar, I will not giye a kowrie to the 
people of the custom house or wharf. 

Sarcar, why did you not go to the 
police office and get a pass ? 

Sir, what can I do ? For two or three 
days I have not had a moment's 
leisure ; one cannot get a thing done 
at once at the court. 


\^y^ «fse yj^^ ^jj\AJbjM If I do not go myself, nothing is done. 

O C*" / X 


Sir, I know that five days ago you 
wrote to Patna, that the things would 
be forwarded to morrow or next day, 
and no pass is yet obtained. 

How can they go? They cannot be 
sent without a pass. 




Selected from the ^U)1cjT^ (mir*atu-l-a]^alim), printed at the 
School-book Society's press. Calcutta^ 1836. 

? 9 c /c 

^ U 4Uj;\ Jj^x^ ^ ^\s-5*x:^ 4^ 

^ o 

o • • ^ c c / 

X ^ • c c /o 

* (^ the first letter, as a contraction, of Jl^ suwalj question. 
\ mm the first letter of l^A^ jawab^ answer. 

440 Dialogue. 

c / • o ^ 

V^ ^ V^ ij^- •^ jf)* HA" ^Jji wV^ U>^ l^ LS* ^ J»' 


o # c 

CT?^ V/:"^ j'^ u/ u/ cT* i:^^^'^ LT 

c/ c / o / 

b/ lS;A ^-. UjO cJ *«L-L. UL*- «i\/ »/ ^-^ jj/j j,^ t^Jl^ 

O/ » <*• # O O /O 

^ / « o ^ -* 

/ • 

O ^ O X ox-- -. X ^ -O 

-^ /O Ox-' O / 

o/ • c 

X X 

/o • c £r 

/ O XX 

cr?^ u^^ ^-^^^ jir» u/ u/ cr?^ ^^'^ ^^ *^r^ c^ 

•« X ^^ X 

Dialogue. 441 

er?*J>V^^7r^ iilr ur ui!^ '^*h^ ^-3^ u^ 

^^ ^^ *^r«^ jv^ o/ u/ cr!^ ^/^ ^r* c/- 

e;/ c!^ c;;^* l5^*^ ^r' t^* 

O CO o 

^ jJlj <U^ ^/ ^f ^^ ^\)o\ ^ ^^ JbSU^ fj^ 

XC O CO O ^ CO / c 

*j5Uj-4^\ jbjc-«> ^liL« jUxi Jjl^^^jj^c-^ -, 

y ^C O • • 9 9 

X f ^ y ^ 

^ cL^lflC^ ^f u/ cr?^ ^? t^* 

9 u ^ 9 c *'''^*' ^ 

JJi fcl^j j>^ J^^J^ '^^ ^J^ iji^jV V.^y ^#^?^ tJS^ "^^^ »^y 

y o ^ 9 ^ ^ <* 

o *» o c o ^ 


442 Dialogue^ 

-^/fcC y^ 9 9 

^jy^j^ e^ u/ \j^ c!^r* ^ U^ 

-^ X O C . CO 

\/^ Jl^ ii-O-J ;/ J^J^Ji 

>• CO 9 y y 9 9 

cr^ j^V i^ «J^ s^-^' i^r* id/ w/ cT* '^^ir ti>^ u- 

J M> jjl JU^ ^^ ^^ j»^ j^^ ^ ^^^ ^)>)\ ^ 

i^ f^ 9 O / o • 

-'CO y w. Oyx • 

SSiy* v^.>«r \Jjf^^ vT^ i:,^'^J)^ ■^■^ Ji^ u*^ -*"^y J^ erf* ur* 


c;?* ttT?^ «J^ i/ *-^V LSH^ S— wsd 

y ^ % ^ ^ o o /o 

>- . o -^ o ^o / 

jjl ^U, ^/ JLijj ^_^i^ J,U |»ijj JJ^ ^^^t ^^y JJ^ ^ 

O^-i^f- o o/o o/ 

crf^ (J^ r^ ^ JJ^ ^Vt) J^ U^^^ yJ ^J^^C>:^ ^^ <^l^W 

^ 9 ^ 

o ^ o 

• G O >- 

X m9 

k/ i/J* •^jir- ttT* S- C;;^ cT* '^WO- ^/ ^,J3^ y' ^ 

o /c 

Dialogue. 443 

o o 

^ li i_iL>j^ ^^ JcJfc jAt tr 

^^\/!^ ^j_,^c>*- 1/^ J:^^ t^irr sj^ c^^u ,^ 

-»u J cjuu ,j;-- (jift ^uj 4^ V" s^y y^ V (Jt s# ^ c-A"l 

Translation of the foregoing Short Description of India.' 

Q. What sort of country is Hindustan ? 

il. It is a very extensive country, which by reason of its popu- 
lation, products, manners and customs, has continued famous from 

Q. What are the boundaries of the four (sides) of Hindustan ? 

A. The northern boundary is Tartary and Tibet, the southern 
boundary is the Indian ocean, the eastern is the Barma kingdom and 
bay of Bengal, and the western boundary is the gulph of Arabia and 
Persia (Arabian sea). 

Q. What great rivers are there in Hindustan ? 

A. The Ganges, which after flowing seven hundred kos (1400 
miles ?) falls into the gulph of Bengal. In it the Jumna and Gogra 
from the west, and Brahmaputar, called also Sampu, coming from 
Tibet and Assam, fall. And, on the west is the river Sindh (Indus), 
also called NtUJf, which is composed of five rivers : so that, for this 
very reason they name the countries which are about it, Panjab, On the 


Motb ta the Nerbada, the Godarery, and tbe KUfana ; 
nren, flowing to tbe east, fall ioto the bay of BeneaL 

Q. K'hal celebrated moDotains are there id Htndnslaii ? 

A. Tbe Himalaya monntaios are well known tfaroogbout the world, 
because that, in respect to height, no other iDoontaia is equal to them. 
Tbey lie between Hindnetan aod Tibet, lloreorer, there are the 
hilb of Rajamahal ; and, in the Dakhan are the Ghat monataiDS, 
the chain of which is to the east and west orer against tbe eea coasL 

Q. Into how many parts bare geographers divided Hindnstan ? 

A. Into fotir pails. Tbe first part is tbat which is eitoate on the 
Ganges as well as on the shores of those nreis which bll into it : the 
second is in the districts of the tint Sindh (indns) as well as in those 
of tbe rivers falling into it : the third part is that which lies between I 
the Granges, the Sindh and the Kishna: and, the fourth is that which J 
lies to the south of the Kishna. 

Q. What Subas (provinces) are dtuated on the sides of the Ganges? 1 

A. Bengal, Bihar, Ilahabad, Oude, Agra and Dehli. 

Q. In the Suba of Bang (Bengal) what noted cities are there? 

A. Calcutta, Dacca, Mursbidabad. 

Q. What in the Subu of Bihar ? 

A. Asimabiid (Patna), Benares, Aazam-gadh (Azemghor), Jatio- I 
poor, Ghazipoor. 

Q. In the Suba of Ilahabad, which are the most renowned cities? , 

A. Ilahabad. 

Q. In the Suba of Oude, which are the most cdebrated cities? 

A. Lucknow, Baraitche, Fyzabad, Bareily, Gorucpoor. 

Q. In the Suba of .Agra what cities possess celebrity ? 

A. Agra, Mathura and Cauupoor. 

Q. What in the Suba of Dehli? ^^ 

A. Dehli, Meerat, Hurdwai, Kuriial. 

Q. What Subas (provinces) are siiiiitl' 
Si/irfA (Indus) ? ^ 

i the mcr J 

Dialogue. 445 

.4. Cashmere, Cabul, Candahar, Mooltan, Sinde, Ajmeer, Malwah. 

Q. What celebrated cities are there in those Submf 

A. Lahore, Cashmere, Cabul, Attock, Ghizni, Candahar, Mooltan, 
Tatta, Ajmeer, Oojein, Gaalior, Jeypoor. 

Q. In the middle part, what Suhas are there ? 

A. Gujerat, Khandesh, Berar, Orissa, Circars, Dowletabad. 

Q. Of them, what cities are renowned ? 

A. In Gujerat, Ahmedabad and Cambay; in Khandesh, Surat 
and Boorhanpoor ; in Dowletabad, Bombay and Poona ; in Berar, 
Aurungabad, Nagpoor, and EUichpoor ; and, in Orissa, Cuttack. 

Q. What provinces does the Deccan comprise ? 

A. Bejapoor, Golconda, Camatic, Mysore, Concan, 

Q. What are the famous cities in those provinces ? 

A. In Bejapoor is Bejapoor ; in Golconda, Golconda and Hydera- 
bad ; in the Carnatic, Arcot, Madras, Pondicherry, and Taujore; in 
Mysore, Seringapatam, Trichtnopoly, and Calicut ; in Concan is Goa. 

Q. In (all) those provinces, what provinces are out of (exempt 
from) English sway ? 

A. To the north, whatever is lying on the north and west border 
of the Sutlej and Indus ; that is to say, CabuJ and Panjab, all which 
country is under the government of the Seikhs: Oude is a kingdom 
of itself: and Sinde as well as the small provinces of Tanjore in the 
Deccan are all under the rule of their own princes. 

Q, What are the articles of commerce of Hindustan ? 

A. Indigo, cotton, opium, muslin, silk, rice, sugar, shawls, warm 
spices, and jewels, so that the diamonds, emeralds, and rubies of India 
are celebrated in all the world. 

Q. How many are the inhabitants of India ? 

A. One hundred millions, of which seventy-five millions are Hin- 
doos, eighteen million seven hundred and fitly thousand Mahomedsns; 
and, six million two hundred and fifty thousand Christians and Jews, 
the latter of which are chiefly m the Deccan. 





mt^ "■on '2t 


voHLs ii an "HeT 2ze xexiEraiis : met* widi 

aifio prerauea anuK Jifwit n -^ pRXMOie 

wQCft ID. wntt xEtsss ID ciic 



Extracted from " An Introduction to the study of the Hindostany Language as 
spoken in the Camatic. Compiled for the use of the Company of Gentlemen 
Cadets on the Madras establishment at New-town, Cuddalore. Government 
Press, 1808." (" Reprinted by order of the College Board, 1843 "). 

With notes on the variations, where they may occur, of this dialect from the 

Hindustam of Northern India. 

^ i^^ kol hai Gent. Is any one there? 

cp^ ^ ' i:)\^y wflMfairan* 5'c hain . . . Are the servants come ? 

^js^ k/ ' {jt^ c«^w» sab nahln a*e hain . . . Servt. They are not all come. 

\Sj^ybj\y^ jA^j- -— < ajjald sowar hVunga . . Gent. I will ride out soon to 


-? . ^ L^'j *^^jy^ ghof&'Wale ko bula'o . . . Call the horsekeeper. 

jbJjb ^^JjI ^Jj^ ghore par zin bandh . . Saddle the horse. 

*jb S ^\i^, bhoHyan* ko bulSo . . . Call the palanquin bearers. 

/]/ J^ L5^^ patti taiyar kara'd . . . Make the palanquin ready. 

/{^j^ ^ ^jck^ (J)li falane shaldis ke gharja'd . Go to such a person's house. 

Ji*^ ^3^ ^ v^^*^ dA56? ko kapre de'd . . . Give the clothes to the wash- 

yi i^J^ ^ L5^^ pahanne he kapre Iffo . . Bring my clothes to dress. 

j[^ Lmi\^ ^^ kurta saf karo .... Clean (or brush) my coat. 

J olrf j^ batfi silga'o ..... Light the candle. 

^jj^J^ w«J* sham mtz-par rakho . . Put the candle on the table. 

J \ ^y^ ^\^\ ^J^ saban ujala hote-ch');^ a*d . Come to morrow at daylight. 

J \ ifffljs? i^J) ^\f0fi saban barl fajr-ichf a'o ' . Come very early to morrow. 

* The plural form: see Shakespear's Grammar of the HinduRtani, par. 87. 
i" The ^;AMdfisr uJ^ harfi-takhsJ§y adverb of identity or peculiarity in DakhnT, 
oorresponding to ^Jb hi or 4^ < in northern Hindustani : see Shakespear's Grammar, 

448 Dialogue. 

^jjh ^ J^ iji^. hhd'iyan kahan ga'e hain . Where are the palanquin 

bearers gone ? 

•l>. uJ^t ^JbX^ sidhe taraf chdto .... Go to the right. 
** It 
jJl^ <— ^ ^^y}*^ rfa'm taraf chaB . . . Go to the left. 

^ T ^^^ jlfcXju^ -jT aj jamdar nahtn a*e havfi . Is not the jamadar come to 

^ day? 

^ ^ J\S9u^ s£;^ harkart jamdar ko bula'o . Harkara, call the jamadar. 
^A^j ^^J^ CJN^ j^ JuMcj- jamdar kot mm rahte hain Does the jamadar live in the 
^^y^j^ y^\ V. lJ:^^ y^ ^P^^ gAar mm, barracks or in his own 

house ? 
yL ^ J^, batlar ko bula'o .... Call the butler. 
jo4^j^ 7^ J^'^jt^ Ichabardar aj char ghanton Take care, dinner must be 
Uyb jUj Ul^^ Ao khana taiyar hona ready to day at four 

^ j$ (^S^ c/ ^ ^)r* main a'e tag ghar ko matja Do not go home till I come. 


^ ^ Ls\f t^k^ <— ^. y^*^ hawtU kira'e ko Wo ^ Hire a house. 
J 1/ ^1/ !iJi *— ^. y^*^ parwa kiraya kara'o . Get a boat hired. 
u-^o-l^ (JU- ^ly^ kahan jant sahib . . . Where are you going. Sir? 
fj^ l/ ^J*^ ^^"""y^ ^^ ^^*^ /co . . . . For an excursion to sea. 
LS^Ji^^^ (^ U*^ [J^ /cc/e din tMwi wahdn ra- How many days shall you 

henge,* remain there? 

J3J U^ V. ^"^ ^^ y^ tin roz Two or three days. 

j\y0i aJ c:^^ ^jJi kis wakt turn sawdr ho- When will you embark ? 

sft>y^ J !/?" ^J^ S-^ J^* AAari chard'o howt . . When it is high water in the 

^Jb Jo\ y L^\ ab to utdr hai • . . . It is now low water. 
iJlAj ^j^ iJsoLLc ^ kuchh muzdyakd nahtn rat No matter ; it will be high 
lx>^yb ^ ^y>-jV f ko phir chara^o howegd, tide again at night. 

* In DakhnT, the second person plural of the future and aorist is similar to th< 
6rst and third. 

Dialogue. 449 

•^ ju^b ^ fjJi\^ i^yu partohwaton ho takid hard Give strict orders to the boat- 

^j^yt^W ^ ki fiazir rahen, men to keep ready. 

15^ jjl|^jj\ IJ^ajC ^J^^ ^r^ WcAAana our ^Aane Send the bed clothes, bed- 
J v/fV S-^^^«^^ ^ P^'^^ ^^ o^iaft parwe par ding, with the things for 

^d^lf; bhej-de'd, eating and drinking on 

board the boat, 
l^ ^j^^ ^UL» C;^^ «yJ[ yah sab saman bhej chuka All these things I have sent, 

c^^.«>.U ^yb hun sahib, Sir. 

^Ltf ^2^ ^ ^ ^^ %fi^ &Af Ao matn caftan I will positively go to 

\^yU- ja'unga, morrow. 

L5^ (jj/ jl 5 * kaun hai Who is he (or that)? 

S^*^ ^ l5?I^^ l/ ^^ ^-P *^ bawarchl ka bhal . Sir, the brother of your 

-Vi /W" U^^ iJ^^ ^^i^ gA5r5-ti?5Zc pasjakar yahf Go to the horse-keeper, place 
^;^ l/ ' L5^^ ^'*^ ^^'"^ ^'^^^^ ^^^ rakhkar this grain before him and 

^jjp j^ ^ j<^*^ dekhZkid ghorhko khilata see that he gives it to the 

Jb lJ)L^ Aat, horse. 

iJtJ^^ \J^ f-^C/^ni y^*^ *** ^^^**^ kejanwaran What kind of animals are 

^^ Aai», these ? 

cT?^ Lf^^r* ^^Tghahi hain They are waterfowl. 

«f^U ^ JJjU^ (.^P;^ Jf ^ttm mSre khatoind he hath For how much will you sell 

Jowfi^ j^ ^ja-^ fte^e fto 6ecA(5;ige,J them to my master ? 

C/-' ^j-^ Ja^ <s&^^ <ttwi5ri§ aAZ men is ghar ka In your opinion is the back 

l5^ l/' ^^^^ ^ -^ ptehha age se khushtar" of this house prettier than 

^ \AJjJi»^ numa hai, the front? 

* Dakh. A«, «/^) Mo/ or it: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 
+ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 159. 

X In Dakbni, the second person plur. of the future and aorist is similar to the first 
and third : 'see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 113. 
§ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 

3 M 

450 Dialogue. 

^j^ \j^J, M*V jC* hargiz nahiil bar aks nitre By no means, on the con- 
iTr O ^j-^ J^ khiyal men us-ka aga trary in my opinion the 

[^\ O^ ^M> j<f^ ptchhe se hahut acAchha front of it is much prettier 

Jb hai, than the rear. 

j^^ lij l^ l>-^ ^l^ /:aAan raja kd beta aur What connexion is there be- 
irV^ ^Vd i:;^^ kahan yah shuhra, tween the prince's son 

and this report ? 

Jb JU L^ tJ?;^ tumarl^ kya salah hai . . What is your advice ? 

tfj.jb j;^ i^ >-v"'* *vi y^^ *^^ *^ bihtar howega . This will be best of all. 

_jb ,ffdj\ ek'tchf hai It is all one (the same 


^^ J J -^ kuchhfark nahin .... There is no difference. 

^:iLi J^ ^jiJ^^ (^ turn angrezi hoi sakte hainX Can you speak English ? 

y iJ^«V2Jh (^^«Jurf ^ MaZa «aZi« hindustam to Well, speak easy Hindus- 

y^ kahoy tani to me. 

^ Ly^ \S ^\ y yf kaho to 0% kya kahta hai . Tell me what he says. 
^jjb i^ I ^ ^{^ jj turn kahan se cCe hain% . . Whence are you come? 
J^ jj ,^ j^\ i<fs^ mujht aur kuchh dar-kar I do not want any more. 

c:^^-a^J aI^ m f^ J^\ agar turn apna kam durust If you do not do your busi- 
^jS ^J^ji ^ fj}J^ na-karenX to bar-tar af ness better, I will turn 

karungd, you away. 

J^ isJ^\j ndshta ld*d Bring breakfast. 

^ J uJ?r^^ misrl de*d Give me the sugarcandy. 

J; J y JbJj J j^\ .^ kuchh aur dudh to de'd , . Give me some more milk. 

* See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, p. 158. 
+ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

{ Dakh. o or wahy &C.9 instead of the Hindustani wuh : see Shakespear's Hindustani 
Grammar^ p. 158. 

§ See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar^ par. 113. 

Dialogue, 461 

Vjbl>- ^il>-^lj ^j^\ ^jf^ main ah-hi bahar jaya I want to go out directly. 

.yb chahta hurif 

^*\p^ u:.^ jjJi ^U^ wahan (or w'han)andar mat Go not in there. 

LT^^ji^y izfi^^y^^ ^^^0 nahin to gir parenge * Comedown otherwise you 

will fall. 
^J^y>- /^^ jI j^ j^^r P^^ kahe-ko chajrhte Why do you climb up the 

^^ Aain,* tree ? 

\J ^ L<^ (^^ ^5^^ ^^^ ^^^ kahrie se kya fiafil What is the use of talking 
Ujt \LJ ^^ Ji^l>- mainus-kaadhabhinahin so much? I do not com- 

^yb la^yf»^ ^^ ^j samajhta hun, prehend one half of it. 

_k«i!j 1j^ j aI^ ^ is kam par khuda waste-); Do not tell me, for God^s 
^yi uu^ ^jFT ^^ itnajhut)^ mat bold, sake, so many lies about 

this business. 
^ Ll^ aU l^ l/H u^3^ ^ basti ha nam kya hai . . What is the name of that 

place ? 
J-^ -^ ^ ij\^ f^\iby wahM (or w^kaaii) khane ki Is any thing to be got there 

_ib ,^_^Jl« A;ttc&A chlz milti hai, to eat and drink ? 

^ C^t ^ c^ybJ (/iujp Ae o^e he waste kuchh Put up something to shelter 

jj^f Ij^ ^ i<^b iAara fcaro, us from the sun. 

l5* l/f* U^ ^j^ lJ^ *^^^ gAari din chara^ hai . What o'clock is it ? 

J 1^ i^«^J^ 15^^ pa//:t ja2cH manga'o . . . Send for the palanquin 

^'T^^J^^/h ^ UV^^ mazduroti ko buH'o aur sab Call the porters and send all 
^L ^g;UJb (jL^s ^ j^ chtzbast hamare sathbhej my baggage along with 

Ji*^-^ ^'5,11 me. 

* See Shakeapear*8 Hindustani Grammar, par. 113. 
+ Dakh. khuda waste or khuda ke waste. 

^ DMi.jhutj in Hindustani most commonly jAulA; but, in Dakhni, an unaspirated 
letter often occurs where it would be aspirated in Hindustani. 
§ In Hindustani charha, || In Hindustani usually do. 





turn hahan uttei^e sakil/ , 

Where wiU you aLght(stop\ 


chaB ham-ko falane gafiib Come, take me tc sucl^^H 

'»•' i^v. u-'i J 

ke pas pahmcha de'o, 

gentleman's house. " 

^a^- Vy '°P cAAS/i 

Has the gun been fired ? 

k'^ ^J/ ^fr ^. 

yakjbra kapre de'o . . . 

Give me a suit of clothes. 

jjVr •"^/i/j! !»?'*«'•'■■ j*«.'» . . . ■ 

Brush my hat and coaL 


gkore par zltt bandhl hai ya 

Is the horse saddled or4|^ 





sawari ka ghora lao . . 

Bring the saddle-horse. ^^| 

UT ^jfj jCfci ^U i^jUa Aamare «aM (um-Ao iAi ana 

You must come aloog,^^^| 




i^l ^T-*^ t^^ 

tumaTe sahib ab-tag* utfie 

Is your master got up T^^l 

j^j:^ J^ 



^^ ^u^ 

ho sahib RIdn kahln bakar 

Yes, Sir, but he is goi^^f 


ga'e hain, 

somewhere. ^^H 


tvm-ka kitchh ma lum hai ki Co you know where fa^^^| 


kahan ga'e. 

gone to I ^^M 

Miyi d)tj (1^1 jjLkA 

kam-ko ek pit/dla dudh t^fi 

Give me a cup of nii^^H 


misrJ ek audi chamcfta 

little augarcaudy, an ^^^| 

Jij i^j- *r*5- 

vtuli rotJ maaka aur thora 

a spoon, a radish, brti^^ 


murabba de'o, 

butter and a little jam. 


ek din ka kiraya kya hai . 

What is the fare per dayJ^^ 


sidha age ehaleja'o , , , 

Go straight forwards. ^^M 

j'^jV. ?''•'■''"■ "'° 

Come round about. ^^M 

j^)^ +iU,^yj_, 

sidhl kath ko phiro . . 

Turn to the right. ^H 

_^/ ^"U j^jlj rfflWBK hatli kit phiro . 

Turn to the led. ^| 

jla- t^<*^- j'af(A c/iafii 

Go ^H 

jb- tjT .jJ 

sarra ahista chalo . . 

Go a little slower. ^^M 


hal-karjd'o .... 

Make way. ^^M 


L • »■ • ^r 

' In Hindustani ab-tal 


Dialogue. 463 

y^j t^J^ khafe raho Stop. 

f^^ dS-^ S^''^c^ matnpAtr a'e tag* yahanchf Stop here till I return. 

fy raho, 

^^ ' -/^ l5<?' e;^ ^^*^ "^** jP***" ^'^'^g^ • • I will be back immediately. 
^ jJ jf>s>^ J>j^O ^ \ age daurkarX khabar le'o ki Run on before and enquire 
b yJ^ ^^j^ ^" ^ ^ . §ahib ghar men hai ya if the gentleman is at home 

^^^ nahtn^ or not. 

^j ^/^ ^^ jibj jibi raho raho palkt mche rakh Stop, Btop, put the palan- 

J^j de*0f quin down. 

Li^c^wH^^'-r^^^!;^ ^^^o. §ahih ghar men hai Is your master at home? 
^ jp j^ ^*\^\ ^U pdlKt uthffb aur ghar ko Take up the palanquin and 

jl^ chalo, go home. 

jlsal ^j^lSj^-^ yo^ gathrt ghar ko Urchato Carry the bundle home, 
^l^ ^ s^^^\ic ,Jj^ MSb hamfalahe §a^ib ke yahan I shall dine at Mr. such a 
^ J 15^^ ^^ f^^^^ khaenge turn tin one's, come there in the 

3 I {J^^j^ pahar kowahan a*d, afternoon. 

ju\3\ Lffjy^ /a a'd moze utaro .... Come, take off my boots. 
J^ ij\j lJ^jJ^ i^jy^ thoft sharab pom Wo . • Bring some wine and water. 
•^ Uiff c-jy^ (Jb pant khub thanda karo . • Cool the water well. 
^yi i^^fij^ bl^ khana taiyar howe to Iffo . Bring dinner if ready. 
L J ISJl^ f^A^ <— ^^ ^^f chhurt kania de'o . . Give me a clean knife and 


^yc i^\ vlX«J '^ thora namak ral mirch Give me a little salt, mus- 

J}j i^\J^ iiij^Jj>A achar Hrka sharab pant tard, pepper, (some) 

uJU CSi}jj^ ^^.J^ gosht aur ek saf basan pickles, vinegar, wine, 

L J ^\j de% water, meat, and a clean 


* Observe this sentence, which in Hindustani might have been mere phir ane iak, 
f See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

X Or, in Dakhni, daurkar; the dental or simple /, (/, or r being in this dialect fre- 
quently substituted for the Hindustani I, d^ or r. 

464 Dialogue. 

/\s^ \^\ ^\j hasan utha le-jSo .... Take away the things. 
^ (\c\^ Jj izj\^ii dawat Icalam kaghaz Iffo . Bring the inkstand, pen 

and paper. 
fjjj ^ i..^„A>-U ijii falane sahib ke pas yah tJuzU Take this letter to such a 
j^\ ^'l^vJ L:^ ^ Bja'd aurjawdb he waste gentleman's and wait for 

J!A^(^!^l/^1^ ?AaAro, an answer. 

L5^ ^^ ^J^ ?? ^^^ f^^^^g^ ftflttn hat . . Who is that European ? 
^ IJ^ IC^ yj wah Ms'ka ghora hai . . Whose horse is that? 
^.V«;:mo AJ^y {ji^ji^J^^ pukarkar boler^ to ham If you speak loud, I shaO 

surienge, hear you. 

! j^ Ioa! j^ itiuJbT <ib«JbT ahista ahista aur lafz juda If you speak slowly and 
^£^Uj jby ^ji f (X>. Juda hoUn* to ham tumari distinctly, we shall unde^ 

^ ^v; ; gy ^ C^b bat samjhefige, stand you. 

t^^o-U ^^\ aL» I^Ui^ hamard saldm aprie ^dHb ko Give my compUments to 

yf f kahoy your master. 

^l>- w f j^^' c/*' «5 5dmi ko tumjdnte hain* Do you know that man? 

^ ^^ ff iXcl^ U^ us ka gh az ko kursi ke tale Bring me that paper from 
j'S \^\ ^ ^ se utha Id'o, beneath the chair. 

mm a« 

^ 1^ ^\aJ\ ^^J dekho dsmdn khuld hai • . See, is the weather cleared 

uJU -yb sj^^ ^J^i^ jutiydn achchht tarah sdf Clean (my) shoes well. 

J5^ karOj 

^jbjLj izJU\j ndshta taiydr hai, ... Is breakfast ready? 
^^^ «.^^U ^-^ ^\ ab'hinahinsdhibUkinzarre Not yet, Sir, but it will be 
jlj ^j^ c::-oj 4^J w?aA:^ men taiydr howegd, ready in a little time. 

lJ^ ij^ l5^^ r^ ^ *y^ y wiacAcAAi naAm »iiZI What, could no fish be got 

to day? 

* In Dakhiii, the second person plural: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 113. 

Dialogue. 456 

u^ {jii^ L5^f^ L5^' ^^^^^^^ mcLchchht nahln There was no good fish to 

v.,.^«^^li^ miR sahib. be had. Sir. 

J^j l^ ^^^ (i^^'^^ oha-dan mm cha data* . . Have you put tea into the 

c^^^^U ^^ )ll J dala hun^ §afiib .... I have put it in, Sir. 
\^j ijj-oi-^ ^jf^ ^jy^ kathdrl men mi$rt rakha* . Have you put sugar into the 


i^^'^\^ ^ ho §ahib Yes, Sir. 

l>- uT^ ^jy^ ^-'^ M^^ kathori men cha undel Well, pour out the tea. 

^10 ^UU saman nikato Take away the things. 

^i^9^ ^J^ '^ ^i-^-^-U §afiib y kite ganthdn'\ ko Sir, at what o'clock must 

b^^Ujlil^j^ khana taiyar karna, dinner be ready to 


^ ^2^jl^}>- i^^ sari char ganthm]: ko .. At half past four. 

L5^V ^J-?>- \^ \^ kya kya chtzln chahVl . . What things do you wish ? 

uioc-^L^l^u:^wc>u^ yak dost ka kabab yak ran A shoulder of mutton roast- 

vJV' l5^^ J^^ ^J ^^^ machchht ubali hu*% ed, a leg and some fish 

l/ r)^ {J^ 3*^ s^V^ ^ ^^^ tara^ kl salrie boiled, two or three kinds 

J^' hfj^j^ i5^^ ^^'"'^^'"'^ ^**^ pindalu^an,X of curry, vegetables and 

ukj^ Sr[J^ ti^V*^ ^horl puriydn aur achchhl yams, some sweet cakes 

^}^ kJ^^J!^^ «i5ti;e, and good fruit, 

l^t l::^^ \^ v^^ bakrl ka gosht achchha If good mutton cannot be 

^ v^'» y ^ ;^;:!V nahln mila to gal ka got, shall I take beef? 

^^jj KZ^^ gosht WMy 

* In these instances, the construction is not inverted by the use of ^ nl^ as it would 
have been in Hindustani, though UIl J dalna is a transitive verb in a past tense. 

+ In Hindustani, this word would be ^ii^ ghanton. 

% In DakhnT) the plural ofyiJcjpinda/ti: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 87. 

456 Dialogue, 

^^^^J^^ tj^ ^"^^ c^ naAin ek mwgh aur ek No, send for a fowl and 

Ulxu^ L^ badakh mangana,* duck. 

L5^ ^y^ lJ (^ U^ ^ kism ke mewe mile « • What kinds of fruit ba?e 

you got ? 
J^^ hHy^^ JT^ (^^ (^^ J^^ ^^ 97iat£2r chakotare Guavas, mangos^ plantains, 
U^^^ j)^ *^jij^ ^^^^ /charbaze aur atir shaddocks, pomegranates, 

annas, muskmelons and pine- 

lt' lS^ JV f5^ J^ char panchrozke age arabis- Did not any almonds or fil- 
y^ S^ ' kJ^ {J^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^'^ sojahazan men berts or dates or raisins or 

^bb^fB^^^^^ljly^ kuchh badam ya finduk currants come in the ships 

b jyer b jjci b ya khajur ya munakkaya which arrived, four or five 

^jf^ ^jJAlJi U <U:^ kishmish nahUn a% days ago^ from Arabia? 

^;CJ ^„A^U ^ (^ I a'e ^Ae sahib lekinjald bikne Some came. Sir, but were so 
tA^ L<^ i^y^, <^^ ^^ mti/Ae nahtn mite, quickly sold that I could 

^^ ^ not get any. 

UI:j 2r^ j^ U- ^ aU» sham-ko cha aur Icahwa bo- Make tea and coffee in the 

nancLy evening. 

J!^ ^ vJ^l? '^J^ ^ *y^ ^MwiarecAf tro^,^^ y5 awr What, for yourself, or will 
L$^0^ ti^b^'ir' s^J^ ^^*^ sardaran awengty any other officers come? 

^! j^i^j^ ^ J^^J^ y^ ^^ ^^'^ ^^ ^''^ sardar ate Yes, two or three other offi- 

j^-Jb hain, cers are coming. 

^ Jx\^ jjB^ c-^o-U ^a^i& /a/r kawia!td hat ap There is drill in the morning, 
^y^^^ ^ji^ <-jT ka-tain kite ganthon kb Sir ; at what o'clock shall 

^^ \^\ ^ utha'un, I waken you ? 

* In Dakhni, the infinitive form is very often used imperatively to denote the 
absolute necessity of doing the action intended: see Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, 
par. 72. 

f See Shakespear's Hindustani Grammar, par. 156. 

Dialogue. 457 

J^LAM^f^^ L^H po!^''^^ pO'TMih ganthon ko « At a quarter before five 



L^ ujU ^\yj do-all §af kii/a* .... Have you cleaned my belt ? 


^jj\pj^^ talwar taiyarrakha* - . Have you got my sword 

ready ? 
^j jit\j ^^j^\ ^^ kurta aur patka bahar rakh Put out my jacket and sash. 
jlJ (j^j^ iS ^^ guluhand ki chapras taiyar Is the buckle of the stock 
l5^ s^V *'^'' *^*' ready ? 

'^JAj^ ^)^J^ urfy t^P^ ^^^ t^^^ ^^z-po^ rakh Put my hat and feather on 

the table. 

^yb U^jLJ ^UL» l-.^ «a6 saman taiyar kiya* hun I have prepared every thing, 

i_A>*li^ sahib. Sir. 

^^ji^ fr y^^y, ^' achchha bar! fajr jo main Well, if I do not get up 
c-j^y* y ^^\ ^^ nahmuthuntdldiubtarah early, you must waken me 

l3K>- ^-a -Js? sejagdna. properly. 

^!fc> A^ j^\ ^^ f^y^ momrbatti aur mom-dan ni- Take away the candle and 
i^^^^j^j^J^^ kdlkar fajr mujhe uthanl candlestick and light (it 

uLi ^ cuS^ ^ ke wakt'par silga, again) when you waken 

me in the morning. 
^Jbi|f 1^ L^^ u^^'d-lp sahib paune pdnch ghanie Sir, it wants a quarter of 
^\ 1^ yb hVe utho, five, get up. 

^ \sip jy^Aj lly pahld tambur bey a hai . • Has the first drum beaten? 
0^\ (^^'>\^ yb ho §ahib ab-ich bajne laga . Yes, Sir, it has just begun 
if) to beat. 

fc/t> jjrt-^ 1^1 achchha kaprl de . . . Well, give me my clothes. 
jJb b! aIs^ hajjamayahai .... Is the barber come? 
•U> ^^ ^^.^ dtkhta hun §dhib .... I will see, Sir. 

* The verb^ though transitive and in the past tense^ agrees with the nominative 
case understood ; the construction not being inverted^ as in Hindustani, by the use 
of the particle ^J ne. 

3 N 

468 Dialogue. 

) (JU (JjbJ ^y ^\ib hath mun dhone pant la . Bring me water to wash my 

hands and face. 

c^J (ji^ttf sabun de Give me the soap. 

^j JU^j rumdl rakh Hold the towel. 

f^j fjS^j^\ cJ\y,^ miswak aur manjan de . . Give me the tooth-brush and 


S ijy^ kangul la Bring the comb. 

\^j ^^ (>,,-%*:>• JUj[j rumdl jeb-mm rakhd , . . Have you^ put my handker- 
chief in my pocket ? 
^jJb ^J^ f^^p"^ dastiydn kahdn hain . . Where are my gloves ? 
1/ u}^ ^^^ S^J^ ^^r^ ^^^ ghanton ke wakt Make the horse be got ready, 
^\^ jlJ \^ c:^^ ghord taiydr kardkar ka- and send it to the place of 

^^ / '4^ 1/ «^V wd'id kljagah'ko bhej de, exercise at half past se?en 

c5fc> ^ o'clock. 

u^voLj c-^^^U §dhib sdldmat Sir, safety* (to you). 

j^jjj^ '^^^U ^ ^^*5>- khqiro djiyat subaddr sd/iib Good and health,^ Mr. Su- 
(3^j ^ ^^ 4.^^^r>-U 5/ kyd rapofX hai, badar, what is the n^poti 

f^ to day? 

u-^.%>-ltf ^^^ .^ jjl aur kuchh nahln sdhib sab Nothing extraordinary. Sir, 

iS^, ^_5^^ ^-:^^ bhaU bhald^i,% all is right, 

^jui ^^^ LfV*^ TT^ ^ /:2/mpawI-we?lJ Ae^e kdhile How many sick are there 
^^ ^^Jji>^ hain, to day in the com- 


^'JU^!*^ *--^ L5^W -?^ ^ sipdhi yak tambur-wdld Two sepoys, one drummer 
\fj^ ^^S^^j^ aur yak chhokrd, and one boy. 

^ J^ J ^jiS kis dard'Se Of what illness ? 

* A respectful mode of address from a Musalman. 

+ A benediction much used as a respectfiil return to an address. 

J An English word as introduced into military use at Madras. 

§ A phrase, meaning that all is right or going on well. 

Dialogue, 459 

^ v-^ ^ i^'^V^ <— ^3 ^^ 5ip5A?-/:5 tojp hai dusrc" One sepoy has a fever, the 

J;J l^ ^5 b ^ kJj^^^ ko ban ka dard tambur^ other has the rheumatism, 

^^^^ h^t^ L^llU^^ '^i^'ko sltala nikU hai the drummer has got the 

j-j l^ 4^^f>-j^l ^ aur chkokre ka sir dukhta smallpox, and the boy's 

Jb \a^J Aai, head aches. 

^^1 ..^ t^^o-lpji^j daktar* §ahib kuchh unkt Has the doctor ordered them 

c^ ^ ^;^ l^*^ daM7a farma'e hain, any medicine ? 

1^1^ I ,<^1 ^^^>-U^ Ao 5aAift oprf akar un-ke Yes, Sir, he came himself, 
^j^ ci^Vj*^ i:;V^ marazan daryaft karkar enquired into their com- 

^ b J IjJ dawa diya hai, plaints, and gave them 

*V^ \^^ c^ S&rT**' 5«pa^ri*-m6n wn-ft? jagah Is their place in the hospital 

^ uJU fafhai, clean? 

)j^^ JV J^ c-^^^-Uyb hdsahibharrdzjharajhufiii. Yes, Sir, they sweep it out 

^JJb ^J i/Jje^ ftar^e Aai», every day. 

x^j^jy^J^^^j^^ ^^^ kot liawaldar har roz kite How many times each day 
^^iJ j-^ ^^\ <Ui J daf^a un-kt khabar lenB does the kot-fiawaldar go 

f^ tfU- j5^a Aae, to enquire after them ? 

tiJLj ^ iXftljS ^ yB* faJT'ke kawa'zd he bad do After morning's drill, at 
J? /Xi» j^\ ^ j^ jfc> pahar ko aur sham^ke midday, and before even- 

lT^ l5^ l/^J irar«e-ft5 age, ing's parade. 

^^^^^ l5^ O^ T^ V ^^^^ j^^^ mengat* chare How many men have momit- 
^^ t^y>- hain, ed the main guard to day? 

j\t^\y>^^*ij\dJL^ uJo^ ekjamdar do hawaldar fin One jamadar, two hawal- 
Slj ,XjV <-^^ {:)i? nffik banstt-wala aur tin dars, three na'iks, the 

JbLrf ^2f^ j^ sipaht, fifer and three sepoys. 

zS ^j^ Llf^^ iJD^ kot ki gat*'nien kete hain . How many are on the 

^jb barrack guard ? 

"^ Borrowed from the English. 

+ A Dakhni form corresponding to the Hindustani tm^\ aj9. 

X A reiterative form ,jAara^' Attn karna, to sweep out. 

460 Dialogue. 

L^ ^^V t:^ u;^*^' ardaWanf^-men Jko^i* ga^ Have any gone as oideiliei? 

^ hain, 

iJ^ iO!f^ ic^ */V ^'^ kamafi^f4Men hoi. • . Are any on command? 
/ u y''^ \J^ iJ^ IMiMafi &e/e ghaMOMco At what o'clock does Ae 

l5^ If) (iU. ^Sni lata iai, pakhali bring water? 

^ f\Aj^\ ^ lJj^ faj^"^ ^^^ ^^^ shamrke At mx o'clock in the mom- 
^ ^^^i^0^ panch ghanpMJDo, . ing and fife in the eraih 

{Jij^iJ^ i*^i^>f^ kumpam-men keS baneBiiafi How many firelocks nt 

t^jb hain, there in the compaiqfT 

^jb jcf^f ff*^ y l5^^ am-^ar panch achchht ^n There are eighty fi?e good 

w|^ IT; jcj jjf ottr pandrah kkarSbf ones and fifteen bad. 

^b ^ iJ^V** ^-^^^ ^'' ^^ HpoAi-AS II& Kte How many cartridge #1ms 
^Jy^ fofehaU, eachsepoy? 

i;V <1;V ft^roA ftoroA Twelve each. 

i«;UU \^ ^Urf ^^^^ ^^z** ^A W|7aAi /:a saman Are the acooatrenoents of 

^ (j^-^J ciffn»f Aat, each sepoy good ? 

l/ ^^^^ j^ i.^^'^^-U Jh A5 5a^i& Aor Sft kS pas ek Yes, Sir; each has a t» 
j^l j^Jcj 4lX^t (^b banduk aur ek santn ek lock, a bayonet, a poodi, 


^ J vl^l ^^ 4lX>1 ^&&a eA; martol ek marofi a hammer, a worm, t 

CJiA i}y^j^ C^\ ck kanta aur do phatre pricker and two flints, i 

j^\ to\^ CJJ] i^jj^yc cA sanin kz do'att ek bayonet belt, a pouch bdt| 

c;^ *--^^ s£r^ J*^ rfaftic-AI do'a/i cA bandulj: a sling, a bayonet sheath, 

iPJ tl^l tjb*^ l/ kidd'alieksanivrktmiyan a turband, a red jacbi 

j^jcj tj^l lJ'j*^ l/ ^* J^flgP ^* ^5^ Awrto awr and a breastplate. 

* Plural ofardalij the duty of an orderly, 
-f Borrowed from the English* 

Dialogue, 461 

f^jjS ^ i<t^ kumpanl-ke kapre sab ach- Are all the clothes of tie 
^jb j<f^^ chhe hain, company good ? 

f^\j Jj ^^ ^-^^j^ ^^^ ^* sipahl he pas char Each sepoy has four good 
^^ l5^^ ^j^J^ fit^ acAcAAe Aatn, suits, 

^*Xj jSj^ jj^ vlioU lf>.l achchha na'ik subadar-ko Very well, na'ik, call the 

hulffOf subadar. 

ijjf^ t__,-T-^-<* jW^ subadar §ahib mtrl gat-mm How many men, Subadar, 

uW L5^ c^ *^ ketejawan hain, are there in my guard ? 

- - 1^ 

c^ <T^ l5^ ^^^^ jEiaAre Aai^ . • . • How many sentries are 

lT^ s^ U^^ uk^ AaAari ftaAan khare rahtt so Shew me where they stand. 

^ tj |<fs^ *-« mujKc bata'd, 

^ aC^ L^ ^ U^ Wv^ joaArctraBw-Ao ftya Ati/cm hai Tell me the orders which the 

j!y ,<fsr«^ ^0 mujhe boto, sentries have. 

l/^ S^^Ji;*^ l5^ l5*^ ^''^^ *^ dartra^c ftc^c gAan- At what o'clock do they 
^Jb ^z:>-y^^ \jf^ ton-ko muchte hain, shut the gates of the 

C^ ^ \^fr>p '^ CJ^ tk chha ghantoA'ko ek ath One at six, one at eight, and 
cib j^\ ^ \jy^ 'f^T ghantonrko ant bdki barah the rest at twelve o'clock. 

^ UT^ i^V gharMA-ko, 

^ ^(^L^ ^zS (^U^J^ bandukoA kete ghantonrko At what o'clock did they 
^jij^ j^ j^\ t^X* sula*e aur phir kete ghan^ ground arms, and at what 

^jjb ^^\^\ ^ ii)y^ toA'kd uthate hain, o'clock will they take 

them up again ? 
^L^ ^^ ^J i^^\ ek dafa-meii kete sipahiyan How many soldiers are 
^jj^^J^4^J^\^ khdhe-ko chkorte hain, allowed at one time to go 

^^ to dinner ? 

ciUj- ^ (jsr^Lf^ UV ^^^* ^^ ghantonrko jdd . At what o'clock do the 

rounds go ? 

* Borrowed from the Engliih. 

7*i jj' jjj -A^ t-^.^ 
jj ^ tjV j^ ^h 

lib 4l_l; / J-fcJ (^ 

i/^j^ tjV r^ w^ 


dusrt galun*-se keleghtmtoA' 
-ko rapot* bhijtc Haiti, 

pa&re kete gAanto^-ko bad- 

late hain, 
barah ghanton-ko mujke 

jagdne-he waste ek na'ik 

bhej de'o aur pkir barah- 

■kc char-ko, 
top chhufi safiib jawandti 

khara karuii, 
sipakiyan-ko Idiabar karH 

ki rdt-ko bdra&-ke da 

gkantot't-ko kuch hai, 
sabdn kete kos c/ialenge . . 

kalian jand hai . . . . 
fcisi dlier-ko rdsta batane ke 

wdsfe taiydr karo, 
sabdn mukdm kahdn kareiige 

ek na'ik aur c/iha sipdhi 

sdmdn taiydr karane 

aghdfi b/iijo, 
sdhibyahun ke log baresha- 

rir hain (lawdlddr kt gdl 

bhejd chdhi'e, 


I sab ^dzir kaii't 

At what o'clock do 

send the reports from 

other guards 7 
At what o'clock do 

reheve the seatriea ? 
Send a na'ik to waken 

at twelve o'clock, and 

again at four. 

The guQ has fired, Sir, fli 

I fall in the t 
Tell the sepoys that ' 

march to night nt 

How many coss shall i 

march to morrow? 
Whither are we to go? 
Have some village < 

ready to shew the n 
Where shall we halt to ^ 

Send a na'ik and 

poys on before to pn 

The people about here, 

are very riotous ; yon 

should send a bavaldat*! 

Are all present? 

Dialogue. 463 

^Jjb a) 4,,,>if»>U ^ ho sahib Zam* bandhkar Yes, Sir, they are fallen in, 

^^ Se^ AAarc Aaiw, in line. 

^j j\^yb y.:^*^ f^ hukm suno hoshyar raho Hear th^word, attention, to 
4-i^ ^^1 J b ^*\r» «rfAc y5 dawen tarafphir- wheel or turn to the right 

_Jb \jj^ na haiy or left. 

jl^^ A Ji ^Ui^^ ^ S>' hukm-par ek-san kadam Raise your feet at once upon 

uthffo, the word. 

j^J^ jLi failf milkar chalo . . . March with close files. 
l5^^ l5^1^ S?*M^ tihde-wale apne distdns^ Officers, keep your distance. 
^j (jJtiLo rakho, 

j$U AtXi L«J /am&a kadam dalo . . . Step out. 
Jf J /•ji ^.>f^ cAAofa Jcadam dalo . • . Step short, 
^jj \^y L^\j\t}j^ khabar-dar ab tirchha Jca- Attention now, the oblique 

danij step, 

jjhjj ^A^^ ^— i^ L5^*V^^ sidhe taraf samne barho . Forward, on the right. 

^J Sr^ khare raho Halt, stand still. 

\jj\i\ ^^d^^ bandukan utama .... To order arms. 
y^y^ ^l:»^ samnan charha^o .... Fix bayonets. 
^ ji ^"^^ \J^3*^ bandukan khande-par Una . To shoulder arms. 

UjJb L<s:u3 ^IS^JCJ bandukan Icencht bandna . To pile arms. 
]j4 ij^ {J^ jJl^s^rVi P^^^-traZ? /:aAa7i kahdn Where shall I post the sen- 

^^jS khara karun .... tries ? 

^.J i^j-i*^ j^ jfXi ^^^^ dono bazu-par dere ke age On both fianks, before and 
J3^ L5"^?i-' J}^ LT ^ ^**'' jJicAAe awr ftaitefuAan- behind the tents, and near 

d^l (^b ^^l5^Jcj 'kepas ekekpahra khara the arms, one each. 

Jj/ '>^ !ni *^' *«''^' 

UjA y ^;j5i^ ^ju^ Ljj trar^a Aef5 gAan^on-Ao hota At what o'clock is parade ? 

v/> Aai, 

* aS Idm, or ^ lain^ from the English military term, line. 
f The English word, here adopted* 

4|M Dialogue. 

-jX ijjStp .^ fJji paune ck/ia ^/lunt'in-ko . . At a quarter before sik. 
tJm^£J^ tmi/i» ijMex* sidlie laraf ankhan phira'o. Turn the eyes to the right. 


■ J LT^ 0)9*9^ b'tch-men age a'o . . . . Dress up the centre. 
j>i ijt) jfi ^^ \ u;-M^ l/ukt d'e pkir zarra dabo . Too much ; dress back agair 

a little. 1 

•»•> ^M» (_al laf*-men dabo Dress back on the lefU ■ 

^f4if\i ^ (_al jti^ santar* laf*'ki bich-men Dress up between the cerfn 

jJa iz.*^ ij^ ^■'^'•ij )'atj*-nien mat hila . . . Do not move on the riglil, 
wVf Bie^J^i^./"^ santar*-ke do tin jawdit Dress back two or thrc 
jjJ tjii zarra dabo, files in the centre. 

u;.««yA^^ bas hito mat Euough ; do not move 

(Hteady). -.., , 

j^\j1 i^UjJtu imufiifaii Aoro .... Order anna, 
j'Vflf'ttfVw^ MWMMiLci^'^'S ..... Kxli^roiMlf- 

•^\,^g^ tfjMaa hath. PKseotvnu. - 

^10 ,Ji^ fimtnai nikalo Ui^ hajoaett. 

.(7\b ^iw JayAft AotA Secure arms. 

jIa^^ lt ^^ ^jyC g&orddo kal-par charha'o . Cock (your firelock). 
J^^^ ^ '^-^ ^j3^ S^^ '^ kal-par rtUtko . . Half cock. 

jSU(S J^ kal khaincha Draw the (rigger. 

J W jS" (jjlj ^Jlft hath ran-ldi laga'S . . . Keep your hands flat to tl 

jut ui.«« ^,1^ airan mat hila'a .... Do not stir your heads. 

jv^ wir" ••'"^" "fifl'o Raise your heads. 

3t> '^J^ tJ^"^ tid/u kftaji raho .... Stand erect. 
^Jlie l/-^ uy** -Vi y°* ga'Sw Ai»-*e a^o^Mcii Who does this vilUge belo 

English military lernu, adopted in Dakhiu. 

Dialogue. 465 

%^ ^ ^jt^ k^*^^j>^ i/^^ is chau-^addi-mtn kol za- Is there any zemindar in this 

^j\x,^j mindarhau neighbourhood? 

iiT!^ lT***!^ l5^ uV^ saban-ke raste-men kuchh Are there any rivers or ri- 

^j0jb ^U i^jJ ,^ naddi naU hain. vulets on to morrow's 


Jb jil>- s^W jhafi jangal hai .... Is there thicket and jungle ? 
c^ c^!;^i paAarSn hain . . . . ^ Are there bills (or moun- 

^jjb ^^ talawan hain Are there tanks ? 

uXLe l^ ujy^l 15^^ ^'^^ airaf'ka mulk hanjar Is the country about here 
*^j^^ ^ L5^ ^;?^ ^^^ y^ sig-mari hotl hai. waste or cultivated ? 

dU^ ^\jbt} ^-^ j^^ is-men dhan hoht plkt^ They sow much rice here 
L^J jjl ^Jh ^^iCi/ ^ain aur efti^a a^^; kam. and other grains less. 

y ^^^ ij^'^b «J^ ij^ Sohari'ke rasthmen to hoht There will then be much 
^ cilj j^ oV chikkar pani hoga. mud and water on to mor- 

row's road. 
4S/jf(^j^^J (..^^^Uyb Ao joAii do kos-tag dhan Yes, Sir, two coss we have 


^^\*^ iJ i^yo ^;Uj mart ke meddnf-par chal- to march along the banks 

C^\ j\ J^ Ul>^ y na badraz ek kos talffo of paddy fields ; after- 

ji^ ^ ^ /^ ijm^ ke katte-par pailur sukd wards, for one coss, on 

Jb AUrflj l^^ jjLj rasta hai. the borders of a tank ; 

but beyond that the road 
is dry. 
i^Jj jMt _Jb ^^^jM^acu fticA-meii hai so naddi pay ab Is the river, on the way, 
jJb ^-^l;b Aai. fordable ? 

* UCj plkna, explained in Persian by ^^JJ* ^^^^jj ziro'at shudan, To be 
•own (?). 

+ From Ju^ TTiec/ or Jc^^ mSiii/. Bank. 


466 Dialogue. 

^^^^iLo ^ ^L« fahan l£ mmkam K gSoik kt Are there any trees (grores) 

iJf\^^ i/V C/*^ l/ P^ *^ awro? Ant. near tbe village where we 

J5 shall halt to manow 1 

L y Jly;^ ^ ^.^ V ga'ofirkc kutwal-ko Imla Send for the Cutwal of die 

^^ifj bhejo. Tillage. 

l/^ c)s^^ ^^ ^ U^^ yohm (or yAoii) ^ faJEtma How iar is socfa a village 

^ jy^ ga'on kcfi dur hat. from this? 

T^ L5^ J>^ U^ V^ jowanM mdl ITe so xoaiaji Hare the men paid tx die 

^J iU»i l^ ^toLi kapaisa dTe. things that they pur- 

^j^ ^b .^ y j»\ awr to kuchh bakl nahln . Nothing more, then, remams. 


cuUaJ (nakliyat), SHORT STORIES, 

In the Persian and Nagari characters, with translations and gram- 
matical analysis of some parts. 

P 9 - C/ 

i/^ l/ -'^'^ <^ wy^ v/< *^ wW?" 4 L/,<>y tt^!^ '^ 

o / / 

^ j^ j^ jy* ^ij^ y-) J '^/^ ^ ifi ^jU, / ^Xi 

5^**^' v'^ v/ 1)-^ i^ tt^ "^ -*i ^J^^^ "^•^^ 

In Nagari characters. 

\ ^ 

TT^ ir^'TT^TIT^^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^ 'TOT ^^ 


Short Stories, 

\ (X) for ek, one, or pahUy firet, naklf story. 

Eky one, a, 
shakhs, person, 
badshahy king, 
kcj of, 

aiuy eye (the very), 
kaVe, castle, palace. 

mujhlj me, to me, 
kazzakon. robbers, 
huzur, presence, 
dlwary wall. 

jharokhe, window, 
mtisafir, traveller, tra^ 

lute, plundered, 

lut, having plundered, jate, going, being, 
liya, took. hain, are. 

niche, under, beneath, jPariway5,commanded, Kaha, said, 
luta, plundered, tu, thou, kya, what? 

hushyar, careful, iu-rie, thee-by, thou, 

kyun, why ? yih, this, 

na-raha, not remained, masal, proverb, 
Sola, (he) spoke, na-Ai7i,not-indeed,not, 

ghulam, (your) slave, sum, heard, 
kZ, to, chiragh, lamp, 

malum, known, andhera, dark, dark- 

northa, (it) was not, ness. 

hazrat, presence, 
zer, under, 

gaya, went, was. 
Us-ne, he, 
kl, of, 
khidmat, service, 

men, in 

ar^r, representation 
kl, made, 
At, that, 
jahan, world, 
panah, protection, 

A person was plundered beneath the very castle of the king. He 
made representation in the service of the king,* (saying) that, w^orld- 
protection If robbers took (and) plundered me under the wall of the 
castle of the (royal) presence. The king commanded, J (saying) that, 
why didst thou not remain careful ? (He) spoke (saying) that, it was 
not known to (your) slave, that travellers are being plundered under 
the window of the (royal) presence. The king said, what? by thee 
(has) not indeed this proverb (been) heard, " under the lamp (is) 

* He represented submissively to the king. + Your Majesty ! 

J Implying said," when spoken of a sovereign. 

Short Stories. 469 

Grammatical Analysis. 

Eky a noun of number (frequently used as an indefinite article) : 
pahli, an ordinal of number, feminine, singular, agreeing with nakl, 
s. f. nominative case singular. 

£k (as before) : shakhs. s. m/ nom. case,^ governing the verb : 
badshah, s. m. gen. case, governed by he, a simple postposition (or 
particle placed after a noun) governing the preceding word, and in the 
masculine inflected state to agree with the substantive following: 
ai», s. m. here used adjectively to kaPe, s. m. gen. case, sing, 
inflected from kaPa, and governed by ke, a postposition governing 
the genitive case preceding, and itself in the mas. inflected state (from 
kaf^ to agree (like the termination of an adjective) with the following 
niche, s. m. sing, inflected from nicha, . abl. case, governed by a 
postpos. understood, or used absolutely as a postposition or 
adverb : luta, v. a. past participle,^^ mas. sing, (root luf), agreeing 
with shakily before described : gaya, v. n. past tense indefinite, ^ mas. 
sing, (root ja) governed by shakhs ; luta gaya, however, may be 
accounted the passive voice,^^ past tense indefinite, mas. sing, from 
the root luL Us, pronoun of the third person, or the remote demon- 
strative, sing, firom tvuh, inflected by reason of the attached or sub- 

See Ist Part, Gram. par. 38. Gram. par. 39. 

^ Gram. par. 3. ^ Declined like ob (bat) Gram. par. 9. 

Declined like U-tj (rqfa)j Gram. par. 9. Gram. par. 53. 

Declined like rajij Gram. par. 9. Gram. par. 6. 

Gram. par. 6. Gram. par. 1 1 . 

^^ Declined like ifJCJ (banda) G. par. 9. G. par. 6. 

^^ Declined like \j^ {ghdra) G. par. 9. ^^ G. par. 57. 

G. par. 34. G. par. 35. G. par. 20. 

^^ G. par. 23 and 20. ^^ G. par. 31. ^ G. par. 15. 

470 Short Siarieg. 

sequent particle ne : badshah, s. m. gen. case, gorenied by An, a 
postpos. fern, governing the preceding word and agreeing with die 
noun next subsequent : khidmat* s. f. abl. case, sing, governed by 
men^ a simple postposition : art, s. f. nom. case sing, governing H,^ 
V. a. past tense indef. sing. fern, (root kar) : lH, a conjonctioa of ex- 
planation : jahan, s. forming, with the subsequent pttnah, a compound 
attributive (used like the English, " Your Majesty*') voc case sing. : 
mujhe, pron. of the first pers. accus. or dat. case sing. (nom. sing. 
main)^ governed by the following verb : kaztakoiiy s. m. plur. inflected 
(from kazzaU) by reason of the following ne? Afx&r, s. m. gen. case 
sing, governed by Ae, a simple postpos. governing the noun which 
precedes and agreeing with the subsequent kaVej s. m. gen. case'sing. 
as before : kt^ postpos. governing the gen. case, and fem.^^ to iagree 
with the following dtwar, s. f. gen. case sing, governed by Ice, postpos. 
mas. inflected to agree with niche as before explained : lut, v. a. the 
root^^ or the past conjunctive participle :^ liya, v. a. past part^* or 
past indef. tense^^ third pers. mas. sing.^^ (root C), the object of the 
sentence (mujhe) being in an oblique case. Bad$hah as before : ne, 
particle following the subject of the sentence before a transitive verb 
in a past tense : farmaydy v. a. past tense indef.^^ third pers. mas. 

G. par. 23j note. G. par. 6. 

Nouns ending in iSJ are frequently feminine : G. par. 2. 
G. par. 6. Declined like CL^\j \bat) : G. par. 9. 

The feminine of kiyd: G. par. 20, a, and par. 23, with the note : 
also par. 72; the verb being made to agree with tlie object of the sentence. 

7 8 9 

G. par. 36. G. par. 15. G. note to par. 23. 

G. par. 6. G. par. 6. G. par. 18. 

^^ (;. par. 22. ^ ^ G. par. 20, c. ^'' G. par. 23. 

G. par. 23, note. ' Lut lif/u may be considered a compound 

verb: (J. pur. 28, Inlensives. (r. par. 23 and 20. 

Short Stories, 471 

sing, (root /arma), the object being the following sentence:^ ki, conj. 
as before: tu, pron. second pers.^ nom. case sing, governing the 
verb ; hushyar, adj. nom. case, agreeing with the person to which tu 
refers: kyun, adv. of method, derived from the interrogative pron.:^ 
na-raha, a compomid of na, the simple adverb of negation,"* and raha, 
V. n. past tense indef. third pers. mas. sing, (root rah), governed by 
tu. JBoliy V. n. past tense indef. third pers. mas. sing, governed by 
8hakh§ miderstood: ki, conj. as before : ghuldm. s. m.^ dat. case sing., 
governed by ko,^ a simple postpos. governing the dat. or accus. case: 
ma^lum, an Arabic passive participle, which may here be considered 
as an adj. agreeing with the subject of the sentence or the nom. case 
miderstood to Tia-tha, verb, subst. past tense mas. sing, having the 
simple adverb of negation ^ prefixed, and governed by the following 
sentence as the subject : Ai, conj. : haxrat, s. f. gen. case sing. : ke, 
postpos. mas. governing the foregoing noun in the gen. case, and 
inflected to agree with the compound following : zer, prepos. : jharokhe, 
s. m. sing, inflected from jharokha by reason of a postpos. under- 
stood : musafir, s. m. plur. nom. case, governing the following verb : 
Uite, past part. mas. plur.^"* (root lut) agreeing with musafir : jate, 
pres. part mas. plur.^ (root ja) agreeing with musafir : hain, verb 
subst. pres. tense third pers. plur. (root ho), governed by musafir. 

G. par. 23, note. G. par. 15. G. par. 50. 

^ G. par. 35. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

^ G. par. 23 and 20. Declined like [>-]j (raja)^ G. par. 9. 

® G. par. 6. ^ G. par. 32. ^® G. par. 35. 

11 12 

G. par.. 6. Zer jharokhe may be regarded as a 

compound, and inflected by some postpos. understood : G. par. 57* 

^^ Declined like U-l^ (r^ja\ G. par. 9. ^* G. par. 20. 

^^ G. par. 21. G. par. 32 : and, lute jate hain may be 

considered as the passive voice, see G. par. 31, and the conjugation of 
the passive voice. 

472 Sh(yrt Stories. 

JBadshak as before : ne, particle following the subject of a sentence 
before a tr^bsitive verb in a past tense: kaha, v. a. past tense indef.^ 
third pers. sing. mas. (root kah), tlie object being the following sen- 
tence :^ kya, pron. interrogative/ nom. case, here used absolately as 
an interjection : tu, pron. of the second pers. nom. case sing, unin- 
flected though followed by ne, a particle following the subject before 
a transitive verb in a past tense : yih, pron. proximate demonstrative,^ 
nom. case sing, agreeing with ma^al, s. f. nom. case/ sing, governing 
the verb : sum, v. a. past part.^ or past tense indef.^ sing- (root sun), 
governed by masal: chiragh, s. m. gen. case, sing, governed by Ke, 
a simple postpos.^^ as before : mche, s. m. sing, inflected, or adv. as 
before : andkera, s. m. nom. case, sing, governing the subst. ^erb, 
hai, understood. 

jii r 

LT^^ ^i Ji^ <i^ jj ^J liV -ip^ «-^>' ^^3-^ / c9>l^ 

G. note to par. 23. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. 

G. note to par. 23, and par. 72. ' G. par. 16. 

G. par. 15. G. par. 16. 

Declined like <Jl^lj {bat)i G. par. 9. ^ G. par. 20. 

^ G. par. 23. ^^ G. par. 72. 

Declined like \*>\j {raja)^ G. par. 9. ^" G. par. 6. 

Declined like ^jjp{ghord\ G. par. 9. 

^^^^^^r Short 473 

^ In N'agari characters. 

^B^ "< "^ 

■^^rr ^^^ ■^ ^ ^ 'iT^ ^'iT^ T^ffT^ f^ 

^ ^tX ^r^ wij^nc ^ H-^TXT ^ fVin wiff vt^ 

fW'RIT 5ifTT ^Vt *<M< ^HI'*" ^*'* fi'^^**l *'1l M.* 

^ ^?5j »f 9r^ -^ ■'sr^ ^ qj^ -^ 1^5 ^ 

faisti^ >^TTTT % ^J T^K\ mX W^ f^r^ % SRT^ f^^ 

f^fap^ ^^^^ 1 

r (^) for ^, two, or dusrl, second, rut;^/, story. ^^^^| 

A^mad (proper name), 

sath, with, in (his) 

/«f^, victory, H^l 

gjtltan, king, sultan, 


ma^muri M, of Mah- 

apiii, own, his own, 

kkilaya, given to eat, 


fauj, array. 


shikast, defeat. 

ftS, to. 

karta, makes. 

Logdn'7ie, people. 

tnoA, month, 

aur, and. 

jmchka, asked, in- 

ha-mah, by month. 

ma/imud (proper name) 


darmaha, monthly pay, 

ruUan, king, sultan, 

w-Ao, oftbis. 

diya, given. 

us'kc, of that, 

kyU, what ? 

*ar/a, makes, 

bitaks, on the con- 

*aftai, cause, reason. 

aur, and, 


Kiii, some one, 

a;»ic, own, his own, 

karta, does, practises. 

Ke (particle), 

laahkar, army, 

Ek. one. 

jawab, answer, 

K, of, 

din, day, 

diya, gave, given. 

aardaroa, chiefs, ofB- 

«n, them, 

H, that. 


men, in, between. 

jM-fte, of whom. 

Ji5, to, 

iira7, fight, battle, 

iRgh, caldron, pot, 

donon, the two, both, 

kul, became ; 

jia-k't, his, of him. 

Kakt, time, times. 

ahmad kl, of Ahmad, 

tegh, sword. ^^H 


474 Short Stories. 

Ahmad Sultan makes given (makes a practice of giving) to his 
army, month by month, (its) monthly pay ; and, to the officers of his 
army, at both times (of eating in the day), he makes given to eat 
(makes a practice of giving to eat) : and, Mahmud Sultan practises 
the contrary of that. One day, a battle became (took place) between 
them ; the victory became Ahmad's, the defeat Mahmud's. People 
asked, (saying) what is the cause of this? Some one gave ansveer, 
(saying) that, *' of whom is the caldron, of him is the sword.'* 

Grammatical analysis. 

Do, a noun of number^ : dusri, an ordinal of number,^ fem. sing, 
agreeing with nakl, s. f. nom. case sing. 

Ahmadj n. prop. mas. nom. case, sing. : sultan^ s. m. nom. case 
sing, governing the verb: apnt, pron. common or reflective,^ gen. 
case fem. agreeing with faty, s. f. dat. case sing, governed by ko,^ 
a simple postposition : mah, s. m. followed by ba-mah, a prepos. with 
the foregoing noun repeated in the Persian construction :^ darmaha^ 
s. m. nom. case sing, though the object of the verb : diya, past 
participle^ of the transitive verb (root dS), uninflected mas. sing. : 
karta, pres. participle or pres. indef. tense,* third pers. mas. sing, 
(root kar), forming with the preceding part, a compound frequentative 
verb: aur, conj.: apne, pron. common or reflective,^^ gen. case 
mas. inflected to agree with lashkar, s. m. gen. case sing, governed 
by ke, a simple postpos. mas. agreeing with sardaron, s. m. dat. case 
plur. governed by kb, a simple postpos. : donon, a numeral, do with 

^ G. par. 38. ^ G. par. 39. 

Declined like \s^\j (raja), G. par. 9. G. par. 15. 

^ Declined like tZ^b (bat\ G. par. 9. ^ G. par. 6. 

7 8 ^ 

G. par. 8. G. par. 20, c. G. par. 24. 

G. par. 28, Frequentalives. G. par. 15. 

Short Stories. 475 

the plural affix : wakt, »• m. sing, governed by some postpos. un- 
derstood : sath, s. m. governed by a postpps. understood, and here 
used as an adverb : kkilaya, past part. mas. uninflected sing, (root 
khiH which is a causal of kha) :^ karta, v. a. pres. indef. tense/ 
third pers. mas. sing, (root kar), forming with the preceding part, a 
compound frequentative verb :^ aur, conj.: mahmud, n. prop. mas. 
nom. case sing. : stdtan, s. m. nom. case sing, governing the verb : 
us'ke, pron. of the third pers. gen. case sing.^ the affixed postpos. ke 
being mas. inflected to agree with birl-aks, an Arabic preposition followed 
by the article with a noun/ used here adverbially : karta, v. a. pres. 
indef. tense third pers. mas.sing. (root ^r), governed by mahmud suUan. 
JEk, noun of number : din, s. m. sing, governed by a postpos. un- 
derstood:^^ un, pron. third pers. or remote demonstrative^ abl. case 
plur. governed by mhi,^^ a simple postpos. governing the abl. case : 
laral, s. f.^^ nom. case sing, governing Aul, v. n. past indef. tense^^ 
fem. sing, (root ho) : a/imadand mafimud, n. prop. gen. case, governed 
by kl, a simple postpos. fem. to agree with the subsequent noun : 
fathj 8. f.^ nom. case sing, governing hul, v. n. past indef. tense 
fem. sing, (root ho) : shikast, s. f.^^ nom. case sing, governing hul 
understood. Logon, s. m. plur.^^ (from log) inflected by reason of 
the following he,^^ a particle : puchha, v. a. past indef. tense/^ third 

^ G. par. 10. * G. par. 57. ^ G. par. 35, 34. 

* G. par. 20. ^ G. par. 27. ^ G. par. 24, 21. 

^ G. par. 28. ® G. par. 15. ^ G. par. 8. 

G. par. 57. G. par. 15. G. par. 6. 

Formed from the verb lara^na; see G. par. 43 : and declined like 

ghofi^ G^ par. 9* G. par. 23, and 20, c. ; hu^t being the 

fem. of Ati*a. ^^ Declined like C^'l (da/), G. par. 9. 

Declined like \p^\j (raja)y G. par. 9. G. par. 72. 
^^ G. par. 23, 20. 

476 Short Stories. 

pere. mas. sing, (root puchh), preceded by we and govemed by the 
subsequent sentence: is-ka, pron. proximate demonstrative^ gen. 
case sing, governed by the afiixed ka, simple postpos. mas. un- 
inflectedi and agreeing vnth the following noun : kya, pron. interrog. 
nom. case :^ sdbab, s. m. nom. sing, governing the verb substantive, 
haif^ pres. tense third perscxi sing, understood. JSTui-ne, pron. in- 
definite, (nom. kol)^ inflected by reason of Ae affixed particle ne :^ 
jawSb, s. m. nom. sing, following nc, and therefore, though the 
object of the sentence, governing the verb : diya, v. a. past inde . 
tense,^ third pers. mas. smg. (root de): ki, conj.: jis-la, proa, 
relative,^ gen. case sing, with the governing postpos. ki,^ fem. to agree 
with d^ght 8* f*^^ govenung the verb subst. hai, pres. tense third pers. 
811^. understood : n^K, pron. third pers.^^ gen. case sing, with the 
ailixed postpos* K, facn. to agree vrith tegh. s. £^^ nom. sing, govern- 
ing the verb sutet kmi understood, as before explained. 


'(;.,mr. 15. *G.par.6. ^ G. par. 15. 

( i . pur. 3«. G. par. 15. ^ Q. par. 23, note, and par. 72. 

Ui. pur. 23 and 20. « G. par. 15. •' G. par. 6. 

"' ^*"'"""^ '"'^' ^V {but), G, par. 9. " G. par. 15. 

Short Stories. 


In Nagari Characters. 

j{^^ ^fiA% ?p1ir Twril ^nt TT ^ ^tz" ^wnn" 


r (^) for fin, three, or ttsriy third, 

-Do, two, 

sipahl, soldier, soldiers, 

apas-men, among them- 

Msl, some, a, 
shahr, city, 
ke, of, 

kuche, lane, street, 
men, in, among, 
^ijinajangt, quarrel, 

kar, having made, 
rahe, remained, 
thBj were. 
Ek, one, a, 
juHha, weaver, 
yih, this, 

Jah/abar, news, report, 
^ntS, hearmg (on), 

Ai, very, exactly, 
apne, his own, 
kargah, work-place, 

se, from, 
uth, rising, 
kar, having made, 
us, that, 
aya, came, 
aur, and, 

tomo^Aa, sight, sport, 
dikhtie, to see, look at, 
laga, was applied, 

^axakar, by chance, 
talwar, sword, 
JO, which, when, 
dusre fte, of the other, 
sir se, from the head. 

nakl, story. 

ticAft, slipped, glanced, 
to, then, 

julahe fte,of the weaver, 
a, having come, 
iagt, was applied, 

Masai, proverb : 
kargah, woik-shop, 
chhor, having left, 
tamashe, (to) the sight, 

ja^e, may go, 00 goes, 
na, not, un-, in-, 
^akk, right, just, 
chot, blow, hurt,wound, 
khffe, may suffer, 

(then) gets. 

Two soldiers had remained making a rout (or quarrelling) in the 
Btreet of some city. A weaver, immediately on hearing this report^ 
having risen Irom his work-shop, came into that street, and began to 
look at the sight. By chance, a sword, which glanced from the bead 
of the other (soldier), reached the weaver's (head). Proverb: having 
left the work-shop, the weaver goes (to) the sport, unjustly (without 
deserving it) a blow he suffers (or gets). 

GTammaticat analysis. 

Tliij noun of number : tlsrl, ordinal of number,^ fem. agreeing J 
with ntt]cl, 3. f. nom. sing. 

Do, noun of number: sipahi, s. m. nom. sing, or plur. derived 
from sipah by affixing ?, and governing the verb : apas-men, pron. 
common or reflective, abl. case :^ kisi, pron. indef. (nom. ko'i),^ 
inflected to agree with shafir, 6. m. gen case sing, governed by lu, i 
a simple postpos. mas. inflected to agree with kuche, s. m. abl. case ' 
sing. (nom. kucha) governed by vieii, a simple postpos.: Muma, 
8. m. nom. case sing. : jang-i derived from jang (battle, fight), 
khoTiajang-t being an abstract noun, formed in the Persian way, by 
adding f to fd^na-jang (house-quarreller), fem. nom. sing. : kar, 
V. a. root^ or past conjunctive participle:^ rahl, past participle,'" 
mas. plur. (root rah), agreeing with sipahi: the, verb, subst." past 
tense mas. plur. governed by sipahi : rake the, moreoverj may be 
regarded as the pluperfect or past past tense^" of rah, v. u. £k, 
noun of number used as an indefinite article :j'u/aAa, s. m. nom.'sing.^ 

' G. par. 38. 

^Declined like l>.1^ (.rqja), G. par. 9. 

^ G. par. 15 and 6. 

'G. par. 43. ^ G. par. 18. 

" G. par. 20. " G. par. 32. 

" Declined like ^jj^ ishora), G. par. 9. 

governing the verb: yik, pron. prox. demonetrative, nom. sing, 
itgreeing with kJutiar, s. f. nom, sing/ though the object to sunte, 
pres, part. mas. sing, inflected (root suti) : hi, adv. of peculiarity : 
apne, pron. com. or reflective, gen. sing. mas. inflected to agree with 
kargak, s. m. abl. case sing, governed by se, postpos. : utk-kar, past 
conjunctive part, (root ut/i): ns, pron. remote demonstrative sing. 
inSected (from wuk) tofcgree vrilh kuche-men, s. m. abl, mng, (nom. 
kucha), governed by men, postpos. : aya, v. n. past indef, tense, 
third pera, mas. sing, (root a), governed by julaha : aur, conj.: 
tamatha, s, m. nom. sing, though denoting the object of the sentence: 
^khtu, V. a. infin.' mas. (root dekh), inflected before lagd, v. n. past 
indef.^ (root lag), third pers. mas. sing, forming, with dek/tne pre- 
ceding, a compound inceptive verb :' ^asdkar, adv. : talicar, s. f, 
nom. sing, governing the verb: jo, pron. relative, nom. case, or 
adv.^" diisre-ke, ordinal of number'^ or adj. used substantively, gen. 
mas. sing, governed by ke, poetpos. : sir'Se, s. m. abl. sing. : ucAti, 
v. n. past indef.*' fern. sing, (root uchat), governed by taltcar: to, 
adv.^" correlative to jo preceding : julahe ke, s, m. gen. sing, some 
postpos. or noun being understood after it: a, v. n. root or past 
conjunct, participle : ^ lagi, v. n. past indef.'* third pers. fem. sing. 
(root lag) governed by ta,lwaT. Masai, s. f. nom. sing, used ab- 
solutely : chhor, V. a. root or past conjunct, participle : tamashe, s. m. 
sing, inflected by reason of some postpos. understood : ja'e, v. n, 
(iit. indef, or aoriet*^ (root^a), third person sing, governed by julaha 

* Declined like .^fs^ (jag aft), 0. par. 9. 
^ G. par. 74. * G. per. 35. 

^G. par. 23. ^ G. par. 19. 

' G. par. 28. " G. par. 35. 

'*f;.par,43. " G. par. 18, 22. 

"g. par, 57. **G.par.25. 

' G. par. 21. 

* G. par. 22. 

** G. par. 93. 

par. 39. 

G . par. 23. 



Short StoTie$» 

underatood : m^ adv. fonmog, with bahkf ^* >n. foUowing, a Pornan 
compound adjective: ckoif s. f. nom* sing, thoii^h the object of 
klia% V. a. fut iodef. or aorist^ (root kha) third pers. aog. governed 

J5i P 

^ CO 


/» Nagari characters. 

^niTT % ^^fw % "5^ f^nen* f% ^piuh i?irn[ ^um 

^ftr ^hr t^ ^^Tii ^n^ i 

^ (8) for cA5r, four, or chauthJ, fourth, nakl, story. 

Akhar ne, Akbar, 

Btrbalsey from BTrbal, 

puchha, asked, 

ki, that, 

laral Ac, of battle. 

t£7aA:^, (at) the time, 
ki/a, what ? 
iaw, action, use (to), 
dta haij coming is. 
Btrbal ne, BTrbal, 

arZy representation, 
kiya, made, 
jahan, world, 
panah, protection, 
ai«an,presenceofmind . 

G. par. 48. 

G. par. 25. 

Short Stories. 


Badihah tie, the king, 
kaha, said, 
haihyoTy arms, 
oMTy and, 
zbr^ strength, 
kyun, why? how? 

nahtUy not, 

kahtif (art thou) say- 

Agar, if, 

khatiy error, fault 

Ad jawe, should be- 
to, then, 
kis, what? 

kam, action, use (to), 
awe, would come. 

Akbar ask^d of Birbal, (saying) that, at the time of battle what 
comes (of most) use ? BTrbal (humbly) made representation (saying) 
that, world-protection ! (your Majesty !) presence of mind (or cou- 
rage). The king said, why sayest (thou) not, arms and strength? 
BTrbal replied, your Majesty ! if presence of mmd (or courage) should 
become wanting, then of what use would come (or be) arms and 

Grammatical analysis, 

Char^ noun of number :^ chauthS, ordinal of number^ fem. agreeing 
with nakl, s. f. nom. sing. 

Akbar, n. prop, denoting the agent or subject of the sentence, and 
followed by ne, a particle : birbal, n. prop. abl. case sing, governed 
by se, a postposition : puchha, v. a. past indef. tense,^ third pers. 
smg. mas. (root pOchh), the following sentence being the object: ki, 
conj.: laral, s. f. being an abstract noun derived from the root lar 
(fight) or lara (cause to fight), gen. case sing, governed by ke, a 
postpos. mas. inflected to agree with wakt, s. m. sing, governed 
by a postpos. understood: kya, pron. interrogative, nom. case 
governing the verb: kam, s. m. sing, governed by some postpos. 
understood :^ ata hai, v. n. present definite tense,^ third pers. sing. 

^ G. par. 38. 
G. par. 23, note, and par. 72. 


G. par. 43. 
^ G. par. 24, ft. 

* G. par. 39. 

* G . par. 23. 
G. par. 57. 


482 Skart Storm. 

mas. (root a). JBirbal ne, n. prop, denoting the agent or snlgeet of 
the sentence, and followed by kS, a particle:^ arn, s. f. nonu amg^ 
but here it is .nsed as fonningy with the subsequent Teib^ a nominal 
ccHnpound verb* (art kama) : kiya, ▼. a. past indef.^ third peltk mas. 
sing, (root kar), the following sentemce bong the object: JakSn, a. 
forming, with panah, s,, a Persian compound in the voc case: amtim, 
s. m. nom. sing, answering to the prenous interrogation, and govern- 
ing the verb ata hai understood. BadiUUk ni, s. m. sing, denoting 
the agent or subject, with aS, a jpartide:^ kaha, v. a. past ind^^ 
third pars. mas. nng. (root kak), the following sentence being the 
object : katkySr, s. m. nom. sing. : aSr, s. m. nom« sing. : kjfuA, adv. 
of interrogation^ formed fiom the interrogative pronoun:^ naUSn^ 
emphatic adveib of negatkm :^ kalUa, v. a. pres. indef. tense,^ second 
pers. mas. sing, (root kak\ agredng with Sirbal understood. Agar, 
conj. conditional :^ Mo^ s. £ nom. nng. forming, with kS or koya^ 
a nominal compound verb :' kojSwe, an intensive compound verb 
neuter, future indef. or aorist,^^ third pen. sing, governed by amtSm : 
io, adv. omsequential to agar or j8 :^ Hs, pron. interrog. inflected 
from kaun^^ to agree with lum, s. m. sing, gov^ed by some postpos. 
understood : ^ awe, v. n. fut. indeC or aorist,^^ third pers. sing, (root 
a), governed by hathyar aur zor. 

G. par. 23, note, and par. 7% G. par. 28. 

G.. par. 23, and 20, c. G. par. 23. G. par. 35. 

£• 0m A _ 

G. par. 35. G. par. 24. G. par. 36 and 79. 

G. par. 28. ^^ G. par. 25. ^^ G. par. 15. 
G. par. 57. 


Short Stories. 


JSJ b 

o o ^ 


Jn Nagari characters. 

inft'T* <\«^*i*< ^^ ^ T^ ^8jT^ ^ ^?rr%* wfti ;g<i*i 

6 (^) for panch, five, or i^ancAtotiiy fifth, na^l, story. 

JSTamt nZy low-bred, 
ftAaS, good| well-bred, 
admif yan, 
i/7a«, poverty, 
dosfff firiendship, 
hu% became. 
Daulat-mandf rich, 
hoie, (on) becoming, 
hi J very, exactly, 

no/ift, noble, 
zade, bom, 
anklien, eyes, 
2aga, was applied, 
cAuranS, to steal. 
Tab, then, 

umA, he, that (per- 

hokar, having become, 
boH, spoke, said, 
sach, true, 
hai, is, (it) is, 
jaisl, what-like, as, 
balu, sand, 
kt, of, 
bhlt, wall. 

khafa^ tmgry, offended. 

With a low-bred and a well-bred man in poverty firiendship became 
(took place). (On) becoming rich exactly (immediately), the low- 
bred (man) began to steal (turn away his) eyes fi'om the noble-bom 
(man). Then he, having become offended, spoke (saying) this is true, 
''the firiendship of the low-bred (the base man) is like a wall of 

Short Slona. 

Grammatical Analysis. 
Panch, noun of number : panchuTtn, ordinal of numb. fem. 
Ek, noon of number, nsed as the indefinite article : kamine, adj. 
mas. sing. abl. case^ (nom. kamlna), agreeing with admi understood : 
aur. conj. ; bhate, adj. mas. sing. abl. case (nom. bkala), agreeing 
with admi, s. m. abl. Biog-i governed by si, postpos. : ijias, s. m. 
abl. eing., governed by mhi, postpos. : dxistl, s. f. aom. sing. (b«ng 
an abstract noun formed from dost, friend, by subjoining i), govern- 
ing hul, V. n. past indef. tenae, third pers. fem. sing, (root ho), 
governed by dasd. Kamtna, adj. mas. nom. sing., used subatan- 
tiveiy, governing the verb: daulat-mand, adj. (formed from Aiulat, 
riches, by affixing martd), nom. eing. mas., agreeing with kamtna, or 
the substantive understood : ImH, v. n. pres. part, mas. sing, (root 
ho), inflected and followed by Ai, adv. of pecuharity or identity: 
najtb, adj. used substantively, and compounded with the following 
zade, adj. mas. sing. abl. case, here used substantively, and governed 
by se, postpos. : dnkhm, s. f. nom. plur. (from ankh), " the object to 
the verb churane : laga, v. n. past indef. tense (root lag), third 
pers. mas. sing., goveraed by kamtna: churane, v. a. (Jwing a 

deiivative from ckor, thief), infin. 

, (root chura), form 

with the preceding word, the compound inceptive, lagd churane.^ 
Tab, adv. : tDuh, pron. third pers. ' nom. sing., governing the verb : 
khafa, adj. nom. mas. sing., agreeing with bkala admi understood: 

' G. par. as. ' DecHoed like »MJ (fianda), G. par. B. 

^ Declined like li^t; (r^a), G. par. 9. * Declined like ^^JJj/ 

(g*ori), G. par. 9. '"' G. par. 43. ^ G. par. 23 and fO, 

' G. par. 48. ^ G. par. 21. ^ G. par. S5 and 74. 

*" Declined like ULj\i (bat), G. par. S. " G. p«r. 23 and 40. ■ 

" G. par. SO. " G. par. «8. '* G. par. Si- 

G. par. 16. Not admitting of inflection : see G. par. 4, «. ' 



Short Stories. 486 

hokoTf V. n. past conjunctive part.^ (root Ko) : tSUy y. n. past 
indef. tense (root hdt)y third pers. mas, sing, governed by vmh^ and 
agreeing with bhala adrni understood : yih, pron. proximate demon- 
strative, nop. sing, govemmg the verb : sack, adj. nom. sing, agree- 
ing with yih : hai, verb subst.^ pres. tense, third pers. sing. : karnine^ 
adj. gen. sing. mas. used substantively, and governed by Ai, postpos. 
fern, agreeing with dostl, s. f. nom. sing, governing the subst. verb hai 
understood : jaisJ, adj. fem. sing, derived from the relative pronoun/ 
and agreeing with bhit : ba&f s. m. gen. sing, governed by kJ, postpos. 
fem., agreeing with bhlt, s. f.^ nom. sing, governing hai understood. 

f o 

irf>^ U^ ]j^ Ji^ L>r Jy s?** c;s- «^^ '^y m!)?- ^ vi>^ 

//CO -» / -^ 

t/r>^ «-^ '^"^V W^ W. *^ tt)^ ^^ v«J jLh va^ ]5- u^, j^ 

In Nagari characters. 

v[^([^ ^kKj 'TOT 4i^s(i^ ▼*?! ^'^ 'sn'T ^iIVt 'nt^' 

^ G. par. 22. ^ G. par. 23 and 20. ^ G. par. 15. 

G. par. 32. G. par. 14. 

par. 32. It. par. 

Declined like C-^b (da/), G. par. 9. 

Short Stories. 


V (^) for M/, 

seven, or satwln, seventh, na^l, story. 

Din, day, 

aurat, woman, 

saltanat, empire, sove- 

iio«Atru7an, n. prop. 

maut, death (s. f.)i 


jahan, ^orld, 

tiajat, necessity (s. f.). 

tujhe,^^ to thee. 

sab, all, 

KytMkar^ why? how ? 

pahunchtt^ amves. 

cAiz, thbg, 

Na?hott,^ (if) exists 


par, on, over, 


tcre^^ of thee, thy. 

mukaddam, prior, ex- 

/5,^ then, 

samhne,^^ (in) front. 


kahan^ where ? 



paida, produced, bom. 

khara, standing. 

I>iy^? given, (he) 

Adta,^ becomest ; 

rahta,^ remain. 


cUi A 

rl; V4» ^^r^J^y^y' ^li \^ J J ^> il^J 

/ <• / -- o 

' ^^ / 

^ o 

erf y *ey^ i/ ^/? V s* 4/-< ^ J^ ^ ^^ ^;? ^3i -^* -^^ ^ 

A celebrated king of Persia, ' G. par, 32. 

^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. ^ G. par. 35. 

The simple adverb of negation : G. par. 35. 
^ G. par. 24, and 21. 
The consequential conjunction : G. par. 
G. par. 35. ^ G. par. 24 and 21. 


G. par. 15 and 16. 

par. 36 and 79. 

G. par. 15. 


G. par. 34. 

V* ^jS J ,jp-/ w^ i^" */^ iji V 1^ V l^, y tip^ ij* '^'V cA 

/n NagaH characters. 

^ ^TTWT ^ gr^ t™ %TT %^ frt ^IT^ ^T^T % ^ J 

^W ITT ^9 % V^ <K(tll ^ ^^ ^^^ T'^ SFTflT %| 

?i wt wr wtfTT w ^nn" f%^ '^ri; ^ ^w ^ ^ ^ ^iTiHirl 
^ ^ qrra ^^ f%T TT^ ^T^ g^ ^fr 'tt^ ^^ ^^rftl 

^Vt 5^ TT ^TT^T T ^rZT T^ WT '^^\^ ^(TT T^ 1 
'^ (^) for nfA, eight, or at/mm, eighth, nakl, story. 

Kayath, name of a 

ghulam, slave, 

donori, the two, both, tliej were. 

^^r, house, i.ala, the master, 

sote^ sleeping, | ram-c/iira,' 

' G. par. 10. 'G.par. 41. 

G. par. tl ; and sote the may be regarded at the present pait or 1 
imperfect ten*f> G. par. 24, a, 
Uninfiected, though acted upon by n? : we G. par. 5, and 4, a. 
Lit. ilave of Rama, a term uaed in calling tn a ilavd. 

Short Stories. 


dekh^ see, look. 

janta^ knowing. 

tefoK,^^ handled, felt. 


tOf then, indeed. 


M5,^^ was ; 

pani^ water^ 

Tain^ thou. 

ftAtgi, w^. 

iarasta^ raining. 

para^^ fallen, lying 

Vhiragh. lamp. 

Aof, is. 


bujka^^ extinguish. 

yo,* or. 

sota hai, art sleeping. 

»- 18 • 

a5, give. 

khul^ having opened, 

£i7^, the cat. 

MtMij face, mouth, 

gaya^ (it) is gone. 

57,^^ come, 

dhamp-ke^^ having co- 

Uj^^ne^ he. 

Mi,^* was. 



tM-Ao, it, to it. 

«5,^ sleep, 

idre^f manner (in),^ 

mdii^'ne^ I, 

raho^ remain ; 

A mas. noun, though terminating 
^ G. par. 21. 

^ G. par. 26, and 18. 

in t: G. par. 2, a. 

* G. par. 32. * G. par. 36. 

Root of the verb, compounded with gaya^ past tense of ja: 

G. par. 28 ; also, par. 23, and 20, e. G. par. 1 5. 

G. par. 23, note, and par. 72* G. par. 57. 

Janti'haiy pres. def. tense of jan^ know, third pers. mas. sfng. : 

see G. par. 24, h. ^^ G. par. 20. 

Pres. def. tense (root «o), third pers. mas. sing. ; see G. par. 24, b. 

Past part. fem. sing, (root a) agreeing with btlH, 

AJt thtj pluperfect tense, third pers. fem. sing. ; see G. par. 23, a. 

G. par. 20. G. par. 32; tatola thoy pluperfect 

tense (root tatot), third pers. mas. sing. : see G. par. 23, a. 

A transitive or causal verb, from hujh ; see G • par. 27. 

6* par. 26 : h%^ha de^ however, may be considered a compound 

intensive verb ; see G. par. 28. 

G. par. 18. 

G. par. 26 : but so raho may be accounted a compound intensive 

verb ; see G. par. 28. 

3 R 


^ G. par. 22. 



Short Stories. 

andhera, dark. 

jt:^ life, master. Sir, 

aisaj this-like, so. 

liO'ja'ega,^ (it) will 

£25, two. 

hujjaii, disputations. 


kam, thing, business. 

sust, lazy^ 

Phir, again. 

ham^'hCf we. 

a^r, at last. 

darwaza, door. 

kiye,^ done, have 

utha,^ rose, got up. 

band, fastened, shut, 


para para, continuing. 

har, make, having 

turn, you. 

laid down. 


hard, do. 

deta,^^ giving. 

BhaiyoLy brother, com- 

gharazy in fthort, 

raha^ (he) remained. 


J*i 1 

Fut. tense, third pers. mas. sing, of the comp. intensive root, hd-ja ; 

see G. par. 28, and 25. 


The root, G. par. 18, or the past conjunct, participle, G. par. 22. 
Much used afler appellatives, in a benedictive or auspicious sense ; 
unless it be from Turkish, or some other language, in the sense of 


G. par. 15 ; the plur. of main, often applied, aa in this instance, to 

a single person. 
^ G. par. 23, and 20, c. ^ G. par. 26. '^ G. par. 14. 

Formed from hujjaly by affixing t ; see G. par. 48. 

9 ^ ^^ 1 10 

G. par. 23, and 20. 

G. par. 21 

Short Stones. 491 

/n JVagari characters. 

■^T if T?i^ ^r^ TT^ w n^ ^3^ ^r?r ■^r^r^ fl?>n*;T<i 

ara^ gr^ $ qriT ^^ ^r?f ^Tf w^ ^r^rr «^>ir m 
WTTTTT ^r^ flif^ ^fi^ f%^ f% ^'n: »srT^: ^ ^iT ttV 

1 ('-) for nau, nine, or namolii, ninth, nakl, story. 
Musulman, a Mahom- /a/awc,sucha,acertain, dawd, medicine, 

medan, Itak'im, physician, la, bring. 

himar, sick, ill, ^as, to the side, near, Skayad, may be, per- 

gkulam, slave, servant, jakar,* having gone, haps, 

' G. par. 22. 

A Fein, nouii} ending in a; G. par. % note. 

■* G. par. 18, and 20. 


jf / life : master^ Sir, 
i^-walct^ this time (at), 
ghar men, house in, 
na-howeri^ may not be. 
Hongt^ (tliey) will be. 

fif go. 
Toby then, 

agoTy if, 

mulaf:at, meeting, 

bht,^ even, also, 

Aotr?, should be, 

S/:in, but, yet, 

?ia-dHn^ O^cy) should 

not give. 

Tady then, 

rte&'a, note, letter, 

hamara,' of us, 

SAor/ Stories. 

leja^ take, 
albatta, certainly, 
d2iig«,*(ihey) will give. 
Phir, again, 
jo, which, when, 
unhSn ni, they, 
faUday benefit, 
na-kare, (it) should 

not make, 
^i," O ! 

kamrbaMu, vnretch, 
yafuiiy here, 
baiiha, seated, 
tamhtdeAy preambles, 

bandhiy bound. 

karega,^^ wilt (thou) 

Jia, or, 
ja*ega,^ wilt (ihou) go ? 
Sa^y master. Sir, 
farzl obligation, 
kiya,^ made, done, 
hasil, the gain, result, 
akhiTf at last, 
ek-din, (on) one day, 
nuxma, to die, dying, 
(or fia^i, on right, on 

(one's) lot, 
jaua^^ what-like, as, 
ah^^ now, 

mare,^ (one) should die. 
taisa,^^ that-hke, so. 

Governed by some postpos. understood : 


Much used after appellatives, as noticed under the eighth story. 
G. par. 15. 
see G. par. 57. G. par. 25. '^ The adv. even, also. 

Conjunction ; see G. par. 36. 
The plural in the first person substituted for the singular : G. par. 15) & 65. 

A compound intensive verb ; G. par. 28. 
G. par. 15, 16, and 65. G. par. 23, and 20, c. a. 

G. par. 7. ^^ G. par. 48. 


A transitive or causal verb, formed from bandhy be bound ; G. par. 27, a. 
Forming, with the preceding past participle, a compound fre- 
quentative verb ; G. par. 28. 
G. par. 20, c. And farz kitfa should be regarded as a compound 
nominal verb, G. par. 28, in the sense of ^' granted," or ^^ admitted." 


G. par. 14. 


G. par. 35. 

Short Storiei. 


Jii 1* 

c / 

c# c 

^^ I-UkjJ jjj^ ^^ ^^ ^ i/}*^yr ^.- <f V" UP- 

Jn Nagari characters. 

^^ TT?! 1 ^1^ f^ fl^ ^RT f% If T^ (^ if ^ f% 
^ ^ 1T^ % ^^ f^rft '^Ftf ^^T?rT % I 

1 * (\^) for dotf, ten, or daswtn, tenth, naij:/, story. 

Lafke, boy, 
Tuifipat, instruction, 
M/ made, 
b(^d,^ after. 

i»-AS, that, 

fi fi? w^t what, 

sabf all. 

samjha, understood ? 
Sola, (he) spoke, 

Alh tak, till now, 

Past participle, or past indef. tense (root kar\ feni. sing, governed 
by the nom. sing. fern, precedmg : 6. par. 20, a. c, and par. 23, with 

the note. 


6. par. 15, note to page 27. 
6. par. 35. 

G. par. 34« 
^ 6. par. 20, and 23 
G. par. 34« 


kaharij where? 
jo^ when, 

suvi^ heard, beard- 

Short Stariesi, 

Kdkke laga, began to 

fikr, thought, 
mefA, peg, nail. 

garie, drinng down, 
mtf ft, eardu 
kaun, who? 



ja W 

CO ^ o o ^ o/ 

c c c/ 

c# c 

j^jj^T ^1 4 fcl^' 1>^ / c*?^"^ */i^ ^J^^ Jj/e^ W'> v^^j *^^ 

/» Nagari characters. 

G. par. 35. 
Past indef. tense (root sun)^ fern. sing, governed by bat^ s. f. pre- 
ceding : see G. par. 23^ note, and par. 72. 
A compound inceptive verb : see G. par. 28. 
Pres. participle, mas. plur. governed by some such noun as tog^ 
people, understood. 


G. par. 15. 
A compound intensive verb, formed by the addition of jaia^ going? 
to the root /c, take ; see G. par. 28. 

Short Stories. 495 

^^ 1J^ aft xtH ^H Fm ^TTT ^fM^ ^fTT 1?:^ Tt3T^^ 

grr ^ ■?^: trtt ^t^ ^ ^IT rj^ ■^V^ ^r^ ^V^r^ 


H (XX) for igarah, eleven, 

£af e, great, 
admtf man, * 

^Ao, custom, habit, 
jab, when, 
nau/caron, servaols, 
par, on, at, over, 
tAq/5, angry, offeoded. 
Ao^a, becomes, 
unheJ't, them, 
AAii&, good, well, 
iRor^a, stiilces, beats. 
Phvr, ^aiD, then, 

igarato/n, eleventh, na^^, story, 

6aV, after, 
t^char, two(or)fc 
gharl^ (a division of 

time BO called), 
Aaf, every, each, 
pdnchpanck, five, five, 
sat sat, seven, seven, 

rupiye, rupees, 
deta, (he) gives. 
Roz, day, 
uah, those, 
turn, ye, you. 

jo, who, which, 
hamesha, always, 
khate, eating, suffering, 
tumheji, to you, 
aur, other, else, 
kahin, somewhere, 
naukarl, service, 
no- Air, not, 
millt, is met with, is 

bol, having spoken, 
utha, rose, 

1 luch indefinile expressions of number, it is usual lo say, two 

(or) fouf)" where the English would say two or three." 

A space of twenty four minutes. 

1 D distributive sense; see G. par. 41 : so, punch punch, each, 

five, &c." 

*The pronoun aapiraled; see G. par. 16. 


dudhelf milch, 
ga% cow, 
Jdi^ kick, kicks, 
hhalif good. 

Sh€Tt Stories. 
ya^ii€,&BimexaiB, that 


dudh-wali, milk-ha7- 

, bed. 


shduld not 

js \r 


o ^ ^ 

/ti Nagari characters. 

A feminine noun, which, though used here in a plural sense, does 
not take the plural form, because it is preceded by a numeral : G. par. 61. 

A verb, indef. fut. or aorist, third pers. sing, (root man)^ with the 
simple adv. of negation prefixed ; and, the nom. case understood, which 
may be such word as Aro'i, any one. 

Short Stories. 497 

w^ffpi WT^TTT? 'p) f^^pr ^* ^TTT tjrf^< ^ ^^ irrt: 
^ ■^^ntr (Ttw?: ««i*< wsn ^■ai "^ ^laft^ vwr ^tt 

^ ^TT ^ ^ITrft T^ ^rar^ % ^^ WS7I TT^ ^^T ^T 

ir C^"^) for barah 

twelve, or barahln, twelfth, nakl, story. 

Amir Tlmur, a. prop. 

^«rfAT(f.), blind. 

nam, name. 

/U7td, India, 

gayan, female singer, 

Daulat, fortune. 

flya, came. 

bar'i lassan, very good 

Bhi, even, also. 

togoA, people, 


JawaJdiyajCshe) gave 

ySri, thus. 

badskak, king, empe- 


jo, which, that, when, 


tiijh, thee. 

rag, music, 

Jdiidmat, service. 

langre, lame. 

lOiub, good, fine, 

an,^ having come, 

roBJ, satisfied, pleased, 

/lofa hai, is becoming, 

hizir, present, ready. 

i'n'lm, present, fiivour, 


.^isa,"^ this-like, so, 

ckahta, wishing, in- 

A-mT, some, 

gal, she sang, 


gawait/E-ko, singer, 

aunkar, having heard. 

us-se, from that, 

iuK'6, call, send for. 

bahut khmk, much 

chand,^ what quantity, 

mflMs««S»i,I may hear. 


as much. 

Tbe past conjunclive parliciple (root a), instead o? llie regular fonn; 

(7 .■ G. par. 22. 
From the demonslralive pron. y'th, tlii)', with the adjuiict, sa, lihi.' : 
G. par. 14, a. ' G. par. 41. 

3 s 

4W Sicrl Simu. 


tJ-> v" u)*' i^ ^'^ 1^1 ^^ elf" cr; '- 1^' s^ ur«- 1 
ij* iJ^ i^j sJr^ ^ i/-' V ^'■»'>; jf- 'if 'f' si y a!- /;■> 

/n NagaH charaeteri. 

V( ^ 

^V^ ^ ^iT^ 53^ "^TTr f% fftrr ^^ ^ TH wr %T ^ 
^ T[^ ^r^ ^(T ini Wr ^ '^^ ^t^ wtv ^ "Vtx 
^^frwr^ ^ iTTr ^ "^ f^r€t ^ ^ ^'^ gjT 'f^ f^ ^ 

^»R TVT § 'TOT m rR <fV ^77 (^ ^m Tm T^ ^ , 

if g^ wr f^r^^ vr^fT 'rar ^^^^r^ ^ft ^ ^ %i 
wiilt %^ ir^ ttt: Tj^ TTTf iHtjiiu I ^ni ^i^^ftr^ 

Short Stories. 


Vr (\^) for tm'ahy thirteen, or teramn, thirteenth, na(:l, story. 

Sarraf, money- lag, being applied, Unhon^'-he, they, 

changer, near, mushkefi bandh,^^ har- 

ashrafiyon^ ashrafees, chala, moved, went. ing tied his arms be- 

tora, a bag, 

liye^ having taken, 
jaia fhif was going. 

{Tire, him, it, that, 

dekh'kar, having seen, 

rahmar, footpad, 
ji, life, soul, 

lakhaya,'^ was tanta- 

jnehKS, in the rear, 

Tkori, little, 
dur, distance, 
joke, having gone, 
chaha, wished, at- 

ffii,^^ took, 
kotwal, magistrate, 
yahan^ to the abode, 
S, having taken (him), 

cAAtn,havingsnatched, chaU, moved, went. 

Uj he might take, 
tm-bainj interval, 
ka% some, 
Aa7 ekf some few, 
a-ga^e, came suddenly. 

Idhar, here, thither, 
gaya tha, wast gone, 
Aalf state, condition, 
s/ni, ihis-much, so 

^ Plural of athraftf a large gold coin so called. 

G. par. 22, note. 

Accut. or dat sing, from wuh : G. par. 15. 

Past indef. tense of the neuter verb, root lalchif apparently derived 

from Idlachy avarice : G. par. 30. 
Root of a verb, formings with the next following, a compound 
ioteniive ; G. par. 28 : or^ it may be regarded as an adv.; G. par. 35 
and 34. G. par. 25, a. 

A compound of two Arabic words, meaning '^ that which (is) between " 


A compound intensive verb : G. par. 28. 
G. par. 15 and 16. 
Muihken bandhnSj to fasten the elbows of a man behind him, to pimon. 
Past indef. fem. plur. (root lejj governed by mushkenj s. f. nom. plur. 


G. par. 34« 


G. par. 35. 


Fem. of itnu ; G. par. 50 ; and agreeing with der^ s. f. 


dcr^ delay, space of 

Idya^ done, hast done? 
bandha gaya, bound 

Wah-l,^ that very. 
Makkhl, a fly. 

jSkort Storieg* 

baiiht, seated, sat, 
B^hdrpar, honey-on, 
pankh, (its) wings, 
go^, went, continued, 
lipta% clinging : 
hath (its) hands, 

sir, bead, 

dhune,^ (it) may beat, 

lalach, avarice, 
bun, bad, 
balS^ (for bdlA), evil. 


i'XX' Ox' CO/ o/ eft ^^'"^ 

4 iof^ J 3^ jH ^.'^ -tr 4 ti)^ J *-Hj^ 4y j^^*^^^4 

«> o 

li!«^ ^j* CT* J^ S&^ y y ^ L5» -*i 
/n Nagari characters. 

f^ V^ ^ eft ^ fR^^ ^WRT^ ^;^ fhf ^[T^ 

^ G. par. 20, c. and 23. 


Passive voice, been bound; G. par. 31. 

Or SDfiA-fy the demonstrative pron. with the adv. of peculiarity, ?, affixed. 

Past part. plur. mas. of the neuter verb, lipta^ cling, stick. 

Fut. indef. or aorist, third pers. sing. 

The e seems here added, for the sake merely of rhyming with lipta'e. 

Short Stories. 


^R la; ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^"^'^ ^^^ ^ ^"^^^ ^''^ 
% fif la; 'IT ^ ^Vt If 'rf^: ^1 

\P (\8) for chaudah, fourteen, or chaudawin^ fourteenth, nakl, story. 

ShSir, poet, 

kuS, some, 

tawahgar, rich (man), 

to*r7f, praise, 

/?!, made; 

kuchh, any (thing), 

fuxrpaya, found (or got) 

J7o;d, satire; 

^au, then, 
bhl, also, even. 
Dusre, the second, 

roz, day (on), 
darwaze, door, 
^'a/r6, having gone, 
ftat/Aa, sat: 
at, O! 

na-diycLj gave not, 
aft, now, 
yahan, here, 
^r^ru (f.), desire, wish, 
mar, having died, 
l;««.V mayest go, 
mar^ya, elogy, 
kahun^ may say (or) 

ji} U 

^ o ^ • 

c oo 

c/ c 

i/^ *^' jij' serf* sJf>^ *^^ lU;i/-i» ^^ «U jIj ^JJ^ iM y^>iy^ 


.'^ o 

^ »b tt,^^ 4^^ Vjj M^^ ^^ ^>-* ^^ ^^ cyb ^ ^^ 4».j; i^ 

/n Nagari characters. 


Iff T^ <H^in T^ "i'T^I^ f'l*K" ^ ITt ^RT ^^ 

Mwr-jaaey a compound intensive verb ; tee G. par. 28. 
Fut. indef. or aorist^ fint pen. sing. : G. par. 25. 

'm 'S^ ?ra m^TTT? ^Vt it^^t^: ^^ ^^ ^i^ ^'t^ 

^ T?T TT^^f^ ^ ^rT»V TC VT f^ ^^ ^^ TT^lTTT 

^TTfi g^ ■ft *<^^< ^ gRT^ f^^T ^ ^r^Tf xfsrr^ ^f^ 


l6 C^'*>) forpanrfraA, fifteen, ot pandrahwtn, fifleeDth, najt/, story. 
Jfo*,' with, along lubade, outer coat, /armaya/commanded, 

thahzade, pnnce, 
shikdTy huntiDg. 
Hawa, (9. f.) air, 
garm, warm, hot, 
(Rno, both, the two, 
apne apne," each his, 

lubade, outer coat, 
maskhare. buffoon, 
kand/te, shoulder, 
dhar, having placed, 
dii/e, gave. 
Bt^d vske, after that, 
hanskar, having 

upar, over, upon, 
gadhc, asB, 
bojh, load. 
Jahdn-panah, worlcU 

protection ! 
balki, but, moreover. 

jAi n 

An Arabic prepoutioni cBuitng the following noun to be inflecled. 

' G. par. 10. 

By ihe repelillon here individuality n denoled : G. par. 83. 

Vavd reBpeclfully instead of kaha, at applied to a king. 

Addressed to a lovereign, like as *' your Mujcsly " is often applied in 


Short Sloriet. , 603 

/« NagOTi characters. 
Tf^ ir^^ f%^ ^'^tW § ^V^ T^TTT m Tl^f Tt^ '^f't 

^^^ § ^T^ fir TR ^ ^T^ gft «iT?rT ^ ^^ li^ 'rS 
^ ftr 9f "3% ^T^ t:^ ■^whc 'ra '^ T\ 'T^ <5^ ^tt ^ 
ft^ ^^ra *i*ql'ff »? 5»J*<,' ^SRT^ f^^ fir ^TT^ (3; ^ 
■TRf T^T 'TT^yrr f ^ ^r (3^ •'sn^t T'nsit ^t^ ^Q*rr ?iw 
^ ^n^ *<"'ii ^Vt w%^ fir tf ^ ^«i*t <fV^ S ^^!^ 

11 ('*) for tolah, eixteen, or solahwin, sixteenth, na^l, story. 

Sha^, person, 

aath, (in) company, 

sunkar, having heard, 

iaM'/, miser, 


rakka chahta^ wish- 

i^ttl, friendsliip. 

rakMn, may bold. 

ing to keep. 



ungti, finger. 

^b, now. 

f/ad, memory. 

Man, empty, bare. 

Mofar, journey, 

tfad karuA, may re- 

diist, friend. 

aptii, thy own, thy, 


mangi, asked, 

ajigulhi, ring, 

Kalam, speech. 

na-di^ gave not. 

m«;Ae, to me, me, 

' A compound deiiderative verb, rakha chaknSi to wish kept, 
wish to keep : G. par. 98. 
'^Q.ia, a. c, and par. 33. 

^ Short Starirf. 


^^ »!_, ^^\^\ i^j tis^ \j j^ ,j^3 *-')' ■J •*'¥^ *^ ^y 
j^ !;*i o- uS wj* '^^ ^ ^- 1^ ^'' t!^: -^ Vi^ -jV / i^^l 

-? Jj<^ «-- .jl^ ^\ }Jf^\^ /X ^ J;y -\j, ^;V 

mjA 1>T ^U ,J!j ^^ <^ ^ tj;.^ c^,^t .^^ .i:.*^ ^1 Djj la^n 
/n Nc^ari Charactert. 
Tf^ fl'ftW 'rf^T ^ <T^ ^T^^ T*TT^ ^ aiMI ^ 

^( ^^ '^ITTJT \^^ ^ ftiTT ^Vt ^rfi ir: m ?JT^ 9 g*ifli^ I 
'inn" f^TT'T ^ 7M 9r^ ^V?: <4i^: ttT wt^ f% f^f^'FT | 

\ V ("'®) for satrah, seventeen, or satrahtDin, seventeen, na^l, story. 

Masjid, mosque, 
taraf, side, towards, 
waste, for the sake, 

namaz, prayer. 
rah, road, way. 

yad, memory (in), 
yad aya, came in n 

ckiragh, lamp, 
bujhakar, having put 

vjahak, there, 
phira, (he) turned 

darwaze, door, 
a, having come, 
lamUif slave girl, 



itni, this much, so 

juta, shoes. 
Aiclmand, wise, 

andesha, thought, care, 
nange, naked, bare, 

cried out, 
gitl kar, extinguish, 
mat, Qot, do not, 
k/tol, open, 
ki, because, 
ghiscga^ (it) will wear. 
Ai sahib, O master, 7>a'ori, feet (on), 

O Sir, I baghal, armpit, 

laya, brought, carried. 

■^TT 'i^ WT^ ^^ ^T^"< ^raqr^TT ■^Vt f%««r ^t^ 
^;^ ^^ hVt ^ ■'T'' ^^ ^ ^T^ ■^^ ^T^Tcrr? ir wvff 

^ 'WT ■anr % ^WT WRIT TTWT IITITT^ -jyl^ri ^ ^T 
^ WrSTT "^Vt fftT BRTT % fsR^ f^RTT «>SKI41 T^ ^' 

^r^ 5^Kr"ff ^ T^rft % 1T^ ^Tt ^ ^[^t »nft iwr 

*G.par.22. ' G. par. 35. 

A compound nominal verb ; G. par. 38. 

Adverb oF prohibition: G> par. 3d, and 77- 

*G.par. 36. ^G. par. 25. "^ G. par. 60. 

^G. par. 48. ' G. par. 5, a. nole. '"G. pur. 57. 


^^^^^506 Short Stories. ^^^^^B 

^rr^qrr fi^ vt iff '^ f^ra ^tfkytf «ff ^ir^ i^^ 

mfifm] m^ % nt wm v^ ^m\ ^^ -^ ^w ^^^^^ 

$ ^V^ ^ 5^ grn % TIT T? Wt ^ gn^ T^ ^ 

^T 3R ^^ ^m^ ^ vm V^ % m TT7T iTT ^ra^ 

^n: ^ ^ ^ »f1 T?f 5inft ^T ^^T^ % ^ ^ "^^^^1 

*!l*ldl ^ pRT f^ra ^'PI f^ W T^ ^ ^m ^Pnf) % (TtM 

'^Tvt Tm 'B^ wd »i "^^^ ^ ^?f«WT?: arrr * 't™ t5nj*« 

^^ 5TT(ft % ^T ^ 'raR" ^ ^ i T^ 7«ff ^ 

^h: gr?T a; irq 9*^ % 1 ^H 

•t for atharah, «ighteen, or at/iarawm, eighteenlh, nakl, stoiy. ^H 

Manush, man. 

baklian, explanation. 

kulum, tribe, ^rntty. ^| 

*«rilr, hero. 

kal, lime. 

kdn, shame. ^^M 

Aa^ar, coward. 

»a«-a/, felher-in-law's 

akir,, (f.) alone. ^M 

lajjaican, modest. 


koihe, apartment ^H 

nilajja, shameless. 

mare, stricken, by 

samai, time. ^H 

hlior, dawn of day. 


andheri, darkness. ,^H 

ranrfj, woman. 

laj, modesty. 

hathiyar, arms. ^^| 

»5n/«ri, before. 

hkanti, manner. 

;ar, paramour. ^1 

vpaathit, present. 

gala, throat. 

nidhaTak, fearless. ^^| 

samhae, before. 

biriyan, time. 

j:^a&Jr, dust (?). ^1 


byah, wedding. 

!>Au(, ghost. ^1 

_;ana, persoo. 

galiyan, indecentsongs 

pre/, goblio. ^^| 

hulwayi, ordered to be 

sung at weddings. 

prasann, pleased, ^H 


swami, lord, husband. 

paritosliik, a complh-^^^ 

n f &e c/an,representation . 

sasur, father-in-law. 

mentary present. ^^| 

ajna, (f.) command. 


"^VK ^5HT Tit^ tjU ^ f^ ■»fr^i Tt^J^ *iPi«ir ^V^ 
'JtI; ^Vt f^f^ f*^r*i ^ ^ ^K ^ ^ T^ '3^1^ y^si^f 
*iR«ii wf^ ^Vk ^;]g5 ^?^ ^tj^ % ^^t ^Vt ^i^ 
5ft IT ft^Ki f^ ^ TIT ^Vk W tt^wt ^ ^^ ''fT^\ 

*fl" ^ ^ f%f ■JT^ T T^'t TW ^ ^5 ■g^TrT f^^ '^Tf^ 
1^ ^T?T IR *T '31^ ^Y ^il ^ ^re STT TT^^T'H 5iT ^V^ 

^fl 'I^ ^ Tt^ WT 9Bt flV fsTfTT T^ ^T^T T^ lli; ^ 

wr *i*<^* w^^R *f Tra^PfiT T'flfiT g^ ^ir afirt 'nj 

irtwr^plT^ fT'I»TTt:'?'TTTT^'?TTT K^^ 'f ^ ^ ^^ 

^rrV ^ ^ Y^i T' ^ ^r?t § ^im ifj! «tV ^iT VY ^rsTT 

3TTSI Wt^ T'"" TW ^Trl ^ »ft ^ ^ ^5 T wtw TI^ «lt 

w^ ^ "^v ^ TK v^ ^ fSwrwr ^Vr ^w 'Jt f^mr 

Wr W^ % t% ■^TT 5R ^IT "^ 5R 3?^^ T^ ^?W 5t ^^ 

TY WT ^Tfi Y g^j fl^j37* arrt ^^ •! ^t 5rT ^Tiifi ^r^ 
gfrar rT^ ^« ^ f^^^rrt ^t^rr wr fj'i ^ ■*IY ^r?T^ 

»ITft 'tt I 

or umttvin, 

mkAar, bnii^ plocked 

phandiyan, bundles. 
chusnc, to suck. 
khettcaS, field-owner. 
Ihcmke, banDg beaten, 
jtigal, contrivance. 
than, having settled. 
ram-ram, words uaed 

as a salntatioo. 
ji, Sir ! master ! 
gum, spiritual guide. 

maAa/'an, banker, tnisl- 
worthy petsoo. 

gaidc, Bugar.caaes. 

nyaw, j ostice, decison. 

ehhtn Uye, took away. 

jutiyakar, having beat 
with a slipper. 

dram/a, prop^ty^thii^. 

bujkke ^ving tho(^ t 

ujara, has wasted. 

byaj, interest. 

dhaaliyake, having 

bttand, manner, mode. 

bachaya, saved, pie- 


jmg piifi amr nard 
wori gal, the p«ir 
(at the game of 
chautar) is seps- 
lated and the piece 
is stricken (takes. 
A proverb, inculcat- 
ing the value of 

^f ^1^ ^ ^ ai^ ^15* TTlt ^mi % *ir<< ^f^ ^^ I 

Short Stories. 


\^ for bhf twenty 9 or btswJn, twentieth| naljplf story. 

Kayathf name of a 

ganJCf singing (v. noun). 

bajancj playing on 

sansargy meetings as- 

gawaiye, singer. 

kabita, poetry^ verse. 

shai, thing. 

kamil, learned (man). 
tab-hl, that very time. 
siddh^ accomplished 

dhundh dhandh,seBTch. 

• • • • # 

gosaia, a devotee so 

isen, to this. (The 

nasal added^ like as 

dandawat, obeisance. 
vastu or bastUy thing. 
daya, kindnessi favour. 
baba, Sir! 

dev, a god| a divinity. 
jhalak, refulgence. 
dhupf glare, shine. 
J^adir^ mighty. 
nadir, wonderful. 
rup, form, figure. 

in tumhSfi). 
!fAiJr iM*-i kl jhalak haijon suraj k% dhup: 
jahan tshk tahan ap hai Ij^adir nadir rup. 
Love is the refulgence of that very (Being), like as sunshine (is) 
of the sun: wherever (is) love, there is He Himself; the almighty, 
all-wonderful Form ! 

Love ? Tis a ray, from Him it streams. 
Like as the sun darts forth its beams : 
Love ? Where is love, there Him you see ; 
Almighty and all-wondrous He. 

* This M) like the Arabic hVa {he)y refers to God| as He who really 

and universally is. 



Cases of Nouns.* 

Of the house. 

To the boy. 

From the horse. 

From the cat. 

By deceit. 

O friend! 

O boy! 

At the door. 

On the mouth. 

On the road. 

In the heart 

In the hand. 

In the road. 

Up to the house. 

With sand. 

With (in company with) the dog. 

Houselvjf t (*^> ^ ^^ *•)• 
Boy*/o (JA or he ta^n). 

Kane-Jrom (se). 

Csiirfrom («e). 

Deceit-&y («S). 

O (at) friend ! 

O(a0 boy! 

Door-at (j)ar). 

Mouth-on {par). 

Road-on (men). 

Heart-tn (men). 


Road-tn (men). 

House-tip-to (tak or talak). 

Swadrwith (se). 

Dog'with (ice satK). 

^ See Ist Part, Gram. par. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 
f The Subsiautives, Adjectives, and Verbs, will generally be found 

under the particular heads in the Vocabulary. 
X The Hindustani words are to be placed according to the order of 

the English, observed on this column. 

Hindustani Composition. 


Near the door* 

Near the village. 

Along with the boys. 

From among the people. 

Over the head. , 

Beneath the ground. 

In the midst of the city. 

Towards the sky. 

For God's sake. 

For this reason. 

For the sake of the destitute. 

For the sake of a friend. 

Like (in the manner of) every man. 

Before the hone. 

Behind the house. 

In the presence of the judge. 

In front of the house. 

Within the city. 

According to that. 

With respect to him. 

The boy's fitther's horse. 
The girl's mother's maid. 
The merchant's brother's daughter. 
On the back of the horse. 
Near the friend's house door. 

Under the wall of the house. 
Betwixt the leaves of the book. 

Door-n^or (he pas). 
Village-near (K nazdik). 
Boy8-a2(mg with (ke sath). 
People among (men) from, 
Head-orer {ke upar), 
Gronnd-beneath (jk^ ntchc). 
City-of miebNii (ke tick). 
Sky towards (kl laraf). 
God for the sake of (ke waste). 
This (isyfor the reason (waste). 
Destitute for the sake of (ki 

Friend for the sake of (ke B'e). 
Every (har ek) man-Ziie or -t» 

the manner of (ki tarah). 
KoTS^efore (ke age), 
^ouse-behind (ke ptchhe), 
Judge-tn presence of (ke samhne\ 
House in front cf(ke age). 
Ciiy-vnthin (ke ctndar or ke blch). 
That (us) -according to (kc 

Him (us) "unih respect to (Ki 

Boy-of fatherof horse. 
Girl-of motherof maid. 
Merchant-of brother-of daughter. 
Horse-of back-on (p^» 
Friend-of house-of door-near (kc 

HouseK)f ^Bll'Under (ke tale). 
Book-of leaves betwixt (ke dar- 


^F 512 Hinduslaiii 

Among the houses of the vQlage. 

VUlage-of hou3eMraong(t« AJcA). 

For the sake of learning BcieDce. 

Science Uarniiig (tlm sikhne) -foe 

the sake of. 

Towards the door of the mosque. 

Mosque-of door-towards. 

Instead of the book. 

Book-inj(ea(f of {k'tjagah). 

Instead of the bread. 

Bre&d-i/tstead of{ke 'wax). 

In exchange for gold. 

Gold-in exchange of {ke hadS). 

Thus far (hitherto). 

Hitherto {yahan-tak). 

Subitantivet u 

ith Adjective*.* 

Elder brother. 

Elder (bara) brother. 

Younger (little) sister. 

Younger {littk, ckkHR) sister. 

A very rich man. 

Very (bara) rich man. 

Good men. 

Good (bhala) men. 

So much space. 

So muck {itna) space. 

All the chamber. 

^«(«ai) chamber. 

A little book. 

Little ichhoa) book. 

Such a gentleman. 

Such a (falana) gentleman. 

Of all the people. 

All people (Jagon) -of. 

In great calamity. 

Great (.ban) calamity-in. 

With much happiness. 

By a bad business. 

Bad (Jbura) business-by. 

At midnight. 

Mid (adhl) mghUal {ko). 

A very virtuous lady. 

Very {bahut) virtuoux (juk) lady. 

A very good boy. 

Very good (fiahutachckhi) hoy. 

A vei-y wise person. 

Very wise {bara dana) person. J 

To such people. 

Sack {aiu, plur. mas.) people-to. ^^ 

A few days ago. 

Feio {tlioTl) days-from. ^H 

On last Tuesday. 

LaH {gusre) Tuesday-on {kd). ^| 

The least part 

Least {sab-se ckhota) part. ^^k 

» •-"-"- J 



Hindustam Composition. 


A very low price. 

Very high roomcu 

In the highest rooms* 

The greatest power. 

Of every moment. 

On the right foot of the mare. 

From low rooms. 

In muddy water. 

Several times. 

On the subject of the new book. 

Very lai^ eyes. 
What sort of flowers ? 
Tc^ether with a littleish dog. 

Hundreds of thousands of cities. 

In the first chapter. 
The second woman. 
Twenty fourth year. 
In the twentieth year. 
Fairer than the girl. 
The fairest boy. 
In very hot water. 
Along with blackish dogs. 
To a poor man like me. 
Along with both the boys. 

Very (bahut) low (thori) price. 
Very high rooms* 
Highest (sab se uncht) rooms-in. 
Chreatest (sab se bara) power. 
Every (har-har) moment-of. 
Mare of right (dahne) foot on. 
Low (nlchi) rooms-from. 
Muddy (gande) water-in. 
Several (kal) times (bar). 
New (na^) book on the subject 
of (kt babai). 

Very large (Jbari baft) eyes. 

What sort of (kaise) flowers. 
Littleish (phKotc-se) dog-together 

with (ke satJi). 
Hundreds of thousands (lakhofi^) 

First (pahle) chapter-in. 

Second (dusrf) woman. 

Twenty fourth (chaublswari) year. 

Twentieth (btsweri) year-in. 

Girl^om (se) fair. 

Fairest (sab se gora) boy. 

Very hot (bahut garm) water-in. 

Blackish(kaXc'Se) dogs-with(5aM). 

Me-like (mujh'St) poor-to. 

Both (dorio^) boys along with 
(ke sath). 

Nouns and Pronouns.f 
I and my brother. I and (aur) my brother. 

* See Gram. par. 10. 

f See Ul Part, Gram. par. 15, 16. 

514 Hindustan 

Compontion. ^^^^^^^H 

My dog'a name. 

My dog-of name. ^^ 

My sister's house. 

My sister-of house. 

I, thou and he together. 

I, thou and he together (ikatike} 

We all three. 

We all three (rtnow). 

In our boots. 

Our (hamarl) books-in. 

With us both. 

Us {ham) hoth-with (kZ shth). 

To thy father's servant. 

Thy father-of aervant-to. 

On your mare's fcwt. 

Your mare-of footon. 

They and their three doga. 

They and them-of (unk kt) three 


That horse near my mare. 

That horse my mare-near. 

This maid servant of your mother. 

This your mother-of maid servant. 

This boy's mother. 

TAis (is) boy.of mother. 

Near these fragrant flowers. 

These fragrant Rowers^near. 

To these but not to those. 

Tbese-to but (par') those-to not 

He himself and they themselves. 

He himself (up) and they that- 

telves (ap). 

Those soldiers' turbans. 

Those («») soldiers-of turbans. 

Who is that stranger .' 

That stranger who (kaun) it (hai). ll 

Whose book is this ? 

This whom^f {kis-ki) book is. 

Where is your honour's house ? 

Your honour {dp) -of house v&ere ^h 

{kahdn) is. fl 

Whose clothes are those 1 

Those whom-of clothes are (AaM), ^| 

What is the name of that village 1 

That village of name what (ftyS) H 

What is that for ? 

Tha.t what for (kdhi ko) IS. 

Whatdoyou,Sir,command (say) ? 

You Sir {up) what commanding 

(farmdle) are. ^m 

What you vvish that do. 

What (jo) you wish (chUo) that ^M 

{^)do{karo). ■ 

Whatever officer or soldier. 

Whatever (jo koi) soldier or (ya) ^M 

k . 

officer. ^t 


. J 

Hindu$tani ComposiHan. 


Whoever this may be. 

With whomsoever he met 

On the back of some one. 

Whoever (Jo Ao't) this may be 

Whomsoever^th (jis kuH-se) met 

Some one (^kUi) -of back-on. 

Prorumns, Nouns, Verbs, ^e.^ 

Beat that dog. 

Open the door. 

Bring the palanquin. 

Give this book to him. 

I am here. 

We are standing. 

Thou art going. 

Ye are coming. 

He is my friend. 

She is my sister. 

They are my father's servants. 

Where are your horses ? 

This is my book. 

That is in our books. 

Are those your horses ? 

What is the name of that village ? 

Who is that person ? 

Whose hat is this ? 

What has been that has been. 

Why do you do so ? 

That dog-to beat (maro). 

Door {darwazcL) open (kholo). 

Palanquin bring (la*d). 

This book him-to give (do). 

I here (yahan) am (ASii). 

We standing are. 

Thou going (jata) art (Aat)* 

Ye coming (ate) are (Ao). 

He my friend is. 

She (umh) my sister is. 

They my father-of servants are. 

Your (tumhare) horses where are. 

This my book is. 

That our books-in is. 

Those your horses are ? 

That (us) vUlage-of name what is. 

That person who (kaun) is. 

This whose (kis-kt) hat is. 

What (jo) been (hi'a) that (a) 

You why (kahe-ko) so (aisa) doing 


* Besides the paragraphs before referred to, see 1st Part| Gram, 
par. 17 to 33, as well as the Syntax, par. 52 to 83. 


HindSstam Can^fMsitioiu 

Of what is this the key ? 
AVhaftever he says is true. 

He is a 


The soldier went with his officer. 
He beat his brotho'. 

They (respectfully for he) are 

They were talking amongst them- 

Of what place are they people ? 

I called him* 
But he came not. 
I know nothing. 
But what I have said. 

He minds not my word. 
But abuses me. 

If he go then he will see. 

I indeed was not present. 
What care indeed has he ? 

At the time of beating him. 

This what-of (jcaKt-ki) key is? 
Whatever (jo kuchh) he says that 

(so) true is. 
He self -to (apne tain) abuse (gafi) 

giving is. 
Soldier his own (apne) officer- 

vnth toent (goyct). 
He (us-nt^) his (apne) brother-to 

They (dp) sleeping (sote) are. 

They themselve&-amongst (apas- 
men) talking (bat karte) were. 

They whereof (kahan-ke) people 

/(watfi-nc) him-to called(bulaya). 
But (lekin) he not (nahtn) came. 
I any thing (kuchh) knowing not. 
JBut (magar) what / (matn-he) 

said have. 
He my word minds (mania) not. 
But (balki) me-to (mujhe) abuse 

(gati) gives. 
If (agar) he go (jawe) then (to) 

he will see. 
I indeed (to) present not was. 
Him-to (uS'ko) indeed (to) what 

care is. 
Him-to beating (marnef) -of the 


* See Grammar, par. 23, note, and par. 72. 
+ Infinitive used as a gerund or verbal noun : see Gram. par. 19. 

Hindustani Composition. 


An eatable thing. 

Never do so. 

Having seen this she went away. 

They are gone to him. 

That woman had been beaten. 

I have done eating. 

I had wished to teach him. 

They were in the habit of coming 

to me every day. 
I could not find how to get across. 

He wished to come with me. 

I have bought this horse. 

Ten men were killed with him. 

If you had remained here, you 
would have seen him. 

Eating (jkhan^^ -of thing. 

So {aisa) ever not to do (jkarna-^). 

This having seen she vcent away 

{chaU ga'l^). 
They him-near gone (ga'e) are. 
That woman beaten (mart) gone 

(gal) was. 
I having eaten (kha) have done 

/(main-nc) him-to taught^sikhaya) 

wished {chaha) had {tha^. 
They every day (jiar roz) me- 

near come (jaya) making were.§ 
I across (par) going (jane) not 

find (pa) could (saka). 
He me-with (mere sath) to come 

(owe) wished. 
/ (maift-ne) this horse-to have 

bought (mol liya Aai§). 
Ten men (jawan) him-with killed 

If (agar) you here remain (rahte)y\\ 

then (to) him-to see (dekhte\{). 

* Infinitive used as a gerund or verbal noun : see Gram. par. 19. 
f The infinitive used in an imperative or prohibitive sense : see Gram. 

par. 73. 
% A compound verb : see Gram. par. 28, 10th. 
§ A compound verb : see Gram. par. 28, 4th, 8lh, ^th^ 1st. 
H The indef. present used in the sense of the past conditional : see 

ijrram. par. 24> note. 


Hindmtam CamposiHan. 

I saw that woman coming. 

In going along, I saw. 

Immediately on hearing this. 
Immediately on hearing so much 

After it became evening. 

I used to converse with him. 

(lO I go, then what? 

Pray be seated. 

Be pleased, Sir, to say. 

What should we wish ? (What is 

You must get away hence. 

It is necessary to obey the orders 
of government. 

I cannot (shall not) go there. 
This is not a thing that can be. 

Your coming here is of no use. 

I that woman-to earning (ate)^ 

saw (jdekha). 
In going along {chalte ku*^) I 

This hearing exactly (nutfe^-AffX 
So much (jitm) speech hearing 

(eunte) exactly Arf). 
Evening become (Afi'S)* after 

I him-ioith (us-^) converse msed 

(bat karta tha). 
(If I) go (Ja'iin) then {tot) ^^at? 
Sit (you) (baithiyo^. 
You Sir (ap) say (kahiy!^. 
What should we wish (cAaAtyS§). 

We (or they) should wish (chahiye) 

that (ki) you here-from havit^ 

issued (nikal) may go. 
Government (sarkar) -of order 

performed (ha-ja laya\) it is 

requisite (chahiy^). 
I there not going-of (jarte-ka**). 
This being-of (A5nc-fc5**) thing 

Your here coming (ana) any use 

(kuchh kam) -of not. 

* See Gram. par. 75. + See Gram. par. 35^ page 61. 

I Gram. par. 79. § Respectful imperative : see G. par. 26, a. 

II See Gram. par. 28, 8th. f See Gram. par. Uj a. 

♦♦ See Gram. par. 73. 

Hindustani Compowtion. 


There is no nse of your coming 

That gentleman has departed 

What do youy Sir, say (command)? 

I (the devoted servant) have (has) 

a representation (to make). 
Give to each one. 
Divide and place them by fours. 

The three (all three) came toge- 
ther to me. 

That person had taken up the 

Those people bought the books. 

Allow me to go with you. 

Their parents are dead. 

This house is unfurnished. 

He has the toothach. 
This doth is very coarse. 
This will be the best. 

Is your knife sharp ? 

Your liere coming (^tumhari yakan 

avJe) -from any benefit not. 
That gentleman {§ahib) here-from 
going (ratoana) become (Au'c).* 
The presence (Jiazrat) what com- 

manding (^farmate) are ? 
Devoted servant (^fidwt) -of one 

represauatim (Srz) is. 
One onef-to give. 
Four four-&y {se) having divided 

(bantkcar) place. 
The three (itnon) having met to- 
gether (milkar) me-near came. 
That person-by (us shakhs-ne) 

book takenrup (uthSf) was. 
Those people-by (jtn togon-ne) 

books bought (mol Ztn). 
Self-with {apne sath) us-to to go 

(jani) give-t 
Mother fatlier (jma bap) them-of 

having died (mar) gone§ are. 
This house-of furniture (lawa- 

zima) not.|| 
His tooth-in pain is. 
This cloth very (bara) coarse is. 
This all-from better (bihtar) will 

Your knife sharp is. 

* See Gram. par. 65. 
X Gram. par. 28, 6th. 

-f See Gram. par. 41. 
§ Gram. par. 28^ 2nd. 

II Gram. par. 77. 


Hindustani Composition* 

Does this knife belong to you ? 
Can you speak English ? 

We know all. 

They are dead asleep. 

Are you the owner of this house ? 

Do you know this man ? 
Will you go to the auction ? 
Do you know the cause of this ? 

Take a chair and sit down. 
What chapter shall I read ? 

This is the end of the chapter* 
What is the cost of these things ? 
This is my native country. 
This house is very damp. 
What time of day is it ? 
Tell me the name of this dis- 
There is mucli delay in this affair. 
Do you know that gentleman ? 

Have the goodness, Sir, to inform 

Take hold of his hand. 

What (jtya) this knife yours is* 

You English (angrezi) speak able 

We every thing (sab kuchK) know- 
ing are. 

They senseless (be^kJuibar) sleep- 
ing are* 

You this house-of otoner (tnoHk) 

This man-to you knowing are* 

Auction (nllam) -in you will go. 

You this-of cause (sahab) know- 
ing are. 

Chair take {id) sit (baitho). 

What (kaun) chapter I shall read 

This chapter-of end is. 

What price is these things-of. 

This my native country (tra£an)is. 

This house much moist is. 

Now how much {kitna) time is. 

You this distemper-of name say. 

This affair {kam) -in great delay is. 
You that gentleman-to knowing 

You Sir {ap) kindness having done 

information make {kljiyef), 
Him-of hand having seized take 


* Gram. par. 28, 3rd. 

+ Gram. par. 26, a. 

Hindustani Composition. 


What is the height of this wall ? 

He gave a hint to this effect 

Make a hole in the ground here. 
Do you know what hour it is ? 

Whence comes this idea ? 

The sky is overcast. 

Is this the sort you wanted ? 
He wears spectacles. 

I (or we) have bought a score of 

What did yoiv^ve for that seal ? 

Sow this seed in the garden. 

Send a servant. 

Give me a sheet of paper. 

Where can we get straw ? 

He committed suicide. 

Where shall we get timber ? 

Who brought this intelligence ? 

They smoke tobacco. 

How much (kitnt) height this 

wall-of is. 
He (us^nc*) hint made this in- 

Here ground-in hole make. 
You knowing are what sounded 

(baja) is. 
This idea where>from produced be^ 

Sky (asman)^n cloudiness be- 
come is. 
You this sort-of wishing are. 
He (they) spectacle3 applying is 

We (Aam-wc*) twenty sheep 

bought are. 
You {tumrne*) that seal-of what 

This seed-to garden-in sow (bd*d). 
One servant-to send (bhejo). 
One sheet (takhta) paper us-to 

Dry grass {ghas) where shall we 

get (pawet^e). 
He (us-nH*) self-to self killed 

We timber (shahiir) where shall 

Who this intelligence (khabar) 

They huk^a drinking (jnie) are. 

* Gram. par. 23^ note. 
3 X 






I WM ftlP^ ft Tf l ^ li dl6 

» ■'*!' 

He was apprelMndeA aadl pwi in 

Bp yoo tittok what he mfm.iB 

Yes, I am certain of it. 
I feel very cold. 

It is doubtful whether he will 

come or not 
Give this book to your elder 

Which of you two is the elder? 

will be. 


UMnaeii) npeet 

Aocfomif<£mmmmi(jam^^ C)lia!F- 

HioMir dunipi fffmMmm§fimi 
oacfTimmd (jUgmz tShmf} 
irij (Kfiii) win fiu f r i> 

Bemzed ipakfi) wnaA,%mimh 

What he aayiog ii yon ti«e limt* 
•Hg (aoigfifi) are. 

Tes, we it4o certain knowii^ are. 

Us-to cold (Jifo) mnch applying 

EUm-of coming (ane)l not coming- 
in dotdft (jfhakk) is. 

Otcn (apne)% great brother-to this 
book to give.** 

You both-firom great which is. 

* GrftRit par. 33, note. f Gram. par. 22. 

X Giam. par. 28| 2ikI. § Gram. par. 31. 

H Gramt par. 19. t Gram, page 26 and par. 66. 

** Gram. par. 73. 

Hindustani Composition. 


They are gone, every one of them. 
Do you wish for thick paper or 

Do you accede to what I propose 

or not? 

I was not able to accomplish my 

To day's meeting was adjourned 

to Monday next 

I cannot afford to give so much 

Pray afford me your assistance. 

On appearing in court he was 
much agitatedf 

I caught a large fish yesterday. 

I saw him last Tuesday. 

This writing is not legible. 

How long shall you remain there ? 

The price he asks is very low. 

They all-of {sah-ke) all gone are; 
You thick paper wishing are or 

What (jo) we saying are you this- 

to acceptance making are or 

I own (apni*) mBhcomplete(bhar' 

pur) not make c6uld. 
To day (aj) meeting stopped 

(jnavkuf) is Monday-ofday {do 

skambe ke roz) again (it) will 

So mueh (itna) pay we not give 

Kindness having done {karkar1() 

our help make* 
Court (adalai)An standing be- 
coming (on) exactly to tremble 

We§ yesterday one great fish 

seized {pakri). 
Past Tuesday-on {mangaUko) I 

(rnain-ne^ him-to saw. 
This written (likha) read not 

You kow many (kitne) days shall 

He very little price asking (mang- 

to) is. 

* Gram. par. 60* 
X Gram. par. S2. 

+ Gram. par. 28^ 3rd. 
§ G. par. 23) note, and par. 72. 
II Gram. par. 31. 

ft is iw i ifii i l i t i th ii ym g» Th m|iwi g mmg(jiaa*)n€ig€iDg 

ornoC ifteis. 

^R^y^'^^* iBT lettK- K joHB. Ov letter (yovr) own letter*iii 

VmiikmaikhmmSm'imwam^tmtDtj, Bim<£ wBsJFihmtt if not becomes, 
I 4miiiU hne fiiU iK Kj par- iia(io)oar\mmg^ acanmpluh- 
poifi*^ aeB/(«afvai^is) aot finds, f 

I ifhoiJJ Ihm Uien Hto die mer If be not senes^f dien I TiTer-in 

b«fc ibr iM. faU lgirpanm).f 

I do nol kmyw htm Id ezpreaB This word EogtidHn via/ miifi^ 
tbi» in EiM^iA. (Mt forA) spoken going is, we 

not know. 
I had no suspicion that he had Us4o {kamm) stufiemm (gtamm) 
done this. not tkai {id) it («•««) so done 


Sarkar, are all my things ready ? O sarkar onr aU thii^ ready are. 

Sir, the Morkar has taken money .O sir (at §akib) sarkar rapee 

for them; no donbt they will taken ilc-gayi)is; and things 

be here by two o'clock. two watch two-in eertaimfy (al- 

•* batta) here will arriTe. 

When the things come, send them When things may come {awen) 
immediately to Nya Ghaut. then that very (us-t) moment 

{dam) new quay-in having sent 
to give. 
It is now high water ; I cannot Nou>exactbj (ab-ht) ebb-tide near 
wuit longer. is, weunore (aur) patience not 

make able are {kar sakte haiii). 

The ijvHHla you, Sir, have . pui> What goods (asbab) you, Sir {ajh 

chii^cU, are, 1 think, dear. ne) purchased me near {mere 

nazdik) great dehr {giran) are. 

* (iiam. par. 19. + See Gram. par. 24, note. 

Hindustani Composition. 525 

House rent is very dear in Cal- Calcutta4n house-of hire great 

cutta. dear is* 

I would have gone there, but was We there going were, hut (^lekin) 

fearful it would be late before this fear-from that {ki) there 

I arrived. arriving-till^pahunchnetak^de' 

lay will be {der hogf) not went 

I know not if many or few were We not knowing are, that (ki) 

there. there few (jtliSrt) were or many. 

( * State of Hindustan in the time of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi and 

of his house (khandan). 

A thousand years after the {commencement of the) Christian era (sana 
fsawf)j Mahmud GhaznawT, having made invasion on Hindiist&n twelve 
times, brought Multan, Lahaur, Dihli, Mathura, and Canauj into sulh- 
jection (jtaht-men). Afterwards (bo^d us-ke) he demolished {kha rab 
kiya) the idol-houses of Somnat and Nagarkot and of wheresoever he 
went ; and spoiled the idols. Fifty thousand Hindus were killed in the 
defence of the temple (mandir) of Somnat At length {akhiru'lramr\ 
when (their) power availed not (bas na-chala), then all the Hindus, 
having agreed together (muttafifp hdkar), said that we loill give (jdete 
hain) eight crores (of) rupees on this condition (ba-ln sharf) that they 
(or you) should not destroy (mismar norktjiye) the image. He hot 
assenting {ijfabul norkarke)^ commanded that that image should be sawn 
asunder {arct-se chtrtjawe) ; so thai from its interior {chunanchi uske 
pel-sc) precious jewels, that in worth and value were more than those 
rupees, issued. In the house of Sultan Mahmud GhaznawT the sove* 
reignty (saltanat) remained (jcaUm rahf) during {tali) one hundred 
(and) eighty-five years : afterwards, it became annihilated {nest o na- 
hud ho'ga'i) by Sultan Shihabu-d-din Ghaurl. 

* Here, the positiort of the IlindustatiT words is not. always pointed out. 

^^Mm u& the- Ai^^aim swmg (tamdlmi) m Hiodostio ^fieriie extinction 
tc^ o nurimi iom kn bt^i) of the Ghazmam fmmilg (ghaznawi 

Jfi die JirU place ipaile) Sfaihaba-d-dio Mahanmnd dBntT, having 
'-u.Lo^^ {takht o taraj karke) the GhaznawT empire, hmme absolute 
■/i ;iwag (^muUuallit) over Hindustan. Afterwards, dan^ Aree hun- 


dred yjuid) forty two years, several {kal ek) different bmHies exercised 
:he bway : among them, Kutba-d-dln, a Turkish slave (Tmrla gkmlim). 
*iia(. by the revolution of fi)rtane had become the adopted urn (mmta- 
boHJiaj of Mohammad Ghaun, is of all most celebrated (nab^ muish*» 
■lur). He gave great extensiam {wus*at) to the provinces of tie people 
of Islam \fihl-irislim kB wfoaudik) ; to icit {ya^ne), having beoome vic- 
tv»iiQus. qyer the Hindu Rajas, he made DihlT the royal reddence 

^^% tuisi^). 

Aocoui^ (Jkayan) of the Timur dynasty (saltajiat-iriimmn). 

lu th« year one thousand three hundred and ninety seven of Christ 
^^SuUfi) Timur Shah, having made invasion on HindOstan, arrived in 
t >ia* K rhere, having put to the sword {tah-i-tegh karke) two hundred 
•- aviu-^aud men, he desolated the country {mulk-kb wiran kar data), but 
'xv-^>4 It not iu his possession ; yet, a hundred and twenty seven years 
iii%;i, hm great grandson's grandson, Babar Shah, becoming {hokar) 
%.viv»iK»ua over the princes of DihlT, seized (je II j the empire. 

Vkbur his grandson was just and wise. He made Candahar {kand- 

\./ \ I'ashmlr, Gujarat, Sindh, Bengal and Orissa (ure^a) comprised 

;t ... same {tk hi) empire. After him JahangTr and Shabjaban en- 

. ^ . v\ /it. succreignty {hadshahat ki)y and, Aurangzeb, that is Aaiamgir, 

x« K> \ \\\ ucoU all the subizs of Hindustan under his rule. From his time, 

', ^fuugar), the Moghal power became weak ; and, Bahadur Shah, 

^lU: ^;u^, I'ujoyed the sovereignty, and Jahandar Sbab and Farrukh- 
*.\.*» *uvl Kali u-(Warjat (raft'u-d-dnrjat) and Muhammad Shah, in 

Hindustam Composition. 527 

whose tfme Nadir Shah, emperor of Persia, having made invasioJt {yal- 
ghar) on the empire of Hindustau, overthrew {tah o bala kar dala) the 
Moghal dorainioo. After him, Ahmad Shall and Aalamgir {dlam^r) 
Sunl and Shah Aalam {alam) exercised the sovereignty {badshahat kt). 

The cause of Nadir Shuh's coming into Hindustan. 
Among the nobles of DihlT was great discord. He who possessed 
the rank oiwazir, in the year 1722 of Christ (fsaio?) wrote (jikh hheja) 
to Nadir Shah (saying)* that, note is the opportunitt/ {wakt kubu ka 
hai); remove {utha do) Muhammad Shah from the throne. Accord- 
ingly {chunanchi), he came into Hindustun, and was victorious. He 
slew two hundred thousand people. Having discovered {daryaft 
kurki) the design of the nobles, he removed nolMuhammad Shah from 
the throne ; but, having taken from bira eighteen crores {karorj Rhy 
lacs (lakh of) rupees, and having seized {kabxa karke) on the province* 
{mamdlik) of the west side of the Sindh river, in the year of Christ 
1741, he (Nadir Shah) went to his own country. He was a great 
tyrant ; so that, in the stopping of some riot at the time of a fair, sud- 
denly a person discharged a ball, which went near him (Nadir Shah) 
and did not hit ; nevertheless, having become enraged, he gave com- 
maad to the soldiers that a general massacre should take place {ho). 
This command he gave at the second watch of the night {do pahar 
rat A5, twelve o'clock) ; and, by the second watch two ghUris {do pahar 
do haje ke amal tak, forty-eight minutes after twelve) of the next day, 
more than a hundred thousand people were slaughtered. From his 
time, the Moghal sovereignty became void of a reality {be hakHcat 
ho gal), that is to say {ya*ne) every commander and governor {amir 
umara), becoming {ban) each himself a master, sat, and were{hoga'e) 
mlers with absolute sway {bi-UislUclat). 

• See lit Part Grammnr, par. 78. 



of England obtained entramce {dakhj) into 

ItJOO of Christy they first began to come in tJke way 

urn ^'^^. J<r comnwrcc Before them, the Portagaese and Dutch 

i,^ rosMui wen poaiiening factories (jkothX) in Hindiistan. After 

"w. .^M^u of time (Jbe^ ckastd muddat ke), the English, far 

^: ,^<; ti» prutecUoQ of their Actor and merchandise, by permission 

. X u)« yomtiibf semi far (jhJaya) their soldiers, and prepared a 

, c\ ^nxua)* A fte rn a t d s^ die Regis of Hindustan, having become 

«<.4J^ iWmu Um oppreiwion. of the Nauwab Siraju-d-daola, Nabob of 

H^>aMiabiid» g«vD ad^rioe to the English, (saying) that do yoo expel 

X ^IGNV <^^ him firom Itts prorinces, and we are yonr assistants : 

v.^ \m^ lu ihn yiMur 1757 of Christ, the English defeated {siikast di) 

.ii« .iiui> oi the Xabob, and received from Shah Aalam {dlam) 

i^ oiU^ oi tlur dh ti t hsk^ (jdhcimf) ; that, by means of it, (us4[e 

-i«^^4^} thi^y biought Benaies and the siba of Bihar and Uresa into 

iiWM 'ii^^f/KciM^ k^«<^)* Iq that very time, Asafu-d-daula, the Nabob 

^ ^ 'h%^c ^uwudA) gave up to them (un-ke sipurd kiya) the city of 

>vwv*.ua . .laJ, 111 the year 1793 of Christ, the kingdom of Tipoo 

^.'cui a v'itiuuuc ^karnatak) came to (their) hand. In short 

^..v,. .... ' ^tf >iHHC m^MHS {kisl surat se) the English people by degrees 

I.. .(» u^^u.^ ac^uirtnl the entire dominion. 


X**iic 'Wv* NwJ ti> a wise man, that such a person {falan adml he) 

K, sk>;vvt \ou. Having made a little consideration, he said, hear 

, «v ' **v^w» v«k^ ^/Wi«5) reviled me, as it were (goyd) he threw an 

»xiv.» .V '4v *s\kr ^ptchht), that {sd) touched me not; but, thou, 

X \^ *, v\«, *^' s^i*{hukt) the arrow, hast thrust it into me (jnujhe 

.^,./ un%I> >\hut advantage is there to thee in that? 

•^ ••«« • >• 

Hindustani Composition. 529 


Thei'e was extreme {nihayat) friendship between a camel and an 
ass. By chance a jouraey became necessary {dar pish hVa) for the 
two. In the midst of the way, a river occurred. The camel entered 
into the water : the water was up to his belly. He began to say, 
O friend, come hither, the water is little. The ass said, it is true, it 
is up-to (jak) thy belly, it seems little to thee ; but, it will be up to 
my back ; / shall he droumed (dubjffunga). 


A thief went to steal a horse at the abode of some one (kisl kt 
yahan). By chance he was caught. The owner of the horse {ghJort^ 
wale ne) said to him, if thou wilt teach roe to steal a horse, then I 
vnll set thee at liberty {tujhe chhor dtin). The thief consented. 
Having gone he loosened the foot-rope (pa-band) of the horse. 
Having given the bridle, he mounted (sawar hvHa) ; and, immediately 
on mounting (charhte hi) said, see, (in) this manner they steal. On 
the very saying this (j/ih kahte hi), he made the horse run. Riders 
made much pursuit (^plchha) of him, but overtook {pay a) not. 

3 Y 


Taken from the " Taleem Namuh," lithographed at Bombaj in 1835. 

Letter from one friend to another. ^ Kz,,.»ayi iJrJtyi ^ \^ y* bljol \k>. 
^ y^ ^^ ^-^ i/ ^J J^. J^ V ^ Lr\ i/ V''" «-^-^'* -v. 

vr- W' v/* (•/-> <^ i/i^ iy^l^'^ ij* ^'W!' -i^ ^ j]/ .^j/>* 

cr^ tt)i-;<i cr^ •♦'^ ^^ ^T* ^T^-^^ <^ '^'*^ (^ (^ *^ s^^ 

Ju^ «:-iL& ^ J^ V/;j^ J^jJu, J^\i jAy. ^ ^^U 
Ob e^ JJ j^j^ JJ\ y \io/ ^j> ^^ lJ\ J j^ ^p \,} 

Muhabbat wa dostl ke gulzar, the rose-bowers of love and friend- 
ship, rifdkat aur ashnal. ke chaman kc bahar, the vernal pride of the 
parterre of sociality and kindness, yar-ijant dost gam-Idmar, the 

The plural is adopted by way of shewing greater respect. 

Forms of Letters, ^ c. 63 1 

clear, gtief-dispersiug friend, fulan, sallamahu-r-ra/tmdn, such a one, 
whom God preserve ! 

Sost-i ikhlasmand, fulan, the sincere friend, such a one, saldm o 
itmhabbat ka hadlya, khair-khwdhi aur dil-k'i chah ka tuhfa age 
rakhki, having placed before (you) the gift of salutation and love, 
the offering of good wishes, and of the desire of his heart, xam\r-i 
yaganiyat tdfir par roshan karla hai, is representing to (your) 
unison-impressed mind, ki jis din se, that from what day, yih dost ap 
ke pas se juda hake, this friend having become separated from you, 
Sir, yahan aya hai, is come here, khudd jdntd hai, God la knowing, 
ki huT ghari firak kd dard ulhald kai, that every hour he is suffer- 
ing the pain of absence, khuda'e ta'ald apni fazl o karam se aisd 
sahab kare, may God the most high of his goodness and gracious- 
ness make such a cause, H turn ham jaldi milen, that you and we 
may soon meet, aur kh'tshi se ik sdlh baiOien pMren cHatin, and with 
happiness together may sit, walk and ramble. Ab ars yih hai ki in 
dinon men is mujdilis ke farzand kl shddi ki taiydrt kai, now the 
petition is this, that in these days is the preparation for the wedding 
of your sincere friend's son, so dp-k'i zdt ke ha-gkair kUusk aur 
gawdrd nahin lagtl, (and) that proves not pleasant and agreeable 
without the being (there) of you. Sir, shafakat farmdke, having 
granted the indulgence, do haftoA ki fursat karke, having made the 
leisure of two weeks, zarur tashrlf lake shddi ftl majlison ko raunalc- 
bakhsh hojia, (it is) a matter of necessity, having done us the honour 
of coming, (for you) to be the ornament of the assemblies of the 
wedding. Agarchi tafdi* hai sack, although it is an inconvenience 
indeed ; tekin doston k'l khitshi ke waste ^abiil karnd Idsim hai, 
yet for the sake of the happiness of friends it is indispensable to 
accede. Aur dp ke farzand ko beta hu'a, and a son (is) become 
(born) to your bod, us-kl khabar sanke dil bahut shdd ho rahd hai, 
having heard the news of that, (my) heart has continued much 



delighted. Mubarak kbwe, may fae be ktiataXe, avr ^iiik-i i^J 
niyaz vt-kl umr z'tyada kare, and may the ail-indepeiideDt < 
increase hi« life, aur ap-ke xer saya panearuk pawe, and toAj ii 
(the child) find nouriahment under the shadow of yon, Sir ! AjtA 
hai ki it idtmhl ki bulbar it mukJtlit ko likA na hhrji, A is woaderfnl 
that (they) did not write and send intelligence of this happiness to 
this »ncere friend. la-tarah d^iston ko hkulna wtimitib itaArri, to 
forget friends in this manner is not proper ; ummaid hi ah is mukhSf 
fto dil te faramosk na-jaiike, fhis) hope (is) that now not considering 
this sincere (friend) foi^tten from the heart, yih Mutl pahunckie hi, 
(on) the very arriving (of) this letter, taskrlf lane kH kaxd kami, to 
form the design of dsing tlie honour to come; ki yih mukklit 
hamcsha ap-ka ihsanmand rahe, that this sincere friend may remain 
for ever obliged to you, Sir. Ziyada kya tafdi', (to say) more what , 
irksomeness (to you) : wa-g-salam, and the salutation ! 

The friend's answer. *— 'V^ ^ \- i--' 

4$ ^ lj« M ,j- Jj IS cylT ^^lil cdBI. jLiil Ji y-lf 

^^^y ^f i/;^ i/j^ (^ r^ J ■^^^ J ^^-^j^ •Hi/ jj' 

•v. Jj' i/ M^ J i// f J- 3» ss->'=r ^.;=^ 4s!l~ "il' 'Wl 
JS ^T 1 1?^ laiyj *:J1 ^ J» tS 4i'jy k;- IS ^=--1^ ^i Jy» Ij-I 

Doit-navra:, the Iriend-coniforter, mw/'iiA-i fof/ii, feithful attach«d. 


Forms of Letters, ^c. 533 

yar-i dildar, ally possessing (my) heart, rnf'ik muKafik, fellow 
traveller (in all things) accordant, /ultin, such a one; sallamahu-l' 
iah ta ala, whom may God, the most high, preserve ! 

Mukhlis fulan, the sincere (friend) such a one, ishttyak~i mulakat 
Mlof-ayat ka dil men Una hhara hat, the desire of a meeting with 
the model of sincerity has so filled (his) heart, ki zaban ko tafcat 
futhln, that ability is not to the tongue, ki hayan kare, that (it) 
should explain (it), aitr kalam ko kudrat nah'tn ki likhe, and power 
is not to the pen that it should write (it), khair salam, well, saluta- 
tion (?). Sunnatu-l-islam ke maratib ada karke apnl ^ak'ikat zahir 
karta hai, having performed the ceremonies of the law of Islam, he 
sets forth his narration, }d tumhara khaU f^rishi aur Ichnrraml 
Ik wakt warid koke, that your letter having arrived at a time of joy 
and happiness, dil b jan par hahut si lazagi laya, brought much 
refreshing to (his) heart and soul, aur us-ke mulala'a se, and from 
the perusal of it, farhat o s/iSdinanl kl roshnal ka surma ankhoti ko 
lagd, the collyrium of the brightness of joy and gladness was applied 
to (his) eyes, aur farzand-i arjamand kl skadi ki khabar ma*liim 
karke, and having learned the intelligence of the marriage of the 
worthy son, dp-kl marsi tnitjib, by reason of your pleasure, Sir, 
mukhlis lie shadi kl tajammul ki mojlison men sar-afrdz hone-kd 
irdda kigd hai, the sincere (friend) has formed the intention of 
becoming honoured in the assemblies for completing the marriage, 
Inahd'a-1-ldk ta'dla, if God the most high wills, jilni jaldi ho sake 
so karke an pahunc/ild hai, as much haste aa he can, that having 
made, he is (about) aiTiving, Avr yih TfiuM/i.; dpki ydd dil se 
fardmosh nahlA karta, and this sincere (friend) makes not the 
remembrance of you, Sir, foi^olten from (his) heart, ga'e alhwdre 
vieti farzand paidd hone ki tahniyat kd ^ft rawdna kiyd hai, in the 
week passed he sent a letter of the joyful event of a eon being bom, 
so albatta pahunchd hogd yd y kal tum-lm pahunchega, that must 

534 Appendix. 

certainly have arrived or will ia a day or two arrive to you, wa-s-salam 
birl-ikraTn, and the salutation with honour ! 

Method of writing notes. S-^r^/ l/ 15=*^ uW^ 

^ U-^ ^ y^!f J^^^ ^jr* ^ jV Uf^ 'i J3^ ^ <^ 

Haxrat, the presence^ murabbt, patron, 5aAt&, lord, master, 

saldmat, safety, health! 
Kal sham ko banda ap-kl Ichidmat men pahuncha tha, yesterday in 
the evening (your) servant had arrived to wait on you. Sir, lekin ap 
bahar tashrlf le-ga'e the, but you were gone out ; aur aj tin char 
hhatt surat bangale ko likhne the, and to day there were three or 
four letters to write to Surat and Bengal ; is liye fur§at na hu% for 
this reason leisure was not : khuda karta hai, (if) God is doing (if 
God grants), to ba^d ma gh rab khidmat men hazir htingd, then after 
sun-set I will be present in (your) service. Ziyada kya arz, more 
why the representation ? (what need to represent more ?). 

Bhal sahib, Mr. (my) brother, bahut mihrban, extremely kind, 

salamat, safety or health ! 

Niydz-mand ne gulistdn ki kitdb dp-kefarmdne se shaikh ddam ko 
di thl, (this) indigent (person) at your commanding had given the 
book of the gulistan to Shaikh Adam, so chha mahlne hue ab tak 

Forms of Letters^ ^c. 635 

unhM ni ptchhe nahin bhejl, that (book) six months past till now they 
(he) has not sent back, tnihrbant karke un-ko taktd dena ki jaldi 
rawana kareit, having done (me) the favour (it is necessary) to give 
injunction to them (him) that they forward it immediately. WorS-^alam 
ln44kram, and the salutation with honour ! 

j^\ JUj^ j^^ji 

Baradar-i Sztzu-l-kadr salamatf brother honourable in rank, safety ! 

Shaikh da*ud tumhari kitab-i gulistan par se naJcl kartt hain, 
Shaikh Da'iid is making a copy from your book of the gulistan, aur 
Ij^rib tamam hone ke al hai, and it has come near to being finished ; 
insha*a4'lah ta*ala, if God the most high wills, is hafte mhi tum-ko 
wapas bhejtfige, in this week they will send (it) back to you : wa^- 
salanif and the salutation ! 

^JaJ^ ^^ ^ ^jS^ U^ ^5^^- C^ ^ Iff U J^^ ^^Sib ^ 

Dost-'i karam-bakhsh salamat, liberality-imparting friend, health ! 

Kalarabistan sejahaz a% yesterday ships came from Arabia, un 
mSnjudde ke pakim ne makke sliarif ka kuchh hadiya marsul kit/a, 
in them the governor of Judda had sent some present of the honoured 
Mecca, s3 tabarruk janke us men se ap ke waste blieja hai, having 
thought that a blessing (l) have sent some of it for you. Sir, ziyada 
wors-saXam, more (what need ?) and the salutation ! 

636 Appendix. 

jJ tt^/ trj^y^ i^,j^ *^^ ^!r» ^' v/ -v^ i/ j^«>jy uS m' 

Mihrban^i Icaram-bakAsh salamat, liberality-imparting frieDd, health ! 

Yih gharib shakhf na^r khan Id ram das ke yahan naukar hai^ 
this poor person, Nasir Khan, who is a servant at tlie residence of 
Ram Das, us-kopanch rupa'e mahine ke tnilte hairij he gets five rupees 
a month ; so lyal-dari ke sabah bos nahln hote, they are not enough 
for the purpose of house-keeping ; ab wahan fiawaldar ki jagah hai, 
now there is the place of hawdldar, us-ka mahtna sat rupa^e, its 
month (pay) seven rupees, agar sifarish karen to wuk jagah is-ko 
mileglj if they will make recommendation then that place will come to 
this (person), aur aprie bal bachchon samet ap ke haJtf: men dtHa 
karta rahega, and along with his children he will (ever) continue 
making prayer on behalf of you, Sir, tis par yih mukhlis blii ap-ka 
ihsanmand hogd, moreover this sincere (friend) also will be grateful 
to you. Wa-ssalam, and the salutation ! 



Borrowed from the Arabic, and generally applied to the Hindustani 
by the MuhshTs or Muhammadan native teachers in India. 

Words admit of three principal divisions : namely, 

f^\ ism, N()un. JjfiJ^l, Verb. «— i^ ^a»/> Particle. 
The N9un may be of varioas kinds : namely, 

^joU- M^\ ism-irkha^^^ Noan proper; as, uX^y, jfi^ufy to^ 


/^\c> ^\ ism-i'drnf^oun common ; as, ^J^ghora, l^\z^ kitab. 

\jLAi^ f^\ ism-i'Sifatflfoxxii adjective ; as, l^^ achchha, \ji bur a. 

j0j^ mJ^ ism-uzamlr, Pronoun personal ; as, ^^ main, y» tu, 

s^ wuh. 
3iJJU\ ^ ismri-ishara^ Pronoun demonstrative ; as, -^ yih, 
t^ wuh ; the first of which is called ^ifj\J^\ m>J 
(J«^J^ ism-i^ishara-i^nazdik ; and, the latter, 
Ju50 *Sj\J^\ f^\ ism-i-ishdra-i-ba^d. 
fX^fic^\ f^\ t«m-i-i/i(i/%am, Pronoun interrogative; 2ls, ^^i^ kauut 

\S kyd. 
f^yfiyc A-»1 ism-i^maumlf Pronoun relative, as,^ Jo, {j^jaun. 
J««^^ ^)^ f^\ Mut-tJatraftt-mati^iiZ, Pronoun correlative; as, ^50, 

^y taun, 
i t^ ism-i-zamtr-i-mushtarik, Pronoun reflective ; as, 
lJ\ dp. 
M.^ f^\ ism-i-mubham. Pronoun indefinite; as, c^j^ kol, 

y^^ kisi, «fs^ huchh. 
Jcli f^\ ism-i'fd'il, Name of the Agent; a8,5l|^ ^^i^ likhne 
wdld, ^J^S kame-hdrd. 


538 Appendix. 

Jytio ^\ ism-i-maf^ul, Participle Past ; as, |^U maraj or 

]^ IjU mara hVa. 
fJU- M^ ism-i-haliya, Participle Present ; as, iT^U marta, 
or \jib \jjVc marta hu*a. 
(^U; cJ^t? M^\ ism-irzarf-i-zaman^ Adverb of Time ; as, lJ\ ab, 

i^^ kab. 
(^ICo uJja wl ism-irzarf'irmakan, Adverb of Place ; as, ^J^^ 

yahan,jibiS\ udhaf. 
JJ^ A^l ism-i'Sdad, Noun of Number; as, {J!SA ek, y} do/ 
y^ sau. 
For Gender, a Noun common, Noun Adjective, Participle or Verb 
may be — 

^j^ mti^akkar, Masculine ; as IIj betay \^j J dulha ; or, 
ui-JJ^ mu^annaSf Feminine ; as, ^JLj beiij ^ J dulhan. 
For Number, Nouns of various descriptions, as well as Verbs, may be 
do^^ wahid, Singular ; as, \si il^\ Ik kutta, ^j^CS^^ ek ghorJ ; or, 
^A^ jam^y Plural; as, ^ j*^ do kutte, Jo^^ ls^ bahut 
A Noun common, moreover, may be ^jfjt^ mu^aiyariy Definite, or 
^2f^ ji^ g^ Q^^ tnu^aiyarif Indefinite ; the first being often distinguished 
by the use of some demonstrative pronoun, and the latter by that of 
the indefinite pronoun : yet, this circumstance can frequently be ascer- 
tained from the context only. And, such Nouns masculine as admit 
of change of termination in the singular may be termed {^j,au^ mun- 
sariff Inflected ; so, ^ lJj^ gf^ore ko, from \j^ ghora. 
As to Case (l::JI:>- State), a Noun may be in the — 
JlcU ^j:JU- kalat'i-faill, Nominative case ; asl^jl larka,(JL:^o bat, 
y^^^suo \^\s>- hdlat'i-mafuti, Accusative case ; as, ^ ^Sj^ larkon ko, 
^j>^ ij:^l:>- kalat-i-jarrty Dative or Ablative case ; as, ^ 4^ mard 

d^Ul t::Jl:>- halat-i-izafaty Genitive case ; as, U ^ ^ji larkt ki ma. 

Grammatical Terms. 639 

1 Jj c;Jl>- halat-i-nida, Vocative case ; as, ^^ l^ ^^l ai bhal, ^j^j[ 
An Adjective in the Comparative degree is termed — 

J:^^ i^\ ismrirtafztl; as, \sf^\ ij[ij ziyada uncha : and, 
<^L« mJ[ ism4rmuhalaghay in the Superlative degree ; as, c-^^ 
]^ ^ sab se bafa. 
A Pronoun personal, admitting variation for number and case, 
may be — 

First personal, ^^iz^j^^ zamr-i-mutakallim ; as, ^^ main, ^Sb ham. 
Second personal, {„^\si^ j^^ zamlr^-mukhatab : as,y tu, J turn. 
Third personal, i-^U^;*^ zamtr^irghi'lb ; as, ar^ wuh, ^^^ we. 
The Verb may be — 

i<*pl J*^ J^l'i'lazimij Verb Intransitive ; completing in itself the 
action intended, without reference to any other object ; as, 
k^ iijt^ ^cii^i aya, \jy} s^ wuh daura, 
i^Jjc^ iJj6 J^l'i-muta^addi, Verb Transitive, requiring something addi- 
tional to which the action passes ; as, ^ ^;U /i^^ l^ 
larka ghore-Jco marta hai, Vl/^'^ ^j^iS (jrr* main Tie ghora 
dauraya, ^^^yiff 4^ Ji^ <n^ ^^ ^ \^ ^^^\ us^ne kaha 
hi main yih mulcaddama tajwtz karunga, He said (I will) 
he would consider the subject. 
t^^jL^^}^ fiH-i-mohrufy Verb Active ; as, ^^ t;^ ^^ maiA likhta 

J^^isi* J*i Ji^l-i'mafhiiljy erh Passive ; as, ^d^J^ kJ^ toe mare ga*e. 
i^aJ^^Xi ^^^jc^ J/o f^Uirmuta*addi bi^l-wasitflj Causal Verb ; as, \j\^ 

likhana, l}|^ J dilwana. 
S-'^ J^ fi^l-i-fnurakkabj Compound Verb; as, UjJ JbdSZ dena, 

\iL0i ^ likh sakna, \jJ CL>\! bat kama. 
yj^^t^ J«i J^lri^u'awinj Auxiliary Verb ; as, \jyb hdna. 
A Verb, too, may be — 

f^yX^ musbit, Affirmative ; as, \i^ likhna ; or, 
^J:^ munfi, Negative ; as, \i^ ij na likhna. 



540 Afpemdix. 

The Fonn of a Veib.k termed 4i^ jifSliu 
Hie Infinitive of a Vqb, jA«^ amjifar or jA^^ <jui# i^pfai i wMfdar.^ 
^The Tense, ^^Uj izromait, of aVerb may fae-^ 
Past Indefinite, jlk^ ^^ way awtliig^ ; a8iftW|^k>»iJ^«^8Hm 

Past Proximate ^>r^>^ 15^^ *"^ j»rii ; as mj^j^ )a^ ^\ 1^ v 

_i^ ^^ /ten as apiiS ^gog jwr milr fi 
Past Remote or Pluperfect, Juu^Ul^ia'^; <^ n^ cif^ l^^ 1^ 

Past Continiiatiye or Impeffect, (^t^«&*J 15^^ masiiflMnii ; as m 

Past Conditi^Hial, ^J^ . ^U moM siariwa* ixT 
Past Optative, _:i«u ^U naii mMUtmma& 

Isjj L^\si ^\ agarwiJk ^iiS maii iit-45 Atlifr dela. 
Past Dubious or Past Fntnre, \Xz%m |^U mSii muioihaklS ; as in 

(^ l^^ jL»t^ UsjiikcL ^ ^^ maid mB lifl^hil^ so M^JA 

p^uncha koga. 
Past C(Hijunctive, i}j^»^ 15^^ "*^ wui^^fi or ^jbii« i5<^V« aijui 

mc^tufa or jJx uJpaji^ ,<^to moxt mc^iuf alaihi ; as in jCa\ 

us-kajawab [eke mujhe kako. 
Present Indefinite, ^jU^ J^ hal-i-mutlak ; as in,ji}l>- i^^tbejatUe : 

firequently, however, this form of the verb, with a conditional con- 

j unction or adverb of wishing expressed or understood in the same 

sentence, is termed Past Conditional or Past Optative, as before 

Present Definite or Present Present, ilJj^ h JW ^Uj zaman-'i'lial 

bila shakk ; as in ^yb \ii^ ^\^ ^^^ main yaJiah rahta hun. 
Present Dubious or Present Future, ^»a* JU. ^U) zaman-UfuU 

• mutashakkt ; as in ^yb ^\ n^ wuh ati hogh 
Future, fj^^k^^ ^\,<j zaman-i-mustakbil ; as in ^Ux:^! ^j[* we 


Grammatical Terms. 541 

Id the Subjpnctive or Aoiist fojfn, a verb is termed f^ta^ d^j^l- 
i-muzari^ (so named, because sometimes imparting a future and some- 
times a present sense) ; as in ^j^ ^^ y kjj\ ^j touh awe to main 
ja'un (if he shall come then I shall go), or \4^ y^ l5^^^ ^"^ khuda 
chahe 80 kare (what God wills, that He does). 

The Imperative is called ^^ amr^ or j^\ ^iiu^ $tghari'amr : as in 
Jy bol, jl^ bold : the Respectful Imperative may be termed j^\ 
i^y«Ja» amr-i'ta^zimi ; as in ^^ boliye, ^^tt^f^ c-^1 ap dtjiye : and, 
when strict injunction is intended, tjf*^^ j^\ amr-i-takldi ; as in 
^U l^ \^ mera kaha maniyo, yi^ l::^w« d^b ^^J>^\ tu-kt bat mat 

The Persons in Verbs, like as in the personal pronouns, are — 

First person, Jicu mutakallim. 

Second person, c-^Ur* muldnfltab. 
Third person, «-r^ ghffib. 
A Particle, t-i^ ka^f^ n^ay be — 

Preposition or Postposition,^cJ^ ftarf-i-jarr ; and this may 

be simple, Jyuo mufrid; 2i& \i ka, ^f ko, ^ se, ^^ mXn, 

J> par, vl^ tak ; or compound, c-^-^ murakkab ; as, 

^ ^kl te7n, ijJo J ke pas,ji^\ ^ ke upar, JaJj ^ 

ke waste, ^ ^ *5 R% tJ^t ^ kl taraf, Jb\i^ ^ kt Hjatir, 

Conjunction, used to conjoin sentences, A/^ <-{;^> fuirf-i- 
jumla, and this is of various descriptions; so, ^ 
)ffjJ^ <— ^ harf'i'Shart (conditional) ; as, jH agar, y^jo. 
\j>' cJ^ fuirf'i'jaza (retributive) ; as, y to (then). 
1:^2^1 <—ir^ karf-i'istisM (exceptive) ; as, ^J^ lekin, ^ par, /y 

f\ki^\ <-i^ harf'i'istifham (of interrogation) ; as, ^jJ kywi, 

^^QtJjmS kiswaste* 
fiarf'i-sababl (of c^se or reason) ; as, iiijJi kyunki, 
^^JaJyA iswasth 

542 Appendix. 

^U «-J^ harf-i-bayan (of explication); as, ii In, i$lm,0s^ jaisaki, 

^bsrL>- ichunanchi, h^ ma^alan. 
Conjunction, used to link together sentences or words, and this 
may be — 
u,flVir cJ^ fi(^rf-i^fS (copulative) ; as, jj\ aur, ^ tea : or, 
JiJt>/ LJfj>' fiarf-irtardid (distinctive) ; as, U y5, y^^ ^apah, ii ki^ 
Adverb, and this may be — 

harf-i-tashhth {pi comparison) ; as, Li^ jai$a, ^i^goya, 
^ tnasalan. 
J^ *— V^ t^Tf-i-lcabul rpf assent) ; as, ^J^ han, ^y^ Afin, ^Jj iaZe. 
_Ai <— ^ borf^i-nafl (of dissent or negation) ; as, ^«^ iiaAf n, 

_^ ^— 1/^ bO'Tf'irnaht (of prohibition) ; as, (j:^i^ ma^. 
aj-oi? «— ip* harf-irtakhst^ (of peculiarity) ; as, ^ At, or i^ i. 
Interjection, and this may be — 

W ^^ fiarf-i-nida (of addressing or calling); as, ^^^ at, jt o, 

^ o/t, tg;^ arc, ^\ ahe. 

«• •• 

harf'i-ta'ajjub (of wonder or applause); as, i^^ wah, 
if\» s\^ wah'Wahy \^\ achchha, <^^ khub* 
aJ3 (— ^ karf'irta'assuf(p{ grief or sorrow) ; as, «1 aA, ^5 U ha'e, 

The particle ^J ne, used after the name of an agent before a tran- 
sitive verb in a past tense is sometimes termed ^^li c:^.**^ alamat-i- 
fa lit* 


English and Hindustani, in Nagari and Roman Characters.* 


Stand at ease. 
Eyes right. 
Eyes left. 
Eyes front. 

^•1 ^ ^T^ \'il chain se khare raho. 
m^nX Tt ^rr^ husky ar hoja'd. 


To the right face, ^[^n (MiO 
To the left face. ^mtt^incV 

dahnt nazar. 


bain nazar, 

samhne nazar. 


dahne phiro. 
hSm phiro. 

^ ^tIVt ^ To the right about ^^5^ ^ ^TTVT ^ITC dahnt se adha 

^^^' f^FC^ chakkar phiro. 

ftl^ ^tIVt To the left about mVi i ^JTTVT ^ITC ba'en se adha chak- 

fece* fqi^ kar phiro. 

T (^4id TTO Right ya (or) left ^JTVT ^[^ VJ ^mt adha dakne ya ba'tA 

half face. f^TT^ phiro. 

Front. 41|^^n samhne. 

rftroar^wVT Right ys (or) left^^^iifm'^*!^ y«/«'^,« 

-. u * xu A ^ •v ^ tin htsse chakkar 


itracted from the Ungrezee Lushkuree Kuwaed," translated into the Urdii 
re by Lieutenant Arthur Hogg^ and published by T. Astell, at the British Library, 
a, 1837 ; to which work the reader is referred for explicit information on the 
ies of the English Army. 




4t^ pichhe. 



7^ tkahr^- 

_ 'RTT* 


Tn^I ?^ age harho. 

■ <iH 


■^f^ chato. 

B TT^^l^ 

Halt dress, (or) ] ti -^ <^<ft < ^ < m, yt fhaharkar barWat 

I ^m^ x^ vi 

Halt dress up. 

J arr^ ^"J«'5- 

. T^CT'^ 

Step out. 


Step short. 


<<a*< vIt 'fT" "I'l'-i"' '«*■■ 


^ • «„rfa,„e*,t 


Mark time. 

^' kotiar kadam 

T7 *ma; ^^* 

Right close, quick Tf^ 1 < * « 1*^ ^a''"' fflraf Mitf 



31^ '?^ J'''''' '^*"«5- 

X^ TsrarjiH 

St«p back, march 

tStt fTt WV p-icU,l halo cisE. 


Change feet. 

^5ft fitT5? "J ^"St^ To the left oblique 






^ do. 

■ ^>ir« 

Quick march. 

a^"^ >;<na<.E. 

T^^ i?H 

Double march. 

^"\<i«i ^raV daurhzr chaB. 

i^M*? irr4 

Slow march. 

^rfw: T^ SJisM kaOam. 



iirrwr 'flaiCl JaraSar «o jia j 

■ % ^ T3 M!*,"!*.-* By the right fot- 

T^ $^ ■'T^ ^. dahni dckk iff 1 

■ <<« 

ward dress. 

^TT: ^<H< ft iarhkarharihr 

^n 'D ^ IT fW^ira Bj the right jii (or 

).;ijS »r Wni ^rfoJ.tyaMKiai 

■ w(iiivt«TT« 

left backwanis 

** -fz arriTJ: />''"' *»! "i* 



■ft-sirit >■•"■ !■--]'■'■ 


_ . J 

Military Words of Command. 645 

^ ^ Right wheel. T^ ^ ^ ^IT^ *'*"^ -""•' P"^ 

^ ^ samhne se chakkar 

t ^WT ^nr^ kha'o. 

[^r^ ft^ Left wheel. ^TTlt ^ ^ iTP?^ ***^* ^"* 1^^^ 

^ ^ sdmhrie se chakkar 

(^<i *l«l<^<!|\^'^af On the right back- ^^ ^ tPC ^fw^ dahne Munt par 

^tW wards wheel. '^IJT ^TT^ pichhe si chakkar 

■S ^ f^ ^. Right ya (or) left TV^ ^ ^^ ^- dahna ya bayU 

\ha dahne ya da en 

Vlp^r^ shoulders forward. VT ^RTniY kandha ghumao. 

^^^<W * Right oblique. ^T^ f^vij ^^^ dahne tirchh 

^^^ dam chalo, 

(Hj<d Halt front. "3^^^ Hl^ ^ thaharkar i 

^rr^ hoja'd. 

^€ m f%^ ^T^ Right ya (or) left ^ITVT ^[^ ^ ^aJAarfaAwey 

T'J half turn. ^JTV 

r^\c Zn Front turn. tuf'^^i W^t samhne muro. 

H^We -^i^^j^ Support arms. 

1,^^M "TH^^^ Slope arms. 
••l\^ ^T^^ Carry arms. 

^^\^^ Shoulder arms. 
ft^nC TtV ^ ^3^H Rear rank take open f^'C'l ^ ^^ pichhR saf khuB. 

^(TW^ order. 

R«l< TtV ^ Rear rank take close fn^^ ^ fiWrft" pichhli §af milffo. 

^^H ^l4i, order. 

%S ^\^ Right turn. T^'T '^fWt dahne mnro. 

\z Vjf^n^ ^4^3 Right ya (or) left ?[^ ^ WTlt ^ ^. daAnc ya ba'H se 
i4H about turn. ysfX ^^i^ 41 ^^ ocZAa chakkar muro. 

l^fkl^S Squad. 

4 a 



tt^T ^S^ ^^Vt 

Right wheel. T^ ^^ dahm ghumo. 

By therighty5(or)^^^^trrfH(/a/<na ya Aa7n ya 

letl ya (or) centre 
march ya (or) 
quick march. 


jaldl chain. 



To the right y5 (or) ^^ VT ^Tt W^ ^^"'' ff« *«* 
, - , sarko. 

left close. 

Step back march, ^t? ^4;*^' ^^ plchhe halkarchoB. 

Form four deep. "^("t ^ •lif|l<[ ^'I cAar ii j^lor hn 

Rear form fourdeep. ^1* ^K *t ''SIT^ pIcAAeeAoriliafir 

^^ ^TTHT banji'o. 

Right form four T^ "^^T ^ ^TfT dakne c&ar Ai |afif 

deep. ^51 grr^t banja'o. 

Lea form foui' deep. ^ ^^K ^ JPffT^ fta'eri cA5r if JHi^ 

^ni t^rt fia'MipAJro. ^^ 

■^rr^ ^mrsft ^ ^^1 ai^Aj kampaiu H 

*> samknc sc ekw 

-^WT Wr^ kar kha'o. 

By subdivisions on ^THlt ^*'f"fl M ^TTt atZ/iT kampam jji 
the lell backwards l^T q^ "Jti ^ *"'"' **' 
wheel. ,qgp^ ;^p5V ^^^-,. 

By subdivisions left ''^'^^f''^^^"'^^' *«'";«"«'" « 
wheel into line. ^ ^ ^P?^ ^ 

Led face. 

By BuhdivisiuDs 
right wheel. 

pam jU 

■ ^ ^ f^T^ ^ Right ,ji (or) left ^^ ^ ^ ftifr (/oAhI 

AAunf jwr 
satalnie se safnui 
chukkar khao. 



Militiiry Words of Command. 547 

ftpC^ ^T^ Halt ftoat dress. VS^^^^T HT^T fpT^. thaharkar samhne 

Halt front dress up. j^^ --^yg 

^ -v _ ^JB la^St, fio&ne aur- ha'en 

WW^ ^IW Right and left face. ^'^I^H *>HLlVh<? ,._ 

^"^i^tH"^ Right counter- X^ IH^T ^^iTrfaAne ftatca lieAor 

march. fq(f\ P^i^^- 

J. ,„ J. ^ ^^ -v kampam blch par 

■5t ft fSar Company oa the iniTW WN ttT r?^ dahni pSo chak- 
f^ centre right wlieel. Ijra ^WT ITTt kitrmira. 

(■Wf)ffeT Company on the grspft ifV^ tlT ^ 'T™ f * .T 

^fm centre left wheel. ,^ ,,^ „^^ kar mhi. 

T\ 1^^ Company on the qfiqif| ^^^ ij^ ^r^ kampan't Vich par 

, ^ centre right about ^ dahneadkackak- 

*rtZ^ wheel. ■'irHT 'TOT »Trer i.„,„s,5. 

^^TT ^ ft^T f^owpiny on the ^HjifJ ^^^ TI^ ^TTJ kamponl blch j>ar 

_ »\ .„ ,7V . centre left about rv bahi adha chak- 

^mz ^RT , , TTTVr ^WT TTTT , 

wheel. kar maro. 

I**^I Form company. ^TTTT ^T '^I^i kampanl ban ja'u. 

H\i-A'i[^ Left subdivision left ^' ^^Jt ^nq^ *57« 5rfAT fcuM;)a«t 
'^TTR ^W half face, quick ^STTOTWRf^^ Mka hi'hi phir- 

t^* * ma.h. ^^^-^, karjamcka!,. 

I^'SIKIOI Form rabdiriaiona. ^™^ ^i^lRl ^^i<f;,i J™;)onr Jo» 

aim >»■ 

iH«Jl|1^Left Bubdivision ^' ^HVt WV^lTm Jidhl kampun, 
ff ftrl ^^ right about tliree ^^^(ft^f^^§ dakni si On Imse 
^ ^ quarter, 6ce, ^^^^^ d.akk.rpkM.r 
quick march. . , jaldi elialo. 

tl«i«q»(«I Left aubdiviaion left WT^' llTTjt ^^^^ha^'ikadh't kampanl 
IJJTR ^^ half turn, double. ^tVT ^Ht ^^?^iT adkaba'Hmvrkiir 

fnrt *■"•'"• 

Quick. ^^«f) jaldi. 

- >-^- J' 

^n^ ^JJ^^3J^3j Left subdivisions ^TT* ''ITVl ^T^irft &57ri 5rf^7 hid 



mark time, right 
half turn. 



filial "jdj m I^T^t^ 

'5^ ft T^ 'IT 
^tW ^p^ TTH 

Three files on the 
left, right turn, 
left wheel. 

B^ TT f^r^ iJV. 

One, two ya (or) 
three files to the 

Sections yd (or) 
threes right ya 
(or) left shoulders 
forward, quick 
march, forward. 

Sections yd (or) 
threes on the right 
yd (or) left back- 
wards wheel, 

quick march. 

Right yd (or) left 
shoulders forward 

Right yd (or) left 
wheel into line. 

lfii < Z ijr^ *"^if^ Fi^ot form company 
^ «^^^T ^ .y5 (or) subdivision 
yd Vor) section. 

TTst aT»i^ i?rft 

T!^ ^ ^ '^T iftt 

*^ Tl^ ^ ^ 
VT sisi^ 

apRi jagah khan 
ho kadam Mtha'o, 
ddlii dahne mv^. 

tin kntar haln ka- 
mar par dahw | 
tnurkai- hd'tk 

'k yd do yd 6% 
katar tamfoK tf 

toll yd tin tin A- 
pdhiyan la fiS 
da find yd Aaynt 
kdndkd ghumiK 
jaldi chaJowi 
we bafho, 

toll yd tin i 

In H^^l 

dakni khM 
plckhv se chafer 
khd'o juldi eluB. 

flu find yd hiym 
kdndhd barl^i. 

dafine yd tSS 
kftun{ par wmAk 
Rc cftakkar ktiH. 

pari yd ddhi Jt*- 
parti yh fo/t ia> 

Mtlitar;/ Words of Command. 549 

f f^fV^ ^W On the leading file ^fiS^ ^?JT^ VT^pafnli katar par 

company. ^ ^^-^ 6a„ja'5. 

ft f^f^l ^^ On the leading file Rfif^ fliTft^ ^ /jaAi^ ^«/_ar par 
^ TZ' THJVg' *" *-''^ "?''*■ aljout ^^ ^ ^ ftW^ dahnl se pichli 
fm^tUt form company. ^ ^,^ ^ r«™/ kamp^n, 

r f%^ ^t^ Halt, left wheel into «"^^< ^TTJ ^ tkakarkar lain 
\^ I'oe- TT^ H\H^ ^ ^ khunt par sam/ine 
■ -,. ^ ' se so/" iBfw cAoA- 

^ '^^ To the right form T^ ^i^fT fT^ ^i'T. da/inl kamar tak 
I company. ^ ^^j a j uf i kampatiibanja'o. 

Jtrit^-a^fl Left shoulders for- ^T^t ^rfVT g*ll^ iaySrf AandA5 

li;^ ward. ghvma'o. 

pj ^ Sections right. Ttf^nrt ^^ /o%afi daAne. 

f^ <lMly.'l Form the rallying ^"^^ Tf^ ^ ^-jam" /.On? 45 ehau 

^^ square. '^.'^ ^ >^|^ k/iuntd banja'o. 

f?^ The square will ^^31 WP?% 'R' chaukhunta samhne 

izftf^TS- •"^7'';«^''«f^««^ if>i^^^ y« T'^'^AAE y5 
t (s. yS (or) rear »/« . ^ ^ 

' ^ T^ (or) right i/a (or) ^TTT ^H 

' ^F^ Inwards face. iftflT t^Tt" bfitlar phiro. 

irC^Tf?^%^ Prepare to resist WWTTT ^ ^ < I Mj^d snurrtrOTi « mitf/o- 

f^ ^ cavalry. Ready. ^ gW^ TTt 

F T^ T^^f^ Reduce the square. ''IV^TT ^M an^ 

i^t^ 3^ ^y*' Re^'' rank, take 

t_ open order. 

dakne ya 

fM^*!l) ^ ^^ 

ya'a( Ao mvtta'td ' 

chaukhunta khul 

pichhU }af khuSi. 


1<*)i Tt^^ ^rW. Rear rank, take fn^wt ^ fi^ picfifiH fof mUjiri 

>« ^'Srr^ close order. s^y 

^ ^Z^f\ f^ '^n:% The battalion will ^J^ '^TT ^ ;)«//«« 5gF SarAi. 
^^ advance. 

^^2««lf^'«^t^The battalion will ^Z^ "^ 


Prepare to chartre. 

B^f^ Charge. 

1 M!<,1« ^ ^ IT From He right ya 

fWiZ ^"S ir«I. (or) left of com- 

»^ % ^^ q 
rv V ■ • ^ the front. 

paltan ha{i. 
I 'ITT ^ '"'V^*" ^"■ 

■^^: ^fV hamla karo. 

^^ ftamar se i^tf 

'n:^*HI<*'1K hilar simki 

Wqift^ TT TT Companies right ya ^^ '^ ^T^ ^% ^"^"^ ?« *«'f >> "^ 
f%iR:r^f%X53: (or) left tum left ^ZTT^^ *«^i ^^ **^ 
_. ^ A^ ya (or) right wheel. ghumo. 

TST™ ^ '<<IMi From the proper TT Tf^ ^f'^ ^ **"" ^* *'"''?«* 

T^ ^ f^r^ ■^ ''s^' ^^ "^"'^J^^* ^BTT^ ^^ 'IT 

^^Z^fK^IK rear. 

^ of companies pass ., ^ 

' by files to the «)1<;**I< ^ff'^fTTT 

g/7 (fo^nJ ]» 
/>a7M kamar i 
kntar katar 
piclihe chala. 
I'en ya dahne mri 
daknc ya lAH 
left wheel. ^ ^-i h . s m ^-i i .^-^^^ 

ilirS W tS^ ^ ^ Pass by files to the ^TfTT ^ffl'i ^(^ ^ta/ar ^c/ar /wdUt 
fiTI^^^TI ^^^ "g'" *"^"' Wt T^ ftlTl" c/,al5daknepUA 
f[^ right wheel. ^ ^ . dah.c gkiM. 

^ «ldwi^f^ '^rr^.Tbe battalion will q ftfg q ^'^^ ly^jta/fanpaA/S jl^tf 
Vsml^T^m advance by wings. ^ c/,«ff. 

f%^ TT T^ Z^ Left yfl (or) right ^^ ^ ^^ ^rrj" 

Ik — — lurn.riffht V'i(or) ^ . -. 

^^? Wpl £ Left wingi 

['I^ J Imarch. 

.Imyan ])nldu 



Militarij Words of Command. 












(oKfa bhara, 

tea ghaira 

WT f^ ^. The battalioa will M^ST T^^ ^T^W pa/fan pahlu pahlu- 

r f^*?? ^^. ^'S**' ^" t'"'5 '^l^ T'fn" ^ ^T^ g^lT rfa/ma ya layan tu- 
^ftf^ divUioatothcfront. ^^ ^ man .amhnUarhc. 

■f ^^ni^ra Reraainiug divisions 11*[ <J»1"' ^^11 ia^i r«m«n dahna 
V (wSji Tt. "gl't yi (or) left Tn Wraf 5rfVT J" %«« *«W/m 
P! H<^j< j shoulders forward. ^^^ g4«mi'5. 

§^ -^H !f1 Form line on the l1%* ipR S WTT.'""*"^ , "■""" /' 
** barabar saf ban 

^f^ arat division. TT ^ 'T^ Wm ^"a's. 

t ^^^^ra^ Two centre subdm.^ ^^ ft "^ITVt*'''^ *' '^ _ «''^* 

. ^ . -, . ■s. kampanl sam 

1 l4;<i sions to the front. qrURI ^P^iT ^SRT JarAc« 

«^^iill*{^ Remaining suhdivi- ^7^ Tn^ft ^i^Rt bSkt adh kampat^l 

■^ Icit §houlder8 lor- ^ ,.,,.,,-,_ 

I?!'?^^^^. ward. grfVTSr^r^V l^ 

^ Ttf ^ ^Form line oa the ^N ^ ^t "^^ b'lch kt do ad/ii 
C ^q ^q 31 ^ 51 two centre sub- ^fJlpft ^ <4<H< kampanl ke bara- 



Right and left 
shoulders forward, 

Form line to the 

Right wing left 
shoulders forward. 

Left shoulders for- 
ward, forward. 

Retire by companies 
ya (or) subdivi- 
sions fh)m the left 
ya (or) right in 
rear of the right 
ya (orj left. 

Company ya (or) 
subdivisioQ right 
about face. 

Retire from both 
Hanks by subdi- 
visions in rear of 
the centi-e. 

WT^ ^inJt *T^ 
grtvT ^ST^ 

«?^1T ^re^ ^T^ 
^rat ^TTVT "li^l^ 

daknl taraf\ 

dakna pahlu li^ 
kandha harha\ 

bayan kandia kf 
ha'o, age b^ 

kampani yi idR 

hahi ya 
kamar «e Ad'nji 
dahnl kamar & 
pichAe Aotg. 

kaitipani ya 
kampanl daJaii 
adka chakka 

adhi kampaal 
iBnd kamar teSii 
ke pichhc Aa&. 

Right ya (or) left flTT^ ^ '^^ ''T^ 

subdivision right gr«mt ^^ ^ 

about face. .,^ ^ j^^ 

The battalion will MH'i*! Pi'T^ 'IT 

move in column Tmlt 4iMl*ft ^ 

of division. ,a ^,j^ ,-p^ ^ 

(or) sections from ^ ^.^ 

the right along ' " 

the rear. ^ '^^ 

dahm ya biH iJB 
xe adha cAoU* 

pallan kampamf 
adhl kampcmS 
kalar bankt 
dahnt kamar i 


Military Words of Command. 

.153 ^ 

$W ftl|;JLefltaceleitwlMcl.>lllsfMiO ^'^ift 


Right face. 

^t** n*o 

■iahne phiro. H 


Right wheel. 


fa/tne g^umo. H 

srem TTtT 

Porm column at 

fH ^ T^ 'n" hlch ki dahm ya f 

Cf^X^'« ■!lt 

quarter distance 

^TT afr*T^ TT ^. 


^ IT fwijji 

oa the right ya 
(or) left centre 

^ ^^ ^uTK 

pad khuU katjir 




TI ■"r^Tlireesrightandleft 

^ fft^ ^ f T^ 

In tin ki foti dahna- 

r ^rr^^^ 

shoulders forward 

<^-(i *i\ ^\M\ 

ya bayat'i kandha 


^VT «t^l^ 


rw*< *f^. 

Threes leflshouldera 

^ ff)'! ^ Tt^ft 

In tin ft/ ton bdyaH- 



mm grtvT ^CT. 

kandha harkao. 




Form square. 

'IV^p ^51 i1l<l 

chaukhunia banja'o. 

X^ -mU 

Halt, right about 

kaharkar dahm *2 

adha c/iakkar 

i-«<.*< T^ ^ 


^aryr ^^gnrftrft 


t^i'ii: ■?R 

Form square on the 

?^^ ^ ml;* ^>^. 

dahnJ yd bd'm kam-^ 

"z TT fsnp 

right ya (or) left 


pan! par chau- 


company. Com- 

3Tr^ ^^ ^ruR) 

khunia bun jd'o. 

1«y»4 "^t^. 

panies right ya 
(or) left shoulders 

^'^m m m^ 

Sab kampan'i 
dahna ya baySii 



grfVT "lil^ 

kandha barha'o. 

T i^aira. 

Prepare for cavalry 


awdroii kl muila 



^ t^T ^ ^. 

fa'at ko taiydr 


ho. Taiyar. 

^ f^ Kneeling ranks, 

arr^ r^nrrt ^ 

zdnu girdl fof tai' 

ready. Preaent. 


yiiTbii. S/iastkaru. 







ff^T ^ 

/3n/5 ft/wrS. 


[leform column. 

^^f^ ftiT ^^ ^n. katar phir banjSi. | 



P"«R ^ ^ r«i< 

^n the two centre 

^ ^ f^ -NT^ 

67cA k'l do irfj; 

S^TTJt^ IS^ 

subdivisions form 

gr«I=ft ^ iftw ^. 




^2T ^f iir^ 

chauklmnta 6» 

^ ISHstdftifj 

Halt front. 

T^r^tT ^r^ ftj. 

AaAar^r wnihc 





Halt, right and left 

«J^1*< T?^ ^ 

haharkar daUi 



^TJ ftiTt 

auTh-a-rn^im, | 

■ClMjiH ^1 

Reform line. 

^ ftn: ^^srr^ 

afpkir banjii. 

'^T^s n^<T ^t:^ 

Halt, front dress. 


haharkar our 


r*i*<, M<M< 

samhne pHrluT 


Tt ^T^ 

barbhar koja'b. 

'^T'l ^?5« 9rerH Fonndoublecolumn 

i5TT^ gruTift afl 

adh'i hampam K 

^^ <l-l^<(H:is! 

of subdivisions. 

^^ ^IT ^5r 

duArt i:alaT bm 



^T" v»l^^\ ^Forra square two 

<)^^ ft ,nq>ft 

'Ich ki do kampati 

^ ■IR ft ^R. 

deep on the two 

<IT ft * »TTTT 

par do kl fy^ 

T^arura)^ ft^. 

centre companies 


ki cKaukiAali 

Wt 1»"(^ai ^ 

Remaining com- 
panies right and 

banji'o. BH^ 
kampani doAu 

ITS fwj TT^. 

left shouldere for 

aur hiyan kandki 

•Sl<« ^i-H,^ 



ft tt4<T ft" 

The square will 

^^p *Jl**»i ^ cfiaukkunla sshkU 

, "T^ ?, ft r<i,<i 

niai'ch to the 
front ya (or) rea 

'Sti'n ?^ ^ 

yh pickhi yi 

K w Rtr: itts 

ya Cor) right yS 

WTf *t TT? « 

dahat ya i£j*db 
rak se cha&^^ 

K 'IT fs^jj w« 

(or) left face. 


Military Words of Command. 

By subdivisions on ^"^T ^iT^ qiif. 
the right and left tn: ^TVt 5r»q^ 
backwards wheel, i- .cv T-- ^^ 

Foim line. ^ ^ ^T^ 

Right and left T^T ^Vt WT^ 

shoulders forward. ^rhjT "tirVT 
Change front to the ^I^T^ ^ ^t^ ^T 
upon the ft^^ *pT^ WT. 

centre. ._i- _r^ ___r, 

Threes right and ^ *^ ^ Jlf^^f 
left shoulders ^TT '^fftT ^TTt 
forward. ^^.^ ,^^^ 

Right and left TT^ '^ ^ ^ 

counter march. 4141 ^^^ ftfTt 

Form open column ^'^•U <H"4H1 ^ "^i*! 

Remaining compa- ""^ '•"I'll ^"^ 
nies right face. ftt^ 

Halt front dress. <S^^*< *<1*<»1 TI". 

Right wheel into ^"^ ^Z" XHT ^P?^ 
line. ^ ,^^ ^^ 

Form open column ^^^ ^ ^TT ^fT- 
inrearoftheright ^-^ - ^ ^ 
^5 (or) left com- \ 




dahne aur ba'h't 
kkunt par udlii 

plchhe se cftakl 

^af ban Ja'o, 

dahita aur bayokn 

kandha barhd'o. 

pallan ke blch par 
pichhn faraf^ 
samh^ h 

(in On kt lolti/da 
dahnd aur bayan 
kdndka barha'o.^ 


in front of the 
right company- 

*f1K ^f 9IT^ 

dahne aur ba'hi »-■ 
kawadekar phiro. 

dahnt kampam kf^ 
age khuli kat 
ban ja'o. 

baki kampaui dahiA 

thaharkar samhiie 
hokar barabar i^m 

'"'■ I 

dahne khunt par 
sdmhne se ckak- 
kar kha'o. 

dahni ya bain kant- 
patii ke plchhe 
khtili kalar baih 

Kalar baihMM 


Kemutning compa- 
nies right yd (or) 
left face. 

Form line to the 
reverse flank. 

By successive divi- 
sions. Rear wing 
to the front. 

By double files from 
the centre. Rear 
wing to the front. 

Two centre sections 
outwards wheel. 


ft T^ ^f^n^ 


Form square on the 
front conii>any. 

Form square on the 
right ya (or) left 
centre company. 
Right yd (or) left 
wing, right about 

Sections outwards. 

Front turn. Sec- 
tions outwards. 

^T^ ^"T^ ^^ 
V[ TnjftiTT 

^T'T'ft ^ ^t^ % ^. 
^t^ ^ ft TT#t 

T^ ^Vr ^nr 

■^I^pfft aff^'Rt ^ 
^ sft T^- ^ 

^TT* ^nir^ ITT 

^Tf^ ^ % 
^TVT -^WT ftiTT 

T^ ''itx- ^nj 
^ TT ^^'~ 

'ya bd'M piinu 

ricars kamar Id 

ffif haajd'o. 

i dar pat kam- 
pant se pUh^ 
puhlu sdmhiuH, 

kampani ke Inek m 
dtihri ^aliraB 
burhkar piiUB 
pahlu samA»fi> 

bJch kl do loticUi 
aur ha-cn m>k 
par sdmha i 
chakkar kia'a. 

agU kampam pa 
chaukhunid ba 


hick kl dahid ^ 
bdln kamptaapm 
chaukhunta bu 
jd'o. DahM yi 
bdyaii pahlu thi- 
ne se ddha dak- 
kar p/iiro. 

loliyun dahnc «f 
baeii kkunt pa 
bahar cAuiiar 

tdmhnephin. ZSI- 
ydti dahni J*r 
bd'in kkunt pv 

blch kl kampani p 
chaukhunla ban 

Military Wortts of Command- 

\'i<^'4i, ^R Form square oa the ^^ ^ 'Vq^ ^JX 
[ f$3^ centre. -^^TT ^^ ^IT^ 

^;^?^3I Wings inwards turn. ^T^ ^^X^ 'ftrlT 

Square on the ^H ^ ^'^f "^ h'tchpar chaukhunla 
centre, ;,)[^ banja'b. 

K itoHO pahlu bhli 


r Right wing, right ^11 'T^;^TT^ ^ 

about turn. ■^TVT "^WT ^^ 

Double. ^^ ^n <)5*< 

r Form close j/a (or) f%^ ^^^^ ^^ tri. 
quarter distance ^ ^ tjriqT ^^ 

I Halt front dress. ^^^,*< *JI'^*i f^- 

dakna pahlu dahne 
se adha chakkar 
> ya (or) 


column on 
company. Right 
ya (or) left 

kUT chato. 

kisi kampani par 
katar dahnl yd 
bain kampani 
sdmhne hokar ban 

[haharkar aamhne 
pMrkar barabar 

WW*! Til — Form column on — 
' ifftqi^ centre company. 

^f^nr ^n Form column at 
f^F?^ quarter distance, 

f~. rieht wt* (or) left 

in front on — 
' ^ ' ^ ^' company, 

I qi«H*n*'! ra. Remaining compa- 

____jj^__, y« (or) left shouU 

f%^ ^i'^ TIT ^. 
^ ^Wt *r^K 


^aju par 
khunta ban ji 

isl kampani par 
pa'o khuli katar 
dahni kampani 
sdmhni hokar ban 

bdki kainpai 
lln kl loli bankar 
dahna ya hdyar 
kdndka barha'o. 


558 Appendix. 

^rWtaj ? ^ f^TtT Close to the front. VT^ *) fi(H b|l^ iaatAse k 
^ ^T^ra f^»?r^The column will 'RTfTT T^^^^TT Jiw/arrfrtAiMjoM 
?f)^^Tf%^ march to the right j^t^ ^ ^^ tara/chuSM 

' *■ - ya (or) left flank. ' .• r. ."-l »« ^W 5* 

Right jaw left ^^_f^^- 'j^^^^f 

rr^-^-^-r^fe, ya iorj left flank. _. - f-. ^ ya biln ^ 

T^ Right y5 (or) left 'T ^IR NfTt 3T^. %_,^ ^J^ 

^ ^SH 5^?r Trr4 face. Quick march. ^ 
^ f^^^l^ TT 'n" By sections right ya^rf^RTt ^^ ^/o/iyari dahi \ 
f^IX^ (or) left. ^x^ ^'in. 

^i^TJ? ^ ^ ^ ^ Column to the right *f1K T^ ^ TTJ; kat5r doMi 
f^TRT ftW ya (or) left wheel, ^j ij^ «T^ % ba'm khwdj 

^^ f%t^^ Right y5 (or) leftTt^ ^ ^ ^(/aAniyaJaTirtS 

wheel. ij^ ¥n?^ ^ ■^W^ P'"' »^''**« 1 

^T^ cAaftAor USi 

^'\4.\^\'^ % V\ Countermarch by 'ft^ ^ f^ ^[1^ blch ke gai i 
■j^ i Uqs i -^f^ ^ aubdiTiaions round grRT^ § ^TRT *anipawi«* 
f^' the centra. ^^ fxR^ dikar p/df6. 

^ ^ f^T^ ^^, Right j/5 (or) left TT^ 'fT ^^*^^^ <^aAniya MWi 

^^H^^^rftr Bubdivisiona right qr^q^ ^^ % kampanldak 
;^» about face. _„„ ^,^ f- ^-, «'^^« <=*<» 

fr *J'i'«^U^«! ^ Right BubdivUions «r^ fTlft ^I'T'ftt&iABiw/Aiiaci 

^mX^ cAaAfcar«„ 

ftiT? 7^ ^. Front turn, forward. «T^ *i^*< ^T^l tamhni mttrkai 
^T^ q^ barho. 

^ ^>W1» fw 'S^ The column wU *n><. ''Ppft ^''Wt ^atar ogfi itM 

Miill^ ^ ftpCZ open from the front. % ^ an^ « kMJSopi 

^ **•!*( f^ ^^131 The column will ^*TTT fM^«t **'l«ft ktilar picikS \ 


Military Words of Command. 559 

^R ^ Deploy on the front TT^T^ *«l<it ^ ^TT. °S^' kampanj se 

r^ „„™„„» . -V barabar $af ban 

iq^ company. ^ ^ ^»I arm .-,g ' "' 

^R ^ Deploy on the rear Hi^'flt^ "I'll V^':fi%pichhli kampani ne 
tr^ company. ^^^111^ phailkar jaf ban 

' ' jd'o. 

^ Deploy on the front "V^ ^T^pft # g„;j kampam ge 
company. -KHi, 5i*!t*< barSbar phailkar 

*"*«ll'! Remaining compa- *ll*i **M*0 nR ba^lkampanl tin tin 
r ■^^W. nies. Threes right jfjsf ^ it f^ lit ^' toli)/an bankt 
P^ dlouldersfonvari. „^^ ^.^ ^_ 

IKm^ Remaining compa. ^pfl ^^rtt WtVT Jiii iomyani ta«- 
qn?^ °r;.''°°"""'°" "'^ ^MJ«r*"'o-- 

HJ^y^-S Shoulders forward. ^ThfT *I5["^ tandAa AarAo'5. 

. ^§51 5 Companies — paces qrwpft ^t 'K^ itampaTii kal kadam 

dahne ya ba'en 
khunt par satnhne 
se chakkar kha'o. 

dahna kawdka 

. j^ to the right yd 

^ (or) left wheel. 

Vf Z Wheel back into W^ 5r 4t» § "flfti fa/ m^Ti pIcAAe se 

line. 'BTT^ chakkar k/ia'o. 

^^ —Change front on — ;5p^ ^ jff^ T^<fe/intyoi5'eripaA/S 
^ ^ company right y«- - ,^ .^^ ^ ke dgi barhni sc 

irai* badlo. 

Rejnaining compa- ^1*1 ^"l^ 5i^*a^ kamparii kd'i 

aioi — paces to ^^ ^^ ^ ^a'^aw rfaAw y5 

the right vtt (or) ^ „i-. .„ „ *"'^'' **""? ?""" 

left wheeL ^ samhne st. caak- 

'iRW ^WT W^ kar khd'o. 

f^ ^. 

(or) left thrown 





I line 

, 19 — for ^ read ^ 

, 8 


, 6 


, 2 






— for <1^l«j read TI^T^ 

— for laye read laye 

— for dtye read diye 

— for Lfc read lyk 

— for h^ {ndsjan) read Xl* 

— for yj^ ghyaun read ^^ 

— for nimya read niriaya 

— for hichchu read bichchhu 

— for 1,>- chira read \l>- chira^ 


for (c<w1j read 


9 — 

— for kokh read kokh 

— for ra sha read ra^sha 

— for nakra read naAra 

• • • 

— for motiya read motiyd 
^^ U^ gAyatw read ^^^ 

6 — for Jil read/i/ 

Page line 

174, 21 • 
217, 19 ■ 
220, last 
225, 17 
257, 30 • 
296, 28 
314, 14 
321, 6 
331, 24 
339, 4- 
352, 21 
352, 31 
358, 15 - 

362, 15 - 

363, 13 - 
377, 29 ■ 
380, 16 

385, 4- 

386, 6- 
402, 28 - 
406, 29 - 
410, 7 — 
433, 2- 

— kewar read kewar 

- for sa 1 read «a*i 

— for har read hath 

— for chtknal read chiknfft 

— for kha^^yat read kkafsiyat 

— for tt?5ifci* read wolI^t^ 

~ for thandi read thandal^ 

• • • • 

- for mllana read milana 

— for ta n read /a*n 

•• •• 

- for LO read Ufl 

- for ^ read ^^ 

— for ftara read bara 

- for agmana read agmana 

- for c..*Mi tf ^ read c---^syo 

- for ha^tadrij read ba-tadrlj 
" for ghaliban r^ ghaliban 

— for 



• forj^4X«jU read jtj^lj 
for bharmila read bharmtla 
for achchha read achchha 
for J^Aa^a read &Aa/a 
for Aum read Aam 
foryi* read y^c 











1 & 2 — dele the words after ^Jb 
1 & 2 — dele the words after Kishna 

5 — ioxj^dju^ read j1jumc>- 
13 & 22 — for X substitute § 
28 — for Ub dalria read )lb dala 
last — for ^ read 30 
26&30 —for 32 read 31 
31 —for 31 read 30 

9 — for inde . read indef. 
24 — for 32 read 31 

6 -for ^5^ read , 
30 — for 32 read 31 

8 _ for ^T^- read ^^'fH: 
30 — for 30 read 29 
26 —for 32 read 31 

19 _ for ^hn^ read 'fVlft^ 
23 & 26 — for 32 read 31 
21 — for 32 read 31 

14 — for T^ read T^ 
21 — for 32 read 31 

15 & 24 — for 32 read 31 

1 - for ^^ read 

Page line 

499, 20 ■ 

500, 21 

506, 5 

507, 9- 
507, 10 • 

507, 23 • 

508, 24 - 
523, last 
543, 23 - 

644, 19 - 

546, 20 • 

646, 10 
551, 23 ■ 

662, 25 - 

563, 6 

556, 10 - 

for 30 read 2SL 
for 31 read 30^ 

for ^SnC read ^ 

for f^»«?n" read 

for '^TWT rei#*T«t 

for * read "" 

for ^ read *• 
- for 31 read 30 
for Astell read Ostell 

for ^ v^^ read ^ 

for Im^Wi read f^ 

for ^»% read ^ 
for adh read adta 

for ««*S«1 read '^ 
for ^TT read ^TT 
for Tl read •T' 
for f^T^ read f^ 

557, 28 - 

568, 16 — for ^^^^ read 





Munun aRD 



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